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Full text of "The speeches: against Timarchus, on the embassy, against Ctesiphon. With an English translation by Charles Darwin Adams"

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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 

j-T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

1E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W - H - D - ROUSE, LITT.D. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WAFvMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soo. 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 



THE SPEECHES 

OF AESCHINES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
CHARLES DARWIN ADAMS, Ph.D. 

LAWRENCE PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS ON THE EMBASSY 
AGAINST CTESIPHON 



- 


: 




 


^^m m 


- 


WILLIAM 


LONDON 

HEINEI 


dANN LTD 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLVIII 



?A 

2S>2 2 
2. 



First printed 1919 
Reprinted, 1948, 1953 




1117158 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAOB 

INTRODUCTION — 

THE LIFE OF AESCHINES vii 

BIBLIOGRAPHY xix 

THE TEXT Xxi 

THE SPEECH AGAINST TIMARCHUS 1 

THE SPEECH ON THE EMBASSY 157 

THE SPEECH AGAINST CTESIPHON 303 

INDEX 513 



INTRODUCTION 

The Life of Aeschines 

Our knowledge of the family and life of Aeschines 
conies from his own speeches and those of Demos- 
thenes. The brief biographies which have come 
down to us are late and untrustworthy. At the time 
of the speech On the Embassy we hear of Aeschines' 
father as an old man of ninety-four years. He was 
in the court-room, and Demosthenes, speaking to a 
jury some of whom, at least, were likely to know 
something of the family, and speaking subject to 
contradiction by Aeschines, whose plea was to follow 
his, makes no serious charge against Aeschines' family. 
He speaks contemptuously of the poverty of the 
schoolmaster-father (xix. 249) and sarcastically of the 
mother's "harvest " from the property of the people 
who resorted to her "initiations and purifications" 
(xix. 199, 249, 281). But in the speech On the Crown, 
delivered thirteen years later, when the father was 
no longer alive and few of the hearers would 
remember the family, and when, moreover, Demos- 
thenes, as the last speaker in the case, was not subject 
to contradiction by Aeschines, he gives free rein to a 

vii 



INTRODUCTION 

malignant imagination, and paints a picture of a slave- 
schoolmaster and a shameless harlot mother, which 
deserves no serious attention. From the uncontra- 
dicted statements of both orators in their speeches 
On the Embassy we gather the following facts. 

Aeschines was born about 390 b.c. His father, 
Atrometus, had already lost his property in the 
Peloponnesian war, had been exiled with the rest of 
the democrats by the Thirty Tyrants, and had shared 
in the glorious enterprise of the democratic "return." 
The mother, Glaucothea, was sister of a successful 
general, Cleobulus. The children of such parents had 
a right to be proud both of the purity of their blood 
and the patriotic achievements of father and uncle. 
But the losses by war and exile forced the father to 
take up the little honoured profession of schoolmaster, 
while the mother, we may perhaps believe, contributed 
something to the support of the family by service as 
a priestess in some one of the secret religious cults. 

We hear of three sons in the schoolmaster's family, 
all reaching positions of some honour in the public 
service. The eldest, Philochares, served under the 
famous Iphicrates, and was himself in 343 serving his 
third successive term as general. The third son, 
Aphobetus, had in the same year already made a 
record for himself as an ambassador to Persia, and 
had received the high honour of election as a special 
Commissioner of Finance. 

Aeschines, the second son, was performing the 
regular services of an Athenian young man as cadet 
viii 



INTRODUCTION 

when the battle of Leuctra plunged Greece into the 
nine years' Theban wars. He won the praise of 
his commander in an expedition for the relief of 
Phlius in 366, and served in other Athenian expedi- 
tions, at last taking part in the battle of Mantinea. 
All this was in his early manhood. In subsequent 
years we find him serving in the successful expedi- 
tion for the relief of Eretria in Euboea, hastily or- 
ganized under the enthusiasm aroused by Timotheus 
(357 b.c), and in the Euboean expedition of 348. 
In the latter, Aeschines' bravery at the battle of 
Tamynae was so distinguished that he received a 
wreath of honour from his commanding officers, and 
was appointed one of the two messengers to carry 
the news of the victory to Athens, where he was 
again crowned as the bringer of good news (Ae- 
schines On the Embassy, §§ 167 ff.). 

In the earlier years of his citizenship Aeschines 
was employed with his younger brother as a clerk 
in the civil service. But military service and clerical 
employment were only incidental or temporary 
occupations for the gifted young man. His early 
profession became that of tragic actor. The organ- 
ization of the Athenian stage was such that a 
group of three men naturally formed a " company." 
Aeschines became the third member of a company 
of which the two most famous actors of the time, 
Theodorus and Aristodemus, were the chiefs. We 
conclude that as an actor he fell just short of 
the highest attainments. The sneers with which 

ix 



INTRODUCTION 

Demosthenes in his speech On the Crown refers to 
his efforts on the stage are in flat contradiction to 
Demosthenes' own testimony in the earlier speech 
that he was associated with actors of such rank. 
It appears from Demosthenes xix. 337 that by the 
year 343 Aeschines had left the stage. 

We cannot trace the steps by which Aeschines 
made his way to political influence. We hear only 
of his holding an elective clerkship, probably that of 
reader of documents to senate and assembly, a position 
for which he was well fitted by his stage training in 
elocution. But when in 348 Philip of Macedon had 
destroyed Olynthus and seized the whole Chalcidic 
peninsula, Aeschines took an active part in arousing 
Athens to meet the danger which was threatening 
her interests. And when, on motion of Eubulus, it 
was voted to send ambassadors to the Greek states 
to invite them to a congress for concerted action 
toward Macedon — whether for war or peace — 
Aeschines was sent on one of the most important 
missions, that to Arcadia. Two facts are evident 
here : that Aeschines was now, at the age forty-two, 
already a man of influence in political affairs, and 
that he was a supporter of Eubulus, the great leader 
of the conservatives. When, shortly after this, 
Aeschines' former associate on the stage, Aristo- 
demus, had unofficially opened the way for peace 
negotiations with Philip, it was natural that Ae- 
schines, both as his personal friend and a man 
already active in anti-Macedonian preparations, should 
x 



INTRODUCTION 

be made one of the ten ambassadors to treat with 
Philip. Here he came into intimate relations with 
Demosthenes, who had already come to the front, 
during Philip's movement against Olynthus, as the 
ablest of the radical leaders. The part which Ae- 
schines and Demosthenes each played in this embassy 
to Macedonia, in the deliberations at Athens with the 
ambassadors whom Philip sent in his turn, in the 
negotiations of the second embassy (for the ratification 
of the peace of Philocrates, which Philip's ambassadors 
had negotiated at Athens), and in the final report at 
Athens, is discussed by both orators in great detail 
and with irreconcilable contradictions in the speeches 
On the Embassy and On the Crown. It seems to the 
writer probable that Aeschines worked honourably 
on the first embassy, though with less effect than his 
vanity led him to think ; that he agreed with Demos- 
thenes in at first opposing the terms proposed by 
Philocrates, but joined Demosthenes the next day in 
accepting them as the best to which Philip's 
ambassadors would consent; that he went on the 
second embassy believing that he could persuade 
Philip to interpret the peace in a way more favour- 
able to Athens than the literal terms of the treaty 
demanded, and that he returned to Athens convinced 
that he had succeeded and that Philip was about to 
humble Thebes. In all this he had been completely 
deceived by the astute Macedonian, and by his report 
to the people he prevented any attempt on the part 
of Athens to interfere before Philip could come down 

xi 



INTRODUCTION 

and take possession of Phocis. Of course in all this 
Demosthenes saw sheer bribery. He was probably 
honest in his conviction that Aeschines had, after 
the first embassy, gone over to the paid service of 
Philip. Of this there is no proof whatever ; the con- 
duct of Aeschines is entirely explicable as that of a 
man of only mediocre political ability, flattered by his 
success as a public speaker and his rapid advance as 
a diplomat, and shrewdly used by Philip, the master 
of diplomacy. 

On receipt of the news of the surrender of the 
Phocians, ambassadors were appointed to go to 
Philip for the protection of Athenian interests. 
They found Philip and his Thessalian and Theban 
allies deliberating with the Amphictyonic Council 
(in a special session, to which Athens had refused to 
send delegates) as to the fate of the Phocians. 
Aeschines, though properly having no voice in the 
Council, appeared before them and pleaded success- 
fully for a mitigation of the severe penalty that some 
of the delegates were urging. 

After the decision of the Amphictyonic Council 
as to the fate of the Phocians, and the reorganiza- 
tion of the Council, Philip held a thanksgiving feast, 
in which Aeschines and the other Athenian ambas- 
sadors took part. 

On his return to Athens Aeschines found himself 
under grave suspicion. The peace was now detested 
by the whole people, and all who had urged it were 
suspected of having acted as agents of Macedon. 
xii 



INTRODUCTION 

Meanwhile Demosthenes, whether from an honest 
conviction that Aeschines had been playing the 
traitor, or in order to turn the anger of the people 
from himself as one of the authors of the peace, 
made haste to bring indictment against Aeschines on 
the charge of treason in the second embassy. In 
this proceeding Demosthenes was joined by Ti- 
marchus, a prominent politician of the anti-Mace- 
donian group, and an associate of Demosthenes in 
the senate the year before. Aeschines was in ex- 
treme peril. His first move was to secure delay 
nntil popular excitement should have time to abate, 
and to discredit the prosecution, by bringing a 
counter indictment against Timarchus. It was 
notorious that Timarchus had in his earlier life been 
a spendthrift and a libertine. Aeschines now at- 
tacked him in the courts under a law which excluded 
from the platform of the Athenian assembly any 
man found to have prostituted his person or squan- 
dered his patrimony. Aeschines won his case, thus 
ridding himself of one of his prosecutors, and pre- 
judicing Demosthenes' suit. 

Demosthenes nevertheless persisted in the pros- 
ecution, and in 343 the case against Aeschines 
came to trial. The speeches of both prosecutor and 
defendant are preserved. Both show how deadly 
the hatred between the two men had become. 
Demosthenes failed to secure conviction in the 
court, but the effect of the attack must have been 
to shake the confidence of the people in Aeschines' 

xiii 



INTRODUCTION 

loyalty, while it made Demosthenes still more 
prominent as the head of the anti-Macedonian 
movement. 

In the following years it is evident that both men 
were constantly on the watch for opportunities for 
personal attack, but Aeschines seems to have taken 
no prominent part in public affairs. Demosthenes 
was steadily growing in influence, arousing the anti- 
Macedonian feeling in Athens, and building up an 
alliance with other states against Philip. He had 
finally succeeded in bringing Athens to an open 
break with Philip, and in checking his advance to 
the Euxine by the rescue of Perinthus and Byzan- 
tium, when in 339 his enemy Aeschines quite un- 
expectedly found himself in a position which seemed 
to promise the recovery of his own prestige and 
his return to influence in international affairs. The 
occasion was a meeting of the Amphictyonic Council 
at Delphi. Aeschines was one of the Athenian 
delegation, though not one of the two voting 
members. A sharp dispute having arisen between the 
representatives of the little state Amphissa and the 
Athenian representatives, Aeschines took the lead 
in proposing the proclamation of a holy war against 
the Amphissians, on the ground that they had 
transgressed ancient decrees setting aside certain 
territory close to Delphi as consecrated to Apollo. 
Returning to Athens, elated at the prominence that 
he had attained in the Amphictyonic proceedings 
Aeschines tried to persuade the people to endorse 
xiv 



INTRODUCTION 

his holy war. In this he met the determined op- 
position of Demosthenes, who succeeded in con- 
vincing the people that a war of this sort would, 
like the late Phocian war, give to Philip precisely 
the opportunity he was waiting for — to come down 
into central Greece as champion of one section 
against another, and so to gain control of both. 
The other Amphictyonic states voted for the war, 
but Athens and Thebes held aloof, and together 
stood against Philip when, under the opportunity 
offered by the war, he came down with his allies. 
(A full account of the whole affair is given in the 
speech of Aeschines Against Ctesiphon, §§ 106 ff*., 
and that of Demosthenes On the Crown, §§ 145 fF.) 
In all this Amphictyonic proceeding Aeschines had 
shown himself zealous and eloquent, nor is there 
any reason for believing Demosthenes' charge that 
he had been hired by Philip to stir up an Am- 
phictyonic war. The. only criticism that can be 
made as to his motives is that perhaps he was 
actuated in part by ambition to secure personal and 
party advantage over Demosthenes. But he was 
fatally short-sighted. The one disaster against 
which any public man in Athens should have been 
on his guard at just that time was any disturbance 
among the Greek states that could give Philip a 
pretext for intervention. 

After the defeat of Athens and her allies at 
Chaeronea in 338, Aeschines was one of the am- 
bassadors sent by Athens to open negotiations for 

xv 



INTRODUCTION 

peace, a service to which he was naturally called 
both because oft his cordial relations with Philip 
on the two earlier embassies, and because of his 
opposition to the war party of Demosthenes. 

We have no further mention of definite political 
activity of Aeschines until the year 336, when Ctesi- 
phon made his motion that the city should confer a 
golden crown on Demosthenes in recognition of his 
lifelong patriotic service. Aeschines now saw his 
opportunity for revenge for the savage attack that 
Demosthenes had made on him seven years before. 
He instituted suit against Ctesiphon as having made 
an illegal motion. For reasons that are wholly un- 
known to us the trial of the case was delayed for 
six years. When at last the trial came, Aeschines 
was overwhelmingly defeated. His humiliation was 
such that he left the city. He is said to have gone 
to Ephesus, thence to Rhodes, where he became a 
teacher of rhetoric, and finally to have removed 
to Samos, where he died at the age of seventy- 
five. 

A review of Aeschines' political career shows that 
he was not, like Demosthenes, a great party leader, 
nor does he seem to have been constantly active 
in public affairs (cp. Demosthenes On the Crown, 
§§ 307 ff.). Only on special occasions did he come 
into prominence. He was a steady supporter of 
Eubulus and Phocion, the great conservatives, who 
after the establishment of Philip's power in the 
north believed in a policy of peace with him. There 
xvi 



INTRODUCTION 

is no doubt that Aeschines was a friend of both 
Philip and Alexander, but there is no proof that he 
was ever in their pay ; there was no need of bribery 
with a man whose limited understanding and un- 
limited vanity made him so easy a tool. 

In the two speeches of Aeschines in which we 
should expect a review of the whole field of inter- 
national relations during the critical period of the 
rise of the Macedonian power, we find nowhere any 
large grasp of the situation, no broad view of either 
Athenian or Hellenic interests, nothing statesman- 
like in the discussion of policies. This is the funda- 
mental defect that places him on a plane entirely 
below that of Demosthenes. Both men indulge in 
all possible accusations and slanders, both carry 
personal attack beyond the bounds of decency ; 
but in Demosthenes these personal features are sub- 
ordinate ; the final impression, in the case of 
Demosthenes' speech On the Crown, at least, is one 
of broad statesmanship. To this height Aeschines 
cannot rise. 

We know nothing of Aeschines' training for 
public speaking. The brief biographies which have 
come down to us connect him with some of the 
rhetorical teachers of the time, but these accounts 
are late and untrustworthy. His training for the 
stage and his experience there gave him a refined 
literary taste, and a wide and excellent vocabulary, 
together with thorough discipline in elocution and 
gesture. Moreover the current rhetorical devices, 

xv ii 



INTRODUCTION 

the " figures " of speech and rhetoric, all the super- 
ficial tricks of the trade, were so generally " in the 
air" in the time of Aeschines' youth, that he re- 
quired no special training of the schools to give him 
the mastery of them which his speeches show. He 
never, however, attained full command of the con- 
densed, rounded rhetorical period, which is the 
consummate product of the art of rhetoric. He is 
at his best in clear narrative and vivid description. 
Perhaps it was his early service in clerical offices 
which gave him his facility in expounding legal 
documents. In the higher forms of reasoning he 
is less successful. Personal feeling and prejudice 
are so constantly evident, and so often lead to ex- 
aggerated assertion and unfair inference, that he 
fails to carry conviction. His style passes readily 
from exposition and argument to the emotional, 
where he knows how to inspire the real tragic 
feeling of his earlier profession. Aeschines has the 
art of putting himself readily upon the most familiar 
terms with his audience ; he likes to talk the matter 
over with them rather than to declaim to them; 
his only fault here is a tendency to assume some- 
thing of the didactic tone of the schoolmaster. 
He has the pride in exhibiting his knowledge of 
history and in quotation of poetry that is apt to 
mark the self-made man, and his vanity in his in- 
fluence as statesman and orator is unconcealed. He 
often assumes the high moral and patriotic tone, but 
somehow his moral indignation seldom rings true, 
xviii 



INTRODUCTION 

This is perhaps in part due to the difficulty of his 
situation. Assuming that he was honourably con- 
vinced that the best interests of Athens demanded 
that she keep the friendship of Philip and Alexander, 
we can see how impossible it was for him to speak 
out candidly in defence of this conviction. Even 
after Philip's unexpectedly mild treatment of Athens 
when the battle of Chaeronea had left her helpless 
in his hands, the mass of the people looked upon 
the Macedonian as a deadly foe, and hated the 
position of dependence into which he had brought 
their city. Many modern students can and do 
argue persuasively for the benefits that came to 
Greece through the extension of the power of 
Macedon and her world conquest ; perhaps Aeschines 
believed in them, but he could not say so in the 
Athenian assembly or before an Athenian jury. 
This fact made it impossible for him to reach the 
heights of impassioned eloquence that were open 
to Demosthenes, whose words expressed the deepest 
convictions of his soul. 



Bibliography 

The Editio Princeps of the speeches of Aeschines 
was the Aldus of 1513. Successive stages in the 
establishment of the text are marked by the edi- 
tions of Reiske, 1771 ; Bremi, 1823 ; Bekker, 1824 ; 
Dindorf, 1824 ; Baiter and Sauppe, 1840 ; Franke, 

xix 



INTRODUCTION 

1851, 1860; Schultz, 1865; Weidner, 1872; Blass, 
1896, 1908. 

The speech Against Ctesiphon has been edited with 
explanatory notes by Sommer, Paris, 1842 ; Bremi, 
Gotha, 1845 ; Champlin, London, 1851 ; G. A. and 
W. H. Simcox (The Orations of Demosthenes and 
Aeschines On the Crowji), Oxford, 1872 ; Weidner, 
Berlin, 1878 ; Richardson (on the basis of VVeidner's 
edition), Boston, 1889 ; Gwatkin and Shuekburgh, 
London, 1890. 

The speech On the Embassy has been edited with 
explanatory notes by Julien and Perera, Paris, 1902. 

We have a complete Index Aeschineus by Preuss, 
Leipzig, 1896 (bound also with the editio major of 
Blass' Teubner text). 

Translations of the speeches are : — 

Demosthenes und Aeschines Red en verdeutscht, Reiske, 

1764-68. 
Aeschines dcr Redner iibersetzt, Bremi, 1828. 
Aeschines Reden, Griechisch und Deutsck, iibersetzt und 

erkldrt, Benseler, 1855-60. 
The Two Orations On the Crown, Biddle, Philadelphia, 

1881. 
Chefs d'oeuvre de Demosthcne et d'Eschine, Stievenart, 

1842, 1889. 
Aeschines Rede gegen Ktesiphon, iibersetzt, eingel. u 

erldut., Reeb, 1894. 

A translation of Aeschines Against Ctesiphon is 
included in Westermann's translation of Demosthenes 
xx 



INTRODUCTION 

Ausgervahlte Reden, 1856—73, 1905, and in Leland's 
translation of selected speeches of Demosthenes 
(1819). 

The most critical and complete account of events 
involved in the speeches of Aeschines is to be found 
in Schaefer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit. The life 
and works of Aeschines are discussed in detail by 
Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, III. ii. 

The events in the contest with Philip are accurately 
treated in Pickard-Cambridge's Demosthenes (1914). 

A full account of recent (1886-1912) literature 
for Aeschines is given by Kurt Emminger in Bursian's 
Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritle der klassischen Alter- 
tumswissenschaft, Bd. CLXI. (1913), 214-240. 



The Text 

The three speeches of Aeschines have come down 
to us in manuscripts which date from the tenth to 
the sixteenth century. Twenty-six manuscripts 
have been collated by successive editors. No one 
manuscript has commanding superiority. All go 
back to a common archetype. Editors divide them 
into three (some into four) groups, and differ in 
opinion as to the superior value of one or another 
group. 

Twelve letters have come down under the name 
of Aeschines, but scholars are agreed in denying 
their genuineness. Certain affidavits and citations of 

xxi 



INTRODUCTION 

laws contained in the MSS. of the speech Against 
Timarchus are also generally rejected as spurious. 

Editors of Aeschines' speeches agree that our 
manuscripts have been seriously contaminated by 
numerous marginal notes of ancient editors, which 
have crept into the text. We constantly find words 
and phrases which are needless in the context, or 
inappropriate to it, but which serve to explain some 
expression or allusion of the orator. Not infre- 
quently these words and phrases bear the external 
marks of the gloss : variation in position, or inclusion 
in only a part of the manuscripts. Cobet pointed 
out many of these glosses ; Weidner went to the 
extreme in rejecting suspicious words and phrases ; 
Blass in his Teubner text rejected some of the same 
expressions, and bracketed many. 

In considering the evidence for or against an 
expression which is not absolutely necessary to the 
meaning, and which has something of the appear- 
ance of an editor's note, it is to be remembered 
that in an oral argument before a jury, people of 
only ordinary intelligence, the speaker himself feels 
the need of more detailed explanation and more 
repetition of words than would be required in an 
argument composed primarily to be read. Moreover, 
Aeschines is in general by no means as terse and 
vigorous as Demosthenes ; the modern critic is in 
some danger of making the orator's style better than 
it really was. The force of the external signs of the 
gloss may also be overrated, for variation in position 
xxii 



INTRODUCTION 

in the case of necessary words is not uncommon in 
our manuscripts of Aeschines. 

In this edition the critical notes record all read- 
ings accepted by the editor without manuscript 
authority. In matters of orthography Blass' Teubner 
text has been followed without note. 



xxni 



THE 

SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

I.— AGAINST TIMARCHUS 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

I.— AGAINST TIMARCHUS 
345 b.c. 

Introduction 

Aeschines and Demosthenes had served together 
on the embassy which had been sent to Macedon ' to 
receive from Philip and his allies their ratification of 
the Peace of Philocrates. Soon after their return 
Demosthenes, supported by Timarchus, a prominent 
politician, who had served with Demosthenes in the 
senate the previous year, brought formal charge of 
treason against Aeschines. As a counter attack, in- 
tended to delavthe impending trial, to prejudice the 
case of the prosecution, and to rid himself of one of 
his prosecutors, Aeschines brought indictment against 
Timarchus, declaring that in his earlier life he had 
been addicted to personal vices which by law should 
for ever exclude him from the platform of the 
Athenian assembly. We learn the contents of this 
law from §§ 28 ff. A conviction under this law 
would not technically exclude Timarchus from pro- 
secuting a case in the courts, but it would so dis- 
credit him in popular opinion that it would be fatal 
to any case to have him as an advocate. More- 

1 In 346 ti.c. 



INTRODUCTION 

over, Aeschines introduces in his plea another law, 
which would exclude a man of the lewd life with 
which he charges Timarchus, not only from the 
courts, but from all public and religious functions 
(£§ 19 ff.). In the case of Timarchus, conviction 
under the first law would be a virtual, though not a 
technical, conviction under the second. 

It was understood that Demosthenes would speak 
in defence of Timarchus, but we have no knowledge 
of his speech. Possibly no attempt at defence was 
made. Aeschines won his case, and Demosthenes 
was left without help in the prosecution of his case 
against Aeschines in the matter of the embassy. 



L— KATA TIMAPXOT 

Ov&eva TTOiTTore rcov ttoXitmv, <o dvSpes \A#t;- 
valoi, ovt€ ypa(pi]V ypa'ty'dp,evo<; out' ev evOvvais 
\v7rijcras, aXX" a>9 eycoye vofii^co perpiov e/xavrov 
irpbs etccuTTa tovtcov TrapeayriK.^, opcov Se rrjv 
T€ ttoXiv pueydXa ffXcnrTopevijv vrrb Tip,dp%ov 
tovtovI 8i]p,r)yopovvTO<; irapa tow vop,ov<;, teal 
avrbs Ihia av/co(pavTovpevo<; (bv 8e rpbirov, irpoi- 

2 6vro%- eVtSet^o) tov Xoyov), ev ti twv aia^iarmv 
i)yrjaapr)v eivai purj fioTjdPjaai, rr} re iroXei Trdarj 
Kal Tol<i vopiois Kal vp.lv fcal ep,avra>' elSax; £' 
avrbv evo%ov ovra oU oXlya) irpbrepov rjKovcrare 
dvayiyvwa kovtos tov ypapp.aTeoo<;, ew^yyeiXa 
avT(p rr]v hoKipaaiav Tdvrqvi. Kal go? eoiKev, w 
avSpes 'AOrjvaioi, oi elo)0oTe<; Xoyoc XeyeaOai errl 
Tot? Bijpocriois aywaiv ovk elal ■^reySefc 1 ai yap 
thiai e%6pai. TroXXa irdvv rcov tcoivwv eiravop- 
dovcri. 

3 Tov p,ev ovv oXov dywvof cpavyjaerai ov0' rj 
ttoXis aoTLa ovaa Tipdp^w ovd oi vbpuoi ov6' 

1 The Athenian Constitution provided for rigid auditing of 
the accounts of ail officials at the close of their year of office, 
and gave full opportunity to any citizen to bring charges 
against any act of their administration. Such opportunity 
might easily be used for malicious or blackmailing attack. 



I.— AGAINST TIMARCHUS 

I have never, fellow citizens, brought indictment 
against any Athenian, nor vexed any man when he 
was rendering account of his office 1 ; but in all such 
matters I have, as I believe, shown myself a quiet 
and modest man. 2 But when I saw that the city 
was being seriously injured by the defendant, Ti- 
marchus, who, though disqualified by law, was 
speaking in your assemblies, 3 and when I myself 
was made a victim of his blackmailing attack — 
the nature of the attack I will show in the course 
of my speech — I decided that it would be a most 
shameful thing if I failed to come to the defence 
of the whole city and its laws, and to your defence 
and my own ; and knowing that he was liable to 
the accusations that you heard read a moment ago 
by the clerk of the court, I instituted this suit, 
challenging him to official scrutiny. Thus it appears, 
fellow citizens, that what is so frequently said of 
public suits is no mistake, namely, that very often 
private enmities correct public abuses. 

You will see, then, that Timarchus cannot blame 
the city for any part of this prosecution, nor can he 

2 A quiet citizen, as distinguished from the professional 
political blackmailer, avKo<pdvTris. 

3 As the speech proceeds we shall see that Aeschines de- 
clares that Timarchus was guilty of immoral practices that 
disqualified him from speaking before the people. 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vp,el<i out' eyoo, dXA.' auTo? ovtos eavrw. ol p,ev 
yap v6[xoi irpoelTTOv avrw ala^pSi^ /3e/3c(OKori 
fxrj 8r)p,r)yopelv, eir'iTayjxa, w? ^e 8rj eyco Kplvco, 
ov ^aXeirov erriTd^avres, dXXa Kal irdvu pdSiov 
e/ze 8 e^rjv avra), et, iauxppovei, ptr] auKocpavrelv. 
irepl pcev ovv tovtwv fierpi(o<i eXiri^co fioi irpo- 
eiprfcrdat. 

4 Ovk dyvoSi Be, Si dv8pe<; , Adt]valoi, a p,eXX(o ev 
irpwTois Xeyeiv, on ipaveiaOe teal krepwv irporepov 
aKrjKOOTes' dXXd pioi 8oKel Kaipos eivai Kal ep,e 
vvv 7T/oo? v/jbd<; Tfti aurCo Xoyop ^ptjaaaOat. 6p,o- 
Xoyovvrat, yap rpels elvat TroXirelai irapd irdaiv 
dv0poo7roi<;, Tvpapvis ical oXiyap^la Kal 8rjp,o- 
KpaTiw 8ioikovvt<u 8 at p.ev rvpavv'i8e<i /cal 
oXiyap^cai Tot? rpoirois tcov ecpearrj/corcov, ai 
he 7r6Xei<> al 8r/p,oKparoup,evai tols vop,oi<i roll 

5 Keip,evoi<;. ev 8' tare, a> avBpes 'Adrjvaloi, oti 
ra p.ev tcov Br)p,oKparovp.evcov acopcara ical rrjv 
TcoXireiav ol vopuoi aco&vcri, ra 8e tcov rvpdv- 
vcov real oXiyap-^iKcov * diriaTia koX tj p,era 
tcov ottXcov (ppovpd. (pvXa/creov 8rj to?? pev 
oXtyapxiKol*? /ecu, Tot? ttjv dvicrov TroXireiav 
Tro\iT€vop,evoi<; toi"? ev yeipwv vopuco rd<; ttoXl- 
reia<i KaraXvovras, vpuv 8e rot? ttjv tarjv 
Kal evvopbov TroXireiav eyovcri rovs irapd tovs 
vopLOVS rj Xeyovras ?} /SefitcoKoras' evrevOev yap 
IcryytreTe, orav evvop.rjcrOe Kal p,rj icaTaXu>]ade 

6 virb tcov irapavop,ovvTcov. irpoatjKeiv 8e eycoye 
vopa^co, orav p,ev vop,o0eTcop,ei', tovO" 1 i)pbd<; ctko- 
irelv, birco<; KaXcos e^ovra^ Kal avpucpepovTas 



i ' 



oXtyapxufwv Taylor : oMyapx^v MSS. 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 3-6 

blame the laws, nor you, nor me, but only himself. 
For because of his shameful private life the laws 
forbade him to speak before the people, laying on 
him an injunction not difficult, in my opinion, to 
obey — nay, most easy ; and had he been wise, he 
need not have made his slanderous attack upon me. 
I hope, therefore, that in this introduction I have 
spoken as a quiet and modest citizen ought to speak. 
I am aware, fellow citizens, that the statement 
which I am about to make first is something that 
you will undoubtedly have heard from other men 
on other occasions ; but I think the same thought 
is especially timely on this occasion, and from me. 
It is acknowledged, namely, that there are in the 
world three forms of government, autocracy, olig- 
archy, and democracy : autocracies and oligarchies 
are administered according to the tempers of their 
lords, but democratic states according to established 
laws. And be assured, fellow citizens, that in a 
democracy it is the laws that guard the person of 
the citizen and the constitution of the state, whereas 
the despot and the oligarch find their protection in 
suspicion and in armed guards. Men, therefore, who 
administer an oligarchy, or any government based 
upon inequality, must be on their guard against those 
who attempt revolution by the law of force ; but 
you, who have a government based upon equality 
and law, must guard against those whose words 
violate the laws or whose lives have defied them ; 
for then only will you be strong, when you cherish 
the laws, and when the revolutionary attempts of 
lawless men shall have ceased. And it behooves 
us, I think, not only when we are enacting laws, to 
consider always how the laws that we make may be 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCH1NES 

i'6[i,ov^ rfj 7roXtT6ta drjaopueOa, eireiBdv Be vo/io- 
6eT)]aa>fjL€V, tch? vop,ot<i rols ieeipievoi<; ireWeadai, 
tou? Be p,r) irei9op,evov<; /coXd^eiv, el Sec rd t?)9 
7roXe&)? KaXws eyeiv. 

^Ke-ty-aade 'yap, o) avSpes 'Adrjvaloi, ocnjv 
irpovoiav irepl aeoeppoavvr}^ eiroirjaciTO 6 SoXcoy 
e/cetvoc, o ira\aib<; vop,o0eTr]<z, ical o Apd/ccov /ecu 
oi Kara rovs %p6vov<; etceivov; vop,o6erai. irpwrov 
fiev yap irepl tt}<? aoocfipoavvr]? tcov iralBcov tcov 
r)p,eTepcov evop,odeTT)o~av, /ecu BiapprjBrjv direBei^av, 
a %pr) rbv iralBa rbv eXevdepov eiriTrjBevecv, /cal 
co? Bel avrov rpa<prjvai, ewena Sevrepov irepl tcov 
pueipa/cicov, rplrov S' efye^rjs irepl tcov aWcov 
vXlklcov, ov p.6vov irepl tcov IBlcotcov, aWa /cal 
irepl tcov prjTopcov. /cal tovtovs tovs vop,ov<; 
dvaypd-^ravTes vp.lv irapa/caredevTO, /cal vp,a<; 
avrcov eirearr\aav cf>v\a/ca<>. 

HovXofiat, Br) /cal eyco vvvi 7rpo? tyxa? rov avrcv 
rpoirov y^prjcraaOai tco Xoyco ovirep tch? vop,OL<} o 
vopLoOerrjs. irpcoTov [lev yap Biegetpu irpbs vp,a<; 
tol»<? vop.ov<> ot Kelvrai irepl tyj<; evKoapua<i tcov 
iraiBcov tcov vp.€Tepcov, eireira Bevrepov tow? irepl 
tcov p,eipa/clcov, Tp'iTOV 8' e(f>e£r}s tol»? irepl tcov 
aWcov r)Xi/ci.cov, ov piovov irepl tcov IBlcotcov, dWa 
/cal irepl tcov priTopcov ovtco yap dv p,oi p,d\icrTa 
viro\apLf3dvco tou? Xoyovs evp,aOel<i yevkaQai. 
dp,a Be /cal /3ov\op,at, co avBpes 'Adrjvaloi, BietjeX- 
delv irpcoTov irpb<; vp,d$, &>? eyovaiv oi vop*oi oi 
t% 7TOA.6C09, 1 irdXtv Be pera tovto dvTe^erdaat 
tovs rpoirovs rov<; Tifidp^ov evprjcreTe yap avrov 
evavrico<; diracn rots voptois fiefSico/coTa. 

1 ol TTJs woAeajS H. Wolf : nepl ttjj n6\ecos MSS. 

8 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 6-8 

good and advantageous to the democracy, but when 
once we have enacted them, it equally behooves us, 
if all is to be well with the state, to obey the laws 
that we have enacted, and to punish those who do 
not obey them. 

Consider, fellow citizens, how much attention that 
ancient lawgiver, Solon, gave to morality, as did 
Draco and the other lawgivers of those days. First, 
you recall, they laid down laws to protect the 
morals of our children, and they expressly pre- 
scribed what were to be the habits of the free- 
born boy, and how he was to be brought up ; then 
they legislated for the lads, and next for the other 
age-groups in succession, including in their provi- 
sion, not only private citizens, but also the public 
men. And when they had inscribed these laws, 
they gave them to you in trust, and made you their 
guardians. 

Now it is my desire, in addressing you on this 
occasion, to follow in my speech the same order 
which the lawgiver followed in his laws. For you 
shall hear first a review of the laws that have been 
laid down to govern the orderly conduct of your 
children, then the laws concerning the lads, and 
next those concerning the other ages in succession, 
including not only private citizens, but the public 
men as well. For so, 1 think, my argument will 
most easily be followed. And at the same time I 
wish, fellow citizens, first to describe to you in de- 
tail the laws of the state, and then in contrast with 
the laws to examine the character and habits of 
Timarchus. For you will find that the life he has 
lived has been contrary to all the laws. 



B 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

9 O yap ro/jLoOen]? irpoirov p,ev Tot? StSaafcd- 
Xot?, ot<? e'£ avdy/cr)*; 7rapaKaTaTt6ep,e6a rovs 
rjpberepov^ avTwv iraihas, ol<i iartv 6 p.ev /3to? 

O.7T0 TOV (TWffypOVeiv, Tj S' ClTTOpia 6K TOiV evavTiwv, 

o/x<y? cnrHTTcov fyaiverai, /cal Siapp^Srjv diro- 
heiKwai, Trpwrov fiev fjv copav irpocrrjicei levai 
tov TTalha tov iXevOepov et? to SiSaa/cakelov, 
eTreira pbera 7roaa)v iraiSwv elaievai, Kal wr/viKa 

10 diriivat, Kal tou<? SiSaaKaXovs to. 8i8acrKa\ela 
teal Tot"? 7rai8oTpL/3a<i rd<; iraXaio-Tpas dvoiye.iv 
fjuev dirayopeuet p,i] irporepov irplv dv ?;Xio? dvicryrj, 
Kkrjeiv he irpoardTTei irpo rjXiov hehuKOTO<i, Ta? 
epi]pita<; /cal to o-atoto? ev TrXeiarr) inro-^na ttolou- 
/xero? - Kal toi><? veavia/covs tow? ela(f>oiT(t)VTa<; 
oi>? Tivas Sec elvai Kal a? Tivas f)\i/ci,a<; e^ovTas, 
Kal dpyy)v tfris ecrrai rj tovtcov eTTifxeX'tjo-op.evT], 
Kal 7T6pl Trathayaiywv eTTLfxe\eia<i Kal irepl Mou- 
ae'iwv iv rots 8thao~Ka\eLO(,<; Kal Trepl 'Kp/xaicov ev 
Tat? TraXaicnpais, Kal to reXevratov irepl t?}<? 
o-v/x<poiT)']aea><i roov iraihwv Kal tcov xopcov rcov 

11 kvkKIwv. 1 Ke\evet yap tov %opi]ybv tov fieWovTa 
tt)V ovcriav tijv eavTov et<? u/xa? dvaXlcrKeiv inrep 
TeTTapaKOVTa eTr\ yeyovoTa tovto irpaTTeiv, tv 
■ijSr) ev Trj aw^povecTaTrj auTOV ifKiKia u>v, ovTWi 
evTvyxdvr) toi<z v/AeTepois iraiaiv. 

, AvayvcoaeTai ovv v/xlv tovtov? toi)? vop-ov<;, 
iv elSfjTe oti o vopuoQeTf]^ ijyijaaTo tov /caXwf 

1 kvkAiwv Franke : tynvKAluv MSS. 
IO 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 9-1 1 

In the first place, consider the case of the teachers. 
Although the very livelihood of these men, to whom 
we necessarily entrust our own children, depends on 
their good character, while the opposite conduct on 
their part would mean poverty, yet it is plain that 
the lawgiver distrusts them ; for he expressly pre- 
scribes, first, at what time of day the free-born boy 
is to go to the school-room ; next, how many other 
boys may go there with him, and when he is to go 
home. He forbids the teacher to open the school- 
room, or the gymnastic trainer the wrestling school, 
before sunrise, and he commands them to close the 
doors before sunset ; for he is exceeding suspicious of 
their being alone with a boy, or in the dark with him. 
He prescribes what children are to be admitted 
as pupils, and their age at admission. He provides 
for a public official who shall superintend them, and 
for the oversight of slave-attendants of school-boys. 
He regulates the festivals of the Muses in the 
school-rooms, and of Hermes in the wrestling- 
schools. Finally, he regulates the companionships 
that the boys may form at school, and their cyclic 
dances. 1 He prescribes, namely, that the choregus, a 
man who is going to spend his own money for 
your entertainment, shall be a man of more than 
forty years of age when he performs this service, 
in order that he may have reached the most tem- 
perate time of life before he comes into contact 
with your children. 

These laws, then, shall be read to you, to prove 
that the lawgiver believed that it is the boy who has 

1 Dances by specially trained groups of boys, often competi- 
tive between tribes, were popular features of many of the 
Greek festivals. Those dances which were arranged for a 
circular dancing-ground were called "cyclic." 

II 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rpacpevra iralha dvhpa yevopievov "£pr\o~ip,ov eere- 
cruai rfj nroXef orav 8' t) (fivais rov avOpaynov 
evdvs TTovrjpav ttjv apxh v ^afiv TV? iraiheias, etc 
rcov /ro/cw? redpapbpevwv iraihcov irapaTrXr^aiovi 
rjyrjcraTO 7roXtra<; eaeaOat Tip.dp%(p rourwi. Xeye 
avTols rovs vo/xovs tovtovs. 



NOMOI 

12 [Ot he tG)v iraihcov hihdcrtcaXoi dvoiyerwaav 
piev ra hihaatcaXeia lit] irporepov rjXiov dvi- 
ovtos, fcXeierwaav he irpb i)Xlov hvvovros. teal 
p,i] e£e<TT<i) rol<i virep ttjv twv iraihwv rjXiKiav 
ouaiv eicrievai twv iraihcov evhov ovrcov, edv 
fir/ vlbs hihaatcdXov rj dheXcfios »} Ovyarpbs 
dvi)p- eav he ri<; irapd ravr elairj, Oavdroi 
fypLiovadw. teal ol yv/nvacridp^ai tois 'Ep- 
p,aioi<i pur) eaTcoaav avytcadievai pirjheva twv 
ev rfkiKiq Tpoirw pir/hevi' edv he eirnpeTrrj 
teat p,T] i^eipyy rov yvpLvaalov, evoy^os earco 
o yvp.vaaidp)^7]<i rfo rrj<; eXevdepwv (pdopd<; 
//opLO). 01 he ^opriyol ol tcaOiard/xevoi biro tot) 
hi]p:ov ecrrcoaav tijv ?)Xitciav virep Terrapd- 
tcovra eTrj.] 1 

13 MeTa ravra rolvvv, w dvhpes ' ' KOrjvaloi, vop,o- 
Oerel ire pi dhi/crjpLdTcov pieydXtov piev, yiyvopievwv 
S' olp.ai ev rfj iroXei' etc yap tou TrpdrreaOai tiv 

1 The documents which Aeschines placed in the hands of 
the Clerk of the Court, to he read to the jury as the speech 
proceeded, seem not to have been published by the author 
with the text of his speeches. The " laws," etc., which are 

12 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 11-13 

been well brought up that will be a useful citizen 
when he becomes a man. But when a boy's natural 
disposition is subjected at the very outset to vicious 
training, the product of such wrong nurture will be, 
as he believed, a citizen like this man Timarchus. 
{To the Clerk of the Court.) Read these laws to the 
jury. 

LAWS 

[The teachers of the boys shall open the 
school-rooms not earlier than sunrise, and they 
shall close them before sunset. No person who 
is older than the boys shall be permitted to 
enter the room while they are there, unless 
he be a son of the teacher, a brother, or a 
daughter's husband. If any one enter in viola- 
tion of this prohibition, he shall be punished 
with death. The superintendents of the gym- 
nasia shall under no conditions allow any one 
who has reached the age of manhood to enter 
the contests of Hermes together with the boys. 
A gymnasiarch who does permit this and fails 
to keep such a person out of the gymnasium, 
shall be liable to the penalties prescribed for the 
seduction of free-born youth. Every choregus 
who is appointed by the people shall be more 
than forty years of age.] 

Now after this, fellow citizens, he lays down laws 
regarding crimes which, great as they undoubtedly 
are, do actually occur, I believe, in the city. For the 
very fact that certain unbecoming things were being 

found in our MSS. were probably composed by an ancient 
editor. 

13 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Siv ov TrpoaTjKev, i/e tovtov tou9 vo/xov<; eOevTo 
01 iraXaio'i. 8iapptj8rjv yovv Xeyei 6 v6puo<;, edv 
Tiva ifc/AiadwcTT] eraipelv irarrjp rj d8eX(f)b<; rj 
6elo<i rj 67TtT/907ro? rj oXoos TO)V KVp'lWV Tf?, KCLT 
avrou p,ev tov TraiSos ovk ea ypa(j)r)v elvai, Kara 
8e tov pLiaOtoaavTos koX tov pnaOcoaap^evov, tov 
p,ev otl i^epbiaOcoae, tov 8e oti, (j^rjaiv, epiaOdo- 
aaTo. Kai Xcra ra eiriTipua eKaTeptp TreiT octree, 
koX pur) eirdvay/ces elvai ra> iratSl r)j3i]o-avTL Tpe- 
(peiv tov irarepa pur)8e ot/crjaiv irape^eiv, 09 av 
eKp,io-6a>6f) eTatpelv d-noOavovTa 8e OairreTw icai 

14 TaXXa iroietTCO tcl vopn^opbeva. o-tce-fyaaOe 8}j, 
co? /ca\&>9, ft) avhpes 'AOrjvaioi. £aWo9 puev avTov 
d(paipe%Tai rrjv oviiaiv Trjs 7rai8o7roiia<i, oiairep 
ifcelvos eiceivov Trjv irappr]aiav, TeXevTrjaavra 8e 
avrov, r)vifca p,ev evepyeTOvp:evo<; ovk aladdveTat 
Siv ev irda^ei, Tip,a,Tai 8e 6 vopos real to Oelov, 
ddiTTeiv j]8r) KeXevei /cal TaXXa iroielv to, vopui- 
£6peva. 

Kat nva erepov vbpov edr/Ke fyvXatca tcov 
vpieTepcov irathwv; tov T/79 Trpoaywyeias, to, 
peyiara eiriTipLia eTTiypd-^ra^, edv Tt? eXevQepov 
iral8a rj yvvai/ca Trpoayayyevrj. 

15 Kal ttoIov dXXov; tov tt)<; vp3pea><;, 09 evl fcecpa- 
Xai(p diraina tcl TOtavTa crvXXa/3a)v eyef ev 
<p 8iappij8rjv yeypairrai, edv t*9 v/3p{,£rj eh -jral8a 

1 The son, as one whose person had been prostituted, was 
debarred from addressing the assembly of the people, cp. § 3. 

14 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 13-15 

done was the reason for the enactment of these 
laws by the men of old. At any rate the law says 
explicitly : if any boy is let out for hire as a 
prostitute, whether it be by father or brother or 
uncle or guardian, or by any one else who has 
control of him, prosecution is not to lie against 
the boy himself, but against the man who let him 
out for hire and the man who hired him ; against 
the one because he let him out for hire, and against 
the other, it says, because he hired him. And the 
law has made the penalties for both offenders the 
same. Moreover the law frees a son, when he 
has become a man, from all obligation to support 
or to furnish a home to a father by whom he has 
been hired out for prostitution ; but when the father 
is dead, the son is to bury him and perform the 
other customary rites. See, gentlemen, how admir- 
ably this legislation fits the case : so long as the 
father is alive he is deprived of all the benefits 
of fatherhood, precisely as he deprived his son 
of a citizen's right to speak ; 1 but when he is dead, 
and unconscious of the service that is being ren- 
dered him, and when it is the law and religion 
that receive the honour, then at last the lawgiver 
commands the son to bury him and perform the 
other customary rites. 

But what other law has been laid down for the 
protection of your children? The law against 
panders. For the lawgiver imposes the heaviest 
penalties if any person act as pander in the case 
of a free-born child or a free-born woman. 

And what other law ? The law against outrage, 
which includes all such conduct in one summary 
statement, wherein it stands expressly written : if 

IS 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

{vfipl^et Be Br) ttov 6 piadovpevos) r) dvBpa r) 
ryvvalKa, ?'} tcov ekevdepcov riva r) tcov oovKcov, rj 
edv irapdvopov tl iroif} ea tovtcov Tivd, <ypacpa<; 
v/3peco<; elvat, ireiroi^Kev /ecu Tipr/pa eirWriKev, 6 
Tt %prj iraOelv i) airorelaai. \eye tov vopov. 



NOMOS 

16 ["Ay Tt? ' ' Kdrjvaioiv eXevOepov TralBa u/SpLat], 
ypacpeaOco 6 /cvpios tov iraiBos irpo<i tov<; 
Sea po6 eras, rlpijpa eTriypayjrdpevos. ov 8' 
av 1 to SiKCumjpiov KaTayfrrjcpiay/Tai, irapa- 
Bodels rol<i evBe/ca TeOvdrco avdrjpepov. edv 
Be els dpyvpiov KaTa^rrjcpiaOf], arroretadro) ev 
evBe/ca i)pepai<; perd tt/v Blkijv, edv prj itapa- 
^pf/pa Bvvrjrai diroiiveiv e&><? Be tov diro- 
retaai elfyvOrjra). evo^oi Be eaTcoaav TalaBe 
tcu? atrial*; real oi eh rd ol/ceTitcd acopara 
e^apaprdvovTes.] 

17 "lcrco? av ovv Ti? Oavpaaeuev e^alcpvr]? aKOvaas, 
Tt Br/ ttot ev to5 vopco Tu> t?}? vfipecos 7rpocre<ypd(pi] 
tovto to pr)pa, to tcov BovXcov. tovto Be edv 
aKOTrrjTe, co dvBpes 'Adijvaioi, evpi)crere ore irdv- 
rcov dpiara e%er ov <ydp virep tcov oIkctcov 
ecnovBaaev 6 vopoderrjs, dXXa fiovXopevos vpas 
eOicrai iroXv dire^eiv t>/9 tcov eXevOepcov vfipecos, 
irpoaeypa^re pr/B' els tou? BovXovs v/3pi%€iv. oXcos 
Be ev Bripo/cparia rov els ovtivovv vf3pt<TTrjv, 
rovrov ovk eTriTtjBeiov f/yrjcraTQ elvai avp,7ToXi- 

1 o£ 8' fcv Dobree : £ hv (or ov &») MSS. 
16 






AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 15-17 

any one outrage a child (and surely he who hires, 
outrages) or a man or woman, or any one, free or 
slave, or if he commit any unlawful act against 
any one of these. Here the law provides prosecu- 
tion for outrage, and it prescribes what bodily 
penalty he shall suffer, or what fine he shall pay. 
(To the Clerk.) Read the law. 

LAW 

[If any Athenian shall outrage a free-born 
child, the parent or guardian of the child shall 
prosecute him before the Thesmothetae, and 
shall demand a specific penalty. If the court 
condemn the accused to death, he shall be 
delivered to the constables and be put to death 
the same day. If he be condemned to pay a 
fine, and be unable to pay the fine immediately, 
he must pay within eleven days after the trial, 
and he shall remain in prison until payment is 
made. The same action shall hold against those 
who abuse the persons of slaves.] 

Now perhaps some one, on first hearing this law, 
may wonder for what possible reason this word 
"slaves" was added in the law against outrage. 
But if you reflect on the matter, fellow citizens, 
you will find this to be the best provision of all. 
For it was not for the slaves that the lawgiver was 
concerned, but he wished to accustom you to keep 
a long distance away from the crime of outraging 
free men, and so he added the prohibition against 
the outraging even of slaves. In a word, he was 
convinced that in a democracy that man is unfit for 
citizenship who outrages any person whatsoever. 

17 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

18 reveaOai. /cd/celvo 8e lloi o~vv8iaLivr)Liov ever are, 
to dv8pe$ 'AOrjvaLoi, on evTavO' 6 vo/ao06tt]<; oinra> 
8taXeyerai aurrp rq> atoixan rov waihos, dXXd 
to?9 nrepl zbv 7ra?8a, war pi, d8eX(pqs, eiriTpbiTto, 
8i8aoicdXoi<; 3 Ka\ oXois 704? Kvpiow inreihav 8' 
eyypacpy n<; els to Xi^Lap^iKov ypaLLLiarelov, ical 
tovs voliovs el8fj rovs t?}<> TToXecos, /cal i]8r) Bvvjjrai 
8iaXoyi£ecr@ai tcl /caXa ical rd llh), ov/cen erepto 

19 hiaXcyerai, dXX* 1)87] aura), Si Tifxap^e. /cal 7rw? 
Xeyei; ctv Tt<? A0?)vaiwi>, cprjcriv, eTatpijarj, lit) 
i^earto ainu> rcov evvka ap^ovTOiV yevecrQat, on 
olfxat aT€(pavri<p6po<i tj apXV* H'V^' lepcocrvvTjv 
lepcoaacrOai, &>? ov8e /caOapevovTt 1 tw crcoLian, 
/xrjoe ovpSifcrjauTiO, (prjal, rw 8rnjboo~itt>, Li7]8e ap- 
%a,Tto ap-^rjv LM]8eLiiav LirjheiroTe, liijt €i>8t]liov 
fii]T€ virepopiov, fi7]T6 /cXrjptoTrjp lli]t6 yeiporovr)- 

20 ttjv Lir)8e KTqpvKcvcaTw, ixrt8e Trpecr^evadro), /i7)8e 
tou? 7rpea/3€vaai'ra<i /cpiveroy, Liirfe crvfcoc^avTe'nto 
fxiaOtodeLS, Lii}8e yvcoLirjv elirdrw LL7]8i7rore jxi]re 
iv rfj fiovXfj Lit'jTe ev tw 8iJliw, Lnjo^ dv 8eivoraro<; 
rj Xeyeiv A@7]va[(i)v. edv 8e tj? rrapd ravTa 
irpdrrrj, ypa<pds eraipiioews 7re7rotr]K€ ical rd 
ixeyicna eniTLLaa €7re0i]/cev. Xeye avrols /cal 

TOVTOV TOP VOjXOV, IV €t,8fjT€ oi'toV VOLltoV VLiLV 

/cei/xevwv, &><? icaXtov ical aaxppovcov, T€r6Xp,r)/ce 
Tipapxos 8r]LOiyopelv, 6 toiovtos tov Tpoirov olov 
VLieis eTTtaraaOe. 

1 KaQaptvovTi Franke : Kadapy Sta\tyerai MSS. 
18 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 17-20 

And I beg you, fellow citizens, to remember this 
also, that here the lawgiver is not yet addressing 
the person of the boy himself, but those who are 
near him, father, brother, guardian, teachers, and 
in general those who have control of him. But 
as soon as the young man has been registered in 
the list of citizens, and knows the laws of the state, 
and is now able to distinguish between right and 
wrong, the lawgiver no longer addresses another, 
Timarchus, but now the man himself. And what 
does he say? "If any Athenian," he says, "shall 
have prostituted his person, he shall not be per- 
mitted to become one of the nine archons," be- 
cause, no doubt, that official wears the wreath ; l 
"nor to discharge the office of priest," as being 
not even clean of body ; " nor shall he act as an 
advocate for the state," he says, "nor shall he 
ever hold any office whatsoever, at home or abroad, 
whether filled by lot or by election ; nor shall he 
be a herald or an ambassador " — nor shall he pro- 
secute men who have served as ambassadors, nor 
shall he be a hired slanderer — "nor ever address 
senate or assembly," not even though he be the 
most eloquent orator in Athens. And if any one 
act contrary to these prohibitions, the lawgiver has 
provided for criminal process on the charge of pros- 
titution, and has prescribed the heaviest penalties 
therefor. (To the Clerk.) Read to the jury this law 
also, that you may know, gentlemen, in the face of 
what established laws of yours, so good and so moral, 
Timarchus has had the effrontery to speak before the 
people — a man whose character is so notorious. 

1 The myrtle wreath was worn as sign of the sacred char- 
acter of the office, and it protected the person from assault. 

19 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

NOM02 

21 ['EaV T49 'AOrjvaLos eTatptjcrr), fir) e^eaTco 
avTco tcov evvea apyovTcov yevecrOai, pur/ft 
lepcoauvrjv iepcoaacrOcu, p,r)8e avvht,Kr)aai tco 
Brjpco, /i?;Se apyr)v apyeTco pbrjhepiav, p.r)Te 
evSrjpov pi]re virepopiov, pr\Te kXtjpcottjv pbrjre 
yeipoTovr)Ttyv , p/r\S eirl KrjpvKecav aTroareX- 
Xeadco, p,r/8e yvcoprjv XeyeTco, firjo et<? tcl 
8i]poTeXr) lepa ela'iTco, firjS iv Tat? fcowah 
(TTe(pavrj(f)opLaL<; (jTec^avovaOco, yu/^S' eVro? r>}? 
ayopas tcov irepippavTiipicov iropevecrOco. iav 
Be Ti? Trapa 1 ravra iroifj, KaTayvcoa8evTo<; 
avrov eTaipelv, Oav&Tco ^rjpuovcrOco.] 

22 Tovtov p,ev tov vojiov edr/Ke irepl tcov p,eipaKtcov 
twv irpo^e'tpca eh ra eavTcov crcop-aTa e^apapra- 
vovtcov ot>9 he oXiyco irporepov uplv aveyvco, irepl 
tcov iraiBcov oi><> Be vvvl peXXco Xeyeiv, irepl tow 
aXXcov ' ' KOifvaicov. diraXXayeh yap tcov vopcov 
tovtcov eaKeijraTO, tIi'clxPV Tpoirov avXXeyop,evov<; 
r)p,a<; eh t<x? e/c*;)u?cria9 fSovXevecrdai irepl tcov 
OTTOvhaiOT litcov irpaypaTcov. /ecu iroQev apyerai; 
" No/iot," (frrjcTL, " irepl evKoapias. ciiro crcocfipo- 
avvr/s irpcoTOV yjp^aTO, 2 a>9, ottov irXeuTTr) ev- 
Koapbla eaTi, TavTrjv apicna ttjv iroXiv ot,/cr](Top,e- 

23 vrjv. Kal ttcos KeXevei tovs Trpoehpovs'XP 1 ll Jia ' T ' i % 6lv > 

1 trapa added by Reiske. 

2 Sakorraphos considers the words airb . , . ijp^aro an 
unquestionable interpolation. 

20 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 21-23 



THE LAW 

[If any Athenian shall have prostituted his 
person, he shall not be permitted to become 
one of the nine archons, nor to discharge the 
office of priest, nor to act as an advocate for 
the state, nor shall he hold any office what- 
soever, at home or abroad, whether filled by 
lot or by election ; he shall not be sent as a 
herald ; he shall not take part in debate, nor 
be present at the public sacrifices ; when the 
citizens are wearing garlands, he shall wear 
none ; and he shall not enter within the limits 
of the place that has been purified for the 
assembling of the people. If any man who has 
been convicted of prostitution act contrary to 
these prohibitions, he shall be put to death.] 

This law was enacted concerning youths who 
recklessly sin against their own bodies. The laws 
relating to boys are those read to you a moment 
ago ; but I am going to cite now laws that have 
to do with the citizens at large. For when the 
lawgiver had finished with these laws, he next 
turned to the question of the proper manner of 
conducting our deliberations concerning the most 
important matters, when we are met in public 
assembly. How does he begin? "Laws," he says, 
"concerning orderly conduct." He began with 
morality, thinking that that state will be best 
administered in which orderly conduct is most 
common. And how does he command the pre- 
siding officers to proceed ? After the purifying 



21 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

iireiBdv to /caOdpcnov 7repievex,0f) /cal 6 /cr)pvj; 
to.9 irarpiov 1 ; eu^a? ev^rjTat, irpoyeipoTovelv /ce- 
Xevet tou? irpoeBpovs irepl tepwv rcov irarplwv /cal 
tcijpvgi /cal irpeap3eLai<; kol oaia/v, /cal jxera ravra 
iirepcora 6 /crjpvt;- " Tt9 dyopeveiv fiovXeTai twv 
uirep 7revT)]/covTa €ttj yeyovoTwv;" €7retBdv Be 
ovroi 7rafTe? etTTcoai, tot yBrj /ceXevei Xeyeiv 
tQ>v dXXwv 'AOtjvcilcov tov /3ovX6/j,evov, oh e^eaTiv. 

24 a/ce^jraade Br) go? tcaXuis, Si dvBpes A07]vaioi. 
ov/c r)yvoei olp,ai 6 vofioOeTTjs otl ol TrpeafivTepoi 
tw p,ev ev (ppoveiv d/cp,d^ovaiv, r) Be ToXpa ijSij 
avTOvs dp^eTai eTuXelireiv Bid ttjv epLireiplav tcov 
Trpayp-aTWV. fiovXotievos St) avveOicrai tov$ apiaTa 
(fapovovvTCK;, tovtovs eVamy/ce? irepi twv irpay/xd- 
Ttov Xeyeiv, eiretBr] ovopbaaTi l avTtov eva e/caaTov 
ciTopel irpoaenrelv, tt} eirwvv p,ia 2 tt}? oXr]<; rfXt/cias 
irepiXafioov 3 irapafcaXel eVl to p3r)pia ical irpo- 
Tpeirei Bripuqyopelv. apua Be teal tou? vecoTepovs 
BiBda/cei aio-yyveaQ cu tovs 7rpeo-/3vTepov<;, /cal 
Trdv8' vaTepovs irpdrTetv, /cal Tip,dv to yr/pas, ei? 

25 irdvTes depc^opceda, edv dpa BtayevdopieOa. /cal 
o{/T6)? rjaav aoxppoves ol dpyaioi i/cetvoi pr]Tope<;, 

1 ovohcuttI Reiske : ovS/xart MSS. 

2 T7? (Trwvv/xia Blass : ttiv (or riju icoivtjv) iwcevv/xlav MSS. 

3 TrepiXa&toV Blass (Emperius) : viroKaHav (or a-iro-) MSS. 



1 "It was the custom at Athens to purify the ecclesia, the 
theatres, and the gatherings of the people in general by the 
sacrifice of very small pigs, which they named Kadapaia." — 
Harpocration. 

* The above interpretation is confirmed by Aristotle, Con- 
stitution of Athens, xliii. 1, 29 f., where we find the same 
phraseology, evidently that of the law itself. Heralds, 

22 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 23-25 

sacrifice has been carried round 1 and the herald has 
offered the traditional prayers, the presiding officers 
are commanded to declare to be next in order 
the discussion of matters pertaining to the national 
religion, the reception of heralds and ambassadors, 
and the discussion of secular matters. 2 The herald 
then asks, " Who of those above fifty years of age 
wishes to address the assembly?" When all these 
have spoken, he then invites any other Athenian 
to speak who wishes (provided such privilege 
belongs to him). 3 Consider, fellow citizens, the 
wisdom of this regulation. The lawgiver does not 
forget, I think, that the older men are at their 
best in the matter of judgment, but that courage 
is now beginning to fail them as a result of their 
experience of the vicissitudes of life. So, wishing 
to accustom those who are the wisest to speak 
on public affairs, and to make this obligatory upon 
them, since he cannot call on each one of them 
by name, he comprehends them all under the desig- 
nation of the age-group as a whole, invites them to 
the platform, and urges them to address the people. 
At the same time he teaches the younger men to 
respect their elders, to yield precedence to them 
in every act, and to honour that old age to which 
we shall all come if our lives are spared. And so 
decorous were those public men of old, Pericles, 

whose person was inviolate even in time of war, were often 
sent to carry messages from one state to another. They 
frequently prepared the way for negotiations to be conducted 
by ambassadors, appointed for the special occasion. 

3 That is, any citizen who is not disqualified by some loss 
of civic privilege inflicted as a penalty. Aeschines has in 
mind the fact that a man like Timarchus would not have the 
privilege. 

23 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

6 Uepi/c\rj<; tta\ 6 ®efii<TTOfc\f)<; real 6 'Apto-TetS?;?, 
6 ttjv dvbpoiov e)(o)v iircovvfiLav Ttfjidp^a) tovtcol, 1 
wcttc b vvvl iravres ev eOei irpaTTopev, to ttjv 
yelpa e^o) e%ovT€<; Xeyeiv, Tore tovto Opacrv it 
eBbtcei elvai, teal ev\a/3ovvTo avrb irpaTTeiv. pueya 
Be irdvv tovtov arj/xeiov epya> vplv ol/xai eiriBei^eiv. 
ev yap oIS' on iraine? eKTreirXevicaTe eh ^aXapuva 
teal TeOecopijKare ttjv "$ t 6\(ovo<; el/eova, real clvtoI 
fxaprvpyjaaiT dv on ev rfj dyopa Trj ^aXapivlaiv 
dvdiceiTai 6 %6\cov €vto$ rr]V X € ^P a %X WV ' T° vro 
8' 2 eailv, o) avSpes 'Adrjvaloi, v7rop,vi]p.a teal 
p,Lfnipa tov SoAowo? cr^?;/u.aTO?, bv rpoirov e%eoy 
avTOS BieXeyeTO tm Bjj/am twv AOrjvaicov. 

26 %Ke\jraade Bij, a> av&pes 'AOrjvaloi, ocrov Bia- 
(pepei 6 SoA,&)v Tifxdp-^ov real ol avBpes eicelvoi, 
wv okiyco irporepov eTrefivr]a6r]v. etcelvoi pev ye 
r)o~xyvovTO e^co tt]V X e ^P a ^X 0VTeq: ^y eiv ' ovroai 
Be ov irdXai, dWd irpwrjv Trore pn/ra? Ooipudnov 
yv/ivbs eTrayKparia^ev ev rrj eKfcXrjaLa, ovtco 
Kaicw<; zeal atV^/Jw? Bia/ceLp.evo<; to aay/xa V7rb 
p^eOrfi /cal /3Be\vpias, cocrre tovs ye ev (ppovovvras 
eytcaXv^acrdai, alaxvvOevra^ virep tP]S 7ro\e&)<?, 

27 el toiovtois o~vp,/3ov\oi<; XP ( ^l xe ^ a - a ctvvlBcov 6 
vop-o9errj<i BiapprjBrjv direBet^ev oft? xph Bi]/xrj- 

1 The MSS. have o S'tKaios i-jriKaXov/ntvos (ivho was called The 
Just) before Sxne. Blass brackets, after Sclieibe. The phrase 
& tV • • • rovrail may also be an interpolation, both phrases 
being perhaps adapted on the model of iii. 181. 

2 tovto 5' Blass, after an ancient quotation : tovto MSS. 

24 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 25-27 

Themistocles, and Aristeides (who was called by 
a name most unlike that by which Timarchus here is 
called), that to speak with the arm outside the cloak, 
as we all do nowadays as a matter of course, was 
regarded then as an ill-mannered thing, and they 
carefully refrained from doing it. And I can point 
to a piece of evidence which seems to me very 
weighty and tangible. I am sure you have all sailed 
over to Salamis, and have seen the statue of Solon 
there. You can therefore yourselves bear witness 
that in the statue that is set up in the Salaminian 
market-place Solon stands with his arm inside his 
cloak. Now this is a reminiscence, fellow citizens, 
and an imitation of the posture of Solon, showing 
his customary bearing as he used to address the 
people of Athens. 1 

See now, fellow citizens, how unlike to Timarchus 
were Solon and those men of old whom I mentioned 
a moment ago. They were too modest to speak 
with the arm outside the cloak, but this man not 
long ago, yes, only the other day, in an assembly 
of the people threw off his cloak and leaped about 
like a gymnast, half naked, his body so reduced and 
befouled through drunkenness and lewdness that 
right-minded men, at least, covered their eyes, 
being ashamed for the city, that we should let 
such men as he be our advisers. It was with such 
conduct as this in view that the lawgiver expressly 
prescribed who were to address the assembly, and 

1 Aristotle {Constitution of Athens, xxviii. 3) says of Cleon : 
"He was the first to use unseemly shouting and coarse abuse 
on the Bema, and to harangue the people with his cloak girt 
up short about him, whereas all his predecessors had spoken 
decently and in order." (Kenyon's trans.) 

25 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yopelv /cal ou? ov del Xeyeiv ev tg> Bt]/u,a>. /cal ovk 
direXavvei airo rov /3>7/i<XT05, eo 749 p-r, nrpoyovwv 
iarlv iarpaTrjyyjKorcov, 1 ovde ye el f ,x-yy7]v Tivd 
epyd^eTai eiriKovpdiv rfj dvayKaia rpcxfif], dXXa 
rovTovi real p,dXio~Ta dcrird^eTac, /cal Sid tovto 
ttoXXukis eirepwra, 7-49 dyopeveiv fiovXeTai. 

28 T4W9 8" ovk (pero deiv Xeyeiv; rov? ala^pw^ 
(3e/3ia)KOTa<;' tovtovs ovk id Brjp,r)yopeiv. kcu 
itov tovto drjXol; " Ao/cipacna, cprjcri, " prjjopa)V' 
idv Tt? Xeyy ev tc5 hrjpup tov iraTepa tvtttwv rj 
ttjv pjtjTepa, rj pirj Tpecf)(ov, r) pbtj Trapeyusv o'ikijctiv" 
tovtov ovk id Xeyeiv. vi) Ata /caXw? ye, w? 
eycoye <ptj/u. 01a tl; oti ei T49, ou<? eg laov bet 

Tlpsdv T04? OeOlS, 645 TOVTOV^ €0"T4 (f>avXo<i, TL 7T0T€, 

(hrjaiv, vtt avTOv ireiaovTai 01 aXXoTpioi kcu r) 
7roXt5 oXrj; /cal Tiai hevTepov dirt tire p,rj Xeyeiv; 

29 "*H t«5 GTpaTeias" cj)ijai, " p,r] ecrTpaTevpevo'i, 
oaai av ai)T& TrpoaTa^Ooyaiv, rj ttjv dcnriSa 
a7ro/3ej8X-^/cft)?," hiicaia Xeycov. tl 6r) iroTe; dv- 
dpwrre, ttj TToXei, brrrep r)<; ra oirXa p,i] TiOecai r) 
hid deiXiav p,rj SwctTO? ei iirapivvai, p,r]6e avpt,- 

1 iarpaT^yqi^Tbiv Baiter : eo"T paT7]yriK6-r cov v!6s MSS. 

1 The Athenian pvToip was both public speaker and political 
leader. The profession was definite and well recognised. 
No one English word covers both the political and the 
oratorical activity of the profession. 

All public officials were required to submit to a formal 
scrutiny (5o/cijuao7a) before taking office. The examining 

26 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 27-29 

who were not to be permitted to speak before 
the people. He does not exclude from the platform 
the man whose ancestors have not held a general's 
office, nor even the man who earns his daily bread by 
working at a trade ; nay, these men he most heartily 
welcomes, and for this reason he repeats again and 
again the invitation, " Who wishes to address the 
assembly ? " 

Who then are they who in the lawgiver's opinion 
are not to be permitted to speak? Those who have 
lived a shameful life ; these men he forbids to address 
the people. Where does he show this ? Under the 
heading " Scrutiny of public men " 1 he oays, " If any 
one attempts to speak before the people who beats 
his father or mother, or fails to support them or to 
provide a home for them." Such a man, then, he for- 
bids to speak. And right he is, by Zeus, say I ! Why ? 
Because if a man is mean toward those whom he 
ought to honour as the gods, how, pray, he asks, 
will such a man treat the members of another house- 
hold, and how will he treat the whole city ? Whom 
did he, in the second place, forbid to speak ? " Or 
the man who has failed to perform all the military 
service demanded of him, or who has thrown away 
his shield." And he is right. Why ? Man, if 
you fail to take up arms in behalf of the state, 
or if you are such a coward that you are unable 
to defend her, you must not claim the right to 

body was usually a law-court ; in the case of the arehons it 
was a court, after a preliminary hearing by the senate ; 
senators elect appeared before the outgoing senate. From 
our passage it appears that a sort of "scrutiny" might 
be applied to the men who made politics their profes- 
sion, without regard to any office for which they might be 
candidates. 

27 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ftovXeveiv a^iov. rpirov rlai BiaXeyerai; "*H 
7re7ropV€Vfj.evo<i" (prjaiv, " rj r]Taipr/Koo<i' rov yap 
to acofia to eavTov eft v(3pei TreTrpatcoTa, /cai ra 
Koiva tt}9 7roXe&)9 paBccos i)yi]o~aTo diroBcoaeaOao. 

30 TerapTov rial BiaXeyerai; "*H ra irarpcpa" 
<pj]ai, " icaTeBrjBoicoos, r) wv av fcXripovofios yevrj- 
rai'" rov yap rrjv IB'iav ol/ciav /catcws oixyjcravTa, 
/cat ra /coivd ri)<i iroketos 7rapa7rX')]ai(o<; Tjyijaaro 
Bia6i]aeiv, teal ovtc eBo/cei olov T elvai tw vopuo- 
6errj rov avrov av9 punrov IBia jnev elvai irovr/pov, 
hipoaiq Be ^p^arov, ouS' (pero Beiv 1 rov prjropa 
rjKeiv iirl rb fifjfia rcov \oywv errineXriOevra rrpo- 

31 repov, o\\' ov rov /Sioi/. /cal irapa p,ev dvBpb<i 
/caXov /cal dyaOov, /cdv irdvv Katcws /cal airXw? 
pi]9fj, 2 xp/jaifia to, Xeyopieva i)yf]o-aro eivai rois 
d/covovai' irapd Be dvOpunrov (38eXvpov, /cal 
icarayeXdo-TU)<i p,ev Ke^prjpbevov ru> eavrov crco- 
pari, alcxpcos Be rrjv irarpcpav ovaiav KareBrjBo- 
kotos, ovo^ dv ev irdvv Xe^Ofj avvolaeiv rjy/]<raro 

32 Tot? d/covovai. rovrovi ovv e^eipyet dirb rov 
/3?;/^aT09, toutou9 dirayopevei pit] Br/p,r/ynpeiv. edv 
Be Tt9 irapd ravra pit) piovov Xeyrj, dXXa /cal 
avKO(f>avTj} /cal daeXyaivr/, fcal p.rjKeri rov roi- 
ovrov dvdpcoirov Bvvi]rai cpepeiv r) iroXis, " Ao/ci- 
pbaalav piev," (ptjaiv, " eirayyeiXarco , KO^va'twv 6 
ftovXopLevos, 0I9 e^eariv, ' vp.a<; B' 77877 /ceXevei 

1 8eiV Baiter : SeiV 6 vo/xodeTris MSS. 

2 fadfi Bekker : ^Tjfljj 6 \6yos MSS. 

28 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 29-32 

advise her, either. Whom does he specify in the 
third place ? " Or the man," he says, " who has 
debauched or prostituted himself.'' For the man 
who has made traffic of the shame of his own body, 
he thought would be ready to sell the common in- 
terests of the city also. But whom does he specify 
in the fourth place? "Or the man," he says, 
" who has squandered his patrimony or other 
inheritance." For he believed that the man who 
has mismanaged his own household will handle 
the affairs of the city in like manner; and to the 
lawgiver it did not seem possible that the same 
man could be a rascal in private life, and in public 
life a good and useful citizen ; and he believed that 
the public man who comes to the platform ought to 
come prepared, not merely in words, but, before all 
else, in life. And he was of the opinion that the 
advice of a good and upright man, however simple 
and even awkward the words in which it is given, is 
profitable to the hearers ; but the words of a shame- 
less man, who has treated his own body with scorn, 
and disgracefully squandered his patrimony — the 
words of such a man the lawgiver believed could 
never benefit the hearers, however eloquently they 
might be spoken. These men, therefore, he debars 
from the speaker's platform, these he forbids to 
address the people. But if any one, in violation of 
these prohibitions, not only speaks, but is guilty of 
blackmail and wanton scurrility, and if the city is 
no longer able to put up with such a man, " Let any 
citizen who chooses," he says, "and is competent 
thereto, 1 challenge him to a suit of scrutiny;" and 

1 That is, any man who is not debarred, by crimes of his 
own, from the ordinary privileges of the courts. 

29 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irepl tovtcov ev tco SiKacrTrjpLcp 8iayiyvtoo~/ceiv /cal 
vvv eyoo Kara tovtov tov vopov tftcco 77/309 vfias. 

33 Tavra p.ev ovv irakai vevofxoOeTi-jTaL- v/xeis 6° 
€Ti TrpoaedeaOe kolivov vofiov fieTa to tca\6v Tray- 
Kpdriov, ovtos eirayKpaTiaaev ev tj} eKKXrjcriq, 
VTrepaicr^vvBevTe^ eVl t&> Trpdy/jLart, /ca9' eKacrTrjv 
iKfcXijcriav cnroKkripovv cpvXijv eVl to f3r/fia, ?/ri? 
•npoehpevaeL. kcu tl irpoaera^ev TiOels tov 
vofiov; tcaOrjcrOai /ceXevei tovs (pvXeras f3orj- 
dovvras rot? vofiois /cal rfj STj/xoKparla, &)? el fit] 
fiotjOeidv TvoOev fieTaTrepL^jro/jieOa eVl tou9 ovtco 
fiefSico/coTas, ovSe j3ov\evea6ai 8vvi]cro/j,evov<; ?ifia<; 

34 irepl tcov aTrovhatoTaTcov irpayfiaTcov. eo~Ti V 
ovhev 6(pe\o<i, a> avSpes 'AOrjvaloi, %r)Teiv tov<; 
toiovtovs dv0pd)7rov<i diTe\avveiv diro tov /3ij- 
/Ltaro? Tals Kpavyaif ov yap aia^yvovTai' dWa 
TifioopLais tovtov? aTreOl^eiv XPV' /^ovcos yap dv 
ovtco? dve/CTol yevoivTO. 

'AvayvcoaeTai ovv v/xlv tov? vopiov? Toy? rrepl 
Trj? evKocrpila? /cet/xevov? tcov prjTopcov. tov yap 
ire pi t/}? irpoeSpla? tcov <fiv\cov vofiov Tl/xap^o? 
ovtoctI Ka\ eTepoi toiovtol pyfrope? avveXdovTe? 



1 You, the people as jurymen. * See § 26. 

3 We can only conjecture that the members of this tribe 
wei - e given the block of seats immediately in front of the 
platform, and were expected to enforce the commands of 
the presiding officers, the nine irpoeSpoi. 

4 By "orderly conduct" Aeschines means orderly conduct 



3° 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 32-34 

then he commands you 1 to render decision on the 
case in a court of justice. This is the law under 
authority of which I now appear before you. 

Now these regulations of the law have long been 
in force ; but you went further and added a new 
law, after that charming gymnastic exhibition which 
Timarchus gave in an assembly of the people 2 ; for 
you were exceedingly ashamed of the affair. By 
the new law, for every meeting of the assembly 
one tribe is to be chosen by lot to have charge 
of the speaker's platform, and to preside. 3 And 
what did the proposer of the law prescribe ? That 
the members of the tribe should sit as defenders 
of the laws and of the democracy ; for he believed 
that unless we should summon help from some 
quarter against men who have lived such a life, 
we should not be able even to deliberate on matters 
of supreme importance. For there is no use in 
attempting, fellow citizens, to drive such men from 
the platform by shouting at them, for they have 
no sense of shame. We must try, rather, to break 
them of their habits by pains and penalties ; for 
so only can they be made endurable. 

The clerk shall therefore read to you the laws 
that are in force to secure orderly conduct 4 on 
the part of our public men. For the law that 
introduced the presidency of a tribe 5 has been 
attacked in the courts by Timarchus here, in con- 
spiracy with other men like himself, as being 

in private life. The editor who composed (or compiled) the 
law given in § 35 understood him to be speaking of conduct 
on the platform. The law that Aeschines caused to be read 
would contain the prohibitions that he has been discussing 
in §§ 28-82. 6 The new law described in § 33. 

3i 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yeypap,p,kvoi elcrl p,rj eTrir/jSeiov elvac, "v i%r} 
avTOis teal t,r\v ical Xeyeiv w? aviol /3ov~\,ovrai. 

NOMOI 

35 [Tcov pr]Topa>v idv tj? Xeyrj iv tt) 1 /3ov\i) 
rj iv t« 8i]fj,a> jai) 2 rrepl tov elo~cf)epop,evov, 
i) put) ywpis irepl e/cdcrTov, rj 819 rrepl tov 
avrou 6 auTO? t?}? avrrjs, rj \oi8oprjrai, rj 
/ca,Kcb<; dyopevrj rivd, rj viroKpovij, rj ^prjpari- 
%6vtq)V pera^v dvecnrjKcos Xeyr/ irepl tov p,rj 
iirl tov /3rjpaTO<;, rj TrapafceXevr/Tai, rj e\/cr) 
tov irrLaTuTr/v, dcj)eipLevr)<; Trj<; itc/cXr/alas rj 
T/79 /3ov\ij<i /cvpieveTCoaav 01 rrpoeSpoi p>€XP l 
irevTi'jKOVTa Spa^pcbv fca.0 1 eicao-Tov dhiK^pa 
iyypd<peiv 3 T049 irpd/CTopaiv. idv Be ttXcovos 
a£*09 r) tyip,la<i, e7ril3a\6i>Te<; peXP 1 ^^vTrj- 
Koina Spaxp-cov elcrtfiepeTcocrav eh Trjv jBovX^v 
rj et? Trjv Trpwrr/v ifc/cXr/a-lav* otclv 8' i^lwaiv 
at 5 K\ijaei<i, KptvaTwaav icai idv /caTa- 
yvooadfj avTOv Kpv(3Zr]v "^rrj^i^iipevwv, iyypa- 
yjraTCoaav ol nrpoehpoL toI<; irpdiCTOpcuv.] 

36 T&v p.ev ovv vopbwv aK^KoaTe, a> dv&pes ' ' K6r}- 
valoL, kcu ev olS' oti 8oKovatv vplv /ca\(o<; e%eiv. 
tovtov<; pevTOi tou? vopovs elvcu ^p^cri/zoi^ rj 
dxpi'lcrTovs e<£' vplv io-TLV idv pev yap KoXd^rjTe 
tov<; dSiKovvTas, eaovrai vp.lv ol vopoi tcakol kcu 
Kvpioi, idv 8' dcjurJTe, fcaXol p,ev, Kvpioi he ovkIti. 

1 Tjj added by Bake. 2 /j.^ added by Schoemann. 

3 iyypd.<peiv Taylor : eiriypdcpeiv MSS. 

4 6KK\7)atav Baiter and Sauppe : i<K\Tjcrlav eV t$ fiov\ev- 
TT\pi v MSS. 8 at added by Matthiae. 

32 



AGAINST TIM ARCH US, 34-36 

inexpedient, their object being to have license to 
speak, as well as to behave, as they choose. 

LAWS 

[If any public man, speaking in the senate 
or in the assembly of the people, shall not 
speak on the subject which is before the 
house, or shall fail to speak on each proposition 
separately, or shall speak twice on the same 
subject in one day, or if he shall speak abusively 
or slanderously, or shall interrupt the proceed- 
ings, or in the midst of the deliberations shall 
get up and speak on anything that is not in 
order, or shall shout approval, or shall lay hands 
on the presiding officer, on adjournment of the 
assembly or the senate the board of presidents 
are authorized to report his name to the col- 
lectors, with a fine of not more than 50 drachmas 
for each offence. But if he be deserving of 
heavier penalty, they shall impose a fine of 
not more than 50 drachmas, and refer the case 
to the senate or to the next meeting of the 
assembly. After due summons that body shall 
pass judgment; the vote shall be secret, and 
if he be condemned, the presiding officers shall 
certify the result to the collectors.] 

You have heard the laws, fellow citizens, and I 
am sure that you approve of them. But whether 
these laws are to be of use or not, rests with you. 
For if you punish the wrong-doers, your laws will 
be good and valid ; but if you let them go, the laws 
will still be good, indeed, but valid no longer. 

33 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

37 BouXo/xai he, (txyirep hired eprjv, 1 eireihr] irepl twp 
vopcov el'prj/ca, irdXiv to fxera rovro dvTe^erd- 
crcu toi>9 rpoTTOvs toi>9 Tipdp%ov, iv' clSr/re oaov 
hiafyepovai rcov vop.(ov tcov hpbeiepwv. heop,av o° 
hpo)V, & avhpes ' ' K9r\valoi, cruyyvdoprjv h^eiv, iav 
dvayKa^bpevos \eyeiv irepl eirLTrjhevpdiMv (frvcrei 
pev p-r) Ka\6)v, rovrcp he ireirpaypevcov, i^a^Oco re 
prjp,a elirelv 6 iariv bp,oiov T019 epyois TOt9 

38 Tipdp^ov. ovhe yap av hiKalcos ep,ol eiriTipLrj- 
aaire, et ri aacfiws eliroipu hihdo~K€iv vpd<z /3ov\6- 
pbevos, dWd rro\v pdWov tovtg>, el atcr^pw? 
ovrot) Tvyydvei fiefiiw kcos, ware top ra tovtw 
ireirpaypeva hiefyovra dhvvarov elvai elrrelv ooq 
avros ftovXerai, edv put] rt Kal row toiovtcov 
cf)dey^7]rai prjpdrwv. ev\a/3ijaop,ai 8' avib iroielv 
&)? civ hvvtopai p,d\io~Ta. 

39 ^Ke^raaOe he, a> avhpes 'AOrjvalot, &)? p,erpico<; 
piiXkco irpoafyepeoOai Tipdp^w tovtwl. €700 yap, 
baa p.ev 7rai9 wv et'9 to aoipxt to eavrov rjpdp- 
T7)/cev, dcf>trjp,i, Kal earw ravra coairep rd eirl twv 
TpiaKOina rj ra irpb Ev«\etooVj i) et T£9 a\X?/ 
irooiroTe rotauTT] eyevero irpo6ecrp,la' a he tfhi] 
(ppovcov Kal petpaKiov wv Kal T01/9 vopovs eiri- 
o~Tap,evo<; tou9 t^9 7ro\e&>9 hiaireirpaKrai, irepl 
Tovrcdv eyco re 2 T09 Karr]yopta<i iroitjaopai, Kal 
hp,d<; eir avTol<; d^ico airovhd^eiv. 

40 Outo9 yap irdvrcov pev irpcorov, eireih)] dirrjX- 
Xdyrj eK irathcov, €Ka0i]ro ev Tleipaiel eirl rov 
JLvOvhiKov iarpeiov, irpocpdaei p-ev ry<; re^vi]*; 

1 vire 64 firiv Weidner : the MSS. have apx^fj-evos tov \6yov 
before or after inre64fj.rju. 

2 iyw re Emperius : tyw ye MSS. 

34 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 37-40 

Now that I have finished with the laws, I wish 
next, as I proposed at the outset, to inquire into 
the character of Timarchus, that you may know 
how completely at variance it is with your laws. 
And I beg you to pardon me, fellow citizens, if, 
compelled to speak about habits which by nature 
are, indeed, unclean, but are nevertheless his, I 
be led to use some expression that is as bad as 
Timarchus' deeds. For it would not be right for 
you to blame me, if now and again I use plain 
language in my desire to inform you ; the blame 
should rather be his, if it is a fact that his life has 
been so shameful that a man who is describing his 
behaviour is unable to say what he wishes without 
sometimes using expressions that are likewise shame- 
ful. But I will try my best to avoid doing this. 

See, fellow citizens, with what moderation I am 
going to deal with Timarchus here. For I remit 
all the sins that as a boy he committed against 
his own body ; let all this be treated as were the acts 
committed in the days of the Thirty, or before the 
year of Eucleides, 1 or whenever else a similar statute 
of limitations has been passed. But what he is guilty 
of having done after he had reached years of dis- 
cretion, when he was already a youth, and knew 
the laws of the state, that I will make the object 
of my accusation, and to that I call upon you to give 
serious attention. 

First of all, as soon as he was past boyhood he 
settled down in the Peiraeus at the establishment 
of Euthydicus the physician, pretending to be a 

1 That is, " forgiven and forgotten," as were the crimes of 
the supporters of the Thirty Tyrants after the restoration of 
the democracy, in the archonship of Eucleides, 403/2. 

35 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fxa9i]T^<i, rfj 8* a\r)6eia 7rco\elv avTov Trporjprj- 
/xei'o<i, &)? avro Tovpyov eSei^ev. ocroi p.ev ovv 

T(t)l' e/ji7r6pCOV 7] TWV aWcOV ^ePCOV 77 TO)V TToXlTOiV 

Tcov 7'ipLeTepoiv icar e/ceivov<; toi>9 %poi>OL'? ^XP 7 !' 
cravro tu) crcop-aTi ru> l Tifxap^ov, e/ccov /cal tov- 
tovs v7repf3t)cro/j.a,i, Iva firj Tt<? eiTTTj <w? apa \iav 
a/cpi/3o\oyovpLCU airavTa' wv 8' iv Tats oIklcus 
yeyove Karaia^yvwv to aco/xa to iavTov /cal ttiv 
TToh.iv, pucrdapvayv e7r' avTW tovto) b airayopevei 6 
v6/ao<? fir) TTpciTTeiv rj firj8e 87] fir/y opelv, irepl tov- 
TWV 7T0l}]0-0/Mat tovs \6yov<i. 

41 M.iayo\as eaTi Ti? Nav/cpaTOVS, or av8pe<i 'Adrj- 
valoi, KoA-XuTeu?, avrjp to, fiev aXXa ica\o<; ttaya- 
06<i, ical ovhafif) av Tt? avTov fiifi\fraiTo, irepl 8e 
to irpayfta tovto 8aifioviw<; eo~7rov8a/cto<i, /cal aei 
Ttvas eX eLV ^Itodar^ irepl avTov KiOapwBovs 7) ki9- 
apio-Tas. tcivtI 8e Xeyar ov tov (f>opTCKov eve/ca, 
«U' 'iva yi'wpicrTiTe avTov 6ctt<9 ecrTiv. ovtos, 
alaOofievos mv eve/ca xa? 8taTpif3a<; eTroieiTo Tifi- 
apxos ovtoctI eirl tov larpetov, apyvpiov tl 
7rpoava\(ocra<; dveo~T)]o~ev avTov /cat eo"%e nap 
eauTU), evaap/cov ovTa /cat veov /cal f38e\vpov ical 
i7TCT7]8etov 7rpo? to rrpdyfia b rrpoypeiTO e/celvo<i 

42 fiev irpcLTTetv, ovtos 8e Ttaa^eiv. /cal TavTa ov/c 
co/evrjaev, aXX? vireaT7) Tlfiap%o<; ovtoctI, ou8evb<; 
oiv tcov p,€Tpl(ov evoew rroW7]v yap iravv /caTe- 
\17rev 6 iraTrjp aiiTW ovalav, rjv ovto<; /caTe8r}8o/cev, 
C09 eyar TrpoiovTOS e7ri8eL^co tov Xoyov aXX" 
eirpa^e TaitTa 8ovXevcov Tat? ata^ia-Tais r)8oval<i, 
oyjrocpayia /cal 7ro\vTe\ela 8eiirvwv ical avXr/Tpcai 
/cal €Taipai<; /cal kv/3oi<; /cal tois aXA.o£?, vcf) a>v 

1 t£ added by Blasa. 

36 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 40-42 

student of medicine, but in fact deliberately offer- 
ing himself for sale, as the event proved. The 
names of the merchants or other foreigners, or of 
our own citizens, who enjoyed the person of 
Timarchus in those days I will pass over willingly, 
that no one may say that I am over particular to 
state every petty detail. But in whose houses he 
has lived to the shame of his own body and of the 
city, earning wages by precisely that thing which 
the law forbids, under penalty of losing the privilege 
of public speech, of this I will speak. 

Fellow citizens, there is one Misgolas, son ot 
Naucrates, of the deme Collytus, a man otherwise 
honourable, and beyond reproach save in this, that 
he is bent on that sort of thing like one possessed, 
and is accustomed always to have about him singers 
or cithara-players. I say this, not from any liking for 
indecent talk, but that you may know what sort of 
man Misgolas is. Now this Misgolas, perceiving 
Timarchus' motive in staying at the house of the 
physician, paid him a sum of money in advance 
and caused him to change his lodgings, and got 
him into his own home ; for Timarchus was well 
developed, young, and lewd, just the person for 
the thing that Misgolas wanted to do, and Timar- 
chus wanted to have done. Timarchus did not 
hesitate, but submitted to it all, though he had 
income enough to satisfy all reasonable desires. For 
his father had left him a very large property, which 
he has squandered, as I will show in the course 
of my speech. But he behaved as he did because 
he was a slave to the most shameful lusts, to 
gluttony and extravagance at table, to flute-girls 
and harlots, to dice, and to all those other things 

37 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovBevb<; xpr) KparelcrOat tov yevvaiov /cal eXev- 
Oepov. kcu ovk rja^yvdrj o piapbs ovtos eKXiiroov 
fiev tt)v irciTpaxiv oIk'mxv, BtatTcopevos Be irapd 
McayoXa, ovre irarpiKW ovti cplXtp ovO' rjXi/CKOTrj, 1 
dXXd Trap dXXoTpiw kcu irpeafivTepw eavrov, kcu 
irap aKokdarw irepl ravra aypaios a>v. 

43 IloAAa p,ev ovv recti dXXa KarayeXaara ireirpa- 
ktcu Tipdp%a> /car i/ceivovs tovs ^povovs, ev Be 
b kcu hv)]yr](jacr6ai vpuv /3ovXop,cu. r)v p,ev Aiovv- 
crioiv roiiv ev dcrrei i) 2 7ro/x7r?/, eiropLirevov B' ev 
TavTfb o re Mtcr^oXa? o tovtov dieiXrjcfra)*; kcu 
<Pal&pos KaXXtou ^L,cfii]TTio<;. avvOepevov 6° avrols 
avp,7ropL7rev€iv Tipap^ov tovtovl, ol p,ev -nepl 
Trjv dXXrjv 7rapa<jfcevT)v Sierpiftov, ovtos Be ovk 
e7ravf)fc€. irapco^vppevo^ Be 7rpb<i to irpdypa 6 
Mja^oXa? ^7)Ti]aiv avrov ewoieiTO p,erd tov Oat- 
Bpov, e£ayyeX9£vTo<; B avrols evptaKOven tovtov 
iv crvvoiKia peTc\ tjevcov tlvwv ovvapio-TwvTa. 
BiaireuXriaapevov Be tov M.io-yoXa kcu tov Oat- 
Bpov Tot? ^evots, kcu KeXevovTWV 77877 drcoXovOelv 
6i? to 8eo-p,o)T/}piov, oti petpuKiov eXevOepov Bie- 
cpdeipav, (f>o/3i]0evTe'i ol %evoi (py^ovTO 3 KciTaXt- 
7rovTe<i t« irapea /cevaa peva. 

44 Kal TavO oti, dXr]6?] XeY&), irdvTes, oaoi kcit 
etceivovs tou? j^povovs eyiyvwaKov NiiayoXav kcu 
Ttp-ap^ov, laaaiv. f) Br) Kal irdvv %aipco, oti puoi 
yeyovev tj Blkt) 7r/oo? avd pwrrov ovk r)yvoi)p,evov vcp' 
iipwv, oiiB' air dXXov yiyvcocTKOpuevov ovBevo<i,r) dir 

1 Weidner deletes ovre irap' i-mrpS-xi? which the MSS. have 
after 7/Aiki^tj). 

2 t) added by Sauppe. 

3 Weidner deletes <ptvyovTis which the MSS. have before 
or after wxovro. 

3» 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 42-44 

no one of which ought to have the mastery over 
a man who is well-born and free. And this wretch 
was not ashamed to abandon his father's house 
and live with Misgolas, a man who was not a friend 
of his father's, nor a pei-son of his own age, but a 
stranger, and older than himself, a man who knew 
no restraint in such matters, while Timarchus him- 
self was in the bloom of youth. 

Among the many ridiculous things which Timar- 
chus did in those days was one which I wish to 
relate to you. The occasion was the procession at 
the City Dionysia. Misgolas, who had taken pos- 
session of him, and Phaedrus, son of Callias, of the 
deme Sphettus, were to march in the procession 
together. Now Timarchus here had agreed to join 
them in the procession, but they were busy with 
their general preparations, and he failed to come 
back. Misgolas, provoked at the thing, proceeded 
to make search for him in company with Phaedrus. 
They got word of him and found him at lunch with 
some foreigners in a lodging-house. Misgolas and 
Phaedrus threatened the foreigners and ordered 
them to follow straight to the lock-up for having 
corrupted a free youth. The foreigners were so 
scared that they dropped everything and ran away 
as fast as they could go. 

The truth of this story is known to everybody 
who knew Misgolas and Timarchus in those days. 
Indeed, I am very glad that the suit that I am 
prosecuting is against a man not unknown to you, 
and known for no other thing than precisely that 

39 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

avrov rov e7rirrjBevp,aro<; rrepl oti /cal rrjv -^rrjtyov 
[xiWere (f>epeiv. rrepl p.ev yap rwv dyvoovp,evcov 
crafyels tcr&>? rrpoarjKei ra<; drroBei%ei<; noielaOai 
rbv /carrjyopov, irepl Be rcov op,o\oyovp,evo)v ov \iav 
eytoye peya epyov etvai vopa^co rb /cartjyopeiv 
dva/uvfjo-ai yap puovov Trpocn]/cei tou? oucovovras. 

45 eya) rowvv /cairrep op,o\oyovp,evov rov it pay pharos, 
eireiBr] ev BucaarijpUp eap,ev, yeypa<pa piaprvpiav 
tw MiayoXa d\r]6r] p,ev, ovk cnraiBevrov he, c5? y 1 x 
ifiavrbv ireiOw. avro p.ev yap rovvop,a rov epyov 
b errparre rrpbs rovrov, ovk eyypd(pco, ovS' dWo 
yeypafya ovBev b eirL^rjpbtbv ecrriv etc rwv vop.cov r5> 
rdXtjOi] pbaprvprjcravri' a Be ecrriv vplv re duovaai 
yvdyptpua, dicivBvvd re 2 rS> p,aprvpovvn /cal pit] 
aio"Xpa, ravra yeypaaba. 

46 'Eu^ p-ev ovv iOeXt'^ar] 6 Mio~yo\as Bevpo 
rrapeXOoov TaXr)0rj p.aprvpelv, ra BLicaia ttoijj- 
aer eav Be Trpoaiprjrai. eKKXrjrevdrjvaL p,d\\ov 
rj rd\rj6rj p,aprvpelv, vp.el<; rb '6\ov rrpdyp,a 
crvviBere. el yap o p,ei> rrpd^as aia^vveirax teal 
rrpoaipijo-erai %<Aia? p,d\\ov Bpa\p,a<; drrorelo-ai 
ru) Bripioaup, ware p-rj Bel^ac rb rrpoawnov rb 
eavrov vplv, o Be 7re7T0v6a>s Srjpirjyoprjcrei, cro^o? 
6 vop,o6erii<i 6 robs ourco /3Be\vpovs i^eipyoiv 

47 drrb rov f3i]p,aro$. eav o" dpa inratcovo-r] p,ev, 
rpdrr^rai Be errl rb dvaiBeararov, irrl rb i£6- 



1 ws y' Sakorraphos : ws lyw MSS. 

2 anivSuvd. re Blass : uKivSvva 8e MSS. 



40 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 44-47 

practice as to which you are going to render your 
verdict. For in the case of facts which are not 
generally known, the accuser is bound, I suppose, 
to make his proofs explicit ; but where the facts are 
notorious, I think it is no very difficult matter to 
conduct the prosecution, for one has only to appeal 
to the recollection of his hearers. However, al- 
though the fact in this case is acknowledged, I re- 
member that we are in court, and so I have drafted 
an affidavit for Misgolas, true and not indelicate in 
its phrasing, as I flatter myself. For I do not set 
down the actual name of the thine that Misjrolas 
used to do to him, nor have I written anything 
else that would legally incriminate a man who has 
testified to the truth. 1 But I have set down what 
will be no news for you to hear, and will involve the 
witness in no danger nor disgrace. 

If therefore Misgolas is willing to come forward 
here and testify to the truth, he will be doing what 
is right ; but if he prefers to refuse the summons 
rather than testify to the truth, the whole business 
will be made clear to you. For if the man who 
did the thing is going to be ashamed of it and 
choose to pay a thousand drachmas into the treasury 
rather than show his face before you, 2 while the man 
to whom it has been done is to be a speaker in your 
assembly, then wise indeed was the lawgiver who 
excluded such disgusting creatures from the platform. 
But if Misgolas does indeed answer the summons, 
but resorts to the most shameless course, denial ot 

1 That is, Misgolas can testify to the truth of the affi- 
davit without thereby testifying to any criminal act of 
his own. 

2 It is evident from this that when a formal summons to 
testify in court was refused, a definite fine was inflicted. 

C 41 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fivvcrOai ras dXtj9eia<i, &)? Tifxdp-^o) p,ev ydpiTas 
dirooiSov'i, erepoLs 6' eirihet^iv iroiovpevos &)? ev 
eTTMJTcnai to tolclvtcl avytcpirrrTeiv, irpcoTov p,ev ei<? 
eavrov i^apaprrjcreTai, eVetTa ovSev ecrrai x irXeov. 
eripav yap eyco yeypacpa paprvplav rots elSoai 
Ttpap^ov toutovI KaTaXiTTovTa rr)v 7rarpu>av 
oik lav KaX BiaiTcopuevov irapd MiayoXa, irpdyp,a 
oipLai ^aXerrov itjepydaaaOai eiri^eiprnv ovre yap 
fie del rou<; epavTov <pi,Xov<; pdpTvpas irapaa-yk- 
aOai, ovt€ to 1)9 tovtcov e^Opovs, ovtc toi>9 pbrjSe- 
repov<i r)p,cov yiyvoocTKovTas, dXXa rov<i tovtcov 

48 cpLXovs. dv 8' dpa kal tovtovs Trelacoai p,i] 
papTvpelv, a>9 ouk otop.ar el Be pbrj, dXX' ov% 
a-TravTa<; ye' 2 eKelvo ye ov p.i]7T0Te BvvijaovTai, 3 
dcpeXeadai ttjv dXijOeiav, ovBe ttjv ev rfj TroXet 
irepl Tifidp%ov cpyprjv, rjv ovk eyco tovtco irape- 
o~Kevao~a, aXX avTO? ovtos eavTco. ovtco yap 
Xprj KaOapbv elvat, tov filov tov trcocppovos dvBpos, 
cocTTe p,ii& eiriheyeaBai Bo^av alTias irovqpds. 

49 HovXopat Be KaKelvo 7rpoei7relv, ectv dpa vira- 
Kovcrr) o MicryoXas tois vopLOis Kal vpuv. elal 
cpvo-eis dvBpcoircov ttoXv Biatpepovaai 6cf)9F)pat tcov 
dXXcov Ta nrepi Ti]v r/XiKiav evioi pev yap vkoi 
ovTes 7rpocf)epei<; Kal irpeaftvTepoi cpaivovTat,, 
eTepoc he, iroXvv dpiBpov %povov yeyovoTes, iravT- 
drracTL veoi. tovtcov B' eo"Ti tcov dvBpcov 6 
MiayoXas. Tvyydvei p-ev yap rjXiKtcoTr)? tov e/xo? 

1 to-rai Weidner : lar abrcf or avry errrai MSS. 

2 cnravT&s yt Blass, transposing -ye, which some MSS. have 
after oto/j.ai. 

3 oil /xJiTTOTe Suv-fio-ovrai Emperius : ovSe fj.t)irore b~vva<VTai (or 
b~vvi)(TOVTCu) or ovSfTTOTe 8ui'7]0~ovrai MSS. 

42 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 47-49 

the truth under oath, as a grateful return to Timar- 
chus, and a demonstration to the rest of them that 
he well knows how to help cover up such conduct, 
in the first place he will damage himself, and in the 
second place he will gain nothing by it. For I have 
prepared another affidavit for those who know that 
this man Timarchus left his father's house and lived 
with Misgolas, though it is a difficult thing, no doubt, 
that I am undertaking. For I have to present as my 
witnesses, not friends of mine nor enemies of theirs, 
nor those who are strangers to both of us, but their 
friends. But even if they do persuade these men 
also not to testify — I do not expect they will, at 
any rate not all of them — one thing at least they 
will never succeed in accomplishing : they will never 
hush up the truth, nor blot out Timarchus' reputation 
among his fellow citizens — a reputation which he 
owes to no act of mine, but to his own conduct. 
For the life of a virtuous man ought to be so clean 
that it will not admit even of a suspicion of wrong- 
doing. 

But I wish to say another thing in anticipation, in 
case Misgolas shall answer before the laws and 
before you. There are men who by nature differ 
widely from the rest of us as to their apparent age. 
For some men, young in years, seem mature and 
older than they are ; others, old by count of years, 
seem to be mere youths. Misgolas is such a man. 
He happens, indeed, to be of my own age, and was 



43 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

real avvecpi]/3o<?, kol eativ r/piiv tovtI Tre/xirrov kcli 
TerrapaKOCTTuv ero?* Aral eyco pev ToaavTaal 
TroXias e%a) 6aa<f vfieis opare, aW ovk i/ceivos. 
hia rl ovv ravra irpo\eyu>; Iva p,rj e^aicpv)]^ avrov 
IdovTes OavpdarjTe teal toiovtov tl rfj hiavoia 
vir o\u (3r}re m " '12 H/sa/eAei?, a.X,\' ovtos ye tovtov 
ou 7ro\v hict(f)epei" ap,a puev yap rj cpvais earl 
roiavrrj rov avhpos, apa he i']hr) p,etpa/cux) ovri 
aura> errXypyia^ev. 

50 "\va he. pi] hiarpt^co, irpcorov pev /cdXei p,ot 
rovs elhoras Tipap^ov tovtovI hiatrcopievov ev rfj 
MiayoXa oiKia, erreira rrjv QalSpov paprvpiav 
avaylyvwatce, reXevralav he p,oi Xafte rrjv avrov 
hliayoXa pbaprvpiav, eav apa l kcli rovs 6eov$ 
hehicbs real tovs avveihoras ala^vvopevos kol tou? 
aXXovs TToXiras fcal vp,ci<i tovs hifcaaras edeXijar) 
rdX^drj paprvpelv. 

MAPTTPIAI 

[MiayoXas Ni/aou Heipaievs puaprvpel. epol 
iyevero ev awrjOeia Ti,pap)(os 6 eirl rov Kv- 
Ovolkou larpeiov irore tcaOe^opevos, fcal Kara, 
Tt]V yv&xr'iv p,ov 2 rrjv rrporepov 3 avrov 7roXvco- 
pa>v eh rijv vvv ov hieXnrov.] 

51 Ei pev TOiVW, a) avhpes 'AOrjvaloi, Tip,ap%o<i 
ouroal hiepeive rrapa tw M.iayoXa /cal p,rjK€Ti a>? 
aXXov f)/ce, p.eTpi(i)Tep dv hieireirpaKro, el hrj 

1 eh* &pa Dahms : 'Iva MSS. 2 fiov Bernardi : /xot MSS. 
3 irp6'rtpov Emperius : -npbs MSS. 

1 All Athenian young men were required to undergo mili- 
tary training during the two years following their eighteenth 

44 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 49-51 

in the cadet corps with me ; x we are now in our 
forty-fifth year. I am quite gray, as you see, but not 
he. Why do I speak of this ? Because I fear that, 
seeing him for the first time, you may be surprised, 
and some such thought as this may occur to you : 
" Heracles ! This man is not much older than 
Timarchus." For not only is this youthful appear- 
ance characteristic of the man, but moreover Ti- 
marchus was already past boyhood when he used 
to be in his company. 

But, not to delay, (to the Clerk of the Cotirt) call 
first, if you please, those who know that Timarchus 
here lived in the house of Misgolas, then read 
the testimony of Phaedrus, and, finally, please take 
the affidavit of Misgolas himself, in case fear of the 
gods, and respect for those who know the facts as 
well as he does, and for the citizens at large and for 
you the jurors, shall persuade him to testify to the 
truth. 

TESTIMONY 

[Misgolas, son of Nicias, of Piraeus, testifies. 
Timarchus, who once used to stay at the house 
of Euthydicus the physician, became intimate 
with me, and I hold him to-day in the same 
esteem as in all my past acquaintance with him.] 

Now, fellow citizens, if Timarchus here had re- 
mained with Misgolas and never gone to another 
man's house, his conduct would have been more 

birthday. The first year they were in garrison at the Piraeus. 
At the close of the year, after a public exhibition of their 
military attainments, they received a shield and spear from 
the state, and then were sent out for another year to garrison 
the forts and patrol the borders. 

45 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Tt ro)v toiovtwv earl fxerpiov, Kal eycoye ovk 
av iroXfiyjaa 1 avrov ovhev alridaOai aAA.' 2 rj 
oirep o vofioOerr]^ irapprja Lateral, r)Taipr)/cevai 
povov o yap 7rpo? eva tovto irpdTTwv, eirl piaOw 
he rrjv rrpd^LV 7roiovpevo<;, avTU> p,oi hoKel tovtco 

52 evo^o^ eivai. edv 8' vp,d<i avap,i'7]<ra<; iirihei^a, 
virepl3aiva)V Tovahe tou? dypiovs, K.r/h(ov[hr}p 
Kal KvTOKkeihrjv Kal ®epaavhpov, avroix; he 3 
Xeycov wv ev Tat? oIk'iclis dvetXr)p,pLevo<; yeyove, 
piil 4 p,ovov irapa ra> XlicryoXa pepuaOapvr/KOTa 
avrov eirt t&> crcopuaTi, dXXa Kal Trap' erepoy Kal 
iraXiv Trap LXXw, Kal irapa tovtov &><? erepov 
eXrjXvOoTa, ovKeri hi)irov cpapeiTat 5 povov rjraipr)- 
koos, dXXa (pa tov Aiovvcrov ov/c olh' oircos hvvr)- 
aopai irepiirXeKeiv oXrjv ti^v y)p,epav) Kal ireirop- 
vevpevos' 6 yap elKrj tovto /cat irpbs iroXXovs 
irpaTTcov Kal pucrdov, avTw p,oi hoKel tovtw 
evo~^o<i eivai . 

53 'Eiireihr] tolvvv 6 MiayoXas Trj Te hairdvrj 
aireiTre Kal tovtov e£eirep,* r r e Trap eavTov, p,eTa 
tovto 6 dvaXapfidvei avTov ^AvtikXtjs K.aXXlov 
Ev(t)vvp,ev<;. ovtos p,ev ovv aireaTiv ev Xdp,co 
peTa TOiv fcKrjpovxjtov dXXa rd p-eTa TavTa epa>. 
co? yap dirrjXXdyr) irapa tov 'AvtikXcov? Kal tov 
MiayoXa Tipap^os ovtoo-'i, ovk evovdeTrjaev eav- 
tov, ovhe fieXTiovcov hiaTpifiwv tf^jraTO, dXXa 

1 ir6\/j.r)tra Keiske : &K.vr)(xa MSS. 

2 &AA' added by Sakorraphos. 

3 avrovi Se added by Sakorraphos : /cal eiriMfco avrovs MSS. 

4 fih Blass, following an ancient quotation : ko.) fti) MSS. 
6 (pavtiTat Cobet : tpalverai MSS. 

6 /j.era tovto Blass, first ed. (Blass brackets in second ed ) : 
/tera tovtov MSS. 

4 6 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 51-53 

decent — if really any such conduct is "decent" — 
and I should not have ventured to bring any other 
charge against him than that which the lawgiver 
describes in plain words, simply that he was a 
kept man. For the man who practises this thing 
with one person, and practises it for pay, seems to 
me to be liable to precisely this charge. But if, say- 
ing nothing about these bestial fellows, Cedonides, 
Autocleides, and Thersandrus, and simply telling 
the names of those in whose houses he has been 
an inmate, I refresh your memories and show that he 
is guilty of selling his person not only in Misgolas' 
house, but in the house of another man also, and 
again of another, and that from this last he went 
to still another, surely you will no longer look upon 
him as one who has merely been a kept man, but — 
by Dionysus, I don't know how I can keep glossing 
the thing over all day long — as a common prostitute. 
For the man who follows these practices recklessly 
and with many men and for pay seems to me to 
be chargeable with precisely this. 

Well, when now Misgolas found him too expen- 
sive and dismissed him, next Anticles, son of Callias, 
of the deme Euonymon, took him up. Anticles, 
however, is absent in Samos as a member of the 
new colony, so I will pass on to the next incident. 
For after this man Timarchus had left Anticles and 
Misgolas, he did not repent or reform his way of 
life, but spent his days in the gambling-place, where 



47 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

St>)p,epevev ev rfo Kvfte'up, ov rj njXla rlderai Kal 
rov<i dXeKrpvovas ai>p,/3dWovaiv Kal Kvfievovaiv 
jj§r/ yap ol\iai rtva<; vp-cov eoopa/civai, el Be /xij, 

54 dX\' cLKi)Kokvai ye. ro>v he etc rt}<i Biarpi^rj^ 
ravrt]s ean Tt? Yinra\aKo<i, av6 pwrros 8?]p,6<rio<; 
OiKer , )]<i tt}<? 7ro\e&)?. outo? eviroposv dpyvpiov real 
IBwv rovrov ev rfj Biarpifij), dve\a/3ev avrov Kal 
ecrye Trap" eavrcp. Kal ravr ovk eSvo-yepavev 1 
6 fiiapb<i ovroat, pueWcov eavrov Karaiayyveiv 
77/309 dvdpoyirov hrjpboaiov ObKerrjv rr}? 7ro\e&>? - 
aA.A/ el Xrfijrerai yopriyov rfj (38e\vpLa rfj eavrov, 
rovro fiovov eo-/ce\fraTO, rwv Be KaXwv r) rwv 
alo")(jicncov ovBepn'av rrdorrore irpovotav errotycraro. 

55 Kat roiavra dp,aprr]p,ara Kal roiavra^ v/3peL<; 
eyd> aKrjKoa yeyovevai vtto rov dvOpusirov rovrov 
els ro awpLa to 'Yip.dpyov, oJa? eyus pud rov Ala 
rov 'OXvpuruov ovk dv ro\p.7}craipa 7rpo? vp,d<; 
elrrelv a yap ovrocrl epyw rrpdrrcov ovk rjayyvero, 
ravr eyeb Xoycp aa<pu)s ev vpuv elrroov ovk dv 
Be^alp:T]v 2 t,9jv. viro he tou? avrovs ypovovs rov- 
tou? ev ol<i ovros rp> rrapd rep UirraXaKfp, Kara- 
rrXel Bevpo ei; 'EXXi]cnr6vrov 'HyijcravSpos, rrepl 
ov irdXat ev otS' on Oaupid^ere Biort ov p,ep,vr]p:ai' 
ovrcos evapyes eariv o epos. 

56 Ovros o 'Hyyjaavhpos dfyiKvelrai, ov vp,el<; care 
fcdWiov rj eyw. ervye Be rore crvp,7rXevcra<? eh 
'l^XXijairovrov rapaas Tipbopidyoi ra> 'Ayapvel ra> 
ar p >ar 777 rj a avr i, Kal rjKe Bevpo drroXeXavKOis, ax? 
Xeyerai, tt}? ckclvov exnidelas, eycov ovk iXdrrov? 
6y8ot]Kovra p.vd<; dpyvpiov Kal rpoirov rivd ov\ 

1 i$v(rx*P aviv Blass : ibv(TX^P atvev MSS. 

2 tetalftriv Cobet : iSe&nnv MSS. 

4 8 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 53-56 

the gaming-table is set, and cock-fighting and dice- 
throwing are the regular occupations. I imagine 
some of you have seen the place ; at any rate you 
have heard of it. Among the men who spend their 
time there is one Pittalacus, a public slave who is 
the property of the city. He had plenty of money, 
and seeing Timarchus spending his time thus he 
took him and kept him in his own house. This 
foul wretch here was not disturbed by the fact that 
he was going to defile himself with a public slave, 
but thought of one thing only, of getting him to 
be paymaster for his own disgusting lusts ; to the 
question of virtue or of shame he never gave a 
thought. 

Now the sins of this Pittalacus against the person 
of Timarchus, and his abuse of him, as they have come 
to my ears, are such that, by the Olympian Zeus, 
I should not dare to repeat them to you. For the 
things that he was not ashamed to do in deed, I had 
rather die than describe to you in words. But about 
the same time, while, as I have said, he was staying 
with Pittalacus, here comes Hegesandrus, back again 
from the Hellespont. I know you are surprised that 
I have not mentioned him long before this, so 
notorious is what I am going to relate. 

This Hegesandrus, whom you know better than I, 
arrives. It happened that he had at that time 
sailed to the Hellespont as treasurer to the general 
Timomachus, of the deme Acharnae ; and he re- 
turned, having made the most, it is said, of the 
simple-mindedness of the general, for he had in his 
possession no less than eighty minas of silver. In- 
deed, he proved to be, in a way, largely responsible 



49 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rjKiGTa alrio<i iyevero Tc/xo/jid^o) t??? avp.cjiopd'i. 

57 cov 8' ev ToiavTrj dfyQov'ta /cal elacpoiTwv co? tov 
UiTTaXaKov o-vy/cv/3evT7)v ovra, /cal tovtov i/cet 
irpooTOV IScov, rjaOr] t€ /cal e7re0vp.t]o-e ical iflovXrf- 
Orj co? avrov dpaXafielv, kcl'i 7rco? 1 Tjyijaaro avrov 
iyyvs elvai t?}? avrov (fcvaecos. irpS)Tov p.ev ovv 
tco YliTTaXaKO) hteXe-ydrj Seofxevos irapahovvai 
tovtov co? §' ov/c eiretOev, ai/TW tovtu) TrpocrfidX- 
Xei, real ov ttoXvv dvi'fh.wo-6 Xoyov, dXX ev0v<> 
€Tr€7reifcei' /cal yap et? avTO to Trpdyfia Beivrj r\ 
d/ca/cia /cal evireiaTia? coo-re /cal e'f avTwv tovtcov 
et/corco? av p,iaoiTO. • 

58 'H? S' dir^WaKTO piev irapd tov TIiTTaXd/cov, 
dveikri'TTTo he vtto tov 'Hyrjadi'hpov, wSvvaTO, 
ol/nai, 6 UtTTcika/cos, LiaTijv, co? 7' coeTO, too~ovtov 
dpyvpiov dvrfXw/c co?, /cal i^rfkoTvirei to. yiyvop,eva. 
ical ecfioiTa iirl ttjv ol/clav. ore 3 he avTois rjvu>- 
XXei, aKe-yjraaOe pbeydXr/v pcopLTjv 'Hyrjcrdvhpov /cal 
r tip,dp')(pv p,e6vadevTe<; yap ttotc /cal avTol /cal 
aXXoi rives, o)v ov /3ovXop,ai tc\ ovopbaTa Xeyecv, 

59 ela7ry]8)]o-avT6<; vv/croop et? rrjv oi/ciav ov w/cei 
YiiTTdXa/cos, irpwTOv Liev avveTpifiov to, a/cevdpta 
/cal hieppiinovv et? ttjv ohov, dcrTpaydXovs Te 
Tivas cjiaaelaTovi /cal qbipbovs /cal /cv/3evTi/ca eTepa 
opyava, /cal tou? opTvyas ical tou? dXe/CTpvovas, 

1 irais Cobet : trws lows MSS. 

2 evireLcrria Reiske : einncn-fa or a-maTta MSS. 

3 8t<f Taylor : on MSS. 



1 Between 363 and 359 one Athenian general after another 
was condemned to death or heavily fined for lack of success 
in the North. Timomachus was sent into banishment. 



50 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 56-59 

for the fate of Timomachus. 1 Hegesandrus, being so 
well supplied with money, resorted to the house of 
Pittalacus, who gambled with him ; there he first saw 
this man Timarchus ; he was pleased with him, lusted 
after him, and wanted to take him to his own house, 
thinking, doubtless, that here was a man of his own 
kidney. So he first had a talk with Pittalacus, 
asking him to turn Timarchus over to him. Failing 
to persuade him, he appealed to the man himself. 
He did not spend many words; the man was 
instantly persuaded. For when it is a question 
of the business itself, Timarchus shows an open- 
mindedness and a spirit of accommodation that 
are truly wonderful ; indeed, that is one of the very 
reasons why he ought to be an object of loathing. 

When now he had left Pittalacus' house and been 
taken up by Hegesandrus, Pittalacus was enraged, 
I fancy, at having wasted, as he considered it, so 
much money, and, jealous at what was going on, 
he kept visiting the house. When he was getting 
to be a nuisance, behold, a mighty stroke on the 
part of Hegesandrus and Timarchus ! One night 
when they were drunk they, with certain others, 
whose names I do not care to mention, burst into 
the house where Pittalacus was living. First they 
smashed the implements of his trade and tossed 
them into the street — sundry dice 2 and dice-boxes, 
and his gaming utensils in general ; they killed the 

2 Probably the scholiast is right in explaining aarpaydAovs 
Siao-eiarovs " shaken astragali," as the gamester's name for a 
sort of dice. Perhaps the hearers would understand that 
they were loaded dice. Benseler, however, approves Dor- 
ville's explanation, that these dice had been many a time 
before now "shaken" between Pittalacus and the rascals 
who are now tossing them into the street. 

51 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovs rjydira 6 rpia/caKoSai/jicov dvOpwrros, aire- 
/creivav, rb 8e reXevralov hrjaavres irpbs rbv Kiova 
avrbv rbv UirrdXarcov eptaarLyovv to.? e£ dvOpco- 
ttcov TrXrjyas ovrai ttoXvv "^pbvov, ware kcu robs 
yetrovas alaOeaOai rP]S Kpavyy)s- 

60 Tfj 6° varepaia virepayavaKri'jaas ra> irpdyfiart 
6 UirrdXatcos epyerai yvpvbs els rijv dyopdv, ical 
Kadi^ei eVt rov fico/xbv rov rfjs p,7]rpbs rwv Oewv. 
o^Xov 8e avvSpap-bvros, olov eiwde yiyveaOai, 
cf>o(37]6ivre<i 6 re 'Hy/jaavSpos kcl\ 6 Tifiap-^os fir) 
dvatCTqpvyBr) avrwv r) fSBeXvpla els rrdaav rr)v 
rroK.iv (eV^et he. eKtcXrjala), Oeovai irpbs rov f3w- 

61 fibv fcal avrol real tSrv avy/cvf3evrwv rives, /cat 
rrepiardvres eheovro rov JJirraXaKov dvaarrjvai, 
Xeyovres on rb oXov Trpdy/xa irapoivia yeyovev, 
real avros ovros, ovttw Lia Ata wairep vvv dpya- 
Xeos wv rijv oyjnv, aXX en xpijatp-os, inroyeveid- 
£W rov dvd pwrrov tcai irdvra cpda/cwv rrpd^eiv a 
av eiceivw avvSoKjj. rrepas ireWovaiv dvaarr)vai 
dirb rov ftcofiov, 1 &)? rev^opievov rivos rwv St/caiwv. 
ws 6° diriiXdev e/c rf]S dyopds, ovtcert npoaelyov 

62 avrw rbv vovv. (Bapews &e (pepwv rr)v vjBpiv 
avrwv 6 dvOpwiros, abicrjv i/carepw avrwv Xay- 
ydvei. 

"Ore 8' ehiKa^ero, dXXrjv 2 aK€\jraa0e /xeydXrjv 
poopbrjv 'HyyjadvSpov dvdpwirov ovSev avrbv r}8i/cr)- 
Kora, dXXd rb evavrlov rjSiKrjfievov, ov8e rrpoar\icovra 

1 Blass brackets rbv 6.v6pccirov which the MSS. have before 
or after atrb rov /Sco/toO. 2 &\\riv added by the editor. 

52 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 59-62 

quails and cocks, so well beloved by the miserable 
man ; and finally they tied Pittalacus himself to the 
pillar and gave him an inhuman whipping, which 
lasted until even the neighbours heard the uproar. 

The next day Pittalacus, exceeding angry over 
the affair, comes without his cloak to the market- 
place and seats himself at the altar of the Mother 
of the Gods. And when, as always happens, a 
crowd of people had come running up, Hegesandrus 
and Timarchus, afraid that their disgusting vices 
were going to be published to the whole town — 
a meeting of the assembly was about to be held 
— hurried up to the altar themselves, and some ot 
their gaming-companions with them, and surround- 
ing Pittalacus begged him to get up, saying that 
the whole thing was only a drunken frolic ; and this 
man himself, not yet, by Zeus, repulsive to the sight 
as he is now, but still usable, begged, touching the 
fellow's chin, and saying he would do anything 
Pittalacus pleased. At last they persuaded him 
to get up from the altar, believing that he was 
going to receive some measure of justice. But as 
soon as he had left the market-place, they paid 
no more attention to him. The fellow, angry at 
their insolent treatment, brings a suit against each 
of them. 1 

When now the case was coming to trial, behold, 
another mighty stroke on the part of Hegesandrus ! 
Here was a man who had done him no wrong, but, 
quite the opposite, had been wronged by him, a man 

1 Proceedings in court in behalf of an ordinary slave would 
be conducted by his master in his own name ; but Pittalacus 
was a state slave (§ 54). Probably he would have to bring suit 
under the name of some citizen as his protector {trpoardTus). 

53 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aura), dXXa Bt]fi6(Ttov ol/ceTtjv rf]<; 7r6Xea)<;, rjyev 
els BovXelav (pda/cwv eavrov elvai. 1 ev ttclvtI Be 
kclkov 2 yevo/j.evo'i 6 YinTaXa/cos irpoaTrnrjei dvBpl 
kcu p,dXa xprjaTW. kern Tt? YXav/cwv lioXapyev^' 

63 outos avrbv cufiaipeiTcu et? eXevOepiav. to Be 
fxera tovto Bi/cwv Xij^eis eTroujaavTo. TTpoiovTOS 
Be tov "fcpbvov eTreTpe^jrav Biayvo)vai to 7rpayp,a 
&.ioireL9ei tu> %ovvtel, BrjfjiOTrj t€ ovti tov H7?;- 
crdvBpov, /cal i]Bt] ttotc /cal xpr]aap,evu>, or rjv 
ev rjXiKia' "irapaXaficov Be to Trpay/xa 6 duoireior}^ 
dve(3dXXeTO ■y i api±6p.evo<> tovtois y^povov; e/c %po- 

64 voiv. &)<? Be irapijet e-nrl to /3ijpLa to vp,e.Tepov 
' Hy /jcrai'Bpos, ore /cal 7rpo<Te7roXep,ei ' ' Apio~TO<pa)VTi 
tw 'Atyivtel, nrplv avT(p Trjv avTijv TavTTjv ev T& 
BijpLw rjiretXijaev eirayyeXiav errayyeXeiv s r\virep 
eyu> 'Tifidpytp, /cal eTretBrj Kpco/3vXo<; dBeX(f>b<; 
avTov eBi]p,7]yopei, /cai 6Xw? direToXpLwv vp.lv 
ovtoi Trepl tcov 'EXXyvucwv avp,(3ovXeuetv, evTavQa 
i']Br) KaTap,ep,i}rdp.evo<i eavTov 6 TliTTaXa/cos, zeal 
e/cXoyi<rdp,evo<; oo-tis <av Trpos ovo~Tiva<i eiroXepbei 
ev efiovXevcraTO (Bel yap raXr]0e<: Xeyeiv)' rjcrv- 
yiav eayev, /cal rjydTct)aev el tl put) tt poaXdftoi 
Katvov /ca/cov. 

, EvTav6a Brj ttjv /caXrjv TavTrjv vl/ctjv vevi/erj/cayi; 
6 ' H.y ijo-avBpos clkovlti, elye Trap eavTU) Tipiapy^ov 

1 thai Sakorraphos : elvat SovAov MSS. 

2 KaKov Ulomtield : Kaitf MSS. 

3 iirayyfXt'iv Blass : the MSS. omit or have ivayyeWet. 

1 Suits between Glaucon and Hegesandrus, who claimed 
that Pittalacus was a slave of his 

54 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 62-64 

on whom he had no claim, in fact, a slave belonging 
to the city ; this man he attempted to enslave to 
himself, alleging that he was his owner. Now 
Pittalacus, reduced to desperate straits, falls in 
with a man — a very good man he is -one Glaucon 
of the deme Cholargus ; he attempts to rescue 
Pittalacus and secure his freedom. Law-suits were 
next begun. 1 As time went on they submitted 
the matter to the arbitration of Diopeithes of 
Sunium, a man of Hegesandrus' own deme and 
one with whom he had had dealings in his younger 
years. Diopeithes undertook the case, but put it 
off again and again in order to favour these parties. 
But when now Hegesandrus was coming before 
you as a public speaker, being at the same time 
engaged in his attack on Aristophon of Azenia, 
an attack which he kept up until Aristophon 
threatened to institute against him before the 
people the same process that I have instituted 
against Timarehus, and when Hegesandrus' brother 
Crobylus 2 was coming forward as a public man, 
when, in short, these men had the effrontery to 
advise you as to international questions, then at 
last Pittalacus, losing confidence in himself and 
asking himself who he was that he should attempt 
to fight against such men as these, came to a wise 
decision — for I must speak the truth : he gave up, 
and considered himself lucky if his ill-treatment 
should stop there. 

So now when Hegesandrus had won this glorious 
victory — without a fight ! — he kept possession of the 

2 Crobylus, "Top-knot," was the nickname of Hegesippus, 
as associate of Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian agitation. 
He owed his name to his old-fashioned way of wearing his 
hair. 

55 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

65 tovtovL Kal TavTCt on dXrjOr) Xeyw, iravTes tare' 
Tt<? yap vftcov 7T(OTT0Te l et? rovyjrov dcftl/crai Kal 
Ta? hairdvas ra? tovtcov ov reOecopij/cev; rj Tt? 
rot 1 ? tovtcov kco/aols Kal [idyais; z TrepiTv^cov ovk 
r)^6ea6t) virep t?}<? iroXeco<i; 6p,co<; he, eTreih^irep ev 
hiKacTTr/plcp eap,ev, KaXei p,oi TXavKcova XoAapryea 
tov dcpeXop-evov eh eXevdepiav tov UirrdXaKov, 
Kal ra? eTe'pa? p.apTvpias dvaytyvcoaKe. 

MAPTTPIAI 

66 [MapTvpel VXavKcov Tipialov XoAapyev?. 
eyco dyop,evov et<? hovXeiav vtto HyrjcrdvSpov 
XliTTaXaKOv d(pei\6fii]v eh eXevdepiav. ^povco 
S 1 vaTepov eXOcov 777209 e/ze TlLTTaXaKos ecprj 
/3ovXeo~0ai hiaXvdijvai to 777)09 Hy/jcravSpov 
7rpoaTT€/xyjra^ z ainco, ware apacrdai Ta<? StVa?, 4 
?;y T6 avrbs eveKaXeaaro HyijaavSpcp Kal 
Tip,dp%cp, 5 Kal fjv Wyr]aavhpo^ t% BovXeias 
avTcp' Kal SieXv9)]crav. 

'Claavrux; 'Apicpiadevris 6 ptaprvpei. eyco 
dyoptevov eh SovXeiav vtto 'Hyr/aavSpov Utr- 
rdXaKov dcpetXopuiv ei? eXevOeplav, Kal ra 
e£r)<i.] 

67 Ovkovv Kal avTOV vpuv KaXco tov 'Hy/jaavSpov. 
yeypacpa & avTco ptapTvpiav KocrpLtcoTepav /xev r) 
«ot' eKelvov, pLiKpco he aacpearepav rj tw MicryoXa. 

1 The MSS. have ts ov or o5to* t>s ov or ov before irdmore: 
Blass deletes. 2 ndxa's Hamaker : yuoixe""* MSS. 

3 Trpocnrefxias Reiske : irpoire\pas or irpoTrenipai MSS. 

4 &ore ixpaadai Tas 5i'kocj Blass : &puo~8ai or txpaadai rrjs 

8iK7)S MSS. 

56 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 64-67 

defendant, Timarchus. That this is true you all 
know. For who of you that has ever gone to the 
stalls where dainty foods are sold has not observed 
the lavish expenditures of these men ? Or who that 
has happened to encounter their revels and brawls 
has not been indignant in behalf of the city ? How- 
ever, since we are in court, call, if you please, 
Glaucon of Cholargus, who restored Pittalacus to 
freedom, 1 and read his affidavit and the others. 

AFFIDAVITS 

[Glaucon, son of Timaeus, of Cholargus, testi- 
fies. I rescued Pittalacus and secured his free- 
dom, when Hegesandrus was attempting to make 
him his slave. Some time after this, Pittalacus 
came to me and said that he wished to send to 
Hegesandrus and come to such settlement with 
him that the suits should be dropped, both his 
own suit against Hegesandrus and Timarchus, 
and the suit of Hegesandrus for his enslavement. 
And they came to a settlement. 

Amphisthenes testifies to the same effect. " I 
rescued Pittalacus and secured his freedom, when 
Hegesandrus was attempting to make him his 
slave," and so forth.] 

Now I will summon Hegesandrus himself for you. 
I have written out for him an affidavit that is too re- 
spectable for a man of his character, but a little more 
explicit than the one [ wrote for Misgolas. I am 

1 The comparative freedom of a state-slave in place of the 
slavery that Hegesandrus had attempted to impose on him. 



5 'HynffluSpa) . . . TLi.i.dpxv Franke : MSS. have the accus. 
s Weidner deletes MAPTTPIA before 'Aix<t>icr6ii>i)s. 



57 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovk dyvow 8' oil a7ro/u,€lrai kclI eTTiop/crjcrei. Bia 
Ti ovv icaka) 1 iirl T7]v jxap-Tvplav; Iv vpuv eViSet^&) 
oiovs uTrepyd^eTai dv9 pdnrovs rb i'm.TijBevfia 
tovto, to? KctTcwppovovvTas fiev tcov Oeoiv, inrepo- 
poi)VTa<i 8e tol»? vo/movs, 6\iyd>pco<; 8e k^ovTa<i 7rpb<s 
airaaav ala^vvrjv. icaXei fioi tov 'Hy/jaavBpov. 

MAPTTPIA 

68 [' Hy tjaavBpos AicpiXov ^Teipieix; p,aprvpel. 
'ot6 KareirXevaa itj QWijo-ttovtov, KcneXafiov 
irapa TIiTTaXdica) rS KvffevTr} BiciTpLfiovTa 
Tip,ap)£oi> tov 'ApifyjXov, kcxX e% e/celvris tt}<; 
yvaxrea)^ i^pyjadpLrjv Tipidp^q) ofiiXwv rrj aurfj 
^pt)aet 2 y kcu to irpbrepov Ae(ohdp,avTi.~\ 

69 Ovk rjyvoovv on vTrepotyerai tov opKov, & 
dv8pe<; AOrjvatoi, dXXd kcu irpoelrrov vplv. ku- 
fceivo ye 7rpo8>]Xov eanv, oti eTreihr) vvv ovk e9e- 
Xei piapTvpeZv, avTitca irdpeicnv iv ttj diroXoyia. 
icai ovhev p,d Aba davpLaaTov dva^ijaerai, yap 
oIjllcu Sevpo TTiarevoov tu> eavTov {3ia> dvr\p KaXo^ 
/cdyadbs kcu piaoirovripo$, kcu tov Aeco8dp,avTa 
octt£9 V v ov yiyvd)cricu>v, i<f) gj vp.el<i eOopvfirjcnxTe 
Tr)? pLaprvpias dvayiyvcoaKopbivr)^. 

70 ' Apd <ye e%ax0i]crop,ai tl crafyecnepov elirelv rj 
Kara ttjv ifiavrov cf>vcuv; elirare p,oi 7rp<x tov 
Ato? kcu twv aXXwv 6eu>v, w dvSpes *A6r)vcuoi, 

1 Weidner deletes alrhv which the MSS. have before or 
after k*x\w 

2 xpfaei. Wolf: &paei MSS. 

58 



AGAINST TI MARCH US, 67-70 

perfectly aware that he will refuse to swear to it, and 
presently will perjure himself. Why then do I call 
him to testify ? That I may demonstrate to you what 
sort of man this kind of life produces — how regardless 
of the gods, how contemptuous of the laws, how in- 
different to all disgrace. Please call Hegesandrus. 1 

AFFIDAVIT 

[Hegesandrus, son of Diphilus, of Steiria testi- 
fies. When I returned from my voyage to the 
Hellespont, I found Timarchus, son of Arizelus, 
staying at the house of Pittalacus, the gambler. 
As a result of this acquaintance 1 enjoyed the 
same intimacy with Timarchus as with Leodamas 
previously.] 

I was sure, fellow citizens, that Hegesandrus would 
disdain the oath, and I told you so in advance. This 
too is plain at once, that since he is not willing to 
testify now, he will presently appear for the defence. 
And no wonder, by Zeus ! For he will come up here 
to the witness stand, I suppose, trusting in his re- 
cord, honourable and upright man that he is, an 
enemy of all evil-doing, a man who does not know 
who Leodamas was — Leodamas, at whose name you 
yourselves raised a shout as the affidavit was being 
read. 

Shall I yield to the temptation to use language 
somewhat more explicit than my own self-respect 
allows ? Tell me, fellow citizens, in the name of 
Zeus and the other gods, when a man has defiled 

1 The Clerk of the Court now reads the affidavit, and calls 
on Hegesandrus to swear to it. He refuses. 

59 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ocrTt9 avrov Karr]ar")(yve Trpbs llyi] o~av8pov, ov 
Sotcei vpuv irpbs tov iropvov TreiropvevaOai ; rj 
tlvck; avTovs ovtc olopLeO* virepfioXds troieladat 
fiSeXvpias 7rapowovvra<i teal fiovou/xevovi ; ovtc 
ol'eade tov Hy)jcrav8pov air oXv o fxevov 1 Ta<; irphs 
tov AecoSd/xavTa irpd£ei<i ra<s 7repi8o7)Tov<;, a? 
v/xels cnravres <tvvio~T€, V7rep>'jcpava eiriTaypLaTa 
eTTirdTTeiv, &)? rats tovtov vnepBoXals avrov 
ho^ovra puerpia SiaTreTrpu^dat; 

71 AXA,' o/i&)9 oyjrea&e on teal piaXa eTTiarpecpax; 
teal priTopiKuis avTOS teal 6 aSe\<fib<; avrov Kpco- 
BvXo<; avTi/ca pcdXa Sevpo avaTryoijo-avres Tavra 
fiev elvai ttoXXt)^ dBeXTepias cfiijcrovcriv, a eyoo 
Xeyw, d^ccoaovai 8e pie p,dpTvpa<; Trapaa^ecrOat 
8iappij&r)V pLaprvpovvras, ottov eirparTev, oVftx? 
eiroiei, rj Tt? elSev, r) Ti9 i)v 6 Tpbtros, irpdyp.a 

72 olfiai dvaiSes Xeyovre<i. ov yap e'Yfwye viroXap,- 
Bdvw ovTW<i vjxd<i €TTLk')]apbova<i elvai, ware dpivrj- 
yuovelv 6)V oXiycp trporepov r)tcovaare dvayiyvwcnco- 
puevtov vofiwv, 2 ev oh yeypairrai, edv Tt9 p.ia6u>- 
o~r)Tai Tiva A0t]vaLa>v eVt TavTtjv rr/v trpd^iv, rj 
idv Tt9 eavTOV fuaOcoarj, evo^ov elvai TOt9 pueyi- 

CTTOi9 Kat, TOt9 'laOl? eTTlTlpLlOlS. Tt9 ovv ovrco 

Ta\aLTrcop6<; eartv dvOpcoiros, 6o~tl<; av edeXr]o-eie 
aaefcebs ToiavTTjv jxaprvpiav puapTvptjaai, e£ 779 
VTrdpyei avTw, idv ToXrjdr) p,apTvpr\arj, eirihei- 
Kvvvac evoyov ovra eavrbv TOt9 eV^aT0t9 e.TriTip,L- 

73 ot9; ovkouv vttoXoittov ean tov TreirovOoTa 
opioX'iyelv. dX\a 81a tovto tcpiveTai, on TavTa 
irpdjjas irapd tou9 vopbovs 8ijpDjyopel. s BovXeaOe 

1 aito\v6fj.evcv Sakorraphos : airoAuyov/j.et'ov MSS. 

2 v6/j.wv Cobet : ra>v vo^wv MSS. 

3 hr))j.T)yopu Cobet : i$r)iJ.riy6pei MSS. 
60 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 70-73 

himself with Hegesandrus, does not that man seem 
to you to have prostituted himself to a prostitute ? 
In what excesses of bestiality are we not to imagine 
them to have indulged when they were drunken and 
alone ! Don't you suppose that Hegesandrus, in his 
desire to wipe out his own notorious practices with 
Leodamas, which are known to all of you, made 
extravagant demands on the defendant, hoping to 
make Timarchus' conduct so exceedingly bad that 
his own earlier behaviour would seem to have been 
modest indeed ? 

And yet you will presently see Hegesandrus and 
his brother Crobylus leaping to the platform here 
and most vehemently and eloquently declaring that 
what I say is all nonsense. They will demand that 
I present witnesses to testify explicitly where he did 
it, how he did it, or who saw him do it, or what sort 
of an act it was — a shameless demand, I think. For 
I do not believe your memory is so short that you 
have forgotten the laws that you heard read a few 
moments ago, in which it stands written that if any 
one hires any Athenian for this act, or if any one 
lets himself out for hire, he is liable to the most 
severe penalties, and the same penalties for both 
offences. Now what man is so reckless that he would 
be willing to give in plain words testimony which, if 
the testimony be true, would inevitably amount to in- 
formation against himself, as liable to extreme punish- 
ment ? Only one alternative then remains : that the 
man who submitted to the act shall acknowledge it. 
But he is on trial on precisely this charge, that after 
such conduct as this, he breaks the laws by speaking 
before the assembly. Shall we, then, drop the whole 



61 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovv to o\ov it pay pa dcfycopev KaX pi) ^iiTwpev; vtj 
tov IloereiSfo) /caXeo? dpa rrjv ttoXiv olKjjaopev, el 
a auTOt epj(p tapev yiyvopera, raina edv /jltj Ti<? 
rjpiv hevpo irapeXOoov cra^co? apa /cal avauryyv- 
tcdi papTvpijaij, 8ia tovto eirCX.TjaopeOa. 

74 'ItKe^aaOe he /cal £k 7rapaBecyp,dTU)v aVayier) S' 
Icax; earat TrapairX^cna ra irapaSeiypara elvai 

TOl? TpOTTTifi TOt9 Ttpap^OV. OpCLTe TOVTOVaX 

tou? eirX TOiv oiK^pdrcov Ka07]pevov<;, tol»? op.oXo- 
yovpevcoi ttjv irpa^iv irpaTTOVTa^i. ovtoi pevTOi 
orav Trpo? rfj dvdyKrj ravTf] yiyvwvrai, o/i&>? irpo 
ye Ttjs alcrxvvVS irpofidXXovTal ti KaX avyKXrj- 
ovat rds Ovpas. el Bi] tj? vp,ds epoiro tow? ohu> 
TTopevopevovs, tl vvv o avOpunros x Trpdrrei, evdv<; 
av eliroLTe tov kpyov rovvopa, ov~% opo)vre<;, ov& 
ehooTes tov eLaeXrjXvooTa oo-tls ijv, aXKa ttjv 
irpoalpecnv tt}? epyaaias tov dvdpdnrov avveiSo- 

75 Te?, KaX to irpdypLa yvrnpi^eTe. ovkovv tov av- 

TOV TpOTTOV TTpOcn'-jKCL V pd<i KaX TTepX Tipdp)£OV 

e^eTa^eiv, KaX p,i) o-Koirelv e'l rt? elhev, dX)C el 
TTeivpaKTai tovtw f] irpa^i^. eirei irpo^ OeSiv tl 
%pi) Xeyeiv, Tlpapy^e; tl av e'lirois avTOS 7repl 
eTepov dvdpcoTTOV cttX tj) atTia, TavTrj Kpivopevov; 
rj Tt %pr) Xeyeiv, oTav peipaKiov veov, KaTaXiirhv 
ttjv iraTpcoav otKLav, ev dXXoTpiais ol/clais vvktc- 
pevr), tyjv o^jriv eTepwv Btacpepov, KaX TroXvTeXrj 
helirva SeiTTvfj do~vp(3o\ov, KaX au\?/T/5i£a? e'^77 
KaX eTaipas Ta<; TroXvTeXeo-TaTas, KaX Kvj3evr), KaX 

1 5 &vdp-jL>nos Weidner : ovros 5 &vdpci>iros or b &v6pu>Tros ovtos 
MSS. 

" 2 oiS' €i5o't€s Hei - \verden : the MSS. have oi>x dpuvres rhv 
OF ovk (lS6res rhv. 

62 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 73-75 

affair, and make no further inquiry ? By Poseidon, 
a fine home this city will be for us, if when we our- 
selves know that a thing has been done in fact, we 
are to ignore it unless some man come forward here 
and testify to the act in words as explicit as they 
must be shameless. 

But pray consider the case with the help of illus- 
trations ; and naturally the illustrations will have to 
be like the pursuits of Timarchus. You see the men 
over yonder who sit in the bawdy-houses, men who 
confessedly pursue the profession. Yet these per- 
sons, brought to such straits as that, do nevertheless 
make some attempt to cover their shame : they shut 
their doors. Now if, as you are passing along the 
street, any one should ask you, " Pray, what is the 
fellow doing at this moment ? " you would instantly 
name the act, though you do not see it done, and do 
not know who it was that entered the house; know- 
ing the profession of the man, you know his act also. 
In the same way, therefore, you ought to judge the 
case of Timarchus, and not to ask whether anyone 
saw, but whether he has done the deed. For by 
heaven, Timarchus, what shall a man say ? What 
would you say yourself about another man on trial on 
this charge ? What shall we say when a young man 
leaves his father's house and spends his nights in 
other people's houses, a conspicuously handsome 
young man ? When he enjoys costly suppers with- 
out paying for them, and keeps the most expensive 
flute-girls and harlots ? When he gambles and pays 



63 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

76 purjBev i/cTivr) avios, dXX ? eVe/ao? virep efcelvov; 'in 
raiira piavTeias irpoa-helrai; ovk evBt]Xov oti 
iraaa avdy/cr) tov rd TiqXiKavTa iirirdyfiaTa 
tlctlv eTTirdrTOVTa Kal clvtov aVTi tovtwv rjBovd<; 
nva<; Trapacr/eevd^etv tols to dpyvpiov TrpoavaXi- 
afcovGiv; ov yap e%&), p-d rov Ata top O\vp,7ri.ov, 
tlvci rpoirov ev<fct]p,oTepov p,vr]ad(b toiv aol Kara- 
yeXdo~Tco<; 7re7rpayp,eva>v epycov. 

77 ©ewprjacne Be, el ftovXeaOe, to 7rpdyp,a Kal e/c 
ttoXitikcov tlvcov TrapaBeiypiaTcov, Kal pidXiaTa e« 
tovtcov a vvvl p.eTa 'xelpas e^6Te. yeyovacn Bia- 
■\^77<£t<Tet9 ev Tot9 BrjpLOis, Kal e/cacrro? r)p,(iov ■^rr)(f)Ov 
BeBoo/ce irepl tov crcopLaTos, 6ctti<; ' kdiivalos 6Vt&>9 
€0~tI Kal ocTTt? pap Kal eycoye, ejreiBdv nrpoaaTOi 
rrpbs to BiKaaTiqpiov Kal aKpodo~(op.at twv dycovi- 
^op,evwv, opw otl del to avTO Trap vpZv la^vec. 

78 irreiBav yap e'lirr] 6 KaTj'jyopos' " v AvBpe<> BiKaaTal, 
tovtovI KaTeyjrrjcpLo-avTO ol BrjpLOTai opLoaavTes, 
ovBevbs dvOpcoTTCOv ovtb KaTt]yop7]aavTO<; ovtc 
KaTapiapTvprfcravTOS, dW' avTol avveiBoTe^,^ eu- 
0v<; 0opu/3eiT€ vpueis o>? ov p.eTbv t& Kpivopuevw 7-779 
iroXew ovBev yap dlp,ai BoKet irpoaBelaOac vp2v 
Xbyov ovBe puapTvpias, oaa Tt9 o-a(pco<s olBev ai/Tos. 

79 (Pepe Br) 777)09 tov Ato9, el, wairep irepl tov 
yevovs, ovtu) Kal irepl tov €7riTT]Bevp,aTo<; tovtov 
iBeijae Bovvai yjrr/cpov Tipbap^ov, €ct eVo^09 eaTiv 
eiTe pit], cKpweTO Be to 7rpdyp,a ev tw BiKaaTrjpia), 



64 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 75-79 

nothing himself, but another man always pays for 
him ? Does it take a wizard to explain all that ? Is 
it not perfectly plain that the man who makes such 
demands must himself necessarily be furnishing in 
return certain pleasures to the men who are spending 
their money on him? I say "furnishing pleasures," 
because, by the Olympian Zeus, I don't know how 
I can use more euphemistic language than that in 
referring to your contemptible conduct. 

But also look at the case, if you please, with the 
help of certain illustrations taken from the field 
of politics, especially matters which you have in 
hand just now. We have been having revisions 
of the citizen-lists in the demes, and each one ot 
us has submitted to a vote regarding himself, to 
determine whether he is a genuine citizen or not. 
Now whenever I am in the court-room listening to 
the pleas, 1 I see that the same argument always 
prevails with you : when the prosecutor says " Gen- 
tlemen of the jury, the men of the deme have under 
oath excluded this man on their own personal know- 
ledge, although nobody brought accusation or gave 
testimony against him," you immediately applaud, 
assuming that the man who is before the court has 
no claim to citizenship. For I suppose you are of the 
opinion that when one knows a thing perfectly of his 
own knowledge, he does not need argument or testi- 
mony in addition. 

Come now, in God's name ! it, as on the question 
of birth, so on the question of these personal habits, 
Timarchus had to submit to a vote as to whether he 
is guilty of the charge or not, and the case were 

1 A person whose name was thrown out by the decision of 
the members of the deme had an appeal to the courts. 

65 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

elcnjyero 8' et? u/xa? wcnrep vvvi, fxrj i^ijv 6" etc 

TOV VOfJLOV 71 TOV yjni(f)L(T jJLdTOS fjL7]T€ iflOL KaTTj- 

yopelv p^rjre tovtw diroXoyelaOai, 6 8e tcypvi; 
ovroal o vvvl TTapeaTT]K(D<i ipol iirrfpoora vpd<; to 
etc tov vopuov tC7]pvyp,a m " Toov -^ry'^wv r) TeTpvirrj- 
pevT], 6r(p hoKel ireiropv ever Oat Tipap^o^, rj 8e 
"Trkt'ipri^, OTft) p.7]" rt av iy}rr](f>io-acr6e; d/cpif3co<; 

80 o!8' otl rcareyveoT av avrov. el 8tj t^9 p,e epoiro 
vpcov " Xv 8e Tt olada, el rjpiels av tovtov /care- 
■^rricfuadpLeOa;" etiroipi av " AioTiTTeirapprjaiacrOe 1 
jxoi /cal SLeiXe^Oe." teal oirore teal oirov e/cacrTO?, 
eyco vpas vTTopvi'icrai' orav outo<? 2 avaftj) eVt to 
fi?ipa' 3 koX r) fiovXi'i, ore e(SovXeve i Trepvatv. el 
yap pLvrjcrdeLr/ 5 Tet^coy eVicr/ceu?)? 17 irvpyov, rj 
a>9 a7T?;7€TO ttol 6 Tt?, evdvs efioaTe teal eyeXdre, 
teal avTol eXeyere t?)v eTTcovvpLtav rcov epycov &v 

81 avvicrTe avTU). teal ra puev 7roXXa /cal iraXaid 
edaoo, rd he ev ai/Trj tt} e/cfcXrjaia yevbp,eva, ore 

1 meirappricrlaffde Blass : iirappT\alaa6e MSS. 

2 ouTos Blass : ovrocri MSS. 

3 Weidner deletes iv t£ 8fa<t> given by the MSS. before or 
after eirl rb #7jua. 

4 f&ov\ev€ Emperius : (&ov\ev(re MSS. 

5 tl yap fAVTiadeir] Blass : orav /jLV-qcrdfj or orav ifiyfiadr] or *t] 
ih.v (jLV-ocrBr) MSS. 6 iroi Reiske : ir'ov MSS. 



1 Each juror was provided with two small disks, one with 
a solid stem through the middle, the other with a hollow 
stem. The juror who wished to vote for conviction cast the 
disk with the hollow stem, and vice versa. The unused 

66 






AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 79-81 

being tried in court and were being brought before 
you as now, except that it were not permitted by 
constitution or statute either for me to accuse or for 
him to defend himself, and if this crier who is now 
standing at my side were putting the question to 
you in the formula prescribed bylaw, "The hollow 
ballot for the juror who believes that Timarchus has 
been a prostitute, the solid ballot for the juror who 
does not," 1 what would be your vote? I am abso- 
lutely sure that you would decide against him. Now 
if one of you should ask me, " How do you know 
that we would vote against him ? " I should answer, 
" Because you have spoken out and told me." And 
I will remind you when and where each man of you 
speaks and tells me : it is every time that Timarchus 
mounts the platform in the assembly ; and the senate 
spoke out, when last year he was a member of the 
senate. For every time he used such words as 
"walls" or "tower" that needed repairing, or told 
how so-and-so had been "taken off" somewhere, you 
immediately laughed and shouted, and yourselves 
spoke the words that belong to those exploits of 
which he, to your knowledge, is guilty. 2 I will 
pass over most of these incidents and those which 
happened long ago, but I do wish to remind you of 

ballot was dropped into another urn. As the juror came 
forward with the two disks, one in each hand, the ends of 
the stem pressed between thumb and forefinger, even the 
nearest bystander could not see which disk he cast to be 
counted, and which he discarded. 

2 Fortunately the modern reader is spared a knowledge of 
the double entente that made the vulgar listeners laugh when 
a man like Timarchus used the words relxos, nvpyos, and 
airdyetv. Probably nvpyos suggested the women's apartments, 
and airayetv may have suggested seduction. 

67 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

iyco ri]V eirayyeXtav TavTr/v Ti/ndp-^tp eiri^yyeiXa, 
rav6' vfid<; dvapLvrjaai /SovXopai. 

T?}? yap ftovXrjs t?}? ev ' ' Apeiw 7rdya> nrpoaohov 
7roiovp,ev7]<; Trpos tov Sr/pov Kara to ifrtjcftio-pa, b 
ovtos elprjkei irepl toiv oitajcrecov twv ev ry Hvkvi, 
rjv pev 6 tov Xoyov Xeycov ere tow ApeoirayiToyv 

AvToXv/COS, Ka\(h<? V7] TOV Aid KCLl TOV AtToXXo) 

/cal aep,v(b^ /cal af/o)? e/celvov tov avveSptov /3e- 

82 /3icofcd)<;' iiretSr) 8e ttov irpolovTO^ tov Xoyov eiirev 
otl to ye elat'jyyjpia to Tipdp^ov dirohoictpbd^ei 77 
j3ov\i], " Keu Trepl tj}? epr)p,ia<; Tayr^j? /cal tov 
T07T0V tov ev Tjj IJvkvI p,i) Oavpdo~r)T€, d) dvBpes 
'Adrjvalot, el Tt'/xap%o? epLTTeipoTepa><; e^ei t?}<? 
fiovXrj<; t/}? el~ ^Apeiov 7rdyov," dve9opv/3)]o~aTe 
vpeis evTtxvOa ical ecf)aT€ tov AvtoXvkov dXiidr) 

83 Xeyeiv elvai yap clvtov epireipov. dyvoi]o-a<; 8' 
vp,(bv tov 66pvj3ov, AvtoXvkov p,dXa cncvOpwrra- 
cra? /cal 8iaXi7rd>v eiirev " 'H/zet? p,evTOi, 3> dvSpes 
' ' AdrjvaloL, oi ' ' ApeoiraytTai oine KaT^yopovpuev 
ovt€ aTToXoyovp.e6a, ov yap rjpuv iraTpiov ecTiv, 
e%opev Be TOtavTifv Tivd crvyyvd>p,riv Tip,dp%u>' 
ovtos t'<jft)9," ecprj, " ojt]0i] ev ttj rjav^ia TavTrj 
pmcpov vpdiv eicdo-TOj dvdXwpia yvyvead at." irdXiv 
errl ttj r)o~v)(ia koX t& piiKpa> dvaXoop,aTi puei^wv 

84 d7ri]VTa Trap vp,wv p,€Ta yeXcoTos 66pv(3o<;. C09 8' 
iirepjvrjadri twv ol/co7re8o)v /cal tmv Xd/c/coov, 01/8 

1 The first step in the process was for Aeschines, at a 
meeting of the assembly, formally to summon Timarchus to 
legal scrutiny (Soici/xaffia) of his right to speak before the 
people. 

2 Evidently the region was a disreputable one, and the 
houses known as cheap places of ill repute. 

68 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 81-84 

what took place at the very assembly in which I 
instituted this process against Timarchus. 1 

The Senate of the Areopagus appeared before the 
people in accordance with the resolution that Timar- 
chus had introduced in the matter of the dwelling- 
houses on the Pnyx. The member of the Areopagus 
who spoke was Autolycus, a man whose life has 
been good and pious, by Zeus and Apollo, and 
worthy of that body. Now when in the course 
of his speech he declared that the Areopagus dis- 
approved the proposition of Timarchus, and said, 
" You must not be surprised, fellow citizens, it 
Timarchus is better acquainted than the Senate 
of the Areopagus with this lonely spot and the region 
of the Pnyx," then you applauded and said Auto- 
lycus was right, for Timarchus was indeed acquainted 
with it. 2 Autolycus, however, did not catch the 
point of your uproar ; he frowned and stopped a 
moment; then he went on: "But, fellow citizens, 
we members of the Areopagus neither accuse nor 
defend, for such is not our tradition, but we do 
make some such allowance as this for Timarchus : 
he perhaps," said he, "thought that where everything 
is so quiet, there will be but little expense for each ot 
you." Again, at the words "quiet" and "little ex- 
pense," he encountered still greater laughter and 
shouting from you. 3 And when he spoke of the 
" house sites" and the "tanks " you simply couldn't 



3 Apparently the speaker meant that Timarchus thought 
that in this time of peace, with its small demands on the 
treasury, only a light burden would fall on each citizen, if 
the state should carry out the local improvements proposed, 
perhaps the clearing away of the disreputable houses from 
the slope of the hill. 

69 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dvaXa/3elv avTovs e&vvaade. evda 8r) /cal irap- 
epxerat HvppavSpo? eTnTipujawv vpuv, /cal ijpero 
tov 8rjp.ov, el ovk ala^vvoivTo yeXcovTet irapovarj^ 
T?;? /3ovXr)<; 7-77? e'£ ' ' Apeiov irdyov. vp,ei$ S' e£e- 
fidXXeTe avTov viroXap,[3dvovTe<;- ""lapuev, & Uvp- 
pavhpe, on ov 8ei yeXdv tovtcov ivavriov aAA' 
ovro)<i la-yypov icrriv ?; dX^deia, ware irdvTcov 

85 eiriKparelv tcov dvB pcoirivcov Xoyi<rp.covr ravrrjv 
eyco v7ro\afi/3dvo) pLapjvpiav pLepLapTvprjadai vp.lv 
vtto tov Brjpov tov 'AOrjvalcov, ov 1 dXcbvac -ty-ev- 
oop-apTvpicov ov /caXcos e^et. ovkovv droirov, co 
dvBpa 'A0t]vatoi, el pbrjbev puev eptov \eyovros 
avroL fiodre rr)v eir cow p,lav tcov epycov cov avviare 
tovtu), ep.ov he XeyovTos eTTLXeXrjaOe, /cal p.r) yevo- 
fiivr]? p-ev /cpicrecos irepl tov irpdyfiaTO<i edXco dv, 
yeyovoTO<; 8e eXey^ov dirocpev^eTai. 

86 ETrel Se epbvrjo-Orjv tcov 8ia\jrr](p[a€co%. /cal tcov 
A7]p,o(piXov 7roXirevp,dTcov, fiovXop,al tl /cat aXXo 
7rapdoeiyp,a irepl tovtcov elirelv. 6 yap avTos 
outo? dvrjp /cal irpoTepov ti toiovtov TroXtTevp.a 
eTroXiTevaaTo. ijTidaaTO Tiva? eXvai 01 dpa eve- 
X^povv awSe/cd^eiv tt)v e/c/cXrjalav kcu TaXXa 
hitcaaTi'ipia, coenrep ical vvvl Ni/c6crTpaT0<>' ical 
Trepl tovtcov /cplaets ai p,ev yeyoi'aatv, 2 a! Be 

87 eveo-Tacriv eVi. 3 (pipe Srj 737)09 tov Albs /cal Oecov, 

1 tv Franke : V MSS. 

2 yeyovaoiv Weidner : irihai ytyovaeriv or iysvovro ird\ai 

MSS. 

3 ai U iveoTaatv en Weidner : MSS. have oj 8e veutrrl vvv 
tr' tlai or ai 5e vvv ivtardatv m. 

70 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 84-87 

restrain yourselves. 1 Thereupon Pyrrandrus came 
forward to censure you, and he asked the people if 
they were not ashamed of themselves for laughing 
in the presence of the Senate of the Areopagus. 
But you drove him off the platform, replying, " We 
know, Pyrrandrus, that we ought not to laugh in 
their presence, but so strong is the truth that it 
prevails — over all the calculations of men." This, 
then, I understand to be the testimony that has 
been offered you by the people of Athens, and 
it would not be proper that they should be con- 
victed of giving false testimony. When I, fellow 
citizens, say not a word, you of yourselves shout the 
name of the acts of which you know he is guilty ; 
strange, then, it would be if, when I name them, 
you cannot remember them ; even had there been 
no trial of this case, he would have been convicted ; 
strange indeed then if, when the charge has been 
proved, he is to be acquitted ! 

But since I have mentioned the revision of the 
lists and the measures proposed by Demophilus, 2 I 
wish to cite a certain other illustration in this con- 
nection. For this Demophilus had previously brought 
in a measure of the following sort : he declared that 
there were certain men who were attempting to 
bribe the members of the popular assembly and the 
courts as well — the same assertion that Nicostratus 
also has made veiy recently. Some cases under this 
charge have been in the courts, others are still 
pending. Come now, in the name of Zeus and 

1 It is not unlikely that the vulgar crowd made merry 
over the word olicoireSwv as sounding like opxnreSwv (testicles), 
and XaKKwv like Aclkkott45ij>v (scrota). 

- Demophilus was the author of the proposition to revise 
the citizen lists. 

71 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

el €7rl tijv avr-i-jv erpdirovTO diroXoyiav r/virep 
Tlpap^os vvvl Kal ol crvvayopevovTef aurw, kcu 
r)P'iovv hiapprjhrjv Tivd puapTvpelv irepl tPj<; alria^ rj 
roix; SiKaaTas pr\ Triareveiv iraaa Sijttov dvdyKi] 
r)v €K rov Xoyov tovtov p,aprvpelv rov p,ev, co? 
eSexa^e, rov 8e, &)? eheKci^ero, 7rpoKeip,evr]<i e/ca- 
Tepcp ^qfiid<i €/c rov vopov davdrov, Mairep ivOdSe, 
idv Tt? piadcocrrjTai riva 'AOtjvcilcov ecj> vfipei, Kal 
irdXiv edv Tt9 'AOyvauov iirl rfj rov crcopaTos 

88 alayyvrj e/ctov pbiaOapvi). eanv ovv oaris dv 
epapTvprjaev, rj fcaTrjyopos b<> eve)(eipr)o~ dv x 
TOiavTrjv TroielcrOai rrjv dirohei^iv rov Trpdy/Aaros ; 
ov 8fjTa. Ti ovv; direcpvyov 01 Kpivopevoi; pa 
tov 'Hpa/cXea, evrel 0avdra) i^rjpico07jaav, yroXv 
vrj rov Ata Kal tov AttoXXco eXarrov dpdprrjpa 
iipapriycore^ tovtovI tov dvOpdmov eKelvot, p,ev 
ye ol TaXaLTrwpot, ov Svvdp.evot yr)pa<; dpa Kal 
irev'tav dpvveadai, ra p-eyio-Ta rwv ev dv6pcoTroi<; 
KaKwv, TavTais i-)(py]aavTO Tat? avp(f) opals, ovtos 
8" ovk eOeXwv ttjv eavTOv (38eXvpiav KaTeyeiv. 

89 Et pev to'ivvv rjv 6 dycbv ovToal ev TroXei eK- 
KXrjT(p, vpa$ dv eycoye r)%lcoaa p,dprvpd<; poi yeve- 
adai, tol>9 apiGTa elSoTas on dXrjdi} Xeyw el S' 
6 pu\v dyd>v eanv , Adtjvr]0't,v, ol & avTol SiKaaTau 
p,oi Kal p,dpTvpe$ eVre twv Xoycov, epol pev dvapi- 
pvycFKeiv irpoo"i]Kei, vp,d$ Se p.oi prj diriGTelv. Kal 
yap ep,oiye hoKel Tlpap^os ovtogi, a> avSpes , Adr)- 
valoi, ov~% virep avTOv povov eanrovhaKkvai, aXXd 
Kal irepl twv aXXcov rwv Tavrd hiaireir pay p.eva>v 



1 hv is inserted by the editor. Some MSS. omit the &v of 
the first clause. 

72 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 87-89 

the gods, if they had resorted to the same defence 
that Timarchus and his advocates now offer, and 
demanded that someone should testify explicitly 
to the crime, or else that the jurors should refuse 
to helieve the charge, surely according to that 
demand it would have been absolutely necessary 
for the one man to testify that he gave a bribe, 
the other, that he took a bribe, though the law 
threatens each of them with death, precisely as 
in this case if anyone hires an Athenian for a dis- 
graceful purpose, and again if any Athenian volun- 
tarily hires himself out to the shame of his body. 
Is there any man who would have testified, or 
any prosecutor who would have undertaken to 
present such proof of the act ? Surely not. What 
then ? Were the accused acquitted ? No, by 
Heracles ! They were punished with death, though 
their crime was far less, by Zeus and Apollo, than 
that of this defendant ; those poor wretches met 
such a fate because they were unable to defend 
themselves against old age and poverty together, 
the greatest of human misfortunes ; the defendant 
should suffer it because he is unwilling to restrain 
his own lewdness. 

Now if this trial were taking place in another 
city, and that city were the referee, I should have 
demanded that you should be my witnesses, you who 
best know that I am speaking the truth. But since 
the trial is at Athens, and you are at the same 
time judges and witnesses of the truth of what 
I say, it is my place to refresh your memory, and 
yours not to disbelieve me. For I think Timarchus' 
anxiety is not for himself alone, fellow citizens, 
but for all the others also whose practices have 

D 73 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

90 avTQ). el yap fj p,ev 7rpa£i<; axnr) earai, coo-rrep 
eXwde ylyveaOai, XdBpa K al iv iprj/jlais Kal iv 
t,8iai<; til/clais, 6 Be apiaja fxlv elBcos, KaTaia^vvas 
Be riva tcov ttoXitcov, idv rakrjOrj fiaprupijar], 
evoxos ecxrat rots /Aeylaroi? STriTifdoiq, 6 8e Kpivo- 
p,evo<; Karap.ep.apTvpr-JiJLevo'i virb rov eavrou filov 
Kai t^5 iikr)0eia<i aguoaei p,rj e£ cov yiyvooaKerai, 
aXX etc tcov [xapTvptoiv KplveaOai, dvypjjTai 6 
vop.os Kal 7) dX))deia, Kal 8e8eiKTat <f>avepa 686s, 
Bi ?/? ol rd fieyicrra KaKovpyovvres dirofyev^ovTai. 

91 TL$ ydp rj tcov XcottoBvtmv r) tcov p,oiyfov r) tcov 
dv8po<j)'6voov, r) tcov rd jxeyidTa p,ev uBikovvtcov, 
Xddpa he tovto irpaTTovTcov, Bcoaec Blkjiv; Kal 
ydp tovtcov ol puev eV avTocpcopcp aXovres, iav 
opLoXoywai, Trapaxpr/fia Oavdrco fr/uovvTai, ol Be 
Xadovres Kal ejjapvoi ycyvop-evoi KplvovTai iv rofc 
BiKacrTi] plots, evpio-Kerai Be r) dXrjdeia Ik toov 

CtKOTCOV. 

92 Xpijo-aaOe Brj Trapa8e'iyp.aTL rfj fiovXfj rfi i£ 
Apelov irdyov, rep dKpi,/3eaTdrcp avveBpiw tcov iv 

rfj TToXei. iroXXovs ydp ijBrj eycoye reOecoprjica 
iv too ftovXevTrjpicp tovtw ev irdvv elirovTas Kal 
p-dprupas TTopicrapevovs aXovras' i)8rj Be Tivas 
KaKws irdvv SiaXe^Oevras Kal 7rpdy/.ia dp,dprvpov 
e^ovTas oi8a viKi'iaavTas. ov yap eV rov Xoyov 
p,6vov ovB' iK tcov p:apTvpiwv, dXX' ig cov avTol 
crvvtaaaL Kal e^rjTaKacn, rr)v ijrfjcfrov (pepovai. 



74 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 89-92 

been the same as his. For if in the future, as 
always in the past, this practice is going to be carried 
on in secret, and in lonely places and in private 
houses, and if the man who best knows the facts, 
but has denied one of his fellow citizens, is to 
be liable to the severest punishment if he testifies 
to the truth, while the man on trial, who has 
been denounced by the testimony of his own life 
and of the truth, is to demand that he be judged, 
not by the facts that are notorious, but by the 
testimony of witnesses, then the law is done away 
with, and so is the truth, while a plain path is marked 
out by which the worst wrongdoers may escape. 
For what foot-pad or adulterer or assassin, or what 
man who has committed the greatest crimes, but 
has done it secretly, will be brought to justice ? 
For whereas such of these criminals as are caught 
in the act are instantly punished with death, if 
they acknowledge the crime, those who have done 
the act secretly and deny their guilt, are tried 
in the courts, and the truth can be determined 
by circumstantial evidence only. 

Take the example of the Senate of the Areopagus, 
the most scrupulous tribunal in the city. I myself 
have before now seen many men convicted before 
this tribunal, though they spoke most eloquently, 
and presented witnesses ; and I know that before 
now certain men have won their case, although 
they spoke most feebly, and although no witnesses 
testified for them. For it is not on the strength 
of the pleading alone, nor of the testimony alone, 
that the members of the court give their verdict, 
but on the strength of their own knowledge and 
their own investigations. And this is the reason 

75 



93 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ToiydpToi StareXel tovto to crvvehpiov euSoKL/xovv 
iv tt] iro\ei. tov avTov to'ivvv rponov, u> dvhpes 
\6r)valoi, koX vp,eis Tt)v icpicriv Tavrijv irou'jaaade. 
irpoiTOV p:ev firjSev vpuv ecrrro TUCTTOTepov o)v avrol 
avvicrre /cal ireireicrde irepl Ttp.dp%ov tovtovl, 1 
enreiTa to irpdypba OewpuTe firj itc tov irapovTos, 
dW etc tov 7rape\i]\vdoTO<; \povov. ol puev yap 
iv TO) 7rape\7]\v9oTi ^povcp \6yoi \eyop:evoi Trepl 

TipLUp^OV fCCti TCOV TOVTOV ilT LT7]8eV pLUTWV Bid T1]V 

d\7)6eiav iXeyoi'TO, ol S' iv TrjSe Trj i)p,epa prjdrjcro- 
fevoi 8id ti)v icpiaiv Tr)s vpL6Tepa<; diraTi\<i eveica. 

UTt680T€ OVV TYjV tyr/CpOV T(ti ifkeiOVL ^/30i'ft» KCCL 

Trj dXrjdeia /ecu ol? avTol avviGTe. 

94 KaiTOt \oyoypd<po<; ye tis (prjaiv, 6 pirj^avco- 
pL6vo<i clvtg) 2 ttjv diroXoyiav, ivavTia pie Xeyeiv 
ipLavTw. ov yap Srj So/cetv 3 elvai avrw SvvaTov 
tov civtov dvdptoTTov ireiropvevaOai /cal to iraTpcoa 
KaTeZt]hoKevar to piev yap r)p,apT7}/cevai ti Trepl 
to awp.a rraiSo? elvai (fir/cn, to 8e ra iraTpwa 
KaTehy]hoicevai dvhpos. eTi Se tovs tcaTaiayv- 
vovTa<i auToi»? puadovs (prjai irpaTTeadai tov 
7rpdyp.aTo<;' dirodavpid^wv ovv irepLepyeTat /cal 
TepaTevop,evo<; /tara ti)v dyopdv, el 6 auTo? ireirbp- 
vevTai Te /cal to, iraTpwa KaTeS>)8oKei>. 

95 Ei Se Tt? dyvoel TavO' oVa)? e%6£, iyco aacpe- 
oTepov avTa Treipdaop,ai Sioplaat tw \6yot. eco? 
pbcv yap dvTiqpKei r) tt}<; iwi/cX/jpov ovala i)v 
'Ry7]aav8po^ 6 tovtov e^wv eyripue, /cal to dpyv- 
ptov o rfxOev eftcov i/c tj}? pieTa Ti,pLop,d^ov diro- 



1 toutovI Bake : tovtov MSS 

2 avT£ Sauppe: avrols MSS. 

3 SoKtiv Cobet : SokcI MSS. 



7 6 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 92-95 

why that tribunal maintains its high repute in 
the city. Therefore, my fellow citizens, I call 
upon you to make your decision in this case in 
the same manner. In the first place, let nothing 
be more credible in your eyes than your own 
knowledge and conviction regarding this man 
Timarchus. In the second place, look at the case 
in the light, not of the present moment, but of 
the time that is past. For the words spoken be- 
fore to-day about Timarchus and his practices were 
spoken because they were true ; but what will 
be said to-day will be spoken because of the trial, 
and with intent to deceive you. Give, therefore, 
the verdict that is demanded by the longer time, 
and the truth, and your own knowledge. 

And yet a certain speech-writer who is concoct- 
ing his defence 1 says that I contradict myself; 
since it seems to him impossible, he says, for the 
same man to have been a prostitute and to have 
consumed his patrimony. For, he says, to have 
sinned against one's own body is the act of a boy, 
but to have consumed one's patrimony is that of 
a man. And furthermore he says that those who de- 
file themselves exact pay for it. He therefore goes 
up and down the market-place expressing his wonder 
and amazement that one and the same man should 
have prostituted himself and also have consumed his 
patrimony. 

Now if anyone does not understand the facts of 
the case, I will try to explain them more clearly. 
Hegesandrus, who kept Timarchus, had married an 
heiress. So long as her inheritance held out, and 
the money that Hegesandrus had brought back with 

1 Aeschines names this speech- writer in § 119. 

77 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Srjpias, rjaav i-rrl 7roAA% daeXyeias Kal dfyOov'iar 
eTreiSr; Se ravra pev drrwXcoXei Kal Kare/ceicvfievTo 
tcai /carcoyjrocfidyrjTO, ovroal 8' e%(opo<; iyevero, 
eSlSou 5' eitcoTws ovSeU en ovSev, rj 8e ftSeXvpd 
(f)uai<; Kal avocrios del 1 rwv avrcov irreOvpei, /cal 
Ka(F vTrep(3o\r)v aicpaaiax erepov e<ft erepcp eVt- 

96 ray pa iirerarre, /cal direcfcepero et? to tcad' i)p,epav 
Wot, evravOa rjBri erpdirero em rb Kara^ayelv 
rrjv irarpwav ovaiav. ical ov puovov Kare^tayev, 
dXk el olov r ecrrlv elrrelv, /cat Kareiriev. ical 
yap ovBe rf}<; d%ia<i eKaarov rwv Kriipdrcov drre- 
Soro, ovfr iSvvar dvapeveiv to irXeov ovSe to 
XvaireXovv, dXXd rod rjSi) eupla/covro<i aTreBihoro' 
oi/to)9 r/rrelyero acpohpa rrpb? rd$ i)Sovds. 

97 Touto) yap tcareXnrev 6 irarrjp ova'iav, d<$ J79 
erepov fiev icdv* eXyrovpyei, outo? he ov8' avrco 
SiacjyvXd^ai iBvvrjffr)- oUiav pev OTriaOev rrj<i tto- 
Xew?, eaxarLav 8e Scpyrroi, 'AXonreKYjo-i S' erepov 
\wpiov, X W P^ & 6 olictras Srjpiovpyov? t?}? a/cvro- 
ropt/crjs Tkyyi)<i evvea rj Se/ca, eov eKaarov rovrw 
Sv ofioXovs dircxpopdv ecpepe t^? ijpLepas, 6 b 
i)yep,cov rod epyacrr^piov rptdoftoXov en Se Trpb<; 
rovrois yvvai/ca dp,6pyiva eirio-rapevrjv epyd^eadai 
Kai epya Xerrra els r>]i> dyopdv etcfyepovcrav, 
Kal dvbpa TTOLKiXri'jV, /cal 6(peiXovrd<> rivas avrcio 
dpyvpiov, Kal eimrXa. 

1 ael Weidner : ail tovtov or r\ tovtov ael MSS. 

2 k&i/ Cobet : hi> ko.\ or &» MSS. 



1 Such a fortune would have been enough to enable the 
ordinary man to perform the special honourable services 
demanded of rich citizens, to be trierarch, choregus, etc. 

78 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 95-97 

him from his voyage with Timomachus, they lived 
in all luxury and lewdness. But when these re- 
sources had been wasted and gambled away and 
eaten up, and this defendant had lost his youthful 
charm, and, as you would expect, no one would 
any longer give him anything, while his lewd and 
depraved nature constantly craved the same indul- 
gences, and with excessive incontinence kept making 
demand after demand upon him, then, at last, in- 
cessantly drawn back to his old habits, he resorted 
to the devouring of his patrimony. And not only 
did he eat it up, but, if one may so say, he also 
drank it up ! He sold one piece of property after 
another, not for what it was worth — he couldn't 
wait for a higher offer nor even for the bare value, 
but let it go for what it would fetch on the instant, 
so urgently did he hasten to gratify his lusts. 

His father left him a fortune which another man 
would have found sufficient for the service of the state 
also. 1 But Timarchus was not able even to preserve 
it for himself. There was a house south of the Acro- 
polis, a suburban estate at Sphettus, another piece ot 
land at Alopeke, and besides there were nine or ten 
slaves who were skilled shoemakers, each of whom 
paid him a fee of two obols a day, and the super- 
intendent of the shop three obols. 2 Besides these 
there was a woman skilled in flax-working, who 
produced fine goods for the market, and there was a 
man skilled in embroidery. Certain men also owed 
him money, and there were house furnishings. 

2 Masters sometimes allowed their slaves to buy their 
time at so much per day ; this fee was called a-Kotyopd. Such 
slaves could do business for themselves, or hire themselves 
out to manufacturers, contractors, etc. Much of the skilled 
labour of the city was performed by slaves. 

79 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

98 Kcu on ravr a\,r)0fj Xeyw, evravOa pevrot vrj 
Alcl aacpoos ttc'ivv teal Siappifiijv eyco paprvpovvTas 
vpuv tou? fxapTvpas irape^op,ai' ovSels yap k'iv- 
Suvos, biairep itcel, ovK ala^vvt] 7rpoaeart,v ov- 
oepia r(p rdXrjOr) p,apTvpovvri. ri)v ptev yap 
oiKiav tt}u ev ciaret direhoO' ovtos NavaiKpaTet 

Tffl KWpiKCp 7TOl)]Tfj, VaTCpOV S' dVTTjV iirptaTO 

irapa tov NavaiKpaTOVs eLKOat p.v(bv KA.eatVeTO<? 
o yopohthda KaXo<;- rrjv S' eay^andv errpiaro Trap* 
avrov Mj/?7er/,geos o Mvppwovo~io<;, tottov pev 

99 iroXvv, Beivtos 8' e^rjyptoopevov vnb rovrov to 8' 
A.\a>ire/cq(Ti yospiov, b tjv airoodev tov reiyovs 

evhe/ca i) BcoBeKa ardSia, iKerevovcrrj^ real dvri- 
/3o\ovar)<; t/)? pLTjrpos, &>? eyd) irvvOdvopai, iacrat 
/cat prj diroooauai, dXX el p)j ri aXXo, ivTCKpfjvai 
y 1 viroXnrelv avrfj, ovSe tovtov tov y^ropiov 
direay^ero, dXXa /cal tovt direhoTO Siay^iXtuiv 
hpaxpon>. kcu tcov Oepairaivcov /cal tcov oIkctcov 
oiioeva /careXnrev, dXX" dnavTas ireirpaice. real 
ravO* on ov yjrevSopai, iyco p,ev, &>? KareXnrev 
avTto 6 7raT7)p, paprvpias Trape^opai, outo? Se, el 
pjj (prjert nreirpaKevai, ra aoopara tcov ol/ceroov 
100 epLfpavn traparryeTco. &)? 8e /cal dpyvpibv tiltiv 
eSdreiaev, b Kopiadpevos ovto<} dvifXcotce, p.dprvpa 
Tcape^opat ^\erayevi]v vp.lv TOv%cpr)TTiov, o? cocpe't- 
Xi]ae /uev i/ceila) irXelovs rj rptaKOvra pvds, b S' 
tjv vttoXoittov TeXevTi'/a avro<i tov iraTpos, tovtco 
dnrehcoicev kirrd jivas. 2 Kai p,oi KaXei MeTayemjv 

1 7' added by Reiske. 

2 pvui Franke : fxvas Ti/xd^x^ MSS. 
So 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 98-100 

Here, at any rate, by Zeus, I will present my 
witnesses to prove the truth of what I say, and 
they will testify most clearly and explicitly ; for 
there is no danger, as there was the other time, 
to the man who testifies to the truth, nor any 
disgrace either. The city residence he sold to 
Nausicrates, the comic poet ; 1 afterward Cleae- 
netus, the chorus-master, bought it of Nausicrates 
for twenty minas. The suburban estate Mnesitheus 
of Myrrinoussa bought of him, a large tract, but 
wretchedly run down by his neglect. The place 
at Alopeke, distant eleven or twelve furlongs from 
the city-wall, his mother begged and besought 
him, as I have heard, to spare and not to sell, 
or, if he would do nothing more, at least to leave 
her there a place to be buried in. But even 
from this spot he did not withhold his hand ; 
this too he sold, for 2,000 drachmas. Of the 
slaves, men and women, he left not one ; he has 
sold them all. To prove that I am not lying, I 
will produce witness that his father left the slaves ; 
but if he denies that he has sold them, let him pro- 
duce their persons in court. But to prove, further, 
that his father had lent money to certain men, and 
that Timarchus collected and has spent it, I will 
call as witnesses for you Metagenes of Sphettus, 
who owed more than thirty minas, and paid to the 
defendant what was still due at his father's death, 
seven minas. Please call Metagenes of Sphettus. 

1 The MSS. vary between the readings iroirjTfj poet and 
viroKpLrfi actor. Suidas attests the name Nausicrates as that 
of a comic poet, and mentions two of his comedies. The 
name occurs in an Attic inscription (I.G. ii. 977) in a list of 
comic poets, but the same inscription gives the name in a list 
of comic actors also. 

81 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ZcfriJTTiov. 1 iraacov &€ TrpcoTijv dvdyvoidi ttjv 
Navai/cpaTow; piaprvpiav tov ttjv ol/clav irpia- 
pievov Kai ra<i aWas cnracra*; \a/3e irepl ayv 
ejuv)]a6r)v iv tw aura. 2 

MAPTYPIAI 

101 'XI? TOivvv i/cefCTrjTO 6 Trari)p avrov dpyvpiov 
ovk okiyov, o outo? rj<pdviK€, tovO^ vplv i7Ti8eitja>. 
(fio/BijOels <yap Ta? \r)TOvpyia<; cnrehoro a rjv avrSi 
KT)]p,ara avev twv dpricos elpr)p,iv(ov, ywp'iov 
Kt]<f)iaut<Tiv, erepov 3 ^Ap-cpiTpon^aiv, ipyacmjpia 
8vo iv tok dpyvpeiois, ev piev iv AvXcovc, erepov 
6° e7rt typaavW(p. 

102 "OOev Se ravr rjinropiio-ev, iyd> ipw. rjaav 
ovrob Tpeis dSe\(f)Oi, EuTroXe/io? re 6 TraihoTpi(3r)$ 
Kai A.pi%rj\,o<i 6 tovtov Trarrjp Kai y Apiyvanos, 
o<? €ti Kai vvv eari, 7rpeo-/3vTr)<; 8ie(p6app,evo<; tol>? 
6(f>0a\/jLOv<i. tovtcov 7T/5COTO? iTeXevTrjaev Eu- 
7roXe/xo?, dvefirjrov t% ovaia<; ovaijs, hevrepos S' 
'A/3t^»;Xo9 o Tipbdpxov 7raTi]p' ore 8' ££77, irdaav 
ttjv ovaiav Sie^elpi^e Bid tijv aaOeveiav Kai ttjv 
crvpupopdv ttjv Trepl rd 6p,p,ara tov ' ApiyvcoTOv 
Kai 81a to TereXevrrj Kevat tov EvnoXepLOv, Kai ti 
Kai ei<i rpocp7]v avvra^dp,evo^ iSi&ov ra> 'Apiyvcorw. 

103 iirel 8e .val 6 Kpifyrfko? irekevr^aev 6 Tip,dp%ov 
tovtovi irarrjp, tou? p,ev TrpcoTOVS %p6vov<;, ea>? 
7rat9 rjv outo?, drravra rd pierpia iyiyvero nrapd 

1 SiPt/ttioi' Blass : rbv 2<^t?tt(oj' MSS. 

2 t<£ avTtp Sakorraphos : t<£ avT/2 koy<p MSS. 

3 ertpov Cobet : erepov ayphv MSS. 

1 The special demands made by the state on the rich 
citizens, like the trierarchy, choregia, etc. 

82 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 100-103 

But first of all read the testimony of Nausicrates, 
who bought the house, and take all the other 
depositions that I mentioned in the same con- 
nection. 



DEPOSITIONS 

I will now show you that his father had not 
a little ready money, which the defendant has 
squandered. For the father, afraid of the special 
services to which he would be liable, 1 sold the 
property that he owned (with the exception of 
the items I have mentioned) — a piece of land in 
Cephisia, another in Amphitrope, and two work- 
shops at the silver mines, one of them in Aulon, 
the other near the tomb of Thrasyllus. 

How it was that the father became so well-to-do 
I will tell you. There were three brothers in this 
family, Eupolemus, the gymnastic trainer, Arizelus, 
the father of the defendant, and Arignotus, who is 
still living, an old man now, and blind. Of these, 
Eupolemus was the first to die, before the estate had 
been divided ; next, Arizelus, the father of Timar- 
clms. So long as Arizelus lived, he managed the 
whole estate, because of the ill-health of Arignotus 
and the trouble with his eyes, and because Eupo- 
lemus was dead. By agreement with Arignotus he 
regularly gave him a sum of money for his support. 
Then Arizelus, the father of the defendant Timar- 
chus, died also. In the first years thereafter, 
so long as the defendant was a child, Arignotus 
received from the guardians 2 all that one could 

2 The same men would act as administrators of the 
undivided estate and as guardians of the boy during his 
minority. 

83 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ro)v iiriTpoTTcov ra> , Api r yva>T(i)' eTreiSr) S' eveypdcprj 
Tlpiapxos et? to Xrj^iap^iKov <ypap,/xarelov teal 
Kvpios eyevero tj/? ovaca<i, Trapcocrdp.evo<; dvhpa 
Trpea/3vTy]v Kal r)rv)(riK6ra, delov eavrov, ri]v re 
overlap i)<$dvLcre, Kal rwv €7nrr]Sei(ov ov&ev eSiSov 
tg3 Apiyvoorw, dXXd irepielhev etc roaavri]*; ovenas 

104 ev rocs dSvvdrois picrOocpopovvra. Kal to re- 
Xevralov, o Kal Beivorarov, diroXeKpOevros rov 
irpeafivTov t?}? ytyvoj&evr}? rots dhwdrots Soki- 
/xacria?, Kal l iKeniplav devros ei9 rtjv fiovXrjv 
virep rov paaOov, fiovXevrrj? wv Kal rrpoehpevtov 
eKelvrjv ttjv r)p,epav, ovk r)%Lwo~ev avrw o-vvenrelv, 
dXXa irepielSev diroXeaavra rov ri]f rrpvraveias 
puaQov. on S' aXtjd-fj \e7c0, KaXet fioi 'Apiyvcarov 
2<£ j/TTf oz', Kal rrjv fxaprvpiav dvayiyvcoaKe. 

MAPTTPIA 

105 'AW' lacos dv T/9 etiroi, &><? diroBopevo? rrji 
rrarpwav oiKiav erepav aXXodi ttov rov dareu>% 
6KT))o-aTO, dvrl Be rr/s ea^arids Kal rod %wpiov 
rov , A\fi)7reKp]0'i Kal rosv Brjp-iovpycov Kal rwv 
aXXcov et'9 rdpyvpeid ri KareaKevdcraro, ooairep 
Kal irartjp avrov rrporepov. dXX" ovk earc 
rovrw Xoiirbv ovhev, ovk oiKia, oi) awoiKia, ov 
^copLov, ovk oiKerai, ov hdveicrp,a, ovk a'XV ovBev 
d(f) 0)v dv9 paaroi p,r] KaKOvpyot "Cfiyatv. dXXa 

1 Kal added by Franke. 



1 "The Senate also examines the infirm paupers. For 
there is a law that provides that persons who have property 
of less than three minas and are so infirm of body as ti be 
unable to do any work, are to be examined by the Senate, 

84 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 103-105 

ask. But after Timarchus was enrolled in the 
citizens' list, and had come into control of the 
estate, he thrust aside this old and unfortunate man, 
his own uncle, and made way with the estate. He 
gave nothing to Arignotus for his support, but was 
content to see him, fallen from such wealth, now 
receiving the alms that the city gives to disabled 
paupers. 1 Finally — and most shameful of all — when 
the old man's name had been omitted at a revision 
of the list of pauper-pensioners, and he had laid a 
petition before the senate to have his dole restored, 
the defendant, who was a member of the senate, 
and one of the presiding officers that day, did not 
deign to speak for him, but let him lose his monthly 
pension. 2 To prove the truth of what I say, call, 
if you please, Arignotus of Sphettus, and read his 
affidavit. 

AFFIDAVIT 

But perhaps someone may say that after selling 
his father's house he bought another one somewhere 
else in the city, and that in place of the suburban 
estate and the land at Alopeke, and the slaves 
and the rest, he made investments in connection 
with the silver mines, as his father had done before 
him. No, he has nothing left, not a house, not 
an apartment, not a piece of ground, no slaves, no 
money at interest, nor anything else from which 
honest men get a living. On the contrary, in place 

and to receive from the state two obols each per clay for 
their support." — Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, xlix. (Ken- 
yon's trans. ). 

2 Aeschines calls it the " prytany payment." Probably 
the payment was made prytany by prytany, the prytany 
being one of the ten regular subdivisions of the civil year. 

85 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rovTcp civtI twv irarpwwv irepieari (SheXvpia, 
avKofyavTia, Opdcros, rpvcf)i], BeiXca, dvalheia, 
to pi] iiricnacrdai ipvOpidv eirl rots alaypois" 
e% wv av 6 /cdtcicrTOs teal dXuaoTeXeaTaro<i 7toXIt7]<; 
yevoiio. 

106 Ov to'ivvv povov ra 7rarp(ba KarehiiBoicev, dXXd 
Kai ra koivcl ra vpuerepa, oawv iroorrore /cvpios 
yeyovev. ovros yap ravrrjv rrjv rfXiiciav e.ywv f)v 
i/yu-et? opdre, ovk eariv tfvriva 1 ovk rjp^ev dp%i]v, 
ovhepiav Xa^cov ov8e x €l P 0TOl 'V^ e ^y dXXa rrdaa^ 
rrapa tou? vop,ovs rrpidpevos. a>v rd<; pev 7rXetara<; 
Trapyjaa), Svolv 8' 17 rpiwv povov pvr)cr0ijo-opai. 

107 Aoyiar?]? yap yev6p,evos irXelara p,ev rrjv ttoXiv 
eftXa-tye Scopa Xap,/3dva)v irapd rSiv p,rj 2 Si/calais 
ap^avrcov, paXiara 8 eavKOcpavrijae rwv vrrev- 
Ovvcov rovs p,rjhev r}hiKr)K6ra<;. r]p^e 8' ev "Av$pa> 
irpidpei'os rptaKovra pvcov rrjv dpyip', haveiad- 
p.evos eV evvea ofioXois rr)v p,vdv, eviropiav rfj 
fiSeXvpta rfj eavrov rov<; avpupbd^ovi rovs vpe- 
repovs iroiovpevos' /cal roaavrrjv daeXyeiav eVe- 
oeitjaro els eXevOepeov dv9 puiirwv yvvai/cas rfXiKrjv 
ovBels TrdiTToO^ erepos. wv ovheva eya> TrapaxaXoj 
Bevpo t>)v avrov crvpcpopdv, r)v etXero atydv, et<? 
7roXXov<; eKpaprvprjaovra, dXX" vpiv rovro Kara- 

108 AeiV&> o-K07r6iv. ri Be irpoaBoKare; rov 'AO/jprj- 
atv vfipiarljv ovk eh rov? aXXov? p,6vov, dXXa 

1 T)VTiva Cobet : T)VTlva ■KiinVOT'' MSS. 

2 jut) Sauppe : ov MSS. 



1 The Athenian constitution provided for a rigorous 
system of accounting by all public officers at the close of 
their year of office. Not only their handling of public funds, 
but every official act, was passed upon by a board of state 

86 



AGAINST TIM ARCH US, 105-108 

of his patrimony, the resources he has left are lewd- 
ness, calumny, impudence, wantonness, cowardice, 
effrontery, a face that knows not the blush of shame — 
all that would produce the lowest and most unprofit- 
able citizen. 

But it is not only his patrimony that he has 
wasted, but also the common possessions of the 
state, your possessions, so far as they have ever 
come under his control. You see for yourselves 
how young he is, and yet there is not a public 
office which he has not held, not one of them by 
lot or by election, but every one by purchase, in 
defiance of the laws. The most of them I will 
pass over, and mention two or three only. 

He held the office of auditor, and did the state 
serious injury by taking bribes from office holders 
who had been dishonest, 1 though his specialty was 
the blackmailing of innocent men who were to 
appear before the auditing board. He held a 
magistracy in Andros, which he bought for thirty 
minas, borrowing the money at nine obols on the 
mina, 2 and thus he made your allies a ready source 
of supply for his own lusts. And in his treatment 
of the wives of free men he showed such licentious- 
ness as no other man ever did. Of these men I 
call no one into court to testify publicly to his 
own misfortune, which he has chosen to cover in 
silence, but I leave it to you to investigate this 
matter. But what do you expect? If a man at 
Athens not only abuses other people, but even his 

auditors (Aoyiorat). The findings of the auditors were sub- 
ject to review by a court. 

2 The 9 obols is the interest per month, 1| drachmas on 
the hundred drachmas, or 18 per cent, per year. Ordinary 
interest rates ran from 12 per cent, to 18 per cent. 

87 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Kai et? to crwfia to eavTov, vopcov ovtwv, vp,a)v 
opcovTtov, e^Opwii etyeo-TTj/coTcov, tovtov top 1 
avTov XaftovTa dheiav koX e^ovaiav ical ap%7]v, 
Tt? av eX7no~eiev aTroXeXonrevat tl tcov acreX- 
yeaTUTWv epywv; tfhi) pr) tov Aia teal tov 'AttoXXw 
ttoXXukis eveOvprjOrjv ttjv evTV^iav tijv t% vpe- 
Tepas 7ro\e&)?, kclto, 7roXXa ptev teal aXXa, ov% 
rjKLcna he zeal «ara tovto, 2 otl k<xt i/ceivovs 
tov$ XP° V0V( > oyBeU iyeveTO t% 'Avhpucov 7roA,ea>9 

U)Vl]Tl']<i. 

109 AXXa KctO* avTov p,ev apyoav <f>avXo<i rjv, p,€Ta 
irXeiovcov he i-mei/crfs. irodev; ovtos, w dvhpe<: 

A0r)vaioi, /3ouXevT7)<> eyiverp eVl ap^ovTos Ni/co- 
(ptjpov. a-navTa pbev ovv hie%eX0elv a ev tovtm 
tu> eiuavTU) e/cafcovpytjae, 777)09 puicpbv p,epo* 
7Jp,epa<; ov/e a%iov eTTL^eipelv a h' iaAv eyyvTaTw 
7-779 atTta? /caB' i)v tj irapovaa /cpicus earl, tcivt 

110 epa) hid ftpaxecov. eVt tolvvv tov <zvtov dp^ovTos 
66" outo? ej3ovXevev, Taplas r/v twv tt}? deov 

Hy/jaavSpos 6 KpcofivXov dheXcpos, eicXeTTTOV he. 
T?}? 7roXeco9 Koivf) Kal pdXa <f>iXeTa(,pco<i %(Xta? 
hpaxp-ds. ala06p,evo<; he to Trpdypca avrjp e-m- 
eiK>)<i, lldp(piXo<i 6 'Ax^phovaiof, TrpoaKpovaaf ti 
tovtu) Kai TTapo^vvdei^, eKKXtjaLas ovarj<; elirev 
dvacrTas' "12 avhpes WOrjvcuot, tcXeTrTovatv vpwv 

1 rhv added by Emperius. 

2 toCto Cobet : toCto MSS. 



1 The year 361/60 b.c. 

* Ten treasurers, o! raixlai rrjs 'AOyvas, appointed annually 
by lot, had the care of the treasures and revenues of the 
Parthenon (Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, xlvii.). It 

88 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 108-110 

own body, here where there are laws, where you are 
looking on, where his personal enemies are on the 
watch, who would expect that same man, when he 
had received impunity and authority and office, to 
have placed any limit on his license ? By Zeus and 
Apollo, many a time before now have I marvelled at 
the good fortune of your city, shown on many other 
occasions, but not least in this, that in those days he 
found nobody to whom he could sell the state of 
Andros ! 

But, you say, although he was worthless when 
he held office alone, yet when he was associated 
with others he was all right ! How so ? This man, 
fellow citizens, became a member of the senate in 
the archonship of Nicophemus. 1 Now to recount 
all the rascalities of which he was guilty in that 
year would be too large an undertaking for the 
small fraction of a day ; but those which are most 
germane to the charge that underlies the present 
trial, I will relate in a few words. In the same year 
in which Timarchus was a member of the senate, 
Hegesandrus, the brother of Crobylus, was a 
treasurer of the funds of the goddess, 2 and to- 
gether, in right friendly comradeship, they were 
in the act of stealing a thousand drachmas which 
belonged to the city. But a reputable man, Pam- 
philus of the deme Acherdous, who had had some 
trouble with the defendant and was angry with 
him, found out what was going on, and at a meeting 
of the assembly arose and said, " Fellow citizens, 
a man and a woman are conspiring to steal one 

appears that they also had custody of any state funds that 
were for the time being unappropriated, the Opisthodomos 
of the Parthenon serving as their treasury. 

89 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

111 avrip Kai yvvrj koivt) j^iXias Spa%/xtt9." Oav/xa- 
advrcov 6° v/jlojt, 7rw? dvrjp Kai yvvi] Kai Tt? o 
X0705, elrre piiKpov hiaXnrtov " 'Ayvoelre," ecpi], 
" tl Xeyw; 6 p,ev avt'ip eariv '\{yi)(Tavhpo<; 
eKelvos vvvi," €(pr), " rrporepov 6" r]i> Kai avros 
AecoBdp,avro<i yvvi'p rj Se yvvrj Tt//«PX 0? ouroai. 
ov 8e rpoirov KXerrrerai to dpyvpiov, iyco epco. 
piera ravra ■>]&>] Sietjyet, rrepl rov irpdyp,aro<; Kai 
pudXa eiBoTcos Kai aacpws. 8t8d£as 8e ravra, 
" Tt ovv io-riv," ecjiT], " m dv&pes 'A0i]vatoi, a 
avp,f3ovXeva> vplv; idv p,ev i) fiovXr) Karayvovaa 
rovrovl 1 Kai eKcpuXXocpoprfcrao-a hiKaarrjpMp ira- 
pahw, Bore rrjv Scopedv avrols, edv 8e p.r/ KoXaacoai, 
p,r) Score, dXX' eis eKe'ivr)V avrols rrjv r\p.epav 

112 drropuvrjpuov ever are." puera ravra &><? eiravrfkuev 
7) ftovXr) eh to /3ov\evT7]piov, e^ecpvXXo(f)6pi]ae 
puev avrov, ev 8e rfj \jr/)(f)a> KareSe^aro. on o ov 
rrapehuiKe 8iKaari]pt(p ov& efyjXacrev e.K rov (3ov- 
Xevrriplov, d^OopLat puev Xeycov, dvdyKrj 6 iartv 
elrrelv, on t?}? Scopeas drrervxe. 2 p,rj rotvvv 
cpavr)re, (o dvSpe? ''AO^vacoi, rfj p,ev /3ovXf/ %aA,e- 
TTip'avres Kai irevraKoaLow; dv&pas rcov rroXiroiv 
darecpavcorovs rroii'jaavres, on rovrov ovk erip^w- 

1 toutovI Franke : tovtoA o.Slk(7v MSS. 

2 anervx* Weidner : ovk €tux 6 or aireTi/yx^ve MSS. 



1 At the close of their year of office the senate had become 
accustomed to expect a vote of the popular assembly bestow- 
ing a crown (garland) as a testimonial for their services. 

- The senators had been sitting with the other citizens as 

90 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, uo-nz 

thousand drachmas of yours." When you in astonish- 
ment cried, " How ' a man and a woman,' what 
are you talking about ? " after a little he went on : 
"Don't you understand," said he, "what I mean? 
The man is our friend Hegesandrus there, a man 
now, though he too used to be a woman, Laodamas's 
woman ; as for the woman, she is Timarchus yonder. 
How the money is being stolen I will tell you." 
He then proceeded to give a full account of the 
matter, and in a way that showed that there was 
no guesswork about it. After he had given you 
this information, " What is it, fellow citizens," said 
he, " that I advise ? If the senate sustains the 
charge against this man and expels him, and then 
hands him over to the courts, give the senate the 
usual testimonial ; J but if they fail to punish him, 
refuse to give it, and lay up this thing against 
them for that day." After this, when the senate 
had returned to the senate chamber, 2 they ex- 
pelled him on the preliminary ballot, but took 
him back on the final vote. 3 I must tell you, how- 
ever unpleasant it is to mention it, that for their 
failure to hand him over to the courts, or even to 
expel him from the senate chamber, they failed 
to receive the usual testimonial. I beg you there- 
fore, fellow citizens, not to present the spectacle 
of showing resentment toward the senate, and 
depriving five hundred citizens of a crown because 
they failed to punish the defendant, and then 



members of the assembly. After the adjournment of the 
assembly, the senate resumed its session. 

3 It appears that on the question of the expulsion of a 
member there was a preliminary vote with leaves as ballots, 
and a final one with the ordinary ballots. 

91 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ptfcraTO, avrol he d<j>rJTe, /cat rov rfj fiovXf) /xtj 
crvveveyKovra p>]Topa, tovtov tu> ht]fi(p irepi- 

7T0l)](T>]T€. 

113 'AWa rrepl p,ev xa? Kktiptara^ ap%ds eari 
toiovtos, rrepl he ra9 ^ei,poTOVi]Ta<; fieXricov. /cal 
Tt9 vfiojv ovk olhev a)? 7T€pi/3o7}T(o<; i^lfKeyx^V 
k\€7ttt]<; gov; TTep.<pOel<i jap vcf) vp,cov e^eraarr]^ 
tcov ev 'Eiperpiq ^evcov, fxovos tcov i^eTaarcov 
cb/xo\6yei Xafteiv dpyupiov, /ecu ov Trepl tov irpd- 
yparos ciTreXoyeiTo, aW' evuvi irepl tov Tip,7]/.iaro<i 
l/c€Tev€v 6/j,o\oycov dhifcetv. vp.ei<i he tois /nev 

i$jdpVOl$ €Tlfllj<TaT€ TaXaVTOV eKaCTTCp, TOVTCp he 

rpuiKovra pivciov. oi he vo/jloi /ceXevovat, tcov /c\e- 
tttcov tol"? p,ev op-oXoyovvTw; Oavdrco typiovtrOaL, 
rovs §' dpt'ov/xevovs KpLvetrOai. 

114 TotyupToi ovrcos v/ulcov /caTecppovrjcrev, coctt ev- 
dvs errl rat*? 1 hia\jn](j)Lcre(Ti hio"%i\[a<; opay/j.a<; 
e\a/3e. (f))]<ra<i yap QiXcoTdhrjv tov \Lvha6i)vaia, 
eva tcov 7toXitcov, aTreXevOepov elvai eavrou, /cat 
Treiaas dtto^fi^'iaaadai tovs hi]p,ora<i, eVicTTa? 
rfj /carriyopla errl tov hiKacnrjpLov, /cal Xaftcov 
els TTqv eavTov \elpa ra lepd, kui opboaas //,?) 
Xafleiv hcopa fnjhe Xi')\freadai, /cal eVo/xocra? tovs 

1 Ta?? Sauppe : rats iv rols Sri/nois or rats Sr)/.iofflais MSS. 

1 "All the magistrates that are concerned with the ordi- 
nary routine of administration are elected by lot, except the 
Military Treasurer, the Commissioners of the Theoric Fund, 
and the Superintendent of Springs These are elected by 
vote, and the magistrates thus elected hold office from one 
Panathenaic festival to another. All military officers are 

92 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 112-114 

letting him go free yourselves ; and I beg you not 
to preserve for the popular assembly a public man 
who has proved useless to the senate. 

But, you say, though such is his record in the 
offices filled by lot, he has been a better man in 
the elective offices. 1 Why, who of you has not 
heard of his notorious conviction for stealing ? You 
will recall that you sent him as an inspector of the 
mercenary troops in Eretria. 2 He and he only of 
the board of inspectors acknowledged that he had 
taken money, and made no defence against the 
charge, but immediately admitted his guilt, making 
his plea only as to the penalty. You punished those 
who denied their guilt with a fine of a talent apiece, 
but him with half a talent. Whereas the laws com- 
mand that thieves who admit their guilt shall be 
punished with death ; it is those who deny their 
guilt that are to be put on trial. 

In consequence of this experience so great became 
his contempt for you that immediately, on the occa- 
sion of the revision of the citizen lists, he gathered 
in two thousand drachmas. For he asserted that 
Philotades of Cydathenaeon, a citizen, was a former 
slave of his own, and he persuaded the members of 
the deme to disfranchise him. He took charge of 
the prosecution in court, 3 and after he had taken 
the sacred offerings in his hand and sworn that 
he had not taken a bribe and would not, and 

also elected by vote." — Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 
xliii. (Kenyon's trans.). 

2 The handling of the funds for the payment of mercenary 
troops gave such opportunities for dishonesty, especially in 
the padding of the rolls, that inspectors were sent out to 
check the accounts on the spot. 

3 See on § 77. 

93 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

115 optciovs Oeovs real e^coXetav 1 eTrapaad/xevos eavrw, 
el\t](f)Q}<; r/Xey^di] irapd AevKcoviBov rov QiXwrd- 
8ov tcrjSearov 8id t&iXrjpLOvos rov VTro/cpirov etKoai 
puvas, as ev oXljm %o6v(p 7rpbs Qiko^evrjv dvrjXwae 
rrjv eraipav, teal rrpovhwice rov dyowa, real rov 
optcov eTnoopK^crev. on 8' uXtjOtj X^a), icdXei pbot 
<£>iX>']p.ova rov hovra ro dpyvptov 2 teal Aevtc(ovi8rjv 
rov <£>L~\,ri)rd()ou ferjoeemjv, kcu rcov o~vv9r)Kwv dvd- 
yvcoOi ra dvriypa<j)a, naO" as rrjv wpdcnv irroii)- 
aaro rov dywvos. 

MAPTTPIAI. 2TN0HKAI 

116 Tlepl fiev ovv rovs 7ro\wa9 teal rovs oiKelovs 
olos yeyevrjTai, /cat rr]v rrarpwav ovalav &>? ai- 
a^pws dvrfk(ojce, teal rr\v vfipiv rr)v els ro eavrov 
oosp.a d>s vrrepedopaKe, avvfjare 3 fiev teal irplv ifie 
Xeyeiv, iKavcos 8' {jfids virop.ep.vy)Ke i zeal 6 trap 
ijxov Xoyos' Svo 8e p-oi rrjs Karrjyoplas e'iSr) Xei- 
irercu, €<f oils i/xavrov r elirelv ev%ouat rols Oeols 
irdcn real rrdaais vrrep rrjs iroXecos &>? 7rpor}pr)p.ai, 
bads re fiovXoipLrjv dv oils iyco ueXXco Xiyeiv 
irpoo-e^eiv 5 kcli irapaKoXovOelv ev/xaOws. 

117 EcrTt 8 o pcev irporepos fxoi Xoyos 7rpo8t?]yijcns 
rrjs diroXoylas r)s d/cova) ueXXeiv ylyvecrOai, Xva 
fir) rovro ip-ou irapaXirrovros 6 rds rcov Xoycov 
re^vas KarerrayyeXXouevos rovs veovs 8i8dcr/cetv 

1 itwAeiav Baiter : tV if^<i\e mv MSS. 

2 Weidner deletes Tipdoxy which the MSS. have before 
or after rb apyvptov. * <rvv^<rre Cobet : avviort MSS. 

4 vitoix4p.vrjKf Cobet : inro/xift.pr)(TKei MSS. 
6 Tipoae\eiv Weidner : Trpoaex eiv T ^"' vovv or icpoaij^eiv r^v 
yvt&/j.i)v MSS. 

94 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 115-117 

though he swore by the usual gods of oaths l and 
called down destruction on his own head, yet it 
has been proved that he received twenty minas 
from Leuconides, the brother-in-law of Philotades, 
at the hands of Philemon the actor, which money 
he soon spent on his mistress Philoxene. And so 
he broke his oath and abandoned the case. To 
prove that I speak the truth please call Philemon, 
who paid over the money, and Leuconides, the 
brother-in-law of Philotades, and read the copy of 
the agreement by which he effected the sale ot 
the case. 

AFFIDAVITS. AGREEMENT 

Now what manner of man he has shown himself 
to be in his dealings with his fellow citizens and his 
own family, how shamefully he has wasted his patri- 
mony, how lie has submitted to the abuse of His 
own body, all this you knew as well as I, before 
ever I spoke, but my account of it has sufficiently 
refreshed your memory. Two points of my plea 
remain, and I pray to all the gods and goddesses 
that I may be enabled to speak regarding them 
as I have planned to do, for the public good ; and 
I should like you to give attention to what I am 
about to say, and to follow me with willing mind. 

The first of these points is an anticipation of the 
defence which I hear he is about to offer, for I fear 
that if I neglect this topic, that man who professes 
to teach the young the tricks of speech 2 may mis- 

1 The scholiast tells us that these gods were Apollo, 
Demeter, and Zeus. 

2 The reference is to Demosthenes, who, we must from 
this statement conclude, was in his earlier years a profes- 
sional teacher of rhetoric, as well as a lawyer and politician. 

95 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aitarr) rivl rra paXoyio~dp,evo<$ vpd<i d<freXr]Tai to 
t?}? 7ro\ea)<f avfMpepov. 6 Be BevTepos earl /noi 
X070? 7Tapd>cXrjai<; twv ttoXltwv Trpbs dperrjv. 6po> 
Be ttoXXovs p,ev twv vewrepwv 7rpooeaT>]KOTa<i 
irpbs tw Bifccumipiu), 7roXXou<? Be tcov Trpeaftv- 
rep(ov, ov/c eXa^icrTOVs Be etc tj}? dXXr)<; '\LXXdBos 

118 avveiXeypLevovs eirl ri]V d/cpoaaiv 01)5 p.)] vo/xi^er 
ep,e 6ewp/]o~ovTa<$ y/ceiv, aXXa 7to\v fiaXXov vp,d<i 
elaop,ei'Ov ?, el /jltj povov ev vopodeielv eTriaraaOe, 
dXXd ical Kp'iveiv ra KaXa ical ra p,i) /caXa 
BvvaaOe, teal el Tip,av eiricrraaOe tous dyaBovs 
dvBpa<i, ical el OeXere KoXd^eiv tous oveiBrj tov 
eavro)V /3lov rfj troXei /caTaa/cevd^ovTa^. 1 Xetja) 
Be rrpoyrov irpos vp,ds irepi t^? airoXoyca^. 

119 'O yap TrepiTTbs ev rot? Xoyoi? &i]p,o<rdevri<; r) 
TOL/9 vopiovs cj)i]alv i/pas e£aXeL<f>eiv Beiv, i) tois 
e'/z-ot? Xoyois ov/c etvac. irpoae/CTeov. airodavpid^ei 
ydp, el p,rj irdvre'i pbepivrjerd on /caO e/cacrTov 
eviauTov r\ /3ov\r) ircoXei to iropvi/cov reXo<;- ical 
tou? 7rpiap.evovs to TeXos ov/c ei/cdteiv, dXX d/cpi- 
[3a)s elBevai Toy? ravTT) %pwpevov<$ tjj epyaaia. 
Sir ore B>) ovv TtTuXp-rj/ca dvTiypdyjraaOai ireirop- 
vevp.et'(p Tipudp^p p,/) e^eivat, Bt]p:r]yupelv, dirai- 
T€tv <pi]ai Tijv rrpd^iv avT^v ov/c aiTiav /caTrjyopov, 
dXXa p,apTvplav TeXcovov tov irapd Tipudp^ov 
tovto i/cXe^avTo<i to TeXo?. 

120 'E7f() Be 7T/JO? Tavra, o> avBpes A@>}vaioi, cr/ce- 
^raaO' dv uttXovv vpZv /cal eXevOepiov Bo^ro \oyov 
Xeyetv. alcr^vvopLai yap virep t% 7ro\ea>9, el 
Tipapxos, 6 tov Bjjpbov avp./3ovXc<; ical ra? elf tijv 
'KXXdBa ToXpbCov 7rpecrf3eia<; irpertfieveiv, fit] to 

1 Ka.Ta<TKtva.£ovTas Blass : TrapxrrKevd^ovTas MSS. 
96 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 1 17-120 

lead you by some artifice, and so defraud the state. 
My second point is an exhortation of the citizens 
to virtue. And I see many young men present 
in court, and many of their elders, and not a few 
citizens of other states of Hellas, gathered here to 
listen. Do not imagine that they have come to 
look at me. Nay, rather have they come to find 
out about you, whether you not only know how 
to make good laws, but also are able to distinguish 
between good conduct and bad ; whether you know 
how to honour good men ; and whether you are 
willing to punish those who make their own life 
a reproach to the city. I will first speak to you 
about the defence. 

The eminent orator Demosthenes says that you 
must either wipe out your laws, or else no attention 
must be paid to my words. For he is amazed, he 
says, if you do not all remember that every single 
year the senate farms out the tax on prostitutes, 
and that the men who buy this tax do not guess, 
but know precisely, who they are that follow this 
profession. When, therefore, I have dared to bring 
impeachment against Timarchus for having prosti- 
tuted himself, in order that I may deprive him of 
the right to address the people in assembly, Demos- 
thenes says that the very act complained of calls, 
not for an accuser's arraignment, but for the testi- 
mony of the tax-gatherer who collected this tax 
from Timarchus. 

Now, fellow citizens, see whether the reply that 
I make seems to you frank and straightforward. 
For I am ashamed in the city's behalf, if Timarchus, 
the counsellor of the people, the man who dares to 
go out into Hellas on their embassies, if this man, 

97 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irpdypa bXov airor piracy 6 cu eTri^eipijaei, aXXa 

TOl»? T07TOU9 €7TepCt)T)jaei 07T0V €Ka6e^€TO, Kdl tov<; 

reXcovas, el 7roo7r<>Te Trap' avrov to Tropvi/cbv TeA.09 

121 ei\tj(fra(TLV. ravTr]^ pev ovv Trjs d7roXoyla<; vpcov 
eve/ca Trapa^copr/adro)- erepov B eya> o~oi Xoyov 
v-rrofiaXa} KaXov teal Bi/caiov, a> XP^V' e * P-yBev 
alo"xpov aavTw avvoicrBa. roXptjaov yap ei? toik? 
BiKacrTas /SXe-v^a? elirelv a 7rpoa)JKei dvBpl aco- 
cfipovi ra rrepl rijv rfXueiav ""Az'Spe? 'Adi]vaioi, 
Tedpappai pev i/c iraiBbs koX peipaiciov irap vpiv, 
ovk dcf>avei<; Be 8iaTpi,j3d<; Biarpi/3co, dXX" iv rais 

122 eKK\i)criai,<i p,ed vp,wv opoipai. olpai S' dv, el 
7T/30? aXXov; Tivas rjv 6 A.070? pot izepl t?}? alrias 
r)<i xp'wopai, reus vperepais paprv plats paBlcos dv 
diroXvaacrdai row? tou Karrjyopov Xoyovs. p,i] 
yap on, el TrktrpaKTai pot n tovtcov, aXX' el Bokm 
vpiv 7rapa7rXi]aiGo<i /3efiia>K€vaL rals Xeyopevais 
viro tovtov curiais, d/3icoTov rjyovpevo<; 1 epavTW 
rbv Xonrbv /3iov, TrapaBlBcopc t>jv et? epavrbv 
rip.o)p[av eva7roXoy/jcraa0ac rfj iroXei irpbs tou>? 
"EXXr/vai, ovB ijtcco Trapanricrbpevos vpds, dXXa 
KaTaxp)]o -acrde poi, el Bokw toiovtos eivai." 

Avrr] pbev earw, w Tipap^e, dvBpbs dyaOou ical 
o-cbifipovos diroXoyla, /cat TreiricrTev kotos t&> j3iw 
real KaracfrpovovvTos cIkotcos dirdar/q /3Xa<7<£?//u'a<r 

123 a Be ireidei <xe Aypoadevr)<i,' 2 ovk dvBpbs eauv 
eXevdepov, dXXa iropvov Trepl twv tottwv Biacfiepo- 
pevov. eTreiB)] 8' els Ta? eTroavvpias tcov oucrfaewv 

1 Weidner deletes elvai, which the MSS. have before or 
after r)yov/j.evos. 

2 Weidner deletes \4yeiv, which the MSS. have before or 
after &r)fj.oa6ivris. 

98 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 120-123 

instead of undertaking to clear his record of the 
whole matter, shall ask us to specify the localities 
where he plied his trade, and to say whether the 
tax collectors have ever collected the prostitutes' 
licence from him. For your sakes pray let him 
give up such defence as that! But I myself will 
suggest to you, Timarchus, a different line of 
defence, which is honourable and fair, and you will 
adopt it, if you are conscious of having done nothing 
shameful. Come, dare to look the jury in the face 
and say that which a decent man ought to say of 
his youth : " Fellow citizens, I have been brought 
up as boy and youth among you ; how I have spent 
my time is no secret to you, and you see me with 
you in your assemblies. Now if I were defending 
myself before any other set of men on the charge 
on which I stand accused, I think your testimony 
would readily suffice to refute the words of my 
accuser. For if any such act has been committed 
by me, nay rather if my life has exhibited to you 
even any resemblance to that of which he accuses 
me, I feel that the rest of my life is not worth 
living ; I freely concede you my punishment, that the 
state may have therein a defence in the eyes of 
Hellas. I have not come here to beg for mercy 
from you ; nay, do with me what you will, if you 
believe that I am such a man as that." 

This, Timarchus, is the defence of a good and 
decent man, a man who has confidence in his past 
life, and who with good reason looks with contempt 
upon all efforts to slander him. But the defence 
which Demosthenes persuades you to make is not 
for a free man, but for a prostitute — quibbling about 
when and where ! But since you do take refuge 

99 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

icaTacpevyeis, tear otfCtjfia to irpdyp-a e^eTu^eoOai 
ii^iwv ottov ercaOe^ov, a pLeWa> Xeyeiv a/covcra*; 
elaav6i<; ov XPV°~V toiovto) Xoyo), edv auxppovfi^. 
ov yap t« olfc>jp,aTa ovh* at olfojcreis ras eTrwvv- 
p.ia<; roi? evotKijaaai Trapeyovaiv, aXX. oi evotKi]- 
aavTes Ta? twv Ihicov eTTiTi]hevpidT(ov eVowu/uas 

124 TOt9 T07rof<» irapaa/cevd^ovaiv. ottov fxev yap 
ttoWoI fiicrda)o-d/jL€Voi piav ol/crjaiv hie\6p,evoi 
e^ovai, avvoiKiav fcaXovpuev, ottov S' el? evoiiceZ, 
oiKiav. edv o° et? ev h/j-rrov tovtcov tu>v £ttI rat? 
ohols ipyacrTrjpiutv tarpon eiaoiKiai]Tai, lar-petov 
KaXelrar edv 6° 6 piev e^oucio-rjTai, ei<? he to avTo 
tovto epyaaTijpiov xa\/cev<i eltroi/dtrqTai, %a\- 
Kelov eK\i')0t], edv he fcvacpevs, Kvacpelov, edv he 
reKTcov, re/cToveiov edv he Tropvofioa/ebs kcu rrrop- 
vai, a7ro t?}? ipyao~ia<; avTrjS e/c\i)0>] iropvelov. 
ware av iroWa iropvela tt) rrjs Trpd^eoos ev^epeia 
TT€TTOL)]rca<;. pur) ovv, ottov rrore eirpaTTes, epcora, 
a\X' oj? ov 7re7rot?//ca?, tovto 1 aTToXoyov. 

125 ' Hfei 8' a>? eoiice Kal eVepo? Xoyo? t£? u7ro tov 
avTOV ao(f)icrTov avytceipLevos. \eyei yap a>? ovhev 
eaTLV dhtKcoTepov (p>ip.r)<i, dyopala Te/cpLrjpia Kal 
TTaineXcos dtcoXovOa tw avTov jSiw irapexopievo';. 
irpoiTOV p.ev yap ttjv ev K.o\(ova> avvowiav Ti)v 
A?;/x&)i»o? /caXovpLeinjv yfrevhf] (prjai ttjv eTTcovvpblav 
eveiv': ov yap elvat AtfpLoovos' kTreiTa tov Kp/jurjv 

1 011 irenoiriKas, tovto Blass : tovto ov irewolrjKas or ov tovto 
ir67ro/rjfas or tovto 7reTo(r//coj MSS. 



1 Some of Aeschines' anticipations of the arguments of his 
opponents would be possible in the preparation of his speech 
for the court-room ; others were probably added to the 

TOO 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 123-125 

in the names of the lodgings, demanding that in our 
proof we specify every single house where you plied 
your trade, to such an argument as that you will 
never again resort, if you are wise, when you 
have heard what I am about to say. For it is not 
the lodgings and the houses which give their names 
to the men who have lived in them, but it is the 
tenants who give to the places the names of their 
own pursuits. Where, for example, several men 
hire one house and occupy it, dividing it between 
them, we call it an "apartment house," but where 
one man only dwells, a "house." And if perchance 
a physician moves into one of these shops on the 
street, it is called a "surgery." But if he moves 
out and a smith moves into this same shop, it is 
called a "smithy"; if a fuller, a "laundry"; if a 
carpenter, a " carpenter's shop " ; and if a pimp and 
his harlots, from the trade itself it gets its name 
of "brothel." So that you have made many a house 
a brothel by the facility with which you have plied 
your profession. Ask not, then, where it was that 
you practised it, but make this your defence, that 
you have never done the thing. 

But it seems that we are to have another argu- 
ment, too, concocted by the same sophist. For he 
says that nothing is more unjust than common 
report, and he goes to the market-place for his evi- 
dence, the sort of thing that is quite in harmony 
with his own life. He says first 1 that the apartment 
house in Colonus which is called Demon's is falsely 
named, for it does not belong to Demon. Again, 

speech as prepared for publication, after the speeches for the 
defence had been heard. Probably some of these replies 
were given extempore in court. 

IOI 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

tov 'Avho/cthov KaXov/xevov ov/c 'Avho/cihov, dXX' 

126 A 177780? <pvXri<; elvai dvdOrjpba. irapafyepei 8' au- 
t6v iv CTKcopLpuaTO^ pcepei, go? f/8v<; cov 1 dvr)p ical 
rrepl tci? lhia<i 8unpi{3a<; yeXolof " Et fir) /cal ip:e 

8e2, cf)7]CTlV, " VTTCLKOVeiV TOt? 6'^A-Of? /u,t) &.11110- 

aOevr\v /caXovpuevov, dXXa BdraXov, otl TavTr/v i£ 
VTTOKopicr/jLaTOS rirdi]^ ttjv eTTcovvfilav e%o>." el 
he Ti/za/r^o? d>palo<i iyeveTO /cal cr/ccoTTTeTai Tjj 
tov 7rpdy}jiaro<i hiaftoXfj /cal firj tols aurov epyois, 
ov 8)]ttou did tovt aurov cpijai helv avp-cpopd 
irepLireaelv. 

127 'E7C0 he, co Ai]fM)a0€ve<;, irepl /xev tcov dvaOrj/xd- 
rcov /cal tcov oIklcov ical tcov KTrj/xaTcov /cal ttuvtcov 
o\&>? tcov dejicovcov iroXXovs /cal TTavTohaiTov<; /cal 
ovbeiroTe toi)? ai/TOvs d/covco Xoyovs Xeyo^evov;' 
ov yap eloiv iv avTOts ovtb /caXal oure alcrypal 
irpd^ei^, dXX o 7rpoaayJrd/xevo<i avTcov /cal irapa- 
Tvyd>v, octtis av rj, /caTa to pueyedos t?)? a'vTov 
8o£?7? Xoyov irapeyei' nrepl he tov tcov dvOpcoTrcov 
jSlov /cal Ta<; 7rpd£ei<i 2 difrevhifc Tt? diro TavTopid- 
tov irXavaTai $77/0,77 /caTa ttjv ttoXlv, /cal hiay- 
yeXXei tols ttoXXoc*; Ta<; toia? 7rpd£ei<;, nroXXd he 

128 /cal fxavTeveTat Trepl tcov pueXXovTcov eaecr&ai. /cal 
oi/tco? ivapyes ecm /cal ov TreTrXaapcevov 6 Xeyco, 
cocrO^ evprjtreTe /cal tt)v ttoXlv rjficov /cal tow? irpo- 
yovovs <p7]p,i]<; a>? 6eov pLeyiaTT]^ ficofibv IhpvpLevov;, 

1 Siv added by Dobree. 

2 Kal Tas irpd^eis Scheibe : ncd \6yov (or rbv \6yov) koI ras 
wpd^ets MSS. 



1 On the nickname, see Speech II, § 99. 

2 The scholiast tells us that this altar was dedicated to 

102 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 125-128 

that the herra called "the Herm of Andocides " is 
not that of Andocides, but a votive offering of the 
tribe Aegei's. And Demosthenes by way of a jest 
presents himself as an example, for he poses as a 
man who knows how to indulge in pleasantries and 
to joke about his own manner of life. " Unless," he 
says, " I am to answer to the name when the crowd 
call me, not Demosthenes, but ' Ba talus,' just be- 
cause I got that nickname from my nurse, as my 
baby-name." 1 And he says that if Timarchus did 
develop into a handsome youth, and if he is jeered 
at through slanderous interpretation of that fact, 
and not because of his own actions, surely he ought 
not for that reason to fall into misfortune. 

But, Demosthenes, in the case of votive offerings, 
houses, estates, and all dumb objects in general, I do 
indeed hear many names applied, ever changing, 
never twice the same ; for in them are no actions 
good or bad, but the man who happens to have 
become conuected with them, whoever he may 
be, gives them a name according to the greatness 
of his own reputation. But in the case of the life 
and conduct of men, a common report which is un- 
erring does of itself spread abroad throughout the 
city ; it causes the private deed to become matter 
of public knowledge, and many a time it even 
prophesies what is about to be. So manifest and 
so far from being fabricated is this statement of 
mine, that you will find that both our city and 
our forefathers dedicated an altar to Common 
Report, as one of the greatest gods ; 2 and you 

commemorate news of a victory of Cimon's in Pamphylia, 
received at Athens the clay the battle was fought. Pausanias 
(r. xvii. 1) attests the existence of the altar. 

103 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

teal rbv " O /u.i] pov iroXXaKi? ev tt) 'IXidSc Xeyovra 
irpb tov tl tcov pbeXXovTcov yevecrdar " ^ijfxri 8' 
et? arparbv rfxOe," Kal ttciX.iv tov lLvpnrl87)v 
dirocf)aiv6p:evov tijv debv TavTrjv ov pubvov tou? 
^covTas ep,(pavi^ecv hvvap.evr)v, oiroioi rives av 
Tvy%dvG>ffiv ovT€<i, aXXd, Kal tovs TeTeXevrrjKoTas, 
orav Xeyrj, 

(ptjpn] tov eadXbv kclv pvyjp SecKwai 7*}?. 

129 6 S' 'HcrioSo? Kal 8iappifii]v Oebv avrrjv airohei- 
Kvvai, irdvv cra<£aj? <fipd£cov tol<; /3ovXop.evoi5 
avvievar Xeyei yap, 

(p7]P-r] 8' ovTis irdparav diroXXvrai, rjVTiva Xaol 
iroXXol (prjpii^coaf Oeos vv Tt? ecm Kal avTij. 

Kal tovtcov tcov iroirpuaTcov toxjs p,ev eva^rjpLOvws 
/3€/3icok6tci<; euprjaeTe eiraiveTas ovtgl^' irdvTes 
yap 01 hripoata cpiXoTi/101 irapa rtjs dyadrjs (fiij- 
p,7]<; i)yovvTai Ti)v So^av KopuetcrOai' ol? S' al- 
o~xpo<i £o~tlv /9i09, ov Tip.coai Ti]v Oebv TavTr\v 
KaTt]yopov yap avTrjv dddvaTov eyeiv rjyovvTai. 

130 dvap.v)]crOijTe ovv, co dvSpes, tIvl Ke\pi)o-Qe <£?//*# 
irepl Tifidp^ov. ov% dpua Tovvopua XeyeTai Kal 
to ipcoTijpba epcoTtiTe- " II oto? Ttp.ap-^o'i; 6 irbp- 
1/09;" eirena el p.ev pcdpTvpas irapei^6pb?]v irepi 
Tivo<i, eiriaTeveT av p,oi' el he Ttjv Oebv pidpTvpa 
irape^op.ai, ov nuTTevaeTe; y ovhe -^revhopuap- 

131 Tvpi(ov 6ep,i<; eailv eino-Ki^aaOaL. iirel Kal ire pi 
t>}? faipLocrOevovs eirtovvpuas, ov KaKcos virb tT]<; 



1 The quotation from Hesiod is from Works and Days, 
703 f. ; that from Euripides is not found in any of the extant 

104 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 1 28-1 31 

will find that Homer again and again in the Iliad 
says, of a thing that has not yet come to pass, 
"Common Report came to the host;" and again 
you will find Euripides declaring that this god is 
able not only to make known the living, revealing 
their true characters, but the dead as well, when 
he says, "Common Report shows forth the good 
man, even though he be in the bowels of the 
earth;" and Hesiod expressly represents her as 
a goddess, speaking in words that are very plain 
to those who are willing to understand, for he says, 
" But Common Report dies never, the voice that 
tongues of many men do utter. She also is divine." 1 
You will find that all men whose lives have been 
decorous praise these verses of the poets. For all who 
are ambitious for honour from their fellows believe 
that it is from good report that fame will come 
to them. But men whose lives are shameful pay 
no honour to this god, for they believe that in her 
they have a deathless accuser. Call to mind, there- 
fore, fellow citizens, what common report you have 
been accustomed to hear in the case of Timarchus. 
The instant the name is spoken you ask, do you not, 
" What Timarchus do you mean ? The prostitute ? " 
Furthermore, if I had presented witnesses concern- 
ing any matter, you would believe me ; if then 
I present the god as my witness, will you refuse 
to believe ? But she is a witness against whom 
it would be impiety even to bring complaint of 
false testimony. In the case of Demosthenes, too, 
it was common report, and not his nurse, that 

plays, nor do we find the Homeric phrase in the Iliad. 
Indeed, the word <t>v/*r) does not occur in the Iliad, and it is 
found oidy three times in the Odyssey (ii. 35 ; xx. 100, 105), 
where it is used of words of ominous meaning. 

F. io 5 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

</>?7/a>7?, aXX.' oi>x virb rrj<; tLtOt)?, BaraXo? irpoaa- 
yopeveTai, eg avav&pias ical KiiaiSlas evey/cdp,evo<; 
Tovvopua. el yap Ti9 aov ra Kop,\jrd ravra 
yXavMJKia irepieXopuevos teal tow? txa\a/cov<; yc- 
TfovLcr/cowi, ev ols to 1)9 Kara tcov (piXcov Xoyovs 
ypd<peis, Trepievey/cas Bouj et? ra? %et/3a? toov 
oiKacrTwv, olyuat dv clvtous, el Ti9 /at) irpoeiiroov 
tovto TToirjcreiev, diroprjaat elre dv8pb<; eire yvvcu- 
kos el\i]<f>ao~iv eadfjra. 

132 Ava(3i]creTat, S' ev rfj diroXoyia kcl\ twv aTparr]- 
ywv Tt?, 009 aKovdi, viTTid^wv /cal KaraaKoirov- 
p,evo<; eavrov, ax? ev 7ra\aLarpai<; ical Siarpifiais 
yeyovco*;' 09 iTuyeipyjaei hiaavpeiv tijv oXijv ev- 
araaiv tov dywvos, ou Kpiaiv egevprj/cevai p.e <pd- 
(tkcov, dXXd Setvf]<i dTraiSevalas dpy>jv, irapa^e- 
piov Trpwrov piev tovs evepyeras tov<; vpLerepovs, 
'App,68iov Kal 'ApiaToyeLTOva, real ttjv 717)09 d\\jj. 
Xov 9 7tl(ttiv kcli to irpdypia ft>9 avvi'peyKe tj) iroXei 

133 Stegictiv ovk dcpegeTac 8e, &<; (pacriv, ov8e tcov 

Op,t)pov TroLrjpLaTwv ou8e twv 6vop,aTWV tmv ypau- 



1 Writing speeches against his former friends is as brave 
an act as Demosthenes is capable of, and the only armour 
that he knows or needs is his soft shirt ! Aeschines is 
smarting under the fact that Demosthenes, who, in the 
beginning of the negotiations with Philip for peace, had 
been on good terms with himself, has now caused his indict- 
ment for treason, and will shortly conduct the prosecution 
in court. 

106 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 131-133 

gave him his nickname ; and well did common 
report name him Batalus, for his effeminacy and 
lewdness ! For, Demosthenes, if anyone should 
strip off those exquisite, pretty mantles of yours, 
and the soft, pretty shirts that you wear while 
you are writing your speeches against your friends, 1 
and should pass them around among the jurors, 
I think, unless they were informed beforehand, 
they would be quite at a loss to say whether they 
had in their hands the clothing of a man or of a 
woman ! 

But in the course of the defence one of the 
generals will, as I am told, mount the platform, 
with head held high and a self-conscious air, as 
one who should say, Behold the graduate of the 
wrestling schools, and the student of philosophy ! 
And he will undertake to throw ridicule upon the 
whole idea of the prosecution, asserting that this 
is no legal process that I have devised, but the 
first step in a dangerous decline in the culture 
of our youth. 2 He will cite first those benefactors 
of yours, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, describing 
their fidelity to one another, and telling how in 
their case this relationship proved the salvation of 
the state. 3 Indeed, they say he will not even spare 
the poems of Homer or the names of the heroes, 

2 Probably the hearers would be quick to catch the half- 
hidden thought suggested by the word anatSevaia. The 
Athenian gentlemen did indeed "cultivate" the handsome 
boys and young men, and for most immoral purposes. The 
culture that the boys received was too often not tvnaiSevyia, 
but naiSepacrria. 

3 The story was that the tyrant Hipparchus sought to 
become the lover of Harmodius, who was loved by Aristogei- 
ton, and that the jealousies of this iraiSepaaTia led to the 
liberation of the state. 

107 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

kcov, a\\a teal rrjv \eyop,evr]v yeveadai (f>i\iav oV 
epcora Tlarpo/cXov teal 'A^iWecos vpvt)aei, Kal 
to koXKos, toGTrep ov irdXai fxa/capi^op-evov, av 
tv^t) a(o<^poavvi)s, vvv eyKcopidaerai. ei yap Ti]v 
tov acopiaTOS evirperreiav Tavrrjv rives hiafidX- 
Xovtcs avp,<f)opdv rots k^ovcri KaTa<JTi]aovaiv, ov 
rauTa Koivfj yfrtjcpieiaOai <f>rio~iv bpds Kal 181a, 

134 ev^eadar cltottov yap eXvai hoiceiv l aura, el tovs 
p,ev vlels tovs pLi)8eiTw yeyovoras ctTravres evyeade 
ol pieWovTes TraiBotroielaOai koXovs KayaOovs 
ras I8eas (f>vvai /cal ttjs iroXecos a^lovs, tovs 8 
i']8rj yeyovoTas, €</>' ols irpocn'pcei aep,vvveaBai Trjv 
iroKiv, iav /cdWei Kal a»pa BieveyKOVTes e/CTrXrj- 
gcoai rivas /cal irepipd^Toi e£ epuiTos yevcovrai, 
tovtovs co? eoinev Ala^ivrj ireiaOevres drip^ooaeTe. 

135 KavravOa 87] riva KaTa8popr']V, a>9 clkovw, p.e\- 
\ei TTOielcrOai irepl epov, eTrepcorcov el ovk alo-%v- 
vopai avros pev ev tois yvp,vaalois 6)(\7ipbs wv 
Kal irXeiarcov epao~Tt)s yeyovcos, to 8e irpdypia els 
6vei8os Kal klvBvvovs KadicrTas. Kai to TeXev- 
ralov, &)<? dirayyeXkovo'i rives pioi, els yeXcora Kal 
\rjp6v riva irporpeiropevos vp,as, eiri8ei^ea6ai 2 
pov (prjalv oo~a it eir olr\Ka epwriKa eis rivas iroirj- 
para, Kal \0180p1cov rivoov Kal irX^ycov ck tov 
nrpdyparos, at irepl epe yeyevrjvrai, p,aprvpias 
(prjal irape^eaOai. 

1 5o«6iV Baiter and Sauppe : 8.>k€? or ws Sok(7 or is SoKelv 
MSS. 2 ^7ri8e(|€irflaj Wolf : e'TriSWjaffflai MSS. 

I08 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 133-135 

but will celebrate the friendship between Patroclus 
and Achilles, which, we are told, had its source 
in passion. And he will pronounce an encomium 
on beauty now, as though it were not recognised 
long since ;is a blessing, if haply it be united 
with morality. For he says that if certain men 
by slandering this beauty of body shall cause beauty 
to be a misfortune to those who possess it, then 
in your public verdict you will contradict your 
personal prayers. For you seem to him, he says, 
in danger of being strangely inconsistent ; for when 
you are about to beget children, you pray one 
and all that your sons still unborn may be fair 
and beautiful in person, and worthy of the city ; and 
yet when you have sons already born, of whom 
the city may well be proud, if by their surpassing 
beauty and youthful charm they infatuate one 
person or another, and become the subject of strife 
because of the passion they inspire, these sons, as 
it seems, you propose to deprive of civic rights — 
because Aeschines tells you to do it. 

And just here I understand he is going to carry 
the war into my territory, and ask me if I am not 
ashamed on my own part, after having made a 
nuisance of myself in the gymnasia and having 
been many times a lover, now to be bringing the 
practice into reproach and danger. And finally — 
so I am told — in an attempt to raise a laugh and 
start silly talk among you, he says he is going 
to exhibit all the erotic poems I have ever ad- 
dressed to one person or another, and he promises 
to call witnesses to certain quarrels and pommel- 
lings in which I have been involved in consequence 
of this habit. 

109 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

136 'E7C0 Be out€ epwra Bttcaiov ~^reyw, ovre Toy? 
fedWei 8ia<pepovT(i<; cprjfii TreiropvevaOai, ovt 
auTo? e^apvoufiai /x?; ov yeyovevai t l epwTiKos, 
Kal ert Kal vvv elvat, rd<; re i/c rov irpdyfiaTO? 
yiyvofievas 7rpb<i erepovs (piXovi/cias kcli /ia^a? 
cvk upvovfiai firj ov^l o~vfif3ef3rjKevai p.01. vrepl 
Be Tcov 7roit]/xdru)v gjv <paaiv ovtol fie Tre-n oir)Kevai, 
rd fiev ofioXoyco, rd Be e^apvovfiat fir) tovtov 
eyeiv rov Tpbirov ov ovtol BtafydeipovTes irape- 

%OVTdL. 

137 'Op'i'Qofiai 6' elvai to fiev epdv twv tcaXaiv Kal 
aaxppovwv (f)i\avdpd)7rov irddo<i Kal evyvoofiovos 
y l rv XV < >' T0 ^ dae\yaiveiv dpyvpiov Tivd fiiaOov- 
fievov vfSpiarov Kal diraiBevTov dvBpos epyov 2 Kal 
to fiev dBia(f)06pa)<; epaaOai cprjfit Ka\6v elvai, to 
8' eirapOevTa ixtaOro TreiropvevaBai aloyjpbv. oaov 
Bi" eKUTepov tovtoiv d-n aKKrfKxov BieaTrjKe Kal &)<? 
iroXv Bia(pepei, ev toi? ecpetjFpi vfids Treipdao/iat, 

138 \6yoi<> Bi&daKeiv. ol yap iraTepe<i rjfioiv, 66' birep 
twv eircTrjBevfidTcov Kal twv eK <pvaea)$ dvay- 
Kaiwv evofioOeTovv, a Tot? e\ev6epois rjyovvTO 
eivai irpaKTea, TavTa toi<; BovXols uTrelirav fir) 
iroielv. " AovXov," (prjalv 6 vbfio<i, " fir] yvfivd^e- 
aOai fi7]Be ^ijpaXonpelv ev rat? Tra\aicrTpai<;. 
Kal ovKeTi Trpoaeypayfre' " Tbv 8" ekevOepov d\ei- 
(peaOat Kal yvfivd^eaQai" ottotc yap ol vofio- 
OeTat to Ka\bv to eK twv yvfivaalwv KaTiB6vTe<i 
dneiTrov T0Z9 BovXois firj fieTeyeiv, tu> avTG> 3 
r)yovvTO, a> eKelvov; eKwXvov, tov<; eXevflepovs 

1 r added by Blass. 

* Hpyov Sauppe : epyov elvai T)yor/j.at MSS. 

3 T<p airy Blass : t<£> ovtw lo/xtf or Tourcp avry hSyq) MSS. 

IIO 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 136-138 

Now as for me, I neither find fault with love 
that is honourable, nor do I say that those who 
surpass in beauty are prostitutes. I do not deny 
that I myself have been a lover and am a lover 
to this day, nor do I deny that the jealousies 
and quarrels that commonly arise from the practice 
have happened in my case. As to the poems which 
they say 1 have composed, some I acknowledge, but 
as to others I deny that they are of the character 
that these people will impute to them, for they will 
tamper with them. 

The distinction which I draw is this : to be in love 
with those who are beautiful and chaste is the 
experience of a kind-hearted and generous soul ; 
but to hire for money and to indulge in licen- 
tiousness is the act of a man who is wanton and ill- 
bred. And whereas it is an honour to be the object 
of a pure love, I declare that he who has played 
the prostitute by inducement of wages is disgraced. 
How wide indeed is the distinction between these 
two acts and how great the difference, I will try 
to show you in what I shall next say. Our fathers, 
when they were laying down laws to regulate the 
habits of men and those acts that inevitably flow 
from human nature, forbade slaves to do those 
things which they thought ought to be done by 
free men. " A slave," says the law, " shall not 
take exercise or anoint himself in the wrestling- 
schools." It did not go on to add, "But the free 
man shall anoint himself and take exercise;" for 
when, seeing the good that comes from gymnastics, 
the lawgivers forbade slaves to take part, they 
thought that in prohibiting them they were by 



in 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

139 TrpoTpeireiv. 1 irdXiv 6 avrbs elire vofioGerrjs' 
" AovXov eXevdepov waiShs fi-qr epav fiijr eira- 
KoXovdeiv, ?) TV-meoOat rfj Srjpoaia pdcTiyi 
7revT7]KovTa irXriyd<;." dXX' ov tov eXeuuepov 
eK(ldXvaev epav Kai opiXelv Kai ciKo\ov0eiv, ouSe 
{3Xd(3r)v t<*> iraihi, dXXa p,apTvpiav aoocj) poavvi)^ 
fjyijaaTO avfifiaiveiv. aKvpov o° olpai Kai dSvvd- 
tov en ovtos Kplvai tov 6Wg)<? evvovv Kai prj, tov 
ipcoi'Ta aaxppovt^ei, Kai toi"? -n)? <f>i\ia<; X070U9 
ek rrjv (ppovovaav Kai irpeo-ftvrepav ifXiKiav ava- 
/3dXXeraf to 0" eiraKoXovOelv Kai efyopav cfrpovpdv 
Kai (f>v\aKr]V (Tux^poavvTj'i r)yr/aaTO elvai p,eyt(TTr]v. 

140 TOiydpToi tou? rr/s 7roXeco<? pev evepyeras, rah 6° 
dperaU VTrepevTjvoxoTas, 'AppoSiov Kai 'Apiaro- 
yeirova, 6 o-co<ppo)v Kai evvopos, ehe epcora etre 
ovriva 2 tpottov XPV irpocrenretv, toiovtov? eirai- 
hevcxev, ware rov<; eVati/oiWa? ra ixeCvrnv epya 
KaTaSeearepovs hoKelv elvai ev rol<i iyK(op,Loi<> 
twv eKeivois weir pay p,eva>v. 

141 'Erreihr] Be 'A^jAAeo)? Kai TYaTpoKXov pepvr)<jQe 
Kai 'Opyjpov Kai hepwv ttol^tcov, gj? twv p,ev 
hiKaarwv dvrjKocov 7ratSeta? ovtcov, vpeh he ev- 
o"%rjpovi<i Tives 3 Kai irepuppovovvTes Icrropia tov 
Brjpov, iv elSrjTe otl Kai qfteis; tl i]8r) rjKovaapev 
Kai ipddopev, Xe^opev tl Kai 4 irepl tovtwv. 
iirethr) yap eV^e/poOcrt <t>iXo<r6$cov dvBpoiv p,ep,vr}- 
adai Kai Karafyevyeiv iirl tou? elprjpevov<i ev ra> 
p,erp(p X070U?, dewprjaaTe d-rrolSXe^avTes, to avSpes 

1 Trporpe-rreiv Cobet : irpoTpeireiv eirl ra. yvfj.va.ffia MSS. 

* ovTLva added by Baiter and Sauppe. 

3 rives Cobet : rives ■rrpoffirote'iffde elvai MSS. 

4 Ka\ Hamaker : /col fjuels MSS 



112 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 138-141 

the same words inviting the free. Again, the same 
lawgiver said, " A slave shall not be the lover of 
a free boy nor follow after him, or else he shall 
receive fifty blows of the public lash." But the 
free man was not forbidden to love a boy, and 
associate with him, and follow after him, nor did 
the lawgiver think that harm came to the boy 
thereby, but rather that such a thing was a testi- 
mony to his chastity. But, I think, so long as 
the boy is not his own master and is as yet unable 
to discern who is a genuine friend, and who is 
not, the law teaches the lover self-control, and 
makes him defer the words of friendship till the 
other is older and has reached years of discretion ; 
but to follow after the boy and to watch over 
him the lawgiver regarded as the best possible 
safeguard and protection for chastity. And so it 
was that those benefactors of the state, Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton, men pre-eminent for their virtues, 
were so nurtured by that chaste and lawful love — 
or call it by some other name than love if you like — 
and so disciplined, that when we hear men praising 
what they did, we feel that words are inadequate 
to the eulogy of their deeds. 

But since you make mention of Achilles and 
Patroclus, and of Homer and the other poets — as 
though the jury were men innocent of education, 
while you are people of a superior sort, who feel 
yourselves quite beyond common folks in learning — 
that you may know that we too have before noAv 
heard and learned a little something, we shall say 
a word about this also. For since they undertake 
to cite wise men, and to take refuge in sentiments 
expressed in poetic measures, look, fellow citizens, 

"3 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Adrjvaioi, eh tov<; 6poXoyovp,evo)<i dyadovs kcu 
Xpr)aTOv<; TTOirjTas, oaov Ke^coplaOac evopaaav 
rov<i craxfipoi'as Kal tmv 6p,olwv epwvras, Kal tou? 

142 a/cparels d>v ov XPV Ka i TOix; v/SpiaTa?. Xe£a) Be 
TtpCoTov pev irepl Ofiijpov, ov ev roh TrpeafivTaTOis 
kcli aocproTaTois t£)v TTonjTMV elvat Tarrop,ev. 
exelvos yap TroXXa-^ov p,epvi]pevo<; irepl Uarpo- 
kXov Kal A^iXXeux;, rov pev epcora Kal rrp> 
eircovvpiav avrwv t% (f)i\ia<; diroKpinrrerai, rjyov- 
pevos Tfl? tt}? evvolas vjrepftoXds /carcKpavels elvat 

143 roh TreiraiBev pevois ra)v avpoarcov. Xeyei yap 
■jtov 'A^tWef? oBvpopevos rov rov HarpoteXov 
Odvarov, &)9 ev n tovto tcov XviryporaTcov dva- 

pipVrjCTfCOpei'OS, OTl TTJV VTTOG X €a ~ lv r V V TTpOS TOV 

irarepa rov Ylarpo/cXov alevoiTibv clkwv e^revaaro' 
eirayyeiXaadai yap eh 'Oirovvra crutv cnrd^eiv, el 
avpTT€p,\Jreiev avrbv eh rrjv Tpoiav Kal irapa- 
KaraOelro avrco. eo Karacfravys eariv, &>9 Si 

144 epwra rr)v errip,e\eiav avrov rrapeXafiev. eari Be 
ra eirrj a eyco vvvl peXXw Xeyeiv 

'XI ttottol, 7] p aXiov 67T09 k/cf3aXov rjpari Keivrp 
Oapcrvvwv ypcoa Mevoinov ev pueydpoiaiv. 
§r\v he oi eh Orroevra rrepiKXvrbv v'tbv drrdfjeiv, 
v ]Xiov eKrrepaavra Xa^ovra re XrjiSos alaav. 
oU' ov Zeu9 dvBpeaai voyjpara irdv-ra reXevrd' 
dp<(fi(0 yap rreirpcorai op,oi~>]v yaiav epevOeiv. 

145 ov rolvvv evravda p,bvov a^erXid^cov cpaiverai, 
dX)C ovTco<i avrbv lo-%vpib<; eirevdyaev, ware irapa 

H4 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 141-145 

into the works of those who are confessedly good 
and helpful poets, and see how far apart they 
considered chaste men, who love their like, and 
men who are wanton and overcome by forbidden 
lusts. I will speak first of Homer, whom we 
rank among the oldest and wisest of the poets. 
Although he speaks in many places of Patroclus 
and Achilles, he hides their love and avoids giving 
a name to their friendship, thinking that the 
exceeding greatness of their affection is manifest 
to such of his hearers as are educated men. For 
Achilles says somewhere in the course of his lament 
for the death of Patroclus, as recalling one of the 
greatest of sorrows, that unwillingly he has broken 
the promise he had given to Menoetius, the father 
of Patroclus ; for he had promised to bring his son 
back safe to Opus, if he would send him along 
with him to Troy, and entrust him to his care. 
It is evident from this that it was because of love 
that he undertook to take care of him. But the 
verses, which I am about to recite, are these : l 

" Ah me, I rashly spoke vain words that day 
When in his halls I cheered Menoetius. 
I told the hero I would surely bring 
His famous son to Opus back again, 
When he had ravaged Ilium, and won 
His share of spoil. But Zeus does not fulfil 
To men their every hope. For fate decrees 
That both of us make red one spot of earth." 

And indeed not only here do we see his deep dis- 
tress, but he mourned so sorely for him, that 

1 Iliad, xviii. 324-29. 

"5 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

®6Ti&o<; Trjs avTOV pLi]Tpb<? irpoaKovaa^ on p,rj 
fxereXOcov pev TOv<q €%0pov<;, aW' edaas dTip,(t)prj- 
tov tov tov Harpo/cXov Odvaruv, iwaveXOcov o'iKaSe 
yrjpatb'i iv rfj avrov iraTpihi dirodavelrai, Tip,coprj- 
o~dp.evo^ Se 8id ra^6(ov p,eXXot tov f3iov re\evrdv, 

el'XeTO T)]V TOV Ttdl'€0)TO$ ITldTlV pLttXXoV T] TTJV 

aoiTrjpiav. ovrco 8e p,eyaXo\}ruy(i)<; lyTreiytTO tov 
(povca tov iiceivov Tip,(iyp/]o~aaOai, waTe ttuvtwv 
avTor TrapapbvOovpievwv Kal KeXevovTCOV XovcraaOai 
Kal atTOv TrpoaevejKaaOai, dirop-vvo-i p,t]8ev tov- 
T(ov irpd^eiv, irplv dv ttjv tov "EtfTopo? KecpaXrjv 

146 eVl tov tov YlaTpoKkov Tacpov iveyKT). Kadev- 
Sovtos 8' avTov errl tt} irvpa, w? cprjaiv 6 7roir)Trj<i, 

ClScoXoV C<f)LO~TaTCtl YlaTp6/c\0V, Kal TOLOVTWV €7T€- 

fiinjaO)] Kal tokxvtcl €7r€afci]\jre tw 'A^iXXet, ifi 
ot? Kal Sa/cpvaai Kal ^rjXcoo-ai ttjv dpeTtjv Kal ttjv 
rfiikiav a^iov aliTOiv io~Tiv. €7riaK)]7rTec p,ev yap 
avTu>, tt poeiTTOii' oti ovBe eKelvos drre^ei p,aKpdv 
t/}? tov fiiov TeXevTrjs, et 7rco<? eirj SwaTov, irpo- 
StoiKijo-aaOai, oVa)? tov avTov Tpoirov, wo-irep Kal 
€Tpd(f)i]o-av Kal i/3i(oaav ev t&> avTco, ovtw Kal 
TeXevTyjadvTCOv avT&>v to, 6o~Ta ev tt) ai>Trj aopS) 

147 Ke'iaeTar 68vp6p-evo$ 8e Kal Ta? BiaTpi/3d<; Bie^icov 
a<? /xer' dXXijXwv fawTt? hierpifiov, Xeyei otl " Ov- 
k€ti uepl twv p.eyiaT(ov, locrTrep to irpoTepov, 
KaOe'Cop.evoi pL€T dXXijXrov p,6voc dirwOev tu>v 
aXXcov (piXcov (3ovXevo~op:e@a, ttjv irlaTiv olp,ai 
Kal ttjv evvoiav irodeivoTaTTjv r]yovpLevo$ elvai. 
7va 8e Kal Sid tov p,€Tpov t<xs yvoopias aKOvarjT€ 
tov ttoii]tov, dvayvooaeTai vp.lv 6 ypap.p,aTevs Ta 

148 eV>7 Ta irepl tovtcov a ' OyU-?;/3o? 7re7roirjK€. Xeye 
irpwTov to, irepl t^9 "E/cto^o? TipLcop[a<;. 

Ii6 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 145-148 

although his mother Thetis cautioned him and told 
him that if he would refrain from following up his 
enemies and leave the death of Patroelus unavenged, 
he should return to his home and die an old man 
in his own land, whereas if he should take ven- 
geance, he should soon end his life, he chose 
fidelity to the dead rather than safety. And with 
such nobility of soul did he hasten to take ven- 
geance on the man who slew his friend, that when 
all tried to comfort him and urged him to bathe 
and take food, he swore that he would do none 
of these things until he had brought the head of 
Hector to the grave of Patroelus. And when he 
was sleeping by the funeral pyre, as the poet 
says, the ghost of Patroelus stood before him, and 
stirred such memories and laid upon Achilles such 
injunctions, that one may well weep, and envy the 
virtue and the friendship of these men. He pro- 
phesies that Achilles too is not far from the end 
of life, and enjoins upon him, if it be in any wise 
possible, to make provision that even as they had 
grown up and lived together, even so when they 
are dead their bones may lie in the same coffer. 
Weeping, and recalling the pursuits which they 
had followed together in life, he says, " Never 
again shall we sit together alone as in the old 
days, apart from our other friends, and take high 
counsel," feeling, I believe, that this fidelity and 
affection were what they would long for most. 
But that you may hear the sentiments of the poet 
in verse also, the clerk shall read to you the verses 
on this theme which Homer composed. Read first 
the verses about the vengeance on Hector. 1 

1 Iliad, xviii. 333-35. 

117 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

AAA 67T6t ovv, <piA, eraipe, crev vcrrepos eip, viro 

yalav, 
ov ere irplv KTepiu), irplv y "QKTopos evddB' 

eveiKai 
Tev^ea kcu Kecpa\rp', p.eya@vp.ov erelo fyovrjos. 

149 dvaylyvwaKe Br] a irepl tov 6p,OTa(pov<? avrovs 
yeveaOat Xeyei ev tw vttvw 6 Uarpo/cXo?, Kal irepl 
rcov BiaTpij3(ov, a? ervvBierptfiov dWrjXois. 

Ov yap eTi £&)oi ye (piXcov airdvevOev eraipwv 
/3ov\d<; e^6p,evoi j3ovXevcrop,ev dAX' ep,e p,ev Kr)p 
dpL<J>exave arvyepr), rjirep Au^e yetvop-evov irep' 
kcu Be crol ainS) p,olpa, Oeols iirtetKeX' ' A^iWev, 
Tefyei viro Tpcowv eviiyevecov drroXeadai, 
p,apvdp,evov Brjiois 'EXei^? eveic r]vKop,oio. 
aWo Be tol epew, erv t7 evl eppeert /3dAAeo afjcriv 
p,r) ep.d crwv dirdvevOe Tidrjuevai ocrre , A^iWev, 
dAA' iva irep ere Kal avTov op-oh] yala KeKevOrj, 
ypvaew ev ap,(pi<popei, tov tol Trope iroTvia 

. MJVP>  
&)? 6p,ov eTpd<bep,ev trep ev vpueTepoiat Bop,oicrtv, 

evTe p,e tvtOov eovTa 'MevoiTios e^ OTroevTos 

rjyayev vpLeTepovc7 dvBpoKTaau]^ viro Xvyprjs, 

Y)p,aTi tu), OTe iralBa /caTe/CTavov 'A/ic/uSa/zai'TO?, 

vrjTnos, ovk eOeXcov, dpL<j> doTpaycCkoicri ■yoXw- 

dek- 

ev6a p.e Be^dp.evo<; ev Bd)p,aatv l-mroTa n?/Xeu? 

eTpecf>e t evBvKeax; Kal abv depdrrovT ovop,>)vev 

a>5 Be Kal ocnea vwiv opui] aopus ap,(f)iKa\v7rTOL. 

150 a>9 Toivvv e£rjv avTa> ercodrjvai pur) TipLwprjaapbevw 
tov tov UaTpoKXov ddvaTOv, dvdyvcoOi a \eyec ?; 
©e'rt?. 

n8 






AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 148-150 

" But since, dear comrade, after thee I go 
Beneath the earth, I will not bury thee 
Till here I bring thee Hector's head and arms, 
The spoils of that proud prince who took thy life." 

Now read what Patroclus says in the dream about 
their common burial and about the intercourse that 
they once had with one another. 1 

" For we no longer as in life shall sit 
Apart in sweet communion. Nay, the doom 
Appointed me at birth has yawned for me. 
And fate has destined thee, Achilles, peer 
Of gods, to die beneath the wall of Troy's 
Proud lords, fighting for fair-haired Helen's sake. 
More will I say to thee, pray heed it well : 
Let not my bones be laid apart from thine, 
Achilles, but that thou and I may lie 
In common earth, I beg that I may share 
That golden coffer which thy mother brought 
To be thine own, even as we in youth 
Grew up together in thy home. My sire 
Meuoetius brought me, a little lad, from home, 
From Opus, to your house, for sad bloodshed, 
That day, when, all unwitting, in childish wrath 
About the dice, I killed Amphidamas' son. 
The knightly Peleus took me to his home 
And kindly reared me, naming me thy squire. 
So let one common coffer hide our bones." 

Now to show that it was possible for him to have 
been saved had he refrained from avenging the 
death of Patroclus, read what Thetis says. 8 

1 Iliad, xxiii. 77 fif. 2 Iliad, xviii. 95 ff. 

119 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'H/fu/zo/30? $7] fioL retcof eaaeai, oV dyopeveif 
avTiKa yap Tot eirena //,€#' ' E/cropa 7tot/ao? 

€TO?/iO?. 

tyjv £' avre irpoaeetire Tro^dp/cr/f o7o? A%i\\evf 
avTLfca TeOvairjv, iirel <>vk dp ejieWov eraipw 
KTeivo/j.ii>a) eirapLVvai, 6 p-oi ttoXv (piXrarof 
eaicev. 

151 'O to'lvvv ovSevbf rjTTnv aocf)bf t6)V ttoiijt&v 
EvpnriBrjf, ev ri tmv KaWla-rtov inroXapLfidvcov 
elvai to aco(f)p6va)f epdv, ev evx^ p<epei tov epwra 
iroiovp-evof Xeyei irov 

r O o" elf to (Twcppov iir aper^v r aycov epcof 
£rj\aiTb<; dvOpcoiroiaiv, oov eirjv eyco. 

152 irdXiv to'lvvv 6 avTOf ev tS> <£>olviki drrocpaLverai, 
virep TTjf yeyevrifjt£y.ri$ avTO) irpbf tov Trarepa oia- 
fioXfjf diroXoyovpevof, iea\ aired i^wv Tobf dv9pd>- 
irovf p-r\ ef virotyiaf pbrjK etc SiafioXrjf, dXX e/c 
tov filov, ra? Kpiaeif iroielaOar 

v U8t] Be ttoXXwv r)peQr\v Xoycav KpiTijf, 
teal iroXX' apaXX-qOevTa /xaprvpcov viro 
rdvavTL eyva>v avpupopaf p.cdf irepi. 
fcdyd) p,ev ovtco, %wo-Tt? ear dvi)p aocf>6f, 
Xoyi^opLai rdXrjdes, elf dvSpbf <fivcnv 
gkottwv hiandv B\ l rjvTLv ?)p.epeveTai. 2 

1 6' added by Boissonade from an ancient quotation. 

2 Tifiepev^rai Gainsford : ffj-iropevtrai MSS. 



1 The above quotations from Homer show considerable 
var ations fsom our MSS. of the poet. It seems that 
Aeschines was using a very corrupt text of Homer. In 
Iliad, xviii. 324 ff„ there is variation in one word : in xviii. 
333-35, in two words ; the long passage from xxiii. has two 



120 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 150-152 

" Ah me, my son, swift fate indeed will fall 
On thee, if thou dost speak such words. For know, 
Swift after Hector's death fate brings thine own. 
To her divine Achilles, swift of foot, 
In turn made answer. Straightway let me die, 
For when my friend was slain, my dearest friend, 
It was not granted me to succour him." 1 

Again, Euripides, a poet than whom none is wiser, 
considering chaste love to be one of the most beau- 
tiful things, says somewhere, 2 making love a thing 
to be prayed for : 

" There is a love that makes men virtuous 

And chaste, an envied gift. Such love I crave." 

Again the same poet, in the Phoenix, 9, expresses his 
opinion, making defence against false charges brought 
by the father, and trying to persuade men habitually 
to judge, not under the influence of suspicion or of 
slander, but by a man's life : 

" Many a time ere now have I been made 
The judge in men's disputes, and oft have heard 
For one event conflicting witnesses. 
And so, to find the truth, I, as do all 
Wise men, look sharp to see the character 
That marks the daily life, and judge by that. 

lines that are not found in our MSS. of the Iliad, one line 
that is changed in position, and four that show verbal 
changes. The quotation from xviii. 95—99 shows a verbal 
change in one line, and an entire change in the last half-line. 
That widely divergent texts of Homer were in circulation 
as early as the time of Aeschines has been proved by the 
papyrus fragments. 

2 In the lost Sthenoboea, No. 672, Nauck. 

3 No. 812, Nauck. 

121 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCH1NES 

ogtis 8' ofiiXwv ijBerat /catcol<i dvijpt 

OV 7T(O7T0T T/pCOTIJCTa, yiyVUHJ KG)V OTl 

toiovtos icrd' OLOicnrep rjBeTat, 1 ^vi>cov. 

153 OKe^racrde Be, co dvBpes y A0)]vacoi, ra<; yvcapas a? 
airo^alveTai 6 7rotr]Tr)<;. r/Br] Be noWwv irpaypid- 
T(ov (prjal yeyevrjcrdai fcpiTr'js, cocnrep vvv vp,et<i 
BiKaarai, Kal Ta? Kpiaeis ov/c i/c twv fiaprvpicbv, 
aW' etc to)V i7riTJ]8eupdTcov Kal tcov op.tXicov, (prjcn 
Troielcrdai, e'/cetcre a7ro/3\€7ra)v, 7TW9 top /cad' rj/xe- 
pav /3iov %t) 6 Kpivopbevos, /cat bvitva rpoirov BioiKel 
tt)v eavrov olklciv, a>? irapairXrjaiOi^ avrbv Kal ra 
t>}? 7roXe&)5 8ioitci]<TOVTa' /ecu ricTi yaipei 7r\r)crid- 
t,(ov /ecu reXevrcov ovk wKvijaev d7ro(p7Jvacr0ai 
tolovtov eivau oloicnrep' 1 ijBerai £uvcov. ovkovv 
Slkcilov Kal irepl Tip,dp%ov rots auTOt? tyza? \Lvpi- 

154 ttIBt] y^pr\aa<j6ai \oyio-p,oi<i. 7r<w<? Bimk^kc rrjv 
eavrov overlap; KareBrjBoKe rd Trarpwa Kal 3 p,eyn- 
aOapv^Kio^ tw o-cop-ari Kal BcopoBoKOiv Br]p,oala 
Train 7)<§>dviKev, &cne p,7]Bev flU' t) rd<; alo"%vva<; 
avTtp irepielvai. yalpei Be ra> crvvcov ; 'HyrjcrdvBpa). 
6 8' 'Hy/jaavBpos ite rivcov ecrrlv e7riTt]Bev/j,dTa)v; 
€K tovtcov a rbv irpd^avra ol vbp.01 array opevovcri 
firj Brjpurjyopecv. eya) Be tl Xeyw Kara '\ipidpyov, 
Kal Tiva 7tot earlv a dvriyey pap,p.ai; Bi]p,i]yopeiv i 
Tifiap)£ov ireiropvev pbevov Kal t>jv irarpceav ovcriav 
KareBijSoKOTa. v/Aeis Be n opsfOLcoKare; virep av- 
tcov y}ni(pi€io~6ai a)v av r) Bico^is y. 

1 itrO' o'loiffirep TJSerai H. Wolf : tanv o'larirtp ^Serai or eartv 
(Kaaros oiairep ?}8eTat MSS. 

2 o'loicrirfp Taylor : oT<nrep MSS. 

3 Kal HamaUer : ical to -twv <pi\<uv MSS. 

4 The MSS. have /jltj Srjfj.rjyope'iv : Blass brackets /xjj. 
122 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 152-154 

The man who loves companionship of knaves 
I care not to interrogate. What need 
Is there? I know too well the man is such 
As is the company he loves to keep." 

Examine the sentiments, fellow citizens, which the 
poet expresses. He says that before now he has 
been made judge of many cases, as you to-day are 
jurors ; and he says that he makes his decisions, not 
from what the witnesses say, but from the habits and 
associations of the accused ; he looks at this, how the 
man who is on trial conducts his daily life, and in 
what manner he administers his own house, believ- 
ing that in like manner he will administer the affairs 
of the state also ; and he looks to see with whom 
he likes to associate. And, finally, he does not 
hesitate to express the opinion that a man is like 
those whose " company he loves to keep." It is 
right, therefore, that in judging Timarchus you follow 
the reasoning of Euripides. How has he adminis- 
tered his own property? He has devoured his 
patrimony, he has consumed all the wages of his 
prostitution and all the fruits of his bribery, so 
that he has nothing left but his shame. With 
whom does he love to be ? Hegesandrus ! And 
what are Hegesandrus' habits ? The habits that 
exclude a man by law from the privilege of address- 
ing the people. What is it that I say against 
Timarchus, and what is the charge that I have 
brought ? That Timarchus addresses the people, 
a man who has made himself a prostitute and has 
consumed his patrimony. And what is the oath 
that you have taken? To give your verdict on the 
precise charges that are presented by the prosecu- 
tion. 

123 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

155 "\va he fit] piaKpoXoyo) irepl rcov ttolijtcov hi- 
e^icov, dvhpwv epco 7rpea/3vrepa>v Kal yvcoplpLcnv 
vplv bvbpuara Kal pteipaKLwv kcu iraihwv, wv T0Z9 
p,ev hia irjv evirpeireiav iroXXol yeybvaaiv epaarai, 
evictis he rotv ev rjXtKta. eji Kal vvv elcnv, osv ovhels 
TTOiiroT elf ra? avrds atria? ac^l/crai Tifiapyqy 
Kal nrcikiv v/xlv avrihie^eifu avfipaoTrcov Treiropvev- 
pbivwv alo"^pu>? kcu (pavepto? ovopiara, Iva vpiel? 
dvap.vi^aO evre? Karaveipirjre el? rrjv irpoai^Kovaav 

156 rd^tv Ti/iapxov. irpwrov he Xe^co ra rcov eXev- 
Oepico? 1 Kal KaXco? /3e0tcoKorcov ovop-ara. yiyvcb- 
<TK€T€, o) ctvhpe? ' AOrjvaioi, Kpircova rov ^ Aarvb^ov 
Kal HepiKXeihjjv rov YlepiOoihtjv Kal TloXep,ayevrjv 
Kal UavraXeovra rov KXeayopov Kal Tip^ijo-tOeov 
rov hpop.ea, KaXXiarov? ov p,6vov rcov ttoXltcov, 
dXXd Kal roov 'iLXXijvcov yeyevTjpbevov?, Kal TrXei- 
arcov Kal aoycppoveardrcov rv^ovra? epaarcov 

157 dX)C 6p.co? ovhel? TTODirore avrov? e-^jre^e. rrdXiv 
€K rcov pieipaKLcov Kal rcov ev Traialv en Kal vvv 
dvrcov nrpwrov puev top dheXcpihovv rov lcf>iKpd- 
rov?, vibv he Teiatov rov 'PapLvova[ou, bp.covvp.ov 
he. rov vvvl Kpivop,evov' 2 b? evirperrrj? cov thetv 
roaovrov dire-^et rcov alay^pbtv, ware irpd>7)v ev 
rot? Kar dypov? Aiovvaiot? Kcopicohcov ovtcov ev 
KoXXvtu), Kal TIappievovro? rov KcopUKOv vrroKpi- 
rov elirovro? n 777309 tov yopov dvdrraiarov, iv 
o) t]V elvai riva? irbpvov? p.eydXov? Tip.ap^cohei?, 
ovhel? v7reXdp,f3avev el? to pteipaKiov, ciXX* el? ere 
irdvre?' ovrco K\i)povbp.o? el rov eTnrrjhevp.aro?. 



1 iAtvdepicos Weidner : 4\ev0£puiv MSS. 

2 icpivo/xevov Cobet : Kpivofxlvov Tiu.6.px<>v MSS. 



124 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 155-157 

But not to dwell too long on the poets, I will 
recite to you the names of older and well -known 
men, and of youths and boys, some of whom have 
had many lovers because of their beauty, and some 
of whom, still in their prime, have lovers to-day, but 
not one of whom ever came under the same accusa- 
tions as Timarchus. Again, I will tell over to you in 
contrast men who have prostituted themselves shame- 
fully and notoriously, in order that by calling these 
to mind you may place Timarchus where he belongs. 
First I will name those who have lived the life of 
free and honourable men. You know, fellow citizens, 
Crito, son of Astyochus, Pericleides of Perithoedae, 
Polemagenes, Pantaleon, son of Cleagoras, and 
Timesitheus the runner, men who were the most 
beautiful, not only among their fellow citizens, but 
in all Hellas, men who counted many a man of 
eminent chastity as lover ; yet no man ever censured 
them. And again, among the youths and those who 
are still boys, first, you know the nephew of Iphi- 
crates, the son of Teisias of Rhamnos, of the same 
name as the defendant. He, beautiful to look upon, 
is so far from reproach, that the other day at the 
rural Dionysia when the comedies were being played 
in Collytus, and when Parmenon the comic actor 
addressed a certain anapaestic verse to the chorus, 
in which certain persons were referred to as " big 
Timarchian prostitutes," nobody thought of it as 
aimed at the youth, but, one and all, as meant for 
you, so unquestioned is your title to the practice. 



"5 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

TrdXiv 'AvTi/cXea tov aTaBioBpopiov icai <&eiBiav 
tov dBeXfybv tov 1 MeXrjaiov. 'hi Be eforecu exwv 
ttoXXovs iravaofxat,, Xvd p>r) Boko) tov eiraivov 
Oepaireia tivI kcit avTciov iroieitrBat. 

158 Hepl Be twv ofiOTpoirwv twv Tip,dpx<>v, (pevycov 
Ta<i a7vex6e'ias,wv rj/ciaTa p.01 p,eXei p,vr/a0^aop.ai. 
Tt? yap vp,a>v tov opcpavbv KaXovpuevov AcocpavTov 
ovk olBev, 09 tov £evov 7r/)09 tov apxovTa drnjyayev, 
u> Trapr]Bpevev * Apicnoipcov 6 'Atyfpieusi eTraiTiacra- 
fievos T6TTapa<i Bpaxp>d<i clvtov virep Tr)<; Trpd^eox; 
TavTt]<; d.Treo-Tepr]fcevai, /cal tou9 vopiovs Xeycov, o'i 
/ceXevovcri tov apxovTa tcov opcpavwv eTUpieXelauai, 
tol/9 virep T779 aw(ppoGvvr)<; Keip,evovs avTOS 2 virep- 
/3ef3r)/cu)ii; rj n'9 twv ttoXitwv ovk i8vo~xepave z 
KrjcpiaoBcopov tov tov MoXoovos KaXovp-evov k<xX- 
XiaTrjv clipav o\^e&)9 a/cXeecrTaTa Stecptfap/coTa; rj 
Mvrjaideov tov tov p-ayetpov KaXovp,evov; rj iroX- 

159 Xov<i €Tepov<i, wv €ku>v eiuXavd dvopai; ov yap 
eire^eXOelv avTcov e/caaTOV kclt ovopua TTiKpSiS fiov- 
Xop.ai, dXXd p,ciXXov Tcav toiovtwv diropelv dv 
€v%aip,7)v ev tw Xoyqt hid ttjv 7T/309 ttjv ttoXiv 
evvoiav. eireiBr) Be eKaTepwv irpoeXopevot Tivas 
Bie£eXr]Xv&ap,ev, %«/?i9 fikv tou9 Bid o-axf)poavv>]<; 
epcop^evov;, %&>oi9 Be tovs eh eavToix; e^ap^apTa- 
vovtcls, vp,el<; rjBr) tovt epwTrjOevTes diro/cpLvaaOe 
777)09 e'/xe, et'9 oTCOTepav ttjv* Ta^iv Tlp.apxov 
KaTavep,€Te, -noTepa els tou9 epcopLevovs rj et9 tov$ 
TreiropvevpAvov^. ovkovv purj /caTaXi7ra)v rjv eiXov 

1 rbv Bekker : tov MSS. 

* J avrbs Bekker : the MSS. omit or have avrovt. 

8 fSuo-xepav* Blass : iSvffxeoaive MSS. 

4 tV added by Blass. 

126 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 157-159 

Again, Anticles, the stadium runner, and Pheidias, 
the brother of Melesias. Although I could name 
many others, I will stop, lest I seem to be in a way 
courting their favour by my praise. 

But as to those men who are kindred spirits with 
Timarchus, for fear of arousing their enmity I will 
mention only those toward whom I am utterly in- 
different. Who of you does not know Diophantes, 
called "the orphan," who arrested the foreigner and 
brought him before the archon, whose associate on the 
bench was Aristophon of Azenia ? * For Diophantes 
accused the foreigner of having cheated him out of 
four drachmas in connection with this practice, and 
he cited the laws that command the archon to protect 
orphans, when he himself had violated the laws that 
enjoin chastity. Or what Athenian was not indig- 
nant at Cephisodorus, called Molon's son, for having 
ruined his surpassing beauty by a most infamous 
life ? Or Mnesitheus, known as the cook's son ? Or 
many others, whose names I am willing to forget ? 
For I have no desire to tell over the whole list of 
them one by one in a spirit of bitterness. Nay, rather 

I could wish that I might be at a loss for such 
examples in my speech, for I love my city. But 
since we have selected for special mention a few 
from each of the two classes, on the one side men 
who have been loved with a chaste love, and on the 
other men who sin against themselves, now let me 
ask you this question, and pray answer me : To which 
class do you assign Timarchus — to those who are 
loved, or to those who are prostitutes ? [Cries of 

II To the prostitutes." You see, Timarchus, you are 

1 The archon eponymus is meant. When sitting as presi- 
dent of a court he was assisted by two advisers, irdpeSpoi. 

127 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

o~vp,p,opiav avTOfioXiiays et? ras rwv e\ev9epwv 
Biarpifids. 

160 'Eaz/ 8' e7Tt%€t/)«ocr« Xeyeiv, m ovx vralprjKev 
oaris /xt) /tara avyypafia? ep,ia6d>6^, Kal ypap,p.a- 
Telov Kal fidpTvpas d%ia)a'i p,e rovrwv irapa- 
aykodai, rrpcorov puev toi)? irepl rfjs eraipijaew 
vopuowi pLep,v>]crOe, iv ot<? ovhapbov pbvetav o vop,o- 
Oerti^ rrepl crvvdr/Kcbv TreTroirjrai. ov ydp, ei Kara 
y papular elbv Ti9 eavrov Karrjaxwe, tout' ^V- 
Taaev, dXXa iravreXm, 07r&)9 dv 7) Trpdgis ye- 
viirai, rov rrpd^avra KeXevei p,rj perex elv rwv t^s 
7roXe&)9 Koivchv. elKorw oa-Tf? yap veos osv 
direarri oV alcrxpd<i V& ovaf > T '^ eil? Ta Ka ^- a 
(piXoTifAtas, rovrov ovk (prjdr) heiv Trpeafivrepov 

161 yevopcevov l ivirifiov elvai. eireira /cat rrjv ev- 
r\Qeiav rov Xoyov rovrov pahiov iariv e^erdaai. 
irdvres yap dv rovO^ 6p,oXoy>']craip.ev, ori ra<$ 
o-vvO/jKas tt}<? 7T/309 dXXi]Xovs drnarta^ eve/ca 
7roiovp.eda, 'iva 6 /at) Trapafids rd yeypap.p.eva 
Blktjv Xdfiy rfi ^yftw irapd rov Trapafidvros. 
ovkovv, elirep to rrpdyp,a $lkt]<; 7rpocrBelrai, roU 
Kara ypap.p,arelov rjraiprjKoaiv, dv dhiKwvrai, 1) 
r6)v vopiwv &)? 2 ovrol <fyao~iv eniKOvpta KaraXei- 
irerai. Kal ti? dv Xoyos eKarepov (fraveir); p,?) 
yap U7r' ip,ov Xeyopuevov, dXXa yiyvop^evov ro 
-npdyp,a vopicaaO opdv. 

162 "E<tt&> yap 6 p,ev p,iar0(i)o-dp,evo<; hiKaio? eh to 
TTpayp,a, 6 he fiio~8a)@el<; dhiKos Kal pt) fte/3aio<;, 1) 

1 yevofitvoy Hamakei - : yevufxtvov 6 tovs v6fiovs elfffepwi' 
MSS. 

2 is Bremi : Sir MSS. 

I2S 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 159-162 

not to be permitted to desert the company which 
you have chosen and go over to the ways of free 
men. 

But if they shall undertake to say that no man 
has been a prostitute unless he was hired under 
contract, and if they demand that I produce 
writings and witnesses, I ask you first to call to 
mind the laws concerning prostitution ; in them 
the lawgiver has nowhere made mention of con- 
tracts, for he did not inquire whether it was by 
contract that a person had defiled himself, but in 
comprehensive terms, no matter how the deed is 
done, he commands that the man who did it shall 
take no part in public affairs. And he is right ; for 
the man who in his youth was led by shameful in- 
dulgence to surrender honourable ambition, that man, 
he believed, ought not in later life to be possessed 
of the citizen's privileges. In the second place, it 
is easy to demonstrate the folly of this plea. For 
we should all acknowledge this, that we enter into 
contracts because we do not trust one another, the 
object being that the party who has not violated 
the written terms may receive satisfaction by verdict 
of the courts from the one who has. If, there- 
fore, this business needs the help of the courts, 
those who have served as prostitutes by contract, in 
case they are wronged, have left them, according 
to the argument of the defendants, recourse to the 
protection of the laws. And what would be the plea 
that either side would advance ? Imagine the case, 
not as something that I am telling you, but as going 
on before your eyes. 

Assume that the man who hired the other is 
in the right as regards the fact; and the man who 

129 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irdXiv rovvavTLOv o p,ev pucrdcodel*; puerpio^ teal 
TTOiwv ra a>/jioXoy7]/xeva, 6 he rrjv yXiKiav TrpoXafioov 
Kal /jLiad(oadfxevo<i e^euaOw Kal hiKacnd<; up,ds 
avrovs v7ro\d/3eT€ fcaOfjaOai. oukovv 6 irpeo-fiv- 
repos, cnrohoOevTOS rov vhaTos avr<p Kal Xoyou, 
fcarijyopwv l p,erd aTrouhr/s, fSXeircov hrjXovoTi Trpbs 

163 l»/xu9, Xefer " EifiiarjDaHrdfj/rjv, oo avhpes 'AOrjuaiot, 
Tipap^ov eraipelv ep^avrw iccnd to 7 pap, pcai elov to 
irapa Atj p,o a Oevet, tceipevov" ovhev yap KfoXuei 
outcos eiprjcrOat,' " 8' ou iroiel p,oi rd d)p,oXoyr]- 
p,eva." Kal ravr fjhr) hie^etai hyXovori 717)09 toi>9 
hiKacnds, Xeywv a ^py rov toloutov iroielv. eireira 
ou KaraXevad^aerat 6 pia9oup,evo<i rov ' Ad >}valov 
irapa tou? vo/xouf, Kal 7rpoo~o(f)Xa>v direcaiv ck 
tou SiKaaTrjplov ou rrjv €7ro)^eXtav piovov, dXXa 
Kal ttoXXi]v 2 vftpiv ; 

164 AXX" ou)( outo?, dXX' piaOwBels SiKa^erai. 
A.e7€T&) Srj irapeXOwv, rj z ao(p6s B«Ta\o9 inrep 
aurov, Xv eihaypev ri ttot epei. ""Avhpes hiKaarai, 
epLicrddio-aro p,e eraipeiv aurw dpyupiou ocrTLahrj- 
itotouv^ ouhev yap hia<pepei' 4 " Kayo) p,ev dnavra 
Kal TT€7rob7]Ka Kal en Kal vuv ttolS) Kara to ypctp, 

1 Karriyopwv Reiske : MSS. vary between Karrjyopiav, Kary- 
yopizs, and KaTwyopiUv. 

2 iroW^v Blass (Scholiast) : &\Kriv MSS. 

3 ^ added by Blass. 

4 $ia<p4pei Hamaker : Stacptpei ovtws tlprjadai MSS. 



1 Each speaker was given a definite time allowance, 
measured by the water-clock ; hence the expression, d™- 
hodivros rov tiSaros, when the water is given him. 

130 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 162-164 

was hired is in the wrong and lias no ground to 
stand on ; or assume the opposite, that the man 
who was hired is fair and fulfils his engagement, 
but the man who has plucked the flower of his 
youth and hired him has broken his word ; then 
imagine that you yourselves are sitting as jury. 
Now the elder man, when his time allowance 
and the right to speak are given him, 1 will press 
his accusation vigorously, and looking, of course, 
into your faces, he will say, " Fellow citizens, 
I hired Timarchus to serve me as a prostitute ac- 
cording to the contract that is deposited with 
Demosthenes" — there is no reason why that state- 
ment might not be made ! — " but he fails to 
carry out his engagement with me." And now, 
of course, he proceeds to describe this engagement 
to the jury, telling what it is that a man of that 
sort is expected to do. Thereupon will not the 
man be stoned who has hired an Athenian contrary 
to the laws, and will he not leave the court-room 
not only sentenced to pay his fine, 2 but also con- 
victed of wanton outrage ? 

But suppose it is not this man, but the one who 
was hired, that is bringing suit. Now let him come 
forward and speak — or else let the wise Batalus 
speak in his stead, that we may know what he will 
find to say! "Gentlemen of the jury, so-and-so" 
— it does not matter who — "hired me to be his 
prostitute for money, and I have done, and still 
continue to do, according to the terms of the con- 

2 In certain classes of private suit?, if the plaintiff failed 
to receive one-fifth of the votes of the jury, he had to pay 
to the defendant one-sixth of the sum for which he had 
sued (one obol in the drachma (= six obols), hence the name 

131 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

piareiov, a %pr) rroielv rov eraipovvra' ovros Be 
vrrepfiaivei ras avvOt'jKas. ' erreir ov ttoXXt) 
Kpavyi] TTCipa rcov BiKaarcov avrw airavrijaerai; 
ris yap ovk epel' ""Qireira epiiSdXXeis 1 els rrjv 
dyopdv, i) arecpavol, rj rrpdrreis ri raiv avrcbv 
rjp.lv ;" ovkovv ovSev ocpeXos ri)s avyy patprjs. 

165 TioOev ovv Lcr^uKe /ecu crvvr)6es yey evrjrai Xeyeiv, 
a><? /card ypap,puarelov r'jBr) rives rjratprjaav, ipw. 2 
dvr/p el<; rcov rroXircov (to S' ovopa ov \e%w rds 
yap a7re^;^eta9 tyevywi) ovBev TrpolBopievos oiv oXiyw 
rrporepov e'7&) Bie^rfxOov 7rpbs vp,ds, Xeyerai /card 
vvvBr^Kas rjraiprjKevai rds Trap' AvtikXsi Kei- 
p,evas~ ovk oiv 8' 3 IBiojrrjs, dXXa 7rpos rd fcoivd 
•jrpoaiwv teal \oiBopiais TrepnriTrraiv, eh avv/jOeiav 
eiroirjae rod \6yov rovrov ttjv ttoXiv KaraarPjvai, 
icai Bid rovro epcorwai rives, el Kara ypap,parelov 
r) irpa^is yeyevrjrai. 6 Be vopioOerrjs ovj^ ottws ro 
irpdyp.a yeyevrjrai i(j)povriaev, dXX iav oirwaovv 
piiaOwais yevr\rai, KareyvwKC rov rrpd^avros 
alo-^vvrjv. 

166 'AAA.' opuos ovrco craepcos rovrwv Bicopiapevcov, 
7ro\\al 7rape/i/3oXal Xoywv iiirb ArjpLocrOei'ovs evpe- 
dr'jaovrai. Kal rals p.ev inrep 4 rov irpdyp,aros 
KaKorjdeiais Xeyopuevais r)rrov dv ris dyavaKrr]- 
aeiev a Be e%a)0ev emeiad^erai Xvpiaivopievos rd 
rr)s 7roXe(os B'tKaia, errl rovrois d^iov eariv opyi- 

1 t/j.@d\Aeis Bremi : fjU0a\A.s?r, ipBahe'ts, or £/j.fi&\Ari MSS. 

2 ipw Blass : f,^ ip£> MSS. a 8' added by Bekk'er. 
* Mp H. Wolf : M MSS. 

132 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 164-166 

tract, all that a prostitute is under obligation to 
do; he, however, fails to fulfil the agreement." 
Will he not immediately have to face a loud protest 
from the jurors? For who will not say, "And then 
do you thrust yourself into the market-place, do you 
put on a garland, 1 do you attempt to do anything 
else that the rest of us do ? " His contract, you see, 
is of no use to him. 

Now let me tell you how it happens that it has 
become the prevailing custom to say, that persons 
have in the past become prostitutes " under written 
contract." One of our citizens (I will not name 
him, for I have no desire to make myself hated), 
foreseeing none of the consequences which I have 
just described to you, is said to have served as 
prostitute according to a contract deposited with 
Anticles. Now, since he was not a private citizen, 
but active in politics and subject to scurrilous 
attack, he caused the city to become accustomed 
to this expression, and that is the reason why 
some men ask whether in a given case the practice 
has been " by written contract." But the lawgiver 
did not care how the thing was brought about ; 
on the contrary, if there is a letting for hire in 
any way whatsoever, the man who does the deed is 
condemned by him to disgrace. 

But nevertheless, although all this is so plainly 
denned, many irrelevant arguments will be invented 
by Demosthenes. Possibly, when he sticks to his 
subject, we might be less indignant with him for 
the animosity he shows ; but when, to the injury 
of our national rights, he foists in matters that 
do not belong to the case, then one may well be 

1 See the note on § 19. 

*33 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ad-rjvat. ttoXvs p,ev yap 6 QlXnrTro? ecrrai, 
dvap-eiyOrjceTai Be /ecu to tov jrai&b<z bvop.a , AXe- 
£dvBpov. zeal yap 7r/?o? Tot? aWot? rca/cots dpov- 

(TOS T£? OVTOS KCU COT aiSeVT O? ClvO ' pCOTT 0? i(7Tl. 

167 to p,\v yap ei? tovQiXittttov tco Xoyep 7rXr/p,p,eXeiv 
apaOes p,ev Kal aicaipov, eXarrov 8' ov p,eXXa> 
Xeyeiv d/mdpTT)p.a' 6p.oXoyovp,evco<i yap et? dvBpa, 
Kaiirep ovk wv avrb<; dvr)p, Ta? (3Xacr(pripiia$ 
Troirjaerai' orav Be rats et? tov iralSa ireTrpa- 
ypLaTevpLevais p,era(popal<; 6vop,dra>v alaxpas vtto- 
■yp-ia*; 7rapep,(3dXXrj, /caTayeXaarov rrjv iroXiv 

168 Troiei. &)? yap Ta? e/ia? evOvvas ^Xdirrcov, a? 
inrep t?}? 7rpea/3eia<; pieXXo) Bihbvai, (pyal p,e, 6V 
auTO? irpwriv virep tov 7ratSo? AXe^dvBpov Bie^rjei, 
oj? ev Tip 7TOT&) r)pL0sv Kidapi^oi real Xeyoi p^cret? 
TiZ/a? Kal dvTiKpovaeis 7rpo<; erepov iralha, ical 
irepl tovtcov a Brj ttots auro? eTvy%ave yiyv coa/ccov 
7Ty0O9 ttjv ftovXrjv uTrecpijvaTo, ov% &)? o~v p,7rpea /3ev- 
Tr]v, aXh! ft)? avyyevt) toi? et? tov walSa cr/ccop,- 

169 piacriv dyavaKTrjaai. iyo) B' 'AXe^dvBpq) p,ev 
6t«OTa>? Sid ttjv rjXiKiav ov SielXeypLai, QiXnnrov 
Be vvv p,ev Bid ttjv twv Xoycov ev(f)7]p.iav eiraivar edv 
o" 6 at»TO? ev Tot? 7rpo? 77/xa? epyoi<; yevrjTai, olos 
vvv io~Tiv ev Tot? eirayyeXpiaaiv, do~(paXr) Kal 
pdSiov tov KaO^ avTov 7roiijo~eTai erraivov. eVeTi- 
pu]0~a S' ev T(p fiovXevTrjplip Arjp,oo~6evei ov tov 

1 See the Introduction to Speech II., p. 159. 
134 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 166-169 

angry. Philip will be largely in evidence, and 
the name of Philip's son Alexander is going to be 
mixed up in it. For in addition to all the rest 
that is bad in him, this Demosthenes is an ill- 
mannered and boorish sort of person. His offensive 
talk against Philip is foolish and out of place, but 
not so serious a mistake as that which I am about 
to mention. For confessedly he will be making 
his slanderous charges against a man — he who is 
himself no man. But when he insinuates shameful 
suspicions against the boy, by deliberately applying 
to him words of double meaning, he makes our city 
ridiculous. For, under the impression that he is 
hurting me with reference to the accounting which 
I am about to render for my service on the em- 
bassy, 1 he' says that when the other day he himself 
was describing the boy Alexander, telling how at 
a certain banquet of ours he played the cithara, 
reciting certain passages in which there were thrusts 
at another boy, and when he reported to the senate 
what he himself happened to know about the inci- 
dent, I got angry at his jests at the expense of the 
boy, 2 as though 1 were not merely a member of the 
embassy, but one of the boy's own family. Now I 
naturally have had no conversation with Alexander, 
because of his youth, but Philip I do praise now 
because of his auspicious words, and if in what he 
does toward us in the future he shall fulfil the 
promise of what he now says, he will make praise 
of him a safe and easy thing. I did, indeed, rebuke 
Demosthenes in the senate-chamber, not because 

2 The words of double meaning that Aeschines says De- 
mosthenes applied to the boy Alexander would be connected 
with the story of this "playing" and "reciting." 

135 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

iracha etcOepairevGyv, aAA' eav ra roiavra airo- 
8e)(T](T@e, ofioiav vopi^wv Ti]v ttoXiv <^av Reread at, 
Trj tov Xeyovros aKoapla. 

170 "OX-co? he, u> dvhpes 'Adrjvalot, ras e^wOev tov 
7rpdy/u.aTO<; d-noXoyias purj irpoahe^eade, irpwTOV 
p,ev twc op/ccov eveica ovs o)p:6aare, hevTepov he 
inrep tov fir) Trapa/cpouaOP/rai virb avOpcoirov 
Te\yirov Xoycov. pbi/cpbv S' dvwOev ap$jop.at, 
hiSda/ceiv vp,a<;. Ayp,oo-0evi)s yap, eireih)] ri)V 
irarpcpav ovaiav dvijXwcre, frepirjei x ri]v ttoXiv 
Oijpevoov veov<i rrXovalovs, 2 oov ol p,ev ira-repes 
eT€Te~\.€VT>jfce<jav, al he p,^repe<i hia>tcovv ra? ou- 
crta?. iroXXovs o° V7rep(3a$ ei>o? rStv heivd ireirov- 

171 dorcov pivr]a0ij(Top,ai. /cariSwv yap oIkLclv ttXov- 
alav koI ovk evvopiovp,evr)v, 979 i]yep,wv p,ev rjv yvvrj 
p.eya typovovaa ical vovv ovk e^ovcra, veaviaKos 
he 6p(f>av6<i rjfjbtfxavr}? hie^elpi^e rrjv ovaiav, ' ' A.pi- 
<jTap%o<i rov Mocr^ou, tovtov 7rpoa7roi7]crdpLevo<i 
epacrTr)? eivai, /cal to p,eipaKiov elf ttjv <piXav- 
6po)7ri,av Tavrrjv 7rpofca\€o~dp,evo<;, 3 iX7rlhu>v Kevwv 
epi,Tr\i)o-a<i, C09 avri/ca hrj p,dXa tcov pr/Topwv 

172 irpcoTevaovra, /cardXoyov diro^alvcov, tolovtcov 
elo-r)yj]Tr]<i av-rCo koX hthdcTKaXo^ epycov eyevero, 
e'f wv iiceivos p,ev <pevyet ttjv irarptha, ovtos 0" 
avrov rd rfjs (fyvyrjs ecfrohia it poXaftoov rpia 

1 wepijj'ei irtpl MSS.: Blass brackets irep). 

2 -nXovotovs Cobet : irkovaiovs 6p<pavovs MSS. 

:i TTponaXead/ju-vos Linder : irpo<TKake<rd/j.evos MSS. 

136 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 169-172 

I was courting the favour of the boy, but because I 
felt that if you should listen to such words as his, 
the city would show itself as ill-behaved as the 
speaker. 

But, fellow citizens, I beg you not to accept their 
irrelevant pleas at all, in the first place for the 
sake of the oaths which you have sworn, in the 
second place that you may not be misled by a 
fellow who makes a trade of the manipulation of 
words. But I will go back a little way for your 
instruction. Demosthenes, after he had spent his 
patrimony, went up and down the city, hunting 
rich young fellows whose fathers were dead, and 
whose mothers were administering their property. 
I will omit many instances, and will mention only 
one of those who were outrageously treated. He 
discovered a household that was rich and ill- 
managed, the head of which was a woman, proud 
and of poor judgment. A fatherless young man, 
half crazy, was managing the estate, Aristarchus, 
son of Moschus. Demosthenes, pretending to be 
a lover of his, invited the young man to this in- 
timacy, filling him up with empty hopes, assuring 
him that without any delay whatever he should 
become the foremost man in public life, and he 
showed him a list of names. 1 So he became 
prompter and teacher of the young man in conduct 
which has made Aristarchus an exile from his 
fatherland, while Demosthenes, getting hold of 
the money that was to support him in his banish- 
ment, has cheated him out of three talents, and, 

1 Doubtless a list of young men who had studied oratory 
with Demosthenes and become successful public men. So 
the Scholiast. 

E 137 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rdXavra aireo-repri/ce, Nt/coS?/yu.o? S' o 'AcfaiBvaios 
vit 'Apiardp^ov rereXevrrjKe fiiaiw davdrw, 
eKKOireli o SeiXaios dpuporepovs rovs ocpOaXpiovs 
/cal rrjv yXcorrav i/crp.ijOeis, 1 y eirapprja id^er o 
TTiarevcov toZ? vop:oi$ /cal vp.lv. 

173 , 'EiTTei6 J vfxeis, a> civBpes , A6i]vaioi, ^w/cpdrrjv 
piev top aocpio~ri]v direKreivare, bri "Kpiruav ecpdvrj 
TreTraiSevKox;, eva rwv rpid/covra rcov rov Brjpiov 
/caraXvadvrcov, At] p,oa6evri<; S' vpitv eraipovs e£ai- 
py^aerai, 2 6 rr/XiKavras ripicopias Xapifidvcov rrapd 
rwv IBicorwv koX Brjfioritcwv dvOpojircov birep tt)? 
icn-yyopias; co irapaKe/cXrjpLevoi rives twv piaOrjrwv 
r\KOvcriv eVt Tt)V d/cpoaaiv /carenayyeXXerai yap 
rrpos avrovs, epyoXaftwv iff)' vpids, a>9 eya> irwQd- 
vopiai, Xrjcreiv pieraXXd^as tov dywva ical rrjv 

174 vpierepav d/cpoaaiv, /cal rrepiar^aeiv rq> p,ev (pev- 
yovri s dappelv, orav avrbs Bevpo rrapeXOrj, etcrre- 
rrXyj^Bai Be rw Karr/yopw ical 7re(po/3fja0ai irepi 
avrov, roaovrovs Be /cal rr/XiKOvrovs e/c/caXeiadai 4 
rrapd rwv BiKaarwv 0opvj3ov$, rrapepifiaXXayv rds 
ep.d<; Bijpujyopias /cat -tyeyayv rrjv elp^vqv rrjv oV 
ep,ov /cal <i>i\oK parous yeyevi]p,evr)i>, war ovBe 
diravr7)aea0al pie eVt to Bt/caari'jpiov aTroXoyijao- 
fievov, orav r>]<i 7rpeo~/3eta>? rds evOvvas BiBS), dXX' 

1 €KT/j.ii9els Blass (Suidas under the word napprjala) : 
OTroT^rjfleis MSS. 

2 i^aio-nfferat Blass' conjecture, confirmed by the Geneva 
papyrus: e^aiT^n-erai MSS. 

3 (pevyovrt Blass (Suidas under the word Sevpo) : <pvy6i>Ti 
MSS. 

4 €KXa\e7o8a.L Cobet : eKKaA.e'<rf<70ai or eKKaAerraaOcu MSS. 

1 The murdered man, Nicodemus, was a friend and sup- 
porter of Demosthenes' influential personal and political 

138 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 172-174 

at the hands of Aristarchus, Nicodemus of Aphidna 
lias met a violent death, poor man ! after having 
had both eyes knocked out, and that tongue cut 
off with which he had been wont to speak out 
freely, trusting in the laws and in you. 1 

Did you put to death Socrates the sophist, fel- 
low citizens, because he was shown to have been 
the teacher of Critias, one of the Thirty who put 
down the democracy, and after that, shall Demos- 
thenes succeed in snatching companions of his own 
out of your hands, Demosthenes, who takes such 
vengeance on private citizens and friends of the 
people for their freedom of speech ? At his invi- 
tation some of his pupils are here in court to listen 
to him. For with an eye to business at your ex- 
pense, 2 he promises them, as I understand, that he 
will juggle the issue and cheat your ears, and you 
will never know it ; assuring them that, as soon as 
he shall come forward to speak, the situation shall 
be reversed, the defendant filled with confidence, 
the plaintiff confounded, frightened for his own 
safety ; and that he will lug in my speeches, and 
find fault with the peace which was brought about 
through Philocrates and myself, until he shall call 
out such bursts of applause from the jurors that 
1 will not even face him in the court-room to 
defend myself when I render account of my ser- 
vice on the embassy, but will consider myself lucky 

enemies, Meidias and Eubulus, and had taken part in an 
unsuccessful attempt to convict Demosthenes of desertion in 
the Kuboean campaign. When he was found murdered, 
Meidias made repeated attempts to throw suspicion on 
Demosthenes. 

2 Success in this case will increase Demosthenes' reputa- 
tion, and bring him more pupils and tuition fees. 

139 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dyairi'jaeiv, eav pcerpiw rip/]p,ari rrepi,7riaa) /cat pr\ 

175 6avdr(p ^jpiwpai. pbrjBevl Br] rpbrrcp Kad* vfiwv 
avrwv yeXcora ra> aocf)carfj Kal Biarpi{3r)v rrapd- 
cryr\re, aXX' imoXapiSaveO^ bpav elcre\ii\v9ora drro 
rov BiKacrrrjpiov oiKaBe teal ae/u-vvvopevov ev rfj 
twv pecpaKLcov Biarpiftfj, Kal Bte^tovra, co? ev rb 
rrpayixa vcpetXero twv BiKaarcbv " 'Krrayaywv yap 
avrovs airb rwv rrepl Tipcap^ov alrcwv, eTrecrrrjaa 
(bepoov irrl rov Kan]yopov Kal ^lXittttov kcu <£>&)- 
Kea<i, Kal (poftovs em')pri]aa rols aKpocopevots, 
wad' 6 p,ev ^evywv Karrjyopei, 6 Be Karrjyopwv 
eKpivero, ol Be BiKaarai, wv pev rjcrav Kpirat, 1 
eireXaOovro, a>v 8' ovk rjaav, 2 rrepl rovrwv i']K0V0v. ' 

176 vperepov 8' early epyov 717309 ravra dvnrerd)(9ai, 
Kal rravrayrf TrapaKoXovOovvra? pujBapLJ) rrapeK- 
KkLveiv avrbv eav, prjBe to?9 e%aywvioi<; z Xoyocs 
BiLo-yvpl^eaOat' aXX' wenrep ev ral<; 'nnroZpopiais 
et? rov rov irpdyparos avrbv Bpop^ov eiaeXavvere. 
Kav ravra rroifjre, ov Kara(ppovi]0/]aeaOe, teal rr)v 
avrrjv ePere yvcapurjv vopoderovi're<; Kal BiKa^nvre*;' 
el Be yu-J/, Botjere peXXovrcov p,ev ytyveaOai rwv 
dBiKtjpdrwv rrpoaiaOdvecrdai Kal opyi^ecrdai, yeyo- 

VOTWV Be OVKeTL (f)pOVTL%€lV. 

177 'fis" 8' ev KecpaXalco elpfjaOai, eav p,ev KoXdfyre 
tou9 dBiKOvvras, eaovrai vplv ol vbpoi Ka\ol Kal 
Kvpiot, eav 8' dfpir/re, KaXol pev, Kvpwt, 8 ovKeri. 
wi> 8' eveKa ravra \eyco, ovk OKvi']aw rrpb^ vpcis 
rrapprjaidaacrdaL. earai 8' o X0709 irrl rrapaBe'i- 
yp,aro<;. Bid ri oiecrde, w avBpes A6i]vacoi, 7-01/9 

1 Kptral Herwerden : StKavTai MSS. 

2 fiaav FranUe, Herwerden : i\nav Kpnal MSS. 

3 i^ayaiviois Blass (Suidas) : f|a> rov ayaivos MSS. 

140 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 174-177 

if I get off with a moderate fine instead of being 
punished with death. So I do beg you by all 
means not to furnish this sophist with laughter and 
patronage at your expense. Imagine that you see 
him when he gets home from the court-room, putting 
on airs in his lectures to his young men, and telling 
how successfully he stole the case away from the jury. 
" I carried the jurors off bodily from the charges 
brought against Timarchus, and set them on the ac- 
cuser, and Philip, and the Phocians, and I suspended 
such terrors before the eyes of the hearers that 
the defendant began to be the accuser, and the 
accuser to be on trial ; and the jurors forgot what 
they were to judge ; and what they were not to 
judge, to that they listened." But it is your busi- 
ness to take your stand against this sort of thing, 
and following close on his every step, to let him 
at no point turn aside nor persist in irrelevant 
talk; on the contrary, act as you do in a horse- 
race, make him keep to the track — of the matter 
at issue. If you do that, you will not fail of respect, 
and you will have the same sentiments when you 
are called to enforce laws that you had when you 
made them ; but if you do otherwise, it will appear 
that when crimes are about to be committed, you 
foresee them and are angry, but after they have 
been committed, you no longer care. 

To sum it all up, if you punish the wrongdoers, 
your laws will be good and valid ; but if you let 
them go, good laws, indeed, but valid no longer. 
And I shall not hesitate to speak out and tell 
you why I say this. I will explain by means of 
an illustration. Why do you suppose it is, fellow 



141 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vo/xovs fjbev Ka\(o<i /celaOai, ra Be y}ni(f)Lo~p.aTa 
elvai to. 1 rrjs rroXews KaraSeearepa, koX ras 
Kpiaeis ivlore ra<; ev TOi? 8iKao~Tr)pioL<; eyeiv crrt- 

178 TrXy^eis; eyu> ras tovtoov atrias eirihei^co. otl 
tovs fiev vop,ov$ TiOecrde eVl iracri Sikulol^, 2 ovre 
/cepSovs eveic dhiKov, ovre %apno<i ovr e%fy>a<?, 
aXXa 7T/0O9 clvto fxovov to hiiccuov real to avptpepov 
diroftXeirovTes' eiuhe^Loi, S' olfiai (fyvvTes eTepwv 
pbdXXov, el/corco? KaXXicrTOw; v6/xov<; riOecrOe. ev 
8e rat? eK/cXr/aiais ical rot? hacao-Trjpiois iroXXa- 
/a? a(pefMevoi TOiv eh clvto to irpdypia Xoycov, biro 
TTj<i awaTryi real tu>v aXa^ovevpLciTCOv virdyeaOe, 
fcal irdvTwv a&ifccoTCiTov kdos et<? tovs aywvwi 
irapahe^eaOe' eare yap toi"? aTroXoyov/xevovs dv- 

179 TircaTTjyopelv tow /caTTjyopovvrcov. eirecSav S' diro 
Trj<i diroXoyias diToaTraadriTe /cal Ta? "^rv^as e<f) 
eTepaiv yevrjo-9e, eis Xt]dr]v efiirea6vTe<; t?}? KaTt]- 
yopias, i^epxecrO 1 e'/c tu>v hiKacTi]piwv, ovBe irap 
erepov hiKrjv elXrj&oTes, ovtc irapa tov /caT7]yopov, 
•\Jr/)<£o9 yap /car clvtov ov SlSotck,, ovre irapa tov 
CLTToXoyovpievov, Tat? yap aXXoTpiats cuticiis airo- 
Tpiyjfdp-evos tcl virdp^ovTa avTU> eytcXij/naTa e/c- 
irecpevyev i/c tov 8iKao-Trjp[ov' ol 8e vojjloi /cctTa- 
Xvovtcli feed i) 8i]/jLo/cpaTia hiafyOeipeTai teal to 
eOos eVt 7roXv irpofiaivei' ebyepws yap evioTe 
Xoyov dvev ^prjaTOv /3/ou irpoahe^eaOe. 

1 ra added by Sauppe. 

2 SiKaioti Hillebrand, confirmed by the Geneva papyrus : 
rots Sucaiots MSS. 



1 A law (v6/j.os) could be enacted or amended only by a 
special legislative commission, by an elaborate process, under 

142 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 177-179 

citizens, that the existing laws are good, but that 
the decrees of the city are inferior to them/ and 
that the verdicts rendered in the courts are some- 
times open to censure ? I will explain to you the 
reason. It is because you enact the laws with 
no other object than justice, not moved by un- 
righteous gain, or by either partiality or animosity, 
looking solely to what is just and for the common 
good. And because you are, as I think, naturally 
more clever than other men, it is not surprising 
that you pass most excellent laws. But in the 
meetings of the assembly and in the courts, you 
oftentimes lose all hold of the discussion of the 
matter in hand, and are led away by deceit and 
trickery ; and you admit into your cases at law 
a custom that is utterly unjust, for you allow the 
defendants to bring counter accusations against the 
complainants. And when you have been drawn 
away from the defence itself, and your minds have 
become intent on other things, you forget the accu- 
sation entirelv, and leave the court-room without 
having received satisfaction from either party — not 
from the complainant, for you are given no oppor- 
tunity to vote with reference to him, and not from 
the defendant, for by his extraneous charges he has 
brushed aside the original complaints against him- 
self, and gone out of court scot-free. Thus the 
laws are losing their force, the democracy is being 
undermined, and the custom is steadily gaining 
ground. For you sometimes thoughtlessly listen to 
mere talk that is unsupported by a good life. 

careful precautions, at a fixed time in the civil year. A 
decree (\pv(pi(rfj.a) could be passed any day by joint action of 
senate and assembly, and as easily amended or repealed. 

143 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

180 AAA.' ou Aa/ceBaifiovior koXov B earl /cal to.? 
^eviicds dperds fii/xeiaOai. 8rjp,r]yopouvTO<; yap 
rivos ev rfj t5>v Aa/ceBatfiovlcov etacXrjala, dvBpbs 
/3e^LU>KOTo<; p,ev ala^pcos, \eyeiv S' els vrrep/3o\r]v 
Bvvajov, real tmv AafceBaip.ovcG)v, w? <paai, Kara 
Tr/v e/ceivov yvoofiijv "yjrrjtyi^eo-Oai fieWovrcov, irap- 
e\9(i)v rts ioiv yepovTcov, ovs e/ceivoi teal ala%v- 
vovrai teal hehiacn, /cal ttjv t?}<? rjXiKtas avrwv 
iirayvvfiLav ap^rjv fieyiari]v elvai vofii^ovcri, /caOi- 
enden S' avrous etc tuiv £k iraiBbs 64S yijpas 
aaxfcpovcov, tovtojv els, w? Xeyerai, irapeXdaiv 
icr^upw? €7re7r\r)%€ tols Aa/ceBai/novlois, icai ri 
toiovtov tear avrcov efiXaafyijurjaev, &>s ov ttoXvv 
%povov rrjv ^irdpr'qv diropO^TOV ol/ctfaovcri, toiov- 
rots ev rats ifCfcXi]aiais av[xj3ovXoLs ^poo/xevoi,. 

181 cl/jlcl Be TrapanaXeaas aXXov rtva toov Aa/ceBai- 
fiovLOiv, dvBpa Xeyeiv fiev ov/c evfyva, to. Be /card 
irbXep,ov Xap.irpbv /cal irpo? Bifcaioavvrjv ical iy/epd- 
Teiav Buw^epovra, errera^ev avrcp rds auras euTrelv 
yvcofias outcos oircos av Bvvrjrai, as elrrev 6 Trpore- 
pos ptjTcop, ""If a," €(f)i], " 01 AaKeBaip,6vioi dvBpbs 
dyadov <p&ey$jafA6vov ijrr](f)i<T(tiVTai, rds Be rcov 
diroBeBeiXiafcoTaiv l /cal nrov^poiv dvOpdmwv (frwvas 
firjBe rots coal irpoaBexcovTai." ravO' 6 yepcov 6 
e/c 7raiBbs aeaaHJypovTjKcbs nrapyveae rots eavTov 
iroX'nais. Ta-%v 7' av 2 Tt/xap^ov rj rbv tciiaiBov 
Arj/xoaOevrjv eXaae TroXireveaOai. 



1 aTrofiisSeiAiaKOT&v Wolf : viro8e5etAiaK6Ta>v MSS. 

2 y , av Porson : yap or ye MSS. 



144 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 180-181 

Not so the Lacedaemonians (and it is well to 
imitate virtue even in a foreigner). For instance, 
when a certain man had spoken in the assembly ot 
the Lacedaemonians, a man of shameful life but an 
exceedingly able speaker, and when, we are told, the 
Lacedaemonians were on the point of voting accord- 
ing to his advice, a man came forward from the 
Council of Elders 1 — a body of men whom they rever- 
ence and fear, whose age gives its name to that office 
which they consider the highest, and whom they 
appoint from among those who have been men ot 
sobriety from boyhood to old age — one of these, it is 
said, came forward and vehemently rebuked the 
Lacedaemonians and denounced them in words like 
these : that the homes of Sparta would not long re- 
main unravaged if the people followed such advisers 
in their assemblies. At the same time he called for- 
ward another of the Lacedaemonians, a certain man 
who was not gifted in speech, but brilliant in war 
and distinguished for justice and sobriety, and he 
ordered him to express as best he could the same 
sentiments that the former orator had uttered, " In 
order," he explained, "that a good man may speak 
before the Lacedaemonians vote, but that they may 
not even receive into their ears the voices of proven 
cowards and rascals." Such was the advice that the 
old man, who had lived a pure life from childhood, 
gave to his fellow citizens. He would have been 
quick, indeed, to allow Timarchus or the low-lived 
Demosthenes to take part in public affairs ! 

1 The Council of Elders (rtpovres) consisted of twenty- 
eight men, elected by the people from those nobles who had 
passed their sixtieth year; an elder thus elected held the 
office the rest of his life. 

145 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

182 "\va Be purj Bo/eco Aaice8aip,ovLov<; Qepaireveiv, /cal 
tcov f]/j,€Tep(ov TTpoyovcov p,vr)cr8>jo~opai. ovtco yap 
yaav 7T/90? to.? alcryvvas ^aXeiroi, ical irepl irXei- 

(TTOV 7U)V T6KVCOV TTJV CTCOCppOCrVVrjV ETTOIOVVTO, LOCTT 

avrjp el? tcov ttoXitcov, evpcov ttjv eavTov dvyaTepa 
hte(j)0appevt]v, ical Ti)v rfki/ciav ov ica\co<; Biacpv- 
\d£aaav pe^pi ydpov, ey/caTCp/coBoprjcrev auryv 
pe6' lttttov et? eprjpov ol/ciav, v(p ov TrpoB/jXcos 
epeWev diroXeiaOai 1 avy/cadeipyp.ei>7]. ical en 
kcu vvv tt}<? oIkicls TavTTjs earrjKe rd olfcoireBa ev 
tco vpeTepco darei, ical 6 tottos outo? /caXeiTai 

183 Trap' 'lttttov ical icopr\v. 6 Be SoXcov 6 tcov vo/j-oOe- 
tcov evBo^oTaTOS yeypacpev dpyaiwi ical uep,vco<i 
irepl T7?? tcov yvvauccov ev/cocrp,La<;. ttjv yap yv- 
val/ca ecf)' fj dv dXco p.oi'^os, ov/c ea Koapeladai, 
ovBe eh rd Bi]p,0Te\i] lepd eiaievai, Iva prj -ra? 
dvap,apTi]TOV<i tcov yvvai/ccov dvapeiyvvpevr/ Bia- 
(fifleipr}' edv S 1 elcrirj rj /coo-pf/Tai, rbv evrvyovra 
/ceXevet Karapprjyvvvai ra Ipbaria real rov /cocrpov 
d^aipelaOai /cal tvttt€iv, elpyopevov davdrou /cal 
rov di'aTrrjpov Troirjaai, aTipcov ttjv roiavrrjv yv- 
val/ca ical rov fitov d/3t,coTov avrfj icaTaaicevd^cov. 

184 fcal Ta? Trpoaycoyovs /cal toin TTpoaycoyovs ypd$e- 
aBai KeXevet, /cdv dXcocri, Oavdrco typiovv, on tcov 
e^apapTaveiv eTridvp-ovvTcov okvovvtcov ical ala^v- 
vopevcov dXXtjXois evTvyydveiv, avTol rr/v avTcov 
dvaiBeiav Trapaa^ovTe^ cttI ^ilct6u> to irpdypLa et? 
Bidireipav ical \6yov Karearrjo-av. 

185 "E7re£#' ol p.ev TraTepes vpcov ovtco Trepl tcov 
alo~)(pojv real /caXcov Bieylyvcoaicov, u//,et? Be Tlpap- 
yov tov T049 aio-"% i0 " Tot -S eTriTTjBevpacriv evo%ov 

1 airoXt'tcdat Dobree : a.Tro\f7a6ai 8ta Aifj.bv MSS. 
I46 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 182-185 

But that I may not seem to be flattering the Lace- 
daemonians, I will make mention of our ancestors 
also. For so stern were they toward all shameful 
conduct, and so precious did they hold the purity of 
their children, that when one of the citizens found 
that his daughter had been seduced, and that she 
had failed to guard well her chastity till the time of 
marriage, he walled her up in an empty house with 
a horse, which he knew would surely kill her, if she 
were shut in there with him. And to this day the 
foundations of that house stand in your city, and that 
spot is called ". the place of the horse and the maid." 
And Solon, the most famous of lawgivers, has written 
in ancient and solemn manner concerning orderly 
conduct on the part of the women. For the woman 
who is taken in the act of adultery he does not allow to 
adorn herself, nor even to attend the public sacrifices, 
lest by mingling with innocent women she corrupt 
them. But if she does attend, or does adorn herself, 
he commands that any man who meets her shall tear 
off her garments, strip her of her ornaments, and 
beat her (only he may not kill or maim her) ; for the 
lawgiver seeks to disgrace such a woman and make 
her life not worth the living. And he commands that 
procurers, men and women, be indicted, and if they 
are convicted, be punished with death, because to 
people who lust after sin but hesitate and are ashamed 
to meet one another, the procurers offer their own 
shamelessness for pay, and make it possible to discuss 
the act and to accomplish it. 

Such, then, was the judgment of your fathers con- 
cerning things shameful and things honourable ; and 
shall their sons let Timarchus go free, a man charge- 
able with the most shameful practices, a creature 

147 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dcprjaere; rbv dvhpa pev teal appeva to awfia, 
yvvaifceia 8e dp,aprr]p.aTa rjpaprrjKora; Tt? ovv 
vpbwv yvval/ca \a{3a)v dBiKOvaav ripcopyaeTac; rj 
Ti? ovk airaihevTos eivai So^et rfj p,ev Kara (puaiv 
dpLapravovar] ^akeiratvcov, tu> he irapd (pvaiv 

186 kavrbv vfipLo-avri <rvp,/3ov\q) ^pottpevos ; rlva S' 
e^cov efcaaros vp,wv <yvcop,r)v iirdveiaiv oitcaSe Ik 
tov StKaarrjplov ; ovre <ydp 6 /cpivopevos dcpavijs, 
dWa <yvcopi,p,os, ovO' 6 vopos 6 rrepl t?)? tmv 
prjTopwv hoKipiacnas (pav\o<;, dWa KaXX.taro<i, to 
t epeaOai rots iratal /ecu to?? peipa/ciois tou? 
eavTcov ol/celovs, 07r&>? to irpdypa /ce/cpiTai, trpo- 

187 yeipov. Tt ovv hrj Xe^ere ol rr)<; yJrrj(pov vvvl 
yejovore 1 ; Kvptoi, brav ol vpuerepoi iralhe<; vp,d<; 
kpcovrai, el /caT€$ifcdo~a.T€ rj d7re\jn](f)io-ao'de ; ov^ 
ap,a TipLap^ov diroXvaat op-oXoyyaere, kcli rrjv 
Koivrjv iraiheLav dvarpeyfrere ; rl h' ocpeXos iraiha- 
<ya><yov<; rpe(f)eiv rj TraihoTpifias kcu hthaaKuXovi 
TOi? iracalv ecpio-rdvai, brav ol Tr\v tmv vopucov 
TrapaKaTa6i]Kr]v exovres 7rpo? t<z? alo"xyva<; Kara- 
Kapurroyvrai ; 

1S8 (davpudfa $' vpicov, <b avBpes 'Adijvaioi, icdfcelvo, 
el tow? p-ev iropvoftocrKovs puaelre, toi>? 8' e/covra<; 
ireiropvevpevovs d^rjaere' kcl\ ft)? koi/cev o avrb<i 
ovtos dvrjp lepaxTVvrjv p,ev ovSevbs 6ewv K\r]pa>- 
aeTCti, &)? ovk ojv etc twv vop,o)v xadapos to acopa 
ypdyjrei £' ev to?? -^rrjcpLapacnv ei^a? virep tt}? 



148 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 185-188 

with the body of a man defiled with the sins of a 
woman ? In that case, who of you will punish a 
woman if he finds her in wrong doing ? Or what 
man will not be regarded as lacking intelligence who 
is angry with her who errs by an impulse of nature, 
while he treats as adviser l the man who in despite 
of nature has sinned against his own body? How 
will each man of you feel as he goes home from court ? 
For the person who is on trial is no obscure man, but 
well known ; the law governing the official scrutiny 
of public speakers is not a trivial law, but a most excel- 
lent one ; and we must expect that the boys and 
young men will ask the members of their families 
how the case was decided. What then, pray, are you 
going to answer, you in whose hands the decision now 
rests, when your sons ask you whether you voted for 
conviction or acquittal ? When you acknowledge 
that you set Timarchus free, will you not at the same 
time be overturning our whole system of training 
the youth ? What use is there in keeping attend- 
ants for our children, or setting trainers and teachers 
over them, when those who have been entrusted 
with the laws allow themselves to be turned into 
crooked paths of shame ? 

I am also surprised, fellow citizens, that you who 
hate the brothel-keeper propose to let the willing 
prostitute go free. And it seems that a man who is 
not to be permitted to be a candidate for election 
by lot for the priesthood of any god, as being impure 
of body as that is defined by the laws, this same man 
is to write in our decrees prayers to the August 

1 The question at issue is whether Timarchus is to be 
allowed to continue to be an adviser of the city, by speaking 
in the assembly of the people. 

149 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7roXe<w9 Tat? aefjivais deals, etTa ri davp,d^opev 
rrjv KOiv-SfV cnrpa^iav, tolovtcov pijTopcov e7rl Ta? 
tov hijfjbov yva)fias eTriypacfiopLevwv ; Kal tov at- 
cr^pco? oIkol /3e{3ia>fc6Ta e£a) t% 7roA.ea)? Trpeaftev- 
ti-jv irepL^ropiev, Kal tovtm irepl rwv peyiaToiv 
hiaTTiarevaopLev ; Tt S' ovk av airohoiTo 6 rr]V tov 
owpaTos vfipiv 7T67rpaKco<; ; riva S' av ovtos iXei]- 
aeiev o avrov ovk eA.e>/<xa? ; 
1S9 Tivi S' vpLcov ovk evyvwaTos iariv ■>) Tipap^ov 
(3heXvpia; &airep yap tov? yvpLva^opAvovs, kclv 
p,t) 7rapcopL6V iv rots yvpvaalois, et? ra? eue£/a? 
avTOiv airoftXeTTOVTes yiyvd>aKop,ev, ovtco tovs 
ireiropvevpevovs, kciv pi] irapwpev avTwv Tot? 
epyois, €K rf]<; dvaiheias Kal tov dpdaovs Kai twv 
€7riTT)8evpdT(ov yiyvdocTKopLev. o yap eiri tow 
p,eylo~TC0v tovs vop^ovs Kal ttjv aa>cf)poavvr]v vrrep- 
iSojv, e^et Tivd e^iv ttjs ' r r v)(i]<; i) SidS^Xos €K t?)? 
aKoapias tov Tpoirov ytyvtrai. 

190 TlXeiaTOvs S' av evpoiT e/c twv toiovtwv dvOpoj- 
ttwv TroXeis dvaT6Tpo<i>OTa<; Kal Tat? p.eyLarais 
avpLtpopacs avrov? TTepiireiTTOiKOTas. fvf) yap 
oceaOe, w dvBpes ' ' AOrjvaloi, 1 7a? twv dhiK7]p,dT(ov 
ap^ds diro Oecov, dXX ovk d'n - dvOpoiTrwv aaeX- 
yelas yiyveoOai, purfhe toi>? ^o-e/3i]KOTas, KaOdirep 
ev Tat? Tpaywhiais, Uoivas eXavveiv Kal KoXa^tiv 

191 haalv r\p,pevais' a\V at irpoireTels tov acopaTOS 
i]Boval Kal to p,r/Sev iKavbv i)yelcr6ai, Tavra ttXtj- 
pol Ta XrjaTijpia, Tavr' et? tov eiraKTpoKeXrjra 
ip/3i/3d^ei, Tavra io~Tiv eKacrTM WoLvrj, Tavra 



1 Si &vSpes 'A6r)vcuoi Blass : Si 'A9r]vaioi MSS. 

2 ovk an' Bremi : o&x vlr ' MSS. 



15° 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 188-191 

Goddesses 1 in behalf of the state. Why then do we 
wonder at the futility of our public acts, when the 
names of such public men as this stand at the head 
of the people's decrees ? And shall we send abroad 
as ambassador a man who has lived shamefully at 
home, and shall we continue to trust that man in 
matters of the greatest moment ? What would he 
not sell who has trafficked in the shame of his own 
body ? Whom would he pity who has had no pity 
on himself? 

To whom of you is not the bestiality of Timarchus 
well known ? For just as we recognize the athlete, 
even without visiting the gymnasia, by looking at his 
bodily vigour, even so we recognize the prostitute, 
even without being present at his act, by his shame- 
lessness, his effrontery, and his habits. For he who 
despises the laws and morality in matters of supreme 
importance, comes to be in a state of soul which is 
plainly revealed by his disorder^ life. 

Very many men of this sort you could find who have 
overthrown cities and have fallen into the greatest 
misfortunes themselves. For you must not imagine, 
fellow citizens, that the impulse to wrong doing is 
from the gods ; nay, rather, it is from the wickedness 
of men ; nor that ungodly men are, as in tragedy, 
driven and chastised by the Furies 2 with blazing 
torches in their hands. No, the impetuous lusts oi 
the body and insatiate desire — these it is that fill 
the robbers' bands, that send men on board the 
pirates' boats ; these are, for each man, his Fury, 

1 The Eumenides. 

2 The Furies (Poenae) are gods of punishment, more de- 
finitely personified in the Erinyes. The hearers would 
be reminded of the chasing of Orestes in the Eumenides of 
Aeschylus. 

'5' 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

•napaKeXeverai crcpdrTeiv rovs iroXira^, VTrrjperelv 
Tot? Tvpavvois, avy/caTaXveiv top 8f)p,ov. ov jap 
rriv aiayyvr)V ovS" a ireiaovrai Xoyl^ovrac, aAA' 
ecf) ol<i KaropOcoaavre 1 ? eucppavOdaovTai, tovtols 
K6K)]\7]VTai. e^aipelr ovv, &> avSpes 'Adrjvaioi, 
ra? TOLavTas (fivaeis, teal tcl twv vecov ty]Xoop,aTa 
eV aperrjv TrpoTpe^ecrde. 1 

192 Eu 8" eiTLCTTaaOe, Kal pcoi cr(^68pa to p,eXXov prj- 
6i]o-e<7dai 8iapiVT]pLOV€V€T€, el p,ev Swcrei twv eVt- 
Ti]hevpbdra>v Tt/xap^o? Blktjv, ap^v evKoo-p,la<; iv 
jfi TroXel tcaTaateevdcreTe' el S' a,7ro(j)evt;€Tai, tcpe'ir- 
tcov rjv o dyoov pur) yey evrjp.evos. irplv p,ev yap el<; 
Kplcriv TlpLap-^ov Karao-TrjvaL, (pofiov rial irapel- 
■^ev 6 vopLos Kal to tmv StKaaTTjplwv ovopua' el 5' 6 
TrpcoTeuwv /38eXvpla Kal yvcopipiwTaTos elcreXOwv 
7repiyevi]aeTai, ttoXXoik; dp,apTaveiv eirapel, Kal 
Te\ei;Twt' ov% 6 Xoyos, dXX* 6 Kaiphs u/ta? i^op- 

193 yiel. p,r) ovv et? dOpoovs, aXX" ei? eva diro- 
CTKrj-^raTe, Kal Tip> irapacrKevipy Kal tov<; avvt]- 
yopovs avTwv irapaTr/pelTe' oiiv ovhevhs eyu> 
ovopLacrTl p.vr]aO/]aopai, tva p,rj TavTr/v dp%r)V tov 
Xoyov TroirfcroovTai, to? ovk dv iraprpXOov, el purj Ta 
avTOiv 6vopLao-TL ifiv-)]o-0t]. aXA,' eKelvo troi^crw 
dcpeXcov to. 6vop,aTa, oie^tcov Se ta eTriT^Sevp-ara, 
Kal ra acopLaTa avT&v yvcopipia KaTa&Tijaco. 
ecrTai 5' auTO? eavrfp eKao-TOs aXrios, edv hevpo 

194 dvaQfi Kal dvaicryyvTfi. tovtm yap irapiacnv ck 
Tpcoyv elSwv avvijyopoi, ol puev Tal$ KaO^ r)p\,epav 

1 trporpetyt <T0€ Cobet : irpoTpeif/affde MSS. 
152 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 191-194 

urging him to slay his fellow citizens, to serve the 
tyrant, to help put down the democracy. For such 
men reck not of disgrace, nor yet of punishment 
to come, but are beguiled by the pleasures they 
expect if they succeed. Therefore, fellow citizens, 
remove from among us such natures, for so shall you 
turn the aspirations of the young toward virtue. 

And be assured — I earnestly beg of you to re- 
member what I am about to say — be assured that 
if Timarchus shall pay the penalty for his practices, 
you will lay the foundation for orderly conduct in 
this city ; but if he shall be cleared, the case had 
better never have been tried. For before Timarchus 
came to trial, the law and the name of the courts 
did cause some men to fear ; but if the leader in 
indecency and the most notorious man of all shall 
once have been brought into court and then come 
safely off, many will be induced to offend ; and it 
will finally be, not what is said, but the desperate 
situation, that will arouse your anger. Therefore 
punish one man, and do not wait till you have 
a multitude to punish ; and be on your guard 
against their machinations and their advocates. I 
will name no one of these, lest they make that 
their excuse for speaking, saying that they would 
not have come forward had not someone mentioned 
them by name. But this I will do : I will omit 
their names, but by describing their habits will make 
known their persons also. And each man will 
have only himself to blame if he comes up here 
and displays his impudence. Three sorts of sup- 
porters, namely, are going to come into court to 
help the defendant : firstly, men who have squandered 



153 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Sarrdvais dvrjXcoKores ras irarpcoas ovaias, ol Se 
rats rfkiKiais Kal rols eavrcov acopaaiv ov Ka\oi)<; 
Key^prjpbevoi, real BeSiores ov irepl Tip.dp)£ov, dWa 
rrepl eavrwv Kal rwv ernriihevpidrcov pa'] rrore els 
tcpiaiv Karaarwaiv erepoi S' i/c twv aKoXdcrrwv 
Kal rcov rols rotovrois Ke~£pr) p,ev u>v dcpOovcos, 7va 
rats ftorjOeiais avrcov 7Tiarevovres paov rives 

195 e^apLaprdvcoaiv. oiv nrplv rrjs avvyjyopias clkov- 
aai rovs fiiovs dvapapivrjo-KeaOe, Kal rovs p-ev els 
rd ad)p,ara rjpLaprijKoras pbr) vplv evoyXelv, dXXd 
rravaaaOat Brjpirjyopovvras Ke\evere~ ovoe yap 6 
vop,os rovs ISicorevovras, a\Xa rovs rroXirevo- 
puevovs e^erd^ei' rovs Se rd rrarpwa Karehrjho- 
Koras epyd^ecrOat teal erepwOev KrdaOai rbv [3iov 
Ke\eu€T€' rovs 8e roiv vecov, oaoi paSlws dXtaKov- 
rai, Oijpevras ovras els rovs ^evovs Kal rovs 
p-eroiKovs rperreaBai KeXevere, Xva pLi]r J eKelvoi 
rrjs Trpoaipeaecos drroarepoyvrai p,rj9 vp.eis /3\d- 
TTTii(r9e. 

196 Ta p,ev ovv irap ep,ov SiKaca irdvra drrei\/j(pare' 
ehiha£a rovs vbp,ovs, e^raaa rbv (Siov rov Kptvo- 
p,evov. vvv pCev ovv vp,els eare rwv ep,6jv \6ycov 
Kpiral, avrtKa S' vpuerepos eyco 6eari)s' £v yap 
rats vp,erepais yvcop^ais i) irpd^is KaraXenrerai. 
el ovv /3ov\?]aea8e, ra Bu<aia Kal rd avp^cpepovra 
vpLtov TTOirjadvTcov, (pi\ortp,6repov i)p.eZs e^opiev 
rovs irapavop,ovvras etjerd^eiv. 1 

1 The last sentence, et ovv . . . i^rd^nv, is found in a part 
of the MSS. only. 



154 



AGAINST TIMARCHUS, 194-196 

their patrimony by the extravagance of their daily 
life ; secondly, men who have abused their youth 
and their own bodies, and now are afraid, not for 
Timarehus, but for themselves and their own habits, 
lest they one day be called to account ; and still 
others from the ranks of the licentious, and of those 
who have freely associated with licentious men ; for 
they would have certain men rely on their aid, and 
thus be the more ready to indulge in wrong-doing. 
Before you hear the pleas of these men in his 
support, call to mind their lives, and bid those who 
have sinned against their own bodies to cease annoy- 
ing you and to stop speaking before the people ; for 
the law investigates, not men in private station, but 
those who are in public life. And tell those who 
have eaten up their patrimony to go to work, and 
find some new way to get their living. And as 
for the hunters of such young men as are easily 
trapped, command them to turn their attention to 
the foreigners and the resident aliens, that they 
may still indulge their predilection, but without 
injuring you. 

And now I have fulfilled all my obligation to you : 
I have explained the laws, I have examined the life 
of the defendant. Now, therefore, you are judges 
of my words, and soon I shall be spectator of your 
acts, for the decision of the case is now left to your 
judgment. If, therefore, you do what is right and 
best, we on our part shall, if it be your wish, be 
able more zealously to call wrongdoers to account. 



*55 



1L— ON THE EMBASSY 



II._THE SPEECH ON THE EMBASSY 
343 b.c. 

Introduction 

After Philip, by the seizure of the Athenian 
colonial city Amphipolis, and the conquest of the 
whole Chalcidic peninsula, had made himself the 
most formidable power on the northern coasts, he 
let it be known at Athens that he was disposed to 
open negotiations for peace. The Athenians, dis- 
couraged by the failure of their weak attempts to 
check his advance during the past ten years, sent 
ten ambassadors to Macedonia. Demosthenes and 
Aeschines were among them. When, on the return 
of this embassy, ambassadors came from Philip, and 
definite peace proposals were discussed in the Athe- 
nian assembly, Aeschines and Demosthenes both 
took prominent part in the debates. The people 
having voted the peace, the same ambassadors were 
sent to Macedonia to receive the signatures of Philip 
and his allies, and to attempt by further negotiations 
with Philip himself to secure guarantees that had 
not been included in the terms of the peace. The 
signatures were given, after considerable delay, but 
no concessions were obtained from Philip. On the 
return of the embassy Demosthenes declared that 
Philip's intentions and his immediate preparations 
were all against the interests of Athens ; that he 
was preparing to intervene in the Phocian war, and 

153 



INTRODUCTION 

unite with the Thebans in the control of central 
Greece. Aeschines, on the other hand, declared that 
Demosthenes knew nothing of the real state of the 
case ; that he himself was fully in Philip's confidence, 
and that while he could not yet openly declare all 
Philip's plans, he could assure the people that in the 
end they would see precisely what they wished — the 
humiliation of Thebes, and all other conditions in 
central Greece made wholly favourable to Athens. 
Aeschines' hopeful view prevailed with the people, 
and Philip was left with a free hand. In less than ten 
days he had forced the surrender of the Phocians 
and was hastening to re-establish the rule of Thebes 
over all Boeotia. Athens found that the peace ne- 
gotiations had served only to ratify Philip's claims to 
territory that he had taken in the north from her 
allies and from herself, to open the way for his un- 
opposed control of central Greece in cooperation 
with Thessaly and Thebes, and to give him the 
commanding position in the Amphictyonic Council, 
thus putting an end to all treatment of him as a 
" barbarian.'' 

By law the members of the late embassy were 
required to render account of their services to a 
standing board of review. On the occasion of this 
accounting, Demosthenes and Timarchus, a political 
associate of his, made formal charge that Aeschines 
had been guilty of treason on the second embassy to 
Philip. The case was set for trial in the courts. But 
Aeschines, by bringing a personal charge against Ti- 
marchus (see the introduction to the speech against 
Timarchus) succeeded in ridding himself of one of 
his prosecutors and in deferring the trial. The case 
finally came into court in the summer of 343, three 

*59 



INTRODUCTION 

years after the events. By this time Philocrates, 
the author of the peace treaty, had so shamelessly 
made it evident that he was in the paid service of 
Philip, that he had been forced to flee from the city 
in order to escape the death penalty. 

In the prosecution of Aeschines, Demosthenes as- 
sumed that he had been the lieutenant of Philocrates, 
and charged him with a full shai'e of the responsi- 
bility for all the evil results of the now detested 
peace. He asserted that whereas Aeschines had at 
first been one of the most vociferous opponents ot 
Philip, and had on the first day of the peace discus- 
sions vigorously opposed the draft of a treaty of 
peace presented by Philocrates, he totally changed 
his position over-night, and helped Philocrates to 
carry his proposition on the second day of the de- 
liberations, thereby excluding the Phocians from the 
protection of the peace, and preventing the inclusion 
of other Greek states who should have had time to 
join Athens and her allies in making it. He charged 
that when the second embassy had been appointed 
to secure the signatures of Philip and his allies to 
the treaty of peace, Aeschines was one of the men 
responsible for such delay on the journey that Philip 
was able to secure control of commanding positions 
on the Thracian coast ; that he made no attempt to 
secure from Philip the concessions that the people 
at home had undei'stood were to be urged, and that 
on the return of the embassy to Athens, Aeschines 
joined Philocrates in hooting down Demosthenes at 
a meeting of the Assembly, when he attempted to 
tell them the truth as to Philip's plans and prepara- 
tions. He charged that Aeschines gave to the people 
a false report of the intentions of Philip, assuring 

1 60 



INTRODUCTION 

them that he was himself fully in the confidence of 
the king, and saying that while Philip could not 
openly declare his intentions, he could himself assure 
the Athenians that the real purpose of Philip was to 
humble Thebes, to protect the Phocians, and to 
enlarge the power of Athens. Demosthenes declared 
that in consequence of this false report to the As- 
sembly, the Athenians were prevented from going 
out to resist Philip's entrance into central Greece (as 
they had so effectually done six years before), and 
that the Phocians were so discouraged at the report 
of the Athenian attitude that they made haste to 
give themselves into Philip's hands. He declared 
further that after these predictions of Aeschines had 
all proved to be false, and Philip had at every point 
shown himself to be the enemy of Athens, Aeschines 
had nevertheless joined in Philip's thanksgiving feast, 
and remained his constant supporter. 

In his defence against these charges Aeschines 
could not deny the chief facts of the case ; his main 
defence had to be a different interpretation of the 
facts. Of actual bribery by Philip, Demosthenes 
had, of course, been able to bring no specific proof, 
and it was in Aeschines' favour that the people had 
to some extent satisfied their resentment by the 
exile of Philocrates, and that now, three years after 
the events, their feelings were less hot than at first ; 
Aeschines had also the powerful influence of his 
party chief, Eubulus, on his side. 

Demosthenes failed to secure conviction, but he 
did succeed in leaving Aeschines under a cloud of 
popular suspicion. 



161 



II.— nEPI TH2 nAPAnPESBEIAS 

Aeop-ai vixwv, &> avhpes 'A9)]vatoi, eOekrjaai 
fxov /act evvoias ciKOvaai XeyovTos, V7ro\oyi£o[ie- 
vovs to re pieyedo<; rov Kivhvvov Kal to 7r\f)0os 
roiv airiuiv 77730? a? diroXoyrjcTaaOai p,e Set, real 
t«w T€)(ya<; Kal Ta? Karaa/ceva^ rov Karrjyopov 
Kal rr\v cojuoTrjra, o? iroXp,yae irapaKekevcraaOai 

77/90? avSpa<i 0/A&)yU,OATOTa? TWV (ivtiSlkcov 6flOL(0<; 

dpL(porepa>v ciKovaeadai rov Kivhwevovros cpcov)]v 

2 p-i] virop,eveiv. Kal ravr elirev ov oY opyqv ovhels 
yap Twy yfrevhop,ei>o)v rol<; cISlkux; 8iaf3aWop,evoi<; 
opyi^erai, ov8' ol rd\y]6y Xeyopres kwXvovcti 
\6yov rv^elv rov cpevy ovra' ov yap rrpbiepov rj 
Karr/yopla irapd to£? cikovovctlv layyei, rrplv av o 
(pevycov inro\oyla<; rv^oov dBvvar/jarj Ta? irpo- 

3 eipr)pLei>a<; ainas diroXvo-aaOai. aAA' olp.ai Ar]p,o- 
a0evT)<i ov ya'ipei hiKaloi^ \6yois, ov& ovrco irape- 
aKevaarai, dWa rrjv vperepav opyrjv eKKaXeaa- 
adai fiefiovXyrai. Kal Karrjy6pi)Ke 8a>po8oKtas, 
inriOavos (ov 7T/30? rrju viro-tyiav ravrr/v rov yap 
€7rl Tat? 8a>po8oKiai<i it parpen 6 puevov l opyi^ecrOat, 
avrov \pr\ rwv rotovrcov epywv dire^eaOaL." 

4 'E/xol he, & av8pe<; ' ' AdrjvaloL, crvp,,6eft>]Ke t>}? 
Ai)/.ioa8ipovi cikovovti Karrjyoplas pn']re helcrat 

1 Weidner omits rovs SiKaffras, which the MSS. have 
before or after irpoTpeirofxevov. 

2 Most MSS. add 7roAv, but in varying position. 

162 



II.— ON THE EMBASSY 

I beg you, fellow citizens, to hear me with willing 
and friendly mind, remembering how great is my 
peril, and how many the charges against which I 
have to defend myself; remembering also the arts 
and devices of my accuser, and the cruelty of the 
man who, speaking to men who are under oath 
to give equal hearing to both parties, had the 
effrontery to urge you not to listen to the voice 
of the defendant. And it was not anger that made 
him say it ; for no man who is lying is angry with 
the victim of his calumny, nor do men who are 
speaking the truth try to prevent the defendant 
from obtaining a hearing ; for the prosecution does 
not find justification in the minds of the hearers 
until the defendant has had opportunity to plead 
for himself, and has proved unable to refute the 
charges that have been preferred. But Demos- 
thenes, I think, is not fond of fair argument, nor 
is that the sort of preparation he has made. No, 
it is your anger that he is determined to call forth. 
And he has accused me of receiving bribes — he who 
would be the last man to make such suspicion 
credible ! For the man who seeks to arouse the 
anger of his hearers over bribery must himselt re- 
frain from such conduct. 

But, fellow citizens, as I have listened to Demos- 
thenes' accusation, the effect upon my own mind has 

163 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rrcorToff ovrcos a>9 ev rfjBe rfj r)pepa, pbrjr dyava- 
/crf/aac /xaWov i) vvv, p,i]r els inrepfioXyv bpuolcos 
rjaOfjvai. et\)ofii'idr)v fiev yap, fcal en icai vvv 
Tedopv/3t]p,ai, purj rives vp,cov dyvoyacoal pe ijrvxa- 
ycoyrjOevres rols eTTi,fief3ovXevp,evois teal tcaicor}- 
6eai rovrois dvriOerois' e^ear^v 8' ep.avrov kcu 
rr)v air lav ftapecos rjveyxa, 66 vftpiv /cal rrap- 
oivlav els yvval/ca iXevdepav icai ro yevos 'OXvv- 
6lav Karrjyoper fjaffrjv 8e, or avrbv erri rr)s 
air las ovra ravrrjs i^efiaXXere, /cal rcov aecrco- 
<ppovr)p,evcov iv rco /3tw poi ydpiv arreiXrjtyevai 

5 vopl^co. vpds pev ovv eiraivco icai hiafyepovrcos 
dyaixco, on rco filco puaXXov rco rcov fcpivop,ivcov 
mo-revere, r) rats irapa rcov eyBpcov alnais' avrbs 
8' ovk av aTToaralrjv rr)s rrpbs ravr diToXoyias. 
el yap ris r) rcov e^codev TrepiearrjKorcov nkireiarai, 
ayehbv V oi irXelaroi rcov rroXtrcov irdpeiaiv, r) 
rcov 8i/ca£ovTcov vpcov, cos eyco roiovrov ri Siarre- 
rrpaypai, pur) puovov els eXevOepov acopa, aXXa icai 
els ro rvyov, dfilcorov elvai pot rov Xolttov fitov 
vopl^co- kclv pit) Trpolovarjs rrjs diroXoytas e£eX- 
ey£co xal rr)v alrlav ovcrav -\}rev8r), icai rbv roXprj- 
cravr elirelv dvbenov icai avKocpavrtpj, kclv raWa 
rrdvra pLrjSev dSiKcov cpaivcopcai, davarov ripbcopuat. 

6 UapdSo^os &e poi /cd/ceivos o Xoyos ecpdvrj Kai 
Seivcos ciSikos, 66* vpuds eirr)pcora $ el olbv r icrrlv 



164 



ON THE EMBASSY, 4-6 

been this : never have I been so apprehensive as on 
this day, nor ever more angry than now, nor so 
exceedingly rejoiced. I was frightened, and am 
still disturbed, lest some of you form a mistaken 
judgment of me, beguiled by those antitheses of 
his, conceived in deliberate malice. And I was 
indignant — fairly beside myself, at the charge, when 
he accused me of insolence and drunken violence 
towards a free woman of Olynthus. 1 But I was 
rejoiced when, as he was dwelling on this charge, 
you refused to listen to him. This I consider to be 
the reward that you bestow upon me for a chaste 
and temperate life. To you I do, indeed, give 
praise and high esteem for putting your faith in the 
life of those who are on trial, rather than in the 
accusations of their enemies ; however, I would not 
myself shrink from defending myself against this 
charge. For if there is any man among those who 
are standing outside the bar — and almost the whole 
city is in the court — or if there is any man of 
you, the jurors, who is convinced that I have ever 
perpetrated such an act, not to say towards a free 
person, but towards any creature, I hold my life as 
no longer worth the living. And if as my defence 
proceeds I fail to prove that the accusation is false, 
and that the man who dared to utter it is an impious 
slanderer, then, even though it be clear that I am 
innocent of all the other charges, I declare myself 
worthy of death. 

But strange indeed did that other argument of his 
seem to me, and outrageously unjust, when he asked 

1 Demosthenes in his speech (xix. 196 ff.) had told in detail 
the story of the abuse of a well-born Olynthian captive by 
Aeschines and others at a banquet in Macedonia. 

165 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ev rfj avrf) iroXet <$>iXoKpdrov<; p.ev Odvarov tccna- 
■^rr)(f)i(Ta(T0ai, on Karayvov? eavrov dhiKelv rrjv 
Kplaiv ov% V7r6fi€iv€i>, e/xov o diroyvwvai. eyd> S' 
en - ' avT<p tovtm Si/ccllox; dv V7roXapL{3dv(o p,dXio~Ta 
aw^ecrdai' el <ydp o Karayvovs eavrov real p.rj 
irapwv dSifcel, 6 ye diroyvovs Kal to aw/xa rots 
vo/jlois Kal Tot? iroXLrais TrapaSovs ovk db~ifcel. 

7 Uepl 8e T?/9 aWr]? Karrjyopias 8eop,ai vpLO)v, 5) 
ai'Spes Adtjvatoi, idv n TTapaXtiru) Kal pur] pbvi]- 
o~6a), eirepwrav pue Kal Si]Xovv 6 ti dv iroOrjie 
aKovaai, p,t]8ev TrpoKareyvcoKOTaq, 1 «\V iar] rfj 
evvola aKovovTas. diropoi 8 oiroOev XPV Trpwrov 
dp^aaOai, Bid rrjv dvwpuaXtav r/}? Karrjyopias. 
GKei\raa9e S' dv vpuv clkos Ti 7rpayp,a 86£w ird- 

8 ayeiv. elfil pcev yap 6 Kivovvevcov eya> vvvl -nepl 
tov aoopLaros, Trjs 8e KarTjyoptas T-nv TrXetcrTTjV 
7re7roir]TaL QiXoKparow; Kal Qpvvwvos Kal twi 
dXXcov av par peer tBewv, Kal QiXittttov Kal rrjs eip-q- 
vrp; Kal rd)v RvfiovXov iroXiTevpbdrwv, ev diraai 
Be tovtois 67a) riraypLai. p,6vos 6" ev tw Xoym 
(paiverat Ki]8ep,wv tj}? iroXeco^ Ar/pLoaOevrjs, ol 8' 
aXXot 7rpo86rar BiarereXeKe yap els i)p-ds vfipi- 
£W, Kal Xoihopias yjrev&tis ovk ep,ol pLovov X0180- 

9 povp,evos, dXXa Kal toZ? dXXois. ov 8 ovrcos 
aTi/jid^ei, irdXiv e/c yu,eTa/9oA,j}?, birov dv rvyril 1 
wcrirep 'AXKiftidBrjv rj SepuaroKXea Kpivoov, o'i 
"jrXelcnov rwv JLXXyvcov 8o^rj SnjveyKav, avyprj/ci- 
vai pev alridraL 3 Ta? ev QcoKevcri iroXeis, diryfX- 

1 TrpoKaTeyvcoKoras Hamaker : irpoKaTeyvciKiras us adiKu 
MSS. 

2 '6-nov Uv Tvxy Scholiast : oirov ti>XV or ^ttov tvxoi MSS. 

3 alriaTtxi Cobeb : airiaral fie MSS. 

1 66 



ON THE EMBASSY, 6-9 

you whether it was possible in one and the same 
city to sentence Philocrates to death because he 
would not await trial and so condemned himself, 
and then to acquit me. But I think that on this 
very ground I ought most certainly to be cleared ; 
for if the man who condemns himself by not await- 
ing trial is guilty, certainly he who denies the 
charge and submits his person to the laws and to his 
fellow citizens is not guilty. 

Now, fellow citizens, as regards the rest of his 
accusations, if I pass over any point and fail to 
mention it, I beg of you to question me and let 
me know what it is that you wish to hear about, 
and to refrain from forming any judgment in 
advance, but to listen with impartial goodwill. I do 
not know where I ought to begin, so inconsistent are 
his accusations. See whether you think I am being 
treated in a reasonable way. It is I who am now on 
trial, and that too for my life ; and yet the greater 
part of his accusation has been directed against 
Philocrates and Phrynon and the other members 
of the embassy, against Philip and the peace and 
the policies of Eubulus ; it is only as one among 
all these that he gives me a place. But when it 
is a question of solicitude for the interests of the 
state, one solitary man stands out in all his speech — 
Demosthenes ; all the rest are traitors ! For he has 
unceasingly insulted us and poured out his slanderous 
lies, not upon me alone, but upon all the rest as well. 
And after treating a man with such contempt, later, 
when it suits his whim, he turns about, and as though 
he were accusing an Alcibiades or a Themistocles, 
the most famous men among all the Greeks, he 
proceeds to charge that same man with having 

167 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Xorpuoteevat £>' vptojv rbv eVt %paK7]s tottov, etc- 
j3e(B\rjK6vai he. ttjs »/£>%% K-epcroftXeTrTrjv, dvhpa 

10 <ptXov teal avpuxaypv ri]S iroXecos. eve^eip-qae 8' 
diretted^eiv pte Atovvatai tw "EtteeXtas rvpdvvco, teal 
fiera enrovhrjs teal tepavyrjs TroXXrjS irapeieeXevo- ad" 
vpttv (pvXd^aaOai, teal to t^9 lepeias evvivvtov tTjs 
e'y UtteeXta, htriyi^aaro. ovtco S' at>&) to irpaypta 
e^dpas, ecpOovr/ae ptov Tats SiafioXats, ras aortas 
dvartdels twv ireirpaypevwv ov rots ipols Xoyots, 
dXXa rots oirXots Tots QtXtTnrov. 

11 11/30? hrj rocravTrjv roXptav teal repareiav dvdpco- 
irov ^aXeirbv feat htapvrjptovevaat l tead" eteaara, 
/cal Xeyeiv pera teivhvi'ov irphs dTrpoahotetJTOvs 
Bia/3oXds. oOev 6" rjyovpat cracpeardrovs re pot 
rovs Xoyovs eaecrOat teal yvcopipovs iiplv teal 
htteatovs, ivrevOev dp^opai, airo rcov irepl rife 
elprjVTjs Xoycov teal ttjs aipeaecos rrjs 7rpea/3etas' 
ovtq) yap pdXicrra teal p.epvt]aopat, teal hvm'j- 
aofjtai etiretv, teal vptets padtjcrecrOe. 

12 " Airavras yap vpds olptat tovto ye aurovs 2 
pvr/ptovevetv, 60' ol it pea (Bets oi twv Ev/3oea>v, 
eiretBr) irepl rrjs irpbs avrovs etpj]vt]s t&> hrjpiw 
hteXe-xd-qaav, elirnv, on teal QiXtmros avrovs 
teeXevaeiev vptv dirayyelXat oti fiovXerat hiaXv- 
aaoQat rrpos vpds teal etprjvtjv 3 ctyeiv. ov iroXXw 
8' varepov %p6va> <£>pvvoov 6 'Paptvovatos edXco 
V7TO Xijo-twv iv rats arrovhats rats 'OXvpTrtateats, 

1 Siafj.vnfiov€v(rat Weidner : the MSS. have to Xf-xOivra 
before or after the verb. 

2 avTovs Herwerden : avrb MSS. 

3 eip-^friv Baiter : rijv eipr)vr]v MSS. 

168 



ON THE EMBASSY, 9-12 

destroyed the cities in Phocis, with having lost 
you the Thracian coast, with having expelled from 
his kingdom Cersobleptes, a friend and ally of the 
city. And he undertook to liken me to Dionysius, the 
tyrant of Sicily, and vehemently and with loud cries 
he called upon you to be on your guard against me ; 
and he related the dream of the priestess in Sicily. 1 
Then, after all this exaggeration, he begrudged me 
the credit even for what he had slanderously charged 
me with accomplishing, and ascribed it all, not to 
my words, but to the arms of Philip. 

When now a man has shown such trickery and 
effrontery, it is difficult even to remember every 
single thing, and in the face of danger it is not easy 
to answer unexpected slanders. But I will begin 
with those events which I think will enable me to 
make my presentation most clear and intelligible to 
you, and fair ; these events are the discussion that 
took place concerning the peace, and the choice 
of the ambassadors. In this way I shall best 
remember his charges and best be able to speak 
effectively, and you will be best instructed. 

There is one thing, at any rate, which I think you 
all yourselves remember: how the ambassadors from 
Euboea, after they had discussed with our assembly 
the question of our making peace with them, told 
us that Philip also had asked them to report to you 
that he wished to come to terms and be at peace 
with you. Not long after this, Phrynon of Rhamnus 
was captured by privateers, during the Olympian 

1 Neither the comparison with Dionysius nor the story of 
the dream was retained by Demosthenes when he revised his 
speech for publication. 

C 169 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

to? avrbs rjridro' eVaS?) 8 eiravrfxOe 8evpo Xv- 
TpwOels, eSeoTO vpcov TrpeafievTijv avrro 7roo9 
Qih.nnrov eXeadai, I'va, el irco? 8vvairo, ci7roXd/3ot 
ra Xvrpa. TreierQevTes 8 , vpLeis eiXecrd avr£) 

13 K.T7]<Ti(f)wvTa Trpea/Sevr/jv. eVetS?) 8e iiravfJKe 
hevp' airb T779 7rpeo~/3eia<; Kryjatcfycov, arnjyyeiXe 
7rpo9 vp,as virep cov inepefyOr], teal irpbs toutoj?, 
on (fxttr} ^lXittttos atecov pev iroXepbrjaai Trpbs 
tyxa?, /3ovXea0ai 8e teal vvv cnraXXayrjvat rou 
iroXepiov. elrrbvTO*; 8e ravra tov Kt?70"£(£&h'to?, 
teal TroXXrjv tiva e^ayyetXavTOS 7rpo? tovtois 
epiXavdpayrriav, teal tov Sijpov aef>68pa drrohe^a- 
pevov teal tov K.Tt](7i(f)(ovTa eiraiveeravTOS, dvret,- 
ttovtos 8' ov8ei>6s, evravOa 7)8t] SiScoat ijrrjcpto-pa 
^iXo/cpdrr]^ 6 'Ayvoverios, teal 6 Sfjp.o'i a7ra? 
opcoyvcopovoov e^eipoToviiaev, etjelvat, QiXLttttw 
hevpo /ajpv/ca 1 ical 7r/3e<T/3e/? irepuTceiv virep elprj- 
vrj<;. irpbrepov pev <ydp teal avro toGt' eieeoXvero 
V7ro tivcov, ols rjv tovt eVt/zeXe?, fi>9 avro to 

14 irpdypia eSet^ev. <ypd<povrai yap ovtol irapavo- 
pcov to yjri](pLapa, Avtcivov eVl rrjv ypaeprjv eVt- 
ypatydpevoi, teal Tiprjp,a etearov rdXavra. teal 
p,erd ravT elo"pei 7) ypacfrt] et? to Si/eacmjpiov, 
dpp(ocrT(0<; 8 e^cov QiXotepdriis etedXeaev avrw 
ovin]yopov Ai]p,oaOevr]v, aA,V ovte e/xe. irapeXOciov 
£>' 6 pbiao(f)tXt7r7ro<; A7jp,oa9ev7]<;, KaTerpi\jre tijv 
7 r jp,epav a7roXoyovp,evo<;' teal to reXevralov diro- 

KTjpvKa Bekker : nripvKas MSS. 

1 Shortly before the time for the Olympic festival in each 
quadrennium, heralds were sent out by the Elean state to 
carry to all Greeks the invitation to the festival and to pro- 

170 



ON THE EMBASSY, 12-14 

truce, according to his own complaint. 1 Now when 
he had been ransomed and had come home, he 
asked you to choose an envoy to go to Philip in 
his behalf, in order that, if possible, he might 
recover his ransom money. You were persuaded, 
and chose Ctesiphon as envoy for him. When 
Ctesiphon returned from his mission, he first re- 
ported to you on the matters for which he was sent, 
and then in addition he said that Philip declared 
that he had gone to war with you against his own 
will, and that he wished, even now, to be rid of the 
war. When Ctesiphon had said this and had also 
told of the marked kindness of his reception, the 
people eagerly accepted his report and passed a 
-vote of praise for Ctesiphon. Not a voice was 
raised in opposition. Then it was, and not till 
then, that Philocrates of Hagnus offered a motion, 
which was passed by unanimous vote of the people, 
that Philip be allowed to send to us a herald and 
ambassadors to treat for peace. For up to this 
time even that had been prevented by certain 
men who made it their business to do so, as the 
event itself proved. For they attacked the motion 
as unconstitutional, 2 subscribing the name of Lychnis 
to the indictment, in which they proposed a penalty 
of one hundred talents. When the case came to 
trial Philocrates was ill, and called as his advocate 
Demosthenes, not me. And Demosthenes the Philip- 
hater came to the platform and used up the day in 
his plea for the defence. Finally Philocrates was 

claim a sacred truce between all warring Greek states. 
Phrynon claimed that Macedonian pirates had violated this 
truce. 

2 On the indictment for proposing an unconstitutional 
measure, see Speech III., Introduction. 

171 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

(pevyet <t>i\oKpdT7]<;, 6 Se ypa^dpbevos to irepLirrov 
jxepos tcov -^rrjcpcov ov pi6Ta\a.fi/3dv€i. Kal ravO^ 

15 iifi€t<i airavTes tare, inrb he rov<; avrov? Kaipovs 
"OXwOos edXai, Kal ttoXXoI twv 7]p,eTepcov iytcciTe- 
X?'](pOi]aav iTokirwv, wv r/v 'Iarpo/cX?)? 6 'Ep^o^d- 
oou? aSeX</)09 Kal EvijpaTo? 6 2rpo/i./3</^oi/ u/o<?. 
inrep 8r) tovtwv iKerrfpiav Sevres 01 olKelot e&eovro 
vpLWV eTTip,eXeiav iron^aaaOai. irapeXOovres 8 
avTols avvi]ybpovv QuXoKparris Kal A.7] pLoadevj]^, 
dXX' ovk AtV%tV?79. Kal ireparovai TrpeafievTrjv 
' ' ApwrohripLOV tov inroKpiTrjV irpbs <£>iXc7nrov, Sid 

16 tt)v yvoxTW Kal (piXavO panr'iav t?}? Te'xyrjq. co? h 
eiravrjKcov dirb Trj? Trpecr/3eia<; 6 ' ' ApiarohripLQs 8id 
rivas do-~%oXia<i ov irpoarjei 7roo? ttjv /BovXrjv, 
dU' e<p0aaev avrbv 'larpoKXrjS eXOcov eK MaKe- 
Sovias dfadels inrb <£>iXiTnrov dvev Xvrpcov, 1 ev- 
ravO' rjyavaKTOvv ttoXXoc, on rrjv TrpecrjBeiav ovk 
aTrrjyyeiXev 6 'ApiGToSrjpLos, tovs avTovs \070f9 
aKOvovres tov 'larpoKXeovs irepl rod QiXlttttov. 

17 reXevTaiov 6° elaeXOoDv 2 A?;/xo«oar»?9 ' A$ iSvalo? 
eTreicre rrjv fiovXrjv dvaKa\eaaaQai tov Apiaro- 
Sypiov eh &e twv fiovXevT&v rjv AripLocrOevtyi 6 
ep.b<; KaTrj<yopo<i. irapeXOuyv o° 'AyOicrToo^/zo? 
iroXXrjv TLva evvoiav dir^yyeiXe rov QiXlttttov 
7rpo? tt]V iroXiv, Kal irpoaeOr^Kev on Kal avp,- 
pLa^os BovXoito rfj 7roXet yeveaOai. Kal Tavr 
ovk ev rf] /3ovXfj pubvov eiirev, dXXa Kal ev rw 
SijpLO). KavTavd' ov8ev avrelnre ArjpioaOevrjs, 
dXXa Kal arecpavcbaai, tov ^ApiarbSrjpiov eypayfre. 

1 Avrpwv Dobree : Avrpuiv yevS/iefoi a(XM t *^ a > T0J MSS. 

2 ei<re\6wv Weidner : the MSS. have els tV 8ovAt)v before 
or after elae\6wv. 

172 



ON THE EMBASSY, 14-17 

acquitted, and the prosecutor failed to receive the 
fifth part of the votes. 1 This is matter of common 
knowledge. Now about the same time Olynthus 
was taken, and many of our citizens were captured 
there, among them Iatrocles, brother of Ergochares, 
and Eueratus, son of Strombichus. Their families 
naturally made supplication in their behalf, and 
begged you to provide for them. Their spokesmen 
before the people were Philocrates and Demos- 
thenes, not Aeschines. So Aristodemus the actor 
is sent as envoy to Philip, as being an acquaintance 
of his, and of a profession that naturally wins 
friends. But when Aristodemus returned from his 
mission, his report to the senate was delayed by 
certain business of his, and meanwhile Iatrocles 
came back from Macedonia, released by Philip 
without ransom. Then many people were angry 
with Aristodemus for having failed to make his 
report, for they heard from Iatrocles the same 
story about Philip. 2 Finally Democrates of Aphidna 
went before the senate and persuaded them to 
summon Aristodemus. One of the senators was 
Demosthenes, my accuser ! Aristodemus appeared 
before them, reported Philip's great friendliness 
toward the city, and added this besides, that Philip 
even wished to become an ally of our state. This 
he said not only before the senate, but also at 
an assembly of the people. Here again Demos- 
thenes spoke no word in opposition, but even moved 
that a crown be conferred on Aristodemus. 

1 A prosecutor who failed to receive one-fifth part of the 
votes of the jury was subject to a fine of 1,000 drachmas and 
disability to bring such a suit in the future. 

2 The same story that the Euboean ambassadors and 
Ctesiphon had brought, that Philip was ready to discuss peace. 

173 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

18 Vr/OevTcov 8e tovtcov, yfrrjcpicr/jLa eypa^ev o 
<£>i\ofcpaTr]<; ekecrOai 7rpecr/3et? irpos QlXnnrov 
av&pa<; Sena, o'lrives hiaXe^oinai ^iXlttttco irepl 
elpijvrj? ical tcov /coivfj crvfufrepovroov 'AOrjvaiois 
zeal QiXirnrcp. yeipoTOvovp,evwv he tcov heica 
■npeafSecov, eyco /xev TrpoeftXijdrjv virb Navat/cXeov 9, 
Ai]pLoa0evi]<; S' vir aurov QikoKparovs, vvvl 

19 <£>l\ok parous KaTV\yopcov. ovtco S' rjv 7rp60v/j.o<i 

et? ra irpdy/MaTa, ware ev rfj fiovXr] ypdcpet, iva 

d^rjfiLOs cov ri/uuv 6 ApiaTooi]/j.o<i aup,7rpea^evt], 

eXeadai Trpecfieis eVi to.? mbXeis ev at<? eSei tov 

ApiaTo8r]p.ov dycovi^eaOai, oltw€s virep avrov 

Trapairyaovrai rd<; tyjfiia*;. teal otv ravr earlv 
dXi)9rj, Xa(3e fioi to, yjrTjcpio-fjbara, teal ttjv etc/xap- 
rvpiav avdyvcoOi tijv 'ApMTToorjfiov, teal tcdXei 
irpbs ov<; e^epLaprvprjaev, iv elhcotriv oi Sitcao-Tai, 
Ti? QiXo/cpaTOvs eralpos, teal ti? Ta? Scoped? 
'ApicTToS/jp-cp cpda/ccov Treiaetv Sovvai tov hrjp-ov. 

¥H*I2MATA. EKMAPTTPIA 1 

20 'H /xev roivvv e£ «/?%^9 evo-racris tcov oXcov 

7rpayp.arcov eyevero ov ht ifiov, dXXa 81a Atj/xo- 

crdevous ical (PiXofcpdrovs' ev Be rf/ irpeafBeia 

o-vaanelv rj/xlv eenrovhacrev, ov/c ifie Treicras, dXXa 

rov<i fier e/iov, AyXao/cpeovra tov Teve&iov, bv e/c 

rail' avpLpbd^cov e'lXeade, /cal 'larpo/cXea. ev 8e 

ttj Tropeta TrapaiceXevecrOai fxe cprjcrlv avTcp, oVw? 

to Or-jpiov kolvt] cpvXd^o/xev, tov <t>cXofcpdTrjv, 

Trpdyfxa Xeycov TreirXaap^evov. ttcos yap dv eyco 

Arj/jLoo-0evr}v eVi QiXo/cpdr'ijv Trape/cdXovv, bv 

1 VH*I2MATA. EKMAPTTPIA Blass : the MSS. have i/^- 
<pi<r/.ia and 4K/j.aprvpiai or ^.aprvpta. 

174 



ON THE EMBASSY, 18-20 

Next Philocrates moved that ten ambassadors be 
chosen to go to Philip and discuss with him both the 
question of peace and the common interests of the 
Athenians and Philip. At the election of the ten 
ambassadors I was nominated by Nausicles, but Phi- 
locrates himself nominated Demosthenes — Demos- 
thenes, the man who now accuses Philocrates. And 
so eager was Demosthenes for the business, that in 
order to make it possible for Aristodemus to be a 
member of our embassy without loss to himself, he 
moved in council that we elect envoys to go to the 
cities in which Aristodemus was under contract to 
act, and beg in his behalf the cancelling of his for- 
feitures. To prove the truth of this [to the Clerk of 
the Court] take, if you please, the decrees, and read 
the deposition of Aristodemus, and call the witnesses 
before whom the deposition was made, in order that 
the jury may know who was the good friend of Phi- 
locrates, and who it was that promised to persuade 
the people to bestow the rewards on Aristodemus. 

THE DECREES. THE DEPOSITION 

The whole affair, therefore, from the beginning 
originated not with me, but with Demosthenes and 
Philocrates. And on the embassy he was eager to 
belong to our mess — not with my consent, but with 
that of my companions, Aglaocreon of Tenedos, 
whom you chose to represent the allies, and Iatrocles. 
And he asserts that on the journey I urged him to 
join me in guarding against the beast— meaning 
Philocrates. But the whole story was a fabrica- 
tion ; for how could I have urged Demosthenes 
agdnst Philocrates, when I knew that he had 



J 7S 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fj8eiv avveiirovTa puev QiXo/cpdrei, or rjv 77 twv 
irapai'o/iuov ypafprj, nrpoftXrjOevTa 8* et'9 ttjv irpe- 

21 crfieiav biro QiXo K parous ; irpos 8e tovtols ovk ev 
toiovtois rjpev Xoyois, 1 aXX oXrjv tijv iropeiav 
rjv ay /canopied a ArjpoaOev^v viropeveiv acpopyTov 
/ecu ftapvv avOpwTTQV 09 8iaa kotovvtwv rjpayv 6 
ri \prj Xeyeiv, 2, /cal Kipcovos elirovTos on <po/3otTo 
p,r) 81/caioXoyovpevos irepiyevotTO i)pon> 6 QlXnr- 
7TO?, 7rt]ya<; 8r/ Xoycov eTTTjyyeXXero, 3 /cat irepl row 
hiicaiwv ro)v virep ' Ap(f)nr6Xeo)<i teal ttjs ap^ip; tov 
iroXepov roiavra epelv e<pr], ware airoppd^etv to 
QiXtrnrov o~Topta oXoa^otvo) afipoyw, /cal Tretaetv 
' Adi]valov<; ptev Karahe^aaOat AecoaOei'rjv, ^>i\i7r- 
irov 8' 'Adrjvai,oi<; , Apt(pt7roXtv cnro&ovvai. 

22 "\va Be ptrj pta/cpoXoyw rr/v tovtov Bie^tcov 
V7repr)(f)aviav, &>9 TayiGTa ijKoptev els ^la/ceBovtav, 
crvv€Ta£ap,ev 777309 * rjp,as avrovs, orav 7rpoata>- 
pev QiXItttto}, tov TTpecrfivTaTOv irpcoTov 5 Xeyeiv 
teal tovs Xoittovs Kad f/Xt/ctav' eTiiy^ave 8' i)piov 
vewTaTOS gov, a>9 e<pr], AiipoaOevy)*;. eTTetBrj 8e 
elo-e/cXi'jB '>? pev ', — /cat tovtols i]8i] ptot acpoBpa irpoa- 
ex €Te T0V v °vv evTevdev yap /caToy\reo~6e tclv- 
dpco7rov 6 <p96vov VTrepfttiXXovTa /cal Beivrjv BetXtav 
apta /cal Kaicor}9eiav, koI roiavTas eTrtftovXas icaT 

1 \6yois Baiter : \6yois 01 av/xirpeaffeis MSS. 

2 \eyeiv Taylor : \tyeiv r^fias (or v/j.as) tuv ffu/xTrpefffiectiv (or 
irptcr&cwv) MSS. 

3 e7T7777e'A.AeTo Taylor : before inrjyyeAAtTo the MSS. have 
%X €IV °-<p06vovs or cupdovous ^x*"'* 

4 Trpbs added by Reiske. 

6 rbv irpfcrBvTaTov irpwrov Herwerden : robs irp(ff0vTa,Tovs 
irpaiTovs MSS. 

fi ravBpccirov Markland : avdpwirov MSS. 

176 



ON THE EMBASSY, 20-22 

been Philocrates' advocate in the suit against the 
legality of his motion, and that he had been nomin- 
ated to the embassy by Philocrates ? Moreover, this 
was not the sort of conversation in which we were 
engaged, but all the way we were forced to put up 
with Demosthenes' odious and insufferable ways. 
When we were discussing what should be said, and 
when Cimon remarked that he was afraid Philip 
would get the better of us in arguing his claims, 
Demosthenes promised fountains of oratory, and said 
that he was going to make such a speech about our 
claims to Amphipolis and the origin of the war that 
he would sew up Philip's mouth with an unsoaked 
rush, 1 and he would persuade the Athenians to per- 
mit Leosthenes to return home, 2 and Philip to restore 
Amphipolis to Athens. 

But not to describe at length the overweening 
self-confidence of this fellow, as soon as we were 
come to Macedonia, we arranged among ourselves 
that at our audience with Philip the eldest should 
speak first, and the rest in the order of age. Now it 
happened that the youngest man of us was, according 
to his own assertion, Demosthenes. When we were 
summoned — and pray now give especial attention to 
this, for here you shall see the exceeding enviousness 
of the man, and his strange cowardice and meanness 
too, and such plottings against men who were his 

1 The job would be so easy that he would not have to stop 
to soak the rush fibre and make it pliable. A proverbial 
expression. 

" Leosthenes was an Athenian orator and general, who 
had been condemned to death in 361 because of the failure 
of his campaign in the northern waters ; he was now in exile 
in Macedonia. The recover}- of Amphipolis would mollify 
the anger of the Athenians against him. 

177 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dv8pwi> crvaatrcov Kal av/j,7rpecr/3ea)V, a? ouS' av 
Kara t&v lyQictTWV t*9 elfcf) iroirjaatro. tol>9 <ydp 
t% 7roXe<w9 a\a<> Kal rip 8rjp,oa[av rpdwe^av nrepl 
TrXelarov 8rj <j)j]ai irotelaOai, ovk cov eTTi^oopio^, 

23 elpijcrerai yap, ouS' iyyevrjs. rj/j,ei<; 8e, oh lepd 
Kal rdxpoc irpoyovwv virdpyovaiv iv rfj irarpihi, 
Kal 8iarpi/3al Kal crvvi)6eiai /ie#' vfxoiv eXevOepioi, 
Kal ydfioi Kara toi>? vofiovs Kal Krjhearal Kal 
T€Kva, 'Ad>']vrjcri p:ev rjfiev dfyoi Trjs up,€Tepa<; 
TTicrrecoi?, ov yap av irore r)/jLa<i elXeaOe, i\0ovT€<; 
§' e/s MaKeSoviav i^atyvrjs iyevopieda irpoSorai. 
6 8e ouSev dirpaTov eywv ftepo? rod crco/iaTO?, 1 co? 
cov ' Apio-T€L&r]<;, 2 6 hiKaios iiTiKaXovfxevo^, Svcr^e- 
paivet Kal Ka-raivTvei hwpo8oKia<i. 

24 'AKOvaare 8r] rovs re i')p,er€pov<; Xoyovs, o&? 
€L7rofi€V virep vfxoiv, Kal irdXiv ou? to fieya ocfreXos 
t% 7roXe&)9 eiprjKe Arjp,oa0ev7j<;, %v i^e^i)*; Kal 
Kara puKpov irpos eKacrra rcov KaTr\yopr)pbkv(£>v 
cnroXoyrjcrw fiat, eiratvco 8' et? VTrep(3oXr)v vfias, 
<y avhpes BiKaaral, on cnyfj Kal SiKatwq t)/xcov 
aKovere' ware, edv ri fir) Xvaco tmv Karriyopr]- 
fievcov, oi>x, vfid<;, dXX" ifiavrov aiTiaaofiai. 

1 Many MSS. add oi>5' '60ev tV gxoeV npoierai (cp. § 88) : 
Blass brackets. 

2 'ApiffTelSris 6 tovs <p6povs ra|as rols "EKAricnv MSS., Blass : 
Soheibe and Weidner omit 5 . . . u E\\i)<riv, as adapted from 
iii. 258. 



1 See Demosthenes xix. 189 ff. Aeschines had protested 
that Demosthenes, in attacking his fellow-ambassadors on 
their return from Macedonia, was violating the common 
decencies of life, which demanded that men who had sat 
at table together should treat one another as friends. 

1 7 8 



ON THE EMBASSY, 22-24 

own fellow ambassadors and his messmates as one 
would hardly enter into even against his bitterest 
enemies. For you remember he says 1 it is the salt of 
the city and the table of the state for which he has 
most regard — he, who is no citizen born — for I will 
out with it ! — nor akin to us. 2 But we, who have 
shrines and family tombs in our native land, and such 
life and intercourse with you as belong to free men, 
and lawful marriage, with its offspring and connec- 
tions, we while at Athens were worthy of your con- 
fidence, or you would never have chosen us, but when 
we had come to Macedonia we all at once turned 
traitors ! But the man who has not one member of 
his body left unsold, posing as a second Aristeides 
"the Just," is displeased, and spits on us, as takers 
of bribes. 

Hear now the pleas that we made in your behalf, 
and again those which stand to the credit of Demos- 
thenes, that great benefactor of the state, in order 
that I may answer one after another and in full 
detail each one of his accusations. But I commend 
you exceedingly, gentlemen of the jury, that in 
silence and with fairness you are listening to us. 
If, therefore, I fail to refute any one of his accusa- 
tions, I shall have myself, not you, to blame. 

Demosthenes replied that the table and the salt, even in the 
case of the prytanes and other high officials who ate together 
at a common official table, gave no immunity to the wrong- 
doer ; his fellow-officials were free to bring him to punish- 
ment. If the public table of the prytanes did not protect 
the guilty from attack by his fellow-officers, the table and 
the salt of the group of ambassadors should be no protection 
to Aesuhines against Demosthenes' attack. 

1 In the Speech against Ctesiphon, 171 f., Aeschines de- 
clares that the maternal grandmother of Demosthenes was a 
Scythian. 

179 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

25 'l^Treihr) yap ol 7rpeaf3vT€poi rai? ijXiKlais virep 
rrjs tt pea jBelas elpijtcecrav, Kal KaOrjKev els rjfias o 
Xoyos, ra fiev icad^ eKaara rSiv e/cei p-rjOevTcov vir 
ep.ov, Kal robs irpbs ravra ^lXlttttov 1 Xoyous, ev 
to) 8t]fi(p aa<f)(bs aTT^yyetXa irpbs cnravras A6rj- 
valovs, vvvl Be ireipdaopuai hid KecfyaXalcov lipids 

26 vTropupbvr](Ticeiv. Trpwrov p.ev yap 777)09 avrou 
hie^jXdov Ti)V irarpLKrjv euvoiav Kal Tas euepye- 
alas as vp,els virrjp^are ^Afxvvrq tw QiXittttov 
Trarpl, ovhev TTapaXenrcov, aW' ecpe^rjs hiravra 
vTTo/xifxv^aK(ov, hevrepov he, &v avros rjv pcdprvs 
ev iradoav. ' Ajxvvtov fiev 2 yap vecoarl TeTeXev- 
ttjkotos Kal ' ' AXe^dvhpov rou irpeafivrdrov tS)v 
dheXfyGiv, Tieph'iKKOV he Kal ^lXIttttov Tralhwv 
ovtwv, JLvpvhiKTjs he Trjs firjrpbs avrojv irpoheho- 

27 p,evr]s vtto rcbv hoKovvTWV eXvai 3 (filXajv, Tlavaaviov 
6° eVt rrjv dp^v i Kanovros, (pvydhos fiev ovros, 
tm Kaipu> o° layyoinos, iroXXwv h avrG> avfi- 
TrpaTTOVTtov, e^ovros he 'EXXrjviKrjv huvafiiv, elXt]- 
<J)6tos he 'AvOe/iovvra Kal %ep/xav Kal l.rpe-tyav 
Kal aXX' ciTra ywpla, MaKehbvwv he ov^ bfto- 
voovvtoov, ciXXd t6)v irXelarcov to, Tlavaaviov 
(ppovovvrcov, errl twv Kaipcbv rovrcov eyeiporbv^aav 
' Adrjvaioi aTparrjybv €7r' ' 'A pKplir oXiv 'IcpiKpaTTjv, 
''ApL^nroXiTWV aiiroiv eyovrwv Tore ttjv ttoXiv Kal 

28 rrjv yd>pav KapiTovfievwv. dcpiKOfievov h els tovs 
T07TOVS 'IcbiKpdrovs fier bXlywv to irpoirov veo)v, 

1 <$i\'nrirov Weidner : before $t\iinrov the MSS. have 

\txQ* vras " w ^ ol " pi)Q*v' ra * virb. 

2 fiiv added by Franke from an ancient quotation of the 
passage. 

3 elvai Cobet : the MSS. have avrrjs or avrols before f'ivai. 

4 apxv v Cobet : ctpxV ^vtwu MSS. 

180 



ON THE EMBASSY, 25-28 

So when the older men had spoken on the object 
of our mission, our turn came. 1 All that I said there 
and Philip's reply, I reported fully in your assembly 
in the presence of all the citizens, but I will try to 
recall it to you now in a summary way. In the first 
place, I described to him our traditional friendship 
and your generous services to Amyntas, the father of 
Philip, recalling them all one after another, and 
omitting nothing. Secondly, I reminded him ot 
services of which he himself had been both witness 
and recipient. For shortly after the death of Amyn- 
tas, and of Alexander, the eldest of the brothers, 
while Perdiccas and Philip were still children, when 
their mother Eurydice had been betrayed by those 
who professed to be their friends, and when Pau- 
sanias was coming back to contend for the throne, 2 
an exile then, but favoured by opportunity and the 
support of many of the people, and bringing a Greek 
force with him, and when he had already seized 
Anthemon, Therma, Strepsa, and certain other places, 
at a time when the Macedonians were not united, 
but most of them favoured Pausanias : at this crisis 
the Athenians elected Iphicrates as their general to 
go against Amphipolis — for at that time the people 
of Amphipolis were holding their city themselves and 
enjoying the products of the land. When Iphicrates 
had come into this region — with a few ships at first, 

1 The turn of Aeschines and Demosthenes as the youngest 
of the ambassadors. 

2 Amyntas, king of Macedonia, left three sons, Alexander, 
Perdiccas, and Philip. Alexander succeeded his father, but 
after a short reign he was assassinated. His mother Eurydice 
with her paramour Ptolemaeus took the throne. Her power 
was threatened by Pausanias, a member of a ris'al princely 
house. 

181 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eVi KCLTCLGKOTrfi pdWov ran; rrpayudreov v iroXiop- 
te'ia rr}<; 7ro\€(o<i, evravda, keprjv iyco, peretrep-^raro 
avrbv JLvpvSitcri i) pr\rr]p r) at], teal W9 ye Bi) 
\eyovo~u> 01 Trapovres iravres, YlepStteteav p,ev rbv 
dSe\(pbv rbv abv Karacrr^aacra «9 ras ye2pa<s rds 
, 1(f) 1 k par ov<;, ere Se et? rd ybvara Ta eteetvov Oelaa 
iraihiov bvra, elirev on " 'Apivvras irarrjp rSiv 
Traihiwv rovrwv, or e£y, vibv erroirjaaro ae, rf/ 8e 
*A07}vaia)V 7roXei oi/caco? e^pijaaro, toare avp,- 
fiaivei aoi teal ISla rwv iraihcor rovrcov yeyevrjadai 

29 dSeXcpco, teal hrjpoaia (pi\(p rjplv elvat" teal 
perd ravra r;S?; Berjatv layypav erroielro teat virep 
vputov teal virep avrfjs teal vrcep rr)<; apXV^ KCLL 
o\&)<? virep t?)? acorrjplas. dteovaas he ravra 
'I^t/cpaT^? e^rjXaae Ylavaaviav etc Ma/ceSiWa?, 
teal rrjv hvvaare'iav vplv kacoae. teal perd ravra 
elrrov irepl UroXepaiov, 09 rjv etrirporro^ teade- 
ar7]teoL)<i rwv wpaypdreov, co? d^dpuarov teal heivbv 
epyov hierrpd^aro, hihdatecov ore rrpwrov p,ev virep 
'A/A</»7r6\e&)9 dvrerrparre rrt iroiXei, teal TTpbs 
®rjf3aLOVi hia<f>epopevwv ' ' KOrjvaiwv avppa^lav 
eiroujaaro, teal ttuXiv co? Tlephiteteas €t? rrjv dp%r)i> 
tearaards vTrep 'A/i0t7roXea)? eiroXepbrjae rfj rroXei. 

30 teal rrjv vperipav r/hiKi]pei'0)V op-cos (ptXavdpcoTTiav 
hie^rjetv, \eyoov on teparovvres ru> TToXepw Uep- 
hiteteav KaWiaOevov? rjyovpevov, 1 avoids 777)69 
avrbv eirou]aaade, del, rivos irpoahotewvres rwv 
hiteaicov rev^eadai. teal rr)v hia/3o\r)v ravrrjv 

1 7iyov/j.4vov Baiter : riyovfttvou 'A6rjvalci>v or 'AOnvalaiv i^yov- 
fJLSVOV MSS. 

1 Amyntas, hard pressed by his Illyrian and Thessalian 
neighbours, had at one time been driven from his throne by 

182 



ON THE EMBASSY, 28-30 

for the purpose of examining into the situation rather 
than of laying siege to the city — "Then," said I, 
"your mother Eurydice sent for him, and according 
to the testimony of all who were present, she put 
your brother Perdiccas into the arms of Iphicrates, 
and set you upon his knees — for you were a little 
boy — and said, ' Amyntas, the father of these little 
children, when he was alive, made you his son, 1 and 
enjoyed the friendship of the city of Athens ; we 
have a right therefore to consider you in your private 
capacity a brother of these boys, and in your public 
capacity a friend to us.' After this she at once began 
to make earnest entreaty in your behalf and in her 
own, and for the maintenance of the throne — in a 
word for full protection. When Iphicrates had heard 
all this, he drove Pausanias out of Macedonia and 
preserved the dynasty for you." Next I spoke about 
Ptolemaeus, who had been made regent, telling what 
an ungrateful and outrageous thing he had done : 
I explained how in the first place he continually 
worked against our city in the interest of Amphipolis, 
and when we were in controversy with the Thebans, 
made alliance with them ; and then how Perdiccas, 
when he came to the throne, fought for Amphipolis 
against our city. And I showed that, wronged as you 
were, you maintained your friendly attitude ; for I 
told how, when you had conquered Perdiccas in the 
war, under the generalship of Callisthenes, you made 
a truce with him, ever expecting to receive some 
just return. And I tried to remove the ill feeling 

a rival prince. After two years he was restored to power by 
the help of Sparta and Athens. It is conjectured that this 
was the occasion of his adoption of the Athenian Iphicrates, 
one of the most capable leaders of mercenary troops. 

183 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

i-7T€ipco/x7]v Xveiv, hthdcTKcov on K.aWt,cr0€vi]v 6 
8f}fio*i direKTeivev, ov Sid t<x? irphs Tlephitacav 
avoids, aWa 81 krepas alria^. Kai irdXiv i vk 
cokvovv /car avTov Xeyecv (PiXlttttov, iiriTipioyv ore 
rrjv ifc8o%r]V eiroirjcraTO tov 1 737)09 tt)v iroXiv 

31 iroXepLOV. Kai irdvTwv wv eliroipu p,apTvpa<i TCIS 
€K€LV(ov eVicTToXa? Trapei^opLrjv Kai rd yfrrjcpLapLaTa. 
tov hrjpiov Kai Ta? KaXXiaflevovs avoids. wep\ 
p,ev ovv t?}? if; ap'xfl'i ktiJct€(o<; T-79 ^wpaq, Kai 
tS)v KaXovpuevwv 'Evvea oSwv, Kai irepl to>v ©77- 
0*66)9 TTaiScov, a>v 'A/ca/ia? \eyerai <pepvt)v eVl rfj 
yvvaiKl Xafielv rr]v yd>pav ravrijv, Tore p,ev i]p- 
p,OTTG re Xeyeiv Kai ipp/]0i] &>9 ivehe^ero aKpifte- 
cnaTa, vvvl h)e icrax; dvdyKrj crvvTepLveiv rov<i 
\6yovs- a 8e rjv tcov ar)p,e'iO)V ovk iv rot9 dp^aiofi 
pLvOois, dXX' icp' r)p,5)v yey evr]p,eva, Kai 2 tov- 

32 tcov iirepLVi)(j9r^v. avp,p.a^ia<i <ydp AaKehai- 
uovitov Kai tmv dXXMV EXXi'p'MV avveXdovar)<i, 
els mv tovtmv ' Ap,vvra<i o <£>Ch.LTnrov itairjp Kai 
trep/nMV avvehpov Kai t?}9 Kaff" avrov "^n')cpov 
Kvpios mv, iyfrrjcpicraTO 'ApLCpiiroXiv rrjv AotivaiMV 
avve^aipelv puerd tmv ciXXmv 'EXXiJvmv AOr/vaioLs. 

Kai TOVTMV TO K01V0V SojpLa TMV EjXX7)VMV Kai 

T0U9 ylrr)(f)io~ap,evov<; e« tmv BrjpoaiMV ypap-piaTMV 

33 p,dprvpa<i 7rapei^6p,7]v. "*Q,v Se 'A/iwra? direaTtf' 
ivavTiov tmv r F*X\,7]voov dirdvTOiv ov puovov Xoyois, 
aXXa Kai yfr7]cf)M, tovtmv," ecprjv iyu>, " ere tov eg 
iKelvov yeyevrjputvov ovk eo~Ti oiKaiov avTmoiel- 
o~6ai. el 8' avTiTTOLrj Kara iroXepiov \a/3(ov ecKOTM^ 



2 Kai added by Franke. 

3 direffTTj Baiter : airtffTri 6 QiAlmrou naTrip MSS. 



184 



ON THE EMBASSY, 30-33 

that was connected with this affair by showing that it 
was not the truce with Perdiccas that led the people 
to put Callisthenes to death, but other causes. And 
again I did not hesitate to complain of Philip him- 
self, blaming him for having taken up in his turn the 
war against our state. As proof of all my statements, 
I offered the letters of the persons in question, the 
decrees of the people, and Callisthenes' treaty of 
truce. Now the facts about our original acquisition 
both of the district and of the place called Ennea 
Hodoi, 1 and the story of the sons of Theseus, one of 
whom, Acamas, is said to have received this district 
as the dowry of his wife — all this was fitting to the 
occasion then, and was given with the utmost exact- 
ness, but now I suppose I must be brief; but those 
proofs which rested, not on the ancient legends, but 
on occurrences of our own time, these also I called 
to mind. For at a congress 2 of the Lacedaemonian 
allies and the other Greeks, in which Amyntas, the 
father of Philip, being entitled to a seat, was re- 
presented by a delegate whose vote was absolutely 
under his control, he joined the other Greeks in 
voting to help Athens to recover possession of 
Amphipolis. As proof of this I presented from the 
public records the resolution of the Greek con- 
gress and the names of those who voted. " Now," 
said I, "a claim which Amyntas renounced in the 
presence of all the Greeks, and that not by words 
alone, but by his vote, that claim you his son have no 
right to advance. But if you argue that it is right 
for you to keep the place because you took it in war, 

1 Ennea Hodoi ("Nine Roads") was the old name of the 
place colonized by the Athenians in 436 under the name of 
Amphipolis. 2 The "Congress of Sparta," 371 B.C. 

185 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

e^eiv, el p.ev 7rpo? rjpd<; TToXep,7Jo~a<; BoptdXoiTov 
tt)V ttuXcv elXe?, Kvpiws e^6t9 tw tov iroXepov 
vopcp KTT]ad/j.evo<i' el S' WpcfrnroXLTas dcpeuXov 
rr]v ' A0y]palcov ttoK.iv, ov^l rdtceivcov e^ecs, dXXa 
ttjv Adrjvaicov yd>pav" 

34 'VqOevroiv he Kal tovtwv Kal erepcov Xoyoov, i]8i] 
KaOPj/cev el$ ^^oaOev^v to t?}9 7rpeo-/3eia? puepos, 
Kal irdvTes irpoaelyov &)? virepfooXas Twas 8vvd- 
peoos d/covcropevoi Xoyoov Kal yap rrpbs ai/Tov tov 
<$>iXittttov, &)? r)V varepov aKovetv, Kal Trpb<; Toy? 
eTaipovs e £>]yy eA.ro 1 r) tcov eTrayyeXicov VTTepffoXrj. 
ovtco Se dwavTcov hiaKeipevwv Trpbs ttjv aKpoaauv, 
(pdeyyeTai to Oijpiov tovto irpoolpiov aKoreivov ri 
Kal Te0vi]Ko<; SetXla, Kal piKpov Trpoayayoov dvco 
to)v TrpaypbdTwv, e£al(f)VT}<; iaiyrjae Kal hvqiroprjdrj, 

35 TeXevTcov 8e eKTrliTTei Ik tov Xoyov. IScov Be 
avrbv 6 tPiXnnroi; &)? hieKeiro, dappelv re irapeKe- 
XeveTO Kal p,i] vopl^eiv, coaTrep ev Tot? OeaTpois, 
Sid tovto 2 ti TreTTOvdevai, dXX rjav^fj Kal KaTa 
pbtKpbv dvapupJvrjO'Keadai, Kai Xeyeiv to? irpoeiXeTo. 
6 S' &)9 a-nat; eTapdydr) Kal tcov yeypapp,evoov Bie- 
acpdXj), ovS' avaXaf3elv avTOV ehvvrjdrj, dXXd Kal 
Trak.LV eTTi^eipyjcra^ 3 Tai/Tov eiraOev. a>? 8' tjv 
aiwrn], peTao~T?)vai i)pd<s 6 Kijpvi; eKeXevarev. 

1 Hvyye^To Bekker : i^-nyy4\\tTo or ^-nyy^Adri MSS. The 
MSS. have clvtov before or after the verb : Blass omits. 

2 tovto Stephanus : tovto oUcr8ai MSS. 

3 eirixcip'ho-as Weidner : the MSS. have Ktyeiv before or 
after tTnx*ipy<ras. 

1 Amphipolis was founded as a colony of Athens in 436, 
and became one of the most important cities on the northern 
coast. The Spartans seized it early in the Peloponnesian 
war, and held it till the close of the war. They then 

186 



ON THE EMBASSY, 33-35 

if it is true that it was a war against us in which you 
took the city, you do hold it justly, by right of con- 
quest ; but if it was from the Amphipolitans that you 
took a city which belonged to the Athenians, it is 
not the property of the Amphipolitans that you are 
holding, but territory of Athens." 1 

Now when I had said this and more beside, at last 
came Demosthenes' turn to speak. All were intent, 
expecting to hear a masterpiece of eloquence. For, 
as we learned afterwards, his extravagant boasting 
had been reported to Philip and his court. So when 
all were thus prepared to listen, this creature mouthed 
forth a proem — an obscure sort of thing and as dead 
as fright could make it ; and getting on a little way 
into the subject he suddenly stopped speaking and 
stood helpless ; finally he collapsed completely. 
Philip saw his plight and bade him take courage, 
and not to think, as though he were an actor on the 
stage, that his collapse was an irreparable calamity, 
but to keep cool and try gradually to recall his 
speech, and speak it off as he had prepared it. But 
he, having been once upset, and having forgotten 
what he had written, was unable to recover himself; 
nay, on making a second attempt, he broke down 
again. Silence followed ; then the herald bade us 
withdraw. 

renounced their claim to it, but the people of the city them- 
selves refused to return to Athenian allegiance. Repeated 
expeditions were sent out by the Athenians to retake the 
city, but without success. One of Philip's first acts was to 
seize Amphipolis. It was claimed at Athens that he had 
promised, if given a free hand, to restore the place to 
Athens ; but this he refused to do, and so began the first 
war between Athens and Philip. The Athenian claim to 
the city was therefore one of the most important matters to 
be presented by the ambassadors whose mission Aeschines is 
here describing. 

187 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

36 'l&Tr€i&7] £>' iff)' r^fxwv avrwv 1 eyevopeda, cnfiohpa 2 
(TKvdpco7rdaa<i o XprjaTOS ovToal A^poaOevi)^ utto- 
XwXeKevai p,e k(f>rj ti)v ttoXlv Kal rov<i avp.pd)(ov<;. 
€K7r\ayivTO<; he ovk ep,ov pbvov, aXXd Kal twv 
av/Mirpeafiecov dirdvrwv, Kal rrjv alriav irvvOavo- 
puivwv hi rjv ravr elrrev, ijpero pe el twv 'AOtjvrjcn 
irpaypdrav iiri\eXi]apai, Kal tov hrjpbov KaTaire- 
TTOvrjpievov Kal acpohpa imdvp-ovvTa elpyjvrjs el /jltj 

37 p,ep,vr}p,ai. " *H peya (ppovels" e<pi], " eVt Tat? 
e\jr7](f)t<rp€vai<; p,ev irevr^KOvra vavaiv, ovheTrore he 
TrXi]pa>9r)aop,evcu<;; ovra> jap rjpeOiKa^; QiXnnrov 
Kal roiavra etpyjKas, i£ oiv ovk elpijvr) yevoir av 
e.K 7ro\ep,ov, dXX e$j eiprjvijs 7ro\e/xo? dKi'jpvKTos" 
dpyop,evov h epuov 737)09 ravra dvnXeyeiv, IkuXovv 
rjpd<; ol virijpeTai. 3 

38 'H? S' elo~i]X0opev Kal eKaOe^bpueda, e£ dp^rj^ 
7rpo? eKaarov rwv elprjpevwv eve^etpec tc Xeyeiv 6 
<£>iXnnros, TrXeLGTrjv he 6t«6r&>5 e7roi?]aaro hiarpt- 
ftrjv rrpos tovs epovs Xoyovs' tacos yap ovhev rcov 
evbvrcov elirecv, ai? ye olpai, TrapeXnrov Kal ttoX- 
XaKis puov rovvopa ev Tot? Xoyois (ovopa^e- 777)09 
he Ar/p,ocr0evr}v tov outco KaTayeXdarcos diraXXd- 
%avra ov& virep evbs olp,ai hceXe^V' tovto he r]v 

39 dpa dyyovr) Kal Xvttt) tovtw. eireihr) he. Kari- 
aTpeyjrev els fyiXavOpoa-jrlav tow Xbyov;, Kal rb 
o~VKO(f>dvTr)p,a b irpoeiprjKei, Kar epov 777)09 tovs 
o~vpTrpea(Bei<i o5to?, &>9 eaopevov iroXepuov Kal hia- 
(f)opa<i aLTLOu, hieTwrrev avru>, ivravOa tfhrj Kal 
TravTeXws i^io-TdpLevos avrov Karacfravr)? r)V, 

1 avrwv Baiter and Sauppe : avTaii' ol o~v/j.Trpio-&fis MSS. 

2 acpSSpa Weidner : o-<p65pa irdvu MSS. 

8 virqpeTai Blass : vnripeTai oi tov <f>iAnrirou MSS. 

188 



ON THE EMBASSY, 36-39 

Now when we were by ourselves, our worthy col- 
league Demosthenes put on an exceedingly sour face 
and declared that I had ruined the city and the 
allies. And when not only I, but all the rest of the 
ambassadors were amazed, and asked him his reason 
for saying that, he asked me if I had forgotten the 
situation at Athens, and if I did not remember that 
the people were worn out and exceedingly anxious 
for peace. " Or does your confidence rest," said he, 
" on those fifty ships that have been voted but are 
never going to be manned ? You have so exasperated 
Philip by the speech you have made that the effect 
of it could not possibly be to make peace out of war, 
but implacable war out of peace ! " I was just 
beginning to answer him, when the attendants 
summoned us. 

When we had come in and taken our seats, Philip 
began at the beginning and undertook to make 
some sort of answer to every argument which we had 
advanced. Naturally he dwelt especially on my 
argument, for I think I may fairly say that I had 
omitted nothing that could be said ; and again and 
again he mentioned my name in the course of his 
argument. But in reply to Demosthenes, who had 
made such a laughing-stock of himself, not one word 
was said on a single point, I believe. And you may 
be sure that this was pain and anguish to him. But 
when Philip turned to expressions of friendship, and 
the bottom dropped out of the slander which this 
Demosthenes had previously uttered against me 
before our fellow ambassadors, that I was going to 
be the cause of disagreement and war, then indeed 
it was plain to see that he was altogether beside 



189 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ware /cal /cXijOevTcov rjpwv eVi tjevia 8eLVw<; 
da^fiovecv. 

40 'AcpopputovTcov S' rj/Awv olicahe e/c tt)? 7r/3ecr/3eta9, 
e£ai<f)V7)<; Kara ttjv 68ov 7rapa8oi;(i)<i a)? 1 (pi\av- 

0p(O7TO)<i 7T/909 GKdCTTOV BieXijeTO. 6 Ti [X€V OVV 

ttot r]v 6 KepKU>y\r rj to /caXovpuevov 7raiird\rip,a t) 
to iraki p,/3o\ov i) to, roiavra pr\para, ovk f)8eiv 
TrpoTepov vvvl 8' e^r]yr]T7]v tovtov Xaffcov rf/? 

41 a.7racr?;? icaK0i)9eia<; pbep,d6i]ica. 8ia\ap.(3dvcov jap 
efcaarov 7]fici)v ev piepei, tw p,ev epavov avarrjaeiv 
iirrjyyeWeTO /cal /3oi)9)]o~eiv Tot? ISlois, tov 8e et? 
arparriyLav Karacmiaeiv ep,ol 8e 7rapa/co\ov6wv 
teat ttjv (f)vatv fia/capL^wv /ecu tol>? Xoyous ovs 
elirov ey/ccopud^cov irohvs rjv Tot? eTraivois /cal 
eTTa^r/i. o-vvSenrvovvTeov 8" r)p,wv drravTcov ev 
Aapucrr], avTov puev ecr/ctOTrTe /cal Tr\v diropiav ttjv 
iv tw \6yo) crvpi^daav eavTW, tov 8e <&l\i7nrov 
rcoi' inrb tov rjXiov dvOpcoTrcov ecprj irdvTCov eivai 

42 heivoTaTov. avvaTrocpTjvapievov oe /capiov ti tolov- 
tov, 009 /cal fivripLOVL/cws evirot irpo<i tcl irap i)p,wv 
prjOivTa, KTijcrMpwvTos 8e, oairep r\v rjpucbv irpe- 
(T/3uTaTO?, v-irepj3o\r]V Tiva eavTOV 7ra\aioTi]TO<i 
/cal 7r\i]dov<i eT&v eiirovTos, /cal irpoaOevTos, C09 ev 
toctovtw xpovcp 2 ou irdnroff' outo)9 rj8vv ov8 erra- 
(ppoSiTOv avdpooirov ecopa/ccb<; elrj, dva/cpoT?]o-a<i 6 

43 2/<tl>(/>o<? 68e Tas -^elpa^, " TaOra pbevTOL," e<pi], " <b 
Kt^ a icp(bv, ovt^ av o~v 7T/oo? tov 8f]p,ov etirot,^, ovt 
dv ovtos" epie 8rj \eywv, " ToXpirjaeiev elirelv irpos 
' A$7]valou<; , &)? 6 <t>tA,£7r7ro<? 8eivb<; elirelv /cal fivrj- 

1 i>s Cobct : «al MSS. 

2 XP° V <? Cobet : XP^ V V Ka ^ &<e MSS. 

igo 



ON THE EMBASSY, 39-43 

himself, so that even when we were invited to dinner 
he behaved with shameful rudeness. 

When we set out on our return home after com- 
pleting our mission, suddenly he began talking to 
each of us on the way in a surprisingly friendly 
manner. Why, up to that time I had never so much 
as known the meaning of words like "kerkops," or 
the so-called " paipalema," or " palimbolon " ; 1 but 
now after acquiring him as expounder of the mysteries 
of all rascality, I am fully instructed. And he would 
take each of us in turn to one side, and to one he 
would promise to open a subscription to help him 
in his private difficulties, and to another that he 
would get him elected general. As for me, he fol- 
lowed me about, congratulating me on my ability 
and praising my speech ; so lavish was he in his 
compliments that I became sick and tired of him. 
And when we were all dining together at Larisa, he 
made fun of himself and the embarrassment which 
had come upon him in his speech, and he declared that 
Philip was the most wonderful man under the sun. 
When I had added my testimony, saying something 
like this, that Philip had shown excellent memory 
in his reply to what we had said, and when Ctesiphon, 
who was the oldest of us, speaking of his own ad- 
vanced age and the number of his years, added that 
in all his many years he had never looked upon so 
charming and lovable a man, then this Sisyphus 2 
here clapped his hands and said, " But, Ctesiphon, 
it will never do for you to tell the people that, nor 
would our friend here," meaning me, " venture to 
say to the Athenians that Philip is a man of good 

1 We are as ignorant of the particular shades of vulgarity 
and rascality conveyed by these words as Aeschines says he 
was before his initiation. 2 A proverbial name for a cheat. 

191 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

pbovitcos" avaiaOi'iTws he r\p,wv I^ovtcov teal ttjv 
e7ri/3ov\rjV ov nrpoopwfxevwv, rji> avritca dteovcrecrOe, 
els avv0T]K7)v rtva ?;/xa? teaTeteXycrev virep tov 
ravr epelv irpb^ vp.d<;. ep,ov he teal het]aiv lo-yy- 
pdv eheijOt] pii] irapaXtTrelv, dW elrrelv, go? virep 
'ApKpnroXeoos Tt teal AT}pLOo~0evr)<; eiTroi. 

44 Me^/n puev ovv tovtcov oi o-vpLTrpeafiei? elal puoi 
p,dpTvpe<>, ovs tt poTnfXatel^cov ovtos teal hia/3dX\cov 
iv ttj KaTrjyopca hiaTeTeXetee" tcov S' eirl tov 
f3t]p,aTO<; irap vpuv \oycov uyLtet? a/crj/coare, ware 
ov/e eveaiai puoi yjrevheaOai. heop,ai he vpicov irpoa- 
eTTiTTOvrjaraL cucovovras teal ttjv Xoltttjv htyjyrjo'tv. 
on pLev yap e/eacrTos vpicov TToOel ra irepl K.epcro- 
f3\€7rTT]v ateovecv teal rai irepl Qcoteeoov airlas, 
aaepws oilha, teal Trpos ravra airevhco' dXX! edv p.rj 
ra 7Tpb tovtcov dfcovcrrjTe, ovh J eteeivois op-olcos 
7rapatco\ov6/]aeT€. edv S" epuol too teivhvvevovTt 
elrrelv hcoTe C09 /3ovXop,ai, teal acorat p,e, el p,i]hev 
dhireco, hvvtjaecrOe, iteavd<; elXijcpoTes depoppids, teal 
dedcreade etc tcov 6p.oXoyovp,evcov teal TavriXeyo- 
p.eva. 

45 'fl? yap hevp rjX6op,ev teal 7rpo<? ttjv /3ovXt]v eVl 
KeepaXaioov ttjv irpea^eiav dirriyyeiXapbev , teal t?)v 
i7ri<TToXr)V aTrehop-ev Ti]V irapd (PtXiTnrov, eTratve- 
T7]<; 7]v r)p,oov Ar)p,oa6evi]<; 7rpb<; tou? crvp,/3ovXev- 
Ta?, 1 teal Tr)v 'KaTiav €Trcop.oae ttjv plovXacav 
avy\aipeLv ttj iroXei, otl toiovtovs dvhpas eirl 

1 toi/s crv/j.fiovA€VTa.s Blass : robs PovKevovras or tovs avrovs 
ffvu&ovAtvTds MSS. 

1 Demosthenes dared them to do it ; they accepted the 
challengo and wagered that they would. 

192 



ON THE EMBASSY, 43-45 

memory and great eloquence." And we innocently, 
not foreseeing the trick of which you shall hear 
presently, allowed him to bind us in a sort of agree- 
ment that we would say this to you. 1 And he begged 
me earnestly not to fail to tell how Demosthenes 
also said something in support of our claim to 
Amphipolis. 

Now up to this point I am supported by the testi- 
mony of my colleagues in the embassy, whom he 
has reviled and slandered from beginning to end of 
his accusation. But his words on the platform in 
your presence you yourselves have heard ; so it will 
not be possible for me to misrepresent them. And 
I beg of you to continue to hear patiently the rest 
of my narrative. I do not forget that each of you is 
anxious to hear the story of Cersobleptes and the 
charges made about the Phocians, and I am eager 
to get to those subjects ; but you will not be as well 
able to follow them unless you shall first hear all 
that preceded. And if, in my peril, you allow me to 
speak as I wish, you will be able to save me, if I am 
innocent, and that on good and sufficient grounds ; 
and you will also have before you the facts that are 
acknowledged as you proceed to examine the points 
that are in dispute. 

On our return, then, after we had rendered to the 
senate a brief report of our mission and had de- 
livered the letter from Philip, Demosthenes praised 
us to his colleagues in the senate, and he swore by 
Hestia, goddess of the senate, 2 that he congratulated 
the city on having sent such men on the embassy, 

2 The hearth of the Prytaneum, the headquarters of the 
standing committee of the senate, was regarded as the 
common hearth of the state ; a statue of Hestia was in this 
hall, and in the senate-house was an altar of that goddess. 

193 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ttjv tt pea fieiav e|?67re/4i/rei>, ot /cat rfj ttlo-tgi /cat 

46 \eyovTes 1 rjaav a%ioi tt}? TroXeoos. virep e/xov Be 
eiire rt tolovtov, gj? ov yfreva-aifit]v ra<? rtov eXo- 
jxevcov fJie eVt rrjv irpecrfieiav eXirihas. re\o<; 8e 
irdvTwv eypayjre yap /;/za<? aTe(pava)aai uaWov 
(TTe<fidv(p etcaoTov evvoia<; eveica rrj<; eis rov Sfjfiov, 
/cat KoXeaai iir\ helirvov ek to Trpvravelov ei? 
avptov. on 6° ovSev tyevSo? etpijKa 71-/209 vp,a$, 
Xafteico puoi to ^7](pio-pLa 6 ypap,p,arev<;, /cat to? 
tmv avp.rrpeo'^ewv puaprvpiwi dvayvunco. 

^H*I2MA. MAPTTPIAI 

47 'E7retSr; roivvv cnrryyyeWopLev r?]V Trpeafieiav iv 
tw B?]piO), elire irapekBoov nrpwros rjpucov 2 KTrjaicfawv 
aXXovs T6 TLvas \6yovs /cat tou? 7T/009 A.r\p,oaQevr\v 
avrw avyxeipAvovs ipelv, irepl re t% eWeufeo)? 
tt)<? QiXlttttov feed t?}? i'Sea<> avrov /cat Tr/s iv TOt9 
7roVof<? eVtSe^iOT^To?. /cat /iGTa tovtov <£>i\o- 
Kpdrovs etVo^TO? putcpd /cat Aep/cvXov, iraprfkOov 

48 6701. eiretSi] 8e ttjv aW^v 8ie£i}\0ov irpeo-(3elav, 
dirr)VTT]o-a /cat 717309 tw \6yov bv iv rots o-vp,irpe- 
afiecn 8ia)p:o~\.oy}]o-dp,r)v, elird>v on /cat p.vr)p,ovi/<6}<; 
/cat Buvarax; 6 4>tX.t7T7ro? eliror /cat t?)*/ heyaiv 
ovtc €7re\a06fi7]v rr)V Ar]p,oo-0erov<;, ore Ta^^et^ 
Xeyeiv, idv n irapaXi7rcop.ev rjfiels, vitep 'A/u,(/)t- 

49 7roXe&)?. e'<£' diraai S' »7/Uf dviaraTav TeXevTatos 
A->1p,oo-6evr]s, /cat repaT€vadp,evo<;, oyairep e'icoOe, to5 
o-%i]p:aTi /cat T/ot-^a? t?;v /cecpaXtjv, opwv iiriat]- 

1 ycai t?) trla-rei ical Ktyovrts Blass : «al to?s A^yois koJ tj) 

irlffTil \4-)OVTfS MSS. 

2 TrpwTot rinaiv Weidner : the MSS. have 5i& ttjv rjKtKtav 
before or after these words. 

194 



ON THE EMBASSY, 45-49 

men who in honesty and eloquence were worthy of 
the state. In referring to me he said something 
like this : that I had not disappointed the hopes of 
those who elected me to the embassy. And to cap 
it all he moved that each of us be crowned with a 
garland of wild olive because of our loyalty to the 
people, and that we be invited to dine on the morrow 
in the Prytaneum. To prove that I have spoken to 
you nothing but the truth, please let the clerk take 
the decree, and let him read the testimony of my 
colleagues in the embassy. 

THE DECREE. THE TESTIMONY 

Now when we presented the report of our em- 
bassy before the assembly, Ctesiphon came for- 
ward first and spoke, including in his account the 
points that he was to make according to his agree- 
ment with Demosthenes, I mean about Philip's 
social accomplishments, his personal appearance, and 
his doughty deeds at the cups. Next Philocrates 
and Dercylus spoke briefly; then I came forward. 
After giving an account of our mission in general, 
I went on to say, according to the agreement with 
my colleagues on the embassy, that Philip showed 
both memory and eloquence when he spoke. And 
I did not forget what Demosthenes had asked me to 
mention, namely, that we had agreed that he was 
to speak about Amphipolis, in case any point should 
have been passed over by the rest of us. After 
we had spoken, last of all Demosthenes arose, and 
with that imposing air of his, and rubbing his fore- 
head, when he saw that the people approved my 



195 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fiaivojAevov rbv Bi}p,ov /ecu aTroSeSeyp^evov x tou? 
Trap' ifxov \oyov<;, dp,<pOTepcov ecpt] daufid^eiv, Kal 
tcov d/covovroov Kal tcov it pea [Sever dvTcov, orav 
irapevres tov "fcpovov, ol fiev tov tov ffovXeveaOai, 
ol Se rbv tov avp,f3ovXeveiv, d7ro8iarpi/3a>ai tijv 
virepopiov XaXiav dyaircovTe^; iv to?9 olKeiois irpd- 
yp,ao~iv ov&ev yap elvai paov r\ Trpeafteiav diray- 

50 yetXai. " T$ov\o/xai 6" vplv " ecprj " Kal eTriBei^ai, 
&)<? Set to irpdyp,a ytyveaOai." dp.a 8' eKeXevcrev 
dvayvcocrOfjvai to A yjr7](f)i,ap,a tov 8ijp.ov. dvayvco- 
crdevTOS he elirev, on " Kara tovto e^€7rep.(p0i}p:ev, 
Kal ravra eirpaTTopbev a evravdoi yeypaincu, 
Xa/3e hi} fioi Kal Tt]V eirLaToXrjV fjv ijicofiev irapd 
<$>LX'nnrov cpepovres" eTreihrj he dveyvcoadr], "'Attc- 
%6Te' 6(pr) " vrjv diroKpiaiv, Kal Xonrbv vplv eart 
0ovXevaaaOai." 

51 SopvfirjcrdvTcov h eV avTco tcov pbev, &>9 heivos 
Ti<? eh] Kal avvTop,os, tcov he nrXeibvcov, &>9 Trovrjpb^ 
Kal (f)@ovepo<;, ""Xice-tyaaOe Se" ecfyrj "&>9 avvr6p,co<i 
Kal TaXXa irdvTa dirayye\co. ehoKei heivbs 2 elvai 
Xeyeiv Ala^ivrj <Pi\nr7ro<;, dXX' ovk ifiOL, dU' el 
Tf9 avTov ttjv TV%r)v irepieXcov eTepco irepiOeirj, ovk 

52 av iroXv Tt KaTaher]<; eirj. ehoKei Js^Ti]aicpcovTi ttjv 
oyjriv Xapnrpos etvai, ep,ol 6" ov %eipcov ApiaTo- 
S»;/z.o9 6 viroKpLTijs" irapr)v 6° rjp.iv Kal avveirpe- 
af3eve. " fivr)p,oviKov ti<; ainov cprjaiv elvai' Kal 
yap eTepoi. trielv^ heivo<i rjv ^iXoKpaTrj^ o pied 
rjfMcov heivoTepos. \6yov Ti9 cprjo-iv ep,ol KaTa- 
Xnreiv virep ' ApLcpiTroXew dXX! ovt av vpuiv o 

1 airo5e5eyfxtvov Scaliger : SeSey/xevov MSS. 

2 Suvbs Auger : fxvt)fx.ovuchs ko.\ titivhs MSS. 

3 irietv Cobet : avfiirit'iv MSS. cp. § 112. 

196 



ON THE EMBASSY, 49-52 

report and were satisfied with it, he said that he was 
amazed at both parties, as well the listeners as the 
ambassadors, for they were carelessly wasting time — 
the listeners wasting the time for taking counsel, the 
ambassadors the time for giving it, all of them amus- 
ing themselves with foreign gossip, when they ought 
to be giving attention to our own affairs ; for nothing, 
he said, was easier than to render account of an em- 
bassy. "I wish," said he, "to show you how the 
thing ought to be done." As he said this he called 
for the reading of the decree of the people. When 
it had been read he said, " This is the decree accord- 
ing to which we were sent out ; what stands written 
here, we did. Now, if you please, take the letter 
that we have brought from Philip." When this 
had been read he said, " You have your answer ; it 
remains for you to deliberate." 

The people shouted, some applauding his forceful 
brevity, but more of them rebuking his abominable 
jealousy. Then he went on and said, " See how 
briefly I will report all the rest. To Aeschines Philip 
seemed to be eloquent, but not to me ; nay, if one 
should strip off his luck and clothe another with it, 
this other would be almost his equal. To Ctesiphon 
he seemed to be brilliant in person, but to me not 
superior to Aristodemus the actor " (he was one of 
us on the embassy). " One man says he has a great 
memory ; so have others. ' He was a wonderful 
drinker ' ; our Philocrates could beat him. One says 
that it was left to me to speak about our claim to 
Amphipolis ; but neither to you nor to me would this 

197 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

53 pi']Tcop ovtos our av epol Xuyov peTaooii). ravTL 
yu,ey ow e<p?; A.?//9o? eo~Tiv eya> be "yrijcpicrpa 
ypdyjra) ical tw /ci'ipv/ci airelaaaQai tw irapa <t>t- 
Xlttttov yycovTi, /cal TOi? peXXovai Trap avrou 
Seupo levai 7rpecr/3ecri, /cal tovs Trpxrravei*}, €7rei8av 
i]Kwcnv 01 7rpeo-/3ei<>, i/c/eXr/o-Lav eVt Suo ijpipas 
iroielv prj povov virep elpi'jvr] 1 ;, dXXa /cat irepl crvp- 
pa^las, /cal tovs 7rpeo~/3eL<i ?//xa?, el So/covpev atjioi 
elvat, eiratveaai /cal /caXeaai cttI helirvov eh to 

54 irpvTavelov eh avpiov. otl 8 aXr)6rj Xeyai, Xa/3e 
pot to, ^\rrj(picrpaTa, 'iva elSrjTe, &> avSpes Bi/eacrTai, 
/cal Tijv dvcopaXtav avTov teal tov (puovov, ical Tt]v 
tcov irpaypaTcov peTa QiXo/cpaTOVS KOivwviav, ical 
to rjOos, ft)? eiriftovXov /cal aiucrTOv. /caXei 8e 
pot /cal tou? avpTrpeo-/3ei<;, /cal Ta<; papTvpia^ 
avTwv dvdyvoiOi. 1 

¥H*I2MATA 

55 Ov Tolvvv povov TavTa eypaijrev, dXXa /cat 
peTa TavTa ev ttj /3ovX{) Qeav eh to. Aiovvaia 
/caTaveipat Toh Trpeaj3ecnv, eireiSav fj/ccoari, Toh 
QiXlttttov. Xeye /cal tovto to yfrifyicrpa. 

¥H*I2MA 
1 ivdyvuBt Taylor : the MSS. add «al to ^-ntpitrfxara to. 

1 It had been expected that the ambassadors of Philip 
would arrive in time to take up their business before the 

198 



ON THE EMBASSY, 52-55 

orator be capable of yielding a moment of his time. 
All this talk of theirs/' said he, "is sheer nonsense. 
But for my part, I am going to move that safe con- 
duct be granted both for the herald who has come 
from Philip, and for the ambassadors who are to 
come here from him ; also I shall move that on the 
arrival of the ambassadors the prytanes call a meeting 
of the assembly for two successive days to consider 
not only the question of peace, but the question of 
an alliance also ; and finally, that if we, the members 
of the embassy, are thought to deserve the honour, 
a vote of thanks be passed, and an invitation be 
given us to dine to-morrow in the prytaneum." As 
proof of the truth of what I say, (to the Clerk) take, 
if you please, the decrees, that you, gentlemen of 
the jury, may know how crooked he is and how 
jealous, and how completely he and Philocrates were 
in partnership in the whole affair ; and that you may 
know his character — how treacherous and faithless. 
Call also my colleagues in the embassy, if you please, 
and read their testimony. 

DECREES 

Moreover, he not only made these motions, but 
afterwards he moved in the senate to assign seats in 
the theatre for the Dionysia to the ambassadors of 
Philip when they should arrive. 1 Read this decree 
also. 

DECREE 



Great Dionysia; the delay in their arrival necessitated 
postponing the business until after the festival, a period of 
about a week. 

199 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

AvdyvcoOi 8i] teal r>]V rcov o~up,Trpea/3ea>v piap- 
ruplav, iv elorjre, m avhpes 'Adrjvaloi, on Arjpo- 
o~6evr]s ov% urrep rr)s iroXews elrrelv Suvarai, dXV 
ern rous auaatrous teal opuoarrovSous peXerd. 

MAPTTPIA 

56 Tyv pev To'ivvv tcoivavlay rwv rrepl rfjs elpTjvrjs 
rrpd^eoiv ov/c epur/v teal ^tXotc parous, dXXa Aijpo- 
aOevous teal QiXotc parous euplcr/cere, /cal ras 
rnareis rwv elprjpevwv l/cavas upZv olpai rrape- 
a%f}a0at* rwv p,ev yap drrrjyyeXpAvwv upels eare 
poi pdprupes, rcov 8' ev WlatceSovla pijOevrwv /cal 
rwv Kara rrjv rropeiav rjp,tv crupf3dvrwv rous 
au purr pea fteis up.lv pudprupas rrapeo-yop,^v. rrjs 8e 
utto ArjpoaOevous apneas elpi)pev^s tcarifyopias 
rj/couaare ical p.ep-vr]aOe, r}S rrjv dpyr]V erroajo-aro 
(jltto rrjs hrjprjyoptas fjv elirov eyw Trepl rrjs 

57 elpyjvr/s. TTuvra 8e iv rw puepet, rourw rrjs tcarrj- 
yopias e^reuapevos, eVl rw /caipw rourw Beivws 
ecryerXiaae. rous yap Xoyous rourous ivavriov 
(ptjal rwv rrpe(r/3ewv XeyeaOai ous €7rep,yjrav Trpos 
upas ol ' JLXXt)V€s perairepcpOevres utto rou 8>jpou, 
'iva KOivfj zeal TroXep-uZev, el heoi, <£ iXltttt w , l Ka\ 
t/}? eipi]vr)s, el rouro elvai hotcolr) aupcpepoi\ 
pere\oiev. crtcetyaoOe 8r) 7rpdyp,aros pueydXou 
kXott?)V real 8eivm> dvaia^uvrlav rdvOpwirou. 2, 

58 twi' yap 7rpea/3eiwv, as 3 e'| err e p,yp- are els rr/v 
'YLXXdSa en rod rroXepou rou rrpos QiXlttttov uplv 
evearr/tcoros, ol puev y^povoi rfjs alpecrews* real ra, 

1 QiAIttttcp Weidner : $t\hrircp /xeTa 'A0y]vala>v MSS. 

2 Tav8pwTTov Markland : avOpw-jrov MSS. 

* irpffffffiuv hs Dobree : irpifffiecov oils MSS. 
4 aipeveais Dobree : alpiffews ore i^int/j.(p6ri<rav MSS. 
200 



ON THE EMBASSY, 55-58 

Now read also the testimony of my colleagues in 
the embassy, that you may know, fellow citizens, 
that when it is a question of speaking in the city's 
behalf, Demosthenes is helpless, but against those 
who have broken bread with him and shared in the 
same libations, he is a practised orator. 

TESTIMONY 

You find, therefore, that it was not Philocrates and 
I who entered into partnership in the negotiations 
for the peace, but Philocrates and Demosthenes. 
And I think that the proofs which I have presented 
to you in confirmation of what I have said, are suf- 
ficient. For as to the report we made, you yourselves 
are my witnesses ; but I have presented to you my 
colleagues in the embassy as witnesses of what was 
said in Macedonia and of what took place in the 
course of our journey. But you heard and remember 
the accusation which Demosthenes made a few mo- 
ments ago. He began with the speech which I made 
in the assembly on the question of the peace. And, 
utterly untruthful in this part of his accusation, he 
complained bitterly about the occasion of that speech, 
saying that it was delivered in the presence of the 
ambassadors whom the Greeks had sent to you ; for 
you had invited them in order that if you must go on 
with the war, they might join you against Philip, and 
that if peace should seem the better policy, they 
might participate in the peace. Now see the man's 
deceit in a momentous matter, and his outrageous 
shamelessness. For in the public archives you have 
the record of the dates when you chose the several 
embassies which you sent out into Hellas, when the 



H 



20I 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

f&V Trpeo-ftevadvTaiv ovofiara iv tol<s hrjp.oaioi<s 
dvayeypairraL ypappuaai, ia 8e acopiard ianv 
avToyv ovk iv ^Aa/ceSovia, aA.V J Ad/jvijar tou? 8e 
£evifcai<i 7T|0ecr/3aa£? 7) f3ov\i] tA? els rbv 8f]/xov 
irpoaohovs 7rpo/3ov\evei' ovtos §' icf)eo~Tdvai Ta? 

59 air 6 ra>v 'EWipmv (prjal 7rpecr/3eia<;. rrapeXOoov 
Tolvvv, Aijp.oaOeves, iirl to /3rjp,a tovto iv t& ip,u> 
\6y(p, elire 7r6\ea>s rjcrrivos fiovXei twv 'EXA^z't- 
h(ov rovvofia eg yj<i dcpl^Oai totc (fays rovs irpe- 
o"/Sei? - kcli ra 7rpof3ov\evp.aTa aurcov e/c rov /3of- 
Xevnipiov S09 avayv&vat, kcl\ tous ' Adijvauov 
KaXei Trpeafteis, ou? i^eirepL^jrav iirl rds iroXeis, 
fidprvpas. Kctv irapelvai kciX fi>] air oSrjfielv, ore 
y) iroXis tiiv ebpijvrjv iiroLelro, p,apTup/]awaiv, rj 
rd<i 7T/909 rr)v /3ovXr)v avrwv irpoaoSovs kol\ rd 
\jrrj(})Lap.aTa ai> irapaa^ri iv co au (fiys ovtcl xpova), 
Karaftaivu) kcu Oavdrov ti/mw/jlcii. 

60 'Avdyvcodi Br) koI to tcov avpupbdywv Soypia rl 
Xeyei, iv c5 8iappt)8r)v yeypairrai, iireihr) jBovXev- 
erai 6 Sfjpios o AOi-jvaioiv vrrep elpyjvrjs irpos 
QiXlttttov, ol he 7r/?ecr/Set? oinrco irdpeicnv, oi)s 
i^eirepL-^rev 6 Btj/jlo? els rr)v 'EWaSa irapciKaXwv 
t<z? 7roXez.9 virep t/)? eXevdeplas t&v 'EXXy'jvcov, 
hehb\6ai Tot? avpLp,d)(ois, eireihdv €7ri8i]p,i]cr(t)criv 
ol Trpecrfieis teal rds irpeo-fieias dirayyeiXwaiv 
' A0ip>aiois Kol tols aupLtid^oLS, Trpoypdxfrai tovs 
Trpvrdveis iKKXyjalas Svo Kara rbv vbp.ov, iv he 



202 



ON THE EMBASSY, 58-60 

war between you and Philip was still in progress, and 
also the names of the ambassadors ; and the men 
themselves are not in Macedonia, but here in Athens. 
Now for embassies from foreign states an opportunity 
to address the assembly of the people is always pro- 
vided by a decree of the senate. Now he says that 
the ambassadors from the states of Hellas were 
present. Come forward, then, Demosthenes, to this 
platform while I have the floor, and mention the 
name of any city of Hellas you choose from which 
you say the ambassadors had at that time arrived. 
And give us to read the senatorial decrees concerning 
them from the records in the senate-house, and call 
as witnesses the ambassadors whom the Athenians 
had sent out to the various cities. If they testify 
that they had returned and were not still abroad at 
the time when the city was concluding the peace, or 
if you offer in evidence any audience of theirs before 
the senate, and the corresponding decrees dated at 
the time of which you speak, I leave the platform 
and declare myself deserving of death. 

Now read also what is said in the decree of the 
allies, 1 in which it stands expressly written, "Whereas 
the people of the Athenians are deliberating with 
regard to peace with Philip, and whereas the ambas- 
sadors have not yet returned whom the people sent 
out into Hellas summoning the cities in behalf of 
the freedom of the Hellenic states, be it decreed by 
the allies that as soon as the ambassadors return and 
make their report to the Athenians and their allies, 
the prytanes shall call two meetings of the assembly 
of the people according to law, and that in these 

1 A decree of the confederate synod, sitting in Athens. 
The states referred to in the preceding paragraph were 
outside this Athenian league. 

203 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Tavrais (BovXevaaadai irepl rr)<; elprjvri<; 'Adrj- 
valow;' 6 ti 6"' av yfryjcfyicr^rai 1 o St}/xo?, tovt 
elvai koivov hoy pa rcov aup,p,dywv. dvdyvwdi Bt] 
pot to rcov auveSpcov Boy pa. 

AOrMA STNEAPrtN 

61 Uapavdyvo)0t Stf poi Kal to krjpLoo-Oevovs y\rrj- 
(ptapa, ev w KeXevev tou? irpVTaveis pera rd 
Aiovvaia to, ev dcrrei Kal ttjv ev Aiovvaov etctcXr)- 
crlav irpoypd^rai 8uo i/CK\i]ala<;, ir)v pev rfj oyhorj 
eirl heica, tijv 8e rrj evdri], 9 opl^wv top y^povov Kal 
Trpovcpaipwv rd<; eKKXriaias, irp\v eiriSn pur/a at tou? 
diro to)v 'KWijvcov 7roecr/3et9. Kal to pev rcov 
<Tvp,p,dywv hoyp,a KeXevet, <£ crvvenrelv Kal 6700 
6po\oyoi, virep elp7]vr)<; povov vp,d<; fiovXevaaoflai, 
AiipoaOevrjs 8e Kal irepl avppiayla^ KeXevei. Xeye 

avrois to yjnjcptapa. 

YH-M2MA 

62 Twv pev TJrrj(f)i(Tp,dTa)v dp(poTepcov aK7]KoaTe, z 
vq^" &v e^eXeyyerat, ArjpocrOevrjs rd<; dirohripovo-as 
Trpeo~(3eias eirihrjpelv (fcdaKwv, Kai fiovXopevwv 
vpoiv aKpodcracrdai, to tcov avp,pdycov aKvpov 
7re7ronjKa>s hoypa. 01 p,ev yap drrecpijvavTO dva- 
pelvai * Ta? 'RWrjviKds Trpeafielas, ArjpLocrOevr]<; 

1 \l/7)(picrriTat Cobet : 0ov\euar]Tai MSS. 

2 e'i'aTT) Cobet : eVarj? M 8eKa MSS. 

3 The' MSS. have 2> 'ASrjjaioi before or after the verb: 
Weidner omits. 

4 avaneivai Cobet : the MifS. have ava/mlvai tt^v t6\iv (one 
has rfi iroAei). 

204 



ON THE EMBASSY, 60-62 

meetings the Athenians shall deliberate on the ques- 
tion of peace ; and whatever the people shall decide, 
be it voted that this decision stand as the common 
vote of the allies." {To the Clerk.) Now please read 
the decree of the synod. 

DECREE OF THE SYNOD 

Now in contrast with this, read, if you please, the 
decree moved by Demosthenes, in which he orders 
the prytanes, after the celebration of the City Dio- 
nysia and the session of the assembly in the precinct 
of Dionysus, 1 to call two meetings of the assembly, 
the one on the eighteenth, the other on the nine- 
teenth ; for in thus fixing the dates, he saw to it 
that the meetings of your assembly should be held 
before the ambassadors from the states of Hellas 
should have arrived. Moreover, the decree of the 
allies, which I acknowledge I also supported, pre- 
scribes that you deliberate concerning peace — nothing 
more ; but Demosthenes prescribes the subject of 
an alliance also. Read them the decree. 

DECREE 

You have heard both decrees ; by them De- 
mosthenes is convicted of saying that the ambas- 
sadors were here, when they were still abroad, 
and of having made void the decree of the allies, 
when you wished to comply with it. For it was 
their judgment that we should wait for the ambas- 
sadors from the other states of Hellas ; but Demos- 
thenes is responsible for having prevented your 

1 A meeting regularly held at the close of the City Dionysia 
to act on any matters growing out of the conduct of the 
festival. 

205 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

8e ov Xoyw pLovov icetccoXv/ce rreptfiecvai, 6 7rdvra>v 
aloyiOTa /ecu rd^iara pueTajidepLevos, dXX' epyco 
teal -^n](f)i<TfxaTi, TrpoaTa^a^ i}$7] /3ej3ovXeva6ai. 

63 Eipijfce Se &>? ev rfj rrporepa rcov €K/cXi]aiu>v 
8i]p,r)yopi]cravTO<; QiXotcpaTovs, varepov dva/3ds 
e7&) KarepLepL^dpuyv fjv elayyelro eKelvos elpi]vrjv, 
ala^pav koX tt)? rroXew; dva^iav eivai cfcda/ccov, rfj 
8' innepaia rrdXiv 1 co? avvayopevoipa tw QiXo- 
Kpdrei, Kai ttjv eKKXyacav evypcepijaa^ oi^oipiTjv - 
cpepcov, Treidcov lyzci? pur) Trpoae^eiv TOi? rd<; p-d^as 
real tcl ro)v Trpoyovwv Xeyovac rporrata, purjhe to?? 

64 "EXXrjcn /3orj0eiv. on &' ov yjrevSr} pLovov Karr/- 
yopr/fcev, dXXa koi dSvvara yeveaOai, pu'av p,ev 
avrbs kclO' ainov :i p.aprvpiav fiaprvpijaec, erepav 
he irdvTes 'A.0r]valoi /ecu vp,els dvapLLp.vrjo-Kop.evoi, 
rpiT'rjv Be rj t?}? atrial uTnOavon^, TeTdprrjv he 
dvijp d^ioXoyos, el? rcov iroXnevopievwv, Wpuuvrcop, 
<p -^njcfrio-pLa* eTvehei^aro Ar/pLoadevr]^ Kai dve- 
koivovto, el hep tw ypapupLarel, ov% virevavria, 5 

65 dXXa Tavra 6 yeypacpws (PiXoKpdrei. Kai p,oi 
Xa/3e to y}r}](pio~p.a Kai dvdyvcoOc to At]pLOo~0evov<;, 
ev to cpaiverai yeypa<pd><;, ry pev rrporepq rcov 
eKKXrjaiwv avpb/3ovXeveLV rov fiovXopLevov, rfj o" 
vcrrepa toi»9 7rpoehpov<; eiri^TjcpL^eiv ra<; yvtop.as, 
Xoyov he /at) irportOevai, ev y 7 pue cpyacv avrb<; 
t&iXoKpdrei avveirrelv. 

1 ird\tv Cobet : -waAtv TifJ-fpa MSS. 

* olxoi-pyv Blass : (px^W MSS. 

3 avrov Cobet : aurov Ai)fJL0o6evr)s MSS. 

* \pri<pi(Tij.a Blass : rb <i/ri(pi(Tij.a MSS. 

5 virevavrta Blass : inrevavTiav or virevavTlov MSS. 

6 Tavra Blass : raiirbv MSS. 

7 § Bekker : £ MSS. 

206 



ON THE EMBASSY, 62-65 

waiting for them, not only by his words, most 
shamelessly shifty of all men, but by his act and 
his decree, in which he required us to make our 
decision immediately. 

But he has said that at the first of the two meet- 
ings of the assembly, after Philocrates had spoken, 
I then arose and found fault with the resolution for 
peace which he had introduced, calling it disgraceful 
and unworthy of the city ; but that again on the 
next day I spoke in support of Philocrates, and suc- 
ceeded in sweeping the assembly off its feet, per- 
suading you to pay no attention to those who talked 
of our fathers' battles and trophies, and not to aid 
the Greeks. But that what he has laid to my charge 
is not only false, but a thing that could not have 
happened, he himself shall furnish one proof, a 
witness against himself ; another proof all the 
Athenians shall furnish, and your own memory; a 
third, the incredibility of the charge; and the fourth, 
a man of repute, who is active in public affairs, 
Amyntor, to whom Demosthenes exhibited the draft 
of a decree, asking him whether he should advise 
him to hand it to the clerk, a decree not contrary in 
its provisions to that of Philocrates, but identical 
with it. Now, if you please, take and read the 
decree of Demosthenes, 1 in which you will see that 
he has prescribed that in the first of the two meet- 
ings of the assembly all who wish shall take part in 
the discussion, but that on the next day the pre- 
siding officers shall put the question to vote, without 
giving opportunity for debate — the day on which he 
asserts that I supported Philocrates in the discussion. 

1 This is not the draft of a decree just spoken of, hut that 
decree in which Demosthenes had provided for the two 
meetings of the assembly. 

207 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

¥H*I2MA 

66 Ovkovv ra pev ■^n]<f)io-para, ax? e£ dp%rj<i 
iypd(j)r], p-evei, oi he twv Gv/ccxpavTwv Xoyoi irpo? 
tovs e^' rjpepav Kaipovs Xeyoinai. rrotei he pov 
rrjv hr/priyopiav 6 pev Kari]yopo<; oiaiperrjv, rb 
•yjrrj^icrpa he kcu rdXrjdes piav Xoyov yap pti 
irporiOevrcov 1 el<} rr\v varepav ifc/cXrjo-Lav rcav 
it poehpwv? ovk evrjv elrrelv. tl 8' av Kal /3ov\6- 
pevos, e'i7T€p ravrd <t>i\oKpdrei rrpoeiXofMr/v, rcari]- 
ybpovv pev 7rpb<; rovs avrovs aKpoaras rfj irpo- 
repaid, piav he vvKra hiaXnrwv avvriyopovv; 
TTorepa a>9 avrbs evho^ijacov, rj a>9 eicelvov dxfre- 
Xijacov; aXX? ovk evrjv ovherepa z e^eveyicaaOai, 
o\\' virb irdvrcov pev ptaeiaOai, Trepaiveiv he 
prihev. 

67 KdXei he pot Kal ' Apvvropa 'Ep^iea, kcu rrjv 
paprvpiav dvdyva>0i. bv he rpoirov yeypairrai, 
npohieXdelv vpiv j3ovXopai. paprvpel , Apvvrwp 
Alcr^Lvrj, ore eftovXevero 6 hrjpos irepl rrj<i crvp- 
pa\ia<$ rfjs 7rpb<; ^lXittttov Kara rb Arjpocrdevovs 
ylr7]<pio-fia, ev rfj varepa rwv hvolv eKKXr/aiwv, ore 
ovk i^rjv hi]pr)<yopeiv, dXXa ra irepi rrjs eipr/vr)? 

68 Kal ov pp.a~)(ia<$ -tyri^'io-para eire^rj^t^ero, ev 
ravrrj rfj eKKXrjaia Arjpoo~6evr]v emhei^aaOai 
TTapaKaQijpevov -tyijifyio-pa^ eavrw, e<f> a> eireye- 
ypairro rb 5 Ar]poa0evov<i ovopa, Kal dvaKoivovadai 

1 \6yov . . . TtpoTidivTwv Cobet : \6ycov . . . irpoTt&evruiv MSS. 

2 irpofSpaiv Cobet : TrpoeSpoov koi\v6vto>v MSS. 

3 nvtitTcpa Sakorraphos : a,u<poVepa MSS. 

4 The MSS. have xf,it<piafxa ytypa^evoy : Blass brackets 
7«7 pajxfxivov. 

5 to added by Markland. 

208 



ON THE EMBASSY, 66-68 

DECREE 

You see that the decrees stand as they were origin- 
ally written, whereas the words of rascals are spoken 
to fit the day and the occasion. My accuser makes 
two speeches out of my plea before the assembly, 
but the decree and the truth make it one. For if 
the presiding officers gave no opportunity for discus- 
sion in the second meeting, it is impossible that I 
spoke then. And if my policy was the same as 
that of Philocrates, what motive could I have had 
for opposing on the first day, and then after an 
interval of a single night, in the presence of the 
same listeners, for supporting ? Did I expect to gain 
honour for myself, or did I hope to help Philo- 
crates ? I could have done neither, but would have 
got myself hated by all, and could have accomplished 
nothing. 

But please call Amyntor of the deme Herchia and 
read his testimony. First, however, I wish to go 
over its contents with you : Amyntor in support of 
Aeschines testifies that when the people were de- 
liberating on the subject of the alliance with Philip, 
according to the decree of Demosthenes, in the 
second meeting of the assembly, when no opportu- 
nity was given to address the people, but when the 
decrees concerning the peace and alliance were being 
put to vote, at that meeting Demosthenes was sitting 
by the side of the witness, and showed him a decree, 
over which the name of Demosthenes stood written ; 



209 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aurbv av7u>, el Bu> 1 to£? irroeBpois e7ri,yp")](f)Laai, 2 
Kal elvai, e'0' 0Z9 tijv elptjvrjv Kal rrjv avp^fiayiav 
eypayjre iroieladai,, eVl rot? auTot? e'(/>' olairep 
Kal ^>tX'>Kpa.Trj<i eyeypd<f>ei. KaXei Be fioi 'A/xvv- 
ropa 'Epxiea, Kal eKKXtjTeve, eav p.r) OeXrj Bevpl 
trapelvai. 

MAPTTPIA 

69 T779 fiev fiaprupias dfcrjfcoare, Si dvBpes 'A#?;- 
vaior a/coTreire Br) irorepa vixlv 80/cel Arjp,oa6evr)<; 
ep-ov /carrjyoprj/cevai, rj tovvclvtiov auTO? avrov 
eirl T(p epL(i> ovofxaTt. iireiBy) Be Kal ttjv Bi]pnj- 
yoplav piov BiafidXXet, kcu tovs elprj/xevovs Xoyovs 
iirl T<z xeipco Bie^ep^eTai, ovr av airoBpaiTjv, out 
av twv tot elprjp,eva)v ovBev dpvi)aaip.i]v, ovt 
aia\vvop.at iir avTols, dXXci kccl (pcXoTipiovpLai. 

70 ¥>Oll\opLai 6"' U/U.09 KCU TOU? KClipOVS VTT0p,Vrj(7ai, 

ev oh efiovXevecrtfe. ttjv p,ei> yap dp^hv inrofr)- 
o~dp.eda tov iroXepiov virep ApLcfjiTroXetos, avve- 
/3atve 6" -iipbwv tov aTpaT^ybv ev tw iroXepLW 
e/3Bopr')Koi>Ta /xev Kal rrevTe TroXeis avp^pLa^iBa^ 
d-nol3e(3\r)KevaL, a? eKTijaciTO Ti/xoOeos K.6voovos 
Kal KaTeaTt)aev et'9 to avveBpiov (rr por) pi] p,ai yap 
TrapprjaidaaaOai, Kal eXevOepcos ap,a Kai rdXrjdf] 
elircov aw^eaOar edv Be aXXa><; irax; yiyvooaKrjTe, 
KaTaxpi'io-aaOe fiof ov yap av viroaTeiXaip,rjV') 

1 Sai Markland : 8<£ tw ypafj.fx.ar ei MSS. 

2 toIs wuoiUpots iirtiprirpicrat Blass (firi-tyricpiaai Markland) : 
fTri\l/rj<piaaa9ai tols irpoehpuis MSS. 



f 
2IO 



ON THE EMBASSY, 68-70 

and that he consulted him as to whether he should 
hand it to the presiding officers to put to vote ; this 
decree contained the terms on which Demosthenes 
moved that peace and alliance be made, and these 
terms were identical with the terms which Philocrates 
had moved. Now, if you please, call Amyntor of 
the deme Herchia ; if he does not come hither 
voluntarily, serve summons upon him. 

TESTIMONY 

You have heard the testimony, fellow citizens. 
Consider whether you conclude that it is I whom 
Demosthenes has accused, or whether on the con- 
trary he has accused himself in my name. But since 
he also misrepresents the speech that I made, and 
puts a false construction on what was said, 1 have no 
disposition to run away, or to deny a word that was 
then spoken ; I am not ashamed of what I said ; on 
the contrary, I am proud of it. 

But I wish also to recall to you the time and cir- 
cumstances of your deliberations. We went to war 
in the first place over the question of Amphipolis. 
In the course of the war our general succeeded in 
losing seventy-five allied cities, 1 which Timotheus, 
the son of Conon, had won over and made members 
of the synod — I am determined, as you see, to speak 
right out, and to seek safety in frank and truthful 
speaking ; if you are otherwise minded, do what you 
will with me ; I cannot prevaricate — and a hundred 

1 Aeschines chooses to speak as though the war with 
Philip were one and the same with the other, contempo- 
raneous war, in which a large part of the Athenian allies 
broke off from the naval league. 

21 1 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

71 e/carbv Be /cal Trevrrf/covTa rpiijpeis Xaftovra i/c 
to)v vecopicov fJbrj Kara/ceKopn/cevai, ical ravra vplv 
iv tois dycoaiv del roh Xdpr)TO<; o'i /carijyopoi 
Bei/cvvovcri, ^[Xia Be ical irevraKoaia rdXavra ov/c 
eh (TTpaTtd)Ta<;, dXX eh rjyepovoov dXa^oveias 
dvrjXco/cevai, Arjidprjv re icai Arjnrupov ical YioXv- 
(f>6vrr)v, Bpaireras dvOpcoirovs etc tt}? 'EWaSo? 
avveiXeyfievovs, ical yjoph eh tovs ire pi to /3r}/j,a 
teal rrjv i/CKXrjaiav p.iaOo(f)opov<;, o'i rovs fiev 
raXanrcopovs wicrici)Ta<; /cad* hicao-TOV eviavrbv 
e^rjKOVT.a rdXavra elcreirpaTTOv avvra^iv, /carr)- 
yov Be rd irXola /cal tou? "KXXi]va<; e/c t% 

72 KoivrjS 6aXdrTrj<i. dvrl he d^LOifiaros ical rrjs 
twv 'lLXXi]V(i)v y)yep.ovia<s, ?; ttoXis i)/n6i)v t% x 
^Ivovvyjaov /cal T779 twv Xtjcttmv 86tjr)<; dveirlp,- 
nXaro' <&LXnnro<; Be opfiiideh e'/c Ma/ceSowa?, 
ov/ced' virep 'A/xcfrnroXews 7roo? r)/jid<; rjybyvl^ero, 
a\\' 77877 rrepl A^puvov /cal "I/x/Soof ical Sicvpou, 
TOiv j)fX€Tep(ov KTrjfiaTcov e^eXeiirov 2 Be Xep/?6- 
vqaov rjfxcov oi iroXirai, rrjv ovcrav 6 ftoXoyov p.ivco<; 
' A6t]va[o)V' irXeLovs Be ifCfcXi](Tia<; avy/cXiJTOvs 
7]vayKa^ea0e eK/cXijatd^etv fierd cbofiov /cal dopv- 

73 /3ou, 77 Ta<? Teray/xei'a<i e/c tcov vo/jlcov ovtco 6" r/v 
acpaXepd /cat eiriKivBvva rd Trpdyjxara, toare 
r/vay/cdcrOi] ypdyjrai yjr-qcpia/xa K^rjcpicro^cov 6 TLaia- 
vievs, eh roiv (f>iX(ov /cal eraipayv rwv XdprjTos, 
e/cTrXeiv rrjv TayiGTiqv Avtlo^ov tov eirl tcov 
virripeTiKoyv, /cal fyreiv rbv o-rpartjybv tov eVi rfj 
Bvvdfxei rerayfievov, /cap evrv^r) ttov, cppd^etv on 
Oavfid^ei 6 Br}p.os Adiivaioiv, el ^iXnrTTo^ fiev 

1 TTjs added by Bremi. 

2 (ZeKeinoP Stephanus : i£4\nrov MSS. 
212 



ON THE EMBASSY, 71-73 

and fifty triremes which he took from the dockyards 

he failed to bring back, a story which the accusers of 

Chares are never tired of telling you in the courts ; 

and he spent fifteen hundred talents, not upon his 

troops, but upon his tricky officers, a Deiares, a Dei- 

pyrus, a Polyphontes, vagabonds collected from all 

Hellas (to say nothing of the wages of his hirelings 

on the bema and in the popular assembly), who were 

exacting from the wretched islanders a contribution 

of sixty talents a year, and seizing merchant ships 

and Greek citizens on the high seas. And instead 

of respect and the hegemony of Hellas, Athens 

had a name that stank like a nest of Myonnesian 1 

pirates. And Philip from his base in Macedonia was 

no longer contending with us for Amphipolis, but 

already for Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, our own 

possessions, while our citizens were abandoning the 

Chersonese, the undisputed property of Athens. And 

the special meetings of the assembly which you were 

forced to hold, in fear and tumult, were more in 

number than the regular meetings. The situation 

was so precarious and dangerous that Cephisophon 

of Paeania, one of the friends and companions of 

Chares, was compelled to make the motion that An- 

tiochus, who commanded the dispatch boats, should 

sail immediately and hunt up the general who had 

been put in charge of our forces, and in case he 

should happen to find him anywhere, should tell him 

that the people of Athens were astonished to learn 

that Philip was on the way to the Chersonese, 

1 Mvovvriaos, Mouse-ixland, was a little island off the coast 
of Thessaly, notorious as a nest of pirates. 

213 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eirl "Keppovrjaov ttjv ' AOrjvdlaJv Tropeverat, AOrj- 
valoi Se ovSe rov crrpaT^ybv laacnv ov8e ttjv 
hvvap.iv fjv i^eirepityav, ottov iarlv. oti S' aXrjOrj 
Xeyco, aKovaare tou ^]<ptap,aro^, kcli avap,vr\- 
G0i]Te tou 7roXep.ov, teal ttjv eipijvrjv tou? tcov 
ottXoov r]yep,6va<;, dXXd p,r) tovs irpeafteis, airai- 

T€LT6. 

YH*I2MA 

74 O/ puev /caipol tt}? 7roA,e&>? tolovtol, iv ot? 01 irepl 
rrj<; elprfvrjs eylyvovro Xoyor dvLO~rdp.€Voi Be ol 
avvTerayfievoi prjropes, rrepl p,ev t% acoTripias t>}? 
7roA,e<w? ovS 1 eveye'ipouv Xeyeiv, d-nofiXeTreiv Be et? 
to, irpoTTvXaia tt}<? d/cpoTroXews e^eXeuov up.a<;, /cal 
tt}? iv XaXapivi vaupua^lwi a p,ep.vf]a0ai, koX twv 

75 Tacpcov T(bv irpoyovcov Kal rebv TpoTraiwv. eyco oe 
airavrwv p,ev tovtcov e<f)T]v ^elv p,ep,vr)cr0ai, pip,ei- 
o~0at pukvrot t«? tcov irpoyovcov euftovXias, ra Be 
apbapTi'ipara avrcov real rrjv a/caipov yiXoviKiav 2 
<pvXdTreo~6at, Tr)v p,ev ev TWaraials 7re£b/xer\aazv 3 
xal tou? dycovas rovs irepl ~SaXap,tva, /cal rrjv ev 
Mapadcovi pud^qv, koX t-tjv eV ' ApTep,io~icp vau- 
puayjiav, koX ttjv ToXpiBou fyXovv arpaTr)yl,av 
KeXevcov, o? %iXlou<; e^cov eirtXeKTOvs ' A0i]vai<ov, 
Bid p,earj<; UeXoiroi'v/jaov TroXepiias ovo~r)<; dBeoos 

76 Biefjrjei, rrjv 8' els XtxeXtav arparetav (puXdrTe- 
aOai, rjv if~€7refiyjrav Aeovrlvois /3or)@r']o-ovTes, tcov 
TroXep,[oov ep,/S€f3XrjKOT(i}v 6t? rr)v ydopav i)p,a>v teal 
kefceXeias eVtTeTet^oTzeV);?, teal rrjv reXevraiav 

1 vavfia-xias Cobet : the MSS. have trpbs rbf Ufparjv before 
or after vav/naxias. 

2 (ptXoviKiav Cobet : (piKoveudav MSS. 

3 ■n-e^o/j.ax'iai' Cobet : Trpbs tous Utpcras Tre(o/j.axi".v MSS. 

214. 






ON THE EMBASSY, 73-76 

Athenian territory, while as to the general and the 
force which they themselves had sent out, the 
Athenians did not even know what had become of 
them. To prove that I am speaking the truth, 
hear the decree and recall the facts of the war, and 
then charge the peace, not to the ambassadors, but 
to the commanders of our arms. 

DECREE 

Such was the situation of the city, such the cir- 
cumstances under which the debate on the peace 
took place. But the popular speakers arose and 
with one consent ignored the question of the safety 
of the state, but called on you to gaze at the Pro- 
pylaea of the Acropolis, and remember the battle of 
Salamis, and the tombs and trophies of our fore- 
fathers. I replied that we must indeed remember 
all these, but must imitate the wisdom of our fore- 
fathers, and beware of their mistakes and their un- 
seasonable jealousies ; I urged that we should emulate 
the battle that we fought at Plataea, the struggles 
off the shores of Salamis, the battles of Marathon 
and Artemisium, and the generalship of Tolmides, 
who with a thousand picked men of the Athenians 
fearlessly marched straight through the Pelopon- 
nesus, the enemy's country. But I urged that we 
should take warning from the Sicilian expedition 
which was sent out to help the people of Leontini, at 
a time when the enemy were already in our own ter- 
ritory and Deceleia was fortified against us ; and that 



2I 5 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dfiovXiav, 1 66* JjTTijjxevoi tw iroXepicp, irpoKaXov- 
p,evcov avrovs AaKeBaifiovicov eipi)vr]v ayeiv e^ovTa<; 
7r/?o9 rfj 'Am/eft Ai)p,vov Kal "\^ij3pov real 'S./cupov 
teal 8i]p,OKpaTovp.evov<i Kara, toi>? vopiovs, tovtcov 
p.ev ovBev i')6eXov iroielv, noXepieiv Be irpoypovvro 
ov Bvvdp.evoi, KXeocpcbv Be o Xvpoiroios, bv iroXXol 
BeBefxevov ev TreBaLs eixviqixovevov, irapeyypacpel^ 
atcr^pco? 7roA.tT?;<? Kal BiecftOapKcos voixfj ^prjpidTcov 
top Br/fAOV, aTTO/coijreiv r/rreiXei p,aya'ipq tov rpd- 

77 xi)\ov, el rt? elptivrjs ixvrjcrO^aeTai' reXevrcovre^ 
Be et? tovto tt)v ttoXiv 7rpo7]yajov, Mare dyairrj- 
tw? rrjv elprfvrtv Troirjaacrdai, drroaravra^ irdvTcov 
Kal rd T€L^7] KaOeXovra<i, Kal 7rapaBe^ap^evov<; 
<ppovpdv Kal AaKehaipiovLov dpp,oo~T7]v, Kal t/)<t 
BrjpoKpaTLa'i toIs rpiaKovra dcpep,evov<;, o't %iXlovs 
Kal TTevTaKoaiow; tcov ttoXltcov aKpirovs dire- 
Kreivav. ri]v p,ev roiavTTjv dj3ovXiav opioXoyco 
TrapayyeXXeiv cfrvXaTTeaflai, rd B' oXlyco irpoTepov 
eipr)p,eva fiifietcrOai. ov yap irapd tcov dXXorpitov, 
dXXa irapd rod ttcivtcov oiKeioTUTOv ravra eirvv- 

78 davop,y]v. 'ATpopirjros yap 6 jrarijp 6 ijpierepos, 
ov av XoiBopels ovr elBcos ovt iiriBcov tt)<; eavTov 
rfhiKias olttis r/v, Kal Taina, co Ai]p:6o-0€ve<>, eK 
tcov vop,dBcov ZkvOoiv to 7rpb$ pii]Tpb<i cov yevos, 
e^)f76 fiev cttI tcov TpidxovTa, avyKaTiiyaye Be tov 
Brjixov Kal 6 t>)? pit]Tpb<i t?}? rjfieTepas dBeXcpos, 
Oelos Be r)p,eTepo<i, KXeofiovXos 6 TXavKov tov 

1 a&ov\lai> Baiter : k&ov\iav (pvXa^aaQai MSS. 
2l6 



ON THE EMBASSY, 76-78 

final act of folly, when, outmatched in the war, and 
offered terms of peace by the Lacedaemonians, with 
the agreement that we should hold not only Attica, 
but Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros also, and retain the 
constitutional democracy, the people would have 
none of it, but chose to go on with a war that was 
beyond their powers. And Cleophon,the lyre-maker, 
whom many remembered as a slave in fetters, who 
had dishonourably and fraudulently got himself en- 
rolled as a citizen, and had corrupted the people by 
distribution of money, 1 threatened to take his knife 
and slit the throat of any man who should make 
mention of peace. Finally they brought the city to 
such a pass that she was glad to make peace, giving 
up everything, tearing down her walls, receiving a 
garrison and a Lacedaemonian governor, and surren- 
dering the democracy to the Thirty, who put fifteen 
hundred citizens to death without a trial. I admit 
that I urged that we should guard against such folly as 
that, and imitate the conduct shortly before described. 
For it was from no stranger that I heard that story, 
but from him who is nearest of all men to me. For 
Atrometus our father, whom you slander, though 
you do not know him and never saw what a man he 
was in his prime — you, Demosthenes, a descendant 
through your mother of the nomad Scythians ! — our 
father went into exile in the time of the Thirty, and 
later helped to restore the democracy ; while our 
mother's brother, our uncle Cleobulus, the son of 

1 Aristotle (Constitution of Athens, xxviii.) tells us that it 
was Cleophon who introduced the two-obol donation from 
the treasury to provide a free seat in the theatre for every 
citizen who applied for it. This was the beginning of the 
Theorika, recognised in the time of Aeschines as one of the 
greatest abuses in the democracy. 

217 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

A'^apveco'i mo?, pera Aypaivtrov rov Hov^uyov 
avyKarevavpd^cre Is^eiXcova rbv AaKeSaipovicov 
vavap^ov ware ol/celd p,oi Kal auv/jOr) to, t/}? 
Tro\ea><; aTv^t'j/xaTa elvai Tot? ojalv aKoveiv. 

79 'Ririripias Se pot Kal rrjv ev Toi? pvpiois ev 
' ApKaSia Si]ixi]yopiav Kal Trpeafteiav, Kal p,era- 
j3ej3Xr]a0ai pie 0]75, avros gov avSpairoSoo&rjs Kal 
pbvov ovk ecrriypevos avTopoXof. eyoo S' ev pev 
tw iToXepio? avvLCTTrjv, Kad' baov tjv Svvarbs, 'Ap- 
Kahas Kal to 1)9 a'AAot/? ' EXA/^a? errl t&iXnnrov 
ovSevos S" dvdpcoTTWv eiriKoupovvTOv ttj iroXei, 
dXXa twv pev irepiopoovTcov b Tt <rvpL/3i]creTai, twi< 
Se avveiTLarparevovTwv, tmv 8' ev rfj irbXei pi]- 
Topoov %oprjybv tou? Kad^ i)pepav Sairdvais rbv 
iroXepov iroiovpevcov, opoXoya) av pi(BovXevaai tw 
Si] pro SiaXvaaadai 7rpo? QiXnnrov Kal ttjv elpr]vi]v 
avvOeaOai, r/v av vopi^eis vvv alay^pdv, l ovSe 
ttoottoO' dyjrdp,evo<; oitXwv, eyco Se ravTijv elvai 
iroXXrp (pi] pi KaXXtoo tou iroXepov. 

80 Xp?; Se, c5 avSpes *K6i]valoi, Tot>? p,ev 7rpea/3ei<; 
Oecopelv 7rpo? rbv Kaipbv KaO' bv eirpeafievov, toi)? 
Se arpaTi]yov<; 7rpo? rd<; Svvdpei^ gov i)yovvro. 
Kal yap Ta? et/co/a.? tarare, Kal Ta? irpoeSpia^ 
Kal tou? arecpdvovs Kal ra? ev 7Tpvraveta> aiTi]- 
aeis SiSore, ov roi<; ttjv evprjvqv dirayyeiXaaiv 
dXXa rots ri]v pdyj]v viKi]aaaiv. el 8' eaovrai 

1 6 added by Cobet. 
218 



ON THE EMBASSY, 78-80 

Glaucus of the deme Acharnae, was with Demae- 
netus of the family of the Buzygae, when he won 
the naval victory over Cheilon the Lacedaemonian 
admiral. The sufferings of the city were therefore 
a household word with us, familiar to my ears. 

But you find fault with my service as ambassador 
to Arcadia and my speech before the Ten Thousand 1 
there, and you say that I have changed sides — your- 
self more slave than freeman, all but branded as a 
runaway ! So long as the war lasted, I tried so far 
as in me lay to unite the Arcadians and the rest of 
Hellas against Philip. But when no man came to 
the help of our city, but some were waiting to see 
what was going to happen, and others were taking 
the field against us, while the politicians in our own 
city were using the war to subsidize the extravagance 
of their daily life, 2 I acknowledge that I advised 
the people to come to terms with Philip, and to 
make the peace, which you, Demosthenes, now hold 
disgraceful, you who never had a weapon of war in 
your hands — but which I declare to be much more 
honourable than the war. 

You ought, fellow citizens, to judge your ambas- 
sadors in the light of the crisis in which they served ; 
your generals, in the light of the forces which they 
commanded. For you set up your statues and you 
give your seats of honour and your crowns and your 
dinners in the Prytaneum, not to those who have 
brought you tidings of peace, but to those who have 
been victorious in battle. But if the responsibility 

1 The national assembly of the Arcadians. Aeschines ap- 
peared before them in 348 in the attempt to counteract the 
work of Philip's agents among them. 

2 For this use of x°pyy6v see the note on § 240 (xopvy^s) of 
the Speech against Ctesiphon. 

219 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rwv iroXeficov ai fiev evQvvai rwv irpeo~(3ea>v, al Be 
Bwpeal to>v (TTpari]j(bv, darr6vBov<i icai d/erjpv- 
ktov<; Tou? TToXe/xovs nrou]o~ere' ovBels yap ideXijcrei 
TTpeafteveiv. 

81 Ylepl Be YLepcrojSXeinov kcl\ <£>(OKea)v /cal rwv 
dXXwv a 7T/0O9 tovtois Bta/3e/3\T]p,ai, vrroXonrov 
enrelv. eyu> yap, w avBpes 'AOrjvaioi, /cal ev rfj 
■nporepa, Ka\ ev rfj varepa jrpeafieia, a pev elBov, 
a)? elBov, vplv air ijyyeXXov , a 3' ij/covaa, &)? 
rjicovcra. riva ovv rjv e/cdrepa rovrwv, a re elBov 
a re iJKovaa rrepl K.epao/3Xe7Trov ; elBov pev eya> 
/cal 01 o-vpLirpecrfieis arravra opbr/pevovra rov vlov 
rov K.epcro{3\eTrrov irapd ^lXlttttw' koi en /cal 

82 vvv rov9^ ovrws <='%«. avve/3aive Be, ore rijv irpo- 
repav enrpea^evop,ev irpeafieiav, ep,ol p,ev p,erd 
rwv av pur peer j3ewv airievai Bevpo, QCXLrnrw 8' eVl 
%puKtjv e^ievai, Trpo<s 8' i)pd<; wp,oXoyj]/cevai, eo)<? 
av vpels irepl r/)? elprfpr)*; /3ov\€vo")]ade, p,7] iirt- 
{3ijo~eo-dai p,eO ottXwv lUeppovijaov. ev ifceivr) puev 
ovv rfi i)pepa f) vpel<; etyrify'iaracrOe rrjv elpijvrjv, 
ovBe/utla pjveia eyevero rrepX K.epo~o/3X£7rrov rjor) 
Be r)pwv Keyeiporovrjpuevwv erri rovs op/cov$, ovirw 
Be dmip/corcov eVt rrjv varepav irpeafteiav, e/c/cXi)- 
ala yiyverai, ev rj A7}poadevr]<; o vvvl fearyyopwv 

83 epov Xay^dvec rrpoeBpeveiv. ev Be ravrrj rfj e/e- 
/cXi]aLa KpiroftouXos 6 AapyjraK7]vb<; elrre irapeX- 
6tov, on 7rep,\jreie pev avrov Kepo-o/3Xe7rrr)<;, d^ioii) 1 

1 o|io/tj Franke : d| (0 : MSS. 



220 



ON THE EMBASSY, 80-83 

for the wars is to be laid upon the ambassadors, while 
the generals are to receive the rewards, the wars you 
wage will know neither truce nor herald of peace, 
for no man will be willing to be your ambassador. 

Now it remains for me to speak of Cersobleptes and 
the Phocians, as well as the other matters in which 
I have been slandered. For, fellow citizens, both on 
the first and on the second embassy I reported to you 
what I saw, as I saw it ; what I heard, as I heard it. 
What was it then in either case : what was it that I 
saw and what was it that I heard about Cersobleptes ? 
I, as well as all my colleagues in the embassy, saw 
the son of Cersobleptes a hostage at Philip's court ; 
and this is still the case. Now it happened on the 
occasion of our first embassy, that at the moment 
when I was leaving for home with the rest of the 
ambassadors, Philip was setting out for Thrace ; but 
we had his promise that while you were deliberating 
concerning peace, he would not set foot on the Cher- 
sonese with an armed force. Now on that day when 
you voted the peace, no mention was made of Cerso- 
bleptes. But after we had already been elected to 
receive the oaths, 1 before we had set forth on the 
second embassy, an assembly was held, the presidency 
of which fell by lot to Demosthenes, 2 who is now 
accusing me. In that assembly Critobulus of Lamp- 
sacus came forward and said that Cersobleptes had 
sent him, and he demanded that he should be 

1 The same ambassadors who had. negotiated the prelimi- 
naries of the peace were appointed to go back to Macedonia 
and receive the ratification of the peace by Philip and his 
allies. 

2 A board of nine senators presided over the meetings of 
the assembly ; one member of the board was chosen by lot as 
chief presiding officer for the day. 

221 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Be dnroBovvai tou9 op/cov<; toi? ^lXlttttov irpe- 
aftecri, teal crvvavay pa<pi)vaL K.epao/3Xe7TT7]v ev rots 
vfAerepois av/xfxd'^oi'i. pijOevTcov Be iwv Xoycov 
TOVTfov, 'AXe^tyiia^o? o UiJXt]£ BLBwcriv dvayvwvat 
\lnj(pia/xa TOif 7rpoeopoi<;, ev o) lyeypairTO enro- 
Bovvai toi"? op/covs QiXlttttm fiera tcov aXXo)i' 

84 ovjxjxaywv tov r\KovTa irapa K.epcro(3Xe7TTov. dva- 
yvcoaOei'Tos Be tov yjr)](f)Lcr/jiaTO<;, Kal ravra olfxai 
Trdvras vfia<i pLV^fxoveveiv, dvaaTas e'/c twv Tvpot- 
Bpwv /\r)p,oa0ev7]<; ovk ec£>/ to yjr ijcp ia fia eTTi-^rt]- 
(f)ieiv, ovBe Xvaeiv ttjv Trpo<; ^lXlttttov elpZ/Vijv, 
ovBe yiyvdocnceiv tcov avp.p.dywv toi)? uyairep 
(TwecpaTTTo/jLevovs Tot? airevBovai tcov lepcov diro- 
BoOijvai yap irepl tovtcov eTepav eKKXrjoiav. 
fiocovTcov Be v/xcov Kal tovs irpoeBpov; eVt to 
j3r]pia koXovvtcov, ovtcos cikovtos avTov to ■^ri]- 

85 (bicrpa eire^rj^Lo-Ori. otl §' dXt]0fj Xeyto, KaXei 
jxoi tov ypdij/avTa to  T r)]<pio'/xa AXe^L/ja^ov Kal 
tou? av/XTrpoeBpovs tol>9 A>]/xoo-0evov$, Kal tijv 
fiapTvplav dvdyvcoOi. 

MAPTTPIA 

'O fiev Toivvv eTTihaKpvcras aprLtos ivTavOac 
Ar]p,oa0ev7)^ fivrjadels KepaofiXerrTOV, fyaiveTai 
t/}<? avp,p.a)(ia<i iKKXrjcov avTov. &>9 B ?) rrapovaa 
eKKXrjcria BieXv6ii,e%copKi£ovTOV<i o-vp,/j.d%ovs ol tov 



1 The peace that had just been negotiated was to be between 
Philip and his allies, and Athens and her allies. By the 
allies of Athens were meant the members of the Athenian 
naval league, whose synod, sitting at Athens, had ratified in 
advance whatever action the Athenian people might take as 
to the peace. Cersobleptes was not a member of this league, 

222 



ON THE EMBASSY, 83-85 

allowed to give his oath to the ambassadors of Philip, 
and that Cersobleptes be enrolled among your allies. 1 
When he had thus spoken, Aleximachus of the deme 
Pelex handed to the presiding officers a motion to be 
read, in which it was written that the representative 
of Cersobleptes be permitted to join the other allies 
in giving the oath to Philip. When the motion had 
been read —I think you all remember this — Demos- 
thenes arose from among the presiding officers and re- 
fused to put the motion to vote, saying that he would 
not bring to naught the peace with Philip, and that 
he did not recognize the sort of allies who joined 
only in time, as it were, to help in pouring the peace 
libations ; for they had had their opportunity at 
an earlier session of the assembly. But you shouted 
and called the board of presidents to the platform, 
and so against his will the motion was put to vote. 
To prove that I am speaking the truth, please call 
Aleximachus, the author of the motion, and the 
men who served with Demosthenes on the board 
of presidents, and read their testimony. 

TESTIMONY 

You see, therefore, that Demosthenes, who just 
now burst into tears here at mention of Cersobleptes, 
tried to shut him out of the alliance. Now on the 
adjournment of that session of the assembly, Pliilijj's 

but sought to be admitted at the last moment, in order to 
gain the protection ot the peace. Demosthenes, feeling that 
his admission would endanger the success of the negotiations 
for peace, attempted to prevent his admission, by insisting 
on the irregularity of the procedure ; Cersobleptes should 
have presented his credentials to the senate and obtained 
from them a resolution advising the assembly to hear his 
plea ; and this should have been done at an earlier meeting. 

223 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

^iXIttttov 7rpeo~f3ei<; ev tw crTpaTr/ylo) ra> vfierepw. 

86 rero\fxy]K€ Be 777)09 v/xas eiirelv 6 Karroo po<$, &)? 
airo twv lepoiv iycb KpiTo/3ov\ov a-n^Xacra tov irpe- 
o-/3evTrjv tov irapd KepaoftXeTrTOv, irapbvrwv puev 
twj' avp,p,d-^(i)v, £y\rrj($)L<Tp.evov he tov Brjpiov, irapa- 
K<xQr\p.ev<xiv Be rcov ot paTtjy cov, iroOev TocravjTjv 
pdip-rjv Xafiwv ; r) 7r&>9 av to irpdypia eacy/ilh]; el 
8' apa £<y(i) eToXp.o)v tovto iroielv, eneT pe^ra^ av, 
Si &i)p.6o-0€ve<>, teal ovk eveTr\r}aa<i j3orj<; kcil icpav- 
yr/s ti)v dyopdv, opcov p.e, &)? e<§>r)oQ^ x apricot, 
coOouvra a7ro rcov lepcov tov irpeo-fievTrjv ; KaXecTco 
Be pLOL tou? aTpaTijyovs 6 tcr/pv£ real tovs awe- 
Bpovs tu>v avpipid^cov, teal ra? pLapTvpias avTcov 
cucovaaTe. 

MAPTTPIAI 

87 Ovk ovv Beivov, w avSpes 'KOyivaloi, el tj? kcit 
avBpb<i ttoXltov, ov-% eavTov, a\V vp^eTepov, tovto 
yap 7Tpo8iop0ovp.ai, ToXpbd TrfXiKavTa KaTaijrev- 
Becrdat, KLvBvvevovTos virep tov crcoyuaro?; r) 7r<S? 
ovk el/coTO)? ol TraTepes i)p.cov ev Tai? (poviKals 
Bl/cciis Tat? 2 eirl UaXXaBia) KaTeBeitjav, Tepbvov- 
-ra to. Topuia tov vikwvtci 3 Trj yjrr'jcfxp e^opicl^e- 
o~6cu, zeal tovto vplv TraTpiov ecrTiv eVt koX vvv, 
TaXrjdi) zeal to, Bltcaia iyjrrjc^Ladai 4 tcov BucaaTwv 
oaoi ttjv yjry(f)ov rjvey/cav avTu>, koX yjrevhos pbi]Bev 
eiprjfcevai, el Be fir}, e^toXr/ ai/Tov eivai eirapdo-Oai 
ical ttjv oIkiclv tt)v civtov, tois Be BiKaaTais ev")(e- 
o~9ai TToXXd /cal ay add eivai; koX p,dXa op0w<s 

88 koX ttoXltikcos, o) dvBpe<i A07]vatoi' el yap p.rjBel<; 

1 efpno-fl' Franke : t<p7]s MSS. 2 reus added by Scaliger. 

8 rhv vikwvto. Scaliger : tovs viKaivras MSS. 
4 i^r](pi<T6ai Scaliger : \pi)<pi£e<jdai (or e\f/r)<piadr)) MSS. 
224 



ON THE EMBASSY, 85-88 

ambassadors proceeded to administer the oaths to 
your allies in your army-building. And my accuser 
has dared to tell you that it was I who drove Crito- 
bulus, Cersobleptes' ambassador, from the ceremony 
— in the presence of the allies, under the eyes of the 
generals, after the people had voted as they did ! 
Where did 1 get all that power? How could the 
thing have been hushed up ? If I had really dared 
to undertake such a thing, would you have suffered 
it, Demosthenes ? Would you not have filled the 
market-place with your shouts and screams, if you 
had seen me, as you just now said you did, thrust- 
ing the ambassador away from the ceremony ? But 
please let the herald call the generals and the re- 
presentatives of the allies, and do you hear their 
testimony. 

TESTIMONY 

Is it not, therefore, an outrage, gentlemen, if one 
dares utter such lies about a man who is his own — 
no, I hasten to correct myself, not his own, but 
your — fellow citizen, when he is in peril of his life ? 
Wisely, indeed, did our fathers prescribe that, in 
the trials for bloodshed which are held at the Pal- 
ladion, 1 the one who wins his case must cut in pieces 
the sacrificial flesh, and take a solemn oath (and 
the custom of your fathers is in force to this day), 
affirming that those jurors who have voted on his side 
have voted what is true and right, and that he him- 
self has spoken no falsehood ; and he calls down 
destruction upon himself and his household, if this 
be not true, and prays for many blessings for the 
jurors. A right provision, fellow citizens, and worthy 
of a democracy. For if no one of you would wil- 
1 This court was for cases of unintentional homicide. 

225 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

av vp.S>v kavrov dvarrXrjcrat epovov oitcaiov /3ov- 
Xoiro, rj ttov ciSlkov ye tf>v\d£aiT civ, ttjv -^jrv^v 
rj ttjv overlay i) Tt]v eirnipLav rtvbs depeXopevos, 
e% 6iv ai/TOVs dvyptj/caerL rives, oi he /cal S)]p,oaia 
ereXevTyerav. dp ovv, u> avSpes AOrjvalot, 8oir)T 
av pot ervyyvoopajv, el tclvaiSov avrbv Trpoaeurcbv 
/cal fii] /caOapevovra rw eruipari, p,))c7 odev ttjv 
epu>v>jv dcpty]aiv, eirena to Xoittov p.epos rov /carrj- 
yopijparos rov rrepl YLepcro(SXeTni]v err avToepoopa) 
Bei^aipt y}revSos ov; 

89 KdXXterrov yap otp^at irpaypa teal ^pr/cripco- 
TaTov rot? 81 a(3aXXop:evois irap vp.lv yiyveiat' 
real yap rovs ^povovs /cal ra ty^epLerpaTa real tovs 
€7ri^](j)iaavTa<; ev Tots Srjpoatots ypdpp,aert rov 
cLTravra y_povov (pvXdrrere. el'prj/ce 8e ovtos irpbs 
vp,ds, rrapd tovto StacpOapr/vat to, Kepero/3Xe7TTov 
irpdypara, on rr)s it pea (Betas wv rjyepcov eyco /cal 
KaTeviii-ieprjKOds Trap vplv, avrov /ceXevovros eis 
®pdfci]v rjpds tevat Keeper o/3XeTrrov rroXiop/covp,e- 
vov, koI Ztapaprvpaerdai QiXnnrep ravra pi) 
TTOieiv, ovk I'lOiXr/aa, dXX i/cad/jpr/v iv 'Qpeco, 
/cal oi erv pur peer fiets, it po^evias /caTaatceva%6p,evoi. 

90 aKOverare Srj ri]S \dprjTos eiTtcrToXrjs, r)v eVe- 
cneiXe rore tw Brjpeo, on K.epaoj3Xe7rrrjs aTroXca- 
Xe/ce rrjv dpxh 1 ' Kai lepbv opos /careiX-t^pe ^iXtir- 
7ro? 'EXacpy/SoXtwvos pyjvbs e/38oprj 1 epOivovros' 
Arjpocrdevrjs o*' ev tu> 8>]pa> rrpoijhpeve rovrov rov 
pyvos, els we roiv Trpicrftecov, e/CTij l epOtvovTOS. 

1 ISSo'jUJ? • . • «cjj Spengel : enry . . . e/GSo'in? MSS. cp. 
iii. 73. 

1 Athenian citizens were employed by foreign states to 
represent their interests at Athens and aid their citizens 

226 



ON THE EMBASSY, 88-90 

lingly defile himself with justifiable bloodshed, surely 
he would guard against that which was unjustifiable, 
such as robbing a man of life or property or civil 
rights — such acts as have caused some men to kill 
themselves, others to be put to death by decree of 
the state. Will you then, fellow citizens, pardon 
me, if I call him a lewd rascal, unclean of body, 
even to the place whence his voice issues forth, and 
if I go on to prove that the rest of his accusation 
about Cersobleptes is false on the face of it? 

You have a practice which in my judgment is 
most excellent and most useful to those in your 
midst who are the victims of slander : you preserve 
for all time in the public archives your decrees, 
together with their dates and the names of the 
officials who put them to vote. Now this man 
has told you that what ruined the cause of Cerso- 
bleptes was this : that when Demosthenes urged 
that we should go to Thrace, where Cersobleptes 
was being besieged, and should solemnly call on 
Philip to cease doing this thing, I, as leader of the 
ambassadors and influential with you, refused, and 
sat down in Oreus, I and the rest of the ambas- 
sadors, busy with getting foreign consulships for 
ourselves. 1 Hear now the letter which Chares sent 
to the people at the time, saying that Cersobleptes 
had lost his kingdom and that Philip had taken 
Hieron Oros 2 on the twenty-fourth of Elaphebolion. 
And it was Demosthenes, one of the ambassadors, 
who was presiding in the assembly here on the 
twenty-fifth of that month. 

there. Demosthenes asserted that the ambassadors were 
intent on getting such appointments for themselves. 

2 This was an important post on the Thiacian coast, and 
had been held by an Athenian garrison, in the interest of 
Cersobleptes. 

227 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

EIII2TOAH 

91 Ov fxovov to'wvv hierpL^rafiev Ta? Xonras i)fiepa<s 
tov fi^vos, dWa ^lovvL^tcovo'i i^coppa']aap.ev. /ecu 
tovtov TrjV i3ov\i~jV pudpTvpa vpuiv 7rape£opLar 
eaTt yap avTr)$ \}ri]cf)io~pLa, o xeXevei dirievai tovs 
7rpeo-/3ei<; iirl tou? optcovs. Kal p,oi \eye to t/)? 
/3oiA?}? ■^nfyiap.a. 

¥H*I2MA 

WapavdyvcoOi Sr) zeal tov ^pbvov, octta? r/v. 

XPONOS 

92 'A/cov€T€ oti Movvi^icovo^ eifrr),(j>Lo-0ri Tplrr) 
iarapLevov. 6 he Ke/?cro/3A,e7rT>y? irocrais irpoTepov 
rjpbepats aircoXeae tijv dp%r)v irpiv ip-e arnevai; 
W9 (pijcri Xapj? 6 (npariiyo^, 1 tov irpoTepov p,rjvo^, 
e'iirep ' K\acf)t](3o\icov io~Ti Movvi^icovo^ irpoTepos. 
ihvvdp,r/v av ovv iyco acoaai, KepaofiXeTrTijv, oq 
irplv ip,e i^oppudv ouicodev cnrwXcoXei; kireiTa 
oleaOe tl tovtov dXrjdes elprjKevat, r) irepl tcov iv 
^la/ceSovia irpa^OevTcov r) rrepl tcov iv ©CTTaXta, 
0? tov f3ov\evTTjpLov kcu tcov hr/p,oaicov ypap,p,aTcoi 
real tov y^pbvov /cat tcov eK/cXtjaicov KaTa^revheTai ; 

93 Kal tov KepcroftXeTTTyv 'Ad/jvijcrL p.ev e/cairovSov 
eVo/et?, 2 iv £lpe(p h r)\eei<;; Kal vvv piev hcopo- 
So/cias KaTijyopel<i, irpoTepov 8" virepLewas Tt]v 
i-7Ti(3o\r]v Tr)<i /3ov\i]<; T)}? it; Wpe'tov irdyov, ovk 
iire^icov Ty tov TpavpaTOS ypacpf), fjv iypdtyco 
&r/p,op,€\r]V tov Ilaiaviia, dve\}ribv ovTa, iiriTepicov 

1 (TTparriJ^ Baiter : a r pa-nubs nal t] iinaTo\ii MSS. 

2 firoUis Weidner : iitoieis TtpoeSpos &v MSS. 

228 



ON THE EMBASSY, 91-93 

LETTER 

Now not only did we delay all the rest of that 
month, but it was Muniehion ] when we set out. As 
witness of this I will present the senate, for there is 
a decree of theirs which commands the ambassadors 
to set out in order to receive the oaths. Please read 
the decree of the senate. 

DECREE 

Now read also the date of the decree. 

DATE 

You hear that the decree was passed on the third 
of Muniehion. How many days before I set out was 
it that Cersobleptes lost his kingdom ? According 
to Chares the general it occurred the month before 
— that is, if Elaphebolion is the month next before 
Muniehion ! Was it, then, in my power to save Cer- 
sobleptes, who was lost before I set out from home ? 
And now do you imagine that there is one word of 
truth in his account of what was done in Macedonia 
or of what was done in Thessaly, when he gives the lie 
to the senate-house and the public archives, and falsi- 
fies the date and the meetings of the assembly ? And 
is it true, Demosthenes, that you at Athens tried to 
exclude Cersobleptes from the treaty, but pitied him 
when you got to Oreus ? And do you to-day accuse 
me of having taken bribes, you who were once fined 
by the Senate of the Areopagus for not prosecuting 
your suit for assault, that time when you indicted 
your cousin Demomeles of Paeania for the cut on 
your head that you gave yourself with your own 
1 The next month after Elaphebolion. 

229 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Trjv aavrov K€(pa\i]v; Kal aefivoXoyel 1 009 2 ovk 
elhoai tovtols on ArjfioaOevovs u/09 el v69o<; rov 
fxa^aipoiroLov; 

94 'E7re%ft/}77<Ta? 8" elnrelv, w? Kal rr/v eirl tou? 
, A/j,(fiifCTvova<i 77 pea /3eiav e^op.oadp.evo^ Trapeirpe- 
(rfievaa, Kal ifr>](picrp,a to p,ev aveiyvco*}, to 8e 
VTTepejB-)^. eyot) S' aipe6el<> 7rpea/3evr'>]<; eVt tou9 
' Ap,<f)iKTV0i>as, cippdicrTOi^ h eywv, Kal p,erd TroWrjs 
Trpo0v/jua<i dirayyeWcov d<f) ^9 tjkov 7rpeo-/3eia<; 
7T/30? lipids, rrjv fxev Trpeaj3etav ovk e^fopoadpi^v, 
aXk VTreaxopL7)v irpea/3evaeiv, eav w hvvaros, 
777509 Be ttjv p2ov\ip> drnovrcov rwv avpL7rpeo~f3ecov 
top d&eXcpbv rov epiavrov Kal rov dheXfyihovv Kal 

95 rov larpbv eirep^a, ovk i£op,ovp,evov<;' ovSe jap 6 
voyu-09 ia rd<i eK rov 8)jp,ov -^etporoi'las ev rfj 
/3ov\f) e^op,vva6af dWa rr/v dppcoartav puov 
St]\wo-ovra<i. 

1 aefxvoAoyel Cobet : (Tf/j.vo\oyus MSS. 

2 is Stephanas : T]fuv ws MSIS. 



1 The reference is to a family quarrel which grew out of 
the suit of the young Demosthenes against his guardians. 

2 A bastard in the sense that his mother was of a Scythian 
family, and so debarred from legitimate Athenian wedlock. 
See on § 22. 

3 The embassy was strictly to Philip, but as it was to deal 
largely with Amphictyonic business in the hands of Philip 
and allies of his who were in control of Amphictyonic affairs, 
Aeschines can speak of it as "to the Amphictyons." 

4 The reference is to events after the return of the second 
embassy. After their report was accepted, a third embassy 
was appointed to go to Philip, extending the peace and 
alliance to his descendants, and declaring that if the Phocians 

230 



ON THE EMBASSY, 93-95 

hand ? * And do you put on airs before these jury- 
men, as though they did not know that you are the 
bastard son of Demosthenes the cutler ? 2 

But you undertook to say that I at first refused to 
serve on the embassy to the Amphictyons, 3 and later 
went on the embassy and was guilty of misconduct, 
and you read the one decree and suppressed the 
other. 4 I was, indeed, chosen one of the ambassadors 
to the Amphictyons, and even as I had shown myself 
zealous in reporting to you the embassy from which 
I had returned, so now, although I was in poor 
health, I did not refuse the new mission, but pro- 
mised to serve, if I should have the strength. But 
as the ambassadors were on the point of setting out, 
I sent my brother and his son with my physician 
to the senate, not to decline service for me (for the 
law does not permit men who have been elected by 
the assembly to decline before the senate), but 
merely to testify to my illness. 

would not submit to the Amphictyons, the Athenians would 
take the field against them. Most of the men appointed on 
this third embassy had served on the other two. Demos- 
thenes was nominated, but he refused to serve. Aeschines 
was elected, but finally on the plea of illness he was excused 
by the senate, and his brother was appointed to take his 
place. The embassy had gone only as far as Euboea when 
they received the news that the Pliocians had surrendered 
to Philip ; they therefore immediately returned to Athens. 
The Athenians now reappointed the same men, including 
Aeschines, to go to meet Philip. Aeschines, now recovered 
in health, went on this fourth embassy. Demosthenes (xix. 
126) falsely declares that he went without having been 
elected. For the whole story from Demosthenes' standpoint, 
see Demosthenes, On the Embassy, §§ 121-133. In § 172, 
Demosthenes betrays the fact that there really was a re- 
election for the fourth embassy, and so confirms Aeschines' 
statement. 

231 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'E^e^Sr) Be ol crvfnrpecr/3€i<; irvO 6 pevoi ra irepl 
tovs (Pco/ceas av/n/3dvTa dveaTpeyjrav, yevopevrjs 
€K/c\i]cna<; rjBrj irapcov Kal Bvvdpevos tS> (too/muti, 
Trpoaavay/cd^ovTos tov Bt'jp.ov p,r/8ev tjttov irpe- 
afieveiv r)pa<; to 1/9 e£ dp^r}? alpeOevras diravTa<;, 

96 dyfrevBeiv 7/7309 ' ' AOrjvaiow? (pprjv Betv. Kal ravTrjs 
Trjs it pea fields ov KaTr/yopei? pov BiBovtos Ta? 
evOvvas, a)OC eirl TavTi]v l r/'/cet? tjjv iirl Toy? 
op/cow;, virep 979 eyoo aa(pw<; Kal BiKacca airo\o- 
yt]crop,at. aol p,ev yap dpp,0TTei Kal irdcri Tot? 
y\revBopievoi<; p,eracf)epeiv tovs xpovovs, epuol 6" e(f>e- 
£779 Xeyetv, dva\a/36vTi t?]V dp-yr}v tov \6yov dirb 
tt)s 7ropeta9 T779 eirl rovs opKovs. 2 

97 UpwTov p,ev yap BeKa irpeafiecov ovtcov, evBeKa- 
tov Be tov avpirep(pOevTo<; rjp.lv dirb twv o~vpp,d- 
X wv > ovSels avTW avaaiTelv, 6t e^fjpev iirl Ti]V 
vcTTepav irpea/3elav, tfOeXev, ovBe 3 ev tc»9 oBols, 
birov BvvaTov yv, ets TavTov iravBoKelov KaTaXv- 
eiv, opcovTes avTov ev tj} irpoiepa irpea/3ela iraaiv 

98 avTols lirifiefiovXevKoTa. irepl pev ovv tt)? iirl 
%paKr}<; oBov ovk iyeveTO p^veia' ovTe i yap to 
^ri^icrpa tojj#' r)puv irpoaeiaTiev, dW diro\a- 
fielv p-ovov Tou? opKOVs Kal ak\ aira, ovt i\66v- 
Ta9 irpaTTeiv ovBev iveBe^eTo, tcov irepl Kepcro- 
fiXeTTTTjv yBrj yeyevrjp,eva)v, &>9 dpTiws r/KovaaTe, 

1 ravrriv Bekker : ravrriv rh\v ■Kpea^ilav MSS. 

2 opKOvs Bekker : SpKovs ical rrjs irpecrfieias MSS. 

3 ovSe Bekker : oUre MSS. 
* oilre Bekker : ovSe MSS. 

1 That is, Aeschines felt that he ought now to say frankly 
that his health was such that he could not decline the 
service. 

232 



ON THE EMBASSY, 95-98 

When now the ambassadors had been informed of 
the fate of the Phocians, they returned, and a meeting 
of the assembly was held. I had by this time re- 
covered and was present. When the people insisted 
that we who had been originally elected should all 
go on with the embassy in spite of what had hap- 
pened, I thought it my duty to speak the truth to 
the Athenians. 1 And when I rendered account of 
my service on that embassy, you, Demosthenes, pre- 
ferred no charge, but you proceed against my conduct 
on this embassy, the embassy that was appointed to 
receive the oaths. As to this I will make a clear 
and just defence. For it serves you, as it does all 
liars, to confuse the dates, but it serves me to give 
the events in their order, beginning with our journey 
to receive the oaths. 2 

In the first place, of the ten ambassadors (or 
rather eleven, counting the representative of the 
allies, who was with us) not one was willing to mess 
with Demosthenes, when we set out on the second 
embassy, nor even to lodge at the same inn with him 
as we journeyed, whenever it could be avoided, for 
they had seen how he had plotted against them 
all on the previous embassy. Now not a word was 
said about making the journey along the Thracian 
coast ; 3 for the decree did not prescribe any such 
journey, but simply that we should receive the oaths 
and transact certain other business, nor could we 
have accomplished anything if we had gone, for 
Cersobleptes' fate had already been decided, as you 
heard a moment ago ; for there is not a word of 

2 Aeschines returns to the story of the second embassy. 

3 The journey which Demosthenes, in the speech for the 
prosecution, had said ought to have been made in order to 
forestall Philip's conquests there. 

I 233 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovd' ovtos ovhev «\?/#e? elirev, dXXa yfrevEeTai teal 
KarrjyopeiP ovBev aA.?/#e? ex wv repareveTat. 
99 Xvi'7)Ko\ovPovv 8' ainS) avOpwrroL hvo aTpco- 
pbaroSea-fia (fiepovref ev 8e ra> erepoi tovtcov, co? 
avro<; e<f>i], rdXavrov evrjv dpyvpiov. coare tovs 
o~i>yu,7rpecr/3e/? avapipvya/cecrOai ras ap^aia? eirco- 
vvpias avTOV- ev rraial p,ev yap cov e/cXi;6t] 6Y 
ala)(povpjLav rivd /cal /civaiSiav BaTaA.09, etc irai- 
8o)v Be inraWaTTopevos teal Be/caTaXavTOvs o7«a? 
€/cdaT(p loiv e-rtiTpoTriov Xayxdvwv, Apyas, 1 avtjp 
Be yevopevos irpoaeiXrjc^e rrjv twv Trovypcov koivijv 

100 eTrwvvpiav, avKO^avTi^. eiropevero Be Xvaop,evo<; 
toi)? al^paXoirov^ , a')? ecjir), tcai 7rpo<? vp,d<; apriax; 
e'lprj/cev, elBccs pev ^lXlttttov ev tw iroXepoi ovBeva 
TrtoTrore 'AOrjvaiwv Xvrpa irpa^dpuevov, d/covcov Be 
Toiv e/ceivou cfriXzov cnravToiv, bri /cat, tou? \0t7r0us, 
edv elpi']vrj yevijrai, d(f>t]<rei, iroXXwv B rjTV^Ko- 
tojv rdXavTov (pepcov, evbs dvBpbs, ovBe tovtov 
Xlav evTropov, itcava XvTpa. 

101 fi? 8' rjp,ev ev Ma/ceSowa teal (Tvvi'fx6op,ev els 
Tavrov, ical QiXlttttov e/c ©oa/o;? nxapovra tca-rei- 
\ij<bepev, dveyvd)<T0>] pev to yjnjcfricrpa icaO' 
eTrpecrj3evoi~iev, ical ra ir poorer ay pev a i)uiv 777309 
to) tou? opicovs diroXafielv avvrjpiOpoupeOa' 00? 
8e ovBels inrep tmv p,eyL<JTu>v ep,ep,v)]TO, dXXa 
irepl irpaypdrcov eXctTTovcov Tf)V Biarpifirjv erroi- 

1 'Apyas Blass : 'Apyas eKAr/07) MISS. 

1 " Batalos " has been thought to mean " stammerer," or 
perhaps "mamma-baby" (see Aesehines, i. §§ 126 and 131), 
but that explanation would hardly fit this passage. We 
really have no knowledge as to the derivation of the word. 
" Argas " was the name of a venomous snake. 

234 



ON THE EMBASSY, 98-101 

truth in what he has said, but, at a loss for any true 
charge, he resorts to these prodigious lies. 

On the journey two attendants followed him, carry- 
ing sacks of bedding ; in one of the sacks, he assured 
us, was a talent of silver; so that his colleagues 
were reminded of those old nicknames of his; for 
the boys used to call him " Batalos," he was so 
vulgar and obscene ; then when he was growing out 
of boyhood and was bringing against his guardians 
big lawsuits of ten talents each, he was called 
"Argas" j 1 now, grown to manhood, he has got also 
the name that we apply to rascals in general, 
" Blackmailer." And he was going with the inten- 
tion of ransoming the captives, 2 as he said, and as 
he has just now told you, although he knew that 
at no time during the war had Philip exacted 
ransom-money for any Athenian, and although he 
had heard all Philip's friends say that he would re- 
lease the rest also, if peace should be made. And 
he was carrying one talent for many unfortunates — 
sufficient ransom for one man, and not a very well- 
to-do man at that ! 

But when we reached Macedonia and found Philip 
returned from Thrace, we held a meeting; 3 the 
decree under which we were acting was read, and 
we went over the instructions that had been given 
us in addition to the business of receiving the oaths. 
But finding that no one mentioned the subjects that 
were most important, and all were dwelling on minor 

2 The Athenian citizens who had been captured at the fall 
of Olynthus, and were now in slavery in Macedonia. 

3 This was a private meeting of the Athenian ambassadors 
to discuss what they should say to Philip at the coming 
audience. 

235 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovvto, elirov eyoi \oyovs, ovs dvayKalbv iari irpbi 

102 v/xa'i pr/dijrai. real 777309 twv Oewv, w dvSpe'i 
' ' Adrjvaloi, oiairep kcu tt}? K.aTi)yopLa<$ rj/covaare 
a)? avros KaT7]jopo<i e/3ov\€To elirelv, ovtoj ical 
T7J<i diro\oyt,a<; evTa/CTcos d/covcraTe, /cal rbv avrbv 
p,oi rpoirov 8ia/JL€LvaT€, bvirep i£ dp%r)<; iv to1<; 
Trpoeiprj/nevois j]8i] \6yois r/KpoaaOe. oirep yap 
kol dpTLa><; vire9ep,rjv, w avSpes ' A0i]valoi, elirov 
avvetXeypeicov tgov irpeo-/3eoyv, otl jjlol Bo/coiev 
to p.eyio~TOv irpocnaypLa tov hrjp,ov Sewax; dyvoelv. 

103 " To p.ev yap toi>? '6picov<; diroXafieiv, /cal irepl 
twv dXXoiv 8ia\e)(0rjvat, /cat irepl twv al)(p.aXco- 
tcov elireiv, tcdv el rovs virrjperas eirep,\jrev 1) iroXis 
irepidetaa irlartv avTOts, diravr dv irpaydrpiai 
vofil^co' to 8e virep rwv oXcov opOws ftovXev- 
aaaOai, oaa /ca0 rjp.d<; eoTiv rj <£>LXiirirov, tovto 
i]hrj epyov earl 7rpea/3ecov cppovlp-cov. Xeya> he" e<pr]V 
iyco, " irepl ttj^ et<? UvXas o"rpareia<i, r\v opdre 
ovaav iv irapaaKevfj. on he ov /ea/eaj? aro^a- 
%op.ai irepl tov irpdypbaro^, p,eyaXa tovtcov vpulv 

104 at]p.ela hei^a>. irdpeiat fxev yap ®rjftaia>v, r\Kovai 
Be Aa/ce8aip.ovL(ov irpecrfieis, d(piyp.e0a S' r)/u.et<i 
e^ovTe<i tov 8)]/jLOV yJn]<jiio~fia, iv (p yiypairrai 
'TlpaTTeiv he tou<? irpia/3ei<; Kai dXX 6 tl dv 
Bvvcovrai, dyaOov* diravTe<; he oi "EWi/w? 77730? 
to fieWov eaecrOai /3Xeirovaiv. el /xev ovv r/yetTO 
6 §97/4.09 a'vT&> /caXco? eyeiv efjeveyrcetv p,era irap- 



1 The supreme q\iestion of the hour was the settlement of 
the long continued Phoeian war. Whether Phocis was to be 
defeated and Thebes given a dangerous increase of power 
depended in large measure on what action Philip and the 

236 



ON THE EMBASSY, 101-104 

matters, I spoke words which I must repeat to ) r ou. 
And in heaven's name, gentlemen, even as you al- 
lowed my accuser to speak as he himself chose, pray 
so continue to listen quietly to the defence also, in 
the same manner in which from the beginning you 
have listened during all my speech thus far. Well, 
as I just now intimated, fellow citizens, at the meet- 
ins: of the ambassadors I said that it seemed to me 
that we were strangely ignoring the most important 
matter that the people had entrusted to us. "The 
reception of the oaths, the discussion of the other 
questions, and the talk about the prisoners, all that 
sort of thing could have been done, I think, if the 
city had entrusted it to some of its petty servants 
and sent them. But to reach a right solution of the 
supreme question, so far as that is in our power or 
Philip's, 1 this is now a task for wise ambassadors. I 
mean," said I, " the question of the expedition to 
Thermopylae, which you see in course of preparation. 
That I am not wide of the mark in this matter, I 
will show you by weighty considerations. For am- 
bassadors from Thebes are here, ambassadors from 
Lacedaemonia have arrived, and here are we with a 
decree of the people in which it stands written, 
'The ambassadors shall also negotiate concerning 
any other good thing that may be within their 
power.' All Hellas is watching to see what is going 
to happen. If now our people had thought it wise 
to speak out plainly to Philip, bidding him strip the 

Athenians should decide to take, either jointly or severally. 
The Athenians had been unable to persuade Philip's ambas- 
sadors to include the Phocians among the states to be pro- 
tected by the peace, but it was hoped that these ambassadors 
from Athens would be able to persuade Philip himself to 
favour Phocis as against Thebes. 

237 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

prjaias 1 77-/309 <&L\nnrov, St]/3aiwv fiev irepieXelv 
rr)v vfSpiv, Boicotwv he dvaa-ri)crat ra reiyri, ravr 
av rj^icoaev ev T&5 yjr)](pLafiaTf vvv he avrois fiev 
KareXnrov Ti]v et9 to agaves dvafyopdv, av firj 
ireiOoxriv, ev i)filv he diroKivhweveiv (prjOrjaav helv. 

105 Set hrj tou? 7rpo9 ra /coivd (fiiXoTifiovfievovs fir) 
Kare)(€iv fiev erepwv yd>pav TrpeafSecov, ovs i^rjv 
Tre/jLireLv av6 > r)fiS)v ' Adrjvaiovs, avrovs he ras 
7T/90? ®rjj3a(,ov<; a-nexOeias (pevyeiv, (bv eh wv 
'T&Trafietvoovhas, 2 oi>x v7ro7rTt')i;a<; to tcov 'AOrjvalcov 
d^lcofia, elire hiapp/]h)]v iv ra> irX^Oei rcov ®7)f3aicov, 
a>9 hel ra t>/9 * Adiivaitov dtcpoTToXews tt poirvXaia 

'■ fiereveyfcelv eis Trjv Trpoaraaiav ri)<; KahfieLas? 

106 ravra 8" ifiov fiera^v Xeyovros, dvaf3oa 7rafifieye0e<; 
Arj/uocrOevT)^, &>9 laaoi rravres 01 avfnrpeafSeiS' 3 /cal 
yap 717509 to?9 aXXois /ca/col<; {SottOTid^ei. r)v S' ovv 
Trap" avrov roiavrl to, Xeyofieva' ""Av0pco7ro<; i 
ovroal rapa^r)^ koX to X/u/779 earl fiearo^ iyco he 
ofioXoyw fiaXatcos elvai ica\ ra heud iroppwOev 
hehievai, cnrayopevw fievroi fir) cruvrapaTTeiv r)p,a<i 
77/909 dXXr]Xa<; t«9 7roXei<;, to fir\ iroXvn pay fiovelv 
rjfias T0U9 7rpeaf3ei<; /xrjhev, tovt ayadov viroXafi- 

107 /3dvo)v elvai. iropeveTai ^lXitttto^ eh TlvXas, iyor 
he iyfcaXinrrofiai. ovheus fie roiv ottXcov eveica twv 
QiXittttov /cpivel, dXX' Siv av et7ra> tc fir) heov, 
i) TTpd^w 71 rorv fit] Trpoarerayfievcov. irepas he 
rov irpdyfiaros, iyjrr](f)icrai>ro ot, avfnrpecrftei<i, 
Kar dvhpa iirepcoToofievoi, eicacnov 5 r)fi(bv 6 ti 

1 -KapprjcrCas Markland : Trapprjaias iv t$ \f/ri(pl(T/xaTi MSS. 

2 'ETTauetvcavSas Dobree : 'E.Tra/j.eivu>v8as arpar-qy6s MSS. 
s ffvu-jrpeafieis Cobet : (TVfjiirptffBtis y/Awv MSS. 

4 avdp(viros Sauppe : avdpwTros MSS. 

5 i-Kipoirdifxtvoi zkcmttov Cobet : iirepwTic/j.et'os etcaffTos MSS. 

238 



ON THE EMBASSY, 104-107 

Thebans of their insolence, and rebuild the walls of 
the Boeotian towns, 1 they would have asked this of 
him in the decree. But as it is, by the obscurity 
of their language they left open a way of retreat for 
themselves, in case they should fail to persuade him, 
and they thought best to take the risk in our persons. 
Men, therefore, who are ambitious to serve the state 
must not assume the function of other ambassadors 
whom the Athenians could have sent instead of us, 
and at the same time, on their own initiative, try to 
avoid stirring up the hostility of the Thebans. Epa- 
meinondas was a Theban, and he did not cower before 
the fame of the Athenians, but spoke right out in 
the Theban assembly, saying that they must remove 
the propylaea of the Acropolis of Athens and set it 
up at the entrance to the Cadmeia." As I was in 
the midst of these words, Demosthenes protested 
with a loud voice, as all our colleagues know, for on 
top of all his other crimes he is for the Boeotians. 
At any rate words like these came from him : " This 
fellow is full of quarrelsomeness and rashness. For 
myself, I confess that I am timid, that I fear danger 
from afar, but I protest against embroiling the cities 
one with another ; I hold it to be the wise course 
that we ambassadors refrain from meddlesome con- 
duct. Philip is setting out for Thermopylae ; I cover 
my eyes. No man is going to call me to account for 
the wars of Philip, but for what I say that I ought 
not to say, or what I do that I was not instructed to 
do." The upshot of the matter was that the am- 
bassadors, when asked for their opinion man by man, 
voted that each of us should say what he thought 

1 The small towns of Boeotia which had been subjugated 
by Thebes, and were now supporting the Phocians in the 
hope of regaining their independence. 

2 39 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vo/jbi^oi 1 crv/x^epeiv, rovro Xeyecv. on 6° dXrjdrj 
Xeyco, /cdXei fiot tou? aufi7rpea/3ec<; /cal rrjv fxap- 
rvpiav avrcov Xeye. 

MAPTTPIA 

108 'E7retS^ Toivvv, w avBpes 'AOijvaloi, crvveXeyrj- 
aav p,ev eh YleXXav al rrpecrfielai, rraprjv Be 6 
tbiXnnros, teal toi>? ' 'AOrjvaicov 7rpea/3ei<; 6 tcrjpvt; 
e/cdXei, irpwrov /iev 7rapfjp,ev ov /cad' ?]XiKtav, 
coairep ev rfj rrporepa, rtpecrfieia, b rrapd riatv 
evBoKip-ei real KoapLOS elvat t>}<? 7ro\e&>9 efyaivero, 
dXXa Kara rrjv Arjpboadevovi dvaiayyvriav . tyd- 
a/C(ov yap veooraros elvai irdvrcov, ttjv rd£iv rov 
7T/3COTO? Xeyecv ovk av e<prj TrapaXnrelv, ovB' 
eVir peyjreiv rivl, alvtrrop,evos eh ip.e, rrpoKaraXa- 
/36vra ra QiXlttttov &ra Tot? aXXot,? Xoyov p,rj 
KaraXnreiv. 

109 ' Kp%dp,evo<; Be rov Xeyeiv, 2 rrpwrov BiafioXijv 
riva vrrenroiv Kara rcov crvpLTrpeo-fBeoyv, a><; ov^ 
diravres virep rwv avrcov ovB' bp,oioi rats B6£at<; 
7)K0t,p,ev, Bie^rjei ras V7rr)pecrla<; ra? VTrr/py/xevas 
els <£>iXnnrov avrco, Trpcorrjv p,ev rrjv rco 3 -tyri- 
cpicrp:ari rco <t>iXoK parous crvvqyoplav, ore ecpevye 
irapavopucov e^etvai ypd\jra<; ^iXiirircp rrpeo-fteis 
77-009 'A07)vaiov<i virep elpyjvtjs irep.ireiv Bevrepov 
Be viraveyvco ro y}rr](piapia b yeypacpcos avros rjv, 
airelcrao-Qai rco Kr\pvKi Ka\ rfj irapd QiXiirirov 
Trpecrfieia, rpirov Be to irepl rod /3ovXevo-aa8ai 

110 rbv Bf/puov virep elprjvqs ev ra/crals rjp.epais. ical 
irpoaeOrjKe ri roiovrov evavfjurjfia tb Xoyco, on 

1 vo/.a(oi Markland : vo/xl(et MSS. 

2 \tyeiu Sauppe : irpoiros \eyeiv or \tyeiv irpairos MSS. 

3 i> t<? H Wolf : tt)v iv r$ MSS. 
240 



ON THE EMBASSY, 107-110 

was to our interests. To show that I speak the 
truth, please call my colleagues and read their 
testimony. 

TESTIMONY 

Accordingly, fellow citizens, when the ambassadors 
were assembled at Pella, and Philip had arrived, and 
the herald called the ambassadors of the Athenians, 
we came forward, not in the order of age, as in the 
former embassy — a procedure which found favour 
with some, and which seemed to be in accord with 
the orderly way of our city 1 — but in the way that was 
dictated by the effrontery of Demosthenes. For he 
said that he was the youngest of all, but declared 
that he could not yield the position of first speaker, 
and would not permit a certain person — hinting at 
me — to take possession of Philip's ears and leave 
the rest no chance to speak. 

He began his speech with certain slanderous allu- 
sions to his colleagues, to the effect that not all of 
us had come with the same end in view, nor were 
we all of one mind ; and then he proceeded to re- 
view his own previous services to Philip : first, his 
defence of Philocrates' motion, when Philocrates, 
having moved that Philip be permitted to send 
ambassadors to the Athenians to discuss peace, was 
defendant on the charge of having made an uncon- 
stitutional proposal ; secondly, he read the motion 
of which Demosthenes himself was author, to °rant 
safe conduct to the hei-ald and ambassadors from 
Philip ; and thirdly, the motion that restricted the 
people's discussion of peace to appointed days. To 
the account he added a conclusion like this : that 

1 The Athenian " way " in such matters is described in 
Aeschines iii. § 2. 

241 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7T/5WTO? irriaToptaai tovs tijv elpijvijv i/c/cXrjovTas, 
ov tois Xoyois, dXXd tois ^povots. eireiO" erepov 
eTDjjero ^jnfytapa, to teal irepl avp,payias f3ov- 
XevaaaOai tov h1)pov, teal fiera ravr i]8rj to irepl 
Trjs irpoehpias ttjs els to, Atovvata tois 7rpea/3eai 

111 tois ^tXiinrov yjn']<p tafia, teal irpoaeOrpce tijv 
iirtpeXetav Tr\v auTov teal irpoaKe^aXaioiv deaiv 
teal cfrvXatcds Ttvas teal dypvirv'ias 8td tovs (j>$o- 
vovvTas teal fSovXopevovs els ttjv avTov (piXoTipiav 
vfSpiaat, teal tu <ye 8r) tcaTayeXaaTa iravTeXws, 
e'e/)' ols ol avpir pea f3ets evexaXv^avTO, a>s e^evtae 
tovs wpeafSets tovs QiXlttttov, cos iptaBcoaaT 
avTols, ot cnrijeaav, opet/ca ^evyrj teal avpTraprjet 
€(/)' 'Ittttov, ov tcaTaovs el<; to a kotos, toairep eTepoi 
Tives, dXXd (pavepoos eTrtSettevvpevos ttjv tcov 

112 trpaypaTcov OepaTreiav. e/celva 8 ?'/<5?7 teal acpohpa 
8i(op6ovTo- " Ov/c einov, cos tcaXos ei' yvvr) yap 
tcov ovtcov iaTl tcdXXtaTOV ov& d>s Setvbs irtelv, 1 
airoyytds tov eiratvov vrroXapfSdvcov tovtov elvar 
ouS' cu? pvrjfiovt/cos, aocptaTov t« TOtavTa vofii^cov 
ipyoXa/3ovvTos ey/ccopta elvat." 'iva oe fir) fiatcpo- 
Xoya), TOiavT r)v a eXeye irapovTcov toov Trpeaftecov 
cos eiros eltrelv ef; d-rrdaris tt)s 'KXXdoos, e<p' ols 
7eA.o)Te? ov^ ol tv^ovtcs eyiyvovTO. 

113 'EiTreior] 8e iroT eiravaaTo ical atwrrr) eyeveTo, 
r\vayica'C,bpi]v eyco Xeyeiv peTa Toiainrjv drraiSev- 

1 irietv Cobet : av/.nrie'iv MSS. 
242 



ON THE EMBASSY, 110-113 

he had been the first to put a curb on those who 
were trying to block the peace ; that he had done 
this, not by his words, but by fixing the dates. Then 
he brought up another motion, the one which pro- 
vided that the people should discuss an alliance also ; 
then, after that, the motion about assigning the 
front seats at the Dionysia to Philip's ambassadors. 
He alluded also to the special attention he had shown 
them : the placing of cushions, and certain watchings 
and vigils of the night, caused by men who were 
jealous of him and wished to bring insult upon his 
honourable name! And that utterly absurd story, 
whereat his colleagues covered their faces for shame, 
how he gave a dinner to the ambassadors of Philip; 
and how when they set out for home he hired for 
them some teams of mules, and escorted them on 
horseback. For he did not hide in the dark, as cer- 
tain others do, but made an exhibition of his fawning 
conduct. And finally he carefully corrected those 
other statements : 1 "I did not say that you are 
beautiful, for a woman is the most beautiful of all 
beings ; nor that you are a wonderful drinker, for 
that is a compliment for a sponge, in my opinion ; 
nor that you have a remarkable memory, for I think 
such praise belongs to the professional sophist." But 
not to prolong the story, he said such things in the 
presence of the ambassadors from almost the whole 
of Hellas, that laughter arose such as you seldom 
h ear. 

But when at last he stopped and there was silence, 
I was forced to speak — after such an exhibition of 

1 The statements that his colleagues had made to the 
assembly on their return from the first embassy, as related 
in §§ 47 and 52. 

243 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

criav Kal Ko\a/ceia<; alo~)(pd<; v7rep/3o\i]V. Kai 
fiitcpa puev * TTpoelirov ii; avdytcr)? irpbs rrju irpo- 
€ipr]fxii'rjv Kara roiv crvp.Tr pea ^ewv vir avrou 
SinfioXrjv, Xeywv on ire/x^reiav ?;/£<£? 'Adijvaloi 
Trpecr/3eL<; ov/c a ir oXoyrja ojuevovs iv Ma/ceSovca 
irepl i)p,wv avTOJv, a\\' oiKodev e/e tov /3iou 

114 SeSoKt p.aa [xevovs d%[ov<; tt}? 7roX,e&)? eivai. ^pa^ea 
S' virep twv op/ccov elirwv, €</>' ou? tf/co/iev, 2 koX 
irepl twv aWwv a irpocreTa^are v/j,eh, Siei^yeiv o 
yap 7repiTTO? tcdv Toh \6yoi<; &eivos Ar]/xoadevr]<i 
ovSei'bi twv dvay/cacwv i/u,vr]cr0r)- Kal tjij Kal Trepl 
Tf)<i eh T\v\a<; <7Tpcneia<; elirov koI trepl rcbv 
lepwv teal irepl Ae\<t>wv Kal 7repl tcov ApucpiKTVo- 
vwv, /ecu p-dXcara /xev <£>i\nnrov ?}%lovv fxr] fieO 
ottXwv, dWd /xerd -^n](pov Kal Kptaew<; rd/cel 
KaOiGjdvai, el c7 dpa purj SvvaTOv eirj, (tovto S' 
rjv irp68t]\ov to yap aTpaToveSov iraprjv icai 
avvrjdpoicrTo-) elirov, otl tov pueWovTa virep 
'KWtjvikwv lepwv (3ov\eveadaL noWr/v irpocryjKei. 
irpovoiav virep evaefteias e\eiv, real Toh Trepl twv 
iraTpiwv ey^eipovai hi&do-fceLV irpoaeyeiv tov vovv. 

115 dfia S' e'£ ap^?}? hie^if\.9ov ttjv ktlctlv tov lepov 
Kal tt)v irpwTt]v avvohov yevopievijv tco^ 'A/i(/>t- 
ktvovwv, Kal tovs 6pK0vs avTcov dveyvwv, iv oh 
evop/cov rjv Toh dp%aLOis, [xrjhepuav iroXiv twv 
KfxdiLKTVOvihwv dvdaTaTOV Troiijcreiv, ixr\V vhaTWV 
vafiaTLaiwv el'p^eiv fi7]T iv iro\ep.w /xijt iv elpijvrj, 
idv 84 Tif Tai>Ta 7rapa/3fj, aTpaTevaeiv irrl tovtov 
Kal Ta<? iroXeis dvao-Ti]o~eiv, Kai idv ti<; t] o~v\a Ta 
tov Qeov, i) avveiSfj ti, r) j3ov\evar) tc KaTa twi' 

1 fiev added by Bekker. 

2 TfiKOfxcv Cobet : ! I]ko^(v airoXr}\p6fj.evoi MSS. 

244 



ON THE EMBASSY, 113-115 

ill-breeding and such excess of shameful flattery. 
Necessarily, by way of preface, I made a brief 
reply to his insinuations against his colleagues, say- 
ing that the Athenians had sent us as ambassadors, 
not to offer apologies in Macedonia for ourselves, 
but as men adjudged by our life at home to be 
worthy of our city. Then after speaking briefly 
on the subject of the oaths for which we had come, 
I reviewed the other matters that you had entrusted 
to us. For the eminent Demosthenes, for all his 
exceeding eloquence, had not mentioned a single 
essential point. And in particular I spoke about 
the expedition to Thermopylae, and about the holy 
places, and Delphi, and the Amphictyons. I called 
on Philip to settle matters there, preferably not with 
arms, but with vote and verdict ; but if that should 
be impossible (it was already evident that it was, for 
the army was collected and on the spot), I said that 
he who was on the point of deciding the fate of 
the holy places of our nation ought to give careful 
thought to the question of piety, and to give at- 
tention to those who undertook to give instruction 
as to our traditions. At the same time I reviewed 
from the beginning the story of the founding of the 
shrine, and of the first synod of the Amphictyons 
that was ever held ; and I read their oaths, in which 
the men of ancient times swore that they would raze 
no city of the Amphictyonic states, nor shut them off 
from flowing water either in war or in peace ; that if 
anyone should violate this oath, they would march 
against such an one and raze his cities ; * and if any- 
one should violate the shrine of the god or be acces- 
sory to such violation, or make any plot against the 

1 The city that has violated its Amphictyonic oath can no 
longer claim the protection of that oath. 

245 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

lepSiv, rifiayp-tjaeiv real X €l P 1, Kai ' 7T0 ^l KaL (ft 0011 !} 
Kal Traar) Svvd/iei' Kal irpoai]V t& opK(p apa 

116 la^vpd. tovtcov 8e dvayvcoaOevTcov cnrecfuivd- 
pbi]V, 071 ep-ol 8otcei hitcaiov elvat /at) irepiopdv 
KaTecrKap,p.a>a<; Ta? iv BoicoTot? iroXeis. on 8' 
rjcrav ' ApufriKTVoviSes Kal evop/coi, fcari]pi0 pLr)crdp:i]v 
Wvi) BdiSeKa rd p,eTeyovTa tov lepov, ®€ttoXov<;, 
BotcoTOf?, ov ®7)/3aiov$ pcovovs, Awpieas, "Icovas, 
Yleppai^ovs, ~hldyvr]Tas, AoXowas, 1 Ao/cpovs, Ol- 
raiovs, QduoTas, MaTuea?, QcoKeas. Kal tov- 
twv ehei^a eKaaiov edvos laoyjrr](f)ov yiyvopevov, 
to p,eyiaTov ra> eXa^Laro), tov ij/covTa ire Acoplov 
Kal KvTiviou 'laov hvvdfxevov Aatce$aip.ovLot<;, Svo 
yap yfn)(fiov<5 CKaarov cpepei edvos, irdXiv i/e twj' 
'lcovcov tov 'EpeTpia Kal YlpiTjvea Tot? 'A#?/zWot?, 
Kal tou? dXXovs KaTa Taind. 

117 Tijv pilv ovv ap)(jqv t>}<? oTpaTelas TavTrjs oaiav 
Kal hiKaiav aTre(f)i}vdp:r)v eivar avXXeyei'TOov 8e 

TWV 'ApLCplKTVOVOOV el<i TO lepOV Kal TVfcOl'TWV 

acoTiipias Kal yjrrfcfrov, Tovq atVtof ? tt}? e£ dp^s 
KaTaXijyfrecos tov lepov Si/a?? rj^Lovv Tv-^elv, /xrj 
ra? TraTpbSas ainwv, dX\' avTOV<; tovs ^eipovpy}]- 
aavTa<; Kal fiovXevaavTas, ra? 8e 7roXei<; irape- 
yovoas; el<; Kpcaiv tou? dBiKr')aavTa<i a^/xtof? 
elvai. " Et S' e7re^e\9cov Svvdp.ei /3ej3fiiooaei<i 
Ta ^rjj3aiwv d8iK?]p,aTa, Trap d>v pcev ftorjOels ovk 
1 AoAottos added by Tittmann. 

1 See cm § 104. 

2 The Council had been unable to meet while the Phocians 
were holding the shrine. Aeschines would have Philip's 
army occupy Delphi, and so restore the Amphictyons to 
their rights. 

246 



ON THE EMBASSY, 115-117 

holy places, they would punish him with hand and 
foot and voice, and all their power. To the oath 
was added a mighty curse. When I had read all 
this, I solemnly declared that in my opinion it was 
not right that we should overlook the fact that the 
cities in Boeotia were lying in ruins. 1 To prove that 
they were Amphietyonic cities and thus protected 
by the oaths, I enumerated twelve tribes which 
shared the shrine : the Thessalians, Boeotians (not 
the The bans only), Dorians, lonians, Perrhaebi, 
Magnetes, Dolopians, Locrians, Oetaeans, Phthio- 
tians, Malians, and Phocians. And I showed that 
each of these tribes has an equal vote, the greatest 
equal to the least : that the delegate from Dorion 
and Cytinion has equal authority with the Lacedae- 
monian delegates, for each tribe casts two votes ; 
again, that of the Ionian delegates those from Eretria 
and Priene have equal authority with those from 
Athens ; and the rest in the same way. 

Now I showed that the motive of this expedition 
was righteous and just; but 1 said that the Amphiety- 
onic Council ought to be convened at the temple, 
receiving protection and freedom to vote, 2 and that 
those individuals who were originally responsible for 
the seizure of the shrine ought to be punished — not 
their cities, but the individuals who had plotted and 
carried out the deed ; and that those cities which 
surrendered the wrongdoers for trial ought to be 
held guiltless. " But if you take the field and with 
your forces confirm the wrongdoing of the Thebans, 3 
you will receive no gratitude from those whom you 

3 If Philip should help the Thebans to subdue the Phocians, 
the confirmation of Theban control over the Boeotian cities 
would naturally follow, as it did in the event. 

247 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aTToXrj^rrj ydpiv ov yap av hvvaio avrovs rrfki- 
KavTa evepy err/a at, rjXitca KOrjvaloi irpbrepov, wv 
ov pepvi]VTai' ov<; S' ey/caraXeL-yjfei*;, dhi/c/jcreis, 
XP 7 1°"!1 &' €^0pol<i /nei^ocriv, dXX' ov <fiiXots" 

118 "\va he pr] hiarp'ifia) tou<? e/eet Xoyovq prjOevras 
vvvl Trpo<i u/xa? u/cp£/3<y? hie£id)v, ev icetyaXaup 
irepl ttuvtcov elircbv Travaopau. rj pev tv^j teal 
(PlXnnros rjaav rebv epytov nvpioi, iyco he ri}<; 
ei? vpd<; evvoias ical rebv Xoytov. Trap" epov pev 
ovv epptjdr] ra hi/caia KaX rd avpcpepovra uplv, 
aire^r) he ov% a>9 rjpeis rjv\6pe6a, aXX' 009 tPiXnr- 
7T09 eirpa^e. irorepov ovv 6 prjhev 7rpo9vpi]8el<; 
ipydaaaOai dyaObv hi/cato? eariv evho^elv, ?} 6 
prjhev ci)v r)v hvvarbs eXXnroov; * ev he ra> irapovri 
vvvl iroXXd hia rbv icaipov irapaXeiTTU). 

119 Et7re he, &>9 etyevhoXoyovv (pdcrtccov oXiywv 
rjfiepcov Ta? ©?/'/3a? ecreadai rcnreivas, /cal T01/9 
Eu/3oea9 a)<? e<f>6{3ovv, irpodywv et? e'A.7rtSa? Kevds 2 
vpd<i. o Be TTOiel, KcnapdOere, & avhpes 'AOijvaiot. 
iyeb yap irapa ^lXlttttw /xev &>v rj^iwera, irpos S' 
vpa<> rjicwv dirtfyyeWov, oil Ta<? ®;;/3a9 TSoLWTiav 
SiKaiov i)yoipi]v eivai, KaX pi] ttjv BouoTLav ©>;- 
/3a?. tovto ovk dirayyelXai, aU' viroayecrOai 

120 pe (f>rjaiv. eXeyov he irpbs upas, oti KXeo^dprji; 
6 XaX/ctSeu? 6 av pd^etv vpcbv /cal QiXlttttov (patt] 
ttjv e£ai0m;? bpbvoiav, a\\a>9 re ical 3 irpoareTa- 
ypevov ?)piv, irpdrreiv dyaOov 6 tl dv hvvwpeOa' i 
robs yap p(.fcpo7roX(,Ta<i, wcrirep avros, cpoftelv ra 

1 tWnn&i' Hamaker : iWeliraiv MSS. 

2 Kevas Markland : Ttvas MSS. 

3 aAAws re ical Blass : is i<al rb or Kal rb MSS. 

4 $uvuone6a Weidner : Svvw/xeda eV t§ ^(pla/xaTi MSS. 

248 



ON THE EMBASSY, 1 17-120 

help, for you could not possibly do them so great a 
service as the Athenians once did, and they have no 
memory for that ; while you will be wronging those 
whom you leave in the lurch, and will find them, not 
your friends in the future, but all the more your 
enemies." 

But not to waste time in reciting to you now pre- 
cisely what was spoken there, I will content myself 
with this brief summary of it all. Fortune and 
Philip were masters of the issue, but I, of loyalty 
to you and of the words spoken. My words were 
words of justice, and they were spoken in your 
interest ; the issue was not according to our prayer, 
but according to Philip's acts. Who, therefore, is it 
that deserves your approval ? Is it the man who 
showed no desire to do any good thing whatever, 
or the man who left undone nothing that was in 
his power ? But I now pass over many things for 
lack of time. 

He said that I deceived you by saying that within 
a few days Thebes would be humbled ; and that I 
told about the Euboeans, how I had frightened them, 
and that I led you on into empty hopes. But, fellow 
citizens, let me tell vou what it is that he is doiiiff. 
While I was with Philip I demanded — and when I 
returned to you I reported that I thought it right — 
that Thebes should be Boeotian, and not Boeotia, 
Theban. He asserts, not that I reported this, but 
that I promised it. And I told you that Cleochares 
of Chalcis said that he was surprised at the sudden 
agreement between you and Philip, especially when 
we had been instructed (< to negotiate concerning 
any good thing that should be within our power." 
For he said the people of the small states, like him- 

249 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

tw!' pei^ovwv dnopp^ra. ravra ov 8i,i]yrjaaa0al 
fie <hr\aiv, dAA' em)yyeX6ai rrjv JLvfioiav rrapa- 
Bcvaeiv. eyco &e v7T€iXij<p€i,v Seiv rrjv ttoXiv rrjv 
virep rwv bXwv pieXXovaav f3ov\eveo~6ai ii?/Sei'o? 
\oyov EiWrjviKoD avrj/coov eivat. 

121 AieftaXXe 8e, /cd/celvov Siatpovp-evos rov Xoyov, 
&)? dirayyeXXeiv TaXrjfffj fiovXopLevos, vrr ep.ov /cal 
QiXo/cpdrovs tccoXvOeirj. iyco £>' u/xa? ?}Se'&>9 av 
epoLpLrjv, et Ti9 rrdiitore > A6rjvaiwv rrpea/3evrr)<; 
e/cirepic^deis, ecp ol? TreirpeafSev/ce /ce/cooXvrai 7rpo? 
rov hqpLov dirayyeXXeiv, /cal ravra iraOcov fcal 
arip,aa0el<; viro rcov avp,7rpeo-f3ecov, rovrou*; 
eypaip- av 1 eiraiveaai ical /caXecrai eVt helirvov. 
Ai}p,oo-0eiir]S roivvv ij/taiv diro t?7? varepa<; upe- 
er/3eia?, ev fj cbtjat, rd rcov 'EXXijvcov rrpdyp.ara dva- 
rparrr\vai, ov/c ev rco ^/;0tcr/zaTt piovov r;/x«? 

122 eiryvei, a/VX,' dirayyeiXavros irpo<; rov hrffiov 
epiov rovs rrepl roov y Ap,(f)iKTv6i'(ov Xoyou? teal 
V»ouorwv, ov% coenrep vvv crvvrepivovro^ ov8' eirei- 
yopcevov, dXX &)? ehvvdfx^v Kara prjp.a d/cptfSe- 
arara, /cal rov hijpiov acfroSpa dirohe^op-evov, 
irapa/cX^Oel'; vir ep,ov p,erd rcov aXXcov avyirrpe- 
afSecov /cal epwrcopevos, 2 et, rdXyjOP] /cal ravra 
drr ay yeXXco 7rpb<i A0>]vaiov<; arrep 7rpo? QiXittttov 
elirov, Trdvrcov p,aprvpovvrcov /cal irraivovvrcov /xe 
rcov crupiTrpeafSecov, erravacna<i eirl ttclctiv ovk ecf>rj 
p.e, coenrep e/cel, s ovrws ev ru> rrapbvri \eyecv, dXX' 
e/cel SnrXao-lcp * dp.etvov. ical rovrcov t^et? ol rrjv 

123 -^rrjcpov fieXXovres cpepeiv iare p,oi pudprvpes. Kai- 

1 eypaty' h.v the editor : typatyev MSS. 
* (Putw/lLcvos Cobet : SiepwT&fj.evos MSS. 
s After e'/ce? the MSS. have dirov -. Blass brackets elirov. 
4 8nr\aarla> Bekker : SiwXaalccs MSS. 
250 



ON THE EMBASSY, 120-123 

self, were afraid of the secret diplomacy of the 
greater. Demosthenes asserts, not that 1 related 
this fact, but that I promised to hand over Euboea ! 
But I had supposed that when the city was about to 
deliberate on matters of supreme importance, no 
statement from any Hellenic source ought to be 
ignored. 

But he falsely declared that when he wished to 
report the truth, he was hindered by me, together 
with Philocrates — for he divided the responsibility 
in that case also. Now I should like to ask you this : 
Has any ambassador sent out from Athens ever been 
prevented from presenting to the people an official 
report of his conduct ? And if one had suffered such 
treatment and had been repudiated by his colleagues, 
would he ever have made a motion that they be 
given a vote of thanks and invited to dinner ? But 
Demosthenes on his return from the second embassy, 
in which he says that the cause of Hellas was ruined, 
moved the vote of thanks in his decree ; and not 
only that, but when I had reported to the people 
what I had said about the Amphictyons and Boeo- 
tians, not briefly and rapidly as now, but as nearly 
word for word as possible, and when the people 
heartily applauded, I called upon him together with 
the other ambassadors, and asked them whether 
my report was true, and identical with what I had 
said to Philip ; and when all my colleagues had 
testified and praised me, after them all Demos- 
thenes arose and said : No, I had not to-day been 
speaking as I spoke there, but that I spoke twice as 
well there. You who are going to give the verdict 
are my witnesses of this. And yet what better 



25 1 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

roi t/<? av avr& /caXXioov Kcupos iyevero, rj tot' 
i^eXeyxeiv ev6v<>, el ri tijv ttoXiv i£i]7rdra>v; <pr}<; 
ydp p-e iv fiev rfj irpOTepa 7rpeo-(3eia XaOelv crav- 
rbv avvearrjKora irrl rrjv ttoXiv, iv Be rrf vcrrepa, 
aladeaOai, iv f] avvayopeveov p,oi (paivrj. KaiceLvqs 
[iev afxa Karr/yopcbv ov cprj'i /carr/yopelv, t?}? 6" irrl 
tovs 6pKov<i Kcmiyopels. Kairoi et rrjv elp/jvrjv 
yjreyei<i, av teal rrjv avpuxa^lav eypatyas- teal 
QiXnnros el n TlfV rroXiv i^ijrrdra, Bid rovro 
ixjsevBero, oVw? rrj<; elpijvrjs rjrrep x avvefyepev 
avrw tv^oi. ovkovv rj puev rrporepa rrpea/3eia rov 
tcaipbv rovrov el%€v, r) 6" vcrrepa iirl Trerrpaypie- 
voi<s iyiyvero. 

124 TtVe? ovv rjaav al drrdrai, ravra yap rov yorj- 
tos avOpdynov, i£ (ov elprjKe Xoyiaaade. elarrXelv 
fxe (prjaiv iv p,ovo£vXa> irXolw Kara rov AoiBiav 2 
rrora/xbv tt)? vvtcrb<; &>? QiXittttov, teal rrjv iiri- 
(TToXrjv rrjv Bevpo iXOovaav ^iXittttw ypdyfrai. o 
fxev yap Kewadevrjs, 6 (pevycov ivdevBe Bid robs 
avtco<pdvra<;, ov Bvvarbs r)v imBe^iw; iiriaroXrjv 
ypd^b-ai, ov ovk OKVovai rive? drrocpaiveadai fiera 
KaXXiar parov rbv 'AcpiBvaiov rdv dXXwv p-d- 

125 Xiara elrreiv Bviaadar ovB' avrb$ o QiXiTTTros, 
Trpbs ov dvrenreiv i\rjp,oa6evrj<i vrrep vp.cbv ovk 
?jBvv>j6rj- oi>B' 6 Bv^dvrios Tlvdoov, dvOpcorro? iirl 
ra> 3 ypd<peiv pueya eppovebv dXX' <w? eoitce to rrpd- 
yp.a ip.ov irpoaeBelro. koX Xeyets p.ev oti tPiXnnrw 
p.eO' rjp.epav rroXXaKis piovos p,6v(p BieXeyop.rjv, 
alrid Be elarrXelv /xe vv/crcop Kara rbv rrorapiov 

1 Vep H. Wolf : tUtp (or ef n) MSS. 

2 AoiSiaf Reiske (Harpocration) : AvSiav MSS. 

3 e'iri t# H. Wolf : irepl rb MSS. 

252 



ON THE EMBASSY, 123-125 

opportunity could he have had to convict me than to 
do it then and there, if I was in any wise deceiving 
the city ? You say, Demosthenes, that while I was 
in a conspiracy against the city in the first embassy, 
you were not aware of it, but that on the second you 
found it out — the embassy in which we find you 
testifying to my services ! And while accusing me 
for my conduct on the first embassy, you at the same 
time deny that you accuse me, and direct your 
accusations against the embassy that was sent to 
take the oaths. And yet if it is the peace you 
find fault with, it was you who moved to add the 
alliance to it. And if Philip did at any point deceive 
the city, his deception had to do with the peace, for 
he was manoeuvring for the precise form of peace 
that would serve his own advantage. But it was 
the earlier embassy that offered the opportunity to 
accomplish this ; the second took place after the 
thing was already done. 

How he has deceived you — deceit is ever the mark 
of the charlatan — see from his own words. He says 
that I went down the Loedias river to Philip in a canoe 
by night, and that I wrote for Philip the letter which 
came to you. For Leosthenes, who had been exiled 
from Athens through the work of blackmailers, was 
not competent to write a clever letter — a man whom 
some do not hesitate to rank next to Callistratus of 
Aphidna as an able orator ! and Philip himself was 
not competent, against whom Demosthenes was not 
able to hold his own when he tried to speak in your 
behalf ! nor Python of Byzantium, a man who takes 
pride in his ability as a writer ! but, as it seems, the 
thing required my help too ! And you say that time 
and again I had private interviews with Philip in the 
daytime, but you accuse me of paddling down the 

253 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCH1NES 

126 ovtg) vvKT€pun]s eVto-ToA.?}? to irpaypia ehelro. on 
5' ovhev dA.?;#e? Xeyeis, rjicovcri puev fiaprvpijaoine 1 ; 
p,ed^ &v avveaiTovv, WyXao/cpeoov 6 Tevehio? /cal 
'laTpo/cXrjt; 6 UaaKpwvTOS, pe6' wv e£?}? diravra 
tov xpovov ra<? vvkt(X<; dv€7ravop,t]v, o'i avviaaaiv 
p,oi p,}]8e/MLav TTcoTTOTe air' avroiv vv/cra diroyevo- 
p.evu>, p,i]he p,epo<i vvktos' ayopuev he /ecu rov<; ol/ee- 
Ta? zeal irapahihopuev eh ftdcravov. zeal rbv /u.ev 
Xoyov, el crvy^copet 1 6 Kari'iyopos, /caraXvw irape- 
(TTai he o hi]p.ocrio<; teal j3aaaviel evavTiov i>p,(hv, 
av /eeXevtjre. evhe^erau he to Xolttov p,epo<; rf]<i 
rj/jcepaf ravra irpd^af 7rpo? evhe/ea yap dp,(popea<; 

127 ev hiapL€fjLeTpr)p,ev7] rfj i)p.epa /cpivop.ai. tcdv (pwcriv 
curorcoiTov pie tovtcovI TroowoTe twv avcra'noyv 2 
yeyovevat, pvr) (peiarjade p,ov, a> dvhpe<; ' ' KOrjvaloL, 
dXX , civaaravTe^ air o /crew are. edv S' e^eXey)(6fjq 
yjrevhopievos, UripbocrOeves, rotavTi]V hi/crjv SoV 6p,o- 
Xoyqcrov dvhpoyvvos elvat tcai p,r) eXevOepos evav- 
tlov tovtcov. tedXei pot tou? ot/ceta? hevpo eVi 
to /3i)pa, zeal rrjv TO)v o-vp.Trpeo~/3ea>v dvaylyvcoa/ee 
pbapTvpiav. 

MAPTTPIA. IIPOKAH2I2 

128 ^nreihr) to'ivvv ov he^erau rrjv -TTpo/eX^criv, ovh" 
civ (prjaiv ev (Baadvois dvhpairohcov yeveadai, Xa/3e 
p.oi rrjv iiTLO'ToXrjV Tavrrjv, rjv 6 <£>LXt7r7ro<; eirepL^e. 
hrjXov yap oti p,eydXa ttjv ttoXiv irapaXoyi^erai, 
hi i)v i)ypv7Ti'ovp.ev ypd<povre<;. 

1 avyx^p^ Scholiast : ovyxup'haei MSS. 

2 avaairuiv Baiter : avaairwv Paaavi^ofxevoi MSS. 

1 Slave testimony was accepted in the Athenian courts 
only when it was given, or oflered, under torture. 

254 



ON THE EMBASSY, 125-128 

river in the night — the need of a midnight letter 
was so urgent ! But there is no truth in your story, 
as those who messed with me have come to testify — 
Aglaocreon of Tenedos and Iatrocles the son of Pasi- 
phon, with whom I slept every night during the 
whole time, from beginning to end ; they know that 
I was never away from them a single night, nor any 
part of a night. We present also our slaves and 
offer them for torture ; x and I offer to interrupt my 
speech if the prosecution agree. The officer shall 
come in and administer the torture in your presence, 
gentlemen of the jury, if you so order. There is still 
time enough to do it, for in the apportionment of 
the day eleven jars of water have been assigned to 
my defence. 2 If the slaves testify that I ever slept 
away from these messmates of mine, spare me not, 
fellow citizens, but rise up and kill me. But if you, 
Demosthenes, shall be convicted of lying, let this be 
your penalty — to confess in this presence that you 
are a hermaphrodite, and no free man. Please sum- 
mon the slaves to the platform here, and read the 
testimony of my colleagues. 

TESTIMONY. CHALLENGE 

Since now he does not accept the challenge, saying 
that he would not rest his case on the testimony of 
tortured slaves, please take this letter, which Philip 
sent. For a letter that kept us busy writing all 
night long must obviously be full of clever deception 
of the city. 

2 A definite time, measured by the water-clock, or 
clepsydra, was assigned to each side. How long a time 
would be occupied by the running of one amphora of water 
through the clepsydra, we have no means of knowing. 

255 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

EniSTOAH 

129 'A/eouere, &> dvhpes, on " tow? op/covs aTroSe- 
8a»ca" fyrjGL, " rot? v/jberepois Trpeafiecn" Koi rwv 
(jvp,p,dyu)V twv eaurov tovs Trapayevop,evov<; tear 
6vop,a yey pacpe, teal avrovs kcu ras 7ro\et9 avToyv, 
tou? 8' varep^aavTWi tmv o-vp.pidywv airoareXelv 
(p7]at 7rpo? 17x0:9. ravT ovv ov/c av oleaOe 8vva- 
adai ypd^rai QlXirnrov p.ed' Tjpuipav avev ip,ov ; 

130 'A\X' ep.ot.ye vt) tovs Oeovs o5to? 1 So/cel tovto 
pcovov Xoyl^eadai, oVco? pueTa^v Xeywv ev&OKip,7]- 
aei' el Se puicpov iinayoiv ho^ei irovripoTaro^ ro)v 
'EWrfvcov elvai, ovSe puicpov ^povTi^eiv? t'i yap 
av Ti? tolovtw Tuo-Tevaeiev dvOpooira), 69 eyice^- 
prj/ce Xeyeiv 009 Q?L\nnro<i, ov to?9 avrov crrparr]- 
yyjpLaaiv, dWa rais ep.al<i hripbriyopiais, eiaw 
TlvXoov irapyjXOe; Kal Xoytapuov Tiva i)p,epwv 
avviipiOpLeiro 737509 vp,a<;, ev ah eyco p,ev dir^y- 
yeWov ttjv 7rpeaf3elav, ol he <$>a\aLfcov rov <t><w- 
/cecov Tvpdvvov Spop,o/c?]pvKe<; rdvOevSe eKelae 
SiijyyeWov, 7rtaTevaavTe<; 8e ol <&a>Kel<; ep<ol elaco 
UvXwv avrbv irapehe^avro Kal t«9 ir6\ei<i Ta? 
avTtbv irapehocrav. 

131 TaOra p,ev ovv 6 /carrfyopos p,ep^rpydv7]Tai, to, o° 



ev <£>coKevcu 8ie<p8dpr) irpdyp^ara rrpcorov p,ev 81a 
tt]V tvyt/v, i) irdvrcov earl Kvpla, eTrecra 81a to 



ta 

TO 



p,r}K0<i rov xpovov Kal tov 8eKe.Tr) iroXepbOv. to 
yap avTO 77v^7iae re twv ev Qaucevab rvpdvvcov 
rd irpdypbara Kal /ca8el\&- KarecrTrjaav p,ev yap 
els Tr/v dp%T)v To\p.7jaavTe^ twv lepSiv XpripLarcov 



1 ovtos Blass : ouroaX MSS. 
<t>povjl£eiv Dobree : (ppovrl(ei MSS. 



256 



ON THE EMBASSY, 129-131 

LETTER 

You hear, gentlemen, what he wrote : " I gave my 
oath to your ambassadors " ; and he has written the 
names of those of his allies who were present, both 
the names of the representatives themselves and of 
their states ; and he says he will send to you those 
of his allies who were not there in time. Does it 
seem to you that it would have been beyond Philip's 
ability to write that in the daytime, and without 
my help ? 

But, by heaven, the only thing, apparently, that 
this man Demosthenes cares about, is to win ap- 
plause while he is on the platform ; but whether or 
not a little later he will be considered the greatest 
scoundrel in Hellas, for that he appears to care not a 
whit. For how could one put any faith in a man 
who has undertaken to maintain that it was not 
Philip's generalship, but my speeches, that enabled 
Philip to get this side Thermopylae ! And he gave 
you a sort of reckoning and enumeration of the days 
during which, while I was making my report on the 
embassy, the couriers of Phalaecus, the Phocian 
tyrant, were reporting to him how matters stood in 
Athens, while the Phocians, putting their trust in 
me, admitted Philip this side Thermopylae, and sur- 
rendered their own cities to him. 

Now all this is the invention of my accuser. It 
was fortune, first of all, that ruined the Phocians, 
and she is mistress of all things ; and secondly, it 
was the long continuance of the ten years' war. For 
the same thing that built up the power of the tyrants 
in Phocis, destroyed it also : they established them- 
selves in power by daring to lay hands on the 

257 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

a-^racrOai, Kal Sia tjepcov ra<; 7roXiT€ia<; fiereary- 
aav, Kare\v6)jcrav S' airopla ^prj/jLUTaw, iireiSi/ 

132 KaTe/xiat>o(f)6pr]aav ra virdpyovra. rpiTOV £>' av- 
tovs KaOeiXev i) to?? diropovpevoLS crrpaTOTreSois 
crvv7]6a><i irapaKoXovOovcra ardais, reraprov 8 1) 
<£>a\aLicov irepl twv pieXXovrcov eaeadai jrpayp,d- 
tcov dyvoia. r) jxev yap %€TTaXon' /cat QiXlttttov 
arpareta TTp68>)Xo<; ijv, ov ttoXXco Se %pov(p rrpo- 
Tepov irplv rr]v nrpb<; u/xa? eipyjvriv yeveaOai, 
TTpecr/3eis 7Tpb<; v/bids i^XOov Ik <X>cotcecov, ftorjfleiv 
al/rots /ceXevovTes, real eirayyeXXoi-ievoi irapaSco- 
aetv 'AXircovov kcu %pbviov teal Ni/caiav, ra tSjv 

133 irapohwv tcov et'<? TlvXas X 0i P ia /cvpia. tyi](pi<ra- 
fiivcov S' vfimv irapahovvai Ilpo^eva) ra> ar parity co 
tou9 Ow/crea? ravra ra ywpia, /cal irevri'iKovra 
TrXypovv rpir/peis, /cal rovi p^e^pi rerrapaKOvra 
erebv l i^ievai, dvrl rov Trapahovvai ra ywpia 
Upo^evu), eSrjaav ol rvpavvoi rovs 7rpeo-/3ei<; rovs 
eTT7]yyeXp,evov<;' 2 vfx.iv 7rapa8coaeiv ra (pv\aKT7]pia, 

teal TOt? cr7TOv8o(f)6pOL<; TOt? TO.? pLV<TTr)pt,(£)Tl8aS 

cr7rov8d<; irrayyeXXovai, puovoi rwv ' EXXtp'cov <£>&)- 
teels ovk eaireiaavro. /cal rrdXiv Ap-^iSd/xov 
rov Adtcwvos 7rapaXajj,/3dveiv ovros eroifxov rd 
ywpla teal (fivXdrreiv, ovk e7reicy9r)aav, dXX' 
arreKpivavro avrq* ra t?}? ^irdprr]<; heivd SeBievai 

134 Kal pbrj ra Trap avrol<;. 3 KavravOa ovirw> hieXe- 
Xvade QikiTrTrcp, dXX iv rf) avrjj rjpepa, irepi re 
Tr}? elpi)V7]<i ifiovXeveaOe, Kal rfjq e7ricrroXrj<; 
rjKovere tt)? Tipo^epov, otl 4>&)«6i9 ov Trapahehdi- 

1 e'rcoc Blass : err] yiyovSras MSS. 

2 {irrrt-yzKfAivovs Hamaker : iirayyeAXofj.fi'ovs or eirayyetAa- 
fiivovs MSS. 3 aiiTo'is Markland : avrols MSS. 

258 



ON THE EMBASSY, 131-134 

treasures of the shrine, and by the use of merce- 
naries they put down the free governments ; and it 
was lack of funds that caused their overthrow, when 
they had spent all their resources on these merce- 
naries. The third cause of their ruin was mutiny, such 
as usually attends armies which are poorly supplied 
with funds. The fourth cause was Phalaecus' in- 
ability to foresee the future. For it was plain that 
the Thessalians and Philip were going to take the 
field ; and shortly before the peace with you was con- 
cluded, ambassadors came to you from the Phocians, 
urging you to help them, and offering to hand over to 
you Alponus, Thronion, and Nicaea, the posts which 
controlled the roads to Thermopylae. But when 
you had passed a decree that the Phocians should 
hand over these posts to your general Proxenus, and 
that you should man fifty triremes, and that all 
citizens up to the age of forty years should take 
part in the expedition, then instead of surrendering 
the posts to Proxenus, the tyrants arrested those 
ambassadors of their own who had offered to hand 
over the garrison posts to you ; and when your 
heralds carried the proclamation of the sacred truce 
of the Mysteries, 1 the Phocians alone in all Hellas 
refused to recognize the truce. Again, when Archi- 
damus the Laconian was ready to take over those 
posts and guard them, the Phocians refused his offer, 
answering him that it was the danger from Sparta 
that they feared, not the danger at home. That was 
before you had come to terms with Philip ; but on 
the very day when you were discussing the question 
of the peace, the letter of Proxenus was read to 

1 A provision for the safe conduct of all Greeks who 
wished to attend the celebration of the lesser Eleusinian 
Mysteries, which took place in Attica in the spring. 

259 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

kclgiv avT<p ra ywpia, Kal ol ra p,vo~Trjpia erray- 
yeWovres l /jlovovs toiv dWcov EWtfvcov dire- 
<paivov 2 Ow/cea? ov BeBeypLevovs Ta? arirovBds, 
dWa teal toik; Bevpo iXrjXvOoras 7rpea/3ei<; BeBe- 
Koras. otl Be akrjOfi \eyco, KaXei p,oi tou? ctttov- 
Bocfropovs, Kal rovs irapd Upo^evov tov crTpaTrjyov 
it pea (Sever avras et? <J>&)/cea9, K.aWi/epdtr}v teal 
^leTayevrjv, teal rr)<; eVtcrToA^? aKOvaare t?)<; 
Upo^evov. 

MAPTTPIAI. EniSTOAH 

135 'A/couere, &> dvBpe<; 'AOrjvaioi,, twv %povcov nrap- 
avayiyvoxTKopbevwv i/c twv BrjpLoatoyv ypapbpbdrwv, 
kcu to)v ptapTvpwv vpuv TrpoaBiap^apTvpovvTcov, 3 
oti Trplv epte yeipo7ovi)Qr)vai 7rpe<j/3evT7Jv, <£>d\ai- 
«09 o tcov (Pco/cecov rvpavvos rjp,iv puev Kal Aa/ce- 
BaipboviOLS rjirldTei, ^CKittttw S' eirlaTevev. 

136 'AXA,' outo9 puovos to o~vp,f3r]o-6p,€vov -qyvoet; 
u/xet? he avTol BrjpLocriq 7rco9 BieKeiade; ov Trainee 
irpocrehoKaTe QCXittttov Tcnreivdocreiv ®T)j3aiovs, 
opwvTa t i a\)Twv ttjv 0paavTr]Ta, Kal tw 5 pur) 
fiovXeadat Bvvapuv dv6pd>iTcov diriaTcov eirav- 
£fjcrai; 6 Aa/ceSaipLovioi Be ov pied' rjpiwv TavavTia 
©?7/3atoi9 eTcpeo~(Sevov, Kal Te\evTQ)VT€<i irpoae- 
tcpovov (pavepws ev 'Ma/eeBovla Kal BtrjireiXovvTo ; 7 
avTol Be ovk r/Tropovv Kal efioftovvTo ol tS)v ®t}- 
fiaiwv 7rpea/3ei<i; ®eTTa\ol Be ov KaTeyeXcov twv 

1 eirayyeWovres Baiter and Sauppe : airayyeWovres MSS. 
* a.TT((pati'oy Blass : a.Tre<pr)vav MSS. 

3 irpoaSiafiapTvpovvTcav Hamaker : irpotrSiaaapTvp7]<rdvTwv 
MSS. * t' added by Dobree. 6 t<S H. Wolf : rb MSS. 

6 iirav£rjtrcu Sauppe : eVacrxfjo-ai MSS. 

7 5i7}7reiAoCf'To Cobet : 5i7)7re/Aouj' MSS. After b~irfjrel\ovv the 
MSS. have ro7s twv @T]9alwv trpia^iuiv, which Blass brackets. 

260 



ON THE EMBASSY, 134-136 

you, in which he said that the Phocians had failed 
to hand over the posts to him ; and on the same day 
the heralds of the Mysteries reported to you that 
the Phocians alone in all Hellas had refused the 
sacred truce, and had, furthermore, arrested the 
ambassadors who had been here. To prove that I 
am speaking the truth, please call the heralds of the 
truce, and the envoys Callicrates and Metagenes, 
whom Proxenus our general sent to the Phocians, 
and let the letter of Proxenus be read. 

TESTIMONY. LETTER 

The dates, fellow citizens, taken from the public 
archives, have been read and compared in your 
hearing, and you have heard the witnesses, who 
further testify that before I was elected ambassador, 
Phalaecus the Phocian tyrant distrusted us and 
the Lacedaemonians as well, but put his trust in 
Philip. 

But was Phalaecus the only one who failed to 
discern what the outcome was going to be ? How 
stood public opinion here ? Were you not yourselves 
all expecting that Philip was going to humble the 
Thebans, when he saw their audacity, and because 
he was unwilling to increase the power of men 
whom he could not trust ? And did not the Lace- 
daemonians take part with us in the negotiations 
against the Thebans, and did they not finally come 
into open collision with them in Macedonia and 
threaten them ? Were not the Theban ambassadors 
themselves perplexed and alarmed ? And did not 
the Thessalians laugh at all the rest and say that the 



261 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aXXwv, virep avrwv cfxlcrKovre^ rr/v arpareiav 

137 eivai; rwv 8" eraipwv rives rcov QiXittttov ov 
hiappr']h^v 7T/30? rivas i)p,(ov kXeyov on t<x9 ev 
Boio)rot<> TToXeis /caroLKiei ^iXittttos; ©ry/Satoi h' 
ovk e^eXrjXvOeaav iravhripei, diriarovvTes rois 
irpdypiaaiv; vplv he. ravO^ opSiv ovk eneptyev 
eiriaroXrjv 6 <£>i\L7nro<i, e^ievai irdarj rfj hvvdpei 
/3or)0>jaovTa<; rots hiKaioa; ol Be vvv rroXepiKol teal 
ri]v elpi]vr)v dvavhpiav KaXovvres, ov hieKiaXvaav 
vpas e^eXOelv elpr)vrj<; Kal avpipayla^ yeyevi)puevr)<i} 
hehievai (pdaKovres pirj tov<; arparKora^ vpuwv 

138 6p,rjpov<; Xd/3r) <$>iXnnro<; ; irorepov ovv eyia tovs 
jrpoyovovs eKooXvaa rbv hr)pov pupelaOai, r) o~v 
zeal ol pierci gov a-vvearrjKOTes eirl rd Koivd; Kal 
-rrorepov rjv dacpaXearepa xai KaXXiwv 'AOrjvctLois 
r) e£oho<;, f)vlfca ijKpa^ov p,ev 2 rfj pavia, <£>a>Kei<;, 
eiroXepovv he <£>iXiTT7ra>, el%ov he 'AXttcovov Kal 
NiKaiav, ovttu) TrapahovTos <£>aXa(,Kov Ma/ceSocrt, 
tA? Q-TTOvhds he oh epeXXopev fBorjdelv rd<; pivar^- 
pidiTihas ovk ehe^ovro, ®r)l3aLov<; h' oiriaQev 
KareXeirropev, 3 rj peTcnrepTrop,evov piev (PiXiTnrov, 
opKwv h' rjplv kcu crvppayias yeyev^pev^, (derra- 
Xwv he Kal rcov dXXtov AptyiKTVoimv crrparevov- 

139 Ttov ; ov ttoXXw KaXXicov outo? r)v o Kaipbs 

eneivov, ev m hid ttjv crrjv dvavhpiav Kal dpia 

(f)96vov eaKevaycoyr/aav eK rwv dypoov ' A0rjvaioi, 

i yfyei/7ifj.evris Weidner : ii/uv (or ri/xtv) yeyevr)/j.evr]s or 
7«76MjjUf vt\s vjxiv MSS. 2 ^ev Dobfee : iv MSS. 

3 KaT(\(liro/x(v Bekker : Ka.Tthiirofi.fv MSS. 

262 



ON THE EMBASSY, 136-139 

expedition was for their own benefit ? Did not some 
of Philip's companions say explicitly to some of us 
that Philip was going to re-establish the cities in 
Boeotia ? Had not the Thebans already, suspicious 
of the situation, called out all their reserves and 
taken the field ? And did not Philip, when he saw 
this, send a letter to you calling upon you to come 
out with all your forces in defence of the cause of 
justice? As for those who are now for war, and who 
call peace cowardice, did they not prevent your going 
out, in spite of the fact that peace and alliance had 
been made with Philip ? Did they not say that they 
were afraid he would take your soldiers as hostages ? 
Was it I, therefore, who prevented the people from 
imitating our forefathers, or was it you, Demosthenes, 
and those who were in conspiracy with }^ou against 
the common good ? And was it a safer and more 
honourable course for the Athenians to take the field 
at a time when the Phocians were at the height of 
their madness and at war with Philip, with Alponus 
and Nicaea in their possession — for Phalaecus had 
not yet surrendered these posts to the Macedonians 
— and when those whom we were proposing to aid 
would not accept the truce for the Mysteries, and 
when we were leaving the Thebans in our rear : or 
after Philip had invited us, when we had already 
received his oaths and had an alliance with him, and 
when the Thessalians and the other Amphictyons 
were taking part in the expedition ? Was not the 
latter opportunity far better than the former ? But 
at this later time, thanks to the combination of 
cowardice and envy in you, Demosthenes, the Athe- 
nians brought in their property from the fields, when 



263 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7rpeaf3evovro<; ifiov ttjv rpiTrjv rjBrj irpecrfSeiav 
rrjv 1 €7rl to kolvov twv 'AficpiKTVovwv, e'<£' f)v 
roXfias fie Xeyeiv a>? ov ^eipoTovr)0e\<i (p^ofirjv, 
e^dpos o' oiv ov&€7T(o 2 kcu rijfiepov rjOekrjicds fie 
elcrayyeiXcu Trapairpeaftevoacrdai; ov yap Br] 
<f)0ovei<> ye fjbot t&v et? to aosfia rifitffidrcov. 

140 Tocydprot, (B/Tiftaloov fiev irapaKaOtffikvwv kcu 
Seofievcov, t?}? 8" rjfierepa<i 7roXe&)<? Bid ae reOo- 
pvf3r]fievrj<i kcu ro)v ' 'Adijvaicov oirXnwv ov nrapov- 
rcov, ®eTTak.(ov Be ®r]/3aioi<; irpocQefievatv Sid tijv 
vfierepav dfSovXiav kcu, rrfv 7rpo? <£>(i)Kea<i eyffpav, 
r) irpovTTrjp'^e ©eTTaXot? e/c iraXcuwv ^povwv, ore 
avTwv tovs ofirjpovs XafiovTes QaiKeis KarrfKorjcrav, 
QaXa'iKov he irplv efie eXdeiv kcu %Te$avov kcu 
AepKvXov Kctl Toil? aXXovs 3 7rpeaf3et<i d7reX7)Xv- 

141 doros vttoo~tt6vSov, ^Op^opevioiv Be 7repi<f>6/3a>v 
ovtcov kcu aTTOvSds Tot? acofiaaiv alrrjaavrcov, 
war-re direXOelv €K t?}? Bot&vrta?, irapea-TrfKOTwv 
fiev twv %r)f3aio)v irpecrfSewv, VTroXenrofievi]*; 8' 
e^dpas tyavepds QiXltttto) 7T/3o<? ®i)f3aiov$ kcu 
©eTTaXow, tot€ aTTcoXovTO ai 7rpd£ei<; ov Be efie, 
dXXa Bid ttjv ai]V irpoBoaiav kcu rrjv irpbs &r)- 
fSaiovs Trpo^evLav. fieydXa S' olfiai tovtcov epya> 4 

1 TT)f added by Franke. * ovUiroo Blass : oVttu MSS. 

3 &\Kovs Blass : ! 'A/xQiKTvovas MSS. 

4 ip-ycf Blass : 4yl> MSS. 



1 See on § 94. This was, strictly speaking, the fourth 
embassy ; but as it was appointed to do what had been 
entrusted to the third, and was made up of the same men, 
Aeschines speaks of it as the third. 

* The ambassadors to Philip, while not formally accredited 
to negotiate with the Amphictyonic Council, which Philip 

264 



ON THE EMBASSY, 139-141 

I was already absent on the third embassy, 1 and ap- 
pearing before the assembly of the Amphictyons 2 — 
that embassy on which you dare to say that I set 
out without having been elected, although, enemy 
as you are to me, you have never to this day been 
willing to prosecute me as having wrongly served on 
it ; and we may safely assume that this is not because 
you begrudge me bodily pains and penalties. 

When, therefore, the Thebans were besieging him 
with their importunities, and our city was in con- 
fusion, thanks to you, and the Athenian hoplites 
were not with him; 3 when the influence of the Thes- 
salians had been added to that of the Thebans, 
thanks to your shortsightedness and because of the 
hostility to the Phocians which the Thessalians had 
inherited from that ancient time when Phocians 
seized and flogged the Thessalian hostages ; and 
when, before my coming and that of Stephanus, 
Dercylus, and the rest of the ambassadors, Phalaecus 
had already made terms and departed ; when the 
people of Orchomenus were in exceeding fear, and 
had begged for peace, on condition that their lives 
should be spared and they be allowed to go forth 
from Boeotia ; 4 when the Theban ambassadors were 
standing by, and when it was plain that Philip was 
threatened with the hostility of the Thebans and 
Thessalians : then it was that the cause was lost — 
not from any fault of mine, but thanks to your 
treachery, Demosthenes, and your hired service to 
Thebes. Of this 1 think I can furnish important 

had called together to act on the punishment of the Phocians, 
were present at Delphi during their meeting, and Aeschines 
addressed the Council. See § 142. 

3 See § 137 

4 Orchomenus was one of the towns referred to in § 104. 

K 265 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

142 o-rj/xeia eiriSel^eiv. el yap ri tovtcov dXr)0e<; r}V &v 
avXeyets, Karrjyopovv dv pov TSohotwv Kal <&a>Kewv 
ol cpevyovres, a>v rov? p,ev etjeftefiXij/cetv, tou? S' 
e/ccoXvaa tcarekdeiv' vvv §' ov%l rd avp/3dvra 
Xoyt^opuevoi, dXXa rrjv evvoiav r^v ep,i]v utto- 
oexofievot,, cuXXeyevTes ol (pevyovre? Hoicotojv 
rjpi]vTal pLoi avv>]y6povs, tjkoucti S' dirh rcov ev 
<£>a)/cevo-i 7ro\e(ov 7rpia/3et<;, 01)9 iyoo rijv Tp'iTi)v 
irpecrf3etav ttjv l eirl Toi)<; 'A/xcpiKTVovas Trpeaftevwv 
kawcra, Olralcov eyxetpovvrayp Xeyeiv go? Sel tou? 
fjfttoVTas u>0elv Kara rov Kprjpvov, ku\ irapi)yayov 
645 tou9 'ApcpiKrvovas, ware diroXoylas rvxeiv. 
pev yap QaXaiKos 2 viroo-Trovhos dcpetTO, ol 8e 
avaiTioi a7rodi>r]o~Keiv ep,eXXov, avvayopevovrof 

143 S' epLov 8ieaoj0^aav. Stc 8' aXijffi] Xeyco, xdXet 
pot, TUlvdocova top <£>a)fcia Kal roil? o-vp,Trpeo-{3ei$, 
/cat, tou? airo rijs roiv BotcoTeoz' <fivyf]S r/pripevovs. 
dvdfa]9i Sevpo, Alirape Kal Uvdlcov, Kal tt]v avrrjv 
dirohore p,oi y^dpiv els rt]V rov crd)p,aTO<; awrrjp'iav, 
rjvrrep eyco vpcv. 

STNHrOPIA BOinTnN KAI 4>nKEnN 

ITco? ovv ovk dv Seiva irddoipbi, el KaryyopovvTos 
p,ev Ai)poa9evov<i rod ( H h]/3ai(ov irpo^evov Kal 
irovqpordTov twv EiXX)]V(i)v, avvayopevovrwv he 
poL <Pa)Kea)v Kal BoicoTojv dXolr/v; 

144 'EToXprjae S' elirelv &>? eyd> rot9 epavrov Xoyots 

1 tV added by Franke. 

1 4>a\ai/fos Dobree : <f>dhaiKos rvpavvos (or 6 rvpavvos) MSS. 

266 



ON THE EMBASSY, 141-144 

confirmation from what has actually happened. For 
if there were any truth in these assertions of yours, 
the Boeotian fugitives, for whose expulsion I was 
responsible, and the Phocian exiles, whose restora- 
tion I prevented, would be accusing me now. But 
as a matter of fact they ignore the misfortunes that 
have come upon them, and satisfied with my loyalty 
to them, the Boeotian exiles have held a meeting 
and chosen men to speak in my behalf; and from 
the towns of Phocis have come ambassadors whose 
lives I saved when I was representing you before 
the Amphictyons on the third embassy ; for when 
the representatives from Oetaea went so far as to 
say that they ought to cast the grown men over the 
cliffs, I brought the Phocians into the assembly of 
the Amphictyons and secured a hearing for them. 
For Phalaecus had made terms for himself and gone, 
and those who were guiltless were on the point of 
being put to death ; but I pleaded for them, and 
their lives were spared. To prove that I speak the 
truth, please call Mnason the Phocian and those who 
have come with him, and call the delegates chosen 
by the Boeotian exiles. Come up to the platform, 
Liparus and Pythion, and do me the same service for 
the saving of my life that I did for you. 

PLEA OF THE BOEOTIANS AND PHOCIANS 

Would it not, then, be monstrous treatment for me 
if I should be convicted when my accuser is De 
mosthenes, the paid servant of Thebes and the 
wickedest man in Hellas, while my advocates are 
Phocians and Boeotians ? 

But he dared to say that I am tripped up by my 

267 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7repi7TLTTT(o. <})7}(Tt, yap fie elirelv, or e/cpivov 
Tifiap^ov, otl 7rdvre<; kclt avrov tijv tt}? Tropveias 
(f)7)/j,7]v 7rapei\7j(f)acri, tov 6" 'HaLooov iroirjrrjv 
dyadov ovia \eyeiv, 

</>?//£?; & ovtis irdpbTrav aTroWvrai, rjvTiva \aol 
ttoWoI (f)7]p,L^co(Tf 1 #eo? vv Tt? eaTi /cal aVTT]. 

ttjv 8 avTiiv ravrrjv deov "]K,eiv vvv Karyyopovaav 
epiov' iravras yap Xeyeiv &>? XPVI J ' aTa %X W '^ ra P a 

145 QiXlttttov. ev c7 tare, a> dvSpe? ' AOiivaloi, otl 
TrXelcrrov oia<pepei (prjfif) fcal avKotyavria. (pVf^V 
p,ev yap ov tcoivcovei 8ia/3o\f), &ia/3o\r) 8e d8e\(p6v 
i(TTi auKocpavria. 2 hiopiw §' avTcov e/cdrepov iya> 
o~a<$>o>s. (pWV puev eariv, orav to 7r\i]0o<; rwv 
tto\itu)v avropiarov e« /i^Se/ua? Trpocpdaeo)? Xeyi) 
rivd &)? yeyevrj p,evr)v irpd^iv av/co<f)avTLa ft ecniv, 
orav 7rpo<i tov? TroWou? et? dvrjp alrlav ep,/3a\cov, 
ev re Tat? e/e/cA/f/crtat? aTrdcrais 7r/?o? re rriv (3ov\t)v 
SiafidWr) rcvd. ical rfj p,ev (pi'ip^y hripboaia dvouev 
w? 6e(p, raf oe avKofyavTwv ft)? Ka/covpywv Srj- 
p-oata Trpo{3o\a$ ivoiovp,e6a. pJr) ovv avvaye ei? 
ravrov rd KaWtara toli atVvtcrTot?. 

146 EttI 7roW.ol<i p,ev ovv eycoye twv Karrjyoprj/xevcov 
ijyavaKTTjaa, pbaXicrra Se r)vc/ca yTidro p,e elvai 
7rpoE6r)]v dp,a yap rals atrial? ravTais (pavrjvai 
/xe eSei 6r)pid)8r) kol Tr\v yjrv^v daropyov /eat 
7roA\ot? erepoi'i irporepov dp,apT))pLaai evoyov. 
rov p.ev ovv epiov ftlov /cal t?}? «a#' r}p,epav StatT?;? 

1 4>rmi£oc<Tt Baiter and Sauppe. Here and in i. 129 the 
MSS. have varying forms of the verb (so in the MSS. of 
Hesiod). 

2 nvKocpavrla Herwerden : ffvicocpayria or ko.1 avKopai'Tia 

MSS. 

268 



ON THE EMBASSY, 144-146 

own words. For he says * that when I was prose- 
cuting Timarchus I said that his lewdness was a 
matter of common report, and that Hesiod, a good 
poet, says, " But Common Report dies never, the 
voice that tongues of many men do utter. She also 
is divine." 2 He says that this same god comes now 
and accuses me, for everybody says, according to 
him, that I have got money from Philip. But be 
assured, fellow citizens, there is the greatest differ- 
ence between common report and slander. For 
common report has no affinity with malice, but malice 
is slander's own sister. I will define each of them 
specifically : it is a case of common report when the 
mass ot the people, on their own impulse and for 
no reason that they can give, say that a certain event 
has taken place ; but it is slander when one person, 
insinuating an accusation in the minds of the people, 
calumniates a man in all the meetings of the as- 
sembly and before the senate. To Common Report 
we offer public sacrifice, as to a god, but the slanderer 
we prosecute, in the name of the people, as a 
scoundrel. Do not, therefore, join together the 
most honourable and the most shameful things. 

At many of his charges I was indeed angry, but 
most of all when he accused me of being a traitor. 
For to bring such charges as those was to hold me 
up to public view as a brute, without natural affec- 
tion, and chargeable in the past with many other 
sins. Now of my daily life and conduct I think you 



1 Demosthenes, On the Embassy, §§ 243 f. 
a Aescliines, Against Timarchus, § 129. 



269 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vfia<i 8oKi/u,a<TTa<; ikclvovs elvai vo/xl^co' a 8' iarl 
Tot? fi€V ttoWol<; davvoirra, tois he ^?;crTOi<? 7729 
yjrvxas /xeyiara, tovtcov vp.iv ra TrXelcrra Kal 
Ka\w<; e^ovra ix tcov vbp.cov bpdv dva/3i/3cop,aL, 
'iv eiorJTe ras ipuas 7rapaKaTa0))Ka<;,a<; olkoi Kwra- 

147 Xnrcov et? MaKehovlav iirpeaplevaa. av piev ydp, 1 
Ar/p,6cr0eve<;, ravra irrXaaco in ipe, iyco 8' &>9 
e7raiBevdi]V Kal hiKa£co<; e^ijytjcropat,. ovroal fiev 
icrri pot Trarrjp At/oo/a?;to9, cr^ehbv TrpeafivTaTos 
tcov ttoXltcov eTt) yap tfhi] /3ef3icoKev ivev/]K0VTa 
Kal Terrapa' avp,/3e{3r]Ke he avrco veco p,ev ovti, 
np\v tt\v ovoiav dnoXeaai hid tov noXep-ov, 
ddXetv tco aoopLart,, iKireaovTi he inro tcov jpid- 
Kovra GTpaieveaQai p.ev iv rfj Aaia, dptareveiv 
8' iv TOt9 Kivhvvois, elvai 8' e/c (frarpLas to yevo<; 
fj tcov clvtcov (3cop,cov , EiTeo/3ovTii8ai<; pbereyei, 60ev 
r] t?i<; 'A^ya9 t/)? IloXta8o9 icrriv iepeta, crvy- 
Kcndyeiv he tov orj/juov, cocrnep Kal oXiyco irporepov 
elirov. 

148 'EXevOepovs 8e p.ot avp:/3e^rjKev elvai Kal tou9 

7T/309 pLTjTpOS OLTTaVTaS, $) VVV ipbol TTpb TCOV 6(f)- 

6aXp.cov TrpcxpaLverai cpoftovp,ev)) irepl t% ipLr/s 
acoTrjpias Kal hirjTToprjp,evr]. kclltoi, ^p.ba6eve<;, 
r) p,ev ip-i] /jLiJttjp ecpvye piera tov dvhpbs 2 els Ko- 
pivOov Kal p.erecx)(e tcov ttoXitikcov Kaxcov ltv he 
o 3 ap.(pi(r/3>lTCOv dvt/p elvai, ov yap av ToXpLi']- 
aaip.i elnelv cos dvrjp el, iypacprjs XnroTa^iov, Kal 

1 /uev yap Franke : jxtv or f.dv ovv MSS. 

2 tov ai'Spbs Cobet : tov ovttjs avb'pbs (or tov avSphs avTys) 
MSS. s 6 added by Bekker. 

270 



ON THE EMBASSY, 146-148 

are competent judges. But facts that escape the 
public eye, yet are of greatest importance in the 
opinion of men of character, I will bring into court 
as my witnesses — facts very many in number and to 
my credit in the eyes of the law — in order that 
seeing them you may know what pledges I left at 
home when I set out for Macedonia on the embassy. 
For you, Demosthenes, fabricated these charges 
against me, but I will tell my story, as I was taught 
to do from childhood, truthfully. Yonder is my 
father, Atrometus ; there are few older men among 
all the citizens, for he is now ninety-four years old. 
When he was a young man, before the war destroyed 
his property, he was so fortunate as to be an athlete; 
banished by the Thirty, he served as a soldier in 
Asia, and in danger he showed himself a man ; by 
birth he was of the phratry 1 that uses the same 
altars as the Eteobutadae, from whom the priestess 
of Athena Polias comes ; and he helped in the re- 
storation of the democracy, as I said a little while 
ago. 2 

It is my good fortune, too, that all the members 
of my mother's family are free-born citizens ; and 
to-day I see her here before my eyes in anxiety and 
fear for my safety. And yet, Demosthenes, this 
mother of mine went out to Corinth an exile, with 
her husband, and shared the disasters of the de- 
mocracy ; but you, who claim to be a man — that you 
really are a man I should not venture to say — you 
were once indicted for desertion, and you saved 

1 Each of the four Athenian tribes was divided into three 
phratries. Under the democracy these groups of families 
had only religious functions. Each phratry had its own 
place of worship. 2 See § 78. 

271 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

tov ypayjrdfxevov NikoStj/jLOV tov ' A<j>t8valov XPV~ 
fiaai 7reiera? eacodr]^, ov varepov pera 'Apio~T- 
dpyov avvaire/cTeLvas, real ov KaOapo^ &v eh Ti]v 

149 dyopdv ip./3dWei<;. QiXoydp-r]? 8" ovtoctl, 6 irpe- 
(T^uTaTO<i dSe\(f)6<i f)p:a)v, ov/c dyevveh hiarpifids, 
&)? ai) /SXao-^/xet?, 1 a\V iv yvp-vaaioi? hiaTpl- 
(3(ov, kcli p.era Ifa/cparovq avvearparevpievo<i, real 
aweyoi^ erof 7]8t] tovtI rptrov aTparrj<yS)v, tf/cei 
BeTjo-ofievos vptov ep,e acoaai. 'A(£o/3?7TO? S' ov- 
rocri, o vewraTos rjpLwv d8e\<fio<;, ireirpeafiev/ccos 
p.ev virep vp-cov a^tftx? t/}? 7roXe&)9 7rpo? tov 
Ylepacov fiaaiXea, /caXcos he ical 8i/cai(o<i twv 
vp,erepa>v vpoaohwv e7rip,e\r]0eh, ore avrov eVt 
tt)V KOivrjV 8iolkt]o~iv elXeaOe, kcli TreTraihoTroir]- 
p.evo<; Kara tovs vo/jlovs, dX)C ov Kvcoaicovt ti-jv 
eavTov yvval/ca Trapafcara/cXLvcov, wenrep av, 
TrdpecrTi /carcKppovcbi/ tmv awv \oihopio)v to 
yap yjrevBes oveihos ov TrepaiTepa) tt}? d/<ofj<; 

150 dcfri/cveiTai. eTo\pi^aa<; he kcu irepl twv eybwv 
/cr/heaTcov eliretv ovtcos dvaihys koX iroppcoOev 
dydpiGTos el, o<? <£>i\ohi]pov tov QlXcdvos ttci- 
Tepa /cal ETTi/cpaTOVs ovk dyenras ovhe irpoa- 
Kvveh, hi ov eh tou? hrjp,0Ta<; 6P&ypd<f>r)s, &>? 

1 ft\a<r<p-nin.us Cobet : the MSS. have tx wv after ^Aaa-<pt}/j.6?s 
(or after ayevvels). 



1 In the spring of 348 Demosthenes was serving on an 
expedition sent out to Euboea. On the approach of the 
Great Dionysia he was obliged to return to the city to serve 
as choragus, a burden which lie had previously volunteered 
to take upon himself, at heavy cost. Personal enemies of 
his brought, but did not prosecute, a charge of desertion in 
the field. 

272 



ON THE EMBASSY, 148-150 

yourself by buying off the man who indicted you, 
Nicodemus of Aphidna, whom afterward you helped 
Aristarchus to destroy ; * wherefore you are polluted, 
and have no right to be invading the market-place. 2 
Philochares yonder, our eldest brother, a man not of 
ignoble pursuits, as you slanderously assert, 3 but a 
frequenter of the gymnasia, a one-time comrade of 
Iphicrates in the field, and a general now for the 
past three years, has come to beg you to save me. 
Our youngest brother, too, Aphobetus yonder, who 
as ambassador to the king of Persia has served 
you to the credit of the city, who administered your 
revenues honestly and well when you called him to 
the department of the treasury, who has gotten him 
children lawfully — not by putting his wife in Cnosion's 
bed, as you, Demosthenes, did yours— he also is here, 
despite your slanders ; for defamation goes no further 
than the ears. But you dared to speak about my wife's 
family also — so shameless you are and so inherently 
thankless, you that have neither affection nor respect 
for Philodemus, 4 the father of Philon and Epicrates, 
the man by whose good offices you were enrolled 
among the men of your deme, as the elder Paeanians 

The murder of Nicodemus by Aristarchus, a young friend 
of Demosthenes, was a notorious case, but the attempts of 
Demosthenes' enemies to connect him with it were entirely 
unsuccessful. See Aeschines, Against Timarchus, § 172. 

2 A man under indictment for murder was not allowed 
access to the market-place, for contact with a murderer 
woidd pollute innocent men. 

3 For Demosthenes' taunts as to the brothers of Aeschines 
and those of his wife, see his speech On the Embassy, §§ 237 
and 287. 4 See § 152. 

273 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

iaaaiv ol Trpeafivrepoi Tlaiavieaiv. eKTreirXriypai 
Be, el av XoiBopeiv f&iXwva roXp,a<;, teal ravra ev 
Tot? eTTieiKeaTtiTOLS A6r)vauov, o'l Bevpo elaeXrj- 
Xvdaai SiK(iaovTe<i eveKa tov pleXriarov rPj<; tto- 
Xea>9, Kal paXXov irpoae-^ovai T049 /3loi<; r)pbwv i) 

151 Tot<? Xoyois. Trorepa yap av TrpoaSo/cas avruvs 
ev^aaOac puvpiovs OTrXiras op.oi.ovs (PiXcovt yeve- 
aOat, Kal to, o~Gop,a,Ta ovtco BiaKeipuevovs Kal rrjv 
y l rv XV v ovtco adxppovas, rj rpiapiv pious KivaiBovs 
o'lovs irep av; Kal rrjv 'EiTTiKparowi evaycoyiav, 
rov QcXcovos dSeXcfrov, eiravdyeis eh ovelBrj. Kal 
Tt? avTOV elhe iruynoTe da^/xovijaavra, r) peed' 
i)pepav, co? av <fir}<;, ev tr\ iropurfi to>v Aiovvaloov, 
rj vvKTCop; ov yap av tovto y eXirois, ft)? eXaOev 

152 ov yap r)yvoelro. epol Be, ft) avBpes, eK ri)<i <£>lXo- 
Bijpbov Ovyarpbs Kal <PlXcovo<; dBeX(f>r)s Kal 'E7T4- 
Kpdrovs rpels iralBes elai, pia puev Ovydrtjp, Bvo 
Be viels' 0D9 67ft) Bevpo rjKO) pera tojv aXXcov 
Kopui^wv, evos ipeoTrjpaTO<; eveKa Kal reKprjpiov 
7T/30? Toy? BiKaards, b vvv Brj epijaopai. epcoTco 
ydp, w dvBpes ' Adrjvatot, el Bokco av vp.iv irpos 
rfj irarplBt. Kal rfj rwv (piXcov avvrjOeiq Kal lepwv 
Kal rdcpoov iraTpfixav perovaia rovroval rovs Trdv- 
ro)v ai'OpooTrwv ep.ol (piXrdrovi TrpoBovvai QlXlit- 
7Tft), Kal irepl irXeiovos r?]v eKetvov (piXiav Trjs 
tovtcov acorrjplas jronjaaadai. iroia KparrjOels 
r)Bovfj; rj ri irdirroTe dayr]p,ov eveKa ^pijpdrcov 



1 Aeschines insinuates that only by some extraordinary 
favouritism could Demosthenes, with his strain of Scythian 
blood, ever have been recognised as an Athenian of pure 

274 



ON THE EMBASSY, 150-152 

know. 1 But I am amazed if you dare slander Philon, 
and that, too, in the presence of the most reputable 
men of Athens, who, having come in here to render 
their verdict for the best interest of the state, are 
thinking more about the lives we have lived than 
what we say. Which think you would they pray 
heaven to give them, ten thousand hoplites like 
Philon, so fit in body and so sound of heart, or thrice 
ten thousand lewd weaklings like you ? You try to 
bring into contempt the good breeding of Epicrates, 
Pinion's brother ; but who ever saw him behaving 
in an indecent manner, either by day in the Dio- 
nysiac procession, as you assert, or by night ? 2 For 
you certainly could never say that he was unobserved, 
for he was no stranger. And I myself, gentlemen, 
have three children, one daughter and two sons, by 
the daughter of Philodemus, the sister of Philon 
and Epicrates ; and I have brought them into court 
with the others for the sake of asking one question 
and presenting one piece of evidence to the jury. 
This question I will now put to you ; for I ask, 
fellow citizens, whether you believe that I would 
have betrayed to Philip, not only my country, my 
personal friendships, and my rights in the shrines 
and tombs of my fathers, but also these children, the 
dearest of mankind to me. Do you believe that I 
would have held his friendship more precious than 
the safety of these children ? By what lust have you 
seen me conquered ? What unworthy act have I ever 

blood, and so enrolled in the citizen-list when he came to 
manhood. 

2 In the passage referred to (Demosthenes, xix. 287) De- 
mosthenes calls Epicrates by a nick-name, Cyrebion, and 
charges him with taking part in the Dionysiac revels without 
a mask. 

275 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irpd^as; ov yap r\ Ma/ceBovia /ca/covs rj ^pTjo-TOVS 
iroiel, aW rj (pvcrw ovB* ecrpiev erepoi rives 
f)KovTe<? iitto rrjs tt pea (Betas, a\V oiovs vptels 
e^eirepf^raTe. 

153 ^vpureTrXeyptat B ev rfj irdXtreia /caO' virep- 
(3o\yv avd pooirm yorjri teal irovr^pw, 09 ovo* dv 
d/ccov a\i]6es ovBev eliroi. 1'jyeiTai Be, orav ri 
yfrevSrjTai, rwv \6ywv op/cos Kara twv dvatayyv- 
twv d<p0a\pcov, /cal ra pti] l yeyevripteva ov 
ptovov d>s kari \eyei, dWa /cal Tr\v rjp,epav ev fj 
(prjat yeveaOaf /cal irpoariOrjaiv rtvos ovopta 
7r\aaap.evos, &>9 eivye nvapdiv, pttptovptevos tovs 
rd\r]0ij Xeyovras. ev Be evTv^ovptev ol p,rjBev 
dBi/covvres, on irpbs ttj repareta rov rpoirou /cal 
rfj twv ovop-drcov avvdeaei vovv ov/c e%ei. a/ce- 
y}raa0e yap dcppoavv7]v dpa /cal diraiBtvatav 
rdvOpooTTOV, 2 09 tolovtov eirXdaaro 3 to -nepl tjjv 

OXvvOtav yvvat/ca \jrevBos /car eptov, e'<£' eo 
ptera^v Xeycov v<f> vpcov ifjepptiprf rov yap irXel- 
gtov dcpecrrrjtcoTa tcov toiovtwv irpbs tovs eldoras 

154 BieftaXXe. a/ceyjraaOe Be, cos TroppcoOev iirl rrjv 
alrlav Tavrrjv irapea /cevd^ero. hart yap ris i-ru- 
Br)p,d)v els rrjv iroXiv* 'ApiarocjydvTjs "OXvvuios' 
tovto) avaradels biro rtvoov /cal irvOoptevos a>9 
elirelv Bvvarai, vTrepe/cOepaTrevaas avrov ical irpoa- 
ayayoptevos, eveidev eptou rd yfrevBi] /carap.aprv- 
pelv irpos vpas, /cdv irapeXdtov iOeX/jarj a^erXtd- 

1 fx^i added by Casaubon. 

2 TavBpuiiTov Markland : avBpwnou MSS. 

3 eirKaffaro Cobet : eirXarTt JSJ.SS. 

4 els tt)v ir6\iv Markland : fi/j.a>v els ttjv ir6\iy MSS. (one has 
ev tt; n6\et Tj/iwv). 

276 



ON THE EMBASSY, 152-154 

done for money ? It is not Macedon that makes men 
good or bad, but their own inborn nature ; and we 
have not come bark from the embassy changed men, 
but the same men that you yourselves sent out. 

But in public affairs I have become exceedingly 
entangled with a cheat and rascal, who not even by 
accident can speak a truthful word. No : when he 
is lying, first comes an oath by his shameless eyes, 
and things that never happened he not only presents 
as facts, but he even tells the day on which they 
occurred ; and he invents the name of some one who 
happened to be there, and adds that too, imitating 
men who speak the truth. But we who are innocent 
are fortunate in one thing, that he has no intelli- 
gence with which to supplement the trickery of his 
character and his knack of putting words together. 
For think what a combination of folly and ignorance 
there must be in the man who could invent such a 
lie against me as that about the Olynthian woman, 1 
such a lie that you shut him up in the midst of his 
speech. For he was slandering a man who is the 
farthest removed from any such conduct, and that in 
the presence of men who know. But see how far 
back his preparations for this accusation go. For 
there is a certain Olynthian living here, Aristophanes 
by name. Demosthenes was introduced to him by 
some one, and having found out that he is an able 
speaker, paid extravagant court to him and won his 
confidence ; this accomplished, he tried to persuade 
him to give false testimony against me before you, 

1 See § 4, note. 

277 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aai Kal \eyeiv w? eh oliceiav avrov yvvatKa 1 
aixfidXcoTov yeyevrjpevrjv "ireTrapwvijKa, irevTaKO- 
o~ia<; p.ev rjSrj Spa^^as VTria^velTo avru) Swaeiv, 
TT€vraKoala<; B' erepas, ewei&dv KaTapaprvp^arj. 

155 6 S' ai)T& cnreKpivaro, a><? auTO? SnjyecTO, on t>?9 
p:ev cf)vyr)<; Kal t?/9 irapovat]^ diropias avTat ov 
Kaicoys, d\\' tw? olov re dpio-Ta aTo-^d^otro, tov he 
rpoTTov irXeicnov ett] 8Li]papT7]Ku><i- ovSev <yap dv 
toiovtov irpd^at. oti 8e dXriOi) Xeyw, avrov 
'ApiarTO(pdvr]v papTvpovvra 7rape^op,at. KaXei 
pot 'Apio-ro^dvr/v OXvvuiov, Ka\ ttjv papTvptav 
dvayiyvcocrKe, Kal tou? dfcrjKOOTas avrov Kal 777309 
ep.e dyyelXavTas, AepKvXov AvTO/cXeov; Ayvov- 
aiov Kal ' 'AptaT€i8r)v Ev<piXi)TOv K.r}(picriea. 

MAPTTPIAI 

156 Tmv puev paprvpwv 8iopi>vpeva>v /ecu paprvpovv- 
tcov aKovere' ra? S' dvoaiovs ravrwi rcov Xoycov 
re^va?, a? ovtos 7rpo9 tous viovq eirayyeXXeTat 
Kal Ke%pr}Tai vvvl icar epov, dpa p,ep,V7]a0e, &)9 
e7rihaKpvaa<; Kal Tt)v 'E\A,a8a Karo8vpdp,evo<i, Kal 
"XaTvpov tov KcopiKov vTToKptTi]v tt poo-en aiveaas, 
oti £evovs rivas eavrov ai^paXcoTovi er/<:«7rTo/<Ta9 
ev T(p QiXlttttov dp^ireXovpyebO) Kal 8e8ep,evovs 

157 rrapd ttotov 2 i^rjTijaraTO irapd QiXlttttov, ravO' 
viroOels eiretTrev evrewdpevos Tavrrjv ttjv 6£elav 
Kal dvoatov cf)u>V7jv, a>9 heivov, el o p,ev tov<; Ka- 
piaivas Kal "B,av6La<; VTroKptvopevos ovto><; evyevrj? 

1 yvvatKa Reiske : yvva'ina kcl\ MSS. 

2 irapa votov Blass (Harpocration, Photius, Suidas) : wapa 
rhv ttStov MSS. 

278 



ON THE EMBASSY, 154-157 

promising, namely, to give him five hundred 
drachmas on the spot, if he would consent to come 
into court and complain of me, and say that I was 
guilty of drunken abuse of a woman of his family, who 
had been taken captive ; and he promised to pay him 
five hundred more when he should have given the 
testimony. But Aristophanes answered him, as he 
himself told the story, that so far as his exile and 
present need were concerned, Demosthenes' aim had 
not been wide of the mark — indeed no aim could 
have been closer — but that he had entirely misjudged 
his character ; for he could do nothing of the sort. 
I will offer Aristophanes himself to testify to the 
truth of what I say. Please call Aristophanes the 
Olynthian, and read his testimony, and call those 
who heard his story and reported it to me — Der- 
cylus, of the deme Hagnus, the son of Autocles, and 
Aristeides of Cephisia, the son of Euphiletus. 

TESTIMONY 

You hear the sworn testimony. But these wicked 
arts of rhetoric, which Demosthenes offers to teach 
our youth, and has now employed against me, his 
tears and groans for Hellas, and his praise of Satyrus 
the comic actor, because over the cups he begged of 
Philip the release of certain friends of his who were 
captives in chains, digging in Philip's vineyard — you 
remember, do you not, how after this preface he 
lifted up that shrill and abominable voice of his and 
cried out, " How outrageous that when a man whose 
business it is to act the parts of a Carion or of a 
Xanthias x showed himself so noble and generous 

1 Satyrus, the comic actor, would often take slave parts, 
for which Carion and Xanthias were among the traditional 
names. 

279 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

real /i,67aX6-v^u%09 yevotro, eya> c7 o t*}? pbeyiar^ 
avfij3ovXo<i TroXecos, o rovs /xvplov; , Ap/cdBwv vov- 
derwv, ov Karda^oi/ni rt]V vj3piv, dXXa irapaOep- 
pLavOeis, 66'' rjpbas eltxria 'S.evohoKO's rav eraipoiv 
Tt? tcov QiXLttitov, eX/coip,i rcov rpt^ayv real Xa/Scov 

158 pvrrjpa p,acrTiyoir]v alxp,dXa>Tov yvvalhca. ovkovv 
el vp,el<i aura) eiricnevacne, fj ApiaTOcpdm]^ p.ov 
(TuyfcaTetyevaaTO, eV alo~)(pai<; atTicus a7T(oXup,i]v 
dv. 1 edaere ovv to toiqvtov avrov 2 Trpoarpo- 
iraiov, fxr) yap St) t^<> 7roXea)<? ye, iv s vp.lv ava- 
arpe<f>ea6ai; tcai ttjv /uev eKKXrjalav Kadaipere, ev 
he Tot? yp-r/cpio-pLacn Sid tovtov t«? eu^a? ttoii]- 
oeade, /cal arparidv rj rre^rjv rj vavTi/crjv etcirepb- 
■^rere; zeal p,rju 6 ye 'HcrtoSo? Xeyet, 

ttoXXuki rot ^vpiTraaa ttuXis tcateov dvBpos 

dirijiipa, 
o? Kev dXnpaLinj real drdadaXa pupxavdarai. 

159 *Ei> he 7T/30? Tot? elpy]p,evoi<; elirelv eVi fiovXo- 
ptai. el yap irov ta? eari tea La nar dvdpcoirovi, 
av p.r) irpwrevovra irepX Tainr\v drrohel^u) Arj- 
pLoa6evr)v, davdrov rtpLoipai. d\X oip,ai TroXXa 
/cal ^aXend Trapa/coXov6e2 tw rcpivafievrp, tea) 
puerafcaXel rrjv yfrv^ijv diro t% 6pyi)<i o kIvcwos 
eirX tovs VTrep rr)G acoTr]p[,a<; Xoyovs, real BiaXo- 
yiapov irapi<TTi,ai, p.)) it irapaXiTrp tmv KaTrj- 
yopi)p.ei'a)V. Mare dp.a p.ev up.a.<;, ctua oe e/xav- 
rbv et9 dvdpLi>r)o~iv tcov Karr]yop>jp,ivcov d ,>ayelv 

160 /3oi>Xop.at. (XKOTTetTe yap cjt) icaP e/caaTOv, a> 

1 aTru>\6fj.riv av Cobet : a5i»fas a.iruiX6p.7)v &v or airco A 6 ixriv hv 
aZlxws MSS. 

s T?) toiuvtov ai'Tov Blass : aiirbv toiovtov or avrbv toiovtov 
avrov MSS. 3 ye, if Dobree : lart ev or ws, eV MSS. 

280 



ON THE EMBASSY, 157-160 

Aeschines, the counsellor of the greatest city, the 
adviser of the Ten Thousand of Arcadia, did not 
restrain his insolence, but in drunken heat, when 
Xenodocus, one of the picked corps of Philip, was 
entertaining us, seized a captive woman by the hair, 
and took a strap and flogged her!" If you had 
believed him, or Aristophanes had helped him out in 
his lies against me, I should have been destroyed 
under shameful accusations. Will you therefore 
harbour longer in your midst guilt that is so fraught 
with doom to itself — God grant it be not to the 
city ! — and will you, who purify your assembly, 1 offer 
the prayers that are contained in your decrees on 
motion of this man, as you send your troops out by 
land or sea ? You know the words of Hesiod : 

"Ofttimes whole peoples suffer from one man 
Whose deeds are sinful and whose purpose base." 2 

One thinjr more I wish to add to what I have said : 
if there is anywhere among mankind any form of 
wickedness in which I fail to show that Demosthenes 
is preeminent, let my death be your verdict. But 
1 think many difficulties attend a defendant : his 
danger calls his mind away from his anger, to the 
search for such arguments as shall secure his safety, 
and it causes him earnest thought lest he overlook 
some one of the accusations which have been brought 
against him. I therefore invite you, and at the 
same time myself, to recall the accusations. Con- 
sider, then, one by one, fellow citizens, the possible 

1 The Athenian assembly was regularly opened with a 
sacrifice of purification and prayer, cp. Aeschines, i. 23. 

2 Works and Days, 240 f . 

281 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dvBpes Adrjvaioi, iroiov eya> -*p-7](f)io-p,a ypdyfras 
icpLvofiai, r) iToiov vo/xov Xvaa<;, r) rrolov yevecrdat 
KwXvaas, rj rivas virep rrj<; 7ro\eco? crvvdrjicas 
Troirjcrdixevo^, ?) n ro)v SeSoypiivmv rrepl rr)<; elpi')- 
vi~i<; diraXelyfra^, r) ri rcbv pLti So^dvrcov vplv irpocr- 

161 ypd^ra<;. ovk rjpeaice Ticri rwv prjropwv r) elprjvi]' 
erreira ov rbre dvriXeyeiv avrovs i-^pr/v, aXXd fir) 
vvv ifxe Kpiveiv; eirXovrovv rives e.K rod rroXep.ov, 
diro rS)v Vfxerepwv elacpopwv /cal rcov 8i]/nocrba>v 
rrpoaohwv, vvv 8e Trerravvrar elpijvi] yap dpyiav 
ov rpecfief erreira o'i /xev ovk dhiKov/xevot, dXX J 
dBiKovvra ri]v ttoXiv, rcpiwptjaovrat rbv irpocrrdvra 
t/}? eipt'/vr/s, ol S' a)(f>6\ovp:evoi tou? ^pr/al/iow; 

162 ft? ra koivcl yevoptevovs 1 eyKaraXe'f^rere; avvf]- 
8ov yap toi)? rratdvas QiXlttttw, KarecrKafip,evcov 
rwv ev Qco/cevcri rroXeoov, eo? <pr)aiv o Kanjyopos. 
teal rroico hvvair dv t*? reKpLtiplw rovro cra</>eo? 
emdei^ai; e/cXrjurjv p.ev yap iir\ ra %erca puerd 
roi)v av/uLirpeo-fiecov, rjaav S' ol KXrjrol Ka\ o~vv8ei- 
irvovvres o~vi> Tat? dno rwv KXXijvoov rrpeo~(3elai<; 
ovk iXdrrow; r) SiaKoaioi-. ev 8e rovrois co? eoiKev 
eyw Biatfiavrjs 7jv ov% VTroaiycov, dXXd avvaScov, 
w? (ptjat Arj/jioaOevrjs, ovr avrbs rrapcov, ovre rwv 
exec rrapovroiv ovEeva rrapaa-yjuievos pudprvpa. 

163 Kal rep 2 hrjXo^ r)v, el pu'] ye wo-rrep ev tch? yopols 
Trpofjhov; ovkovv el fiev ealycov, ilrevbT] puov Karrj- 



1 ye vouevous Markland : yivo/j.tvovs MSS. 

2 t^J Cobeb : t£ ye MSS. 



282 



ON THE EMBASSY, 160-163 

grounds for my prosecution : What decree have I 
proposed, what law have I repealed, what law have I 
kept from being passed, what covenant have I made 
in the name of the city, what vote as to the peace 
have I annulled, what have I added to the terms of 
peace that you did not vote ? The peace failed to 
please some of our public men. Then ought they 
not to have opposed it at the time, instead of putting 
me on trial now ? Certain men who were getting 
rich out of the war from your war-taxes and the 
revenues of the state, have now been stopped ; for 
peace does not feed laziness. Shall those, then, who 
are not wronged, but are themselves wronging the 
city, punish the man who was sponsor for the peace, 1 
and will you, who are benefited by it, leave in the 
lurch men who have proved themselves useful to the 
commonwealth ? Yes, my accuser says, because I 
joined Philip in singing paeans when the cities of 
Phocis had been razed. 2 What evidence could be 
sufficient to prove that charge ? I was, indeed, in- 
vited to receive the ordinary courtesies, as were my 
colleagues in the embassy. Those who were invited 
and were present at the banquet, including the 
ambassadors from other Hellenic states, were not 
less than two hundred. And so it seems that among 
all these I was conspicuous, not by my silence, but 
by joining in the singing — for Demosthenes says so, 
who was not there himself, and presents no witness 
from among those who were. Who would have 
noticed me, unless I was a sort of precentor and led 
the chorus ? Therefore if I was silent, your charge 

1 Philocrates, the prime mover in the peace, had already 
gone into banishment, afraid to stand trial. 

2 Demosthenes, xix. 128. 

283 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yopels' el he 6p6rj<; rjp.lv tt)<; Trarpihos ova)]s, real 

TWV TToXlTOdV KOlVjj fA,7]§€V <X7VyOVVTWV, (TVvfjhoV 

ixera twv aXXwv it pea jSewv rov iraiava, rjv'iica o 
debs p,ev irtfidro, 'AOrjvalot he p,rjhev rjho^ovv, 
evcre/3ovv, aXX" ov/c rjhitcovv, icai hi/caia)<; av <j(t>- 
%oipr)v. eirena eyu> p,ev hid ravra avrfkei]^ tis l 
elpX avOpco-TTOs, av he evaefiiys 6 roiv opioairovhav 
koX avaaircov KaTrjyopos; 

164 ^QveLhiaas he p.01 kcu iroXneias epLTrXyfyav, 
el 7reirpea/3euKa 7rpo? QLXnnrov, irporepov irapa- 
icaXaiv- err eicelvov Tovs"F*XXrjvas. Kairoi ravTrjv, 
el fiovXet, Trjv Karrjyopiav teal rcov aXX(cv 'Adrj- 
vaicov hrjp.o(TLa /carriyop)]aei<;. eiroXe/xeiTe Aa/ce- 
haipovlnis, teal fiera ttjv ev Aev/CTpoi<; avp,<popdv 
TOi? avrols e/3o?7#etTe' KctTrjydyere els ttjv irarpiha 
(pevyovTas ®rj(3aiov<i, kcu nrdXiv tovtois ep,aye- 
aaaOe ev Mavriveia' eiroXepbijaaTe 'Eiperpievai koX 
%epiawvi, zeal irdXiv avTovs eacoaare. /cal pbvptois 
aXXots yhi] 7wv '~EiWi'}vcov ovtco Keyp^ade- toi? 
yap /caipols avp.irepi$>epea9ai di'dy/cr) nrpbs to 

165 KpaTicrTOV tcai rbv dvhpa koX rrjv iroXtv. top he 
dyaObv avp-fiovXov ii yph troielv; ov rfj TroXec 
7rpo? to Trapbv rd fieX-riara avp,/3ovXeveiv; rov 
he irovripbv Kari'jyopov ri; z ov tou? /caipovs 
diroKpvnrbfievov Tf/9 Ttpd^ews tcaryyopelv; rov he 
etc (f)vaeo)<i irpohoT^v 7r&>? yprj Oewpelv; dpd ye 
ot'Y w$ av Tot? evrvyyavov ai /cat, 7rio~Tev<racri 
Keyp^aai, Xoyov? et? hi/caarijpia ypacpovra p,ta6ov, 

1 avnXehs tis Dobree : cb'TjAe'^Tos or af7jA.e'?)Tos tit MSS. 

2 TrewpeaHtvKa . . . ■Kapa.KO.X&v Hamaker : TTeTrptcrfievKaos . . . 
Ka f )etca\ovv MSS. 

3 ti Hamaker : t'l XPV *-ey*w MSS. 

284 



ON THE EMBASSY, 163-165 

is false ; but if, with our fatherland safe and no 
harm done to my fellow citizens, I joined the other 
ambassadors in singing the paean when the god was 
being magnified and the Athenians in no wise dis- 
honoured, I was doing a pious act and no wrong, and 
I should justly be acquitted. Am I, forsooth, be- 
cause of this to be considered as a man who knows 
no pity, but you a saint, you, the accuser of men who 
have shared your bread and cup ? 

But you have also reproached me with inconsistency 
in my political action, in that I have served as am- 
bassador to Philip, when I had previously been 
summoning the Greeks to oppose him. 1 And yet, if 
you choose, you may bring this charge against the 
rest of the Athenian people as a body. You, gentle- 
men, once fought the Lacedaemonians, and then after 
their misfortune at Leuctra you aided the same people. 
You once restored Theban exiles to their country, 
and again you fought against them at Mantineia. 
You fought against Themison and the Eretrians, and 
again you sa^ed them. And you have before now 
treated countless others of the Hellenes in the same 
way. For in order to attain the highest good the 
individual, and the state as well, is obliged to change 
front with changing circumstances. But what is the 
good counsellor to do ? Is he not to give the state the 
counsel that is best in view of each present situation ? 
And what shall the rascally accuser say ? Is he not 
to conceal the occasion and condemn the act ? And 
the born traitor — how shall we recognize him ? Will 
he not imitate you, Demosthenes, in his treatment of 
those whom chance throws in his way and who have 
trusted him ? Will he not take pay for writing 
speeches for them to deliver in the courts, and then 

1 See Demosthenes, xix. 9 ff. 

285 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

tovtov; i/ctyepeiv to?? uvtiSlkois; eypa-yfraq \6yov 
<J?opfiLmvi t&> rpaire^LT)] ^pijpara XalScav tovtov 
e%>ivey/ca<; ' ATroWoSwpw tw irep\ tov awpaTo*; 

166 KplvovTi <£>opp,ia>va. el(rrp\9es et? euSaifiovovaav 
olrcLav t!]v 'ApuTTtipxov tov Moer^oir ravTrjv 
a7rci>\eo-a<>. TrpovXa/3e<; rpia TaXavra irap 'Api- 
arapyov (fievyovTos - tovtov to, t?}*> <f)vyr]<; i(f)o8ia 
a7T€o-T€pT]o-a<;, ov/c alayyvB 'el? tt)v (frijp.rjv r)v 
TrpoaeTroiijao), £>/\&)T?/9 elvai Ttj<i rfXifcias tov 
fieipa/clov. ov yap £>/ tt) ye d\r]6eta' ov yap 
irpacrheyeTai Si/caios epoys irovrjplav. TavT IotIv 
6 7rpoSoT77? real Ta tovtois bpuoia. 

167 'Ep.vyjo-tfr] Se ttov irepl crTpaTelas, zeal tov tcaXov 
arpaTKOTijv epe d)v6p,aaev. 67a; Be ov% evezca tt}? 
tovtov /3\acr(prip,ia<;, dWd tov TrapovTOS klvBvvov 
7tpovoovp.evo<i, teal irepl tovtwv dveirupdovov Xeyetv 
elvai p.01 V0fJLt%u>' ttov yap rj iroTe avTOiv r) rrpos 
Tivas, 7rapa\iTTOiv t?]v&€ ttjv i)p,epav, pbvt)o-8i)Go- 
p.ai; e'/c jralBcov p,ev yap inraWayeis TrepiiroiXo^ 
Trj<i ^o)pa<; TavTTjs eyev6p.i)v Bv err], /cal tovtcov 
vfitv tol/? crvve(f)t]{3ov<i real tov<; dp-^ovTa^ 1 rjpLow 

168 p,dpTvpas 7rape£op,af TrpcoTrjv B e^eXOcov (JTpa- 
Telav Trjv ev tois p,epeai Ka\ovp,evi]v, /cal crvp,- 
TrapaTrepLTTcov p,eTa tcov i)\ikiu>tu>v koX tmv 

1 txpxovTas Bekker : <rvva.px oVTa - s MSS. 



1 rp. iii. 173. 

2 The occasion was the murder of Nicodemus by Aristar- 
chus See § 148, note. 

3 The young Athenian citizen, coming of legal age at 
eighteen, was required to serve two years in the cadet corps, 
stationed the first year at the Peiraeus, and on frontier posts 
the second. 

286 



I 



ON THE EMBASSY, 165-168 

reveal the contents of these speeches to then- 
opponents ? 1 You wrote a speech for the banker 
Phormion and were paid for it : this speech you 
communicated to Apollodorus, who was bringing a 
capital charge against Phormion. You entered a 
happy home, that of Aristarchus the son of Moschus ; 
you ruined it. You received three talents from Ari- 
starchus in trust as he was on the point of going into 
exile ; ' J you cheated him out of the money that was 
to have aided him in his flight, and were not ashamed 
of the reputation to which you laid claim, that of 
being a wooer of the young man's bodily charms — an 
absurd story, of course, for genuine love has no place 
for rascality. That conduct, and conduct like that, 
defines the traitor. 

But he spoke, I believe, about service in the field, 
and named me "the fine soldier." But I think, in 
view of my present peril rather than of his slander, I 
may without offence speak of these matters also. For 
where, or when, or to whom, shall I speak of them, 
if I let this day go by? As soon as I passed out of 
boyhood I became one of the frontier guards of this 
land for two years. 3 As witnesses to this statement, 
I will call my fellow cadets and our officers. My first 
experience in the field was in what is called "division 
service," 4 when I was with the other men of my age 

4 When citizens were called out for military service, if it 
was not necessary to call the whole body of reserves, the men 
of some specified age were called, e.g. all between the ages of 
twenty and thirty, or twenty and forty (cp. § 133). Since 
the names of the men of a given age were kept in the register 
under the name of the Archon Eponymos in whose year 
they came of age, such a levy was called arpania eV rois 
eirwi'v/oLots. If only a part of such an age-group was called 
out, it was called a division levy (o-Tparela iv rols ixipeatv). 

287 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'AXKifitdSov %evwv rr)v et9 QXeiovvra irapaTrop- 

7T)]V, KLvhllVOV <JVfxl3dvTOS r}fMlV 7T€pl TTjV ^€/X€(i8a 

tcaXovpevyjv yapdSpav, oi/tw? 7/ya)vio-dp,r]v, ware 
virb roiv i)yepov(ov i-naivelaBai- teal rd<; aXXas 
ra? i/c 8ia&o)£r)<i i^G&ovi Ta? iv rol<i eTru>vvpoi<; teal 

169 TOi<? p,epecriv i^rfxOov, kcu ttjv iv MavTweia 
p,dyj)v avvepuayeadpiiv ovtc aia^pa)^ ovb7 dva^iws 
t?}? 7roXea)9, teal ra? eh Eiv/3olo.v arpareia^ 
iarparevadpLrjv, teal ttjv iv Ta/xvvai<; pd^rjv iv 
Tot? iTri\eKTOL<; ovtg)S iteivhvvevo-a, wcrre /cd/cel 
are(pavcoOt}vai teal Bevpo tf/ccov irdXiv virb tov 
&i')p,ov, T))v re v'ucrjv t?)? iroXeois dirayyeiXas, teal 
Tep,€vi8ov tov tt)? Uav&iovLSos rafydpyov teal 
avp.7rpe(T(3evcravTo<; utto arpaToireSov p.ot hevpl 1 
irepl tov yevopevov klvBvvov oto? r/v d-nayye'i- 
\avro<;. 

170 "Otl Se dXiidr] Xiyco, Xa/3e piot tovto to i^-/;- 
(f)icrpa, teal tedXei tov Tep.evl8r)v teal tovs crvve- 
(rrparevpevov^ pot rd? vtrep t% TrbXews arpareia^ 
teal <t>(0/ei(tiva rov o-Tparrjyov, pbijirco avvt]yopov, 
dv 2 tovto is avvSo/efj, dXX virevQvvov tw ctvko- 
(pdvTrj p,dprvpa, idv -^revZrjTai. 

¥H1>I2MA. MAPTTPIAI 

171 ^ Array yeiXas to'ivvv irptoTos rr)v t";? 7r6Xeu><; 
vi/erjv vplv teal rr)v tcov iraiSayv tcov vpberepwv 

1 Beupl Sauppe : Stvpl na.\ MSS. 

2 hv Blass: h.v ^ MSS. 

1 In 363 B.C. See Xenophon, Htlltnica, vu. ii. 17 ff. 
8 In 357 and 349/8. 

388 



ON THE EMBASSY, 168-171 

and the mercenary troops of Alcibiades, who con- 
voyed the provision train to Phleius. We fell into 
danger near the place known as the Nemean ravine, 
and I so fought as to win the praise of my officers. 1 I 
also served on the other expeditions in succession, 
whether we were called out by age-groups or by 
divisions. I fought in the battle of Mantineia, not 
without honour to myself or credit to the city. I 
took part in the expeditions to Euboea, 2 and at the 
battle of Tamynae 3 as a member of the picked corps 
I so bore myself in danger that I received a wreath 
of honour then and there, and another at the hands 
of the people on my arrival home ; for I brought the 
news of* the Athenian victory, and Temenides, taxi- 
arch 4 of the tribe Pandionis, who was despatched 
with me from camp, told here how 1 had borne 
mvself in the face of the danger that befell us. 

But to prove that I am speaking the truth, please 
take this decree, and call Temenides and those who 
were my comrades in the expedition in the service 
of the city, and call Phocion, the general, not yet to 
plead for me, 5 if it please the jury, but as a witness 
who cannot speak falsely without exposing himself 
to the libellous attacks of my prosecutor. 

DECREE. TESTIMONY 

Since, then, it was I who brought you the first news 
of the victory of the city and the success of your 

3 The critical engagement of the second of the expeditions 
to Euboea. 

4 Eacli of the ten taxiarchs commanded the hoplites of a 
single tribe. 

5 Phocion will later be called to support the prayer of the 
defence for acquittal. 

289 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

KaropOwaiv, Trpcorrjv TCti/Trjv u/xa? airairo) ydpiv, 
Tt)v tov acofxaros acoTtjpiav, ov p.ia6h)]p.o<; cov, 
co? (f>t](riv o /caTijyopos, aWa p,iaoTr6vi]po<; ) ovhe 
toi)? A7]pLoa0evou<i vp.a<; ovk : iwv 7rpoy6vov<i 
pupLeladai, ov yap eiolv, dWa ro)v ica\o)v /cat 
rfj ttoXsi awTrjplwv /3ov\evp,aTa>v fyXcoras elvai 
irapa/caXtov. vvv 6° aura TroppcoOev dp^dpuevos 
pa,Kpu> Sieip.1 acMpeaTepov. 

172 Uporepov i) ttoXis i)pLOiv evho^rjae p,6rd tyjv ev 
HaXapuvi vav/naxlav, 2 /cat rtov ret^wv virb f&v 
(3ap(3dpwv 7re7TT(i)K0Ta)v, elpi^vr}^ h vrrap^ovcn]^ 
7T/309 Aa/c€&aip,ovLOV$, hiep.eivev rjfuv to t?}? ht)- 
p-ofcparlas iroXiTevp.a. <rvvTapa^6evT€^ Be uttu 
tivwv, fcal KaraardvTe^ 7rpo? Aafcedaipioi'Lovs 6i? 
TToXe/xov, TroXXd Kal TraOovTes Kaica Kal ttod]- 
aavT6S, MiXTidhov toO Kl/acovoi 7rpo/c7)pVKevaa- 
p,evov 777)0? AaKehaipLOvLovs, 6Wo? irpo^itfov, 
cnrovSds 3 TrevTrjKOVTaerels eTTOLrjadpeOa, ^XP 7 !' 

173 adp.eOa he en] rpiaKaiSe/ca. ev he tovtw tw 
Xpovw erei^o-apev p.ev* tov Tleipaid Kal to 
ftopeiov Tet^o? ojKohop.r]aap,ev, etcaTOV he Tpujpeif 
7roo9 Tat? virapyovo-ais; evav7np/)]o~dfj.e6a, Tpia- 

1 upas ovk Reiske : the MS8. have ov. ovk or ov ovk or iifxas. 

i vavixaxi-av Cobet : va.vna.xiav irphs tov Zlepiri)v MSS. Cp. §74. 

s oirovh'a.s Hamaker : airovSas tov iro\e/j.ov MSS. 

4 ^" added by Bekker. 



1 See Demosthenes, xix. 16. 

2 Aeschines has taken the historical review which he gives 
in §§ 172-176 from the speech of Andocides, On the Peace 
with the Lacedaemonians, §§ 3 ff. , condensing, and changing 
the phraseology at will, and changing the application of the 
facts which he cites. This sketch as given by Andocides is 

290 



ON THE EMBASSY, 171-173 

sons, I ask of you this as my first reward, the saving 
of my life. For I am not a hater of the democracy, 
as my accuser asserts, but a hater of wickedness ; 
and I am not one who forbids your " imitating the 
forefathers" of Demosthenes 1 — for he has none — 
but one who calls upon you to emulate those policies 
which are noble and salutary to the state. Those 
policies I will now review somewhat more specifically, 
beginning with early times. 

In former days, after the battle of Salamis, our 
city stood in high repute, and although our walls had 
been thrown down by the barbarians, yet so long as 
we had peace with the Lacedaemonians we preserved 
our democratic form of government. 2 But when 
certain men had stirred up trouble and finally caused 
us to become involved in war with the Lacedae- 
monians, then, after we had suffered and inflicted 
many losses, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, who was 
proxenus 3 of the Lacedaemonians, negotiated with 
them, and we made a truce for fifty years, and kept it 
thirteen years. 4 During this period we fortified the 
Peiraeus and built the north wall ; we added one 
hundred new triremes to our fleet; we also equipped 

characterised by Eduard Meyer (ForscKungen zur Alten 
Geschich/c, ii. 132 ff. ) as a caricature of the actual course of 
events, valuable only as a convincing proof of the untrust- 
worthiness of oral tradition, and of the rapidity and certainty 
with which confusion and error as to historical facts develop, 
even in the mind of a contemporary who has had a prominent 
part in the events. 

3 The proxenus was a citizen who was employed by a 
foreign state to represent its interests in his own state. 

4 This was in fact a five years' truce negotiated by Cimon, 
the son of Miltiades, in 450 B.C. The truce lasted, not 
thirteen years, but less than five. The fortification of the 
Peiraeus belongs more than a quarter of a century earlier. 

291 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Koalovs 8' iTTTrea*; ir poa /career icevaodped a, real 
Tpictfcoaiovs ^KvBwi iirpLUfxeOa, ical th]v Bi]po- 
/cparLav /3e/3aL(o<i el'yop.ev. 

WapepireerovTCjov c7 els ripj TroXireiav rjpebv ovtc 
eXevOepwv dvOpwTrcov /cal toIs rpoTrois ou pie- 
rpicov, irdXiv Trpbs Aa/ceBaipovLOw; 6Y 1 Alyivtjras 

174 eis 7roXep,ov /caTeaTyp.ei', /cavravda ovk bXtya 
fiXafthnes, t?}? pev elpijvi}<; e7re0uprjaap,ev, 'AvBo- 
klS?]V S' e/CTrep^ravres Trpos tou? Aa/ceBaipLoviovs 
/cai tou? ejvpurpeerfieis, eiprjvrjv err} Tpid/covra 
ijjdyopev, r? rbv Bijpov v\jn]Xbv rjpev ^iXia p,ev 
<yap jeiXavra dvr)i>eytcap,ev vopierpaTOS et? tt)V 
d/cporroXiv, eKcnov Be rpDJpeis trepan evavirr)- 
yrjerdpeda /cal veeoaocKOvs ei)fcoBo/j.ijerap,ev, %iXlovs 
Be ical Bta/coaiovs i7nrea<; /careen tja a pev /cal 
To^oras erepovs toctovtov?, /cal to paicpov ret^os 
rb voriov erefytaQt), ical rbv Bfjpov ovBel? eve- 
yelpTjcre /caTaXverai. 

175 lldXiv Be et? iroXepov hid Meya peas TreiaOevres 
KaraaT)')vai, /cal ttjv ^copav rp^r/Or/vat 2 irpoepevoi 
ical ttoXXcov dyaOebv areprjOevre^, eiprjVfj^ eBei']6r)- 
pev, /cal eirotyadpeOa Bid Niklov tov Ni/crjpaTOv. 
ical irdXiv ev Tip %povw rovrep eTrraKcer^tXia 
rdXavra dvrjvey/capev eh r^v d/cpoiroXtv Bid ttjv 
elprjvrjv Tavrrjv, Tpujpets 6" e/crrjadp^eda 7rXa)ip,ov<> 

1 AaKe8cu/j.oi'iovs 5i' added by Weidner. 

2 Tfii)6i}vai Blass, from Andoc. § 8 : vejx-r)Qr)vai MSS. 



1 A corps of bowmen, Scythian slaves, owned by the state 
and used as city police. 

2 The war with Aegina ended before the above-mentioned 
truce began. 

292 



ON THE EMBASSY, 173-175 

three hundred cavalrymen and bought three hundred 
Scythians ; ' and we held the democratic constitution 
unshaken. 

But meanwhile men who were neither free by 
birth nor of fit character had intruded into our 
body politic, and finally we became involved in war 
again with the Lacedaemonians, this time because of 
the Aeginetans. 2 In this war we received no small 
injury, and became desirous of peace. We therefore 
sent Andocides and other ambassadors to the Lace- 
daemonians and negotiated a peace, which we kept 
for thirty years. 3 This peace brought the democracy 
to the height of its prosperity. For we deposited on 
the Acropolis a thousand talents of coined money ; 
we built one hundred additional triremes, and con- 
structed dockyards ; we formed a corps of twelve 
hundred cavalry and a new force of as many bowmen, 
and the southern long wall was built ; and no man 
undertook to overthrow the democratic constitution. 

But again we were persuaded to go to war, now 
because of the Megarians. 4 Having given up our 
land to be ravaged, and suffering great privations, we 
longed for peace, and finally concluded it through 
Nicias, the son of Niceratus. 5 In the period that fol- 
lowed we again deposited treasure in the Acropolis, 
seven thousand talents, thanks to this peace, and we 
acquired triremes, seaworthy and fully equipped, no 

3 The thirty years' peace was in fact made in 446/5, and 
was kept only fifteen years. 

4 The beginning of the Peloponnesian war, 431 B.C. 

5 The "Peace of Nicias" was negotiated in 421, but its 
terms were only partially fulfilled from the beginning, and 
very soon the war was in full operation again. Andocides 
places in this period, which he falsely assumes to be one of 
peace, events that belong to the Periclean period. 

293 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

teal ivTeXeis ov/e eXaTTovs rj TpLa/eoaias, (popos 6" 
fjpuv Kar ivtavTov irpoadei irXeov rj -^lXki teal 
SiaKoata Tc'iXavra, teal Keppovijaov teal Na£ov 
teal Fji>/3oiav el'xop,ev, 7rXeicrTa? 6° cnroi/cias ev to?? 

176 xpovois tovtois direaTeiXapiev. teal togcivt e\ov- 
T€S rdyaOd, rrdXiv iroXep-ov 1 irpo^ Aa/eeBaipoi'tovs 
e^p'eyteap:ev ireiaO ernes vii 'Apyeiwv, teal TeXev- 
Twvres e/e ttjs rwv p>]Topa)v a\frip,a)(ia<; els cfrpov- 
pav tP/$ 7roX,e&)? teal tovs tct pateoaious teal tovs 
dcrefiels rpid/covra eveireaopiev, ovk elpijvr/v ttoit)- 
crdp-evoi, aXX ete 7rpoo~Tayp,(iTa)v r)vay/eaap,evoi. 
TrdXiv 8e aaxppovws TroKnevOevres, teal tov &)}fiov 
Kare\dovTO<i dtro tyvXr/s, Ap^ivov teal Hpaav- 
/3ovXov TrpocTTavTcov tov 8/]p,ov, teal to pur) p.vr/- 
aiteateelv Trpos dXX/jXovs evopKov r)puv Kara- 
aTr/adi'Tcov, odev a cxfrcoT aTrjv diravre^ rrjv ttoXlv 

177 fiyi]<rai>TO elvcu, KavravOa dvaepvvTos tov 8i')pbov 
teal rrdXtv e'£ dp-^rjs layyaavTOS, dvOpcoTrot 
rrapeyypaiTTOi yeyevi) p,evoi TroXtTai, teal to voaovv 
Trjs 7roA,e&K del Trpoaayopievoi, teal iroXep^ov ite 
iroXepov iroXtTevopevot, ev p,ev elp/jvrj Ta Betvd tw 
\6y(p rrpoopdipievoi, teal Ta? yfrv^ds Ta<; (JuXotl- 
piovs teal Xiav o^eias epeOi^ovTes, ev 8e toIs iroXe- 
p.oi<; ottXwv ov% dirTOfieroi, e^eTacrTal 8e teat 
uTroaToXecs ycyvop,evoi, iraihoiroLovpevoi Be eg 

1 tt6\(/j.ov Markland : -rSXi^ov 5i' 'Apyelovs MSS. 

1 Athens entered into alliance with Argos, Mantineia, and 
Elis iti 420. This immediately reopened the war with the 
Lacedaemonians. 

2 The oligarchy of the Four Hundred was the result of the 
revolution of 411 B.C. The rule of the Thirty Tj'rants fol- 
lowed the surrender of the city at the close of the Pelopon- 

*94 



ON THE EMBASSY, 175-177 

fewer than three hundred in number; a yearly tri- 
bute of more than twelve hundred talents came in 
to us ; we held the Chersonese, Naxos, and Euboea, 
and in these years we sent out a host of colonies 
Though the blessings we were enjoying were so 
great, we again brought war against the Lacedae- 
monians, persuaded by the Argives ; * and at last, in 
consequence of the eagerness of our public men for 
war, we sank so low as to see a Spartan garrison in 
our city, and the Four Hundred, and the impious 
Thirty ; 2 and it was not the making of peace that 
caused this, 3 but we were forced by orders laid upon 
us. But when again a moderate government had 
been established, and the exiled democracy had 
come back from Phyle, 4 with Archinus and Thrasy- 
bulus as the leaders of the popular party, we took the 
solemn oath with one another " to forgive and for- 
get " — an act which, in the judgment of all men, won 
for our state the reputation of the highest wisdom. 
The democracy then took on new life and vigour. 
But now men who have been illegally registered as 
citizens, constantly attaching to themselves what- 
ever element in the city is corrupt, and following 
a policy of war after war, in peace ever prophesying 
danger, and so working on ambitious and over- 
excitable minds, yet when war comes never touching 
arms themselves, but getting into office as auditors 
and naval commissioners — men whose mistresses are 
the mothers of their offspring, and whose slanderous 

nesian war. The Thirty were supported bv a Spartan 
garrison (404-40.3). 

3 The setting lip of the Thirty was dictated by Sparta. 

* Phyle, a post on the Boeotian frontier, was the rallying 
point of the band of exiles who began the movement for the 
expulsion of the Thirty. 

295 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eraipwv, artpoc S' i/c av/cocfiavTias, ek rovs 
eVvaTou? klvBvvovs 1 ttjv ttoXiv tcaOicnaai, to 2 
pev Trjs BrjpoKparias ovopa ov toi? i]6e<Tiv, aXXa 
rfj KoXa/ceta Oepairevovres, KaraXvovres Be tijv 
elptfvqv, e'£ fjs y) BrjpotcpaTLa cxcp^rai, avvayoivi- 
^bpevoi Be toi9 TroXepois, e'£ &v 6 Sfjfios icara- 
Xverai. 

178 Qvtoi vvv eV epe avarpacpevres ipcovcri, Kai 
<baal pev rbv QiXiirirov rrjv elprjvrfv irplaaQai, 
/cal irpoXaftelv i)pwv ev rats avvOijKats airavra, 
rjv S' avros evpev elpijvrjv avTcp avp^epovaav, 
Tavrrji' it apa fi e fir) /chat, . epe 8' ovx a>? irpeafiev- 
t?]V Kpivovaiv, aXX' ax? eyy vrjrrjv ^iXlttitov koI 
t^? elprjvw Kai rbv r&v Xoywv Kvpiov Ta? twv 
epycov irpoahoKlas airair overt, rbv ai>Tov Be ev 
pev rot<? yp-Tjcpiapacriv eiraiver^v eiriBeiicvvpi, ev Be 
tw BiKao-riipLw KaTiiyopw Kexpypa^ BeKaros o 
avrbs TTpeafievo-as, pbvos Ta? evOvvas BtBwpi. 

179 Kdpoi 3 avvBer]a6pevoi Trapeiaiv vpCov Trarrjp 
pev, ov ras rov y/jpeos eX-rriBas pr) acpeXr/crOe, 
aBeXcpol Be, o't Bia^vyevres epov tfiv ov/c av trpo- 
eXoLvro, K-rjBearal Be Ka\ ravrl ra pitcpa iraiBia 
Kai tovs pev 4 KivBvvovs ovttw auvievTa, eXetva Be, 
et ri <Tvp/3tjo-eTai i)plv iraOelv. inrep o>v eyaj 
Beopai Kai iKereva) ttoXXIjv irpovoiav 5 irotrjaaaOai, 

1 kivSvvovs Batter and Sauppe : the MSS. have T\p.wv before 
iuv§vvnvs or after TrdAc. 
s to Bekker : ko\ to MSS. 

3 ica/jLnl Hainaker : Kauol /j.ev ol MSS. 

4 rovs /uev Blass : the MSS. have /xfv after (iticpa. or after 
tcivtI (one MS. omits). 

& Trpnvoiav Bhiss (Aldus) : the MSS. have ufxas, fj<u?*<, or fifiHv 
before wpovotav, or fjutv or y\aiv after iroovoiav. 

296 



ON THE EMBASSY, 177-179 

tongues ought to disfranchise them — these men are 
bringing the state into extreme peril, fostering the 
name of democracy, not by their character, but by 
their flatteries, trying to put an end to the peace, 
wherein lies the safety of the democracy, and in 
every way fomenting war, the destroyer of popular 
government. 

These are the men who now are making a con- 
certed attack on me ; they say that Philip bought 
the peace, that he overreached us at every point 
in the articles of agreement, and that the peace 
which he contrived for his own interests, he him- 
self has violated. And they put me on trial, not 
as an ambassador, but as a surety for Philip and 
the peace ; the man who had nothing but words 
under his control they call to account for deeds — 
deeds that existed only in their own imagination. 
And the very man whom I exhibit to you as my 
eulogist in the public decrees, I have found as my 
accuser in the court-room. And although I was but 
one of ten ambassadors, I alone am made to give 
account. 

To plead with you in my behalf are present my 
father, whom I beg of you not to rob of the hopes of 
his old age ; my brothers, who would have no desire 
for life if I should be torn from them ; my connections 
by marriage ; and these little children, who do not yet 
realize their danger, but are to be pitied if disaster 
fall on us. For them I beg and beseech you to take 
earnest thought, and not to give them over into the 



297 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Kai /xt) to?? e%dpol<i avTOU<; /jlt/S dvdvhprp tcai 
yvvai/cei(p rrjv opyijv dvOpooTrop -napahovvai. 

180 \\apcuca\6) he Kai 'iKerevoi aoxrai p.e irpoirov 
pkv rou<? Oeovs, hevrepov B vp,d<i tou? rfj<i ^rjcpov 
Kvpiovs, ot? eyo^ Trpos etcaarov rcov Karr/yoprj- 
fiii'tov et? p,vrjp,>]v elvai ttjv ep,i]v diroXeXoyrjpLai, 
Kai heop,ai acoaai fie Kai pbrj tg> Xoyoypdcpw Kai 
^Kvdrj nrapahovvaL, bcroi p,ev vpioov Trarepes elal 
iraihcov r) vecoTepous dheXcpovs irepl iroXXov ttoc- 
elcrOe, dvap-vr}aOevre<;, on Tr/v Trjs aaxppoavvi]^ 
7rapd.KXt](Tiv hia ti}? irepi Tip,ap)£ov Kptaeoo<i 

181 d6ifiv>'](TTco<; 7rapaK€K\r)Ka, toik 6° aXXovs diravra^;, 
oh ip-avrbv aXvirov irapeo-^rjp:ai, rrjv p,ev tu^tji' 
l8ia)T)}<; a)v Kai Tot9 pLerploLs vp,cbv 6p,oio<>, ev he 
Toi? ttoXitikols dywcri pLOVOS twv dXXcov e(p lipids 
ov o~vve<JTr)K(i)<; > alro) Trap vp,oov rrjv aoorrjpiav, 
pueTa 7rdai]<; evvolas rfj nroXei 7re7rpecr/3evK(o<;, Kai 
p-ovos vTTop,eiva$ rov rcov av/cocpavrcov O6pv/3ov, 
ov TjSrj iroXXol rcov ras yfrv%d<; ev rols TroXepiOiS 
Xaparpaiv ov% inrearrjo-av. ov yap o Odvaros 

182 heivbv, dXX* r) irepl ttjv TeXevrrjv vfipLS. 1 7r<y? he. 
ouk OLKTpbv Ihelv e-)(dpov 7rp6crco7rov eireyyeXcovTos, 
Kai rots ooo~l rcov oveihwv aKovaai; dXX bpioos 
TeroXpbrjrat.' hehorai to o-cop,a Top Kivhvvro. Trap" 
vpuv irpcttbrjv, ev Tat? vp,erepai<i oiaTpifials f3e- 
fSifOKa. ovhelq vp-oov hid Ta? e'/xa? rjhovas KaKiov 
oiKel, ovhe eo-repyjTai t% iraTpihos Karrjyopov 
tv^cov, 2 or rjcrav al hiayfri)(pio-ei<?, ov$ vrrevOvvos 
oiv dpyy\^ eKCvhvvevaev. 

1 vfrpis Cobet : v&pis cpofepd MSS. 

' 2 tvxuv Benseler : the MSS. have if rots 5l)/xois after tvx^>" 
or after oIku. 

298 



ON THE EMBASSY, 179-182 

hands of our enemies, or of a creature who is no 
man— no better in spirit than a woman. 

And first of all I pray and beseech the gods to 
save me, and then I beseech you, who hold the 
verdict in your hands, before whom I have defended 
myself against every one of the accusations, to the 
best of my recollection ; I beg you to save me, 
and not give me over to the hands of the rhetor- 
ician and the Scythian. You who are fathers of 
children or have vounger brothers whom vou hold 
dear, remember that to me they are indebted for 
a warning which they will not forget, admonished to 
live chastely through my prosecution of Timarchus. 
And all the rest of you, toward whom I have con- 
ducted myself without offence, in fortune a plain 
citizen, a decent man like any one of you, and the 
only man who in the strife of politics has refused 
to join in conspiracy against you, upon you I call 
to save me. With all loyalty I have served the city 
as her ambassador, alone subjected to the clamour 
of the slanderers, which before now many a man 
conspicuously brave in war has not had the courage 
to face ; for it is not death that men dread, but a 
dishonoured end. Is he not indeed to be pitied who 
must look into the sneering face of an enemy, and 
hear with his ears his insults? But nevertheless I 
have taken the risk, I have exposed my body to the 
peril. Among you I grew up, your ways have been 
my ways. No home of yours is the worse for my 
pleasures ; no man has been deprived of his father- 
land by accusation of mine at any revision of the 
citizen-lists, nor has come into peril when rendering 
account of his administration of an office. 



299 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

183 Mi/cpa o 6Ti 1 elTTOov ^Br] tcaTaftaivu). i<ya) 
'yap, & dv&pes 'AOijvaioi, tov p,ev p,r)8ev dhiteelv 
vpds tevptos i]V, tov Se p,rj e~)(etv aWiav t) Tvyj], 
rj crvveKX^pcoae pe avdpayirw avKofydvTij teal 2 
/3ap/3dp(p, 09 ovre tepcov ovre airovhoiv ovre rpa- 
7re£?79 (ppovrtaa^, dXkd rov<; els tov pteWovTa 
auTU) xpovov avTepovvTas e/ccpoficov, rjKet yjrevSTj 
avvTci^a<; Kad -qpwv teaTyyoplav. edv ovv iOe- 
\i]o~yT6 aai^eiv Tov<i rfj? elpijv>]<i teal x/)? vpLeTepas 
dSeias avvaycoviaTas, ttoWov? /3ot]@ou<; Xrjyp-eTai 
to Trjf TroXeco? avp:<pepov teal tcivSvveveiv virep 

VpCiV €TolpOV$. 

184 Uapa/eaXw he 1&v/3ovXov p,ev e/c tmv ttoXitikwv 
teal aco(ppovu>v dv&pwv avvtjyopov, wotciwva S' e'/c 
twv o-TpaTr)<yaiv, dpua he teal hitcaiocrvvr) hievr/vo- 
ypTa TrdvTwv, etc he tw^ (f>i\a>v /cat t&>v fjXi/ciwTcbv 
to)v ipavTov Navai/eXea ical tovs aXXovs dirav- 
Ta<i, oicriioiv eya> tcexpr)p,ai teal tcov aitTwv 
eiTLTrjhevpdTcov pbeTea^ypea. 

O puev ovv epL0<i Xoyos eiprjTai, to he awpa ^hii 
tovtX TrapahihoiaLv upJiv teal eyco teal 6 vopos. 

1 ?t( added by Cobet. z ical added by Dobree. 



300 



ON THE EMBASSY, 183-184 

A word more and I have done. One thing was in 
my power, fellow citizens : to do you no wrong. But 
to be free from accusation, that was a thing which 
depended upon fortune, and fortune cast my lot with 
a slanderer, a barbarian, who cared not for sacrifices 
nor libations nor the breaking of bread together ; 
nay, to frighten all who in time to come might op- 
pose him, he has fabricated a false charge against us 
and come in here. If, therefore, you are willing to 
save those who have laboured together with you for 
peace and for your security, the common good will 
find champions in abundance, ready to face danger 
in your behalf. 

To endorse my plea I now call Eubulus as a repre- 
sentative of the statesmen and all honourable citizens, 
and Phocion as a representative of the generals, 
preeminent also among us all as a man of upright 
character. From among my friends and associates I 
call Nausicles, and all the others with whom I have 
associated and whose pursuits I have shared. 

My speech is finished. This my body I, and the 
law, now commit to your hands. 



301 



III.— AGAINST CTESIPHON 



III.— THE SPEECH AGAINST CTESIPHON 

330 b.c. 

Introduction 

On receipt of the news of the defeat at Chaeronea 
the Athenians made hasty and temporary repairs of 
their fortifications. After the unexpectedly favour- 
able peace terms offered by Philip had released them 
from the fear of an immediate attack, they deter- 
mined to undertake the mere thorough repair of the 
walls. The work was apportioned to the several 
tribes. Demosthenes was elected by the members 
of his tribe to superintend the repairs assigned to 
them, covering the important section around the Pei- 
raeus. The sum of nearly ten talents was entrusted 
to him for this work. Finding this sum insufficient 
for the repairs that were needed, Demosthenes added 
three talents of his own money, as a gift to the city. 
His friend Ctesiphon saw now a happy occasion for 
obtaining from the people an expression of their ap- 
preciation of the services that Demosthenes had 
performed in the long struggle against Macedon, of 
their continued confidence in him even in defeat, 
and of their love for the lost cause. Ctesiphon there- 
fore carried a motion in the senate that at the coming 
Dionysia, when the great theatre would be filled with 
Athenian citizens and visitors from other Greek 
states, a golden crown should be publicly bestowed 

3°5 



INTRODUCTION 

on Demosthenes, with a proclamation attesting his 
lifelong devotion to the state. When the proposal 
came to the assembly of the people for ratification, 
Aeschines attacked the motion as illegal. 1 The effect 
of this was to defer action on the motion and to 
send the case thus instituted by Aeschines to the 
law courts. 2 For reasons which we do not know, 
the trial of the case was delayed for six years, but in 
330 it came into court. 

Aeschines based his indictment of Ctesiphon on 
three charges : first, he cited a provision of the con- 
stitution which forbade crowning a public officer until 
after the expiration of his term of office, and the 
approval of his record by the official Board of Audi- 
tors. But at the time when Ctesiphon moved the 
crown, Demosthenes was a commissioner of his tribe 
for the repair of walls, and at the same time Super- 
intendent of the Festival Fund, one of the most 
important financial offices of the city. Secondly, the 
constitution prescribed that crowns bestowed bv the 
city be proclaimed and received at a meeting of" the 
popular assembly held on the Pnyx. But Ctesiphon's 
motion was that Demosthenes be crowned in the 
theatre, on the occasion of the presentation of the 
new tragedies. On both of these points Aeschines 
had a strong case, probably a safe one, though it may 
well be that the laws cited had fallen into neglect. 
But to have won his case on these technical points 

1 The Athenian constitution consisted of the original code 
of Solon, together with the whole body of laws (v6fxoi) which 
in course of time had modified or enlarged it. It was illegal 
to propose any resolution (tyT)<pio-/j.a) which contravened this 
constitution. 

8 For a full account of the Athenian procedure in such 
cases, see Goodwin, Demosthenes de Corona, pp. 316-327. 

306 



INTRODUCTION 

only would not have satisfied Aeschines ; it would 
have been a victory over Ctesiphon only ; merely to 
have prevented the proposed crowning of Demos- 
thenes would not have been enough to gratify 
Aeschines' hatred of the man who had put him on 
trial thirteen years before for treason. He there- 
fore frankly declared that his main contention was 
that Ctesiphon was guilty of proposing to insert 
a false statement in a decree of the people, for his 
motion asserted that Demosthenes had always been 
a patriotic and useful citizen. This was the real 
issue, and it made the contest one of political life 
and death to the two men. 

The time when the case came to trial was favour- 
able to Aeschines. The Theban uprising against 
Alexander had been put down and the city destroyed, 
Alexander's expedition into Asia was at the height of 
its success, and finally the Spartan revolt against 
Macedon had just been ended by the prompt action 
of the Macedonian regent. A refusal of the Athenian 
people to honour Demosthenes at this time would be 
viewed at court as a declaration of Athenian sub- 
mission to the new order in Greece. But Aeschines 
had failed to appreciate the hold of Demosthenes on 
the mass of the people, the undiminished power of 
his oratory, and the popular grief for the loss of the 
imperial position which the men of an earlier day had 
won and handed down to their descendants. The 
jury were unmoved by Aeschines' shrewd and bitter 
attacks upon Demosthenes as a man who had led 
Athens to defeat, and regardless of the strength of 
his technical case against Ctesiphon's motion, they 
gave an overwhelming verdict for the lost cause of 
Greek liberty and its foremost champion. 

3°7 



III.— RATA KTH2IMNT0S 

Tr)v jxev TrapaaK€ui]v opdre, co avSpes ' AOrjvaloi, 
/cal rrjv irapdra^tv oar/ yejevr/Tai, ical tc\<; Kara 
rr)v ayopav Ser'jaeis, ah fce^prjvTai rives virep 
tov to, fierpia /cal crVvrjdrj jxtj yLjvecrdai, iv rf/ 
TTo\ei' eyco Be 7reTricrTev/cco<i t\kco wpcoTov fiev rots 
Oeols, eiretra 1 TOi? vop.oi<> /cal vp.lv, f/you/xei'O? 
ovSepbiav Trapao-fcevrjv puel^ov la^yeiv Trap vpZv 

TCOV VOpLCOV KOI TCOV SlKCLLWV. 

'R/3ov\6p,riv jxev ovv, co avSpes 'AOr/vaioi, /cal 
ttjv /3ov\r)v toi"? TrevTa/coaiovs /cal To.? i/c/c\t]a[as 
vrro tcov icpeaTijfcoTcov 6p0co<; Sioi/celaOai, /cal tovs 
vopuovs oft? ivo/.io0€Ti]crev o ^LoXcov irepl tt}? tcov 
prjropcov evKotTfiia? icryyeiv, Xva e^rjv irpcorov fiev 
to) TrpeafivTciTcp tcov tto\itcov, coenrep oi vopioi 
Trpoo-raTTOvai, acoeppovcos enl to fir)pia irapeXOovTi 
avev Oopvfiov real Tapaxvs e'f i/x7r€ipia<; tc\ /3i\- 
Ticrra tt} ttoXcl o~vp,/3ov\ev€iv, Sevrepov 6" f}8t) 
/cal tcov dWcov iro\ircov tov j3ov\op,evov tcaO^ 
i)\i/ciav %(w/>U teal ev piepei Trepl e/cdaTov <yvcop,>)v 
airocpaiveo-dai' ovtco <yc\p av fxoi 8o/cei r) T6 ttoXis 
dpicTTa SioiKelaOai, a'i re /cpiaeis e\d%icrTai 
ylyvecrOai. 

'EjireiSi] Se irdvTa to npoTepov cbpio\o<yripLeva 
/ca\co<; e^etv vvvl /caTa\e\vTai, /cal jpdepovac tc 

1 g7reiTa Stephanus : e7r*iTa Sevrepov or Sevrtpov 5k MSS. 

308 



III.— AGAINST CTESIPHON 

You see, fellow citizens, how certain persons have 
been making their preparations for this case : how 
they have mustered their forces, and how they have 
gone begging up and down the market place, in the 
attempt to prevent the fair and orderly course of 
justice in the state. But I have come trusting first 
in the gods, then in the laws and in you, believing 
that with you no scheming preparation can override 
law and justice. 

I could wish, indeed, fellow citizens, that the 
Senate of Five Hundred and the assemblies of the 
people were properly conducted by those who pre- 
side over them, and the laws enforced which Solon 
enacted to secure orderly conduct on the part of 
public speakers ; for then it would be permitted 
to the oldest citizen, as the law prescribes, to come 
forward to the platform first, with dignity, and, 
uninterrupted by shouting and tumult, out of his 
experience to advise for the good of the state ; and 
it would then be permitted to all other citizens 
who wished, one by one in turn, in order of age, 
to express their opinion on every question ; for so, 
I think, the state would be best governed, and least 
litigation would arise. 

But now all our standards of orderly procedure 
have been set aside ; there are men who do not 



309 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Tivef pa&icos Trapavo/xovs yvwfias, /ecu ravras J 
erepoi rives 2 e7Ti\fr)](pl^ouatv, ov/c e/e tov hi/ccuo- 
tutov rpoTTOV Xa^ovTe*; ir poeSpeuetv , dXX €K 
TrapacrK€vfj<i /eade^ofievoi, av he Tt? twv dXXwv 
j3ov\euro)v ovtcos ^-^XV irpoehpeveiv, 3 /ecu Ta? 
v/j,erepa<; ^eiporovlas 6p0to<; dvayopeurj, tovtov 
ol jrjv iToXneiav ov/ceri koivijv, aU IZiav avrwv 
ijyovfuevoi, aireiXovcnv elcrayyeXelv, /earaSovXov- 
fievoi roix; l&icoTCis KOtX hvva<neia<; eavrois Trepi- 

4 Troiovfievoi, tca\ Ta? /cpicreLS ra? fiev e/e tcov voficov 
/earaXeXvKacn, ra? S' e/e rwv yfrrjcpiafidTcov per 
opyrjs /eplvovcriv, aealy^rai fiev to kciXXicttov 
zeal acocppovecrTarov /c/jpvyfia twv ev rfj nroXer 
" Tt? dyopeveiv f3ovXerai tcov birep Trevryj/eovra 
err) yeyovoTcov;" zeal ttllXiv ev fiepei tcov ciXXcov 
'AOrjvalcov. tt}<? Be tcov p^Topcov d/cocrfiias ov/ceri 
KpaTelv Svvavrat oi>0' ol vbfioi ouO' ol 7rpvTavei<; 
ovd' ol irpoeSpot ovB 1 ?/ irpoeSpevoucra cf>vXi], to 
he/tdTov fiepos tt}? 7ro\e&)<?. 

5 Tovtcov S' iyovTCOV ovtcos, /ecu tcov /caepcov 
ovtcov Trj rrroXet tolovtwv ottoIov; tlvcls aVTOVS 
vfiels viroXa/ifSdveTe eivcu, ev vTroXeLireTcu fiepos 
t/}? TToXiTe'ia<;, el ti Kayco Tvy^dvco yiyvcoa/ecov, 
al tcov rrapavo/xcov ypacpaL el 8e /ecu rauTa? 
/eaTuXvaeTe r) toi<> /cctTaXvovcriv e7riTpey}reTe, irpo- 

1 ravras Cobet : ravra MSS. 

2 rives Westermann : rives ra \\n)(pia fxar a MSS 

s \dxv irpoeSpeveiv Westermann : Aaxfl icKtipoufxevos irpoe- 
Speueiv MSS. 

310 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 3-5 

hesitate to make illegal motions, and other men 
who are ready to put these motions to the vote — 
not men who have been chosen by right and lawful 
allotment to preside, but men who hold the position 
by trickery ; and if any other senator does actually 
obtain the presidency by lot, and does honestly de- 
clare your votes, he is threatened with impeach- 
ment by men who no longer regard citizenship as a 
common right, but as their own private perquisite ; 
men who are making slaves of the common people, 
and arrogating lordship to themselves ; men who 
have set aside the lawful processes of the courts, and 
carry their verdicts in the assembly by appeal to 
passion. 1 The result of all this is that we have ceased 
to hear that wisest and most judicious of all the 
proclamations to which the city was once accus- 
tomed, " Who of the men above fifty years of age 
wishes to address the people," and then who of 
the other Athenians in turn. The disorder of the 
public men can no longer be controlled by the laws, 
nor by the prytanes, nor by the presiding officers, 
nor by the presiding tribe, the tenth part of the 
city. 2 

Under such circumstances, and in a political situa- 
tion the gravity of which you yourselves understand, 
only one part of the constitution is left to us — if I 
too may lay claim to some discernment — the suits 
against illegal motions. But if you shall annul 
these also, or give way to those who are trying to 
annul them, I warn you that before you know it 

1 The popular leaders, confident in their ability to carry 
the popular assembly by appeal to the passions of the masses, 
bring cases there in the form of impeachments, etc., which 
ought to go to the courts, to be decided under the laws. 

2 See i. 33 and note. 

311 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

\eyco v/xlv, ort \r)o~ere Kara ptttcpbv t?}? iroXiretas 
ricrl rrapaywpi]aavre'i. 

6 Ev yap tare, Si dv8pe<i 'Adijvatoi, on rpets 
€Lai rroXtretat irapa iraaiv dvOpdnrots, rv pawls 
teat oXtyapyta teat 8rjp,o/cparta- 8iottcovvrat S' 
at ptev rvpavv't8es teal oXtyapytat rots rpbrrots 
roiv €<fie<TT7]K0Ta)v, at 8e iroXets at 8rjpLOKparov- 
ptevat rots voptots rots Ketptevots. ptr]8els ovv 
vp.oiv tout' dyvoeiroo, dXXa aa(p(bs etcaaros eVt- 
ardaOw, on brav elalrj et<? 8i/caaryjpiov ypa<pr)v 
rrapavo ptcov Si/cdacov, ev ravrrj rfj ijp.epa p.eXXei 
rj\v \lrfj(pov (pepeiv rrepl rr/s eavrov 7rappr]atas- 
otoirep zeal o vo/jtn0errjs rovro rrpwrov era^ev ev 
ra> rwv Bi/cacrrwv 6p/c(p, "tyijcpiovjjiai Kara rovs 
voptovs," itcetvo ye ev etBcos, ort av Biar^prj- 
Ogmjiv ot voptot, rfj rroXet, arw^erai teal t) 8r)pto- 

7 teparta. a %pr) 8iaptvrjp:ovevovras vptds p-tcrelv 
rovs ra rrapdvopta ypdepovras, ical ptr]8ev r]yel- 
a9ai puKpov elvat rwv roiovrcov d8iKr)p.drwv, aXX' 
etcaorov vTreppteyeOes, fcal rovO' vptcov rb 8i/catov 
p,r)8eva idv x dvOpdnrcov i^atpetaOai, ptijre ras 
rebv errpar^yebv avvyjyoptas, 01 erri rroXvv ijSrj 
y^povov crvvepyovvres rtat rwv pt)rbpwv \vptai- 
vovrai rrjv iroXtretav, p.tjre rds rcov %evoov 8ei]o~ets, 
ovs dva/3i{3a%6p.evol rives etctyevyovcriv etc rwv 
Bitcaarripiwv, rrapdvoptov TroXtretav rrdXtrevoptevot' 
d\\ (oairep av vptcov etcaaros atayvvOei)] rrjv 
rd^iv Xtirelv fjv av ra^Ofj ev ra> iroXeptw, ovrco 
teal vvv aio-yyvdr)reetc\tTTeivrriv rd^iv f)v rerayde 
V7r6 rojv voptcov <pv~Xatces rrjs BrjptoKparias rrjv8e 
rrjv rjptepav. 

1 iuv added by Askew. 
312 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 5-7 

you will step by step have surrendered your rights 
to a faction. 

There are, as you know, fellow-citizens, three 
forms of government in the world : tyranny, oligar- 
chy, and democracy. Tyrannies and oligarchies are 
administered according to the tempers of their lords, 
but democratic states according to their own estab- 
lished laws. Let no man among you forget this, but 
let each bear distinctly in mind that when he enters 
a court-room to sit as juror in a suit against an illegal 
motion, on that day he is to cast his vote for or 
against his own freedom of speech. This is why the 
lawgiver placed first in the jurors' oath these words, 
"I will vote according to the laws." For he well 
knew that if the laws are faithfully upheld for the 
state, the democracy also is preserved. This you 
ought always to remember, and to hate those who 
make illegal motions, and to hold no such offence as 
trivial, but every one as serious indeed. And you 
ought to let no man rob you of this right of yours, 
whether through the intercession of the generals, 
who by their cooperation with certain public men 
have this long time been outraging the constitution, 
or through petitions of foreigners, whom some bring 
in here, and so escape the courts, when their whole 
political career has been in defiance of the laws. 
But as each man of you would be ashamed to desert 
the post to which he had been assigned in war, so 
now you should be ashamed to desert the post to 
which the laws have called you, sentinels, guarding 
the democracy this day. 

3*3 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

8 Kd/eetz/o Be %pi] Biapvrjpoveveiv, on vvvl irdvTes 
01 iroXlrai TrapaKaraOefxevoL tijv ttoXiv vpZv Kai 
Tt]v TToXiTeiav BiaTrtcrTevcravTes, ol pei> irdpeioi 
teal kiraKovovuL ryaSe tt)? Kpiaecos, ol Be airuaiv 
eVi tcov IBlcov epycov ovs ala)£vv6p,€voi Kai tcov 
opKcov ous copoaaTe, pepvqpievoi Kai tcov vopucov, 
iav if;e\4yf;jto K.Ti]cri(p copra Kai irapdvopa yeypa- 
cpora /cal yjrevBrj koX dcrvpicpopa rf) iroXet, \vere, 
to dvBpes 'A0t)vaioi, ra<; Trapavopiovs yvcopas, 
/3e/3aiovTe rj} irokei ttjv S^po/cparlav, KoXd^ere 
tovs inrevavrtcos tois vopois teal tm crvpcpepovTt 
tco vperepto TroXiTevnpevovs- kclv ravrrjv e^ovTes 
rrjv Bidvoiav uKourjTe tcov (teXXoVTcov fydijo-eadai 
Xoycov, ev olB on koX BiKaia Kai euop/ca icai 
o~vp,cf)epovTa vplv avTols yjn'jcpceto'de Kai irdar) ttj 
iroXei. 

9 Hepl pcev ovv ttjs 6\rj<i KaTijyoplas pberpicos pLOi 
eXirl^co TTpoeiprjcrOar irepl Be avTcov tcov vop,cov ol 
KslvTai irepl tcov inrevOvvcov, nap ovs to yjrrj- 
cpiapa Tvyxdvei yeypaepcos K.TT]cri<p cov, Bid f3pa- 
yecov elirelv p3ovXop.at. 

'Ey yap TOi? epbirpocrOev ^povois dp^ovTes Tives 
Tas peyiaTas ap^ds koX tcls irpoaoBovs Bioikovvtcs, 
Kai BcopoBoKovvTes irepl efcacna tovtcov, irpoaXapb- 
fidvovTes to us Te Ik tov /3ovXevT7)plov prjTopas 
Kai tovs €K tov Bi]pov, iroppcodev it poKaTeXdpi- 
fiavov Tas evdvvas iiralvois Kai Ki]pvypacriv, coot 
ev Tats evdvvais x els ttjv p,eyio~TT)v p,ev diroptav 
dtpiKvelaOai tovs KaTrjyopovs, iroXv Be eVt pciXXov 
10 Toy? BiKaaTas. iroXXol yap irdvv tcov virevOvvcov, 

1 evdvvais Weidner : tuduvats toiv apx<H» / (or tuv apx° t ' TU > t ') 
MSS. 

314 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 8-10 

And another thing you have to remember : to-day 
your fellow citizens as a body have put the city and 
the constitution into your hands as a solemn trust. 
Some of them are present, listening to this case ; 
others are absent, busy with their personal affairs. 
Respect them therefore, and remember the oaths 
which you have sworn, and the laws ; and if I convict 
Ctesiphon of having made a motion that is illegal, 
false, and injurious to the state, annul the illegal 
motion, fellow citizens; confirm the democratic 
government for our state ; punish those whose poli- 
cies are opposed to the laws and to your interests. 
If in this spirit you listen to the words which are 
about to be spoken, I am sure that your verdict will 
be just, faithful to your oath, and salutary alike to 
yourselves and to the commonwealth. 

I hope now that what I have said is a sufficient 
introduction to my complaint as a whole ; but I wish 
to speak briefly about the laws themselves which 
govern the rendering of account by public officers, 
the laws which are in fact violated by Ctesiphon's 
resolution. 

In former times certain men who held the highest 
offices and administered the revenues — yes, and be- 
trayed their every trust for money — would attach to 
themselves the public speakers of the senate-house 
and the assembly, and thus anticipate their day of 
accounting long in advance, with votes of thanks and 
with proclamations. The result was that when the 
time came for them to render their account, those 
who had charges to prefer fell into very great em- 
barrassment, and this was even more the case with 
the jurors. For great numbers of those who were 



3 J 5 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eV avTCKpaipa) /c\e7TTai twv Srj/xoalu>ii xprj^drayv 
ovres et;e\ey%6p.evoi, Siecpvyyavov ex rwv hiica- 
(TTrjplayv, etVoT&)?' rjo-yyvovio yap olp.cu ol Si/ca- 
arai, el <pav/]aerai 6 avrb? dvr\p ev tt) avrrj 
voXei, Trpa>7]v x p,ev irore dvayopevop,evo<; ev to?? 
dycoatv, otl are^avovrat aperr)<; eve/ca /cat ci- 
Kaioavv>]s vtto tov hrjp.ov ^pvcrw aTe<pdv(p, o Be 
airro? dvrjp pwcpbv e.TTio")(d>v etjeiaiv e/c tov hiica- 
arripiov /cXo7r/}? eve/ca Ta<? ei)6vva<i wcpXr^Kcof 
ware i)vay/cd£ovTo t>jv -tyrftyov (fiepeiv ol Si/cao-Tai, 

11 ov irepl rov irapovro^ d8i/cr)p.aTO<;, dW virep t% 
alayyvr]^ tov SiJ/jlov. 

K.aTi&wv hr) 2 Tt<? ravTa vopLoOeTtjs ridrjai vofiov 
/cal p,d\a /caXeo? eyovTa, StappijSrjv 3 array opev- 
ovra tou9 virevBvvov^ p,rj aTetpavovv. /cal ravra 
ovTw<i ev TrpoKa.TeiXrjcfcoTO'i tov vopoOerov, evp- 
rjvrai /cpeiTTOves \6yot twv vopLcov, ovs el p.rj ri<; 
vpuv epel, \rjaeie e^a r naTr)6evTe<s. tovtcov yap 4 
roiv tovs birevdvvovs crTefpavovvTCOv irapa toi>? 
vojiowi ol p^ev (fivcrei puerpioL eio~iv, el 8rj tis earl 
pberpiof roiv rd irapdvo/xa ypatpovTcov, aXV ovv 
irpofidWovTal ye ti rrpb t% ala^vvrj<i. irpocr- 
ypdcfyovcu 5 yap 7T/50? rd yjn](pLap.aTa arecpavovv rbv 
vrrevdvvov " eireihdv \6yov ica\ ev9vva<; tj}? dp-^f]^ 

12 o"(S." teal rj pbev 7roXt? to I'crov dSt/cr/pLa dSifcetTar 
Trpo/caTa\ap,/3dvovTai yap iiraLvois /cal o-reepdvoa 

1 iro'Xei, irpwyp Cobet : after w6\ti the MSS. have rvx^v 8e 
Kcd if t£ ahrii ivtavTcj). 

2 5-h Blass (from an ancient quotation, Walz, Bh. iv. 512) : 
Se'MSS. cp. §44. 

3 SiappitS-nv Cobet : rbv SmppTiSr/e MSS. 

4 yap Cobet : yap Tives MSS. 

b irpoaypacpovai Dobree : Trpocrtyypatyowi MSS. 

3i6 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 10-12 

subject to audit, though they were caught in the very 
act of stealing the public funds, went out from the 
court-room acquitted. And no wonder ! For the 
jurors were ashamed, I imagine, to see the same man 
in the same city one day proclaimed at the festival as 
crowned by the people with a golden crown because 
of his virtue and justice, and then a little later to 
see the same man come out of the auditors' court 
convicted of theft. And so the jurors were forced 
to render, not the verdict that fitted the actual crime, 
but one that would avert the shame of the people. 

Now some statesman who had observed this situa- 
tion caused a law to be passed — and a most excellent 
law it is — which expressly forbids crowning men 
before they have passed their final accounting. And 
yet in spite of this wise provision of the framer of 
the law, forms of statement have been invented 
which circumvent the laws ; and unless you are 
warned of them you will be taken unawares and 
deceived. For among those men who contrary to 
the laws crown officers who have not yet submitted 
their accounts, some, who at heart are orderly 
citizens — if any one is really orderly who proposes 
illegal measures — at any rate some do make an 
attempt to cloak their shame ; for they add to their 
decrees the proviso that the man who is subject to 
audit shall be crowned "after he shall have ren- 
dered account and submitted to audit of his office." 
The injury to the state is indeed no less, for the 
hearings for accounting are prejudiced by previous 
votes of thanks and crowns ; but the man who makes 

317 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

at evOvvai- 6 8e ro yp-rjcfrio-pa ypdfpwv evhetKvvrai 
Tot9 aKovovaiv, on yeypafye fiev irapdvopa, al- 
o-Yweraf 8e e'0' 0Z9 fjpAprrjKe. Krrjcncpcbv 8e, &> 
dv&pes 'AOrjvaloi, virepTrrjhrjcra^ rov vop.ov rov 
irepl ro)v virevOvvcov Kelpevov, Kal T)]v irpocfiacriv 
r)v apricot irpoelirov vp.lv dveXcov, irplv Xoynv irplv 
evOvvas hovvai yeypacpe pera^v At]poadevi)v dp- 
yovTd arecpavovv. 

13 Ae^ovai 8e, co dvSpe? 'AOrjraloi, Kal erepov 
nva Xoyov virevavriov rco apricot elprjpevw, &)9 
dpa, oaa ns aiperbs cov rr panel Kara yp-ijcpiapa, 
ovk ean ravra dpxv> dXX eirtfiekeid ns teal 
hiaicovia- dpxds Be cp^aovcriv eKeivas e v u a 9 ol 
decpoQerai arroKXrjpovcnv ev tw Sr]creicp, fcdfceiva? 
a? 6 Srjpos x ei P 0T0V€ ^ * v apxaipeaiais, <rrpariryyov<i 
Kal iTnrdpxov? Kal rat per a rovrcov dpxds, ra £' 
aXXa irdvra it pay par etas irpoareraypevat Kara 
•^n^icrpa. 

14 'E^oo 8e 7T/90? rovs Xoyovs rovs rovrcov vopov 
vperepov rrape^opai, ov vpels evopoOeri')o-are 
Xvaeiv rjyovpevoi rds roiavras jrpocf)daei<;, ev co 
hiappy)hrjv yeypairrai, "rds x ei P 0T0V1 l r< *-'i" §t)<t'iv, 
"ap%a<?," dirdaa^ evl irepiXa/Scov ovopari, 1 Kal 
rrpoaeirrcov apxds dirdaa<i etvai a<? 6 $f}po<i X 6L P°~ 
rov el, " Kal rovs eTTicrrdras," cp-qcri, " rcov Sijpoal- 
cov epycov" ecrri he 6 ArjpocrOevri^ reixorroi6<;, 
eiricrrdrrj^ rov peyiarov rcov epycov " Kal irdvras 
ocroi Siaxeipifrvo-l ri rcov rr/s TroXeax; irXeov rj 
rpiaKOvB^ >i/j,epa<>, Kal ocroi Xaixfidvovaiv rjyepovias 

1 6v6/xa.Ti Westermann : bv6p.cm 6 vo/j.o8fTj}s MSS. 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 12-14 

the motion does show to the hearers that while 
he has made an illegal motion, he is ashamed of 
the wrong thing that he has done. But Ctesiphon, 
fellow citizens, overleaping the law that governs 
those who are subject to audit, and not deigning 
to resort to the pretext of which I have just spoken, 
has moved that before the accounting, before the 
auditing, you crown Demosthenes — in the midst of 
his term of office. 

But, fellow citizens, in opposition to the state- 
ment of the case which I have just presented, they 
will m-ge a different argument ; for they will say, for- 
sooth, that whatever a man is called on to do under 
special enactment, this is not an "office," but a sort 
of "commission" and "public service"; and they 
will say that "offices" are those to which the Thes- 
mothetae appoint men by lot in the Theseum, and 
those which are filled by popular election (the 
offices of general, cavalry commander, and associated 
offices) ; but that all others are " employment under 
special enactment." 

Well, to their arguments I will oppose your law, a 
law which you yourselves passed in the expectation 
of silencing such pretexts ; for it expressly says "the 
elective offices," including all in a single phrase, 
calling everything which is filled by popular election 
an "office," and specifying "the superintendents 
of public works." But Demosthenes is in charge 
of the construction of walls, superintendent of the 
greatest of the works; "and all who have charge of 
any business of the state for more than thirty days, 
and all to whom is given the presidency of a court " ; 



3 X 9 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

BiKaarrjptmv" oi he T&v epywv eTriardrai names 
rjyep-ovia -^pcovTat, hitcacnripiov. 

15 Tt tovtovs KeXeveL iroielv; ov hiatcoveiv, aXk 
" apyeiv 8oKi/u.aadevra<; ev tw oVvacrT^ota)," 
ijreihr] /cat ai /cXr/pcoTai apx ai 0VK a.BoKt/Juurroi, 
dWd ho k i /acta Sclera i apyjwoi, " nal \oyov l ey- 
ypdcpeiv 7T/30<? tov ypap,p,area real tovs Xoyicrras, 
KaOdirep teal ra? a\A.a<? ap%d<;. 2 oti he d\i)6?] 
Xeyo), tovs voijlovs vplv avTovs dvayvooaeTai. 

NOMOI 

16 "Orav rolvvv, &> avhpes AOijvaloi, a<? o vo/ioOe- 
T77? aoya? 6i>op.d%et., ovroi irpocrayopevcoai irpay- 
liaTeias /cal eVt/zeAeia?, v/xeTepov epyov earlv 
aTro/xvrip,ovev€[V /cal avrirdrTeiv tov vbfxov irpbs 
rrjv tovtcov avaiheiav, koX virofidWeiv avTOts, oti 
ov TrpooSe^eade /ca/covpyov ao<f>io-Trjv, olofxevov 
prjp,aai rov<; vo/xovs dvaipijcreiv, dW bcrw dv Tt<? 
dp-eivov \eyrj irapdvopua yeypacfioos, toctovtw puei- 
%ovo<i opyr/s reu^erai. XP^I 7"/°» ^ dvhpes 'Adrj- 
valoi, to avrb fydeyyeardai rbv pi']TOpa Kat rbv 
vbfiov orav he erepav puev epeovrjv dcpifj o vop,o<;, 
erepav he 6 prjrwp, ru> tov vbp-ov hiicaup XPV htho- 
vai rr\v yfri](})ov, ov rrj rod \eyovros dvaio-yyvria. 

17 Tlpos he hr] tov dcf)v/CTOv \6yov, ov (f)7]at At^/ao- 
o-6evr)<;, {Spayeci (3ov\op,ai irpoeiirelv. Ae£et yap 

1 \6ynv Reiske : Koyov ical evdvvas MSS. 

2 apxas Frank e : a.px as Ke\evei MSS. 

1 It was a principle of the Athenian legal system that 
litigation arising within the sphere of any executive depart- 
ment should come before a court presided over by the head 
of that department. 

320 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 14-17 

but every superintendent of public works holds the 
presidency of a court. 1 

What is it that the law commands these men to 
do ? Not to " serve," but " after approval by the 
court 2 to hold office" (for even the officers who are 
selected by lot are not exempt from the scrutiny, 
but hold their office only after approval); "and to 
submit their accounts before the clerk and board of 
auditors," precisely as other officers are required 
to do. As proof of the truth of my statement, the 
laws themselves shall be read to you. 

THE LAWS 

When, therefore, fellow citizens, what the law- 
giver names "offices," they call "employments" 
and "commissions," it is your duty to remember the 
law, and to set it against their shamelessness, and 
to remind them that you refuse to accept a rascally 
sophist, who expects to destroy the laws with phrases ; 
but that when a man has made an illegal motion, the 
more cleverly he talks, the more angry will he find 
you. For by right, fellow citizens, the orator and 
the law ought to speak the same language ; but when 
the law utters one voice and the orator another, you 
ought to give your vote to the just demand of the 
law, not to the shamelessness of the speaker. 

But now to "the irrefutable argument," as De- 
mosthenes calls it, I wish to reply briefly in advance. 

' 2 All incoming officials were required to pass a formal 
" scrutiny '' (So/fijuarrfa) before entering upon office. In the 
case of most officials this was conducted before a court. 
Aeschines mentions this preliminary scrutiny here because it 
would naturally follow that any person who had to pass the 
official scrutiny before entering on his work would have to 
pass the official accounting on laying it down. 

321 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovtos' " Tei^oTToi 09 elpr opoXoyco- aXA,' eV^e- 
hco/ca rf) iroXet fxvas e/carov, /cal rb epyov pel^ov 
e^eipyacrpai. rlvos ovv elpu virevOvvos; el p,rj ris 
4&tIv evvoias evOvva. ' rrpb<; Srj ravirjv ripj rrpb- 
<fiaaii> d/covcrare pov Xiyovros /cal Sl/caia /cal vplv 
av/xcf)epovTa. 

Ev yap ravry rfj iroXei, ovrcos dpyaia ovaij 
teal T7]\i/cavTT) to p,eye0o<i, ov8eL<; eanv avvirev- 
0uvo<> rcov /cal ottuxtovv 7T/509 TO- icoivd irpoaeXr}- 

18 \v96rcov. 8i8d£co 6° vpLas irpcorov iirl rcov irapaho- 
%cov. olov robs lepeas /cal ras lepelas inrevOvvov; 
elvat /ceXevei o vopbos, /cal <tvW/](38t]v diravra^ /cal 
%copl<; e/cdarovs Kara crcopua, robs ra yepa p,6vov 
\ap,/3dvovra<; /cal Ta9 eu%a9 inrep vpcov 777309 robs 
Oeovs ev%op,evov<;, real ou p,6iov I8la, aWa Kal 
KOivfj ra yevrj, Eu/xoA,7rtSa9 /cal K.rjpv/ca<; /cal robs 
aX\ov<i airavras. 

19 Y\d\iv T01/9 TpiTjpdp-^ov^ virevOvvov? elvat 
/ceXevei 6 vopos, ou ra. Koiva hiayeipio-avras, ouS' 
drro rcov vpuerepcov 1 TroWa pev ucbaipoupivous, 
ftpayka Be KarartOeira<;, ov8> imhihovai p,ev 2 
(batTKOVTas, drroSiSovras 8e uplv ra uperepa, aX)C 
6po\oyoup,evco<; ra? rrarpepas ovtrias et9 rrjv 777509 
upas dvrfkcoKoras cf)i\ori,p,lav. 

Ou ro'ivuv pbvoi ol rpnqpapyoi, dWa /cal ra 
peyiara rcov iv rf) iroXei cruveSpicov biro ttjv tcov 

20 hi/caarripicov epyerai yjrrjcpov. rrpcorov p,ev ydp 
rijv /3ov\i)V rrjv iv 'A/oetw irdyco iyypdcpeiv 7T/309 
toi>9 Xoyicrras o vop,o<; tceXevei \6yov /cal evdvpas 
8i&6vat, Kal rrjv i/cei a/cvOpco7rbv /cal rcov peyiarcov 



" vixfTtpcuv Bake : vfieriparv irpoaiiSwv MSS. 
2 ou8' ixiStS6vat /xev Blass : eViSiSoVoi Se AISS. 



322 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 17-20 

For he will say, " I am in charge of the construction 
of walls ; I admit it ; but I have made a present of a 
hundred minas to the state, and I have carried out 
the work on a larger scale than was prescribed ; 
what then is it that you want to audit? unless a 
man's patriotism is to be audited ! " Now to this 
pretext hear my answer, true to the facts and 
beneficial to you. 

In this city, so ancient and so great, no man is 
free from the audit who has held any public trust. 
I will first cite cases where this would be least ex- 
pected. For example, the law directs that priests 
and priestesses be subject to audit, all collectively, 
and each severally and individually — persons who 
receive perquisites only, and whose occupation is to 
pray to heaven for you ; and they are made ac- 
countable not only separately, but whole priestly 
families together, the Eumolpidae, the Ceryces, and 
all the rest. 

Again, the law directs that the trierarchs be sub- 
ject to audit, though they have had no public funds 
in their hands, and though they are not men who filch 
large sums from your treasury and pay out small 
ones, and not men who claim to be making donations 
when they are only paying back what is your own, 
but men who are acknowledged by all to have spent 
their family fortunes in their ambition to serve you. 

Furthermore, not the trierarchs alone, but also 
the highest bodies in the state, come under the 
verdict of the courts of audit. For, first, the Senate 
of the Areopagus is required by the law to file its 
accounts with the Board of Auditors and to submit to 
their examination ; yes, even those men, who sit 
with solemn aspect yonder as the court of highest 

323 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Kvpiav x dyei 2 viro ttjv lipeTepav ^\rrj^>ov. ovk 
apa (TT€(f)ava)di]creTai r) {3ov\rj r) e'£ Apeiov ird- 
yov; ovBe yap iraTpiov clvtoIs? ovk apa (piXori- 
povvTai; nrdvv ye, dW ovk ayairoiyaiv, edv Ti? 
Trap" ai>rol<i pi] dBiKjj, dW eav ri<; i^apaprdvr], 
KoXd^ovaiv ol Be vperepoi p/jropes Tpvcfrtoai. 
TrdXiv rrjV f3ov\r]i> tovs TTevTaKocriovs virevdvvov 

21 TreTToirjicev 6 vopoOerr]<;. koX ovtcds la^ypw^ diri- 
crTel rot? inrevdvvois, war ev6i><; dp^opevos twv 
vopcov, 4 " 'Ap)(V v virevdvvov" (pyo-u, " prj dirohri- 
ueiv" "*£l r Hpdfc\et<i," vTroXafioL dv T£?, " otl 
rjp^a, pr) diroSrjpijaa};^ iva ye prj TrpoXafiwv XPV~ 
para t?)<? 7r6A.€W? rj irpd^eis Bpacrpro ^p)jaj]. irdXiv 
virevOvvov ovk id tt/v ovalav KaOiepovv, ovBe 
dvdOr/pa avadelvai, ovc7 €K7rotr)rov yeveadai, ovBe 
Biadeadai to eavTov, ovK dWa iroWd' evl Be 
Xoyo) eveyypd'QeL rd<; ovaiav 6 vopoOerrjs t<z? twv 
vTrevdvvwv, e&)9 dv \6yov diroBwcn rfj TroXei. 

22 "Nat, aXA,' ecrrt Tt<? dvdpo)Tro<i 09 ovt et\y](pev 
ovBev roiv Brjpoatcov ovt dvifKooKe, irpoarfkOe Be 
77730? ti TOiv Koivwv." Kal tovtov dirocpepeiv 
Ke\evet \6yov 7rpb<; tow \oyio-Ta<;. " Kal 7rco9 
6 ye p,T)8ev \a/3a)v p7]& dva~X.(oo~as aixoiGei Xoyov 
ttj 7roXet;" auTO? virofidWei, Kal BiBdaKei vopos 

1 tV . . . OKvOpunrhv . . . Kvpiav Reiske : the MSS. have 
to>v . . . (TKvOpwirciv . . . Kvpiou or omit all between 8i86vai and 
M. 2 &yei H. Wolf : fi->eir MSS. 

3 aiiTo?s Weidner : itrrtv aureus or avro7s iariv MSS. 

* v6ix<dv Cobet : v6fiwv \tyet MSS. 

3'4 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 20-22 

competence, are brought under your verdict. Shall 
the Senate of the Areopagus, then, receive no crown ? 
They shall not, for such is not the tradition of 
our fathers. Have they, then, no love of honour? 
Indeed they have ! They so love honour that they 
are not satisfied with merely keeping free from guilt, 
but they punish their members even for mistakes. 
But your politicians are pampered. Further, the 
lawgiver has made the Senate of Five Hundred sub- 
ject to audit. And so deep is his distrust of those 
who are subject to audit, that he says at the very 
beginning of the laws, "The officer who has not yet 
submitted his accounts shall not leave the country." 
" Heracles !" some one may answer, " because I held 
an office may I not leave the country ? " No, for fear 
you may make profit of the public money or the public 
acts, and then run away. Furthermore, the man who 
is subject to audit is not allowed to consecrate his 
property, or to make a votive offering, or to receive 
adoption, 1 or to dispose of his property by will ; and 
he is under many other prohibitions. In a word, the 
lawgiver holds under attachment the property of all 
who are subject to audit, until their accounts shall 
have been audited. " Yes, but there is a man who 
has received no public funds and spent none, but 
has simply had something to do with administrative 
matters." He too is commanded to render account 
to the auditors. " And how shall the man who has 
received nothing and spent nothing render account 
to the state ? " The law itself suggests and teaches 

1 An official who caused himself to be adopted into some 
family poorer than his own might thus diminish the security 
which the state would hold in case of his misconduct in 
office. 

325 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

a xph ypdcpeiv: Kehevu yap avrb tovto eyypd- 
<j>eiv, otl " Out eXajSov ou&ev tcov t% TroXews 
out dvrjX(oo~a." avuireuOuvov Be ical d£>')Ti]Tov 
teal dve^eTCMTTov ouBev eaTt twv ev ttj irokei. 
oti Be dXrjdrj Xeyco, ainwv d/coucraTe touv vo/jlwv. 

nomoi 

23 "Otclv toIvuv fidXiaTa dpaauvrjTai Arjfioadevr)';, 
Xeycov o>9 Bia ttjv eTTiBocriv ou/c eaTiv UTreu0uvo<;, 
i/Cctvo auTW u7ro/3d\\eT€' Ouk ouv eXPV v °~ e > 
3) A7]fxoa6eve^, edaai tov twv XoyiaTeov fcrfpu/ca 
/crjpvljai to iraTpiov KOi evvopov K7]pvyp,a touto, 
"T19 ftouXeTai KdTiiyopelv;" eacrov d/x<fiio-{3>]Trjo-ai 

CTOL TOV f3ouX6fl€VOV T(OV TToXlTWV, ft)9 OUK 67T6- 

Bcotcas, dXX diro ttoXXwv gov e^et? et? ttjv twv 
TeiX&v olfCoSofiiav [iircpd KaTeOrj/cas, Be/ca TuXavra 
ei? TauTa T779 l TToXew; elXr](f>co<i. p,r/ dpira^e tt)v 
(piXoTifALav, firjBe e^aipou rcov BifcaaTwv t«9 yjrr]- 
cpous ifc tmv xeipwv, p,r]B epbirpoaOev twv vopbwv, 
aXX" vo-Tepos ttoXltguov. TavTa yap opOol t>]v 
8y]p,0KpaTiav. 

24 Ylpo<i p,ev ouv t«? icevas 2 7rpo(pda6i<; a<; outoi 
irpucpaaiouvTai, p>€XP l & € vp° elptjaOco /nor otl Be 

6W<W9 TjV U7T6U0UVOS 6 A7]/ilOa0€V7]<i, 60' OUT09 

eio~r)veyK6 to -^rj^Laiia, dpx^v p,ev ttjv eVt to 
0ea>pi/cbv 3 dpxrfv, dpx^v Be ttjv to>v Teixotroithv, 
ouBeTepas Be ttco tmv dpx&v toutoov Xoyov up2v 

1 ttjj Blass : e/c ttjs MSS. 

2 Kevas Steplianus : Kotvixs MSS. 

s rb dewpixbv Blass, comparing Aristotle, TloA. 'Ad. 43, 1 
and 47, 2 : t(£ 6ta>puc<j> MSS. 

326 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 22-24 

what he is to write ; for it commands him to file 
precisely this statement, " I have neither received 
nor spent any public funds." There is nothing in 
all the state that is exempt from audit, investiga- 
tion, and examination. As proof of what I say, 
hear the laws themselves. 

THE LAWS 

So when Demosthenes at the height of his im- 
pudence shall say that because the money was a 
gift he is not subject to audit, suggest this to him : 
Was it not, then, your duty, Demosthenes, to allow 
the herald of the Board of Auditors to make this 
proclamation, sanctioned by law and custom, " Who 
wishes to prefer charges ? " Let any citizen who 
wishes have the opportunity to claim that you 
have given nothing, but that from the large sums 
under your control you have spent a mere trifle on 
the repair of the walls, whereas you have received 
ten talents from the city for this work. Do not grab 
honour ; do not snatch the jurors' ballots from their 
hands ; do not in your political career go before 
the laws, but follow them. For so is the democracy 
upheld. 

As an answer then to the empty pretexts that 
they will bring forward, let what I have said suffice. 
But that Demosthenes was in fact subject to audit at 
the time when the defendant made his motion, since 
he held the office of Superintendent of the Theoric 
Fund 1 as well as the office of Commissioner for the 
Repair of Walls, and at that time had not rendered 

1 In time of peace all surplus revenue went into the 
festival fund (rh QzaipiK6v), from whicli donations were made 
to the citizens on festival days. The fund was administered 
by an elective board of commissioners. 

3 2 7 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ov& evflvvas BeScoKo)^, ravr r)hr) Treipdaofxai, vp,ds 
SiSdcrfcetv €K to)v 8i]fioaicov ypap,p,dra>v. Kal puoi 
dvdyvwOi, eVl rivos dpx<>VTO<; Kal tto'lov pLijvbs Kal 
iv t'ivi ijfiepq /ecu ev iroia ix/cX^aia e^eipOTOvrjOr) 
At] fioaOevrjs rijv dp%i]V ttjv irrl ro OewpiKov. 1 

AlAAOri2M02 TON HMEPHN 

Ovkovv ei pbi-jhev en Trepairepu) 2 hei^aip.L, 
St/cata)? av akiaKOiTO K.Tr)ai<f)cbv' alpel yap avrbv 
0V X V Karijyopia i) ep,rj, dXXa rd Srj/xoaia ypdp,- 
p,ara. 

25 Uporepov /xev tolvvv, a> dv&pe? ' Adrjvatoi, dvri- 
ypacfrevs r]v x eL P orovr l' T ^ Tjj iroXei, 09 /cad' eKaaT^v 
Trpvraveiav direXoyi^ero rd<; irpocrbhov^ tS> &>jp,(p' 

Sid 8k TTJV 7T/30? Kvf3ovXoV <y6VO/A€Vt}V TTLCTTIV hpZv 

oi iirl 70 OewpLKov /cexeiporovrjfievoi VPX 0V ^ v ' 
irplv rj rov 'Hyi]p,ovo<; vop,ov yeveaOai, rrjv rod 
dvTiypa(f)€co<; dp^jv, r/px ov Be T V V T ^ v diroBeKTcov, 
Kal vewpicov t)px ov > 3 Ka1, crtcevodij/crjv wKohop,ovv, 
rjo-av Be Kal oBoiroioi, Kal aj(eBbv tijv bXrjv Blol- 

26 Ki]cnv elxov t/)? 7roXe&)?. Kal ov Kan]yopo)v avrwv 
ovB' eTTiTLpLWv Xeyw, dXX! eKeivo vp.iv evBei^acrOai 
(3ov\6p,evo<;, i on 6 p,ev vop,oOeTTj<;, idv -U9 /xta? 
dpx'fc T V*> iXaxLo~Tr)<; virevOvvos y, tovtov ovk 
id, irplv av Xoyov 5 Kal evdvvas Bw, o-recpavovv, 
KTi]crixf)a)v Be e Arjp^oaOevrjv rov av\Xi]/3Brjv aTrdaa^ 
Ta? 'AOr/vrjcriv ap^a.9 dpxovra ovk coKjnjae ypd^p-ac 
aT6(f)ai'u)o~ai. 

1 to dewpiicSv Elass : rw dewpixqi or rwv 6ewpucuv MSS. 
- -rrfpairepcu Weidner : tovtov irepaiTtpw or lapaiTtpoi tovtov 
MSS. 3 vfwpiaiv fipxof Kaibel : vewplwv apxv" MSS. 
4 fiov\6fi(vos Cobet : fiov\o/j.ai MSS. 

328 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 24-26 

to you his account and reckoning for either office, 
this I will now try to show you from the public 
records. Read, if you please, in what archonship 
and in what month and on what day and in what 
assembly Demosthenes was elected a Superintendent 
of the Theoric Fund. 

ENUMERATION OF THE OAYS 

If now I should prove nothing beyond this, Ctesi- 
phon would be justly convicted, for it is not my 
complaint that convicts him, but the public records. 

In earlier times, fellow citizens, the city used to 
elect a Comptroller of the Treasury, who every 
prytany made to the people a report of the revenues. 
But because of the trust which you placed in Eubulus, 
those who were elected Superintendents of the 
Theoric Fund held (until the law of Hegemon was 
passed) the office of Comptroller of the Treasury 
and the office of Receiver of Moneys ; they also 
controlled the dockyards, had charge of the naval 
arsenal that was building, and were Superintendents 
of Streets ; almost the whole administration of the 
state was in their hands. I say this, not to accuse 
or blame them, but because I wish to show you this : 
that while the lawgiver, in case any one is subject 
to audit for a single office — though it be the least — 
does not permit him to be crowned until he has 
rendered his account and submitted to audit, 
Ctesiphon did not hesitate to move to crown Demos- 
thenes, who was holding all the offices in Athens 
at once. 

6 Xoyov Scheibe : \6yovs MSS. 

6 Kri]at(pi>v Sh Blass : 6 St KT-qa i<pG>v MSS. 

M 329 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

27 'XI? tolvvv Kal Tr\v tcov T€<xo7roiwv upxh v VPX €V > 
o#' outos to 'tyifyiap.a eypa^re, Kal rd hiipoaia 
XptffAaTa Ste%et/9i£e, Kal eVt/9oXa9 e7re/3aXXe, 
Kaddirep ol aXXot apxavTes, Kal hiKaarrjpiwv 
7]yepovla<i eXdpfBave, tovtcov vpuv aviov Ar)fj,oaOe- 
vr\v pudprvpa 1 trape^opai. eirl <ydp XaipcovSov 
apXovTOS, %apyifXiwvo<; prpjbs Sevrepa. (pdlvovros, 
€KK\r)cria<; ovarii eypa^jre Ai]pocr0ev7)<; dyopdv 
TTOirjaai tcov <pv\tov ^Kipocfropicovos hevrepa Icrra- 
pevov Kal tpiTT), Kal iirera^ev ev rep ■^ni^lcrpari 
e/cacTT^9 rcov (fivXwv eXeaOaL tou? eTTipeXiiGopevovs 
rcov epycov eVl t<x relx 7 ] Ka ^ Tappets, Kal pdXa 
opOtos, Xv rj 7roX<9 e^ot vnrevQvva acopara Trap 
mv epueXXe rcov dvrjXcop,e'vcov \6yov diroX^-^reaOaL. 
Kal pot Xeye to -\jfij(piap,a. 2 

¥H*I2MA 3 

28 Nat, aU' avrihiairXeKSi 77/509 touto evOvs 
Xeycov a>? ovt e'Xa^e T6t^o7roi09 oi;t' ex^ipoTovijdt] 
vtto rov 8i]pov. Kal nrepl tovtov A>]p,oaOevyj<i pev 
Kal Krt](rt<f)cbv ttoXvv it 01)) a ovt ai \6yov 6 Se ye 
vopLOs fipaxvs Kal aacprjs Kal ra^i» \vcov t<z? 
tovtcov TC^^a?. p,tKpd Be vplv virep avTcov irpco- 

29 rov it poenrelv fiovXopiai. ecm ydp, co dvhpe? ' A0i]- 
valoi, tcov nrepl Ta<? ap^ds eiBr] rpia, cov ev pev 
Kal irdai cpavepcorarov ol KXrjpcoTol Kal ol yeipo- 
Tovrjrol apxovTes, hevrepov he oo~oi rt Biaxeipl^ovcn 
tcov tt}? 7roXeco<; virep rpiaKovra i)p,epa<; Kal ol 

1 Ar)fj.o(r6fP7]v jxaprvpa Hamaker : &T)fioa6dvT]v juapTupa Kal 
KrricriiptjivTa or Ai^fxnadivqv Kal \\.T7)(Ti<pu>VTa fxaprvpas MSS. 

2 rh \p-l](pta,ua Franke : ra \l/T)<piajj.aTa MSS. 

3 ¥H1>I2MA Franke : the MSS. have the plural, or omit 
the title. 

33° 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 27-29 

Furthermore I will present to you Demosthenes 
himself as witness to the fact that at the time when 
Ctesiphon made his motion, Demosthenes was hold- 
ing the office of Commissioner for the Repair of Walls, 
and so was handling public funds, imposing fines like 
the other magistrates, and privileged to preside in 
court. 1 For in the archonship of Chaerondas, on 
the last day but one of Thargelion, 2 Demosthenes 
made a motion in the assembly that on the second 
and third days of Skirophorion assemblies of the 
tribes be held ; and he directed in his decree that 
men be chosen from each tribe as superintendents 
and treasurers for the work upon the walls ; and 
very properly, that the city might have responsible 
persons upon whom to call for an accounting of the 
money spent. Please read the decree. 

DECREE 

Yes, but he immediately tries to wriggle out of 
this by saying that it was not the people who elected 
him, or appointed him by lot, as Commissioner of 
Walls. On this point Demosthenes and Ctesiphon 
will argue at length. But the law is brief and clear 
and it makes short work of their devices. I wish 
first to speak to you briefly about this. There are, 
fellow citizens, three classes of public officers. The 
first and most obvious class are all who are appointed 
by lot or by election ; the second class are those who 
administer some public business for more than thirty 

1 See on § 14. 

2 The spring of 337, nine months after the battle of 
Chaeronea. Skirophorion was the next month after Thar- 
gelion. 

331 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

TOiv Bijpocricov epywv eiTLcrrdrai, rpirov S ev ru> 
vop-w yeypairrai, Kal et rives aXXot, l i)yep.ovias 
BiKaarrjp[cov Xapifidvovcn, " Kal rovrovs dp-^etv 

30 8oKtp.ao~0evras" eireiBdv 6" d(peXr) ris rovs vtto 
rov 8)')p,ov Kexeiporovrjp-evovs Kal rovs KX^pwrovs 
apxovTas, KaraXelirovrai ot>? al (pvXal Kal ai 
rpirrues Kal ol Br/p,oi i% eavrcov aipovvrai ra 
8r)p,6(Tia yjpiqpuara Sia%e«p/^eiy. 2 rouro Be ylyverai, 
oral', waiTep vuv, iirira^dfj ri rats (pvXals, r) 
rd(ppovs e^epyd^ea0ai rj rpirjpeis vav7rrjyela0ai. 
ore Be dXridr) Xeyo), eg avrow rwv vop.(OV p,a0jj- 
aeaOe. 

NOMOI 

31 Ai'apvt]o-0i]re Brj rovs 7rpoeipr)p,evovs Xoyovs, 
on 6 p,ev vopioOerris rom eK rwv (pvXwv dp^eiv 
KeXevei BoKip,acr0evras ev rw BiKaarr)pL(p, i) he 
IlavBiovU (pv\r) ap^ovra Kal reix 07rol - ov d-neBeige 
Aiipoadevrjv, 09 Ik t% BioiKijo-eax; eh ravra e%ei 
/xiKpov Belv BeKa rdXavra, erepos S' drrayopevei 
vopos dpXV v vrrevOvvov /a?) arecpavovv, Vfiei? Be 
6p.(opbOKare Kara rovs vopiovs y}rri(pieio-0ai, o Be 
pijrcop yeypa<pe rbv virevdvvov arecpavovv, ov 
Trpoo~0eh " eireiBav hut Xoyov Kal evOvva?" eyw 
Be egeXeyxco rb irapdvopbov p,dprvpa<; dpua rovs 
vop-ovs Kal ra "frr)<p[,o-p:ara Kal rovs avriBtKOvs 

1 &\\oi Cobet : &\\ot alptrol MSS. 

2 Siaxeipi'C*"' Scheibe : Siaxe«p«C € '*' tovtovs alperovs &pxovras 
elvat MSS. 

332 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 29-31 

days, and the Commissioners of Public Works ; but 
third it stands written in the law that if any others 
receive presidencies of courts, 1 they also shall "hold 
office on passing their scrutiny." Now when you 
subtract those officials who are chosen by popular 
election and those appointed by lot, there remain 
those whom the tribes, the trittyes, 2 and the 
denies appoint from among their own number to 
administer public funds. This happens when, as in 
the present case, some work is assigned to the 
several tribes, like the digging of trenches or the 
building of triremes. That what I say is true, you 
shall learn from the laws themselves. 

THE LAWS 

Recall now what has been said : the lawgiver 
directs that after approval in court 3 those appointed 
by the tribes shall " hold office " ; but the tribe 
Pandionis appointed Demosthenes an "officer," a 
Builder of Walls ; and he has received for this 
work from the general treasury nearly ten talents. 
Another law forbids crowning an official before he 
has rendered his accounts, and you have sworn to 
vote according to the laws ; but yonder politician 
has moved to crown the man who has not yet 
rendered his accounts, and he has not added " when 
he shall have rendered account and submitted to 
audit" ; and I convict him of the unlawful act, bring- 
ing as my witnesses the laws, the decrees, and the 

1 See on § 14. 

2 A trittys was a third of a tribe, and was composed of a 
group of adjoining denies. The division was recognized for 
certain administrative purposes. 

3 The court for the scrutiny of incoming officers. See 
on § 15. 

333 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7rape%o/iero?. 7reo? ovv av rt<? irepi^avearrepov 
€7riSeij;eiei> avOpwnov irapdvofxa yeypacf)OTa; 

32 c fi? tolvvv /cat rrjv avdppriaiv rod aTecfxivov 
TrapavopL(i)<i ev rq> yfrrj^lff/xan /ceXevei yiyveaOai, 
/cat toW 17x69 hihd%u). 6 yap w/xo? SiapprjSrjv 
rceXevet, iav p,ev Tiva crre^avol rj fiovXt), ev tu> 
j3ov\evri]p[q> avafa]pv7Te<r@ai, iav 8e o Brj/Aos, ev 
Trj ifc/c\7i<TLa, " aWodi Se ^t?^a/xoO. ,, /cat p,oi 
\iye tov vopLov. 

NOMOS 

33 Outo? 6 vofios, & avhpes 'Ad^valoi, /cat p,aka 
tcaXcos exet. ov yap olp-ai (Zero Belv 6 vop,o0eT7]<; 
rbv piJTopa aepuvvveaOai 7roo? rot"? e^wOev, a\X 
dyairdv ev avTrj rrj iroXei Tip,cop,evov viro tov 
Sijfiov, /cat p,r) ipyoXafielv ev tol<; K7]pvyp.aaiv. 
6 p.ev ovv vofioOer^ ovtw 6 Se KT7]ai(f)0)v 7rw?; 
avay'iyvwane to yjr))(f)LO~p^a. 



^H*I2MA 



34 



'A/coueTe, w avhpes 'Ad^vcuoi, on 6 fiev vop.o- 
6>eT?/9 /ceXevei ev tm SjJjjlg) ev UvkvI rfj iKKXiiaia, 
avafcr)pvTTeiv tov vtto tov hi'ip-ov aT€(f)avov/u.evov, 
"dXXodi Se pLiihapov? K/n^o-tc/xwy Be ev t& OeaTpcp, 
ov Toy? vofiovs jjlovov virepfids, dXXa icai tov 
tottov fieTevey/ccov, ovBe ifc/cX7]cria%6vT(0v AOrj- 
vatcov, dXXa TpaycoScov ytyvop,evo)v, ovB' evavTiov 
tov hiipiov, dXX' evavTiov twv 'EXXjJj'wj', tV i)plv 
avvei&waiv olov dvhpa TipicbpLev. 
35 Oi/Tco tolvvv 7repi(f)av(os irapdvop.a yeypacpox;, 
irapaTax^eU /xera A7]pLoa0ei>ov<i eVotcret Te^a? 

S34 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 31-35 

defendants. How could one more clearly prove 
that a man has made an unlawful motion ? 

Furthermore, I will show you that the proclama- 
tion of the crown, as proposed in his decree, is to be 
made in an illegal manner. For the law expressly 
commands that if the Senate confer a crown, the 
crown shall be proclaimed in the senate-house, and 
if the people confer it, in the assembly, " and no- 
where else." Read me the law. 

LAW 

This, fellow citizens, is an excellent law. For it 
seems that it was the idea of the lawgiver that the 
public man ought not to be thinking of outsiders as 
he receives his honours, but to be well content with 
honour received in the city itself and from the 
people ; and that he ought not to treat such pro- 
clamations as a source of revenue. So thought the 
lawgiver. But Ctesiphon how ? Read his decree. 



DECREE 

You hear, fellow citizens, how the lawgiver com- 
mands that the man who is crowned by the people 
be proclaimed among the people, on the Pnyx, at a 
meeting of the assembly, "and nowhere else"; but 
Ctesiphon, in the theatre — not only overriding the 
laws but also changing the place ; not when the 
Athenians are in assembly, but when tragedies are 
being performed; not in the presence of the people, 
but in the presence of the Hellenes, that they also 
may know what sort of man we honour. 

Having, then, made a motion that is so manifestly 
illegal, he will call Demosthenes as his ally and bring 
up the artifices of rhetoric for the assault on the laws. 

335 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Tot? vofiois' a9 ey<w B)]X(i)o~q) teal 7rpoepco iiplv, 
iva pJr) \d0r]T€ i^a7rari]0ivT6<i. 

Outoi yap, to? fjuev ovk airayopevovatv ol vopoi 

TOV VTTO TOV 8l][10V aT€(f>aVOVp,€V0V p,T) KrjpVTTeiV 

e£(D T/79 £tcKXr]aia<;, ov~% e^ovai Xeyeiv, oiaovcn he 
ei? ty]V airoXoyiav tov AtovvcriaKov vofxov, kuX 
y^p-qcrovrai tov vop.ov pepei rivl k\.&tttovt6<; ttjv 

36 aKpoaaiv vp-wv, zeal irape^ovrat vopuov ovSev 
Trpoarj/covTct rfjSe rfj <ypa(f>fj, koI Xe^ovaiv ax? elal 
rfj TroXei Bvo vopot tceipevoi trepl tcov K^puypdrcov, 
el? p,ev, ov vvv eyd> irapeyopuai, hiappt]hrjv drra- 

yOpeVWV TOV VTTO TOV hl'lpLOV (TTe(f)aVOVfX€VOV p,r) 

KTjpurreaOai e£co Trjs eKKXr)aia<i, k'repov S' elvat 
vopov <pi]o-ov<riv ivavTtov TOVTO), TOV hehcOKOTa 
e^ovalav TtotelaOai Trjv dvdpprjcriv tov o~T€(fidvov 
Tpayq)SoL<; ev tG> OeaTpw, " eav yjrrj(f)la7]Tat 6 
BrjfJb09 r> ' kcito, S?) tovtov tov vofiov <f>r']crovo~i 
yeypa<fievai tov K.T7]ai(f)(ovTa. 

37 'Eyco Be 7T/30? t«? tovtcov Te^m? Trape^oyuai 
o~vvtjyopov<; tovs vopuovs tov? iipsTepovs, oirep 
SiaTeXco (TTTOvSdfav irapd nrdaav ttjv KaTr/yopiav. 
el yap tovto eo~Ttv dXijOes, teal toiovtov e#o<? 
nrapahehvicev vpuwv els ttjv TroXiTeLav, wot dicvpovs 
vopovs ev Tot>? fcvpiois dvayeypdcf)6ai, ical 8uo irepl 
pids Trpd^ew; virevavTiovs oXXtjXois, ti dv eVt 
TavTTjv eliroL tl<$ elvat- troXtTeiav, 1 ev rj Taind 
irpoo-TaTTOVcnv 01 vop.01 Troieiv teal p,rj troielv; 

38 dX\' ovk e^et TavO' ovtw p,y')d' vp,el<i ttots els 
TocravTTjv aTa^lav twv vopcov 7rpo/3an]Te, ovtc 
rjpeXrjTai trepl tcov toiovtcov tw vopLoOeTrj t<w 
t-tjv hripLotcpaTiav KaTaaTijaavTt, dXXa 8iappij8>]v 

troXnelav Poutsma : r))V iroKtrtlav MSS. 
336 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 35-38 

These tricks I will reveal and of these I will fore- 
warn you, lest you be taken unawares and deceived. 

They will not be able to deny that the laws forbid 
the man who is crowned by the people to be pro- 
claimed outside the assembly, but they will present 
for their defence the Dionysiac law, and will use a 
certain portion of the law, cheating your ears. For 
they will offer a law that has nothing to do with this 
case, and will say that the city has two laws govern- 
ing proclamations : one, the law that I now offer in 
evidence, which expressly forbids the man who is 
crowned by the people to be proclaimed outside the 
assembly ; but they will say that there is another 
law, contradictory to this, and that that law has given 
authority for the proclamation of the crown at the 
time of the tragedies in the theatre, " if the people 
vote." And so they will say that it is in accordance 
with that law that Ctesiphon has made his motion. 

Now against their tricks I will introduce your own 
laws as my advocates, as indeed I earnestly try to 
do throughout this whole prosecution. For if what 
they say is true, and such a custom has crept into 
your government that invalid laws stand written 
among the valid, and that there exist two laws con- 
cerning one and the same action, which contradict 
each other, how could any man longer call this a 
" government," if in it the laws command to do and 
not to do one and the same thing ? But that is not 
the case. May you never reach the point where your 
laws are in such disorder as that ! Nor was the law- 
giver who established the democracy guilty of such 

337 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irpocrreTaKTai 7-019 deap,o0erai<i /cad e/ca<TTOv 
eviavTOV SmpOovv iv rco Byj/xq) toi>9 vop,ov<;, d/cpi- 
/3w9 e^€TdaavTa<i icdi crKe^rap.evov<i, el TJ9 ava- 
ryeypaiTTai vofxos iiavTios erepco voficp, rj aicvpos 
iv roU Kvpiois, rj et ttov elcrl vofioi TrXelow; evbs 

39 avayeypa/x/xevoi irepl 6/cdaT>]s 7rpa£e&>9. /cav tl 
toiovtov evpio-Kcoaiv, dvayeypcufroTas iv aaviaiv 
iicTiQkvai KeXevei irpbcrQev rcov hrcovvpcov, rov<; 8e 
TTpvrdvei<i rroielv iiacXriaiav iiriypd-tyavras vo/j.o- 
derais, 1 rbv 8' irncrrdr^v rcov rrpoehpcov Biax^cpo- 
Toviav &i86vai 2 toi>9 fiev 3 dvaipeiv rcov vbficov, 
tou? Be KaraXeiiretv, orrcof civ eh 37 vo/j,o<; teal /at) 
TrXeiovs irepl Udcrrri<i irpdtjems. kcxi fioi Xeye 
Toy? vofiov?. 

NOMOI 

40 Et roivvv, Si avSpes 'AOrjvcuoi, d\r)6r)<; r)v 6 
irapa rovrcov X0709, real rjcrav 8vo icelpevoi vop,oi 
776/31 rcov Krjpvy/xdrcov, e£ dvdy/cr)<; olp-ai rcov fiev 
dea-fxodercov igevpovrcov, rcov Se irpvrdvecov drro- 
hovrcov roU vo/xoOeTctis avrfprjT av 6 erepos rcov 

1 rojuoflfTais Dobree : vofxoderas MSS. 

2 5i56vai Scholl : SiSdvat ra Sriyuy MSS. 

3 tous fxtv Kaibel : na\ robs n\v MSS. 



1 The Thesmothetae were the six lower archons. They 
had general supervision of all the courts, and particular 
control of numerous specified eases. 

* The regular place for post ; ng many of the public notices 
was in front of the statues of the ten heroes for whom the 
tribes were named. The statues stood on the Agora, near 
the senate-house and the Tholos. 

338 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 38-40 

neglect ; he has expressly laid upon the Thes- 
mothetae 1 the duty of making an annual revision of 
the laws in the presence of the people, prescribing 
sharp investigation and examination, in order to de- 
termine whether any law stands written which con- 
tradicts another law, or an invalid law stands anions- 
the valid, or whether more laws than one stand 
written to govern each action. And if they find such 
a thing, they are required to write it out and post 
it on bulletins in front of the Eponymi ; 2 and the 
prytanes are required to call a meeting of the 
assembly, writing at the head of the call, " For 
Nomothetae " ; 3 and the chairman of the presiding 
officers must submit to vote 4 the question of the 
removal of one set of laws and the retention of the 
other, in order that for each action there may be one 
law and no more. Please read the laws. 

LAWS 

If now, fellow citizens, what they assert were true, 
and two laws had been in force governing proclama- 
tions, I think the Thesmothetae would necessarily 
have searched them out, and the prytanes would have 
referred them to the Nomothetae, and one or the other 
of the two laws would have been repealed, either 

3 The Nomothetae were a special commission, chosen by 
lot from among the jurors of the year, to whom were referred 
with power all proposed changes in the fundamental laws 
(ro,uo!) or additions to them. 

4 The people having approved the proposition to appoint 
Nomothetae, and that body having been duly constituted, 
and having heard the arguments on either side, the presiding 
officer of the Nomothetae finally put to vote the question of 
the retention of the laws in their old form, or the adoption 
of the changes proposed (Siaxtiporovia). 

339 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

voficov, i'jroi 6 ri]v e^ovalav hehwKws dveirrelv r) o 
dirayopevwv bit ore he prjhev rovrwv yeyevrjrai, 
cfravepws Sr'] ttov e^eXey)(ovrat ov piovov tyevhri 
Xeyovres, dXXd /ecu iravreXws dhvvara yeveaOai. 

41 "OOev he ro yjrevhos rovro ewKpepovaiv, iyw 
hihd^w vpids, irpoenrwv wv eveKa ol vbpuoi ereOqaav 
ol rrepl rwv ev rw Qedrpw /cypvy/xdrwv. yiyvo- 
p.evwv yap twv ev dcrrei rpaywhwv dveKr)pvrrov 
rives, ov rrelaavres rov hrjpbov, ol pev on are^avovv- 
rai vrro twv cpvXerwv, erepoi 6" on 1 vrro twv 
8r]p,0TWV aXXoi he rives viroKripv%dp,evoi rovs 
a'vrwv oiKeras d<pieaav iXevOepovs,' 1 pidprvpas 3 

42 rovs'^XXyvasTroiovpievoi. o S' r\v eiricpOovwrarov, 
irpo^evlas evprj^evoi rives ev rals k£w iroXeai, 
hierrpdrrovro dvayopevecrOai on arecbavol avrovs 
6 hi]p,os, el ovrw rv\oi, 6 twv 'Pohiwv rj Xt&)f ?/ 
Kai rivos aXXrjs TroXews, dperr)s eve/ca Kai dvhpa- 
yaOlas. Kai ravr errparrov, ou% worrep ol utto 
rrjS fiovXrjs rr)s vp,erepas crre(f)avovp,evoi r) vrro rov 
h/]p.ov, ireiaavres up,ds Kai p,era ijrr)(j)icrp.aTos, 7roX- 
Xtjv X"-P LV KaraOepievot, dX\! avrol irpoeXofxevoi, 

43 dveu hoy piaros vpierepov. Ik he rovrov rov rpbrrov 
avveftaive rovs p,ev Beards Kai rovs x°P 1 l r i ovfi Kai 
rovs dywviards evo^Xeiadai, rovs he dvaKr\pvrro- 
p,evovs ev rw Oedrpw p,el^oai ripials rip,do9ai rwv 
vtto rov ht]/j,ov crre(pavovp.evwv. rols piev yap 
direHheiicro tottos r) eKfcXr/cria, ev 77 XPV V crecpa- 
vovaOai, Kai drreipi]ro dXXodi pbi]hap.ov Kr/pvr- 

1 8ti added by Cobet. 

2 4\ev6epovs Cobet : aTre\ev6epous MSS. 

3 fidpTupas Cobet : the MSS. have rrjs aire\ev8epias after 
fiaprvpas or after "EKA-qvas. 

340 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 40-43 

the law that gave authority for the proclamation, or 
the law that forbade it. But seeing that no such 
thing has been done, surely what they say is de- 
monstrated to be, not only false, but absolutely 
impossible. 

But I will show you where they get this false 
assertion. First, however, I will tell the reason why 
the laws governing the proclamations in the theatre 
were enacted. It frequently happened that at the per- 
formance of the tragedies in the city proclamations 
were made without authorization of the people, now 
that this or that man was crowned by his tribe, now 
that others were crowned by the men of their deme, 
while other men by the voice of the herald manu- 
mitted their household slaves, and made all Hellas 
their witness ; and, most invidious of all, certain men 
who had secured positions as agents of foreign states 
managed to have proclaimed that they were crowned 
— it might be by the people of Rhodes, or of Chios, 
or of some other state — in recognition of their merit 
and uprightness. And this they did, not like those 
who were crowned by your senate or by the people, 
by first obtaining your consent and by your decree, 
and after establishing large claims upon your grati- 
tude, but themselves reaching out after the honour 
with no authorization from you. The result of this 
practice was that the spectators, the choregi, ;md the 
actors alike were discommoded, and that those who 
were crowned in the theatre received greater hon- 
ours than those whom the people crowned. For the 
latter had a place prescribed where they must re- 
ceive their crown, the assembly of the people, and 
proclamation " anywhere else " was forbidden ; but 



34i 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

reaOar ol 8e dvijyopevovro ivavriov x diravriov 
rwv EWr/vwv KCLKelvot fiev p-erd ■^rrjc^laparos, 
rreiaavres v/jLols, ovroi 6° dvev TJrr](pt,o-p,aro<;. 

44 ~2,vvi8wv 8?j Ti? ravra vo p,o6 eri]<; , rlOt]at vo/xov 
ovoev eir iKoivwvovvra tw rrepl rwv vtto rov 8>]p,ov 
(TTecpavov/jLevcov vop-w, ovre \vaas ifcelvov ov8e 
yap tj €KK\rj(TLa ^vw-^Xelro, dWa rb dearpov ovr 
evavrlov rols rrpbrepov /ceipuevoi*; vop,oi<; riOeU' ov 
yap k^eariv aWa rrepl rwv dvev ■^rrjfyia pharos 
vp,erepov are(pavovp,evwv virb rwv (pvXerwv real 
8rjp,orwv, fcal irepl rwv robs ol/ceras cnreXevOe- 
povvrwv, Kai irepl rwv ^eviKwv arecf)dvwv, Kai 
8tappi]8r)v airayopevei p-rjr oIkcttjv airekevdepovv 
ev rw dearpw, p,?jd vtto rwv (f>vXerwv rj Bij/jLorwv 
dvayopeveadai arecpavovpbevov, " fiqff vir dXXov," 
<brj(TL, " (iijoevos, rj drip,ov elvai rbv Ki]pvKa." 

45 "Orav ovv drro8ei^ri rols p,ev vtto rrjs {3ovXrj<; 
arecpavovp.evois rb 2 j3ovXevrt)pLOv avapprjOr/vai, 
rols 8' vtto rov 8i]/j.ov 3 rrjv 4 eKKX-rjcrtav, rots S' 
vrrb Tc5f 8rjpLorwv teal fyvXerwv aireirrr) p,rj Krjpvr- 
readac rots rpayw8ol<;, Xva p,rj8els epavl^wv are- 
ifidvovs zeal Krjpvyp^ara yfrevStj <piXorip,lav /crdrai, 
TrpoaaTrearr] 8 ev rw vbpiw ptrjo^ vtto aXXov 
p,r)8evb<; dvaKypvrreaOai, dnrovcrris /3ovXrj<; /cal 
8r)piov real (bvXerwv Kai 8rjp.orwv, — orav 8e ris 
ravra cicpeXr/, ri rb KaraXenr6p,evov eari irXrjv ol 
^evifcol crrecjiavoi ; 

46 "On £' dXrjdr) A-e^/w, o-rjp,elov vpuv p,eya rovrov 

1 ivavriov Cobet : ivwirtov MSS. 

2 rb Usener : els rb MSS. 

3 5-h/j.ov . . . Srifioruv Cobet : after each of these words the 
MSS. have (TTecpavoufxevois. 

4 tV Usener ; tt'y r^v MSS. 

342 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 43-46 

the others were proclaimed in the presence of all the 
Hellenes ; the one class with your consent, by your 
decree ; the other, without decree. 

Now some legislator, seeing this, caused a law to 
be enacted which has nothing to do with the law 
concerning those who are crowned by our people, 
and did not supersede it. For it was not the assem- 
bly that was being disturbed, but the theatre ; and 
he was not enacting a law contradictory to the pre- 
viously existing laws, for that may not be done ; but 
a law governing those who, without your decree, are 
crowned by their tribe or deme, and governing the 
freeing of slaves, and also the foreign crowns. He 
expressly forbids the manumission of a slave in the 
theatre, or the proclamation of a crown by the tribe 
or deme, "or by any one else," he says, "and the 
herald who disobeys shall lose his civic rights." 

When, therefore, the lawgiver designates, for those 
who are crowned by the senate, the senate-house as 
the place of proclamation, and, for those who are 
crowned by the people, the assembly, and when he 
forbids those who are crowned by the demes or 
tribes to be proclaimed at the tragedies— that no one 
may try to get spurious honour by begging crowns 
and proclamations, and when in the law he further 
forbids proclamation being made by any one else, 
senate, people, tribe, and deme being thus elimin- 
ated — when one takes these away, what is it that is 
left except the foreign crowns ? 

For the truth of my assertion I will show you a 



343 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

€$• avTO)i> tmv vo/xoiv eTTiSei^d). avrbv yap tov 
\pvo~ovv o~Tecpavov, 09 av ev tw dearpw t&) ev 
cigtsi avappyOf], lepov elvai T779 'AOrjva? 6 vop.os 
KeXevei, d<pe\6p.ei'o<; tov o~Tecf)avovp,evov. kclitoi 
Tt? av vp,cov to\/jL)'](T€1€ TocrauTrjv dveXevdeplav 
Karayvcovai tov 8r]p,ov tov ' Adi]vaiwv; p,r) yap 
on 7roA.t?, aXX ovo av louott}<; ovoe et9 ovtgos 
ayevvrt'i yevoiTo, wcttc ov ai/To<; eSco/ce (TT6<bavov 
ap,a avarcrjpvTTeiv Kal a^aipeiaOai. 1 dXV olp-ai 
$id to" f^evifcov elvai tov o~Te(f)avov Kal i) /ca- 
Oiepcoais ylyveTau, iva firjSels dXXoTpiav evvoiav 
irept TrXetovos Troiovpbevo'i tt}<? TraTpihos ^eipcov 

47 yevi]Tai ti)v yjrv^ijv. aAA,' ovk eKelvov tov ev 
Trj eK/cXr/aLa dvapprjdivTa CTecpavov ovBels Ka- 
Oiepot, d\V e^eaTi Ketcrrfadai, iva p,t) pcovov 
avTos, dXXa Kal oi ii; eKelvov, e-^ovTes ev Trj 

OlKlCi TO V7TOpLV>]pLa, p.7]8e7T0Te KUKol TTjV yp-V%T)V 

et'9 tov Brjpiov ylyvwvTai. Kal 81a tovto irpoae- 
0r)Kev vopLodeTrjs p,T) Kr/pvTTeaOai tov aWorpiov 
o~Te(f)avov ev tw deaTptp, " eav pbt) -^r7](pLo~>]Tai 
S^/io?, 11 'iv 7] ttoXis 7) j3ov\opLevrj tivcl tmv i>p,€Te- 

pCOV 0~T€(f)aVOVV 77-/960-/3649 7T € pi^T a& a 8e7]0fj TOV 

8ijp.ov, Kal o 2 KrjpvTTop,evo<; puei^M %dptv elSfj tmv 
o~T€(pavovvT(ov vpLh>, ? ' otl Kiipv^ai eireTpe^raTe. 
oti S' dXijOr) A-eya), twv ropicov avTwv aKovcraTe. 

NOMOI 

48 'Eiireihdv tolvvv e^airaTwvTes vpcd<; Xeywatv a>9 
7rpoayeypa7TTai ev tw vop,a> igeivcu aTecpavovv, 
" eav yjnjcpLarjTai 6 Sj}/409, v ' diropLvrjpoveveTe avTols 

1 acpcupilodai Weirlner : acpaipeicrdai teal Kadnpovv MSS. 

2 K al 6 Halm : '&a MSS. 

3 i/fxiv H. Wolf : vfxiv f) ro7s an<pavov<jiv MSS. 

344 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 46-48 

strong argument derived from the laws themselves. 
For the golden crown itself which is proclaimed in 
the city theatre the law takes from the man who 
is crowned, and commands that it be dedicated to 
Athena. And yet who among you would dare to 
charge the Athenian people with such illiberality ? 
For certainly no state, nay, not even a private person 
— not one — would be so mean as to proclaim a crown 
and at the same moment demand back the gift 
which he himself had made. But I think it is be- 
cause the crown is the gift of foreigners that the 
dedication is made, lest any one set a higher value 
upon the gratitude of a foreign state than upon that 
of his own country, and so become corrupted. But 
the other crown, the crown that is proclaimed in the 
assembly, no one dedicates, but he is permitted to 
keep it, that not only he, but also his descendants, 
having the memorial in their house, may never be- 
come disloyal to the democracy. And the reason 
why the lawgiver also forbade the proclamation of 
the foreign crown in the theatre " unless the people 
vote," is this: he would have the state that wishes 
to crown any one of your citizens send ambassadors 
and ask permission of the people, for so he who is 
proclaimed will be more grateful to you for per- 
mitting the proclamation than to those who confer 
the crown. But to show that my statements are 
true, hear the laws themselves. 

LAWS 

When, therefore, they try to deceive you, and say 
that it is added in the law that the bestowal of the 
crown is permitted "if the people vote," do not 



345 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

VTrofidWeiv Nat, el ye ae tls dWrj ttoXis <rre- 
(fiavoi- el 8e 6 &rjp.o<; 6 'Adijvaiwv, diroheheiKTai 
o~oi totto? oirov 8ei tovto yiyveaOai, dirtiprjTaL 
<joi e£(D t?}? eKKX-qaia^ p,r) Kr)pvTTeo~6ai. to yap 
aKKovi oe p,rjoapLOV o n eariv, oatjv T-qv 
rjpbepav Xeye' ov yap drroSei^eis &)? evvofia ye- 
ypa<f)ejf. 

49 "Ecrri Be VTroXoiTTOv pioi p.epo<i t"/<? KaTr/yoplas 
e<p w p,d\io~Ta o"Tvovhd^w tovto he ecTTov i) irpo- 
(pacns Sl fjv avTov d^iol aTe^avovaOat. \eyei 
yap ovtgos ev tw ■^rrjcpio' p,aTC " Hal top tci]"v/ca 
dvayopeveiv ev tw OeaTpco m pos tov<; "~EWr]va<;, 
oti crTecf)avol avTov o Br/pLOS o ' AOijvaicov l dpeT?]^ 
eve/ca /cat avSpayadLas" ical to p,eyto~TOV " oti 
8ia.Te\el /cal Xtycov KaX TrpaTToov to, apiGTa tm 

50 S?;/tift)." dirXovs Srj TravTaTraaiv 6 p,eTa TavTa 
rjpuv Xoyos yiyveTai, koX vpuv dKovcraai Kplvat 
evp,ad^' hel yap hrj ttov tov puev KaTtiyopovvra 
ep,e tovO^ vplv eiriheiKvuvaL, a>9 elaXv 01 KUTa 
Ar)p.oa0evov$ eiraivoi ■^revhels, /cal a>9 ovt jjp^aTO 
"Xeyeiv to, /3e\'uo■Ta,' , ouTe vvv " SiaTeXec irpaT- 
tcov Ta avp,(pepovTa tu> 8)jp:(p." kclv tovt iiriStt^co, 
8iKal(o<; Si] ttov tijv ypa<fir)V aXcoaeTai K.Trjai(jicbv 
airavTes yap dirayopevovaiv oi vopuoi p,i]Seva 
yjrevSP) ypdp,p,aTa eyy pacpeiv ev tol? Sr]fioo-LOLs 
'^ri](f)Lcrp,aaL. tm 8 aTroXoyovpLevrp TovvavTtov 
tovtov heiKTeov eo~Ttv. vpbels 6* i)puv eaeaOe twv 
\6yo)v tcpiTai. 

51 '^X €l °^ °v™s. eyd) tov p.ev tStov 2 fiiov tov 
AilpLoaOevovs e^eTa^eiv paicpoTepov \6you epyov 



1 b 'A8r)vaiwv Weidner : 6 tUv 'Adrjvaiw MSS. 

2 iSiov added by Herwerden. 



346 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 48-51 

forget to suggest to them, Yes, if it is another state 
that is crowning you ; but if it is the Athenian 
people, a place is designated for you where the cere- 
mony must be performed ; it is forbidden you to be 
crowned outside the assembly. For you may spend 
the whole day in explaining the meaning of the 
words "and nowhere else"; you will never show 
that his motion is lawful. 

But that part of my accusation remains upon which 
I lay greatest stress : the pretext upon which he 
claims that the crown is deserved. It reads thus in 
his motion : " And the herald shall proclaim in the 
theatre in the presence of the Hellenes that the 
Athenian people crown him for his merit and up- 
rightness," and that monstrous assertion, " because 
he continually speaks and does what is best for the 
people." You see how entirely simple the remainder 
of our argument becomes, and how easy for you, my 
hearers, to weigh. For it is obviously incumbent 
upon me, the complainant, to show this to you, that 
the praise given to Demosthenes is false, and that 
he never began to "speak what was best," nor now 
" continues to do what is good for the people." If 
I show this, then Ctesiphon will doubtless lose his 
case, and justly; for all the laws forbid inserting 
falsehoods in the decrees of the people. But the 
defence must show the opposite of this. And you 
are to be the judges of our pleas. 

The case is this : To review the private life of 
Demosthenes would, in my opinion, demand too long 



347 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rjyovfMai. tl <yap hel vvv ravra \eyeiv, rj ra rcepi 
rr]v tov rpavfiaTOs jpacprjv aura) av/x^e/3i]Kora, 
or iypcfycLTo 649 "Apeiov irccyov ^fiofiiXijv tov 
Hataviea, dveifriov ovra eavrw, zeal rrjv rf/s zeecpa- 
\r?9 iinToixrjV rj ra irepl ttjv KrjcpLo-ohoTOv oTpa- 
TTjjLav zeal tov T(bv vewv e/crrXovv tov €i<? EAAr/er- 

52 7tovtov, ore eU cov twv Tpir\pdpyjMV A^fioaOevrj^, 
zeal ireptdycov tov arpaTrjjov 67Ti tt}? veto?, zcai 
ffvaatTOiv zeal avvdvcov zeal avairevhoiv, tovtcov 1 
a^iw9e\<i Bid to TraTpt/cb<? clvtQ> <f>i\o<; ewcu, ov/c 
w/evrio-ev air eiaayyeXias ai/TOV zepivop,evov irepi 
oavciTOV zeaTi/yopo^ yeveapar /ecu TavTa or) t<x 
irepl MeiUav /ecu tovs /covSvXovs, ovs eXafiev iv 
ttj 6px } ']°" r P a XOWy ** < ^ z '» KaL ^ inriooTO Tpia- 
KovTa puvoiv ap,a r^v tg efc avTov vfipiv zeal tt)v 
tov hr)p.ov Karax^poTovlav, fjv iv Aiovvaou /eare- 

53 yetpoTovriae MeiSiou. raOra p,ev ovv fioc Sozew 
zeal TaWa ra tovtois 6/xoia VTrep/3i]aea0ai, ou 
TrpoSiSovs tyxa? ov&e tov dySiva KaTa^api^opevo^, 
aA-A,' ezeelvo epofiovpLevos, p,ij puoi irap vp,oyv dirav- 
Trjcrr) to 80/ceiv d\>)dij pcev 3 Xeyeiv, apx^a 8e zeal 
\iav 6pLo\oyovpL€va. kclitoi, w Kt^c^wv, otw to, 
p,k.yio~Ta twv alcrxpcov ovtcos earl TuaTa /ecu yvco- 
pipua TOi<i azeouovaiv, ware tov zcaT>)yopov p,r) 
8ozc€iv yfrevS-fj \eyeiv, d\\a traXaia zeal \iav irpo- 

1 TovTdiv Halm : koX tovtoiv MSS. 

2 Bh Cobet : ^5tj MSS. 

3 a\r)0r) fiev Cobet : fiev a\t)Srt MSS. 



1 See ii. 93. 

2 Meidias was a rich and domineering man, who had con- 
ceived a bitter hatred for Demosthenes in the course of the 
suits against Demosthenes' guardians. When Demosthenes 

348 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 51-53 

a speech. And why need I tell it all now ? the story 
of what happened to him in the matter of the suit 
over the wound, when he summoned his own cousin, 
Demomeles of Paeania, before the Areopagus ; x and 
the cut on his head ; or the story of the generalship 
of Cephisodotus, and the naval expedition to the 
Hellespont, when Demosthenes as one of the trier- 
archs carried the general on his ship, and shared his 
table, his sacrifices, and his libations ; and how after 
he had been thus honoured because the general was 
an old friend of his father's, he did not hesitate, when 
the general was impeached, and was on trial for his 
life, to become one of his accusers ; or, again, that 
story about Meidias and the blow of the fist that 
Demosthenes got when he was choregus, in the 
orchestra, and how for thirty minas he sold both the 
insult to himself and the vote of censure that the 
people had passed against Meidias in the theatre of 
Dionysus. 2 Now these incidents and all the others 
like them I think it is best to pass over ; not that 
I would betray you, gentlemen of the jury, or 
politely yield this case to him, but because I fear 
that I shall encounter in you the feeling that, while 
all this is true, it is an old story, admitted by every- 
body. And yet, Ctesiphon, when a man's utter 
shame is so credible to the hearers and so notorious 
that his accuser seems, not to be speaking what is 
false, but what is stale, and what everybody admits 

was serving as choregus, Meidias, meeting him in the or- 
chestra, in the presence of the spectators, struck him in the 
face. The people, at a meeting held in the theatre at the close 
of the festival, passed a vote of censure against Meidias, and 
Demosthenes instituted a suit in the courts ; but finally, 
probably for worthy political reasons, he compromised the 
case. 

349 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

cop,oXoy>ip,eva, iroTepa avrbv Set xp vc7 V cne^>dvw 
arecf)av(i)Orjvai, ?} yjreyeaOat; ical ae tov yjrevhi) real 
irapdvopta ToXptwvTa ypdcpetv irorepa XPV ncna- 
(bpovetv tcov hi/caaTrjptcov, T) hiKTjv Tr) iroXet hovvat ; 

54 Tiepi he tcov hyptoatcov dhi/c/jpbaTcov 7reipdaop,at 
cracpeaTepov elirelv. kcu yap 7rvv9dvop.at pteXXetv 
^.yptoaOevrjV, iirethdv ctutoi? 6 Xoyos dirohoOfi, 
KarapiO ptelcrdai 73750? lyxa?, &>? dpa rfj TroXei T6t- 
Tapes i]hrj yeyevr\VTai /caipoi, ev ot? avTos ireTroXi- 
revrai. &v eva ptev koX trpwTov, &>? eycoye d/covco, 
Kardkoyi^eraL i/celvov tov y^povov ev co 7rpo? <t>t- 
Xittttov virep ^ AptfynroXeco? eiroXeptovptev tovtov 
o" dfyopl^eTat rf} yevoptevy elpyvy /cat avptptayia 
fjv QiXo/cpaTi]*; 6 'Ajyvovaios eypaijre /cal avrbs 

55 outo? fier e/ceivov, to? eyco het^co. Sevrepov he <py]o~t 
tcaipbv yeveaOai, bv i'iyop.ev ypovov rrjv elpi')vi]v, 
hrfXovoTi ^XP V T ^ 9 yp-epcti e/ceivr]<; ev y /cara\uaa<; 
rrjv virdpyovaav elptfvrjv rf) irbXei, o avro<; ovtos 
piJTCop eypa^re tov 7roXep:ov Tpirov he bv eiroXe- 
ptovptev "fcpbvov p-^XP 1 r *° v e ' v l ^at-P^veia, TeTapTov 
he tov vvv irapbvTa /caipov. TavTa he /caTapiO- 
ptrjadpevo 1 ;, r'os d/covco, pteXXet pte irapa/caXelv /cat 
eirepcoTav, birolov tovtcov tcov TeTTapcov avTOu 
icaipcbv /caTrjyopcb, koX ttots auTOV ov xa /3eXTiaTa 
cprjp^t, tu> hrjptco ireTroXtTevaBar icdv ptr) $eXco 
diro/cpivacrOai, dXX' ey/caXvrn coptai ical dirohihpa- 
cr/cco, efCKaXvijreiv pte (pyat nrpoaeXOcov /cai d^eiv 
eirl to /3fjfia /cal dvay/cdaetv diro/cpLvaaOai. 

56 "lv ovv ptffi outo? io-xvpi%V TCU vptets T6 irpoei- 
hiiTe iyco Te a7ro/cptv coptai, evavrtov croc tcov ot/ca- 

1 twv ev Cobet : tt)s a.Tv\ias rit>v iv or ttjs aTux'^as rrjs ii> 

MSS. 
35° 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 53-56 

at the outset, ought that man to be crowned with a 
golden crown, or ought he to be censured ? And you, 
who had the effrontery to make your false and un- 
lawful motion, ought you to despise the courts, or 
ought you to give satisfaction to the city ? 

But concerning the crimes of his public life I will 
try to speak more explicitly. For I understand that 
when the defence are given opportunity to speak, 
Demosthenes will enumerate to you four periods in 
the history of the city as the periods of his own poli- 
tical activity. 1 One of them, and the first, as I hear, 
he reckons as the time of our war with Philip over 
Amphipolis. He marks this off by the peace and 
alliance that were made on motion of Philocrates ot 
Hagnus, and with the cooperation of Demosthenes 
himself, as I shall show. And he says that the 
second period was the time while we kept the peace, 
doubtless up to that day on which this same orator 
put an end to the existing peace, by himself intro- 
ducing the motion for war ; and the third period, 
the period of war, up to the events of Chaeronea ; 
and the fourth, the present period. When he has 
enumerated these, he intends, as I hear, to call 
me forward and ask me to tell him for which of 
these four periods I accuse him, and when it is 
that I say that his policy has not been for the 
best interests of the people. And if I refuse to 
answer, and cover my face and run away, he says he 
will come and uncover me and lead me to the plat- 
form, and force me to answer. 

In order, then, that he may lose his confidence, and 
that you may be instructed in advance, and that I 

1 In fact, Demosthenes made no such division. 

351 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aroiv, Arjp:6a6eves, Kai rci)v dWcov iroXirwv, oa~oi 
Brj x e^oodev 7rep1eara.cn, Kai rwv RWrjvtBP, ocrois 
eVi/zeXe? yeyovev eiraKoveiv 2 Trj<roe rrjs Kpiaews' 
opci) Be ovk 6\iyovs nvapovras, aW oaovs ovBels 
rrojirore fjLep.vi)Tai Trpbs dycbva 8rjp,6criov rrapa- 
yevop,evovs' airotcpLVOfiai, on diravrcav rwv rer- 

57 rdpwv /caipayv Kcnrjyopa) aov Serous 3 Bcaipfj, icav 
oX re deol OeXwcri Kai oi Btxacrral e% taov ij/xcov 
dtcovcrcocn Kayoi Bvvcofiai aTropLvripioi'evcrai a croi 
avvoiBa, ixdvv irpoahoKU) emBei^eiv rois BiKacrrals 
ri)s p.ev acorrjplas rfj iroXei rovs Oeovs atriovs 
yeyevrjp-evovs Kai rovs cf)i\avdpcoTTO)s Kai fierpiws 
rois ri)s iroXecos irpdypiacn -^pijaap.evovi, rwv he 
aTV)(rjiidTOL)v dirdvrwv /\rjp:oa0ei'i]V. i Kai XP 1 !' 
(To/jlcli rfj rod \6yov rd^ei ravrrj f] rovrov iruvda- 
vofiai p-eXkeiv, 5 \e£a) Be irpwrov irepl rod irpoorov 
Kaipov, kcu Bevrepov irepl tov Bevrepov, teal rpirov 
nrepl tov e<f>e%r)s, Kai reraprov irepl roiv vvvi 
Ka6eo-Tr}KOTOiV irpaypudrwv. Kai Brj erravdyo) 
ep.avrov enrl rr)v elprjvrjv r)v crv Kai (PikoKpdrr/s 
eypd^rare. 

58 'Tfxiv yap e^eyever av, Si dvBpes 'AOrjvaloi, rr)v 
rrporepav eKeiv^v eipr]vr)v iroi^aacrOai fiera koivov 
crvveBpiov rwv 'EWijvwv, el rives vpids eiaaav 
rrepifielvai ras 7rpecr/3eias as rjre eKTreiro/Kpores 
Kar eKelvov rov Kaipov els rrjv KXXdBa, irapaKaX- 

1 5t7 Blass : the MSS. have 5e or re, or omit. 
1 iiraKoveiv Markland : inraKovetv MSS. 

3 Serous Weidner : ovs av MSS. 

4 A-0fxo(rfi(V7iv Taylor : the MSS. have atrioy yeyevriufvov 
or yey*VT)fxivov atriov after ArifMoffOevyv. 

5 ^e'AAeiv Weidner : fitWitv iroit'iaQai or -rroidadat fj.eA\eiv 
MSS. 

352 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 56-58 

may reply, in the presence of the jury, Demosthenes, 
and of all the other citizens who ai*e standing there 
outside the bar, and of all the other Greeks who 
have taken the trouble to listen to this case — and I 
see that not a few are here, more in fact than have 
ever attended a public trial within the memory of 
any man — I answer you that for all the four periods 
which you enumerate I accuse you. And if the gods 
permit, and the jurors give us an impartial hearing, 
and I am able to call to mind all that I know about 
you, I confidently expect to show to the jury that 
for the safety of the city it is the gods who are 
responsible, and the men who in the crisis have 
treated the city with humanity and moderation ; 1 
but for all our misfortunes, Demosthenes. The 
order of my treatment shall be that which I under- 
stand he will follow ; and I will speak first concern- 
ing the first period, second concerning the second, 
third concerning the next, and fourth concerning 
the present situation. So now I address myself to 
the peace which you and Philocrates formally 
proposed. 

You could have made that former peace, 2 fellow 
citizens, supported by the joint action of a congress of 
the Greek states, if certain men had allowed you to 
wait for the return of the embassies which at that 
crisis you had sent out among the Greeks, with the 

1 The reference is to the unexpected moderation shown by 
both Philip and Alexander in their treatment of Athens, 
when they had the city entirely in their power, after her 
persistent efforts against them. 

s "That former peace" ia the Peace of Philocrates, 
346 B.C., so distinguished from the peace existing at the time 
of this speech. 

353 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovvtcs iirl QiXnnrov, 1 teal TrpoiovTos rov ypovov 
Trap 1 ckovtcov tcov YjWijvcov cnro\a8elv ttjv >)ye- 
Ixovlclv Kal tovtcov a7r€aTep7]0t]Te Bid ArjpLoaOevr^v 
real ^iXoKpdr^v Kal t«? tovtcov BcopoBoKias, a? 
iScopohoKrjtrav avaTavT€<i eVi to BrjpLocriov to 
vpueTepov. 

59 Et Be tlctlv vpucov if;ai(pvr]<; ciKOvaaaiv cittlctto- 
T6/309 TrpoaireiTTWKev o toiovtos \oyos, eiceivtos 
Tifv vttoXoittov ironjaaade atcpoaaiv. coenrep oTav 
irepl "^py]p,a,TWV dvr]\copievcov Bid ttoWov ypovov 
Ka0e£cop,e6a e-nl tou? \oyio-piov$, epyopieOa Bi) 
irov evioTE yjrevBels o'iKO0ev Bb^as eyovTes' 2 aW' 
bp,co$ eireiBdv 6 \oyio~p,b<; o~vyKecpa\aico$f), ovBeis 

icTTIV 3 OVTCO BvCTKO\oS TYjV CpVCTlV, OCTTf? OVK CLTTep- 

yeTai tovto bp,o\oyy)cra<z aXrjOes eivai, b ti av o 

60 \oyiap,b<; aiprj' ovtco Kal vvv ttjv dicpbaaiv iroir}- 
craaOe. el Tive<; vpicov i/c Ttov epnrpoaOev ypovcov 
rjKovaiv oiKoOev ToiavTrjv eyovTes ttjv Bb^av, eo? 
a pa 6 Ai]p,oo-0ev7}<; ovBev ircoTTOTe elpr/Kev vrrep 

QlXlTTTTOV 0~VCTTa<; pLCTCl QlXoKpClTOVS, 00~Tl<i OVTCO 

hiaKeiTai, fJLj]T ciiroyvcjiTco pb7]8ev fii]T€ KaTayvcoTco 
Trplv civ 4 aKOvcrr)' ov yap BiKaiov. ciW edv, 
epcov Sid ftpayecov 5 vTropi/ivfjcrKovTos tovs Kaipom 
Kal Ta yfri]cpLcrp.aTa irapeyopuevov a /xera <J>A.o- 
KpciTOV<; eypayjre A^p.oadevr]^, avTOS 6 6 7-779 d\i]- 
Oeias \oyiap.b<; KaTa\dj3r] ' tov &t]p,oo-0evt]i> 
irke'ico p.ev yeypacpoTa ~\jri]cpicTp:aTa <l>i\oKpdTov<; 

1 <J>iAi7r7rov Dobree : 4>lAnrnov niTa-iTX**-" 'EAA-qi'iKov ffvve5plov 

MSS. 

2 txovres Sauppe : %x ovTes xara rhv Aoyiafjibv or koto tuiv 
Koytffixaiv MSS. 

3 £<ttiv Blass : the MSS. have v/j.a>i> or fifj.S>p before or after 
tffnv. * &v added by Reisig. 

354 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 58-60 

call to join you against Philip ; and in the coarse of 
time the Greeks would of their own accord have 
accepted your hegemony again. Of this you were 
deprived, thanks to Demosthenes and Philocrates, 
and the bribes which they took in their conspiracy 
against the common weal. 

But if such a statement as I have just made, 
falling suddenly on your ears, is too incredible to 
some of you, permit me to suggest how you ought 
to listen to the rest of my argument : When we 
take our seats to audit the accounts of expenditures 
which extend back a long time, it doubtless some- 
times happens that we come from home with a 
false impression ; nevertheless, when the accounts 
have been balanced, no man is so stubborn as 
to refuse, before he leaves the room, to assent to 
that conclusion, whatever it may be, which the 
figures themselves establish. I ask you to give 
a similar hearing now. If some of you have come 
from home with the opinion, formed in the past, 
that of course Demosthenes has never in conspiracy 
with Philocrates said a word in Philip's interest — if 
any man of you is under such impression, let him 
decide nothing either way, aye or no, until he has 
heard ; for that would not be fair. But if, as I 
briefly recall the dates, and cite the resolutions which 
Demosthenes moved in cooperation . with Philo- 
crates, the truthful audit of the facts shall convict 
Demosthenes of having moved more resolutions than 
Philocrates concerning the original peace and alliance, 

5 After Ppaxewv the MSS. have d<ou<r7jT« or attovaavTs or 
aKovffavTes : Blass brackets. 
B Before avrbs the MSS. have eay : Blass brackets. 
7 KaToAaySp Franke : iyKaTaKa/xBavrj MSS. 

355 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

61 irepi rrjq e% ap%f}<; elpi]vr)s real avpiiayLas, Ka9' 
virep^oXrjv he alcry^yvT]^ fce/coXa/ccu/cora (PlXittttov 
/cat Toy? Trap' ifceivov Trpe^/Seis, 1 a'lriov he ye- 

ryOVOTd TU) h)]Ll(V TOV Lit] LieTCl KOIVOV GVVehpiOV 

twv EiXXyvcov TroLTjaaaOai ttjv elprjvrjv, eteSoTOV 
he TreTTOtrjKOTa QiXlttttcp YLepcrofiXeirrriv tov 
($pa/C7]s /SaaiXect, dvhpa fyiXov Kal GVLiLiayov rf t 
iroXei, — eav ravO^ vluv crafty? eiriheifyo, he7]o~opai 
vjjlwv p,erpiav herjacv eiriv ever are llol 717)09 decov 
tov irpoirov Tu>v TeTTapcov tcaipaiv fit} /caA.co? av- 
tov 7T€7roXiTeva0ac. Xe^co Be 86ev LidXiara irapa- 
KoXoud?jaere. 

62 ' Kypa\}re <£>iXofcpdTr)<; eijelvcu QiX'nnrw hevpo 
KrjpvKa Kal 7rpecr/3ei<i ireLLireLV irepl elpy]vrj<;. tovto 
to ylrrj(j)io-pa eypd<prj irapavoLuav. rjKov ol t^? 
KpLaecos xpovor KaTijyopet, fiev AvkIvos 6 ypa^d- 
p,evo<>, avreXoyelTO he <£>iXoKpaTr}<;, crvvcnreXoyeiTO 
he Arifioo-devr)<i' dire<pvye ( PiXoKpaTi]<;- llstcl t<zv- 
Ta eirrjeu 2 (*$eLuaTotcXr)<; apyaav evTavO^ elaep- 
X eral fiovXevTrjs 3 Arj/xoaOevrjs, ovtg Xa^oiV out 
iiriXa^jcov, dXX , eV Trapao-icevrjs TrptciLievos, Xv et<? 
viroho^v diravTa Kal Xeyoi Kal irpaTTOt <PiXo- 

63 KpaTei, &)? avTo eheitje to epyov. viko, yap eTepov 
yjr)j(pLa/j,a ^tXo/cpaTrjs, ev to KeXevet eXeaOai heKa 
7rpeaf3ei<;, ol'jives dcptKopevoi ft)? QlXiinrov a£iob- 
crovenv avTov hevpo 7rpea/3ei<i avTOKpaTopaq drro- 



1 Kal . . . irpeVfleisH. Wolf: after irpfcrfSets manyMSS. have 
ovk avauclvavra ; those of one group have Kal ovk ava^tlvavra 
rovs Trpeafieis. 

2 iiri'fi Weidner : e-nyei xpdvos MSS. 

3 After @ovA€vt))s the MSS. have els to Qovhevrriptov : Blass 
brackets. 

35 6 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 60-63 

and of having flattered Philip and his ambassadors 
with a shamelessness which was beyond measure, 
and of being responsible to the people for the failure 
to secure the concurrence of a general congress of 
the Greek states in the making of the peace, and 
of having betrayed to Philip Cersobleptes, king of 
Thrace, a friend and ally of our city — if I shall 
clearly demonstrate all this to you, I shall make of 
you this modest request : in God's name agree with 
me, that in the first of his four periods his policies 
have not been those of a good citizen. I will speak 
in a way that will enable you to follow me most 
easily. 

Philocrates made a motion x that we permit Philip 
to send to us a herald and ambassadors to treat 
concerning peace. This motion was attacked in the 
courts as illegal. The time of the trial came. 
Lycinus, who had indicted him, spoke for the prose- 
cution ; Philocrates made answer for himself, and 
Demosthenes spoke in his behalf;" 2 Philocrates was 
cleared. After this came the archonship of Themis- 
tocles. 3 Now Demosthenes came in as senator, not 
drawn by the lot either as a member of the senate 
or as a substitute, but through intrigue and bribery ; 
the purpose of it was to enable him to support Philo- 
crates in every way, by word and deed, as the event 
itself made evident. For now Philocrates carries 
a second resolution, providing for the election of ten 
ambassadors, who shall go to Philip and ask him to 

1 In 348 B.C. 

2 In the Speech on the Embassy (§ 14) Aeschines says that 
Philocrates was ill, and called in Demosthenes as his advo- 
cate ((rvv+iyopos). Probably Philocrates made only a brief 
and formal answer in court, and left the real defence to 
Demosthenes. 3 Beginning in midsummer, 347 B.C. 

357 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

areWeiv vrrep eipr]vr)<;. rovrcov et<? rjv ArjfioaOevrjs. 
Ku/ceWev iiravij/ccov eTraiverrp; y)v rr\s elpijvrjs, /cal 
ravrd to?9 aWois Trpeafieaiv drr/'^yyeWe, /cal 
p,ovo<; rwv ftovXevrwv hypa~^re aTreiaaaOai ra> /crj- 
pvKL ru> airo QiXittttov /cal Tot? it peer j3 6(7 IV, CLKQ- 
\ov0a ypd<pa>v <£>i\o/c purer 6 p,ev ye rr)V e^ovalav 
SeSwfce rov 8evpo /crjpvica /cal irpeo-fteis TrepLrreaOat,, 
o 8e rfj rrpecrfielq airevherai. 

64 To. he puera ravra 77877 p,ot <r<p68pa rrpoae^ere 
rov vovv. eirpdrrero yap ov irpos robs aXkovf 
irpeafieis, robs ttoWg, avKocpavrydevras varepov 
e/c p,era/3o\7J<; virb AijpLoadevovs, dWa irpbs <Pi\o- 
fcpurrjv /cal Ar/pLoaOevrjv, etKorois, robs dp,a p,ev 
TrpecrfSevovras, dp,a 8e ra ^jrT](piap.aTa ypdepovras, 
rrpwrov puev ottcos p,rj Trepipbevelre 1 robs 7rpecr/3eis 
ovs rjre e kit eiropfy ores Trapa/caXovvras 2 eirl <t>t- 
Xittttov, Xva pbrj pcera rcov liXX/jvcov, uW* I8l,a 

65 7roLi]craiode z rrjv elpijvrjv 8evrepov §' ottcos pur) 
p,6vov elpi']vr)v, dXXa ical avpip,a^(iav eivai yp-^cptet- 
a8e irpbs QiXittttov, iva, el rives rrpoaeyoKv ra> 
TrXtjOei rep vp-erepep, els rijv eo")(arr\v epireaoiev 
uOvpiav, opcovres lipids aurovs puev irapatcaXovvras 
eirl rov iroXepiov, ol/cou 8e pit) pubvov elpijvrjv, ciXXa 
/cal avpupiayiuv e-yjrr/cpMTpLevovs rvoielaQar rpirov 
8e ottoos Kepao/3Xe7rrr]s 6 Spd/crjs fiacriXebs p,r) 
earat evop/cos, piTjhe* pberearai, rrjs aup.p.a^[as /cal 
rrjs eipijvrjs avrop. rraprjyyeXXero 8 eV avrbv 

66 i]8i] arpareia. /cal ravO"" 6 p,ev e^oovovp,evos ov/c 

1 ir(pifxevi7ri Stephanus : irepifielvtyre MSS. 

2 irapaKaKovvras Maikland : irapaKaAovvres MSS. 

3 TrotT]aa.icrQe Bekker : -noirioriod* MSS. 

4 IJir)8e Bekker : n.i\re MSS. 

35S 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 63-66 

send hither plenipotentiaries to negotiate peace. 
Of these ambassadors one was Demosthenes. On his 
return, Demosthenes was a eulogist of the peace } 
he agreed with the other ambassadors in their 
report, and he alone of the senators moved to give 
safe-conduct to Philip's herald and ambassadors ; 
and in this motion he was in accord with Philocrates, 
for the one had given permission to send a herald 
and ambassadors hither, the other gave safe-conduct 
to the embassy. 

As to what followed, I beg you now to pay especial 
attention. For negotiations were entered into — not 
with the other ambassadors, who were slandered 
again and again by Demosthenes after he had 
changed face, but with Philocrates and Demosthenes 
(naturally, for they were at once ambassadors and 
authors of the motions) — first, that you should not 
wait for the ambassadors whom you had sent out 
with your summons against Philip, for they wished 
you to make the peace, not together with the Greeks, 
but by yourselves ; secondly, that you should vote, 
not only for peace, but also for alliance with Philip, 
in order that any states which were taking note of 
what the Athenian democracy was doing might fall 
into utter discouragement on seeing that, while you 
were summoning them to war, you had at home 
voted to make both peace and an alliance ; and 
thirdly, that Cersobleptes, king of Thrace, should 
not be included in the oaths, nor share the alliance 
and peace — indeed, an expedition was already being 
levied against him. Now the man who was buying 

359 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

?]8lk€i, irpo yap rdv op/coop Kal tow cjvvBt)KO)v 
ave/xearjrov i]v avra) irpaTTew ra avp-cpepovra, ol 
S aTTohofievoi Kal K(XTaKOU>wvi]o ames ra tt}? tto- 
Xew? lo"%vpd ixeydXt^ 6pyf)<; rjcrav d^toi. 6 yap 
fiiaaXe^avSpo^ vvvl (fidcr/cov elvai, Kal Tore paao- 
<f)L\nnros, Arj/jLoaOevr/s, 6 tijv %evlav if^ol vpocpe- 
pwv ttjv ' AXe^dvSpov, ypdtyei ylrrjcjuajna, Toy? 

67 tcaipovs rfj<i 7roA.e&>9 ixfiaipovpievos, eKKXrjaliw 
iroietv TOu? Trpvrdveis rfj oyhoy lara/nevov tov 
'E\acf)7){3o\ia)vo<; firjvos, 6V rjv tw 'Ao-kXtjiug) rj 
Ovaia Kal o irpoaycov, iv rfj lepa rjpuepa, o irpo- 
repov ouSei? fi€fivrjrai yeyovos, rtva irpo^aaiv 
Troniad/xevos ; ""Iva," <f)?)criv, " iav irapoxriv ij^rj 
ol QiXIttttov Trpeafieis, ^ovXevarjrai 6 S)}po<; go? 
rd^KTra rrepl rcov Trpbs <£>lXnnrov," rot? ovttco 
irapovcn 7rpea/3eaL 7rpoKaTaXap,{3dva>v rrjv etc/cXr}- 
alav, Kal tovs %p6vov<; u/xoov V7roT€fxv6p,6vo<; Kal 
to irpdyfia KaTacrirevhwv, iva p,i] fxera t£>p aXXcov 

FjX\7]vcov, iiraveXOovrwv tcov v/xeTepcov irpecrfieaiv, 
dXXa fxovoi iron'] err] ad e tiiv elprjvrjv. 

68 Merd ravra, w di'Spes ' ' AOrjvaloi, tjkov ol 
<§>i\iinTOV 7rpea/3ei<;- ol 8e uf^erepot l aireh^piovv, 
7rapaKa\ovvTe<; tou9 ' KXXrjva<i irrl QIXlttttov. 
ivTav6^ erepov viKa yjn](piap.a Ar}/jLoa6ev7)<;, iv a> 

1 v/xfrepot Blass : ^yue'repoi MSS. 

1 The Great Dionysia, April 5th, 346 B.C. 
360 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 66-68 

such services was doing no wrong, for before the 
oaths had been taken and the agreements entered 
into, he could not be blamed for negotiating to his 
own advantage ; but the men who sold, who ad- 
mitted Philip into partnership in the control of 
the strongholds of the state, were deserving ot 
your great indignation. For the man who now 
shouts, "Down with Alexander!" and in those 
days, " Down with Philip ! " the man who throws 
in my face the friendship of Alexander, this man 
Demosthenes, stole away the opportunities of the 
city by making the motion that the prytanes call an 
assembly for the eighth day of Elaphebolion, the 
day of the sacrifice to Asclepius, and the introductory 
day of the festival 1 — the sacred day ! — a thing that 
no man remembers ever to have been done before. 
And what was his pretext? "In order," he says, 
"that if Philip's ambassadors shall by that time have 
arrived, the people may most speedily deliberate on 
their relations with Philip." He thus appropriates 
the assembly for the ambassadors in advance, before 
their arrival, cutting short your time, and hurrying 
on the whole business ; and this was in order that 
you might make the peace, not in cooperation with 
the other Greeks, on the return of your ambas- 
sadors, 2 but alone. 

After this, fellow citizens, Philip's ambassadors 
arrived ; 3 but yours were absent, summoning the 
Greeks against Philip. Thereupon Demosthenes 
carries another resolution, in which he provides that 

2 The ambassadors who had been sent out to call other 
Greek states to unite against Philip (§ 58). 

3 It seems that Philip's ambassadors did not arrive in time 
for the discussion appointed for the 8th ; but they were in 
Athens during at least a part of the Dionysia (§ 76). 

N 3 6t 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ypdcpei fir/ povov inrep elp>jvr]<i, dWa /cal ire pi 
av ppa^at f3ov\evaao-9ai, pur/ irepipelvavia^ Tot"? 
irpecrfieLS toi)? vp,eTepov<>, dW' evOvs p.€Ta ra 
Aiovvcria tc\ ev aarei, rfj oy&oy ical ivdrrj eirl 8e/ca. 
oti S 1 aXrjOrj \eyco, tcov yp-rjcpicrpdTcov d/covaaTe. 

¥H1>I2MATA 

69 'JLirei&rj tolvvv, o) di'Spei AOrjvaioi, irapeXifkv- 
6ec Tfl Aiovvcria, eyiyvovTO 8e al e/cKXrjcrtai, ev ] 
rfj irpoikpa tcov i/c/c\i]cTicov 2 dveyvcoadr) hoy pa 
kolvov tcov (TvpLpd^cov, ov ret KecpdXaia 8id /3pa- 
yecov eyco irpoepco. irpcoTov p.ev yap eypayjrav 
inrep elprjvr)*; vp.ds pLovov fiov\evo~aadai, to oe ri]$ 
o-vppayias bvopa virepe/3t]aav, ovk e7rtA.eX.j7cr/ze- 
voi, dXXd /cal ttjv elpi)vr]v dvay icaioT epav rj /ca\- 
\lco v7ro\ap./3dvovTe<> elvar eireiTa din'jVTrjaav 
opOcos lacropLevoi to Ar/pocrOevovs hcopohoKrjpa, 

70 koX . irpoaeypa^jrav 3 e^elvai tco /3ov\op,evco tcov 
'RWrjvcov ev Tpicrl p,r)crlv et? Tyv avTrjv arrjX/qv 
dvaypd(pea6ai p,eT 'Adr/vcucov /cal p,€Te%eiv tcov 
opKcov Kal tcov avvOipccov, Svo to, p,eyiaTa irpo- 
KaTa\ap{3dvovT€<;, irpcoiov pev tov -^povov tov t?}<? 
Tpip,r']VOV rat? tcov EiXXrjVcov 7T/9ecr/3etai9 ucavbv 
irapayeveaOaL KaTaaKevd^ovTes, eireiTa tyjv tcov 
'RW/jvcov evvoiav Ty troXei itera kolvov crvveSptov 

1 iv Bake : iv Si MSS. 

2 e<K\r]cricov Taylor : after ixK\r)(rioiv or after S6y/xa the 
MSS. have ttj oySoy iirl 8e'/co. 

3 After irpoaiypa^av the MSS. have eV t<£ hoypari : Blass 
brackets. 

362 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 68-70 

we take counsel, not only regarding peace, but on 
the subject of an alliance also; and that we should 
do this without waiting for your ambassadors to re- 
turn, but immediately after the City Dionysia, on 
the 18th and 19th of the month. As proof of the 
truth of what I say, hear the resolutions. 

RESOLUTIONS 

When now, fellow citizens, the Dionysia were past 
and the assemblies took place, in the first assembly 
a resolution of the synod of the allies was read, 1 
the substance of which I will give briefly before 
having it read to you. First, they provided only that 
you should take counsel regarding peace, and omitted 
the word " alliance " — and that not inadvertently, but 
because they looked upon even the peace as neces- 
sary, rather than honourable ; secondly, they met 
Demosthenes' bribery with a well-chosen remedy, 
by adding in their resolution that any Greek state 
that wished should be permitted within the space of 
three months to have its name inscribed with the 
Athenians on the same stone, and to share the oaths 
and agreements. In this way they were taking two 
precautions, and those of the greatest importance ; 
for first, they provided the period of three months, 
a sufficient time for the ambassadors of the Greek 
states to arrive ; and secondly, they sought to secure 
to the city the good-will of the Greeks, by the pro- 
vision for a general congress, in order that in case the 

1 At this time Athens was at the head of a small league, 
all that was left of the great maritime league begun in 378, 
but largely broken up by the league war of 357-55. It was 
the synod of this league, sitting at Athens, which passed the 
resolution cited. The resolution empowered Athens in ad- 
vance to act in behalf of the league. 

3 6 3 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

KTCofievoi, Xv el Trapa(3aivoivTO at avvdfj/eai, p,ri 
fiovoi /i?;S' airapdcncevoi. 7ro\€/j,rfaaifi€v, o l vvv 
■fj/xlv iraOelv crvve/3r} hca Ai]/j.oaOei>r)i>. on S' 
akrjdrj \eyco, e£ avrov tov hoypuaTOS aKOvaavre<; 
/xaOtjaeaBe. 

AOrMA 2TMMAXAN 

71 Tovto) tw hoypbaTi avvenrelv ofioXoyco, /cal 
TravTes ot, ev rfj irporepa twv eKK\7)aio)v h>)pM]yo- 
povvres' Kal 6 hF]p,o<; dirrfkOe toiovtov ti i>7r€L\7)- 
(frcos, 2 a;? earai puev r) elpijvi) (irepi he crvp./j.a^La'i 
ovk cifieivov etrj hia ri]v twv 'KKK.i']vwv irapa- 
K\rjaiv fiovXevaaaOai), carat, he KOivfj pt,era t<ov 
'EWijvcov airdvTWV. vv% ev p-eaw, Kal rraprjfiev 
rfj vcnepalq et? rr)v eKKXrjalav. evravOa Br) 
it pofcaraXafioov At) pLoa0evr]<; to pjrjpca, ovhevl tojv 
aWcov TrapaXLTrcov Xoyov, ovhev ocbeXos e<prj twv 
^#e? elp^pukvwv elvai Xoycov, el ravO* ol Qiklrnrov 
p,r) o~vp.iTeio~6i]o~ovTai Trpeo-fieis, ovhe yiyvooo-Keiv 

72 e(py] tiiv elprjptjv dirovcni*; avpLpua-yia^. ov yap 
ecf)}] helv, /cal yap to prjp.a p,epLvrjp,ca &)9 elire, hid 
ttjv drjhiav tov XeyovTOS dp,a Kal tov ovopcaTO^, 
" diropprj^ai " tt)? elp/)vr)<; Ti)v av/xpLa^iav, ovhe 
Ta twv EiXkrjvoov dvap^eveiv pueWrjpLaTa, aAA' 
rj TToXepLeiv avTOVS, r) ti)v elprjvqv Ihia iroieladai. 
Kal TeXevTwv enl to prffia TrapaKaXeaas Avri,- 
iraTpov epu>Ti]p,a ti rjpcoTa, irpoenroov p,ev a ip/]- 
aeTai, 7rpohihd^a^ he a %pi) KaTa ttjs iroXecos 
aTTOKpivacrOai. Kai, TeXo? TavT ev'iKa, tu> p.ev 

1 h Cobet : & MSS. 

2 toiovtov ti uTT6iA?)(p«j Weidner (cp. i. 49) : roiavr-qv riva 
S6^av tl\rj(pil>s (or inrei\rj<pws) MSS. 

3 6 4 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 70-72 

agreements should be violated, we might not enter 
upon the war unprepared and alone — the misfortune 
that actually came upon us, thanks to Demosthenes. 
Now that what I say is true, you shall learn by 
hearing the resolution itself. 

THE RESOLUTION OF THE ALLIES 

I acknowledge that I supported this resolution, as 
did all who spoke in the first of the two assemblies ; 
and the people left the assembly with substantially 
this supposition, that peace would be made (that, 
however, it was better not to discuss an alliance, be- 
cause of our summons to the Greeks), and that the 
peace would be shared by all the Greeks. Night 
intervened. We came the next day to the assembly. 
Then it was that Demosthenes, hastening to get 
possession of the platform, and leaving no other 
man an opportunity to speak, said that the proposi- 
tions of yesterday were utterly useless unless Philip's 
ambassadors could be persuaded to assent to them. 
He further said that he could not conceive of peace 
without alliance. For he said we must not — I re- 
member the expression he used, for the word was as 
odious as the man — he said we must not "rip off" 
the alliance from the peace, nor wait for the slow de- 
cisions of the other Greeks, but we must either fight 
ourselves, or by ourselves make the peace. And finally 
he called Antipater 1 to the platform, and proceeded 
to ask him a certain question — he had previously 
told him what he was going to ask, and had in- 
structed him what he was to answer, to the injury of 
the state. Finally this thing prevailed, Demosthenes 

1 One of Philip's ambassadors. 

365 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

\oyco 77 poa fi taaafievov 1 Aii/ioaOevovs, to Be 

73 ^jnj(pio-/xa ypdxjravros QiXoKparovs. Be rjv vtto- 
Xoittov avTols, \\epaol3\eirrrjv koX top errl %pdicri<$ 
tottov e/cBorov Troirjcrai, /cal tout' eirpa^av e/crr) 
<f)0ivovTOS rov 'Fj\a(f)r)/3o\ia)VO<i, rrplv eirl tt]V 
varepav diratpeiv 7rpeo~(3elav tijv errl tous op/covs 
ArjfxoaOevrjv yap pucrdXe^avBpof /cat fiiao- 
(f)i\nnro<i rjpilv ovtoltX pijrwp S45 errpea^evaev eh 
NLa/ceBovcav, e£bv p.rjBe arra^, 6 vuvl /ce\evcov tcov 
MatceBovcov KarairTveiv. elf Be 77-jv eKKKr/aiav 
rrjv rfj e/CTT) Trpo/caOe^o/jievos fiovXevrrjs cov i/c 
7rapaaKev?i<;, e/cBorov K.epo-o^\e7rrr]v pberd <£>i\.o- 

74 fcpdrovs eTTOLrjae. Xavddvei yap 6 puev <£>b\.OKp arris 
ev yjn](f)Lo-p,a,Ti p,€Ta tcov ciWcov' 2 Trapeyypd-yfras, 
6 S' e7Tfv^77^)t(Ta9, Aiip,oadevr)$, 3 " ' ' A.7roBovvat he 
tovs 6pKov<; rot9 7rpeaf3eo-i Toh irapa <&i\i7nrov 
ev rfjBe rfj i)p,epa tou<? crvveBpovs rcov tTvp,p,dyu>v" 
•napd Be K.epcro/3\e7rrov crvveBpos ovk ifcddrjro' 
ypdyjras Be rovs trvveBpevovras 6p,vvvai, rov 
Kepcrof3\e7rTr)v ov crvveBpevovra e^e/cXr/cre tcov 

75 optccov. OTi B aXrjOfj Xeyco, dvdyvcodi jmoi, rh 
r)v 6 ravra ypd-yjras, /cal rh 6 4 eVn|r 77 cetera?. 5 

¥H<i>l2MA 

~KaXov, co avBpes ' AOijvaloi, /caXbv r) tcov Brj- 
pLOCTLcov ypapLficiTcov (pv\a/cr)' d/clvTjTov yap icrri, 
kcu ov av/xp,eTarri7TTei roh avropboXovcriv ev rfj 

1 irpoa^iacrafjiivov Reiske : irpo^ia<ra^(vov MSS. 

2 &\\a>v Blass : &\\a>v ypa/x/j.drcuv MSS. 

3 A7)/j.o(r0evr)s Markland : the MSS. add ev § yeypaTrrat. 

4 After <5 the MSS. have ravra : Blass brackets. 
8 iirnp7]<pltras Franke : iin\\iri(plcras irpSeSpos MSS. 

366 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 72-75 

forcing you to it by his talk, and Philocrates moving 
the resolution. One thing remained now for them 
to do — to betray Cersobleptes and the Thracian 
coast. This they accomplished on the 25th of 
Elaphebolion, before Demosthenes set out on the 
second embassy, the embassy for the ratification of 
the oaths (for this orator of ours, this man who 
shouts "Down with Alexander!" and "Down with 
Philip ! " has twice been an ambassador to Mace- 
donia, when he need not have gone once — the man 
who now bids you spit on the Macedonians). Pre- 
siding over the assembly on the 25th, for he had 
gained a seat in the senate by intrigue, 1 he, with 
the help of Philocrates, betrayed Cersobleptes ; for 
Philocrates unobserved slipped this clause in among 
the provisions of his resolution, and Demosthenes 
put it to the vote, that " The members of the synod 
of the allies do on this day give their oaths to the 
ambassadors from Philip." But no representative of 
Cersobleptes had a seat in the synod ; and so in 
providing that those who were sitting in the synod 
should give oath, he excluded Cersobleptes from the 
oaths, for he had no place in the synod. 2 As proof 
that I am speaking the truth, read, if you please, 
who it was that made this motion, and who it was 
that put it to vote. 

THE RESOLUTION 

An excellent thing, fellow citizens, an excellent 
thing is the preservation of the public acts. For 
the record remains undisturbed, and does not shift 
sides with political turncoats, but whenever the 

1 The presiding officer of the assembly was a senator, 
chosen by lot for the day. 2 cp. ii. §§ 81-86. 

367 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7ro\iT6ia, aXA,' airehoiKe t&> Sijfup, orrorav /3ov- 
Xr/Tai, avvihelv roi)<; irdXai p,ev irovijpovs, e« 
peTa/3oXrj<; S' dtjiovvTas ewai ^prjarovi. 

76 'TttoXolttov 8" earl fwt rrjv icoXatceLav Sie^eX- 
6elv. At] fio a 6 evr-js; yap, Si avZpes J A0i]valoi, 
hnaxndv (BovXevaas, ovSe/niav rrcoTrore (paurjcreTac 
irpea^elav eh irpoe&plav KaXeaas, dXXa tots 
puovov koX 7Tpcorov' l zeal Trpoa/cecjxikaia edrjfce, 
/cat (poivifcl&as TrepieTreraae, nai ap,a rfj rjp,epa 
rjyelro Tot? Trpeaftecriv els to dearpov, ware teai 
auplrrecrdac Sid tt]v d<j%r\piOcrvvr)v zeal KoXa- 
Kelav. koX or aTT^eaav," epucrOaocraTO avrois rpla 
^evyrj opecKa tcai rovs rrpeafieLS r rrpov'nep,y\rev eh 
©7/$a?, KarayeXacrTov rrjv iroXiv irotwv. Itva 8" 
eVl tt}? viroOeaeax; pieivw, Xafie pot to yfr/j(f)iap,a 
to irepl rr}? irpoehplas. 

¥H*I2MA 

77 Outo? toIvvv, a> avhpes ' Adrjvatoi, 6 ti]Xikovto<; 
to p,eyedos tcoXa^, Trpcoros 8ia tcov fcaracrKOTrcov 
twv irapd Xapc8rjp,ov Trv06p,evo<; rrjv QiXIttttov 
TeXevTtjv, roiv p.ev Becov (rvp,7rXdo~a<; eavrS) ivvir- 
viov KareyfrevaaTO, oj? ov irapa Xapioi]p,ov to 
irpayp-a nreirvapLevo';, aXXa irapd tov Ato? /cal 
rr/s 'AOtjv&s, ovs pLed* r/puepav eiuopiCQiv vv/crcop 
<f)T]<rlv kavT<p SiaXeyeaOat real ra p-eXXovra ecreadai 
irpoXeyeiv, e{386pt,7)v S' fjpiepav t?}? dvyarpos aurw 
reTeXevrrj/cvlas, irplv TrevOr/acti icai ra vop.i£6p.eva 
TTOirjaai, arecf^avcoadp-evos teal Xev/cyv hrQrjra 

1 trpSiTov the editor : iroiirov irptafieit tl% irpofSp'iav e'/caA*<re 
MSS. 

2 aiTT}€<Tat> Taylor : airTJeaav els &r}$as MSS. 

3 68 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 75-77 

people desire, it gives them opportunity to discern 
who have been rascals of old, but have now changed 
face and claim to be honourable men. 

It remains for me to describe his flattery. For 
Demosthenes, fellow citizens, was senator for a year, 
yet he will be found never to have invited any other 
embassy to the seat of honour * — nay, that was the 
first and the only time ; and he placed cushions and 
spread rugs ; and at daybreak he came escorting the 
ambassadors into the theatre, so that he was actually 
hissed for his unseemly flattery. And when they set 
out on their return journey, he hired for them three 
span of mules, and escorted the ambassadors as far 
as Thebes, making the city ridiculous. But that I 
may not wander from my subject, please take the 
resolution concerning the seats of honour. 

RESOLUTION 

Now this man it was, fellow citizens, this past 
master of flattery, who, when informed through 
scouts of Charidemus 2 that Philip was dead, before 
any one else had received the news, made up a 
vision for himself and lied about the gods, pre- 
tending that he had received the news, not from 
Charidemus, but from Zeus and Athena, the gods 
by whose name he perjures himself by day, and 
who then converse with him in the night, as he 
says, and tell him of things to come. And though 
it was but the seventh day after the death of his 
daughter, and though the ceremonies of mourning 
were not yet completed, he put a garland on his 
head and white raiment on his body, and there he 

1 In the Theatre of Dionysus. 

2 Charidemus was a mercenary general, then serving 
Athens in the north. 

3 6 9 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

\a/3aiv i{3ov0VT6i ical irapevbp.ei, rrjv pbbvrjv 6 
BetXaio<; ical Trpunrjv avrbv irarepa Trpoaenrov- 

78 aav airoXecras. teal ov to Svcrruxv/^ - oveiBi^co, 
dXXd rbv rpbirov i^erd^co. 6 yap pbia6reKVo<i teal 
irarijp 7rovr]pb<i ovtc av irore yevoiro 8r)p,aya>yo<; 
■yprjcrib*;, ovhe 6 tcl ^tXrara koX ouceiorara 
(TOt)p.ara pur] arepyoiv ovheiroO^ vp,a<; irepl ttoXXov 
TTOLi'-jcreTaL tovs aXXorptovs, ov&e ye 6 Ihia. irovrjpos 
av 7TOT6 yevoiro hr^p.oaia'^prjcrTO^, ov& octtj? ecrnv 
ol'tcoi (fravXos, ovheiror rjv iv Matcehovta tcaXbs 
tcdyaObs' ov yap rbv rpbirov, dXXd rbv tottov 
p,ert]XXa^ev. 

79 HbOev ovv iirl rrjv p.eTa(3oXr}v rfkOe t&v irpay- 
p,aTcov, outo? yap ianv b hevrepos tcacpos, tcai n 
ttot icrrl to atnov, on < t>LXoKpaTt]<; p.ev dirb 
rwv avTwv 7ro\iTevp,aTcov ^puoaOevei cfivyds air 
eiaayyeXias yeyevrjTai, H^pioaOevr)^ he eVe'crT>/ 
robv ctXXcov fcaTyjyopos, real irbOev Trod' vp-as els 
rrjv arvyiav b puapbs avOpwnos ipLfiefiXrjtce, ravr 

80 ^hrj 8iacf)epbvTto<; d^ibv ianv dtcovaai. ax? yap 
Tayiara elaco YlvXwv <£>i\nnro<; iraprfkde, teal rds 
re iv <£>(orcevo-L 7roXet? 7rapahb^o)<i dvao-rdrovi 
eiroLt]oe, ®r]/3aiov<; re, 1 oj? rod' vpuv ihbtcet, irepai- 
repw tov tcaipov teal tov vp,erepov avp,<$>epovTO<; 
lo-%vpov<; tcareo-tcevacrev, vpieis re etc rebv dypcbv 
(pofiijdevTes iaKevayo)y/]aare, iv Tat? p,eyLo~Tat<; 
o° r)aav atrlacs oi rrpea/3ei9 ol rrjv elptjvrjv 
TrpeafievaavTes, ttoXu he rwv aXXwv hiatyepovToos 
(PiXo/cpar?]? /cal Ar}p,oo-devr]<i, hid to fir) p,bvov 
Trpeafieveiv, dXXd ical tcl ■^rijcfiiap.aTa yeypacpevai, 

i t< Blass : S« MSS. 
370 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 77-80 

stood making thank-offerings, violating all decency — 
miserable man, who had lost the first and only one 
who ever called him "father"! Not that I re- 
proach him for his misfortune, but I am probing 
his character. For the man who hates his child and 
is a bad father could never become a safe guide to 
the people ; the man who does not cherish the per- 
sons who are nearest and dearest to him, will never 
care much about you, who are not his kinsmen ; the 
man who is wicked in his private relations would 
never be found trustworthy in public affairs ; and 
the man who is base at home was never a good and 
honourable man in Macedonia, for by his journey he 
changed his position, not his disposition. 

Now how it was that he came to reverse his 
policies (for this is the second period), 1 and what is 
the reason that policies identical with those of De- 
mosthenes led to the impeachment and exile of 
Philocrates, 2 while Demosthenes suddenly stood 
forth as accuser of the rest, and how it is that the 
pestilential fellow has plunged you into misfortune, 
this you ought now especially to hear. For as soon as 
Philip had come this side Thermopylae, and contrary 
to all expectation had destroyed the cities of Phocis, 
and strengthened the Thebans beyond what was 
seasonable and advantageous for you, as you then 
thought, and when you in alarm had brought in your 
movable property from the country districts, and the 
ambassadors who had negotiated the peace were 
under the gravest accusation — Philocrates and De- 
mosthenes far beyond all the rest, because they not 
only had been ambassadors, but were also the authors 

1 See § 55. 

2 Philocrates was indicted by Hypereides in 343 B.C., and 
went into exile without standing trial. 

371 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

81 o-vveftr] re ev TOi? avroU xpovois Siacpepeadai tl 
At] poaOevrjv Kal QiXoKpaTrjv crxeSbv virep tovtcov 
inrep o)v teal u/ieZ? virmiri sva are' 1 roiavrrfi 2 epb- 
TwrTovar]*; Tapaxv<i> /acto. twv crvp,(f>VTQ)V avTw 
voar/pciToov rfir) ra pera ravra efiovXevero, pera 
SeiXias Kal rr)? irpbs ^?i\oKpdr7]P virep t9j<; Scopo- 
8oklcl<; ^]\oTV7Tt'a<i, Kal r)<yy]aaTo, el twv aupu- 
TrpeaftevovTOov Kal tov QlXLttttov KctTijyopos dva- 
<f>avei7], tov p,ev ^iXoKpdrrjv 7r/?oS?;Xw9 cnroXeladaL, 
tou? Be aXXovs avpLirpeatSeis Kivhvvevoeiv, avrbs 
S' ev£>0Kip,7]creiv, Kal 7rpo86rr)<i oiv tcov (ptXtov Kal 
irovTipos, iriaTOS Tco hr/pa) (f>avqcr€o-0ai. 

82 Ka-uSfWes S' avrbv ol rfj tt}? TroXeoos irpocriro- 
XeuovvTes vcrvyia, daixevoi TrapeKciXovv eiri to 
firjpa, tov puovov abcopoboKrjTov ovopaZ,ovTe<s ttj 
TroXer 6 8e irapioov <ipx a s avTols eve8l8ov iroXepov 
Kal Tapaxqs. ovtos io-Tiv, eo avSpes 'AOrjvalot, 
6 7T/3COTO? e^evpoiv ILeppiov Telx ^ Kai AoplaKOv 
Kal 'Epyio-Krjv Kal My pTiaKrjv Kal Tdvos Kal 
TavuiSa, 3 X w P ia ™ v °^^ T< * ovopaTa jjbepev 
irpoTepov. Kal els tovto (pepcov irepieaT^ae Ta 
irpdypiaTa, &aT el pcev p.rj irepuroi irpeo-(3ei<; 
<S?iXiiT7ro<i, KaTacppovelv avTOv ecprj t?}? 7roAe6>?, 
el 8e 7re/x7rot, KaTaaKoirow; Treprrreiv, dXX ov 

83 Trpecrfteis. el he iiriTpeireiv edeXoi iroXei Ttvl tarj 

1 inramT tvo are the editor : avrovs virwirTeuaare Sievex^ 11111 

MSS. 

2 roiavrys Taylor : tojcu'ttjs Se MSS. cp. § 149 and ii. 157. 
s TavidSa Franke (Harpocration) : Tai'lSa MSS. 



1 Demosthenes, in xviii. 27, mentions Serrhium, Myrtenus, 
and Kn-dsca. Acschines, in his ridicule of the little places, 
seems to be making jingles of their names, coiuing Myrtisca 

37 2 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 81-83 

of the resolutions, and when it happened at the same 
time that Demosthenes and Philocrates had a falling 
out— you were able to guess the reasons without 
much difficulty — when all this disturbance had arisen, 
then Demosthenes proceeded to take counsel as to 
his future course, consulting his own innate corrup- 
tion, his cowardice, and his jealousy of Philocrates' 
bribes ; and he came to the conclusion that if he 
should step forward as the accuser of his colleagues 
on the embassy and of Philip, Philocrates would 
surely be ruined, his other colleagues would be put 
in jeopardy, and he himself would gain favour, and — 
scoundrel and traitor to his friends— would appear 
to be a faithful servant of the people. 

Now when the men who are always the foes of 
public tranquillity caught sight of him, they were de- 
lighted, and repeatedly called him to the platform, 
and named him our sole and only incorruptible citi- 
zen ; and he as often came forward and furnished 
them with the sources of disturbance and war. He 
it is, fellow citizens, who first discovered Serrhium- 
Teichus and Doriscus and Ergisca and Myrtisca and 
Ganus and Ganias ; 1 for before that we did not 
even know the names of these places. And he put 
such forced and perverse interpretation upon what 
was done, that, if Philip did not send ambassadors, 
Demosthenes said that Philip was treating the city 
with contempt ; and if he did send them, that he 
was sending spies, not ambassadors ; and if Philip 
was willing to refer our differences to some state as 

out of Myrtenus, to rhyme with Ergisca, and inventing 
Ganias to go with Ganus. 

Demosthenes claimed that Philip, by occupying these 
posts before he signed the peace treaty, made his control of 
Thrace secure. See Demosthenes, xviii. 32. 

373 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

real o/jlolci irepl rwv €yK\rjp.drcov, ovk eivai Kpirr/v 
laov rjalv €<fir) teal QiXLttttw. c AXovvi-jgov eSiSov 
6 6° diriyyopeve /xrj Xap,/3dvetv, " et SiScoaiv, dXXa 
fir) diroStScocri" irepl crvXXafiaiv SiacfiepopLevo*;. teal 
to reXevralov are^avdiaa^ tovs fierd ' Apicrrohr}- 
jxov eh ®erraXlav Kal MayvrjaLav irapd rd<> -n;? 
elprjvrjs avvdr'jKa'i irpecrfievaavras, rr)v fxev elpi)vi]v 
SieXvae, rrjv Be avpupopdv /ecu rbv iroXe^iov /care- 
a/eevaaev. 

84 Nat, dXXa ^clX/cols /eat aSafiavTivoK reixeaiv, 
co? avros (frrjai, rr)v yd>pav i)p,wv ere'i^ae, rfj roiv 
ILvftoecov zeal ®r]/3ai(ov crvpLp,a)(iq. dXXa, a) 
civSpes ^AOr-jvaloi, irepl ravra zeal p,eyiara r/SUrjade 
Kal p,dXio~ra r)>yvoi]/eare. airevScov 6" elirelv irepl 
tj}s 0avp,aarr}<; avfi/xax^ T779 twv ®7)J3aLa>v, iv 
i(f>ef;i}<; Xeyco, irepl roiv Evfioewv irpcorov p,vr](T0i]- 
aop.ai. 

85 c T/zet9 7«/0» <*> dvBpe<; ' Adrjvaioi, iroXXa /eat 
fieydXa rj8c/ei]p,evoi uiro Mprjadp-^ov rod Xa\/ei- 
Se&x?, rod KoXXlou zeal Tavpoo-devovs irarpos, ot>9 
o5to? vvvl fiiaObv Xaftcov ' A6r}vaiovs e\vai roXfiq 
ypdcpeiv, Kal rrdXiv virb ©e/itVco^o? rov 'Eperpiea)<i, 
09 i)puoiv eiptfvris ovay^ 'Q.poyirbv d<^eiXero, rovrwv 
e/eovres eiriXadofievoi, eirei&r) 8ie/3i]o-av et? Evfioiav 
©rjfiaiot KaraBovXaoo-aaOai rds iroXeis ireipcofievoi, 
ev irevre i}p,epai<> e/SorjOijaare avrols zeal vaval 
Kal ire^fi Svvdp,ei, Kal irplv rpiaKovd' ijfiepas 
SieXdelv viroairovSovs ®r)f3a(,ov<i d(p/]/eare, Kvptoi 
rr)<; Ei)/3ota9 <yev6p.evoi, Kal rd<i re 7roA.€£9 avras 



1 The anti-Macedonian party refused to accept the island 
unless Philip would admit that he had been holding it 

374 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 83-85 

an equal and impartial arbiter, he said that between 
Philip and us there was no impartial arbiter. Philip 
offered to give us Halonnesus ; Demosthenes forbade 
us to accept it if he "gave it," instead of "giving 
it back," quarrelling over syllables. 1 And finally, 
by bestowing crowns of honour on the embassy which 
Aristodemus led to Thessaly and Magnesia contrary 
to the provisions of the peace, he violated the peace 
and prepared the final disaster and the war. 

Yes, but with walls of brass and steel, as he him- 
self says, he fortified our land, by the alliance with 
Euboea and Thebes. Nay, fellow citizens, it is just 
here that you have been most wronged and most 
deceived. But eager as I am to speak about that 
wonderful alliance with Thebes, I will speak first 
about the Euboeans, that I may follow the events 
in their order. 

You, fellow citizens, had suffered many serious 
injuries at the hands of Mnesarchus of Chalcis, father 
of Callias and Taurosthenes, men whom Demos- 
thenes now for gold dares to propose for enrolment 
as Athenian citizens ; and again at the hands of 
Themison of Eretria, who in time of peace robbed 
us of Oropus ; but you were willing to overlook these 
wrongs, and when the Thebans had crossed over into 
Euboea in an attempt to enslave its cities,' 2 in five 
days you went to their rescue with fleet and troops, 
and before thirty days had passed you brought the 
Thebans to terms and sent them home ; and being 
now yourselves in complete control of Euboea, you 

wrongfully, and so was "giving it back," not " giving it" 
{airoSiScai — SiSuaLu). 

2 In 357 B.C. two groups of Euboean cities were at war 
one with the other ; one group having called in the Thebans, 
the other group, led by Eretria, appealed to Athens for help. 

375 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

KaX TCL<i 7T0\lT€La<i UTrehoTE 6p6ay? KtU BlKa(,Q)<i TOt? 

TrapafcaraOefievois, oi>x i)yovp.evoi h'ucaiov elvai 
rrjv opytjv a7To/xvi]piovev€iv ev rw TncrrevOrjvai. 

86 Kat TrfkiKavO^ v<p vjjlwv ev TreirovdoTes oi 
XaX/ctSet? ov t<Z9 6/JLolas vp,iv aTreSoaav, 1 d\\' 
€7T€ihT] 2 8ie/3r)Te et9 ^vfioiav UXovrdp^o f3oT)0ij- 
crovTei, tovs pev Trpcorov^ xpovovs dXX ovv 
it pocreir oiovvQ' vp.lv elvai cpiXoi, iireiSr] 8e rd^iara 
et9 Tapvvas irapi'fxdopev, teal to KoTi/Xaiov 
bvopa'Qopevov 6po<i v7repe/3dXopev, evravda Ka\- 
Xias o XaX/ciSey?, ov Aijpoo-devrjs picrOapvwv 

87 eveKwpia^ev, opcov to arparoTTehov to t?)9 TroXecos 
els Seivas hva^wpias Karatce/cXy/jievov, '69ev pur) 
viK7]aaai pdyiqv ovk ?]v dvaydip^ais, ov8e 3 ftorj- 
6eia<; eXirls our e/c 77)9 out' eic OaXaTnjs, avva- 
yeipas ej~ dirdar]^ Trjf Eu/3ota9 arpaToireBov, 
kcu irapd ^iXlttttov Bvvapiv irpoa-peTairep^d- 
pevos, 6 t dSeXcfios avTov Tavpoadevqs, vvvl 
TrdvTas 8e%iovp,evo<; KaX irpoayeXcov, toi>9 Qcokikovs 
£evovs 8ia/3i/3dcra<;, rjXdov i(f> rjpds 009 dvaipij- 

88 aovres. KaX el prj nrpooTOv pev dewv T49 ecraxre to 
arparoirehov, eireiO* oi crTpancorai oi vperepoi 
koX oi ire^ol KaX oi 'nnrels avhpes eyevovTO dyaOoi, 
koX nrapd rbv iirirohpopov rov ev Tapvvais eK 
7raoaTa£e&>9 pd%i] Kparijaavres vTroo~Tr6vhov<; dcfrei- 
o~av tol<9 iroXepiovi, eKivBvveuaev dv rj 7roXis 

1 aireSoffav Cobet : aneSocrav x° L P lTas MSS. 

2 tiretS^i Sauppe : (TrftSr) TaX'CTti MSS. 

3 ovSe Bekker : otre MSS. 



1 Tlie expedition of 357 B.C. had brought the pro-Athenian 
element in Euboea into control ; but Philip was now en- 

376 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 85-88 

righteously and justly restored the cities themselves 
and their constitutions to those who had entrusted 
them to you ; for you felt that it was not right to 
cherish your anger, now that they had put faith in 
you. 

After receiving such benefits at your hands, the 
Chalcidians did not requite you with like treatment, 
but as soon as you had crossed over to Euboea to 
help Plutarchus, 1 while at first they did pretend to 
be friends to you, yet as soon as we had come to 
Tamynae and had crossed the mountain called Coty- 
laeum, then Callias the Chalcidian, who had been 
the object of Demosthenes' hired praises, seeing the 
troops of our city shut up in a place which was diffi- 
cult and dangerous, from which there was no with- 
drawal unless we could win a battle, and where there 
was no hope of succour from land or sea, collected 
troops from all Euboea, and sent to Philip for rein- 
forcements, while his brother, Taurosthenes, who 
nowadays shakes hands with us all and smiles in our 
faces, brought over the mercenaries from Phocis, and 
together they came upon us to destroy us. 2 And had 
not, in the first place, some god saved the army, and 
had not then your soldiers, horse and foot, showed 
themselves brave men, and conquered the enemy in 
a pitched battle by the hippodrome at Tamynae, 
and brought them to terms and sent them back, our 
city would have been in danger of the greatest 

couraging the anti-Athenian partisans, and supporting the 
opponents of Plutarchus of Eretria. Plutarchus turned to 
Athens for help. The date of the expedition is much dis- 
puted : Schaefer places it in 350 B.C., Grote in 349, and 
Weil and Blass in 348. 

1 Aeschines speaks from vivid recollection, for he was a 
member of the expedition. See Aeschines, ii. 169. 

377 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aiayiOTa rraOtlw ov yap ro 8vcrrv\rjaai teard 
iroXepuov peyiarov icrri kclkov, a\,V orav tls 77/309 
avr ay wv terras dva^lovs l 8ia/eiv8vvevcov airorv'vr], 
8nrXao~iav eltcbs elvai ttjv ervpepopdv. 

AXX* 6p,ws vpuels TOiavra TreirovBoTes ttoXiv 
8teXvaaa6e irpbs avrovs. rv^oov 8e a uyy vayfxrjs 

89 Trap" vprhv KaXXlas XaXtei8evs, puiKpov 81a- 
Xnrajv \povov irdXtv rjKe (f>epop,evos els ttjv 
eavrov ibvaiv, Evfioiteov p,ev to> Xoyep o~uve8piov 
els XaX/el8a crvvdywv, la^vpdv 8e ttjv Evfioiav 
e'i£' vpbds epyep tearacrteevd^oov, 2 e^aiperov 6° avra) 
TVpnvviha 7Tepi7rotoo/xevos. tedvTaiOa eXiri^wv 
a way ounai i]V QiXnnrov Xijyfreadai, dir>jX6ev 
els Ma/ceSovlav icai Trepcrjet /j,erd QiX'nnrov, 

90 /cal reav eraipwv els oovopd^ero. dSi/ctjaas 8e 
QCXlttitov ted/eeWev dirohpas, vire/3aXev eavrov 
(peptov ®7]j3atois. fearaXnrcov 3 8e te itceivovs, koX 
TtXeiovs rpairopevos rpoirds rod Evplirov, Trap" ov 
wteei, els peaov nriirreL ri)s re S>//3aLO)v eyBpas real 
ttjs QiXcttttov. drropcov 8' 6 Tt -^prjaano aVTW, 
teal irapayyeXXopevr)s eV avrbv i']8r) arparelas, 4 
piav eXiriba Xoitt7]v KaTel8e acoT^plas, evopieov 
XafBelv top Adrjvaicov 8i)pov, avppa^ov bvo- 
pbaaOevra, ($ot}Qi)o~eiv, ei tis eV avrbv tor o 
7rp68rfXov i)V iabpevov, el prj vp.e?s KcoXvaere. 

91 Tavra 8iavot]6els, diroareXXei 8evpo irpeal3eis 
YXavKeTrjv teal Kpb7Te8'>iva teal Aib8o)pov rbv 
80X1^08 pop,>; cram a, (pepovras tc5 p,ev 8rjp,o) teevds 

1 ava|i'oi>s Weidner : eavrov aval-lovs or ava£lovs avroxi MSS. 

2 KaraarKeva^vv Blass : irapa.<TK£va(,(i.<v MSS. 
s KaraXncuiv Franke : iyKaraKmiiP MSS. 

4 (TTpardas Stephanus : ffrparias MSS. 

378 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 88-91 

disaster. For it is not ill fortune in war that is 
the greatest calamity, but when one hazards success 
against unworthy foes and then fails, the misfortune 
is naturally twofold. 

But yet, even after such treatment as that, you 
became reconciled to them again ; and Callias of 
Chalcis. obtaining pardon from you, soon made haste 
to return to his natural disposition, and tried osten- 
sibly to assemble a Euboean congress at Chalcis, but 
in fact to strengthen Euboea thoroughly against you, 
and to win the position of tyrant as his own personal 
reward. Then, hoping to get Philip's help, he went 
to Macedonia, and travelled about with him, and was 
named a "comrade." 1 But having wronged Philip 
and run away from thence, he made haste to throw 
himself at the feet of the Thebans. Then abandoning: 
them also, and making more twists and turns than 
the Euripus, by whose shores he used to live, he falls 
between the hatred of the Thebans and of Philip. 
At his wits' end what to do, when an expedition 
had already been called out against him, he saw one 
gleam of hope for safety left — to get the Athenian 
people solemnly bound, under the name of allies, to 
aid him if any one should attack, a thing that was 
sure to happen unless you should prevent it. 

With this plan in view Callias sent ambassadors 
hither, 2 Glaucetes, Empedon, and Diodorus the long- 
distance runner, who brought to the people empty 

1 The " comrades " fETaipoi), a body of Macedonian nobles, 
were the cavalry guards, the king's corps. 

2 This was in 342 B.C. 

379 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eXTrlBas, Arj/xoadevet o° dpyvpiov kcli tois irepl 
tovtov. rpia o° rjv a d/xa e^ecovecTO, irpcoTov p.ev 
fir] Biaacpa\r)vai t?}? 7rpo9 v/xd<i a v fi/jLa^ia^' uvdev 
yap r)v to fieaov, el pLi'ijaOeli tcov trpoTepcov 
ahiKi]fxu.T(oi> 6 Br)p,o<; p.i] TrpoaBe^aiTO ttjv avfj,- 
p,a~yiav, aAA' virr/p^ev avTco ?} cpevyeiv e/c Xa\/a- 
Boi, rj TeOvdvcu eyicaTa\>](f)6evTi' TrfkiieavTai 
hvvdfieis eV avrov eirecrrpdrevov, rj re ^lXlttttov 
koX %iif3aiwv. Beinepov 8' y\kov ol fiicrdol tw 
ypd^ovTi l tt]V o-vp.p.ayiav virtp tov p.r\ avve- 
Bpeveiv 'AOijvr/ai Xa\tciBea<;, TpiTOV Be 6>o~re fitf 

92 Te\elv avvTafjeis. /cat tovtcov tcov Trpoaipeaecov 
ovBep,id<; dtreTvye Ka\Xia<?, uX\! 6 fxiaoTvpavvot 
Aiip.oo~devi]<;, ft)? auTO? irpoaTroielrai, ov <f)>)aL 
K.Trjoi<f)cov ra /3e\rio-Ta \eyeiv, inrehoro p,ev toi><> 
Kaipou<; toj)? tt}? iroXecos, eypa\Jse 5' ev rfj crv/u.- 
pa^ia /3or)6eiv r)p,a<; XaX/ciBevcri, prjpa povov 
dvTi^aTaWa^dpevn^ dim, tovtcov, ev(pr)pta<; eveica 
7rpoo~ypd\lra<i " Kat XaA,/aSea? /3orj9eiv, edv Ti? ty 

93 eir ' AOrjvalovs'' 1 '' tcls Be crvveBptwi ical t<z? avvTa- 
%eis, e£ cov layyaeiv 6 iroXepos epeWev, apBrjv 
direBoTO, KaWiaTois ovopacriv ala^Lcrra^ jrpd^eis 
ypdcpcov, koX too \oyco Trpoaj3t^d^cov Vfias, Ta? 
pev f3oi]0tria<; &)? Bet Tr/v ttoXiv TrpoTepov TroieicrOai 
toii del Beopevois tcov 'KX\7]Vcov, tcis Be avpp.a- 
%i'a? vo~Tepas fieTci Ta? evepyeaias. 'iva 6° ev 

1 ypd^/ovrt Scheibe : ypa^avTi MSS. 

1 Had the Euboeans come back into the naval alliance (see 
§ 69, n ), they would have been on the same footing with 
the other states that were subordinate to Athens, and would 
have had to pay their share of the war-fund of the Athenian 

380 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 91-93 

hopes, but silver to Demosthenes and his following. 
And he was buying three things at once : first, to be 
assured of your alliance, for he had no alternative if 
the people, remembering his past crimes, should refuse 
the alliance, since one of two things was sure, that 
he would be banished from Chalcis, or be caught and 
put to death— such were the forces that were moving 
against him, the combined power of Philip and the 
Thebans ; and the second service for which the pay 
came to the man who was to move the alliance, was 
to provide that the Chalcidians should not sit in the 
synod at Athens; 1 and the third was that they should 
pay no contributions to the league. Now in not one 
of these plans did Callias fail ; and Demosthenes, the 
tyrant-hater, as he pretends to be, who, Ctesiphon 
says, "speaks what is best," 2 bartered away the 
opportunities of the city, and in his motion for the 
alliance provided that we were to aid the Chalcidians, 
stipulating in return for this a mere phrase ; for he 
added, to make it sound well, "The Chalcidians on 
their part are to bring aid if any one shall come 
against Athens" ; but the membership in the synod 
and the contributions of money, the sources of 
strength for the coming war, he sold completely, in 
fairest words proposing most shameful deeds, and 
leading you on by his talk, telling how our city must 
first furnish aid to any Greeks who might need it 
from time to time, but provide for their alliance 
afterward, after giving them aid. But that you may 

league. As it was, they came into a special alliance with 
Athens herself, and as her equals. 

* See Ctesiphon's motion for the crowning of Demosthenes, 
quoted in § 49. 

38l 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

elBrjTe on a\r)9i] Xeyco, Xa/3e fioi rrjv KaAAiar 
ypacfrelaav 1 av/xfiaj^iav. avdyveodi to ^fn](pi,a/j,a. 

¥H*I2MA 

94 QvTTCD To'lVVV ToOt' €0~tI hetVOV, €i KCtipOL TtjXt- 

zcovroi 7T€7rpafMevoi rvyydvovcjiv zeal avvehpiai zeal 
avvrd^eis, dXXa 7roXv tovtov heivorepov (pavrj- 
ererai b p,eXXa> Xeyetv. et? yap rovro 7rpoi]- 
ydt) KaXXta? pcev* v^peca zeal -TrXeovefyas, A77- 
pboaOevr]^ he, bv iiraivel K.T7]cri<pa)P, hcopohofcias, 
ware ra? e'f 'Qpeov avvrd^ei^ zeal Ta? e£ 'Epe- 
rplas, ra hezea rdXavra, ^covtcov (ppovovvTcov 
j3\eTr6vTodv eXaOov vpicov vcpeXopbevoi, zeal tou? e'/c 
twv TToXewv tovtwv avvehpovs Trap' vpLcov p,ev 
dvearrjaav, irdXiv he els XaXzciha zeal to zcaXov- 
puevov Kvj3oizcbv auvehpiov avv-qyayov. ov he rpo- 
irov zeal Si oiwv zcazcovpyr)p,aTcov, raur' i'jhr] 
d^iov eanv dzcovaai. 

95 ' Acpizcveirai yap 7rpo? i/puds ovzeen hi dyyeXcov, 
d\X , avTOS 6 KaAAia?, zeal irapeXOoov tY<? rr^v ezc- 
zcXrjo-iav Xoyovs hie£r)Xde zeaT€azcevaap,evov<; inrb 
Atipiocrdevovs. elire yap a><? ij/coi ezc UeXoTrovv)]- 
aov veeoarl avvrayp,a avvrd^as els ezcarbv raX- 
dvrwv irpoaohov €7rl QiXittitoi', zeal hieXoyl^ero 
oaov ezedarovs ehei avvreXeiv, 'A^afou? pbev irdv- 
ras zeal Meyapea? e^zeovra rdXavra, Ta<? 6" ev 

96 Eu/3ota 7?o\et9 dirdaas rerTapdzcovra' ezc he tov- 
tcov tcov ^ptipbdrcov virdp^eiv zeal vauTizcr/v zeal 
irefyv hvvapbiv elvai he iroXXovs zeal aXXovs tcov 



1 KaWla ypaQtiaav Blass : KaWiov ypatyfy Ka\ ri]v MSS. 

2 Ka\\b fiiv Hamaker : KaWias /xtv b Xa\Kidti>s MSS. 



382 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 93-96 

be sure that I am speaking the truth, please take 
the motion for the alliance proposed for the benefit 
of Callias. Read the resolution. 

RESOLUTION 

But this was only the beginning of outrage — this 
actual selling of such opportunities and accessions 
to the league and contributions of money ; for that 
which I am about to relate was far worse, as you 
shall see. For Callias was led on to such a pitch 
of insolence and arrogance, and Demosthenes — 
whom Ctesiphon praises — to such a pitch of rapacity 
for bribes, that, while you still had life and sight 
and senses, they succeeded in stealing away from 
you the contributions of Oreus and Eretria, ten 
talents in all, and they detached from you the de- 
legates from those cities, and carried them back to 
Chalcis, uniting them in the so-called Euboean Con- 
gress. But how they did it and by what crimes, it is 
high time for you to hear. 

Callias, depending no longer on messengers, came 
himself to you, 1 and coming forward in your assembly 
repeated a speech that Demosthenes had prepared 
for him. He said that he had just come from the 
Peloponnesus, and that he had made arrangements 
for contributions which would yield a revenue of not 
less than one hundred talents for use against Philip ; 
and he counted off what each state was to pay : the 
united Achaeans and the Megarians sixty talents, 
and the united cities in Euboea, forty. From this 
fund he said we could be sure of forces by land and 
sea, adding that there were many other Greeks who 

1 Iu the spring of 340 B.o. 

383 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'EWijvwv ov<{ /3ov\ea0cu KOivavelv rrj<i avvrd- 
%e(o<;, toare ovre ^prjfxaToyv oine arpariwroyv 
diropiav ecreadai. /ecu tclvtcl fxev ra (fravepd- 
e(pT] Be Kal irpd^eis Trpdrrecv eTipas BS airopprj- 
tcov, Kal tovtcov elvai riva<i p,dpTvpas twv rjp,eTe- 
pcov ttoXitwv, Kal reXevrcov ovopuacrTi irapeKaXei 
At] pLoaOevrjv Kal avvenrelv r)!;iov. 
97 'O Be aep,vm irdvv irapeXdoov, tov tc KaX- 
\lav vTrepeTrrjvei, to re diropp^Tov irpoaeiroiri- 
o-aro elBevar ttjv S' e« UeXoTrowrja-ov irpeafieiav 
r)v e-Trpeo-fievae, Kal ttjV e'£ ' kKapvavias e<j>r] 
J3ov\eadai vplv d-nayyelXai. rjv B' avrw K€- 
cpdXaiov tmv \6ycov, irdvTas p-ev UeXoirov- 
vrjaLow; virdp^e'-v, Trdvjas S' 'AKapvdvas avv-re- 
raypiivovi ejrl <&L\nnrov £<£' eavTOV, elvai Be to 
crvvTaypia ^prjp.aTwv p,ev ei? eKarov vecov Ta- 
yvvavTovo-oiv 7r\r]pd>p.aTa Kal ei<? ire^ov<; aTpa- 

98 Ttcora? pLvptow; Kal t7T7rea? %t\fcof9, virdp^eiv Be 
7rpo? tovtols Kal Taq 7ro\iTtKa<; Bvvdfiecs, ex 
Tle\oTrovvT]o-ov pev irXeov r) Bia^iXiovi 07r\iTa?, 
e'£ ' ' AKapvavLas Be eTepovs ToaovTovs- BeBoadat Be 
dirdvTwv tovtcov ti)v i)yep,oviav vpuv Trpa^dijae- 
o~Qai Be TavTa ovk et? p-aKpdv, aXV et? ttjv €ktt)v 
eVl BeKa tov 'Av9ecrT7]piu)vo<; pLt]vo<i- elprjcrOat yap 
ev rats iroXeaiv £</>' a'vTOV Kal iraprjyyeXOai 
trdvTas rjKeiv avveBpevcrovTa<; 'ABijva^e eh ttjv 
TravaeXrjvov. Kal yap tovto avOpwrros x iBiov 

99 Kal oil kolvov Troiei. ol p,ev yap dXXoi a\a- 
^oves, orav tl yjrevBoyvTai, dopicna Kai acracprj 
Treipwi'Tai \eyeiv, <poj3ovp,evoL tov eXeyxov Atj- 
p,oa6ev)^ B' OTav dXa^oi'evrjTai., irpwTOV p,ev pue6 

1 avQponros Markland : &vdpwiros or avOpwiraiv MSS. 

384 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 96-99 

wished to share in contributing, so that there would 
be no lack of money or men. So much was openly 
told ; but he said that he had also conducted other 
negotiations in secret, and that certain of our citi- 
zens were witnesses of them ; finally he called on 
Demosthenes by name and bade him confirm his 
statements. 

Demosthenes came forward with a most solemn 
air, praised Callias above measure, and pretended 
to know the secret business ; but he said that he 
wished to report to you his own recent mission to 
the Peloponnesus and Acarnania. The sum of what 
he said was that all Peloponnesus could be counted 
on, and that he had brought all the Acarnanians into 
line against Philip ; that the contributions of money 
were sufficient to provide for the manning of one 
hundred swift ships, and to employ ten thousand foot 
soldiers and a thousand cavalry ; and that in addition 
to these forces the citizen troops would be ready, 
from the Peloponnesus more than two thousand 
hoplites, and as many more from Acarnania ; that 
the leadership of them all was given to you, and 
that all this was going to be done, not after a long 
interval, but by the 16th of Anthesterion ; 1 for he 
himself had given notice in the cities, and invited 
all the delegates to come to Athens by the time of 
the full moon to take part in a congress. 2 For this 
is Demosthenes' personal and peculiar way of doing 
things : other deceivers, when they are lying, try 
to speak in vague and ambiguous terms, afraid of 
being convicted ; but Demosthenes, when he is 
cheating you, first adds an oath to his lie, calling 

1 March 9, 340 B.C. 

2 Not the congress of the old maritime league, but of the 
new confederation now being formed against Macedonia. 

385 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

opKov -tyevherai, egwXeiav enapdopievos eavrop, Bev- 
repov Be, a ev olBev ovSiirore eaopbeva, roXpa 
Xeyeiv els brrbr earai, kclI cov ra acop,ara oi>x 
ecopa/ce, rovrayv ra ovbpara Xeyet, fcXeTrrcov rrjv 
d/cpoaaiv real pap^ovpLevos robs rdXi)6i) Xeyovras. 
Bib /ecu acpbBpa agios eari p,iaela0ai, ore 7rovr)pbs 
cov kcu ra rcov xprjarcov crrjpLela Bia$9eipei. 

100 Tavra S' elrrcov BlBcocnv dvayvo)vai ■fyi'ifyiapba 
rep ypap,p,arel puaicpbrepov puev rP]s 'lXidBos, icevo- 
repov Be rcov Xoycov ovs elcode Xeyeiv, real rov fiiov 
bv fiefiiooKe, piecrrbv B" eXirihcov ovk iaop,evcov teal 
arparoTrehcov ovBe7rore avXXeyrjcropievcov. aira- 
yaycov B' vpias drrcoOev airb rov /cXep,piaros /cal 
dvaKpepidaas arrb rcov eXrrlBwv, evravO' i]Br) av- 
arpe-^ras ypdcpei, 1 eXeadai Trpecrfteis els 'JLperpiav, 
olrives Beijaovrai rcov 'Eperpiecov, rrdvv yap ehet 
Bet]6f]vai, pnpeen BiBbvai rrjv avvragiv vp.lv, ra 
irevre rdXavra, dXXa KaXXia, koX rrdXiv erepovs 2 
els 'floeoz/, 3 oirives Beijaovrai rov avrbv 'A07]vai- 

101 ois koX fy'iXov tcai exOpbv vop.i^eiv. 4, eireira dva- 
<\>alverai rrap diravr cov 6 ev rw y\rT]$Lo-p,ari irpbs 
rco KXep-piari, ypdyjras koX ra irevre rdXavra robs 
Trpeafteis dgiovv robs "Tlpelras p-r] vpJlv,* dXXd 
KaXXia, BiBovai. on S' dXr]dr] Xeyco, d(f>eXcov rov 
Kopurov Ka\ ras rpirjpeis fcal rrjv dXa&veiav dvd- 

1 ypatpci Franke : after ypdepet the MSS. have ntXevwv or 
kcl\ KtXevei. 

2 kripovs Franke : after ertpovs the MSS. have aip^atrai or 

alpuffdai. 

3 'npeoi/ Franke : '{Ipebv irpbs robs 'Clpelras irptafieis MSS. 

4 vofii(eiy Taylor : vofjii&iv thai MSS. 

386 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 99-101 

down destruction on himself; and secondly, pre- 
dicting an event that he knows will never happen, 
he dares to tell the date of it ; and he tells the names 
of men, when he has never so much as seen their 
faces, deceiving your ears and imitating men who tell 
the truth. And this is, indeed, another reason why 
he richly deserves your hatred, that he is not only a 
scoundrel himself, but destroys your faith even in 
the signs and symbols of honesty. 

But now when he had said this, he gave the clerk 
a resolution to read, longer than the Iliad, but more 
empty than the speeches that he is accustomed to 
deliver and the life that he has lived. Empty did 
I say ? Nay, full — of hopes that were not to be 
realised and of armies that were never to be as- 
sembled. And leading you off out of sight of his 
fraud, and suspending you on hopes, at last he gathers 
all up in a motion that you choose ambassadors to go 
to Eretria and beg the Eretrians — of course it was 
necessary to beg ! — no longer to pay their contribu- 
tion of five talents to you, 1 but to Callias ; and fur- 
ther, that you choose other ambassadors to go to 
Oreus to beg the people of that city to make com- 
mon cause with the Athenians. Here again, in this 
resolution, you see how entirely absorbed he is in his 
thievery, for he also moves that your ambassadors ask 
the people of Oreus to give their five talents, not to 
you, but to Callias. But to prove that I am speaking 
the truth, read — leave out the grandiloquence and 

1 The contribution that they had formerly paid as members 
of the maritime league ; but it was now some years since 
they had thus contributed. 



5 -nap' airavr' Siv Blass : Ttepl atravTaiv or irepl iravToov MSS. 

6 6fuv Blass (Aldus) : ruxlv MSS. 



387 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yvco6r tov /cXep-paTO? 1 ayfrai, b vfyeiXeTO o puapos 
/cal dvoaios dv6punro<$, bv <$>r\o~i K-Tijaupodv ev Tw8e 
t5 yp-rjiplcrpaTt, SiareXelv XeyovTa icai irpdrTOvra 

ra apiara T<M BlJJMp TU> 2 'AOrjVaLCOV. 

VH*I2MA 

102 Ovfcovi' Ta? p,ev Tpt7)pet,<i teal ttjv Tre^rjv arpa- 
Tidv /cal ti)v TravcreXrjvov /cal rou? crweBpovs 
Xoyw rjKovcrare, ra<i 8e avvrd^€i<; rcov avppdywv, 
to, 8e/ca rdXavra, epycp aTrcoXeaare. 

103 'TtroKoiirov S' eliTelv iari pot,, on Xaftwv rpta 
TaXavra pnaOov ttjv yvoopnpj ravrrjv eypayfre 
Ai]p,ocr8evr}s, raXavTOv pev e/c X.aX/ci8o<; Trapd 
KaXXlov, rdXavTov £' e£ 'EpeT/sia? Trapd KXeiT- 
dpyov tov rvpdvvou, rdXavrov 8e e'£ Qpeov, St' o 
/cal /caracfiavr)*; iyevero, 8r)p,o/cpaTovp,eva>v twv 
'VLpenwv koX irdvra Trparrovrcov puerd ■tyrjcpi- 
&p,aTOS. e^avrfXwpevot yap ev tS> iroXepco /cal 
TravTeXa><; diropw^ 8iaiceipevoi, TrepTrovcri Trpus 
avrbv rvuxTihripov tov Xapiyivovs vibv tov 8vva- 
GTevcravTOS ttotg ev 'fipe&>, 8e)]aop,evov to puev 
TaXavTov dcpelvai ttj woXei, errayyeXovpevov 3 8' 

104 avT(p ^aX/crpj eiKova o~Ta07Jcrea0ai ev 'flpew. 6 

8e aTre/cpivaTO tu> Tva)o-i8/]p.<p, otl eXdyiaTa 

yaX/cov BeoiTO,* to 8e TaXavTov 8ia tov KaXXiov 

elaeirpaTTev. dvay/ca^bpevoi 8e ol 'QpetTat /cal 

ov/c ev7ropovvTe<;, vireOeaav aviS> tov TaXavTov 

Ta? 8r//x.ocrta9 7rpocr68ov<i ) /cal tokov i]vey/cav 

Arjpoo-0ev€L tov 8copo8o/cj]p,aTO<i 8pa%pr)v tov 

1 tov K\4fj./j.aTos : the MSS. have ko.1 tov KAe/xnaros or ko\ 
airb tov K\e/j.fj.a.Tos. 
* 5r)ntf> t£ Weidner : Stj^ tS>v MSS. 

388 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 101-104 

the triremes and the pretence, and come to the trick 
worked on us by the vile and wicked man, who, 
according to Ctesiphon's motion which we are dis- 
cussing, "constantly speaks and does what is best 
for the people of Athens." 

RESOLUTION 

So then the triremes and the land forces and the 
full moon and the congress were so much talk for 
your ears, but the contributions of the allies, those 
ten talents, were very real, and you lost them. 

It remains for me to say that Demosthenes was 
paid three talents for making this motion : a talent 
from Chalcis, paid over by Callias, a talent from 
Eretria, paid by the tyrant Cleitarchus, and a talent 
from Oreus. And it was this last by means of which 
he was found out ; for the government of Oreus is a 
democracy, and everything is done there by popular 
vote. Now they, exhausted by the war and entirely 
without means, sent to him Gnosidemus, son of 
Charigenes, a man who had once been powerful in 
Oreus, to ask him to release the city from paying the 
talent, and to offer him a statue of bronze to be set 
up in Oreus. But he replied to Gnosidemus that the 
last thing that he was in need of was bronze, and he 
tried to collect the talent through Callias. Now the 
people of Oreus, pressed for payment and without 
means, mortgaged to him the public revenues as 
security for the talent, and paid Demosthenes interest 
on the fruit of his bribery at the rate of a drachma 



* eirayyeAovixevov Stephanus : irrayyeWSfievov MSS. 
4 f'Aax'ffTa x a ^ K0 " Se'otro Halm : iKaxlvrou x a ^ K °v oi/Seu 
Uono MSS. 

389 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

105 firjvos rPj'i p,va<i, ecos to tcecpdXaiov direhoaav. teal 
TavT inrpd'^O')] fierd yjn]cp[crpLaTos rov Stj/xov. oti 
8e aXridi) Xeyco, Xaf3e fiot to y}ri)(fiio-p.a tcov 
'QpecTcov. 

YH*I2MA 

Tout' eo-Tt to yjrr]cpLCTp,a, to av&pes AOrjvaloi, 
altryyvr) p,ev tt}<? 7r6Xeco<i, e\ey%o<; 8e ov fii/cpos 
tcov Arj/uboadevovi iroXiTev piaTcov , cpavepd &e Karrj- 
yopia KrT](Ti(f)(bvTO<;' tov yap ovTtos ala^pcos 
ScopoSo/covvra ovtc earcv dvhpa yeyovevai ayadov, 
o x Ter6\p,rjKev ovtos ypdyp-ai. 2 

106 'Ei/t<zO#' //S77 reraKrat teal 6 rpiro^ tcov tcaipcov, 
p,dXXov 8' 6 irdvTCOv iritcpoTaTos %povo<;, iv to Ar/- 
p,oo-9evr}<i dircoXecre ra<; tcov 'EXXijvcov teal Trj<; 
iroXecos irpd^e^, dcre/3rjaa<; fiev eh to lepov to iv 
AeXcpoh, aSitcov Be teal ovBap.co'i lar/v ttjv 717)09 
®>;/3atof9 o-vp.p,a\iav ypd\jra<;. dp^op,ai Be dirb 
tcov eh tol/9 deovs 7r\r)/j,p:e\t]fxaTcov 3 Xeyeiv. 

107 "EcrTt yap, to avBpes 'AOrjvalot, to Kippalov 
covop.aap.evov ireBiov teal Xipurjv o vvv i^dyto-Tos 
teal eirdpaTos tovop.aap,evo<i. TavTTjv irore Tt]v 
ydipav KaTcptcrjcrav Ktopeuoi teal KpayaXiBai, yevt] 
it apavopucoTaTa, o'l eh to lepov to iv AeXtpoh teal 
irepl to. dvaOtjfjbaTa r/criftovv, i^rj/xapTavov Be teal 
eh tov<; ' Ap,cpLKTVova<;. dyavatCTijcravTes §' eVt 
to?9 ytyvo pivots p,d\icrTa p.ev, a>9 XeyovTai, 01 
trpoyovoi oi vpueTepoi, eireiTa teat 01 ctXXoi Ap,tpi- 
KTvoves, p,avTeiav ip.avTevcravTO irapa tco Oeco, tLvi 

1 % Stephanus : a MSS. 

2 ypd^ai Weidner : the MSS. have iv rtp ip-ncplcrfiari before 
or after ypdtyai. 

39° 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 104-107 

per month on the mina, 1 until they paid off the 
principal. This was done by vote of the people. To 
prove that what I am telling you is true, please take 
the decree of the people of Oreus. 

DECREE 

This is the decree, fellow citizens, a disgrace to 
our city, no slight exposure of Demosthenes' policies, 
and a clear accusation against Ctesiphon as well. 
For the man who so shamelessly received bribes 
cannot have been the good man that Ctesiphon has 
dared to set forth. 

I come now to the third period, or rather to that 
bitterest period of all, in which Demosthenes brought 
ruin upon our state and upon all Hellas by his 
impiety toward the shrine at Delphi, and by moving 
the alliance with Thebes — an unjust alliance and 
utterly unequal. But I will begin with his sins 
against the the gods. 

There is, fellow citizens, a plain, called the plain of 
Cirrha, and a harbour, now known as " dedicate and 
accursed." This district was once inhabited by the 
Cirrhaeans and the Cragalidae, most lawless tribes, who 
repeatedly committed saci-ilege against the shrine at 
Delphi and the votive offerings there, and who trans- 
gressed against the Amphictyons also. This conduct 
exasperated all the Amphictyons, and your ancestors 
most of all, it is said, and they sought at the shrine 
of the god an oracle to tell them with what penalty 

1 Twelve per cent, a year, an ordinary rate of interest. 



3 7rA(//i/xeAT) / uaTtoi' Weidner : aVTOv irAriiu.fj.iKrifj.d.Tcoi' or ir\rj/i- 
fueArjixaTiov avrov MSS. 

391 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Xpt] TifAoopia toi>9 di>dpco7rov<i tovtov; fxereXOelv. 

108 Kal avrol<i dvaipel r) Wvdia iroXepelv K.ippaioi$ 
Kal K payaXihaa ttclvt iipLaTa Kal nrdaas vvKTas, 
Kal jrjv yjtipav avrwv eKTropdijcravTas Kal avTovs 
dvhpairohi(TapLei>ov<s dvaOeivai t&> 'AiraWtovc rw 
UvOiG) /cal rfi 'ApTepiSt, Kal ttj 1 Arjrol Kal > A6rivd 
Ylpovaia 2 ein irdar) depyla, Kal ravTijv ttjv 
ywpav pt)T avrov<; ipyd^eadat p,r]T ciWov eav. 

Aa/36vTe<; Be tov %prjo~pbv tovtov ol 'A/x^)i- 
KTVOves iyln](f)L<javTO X6\.a>vo<; eiirovros * A£ip>alov 
tiiv yv(bp,r}i>, dvBpbs Kal vop,odeTT]o~ai Svvarov Kal 
irepi 7tol7)(ti,v Kai (j)c\oaocf)iav BiareTpHpoTos, eVt- 
arpareveiv eirl tovs evayels Kara ttjv pavrelav 

109 tov aeov' Kal o~vva6 poicravTes hvvapiv iroWrjV twv 

A/j,<fiiKTVov(i)v, e^rp>8pa7ro8laavro rovs dvOpoonrovs 
Kac tov \ip,eva Kai ttjv iro\iv avroov KareaKa^av 
Kac ttjv ya>pav 3 KaOiepcoaav Kara ttjv pcavTeiav. 
Kai e7rt tovtol<; bpKOv cofioaav Irrvypov, prjr 
avTol ttjv lepdv yf]v epydaeaOai pi'iT aWcp 
eiriTpe^eiv, aXXa (BorjOrjaeiv tw dew Kal ttj yrj ttj 
lepa Kal %eipl Kal irohl Kal (fxovfj 4 Kal Trdarj 

110 hvvdp,ei. Kal ovk dire^pTjo-ev avrols tovtov tov 
bpKOv opocrai, dWa Kal irpoaTpoiripj Kal dpdv 
to-%vpav vTrep tovtcov eirou'io-avTO. yeypaiTTai 
yap oi/TW? ev ttj dpa, "Et Tt9 T«Se," <f)T)crL, "jrapa- 

paiVOi Tj TTOAIS T) COIGOTI] 1 ? 7) et7»'09, €Vayi]<i, (prjO'LV, 

" ecrTU) tov ' ' AiroWwvos Kal rry? ' ApTepuhos Kal 

1 ttj added by Herwerden. 

2 ripovaia Bekker : Upovola MSS. So in §§ 110 and 111. 
5 x^P a " Markland : x<^P av a-vriiiv MSS. 

4 k<x\ <poovr\ added by Baiter and Sauppe. cp. § 120 and ii. 

115. 
392 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 107-110 

they should visit these men. The Pythia replied 
that they must fight against the Cirrhaeans and the 
Cragalidae day and night, utterly ravage their country, 
enslave the inhabitants, and dedicate the land to the 
Pythian Apollo and Artemis and Leto and Athena 
Pronaea, 1 that for the future it lie entirely unculti- 
vated ; that they must not till this land themselves 
nor permit another. 

Now when they had received this oracle, the 
Amphictyons voted, on motion of Solon of Athens, 
a man able as a law-giver and versed in poetry 
and philosophy, to march against the accursed men 
according to the oracle of the god. Collecting a great 
force of the Amphictyons, they enslaved the men, 
destroyed their harbour and city, and dedicated their 
land, as the oracle had commanded. Moreover they 
swore a mighty oath, that they would not themselves 
till the sacred land nor let another till it, but that 
they would go to the aid of the god and the sacred 
land with hand and foot and voice, and all their might. 
They were not content with taking this oath, but 
they added an imprecation and a mighty curse con- 
cerning this ; for it stands thus written in the curse : 
" If any one should violate this," it says, " whether 
city or private man, or tribe, let them be under the 
curse," it says, "of Apollo and Artemis and Leto and 

1 The MSS. read Tlpovoia, "Goddess of Forethought." But 
undoubtedly the form in the ancient oracle was Tlpovafo, a 
name peculiar to the Athena of Delphi, and arising from 
the fact that there she was the Athena of the " Fore- 
temple " (irpo-vaos), for her temple lay in front of that of 
Apollo. 

O 393 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 



111 tt}? 1 ArjTOiis Kal Wdrjvas Tlpovaias" 2 Kal 
iirevverat avrols ixiWe ynv Kapirovs cfyepeiv, p,i]re 
yvvaircas re/cva n/creiv yovevatv eoiKora, ax\a 
repara, p,r)re (3oaK?]p,ctTa Kara cfrvcriv yovdi 
iroieiaOai, rjrrav he avTols elvai iro\ep,ov Kal 
8iku)V Kal dyopas, Kal e^coXet? elvai Kal avrovs 
Kal ot/aa? Kal yevo<; eKeivwv. " Kal p.^trore, 
(f)i]cri,v, " 6aL(o<; dvaeiav tw 'ArroXXayvi fxrjSe rfj 
'AprepuSi yu^Se rfj Arjroi /x??S' 'AO^va Ylpovaia, 

112 ixrjhe. he^aivro avrols rd lepd." on S' a\i]drj Xeyw, 
dvdyvw6i rrjv rod Oeov p.avreiav. aKOvaare rf]<i 
apa<;. dvap,vi](T0T]re rcov opKcov, 0&9 vp,6)v 01 
irpoyovoi puerd rwv ' Ap,$LKrv6va>v avvoop.oaav. 



MANTEIA 



[Ov irplv rrjoSe 7ro\?/o? epei^ere irvpyov 

eXovres, 
irplv ye Oeov rep.evei Kvavaiiuhos ApL(pLrpbT7]<; 
Kvp.aTTOTiK\v£r] Ke\a8ovv lepalcnv eV «ktcu9.] 



OPKOI. APA 



113 TavTr)<; ttjs apas Kal twv opKWV Kal tt}9 p-av- 
Teias avayeypap,p,evo)v en Kal vvv, 01 AoKpoi 01 
J Ap,(f)to-(r€i<i, p,dXXov 8e ol 7rpoeaTTjK6re<; avrwv, 
avSpes 7rapavop,(OTaToi, hrqpyd^ovro to ttcolov, 
Kal rbv Xipueva rov e^dyiarov Kal eirdparov irdXiv 
ireiyio-av Kal avvwKtaav, Kal reXi) tou? Kara- 
Tfkeovras e^eXeyov, Kal rtov d(piKvovp.evcov ek 
AeXcfiovs irvXayopcov iviov? xP 1 'lt xao ~ L hte<pOecpov, 

114 oiv eh r/v Arjp,ocr0evi]<;. %et/30T0^/?^ei? ydp £</>' 



1 TTjs added by Herwerden. 

2 For npovaias and Ylpovaia below, see on § 108. 



394 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 110-114 

Athena Pronaea." The curse goes on : That their 
land bear no fruit ; that their wives bear children 
not like those who begat them, but monsters ; that 
their flocks yield not their natural increase ; that de- 
feat await them in camp and court and market-place, 
and that they perish utterly, themselves, their houses, 
their whole race ; " And never," it says, " may they 
offer pure sacrifice unto Apollo, nor to Artemis, nor 
to Leto, nor to Athena Pronaea, and may the gods 
refuse to accept their offerings." As a proof of this, 
let the oracle of the god be read ; hear the curse ; 
call to mind the oaths that your fathers swore 
together with all the other Amphictyons. 

THE ORACLE 

[Ye may not hope to capture town nor tower, 
Till dark-eyed Amphitrite's waves shall break 
And roar against Apollo's sacred shore. 1 ] 

THE OATHS. THE CURSE 

This curse, these oaths, and this oracle stand 
recorded to this day ; yet the Locrians of Amphissa, 
or rather their leaders, most lawless of men, did 
till the plain, and they rebuilt the walls of the 
harbour that was dedicate and accursed, and settled 
there and collected port-dues from those who sailed 
into the harbour ; and of the deputies 2 who came 
to Delphi they corrupted some with money, one of 
whom was Demosthenes. For after he had been 

1 The oracle given in the MSS. is evidently not the one 
that Aeschines cited. Some ancient editor has inserted it, 
finding it in Pausanias' account of these events (Pausan. 
x. xxxvii. 6). 2 See on § 115 

395 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vfxoiv irvXayopos, \ap,/3dvei (W^tAia? opa~)^fia<; 
irapa twv A/xepcaaecov, tov p.r]8e/iitav /xveiav 
irepl avrcov £v rots ' 'A/jlcjuktvoo-i TrotelaOai. Sico- 
fMo\oyi]6rj 8 avru) zeal et? tov Xonrbv *%pbvov 
airocrTeXXeaOai 'AOrfva^e tov eviaurov e/edcrTOV 
[Ava<; €lko(tii> e/e rcov e^ayuaTCOv zeal lirapdrMv 
yptfj/naTeov, iff)' wtg fiorjOrjaei, Tot? ' A^iaaevcnv 
^A6i']vr)cn Kara irdvja Tpbirov o6ev en fidXXov 
rj irpb-repov av/x/3e^r)zcev avrw, otov dv Trpoadijrr]- 
tcu, rj dvSpbs 1 ihidiTov rj hvvdarov rj 7r6\eco<; 
Silp.ozepaTovfievr]?, rovrmv e/edo-TOv<i di'iaToi<; aufi- 
(foopais 7r€pt/3iiX\€iv. 

115 ^/ee-tyacrOe hrj tov 8a.ip.ova zeal rr)v Tv^rjv, 
ba(p irepieyeveTo t?}? tmv 'A/zducrcrecoy dae/3ela<;. 
eVl yap Seocppdarov dp)(ovTO<;, iepo{iv/]piovo<; 0W0? 
Aioyv7jTov ' Ava<p\vo~Tiov, 7rv\ayopov<; v/neis e'i- 
\ea6e yiei8iav re ezeetvov rbv ^Avayvpdatov, bv 
£(3ovXbp,rjv dv ttoWcov evezea %r)v, zeal ®paavzc\ea 
rbv e% Ol'ou, zeal Tp'nov fieTa tovtcov ejxe. avvej3r] 
S' r)iuv dpTicos p.ev et? Ae\(pov<; dtyiyOcu, irapa- 
Xpr/fia 8e tov lepop,v>]fAova AibyvrjTOv irvpeTTeiv 
to S' avTO tovto o~vve7r€7TT(t)fe€t, /ecu tw MeiSia. 

116 ol <$' aWoi avve/edOrjvTO WfMpi/CTVove*;. ejjrjyyeX- 
Xbto 8' r)/Mv TTctpd to)v fiovXo/xevcov evvoiav 
evSeL/evvadaL tjj iroXei, on oi Afxcj)iaa6i<i viro- 

7re7TT&)«OT6? TOTE KCU heiVWS 6epaiT€VOVT€<; TOU? 

®r)fta[ov<; elaecpepov 8byp,a zeaTa ttjs y/jLeTepas 

1 % avSpbs Blass : avtpbs or f) autybs f) MSS. 
396 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 1*4-116 

elected your deputy, 1 he received two thousand 
drachmas from the Amphissians, in return for which 
he was to see that no mention of them should be 
made in the assembly of the Amphictyons. And it 
was agreed with him that thereafter twenty minas of 
the accursed and abominable money should be sent 
to Athens to him yearly, on condition that he at 
Athens aid the Amphissians in every way. In con- 
sequence of this it has come to pass even more than 
before, that whatsoever he touches, be it private 
citizen, or ruler, or democratic state, becomes en- 
tangled, every one, in irreparable misfortune. 

Now behold how providence and fortune triumphed 
over the impiety of the Amphissians. It was in the 
archonship of Theophrastus ; 2 Diognetus of Ana- 
phlystus was our hieromnemon ; as pylagori 3 you 
elected Meidias of Anagyrus, whom you all remember 
— I wish for many reasons he were still living 4 — and 
Thrasycles of Oeum ; I was the third. But it hap- 
pened that we were no sooner come to Delphi than 
Diognetus, the hieromnemon, fell sick with fever ; 
the same misfortune had befallen Meidias already. 
The other Amphictyons took their seats. Now it 
was reported to us by one and another who wished 
to show friendship to our city, that the Amphissians, 
who were at that time dominated by the Thebans 
and were their abject servants, were in the act of 
bringing in a resolution against our city, to the 

1 In 343 B.C. 2 340/39 B.C. 

3 The hieromnemon, selected annually by lot, was the 
official representative of the state in the Amphictyonic 
Council ; the three pylagori were selected by vote as his 
advisers. The pylagori had the privilege of taking part in 
the debates of the Amphictyonic Council, but the vote of the 
state was cast by the hieromnemon. 4 See on § 52. 

397 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7roXe&)?, 7T€VT7]Kavra raXdvTois "Cpqpiwaai tov 8rj- 
fiov tov ' AOiivaiwv, on ■^pvad'i a(77u£>a? dveOepev 
7Ty009 tov Kdivbv veoov Trpiv e^a peer aa d at , Kal 
eireypd^rapev to jrpoaritcov eiriypap,pa, " AOrjvaloi 
drrb Wlr)8a)v Kal ^di]j3aiu>v, ore rdvavria Tot9 
' JLWrjaiv ep^dyovToT 

^leTaireptydpevos S' ifte 6 lepopv/jpoov tj^tov 
elaekOelv els to avvehpiov Kal elirelv ri 7rpb<; 
tol>9 ApcpiKTvovas virep tt}? 7ro/\ea)?, Kal avTov 

117 ovto) Trporjprjpevov. dpyopevov 8e puov Xeyeiv Kal 
Trpo9vp,oTep6v irw<i elaeXt]\v6oTo<i eh to crvve- 
8piov, twv aXkcov irvXayopcov p-edeaTrjKOTcov, 
dva/3or']aa<i Tt? rwv 'ApLcpiaaecov, dv0pa>7ro<i dcreX- 
yeararo^ Kal oj? ep,ol icfialveTO ov8ep.id<i 7rai8ela<; 
pL6rea')(riK(i><;, icrew? 8e real Saipuovlov Tivbs e£a- 
piapruveiv 7rpoayop,evov, " Ap%r)v 8e ye, , ecpr), 
" 5) avSpes "EjXX.7]ve<i, el eauxppovelTe, ov8 av 
oivopbd^ere Tovvopa rov 8?]p,ov tov 'Adrjvatcov 
ev Talo~8e Tat? 7]pepai<i, aXA,' a)? evayels e^eipyer 

118 av etc tov lepov" dpa 8e epep,vr]To t/)? tcov 
<t>a)/cecov avpLpbayias, i)v 6 Kpw/3i;A.o? e/cetvos 
eypayfre, Kal aXka TroWd ical 8vo"^eprj icaTa tj}? 
7ro\ea)? 8iej;T]€i, a iyu> ovTe tot e/capTepovv ukovcov, 
ovt€ vvv r)8ioo<i p^epv^pai avTcbv. aKovaas 8e ovtco 
7rapco^vv6t]v, 009 ov8eTrd)7TOT ev tw epavTov (3Uo. 

Kal toi>? p-ev aWovs \6yovs vTrep/3i]cropai' 
eirrjet B ovv p,oi eVi ttjv yvcopt]V pvrjadrivai tt}? 

1 The temple of Apollo at Delphi had been seriously 
injured by fire in 373 B.C. Repairs had been going on under 
an inter state commission. The work had been interrupted 
by the 1'hocian war, but was at this time nearing completion. 
The shields that the Athenians had caused to be re-hung 

398 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 116-118 

effect that the people of Athens be fined fifty 
talents, because we had affixed gilded shields to the 
new temple and dedicated them before the temple 
had been consecrated, and had written the appro- 
priate inscription, " The Athenians, from the Medes 
and Thebans when they fought against Hellas." : 

The hieromnemon sent for me and asked me to go 
into the council and speak to the Amphictyons in 
behalf of our city — indeed I had already determined 
of myself so to do. When I had entered the coun- 
cil, perhaps a little too impetuously — the other 
pylagori had withdrawn 2 — and when I was just 
beginning to speak, one of the Amphissians, a scur- 
rilous fellow, and, as I plainly saw, a man of no 
education whatever, but perhaps also led on to folly 
by some divine visitation, cried out, "O Greeks, if 
you were in your right mind, you would not have so 
much as named the name of the people of Athens 
in these sacred days, but you would have debarred 
them from the shrine, as men polluted." And at 
the same time he reminded them of your alliance 
with the Phocians, proposed by that man whom we 
used to call " Top-knot "; 3 and he went through a 
long list of vexatious charges against our city, which 
angered me almost beyond endurance as I listened 
to them then, and which it is no pleasure to recall 
now. For as I listened, I was exasperated as never 
before in my life. 

I will pass over the rest of what I said, but this 
occurred to me, to call attention to the impiety 

were a part of the Athenian booty from the battle of 
Plataea. For almost a century and a half they had been an 
eyesore to the Thebans. 

2 It would appear that the debate was over and the voting 
members, the hieromneinons, alone remained, when Aeschines 
rushed in and began to speak. s See on i. 64. 

399 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Twv 'AficjiKTcreaiv rrepl ri]v yrjv rip lepdv daefieias, 
Kcil avrbdev earrjKcvs eheiKWOV rols A/uL<piKrvocnv 
vtroicenai yap to K.ippalov rrehlov tm tepco Kal 

119 earcv evavvoirrov. "'Opdre," e(f>i]v eyco, " 5> dv- 
hpes 'AfjLcfiiKTvoves, e^eipyaapuevov tovtl to tteSCov 
vtto rcov ' Afj,<j)iacrea)v, Kal Kepajxela eva>KohofA7)p,eva 
zeal avXta- Spare rots 6<p0aXp.oi<; rbv e^dyiarov 
Kal errdparov Xip,eva rereiyjLcyjxevov tare rovrovs 
avroi, Kal ovhev erepcov helaOe fiaprvpcov, reXrj 
TTeirpatcora^ 1 Kal %pi)/j.ara Xap,/3dvovra<; ck rov 
lepov Xipevos" dfia he dvaytyvcoaKeiv exeXevov 
avrols rrjv jxavreiav rov 6eou, rbv bpKov ru>v 
rrpoybvwv, rr\v dpdv rrjv yevofxevi^v, Kal hicopi^Ofirjv 

120 on " 'Fj<ycb fiev vrrep rov hi]/nov rov ' A07]vai(ov Kal 
rov crcofiaros Kal tow reKveov Kal oIklws rrjs ifiav- 
rov ftorjdai Kara rbv opKov Kal rq> 6e£> Kal rfj yfj 
rfj lepa Kal %£ipl nal irohl Kat cjxovr) Kal rrdaiv ot? 
hvva/iai, Kal rrjv rroXiv ri]v i)p,erepav rd irpbs robs 
deovs dcf)oai(b' v/iels 8' vrrep v/xwv avroiv i]hr) 
ftovXeveade. evr)pKrat fxev ra Kavd, irapearr/Ke 
he rd Qvpiara rots /3co/ao£?, /xeXXere 6° alrelv robs 

121 6eovs rdyaOd Kal KOivfj Kal ihla. crKorrelre hi], 
rroia fycovfi, rroia "tyv~xfl, ttolols o/n/uaai, riva 
roXp-av k ttj a dp,evot, to? iKerelas rron'iaeaOe, rov- 
rovs rrapevres drtfiw pi'irovs rovs evayels ical rats 
dpals evo^ovs. ov yap oV alviyp.cov, dXX' ivapyois 
yey parrrai 2 Kara re roiv dae^r/aavrcov, a ^prj 
rraOelv avrovs, Kal Kara rcov eTTtrpe-^dvrcov, Kal 
reXevralov ev rfj dpa yeyparrrai, ' M?;8' oalcos,' 

1 ireirpa/ciirar Hamaker : ireTrpax^fas MSS. 

2 yiypatrrai : ycypairrai iv tt) apa MSS. Blass brackets iv 
TJ) dpa. See two lines below. 

400 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 118-121 

of the Amphissians in relation to the sacred land ; 
and from the very spot where I was standing I 
pointed it out to the Amphictyons ; for the plain of 
Cirrha lies just below the shrine and is clearly visible. 
" You see," I said, " O Amphictyons, the plain 
yonder tilled by the Amphissians, and pottery works 
and farm buildings erected there. You see with 
your own eyes the dedicated and accursed harbour 
walled again. You know of your own knowledge, 
and have no need of other witness, how these men 
have farmed out port dues, and how they are making 
money from the sacred harbour." At the same 
time I called for the reading of the oracle of the 
god, the oath of our fathers, and the curse that was 
proclaimed. And I made this declaration : " I, in 
behalf of the people, of Athens, in my own be- 
half, and in behalf of my children and my house, 
do come to the help of the god and the sacred 
land according unto the oath, with hand and foot and 
voice, and all my powers ; and I purge our city of 
this impiety. As for you, now make your own de- 
cision. The sacred baskets are prepared ; the sacri- 
ficial victims stand ready at the altars ; and you are 
about to pray to the gods for blessings on state and 
hearth. Consider then with what voice, with what 
spirit, with what countenance, possessed of what 
effrontery, you will make your supplications, if you 
let go unpunished these men, who stand under the 
ban of the curse. For not in riddles, but plainly 
is written the penalty to be suffered by those 
who have been guilty of impiety, and for those 
who have permitted it ; and the curse closes with 
these words : ' May they who fail to punish them 



401 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

<f>r)ai, ' Ovaeiav ol pi) ripcopovvra t5> AttoXXwvl 
p,i]8e rfj ^AprepLiSi firjSe rfj Aijtol firjS' ' ABrjva 
Ylpovala, 1 fir)8e he^aivro avTois 2 ra lepti. 

122 Tavra s Kal 71730? rovrois erepa rroXXa, 8ie- 
%€X06vto<> ep,ov, eTreiSy] irore aTrrjXXayrjV Kal 
fxerearrfv ck rov avveSplov, /cpavyrj 7roXX?) Kal 

OopvfioS ?]V TCOV ' Ap(f)LKTVOV(OV, KCU O Xoyo<i T)V 

ovK6Ti Trepl tcov acnrlhcov a? ripels dveBep.ev, aX)C 
■}']&t) 7T€pl T7]<; tcov , A pifyi cr a ewv rip,copla^. rjhii 
Be iroppo) tj}? rjpiepas 6v, 4 TrpoeXOoov 5 Ki)pv% 
dvelire, AeXcfroov oaoi eirl SieTe? rj/3co<ri, Kal Bov- 
Xovs Kal eXev8epov<>, tf/cetv avpiov ap.a rfj r/pepa 
eyovra^ apas Kal SitceWas Trpos to ®vrelov 

€K€l KCLkOVpLeVOV KCU TTClXlV aVTOS KTjpV^ CLVCL- 

yopevei toi"> lepop,v7]pova<; Kal rov? trvXayopovs 

airavra^ tjkciv eh tov avrov rorrov (3or)d/]aovTa<; 

t&) vecp Kai Tjj ryj) ttj iepa- hirf? o av pi) irapr] 

ttoXis, etp^erai rov lepov Kal evayijs earai Kal rfj 
> « it » 

apa evoyos. 

123 Tfj Be varepata rjKopev ewBev eh rov Trpoeipr)- 
puevov tottov, Kal Kare/Srjfiev eh to Kcppaiov 
ireBlov, Kal tov Xip,eva KaraaKd^avre^ Kai Ta? 
ot'/aa? ep,7rp7)aavre<i dveyoapovpev. Tavra Be i)pu>v 
irparTovrcov ol AoKpol ol 'AfMpio-aeis, e^i']Kovra 
ardSia dnrwOev olKovvres AeXcpcov, rjXdov i(p 
rjpa<; pe6' ottXcov 7ravBi]p,ei' Kal el p,i) Bpopcp 
pboXis e^eepvyopev els AeXcpovs, eKivBvvevaapev 
av diroXeaOat. 

1 Xlpovaia. See on § 108. 

2 avruls Dobree : avraiv MSS. 

3 Tavra T^eiske : roiaxna MSS. 

4 ov Herwerden : ov<n)s MSS. 

3 TTpotKdwf Markland : irpoaeXOwv MSS. 

402 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 121-123 

never offer pure sacrifice unto Apollo, nor to Artemis, 
nor to Leto, nor to Athena Pronaea, and may the 
gods refuse to accept their offerings.' ' 

These words I spoke, and many more. And when 
now I had finished and gone out from the council, 
there was great outcry and excitement among the 
Amphictyons, and nothing more was said about the 
shields that we had dedicated, but from now on the 
subject was the punishment of the Amphissians. As 
it was already late in the day, the herald came 
forward and made proclamation that all the men of 
Delphi who were of full age, slaves and free men 
alike, should come at daybreak on the morrow with 
shovels and mattocks to the place that is there 
called the Thyteion. And again the same herald 
proclaimed that all the hieromnemons and the 
pylagori should come to the same place to the aid 
of the god and the sacred land ; " And whatever 
city shall fail to appear, shall be debarred from 
the shrine and shall be impure and under the 
curse." 

The next morning we came to the designated spot, 
and descended to the Cirrhaean plain. And when we 
had despoiled the harbour and burned down the 
houses, we set out to return. But meanwhile the 
Locrians of Amphissa, who lived sixty stadia from 
Delphi, came against us, armed and in full force ; and 
it was only by running that we barely got back 
to Delphi in safety, for we were in peril of our 
lives. 



403 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

124 T97 Se eiTLOvar] r)pepa Kottu</>o? ra? yvuipas 

€7T^r)(f)L^U)V GKK\7]OLaV €7TOl€l TWV ' A/jL(f)LKTv6v(DV' 

e/ctcXrjcnav yap ovo/xd^ovaiv, orav Tt? fir) povov 
Tou? irvXayopov*; /ecu tovs lepopv/jpovas avy/ca- 
Xearj, dXXa ical toix; dvovra<; ical toi>? xpeopevovs 
tw 6e&. ivTdvQ' >']8r) ttoWclI p,ev rwv ' A^Kpicraecov 
eyiyvovro Kajrjyoplai, 7roXv$ S' eiraivos r)v Kara 
•n}? rjperepas iroXeax;' reXos 8e Travrbs rov Xoyov 
■^r7j(f>L^oi>Tai tf/ceiv tou? lepo p,vi'i povas irpo t?}? 
eVtoucr?;? -nvXaias iv pr]rq) %p6v(p et<? TlvXas, 
e^ovraf Soypa teat? Tt Sl/cai Scoaovcriv ol 
'A/i<£tcrcre49 virep wv eh rov 6eov ical ttjv yr)v rr)v 
lepdv /cat toi>9 Ap,<fiiicTvova<; i^ijp-apTov. on Se 
dXrjflr) Xeyco, draypcoaerai, to yjri)<ptap,a vplv 6 
ypap,p,arev<;. 

¥H<M2MA 

125 ToO So7/xaro9 rovrov cnroSoOevTOs ixfi fjfi&v iv 
rfi /SovX-fj ical irdXiv iv rfj €K/cXy]aia, teal rds 
Trpdtjeis ripoiv diroSe^apevov rov 8i]pov, ical t?;? 
7roA.ea><? dirdarj^ irpoaipovpuevri^ evcrefielv, ical 
Arjp,oadevov<i virep rov pueaeyyv7]paTo<i rov e£ 
'Ap,<fiicrcrr)<; dvTiXeyovros, ical epov (fiavepebs evav- 
tLov vpboiv e%eXey%ovTO<$, eireibr) etc rov cf>avepov 
rr)v itoXiv dvOpwno^ 1 ovk iSuvaro a(f>r)Xat, elo-eX- 
8oov et<? to ftovXevTtjpiov ical p,eTao-rr}crdp,evo<; rovs 
ISuoTas, e/ccf)€perai irpo^ovXevp,a et? tijv e/c/cXr)- 
oiav, 7rpoo-Xa/3a)V rr)v rov ypdyjravTOS diretpiav 

1 avOponros Markland : &pBpu>tzos MSS. 

1 Before the next regular meeting of the Amphictyonic 
Council. The Council met twice a year, in spring and 

404 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 124-125 

Now on the next day Cottyphus, the presiding 
officer, called an "assembly" of the Amphictyons 
(they call it an "assembly " when not only the pyla- 
gori and hieromnemons are called together, but with 
them those who are sacrificing and consulting the 
god). Then immediately one charge after another was 
brought against the Amphissians, and our city was 
much praised. As the outcome of all that was said, 
they voted that before the next Pylaea l the hiero- 
mnemons should assemble at Thermopylae at a time 
designated, bringing with them a resolution for the 
punishment of the Amphissians for their sins against 
the god and the sacred land and the Amphictyons. 
As proof of what I say, the clerk shall read the 
decree to you. 

DECREE 

Now when we had reported this decree to our 
senate, and then to the assembly, and Avhen the 
people had approved our acts, and the whole city 
was ready to choose the righteous course, and when 
Demosthenes had spoken in opposition — he was 
earning his retaining-fee from Amphissa — and when 
I had clearly convicted him in your presence, there- 
upon the fellow, unable to frustrate the city by 
open means, goes into the senate chamber, expels 
all listeners, and from the secret session brings 
out a bill to the assembly, taking advantage of the 
inexperience of the man who made the motion. 2 

autumn. They always assembled at Thermopylae, and pro- 
ceeded thence to Delphi. 

2 Aeschines implies that Demosthenes drafted the motion 
in a form which gave it a very diHerent effect from what 
was expected by the inexperienced senator through whom he 
had it presented to the senate 

405 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

126 to §' ai)To tovto Kal iv rrj eK/cX^crta Sieirpd^aTO 
eTTi'^nityioOrjvat Kal yevecrOai or/fiov yjrijcf) tafia, 
ctt avaardaet tt)? €K/c\7]o-La<; ouen/?, 1 aTreXr]- 
\v66tos ifiov, ov yap dv irore iireTpey\ra, Kal twv 
ttoXXcov 8ia<peipevcov ov to K6(f>d\at6v iaTi, " Tov 
iepofivrffiova^ <prjal, " tov Avrfvaimv Kal tovs 
irvXayopovs tovs del irvXayopovvTas TropeveaOai 
els YlvXas Kal els AeX(povs iv toIs TeTaypevots 
Xpovois viro twv irpoyovwv, evrrpeTrws ye tw ovo- 
paTi, dXXa tS> epyw ala^pws' KwXvei yap els tov 
avXXoyov tov iv IlvXais airavTav, 09 etj dvdyKijs 
TTpo tov Kad?]K0VT0<> ep,eXXe -%p6vov yiyveaOai. 

127 Kal irdXiv ev T(p avTW yfrr](j)io-/.iaTi iroXv Kal 
cra<peaTepov Kal iriKpoTepov ypdcpei, 2 " Tov ispo- 
LLvrj/AOva" <f)i]o-i, " tov ' AOrjvalwv Kal tov? irvXa- 
yopovs tovs del irvXayopovvTas fir) pbeTe^eLV toIs 
eKelcre avXXeyopevots pi]Te Xoyov paJTe epyov pifre 
86ypaTos p,ijTe irpd^ews p,r/8ep.ids" to 8e p,rj 
pbeTeyeiv Tt io~Ti; nroTepa TaXr/Oes eXirw, rj to 
rjhiGTOv aKovaai; TaXrjdes ipw' to yap aei irpos 
r)8ovr)V Xeyop,evov ovtwctI ttjv ttoXlv 8iaTedr)Kev. 
ovk id pep,vrjo-0ai twv opKwv, ovs rjpwv wpoaav 
ol irpoyovoi, ov8e t% dpds, ov8e tt)? tov Qeov 
puavTeias. 

128 'Wpels pev ovv, w avBpes ' A6i]vaioi, KaTepeiva- 
pev 8id tovto to -^nf^Lcrpa, ol 8' dXXoi 'ApcfiiKTv- 
oves avveXeyrjaav els UvXas ttXtjv pids ttoXcws, 
?7? iyw out dv Tovvopa ettrotfii, p>']0 al avp,(f)opal 
TrapaTrXijaioi yevouno ai/Trjs purjBevl twv EAA?/- 

r otfcr7js added by Hamaker. 
2 ypdtyei Dobree: after ypa<pei the MSS. have i?p6(nay^a or 
ffvyypaijt.fj.a. 

406 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 126-128 

And he managed to have this same bill put to 
vote in the assembly and passed by the people, at 
the moment when the assembly was on the point 
of adjourning, when I had already left the place — 
for I would never have allowed it — and when most 
of the people had dispersed. Now the substance 
of the bill was this : " The hieromnemon of the 
Athenians," it says, "and the pylagori who are at 
the time in office, shall go to Thermopylae and Del- 
phi at the times appointed by our fathers" ; fine in 
sound, shameful in fact ; for it prevents attendance 
on the special meeting at Thermopylae, which had 
to be held before the date of the regular meeting. 
Again in the same decree he writes much more ex- 
plicitly and malignantly: "The hieromnemon of the 
Athenians," he says, "and the pylagori who are at 
the time in office, shall take no part with those assem- 
bled there, in word or deed or decree, or in any act 
whatsoever." But what does it mean to "take no 
part" ? Shall I tell you the truth, or what is most 
agreeable for your ears? I will tell you the truth, 
for it is the universal habit of speaking to please you 
that has brought the city to such a pass. It means 
that you are forbidden to remember the oaths 
which our fathers swore, or the curse, or the oracle 
of the god. 

And so, fellow citizens, we stayed at home because 
of this decree, while the other Amphictyons assem- 
bled at Thermopylae — all but one city, whose name 
I would not mention ; I pray that misfortune like 
unto hers may come upon no city of Hellas. 1 And 

1 Thebes, like Athens, held aloof from the special meeting 
of the Amphictyons. The final result of Thebes' adoption of 
Demosthenes' anti-Macedonian policy was her annihilation 
by Alexander five years before this speech was delivered. 

407 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

vo)v. teal avveXOovres i-^njcpLcravro irrtarpareveiv 
eVt Tou? , Ap,cptaaia<i, /cai err parijybv e'tXovro 
K.6ttv(J)ov rbv QapcrdXiov rov rore ra? yvcbpa<; 
iiriyfrrjcpi^ovra, ovk irnhripbovvro^ iv MatceSovia 
<f>iki7nrov, ov^ * iv rrj RXXdSi irapovros, aXX' 
iv "-sicvOcus ovrco pLCLicpav dirovro^- bv avriKa p,dXa 
To\{M7]aei Xeyeiv AripoaOevrjs co? iyco iirl robs 

129 "EXb/va? iirrjyayov. kcu rrapeXOovre^ rjj rrpcbrr) 

crrparela kcll p,dXa puerpico^ i^prjaavro Tot<? 
' Apcpicraevcriv' dvrl yap rcov pbeylarcov dSiKrjpdrcov 
y^p-qpaaiv avrov<i etypucocrav, real ravr iv prjrco 
y^pbvco TrpoeiTTov tw deep KcnaOelvcu, teal rovs pev 
ivayels teal rcov it err pay pev cov airtovs pierearr)- 
crav, 2 tovs 8e 81 evaefieiav cfyevyovras Kanjyayov. 
iTreiSr) 8e ovre to, ^prjpara i^erivov tw Oeco, tou? 
r ivayets Kar?]yayov, teat tovs evae/Sels teal 
KareXOovras 8ia rcov ApicpiKrvovcov itje/SaXov, 
oi/to)? i']Sy] T7)v Sevrepav arparelav z iiroi^aavTO, 
rroXXco ^povco vcrrepov, iTraveXrfXvObros ^iXnrirov 
etc tt)? e7Tt robs "Ztevdas crrparela^, rcov pev Oecov 
rrjv i)yep,oviav Tr?9 evaej3eia<; rjplv irapaSeScoKorcov, 
tt)? Be Ai]p,ocrOevovs 8copo8oKta<s ipbirohcov 7eye- 
vrjp.evrjt;. 

130 'AU' ov irpovXeyov, ov irpoecrijpatvov ol 6eo\ 
cf)vXd^acrdai, pbbvov ye ovk dvOpcoircov epeovd? 
7rpo<T/CT)]o~dpevoi; ovoepiav roi rrcbrrore eycoye 
paXXov rroXtv eoopa/ea viro puev rcov Oecov crco^o- 
fiivrjv, vrrb he rcov prjropcov ivlcov diroXXvpevriv. 

1 ou5' Schaefer : a\\' obS' MSS. 
8 /xfTeffTTtaav Cobet : fx.eT«rrr\aavTo MSS. 
3 ffTparsiav Sauppe : the MSS. have «rl ' rovs 'A/upiffo-tas 
before or after <TTpaTeLav. 

408 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 128-130 

when they were assembled they voted to march against 
the Amphissians. As general they chose Cottyphus of 
Pharsalus, who was at the time president of the Am- 
phictyons. Philip was not in Macedonia at that time, 
nor in Hellas, but in Scythia — so far away as that ! 
And yet presently Demosthenes will dare to say that 
it was I who brought him against Hellas ! Now 
when they had come through the pass 1 in the first 
expedition, they dealt very leniently with the Amphis- 
sians, for as penalty for their monstrous crimes, they 
laid a money fine upon them, and ordered them to 
pay it at the temple within a stated time ; and they 
removed the wicked men who were responsible for 
what had been done, and restored others, whose piety 
had forced them into exile. But when the Amphis- 
sians failed to pay the money to the god, and had re- 
stored the guilty men, and banished those righteous 
men who had been restored by the Amphictyons, 
under these circumstances at last the second campaign 
was made, a long time afterward, when Philip had 
now returned from his Scythian expedition. It was 
to us that the gods had offered the leadership in the 
deed of piety, but Demosthenes' taking of bribes 
had prevented us. 

But did not the gods forewarn us, did they not 
admonish us, to be on our guard, all but speaking 
with human voice ? No city have I ever seen offered 
more constant protection by the gods, but more 
inevitably ruined by certain of its politicians. Was 

1 Aeschines is thinking especially of the Thessalian com- 
mander of the expedition and his northern contingents, who 
had to " come through " the Pass of Thermopylae. 

409 






THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ovx ixcivbv tjv to Tot? fAV<TTr)p[oL<; (fiavev arjpelov, 1 
■f) rwv pvarcov reXevri]; ov 7repl rovrcov ' Apueivid- 
S>7? p>ev nrpovXeyev evXa/3eicr6ai /cal irep-neiv et? 
AeXcfiovs €7T€pr]ao/jLevov<; rbv debv 6 tl %pr) irpaT- 
reiv, Arjpocrdevrjs he dvreXeye, (piXi7r7TL%eiv tijv 
Tlvdlav <pd<TK(ov, dTTaihevros o>v kcli diroXavoiv 
Kol epir Lp.TrXdpevo<; t?}? hehopevrj? vcf) vp,(bv avrw 

131 e%ov<ria$; ov to reXevralov dQvrwv ko\ dtcaWie- 
prjrcov ovtcov tCov lepwv e^eir e p,\fre tou? o~t pandora? 
eVi rbv nrpbhyfXov Kivhvvov ; kclitoi npcorjv ye 
irore direr bXpa Xeyeiv on irapd rovro ^PiXLiriro? 
ovk rjXOev rjpoov eirl ttjv yu>pav, on ovk r/v avToo 
fcaXd rd lepd. tiVo? ovv crv £?7/ua9 a£to9 el 
rvyeZv?" & tt}? QXXdhos dXetrrjpie; ec yap o pev 
Kparoiv ovk rfkdev et? i^v tcov Kpaiovpevwv ydypav, 
on ovk tjv avT(p Kakd rd lepd, av 8' ovhev irpo- 
eihoo<; tcov peXXovroov ecreadai, irplv KaWieprjaai 
Toy? arpaTicoTa<i i£eirep,y}ra<;, irorepa are<f)avov- 
o-Qal ere Bet eirl Tat9 T779 iroXeoos aTvyiacs, rj 
virepoypiadai ; 

132 Tot-ydproi rt roov dveXircarcov kclI dirpocrho- 
Kijrcov €(/>' i]p(iiv ov yeyovev; 01) yap (3iov ye 
rjp.el<i dvQpdnrivov f3efiiooKap.ev, dXX" eis irapaho- 
^oXoylav TOi? peO^ r)p,d<; 3 e(f>vp,ev. ov% 6 pev 
roov Uepacov /3ao-cXev<t, 6 rbv " A.6a> hiopvtjas, 6 

1 ar\fi(lov Baiter : arifJ-^ov tpvXa^aa&at MSS. 

2 av . . . tvx^v Blass : the MSS. have eT av fa/tlas afios 
rvx^v or Cw' * &£tos e! tvx*w- 

3 jxeB' Tinas Cobet : the MSS. have iao/xtvots before or after 
ju€0' r)/J.as. 

1 The Scholiast explains that certain celebrants were 
seized by a shark as they were taking the sacred bath in the 
sea at Eleusis. 

410 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 130-132 

not that portent sufficient which appeared at the 
Mysteries — the death of the celebrants ? 1 In view of 
this did not Ameiniades warn you to be on your guard, 
and to send messengers to Delphi to inquire of the 
god what was to be done ? And did not Demosthenes 
oppose, and say that the Pythia had gone over to 
Philip ? Boor that he was, gorged with his feast of 
indulgence from you ! And did he not at last from 
smouldering and ill-omened sacrifices send forth our 
troops into manifest danger? And yet it was but 
yesterday that he dared to assert that the reason 
why Philip did not advance against our country 2 
was that the omens were not favourable to him. 
What punishment, then, do you deserve, you curse 
of Hellas ! For if the conqueror refrained from 
entering the land of the conquered because the 
omens were not favourable to him, whereas you, 
ignorant of the future, sent out our troops be- 
fore the omens were propitious, ought you to be 
receiving a crown for the misfortunes of the 
city, or to have been thrust already beyond her 
borders ? 

Wherefore what is there, strange and unex- 
pected, that has not happened in our time ! 3 For 
it is not the life of men we have lived, but we 
were born to be a tale of wonder to posterity. Is 
not the king of the Persians — he who channelled 

2 After Philip's overwhelming victory at Chaeronea it was 
a surprise to every one that he did not immediately press on 
and invade Attica. 

3 Athens and Thebes, in the old days god-fearing states of 
Hellas, have refused the service due the Delphic god, and 
have suffered every disaster ; Philip, the barbarian, under- 
took the service of the god, and has received as his reward 
unheard-of power. 

411 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

tov 'FiX\,i](T7rovTOV £eu£a9, 6 yrjv Kal vScop tov<} 
"RWijvas alrwv, 6 To\po>v iv rah iiricrTo\at<; 
ypdcpeiv, on 8ecrir6TT]<; iarlv dirdvTcov dvdpooirwv 
d<\> tjXlov aviovros p^XP 1 bvofievov, vvv ov ire pi 
tov Kvpios irepcov eivai ocaytovi^erai, dX)C ?;S?^ 
ire pi Trjs tov au>paro<; aa>Trjp[a<i; Kal tou? avrovs 
opwpev Trjs re So^r/q ravrrj^ Kal rrjs iirl tov 
Jlepcn]v i)yepovia<; rj^iwpevovs, 01 Kal to iv AeX- 

133 (pots iepov rf\.ev9epu>aav; ®rj/3ai Be, ©j}/3at, iroXis 
aaTvyeiTcov, pe& rjpepav piav e.K peo"rj<i tt}? 'E^- 
A.tt8o? avr]p'naaTai, el Kal SiKaia)^, irepl twv oXcov 
ovk 6p66)<s ftovXevadpevoc, a\Xa T)']v ye 0eo/3\d- 
fieiav Kal ttjv cMppocrvvTjv ovk dvQpwir'iv '&)?, dWa 
haipovlwi KTrjadp.evoL. AaKeSatpovtoi S' oi Ta\ai- 
ircopoi, irpocrayjrdpevoi povov tovtwv tcov irpaypd- 
tcov e£ dp^rjs irepl Tr\v tov iepov KaTaXrjyfriv, oi 
twv 'EjWrfvcov TroTe d^iovvTes rjyepoves elvai, vvv 
6pi]pevo~OPTe<; Kal t>}? avpcpopds iiriSei^iv irotrj- 
aopevoi peXkovaiv &>? J A\e^av8pov dvairepireaOai, 
tovto ireiabpevoi Kai avTOi Kat rj iraTpis, 6 tl 
dv eKeivm Bo^rj, Kal iv tt) tov icpaTovvTos Kal 
irporjhLKtyxevov peTpioTrjTi KpiQ-qaopevoi. 

134 'H S' t)peTepa iroXis, rj koivt) KaTa<fivyr) twv 
'EWtjvcov, irpos fjv dcjuKvovvTO irpbiepov e'/e t?)? 
'EWaSo? al irpecrfieiai, Kara iroXeis eKacrroi Trap 
rjpo)v ttjv acoTiipiav evpi]aopevoL, vvv ovkcti irepl 
t>7<? tmv 'EiW7]vcov rjyepopias dywvt^erai, d\~)C y']8r} 
irepl tov tt}? iraiplho^ i8d<povs. Kal tovO^ i)piv 

1 The Persian king was already dead when this speech was 
delivered, but the news had not yet reached Athens. 

2 The seizure by the Phocians at the beginning of the 
Phocian war. 

412 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 132-134 

Athos, he who bridged the Hellespont, he who 
demanded earth and water of the Greeks, he who 
dared to write in his letters that he was lord of 
all men from the rising of the sun unto its setting 
— is he not struggling now, no longer for lordship 
over others, but already for his life ? 1 And do we 
not see this glory and the leadership against the 
Persians bestowed on the same men who liberated 
the temple of Delphi ? But Thebes ! Thebes, our 
neighbour, has in one day been swept from the midst 
of Hellas — even though justly, for her main policy 
was wrong, yet possessed by an infatuate blindness 
and folly that were not of men, but a divine visitation. 
And the wretched Lacedaemonians, who barely 
touched these acts at their beginning in connection 
with the seizure of the temple, 2 they who once 
claimed the right to lead the Greeks, are now about 
to be sent to Alexander to serve as hostages, and to 
make an exhibition of their misfortunes 3 — destined, 
themselves and their country, to suffer whatever 
may please him ; their fate dependent on the mercy 
of the man who has conquered them after receiving 
unprovoked injury at their hands. 

And our city, the common refuge of the Greeks, to 
which in former days used to come the embassies 
of all Hellas, each city in turn to find safety with 
us, our city is now no longer contending for the 
leadership of Hellas, but from this time on for the 
soil of the fatherland. And this has come upon us 

3 The Spartans had led an ill-advised revolt against the 
Macedonian overlordship, and had been completely defeated 
shortly before this speech was delivered. They were required 
to send fifty noble citizens as hostages to Alexander, who 
was now in Asia. 

413 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

<TVfxj3e^rjKev e% otov Arjp.oaOevrj'i 717509 ttjv ttoXi- 
re'iav irpoaeXrjXvdev. ev yap trepl twv toiovtojv 
'HaioSos 6 7roi>7T»)9 cnrocfraLveTai. Xeyei yap ttov, 
iraihevoiv ra irXr^Or] Kal o~V[i(3ovXev(t)v rats iroXeai 
toi>9 Trovrjpovs Toov Brjpiaycoycbv firj TrpoaBe^eudar 

135 Xe£a> Se Kayco to. eirr/' Sid tovto yap olfiat. 7raiSa<; 
6Wa? rjp.a<; Ta.9 twv "ttoi^t&v yvd>pia<i eKfiavOdveiv, 
iv dvSpe<i 6We9 avrais ^pco/ieda' 

TToXXdvi Sr? ^vfnracra 7ro\j9 /ca/cov dvSpbs 

drnivpa, 
09 ksv dXiTpaivr) teal drdaOaXa pL-qridarai. 
Totacv 8' ovpavodev p.ey eirrjyaye irrj/ia Kpovicov, 
Xip.bv bpbov Kal Xoipiov, dirofydivvOovcri Se Xaoc 
rj toov ye arparbv evpvv drrooXeaev r) 6 ye ret^09, 
rj veas ev ttovtw aTroreivvTai evpvoira Zei/9. 

136 eav TrepieXovres rod ttoitjtov to fierpov ra<; yvcop,a<; 
i^erdtyre, olfxai vuiv So^eiv ov 7roiy'jp,ara 'YiaioSov 
elvai, dXXa ^pr]cr p,bv eh ttjv A->]fio<T0evov<; itoXi- 
Teiav /cal yap vavriKt) Kal ire^i] err par id Kal 
irbXeis apSrjv elcrlv dvripiraa p^evai eK t?}9 tovtov 
iroXiTeia^. 

137 'AW' olpuxi ovre <i>pvvcovSa<; ovre Eupu/3aT09 
ovt aWo9 ovSel<i irooiTore tcov irdXai rrovrjpcov 
toiovtos pudyos Kal 70779 iyevero, 09, 0) yi) Kal 
Oeol Kal 8alp,ove<; Kal dvOpwiroi, oaoi ftovXeade 
aKoveiv TdXt]dr), roXpia Xeyeiv ftXeiroiv et'9 ra 
rrrpoaooTTa ra v/ierepa, &>9 dpa %rj@aloi ttjv avp,- 
pLayiav vpulv eiroi/jaavTO ov 81a rov Kaipov, ov 01a 
tov (poftov rbv irepiaravra avrovs, ov Sia ttjv 
vp.erepav So^av, dXXa Sid Ta-9 Arj/jLoo-Bevovs 

138 hiitxrjyopLas. Kalroi 7roWa9 fiev rrpbrepov irpe- 

414 



AGAINST CTESIPHGN, 134-138 

from the time when Demosthenes came into political 
leadership. Well does the poet Hesiod speak con- 
cerning such men ; for he says somewhere, instruct- 
ing the people and advising the cities not to take 
to themselves corrupt politicians — but I will myself 
recite the verses ; for this is the reason, I think, that 
in our childhood we commit to memory the senti- 
ments of the poets, that when we are men we may 
make use of them : 

Ofttimes whole peoples suffer from one man, 
Whose deeds are sinful, and whose purpose base. 
From heaven Cronion launches on their heads 
Dire woe of plague and famine joined ; and all 
The people waste away. Or else he smites 
Their wide-camped host, or wall. Or wrath of Zeus 
Far-thundering wrecks their ships upon the sea. 1 

If you disregard the poet's metre and examine only 
his thought, I think this will seem to you to be, not 
a poem of Hesiod, but an oracle directed against the 
politics of Demosthenes. For by his politics army 
and navy and peoples have been utterly destroyed. 
I think that not Phrynondas and not Eurybatus, 
nor any other of the traitors of ancient times ever 
proved himself such a juggler and cheat as this man, 
who, oh earth and heaven, oh ye gods and men — if 
any men of you will listen to the truth — dares to look 
you in the face and say that Thebes actually made 
the alliance with you, not because of the crisis, not 
because of the fear that was impending over them, not 
because of your reputation, but because of Demos- 
thenes' declamations ! And yet in other days many 

1 Hesiod, Works and Days, 240 ff. ; cp. Aeschines, ii. 158. 

415 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

crfieias err peer fievaav et? ©/;/3a? ol pudXiara olfce'icos 
e/ceivoi*; hiaKeifxevoL, rrpoiro'i puev ®paav/3uvXo<; 
o K.oXXvrev'i , dvrjp ev ©?;/3a/9 rncrrevOels &)9 
ovSels erepos, rrdXiv ©pdcrcov 6 'Fjp%ievs, rrpo^evo<i 

139 cov ®T)f3aLoi<;, AecoSdpas 6 ^ Ayapvev<;, ov% tjttov 
A.r)fxoaOevov<; Xeyeiv hwdfievo^, dXX e/xoiye /cal 
rjSitov, 'Ay3^eS>;/xo9 6 Tit'fKri^, /cal Bvvarbs elrreiv 
/cal woXXd /ceKLV&vvev/ca)<i ev rf] rroXirelq, Std 
®r)/3a(,ov<i, Aptarocpwv 1 o , A^rjviev^, rrXetarov 
ypovov ti]V rov fioieorid^eiv vrropielvas alriav, 
Wvppavhpos o Ava<fiXvo~rio<;, o<? ert /cal vvv %fj. 
dXX 1 o/jbco<i ov8e\<; rrdnrore avroix; eSvvtfdi] rrpo- 
rpetyaaOai eh ri]v v/xerepav tyiXtav. ro h ainov 

olSa pev, Xeyeiv 6" ov&ev Seopiai hid rd? drw%ias 

140 avrcov. dXX , ol/xai, erreiSr} <£>i\.nnTos aurcov 
dcj)e\ofievo<i Ni/caiav ®erraXoi<i rrapehay/ce, /cal rov 
rrokefiov, ov rrporepov e£)']Xacrev e/c t?}? ya)pa<; rij<i 
Hoicorcov, rovrov rrdXiv rov avrbv rroXepov irrrjye 2 
Sid rfjs QcoklSos err avrd<s ra? ®rj/3a<;, /cal ro 
reXevraiov 'ILXdreiav /caraXaj3d>v eyapuKcoae /cal 
<f)povpdv elcnqyayev, ivravO' ■ijSr), €7rel ro Seivbv 
avrwv r)rrrero, pier err eix^ravro 'AOrjvaiovs, /cal 
vp,ei<; e^i']X8ere /cal elafjre et? Ta? ©^/3a? ev roi<i 
ottXois hiea/cevacrp,evoi, icai ol rre^ol icai ol iTTirel^, 
rrplv rrepl crvppayias plav pbovov o-vXXa(3rp> 

1 'A.piaTott>S>v Bekker : S-qfxaywyhs 'Aptaro(pa>v MSS. 

2 iirriye Blass : tiriiyaye MSS. 

1 "It would be invidious to say that it was their pride 
and steady malice, when their malice had been renounced 
under duress, and their pride had had such a fatal fall." 
(Simcox. ) 

2 Nicaea was an important strategic post at the eastern 
end of the Pass of Thermopylae. 

416 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 138-140 

men who had stood in the closest relations with the 
Thebans had gone on missions to them ; first, Thrasy- 
bulus of Collytus, a man trusted in Thebes as no other 
ever was ; again, Thrason of Erchia, proxenus of the 
Thebans ; Leodamas of Acharnae, a speaker no less 
able than Demosthenes, and more to my taste ; Arche- 
demus of Pelekes, a powerful speaker, and one who 
had met many political dangers for the sake of the 
Thebans ; Aristophon of Azenia, who had long been 
subject to the charge of having gone over to the 
Boeotians ; Pyrrhandrus of Anaphlystus, who is still 
living. Yet no one of these was ever able to persuade 
them to be friends with you. And I know the reason, 
but because of the present misfortune of Thebes, I 
have no desire to speak it. 1 But, I think, when 
Philip had taken Nicaea 2 from them and given it to 
the Thessalians, and when he was now bringing back 
again upon Thebes herself through Phocis the same 
war that he had formerly driven from the borders 
of Boeotia, s and when finally he had seized Elateia 
and fortified and garrisoned it, 4 then, and not till 
then, it was, when the peril was laying hold on 
them, that they sent for the Athenians. You went 
out and were on the point of marching into Thebes 
under arms, horse and foot, before ever Demosthenes 

3 Aeschines represents the Amphissian war as virtually a 
resumption of the Phoeian war ; both were wars in behalf of 
the Delphic shrine, but the relation of Thebes to the two 
was very different. 

* After passing through Thermopylae, Philip seized Elateia 
in northern Phocis and made it his base for the winter. It 
commanded the main road towards Thebes and Athens. 
For the Athenian feeling of the significance of its seizure, 
see the famous passage in the speech of Demosthenes, On the 
Grown, 168 ff. 

417 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

141 ypd^rai Arjfioadevqv. 6 S' elcrdycov r)V Vfid<i eis 
Ta? ®rj/3a<; /ccupbs /ecu ef>6fto<; /ecu %peta crv/xfia- 
%ia?, dXX* ov ArjfjLoadevrjs. 

' 'E7rel irepi ye ravras tcls Trpd^eis rpla iravrmv 
p.eyi<TTa ^i-jpboaOevr]^ eh vp.d<; e^pLapTTjiee, irpwrov 
p,ev, otl QiXIttttov rat puev ovofiaTi iroXepLovvTo? 
vulv, tu> 8' epyo) iroXv udXXov imgovvtos ®j;- 
fiaLOUS, a><? avra ra wpayp.ara oeb>)Xa>/ee, /ecu Tt 
Bel rd irXelh) Xeyeiv; ravra /xev rd TrjXi/eavTa to 
p,eye0o<; dTre/cpvilraTO,Trpo(nroiT)adp,€VO<; Be fieXXeiv 
tt)V avpLp-a\iav yevrjaeaOcu ov hid tovs /eatpovs, 

142 dXXd Bid rd<; avrov it peer fields, trpwTov p,ev 
ervveireiae top Brjp,ov p,r)/e€Ti fiovXeveadcu eiri ticti 
Bet iroielcrdcu ttjv avp,p,ax^v, aXX" dyairdv fiovov 
el yiyverat, tovto Be irpoXa&oov e/ehoTov p-ev ty\v 
BoKorlav diracrav eiroii)cre (B^/Wof?, ypd-tyas iv 
tw -^n)(f)LO-p.aTi, " 'Eai> -m d(pio-Tr)rai 7roXi<; diro 
%r]j3aiaiv, ftorjOelv 'KOrjvaiovs BouoToh Toh iv 
®^/3at9," Toh ovofxaat /cXeTTTOiv /ecu fieracfyepcov to 
wpdypicna, wairep elcodev, &>? rovs Bouotovs epyw 
/ea/ews Tvdcryov-ras ttjv twv ovofidreov avvOeaiv 
twv At]p.ocr6evoi'<i dya7n]o~ovTa<;, aXX ov p^aXXov 
ifi oh Kaiew<i e-neirovQeaav dyava/eTrjcrovTas' 

143 Bevrepov Be tcov eh rov -rroXe/xov dvaXwpbdreov 
rd pev Bvo p,ept] vpXv dvedt]/eev, oh rjerav aTrco- 
Tepco ol /eivBvvoi, to Be Tp'iTOV /xe'po? (drjftaiois, 
BcopoBoKMV e</>' e«ao-TOt<? tovtwv, /ecu tt)v i)yepoviav 
tt)v p,ev /eend OdXaTTav iiroi^ae Koivrjv, to B 
dvdXwp,a iBiov vp,eTepov, ttjv Be zeaTa yr/v, el 
p,i) Bel Xripelv, dpBriv (pepcov dve@r)/ce &r]ftai,ois, 
oicrTe irapd top yevop-evov irokep-ov p,i] /evpiov 
yeveaOcu XrpaTO/eXea tov vpieTepov erTpaTTjybv 

418 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 140-143 

had moved one single syllable about an alliance. 
What brought you into Thebes was the crisis and 
fear and need of alliance, not Demosthenes. 

For in this whole affair Demosthenes is responsible 
to you for three most serious mistakes. The first was 
this: when Philip was nominally making war against 
you, but really was far more the enemy of Thebes, as 
the event itself has proved (why need I say more ?), 
Demosthenes concealed these facts, which were so 
important, and pretending that the alliance was to be 
brought about, not through the crisis, but through his 
own negotiations, first he persuaded the people to 
give up all consideration of the terms of the alliance, 
and to count themselves fortunate if only it were 
made ; and when he had gained this point he be- 
trayed all Boeotia to the Thebans by writing in the 
decree, " If any city refuse to follow Thebes, the 
Athenians shall aid the Boeotians in Thebes," 1 
cheating with words and altering the facts, as he is 
wont to do ; as though, forsooth, when the Boeotians 
should be suffering in fact, they would be content 
with Demosthenes' fine phrases, rather than in- 
dignant at the outrageous way in which they had 
been treated ; and, secondly, he laid two thirds of 
the costs of the war upon you, whose danger was 
more remote, and only one third on the Thebans (in 
all this acting for bribes) ; and the leadership by sea 
he caused to be shared equally by both ; but all the 
expenditure he laid upon you ; and the leadership 
by land, if we are not to talk nonsense, he carried 
away bodily and handed it over to Thebes. The re- 
sult was that in all the war that followed, Stratocles, 

1 The traditional policy of Athens had been to support 
the smaller Boeotian cities in their refusal to recognise 
Theban dominion over them. 

419 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fiovXevo-aaOai irepl t% t<ov (TTpaTicorcov o-cott)- 

144 pta<;. Kal tclvt ovk eya> fxev Karyyopw, erepoi 
Be irapaXenrovcnv , d\Xd Kayo) Xeyco Kal iravTe^ 
i7riTipL0)cri. teal vp,els crvviare — -/cal ovk opyl^eade. 
i/ceivo yap ireirovQare 7Ty009 A7]p,oa0evrjv avvel- 
diaOe i]Brj ra8iK^p,aTa avrov atcoveiv, ware ov 
davpbd^ere. Bel Be ov% oi/to)?, aXA,' dyavatcrelv 
Kal ripLcopeladai, el %pr] ra Xoiird rfj iroXei KaXws 
e\eiv. 

145 Aevrepov Be /cal iroXv tovtov p,el£ov ahi/cr/pia 
rjBiK7]aev, brt, to ^ovXevTr'iptov to ri}? TroXeax; 
Kal ttjv Brjp,oKpaTiav apBijv eXaOev v(fieX6p,evo<;, 
Kal p,eTt)V€y/c€v eh ©?;/3a? ei? tijv K.aBp,eiav, 
ttjv Kowoaviav twv irpd^ewv to?? Boi&)Ta/?^at<? 
avvdep-evos 1 Kal T7]XiKavTT]v auTos avTa> Bv- 
vaaTeiav KaTeaKevacrev, coo~t rjBrj Traptcov eirl 
to fifjfia tt pea fievaeiv p,ev e<f>r) ottol dv avTa> 

146 Bok?i, kclv firj vp,el<; eK7rep.7rrjT€, el Be t£<? avTw 
twv aTpaTTjycbv avrei/nroi, KaTaBovXovp,evo$ toi><? 
dp^ovTas Kal auvtOi^oov p,i]8ev avTw dvTiXeyeiv, 
BiaBiKacnav k(f)r) ypd^lretv tu> /3np.aTi 7rp6<i to 
o-TpaTi')yiov irXe'toi yap vpud<i dyaOd heft eavTov 
ecf)7] dirb tov /37jp,aTo<; ireirovOevai tj vtto tcov 
OTpaTriyoiv e.K tov GTpaTrjytov. pnaOofyopuiv 8' 
ev tw ^evLK& xevals ^copais, Ka\ ra aTpaTicoTtKa 
XpijpiaTa KXeiTTcov, Kal Toy? pvplovs %evov<; e/c- 
p,io~0ooo~a<i ApLcpLaaevai, 7roXXa 8iap,apTvpop,evov 

1 In connection with their service as commanders of the 
army and navy the generals had a considerable share in the 
responsibility for foreign relations. 

2 The charge is that Demosthenes was in a conspiracy to 
pad the rolls. 

420 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 143-146 

your general, had no authority to plan for the safety 
of his troops. And it is not true that in this I 
alone accuse, while others are silent ; nay, I speak, 
all men blame him, you know the facts — and are 
not angry ! For this is your experience as regards 
Demosthenes : you have so long been accustomed to 
hear of his crimes that they no longer surprise you. 
But it ought not so to be ; }'ou ought to be indignant, 
and to punish him, if the city is to prosper in the 
future. 

But he was guilty of a second and far greater 
crime ; for he stole the senate-house of the city 
and the democracy outright and carried them off to 
Thebes, to the Cadmeia, by his agreement with the 
Boeotarchs for joint control. And he contrived such 
domination for himself that now he came forward 
to the platform and declared that he was going as 
ambassador wherever he chose, whether you sent 
him or not ; and, treating your magistrates as his 
slaves, and teaching them to raise no word of oppo- 
sition against him, he declared that if any of the 
generals should oppose him, 1 he would bring suit 
to settle the claims of the speakers' platform as 
against those of the war office ; for he said you 
owed more benefits to him from the platform than 
to the generals from the war office. And by draw- 
ing pay for empty places in the mercenary force, 2 
by stealing the pay of the troops, and by hiring 
out those ten thousand mercenaries to the Ara- 
phissians 3 against my repeated protests and com- 

3 The administration, by detaching this large body of 
mercenaries and sending them to the immediate aid of the 
Amphissians, gave Philip the opportunity to sweep them 
away before meeting the army of the Athenians and Thebans 
at Ohaeronea. 

421 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Kal cr^eTXid^ovTO^ ev reus e'/c/cX^crtat? epov, 
Trpoaepei^e cfiepcov dvapiraaOevTcov rwv ^evcov 

147 top Kivhvvov airapaaKevw tt} iroXei. tl yap av 
oleade QIXlttttov ev rols totc /caipoi'i ev^acrdai; 

OV %(Opl$ /2eV TTpOS TTjV 7T0\lTlKT]V hllVapiV, Vt»pi9 

S' ev ' A.pL(pLa<rr) irpo^ TOt>? %evov<i SiayayvlaaaOai, 
aOvpLovs he rovs "EWyvas \af3eiv TrjXtKavTt]? 
7r/V»;7?5? Trpoyeyevrjpevrjf;; teal ttjXckovtcov /ca/cwv 
a'trios yevopievos, ArjpoaOevrjs ovk ayaira el pvr) 
hiKTjv Be&wKev, a\V el purj KaX ^pvau) oiecpavte 
<TTe(pava>0i']<jeTai, ayava/crel' ovS' i/cavov iariv 
avrw evavrtov vpwv KrjpvTTeadai, a\V el p,rj rcov 
'RWijvoov evavTiov avapprjdijcreTai, tout aya- 
vaKTei. ovr(o<i w? koi/ce iroviipa (f>vo~i<;, p,eyd\rj$ 
e^ovaia<i eirikafiopevri, SrjpoaLas cnrepyd^eTai 
avp(f>opd<i. 

148 Tpirov Se KaX twv Trpoeipr/pevcov pueyiarov ecrriv 
o peWw Xeyetv. ^iXhtttov yap ov Kaiafypovovv- 
TOf TO)v JLWrjvcov, ovS" dyvoovvro<i, ov yap rjv 
aavveros, on irept roiv vTrapyovrwv dyaOwv ev 
i)pepa<$ piKp5> piepeo SLaycovietTai, koX hid ravra 
ftovXopevov 7roL7]aaa0at elprjvrjv Kal Trpeo-f3eias 
dirodreWeLV pueWovros, Kal twv dp^ovrcov rcov 
ev ©»7/9at5 (pofiovpei'wv tov eirioina kcvSvvov — 
etVoTft)?* ov yap prjrcop dcrrpdrevTOs Kal Xnroov 
tt)V tu^cv auTou? evovOerrjcrev, aAA,' o Qwkikos 
TroXepio? SeKerrj? yeyova)? delp-vrjarov iratheiav 

149 auToi/? eiraihevae — tovtwv e^ovrcov ovtcos alcrOo- 
pevos Ar)p.oo-0evr]<i, Kal rovs BoiWTttp^a? vrro- 
irrevaa<i peWeiv elpr]vr\v Ihlci TroteiaOai, %pvalov 
dvev avmv irapa Qiknnrov \a/3oi>Tas, dftuoTOv 
7]yi]o-dp,evo<i elvai el tcvos diroXet^O/jaeTac 8copo- 

422 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 146-149 

plaints in the assembly — when the mercenaries had 
thus been carried off, he rushed the city all unpre- 
pared into the mist of peril. What, think you, 
would Philip have prayed for at that crisis ? Would 
it not have been that he might in one place fight 
against the city's forces, and in another, in Amphissa, 
against the mercenaries, and thus close his hand 
upon the Greeks already discouraged by so great 
a disaster ? And Demosthenes, who is responsible 
for such misfortunes as that, is not content with 
escaping punishment, but is miserable unless he shall 
be crowned with a golden crown ! Nor is he satisfied 
that the crown shall be announced in your presence, 
but if it is not to be proclaimed before the Hellenes, 
he is miserable over that. So true it seems to be 
that a wicked nature, when it has laid hold on great 
license, works out public disaster. 

But the third and greatest of the crimes that I 
have mentioned is that which I am about to de- 
scribe. Philip did not despise the Greeks, and he 
was well aware (for he was not without understand- 
ing) that he was about to contend in a little fraction 
of a day for all that he possessed ; for that reason 
he wished to make peace, and was on the point of 
sending envoys. The officials at Thebes also were 
frightened at the impending danger — naturally, 
for they had no run-away orator and deserter to 
advise them, but the ten years' Phocian war had 
taught them a lesson not to be forgotten. Now 
when Demosthenes saw that such was the situation, 
suspecting that the Boeotarchs were about to con- 
clude a separate peace and get gold from Philip 
without his being in it, and thinking that life was 
not worth living if he was to be left out of any act 

423 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

SoKias, dvain]S-)]aa'i iv rfj eiacXrjcnq, ovSevbs 
avOpdyrrcov XeyovTos ovO^ &>9 Set iroieicrOai 7rpb<; 
QiXiinrov elprjvrjv ovd' &>? ou Set, dXX" a>? (pero 
/cr/pwypd ti tovto 1 Tot? BottoTap^at 1 ? Trpo/aipvTTWv 
dvatyepeiv avrw ra peprj tS)v Xyppdrcov, 8iu>p,vvTO 

150 tt]V 'Adijvdv, rjv ob? koi/ce <£>eiSia<; evepyoXafielv 
rjpydaaro ical eveiriopKelv A?/ poaOevei, rj p.r)V, el 
Tt9 ipel &)? XPh ''"P ? <£>Lki7nrov elpijvrjv nroir)- 
aaadai, dird^eiv et<? to 8eapLcoT?jpiov i7rcXap36pevo<; 
tmv rpiyoiv, diropipovpevos tt\v K.Xeo(p6i)VTo<; 
7T oXn eiav, 69 eVt tov 737)09 AaKe8aip,oviov<; TroXe- 
p,ov, co? Xeyerai, rrjv ttoXlv diroSXeaev. &)<? S' 01) 
TTpoaelyov avrq> ol dp^ovre^ ol ev rals ®?7/3at9, 
dXXa teal rows (TTpctTLcoTas toi)? vperepovs nrdXiv 
dvearpeyjrav e^eXrjXvOoTas, Iva /3ovXevarja9e irepl 

151 t?}? elpi]vr]<i, evravO* 976*77 Travrdiracnv etceppwv 
eyevero, teal irapeXOcbv eirl to fir/pa TrpoZoras tcov 
'JLXXijvmv direKaXei toi>9 Botforap^a?, /cal ypd- 
"freiv efprj yJrrjcpio-pLa, o rots TroXeplois ov8e7rd)7roT 
dvTifiXe-tyas, irepireiv vp,d<; Trpeafieis et? ©ty#a? 
atT)]crovra<; ©7?/3atou9 SloSov eVt <&LXnnrov. virep- 
aiaxwdevTes Be ol ev ®r)(3ai<i dp^ovTes, /zr) 
Bo^coaiv &>9 d\r)6a)<i eivai irpoSoTCU tmv J^XXijvcov, 
dirb p,ev tt}? elprjvr)<; direr pdirovro, eVt Be ttjv 
irapdra^tv wppurjerav. 

152 y 'Evda Br) /cal twv dvBpwv rcov dyadwv d^iov 
eariv eTnpuvr\odr]vai, ou? ovto<; ddvrcov /cal d/caX- 
Xteprjrcov ovtcov tcov lepow e/c7rep,yjra^ eVt tov 
irpohifkov k'lpBvvov, eToXpu^ae T019 BpaireTais 
iroal koX XeXonroai ttjv rdfjiv dva/3a<; eirl tov 

1 K-fipvy/xd ti tovto Blass : K7)pvy/j.aTi tovt? or tovto icfipvy/j.d 
t< MSS. 

424 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 149-152 

of bribery, he jumped up in the assembly, when no 
man was saying a word either in favour of making 
peace with Philip or against it ; and with the idea ot 
serving a sort of notice on the Boeotarchs that they 
must turn over to him his share of the gain, he 
swore by Athena (whose statue, it seems, Pheidias 
wrought expressly that Demosthenes might have it 
to perjure himself by and to make profit of) that 
if any one should say that we ought to make peace 
with Philip, he would seize him by the hair and 
drag him to prison — in this imitating the politics of 
Cleophon, who, they tell us, in the time of the war 
against the Lacedaemonians, brought ruin to the 
state. But when the officials in Thebes would pay 
no attention to him, but even turned your soldiers 
back again when they had marched out, for they 
wished to give you an opportunity to deliberate con- 
cerning peace, then indeed he became frantic, and 
went forward to the platform and stigmatised the 
Boeotarchs as traitors to Hellas, and declared that 
he would move a decree — he, who never looked on 
the face of an enemy in arms ! — that you should 
send ambassadors to Thebes to ask them to give you 
free passage through their country for the march 
against Philip. But the officials in Thebes, ashamed 
lest they should seem in reality to be traitors to 
Hellas, turned from the thought of peace, and threw 
themselves into the war. 

Here indeed it is fitting that we should pay the 
tribute of memory to those brave men whom he, re- 
gai'dless of the smouldering and ill-omened sacrifices, 
sent forth into manifest danger — he who, when they 
had fallen, dared to set his cowardly and run-away 



425 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rdcfyov top Twv reXeuTrjadi'Tcov, eyKcopud^eiv rr/v 
€K6iVQ)V dpenjv* &) Trpos fiev rd p,eydXa kcu 
(Tirouhala twi' epywv twv dvOpcbiroov diravTCdv l 
d^p^aroTaje, 7rpb<; 8e ryv ev rots Xbyots roXp^av 
Oavftaaicorare, eTn^etprjaei^ 2 clvtikcl fxdXa, /3\e- 
7T(ov ei9 rd rovrcov Trpbawrra, Xeyetv &>? Set ere eirl 
rats rfj'i iroXecot avpifiopais are^avovaOat; edv 
cV o5to? ^eyy, vp.et<; vTropbevelre, kcu avvcvnoOa- 
veZrcu rots reXevrijcraaiv &>? eoiKe kcu ?) vp,erepa 

153 p,v/]pL7]; yeveaOe Bi] p,ot p.iKpbv y^pbvov tt]v Scdvoiav 
p,rj ev tw Bi/caaTrjpLO), aU' ev tm dedrpco, kcu 
vopuaad opdv tTpolovra rbv KijpvKa kcu rrjv eK 
rod ■^rr)(f)iap:aTO<i dvapprjcnv p,eX\ovaav ylyveaOai, 
kcu Xoyiaaade Trorep' oleade toi><? ot/cetof? rebv 
TeXevrr/aavrcov TrXelco haKpva d$y)creiv eVt reus 
TpaycpSiais koX to?9 rjpwiKol 1 ; irdOecu toI? pueid 
tclvt eireiGiovcnv, r) eVt rfj rrjs 7ro\e&)9 dyvco- 

154 pbocrvvrj. Ti9 yap ovk av dXyijcreiev dvdpcoiro^ 
r KXXrjv /cal ircu&evdels eXev0epi(o<;, z dvafivrjaOel^ 
ev tw Oedrpw eKelvb ye, el /j,i]8ev erepov, otl ravrrj 
irore rr} rjpbepa, p,eXXovTcov wtnrep vvvl twv rpaya>- 
Scbv yiyveadcu, or evvopuetTO pidXXov r) ttoXis kcu 
fSeXnoai TrpoardTcus e^prjro, irpoeXOcov 6 Krjpvf; 
kcu 7rapaaT7]adpLevo i i tovs opefjavovs aiv ol TTcnepes 
rjaav ev rS> irdXepLW TereXevT>~iKOTes, veavio-Kovs 
TravoTrXia KeKoapLr/pbevovs, eKrjpvrre to koXXicttov 
Ki]pvyp,a kcu 7rpoTpe7rTiK(t)TCiTOV 7T/90? dpeTtjv, OTL 
Tovahe rovs veavlcrKov^, a>v ol Trarepes ereXeurrj- 
o~av ev T& TToXepitp dvSpes dyaOoX yevoptevoi, pe^pi 

1 tuv avdpdoTraiv airavrcvv the editor : iravraiv avdpunruv or 
airavTcov avdpwiroiv or twv avdpumwv MSS. 

2 emxeivriaeis Reiske : eVixeipTereip £0e\ets or £Tnx ei PV<>'*"' 
iSeX-haeis MSS. * iKtvOeplws Cobet : i\ev8tpa>s MSS. 

426 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 152-154 

feet upon their tomb and eulogise the valour of the 
dead. 1 O man of all mankind most useless for great 
and serious deeds, but for boldness of words most 
wonderful, will you presently undertake to look this 
jury in the face and say that over the disasters of 
the city you must be crowned ? And, gentlemen, 
if he does, will you endure it? Are we to believe 
that you and your memory are to die with the dead ? 
I ask you to imagine for a little time that you are 
not in the court-room, but in the theatre, and to 
imagine that you see the herald coming forward to 
make the proclamation under the decree ; consider 
whether you believe the relatives of the dead will 
shed more tears over the tragedies and the sufferings 
of the heroes soon afterward to be presented on the 
stage, or over the blindness of the city. For what 
Greek, nurtured in freedom, would not mourn as he 
sat in the theatre and recalled this, if nothing more, 
that once on this day, when as now the tragedies 
were about to be performed, in a time when the 
city had better customs and followed better leaders, 
the herald would come forward and place before you 
the orphans whose fathers had died in battle, young 
men clad in the panoply of war ; and he would utter 
that proclamation so honourable and so incentive to 
valour : " These young men, whose fathers showed 
themselves brave men and died in war, have been 

1 Demosthenes was elected to pronounce the eulogy at the 
public funeral of those who fell at Chaeronea. 

427 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

p,ev tffir)*; 6 St}/j.o? erpe^e, vvvl Be KadoirXlaa^ 
TrjBe Trf TravoirXia, dcpirjaiv dyaOfj tv^V rpe- 
TreaOcu iirl ra eavT&v, Kal KaXel eh irpoeBpiav. 

155 tots pa> ravr eKi'jpvTTev, dXX ov vvv, dXXd 
Trapacrrrjadpevos tov t% 6pcf)avi,a<; toi<; iratalv 
alriov, tl tot dvepel, 77 ti cpOey^eTat; Kal yap 
idv avra Bie^Li] to. etc tov -^ryjC^iapaTo^ irpoaTa- 
ypara, dX)C ov to 7 eK t?)? dXr)6eia$ ala^pbv 
auoinjaeTaLy dXXd rdvavrta Bo^ei rfj rod Ki'ipuKO? 
(ficovf) cpdeyyeo~6ai, on TovBe tov dvBpa, el B>] 
zeal ovto<; dvi]p, aTecpavot 6 orjfws 6 'A.0ijva[a)V 
dpeTrjs eveica—Tov fcd/cio-Tov, teal dvBpayadias 
eve/ca — tov dvavBpov koX XeXoiiroTa ti]v tu^lv. 

156 p,rj 777309 Aio? /cal Oewv, Ik€T€vq) vpds, w avSpes 
' AOrjvalot, puy-j Tpoiraiov laTaTe dcf> vpcov avrwv 
ev ttj tov Aiovvcrov op^rjcrTpa, p.rjBi' aipeiTe irapa- 
votas ivavriov twv KXXr)V(ov tov Brjpcov tov AOrj- 
vai(oi>, /i>;o° v7ropipivrjaK€T6 twv dviaTcov /cal 
dvrjfceo-Tcov teatewv tou? TaXanrcopov? ©//^atou?, 
ou? cfrevyovTas l Bid tovtov vnroBeBej^Oe ttj iroXei, 
d)V iepd Kal Te/cva /cal Ta^ou? dircoXeo-ev r) At]- 
poaOevovs BcopoBoKia Kal to (BaaiXiKov y^pvaiov 

157 dXX €7reiBr) toi<; o~d>p,aoiv ou irapeyeveaOe, dXXd 
Tat? ye Biavobafi diroftXe"tyaT avTOiv et? Ta<? 
avp,(f)opd<;, Kal vopicaO^ opdv dXio-Kopevr/v tt\v 
iT0K.1v, tci^wv KaTaaKacpds, epbTrprjcreis oIkiwv, 
dyopevas yvvaiKas Kal 7ratSa? et? BovXeiav, 
TrpeaftvTas dv6pa>7rov<;, 7Tpea/3vTiBa<; yvvaiKa? 
oyjre peTa puavddvovTas ttjv eXevOeptav, KXatovTas, 
iKeTevovTa<; u/xa?, 6pyL%op,evovs ov tois Tipcopov- 

1 (pevyovras Franke : <pvy6vra$ MSS. 
428 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 154-157 

supported by the state until they have come of age ; 
and now, clad thus in full armour by their fellow 
citizens, they are sent out with the prayers of the 
city, to go each his way ; and they are invited to 
seats of honour in the theatre." This was the pro- 
clamation then, but not to-day. For when the 
herald has led forward the man who is responsible 
for making the children orphans, what will he pro- 
claim? What words will he utter? For if he shall 
recite the mere dictates of the decree, yet the truth, 
ashamed, will refuse to be silent, and we shall seem 
to hear it crying out in words which contradict the 
voice of the herald, " This man, if man he can be 
called, the Athenian people crown, the basest — ' for 
his virtue ' ; and ' for his nobility ' — the coward and 
desei'ter." No! by Zeus and the gods, do not, my 
fellow citizens, do not, I beseech you, set up in 
the orchestra of Dionysus a memorial of your own 
defeat ; do not in the presence of the Greeks convict 
the Athenian people of having lost their reason ; do 
not remind the poor Thebans of their incurable and 
irreparable disasters, men who, exiled through De- 
mosthenes' acts, found refuge with you, when their 
shrines and children and tombs had been destroyed 
by Demosthenes' taking of bribes and by the Persian 
gold. 1 But since you were not present in person, yet 
in imagination behold their disaster ; imagine that 
you see their city taken, the razing of their walls, the 
burning of their homes ; their women and children 
led into captivity ; their old men, their aged matrons, 
late in life learning to forget what freedom means ; 
weeping, supplicating you, angry not so much at 

1 Aeschines assumes that Demosthenes' opposition to 
Macedon was paid for by the king of Persia. 

429 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCH1NES 

p,evois> dWa tois tovtcov ciItlois, eiriaK^nrTovTas 
fir]8evl Tpo7ra> rbv ttjs 'EWaSo? aXeirrjptov are- 
<f>avovv, aWa zeal tov hai/xova /cat rt]V rv^rjv tijv 
avparapaKoXovOovaav ra> dvOpcoTra) (pu\d£aa0cu. 

158 ovt€ iroXts yap ovt dvrjp lhtc!)T7]s ovhels irdnroTe 
koXws dinpWaZe Ai]p,oo0evei (rvp,/3ovX(p -%prjcrd- 
p,evos. vp-els he, to dvhpes * AOrjvaiot, ovk aitryy- 
veaOe, el eiri p,ev tovs 7ropdp,eas tovs eh %a\apuva 
TropOp-evovTas vop,ov edeaQe, edv tls avTcov dicaiv 
iv ray iTopw ttXolov dvcnpe-ty-r), touto) pLr] e^elvcu 
irdXiv TTopOpiel yeveaOat, i'va p,7]hels avTOcrxehid^i) 
els rd roiv 'EWijvwv ad>p,ara, tov he. tt]v 'KWdha 
zeal tyjv ttoXiv dphrjv dvarerpo(f)OTa, tovtov edaere 
irdXiv direvOvvecv rd /coivd; 

159 "\va S' elirw ical irepl tov rerdprov /caipov ical 
T(bv vvvl Ka0€o~Tt]tcoT(ov irpay pidTcov, e/celvo vpuds 
viropLvrjcrai f3ov\op,at, on Ar)pLoo-0evT]s ov tijv drrb 
(TTparoTrehou puovov rd^iv eXtirev, dWa /cal ttjv 
eic tt)? iroXews, Tpirjprj irpocr\a/3cbv vp.cov, ical tovs 
"EWrji'a? dpyvpo\oyijaas. /caTayayovcnjs S" av- 
tov els ttjv 7ro\iv Trjs d7rpoo-ho/aJTOv aooTTjplas, 
tovs p-ev rrpwTOvs ^povovs viroTpopios rjv dvOpco- 
7T09, 1 Aral Trapicov rjpuOvrjS £7rl to fir/p-a, elprjvo- 
(fivXaica lipids avTOV i/ceXeve yeipoTOvelv bp,els &e 2 
ouS' eVl to. yfn]<picrp,aTa elaTe to Ai]p,ocrdevovs 

1 a.vBpu)iros Markland : dvepwiros MSS. 

* vfj.fi! 8e Taylor : v/j-els Se /caret fiiv tovs irpdrovs xpSvovs 
MSS. cp. the second line above. 

430 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 157-159 

those who are taking vengeance upon them, as at 
the men who are responsible for it all ; and calling 
on you by no means to crown the curse of Hellas, 
but rather to guard yourselves against the evil 
genius and the fate that ever pursue the man. For 
there is no city, there is no private man — not one — 
that has ever come off safe after following Demos- 
thenes' counsel. You have passed a law, fellow 
citizens, governing the men who steer the boats 
across the strait to Salamis ; if one of them by 
accident overturns a boat in the strait, your law 
permits him no longer to be a ferryman, in order 
that no man may be careless of Greek lives ; are you 
not then ashamed if this man, who has utterly 
overturned the city and all Hellas, if this man is to 
be permitted again to pilot the ship of state ? 

But that I may speak concerning the fourth period 
also, and the present situation, I wish to remind you 
of this fact, that Demosthenes not only deserted his 
post in the army, but his post in the city also ; for he 
took possession of one of your triremes and levied 
money upon the Greeks. 1 But when our unexpected 
safety 2 had brought him back to the city, during the 
first months the man was timid, and he came forward 
half-dead to the platform and urged you to elect him 
"preserver of the peace." But as for you, you would 
not even let resolutions that were passed bear the 

1 Demosthenes says (On the Grown, § 248) that after the 
battle of Chaeronea the measures that were taken for the 
defence of the city were by his motions, and that he was 
also elected grain-commissioner. He may well have made a 
hurried voyage to the allies to raise money and supplies for 
the emergency. 

2 Philip, contrary to Demosthenes' expectation, did not 
advance on Athens, and he offered moderate terms of peace. 

431 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eiriypdcpeiv ovo/xa, aXXa Navcri/cXet tovto irpoa- 
€Tdrr€T€' vvvl S' 7]Stj /ecu (TT€(f)avovaOai a^ioi. 

160 'E7retS^ h' €T€\evTT]cre fiev tPLXnrTros, y A\e£av- 
hpos £' et'9 ttjv dp^rjv /carecrTr), ird\tv av repa- 
T€v6fievo<; iepd fxev Ihpvaaro YLavcravLov, et9 air Lav 
he evayyeX'twv dvaLas tyjv /3ov\tjv KaTecn^aev, 
eircowpbLav S' 'AXe^dvhpo) M.apyLTt]v eriOero, 
direro\p,a he Xeyew to? ov KivrjOi'icreraL etc Ma«e- 
hovLas' dyairav yap avTOv l iv UeXXr) irepfna- 
Tovvra /ecu ra airXdy^ya cpuXaTTOVTa. /cat ravrl 
Xeyeiv e(f>7) ovk elicd^wv, dXX d«/3i/3co? et'Sco?, qti 
aip^aTo^ eanv i) dperrj w>via, avTos ovk e^wv alp,a, 
Kal dewpoyv rbv ' AXe^avhpov ovk Ik t% 'AXe^dv- 
hpov <j>vcre(o<;, a\V Ik t?)? eavrov dvavhp'ias. 

101 7]8r) 8' eTp-r/(f)io-p,ei>(0v %erra\wv iiriaTpaTeveiv iirl 
ttjv rjfieTepav ttoXiv, zeal tov veaviaKov to irpwrov 
Trapo^vvOevro^ elKOT(o<;, eTretht] irepl ©?;/3a? rjv to 
CTpaTOTrehov, 7rpeo~/3evTr}<; vcp vpuoiv ^eipoTOV^dei^, 
dirohpa<i eK p,eaov tov 1&i9aipoivo<; rjKev vtto- 
o~Tpeyjra<;, ovt iv elprjvrf ovt iv 7roXep,co %pr)<rifiov 
eavTov Trapeywv. Kal to irdvTcov heivoTaTOV, 
vp,el$ ftev tovtov ov -npovhoTe, ouS' eldaaTe KpiOrj- 
vai iv tw tcov 'FjWtjvcdv avvehpLw, o5to? h' u/xas" 
vvvl irpohehoiKev, e'cirep dXr]0F] iaTiv a XeyeTai. 

1 avrbv Blass : avThv tcp-q (or ecprjffe) MSS. 

1 Pausanias was the man who assassinated Philip. 

2 Margites was the name of a caricature of Achilles in a 
poem that passed under the name of Homer. " Demosthenes 
asserted, then, that Alexander, in his aspiration to be a 
second Achilles, would never get farther than to become 
a caricature of him." (Richardson.) 

3 Perhaps a sneer at Alexander's studies under Aristotle, 
the "Peripatetic." 

432 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 159-161 

name of Demosthenes as the mover, but gave that 
honour to Nausicles. And yet, to-day, here is Demos- 
thenes actually demanding a crown ! 

But when Philip was dead and Alexander had come 
to the throne, Demosthenes again put on prodigious 
airs and caused a shrine to be dedicated to Pausa- 
nias x and involved the senate in the charge of having 
offered sacrifice of thanksgiving as for good news. 
And he nicknamed Alexander "Margites";- and had 
the effrontery to say that Alexander would never stir 
out of Macedonia, for he was content, he said, to 
saunter around 3 in Pella, and keep watch over the 
omens ; and he said this statement was not based on 
conjecture, but on accurate knowledge, for valour was 
to be purchased at the price of blood. For Demos- 
thenes, having no blood himself, formed his judgment 
of Alexander, not from Alexander's nature, but from 
his own cowardice. But when now the Thessalians 
had voted to march against our city, and the young 
Alexander was at first bitterly angry — naturally 4 — 
and when the army was near Thebes, Demosthenes, 
who had been elected ambassador by you, turned back 
when half-way across Cithaeron and came running 
home — useless in peace and war alike ! And worst 
of all : while you did not surrender him 5 nor allow 
him to be brought to trial in the synod of the Greeks, 
he has betrayed you now, if current report is true. 

4 Philip's death was immediately followed by revolutionary 
movements centring in Thebes and Athens. The reference 
here is to Alexander's sudden descent upon Thebes, with the 
Thessalians as his supporters. 

6 After the destruction of Thebes and the suppression of 
the revolt elsewhere, Alexander demanded the surrender 
of Demosthenes and other anti-Macedonian Athenian states- 
men. 

433 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

162 &)? yap (fraaip oi TldpaXoi Kal oi 7rpea[3evcravT€<; 
7rpo? ' AXetjavSpov, Kal to 7rpdyp,a etVoTw? iricrTev- 
erai, eari Tt? ^ApiaTtcov HXaTaiKos, o tov 
' ApicrTo(3ov\ov tov (pap/xaKoiTdoXov wo?, el T£9 
dpa /cat vpoiv yiyvu>aK€L. ovro<; irore o veavLcr/cos 
irepayv Tr/v 6-^rtv BtcHpipcov yevo/xevos (p/crjae ttoXvv 
%povov ev rfj Arjpocr6evov<; oliclq, 6 ri Se Ttdo-yjMV 
7] TrpaTTCov, dp,(pi/3oXo<; rj aWla, Kal to irpdypLa 
ov$cl/jL(o<; evo-^rjpov epuol Xeyeiv. ovtos, &>? eyu> 
d/covo), fjyvo7)p:evo<> oo-tis itot earl Kal 71009 /3e/3t<w- 
«0J9, tov 'AXei;av8pov viroTpexet* Kal nrX^aid^ei 
ifceivo). 8id tovtov ypdp,p,aTa 7rep,y\ra<; Arjp,o- 
o-0iv>i<; ft)? 'AXe^avhpov, dhetdv tivcl evprjTai real 
/ca.TaX\ayd<i, Kal 7roXXr}v ttjv KoXa/ceiav ire- 
TroiijTai. 

163 'E/cei#ez> 8e dewprjaaTe &>9 opuoiov iaTi to irpdypa 
Trj aWiq. el yap tl tovtwv efypovei Arjpoadevris 
Kal Tro\ep,LKO)<i el^ev, wairep Kal §r\ai, irpos AXe^- 
avhpov, Tpets avTW Kaipoi KaXXiaToi irapayeyo- 
vacriv, oiv ovSevl (fcaiveTai Kexpijpevos. eh pev o 
TrpwTOS, ot eh ttjv dpyrjv ov ird\ai KadeaTTjKoos 
'AXei^avSpos, aKaTaaKevcov avTw twv ihicov ovtcov, 
eh tt)v 'Aaiav 8ie/3rj, i]Kp.a^e S' 6 tmv Hepacov 
f3aaiXev<i Kal vaval Kal %pijp,acn Kal ire^fi aTpa- 
Tcd, ao~p,evo<; S' dv ijp,d<; eh ttjv av p,p,a-)(iav Trpoae- 
he^aTo 8td toi/9 eTTi4>epopievov<i eavTw kivSvvovs. 
et7ra9 tlvo, evTavda Xoyov, At) p6adeve<;, rj eypayjrds 
tl ^n']())to-p,a; jBovXei ae 60) (f>o/3r]df]vai Kal XPV" 



1 The citizen crew of the dispatch-ship Paralus. 

2 The " Plataean status" was that of foreigners (sla% r es in 
some cases) who had received citizenship in return for services 

434 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 162-163 

For, as the people of the Paralus say, 1 and those who 
have heen ambassadors to Alexander — and the story 
is sufficiently credible — there is one Aristion, a man 
of Plataean status, 2 son of Aristobulus the apothecary, 
known perhaps to some of you. This young man, 
distinguished for extraordinary beauty of person, 
once lived a long time in Demosthenes' house (what 
he used to do there or what was done to him, is a 
scandal that is in dispute, and the story is one that 
would be quite improper for me to repeat). Now 
I am told that this Aristion, his origin and personal 
history being unknown to the king, is worming him- 
self into favour with Alexander and getting access 
to him. Through him Demosthenes has sent a letter 
to Alexander, and has secured a certain degree of 
immunity for himself, and reconciliation ; and he has 
carried his flattery to great lengths. 

But see from the following how the facts tally with 
the charge. For if Demosthenes had been bent on 
war with Alexander, as he claims to have been, or had 
any thought of it, three of the best opportunities in 
the world have been offered to him, and, as you see, 
he has not seized one of them. One, the first, was 
when Alexander, newly come to the throne, and not 
yet fairly settled in his personal affairs, crossed into 
Asia. The king of Persia was at the height of his 
power then, with ships and money and troops, and 
he would gladly have received us into his alliance 
because of the dangers that were threatening him. 
But did you, Demosthenes, at that time say a word ? 
Did you move a decree ? Shall I assume that you 

to the state. The status wa9 named " Plataean" after those 
Plataean exiles who were made Athenian citizens after the 
destruction of Plataea in the fifth year of the Peloponnesian 
war. 

435 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

aaadai t<m cravrov rpoirw; kclitoi pyTopiterjV Sei- 

164 Xtav Brjpoo-ios teaipos ov/c dvap,evei. dXX' eVeto/; 
Trdar) rfj Bvvdpec Aapelos ieaTef3e/3>j/eei, 6 B AXe%- 
avBpos rjv direLXrippevo^ ev KikiKoa irdvTwv evBerjs, 
a)? ecprjcrOa ai>, avTiKCt pudXa $ epbeXXev, ft)? r)v 6 
irapd aov Xoyo?, avpnrctTrjdtjcreaOai vtto tt)? Tlep- 
<TIK>]<; L7TTT0V, T7)V Be crrjv drjBiav rj ttoXis OVK 
e\d}pei teal ra? eVt<TTo\a? a? i^njpTr}fi^vo<i e'/c tmv 
Ba/ervXcov Trepirjeis, eiriBeiievvwv rial to epov nrpoa- 
(ottov ft)? ircTreTrXrjypbevov teal dOvpovvros, ieai 
ypvaoieeptov dirofcaXwv /ecu /eareo-TecpOai <f>ao~/ccov, 
el ti TTTaio-p,a avp^jaeTai ' ' AXe^dvBpcp, ovB ev- 
ravda eirpa^as ovBev, dXX' et? tivcl /eatpbv dve- 
fidXXov KaXXid). 

165 c T7T6/o/3a? Toivvv diravra ravra, virep tmv vvvl 
KadeaTTjKorcov Xe£a>. Aa/eeBaipovioi p,ev teat to 
gevi/ebv &rrk'TV%ov p>dxv> KCU BiefyOeipav tou? irepu 
Koppayov arpaTidira<i, 'HXetot S' auTOi? crvp,peT€- 
ftdXovTO real 'A%atot irdvres irXipj UeXXr)vewv, 
zeal 'ApteaBla irdaa irXrjv MeyaA,*/? 7ro\e&>?, avrr) 
Be iiroXiop/eeiTO teal iea6' e/edo-Trjv r)p,epav eTri.Bo^o<i 
rjv dXSivai, 6 o° ' 'AXe^avBpos etjco t??? dpterov teal 
tt}? olieovpevr}<; oXiyov Belv irdarj^ pedeio-rrjieei, o 
Be 'AvTiVaTpo? ttoXvv y^pbvov avvrjye o-TparoireBov, 
to 8' eo-6p.evov dBrjXov rjv. evravd' r)puv aTroBeigiv 



1 The coast of Cilicia ; the time referred to is that preced- 
ing the battle of Issus. 

43 6 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 163-165 

followed your natural disposition and were frightened? 
And yet the public opportunity waits not for the 
orator's fears. But when Darius was come down 
to the coast 1 with all his forces, and Alexander 
was shut up in Cilicia in extreme want, as you your- 
self said, and was, according to your statement, on 
the point of being trampled under the hoofs of the 
Persian horse, and when there was not room enough 
in the city to contain your odious demonstrations 
and the letters that you carried around, dangling 
them from your fingers, while you pointed to my 
face as showing my discouragement and consterna- 
tion, and in anticipation of some mishap to Alexander 
you called me "gilded horn," and said the garland 
was already on my head, 2 not even then did you take 
one step, but deferred it all for some more favourable 
opportunity. 

But I will pass over all this, and speak of the most 
recent events. The Lacedaemonians and their mer- 
cenary force had been successful in battle and had 
destroyed the forces of Corrhagus ; 3 the Eleans and 
the Achaeans,all but the people of Pellene, had come 
over to them, and so had all Arcadia except Megalo- 
polis, and that city was under siege and its capture 
was daily expected. Meanwhile Alexander had with- 
drawn to the uttermost regions of the North, almost 
beyond the borders of the inhabited world, and 
Antipater was slow in collecting an army ; the whole 
outcome was uncertain. Pray set forth to us, Demos- 

2 The Greeks gilded the horns of cattle that were about to 
be sacrificed, and put garlands on their heads. 

3 Corrhagus was the Macedonian commander. The refer- 
ence is to the Spartan revolt against Macedonia, which had 
been put down by Antipater shortly before the case of 
Aeschines against Ctesiphon came to trial. 

437 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

TTOirjcrac, Arjp.6a0eve^, tl ttot r)v a errpa^a^, rj tl 
ttot ?]v a kXeye*;- /cal el fiovXei, Trapayu>pu> aoi 

166 tov ftf)p,aTO<; eto? av etV^?. eireihrj he aLy&s, otl 
p.ev airopels, avyyvcopLr/v e%co ctol, a he. tot eXeyes, 
eyco vvvl Xe^co. ov /xe/xvrjaOe avTOV ra puapd /cal 
airiOava prjfiaTa, a 7r<u? Trod' vpcel'i, Si aihtjpoi, 
€KapT€peiT€ d/cpocopLevoi; ot €<pt] irapeXOcov " 'Ayu,- 
TreXovpyovai Tive<} tijv ttoXiv, dvaT€T/xi]KaaL Tives 
ra icXt']p,aTa to. tov hrjp,ov, inroTeTfirjTai to, vevpa 
TOiv TrpaypuaTcov, (poppioppacpov/xeda, iirl to, o~Tevd 

167 Tives irpoyTov loairep Ta? /3eXova$ hieipovat" Tav- 
ra he tl ccttlv, to KLvahos; pijp,aTa r) davfiaTa; 
/cal TrdXiv oVe kv/cXw Trepchivodv aeavTov iirl tov 
fti'lp.aTO<; eXeyes, a)<? avTiirpaTToov 'AXe^dvhprp- 
" 'OpioXoyoo tcl Aa/coovi/ca avaTTjaai, o/moXoyco 
BeTraXot"? ical Tleppaifiovs dcpiaTavaL." av ®er- 
TaXovs cKpicrTuvai; av yap av KcopLr/v cnroaTi)- 
creta?; av yap av 7rpoaeX0oi<i fir) otl 7Ty30? ttoXiv, 
dXXa 777)09 oliciav, ottov klvSvvos TrpoaeaTLv; dXX 1 
el fiev ttov xp/jpiaTa dvaXicr/ceTat,, tr poo /caB U&'jaei, 
irpd^iv he avhpos ov Trpd^eis' edv 6" avTOfiaTov tl 
avfififi, TrpoairoLijar) ical aavTov eVt to yeyevrj- 
fievov eTrtypd-^reis' av 8" eXOrj (po/3o<; 7V?, diro- 
hpdarj- av he dapp/jacofiev, hooped? aiT?;<xei<? /cal 
Xpvaovs aTecpdvovs. 1 

168 Nat, dXXa hr/pLOTi/cos eo~Tiv. av fiev tolvvv 77-/009 
Tijv eixjujpicav ai/Tov toov Xoycov d7rop3Xe7njTe, e£a- 

1 xpucoOs (TTecpavovs Weidner : XP VCT0 ? S (rrecpavois (or xpuffoDs 
<TT£(pi.vous) OTttyavovoOai (or a|iw<xe«s ffTMpavovffdai) MSS. 

438 






AGAINST CTESIPHON, 165-168 

thenes, what in the world there was that you did 
then, or what in the world there was that you said. 
I will yield the platform to you, if you wish, until 
you have told us. You are silent. I can well under- 
stand your embarrassment. But what you said then, 
I myself will tell now. Do you not remember, 
gentlemen, his disgusting and incredible words ? Ye 
men of iron, how had you ever the endurance to 
listen to them ! When he came forward and said, 
" Certain men are pruning the city, certain men have 
trimmed off the tendrils of the people, the sinews of 
the state have been cut, we are being matted and 
sewed up, certain men are first drawing us like needles 
into tight places." What are these things, you 
beast? Are they words or monstrosities? And again 
when you whirled around in a circle on the platform 
and said, pretending that you were working against 
Alexander, " I admit that I organized the Laconian 
uprising, I admit that I am bringing about the revolt 
of the Thessalians and the Perrhaebi." You cause a 
revolt of the Thessalians ? What ! Could you cause 
the revolt of a village ? Would you actually approach 
— let us talk not about a city— would you actually 
approach a house, where there was danger ? But if 
money is being paid out anywhere, you will lay siege 
to the place ; a man's deed you will never do. If 
any good-fortune come of itself, you will lay claim to 
it, and sign your name to the thing after it has been 
done ; but if any danger approach, you will run 
away ; and then if we regain confidence, you will 
call for rewards and crowns of gold. 

Yes, but he is a friend of the people ! If now you 
attend only to the plausible sound of his words, you 



439 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

7raTr)6?]a€o-0e, wairep /cal irpbrepov, edv K elq ttjv 
(f)vcrcv teal ttjv dXt']6eiav, ov/c i^aTrarrjOi'iaeo'de. 
eiceivo)<; 8e drroXd^ere irap avrov Xbyov. iyo) puev 
/ie#' vp-wv Xoyiovp,ai a Set virdp^ai iv rrj cpvaei 
ru> SrjpLOTiKu) dvSpl teal acocppovi, /cal irdXiv dvri- 
6)]<tco rrolbv riva el/cos ecrriv elvai tov bXtyap^LKOv 
av6pu>TTOv /cal cpavXov vp,e2<; 8' avTiOevres e/cdrepa 
tovtcov Bewp-qaar avrov, p,r) OTrorepov tov Xbyov, 
dXX' birorepov tov fiiov earlv. 

169 Olpuac Tolvvv drravra^ dv lipid*; bp,oXoyi)aai rdSe 
8ecv V7rdp£ai ru> 8rjp,OTiKW, irpwrov p,ev iXev- 
Bepov 1 elvat /cal 77/909 7rarpb<i /cal 7rpo? pLTjrpbs, 
Lva pit) hid rr)v irepl to yevos drvyjiav 8vcrp.evr]<i j) 
Tot? vop,ois, 01 acp^ovai ttjv SrjpLOfcpariav, Sevrepov 
8' dirb rtbv irpoybvwv evepyeaiav Ttvd avr& jrpbs 
tov hrjpiov VTrdpyeiv, rj to y dvayicaioTaTOV pbrjhe- 
puiav e^Bpav, iva purj /3or)B(bv T019 tcov trpoyovwv 
a,TVYfl[/uiC<ri tca/coi)? €7rix €l PV Troielv ttjv ttoK.lv. 

170 rplrov crdxppova /cal p-erptov ^pr) irecpv/cevai avrov 
7T/90? ttjv /caff rjpuepav Stairav, 07T&)9 p,r) Bia ttjv 
daeXyeiav tt}? hairavrj^ ScopoSo/cf) Kara rod Bijpiov. 
reraprov evyvco/xova /cal Svvarbv elireiv /caXbv 
yap rr)v p,ev Bidvoiav irpoaipeladai rd fieXriara, 
rr)v Be rraiBetav rt)v rod pi]ropo<; /cal rbv Xbyov 
ireLBeiv robs d/covovra<;' el Be p,rj, ryjv y y evyvco- 
p,oavvtiv del rrpora/creov tov Xoyov. irepbTrrov dv- 
Bpelov elvai ttjv *tyvyj}v, 'iva pvi) rrapd rd Beivd ical 
rov<; /clv8vvov<; ey/caraXiTrr} rbv 8r/p,ov. rbv 6° 
oXtyap^iKov irdvra Bel rdvavrla rovrcov e%eiv 



1 4\fi/8epov Weidner : avrbv iAevdepov or i\tv6epov avrbv 
MSS. 

440 



AGAINST CTES1PH0N, 168-170 

will be deceived as in tlie past ; but if you look at his 
character and the truth, you will not be deceived. 
Call him to account in this way : with your help I will 
reckon up what ought to be the inborn qualities of 
the " friend of the people " and the orderly citizen ; 
and over against them I will set down what manner 
of man one would expect the oligarch and the worth- 
less man to be. And I ask you to compare the two 
and to see to which class he belongs — not by his 
professions, but by his life. 

I think you would all acknowledge that the follow- 
ing qualities ought to be found in the " friend of the 
people": in the first place, he should be free-born, 
on both his father's and his mother's side, lest be- 
cause of misfortune of birth he be disloyal to the 
laws that preserve the democracy. In the second 
place, he should have as a legacy from his ancestors 
some service which they have done to the demo- 
cracy, or at the very least there must be no in- 
herited enmity against it, lest in the attempt to 
avenge the misfortunes of his family he undertake 
to injure the city. Thirdly, he ought to be tem- 
perate and self-restrained in his daily life, lest to 
support his wanton extravagance he take bribes 
against the people. Fourthly, he ought to be a 
man of good judgment and an able speaker; for 
it is well that his discernment choose the wisest 
course, and his training in rhetoric and his elo- 
quence persuade the hearers ; but if he cannot have 
both, good judgment is always to be preferred to 
eloquence of speech. Fifthly, he ought to be a man 
of brave heart, that in danger and peril he may 
not desert the people. But the oligarch we should 
expect to have all the opposite qualities ; why need 

441 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Tt yap Set irdXiv Bie^ievai ; a/ceyfraade 8ij, rl 
tovtcov v-ndpyei Ayp^oaOever o Se Xoyiap.b<; ecrrco 
eirl Traai 81/caiois. 

171 Toutoj 7rarr)p p,ev r/v Aijp,oa6ejn]<; 6 Tlaiaviev<;, 
avrjp eXevuepos' ov yap dec yevoecruai. ia 6 airo 
rrj<i yu??Tpo? real rov -ndmrov rov irpbs pbrjrpos 7T&)? 
eX eL a v r <p> cy^ (frpaaa). TvXcov r/v e/c K.epap.eu>v. 
outo? 7rpoSov<; roi<i 7roXe/xiot? Nvpiffaaiov to ev rq> 
H6vT(p, Tore t?)? 7roX.6co? e'^oucrr;? to ywp'iov TOVTO, 
(f)vya<i air elaayyeXiaf etc t?}? iroXewi iyevero, 1 
rr)v Kplaiv ov% v7rop.eLva<;, /cal d<f>i/cvelrai els 
YSbcnropov, /cd/cel XapL/3dvei Bcopeav irapd rcov rv- 

172 pdvvcov tou9 oovopiao p,evov<; K?;7rot>9, /cal yap,ei 
yvvaltca irXovcrlav p,ev vij Aia xal y_pv<Jiov eiri^e- 
pop,evr)v iroXv, ^kvOiv 8e to yevos, ei; rj<; avrS) 
ylyvovrai Ovyarepes Svo, a<; i/eeivo<; Bevpo fierd 
7roXXa)v XprjpidTtov aTrocrreiXas, avvw/cicre ttjv /nev 
erepav OTwBijTTOTe, iva firj 7roXXois dTrey6dvwp.ai' 
ttjv S' krepav eyrjp,e irapihoov tou? rrjs iroXeuy^ 
vop^ovq Ar)p.ocr0evr)<; 6 Uaiavievs, e£ 779 vplv 6 
Trepiepyos /cal avKO(f)durrj<; yeyevrjTai.' 2 ovkovv 
dirb fxev rov Trdjnrov 7roXe/iio? dv elf] tc5 h/]/jL(o, 
Odvarov yap avrov tcov irpoyovwv /careyvcoTe, to, 
S dirb t>}9 firjTpbs Z/cuOrj 1 ;, (Sdpfiapos eXXr/vi^wv 
tTj (f)(t)vr}' 66ev fcal rijv irovrjpLav ovk eVi^co/wo? 

173 eo~Tt. irepl Se ttjv /ca#' r)p,epcov Slairav ti? io~Tiv; 

1 iyevero Bake : eyevero Qavarov KaTayvcoaOiuros avrov MSS. 
a yeyivyrai Weidner : Ar]/j.oo-9ei>ris yeyevrirai or yiyevrirai 
&T]uioo6evT)s MSS. 

1 Nymphaeum was a port of the Tauric Chersonese. 

2 The Cimmerian Bosporus ; the chief city was Panti- 
capeum, the modern Kertch. 

442 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 170-173 

I go over them again ? Examine, then, and see 
what one of these qualities belongs to Demosthenes. 
And let the reckoning be made with all fairness. 

His lather was Demosthenes of Paeania, a free 
man, for there is no need of lying. But how the 
case stands as to his inheritance from his mother and 
his maternal grandfather, I will tell you. There was 
a certain Gylon of Cerameis. This man betrayed 
Nymphaeum in the Pontus to the enemy, for the place 
at that time belonged to our city. 1 He was impeached 
and became an exile from the city, not awaiting trial. 
He came to Bosporus 2 and there received as a present 
from the tyrants of the land a place called " the 
Gardens." Here he married a woman who was rich, 
I grant you, and brought him a big dowry, but a 
Scythian by blood. This wife bore him two daughters, 
whom he sent hither with plenty of money. One 
he married to a man whom I will not name — for I 
do not care to incur the enmity of many persons, — 
the other, in contempt of the laws of the city, 3 
Demosthenes of Paeania took to wife. She it 
was who bore your busy-body and informer. From 
his grandfather, therefore, he would inherit enmity 
toward the people, for you condemned his ancestors to 
death ; and by his mother's blood he would be a 
Scythian, a Greek-tongued barbarian — so that his 
knavery, too, is no product of our soil But in daily 

3 In 451/0 Pericles carried a measure which excluded from 
citizenship all who could not show pure Athenian blood 
through both parents. By the close of the Peloponnesian 
war this restriction had fallen into neglect, and in 403 the 
restored democracy passed an enactment excluding from 
citizenship children born of a foreign mother after that date. 
If Demosthenes' mother was born of a Thracian mother and 
after 403 (neither fact is certain), she could not bear legiti- 
mate children to her Athenian husband. 

443 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

i/c Tpiripap-s^ov \oyoypdcf)o<i dvecf)dvri, /carayeXd- 
cttco<; tcl 7rarpa)a 7rpoep,evo<i' aVicrTO? 8e /cal Trepl 
TciVTa 6"o£a? elvai /cal toi>9 Xoyov? etccfrepcov rot? 
avrihiKois, dv67n]8i]cr€v eirl to firjpa' ir\elarov 8 
e/c t>}? 7roXiTeta<> el\r)<f)co<; dpyvpcov, eXd^iara 
7repi€7roi7](raTO. vvv pevToi to /3aai\i/cov %pvcuov 
eiri/cefcXv/ce tj-jv Scnrdvijv avrov, ecnai 8' ov8e rouO^ 
i/cavbv ovBels yap TrconoTe tt\ovtos rporrov irovi)- 
pov TTepieyevero. /ecu to Ke<pdXatov, tov (Slov ov/c 
e/c tcov l8icov 7rpocr68cov TTopl^eTai, aXV e/c tcov 
vpceTepcov klv8vvcov. 

174 Uepl o° euyva>p,ocrvvr)v teal \6you 8vvapav ttcos 
ire(f)u/ce; 8eivb<> Xeyeiv, tea/ebs fiicovai. ovtco yap 
Ke^prjrai ical tco eavrov acop,aTL /cal Traihoiroiia, 
war epe purj ftovXeaOai Xeyeiv a tovtco ireir pater ar 
i]8r) yap 7TOT6 el8ov pucnqQ evT as tovs ra tcov 7t\t]- 
crlov ala%pd Xiav cra<pco<; XeyovTas. ewena tl 
avpftaivet Tr) 7ro\€i; ol p,ev Xbyoi, /caXol, to, 8' 

175 epya cpavXa. 7rpb<; Be dv8peiav /S/oa^u? p.ot Xet- 
7rerai X0709. el p,ev yap rjpvelTO p,r) 8etXb<i elvat, 
rj vp,el<i p,r) crvvrjheTe, hiaTpifirjv o Xoyos dv poi 
Trapel)(ev' e7ret8r} 8e /cal ai)Tb<; bp-oXoyel ev Tat? 
eKKXrjaiaLS, koX vp,ei<i avvicne, Xoittov virop^vrjaai 
tovs irepl tovtcov /ceip,evov<> vop.ovs. o yap XoXcov 
6 7raXacbs t'opo0€Ti]S ev Tot? auToi? eiTiTipiois 
cueTo 8elv eve^ecrOai tov daTpaTevTov /cal tov 
XeXotiroTa ttjv tci^cv /cal tov 8etXbv opLoico^' elal 



444 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 173-175 

life what is he ? From being a trierarch he suddenly 
came forward as a hired writer of speeches, 1 when he 
had disreputably squandered his patrimony. But 
when he had lost his reputation even in this profes- 
sion, for he disclosed his clients' arguments to their 
opponents, he vaulted on to the political platform. 
And though he made enormous profits out of politics, 
he laid up next to nothing. It is true that just now 
the Persian's gold has floated his extravagance, but 
even that will not suffice, for no wealth ever yet kept 
up with a debauched character. And to sum it all up, 
he supplies his wants, not from his private income, 
but from your perils. 

But as regards good judgment and power of speech, 
how does it stand with him ? Eloquent of speech, 
infamous of life ! For so licentious has been his 
treatment of his own body that I prefer not to 
describe his conduct ; for before now I have seen 
people hated who recount too exactly the sins ot 
their neighbours. Then again, what is the outcome 
for the city? His words are fine, his acts worthless. 
But as concerns his bravery little remains for me to 
say. For if he denied that he is a coward, or if you 
did not know it as well as he does himself, the 
account of it would have detained me. But since 
he admits it himself in the assembly, and you are 
perfectly aware of it, it remains only to remind you 
of the laws as to this matter. For Solon, the ancient 
lawgiver, thought it necessary to apply the same 
penalties to the coward as to the man who failed to 
take the field or the man who deserted his post. For 

1 To be a trierarch implied that a man was in comfortable 
circumstances. "He sank as a trierarch to rise as a petti- 
fogger." (Simcox.) 

445 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yap kcli heiXia? ypacfxiL ica'noi Oavpaaeiev dv 
Ti? u/mcov, a eucrl (pvcreo)? ypatpai. elaiv. t'lvo? 
eve/ca; iv eKaaro? ijpicov ra? e/e tcov vo/xcov £?//n<x9 
<f>o/3ov/jL€VO<> p,dXXov rj tov? rroXepbiov?, afieivwv 

176 aya>vicrTr)<; virep rr}? TTarpiho? virdpyrj' 6 p,ev tol- 
vvv vopLodeTTjs top dcrrpdrevTov real rov SeiXov /cal 
rov Xiirovra ttjv T'ajgiv e^oo rcov TrepipavTTjplcov rfj? 
dyopd? e^eipyei, ical ov/c id arecpavovadai, ouo° 
elaievai el? rd lepd to. hripLoreXyy crv Se rov dcrre- 
(pdvcoTOv etc rcov vop-cov /ceXevei? i)p,d? arefyavouv, 
/cal to) aavrov tyrjcpiapLaTi top ov irpoa^Kovra 
elcr/caXei? rot? rpaycohol? el? ttjv op^crpav, el? 
to iepbv rov Atovvcrov rov rd lepd htd SeiXlav 
•n po8e&a)/coTa. 

"\va he p,r) ciTTOirXavoii lipid? airo rrj? VTroOeaeoo?, 
i/celvo pepLvrjaOe, orav (pfj hr)p.0Tiicb? eivac 6ew- 
pelr avrov /JLrj rov Xbyov, dXXd tov filov, Kal 
aKoirelre p,t) rl? (prjaiv elvai, dXXd rl? eartv. 

177 'Eirel 8e are<pdvu>v dvep,v>]cr0r)v /cat Scopecov, eco? 
en p,ep,vr)p,ai, irpoXeyo) vtui<, 3) dvhpe? ' Adrjvatot, 
el fxr] KaraXvcrere rd? d<f)6ovov? ravra? Scoped? 
/ecu tov? elfcfj 8i&op,evov? erreepdvov?, ovO' 01 Tip.d>- 
p,evoi ydpiv vplv elaovrai, ovre rd rrj? TToXeco? 
TTpdypux'ra eiravopdooOrjcreTar tov? p.ev yap ttovt]- 
pov? ov p,rj 7TOT6 fieXTiov? Tronjaere, tov? Se 
XprjaTOv? el? ttjv ia-^drrjv ddvp,iav epuftaXelTe. 
oti 6' dXrjOr) Xeyco, p,eydXa tovtcov olpuai o-rjpieta 
hei^eiv vp.iv. 

446 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 175-177 

there are such things as indictments for cowardice. 
Some of you may indeed be surprised to know that 
there are indictments for inborn defects. There 
are. To what end ? In order that each man of us, 
fearing the punishment of the laws more than he 
fears the enemy, may become a better champion 
of his country. Therefore the man who fails to 
take the field, and the coward, and the man who 
has deserted his post are excluded by the lawgiver 
from the purified precincts of the Agora, and may 
not be crowned, nor take part in the sacred rites 
of the people. But you, Ctesiphon, command us to 
crown the man who by command of the laws is 
uncrowned ; and by your decree you invite into 
the orchestra at the time of the tragedies the man 
who has no right to enter, and into the shrine of 
Dionysus the man who has betrayed all our shrines 
through cowardice. 

But that I may not lead you away from the subject, 
remember this when he says that he is the " friend 
of the people " ; examine, not his speech, but his 
life ; and consider, not who he says he is, but who 
he is. 

I have mentioned crowns and rewards. Let me, 
fellow citizens, while I still have the matter in mind, 
warn you that unless you put a stop to these prodigal 
gifts and these crowns thoughtlessly bestowed, 
neither those who receive honours from you will 
be grateful, nor will the prosperity of the city be 
restored. For you will never in the world reform 
those who are bad, and the good you will plunge 
into extreme discouragement. But I will present 
proofs which I think will convince you that what I 
say is true. 

447 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

178 Et yap Tt? vfia? epcoTijcrete, Trorepov vplv evBo- 
%orepa BoKei r] iroXis 7)/xa)v elvai eirl rwv vvvl 
Kaipwv 7) errl rwv irpoyovwv, drravre^ av opboXoyrj- 
aaiTe, errl rwv irpoyovwv. dvBpe<; Be Trorepov rore 
dpeivovs rjaav rj vvvl; Tore puev Bia(f>epovre<i, vvvl 
Be ttoXXw KaraBeecrrepoi. Bcopeal Be Kal arecpavoi 
Kal /crjpvypara kcu airrjaea iv Trpvraveuo irorepa 
rore r)aav irXeiov^ r) vvvl; rore p,ev rjv airdvia 
ra KaXa Trap rjplv, /cal to t% aper^s ovopa 
ripiov vvvl 8 rjBrj KaTaTreTrXvrai ro irpdypa, Kal 
to arecf)avovv e'£ eOovs, dXX' ovk e/c irpovoias, 

179 TToielaOe. ovk ovv cltottov ovrcoal 8iaXoyi^op,evoi<;, 
Ta? piev Bajpeas vvvl ttXclovs elvai, to, Be rrpdy- 
para ra rrjs TroXews rore pbdXXov layyeiv, KaX 
rovs avBpas vvv piev , \elpov<; elvai, rore S' dpei- 
vovs; eyco Be rovO^ vp,a$ err lyei pi] a a> BiBdaKeiv. 
o'leaO' 1 av rrore, m dvBpe<; ' AOrjvaloi, eOeXrjcrai rcva 
eiraaKelv et<? rd 'OXvprna, r) aXXov Tiva rwv 
are<pav irSiv dycova>v, rrayKpariov r) Kal dXXo ti 
twv /3apvrepcov dOXcov, el 6 crre(f)avo<i eBlBoro p,rj 
tw Kparlarw, dXXa ra> Biarr pa^apievw ; ovBels av 

180 7Tot' r)0e\r}aev. 1 vvv B , olp,ai Bid to arrdviov koX 
to TrepipidyriTOV Kal to koXov Kal to delp,vJ]arov 
eK t% viKr/s edeXovalv rive<; rd acap^ara rrapa- 
Oepevoi 2 Kal t<z? pieylcrTas raXanr capiat vrropel- 
vavres BiaKivBvveveiv. VTroXafiere toivvv vp,a<; 
avrov<; elvai dycoi>o0era<; TroXiriKrjs dperr)s, KaKelvo 
iKXoyicraade, on, edv puev rd<; Bcopeds oXlyoi<; 
Kal d%loi<; Kal Kara rov<; vop,ov<i BiBwre, ttoXXov<; 
dycoviard<; egere tt)? aperr}?, av Be tw fiovXopeva) 



1 T]8e\ 7)0-61/ Weidner : ^eiXrjirev 4naffKe7v MSS. 

2 irapaOifjLtvoi Herwerden : trapaKaradf/xevot MSS. 



44 8 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 178-180 

If any one should ask you whether our city seems 
to you more glorious in our own time or in the time 
of our fathers, you would all agree, in the time of 
our fathers. And were there better men then than 
now ? Then, eminent men ; but now, far inferior. 
But rewards and crowns and proclamations, and 
maintenance in the Prytaneum — were these things 
more common then than now ? Then, honours were 
rare among us, and the name of virtue was itself 
an honour. But now the custom is already com- 
pletely faded out, and you do the crowning as a 
matter of habit, not deliberately. Are you not there- 
fore surprised, when you look at it in this light, that 
the rewards are now more numerous, but the city 
was then more prosperous ? And that the men are 
now inferior, but were better then ? I will try to 
explain this to you. Do you think, fellow citizens, 
that any man would ever have been willing to train 
for the pancratium or any other of the harder con- 
tests in the Olympic games, or any of the other 
games that confer a crown, if the crown were given, 
not to the best man, but to the man who had suc- 
cessfully intrigued for it ? No man would ever have 
been willing. But as it is, because the reward is rare, 
I believe, and because of the competition and the 
honour, and the undying fame that victory brings, 
men are willing to risk their bodies, and at the 
cost of the most severe discipline to carry the 
struggle to the end. Imagine, therefore, that you 
yourselves are the officials presiding over a con- 
test in political virtue, and consider this, that if 
you give the prizes to few men and worthy, and 
in obedience to the laws, you will find many men 
to compete in virtue's struggle ; but if your gifts 

449 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

feal Tot? Biair pa%ap,evoi<s yapi^ade, koX ra? 
eVtet/cet? <f)vcrei<i BiacpOepeiTe. 

181 "Oti Be opdcos \eyco, Itl p,i/cpa> aafyecnepov 
vpuaq /3ov\op.at BiBd^at. irorepov vpuiv dpeivcov 
avi]p elvai Botcel &ep.icTTOK\>)<i, o cTTpaT7]yi)cra<i 
or iv tt) irepl *%a\apuva vavpayia tov Utpcn]v 
evucare, rj Arjp,ocrdevr)<;, 6 vvvl rrjv rdfjtv \lttcov; 
MtXnaS^? Be, 6 ttjv iv Mapadcovi pdyyv viKr\- 
aas, 1 r) ovtos; eVt S' oi diro <&v\fj<; cpevyovTa 
tov hrjpiov KaTayayovTes ; 'Apio-TeiBr)*; 8' o oV 
kcllos, 6 tt)v dvop,ot,ov eycov iircovvpiav A^/iO- 

182 adevei; d\\' eycoye pa to 1)9 Oeovs rou? 'OXvp,- 
iriow; ovB' iv Tat<? aurals i)p,epai<; a^iov y)yovp,ai 
pepvrjadau tov dripiov tovtov /cd/ceivcov tcov 
dvBpcov. iiriBei^dTco roivvv At]p,oa6evr}<; 2 et tcov 
yeypaiTTal riva tovtcov tcov dvBpcov aTecpavtoaai. 
dydpi<JTO<i dp rjv 6 Srjpos; ov/c, dXXa p,eya\o- 
cppcov, KaicelvoL ye 3 t?j<; Tro\ecos d^ior ov yap 
coovto Belv iv TOi? ypdp,p,acri TLpbdcrdai, aXA, 
iv Ty p,V7)p,7) tcov ev ireTTOvOoTcov, rj air iiceivov 
tov ypovov p>e\pi TrjaBe t?)? i)p,epa<> dOdvaTos 
ovaa Btap,evei. Scoped 1 ; Be Tivas i\dp,/3avov, d^iov 
iaTi p,v>]o-6rjvai. 

183 'Hffdv TLve<i, co dvBpes Kdipjaloc, /caTci tou? 
Tore Kaipovs, o'l iroXvv ttovov viropeivavTes koX 
p,eyd\ov<{ kivBvvovs iiri tw ^Tpvpovv iroTapcp 
iviKcov payopevoi MrySou?- ovtoi Bevpo dcfxKopevoi 
tov Brjpuov fJTTjaav Bcopedv, ica\ eScorcev avToZs 
Brjpos Tt/trt? p,eyd\a<;, &>? tot iBbtcei, Tpets \i6ivov<i 
'E/3/za9 crTt]aai iv Trj cttoo, ttj tcov 'Ejpp,cov, icft 

1 viK-qffas Weidner : robs fiapfidpovs vmi)aas or viKi\<ras rovs 
PapPdpovs MSS. 

2 ArjuoffBtfris Cobet : Ariuotrdeuris i:> ry eavTOv Xiycp MSS. 

45° 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 180-183 

are compliments to any man who seeks them and to 
those who intrigue for them, you will corrupt even 
honest minds. 

How true this is, I wish to teach you a little 
more explicitly. Does it seem to you that Themis- 
tocles, who was general when you conquered the 
Persian in the battle of Salamis, was the better man, 
or Demosthenes, who the other day deserted his 
post? Miltiades, who won the battle of Marathon, 
or yonder man ? Further — the men who brought 
back the exiled democracy from Phyle ? And Aris- 
teides "the Just," a title most unlike the name men 
give Demosthenes ? But, by the Olympian gods, I 
think one ought not to name those men on the same 
day with this monster ! Now let Demosthenes show 
if anywhere stands written an order to crown any 
one of those men. Was the democracy, then, un- 
grateful ? No, but noble-minded, and those men 
were worthy of their city. For they thought that 
their honour should be conferred, not in written 
words, but in the memory of those whom they had 
served ; and from that time until this day it abides, 
immortal. But what rewards they did receive, it 
is well to recall. 

There were certain men in those days, fellow 
citizens, who endured much toil and underwent 
great dangers at the river Strymon, and conquered 
the Medes in battle. When they came home they 
asked the people for a reward, and the democracy 
gave them great honour, as it was then esteemed — 
permission to set up three stone Hermae in the Stoa 
of the Hermae, but on condition that they should 



^ 3 KaKetvoi 7e > Hamaker : the MSS. have KaKuvoi ye ol ^ (or 

01 jX^tj OIITW Or ej yU7j) TtTtfiTIIXiVOl. 

451 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

&)Te fir) eiriypdfyeiv to ovo/xa to eavTwv, iva fit] 
twv arpaTTfyoiV, aWa tov 8/]pou Bo/cf) etvai to 

184 eiriypappba. otl S' dXrjOr) Xeyo, ig clvtwv twv 
TrotrjpaTwv yvoocreaOe. iiriyeypaTrTai yap eVt t<w 
fiev irpcoToy twv 'Kpfiuv 

rjv apa /cd/celvoi TaXaKaphiot, o'l ttotc M.r)8fOP 
iraicnv eV 'Hi'ow, %Tpvp,6vo<; dp,<f>l pods, 

Xifiov t aWwva icpaTepov r eTrdyovTes ' Kpifa 
itpwToi Buapevecov evpov dp.rj-^avlrjv. 

eVl Be tw SevTepw' 

r)yep,6veo~ai Be pnaOov ' AOrjvaloi TaB eBcofcav 
dvT evepyecTLrj<; teal peyd\r)<; apeTr)?. 

p,aXXov t/9 Ta8' IBwv /cal iiTeo'o-op.evwv eOeXijaei 
d/x(f)l gvvoiai 7rpdypaai p,6)(6ov e%e^. 

185 eirl Be tw TpiT(p e-rrtyeypaiVTai 'Eppfj- 

e/c 7TOT6 TrjaBe tt6Xt]0<; dp! 'ATpeiBr/ai Meveadevs 

r)yetTO ^ddeov Tpwi/tov dp, ireBiov, 
ov 7TO0' "Op-qpos e</>?7 Aavaa)i> irv/ca ^aX/co^t- 

T(t)VCOV 

KOo-prjTrjpa pdx>is e%°X 0V "- v ^pa p,o\elv. 

ovto)<; ovBev deifces ' Adrjvaioiai Ka\elcr9ai 

Koo-prjTas TToXepov t dp.$\ real r)voperj<;. 

45 2 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 183-185 

not inscribe their own names upon them, in order 
that the inscription might not seem to be in honour 
of the generals, but of the people. That this is 
true, you shall learn from the verses themselves ; for 
on the first of the Hermae stands written : 

" Brave men and daring were they who once by the 
city of Eion, 
Far off by Strymon's flood, fought with the sons 
of the Medes. 
Fiery famine they made their ally, and Ares on- 
rushing ; 
So they found helpless a foe stranger till then 
to defeat." 

and on the second : 

" This, the reward of their labour, has Athens be- 
stowed on her leaders ; 
Token of duty well done, honour to valour 
supreme. 
Whoso in years yet to be shall read these lines 
in the marble, 
Gladly will toil in his turn, giving his life for 
the state." 

And on the third of the Hermae stands written : 

" Once from this city Menestheus, summoned to join 
the Atreidae, 
Led forth an army to Troy, plain beloved of the 
gods. 
Homer has sung of his fame, and has said that of 
all the mailed chieftains 
None could so shrewdly as he marshal the ranks 
for the fight. 
Fittingly then shall the people of Athens be 
honoured, and called 
Marshals and leaders of war, heroes in combat 
of arms." 453 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

€<tti ttov to rcov a-rpar^ycov bvop,a; ovBapov, 
aXXa. to rov 8/]/jlov. 

186 JJpoeXdere Br) rfj Biavoia teat et? rrjv arodv ri]v 
troiKiXiqw cnrdvTWV yap r)puv rwv KaXcbv epycov 
ra v7rop,vi]/jLaTa ev rr} dyopa avajceitai. rl ovv 
eariv, & avBpes AOrjvaiol, o eyco Xeyco; evravOa 
f) ev M.apa6covi p-d^rj yeyparrrai. Tt<? ovv rjv 6 
arparrjyo 1 ;; ovrwai p,ev epcorrjdevres enravres 
aTTOKpivataOe dv, on M.iXridB))<i' iicel Be ovk 
einyey pairrai. 7rco?; ovk r)rr)ae ravrriv rr)v Bco- 
pedv; rjrrjaev, dXX 6 Bf)p,o<} ovk eBcoKev, aW' dvrl 
rov 6vop,aro<i o-vveXGoprjcrei' avrcp ypa<pr)vai rcpu)- 

187 Tto rrapaKaXovvn rov? crrparidrra 1 ;. ev toivvv ru> 
M^Tpcoo) 1 r)i> eBore Baypeav to£9 diro < &v\r)<; <f>ev- 
yovra rov Br]p.ov Karayayovaiv, eariv toelv. rjv 
pev yap 6 to tyrfytapa viKi]aa<; 'Ap^t^o? 6 Ik 
KotX?;?, eh rwv Karayaybvrwv tov Br)p,ov, eypa^e 
Be TTpwrov pLev avrol<; et? Ovaiav Kai avadrjp,ara 
Bovvai %«Aia? Spaxpids, koI rovr eariv eXarrov r) 
Betca Bpa^pai Kar dvBpa, eireira 2 are<pavo)aai 
daXXov are<pdvw avrcov eKaarov, dXX ov ^pvaqy 
rore ixev yap rjv 6 rov OaXXov are<pavos ripuio^, 
vvvl Be Kai 6 %pvaov<; Kar air etypovrjrai. Kai ovBe 
rovro cIkT) irpd^ai KeXevei, dXX ciKpifiws rt]v 
(3ovXrjv GKe"*\rapevr~iv, baoi avrwv eVi <£>vXf) eVo- 
XiopKriBqaav ore KaKeBaipiovioi Kai oi rpiaKOvra 
irpoaej3aXXov, z ov% oaoi rr)v rd^iv eXnvov ev 
Xaipooveia ro>v iroXepicov eiriovrcov. on B dXr]dr) 
Xeyw, dvayvcoaerai vplv to ^jrr](j)tapa. 

1 Mr)rpw(f) Bake : MrjTpwip iropa rb &ov\euTT)piov MSS. 

2 iireiTa Cobet : iirura KiXtva MSS. 

3 irpoaeSaAKov Hamaker : irpoffi^aWov toIs Kara\a$ov(Ti 
$>u\r]v MSS. 

454 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 185-187 

Is the name of the generals anywhere here ? 
Nowhere ; only the name of the people. 

And now pass on in imagination to the Stoa 
Poecile ] ; for the memorials of all our noble deeds 
stand dedicated in the Agora. What is it then, 
fellow citizens, to which I refer? The battle of 
Marathon is pictured there. Who then was the 
general ? If you were asked this question you 
would all answer, " Miltiades." But his name is 
not written there. Why ? Did he not ask for this 
reward ? He did ask, but the people refused it ; and 
instead of his name they permitted that he should 
be painted in the front rank, urging on his men. 
Again, in the Metroon you may see the reward that 
you gave to the band from Phyle, who brought the 
people back from exile. For Archinus of Coele, one 
of the men who brought back the people, was the 
author of the resolution. He moved, first, to give 
them for sacrifice and dedicatory offerings a thousand 
drachmas, less than ten drachmas per man ; then 
that they be crowned each with a crown of olive 
(not of gold, for then the crown of olive was prized, 
but to-day even a crown of gold is held in disdain). 
And not even this will he allow to be done carelessly, 
but only after careful examination by the Senate, to 
determine who of them actually stood siege at Phyle 
when the Lacedaemonians and the Thirty made 
their attack, not those who deserted their post —as 
at Chaeroneia — in the face of the advancing enemy. 
As proof of what I say, the clerk shall read the 
resolution to you. 

1 The "Painted Colonnade," probably on the eastern side 
of the Agora, was decorated with frescoes by some of the 
greatest painters, depicting famous battles and victories in 
the history of the city. 

455 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

¥H*I2MA IIEPI AHPEA2 TOI2 AnO *TAH2 

188 TlapavdyvwOi Br) /cal b yeypacpe K.T7]aicp(ov 
AijfioaOevei tu> tcov fieytaTcov guti&> /catcoov. 

¥H#I2MA 

Toutw too "*jrr)(f)i(T/J,aTi itjaXeucjieTai rj tcov Kara- 
yayovTcov Scoped. et rovr e%et /caXcos, e/celvo 
alaxp<t)<i' el iicelvoi /car d^iav irip,t']0i]aav, ovtos 
dvd%io<; tov crrecpavovrat. 

189 Katroi irvvOdvofiai y avrbv fieXXeiv Xeyeiv, &>9 
ov Biicaia iTOLto TrapafidXXoov avroo rd tmv irpo- 
yovoov epya- ovSe yap <PtXdfifioova 1 tov ttvkttjv 
^OXvfiiriaat (TT€<f)avco6rjvai vi/cijaavTa TXau/cov 
tov iraXaibv i/celvov, 2 dXXa tol»? Kaff eavTov 
dycoviaTd<;, Oiairep vfid<; ayvoovvTa? otl toi? fiev 
7rvKTai<> €o~tIv 6 dyoov 7r/oo? dXXijXovs, tois S* 
d^iovai <TT€(f)avova6ac irpos avTijv tv/v dpeTi'jv, 
179 Kal evetca aTecpavouvTai. Bet yap tov /ojpvtca 
dtyevBelv, OTav Trjv dvdpprjaiv ev tu> OeaTpop 
TroirJTai 7T/30<? Tou<i ' EXXiyvas. fir) ovv rj/xiv, &)? 
TlaTaiKLoovos dfieivov TreiroXlTevcrat,, Sie£i0i, dU' 
i<f>ifc6fievo<; tt)<; dvBpayaOLas, ovtoo to? %dpt,Ta<; 
tov Br)fiov diraiTei. 

190 "\va Be fir) diroTrXavoi vfids dirb tt}? virodeaeca, 
dvayvcoaeTai vfilv 6 ypafi/j.aT€v<i to iinypafifia b 

1 Qi\&nfiwva Cobet : the MSS. have <t>r)cret or <paal or <pi)<n 
before <Pt\d.nfMwva. 

2 itcc'ivov Cobet : iKtlvov ir\iKTi]v MSS. 

45 6 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 188-190 

RESOLUTION AS TO THE REWARD OP THE BAND FROM 

PHYLE 

Now over against this read the resolution which 
Ctesiphon has proposed for Demosthenes, the man 
who is responsible for our greatest disasters. 

THE RESOLUTION 

By this resolution the reward of those who re- 
stored the democracy is annulled. If this resolution 
is good, the other was bad. If they were worthily 
honoured, this man is unworthy of the crown that is 
proposed. 

And yet I am told that he intends to say that I 
am unfair in holding up his deeds for comparison 
with those of our fathers. For he will say that 
Philammon the boxer was crowned at Olympia, not 
as having defeated Glaucus, that famous man of 
ancient days, but because he beat the antagonists of 
his own time ; * as though you did not know that in 
the case of boxers the contest is of one man against 
another, but for those who claim a crown, the 
standard is virtue itself; since it is for this that they 
are crowned. For the herald must not lie when 
he makes his proclamation in the theatre before 
the Greeks. Do not, then, recount to us how you 
have been a better citizen than Pataecion, 2 but first 
attain unto nobility of character, and then call on 
the people for their grateful acknowledgment. 

But lest I lead you away from the subject, the 
clerk shall read to you the epigram that is inscribed 

1 The Scholiast puts Philammon's victory in 360 B.C. 

2 We are not reliably informed what notorious incapacity 
or scandalous conduct made Pataecion's name appropriate 
for this comparison. The audience evidently needed no 
explanation. 

Q 457 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eTnyeypaTTTai Tot? dirb OfXi}? tov Btj/jiov Kara- 
yayovcriv. 

EnirPAMMA 

TovaB' aperr}^ eveica are<pdvoi<; eyepaipe ira- 

BrjjXO^ 'A01]]'al(OP, o'l 7TOT6 TOU? dB'lKOl^ 

dea/xois dp^avras ttoXios irptoToi KaTa-nave.lv 
rjp^av, kivBvvov aco/xaaiv dpa/xevoi. 

191 "Ot* tovs irapd toi/5 v6/xov<; cip^avras /care\v- 
oav, Bid toOt' avrovs (f)T)o-iv o 7roir)Tr)<; TijurjOPjvai. 
evauXov yap r/v en Tore nrdaiv, on Tr/vi/cavTa o 
Brjfios KareXvBri, eireihi) rives Ta? ypad)d<; rcov 
irapavojxwv dvelXov. Kal yap rot, a>? iyoi tov 
7rarpo9 tov ifxavrov iirvvOai>o/xr)v, 05 errj yS/01)? 
ev6V)']Kovra teal irivre ereXevrrjcrev, diravroiv fiera- 

0")(OiV TWV TTOVCOV TJ) TToXei, OU? l TToWdfClS 77/909 

ep,e Bietjrjei eVl a-^oXrj<;' ecprj ydp, ore apricot 
KareXrjXvOei o 8rj/j.o<>, et ri<i elaioi ypacfri) irapa- 
vofiwv el? Si/caaTypiov, elvai 6/j.oiov to ovofia /cal 
to epyov. Tt ydp eo~Tiv dvoaicoTepov dvBpbs 

192 irapdvofxa XeyovTos /cal TrpaTTOVTOs; Kal tijv 
d/cpoaaiv, a>5 e/ceivos cnrtjyyeWev, ov tov avrbv 
TpoiTOV eiroLovvTO coairep vvv yiyverai, d\\' rjaav 
7ro\v ^aXeirdiTepoi ol BiKacnal to?5 ra irapdvo/xa 
ypd<})0uaiv avTOv rov /caTrjyopov, Kal iroXXaKis 
dveiroBi^ov tov ypa/xfxaTea Kal eKeXevov iraXiv 

1 ots Markland : Is MSS. 
458 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 190-192 

in honour of the band from Phyle, who restored the 
democracy. 

EPIGRAM 

" These men, noble of heart, hath the ancient 
Athenian people 
Crowned with an olive crown. First were they 
to oppose 
Tyrants who knew not the laws, whose rule was 
the rule of injustice. 
Danger they met unafraid, pledging their lives 
to the cause." 

Because they put down those who ruled unlaw- 
fully, for this cause the poet says they were honoured. 
For then it was still in the ears of all men that the 
democracy was overthrown only after certain men 
had put out of the. way the provision for the indict- 
ment of men who propose illegal measures. Yes, 
as I have heard my own father say, 1 for he lived 
to be ninety-five years old, and had shared all the 
toils of the city, which he often described to me in 
his leisure hours — well, he said that in the early days 
of the re-established democracy, if any indictment 
for an illegal motion came into court, the word was 
as good as the deed. 2 For what is more wicked 
than the man who speaks and does what is unlaw- 
ful ? And in those days, so my father said, they 
gave no such hearing as is given now, but the jurors 
were far more severe toward the authors of illegal 
motions than was the accuser himself ; and it fre- 
quently happened that they made the clerk stop, 

1 "The form of the paragraph is lively and ungrammati- 
cal." (Simcox.) 

2 "Punish him " was no sooner said than done. 

459 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

dvayiyvcocxKetv tov<; vopovs icai to yp-rjcpiapta, /cal 
rjXlaKovro oi ra irapdvopa ypdcpovTes, ov/c el 
irdvTa<i Trapcnrri&i'jcreiav TOU9 vopiov*;, aXX? el plav 
fiovov avWaftrjV irapaWd^eiav. to he vvvl 
yiyvopevov irpdypia vnepKaTwyeXaaTOV ecrTtv 6 
p,ev yap ypap,parev<; dvayiyvoocr/cei to irapdvop,ov, 
oi Be Si/cacrTal &airep eirfph^v rj dXXoTpiov ti 
irpaypa d/cpocopevoi, vrpbs erepw tlvI ttjv yvoopijv 
eypvaiv. 

193 "Hhrj 5' etc tcov Te^veov twv A.r)poa6evov<; 
ala-^pbv e9o<i ev T0Z9 hi/cao~Ti] plots irapahehe^de. 1 
pL€Tevi']veKTai <ydp vp.lv 2 ra t?}? 7roXero? hl/cata- 
6 ptev yap /caTijyopos diroXoyelTat, he cpevya/v 
tt)V ypa<f>rjv /caTijyopet, ol he 8ifcao~Tal evloTe wv 
ptev elai fcpiTai eirtXavOdvovTat, wv 8' ov/c elal, z 
irepl tovtwv dv ay ku^ovt at Ti]V -^r^fyov cpepetv. 
\eyet he 6 cpevycov, dv dpa mod' d\jri}Tat tov 
irpdyptaTOS, ouk <w? evvopta yey pacpev, aXX' co? yhr/ 
7TOT6 /cal irpoTepov €Tepo<; ToiavTa ypa^ras dire- 
cpvyev. ecfi' a> /cal vvvl peya cppovelv d/covco 

194 ^.T7]cn^>5)VTa. eTo\pa K ev vptlv rroTe aeptvvveaOat, 
' ApiaTOcfycov e/cetvos 6 'A^iueu? Xeycov otv ypatfids 
irapavopwv direcpvyev ej3hopti']KOVTa /cat irevTe. 
dU' 0V X L Ke^aXo? 6 iraXaios e/celvos, ho/cwv 
hrjpbOTi/cdt)TaTO<; yeyovevai, ovy^ ovtcos, aXX' eVt 
Tot? evavTioLS e^tXoTtpelTo, Xeywv otc irXelaTa 
irdvTcov yeypacfrcos yjrTjcplapaTa, ovheplav ircoiroTe 
ypacpijv Trecpevye Trapavopwv, /caXws olptai aept- 
vvvoptevos. iypdcpovTO yap dXXi'pXovs irapavoptcov 

1 7rapct8e'5exfle Cobet : irapaSex €l ^6e MSS. 

2 vn'iv Markland : i]fuv or v/xiv MSS. 

3 eitrl Cobet : «Vj SiKaaral MSS. 

460 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 192-194 

and told him to read to them the laws and the 
motion a second time ; and they convicted a man 
of making an illegal motion, not in case he had 
overleaped all the laws together, but if one syllable 
only was contravened. But the process as it is con- 
ducted nowadays is ridiculous. The clerk reads the 
statement of the illegality which is charged, and the 
jurors, as though hearing an incantation, or some 
matter which is no concern of theirs, are attending 
to something else. 

And already as a result of the tricks of Demos- 
thenes you have admitted a shameful custom into 
your courts ; for you have allowed your legal pro- 
cedure to become perverted : the accuser is on the 
defensive, and the defendant plays the part of ac- 
cuser ; and the jurors sometimes forget what they 
are to judge, and are forced to bring in a verdict on 
matters which were never committed to their de- 
cision ; while the defendant, if by any chance he 
does touch on the question at issue, pleads, not that 
his motion was lawful, but that on some past occasion 
another man has made an equally unlawful motion 
and been acquitted ; a plea in which I hear Ctesi- 
phon now places great confidence. Once the famous 
Aristophon of Azenia dared in your presence to 
boast that he had been acquitted seventy-five times 
on charge of making illegal motions. Not so the 
venerable Cephalus, famous as the truest represent- 
ative of democracy — not so, but he took pride in 
the very opposite fact, saying that although he had 
been the author of more measures than any other 
man, he had never once been indicted for an illegal 
motion ; an honourable pride, I think. For indict- 
ments for illegal motions were in those times brought, 

461 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ov fiovov ol BtairoXirevo/uLevoi, aWa kcll ol (J)l\ol 
tovs <f)l\ovs, el tl e%ap*apT dvoiev els rr/v ttoXlv. 

195 i/celOev Be tovto yvooaeade. 'Ap^t^o? yap o etc 
Koi/V?;<? eypdijraTO irapavofiayv &paav/3ov\ov tov 
Xreipiea ypdtyavTa tl irapd tovs vopiovs, eva 
T(ov dirb QvXrjs avTM (TvyfcareXOovrayv, /cal 
elXe, v€0)(tt\ yeyevr)p,eviov clvtw twv evepyeo-iaiv, 
as ov% inreXoyiaavTO ol Bi/cacrTai' rjyovvro yap, 
wairep Tore avTOi/s cpevyovras 1 ®pa<rv{3ov\os 
/carijyayev, ovtco vvv fievovTas e^ekavveiv irapa 

196 tovs vo/xovs ypd(povrd tl. dW ov vvv, dWa 
irdv TovvavTiov yiyverat,' ol yap dyaOol arpa- 
rrjyol v/jliv /cal twv ra? criT)']o-eis rives euprj/jLeva/v 
iv tw irpvravela) e^airovvrai tcls ypacfrds rcov 
7Tapav6ficov, ovs i/fiels dyaploTOVs elvai Bi/calcos 
av inro\ap,/3dvoiT€' el yap tls iv SijfioKparla 
T€Tifxr]/xevo<;, ev roiavTrj TroXiTeiq, r/v 01 Oeol 
zeal ol vojxol aaj^ovai, To\p,a ftorjdelv tols irapd- 
vop,a ypd(f>ovai, /caraXvei ri]v TroXiTeiav vcf> J79 
rerlp.r]Tai. 

197 Tls ovv diroBeBeLicTai \6yos dvBpl hitcaiw 
avvi]yopq), eyco A,e|&). els rpla puepr) Staipeirac 
7) i]i±epa, OTav elatri ypacfir) irapavopuov els rb 
hiKaoTijpiov. eyyeirai yap to fiev irpwTov vBcop 
tw Karriyopw koX tols vofiois ical rf} Brjfio/cpaTia, 
to Be Bevrepov 2 tw ttjv ypacpijv cfyevyovri teal 
tols els auTo to irpdypia Xeyovaiv iTreiBdv Be 



1 (pevyovTas Dobree : (pevyovras ct7rii 4>uXt)j MSS. 

2 Scvrepov Weidner : Sevrepov vSwp MSS. 



462 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 194-197 

not only by political rivals against one another, but 
by friend against friend, if one was responsible for 
any error toward the state. Yes, the following shall 
serve as an illustration : Archinus of Coele brought 
an indictment for an illegal motion against Thrasy- 
bulus of Steiria, one of his own companions in the 
return from Phyle ; and he convicted him ; and 
though his services were recent, the jurors did not 
take them into account ; for they thought that, just 
as Thrasybulus had brought them back from exile 
then, so now when they had been restored, by 
making a motion which was against the laws he 
was driving them into exile again. But it is not 
so to-day ; the very opposite is done. For your 
worthy generals, and some of those who have re- 
ceived maintenance in the Prytaneum, beg men off 
who have been indicted for illegal motions. 1 But 
you ought to regard them as ungrateful. For if 
any man who has been honoured in a democracy, a 
government which owes its safety to the gods and 
to the laws, dares to aid men who make illegal 
motions, he is undermining the government from 
which he received his honours. 

But I will tell you what plea is in order from 
the honest advocate. When an indictment for an 
illegal motion is tried in court, the day is divided 
into three parts. The first water is poured in 2 
for the accuser, the laws, and the democracy ; the 
second water, for the defendant and those who 
speak on the question at issue ; but when the 

1 The meaning is that these influential men come into 
court and use their influence to secure the acquittal of 
personal friends of theirs. 

2 Into the clepsydra, by which the time allowed to each 
side was measured. Cp. ii. 126 and note. 

463 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rfj irpcorr) ijnjcfxp \vOfj rb irapdvofiov, Tjorj to 
rpirov v8a>p ey^elrai rfj nfitjaet /cat rw p,eyedei 

198 rfjs opyrjs rrjs vp,erepas. oaris p>ev ovv ev rfj 
TifjLtjaei T7]v yfri)(f)ov alrel, rr/v opyrjv rrjv vp,erepav 
irapairelrai' oarts 8' ev tw irpwrcp Xoyqy tvjv 
■^rr)(j)ov alrel, opKov alrel, vop.ov alrel, hripcoKpariav 
alrel, a>v ovre alrPjaai ovSev ocriov ovSevi, ovr 
alrrjQevra krepco Sovvai. KeXevcrare ovv aurovs, 
edcravras rr]V rrp(x>rr\v v/a&s yfrr)(f)ov Kara rovs 
vop,ov<i Siereyrcelv, diravrdv et? rrjv npLTjo'LV. 

199 "0\co<; 8' eywye, to av&pes 'Adrjvaloi, oX'tyov hew 
elirelv a>9 ical vop^ov 8el redrjvat errl ral<; ypatyalt 
p,6vais ral<i roov l rrapavop.u>v, p,rj e^elvai p.rjre tm 
Kaniyopw avvr/yopovi rrapaa^eoQ at, pajre ra> rrjv 
ypacf)i]v 2 (peuyovri. ov yap doptarov eari ro 
hlicaiov, dXX' wpiapbevov Tot? vop-ois rol<; vp,erepoi$. 
wcnrep yap ev rfj reKrovi/cfj, orav elBevat fiovXw- 
p,e6a ro 6p6ov ical ro p.i], rbv navova rrpoa^epo- 

200 p,ev, w SiayiyvmaKerai, ovrco fcal ev ral<; ypatfials 
Tat? rwv rrapavopbwv rrapcLKeirai /cavu>v rod Sucalov 
rovrl ro aavihiov, rb 3 ^p"t)(f)iapLa koX ol rrapa- 
yeypap,p,evoi vofioi. ravra avp^pcovovvra dXXt'j- 
Xois eTTihei^as Kardftaive' ical ri Bel ere At]- 
pboaOevqv rrapaicaXelv; orav £>' VTrepTrrjhrjaa^ rr)v 
SiKalav drroXoyiav irapaicaXfi<i icaicovpyov dvdpo)- 

1 rats tSiv Weidner : twv (reus in one) MSS. 

2 ypacpty Weidner : ypacpfyv tSiv ■Kapa.v6p.oiv MSS. 

3 tJ> Sauppe : nal rb MSS. 

1 The jurors balloted first on the question whether the 
motion was illegal as charged. If they sustained the pro- 
secution, both sides then argued the question of the nature 
and extent of the penalty, after which the jurors cast a final 
ballot, fixing the penalty. 

464 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 197-200 

question of illegality has been decided by the first 
ballot, 1 then the third water is poured in for the 
question of the penalty and the extent of your 
anger. Whoever therefore in the discussion on the 
penalty asks for your vote, 2 is begging you to miti- 
gate your anger ; but he who in the first speech 
asks for your vote is asking you to surrender your 
oath, to surrender the law, to surrender the demo- 
cratic constitution — things which no man has a right 
to ask you to surrender, nor any man to grant 
another for his asking. Bid them, therefore, to 
allow you to cast your first ballot according to the 
laws, before they plead on the question of penalty. 

In short, fellow citizens, for my part I am almost 
ready to say that we ought to pass a special law 
governing indictments for illegal motions, which 
shall forbid either accuser or defendant to call in 
advocates. For the question of right involved is 
not an indefinite one, but is defined by your own 
laws. For as in carpentry, when we wish to know 
what is straight and what is not, we apply the 
carpenters' rule, which serves as our standard, so in 
indictments for illegal motions there lies ready to 
our hand as a rule of justice this tablet, containing 
the measure proposed and the laws which it trans- 
gresses. 3 Show that these agree one with another, 
Ctesiphon, and then take your seat. Why need 
you call Demosthenes to your support ? When you 
overleap the just defence and call forward a rascal 

2 The reference is still to the request of influential men 
who come into court to help their friends. 

3 The tablet is the bulletin-board which had been publicly 
posted in advance of the trial, containing the indictment, the 
motion which was attacked, and the laws which were alleged 
to be violated by the motion. 

465 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rrov koX TexyLTTjv Xoycov, tcXeTrreis rrjv a/cpoacriv, 
fSXdrrreis rrjv ttoXiv, /caraXvecs rrjv hrjpoicpariav. 

201 Tt? ovv iartv aTrorpoirr) rdv roiovrwv Xoycov, 
iyco rrpoepw. eTreihdv rrpoeXOcov evravOol K.rrj- 
aicpcov Ste^eXOr] 7rpb<; vp,d<; rovro 8r] to avvreray- 
pevov avrio rrpooipiov, erreir evhiarpijSr) xa\ p.rj 
aTToXoyrjTai, vTropvtjcrar avrbv d6opvf3a>?, rb 
aavihiov Xafielv zeal tou? vbpovs rco yJn](j)L(Tp,ari 
•napavayvtovai. eav he prj TrpocnToiTJrai vp,wv 
aicoveiv, p,r)8e vp,el<; itcelvov eOeXere d/covetv ov 
yap Twv cjievyovrcov to.? hiicaias aTroXoyiat elcreXr]- 
XvOare d/cpoacropevoi, dXXa rcov eOeXovrcov 8i/ca[co<; 

202 diroXoyeladai. eav 5' v7rep7T7]h^cra^ rrjv hacaiav 
airoXoyiav Trapa/caXr} At) po a 6 evrjv, p,dXio~ra pev 
p,}] rrpocrhe^eaOe o-o<j>icrr>]v olopevov pi'jpacrt, tol>? 
vopov<; dvaiprjaeiv, yu^S' ev apery rovd^ vpcov 
u,7j8el<i KaraXoyi^eadco, 09 av eiravepopevov K.rr}- 
crKptovros, el tcaXecrr) l Ar/p,oo-@evr}v, rrptoros dva- 
fioi'-jor) " KdXei, KaXei." eirl a avrbv /caXels, eVt 
Tou? vopovs /caXeis, enl rrjv hrjpoKpariav KaXeis. 
av 6" dpa vplv 86%r) aicoveiv, d^icoaare rbv Arj- 
fiooQkvt)v rbv avrbv rpoirov diroXoyeladai ovrrep 
Kayo) /carr/yopijKa. iyco he 7rw? KarrjyoprjKa; iva 
teal VTropLvrjcro) vpd<;. 

203 Outc rbv I'hiov fiiov rbv AtjpocrBevov^ irpbrepov 
hie^r/XOov, ovre rcov hrjpoalcov dhifcrjpidrcov ovhevbs 
rrpdrepov epvi')a6r\v, acpOova hi^rrov real TroXXd 

1 KaXeoT) Bekker : Ka\f<rti or KaAeaeis or Ka\4aa> MSS. 
466 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 200-203 

and a rhetorician, you cheat the ears of the jury, 
you injure the city, you undermine the democracy. 

How you may avert speeches of that sort, fellow 
citizens, I will tell you. When Ctesiphon comes for- 
ward here and recites to you that introduction which 
has of course been composed for him, 1 and when 
he then tries to kill time, and makes no answer to 
the charge, suggest to him, quietly, that he take 
the tablet and read the laws and his resolution side 
by side. If he pretends that he does not hear you, 
then do you refuse to hear him. For you have not 
come here to listen to men who dodge an honest de- 
fence, but to those who are willing to defend them- 
selves with justice. But if he shall overleap the just 
defence and call Demosthenes to the platform, the 
best course for you is to refuse to receive a sophist, 
who expects to overthrow the laws with words. And 
when Ctesiphon asks you if he shall call Demosthenes, 
let no man of you consider that he is doing a meri- 
torious thing in being the first to cry, " Aye, call 
him, call him." Against yourself you are calling him, 
against the laws you are calling him, against the con- 
stitution you are calling him. But if after all you 
decide to listen, demand that Demosthenes make 
his defence in the same way in which I have made 
the accusation. In what way have I made the 
accusation ? Let me recall it to you. 

I did not at the beginning review the private life 
of Demosthenes, nor did I at the beginning call to 
mind a single one of his public crimes — though I 

1 Aeschines assumes that Ctesiphon's speech has been 
composed for him by Demosthenes, and that it will be a 
mere introduction to the real defence, which will follow from 
the lips of Demosthenes himself, speaking nominally as 
friendly supporter (ownyopos) of Ctesiphon. 

467 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eywv, fj irdvTCOv 7' av eh]V diropcoTaTOV dXXd 
irpcorov fiev tou? vop,ov<; iireSei^a array opevovTas 
fit) aTecpavovv toi"? virevdvvovs, eireiTa tov pt]Topa 
i^t)Xey^a ypd\jravTa ArjfiocrOevrjV inrevQvvov ovra 
aTecpavovv ov8ev irpofiaXopLevov, 1 ov8e irpoaypd- 
yjravra " EireiSdv 8cp Ta$ evOvvas" aXXa iravTeXws 
/cal v/xcov Kai tcov vopucov KaTaTrecppovr/KOTa' kcu rds 
iaofievas 777509 ravTa Trpocpdcreis elirov, a? d^ico Ka\ 

204 vp,d<; 8iap,vr]p:oveveiv. 8evTepov 8' vp.lv 8ie£))X8ov 
toi>? Trepl tcov /crjpvypLaTwv vop,ov<;, iv ol<; Siappifiijv 
d7T€Lprjrat, tov vtto tov 8r)p.ov ctt ecpavov p,evov pJr) 
Ki]pvrreadai e^co t?)? £/cK\i]ala<;' 6 8e pt']Tcop 
cfrevycov ttjv ypacprjv ov 7-01)9 v6p,ovs p,6vov irapa- 
/3e/3i]Kev, dXXd kcl\ tov Kaipov 7-779 dvappi'jcrecos 
Kat tov tottov, KeXevcov ov/c iv ttj eKKkiqaia, aXX' 
iv tco OeaTpw ttjv dvdpprjaiv yiyveadai, ov8' e/c- 
kXtjct la^ovrcov AOtjvaicov, aXXa pueXXovTcov Tpayco- 
8cov elaievat. tclvtci 6" elircov pu/cpa p,ev Trepl tcov 
18'lcov elirov, tcl 8e irXelcrTa Trepl tcov 8i)p,ocrLcov 

205 d8iKT)p,aTcov. ovtco 8r) icai tov Arjpbocrdev^v d^ico- 
aaT€ dTroXoyeccrdai, 777)09 tov tcov inrevOvvcov vop,ov 
irpcoTOV, tov Trepl tcov KrjpvypLaTcov 8evTepov, Tp'iTov 
8e to fieyicTTOV, 2 a>9 ov8e dvdfjios iaTt t?}? 8copea<i. 
idv 8 vpicov 8ei]TtXL avyywpY]crai avTco Trepl ti}§ 
Ta^ew? tov Xoyov, KaTe7ra.yyeW6p.ev05 a>? iirl tjj 
TeXevTrj t% diroXoyias Xvcrei to irapdvop.ov, p,rj 
avy^copeiTe, p.r]o^ dyvoeW oti irdXaia p.a tout 



1 TrpoBaKo/xevov Stephanus : wpof}aA\6/j.tvov MSS. 
8 fjLeyiaruv \iyo> MSS.: Blass brackets \4yu. 



468 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 203-205 

certainly had great abundance of material, or else 
I must be the most helpless of mortals — but first I 
exhibited the laws which forbid crowning men who 
have not yet rendered their accounts, and then I 
convicted the orator of having moved to crown 
Demosthenes before he had rendered account, and 
that too without inserting the qualifying proviso, 
" When he shall have rendered account," but in 
utter contempt of you and of your laws. And I 
told you what excuses they would offer for this, 
which I earnestly pray you to keep in mind. 
Secondly, I recited to you the laws which govern 
proclamations, in which it is expressly forbidden 
that when one is crowned by the people the pro- 
clamation shall be made in any other place than in 
the assembly. But the politician who is the defend- 
ant in this case has not only transgressed the laws, 
but the time of proclamation, and the place of it ; for 
he orders the proclamation to be made, not in the 
assembly, but in the theatre, not when the Athenian 
assembly is in session, but when the tragedies are 
about to be performed. After saying this, I spoke 
briefly about his private life, but chiefly about his 
public crimes. I insist, therefore, that you demand 
the same order of defence from Demosthenes ; first, 
let him defend himself against the law of account- 
ability, secondly, against the law which governs pro- 
clamations, and thirdly, and most important, let him 
show also that he is not unworthy of the reward. 
But if he asks you to indulge him as to the order of 
his speech, and solemnly promises that at the close 
of his defence he will clear away the matter of ille- 
gality, do not yield to him, and do not forget that 

469 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eo~Ti Si/caaTTjpiov ov yap elcravda irore (SovXoit 
av Trpbs to TrapdvojJLOv drroXoyelaOai, oU' ovSev 
e^cov 81/caiov elirelv, erepcov 7rapep,/3o\f) irpaypud- 
tcov etV \i)6rjv vjias fiovXerai tt}? tcarriyopia*; 

206 ep,/3aXelv. coairep ovv ev toi? yvpLVLteols dycoatv 
opare tou? Trv/crwi irepl Tr}? o~rdaeoi<; dXXtfXois 
htaycovi^opievovs, ovtco zeal vp.ei<; oXtjv rrjv rjpuepav 
virep rrj<i iroXecos wept t>}? o-racreo)? 1 avra> tov 
\6yov pid^eade, ical firj edre avTov e£(0 tov irapa- 
vop-ov TTepd<TTaa9ai, aXX* ey/cadrjpievoi /cal eve- 
SpevovTes ev tt) dicpodcrei, elaeXavvere avrov et'9 
tout rov irapavopuov Xoyovs, teal Ta? eKTpoira<; 
avrov twv \oywv eTriTiipetre. 

207 'A\\' a St] crvpu^aeTai iipuv, iav tovtov tov 
Tpcnrov ttjv dtcpoaaiv Trocjja^aOe, Tavd^ vpuv ifii] 
8L/caio<i elpbi Trpoenreiv. eireiad^ei yap tov yorjTa 
/cal /3aXXavTioTopLov Kal SiaTerpLij/coTa ttjv ttoXi- 
Teiav. ovtos /cXdei p,ev paov rj 01 aXXoi yeXwatv, 
€7Tiopfcel 8e irdvTwv irpoyeipoTara' ovtc av Qavpud- 
aaip,i Be, el pier a {3 a\6fxevo<; 2 toU e£a>0ev 3 7repie- 
o~Ti]fc6o-t XoiSoprfaeTaL, (f)do~K(ov tov? p,ev oXiyap- 
■%ikov<; vit^ avTT)<; t?}? dXrjOeia^; Bir)pi@p,T)p,evov<; 
r)K.eiv 7rpo9 to toO /caTrjyopov /3rjp.a, tovs Be Btj/ao- 

208 tlkovs 7T/90? to tov (pevyovTos. OTav Brj ra TOiavTa 
Xeyp, 77/00? pbev tovs o-Tacriao-TiKov<; Xoyow; etcelvo 
avT(p v7ro/3dXXeTe' " fl Ayjpboa9eve<;, el opioioi 
rjaav o~o\ ol diro ^fX?;? (bevyovTa rov oijfiov Kara- 

1 ardaeais Faber : Ta£eo>s MSS. 

2 ^era^a.Xcjuei'os Blass : /j.(Ta0a\\6fj.tvos MSS. 

3 tfrdev Kleyn : ?£a> MSS. 
470 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 205-208 

this is an old trick of the court-room. For he would 
never of his own choice return to the defence against 
the illegality ; but because he has nothing to say 
which is just, he seeks by the insertion of extraneous 
matters to plunge you into forgetfulness of the 
charge. As, therefore, in gymnastic contests you see 
the boxers contending with one another for position, 
so do you for the city's sake fight with him the whole 
day long for position as regards argument ; and do 
not let him set his feet outside the bounds of the 
illegality charged, but watch him and lie in wait for 
him as you listen, drive him into discussion of the 
illegality, and look out for the twists and turns of 
his speech. 

What, on the other hand, will surely be the result 
for you if you listen in the way that they propose, 
I ought now to forewarn you. For the defendant 
will call to his aid this juggler and cut-purse, a man 
who has torn the constitution to shreds. This man 
weeps more readily than other men laugh, and 
nothing is so easy for him as perjury. And I should 
not wonder if he should change his tactics and 
slander the listeners outside the bar, alleging that 
those whom truth herself has singled out and counted 
as oligarchs have come to the platform of the pro- 
secution, but all the friends of the people to the 
platform of the defence. 1 Now when he talks like 
that, in answer to such appeals to faction, make this 
suggestion to him : " Demosthenes, if the men of 
Phyle, who brought back the people from exile, had 

1 In court, plaintiff and defendant had each a platform, 
where he sat with his intimate friends and supporters. It 
would appear from this passage that listeners who sym- 
pathised with either party grouped themselves near his 
platform. 

471 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

yayovres, ovk av 7ro#' r) Srj/ioKpaTia KaTearrj. vvv 
he eiceivoi p,ev peydXwv kukwv avp,/3dvrcov eacoaav 
ttjv ttoKiv to koWhttov eK TTaihetas pfjp,a (f)0ey- 
%dpevoi, ' prj puvqaiKCiKelv'- ai) he e\rcoTroiel<;, Kai 
pdXXov aoi pteXei twv av6r)p,epbv Xoywv, rj rr}<; 
crcoTr)pLa<; Tr]<; 7roA,ea)9.' 

"Orav o° €7rtopKo<; &V et? ri]V tcov optccov 1 
Tri'ariv Kara^vyyavr/, efceivo diropvrjpovevaare 
avru), on rep TroXXaKi? pev eiriopKovvri, del 
he 2 pe9' op/ccov d^tovvri triareveaOai, hvolv 
ddrepov vwdp^at Set, 3 i) tol»? Oeovs fcaivovs, rj 

209 tov<; aKpoards pur) tou? clvtovs. irepl Be twv 
Ba/cpvoov /ecu tov tovov rrj<i ($>wvr)s, biav u/xa? eVe- 
pcoTa' " Hoi fcaracf)v<ya), dvhpes ' ' AOrjvaloi ; irepi- 
eypd"^rare pe' ovk eariv ottoi dvaiTTr]aop,ai" 
dv0v7To/3d\\ere aura)' " 'O he hr/pos 6 ' AOrjvalcov 
Trol KaTa(f>vyr/, Arj/juoadeve*;; irpos TTOiav avpipd- 
\fov Trapaa/cev/jv; irpos iroia ^p/jpiara; TV rrpo- 
fiaXXopevos virep rov hrjpov TreiroXiTevaai; a pev 
yap virep aeavrov [SefiovXevaai, Trdvres opwpev. 
€K\i7ru)v pev to do~Tv ovk otKeis, a><? BoKeis, ev 
Ueipaiei, aXX* e^oppeU eK t?)? iroXecos, e(f)6hia he 
ireirbpiaai tj) aavrov dvavhpia to /3aaiXiKov XP V ~ 

210 cioj' Kai rd hrjp,6aia hwpohoKijpLara." oXco<; he ri 
Ta haKpva; ri<i r) Kpavyi); ra o toi'o? Trfc <pa)vi)$; 
ov% 6 piev Trjv ypa<f>r)v (pevycov earl K.Tr/aicj)6i)v, 6 

1 twv '6pKwv Sakorraphos : dirb or 5ia tSiv upkuv MSS. 

* ae) 5e Dobree : ael 5e irphs robs avrovs MSS. 

3 S€? Cobet : after 5ei the MSS. have $>v ovSerepoy tar. 

Arj^tofffleVei vnapxov. 

472 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 208-210 

been like you, never had the democracy been re- 
established. But as it was, they saved the city 
out of great disasters, and gave utterance to those 
words which are the fairest product of enlightened 
minds, 'Forgive and forget.' But as for you, you 
tear open old sores, and you care more for the 
words of the moment than for the safety of the 
state." 

But when, perjurer that he is, he takes refuge in 
the confidence which you place in oaths, remind 
him of this, that when a man repeatedly perjures 
himself, and yet is continually demanding to be 
believed because of his oaths, one of two things 
ought to be true, either the gods ought to be 
new gods, or the hearers not the same. But in 
answer to his tears and the straining of his voice 
when he asks you, "Whither shall I flee, fellow 
citizens ? You have compassed me about, I have not 
whither to take wings," suggest to him, " But the 
Athenian people, Demosthenes, whither shall they 
flee ? What allies have been made ready to receive 
them ? What resources are prepared ? What bul- 
wark have you thrown up before the people by your 
policies ? For we all see what provision you have 
made for yourself. You have left the upper city ; 
and the Peiraeus, as it seems, is not so much 
your home, as an anchorage for you, off the city's 
coast. And you have provided as means for your 
cowardly flight, the King's gold and the fruits of your 
political bribery." But, after all, why these tears ? 
Why all this noise ? Why this straining of the voice ? 
Is it not Ctesiphon who is the defendant? Is not 
the suit one in which the penalty is for the jury to 



473 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

S' dyoov ovk arlfxrjTO<i, av 6° ovre rrepl rov ad>p,aro^ 
ovre irepl t>7? eirnifiia^ ovre irepl 7-779 ovaias dya>- 
vitfl; dXXa irepl tLvo<; iarlv avrw r) airovhiy, irepl 
ypvawv crre(j)dv(ov Kai Krjpvyfidroyv iv ra> 6edrp(p 

211 irapd toi>9 vofiovs' bv ixPV v > et ' Kai A t « v€ ^ ° 8 77/40? 
r) to)V KaOecrrrjKOTWv eir iXeXr/a p,evo<; , eirl TOiavrr]*; 
dtcaipLas ifiovXero aTecf>avovv avrov, irapeXOovra 
eis TTjV i/c/cXrjaiav elirelv " "AvSpes A.6r)vaioi, rov 
p,ev arecpavov he~%opLcu, rov Se /catpbv diroBoKi/jid^o 
iv c5 to K?jpvyp,a ylyverai' ov <ydp 8el, e'0' oI<? 77 
iroXis eiceipaTo} iirl tovtois e/xe arecpavovaOai" 
dXX' olp-ac ravra fiev av e'liroL avr-jp bvrcos ftefiia)- 
/c(w? /ACT aperr}?' a 8e av Xe'fet?, eirroi av KcWapfxa 

212 ^rfkoTvnovv dperr'jv. ov yap oV/ p,a rov HpaicXea 
tovto ye vpLWV ovSeU (poftrfaeTai, /at) Arjp.oa6evrj<;, 
dvrjp fxeyaXo-^v^o^ /cal rd iroXe/jU/ca Siafapwv, 
aTTorv^cov rcov dptarecwv eirareX6u>v o'ltcahe eav- 
tov h taxprj a r\i a r 09 roaovrov tcarayeXa 7-779 77/309 
vp.d<i (piXoTifxlas, ware rrjv jxiapav /cecpaXrjv rav- 
ttjv /cal virevdvvov, r)v outo? irapa iravTas tou9 
vop,ovs yeypafye are(pav(t)aai, p,vpiatci<; tcajaie- 
rpurjKe /cal tovtcov /jlmtOovs etXi]<fie Tpavp,aro<; i/c 
irpovoias ypacfids ypa^ofievo^, ical Kaiaicetcovov- 
Xiarai, ware avrov olfxat rd toiv kovBvXcov lx i 'V 

1 itceipaTo Weidner : enzvQ-qai kcl\ iiceipaTO or iiceipeTO ical 
eVeVeTjtrs MSS. 



1 aycives b.rifx-r}Toi were those in which the penalty was 
fixed bj' statute ; in ayuiuts rifxriroi the penalty was to be 
determined in each case by the jury. Aeschines represents 
the latter class of cases as involving less peril to the 
defendant. 

474 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 210-212 

determine? 1 Is it not true that you are pleading 
neither for your person nor for your citizenship nor 
for your property? But what is this anxiety of his 
about? About crowns of gold and proclamations 
in the theatre — against the laws. Nay, but if the 
people gone mad, or forgetful of the existing situa- 
tion, had actually wished to crown him at a time so 
unfitting, he ought to have come before the assembly 
and said, " Fellow citizens, I accept the crown, but 
I do not approve the time at which the proclama- 
tion is to be made. For events which have caused 
our city to shear her head in mourning are no 
fitting occasion for my head to receive a crown." 
This I think a man would say whose life had been 
one of genuine virtue. But the words which you, 
Demosthenes, will speak, are the natural expression 
of a worthless scoundrel, with whom virtue is a pre- 
tence. One thing at any rate is sure, by Heracles ; 
no one of you will feel any anxiety lest Demosthenes, 
a man high-spirited and distinguished in war, will, if 
he fails to receive the meed of valour, go back home 
and make away with himself — he who so despises 
honour in your eyes that on this pestilential and 
accountable 2 head of his upon which Ctesiphon, in 
defiance of all the laws, proposes that you set a 
crown, he has inflicted a thousand gashes, and he 
has made money out of his wounds by bringing suit 3 
for malicious assault. And on one occasion he got 
such a smashing blow that I imagine he still carries 

2 The Greek word v-nevdwov, here rendered "accountable," 
is the technical expression for the accountability of the 
official who has not yet appeared before the board of 
auditors. 

3 See ii. 93. The single case there referred to is, so far as 
we know, the only pretext for Aeschines' "thousand gashes.'' 

475 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

roiv MetStou e%eiv en (pavepd' o yap civOpanros ov 
ice<f)a\i]v, dXXa irpbaohov Ke/crrjTai,. 1 

213 Uepl Be 1\Tt]<Ti<pwvTo<; rov ypd\p~avro<i rrjv yvco- 
p,i]V /3pa^ea f3ovXop,at, elrrelv, rd Be TroXXd virep- 
/3i]cro/jLai, iva ical irelpav Xd/3(o, 2 el BvvaaOe robs 
acpbBpa Trovi]pov<;, icdv jju'j ti<> Trpoe'nrr), Biayiyvco- 
(XK6LV. b 5' earl koivov /cal Bc/cacov /car dp,(pore- 
pwv avrS)v aTrayyelXai irpb<i lipids, tout' epco. 
irepiepyovrai yap tijv dyopav dXi]0el<; /car dXXi']- 
Xoov e^ovres B6tja<; ical Xoyovs ov yjrevBeL<i Xeyovra. 

214 o p-ev yap Kt rjaixpcov ov to /caO' eavTov <fir]ai (po- 
f3elo~0ai, eXiri^eLv yap Bo^etv ISkott]^ elvai, dXXa 
rrjv rov ArjpboaOevovs ev rrj TroXneia BcopoBo/ciav 3 
/cal ti-jv epurXi^iav /cal SeiXiav 6 Be Ai}p,oadew]<; 
et? ai/Tov p.ev aTTo^Xeircov Oappelv (prjaiv, ttjv Be 
rov K.T->]o~i(f)wvTo i i Trovr/piav /cal iropvofiocr/cLav 
la^vpoi^ BeBievai. tol"? Br) /careypcd/coras dXXij- 
Xcov piT)&ap,6)<; vp,ei<; oi /coivoi rcpiTal twv ey/cXyj- 
pbdrwv a7roXvo">]T€. 

215 Uepl Be rcov ei<; ep.avrbv XoiBopiwv $payea (3ov- 
Xopbai Trpoeiireiv. irvvddvopbat, yap Xe^etv ArjpLocr- 
6evif]v, 609 i) ttoXls vtt avrov p,ev uxpeXi^Tai, TroXXd, 
vtt ep,ov he. Kara/3e/3Xa7TTai, /cal rov QiXnnrov 
/cal rbv 'AXetjavBpov /cal rds diro rovroiv alrias 
avoiaeiv err epue. ovrco o eanv C09 eoi/ce oeivo<; 
B/)p.iovpyb<; Xoycov, ware ov/c diro^pf) avra>, el ri 
7re7roXtT€vp,ai Trap' vp2v eyco, rj el rivas Brjpirjyopias 

1 Weidner accepts Westermann's brilliant conjecture, and 
writes ov wp6o~u>Trov, a\\a irpocroZov KfKTrjTat. 

2 Kal irtlpav Act/So) Baiter and Sauppe : the MSS. have also 
vfiS<v in varying position. 

3 SwpoSoKiav Hamaker : SwpoSoidav <pr)a\ <pofieio-9ai MSS. 

4 5' Blass : -yap MSS. 

476 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 212-215 

the visible marks of Meidias' knuckles. 1 For it is 
not a head that the creature possesses, but an in- 
vestment. 

Now I wish to speak briefly about Ctesiphon, the 
author of the motion ; and I will pass over the greater 
part of what might be said, for I should like to test 
your ability, even when no one cautions you, to dis- 
cern those men who are utter rascals. I will speak 
only of what is common to the pair of them, and 
what I can honestly report to you concerning both. 
For the opinion that each of them has of the other 
is true, and the things that each, as he goes about 
the market-place, says of the other are no falsehoods. 
For Ctesiphon says he is not afraid so far as he him- 
self is concerned, since he hopes it will appear that 
he is but a plain citizen, but that what he does fear 
is Demosthenes' corruption in his conduct of affairs, 
and his instability and cowardice. And Demosthenes 
says that when he looks at his own case only, he is 
confident, but that he is exceedingly anxious in view 
of Ctesiphon's wickedness and licentiousness ! Well, 
when men have thus condemned one another, you, 
the common judges of both, must surely not acquit 
them of the crimes they charge. 

I wish also to caution you in a few words as to 
the slanders which they will utter against me. For 
I learn that Demosthenes will say that the city has 
been greatly benefited by him, but damaged by me ; 
and he will bring up against me Philip and Alex- 
ander, and the charges connected with them. And 
he is, as it seems, such a master-craftsman of words 
that he is not content to bring charges against what- 
ever part I have taken in your political action, or 

1 See on § 52. 

477 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

216 eiprj/ca, tovtoov fcarrjyopelv, dXXd /cal ttjv •qavyiav 
avTT/v tov (SLov BtaftdXXei teal t/"/9 o~ia>7rr)$ p,ov 
Karrpyopel, Ifva p,rj8el<i avTW tottos dav/co<pdvTi]TO<; 
irapaKeiirrjTai, /cal ia? ev rol<; yvp,vacriots p.erd 
twv vecorepcov p,ov BiaTpiftas /ca.Tap.ep,<f)eTai, ical 
kclto, Tr)aBe tt)$ icpiaeto<; evOvs dp)(pp,evo<i tov Xo- 
yov ())epei Tivd alriav, Xeywv o>9 eyw ttjv ypafytjv 
ov% virep t^9 irokews iypa\jrdp,rjv, aXV evBeiicvv- 
p,evos ' AXe^dvBpw Bid ti]v Trpos avTov eyOpav. 

217 /cal vi] Ata, a>9 eyw irvvOdvofxai, yu.eA.Xet p,e dvepw- 
rdv, Bid ti to p.ev /cecpdXaiov clvtov t/}? iroXiTeias 
yp-eya), t<x Be /cad' e/eacTTov ov/c e/ceoXvov ovB' iypa- 
cf)6p,r)v, dXXa BiaXeiirwv /cal 7rpo? ttjv iroXiTelav 
ov irv/cva Trpoaicov a7n]vey/ca ttjv ypa<f)/]v. eyco Be 
ovtc t«9 Ar)p,oa0evov<; BiaTpifids e^ijXco/ca, out 
iirl Tat? epiavTov aio~yyvop.ai, ovtc tou9 elpiipievovs 
ev vp.lv Xoyovs epuavTw dpp/jTovs civ 1 elvai j3ou- 
Xoipirjv, ovt6 Ta avTa tovtw Br)pii]yopi]aa<i Be^ai- 

218 p,r/v 2 dv £,r)v. ttjv 8' ep,rjv aia>7n']V, w Aiipb6cr6eve<;, 
r) tov fiiov yu,er/3iOT779 irapeo-Kevaaev dpicei yap 
pioi piitcpd, teal p.eit.ovwv atcr^/3a»9 ov/c eiriOvpiw, 
tocne /cal aiwirco /cal A.ey<w ftovXevadpievos, ovk 
dvayKa^op.evo<; virb rfjs ev ttj (ftvaet Bairdvrjq. av 
8' ol/xai Xaficov pev criyd<;, 3 dvaXtoaas Be /ce/cpayas 1 
Xeyets Be ov-% oTav aoi Boicf), ovS" dv /SoyX?/, 4 dXX' 
oTav 01 puaOoBoTai aoi TrpoaTUTTcoaiv ov/c al- 
o")(i)vr) Be dXa£ovev6p.evo<;, a Tvapay^pr)p,a e^eXeyynr) 

219 yjrev86p,evo<i. aTTrjvey^Qi] yap ?] icaTa tovBc tov 

1 hv added by Bekker. 

2 5«|a W Blass : iS^inrjp MSS. 
8 (Tiyas Cobet : atalyr\Kas MSS. 

4 hv &ov\ti Weidner : & &o6\ti MSS. 

478 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 216-219 

whatever speeches I have delivered, but he actually 
attacks the very quietness of my life, and makes my 
silence an accusation, in order that no topic may be 
left untouched by his slanders. And he censures 
my frequenting of the gymnasia with the younger 
men. 1 And at the very beginning of his speech he 
demurs against this legal process, saying that I in- 
stituted the suit, not in behalf of the city, but as a 
manifesto to Alexander because he hates Demos- 
thenes. 2 And, by Zeus, I understand that he pro- 
poses to ask me why I denounce his policy as a 
whole, but did not try to thwart it in detail, and did 
not prefer charges in the courts ; and why I have 
brought suit at this late day without having steadily 
attacked his policy. But I have never in the past 
emulated the habits of Demosthenes, nor am I 
ashamed of my own, nor would I wish unsaid the 
words which I have spoken in your presence, nor 
would I care to live had my public speeches been 
like his. As to my silence, Demosthenes, it has been 
caused by the moderation of my life. For a little 
money suffices me, and I have no shameful lust for 
more. Both my silence and my speech are there- 
fore the result of deliberation, not of the impulse 
of a spendthrift nature. But you, I think, are 
silent when you have gotten, and bawl aloud after 
you have spent ; and you speak, not when your 
judgment approves, and not what you wish to 
speak, but whenever your pay-masters so order. 
And you are not ashamed of impostures in which 
you are instantly convicted of falsehood. For my 

1 No such charge as to Aeschines' relations with the young 
men is found in Demosthenes' published speech. 

2 No such point is made at the beginning of Demosthenes' 
published speech, nor explicitly in any other part of it. 

479 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

■ty<r)(f)L(TiJLa.TO<; ypacprj, rjv ou% virep tt}<? TroXeco^, 
dXX V7rep t?}? 7T/30? 'AXe^avBpov eV6"ei'£eoS? fie <f>r}<; 
avreveyicelv, eVt QiXi-mrov ^covtos, vrplv AXef-av- 
Bpov ei<t Ttjv dp^ijv Karao-Tr)vai, ovira> aov to nvepi 
tlavaavlav evvrrviov ewpaKOTOs, ovBe Trpbs rrjv 
' A6r\vdv teal ttjv "Hpav vvtcrwp SieiXeyfievov. 7rw? 
dv ovv eyd> TrpoeveBei/cvvfirjv 'AXetjdvSpw; ei ye fir) 
javrbv evvvviov eyeb teal ArjfioaOev^ eiBo/iev. 

220 'JZiriTifids Be fioi, el fir) awe^a)?, dXXa BiaXei- 

TT(t)V, 7T/90? TOV BrjflOV 7T pOGepyOfiai, KOL T1)V a^LCOaiV 

Tai>Ti)v oiei XavOdveiv fieracpeptov ovk Ik Brj/no/cpa- 
Tia?, oU' ef erepas TToXireias. ev fiev yap rais 
bXiyap\iai<i ov% 6 )3ovX6fievo<;, aXX' 6 Bwaarevcov 
Srffirjyopei, 1 ev Be rat? BijfioK parlay 6 fiovXo/ievos, 
ical orav avrw Bo/cf). teal to fiev Bid %p6vov 
Xeyeiv arjfielbv eariv eirl rcov tcaipcov tcai rov 
o-vfi(pepovTO<; dvBpb? iroXirevofievov, rb Be firjBe- 
filav irapaXelireiv rjfiepav epyafrfievov /cal fiiadap- 

221 vovvtos. virep Be tov firfirco fcetcpladat vir ifiov, 
firjSe rcov dBiKi)fidroov Tificoptav virocry/lv, orav 
fcara(f>evyr)<; eVt TOU9 toiovtovs Xoyovs, rj rovs 
aKovovras eTriXijo-fiovas inroXafifiaveis, t) aavrov 
TrapaXoyL^i). 

Ta fiev yap irepl toi>? ' AficpLaaea<i r)cre/3t)- 
fieva aoi teal ra irepl rrjv Rvfioiav BcopoSo- 
Ki)0evra, e^' 2 oh vtt ifiov (pavepcos e^Xey^ov, 
ypbvoov eyyeyevi) fievcov 3 tcrto<; iXiri^eis tov B?)fiov 

222 dfiviffiovelv rd Be irepl rd<; Tpirfpei*; teat tov<; rpi- 

1 $T)fxr)yope~t Bekker : Karyyopel MSS. 
* eV oh Blass : iv oh MSS. 

3 xpovoov eyyeyevrifieuaiv placed before laws by Dobree : after 
h~wpohoKT)dlvTa. in the MSS. 

480 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 219-222 

suit against this motion, which you say I instituted, 
not in the city's behalf, but as a manifesto to Alex- 
ander, was instituted while Philip was still alive, 
before Alexander had come to the throne, before 
ever you had had that dream of yours about Pau- 
sanias, or ever had conversed with Athena and Hera 
in the night. 1 How then could I have been already 
making a manifesto to Alexander ? Unless, indeed, 
I and Demosthenes had the same dream ! 

And you blame me if I come before the people, 
not constantly, but only at intervals. And you 
imagine that your hearers fail to detect you in thus 
making a demand which is no outgrowth of de- 
mocracy, but borrowed from another form of govern- 
ment. For in oligarchies it is not he who wishes, but 
he who is in authority, that addresses the people ; 
whereas in democracies he speaks who chooses, and 
whenever it seems to him good. And the fact that 
a man speaks only at intervals marks him as a man 
who takes part in politics because of the call of the 
hour, and for the common good ; whereas to leave 
no day without its speech, is the mark of a man who 
is making a trade of it, and talking for pay. But 
as to your never having been brought to trial by me, 
and never having been punished for your crimes — 
when you take refuge in assertions like that, either 
you think that your hearers are forgetful, or you are 
deceiving yourself. 

Your impiety in the case of the Amphissians 2 
and your corruption in the Euboean affair, 3 of which 
you were clearly convicted by me, perhaps you 
hope the people have forgotten in the lapse of 
time ; but what length of time could conceal your 

1 See § 77. 2 See §§ 107 ff. 3 See §§ 85 ff. 

481 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ripapyovs dpirdypiaTa Tt9 av airo/epv-tyat %povo<; 
Bvvacr dv, ore vop,o@eT)j<ra<; irepl twv Tpta/eoaiwv, 
/cat aavTov 7reio"a? 'A8))vatov<; eTriardrrjv rd^at 
rod vauTixov, ef^yXey^Oi]^ U7r' epov e^rj/eovTa /eat 
nevre vethv TayyvavTOva&v Tptrjpdpxovs vfyrjpt)- 
p,evos, TrXeov t?)? TroXeoos d(f)avt^(ov vavTt/eov f) a> 
iroT€ l ' AOtivatot tyjv ev Na£&) vavpaytav Aa/ce&cu- 

223 povlovs /eat TloXXiv evt/ci)cav; ovtoj Se Tat? atTtai<i 
eve(ppa^a<; Ta? Kara cravrov Ttp.a)pta<;, axrre tov 
Ktvhvvov elvat pvr) o~ol tw dSt/cijaavTt, dXXa Tot? 
eire^tovat, iroXvv pev tov ' ' AXe^avhpov /eat tov 
QiXtinrov ev Tat? SiafioXais cfrepcov, atTtcopevo<; Be 
rivets eptiroht^etv tou? t% 7roXea><? /eatpoix;, del to 
irapov Xvp,ati'6p,evo<;, to Be pteXXov /caTeirayyeXXo- 
p,evo<;. ov to TeXevTatov elaayyeXXeaOat pteXXcov 
vir epiov, ttjv ' Ava^ivov avXX^yfnv tov 'ilpeirov 
/eaTea/cevacras, tov to dyopdafiaTa 'OXvp.TridSt 

224 dyopd^ovTOs; /eat tov avTOV dvBpa St? o-TpeftXcoaas 
Tjj aavTov X eL P' l > €jpayfra<; avTov Bavdr'tjo ^rjpiwaat, 
/eat irapd tu> avTw ev flpew /carrjyov, zeal o5 2 
a7ro tt}? avTT)<; rpaire^rj^ ecpayes /eat eVte? zeal 

1 § irore Weidner : 6ir6re or 2re MSS. 

2 <S added by Blass. 

1 The wealthy leaders of the property-groups on which 
the burden of the trierarchy was laid. 

2 In 340 B.C. Demosthenes carried a reform of the naval 
system, by which he compelled the richest citizens to con- 
tribute to the support of the navy strictly in proportion to 
their wealth. Under his system the number of individuals 
contributing (the trierarchs) may well have been diminished, 
but the number of the triremes was not lessened, their 
efficiency was increased, and taxation was made equitable. 
The matter is fully discussed in Demosthenes, On the Crown, 
§§ 102-109 

482 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 222-224 

acts of plunder in the case of the triremes and the 
trierarchs ? For when you had carried constitu- 
tional amendments as to the Three Hundred, 1 and 
had persuaded the Athenians to make you Commis- 
sioner of the Navy, you were convicted by me of 
having stolen away trierarchs from sixty-five swift 
ships, 2 making away with a greater naval force of 
the city than that with which the Athenians once de- 
feated Pollis and the Lacedaemonians at Naxos. 3 
And by your recriminations you so blocked the 
punishment which was your due that the danger 
came, not upon you, the wrong-doer, but upon those 
who attempted to proceed against you ; for in your 
charges you everlastingly brought forward Alex- 
ander and Philip, and complained that certain persons 
were fettering the opportunities of the city — you 
who always ruin the opportunity of to-day, and 
guarantee that of to-morrow. And when at last 
you were on the point of being impeached by me, 
did you not contrive the arrest of Anaxinus of Oreus, 
who was making purchases for Olympias ? 4 And 
you twice put to the torture with your own hand 
and moved to punish with death the same man in 
whose house you had been entertained at Oreus. 
The man with whom at the same table you had 
eaten and drunken and poured libations, the man 

3 In the battle of Naxos, 376 B.C., Chabrias with an 
Athenian fleet of 83 triremes defeated Pollis, who with a 
Lacedaemonian fleet of 65 ships was trying to cut off the 
Athenian grain ships. 

4 Demosthenes asserts {On the Crown, § 137) that Anaxinus 
had come as a spy of the Macedonians, and that Aeschines 
was caught in a secret interview with him. The purchases 
for Olympias, Philip's wife, may well have been a pretext for 
his visit to Athena. 

483 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

eo-TreLaas, Kal t!]v hefydv evefiaXes dvhpa (piXov 
Kal %evov 770Lov/j,evo<;, tovtov 1 aTreicreivas- kcli 
rrepl tovtcov ev clttckjiv 'Adr/vaiois e%eXeyx@eh ^ 7r 
ifiov Kal KXrjOeh ^evoKTOVos, ov to ao-eftrjfia rjp- 
vrjo-w, aXX' drreKplvo) e</>' u> dvefiorjaev 6 hijpLOS Kal 
ocroi %evoi Trepiearaaav ttjv eKKXr/aiav ecp^ada 
yap tovs rrj<i 7ro\er«9 aXas irepl TrXeiovos iroietadai 

225 t>";9 ^evLKrj<; Tpane^. eirio-ToXas he aiyto yfrevheh 
Kal Karao-KOTToov o-vXXijyjret? Kal ftaadvovs eV 
atrtai? a<yevr)TOL<;, a>? epuov fierd tivwv veunepi- 
%eiv 2 {3ov\ofievov. 

"EireLTa eTrepwrav fie, 009 eyu> irvvOdvop-ai, 
pueXXei, Tt? av elrj toiovtoi laTpos, baris tu> 
voaovvTL puera^v puev daOevovvTc pirjhev o-vpi/3ov- 
Xevoi, TeXevTrjaavTOS he eXOcov eh rd evara 
hie^ioi 737309 tow? oiKeiovs a eViT^Seucra? vyit]<i av 

226 eyeveTO. aavrov S' ovk dvTepa>rd<;, rt<? av eh] 
Br)pLaya>yb<; toiovtos, octt£9 rbv ptev hrjpt,ov Ownev- 
aai hvvano, tovs he Kaipovs ev oh ?jv ato^eaQai 
rr)v iroXtv, dirohoiTO, toi'9 &' ev (ppovovvras kwXvoi 
hiafidXXcov avpi,(3ov\eveLV, a7rohpd<; 8' eK to)v 
Kivhvvwv Kal rrjv iroXiv dvrjKecrroL^ avp,(popah 
Trept/SaXwv d^Lolrj aTefyavovoQai eV apery, dya- 
dbv piev 7re7roi7]K(i)<; pbr/hev, irdvrwv Be twv KaKwv 
atTto? yeyovoos, eTrepayrwri he tovs crvKocpavTrj- 
devras Ik tt}? TroXneias eV eKeivcovrSyv Kaipcov ot 
evrjv crco^eadai, hid tl avrov ovk eK(ioXvaav e%a- 

227 pbaprdveiv, aTTOKpinrTOiTO he. to iravTOdV reXevralov, 
oti rrj<; p,dyr)<i eiriyevo p,evi~i<; ovk eaj(oXa^o piev rrepo 

1 tovtov Cohet : Kal tovtov MSS. 

2 veu>Tep[£eiv Weidner : the MSS. have iv tj) v6\ti before 
or after vtonepl&iv. 

484 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 224-227 

with whom you had clasped hands in token of 
friendship and hospitality, that man you put to 
death ! When I convicted you of this in the presence 
of all Athens, and charged you with being the 
murderer of your host, you did not deny the impious 
crime, but gave an answer that called forth a cry of 
protest from the citizens and all the foreigners who 
were standing about the assembly. For you said 
that you held the city's salt as of more importance 
than the table of your foreign host. I say nothing 
of forged letters and the arrest of spies, and torture 
applied on groundless charges, on your assertion that 
I with certain persons was seeking a revolution. 

Furthermore, he intends, as I learn, to ask me 
what kind of a physician he would be who should 
give no advice to his patient in the course of his 
illness, but after his death should come to the 
funeral and tell over to the relatives by what course 
of treatment the man might have been cured. But, 
Demosthenes, you fail to ask yourself in turn what 
kind of a statesman he would be who, having the 
power to cajole the people, should sell the oppor- 
tunities for saving the city, and by his calumnies 
prevent patriots from giving advice ; and when he 
had run away from danger and had entangled the 
city in misfortunes from which there was no escape, 
should demand that he be crowned for his virtue, 
when he had done no thing that was good, but 
was himself responsible for all the disasters ; and 
should then ask those who had been driven out of 
public life by his slanders in those critical days when 
there was still a chance of safety, why they had not 
prevented his wrong doing ; and should conceal the 
final fact of all, that after the battle we had no 

485 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

ttjv <7T)v elvai Tificoptav, a\\' virep t?}? a(HTi)pia^ 
rrj<; Tr6\eco<i €7rpeo-/3evop,€v. eireihri Be ovk drre^pr) 
aoi Bitc>]v p,rj BeBoo/cevai, dWa /cal Boopeas -ijreis, 1 
KarayeXaaTOV iv tch? ' EUj/itj ttjv itoXiv iroitov, 
ivravO* evecrrtjv teal Tr)v ypa<f)r)v dir^veyKa. 

228 Kcu vr) T0U9 Oeovs roi>s OXvpLTrlovs, wv iya> 
irvvOavopai A^p.oaOeinjv Xe^eiv, e<£' a> vvvl p^eXXco 
Xeyeiv ayava/CToi) /xaXicrTa. d<fiop,oioi yap p,ov 
rrjv (fcvaiv tcu? —eiprj(Tiv. z fcal yap inr eiceivwv 
ov KrfkelcrOaL tyrjcri toi)? d/cpocofMevovs, aXX' diroX- 
\vadai, oioirep ovB y evBoKip:eiv ttjv tcov 2,'eipqvtov 
p,ovaiK7]v teal Bi) /cal T))v tcov ipewv eupmav 3 
\6ycov koX rrjv <f)vcriv piov yeyev fjcrOat iirl f3\dj3r) 
tcov clkovovtwv. icaiTOi tov \oyov tovtov oXcos 
puev eycoye ovBevl irpkireiv i)yovp,ai irepl e/xoO Xe- 
yeiv ti}? yap alrlas ala^pov tov aiTid)p.ev6v ecni 

229 to epyov p,r) e%eiv eiriBel^at' el S' rjv avayicalov 
prjOrjvat, ov AripLoaOevovs r)v 6 \6yos, aX)C dvBpb? 
arTpaT7]yov pieydXa p,ev tt)v ttoXiv dydO' elpyaapie- 
vovj^ Xeyeiv Be dBvvaTov koX ttjv tcov uvtiBikcov 
Bid TOVTO €^T]\cOKOTO<i (pvaiv, otl avvoiSev eavTw 
p,ev ovBev cov BiaireirpaKTai Bvvap,evw (ppdcrai, tov 
Be K,aTi]yopov opa Bvvdpievov /cal tcl pirj Treirpay- 
p,eva inr avTov irapiaTavai tch? aKovovaiv go? 

1 rJTfis Blass : airels MSS. 

2 tous ~Zeipri<Tiv Baiter : the MSS. have iis fWe before or 
after reus 'XetpTJartv. 

* tvpoiav Koyuiv Blass : tinvopiav x6yaiv, Koyoiv elirop'iav, 
Koyxv airopiav, \6yu>v 4/j.irtipiav MSS. 

* ayad' eloyaa uivov Herwcrden : Kartipyafffifvov MSS. 

486 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 227-229 

time to attend to punishing you, but were engrossed 
in negotiations for the safety of the city. But when, 
not content with having escaped punishment, you 
were actually calling for rewards, making the city 
an object of ridicule in the eyes of all Hellas, then 
I interposed and brought my indictment. 

And, by the Olympian gods, of all the things 
which I understand Demosthenes is going to say, I 
am most indignant at what I am now about to tell 
)'ou. For he likens me in natural endowment to the 
Sirens, saying that it was not charm that the Sirens 
brought to those who listened to them, but de- 
struction, and that therefore the Siren-song has no 
good repute ; and that in like manner the smooth 
flow of my speech and my natural ability have 
proved the ruin of those who have listened to me. 1 
And yet I think no man in the world is justified 
in making such a statement about me. It is a 
shame to accuse a man and not to be able to show 
the ground for the accusation. But if the charge 
really had to be made, it was not for Demosthenes 
to make it, but for some general who, although he 
had rendered distinguished services to the state, 
was not gifted with the power of speech, and for 
that reason was envious of the natural endowments 
of his opponents in court, because he knew that 
he had not the ability to describe one of all the 
things he had accomplished, but saw in his accuser 
a man able to set forth to the hearers in all detail 
how he had himself administered things which had 

1 No such passage occurs in the published speech of De- 
mosthenes. It is likely that he omitted it when he revised 
his speech for publication. 

487 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

hiwK7}Kev. orav o" ii; bvopbdrwv crvyKeLfievo*; av- 
Opwiros, Kal tovtcov TTLKpwv /ecu irepiepywv, eireira 
eirl ttjv ciTrXoTrjra Kal ra epya KaTacpevyp, -n? av 
avaxryptTo; ov tt)v yXwrrav wairep twv avKwv 
edv rt? afyeXr), to Xoittov ovhev eariv. 

230 <davp,d£(ti 8' eycoye vp,wv, w avhpes 'Adrjvaloi, 
Kal ^tjtS), 7T/309 ri av diTO^\ey^avTe<i d7royjrT](})t- 
aaiaOe tt]V ypacpijv. Trorepov o>? to y\n)<\)Lo- p.d 
iariv evvop,ov; a\V ovhep,ia Trco-jTore yva>fii) 
irapavopLooTepa yeyevrjrai. aX)C ft>? o to tyijcpio-pa 
ypdtyas ovk eViT^'Sefo? e'o-Tt BUi]v Sovvai; ovk dp' 
elal irap vpuv evQvvai /Stou, el tovtov dcprjaeTe. 
€K€lvo 6" ov XvTnipov, el irporepov p,ev eveTTtfiTrXaTO 

V °PXV°" T P a XP va ™ v ' Te 4 >c ^ va>v > * ? ° ^'"?A t0 ? eo"Te- 
(fravovTO vtto twv 'EWrjvoov, 1 Ik 8e twv Arjp.oo~- 
Oevovs 7ro\iT€vp,dTO)v vpuels p,ev darecpdvcoTOi /cat 

231 aKijpvKToi ylyveaOe, ovtos he Kr)pvx8>)o~eTai; Kal 
el p,ev Tt? twv rpayiKcov ttoiijtwv rwv puera ravra 
e-neiaaybvToav irotijaeiev ev rpaywhta, rov ®ep<Ti- 
Tfiv vtto twv 'EWtfvwv are(pai>ovp,evov, ovhei<; av 
vp.(bv viropLeiveiev, ort (pi)cr\v "Op,7]po<; dvavhpov 
avTOV elvai Kal avKo4>dvrr]v avrol o° orav rov 
tolovtov dvOpwrrov arecftavMre, ovk av 2 oleade ev 
Ta?? tcov 'EWijvcov ho^ais Gvp'nreoQai; 61 p-ev 
yap Trarepes vp.wv rd pcev evho^a Kai Xap,Trpa rwv 
TTpaypbaTWV dveriQeaav tw hijp-(f>, rd he Tairetva 
Kal KaraSeeaTepa els tou? p/]Topa<; toi>? (pavXovs 
erpeTTOV l\Tr]ai<f)Mv S' Vfi&s oterat heiv d$e\6v- 
Ta? tt)V dho^iav utto Ai]p,oo-0ivov<; TrepiOelvau tw 

1 'Y.\xi]vo>v Halm : after 'EAArjJ'au' the MSS. have Sta rb 
^tviKo'is cretpdvots ravrriv a7ro5e5ocr6ai ttjc Tifiepav. 

2 tiv added by Cobet. 

488 






AGAINST CTESIPHON, 229-231 

not been done by him at all. But when a man 
who is made up of words, and those words bitter 
words and useless — when such a man takes refuge 
in "simplicity" and "the facts/' who could have 
patience with him? If you treat him as you might 
a clarinet, and take out his tongue, you have 
nothing left ! 

But for my part I am surprised at you, fellow citi- 
zens, and I ask under what possible consideration 
you could refuse to sustain this indictment. On the 
ground that Ctesiphon's motion is lawful ? Never 
was a more unlawful motion made. On the ground 
that he who moved the decree is not the sort of man 
to be punished ? You give up the possibility of call- 
ing any man to account for his manner of life, if you 
let this man go. And is it not vexatious that whereas 
in former times the orchestra was piled with golden 
crowns with which the state was honoured by the 
Hellenes, 1 to-day in consequence of the policies of 
Demosthenes you the people go uncrowned and un- 
proclaimed, but he is to be honoured by the voice of 
the herald ? If any one of the tragic poets who are 
to bring on their plays after the crowning should in 
a tragedy represent Thersites as crowned by the 
Greeks, no one of you would tolerate it, for Homer 
says he was a coward and a slanderer ; but when you 
yourselves crown such a man as this, think you not 
that you would be hissed by the voice of Hellas ? 
Your fathers were wont to attribute to the people 
such deeds as were glorious and brilliant, but mean 
and unworthy acts they threw upon the incom- 
petent politicians. But Ctesiphon thinks that you 
ought to take off from Demosthenes his ill-fame, and 

1 Crowns were frequently sent from one state to another 

in recognition of generous services. „ 

& 489 

R 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

232 8t]/xo). Kal (pare fiev evrvy^els elvai, a>9 Kal eare 
Ka\a)<; Troiovvres, y]rr]<pieio-8e 6"' biro fiev Tr}? tv^jj? 
iy/caTa\e\el(f)@ai, vtto Atj/xoct devour 8e ev Treirov- 
Oevai; Kal to ttuvtcov aroiKorarov, ev rot? avrols 
BiKa<TT7]pLOi<; rovs Liev Ta? twv 8u>pcov ypa(f>as 
d\urKop,evovs dri/xovre, ov 8 avrol puaOov tto\l- 
revo/xevov crvviaTe, arecpavwo-eTe; /ecu tovs p,ev 
Kpird<i rov<i i/c twv Aiovvaicov, eav pLij Si/cauos 
tou9 kvk\iov<; %opov<; Kplvcoai, ^rjpuovTe' avrol 8e 
ov kvkXlcov ^opcov Kpnal Ka0eo~T7]/coTe<i, aXXa 
vopicov Kal TroXniKr)^ apeTfjS, ra$ Say peas ov Kara 

TOU9 VOpLOVS 01)8' 6A.t70t9 KCU T019 dtjiOlS, tlWa TO) 

8icnrpa%ap.ev(p 8coaeTe; 

233 "EiTreir easier iv ire tov 8i>caar'>jp[ov 6 toiovtos 
KpiTr]<; eavrov puev dadevfj 7re7roir)K(os, itryypov 8e 
tov p/jropa. civil p yap l8icorr]<; ev rroXei 8r//xo- 
icparovpLevri vollco Kal ijnjcfxp (3acn\ever orav 8 
krepep ravra r rrapa8ui, KaraXeXvKe rrjv avros av- 
tov 8vvao-reiav. eireiff' piev opKos ov 6p.(op,oKoo i i 
8iKci£ei, avpbirapaKo\ov6oiv avrbv \v7rer 81 av- 
rov yap 6lp,ai yeyove to dpcdprripLa' 1) 8e %a/3£9 
7T/0O9 bv e^apt^ero aSijXo'i yeyevrjrar rj yap 
yjrfjcpos d<pavr)<> cfrepeTai. 

234 AoKOvp,ev 8' epuoiye, 0) av8pe<; 'Adrjvaloi, dp,- 
(porepa Kal KaropOovv Kal TrapaKiv8vveveiv et'9 
ttjv TToXiTeiav, ov crcocfypovovvTes. on p.ev yap 
eirl roiv vvvl Kaipojv 01 ttoWoc tols oXiyois 
TTpoteaOe ra t?}9 8r]pLOKpaTia<; icryypd, ovk 
iiraww' otl o° ov yeyeviirat 4>opa KaO' r)/u,a<> 

490 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 231-234 

crown the people with it. And while you assert 
that you are favourites of fortune — as indeed you 
are, thank heaven — will you declare by public resolu- 
tion that you have been abandoned by fortune, but 
blessed by Demosthenes? And — strangest of all — 
in the same court-rooms do you disfranchise those 
who are convicted of receiving bribes, and then your- 
selves propose to crown a man who, to your own 
knowledge, has always been in politics for pay ? If 
the judges at the Dionysiac festival are not honest 
in their award of the prize to the cyclic choruses, 
you punish them ; but do you yourselves, who are 
sitting as judges, not of cyclic choruses, but of the 
laws and of integrity in public life, do you propose 
to bestow your rewards, not according to the laws, 
and not upon the rare and deserving, but upon the 
successful intriguer ? 

Furthermore, a juror who so acts will go out from 
the court-room responsible for having made himself 
weak and the politician strong. For in a democracy 
the private citizen is a king by virtue of the consti- 
tution and his own vote ; but when he hands these 
over to another man, he has by his own act dethroned 
himself. Still further, the oath that he has sworn 
before taking his seat haunts him and troubles him, 
for it was his oath, I think, that made his act a sin ; 
and his service is unknown to the man whom he 
was trying to please, for the vote is cast in secret. 

But it seems to me, fellow citizens, that the politi- 
cal situation, while fortunate, is also perilous ; for we 
are not wise. The fact that at the present time you, 
the people, give over the mainstays of the democracy 
to the few is to be deplored ; but the fact that there 
has not sprung up to our hurt a crop of politicians 

491 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

f>7)TopG)V TrovrjpoiV dpua teal ToXfir/pcov, evTV%ovp.ev. 
irporepov p,ev yap TOiavTas (pvaea ijvey/ce to 
hrjpuoaiov, at paSiwi ovtoj KareXvaav tov 8rjp,ov 
^Xaipe yap /coXafcevop-evos, eireir avTov ov^ ou<> 
i(po/3elro, dXX ols kavrov eve^eipi^e, /careXvaav 

235 eviot Be teal avrol twv rpiaKovra eyevovTo, 01 
TrXeiovs r) ^tXiof? /cat irevTaicoaLovs tcov ttoXitwv 
d/cpiTOV? arreKreivav, irplv koX ra<; atr/as d/covaat 
e'<£' ah ep,e~Wov cnrodvrjGiceiv, teal ot)8' eirl Ta? 
i/ctyopa? 1 tow reXevTrjaavrcov etojv tovs Trpocn)- 
Kovras trapayeveaOai. ov% v<j> vp.lv avTols etjere 
tovs 7ro\iT€vop.evov<i ; ov Ta7TeivcocravT€<; cnroTrep,- 
yjrere toi)<? vvv emipptevovs; ov pLepunjaeaO^ 2 on 
ovSels iranroTe iirWero nrporepov 8)'/p,ov KaraXvaei 
Trplv dv pbel^ov twv SifcacrTrjpLCDv lo-yyar]; 

236 < HSe&)9 8' dv eyooye, on dvSpes 'AOr/vaiot, ivav- 
tlov vp,cov dva\oyiGa'ip,r}v Trpos tov ypd\jravTa to 
■^r7](ptapa, 81a 7roia? evepyeaua'i d^tol At] p,oa 8 evrjv 
<TTe<pavo)aat. el p,ev yap Xe^eis, bOev ttjv dp^ijv 
tov ■^ri]<pi,o-p.aTO<; eTroiijaco, otl to.? rd(ppov<; Tas 
irepi ra Tei^rj /caXco? eTacppevae, Oavpud^oi aov. 
tov yap Tavr e^epyaaOr/vai KaXcos to yeyevr)o-9ai 
tovtcov aiTiov p.el£oj KaTiiyopiav e%er ov yap 
irepfxapaKcoaavTa xp>] Ta Telxv> ov8e Tacpovs 
8i]p,oaLOV<; 3 dveXovTa tov 6p9a><; TreiroXtTev pievov 

1 ras (K<popas Weidlier : Tas rcupas /col incpopas MSS. 

2 /xenvhaeoff 1 Cobet : ix4fivr)(r6' MSS. 

3 ra<pov$ hr\fxoalov$ Blass : racpas Sriixocrlas or ras STj/j-oaias 
Ta<pas MSS. 

1 We learn from the orator Lycurgus (Against Leocrates, 
§ 44) that in the haste to fortify the city immediately after 
Chaeronea the very tombs were made to yield stones, as 

492 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 234-236 

both corrupt and daring is a gift of fortune. For in 
former times the state did bring forth such charac- 
ters, and they made short work of putting down the 
democracy. For the people loved to be flattered, 
and in consequence were overthrown, not by the 
men whom they feared, but by those in whose hands 
they had placed themselves. And some of them 
actually joined the Thirty, who killed more than 
fifteen hundred of the citizens without trial, before 
they had even heard the charges on which they were 
to be put to death, and who would not even allow 
the relatives to be present at the burial of the dead. 
Will you not hold the politicians under your control ? 
Will you not humble and dismiss those who are now 
exultant ? Will you not bear in mind that in the 
past no one has ever attempted the overthrow of the 
democracy until he has made himself stronger than 
the courts ? 

But I would like to reckon up in your presence, 
fellow citizens, with the author of this motion, the 
benefactions for which he calls on you to crown 
Demosthenes. For if, Ctesiphon, you propose to 
cite that which you made the beginning of your 
motion, that he did good work in excavating the 
trenches around the walls, I am astonished at you. 
For to have been responsible for the necessity of 
doing the work at all involves an accusation greater 
than is the credit for having done it well. Indeed, 
it is not for surrounding the walls with palisades, and 
not for tearing down the public tombs * that the 

they had done in the hurried fortifying by Themistocles 
after the Persian wars (Thucydides, 1. xeiii. 1). Aesehines 
wrongly implies that these hurried emergency measures were 
a part of the work that was done later in a thorough manner 
under Demosthenes' direction. 

493 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

Bbypeds alrelv, dXX" dyadov tivos aiTiov yeyevrj- 

237 p.evov rf) voXei. el Be y%et<i errl to Bevrepov pbepos 
tov ■^TT](f)i,(rpuaTO^, ev <p T€To\pLrjKa<; ypdcpetv ft)? 
eariv dvrjp dyad 6s, km " SiaTeXet Xeycov Kal irpdr- 
tcov rd apiara t5> BijpLG) t&> 'AOrjvaiwv," dcpeXcov 
Trjv dXa^oveiav Kal tov ko/attov rov "v/r^iV/Aaro? 
atyai twv epycov, evriBei^ov i)puv 6 ri Xeyets. rdi 
p,ev yap irepl tou? ApLcpiGaeas Kal tov<; Eu/3oea? 
BcopoBoKLas 7rapaXenrw orav Be Tr)<i irpbs ®r]/3al- 
ov<i avpLpLa^ia^ to.? atrial dvariOfj<; ArjpLoaOevet, 
tou? pbev dyvoovvras e^airaras, to us S' elBoras 
fcai alaOavopLevovs vfi pixels. dcpeXcov yap tov 
fcaipbv teal ri]v Bb^av rrjv tovtcov, Bi fjv eyevero i) 
avpLfiayia, Xavddveiv o'lei T^u-a? to rrjs 7ro\ea>? 
d^icopia ArjpLoaOevei irepiTtOels. 

238 'YiAiKov S' €cttI to dXa^bvevpa tovto, iyco 
ireipdaojxai pLeydXw aty/ieia) oiodffai. o yap 
twv Uepacov fiaaiXevs ov 7roXXw j^povw irpb 
tt}? ' AXe^dvBpov Bia/3dae(o<; eh ttjv Acrlav Kare- 
Trepuyfre rw B/jpLU) Kal pidXa v/3piaTiKt]v Kal p3dp- 
piapov eTucnoXrjv, ev fj rd re Bi] aXXa Kal 
yu.aX,' aTTaiSevrax; BieXex^V' KaL e ' 7r '' TeXevrffi 
eveypayjrev, 1 " 'E70J," (p^alv, " vpuv \pvalov ov 

239 Bcocrco' p,?] p,e alreire' ov yap Xrj-^reo-Be." ovros 
pbkvroi 6 avrbs eyKaTaXycfiOeh vrcb twv vvvl 
irapbvTwv avTw kivBvvwv, ovk aWovvTOiv ^AOip- 
vatcov, avros e/ccov KareTTep^yjre rptaKoaia TaXavra 
t&> SijpKp, a crwtypovoiv ovk e8e^aro. 6 Be KopLL^cov 
rjv to y^pvaiov Kaipbs Kal (pofios Kal XP e ' ta crv f M ' 
pbd^cov. to Be avrb tovto koX ttjv StjfSaLwv 
o-vp,p.a")(Lav efyipydo-aro. o~v Be to p.ev toov 

1 evtyoaipev Hamaker : iveypaiptv iv rrt en-io-ToAp MSS. 

494 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 236-239 

statesman of clean record ought to ask reward, but 
for having been responsible for some good to the 
city. But if you turn to the second part of your 
decree, in which you have had the effrontery to 
write that he is a good man, and " constantly sjoeaks 
and does what is best for the Athenian people," omit 
the pretence and the bombast of your decree, and 
take hold of the facts, and show us what you mean. 
I pass by his corruption in the case of the Amphis- 
sians and Euboeans ; but when you give Demosthenes 
the credit for the alliance with Thebes, you deceive 
the ignorant and insult the sensible and well in- 
formed. For in failing to mention the crisis and the 
prestige of these your fellow citizens, which were 
the real reasons why the alliance was made, you 
think you prevent our seeing that you are crowning 
Demosthenes with the credit which belongs to the 
city. 

How great is this imposture, I will try to show you 
by a signal proof. Not long before Alexander crossed 
over into Asia, the king of the Persians sent to our 
people a most insolent and barbarous letter, in which 
everything was expressed in the most ill-mannered 
terms ; and at the close he wrote, " I will not give 
you gold ; stop asking me for it ; you will not get it." 
But this same man, overtaken by the dangers which 
are now upon him, 1 sent, not at the request of the 
Athenians, but of his own accord, three hundred 
talents to the people, which they were wise enough 
to refuse. Now what brought the gold was the crisis, 
and his fear, and his need of allies. And this same 
thing it was that brought about the alliance with 
Thebes. But you, Demosthenes, tire us out with 

1 See on § 132. 

495 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

®r)(3ai(ov ovopa koX to t?}? SvaTvyeaTarr]^ avp- 
ixax(,a<; eVo^A-ei? del \eya>v, to, h e^hofx^Kovra 
rdXavra vTroaianras, a TrpoXaftoov rov ftacriXircov 

240 y^pvalov d f 7recrrepi]Ka<;. ov hi evheiav ^prjpdrwv 
eveica pev Trevre toXcivtcov ol %evot %r]f3aioi<; ttjv 
dxpav ov irapehoarav; hid ivvia he rdXavra dpyv- 
piov irdvroov 'Ap/cdhbiv £1~e\rfk,v6oTwv real twv 
i)yep,6vo)V eroipwv ovtcov j3oi]6elv, i) irpd^is ov 
yeyevrjTai; o~v he 7r\ovret<i fcal Tat? rjhovals rals 
aavTOv ^oprjyei^. ical to /cecfydXaiov, to puev 
j3a(xi\iKov "fcpvo-'iov irapd tovtw, ol he Kivhvvoi 
Trap vplv. 

241 "A^iov S' earl koX ttjv diraihevcriav avroiv 
Oecoprjcrai. el yap ro\p.i]aei l^T-)]atcf)a)v p,ev A77- 
pocrOevrjv irapaicaXelv Xe^ovra et? vpds, ovtos 8' 
dva/3d<; eavrbv ey/ccop^id^eiv, 1 /3apvrepov tcov ep- 
ycov o)v TceirovBapev to dicpoapa ytyverai. oirov 
yap toi><; 2 6W&>? avhpas dya0ov<i, ol<; 7ro\\d Kal 
fca\d avvio~p.ev epya, tou? nat? eavrwv eiraivov; 
edv \eya>o~iv, ov <pepopev, orav 3 avOpwrros alo-yywr) 

1 £yKO)fju&£eiv Reiske : eyKw/nidcrei (or fyKa>/j.id£et) MSS. 
- robs CJebauer : robs fj.lv MSS. 
8 Irav Markland : orav 5e MSS. 



1 It appears that when Athens refused the 300 talents 
which had been brought from the king of Persia to help in 
organising a revolt against Alexander, the Persian envoys 
put at least a part of the gold into Demosthenes' hands, in 
the expectation that he would use it in unofficial efforts 
against Macedon. 

2 After Thebes revolted from Alexander, her citadel was 
still held by a garrison of his mercenaries. 

* This accusation is elaborated in Deinarchus' speech against 
Demosthenes (§§ 18-21). He says that the Arcadians came 

496 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 239-241 

your everlasting talk of Thebes and of that most 
ill-starred alliance, while you are silent as to the 
seventy talents of the king's gold which you have 
seized and embezzled. 1 Was it not for lack of 
money, nay, for lack of five talents, that the mer- 
cenaries failed to deliver up the citadel to the 
Thebans ? 2 And when all the Arcadians were 
mobilized and their leaders were ready to bring aid, 
did not the negotiations fail for want of nine talents 
of silver ? 3 But you are a rich man, you serve as 
choregus 4 — to your own lusts. In a word, the 
king's gold stays with Demosthenes, the dangers, 
fellow citizens, with you. 

But we may well consider their lack of good breed- 
ing also. For if Ctesiphon shall have the effrontery 
to call Demosthenes to the platform to speak to you, 5 
and he to come forward and praise himself, that will 
be even harder for you to hear than his deeds were 
to bear. We refuse to listen even to honest men 
when they speak their own praises, though we know 
full well how many noble deeds they have done ; who, 

up as far as the Isthmus, and that their general offered their 
services for ten talents, but that Demosthenes refused to 
furnish the money to the Thebans, who were conducting the 
negotiations, and so the Arcadian general sold out to the 
Macedonians and led his troops home. 

4 The rich Athenian took his turn in serving the city as 
choregus, contributing to meet the expenses of some state- 
festival. Demosthenes, too, is a rich man of the choregus 
class, but all his contributions are to serve his own 
lusts. 

5 Although each party to a suit was required to plead his 
own cause, he might call on friends to supplement his plea. 
In some cases this supporting plea was in reality the main 
plea in the case, as it certainly was on this occasion. See 
on § 201. 

497 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

rfj<; 7r6\e&>9 yeyovd><; eavTOV ey/coopid^r), rt? dv ra 
TOiavra /capTepi}o~eiev d/covcov; 

242 'A7ro pev ovv tt)<; dvaiayyvTov TrpaypiaTeia^, 
edv aco(f)p(>vf}s, aTroaT^aij, Troii']o~r) x Be, m Kt?/o"£- 
(fitov, Bia aavTOV ttjv drroXoyiav. ov yap 8?] irov 
tovto ye a/cityy, co? ov BvvaTo<; el Xeyeiv. /cal yap 
av aroirov aoi avpbfSaivoi, ei irpcoyv puev ttoO vire- 
fietvas 7rpea/3evTrj<i &)<? K.Xeo7raTpav rrjv QiXittttov 
Ovyarepa yeipoTOveloO at, o-vva-)(Peo~8i]o-op£vo<; eVt 
TJ7 tov MoXottcov {3ao~iXea><; 'AXejjdvBpov TeXev- 
rfi, vvvl Be ov (pijo-eis BvvaaOai Xeyeiv. eireiTa 
yvval/ca p,ev dXXor plav rrevOovaav Bvvaaai irapa- 
pvdelaOaL, ypd\jra<; Be piaOov ^ri'^iapa ov/c diro- 

243 Xoyijo-y; r) toiovto<; eanv ov yeypatyas aTe(pavov- 
aOai, olo? pr) yiyvcocr/ceaOai vtto rcov ei> ireirovOo- 
toov, av p,i) ri? avvelirrf, eirepd/Tiqcrov Br) tov<; 
Bi/caards, el eyiyva>a/cov Xa/3/oiav /cal ^lcpi/cpaTifv 
teal TipoOeov, /cal ttvQov Trap 1 avroiv, Bid tl t«? 
Bcopeds avTOis eBoaav /cal Ta? ei/covas eaTrjcrav. 
diravTes yap dp,a diro/cpivovvTai, oti Xa/Spta pikv 
Bid ttjv irepl Nd£ov vavpaylav, 'Jcfx/cpaTei Be oti 
p,6pav Aa rceBaipioviwv dire/cTeive, TipoOeco Be Bid 
tov irepiirXovv tov et? lLepKvpav, /cal aXXois, wv 
e/cdo~T(p TroXXd /cal /caXa /caTa iroXepov hpya ire- 

244 irpaKTai. Arjp,ocrdevei B avTepov Bia ti. 2 oti 
BoopoBo/cos, oti BeiXos, on Tijv Ta^iv eXnre; /cal 
TTOTepov tovtov Tipi/feeTe, rj vpds at/Tow; aTip,wpi]- 
tov<; edaeTe /cal tou? virep vpwv ev ttj pd^rj 
TeXevT?jaavTa<; ; ou? vop,[aad* opdv cr^eTXid^ovTas, 

1 ttoiti^v Bekker : iroirjffai MSS 

2 Sih ti Sauppe : 8ix rl SwcreTe MSS. 

49 8 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 241-244 

then, could endure to listen when a man who has 
made himself a disgrace to the city lauds himself? 

From such shameless business as that, Ctesiphon, 
you will therefore withdraw, if you are wise, and 
make your defence in your own person. For surely 
you will not put forth this excuse, that you have not 
the ability to speak. It was only the other day that 
you allowed yourself to be elected as envoy to Cleo- 
patra, the daughter of Philip, to condole with her 
over the death of Alexander, king of the Molossians ; * 
you would then be in a strange position to-day, if you 
should say that you have not the ability to speak. 
Have you, then, the ability to console a foreign 
woman in her grief, but when you have made a 
motion for pay, will you not speak in defence of it ? 
Or is the man whom you have moved to crown so 
obscure a man as not to be known by those whom 
he has served, unless some one shall help you to 
describe him ? Pray ask the jury whether they knew 
Chabrias and Iphicrates and Timotheus, and inquire 
why they gave them those rewards and set up their 
statues. All will answer with one voice, that they 
honoured Chabrias for the battle of Naxos, and 
Iphicrates because he destroyed a regiment of the 
Lacedaemonians, and Timotheus because of his voyage 
to Corey ra, and other men, each because of many a 
glorious deed in war. But ask them why Demosthenes 
is to be honoured. Because he is a taker of bribes ? 
Because he is a coward ? Because he deserted his 
post? And will you in reality be honouring him, 
or leaving unavenged yourselves and those who died 
for you in the battle ? In imagination see them 

1 This Alexander, brother of Philip's wife Olympias, 
married Philip's daughter Cleopatra. He was killed in 
Italy in 330 B.C. in an expedition to aid the Tarentines. 

499 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

el outo9 aTe^avwdi'-jaerat. Kal yap dv ecrj Beivov, 
8> avSpes 'AOrjvaiot, el ra pev %vXa Kal tou? 
Xl0ov<; Kal tov criBr/pov, ra d(f)a)va /cat ra dyvco- 
puova, edv tco epirecrovTa diroKTelvrj, virepopi^opbev, 
Kal edv Ti? avTOV BtaxPWrjTai, rrjv %elpa rrjv 
tovto irpd^acrav %&>/3i9 Toy acop,aTo<i OdiTTOpev, 

245 ArjpoaOevrjv Be, w civBpes 'A#??i'aiot, tov ypd~ 
■^raira p,ev rrjv iravvaTaTrjv e^oBov, irpoBovTa Be 
Tou? arpaTicoTa^, tovtov vpbel<i Tip,i]aeTe. ovkovv 
vftp'i'CpvTai p,ev ol TeXevTtjaavTes, ddvpLorepoi he 
ol £<ovt€<; yiyvovTai, opwvres T179 dperrj^ dOXov 
pev x tov ddvarov Kelp,evov, rrjv Be p:v^pr)v im- 
Xe'nrovaav Kal to peyiaTov, iirepwroyaiv vpds 
ol vewrepoi, 777509 ottolov XPV TrapdBetypa avTovs 

246 tov fitov Troieladai. ev yap care, &> avBpe<i ' AOrj- 
valoL, on ov% al iraXalo'Tpai ovBe ra BiBaaKaXela 
ovS 1 rj p,ovaiKi] povov iraiBevei tol»9 veovs, dXXa 
ttoXv pbdXXov ra Br]pocrca fcr/pvypara. KrjpvTTeTal 
Ti9 ev T&) Oedrpai, oti are^avovTat dperfj<i evefca 
Kal dvBpaya6ia<; Kal evvota<i, dvOpcoiros da^rj- 
puovoov tw /3/w Kal fiBeXvpos- 6 Be ye vecorepos 
ravT IBcov 8ce(f)ddp7j. BiKTjv Tt9 BeBtoKe 7rovt]po<; 
Kal 7ropvo/3oo-K6<;, wcnrep Kr7]o-i<pa)v ol Be ye 
dXXot TreiralBevvTai. rdvavTia Tt9 ~y}rr](f)icrdp,evo<i 
tS)v KaXoiv Kal BiKalcov, eiraveXOoov oiKaBe irai- 
Bevei tov vlov Be ye etKOTcos ov TreiOerai, dXXd 
to vovOerelv evoyXeiv 2 i]Br) BiKatca ovopd^erai. 

247 ft>9 ovv fir) povov Kplvovres, dXXa Kal Oewpovpevoi, 
ovtco ttjv "^jri](pop (jiepere, eh diroXoyiapbv Tot9 vvv 

1 fj.\v added by Blass. 

2 e'poxAeiV Weidner : ivravda ivox^tw or ivox^e7v ivravda, 
MSS. 

500 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 244-247 

expostulating against the crowning of this man. 
When sticks and stones and iron, voiceless and sense- 
less things, fall on any one and kill him, we cast them 
beyond the borders, 1 and when a man kills himself, 
the hand that did the deed is buried apart from 
the body; how outrageous, then, fellow citizens, if 
Demosthenes, who made the motion for that final 
campaign, and then betrayed the soldiers, is to re- 
ceive honour from you ! So are the dead insulted, 
and the living are disheartened, when they see that 
death is the prize of valour, while the memory of it 
fades away. And, most important of all, the younger 
men inquire of you after what example they ought 
to shape their lives. For be assured, fellow citizens, 
it is not our wrestling halls or the schools or our 
system of liberal studies alone that educate the 
young, but far more our public proclamations. It is 
proclaimed in the theatre that one is crowned for 
virtue and nobility and patriotism, a man whose life 
is shameful and loathsome ; a younger man, at sight 
of that, is corrupted. A man has been punished 
who is a rascal and libertine — like Ctesiphon ; the 
rest have received instruction. A juror who has cast 
his vote against honour and justice goes home and 
proceeds to instruct his son ; the boy refuses to 
obey, and with good reason, and he is surely justified 
thenceforth in calling exhortation vexation. Cast 
your vote, then, not only as men who are rendering 
a verdict, but also as men who are in the public eye, 
to be called to account by the citizens who, though 

1 This strange custom perpetuated the old feeling of the 
ceremonial impurity that rested on any man or thing that 
had shed human blood. 

5°r 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

fiev ov Trapovai tcov tto\itcov, e-nepriaopevoL<i he 
vfias tl iSi/eagere. ev yap tare, co avhpes , AOrj- 
valoi, on TOLCtvTT] 86%ei r) 7roXf? elvai, ottoIos ti? 
av rj 6 KTjpvTTop.evo'i- eaTi he oveihos prj Tot? 
TTpoyovois vpds, a\Xa Trj Arjpocrdevow; dvavhpta, 
irpoaetKaadrjvai. 

Ilw<? ovv av Tt9 rrjv TotavTrjv ala%vwriv i/ccf)v- 

248 yoi; edv tou? TrpoKaTaXapfidvovTas ra Koiva 
Kal cpt,\dv0pco7ra tcov ovopaTcov, airitTTovs 8' * 
ovras rot? ijOecri, cpvXd^crde. r} yap evvoia 
Ka\ to T/79 Srjpo/cpaTLas ovopa KeiTai pev ev 
p-eacp, fyddvovai 6" eV aura naracpevyovTes tco 
\6yco o>9 eVl to 7ro\v oi toi? epyois irXeltrTOV 

249 aTrexovTes. o-rav ovv XdfirjTe pyjropa are^dvcov 2 
/cal Krjpvypdrcov ev rots "EWr/aiv eTTiOvpovvra, 
e-navdyeiv aurbv fteXevere top \6yov, coairep Kai 
t<x? fiefiaicoaets tcov KTqpdrcov 6 vbpos /ceXevet 
TToielaOai, eU $Lov d^toxpecov Kal rpoirov aco- 
cppova. OT(p he ravra prj papTvpelrai, /a?; /3e- 
fiaiovre avTco toi>? eiraivovs, /cal rr}? 8i]poKparLa<; 

250 eTTipe\i]9r)Te yhrj hiafyevyovtrris tyza?. rj ov heivbv 
vplv elvac So/cei, el to pev /3ov\evT>]piov Kal 6 
hrjpo<i irapoparai, ai 8" eirio-rokat /cao at rrpe- 
afieiat, dfyiKvovvTai eh IhicoTiKas ol/CLas, ov irapa 
tcov tv^ovtoov dvO pcoircov, dWa irapa tcov irpco- 
tcvovtcov ev rfj 'Atria Kal rfi Evpcoirrj; Kat i<p 
oZ? eaTLV €K tcov vop,cov ty)p.La OdvaTOS, TavTa 



1 8' added by Blass. 

2 ffTccpdvoov Benseler : ^eviKcov crrecpdvuiv MSS. 



502 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 247-250 

they are not now present, will nevertheless ask you 
what your verdict was. For be assured, fellow 
citizens, men will hold the city to be of like char- 
acter with the man who is proclaimed. And it is a 
reproach for you to be likened, not to your fathers, 
but to the cowardice of Demosthenes. 

How then could you escape such disgrace ? By 
guarding against those who arrogate to themselves 
the name of "patriot" and "benefactor," but are 
untrustworthy in character. For loyalty and the 
name of friend of the people are prizes which are 
offered to us all, but for the most part those per- 
sons are the first to take refuge in them in speech 
who are farthest from them in conduct. When, 
therefore, you find a politician coveting crowns and 
proclamations in the presence of the Greeks, bid 
him bring his argument back to the proof of a 
worthy life and a sound character, precisely as the 
law commands a man to give security for property. 1 
But if he has no testimony to this, do not confirm to 
him the praises which he seeks ; let your thought be 
for the democracy, which is already slipping through 
your hands. Does it not seem to you to be an out- 
rage if the senate-house and the people are coming 
to be ignored, while the letters and ambassadors 
come to private houses, sent hither not by ordinary 
men, but by the first men of Asia and Europe ? And 
deeds the legal penalty for which is death, these 

1 "Just as the law orders that a vendor should give a 
purchaser of property a security for the validity of his 
purchase, so should the orator be compelled to show that his 
conduct, for which the reward is claimed, is a sure and 
proper ground ou which to grant it." (Gwatkin and Shuck- 
burgh, ad loc. ) 

5°3 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

TLV6<i ovk i^apvovvrai. Trpdrreiv, aXX op,oXoyovaiv 
iv ru> hi]fjb(p, Kai ra? eVtcrToXa.? dXXijXoLS irapava- 
(ycyvoocncovcriv' Trapa/ceXevovrai S' ol p,ev l ^Xeireiv 
els rd eavroiv TTpbaoura a)? <pvXaK6<; Tr}<} hrjfio- 
/cpaTLas, erepoi S' alrovcn Scoped? &!)<? acoTi)pe<; Tf/9 

251 TroXecos ovres. 6 Be 6Y//io? e/c t?}? dOvpclas twv 
o-vp,/3e/3r)KOT(0V wcnrep 7rapayeyr)paKco<; rj irapa- 
vo'ias eaXcoKcos, avrb fiovov rovvofxa t?}? Br]pi,o- 
/cparias irepiTTOieirai, jwv §' epycov ere pots irapa- 
Keyu>pr)Kev. eiretr direpyeaQe i/c twv eKKXrjaicov 
ov fiovXevadpLevoi, dXX' wcnrep i/c twv ipdvcov, to 

252 irepiovra veipidpbevoi. on S' ov Xrjpco, e/ceiOev rbv 
Xoyov Oewp^aare. eyevero ra, dyOop-ai Be ttoX- 
\d/ci<; piepLvrjpLevos, drv^la rfj TroXei. evravd 
dvrjp l8ici)T7]<; eKirXelv pubvov el? Xdp,ov eVt^ei- 
pyjaas, cu? irpoBbrri? t% irarpiBo? av9r)p,epbv vtto 
ttjs i% 'Apelov irdyov {3ovXr}<> davdrco e^rjpbidiOrj. 
erepo? 6*' eKTrXevaa? IBicotij? el? 'VbBov, on rbv 
<p6/3ov dvdvBpco? tfvey/ce, irpoorjv irore etffijy- 
yeXOi], kciX io-ai at ■frfjcpoL avrcp eyevovro- el he 

253 yLtta tyr/cpos 2 piereireaev, v7repcopiaT civ. 3 avTiOco- 
p,ev Br/ to vvvl yiyvbp,evov. dvr\p pijrcop, o vdv- 

TWV TWV KCtKtbv a'lTlO?, eXcire pL€.V T7]V dlTO CTTpCL- 

ToireSov rdgiv, direBpa 6" e/c ri]? iroXeco?' ovro? 
arecpavovcrOai d^col Kai KrjpvTTecrdai olerai Belv. 
ovk d7ro7repL-yjreade rbv avdpwnov a>? koivtjv tcov 

1 ol fi.(v Sauppe : v/jiiv ol /j.cv or ol n-tv v/uuv MSS. 

2 tyrifpos Blass (Harpocration) : fi6vov MSS. 

3 virtpdioiar &v A. Schaefer : virtpiiipiaT* h.v ^ airiOavev MSS. 

5°4 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 250-253 

deeds certain men do not deny, but acknowledge 
them before the people ; and they read their letters 
to one another and compare them. And some of 
them bid you look into their faces as being guardians 
of the democracy, and others call for rewards as 
being saviours of the state. But the people, dis- 
couraged by what they have experienced, as though 
in very dotage or declared of unsound mind, lay claim 
only to the name of democracy, and have surrendered 
the substance to others. And so you go home from 
the meetings of your assembly, not as from a deliber- 
ative session, but as from some picnic, where you have 
been given the leavings as your share. To prove that 
this is not mere talk, consider my statement in the light 
of the following facts : There came — it pains me to 
call it to mind repeatedly — there came a certain 
disaster to the city. At that time a certain private 
citizen who merely undertook to sail to Samos was on 
the same day punished with death by the Senate of 
the Areopagus, as a traitor to his country. Another 
private citizen, who sailed away to Rhodes, was only 
the other day prosecuted, because he was a coward 
in the face of danger. The vote of the jury was 
a tie, and if a single vote had been changed, he 
would have been cast outside our borders. 1 Now 
with that let us compare what is taking place to-day. 
A politician, the man who is responsible for all our 
disasters, deserted his post in the field, and then 
ran away from the city : 2 this man is calling for a 
crown, and he thinks he must be proclaimed. Away 

1 This was Leocrates, who had ventured to return to 
Athens after eight years' absence. Lycurgus' speech for the 
prosecution has come down to us. 

* See § 159 and note 

505 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'EXXj/Vwi' crv/A(f>opdv; rj avWafiovre? &)? XrjcrTrjv 
T(ov irpay/jidrcov, iir ovofxdrwv hid tt}? TroXtTelas 
TrXeovTa, ri/xcopijcrecrde; 

254 Kai tov /caipov p,epvr/o-0e, iv a> ttjv yjrfj<fiov 
(pepeTe. rjpepcov pev oXlycov peXXei rd HvOia 
ylyvecrdai /cal to awehpiov to tojv TLWrjvcov 
avXXeyeaOat' Sm/3e/3A.?/Tat h r) 7ro\£<? i/c tcov 
Arjpoadevov; rroXnevpdrwv irepi tov<; vvvl koli- 
povs- 86^€T€ he, idv p,ev tovtov aTe<pavcoa7]re, 
6p,oyvd>p,ove<; elvai rots 7rapa/3ali'0vcrt, ttjv /coivrjv 
elpr')vrjv, idv he TovvavTiov tovtov irpd^Te, diro- 

\V0~€T€ TOV hrjpOV TWV aiTlWV. 

255 Mr) ovv &)? virep dXXoTpia<i, dXX &>? vrrep 
ol/celas rj}? 7roX6&)9 pJovXeveaOe, /cal t<2? (ptXoTi- 
pias pur) vepeTe, dXXd icplveTe, /cal Ta? hwpeds et? 
/3e\Ttft) adipaTa ical dvhpas d^ioXoycoTepovs diro- 
OeaOe, /cal prj p,6vov Tot? coalv, dXXd ical toIs 
oppaai 8ia/3Xi^lravTe<; eh u/xa? avTovs fiovXev- 
craade, TiVe<? vpcov elaiv ol /3o7]di]<rovTe<i A7]pocr9e~ 
vei, iroTepov ol crvyKwr/yeTai, rj ol avyyv puvaaTal 
avTOV, or rjv iv rfXi/cla — dXXd p,d tov Ala tov 
'OXvpiriov oi>-% 5? dyplov<i Kwr/yeTow, ovhe tt)<; 
tov o~d)paTo<; eve^las iiripeXopievos, dXX , iiracr/coov 
Te^va? €7rt toi/? xa? ovo-las Ke/cTi]p,evov<; hiayeye- 

256 vrjTai — dX.X' els ti)v dXa^ovelav d r rro(3Xe- T ravTe<i, 
OTav cf)fj TSv^avTiovs pAv i/c tow yeipwv 7rpea/3ev- 
aa<; i^eXeaOai tu>v ^>CXIttttov, diroaTr\o-ai he 



1 The recent revolt of Sparta against Macedonia and the 
present brilliant success of Alexander in Asia made the 
situation especially critical for Greece so far as any thought 
of opposition to Macedon was still cherished. It might well 



506 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 253-256 

with the fellow, the curse of all Hellas ! Nay, rather, 
seize and punish him, the pirate of politics, who sails 
on his craft of words over the sea of state. 

And mark well the occasion on which you are cast- 
ing your vote. A few days hence the Pythian games 
are to be celebrated and the synod of Hellas as- 
sembled. Our city is already the object of slander 
in consequence of the policies of Demosthenes in 
connection with the present critical situation. 1 If 
you crown him, you will seem to be in sympathy 
with those who violate the general peace, whereas if 
you do the opposite, you will free the people from 
these charges. 

Deliberate, therefore, not as for some foreign state, 
but as for your own ; treat your honours, not as 
favours to be bestowed, but as rewards of merit ; 
reserve your crowns for better heads and more 
worthy men. Deliberate, not with the help of your 
ears alone, but with your eyes as well, looking 
sharply among yourselves to see who of your number 
they are Avho propose to aid Demosthenes ; whether 
they are comrades of his youth in the hunting- 
field, or companions in the gymnasium — but no, by 
the Olympian Zeus, that cannot be, for his time has 
been spent, not in hunting wild boars, and not in 
cultivating vigour of body, but in practising his art 
of hunting down men of property. Yes, look at 
his imposture when he says that by his services as 
envoy he dragged Byzantium from Philip's hands, 
and caused the revolt of the Acarnanians, and carried 

be expected that at the coming meeting of the Amphictyonic 
Council, or at a special sj'nod of delegates from the Greek 
states held at the time of the Pythian games, complaint 
would be brought by the Macedonians against the Spartans 
and those who had encouraged them in breaking the peace. 

5°7 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

'AKapvdvas, iKirXij^ai Be Si]/3alov<; Brjp^rjyopijcras' 
ol'erai yap vp,ds els Toaovrov evrjdeias rjSrj Trpofie- 
fir/Kevai, ware Kal ravra dvcnreiaO/jaecrOai, coa- 
nrep Uei8co rpecpovras, d\V ov avKocpavr^v av- 
Qpwrrov iv rfi TroXei. 

257 "Orav S' iirl reXevTr/s rjBrj rov Xoyov crvvr)- 

<y6pOV<i TOVS KOtVCOVOVS TO)V BwpoBoKrjpLaTCdV CLVTO) 

TrapaKaXfi, VTro\ap,/3dveTe opdv iirl rov j3i]p,a- 
ros, ov vvv earT7)tca><; iyco Xeyw, avrnrapare- 
rayp.evovs 7rpbs tt)V tovtcov daeXyeiav tovs 
t?}? 7roXe&)9 evepyeras, 1,6\cova p,ev rov KaX- 
XIgtois vo/j-ois KoapLijaavTa rrjv B^pLOKpariav, 
avBpa (pcXoao^ov real vop.o6eTqv dyadov, awfypo- 
voos, cos r npoo~)]K.ov x avTu>, Beopievov vp.S)v purjBevl 
Tpoiro) rovs Arjp.oo~9evovs Xoyovs irepl irXeiovos 

258 7rou'jcraa$ai twv opKcov Kal rcov vopicov, Apiarel- 
&t]v Be rov rovs (popovs rd^avra rols ' JLXXrjaiv, 
ov reXevrijo-avros ras Ovyarepas eijeSco/cev 6 Br}- 
yu.o?, o-^erXtd^ovra iirl tw rrjs BiKaioavv)]S irpo- 
TrrjXaKLcrpLU), xai irrepwroavra, eu ovk aicr^vveade, 
el 01 p,ev rrarepes vpiwv "ApOpuov top ZeXelrrjv 
Kop-iaavra els rrjv 'EX\a?a to e/e MtfBwv ^pvalov, 
imBripijo-avra els rr/v ttoXiv, irpo^evov bvra rov 
B?jp.ov rov 'Adrjvaicov, Trap" ovBev p,ev rfXOov diro- 
KTelvai, i%e/cijpv£av S' e/c rr)s ttoXccos Kal e£ dtrd- 

259 cqs rjs apyovaiv Adrjvaiot, vpiels Be A.i]p.oa8evi]v, 
ov Kopiicravra to i/c M?/Sa)i> y^pvaiov, d~X\d Bwpo- 
8oKi]o-avra Kal en Kal vvv KeKtT)p,evov, ^pvacp 
o~Te(pdvq> pLeXXere crrecpavovv. ®epuo~roKXea Be 
Kal roi/s iv MapaOwvi reXevri^aavras Kal rovs iv 
IlXaraiats Kal avrovs rovs rdcpovs rovs rcov 

l ' iroocrrJKOv Eniperius : -npoar^Ktv MSS. 
508 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 256-259 

the Thebans away by his harangues. For he supposes 
that you have by this time come to such a pitch of 
folly that you will credit even this, as though it were 
the goddess Persuasion that you have been nurturing 
in your city, and not a slanderer ! 

But when at last at the close of his speech he 
calls forward to support his cause the men who have 
shared his bribes, imagine that on the platform 
where now I am standing as I speak, you see, 
drawn up in array against the lawlessness of these 
men, the benefactors of the state : Solon, who 
equipped the democracy with the best of laws, a 
philosopher and a good lawgiver, begging you 
soberly, as he naturally would, by no means to hold 
the words of Demosthenes as more weighty than your 
oaths and the laws ; and that man who assessed the 
tribute of the Greeks, and whose daughters our people 
dowered after his death, Aristeides, expressing his 
indignation at this mockery of justice, and asking 
you if you are not ashamed that whereas, when 
Arthmius of Zeleia transported the gold of the 
Medes into Hellas, 1 although he had once resided 
in our city, and was proxenus of the Athenian 
people, your fathers were all but ready to kill him, 
and they warned him out of their city, and out 
of all the territory under Athenian control, you now 
propose to crown with a golden crown Demosthenes, 
a man who has not indeed "transported " the gold of 
the Medes, but has received it as a bribe, and keeps 
it to this day. Think you not that Themistocles and 
those who died at Marathon and at Plataea, and the 
very sepulchres of your fathers, will groan aloud, if 

1 Arthmius was sent by Xerxes into the Peloponnesus. 

5°9 



THE SPEECHES OF AESCHINES 

irpoyovcov ovk oiecrde arevd^eiv, el o [xerd tmv 
fiapfidpcov ofioXoycov Tot9 "EiWrjaiv dvr lit pari eiv 
arecpavcoOrjaerai; 
260 'Ey&> fxev ovv, &> yrj Kal i]Xie Kal dpeTi] Kal crvv- 
eais teal iraiSela, rj 8iayiyv(ocrKO/j,ev rd KaXd Kal 
rd alaxpd, $e$or)Qr)Ka Kal elpr)Ka. Kal el fxev 
/ca\w<; Kal d£ioo<; rov dhuajnaros fcaT^yoprjfca, 
elirov &)? e/3ov\6p,r)v, el 8e evheearepw^, d><; 
ehvvdpLi]v. vp,el<i Be Kal eK tcov elpr)p,eva)v \6ycov 
Kal eK roiiv TrapaXeLTTOfievwv avrol ra SiKaca Kal 
rd avfjLcpepovTa virep t% 7roA.eft>? yfrrj^lcracrde. 



5io 



AGAINST CTESIPHON, 259-260 

the man who admits that he has negotiated with 
the barbarians against the Greeks shall receive a 
crown ? 

Be ye my witnesses, O Earth and Sun, and Virtue 
and Conscience, and Education, by which we dis- 
tinguish the honourable and the base, that I have 
heard my country's call, and have spoken. If I have 
presented the accusations well and in a manner com- 
mensurate with the crime, I have spoken according 
to my desire ; if insufficiently, according to my ability. 
It remains for you, fellow citizens, in view both of 
what has been spoken and what is left unsaid, your- 
selves to give the verdict that is just and for the city's 
good. 



5" 



INDEX 



[References are to pages.] 



Acamas, son of Theseus, 185 

Acarnania, Demosthenes' mission to 
385, 507 

Accountability of outgoing officials, 
5 n. 1, 87 n. 1, 315, 323-327; 
restrictions upon officials while 
still accountable, 325. See also 
" Auditing." 

Achaeans, were ready to contribute 
money to the anti-Macedonian 
cause, 383 ; join the Lacedae- 
monians in their revolt against 
Alexander, 437 

Achilles and Patroclus, 109, 113 ff. 

Advisers of the Archon Eponymus, 
127 n. 

Aegina, involves Athens in war 
with the Lacedaemonians, 293 

Aeschines, the orator: biography, 
vii-xix ; bibliography, xix-xxi ; 
history of the Greek text of the 
speeches, xxi-xxiii ; his family, 
273-275, 297, 459 ; his military 
services, 287 ; ambassador to 
Arcadia (348 B.C.), 219, 281 ; 
nominated by Nausicles as 
membpr of the first embassy to 
Philip, 175 ; services on the 
first embassy, 158, 161, 177-191 ; 
his part in the assembly which 
voted for peace and alliance with 
Philip, 207 ff.; his activity on the 
second embassy to Philip, 159, 
243-249 ; answer to the charge 
of a secret meeting with Philip, 
253-257: his prosecution of 
Timarchios, 299 ; prosecuted by 
Demosthenes on the charge of 
treason on the second embassy, 
159 ff.; services on the third and 
fourth embassies to Philip, 



230 n. 4, 231 f., 265 ; appears 
before the Amphictyonic Council 
to plead for the Phocians, 265, 
267 ; takes part in Philip's 
celebration of his victory over 
the Phocians, 283-285 ; serves 
as Athenian Pylagoras at Delphi 
in 340/39 P.O., 397 ; takes the 
lead in causing the punishment 
of the Amphissians for sacrilege, 
397 ff. ; protests against the 
division of the forces assembled 
against Philip, 421 ; brings suit 
against C'tesiphon for moving 
to crown Demosthenes, 305-307 ; 
defends his quiet life and failure 
to prevent Demosthenes' wrong- 
doing 479 ff. ; his poems, 109 ff. 

Aglaocreon of Tenedos, repre- 
sentative of the Synod on the 
first embassy, 175 ; on the 
second embassy, 233, 255 

Agora, purified precincts of the, 447 

Alcibiades, the famous Athenian, 
167 

Alcibiades, commander of mer- 
cenary troops of Athens (363 

. B.C.), 289 

Alexander the Great : pupil of 
Aristotle, 432 n. 3 ; the name of 
the young Alexander is brought 
into the dispute between De- 
mosthenes and Aeschines on the 
return from the second embassy, 
] 35 : on his coming to the throne 
is slandered by Demosthenes, 
433 ; his descent upon Thebes, 
433 ; crosses into Asia, 238, 
435 ; is in danger in Cilicia, 
437 ; calls for delivery of host- 
ages from Sparta after the sup- 

513 



INDEX 



pression of the Lacedaemonian 
revolt, 413; the prosecution 
of Ctesiphon is not intended as 
a manifesto to Alexander, as 
Demosthenes asserts it to be, 
479, 481 ; the friendship of 
Alexander is made a ground of 
accusation against Aeschines, 
361, 477 ; Alexander's name is 
constantly in Demosthenes' 
mouth, 483 ; is hated by De- 
mosthenes, according to Demos- 
thenes' own words, 361 ; Demos- 
thenes falsely asserts that he has 
been bent on war against Alex- 
ander, 435, 439 ; Demosthenes 
is now trying to ingratiate him- 
self with Alexander, 435 

Alexander, brother of Philip, 181 n. 

Alexander, king of the Molossians, 
499 

Aleximachus, seeks to secure the 
inclusion of Cersobleptes among 
the allies of Athens, 223 

Alponus, one of the strongholds 
commanding the approach to the 
pass of Thermopylae, 259. 263 

Ambassadors, Athenian, sent out to 
summon the Greek states for 
common action with reference to 
Philip, 361 

Ambassadors, Macedonian, at 
Athens, 361 n. 3 

Ameiniades, the prophet, 411 

Amphictyonic League, the : con- 
stituent states, 247 ; the oath 
of the league, 245 ; the first 
Synod, 245 

Amphictyonic Council, the : times 
and places of meeting, 405 and 
n. 1, 407; delegates, 397 n. 3; 
brought under the control of 
Philip, 159 ; the fate of the 
Phocians rests in their hands, 
xii, 231 n. 3, 245, 247, 263 ff. ; 
ancient decree against the Cirr- 
haeans and Cragalidae, 391-395, 
401-403 ; war against the Am- 
phissians in the time of Aeschines, 
xiv, 403-409 

Amphipolis, relation to Athens, 
181, 183, 185 ff., 186 n. ; war 
between Athens and Philip for 
the control of Amphipolis, 211 f., 
351 



Amphissians, sacrilege of the, 395; 
services of Demosthenes re- 
tained, 395-397 ; complaint 
against Athens in the Amphi- 
ctyonic Council, 397-399 ; then- 
land raided by the members of 
the Council and others, 403 ; 
war with the Amphictyons and 
finally with Philip, xiv, 403-409 

Amphisthenes, a witness in the case 
against Timarchus, 56 

Amyntas, father of Philip, 181 ff. ; 
relations with Athens, 183 and 
n. ; recognised the claims of 
Athens to Amphipolis, 185 

Amyntor, a witness as to Demos- 
thenes' position on the Peace of 
Philocrates, 207-211 

Anaxinus of Oreus, arrested by 
Demosthenes, 483 ff. 

Andocides, the statesman : the 
peace of, 293 ; the so-called 
Herm of, 103 ; his sketch of 
Athenian history transcribed by 
Aeschines, 291-295 

Andros, Timarchus' magistracy in, 
87 

Anthemon, a town in Macedonia, 
181 

Anticipation of opponent's argu- 
ments, 101 n. 1 

Anticles, a patron of Timarchus, 47 

Anticles, the stadium-runner, 127 

Antiochus, commander of the 
Athenian dispatch-boats. 213 

Antipater, ambassador from Philip, 
365 ; regent of Macedonia, 437 

Aphobetus, brother of Aeschines, 
viii, 273 

Apollo, the Pythian, 393, 395, 403 ; 
temple at Delphi, 399 

Apollodorus, suit against Phor- 
mion, 287 

Arbitration, proposed by Philip, 
373—375 

Arcadia, visited by Aeschines early 
in the contest against Philip, 
219 and n. 1, 281 ; failed to join 
the anti-Macedonian alliance in 
the Chaeronea campaign for 
lack of nine talents of money, 
497 ; joined the Lacedaemonian 
revolt against Alexander, 437 

Archedemus of Pelekes, an Athen- 
ian friend of Thebe3, 417 



5*4 



INDEX 



Archidamus of Sparta, relation to 
the Phocians, 259 

Archinus of Coele, a leader of the 
restored Athenian democracy, 
295, 455, 463 

Areopagus, the Senate of the : 
subject to accounting, 323 ff ; 
severe standards for their own 
members, 325 ; the basis of their 
verdicts, 75 ; disapprove the 
proposition of Timarchus for 
changes on the Pnyx, 69 ; con- 
demned a man to death for 
deserting Athens, 505 ; fined 
Demosthenes for dropping a suit 
which he had begun, 229 

" Argas." a nickname of Demos- 
thenes, 235 

Argives, the, induce the Athenians 
to reopen the war with the 
Lacedaemonians (420 B.C.), 295 

Arignotus, uncle of Timarchus, 83, 
85 

Aristarchus, a protdge' of Demos- 
thenes, 137 ff., 273, 287 

Aristeides, " the Just," 25, 179, 
451 ; " who assessed the tribute 
of the Greeks," 509 

Aristeides, son of Euphiletua, a 
witness for Aeschines, 279 

Aristion, a friend of Demosthenes, 
serving him at the court of 
Alexander, 435 

Aristodemus, the actor : associate 
of Aeschines on the stage, ix ; 
sent as envoy to Philip, 173, 175 

Aristodemus, leader of an embassy 
to Thessaly and Magnesia, 375 

Aristogeiton, Harmodius and, 107, 
113 

Aristophon of Azenia, the Athenian 
statesman, 55, 127, 417, 461 

Aristophanes, an Olynthian exile, 
277, 279 

Arizelus, father of Timarchus, 
79 ff., 83 

Arsenal, the naval, at Athens, 329 

Artemis. 393, 403 

Artemisiurn, the battle of, 215 

Arthmius, an agent of the Medes, 
509 

Asclepius, the day of sacrifice to, 
361 

Assembly, the Athenian (eKKKyo-ia): 
summoned by the prytanes, 199, 



203, 205, 311, 339, 361 ; opening 
ceremonies of the sessions, 21, 
23 and n. 1, 281 and n. ; the 
presiding tribe, 31 and n. 3 ; 
the presiding officers (n-pdeSpoi), 

221 and n. 2, 339; order of 
procedure, 21 ff. ; right to speak, 
27 ff., 68 n. 1 ; regulation as to 
proclamation of crowns therein, 
341-347 

Athena, appeared to Demosthenes 
in a dream, 369, 481 ; Pheidias' 
statue of, 425 ; Athena Polias, 
the priestess of, 271 ; Athena 
Pronaea, 393, 395, 403 

Athenian Naval League, the second 
(founded in 378/77), 211 n., 

222 n., 363 n. 1, 383 

Athens : experience with war and 
peace, 291-297 ; building of the 
Long Walls, 291-293 ; relations 
with Euboea : saved it from the 
Thebans in 357 B.C. ; betrayed 
in the expedition to help Plu- 
tarchus (348 B.C.), 377 

Athos, Xerxes' canal at, 411 

Atrometus, father of Aeschines, 
viif.,217, 271 

Auditing, the Athenian system of, 
5 n. 1, 87 n. 1 ; the Board of 
Auditors, 323, 327 ; the extent 
of the requirement of audit of 
outgoing officials, 323-327 ; 
Aeschines' use of the procedure 
of the auditing boards as an 
illustration, 355 

August Goddesses, the, 151 

Autocleides, a bestial companion of 
Timarchus, 47 

Autocracies, distinguished from 
democracies and oligarchies, 7 

Autolycus, a member of the Areo- 
pagus, 69 



Ballots, form used in the courts, 
67 n. 1 

" Batalus," nickname of Demos- 
thenes, 103, 107, 131, 235 and 
n. 1 

Beauty of person, praise of, 109 

Boeotia : member of the Amphi- 
ctyonic League, 247 ; relation 
of the smaller cities to Thebes, 
239, 249, 263, 419; Boeotian 



5*5 



INDEX 



exiles intercede for Aeschines, 

267 
Bosporus, the Cimmerian, 443 
Boys, the lovers of, 107 ff. 
Bribery, punishment for, 71-73 
Byzantium, taken from the hands 

of Philip, 507 

Cadmeia, the, citadel of Thebes, 
239 421 

Callias of Chalcis : betrayed the 
Athenian army in Euboea, 377 ; 
was with Philip in Macedonia, 
379 ; with the Thebans, then 
abandoned them, 379 ; formed 
Euboean congress at Chalcis, 379, 
387 ; bribed Demosthenes to 
bring about Athenian alliance 
with Chalcis, 381 ; mission to the 
Peloponnesus, 383-385 ; report 
in the Athenian assembly, 383 ; 
secured pay for Demosthenes, 
389 ; is proposed for Athenian 
citizenship by Demosthenes, 375 

Callicrates, an Athenian envoy 
to the Phocians, 261 

Callisthenes, an Athenian general, 
183, 185 

Callistratus, the orator, 253 

Carion, a traditional name for a 
slave, in comedy, 279 

Cedonides, a bestial companion of 
Timarchus, 47 

Cephalus, the statesman, 461 

Cephisodorus, a dissolute character, 
127 

Cephisodotus, an Athenian general, 
349 

Cephisophon.moves an investigation 
of naval operations, 213 

Cepoi, in Bosporus, see " Gardens " 

Cersobleptes, the Thracian king, 
expelled from his kingdom by 
Philip, 169 ; excluded from the 
Peace of Philocrates, 221-229, 
359, 367-369 

Ceryces, the, a priestly family of 
Athens, 323 

Chabrias, the Athenian general, 
499 

Chaeronea, the battle of, 351, 455 

Chalcis, ungrateful conduct to- 
ward Athens, 377 ; unequal 
alliance with Athens, 381-383 ; 



made the seat of a Euboean 

congress, 379-383 ; paid one 

talent to Demosthenes for his 

services in bringing about the 

Athenian alliance, 389 
Chare3, the Athenian general in the 

North, 227-229 ; complaints 

against, 213 
Charidemus, commander of mer- 
cenaries of Athens, 369 
Cheilon, a Lacedaemonian admiral, 

defeated by the Athenians under 

Demaenetus (probably in the 

Corinthian war, 395-386 P.O.) 

219 
Chersonese, the, held by Athens in 

the time of her empire, 295 ; 

threatened by Philip, 213, 221 
Children, laws to protect the 

morals of, 9-21 
Choregus, laws prescribing the 

age of the, 11 ; metaphorical use 

of the term, 219 and n. 2 
Cilicia, Alexander in, 437 
Cimon, the truce of (450 B.cj, 291 

n. 4 
Cimon, a member of the first 

embassy to Philip, 177 
Cirrha, the plain of, 391, 401; 

ancient curse against, 393-395 ; 

settled again by the Amphissians, 

395 ; raided by the Amphictyons, 

403 
Cithaeron, Mount, 433 
Citizen lists, Athenian, the revision 

of, 65 
Citizenship, Athenian, restricted 

to people of pure blood, 443 n. 3 
Cleaenetus, the chorus-master, 81 
Cleitarchus, tyrant of Eretria, 389 
Cleobulus, uncle of Aeschines, viii, 

217-219 
Cleochares, an ambassador from 

Chalcis to Philip, 249 
Cleopatra, daughter of Philip, 499 
Cleophon, the demagogue, 217 and 

n., 425 
Clepsydra, the, to measure time 

allowance in court, 131 n. 1, 

255 n., 463 
Cnosion, alleged to be the father of 

Demosthenes' child, 273 
Common Report (fc^")), 103 ff., 

269 ff. 
Comptroller of the treasury, 329 



516 



INDEX 



Comrades ('ETaipoi) of Philip, 
379 n. 

Confederacy, the Second Athenian 
Naval, see Athenian Naval 
League 

Congress of anti-Macedonian States 
called to meet in Athens (340 
B.C.), 385 

Congress of Sparta (371 B.O.), 185 

Constitution, Athenian, revision of, 
143 n., 306 n. 1, 339 

Contracts for prostitution, 129 ff. 

Corcyra, the voyage of Timotheus 
to (375 B.C.), 499 

Corinth, Aeschines' mother an 
exile in, 271 

Corrhagus, a Macedonian general, 
437 and n. 2 

Cottyphus of Pharsalus, president 
of the Amphictyonic Council, 
405, 409 ; commander of troops 
against the Amphissians, 409 

Cotylaeum, Mount, in Euboea, 377 

Council of Elders at Sparta, 145 
and n. 

Courts, Athenian : presidency of, 
319, 321 n., 333; Aeschines' 
criticism of procedure in, 143 ; 
pleas of supporting friends, 497 
n. 5 

Court-rooms, Athenian • the plat- 
forms, and the supporters of 
plaintiff and defendant, 471 and 
p. 1 

Cragalidae, the, a tribe near 
Delphi, 391 

Critias, a leader of the Thirty 
Tyrants, 139 

Crito, son of Astyochus, beautiful 
of person, and a chaste lover, 125 

Ctitobulus of Lampsaeus, repre- 
sentative of Cersobleptes at 
Athens, 221, 225 

" Crobylus," see " Hegesippus " 

Cronion, i.e. Zeus, the Son of 
Cronos, 415 

Crowns, former honours of the 
Athenian state, 489 

Crowning of public officials at 
Athens : legal restrictions as to 
the time of crowning, 317 : legal 
restrictions as to the place of 
crowning, 335 ; abuses of the 
custom, 315 ff . ; evasion of the 
restrictions as to time, 317-319 



Crowning of the outgoing Senate, 
90 n. 1 

Ctesiphon, the friend of Demos- 
thenes : moves that Demos- 
thenes be crowned, xvi, 305 ; 
the substance of the motion, 
335-337, 347, 381, 389 ; his 
motion, an act of effrontery to 
the state, 351 ; his mission to 
the daughter of Philip, 499; 
he is a rascal and libertine, 
477, 501 

Ctesiphon, a special envoy to 
Philip, 171 ; a member of the 
first embassy to Philip, 195 

Cyclic choruses, 11, 491 

Cyrebion, nickname of Epicrates, 
275 n. 2 

Cytinion, represented in the Am- 
phictyonic League, 247 



Darius, King of Persia, 413 n. 1, 
437, 495 

Deceleia, fortified by the Spartans 
against Athens in the Pelopon- 
nesian war, 215 

Decrees, Athenian, distinguished 
from laws, 143 n. 1 

Deiares, a mercenary commander 
in Athenian service, 213 

Deipyrus, a mercenary commander 
in Athenian service, 213 

Delphi : the shrine of Apollo, 
391, 398 n. 1 ; the oracle, 411 ; 
see also " Amphictyonic Council " 
and " Pythia " 

Delphians, the, summoned for a 
raid on the plain of Cirrha, 403 

Demaenetus, an Athenian com- 
mander who defeated a Lace- 
daemonian fleet under Cheilon 
(probably in the Corinthian 
war, 395-386 B.C.), 219 

Democracies, distinguished from 
autocracies and oligarchies, 7 

Democracy, nature and protection 
of, 313 ; definition of the " Friend 
of the people," 441 

Democrates, persuades the Senate 
to summon Aristodemus to 
report to them on his mission to 
Philip, 173 

Demomeles, cousin of Demosthenes, 
229, 349 



5 r 7 



INDEX 



Demophilus, the author of a pro- 
posal to revise the citizen-lists, 
71 and n. 

Demosthenes of Paeania, the 
father of Demosthenes, the 
orator, 231, 443 

Demosthenes, the orator : his 
father, 231, 443 ; of Scythian 
blood through his maternal 
grandmother, 179, 217, 225, 231 
and n. 2, 291, 299, 301, 443; 
involved in quarrels with his 
cousin Demomeles, 229-231, 349 ; 
made capital of self-inflicted 
wounds, 475 ; became a hunter 
of rich youths, 137 ; his rela- 
tions with Aristarchus, 137 ff. ; 
was a teacher of rhetoric, 95 n. 2, 
137 n., 139, 279 ; a hired writer 
of speeches, discredited by be- 
traying the cause of his clients, 
285-287, 445 ; served as trierarch 
on an expedition to the Helles- 
pont, 349, 445 ; his relations 
with Cephisodotus, the general, 
349 ; was choregus at the 
Dionysia of 348 B.C., 349 ; trouble 
with Meidias and insult by him 
in the theatre, 139 n. 1, 349 and 
n. 2, 475-477 ; served on the 
Euboean expedition of 348 B.C., 
273 n. 1 ; enumeration of four 
periods of Demosthenes' political 
career, 351 ; favoured peace 
negotiations with Philip in 347 
B.C., 158 ; spoke in behalf of 
Athenian captives in Macedonia, 
173 ; aided Aristodemus in secur- 
ing release from engagements, 
to enable him to go as an envoy 
to Philip, 175 ; moved a crown 
for Aristodemus as reward for 
his services in the interest of 
peace, 173 ; co-operated with 
Philocrates in all the prelimin- 
aries of the peace, 171, 177, 355- 
361, 367, 371; was nominated 
by Philocrates as a member of 
the embassy to Philip, 175 ; 
served on the first embassy, 158 ; 
boasted of what he would do in 
securing Athenian rights from 
Philip, 177 ; his failure at 
Philip's court, 177-191 ; his 
report of the first embassy, 195- 



199 ; prepared the way for the 
coming of Philip's ambassadors, 
199 ; his flattery of Philip's 
ambassadors, 243, 369 ; his part 
in the assembly which voted 
peace and alliance with Philip, 
207, 365 ff. ; his responsibility 
for the exclusion of Cerso- 
bleptes of Thrace from the 
peace, 223 ff., 367-369 ; his 
responsibility for the exclusion 
of many Greek states from the 
peace, 205 ff., 353-367 ; his 
service on the second embassy, 
233 ff. ; his speech before Philip, 
241-243 ; his report of the 
second embassy, 231 ; he turns 
against Philocrates and the 
other members of the second 
embassy, 373 ; Ms charges 
against Aeschines in the matter 
of the second embassy, 159 ff. ; 
his connection with Timarchus, 
2 ff. ; his defence of Timarchus. 
77 ; during the period of peace 
he constantly foments trouble, 
373-375 ; as delegate to the 
Amphictyonic Council in 343 
B.C. he is corrupted by the 
Amphissians, and his services 
are retained by them, 395-397, 
405 ; his dealings with Callias 
of Euboea, and Ms betrayal of 
Athenian interests, 375, 379 ; 
receives pay for his services to 
the Euboean cities, 389 ; re- 
fuses to accept a statue from 
the people of Oreus in place 
of his fee, 389 ; claims the credit 
of making the alliance with 
Euboea and with Thebes, 375 ; 
is not to be credited with the 
Theban alliance, 495 ; in the 
alliance with Thebes he made an 
unfair division of cost and of 
leadersMp, 419; he brought all 
Boeotia under control of Thebes, 
419; by his trierarchal law he 
deprived the city of trierarchs for 
65 ships, 483 : assures the people 
that the Peloponnesus and 
Acarnania will give substantial 
help against Philip, 385 ; as- 
sumes a defiant attitude toward 
any restraint, 421 ; his un- 



5i8 



INDEX 



righteous conduct in the whole 
matter of the sacrilege of the 
Amphissians and the war against 
them, 391-415; declares that 
the Pythia has gone over to the 
service of Philip, 411 ; betrays 
the cause of the allies by dividing 
their forces, 421 ; prevents 
reconciliation with Philip when 
that course is open and favoured 
by Thebes, 423 ; is Superin- 
tendent of the Theoric Fund in 
337 B.C., 327 ; his services in 
the repair of the walls after the 
battle of Chaeronea, 305, 327, 
331, 493; his eulogy over the 
citizens who fell at Chaeronea, 
425, 427 n. ; his flight from the 
city, 431, 505 ; is discredited 
with the people in the first 
months after the defeat, 431- 
433 ; announces the death of 
Philip, as revealed to him by 
the gods in a dream, 369, 481 ; 
his unseemly rejoicing over the 
assassination of Philip, 433 ; his 
ridicule of the young Alexander, 
433 ; he neglects three excellent 
opportunities for action against 
Alexander, 435 ff. ; he runs 
away from the embassy to 
Alexander, 433 ; is seeking 
tlu-ough Aristion to curry favour 
with Alexander, 435 ; is con- 
stantly in readiness to take flight 
from the city, 473 ; has prepared 
Ctesiphon's speech for him, 467 

The personal qualities of 
Demosthenes as portrayed by 
Aeschines : his nicknames, Bata- 
lus, 103, 235 and n., and Argas, 
235 ; his effeminacy, 107, 235 ; 
his licentiousness, 445 ; his 
insincerity, 471 ; his own peculiar 
manner of lying, 385 ; he is a 
Sisyphus, 191 ; Ctesiphon's testi- 
mony to his instability and 
cowardice, 477 ; his contempt 
for the obligations of hospi- 
tality, 483 ; his lack of feeling 
at the death of his only child, 
369-371 ; his cowardice in the 
field, 425, 445, 451, 455, 505 ; 
has made profit from padded army 
rolls, 421 ; speaks in public 



ODly for money, 479 ; is now 
supported by Persian gold, 445, 
497, 509 ; as a speaker, he is a 
tongue and nothing more, 489 ; 
his words and gestures are violent 
and uncouth, 425, 439 ; he is 
under the curse of heaven, 397 ; 
he is himself the curse of Hellas, 
431 

Dercylus, a member of the Athenian 
embassy to Philip, 195, 265; a 
witness for Aeschines, 279 

Diodorus, ambassador from Callias 
of Chalcis, 379 

Diognetus, Athenian Hieromnemon 
at Delphi, 397 

Dionysia, the City, 205 and n., 
361 and n. 1, 363, 491 ; seats of 
honour assigned to Philip's 
ambassadors, 199, 243 ; the 
occasion for the proposed crown- 
ing of Demosthenes, 305-807 

Dionysia, the Rural, 125 

Dionysiac Law, the, 337 ff. 

Dionysiac procession, the, 39, 275 

Dionysius, the Sicilian tyrant, 169 

Dionysus, the precinct of, 447 ; 
session of the Athenian assembly 
here, 205 and n. 1, 349 ; the 
orchestra of Dionysus, 429 

Diopeithes, an inefficient arbi- 
trator, 55 

Diophantes, " the Orphan," a pros- 
titute, 127 

Documents, read to the jury by 
clerk of the court, but not pub- 
lished with the speeches, 13 n. 

Dolopians, the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 

Dorians, the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 

Dorion, represented in the Amphi- 
ctyonic Council, 247 

Doriscus, a Tliracian town, 373 
and n. 

Draco, laws of, to protect the 
morals of children, 9 ff. 



Eion, on the river Strymon, 453 
Elatcia, seizure and fortification 

of, by Philip, 417 
Election, Athenian magistrates 

chosen by 93 n. 1, 319 



519 



INDEX 



Eleusinian Mysteries, 259 n. ; 
portent at the celebration, 259 

Elis, joins in the revolt against 
Alexander, 437 

Embassies, Athenian, to Philip : 
the first, 171-201 ; the second, 
158 i., 229, 233-249; the 
speech of Aeschines on the 
second embassy, 158-301 ; the 
third embassy, 231 n. 4, 231 f. 

Empedon, ambassador to Athens 
from Callias of Chalcis, 379 

Ennea Hodoi, the site of Amphi- 
polis, 185 

Epameinondas, the Theban, 239 

Epicrates, brother-in-law of Aes- 
chines, 273, 275 

Eponymi, the, 339 and n. 2 

Eretria : represented in the Amphi- 
ctyonic Council, 247 ; at war 
with Athens, and later aided by 
them, 285, 375 ; detached from 
the Athenian Confederacy and 
attached to the Euboean Con- 
gress, 383 ; pays one talent to 
Demosthenes for his services, 389 

Ergisca, a Thracian town, 373 and n. 

Erinyes, the, 151 n. 2 

Eteobutadae, the, and the Priestess 
of Athena Polias, 271 

Euboea, held by Athens in the time 
of the Athenian empire, 295 ; 
Athenian expedition to in 357 
B.C., ix, 375: Euboean ambas- 
sadors at Athens, 169 ; appre- 
hensions of the Euboean people 
as to the purposes of Athens, 249 ; 
Athenian expedition to Euboea 
in 348 B.C., ix, 138 n. 1, 289, 
377 and n. 1 ; brought into 
Athenian alliance by efforts of 
Demosthenes, 375, 383, 481, 
495 ; congress of Euboean states 
founded by Callias with co- 
operation of Demosthenes, 379, 
383 ; see also " Callias " 

Eubulus, the Athenian financier 
and statesman, x, xvi, 161, 167, 
301, 329 

Eucleides, the archonship of, and 
the statute of limitations, 35 

Eueratus, an Athenian captive in 
Macedonia, 173 

Eumolpidae, the, a priestly family 
of Athens, 323 

520 



Eupolemus, uncle of Timarchus, 83 
Euripides, the poet, quoted, 105, 

121 ff. 
Euripus, the, its twists and turns, 

379 
Eurybatus, the traitor, 415 
Eurydice, mother of Philip, aided 

by the Athenians, 181 ff. 
Euthydicus, the physician, patron 

of Timarchus, 35 ff. 



Festival fund, see " Theoric fund " 
Fine for unsuccessful plaintiff, 131 

n. 2 
Four Hundred, the oligarchy of the, 

295 
Furies, the (lloii>a.O, 151 ff 



Gamesters, 51 and n. 

Ganus (Ganias), a Thracian town, 
373 and n. 

" Gardens, the," in Bosporus, the 
home of Demosthenes' grand- 
father, 443 

" Gilded-horn," Demosthenes' nick- 
name for Aeschines, 437 

Glaucetes, ambassador from Calli- 
cles of Chalcis, 379 

Glaucon, who came to the rescue 
of Pittalacus, 55-57 

Glaucothea, mother of Aeschines, 
viii, 271 

Glaucus, the Olympian victor, 457 

Gnosidemus of Oreus, 389 

Government, three forms of, 313 

Gylon of Cerameis, maternal grand- 
father of Demosthenes, 443 



Halonnesus, Philip's offer to"give," 

375 and n. 1 
Harmodius and Aristogeiton, 107, 

113 
Hector, Achilles' vengeance on, 

117-121 
Hegemon, the law of, 329 
Hegesandrus, patron of Timarchus, 

49 ff., 61, 77-79. 89 ff., 123 
Hegesippus (" Crobylus "), 55 n., 

61, 399 
Hellespont, bridged by Xerxes, 

413 ; Athenian expedition to the 

(Demosthenes, trierarch), 349 



INDEX 



Hera, appears to Demosthenes in a 

dream, 481 
Heralds, functions of, 22 n. 2 
Herm of Andocides, the so-called, 

103 
Herm*, the Stoa of the. 451 
Hermes, the festivals of, 11 
Hesiod, quoted, 105, 2C9, 281, 415 
Hestia, goddess of the Prytaneum 

and the senate-house, 193 
Hieromnemons at Delphi, 397 n. 3 
Hieron Oros, a Thracian post, 

taken by Philip, 227 and n. 
Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens, 107 

n. 2 
Homer, quoted, 105 ff., 113 ft. ; 

representation of Thersites, 489 ; 

representation of Menistheus, 

453 ; Aeschines' text of Homer, 

120 n. 
" Horse and the Maid," the place 

of the, 147 
Hypereides, indicted Philocrates for 

treason, 371 and n. 



Iatrocles, an Athenian captive, re- 
leased by Philip 173 ; a member 
of the first embassy to Philip, 
175 ; member of the second em- 
bassy, 255 

Iliad, the, on " Common Report," 
105 

Illegal motions, suits against, 
306 n. 2, 311-313, 459 ff., 
461 ; qualifying proviso, 469 ; 
posting of the notice of the suit, 
465 ; division of the time in court, 
463 

Imbros, in the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war, 217 ; threatened by 
Philip, 213 

Inspectors of military funds, 93 n. 

Interest rates at Athens, 87 n., 391 
n. 1 

Ionians, the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 

Iphicrates, the Athenian general, 
181 if., 273, 499 



Lacedaemonians, the : alternate 
periods of peace and war with 
Athens, 29 1-295 ; in thePelopon- 
nesian war, 217 ; attack on the 



S (aeschines) 



patriots at Phyle (404/3 B.C.), 
455 ; losses at the hands of 
Iphicrates (392 B.C.), 499; under 
Cheilon defeated by Athenian 
fleet, see. " Cheilon " ; defeated 
by Athenian fleet in the battle of 
Naxos (376 B.C.), 483 ; the Con- 
gress of Sparta (371 B.C.), 185; 
aided by the Athenians in their 
war against Thebes after the 
battle of Leuctra, 285; sup- 
ported the Phocians at the 
beginning of the Phocian war, 
413 ; joined the Athenians in 
negotiations against the Thebans 
in the Phocian war, 261 ; sent 
ambassadors to Philip (346 B.C.), 
237 ; distrusted by the Phocians, 
259, 261 ; revolt against Alex- 
ander (330 B.C.), 413 n. 3, 437 
and n. 2, 439 ; situation after 
their revolt, 413; represented 
in the Amphictyonic Council, 
247. The Lacedaemonian assem- 
blies, 145 and n. 1. 

Laconian, see " Lacedaemonian " 

Larissa, a town in Thessaly, 191 

Laws. Athenian, contradictory .337- 
341 ; laws (distinguished from 
decrees) how enacted and revised, 
142 n., 339 and notes. Laws 
read to the jury by the clerk of 
the court, 13 n. 

Lemnos, the island of : in the 
Peloponnesian war, 217 ; threat- 
ened by Philip, 213 

Leocrates, put on trial for leaving 
the city, 505 

Leodamas, prostitute of Hegesan- 
drus, 59, 91 

Leodamas of Acharnae, an Athenian 
friend of Thebes, 417 

Leontini in Sicily, aided by Athens 
in the Peloponnesian war, 215 

Leosthenes, an Athenian orator and 
statesman, in exile in Mace- 
donia, 177 and n. 2, 253 

Leto, the mother of Apollo, 393- 
395, 403 

Leuconides, pays Timarchus to drop 
a suit at law, 95 

Leuctra, the battle of (371 B.C.), 
285 

Liparus, called to plead for Aes- 
chines, 267 

521 



INDEX 



Locrians, the, members of the 

Amphictyonic League, 2^7 
Locrians, the. of Amphissa, see 

" Amphissians " 
Loedias, a river of Macedonia, 253 
Lot, magistrates chosen by, at 

Athens, 92 n. 
Love, pure and impure, see " Pede 

rasty " 
Lycinus, indicts Philocrates, 171 

357 



Macedonia, internal troubles after 
the death of Philip's father, 181 ; 
freed from Pausanias by Iphi 
crates, 181 n. 2, and 183. See 
also " Philip " and '* Alexander " 

Magistrates, Athenian, how chosen, 
92 n. 

Magnesia, embassy to, led by 
Aristodemus, 375 ; member of 
the Amphictyonic League, 247 

Malians. the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 

Mantinea. the battle of (362 B.C.), 
289 

Marathon, the battle of (490 B.C.), 
215, 451 

" Margites," Demosthenes' nick- 
name for Alexander, 433 

Medes, the, sent gold into Greece 
at the hands of Arthmius, 509 ; 
their shields, from the booty of 
Plataea, preserved at Delphi, 
399 and n. 1 ; defeated at the 
Strymon river (475 B.C.) by the 
Athenians, 451 ; see afco " Per- 
sia " 

Megalopolis, holds aloof from the 
revolt against Alexander, 437 

Megara. involved Athens in the 
war with Sparta, 293 ; ready to 
join an alliance against Philip. 
383 

Meidias, aa enemy of Demosthenes, 
138 n. 1, 349 and n. 2 ; Athenian 
Pyiagorus at Delphi, 397 

Menestheus, an Athenian hero of 
the Homeric poems, 453 

Menoetius the father of Patroclus, 
115 

Metagenes, a debtor to the estate of 
Timarchus' father, 81 ; an envoy 
to the Phocians, 261 



Metroon, the, 4!>b 

Military training of young Athen- 
ians, 44 n. 
Military service, Athenian, 287 

notes 3 and 4 
Miltiades, the Athenian general, 

291 and n. 4, 451, 455 
Misgolas, patron of Timarchus. 37 ff . 
Mnason, the Phocian, a witness for 

Aeschines. 267 
Mnesarchus of Chalcis, 375 
Mnesitheus, purchaser of a tract 

of land from Timarchus, 81 
Mnesitheus, a dissolute character, 

127 
Molossians, Alexander, King of the, 

499 
Mother of the Gods, the, altar of, 

53 
Muses, the festivals of the, 11 
Myonnesian pirates, 213 
Myrtenus (Myrtisca), a Thracian 

town, 373 and n. 



Nausicles, nominates Aeschines as 
member of the first embassy, 
175 ; author of resolutions after 
the battle of Chaeronea, 433 : 
supports Aeschines at his trial, 
301 

Nausicrates, a poet, buys a house 
from Timarchus, 81 

Naval League, the second Athenian, 
see ' Athenian Naval League " 

Naxos, held by Athens in the time 
of her empire, 295 ; the battle of 
(376 B.C.), 483, 499 

Nemean ravine, the, battle near, 
289 

Nicaea, a post near Thermopylae, 
259, 263. 417 

Nicias, the Peace of (421 B.C.), 293 

Nicodemus, the death of. 139, 273 

Nicostratus, a speaker before the 
people, 71 

Nomothetae, the, 339 and n. 3 

Nymphaeum in the Pontus, 443 



Oath, the jurors', 123 
Oaths, the usual gods of, 95 n. 1 
Oetaeans, members of the Amphi- 
ctyonic League, 247, 267 



5 22 



INDEX 



Offices, public, at Athens, defined, 

319-321 ; classified, 331 ff. 
Oligarchies, distinguished from 
democracies, 7 ; characteristics 
of " the oligarch," 441 ff. 
Olympian truce, the, 170n. 
Olympian, the wife of Philip, 483 
Olympic games : the training and 
the rewards. 449 ; Philammon, 
Olympic victor, 457 
Olynthian woman, charges of abuse 

of by Aeschines, 165, 277 ff. 
Olynthus, capture of, 173 
Opus, the home of Patroclus, 115 
Orchomenus, a town in Boeotia, 265 
Oreus, in Euboea : Demosthenes 
entertained there, 483 ; am- 
bassadors from Oreus at Athens, 
227-229 ; detached from the 
Athenian naval league and 
attached to the Euboean con- 
gress, 383, 387 ; pays Demos- 
thenes for his services, 389 
Oropus, lost to Athens, 375 
Outrage, laws against, 15 ff. 



Palladion, procedure in the Court 

of. 225 
Pamphilus, denounces Hegesan- 

drus, 89 ff. 
Panders, law against, 15 
Pandionls, Demosthenes' tribe, 333 
Pantaleon. an Athenian known for 

his beauty of person, 125 
Panticapeum, in Bosporus, 442 n. 2 
Paralus, the Athenian dispatch 

boat, 435 
Parmenon, the comic actor, 125 
Pataecion, a disreputable citizen, 

457 
Patroclus and Achilles, 109, 113 ff. 
Paupers, Athenian state aid to, 

84 n., 85 n. 
Pausanias, claimant to the Mace- 
donian throne, 181 
Pausanias, the assassin of Philip, 

433 and n. 1, 481 
Peace, encomium on, 291-297 
Peace of Philocrates, see " Philo- 

crates " 
Pederasty (nviiSepa<rn.'a). 107 ff. 
Peiraeus, fortification of the, in the 

time of the Athenian empire, 

291 ; Demosthenes' commission 



to repair the fortifications, 305 ; 
Demosthenes' residence there, 
473 ; Timarchus' residence there, 
35 

Peitho, the goddes3, nee " Per- 
suasion " 

Pella, the Macedonian capitol, 241, 
433 

Pellene. does not join in the revolt 
against Alexander, 437 

Peloponnesus : invaded by Athen- 
ians under Tolmides (455 B.C.), 
215 ; the Peloponnesian war, 
293-295 ; Demosthenes' mission 
to, 385 ; Callias" mission, 383 

Penalty for failure in prosecution, 
131 n, 173 n. 2 

Perdiccas, brother of Philip, 181 
n., 1S3 

Pericleides, an Athenian known for 
his beauty of person, 125 

Pericles, the statesman, dignified 
in bearing, 23 

Periods of Demosthenes' public life, 
as given by Aeschines, 351 

Perrhaebi, the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League. 247 ; ne- 
gotiations with Demosthenes, 439 

Persia, the King of, see " Darius " ; 
see also " Medes " 

Persian gold, taken by Demosthenes, 
429, 445, 473 

Persuasion, the goddess of, 509 

Phaedrus, a friend of Timarchus, 
39 ff., 50 

Phalaecus, the Phocian leader, 
257 ff., 267 

Pheidias, the Athena of, 425 

Pheidias, brother of Melesias, a 
chaste lover, 127 

Philammon, the boxer, 457 

Philemon, intermediary in negotia- 
tions with Timarchus, 95 

Philip, son of Amyntas, King of 
Macedon : aided in his boyhood 
by the Athenians, 181 ; in 347 
B.C. desires peace with Athens, 
158, 169 ff. ; releases certain 
Athenian captives without ran- 
son, 173, 235; tries to reassure 
Demosthenes when he breaks 
down in his speech at Philip's 
court, 187 ; makes full reply 
to the arguments of Aeschines 
and the other ambassadors, 

5 2 3 



INDEX 



189 ff. ; sends ambassadors to 
Athens to negotiate peace, 361 ; 
promises not to invade the Cher- 
sonese while the Athenians are 
deliberating as to peace, 221 ; 
captures Hieron Oros, 227 ; 
receives the second embassy 
from Athens, 235 ; invites 
Athens to join his Phocian ex- 
pedition, 263 ; letter to the 
Athenians, 253 ff. ; passes 
through Thermopylae ami seizes 
Phocis, 371 ; turns the Peace of 
Philocrates to his own advantage, 
159 ; offers to give Halonnesus to 
Athens, 375 ; proposes arbi- 
tration of his disputes with 
Athens, 373-375 ; is really more 
hostile to Thebes than to Athens, 
419 ; is in Scythia at the out- 
break of the Ampliissian war, 
409 ; is invited to help the 
Amphictyons in the second cam- 
paign against the Amphissians, 
409 ; is inclined to make peace 
with Athens and Thebes before 
the final campaign, 423 ; seizes 
and garrisons Elateia, 417 ; de- 
feats the divided forces of the 
allies, 423 ; refrains from ad- 
vancing on Athens after the 
battle of Chaeronea, 411 ; assas- 
sinated by Pausanias, 433 and 
n. 1 ; will be attacked in De- 
mosthenes' speech for Timarchus, 
433 and n. 1 

Philochares, brother of Aeschines, 
viii, 273 

Philocrates, moves that Philip be 
permitted to send ambassadors 
to Athens to open negotiations 
for peace, 171, 357 ; the motion 
is attacked in the courts as 
illegal, 171, 357; Philocrates is 
acquitted by aid of Demosthenes, 
171, 357 ; advocates negotiations 
for release of Athenian captives, 
173 ; carries resolution that ten 
ambassadors be sent to Philip, 
175, 357 ; nominates Demos- 
thenes as one of the ten ambas- 
sadors. 175 ; report of the em- 
bassy, 195; is the author of the 
resolution for peace and alliance 
with Philip, 160, 207, 351; 

524 



co-operates with Demosthenes in 
excluding many Greek states 
from the peace, 359 ; co-operates 
with Demosthenes in excluding 
Cersobleptes from the peace, 367 ; 
attacked by Demosthenes after 
the conclusion of the peace, 373 ; 
goes into banishment and is 
sentenced to death, 160, 167, 283 
and n., 371 

Philocrates, the peace of, xi, 158- 
161, 353 n. 2; events of the 
second day's discussion in the 
Athenian assembly, 365 ; pro- 
vision for giving of their 
oath by members of the Con- 
federate Synod, 367 ; exclusion 
of other Greek states, 201 ff. ; 
disappointment of Athens at the 
outcome of the peace, 159 

Philodemus, father-in-law of Aes- 
chines, 273-275 

Philon, brother-in-law of Aeschines, 
273-275 

Philotades, threatened with dis- 
franchisement by instigation of 
Timarchus, 93 

Philoxene, mistress of Timarchus, 
95 

Phleius, a town f n the Peloponnesus, 
289 

Phocians, the : members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 ; an- 
cient enmity with the Thessalians, 
265 ; Phocian mercenaries aid 
the Euboeans against Athens, 
377 ; the ten years' Phocian 
war, 423 ; the Phocians are at the 
first allied with Athens, 399 ; hold 
posts commanding the pass of 
Thermopylae, 263 ; offer to 
receive Athenian garrisons, then 
refuse, 259 ; reject the help of 
Sparta, 259 ; arrest the heralds of 
the truce of the Mysteries, 259 ; 
their relation to the Peace of 
Philocrates, 237 n. ; surrender 
their cities to Philip, 257 ; their 
cities are destroyed by Philip, 233, 
283, 371; Demosthenes asserts 
that Aeschines is responsible 
for the destruction of the Phocian 
cities, 169, 193, 221 ; the real 
cause of the destruction of the 
Phocian cities, 257 tf. ; aided 



INDEX 



by Aeschines when their case is 
before the Amphictyonic Council, 
267 ; have sent ambassadors 
to support Aeschines in his 
defence, 267 ; will be brought 
into the defence of Timarchus 
by Demosthenes, 141 

Phocion, the general and statesman, 
xvi ; witness to Aeschines' ser- 
vices in the Euboean expedition, 
289 ; supports Aeschines in the 
case " On the Embassy," 301 

Phoenix, the. of Euripides, 289 

Phormion, Demosthenes' speech for, 
287 

Phrynon, a prisoner in Macedonia, 
169 ; a member of the second 
embassy to Philip 167 

Phrynondas, the traitor, 415 

Phthiotians, the, members of the 
Amphictyonic League, 247 

Phratries, Athenian, 271 n. 

Phyle, the starting point of the 
democratic " return," 295, 463 ; 
the heroes of, 451, 455, 459 

Physician, Demosthenes' illustra- 
tion of the, and Aeschines' 
answer, 485 ff. 

Pittalacus, a state-slave, patron of 
Timarchus, 49-57 

Plataea. the battle of, 215, 509 ; 
Persian and Theban shields from, 
398 and n. 1 

Plataean status, the, 435 and n. 2 

Plutarchus of Eretria, treachery of, 
toward Athens, 377 and n. 

Pnyx, the assembly place of the 
Athenians, 355 ; buildings there, 
69 

Poenae, the, see " Furies " 

Polemagenes, an Athenian known 
for his beauty of person, 125 

Pollis, the Lacedaemonian admiral 
at the battle of Naxos, 483 

Polyphontes, a mercenary officer, 
213 

Pontus, the, 443 

Presidency of courts, the, 319 ff. 

Presiding officers of the Athenian 
assembly, 31 and n. 3, 221 n. 2, 
339. 367 and n. 

Priests and priestesses, subject to 
accounting, 323 

Procedure, orderly, in senate and 
assembly, 309 



Procurers, Solon's laws against, 147 
Pronaea. see Athena. 
Prosecution, penalty for failure in, 

131 n., 173 n. 1 
Prostitutes, tax on, 97 ff.; " Timar- 

chian prostitutes," 125 
Prostitution, contracts for, 1 29 IT. ; 

exclusion of the male prostitute 

from public life, 19 ; laws against 

prostitution of boys, 15 ff. 
Proxenus, the office of, 226 n., 

291 n. 3, 341 
Proxenus, the Athenian general, 

259 ff. 
Prytanes, the, 199, 203, 205, 311, 

339, 361 
Prytaneum, maintenance in the, 

449, 463 ; the hearth of the 

Prytaneum, 193 n. 2 
Ptolemaeus, paramour of Philip's 

mother, 181 n. 2. 183 
Public men (prjTope?), 26 n. 
Purification ceremonial of the 

Athenian assemblies, 21-23 
Pylagori, the, at Delphi, 397 n. 3 
Pyrrhandrus, a speaker in the 

Athenian assembly, 71, 417 
Pythia. the : ancient reply to the 

Amphictyons, 393 : accused by 

Demosthenes of having gone over 

to Philip, 411 
Pythian Apollo, 393 
Pythian games, the, 507 
Pythion, called to plead for 

Aeschines, 267 
Python of Byzantium in the service 

of Philip, 253 



Salamis, the statue of Solon at, 25 ; 

law as to the ferrymen in the 

straits. 431 ; the battle of, 215, 

291, 451 
Samos. Athenian colony in, 47 
Satyrus, the actor, 279 
Schools for boys, laws governing, 

11 ff. 
Scrutiny : of incoming officials 

(SoK^a<ria), 26 n, 27 ff., 321 and 

n. 2 ; for the right to address the 

assembly, 27 ff.,68n. 1 
Scyros, possession of, offered to 

Athens in the Peloponnesian war, 



525 



INDEX 



217 : possession of, disputed by 
Philip, 213 

Seythia, Philip in, 409 

Scythian blood in Demosthenes, see 
" Demosthenes " 

Senate of Five Hundred : subject 
to accounting, 325 ; usual testi- 
monial for services, 00 n. ; pro- 
cedure in expulsion of members, 
91 n. 

Senate-house, 193 n. 2 

Serrhium - Teichus, a Thracian 
stronghold. 373 and n. 

Sicilian expedition, the, 215 

Sirens, Demosthenes' illustration of 
the. 487 

Sisyphus, Demosthenes so named 
by Aeschines, 191 

Skirophorion, an Attic month, 
331 

Slaves, law against outrage of, 
17 ; their services hired out, 79 n. 
suits in behalf of, 53 n. ; excluded 
from the wrestling-schools, 111 ; 
forbidden to be lovers of free 
bovs, 113 

Socrates, the death of, 139 

Solon, the Athenian lawgiver and 
philosopher, 509 ; his statue at 
Salamis, 25 ; the leader of the 
Amphictyons against the sacrile- 
gious Cirrhaeans, 393 ; his laws 
to protect the morals of children, 
9 ff. ; laws governing the chastity 
of women, 147 ; laws punishing 
the coward, 445 ; laws to secure 
orderly conduct on the part of 
public speakers, 309 

Spartan, see " Lacedaemonian " 

Stephanus, an Athenian ambassa- 
dor to Philip, 265 

Stoa, the, of the Hermae, 451 ; the 
Stoa Poecile, 455 

Strepsa, a town in Macedonia, 
181 

Strvmon, the battle of the (475 B.C.), 
451 ff. 

Suits, two classes of, according as 
the penalty was prescribed by 
law or not, 474 n. 1 

Summons to testify, refusal of. pun- 
ished by law, 41 n. ; sum- 
mons to scrutiny of the right to 
address the assembly, 68 n. 1 

526 



Superintendent of the Theoric 
Fund, 327 

Synod, the Confederate, decree as 
to peace, 203-205, 363 ff. ; pro- 
vision for giving their oath to 
the treaty, 367 ; Chalcis to bo 
detached from, 381 and n. 1 



Tamynae, the battle of, ix, 289. 377 
Taurosthenes of Chalcis. 375-377 
Teachers, laws governing the con- 
duct of, 11 ff. 
Temenides, an Athenian taxiarch, 

289 
Thanks, votes of : abuse of the cus- 
tom, 315 ff. 
Thargelion, an Attic month, 331 
Theatre, the custom of making 
proclamations in the, 341-347 ; 
the old custom of introducing 
there the sons of men who had 
fallen in battle, 427 ff. ; seats of 
honour, 369 
Theban shields from the spoil of 

Plataea, 399 
Thebes : inconsistent attitude of 
Athens toward, 239. 285 ; tradi- 
tional hostility toward Athens, 
417 ; attempt to enslave Eu- 
boea (357 B.C.), 375 and n. 2 ; 
anxiety as to Philip's action in 
the Phocian war, 261-265 ; 
strengthened by Philip after the 
destruction of the Phocian cities, 
371 ; dominate the Amphis- 
ians, 397 ; not represented at the 
meeting of the Amphictyonic 
Council which declares war on the 
Amphissians, 407 : their alliance 
with Athens not to be credited to 
Demosthenes' persuasion, 375, 
415 ff., 495, 509; given more than 
fair share of control in the alliance 
with Athens, 421 ; their officials 
inclined to come to terms with 
Philip, 423-425; their citadel 
held by Macedonian mercenaries, 
496 n. 2 ; the approach of Alex- 
ander's army, 433 ; destroyed by 
Alexander, 407 n. 1 ; picture of 
its capture, 429 ; the citizens 
find refuge in Athens, 429 ; Aes- 



INDEX 



chines' lamentation for Thebes, 
413. See also " Boeotia " 

Themison of Eretria, 285, 375 

Themistocles. the Athenian general, 
167, 451. 509 

Themistoeles, archon 347/6 B.C., 
357 

Theodorus, the actor, ix 

Theophrastus, archon 340/39 B.C., 
397 

Theoric Fund, the (to eewpiKuv), 327 

Therma, a town in Macedonia, 
181 

Thermopylae, the meeting-place of 
the Amphictyonic Council, 404 
n. 1, 407 ; control of, in the 
Phocian war, 259 ; Philip's expe- 
dition to, 237-239, 245, 257-259, 
371 

Thersandrus, a bestial companion 
of Timarchus, 47 

Thersites, the slanderer, 489 

Theseum,the, 319 

Theseus, the sons of, 185 

Thesmothetae.the, 319, 339 and n. 1 

Thessaly : member of the Amphi- 
ctyonic League, 247 ; long-stand- 
ing enmity toward the Phocians, 
265 ; attitude toward Philip, 
259-261, 265 ; receives Nicaea 
from Philip, 417 ; is ready to join 
Alexander in an expedition 
against Athens, 433 ; Demos- 
thenes' negotiations, 439 ; em- 
bassy to Thessaly led by Aris- 
todemus, 375 

Thetis, the mother of Achilles, 
117 ff 

Thirty Tyrants, the, 35, 217, 295, 
493 

Thrace, expedition of Philip against 
221, 227, 235 ; its coast lost to 
Athens. 169, 367. See also 
" Cersobleptes " 

Thrason, an Athenian statesman, 
417 

Thrasybulus of Collytus, an Athen- 
ian friend of the Thebans, 417 

Thrasybulus of Steiria, leader of 
the restored democracy, 295, 
463 

Thrasycles, an Athenian Pylagorus, 
397 

Thrasyllus, the tomb of, 83 



Thronion, a northern stronghold, 
259 

Thyteion, the, at Delphi, 403 

Timarchian prostitutes. 125 

Timarchus, son of Arizelus, xiii ; 
the speech of Aeschines against, 
1-155; the case against, 2 f . ; 
unseemly conduct on the plat- 
form, 25 ; attack on the law 
providing for orderly conduct of 
the assembly, 31 ff. ; in the house 
of Euthydicus, the physician, 
35 ; goes to live in lewdness with 
Misgolas, 37-47 ; then with 
Anticles, 47 ; frequents the 
gaming-places, 47-49 ; goes to 
live in shame with Pittalacus, 
49-51 ; thence to Hegesandrus, 
51 ff., 77-79; is the laughing- 
stock of the assembly, 67-71 ; 
has wasted the large estate left 
by his father, 79-87 ; neglected 
his helpless uncle, 85 ; as auditor 
was a bribe-taker and black- 
mailer, 87 ; abused his magis- 
tracy in Andros, 87-89 ; as 
senator, conspired with Heges- 
andrus to rob the city, 89-93 ; 
as inspector of troops in Eretria 
was confessedly guilty of theft, 
93 ; was guilty of blackmail in 
the case of Philotades, 93-95 ; 
is condemned by Common Report, 
101-107 

Timarchus, son of Teisias, a chaste 
youth, 125 

Time allowance in Athenian courts, 
130 n. 

Timesitheus, the runner, known for 
his beauty of person, 125 

Timomachus, the general, unfor- 
tunate connection with Hegesan- 
drus, 49-51 

Timotheus, the Athenian general 
211 

Tolmides, an Athenian commander, 
215 

" Top-knot," nickname of Heges- 
ippus, 55 n. 2, 61, 399 

Treasurers, the ten, 89 n. 2 

Trierarchs, subject to accounting, 
323 ; their number changed by 
Demosthenes' revision of the law, 
483 and n. 2 



5 2 7 



INDEX 



Trittyes, the, 33.3 and n. 2 

Troy, the plain of, 453 : Achilles 

takes Patroclus to, 115 
Truce, the sacred, 259-261 

Unconstitutional motions, suits 
against, see " Illegal motions " 

Walls of Athens, repairs of the, 
305, 492 n. 1 



Water-clock, see " Clepsydra " 
Women, Solon's laws as to orderly 

conduct of. 147 
Wreath of myrtle, the, 19 n. 



Xanthias, a traditional name for a 

slave in comedy, 279 
Xenodocus, a member of the picked 

corps of Philip, 281 



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Cicero : Pro Milone, In Pisonem, Pro Scauro, Pro Fonteio. 

Pro Rabirio Postumo, Pro Marcello, Pro Lioario, Pro 

Rege Deiotaro. N. H. Watts. {3rd Imp.) 
Cicero: Pro Quinctio, Pro Roscio Amerino, Pro Roscio 

Comoedo, Contra Rullum. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 
Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium. R. Gardner. 
Cicero : Titsculan Disputations. J. E. King. {4th Imp.) 
Cicero: Verrine Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Claudian. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Columella: De Re Rustica. De Arboribus. H. B. Ash, 

E. S. Forster and E. Heffner. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Curtius, Q.: History of Alexander. J. C Rolfe. 2 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Florus. E. S. Forster and Cornelius Nepos. J. C Rolfe. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Frontinus: Stratagems and Aqueducts. C E. Bennett and 

M. B. McElwain. (2nd Imp.) 
Fronto: Correspondence. C R. Haines. 2 Vols. (3rd 

Imp.) 
Gellius, J. C Rolfe. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. and 

III. 2nd Imp.) 
Horace: Odes and Epodes. C. E. Bennett. {14th Imp. 

revised.) 
Horace: Satires, Epistles, Ars Poetica. H. R. Fairclough. 

{9th Imp. revised.) 
Jerome: Selected Letters. F. A. Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Juvenal and Persius. G. G. Ramsay. {8th Imp.) 
Livy. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 

Sehlesinger and R. M. Geer (General Index). 14 Vols. (Vol. 

I. 5th Imp., Vol. V. 4th Imp., Vols. II.-IV., VI. and VII.. 

IX. -XII. 3rd Imp., Vol. VIII., 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Lucan. J. D. Duff. (4th Imp.) 
Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Martial. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vol. II. 

4th Imp. revised.) 
Minor Latin Poets: from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 

Nemesianus, Avianus, and others with " Aetna " and the 

"Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. {3rd 

Imp.) 



Ovid: The Art of Love and Other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

(4th Imp.) 
Ovid: Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. (2nd Imp.) 
Ovid: Heroides and Amores. Grant Showerman. (1th Imp.) 
Ovid: Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. \Uh 

Imp., Vol. II. IQth Imp.) 
Ovid: Tristia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. (3rd Imp.) 
Persius. Cf. Juvenal. 
Petronius. M. Heseltine, Seneca Apocolocyntosis. 

VV. H. D. Rouse. (Qih Imp. revised.) 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. ( Vol. I. 6th Imp., II. 5th Imp., 

III. 4th Imp., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Pliny: Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by VV. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 7th Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Pliny: Natural History. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and 

VII. VV. H. S. Jones. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. II. and III. 

3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Propertius. H. E. Butler. (1th Imp.) 
Prudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
Quintilian. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and IV. 4th 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 3rd Imp.) 
Remains of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 vols. Vol. I. 

(Ennius and Caecilius.) Vol. II. (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius, Accius.) Vol. HI. (Lucilius and Laws of XII 

Tables.) (2nd Imp.) (Archaic Inscriptions.) 
Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Scriptores Historiae Augustae. D. Magie. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp. revised, Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca: Apocolocyntosis. Cf. Petronius. 
Seneca: Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca: Moral Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. (Vol. II. 

4th Imp., Vols. I. and III. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seneca: Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp. 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Sidonius: Poems and Letters. VV. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Silius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp. 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 

6th Imp. revised.) 
Tacitus: Dialogues. Sir Wm. Peterson. Agricola and 

Germania. Maurice Hutton. (1th Imp.) 
Tacitus: Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. Jackson. 

4 Vols.. (Vols. I. and II. 4th Imp. Vols. III. and IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. ( Vol. I. 8th Imp., Vol. 

II. 1th Imp.) 
Tertullian -. Apologia and De Spectaculis. T. R. Glover. 

Minucius Felix. G. H. Rendall. (2nd Imp.) 
Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. (3rd Imp. revised.) 



Varbo: De Lingua Latin a. R. G. Kent. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp. 

revised. ) 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Auousti. F. VV. 

Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 19th Imp., Vol. II. 

14</i Imp. revised.) 
Vitruvius: De Architectura. F. Granger. 2 Vols. (Vol.1. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 



Greek Authors 

Achilles Tatius. S. Gaselee. (2nd Imp.) 

Aelian : On the Nature of Animals. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 

A. F. Scholfleld. 
Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasander. The 

Illinois Greek Club. (2nd Imp.) 
Aeschines. C. D. Adams. (3rd Imp.) 
Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. 

II. 6th Imp. revised.) 
Alciphron, Aelian, Philostratus Letters. A. R. Bonner 

and F. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon, Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 
Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. (5th Imp.) 
The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

8th Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Appian: Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 

ith Imp., Vols. II.-IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 
Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 

trans. (5th Imp.) 
Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. (2nd 

Imp.) 
Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. (Ath Imp.) 
Aristotle: Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Aristotle: Minor Works. VV. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Mellissus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. (2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. (6th Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (ith Imp.) 
Aristotle: On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle: On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Brhath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 



Aristotle: Obganon — Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Organon — Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle: Organon — On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. 

Forster and D. J. Furley. 
Aristotle: Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck; Motion and 

Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts, (bth Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Politics. H. Rackham. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Problems. W.S.Hett. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. 

Vol. II.). H. Rackham. 
Arrian: History or Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Athenaeus: Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

(Vols. l.-IV., VI. and VII. 2nd Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. VV. 

Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair. (2nd. Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3rd/mp.) 

COLLUTHUS. Cf. OPPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. (ith Imp.) 
Demosthenes I.: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. I.-XVil. and XX. J. H. Vince. (2?id Imp.) 
Demosthenes II.: De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III.: Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

Timocrates and Aristogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vince 

(2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes IV .-VI.: Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 3rd Imp., Vols. V. and VI. 2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes VII. : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius: Roman History. E. Gary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. I1I.-IX. 2nd hnp.) 
Dio Chrysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Diodorus Siculus. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XL F. Walton. (Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ith Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Caiy. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-V. 

2nd Imp.) 



Epictetus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. Land IV. 1th Imp., Vol. 

II. 8th Imp., Vol. III. Gth Imp.) Verse trans. 
Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. (4lh Imp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I.-IV. 

5th Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (3rd 

Imp.) 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus: Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 

II. and III. 5th Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

(lih Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., 

Vols. ll.-IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols, (llh Imp.) 
Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (8th Imp.) 
Isaeus. E. W. P'orster. (3rd Imp.) 
Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Josephus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VH. (Vols. V. and VI. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV. and Vll. 

2nd Imp.) 
Julian Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 

3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
Lucian. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. 4th Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp. 

Vol. II revised and enlarged, and III. 41h Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. (3rd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Ly-curgus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. 0. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (2nd imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. (2nd Imp.) 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

(Poetiy). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 

6 



Pabthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 

Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I., III. V - 

VII., 3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 4th Imp., Vols. II., VIII., and IX. 

2nd Imp.) 
Philo : two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Appollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus: Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. (2nd Imp.) 
Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (8th Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hippabchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd 

Imp.) 
Plato: Cbatylus, Pabmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler, (4th Imp.) 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler, (llth Imp.) 
Plato: Laches, Protaoobas, Meno, Euthydemus. \V. R. M. 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium Goegias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Ima 

Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (4th Imp.) 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 
Plato: Timaeus, Ceitias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutabch: Moealia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacey and 

B. Einarson. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 

Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. (Vols. I.-VI. and X. 2nd Imp.) 
Plutabch: The Paballel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols 

(Vols. I., II., VI., and XI. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-V. and VIII.-X 

2nd Imp., Vol. VII., 4th Imp.) 
Polybius. VV. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2?id Imp.) 
Pbocopius: Histoby of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp.. Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

Quintus Smybnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. (3rd Imp.) 
Sextus Empibicus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 10th Imp. Vol. II. 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 



Strabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I., V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus: Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 
Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vols. 

II. and IV. 4th Imp., Vol. III., 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodobus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant 

(3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 



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