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SPICILEGIUM SYRIACUM: 



CONTAINING UKM.MNS 



BARDESAN, MEL1TON, AMBROSE 

AND 

MARA BAR SERAPION. 

NOW FIRST EDITED, WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 
AND NOTES, 

BY THE 

gj 

REV. WILLIAM CURETON, M.A. F.R.S. 

CHAPLAIN IN ORDINARY TO THE QUEEN, 
RECTOR OF ST. MARGARET'S, AND CANON OF WESTMINSTER. 




LONDON: 
FRANCIS AND JOHN RIVINGTON, 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD AND WATERLOO PLACE. 



M DCCC LV. 




03 
eg 




LONDON : WILLIAM MAYOR WATTS, CROWN COUUT, TEMPLE BAR. 



To THE EIGHT HONORABLE 

THE LORD JOHN RUSSELL, M.P., 

TRUSTEE OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 
#C. g-C. ifC. 

MY LORD 

THE publication for the first time of remains of 
writers who have been among the most celebrated in 
the earliest ages of the Christian Church cannot fail of 
securing for this Volume an interest with the scholar, 
and a place in the libraries of our colleges and public 
institutions, in spite of any deficiencies on the part of 
the Editor. 



I feel highly gratified, therefore, that the permission 
to dedicate it to your Lordship has afforded me 
such an occasion of recording my admiration and 
respect for your Lordship's talents and virtues ; and 
my gratitude, in common with that of very many 
others, for your long continued efforts, through evil 
report and good report, to promote the civil and reli- 
gious liberty of all classes of society the best human 
means of securing both their temporal and eternal 
happiness ; as well as of expressing my deep sense 
and acknowledgment of favours and kindnesses, for 
which I had no claim of personal connection or pri- 
vate influence with your Lordship to afford me the 
slightest pretension. 

I have the honour to be, 

MY LORD, 
Your Lordship's very faithful Servant, 

WILLIAM CURETON. 



CLOISTERS, WESTMINSTER ABBEY, 
July 20, 1855. 



NOTICE. 

THE prudent advice which Horace has given to authors, " Nonumque 
pivmatur in annum," 1 has been literally followed by me with respect to 
this book, although I cannot take the credit of having adopted it inten- 
tionally. It is now nine years since the Text of this volume was printed. 
Other more pressing occupations have hindered me from publishing it 
before the present time. In the Preface to " The Antient Syriac 
Version of the Epistles of St. Ignatius," which appeared in 1845, 1 made 
known my intention of editing the celebrated Dialogue of Bardesan on 
Kate which I had found ; and as early as the year 1846 I communicated 
an English translation of the " Oration of Meliton " to the late venerable 
Dr. Routh, President of Magdalene College, Oxford. At that time he 
had just completed the first volume of " Reliquiae Sacrae," in which 
he had collected all that was then known to remain of the genuine 
writings of the antient Bishop of Sardis. In the same year, when my 
" Vindiciaa Ignatianas " appeared, I announced that the present volume 
was in the press, and early in 1847 the whole of the Syriac part was 
printed. 

In 1852 M. Ernest Renan, a young orientalist, from whose zeal and 
diligence we may hope for much hereafter, in a Letter addressed to 
M. Reinaud, inserted in the " Journal Asiatique " an account of some 
Syriac Manuscripts which he had seen in the British Museum the 
year before, and amongst the rest, a notice of that in which are found 
the treatises comprised in this volume. Not having seen the announce- 
ment of my intended publication, he believed that he had been the 
first to discover the existence of these precious remains of antiquity. 
In writing to thank M. Renan for the copy of this Letter, which he had 
been good enough to 'send to me, I pointed out to him the fact that they 
had been already printed four years before. His reply, which is now in 
my hands, reflects far greater honour upon M. Renan, than the repu- 
tation of any such discovery could have done. He is most anxious to 

i De Arte Poetica, v. 388. 



repair an injury, which, although in ignorance and unintentionally, he 
thought that he had done to me by assuming to himself a discovery which 
I had already made, and to restore to me the full credit if indeed there 
be any in so small a matter by taking the earliest opportunity of 
stating in the <f Journal Asiatique " how the case really stood. Nor 
did this satisfy him. In a brief notice prefixed to a Latin Transla- 
tion of this tract of Meliton, which came into my hands in time for me 
to refer to it in the notes of this volume, he again alludes to the same 
matter. 1 

Besides the Syriac text which I had communicated to M. Renan, 
for the purpose of being inserted in the " Spicilegium Solesmense," 
edited by my very learned friend, M. Pitra, I also placed in the hands 
of the Chevalier Bunsen the English translation in manuscript, as well 
as the printed text, with full permission to make any use of it that he 
might deem proper, for the second edition of his work, " Hippolytus 
and his Age." 

In the course of the present year, a writer who seems to have been 
altogether unaware of these facts has inserted, in the " Journal of 
Sacred Literature," 2 a translation of the pieces attributed to Meliton, 
published in this volume. It appears to be the attempt of some young 
man who at present has but a very imperfect acquaintance with the 
language, as well as with what has been done in Syriac literature of 
late, or he could hardly have been ignorant that my volume was in 

1 Haec ego, mense Septembri 1851, dum Musei Britannici codices assidue 
verso, non sine gaudio reperi, deque his, in Journal asiatique, april. 1852, 
breviter egi, simul et operis Melitoniani initium publici juris feci. Mox 
vero per litteras certior factus sum quae primum nee reperisse credideram, 
eadem v. cl. GULIELMO CURETONIO bene jam cognita fuisse, imo virum 
doctissimum et honoratissimum apud se habere eadem fragmenta jam typis 
excusa, atque in Spicilegio illo syriaco quod omnes Europae viri eruditi tanta 
expectatione praestolantur, proditura. Curetonii ergo laus sit Melitonem 
syrum primum detexisse. Vide autem quae sit viri illius humanitas : nostris 
precibus motus, plagulas quibus textus Melitonianus continebatur nobiscum 
communicavit, easque per nos latinas fieri peimisit. 

2 In the numbers for January and April 1855. 



the press. It lias been my duty, in the course of the Notes, to point 
out some of the errors into which he has fallen, although I could 
not undertake to notice them all. 1 Whoever he be, let him not take 
this amiss. He deserves encouragement for having applied himself 
at all to such studies ; but he will certainly render a greater benefit 
to literature, and better consult his own reputation, if henceforth he will 
advisedly follow the caution of the Roman poet whose words I have 
quoted above. 



1 The reader will find these mentioned in the notes. I give one or two 
here as a specimen of this author's version. He signs himself B.H.C. 
B.H.C.'s TRANSLATION. 

I say that rejection is denounced 
against those. 

Now the understanding is free and 
a knower of the truth : whether it is 
in these things consider with thyself. 
And if they dress up for thee the 
figure of a woman. 

Against this generation. 

But perhaps thou wilt say, How 
is my work not the God whom thou 
worshippest, and not an image ? 



And art thou not ashamed that 
blood should be required of the maker 
of it? 

Wherein thou wallowest on the 
earth, and yet art favoured. For 
things which are destitute of consci- 
ousness are afraid of him who maketh 
the earth tremble. 

Was seized by the shearer. 

Thou didst lie down against recti- 
tude of mind. 



MY TRANSLATION. 

/ affirm that also the Sibyl /MS 
said respecting them. 

But thou, a free intelligence and 
cognizant of the truth, enter into 
thyself, and if they clothe thee in the 
fashion of a woman. 

Touching this matter. 

But perchance thou mayest say, 
Why did not God create me, so tltat 
I should then have served Him, and 
not idols? 

And art thou not ashamed, per- 
chance it should be deficient to de- 
mand of him who made it ? 

Why rollest thou thyself upon the 
earth, and offerest supplication to 
things which are without perception 1 
Fear him who shaheth the earth. 



Was tahenfrom the flock. 
Thou wast reclining on 
bed. 



soft 



PREFACE. 



THE Manuscript from which the materials for the present 
volume have been chiefly derived, is one of those which were 
obtained by Archdeacon Tattam from the Syrian convent in the 
desert of Nitria in the year 1843. It is now numbered 14,658 
amongst the Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum. 
Several leaves were added in 184 7 from fragments subsequently 
acquired by M. Pacho ;* and four more were again supplied 
from other fragments procured also by him from the same source 
in the year 1850. At present the volume consists of one hun- 
dred and eighty-eight leaves. Originally it must hare had more 
than two hundred and twenty ; for the last gathering as it now 
stands is numbered the twenty-second, and each gathering 
consisted of ten leaves. It is imperfect both at the beginning 
and the end, has suffered mutilations in several parts of the 
volume, and some of the leaves have been much stained by 
oil. It is written in a large bold hand in two columns : the 
headings of chapters and the titles of separate works are dis- 
tinguished by red letters. It appears to have been transcribed 
about the sixth or seventh century of our era. 

BARDESAN. 

The first work printed from this Manuscript is the celebrated 
Treatise of Bardesan on Fate, said to have been addressed 
to the Emperor Marcus Antoninus, commonly known as 

1 See the account of the acquisition of the collection in the Preface to my 
edition of the Festal Letters of Athanasius. 



11 PREFACE. 

Marcus Aurelius ; although, with the document now complete 
before us, we find no intimation of its having been so ad- 
dressed. Eusebius calls it, r O irpbs 'Avravlvov i/cavwraros avrov 
Trepl eifjLapjjLewis 6^X0709 : l Jerome, copying him, writes, " Clarissi- 
mus et fortissimus liber quern, Marco Antonino de fato tradidit* 2 
Theodoretus speaks of the author in the following terms: 

BapBrja-dvrjs Be 6 2vpos, ef ^EBea^ op/jLtofjuevos, ev rot? Ovrjpov Mdp/cov 
Kalo-apos TJK pave ^povois. rovrov <j>a(rl TroXXa rfjs Ba\evrlvov Trepuco- 
^rat, fj,v0o\oyia<$. TroXXa Be KOI rfj 2vpa>v crvveypatye ryXoorry, /cal ravra 
fj,ere<ppa(Tav et9 rrjv 'E\\d($a cjxovrjv. evrerv^Ka Be Kayo) Xo- 
avrov Kara elfiap/juev^ rypafalai? Epiphanius gives the same 
account in a rather extended form, supplying also the name of 
the person to whom Bardesan chiefly addressed himself in this 
Dialogue : A O? TroXXa Trpbs 'A/SeiBav rov 'Aa-rpovo/Jiov Kara elfjuap- 
lieinis \eya)v a-vve'XoyTjcraTo. 4 Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, speaks of the author thus I BapBrjo-dvrjs, licavwTaTos rt9 avrjp, 
ev re rf) ^vpcov (frcovfj Bia\eKTiK(*)TaTO$, 77/909 rou9 mta MapKiwva Kai 
TWO,? erepovs Bta(f)6pa)v TT polar afjuevov^ Boy/judrcov Biahoyovs crvcrrrjo-d- 
T?} ol/cela TrapeBw/ce ry\a)rrfj re /cal rypa(f>y, per a /cal ir\ei- 
erepwv avrov avyypafjifjidrcov ; 5 and again, in his Preparatio 
Evangelic*, he prefaces an extract from the work now before 

US with these words : napaOrjcropai, Be O-OL /cal rwvBe ra9 a 
ef dvBpbs, 2vpov fjt,ev rb 76^09, eif a/cpov Be r^9 Xa\Bai'K7Js ir 
e\a\r)ic6ro<s. BapBrja-dvrjs ovofia TO) dvBpl, 09 ev rols ?rpo9 rou9 eraipovt; 
Bia\oyoi<; ra Be irrf iLvepoveverat, fydvai* He then quotes the long 
extracts which I have printed, pp. 8 10 and 16 32. Pho- 
tius, writing of Diodorus, Bishop of Tarsus, has the fol- 
lowing W T ords : apa re rr\v rrjs el^ao^kvr]^ icaraa-eiwv B6!;av, /cal rrjv 



1 Hist. Eccles. b. iv. c. 30. 

2 Catal. Script. Eccl. Edit. Erasmus, vol. i. p. 180. 

3 Hceret. Fabul. Comp. b. i. c. 22. 4 Panarium, edit. Petau, p. 477. 
6 Hist. Eccles. loc. cit. 6 Prcep. Evang. b. vi. c. 9. 



PREFACE. Ill 



Bap&tcrdvov arvveTrippaTn&i. 1 And again, J Ev o> TOW UTTO Bap$i<rd- 
vov atpeTifcovs 8ie\e i y%t, t Se^eo-Oat, JJL&V Trpoa-Troiovfievovs TOIW? TT^O^TCW, 
teal ra? fjuev ^u%a? <yevecr(i)<; t\6v6epa<; ical dvrej~ovcrlov<; 6(J,o\oyovvTa<;, 
TO <7WyLta Be rfj Tavrrjs vTrordrTovras Sioitcijarei' ir\ovrov yap Kal Trevlav 
/cal vocrov Kal ir/ieiav Kal farjv Kal QCLVCLTOV teal oaa ovtc e(f> rjpJlv epyov 
elvat, \eyov(ri T?;<? ei^ap^dvTf]^. 2 

The title, indeed, of the work in this volume is Book 
of the Laws of Countries, and the name of the person who 
is introduced as having written down the dialogue is 
Philip (see pages 5 and 7) ; but it is evident that it is the 
same treatise as that alluded to by all these writers whose 
words have been now quoted. It is a dialogue. Bardesan takes 
the leading part in it : his discourse is addressed to his com- 
panions, one of whom is named Avida, or Abida. The subject- 
matter is on Fate. It affirms the precise doctrine which is 
attributed to Bardesan's treatise. The author declares himself 
to be fully acquainted with the science of Chaldsean astrology, 
and gives abundant proof of the same ; and, further, all those 
passages which have been quoted as extracts from Bardesan's 
treatise, are found in this. Moreover, it is written in Syriac, 
in which most of his works were composed, although he was 
also well skilled in the Greek tongue, as Epiphanius 3 informs 
us. There can be no doubt, therefore, that we have now in 
our hands, in the original language of the author, and in a 
complete form, that celebrated Dialogue of Bardesan on Fate, 
written about the middle of the second century, 4 which has been 

1 See Bibliotheca, Cod. 223 : edit. Bekker, p. 208. 

2 Ibid. p. 221. 

3 Ao7o? T/J S)v ev TCU? Svffi <y\u>Gffai<;, 'EXXyviKr) re diaXeKTa, KOI rrj ro)v 
Zvpojv (j)a)i>rj. Panarium, p. 476. 

4 At page 30 he speaks of the recent conquest of Arabia by the Romans. 
This took place under Marcus Aurelius : see Tillemont, Hist, des Empe- 



IT PREFACE. 

so often referred to by subsequent writers, but of which only 
a comparatively small portion has hitherto been known to us. 

Eusebius has inserted two long extracts from this treatise in 
his Prceparatio Evangelica, probably from a Greek translation 
made by some of those friends of Bardesan, who, as the same 
author, in his Ecclesiastical History, as well as Theodoretus, 
informs us, translated his dialogues into Greek. 1 I have given 
both of these passages in this volume, on the same page with 
the English translation. Besides the Greek version preserved 
by Eusebius, there is also a Latin translation of the second 
extract, contained in the Recognitions, falsely attributed to 
Clement of Rome, which were modified and done into Latin 
by Euffinus about the year 400. 2 I have printed this, as well 
as the Greek, 3 in juxtaposition with my own English translation, 
in order that the reader may at one view be enabled to com- 
pare the three, and to note their variations as well as their 
agreement. I have likewise appended an extract from the second 
Dialogue of Ca3sarius, brother of Gregory of Nazianzum, in 
which, although the name of the author be not mentioned, 
much has been borrowed from that same part of Bardesan's dia- 
logue which relates especially to the laws and habits of different 
nations. It may be interesting and useful to compare this 
also with the other versions, and with the original text. 4 

reurs, vol. ii. p. 402 : thus confirming by internal evidence the account of 
the date of this work given by Eusebius, Theodoretus, Epiphanius, and 
others. 

1 Ov? 01 fyv^pijjtoi (TrAeicTTOi e^e ycrav atVw <$vvara)$ TW Ao7a> n-apiffrafjievfo) 
e-Trt rrjv 'EAAjJi/wi/ OTTO rj? 2ty>a>i/ yueTa/3e/3A^Kacn (pcovys. Hist. Eccl. b. 4.c. 30. 

2 See his Preface to Gaudentius. 

3 Pp. 16-33. 

4 In giving these extracts I have followed, for Eusebius, the edition of 
the Preparatio Evangclica, printed at the Clarendon Press in 4 vols. 



PREFACE. V 

With respect to the Author, Bardesan himself, so much has 
been already said by different writers, 1 that the subject seems 
to have been exhausted ; and I am not aware that I am able 
to bring any additional facts to light, beyond what is supplied 
by the treatise itself, now, after the lapse of many centuries, 
for the first time exhibited in its original integrity. I will 
therefore only quote a few passages relating to Bardesan and 
his opinions, which I have extracted from the famous reply of 
Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabug, to an anonymous writer who 
had impugned the opinions which he had put forth in an 
Epistle addressed to the monks. 2 They are taken from one 
of the Nitrian Manuscripts obtained by Dr. Tattam in 1841, 
now in the British Museum, No. 12,164 : 



" But thou hast not been 
mindful of thy instructor, Bardesan, whom his disciples cele- 
brate in their books for his patience and polite answers to 
every man." fol. 125, b. 



by the late Dr. Gaisford, Dean of Christ Church ; for the Recognitions, 
that of Gersdorf, Lips. 1838 ; and for Cassarius, that of Gallandi in the 
Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum. Venet. 1765. Vol. vi. The text of this 
last is in a very corrupt state. Several errors might, however, easily have 
been amended, but I deemed it better to copy the text as I found it. 

1 Two authors have written works expressly on this subject FRID. 
STRITNZIUS, Historia Bardesanis et Bardesanistarum. 4to. Viteb. 1710 ; 
and AUGUSTUS HAHN, Bardesanes Gnosticus Syrorum Primus Hymno- 
logus. Commentatio Historico-Theologica. 8vo. Lips. 1819. BEAUSOBRE 
has devoted an entire chapter : De Bardesanes et de ses Erreurs, c. 9, b. iv. 
vol. ii. in Histoire de Manickee et du Manicheisme. See also, Cave, 
Lardner, Tillemont, and others. Perhaps the most complete compendious 
notice is that by Gallandi, BibL Veterum Patrum, vol. i. Proleg. p. cxxii. 

2 See respecting this, Assemani. Biblioth. Orient, vol. ii. p. 27, 



VI PREFACE. 



01 1*? |2u^oAjD "Who so confesseth 
that boy which was born of the Virgin, that her child is 
the Highest, he assents to Bardesan." f. 127, b. ^] ^^D 

001 JJo-ik fcal^ -U^> |j01 

ZaiiiCo}]* ^*] OID V^A^Z] 001 
" Therefore this also, that ' the Antient of 
Eternity was a boy/ we have not taken this from Bardesan, 
but he has made use of it as a means of concealing his own 
error, and took it from the doctrine of the Church." f.164. 



O01 

oif^^ ct^ >olo \*&* ^D> VS^-* 3 - " There are some 
of them who say, that he sent down the Word a body from 
heaven, as thou saidest just now, and didest assent to thy 
teacher Bardesan ..... Because thou hast not compre- 
hended the mind of Bardesan, who assumeth the body of Christ 
to be from heaven." f. 171. b. 

MELITON. 1 

The second tract in this volume bears the title of " An 
Oration of Meliton the Philosopher/' addressed to Antoninus 
Csesar. Nor is there any thing contained in it, so far as I am 
competent to form an opinion, which in any way should lead 

1 Respecting Meliton, and the writings attributed to him, see Eusebius' 
account printed in this volume, p. 56, and the notes thereon ; Cave's " Life 
of Saint Melito, Bishop of Sardis," in his Lives of the most eminent Fa- 
thers of the Church that flourished in the first Four Centuries, and the 
Notice in his Historia Litter aria. Fabricius, Bibl. Gr&c. vol v. p. 184 ; 
and Piper, De vita et Scriptis Melitonis, in " Theolog. Stud. u. Kritik" 
by Ullmann and Umbreit, A.D. 1838, p. 54. Dr. Routh has published all 
that was then known to remain of the genuine writings of Meliton in his 
Reliq. Sacr. vol. i. p. 113. 



v 

us to doubt of the correctness of this inscription, or to question 
the genuineness of the work. 

It is true, as M. Bunsen states, that it appears to be entire, 
and yet does not contain that passage quoted by Eusebius l 
from the most famous of all Meliton's writings, his Apology 
to the Emperor Marcus Antoninus in defence of the persecuted 
Christians. Had indeed that learned ecclesiastical historian been 
fully acquainted with all the works of Meliton, and also dis- 
tinctly stated that no other address had been made by him to any 
one bearing the name of Antoninus Caesar than that in which 
was contained the passage that he has quoted, it would then 
have been sufficiently evident that the work before us could 
not be by Meliton, if indeed it be, as it appears to me to 
be, complete, and not an abridgment or extract from a 
larger Apology : this, however, may seem to some to be uncer- 
tain. 2 Eusebius himself, however, has given us to understand 
plainly that he did not profess to exhibit a full and exact ac- 
count of all the writings, either of Meliton or of Apollinaris, 3 
but only of such as had come to his own knowledge. His 
silence, therefore, as the late venerable Dr. Eouth 4 has justly 
observed, is not of itself to be construed as an argument against 
the genuineness or authority of any work bearing a name not 
mentioned by him, if there be no positive external testimony 
against it, nor any internal evidence in the work itself which 

1 See p. 57. 

2 M. Renan thinks it a fragment. " Melitonis Episcopi Sardium Apo- 
logias ad Marcum Aurelium imperatorem fragmentum." 

3 See p. 57,1. 15. 

4 " Neque auctori Pr&fationis magis deneganda est fides, quam aliis 
temporum eorundem scriptoribus, ex quorum testimonio multi recepti sunt 
libri veterum, neque ab Eusebio, neque ab alio quoquam aequalium ejus me- 
morati ; praesertim quam infra asserat Eusebius, pervenisse opera certa quae- 
dam ex multis Apollinarii libris." Reliq. Sacr. vol. i. p. 167. 



Vlll PREFACE. 

may render it doubtful or suspected. Maximus, 1 in his Preface 
to the writings attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite, says 
that there were very many works which Eusebius omitted to 
notice, because they had never fallen into his hands. And as 
a case in point we may observe that Eusebius has not said one 
word respecting the Apology of Athenagoras, presented also to 
Marcus Antoninus about the same time, and containing many 
things in common with this address, and with the other 
Apologies offered to the Roman Emperors at that period. 

There is no reason why we must suppose that Meliton 
should not have written two Addresses to the Roman Emperor 
as well as Justin Martyr, or that one of them might not have 
escaped the knowledge of Eusebius, or at least have had no 
mention of it made by him, as well as that of Athenagoras. 
The Apology cited by Eusebius was probably amongst the latest, 
or indeed the last of all the wcrks 2 which Meliton wrote ; and 
internal evidence has led critics to conclude that it was pre- 
sented to the Emperor Marcus Antoninus in the tenth year of 
his reign, after the death of his associate in the Empire, Lucius 
Aurelius Yerus, about A.D. 169-70. External testimony by 
the author of the Chronicon Paschale attributes it to the same 
date, A.D. 169. 3 But the same writer, five years before, A.D. 



EiVe/3*os ot'/c eXQovTO. irapa yeipas oiKeias' KOI ^ap oi're 
(fiyo-lv airavra KaQaira^ arvva^rjo^erai' /xaAAoi/ 76 JJ.YJV 0/40X076? KOI apid/mov Kpeir- 
Tova (3ifi\ia KaOecrravai yu^dayuw? et? avrov e\t]\v66ra. KOL TroAAaw e(Wa/u^i> 
fj.vY}novevGcu JJ.Y] KTyOevTtov at'ro), KOI ravra rijs avrov %w/jaj ; cited by Dr. 
Routh, Reliq. Sacr. vol. i. p. 167. 

2 EusqJ)ius writes J E?ri TTCKTI KOI TO irpos ' Kvr&v'ivov /3t/3\idtov, which 
Ruffinus translates, " Et post omnia Liber ad Antoninum Verum." b. 4. c. 26. 

3 In the cxxxvii. Ol. A. C. 169 : MeXiruv, J A<rfai>o? -ny? 'ZapSe&v TroAew? 

, KOI ' ATTo\\ivapios 'le/oaTToAew? eVtovcoTro?, KOI a\\ot TroAAoi TOV 
/3i/3\Lov a7roAo7ta? AvpyXita ' AVTCWIVW eire^wKav^ 'lovcrrivov 
i a\\a>v TroAAwi/, K.T.A., p. 484 ibid. 



PREFACE. ix 

164-65, 1 speaks also of an Apology presented by Meliton to 
the Emperor. Unless, therefore, we assume that he was not 
sufficiently well and clearly informed, and has therefore given 
a confused account an assumption for which the silence of 
Eusebius cannot afford sufficient grounds we can hardly draw 
any other conclusion from his words than that Meliton presented 
two Apologetical addresses to the Roman Emperors the 
one before us, which contains rather a defence of the true reli- 
gion against the Polytheism, idolatry, and incorrect ideas of 
the Deity entertained by Pagans ; and the other, as the ex- 
tract preserved by Eusebius would lead us to infer, against the 
persecution of the Christians on account of their faith, Indeed 
the passage which the author of the Chronicon Paschale cites 
as from Meliton's Apology, and which, from its having been 
given before he mentions the later date, would lead us, if 
there were two, to refer it to the former, seems to be sufficiently 
near to be almost identified with expressions found in the work 
before us, if we bear in mind, that it must necessarily have 
undergone some change in phraseology, by the translation out of 
Greek into Syriac, and also suppose it not to have been intended 
for an exact and verbatim quotation, 2 but only as an allusion. 

Judging merely from what we read in the Address itself, I 
should have been disposed to fix the date about four years earlier 
than that in which mention is first made of Meliton by the 



* 'AAAa KOI Me\tT6>r 'Atnavos, Sapdiavav eTnV/coTros, /3ifi\iov a 
rots \e\ewevois fia<ri\evfftv (MajOKW A.vprj\Lu KOI ' Avruvivw Bi}|0<a), /cat erepot 
Se TroAAot, <uv o SyXwdeis 'lovarrivos, K.T.\. : p. 482. in the ccxxxvi. Olympiad- 
A. Mund. 5672 : A.D. 164-65. edit Dindorf. p. 482. 

2 Compare OVK eoyxei/ \idd)v ovde/jiLav alffdtjffiv eyovrtav depairevrai, a\\a 
fj.ovov 0eov, TOV 717)0 TTUVTUV /cat eirt Travruv, p. 483, ibid., with " There is one 
God the Lord of all -- embracing stones - , and are willing 
while they themselves are endowed with senses to serve that which is insen- 
sible, p. 47, and within whom he is, and above whom," &c., p. 49. 

6 



X PREFACE. 

Chronicon Paschale, either to the end of 160, or the beginning of 
161, a short time before the death of Antoninus Pius, and pro- 
bably when his health had sensibly begun to decline. Unless, 
indeed, the expression be intended as generally applicable to 
every one whose father is still alive, the words " Be solicitous 
respecting thy father so long as thy solicitude may be of 
avail to help him/' would imply that Antoninus Pius was still 
surviving, ^although perhaps in a state to cause anxiety. In 
the inscription, Marcus Antoninus is designated Caesar, and 
not Autocrat, or Emperor. His being associated with An- 
toninus Pius, and taking a part in the administration of the 
empire, would be sufficient grounds for Meliton to address 
him ; and in the words of the Apology cited by Eusebius, he 
alludes to the part which he took in the government : " During 
the time that thou also with him wast governing every thing/' 
The prospect of his early succession to be the head of the state, 
might also have prompted Meliton to offer his opinion as to the 
surest means of governing a realm in peace by knowing the 
truth, and living conformably thereto. At the end of the 
Address he refers to the children of Antoninus. Of these he 
had several, both sons and daughters. 1 

In forming an opinion from the internal evidence of the 
work, I cannot think with the Chevalier Bunsen, that " it bears 
the stamp of a late and confused composition." It seems certain, 
indeed, that the writer alludes most clearly to the Second Epistle 
of St. Peter f but inasmuch as I do not hold the same views as 
my very learned and dear friend respecting the authenticity 

1 His two sons, Commodus and Annius Verus, were made Caesars upon 
the occasion of the triumph of Lucius Verus, A.D. 166. See Tillemont, 
Hist. Emp. vol. ii. p. 391. 

2 See p. 50, and the note on the passage, p. 95 below. 



PREFACE. XI 

of tlmt Epistle, 1 I do not recognise, in the fact of its having 
been clearly alluded to in the work which we have now 
before us, any evidence of the " lateness " of the composition. 
As to the Address being " confused/' it does not seem to me 
in this respect to differ in its method from the rest of the 
Apologies of the second century ; with which, indeed, it has 
very many things in common, even to some evident mis- 
takes, such as that of confounding the Egyptian god Serapis 
with the Patriarch Joseph. 2 Some of the views of this writer 
as to the origin of Polytheism and idolatry in certain pLices 
are uncommon. They have probably been gathered from tra- 
ditions at that time current in the East, but of which in these 
days very little is known. 

I will not, however, pursue this subject further at present, 
but, committing the document into the hands of the reader, 
leave him to judge and draw his own conclusions for himself. 

For an account of the other extracts attributed to Meliton, 
and the sources from which they have been gathered, I must 
refer to the notes in this volume. 

AMBROSE. 

The short work bearing the inscription of Hypomnemata, 
and attributed to Ambrose, a " chief man of Greece," is the 
same, with some modifications, as that known by the title of 
Aoyos TTpo? "E\\r)va<> " Oratio ad Gentiles," which, in several 
copies, is attributed to Justin Martyr, and indeed has been 

1 M. Bunsen puts the following in the mouth of Hippolytus in his 
Apology : " You will, on your side, kindly abstain from quoting what you 
call the Second Epistle of St. Peter. I might have been induced to do so, 
in order to prove my theory about the coming of Antichrist, and the end 
of the world after 6000 years. ^But I could not in good conscience. The 
antient Churches did not know such a letter." Vol. iv. p. 33. 

2 See p. 43, and notes, p. 89. 



ii. PREFACE. 

very generally received as his. Many, however, have doubted 
the authorship, and others have not hesitated to state their con- 
viction that it bears internal evidence of being by a different 
hand from the undoubted work of Justin, The Dialogue, with 
Trypho the Jew} Assuming the authorship as it is given here 
to be correct, there seems to be an easy explanation why it 
might have come to be attributed to Justin, in the fact of its 
having been often classed in the same volume with his Apolo- 
gies, which have in a great measure the same object in view ; 
and thence having been supposed to be by Justin himself, 
a transition which the small bulk of the work may readily 
account for. 

The Ambrose here mentioned as a chief man of Greece, 
and a senator, can hardly be understood to be any other 
than the friend and disciple of Origen, whom Epiphanius de- 
signates as one of those illustrious in the palaces of kings, 2 and 
whose wealth enabled him to supply his master with all the 
necessary expenses for completing his Hexaplar edition of the 
Scriptures, 3 and who also himself suffered martyrdom for the 
Christian faith. Certainly the inscription of this tract and its 
contents would well concur with what we know of Ambrose. 4 

1 See Oudin, Com. de Scriptoribus Ecclesia Antiques, vol. i. p. 190. 
Otto classes it in his edition with Justin's Opera addubitata. 

2 'Ajm/3po(rca> nv\ ru>v Siacfravvv ev av\ai$ /3ct(ri\iKais : see Panar. p. 526. 

3 See Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vi. 23. 

4 See Cave, Historia Literaria, and Life of Origen, x ; Halloix, Ori- 
genes Defensus, b. i. c. 8. The name Ambrose, among later Syriac writers, 
seems to have been still further contracted from ufflOfnLc], Ambrose, to 
U&*i2l. Thus, in the work called IUJQ.D>, or the Bee, c. 51, we read 
oi^no tao> ^r 4 |] -mfflo$z&p) u|ja* IjaAio -m^:D|, Abres. He is 
called in Greek, Ambrosius. The place of his sepulture is not known." 
See also Jo. Saluca, cited by Assemani, Bibl. Orient, vol. i. p. 533. Re- 
specting the Bee, see my Corpus Ignatianum, p. 360. 



PREFACE. xiii 

MARA, SON OF SERAPION. 

We have no information respecting this author beyond what 
is supplied in the letter itself addressed to his son. Mara, or 
as Assemani 1 writes it in Latin, Maras, is not an uncommon 
appellation amongst the Syrians, and there have been many 
who have borne the name of Serapion 2 . 

The author speaks of himself as one whose city had been 
ruined, and himself also taken and detained as prisoner in 
bonds by the Romans, together with others whom the victors 
treated in a tyrannical manner, as distrustful of their fidelity to 
the Roman government. He describes the misery of his friends 
and companions belonging to the city of Samosata, and the 
distresses which he and they suffered when they joined them- 
selves together on the road to Seleucia. He alludes to the 
destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of the Jews as an 
act of divine vengeance for their having murdered Jesus ; but 
he makes no direct mention of the name of Christ, and only 
designates him as the " wise king," who, although put to death, 
still lived in the " wise laws which he promulgated." 

From these facts it is evident that the author wrote at a time 
when the Romans not long before had been making fresh con- 
quests, or repressing rebellion in the parts of Syria about Samo- 
sata and Seleucia, and probably at a period when, on account of 
the persecution of the Christians, it would not have been pru- 
dent or safe to have spoken in more direct terms of Christ. Co- 
magena and its capital Samosata were taken by the Romans in 
the reign of Vespasian, A.D. 72, or two years after the capture 



1 See Bill. Orient, vol. i. p. 643. 

2 Fabricius, Bill. Grac. vol. viii. p. 



XIV PREFACE. 

of Jerusalem by Titus. 1 About twenty-three years later the 
persecution under Domitian began, A.D. 95. 2 There would be 
nothing therefore incongruous in assigning, from its internal 
evidence, the date of this Epistle to the close of the first cen- 
tury. Nor would the allusion to the catastrophe of Samos at 
all militate against this, if it be referred to the earthquake in 
the reign of Augustus, from which several of the neighbouring 
islands also suffered. 3 

The mention, however, of that island having been covered 
with sand, as a punishment for the burning of Pythagoras, 
seems to me to have a direct reference to the Sibylline verses ;" 4 

ff Orrt, fiporol (j>av\ov 0)7)9 aSl/covr eve^ovro, 
'EarcM teal 2a/jLO$ a/JLfjbos, eaelrai Se ArjKos aSr}\o<; 
Kal f Pa>/?7 pv^. 5 ra Se Oeatyara iravra reXemw. 

I cannot therefore, in my own mind, come to any other con- 
clusion than that this Epistle ought to be assigned to a period 
when the Sibylline verses were frequently cited, the age of Justin 
Martyr, Meliton, and Tertullian. This date, too, will perhaps 
otherwise coincide quite as well with what is read in the 
letter as the former. The troubles to which the writer alludes 
as having befallen himself and his city will apply to those 
inflicted by the Eomans upon the countries about the Tigris 
and Euphrates which had been excited to rebel against them 



1 See Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, vol. ii. p. 30. 

2 Ibid.p.'IZl. 

3 See Gale, Sibyll. Orac. p. 406. 

4 Ibid. p. 405. 

5 Lactantius alludes to this line : " Et vero cum caput illud orbis occi- 
deret, et p{>^ esse coeperit, quod Sibyllae fore aiunt," &c. Inst. Div. b. vii. 
p. 25. 



PREFACE. XV 

by Vologeses, in the Parthian war under the command of 
Lucius Verus, A.D. 162 165. 1 I have not found the name 
of Samosata especially mentioned as having suffered more 
than other cities in this war ; but it is stated that Seleucia 
was sacked and burned by the Romans, and five or six thou- 
sand slain. 2 The persecution under Marcus Antoninus fol- 
lowed very close upon this war, and as these facts equally 
agree with the allusions made in this Epistle of Mara, it 
may perhaps be nearer the truth to assign its date to the 
latter half of the second century rather than to the close of 
the first. 

If indeed such be the period at which this Letter was written, 
there is no improbability in supposing, that the Serapion, to 
whom it is addressed, may be the same as he who succeeded 
Maximinus 3 as eighth Bishop of Antioch, about the year 190, 
and who himself also wrote short epistles, similar to this in 
purpose and tendency, for which indeed his father's might have 
set him a pattern. 4 

1 See Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. ii. p. 385. 

2 Ibid. p. 389. 

3 See Eusebius, Hist . Eccl. b. v. c. 19 ; and Cave's Histor. Litter. 

4 See Jerome, De Viris lllus. c. xii. " Leguntur et sparsim ejus breves 
Epistolse auctoris sui aovojo-e* et vitas congruentes." Dr. Routh has given 
all the remains of Serapion in his Reliq. Sacr. vol. i. p. 449. 



BARDESAN. 



THE BOOK 



OF THE 



LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 



A FEW days ago we went up to visit Shemashgram, our brother. 
And Bardesan came and found us there ; and when he had felt him, 
and seen that he was well, he asked us, " What were you talking 
about, for I heard your voice from without as I was coming in?" 
For he was accustomed, whenever he found us talking about any 5 
thing before him, to ask us, " What were you saying ?" that he 
might converse with us about it We therefore said to him, " This 
Avida was saying to us : ' That if God be one, as you say, and 
He created mankind, and willeth that you should do that which 
you are commanded, why did He not create men so that they 10 
should not be able to go wrong, but always should do what is 
good ; for by this His will would be accomplished.' " 

Bardesan saith to him, " Tell me, my son Avida, why dost thou 
think that the God of all is not one, or that He is one, and doth 
not will that men should conduct themselves holily and uprightly ?" 15 

Avida saith, " I, my Lord, asked these of my own age in order 
that they might give me a reply." 

Bardesan saith to him, " If thou desirest to learn, it would be ad- 
vantageous for thee, that thou shouldest learn from one who is older 



BARDESAN 

than they : but if to teach, it is not requisite that thou shouldest 
question them, but that thou shouldest persuade them to ask 
thee what they desire. For teachers are usually asked, and do not 
themselves ask. And whenever they do put a question, it should be 
5 to direct the mind of the questioner so that he may ask properly, 
and they may know what his desire is. For it is a good thing 
that a man should know how to put questions." 

Avid a saith, " I am desirous of learning, but I began first to 
question these my brethren, because I was ashamed of asking 

10 thee." 

Bardesan saith, " Thou speakest cleverly. Nevertheless know 
that he who putteth (2) his inquiries properly, and is willing to be 
convinced, and draweth near to the way of truth without obsti- 
nacy, needeth not be ashamed, because he will certainly give 

15 pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed, by those things 
which I have mentioned. If therefore, my son, thou hast any 
thing in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast in- 
quiring, tell it to us all ; and if it please us also, we shall partici- 
pate with thee ; and if it please us not, necessity will compel us 

20 to shew thee why it does not please us. And if thou wert only 
desiring to know this word, without having any thing in thy 
mind respecting it, as a man who has lately attached himself to 
the Disciples and is a recent inquirer, I will inform thee, in order 
that thou mayest not depart from us without profit ; and if those 

25 things which I tell thee please thee, we have also for thee other 
things respecting this matter, but if they please thee not, we for 
our part shall have spoken without any ill feeling." 

Avida saith, " I even greatly desire to hear and to be convinced, 
because it is not from any other I have heard this word ; but I 

30 have spoken it of my own mind to these my brethren, and they 
were not willing to convince me, but say, 'Believe really, and thou 
wilt be able to know every thing ;' but I am not able to believe 
unless I be convinced." 

Bardesan saith, " Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe, but 

35 also many, because they have in them no faith, are not even able to 
be convinced, but always are pulling down and building up, and are 



BOOK OF Till LAW- OK OOTTBTRU 

found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. Nevcrtlidc^, be- 
cause Avida is not willing to believe, In ! I will ^peak to you who 
do believe concerning this which lie iinjuirrt h, and he will h< -ar 
soi in -tiling more." 

And hi 1 begun to say to us, " Then- arc many men wlio have 5 
not faith, and have not received knowledge from the \\i-dom 
of the truth. And on this account they an- not competent to 
speak and to instruct, and do not easily incline themselves to hear. 
For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon, and they 
have no confidence upon which they may hope And because they m 
also doubt respecting God, they likewise have not within them 
that fear of Him which would liberate them from all fears: for 
whoso hath not the fear of God within him, he is subject to every 
fear. For even with respect to that, (3) whatever it may be, which 
they do not believe, they arc not sure that they properly disbe- 15 
lieve ; but they are unstable in their minds, and are not able 
to stand, and the taste of their thoughts is insipid in their mouth, 
and they are always timid and hasty and rash. But as to 
what Avida was saying, 'Why did not God create us so that 
we should not sin and be guilty?' if man had been created 20 
so, he would not have been for himself, but would have been the 
instrument of him who moved him ; and it is known that whoso 
moveth as he chuseth he moveth him either to good or to evil. 
And how then would a man differ from a harp, upon which another 
playeth, or from a ship, which another steereth: but the praise and 25 
the blame stand in the hand of the artist, and the harp itself kiioweth 
not what is played upon it, nor the ship whether it be well steered 
and guided; but they are instruments which are made for the 
use of him who possesseth in himself the science. But God in his 
kindness did not will that he should create man so. But he 30 
exalted him by Free-will above many things, and made him equal 
with the angels. For observe the sun and the moon and the sphere, 
and the rest of those creatures which are greater than we in 
some tilings, that there is not given to them Free-will of them- 
selves, but they are all fixed by ordinance that they should do that 35 
only which is ordained for them, and nothing else. For the sun 



BARDESAN 

never saith, that I will not rise at my time; nor the moon, that I 
will not change, and not wane, and not increase ; nor does any 
one of the stars say, that I will not rise, and I will not set ; nor the 
sea, that I will not bear the ships, and I will not stand within my 
5 bounds ; nor the hills, that we will not continue in the places in 
which we are set ; nor do the winds say that we will not blow ; 
nor the earth, that I will not bear and sustain whatsoever is upon 
me : but all these things serve and are subject to one ordinance, 
for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which erreth 

10 not. For if every thing ministered, who would be he that is 
ministered unto ; and if every thing were ministered unto, who 
would be he that ministered? And there would not be one 
thing differing from another. For that which is single and hath 
no difference in it, is a Being which up to this hour has not been 

15 established. But those things, which are requisite for ministration, 
have been fixed in the power of man, because in the image (4) ofElohim 
he was created. On this account there has been given to him these 
things in kindness, that they might minister to him for a season ; 
and it has been given to him to govern himself by his own will, and 

20 that whatever he is able to do, if he will he should do it, and if he 
will not, he should not do it ; and he should justify or condemn him- 
self. For if he had been made so that he would not be able to do 
evil by which he may be condemned, in the same manner also the 
good which he should do would not be his, and he would not be 

25 able to be justified by it. For whoso should not of his own will do 
that which is good or evil, his justification and his condemnation 
would stand in that Fortune for which he is created. On this 
account, let it be manifest to you, that the goodness of God has 
been great towards man, and that there has been given to him 

30 Free-will more than to all those Elements of which we have been 
speaking ; that by this same Free-will he may justify himself, and 
govern himself in a godlike manner, and associate with the 
angels, who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves; for we 
know, that even the angels, if they had not been possessed of 

35 Free-will for themselves, would not have had intercourse with 
the daughters of men, and would not have sinned nor fallen from 



BOOK OF Tin- LAWS O 

their places. And in the same manner therefore those others which 
did the will of their Lord, by their power over themselves were 
exalted and sanctified, and received mighty gifts. For every one 
thai exists stands in need of the Lord of all ; and there is no end 
to his gifts. But nevertheless kim\v ye, that even those things 5 
of which I have said that they stand by ordinance, are not entirely 
devoid of all freedom, and on this account at the last day thev all 
shall be subject to judgment." 

I say to him, " And how can those things which are fixed be 
judged?" 10 

He saith to me, "Not in so far as they are fixed, oh, Philip, 
will the Elements be judged, but in so far as they have power; 
for Beings when they are set in order are not deprived of their 
natural property, but of their force of energy, being diminished 
by the mingling of one with another, and they are subdued by the 15 
power of their Creator ; and in so far as they are subject, they will 
not be judged, but in that which is their own." 

Avida saith to him, " Those things which thou hast said are 
very good. But lo ! the commandments which have been given to 
men are severe, and they are not able to perform them." (5) 20 

Bardesan saith, " This is the answer of such an one as doth 
not desire to do that which is good ; and more especially of him 
who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. For men are 
not commanded to do any thing but what they are able to do. 
For there are two commandments set before us such as are 25 
suitable and just for Free-will : one that we separate ourselves 
from every thing which is evil and which we should dislike to 
be done to ourselves ; and the other that we should do that which 
is good and which we love, and desire that it should also be done 
to us likewise. What man, therefore, is there who is unable to 30 
avoid stealing, or to avoid lying or committing adultery and 
fornication, or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? 
For lo ! all these things are subject to the mind of man, and it is 
not in the power of the body they are, but in the will of the soul. 
For even if a man be poor and sick and old, or impotent in his 35 
limbs, he is able to avoid doing all these things ; and as he is able to 



5 BARDESAN 

avoid doing these things, so is he able to love, and to bless, and to 
speak the truth, and to pray for that which is good for every one 
whom he knoweth : and if he be in health and have the use of 
his hands, he is able too to give something of that which he hath ; 
5 also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and 
broken down, this too he is able to do. Who, therefore, it 
is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith murmur 
about, I know not. For I think, that it is in these command- 
ments more than in any thing man has power. For they are 

10 easy, and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. For we 
are not commanded to carry heavy burthens of stones, or of 
timber, or of any thing else, which those only who are power- 
ful in body are able to do; nor that we should build for- 
tresses and found cities, which kings only are able to do ; nor 

15 that we should steer ships, which mariners only are skilled in 
steering ; nor that we should measure and divide the earth, which 
geometricians only know how to do ; nor any one of those arts 
which some men possess, and the rest are devoid of them ; but there 
has been given to us according to the goodness of God command- 

20 ments without grudging, such as every man who possesses a soul 
within him can do rejoicing ; for there is no man who rejoiceth not 
when he doeth that which is good ; nor is there any one who doth 
not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things, 
with the exception of those who were not made for this grace, and 

25 are called Tares : for would not (6) that judge be unjust who 
should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ?" 

Avida saith to him, " Respecting these deeds, oh Bardesan, 
sayest thou that they are easy to perform ?" 

Bardesan saith, " To him who desireth, I have said, and do 

30 say, that they are easy ; for this is the good conduct of a free 

mind, and of that soul which hath not rebelled against its Governors. 

For there are many things which impede the action of the body, 

and more especially old age, and sickness, and poverty." 

Avida saith, " Perchance a man may be able to avoid wicked 

35 things, but to do good things who among men is able ?" 

Bardesan saith, " It is more easy to do good than to abstain from 



HOOK OK T11K LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 

e\il. For tin- good is tin- man's own, and on this account lie 
rejoiceth whenever IK- doeth good; but the 1 evil is tin,- operation 
of the enemy, and on tin- account, when a man is troubled and not 
sound in his nature, he dorth wicked things. For know, my 
-MII, that it is an easy thing for a man to praise and ble>s his 5 
friend; but that u man should not hlame and revile him that lie 
hates is not easy. lint nevertheless, this is possible to be; and 
whenever a man doeth that which is good, his mind is cheerful and 
his conscience tranquil, and he is pleased that every one should see 
\\ hat he does ; but whenever a man acts wrongly, and committeth 10 
an injury, he is agitated and troubled, and full of rage and anger, 
and is tormented in his soul and in his body: and when he 
standeth in this mind, he is not pleased to be seen by every one; 
and those things in which he rejoiceth, which even praise and 
blessing follow, are rejected by him ; but upon those things by 15 
which lie is agitated and troubled followeth the curse of blame. 
But perhaps a man may say, that even fools are pleased when 
they do vile things: but not in the doing of them, and not in 
being commended, and not for good hope; and this pleasure 
doth not continue with them. For the enjoyment which is in a 20 
sound state for good hope is one; and the enjoyment in an 
unhealthy state for bad hope is another. For lust is one 
thing and love is another ; and friendship is one thing and sodality 
another; and we ought plainly to understand that the unre- 
strained ardour of love is called lust, which (7) although there may 25 
be in it enjoyment for a moment, nevertheless is far removed 
from that true love, whose enjoyment is for ever uncorruptible 
and indissoluble." 

I say to him, " After this manner again was this Avida saying, 
' That it is from his Nature man acteth wrongly ; for if he had not 30 
been formed naturally to do wrong, he would not do wrong.'" 

Bardesan saith, " If all men did one deed and acted with the one 
mind, it would then be known that it was their Nature governed 
them, and they would not have the Free-will of which I spake 
to you. Nevertheless, in order that ye may understand what is 35 
Nature and what is Free-will, I will proceed to inform you. 



8 BARDESAN 

The Nature of man is this : that he should be born, and grow 
up, and rise in stature, and beget children, and grow old, by 
eating and by drinking, and sleeping, and waking, and that he 
should die. These because they are of Nature, belong to all 
5 men, and not to all men only, but also to all animals which have 
a soul in them ; and some of them also to trees. For this is a 
physical operation which performeth and produceth and esta- 
blisheth every thing as it has been ordained. But Nature also 
is found to be maintained by animals too in their actions. For the 

10 lion eateth flesh, by his Nature ; and on this account all lions are 
eaters of flesh. And the sheep eateth grass ; and for this reason all 
sheep are eaters of grass. And the bee maketh honey by which it 
sustains itself ; for this reason all bees are honey-makers. And the 
ant layeth up for itself a store in summer, that it may sustain itself 

15 from it in the winter ; and for this reason all ants do likewise. 
And the scorpion striketh with its sting him who hath not hurt 
it; and so likewise all scorpions strike. And all animals main- 
tain their Nature ; and those which feed upon grass do not eat 
flesh ; nor do those that feed upon flesh eat grass. But men are 

20 not governed in this manner ; but in the things belonging to their 
bodies they maintain their Nature like animals, and in the things 



"Kara (f>vcnv 6 avOpwiros ryevvarai, rpefarai, d/cfia^ei, <yevva t 
eaOiei, Trivet,, Koifjudrai,, <yrjpa, diroOvrfcrKei,' /cat TOVTO 
dv0p(*)7rov Kal iravTos akoyov t,(j>ov. Kal TO, fjLev o\\a t,wa 
ovTa, Kal StoXou Kara (Tv/ji7r\OKr)v yeyevrj/jieva, $i6\ov o-^eBov Kara 
<f)V(Tiv (frepeTai,. Aea>v o-ap/coffrayei, KOI afjuvverai ei TI dSi/crjOfj' /cal 
Sia TOVTO TrdvTes ol Xeoz/re? crap Ko^ay 'over i /cal dfjivvovTat. Kal 
d/JivdBes ftopTo^aryovo-i,, Kal Kpewv ov% airTOVTai, Kal a^LKov^evau 
OVK dfAVvovTai' Kal 6 avTOS TJOOTTO? Tracn?? o/tmSo?. ^Kopirios <yfjv 
eo-Olei, Kal rou? fir) dSwtjo-avTas a&iKel, KevTpa) to/3oX&) 
Kal TI avTr) KaKia TTCLVTWV (TKOpTrlcov. Mvp^t; Kaia (frvcriv 
^6t/i-(wi/o9 Trapovcrlav, Kal &i 6X779 Oepeias Ka/jivcov, 
eavTO) Tpotyds' Kal 6^0/0)9 7rdvT$ jjuvpfju^Ke^ epydfyvTai. 
fiekt, yecopyei, e% ov Kal rpe^eraf Kal r) avTrj <yea)pyla nrd(rais /ji- 
\icrcrai,s. Kal rjv 7ro\\a etSr} K0ecr0ai> r)/Jilv TWV ^wow, aTiva T^9 
<j)V(76(i)<; fjirj $uvd/j,eva eKaTrjvai,, TTO\VV davfiao'i^ov Trapacr^eiv vfuv 
' dXX' avTapKij rjyrjo-dfi'rjv K TWV TrapaKeifJievcov Trjv diro- 



OK OF TllK LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 

which !>rlon<r to their minds they do that which they wish, as 
In-ill^ five and with power, :md as the likeness of God : for there 
are some of them that eat flesh, :md d> not touch hread ; . 
there are some of them that make a distinction in the eatinir of 
i\c^\\ ; and there are some of them that d<> not eat the flesh of any 
animal in which there is a soul; and there are SOUK; of them that 
ha\e connexion with their mothers, and with their sisters/' and 
with their daughters; and there are some that never approach 
women at all ; and there are some that avenge themselves like 
lions and like leopards; and there are some that injure him who 10 
has not done them any harm, like scorpions ; and there are some 
that are led like sheep, and do not hurt those who govern them ; 
and there are some who conduct themselves with virtue, and some 



tv TTOLr}o~aa-6ai, OTL ra /J,ev d\\a a Kara TTJV KOLVorr^ra teal 
Siafopdv Kara fyvo~iv BoOelcrav kicdaTW ef dvdjKT}? rjbeas </>e- 
perai, avOpwrroi Se fiovoi TO egalperov e%ovTe$, TOP re vovv /cal TOV 
e/c TOVTOV irpo^epofjuevov \6yov, Kara fjuev rrjv Koivorrjra eirovrai rfj 
(frvcrei, w? TrpoeiTrov, Kara 8e TO e^alperov ov Kara <f>vcrt,v 7ro\t,revov- 
rai,. OvSe jap /JLLO, fipwcris rj rwv cnravrcov aXXot [j,ev jap Kara TOi/9 
rpefovrai,, aXXot 8e Kara Ta? djj,vdas' 01% v 
(f)opr)fj,dTc0v, OVK e^o? ev, ov% el? 1/0/405 
ov fjiia KivrjG'is eTTidv/jiLas TWV Trpay/jLarayv' a\X' 
dvdpa)7ra)v /card TTJV iBtav OeXrjcriv aipelrai, eaimo /3tov, TOV 
7r\r)(rlov fJirj yLct/iou/z-ei^o?, 7r\r)v ev ot? /3ouXeTat. To <ydp e\ev9epov 
avrov ov% vTTotceiTat, SouXeta, teal el TTOTC eKtov 8ouXeuo-et, KOI TOVTO 
T/)? e\ev9epias avTov ecrrt, TO Svvaa-Oai, $ov\eveiv eKovTa. Iloaoi 
TCJV dvOpcoTTcov, /cal fjid\i(7Ta T&v \4.\avalwv, co? Ta aypia foSa, 
Kpeoftopovcriv dprov fjbrj jevo/Jievoi, ical ov $td TO fjirj e%ei,v, aXXa Sid 
TO fj,rj 6e\eiv ; ^XXot Kpewv ov yevovrat,, a>? Ta tf/juepa ?wa* aXXot 

/JLOVOV erepoi 8e fyOvcov ov yevovTat,, ov$ av 
Ol fi,ev v$p07roTOvo~iv t ol $e olvoiroTOvaw, ol Se 

Kal aTrXai? 7ro\\rj Siatyopd ftpwjJbaTtov ical irofiaTwv ev 
y dvOpwTTOTTjTi,, ^e^pt, Kal ev TTJ TO>V \a%dva)v Kal oTrwpwv /3pa)(rei, 
*A\\d Kal ol fiev, co? (TKopirioi Kal oo? ao-TT/Se?, ^} 
dSiKovcrLv' ol 8e, w? Ta aXoya fa>a, d&LKovnevot, dfivvov- 
e, co? \VKOI apiraCpvvi, Kal &>? ya\al K\e f jrrov(TLv' 
aXXot 8e a>5 dfjuvd&es Kal fjbrjKaSe^ UTTO TWV 6/juoio7ra6(*)v ekavvovrat,, 
Kal TOU5 dt,KOvvra<s OVK aSt/coOcrt* /cat ol pev \eyovrai dyaOol, ol 

C 



10 BARDESAN 

with righteousness, and some with vice. And if any one should 
say, they have each individually a Nature to do so, let him see 
that it is not so. For there are some who were fornicators and 
drunkards, and when the admonition of good counsels reached 
5 them, they became chaste and temperate, and abandoned the lust 
of their bodies. And there are some who conducted themselves 
with chastity and temperance ; and when they became negligent 
of right admonition, and despised the commands of the Deity, and 
of their instructors, fell from the way of truth, and became forni- 

10 cators and prodigals ; and there are some who repented again 
after their fall ; and fear came upon them, and they returned 
to the truth in which they stood. What, then, is man's Nature ? 
for lo ! all men differ one from another in their conduct, and in 
their desires ; and those who stood in one will and in one counsel 
resemble one another: but those men whose lust is enticing 

15 them up to the present moment, and whose passion governs 
them, desire to attribute whatsoever they do wrong to their 
Creator ; so that they themselves may be found without fault, 
and He who created them may be condemned by a vain plea ; 
and they do not see that Nature has no law, for a man is not blamed 

20 because he is tall in his stature or little, or white or black; 
or because his eyes be large or small ; or for any one of the defects 
of the body : but he is blamed if he steal, or lie, or practise 
deceit, or poisoneth, or curseth, or doeth such things as are like 
these ; for lo ! from hence it is evident, that as to those things 

25 which are not done by our hands, but which we have from 
Nature, we are not indeed condemned by these ; neither by these 
are we justified ; but those things which we do by our own Free- 
will, if they be good, by them we are justified and praised, and if 
they be wicked, by them we are condemned and blamed." 



e Ka/col, ol Be Sl/catoi. f 'O6ev earl voe?v, fJ^rj Trdvra)? Kara 
ayeo'Oai, TOV avOpwirov* (TTOLCLV <ydp avrov epov/j,6v <pvcrt,v ;) d\\a irr^ 
fiev (freperai, Kara fyva-iv, TTTJ Be /card Trpoaipeo-iv. Aw rov 7raivov, 
/cal TOV ^Jroyov, real rrjv Kara^l/c^v e^et eV rot? /card Trpoaipecrw ev 
Se rot? Kara (frixriv e%ei TTJV dveyichrjcrlav ov Kara eXeo?, d\\d /card 
\6yov. 



HOOK OF THE LAWS OF COUNTKIi s. 1 1 

\ ,iin we asked him, and said to him, "There are others who 
say, th.it l>y the decree of Fortune men are governed, at one time 
wickedly, and at another time well." 

He said to us, "I likewise, () Phillip and Baryama, know 
that t he re a re men (9) who are called Chaldeans, and others who love 5 
this knowledge of the art, as I also once loved it ; for it has been 
said by me, in another place, that the soul of man is capable of know- 
ing that which many do not know, and the same men meditate to 
do; and all that they do wrong, and all that they do good, and 
all the things which happen to them in riches and in poverty, and 10 
in sickness and in health, and in defects of the body, it is from the 
influence of those Stars, which are called the Seven, they befal them, 
and they are governed by them. But there are others which say 
the opposite of these things, how that this art is a lie of the Chal- 
deans, or that Fortune does not exist at all, but it is an empty name ; 15 
and all things are placed in the hands of man, great and small : and 
bodily defects and faults happen and befal him by chance. But 
others say that whatsoever a man doeth, he doeth of his own 
will, by the Free-will that has been given to him, and the faults 
and defects and evil things which happen to him, he receiveth as 20 
a punishment from God. But as for myself, in my humble opinion, 
it appeareth to me that these three sects are partly true, and partly 
false. They are true, because men speak after the fashion which 
they see, and because, also, men see how things happen to them, and 
mistake ; because the wisdom of God is richer than they, which 25 
has established the worlds and created man, and has ordained the 
Governors, and has given to all things the power which is suitable 
for each one of them. But I say that God and the Angels, and 
the Powers, and the Governors, and the Elements, and men and 
animals have this power : but all these orders of which t have 30 
spoken have not power given to them in every thing. For he that 
is powerful in every thing is One ; but they have power in some 
things, and in some things they have no power, as I have said : 
that the goodness of God may be seen in. that in which they have 
power, and in that in which they have no power they may know 35 
that they have a Lord. There is, therefore, Fortune, as the Chal- 



12 BARDESAN 

deans say : but that every thing is not in our will is apparent from 
hence that the majority of men have wished to be rich and to 
have power (10) over their fellows, and to be healthy in their bodies, and 
that things should be subject to them as they desire : yet wealth is 
b not found but with few; nor power, except with one here and there; 
nor health of body with all men; neither do those who are 
rich have entire possession of their riches ; nor those who are 
in power have all things obedient to them as they wish : and 
sometimes they are disobedient in a manner which they do 
10 not wish : and at one time the rich are wealthy as they de- 
sire, and at another time they become poor in a manner which 
they do not desire ; and those who are perfectly poor dwell in a 
manner that they do not wish, and live in the world in a manner 
that they do not desire ; and they covet things, and they flee from 
] 5 them. And many beget children, and do not bring them up ; and 
others bring them up, and they do not inherit ; and others inherit, 
and become a disgrace and an affliction : and others are rich as 
they wish, and have ill health as they do not wish; and others are 
healthy as they desire, and are poor as they do not desire. There are 
20 some who have many of the things which they wish, and few of 
those which they do not wish ; and there are some who have many 
of the things which they do not wish, and few of those which they 
do wish : and thus it is found, that riches, and honours, and 
health, and sickness, and children, and various objects of desire, are 
25 placed under Fortune, and are not in our own power. But with 
such as are according as we wish, we are pleased and delighted ; 
and towards such as we do not wish we are drawn by force. And 
from those things which befal us when we do not wish, it is evident, 
also, with respect to those things which we do wish, that it is not 
30 because we wish them that they befal us, but that they happen 
as they do happen ; and with some of them we are pleased and 
with some not. And we men are found to be governed by 
Nature equally, and by Fortune differently, and by our Free-will 
each as he wishes. 

35 "But let us speak now, and shew with respect to Fortune, 
that it has not power over every thing ; for this very thing itself 



HOOK OF THi; LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 13 

which is c;ilk>cl Fortune is an order of procession which is given 
'< the Powers and tin- Klements by God ; and according to tin- 
procession and order, intelligences are changed by tlu-ir coming 
down to he with the soul, and souls are changed hy their coming 
down to be with the body: and this alternation it-elf is called the 5 
Fortune, and the Nativity of HIM assemblage, which is being sifted 
and purified, for the assistance of that which by the favour of God 
and by grace "" has been assisted, and is being assisted, till the con- 
summation of all. The body, therefore, is governed by Nature, the 
soul also suffering with it and perceiving ; and the body is not con- 10 
strained nor assisted by Fortune in all the things which it does 
individually ; for a man does not become a father before fifteen 
years, nor does a woman become a mother before thirteen years. 
And in the same manner, also, there is a law for old age; because 
women become effete from bearing, and men are deprived of the 15 
natural power of begetting; while other animals which are 
also governed by their own Nature, before those ages which I 
have specified, not only procreate, but also become too old to 
procreate, in the same manner as also the bodies of men when 
they are grown old do not procreate ; nor is Fortune able to give 
them children at that time at which the body has not the Nature 
to give them. Neither, again, is Fortune able to preserve the body 
of man in life, without eating and without drinking ; nor even when 
it has meat and drink, to prevent it from dying, for these and many 
other things pertain to Nature itself; but when the times and 20 
manners of Nature are fulfilled, then comes Fortune apparent 
among these, and effecteth things that are distinct one from 
another ; and at one time assists Nature and increases, and at 
another hinders it and hurts ; and from Nature cometh the growth 
and perfection of the body ; but apart from Nature and by Fortune 30 
come sicknesses and defects in the body. From Nature is the 
connexion of males and females, and the pleasure of the both heads; 
but from Fortune comes abomination and a different manner of 
connexion, and all thefilthiness and indecency which men do for the 
cause of connexion through their lust From Nature is birth and 35 
children ; and from Fortune sometimes the children are deformed ; 



1 4 BARDESAN 

and sometimes they are cast away, and sometimes they die untimely. 
From Nature there is a sufficiency in moderation for all bodies ; 
and from Fortune comes the want of food, and affliction of the 
bodies; and thus, again, from the same Fortune 'is gluttony and 
5 extravagance which is not requisite. Nature ordains that old men 
should be judges for the young, and wise for the foolish ; and 
that the valiant should be chiefs over the weak, and the brave 
over the timid. But Fortune causeth that boys should be chiefs 
over the aged, and fools over the wise ; and that in time of war the 
10 weak should govern the valiant, and the timid the brave. (12) And 
know ye distinctly that, whenever Nature is disturbed from its right 
course, its disturbance is from the cause of Fortune, because those 
Heads and Governors, upon whom that alternation is which is 
called Nativity, are in opposition one to the other. And those of 
15 them which are called Eight, they assist Nature, and add to its 
excellency, whenever the procession helps them, and they stand in 
the high places, which are in the sphere, in their own portions ; and 
those which are called Left are evil : and whenever they, too, 
occupy the places of height, they are opposed to Nature, and not 
20 only injure men, but, at different times, also animals, and trees and 
fruits, and the produce of the year, and the fountains of water, and 
every thing that is in the Nature which is under their control. And 
'on account of these divisions and sects which exist among the 
Powers, some men have supposed that the world is governed with- 
25 out any superintendence, because they do not know that these sects 
and divisions and justification and condemnation proceed from that 
influence which is given in Free-will by God, that those actors also 
by the power of themselves may either be justified or condemned : 
as we see that Fortune crushes Nature, so we can also see the Free- 
so will of man repelling and crushing Fortune itself: but not in every 
thing, as also Fortune itself doth not repel Nature in every thing ; 
for it is proper that the three things, Nature and Fortune and Free- 



BOOK OF THE LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 15 

will, should bo maintained in their li\ <- until tin* procession be ac- 
complished, and the measure and numher be fulfilled. U it > <-med 
good before Him who ordained how should he the life and per- 
fection of all creatures, and the state- of all Beings and Natures." 

Avida saith, " That it is not from his Nature a man doeth wrong 5 
I am persuaded by those things which thou hast shewed, and that 
all men are not governed equally. But if thou art also able to 
shew this, that it is not from Fortune and Fate those act 
wrongly who do act wrongly, then it will be right to believe, that 
man holds his own Free-will, and by his Nature is brought near to 10 
those things which be good, and warned from the things which 
are wicked, and on this account he will also justly be judged in 
the last day." 

Bardesan saith, " From this, that men are not equally governed, 
(13) art thou persuaded that it is not from their Nature they act 15 
wrongly ? Therefore the matter constrains thee to believe that nei- 
ther also from their Fortune do they altogether act wrongly, if 
we be able to shew thee that the decree of the Fortunes and the 
Powers does not move all men equally, but we have Free-will in 
ourselves to avoid serving Physical nature and being moved by 20 
the control of the Powers." 

Avida saith, " Prove me this, and I will be convinced by thee, 
and whatever thou shalt charge me I will do." 

Bardesan saith, " Have you read the books of the Chaldeans 
which are in Babylon, in which are written what the stars effect by 25 
their associations at the Nativities of men ? And the books of the 
Egyptians, in which are written all the modes which happen to men?" 

Avida saith, " I have read the books of Chaldeism, but I do not 
know which belong to the Babylonians and which to the Egyptians." 

Bardesan saith, " The doctrine of both countries is the same." 30 

Avida saith, " It is known that it is so." 

Bardesan saith, " Hear now and understand, that it 
is not what the stars decree in their Fortune and in their 
portions, that all men equally do who are in all the earth ; 



16 BARDESAN 

for men have established laws in different places, by that 
Free-will which has been given to them by God. Because the gift 
itself is opposed to that Fortune of the Powers, which assume 
for themselves that which has not been given to them. I will begin 
5 to speak so far as I remember from the east, the head of the 
whole world. 

" The Laws of the Seres. The Seres have laws that they 
should not kill, and not commit fornication, and not worship idols ; 
and in the whole country of the Seres there are no idols, nor 

10 harlots, who killeth a man, nor who is killed ; while they too 
are born at all hours, and upon all days. And Mars the fierce, 
when he is placed in the midst of the heavens, doth not force 
the Free-will of the Seres that a man should shed the blood of his 
neighbour with a weapon of iron. Nor does Venus, when she is 

15 placed with Mars, force any one of the men of the Seres that he 
should have connexion with his neighbour's wife, or with another 



"JV6//-OV? eOevTO Bia<j)6povs ol avOpwiroL eV eKaarr 
Tivas yeypajAfjuevovs, rwas Se dypdfovs' e'f &v SiqytfcrofjLai, o>9 oZ 
/cal &v fjLejjuvrjfjtai, a'p^d/juevos e/c TT)<$ TOV KOO-/JLOV dpxf)$. 

eVrl Trapa 2rjpai,s fjurjSeva (froveveiv, fjuijre Tropveveiv, 
, jurjre ^bava TrpoorKwelv teal ev eicelvr) rfj 
Mpa ov vabv Harw ISelv, ov yvvaitca iropvLKrjv, ov fjboi^aki^a ovo- 
, ov /eXe7TT??z/ e\/c6jjLevov eVt BLKTJV, ov/c av&pocfrovov, ov 
. Ou8ez^o9 yap TO avre^ovcnov rjvdjfcao-ev 6 TOV Trvpi- 
Xa/z-?reo9 "Apeos ao-Trjp peo-ovpavcov avftpa (Ti&rjpq) dve\eiv, ov Kv- 
o~vv "Apei Tv^ovaa d\\OTpta yvvat/cl u^v^r]vai TWO, Trap e/celvois, 
Trda-y ^epa {JbeaovpavovvTOS TOV "Apeos, KOI irdcrr) a>pa /cal 
r)fj<epa yevvco/jbevcov TWV ^ypwv. 

FLapa 'IVSofc teal BaKTpOLS elorl xi\idSes TroXXal TWV Xe- 
fyofjievuv Bpa^dvcov, omi>69 KCLTCU TrapdSocrw TWV Trpoyovwv 
/cal vbfjjfov ovT6 fyovevova-iv, ovTe ^bava creftovTai, ov/c e/ 
yevovTai, ov fjieOvo-KOVTal Trore, oivov KOI criicepos pr) 
ov KaKia Tivl Kowwvova-i Trpoo-e^ovre^ ro5 @6cS, rwz/ aXkwv ' 
<j)ovev6vTO)v 9 /cal eTaipevbvrwv, KOI fiedva/co/jLevow, Kal 
vcov f~6ava, ical iravra cr^eSoz/ Ka6* elp^apfjiev^v (frepo/Aevcov. *E(7Ti 



BOOK, OF TIN: \..\\ 



17 



\\nnuin; l)iit rich. and poor, and nek and healthy, and rulers < 14) 
and subjects, arc- tin-re: because thoe things arc given to the 
noun- of tin- (Jovernors. 

" Laws of the Brahmins which are in India. Again, among the 
Indians, the Urahniins, among whom there are many thousands 5 
and tens of thousands, have a law that they should not kill at all, 
and not revere idols, and not commit fornication, and not eat fi 
and not drink wine; and among them not one of these things 
takes place. And there are thousands of years to these men, lo! 10 
since they govern themselves by this law which they have made 
for themselves. Another Law which is in India. And there is 
another law in India, and in the same Clime, belonging to those, 
which are not of the family of the Brahmins, nor of their doctrine : 
that they should serve idols, and commit fornication, and kill, and 15 
do other abominable things, which do not please the Brahmins. 



Leges sunt in unaquaque regione vel regno ab hominibus positae, 
sive scriptura sive etiam usu diirantes, quas nemo facile transgreditur. 

Denique primi Seres, qui initio orbis terras habitant, legem habent 
neque homicidium neque adulterium neque scortum nosse, neque fur- 
turn committere, neque idola venerari, et in ilia omni regione quae est 
maxima, neque templum invenitur neque simulacrum neque meretrix 
neque adultera,"neque fur ad judicium deducitur, sed neque occisus il>i 
homo fertur aliquando, et tamen nullius libertas arbitrii compulsa est 
secundum vos a stella Martis ignita, ut ferro uteretur ad hominis 
necem, nee Venus cum Marte posita alienura matrimonium compulit 
vitiari, cum utique apud eos per singulos dies Mars medium co3li 
circulum teneat. Sed est apud Seres legum metus vehementior quam 
Genesis constellatio. 

Sunt similiter et apud Bactros in regionibus Indorum immensae 
multittidines Bragmanorum, qui et ipsi ex traditione majorum, moribus 
legibusque concordibus, neque homicidium neque adulterium commit- 
tunt, neque simulacra colunt neque animantia edere in usu habent, 
mmquam inebriantur, nunquam malitiose aliquid gerunt, sed deum 
semper timent ; et quidem haec illi, cum caeteri Indorum et homicidia 
et adulteria committant, et simulacra colant, et inebrientur, atque alia 

D 



Ami m to MHt Ctee of India there art HMD that by caftan 
e*tfe&^</iMfnthefaMiaafin^ 

at &efleh of animal*, Brt the enl *tm hareaotfbreed the 
4**miriAtMi>&', nor hare the good 



* *teftj*fMiadtfd there* of the Hind^x> to alitatn from evil tibio^; 
*0rharedM*e ftar* whieh are well am^rd MI the place* which 
it k proper fcr ftem, and in to ffgn* of Zodiac whirh relate to 
hamaafry, pf vtmnM dboiewho eat the flediofmeii to 



in " Jstut* '/fiht Pertutn*, And, qpun, to Penwam hare made 
lawn fer fhMM|yai that they may take ferwfr thetr iwten^ 
ad^erdati^htey,ai^*efrdai^^ and 

aw fMtt Ait ^> fttrther, and take erea their othen, 
to*tt urn* FrniJBf tome hare ham cattered f and a 
VMia and the eowtoy <A V trite*, and in Egypt, and in 



ft * T# atrrxtUpaTt rfr'IMa* +1*4 nt'lvU*, o'trw* 

4coi rc^rotxr ^Wrf Mi/Mi- tu 
tuufkbtuurt, 



, drr* el tuwwoid fy/v/uurav r 

">"'' I*'*,; 



a*, MM, ** 
" M<vf<w<&, 
v<* afoot* , 

'Bf & ,>\^i 

/ 

i 

tip* 



fyyvrud wpfo* >">uwfoo1i to 

ltd rt iyvMMai torb ffo btyto, 
wo, lUHwMt*, r# irfaw faarufk fo<u t uu 
"KrMtfbui, KM <&r* fHtpffrvr 

, Kui 



v- : ; :-;-: :.-.. - ? ::v>:. ..-> 1 .' 



ia which they an?, they 
law which TO ~*-kK*k-J fa 
sa v that for all the Magi and die rest of 
was pbced with the Mo,*C*>d with Sattra 

while Mars witnessed thein. Andtkm 





* 
ftA* 6fofiL Among the G*Ji die 

reap, and buiki, and perform alT die thiags of 
not wear dresses of colours : nor do they pat on shoes* nor se 
sweet ointments; aMbM does any one blame them when they 
aduhery with strangers, or when they h*Y* 





: et 
et ah exsecxans cibis, qu 

rones et fifias, et sub itto omni axe incesta Persae ineunt 
Ac ne forte ficeat his qui lailaci iai sequuntur uti iUo 
dkninU certas qvtsdaai esse pb^as coefi, quibus pn^pi 
bere conceditur, ex ips* Pefsanun gente afiqwanti ad 
tecti sunt, qui Magv^et >pp*4htutur. ex quibus u^que in 
suit alii in Media, afii in Parthia, sed et in 

Gaktia et Phrrgu qui omnes maeste hujus 
riedinahileni serrant, e po^ens tmatodlMUJi 

m*k 




in fiuflhe et doaiibui Satuni> 
iahe inter Hm>< 



Apud Gekt? quoque mos e^t ut muH 



omne opus Tirik perncmt, sed et nusceri quibu$ Wunt lkt, 
uwnsantur a Tins aut adatane 



20 BARDESAN 

with the slaves of their houses ; but their husbands, the Geli, 
put on garments of colours, and ornament themselves with gold 
and jewels, and anoint themselves with sweet unguents ; nor is it on 
account of effeminacy they conduct themselves so, but on account 
5 of a law which is established among them ; and all the men are 
lovers of hunting, and makers of war : but we cannot say that, 
for all the women of the Geli, Venus was placed in Capricorn, or 
in Aquarius, in a place of ill-luck ; nor for all the Geli is it 
possible for us to say that Mars and Venus were placed in Aries, 
10 where it is written that vigorous and lascivious men are born. 



Tr[\,(t)v dvBpwv Koo-jjiov/jbevav ev opr)iLa<ii /mXa/eofc Kal ev St,a(f>6- 
%p&> jJiacri, real %pvo~o<f)opovvTa)V, teal /juvpi^o/jLevayv' /cal ov Kara 
aXKyv fJidkaKiaVy elcrl jap dvSpeloi, teal TroXe/u/ctwrarcM, KOI 
/cvvrjyeTiKtoTaTOi. Kal ov Traaai al rwv Trfkwv <yvvaLKe<$ e\a%ov ev 
Alyo/cepcort, 77 ev 'TSprj^oy KaKoSai/JLOVOvo'av TTJV Kvirpiv* ov& ol 
t avbpes avT&v irdvres e^ovcnv ev Kpux> avv "Apeu rrjv Hafyirjv, evBa 
TOL/9 av&pelovs /cal crTraraXoi;? ol Xa\$atovTes \eyovo-i,. 
ITapa Bd/crpoi? al yvvai/ces itawri KOCT/JLO) Sia^epovrL fcal Travrl fivpw 
L, VTrriperovfJuevai VTTO TraiSla-Kcov /cal veaviaicwv jjia\\ov rj ol 
' TTpoep^o/jLevai fjuera 7ro\\rj<; fyavrao-ias efaTTTro 

%pvcr(p /cal \idoi<$ jSapvTijJiOiS TOU? tTrvrou?. Kal ov 
<f)povov(Ti,v, a)OC d8ta(f)6pci}<i KOIVCOVOVCTI rot? SouXot? Kal rot? 
a&ctav eypvcrai, roiavTTjv, /cal VTTO TWV dvbpwv fjurj ey/ca\ovjjLevai, 
o-%e$bv Kvpievovcnv avrcov. Kal ov Travrco^ ev irdcrrj yevecrei, rwv ev 
Bafcrpla yvvaifcwv jjueaovpavel /tera Aio<$ Kal "Apeos ev IOLOI,? opois 
r) (j)i\6ye\(i)$ 'AtypoSiTi], 

'Ev $e TTJ Apa/3lq, Kal rfj 'Oaporjvf}, ov JJLOVOV al fjLo^a\lBe<^ <povev- 
ovrai, d\\a Kal al vTroTrrevo/jbevai OVK dtylevrai, dri^copTjroi,. 

Tlapa Hdpdois Kal 'Appevlois ol (froveis dvaipovvrat,, Trore fiev VTTO 
oiKaar&v, TTore 8e VTTO rcov Ka(? alfjua TWV (frovevOevrcov. Kal edv 
(f>ovevcrr) yvvalKa avrov, r) d$e\(j)bv areKVOV, rj dSe\(f>r}v d^afjiov, 
vibv, TJ dv^arepa, OVK eyKa\LTaL VTTO TWOS, vojjiov TOLOVTOV VTT- 
ev rat? ^pais eKeivaw irap ff E\\rjcn Be Kal ( Pcofjuaioi? 
ia vTro/BdXkovrai olrwv oiKetcov Kal avyyevcov fovevral. 



BOOK OF TIIK LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 21 

" The Lazvs of the Bactrians. Amount the IJaetrians, which 
are called Casliani, the women adorn tliem-eKrs with the goodly 
raiment of the men, and with much gold and goodly jewels ; and 
their male and female slaves minister to them more than to their 
hnshaiids; and they ride horses ; and so me ad. >rn themselves with 5 
vestments of gold and with precious stones. And the>e women do 
not observe chastity, l>ut have connexion with their slaves, and 
with stra Hirers which come to that country, ami their hnshands do 
not blame them ; and they have no fear, because the Casliani 
esteem their wives as mistresses; but we cannot say that, for 10 
all the Bactrian women, Venus is placed, and Mars, and Jupiter, 
in the mansion of Mars in the midst of the heavens, where women 
that are rich, and adulterers, and keep under their husbands in 
every thing, are born. 

" The Laws of the flacami, and of the Edesseans, and the 15 
Arabians. Amongst the Racami, and the Edesseans, and the 
Arabians, not only is she that committeth adultery put to death, 
but she also, that has the name of adultery against her, has capital 
punishment. 

miscent et praecipue cum hospitibus, unguenta nesciunt, non induuntur 
veste fucata, non calceis ; e contra viri Gelonum ornantur, pectuntur, 
indumentis mollibus et variis induuntur, auro compositi unguentisque 
delibuti, et haec non pro dissolutione virium, sunt enim bellicosissimi et 
venatores acerrimi : nee tamen universae Gelonum mulieres, in Ca- 
praecornu aut Aquario cacodsemonem Venerem nascentes habuere, 
neque viri eorum in Ariete cum Marte Venerem positam, per quod 
schema effeminates et dissolutos nasci adserit viros Chaldaica dis- 
ciplina. 

Porro vero in Susis mulieres unguentis et quidem optimis utuntur, 
ornamentis comtae ex lapidibus preciosis, ministeriis quoque ancillarum 
fultae procedunt multo majore ambitione quam viri, nee tamen pudici- 
tiam colunt, sed indifferens eis cum quibuscunque voluerint usus est 
et servis et hospitibus, tali licentia a viris permissa ; et non solum non 
culpantur pro hoc, sed et dominantur in viros. Nee tamen omnium 
Genesis mulierum Susidarum in medietate cceli cum Jove et Marte 
Venerem in Jovis domibus habent. 



22 BARDESAN 

"The Laws in Hatra. There is a law established in Hatra that 
whosoever committeth the small crime of a theft even of little value 
should be stoned. Amongst the Cashani, whoso committed such 
a theft as this, they spit in his face. Amongst the Romans, whoso 
5 committeth a little theft is scourged and dismissed. On the other 
side the Euphrates, and towards the East, he who is reviled 
either as a thief or as a murderer, does not feel very angry ; but if 
a man be reviled as an arsenocoete, he then avenges himself even 
to the putting to death. 

10 " Laws of (16) * boys * and are not 

Again, in all the country of the East, those who have been in- 
sulted, and are known, their fathers and their brothers kill them, 
and oftentimes they do not even make known their graves. 

15 " Laws of the Orientals. But in the north, and in the country of 
the Germans, and those that are near to them, such boys among 
them as are handsome become as wives to the men, and they 



'Ev 'Arpois 6 K\e7TT(DV Tt, 6/3o\ov a%iov \iQaCeTai' irapa 
BaKTpois 6 oXf/yo. /c\e7rra)v ejATTTverai, Trapd 'PwfJMioiQ 7r\7]<yai$ 
auclferw TOLOVTOL jap ol vofJboi. 'ATTO Ev^pdrov Trora/toO, KOL 
pe^pi, TOV ^flKeavov, <o? enrl az/aroXa?, 6 XotSopou//,ez>o? &>? (frovevs, rj 
ft)? /eXeTTT???, ov TTCLVV dyava/crei' 6 Se ft)? dpaevoKoirri^ \oiSopov- 
{L6vo$, eavrbv e/cBifceL f^e^pL /col (f)6vov. 

Hap "E\\r](Ti, Se KOI ol crofol epay/juevovs e^o^Te? ov tyeyovrai,. 'Ev 
rfj avrf) dvaro\fj v/3pi6fjuevoi, lav ryvwcrOwa-iv, VTTO dSe\<f)a)v, f) ira- 
repcov Kal crvyyevcov (povevovrai,, /cal ra^? 7rpo^\ov ov/c dgiovvrcu. 

Hapa oe PaXXofc? ol viou fya/jLovvrai yu-era 7rappr)(ria$, ov tyoyov 
TOVTO rjfyovjjLevoi Sia rbv Trap 1 avrols vopov. Kal ov Svvarov eari Trdv- 
ra? TOU? ev TaXXta oyra)? d0ea)$ vftpi^ofjbkvovs \a^elv ev rai? ^e^ecrecrt 
$(i)cr<f)6pov //-e#' 'Ep/jLov, ev oiKQis Kpovov Kal opioi^'Apeo^^vvovra. 

'Ev Bperravla TroXXol avSpes [liav <yvvaltca %ovcri,v' ev Se rfj 
Hapdiq, TroXXat <yvvalice<; eva avbpa, Kal Traaai, o-co^povovo-L TreiOo- 
avro) Kara TOV VO/JLOV. 

At 8e 'A/jba6ve$ Trdcrat, avSpa? OVK expvaiv, aXX' &)? rd d\oya 
aira% TOV erou? Trepl rr)v eapivrjv larnjuepiav virepfiaivovo-ai 

TOU? tSiOU? 0/90U? KOlVWVOVO~l, TOt? 



BOOK OF Till: LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 



have also iiiamair* 1 -!' 1 :!^ : and tins is not considered by them as a 
disgrace, n>r MS a reproach, on account of a law which they have: 
but it is not possible that all those that an- in (iallia, who are 
disgraced by this c I i>- race, should have at their nativity Mercury 
placed for them with Venus, in the mansion of Saturn, and in the 5 
limits of Mars, and in the signs of the Zodiac at the west l*<>r 
respecting those men who have their nativity thus, it is written 
that they are disgraced as women. 

" Laws of the Britons. Amongst the Britons many men take 
one wife. 10 

" Laws of the Parthians. And amongst the Parthians one man 
takes many wives, and all of these are obedient to his command 
in chastity, on account of a law which is established there in the 
country. 

" Laws of theAmazons. As to the Amazons, all of them, the en- 15 
tire nation, have no husbands, but, like beasts, once in the year, at 
the season of spring, they go out from their coasts, and pass the 
river, and when they are over they make a great festival on the 
mountain, and the men from those quarters come, and abide with them 
fourteen days, and have intercourse with them, and they become 20 
pregnant by them, and then pass again to their own country ; and 
at the time of birth such as are males, they expose, and bring up the 



In ulterioribus Orientis partibus, si puer muliebri se substernat 
injuriae, cum agnitum fuerit, a fratribus aut parentibus vel quibuslibet 
proximis interficitur, nee sepultura donatur. 

Et rursus apud Gallos lex prisca constituit nuptum tradi publice 
pueros, nee opprobrium ex hoc aliquod duci ; et numquid possibile est, 
ut omnes qui tarn turpiter succumbunt apud Gallos, Luciferum 
cum Mercuric in domibus Saturni et finibus Martis habuerint ? 

In Britanniae partibus plures viri unam habent uxorem, in Parthia 
multae mulieres unum habent virum, et utraque orbis pars moribus 
suis atque institutis obsequitur. 

Amazones omnes non habent viros, sed sicut animalia semel in anno 
circa vernale aequinoctium proprios egressae terminos, finitimae gentis 
viris miscentur, solennitatem quandam per hoc observantes, ex quibus 
cum conceperint redeunt, et si marem pepererint abjiciunt, feminas 



24 BARDESAN 

females: and it is a known thing, that according as Nature or- 
dains, because they all become pregnant in one month, they also 
are delivered in one month, a little more and a- little less ; and 
as we have heard, all of them are vigorous and warlike : but not 

5 one of the stars is able to help all those males, which are born, 
from being exposed." 

" Book of the Chaldeans. It is written in the Book of the 
Chaldeans, that whenever Mercury is placed with Venus in the 
mansion of Mercury, it produceth painters and sculptors, and 

10 money-changers ; but when they are in the mansion of Venus, 
they produce perfumers, and dancers, and singers, and poets. 
And in all the country of the Tayites and of the Saracens, (17 > and 
in Upper Lybia, and amongst the Mauritanians, and in the country 
of the Nomades, which is at the mouth of the ocean, and in outer 

15 Germania, and in Upper Sarmatia, and in Hispania, and in all 

rjyov/Jbevoi,?' e% wv o-vXXa/jL/Bdvovo-ai, vTroarpefyovcri, Kal dvay- 
Katcos ev evl /ccupat aTroKvtaKovai, Kara rov TTJS </>vcre&>9 vopov, Kal 
TOW pev <yevvwfJievov<$ appevas piTrrovcn, ra9 Se 6rjXeia<$ avarpefyovac 

re elcru, Kal yvfjuvacrlcov 7rpovoov/j,evai,. 

fjs /jbera *A<f)po$irr)<; ev O'IKOL^ 'Epfjiov Troiel 7r\dcrra^, Kal 
%oyypd<povs, Kal rpaTreftra?' ev ot/cot? Se 'A(f)po$LT7]$ fjuvpe^jrovs, 
7) (f>a)vd(TKovs Kal vTTOKpiras TroLrj/jLarayv. Kal Trapa Talvols 
Kal 3apaK7]vols, Kal ev rfj avwrepa Aiftvy, Kal irapa Mavpow, 
Kal irapa rot? irapa TO arofjua rov *fi,Keavov No^do-i,, Kal ev ry 
e^wrepa Pepfjiavla, Kal ev rfj avwrepq ^apfjiaria, Kal ev rfj %Kv0ia, 
Kal ev Traai roZ? ef ^ApKnK&v fjuepwv rov Tlovrov edveai, Kal o\rj rfj 
y A\avla, Kal *A\jBaviq, Kal 'flriyvfi Kal ^avvia, Kal ev Xpvcrfj, OVK 
ecrriv ISelv ov rpaTretyryv, ov TrKdarrjv, ov faypdfov, OVK 
Krova, ov yeco/Jierprjv, ov (jxvvaaKOv, ov% VTTOKpirrjV Troiqfjidrcov, 
earep^rai 6 r^9 rov 'Ep/Jiov Kal T% 'A^poStrvis evepyeias rpovros ev 
6\o) T&> Ki>K\q> rovrq* rfj? olKovpevrjs. Ol MfjSoi, irdvres rot? pera 
<j7roi>&}5 rpe^ojJLevoi^ Kval rovs veKpovs en epirveovras 7rapa/3d\- 
\ovat,' Kal ov rcavres <rvv rf) Mijvrj rov "Apea ecf) rj/Aepivfy yeveaews 
ev KapKLvq) viro yfjv e^ovcnv. 'IvSol rovs veKpovs Kalovat, fieO' wv 
. o-vyKalovaiv eKOvaas ra9 yvvaiKas' Kal ov STJTTOV iraaai at Kaiope- 
vai %<t)(rat, 'IvBwv <yvvalKe<$ e^ovaiv VITO yrjv 7rl WKrepivfjs <yeve<rew$ 



BOOK OF Till- LAWS OF COUNTRIES. L 

the countries which are to the north ofPontus, and in all the 
country of the Alanians mid amount the Albanians, and amoi 
tin- Za/i, and in IJnisa which is l)c\<.nd the I)iiro, one seeth not 
either sculptors, nor painters, nor perfumers, nor in*., 
changers, HOT poets, I>ut this decree of Mercury and \Ynus is j 
inhibited from thedzCOmferaBOOof tin- whole world. In the whole 
of Media, all men when they die, even while life is -till re- 
mainino- ] ri them, are cast to the dogs, and the dogs eat the 
dead of the whole of Media; but we cannot say that all the 
Medians are l,,,ni while the Moon is placed for them with Mars in 10 
Cancer during the day below the Earth: for thus it is written 
that those whom the dogs eat are born. The Hindoos, all of 
them when they die are burnt with fire, and many of their wives 
are burnt with them alive; but we cannot say, that all those 
women of the Hindoos which are burnt had at their nativity \:> 
Mars and the Sun placed in Leo in the night below the Earth, 
as those men are born which are burnt with fire. All the Germans 



nutriunt. Cumque unius temporis sit omnium partus, absurdum est, ut 
in maribus quidem putetur Mars cum Saturno in tempore aequis esse 
portionibus, in feminarum vero Genesi nunquam. 

Sed neque Mercurium cum Venere habuisse in domibus pro- 
priis positum, ut vel pictores ibi vel sculptores vel trapezitas 
efficiat, aut in domibus Veneris, ut unguentarios vel vocales vel 
poetas producat. Apud Sarracenos et superiores Libes et Mauros et 
circa ora maris Oceani habitantes, sed et in extremis Germanise 
partibus et apud Sarmatas et Scythas atque omnes quas sub axe 
septentrionis jacent Pontici littoris gentes, et in Chrysea insula, 
nunquam invenitur trapezita, nee sculptor, aut pictor, aut archi- 
tectus, aut geometres, aut tragoedus, aut poeta; ergo deficit apud 
eos Mercurii Venerisque constellatio. Ex omni orbe terrarum 
Medi tantummodo summa observantia adhuc spirantes homines 
canibus devorandos abjiciunt, et non ob hoc Martem cum Luna 
per diurnam Genesim in Cancro positos habent. Indi mortuo* 
suos incendunt, cum quibus et uxores defunctorum sponte se offe- 
rentes exuruntur. Sed non ideo omnes quae vivas incenduntur Indo- 
rum mulieres, in nocturna Genesi sub terra habent Solem cum Marte 

E 



26 BABDESAN 

die by suffocation, except those which are killed in battle ; and it 
is not possible that at the nativity of all the Germans the Moon and 
Hora should have been placed between Mars and Saturn. But, in 
all places, every day and at all hours, men are born in nativities 

5 which are distinct one from the other, and the laws of men over- 
come the Decree, and they govern themselves according to their 
customs ; and Fortune does not compel the Seres to kill at all when 
they do not wish ; nor the Brahmins to eat flesh ; nor restrain 
the Persians from marrying their daughters and their sisters; 

10 nor the Hindoos from being burnt ; nor the Medians from being 
devoured by dogs ; nor the Parthians from taking many wives ; 
nor the Britons from many men taking one wife; nor the 

avv "Apet, Tov"H\iov ev Aeovn optois 'Apeos. Teppavwv ol TrXetcrrot 
cuyyovifJiaiw fiopa) dTroOvr/GKOvcn, Kal ov irdwrws TO TrXrjdos TWV 
TepfjbavMV TTJV aeXijvrjv /cal rrjv wpav fjuecroiXa^ovfjievas VTTO Kpovov 
/cal "Apeos e%ei. Ilavrl eOvei, Kal Ttdcrrj rjfiepa Kal Travrl TOTTW rrjs 
<yevecreci)<; yevvwvrai dvOpwrroi' Kparel Be ev eKao-rrj fiolpa rwv dv- 
vofJios Kal eOos Sta TO avre^ovcnov rov dvOpaiTrov Kal OVK 
i TI yevecris TOU? ^/m? fJ^rj 6e\ovras faveveiv, rj TOU? 
B pa%jiiava<; Kpeotyayelv, rj TOU? Tlepaa^ dOe/jblra)^ fj,rj ^a^etv, r) rot>5 
r) KaiecrOai, rj rou? MijSov 9 fj,r) eadiecrOat, VTTO KWWV, rj 
IldpOovs IJLTJ TroXiryayLtet^, ^7 ra? ev rfj MeaoTrorafjila ryvvaLKa? 
a)(f)poveLV, rj rov<; ff E\\'r)va / $ pr] <yvjj,vdeo-0ai, <yv/Jivol$ rot? <ra> 
, rj rov? 'Pcofjialov 9 pr) Kparetv, rj rov? Td\\ov<; /JLTJ <yafj,eio-0at,, 
r) rd a\\a /3dp/3apa eOvrj rais VTTO TWV r E\\rjvcov \e<yojj,evat,<; Mov- 
OYM9 KOLVcovelv aXX,', ft>9 TrpoelTrov, eKacrrov eOvos Kal eVa<7T09 TWV 
dv0pc*)7ra)v ^prjrai rfj eavrov eXevOepta, co9 /3ov\erat Kal ore /3ov\e- 
rai, Kal $ov\evei, rfj yeveo-ei, Kal rrj <pv(rei, SL TJV TrepiKeirai adpKa, 
7T7) fjLev co9 fioiiXerai, Trfj Se co9 fJbrj fiovKerai. Ilavra^fj yap Kal 
ev Travrl eOvet, elcrl TrXoixrioi Kal 7re^T69, Kal ap%ovTe<; Kal dp%6- 
Kal eppcopevoi, Kal voo-ovvres, eKaaros Kara rov$ r 



avTov 

Tavra, w Bapfya-dvr), aKpws 97^9 TreTre^e, (pijfu avrw. Ol 
Be dorrpovo/jLOt, fyaal rrjv <yfjv Tavrrjv fjL/jLepicr0ai, els eTrrd K\L- 
, Kal ap^ew eKaarov K\i(j,aro<i eva rwv eTrrd da-repajv Kal 






OF '1 i OF COUNTRIES. 27 

IM e><< -a us i'rom heing chaste; nor tin- < In-rks from pra -vm- 

uastics *; nor the Romaic from alwa\s .^ei/in<: tij.on coun- 

tries; nor the Gauls from marr\ in- < me for another; nor com train 
the Amazons to brin^ up t lie males ; neither does the Nativity com- 
pel any at the circumference of the world to DM : " the art of the 5 
Muses; but as 1 have said, in every country, and in every nation, all 
men use the Free-will of their Nature as they wish, and do service 
to Fortune and to Nature, on account of the body with which they 
are clad, at one time as they wish, at another as they do not 
wish; tor in every country and in every nation there are rich 10 
and poor, and rulers and subjects, and healthy and sick, each of 
them, according as Fortune and Nativity has reached him. 

I say to him, " Thou has convinced us of these things, Father 
Bardesan, a"nd we know that they are true. But thou art aware 
that the Chaldeans say, that the Earth is divided into seven por- 15 
tions, which are called Climes ; and over these same portions those 
Seven Stars have authority, each one over one of them ; and in 



in partibus Martis. Germanorum plurimi laqueo vitam finiunt, nee 
idcirco omnes Lunam cum Hora, Saturno et Marte circumcinctas 
habent. Sed non in omni gente, et in omni die per omnem diversita- 
tem Genesis nascuntur homines ? Ex quibus omnibus apparet, quia 
metus legum in unaquaque regione dominatur, et arbitrii libertas quse 
est hominibus insita per spiritum, obtemperat legibus, nee cogere 
potest Genesis aut Seres homicidium committere, aut Bragmanos car- 
riibus vesci, aut Persas incesta vitare, vel Indos non exuri, aut Medos 
non a canibus devorari, Parthos non habere plures uxores, aut mu- 
lieres Mesopotamia non servare pudicitiam, Graecos non exerceri 
palffistris, Gallorum pueros non pati muliebria, vel gentes barbaras 
Graecorum studiis institui, sed ut diximus, unaquaeque gens suis legi- 
bus utitur pro libertatis arbitrio, et decreta Genesis legum severitate 
depeUit. 

Sed dicet aliquis eorum qui in disciplina mathesis eruditi sunt, 
Genesim in septem partes dirimi, quae illi climata appellant, dominarl 
vero unicuique climati imam ex septem stellis, et istas quas exposui- 
uius diversas leges non ab hominibus positas, sed ab istis prineipttas 



28 BARDESAN 

each one of those same places the will of its Power prevails ; 
and this is called Law." 

He said to me, " Know first, my son Phillip, that for the pur- 
pose of deceit the Chaldeans have invented this saying: For 

5 although the earth be divided into seven portions, neverthe- 
less, in each one of the same portions there are found many 
laws which differ one from the other. For there are not found 
in the world seven laws according to the number of the Seven 
Stars ; nor twelve according to the number of the Signs of the 

10 Zodiac; nor also thirty-six according to the number of the 
Decani : but there are many laws in each kingdom, and in each 
country, and in each circuit, and in every habitation, which are 
different from their neighbours. For ye remember what I said 
to you, that in one Clime of the Hindoos there are men that do 

15 not eat the flesh of animals, and there are others that eat the 



Tot9 Si,a<j)6pov<> VOf4OVS fir) TOU9 dv0pco7rovs TeOeiKevai eavrotf, aXX' 
6fcd(7TOv ap'XpVTos trXeovd^ew TO Qe\r)jjua ev rfj Zoiq %a>pcc, ov vopov 
vevo/jULKaaiv ol Kparov/juevoi. 

'ATre/cplvaro. OVK akyOris r) cuiroKpHJis avrij, w ^iXtTTTre. El 
ydp teal SiTjprjrai, r/ ol/cov/JLevrj & pepr) evrra, aXX' ovv ye ev 

a fjieplBi, evplor/co/jiev TroXXa? Siafopas vo^v. OvSe jap eTrra 
elal Kara TOV<$ eTrra d&Tepas, ov$e ScoSe/ca /card rd fa)- 
Sta, ouSe Tpia/covTae!; /card rovs eKavov<$, aXka fjivpioi. MVTJ- 
poveveiv re o^etXere wv Trpoeljrov, on, Kal ev evl K\lfjLan KOI ev 
fjiia %ft>/)ct TWV 'IvSwv ela-iv dvOpcoTrocfrdyoi, 'IVSot, Kai elonv ol efj,- 
-fyv-)(u>v aTrexofjievoi,, Kal ort, ol Mayovcraioi, OVK ev IlepcrlSi, jjuovy ra? 
Ovyarepas ja/jLOvaiv, aXXa Kal ev iravrl eOvei, OTTOV dv ol/crjcrcocri,, 

TOU9 TO)V TTpOJOVCOV (j)V\d(7(7OVT^ VO/JLOV? Kal TCOV ^VCTTrjpiwV aVTCOV 

ra? reXera?. '^4XXa Kal TroXXa ftdpfjapa eOvrj KareXegajjiev, rd re 
ovTa ev /jbecrr)iLt,/3pLa, Kal Svcrei,, Kal dvaroXfj, Kal apKrq), Tovrea-nv ev 
,7j fiere^ovra 'Ep^aiKrj^ eVtcrTT;^?. ITocrot, 
avbpes Traptfyayov TOV? ^a/cw? Keifjuevovs VO/JLOVS ; 
Ilocroi, Be vofjbot, VTTO Trjs diropias Kare^vOrjcrav ; Ilocroi, ySatrtXet? 
Kparr)cravTe<; eOvwv, Traprjyayov rou? irpo avr&v VOJJLOVS, Kal eOevro 
TOU? 18 lovs ; Kal oi>oel$ TCOV dorTepwv aTrwXecre TO iSiov K\ifJia. 



BOOK OF THE LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 



29 



flesh (.{' men. And a^ain, I told you respecting the Persians and the 
Main, that it was not in the Clime of Persia only they have taken 
for wives their daughters and their i.ut in every country 

to which they have gone, th.-y ha\v used the hr.v of their fathers, 
;tnd observed the mysteries of what tln-vdelivnvd to tln-m. And 5 
iigain, remember that there are many people I told you, which sur- 
round all the world, that are not in one Clime, but in all the winds, 
and in all the Climes ; and they have not the art which Mercury 
and Venus give when they are in configuration one with the other. 
And if the laws pertained to the Climes this could not be ; but it is 10 
known, because those men are distant from the intercourse of 
men they are many in the manners of their living. (19) How many 
wise men, think ye, have abrogated from their own countries those 
laws which seemed to them not to be well made ? And how 
many laws are there which have been broken on account of 15 
necessity? And how many kings are there, who, having taken those 
countries which did not belong to them, have abrogated the laws of 
their establishing, and instituted such laws as they desired? 



secundum uniuscujusque voluntatem ; et hoc quod stellae visum est, 
legem ab hominibus observatam. 

Ad liaec ergo respondebimus, quod primo quidem non est in 
septem partes orbis terras divisus, turn deinde et si ita esset, in 
una parte et in una regione invenimus multas differentias legum, 
et ideo neque septem sunt secundum numerum Stellarum, neque 
duodecim secundum numerum Signorum, neque triginta et sex se- 
cundum numerum Decanorum, sed sunt innumerae. Meminisse 
autem debemus eorum quae supra enumerata sunt, quod in una 
Indiae regione sunt et qui hominum carnibus vescantur, et sunt 
qui etiam a pecudibus vel avibus omnibusque animantibus abstineant, 
et quia Magusoei non solum in Perside matres ac filias accipiunt in 
matrimonium, sed et in omni gente ubicunque habitaverint, malorum 
suorum incesta instituta custodiunt. Turn praeterea et innumeras 
gentes memoravimus, quae penitus studia nesciunt literarum. Sed et 
aliquanti sapientes viri ipsas leges in nonnullis commutaverunt locis, 
aliae vero etiam sponte pro sui vel impossibilitate vel inhonestate dere- 
lictae sunt. Certe quod in promptu est noscere, quanti imperatore> 



30 BARDESAN 

And whenever these things took place, no one of the Stars was 
able to preserve the law. But this is at hand for you to see ; be- 
cause but as yesterday the Romans took Arabia, and abrogated all 
their ancient laws ; and more especially that circumcision with 
5 which they circumcised. For he that has the power in himself 
obeyeth such law as is ordained for him by another, who also is 
possessed of the power of himself. But I will tell you what 
may avail more than any thing to persuade the foolish, and those 
lacking of faith. All the Jews, who have received the law at the 

10 hand of Moses, circumcise their male children on the eighth day, 
and do not wait for the coming of the Stars; neither cto they re- 
spect the law of the country ; nor does the Star, which has autho- 
rity in the Clime, govern them by force ; but whether they be in 
Edom, or in Arabia, or in Greece, or in Persia, or in the North, 

15 or in the South, they fulfil this law which was established for 
them by their fathers ; and it is known that this which they do 
is not from Nativity, for it is not possible that Mars should rise 
for all the Jews on the eighth day when they are circumcised, so 
that steel should pass over them, and their blood be shed. And 



X069 ol 'Poj/jLcuoi, 7779 *Apa/3la<; Kparrjcravres rovs rwv ftap/Sdpwv 
vbfjiovs rjXXaaz>* eirerai, yap TO avre^ovcnov TO) avre^ovcriw. To 
Se Swd/Jievov Trela-ai /cat rou9 airicnovs eKOijcropai, vfj,iv. 'lovSaioi, 
ol Sia Ma>crea>9 $edfjievoi vofjuov rou9 yevvcojLievovs appevas 
eV ro5 078077 rj/Aepa al/jbdo-o-ovat TrepiTefAvovres, OVK acrrepo<; 
irapovo-lav dvafAevovres, ov K\lfJLaro<$ l^ovaiav ^rpeTro/juevoi, ovy 
VTTO VO^OD aXXorpfta? X^P^ ayo/Aevoi,' aXV elre ev 2vpia Twy%d- 
vova-iVy elre ev Ta\\ia, eire ev 'IraX/a, elre ev f E\\d8t,,' rj ev Tlapdia 
rj OTTOV av wcri, rovro TTOLOVO-LV. "Oirep OVK ecrrt Kara ryevecriv, ov 
yap Svvavrai, trdvres, 'louSatot fjilav yeveaiv e^ecv. 'A\\a KOLI Si 
Tjjjbepwv eTTTa Trdvres OTTOV av waiv, apyovcriv etc iravTos epjov, /cal 
ovre oSevovaiv, ovre Trvpl %pwvrai' ovre dvay/cd^ei, r) yevea^ 'Joy- 
Saiov, ov Krlaat ol/cov, ov /caraXOam, OVK epyd<ra<r0ai,, ov Tr&jX^crat, 
OVK a<yopaom Tat9 rj/Jiepais rov aa/B/Bdrov, Kal TOL ev Ty avrfj ^epa 
<yevvct)VTO)V ^lovSalcov Kal yevvcof^evcov, Kal voaovvrcov Kal airoOvr]- 
CTKOVTWV. Tavra yap OVK vri eVrt rov avTe%ovo~LOv. 'Ev rfj 



BOOK OF Till, i ! 

all of them, wherever they arc, abstain from IT whipping idolfl : and 
one day in seven they and their children al.stain from all work, 
and from all building and from all travelling, and {'nun having 
fid selling; neither do they kill an animal on the sabbath-day, 
nor kindle fire, nor judge a cause ; and there is not found amongst 5 
tin MM a man whom Fortune commands that on the Sabbath day he 
should either go to law and gain his cause, or go to law and lose it, 
or should pull down or build up, or do any one of those tiling 
which all such men as have not received this law do. They have 
also other things, in which they are not governed like the 10 
rest of mankind, while on this same day they both beget, and 
are horn, and fall sick, and die, for these things are not (20) in the 
power of man. In Syria and in Edessa men used to cut off their 
foreskins to Tharatha : but when Abgar the king was converted 



gentium quas vicerant leges et institute mutarunt, et'suis eas legibus sub- 
jecerunt. Quod evidenter a Romanis factum docetur, qui omnem paene 
orbem omnesque nationes propriis primo et variis legibus institutisque 
viventes, in Romanorum ius et civilia scita verterunt. Superest ergo ut 
et stellae gentium, quae a Romanis victae sunt, climata sua partesque per- 
diderint. Addam adhuc rem,quae possit etiamvalde incredulis satisfacere. 
Judaei omnes qui sub lege Mo ysi vivunt, filios suos octava die absque 
ulla dilatione circumcidunt, et infantis teneri sanguinem fundunt ; a 
saeculo autem nullus ex gentibus hoc die octava perpessus est, et 
e contra Judaeorum nullus omisit. Quomodo ergo in hoc ratio Genesis 
stabit ? cum per cunctas orbis terras partes omnes Judaei admixti gen- 
tibus vivant, et octava ferrum perferant die unius in membri loco, et 
nemo gentilium, sed ipsi soli ut dixi, hoc faciunt, non stella cogente 
nee perfusione sanguinis perurgente, sed lege religionis adducti, et in 
quocimque orbis loco fuerint, hoc est eis insigne vernaculum. Sed et 
quod unum nomen omnibus inest ubicunque merint, ntimquid et hoc 
perGenesimvenit? et quod nunquam apudeos infans natus exponitur, 
et quodseptimo quoque die omnes, ubicunque ftierint, otium gerunt, nee 
iter incedunt nee igni utimtur ? Quid est ergo, quod nullum Judaeo- 
rum in ilia die cogit Genesis aut iter agere, aut aedificare, aut vendere 
aliquid, aut emere ? 



32 BARDESAN 

to Christianity, he commanded that every one that cut off his 
foreskin should have his hand cut off. And from that day, and 
up to this hour, no man cutteth off his foreskin in the country of 
Edessa. What, then, shall we say respecting the new race of 
5 ourselves who are Christians, whom in every country and in every 
region the Messiah established at His coming ; for, lo ! wherever 
we be, all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah 
Christians ; and upon one day, which is the first of the week, we 
assemble ourselves together, and on the appointed days we abstain 
10 from food. Neither do the Brethren which are in Gallia take 



KOI ev TV 'Oo-porjvfj, aTre/coTrrovro 7ro\\ol rf} r Pea, teal ev TQVTW 
poTrfj 6 ftaa-Ckevs "AjSyapos e/ceXevae TWV aTroKOTTTO/jievcov ra aloola 
teal ra? %e2pas, teal etc Tore ovbels aTre/co^aro ev rfj 
f). TL Se epovpev Trepl 1-779 TCOV Xpicmavwv alpiaews, 979 
?7yitet9 ol $o%a(TTal 7ro\\ol oWe? teal ev $ia(f)6poi,<; dve 
a w, ev iravrl eOvei, teal tcXl/ian,, olrw&i TroXXol ovres, evl ovo 
Keic\r)iJ,e6a; Kal ovre ol ev Uapdia Xpianavol TrdXisya/jLovcn, Tldp- 
BOL VTrdpxpVTes, ovO* ol ev Mrfia tcval irapa^aXkovcn rov? ve- 
Kpov<;' ofy ol ev HepGibi, ^a^ovdi ra? Qvyarepas avrwv, Uepcrai, 
oWe?, ov Trapa Bdtcrpois teal PaXXot? <j)9eipovcri, rou? rydfjiovs' ovy 
ol ev AlyvTTTG) dprjdKevovcri rbv "ATTLV rj rbv tevva TJ rov rpdyov fj 
alXovpov' d\\ J OTTOV elalv, ovre VTTO rwv /eatews teeiftevcov vofMcov 
Kal edwv viKwvrai, ovO 1 Y] VTTO rwv dp^wv TrpVTavevofJLevrj <yeve(7is 
avrovs dvayted^et, rot? aTreiprj/Aevoi? teateois VTTO rov Laa-ied\ov 
avrwv xprjo-0ai, vocra) Se, teal Trevla Kal Trddecn, /eal rat? VO/M&- 
lievais anglais vTroteeivrai,. "fla-irep yap 6 \ev0epo? rf/jicov dvdpcoTro^ 
$ov\eveiv ovtc dvajKa^erai,, teav dvaytcacrOf), dvdicrraraL rot? dvay- 
KaCpVGiv, ovrcos ov$e 6 <f>aiv6fj,evo<; rjfjb&v SoOXo? avOpcoTros rrjs VTTO- 
rayfjs etefavyeiv paSlws Bvvarai. El yap Trdvra eSvvdpeQa, 97/^9 
av rjpev TO nav, werre el prfiev ebwdpeOa, a\\cov rjpev, 0)9 Trpoel- 
TTOV, opyava teal ou% eavrwv. eov S' eTTivevcravTos Trdvra Swara 
Kal dvefjLTTo&io-Ta' rfi yap eKelvov Pov\rjaei, ov&ev dvTMTTfjvai, Svva- 
rat. Kal yap ra BoKovvra dvOlo-racrOai, avrov f xpr]crTov OVTOS, /eal 
avyxcopovvTOs etedarrj <f>vaei e^euv rrjv l&ioTrjra Kal TO 
TOV 0e\r)fjiaTOS, d 



BOOK OF TIIK LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 

males for \vi\v<; nor thoM- whirl) an- in Parthia tak' ives; 

nor those which are in .Judca circumcise them-clv.- : nor do 
our sisters which are amongst tin- (Ji-li and amount tin* Ca- 
shani have connexion with strangers; nor do tho^r \\hich are 
in Persia take their daughters for wives ; nor tho-e who are in 5 
Media fly from their dead, or bury them alive, or give them for 
food to the dogs; nor do those who are in I ill their 

wives that commit fornication, or their -inters, hut withdraw 
themselves from them, and commit them to the judgment of God. 
Nor do those who are in Hatra stone the thieves. But where- 10 
ever they be, and in whatever place that they are, the laws of the 
countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah ; 
neither does the Fortune of the Governers compel them to make use 
of things which are impure to them ; but sickness and health, and 
riches and poverty this which does not appertain to their Free- is 
will, befals them wherever they are. For as the Free-will of men is 
not governed by the necessity of the Seven, and whenever it is go- 
verned it is able to stand against its influences, so also is this visible 
man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his 
Governers, for he is a slave and a subject. For if we were able to do 20 
every thing we should be everything ; and if nothing came within 
the reach of our hands to do, we should be the instruments of others. 
But whenever God pleaseth, all things are possible to be, without 
hindrance. For there is nothing which can hinder that great and 

Quin imo et majorem fidem rerum prsesentium dabo. Ecce enim 
ex adventu justi et veri prophetee vixdum septem anni sunt, in quibus 
ex omnibus gentibus convienientes homines ad Judaeam, et signis ac 
virtutibus quae viderant, sed et doctrinae maiestate, permoti, ubi recepe- 
runt fidem ejus, abeuntes ad regiones suas, illicitos quosque gentiliuin 
ritus et incesta sprevere conjugia. Denique apud Parthos, sicut nobis 
Thomas qui apud illos evangelium praedicat, scripsit, non multi jam 
erga plurima matrimonia diffundimtur, nee multi apud Medos canibus 
objiciunt mortuos suos, neque Persae matrum conjugiis aut filiarum 
incestis matrimoniis delectantur, nee mulieres Susides licita ducunt 
adulteria ; nee potuit ad crimina Genesis compellere, quos religionis 
doctrina prohibehat. 

F 



34 BARDESAN 

holy will. For even such as think that they stand against Him, it is 
not in strength they stand, but in evil and in error ; and this may 
subsist a short time, because He is kind, and permitteth all Na- 
tures (21) that they should stand in what they are, and be governed by 
their own will, but being bound nevertheless by the deeds which are 
5 done, and by the plans which have been devised for their help. 
For this order and government which have been given, and 
association of one with another, softens down the force of the Na- 
tures, that they should not be altogether injurious, nor be altoge- 
ther injured, as they were injuring and injured before the creation 

10 of the world. And there will be a time, when also this injury 
which remaineth in them shall be brought to an end by the in- 
struction which will be in another association. And at the 
establishment of that new world, all evil motions will cease, and 
all rebellions will be brought to an end, and the foolish will be 

15 persuaded, and deficiencies will be filled up, and there will be peace 
and safety, by the gift of Him who is the Lord of all Natures. 

HERE ENDETH THE BOOK OF THE LAWS OF COUNTRIES. 



CJ1SAEII, 

FRATRIS GREGORII THEOLOGI 
DlALOGTJS II. 



TT)? vfterepas dyiwcrvvrjs \eyew JJLOL 7nTpe7rov<Tvj$, evrevOev TOV 

\oyov ap%o/JLcu, ov \vfj,r)vao-6cu TOW? irapovras, oXX' airoOeadai 

rrjv \vfjL7)v /3ov\6fj,6vo<;. avriica <yovv "ApTjs /cevrpov \a/3a)v, oiKt^ 

20 OLKW etc rerpaycbvov eTriOecop&v Kpbvov crvv 'EpfMrj enl /cevrpov, 



avrov 



KT\6i aV$pO(f)6vOVS KOI KTiVO/JL6VOV<}, 7T&)/-tft)Ta<?, KOL 

s, \d<yvovs, &uyu,oixw.vra9, fJLvar'rjplcDV ajroKpvcfxov 
Ovras, KOI ra TOVTOL? dtcoXovOa, c^aiperws 



A 1,1 1 DIALOG. II. 35 

wv d&repwv eTriOecapovvTos. avTOS 8e TrdXiv "Apr^s 

fllJLa TTpdy<i)VOV, pOlplKW Tfl KeVTpOV fJ,rj 

povros TWOS dyaOoTToiov, /Ltot^oy? aTroreXei, aeX<at<? ical 
piyvvuevovs. KvTTpis crvv Mi'jvrj ev opiois Kal OIKOIS Kpovov, vvv 
Kpovy, eTTiuapTvpovvTos TOV ttpeos, aTroreXei yvvaitcas yea)pyov<; 5 
teal olfcoSo/jLOvs, Kal TrdvTtov dvSpeiwv epywv 
KowovaBai Kal crvvKaOevbew ol<t 8' av /3ov\ot,vro, Kal prj 
VTTO TCOV olKia)v dvSpwv. dvSpelovs ovv aTToreXel yvvaiKa^ ev 'Avyo- 
Kepw,' TSpoxoq), KaKo8aifj,ovas ev 'A^poSirrj, GTT dvp<av Be rovvavriov 
avv "A pel oi>aa, ev Kpup. oOev ov-% olov re </>o/3ft) f) TWOS aTreiXfj rj 10 
eVtcr^;e?j/ ra? einOvpias Sui TTJV TWV a&Tpcw d 



TCOVV Trjs J E\\ijv(0v TrXdvrjs TOVS fjivO 

. avOts ovv Kaya> OappaXea)? a7ro8ucro/zat irpbs TO, VTTO aov 
prfdevra, Kal crfavSovrj rj Tota TO> \6yco ^pcoyLtei/o?, KaBeTKai Treipd- 
(7o/j,ai "A pea Kal 'A(j>poBiTr)v TOVS rjueTepovs daTepas, OTTCOS fioi 
d&TpOKTovids yevecrLV 67rt^)77^/cr^9. TrpoTepov Se d^LO) Trai&euOrjvat ere, 15 
olov T V7rdp%eiv, TOV j3ov\6fj,evov, ra? eVt^uyata? Kal evepyeias T) 
Ko\det,v, 77 7ravTe\a)<i dirocreiecrdai,. <re{o) &e eK TOV (rvveiSoTos 
, Kal l^vrj^rf TOV dK\ivov$ KpiTrjptov, TWV Ka\cov elpyo- 
. d\\a Kal ol TWV dp^ovTcov VOJJLOI, oloi re Trpb TTJS ireipas TWV 
o-Tpe(3\coT7]pi(i)v, Kal TnjrydvoDV, Kal KaTa7re\TCDV, TTJ aKofj Kal /JLOVTJ -20 
TWV <f)o/3epa)v T7J9 KaKias dvra/jLetyeci)*;, crw^povrjo-ai TIJV aKo 
Kal d/jLp\vvai, Trjv o-typiywa-av aKfjLrjv TTJ? i/eor^ro?, ev eKaa-Trj 
eyypd(f)0)s rf dypd^&s vTrdpftovres Trap* rjfuv re Kal eQveaiv ev TOIS 
fjuev TO <ypd/j,fjia, ev TOIS Se r; <ruvtj0eia. 

Nouos <ydp dvofAOis TO, irdrpia SoKei' a>v TTpwTOi 2i)pe<; ol TO 25 
aKpov Trjs ^epGov oiKovvTes, vofjbou e^ovTes TO 7raTpa>ov e9os, fiij 
eraipi^eaOai, firjo'e o~v\av, f^rj ^lOL^adOai^ fjurj odvoi<? TrpoaKweiv, 
rj TTOTVLaadai &aluo(Ti, fjurjo" 1 oXa>5 ev avrols inrdp'^eiv eiScoXov, 7; 
eralpav, rj /iot^aXtSa, ov cruXcor?;^, ov (frovea, ov \a)7roBvTrjv Kal 
ojJLcos ovSevbs TO avTe%ova-iov rjvdyKacrev 6 TOV KaTa ve 7rvpi\a/j,- 30 
TTOI;? "Apeos do-Tijp. ov$e eftidcraTb Tiva avrwv (pa&ydvqy TOV TreXa? 
dvaipeiv, T) \i6<p Trara^af OVK 'A<f>po$lTrjs avv "Apet, eTreio-ev avroix; 
e7rtXuTT/)<7at rr} yvvat,Kl TOV yefoovos' TravijfjLepivov 



36 BARDESAN 

TOV "Apeos, teal o/49 lor^vpoTepo^ r?)? dvdyKrjs TWV acrTpwv Trapa 
^ripffiv o 7rar/ot09 ^o/io?. 

JVo//,09 Be teal Trapa Ba/crpiavols ijroi Bpaypavois, r) IK irpoyovcov 
TraiBela, prj /meOveiv, fj,r)Be d^v^cov dTroyeveaOai,, OVK OLVOV avrXoO rj 
5 vodov /juerexew, ebv TOV epov BeBoiKOTa?' Kairoi TWV 
avTols'IvB&v luaityovovvTtoV, KOI olvo<p\oyovvrc0v, teal pov 
TI CTVWV Slfcrjv OrfKvfJiovovvTwv, ical rat TrdBet, Kpa&aivopevwv* ev 8e rot 
is K\ifJbacrt,v evSorepo) T&V e/ceicre 'IvSwv, %6vo/3opoi, 

TOU9 7nj\v$as avaipovvres lo-Oiovai, KOI ovSels 
10 dya007TOLO)v cunepcov r^9 ^lai^ovia^ avTovs aTrcoadrjvai, 



'Erepo? v6fj,os Xa\Salot$ re /cal Ba/BvXcoviois f^rjrpojafjLeLV Kal 
a&e\$>o$6opelv, Kal ra?9 crtycov iraidiv eTTifjualvecrBai,, K 
el Kal TTOppco r?}9 evejKafJLevijs yevwvrai, Kal rot9 o-(j)wv 

15 vocals, (fravepws Kal \e\rj66T(o<; St,aKe\evofji,6voi,' ef &v 
pe^pi Kal vvv V7rdp%ov(7iv, ev M?jSot9 Kal Ildpdo^ Kal 
Kal AlyvTTTiois, ev <&pvj;l Kal Pa\arai9, ev TLO~I Kco/jb 
Kal ovSeTra) KvTrpis avv Mrfvy ev oplois Kal O'LKO^ Kpovov, e7ri/j,ap- 
Tvpovvros TOV "Apeos, ev rafc TTCLVTWV avT&v yeveo-eo-iv evpla-Keo-Qai 

20 Oiare. 

@are/909 Be Trapa Trj\ais 1/0/109* yvvaiKas fyeaypyelv Kal OLKO- 
Sopeiv, Kal TO, dvBpcov TrpaTTew aXXa Kal KOivcovelv ot9 S' av 
fiovXovTai, T(ov eTrrjKvBcov, OVK eTriTi/JLto/jLevai VTTO TWV 
dvSpwv, ovSe fyjXov/jievai,. ov /jLvplfyvTai Be, ovBe (JZVKLOW TVJV 

25 voOevovTai,, cr^wv irapeia^ eTrixpcavvvaai, #a$a>9 al Trap' 
vTToBvvovcrat, Trpoa-coTrelov. ol Be avBpe? (TTi/Sd 
jJia\aKy Kal dvQo/3d(f)G) TrepifioXfj. VTrdpxpvo'i 8' ev avrais 
Kal TroXe/u/ftwrarat, Kal Orjpovcrai TO, ^ \iav lo-^ypa TUV Orjplcov. 
7TW9 ovv Traa-ai, al Tr)\wv yvvaLKes OVK e\a%ov 'Aiyo 

30 KaKaBai/j,ovov(n, Ty KvTrp&i,; OVT avTrakiv ol avBpe? avT&v 
ev Kpiw (rvv "Apei TTJV 'A^poBlrrjv, ev0a TOVS dvBpelov? Kal 
Xou9 <f>aalv ol Ty jvcDfjirj Xa\Baioi; 

'Ev Be ^OVGOIS T7}9 Ba{3v\a)vos al yvvaiKes iravTi /jivpa) Bia<f>e- 
povTL t Kal Kocrfjio) j^pcovTai, vTri]peTOVjj,vai, Kal cfraiBpws Trpol'ovcrai 

35 (ri>v /3\w(TVpLa, Kal Biaxycret, TroXXj* Tracrt Be 'E\\r)(ri,v a8eca9 re 
Kal dvaiBws orvyKaOevBov&iv, ap^ovaat, fiaXXov TWV OLKelcDV dvBpwv. 



CJESARII DIALOG. II. 37 



Kal ov Trdvrws ev *ird<rr) yeveaet TWV SovaiBayv yvvaiKwv 
pavel pera Jw>9 Kal "Apeos ev Jto9 0/3019 17 ' 'AQpo&LTij. 

'Ev Be TTJ 'Ea)a ol dppevo^dopovvre^ ol irapa Xpiamavols, lav 
yvcoo-Owcriv V7TO TO)V Ofuii/jLtov dfaiBax; TLfiwpovvTai. 

*Ev BpeTTavla TrXetoTot avBpes pia avyKadevSova-i ywai/ct' 5 
a)(ravT(i)s teal yro\\al ryvvalices evl eraipL^ovrai, dvSpL 

Kal Traa-L rot? irarpioi^ ra edvrj &(nrep vopu* (rroiyovcnv dSdi 



Be avBpas OVK expvcriv aXV a>9 ra a\oya fwa, a?raf 
roO eroy? irepl rrjv eapivLtcrjv l<Tr}/j,piav virepopioi, ylvovrat,, fjii(ry6/j,e- 10 
vai rot? fyeiTvi.wcriv dvSpd&iv, olov Travrpyvpiv rwa, Kal eoprrjv rov 
Kaipbv rfjs erai.pelas fyov/jLevai. e'f wv Kara ya&rpbs <t>epov<rai t 
7ra\t,v8po/jbov(TLV OiKaSe aaa iraaai,. rc3 Be Kaipw rr 
rbv jj,ev appeva (frOeipovai,, TO Be 6f)\v a)oyovovo-t, Kal 
tV^e\w9. aroTTOv Be Tnarevcrai eirl JJLCV TTJ rcov dppevwv <rjropa 15 
"A pea fiera Kpovov eirl T^? wpa? foopolfMtQ rv^elv eirl Be rov 
6)j\ea)<; ovBeTTore. Kal TTW? ev rc5 avra) vv%0T)/jLep(p Trdvrcov ev rat? 
KaTa/3\rj6evTO)v, Kal ofjuov ira\iv a>? ex /Ata? vrjBvo? 
, ra jj,ev Bia^delperai, TOV apa rov @LOV yevcraa-Oat,, 
Kal VTTO T0)v fjLiairfrovcov Oavarovfjueva Trpb TOV (nraa-at, yd\a, ff 20 
(j)o)V7jv, ra Be faoyoveiTat, Kal TrepieireTat, ev rot? dvouois 
ra KaKa evaKaipovra ; 7r&)9 ev ravra> Kaipw al Trap 1 rjfilv 
Kal o-vXka^dvova-ai Kal dTTOKvovaat, irXela-rat,, Kal BITO- 
Kovorac d/ji(f)a) ra /3pe<f>r) Trepiiroiovvrat,, fj,7]Bev inro r<t>v darpwv 
jBia^o^evai BiatydetpeLv, rj rut eBdfai Trpoo-apdrreiv, Kal rfj <yfj irpocr- 25 
ava\veiv, &>9 ^Apa^oves TO, Befaaia' d\\d TOV crfytov av%eva Tr)<i 
eKeivwv o-fayrjs irpovire^ovcra^, eavrds [laXkov f) TCU inroTiTda TOV 



El Be Kal 'Ep/jLrjs, W9 <are, yLtera J A(f)poBiTr)<; ev OIKOIS IBlois e 
Te\el 7rXttcrra9, faypd^ovs, Kep^aTLcr-rd^y ev OIKOIS Be 'A<f>poBiTr)s, 30 
vs, (fxnvdcrKovs, vTroKpLTas, TroiTjTas' Trapd Be 'HfXetbt? Kal 

LS Kal rot9 ev Ty dvcoTepa Aifivrj Kal Mavpois /fara 
Kal o%9a<; TOV 'flKeavov Trora/ioO oitcov(ri t Kal ev ry 
La, Kal ev TTJ dvwTepa 2ap/j,aTia, Kal ev +Kv6ia y Kal ev 
Tot9 e^coTt/cot9 Repeal, TOV Ilovrov eOvecriv, ov% olov re evpelv KO\\V- ;;;, 
f, rj 7r\do-TT)v, rj foypdfov, OVK dpxiTetcrova, ov 



38 BARDESAN 

ov% vTTOKpiTrjv TroirjjjidTcov, 0)5 Trap 1 rj/julv' Bid TI 'Ep/jirjs Kal *A<j)po- 
S/TT? ov Trapea-'Xpv, /car 1 eviavTov iiriTvyziv ^evv(t>^ivu> Tofc e/c\et- 
irovo'L 'Trap' avTols eTTiTrjBev/jLacrt, ; 

MfjBoi, Be TrdvTe? pera aTrovBrjs ert e/jLTrveovras TOT)? KauvovTas 
5 Kvoi fiopdv TTpoTiQeacnv dvaXyiJTays ; crvv rfj Mrjvy, co? (pare, TOV 
"Apea eVt 97/^6^41^75 yeveo-ea)? ev Kap/clvq) MrjBot, e\a^ov ; 

TOV5 vercpovs eavT&v Te<ppo7rolovcn irvpi' [ted* &v Kara<p- 
l TLVWV ra? crv/j,/3lovs. Kal ovSrJTrov Tracrai, al 
yvvalKes, ^7 al ffia-ai,, e\a%ov VTTO TT}? vvtcrepivrj? 
10 o-eo)? TWZ> ryovecov avv "Apei, TOV f/ H\iov, ev vv/crl pr) <f>alvovra ev 



MV ol irXelovs d<y%6vy TO f)v d/j,ei/3ovTat,' /cal ov 
TO 7T\rj0o<; Tep/JLavwv Trjv He\ijvrjv /cal TTJV wpav ^e 
VTTO Kpovov ical "Apeo<$ e^ovcnv. aXX' el rrravTl edvei rj^epai fipo- 
15 rofc yevwvTai,, ov KpeiTTOves rj ^e[pove<; KaTa a&Tpcov crv/ji7r\oKr)v, 



ev 



KpaTel, e wv TO avTe^ovcriov Kal TO eft f][uv TO, rrpaiCTea vira 

a irdvTes. ov <yap o7a re 77 Ka& v 

dvaKelv, rj B pajyAavas Kpeco/Sopeiv Kal criKepOTTOTelv, rj 
20 Hipa'as fj,r) ^Tpo^afjuelvj Kal d$e\<j)0(f)()opelv ) 77 'IvBovs pr) Trvpl 
SlSovat, TOV5 veKpovs, rj Mrj^ovs /J,TJ Kvcrl TOV5 Ovrjgo/Jievovs TrpOTi- 
Oevai, rj IldpOovs /J,rj Tro\v^afJbelv ) TJ TOVS MeaoTTOTajLLiTas (Jirj 
aKpa)$ crcocfrpovelv, rj e E\\rfvas fjirj aw^aaKelaOai, rj TO, /3dp/3apa 
Wvr, r<xt5 vfi r E\\rjV(0v Trpoa-ayapevo^eva^ Kowcovelv dX)C o>5 
25 TTpoetyrjv, KacrTOS /SpOTciov ^prfTai TT} TOV VO/JLOV e\ev0epla, TCL e'/c 
TWV dorTpcov fJbvOovp^ov^eva Ka0* f E\\r)vas 7rapa7Tfj,7r6/jLevos, TO> 
IK TWV vofAtov Beet,, rj TO) e^ Wvovs eOei, iraTpito TWV cj)av\a)v elpyo- 
al fjiev <yap TWV dpeT&v vTrdp^pvcn irpoaipeTiKal, al Be ire.pi- 

vdyKr) eVt TO KpeLTTOV '^WpOVVTO'S TOV fyjTOVJjieVOV V7TO 
30 TO)V VOjJbWV. 

II evens pi. 

*A\\* eiTTa OVTCOV Ty yevea-ei, r)jj,a)V dvaKeipevwv daTepcov, 6t5 

eTTTa \eyojjiev K\l^aTa Trjv <yrjv Siaipela-Oai, Kal dp^eadai eKaaTOv 

K\lfjia vfi evos TWV dcrTepwv, Kal irpos eKelvcov a-v^TrKoKa^ d<yeor6ai,, 

Kal diroTekelo-Qai TOW dp^ofjuevovs' oirep vopov Tives TTJV TOV 

35 do~Tpov evepjetav 



' .1.-AUII DIAI.OJi. II. 



Kal TTW? el eTrra^w? Siaipeirat, 17 oiKovpevrj, ev pia fiepLOi, rro\- 
Kal Sia(f)6pov<f VO/JLOVS evpio~Ko^ev ; ical ovre errra fMovov Kara 
TOI? dcrrepas, ovre 61? ef Kara rovs faScKovs, ov& av rrd\iv rpid- 
Kovra ef Kara TOU? SeKavovs, a\Xa /jLvpiot, f^vrj^ovivovrai, VOJJLOI, rra- 
\ai a/jii(f)0eirr<f, Kal vvv vTrdpxpvres. TTW? Se eV ravrut rfiijfjLan 5 
TOU9 dv0pa)7ro/36pov<; 'Ii/8ou?, /cat rou? efju^v^v Kal Solves arrcur^ 
drre'XpiJLevovs Bpa^alov^ oiKovvras opw^ev; TTW? 8e ot eV BafivXcovi, 
orrot, & av yivowrai, rfj /-ua^a/ua rwv Q^ai^wv rrapoivovaL ; TTW? 
5' eV ere/jet) r/jLrjfjLart, ovres oi 2K\av7jvol Kal QvacDvlrai, ol Kal 
Aavovftioi rrpoaa^opevofjievoi, ol /j,ev t yvvaiKOfj,acrro/3opov<riv ^Sew?, 10 
St,a TO 7rerr\rjpfy)cr0ai> rov ydXa/cros, fjLv&v SIKTJV rou? vrrorLrOovs 
rat? Trer/xit? errapdrrovrer ol Se Kal rfjs I/O/U/IT?? Kal dScafiXtfrov 
Kp6a)j3opta<} drri'xpvrai ; Kal ol /JLCV vrcap^pvaiv avOdSeis, avrovo/jLoi,, 
dinjyefiovevroi, o-u^e^w? avaipovvres, avveo-6i6p,evoi TJ <Tvvo$evovre<;, 
r&v cr<f)(*)v rjjefjLova Kal ap'xpvra, a\jtorreKa<$ Kal ra? eVSpuyu-ou? 15 
Ararra? Kal /JLOVIOVS eadiovres, Kal ry \V/JLO)V wpvyr) acfxis rrpoaKa- 
\ovjjuevoi,' ol Se Kal do'Srjcfrayias arre'xpvrai, Kal ra> rv^ovrt, vrro- 
rarrofJievoL Kal vrreiKOvres ; 

Kal TroXv? 6 \07O9 rrepl AoyyopdpScov Kal Nopcov Kal TdXkwv 
rwv 'EaTTepuav rwv 'EppaiKris Kal KpoviKrjs dfjioipovvrcw emo-rrjfnjf; 20 
r&v ao-rpcov. rrb(rot PaaiXeis Kal ap^ovres rrapijyayov TOU? KaK&s 
Kei/juevovs v6fj,ovs, avrol TO SOKOVV vofioOerovvres ; rj av rrd\tv rov$ 
Kpetrrovas ol eviavrioi aTrvcravro, vrf ovbevos rwv aarpwv rrpbs ra 
aipedevra elpybfievoi ; ev Be fyavai ^ovKofiai, o Kal rS)v arclcrrtov 
rrdvrayv dTroppd^fret, ra (rrojjiara, 'lovSalot, rrdvres rov Sea Meocrea)? 25 
VO/JLOV, rrav appev \OJLKOV avrols yiv6fj,vov rrj 678077 
ire/AVOvres alfjidrrovo'iv. drrrb 8e TOI) alwvos, ov&els r E\- 
\TIVWV TI Xpia-riavwv rrepiro^v e&ej-aro. irXeicrrcov 'lov&at&v Kal 
f E\\r}VO)V Kal Xpio-riavuv Kara TOU? at-Tou? prjva? Kal e/3o/wa<? 
Kal rjfjuepas Kal wpa? yevci)f^eva)v y "Apys, r) 'Ep/Arjs, fj KvTTpis, rj 6 30 
o? f E\\r)vwv fjLvOos, evbs KVK\OV /j,7rpLe)(pvro<; ra Trdvra, Kal 
vrrb dcrrepajv fiia^o/jievov. ov yap rrdvres *E\\ijv<;, r) 'loy- 
Saiot,, fj Xpicrriavol ev rfj avry r)^epa r) wpa ev rjj firjrpqia icare- 
vrjSv'i, ou8' av rrd\iv Trdvres apa drreKvr)6ijo-av TTOK ovv 



40 BAIIDESAN. 

ol TrXeto-rot avTWV Xpia-ra) avveOevTO, rrjv ira-rpwav dpvrjcrdpevoi 
7T\dvr]v, fJbr] la-'xycravTOS rov ap r )(pVTOS acrre/309 TT}? ^epcralov 
rauavTovs TTOO? 6eocre/3et,av ; 



Bardesan, a man of antiquity, and renowned for the knowledge 

5 of events, has written in a treatise composed by him touching the 
synods of the heavenly luminaries with one another, saying 
thus : Two circuits of Saturn are 60 years ; 5 circuits of Jupiter 
60 years ; 40 circuits of Mars 60 years ; 60 circuits of the Sun 
60 years ; 72 circuits of Yenus 60 years ; 150 circuits of Mer- 

10 cury 60 years; 720 circuits of the moon 60 years; and this 
is one synod of them all, that is to say, the time of one 
synod of them ; so that hence it appears, that for 100 of such 
synods there would be six thousand years, in this manner: 
200 circuits of Saturn 6 thousand years ; 500 circuits of Jupiter 

15 6 thousand years ; 4 thousand circuits of Mars 6 thousand years; 
six thousand circuits of the Sun six thousand years; 7 thousand 
and 200 circuits of Venus 6 thousand years ; 12 thousand circuits 
of Mercury 6 thousand years ; 72 thousand circuits of the Moon 
6 thousand years : and Bardesan made these calculations when 

20 he was desirous of shewing that this world would stand only six 
thousand years. 



41 



AN ORATION OF MELITON TIIK PHILOSOPHER; 

WHO WAS IN THE PRESENCE OF ANTONINUS (LESAR, AND 
BADE THE SAME C^SAR KNOW GOD, AND SHEWED HIM Till 
WAT OF TRUTH; AND HE BEGAN SPEAKING AFTER THIS 
MANNER : 

MELITO saith : It is not an easy matter readily to bring into the 
right way that man who has been a long time pre-occupied by 
error. But nevertheless it is possible to be done ; for when a man 
has been turned from error a little, the mention of the truth is 
acceptable to him ; for in the same manner as, when the cloud 5 
has been broken a little, there is fine weather, so also a man, too, 
when he is turned towards God, the thick cloud of error which 
hindered him from the true vision, is quickly removed from his 
face. For error, like passion and sleep, holdeth for a long time 
those who alight under it ; but truth, using the word as a stimulus, 10 
and smiting such as are asleep, also awaketh them ; and when 
they are awake, seeing the truth, they also understand, and hearing, 
they also distinguish that which exists from that which doth not 
exist. For there are men that call wickedness righteousness, and 15 
so then they suppose that this is righteousness when a man shall 
be in error together with the many. But I say that this is not a 
good excuse, that a man be in error with the many : for if one 
only act foolishly his folly is great ; how much greater, then, 
must the folly be when the many are foolish together ? 20 

But the folly of which I speak is this, if a man should leave 
that which really exists, and serve that which really does not exist : 
but there is that which really exists, and is called God, and He 
really exists, and by His power every thing subsists ; and This 
same was not made, nor yet brought into being, but cxi-t 
from eternity, and will exist for ever and ever. He undergoes no 
change, while all things are changed. No sight is able to be- 
hold Him; nor understanding able to comprehend Him, nor 

G 



42 MELITON 

words to describe Him ; and those who love Him (23) call him after 
this manner Father and God of Truth. 

And if, therefore, a man abandon the light, and say that 
there is another God, it is found from his own words that 
5 he calleth some created thing God. For if a man call fire God, 
it is not God, because it is fire ; and if a man call the waters 
Gods, they are not God, because they are waters ; and if this 
earth which we tread upon, and if those heavens which are seen 
by us, and if the sun, or the moon, or one of those stars which 

10 run their course by ordinance and rest not, nor proceed by their 
own will, and if a man call gold and silver Gods ; are not these 
things that we use as we please ? And if that wood which we burn, 
and if those stones which we break how then are these Gods ? 
for, lo ! they are for the use of men. How will not they be found 

15 in great sin, who change the great God by their word into those 
things which stand by ordinance so far as they do stand ? 

But I say nevertheless, that so long as a man not having heard, 
neither discerneth nor understands that there is a Lord over 
these creatures, perhaps he is not to be blamed, because no one 

20 blameth the blind when he walketh badly. For in the same 
manner also men, while they were seeking after God, stumbled 
against stones and stocks ; and such of them as were rich, stum- 
bled against gold and silver, and by their stumbling were 
kept back from that which they were seeking after. But now 

25 that a voice has been heard in all the earth that there is a God 
of truth, and an eye has been given to every man to see withal, they 
are without excuse who are influenced by a feeling of shame towards 
the many with whom they have been in error, but otherwise 
desire to walk in the right way. For those who are ashamed to 

30 be saved, necessity compels them to die. On this account I 
counsel them that they open their eyes and see ; for, lo ! light 
without envy is given to all of us, that we may see thereby ; 
and if, when light hath arisen upon us, any one closeth his eyes 
that he may not see, his course is to the ditch. For why is a 

35 man influenced by feelings of shame towards those who have been 
in error together with himself? Rather it behoveth him to per- 



ORATION TO ANTONINUS (M&AR. 43 

suade them to follow in his steps, and if they be not persuaded 
by him, he should save himself from amongst them. For there are 
some men who are not able to raise themselves up from their mother 
earth : for this cause, also, they make for themselves Gods from the 
earth their mother. (24) And they are condemned by the judgments 5 
of truth, because they affix that name which is unchangeable to 
those things which subject to change, and fear not to designate 
as Gods that which has been made by the hands of man ; and 
dare to make an image for God whom they have not seen. 

But I affirm that also the Sybil has said respecting them, that it 10 
is the images of kings, who are dead, they worship. And this is 
easy to understand ; for, lo ! even now they worship and honour 
the images of those belonging to the Caesars, more than those 
former Gods : for from those their former Gods, both tribute and 
produce are paid to Caesar as to one, who is greater than they. 15 
And on this account those are slain who despise them, and dimi- 
nish the revenue of Caesar. For also to the treasury of other kings 
in various places it is appointed how much the worshippers supply, 
and how many sacks full of water from the sea. And this is the 
wickedness of the world, of such as worship and fear that which 20 
hath no perception ; and many of those who are cunning, either 
for the sake of profit, or on account of vain-glory, or for the sake 
of swaying the many, both worship themselves, and instigate the 
deficient in understanding to worship that which hath no per- 
ception. 25 

But I, according as I know, will write and shew how and for 
what causes images were made for kings and tyrants, and they 
became as gods. The people of Argos made images for Hercules, 
because he was one of their own citizens and was brave, and 
slew by his valour noisome beasts, and more especially because 30 
they were afraid of him, for he was violent, and carried away 
the wives of many, for his lust was great, like that of Zuradi the 
Persian, his friend. 

Again, the people of Acte worshipped Dionysius, a king, because 
he originally introduced the vine into their country. 35 

The Egyptians worshipped Joseph, a Hebrew, who was called 



44 MEIATON 

Serapis, because he supplied them with sustenance in the years 
of famine. 

The Athenians worshipped Athene, the daughter of Zeus, king of 
the island of Crete, because she built the citadel Athens, and made 
5 Ericthippus (Ericthonius) her son king there, whom she had 
by adultery with Hephaestus, a smith, the son of a wife of her 
father ; and she always was making companionship with Her- 
cules, because he was her brother on her father's side. For Zeus 
'the king fell in love with Alcmene, the wife of Electryon, who 

10 was from Argos, and committed adultery with her, and she gave 
birth to Hercules/ 25 ^ 

The people of Phoenicia worshipped Balthi, queen of Cyprus, 
because she fell in love with Tamuz, son of Cuthar, king of 
the Phoenicians, and left her own kingdom, and came and dwelt 

15 in Gebal, a fortress of the Phoenicians, and at the same time she 
made all the Cyprians subject to the king Cuthar : for before 
Tamuz she had been in love with Ares, and committed adul- 
tery with him, and Hephaestus her husband caught her, and was 
jealous over her, and came and slew Tamuz in Mount Leba- 

20 non, while he was hunting wild boars; and from that time Balthi 
remained in Gebal, and she died in the city Aphaca, where 
Tamuz was buried. 

The Elamites worshipped Nuh, daughter of the King of Elam. 
When the enemy had taken her captive, her father made for her 

25 an image and a temple in Shushan, a palace which is in Elam. 

The Syrians worshipped Athi a Hadibite, who sent the 
daughter of Belat, who was skilled in medicine, and she cured 
Simi, daughter of Hadad, king of Syria ; and after a time, when 
the leprosy attacked Hadad himself, Athi entreated Elishah, the 

so Hebrew, and he came and cured him of his leprosy. 

The people of Mesopotamia also worshipped Cuthbi, a Hebrew 
woman, because she delivered Bacru, the patrician of Edessa, 
from his enemies. 

But touching Nebo, which is in Mabug, why should I write to 

35 you ; for, lo ! all the priests which are in Mabug know that it is 
the image of Orpheus, a Thracian Magus. And Hadran is the 



ORATION TO ANTONINUS CJiSAK. 45 

of Zaradusht, a Persian Magus, because both of these 
Magi practised Maoism to a well which is in a wood in Mabug, 
in which was an unclean spirit, and it committed violence and 
attacked the passage of every one who was passing by in all that 
place in which now the fortress of Mabug is located ; and these 5 
same Magi charged Simi, the daughter of Hadad, that she should 
draw water from the sea, and cast it into the well, in order that 
the spirit should not come up and commit injury, according to 
that which was a mystery in their Magism. And in like manner, 
also, the rest of mankind made images of their kings, and wor- 10 
shipped them, of which I will not write further. 

But thou, a free intelligence and cognizant of the truth, if thou 
wilt consider these things, enter into thyself; and if they clothe 
thee in the fashion of a woman, remember that thou art a man, and 
be a believer in Him who really is God, and to Him open thy 15 
mind, and to Him commit thyself, and He is able to give thee ever- 
lasting life, which dieth not ; (26) for every thing cometh through 
His hands : and all other things so let them be esteemed by thee as 
they are, images as images, sculptures as sculptures ; and let not 
any thing which has been made be put by thee in the place of 20 
Him who is not made. But let Him, the ever-living God, 
be always running in thy mind ; for thy mind itself is his likeness, 
for it, too, is invisible and impalpable, and without form ; and by 
its will the whole body is moved. Know thou, therefore, that if 
thou wilt always be serving Him that is immoveable, as He exists 25 
for ever, so thou also, when thou shalt have put off this which 
is visible and corruptible, shalt stand before Him for ever, 
living and endowed with knowledge ; and thy works shall be for 
thee riches which fail not, and possessions that do not lack. But 
know thou that the chief of all thy good works is this : that thou 30 
shouldest know God and serve Him. And know that He asketh 
not for any thing of thee : he needeth nothing. 

Who is that God ? He who is himself truth, and his word 
truth. But what is truth ? That which is not fashioned, and not 
made, and not formed ; that is, that which, without having been 35 
brought into existence, does exist, and is called truth. But if, then, 



46 MELITON 

a man worship that which has been made by hands, it is not the 
truth he worshipeth, neither also the word of truth. But for 
myself I have much to say touching this matter ; but I am 
influenced by a feeling of shame for those who do not under- 
5 stand that they are better than the work of their own hands ; 
nor do they understand how they give gold to the artists, that 
they may make for them a god, and give them silver for their orna- 
ment and their honour, and they transfer their riches from one 
place to another, and then worship them. And what disgrace can 

10 be greater than this, that a man should worship his riches, and 
abandon Him who bestowed upon him the riches ? and that he 
should re vile man, but worship the image of man, and slay a beast, 
but worship the likeness of a beast. And it must be acknow- 
ledged that is the workmanship of their fellow-men that they 

15 worship ; for they do not worship the materials while they are 
laid by in bundles, but when the artists have fashioned images from 
them they worship them; neither do they worship the sub- 
stance of gold or of silver, until the sculptors have engraven them, 
then they worship them. Deficient of understanding! What 

20 additional thing has been imparted to the gold that now thou 
worshippest it ? If it be because it resembles a winged animal, 
why dost thou not worship the winged animal itself? And if 
because it resembles a voracious beast, lo ! the voracious beast 
itself < 27) is before thee. And if it be the artist's skill itself that 

25 please thee, then let the artistic skill of God please thee, who made 
every thing, and in His own likeness made the artists, and they 
endeavour to do like Him, but resemble Him not. 

But perchance thou mayest say, Why did not God create me so 
that I should then have served Him, and not idols ? By this that 

30 thou speakest in such a manner, thou wouldest seek to become an 
idle instrument, and not a living man. For God made thee so well 
as it seemed good to Him, and gave thee a mind endowed with 
Free-will. He set before thee abundant things that thou mightest 
distinguish each thing, and choose for thyself that which is good. 

35 He has set before thee the heavens, and he has placed in them 
the stars. He hath set before thee the sun and the moon, and 



ORATION TO ANTONINUS O/ESAR. 47 

they every day fulfil their course therein. lit- hath set before 
tlii'r many waters, and restrained them by his weird. He hath 
set before thee the vast earth, which is still, and continucth 
before thee in one fashion. And in order that thou mayest not 
suppose that of its own nature it continueth, He also maketh it 5 
quake whensoever He desireth. He hath set before thee the clouds 
which by ordinance bring water from above and satisfy the 
earth: that from these things thou mightest understand, that 
He who nioveth these is greater than they all, and that thou 
mightest accept the goodness of Him, who hath given to thee a 10 
mind by which thou mayest distinguish these things. Therefore I 
counsel thee that thou shouldest know thyself, and shouldest know 
God. For understand how there is within thee that which is 
called the soul : by it the eye seeth, by it the ear heareth, by it 
the mouth speaketh : and how it employ eth the whole body. 15 
And whensoever He pleaseth to remove the soul from the body, it 
falleth and goeth to decay. From this, therefore, which exists 
within thyself and is invisible, understand how God also moveth 
the whole world by his power, like the body, and that whensoever 
it pleaseth Him to withdraw his power, the whole world also, 20 
like the body, will fall and go to decay. 

For what end, therefore, this world was created, and why it 
passeth away, and why the body exists, and why it falleth, and 
why it standeth, thou art not able to know until thou shalt have 
lifted up thy head from this sleep in which thou art sunken, and 25 
have opened thine eyes, and seen that there is one God, the Lord 
of all, and have served Him with all thy heart. Then will He 
grant thee to know His will ; for every one who is far removed 
from the knowledge of the living God is dead and buried in his 
body. On this account thou rollest thyself upon the ground be- so 
fore demons and shadows, and askest vain petitions from such as 
hath not what to give. But thou, stand thou up (28) from amongst 
those who are lying on the earth and embracing stones, and giving 
their sustenance as food for the fire, and offering their clothes to 
idols, and are willing, while they themselves are endowed with 35 
senses, to serve that which is insensible. And do thou ask peti- 



48 MELITON 

tions which will not fail from God who faileth not, for thy soul 
which is not liable to decay, and immediately thy Free-will will 
be evident, and of it be careful ; and give thanks to God who 
made thee, and gave thee a free mind, that thou mightest con- 
5 duct thyself as thou wishest. He hath set before thee all these 
things, and sheweth thee, that if thou followest after evil thou 
shalt be condemned for thy evil deeds ; but if after goodness thou 
shalt receive from Him many good things, together with eternal 
life which never dieth. 

10 There is nothing, therefore, which hindereth thee from changing 
thy evil manner of life, because thou art endowed with Free-will ; 
and from seeking and finding who is the Lord of all, and from 
serving Him with all thy heart, because with Him there is no 
jealousy of giving the knowledge of himself to those that seek it, 

15 so that they are able to know Him. 

Let it be thy care first, not to deceive thyself. For if thou 
sayest with regard to that which is not God, This is God, thou 
deceivest thyself, and sinnest before the God of truth. Fool ! 
is that God which is bought and soldj? Is that God which 

20 standeth in need ? Is that God which must be watched ? 
How buyest thou him as a slave, and servest him as master ? 
How askest thou of him as of one who is rich to give to thee, 
and thyself givest to him as to one who is poor ? How canst thou 
expect of him that he will make thee victorious in battle ; for, lo ! 

25 when thine enemies have vanquished thee, they also strip him too ? 

Perchance one who is a sovereign may say that I am not able 

to conduct myself well, because I am a sovereign. It behoveth me 

to do the will of the many. He who should plead thus, truly deserves 

to be laughed at. For why should not the sovereign be himself the 

30 leader in all good things, and persuade the people which is sub- 
ject to him, that they should conduct themselves with purity, and 
know God in truth, and set them in himself examples of all good 
deeds ? Because so it becometh him. For it is an absurd thing 
that a sovereign, while he conducts himself badly, should be the 

35 judge, and condemn those who go wrong. 

But my opinion is this : that in this way a realm may be governed 



ORATION TO ANTONINUS CJESMi. 49 

in peace, whenever ill.- sovereign shall IK- acquainted witli the God 
of truth, ^ and through fear of Him shall be withheld from in- 
juring tliose who are his subjects, l.nt >hall judge every thing 
with trinity, as one who knowoth that he liimsclf aNo i> al>out 
to he judged before God ; while tlm- :nder his 5 

hand shall he withheld by the fear of God from acting wrongly to- 
wards their sovereign, and shall also be withheld by fear from 
doing what is wrong to each other. And by this knowledge and 
fear of God all wickedness may be removed from the realm. 
For if the sovereign abstain from injuring those who are under 
liis hand, and they abstain from doing wrong against him, and HI 
against each other, it is evident that the whole country will dwell 
in peace. And many advantages will be there, because amongst 
them all the name of God will be glorified. For what advantage 
is greater than this, that a sovereign should deliver the people 
which is under his hand from error, and by this good deed obtain 15 
the favour of God ? For from error all those evils arise. But 
the chief of error is this : that while a man is ignorant of God, 
he should worship in God's stead that which is not God. 

But there are men who say, that it is for God's own honour 20 
we make the idol ; that forsooth, they may worship the image 
of the hidden God! And they are ignorant that God is in 
every country, and in every place, and is never absent, and that 
there is not any tiling done, and He knoweth it not But thou, 
feeble man, within whom He is, and without whom He is, and 25 
above whom He is, hast gone and bought for thyself wood from 
the carpenter's house, which is graven and made into an abomina- 
tion of God. To this same thing thou offerest sacrifices, and 
knowest not that the all-seeing eye beholdeth thee, and the word of 
truth reproacheth thee, and saith to thee, The invisible God, how so 
can He be sculptured ? But it is the likeness of thyself that thou 
makest, and then worshippest it. Because the wood has been 
graven, dost thou not perceive that it is wood, or that it is stone ? 
And the gold one taketh by weight, how much it weigheth : and 
when thou hast made it, why dost thou weigh it? Therefore 
thou art a lover of gold, and not a lover of God. And art not thou 

H 



50 MELITON 

ashamed, perchance it should be deficient, to demand of him who 
made it, why he has stolen some of it ? And although thou hast eyes, 
dost thou not see ? and although thou hast a heart, dost thou not un- 
derstand ? Why rollest thou thyself upon the earth, and offerest 
5 supplication to things which are without perception ? Fear Him 
who shaketh the earth, and maketh the heavens to revolve, and 
quelleth the sea, and removeth the mountains from their place ; 
Him who can make himself like fire, (30) and burn up every thing. 
And if thou be not able to justify thyself, yet add not to thy sins ; 

10 and if thou be unable to know God, yet think that He exists. 

Again, there are men that say, Whatsoever our fathers 
bequeathed to us, that we reverence. Therefore, forsooth, those to 
whom their fathers bequeathed poverty, strive to become rich ! 
and those whom their fathers did not instruct, desire to be in- 

15 structed and to learn what their fathers knew not ! And why, 
forsooth, do the children of the blind see, and the children of 
the lame walk ? For it is not well for a man to follow after such 
as have gone before that walked badly ; but that we should turn 
from the same path, lest that which befel those who have gone 

20 before should also bring injury upon us. Wherefore, inquire if 
thy father walked well ; if so, do thou also follow after him : but if 
thy father walked ill, walk thou well, and let thy children also 
follow after thee. Be solicitous too respecting thy father, because he 
walketh ill, so long as thy solicitude may be of avail to help 

25 him. But as for thy children, say to them thus, That there 
does exist a God, the Father of all, who never was brought into 
being, neither was He made, and every thing subsisteth by his 
will ; and He made the lights that his works may behold one 
another, and He concealeth himself in his might from all his 

30 works ; for it is not possible for any mutable thing to see Him 
Avho is immutable. But such as have been admonished and 
admitted into that covenant which is immutable, they see God so 
far as it is possible for them to see him. These same will be 
able to escape from being consumed when the flood of fire shall 

35 come upon all the world. For there was once a flood and wind, 
and the chosen men were destroyed by a mighty north wind, 



ORATION TO ANTONINUS CJESAli. 51 

and the just were left for demons luti-m of the truth; but 
aa;ain, at another time there was a flood of 'waters ami all men and 
living creatures were destroyed by tin- multitude <>f waters, and 
tho just were preserved in an ark of wood, by the ordinance 
of God. So also it will be at the last tiim- ; there shall 5 
be a flood of fire, and the earth shall be burnt up together 
with its mountains, and men shall be burnt up toother with 
the idols which they have made, and with the graven images 
which they have worshipped; and the sea, together with its 
isl.-s, shall be burnt ; and the just shall be delivered from the 10 
fury, like their fellows in the ark from the waters of the deluge. 
And then those who have not known God, and those who have 
made idols for themselves, shall lament, when they behold the 
same idols on fire together with themselves, (31) and nothing shall 
be found to help them. 13 

But when thou, O Antonius (Antoninus) Cajsar shalt learn 
these things thyself, and thy children also with thee, thou wilt 
bequeath to them an eternal inheritance which fadeth not away ; 
and thou wilt deliver thine own soul, and also the soul of thy 
children from that which is about to befal the whole earth in 
the judgment of truth and righteousness. Because, as thou hast 20 
acknowledged him here, He will acknowledge thee there ; and 
if thou esteem him great here, He esteemeth not thee more than 
those who have known him and confessed him. Sufficient be 
these for thy majesty ; and if they be too many, as thou wilt. 

HERE ENDETH MELITON. 



52 MELITON 

BY MELITON, BISHOP OF SARDIS, 
From the Discourse On the Soul and Body. 

FOR this reason the Father sent his Son from heaven incorpo- 
real, that when He was become incarnate through the womb 
of the Virgin and was born man, He might save man, and 
collect those members of his which death had scattered when 

5 he divided man. And further on. The earth quaked, and its 
foundations were shaken ; the sun fled, and the elements turned 
back, and the day was changed ; for they endured not that their 
Lord should hang upon a tree ; and the whole creation was won- 
derstruck, marvelling, and saying, " What new mystery, then, is 

10 this? The judge is judged, and holds his peace; the invisible 
is seen, and is not ashamed; the incomprehensible is seized 
and is not indignant ; the immeasurable is measured, and doth 
not resist ; the impassible suffereth, and doth not avenge ; the 
immortal dieth, and answereth not a word ; the celestial is 

15 interred, and endureth! What new mystery is this?" The 
whole creation was astonished. But when our Lord arose from 
the dead, and trode death under foot, and bound the strong one, 
and loosed man, then the whole creation perceived, that for man's 
sake the judge was condemned, and the invisible was seen, and the 

20 immeasurable was measured, and the impassible suffered, and 
the immortal died, and the celestial was interred : for our Lord, 
when he was born man, was condemned in order that He might 
shew mercy ; (32) was bound in order that He might loose ; was 
seized upon in order that He might let go ; suffered in order 

25 that He might have compassion ; died that He might save ; was 
buried that He might raise up. 

By the same, from the Discourse On the Cross. 

For the sake of these things He came to us ; for the sake of 

these things, while He was incorporeal, He formed for himself a 

body of our construction ; while He appeared as a sheep, He still 

30 still remained the shepherd ; while He was esteemed a servant, 

He denied not the sonship ; while He was borne of Mary, He 



ON THE CROSS ON FAITH. 53 

also was in vested with \\\< Father : \\ -liilo lie trodeupon the earth, 
Hi- also filled the heaven: while He appeared as an infant, 
lie I.elied not the eternity of his nature; while lie was clad 
with a body, He also bound not the singleness of his Godhead; 
while lie was esteemed poor, He also was not divested of his 5 
riches ; while, inasmuch as He was man, He needed food; still, 
inasmuch as He was God, He ceased not to feed the universe; 
\\hile He was rlad in the likeness of servant, He also changed not 
the likeness of the Father. He was every thing in an immu- 
tahle nature. He was standing before Pilate, and yet was 10 
sitting with the Father. He was nailed upon the tree, and yet 
was upholding every thing. 

From Meliton the Bishop ; On Faith. 

We have made collections from the Law and the Prophets relative 
to those things which have been declared respecting our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that we may prove to your love, that He is perfect rea- 15 
son, the Word of God ; who was begotten before the light ; who 
was Creator together with the Father ; who was the fashioner of 
man ; who was all in all ; who among the Patriarchs was Patri- 
arch ; who in the law was the Law ; aniong the priests Chief priest ; 
amongst kings Governor; among prophets the Prophet; among the 20 
angels Archangel; in the Voice the Word; among spirits Spirit; in 
the Father the Son; in God God the king for ever and ever. For 
this was He who was pilot to Noah ; who conducted Abraham ; 
who was bound with Isaac, who was in exile with Jacob, who was sold 
with Joseph, who was captain with Moses, who was the divider 25 
of the inheritance with Jesus the Son of Nun, who in David and the 
prophets foretold his own sufferings, who was incarnate in the 
Virgin, who was born at Bethlehem, (33) who was wrapped in swad- 
dling clothes in the manger, who was seen of the shepherds, who 
was glorified of the angels, who was worshipped of the Magi, 30 
who was pointed out by John, who assembled the Apostles, who 
preached the kingdom, who healed the maimed, who gave light 
to the blind, who raised the dead, who appeared in the temple, 
who was not believed on by the people, who was betrayed by 



5 4 MELITON 

Judas, who was laid hold on by the priests, who was condemned 
by Pilate, who was transfixed in the flesh, who was hanged upon the 
tree, who was buried in the earth, who rose from the dead, who 
appeared to the Apostles, who ascended to heaven, who sitteth on 
5 the right hand of the Father, who is the rest of those that are 
departed, the recoverer of those who were lost, the light of those 
who are in darkness, the deliverer of those who are captives, the 
guide of those who have gone astray, the refuge of the afflicted, 
the bridegroom of the Church, the charioteer of the Cherubim, the 
10 captain of the angels, God who is of God, the Son who is of the 
Father, Jesus Christ, the King for ever and ever. Amen. 

OfMeliton, Bishop of the city of Attic a.W 
This is he that became incorporate in the Virgin, and was 
hanged upon a tree, and was buried in the midst of the earth, and 
did not undergo dissolution ; he that rose from the dead, and raised 

15 up men from the earth, from the nether grave to the height of 
heaven. This is the lamb that was slain ; this is the lamb that 
was dumb. This is He that was born of Mary a fair sheep. 
This is he that was taken from the flock, and was led to the 
slaughter, and was slain at eventide, and was buried at night ; who 

20 had no bone in him broken upon the tree ; who did not undergo 
dissolution in the midst of the earth ; who rose from the dead, 
and raised up the race of Adam from the nether grave. This is 
he that was put to death. And where was he put to death ? In 
the midst of Jerusalem. By whom? By Israel: because he 

25 healed their maimed, and cleansed their lepers, and gave light to 
their blind, and raised their dead. For this cause he died. Thou 
gavest the command, and he was crucified ; thou wast exulting, and 
he was buried ; thou wast reclining upon a soft bed, and he was 
watching in the grave and in the coffin. Oh, Israel, transgressor 

30 of the law, why hast thou done this fresh wickedness, in casting 
the Lord into fresh sufferings ; thine own Lord, who himself 
fashioned thee, who made thee, who honoured thee, who called 
thee Israel. But thou hast not been found to be Israel; for 
thou hast not seen God, nor understood the Lord. For thou 



MKLITON. 55 

k newest not, oh Israel, that this was the first-born of God, who 
was I >(<:< t ten before the sun, who made the li^lit to rise, who 
lighted up the day, who separated the darkness, who fixed the 
first foundation, who suspended the earth, who collected the ocean, 
who extended the firmament, who adorned the world. Bitter 5 
\\ eiv thy nails, and keen ; bitter was thy tongue, which thou >harp- 
enedst; bitter was that Judas, to whom thou gavest hire; hitter 
were thy false witnesses whom thou stirredst up ; bitter was thy 
gall which thou preparedst; bitter was thy vinegar which thou 
madest ; bitter were thy hands which were full of blood. Thou 10 
slewest thy Lord, and he was lifted upon the tree ; and a tablet was 
fixed up to denote who he was that was put to death. And who was 
this ? what we would not speak harsh, and what we would speak 
very terrible, nevertheless still listen while ye tremble : He, on 
whose account the earth quaked : he that suspended the earth, was 15 
hanged up ; he that fixed the heavens was fixed with nails ; he 
that supported the earth was supported upon a tree : the Lord 
was exposed to ignominy with a naked bodyj God put to 
death ; the king of Israel slain by an Israelitish right hand. Ah ! 
the fresh wickedness of the fresh murder ! The Lord was ex- 20 
posed with a naked body : he was not deemed worthy even of 
covering ; but in order that he may not be seen, the lights were 
turned away, and the day became dark, because they were slaying 
God, who was naked upon the tree. It was not the body of our 
Lord that the lights darkened when they fled, but men's eyes ; 25 
for because the people quaked not, the earth quaked : because they 
feared not the creation feared. Thou smotest thy Lord, thou also 
has been smitten upon the earth ; and thou indeed liest dead, but he 
is risen from the dead, and gone up to the heights of heaven, 
having suffered for the sake of those who were suffering, and 30 
having been bound for the sake of the race of Adam which was 
in bondage, having also been judged for the sake of him who was 
condemned, and been buried for the sake of him who was buried. 
4 nd further on. This is he who made the heaven and the 
earth, and in the beginning together with the Father created 35 
man; who was preached by the law and the prophets; who 



56 EUSEBIUS. 

was incarnate in the Virgin ; who was hanged upon the tree ; 
who was buried in the earth ; who rose from the dead, and 
ascended to the height of heaven, and sitteth upon the right- 
hand of the Father. 

Of the Holy Meliton, Bishop of Ittica. 

5 He that supported the earth was supported upon a tree. The 
Lord was exposed to ignominy with a naked body ; God put to 
death : the King of Israel slain. 



FROM THE FOURTH BOOK OF THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH : 
CHAPTER THE TWENTY-FOURTH, CONCERNING THEOPHILUS, 
BISHOP OF ANTIOCH, AND PHILIP, AND MODESTUS, AND ME- 
LITON, AND THOSE WHOM HE HAS MENTIONED, AND CON- 
CERNING APOLLINARIS AND MUSANUS. 

BUT as to Theophilus, concerning whom we have said that he was 
Bishop of Antioch, there are three treatises by him against Auto- 

1 o lycus, and another which is inscribed " Against the heresy of 
Hermogenes," in which he uses testimonies from the Revelation of 
John; and there are other books by him which are suitable 
for teaching. But those, who pertained to heretical doctrine, 
even at that time like tares were corrupting the pure seed of the 

15 doctrine of the Apostles; but the Pastors which were in the 
churches in every country, were driving them like beasts of the 
wilderness away from the flock of Christ ; at one time by teaching 
and exhortation to the Brethren, but at another time (34) openly 
before their faces they contended with them in discussion, and 

20 put them to shame ; and again, also, by writing treatises they 
diligently refuted and exposed their opinions. But Theophi- 
lus, together with others, contended against them ; and he is 
celebrated for one treatise, which was ably composed by him 
against Marcion, which, together with the others that I have 



Er 57 

already mentioned, is still preserved. And after him Muximinus 
received the Bishoprick of the Church of Antioch, NV!"> was the 
seventli after the Apostles. 

But Philip, respecting whom we have learned from the words 
of Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, that he was Bishop of the church 5 
of the city of Gortyna, he also composed with accuracy a treatise 
against Marcion ; Irenasus too, and Modestus, who, more than the 
others, openly exposed the error of this man ; and many others 
whose treatises are preserved in the possession of many Brethren 
up to this day. 10 

At this time, also, Meliton, Bishop of the church of Sardis, and 
Apollinaris, Bishop of the church of Hierapolis, flourished with 
praise ; who made, each one of them for himself, a separate apology 
for the Faith, and presented it to the Emperor of the Romans, who 
lived at that time. But the treatises by these, with which we have ].> 
become acquainted, are the following : by Meliton, On Easter two, 
and On Polity, and On the Prophets ; and another On the Church, 
and another On the First Day of the Week ; and again another On 
the Faith of Man, and another On his Formation ; and again another 
On the Hearing of the Ear of Faith : and besides these, On the 20 
Soul and Body ; and again On Baptism, and On the Truth, and 
On the Faith ; and On the Birth of Christ, and On the word of 
his Prophecy ; and again On the Soul and on the Body ; and 
another On the Love of Strangers, and On Satan, and On the Reve- 
lation of John ; and again another On God who put on the body ; 25 
and again another which he wrote to the Emperor Antoninus. But 
when he wrote respecting the time of Easter, at the commence- 
ment he gave this information, " In the time of Servilius 
Paulus, proconsul of Asia, Agaris (Sagaris) suffered mar- 
tyrdom ; and there was much questioning in Laodicea touching 30 
Easter, which varied as to the time in those days, and these things 
were written." But this same tract Clement of Alexandria (35) men- 
tions in a treatise of his own which he wrote on Easter, and says that 
it was on the occasion of this treatise of Meliton that he himself also 
wrote. But in that apology, which he presented to the Emperor, 35 
he relates that such things were done by him to our people : "That 

I 



58 EUSEBIUS. 

which never before took place; the race of those who fear 
God is now persecuted by new decrees in Asia ; for calumniators 
and such as covet the possessions of others, who have no shame, 
under the pretence of their having a decree, openly plunder 

5 and rob by night and by day men who have done no wrong." 
And after other things he proceeds to say, " If thou hast ordered 
this to be done, well ; it is also done ; for a righteous sovereign 
never purposeth any thing unrighteously. We even gladly endure 
the honour of this death ; but we present to thee this supplica- 

10 tion only, that thou wouldest first inquire respecting those who 
are the actors in this contest, and judge righteously, whether they 
be deserving of death and punishment, or of life and quietness. 
But if this will, and this new decree, be not from thee, which is not 
meet to be executed in this manner, not even towards barbarians 

15 and enemies, the more especially do we entreat of thee not to be 
unmindful of us in this persecution by the world." But after 
this he proceeds "Because our philosophy first flourished among 
the Barbarians ; but it also sprung up among thine own people 
in tlte days of Augustus, and it became for the empire of the 

20 Romans a great power, and for thine own empire especially a good 
education ; for from that time the dominion of the Romans increased 
and enlarged itself, which thou hast received and augmented, and 
thou wilt still strengthen it together with thy son, so long as thou 
protectest this philosophy which groweth up together with thy 

23 empire, that commenced with Augustus ; which thy fathers also 
honoured together with the other religions: and this is a 
great proof, that for the good of the empire our preaching 
also sprang up together with its auspicious commencement, be- 
cause since the days of Augustus no evil has befallen your 

30 empire, but rather in every thing it has acquired glory and 
power through the prayers of us all. And of all who have 
been Emperors, Nero and Domitian only gave heed to envious 
men, and received the accusation against our doctrine ; and from 
these same, as by some unreasonable custom, it was brought to 

35 pass that the violence of falsehood should be directed against us.< 36 > 
But thine own ancestors corrected the error of these; for oftentimes 



H.'SEBIUS. 



they rebuked by letters many who were desirous of attempt- 
ing to cause troubles on this account; and thy grandfather 
Hadrian wrote to many touchin L r thj, ; and to Fundius (Funda- 
nus) the proconsul of Asia. But thy father wrote respecting us 
to different cities, that no man should injure us, during the time 5 
that thou also together with him wa^t ^ovrniinu; every thing; even 
to the Pharisaeans (Larissaeans) and to the Thessaloni.ms and to 
Athene and to all nations. But respecting thyself, we are per- 
suaded that thou, still more than they, hast a good will coiieeniing 
these things ; and we are persuaded that thou wilt the rather 10 
order with wisdom whatsoever we entreat of thee." But so far 
were these things set down. 

But in tlie Kx tracts which were written by Meliton, at the 
beginning of them, he has noted down the number of the books 
of the Old Testament and shewn which are received : and it is 15 
right we should enumerate them here. But he wrote after this 
manner : " Meliton to Onesimus my brother, greeting : Because 
oftentimes with that earnestness which thou hast touching the Word, 
thou hast exhorted me to make for thee Extracts from the Law 
and from the Prophets relating to our Saviour and to the whole 20 
of our faith, and moreover hast been desirous to learn accurately 
respecting the Antient Books, how many they are in number 
and what they are consecutively, I have given diligence to do 
this, because I am persuaded through thy earnestness touching 
the faith and touching the doctrine of the Word, that thou 25 
esteemest the love of God above every thing, and art striving for 
eternal life. When, therefore, I went up to the East, and proceeded 
even to that country in which they were preached and practised, and 
had learned accurately respecting the books of the Old Testament, 
I wrote them down and have sent them to thee. Their names are 30 
these Of Moses five books, Genesis, and Exodus, and Numbers, and 
Of the Priests (Leviticus), and Deuteronomy ; and again of Jesus, the 
Son of Nun ; and the Book of Judges, and Ruth, and four Books of 
Kings, and two Books of Chronicles, and the Psalms of David ; 
and of Solomon, the Proverbs, which is Wisdom, and Koheleth, 33 
and the Song of Songs ; and Job ; and of the Prophets, Isaiah and 



60 



EUSEB1US. 



Jeremiah, and the twelve Prophets together ; and Daniel, and 
Ezekiel, and Ezra : from which same I have made Extracts, and 
arranged them in six discourses." All these of Meliton. And again 
there are also many treatises by Apollinaris which are still pre- 

5 served in the possession of many ; but those which have been seen 
by us are the following One, which is the Apology, that was made 
to the same Emperor of whom we have spoken above; and Against 
the Heathen five books ; and Against the Jews two books ; and 
those which he composed afterwards against the heresy of the 

10 Phrygians, which had recently sprung up a little time before, be- 
cause then Montanus, together with the false prophetesses which 
were attached to him, had begun to turn aside from the truth. 



61 



I1YPOMNEMATA. 

WHICH AMBROSE, A CHIEF MAN OF GREECE, WROTE; WHO BE- 
CAME A CHRISTIAN: AND ALL HIS FELLOW -< I N ATORS RAIS1.I) 
A CLAMOUR AGAINST HIM; AM) HI HID FROM THEM. AM) 
WROTE AND SHEWED THEM ALL 'IHI.IK lOLLY; AND AT T1IK 
BEGINNING OF HIS DISCOURSE HE ANSWERED AND SAID: 

Do not suppose, Men and Greeks, that my separation from 
your customs has taken place without a befitting and just cause ; 
for I have investigated the whole of your wisdom of poetry, and 
rhetoric, and philosophy ; and when I found not any thing right 
or worthy of the Deity, I was desirous of investigating the wis- 5 
dom of the Christians also, and of learning and seeing who they 
are, and when, and what is this its recent and strange production, 
or on what good things they rely who follow this wisdom, so as 
to speak the truth. 

Men and Greeks, when I had made the inquiry I found not 10 
any folly, as in the famous Homer, who says respecting the 
wars of the two trials, " for the sake of Helen many of the 
Greeks perished at Troy, far from their beloved home." For first 
they say respecting Agamemnon their king, that through the 
folly of Menelaus his brother, and the vehemence of his madness, 15 
and the incontinence of his lust, he was desirous to go and rescue 
Helen from a leprous shepherd : but when the Greeks had been 



Mi) viro\d/3r]T, o> av&pes e 'E\\tjve^, d\oyov rj dveTTucpirov elval 
rbv e/c TOJV vfjLGTepcDV 0a)V ^copi^a/jLov' ovSev yap ev airrois evpov 
oaiov TI #eo0tXe?. Aura yap ra rwv Troirjrwv V/JLWV avvdefjuiTa 
\i>(7a"rj^ /cal d/cpacrias eVrt /j,vrjjjLe1a. To* yap ev TraiSela Trap vplv 
7rpov)(ovTt, (froiTwv Tt? irdvTwv avdp&TTwv crrlv apya\(i)TaTO$. 
IIpoDTLo-Ta IJLW yap $acri rov ''Ayapepvova, rfj TOV dSeXfov d/cpa- 
(rtq, eiriTera/jievr] \va-crr) Kal dKaraa-^irw 7ri0v/jLia (rvvepyovvra, /cal 
ri]v Ouyarepa TTpos Ova-Lav evBo/ojaavra Sovvat teal Tracrav rapd^ai 
rrjv 'EXXd&a, i'va pvarfrai TIJV 'EXevrjv diro \errpov 



62 AMBROSE 

victorious in the war, and had burnt some cities, and taken some 
women and boys captive, and the land was filled with blood, and 
the rivers were filled with dead bodies, Agamemnon himself too 
was found to be taken captive by passion for Briseis : and Pa- 
5 troclus was slain, and Achilles, the son of the goddess Thetis, 
lamented over him ; and Hector was dragged ; and Priam, together 
with Hecuba, wept over the loss of their children ; and Astyanax, 
the son of Hector, was thrown from the walls of Ilium, and his 
mother, Andromache, Ajax the great took ; and that which had 
10 been captured in war after a little while was consumed in lust. 

But respecting the perfidy of Ulysses, the son of Laertes, 
and his murders, who shall tell ? for in one day his house became 
the grave for a hundred and ten suitors, and was filled with dead 
bodies and blood ; (39) who also by his vice has gained praises, because 
15 through the excess of his cunning he concealed himself: who 
also, as ye say, sailed over the sea, and heard not the voice of the 
Sirens, because he stopped his ears with wax. But Achilles him- 
self, the son of Peleus, who leaped over the river, and put to 
flight the Trojans, and slew Hector, this your champion became 
20 the slave of Philoxena, and was vanquished by an Amazon while 



'OTTOTC e /cat TOV 7ro\e/ji,ov /caracr^oi/ro? 
rov 9 ijyayov, avrbs ^Aya^^vwv VTIO Xpvo"rjt$o$ al^d\wTO^ rjyero' 
77^)09 TOV euo9 TralSa Bpio-rjto'os eve/cev e^dpav fjparo. Avrbs Se 
6 iroTafwv irrj^rjaa^y Tpolav Karacnpetyas, "E/cropa 
oXv^evrjs 6 rjpct)<; V/JUMV Sovkos r\v VTTO *A[JLa%6vo<$ 
vvl/C7)TO' ra Beorev/cra 07r\a dTroSvadjAevos, VV/JL^LK^V aro- 
Sva-dfjt,evos, ^>i\Tpwv Ovfjua eyivero ev r<p TOV !47roXX&>j>09 
vr>w. r O jap 'Idatcrjcnos AaepTidfys e/c /ca/clas dpeT^v eveiropev- 
QTI Se aya0fj<; (ftpovtfa-ecos afMOipos rjv, 6 KCLTO, 

eSrj\Q)crev, OTI /JLTJ rj^vvrfdr) $povr)(rei, e^pd^ai, TTJV 
f O TeXafjbtovios Aias, 6 TO eTTTajSoetov Qepow crd/cos, 8ta TTJV 
'OBvcra-ea Trepl TWV OTT\Q)V Kpicriv rjTTrjOefc, VTTO ^aviat f)\icriceTO. 
TavTa 7rai$eveo~0at, ov 6e\a)' ov yap TOiavTrjs dpeTrjs 



HYI'OMNKMATA. 03 

she lay dead: and he stripped off' \\\< armour, and put on the 
bridal dress, and at last was sacrificed to love. 

So much, then, with respeet to heroes : ami I should have been 
satisfied for Homer to be left to thee, it thy vain \\onU had only 
proceeded to speak of men, and not concerning tin- ^nd-, because, 5 
touching the gods, lam ashamed even to utter them ; for tin- tabled 
accounts are very wicked and horrible, and surpassing all belief, and 
necessarily ridiculous; for a man must launh when he approaches 
them, nor will he believe when he hears them : gods, indeed ! who 
have not one of them observed the laws of righteousness, and chas- 10 
tity, and modesty, but are adulterers, and have lived in dissipa- 
tion, and yet have not been condemned to death, as it was just For 
the Lord of the gods, that " Father of gods and men," according to 
what you say, was not only an adulterer, for this would have been 
too little, but he also slew his own father, and was a paederast First, 15 
then, I will speak concerning his adultery, although I am ashamed, 
for he appeared to Antiope like a Satyr; and he dropped down 
upon Danae like gold; and to Europa he became a bull, and a swan 



iva rot? 'OfAijpov pvOois TreiOtofjiai' ecm jap 77 iraaa 
*I\idBo<; T Kal 'OSuo-creta? dp^rj KOI reXo?, yvvrf. 

,' eVet 'HcrioBos fieff "OfJL7jpov"Epya re KOI 'Hftepas (rvve- 
, r/5 avrov 777 \rjpq) Beoyovia avvOtja-eTCU ; <&<Kjl yap Kpovov, 
TOV Ovpavov TralSa, rrjs a/5%^9 Ka6e\elv rov Trarepa Kal rcov (TKY^ 
Trrpcov Xa/BecrOai, KOL ^i>ev\a^T]devra TO opoiov iradelv retcvofauyelv 
e\eo-0ai,, rfj Se rcov Kovprfrwv eirwoiq TOV Aia K\a7revra Kal \a- 
OovTa Sea-pols Kadelp^ai TOV Trare/oa, Kal Siaveipao-Oai,, &>? \O7O9, 
Aia fjiev TOV aWepa, Ilocre&tova Be TOV ftvOov, Kal UXoirea TTJV 
KaO* aSov fjuolpav \a%elv. M\\' 6 fiev II\ovTev<; TTJV Koprjv 
Kal r] Arj/j,T]Tpa, a\a)/jLevrj KOTCL ra? eprjiiovs, TO TCKVOV e^V/ret. 
TOVTOV TOV fjivOov 6t? 1/^09 fyyaje TO ev y E\v<rivi, Trvp. Hd\iv o 
Hocre&wv MeXavLTTTrrjv fiev jjo"xvv6v vSpevo/jievrjv, o^Xft) Be Nrjprjt- 
Bcov OVK 6\lywv KaTexprjo-aTO, a>v TO, ovofuiTa eav Birjy(t>fj,e0a, TTO\V 
TrXfjOos \6ya)v KaTaTptyofJLev 'O /j,ev ouv Zev<? /zo^o? 7ro\\a%Tj' 
eir 'AvTioTry fjbev a>9 crarupo? teal Aavdrj ^pvo-o^ Kal eir EvpatTrrj 



64 AMBROSE 

to Leda. But the love of Semele, the mother of Bacchus, proved 
both his own importunity, and also the jealousy of the chaste Juno. 
And he caught up Ganymede the Phrygian like an eagle, in order 
that a beautiful and becoming boy might be his cupbearer. More- 
5 over that Lord of the gods slew Saturn his own Father, in order 
that he might seize upon his kingdom. Oh ! of how many censures 
is the Lord of the gods guilty, and to how many deaths is he 
obnoxious, as an adulterer, and as a sorcerer, and as a paederast ? 
Read to the Lord of the gods, oh men and Greeks, the law 

10 respecting parricide, and the sentence against adultery, and the 
shame of the obscenity of paederastism. For how many adul- 
terers has the Lord of the gods instructed? For how many 
paederasts, and sorcerers, and murderers ? for if a man be found 
to be guilty of lust, he shall not be put to death, because he does 

15 this to be like the Lord of the gods ; and if he be detected as a 
murderer, he has an apology in the Lord of the gods ; and if a 
man be a sorcerer, he has learnt it from the Lord of the gods ; 
and if he be (40) a paederast, the Lord of the gods is his advocate. 



Tavpo? f)v, eirrepovro oe Trapa Aijoa. 'O jap ^fjLe\rj<; epws KOI 
avTOv Trjv dicpaaiav fjkey^e KOI rrjs f 'Hpa$ TOV ^rfkov. Tbv yap 
$pvya Tavv/jiTJorjv, fyao-iv, efc TO olvo^oelv dvijpTraae. Kal ravTa 
fjuev ol Kpovloat, eTroi^crav. *O yap /jLeya\covvfJiO<; v 
b fiavTiKrjV eTrayyeiXd/Jievos, eavrbv rfkey^ev ori, i 
e$lci)j;ev, r}V ov Kare\a(3e- Kal T&> epofjievw avrov Ala/clSy 
OVTL TOV avTOv OdvaTOV OVK /j,avTevaaTO. ^AOrjvd^ jap TO avopifcbv 
<riyco /cal ALOVVO-QV TO 6rfKvKov Kal 'AcfrpooiTrjs TO iropviKOV. *Avd- 
TO) Ad', av$pes"E\\r)ve$, TOV KCLTO. 7raTpa\,o)0)v VO/ULOV Kal TO 
TTpoa-Tifjiov Kal TTJV TraioepacrTias alo-^pOTrjTa. AiSd^aTe 
Kal "ApTe^iv Ta TWV yvvaiKwv epya Kal Aibvvarov TO, 
dvbpwv. Tl cre/Jivbv eTTioeiKVVTai yvvrj ovrXot? KeKOO-fMrjfjLevr), dvrjp oe 
KV^aXo^ Kal aTCfJi/Jiao-i Kal ecrdrJTt, yvvaiKela Ka\\a)7r^6/uivo^ Kal 
opjL&v o-vv dye\r) yvvaiK&v ; 

Tbv yap Tpte<77Tpov 'AX/cet&rjv, TWV dy(0va)v fjyrjTopa, TOV 01 
dvopelav ao6/Jivov, TOV TOV A LOS vlov, o? ftpiapbv KaTeTre^ve \eovTa 



IIYl'OMNKM'. 

Pmt if. -i man should speak about muraife, Achilla \va* lira 
lliaii the Lord of the ^"iU, In-.- him who had slain liis 

friend; but the Lord of the ^ods w Sarjciiloii, his 

own son, while he was dyiiiL', hi'inir very sorry. And Plulo, 
who also is ;i o-ud, ravished P -, but the mother < 

Proserpine was in gn-at trepidation, and ^-arehiiiLT for her daugh- 
ter in every desert And Alexander Paris when he had carried 
off Helen, received the judgment of \ en . as being her lover 

by force ; but Pluto, who was a irod, and ra\ished I^-o-.-rj.ine, 

remained without any di^-race. And Meoelans, who was a iu 

man, knew how to go in search of Helen liis wile, but Ceres, who 
was a goddess, knew not where to look for her daughter Proser- 
pine. Let Vulcan pass over his jealousy, and lie not envious, 
for he is forgotten because he is old and lame; but Mars is loved 
because he is a youth and beautiful in stature. But there was the i 
reproach of adultery because Vulcan was not aware of the love 
of his wife Venus and Mars; but when he did know, Vulcan 
said, " Come, see a ridiculous and foolish deed, how me, who 
am her own, Venus, the daughter of the Lord of the gods, is dis- 
gracing me, who am her own, and honouring Mars who is a -jo 
stranger to her. And is it not a shameful thing for the Lord of the 
gods, because he loved those which were like these ? And Penelope 
continued as a widow twenty years, because she was expecting 
her husband Ulysses, and was employed with works, and diligent in 
occupations during the time that all those suitors were urging her ; 25 
but Venus, who is a goddess, while her husband Vulean wa> 
present with her, abandoned him because she was overcome by 
love for Mars. 

Hear, men and Greeks, which of you would dare to do this, or 



KOI 7ro\v/cpavov &\eaev vSpav. *Tv 8' aypiov aKciftarov 6 vetcpaxras, 
8' avbpopopovs lirra/jLeva^ /ca0e\elv 6 Svvrjdek, Kal tcvva 

aSou avayayoov, Air/elov & o%vpbv 
iv 6 SvvrjOek, Tavpovs Be KOI e\a<f>ov a 
jrvp, KOI tcaptTov ^vcreov OTeXe^ou? e\afiev, epTrerbv lofto- 
\ov dv6\cov ical '^eXfooj/, TLVOS eveicev eicravev ov 6efiL<^ eiirdv, 

lv 



66 AMBROSE 

could even bear to behold it. And if one should dare, what torment 
is reserved for him, or what stripes ? Nevertheless, Saturn, who is a 
god, who ate up all those children, is not even brought before a tri- 
bunal. They say, however, that the Lord of the gods, his son, 

5 only escaped from him, and the madness of his father Saturn was 
deceived, because Rhea his wife, the mother of the Lord of the 
gods, gave him a stone instead of his son the Lord of the gods, 
to prevent him from devouring him. Hear, men and Greeks, 
and reflect upon this madness ; for the brute beast, that feedeth in 

10 the field knoweth its own food, and will not touch strange food; 
likewise the animals and the reptiles too, and the birds also, know 
their own food; but respecting men it is not meet (41) for me to 
say any thing : you know indeed their food, and understand ; but 
Saturn, who is a god, not knowing his proper food, swallowed a stone. 

15 Wherefore, oh men and Greeks, if ye be willing to have such 
gods, do not blame one another whenever ye do such things 
as these ; and be not thou angry against thy son when he pur- 
poseth to kill thee, because he is imitating the Lord of the gods. 
And if a man be guilty of adultery with thy wife, why dost thou 

20 reckon him as an enemy, and yet worshippest and servest the Lord 
of the gods, who resembles him ? And why dost thou blame thy 
wife, when she is guilty of adultery and is without punish- 
ment, but honourest Yenus and settest her in temples ? Persuade 
Solon to break his own laws, Lycurgus also to abstain from 

25 making laws, and let the judges of the Areopagus break theirs 
and not judge again, nor let there be any more councils for the 



Kal rbv ^evoKrbvov Bovcripiv, KOI opif] TTT/^cra? iva \d(Brj 

evapOpov <f>wvr]V aTroSiSov, &>? \6yos" 6 ra roaavra KOI roiavra teal 

rr)\t,Kavra Spao-at, SvvrjQefo, 0)9 vrjiuos VTTO aarvpcw 

\ia6els Kal VTTO <yvvaiKetov epcoros rjTrrjOels VTTO 

Kara yXovrwv TfTrroyu^o? rj&ero' Kal reXo9, rbv Ne<r(ret,ov 

TJ SvvyOefc, irvpav Kar avrov avrbs Tro^o-a? reXo? 
rov fllov, Oerco TOV fj\ov " HcfraicrTos, Kal JJUT) (^doveirw el 
vrr}? wv Kal /cvXXo? TOV TTO&Z pepia-rjTO, "Apys e Tre^/X^ro 
J>eo? &v KOI aipaws. 'E-Trel ovv, avbpes r 'E\\rjves, ol pev Oeol vp&v 



67 



Athenians. Let the Athenians dismiss Socrates, for no one re- 
semhlino- Saturn has ever been brought before him. Neither let 
.them put Orestes, who slew his own mother, to death; for, lo! 
the Lord of the gods has done worn- tiling than the-e to his 
lather. QSdipus also too ha>tily inflicted injury upon himself, 5 
who put out his eyes because he had slain his father unawares, 
because he did not look to the Lord of the gods, who killed his 
fether, and remained without any punishment. The Corinth' 
also expelled Medasa, because she had -lain her children, hut they 
serve and honour Saturn, who ate up his own children. And as for 10 
Alexander Paris, he did right in ravishing Helen in order that he 
iniuht imitate the god Pluto, who carried oft' Proserpine. 

Let men he freed from the laws, and let cities belong to lasci- 
vious women, and be the abode of sorcerers; for this reason, oh 
men and Greeks, because your gods are debased like yourselves, 15 
but your warriors are brave as your dramas relate, and your 
histories proclaim ; respecting the furies of Orestes, and the 
bed of Thyestes, and the pollution of Pelops ; and concerning 
Danaus, who through his jealousy slew and cut off some of his 
sons in their banqueting ; and also the feasting of Thyestes upon 
a corpse in vengeance, and Procne up to this time crying as she 
flies, and also her sister piping with her tongue cut out But 
what is it fit to say respecting the murder of (Edipus, who 
married his own mother, and whose brothers, who were also his 
own sons, slew one another ? SO 

And I hate also your festivals, for there is no moderation there 



VTTO aKpaa-las rfKey^^a-av, avav&pot, be ol 77/30)69 VJJLWV, a)? al Trap' 
vfjilv Spafjiarovpyol icrropuu Stf\to<rav i ra fjiev 'Arpews ayrj, Sve- 
(TTov Xe^?;, KOI TLekoTr&wv fjuva-Tj, fcal Aavaov <f>06v(p (f>ovevovra> 
Kal areKvovvra fj,/j,60vo-fjLevov, ical ra Ovecrreia SeiTrva a ' 
jjprvov. Kal Ilpo/cinj /-te^/M vvv eTrrepco/jLeinj <yoa, ical 
a8eX<?7 7X(wo-croT6^To? rerptyev 17 Ke/cpoTrk. Ta yap Oi8t7roSo<? 
fcevrpa TL Set Kal \eyew, Kal TOP Aaiov (f>6vov Kal /AT/rpo? ydfiov, 
Kal riiv T&V a&e\<j>wv avrov Kal reicvwv a/ja a\\r]\oKTOViav ; 
Kal rd? Travrjyupeis VJJL&V /j,efJLi(TT]Ka' a^erpoi yap eVet 



68 AMBROSE 

to the sweet pipes that drive away care, which play with a 
tremulous motion, and the preparation of the unguents with which 
ye anoint yourselves/ 42 ) and the garlands which ye put on. 
And in the abundance of your wickedness ye have forgotten 
5 shame, your understandings also are blinded, ye have been tempted 
too by importunity, and have loved the bed of lying. And if 
these things had been said by another, perhaps they would have 
brought an accusation against him that they are not true; but 
your own poets declare them, and your songs and dramas proclaim 

10 them. Come, then, and be instructed by the Word of God, and by 
consoling wisdom : rejoice and partake of it : know too the King 
incorruptible, and become acquainted with his servants, which 
boast not in armour, neither make slaughter : because our Captain 
delighteth not in the multitude of an army, neither in the horse- 

15 men and in their beauty, nor in the illustriousness of family; 
but he delighteth in the pure soul, which a wall of justice sur- 



val, Kal av\ol yKafyvpol eKKa\ov^evoi Trpo? olcrTptoSeis Kivrjaew, ical 
uvpcov ireptepyoi, %pi<rev;, KOI o-retydvcov Trepidea-ew. Kal TO> TO- 
crovTa) o-cDpw TWV KCLKWV Trjv aiSco Trepuypdfare, Kal vovv 7r\rjpova0e, 
VTTO dKpa&La? eK/3aK%ev6uevoi,' Kal rat? avoaiat,^ Kal Xfcro-ooSecrt 
%pao~dai elwOare ul^eaiv. EiTroiui, 8' av vfuv ert, Kal TOVTO' Ti 
, r/ E\\rjv wv, Trpo? TO TCKVOV O-QV, el rov Aia uiuovftevos 
aol Kal ITT LVOV TOV <ydaov (7eav\7}Ke ; Ti TOVTOV 
bv r)yy, TUV Se ouoiov avrw (reftr) ; TI 8e pe^tyr) crov rr)v yv- 
vaitca a/coAacrnw? ffiaav, TYJV Be 'Acfrpo&iTrjv vaols reriuTjicas ; Kal 
el fjiev ravra v<f erepcov rjv elprjueva, Karrjjopla eBo^ev elvai, 1^^X77 
Kal OVK d\tj9eia' vvv 8e ravra ol v/^erepoi, aSovo-i Tro^rat, Kal al 
Trap 1 vfuv KeKpdyaaiv Icrropiai. 

\OLTTOV, avSpes r/ EXX?;z/69, Kal crofyiq aTrapa/jiiXkrjrw 
, Kal Oeiw \6yrn TraiSevdrjTe, Kal fjudOere J3acn\ea 
a<j)6apTOV' Kal rov? TOVTOV rjpwas eTriyvcoTe oviroTe Xaot? fyovov 
eprya^ofjievovs. AVTOS yap rjfjiwv 6 (7TpaTr)ybs ov /SouXerat crcouaTcov 
akicriv Kal TVTTCtiv v/jLop<f)iav ov& evyevlas fypvayfjLa, aXXa 
re KaOapaVf ocrioTriTi TeTetyKruewiv, ijor/ &e 



HYPOMNEMATA 69 

rounds. But the Word of God is always instructing us, and the 
promises of our good King and the works of God. Oh the soul that 
is purchased by the power of the Word ! oh the trumpet of peace 
without war ! oil the doctrine jjiu'iichin^ the natural fire of the 
soul, which maketh not poets, nor produceth philosophers nor the 5 
crowd-followed orator; but goeth and maketh the dead pass <> 
that he die not, and rai>eth men from earth as Clods, to the 
region which is above the firmament. Come, he instructed, and 
be like me, for I also have been like you. 



o 0e?o9 \0709, Kal ra rov 
6 etas, ft>9 Sia \6yov Bwdpeays et9 ^v^rjv Sutcvou/jLevTjs. a) <rd\7riyg 
elprjviKrj ^1^779 7ro\fjLov/J,evr)<;, to TraBwv &ivcov <t>vya$vrr)piov, w 
Trvpbs efjL^fnj^ov o-pecmicov SiSaa-KaXiov ! r/rt? ov Troirjras Trotet, ov 
<f)L\ocr6(f)ovs Karao-fcevd^ei, ovSe pijropas Seivovs, d\\a TrcuBevovcra 
TroietTOt'? dvrjTovs adavdrovs, rov$ fiporovs 6eov<?' e/c yfjs Se fierd/yet, 
et9 TOU? vTrep "O\vfj,7rov opovs. "E\06T6, 
eya), on /cdrya) rf/jLrjv o*s uyitefc. Tavrd pe etXe, TO re T7J9 
cvOeov Kal TO TOV \6yov SVVCLTOV' OTL Kaddjrep eTraoiSos cuyaOos /c 
<j)0)\ov e^epTrvcrcu Tronjo-as (frvyaSevei, Sewbv epTreTov, OVTCOS 6 \vyo<$ 
ef avTwv TWV TTJ? -^^7)9 yLttr^wi/ ra Sewa Trjs ala-Qjjcrea)*; cnreXavvei, 
drj' Trp&Tov 7ri0v/J,lav, 8t' ^9 TTCLV bewov (f>veTai, eyldpat,, epeis 

, epiOelai, 6v/j,o{, /cal TCL ofJLoia rourot9. ^E'jriOvp.ia^ ovv aTre- 
&09 f) ^v^r) Kal yaXrjviwo-a ylveTCU. IIapa\v6elo-a Be 

Trepl TOV Tpd%\ov avTrjs KCL/CWV TrepippeovTcov aTrep^erat, irpbs 
TOV TToirjo-avTa aimjv Bel yap aTrotcaTacrTaOfjvai, oOev aTrecrrr), Wev 
r^9 ejeveTO TJ eanv. 



70 



THE EPISTLE OF MARA, SON OF SERAPION. 

MARA, SON OF SERAPION, TO SERAPION MY SON, GREETING. 

WHEN thy master and tutor wrote to me a letter, and informed 
me that thou art very dililgent in learning for a child of few years, 
I blessed God, that thou, being a little boy without one to guide 
thee, hast begun with a good intention ; and as for me myself this 
5 has been a consolation to me, that respecting thee, a little boy 
I have heard, of this greatness of mind and good conscience, such 
as does not readily remain in many. On this account, lo ! I have 
written to thee this memorial of what I have experienced in the 
world ; for the manner of men's living has been experienced by me, 

10 and I have walked in instruction, and all those things of the instruc- 
tion of the Greeks I have found them wrecked together with the 
birth of life. Be careful, therefore, my son, of those things which are 
suitable for such as be free, to meditate upon learning, and to pur- 
sue after wisdom : and in this manner reckon to be confirmed in that 

15 with which thou hast begun ; and remember my injunctions with 
diligence, as a quiet man, who loveth discipline : and although it 
appear to thee to be very bitter, when thou shalt experience it for 
a little while, it will be very pleasant to thee, because so also it hath 
happened to me. But a man when he shall be departed from among 

20 his family, and shall be able to retain his own habit, and shall 
do with justice whatsoever is proper for him, he is that chosen man 
who is called the Blessing of God, and with whose liberty nothing 
else can be compared. For such men as are called to discipline, 
seek to disentangle themselves from the struggle of the time ; and 

25 such as lay hold upon wisdom are elevated by the hope of righte- 
ousness ; and those that stand in the truth exhibit the standard 
of their virtue ; and those that devote themselves to philosophy 
look to escape from the miseries of the world. But thou, too, 
my son, conduct thyself so wisely in these things, as a wise 

30 man who endeavoureth to spend a pure life : and beware lest the 
acquisition of wealth, which the many thirst after, subdue thee, and 






KPI.VTLE TO IM< 71 

thy mind be turned todoire riches which arc not real ; for neither 
uhcn men >l>t:iin their doirc do they aliidc, not even while they 
continue in righteousness: and all these things which arc seen by 
thee in the world, as t'mc who is for a short" 1 ' time, are to be dis- 
solved like a dream ; for they are the ups and downs of the times. 5 

And as to vain glory, which occupies the life of men, thou 
considerest not that it is one of those things which give "-joy: 
speedily it becometh an injury to us: and especially the lu'rth of 
beloved children. For in both these things the contest of feel- 
ings hurts us: for as to the good, love for them torments us, and 10 
we are attracted by their manners; and as to the vicious, we 
labour for their correction, and grieve over their vices. 

For I have heard respecting our companions, that when they 
were departing from Samosta it grieved them; and like those who 
blame the time, they also spake after this manner : " Henceforth we 15 
are driven far away from the habitation of men, and we are not 
allowed to return to our city, and to behold our men, and to 
embrace our gods with praise." It is meet that that should be 
called a day of lamentation, because one heavy grief laid hold 
upon them all equally. For with tears they remembered their 20 
fathers, and with sighs their mothers, and they grieved over their 
brethren, and sorrowed over their betrothed whom they left 
behind : and when we heard the report of their former compa- 
nions, that they were going to Seleucia, we went secretly on the 
way towards them, and joined our trouble with theirs. Then wa- 
our sorrow very vehement, and justly was our weeping aug- 
mented by our loss, and the dark cloud collected our sighs, and 
our trouble was increased from the mountain, for not one among us 
was able to quell the miseries which were upon him. For the love 
of life was retained together with the pains of death, and our misfor- 30 
tunes drove us out of the way ; for we beheld our brethren and our 
children as captives, and we remembered our companions that were 
dead, who were laid in a country not their own : and each of us was 
also anxious about himself, lest affliction should be added to afflic- 
tion, or another grief should overtake the one which preceded it as 

What advantage do men that are imprisoned gain from having 



72 MARA, SON OF SERAPION. 

experienced these things ! But as for thee, my beloved, let it not 
grieve thee that thy loneliness has been driven from place to place; 
because men are born for this end, to receive the accidents of the 
time. But thus reckon thou, that for wise men every place is equally 
5 the same ; and for the virtuous, fathers and mothers abound in 
every city. Even indeed from thine own self take the trial. How 
many men, who know thee not, love thee as their own children, 
and a multitude of women receive thee like their own beloved 
ones. Verily as a stranger thou hast been successful, verily for 
10 thy little love many men have desired thee. 

What, then, have we to say < 45) touching the error which has come 
into the world ? Both the progress in it is with heavy labour, and we 
are shaken by its commotions like a reed by the wind. For I have 
wondered at many that cast away their children, and I have mar- 
15 veiled at others that brought up those which were not their own: 
there are some that acquire the riches in the world, and I have also 
marvelled at others who inherit that which is not their own. Thus 
understand and see that it is in the path of error we are walking. 
A sage among men once began to say to us : On which of all 
20 possessions can a man rely ? Or respecting what things can we 
speak as if they are enduring ? On abundance of riches ? they 
are snatched away. On fortresses? they are plundered. On 
cities ? they are laid waste. On greatness ? it is brought low. 
On splendour ? it is overthrown. On beauty ? it withereth. On 
25 laws ? they pass away. On poverty ? it is despised. On chil- 
dren ? they die. On friends ? they become false. On honours ? 
envy goeth before them. 

Let a man therefore rejoice in his empire like Darius, and in 
his prosperity like Polycrates, or in his valour like Achilles, or in 
30 his wife like Agamemnon, or in his offspring like Priam, or in his 
skill like Archimedes, or in his wisdom like Socrates, or in his 
learning like Pythagoras, or in his enlightenment like Palamedes 
the life of men, my son, departs from the world, but their praises 
and their virtues continue for ever. 

35 But thou, my little son, choose for thyself that which fadeth not 
away, because they that occupy themselves in such things are called 



I.I'ISTLE TO HIS SON. 73 

modest and beloved, and lovers of a good name : but whenever 
;my evil thing opposeth thee, blame not man, nor he angry against 
God, neither murmur against thy time. If thou continue in tin- 
mind, thy gift is not a small one which thou hast received from God, 
which standeth not in need of riches, nor is brought near to po- 5 
verty, because thou wilt perform thy part in the world without 
fear, and with rejoicing: for fear and excuse of that which comet h 
naturally is not for the sake of the wise, but for the sake of those 
who walk without law ; because a man has never been stripped of 
his wisdom in the same manner as of his wealth. Be careful for know- 10 
ledge rather than for riches, for by how much the more possessions 
increase, by so much the more does evil abound. For I have seen 
that where good things abound, so also < 46) misfortunes oppose ; and 
where honours are brought, there also sorrows collect themselves ; 
and where riches are multiplied, there is the bitterness of many 15 
years. If, therefore, thou art wise, and diligently keepest watch, 
God will not cease from helping thee, nor men from loving thee. 
Whatsoever thou art able to acquire, let that be sufficient for 
thee ; and if indeed thou be able to do without possessions, then 
shalt thou be called blessed, because no one will even envy thee. 20 
And remember this too, that nothing troubles thy life very greatly 
except possessions, that no man after his death is called master of 
possessions : because weak men are led captive by the lust of them, 
and know not that a man dwells like a stranger in his pos- 
sessions : and they are fearful because they are not secured for 25 
them ; for they have forsaken that which is their own, and seek 
that which is not theirs. 

For what else have we to say, when wise men are forcibly 
dragged by the hands of tyrants, and their wisdom is taken captive 
by calumny, and they are oppressed in their intelligence without 3d 
defence ? For what advantage did the Athenians gain by the 
murder of Socrates, the recompense of which they received in 
famine and pestilence ? Or the people of Samos by the burning 
of Pythagoras, because in one hour their country was entirely 
covered with sand ? Or the Jews by the death of their wise 35 
king, because from that same time their kingdom was taken away ? 

L 



74 MARA, SON OF SERAPION, 

For with justice did God make recompense to the wisdom of these 
three: for the Athenians died of famine; and the Samians 
were overwhelmed by the sea without remedy; and the Jews, 
desolate and driven from their own kingdom, are scattered 

5 through every country. Socrates is not dead, because of Plato ; 
neither Pythagoras, because of the statue of Juno ; nor the Wise 
King, because of the laws which he promulgated. 

But I, my son, have experienced in what wretched misery men 
stand ; and I have wondered that they are not overwhelmed by the 

10 evils which surround them. Not even wars are sufficient for them, 
nor griefs, nor sicknesses, nor death, nor poverty ; but like vicious 
beasts they attack one another in hatred, which of them shall inflict 
the greater evil upon his fellow. For they have gone beyond the 
limits of truth, and transgress all good laws, because they 

15 hang upon their own lust : for so long as a man coveteth that 
which he lusteth after, how is he able to do with justice that 
which is befitting him ? And they acknowledge no moderation, 
and seldom do they stretch forth their hands towards truth (47) and 
virtue, but conduct themselves in their manner of living like the 

20 dumb and the blind. The wicked rejoice, and the righteous are 
troubled : he that hath denieth, and he that hath not striveth to 
acquire : the poor beg, and the rich conceal : and every one laugheth 
at his neighbour : the drunken are crazy, and those that have 
recovered themselves repent : some of them weep, and some sing, 

25 and others laugh ; others, care has seized upon them : they rejoice in 
evil things ; and they reject the man who speaketh the truth. A 
man may then wonder, while the world consumes in derision, while 
they have not one manner of living, they are anxious about these 
things ; and one of them is looking when he shall acquire the 

so name of victory in battle ; and the brave look not to how many 
foolish lusts a man is led captive in the world. But I could wish 
also that repentance had recurred to them a little, who conquer by 
their might, and are condemned by their cupidity. For I have 
tried men ; and thus have I tried them, that they look to this 

35 one thing to abundance of riches ; and on this account they 
have no firm counsel, but by the change of their minds each is 



EPISTLE TO HIS SON. 

speedily cast down to be absorbed in trriff'; and they regard not 
the vast riches of the world, that \\hati-\vr tin-re be of trouble it 
brings us all equally to the same time ; for they depend upon the 
majesty of the belly, that great disgrace of the corrupt 

But this which comes into my mind to write to thee, it is not 5 
enough to read it, but it should also proceed to practise. For I 
know too, that when thou shalt experience this manner of living, 
it will please thee much, and thou wilt be free from evil indignation, 
that on children's account we endure riches. Separate henceforth 
from thee the cherished grief of men, a thing which never profits at 10 
all ; and drive away from thee that care which produceth no advan- 
tage, for we have no means and discretion except in magnanimity, 
to be equal to the misfortunes and to endure the griefs, which we 
are always receiving at the hands of the times ; for it behoveth us 
to look to these things, and not to those which pertain to joy and 15 
a good name. Apply thyself to wisdom, the fountain of all good 
things, and the treasure which fadeth not, and there shalt thou lay 
thine head and rest, for she will be to thee a father and a mother, 
and a good companion for life. Have all familiarity with perse- 
verance and patience, which are able to meet all the tribu- 20 
lations of weak men ; for in this manner is their power great, 
because they can bear hunger/ 48 ) and endure thirst, and they 
refresh every grief. But of labour and death they also de- 
clare. Attend to these, and thou shalt pass a tranquil life, 
and thou wilt be to me a consolation, while thou shalt be 25 
called the Ornament of liis parents. For at that former time, 
while our city was standing in its magnificence, thou mayst know 
that against many men abominable words were uttered. But we 
also acknowledged from the Time, that we fully received from 
its majesty appropriate love and beauty ; but the Time forbade 30 
us to complete those things which were resolved upon in our 
mind. And here, too, in prison we give thanks to God that 
we have obtained the love of many ; for we essayed our soul to 
continue in wisdom and in rejoicing. But if any drive us by 
force, he will proclaim the witness against himself, that he is far 35 
removed from all good things, and will receive disgrace and 



76 MARA, SON OF SERAPION. 

shame from the vile object of shame. For we have shewn our 
truth, that we have no vice in an empire. But if the Romans will 
permit us to return to our country in justice and righteousness, 
let them act like humane men, and they will be called good 
5 and righteous, and the country in which they abide will also 
be in tranquillity. For let them shew their own greatness by 
leaving us free. Let us be obedient to that dominion which the 
Time has assigned to us, and let them not, like tyrants, treat us 
as slaves ; and whatever may be decreed to take place, we shall 

10 not receive any thing more than the tranquil death which is 
reserved for us. 

But thou, my little son, if thou desirest diligently to know 
these things, first govern lust, and apply moderation to that in 
which thou abidest, be satisfied, and beware lest thou be angry : 

15 and instead of rage be obedient to virtue. For I now am meditating 
upon this, that, as I recollect, I may leave for myself a book, and 
with a prudent mind may accomplish the path to which I am con- 
demned, and may escape without sorrow from the evil destruction 
of the world. For I pray to receive dissolution, and what death, 

20 it matters not to me. But and if any grieve or be anxious, I 
counsel him not : for there in the way of life of the whole world 
he will find us before him. 

One of his friends asked Mara, the son of Serapion, when he 

was in bonds by his side, " On thy life, Mara, I pray thee tell 

25 me what laughable thing has appeared to thee that thou laughedst ?" 

Mara said to him, " I was laughing at the Time, because, without 

having borrowed any evil from me, it repays me." 

HERE ENDETH THE EPISTLE OF MARA, SON OF SERAPION, 



NOTES. 



BARDESAN. 

P. 1. Booh of the Laws of Countries. The tide of this treatise is 
given by Eusebius, EC. Hist. b. iv. c. 30, 'O irepi einappevw ha\oyos ; by 
Epiphanius, Kara etfta^ucyiff, Panarium adversus Hceres. ; 36, p. 477. 

L. 1. Shemashgram. This is the pronunciation according to the 
vowels which have been added by a later hand. In Greek it is written 
2a/ii/r<7e|oayuo?. There was a king of Emesa so called, whose daughter 
was married to Aristobulus : See Josephus, Antiq. Jud. b. 18, c. 6, 
and b. 19, c. 8. A Priest of Venus at Emesa of this name went out to 
meet Sapor, king of Persia, when he advanced against that city in the reign 
of the Emperor Valerian. See Johannes Malela, Chronograph, vol. i. 
p. 391, edit. Oxon. 1691. In Strabo the name is written Sa/n/nKe/oayuo?. 
Geog. b. 16. p. 753, edit Casaubon, 1620. M. Renan has mistaken this for 
the name of a place, and supposed the particle and verb }L\ which follow to 
be the name of a person. It is hardly possible to commit a greater num- 
ber of errors in the same space than M. Renan has fallen into in trans- 
lating the first lines of this treatise. "II y a quelques jours, en allant 
visiter a Schemsgarm notre frere Evethes, nous y rencontrames Bardesane, 
qui, apres s'etre assure de notre sante," &c. See " Lettre a M. Reinaud 
sur quelques manuscrits Syriaques du Musee Britannique," in Journal 
Asiatique. 1852. 

L. 8. Avida. This name is given by Epiphanius 'A/Set da, the vau being 
sounded like /3, as in Poffl Sibylla, p. f3, L. 5. M. Renan has again fallen 
into an error here, and translated this man's name " un de nos compagnons," 
adding, in a note, " Je suppose que le traducteur a lu <rwjJ0em (| ^o^) au lieu 
<rvi'rj6r]$." Apparently he was ignorant of the account given by Epiphanius, 
and has assumed against all authority that Bardesan wrote this treatise in 
Greek. 

P. 3. L. 20. Compare what is here said about man's free agency with 
Justin Martyr. Apol. i. c. 7, 43 ; Origen, De Princip. iii. c. 1 ; Philocalia 
c. xxvi. 

P. 4. L. 14. Being. The Syriac word is \+], which is often used for 
Mon. See Hahn, Bardesams Guusticiis, p. 58, et seq. 



78 NOTES. 

. 7 

L. 15. Established. The original word is ^>t&> from <->, which 
corresponds with the Greek term fyjj.iovp'yea). 

L. 16. Image ofElohim >cucrL^1 y^j^, the Hebrew DVl^N D^l> 
retained by Bardesan : the Peshito renders ]ou^] >Q^y=>. Gen. i. 27. 

L. 36. J%<? Angels. Bardesan takes here DTT'N "01, Pesh. *-^i3 
^0*0-10!^], Sept. viol tov eov, Gen. vi. 2, to be 'angels/ So Jose- 
phus : IIoAAot 7jO a77eAot @eoi, ^wat^t (rv/jL/mi^evre^, vfipttrras e^evv^trav 
Trcu^a?, /cat TTttfTo? virepoTTTas /caAov: Antiq. Jud. b. 1. c. 3. Justin Martyr: 
'0* 5e ayye\ot Trapa/Savres Ttjvo'e TYJV ra^iv, yvvaiKtov pit-eiriv yTrydya-av, KOI 
iraidas eTeKWffav, ol eidiv 01 \e<y6pevoi 5at/xore?. Apol. ii. C. 5. Clemens 
Alexandrinus : ^A^yeXoi rives OKpareis ^ev6/j.evoi t eiridv/jLiq aXovre^ ovpavodev 
Sevpo KaTcnreirro)Kao'iv: Strom, b. 3. And again, Ot 0776X0^ CKCIVOI oi TOV 
avo) K\ypov et\j;^;oTe?, KaTO\i(rdr)(ravTes ei$ ^ova?, ej-eiirov TO: cnropptjTa raT? 
ywai&v, b. 5. Edit. Potter, pp. 538, 650. Tertullian. " Nam et illi, 
qui ea constituerunt, damnati in poenam mortes deputantur, illi scilicet 

angeli, qui ad filias hominum de coelo ruerunt. Utrumne mulieres 

sine materiis splendoris et sine ingeniis decoris placere non possent 
hominibus, quse, adhuc incultae et incompostae et ut ita dixerim, 
crudse ac rudes angelos, moverant ? " See De Cultu foeminarum, i. c. 2. 
See also De Idolatria, c. ix. Sulpitius Severus : " Angeli, quibus coelum 
sedes erat, speciosarum forma virginurn capti, illicitas cupiditates ap- 
petierunt: ac naturae suae originisque degeneres, relictis Superioribus, 
quorum incolae erant, matrimoniis se mortalibus miscuerunt :" De Sacra 
Historia, b. i. p. 7. Lactantius : " Misit angelos ad tutelam cultumque ge- 
neris humanii . Itaque illos cum hominibus commorantes dominator 

ille terras fallacissinus consuetudine ipsa paulatim ad vitia pellexit, et 
mulierum congressibus inquinavit." Institut. Divin. lib. ii. c. 14. The 
author of the Testaments of the XII Patriarchs. "E6e\l-av TOVS 'Eypwopovs 
jrpo TOV KaTaK\va"fjiov f KCIKCIVOI vvveyfis opa>vTe$ avra?, e^evovTO ev cTridv/jiia 
a\\jj\a>v K.T.\. Test. Reuben, c. 5. Grabe, Spicilegium. Vol. 1. 
p. 150. This opinion of the more antient Christian writers Chrysostom 
refutes, Homil. 22 in Genes. Edit. Paris, 1614, p. 249 ; Theodoretus, 
Qucest. in Genesin, 47 ; and Augustin : although in the copies of 
Genesis, which he used, the term ' angels ' was found, " Nam et 
Canonica Scriptura sic loquitur, in quo libro haec legimus, cujus verba 
ista sunt. Et factum est postquam cceperunt homines multi fieri 
super terram et filice natce sunt illis, videntes Angeli Dei filias homi- 
num, quia bonce sunt f sumpserunt sibi uxores ex omnibus quas elegerunt. 



BARDE8AN. 79 

Da Civitate Dei b. xv. c. 23. The opinion generally held is this of 
Augustin and others, that the QVl^N ^n* the? "Sons of God," were 
the descendants of Seth. In this the Jiook of Adam, lately translated from 
the Ethiopic by Dillman, concurs : " Die kinder Seths aber, die oben auf 
dem berge waren, hatten gepflegt zu beten and God zu lobpreisen anstatt 
der schaaren (der engel) die gcfallen waren, und Gott hatte ihnen den 
namen " engel " gegeben und sich sehr iiber sie gefreut:" Dot chrixtlir/u- 
Adambuch des Morgenlandes, in Ewald's " Jahrbucher der Biblichen 
wissenschaft," 1853. p. 93. I find the same notion in the 
Cave of Treasures, _*jia._i>Lco .?f*> ou^oa jOSViiij OD% p 



(JO : 



" And they were not willing to give ear to 
the commandment of Jared arid to the words of Enoch, and they dared to 
transgress the commandment, and went down an hundred men mighty in 
valour, and when they beheld the daughters of Cain, that they were fair to 
look upon, and that without modesty they were unveiled, the sons of Seth 
were inflamed with the fire of lust ; and when the daughters of Cain beheld 
their beauty they flew upon them like corrupt beasts, and defiled their 
bodies, and the sons of Seth lost themselves in fornication with the daughters 
of Cain." fol. 11. Respecting the )v^Z^!o se e my Corpus Ignatianum, 
pp. 286, 360. 

P. 5, L. 13. Beings when they are set in order, ^-osMcj **&] VZ|, 
i.e. by the Demiurgus. See note above, p. 78. 

P. 6, L. 25. Tares, I have rendered as in our English version : pro- 
perly ]j>^ iavia. 

L. 31. Governors, }jf3t^ 

P. 8, L.I. The nature of man, &c. It will be seen, upon comparing the 
passage comprised in this and the following pages with that cited by 
Eusebius, Prapar. Evan. vi. c. 10, printed below, that .the Greek varies 
considerably from the Syriac : there are many interpolations which are not 
found in the original ; and again several sentences of the Syriac have been 
omitted in the Greek. 

P. 11, L, 2. Fortune }n^~ The corresponding Greek term is 7/e(nj. 



80 NOTES. 

L. 4. O Philip and Baryama. I am not sure respecting this latter 
word, whether it be a proper name or not : perhaps l^O* ^DO may be ren- 
dered " even profoundly," literally, "even a son of the sea." The book of 
Chronicles is called in the Peshito ^*&* f=>j t^ ffl ? that is t 30 ? t aco 
l^i^c* ]&&o*. I do not know whether by my fault or the compositor's, 
the word is spelled wrongly Phillip in this place. 

L. 7. In another place. Probably referring to some of his former works. 

P. 15, L. 26. Associations, ^poi^a^o . Julius Firmicus Maternus 
calls this "radiationis societas." See Ad Mavortium Lollian. Astron. b. ii. 
c. 26. Edit. 1551, p. 36. 

L. 30. The doctrine of both countries is the same. The Chaldaeans, accord- 
ing to Diodorus Siculus, were a colony from Egypt, Bibl. Hist. b. i, p. 73. 
Edit. Hanovise, 1604. Clemens Alexandrinus writes Afywrnoi ^ovv TrpvToi 
'Aa-rpoXoryiav et? av6pa>Trov<; egyveyKav' O/JLOLOIS tie XaA&uot: Stromat. i. p. 361. 
Cited also by Euseb. Prcep. Evang.n. 6. See also Gallaeus, De Sibyllis, 
p. 484. Julius Firmicus says that he has embodied in his treatise on Astrology 
all that the Egyptians and Babylonians had said on this head. " Haec cum 
omnia mini a te, Mavorti, ornamentum bonorum, facili demonstrationis 
magisterio traderentur, ausus sum etiam ipse aliquid inconsulti sermonis 
temeritate proferre, ut promitterem me tibi editurum, quicquid .ZEgyptii 
veteres, sapientes ac divini viri, Babyloniique prudentes, de vi stellarum ac 
potestatibus divinae nobis doctrinae magisterio tradiderunt." See Praefat. The 
reader who is desirous of further information as to many astrological ques- 
tions alluded to by Bardesan will find them stated fully by Julius Firmicus. 

P. 16, L. 7. Seres. Respecting these see Pliny, Hist. Nat. vi. c. 17 ; 
Solinus c. 53 ; Pomponius Mela i. c. 2 ; Vetus orbis descriptio Gr&ci 
Scriptoris sub Constantio. Ed. J. Gothofred. Genevae, 1628, p. 1. 

L. 11. The fierce, Syr. lv*}^>, "A&to?, as Julian has it. Eusebius ren- 
ders TrvjOtAayUTreo? ; and so also Cassarius, whose version is independent of that 
used by Eusebius. See p. 35, L. 30. Ruffinus in the Recognitions : " stella 
Martis ignita." 

P. 17, L. ] . Of the Brahmins. For the account of the Brahmins 
amongst the ancients, see Palladius, De Gentibus India et Bragmanibus ; 
and two other writers edited in the same volume by Ed. Bisse, 4to. Lond. 
1665. Strabo : Geog. x. p. 712. Origen ; Contra Celsum, p. 19. Edit. 
Spencer. Cantab. 1658. Jerome in his Second Book, Adversus Jovinianum, 
refers to this matter : " Bardesanes, vir Babylonius, in duo dogmata apud 
Indos gymnosophistas dividit, quorum alterum appellatBrachmanas, alterum 



MAHDKSAN. 81 

Samanaeos, qui tantae continentise sunt, ut vel pomis arborum juxta Gan- 
gen fluvium, vel publico orizae, vel farinai alantur cibo, et cum rex ad eog 
venerit, adorare illos solitus sit, pacemque suae provincial in illorum precibus 
arbitrari sitam." Edit. Erasmi, torn. ii. p. 55. There is no mention of the 
name Samanai, either in the original Syriac, or by Eusebius, Caesarius, or 
Ruffinus in his version of the Recognitions. They are named, however, by 
Porphyry, referring to Bardesan, De abstinentia, lib. 4. | 17. 
Try? TroAtTeta? a? TroAAa i/evc/ue/ueV^s, etrrt rt 761/05 trap' dtrrots TO r<av 
ot)? rV/irotro^to-Ta? ica\eiv eiarfatriv *E\\i]ves. rovro>v o"e 
pev B/oa^/uaVe? Trpoiffravrai, T^J Je 2a/uat/atot* aAA* ot pev 
^ta^e^ovraij a>$Trep icpareiav, Tyv rotavTrjv 
eifftv, K<PK r<av fiovXrfievTtov 6eoffo(f) 
rovrov TOV rpoirov, a>? Bop3;<rai/);5, avrjp Ba/8t/Awi/o?, eirl rtov iraTepw i]fjia>v 
76701/0)9, KCU evri'xaiv TO?? irepi Aa/*ao'a/juy Tre/LXTroyuei/ot? Ivtiois TT/OO? TOV KatVa/aa 
ave^pa\lrev. Origen also speaks of the Samanaei in conjunction with the 
Brahmins, rcov Trap' 'Ivtiots tpiXo&ofyovvTw B/oa^/uai/e?, r t Sa/zavaTot : Contra 
Celxum, lib. 1, p. 19. Clemens Alexandrinus too mentions them. Upoe- 
ffrt](rav tie avrrjs A.i^v7rria)V re ol Upotyrjrcu, /cat 'Aor<rv/oia>i/ ot Xa\3a?ot, icat 
FaAaTaV ot Ajovt^a/, KOI ^a/j.arcuoi BaKT/>&>*/. 'Ivdvv re ol rvfjivo(ro<f)i(rrat' 
aAAot re 0tAo<ro0ot fiapfiapot. (Utrrov Se TOVTMV TO 761/0?, ot /JLCV Za/o/zarat, 

ol oe l^pa^avoi KaAoi'yuet/ot. Stromat. lib. 1, p. 359. Edit. Potter. 
P. 18. L. 1. By custom, } l +^>. The Greek of Eusebius has a^pev. 
, as if he had read It-^J j an error which might easily have arisen 
if the words were written in the antient square character NTVTT and 
N'TOn respectively. 

L. 10. This abominable law of the antient Persians is frequently re- 
ferred to by the early Christian writers. Tertullian, " Plane Persoe, Ctesias 
edit, tarn scientes quam non horrentes cum matribus libere vivunt. Ad 
Nationes 1. c. 18. edit. Fr. Oehler, p. 338. See also Clemens. Horn. xix. 
c. 19 : Origen, Contra Celsum, p. 248. 331. See Veins o?'bis descriptio, 
p. 9. The author of this law is stated by Theodoretus to be Zaradas. 
3 AAAa Kara TOV? Zapadov iraAat Ile/ao-at TroAtTevo/zei/ot i/o/nov?, /cat /ujpr/oaVt ical 

?? aoea>s /cat /uerTot /cat Owyarpaffi /ut7n'/uei/ot, /cat eWoyuov rr\v irapavofuav 
: Grcec. Affec. Curat. De legibus : edit. Gaisford, p. 351. In the 
, f. 22. b., it is stated that Idashir t*tj~l> the Mzgu* received the 
following instruction: i,^^AVo >oi \\> GOT |^cai^ 001 



"The Daamon said to that 



82 NOTES. 

priest, that a man cannot become a priest and a Magus until he shall have 
had connexion with his mother, and with his daughter, and with his sister ; 
and he made Idashir priest in this manner." 

P. 19, L. 1. Called Magi. Eusebius has Ma>yov<Taioi, and so the Re- 
cognitions ' Magusaei/ and Epiphanius, Panarium adv. Hceres. p. 1094. 

P. 20, L. 1. Epiphanius makes a blunder, and attributes what is said 
here of the Geli to the Seres. See Panar. adv. Hceres. p. 1091. 

L. 12. Lascivious. The Syriac is lasai^D, which I have not found in 
any Lexicon. Both Eusebius and Caesarius have (nrarahovs. Ruffinus 
seems to have read the preceding word civavdpovs in rendering ' effeminates/ 
P. 21, L. 1. Bactrians which are called Cashani. Eusebius has Banrpois 
only ; Caesarius ^ova-ois T?? Ba/SvAwro? ; and Ruffinus " in Susis." I have 
written Cashani, but am ignorant of the true way of enunciating l^i^n 
We may compare LJll^s and ^U^. See Abulfeda u ljJLJI jCjHJ, edit. 
Reinaud et De Slane, PI r. o . Strabo has, Geog. xv. p. 728, Aeyovrai tie KOI 
Kifffftoi oi 2,ov<rioi. There are two countries, y KtWm and ol Ko<r<rcu, border- 
ing on Susiana, the latter on the side of Assyria, the former towards the 
Elymites. See Ptolemy, Geogr. vi. 3. 

L. 7. With their slaves. These characteristics of the Bactrian women 
are attributed to the Liburni by Scylax, Periplus, edit. Vossius, Amstel. 
1639, p. 7. The same things are also said of the \fomen of the Geli. 
See above, p. 19. 

L. 15. The Racami 9 and of the Edesseans and the Arabians. Euse- 
bius has only ev Se rjj 'A/oa/Siqt KOI rfj 'Oo-poyvrj. The whole is omitted by 
Caesarius and the Recognitions. In the Peshito, Jud. vi. 3, we find 
^0.0$ nU for the Arabians. There is a town of Syria called Racim near 
Balca, all the houses of which are hewn out of the rock, as if they were 
one stone. *a\j j^ ^js? 
See Abulfeda, loc. cit. p. r r v. 

P. 22, L. 1. Hatra. 1r^. At p. 20 this is written It^o*. This was 
the town the seige of which Trajan was compelled to raise shortly before his 
death. See Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs, vol. ii. p. 209. 

L. 2. Even of little value. UOA U^J. Eusebius has ofioXov atov, 
as if he had read UGA l^i^c^. 

L. 10. Laws of * * * The rest has been purposely erased. Euse- 
bius, however, gives Eap J v E\\t)<ri, which is also omitted by Caesarius and 
the Recognitions. 

L. 15. Laws of the Orientals. The context seems to shew that this is 
an error of the transcriber. Eusebius has Uapa de Ta\Xois, and the Recog- 



BARDESAN. 83 

nitions 'apud Gallos/ which agrees here with the sequel better than the 
Syriac. 

P. 24, L.7. Booh of the Chaldaan*. M. Renan has cited a few lines 
from this place; but he has erred in stating " Le dernier paragraph est 
donne sous le titre special de Uf^J P 3 ^, L'n-re de Chaldeens." It will 
be seen that this is not the last paragraph of the treatise of Bardesan. The 
heading is only given in distinctive red letters, like ]->f*? feoifiJ , and the 
others above. 

L. 11. And dancers ]f^o. M. Renan has transcribed erroneously 
IjoVo, and omitted to translate it 

L. 12. Tayites \++4>. The name of a race of Arabs, and often used 
for Arabs generally. Eusebius, probably not understanding the word, has 
TaiVot?. CiEsarius, who also does not appear to have understood it, has 
'HAet'o*? ; and the author of the Recognitions, or Ruffinus the translator, 
has avoided the difficulty by omitting it altogether. M. Renan has printed 
U^? to agree with the Greek of Eusebius, but has translated ' le pays 
des Tay.' 

L. 14. Nomades. The Syriac has ^DO^OJ, evidently an error of the 
scribe for I^DO^COJ, and No/xa<n of Eusebius. 

L. 15. Hispania. Eusebius and Caesarius both have ei/ rrj S,Kv6ia, and 
the Recognitions ' Scythas.' 

P. 25, L. 3. The Zazi, and in Brusa, which is beyond the Duro. 
Eusebius has 'Qravrj KOI SatWa KOI ev \pvarrj ; the Recognitions ' in Chrysea 
insula' only; and Caesarius omits the passage altogether. Epiphanius, 
who evidently had this treatise of Bardesan before him, has rj Yeppavvv 
X&P31 $ Sa/o/jiartg, vj OTTOGOI ev TO?? Aar^ftrti/, j) irapa Zt^oT?, p. 1091. It is 
plain that the text of Bardesan was not clearly understood by the trans- 
lators, and, as is often the case in obscure passages, it has suffered further 
corruption in the transcription. This may be the reason why it is omitted 
by Caesarius. I find it not an unusual thing for translators to omit what 
they do not understand, and to take no notice of it whatever. We may 
trace the connexion of Hispania, or Spania, with Sawta and AaiWtv, and 
of Zazi with Zrj^o??. The difference between Brusa and X/ownj must have 
arisen from the similarity between 1 and 3 in NDVn and NDT^- As it is 
difficult to pronounce with any degree of certainty what are the precise 
places meant by Bardesan ; I have not thought it expedient to waste my 
own and the readers' time by offering uncertain conjectures. 

P. 28, L. 10. Decani. The twelve signs of the zodiac were each divided 



84 NOTES. 

into three parts, making thirty-six, which, being again each subdivided into 
ten portions, were called Decani. " Singula signa in tres partes dividuntur: 
singular autem partes singulos habent decanos ut sint in singulis signis terni 
decani." See Julius Firmicus, Ad Mavort. Loll. Astron. p. 17. Ma- 
nilius, Astronomicon, B. 4. L. 298, gives the following account of them : 
" Quapropter Grajse dixere Decania gentes ? 

A numero nomen positum est, quod partibus astra 

Condita tricenis triplici sub sorte feruntur, 

Et tribuunt denas in se coeuntibus astris, 

Inque vicem ternis habitantur singula signis." 

P. 29, L. 17. Of their establishing {Ojilo*.o>. Eusebius has rorV irpo 
avrvv, as if he had read ^pcn-2iD^c? ; as it is found three lines below, 
f abrogated all their ancient laws,' where, however, he has TOVS r 



P. 31, L, 14. Tharatha. This is the same as the goddess Rhea. Jus- 
tin Martyr mentions this practice KOL\ (fravepvs eis Kivaibiav airoKoTrrovrai 
rives KOI ei? /jLVjrepa 6ea>v ra fj.v(TTr]pia avaffiepovcri, Apol. 1. C. 27, edit. Otto, 
p. 72. Itane propterea Galli abscissi huic Magnae Deae serviunt, ut signi- 
fiant, qui semine indigeant, terram sequi oportere ? See Augustin, De 
Civit. Dei, b. 7, c. 24. See also Epiphanius, Panar. p. 1092. Abgar 
was a general title borne by the Kings or Toparchs of Edessa. See Assemani, 
Bibl. Orient, torn. i. p. 261. Bayer thinks the king especially alluded to 
here was Abgar, son of Maanes, who began to reign about A.D. 200. 
Historia Osrhoena et Edessena ex numis ittustrata, p. 169 ; but this does 
not accord with the accounts given by other writers. It seems much more 
probable that this was Abgar, the son of Maanes, who began his reign 
A.D. 152. See Hahn. Bardesan. Gnost. p. 14. 

P. 32, L. 9. On the appointed days. The Syriac is ^++i+' t > ] A^Dao . 
I do not know what the precise meaning of ^>i.fO here is, and Eusebius 
gives no aid, for he has omitted this passage, and the Greek also otherwise 
varies considerably from the original to the end of the treatise. Compare 
what Bardesan says here relative to the change effected by Christianity, 
with Eusebius, Prazp. Evang. lib. 4, and Theodoret, Grcec. Affec. Curat. 
edit. Gaisford, p. 349. 

P. 40, L. 16. 150 circuits of Mercury 60 years. This will not agree with 
the calculation a few lines below, 12 thousand circuits of Mercury 6 thou- 
sand years. There is therefore an error in the manuscript in the first in- 
stance reading 150 for 120, or in the latter 12 for 15. 



( 85 ) 

ON MELITON. 

P. 41. Who was in tlie presence. M. Renan translates " qui factus est 
coram," referring to " sermo " before. The writer in the "Journal of Sacred 
Literature," 1855, who signs his initials B. H. C., whom I shall henceforth 
designate by these letters, has " before Antoninus Ctesar," omitting alto- 
gether to translate IOOTJ. It does not, however, seem probable that the 
oration was made in the Emperor's presence, because the author speaks of 
writing it. " But touching Nebo, which is in Mabug, why should I 
write to you." See p. 44, L. 34 above. Meliton appears to have seen and 
conversed with the Emperor, and afterwards to have written this oration. 
An active verb relating to the author, ]oa\ i^jo, B.H.C. has made passive, 
and referred it to the Oration, " and it was addressed." 

L. 1. It -is not an easy matter, &c. There is a sentence so exactly like 
this in Justin Martyr, that it would almost seem as if the one were copied 
from the Other. 'AAV eirei 7i/ay>io/zei/ ov paov ayvoiq Kare^ofj^vvjv "^v^v 
(TWTo/jitos neTaj3a\\etv. Apol. i. 12, p. 32, edit. Otto. 

L. 2. Has been pre-occupied by error. B.H.C. having before made 
an active verb passive, here makes a passive verb active, and translates 
" apprehends him/' As there are so many grammatical blunders committed 
by this translator, it would be a waste of time to mention them all. I shall 
therefore only notice some of the other errors that he has fallen into, 
which may mislead such as would depend upon his translation, as exhibit- 
ing the real meaning of the Syriac. 

L.9. Like passion and sleep, |UAO U-* ^), M. Renan has translated 
" morbo vel dementias." ]AJ*, indeed, signifies madness as well as sleep ; 
but the words immediately following shew that the latter is meant here. 

L. 10. Using the word as a stimulus, and smiting such as are asleep 
also awaketh them. M. Renan has wrongly translated " Veritas vero utitur 
verbo si cut clavi (ad liberanduin eos.) Ipsa vivificat eos qui dormiebant," 
mistaking the meaning of the word fJ&co^, and supposing |MV? to be from 
the root V*** instead of (SP . 

L. 15. And so then they suppose that this is righteousness. B.H.C. 
wrongly " inasmuch as they think thus that this is righteousness." M. Re- 
nan, surely by an oversight, has translated ' et existimant justitiam salvam 
esse.' 

L. 18. A good excuse that a man be in error with the many. Justin 
Martyr writes, irapanovpevovs 3o|a<$ TT a \ a i a> v egaKoXovdcir, which, how- 



86 NOTES. 

ever, is cited by Johannes Damascenus with the reading of TTO\\O>V as 
here instead of iraXaiutv : Apol. i. 2, p. 4, edit. Otto. 

L.27. While all things are changed. This is omitted by B.H.C. 

P. 42, L. 4. It is found from his own words, \**z>l^zi j^j> ]D ^> 
]2.Q3, or literally, from what he saith the thing is found. B.H.C. 
translates, absurdly enough, "when he has so said the thing is pos- 
sible," evidently not knowing the difference between I^S^A^D and 
1*4^.4.^0 . M. Renan, also, does not seem to have understood the passage 
in rendering it " de quacumque re id dicat." 

L. 11. Are not these things that we use as we please, {Qj]\-^Ji ]o<n )3 
^"=>3 ?+] <pcn:D ^i^A^A.^* : literally, Is it not these are they which we 
use according to our pleasure. B.H.C. has translated, without any appa- 
rent meaning, " they are not such which we use as we will ;" and M. Renan, 
with too much liberty, ' non sunt Dii, quando quidem utimur illis secundum 
voluntatem nostram.' 

L. 17. That so long as a man not having heard, neither discerneth nor 
understands,*^fc&D PO c*^5 }3o ^iCA P UAJ]J t^oo. It is difficult to 
see how B.H.C. could have so misunderstood this plain sentence, and have 
translated it, il however many the men who do not hear, nor discern, nor 
understand." 

L. 25. That a voice has been heard in all the earth. Rom. x. 18. 

L. 31. Light without envy is given to all of us, that we may see thereby ; 
and if, when light has arisen upon us, any one closeth his eyes that he may 
not see, his course is to the ditch. B.H.C. gives the following extraordinary 
translation : " Behold, light has arisen unto us ! Man shuts his eyes that 
he may not see the pit to which he is journeying." M. Renan has wrongly 
translated >anL* P j " quse not fascinat." To the ditch, alluding to our Lord's 
words, Matt. xv. 14, who himself probably had reference to some proverb 
current amongst the Jews. In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 
Test. Reuben, c. 2, we have the following similar passage : on 071/010? 
TreirXrjpwTai, /cat aiirrj rov veurepov oSj^e? w? TV<$>\OV CTTL fiodpov. See Grabe 
Spicilegium, vol. i. p. 147. 

P. 43, L. 10. That also the Sybil has said respecting them. B.H.C. 
has rendered this in a marvellous manner " Now I say that rejection is 
denounced against those." Not knowing that J3oD meant Sybil, he 
has invented a word, and translated it "rejection," apparently deriving 
it from the root PCP ; from which, however, it could not have been 
derived. But had that been the case, in its present form as an abstract 



ITON 87 

noun, it would be in the masculine gender: this translator, however, 
has had no difficulty in making it agree with a verb in the feminine, nor, 
again, in turning an active verb into a passive to suit his convenience. 
M. Kenan, also, apparently ignorant of the meaning of jic^o, has omitted it 
altogether in his translation, and rendered the passage "quod jam dixi." See 
note above p. 77. Every one conversant with the early Christian writers 
Justin Martyr, Theophilus, Tertullian, Origen, Clemens Alexandrinus, Lac- 
tantius, &c., is aware that they often refer to the prophecies of the Sibyls. 
The passage to which Meliton seems especially to allude here is the fol- 
lowing : See Sibyllina Oracula, edit. Gale, p. 467 : 

'H/iei? <$' aOavaroto rpiftov ireTr\avr)pevoi 

'E/o7a re xetpoiroiyra <re/3ao>te0a atypovi 

Ei&dAwi' oavo)v re KarcxfrdifMevwv avdpunrw. 

This is also quoted, with two slight variations in the first verse, in the 
Cohortatio ad Gentiles, attributed to Justin Martyr. See edit. Oehler, 
p. 62. 

Again, 'A6avarov yevertjpa 6e<ov, iravriov r' avdpuTtw 
OI'K efleAe? npqv, Qvviratv eiAa <$' erifj-as. 

See Gale, ibid. p. 385. Read G. J. Vossius, De Theolog. Gentil., lib. 1, 
c. 11-13. 

L. 13. More than the former gods. Tertullian writes to the same 
effect." Immo jam per deos dejerandi periculum evanuit, potiore habita 
religione per Caesarem dejerandi, quod et ipsum ad offuscationem pertinet 
deorum vestrorum ; facilius enim per Caesarem pejerantes punirentur quam 
per ullum Jovem : Ad Nationes, lib. i, c. 10, p. 328, edit. Oehler. And again 
in his Apology, c. 28, p. 228 : Ventum est igitur ad secundum titulum laesae 
augustioris majestatis, siquidem majore formidine et callidiore timiditate 
Caesarem observatis quam ipsum de Olympo Jovem. Et merito, si sciati>: 
Quis enim ex viventibus quilibet non mortuo potior? Citius denique apud 
vos per omnes deos quam per unum genium Caesaris pejeratur. Justin Martyr 
writes : Kat ri >yap rovs aTrodvrjffKovras Trap' vfjitv avroicparopas, ov$ aet 
airadavari&ffdai aiovvre$ KOI opvvvra riva Trpoa^are ecopctKevai K rvjs trvpa^ 
avep%6fjievov ei? rov ovpavov rov KaraKaevra Katffapa : Apol. 1, c. 21, p. 56. 
Tertullian also expresses the same opinion as Melito respecting the origin of 
the heathen gods : Recogitemus omnem idolatrian in homines esse culturam, 
cum ipsos deos nationum homines retro fuisse etiam apud suos con- 
stet : De Idolatria, c. 15, p. 93. Respecting the divine honours paid to 
Julius Caesar, see Suetonus, Jul. Cces. c. 76-: Valerius Maximus, lib. i. c. 6. 
13. Touching divine honours paid by the Emperor Hadrian to the 



8 8 NOTES. 

wretch Antoninus, see Justin Martyr, Apol. i. c. 29, p. 76 ; Eusebius, 
Prcepar. Evan. b. ii. c. 6 ; Hist. Eccl. iv. 8 ; and Valesius' notes ad locum ; 
and Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, vol. ii. p. 267. 

L. 16. And diminish the revenue of Caesar, B.H.C. renders " and fail to 
accomplish the decrees of Caesar." M. Renan translates no better, "et 
decretis Caesaris non obtemperant." The error of both has arisen from 
confounding ^aoQ3, the Latin " fiscum," with the Syriac Unffloo . Com- 
pare what Meliton says here with Tertullian, Apol.c. 13, and Ad Nationes t 
lib. i. c. 10. 

L. 20. Of such as worship, '- ^t^? r*-^> B.H.C. translates " that 
they go in and worship." He has evidently mistaken ,-A-^.*|J, and read as 
if it were rr*-^ll? j hut even then his version would be erroneous. M. Renan 
has not been much more felicitous in his rendering of this passage. 

L. 23. Instigate the deficient in understanding to worship that which 
hath no perception. M. Renan, very erroneously, " impediunt et dehor- 
tantur imbecilles corde ne adorent ea quse sensibus non capiuntur/ Com- 
pare VA N .^O ]L ? " which hath no perception," with the expression, Xidw 
ovdepiav ai<rdr]<nv e^oi/TO)*/, in the passage from Meliton's Apology, cited 
by the author of the Chronicon Paschale, edit. Dindorf, p. 483 : Routh. 
Reliq. Sacra, vol. i. p. 118. 

L. 30. The wives of many. See respecting the wives of Hercules, 
Diodorus Siculus, Biblioth. b. 4 ; and Eusebius, Prcepar. Evang. lib. ii. c. 2. 

L. 31. Zuradi. That is, Zaradas the Persian, said to be the author of 
the abominable law of the Persians : see note above, p. 81. Photius speak- 
ing of the work of Theodorus on Persian Magic, writes, KOL ev /aev r<5 Trpa>Ta> 
Ao7<w TrpoTiderai TO fjuapov Hepcra>v ^07/^0, o Zapadys elcrtj^ffaTo : Biblioth. 
Cod. 81, edit. Bekker, p. 63. B.H.C: has given the name ' Urdi,' adding 
the following note : " Manuscript -^3o|. Who is meant is not apparent, 
but probably he was known to the Greeks and Romans by another name." 
Now the manuscript certainly reads -*>O], and the blunder has arisen 
from his confounding 1 and 1 of his own transcript. In the manuscript 
written in the old character these very dissimilar letters could not be con- 
founded. 

L. 34. Acte. B.H.C. has again erred here, and written " Ecate," adding 
the following note: "Manuscript l"^!, perhaps Thebes, which was called 
Hecatompolis, from its hundred gates." Acteis the same as Attica : " Sunt 
ergo Athenaa, ut ego accepi, prope litus maris sitaa, unde et regio adjacens ab 
/cTj), quod litus interpretatur, Acte vel Attica, ipsique Athenienses Attici 
nuncupantur." See Scriptores Rerum Mythicarum : Mythog. iii. 4, p. 172 : 



89 

edit Gk-H. Bode, See also Stephanus Byzant. I), !'rl,'J>ug, ad vei -1mm 
'AKT;: edit. Th. de Pinedo, p. 55: Strabo, Gcnfjmpli. lil>. ix. : edit. Ca- 
saii1)on, p. 391. Augustin speaks to the same fact as Meliton : " His tem- 
porihus Dionysium, qui etiam Liber Pater dictus est et post mortem deus 
habitus est, vitem f<runt ostendisse in Attica terra hospitesuo :" see Cirifnf. 
7)t '/, lib. xviii. c. 12. Compare Tertullian, "Ceterum si propterea Liber 
dens, quod vitem demonstravit, male curn Lucullo actum est, qui primus 
cerasia ex Ponto Italiae promulgavit, quod non est propterea consecratus ut 
frugis novae auctor, qui ostensor :" Apol. c. 11, p. 158. 

L. 35. Joseph, a Hebrew, who called Serapi*. Meliton is not singular 
in this view. Tertullian, " Nam Serapis iste quidem olim Joseph dictus fuit, 
de genere sanctorum :" Ad Nationes ii. c. 8, p. 36G. Julius Firmicus Ma- 
ternus, De Err ore prof an. rel'uj. c. 9 : " Joseph, qui ob pudicitiam in carce- 
rem missus, ereptus post interpretatiouem somnii, fuit particeps regni. Nam 
soptem annorum collectis et servatis frugibus, alterius septennii egesfatem 
divinae manus providentia mitigavit. Huic post mortem ^Egyptii patrio 

gentis institute templa fecerunt . Nomen etiam, ut sanctus coleretur, 

ex primo auctore generis accepit. Nam quia Saras pronepos fuerat, ex qua 
nonagenaria Abraham indulgentia Dei susceperat filium, Serapis dictus est 
graeco sermone, hoc est Sctpa? OTTO." Ruffinus states, b. xi. c. 22, " Quidam 
in honorem nostri Josephi formatum perhibent simulachrum, ob dimensionem 
frumenti, qua famis tempore subvenit ^Egyptiis. Alii repertum in historiis 
Graecorum veteribus ferunt, Apin quendam patremfamilias seu regem in 
^Egypto Memphis positum, cum famis tempore frumenta apud Alex- 
andria m defecissent ex proprio affatim civibus alimenta praabuisse. Quo 
defuncto, in honorem ejus instituerunt apud Memphis templum, in quo 
bos quasi indicium optimi agricolae nutritur, habens quaedam coloris 
insignia, qui ex nomine ejus Apis appelletur: vopov vero, id est, se- 
pulchrum, in quo corpus ejus inerat, Alexandriam deduxerint, et soron 
Apis primo ex compositione Sorapin, post vero per corruptionem Serapin 
nominarint." See Auctores Hist. Eccl. edit. Basil. 1528, p. 256. Suidas 
has evidently followed Ruffinus : Sa/oaTn? : TOVTOV ev 'A\el;avdpe'ia ica^etXe 
eo(f)i\os o 'ApxieTTiffKOTTos TO ifoaroi', eirt QeoSoffiov TOV Me7aAou : TOVTOV 3e 01 
mev Ata ecfjavar elvaC ol de TOV NeiXoi/, 3ia TO podtov e%eiv ev T$ ice^)aA^, *rai 

TOV TTIJXOV, 1]<yoVV TO TOV I'dctTO? JJLCTpOV' O\\Ol 5g TOV 'l(i>(Tt)({) aTT9 Tt]$ ffOpOV KOI 

TOV ''ATT^O? ffvi'OeTov oroyua ire iroi 17 /cores eKa\ovv aiVor So/oa7rn', ot 5e yuera 
TavTa ^apaTriv : see ad 2,apairi$. 

P. 44, L. 5. Erecthippus, ^n^utaj). Evidently an error for Eretho- 
nius or Erectheus. Augustin writes, " Erechtlioni regis Afheniensium, cu- 



90 NOTES. 

jus novissimis annis Jesus nave mortuus reperitur, Vulcanus et Minerva 
parentes fuisse dicuntur :" see Civitat. Dei, b. 18. c. 12. 

L. 12. Balthi is the Syriac name of Venus, Tamuz of Adonis ; and 
Cuthar is the Kivvpas of the Greeks : see Nork, Die Goiter Syriens, p. 79 : 
Selden, De Diis Syris Synt. ii. c. 2, 3 : Vossius, De Theol. Gent. b. i. c. 22, 23. 

L. 20. While he was hunting wild boars, 1]?Q2 It"* 1 -** t"^> t o - There 

x 7 " 
is no such word as Ir**-**- It is evidently an error of the copyist for It-*^ 

or 1r**-* J , " hunting :" written in Persian jj?. B.H.C. has translated it, 
without noticing the difficulty, " where he was wounded by a boar ;" and 
M. Renan altogether wanders from the meaning. " Cyniram (?) vero vertit 
in Aprum." 

L. 21. Respecting the temple of Venus in Apheca : ev aKpupelaq /jiepei TOV 
Aifiavov ev 'Acpaicois : see Eusebius, De Vita Constant, b. iii. c. 55 ; and De 
Laud. Constant, c. viii. edit. Zimmermann, pp.959, 1159; Zosimus, cited by 
Selden, De Diis Syr. p. 278, writes, "AcpaKa %a>pi6v eo-n /JLCOTOV 'HAiotrTroAew? 
re KCU Bi'/BAov, KCtO' o vaog 'A<ppo()LTr]$ 'A^a/cmcJo? itipvrai. Lucian says that 
it was founded by Cinyras : see De Syria Dea, c. 9. 

L. 23. Nuh. The manuscript reads plainly .^i^. B.H.C. has read 
otherwise, and translated ' Hai :' M. Renan ' Noe/ It is apparently a 
blunder of the copyist, probably for *.~l^ <Nai;' or 'Anai,' *-^P, the 
goddess Anais, or Anaitis. M. Renan has also suggested this name. 

L. 26. Athi a Sadibite. I do not know what |A.'"i|M refers to. Nor 
am I able to offer any satisfactory explanation respecting this account of 
Meliton. The story seems to have originated in that of the little maid who 
was brought away captive out of the land of Israel, and waited upon 
Naaman's wife, and of the cure of Naaman's leprosy by Elisha. 2 Kings c. 5. 
Perhaps Athi may have some connection with the name "ATTJ?? or "Ams, 
who is said to have instituted the orgies for Rhea. See Lucian, De Syria 
Dea, c. 13. Vossius: ibid. c. 20. The account by Damascius of his visiting 
Hierapolis and sleeping there as Photius has related it, and of the pesti- 
lential and deadly vapours which were emitted from a cavern under the 
temple of Apollo taken in reference to what Meliton says respecting the 
unclean spirit in the sacred wood of Mabug, called also Hierapolis, and the 
way in which this was remedied by the daughter of Hadad, would seem to 
shew some connection between the stories and the names ; but there is so 
much uncertainty in all this, that it would be needless to waste my own and 
the reader's time in offering conjectures. The passage alluded to in Photius 
is this : Ke^et ($e o (rwyypacfyevs on rare ry 'lepairoXet eiyKadevdrjaras C^OKOVV ovap 



i.ri' 1 



ryeveffdat, KOI /uoi eirireXeiffOat irapa T^? nyrpos TUV Qewt/ TTJV T<DV 
l\apia)v Ka\ovpcvwv eoprtjv. See Bibliotheca, cod. 242, edit. Bekker, p. 345. 

L. 32. Bacru, tltc /^///-/oVm of Edessa. B.H.C. has translated " prince/* 
and M. Renan "regem." The word 1-^1 is used in the Syriac version of 
the Theophania of Eusebius ^o^o fL'^a tiuk-Vo ]=>] |coi A.*^, where 
Dr. Lee translates ' rulers/ adding in a note, " U^l , by mistake perhaps for 
IOVD], rulers being styled fathers." The recurrence of the word, how- 
ever, here shews that it is not a mistake : see Book iii. c. 1. There wei < 
kings of Edessa named Bacru, of whom an account has reached us : see 
Chronicon Edessenum in Assemani Bibl. Or. torn. i. p. 418, and ]J 
Jltstoria Orshoena, p. 67. 

L. 31. Cuthbi. The manuscript reads most plainly -oZo^. B.H.C. 
has given " Cutheb," and says that the manuscript reads ^s^cs. 

L. 34. Mabug, more generally known as Hierapolis. Pliny: "Bambyce^ 
quse alio nomine Hierapolis vocatur Syris vero Magog. Ibi prodigiosa 
Atargatis, Gratis autem Derceto dicta coletur :" b. v, c. 33. 

L. 36. A Thracian Magus. B.H.C., I know not why, "the Magian, 
an enchanter." In the next line he has turned the proper name, <J*ci, 
" Hadran," into a verb, and then translated it " they honour/ Had it 
been a verb, it could only have been rendered " we honored." Eusebius 
also intimates some connexion between Zoroaster, or Zaradusht, and 
Orpheus the Thracian, in the following passage of his Preepar. E 
V. C. 4 : are /ULCfyaiv TOJV irepl ZupoacrTpyv o Ao7o? otro? ecmr, etre 0/oa*c(o? airo 
'Oio^ew?. The author of the Clementine Homilies, ix. 4, says that Zoroaster 
was indentical with Nimrod ! See also Recognitions iv. 27. 

P. 45, L. 4. The passage B.H.C. translates " the secret parts ;" apparently 
confounding IZo^D^ with the Hebrew fT^y. The unclean spirit probably 
meant, the exhalation of pestilential vapours, see note above. 

L. 6. That she should draw water from the sea, and cast it into the well. 
B.H.C., wrongly, "that water should be drawn ;" and M. Renan, not less 
erroneously, " ut aqua e mari allata inpleret hanc planitiem." Both have 
referred to the passage of Lucian De Syria Dea, c. 13, which I transcribe 
here : Ta 3e OTTO TOVTOV, At^ercu Ao7oj VTTO TU>V ev Ttj tprj iroAei, /ue^/aAw? a$ios 
6<t>vjjia(rai, on ev ry a"(perepri %a>pri, %afff4Ct fjLe*ya e'yevero, icat TO erv/uirav vdc/>/> 

re eflero, icat vyov ert TO> 



70) e TO ^a(T/ua etov, xat ern wo TO vtja> 
Kapra piKpov' ei fjiev wj/, TraAat /cat pe^a eov, vvv roiovtie eyevero, OVK ditia. TO 



92 NOTES. 

ereoj CK 6a\a(Tffr]<; v<$a)p ei$ rov vqov airiKveerai' (fiepovai oe OVK ipecs povvov, 
aAAa Trao'a Svjooy, KOI 'Apa{3ii], KOLL Treprjdev rov Et't^o^Tea), -TroAAoi avBp&ffoi et? 
6a\acro~av ep%ovrai, KOL Travres vSwp cfiepovcri' TO Trpwra pev ev TW vt]<^ eK%eovffi, 
/uera 5e et? TO -^acr^a Karep^erai t KOI fieKerai TO ^aoy>ta, /juicpov eoV, i'5aTo? 
TToAAoV* Ta $e iroieovres, Aev/caAiwt/a ej/ TW tjow Toj'oe vopov 6e(r6ai Ae- 
i, ffvjui(j)opr)s re KOI evepyeffias yur?yua eleven. 

L. 8. According to that which was a mystery in their Magism. B.H.C., 
erroneously, " as if there was some mystery in their enchantments." 

L. 12. But thoUj a free intelligence , and cognizant of the truth, enter 
into thyself, and if they clothe thee in the fashion of a woman. B.H.C. 
translates absurdly, " Now, the understanding is free, and a knower of 
truth : whether it is in these things consider with thyself. And if they 
dress up for thee the figure of a woman." M. Renan, less faulty, but not 
correctly, " Tu vero, mens libera et cognitor veri si reputaris, stude ut talis 
sis in anima tua, etsi ornatu muliebri indueris." 

L. 23. Impalpable. wA^ui^C P by transposition for -4^A^D from 
the root **>! and not from - A "^- as M. Renan has taken it in translating 
" nee commovetur." He also has mistaken in the next line ^^.^ for t-* ^^ , 
and rendered " nee capitur." It is difficult to conceive how B.H.C. ever 
>arrived at such a meaning as " is endowed with consciousness " for the 
former word. He has also strangely rendered the next sentences. 

L. 32. He needeth nothing, w^Offl }3 >o^ ^i . B.H.C. has trans- 
lated this passage, " and know that he asketh nothing which is needless." 
And M. Renan, scarcely better, " Et scias eum nihil quarere a te de iis 
quae non sunt necessaria (cognitu)." 

L. 36. But ivhat is truth ? B.H.C. has omitted this altogether, and 
consequently made nonsense. 

P. 46. L. 3. Touching this matter, \Z)' t + }JOT ^^- M. Renan rightly, 
" de hac re ;" but B.H.C., not knowing the difference between Mt-* as a 
masculine and as a feminine noun, has translated absurdly, " against this 
generation," and consequently continues his error in the following passage. 

L. 9. And what disgrace can be greater than this ? B.H.C., apparently 
ignorant of the force of It-*!, " and the reproach from this is great.' The 
following sentence is equally wrong ; but it would be tedious to notice all 
this translator's numerous errors. 

L. 28. But perchance thou mayest say, Why did not God create me so 
that I should then have served him and not idols? Compare Bardesan, 
p. 1, L, 10, and p. 3, L. 19 above. B.H.C. has translated this most ab- 



KBLTTQN, 

surdly, " But perhaps thou wilt ^ay, How is my work not the God whom 
thou worshippest, and not an im; 

P. 48, L. 3. And of it be careful, B.H.C. translates, " and his solicitude." 

L. 19. Is that God which is bought mid sold? Compare Tcruillian 
"Status Dei cujusque in senali -at. Deng non erat 

quern homo consul tus noluisset et nolcndo damnasset Domesticos Deos. 
<|iios Lares dicitis, domtstica potcstatc tract;. .-andii, v< ndiiando, 

demutando aliquando in cacabulum de Saturno, aliquando in trullam de 
Minerva, ut quisque contritus atque contusus, dum diu colitur, ut f j i 
dominus sanctiorem expertus est domesticam necessitatem. Publicos 
publico jure fu-datis, quos hastario vectigales habetis. - Dei vero qui 

magis tributarii, magis sancti, immo qui magis sancti, magis tributarii. 
Majestas qusstuaria efficitur. Circuit cauponas religio mendicans. Exi- 
gitis mercedem pro solo tempi i, pro aditu sacri. Non licet Deos gratis 
nosse : venales sunt : ApoL c. xiii. p. 164 : see also Ad Nationes i. c. x. 
p. 32G, where the same things are repeated almost in the same words. 

L. 26. I am not able to conduct myself well, &c. B.H.C. has sadly 
distorted this, and translated, " Am I not able, to govern well, because I am 
a king? And is it not mine to influence the will of many? He who 
thus speaks is truly fitted for sport. For wherefore is he a king ?" 

L. 35. Those who' go wrong, v ls^mSrj . B.H.C., ignorant of the diffe- 
rence between this and r *^s2lffli>o, has translated "those who walk wisely." 
In the next sentence he has committed as great an error, and translated, 
" and shall reverence Him, so as to observe among men those who are obe- 
dient to Him." The true meaning is as I have given it: and through fear 
of Him, shall be withheld from injuring those who are his subjects. 

P.49. L. 13. For what advantage is greater than this. B.H.C., ignorant, 
as I have before observed, of the force of *-cn 1^], has given the following 
erroneous version : " For there is this good thing which hence especially 



L. 27. An abomination of God, <n~^* ^y. An idol in scripture 
is frequently called an abomination. B.H.C. has rendered ' fitted to the 
form of & god;' giving li^ the signification ofl^Oj. The passage may 
also bear the meaning of M. Renan, ' in opprobrium Dei/ 

L. 36. And art thou not ashamed perchance it should be deficient to demand 
of him who made it? &c. B.H.C., absurdly, "And art thou not ashamed that 
blood should be required of the maker of it." He has mis-taken the particle 
>o> " perchance," for \o> " blood j" and then, to" make the words |oju ->Oj 



94 NOTES. 



agree with this, has given the above translation, 
violating all grammar and common sense. 

P. 50, L. 4. Why rollest thou thyself upon the earth, and qfferest suppli- 
cation to things which are without perception? Fear Him who shaheth 
the earth. This is rendered, if possible, still more absurdly than the pre- 
ceding passage by B.H.C. : " wherein thou wallowest on the earth, and yet 
art favoured. For things which are destitute of consciousness are afraid of 
him who maketh the earth tremble." 

L. 35. A flood of wind. B. H. C. gives as a note, but without any au- 
thority, "The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is here alluded to." He 
is, however, altogether mistaken. The flood of wind relates rather to the 
destruction of the tower of Babel : see Josephus Antiq. b. i. c. 4. Hepi tie TOV 
TTvpiyov TovTOVj KOI Tjj? a\\o(j)a)vias TUV avOpuTTvv, /jLepvyrai KOL 2t/3v\\a, Ae- 
yovcra OVTO>S: " 7ravTa>v o/j.o(pa>v<i>v OVTWV TO>V av6ptoTra)v, irvpyov a)Ko<$ofjir](Tav 
v"^rY)\oTa.Tov, w? CTTL TOV ovpavov avafirjffo/jLevoi Si* OVTOV. ol 5e deoi, ave- 
eTrtire/j.\fravTes, averpe^av TOV Trvpyov, Kcii idiav e/ca^Ta) (fiiavyv e$u>K.av. 
The passage in the Sibyl, to which Josephus alludes, seems to be this : 
Keu (3ov\ovT* dva/Byv* eig ovpavov a 
AVTIKO, adavctTos 
Tlvev/da&tv. avTap C'TTEIT' ave/moi 
'Pillar, KCU dvtjTo'ia-iv eir' aAA^Acu? epiv wpcrav. 

See Gale Sibyll. Orac. p. 336. Abydenus, cited by Eusebius, Prtep. 
. lib. ix. c. 14 '. EVT* o o\ Xe^ovtri TOV$ irputTov? CK <y^ avaffvovTas, 
re K.O.I peyedei %avvct)6evTas KOI dy 6eu>v KaTa(f)povti<TavTas apeivovas elvat, 
tv Tvpo-iv rj\i/3aTov aeipeiv, "tva vvv Ba/3v\a>v (TTIV, ydy re ao~(rov etvai TOV 
ovpavov Kai TOV? az/e/xof? 6eoio~i faodeovTas avaTpetyai Trepl avToio~i TO yu^aj/jy/^a* 
TOV SrJTa epeiiria Xe-yeadat Ba/3i;Awi/a. The author of the Cave of Treasures, 
}\^ r^> to which I have already referred, p. 79, gives a nother account of 
the Flood of Wind: to which tradition, indeed, Meliton may refer: 




And in the hundredth year of Nahor, when 
God saw that men sacrificed their children to devils, and worshipped 



M hi. II o.\. 9.1 

idols, God opened the storehouse of hi- wind, and the tempest's door, and 
a storm of wind went forth through all the earth-, and overthrew the images 
and the temples of the devils, and collect..! to-ether the idols and the images, 
and the statues, and made great heaps over them until this day. And this 
storm of wind the doctors call the Flood <>/'///>/:" see fol. 22. The same 
account is also given in the Kthiopic Book of Adam, translated by Dr. A. 
Dillrnan in Ewald's JuhrbUcher, 1853, p. 118: "Und im lOOstem jahre 
des Nahor sah Gott auf die menschenkinder, welche ihre kinder den L 
opferten ; und er Hess die vorrath-kammer der winde offnen und Hess 
stiirme winde und nebel iiber die ganze oberflache der erde kommen, his 
dass alle die gozen und hilder und figuren zusammengebracht (-geweht) 
waren, und sehr hohe berge daraus wurden, und die gozen blieben in i linen 
ben-raben bis auf diesen tag. Viele weisen (gelehrte) haben iiber jenen 
wind geschrieben : einige von ihnem sagen, dass es eine windfluth gewesen 
sei." 

P. 51. L. 5. The earth shall be burnt vp, &c. Meliton evidently alludes 
here to 2 Pet. iii. 10. 12. This may probably be one reason why my friend, 
the Chevalier Bunsen, to whom I lent the translation of this Apology, and 
who at first did not doubt its authenticity, might have been led afterward < 
to think that it " bears the stamp of a late and confused composition;" and 
" for that reason to abstain from giving it a place among the genuine texts :" 
Hippolytus and his Age, vol. i. p. xi. 1854. Mr. Bunsen does not admit 
the authenticity of the Second Epistle of St. Peter. It is, however, certainly 
alluded to here by one of the earliest and most learned writers of the Chris- 
tian Church in the second century, and consequently appears to have been 
admitted by him as genuine. 

L. 12. Shall lament, <Q-JZ&J . B.H.C. "shall be made alive." 
M. Renan, more consistenly with the sense, but altogether erroneously, 
11 evanescent." 

L. 20. This last sentence is obscure, and I am not sure that I have 
given the exact meaning. I believe, however, M. Kenan's version, as well 
as that of B.H.C. to be incorrect. 

The four following extracts are taken from one of the Syriac manu- 
scripts brought from Nitria, now in the -British Museum, No. 12,156, 
f. 70. 76, 77, written A.D. 562. As I have already given a description of 
this manuscript in my Carpus Igiwlinnum, p. 35*2, it is needless for me to 
repeat it here. 



96 NOTES. 

P. 52. Of Sard-Is. The Syriac has of Sardeon, which is the genitive 
of the Greek retained in the translation. 

On the Soul and Body. This treatise is named by Eusebius, see 
below, p. 98; and by Jerome, "De Anima et Corpore :" and by Ruffinus, 
" De Anima et Corpore et Mente." 

On the Cross. B.H.C. has translated incorrectly " on the crucifixion." 
This is not one of those works of Meliton mentioned by Eusebius, who, 
however, speaks as if he had not seen all his writings. 

L. 30. While he was esteemed a servant, he denied not the Sonship. 
B.H.C. renders truly absurdly, as well as erroneously, " He was declared a 
man by the adoption, but he did not deny." 

P. 58. Melito the Bishop, without any other designation. On the 
Faith. Jerome has " De fide librum unum ;" but in the printed editions 
of Eusebius we have only o irepi virctKorjs iriaTevq. Respecting this, see note 
below, p. 98. 

L. 15. That we may prove to your love that he is perfect reason, the 
Word of God. B.H.C. "that we may shew to your condemnation that the 
word of God is perfect wisdom." The very tyro in Syriac surely knows 
that }l3CUk means "love," from the root d**. This translator, however, 
has apparently looked for it under -Do**, and then rendered it as if it had 
been |Za:iu*k. 

L. 19. Who in the law was the law, among the priests Chief priest, among 
kings Governor. For this B.H.C. gives " who is a law among the priests, 
in counsel a leader." 

L. 21. In the Voice the Word. This confirms the reading of the Syriac 
in the Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans, c. ii. P-3 t_*!^ \i\ )oc 
and of the old Latin, "rursus factus sum vox," against the Greek 
ea-o/jiai rpe^v. see my note on this passage, Corpus Ignatianum, p. 291. 

P. 54. L. 12. Of Meliton, Bishop of the city of Attwa. This and the 
following extract were not printed at the same time as the others, because I 
did not believe them to be by the Bishop of Sardis, which inscription the 
two first bore. It is plain, however, that this is from the same work as that 
cited by Anastasius from the tract called A<?7o? ets TO Trades, because it con- 
tains the passage quoted : 'O @eo? ire-n-ovdev VTTO de&'a? 'lo-payXLTtSos : see 
Routh, Reliq. Sacr. vol. i. p. 122. I have therefore printed it subsequently 
at p. 49. No one who compares this with the preceding can fail, I think, 
to draw the conclusion that they are by the same hand, although perhaps 
by a different one from that of the Apologies. Neither is there any work 






MELITON. f ) 7 

attributed by Eusebius to Mcliton whicli has the title EK TO iraflo? . Jt 

seems probable that there has arisen some confusion in the transcribers be- 
tween the names Meliton and Meletius. B.H.C. assumes at once that this 
is the case. That Meletius of Sebaste in Armenia, and afterwards of An- 
tioch, is the person meant, and consequently In; has not hesitated to declare 
that the name of the city is mis-spelt, and Antioch clearly intended; and 
therefore has made no difficulty in giving Ant /or// instead of Attica. That 
a Syrian writer should have made any blunder in spelling the name of their 
great city Antioch is as improbable as that an educated English n inn 
should mis-spell London. There is a considerable difference between the 
words Voa^lj] and \&+\ . Besides this Meletius was translated to Antioch 
contrary to the canons of the Church, and was therefore soon expelled, 
and driven into exile. He would therefore hardly have been generally styled 
Bishop of Antioch, although indeed he afterwards returned, and was a^ain 
expelled, and again returned. " Apud Antiochiam sane diversis tempori- 
bus multa et admodum confuse gesta sunt. Mam defuncto Eudoxio, cum 
multi diversarum urbium episcopi ad illam sedem summa ambitione nite- 
rentur, ad ultimum Meletium de Sebastia, Armeniae civitate, contra decreta 
concilii illuc transferunt. Qui tamen ab ipsis rursum in exilium traditur:" 
see Ruffinus, Hist. Ecc. b. x. c. 24. The word Attica is unquestionably 
right, and the error must have arisen from some copyist adding the word city 
to rfc 'ATHKJ??. There was a Meletius, Bishop of Sebastopolis, in Pontus, 
who was present at the Council of Nice, and well known to Athanasius, and 
to Eusebius, who, on account of his great learning and powers of oratory, was 
called The honey of Attica, To*/ueAt T ?? 'ATTIK^J : see Eusebius, b. vii. c. 32 ; 
and Valesius' notes. He could hardly be the same as Meletius, who was made 
Bishop of Antioch in the year 360, thirty-five years after the Council, although 
the similarity of their own names and that of their sees, the one being Bishop 
of Sebastopolis in Pontus, and the other of Sebaste in Armenia, might cause 
some confusion. The latter, according to Socrates, was translated from 
Sebaste, first to Beroea, and then to Antioch : see Hist. EccL b. ii. c. 44 ; 
and Sozomen, Hist. EccL b. iv. c. xxviii. Both Meliton and Meletius were 
celebrated for their eloquence. 

L. 18. Was taken from the flock. B.H.C., erroneously, " was seized 
by the shearer." 

L. 24. In tJie midst of Jerusalem. By whom? By Israel. B.H.C. 
"in the midst of Jerusalem by those who are of Israel." 

L. 28. Thou icast reclining on a soft bed, B.H.C. translates in an 

O 



98 NOTES. 

absurd manner, " Thou didst lie down against rectitude of mind ! !" and 
then explains it thus, " i.e. crouch like a wild beast to seize its prey," or, it 
may be simply " with a guilty conscience." 

L. 30. Why hast thou done this fresh wickedness? B.H.C. "Where- 
fore this iniquity ? It is a new crime." 

P. 55, L. 34. The heaven and the earth. B.H.C. " the sun and the 
earth," mistaking U^A for \*2&+. 

P. 56, L. 5. Meliton, Bishop oflttica. This is the same as the preceding, 
although written I^^^U] B.H.C., in support of his assertion above, has 
not hesitated to turn Meliton into Melitus ; and Itica, or Ittica, into 
Antioch. 

This last extract is taken from a volume procured in Egypt in 1843 
by Dr. Tattam, with several leaves added in 1847 from the fragments 
obtained by M. Pacho. It appears to have been written about the seventh 
or eighth century, is imperfect both at the beginning and the end, and in 
its present state consists of 186 leaves written in two columns. It contains 
numerous extracts from the Fathers of the Church, cited in opposition to 
various heresies. What the title of the work is, or who is its author, does 
not appear. Cod. Add. 14,533 (not 14,532 as B.H.C. states). 

History of the Church. This chapter of the fourth book of Eusebius is taken 
from the antient Syriac version, of which I have inserted an account in the 
Corpus Ignatianum, p. 350, which see. I have given the entire chapter as it 
stands. It comprises the 24, 25, 26, and 27th of the Greek editions. It may 
be considered a fair specimen of the Syriac version, which future editors of 
Eusebius should not neglect to consult. 

P. 57, L. 5. Bishop of Corinth, omitted in the Greek. Ruffinus omits 
here also all mention of Dionysius. 

L. 18. On the Faith of Man. So Ruffinus, De fide hominis; and 
also several Greek manuscripts. The editions have irepi (pixTec 

L. 20. On the hearing of the ear of faith. Gr. '0 Trepl viraKorjs 
KOI o wept aivdrjTvjptajv. Ruffinus, De obedientia fide. De sensibus. 

L. 22. On the faith ; with several manuscripts. Ruffinus, De fide. 
Some editions have AcrtVew?. See Dr. Routh's note on this place, vol. i. p. 139. 

L. 23. And again on the Soul and on the Body. With several Greek 
manuscripts, and Ruffinus, Item de anima et corpore. 

L. 24. The Greek editions add /ecu J K\eis ; and Ruffinus, Item liber qui 
dicitur Clavis. 



AMBROSE. !<!) 

L. 25. On God who put on t) I,,,,/,/. Gr. 'O trepl evff^rov 0eov. 
Ruffinus, De Deo corjtore induto. See Dr. Routh's note, p. 143. 

L. 29. Agaris, an error for Zayapis.' See b. v. c. 24. 

L. 36. By him, ovi^D, as if he had read air' avrov instead of eir* : a 
common occurrence. Ruffinus has " illis temporibus." 

P. 59, L.3. Fundius, and below, Pharisceans : doubtless errors of tl it- 
scribe. 

AMBROSE. 

P. 61. M. Renan has inserted a few lines from this in the Journal 
Asiatique. The text is correctly printed, with the exception ofl^Q^oa 
for |A \QD ; but he has erred greatly in the translation. The first sentence 
he renders thus : " N'avez-vous point pense, hommes de la Grece, qu'il 
etait contra la loi et la justice de me chaseer du milieu de vous ?" and the 
last sentence still more wrongly, " Apres 1'avoir etudiee, j'ai reconnu tout ce 
qu'il y a en cette doctrine de nouveau et d'etrange, et quelle confience elle 
donne a ceux qui la professent pour enseigner la verite." 

P. 61, L.I 1. Wars of the two trials. I suppose the author means, of 
the gods as well as the men engaged in it ; to which also reference is made 
in the Cohortatio ad Gentiles, c. ii. edit. Otto, p. 24 ; and the passage of 
Homer, II. xx. v. 66 72 cited, beginning, 

Tocrtros apa KTVTTOS a>pro detav epitit vvi6vro)v : 
Compare Tertullian, Ad Nationes i. c. 10, p. 329. 

L. 12. For the sake of Helen, &c. Homer, II. ii. v. 1 77. 
'E\evt)V, ijf eiveica -rroAAoi ' 
cnro\ovTo, <f)i\r)$ airo TraTpi 

L. 16. A leprous shepherd. The Syriac proves the antiquity of the 
Greek reading \eirpov, which has been suspected by critics. See Otto's notes. 

P. 62, L. 20. Amazon. The Syriac has V>o>^D, the 1 being omitted. 

P. 63. Compare what is said here relative to the Gods with Justin 
Martyr, Apol. i, c. 21. See also Augustin, De Civitate Dei ii, c. 7, 8 ; 
and Joh. Ludov. Vives' notes to these chapters : edit Fancof. 1661. 

L. 13. Father of Gods and men. The common expression of Homer 
Trarrjp avSpuv re detav re, which Ennius among the Latins translated " pa- 
trum divumque homimmque." See Cicero, De Naf. Deor. p. 104. 

L. 15. Concerning his adultery. Compare the passage of Homer, 
II. xiv. 315327, in which Jupiter recounts his amours to Juno : cited also 
in the Cohortatio ad Gent. c. 2. p. 22. 

P. 64, L. 6. Of how many censures is the Lord of the gods guilty, &c. 



100 NOTES. 

Compare Tertullian, Apol. c. 11, vol. i. p. 159: " Illuc (in Tartarum scilicet) 
enim abstrudi solent, impii quique in parentes et incesti in sorores, et marita- 
rum adulteri, et virginum rap tores, et puerorumcontaminatores, et qui saeviunt, 
et qui occidunt, et qui furantur, et qui decipiunt, et quicumque similes sunt 
alicujus dei vestri, quern neminem integrum a crimine aut vitio probare 
poteritis, nisi hominem negaveritis. Atquin ut illos homines fuisse non pos- 
sitis negare, etiam istae notas accedunt quae nee deos postea factos credi 
permittunt. Si enim vos talibus puniendis praesidetis, si commercium, col- 
loquium, convictum malorum et turpium probi quique respuitis, horum 
autem pares deus ille majestatis suae consortio adscivit, quid ergo damnatis, 
quorum collegas adoratis ? Suggillatio est in coelo vestra justitia. Deos 
facite criminosissimos quosque, ut placeatis deis vestris." 

P. 65, L. 3. Wept over Sarpedon. He alludes to the following lines of 
Homer, II. xvi. 433, which Athenagoras also quotes, Legat. c. 21 
"Qt JJLOI eya)i>, ore /JLOI Sa/OTnydoi 
Mot// VTTO HarpoKXoio M.evoiTia<$ao 

This is also quoted in the Cohort, ad Gent. c. 2. p. 20. 

L. 7. Carried off. The text is -$-*, which seems to be a blunder for 



L. 22. Penelope. The manuscript has aaa, evidently an error for 



L . 24. Employed. The manuscript reads ^^D, which appears to be an 
error. There is no such root in the Lexicons. Perhaps V"-^^ was 
intended. 

P. 66, c. 6. Rhea. The text has ]joi5 , evidently an error for V*<n?. 

L. 22. Js guilty of adultery, and is without punishment. The Greek is 
oKoAao-Tw? ttocrav : see p. 68, L. 25. The translator did not understand the 
word aicoAao-Tw?. 

P. 67. L. 14. Are brave, ^*\*. The translator must either have read 
av Speioi instead of avavtipoi, or the Syriac copyist have mistaken <^ \* for 



L. 15. Horsemen and their beauty. The Greek has TVTTUV 
The Syriac translator probably read iTnreaiv for TVTTCDV. 

P. 69, L. 7. And make the dead pass over that he die not, 
Zo^cj j]^ . Although the sense is good, there appears to be an error of the 
copyist in writing V^* for t^* when the translation would be simply, 
* maketh the dead (or the mortal) that he die not." 



MARA, SON OF SERAPION. 

P. 70, L. 11. Wrx-hnl tu.jftlnT nlth the birth of I if', 
rN ^QiisO \+**> . These words are obscure. I suppose they refer to th 
birth of a Christian rendering the precepts of Greek philosophy superfluous. 
Compare what Ambrose says, p. 01 above. There are several very obscure 
passages in this letter. Although I have endeavoured to give the meaning of 
them as accurately as I could, I cannot confidently assert that I have in no 
instances fulled. M. Renan has given a short extract from this letter in the 
Journal Asiatiquc; and has left off' in the middle of a sentence omitting the 
words which I have just mentioned, and consequently destroying the sense of 
the passage. He has made several mistakes in the texts te^S for A^^D > and 
VAJJZJ for \+i\=>, and l^o* for ZJoo, and \=>kz for LD&D. In the trans- 
lation he has omitted the name Mara, and written only "Bar Serapion." The 
last sentence he has rendered altogether wrongly. "C'est pourquoi je 
1'adresse ce livre comme un memorial de toutes mes recherches ; il a cte 
pour moi 1'univers, est c'est lui qui m'a introduit dans la science ; car, tout ce 
que je sais, je 1'ai appris de la Grece." 

P. 71, L. 36. Imprisoned. The original work ]A""I^ means also, a 
recluse, a monk practising a certain mode of asceticism, concerning which see 
Assemani Disser. de Syris Monophysitls. This would well agree with the 
meaning here ; but at P. 75, L. 32, the writer speaks as if he were actually 
in prison or bondage at the time. 

P. 73, L. 33. Or the people of Samos. See respecting the burning of 
Pvthagoras, Diogenes Laertius, De vitis et dogm. Philosoph. lib. viii. seg. 39, 
with Menagius' Notes; and Stanley's History of Philosophy, second edit, 
p. 506. The Sibylline Oracles were said to have foretold the destruction of 
Samos. 'Etrrcu Kcii 2a/*o a'yuyuo?, effeirat <e A^Ao? abt]\os. See Sybil. Orac. 
p. 405, and Gale's Notes illustrating this matter. 

P. 74, L. 6. Statue of Juno : This was the statue which the Romans 
erected in honour of Pythagoras, when they were commanded by the Oracle 
of Delphi to erect statues to the bravest and the wisest of the Greeks. 

L. 23. His neighbour : *-**f3-* this is evidently an error of the copyist 
for oij3- which would easily be made in the square character for the 
similarity of H and n. 

P. 75, L. 4. The majesty of the belly : Compare Tertullian. " Deus 
enim tibi venter est, et pulmo templum, et aqualiculus altare, et sacerdos 



102 NOTES. 

cocus, et sanctus spiritus nidor, et condimenta charismata et ructus pro- 
phetia. De Jejunio, c. xvi. vol. i. p. 877. 

P. 76 : L. 23. Mara. M. Renan here also has omitted this name, and 
in the following line misunderstood it, and translated it, " Seigneur." 
In the next line he has omitted it again, and translated the reply altogether 
wrongly, " Je ris du temps, qui se venge de moi, quand je ne lui ai fait 
aucun mal." 

Additional Note to page 40. 

The extract given here is cited from Add. MS. in the British Museum, 
12,154, f. 248, b, respecting which see my Corpus Ignatianum, p. 359. 
The passage is quoted from a writer known as the Persian Philosopher, 
whose real name was Jacob : see subscription to Add. MS. 17,182, trans- 
cribed A.G. 785, or A.D. 473. There is another copy of this work of 
nearly as early date, Add. MS. 14,619. The author wrote the last of his 
treatises in the year of Alexander, 656, or A.D. 342. These treatises, both 
from their antiquity and the matter contained in them, are very important ; 
but as I am preparing them for publication, I abstain at present from any 
further observations. 



ERRATA. 

In the Syriac Text. 
Page 5, L. 17, for l^Atao read 

7r "1 ] A Vi ^ 

9 * x > ***. }} 

12,L.24, oi^ji^ 

27, L. 24, ^f* 71 a 

29, L. 16, ^f 

45, L.I, l^^oo 

w ^-27, W> 

/n ^^c Translation. 

41, L. 1, Melito Meliton. 

43, L. 7, which subject which are subject. 



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WORKS BY REV. W. CURETON. 



BOOK OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILO- 
SOPHICAL SECTS, by MUHAMMAD AL-SHAHRASTANI : now first edited 
from the collation of several MSS. 8vo. London. For the Society for the 
Publication of Oriental Texts. 2 Voll. 1842, 1846. 

II. 

map 1E3D mrc : TANCHUMI HIEROSOLYMITANI Commen- 

tarius Arabicus in LAMENTATIONES : e codice unico Bodleiano literis He- 
braicis exarato. 8vo. Londini, apud Jac. Madden, 1843. 

III. 

X^ljUj XJLJJ J*1 **>&> '**+* : PILLAR OF THE CREED OF 
THE SUNNITES ; being a brief Exposition of their principal Tenets, by 
AL-NASAFI. 8vo. London. For the Society for the Publication of Oriental 
Texts. 1843. 

IV. 

CATALOGUS CODICUM MANUSCRIPTORUM ARABICO- 
RUM, qui in MUSEO BRITANNICO asservantur. fol. Londini, Impensis 
Curatorum Musei Britannici. Pars. 1. 1846. Pars. II. IN 

V. 

VINDICI^E IGNATIAN.E : or, The Genuine Writings of St Igna- 
tius, as exhibited in the Syriac Version, vindicated from the charge of 
Heresy. 8vo. London, Rivingtons. 1846. 

VI. 

*fiDQalj1Z) \++f>> ]hJ>\ Uf^ : THE FESTAL LETTERS OF 
ST. ATHANASIUS, discovered in an Ancient Syriac Version, and edited 
with a Preface. 8vo. London. For the Society for the Publication of 
Oriental Texts. 1848. 

VII. 

THREE SERMONS, preached at the Chapel Royal, St James' : The 
Essential Connection of Christian Faith and Practice, being Two Sermons 
delivered on Sunday, Feb. 27 ; The Revelations of Christianity with respect 
to Temporal Polity, preached on Wednesday, March 22. 8vo. London, 
Rivingtons ; Oxford, Parker, 1848. 



VIII. 

CORPUS IGNATIANUM. A Complete Collection of the Ignatian 
Epistles, genuine, interpolated, and spurious, together with numerous Ex- 
tracts from them as quoted by Ecclesiastical Writers down to the Tenth 
Century, in Syriac, Greek, and Latin. An English Translation of the 
Syriac Text, with copious Notes and Introduction. Royal 8vo. London. 
Rivingtons. 1849. 

IX. 

FRAGMENTS OF THE ILIAD OF HOMER, ftom a Syriac 
Palimpsest. 4to. London. Printed by order of the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 1851. 

X. 

The Third Part of the ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF JOHN 
BISHOP OF EPHESUS, now first edited. 4to. Oxford. At the 
University Press. 1853. 



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