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Full text of "Spokane County as it is: Solid Facts and Actual Results. For the Information of Immigrants and ..."

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University of Michigan 

PrHcated by 



!in^.; lv,c^J^^A/v\ oWvv _ | ^^H 



Spokane C 



POKANE BOUNTY 



AS IT IS. ^^' 



2. 7 '<? «• 'i 



•^•Solid+FaGts+and+Actual+Results.-^ 



"^^^ THE INFORMATION OF IMMMANTg 



And Others. 



By C. B. CARLISLE, JorKXAi.isr. 



secON EDITIOK. 



P()KII-A\I), ORK'JON: 

SihAM I'KKSSI-S OK HlMKS TIIK T*KINTI.K. 



INTRODUCTION. 




VERY steamship and railway train coming to the North- 
west, brings scores of immigrants from all parts of the 
j^ world, and it is more than likely that this influx of people 
j^ will continue for years to come and, notwithstanding the 
avalanche of newspaper correspondence, pamphlets, etc., which 
has been showered upon the people of the east, north and south, 
for the past year or two, to the majority of these, Spokane 
county or country is still a terra incognita^ and thousand of these 
are athirst for every scrap of reliable information concerning it. 

The great results so far accomplished ; the unprecedented pro- 
duction of the soil ; the rapid, permanent and profitable growth 
of the country in a general or special sense ; the superior climatic 
surroundings with other features peculiar to the Spokane coun- 
try, when written or spoken of, seem to be a presentation that 
should be taken with a considerable degree of allowance, inter- 
mingled with doubt as to liow far the information is to be credited. 
It is not to be denied that many writers have been enthusiastic in 
their descriptions, and while stating naught that is actually un- 
true, exceptional cases, items or objects, have been largely treated 
upon, and the idea conveyed that it was general and not special 
results that were alluded to. Ideas like these have brought here 
a great many people who expect to grow suddenly rich, and 
these have been astonished and disappointed when they came to 
realize that expenditure of brain, labor and money were neces- 
sary to success here, as anywhere else in the world, and have 
gone to the other extreme, and denounce all that was said of this 
section, as untrue. 

The success of many, the rapid I3" increasing prosperity of the 
territory, the immense bulk of wealth of many kinds within the 
scope of this county alone, have awakened an intense desire upon 



the part of strangers for real information, and it is the desire of 
the author to furnish that which can be readily substantiated. 

We are hj)nest in the opinion that, taken as a whole, the north- 
west is richer in natural resources than almost any other part of 
tbe United States of the same area; and this is said, too, while 
the industries are comparatively unde^veloped, when the country 
is in a transition state, passing from the frontier existence, pros- 
pecting excitement and temporary prosperity of railway build- 
ing — all this, to a settled and definite condition, in which agri- 
culture and manufacturing form the basis — while the capability 
of expansion of these is really unkown. Under the rapid rail- 
way development of this section by the O. R. & N. Co. and the 
Northern Pacific, the expansion of our resources has been com- 
pelled, and under this a new era has dawned for this country. 
This railway spirit has opened up connection with other parts of 
the world, provided markets and penetrated all the ramifications 
of trade and commerce, and as a result, prosperity is seen in every 
city, town and hamlet — really, in every face one meets. 

My position as a journalist has given me superior advantages 
for the collection and compilation of solid facts and results, and 
these, rather than elo(j[uent language or beautiful embellishment, 
will be found in this work. It is designed for use and informa- 
tion, in the absence of what the wise men of our legislature 
should have done for this country. Immigrants need to be in- 
formed about this country, and this we have furnished here. 

C. B. CARLISLE. 

Spokane Falls, July, 1883. 



SPOKANE COUNTY. 




[ERHAPS the capabilities, resources and the probable 
future developments of Spokane county have been less 
intelligently written about and described than most of 
those comprising this territorj\ Until July, 1881, there 
was no communication by rail with adjoining counties, or the 
outside world, and the traveler by stage followed roadways giving 
him no glimpses of our valleys, or our broad fertile plains. Spo- 
kane county is next to the largest in the territory, having an 
area of 10,000 square miles, and lying east and south of the Co- 
lumbia river. This area embraces all the vast and fertile region 
lying within the Big Bend of the above named river, and which 
is known as Spokane Plains in the northwest. And it is well 
enough to say here, that the term " Spokane Plains " is not used 
as it is in Eastern Nevada or Utah : there meaning an arid region, 
for no part of the territory is within the so-called arid country. 
The country joins the Pan-Handle of Idaho on the east, Stevens 
county on the north, Whitman south and the Columbia on the 
west. It is all within what is known as the great wheat belt of 
Eastern Washington, and offers an inmiense region, much of 
it as yet untouched, of the best of agricultural land. 

CJjIMATE. 

In the inquiry made about a new country, the climate is the 
chief burden. It is made this l)y those of sound bodily health, 
as well as those not in good health ; by those whose pursuits are 
materially affected by climatic changes, as well as those who 
follow mechanical industries. 

The general belief among people in the outside world is that 
our climate is an exceedingly cold one. This is an error, and 



6 

taken advantage of, too, by people in California, jealous of the 
tide of immigration coming this way. Being so far north it 
would be cold here, but for the fact that we are not subject to the 
natural influences of climate — that is, not located with reference 
to the zones. In the three months called winter, we have the 
cUme of Maryland, Washington City, and Jefferson City, Mis- 
souri. In the winter we have the influence of the soft, warm 
winds from the China and Japan seas, and in summer these winds 
are cooled by the high range of mountains lying to the west, 
north and east of the Spokane country. According to the signal 
service record, the average temperature for 1882 was 47.7°. Here 
in the Falls, last winter, there were but seven days when car- 
penters could not do outdoor work, and not more than two weeks 
between November and January when it was not common to 
see painters doing outside work. During the year, there were 21 
davs when the maximum thermometer was below 32°, and six 
days when it exceeded 75°. Rainfall, 20.18 inches. When we 
have hot weather, the heat is not at all oppressive; everybody 
laboring without any inconvenience. The nights are always 
cool and refreshing, making light blankets a necessary part of 
the bed clothing. Nothing could be more thoroughly delightful 
than the spring and fall months. 

Some seasons, snow may lie a month or six weeks on the ground. 
Usually, however, it disappears within a few days. The speedy 
melting of the snow is due, at times, to a somewhat remarkable 
phenomenon. A periodical warm wind blows up the channel of 
the Columbia from the southwest throughout the year. This is 
called the *' Chinook." It penetrates the gaps and passes of the 
mountain ranges of Montana. Before it the snow melts so 
rapidly that often in the course of a few hours no vestige remains 
where it lay a foot in depth a day before. The "Chinook" 
wind is a great benetlt to the country. Its warm, moist atmos- 
phere is doubtless the result of its passage across the great ther- 
mal ocean stream, known as the Japan current, which operates 
so powerfully to mitigate the climate of the entire northwest 
coast, that otherwise would be cold and rigorous in the extreme. 
Further, when it is very cold, there are no razor-like winds, as in 
Nevada, Utah and Nebraska. 

Spring begins in February with warm, pleasant weather, and 



laste until the middle of May. At this season rain falls in suffici- 
ent quantity to give life to vegetation and insure good crops. 

Through the kindness of Dennis Moore, of the signal service 
and government telegraph office here, we have been placed in 
possession of the following data, as part of his annual meteoro- 
logical summary for the year ending December, 1882. As the 
the office was not in operation until February, the report covers 
eleven months. The report is very elaborate in detail, but we 
have only space for the following. For the eleven months a^s 
stated, we have the following as the mean temperature: 

degrees, degreea. 

February 29.5 August 61.9 

March 41.4 September 53.5 

April 48.9 October 42.9 

May 53.6 November 33.0 

June 59.3 * December 31.3 

July 65.6 

These figures show the annual mean temperature to be 47.4° 
Those who have been inquiring by letter, from time to time, about 
the weather here, during the different months of the year, can 
now see at a glance, what we have to offer in this respect, and 
making comparisons with what the signal service furnishes in 
different parts of the country, determine as to the most desirable 
place to live, in this respect. 

Another interesting feature of the report from which we glean, 
is the number of clear days in the eleven months. The record is 
as follows : 

dear days. , clear days, 

February 4 August lo 

March 9 September 11 

April 8 October 4 

May 4 | November 1 

June 3 , December 1 

July 12 

The following table presents the days of the year wherein the 
maximum thermometer was below 32°, the minimum, and when 
it exceeded 90° : 



8 



Max, below 32°. Minimum. Ex. 90° 

February 7 16 

March 16 

April 2 

May 

June 

July 4 

August 2 

September 1 

October 6 8 

November 20 

December 7 27 

Below we have the record of rainfall : 

Inehes. 

February 3.85 

March 1.07 

April ^1.20 

May 50 

June 1.23 

July 2.25 

August 45 

September 2.55 

October 1.42 

November 2.23 

December 2.44 

Total for the 11 months 20.18 

Between the middle of April and September the hours of the 
day, after three o'clock, are deUghtful; the cooling breezes from the 
mountain ranges and the ahnost frigid waters of the rivers, join in 
making a most delicious temperature — one that leaves the inhabi- 
tant or tourist nothing to wish for in that direction. The twilight 
lasts so long, at this season, that even those with poor sight can 
read a book as late as halt-past nine o'clock, without any other 
light than that furnished by nature. 

If one has a desire to revel in a season of dolce far tiientey we 
know of no other place on the continent that is preferable to this 
charming spot, Spokane Falls. 



THE SOIL. 

About Spokane Falls, Cheney, Sprague, Farinington, Ritzville, 
in Peone Prairie, Moran Prairie, White Bluffs, Deep Creek Falls, 
Medical Lake, Crab Creek, Rock ford. Hangman Creek and Rock 
Creek — all localities tributary in a greater or less degree to 
Spokane Falls, and best reached by the immigrant from this city, 
and localities, too, where those wishing can procure land in 
plenty, and at such rates as are within reach of every man hav- 
ing brain, muscle and energy — the soil is a dark loam of great 
depth, composed of alluvial deposits and decomposed lava overly- 
ing a clay sub-soil. The constituents of this soil adapt the land 
peculiarly to the production of wheat. All the mineral salts 
which are necessary to the perfect growth of this cereal are 
abundant, reproducing themselves constantly as the processes of 
gradual decomposition in this soil of volcanic origin proceed. The 
clods are easily broken by the plow, and the ground quickly 
crumbles on exposure to the atmosphere. Although a dry season 
may continue for months, this light, porous land retains and ab- 
sorbs enough moisture from the atmosphere, after its particles have 
been partially disintegrated, to insure perfect growths and full 
harvests. 

This assertion is so at variance with common experience that it 
might well be questioned. Happily, it is susceptible of explana- 
tion. In spite of the fact that there are comparatively few show- 
ers between May and the following October, and that the average 
rainfall for the year does not exceed 20 inches, there is always the 
requisite moisture for maturing the crops. Paradoxical as it may 
seem, if the rain were greatly in excess of this low average, 
damage would certainly ensue, and it is equally sure, if successful 
farming depended upon the limited rainfall, there would be poor 
harvests. The clouds supply only in part the moisture which is 
needed. The warm air currents, surcharged with vapor, which 
sweep inland from the ocean, up the Columbia river, prevent 
drought. The effect of these atmospheric currents in tempering 
the climate has already been described. Their influence upon the 
vegetation is no less vital. The moisture with which they are 
laden is held in suspension during the day, diffused over the face 
of the country. At night it is condensed by the cooler tempera- 
ture and precipitated in the form of a fine mist on every exposed 






Spokane C 



POKANE BOUNTY 



AS IT 18. '^' 



2 7 "^ i 'I 



■^•Solid+Facts+and+AGtual+Results.-^ 



FOR THE INFORMATION OF IMMMANTg 



And Others. 



By (". B. CARIilSLK, Joiknaltst. 



SECOK C BDITIOK. 



POKTLAM), OREliO.V: 

SiKAM PRRSSF.S UK lIlMES THK PkINTKK. 

iSS.i. 



12 



\ 



Board and room per week 5 50 to 6 50 

Day board in private family 4 00 

Board and room in private family 5 00 

For transients the hotel charges are from $1.50 to $2.50 per 
day, with free transportation to and from the house. 

A house of from 2 to 8 rooms can be rented for from $10 to $15 
per month ; wood ready for the stove costs about $1.75 per rick — 8 
feet long, 4 feet high, and stove length. 

Timber is plentiful and lumber at the mills can be had for from 
$12 to $18 per M. 

Flour in sacks, $2 per 100 lbs. At the bakers you get 14 bread 
tickets for $1. 

Lamp-oil, $3 to $3.50 per five gallon can. 

Clothing, ready made, is not more than 10 per cent, higher than 
in the east. 

Dress goods are ten per cent, higher than in the east. 

Milk, delivered by the month, $3 for one quart per day. 

Out in the country, the prices of food, that is such articles as are 
produced there, are at least 10 per cent, cheaper than those given 
above. 



Spokane Falls Market Beport, April: 



Apples, dried, per lb 16 

20 

20 

8 

4 

H 

4 

40 

25 

12 

8 

8 



Peaches, 


per lb 


Plums, 




Beans, 




Onions, 




Potatoes, 




Cabbage, 




Butter, 




Cheese, 




Beef, 




Mutton, 




Pork, 





Corn Beef, *' 7 

Corn Meal, '* 7J 



t( 



(( 



U 

2 
20 
15 
18 



Oats, per lb 
Barley, 
Ham, 
Shoulder'* 
Bacon, ** 

Chickens, per doz $3 00 

Eggs, per doz 25 

Syrup, per gal 1 00 

Honey, *"' 2 00 

Apples, per box 2 50 

Lard, 10 lb. can 2 00 

Brown sugar, 6 lbs. for... 1 00 

Coffee, 4 lbs. for 1 00 

Canned goods, about 25 



Oat Meal, 



(( 



7h 



13 



And while upon the question of finances, it is well enough to 
say, that the territory is not a dollar in debt, but has a large bal- 
ance on hand. The county of Spol^ane owes nothing, all the 
different funds showing healthy balances of casli on hand, especi- 
ally that set apart for school purposes ; and taxable property for 
this year will aggregate fully $3,500,000. The county tax is 15 
mills on the dollar. Our county sheriff makes the estimate, that 
the increase of grain acerage in the county this year, will be 
40 per cent., or about 70,000 acres. 

One of the very best evidences of this probable increase in 
acreage, and that our farmers do not propose to work with rude 
and slovenly makeshifts, but that this section of country is rapidly 
settling down to what must become the basis of all future pros- 
perity here, is the large sales of the best of agricultural imple- 
ments. There are four firms in Spokane Falls dealing in these 
implements, and from these gentlemen we have their sales for 
April, 1882, given in the following order : $4,600, $2,a50, $2,900, 
and $2,150; a total of $12,200. These implements are of the very 
best manufactured, the most expensive, and possessed of all the 
modern improvements. When it is remembered that all the sales 
of these implements, for all the seasons from the first settlement 
of the county, or this part of it, would not aggregate $5,000, the 
record above given carries with it a weight of evidence not real- 
ized in any other way. 

CROP REPORTS. 

While we have said, in a general way, that the yield of wheat, 
oats and barley will average so much, the proof of the pudding is 
the eating thereof, and we take it, that the man who thinks of 
coming out here to engage in agriculture will be pleased to have 
something to detail, so we have concluded to give the following 
report of Mr. C. Bartlet, who threshed the grain in Peone Prairie 
—twelve miles from here — last season : 

The wheat of Leonard Dill, of Peone plateau, yielded 35 bushels 
to the acre. At one time during the season he thought it would 
not pay to take the grain to the sack. 

The result of the threshing at T. J. Doak^s was: wheat, 29 
bushels to the acre; barley, 51 bushels, and oats, 62 bushels. The 
wheat stood very thin, and Mr. Doak at one time intended to cut 
it for hay. 



14 



James^ Fran7.en's nats yieldfii fiT bushels (o the a<?re, after cattle 
had pastured Id it time and again during the eeaeos. Properly 
pared for, the result wnuld have probably been 75 or 80 hushels. 

As an evident* iif the fertility of the soil in this section of 
country, we have the testimony of Dr. J. J. Piper, that he sowed 
exactly 150 p<mndti of oats, and from that, the threahera testily 
they gave him 175 hushelB of the grain. 

From Hi atres of land, H. Dart took 10.5 buBhela of oats. 

From S acres of wheat, Chas. Hone took ;j5a buahela of grain, 
machine measure. HIh wheat and oats, as a crop, yielded over ai 
httahcls to the 'acre.' He flnds sale for hia wheat, for seed, at a 
cent and a quarter. 

And it is a further evidence In this direction that apecimene of 
the grain grown in the fields In the immediate vicinity of Spokane 
Falls, put on exhibition at the Mechanics' Fair in Portland, last 
meneon, took the diploma. 



Ah tbr vegetablcB of all kinde, potatoes, turuipB, pawnipH, 
i.'ubbage, beets, onions, and alniost every thing coming under the 
head of "garden truck," what is grown here, in of the largest 
kind, ftill in yield, of excellent flavor and quality. The potatoes 
raised here are very large. The same is true of cabbage, onions 
and turnips. Berries dnd small bruits are plentiful. 



It has been UAil abroad that we can not raise fruit in this section 
of country, that we are too far north. Ab a contradiction Ui this, 
we state, that within twelve miles of this city there are a doiien 
orchards, all thrifty and bearing. We can give the names of more 
than flftj' farmers who this year have bought young trees with 
which to start orchards. Mr. H. N, Muzzy, a mile from town, 
north, hoM this season set out I,0()0 apple and ^K) other trees. 

The best contradiction to the assertion that we are too far norl h , 
is in the fact that John Rickey, who lives eighty inilen north of 
Bpokane Falls, has a targe orchard, and last season produced ii 
lat^e quantity of splendid fruit. And still ftirther, there are here 
on exhibition a few apples forwarded by Judge Lulirle, from the 



15 

700 trees' orchard of F. B. Smith, who lives "within a mile of the 
49th parallel, and near Okanagan lake, a long journey to the north 
and west of Spokane Falls. These apples are not only very large 
and sound, but of excellent flavor, equal to any fruit produced in 
Indiana, Ohio or New York. Mr. Smith had plenty of peaches, 
plums, pears and melons, during last season. 

R. G. Williamson, who came from Kansas five years ago, has 
operated a farm five miles east of this place, taking land that was 
supposed to be almost worthless, has been marketing gooseberries 
for four years, has cherry trees two years old, bearing fruit, and 
peach trees in bloom the second year from the planting of the pit. 
He has prunes, plums, apples and currants, and has been more 
fortunate with these fruits here than he was in Kansas. He gives 
us the names of half a dozen neighbors who have been equally 
fortunate in this respect. 

Mr. Havermale, of Moran Prairie, has had the same experience 
with fruit as that detailed by Mr. Williamson. 

INFORMATION IN PORTLAND. 

Emigrantrt en route by steamer are met at Astoria by an au- 
thorized agent from tlie Northern Pacific Land Department and 
Immigration Bureau, who, during the journey by steamship from 
that point to Portland, will furnish them with all desired informa- 
tion relative to their needs while in the last named place, and 
their journey to other points in the northwest. 

Once in Portland, the emigrant in search of farming lands or 
town lots in the various outlying localities in Oregon or Wash- 
ington Territory, is directed to the Northern Pacific Land Office, 
which is convenient to all hotels and steamship landings, where 
he will find Mr. Paul Schulze, general agent of the western district, 
and a fiill and eflOicient corps of assistants, to aid him in making a 
satisfactory selection of a new home in the northwest. Here the 
stranger is furnished with practical and reliable information con- 
cerning this great region of country. The emigrant has only to 
be frank and straightfon;\^ard himself in order to obtain what he 
requires. If he will be guided by these gentlemen he need not 
make a mistake of any kind. 

WHO SHOULD COME. 

No one should think of emigrating without sufficient means for 
self-support for at least a short time after reaching his destination; 



16 

for HUitable employiiieiit immediately after arrival can not always 
Ih: relied on, and there is nothing more diseoura^ng to the new 
er>mer than to become a subject of public or private charity. This 
caution applies particularly to heads of families, who would be 
cruelly derelei-t in their duty to expose those depending on them 
t^> the risk of destitution on arrival. Families who contemplate 
s«*ttling on lands will require, after providing for all traveling ex- 
I)enses, from $300 to |oOO with which to meet the cost of putting 
up a house, for live stock, seed, farming implements, provisions, 
etc. 

(jrood health is the first requisite of a person who proposes to 
emigrate to a new country, with a view to impro^'ing his con- 
dition in life. Although the climate of the Pacific Northwest is 
HO favorable as to insure exemption from many diseases which 
prevail in other states, and to promise relief in certain ailment**, 
the chances are that immigration will prove a mistake in the case 
of confirmed invalids who are w)mpelled to work for a living. 

Generally speaking, persons accustomed to ordinary and me- 
chanical labor, and who unite frugal habits with persevering 
industry, will run the least risk in emigrating; but indi\iduals 
unwilling to work, or accustomed to live by their wits, are not 
wanted. Idlers will only go from bad to worse, and adventurers 
will not prosper. It requires health, labor, courage and persist- 
ence to succeed here as elsewhere, and emigrants must expect to 
endure the privations of life in a new country, holding before 
them the certainty of future comfort and prosperity. Capitalists 
could not make a mistake by investing their money here in the 
purchase of tj iber, mineral or agricultural lands, and by estab- 
lishing manutactories for the production of all goods made of 
wool, iron or wood. Such opportunities for making great wealth 
do not exist elsewhere. In this region money don't grow on 
trees, and most honest people get it only by the sweat of the 
brow, still there t. enough filthy lucre in these parts to supply a 
moderate amount of it to every industrious, energetic person who 
is rightly anxious to work without being too particular as to tlie 
kind of work. 

Wages here are above the average over the Union. All over 
this section are opportunities for the right kind of men to make 
a good living and good homes. But idlers, spendthrifts, intem- 
perate men, slow-going, sleepy-headed customers, may as well 



17 

stay where they are, for neither the people nor the country will 
welcome them, or fling fortunes into. their laps. If you are wide 
awake and full of go-ahead, come along and reap your share of 
the prosperity which is just in the future in this section. If you 
have always been left in the lurch, or had your eyes almost cheated 
out of you wherever you have lived, don^t come here to experi- 
ment, for the result would likely be the same. 

Rents are reasonable. In this city dwellings range from $8 per 
month to $20 — $10 and $15 being about the average. There is a 
wider range for places of business. Eligible ofllces rate at from 
$8 to $10 for a single room, and from $10 to $20 for a suite, depend- 
ing upon location and character of building. The smaller class 
of shops can be had at $12 to $25, and good store rooms at from 
$30 to $80 per month. This city is the largest and best in this 
part of the Territory. Business centers here, and is undergoing 
an expansion of the most gratifying character. No place on the 
Pacific coast has better prospects than Spokane Falls. 

The whole Territory is now infused with a new life, and pos- 
sessed of an activity in excess of anything of the like heretofore 
seen. Its population is being rapidly augmented, and its resources 
are being developed in a more than corresponding manner. For 
all that is produced there is a demand, and more is produced here 
per capita than by any other equal population of the United 
States. 

. Our markets are good, and growing larger every year, so that 
those who till the soil need have no fear of not disposing of all 
they produc^. Of course there are always some drr /backs, as in 
all new countries, and we do not claim this as a Paradise, but we 
believe it to be one of the best, where a man of limited means 
can, in a short time, make himself a home and a competency. 
For those who have capital, no country in the world offers better 
chances than that of the Spokane country, i i the next few 
years fortunes will be made by those who take time by the fore- 
lock. Our resources offer an unbounded field for enterprise, and 
the attention which they deserve is being attracted this way. 
The completion of railroads connecting us with the East will 
send to our shores a vast population, and will turn our wilder- 
ness into one of the most wealthy and prosperous states. 

The most prudent and practical men in our midst do not enter- 
tain the shadow of a doubt in regard to the capacity of Spokane 



18 

county to support twenty times the population now within its 
limits. 

Taken for granted all that may be claimed for the future of this 
section, the question that must be uppermost in each immigrant's 
mind has sole reference to immediate employment. The mass of 
them arrive with no greater capital than muscle and brave hearts. 
These are the class of people who will be gladly welcomed to our 
midst. The pilgrim who came by the train last night has but to 
look about him at the signs of thrifty business to see the pros- 
perity of men who, in a large majority of instances, were poorer 
than the average of those coming in to-day. To be sure, the 
opportunities for accumulation were greater in the early settle- 
ment of the country than they are at the present time ; just as , 
this region is now a more favorable field for operation than the 
crowded communities where every avenue for employment is 
filled and every inviting field for profitable investment fully 
occupied. 

A TEMPORARY HOME FOR IMMIGRANTS. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Spokane Falls, held in March 
of 1883, Mr. Paul Schulze, Chief of the N. P. Land Department 
and Immigration Bureau, in speaking of the immigration to this 
point and the necessity for some action on the part of citizens. in - 

behalf of new-comers, said : ^ 

At this place the infiowing immigration will strike the fi. 
point from which the home seeker can go out in search u 
land. The Little Spokane and Colville region is within easy 
reach to the north, the Cottonwood and Big Bend countries to 
the west, and towards the south extends a broad stretch of the 
most productive land, on both sides of the boundary line of 
Washington and Idaho all the way to Snake river. Now then, 
if you take steps to care for and assist the immigrants when they 
reach town, if you provide a place where the women and 
children can remain while the men are out looking for land or 
work, the immigrants will make Spokane Falls their starting 
point, and you will f\ecure a large and lucrative trade. Caring for 
and assisting the immigrant means business for every one of your 
merchants and bankers ; it means the building up of varied in- 
dustries, of mills and factories ; it means prosperity to all. Treat 
the immigrant well, assist him to the utmost in the hard task of 
providing a home in a strange country, and you will tie the 
settler to you and your town. • So go to work and erect a large . 
building, an immigrant house, in which the new. comers can find 
shelter and places to cook their food, free of charge. Do this at 
once, and put the management of the building m charge of a 
committee of your citizens. The immigrant with ample means 



19 

will not need such assistance ; but many will come with but 
small means, and many will have but little more capital than 
their muscle and energy. What little money they may have 
they can not afford to spend in hotel bills ; they need it for their 
outfit. It is for th^se that I suggest to you to provide shelter. If 
you do that, the men will leave their families here while they are 
In search of land, and they will come back for their families and 
purchase their outfit here. They will become acquainted with 
you and you with them, and it will be an easy matter for you to 
keep their trade. If you take no steps to assist and help the new 
comers by doing, as I have suggested, the immigration will pass 
by and with it prosperity and wealth. Other towns will do what 
r now advise you to do. They will grow in size and prosperity ; 
they will build up industries, although their advantages may not 
be ecjual to yours, while you will sit on the banks of the Spokane 
with nothing to do but to admire your fine site and magnificent 
water power. Rely upon nothing but your own thrift and 
energy, or else what should be a great help will become a curse to 
you. It is, after all, the people, and not the location that makes 
a city. The Lord helps those that help themselves. 

The citizens of Spokane Falls have been prompt to act upon 
the suggestion of Mr. Schulze, and have already erected and 
properly furnished a building for the free use of immigrants. 

WRONG ESTIMATES. 

In view of the almost inevitable result from the rapid increase 
of population, producing an unnatural disturbance in the social 
and economical conditions of the business community, it is not 
only possible, but extremely probable, that'a great many will form 
their estimate of the whole Territory from the phenomenal con- 
dition of things they find at this threshold of the country. Any 
such estimate will be unreasonable and unjust to the person form- 
ing it. Let the same number of people be suddenly set down in 
the heart of any of our more prosperous Western States, and the 
result would be no less disastrous. In fact there is far more elas- 
ticity to the commercial relations of a new country and more op- 
portunities for expansion in the line of her limited industries. 
Our new friends should not wait for something to turn up, but go 
to work and create opportunities for themselves. 

RAILWAY BUILDING. 

The Northern Pacific main line is complete. The western ter- 
minus of the inlarnd portion of the road is at Wallula, situated on 
the Columbia river, twelve miles below the mouth of Snake river. 
The road here forms a connection with the Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Company's line through to Portland. From the 



20 

latter point the line is down the west side of the Columbia river 
to a point opposite Kalama. There is good reason to believe that 
within two months this section will be completed, and then the 
Territories of Idaho, Montana and Washington will have unin- 
terrupted conmiunication. 

The road from Snake river eastward, follows a line well adapted 
for railways. It nearly divides by a diagonal northeasterly line. 
Eastern Washington Territory, and drains a country as capable 
of raising Vheat as the famous Walla Walla region. 

There is no doubt — since Mr. Villard has said it — that a branch 
of this road will be constructed to Rockford, lying in the midst of 
one of the most fertile grain belts in the upper country. The 
town of Rockford is about twenty-eight miles to the southeast, — 
a busy, thriving place. Other branches will probably radiate 
from Spokane Falls, and will include about 12,000 square miles of 
rich farming land, located as follows : The east half of Whitman 
county, three-quarters of Spokane, and one-third of Stevens 
counties, in Washington Territory, and one-fourth of North 
Idaho. One-third of the above, or nearly 4,000 square miles, 
would be tapped by the south branch, via the easy grade of Hang- 
man creek to Famiington, Moscow and farther east. A second 
branch to the west from Spokane Falls to near Lake Chelan, 
would tap an additional one-third, or 4,000 square miles. A third 
branch, from Spokane .Falls north to the Columbia river, near 
Kettle falls, would tap nearly 2,000 square miles ; while the partly 
finished branch, to be extended from a point on the Northern 
Pacific line, forty miles east of Ains worth, to Cplfax, would tap 
probably over 2,000 square miles. Here is an empire in itself, 
two-thirds of it lying in two compact bodies to the west and south 
of this point. Considerable of the land upon the south branch 
has been settled upon and cultivated from one to five years past, 
with the grand result of a total average yield for a series of years, 
or since its first cultivation, of over thirty bushels of wheat per 
acre, while the country west from Spokane Falls, extending over 
130 miles, to near Lake Chelan, and south of the great bend of 
the Columbia, an average of over thirty miles in width, is a 
c()mi)act body of as fine farming land as exists upon this con- 
tinent. The surface is less broken than the land to the south of 
the Falls, consisting of great easy swells. The soil is even richer 
than that of the average of the Palouse section, while the general 



21 

westerly inclination of this country towards the Columbia insures 
for it a much higher average prevailing temperature. This great 
fertile tract comprises an area equal in extent to that of the Walla 
Walla and Yakima valleys combined. The grade for a railway 
from Spokane Falls, furnished by a long, level ridge, which ex- 
tends from this point for a distance of over seventy miles to the 
Grand Coulee, is exceptionally easy and economical of construc- 
tion, while from thence on, nearly to Lake Chelan, the principal 
engineering difficulty encountered is the crossing of the Grand 
Coulee, over which a feasible route, or at least one no more diflSlcult 
or expensive than the crossing of Hangman creek, has recently 
been discovered. This will eventually be the most inaportant of 
the Northern Pacifiers axial branches, as this section has of late 
been the favorite one for immigrants, who have located there in 
large niunbers. Only as far west as the Great Bend the popula- 
tion now numbers over 2,500. Hence, ^tis evident the next great 
wave of immigration, which will be immeasurably larger than 
the two preceding ones to the Walla Walla and Palouse sections, 
will roll towards what is now known as the Big Bend country. 
The proposed branch road, eighty miles in length north to the 
Columbia river, near Kettle falls, or at the mouth of the Nehola- 
pilkwa river, will also have exceptionally light grades, and is in 
every respect an easy and economical road to construct. At the 
above point of junction the road will tap 320 miles of continuous 
river navigation northwardly into British Columbia, tapping the 
Canadian Pacific and a rich mineral field several thousand square 
miles in extent, besides affording an outlet to the Little Spokane 
and Colville valleys, as well as large tracts of the finest quality of 
cedar and white pine upon the eastern slope of the Cascades. 

The branch of the Northern Pacific railroad from Palouse 
Junction to the towns of Colfax, Moscow and Farmington, is be- 
ing constructed and will be in full operation by the end of the 
present year. 

In New York, recently, Mr. Villard stated to an officer in the 
army, that he would construct a railway from Spokane Falls to 
the Columbia north of Colville, using the incorporation articles 
and franchise granted an organized company in this city last year. 
Doubtless he has been infiuenced by the fact that the Canadian 
syndicate has succeeded in getting Parliament to adopt a more 
southerly route, called the Kicking Horse Pass, chosen by Major 



22 



Rogers, chief engineer of the mountain district of the Canadian 
Pacific, and which will bring the line to cross the Columbia 
twice, within 200 miles of Colville, and to which, and beyond, 
from the latter place, or Kettle Falls, there is a splendid river for 
the larger boats. For a long time supplies for the Canadian people 
must come through this city and the Colville valley. In all 
ways — geographically, topographically, the condition of Spokane 
river, as that relates to its crossing, its relation to other localities 
in Eastern Washington and to the Northern Pacific, as well as its 
commercial status, — Spokane Falls is the natural connecting point 
between San Francisco, Portland, the country south of us, and 
the great up-country. 

There can be no doubt that the building and completion of the 
Grand Trunk Canada Pacific to the north of us, even through 
the Selkirk range, would have benefited this section and that 
lying between this point and the 49th parallel — benefitted it in a 
great degree — but that benefit is immeasurably increased now 
that the railway route has been changed to a southern, or the 
Columbia river route, and its building and completion comes not 
only directly in our neighborhood, but makes this part of Eastern 
Washington the basis of supplies. In all this there is something 
real solid and hopeful, not only as to the immediate, but to the 
more distant future. We do not assert that the great domain 
lying to the north of us, partly in British Columbia and partly in 
our own country, and pierced by the Canada Pacific, as an Arca- 
dia, but we think it has always been undervalued by those who 
know little of it, and that it is full of great possibilities. 

Capital is always seeking investment of this kind, and that a 
railway line between the Northern Pacific at this point and Col- 
ville, operating in conjunction with an Upper Columbia line of 
steamers, will be a matter of fact in the near future, there can be 
little if any doubt. 

Track laying was commenced at Ainsworth, August,* 1880, and 
the force worked in all 132 days — distance 149 miles. The follow- 
ing are some of the elevations on the main line : Spokane Falls, 
1,907 ; Marshall, 2,115; Cheney, 2,342; Clifton, 1,989; Westwood, 
2,219; 202d mile, 2,461 ; Prescott Lake, 2,215 ; Cocolala, 2,240 ; Sand 
Point, 2,056 ; Pack River, 2,056; Lightning Creek, 2,066; Cannon^s, 
2,086 ; Blue Creek, 2,100 ; Crossing, 295th mile, 2,215 ; and Martinis, 
2,225. 



23 



MINERAL. 

Up to the present writing, comparatively little has been done in 
this section, in the way of developing— what we certainly have — 
great mineral resources. We suppose that if the few ledges, 
worked in the country north of Spokane, or in the Pend d' Oreille 
country, were away off in Arizona, or in some bleak, inhospit- 
able and rugged region, the rush of capital and labor would be a 
marvel of the mining age ; but it is all within easy railway and 
steamer ride of Portland and '"Frisco," it all lies awaiting the 
open-sesame of some far-seeing operator, to reveal and rifle the 
Aladdin-like caves of wealth. We fully believe that within live 
years, or less, there will be developed in this section quartz, gravel 
and placer diggings, which will equal in extent and productive- 
ness any that have ever been developed in the same area in Cali- 
fornia, Nevada, or Utah. This prediction is based upon the re- 
sults that have been reached from the smallest and most super- 
ficial labor, and the specimens constantly shown. 

WESTERN DISTRICT LANDS. 

The great bulk of the agricultural lands in Washington Terri- 
tory are owned and conveyable only by the Northern Pacific 
Bailroad Company, and it is pertinent to advert here to the policy 
of the managers in the disposal of such property. Prior to Sept., 
1883, these lands were sold at the minimum price of $2.60 per acre. 
Under the present system these farming lands are graded, and 
such prices afllxed as shall be warranted by the quality of the 
soil, nature of surface, nearness to market, and such other consid- 
erations as naturally establish values. Exceptionally good lands 
are worth from three to five dollars per acre. 

The emigrant can buy for cash or on time, as he may elect, the 
company making no discrimination in price. One-fifth of the 
purchase price must be paid upon delivery of the land. At the 
end of the year the purchaser pays the interest of seven per cent, 
for that twelve month. Each year thereafter the buyer pays one- 
fifth and interest to date, until the land is his own. 

The conditions of the company, made to check the purchase of 
lands by speculators, are, to cultivate one-sixth of the land within 
two years of purchase. This cultivation means farming, in the 
general application of the word. 



24 

Towards actual settlers, the attitude of the company is one of 
exceptional liberality, and the rapid settling up of this territory 
is the bctet proof of the wisdom of such a policy. 

HOW TO GET HERE. 

Emigrants come by speedy and comfortable conveyance. The 
long and tedious journey by wagon roads, with its train of hard- 
ships and dangers, is numbered with past events, and a rich and 
smiling country, so long hidden in solitude, is now revealed to 
the world, and invites to occupation. The valuable part of our 
broad domain is now brought into direct intercourse with the 
eastern states by means of the Northern Pacific Railroad. 

At San Francisco the traveler finds every three days a steam- 
ship ready to carry him to Portland, for $20 in the cabin and $10 
in the steerage. At the latter city he can buy a ticket for Spokane 
Falls for $21.70. The actual expense from San Francisco to this 
point — first class is $45.00; second class, $35.00. He can leave 
Portland every morning, except Sunday, at seven o'clock; mak- 
ing the journey between Portland and this city in twenty-four 
hours. The Union and Central Pacific roads have greatly re- 
duced their second and third-class rates, and a man who is willing 
to travel cheap, and Uve a good deal in the lunch-basket style, can 
make the journey from New York, or any of the eastern cities, 
to Spokane Falls for one hundred dollars, or even less. 

WHAT A HOME HEBE COSTS. 

The question is often asked: What does it cost to secure a home 
in Eastern Washington ? That will depend very much on the 
kind of a home one wishes to get. The new beginner can be 
made comfortable on a very little, if satisfied to go slowly. A 
farmer, who has a pleasant looking place, gives us the following 
figures : 

Fees for entering claim $14 (X) 

Expenses visiting land ofiOice 2 00 

Material for house, 16x18 45 00 

Cooking-stove, crockeryware, half doz. chairs, table, two 

bedsteads 80 00 

One yoke of cattle 125 00 

Plow 23 00 

Wagon 75 00 



25 



Flour (four persons, six months) 30 00 

Groceries '. 15 00 

Cow 25 00 

Fuel 30 00 

Hogs, hoes, rakes, shovels, scythe, etc 40 00 

Total $504 00 

The first year he broke his land and grew sufficient wheat, 
potatoes and vegetables for his own use. He also worked for his 
neighbors to the amount of $150, his time not being required on 
his own ranch. The second year he bought seed and a harrow 
for $75, and that year paid for help to harvest his grain, $75. He 
also worked out this year to the amount of $100. At the end of the 
second year, his r^nch stood him in at $614, and he sold his crop 
for $1,000, leaving him a balance of $386, not counting his earn- 
ings from neighbors, $250. In other words, this man, after pay- 
ing for his farm in two years and securing a comfortable home, 
had a surplus of $639 with which to build better buildings, clothe 
and educate his family. 

UNITED STATF:S LAND LAWS. 

The liberal provisions which have been made by the United 
States Government for acquiring public lands are to be found in 
the following summary of the acts of Congress relating to the 
subject : 

Under the provisions of the "Homestead Law," every head of 
a family, male or female, or single man over twenty-one years of 
age, a citizen of the United States, or having declared his inten- 
tion to become such, can enter, on payment of the registry fees, 
which range from $5.50 to $22, one hundred and sixty acres of 
government land, excepting lands bearing gold, silver, cinnabar 
or copper. After five years' continuous residence upon and im- 
provement of the land, the government will give the claimant a 
perfect title. 

Under the Pre-emption Law, persons who are qualified to take 
up land under the conditions applying to the homestead law, and 
who are not already in possession of three hundred and twenty 
acres in any of the States or Territories of the United States, may 



26 

"enter" and establish a pre-emption right, at the government 
land office of the district, on payment of a fee of $3. In other 
words, any such person has the right to purchase a tract of one 
hundred and sixty acres, either within or without the limits of a 
railroad grant, at $2.50 per acre in the former, and at $1.25 per 
acre in the latter case. Where the tract is offered for sale by the 
government, the land must be paid for within thirteen months 
from the date of settlement, otherwise within thirty-three months. 
The United States land office for this section is located here. The 
immigrant will find local land agents of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company also in this city. 

HOW TO VISIT OUTLYING PLACES. 

Once here and desiring to visit the outlying country, the trav- 
eler has the choice of excellent private conveyance from three or 
four livery stables, or by stage and railway. He can go to West- 
wood by rail, 28 miles east ; by the same conveyance to Cheney, 
16 miles southwest ; Sprague, 40 miles in the same direction ; Col- 
ville, 75 miles north, by stage, six times each week ; to Deep 
Creek Falls, half a day's journey west by stage ; Cottonwood, a 
day's journey by the same conveyance ; Spangle, half a day's 
journey to the southwest, taking in Rockford during the trip ; go 
to Medical Lake by stage, eleven miles north of Cheney. Peone 
Prairie, Moran Prairie, White Bluff's, Hangman, and other excel- 
lent farming localities hard by, are only reached by private con- 
veyance, at a very reasonable cost. 

DRESS. 

And just here let me insert a thought as to dress for this climate. 
In every part of this section everybody wears woolen undercloth- 
ing all the year round. Now and .then, in the middle of the day 
in summer, people dress themselves in light overclothing, but 
every careful person resumes heavier dress, and the men light 
overcoats, in the evening. 



Spokane Falls, Past and Present. 




PAST. 

lEN or twelve years ago, a cabin or two, and a squatter'.' 
claini, represented Spokane Falls. The great river div- 
ided itself into half a dozen branches, and in almost every 
form of beauty rippled down the cascades, and went 
plunging over precipices ; but out from its banks, then, there was 
scarcely a footprint of civilization, and it was long, weary miles 
to where the white man had gained a foothold. Two squatters, 
Se£h R. Scranton and J. J. Downing, who, if we are correctly 
informed, carried on a horse-flesh business, hardly in keeping 
with good morals in trade, claimed ownership of the plateau, on 
which most of the town is now built. It was hypothetical, but 
in those days it was good, and when, on the 11th of May, 1878, 
James N. Glover, who, prompted by a spirit of adventure and 
frontierism, had journeyed from Oregon, rode into the camp by 
the Spokane, felt that this was a "promised land," and here he 
would raise his Ebenezer. The squatters declined to get up and 
dust, except upon the payment of 

TWO HUNDRKD TWENTY-DOLLAR GOLD PIECES. 

That was a good deal of money in those days ; a very great sum 
when hard earned. Besides, the Northern Pacific had been pro- 
jected, and Mr. Olover had to take the risk of the plateau falling 
upon a railway section. Not only this, but he stood a show of 
having his hair lifted by the vagabond Indians, then quite plenty 
about the falls. But Mr. Glover watched the grand flow of water 
from a utilitarian stand-point, he had a vision of a bright, thrifty, 
busy city upon the banks of the river, a completed railway, and 
for himself a conipetence for later years, and the shining gold 



28 

slipped into the saddle bags of the squatters, and they rode away, 
leaving him in quiet possession. Then came days of hardship, 
and nights of anxiety on account of the savages ; but by showing 
a determined mein to these vagabonds, an evident intention of 
protecting his rights, the days passed on without any conflict, 
until other white men found their way to this locality and joined 
hands to wrest from nature the promised opportunities and re- 
sources for homes, comfort and wealth. A Mr. Sheets this year 
surveyed the sections and mapped off the townships, and while 
Mr. Glover had opportunity to become possessed of the land lying 
chiefly in what is Havermale's addition, he chose that west of 
this, including the lower water-power sites. 

In May, 1875, these pioneers were joined by Rev. S. G. Haver- 
male, who emigrated from Illinois to Walla Walla, where he was 
pastor of the M. E. Church. He was made a presiding elder here, 
he pre-empted 160 acres which embraced what is now his addition 
to the city. His claim was in the form of a Z, the west line pass- 
ing in a northwest direction from where he now resides to the 
river, crossing to the small island through the west end of what 
is now the lower mill dam. Mr. Havermale brought his family 
with him, with the exception of the daughter, now Mrs. Dr. 
Burch, of Walla Walla. His sons located at Moran Prairie, 
where they now reside. Mr. Havermale^ s coming was the pioneer 
effort of Methodism in this country. He preached to the few 
gathered here, and traveled a circuit which took in a very large 
scope of country, but in which few people resided. 

Btirring times occurred here in 1877, the period of the Nez 
Perces war. Spokane Falls was not in the war path, but was 
crowded with savages, of different tribes, who were impudent 
and saucy, and jostled the few whites, at every opportunity. On 
the 13th of June, of that year, the Indian scare reached its height, 
and the settlers of the surrounding country came to town, with the 
people here, camping on the large island for a few days, when the 
anticipated danger passed, and the usual affairs of the town were 
resumed. In 1878, A. M. Cannon, then in mercantile business in 
Portland, and J. J. Browne, at one time superintendent of schools, 
in the same city, visited this country. They came as much in 
search of health in a recreative visit, as to spy out the land, but 
were so impressed with the beauty of the place and climate, and 
the outlook in a business point of view , that they at once struck 



29 

a bargain with J. N. Glover, purchasing one-half of his landed 
interest. 

THE CITY NOW. 

Spokane Falls is a very bright and busy city of ten or twelve 
hundred people, delightfully situated just where Spokane river 
divides itself into a half dozen or more branches and in every im- 
aginable form of rounded beauty, swings around islands, ripples 
down cascades, plunges over precipices, and finally, after reunit- 
ing all its branches, makes a jubilant leap of sixty-five feet into 
the chasm below. We have seen Niagara and many other cele- 
brated falls and cascades, but Spokane has forms and blendings of 
beauty we have never seen elsewhere. When it is studied from a 
utilitarian stand-point it is evidently the finest water-power on 
the continent. 

The governor signed the bill incorporating the city, November 
29, 1881, with the following city government : Mayor, Robert W. 
Forrest. Councilmen — A. M. Cannon, F. R. Moore, L. H. White- 
house, W. G. Gray, S. G. Havermale, L. W. Rima, G. A. Davis. 
J. N. Glover is the present mayor. 

The city has had a very marked growth during the past twenty 
months, and its importance as a commercial and educational 
centre is more thoroughly established than was ever anticipated 
by the most sanguine early settlers. It is already the distributing 
point for supplies for quite all the Spokane region, much of the 
Northern Idaho country, and for the Colville section. 

East of this on the line of the Northern Pacific, there is no town 
of much importance till Missoula is reached, so that this city is 
likely to remain the chief place in this part of Eastern Wash- 
ington. Like the American modern town, it is regularly laid out 
with broad streets running north and south, east and west, inter- 
secting each other at right angles. When Mr. Villard, during his 
visit in October last, said, **This is the handsomest town-site I 
have met with since leaving the east," he stated what every 
stranger repeats who visits the place. The town-site is a gravelly 
plateau a mile long and a half mile wide, with an easy ascent from 
the river edge to the high wooded blufl* south of the city, and a 
natural drainage from east to west, with the run of the river. 
For the most part, the inhabitants are eastern people of means, 
mostly, foU of enterprise, energy and thrift, and a stranger in- 



30 

vited to one, of the social gatherings, and judging by the manners, 
the sentiments expressed, or by the dress of ladies and gentlemen, 
could not distinguish any difference between this and the best 
society of eastern and western cities. 

Spokane Falls never segregated that class generally found in 
isolated western settlements, and to-day can boast of havipg a 
society e(iual to almost any town or city of its size in the east. At 
the beginning of 1882 the people found themselves over the hurry 
of the frontier effort, with leisure, means and disposition at hand 
for the embellishment of their homes and grounds, and the»ex- 
ception is to find a citizen not engaged in planting trees and 
shrubbery, cultivating flowers, re-arranging the box-housfes into 
tasty modern cottages, or converting them into really fine and 
handsome residences. Fences have been placed about most of 
the lots, lawns laid out, and every advantage taken of the natural 
surroundings to beautify. Within all these homes, those modem 
civilizers, music, books, pictures, newspapers, etc., are found in 
profusion. Spokane Falls has five churches and congregations: 
Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, Episcopalian and Catholic. 
All the denominations have churches. The Methodist Confer- 
ence has located a college at this point, and it is the intention of 
the society to build up here an institution of learning to accom- 
modate the Northwest. The Catholic people have also located a 
college or university here, which is to be a companion institution 
to the one at San Jose, California. One of the largest and best 
conducted public schools in Eastern Washington is thoroughly 
established here. It is also the location of the Rodney Morris 
school, Episcopalian, and the deservedly special pride of that de- 
nomination. It will be enlarged still more the coming season. 
An excellent public library is one of the agreeable features of the 
city. Two weekly newspapers, the Heiriew and the Chronicle, 
are published here. The Masons have a strong lodge, also a 
Royal Arch Chapter, and there are lodges of the I. O. O. F., A. 
O. U. W., and I. O. C. F. The improvements are substantial, the 
business appearance striking, the residences neat, and some of 
them city-like in dimensions and style, and everything betokens 
a feeling and purpose of permanence. Unlike most of the towns 
in the Northwest, everything here is of a permanent character. 
The buildings are substantial; there is a fixed and settled senti- 
ment among the business men, and better still, no department of 



31 

trade or commerce is overdone in this city. While other towns 
along the line of the Northern Pacific are over-crowded, and from 
five to ten years beyond the growth and needs of the adjacent 
country, Spokane Falls has simply kept even, and progressed 
with the growth and development of the surrounding country. 
There are wholesale and retail houses here doing an immense 
trade with the outer country; several of these merchants carrying 
stocks valued at from $30,000 to $70,000. Spokane Falls is the com- 
mercial center of all this part of the Territory, and nothing can 
take from her this supremacy but a short-sighted policy of her 
people, which they ar^ not likely to adopt. The liberality of the 
citizens is proverbial. Less than one hundred of these citizens 
have given during the past year $5,575 for a bridge across the 
river here; $8,700 for the Catholic college; $4,000 for the Methodist 
college, and several thoui^ands of dollars for churches, schools and 
other public enterprises. There are six good hotels in Spokane 
Falls. Another large flouring mill will be completed this year. 
There is one in operation, also a large saw mill, a shingle mill, 
turning lathe, and machine shop. 

And so the days of newness and isolation, during which a 
country's entire produce is required for home needs, have passed 
away for this part of the world, and our exports begin to amount 
to something. And with this newness have passed away all the 
inconveniences of the early days, and our people are living in the 
enjoyment of most of the luxuries of life. 

WHAT THE TOURIST WILL FIND. 

In locating town-sites, nature as engineer and architect per- 
formed perfect work at Spokane Falls — a labor of love. In the 
background she reared a wooded hill, and in the rock formations 
left many fantastic illustrations of her most frolicsome art. To 
the east she spread a magnificent valley, and trimmed it with the 
famous Coeur d'Alene range of mountains, rich in all the novel 
and imposing forms of architecture she has left to mark her his- 
tory. To the west she built the Palisades of the Hangman, and 
so close are they that, in summer, one can distinguish the tower- 
ing, tapering pines with their garb of green, here and there a 
dingle of white-blossomed cornel, canyons narrow and rugged, 
with high, perpendicular rocks, picturesque openings, and clear 
running streams. At the north boundary line of the city runs 



39 



e Bpokane river, as fine a, stream of water as ever man laid 
I upon ; a clear, deep, running stream, fully :i6(> yards wide at 
L point witliiu a mile of town, with a Huct-e^ion of fall^, the last 
k single leap of sixty-three feet. 

The river rlsea in the Cceur d'Alene moHntains aud courses 

t down rapidJy through a broad prairie trough, in a aink in the 

plain ao far below the level, that at a little distance it« course 

would be hidden if it were not for the tall pine trees that lift their 

heads aliove the tdge^ of the natui'al wall, as if watching for ex- 

peeteti foe«. The beauty of Ladore, the poesy of Minnehaha and 

Mithe mojeety of Niagara are mingled in thi^ falls of the Bpnki 

Las, breaking abruptly away from the level upland, they bound 

" forward iiver a nteep int'llne, ami are divided into several distinct 

eataractfl by promontories of basaltie rock, around which 

Huds-white waters rush with buny pertinacity, tlielr speed ai 

ment«d by the luipuise of the near-by muuutalns that 

I strong within them as they surge, swell, rush, roai', sing, leap, 

1 dance, and ilo everything else but tarry, in their wild endeavors 

f to meet the waters of the t.'olumbia, and move on with them 

ward the distant ocean. Electricity may superswie the waterfiiUs 

of tbe Pacific Northwest as a motive power, but nothing else will 

preserve this subliuiest of nature's beauties from the rapacity of 

I enterprise, or retain its pristine glory in unobstructed 

. grandeur for the visual delectation of multitudes unborn. 

This is a paradise for those who love the B[>ort of roti aud gun. 
I The river swarms with delicious, gamey trout, and to cat<!h them 
[ does not require more of a journey than five hundred yards Irom 
t the principal hotel in town. In season, the river and lakes near 
[ by, aflord rare sport for the duck hunter, while deer, prairie 
\ chickens, pheasants and grouse abound in the plains and wooded 
I bills close by. 

o exaggeration to say that Eastern Washington presents 
. the combined landscapes of Switzerland and Italy, the highlands 
I of Scotland and the English lake region, the whole forming a 
I panorama capable of expressing every type and emotion of scenic 
beauty. No region can excel it in variety and grandeur; its un- 
dulating surface displaying the rolling prairie and the elevated 
plal«an, the picturesque dingle and the dense forest, the brooklet 
and the mighty river, the ribbon-like (all and the seething 
I cade, the sloping, motion-giving hilt and the toweriug 



lUnd 

in ct /^ 

M 

eap^^H 

I to- ■ 



83 

whose creHt is enwreathed in garlands of perpetual snow. There 
is no end to the anomalies of nature in this grand stretch of coun- 
try, of which Spokane Falls is alike the threshold, the gem, and 
a sub-specimen; and the tourist, to whom the fashionable haunts 
of the Atlantic states and the (diarming scenery of Euro])e are 
familiar, and who presumes from this fact that he has enjoyed all 
the scenic beauties of nature worth beholding, will readily learn 
how fallaciously he has reasoned, should his footsteps ever guide 
him to this ])art of the great Northwest. 

Those who travel in tjuest of pleasure or health, will find here 
an area wliich, in serenity of climate, richness of color, variety of 
])astoral scenery, luxuriance of mountain shrubbery, extent of 
forests, nobleness of rivers {»nd grandeur of snow-shrouded 
mountains, will compare with any in the world. Add to these a 
flora new and strange, and growing in alnu)st tropical profusion, 
and there arc i)resented all the attractions that can lure the inva- 
lid, artist, scientist, away from his chamber, studio or lalK)ni- 
tory. 

At Spokane Falls there is every element of agreeable and in- 
spiring scenery. In the west is the region of the Palisades, to the 
east the Cceur d'Alenes, and down and out to the north, where the 
Colville country spreads a broad seventy miles, and beyond the 
eye cat(^lies a fine view of the Columbia peaks, whose snowy 
crests comj)ete with heavy masses of fleecy cunmlous clouds for 
supremacy. Surely, with the wooded islands in the river, the 
broad open lands fringed with hills, the swift-running stream, 
and the mountain peaks in the distance, there is all that can be 
desired. This grand scene, illumed by Uie mellow light of the 
evening sun, produces a picture which can not be excelled in 
color, breadth or motion. It ]>resents, at a vou^) d^cciJ, c(mtrasts 
of light and shade, tranquility and energy, action and rei)()se; yet 
all blend harmoniously together. 

The journey from the East to Puget Sound is one of the most 
attractive (m the continent, if not in the world. From the mo- 
ment the traveler leaves Chicago he experiences a constant 
change of the great natural featin'cs of the country. He i)asses 
through the Vellowstcme country, with its famous Mount Wash- 
burn, from which is presented one of the grandest panoramas in 
the world; its wonderful Mammoth Springs, and beautiful stretch 



34 



of river and valley, on the summlf of the Rockies; iB wMrled 
through the magnificent gorge of the famous Pend d'Oreille 
region; enters upon the Spokane country; climbs the Cascade 
Bange, and paeaefl out to the Pacific ocean— from ocean to ocean— 
a successlon.of feasts for the eyes, a season of rare enjoyment for 
the mind and heart of all mankind. 




OUTLYING LOCALITIES. 




COLVILLE. 

|E have made a thorough examination of the country 
between Spokane Falls and Colville, and up the river 
to the little Dalles, and the valley far exceeds antici- 
pations, and it has certainly been undervalued in the 
past. The valley is beautiful, large and fertile, and when * a 
thrifty and enterprising population gets there, the area of avail- 
able land will be doubled. 

There are a number of other very pretty valleys about, and 
room for thousands of people, and in time this will be a choice 
spot, and is bound to prosper. The wagon road, built by Capt. 
Hunter, is excellent^ but requires some work to make it perfect. 

In the ('olville valley they can raise almost everything. We 
never saw trees bearing more fruit than we saw there, and the 
flour of the valley is very celebrated for its excellent quality. 
The thing that has kept the valley back so long, is the fact 
that the lands have not all been surveyed, and no titles could be 
obtained. 

Northwest of Moses Coulee there are three or four townships of 
good agricultural land, though water is scarce. Several living 
springs, however, have been found. The country is composed of 
light, rolling hills, covered with a luxuriant growth of bunch 
grass, with occasional patches of rye grass and white sage. West 
of the Coulees, distant four or five miles, there is abundance of 
timber suitable for log houses, fire wood and rails ; while further 
off, on the Columbia, there is timber suitable for lumber. The 
banks of the Columbia are generally high, rocky and precipitous, 
with only a few places suitable for roads to the river. North- 
west of the north end of the Grand Coulee there is an extensive 



36 



region suitable for grazing purposes, but it is too rocky and spot- 
ted for farming purposes. The rocks are granite and basaltic in 
their formation. There is a good country for wheat raising around 
Wild Goose Bill's location, which is between C^amp Spokane on 
the east, and the Grand Coulee on the west. 'J'liere is plenty of 
scrub pine in that region, with occasional bodies of fir, and 
patches of cotton wood. The pine and cotton wood make good 
fuel, and the fir can be converted into lumber and rails. 

We heard that we had not been misinformed in reference to 
the fine timber up the Columbia. The mines bid fair to become 
famous. We can see no reason against, and every reason for 
putting a railroad up into this section of the country. It will 
certainly develop in such a manner that in a few years it will 
pay good dividends. 

It is about eighty-five miles from Spokane Falls to Fort Col- 
ville, and (m this road, and scattered throughout the valley, there 
are about 250 families. Chawelah lies between the two points, 
nearest to (Jolville, and is the home of Major Simms, one of the 
oldest and most efficient Indian agents in this country. Just 
now. Major Simms and Hon. Jas. O'Neil are developing a mine 
within five miles of Chawelah, which promises very profitable 
result*;. There is little doubt that the mapped-out and incor])or- 
ated railway between Spokane Falls and Cofville, or Kettle Falls, 
will be constructed within a year or two of this date. The road 
will open up the great Okanagan country lying west and north 
of the Columbia, embracing a region vast, an empire in itself, 
and rich as an agricultural, mineral and timber section. It is 
here that the Similkameen river mines are located, and which 
have been developed sufficiently to warrant the assertion that 
they are exceedingly rich. 

The Moses' Reservati(m, 7,000 stiuare miles of territory, lying 
west of the north bend of the Columbia, has been opened up 
to white settlement. In this region, lying north of Spokane 
Falls, and south of the 49th parallel, there are homes for tens 
of thousands of people. 

SPANGl.E. 

Twenty odd houses makes the start of this town, located about 
half a day's travel to the southwest, and in the nudst of a splen- 
did tract of agricultural country, and in time there will be built 



37 

here a large and thriving place. It requires health and weight, 
courage and persistence, to succeed here as elsewhere, and immi- 
grants must expect to be deprived of some of the luxuries of life, 
but before them is the certainty of future comfort and prosperity. 
The climate and resources are of the best, and Spangle will heart- 
ily welcome the stranger who comes to labor and join his mental 
and physical forces with those now there. There is less timber 
there than in this section, but the marked peculiarity of that is, 
that the higher lands are of equal if not greater fertility than the 
valleys, and as susceptible of easy cultivation. Upon these higher 
lands water for stock and household purposes is obtainable at an 
easy depth. Irrigation is wholly uncalled for, and never resorted 
to. The soil is composed of a rich, alluvial deposit, combined 
with basaltic ash of great depth, overlying a clay subsoil. The 
great productiveness of the soil here has given it 'an excellent 
reputation abroad. 

CHENY 

The county seat of Spokane, is located on the Northern Pacific 
about sixteen miles southwest of this city. The real boom 
in Cheney commenced . in the fall of 1880, and the town has 
grown very rapidly since, now having a resident population of 
about 1,000. Cheney is characterized by the hang-together, go- 
aheaditiveness of the people, and to this spirit is attributable the 
present enterprise of the place. The last legislature made it a 
county seat, and it is the location of the District and UYiited 
States courts. Hon. Benjamin Chaney, of Boston, after whom 
the town was named, gave $10,000, with which to erect and put 
into operation the ** (xheney Academy," making of this place an 
educational center for the surrounding and tributary country. 
The Northern Pacific have built here a very large and handsome 
depot, in which is now established the local land office of the 
company, in charge of Mr. Newberry. The Congregational 
society have erected and finished a $2,000 church building, of 
which Father Eells is pastor. The Methodist people have a 
chapel and a large congregation. The Bai)tistH also have a church. 
Last year there was built at Cheney a large flouring mill, oper- 
ated by steam power. The store buildings are large, permanent 
edifices ; the residence good ; hotel buildings commensurate, and 
the general appearance of the little city inviting. On the south 
the good farming land does not come up close to the town, but 



38 

after a belt of rocky country the farmer will find all the good 
land he may want, and still be within fair market distance. 
Stretching away to the north and northwest, their lies a body of 
tributary soil equal, in an agricultural sense, to any in this region 
of country ; good homes for thousands of thrifty, enterprising 
farming people. This land is part railway and part government, 
and all the knowledge necessary to locating it can be had in 
Cheney. 

MEDICAL LAKE. 

In the midst of the line scope of country north of Cheney and 
west of Spokane Falls, is situated the town of Medical Lake. 
Medical Lake is not the only health resort in this Territory, but 
it is the only one in this immediate section, and the curative 
powers of the waters are already famed. The lake here has an 
excellent temperature for a thermal spring, and is doubtless good 
for rheumatic, cutaneous and kindred diseases. Besides, a double 
cure may be effectM, for if the invalid be not immediately cured 
by the waters of the spring or lake, let him still remain, and he 
surely will be by the subtle influences of the Eastern Washington 
climate. The town is growing rapidly and is the trading point 
for a large area of rich farming land. 

SPRAGUE. 

The new city of Sprague is on the line of the Northern Pacific, 
about forty miles southwest of here and three or four hours' run 
from Ainsworth. A year ago, anybody could have bought the 
town-site of Sprague for $500 ; to-day ordinary size lots bring that 
sum. The reason for this rapid rise and the up-building of the 
town is, that the company shops and headquarter buildings are 
located at this point. These buildings are about as extensive as 
as those of the Central Pacific at Sacramento, California, and 
employ between two and three hundred men, the salaries paid 
aggregating a large sum annually, and creating a permanent 
money circulation. The headquarters, or general office building, 
is the finest owned by the company in the Northwest, and m oc- 
cupied by the officials in all the departments. And it is possible 
that a branch into the Big Bend and Crab Creek region may go 
out from Sprague. There are seven large general merchandise 
stores, and other features of business. Handsome residences are 
going up in all directions. Immigrants are arriving daily, and 



39 

the country is at present settling up very fast, and there is 
plenty of room for more, all the way over to the Big Bend of the 
Columbia river, a country which for wheat can not be surpassed. 

Sprague is the natural outlet for all the Big Bend and Crab 
Creek country, lying north. This region is attracting the atten- 
tion of immigrants, as along that large district of rich wheat and 
grass lands there is sufficient timber for farm purposes. Some of 
it is a little remote from market, but that will soon be remedied. 
This district contains 80,000 acres of as fertile farming land as 
there is to be found anywhere in this Territory. It abounds with 
pure living streams, and the black pine is not far distant in 
abundance. But little of this land has as yet been taken, hence 
thousands of settlers can find room. Part of the land is railroad 
and the balance government. The Indians have raised good corn 
here, as the locality is exempt from frosts. In all of these large 
districts harvest machinery can work well. The meats and wool 
of these districts, are superior. Bunch-grass beef and mutton is 
proverbially good. Inmaense numbers of horses and mules are 
raised here, and they are of strong body, hardy, and supply 
Western Oregon and Washington Territory with many valuable 
work and riding horses. 

At Sprague the inmiigrant will find good accommodations at 
reasonable rates ; ascertain reliable information as to the farming 
country to the north and south ; find conveyance to all neighbor- 
ing points, and be gladly welcomed — if he intends to help — by 
the people. Idlers and bummers, who hang to the skirts of 
decent people, and who live by their wits, had better give Sprague 
a wide berth. Both Methodist and Episcopal denominations 
have churches at Sprague. A good school is established here. 

WEST WOOD. 

The town of Westwood is in Idaho, but being only twenty- 
eight miles away, it is tributary to Spokane Falls, and we have 
been in the habit of considering it a part and parcel of the 
Spokane country. 

When a town is passing through the dis^^e of infancy, one 
of the symptoms is self-conceit ; but Westwood is an exception to 
this, as a rule. The citizens are proud of their town, now the 
county seat of Kootenai, Idaho, but it is a conservative and a 
very just pride. The location is an admirable one, and the out- 



40 

look for its future prosperity and rapid growth exceedingly good. 
The town is situated at the southern base of a range of wooded 
mountains, and upon an elevated bench, overlooking a stretch of 
prairie land fifteen miles long by eight miles wide, rich bunch- 
grass land, black loam and light gravel. At the base of the 
mountain, and along the northern boundary of the prairie land, 
water is plenty. Half a dozen miles east lies Eight-mile prairie. 
Ten miles to the southeast is Coeur d'Alene, the finest military 
post in the United States, and the head waters of the Spokane 
river. Lake Pend d'Oreille is ^within a four hour journey. 
With the exception of a few scattered farms located adjacent to 
Westwood, all this fine farming land is in the possession of the 
railway company or government, and may be had at the usual 
low rates. For the farmer, few localities, either in Washington 
or Idaho, present a more promising outlook than that about 
Westwood. The town is fairly under way, and judging by the 
enterprise and energy so far exhibited by the citizens, it will soon 
be winning its way to the front rank among busy, thrifty places 
in this region. 

Westwood is within twenty-four hours of Portland, and in the 
possession of daily mail and express service. One of the largest 
breweries in the Northwest has been established here, and already 
the beer made is famous throughout the country. Altogether, 
Westwood is one of the most promising settlements in the upper 
country, and will attract much of the immigration to this section, 
during the coming season. 

The county of Kootenai was organized last year, and financial- 
ly speaking, is in excellent condition. It is probable that when 
Washington is admitted as a state Northern Idaho will be an- 
nexed. 

ROCKFOKl). 

Southwest of this city, about twenty-eiglit miles by a good 
wagon road, and which will probably be supplanted by a branch 
of the Northern t^acific, lies Rockford, a thriving, bustling little 
town, in the very heart of one of the best grain growing and grain 
producing belts in Eastern Washington. The crop results in this 
section, last season, were something wonderful; almost marvel- 
ous. Wheat, 35 and 40 bushels to the acre ; oats, 85 to 95 bushels; 



4i 

barley, 35 to 40; timothy growing five feet seven inelies. No sec- 
tion in Eastern Washington is settling up more rapidly than this 
at Rock ford. And, what is still better, the class of people coming, 
and already there, are such as add moral, social, and financial 
strength to a comnmnity. Last year a large number of people 
from the Ea«t, some from Delaware county, New York, have 
settled about Rockford, Spokane county. These people express 
themselves an entirely satisfied, and are inducing oth€»rs to come. 
With or without railroad connection, Rockford will so(m become 
one of the most important localities in Eastern Washington. 
There are saw and grist mills there, general merchandise and 
farming implement store, shops, hotels, and other (H)mmercial 
features. There are excellent schools, a number of religious 
societies, and secret orders in and about Rockford. 

, INDIANS. 

As we want to say a word here about the Indians generally. It 
is opportune to write that the Coeur d' Alenes, who inhabit a res- 
ervation near Rockford, are giving the finishing touches to the 
handsomest church and residence for the Fathers in this section 
of the country. In the building of the church and residence 
they have used about 300,(K)() feet of lumber. A 900 pound bell of 
fine tone has been scoured for the church* The Secretary of the 
Interior having declined to make an appropriation to rebuild the 
school-house, burned last winter^ Chief Saltise and his people 
intend to do it out of their own funds. 

The Coeur d'Alenes are model and extensive farmers, and are 
just now i)utting in a very large crop of spring grain. Their 
increase of acreage this year over last will be fully sixty per cent. 
They are in possession of the most improved implements, and are 
industrious workers. 

Among a certain class of people in the East, there i)revails an 
idea that Indians are plenty in these parts, and that there is more 
or less danger in their company. To settle this matter, we will 
say, that so far as their savage (jualities tire concerned, or their 
ability to do harm to the whites, our Spokanes, and other tribes 
near here, are on a par with tlie supe-Indians playing in the east- 
ern theaters. Their peculiarities, and their lounging laziness, 
add a picturesqueness to our city on summer evenings. They 
furnish our Isaac Waltons with fish-bait, now and then offer 



42 

trout for sale, but an a general thing are too lazy for even this 
slight labor. 

OTHER LOCALITIES. 

Besides the localities already given, we invite the immigrant to 
Deep Creek Falls and Cottonwood, both in the immediate vicin- 
ity of Spokane FaUs, and surrounded by an exceedingly rich 
agricultural country. At the first-named place there is a mill, 
store and other commercial features, and at the latter a store and 
postoflftce. A great many California people have recently settled 
at ('ottonwood, and are thoroughly satisfied with their change. 

Peone Prairie, within twelve miles of Bpokane Falls, northeast, 
is one of the finest farming sections hereabouts. We have already 
given grain results there, and these tell the story. This locality 
is rapidly settling up, though there are some fine farms yet to be 
had. 

Moran Prairie is about five miles southeast from this city, and 
the land there in productiveness will compare favorably with any 
section in this part of the Territory. In another part of this 
book we have mentioned the fruit growth out there. The same 
remarks will apply to White BluflT, Hangman Creek and Rock 
Creek localities. 

And to sum up, it may be safely stated that Eastern Washing- 
ton Territory contains 20,000,000 acres of grain, prairie, bunch- 
grass and timber lands, which can be taken by settlers. The 
great plateau of the Columbia is purely an agricultural region, 
exceedingly productive, and aflEbrding also vast range for cattle, 
sheep and horses, and to those who come in to labor this part of 
it offers more inducement, present and prospective, than any 
other region in the great northwest. There are, indeed, wonder- 
ful fortunes, and honorable ones, too, lying within the reach of 
those who are willing to trust the promise of this vast domain. 
Young men, or those with families, who are in cities, are over- 
crowded and overburdened, willing to work hard and deny them- 
selves many of the luxuries attainable in the cities east, for five 
years, can secure for themselves a home as fair and valuable as 
any that charms the eyes of travelers through the old-settled and 
far-famed valleys of Ohio and New York. And it is a good place 
to make a home ; the speculative mania in stocks does not pene- 



43 

« 

trate here; the encounterings teach men discipline; individuality 
is regained ; tact and talent is appreciated outside your own fam- 
ily circle; you are identified closely with the best interests of the 
locality; boys and girls who grow up here will be brave, self- 
reliant, modest, loyal and industrious, such as mature into true 
and patriotic men and women. And so this countrj^, and espe- 
cially this locality, will impress all visitors deeply in many ways. 
Life is very new, yet in some respects very old ; good and steady 
habits of life and business from the old settlements, grafted to a 
new and vigorous one; civilization tlioroughly organized, ready 
to wrest from nature every beneficial result ; somewhat cosmopol- 
itan, yet supremely American, in which the flavor of the older 
states can be tasted above all other local elements. And so we 
find these people, and especially the leading men and women, 
busy with that fiexibility and adaptability of the race, not more 
in looking after their individual interests than in seeking ways 
and means for the advancement of the general welfare. While 
they cordially greet men of capital and muscle, they invest and 
reinvest their own as though no help was to ever come from the 
outside world, and there is much in the present prosperity and 
the rich promises of the near future that is gratifying to them and 
those who are interested in the upbuilding of the northwest. 

THE TERRITORY AS A WHOLE. 

Washington Territory is 350 miles long, east and west, and 200 
miles wide, north and south. It extends from the Pacific ocean 
to Idaho, and from British Columbia to Oregon. It contains 
69,994 square miles, ^or 44,795,000 acres of land. Its surface is 
diversified by mountain, valley and plain, more than two-thirds 
being sufficiently level for settlement and cultivation. Of its 
lands, 35,000,000 acres can be farmed, of which 20,000,000 acres are 
timber lands ; 5,000,000 acres rich alluvial bottom lands ; 10,000,- 
000 prairie and plains, and 9,796,000 covered with water. 

The exports by ship of the past twelve months have been about 
100,000 tons agricultural produce, 200,000 tons coal and 500,000 
tons of lumber, or an average of eight tons for every man, wv)man 
and child of our 100,000 inhabitants. All this, besides oysters, 



salmon, furniture, barrel material, furs and skins, animals, etc., 
aggregating in value at least one million dollars. This is a peo- 
ple of producers, and their products go direct to the consumers in 
California, Mexico, South America, Hawaii, Australia, China, 
(ireat Britain, the Atlantic states, etc., though too often under the 
guise ol* produce of Oregon. 

It is hardly possible for one conning here to miss it. A thou- 
sand chances are open. Trade is nowhere better. The times are 
good, and money plenty and cheap. Wages are high, and land 
can be had for the asking. Lumbermen, coal miners, bricklayers, 
c-arpenters, painters, mechanics and laborers of all kinds are 
wanted, as well as men of business, brains and money. There 
are at present but 140,000 of us, while there is room for 10,000,000. 

Of course, it does not need to be said that the settling up of new 
districts, and the construction of additional railroad lines, create 
openings for trade continually. This retail trade is now supplied 
from wholesale houses in Portland and San Francisco. The oppor- 
tunity for business enterprise includes the establishment of whole- 
sale houses at suitable points, down to the opening of retail stores 
in the remote districts of a country that possesses more territory 
than the six New England States and New York and Pennsyl- 
vania all combined. There is no portion of our continent that 
to-day offers greater rewards for investment of business capital. 

Public sentiment has turned the tide of immigration this way, 
and the stronger argument of example encourages to this end. 
Where a few have gone and been made content, more will follow. 
It is safe to say that every innnigrant that finds his way to the 
Spokane country, is certain to have some other or others upon 
whom his influence will be exercised until that other, or the 
others, join him here. This alone will bring thousands. 

And without any reservation, without any qualification of any 
kind, we believe these thousands and tens of thousands should 
(^ome, since we know that the change from the over-crowded dis- 
tricts of the P]ast, or the states we have named, will be beneficial 
to them. To the farmer we can present the three essential con- 
ditions — a climate just warm enough to ripen crops, and secure 
the comfort of man and beast ; a soil of more than the average 
fertility, and the moisture to make that soil productive. 



45 



To the capitalist, we offer hundreds of avenues for the invest- 
ment of his money, avenues that are safer and more profitable 
than any he can command auywhere in the East. 

To the mechanic, we present that source of all good luck, labor, 
plenty of it and reasonable wages, as he will see in another por- 
tion of this pamphlet. The same good prospect awaits the la- 
borer, and for the professional man, there are opportunities* for 
position and honor. 

To all people who expect to labor ; who expect to begin with 
energy and to keep it up, until a competence is gained ; who will 
add moral, social, industrial and financial strength to the com- 
munity, those now here extend a bearty welcome. Wit-living 
individuals had better give this country a wide berth. 

xVnd it is a good country to come to, because it is one of not 
only great possibilities but probabilities. There is about it some- 
thing real, solid, hopeful. To those in Eastern States, unused to 
the bustle of frontier life and ignorant of the ctmses at work to 
produce these effects, our pen pictures may seem flashy and high- 
ly tinted, but if they should come to the Spokane country and 
see for themselves, to study the topography of the country and 
observe tbe busy life of the average valleyite for one summer, it 
will not only seem possible, but the probable result will be that 
their imagination will be exhausted and their mind wearied with 
its contemplation. During the next quarter of a century, here 
will be the theater of the most stupendous public and private 
enterprise, which ever the world saw. Fortunes will be made, 
and the children of another generation will enjoy the luxuries of 
limitless wealth. Careful investments now, while the oppor- 
tunities are presented, can not fail to be profitable. Cities yet 
unborn will be built and populated where now the prairie is un- 
broken. The history of the development of the states of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois and others, will be repeated here. It must be 
so, and the events of the next ten years will convince the doubt- 
ing of the truth. There is no other country as the Spokane, so 
near to market and so fertile, where the land can be had for the 
asking. There is, in fact» no other prairie country in the great 
northwest that is not already cultivated, and in the light of this 
fact, what argument is there against its rapid settlement ? Time 
will show to men where they might have made fortunes here, 



46 

and where they could have secured a competency for their declin- 
ing years. It is now time to look at the matter without hesita- 
tion. The doubtful i)eriod is past. Others have gone through 
the period of anxiety, and the thorns of pioneering are removed. 
There is nothing now but to come in and occupy the land, rejoice 
in its prosperity and watch its career so well begun. 

We are prosperous now. A country always prospers where the 
demand for labor, at good prices, is equal to the supply. Just 
now there is not, so far as we know, an able-bodied man in this 
country, who wants work and cannot find it; unskilled and 
mechanical labor is in demand, not only along the line of the 
railway, but among our own citizens. ' The merchants here and 
at points in the adjacent country, tell us that business is un- 
precedentedly good ; their cash sales being almost phenomenal. 
Here, every one may not have an abundance of money, but you 
find every one with an amount which enables him to pay as he 
goes, and provide for the future. The exception is to meet a man, 
entitled to the credit of being known as an enterprising citizen, 
who does not take a hopeful view of the prospect. There is no 
reason for doubting a continuance of this prosperity for years to 
come. With a country great in its extent and natural resources, 
local railways to be constructed, and the incoming enterprises 
where capital will be invested, there is really no prospect that 
the labor market will be overstocked here for many years to 
come. The most hopeful fact to go on record to-day is, that all 
our industrial enterprises are paying, and paying well. It would 
be difficult to find a single exception.