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SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of tlie 
Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany), for the inform- 
ation of residents in the Island, and also for the advancement of 
Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, Topo- 
graphy, Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances , and the Parts will be pubhshed as near to 
the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies, Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from Messrs. 
R. Friedlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. ; from 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from Messrs. 
Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA . 



ISSUED UY 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM,^. 

OEYLON. ' • ^^ 



\- , 



"^^iy m %' 



Vol. VII.— Part XXV. September, 1910.' 



CONTENTS. 

1. Punnett, R. C, M.A.— ^^^^ 

" Mimicry " in Ceylon Butterflies, with a suggestion 

as to the nature of Polymorphism . . 1 

2. Duncker, G. — 

On some Syngnathids (" Pipe Fish ") from Ceylon. . 25 

3. Wall, Major F., I.M.S.— 

Remarks on some recently acquired Ceylon Snakes . . 36 

4. Coomaraswaniy, A. K., D.Sc. — 

Notes on Kandyan Art . . . . 39 

5. Gravely, F. H. — 

Pedipalpi of Ceylon . . . . 43 

6. Notes. — E. G. Reeves, A. Willey, E. E. Green, 

C. Drieberg . . . . . . 48 

JVitH Five Plates, and Figures in the Text. 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back oi Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 



it^*^ H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 

^1 



1910. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 



In consequence ot the departure of Dr. A. Willey from Ceylon 

the editorship of this journal has been taken over for the time being, 

in accordance with Government approval, by the Government 

Entomologist. 

E. ERNEST GREEN, 

Qovernment Entomologist, 
Augtist, 1910. Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. 



Crown 8vo., 1,242 pages, 14 coloured plates and 373 text figures. 
Price 2l5. nett. 



MANUAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE. 

BY 

ALDO CASTJ^LLANI, M.D. (Florence), 

Director of the CUnique for Tropical Diseases, Ceylon ; Professor of Tropical 

Medicine and Lecturer on Dermatology , Ceylon Medical College ; 

Member of the Royal Society's Commission on Sleeping 

Sickness in Uganda (1902-1903). 

AND 

ALBERT J. .CHALMERS, M.D. (Victoria and 
Liverpool), F.R.C.S. (Eng.), D.P.H. (Cam.), 

Registrar and Lecturer on Pathology and Animal Parisitology , Ceylon 

Medical College ; Holt Fellow, University College, Liverpool 

(1890) ; Medical Oficer, Gold Coast Colony (1897-1901). 



LONDON : 

Baillii&be, TiNDAijii, & Cox, 

8, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

1910. 



CONTENTS. 

Part I. — Introductory. History of Tropical Medicine ; Tropical 
Climatology; Effects of Tropical Climates on Man; 
Incidence of Disease in the Tropics. 

Part II. — Catjsation of Disease rsr the Tropics. 
Section A. — Physical Causes of Disease. 
Section B. — Chemical Causes of Disease. 
Section C. — Biological Causes of Disease. 

Part III. — The Diseases of the Tropics. 
Section A. — Fevers. 
Section B. — General Diseases. 
Section C. — Systemic Diseases. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of the 
Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany), for the inform- 
ation of residents in the Island, and also for the advancement of 
Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, Topo- 
graphy, Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be pubhslied as near to 
the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and hthographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies. Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from Messrs. 
R. Friedlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. ; from 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from Messrs. 
Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, B.C. 



SPOLIi ZETLANICA. 



ISSUED FROM 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, 



OEYLON. .<aT! 



EDITED BY 



JOSEPH PEARSON, D.Sc, F.L.S., 

Director of the Colombo Museum. 



Vol. VII.— Part XXVI. December, 1910. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



1. Annandale, N., D.Sc, F.A.S.B,— 

*' Sand-flies" (PWe6o^omMS) from Peradeniya .. 57 

2. Annandale, N., D.Sc, F.A.S.B.— 

Note on a Fresh-water Sponge and Polyzoon from 

Ceylon . . . . . . 63 

3. Dobell, C. aifford, M.A.— 

On some Parasitic Protozoa from Ceylon . . 65 

4. Willey , A. , M. A. , D.Sc. , F.R.S.— 

Notes on the Fresh- water Fisheries of Ceylon . . 88 

5. Notes. — E. E. Green, J. Pearson, F. H. Gravely . . 106 

WitU Plates »ud Text Figitres^ 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 



1910. 



Crown 8vo., 1,242 pages, 14 coloured plates and 373 text figures. 

Price 21s. nett. 



MANUAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE. 

BY 

ALDO CASTELLANI, M.D. (Florence), 

Director of the Clinique for Tropical Diseases, Ceylon ; Professor of Tropical 

Medicine and Lecturer on Dermatology , Ceylon Medical College ; 

Member of the Royal Society^s Commission on Sleeping 

Sickness in Uganda (1902-1903). 

AND 

ALBERT J. CHALMERS, M.D. (Victoria and 
Liverpool), F.R.C.S. (Eng.), D.P.H. (Cam.), 

Registrar and Lecturer on Pathology and Animal Parisitology, Ceylon 

Medical College ; Holt Fellow, University College, Liverpool 

(1890) ; Medical Officer, Gold Coast Colony (1897-1901). 



LONDON: 



Ballliebb, Tindall, & Cox, 

8, Henrietta Stkeet, Co vent Garden. 

1910. 



CONTENTS. 

Part I. — Introductory. History of Tropical Medicine ; Tropical 
Climatology ; Effects of Tropical Climates on Man ; 
Incidence of Disease in the Tropics. 

Part II. — Causation of Disease in the Tropics. 
Section A. — Physical Causes of Disease. 
Section B. — Chemical Causes of Disease. 
Section C. — Biological Causes of Disease. 

Part III. — The Diseases of the Tropics. 
Section A. — Fevers. 
Section B. — General Diseases. 
Section C. — Systemic Diseases. 



f 






SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowle dg§j 3f<^ie 
Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany), for'Ttie infor- 
mation of residents in the Island, and also for the advancement 
of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, Topo- 
graphy, Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts', the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be published as near to 
the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by hne-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and Hthographic plates. 

Authors wiU receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies, Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from Messrs. 
R. Friedlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berhn, N.W. ; from 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from Messrs. 
Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 



SPOLIi ZEYLMICA. 



ISSUED FKOM 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM^ ^^^^^ 



OEYLON. /Ix'^^;^ 



EDITED BY 



JOSEPH PEARSON, D.Sc, F.L.S., 

Director of the Colombo Museum. 'X.V' ,/^ '' "' \ i 



VOL. VIL-Pakt XXVII. May, 1911. 



135 
141 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

1. Ikeda, Dr. Iwaji— 

Notes on a New Land Plananan from Ceylon . . i 1^ 

2. Southwell, T.— . . , • txt i 9J. 

Some Notes on the Ceylon Pearl-mducmg Worm . . 124 

3. Gravely, F. H.— 

The Species of Ceylon Pedipalpi . . 

4. Turner, Rowland E. — 

New Hymenoptera from Ceylon . . 

5. Meade-Waldo, Geoffrey— j^^ 

A New Mason Wasp 

6. Wall.F.— . ^^ „ 

The Egg-tooth in tlie Ceylon Krait, or Karawella 
{Bungarus ceylonicus) 
7 Notes.— N. Annandale, J. LI. Tliomas, P. E. Pieris, 
A. A. Perera, E. E. Green 

tfith nates rtiifl Tejct Figuves. 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



1.57 
159 



COLOMBO : 
H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 



1911. 



Crown 8vo., 1,242 pages, 14 coloured plates and 373 text figures. 

Price 21s. nett. 



MANUAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE. 



BY 

ALDO CASTELLANI, M.D. (Florence), 

Director of the Clinique for Tropical Diseases, Ceylon, ; Professor of Tropical 

Medicine and Lecturer on Dermatology , Ceylon Medical College ; 

Member of the Royal Society's Commission on Sleeping 

Sickness in Uganda (1902-1903). 

AND 

ALBERT J. CHALMERS, M.D. (Victoria and 
Liverpool), F.R.C.S. (Eng.), D.P.H. (Cam.), 

Registrar and Lecturer on Pathology and Animal Parisitology , Ceylon 

Medical College ; Holt Fellow, University College, Liverpool 

{1890) ; Medical Officer, Gold Coast Colony {1897-1901). 



LONDON: 



Bailliere, Tindall, & Cox, 

8, Henrietta Street, Co vent Garden. 

1910. 



CONTENTS. 

Part I. — Introductory. History of Tropical Medicine ; Tropical 
Climatology ; Effects of Tropical Climates on Man ; 
Incidence of Disease in the Tropics. 

Part II. — Causation of Disease in the Tropics. 
Section A. — Physical Causes of Disease. 
Section B. — Chemical Causes of Disease. 
Section C. — Biological Causes of Disease. 

Part III. — The Diseases of the Tropics. 
Section A. — Fevers. 
Section B. — General Diseases. 
Section C. — Systemic Diseases. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of the 
Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany), for the infor- 
mation of residents in the Island, and also for the advancement 
of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
Archaeology, Topography, Geology) of the Island and of the 
surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances , and the Parts will be pubhshed as near to 
the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and hthographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
60 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies. Re. 1*25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from Messrs. 
R. Friedlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. ; from 
Mr, Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from Messrs. 
Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.G. 



lei^i/./y.C'/^i 



SPOLIi ZEYLANICA. 



ISSUED FROM 



THE] COLOMBO MUSEUM, 
CEYLON. 

EDITED BY 

JOSEPH PEARSON, D.Sc, F.L.S., 

Director of the Colombo Museum. 

Vol. VII.— Part XXVIII. August, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 

1. Pearson, J ^^^^ 

Ceylon Crustacea. Part I. , Notes on the Alpheidae . . 169 

2. Annandale, N. — 

A new Genus of Short-beaked Gnats from Ceylon . . 187 

3. Southwell, T.— 

Some remarks on the occurrence of Cestodes in Ceylon 194 

4. Hartley, C — 

An exploration of the Beligal-ge, near Balangoda . . 197 

5. Review.— C. Hartley . . . . . . 201 

6. Notes. — N. Annandale, N. Manders, A. F. Abercromby, 

J. Pearson, A. H. Pertwee, E. E. Green, J. C. F. 

Fryer .. .. ..203 

7. Index of Vol. VII. 

IVitn Platen <ina Tejct J<Vj/i»rc«. 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 

1911. 



Pages xix. -j- 463, 61 Plates, and a Map of Ceylon, price 15s. nett. 



THE VEDDAS: 

BY 

C. G. SELIGMANN, M.D. 

Lecturer in Ethnology in the University of London, 
AND 

BRENDA Z. SELIGMANN. 

WITH A CHAPTER BY 

C. S. MYERS, M.D., D.Sc. 

AND AN APPENDIX BY 

A. MENDIS GUNASEKERA, Mudaliyar. 



CAMBRIDGE : 

At the University Press. 
1911. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of the 
Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany), for the infor- 
mation of residents in the Island, and also for the advancement 
of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
Archaeology, Topography, Geology) of the Island and of the 
surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be published as near to 
the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per volume ; single copies, Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



ISSUED FROM 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, 



CEYLON. 



VOLUME VII. 



COLOMBO : 
H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 



191L 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII. 



Part XXV. — September, 1910. 

1. Punnett, R. C, M.A.— 

" Mimicry " in Ceylon Butterflies, with a suggestion as to 
the natiu-e of Polymorphism 

2. Duncker, G. — 

On some Syngnathids (" Pipe Fish ") from Ceylon 

3. Wall, Major F., I.M.S.— 

Remarks on some recently acquired Ceylon Snakes 

4. Coomaraswamy, A. K. , D.Sc. — • 

Notes on Kandyan Art . . 

5. Gravely, F. H.— 

Pedipalpi of Ceylon 

6. Notes. — 

1. Bee-eaters as Fish-eaters. E, G. Reeves, A. Willey, 

E. E. Green 

2. (a) A Blood-sucking Bug. E. E. Green 
(b) The Colombo Lake Fly. E. E. Green 

3. Crows as Fishers. C. Drieberg and A. Willey 

4. RambUng Notes. E. E. Green — 

(a) Life-history of a common Ceylon Butterfly 

(b) Curious minatory action of a harmless Snake 

(c) A living chain of Ants 

(d) A case of Snake-bite 

(e) Reproduction of Leaf-insects by Partheno 

genesis 
(/) Homoptera infested by Sty lops 
{g) Hare attacked by Crow 
[h) An effective Butterfly Trap . . 
(i) Characteristic odour of Leaf-cutting Bees 
(/) Food of the Reduviid Bug, Physorhynchus 

linncei 
(k) The Call of the Green Grasshopper 
(Z) Sudden appearance of an African Snail in 

Ceylon . . . . . . 



PAGE 



25 



35 



39 



43 



48 
50 
50 
51 



61 
53 
53 
54 

54 
55 
55 
55 
55 

55 
56 

56 



Part XX VI.— December, 1910. 

Annandale, N., D.Sc, F.A.S.B.— 

" Sand-flies " {Phlebotomus) from Peradeniya 

Annandale, N., D.Sc, F.A.S.B.— 

Note on a Fresh -water Sponge and Polyzoon from Ceylon 



63 



( iv ) 

]?AGE 

Dobell, C. CUfford, M.A.— 

On some Parasitic Protozoa from Ceylon . . 65 

4. Willey, A., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.— 

Notes on the Fresh-water Fisheries of Ceylon . . 88 

5. Notes. — 

5. Rambling Notes. E. E. Green — 

Life of the Leaf Insect . . . . 106 

A Cannibal Bat . . . . . . 106 

A Large Green Viper . . . . 106 

A Passenger -carrying Beetle . . . . 107 

Pahii Squirrel and Butterfly . . . . 107 

Crows and their Ways . . . . 107 

6. The Ceylon Giant Tortoise. J. Pearson . . 108 

7. An interesting Frog. J.Pearson .. ..110 

8. The African Land Snail in Ceylon. J. Pearson . . 110 

9. Symphyla of Ceylon. F. H. Gravely . . 110 



Pabt XXVII.— May, 1911. 

1. Ikeda, Dr. Iwaji — 

Notes on a New Land Planarian from Ceylon . . 113 

2. Southwell, T.— 

Some Notes on the Ceylon Pearl-inducing Worm . . 124 

3. Gravely, F. H.— 

The Species of Ceylon Pedipalpi . . . . 135 

4. Tiu*ner, Rowland E. — 

New Hymenoptera from Ceylon . . . . 141 

5. Meade- Waldo, Geoffrey — 

A new Mason Wasp . . . . . . 155 

6. Wall, F.— 

The Egg-tooth in the Ceylon Krait, or Karawella (Bwn- 

garus ceylonicus) . . . . . . 157 

7. Notes. — 

10. Correction as regards the Ceylon Species of Phle- 

botomus. N. Annandale . . . . 159 

11. The Ceylon Jungle Fowl in Captivity. J. LI. 

Thomas . . . . . . 159 

12. Pelenda Nuwara. P. E. Pieris . . . . 161 

13. Child's Play. A. A. Perera . . . . 163 

14. A convenient method of storing Butterflies in Paper 

Envelopes. E. E. Green . . . . 164 

15. On a curious Scolopendriform Caterpillar {Homodes 

fulva, Hampson). E. E. Green . . . . 166 

16. On the Larva of Panilla albo punctata, Wlk. E. E. 

Green . . . . . . 168 



( V ) 

Part XXVIII.— August, 1911. 



PAGE 



1. Pearson, J.— 

Ceylon Ci'ustacea : Parti., Notes on the Alpheidse .. 169 

2. Annandale, N. — 

A new Genus of Short-beaked Gnats from Ceylon .. 187 

3. Southwell, T.— 

Some remarks on the occurrence of Cestodes in Ceylon . . 194 

4. Hartley, C— 

An exploration of Beligal-ge, near Balangoda . . 197 

5. Hartley, C. — 

Review. . . . . . " . ^ 201 

6. Notes. — 

17. Further Note on FUes of the Genus Phlehotomus. 

N. Annandale . . . . . , 203 

18. Contest between a Mynah (Acridotheres tristis) and 

a Locust {Acridium violascens). N. Manders . . 204 

19. The Effects of the Bite of Ancistrodon hypnale. 

A. F. x4bercromby . . . . 205 

20. Notes on Ceylon Snakes. A. F. Abercromby . . 205 

21. Abnormal Chicken with Four Legs. J. Pearson . . 207 

22. Sun-fish caught near Jaffna. J. Pearson . . 208 

23. The Giant Tortoise at Galle. J. Pearson . . 208 

24. The Gouraixii. J. Pearson . . . . 209 

25. Proposed further attempt to introduce the Gourami 

{Os'phromenus olfax) into Ceylon, with notes on a 
suitalftle locahty. A. H. Pertwee .. 210 

26. On the Occasional Luminosity of the Beetle Harma- 

telia hilinea. E. E. Green . . . . 212 

27. On the probable occurrence of Field Mice in Ceylon. 

E. E. Green . . . . . . 214 

28. On some Butterflies of the Horton Plains. E. E. 

G^reen . . . . . . 215 

29. On an interesting aberration of Vanessa (Pyrameis) 

indica. E. E. Green . . . . 215 

30. On Megaderma lyra, its Habits and Parasites. 

E. E. Green . . . . . . 216 

31. Capture of a Mouse by a large Spider. E. E. Green 217 

32. On the Employment of a Snake-stone in a case of 

Centipede-bite. E. E. Green . . . , 217 

33. Notes on the Larvse of Papilio polytes, P. demoleus, 

P. helenus (race mooreanus), and P. polymnestor 
(race parinda). J. C. F. Fryer . . . . 217 

34. Filodes mirificalis, a good species. J. C. F. Fryer . . 220 



( vii ) 



INDEX TO VOLUME VII. 



SUBJECT INDEX. 



Aberration (of Vanesna indica), 215 

Abnormal chicken, 207, 208 

African snail, 56, 110 

Alpheidse, 169-186 

Amphibia, 67, 73 

Anguluwa, 97, 99 

Ankutta, 91, 92 

Ants, 53 

Anuradhapura,- 217 

Ara, 94 

Aristolochise — form (of Papilio polyies), 

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17 
Arthropods, 73 
Artificial fertilization, 101 
Asilid flies, 11, 13, 14, 15 
Atanguwa. 90 

Barawe fishery, 89, 90 

Baru-dela, 90, 97 

Batakola-telliya, 89, 92 

Bats, 106, 216 

Beads, 40 

Bee-eaters, 48 

Beetles, 107, 217 

Beligal-ee, 197-200 

Birds, 10, 15, 71 

Blood-suckers, 11 

Bo-leaf ornaments, 41 

Bug, blood-sucking, 50 

Butter-fish, 91 

Butterflies, 1-24, 51, 55,107,164, 215- 

217 
Butterfly trap, 55 

Call of grasshopper, 56 
Carnivorous bat, 106, 216 
Caterpillars, 166, 168, 217-222 
Cat-fishes, 91 
Caudal tubercles, 219 
Cave exploration, 197-200 
Centipede bite, 217 
Cestodes, 124-134, 194-196 
Ceylon crustacea, 169-186 

hymenoptera, 141-156 

jungle fowl, 159 

krait, 157 

pedipalpi, 43, 135 

snakes, 35-38, 205-207 

symphyla ,110 

Chank, 39 

Chicken (abnormal), 207, 208 
Child's play, 163 
Climbing perch, 91 
Cockroaches, 217 
Colombo harbour, 175, 182 
Crocodiles, 68, 79, 83 
Crows, 10, 51, 55, 107, 108 

Dandiya, 94 
Delft, 185 

Diyatalawa, 187, 215 
Dragon-flies, 22, 23 
Dung beetles, 107 



Egg-tooth, 157 

Enemies of butterflies, 9, 10, 11, 12, 

13, 14, 15 
Eswattiya, 89 

Field mice, 214 

Filigree beads, 40 

Fish-eating bee-eaters, 48, 49, 50 

Fisheries, 88-104 

Fishes, 66, 89, 104, 130, 208, 209-212 

Fish-traps, 89, 90, 98 

Flight (butterflies), 7 

Flycatchers, 49 

Food (butterflies as), 

(larvge), 4 

(lizards), 11 

(lish), 131 



10 



(reduviid bvig), 55 

Fresh-water fisheries, 88-104 

polyzoon\ 

sponge / 

tortoise 212 

Frog, 110 

Ganga-anda, 91 

Grar-fish (fresh-water), 91 

Garstin hill, 208, 209 

G«cko, 217 

Genitalia (sand-flies), 61 

Giant tortoise, 108, 208, 209 

Gnats, 187-193 

Gobies, 91 

Gourami, 95, 96, 104, 209, 210, 211, 

212 
Grasshopper, 56, 217 
Green viper, 106 

Habits (alpheidse), 169 
(locust), 204 



(Megaderma lyra) 

(mynah), 204 

Hsemogregarine , 79 
Hal-kula, 92 
Hanwella, 89, 90 
Hare, 55 

Harmless snakes, 53 
Hesperids, 22 
Hiri-kanaya, 90 
Hirimbura, 208, 209 
Homoptera, 55 
Horton plains, 214 
Hunga, 92, 103 
Hymenoptera, 141 

Ihivetiya-ela, 89 
Iliya, 98 
India, 220 
India swiftlet, 50 
Indian otter, 212 

Jaffna, 208 
Ja-kotu, 90 
Jungle fowl, 159 



106, 216 



( viii ) 



Kaduwa, 94 

Kana-magura, 98 

Kandyan art, 39-42 

Kandy waterworks reservoir, 2 1 1 

Karakgediya, 89 

Karawella, 37, 157 

Kavaiya, 91,92, 102, 103 

Kayts harbour, 208 

Kemina, 89 

Kendeya, 103 

Kingfishers, 48, 49 

Koraliya, 91, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 102 

Krait, 157, 206 

Kudvipuwa, 91 

Kurunegala, 206 

Labelling fish, 104 

Lake fly, 50 

Land planarian, 113-123 

Land snail, 110 

Larva, 168 

Leaf -cutting bees, 55 

Leaf insects, 54, 106 

Lela, 90 

Life histories, 51 

Lizards, 11, 12, 13, 15, 68, 69, 70, 73, 

77, 217 
Locust, 204 
Lula, 89, 92, 103 
Luminosity, 212 

Madaya, 92, 101 
Madras langur, 200 
Magpie robin, 10 
Magura, 92, 103 
Mahseer, 104 
Maguruwaka, 94 
Maldives, 171 
Malta, 203 
Malu-bana, 93 
Mammals, 71, 73 
Mas-ge or mas-kotuwa, 90 
Maskeliya, 213 
Mason wasp, 155 
Mimicry, 1-24 
Moda, 89, 99 
Molkawa fishery, 94 
Molluscs, 73 
Monkeys, 15 
Moralla, 26 
Mouse, 217 
Mouse deer, 200 
Mynahs, 11, 204 

Night lines, 93 

Padduwa caste, 89 
Pala-dela, 90 
Palm squirrel, 107 
Parasitic protozoa, 65 
Parasites (frogs and toads), 74 

(lizards), 77 

(Megadermalyra), 216 

(Tropidonotus stolatus), 77 

(white ants), 80 

Parrot, 108 

Parthenogenesis, 54 

Pearl banks, 170, 173, 174, 175, 177. 

178, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185 
Pearl-inducing worm, 124-134, 195 
Pedipalpi, 43, 135 
Pelenda Nuwara, 161 



Peradeniya,210,212,213, 214,215,222 

Petiya, 94 

Phlebotomus, 57-62, 159, 203, 204 

Pipe fish, 25-34 

Pisciculture, 100, 101, 209-212 

Planarian, 113-123 

Play, 163 

Polymorphism, 1, 15, 16, 17 

Polyzoon, 63-64 

Powder horn, 39 

Protozoa, 65 

Pusweli-ganga , 89, 93 

Rangalla, 
Red ants, 53 
Reduviid bugs, 50, 55 
Reptiles, 68 

Rhopalocera of Ceylon, 1-24 
Rhopaloceran diet, 10 
River fishing, 89, 93 
Royston crow, 51 

Saliya, 89 

Sand-flies, 57 

Scolopendriform caterpillar, 166 

Scorpion spiders, 43, 44, 46, 47 

Snail, 56, 110 

Snail cave, 197-200 

Snail shells, 197, 198, 200 

Snake bite, 54, 107, 206 

Snakes, 35, 53, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 83, 

205, 206, 207 
Snake stone, 217 
Snapping shrimps, 169 
South America, 217 
Spider, 217 

bird-eating, 217 

Sponge, 63 
Stock-drill weight, 39 
Storing butterflies, 164 
Stvlops 55 
Sun-fish, 208 
Symphyla, 110 
Syngnathids, 25-34 

Tambalaya, 96 

Tamblegam, 181, 185 

Tarantula, 217 

Tartarids, 46, 47, 135, 136 

Telliva, 89 

Termites, 80, 83 

Tick-flies, 216 

Tora-anguluwa, 97 

Tortoises, 68, 108 

Trincomalee, 170, 172. 179, 182 

Veddas, 200, 201, 202 
Vetiya or veta, 89 
Viper, 107 

Wakwella, 90 

Wala fishery, 91, 92, 93 

Walapota, 91 

Walava, 89 

Water rat, 214 

Wel-angviluwa , 97 

Weligama, 177, 185 

Weligowa, 91, 103 

Wellawaya, 222 

Whip scorpions, 44, 45, 46, 47 

White ants, 80 

Zostera, 26 



( ix ) 



NAME INDEX. 



Abercromby, A. F., 205-207 

Abeysingha, F. D., 209 

Abrew, A. de, 163 

Aitken, 219 

Allen, Grant, 49 

Alwis, A. D., 24 

Andre, 142 

Annandale, N., 57, 03, 159, 187-193, 

203, 204 
Apstein, 64 

Bailey, 201 

Bamber, M. Kelway, 90, 211 

Barton, Capt. F. R., 163 

Bates, 5 

Bate, Spence, 182 

Bateson, 18 

Bell, 219 

Berestneff, N., 67, 68, 69 

Beylie, Gen., 41 

Bezzenberger, E., 72, 74, 75, 77 

Billet, A., 77 

Bingham, Lieut.-Col., 141, 142, 149. 

156 
Black, J., 208, 209 
Blandford, 106 
Bliss, G. E., 161 
Blyth, 49, 106 
Borner, C, 79 
Boulenger, G. A., 35, 37, 38, 106, 110, 

207 
Bourgeois, J., 214 
Briscoe, P. C, 54 
Bvickland, F., 51 
Butschli, O., 80 

Cameron, 141, 142, 152 
Casse Lebbe, A. B., 39 
Castellani, Dr. A., 66, 67, 69, 70, 71 
• Chalmers, Dr. A. J., 195 
Conroy, J., 95 
Coomaraswamy , A. K. , 39 
Coutiere,H., 171. 172, 177, 182, 183, 
184, 185 

Darwin, C. , 50 

Davidson, 219 

Distant, 4 

Dobell, C. C, 13, 14, 23. 65, 72 

Do err, 57 

Doflein, F., 10, 80, 84 

Doncaster, L. , 18 

Drieberg, C. , 51 

Duncker, G. , 25 

Ferdinandus, 136. 137 

Finn, F., 13 

Fletcher, T. B.. 141 

Fowler, G. M., 211 

Frantz, 57 

Frenzel, J., 80 

Fryer, J. C. F., 21, 214, 217-222 

Gadow, 109 
Gahan, C. J., 213 
Gamble, 129 
Garstin, Dr. N.. 209 
de Grandpr6, A. D. , 96 
Grassi, 57 

b 



Grassi, B., 80 

Grassi, J. B. , 80 

Gravely, F. H., 43, 58, HI, 135 

Gray, A. C. H., 79 

Green, E. E., 1, 7, 21, 24, 35, 44, 45, 
46, 47, 49, 50, 56, 58, 65, 96, 108, 
110,157, 158, 167,168, 187, 201, 
203, 210, 212-217, 220 

Giinther, A., 110 

de Haan, 182, 183 

Haase, 5 

Haly, 37 

Hankey, A. A., 209 

Hansen, Dr. H. J., HI, 135, 136, 137, 

139 
Harbord, G., 217 
Harrison, A., 20 
Hartley, C, 197-200, 201, 202 
Hartshorne, B. L., 201 
Henry, G., 169 
Herdraan, Prof. W. A., 124, 126, 

128, 170 
Holdsworth, 49 
Holland, W. D., 197 
Hopkins, Dr. F. G., 23 
Hornell, J., 129, 131, 132, 194 

Imms, A. D. , 111 
Iwaji Ikeda, Dr., 113 

Johnson, C. , 160 

Kelaart, 124 

Kent, W. Saville, 80 

Keppitipola, T. B., 41, 42 

Knox, 201 

&aepelin, K. , 135 

i Lacombe, Rev. L., 54 
Lamb, C, 14 
Laveran, 71 
Lederer, 220 
Legge, 49 

Leidy, J., 80, 81, 82 
Lespes, 80 
Lock, R. H., 1, 65 
Lydekker, 109 

Macbride, 10, 11 

MacDougall, Major, 187, 188, 192, 215 

Mackwood, Hon. F., 1 

Main, H., 20 

Manders, Col. N., 1, 3, 8, 204, 205 

Marchoux, 79 

Marshall, 10 

Meade-Waldo, G., 155 

Meijere, Dr. J. C. H. de, 21, 62 

Metcalf, M. M., 76 

Milne-Edwards, 177 

Minchin, Prof. E. A.. 15, 69, 79 

Moore, 4, 220 

Neresheimer, E., 68 
NevUl, H., 201 
Newstead, R., 203, 204 

Parker, H., 40, 202 
Parsons, J., 39, 197, 198 
Patton, W. S., 67, 71 

6{11)U 



( X ) 



Pearson, Dr. J., 109, 110, 169-186, 

200,207-210, 211 
Perera. A. A., 163 
Pertwee, A. H., 'J 10-212 
Petch, T., 53 
Pieris, P. E., 109., 163 
Plant, G. F., 162 
Pocock, R. I., 46, 135, 136 
Pole, J., 201, 212, 213 
Poulton, Prof. E. B., 1, 14, 20 
Pritchett, Miss A. H., 13 
Pnnnett, R. C, 1. 113 

Randall, 177 

Ray nor, Rev. G. H., 18 

Reeves, Col. E. G., 48, 49, 50, 100 

Robertson, Miss M., 68, 69, 70, 71, 78 

Rutimeyer, L., 20 1 

^andias, A., 80 
Sarasin, F., 199,200, 201 
Sarasin,P., 199, 200, 201 
Saussure, 149, 151, 154 
Sauzier, 109 
Schaudinn, F., 67 
Seligmann, B. Z., 201 
Seligmann. C. G., 201, .02 
Shipley, A., 129. 132, 194 
Simond, P. L., 71, 79 
Skeen, F., 40 
Smith, 151 



Sorensen, W., 135 
Southwell, T., 124, 194-196 
Spence, Bate, 182 
Still, J., 49 

Taussig, 57 
Tennent, E.,201 
Theobald, 187 
Thomas, H. S., 101 
Thomas, Dr. J. L., 161 
Thurston, 124 
Trimen, 215 
Tulloch, F. M. G., 79 
Turner, R. E., 141 

Vigors, C. T. D., 110 
Virchovv, 201 

Von Graff, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 
121, 122 

Wallace, 4, 5 

Wall, Major F., 35, 62, 157 

Watkins & Doncaster, Messrs., 166 

Weber, Prof. Max, 63 

Wenyon, C. M., 69 

Wickwar, O. S., 89, 141, 156 

Willey, Dr. A., 1, 23, 35, 37, 49, 50, 61 , 

63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 88, 

113, 128, 209, 210, 211 

Yerbury, 141 
Young, 161 



LATIN INDEX. 



Abraxas grossulariata, 18 
Acanthotsenia shipleyi, 195 
Achatina fvilica, 56, 110 
Acridium violascens, 204 
Acridotheres tristis, 204 
.Egialitis mongolica, 195 
Agama tuberculata, 69 
Alligator mississippiensis, 79 
Alpheidffi, 169-186 
Alpheus, 169, 170, 177 

acvileipes, 17!, 180 

avxdouini, 171, 184, 185. 186 

bis-incisus, 171, 182, 183 

bucephalus, 171, 179 

frontalis, 171, 180, 186 

— . idiocheles, 171 

— macrodactylus, 171 

miersi, 1 7 I 

paraculeipes, 171 

paralcyone, 171 

parevicheirvis, 1 7 1 

phrygianus, 171, 178 

rapax, 171, 181 

spongiarum, 171 

^strenuus, 171, 184, 185, 186 

ventrosus, 171, 176. 186 

Amblypharyngodon melletina, 89 
Ara,blyplana hseckeli, 122 

teres, 122 

Amphibia, 72 

Anabns scandons, 66, 91, 102, 103 
Ancistrodon hypnale, 54, 70, 205 
Anguilla bengalensis, 91 
Apaiura parisatis, 2 



Aphanobothrium eatenatum, 195 
Appias paulina, 14 
Archigetes, 125 
Argynnis hyperbivis, 2, 3. 16 

paphia, 16 

Aristolochia, 5 

Arius falcarius, 97, 99 

Artiocotylus speciosus, 119, 120, 121 

Ascaris lumbricoides, 196 

Asilidffi, 13 

Auxomitia mirifiealis, 220 

Aviculariinse, 217 

Badhamia exclamationis, 22 
Balantidium, 72, 74, 83 

duodeni, 75 

gracilis, 75 

-^helente, 74, 75 

— • ■- hyalinum, 75 

ovale, 74, 75 

rotundum, 75 



Balistes, 126, 132, 133 

mitis, 132 

stellatus, 132 

undulatus, 132 

Barbus dorsalis, 103 

mahecola, 212 

pinnauratus, 94, 212 

tor, 90 

Belone cancila, 91 

strongylura, 99 

Bilinea (Harmatelia), 213 
Boa constrictor, 73, 83 
Borborus, 107 



{ xi ) 



Bothridium pythonis, 195 
Bothriocephulus latus, 125, 127, 128 
Brochocophakis paradoxus, 195 
Bufo melanostictus, 07, 72, 75, 76, 77 
Buliimis albizonatus, 198 
Bungarus cseruleus, 206 
ceylonicus, 37, 167, 206 

Cacopus globvdosus, 110 

systoma, 110 

Callichrous biraaculatus, 91 
Callophis, 38, 107 
Callophis trimaculatus, 37 
Callotermes flavicollis, 82 

militaris, 74, 80 

Calotes ophiomaclms, 11, 69 

versicolor, 11, 69, 70 

Cardui (Vanessa), .15 
Catopsilia pyranthe, 14 
Ceratophora stoddartii, 69 
Ceratopogou, 57 
Cerberus rhynchops, 70 - 

Cervus axis, l! 5 
Chalcosia venosa, 23 
Chanos salmoneus, 99 
Chaoborus, 187, 188 

asiaticus, 188 

pallida, 192 

pluiuicornis, 192 

Chatoesus nasus, 99 
Chironomus ceylonicus, 50 
Chromides, 94 
Chrysopelea ornata, 71 
Chrysophrys berda, 99 
Cimex lectularius, 50 
Cinnyi'is zeylanica, 106, 216 
Citrus, 218 

Citto-taenia bursaria, 195 
Clarias raagur, 66, 92, 103 
Colias edusa, 16, 20 
Conorhinus rubrofasciatvis, 50 
sanguisugus, 50 

Coprini, 107 

Corethra, 187 

(Mochlonvx) velutina, 192 

Corethridse, 187, 188 

Corone macrorhyncha, 108 

Corvus macrorhynchus, 71, 195 

splendens , 7 1 

Corythroichthys conspicillatus, 29 

Cotyloplanidae , 113, 119 

Crateropus striatus, 71 

Crocodilus frontatus, 79 

porosus, 68, 79 

Crotali, 207 

Culex, 187, 192 

Culicidse, 187, 188, 192 

Cursorius europrous, 128 

Cyaniris lanka, 215 

singalensis, 216 

Cyprinidae, 89, 94 

Cysticercus, 195 

: acanthotrias, 195 

cellulosse, 125, 195 

Danais aglea, 55 

chi-ysippus, 2, 3, 13 

plexippus, 2, 3, 13, 16 

septentrionis, 3 

vulgaris, 2, 3, 12 

Davainea polycalcaria, 195 



Delias eucharis, 2, 11, 12 
Dendrelophis tristis, 35, 36, 70 
Dendrocygna javanica, 1 94 
Deudrophis, •.-07 
Dendrophis bif renal is, 205, 207 

pictus, 207 

Dielis, 154 

rubroraaculata, 154 

Diorchis occlusa, 195 
Diplochetes volvulus, 1 95 
Diplydiuni caninum, 1 95, 196 
Dipsas barnesii, 206 

ceylonensis, 53, 205, 207 

forstenii, 206 

Dipsadomorphus ceylonensis, 70, 71 

forstenii, 70, 71 

Diptera, 13 

Discalis (Harmatelia) , 213 

Dolichoplana, 114, 118, 121 

feildeni, 115, 122 

neitneri, 122 

Doryichthys cmiculus, 25, 27 

ocellatus, 25, 28 

Drvophis naycterizans, 70, 71, 73, 206, 

207 
Duthiersia fimbriata, 1 95 

Echinococcus, 125, 194 

granulosus, 194 

Elenehus, 55 
Eleotris fusca, 91 
Elops saurus, 99 
Elynuiias fraterna, 2, 3, 16 

siiighala, 2 

Emyda vittata, 68 
Entamoeba, 72, 83 
ranarum, 72 



Ergolis, 2 

Etroplus suratensis, 66, 91, 94, 97, 99, 

102 
Euplcea asela, 55 

core, 2, 10, 12 

spp., 2, 3, 10 

Euschema maculata, 12 

Felis pardus, 195 

Filariaj, 70 

Filodes bilinealis, 222 

fulvidorsalis, 220, 221 

mirificalis, 220, 221 

Fixnambulus palmarura, 71 

Gadus, 134 
Gastrotokeus, 26 

biaculeatus, 25 

Gerres limbatus, 99 

lucidus, 1)9 

Ginglyraostoma concolor, 129, 130, 131 
Girardinia heterophylla, var. palmata, 

215 
Gobius giuris, 66, 67, 91, 103 
Gjannonympha zeylanica, 80, 81 

Hsemocystidiura simondi, 68, 69 
Hsemogregarina borestneffi, 67, 74 

crocodilinoruni, 79 

hankini, 79 

mirabilis, 71 

nicorise, 68 

thonisonii, 69 

Haeraoproteus, 71 



( xii ) 



Haliastur indus, 195 
Hansenia glanea, 22 
Haplogeusis ceylanica, 214 
JrJarmatelia, 212, 213 

bilinea, 212,213,214 

discalis, 214 

Hebotomus minvitus, 62 
Helicops schistosiis, 70 
Hemidactylnsdepressus. R9 

- frenatiis, 69 

leschenaultii, 68, 69, 73, 

77, 78 
triedrvis, 69, 78 



Hemiramphus xanthopterus, 99 
Hippobosca, 216 
Hippocampus brevirostris, 33 

guttatus, 33, 34 

kuda, 33, 34 

Hipposideris speoris, 195 
Homodes crocea, 166 

fulva, 166, 167 

vivida, 166 

Hydrvis platyurus, 70 
Hyla arbor ea, 76 
Hymenolepis clausa, 194 

murina, 125 

nana, 125 

septarai, 194 

spinosa, 194 

Hypolimnas bolina, 2,15 
misippus, 2, 3 

Ichthyota^nia cryptobothrium, 195 
Indica (Vanessa), 216 
Ixalus leucorrhinus, 67, 72 
Ixias, 11 

Jsenia, 80 

Junonia almana, 12 

iphita, 12, 13 

lemonias, 14 

Labeo dussumieri, 90 

Labochirns proboscideus, 45 

Lampyridaj, 212, 213 

Lankesterella, 68 

Lates calcarifer, 89, 97, 09 

Leidyonella, 80 

Lepus nigi'icoUis, 71, 195 

Lethe daretis, 215 

Lobipluvia naalabariea, 195 

Lophoceros gingalensis, 195 

Lophomonas, 80 

Lutjanus argentimaculatus, 132 

jahngarah, 96 

Lycodon, 20 > 

aulicus, 71, 73, 206 

striatus, 158 

Lygosonaa punctatuni, 69, 73 
Lyriocephalus, 13 
scutatus, 69, 73 

Mabuia oariuata, 69, 73, 77 
Macrones, 91 

cavasius, 67 

gulio, 97 

Mastacembelus armatus, 89 
Megachile, 55 
Megaderma lyra, 106, 216 
Megalops cyprinoides, 98 
Meropidae, 49 
Merops, 10 



Merops pliilippinus, 49 

swinhoii, 49 

viridis, 49 



Methoca, 152 

bicolor, 152 

rngosa, 152 



Microhierax, 10 

Microphis brachyurus, 25, 26 

Mugil olivaceus, 99 

Musca, 187 

Mutillida?, 141 

Mutilla, 142 

— acidalia, 150 

bainbriggei, 142, 144 

blanda, 143 

cotesii, 142 

desiderata, 143, 148 

fumigata, 142, 147 

fletcheri. 143, '47, 148 

hexaops, 143, 149, 150 



^ianthis, 142, 144 

'^ melanota, 143. 150 

nobilis, 151 

ocdipvis, 142 

ocellata, 143 

pectinospinata, 144 

pinguicula, 142, 145, 146 

pondicherensis, 143 

.porcella, 142, 145 

pulla, 148 

recondita, 145 

rothneyi, 142 

. rufitarsis, 143 

sexmacidata, 150 

thermopila, 142, 146 

wickwari, 143, 148 



Mycalesis mineus, 12 

patnia , 1 2 

Myliobatis nieuhofii, 132 
Myzine claripennis, 152 

Nacaduba sp., 14 
Naia tripudians, 70, 71 
NematodemiTs lumbricoides, 122 
Nepheronia ceylanica, 215 
Neurothemis tullia, 23 
Nicoria trijuga, 68 
Nycteribia, 216 
Nyctotherus, 72, 74, 75, 83 

macropharyngeus, 72, 75 

__ — ovalis, 81 

pappillatus, 76 

terraitis, 81 

Octomitus, 72, 83 
Odyneru;. diffinis, 156 

wickwari, 155 

CEcophylla smaragdina, 13, 53 
Oligodon sublineatus, 37, 71 
Opalina, 72, 76, 77, 83 

virgvila, 76 

obtrigona, 76 

Ophiocephalus marulivxs, 94, 100 

punctatus, 66, 92, 101 

striatus, 66, 67, 89 

Opliivisa raezentia, 22 
Ophryocotyle ceylonica, 195 
Ornithoptera darsius, 55 
Orthagoriscus truncatus, 208 
Osphromenus olfax. 95, 210, 211 
Oxjnms, 73 



( xiii ) 



Palamnseus indus, 73 
Paludomvis dilatata , 198 

gardueri, 198 

Panilla albopunctata, 108 

Papilio, 220 

Papilio agameniiaoii , 10 

ambrax, 19 

aristolocliise, 2. 5, 0, 7, 8, 9, 12, 

13, 15, 16, 17 

clytia, 2, 3 

(var. dissimilis), 2, 3 

crino, 14 

dardaniis, 20 

demoleus, 11, 217, 219, 220 

■ hector, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 107 

helenus, 218, 219, 220 

(race mooreanus), 217) 

218, 219 

memnon, 16, 21 

ormenus, 16 

parinda, 55 

polymnestor (race parinda), 

217, 218, 219, 220 
polytes, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 

15, 16, 19, 21, 22, 55, 107, 

217, 219, 220 

(var. romulus), 2 

theseus, 19 



Papilionidse , 7 
Parata bvitleri, 22 
Pareronia ceylonica, 2, 4, 1 "< 
Patseraonidae, IGO 
Pectinatella, 63, 64 

burmanica, 63, 64 

gelatinosa, 64 

Pedipalpi, 43-47, 135-140 
Pelorempis, 188 
Phengodini, 213 
Philsematoniyia, 187 
Philopotamis globulosa, 198 
Phlebotomus, 57-64, 159, 187 

argentipes, 59, 159 

var. margi- 

natus, 203 

augustipennis, 62 

babu, 59, 61, 62, 159 

marginatus, 59, 62, 159 

minutus, 203, 204 

■ papatasi, 57, 62 

zeylanicus, 59, 60, 159 

Phcenicopterus roseus, 1 95 
Phrjmichidse , 43 
Phrynichus lunatiis, 43 

pusillus, 44, 135 

(s. str.), 140 

— var. gracillibra- 

chiatus, 140 
PhrysorhjTichus linnaei, 55, 56 
Placuna placenta, 128 
Plasmodium vivax, 85 
Platycephalus insidiator, 99 
Platyderaus, 115, 121 

— grandis, 118 

thwaitesi, 122 

Plesia, 152 

petiolata, 152 

Plotosus canius, 98, 99 
Plumatella emarginata, 64 

— ■ princeps, 64 

Poecilotheria, 217 



Polycercus, 128 
Polycladns gayi, 115 
Polydesniidaj , 56 
Polydesmus sausurii, 73 
Polynemus plebius, 99 

tetradactylus, 99 

Prioneris sita, 2 
Pristis cuspidatus, 132 
Promecilla, 151 

cyanosoma, 151 

hesitata, 151 

prsestabilis , 151 



Protozoa, 65, 86 

Pseudartiocotylus ceylonicus, 113, 121 

Pteroplatea micrura, 132 

Pteropus medius, 71 

Pulchriphyllium crurifolium, 54, 106 

Pupipara, 21(5 

Pyrale, 220 

Python molurus, 206 

Python reticulatus, 71 

Rahinda hordonia, 23 
Ramcia, 187, 188 
Ramcia inepta, 189, 193 
Rana cyanophlyctis, 75, 77 

esculenta, 75 

var. chinensis, 75, 77 



hexadactyla, 67, 75, 77 

limnocharis, 75, 77 

temporaria, 72, 75 

■ tigrina, 67, 72, 74, 75, 76 

Rasbora daniconius, 94, 212 
Rhacophorus maculatus, 67, 72, 75, 

76 
Rhinoptera javanica, 126, 129, 131, 

132 
Rhynchobatns djeddensis, 130, 131, 

132 
Rhynchodemida;, 113, 118, 120, 121 
Rhynchodemus, 118, 121 

ceylonicus, 122 

nematoides, 122 

terrestris, 115 

Rhyncobdella aculeata, 89 
Rhyothemus variegata, 22 
Rostratula capensis, 194 
Rutacese, 218 

Saccobranchus fossilis, 66, 92, 103 
Scarabseus gangeticus, 107 
Schizomus, 135, 136 
crassicaudatus, 46, 47, 136, 

■ 137 

(s. str.) 136, 139 

(Trithyreus), modestus,139 

peradeniyen- 

sis, 137, 139 

— ■ procerus, 139 

suboculatus, 

46, 136 
— ■ vittatus, 138, 

139 
Sciurus palmarum, 107 
ScoliidEC, 141 
Scolia, 154 

(Discolia) indica, 154 

histrionica, 154 

vivida, 154 

Scops bakkanioena, 71 



( xiv ) 



Scutigerella orientalis, 111 

subunguiculata , 111 

unguiculata ,111 

(indica), 111 

Semnopithecus priamus, 200 
Serranus uadulosus, 130, 132, 133 
Sillago sihama, 99 
Siraotes, 37 
Simuliura, 57 
Sitana ponticeriana, G9 
Soletellina acuminata, 73 
Spirochseta buccalis, 82 

duttoni, 79 

■ termitis, 81, 82 

tropidonoti. 7S 

SpUomutilla, 141, 142 

eltola, 141 

ocdipus, 142 

Spirostreptus lunelii, 74 
Spongilla carter! , 63 

cinerea, 63 

lacustris, 63 

proliferens, 63 

Stegomyia, 190 
Stenomutilla, 151 

egregia, 151 

Sterna bergii, 195 

Stonioxys, 187 

Stylopyga orientalis, 80, 81, 83 

Symphyla, 110 

Synalpheus, 169, 171, 172 

biunguiculatus, 171 

var. exilipes, 171, 

174 

comatuloriun, 171 

— : carinatu-, 171 

gravieri, 171, 173 

laticeps, 171 

neoraeris, 171, 173, 174 

\ ar. streptodacty- 

lus, 171, 172 

tumido-manus, 171, 175 

Synapttira oi'ientalis, 99 
Syngnathus argyrostictns , 32 

spicifer, 32 

var. djarong, 25, 

31, 32, 33 
var. gastrotsenia, 

32, 33 
Synura, 101 

Taenia acanthotrias, 125 

cucuraerina, 129, 194 

elliptica, 194 

meander, 195 

mediocancellata, 194 

nilotica, 128 

polycalcarea, 195 

saginata, 194, 195 

serrata, 125, 195 

solium, 125, 133, 194, 195 

sp., 195, 196 

Tseniura melanospilos, 126, 120, 130. 

131 
'fagiades atticus, 22 
Tarantulida;, 140 
Telchinia violfe, 11 
Teracolus, 11 
Terias sp., 11, 12, 14 
hecabe, 215 



Terias libythea, 215 

•— venata, 215 

Termes flavipes, 82 

lucifugus, 82 

Terminalia catappa, 167 
Tetrabothrius erostris, 195 
Tetrarhynchus heidmani, 130 

rubromaculatus, 127 

unionifactor, 126, 127, 

129,130,132,133,195 
Testudo elegans, 68 

elephantina, 109 

gigantea, 109, 208, 209 

hololissa, 109 

ponderosa, 109 

sumeirei, 109 



Tetrodon, 132 

stellatus, 130 

Thelyphonidse, 43 
Tlielyphonus sepiaris, 45 
Thompsoniella arcuata, 55 
Thurbergia allata, 222 

coccinea, 222 

fragrans, 222 



Tiphia, 152 

oswini, 152 

Tracliyramphus serratus, 30 
Tragulvis meminna, 71, 72 
Trichomonas, 72, 73, 77, 83, 84 

batrachorum, 72, 77 

mabuise, 77 



Trichomastix, 72, 73, 77, 83, 84 

butrachorum, 72, 77 

mabviise, 77 

Trimeresurus trigonocephalus, 106, 

206, 207 
Trithyreus, 46, 135, 136, 137 
Tropidonotus asperrimus, 35, 71, 206 

piscator, 35 

pkimbicolor, 206 

stolatvis, 70. 77, 78, 206, 

207 
Trygon kuhli, 127 

walga, 130 

Trypanosoma erytlii'olampri, 78 

leschenaultii, 69 

naiaj, 78 

pertenvie, 69, 78 

rotatorium, 74 

saccobranchi, 66 

sp. , 74 

tropidonoti, 77, 78 

Tubifex, 125 

Upupa cdylonensis, 194 
Uro campus southwelli, 30 

Vanessa indica, 215 
Varanus bengalensis, 69, 195 

salvator, 195 

Venvis casta, 73 
Vipera russellii, 71 

Wallago-attu, 89 

Ypthima ceylonica, 51, 52, 215 
singala, 215 

Zamenis niucosus, 70, 71, Til 
Zostera. 26 



lu.', 






4' <s V 

SPOLIA ZEYLANIGA. 



"MIMICRY" IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES, WITH A 
SUGGESTION AS TO THE NATURE OF POLYMORPHISM. 

By R. C. PuNNETT, M.A., 

Fellow of Gonville and Caiiis College, Professor of Biology in the 
University of Cambridge. 

(With two coloured Plates.) 

T3EING interested in the striking resemblances in colour and 
-■-^ pattern which are to be found between butterflies belonging 
to different genera and families, I took advantage of a visit to 
Ceylon during the past summer (1909) to observe as many as 
possible of these cases in the living state. Though my stay on the 
Island was a short one — two months only — it was mainly devoted 
to the study of these phenomena, and as I have arrived at definite 
conclusions on some points, I have thought it worth while to place 
on record my observations , together with the ^ew experiments that 
I was able to undertake. 

Before, however, proceeding to my subject-matter, I wish to make 
certain acknowledgments. To my friends, Dr. Willey and Mr. R. 
H. Lock, I am grateful for unwearying kindness and for generously 
giving me all the assistance that was in their power. I oM^e also a 
debt of gratitude to Mr. E. E. Green for placing freely at my 
service his encj^clopgedic knowledge of the insects of Ceylon, and for 
a consignment of butterfliies which arrived shortly after my return. 
To Col. Manders and to the Hon. Mr. F. Mackwood I am indebted 
for information ; to the latter also for several specimens. Lastly, I 
wish to acknowledge the kindness of Prof. Poulton, who was good 
enough before my departure to give me some duplicate specimens 
illustrating the most conspicuous cases of mimicry in Ceylon 
butterflies, thereby materially lightening my task of becoming 
familiar with a strange fauna. 

The Principal Cases of Mimicry in Ceylon Butterflies. 
Though the Rhopaloceran fauna of Ceylon is not a rich one in 
comparison with that of most tropical countries, several cases have 
B . 9(6)10 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



nevertheless made their way into the literature of mimicry, 
cases I have put together in the following list : — 



These 



Mimic. 

HypoUmnas holina, 9 

,, misippus, $ 

Elymnias fraterna, ? 
Argynnis hyperbius, 9 
Pareronia ceylonica, $ 
Prioneris sita, 6 and 9 
Papilio clytia, 6 and ? 

„ (var. dissimilia) 6 and ? 

Papilio polytes, ? 

„ (var. rormdus) ? 



Model.* 

Euploea (several species) 
Danais chrysippus 
,, plexippus 

,, vulgaris (and allies) 
Delias eucharis, 6 and ? 
Euploea (several species) 
Danais vulgaris (and allies) 
Papilio aristolochice 

,, hector 



With the exception of Argynnis hyperbius and Prioneris sita 
I have had frequent opportunities of observing all these cases, and 
in every one it has appeared to me that the resemblance is far less 
striking when the insects are seen alive than when they are exhibited 
pinned out in the orthodox way on cork. I have found that with 
very little experience the eye comes to distinguish the " mimic " 
from the model without hesitation. As a rule, it is in mode of flight 
that they differ from one another. By this character the dissimilis 
variety of P. clytia can at once be distinguished from Danais vulgaris 
and its allies, and by it the normal form of P. clytia or the female 
of HypoUmnas holina (PI. II. , fig. 6) can be readily differentiated from 
any of the Euplceas. Or again, it may be a difference in the pattern 
of the under surface of the wings which leads to dissimilarity in the 
general appearance of* the living insects. The female of Pareronia 
ceylonica (PI. II. , fig. 1 B) with outspread wings is exceedingly like 
Danais vulgaris and the other closely alhed species of this genus. 
But as soon as it flies off the difference of under surface at once 
becomes apparent (c/. PI. II., figs. 1 C and 2 B), and in this parti- 
cular instance there is also a marked difference in the manner of 
flight, so that these forms, although so extraordinarily similar when 
viewed from the upper surface and at rest, could certainly not be 
confused when flying. And when at rest, of course with the wings 
closed, they could not possibly be mistaken for one another. 

One of the best known of the Ceylon models is Danais chrysippus . 
together with its ally D. plexippus (PI. II., figs. 9 A and 9 B), and 
the three principal mimics of these two forms are the females of 
HypoUmnas misippus, Argynnis hyperbius, and the Satyrid , Elymnias 
fraterna. Of these three, the last-named was the one I had moat 
opportunity of observing. It was common in Colombo during July, 



* I have also seen it suggested that Elymnias singhalo mimics Euploea core , 
and that Ergolis serves as a model for the female of Apatura parisatis. In 
neither case does the resemblance seem to me sufficiently close to require 
further notice. 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. .> 

flying in places where both the models were also abundant. The 
colour pattern of E. fraterna (PI. II. , fig. 8 B) is less sharply cut than 
in either of the models, and this feature, combined with a somewhat 
different mode of flight and an entirely different scheme of colour- 
ation on the under surface (PI. II., figs. 8 C and 9 B) is, for any 
but a quite unpractised eye, sufficient to identify this species at a 
distance of 20 feet or more away. 

The case of Hypolimnas ndsippus female and Danais chrysippus 
is now so well known that it is unnecessary to dwell upon the 
extraordinary resemblance between these two insects as regards 
the upper surface of their wings. H. misippus I only met with 
occasionally, and never flying with the ubiquitous D. chrysippus. 
Its mode of flight is quite distinct, and had I seen them flying 
together my impression is that I should not have had much 
difficulty in picking it out from among the Danaids. 

The relation of Argynnis hyperbius female to Danais plexippus 
is an interesting one. As the plate shows (PI. II., figs. 9 A and 
10 B), the two msects are quite distinct in appearance when set out 
in the ordinary way. But when flying, I am told by Col. Manders 
that they are extraordinarily alike. Now, A. hyperhius is a typical 
up-country insect, and is very rare below 4,000 feet. D. plexippus, 
on the other hand, is very rarely to be met with above 4,000 feet. 
The two forms only come into contact over a narrow zone on the 
confines of their respective territories, and for the most part their 
distribution is entirely separate. Under these circumstances it is 
difficult to believe that the presence of a distasteful species in 
another part of the Island, which looks like the FritiUary only 
during flight, can in any way benefit the latter by serving as a 
model. 

Fapilio clytia is a tailless form, dimorphic m both sexes. The 
brown form with orange-yellow spots on the margin of the hind 
wings (PI. II., fig. 3 B) bears some resemblance to a Euploea (PI. II., 
fig. 11), while the other form [var. dissimilis (PI. II., fig. 3 A)] is 
striped somewhat after the fashion of Danais septentrionis (PI. II. , 
fig. 2 A) and D. vulgaris. The ground-colour of the Papilio how- 
ever is yellowish , while that of the Danaids is blue with a shght 
greenish tinge. The brown form I only met with once at close 
quarters, in the jungle just outside Trincomalee. Euplo&as were 
very abundant at the time, but as the Papilio approached me I at 
once recognized that it was something different, and when caught 
it turned out to be P. clytia. Subsequently I saw several speci- 
mens in the open at Dam bulla, and although I was unable to 
catch them there was no question of comparing them with Euplo&a, 
ouing to their general appearance and their stronger and bolder 
mode of flight. P. clytia var. dissimilis I saw fij^'st in the jmigle 
near Sigiriya, and had no difficulty in recognizing it, though 1 could 



4 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

not get near enough to catch it ainong the trees. Later on I took 
it at Dambulla, where it was not unplentiful on the top of the rock. 
Danaids were also flpng there, but there was no question of 
confusing the Papiho mth them. 

Putting aside for a moment the case of Papilio polytes, to which I 
shall refer later, my impression of all these so-called cases of mimicry, 
which I have been able to see, is that the resemblances are certainly 
not sufficiently close to deceive the eye of a civilized man with little 
experience of them. For that reason I am inclined to doubt whether 
they woiild systematically deceive an enemy brought up among 
them, whose means of earning a livelihood depended largely upon 
the readiness with which he could distinguish between mimic 
and model. I do not wish to deny that in some cases, and upon 
occasion, the resemblance may be of service. It is quite conceivable 
that an insectivorous animal with a distaste for Danaids would, 
when confronted with a choice between Pareronia ceylonica and a 
non-mimetic species, choose the latter so long as it only saw the 
upper surface of the former. And when the mimetic resemblance 
is already estabUshed , I see no difficulty in the supposition that the 
form which exhibits it is placed at an advantage with respect to 
natural selection compared ^vith the non-mimetic form, provided that 
such resemblance to a distasteful model is a close one. But I feel 
that there are insuperable difficulties in the way of conceiving such 
resemblance to have arisen through the operation of natural selection. 
To this subject, however, I shall have occasion to refer later. 

The Case of Papilio polytes. 

Since 1865, when Wallace's well known memoir on " The Papi- 
iionidse of the Malayan Region " appeared, this striking case has 
been regarded as one of the classic instances of mimicry. Excellent 
coloured representations of this species were given by that author, 
and more recently by Moore in his " Lepidoptera of Ceylon." It is 
also figured by Distant in his " Indo-Malayan Rhopalocera," but as 
these memoirs are not always readily accessible I have had prepared 
the coloured plate which will be found at the end of this paper. 
It has been made directly from the actual specimens (which were all 
fresh and perfect) by the four-colour process, and gives on the 
whole an excellent representation of the different forms shown. 

P. polytes is a fly which is abundant throughout India and Ceylon, 
occurring both on the plains and on the hills wherever are to be 
found the citronaceous plants on which the larva (PL I., fig. 7) feeds. 
Throughout this region the male (PI. I., fig. 1) is accompanied by 
three forms of female (PL I. , figs. 4-6), of which two are so different 
from him as to have each been regarded at some former time as a 
distinct species, and it was not imtil Wallace studied them that 
the polymorphic nature of these females was under.stood. From 



MIMICRY IN CEYLOIS BUTTERFLIES. O 

Wallace came also an interpretation of this peculiar case in terms 
of the theory of-'mimicry then just suggested by Bates. Briefly, 
that interpretation is as follows : — 

P. polytes is a palatable insect. The larva feeds on citronaceous 
shrubs and trees and, in its later stages, is inconspicuous upon its food 
plant (c/. PL I., fig. 7). The chrysalis may be regarded as protec- 
tively coloured (PI. I. , figs. 8, 9).* Yet in this presumably palatable 
insect there exist two additional forms of female, which are character- 
ized not only by marked divergence from the normal type , but by the 
conspicuous form which that divergence takes. f So far as can be 
seen there is no suggestion of ordinary protective colouration here. 
Now, living side by side with this species are two other species of 
PapiHonid butterflies, Papilio aristolochice (PI. I., fig- 5) and Papilio 
hector (PL I., fig. 6), each of which bears a strong resemblance to one 
of the two aberrant forms of female of P. polytes.X Both of these 
forms have conspicuously coloured red and black larvae, which both 
feed upon the poisonous Aristolochia plants. Both are common 
species, and both consequently fulfil the conditions of abundance and 
distastefulness which the theory of mimicry exacts from qualified 
models. By their resemblance to these two unpalatable species 
the " mimicking " forms of P. polytes have been enabled to cheat 
their enemies and to preserve their species. And the case is the 
more striking in that while P. hector and the hector form of P. 
polytes are confined to India and Ceylon, both P. aristolochice and 
the aristolochise form of P. polytes have a wider range eastward. 

For the upholders of the mimicry interpretation the resemblance 
between the model and its mimic would appear to have been brought 
about by the piling up of minute variations in the required direction 
through a process of survival of those most like the model. Upon 
the adequacy of this conception I do not wish to dwell, until I have 
offered some criticisms derived from personal experience with 
reference to the resemblaiice obtaining between the " mimics " 
and their " models." 



* The colour is very variable, though whether this is in relation to the 
surfaces on which it pupates is at present unknown. The two specimens 
figured here were bred by me under conditions which in so far as could be 
seen were exactly similar, though the one became clear green and the other 
a darkish brown. 

t In the account which follows I have used the terms " male form," " aristo- 
lochise form," and " hector form," respectively, for these three females, terms 
which indicate sufficiently which form is meant for the reader who is not 
famiUar with this species. Technically these three forms are respectively the 
pammon, polytes, and romulus forms of the species P. polytes {cf. " Faxina of 
British India, Butterflies," vol. II., pp. 61, 62). 

t Though placed in the same genus as P. polytes these two species differ 
froru it in many structural points, and will doubtless eventually find their way 
into another genus when the classification of the family has been placed 
on a more satisfactory basis. They are closely allied to each other and come 
into Haase's group of Pharmacophagua or "' Poison-eater.s." — (" Bibliotheca 
Zoologica," 1891.) 



6 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

First, as regards the likeness between model and mimic in either 
case. As seen pinned out in a cabinet the resemblance between 
P. aristolocldce and the aristolochiae form of P. polytes is, as far as 
general wing pattern goes, remarkably close, especially for the fore 
wings. Yet one cannot help feeling that one has to do with a 
different insect, and I think this is because of the difference in 
quality of the white patch on the hind wing. This patch is rather 
smoky in P. aristolochice, whereas in the polytes mimic it has a cleaner 
and brighter look. The other point of marked difference lies in the 
colour of the body, which, except for a dark stripe dorsally, is of a 
bright vermilion colour in P. aristolochice. Tliis feature is not so 
well shown as it might be on the plate, owing to the fact that the 
body of the specimen had been laterally compressed in the paper to 
which it was transferred when caught. In the hvuig insect, with its 
wings spread out at rest, the scarlet body is a most noticeable feature 
and at once arrests attention. In the aristolochiae form of P. 
polytes, as the plate shows, the body is uniformly black, and this 
gives the resting insect quite a different appearance when its wings 
are expanded. In the absence of the bright vermilion colour, it 
lacks for the human observer the dangerous look of P. aristolochice. 

The resemblance between P. hector and the hector form of P. 
polytes is not so striking as in the preceding case. The markings on 
the fore wings are remarkably similar, but the general ground colour, 
except in worn specimens, has a somewhat different appearance in 
the two species. In P. hector it is deeper in shade and has a distinct 
steely sheen, which is entirely wanting in P. polytes. In the hind 
wings there is a very distinct difference in the quality of the red. 
In P. hector it is a bright rich scarlet, while in P. polytes the red is 
much pinker, and its effect is further softened by a sparse powdering 
of blue scales. Perhaps the impressions which these two insects 
convey may be expressed by saying that the red of P, hector looks as 
if it had been got by an aniline dye , while that of P. polytes appears 
to have been put on with a more delicate water-colour. But in this 
case again, as in the preceding, it is the brilhant scarlet head and 
body of P. hector which at once makes it apparent that one has to 
do with a different insect. This feature immediately strikes the 
observer and, when the insects are at rest, makes it impossible to 
mistake P. hector even at a distance of several yards. 

The insects, however, may be at rest with closed wings, and I have 
therefore represented in figs. 1 A-6 A the under surfaces of the hind 
wings of the same specimens used in figs. 1-6. A comparison of 
fig. 3 A with fig. 5 A at once brings out the great difference in the 
quality of the red in the two cases. The suggestion of aniline dye 
in P. aristolochice is very marked, and the striking difference in 
quality in model and mimic is even more marked in the actual 
insect than it appears to be on the plate. In P. hector (fig. (5 A) 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 7 

and the hector form of P. polytes (fig. 4 A) the under surface of the 
hind wing is very like the upper one, and what was written of the 
difference there applies here equally. 

But it may be objected that though model and mimic may be 
readily distinguished at rest, whether with wings expanded or 
closed, yet the resemblance between them may be sufi&cient to 
deceive such enemies as attack them when flying. Such, however, 
is certainly not the case. The mode of flight of P. polytes is 
similar for all three forms, and is totally distinct from that of P. 
hector and P. aristolochice. In these two last species the flight is 
very peculiar. The insect steers a very even course for a butterfly, 
and looks as if it were flying mainly by means of its fore wings, 
which vibrate very rapidly. In P. polytes, on the other hand, the 
flight is of the somewhat lumbering up and down type, which is 
characteristic of many of the Papilionidse. Though not easy to 
express in words, the difference is exceedingly marked, and the 
practised eye has no difficulty in distinguishing between P. polytes 
and P. hector or P. aristolochice at a distance of 40 to 50 yards. 

During the time I was in Ceylon I spent many hours catching and 
watching these three species, where and whenever the opportunity 
presented itself, and I have come to be strongly of opinion that in 
the natural state the differences between these so-called models and 
mimics, whether restmg or fljring, are so distinct that they are little 
likely to be confounded by an enemy with any appreciation of colour 
or form. 

And here I would draw attention to certain points in connection 
with the distribution of these species in Ceylon. During my stay 
oil the Island I managed, mth some assistance, to catch nearly 
50 specimens of females of P. polytes, and I subsequently received 
10 more specimens from Mr. E. E. Green, of which 4 (1 male form, 
1 aristolochise form, and 2 hector form) were from Kandy or Pera- 
deniya, and 6 (2 aristolochise form and 4 hector form) were from 
higher up-country , either at Pundaluoya or Hakgala. I have included 
these specimens in the following table, with the idea of comparing 
the distribution of these forms with that of the supposed models :— 









i 




i 






6 
* 

00 

3 


d 


hapur 




y and 
eniya. 


II 




a 


Si 


'C 


OS 


72 13 










2 
1 


Ml 


Mi' 




H 


O 


■ M 




CO 


Male form . . 


U 


5 


~ 


— 


1 ■ 


~ 


Aristolochise form 


5 

1 


2 


— 


1 


1 


2 


Hector form 


10 1 


5 ! 

1 


1 


3 


4 

1 


4 



8 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

From this it appears that in the low-country, especially at Trinco- 

malee, the male form is, generally speaking, not less abundant than 

either of the other two. At Colombo both P. aristolochice and F. 

hector are common, the former being exceedingly so. Most of the 

Trincomalee specimens came from close to the shore, between Forts 

Frederick and Ostenberg. The ground here is moderately open and 

dotted about with patches of scrub. P. polytes was abundant in 

September, but the female insect is difficult to catch, as it keeps 

flying rapidly across the open and diving into the heart of one 

thorny scrub patch after another, doubtless in search of the food 

plant. I managed to catch but a very smaU percentage of those 

I saw. Of the females (which were less numerous than the males) , 

that resembling the male was far the most abundant, and was 

distinctly more numerous than the other two female forms together. 

Of these two , I caught more of the hector form than of the aristo- 

ochise form, because the former is more easily distinguished from 

the male. Wherever there were several flies to chase I gave the 

preference to the female, and I have no doubt that I sometimes 

mistook the aristolochiae form for a male polytes, with which it can 

be easily confused at a short distance away. On the whole, after 

many hours spent on this collecting ground, I came to the conclusion 

that, though the hector form may have been slightly more common, 

these two forms occurred in almost equal numbers. The relative 

abundance of these forms is of interest in connection with the 

occurrence of the models P. hector and P. aristolochice. The former 

is a common insect in this locality, though at the time I was 

there it was certainly not nearly so common as P. polytes. Of P. 

aristolochice, I never saw a single specimen during the whole of the 

time I was in Trincomalee, though I was always on the look out 

for it. 

In Colombo, P. aristolochice is very abundant, and P. hector is not 
uncommon, though not nearly so abundant as its relative. One may 
see a dozen or more of the former to one of the latter. My experience 
of this locality ^s regards P. polytes was that the male form and the 
hector forms were about equally abundant, and that the aristolochice 
form was distinctly scarcer. Col. Manders, to whom I mentioned 
this, expressed himself of the same opinion. 

Higher up, at Kandy and Peradeniya, P. hector becomes very 
scarce , while P. aristolochice is exceedingly abundant. Nevertheless , 
the hector form of P. polytes is certainly more numerous than the 
aristolocliise form. During the month I spent in this part of the 
country I never saw either the aristolochiae form of P. polytes or 
P. hector. Higher up-country, at Hakgala and Pundaluoya, P. 
hector is no longer found. Yet if one may judge by the samples 
procured from these parts, the hector form is distinctly the commonest 
form of polyteff female. 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 9 

Summing up such evidence as exists in connection with the 
distribution of our three species, the following statements may be 
taken as a fair presentation of the facts : — 

(1) In the low-country the male form of polytes female is at 

least as numerous as either of the other forms, and may 
be the most abundant of the three. 

(2) In the north-east of the Island, in the " hector" country, 

the aristolochiae form of polytes is nearly as abundant as 
the hector form, though its model is at any rate exceed- 
ingly scarce. 

(3) Higher up-country, where P. hector is rare or absent and 

P. aristolochice is common, the hector form of polytes is 
more abundant than the aristolochiae form. 

It is obvious that these statements are not in harmony with the 
ideas of those who look to the theory of mimicry for an explanation 
of the polymorphism that exists among the females of P. polytes. 
For if the hector form derives an advantage where P. polytes is 
found associated with P. hector {e.g., at Trincomalee), why is it not 
far more numerous than the other two forms in such places ? And 
if the co-existence of P. aristolochice in any locality confers a benefit 
of selection value upon the aristolochiae form of P. polytes, how are 
we to reconcile this with the fact that where P. aristolochice is 
exceedingly abundant {e.g., Kandy and Peradeniya) its supposed 
mimic is the scarcest of the three polytes females ? And, again, if 
the selection has been so stringent as to give rise to two new forms 
of female in P. polytes, how comes it that the male form is in some 
places still the commonest of the thi-ee ? It certainly camiot be 
due to " the atavistic influence of the male," for, as is well known, 
there are localities in which aU the females are of the aristolochiae 
form, while the male is of the normal type. 

Whatever the true explanation may be, the facts connected with 
the distribution of these species in the Island of Ceylon are far 
from lending support to the view that the polymorphic females of 
P. polytes have owed their origin to natural selection in tiie way that 
the upholders of the theory of mimicry would lead us to suppose. 

Some further criticism of the theory as applied to P. polytes ^vill 
be offered in connection \nth the enemies of butterflies in Ceylon. 

The Enemies of Butterflies in Ceylon. 

Those who maintain that the resemblances which occur between 
butterflies of distinct species have arisen gradually through the 
operation of natural selection on minute variations have several 
difficulties to encounter. Apart from the question whether a minute 
variation can in many cases be conceived as having any sensible 
selection value, there is the further question of the nature of the 
enemies which give it this presumed value. In other words, what are 

9(6)10 



10 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

the chief enemies of butterflies in the imago stage, and what evidence 
is there that they exercise discrimination in their Rhopaloceran diet ? 
Information of this sort is notoriously difficult to obtain, and I have 
therefore not hesitated to put on record the following observations, 
meagre though they be, which appear to bear upon the point. 

(^4) Birds. — To what extent butterflies are preyed upon by birds 
is a question which has excited much controversy In recent years, 
and such information as exists upon the subject has lately been 
brought together by Marshall.* Many birds will undoubtedly 
devour butterflies upon occasion, though it seems unlikely, except 
in a few cases such as those of Merops and Microhierax, that they 
make a regular practice of it. From a nutritive point of view, there 
is a good deal of waste material in a butterfly. At the same time 
it is rather a cumbrous mouthful , and it is not unnatural to suppose 
that with insect life of other kinds abounding the bird would devote 
its attention to more succulent species. But a hungry bird will 
probably take what it can get, without inquiring very closely whether 
the insect belongs to what are termed unpalatable groups or not. 
Marshall, for instance, quotes observations of Doflein to show that 
P. hector may be captured by Merops in Ceylon. 

During my ten weeks' stay in Ceylon and S. India, I endeavoured 
to keep my eyes open as far as possible to any evidence of butterflies 
being attacked by birds. Only on one occasion did I observe a 
bird directly attacking a butterfly. In Peradeniya, one day, at the 
edge of some jungle, I was cautiously stalking a specimen of Papilio 
agamemnon. When within about 6 feet of it, and in hopes of trans- 
ferring a desirable specimen to my pocket, a magpie robin suddenly 
swooped down upon it. It completely missed the butterfly, which, 
however, to my regret, was scared away. Upon another occasion 
I noticed near Trincomalee a butterfly fluttering in the middle of 
the road. On examination it turned out to be a specimen of 
P. agamemnon, with the wings of the right side clean shorn away 
near the base. The specimen was otherwise uninjured. Though 
there is no direct evidence, it seems not unlikely that in this case a 
bird may have been responsible for the damage. This was aU the 
evidence in favour of birds attacking butterflies that I was able to 
collect from personal observation, but my friend Mr. MacBride, of 
the Public Works Department at Trincomalee, told me that he had 
once seen crows catching butterflies as they swarmed round a 
flowering tree. Unfortunately he was unable to say for certain 
what the butterfly was, but from his description I am inclined to 
think that it was a species of Euploea (probably E. core). 

On the other hand, I have frequently watched birds hawking 
insects on some flowering tree where butterflies abounded, but have 
never seen them even offer to attack. Close to the verandah of a 

* Trans. Ent. Soc, Loud.. 1909. 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 11 

bungalow in which I stayed near Tanjore was a tree with a little 
greenish flower which was very attractive to insects. It was not 
more than 30 yards from where I sat, and I was able with a pair of 
glasses to see very clearly what was going on. Dm-ing the earlier 
part of the day the tree swarmed with butterflies, among which 
Telchinia violce, Delias eucharis, Papilio demoleus, and several 
species of Ixias, Terias, and Teracolus were most noticeable. On it 
several minahs were generally hawking insects, and though butterflies 
were all round them, and sometimes even settled within a few inches 
of them, they never once offered to attack them while I was watching, 
but confined theh attentions to flies and other insects. Though it 
may be granted that some of these species, notably Telchinia and 
Delias, are distasteful to birds, yet this can hardly be maintained of 
P. demoleus, which is a fairly close aUy of the presumedly palatable 
P. polytes, the larva feeding on the same food plants and being in 
appearance practically indistinguishable from that of the latter 
species. 

The general impression that I got from collecting in this part of 
the world is, that as serious enemies of butterflies in the imago state 
birds may be left out of account. When driven by stress of hunger 
they will no doubt attack them, but in such cases it is exceedingly 
improbable that they would exercise that discrimination between 
the so-caUed palatable and unpalatable species which is postulated 
by the supporters of the theory of mimicry. 

So far as one can judge by observation the chief enemies of 
butterflies in Ceylon are lizards and Asilid flies, and it will be 
convenient to consider them apart. 

(B) Lizards. — Two of the commonest species of Ceylon lizards are 
the " blood suckers," Calotes versicolor and C. ophiomachus. Both 
species have considerable power of changing their colour, which may 
range from a duU sooty brown to a bright green that is particularly 
brilliant in the latter species. Apparently they derive their popular 
name from the fact that the head and neck may assume a bright 
red hue, and it is conceivable that this may serve as a lure for 
insects. Both species commonly attain a length of 15-18 inches, 
inclusive of the long tail, though larger specimens are not infrequent. 
Both are bold, active animals, fond of the sim, and not easily 
frightened by man. The staple food of both species is insects of all 
sorts, and an examination of the contents of a number of stomachs 
shows that they will devour ants, cockroaches, earwigs, beetles, 
caterpillars, &c. In several cases I have been able to find the 
remains of butterflies, the characteristic heads of which resist the 
digestive juices of the reptile as well as the subsequent boiling m 
potash. Though I have never personally seen Calotes catch a 
butterfly imder natural conditions, Mr. McBride and his mfe 
assured me that they have not infrequently seen them doing so, 



12 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

and other observers have told me the same. I think there can be 
little doubt that Calotes, owing to its great abundance and arboreal 
habits, is one of the chief enemies of butterflies in Ceylon. And in 
support of this view may be cited the numerous instances in which 
one catches butterflies damaged in such a way that it is impossible 
to resist the deduction that something Avith a wide mouth has taken 
a bite out of the wings when they were closely apposed at rest. 
In such cases the shape of the injuries as well as their clean cut 
nature (c/. PI. II., fig. 7) both point to their being the work of 
lizards rather than of birds. 

Accepting then the lizard as being responsible for an appreciable 
share in the mortality of butterflies, the question arises as to whether 
he shows any preference for or dislike to this or that species. In 
order to obtain evidence on this point I kept a couple of lizards in 
large cages and introduced various butterflies at intervals. Owing 
to the wetness of the season while I was at Peradeniya, and the 
consequent difficulty of procuring butterflies of some of the species 
which I wanted during the time at my disposal, the experiments 
are not nearly so full as I could have wished. Nevertheless they 
are not without interest, and I give the record of a week's experi- 
ments with one of the lizards (" Sambo "). 

Aug. 20. — Sambo was given three P. aristolocMce this evening just 
before dark. One was damaged, and was found dead at the bottom 
of the cage next morning. The other two had been eaten. 

Aug. 22. — Sambo ate another P. aristolocMce which was given 
to him. 

Aug. 23. — Sambo given four Danais vulgaris and a large diurnal 
moth {Euschema maculata), which might be regarded as a possible 
rough mimic of a Danaid. He at once went for the insects and ate 
two of the Danaids in the first 15 minutes. Eventually he ate 
all five. 

Aug. 24. — Sambo was given a mixed lot, viz., one Terias sp., one 
D. vulgaris, one Junonia almana, one Mycalesis mineus, and one 
Mycalesis patnia. He started by eating the Terias (a briUiant yeUow 
Pierid) and the Danais in the first half hour. About 1| hour later 
the others had also been devoured. 

Aug. 25. — Sambo given a Hesperid, one D. vulgaris, and one Delias 
eucharis. He ate all without hesitation and with much apparent 
relish. 

Aug. 26. — Sambo given in the afternoon one Euploea core and 
one Junonia iphita (both are dark brown flies, the former being 
presumably distasteful). After a few hours he ate the Euploea, 
while the iphita was eaten about 10 a.m. next morning. 

From this record it is obvious that Sambo cannot be said to have 
exercised any discrimination in his choice of food. The presumedly 
distasteful Danais was eaten before the presumedly palatable 
Euschema or Mycalesis, and the so-called distasteful Euploea was 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 13 

taken before the supposedly palatable Junonia iphita of not very 
dissimilar colouration. Nor was any hesitation manifested towards 
Papilio aristolocMce with its postulated evil taste and marked 
warning colouration. 

As P. aristolocMce has been regarded from the nature of its food 
j^ant as one of the most unpalatable of all the Ceylon butterflies , 
I may mention another experiment which was made in connection 
with its larva. In a cage containing two specimens of the lizard 
Lyrioce'plialus I placed four full-grown larvae of P. aristolocMce, an 
imago each of Danais chrysippus and D. plexippus, together witli 
some twenty grasshoppers. They were aU introduced one evening, 
and on examining the contents of the cage next morning I found 
that the lizards had eaten several of the grasshoppers, the specimen 
of D. plexippus, and two of the P. aristolocMce larvae, and this in 
spite of the marked black, white, and red warning colouration of 
the latter. The remaining two larvae had crawled to the top of the 
cage out of harm's way. 

From such experiments as these one can hardly fail to draw the 
conclusion that Calotes as well as LyriocepJialus wUl readily eat 
anything in the way of butterflies that they come across. Nor is 
this surprising, in view of the fact that such noxious creatures as 
the large red ant {(Ecophylla smargdina) and hairy caterpillars 
constitute a considerable proportion of the contents of then- 
stomachs. They certainly do not appear to exercise that nice 
discrimination with regard to butterflies, which is necessary for the 
establishment of mimicking forms on the theory of natural selection. 
And here I may call attention to the series of experiments by Finn , 
as the result of which that author was led to a similar conclusion. 
The experiments were made both with Hzards in captivity and with 
lizards at liberty, and the author sums up his impressions in the 
followdng sentence : " The behaviour of these reptiles certainly 
does not appear to afford support to the belief that the butterflies, 
at any rate, usually considered nauseous, are distasteful to them.* 

(C) Diptera. — The large predaceous flies of the family AsiHdae are 
among the chief enemies of butterflies in Ceylon, and in places 
where they are numerous it is a common sight to see one of them 
carrying some butterfly whose juices it is busily engaged in sucking. 
To my friend Mr. C C. Dobell I owe the first instance with which I 
met of one of these flies attacking a butterfly. At Anuradhapura 

* Finn, F. — Contributions to the Theory of Warning Colom-s and Mimicry, 
No. II. Experiments with a lizard {Calotes versicolor). — Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Sec, Bengal, vol. LXV., 1897. 

In a paper published in the Biological Bulletin, 1903, Miss A. H. Pritchett 
gives an account of some experiments with the lizard Sceloporus floridanus. 
This species took the so-called distasteful models Anosia plexippus and Papilio 
philenor "with evident reUsh," and other brightly coloiu-ed forms Avero also 
eaten readily. As tlie result of her experiments IVIiss Pritchett concludes that 
lizards show no preference, but eat Lepidoptera indiscriminately. 



14 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

one da}', while standing a few yards away from me, he netted a 
male specimen of Appias paulina. Just as he caught it a large fly 
darted upon it, and on examining his capture he found an Asilid 
astride of the butterfly, with its piercing mouth parts buried in the 
thorax. The butterfly was apparently killed immediately, and it 
seems possible that these flies inject some poisonous fluid into their 
prey, which at once renders them inert. Subsequently at Trinco- 
malee I captured, within a few days, Asilids* carrying and devouring 
the following species, all of which were abundant at that time — 
Appias paulina, Catopsilia pyranthe, Junonia lemonias, Terias sp.,'f 
Nacaduba sp. Generally the butterfly was carried with its wings 
apposed, while the Asilid sucked its juices from the side of the 
thorax. From the following evidence I am inclined to believe that 
even the larger and more powerful species are not exempt upon 
occasion from the attacks of these ferocious flies. One afternoon, 
on the road between Trincomalee and Tamblegam, I picked up a 
fresh specimen of Papilio crino, a species of larger size than P. polytes. 
AH the juices had been drauied out of its body, and this had evidently 
been done quite recently, for it had not had time to get stiff when I 
found it. Moreover, the scales of the fore mng were rubbed sym- 
metrically in a little patch on either side, just where the feet of the 
Asilid would have come had it captured the Papilio in the position 
in which Mr. Dobell's Appias was captured. The butterfly was 
picked up just at the time when the males of various species, 
including P. crino, were settling on moist or otherwise attractive 
patches by the roadside, and in my own mind I have no doubt but 
that this specimen had been suddenly killed by an Asilid as it 
settled on such a patch, and that, after being sucked dry, it had been 
di'opped on the road where I found it. 

Whether AsQids exercise any discrimination with regard to the 
butterflies that they attack is a question which is not easy to answer 
with the Httle knowledge at present at our disposal. Such evidence 
as exists has recently been brought together by Poulton,J and even 
among the few cases hitherto recorded there are two in which the 
Asilid preyed upon distasteful species. 

After having repeatedly watched these flies hawking along roads 
and jungle paths near Trincomalee and elsewhere, I am inclined to 
beheve that they swoop at the fijst butterfly that comes near enough 
to give them a chance of catching it. As they sit watching, as a rule 
on or close to the ground in a sunny place, it is obvious that such 
butterflies as habitually fly high or keep for the most part in the 
jungle are unlikely to be attacked. Since the females of most of 



* The commonest species was Scleropogon picetis (PI. II., fig. 16). For this 
identification I am indebted to my friend Mr. C. Lamb. 

t I took only one Asilid carrying a Lycaenid, and this belonged to a smaller 
species than that iisnally met with. 

t Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 1906. 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 15 

the so-called mimics, which were flying when I was at Trincomalee, 
were jungle lovers and generally avoided open spaces, e.g., Papilio 
polytes, Hypolimnas holina, Pareronia ceylonica, &c., I cannot think 
it probable that, even if Asilids were discriminating in their attacks 
upon these butterflies, they would be afforded much opportunity 
of exercising that discrimination. 

In these three forms, viz., birds, lizards, and AsiHds, I am inclined 
to think that we have the most serious enemies of butterflies in 
Ceylon. But my friend Professor E. A. Minchin, from observations 
that he made in Africa, has suggested to me that monkeys may 
also be a factor in the estabUshing of mimetic Ukeness. As to the 
possibiUty of this I can say nothing, for I had no opportunities of 
making any observations myself, neither do I know of any records 
which bear upon the point. In the case of P. polytes, however, I 
feel doubts as to their exerting much influence, for in the northern 
part of the Island, where these animals occur in plenty, the male form 
of P. polytes female is the most abundant, whereas the " mimetic " 
forms are more common higher up, where monkeys are very much 
scarcer. But I would call attention to the suggestion here, in case 
others may have better opportunities of making observations. 

Formation of Polymorphic Forms. 

Those who regard natural selection as an adequate explanation 
of the formation of polymorphic forms hold that they have gradually 
arisen by the accumulation of small variations over a long series 
of generations ; and from this standpoint we may consider how the 
different female forms of P. polytes may conceivably have arisen. 
And in doing so, we shall assume that the form of the male is the 
ancestral one, and that the hector and the aristolochise forms have 
arisen from this. In other words, we shall assume that at some 
former epoch the species polytes existed only in what we now term 
the male form. And for our present purpose we may confine our 
attention to the evolution of the aristolochise form. Now, on the 
h3rpothesis we are considering, this may have come about in either 
one of two ways, according as we admit that P. aristolochice at that 
time existed as the form we now know, or was different. If 
P. aristolochice was then as it is to-day, we must suppose that the 
aristolochise form of polytes ? arose by gradual limitation of the 
white area on the hind \ving, by gradual extension of the red lunules, 
and by gradual thinning of the scales between the nervures of the 
fore wing. The great stumbling-block to this view is the difficulty 
of attributing any selection value to the initial stages of variation. 

On the alternative view we may suppose the P. aristolochice bore 
a strong resemblance to P. polytes to start with, and that it gradually 
evolved into its present state because it was of advantage to it that 
the nauseous properties wth which it was originally endowed should 
be advertised as conspicuously as possible. Meanwhile a parallel 



16 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

process of variation occurred in a portion of the species polytes, and 
those variations which kept pace with P. aristolochice survived and 
eventually formed the " aristolochise form" of female in polytes. 
Considerable powers of discrimination being granted to the hypothe- 
tical enemies of the species, this view minimises the difficulty of the 
selection value of the initial small variations. On the other hand, 
it has serious drawbacks. In the first place, it does not explain, 
any more than does the other view, the continued existence of the 
unchanged polytes living under the same conditions. And secondly, 
it involves the proposition that the ancestral form of the model is 
similar to that of the unaltered male of the mimic — a proposition 
which the consideration of cases where the same species serves as a 
model for more than one mimic at once shows to be untenable. For 
it is obvious that the male of Argynnis hyperbius (PI. II., fig. 10 A) as 
well as that of Elymnias fraterna (PI. II. , fig. 8 A) cannot both be made 
to serve as the ancestral form of Danais plexippus (PI. II., fig. 9 A). 

We are therefore forced back upon the former view that model 
and mimic were in the beginning widely different, with its attendant 
difficulty of attributing selection value to minute variations. For 
this they are bound to do who desire to regard natural selection as 
a factor in the formation of these mimetic forms. 

And here we may draw attention to certain other difficulties which 
this view involves. If the mimic has arisen by a series of transitional 
forms, why do these forms never occur in nature ? In P. polytes, 
for example, we have a species in which some of the females remain 
unchanged, and we should naturally expect to find transitional 
forms numerous on this view of the formation of the mimetic forms. 
Yet they have never been known to occur, and their absence cannot 
but cast a doubt upon the adequacy of this view as an explanation 
of the facts. 

The difficulty of males so seldom becoming mimetic has already 
been alluded to. There is yet another difficulty with regard to 
polymorphism among females. There are species where the females 
are markedly polymorphic, but cannot be regarded by any stretch 
of imagination as mimicking distasteful forms. No one, I think, 
would venture to match aU the different forms of Papilio ormen%s 
or P. memnon with appropriate models. And I doubt whether any 
one could find a model for the helice variety of CoUas edusa, or the 
valesina form of Argynnis paphia. Yet a scheme which offers an 
explanation of the occurrence of polymorphism among the females of 
Lepidoptera should cover such cases, as well as those in which the 
polymorphic forms bear a resemblance to some distasteful species. 

Apart then from the questions whether the resemblances in many 
cases of mimicry are sufficiently close to be of effective service to the 
mimic, and whether the action of natural selection can be regarded 
as sufficiently stringent to have brought these resemblances into 
being, there are still the following difficulties in the way of the 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 17 

acceptance of the hypothesis of those who' look to natural selection 
as an explanation of polymorphic foi'ms in Lepidoptera : — 

(1) The attribution of selection value to minute variation. 

(2) The absence of transitional forms. 

(3) The frequent absence of mimicry in the male sex. 

(4) The inability to offer an explanation of polymorphism . where 

the polymorphic forms camiot be regarded as mimics of 

a distasteful species. 
Moreover, the hjrpothesis assumes that minute variations of all 
sorts can be inherited, a position which at present is lacking in 
experimental proof. 

There is, however, another point of view, which not only avoids 
these difl&culties, but is at the same time more in harmony with the 
facts of variation and heredity as we are coming to know them. On 
this view natural selection plays no part in the formation of these 
polymorphic forms, but they are regarded as having arisen by sudden 
mutation, and series of transitional forms do not exist because such 
series are not biologically possible. Polymorphic forms may arise 
and may persist, provided that they are not harmful to the species, 
and it is possible to look upon their existence as due to the absence 
of natural selection rather than to the operation of this factor. 
Nevertheless, natural selection, though unconcerned with their 
formation, may play a part in their conservation. To take a definite 
example in iQustration. The " aristolochise form " of female must 
be supposed to have arisen from the type form as a sudden mutation, 
entirely independently of natural selection. But it is not unlikely 
that the action of natural selection may have aided it in becoming 
established, whether from its resemblance to P. aristolocMce , or for 
some other reason. For once in being it is conceivable that even 
a very slight advantage over the normal form might enable it to 
hold its own with, and even replace, the latter (c/. p. 19, note). But 
whether this is so or not must for the present, in the absence of 
decisive evidence, remain doubtful. Though natural selection may 
operate in the conservation of the polymorphic form, it cannot on this 
view be supposed to play any part in its formation. 

A Suggestion as to the Nature of Polymorphism. 

That polymorphism in a species should so frequently be confined 
to the female sex has long been remarked upon by those who study 
these matters, and the explanation most favoured is that the female, 
burdened as she is with the next generation, is more exposed to the 
action of natural selection and in greater need of some protective 
adaptation. The weak point of such a view is that it does not explain 
why the male is not similarly protected. In connection with this 
problem recent Mendelian research on sex-limited inheritance is highly 
suggestive. It has been shown that certain types of inheritance 
receive their simplest explanation on the assumption that the 

D 9(6)10 



18 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

female is heterozygous for a sex factor not contained in the male, 
and that this sex factor may, on segregation of the gametes, repel 
the factor for some other character for which the female is also 
heterozygous. From the beautiful experiments of Doncaster and 
Rayner* it has been inferred that inheritance of this type occurs in 
the common currant moth {Abraxas grossulariata) , where a distinct 
colour variety, var. lacticolor, occurs. The factor for the grossula- 
riata pattern appears to segregate against the female sex factor, 
with the consequence that in only one type of mating, and that a 
necessarily rare one, is the lacticolor pattern transmitted to the male 
sex.f It is not difficult to conceive of an extension of these principles 
to cover cases of polymorphism among the females of a species, and 
the next few paragraphs are devoted to the consideration of an 
imaginary scheme of this nature. In the absence of experimental 
evidence such a scheme can of course have only a suggestive value, 
and I have ventured upon these speculations, after some hesitation, 
with the idea that they may attract the attention of some who have 
opportunities for breeding from species with polymorphic females. If 
any such are led to regard the problem from a rather different stand- 
point to that which has hitherto been customary, these speculations 
will not have failed of their purpose. 

Let us then suppose our imaginary case to be a species in which 
there are three distinct forms of female, a, ^, and y, of which the 
first (? a) is like the male. Let us suppose also that the forms 
P and Y have arisen from the original form a by the elimination of 
factors through some mutational process, and that ^ and v are each 
heterozygous for a factor (A) for which ? a and the male are homo- 
zygous. Further, let it be assumed that the factor A segregates 
against the factor for femaleness in the way that the grossulariata 
factor behaves in the female of the currant moth (Abraxas). Lastly, 
let it be supposed that the difference between ? ^ and ? y depends 
upon the presence or absence of the factor B, which is not affected 
by the sex factor in segregation. Then we may represent the various 
individuals of our imaginary species as having one or other of the 
following zygotic constitutions : — 

6 
66 AABB 

or 
66 AA B6 
or 
66 AA bb 



69 AA BB 


9^ 
69 Aa BB 


69 Aa bb 


or 


or 




69 AA B6 


69 Aa Bb 




or 






69 AA bb 







* Proc. ZooL Soc, 1906. 

I In addition to the above instance this peculiar sex-limited form of inherit- 
ance has now been worked out in canaries and fowls. Inlieritance of this 
form is certainly to be found in man also, while analogous phenomena have 
been met with in sweet peas. For a general account the reader may be referred 
to Bateson's work on " Mendels' Principles of Heredity," Cambridge, 1909. 
chap. X. 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 19 

We are now in a position to work out the results of the various 
possible matings between these different individuals. 

(1) 6 X ? a. — Since both the male and ? a are in every 
case homozygous for the factor A such matings can only 
give (56 and ?? of the male type. ^ 
{2) 6 X ? S- — Since there are three possible kinds of male 
differing in constitution, though not necessarily in 
appearance, and since ? ^ may also be either homo- 
zygous or heterozygous for B, it follows that there are 
six possible types of mating between these two forms, 
viz. : — 

(i.) ^^ AA BB X ?6 Aa BB j 

(ii.) 66 AA B6 x ^6 AaBB [ . . ,, j „r> ft ^„i„ 
r-\ A A I.I, , A -HTj V givmg 66 and ?? i^ only, 
(m.) 66 AAbb X ?<§ Aa BB j " 

(iv.) ^<$ AA BB X $6 Aa B6 ) 

(v.) ^,5 AA B6 X $6 Aa B&, giving 66,99^ (75 per cent.). 

and ?? Y (25 per cent.), 
(vi.) 66 AA bb X $<s Aa B&, giving 66, ?? ^ (50 per cent.) 

and ?? T (50 per cent.). 

(3) 6 X ? Y. — Since ? y is on our hypothesis always of the 
same constitution, it foUowsthat the only three possible 
matings here are : — 

(i.) 66 AA BB x 96 Aa bb, giving 66 and ?? ^ only. 

(ii.) 66 AA B6 X 96 Aa 66, giving 66, ?? § ^50 per cent.), and 

?? Y (50 per cent.), 
(iii.) 66 AAbb x 96 Aa 66, giving 66 and ?? y o^Y- 

The experimental test of the correctness of such a scheme would 
lie in substantiating the following propositions : — 

(1) The form of female which is like the male in pattern breeds 

true, and does not throw either of the other two forms of 
female. 

(2) Neither of the other two forms of female can give the female 

of the male pattern.* 

* Shoiild this be confirmed by experimental evidence, it would offer a simple 
explanation of the complete disappearance of the " male f orra " of female 
which seems to have taken place in most polymorphic species. Thus the 
Malayan Papilio thesetis and P. ambrax, near allies of P. polytes, have only 
the " aristolochise form " of female, a condition which could rapidly come 
about on the above scheme if the " aristolochise form " were already in 
existence and received some slight advantage over the normal form through 
the operation of natural selection. For if neither female could throw the other, 
even a small advantage possessed by the one would lead rapidly to the other's 
elimination. On this view cases of sexual dimorphism in the colour patterns 
of Lepidoptera are cases of advanced polymorphism in which one form of female, 
viz., that Uke the male, has been eliminated, either in the history of the 
species itself or of its precursors. 



20 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

(3) Either of the two forms of female which aie uolike the male 

may give both forms, or may breed true. 

(4) Of the two forms of female which are milike the male, one 

may give females wliich are all of the same form and 
unhke herself, while the other must always throw some 
females like herself. (Thus, ? y mated with an appro- 
priate male can give only ?? ^> but ? ^ must always 
give some at any rate of her own type of ?). 

It is assumed here that any given female is fertilized by a single 
male. Where a female can be fertilized by more than one male the 
working out of such a case would become more difficult. Compli- 
ca;tions of this nature would however not affect (1) and (2), where 
the- expectation would remain the same whatever male or series 
of males was introduced. 

So far as I am aware the only breeding experiments with, poly- 
morphic females which have been recorded are with Papilio dardanus* 
and Colias edusa,^ and in either case the records are very scanty. In 
the dardanus experiments six families were raised, two from each 
of the three ? forms cenea, trophonius , and hivpocoon, and the 
results, thcfugh of coarse too few for definite opinion, appear to me 
not discordant with an explanation on the lines suggested above. 
Of especial interest are the two families from hippocoon $ ?. In 
one of these there were 14 5 9, viz., 8 cenea, 3 trophonius, and 3 
hippocoon, while in the other aU the 13 ? ? produced were of the 
hippocoon form. Such a result seems to point to a difference of 
constitution of the parents of one sex certainly, and possibly of 
both. Each of these eventualities is allowed for in such a scheme 
as that outlined above, Avhile in harmony also with it is the fact that 
none of these polj'morphic females appears to be capable of producing 
a female of the male type. The case is of course more compUcated by 
reason of the greater number of polymorphic forms, and it is to be 
hoped that further experiments wiU be made on the breeding of this 
interesting species. 

The single family in the case of Colias edusa mentioned above was 
bred from the pale helice variety which, as is well known, is confined 
to the 9 sex. The eggs laid by this specimen gave 79 6 6, 19 
edusa $?, and 52 helice ? ?. The fact that edusa 2 2 can come 
from helice appears to be inconsistent with the scheme suggested 
above,, and it is not unlikely that this particular scheme may here 
break down. Nevertheless it should be pointed out that in edusa, 
as in many other species, the common type of ? is not of the male 
pattern, and we may be dealing here with two forms of female of 
the fi and y types, the a type in this species being unkno^vn. And 

* Poulton, E. B., Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 1909. 

t Main. H.. and Harrison, A.. Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 1905, p. vi. 



MIMICRY m (TBYLON BUTTBRPLIES. 



21 



liere the matter may be left imtil more experimental evidence is 
forthcoming.* 

It has been suggested above that the males of a species with poly- 
morphic females may be of different constitution with regard to the 
factors they contain, and with this in mind I have examuied the 
series of males of P. polytes which I collected. There is considerable 
variation in the amount of the red marking and of the lunules of the 
hind A\dng. Two distinct forms can be readily picked out, viz., that 
in which the red is entirely absent and the lunules are much reduced 
(PI. I. , figs. 11 and 11 A) and that in which the lunules are relatively 
large and the red markings very distinct (PI. I. figa- iO and 10 A). 
Between these two extremes are found intermediate forms which 
cannot be sorted with the same certainty. Generally speaking, 
however, the intermediates fall into two groups : (a) those in which 
the lunules are large and in the hindermost at any rate furnished 
with some red scales, and (6) those in which the lunules are small and 
the red is confined to the spot by the tail. These I have called 
respectively Int. I. and Int. II. In the appended table I have, with 
the help of my friend Mr. J. C. F. Fryer, classified the available males 
according to their markings and the locality from which they came : — 

Table II. 







* 






c3 






i 






cS 


3 








i:^ d 







s* 


"S-li^ 




flS 


S * 


^ 


fl 


eS 




9 


"73 

f»sOS 


a 




'S " 


?; !3D&C« 




o 


II 


0^ 



i 


^ 
§ 


p-c 
Ura 
ona 
unci 




u 
H 


W 


w 


^ 


B ^^ 


Red 




9 


1 


2 


— 


1 


Int. I. 


17 


7 


6 


2 


1 


4 


Int. II. 


15 


— 


— 


2 


— 


6 


No red 


32 


1 


1 


1 


— 


3 



Several points of interest may be made out from this table. Very 
noticeable is the absence of really " red" 66 at Trincomalee, as 
uell as the great preponderance here of 66 which show no red. 
While the hotter and drier climate of these parts may possibly 
lead to a general diminution of the red scales, this cannot be the 



* Since the above was written Mr. E. E. Green has succeeded in raising 
a brood of P. polytes from tlie " male form" of female. All the females of 
this brood, 37 in number, were of the "male form," a fact wliich is in 
harmony with the scheme suggested above. And here attention may be 
called to an important paper by .1. C. H. de Meijere on PapUis memnon, 
which has recently been the subject of breeding experiments in -lava. It is 
suggested that the data from the three foi'ms of female are consistent with a 
Mendelian interpretation of this case. (Zeitschrift fur induktive Abstammungs 
und Vererbungslehre, 3 Heft. 1910.) It should be mentioned that all the 
three forms of female here are different to the male. 



22 SPOLIA ZEYLA.NICA. 

sole cause of the non-red ^i> being so greatly in excess. For such 
males may occur, though in a smaller proportion, in the higher parts 
of the Island, e.g., Kandy and Pundaluoya. I am inclined to 
consider that there exists a connection within certain limits between 
the amount of red and the constitution of the male, and to regard 
the ' ' red " males (and probably those of Group Int. I. also) as being 
more intimately connected with the hector form of female , in which 
the lunules are larger than in the other forms. But whether this 
is really so can only be determined by breeding experiments, and 
breeding experiments we must have before we can hope to understand 
more of the nature of the various forms of Papilio polytes. 



APPENDIX. 



In addition to the instances already given of resemblance more 
or less marked between different species of Lepidoptera, I met with 
the following cases which seem of sufl&cient interest to place on 
record : — 

While at Trincomalee in September I was struck with the scarcity 
of Hesperids. Parata buileri was abundant and Badhamia excla- 
mationis was found occasionally, but outside these two species neither 
my boy nor myself took a single Hesperid. Accordingly, when I 
one day saw in sparse jungle an insect which looked like a Hesperid 
other than the above two species, I devoted my attention to capturing 
it. After some minutes of stalking I succeeded, and found, rather 
to my surprise, that the putative Hesperid was a moth [Ophiusa 
mezentia). In size and general appearance it is not unlike Tagiades 
atticiis (PL II., figs. 4 and 5). I prefer to leave to others the 
decision as to which in this case is the mimic and which the model. 

On PI. II. , fig, 13 , is figured an insect which I took one day in Kandy , 
at the bottom of Lady Horton's Drive. I netted it as it flew across 
the road, inwardly congratulating myseK upon the acquisition of a 
hitherto uncaptured Lycaenid. On extracting it from the net my 
first impression was that the antennse were missing. But on looking 
more closely I discovered that it was not a butterfly at all, but a bug 
belonging to the species Hansenia glaum. Here again I will leave 
it to those who are more expert than I to pronounce upon which 
is mimic and which is model. 

While hunting P. polytes one day at the edge of the jungle at 
Trincomalee I caught a small dragon fly {Rhyothemis variegata), 
which I took to be a butterfly until I had actually got it within my 
net. In this small species (PL II. , fig. 17) the proximal parts of both 
fore and hind \\Hngs are black, the distal part of either being 



MIMICRY IN CEYLON BUTTERFLIES. 23 

transparent. Between the transparent and the dark part is a narroAA- 
opaque white area. During its fluttering flight the outer transparent 
portion of the wings is invisible, and even at close quarters this little 
dragon fly looks very like a butterfly. I subsequently met the insect 
again at Pannipitiya near Colombo, and my friends Dr. Willey and 
Mr. Dobell, who happened to be with me at the time, were both 
struck by its Lepidopteran appearance. I am doubtful whether to 
invoke Pseudaposematism or Pseudepisematism for the interpretation 
of this case. 

Another dragon fly which is interesting in this connection is 
Neurothemis tullia (PI. II., fig. 15). The general yellow-brown and 
black colom-ation of this insect, coupled with its pecuUar sharp and 
jerky yet soft flight, so unlike that of most of its relatives, results in a 
distinct resemblance to the butterfly Rahinda hordonia (PL II. , fig. 14) 
when on the wing. There may perhaps be some who would be 
tempted to argue that the dragon fly has developed its peculiar colour 
and flight in adaptation for deceiving and preying upon the butterfly. 
For their sake it may be pointed out that the dragon fly hawks insects 
in the bright sim, and I never met it in the shady localities frequented 
by R. hordonia. Whenever I saw it, moreover, it was in company 
with many dragon flies of larger and more powerful species, among 
whom it could hardly be regarded as judicious to masquerade in 
Lepidopteran guise. At the same time I may add that, though I 
frequently watched these groups of dragon flies, and though butter- 
flies of the genera Catopsilia, Appias, and Junonia abounded here, 
I never saw a dragon fly attack any of them. 

Lastly , I would draw attention to a small Chalcosid moth , Chalcosia 
venosa (PI. II., fig. 12), which was abundant along Lady Horton's 
Drive during August. It has a remarkably Pierid-like appearance.* 
There is, however, no Pierid here with which it could possibly be 
confounded. 



Explanation of Plates. 

Note. — With the exception, of figures 7,8, and 9 on Plate I. all the 
figures were made directly from the actual specimens by the four-coloTir 
process. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — Male of Papilio polytes. 

Fig. 2. — Female (male form) of P. polytes. 

Fig. 3. — Female (aristolochiae fonn) of P. polytes. 

Fig. 4.— Female (hector form) of P. polytes. 

Fig. 5. — Male of Papilio aristclochice. In this species the colouration 
of the two sexes is similar. 



* The white of the wings of this moth is, however, not due to the presence of 
uric acid derivatives, as in the Pieridse. For this fact I am indebted to Dr. F. 
G. Hopkins, who very kindly made the requisite test (c/. Hopkins, Phil. Trans., 
1895, p. 663). 



24 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Fig. 6. — 'Male of Pa/pilio hector. The female of tliis species is very 
similar to the male, though the red has a more orange 
shade. 

Figs. 1 A-6 A. — Under sui-face of left hind wings of the above. The 
wing was taken from the same specimens as those figured 
in figs. 1-5. For fig. 6 A a separate specinaen was used, 
since the left Mnd wing of that figiu-ed as fig. 6 was 
damaged. There is practically no difference in these 
two, except that 6 A has a rather shorter tail. 

Fig. 7. — Caterpillar of P. polytes, full-fed. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Note. — For these tliree figures I am indebted to Mr. Green, who had 
them prepared for me by Mr. A. D. Alwis, the artist, at the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Peradejiiya. 

Fig. 10, 10 A. — ^Under surface of hind wings of males of P. polytes, 
showing variation in colour pattern. 

Fig. 11,11 A. — Upper surface of hind wings of males of P. polytes, 
showing variation in colour pattern. 



f Chrysahs of P. polytes. 



Plate II. 

All specimens X about 4. 

Figs. 1 A-C. — Pareronia ceylonica (Pieridae) ; 1 A, male ; 1 B, npper 
sm-face of female ; 1 C, tuider surface of female. 

Figs. 2 A-B. — Danais septentrionis (Danaidae) ; 2 A, upper surface ; 
2 B, under surface. 

Figs. 3 A-B. — Papilio clytia (Papilionidse) ; 3 A, var. diasimilis. 

Fig. 4. — Ophiusa mezentia, Cram. (Heterocera). 

Fig. 5. — Tagiades atticus (Hesperidse). 

Fig. 6. — Hypolimnas holina (Nymphalidae), female. 

Fig. 7. — Elymnias fraterna (Satyridae). Specimen of female with 
wings bitten, probably by a lizard. 

Figs. 8 A-C. — Elymnias frateriia (Satyridae). 8 A, male ; 8B, upper 
surface of female ; 8 C, under surface of female. 

Figs. 9 A-B. — Danais plexippus (Danaidae). 9 A, upper surface ; 9 B, 
under surface. 

Figs. 10 A-B. — Argynnis hyperbvus (Nymphalidae). 10 A, male ; 10 B, 
female. 

Fig. 11. — Euploea core (Danaidae). 

Fig. 12.— Chalcosia venosa (Heterocera) 

Fig. 13. — Hansenia glauca (Rhynchota). 

Fig. 14. — Rahinda hordonia (Nymphalidae). 

Fig. 15. — Neurothemis tullia, Dru. In the actual specimen the 
brown near the basis of the wings is brighter and more 
conspicuous. 

Fig. IQ.—Scleropogon picetts (Asilidae), female. 

Fig. 17. — Rhyothemis variegata, Joh. 



(■■ male form ") 




P. polytes, 2 
(" aristolochiae 
form") 



P. polytes, 5 
(" hector form ") 




SYNGNATHIPS FBOM CEYLON, ^5 



ON SOME SYNGNATHIDS ("PIPE FISH") FROM CEYLON. 

By George Duncker (Hamburg), 
(With one Plate.) 



SYNGNATHIDS or pipe fishes are known to inhabit the fresh 
waters of East Africa as well as of continental India, but, 
strange to say, not as yet from Ceylon, Last summer (1909) 1 
determined to investigate some Ceylon rivers with reference to the 
occurrence of Syngnathids, with the result of finding four species, 
viz,, Micro'phis hrachyurus, Bleeker, Doryichthys cunculus, Ham,- 
Buch., Doryichthys ocellatus, n, sp,, and Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp,, 
var. djarong, Bleeker. 

A review of all Syngnathids hitherto observed in Ceylon may be 
combined with the description of the species mentioned above ; 
further investigation certainly will lead to the discovery of many 
more, especially marine species. 

Oastrotokev^, Kp. 

Brood organ of male abdominal, nob covered by cutaneous folds. 
Eggs isolated in open cutaneous cells. Upper as well as lowei' 
lateral edges of trunk and tail continuous ; middle lateral edges of 
trunk nearly or entirely reaching upper ones of tail behind the 
dorsal fin. Interstitial scutella and lateral line absent. Dorsal, 
anal, and pectoral fins (referred to as D, A, and P) present, caudal 
fin (C) absent ; tail prehensile. Trunk much depressed, its ventral 
surface bordered by middle lateral edges. 

1, Gastrotokeus hiaculeatus, Bl. 

Kaup, 1856, p. 19; Dumeril, 1870, p. 528; Giinther, 1870, p. 194; 
Day, 1878, p. 681, PI. 174, fig. 5 ; Day, 1889, p. 467, fig. 167. 

Syngnathus blochii, Bleeker, 1853, p. 24. 

Truncal annuh (abdominal plus caudal) 15-18 plus 40-55. Annuli 
below dorsal fin (annuh subdorsales) 0-2 plus 8-10. Dorsal rays 
(D) 37-47. Anal rays (A) 4-5. Pectoral rays (P) 19-23. Fre- 
quently with numerous short immovable cutaneous appendages, 
similar to algse. Chin with two simple or httle ramified short 
movable tentacles of reddish-brown colour. Anus papilhferous. 
Eggs rather large, ovoid, generally in 8 longitudinal and 23-28 
transverse rows. Total length up to 25-7 cm. Mature males 16-4 
to 25-7 cui. 

E 9(6)10 



26 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Colour during life grayish to sea-green ; edges of body witli 
indistinct reddish blotches. Small round dark blue dots, becoming 
brown in spirit, ventrally along the middle lateral edges of trunk. 

Living between the weeds of a Zostera, sp., the leaves of which 
equal in breadth tliat of the animal, attached to their stems by 
means of the prehensile tail, the head erect, and therefore not 
easily visible. The decaying leaves of the Zostera are covered with 
small mucous gray algse, wliich are strikingly similar to the cuta- 
neous appendages of the fish. Slowly and clumsily swimming. 

Distribution. — From East Africa to Polynesia. In the Colombo 
Museum there are several specimens, without details of locality. 

Sinhalese name. — Moralla (Colombo). 

Microphis, mihi. 

Brood organ of male abdominal, not covered by cutaneous folds, 
laterally protected by plates whicli correspond to the lower lateral 
edges of trunk and are ventrally divergent. Eggs small, numerous, 
isolated in open cutaneous cells. Upper as well as lower lateral 
edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; middle lateral edges of trunk 
continuous with lower ones of tail ; keels of the several rings 
terminating in a free spine posteriorly, Scutella and lateral line 
present ; D, A, C, and P present ; A situated behind middle of 
total length, 

2. Microphis hrachyurus, Bleeker, Dumeril, 1870, p. 595. 

Syngnathus brachyurus, Bleeker, 1853, p, 16, 
Doryichthys brachyurus, Giinther, 1870, p. 184. 
Doryichthys Hasselti, Kaup, 1856, p, 57, 
Doryichthys auronitens, Kaup, 1856, p, 59 ; Giinther, 

1870, p, 182, 
Microphis auronitens, Dumeril, 1870, ]). 597, 
Doryichthys millepunctatus, Kaup, 1856, p. GO ; 

Giinther, 1870, p. 183. 
Micropliis Bleekeri (Day), Dumeril, 1870, p, 599, 
Doryichthys Bleekeri, Giinther, 1870, p, 182 ; Day, 1878, 

p, 680, PI. 174, fig. 3 ; Day, 1889, p. 465. 
Microphis douanii, Dumeril, 1870, p. 592. 

Ann. 20-22 plus 21-23 ; ann, subdors, 1-2 plus 6-8 ; D 37-43, 
A 3-5, C 9, P 18-23, Operculum longitudinally keeled, with 1-8 
radiating elevated ridges below the keel. Middle ray of C enlarged 
and somewhat elongate. Eggs small, in 4-13 longitudinal and 60- 
110 transverse rows. Total length up to 18-2 cm, ; mature males 
12-2-16-7 cm. 

Ground colour dark, with numerous fine white dots. Operculum 
sometimes with black spots. Orange coloured and black spots at 
the corners of the mouth. Lower side of rostrum with light dark- 
edged transverse fasciae. Caudal fin orange coloured at dorsal and 



SYNGNATHIDS FROM CEYLON. 27 

ventral margin. Male witli a blood-red vertical stripe on the opercle 
near its hind edge ; a longitudinal stripe of the same colour imme- 
diately beneath the anterior half of the middle lateral edge, both 
these stripes disappearing in spirit. Iris brown, with golden lustre. 

In fresh and brackish waters ; numerous amongst grassy weeds ; 
quickly and skilfully swimming. 

Distribution. — From East Africa to Polynesia. Several specimens 
in the Colombo Museum, from the Panadure river at Horetuduwa, 
near Moratuwa, 4 miles upstream. In the Hamburg Museum 
(No. 11,557) 10 males, 34 females and young from the Gin-ganga 
and Opata-ela at Wakwella (Duncker), (No. 11,558) 3 males and 
8 females from the Mahaweli-ganga, below Thalavai estate, near 
Trincomalee (Duncker). 

Sinhalese. — Loku ela theliya (Wakwella) ; vetakeyiya moralla 
(Panadure) ; mudha aspaya (Negombo). 

Doryichthys, mihi. 

Brood organ of male abdominal, entirely covered, when filled 
with eggs, by broad, not coalescent, lateral protective plates, which 
sometimes have a narrow cutaneous fold along their free margin. 
Eggs large, isolated in cutaneous cells. Upper lateral edges of 
trunk and tail discontinuous, lower either continuous or discon- 
tinuous ; in the latter case middle lateral edges of trunk continuous 
with lower ones of tail. All the body edges smooth in tlie adult. 
Scutella and lateral line present. D, A, C, and P present ; A 
situated anterior to middle of total legth. Fresh and brackish 
water fishes. 

3, Doryichthys cunculus, H.B. Giinther, 1870, p. 181 ; Day, 
1878, p. 679, PI. 174, fig. 4; Day, 1889, p. 465, fig. 166. 

Microphis cunculus, Kaup, 1856, p. 64; Dumeril, 1870, p. 591. 

Ann. 17-18 plus 25-28 ; ami. subdors. 3 plus 7-8 ; D 50-53, A 3, 
C 9, P 18-20. Lower lateral edges of trunk and tail continuous ; 
middle lateral edges of trunk subcontinuous with lower ones of tail. 
Anal fin just in front of middle of total length. Protective plates 
of brood organ well developed ; no cutaneous folds found (pouch 
empty). Eggs rather large, according to the remnants of cells in 
3-4 longitudinal and about 50-55 transverse rows. Opercle with a 
single longitudinal keel. Total length 139 cm. 

Colouration grayish-brown ; several indistinct narrow dark longi- 
tudinal stripes on the side of the trunk. Diffuse dark spots on 
the upper lateral edges of trunk, most distinct on the ring borders. 
A dark stripe on each side from tip of snout through the eye over 
opercle, above its keel, to base of P ; ventral half of opercle silvery. 
Iris reddish-brown. 

Distribution. — India (Malabar, moutli of Ganges, Bengal, Orissa), 
Ceylon. 



28 SPOLIA ZBVLANICA. 

Colombo Museum :* one male from Panadure i-iver at Horetuduwa. 
Sinhalese . — Vetakeyiy a mo ra lla . 

4. Doryichthys ocellatus, n. sp. ..Plate, fig. A. 

Ann. 15-16 plus 31-32 ; ann. subdors. 1-2 plus 7-8 ; D 37-40, 
A 4, C 9, small, P 17-19. Lower lateral edges of trunk and tail 
discontinuous ; middle lateral edges of trunk (continuous with lower 
ones of tail. Opercle with a straight keel ; beneath and parallel to 
the latter one, rarely two weaker ones, more distinctly visible in 
posterior half of opercle. Abdominal edge very prominent in 
females. Anal fin in front of middle of total length. Rings of 
adults smooth, of young ones spiny behind, as in Microphis. 
Oaudal fin of young individuals comparatively large. Brood organ 
froni second body ring to first- caudal ring, with large, completely 
closing, but not coalescent })rotective plates ; no cutaneous folds. 
Protecting plates much deeper than dorsal wings of inferior lateral 
scutes. Kggs large, in 4 longitudinal and about 30 transverse rows. 
Total length uji to 13 cm. ; mature males 9'5 to 13 cm. 

On the middle lateral edges of the trunk, on each border of its 
rings, on(^ black white- bordered ocellated spot, the white contour of 
which disappears in spirit. Bac^k light leddish-brown, sides yellow- 
gray ; protective plates of brood pouch darker. A dark longitudinal 
strix)e on eacli side from tiyi of snout through the eye to the opercle, 
behind whicJi, more or less distinct, it passes on to the tnmk between 
upper and middle lateral edge. Caudal witli yellow dorsal and 
ventral margins. Iris yellowish-red. 

The only two females of our material happen to be regenerated 
specimens ; in the one of 101 cm. length there are 24 caudal rings and 
7 caudal fin rays (fin enlarged) ; in the other one of 9-5 cm. length 
there are 25 (^audal rings and 8 caudal j-ays (fin enlarged). 
Evidently they have accidentally lost 6-8 caudal rings and yet been 
able to regenerate a caudal fin. 

Distribution. — Ceylon. 

Col. Mus. : one male from Kalu-ganga, near Galatura tea estate, 
32 miles up river (H. Drummond Hay). 

Hbg. Mus. 11,559 : one female, five young, from Mahaweli-ganga, 
below Thalavai estate, near Trincomalee (Duncker). 

Hbg. Mus. 11,560 : five males, one female, four young, from f4in- 
ganga, at Wakwella (Duncker). 

Nearly related to Doryichtriys caudatus , Peters, 

Sinhalese. — Punchi-cla theliya (Wakwella), mudha aspaya 
(Negombo), 

Corythroichthys , Duncker. 

Brood organ of male subcaudal, not covered, without lateral 
protective plates, bordered by narrow longitudinal posteriorly 



SYNONATTtTDS FROM CEYLON. 29 

divergent cutaneous folds. Eggs small, juuuerous, incompletely 
isolated in very shallow cutaneous cells, cake-like, sticking to each 
other. Upper lateral edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; lower 
lateral edges of tiunk and tail continuous ; middle lateral edges of 
trunk subcontinuous with upper ones of tail. Scutella and lateral 
line present. D, A, C, and P present. 

5. Corythroichthys coruspicillatus. 

Syngnathus conspicillatus , Dumeril, 1870, p. 544; 
Giinther, 1870, p. 174 ; Day, 1888, p. 808 ; Day, 1889, 
p. 463. 
Syngnathus haemalopterus , Bleeker, 1853, p. 20. 
Corythroi(;hthys fasciatus, Gray ; Kaup, 1856, p. 25. 
Syngnathus fasciatus, Dumeril, 1870, p. 543. 

Ann. 16-18 plus 33-38 ; ann. subdors. 0-1 plus 5-7 ; D 25-32, 
A 3-4,0 9-10, P 14-18, annuli or rings in the region of the brood 
pouch (referred to as B R) 10-16. Middle lateral edges of trunk 
and upper ones of tail terminating near to each other, as a rule on 
the border between last ring of trunk and first of tail. Opercle with 
a straight keel in its entire length. Forehead and eyes prominent. 
Eggs small, numerous, in 6-11 longitudinal and 28-37 transverse 
rows. Total length up to 17 • 3 cm. ; mature males 9 • 7-17 • 3 cm. 

Ventral surface of head and opercles with dark longitudinal, of 
rostrum with dark transverse, fascise. A black transverse fascna 
ventrally on each of the first three body rings, frequently resolved 
into spots. All the rings with fine black reticulated lines. 

During life the three black bands on the thi-oat as well as the 
posterior margin of the anal opening seamed by orange colour. In 
the males light bluish-silvery stripes between the dark bands at the 
throat, missing or httle developed in the females. Ground colour 
of ventral surface of head brassy-yellow to coral-red. Rostrum, 
upper edges of trunk, and subdorsal region wine-red, the latter with 
coral-red blotches. When not disturbed this fish moves snake- Uke 
on the bottom, but swims rapidly if disturbed. Frequent on coral 
sands. 

Distribution. — From East Africa to Polynesia. 
Col. Mus. : males and females, from Jaffna (Day-Haly, 1888). 
Hbg. Mus. 11,563: two males, three females, from Trincomalee 
harbour (Duncker). 
Tamil. — Kudira. 



Trachyrrhamphus , Kp. 
Brood organ of male subcaudal, without lateral protective plates, 
not covered, bordered by narrow longitudinal cutaneous folds, 
diverging posteriorly. Upper lateral edges of trunk and tail 



30 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

discontinuous; lower lateral edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; 
middle lateral edges of trunk continuous with lower ones of tail. 
Scutella and lateral line present. D, A, C, and P present ; C 
small ; base of D elevated. 

6. Trachyrrhamphus serratus, Schleg. 

Kaup, 1856, p. 23; Dumeril, 1870, p. 538. 
Syngnathus serratus, Schlegel ; Giintlier, 1870, p. 167 ; 

Day, 1878, p. 677, PI. 173, fig. 4; Day, 1889, p. 461, 

fig. 164. 
Trachyrrhamphus cultrirostris , Peters, 1870, j). 710 ; 

Dumeril, 1870, p. 539. 
Trachyrrhamphus intermedius, Kaup, 1856, p. 24 ; 

Dumeril, 1870, p. 538. 
Syngnathus intermedius, Giinther, 1870, p. 168 ; Day, 

1878, p. 678, PI. 173, fig. 6; Day, 1889, p. 462. 
Syngnathus ceylonensis, Giinther, 1870, p. 168. 

Ann. 22-24 plus 44-49 ; ann. subdors. 2-4 plus 2-3 ; D 25-29, 
A 4, C 9-10, rudimentary, P 14-19, B R 20-22. Generally 
with short cutaneous appendages, similar to algse, on the surface 
of the body, especially on the dorsal'surface. Opercle with a very 
short basal keel and fine radiating strise. Dorsal median line of 
rostrum with a serrated crest. Forehead and eyes prominent. 
Eggs very small and numerous, in 8-10 longitudinal series. Total 
length up to 26 • 8 cm. Uniformly brown coloured. 

Distribution. — From Zanzibar to Japan. 

Col. Mus. : 1 6, Ceylon. 

Urocampus, Giintli, 

Brood organ of male subcaudal, with or without weak lateral 
protective plates, with broad longitudinal cutaneous folds, con- 
verging posteriorly and coalescent during the breeding period. 
Upper lateral edges of trunk and tail continuous ; lower lateral 
edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; middle lateral edges of trunk 
continuous with lower ones of tail. Scutella and lateral Hne 
present. D, C, and P present, A (always ?) absent ; D commencing 
for more than its own length behind anal ring. 

7. Urocampus southwelli, n. sp. Plate, figs. B {6) and C (?). 

Ann. 8 plus 49-50 ; ann. subdors. 7 plus 12 ; D 14, A 0, C 10, 
well developed, P 8-10, B R 8, without protective plates. Opercle 
keeled in anterior two-thirds of its length. Body-edges very 
indistinct. Subdorsal tail-rings somewhat elevated. No cutaneous 
appendages. Rostrum longer than postorbital region of head. 
Eggs comparatively very large, biserial, 8-10, longitudinally 
arranged in seven anterior rings of B R — 6 45 mm., ? 40 mm. 
Uniformly yellowish-brown. 



SYNGNATHIDS FROM CEYLON. 81 

From U. guntheri, luihi (W. Australia), with similar mimbers of 
rings, distinct through the al)sen('o of cutaneous appendages, the 
greater length of D, and the shorter opercular keel. 

Distribution. — Ceylon. 

Col. Mus. : 16,1?, from Marichchukkaddi bay, in 2| fathoms, 
in tow- net. (T. Southwell.) 



Synqnathus, L. 

Brood organ of male subcaudal, generally with lateral protective 
plates, always with broad longitudinal cutaneous folds, converging 
and coalescent during the breeding period. Upper lateral edges of 
trunk and tail discontinuous ; lower lateral edges of trunk and tail 
continuous ; middle lateral edges of trunk subcontinuous with upper 
or with lower edges of tail. 

8. Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. ; var. djarong, Bleek. 

Distribution. — Madagascar, India, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, Philip- 
pines, New Guinea. 

Hbg. Mus. 11,561 : 3 ££ from Opatha-ela, near Wakwella 
(Duncker). 

Hbg. Mus. 11,562 : 11 S6, 16 ??, 21 juv. from Mahaweli-ganga, 
below Thalanai estate, near Trincomalee (Duncker). 

Sinhalese. — Eta theliya (Wakwella). 

Among the forms united by Giinther under the name of Syngnathus 
spicifer there are at least three to be distinguished, two of which 
may be considered salt and fresh water varieties of the same species, 
while the third one represents a separate species. They are : — 

(a) Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. ; var. gastrotsenia , Bleek. 

Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. — Kaup, 1856, p. 36 partim ; 
Dumeril, 1870, p. 546 part ; Giinther, 1870, p. 172 
part ; Day, 1878, p. 662 part, and PI. 174, fig. 1 ; 
Day, 1889, p. 462 part ; Peters, 1869, p. 276. 
Syngnathus gastrotaenia, Bleeker, 1853, p. 22. 
Syngnathus Kummii, Bleeker ; Dumeril, 1870, p. 548 ; 
Gunther, 1870, p. 172. 
Salt and brackish water. 

(/>) Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. ; var. djarong, Bleek. 

Syngnathus spicifer , Riipp. Synonyms see above, except 

Day, 1879, PI. 174, fig. 1. 
Syngnathus djarong, Bleeker, 1853, p. 22 ; Dumeril, 
1870, p. 545. 
? Syngnathus Helfrichii, Bleeker ; Dumeril, 1870, p. 547. 
Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp.; var. rivalis, Peters, 1869, 
p. 276. 
Brackish and fresh w\ater. 



32 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

(c) Syngnathus argyrostictus, Kuhl et Van Hasselt ; Kaup, 
1856, p. 33 ; Dumeril, 1870, p. 545. 
Syngnathus spicifer, Giinther, 1870, p. 172 part. 
? Syngnathus biseriahs, Gray; Kaup, 1856, p. 33. 

Diagnoses of the two Species. 

Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. 

Ann. 14^16 plus 38-43 ; ann. subdors. -^ 2-0 plus 6-9 ; D 23-30, 
A 2-3, C 10, P 13-18, B R 14r-21. Middle lateral edges of trunk 
subcontinuous with lower ones of tail. Opercle keeled in its entire 
length. Sides of trunk without ocellated spots. Total length up 
to 15-4 cm. 

Distribution, — From East Africa to Polynesia. 

Syngnathus argyrostictus, Kuhl et Van Hasselt. 

Ann. 15-16 plus 33-41 ; ann. subdors. -^ 1-0 plus 6-8 ; D 25-29, 
A 3, C 10, P 15-17, B R 16-19. Middle lateral edges of trunk 
subcontinuous with upper ones of tail. Opercle keeled in its entire 
length. Length of rostrum equal to distance of prseorbital margin 
from base of P. Sides of trunk with numerous small white black- 
bordered ocellated spots in 3-7 longitudinal series. Total length 
up to 13-6 cm. 

Distribution. — Malay Peninsula, China, Japan. 

Diagnoses of the Varieties of Syngnathus spicifer, Riipp. 

{a) Var. gastrotcenia , Bleek. 

Rostrum longer than tlie lemaining part of the head. Trunk 
rather deep, but without a particularly prominent abdominal edge. 
Abdomen with about 14 dark cross ])ars. Total length up to 15*4 
cm. Mature males 10 -0-15 -4 cm. 

(6) Var. djarong, Bleek. 

Rostrum about as long as the postorbital length of the head. 
Trunk deep ; abdominal edge very prominent. Abdomen uni- 
coloured, lighter than the bluish-black abdominal edge. Total 
length up to 14-1 cm. ; mature males 8 •3-12- 6 cm. 

The formulae of numbers of rings, &c., taken from 44 specimens 
of the first and 29 of the second variety are : — 

{a) Ann. 14-15 plus 38-42 ; ann. subdors. -^2—1 plus 7-9 ; 

D 25-30, P 14-18, B R 15-21. 
(b) Ann. 14-16 plus 39-43 ; ann. subdors. -|- 2-0 plus 6-7 ; 

D 23-29, P 13-16, B R 14-17. 

More distinctly these differences will come out from the cono- 
sponding average values : — 

{a) Ann. 14-73 plus 39-81 ; ann. subdors. -^ 1-32 plus 7-41 ; 
D 27-61, V 16-37, B R IS- 26. 



SYNGNATHIDS FROM CEYLON. 33 

(6) Ann. 14-79 plus 40-63 ; ann. subdors. -^ 0-53 plus 6-31 ; 
D 26-28, P 14-76, B R 15-06. 

The dorsal fin of var. djarong therefore stands somewhat more 
forward and is shorter than that of var. gastrotcenia, which latter 
has more pectoral rays and a larger brood pouch than the former. 
In both varieties the protective plates of the brood organ are very 
small, scarcely developed. Eggs of var. djarong small, in 4 
longitudinal and about 60 transverse series. 

Colouration of var. djarong during life : — Abdomen of male 
purplish-red, of female grayish-green, with blue-black abdominal 
edge. Ventral surface of rostrum and opercles silvery or brass- 
coloured, with blackish spots and stripes more or less irregularly 
arranged. C brown, with lighter dorsal and ventral margins. D 
with dark spots. Some specimens from the Mahaweli-ganga had 
the lip of the rostrum orange-coloured. Iris brass-coloured. 

In New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago I collected var. 
gastrotcenia at ten, and var. djarong at four localities, but once 
only found the two varieties together at the mouth of a draining 
ditch of a coconut plantation at the seashore ; everywhere else the 
var. gastrotcenia preferred the water more saline than the var. 
djarong. 



Hippocampus, L. 

Brood organ of male subcaudal, without protective plates ; its two 
cutaneous folds entirely imited, forming a bag-like brood pouch, 
which has a small muscular orifice anteriorly, immediately behind 
the anal ring. Upper lateral edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; 
lower lateral edges of trunk and tail discontinuous ; middle lateral 
edges of trunk continuous v/ith lower ones of tail. Trunk com- 
pressed, generally deejj. Head in an angular position to the 
longitudinal axis of trunk. No scutella ; lateral line present. Scutes 
of body rings with narrow elongated wings and shortened 
keel. D, A, and P present, C absent ; tail prehensile. Base of D 
elevated. 

Of Hippocampus I have seen only three specimens from Ceylon, 
which seem to belong to two different species. It is impossible, 
however, at the present state of our knowledge to safely distinguish 
between the South Asiatic species of Hippocampus, with the single 
exception of H. kuda, Bleek. Characters traditionally applied, 
such as shape of the corona, of the spines of the body, colour, size 
of cutaneous appendages, are useless for the distinction of species ; 
they vary considerably according to age and individuality, as I 
have convinced myself on larger series of the two European forms, 
H. guttatus, Cuv. , and 7/. brevirostris , Cuv. 

F 9(6)10 



34 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Description of the three specimens : — 

Col. Mus. : 6, ann. 11 plus 40; ami. subdors. 2 plus 1 ; D 18, A ?, 
P 19-18, B R 8. Rings subequal. Head and trunk with 
numerous fine white dots arranged in reticulated lines. 
Ceylon. 

Col. Mus. : ?, ami. 11 plus 38; ann. subdors. 2 plus 1 ; D 17, A 5, 
P 16. Rings subequal. Uniformly dark brown. Ceylon. 

Hbg. Mus. : ?, ann. 11 plus 37 ; ann. subdors. 2 plus 1 ; D 18, A 4, 
P 1 6. Rings subequal. Head and body with numerous fine 
white dots arranged in reticulated lines. Gulf of Mannar. 

According to the number of caudal rings and of pectoral fin rays, 
which are systematically important, the two latter specimens may 
belong to the same, 'the former one to a different species ; they 
certainly are not Hippocampus kuda, Bleeker. Hippocampus 
yuttatus, Cuv. (c/. Glinther, 1870, p. 202 ; Day, 1878, p. 682), is 
exclusively a European species, which is found from the Mediter- 
ranean to the North Sea. The synonym in the places cited above 
therefore is erroneous. 



Literature. 

1853. Bleeker, P., Bijdrage tot de Kenniss van de Troskienwize 

visschen van den Indischen Ai-clupel. Verliandel. Batav, 

Genoot. Kunst. Wetensch. T. 25. 
1878. Day, F., The Fishes of India. 2 vols. 
1888. Day, P., Supplement to the former. 
1898. Day, F., The Fauna of British India, including Ce3'lon and 

Burma (ed. by T. Blandford). Fishes, Vol. II. 
1870. Dumeril, A. , Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, ou Ichthyologie 

Generale. Vol. II. 
1870. Giinther, A., Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. 

Vol. VIII. 
1856. Kaup, T. P., Catalogue of Lophobranchiate Fislies in the 

Collection of tlie .British Museum. 

1869. Peters, W., Ueber die von Herrn Dr. F. Tagor in deni 

Ostindischen Archipel. gesammelten und dem Kgl. 
Zoologischen Museum ubergebenen Fische. Monatsbor. 
Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1868), pp. 254-81. 

1870. Peters, W. , Ueber neue oder weniger bekannte Fische 

des Berliner Zoologischen Museums. Ibid. (1S69), 
pp. 703-11. 

Explanation of Plate. 

A. — Doryichthys oceMatus. 
B. — Urocampus southivelli, 6- 
C. — Uroca/mpus southwelU , V. 



Spolin Z eylanica . 



<r- 



m 



B 

Syngnathids of Ceylon. 



REMARKS ON RECENTLY ACQUIRED CEYLON SNAKES. 35 



REMARKS ON SOME RECENTLY ACQUIRED 
CEYLON SNAKES. 



By Major F. Wall, I.M.S. 



^T^O Dr. Willey I am indebted for a specimen of the Ceylon water- 
-*- snake Tropidonotus asperrimus, and to Mr. E. E. Green for 
six other snakes, all of which are worthy of special remarks. 

Tropidonotus asperrimus, Boulenger. 

The specimen sent convinces me that this snake is not entitled to 
rank as a species, but is better considered as merely an insular colour 
variety of T. piscator, Schneider, comparable to the Andaman variety 
tytleri of the same species. Its markings accord well with the figure 
in Mr. Boulenger's Catalogue (Vol. I., Plate XV., fig. 2), but the last 
two costal rows are quite smooth, so that it is evident that some 
specimens perfectly agree with typical forms of piscator in the only 
character, excepting colour, upon which it is separated from that 
species. Mr. Boulenger claims that only the last row is without 
keels. 

I prepared the skull, and this and the dentition perfectly accord 
with those of typical forms of piscator from India. The teeth are as 
follows: maxillary, 21 left, 22 right; palatine, 11 left, 12 right ; 
pterygoid, 22 left, 24 right; mandibular, 22 left, ? right (broken). 
The dentition of four other skulls of Indian piscator in my collections 
is : maxillary, 21 to 25 ; palatine, 11 to 15 ; pterygoid, 24 to 27 ; 
mandibular, 23 to 27. 

Dendrelophis tristis, Daudin. 

Two specimens were received, one head and neck only, the other 
a gravid ?, measuring 3 ft. 11^ in., killed at Peradeniya at the end of 
December, 1909, and containing 7 nearly mature eggs. 

The Ceylon form of this snake appears to be an insular variety, 
at least I cannot remember ever having seen it in any part of India. 
It differs from the Indian form in (1) the absence of a light round 
spot on the back of the head in the interparietal suture ; (2) the 
light vertebral stripe is very conspicuous, being bright yellow, and 
limited to a small extent of the forepart of the spine ; (3) there is 
no black line between the dark brown dorsal colouration and the 
buff flank stripe ; (4) all the scales, including the vertebral, are 
heavily bordered with black basally and apically. The variety 
is very nicely shown in Plate XII. of the Bombay Natural History 
Journal, Vol. XIX., Part 4, wliieh accompanies my article on this 



36 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



snake, and which sliould be called Dendrelophis tristis, not Dendro- 
phis pictus. I have little doubt now that the British Museum 
artist painted this from a Ceylon specimen. This variety, which 
may be called iaprohanensis , agrees with the Indian form in the 
following ways : (1) the narrow vertebral row of scales, which, 
though enlarged, are considerably longer than broad ; (2) having 
only two supralabials, the fifth and sixth normally touching the 
eye ; (3) narrow black posterior borders to the second, third, 
and fourth supralabials (and first, too, sometimes) ; (4) a narrow, 
short, and rather obscure postocular black stripe. 

I have prepared and examined the skull of one of these specimens, 
and find tlie nasal bones, the ridges on the parietal bones for mus- 
cular attachment, and the maxillary dentition — in that the posterior 
teeth are shorter than the anterior— all agree with the Indian form, 
figures of which appear in the diagram accompanying my article in 
the Bombay Journal {A, a to g). The only difference is in the 
number of the maxillary and pterygoid teeth, which exceed those 
in the usual Indian form. 

The dentition of this is herewith given with that of all my Indian 
skulls for comparison : — 

Teeth. 
Maxil- Pala- Ptery 
lary. tine. goid. 

? . . ? . . 19 



No. of 
Specimen 



Side of 
Head. 



Mandi- 
bulars. 



Habitat. 



1 



2 



I 



10 



Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 



18 

17 

18 

19 

18 

18 

17 

19 

18 

21 

21 

21 

19 

20? 

22 

20 

22 

21 

22 

21 

21 



13 

11 

12 

12? 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

12 

12 

13 

11 

12 

13 

13? 

13 

14 

14 

13 

13 



19 
20 
20 
20 
21? 
24 
22 
19 
22 
22 
23* 
? 
21 
24 
25 
26 
24 
28? 
29 
29 
30 



20 
21 

22 

9 

20? 
21 

22 



23 

21? 

21? 

21? 

22 

21 

? 

24 

21? 

22 

26 

24 

25 

24 



.{ 



Eastern Hima- 
layas (Parhok) 

do. 
do. 

do. 

Eastern Hima- 
layas (Parhok 
or Tindharia) 

? 

Madras 

South India 

(Madras ?) 
Western Ghats 

(Mather an) 
Nilgiri Hills 

(Kotagiri) 
Ceylon (Pera- 

deniya) 



^^ I Right 

It will be seen that the dentition agrees with that of a specimen 
from the Nilgiri Hills, collected many years ago, in which I oimitted 
to note the distinctions in colour and markings given above, so that 
it is possible that the Ceylon form may, as in many other cases, be 
found also in the South Indian HiMs. 



REMARKS ON RECENTLY ACQUIRED CEYLON SNAKES. 37 

Oligodon suhlineatus, Dutn et Bib. 

A single S specimen of this snake from Matale, measuring 8^ in., 
was specially interesting, in that the scale rows were aberrant, 
numbering 13 instead of 15. Studying this specimen, it was 
observed that the sixtli and seventh rows above the ventrals 
coalesced, reducing the normal 15 to 13 rows, and in several places 
the row so formed divided to bring the number to the normal 15 and 
then fused again. I have seen a similar aberration arising in the 
same manner in other species of Oligodon and its nearly allied genus 
Simotes. The ventrals numbered 140, and the subcaudals 32. 
The general appearance of this snake is remarkably like that of its 
poisonous relative, Callophis trimaculatus. There are the same 
black spots in a single costal series down each side of the back, and 
the same head marks, but tlie dark collar is broken in the median 
line, unlike trimaculatus. The median row of ventral spots was 
absent in this specimen. 

An examination of the skull I prepared from this specimen is 
interesting. There is an edentulous interval that would take at 
least two teeth in the front of the maxillary and mandibular bones, 
the palatine bone is edentulous, and a long edentulous interval is 
seen in the front of the pterygoid bone, so that the few teeth in 
this are situated in the middle. It is to be noted that Boulenger 
(Cat., Vol. II., p. 233) states that the pterygoid teeth are wanting 
in this genus,- but I find them present in all the species of which I 
have skulls, viz., venustus, dorsalis, suhgriseus, erythrogaster , as well 
as this species. 

The maxillary teeth in this specimen number 7, the pterygoid 
5 or 6, and the mandibular 10. 

Bungarus ceylonicus, Giinther. 

Two well-grown specimens of the " Karawella " killed at Pera- 
deniya were sent to me, a, 6 measuring 2 ft. 2| in., with 233 ventrals 
and 32 subcaudals, and a 6 ? measuring 2 ft. 5^ in., with 223 
ventrals and 37 subcaudals. 

I prepared both skulls, and find the dentition as follows: 
the maxillae are provided with 3 small grooved teeth behind the 
paired fangs. There are from 11 to 12 palatine, 8 to 10 pterygoid, 
and 15 to 17 mandibular teeth. 

Callophis trimaculatus, Daudin. 
One specimen of this very rare snake was sent to me, killed at 
Matale, an adult measuring 1 ft. 3 J in. The species has only twice 
before been recorded from Ceylon, once by Haly (First Report, 
Snakes, Colombo Museum, 1886, p. 16), from Tissamaharama, 20 
miles north-east of Hambantota, and once by Dr. Willey (Spol. 
Zeylan., Vol. V., Part XX., p. 186), from Niroddumunai, near 
Trincomalee. 



38 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The ventrals in the Matale specimen are 228 and .subcaiidals 28. 

I have prepared the skull, and find the dentition as follows : 
maxiUary, 2 to 3 small grooved teeth behind the paired fangs ; 
palatine, 6 to 7 ; pterygoid, 6 ; mandibular, 8 to 9. 

Reference to Boulenger's Catalogue (Vol. III., p. 396) shows 
that the genus Callophis has no maxillary teeth behind the fangs. 
It is obvious from this that the characters made use of by this 
authority to differentiate this genus must be altered, or this species 
removed therefrom ; and in this connection I may mention that in a 
specimen of the species Maculiceys lately received from Tenasserim 
(Kawkariek, Amherst District) I find three grooved teeth in the 
maxilla behind the paired fangs. 



NOTES ON KANDYAN ART. 39 



NOTES ON KANDYAN ART. 

By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, D.Sc. 
(With two Plates.) 



Chank in the Museum at Kandy. 

nnHE Kandy Museum has lately acquired a very beautiful chank, 
-*- mounted in damascened brass, and comparable with the fine 
specimen which is figured in " Mediaeval Sinhalese Art," PI. XLI., I, 
As in that case, the termination is in the form of a serapendiya head, 
and a continuation of the metal work runs round the mouth of the 
chank. The fohar scrolls proceeding from the animal's mouth are 
partly broken. The chank itself is plain, and not inlaid as in the 
other example. Like the other, it comes from Uda Nuwara ; in this 
case, from the Dewale at Lankatilaka. The other example was given 
by Narendra Sinha to a Dewale at Eldeniya (or Aludeniya ?), and 
it may be assumed that tliis specimen also is at least as old as the 
earher part of the eighteenth century. It measures 10| inches in 
full length. 

Carved Powder Horn. 

Mr. A. B. Casse Lebbe possesses a very fine carved Kandyan 
powder horn. The material is buffalo horn, and the delicate carving 
a fine example of liya pata work. 

Weight of a Stock-drill. 

When last in Ceylon I obtained a beautifully carved stock-drill 
{torapanaya) weight, elaborately carved in serpentine. This 
material is probably derived from the exposure near Ragalla, which 
was examined by Mr. Parsons, and is described in the Administra- 
tion Report of the Mineralogical Survey for 1906. It is interesting 
to note that the carved weight shows signs of local abrasion, where 
it has e^ndentlj' been rubbed down in recent times for medicinal 
purposes, as described in the report referred to. 

Seen from above, the weight has a pentagonal section ; there is a 
ring of pala peti ornament round the bore, and below this are the 
five angular ornaments of naga bandha form ; below this again is a 
simpler form of pala peti, foUowed by several dehcate mouldings. 
The total height of the weight is 3| in., the diameter of the 
bore is | in. above and | in. below. Other illustrations of 



40 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

stock-drill weights from Ceylon will be found in "Mediaeval 
Sinhalese Art," fig. 91, and in Mr. Parker's "Ancient Ceylon," 
figs. 240, 241. 

The present specimen is said to have belonged to Devendra 
Mulacariya, and was obtained from one of his descendants. 

Photograph of a Kandyan Kendiya. 

The accompanying photograph of a kendiya was taken some 
years ago by Messrs. Skeen & Co., and lately given to me by Mr. 
F. Skeen ; the present whereabouts of the original is unknown. It 
represents a fine specimen, probably made in silver, and no doubt 
formerly the property of a Buddhist temple. It is scarcely dis- 
tinguished in form from an ordinary kotalaya, except by the presence 
of a lid. 

Filigree and other Beads. 

The great variety of beautiful gold beads found in Kandyan 
jewellery, whether of local or Tamil origin, is very remarkable, and 
I illustrate here a selection, which should not, however, be regarded 
as exhausting all the varieties obtainable. All the principal types 
are known by name. Any filigree bead is wayiramuni ; one with 
stars (No. 1) is called taruka wayiramuni, " star filigree bead" ; one 
with dots (No. 16) is called arimbu ivayiramuni," dot filigree bead" ; 
one chased like No. 4 arimbu surulu wayiramuni (but this appears to 
be an error, as this is not actually a filigree bead, but belongs to the 
other class). 

Beads other than fihgree are called huhul. Ribbed varieties 
(Nos. 14, 19, and 21) are called reli huhul, " waved beads," or " un- 
dulated " ; those with a sharp angle, diamond-shaped in section, are 
called dippatan, " two -facetted " ; those chased (Nos. 3 and 7) are 
called ketayan huhul, ' ' chased beads," or " cut beads " ; those covered 
with dots, arimbu huhul, " dotted beads " (No. 5). All these are 
made in two halves, and soldered along the median line. They are, 
of course, hollow, and very light and delicate. 

Another small Kandyan bead, not shown here, is the cjotamuin, 
resembling a grain of rice in size and shape ; these are made, not in 
two halves, but by rolling round a piece of tliin gold of the requisite 
size upon itself. 

The following are some names of gold necklaces, additional to those 
given in my ' ' Mediaeval Sinhalese Art." I should have been glad to 
illustrate some, but could not obtain permission to take the j)hot()- 
graphs of the jewellery at the Dalada Maligawa, from a list of which 
the names are taken. The names are : muna-mal malaya, pusu- 
vandah malaya, hunu-vel malaya, dan-vel malaya, arimbu surul 
malaya, mokana malaya, sakra malaya, torapai sarigili malaya, 
sinojmuni malaya. The previously recorded names, peti malaya, 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



PLATE A, 




^*^_ 







POWDER HORN. 



KANDYAN ART (A. k. coomaraswamy). 



Bemrose, Coilo., Det'Ov- 



NOTES ON KANDYAN ART. 41 

polmal malaya, and gedi malaya, also occur in the list.* It would be 
exceedingly interesting, and to local and European art students^'a 
very valuable thing, if the Ceylon Government would arrange to 
pubUsh an adequately illustrated account of the Mahgawa treasure, 
in co-operation with the temple authorities ; it is a work which 
could hardly be accomplished in any other way. 

I am indebted to Mr. T. B. Keppitipola for some of the above 
information; he is one of the few Kandyan chiefs who, at the 
present time, take art interest in the arts and legends of the 
Kandyans. 

BO-LBAF AS A DECORATIVE MOTIF. 

The well-known Sinhalese bo-leaf ornament, considered as a 
Buddliist symbol or decorative motif, is certainly of considerable 
antiquity in India and Ceylon. It appears probable, however, 
that the form belongs to that large class of ornamental motifs which, 
hke the classical " acanthus," owe their name and later significance 
to an accidental resemblance in a form of quite different origin. 
General Beyhe writes as follows on the bo-leaf of India : — 

" Lanceolate ornament, or, more exactly, conventional leaf 
ornament, has had its own special history in each country, but 
particularly in Egypt, where we constantly meet with it on the 
tombs of Antinoe. It formed later the foundation of the decorative 
system of Musulman art (13th century) and by reaction of the 
figured work of Louis XIII. It is not impossible that the lanceolate 
ornament of the Musulman style, although of Assyrian and Egyp- 
tian origin, was only adopted in its ordinary form after having 
undergone a final transformation in the Indies. The leaf of Ficus 
religiosa appears as a nimbus in many statues of Buddlia in memory 
of the sacred bo-tree under which he attained wisdom. We may 
anyhow regard it as certain that the temples of Cambodia (9th- 

12th centuries) and the palace of Angkor- Vat have never felt 

any other than Hindu and Cliinese influence. 

" We may add that the principal of the lanceolate or conventional 
leaf is not Indian, but Oriental, while the multi-lobed ornament, 
evidently of a leafy character, which appears to originate in Musul- 
man art in the 13th century, on the belly of the vases of Mossul, is 
very probably of Hindu origin." 

In other words, the bo -leaf form is of Assyrian or Egyptian 
origin— hke the majority of motifs in decorative art, traced to their 
ultimate source— and was adopted as a Buddhist symbol in India. 



* Another •well-known form is the airi-ho-malaya, erroneously described as 
Sri-ho-malaya in the index to my " Mediseval Sinhalese Art," where it is illus- 
trated (Plate XLIX.. 5). This form comes raainlj. from the Galle District, 
and does not appear to be Kandyan. 

Other necklace names which I have heard are kalamediri malaya and 
patteya malaya. Another kind of bead is called harawila eta. It would be 
very advantageous if examples of all these named varieties could be exhibited 
in the Colombo Museum. 

^ 9(6)10 



42 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA, 

and then more deliberately based on the actual bo-leaf outline ; and 
this Indian type again influenced Musulman, and through Musulman, 
European types of ornaments. 

Since writing the above, Mr. Keppitipola has kindly sent me a full 
li st of the names of the beads illustrated. The names are as follows : — 

1, Arimbupeti wayiramuni ; 2, Arimbu wayiramuni ; 3, 4, 7, 
Ketayan buhul ; 5, Arimbu biibul ; 6, Silamuni ; 8, Murukasa ivayira- 
muni ; 9, Surulu silamuni; 10, 15, Murukasa arimbu ivayiramuni ; 
11, Wayiramuni ; 12, 13, Pattan arimbu bubul ; 14, 18, 20, Arimbu 
palakka ; 16, Surulu palakka ; 11 , Dipattan bubul; 19, 21, 22, i?eZ« 
palakka. 

It will be seen that wayiramuni is the term applied to a filigree 
bead, bubul to a bead not of pierced or trellis work ; an ovoid or 
elongated bead is called palakka. The term pattan is used, as in 
gemming phraseology, to signify " facetted." Arimbu signifies a 
grain or dot. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 



PLATE B. 




BRASS MOUNTED CHANK. 






4J^ 





^^ 








10 



11 



13 



12 



14 




15 



16 




17 



18 



19 




20 

GOLD BEADS. 




21 



22 



{Inch scale for heads only.) 



KANDYAN ART (A. k. coomaraswamy). 



Be)!ifOst\ Collo , Derby. 



PEDIPALPI OF CEYLON. 



43 



PEDIPALPI OF CEYLON. 

By F. H. Gravely. 

(With three Text Figures.) 



THE Pedipalpi are a group of Arachnids, or spider-like creatures, 
which have as yet been very imperfectly studied, as specimens 
are scarce in the museums of Europe. They include the whip- 
scorpions (Thelyphonidce) and scorpion-spiders {Phrynichidce) , of 
which the latter at least must be familiar to many residents in 
Ceylon, as one species {Phrynichus lunatus) is not uncommonly 
met with in bungalows. It is somewhat like a large and very 




Fig. a. — '• Scorpion Spider" {Phrynichus lunatus), 5, natviral size. 

much flattened spider, having an almost disc-shaped body and 
long legs, which spread out from it close against the wall on 
wliich it rests and over which it darts, usually sideways like a crab, 
with quite startling rapidity when disturbed. But instead of the 
four pairs of walking legs found in the spider there are only three 
pairs, as the first is enorniously lengthened and many-jointed, 
resembling both in form and in function the antennae of an insect ; 
for with these the creature feels its way about. And in front there 
is a pair of long arms, corresponding to the claws of a scorpion, 
terminated by a smaU claw and some stout curved spines ; as a rule, 
these arms project straight outwards as far as the elbow, where 
they bend straight inwards again, the forearm being in contact 



44 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA 



(or almost in contact) with the upper arm throughout its entire 
length, as shown in the accompanying figure ; but when in a hungry 
state the creature sees a juicy cockroach or cricket near by, these 
arms are extended forwards, thus enabling it to catch its prey 
without approaching it too closely. The arms vary considerably 
in length and are usually shorter, often much shorter than in the 
specimen figui-ed, the abdomen, moreover, being frequently larger. 
The female carries her eggs about with her in a capsule attached to 
the lower surface of the abdomen. 

Another and somewhat smaller and more moisture-loving species 
of scorpion-spider [Phryniclms imsillus) is fairly abundant under 
stones in the jungles of the Kandy District, and is known to 
extend to a considerably higher elevation than this ; but further 
information as to the distribution of this, and indeed of aU the 




v=<tf^ 



Fig. B. — <' Whip Scorpion" (Labochirus proboscideus) , 6, natiiral size. 

Fedipalpi in the Island, is very much to be desired, and specimens 
from any part would be much appreciated both by Mr. Green 
(Peradeniya Gardens) and myself (Indian Museum, Calcutta) for 
the elucidation of this matter. It is possible that there may be 
two distinct species of the small form found in the jungle : one with 
very long arms and commonest, like the larger species, in the 
low-country (up to 1,000 feet) ; and another with shorter arms, 
which is the commonest at liigher levels. But this, too, is a matter 
which cannot be settled until more material is available. 

Whip-scorpions, as the name implies, resemble scorpions rather 
than spiders ; indeed, at first sight the only noticeable difference 
between whip-scorpions and scorpions lies in the slender whip-like 
" tail " of the former, which, moreover, lacks the much-dreaded 
sting of the latter. But in these creatures, as in the scorpion- 
spiders, the appendages corresponding to the first pair of walking 



PEDIPALPr OF CEYLON. 46 

legs of other Ai-achnids are modified so as to form feelers, tiiough not 
such extraordinarily long and slender ones. 

In the Kandy District I have only met with one species of whip- 
scorpion {Lahochirus proboscideus) , a creatm^e of about the size of 
the small brown scorpions often seen about the verandahs of 
bungalows, but black and of a stouter build ; a much larger species 
{Thelyphonus sepiaris) is, however, recorded from the low-country. 
The small species is to be found under stones and logs of decaying 
wood in the neighbourhood of water-courses — but not on marshy 
ground — and in other parts of the jungle when the ground is 
thoroughly moistened bj'^ the rains. This species digs a burrow 




Fig. C. — "Tart arid" (Schizomus crassicaudatua) , ?. Magnified 6 diameters, 
and small figure natural aize. 

for itself beneath the stones under which it hves ; and when its 
surroundings become dry, it appears to retire underground and 
remain there ; but on this point also further evidence is wanted. 
Moreover, males (with long arms) appear to be tliree or four times 
as common as females (with shorter arms), a condition which again 
needs explaining.* Mr. Green tells me that the larger low-country 



* Further observations liave proved this statement to be erroneous, or at 
least that it only holds good at a definite season of the year. My first 
specimens (all males) were obtained on May 5, before the break of the 
monsoon. The first female was obtained on July 20, a day or two after 
the commencement of the second period of wet weather this season. From 
that date to the present time — August 3 — females have been much more 
and males much less frequently found. As the total number of specimens 
found, however, is little more than a dozen, and as my observations have 
been confined to a visit of three months, it is impossible to state with 
certainty that this apparent seasonal appearance of the sexes separately is an 
actual fact without further ev-idence ; but if so, it is a very remarkable one. 



46 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

species is probably much less dependent on moisture than 
the small species ; and Uke the large species of soorpion-spider it 
sometimes gets into bungalows. On one occasion, indeed, a friend 
of liis found a fine specimen occupying his bed in a resthouse oij tlio 
Trincomalee road. 

But, beside these large and conspicuous kinds of Pedipalpi, there 
is yet another family, the Tartarides, which contains only very 
small and inconspicuous forms, characterized by the presence of a 
very short tail (flattened into a plate in the only species of male 
definitely known), and a form otherwise resembUng that of the 
whip-scorpions. This family is confined, so far as has been ascer- 
tained, to Ceylon and Burma, and scarcely anything is known about 
it, as specimens are very rarely seen. This is not due to their being 
scarce, however, for they are quite abundant in the thick deposit 
of dead leaves in certain parts of the shrubberies of Peradeniya 
Gardens, and not at all uncommon under stones among grass 
sheltered by trees or bushes, both at Peradeniya and above Lady 
Blake's Drive between there and Kandy. Mi'. Green tells me that 
lie obtained a specimen at an altitude of about 4,000 ft., and no 
doubt they are in reality very widely distributed in the Island. 
But they require very careful looking for in suitable places, and 
when found they bear such a close superficial resemblance to a 
largish ant — the sensory legs being directed forwards so as to assume 
very much the appearance and position of the antennse of an ant — 
that their true nature may easily be overlooked. The body of these 
creatures, however, is somewhat more cyhndrical than that of most 
ants, the " waist " being less distinct ; their jaws work vertically 
side by side as in spiders, instead of horizontally as in ants, and so 
are quite inconspicuous ; and their spasmodic darting movements 
as tliey search for a hiding-jalace are also very characteristic ; once 
a specimen has been seen and recognized there will be no difficulty 
in recognizing others. 

Two species are recorded froid Ceylon : the common pale brownish 
or olivaceous one, ^\-J in. in length, exclusive of the appendages, 
when (apparently) mature {Schizomus crassicaudatus) ; and a scarcer 
and more inconspicuous one of a dark olive-green colour, never more 
than 3^2 in. in length {S. suhoculatus). Pocock, in the Arachnid 
" Fauna of British India," places this species in the Burmese genus 
Triihyreus ; but an examination of hving specimens shows that it 
really belongs to the purely Ceylonese genus Schizomus. Only in 
the former is the male known ; it is much scarcer than the female, 
and easily recognizable by the flattened and expanded tail. A 
curious fact about this species, which I am quite unable to explain, 
is that males and females of a fairly definite and approximately 
equal size (n% in.) are found under stones, whilst apparently 
only females, and these of a larger size, occur among dead 
leaves. 



PEDIPALPI OF CEYLON. 47 

Apparently none of the Pedipalpi are poisonous. If a whip- 
scorpion be molested with a finger bearing a cut or raw scratch, 
this cut or scratch will probably begin to smart violently with the 
acetic acid ejected by the whip-scorpion from near the base of the 
tail ; but this is the worst they can do. 

Specimens of all these forms of Pedipalpi may be readily kept* 
in captivity and great interest derived from the study of their 
habits. The larger species of scorpion-spider and whip-scorpion 
will live comfortably in a bare insect breeding cage, feeding on 
insects, &c., cockroaches and crickets (not too large) being much 
appreciated. The smaller species of both forms require a layer of 
light soil — which must never be allowed to get very dry — on the floor 
of the cage, and will feed on similar insects. Even tbe largest species 
like to have water sprinkled in occasionally, so that they may suck 
up the drops ; and they all prefer to have some shelter — a piece of 
stone or rotten wood or bark of a tree — under which they may hide 
by day, their wanderings in search of food being entirely nocturnal. 

The common Tartarid Schizomus crassicaudatvs will live in 
quite a small glass collecting tube. I have kept one now for several 
weeks with a httle soil and a few of the tiny white insects (Podurids) 
often found among decaying leaves or under old coconut husks. 
I presume that it eats these insects, for it has had no other food, 
and is still perfectly healthy ; but I am by no means sure, as its 
small size makes its habits in captivity much less easy to study 
than are those of the scorpion-spiders and whip-scorpions. 
Probably all the Pedipalpi will turn cannibal in an emergency. 

The large scorpion-spider when seen upon a flat wall is 
most easily captured by lowering a broad glass tumbler over it 
and then sUpping a piece of stout paper or thin card in beneath. 
The smaller form when met with in the jungle is easily managed 
by holding him down by the tip of a finger placed on the body, 
whilst the thumb secures him from beneath. Wliip-scorpions I 
usually seize suddenly in the middle of the body with a pair of 
forceps. Tartarids are too small to ])ick up in this way, and too 
shiny to be easily secured with a camel hair brush. I usually 
scoop them and some of the smTounding soil with the blade of a 
penknife into a glass tube, emptying each specimen out into a 
second tube as I secure it, thus always leaving the first free for 
another catch. But the extraordinary facility with which they 
completely conceal themselves in the soil when once they have hit 
upon a suitable place makes it practically impossible to secure 
every specimen found. 

I have to thank Mr. Green for the very useful figures (all of 
which have been drawn from life) accompanying this note. These 
are probably the first published figures drawn direct from the living 
animals, andtliey present them in one of their most characteristic 
attitudes. 



48 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA, 



NOTES. 



, 1. Bee-eaters as Fish-eaters. — The following correspondence 
appeared in the columns of the " Ceylon Observer " between May 4 
and May 11, 1910:— 

I shall be glad to hear if any of your readers liave noticed bee- 
eaters fishing. There are a pair of chestnut-headed bee-eaters, 
which nest pretty regularly in a steep bank on a road below my 
bungalow, and about 150 yards distant from my pond. Almost any 
bright afternoon, between 2 and 3 p.m., they may be seen fishing in 
the pond. They come down from a dead tree, which stands on a 
knoll some 50 yards away ; sometimes hovering for a moment over 
the water to locate their prey, but more commonly marking it in 
their swoop, and dashing headlong into the water Mke a kingfisher, 
and very rarely missing their fish. I have seen the pair account 
for a dozen fish in as many minutes ; all quite small fry. 

When there is a flight of white butterflies on, these birds devote 
most of their attention to them throughout the day, but on warm 
bright days nearly always have a go at fishing in the afternoon. 

I have heard one or two Tamils call these birds Min kottu kuruvi, 
l)ut this was after I had pointed out the birds dipping the water ; it 
is possible they mistook them for kingfishers, though not likely, as 
most of the Tamils here seem to have a very fair knowledge of birds. 
■r<[I have always hitherto associated bee-eaters with the one diet of 
insects ; and I could not quite trust the accuracy of my eyesight 
until I brought a strong jjair of field glasses to bear on the actors 
at the short range of 15 to 20 yards. I think it j)robable that many 
so-called insectivorous birds change their diet when some chance 
has put them up to the taste of a new article which liappens to suit 
them. 

E. GORDON REEVES. 

Wiltshire, Matale, May 2, 1910. 



With reference to the interesting observation recorded by Colonel 
Gordon Reeves, as to the occasional fish-eating or rather fry-eating 
habits of the chestnut-headed bee-eater, I may point out that it 
very rarely happens that an opportunity for making such an obser- 
vation presents itself under ordinary circumstances. There is no 
reason whatever to doubt the accviracy of the observation. Other 
cases of birds varying their diet are known, although the change 
from an insectivorous to a piscivorous diet is perhaps rather 
abrupter than usual. The opposite change from fish-eating to 
insect-eating habits is to be noted in the kingfisher family, to 



NOTES. 49 

wliich the bee-eaters are somewhat distantly related. I remember 
being much surprised, many years ago, to find a kingfisher's stomach 
full of insect remains. 

The different kinds of food consumed by omnivorous birds, such 
as the crow, do not, of course, afford such striking examples of 
discontinuous dietary as do those of more eclectic birds. 

In Spolia Zeylanica for March, 1909, Mr. John Still states that he 
saw a paradise flycatcher plunge from its station on a tree and 
capture something in the water, just like a kingfisher. I have seen 
the same species catching butterflies on the wing. So that here wa 
have an exact parallel to Colonel Reeves's observation. 

Flycatchers are not related to kingfishers, but they are distantly 
related to the shrikes or butcher-birds. One might put it that 
bee-eaters are to kingfishers what flycatchers are to shrikes. All 
these birds have the habit of sitting on a perch, swooping down from 
it to their prey, and afterwards returning to it. The late Grant Allen 
stated positively that among the animals which he had seen in 
butcher-birds' larders were mice, shrews, Hzards, robins, tomtits, 
and sparrows; but he added that, in spite of its occasional carnivorous 
tastes, the shrike is at heart an insect-eater. In this variation of 
diet, on the part of the shrike, we may perceive another parallel to 
the cases mentioned above. 

Colombo, May 4, 1910. ^' WILLEY. 

Colonel Gordon Reeves's observation is a most interesting one. I 
have never noticed these birds fishing, but as they are known to 
take insects from the surface of water there is no reason why they 
should not learn to pick up smafl fry in the same manner. 

The " bee-eaters" (Meropidoe) are closely aUied to the "king- 
fishers." The two families come next each other in Legge's 
"Classification of the Birds of Ceylon." Speaking of the habits of the 
" blue-tailed bee-eater " (il/. Philip fiwus), Legge remarks:—"! 
have seen it dash on to the surface of ponds and rivers and seize 
insects which were passing over the water. Mr. Holdsworth has 
observed it hunting close to the surface of the sea, at a distance of a 
quarter of a mile from the shore." 

Again, under Merops viridis (the green bee-eater) is a note to the 
effect that " Blyth has seen them assembled round a small tank 
seizing objects from the surface of the water, after the manner of a 
kingfisher." But in his description of the habits of the " chestnut- 
headed bee-eater" {M. Swinhoii), no such custom is noted, though 
he remarks upon its habit of frequenting " the topmost or most 
outstretching branches of high trees overhanging water." 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, May 5, 1910. 
H 9(6)10 



50 fjPOTJA ZEYLANICA. 

I must thank Dr. Willey and Mr. E. E. Green for their interesting 
replies to tny query re the fish-eating bee-eater. Since the pair, 
which I convicted of fishing, hatched out their young, they have 
abandoned their fishing expedition, and may be seen sitting on the 
tree facing their burrows catching insects (chiefly wliite butterflies) 
to feed their nestUngs. 

By the end of the month they will have departed north. Thrush 
species have been abnormally common here this year, and migratory 
Raptores, such as harriers, equally scarce. Not long ago I noticed 
an India swiftlet with a large white " yoke " or collar. It was very 
conspicuous amongst its " all dark " associates, and remained in the 
same locality for some weeks. 

E. GORDON REEVES. 

Wiltshire, Matale, May 7, 1910. 



2. Extracts from " Entomological Notes " by the Government 
Entomologist, from the " Tropical Agriculturist," Vol. XXXIV,, 
April, 1910:— 

A Blood-sucking Bug. — A correspondent has sent me specimens 
of an evil-looking bug which had been gorging itself at his expense. 
It is quite distinct from the notorious " B-flat " (or bed-bug, 
Cimex lectularius), though it has acquired the slime objectionable 
tastes and habits. The examples first received were small and 
immature, but their bodies were fully distended with blood. My 
correspondent reports that he was disturbed at night by the bites of 
these creatures, and found several of them crawling about the bed. 
The consequent irritation was severe. Subsequently the adult insect 
(probably the parent of the troublesome brood) was discovered iti 
the same situation. It proves to be a Reduviid bug {Conorhinus 
rubrofasciatus) , an insect of quite formidable size, measuring over an 
inch in length. 

Bugs of this family normally prey upon other insects ; but several 
species of Conorhinus have gained an evil reputation, as systematic 
blood suckers. C. sanguisugus is a troublesome domestic pest in 
parts of the United States ; Darwin, in his •' Voyage of the Beagle," 
describes a species of ConorMnus that attacks travellers when 
camping out on the Pampas of South America, As far as I know 
the present record is the first of the kind from Ceylon. The insects 
frequent outhouses, hiding amongst the rafters during the day- 
time and sallying out to feed at night. 

The Colombo Lake Fly. — I have at last received the scientific 
name of the notorious " Lake Fly." It can now be definitely labelled 
as Chironomus ceylanicus. I fear, however, that this knowledge 
will not appreciably mitigate the inconvenience occasioned by the 
pest. 

E, E, GREEN. 



NOTES. 51 

3. Crows as fishers. — I lately had an opportunity of watching a 
floek of craws doing a bit of " jSshing " on their own account 
just after dusk, as the}' wended their homeward way, along the 
Bentota coast. Every time the waves receded they swarmed on 
the shore, picking up whatever was left in the track of the water. 
As the waves broke again they rose in air, all the time travelling 
along the shore in the direction of their flight home. 

Colombo, May 20, 1910. C. DRIEBERQ. 



" Crows as fishers.'' — In the second volume of his entertaining 
" Curiosities of Natural History " (reprinted in 1903 from the fifth 
edition : Macmillan, London), Mr. Frank Buckland has the follow- 
ing remarks on crows, which will be of interest apropos of Mr. 
Drieberg's note. The passage occurs in the chapter entitled " The 
Gamekeeper's Museum " (see p. 95) : — 

" As the museum was situated near the sea coast, I was therefore 
not sm-prised to see in the collection a Royston, or hooded crow. 
This bird's proper home is the seashore , where his business is to 
follow the retiring tide, and to eat what is left thereby. Nor does 
he object to small crabs and those curious sea-anemones which the 
good folk of Guernsey so aptly call " bloody-fingers." Having 
capital wings, he often takes a look at the rocks, where the gulls and 
other sea-birds build their nests and place their eggs. Wlien these 
fail him, he will take an inland journey, and very naturally mistakes 
a game bird's egg for a gull's egg. The keeper, in his turn, very 
natm-ally seeing what he is after, mistakes him for a carrion crow, 
shoots and gibbets liim — hence his appearance in the museum. The 
keeper calls him the saddle-back crow ; a good name again, for his 
head, tail, and wings are black, and the rest of his body of a fine 
ash-gray colour, so that he looks very like a common crow- with a 
saddle on his back. Our French neighbours too, whose shores he 
also visits, have evidently, with the same idea, christened him 
Corneille manteUe, or crow with a cloak on. These crows are very 
quick in finding out dead or wounded birds. A great sportsman 
tolls me that he has often gone at daylight to pick up wild fowl 
which he had shot the previous evening, and found that these saddle- 
back crows had anticipated him and made a meal of his wild duck 
and teg,l." 

At Sea. June 14, 1910. A. WILLEY. 



4. Rambling Notes : — 

(a) Life-history of a eommon Ceylon Butterfly.— Ip^Awm ceylonice 
ifv— I should say without exception— the commonest of our Ceylon 
butterflies. It occurs throughout the year, and is a familiar object 



52 SPOLIA ZBYLANIOA. 

in every compound, wayside hedge, or grassy field, up to an eleva- 
tion of about 4,000 feet. And yet, to the best of my belief, no 
published description of its early stages or transformations has yet 
appeared, Y. ceylonica is now considered to be a local race of the 
Indian form huebneri, Kirby, of which the larva and pupa are 
known ; but our Island race of the insect has not apparently been 
bred up to the present time. 

Having taken a pair of the butterflies in coitu on November 23 
last, I placed them under a glass shade with some living grass 
plants in hopes of obtaining ova. The male insect died on the 25th. 
No eggs had then been deposited, though the female was still active. 
On the following morning I found two small globular eggs, laid side 
by side, near the base of a blade of grass ; two more eggs were 
attached to the extreme tip of another blade, and three others on 
the under-surface of a broad leaf of ribbon-grass. When magnified 
it is seen that the egg is not truly globular, but has a slightly longer 
vertical diameter. It is wider towards the base, and very slightly 
flattened above and below. The surface is closely pitted with 
irregular polygonal depressions. The longer diameter is approxi- 
mately 0-75 mm. 

The eggs hatched on December 3. The young larvae are of a 
very pale pinkish wliite tint, with a reddish median-longitudinal 
line and a similar dorso -lateral Hne on each side. The sides are 
more or less completely suffused with rosy red. Every segment, 
including the head, has a transverse series of colourless tubercles, 
each supporting a longish obtuse white hair. Head large, fully 
twice the width of the following segments. 

December 10. — ^The young larvae are undergoing their first 
moult. At the end of the first stage the pink colour of the newly 
hatched larva has entirely disappeared, being replaced by whitish 
green ; the body has thickened until it has exceeded the width of 
the head ; the tubercles have become less prominent and conspi- 
cuous ; the dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral Hnes are dull green. 
After the moult the most marked difference is the appearance of a 
pair of pointed, conical, divergent processes on the terminal segment. 

December 18. — ^The larvae have moulted for the second time. 
There is no marked change in their appearance. 

December 24. — The larvae are preparing to moult for the third 
time. They are now of a uniform whitish green tint above, with a 
conspicuously paler lateral line, below which the underparts are of 
a clear grass-green colour. Upper parts with fine longitudinal 
darker stripes ; the derm roughened with minute spicules, some of 
which carry a fine blackish hair. 

Absence from headquarters prevented observation of subsequent 
moults ; but on January 7 the larvae appeared to be fully 
grown, and one of them had suspended itself preijaratory to 
pupation. 



NOTES. 53 

The full-fed larva is of a uniform grass-green colour. Vertex of 
head with a very minute conicle tubercle on each side ; terminal 
segment with two longer tapering pointed processes directed 
backwards. Under a lens the derm is seen to be roughened with 
numerous minute white or colourless specules, some of which give 
rise to fine short hairs — those on the dorsum black, the others 
colourless. The points of the posterior processes are tinged with 
pink. Spiracles minute, black. 

During development the caterpillars fed only at night. Tliey 
retired towards the roots of the plant at dayhght. 

January 8. — Two of the larvae have pupated. The chrysalis is 
of robust form ; the dorsum of the thorax strongly convex ; four 
prominent transverse ridges across dorsum of abdomen. The two 
pupae are dissimilar in colour. One is pale grayish-brown, faintly 
streaked and mottled with darker brown and purplish markings ; 
the abdominal ridge^ pale ochreous, bordered in front with dark 
brown ; a pale ochreous lateral stripe. The second is of a grass- 
green colour, mottled with blackish streaks and spots. 

January 19. — The butterflies have emerged, the total develop- 
mental period having occupied fifty- four days, of which seven were 
passed in the egg, thirty-six in the larval, and eleven in the pupal 
stages. 

(&) Curious minatory action of a harmless Snake. — A young 
example of Dipsas ceylonensis, in my vivarium, exhibits a curious 
action when handled or disturbed. The terminal 2 inches of its tail 
are vibrated rapidl_y in short spasms. This is probably a minatory 
action, and is suggestive of the vibration of the tail of the rattle 
snake of the Western Hemisphere. The genns Dipsas (or Dipsado- 
morphus) contains several species of tree snakes, all of which have 
a distinctly viperine appearance both in form and colouration, 
though they are really quite harmless. The fact that they have 
grooved fangs (though destitute of poison gland) suggests that they 
may have descended from a venomous ancestor ; and the habit of 
vibrating the tail noticed above rather strengthens tliis idea. 

(c) A living chain of Ants.— {January S.) — Mi-. T. Fetch has just 
drawn my attention to a living chain of "red ants" {Mcophylla 
smaragdina) spanning a gap 3 inches in extent between the leaf 
of a shrub occupied by the insects and a plant immediately below. 
When first observed the chain was some 3 insects thick and bifur- 
cated above, being supported at the upper extremity by two ants 
to each branch of the chain. These supports held on to the leaf by 
their feet, and each firmly held in its jaws the foot of one of the 
next links in the chain. These, in their turn, were gripped by 
the members below, and so on, until the base of the chain or 
column was hekl taut by the lowest members on the leaf below.' 
This hving chain was being utilized as a bridge, or rather ladder. 



54 SPOLIA ZHYLANICA. 

and other members of the cohniy were passing up and down over 
the bodies of their devoted comrades. Owing to a strong breeze, 
which swayed the branches of the shrub, the chain was kept under 
great tension. After about ten minutes it weakened, by the defection 
of some of its members, until it consisted of a series of six links, 
each represented by a single ant. These six insects held on pluckily 
for some minutes in spite of the increasing strength of the breeze. 
One member was held by the foot of the middle leg on each side ; 
another was gripped by one anterior and one posterior foot ; these 
two insects appeared to be in imminent danger of being torn 
asunder. The rupture finally occurred by the failure of the lowest 
members to retain their hold of the supporting leaf ; the chain 
swung up, and the component members scrambled over each other 
up to tlie leaf above. This chain must have been let down — link 
by link — from above, and indicates a remarkable degree of organi- 
zation amongst the members of the colony,, some of whom must 
have been deliberately told off for the purpose. 

(d) A case of Snake-bite. — Mx. P. C. Briscoe, of Columbia estate, 
Hewaheta, sends me particulars of a case of snake-bite. The 
snake, which was sent for identification, proved to be the small 
viper Ancistrodon hypnale, the bite of which has never been known 
to prove fatal to man. 

It appears that the cooly was bitten at 8.30 a.m. on the second 
finger of the right hand. His comrades tied a ligature above the 
elbow and sent the man down to the factory, where he was seen by 
the superintendent ten minutes later. He was very frightened, and 
was crying and trembling. There were two distinct punctures 
from which blood was oozing. The hand was bathed in a strong 
solution of permanganate of potash, the punctures were lanced 
with a penknife, and crystals of permanganate rubbed into the 
cuts, The man was then sent to the local dispenser, who again 
lanced the place and dressed it with boric acid. About three 
quarters of an hour after the infliction of the bite the cooly was 
given a wine-glassful of neat brandy. At 4 p.m. the hand and 
forearm were swollen, but the man was suffering no pain and 
complained of no other symptoms. By the next day he had 
apparently recovered completely. 

(e) Reproduction of Leaf-insects by Parthenogenesis. — I have long 
suspected that our common leaf -insect (PidchriphyUium crurifolium) 
can on occasion produce fertile eggs asexually. I have now 
proof of the fact. 

The Rev. L. Lacombe, of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly, tells 
me that tliree years ago he obtained eggs of the leaf-insect from 
Ceylon and reared them at Trichinopoly. The eggs produced 
females only, and these females laid fertile eggs, from which a second 



NOTES. 55 

generation of fertile females was raised. Tlie third generation 
proved to be sterile. No males appeared at all. 

(/) Homoptera Infested by Stylops. — A small Jassid {Thompsoni- 
ella arcuafa), abundant in the short grass outside my laboratory, 
is very commonly parasitized by a Stylopid insect, probably a 
species of Elenchu,s. I have been unable to breed out the adult 
male insect, but have extracted fairly perfect specimens by boiling 
the dead pupse in liquor potassse. I have seen as many as five of 
the parasites projecting from between the abdominal rings of the 
living Homopteron. The same jJarasite occasionally occurs upon 
other species of Jassidge in the same locality. 

(g) Hare attacked by Crow. — A curious incident was observed in 
these Gardens a few weeks ago. A full-grown hare was seen racing 
across the lawns, closely followed by a crow. The hare repeatedly 
dodged and doubled, but the crow — flying quite low — ^kept up with 
it, making repeated dabs at it with its beak. Eventually the 
pm'sued and pursuer disappeared round a corner, and the finish of 
the hunt was not observed. 

(h) An effective Butterfly Trap. — A large wire netting enclosure — 
originally designed as an aviary, but now unoccupied — is proving 
itself a very effective butterfly trap. For a few weeks, during the 
migrating season, many different kinds of butterflies entered through 
the open door and seemed incapable of finding their way out again. 
Each day fresh arrivals appeared, and remained there until captured 
and liberated. The most constant tenants have been Euplma 
asela, Danais aglea, Ornithoptera darsius, Papilio parinda, and P. 
polites. Smaller species also enter, but are able to make their way 
through the wire mesh. The height of the trapping season was at 
the end of May and early in June. Since tlie middle of June no 
further captures have been effected. The door was open towards 
the south-west, and the opposite side of |he enclosure was occupied 
by a blank whitewashed wall. 

(i) Characteristic odour of Leaf-cutting Bees. — I do not know if 
the peculiar odour of many species of Megachile (leaf -cutting bees) 
has ever been noticed or recorded in print. It is so distinctive that 
I could guarantee to recognize a freshly caught Megachile though 
blindfolded. It is a decidedly unpleasant smell, suggestive — more 
than anything else — of sour bile. 

(/) Food of the Reduviid Bug, Physorhynchus linnaei. — In Vol. 
III. (p. 159) of this Journal I gave an account of the slaughter of 
a large millipede by a comparatively small Reduviid bug. I have 
since had repeated evidence that this bug {Physorhynchus linncei) 
preys habitually upon millepedes. I have on several occasions 
seen the Reduviid perched upon the top of its recently vanquished 
victim, and its body distended with the blood of its prey. On 



56 SPOLIA ZBA'LANIOA. 

turning over a large stone I found a full-grown PhysorhyncJms 
surrounded by a perfect charnel-house of the remains of Polydes- 
midce, upon which it had been feeding. I have now in captivity 
two nymphs of this species, which attack, without hesitation, the 
largest sized millepedes that may be placed in their cage. The 
millipede is very quickly overcome, the poison injected by the bug 
having a rapidly paralysing action. I have just measured a 5J in. 
millipede that had been killed by a bug only three-quarters of an 
inch long. 

(k) The Call of the Green Grasshopper. — {June 24.) — I have just 
been watching a common green Locustariid emitting its call. The 
insect had flown into my room, attracted by the lamps, and was 
perched upon some cut flowers in a vase. I was able to approach 
quite close without distm'bing it. The call note may be written 
phonetically as " Tic-a-tic-tic-tic-tic-tic-tic-tic-zzeett," the final 
note drawn out, while the others were produced in a rapid staccato. 
At the commencement of the call the wings and elytra are a little 
raised and partially separated ; at each sharp note there is a sUght 
downward movement, and the final drawn-out "zzeett" is emitted 
as the wings are returned to their normal position. 

(l) Sudden appearance of an African Snail in Ceylon.— The East 

African snail, Achaiina fulica, seems destined, before long, to be 
distributed throughout the Oriental region. It has been established 
for many years in Mauritius ; and the progeny of a single pair 
known to have been introduced into Calcutta about fifty years 
ago are now said to have overrun the whole of Northern Bengal. 
This same snail has recently attracted attention in the neighbour- 
hood of Beruwala, in the Kalutara District. The fact that they are 
present in milhons shows that the introduction must date back 
for a considerable number of years, and it is extraordinary that a 
snail with a shell measuring 5 inches in length has not been noticed 
before. The recent heav^ rains have probably excited unusual 
activity amongst the snails, but they must have been in evidence 
on many previous occasions. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



^ 0% 



SAND-FLTES FROM PERADENIYA, 57 



"SAND-FLIES" (PHLEBOTOMUS) FROM PERADENIYA. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., 

Superintendent, Indian Museum. 
(With seven Text Figures.) 



jj^LIES of at least three families are commonly known in the 
-L East as sand-flies, viz., of the Chironomidse or true midges 
{Ceratopogon and its allies), the Sinmliidse {SimuKum, known as the 
" potu " fly in the Himalayas), and the Psychodidse, which are 
commonly called moth-flies on account of their relatively large hairy 
or scaly wings. The only genus of moth-flies that habitually sucks 
blood has received the appropriate na,m.e Phlebotomus , and includes 
the species most frequently called sand-flies, at any rate in the 
plains of India. 

Much evidence has lately been obtained by Grassi* and by the 
Austrian doctors Doerr, Franz, and Taussig f that fever of a type 
common in the East, J and known by various local names, is trans- 
mitted from man to man in the countries round the Mediterranean 
by Phlebotomus papatasi, a species which occurs in northern India, 
and also probably in Java. It is therefore important, not only 
from an entomological point of view, that the distribution of flies 
of the genus should be carefully studied. They may easily be 
recognized by their narrow, pointed, hairy wings, which are held in 
a semi-erect position when the animal is at rest, by their silvery 
sheen, and long slender legs. In general appearance and structure 
they are not unlike minute mosquitoes. The adults fly to light at 
night and rest during the day in dark corners in damp places, often 
in bathrooms. They have the unpleasant habit of biting one's 
ankles under the dinner table in the evening, and are said to crawl 
through mosquito nets and under bed clothes for a similar purpose. 
Tlie larvae § are peculiar little maggots with four very long bristles 
at their posterior extremity, and are found on the walls of latrines, 
among damp moss on stones, in damp earth, and probably in other 
situations abounding in moisture, but not actually aquatic. 

Specimens of the flies are best preserved in small tubes of spirit, 
but dried specimens packed not too tightly with tissue paper {not 

* Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. (iii.). XIV., p. 353 "(1907). 
t Das Pappatacifieber (Leipzig and Vienna, 1909). 
X See Wiraberley, Ind. Med. Gazette, XLV., No. 8, p. 281 (1910). 
§ See Hewlett's figure in Maxwell-Lefroy's "Indian Insect Life," p. 559 
(fig. 158). 

I 6(22)10 



58 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



cotton wool) ill pill boxes or match boxes are useful. I shall be glad 
to examine specimens sent to tlie Indian Museum, Calcutta. 




TI9L 




Fig. 1. — Wing of Culex (after Theobald). Fig. 2. — Wing oi Phlebotomus argentipea. 

c. , costal vein; s.c. , sub-costal; 1st to 6th, first to sixth longitudinal veins ; a, a', 
and a", incrassations (a' called by Austen the 6th vein, a" the 8th) ; y. , supernumerary 
cross- vein ; z. , mid cross-vein ; P. , posterior cross- vein ; A. , costal cell ; B. , subcostal 
cell; C, marginal cell; D., first siibmarginal cell; E. , second submarginal cell; F. , 
first posterior cell; G. , second posterior cell; J., third posterior cell; K., anal cell; 
H,, first basal cell; I., second basal cell; L., auxiliary; M., spurious cell. 

The most important specific characters reside in the venation of 
the wings, the structure and proportions "of the male genitalia, and 
the proportions of the various joints of the legs. Diagrams of the 
wing and of the external male genitalia are here produced by 
permission of the Trustees of the Indian Museum. Further parti- 
culars will be found in the " Records of the Indian Museum," 
Vol. IV., No. II. (1910). 

It has long been known that Phlebotomus occurred in Ceylon, but 
no specimens appear to have been identified specifically. In a 
small collection made at Peradeniya by Mr. E. E. Green and Mr. 
F. H. Gravely four species are represented, two of them aheady 



SAND -FLIES FROM PERADENIYA. 59 

known from many localities in India and two new to science. The 
four species may be distinguished as follows : — 

(1) The tip of the first longitudinal vein of the wing 

but little in advance of the anterior fork of 

the second longitudinal vein. 

(a) Colour silvery brown; the area of the 
wing paler than the anterior border ; the 
coxse yellowish ; the anterior branch of 
the second vein about twice as long as 
the distance between the two forks of 
tlie vein . . . . P. marginatus. 

(2) The tip of the first longitudinal vein far in 

advance of the anterior fork of the second. 

(a) Dorsal surface of the thorax dark brown, 
the sides yellow. The anterior branch 
of the second vein slightly longer than 
the distance between the two forks . . P. argentipes. 

(h) Thorax brown ; coxae yellowish ; the 
whole of the wings paler than the 
abdomen. The anterior branch of the 
second vein about five times as long as 
the distance between the two forks . . P. zeylanicvc 

(c) Colour uniform, dull yellowish gray. 
Wings very narrow ; the anterior 
branch of the second vein shorter than 
the distance between the two forks . . P. babu. 



i ""^^• 

i. 

" Diagram of the external male genitalia of Phlebotomus : u. , upper or 
superior appendage; ch., chsetse; f., genital filament; i. , intermediate append- 
age; P. , ^introraittent organ: s.l., subgenital lamella; L., lower or inferior 
appendage. 

Phlebotomus argentipes, Annandale and Brunetti. 
Rec. Ind. Mus., IV., p. 44, PI. IV., fig. 3; PI. VI., fig. 6. 
Several specimens of this common Indian species were taken at 
Peradeniya in Marcli, Jun<s and July. 



60 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Phlehotomus zeylanicus, sp. no v. 

o, o. Size and Proportions. — Total length of dried specimen about 
3 mm. Length of wing 3 mm. Hind leg more than two and a half 
times as long as the thorax and abdomen ; its femur less than 
three-quarters, but more than half as long as its tibia, slightly 
longer than the first joint of the tarsus, which is distinctly shorter 
than the three distal joints together. 




Fig. 4. — Ph. zeylanicus $ (enlarged). 

Colour. — Head, thorax, and abdomen brown, paler in the female 
than in the male ; coxse yellowish ; femora, tibia?, and tarsi silvery 
gray ; wings pale brownish-gray, uniform in colour. 




Fig. 5, — Wing of Ph. zeylanicus (enlarged). 

Wings. — Lanceolate, not very broad, with the two borders not 
unlike in curvature. The first longitudinal vein extends far forwards, 
overlapping the anterior branch of the second vein by more than 
three-quarters of its length. This branch is nearly five times as long 
as the distance between the two forks, which is much shorter than 



SAND-PLIES FROM PEBADENIYA. 61 

the distance between the posterior fork and the point at which the 
vein joins the third vein. The fork of the fourth vein is almost on a 
level with the posterior fork of the second. The course of the sixth 
vein, which bends down almost at an angle at the tip, is sinuous. 

Male Genitalia.— The distal joint of the superior appendage is 
slightly shorter, and much more slender than the proximal joint ; 
its outlines are somewhat sinuous, and it bears five long, stout, 
curved, sharp chseta?, which are arranged as follows :— A pair at the 
tip of the appendage, a pair on the outer margin at about half the 
length of the joint, and a single chseta on the inner margin nearer 
the base. The chaetse are equal^ or subequal. Tlie intermediate 
appendage (morphologically the lower branch of the superior one) 
is slender, pointed, and turned upwards at the tip. It bears a 
minute, pointed, naked lobe on its ventral surface, and a similar one 
on its external lateral surface. The inferior appendage is much 
longer than the proximal joint of the upper one ; it is slender as 
viewed from the side, and of almost uniform width; the tip is 
narrowly obliquely truncate, and bears a brush of very long and 
slender hairs ; the rest of the appendage is sparsely covered with 
rather shorter hairs, but there are no spines. 




Fig. 6. — Male genitalia of Ph. zeylanicus from the right side, x 75. 

The genitalia of this species closely resembles those of P. a,rcjentij)es , 
from which it is distinguished among other characters by the 
venation of the wing. The venation closely resembles that of 
P. malabaricus (from Travancore) and P. himalayensis , but the 
insect is paler than the former and darker than the latter species. 
Its genitalia are also very different from those of either. 

Several specimens of both sexes were taken at Peradeniya in May, 
June, July, and August. 

Phlebotomus babu, Annandale. 

't Hebotomus minutus, Rondani, Ann. Soc. Ent., France, 1843 (I.) 
p. 265, PI. X., lig. 4. 

Phlebotomus, sp., Howlett in Maxwell-Lefroy's " Indian Insect 
Life," p. 559, fig. 358. 

Phlebotomus babu, Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus., IV., p. 49, PI. IV., 
fig. 1 ; PI. VI., figs. 3, 3a (1910). 



62 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



This species, which is easily recognized by its small size (lengtli- 
about 1'5 mm.), narrow pointed wings, and pale grayish-yellow 
colour, is common all over the plains of India ; specimens have been 
taken recently by Major F. Wall, I. M.S., in Chitral in the Hindu 
Kush mountains. A specimen was obtained at Peradeniya in May. 

I have little doubt that my P. babu will ultimately prove synony- 
mous with " Hebotomus " mmutus. Rondani, but the original descrip- 
tion of the latter is very short and the figure clearly incorrect , and 
it is impossible , without examining European specimens , to be sure 
of the identity of the two " species." P. mimitus was found in 
Italy on the banks of the river Po^ 

PhUhotomus marginatus, sp. no v. 

o. Size and Proportions. — Total length of dried specimen about 
2-5 mm. Length of wing 2*5 mm. Hind leg less than two and a 
half times the length of the thorax and abdomen ; its femur about 
half as long as its tibia, of the same length as the first joint of the 
tarsus, which is equal in length to the three distal joints together. 

Colour.— Rather darker than that of P. zeylanicus, the costal 
border of the wings distinctly darker than their area. 




Fig. 7. — Wing of Ph. marginatus (enlarged). 

Wings. — ResembHng those of P. zeylanicus in shape, but longer. 
The first longitudinal vein only reaching forward for a short distance 
beyond the anterior fork of the second vein. The anterior branch 
of the latter about twice as long as the distance between the two 
forks, and approximately equal to the distance between the posterior 
fork and the point at which the vein joins the third. The fork of 
the fourth vein distinctly nearer the tip of the vein than the posterior 
fork of the second. 

Unfortunately I have only been able bo examine a single female, 
which was taken at Peradeniya in May, but the venation is so 
characteristic that the species must be distinct. The wmg resembles 
that of P. angustipennis , Meijere,* from Java, which maybe a form 
of P. papatasi, but the tip of the first longitudinal vein is nearer that 
of the anterior branch of the second, and the fly is larger, the latter 
not a point of much importance. Dr. de Meijere's description is 
unfortunately very short. 



Tijd. V. Ent., LII., p. 202., PI. XII., fig. 14 (1909). 



FRESH-WATER SPONGE AND TOLYZOON. 68 



NOTE ON A FRESH-WATER SPONGE AND 
POLYZOON FROIVI CEYLON. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., 

Superintendent, Indian Museum. 
(With Plate I.) 



OHORTLY before leaving Colombo Dr. A. Willey was kind 
enough to send me a fresh-water polyzoon that he had 
obtained from a pool on the roadside between Maradankadawala 
and Galapitagala, in the Nortli-Central Province of Ceylon, on 
February 18, 1909. 

At the base of the polyzoon is a minute sponge which represents 
a species widely distributed in the East, but only recognized as 
distinct in 1907, viz., my Spongilla proliferens* This sponge was 
originally described from Bengal, but is now known to occur in most 
parts of India and Burma, and has been found in Yunnan. The 
specimens recorded by Prof. Max Weber f from the Malay Archi- 
pelago as Spongilla cinerea, Carter, also belong to this species. The 
only fresh- water sponge hitherto recorded from Ceylon is Spongilla 
carteri,X from which S. proliferens may easily be distinguished by 
the fact that there are numerous Uttle pointed and spiny spicules 
free in its substance, and by the structure of the gemmule, which is 
covered with what appears to be a granular coat instead of the 
layers of cellular air spaces in which the gemmule of S. carteri 
is enclosed, and is armed with numerous little spined spicules. 
The sponge is of a brilMant green colour, and always small and very 
soft. S. proliferens may be distinguislied from S. lacustris, a race 
of which is common in Madras, by the fact that the aperture of its 
gemmule is provided with a small chitinous tube. 

The polyzoon itself, as Dr. Willey suggests, appears to be identical 
with the species I recently described as Pectinatella burmanica,^ 
but differs from that species in several features, probably due to 
environment. The genus Pectinatella consists of Phylactolsematous 
Polyzoa with horseshoe-shaped tentacular crowns and statoblasts 
(resting reproductive bodies) of large size, and entirely surrounded 
by little hooked processes. The individual colonies (zoaria) have a 

* Journ Asiat. Soc, Bengal, 1907, p. 15, fig. 1. 
t Zool. Eregeb. Niederl. Ost-Ind., Vol. I., p. 35. 
X Willey, Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. IV., p. 184. 
§ Rec. Ind. Mus.. Vol. IV., p. 56 (1910). 



64 SPOTJA ZEYLANTCA. 

strongly developed gelatinous investment or synoecium, and are 
bound together when fully adult in a gelatinous investing membrane. 
In this way gigantic compound colonies are sometimes formed. In 
a form allied to P. burmanica, namely, the Japanese P. gelatinosa, 
these compound colonies sometimes reach six feet in length, while 
those of P. burmanica, as it grows in the Sur lake in Orissa, are often 
more than two feet long and several inches thick. The statoblast 
of this species is nearly round, and its hooked processes are very 
short, only being visible under a high power of the microscope. 
Dr. Willey's specimens are peculiar, on account of their small size 
and of the relatively poor development of the synoecia. The 
compound colonies consist of only two or three zoaria each, and no 
zoariura measures more than 10 mm. in greatest diameter ; but 
compound colonies from Orissa often contain hundreds of zoaria, 
some of which measure over 20 mm. in diameter. The polyps of 
the Ceylon specimens are correspondingly small, and their zooecia 
(the cases in which the individual polyps reside) are much more 
distinct from one another than they are in Indian examples of the 
species. Probably these differences are due to differences in 
nutrition. 

The only fresh-water polyzoon hitherto recorded from Ceylon is a 
Phimatella from Colombo, identified by Apstein* as P. princeps, 
Krsepelin (? P. emarginata, Allman), a cosmopolitan species or 
rather group of species common in India. 



Explanation of the Plate. 

Fig. 1. — Gemmule of Spongilla carteri, x 140. 

Fig. 2. — Gemmule of S. proUf evens, X 140. 

Fig. .3. — Stsitoblast oi Pectinatella burmanica, X 70. 3a. — Part of 
the edge of the same, X 240. 

Fig. 4. — Free statoblast of Plumatella, sp., x 70. 



Zool. Jahrb. (Systematic Part), p. 233, 1907. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA, Vol. VII, Pt. XXVI. 



PI. I. 





1X14.0. 




-2X140. 



3x70, 




"^XJO. 



A. C. Chowdhary, ilcl. 




3ax24o. 

Engraved & pi-inted at the Offices of the Survey of India, Calcutta, :910. 



Freshwater Sponges & Polyzoa of Ceylon. 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 65 



ON SOME PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 

By C. Clifford Dobell, 

Fellow of Trinity College, Oambridje; Lecturer in Protistology and Cytology 
at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. S.W. 

(With Plato II.) 



CONTENTS. 
Introduction. /^ ■ 

Record of Aninaals examined, with Results and ,C&rhments, 
Descriptions of some new Forms. (c^ 

Concluding Remarks. 
Literatiire References. 
Description of Plate. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE following pages are the outcome of a recent visit wliicli I 
made to Ceylon whilst holding the Balfour Studeiitsliip of 
Cambridge University. During my stay in the Island, which 
dated from the beginning of July until the end of September, I 
examined a number of animals from various parts of the country, 
with a view to discovering parasitic Protozoa. A good deal of my 
work was attended with entirely negative results, though a certain 
number of new forms were found, which are here recorded. Both 
negative and positive results, however, are given in the following 
pages, in order to assist future workers who may take up the 
investigation of Ceylon Protozoa. 

The work was carried out chiefly in the laboratory attached to 
the Museum at Colombo, in the laboratory at the Botanic Gardens, 
Peradeniya, and in the resthouse at Trincomalee. 

I wish here to offer my warmest thanks to those who have helped 
me, in one way or another, in my work — especially to Mr. E. E. 
Green, Government Entomologist, and to Mr. R. H. Lock, Acting 
Director of the Botanic Gardens, for their assistance during my stay 
in Peradeniya ; and to Dr. Willey, the late Director of the Colombo 
Museum, for his unfailing aid and kindness throughout my visit. 
Though the results of my work here recorded are inconsiderable, 
they would have been far less but for Dr. Willey's assistance. His 
extensive knowledge of the fauna of Ceylon, and his untiring zeal 
in obtaining m£,terial for me, proved of incalculable value. What- 
ever merit attaches to the results here set forth is due in a large 

K 6(22)10 



66 RPOTJA ZEYLANTf'A. 

measure to Dr. Willey's enthusiastic collaboration. I am glad 
to have this opportunity of thanking him once more, and of 
acknowledging my great indebtedness to him. , 

This paper was completed, after working through a part of the 
material which I brought back to England, at the Imperial College 
of Science and Technology, London, S.W. 

I have divided the account of my work into two main parts : — 

(1) A record, with notes, of the animals examined ; and 

(2) A description of some new forms which I found in the 

course of examining these animals. 



I.— RECORD OF ANIMALS EXAMINED, WITH 
RESULTS AND COMMENTS. 

A. Record of Animals whose Blood was examined for Protozoa. 

Fishes. 

With the exception of Saccohranchus fossilis, all the seven species 
of fresh-water fisli, whose blood I was able to examine, proved 
negative. 

A. — Infected. 

1. Saccohranchus fossilis. — The record of the examination of the 
blood of this species is as follows : — 

One individual from Colombo lake (part not recorded) (July). 
Blood negative. Twelve specimens from Colombo lake (Hunu- 
pitiya and Kollupitiya) (Sept.). Blood of all negative. 

Four specimens from Nugegoda (Sept.). Blood negative. 

Two specimens from Fort side of Colombo lake (Sept.). Both 
infected with trypanosomes. (See comments below.) 

B. — Not infected. 

2. Anabas scandens. -One individual, Colombo (July). 

3. Clarias magur. — One individual, Colombo (Sept.). 

4. Etroplus suratensis. — Two individuals, Colombo lake (Sept.). 

5. Gobius giuris. — Four specimens, Colombo lake (Sept.). 

6. Ophiocephalus punctatus. — Two specimens, Colombo (Sept.). 

7. Ophiocephalus striatus. — A single individual, Colombo (Sept.). 

Comments. — The trypanosome found in Saccohranchus is that 
already described by Castellani and Willey (1904) under the name 
Trypanosoma saccohranchi. For the benefit of future workers who 
may seek this trypanosome, I would call attention to the curious 
distribution which it seems to Jiave in the fishes of the Colombo 
lake. My experience indicates that only those fisli taken from 
the Fort side of the lake are infected. 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYT.ON. 67 

Castellani and Willey also failed to find trypanosomes in the 
blood of Ophiocephalus striatus, though they note that Lingard 
found trypanosomes in this species in India. 

The same observers also record a trypanosome as occurring in 
the blood of Gobius giuris, although — as recorded above — the four 
individuals of this species which I examined proved negative. 

Castellani and Willey also record a trypanosome from Macrones 
cavasius, a Silurid. 

Amphibians. 

The common frog, Rana tigrina, is the only amphibian in which 
I have found blood parasites. 

A. — Infected. 

1. Eana tigrina.— My records are as follows : — Two individuals 
(Colombo, July), both infected with trypanosomes and hsemo- 
gregarines. One individual (Colombo, July) infected with lisemo- 
gregarines only. Two individuals (Colombo, Aug.), blood negative. 
One very young specimen (Peradeniya, Aug.), blood negative. 
Two individuals (Colombo, Sept.), blood of both negative. 

B. — Not infected. 

2. Bufo melanostictus. — Three individuals (Colombo, July). 
One young individual (Peradeniya, Aug.). 

3. Ixalus leucorrhinus. — A single specimen from Peradeniya 
(Aug.). 

4. Ehacophorus rnaculatus. — One individual from Peradeniya 
(Aug.) and one from Trincomalee (Sept.). 

Comments. — Castellani and Willey examined R. tigrina, with 
negative results. The parasites which I encountered are therefore 
recorded for the first time from Ceylon frogs. I have little doubt 
that the hsemogregarine which I found in R. tigrina is the same as 
that described from this species in Bombay by Berestneff (1903), 
and named Hcemogregarina herestneffi by Castellani and Willey 
(1905).* I encountered intracorpuscular individuals of various 
forms and sizes, many of them showing the characteristic pink- 
staining sheath described by Berestnefi'. In addition to these forms , 
there were also many free gregariniform individuals in the blood 
plasma. These were actively motile. I several times observed 
small forms enter red blood corpuscles. They did this by boring 
directly into the corpuscle, very much in the way described by 
Schaudinn (1903) in the case of the sporozoites of Plasmodium 
vivax, but the time taken was very different, as entry was effected 
in a few minutes. Occasionally, the animal, after reaching the 
inside of the corpuscle, rested for a few minutes and then wriggled 

* Patton (1908) states that he has " had the opportunity of stvidying no 
less than five hsemogregarine? in Rana tigrina and Rana kexadactyla, not only 
in the frogs, but in the leech wliich transmits them." 



68 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

its way out again into the blood plasma. The curious method of 
entry by being engulfed by the corpuscle — recently described in 
detail by Neresheimer (1909) in Lankesterella — I never saw. 

Figures of some of the forms of the hsemogregarine encountered 
are given in Plate II., figs. 3-8. 

Berestneff also recorded a trypanosome from the Indian frogs. 
No name was given to it , and as I believe other observers have also 
seen this same parasite, which is probably the same as the one I 
found in Ceylon, I have contented myself with a brief description 
and figure of the organism, without bestowing a new name upon it. 
(See p. 74.) 

Reptiles. 

I had opportunities of examining the blood of a number of 
different reptiles, including crocodiles, tortoises, lizards, and snakes. 
The results obtained are as follows : — 

Crocodiles. 

I was able to examine the blood of two crocodiles, Crocodilus 
■porosus. The first, a small specimen from Dadugan-oya, Veyangoda 
(July), contained a haemogregarine. (See p. 79.) The second, a very 
young individual from Ja-ela, near Colombo (Sept.), was negative. 

No hcjemogregarines have been described from Ceylon crocodiles 
before, though several other crocodiles from other parts of the 
world have been found to harbour these parasites. (See p. 79.) 

Tortoises. 
The three following species of tortoise were examined :— 

1 . Emyda vittata. — Of five specimens examined in Colombo (July) , 
the presence of trypanosomes could be demonstrated in only one 
individual, and in very small numbers. 

2. Nicoria trijuga. — Three individuals from Colombo lake (July) : 
one heavil}'' infected with heemogregarines, one slightly infected, 
and one in which no parasites could be detected. 

3. Testudo elegans. — Two individuals from Sigiriya (Sept.) 
showed no blood parasites. 

Comments. — The trypanosome found in Emyda vittata is that 
ah-eady described by Miss Robertson under the name T. vittatce 
[Robertson (1908) and (1909)]. The hsemogregarine from Nicoria is 
H. nicoricB (Castellani and Willey, 1904). 

Lizards. 

Examination of the blood of twelve species of Lacertilia gave the 
following results : — 

A. — Infected. 

1. Hemidactylus leschenaultii. — At Trine omalee (Sept.) nearly 
every individual examined was infected with Hcemocystidium 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 69 

simondi, Castellani and Willey. Some individuals harboured try- 
panosonies and haeniogregarines in addition. A single specimen 
from Hab ,rana (Aug.) was infected with trypanosomes. (See 
remarks below.) 

B. — Not infected. 

2. Ccdotes ophiomachus. — Eight individuals (Colombo, July). 

3. Calotes versicolor. — Twenty-five specimens from Colombo 
(July) and one from Peradeniya (Aug.). 

4. Ceratophora stoddartii. — Three individuals (Peradeniya, Sept .) . 

5. Hemidactylus depressus. — Six individuals (Trincomalee, 
Sept.). 

6. Hemidactylus freTiatus. — A single specimen (Trincomalee, 
Sept.). 

7. Hetnidactylus triedrus. — One individual from Colombo (Aug.), 
one from Peradeniya (Aug.), and two from Trincomalee (Sept.). 

8. Lygosoma punctatum. — Five specimens (Peradeniya, Aug.). 

9. Lyriocephalus scutatus. — Three specimens (Peradeniya, Aug.). 

10. Mabuia carinata. — Three individuals from Colombo (July) , 
two from Peradeniya (Aug.), one from Colombo (Sept.), and one 
from Peradeniya (Sept.). 

11. Sitana ponticeriana. — One individual (Trincomalee, Sept.). 

12. Varanus bengalensis. — -A single specimen (Trincomalee, 
Sept.). 

Comments. — It is curious to find that all the lizards — geckoes 
excepted— harbour no blood Protozoa. In Europe and in Africa 
(c/., for example, Wenyon's recent work, 1908rt) the lizards are 
frequently infected with heemogregarines, but Asiatic lizards appear 
to be muc£ less frequently so. The absence of Protozoa in the blood 
of Indian lizards was remarked by Berestneff (1903). Since then 
Minchin (1907) has described a haemogregarine {H. thomsoni) from 
a Himalayan lizard {Agama tuberculaia) , but facts with regard to the 
infection of other Asiatic lizards are extremely scanty. 

Hcemocystidium simondi, which I found in the Trincomalee 
specimens of Hemidactylus lescheiiaultii , was discovered and described 
by Castellani and Willey (190i), and has since been observed by 
Miss Robertson (1908). I was fortunate enough to be able to work 
out a part of the life-cycle of this organism, the description of 
which I shall publish elsewhere. 

The trypanosomes which I found were those described by Miss 
Robertson (1908) as T. leschenaultii. Another form which she 
observed in H. leschenaultii and H. triedrus, and named by her 
T. pertenue, I never encountered. 

It is perhaps worthy of comment that I have — in common with 
previous workers — never found Protozoa in the blood of Hemi-, 
dactylus depressus, although it lives in the jungle in company with 
the infected geckoes. 



70 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA, 

Filarioi were found in the blood of several Calotes versicolor. 
These have already been described by Castellani and Willey. I found 
a similar Filar ia in the blood of the Varanns from Trincomalee. 

Miss Robertson (1908) apparently also found no Protozoa in the 
blood of most Ceylon lizards, for she says: "The common Calotes 

and the beautiful Brahminy lizard and the skink and the 

horned up-country lizard were all negative, so also the common 
little house gecko who lives on the wall and eats flies." 

Snakes. 

I have been able to examine sixteen different species of snakes. 
As I hope shortly to describe in detail the results of my investigations 
into the life-histories of the hsemogregarines of Ceylon snakes, I 
will here give merely a brief record of my observations : — 

A. — Injected. 

1. Dipsadomorphus forstenii. — Blood containing hsemogregarines 
in large numbers. A single individual (Colombo, Aug.). 

2. Dipsadomorphus ceylonensis.— One individual, slightly in- 
fected with hsemogregarines (Peradeniya, Aug.). 

3. Dryophis mycterizans. — The green whip snake was found to 
harbour a h^mogregarine (though not invariably) at Colombo 
(Aug.) and Peradeniya (Sept.). A single individual examined at 
Trincomalee (Sept.) was negative. 

4. Naia tripudians. — A single cobra (Peradeniya, Sept.) was 
infected with hsemogregarines. 

5. Tropidonotus stolatus. — Out of four individuals examined, two 
showed no blood parasites (Peradeniya, Aug. ; Trincomalee, Sept.). 
One individual (Colombo, July) had spirochsets in its blood. (See 
p. 77.) One individual (Peradeniya, Aug.) was infected with 
trypanosomes (see p. 77) and hsemogregarines. 

6. Zamenis mucosus. — Rat snakes were always infected with 
hsemogregarines at Colombo (Aug.) and Peradeniya (Aug.). One 
individual examined at Trincomalee (Sept.) was not infected. 

B. — Not infected. 

7. Ancistrodon hypnale. — Two indiviauals from Hakgala (Sept.) 
and one from Kandy (Sept.). 

8. Cerherus rJiynchops. — One individual from Negombo (Sept.) 
and two from Colombo (Sept.). 

9. Dendrelaphis tristis ( = Dendrophis pictus). — Two from Sigiriya 
(Sept.), one from Trincomalee (Sept.), and one from Peradeniya 
(Sept.). 

, 10. Helicops schistosus.— Two specimens : one small (Colombo, 
Aug.), the other very large (Colombo, Sept.). 

11. Hydrus platurus. — A single specimen (Colombo, July). 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLOiV. 71 

12. Lycodon aulicus. — A single young individual (Colombo, 
Aug.). 

13. Oligodon sublineatus. — Four individuals from Peradeniya 
(Aug. and Sept.). 

14. Python reticulatus* — A single snake caught in Colombo 
(July). 

15. Tropidonotus asperrimus ( = T. piscator). — One individual 
from Colombo (Aug.), five from Trincomalee (Sept.), and four from 
Colombo (Sejit.). 

16. Viper russelUi. — A single young specimen (Peradeniya, 
Sept.). 

Comments. — Haemogregarines have not been previously recorded 
from Dipsadomorphus forstenii or from D. ceylonensis. Hsemogre- 
garines are recorded already from Zemanis 7nucosus and Dryophis 
mycterizans in India by Patton (1908), and from Z. mucosus in Ceylon 
by Miss Robertson (1908). The latter also found haemogregarines 
in three other Ceylon snakes : Ckrysopelea ornata, Naia tripudians, 
and " a large python." 

A haemogregarine has been described from Naia tripudians by 
Simond (1901), Laveran (1902), and Patton (1908). Patton (1908) 
gives a list of eleven Indian species of snake which harbour haemo- 
gregarines. 

I did not succeed in finding Hmmogregarina mirahilis (Castellani 
and Willey) in Tropidonotus asperrimus. 

Birds. 

The only bird I examined was a kingfisher shot at Peradeniya. 
No Protozoa were found in its blood. Castellani and Willey (1905) 
record Hcemoproteus {Halteridium) from the blood of crows {Corvus 
splendens and C. macrorhynchus) , from the babbler {Crateropus 
striatus), and from the owl {Scops bakkamoena). 

Mammals. 

I examined very few mammals. None showed Protozoa in the 

blood. 

Uninfected. 

1. Funambulus palmarum. — A single individual (Colombo, July). 

2. Lepus nigricollis. — One young individual (Peradeniya, Sept.). 

3. Pteropus medius.—A single specimen (Peradeniya, Sept.). 

4. Tragulus meminna. — Two individuals (Colombo, Aug.). A 
peculiarity in the blood corpuscles of these animals seems worthy of 
record. It was found that, although the leucocytes are large, the 
red corpuscles are extremely small. In fact, I have never encoun- 
tered such small erythrocytes in any animal before. In T. meminna 
they have a diameter of only about 2 • 5 ^. 

* This, of course, is not a native Ceylon snake. It is not known how it 
came to be in Colombo, 



72 SPOLIA ZBYLANTCA. 



B.— Record of Animals examined for Intestinal Protozoa. 

An examination of the alimentary canal of various animals was 
undertaken, in addition to the examination of the blood just recorded. 
Below are the results. The animals examined were few compared 
with those in which a blood examination was made. 



Amphibia. 

1. Bufo melanostictus. — I examined the contents of the large 
intestine in a few individuals both at Colombo and at Peradeniya. 
In all the animals examined both Trichomonas and Trichomastix 
were found. These animals were indistinguishable from Tricho- 
monas hatrachorum and Trichomastix batrachorum which occur in the 
European frogs and toads. As I have given a detailed description 
of these forms elsewhere (Dobell, 1909), I will say no more about 
them here. 

A flagellate, which appeared to be identical with the Octomitus of 
the English frog, was also found (c/. Dobell, 1909). 

In one B. melanostictus from Peradeniya a new species of Nycto- 
fherus was present. (See p. 75.) 

2. Ixalus hucorhinus.—A single individual examined in Pera- 
deniya appeared to have absolutely no Protozoa of any sort in its gut. 

3. Eana tigrina.—Individnals were examined both in Colombo 
and in Peradeni3''a. The following Protozoa were found : — 

In the large intestine : — An Entamceba, indistinguishable from 
E. ranarum, Grassi (c/. Dobell, 1909) : three flagellates — Tricho- 
monas, Trichomastix , and Octomitus — which appear to be identical 
with the corresponding organisms in Rana temporaria in Europe 
(c/. Dobell, 1909) : the following Ciliata .^Opalina, a small 
multinucleati species, which was not examined in stained prepara- 
tions ; large and small Balantidium (see p. 74) ; and Nyctotherus 
macropharyngeus (Bezzenberger, 1904). At Peradeniya the oocysts 
of a coccidian (?) were found. (An examination of the epithelium 
of the small intestine proved negative.) 

In the duodenum : — Balantidium, sp. (See p. 74.) 

4. Rhacophorus maculatus .— Hhis animal was found (Peradeniya) 
to harbour an Opalina and a Nyctotherus, both apparently new. 
(See pp. 76 and 75.) The latter appears to be the same as that 
found in Bujo melanostictus from the same locality.' 

Remarks. — No intestinal Protozoa seem to have been described 
from Ceylon frogs and toads hitherto, though Bezzenberger (1904) 
has described a number of ciliates from various " Asiatic " Anura 
(localities not given). Further remarks upon the intestinal Protozoa 
of Amphibia will be found on p. 74. 



parasitic protozoa from ceylon. 73 

Lizards. 

1. Hemidactylus leschenaultii. — One specimen (Habarana) had 
Trichomonads, and another undetermined flagellate in the large 
intestine. These were not studied further. 

2. Lygosoma 'punctatum. — Several animals were examined at 
Peradeniya, but no Protozoa were found in the gut. 

3. Lyriocephalus scutatus. — One individual examined at Pera- 
deniya. Beyond the spores of a coccidian (?) nothing was found. 
(Epithelium of small intestine negative.) 

4. Mahuia carinata. — All the individuals examined were found 
to harbour both Trichomastix and Trichomonas. (See p. 77.) 

Snakes. 

I examined only three snakes for intestinal Protozoa : — Zamenis 
mucosus and Lycodon aulicus were both negative ; Dryophis 
mycterizans, however, contained Trichomonas and a Trichomastix, 
which closely resembled the organism which I have already described 
from Boa constrictor (Dobell, 1907). I did not make a careful study 
of these organisms. 

Mammals. 

At the instigation of Dr. Willey I made an examination of the 
contents of the stomach of the two mouse deer {Tragulus meminna), 
which came into my hands at Colombo. In both animals the 
stomach was literally seething with oligotrichous ciliates, belonging 
to the family Ophryoscolecidse, Stein. 

These ciliates were discovered by Dr. Willey, but have not as yet 
been described. At his suggestion I preserved a quantity of the 
organisms, of which I hope to publish a full description shortly. 

Molluscs. 

Whilst at Trincomalee, in September, I examined eight species 
of lamellibranchs, in order to find out whether they harboured 
spirochsets. These organisms were found in the crystalline style of 
only two species : Venus (Meretrix) casta and Soletellina acuminata. 

Dr. Willey had previously noticed spirochaets in these two species, 
but had not described them. I hope to publish a full account of 
my observations on these organisms shortly. 

Arthropods. 

I examined several specimens of the large scorpion, Palamnceus 
Indus, in Colombo (July), all with negative results so far as Protozoa 
were concerned. 

Six individuals of the common myriopod, Polydesmus saussurii, 
Humb., collected at Avisawella in July, also showed no Protozoa, 
though all were infected with a nematode worm, an Oxyuris or 
allied genus. 

L 6(22)10 



74 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Another myrio^od, Spirostreptus lunelii, Humb.,from Avisawella 
(July), also proved negative. 

Some ■white ants, Calotermes militaris, from Peradeniya (August), 
were more interesting. They contained Trichonymphids, a Nycto- 
heruS; and a spiroehset, all apparently new. (See p. 80.) 



II.— DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW FORMS. 

In this part of the paper some of the now, or hitherto undoscribed, 
forms which are recorded in the preceding section are described in 
greater detail. 

The Parasites of Frogs and Toads. 

I have already noted the presence of a hsemogregarine in the 
blood of Rana tigrina (p. 67). As I have already remarked, it seems 
to be identical with H. berestnefp, of the Indian frog. There is only 
one other blood parasite which I have to describe. 

(1) Trypanosoma, sp., of Rana tigrina. 

This organism resembles the more slender forms of T. rotatorium 
of the European frog. When living the posterior end is bluntly 
pointed, and the animal usually has a ribbed appearance like that 
of T. rotatoriucm, but the ribs are only one or two in number 
(c/. fig. 12). There is a well-developed undulating membrane 
extending about halfway along the organism and ending in a free 
flagellum of moderate length (c/. fig. 12). The trophic nucleus 
is ovoid, and situated near the anterior end. The kinetic nucleus is 
a small deeply-staining granule about midway between the trophic 
nucleus and the extreme posterior end. 

Like T. rotatorium, this trjrpanosome is difficult to fix in blood 
smears. Most of the stained specimens which I oblair.<^d wore 
badly distorted. Fig. 12 is drawn from one of the most favourable 
fixed and stained animals which I encountered, but it makes the 
animal appear a good deal stouter than it appears when alive. 

The average length of the trj'panosome, so far as I have been able 
to determine from the few well-preserved specimens which I obtained 
in my preparations, is between 30 \x and 40 \^., including the free 
flagollum. 

BALANTIDroM. 

As already recorded,- I found species of Balantidium inhabiting 
the duodenum and the largo intestine of Rana tigrina. 

(2) Balantidium ovale, n. sp. 

This name I propose for the common species of Balantidium which 
occurs in the large intestine of R. tigrina. The animal is very like 
several other species already described. It differs from B. helence, 
Bezzenberger , only in size. Bezzenberger describes this species as 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 75 

occurring in R. tigrina, B. cyanophlyctis , B. limnocharis , and i?. 
hexadactyla, but he does not state from what parts of Asia the frogs 
came. He gives 110 ^ X 60 ^ as the average dimensions. The 
average size of my forms, however, is about 80 {x X 50 ^. Apart 
from this, Bezzcnboi'gor's description of B. helen'xi applies equally 
well to B. ovale. The peristome has the same form, the mcganuclous 
is kidney-shaped, lying posteriorly, with the micronucleus in the 
hollow. I have omitted to figure the organism, as Bezzenbergor's 
figure of B. helence is almost identical. 

I found numerous animals undergoing division, and also found 
encysting and encysted forms. These present no essential differ- 
ences from what has already been described in other members of 
the genus. The cysts are ovoid, and measure ca. 54 jji, X 44 [x. 

In addition to the large forms just described, I found numerous 
smaller forms — also dividing actively — which were identical in every 
way except in size. They were only about two-thirds the size of 
the larger animals. Whether these represent another species or not, 
I am unable to decide. 

(3) Balantidium hyalinum, n. sp. 

I propose this name for the organism which occurs in the duode- 
num of B. tigrina. It does not differ markedly from other duodenal 
forms, namely, B. duodeni, Stein (in Bana esculenta and B. tempo- 
raria) , and B. roiundum, Bezzenberger (in B. esculenta, var. chinensis). 
It is often present in large numbers in the small intestine, and when 
alive its protoplasm is more hyaline than that of any other Balan- 
tidium which I have seen. 

The organism (fig. 19) is oval, with a straight mouth extending 
almost to the middle of the body. The moganucleus is posteriorly 
placed, and is ovoid. The micronucleus can nearly always be seen 
at one end of the meganucleus, not in the middle (c/. fig. 19). 
There is one contractile vacuole. In the anterior region the curious 
striated or granular triangular area, which is characteristic of 
B. duodeni and JB. rotundum, is usually clearly seen (see fig. 19). 
As in these forms also, the cilia are long and well developed over 
the whole body. The average dimensions are ca. 74 [j, X 56 ^Ji.- 

(A curiously long and slender form has been described by Bezzen- 
berger — under the name B. gracilis — from the small intestine of 
Bana hexadactyla and B. cyanophlyctis.) 

Nyctotheeus. 
In addition to Nyctotherus macropharyngeus , Bezzenberger,* 
which I found in B. tigrina in Colombo, I found a species of 
Nyctotherus in Bujo melanosticius and Bhacophorus maculatus at 
Peradeniya. It appears to be the same species in both hosts, and 
I propose to name it — - 

* This is a very large species. Its most striking feature is its very long and 
spirally wound pharynx. 



76 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

(4) Nyctotherus papillatus, n. sp 

The animal has the usual reniform appearance chai:acteristic of 
the genus. Those taken from the large intestine of B. melanostictus 
measured ca. 120 ^ in length, whilst those from E. maculatus were 
distinctly larger, the largest attaining a length of 170 \x. In other 
respects they were identical. 

The pharynx extends to the median line, is sharply curved into an 
almost perfect semi-circle, and has a well-marked spiral twist. The 
anus opens just dorsally to a well-marked papilla at the extreme 
posterior end of the animal. There is one contractile vacuole, 
situated close to the anus. The meganucleus is in the usual position 
anteriorly, but appears to be reniform or horseshoe-shaped, with 
the ends directed ventrally, so that it appears to be ovoid when 
seen from the side. A micronucleus was not always seen, but 
was sometimes visible lying on the meganucleus. 

A curious little diverticulum of the pharynx just at its point of 
junction with the mouth was nearly always observable. It passes 
dorso-posteriorly for a very short distance, and then appears to end 
blindly. I have never seen this curious little structure in other 
species of the genus. 

Opalesta. 

Bana tigrina, as I have already noted, was found to harbour a 
multinucleate species of Opalina, which I observed in the living 
state only. A pretty species of Opalina was found in Ehacophorus 
maculatus at Peradeniya, and I was able to study it more carefully. 
As it seems to be new I propose the name — 

(5) Opalina virgula, n. sp. , 
for the organism. Its characteristics are as follows. The general 
shape of the body is that of a large flattened comma ; that is to say, 
there is a large bulge on one side anteriorly (see fig. 17). It thus 
resembles 0. obtrigona, (parasitic in the European tree frog Hyla 
arhorea) more closely than any other of the dozen or so species of 
Opalina hitherto described.* Some of the individuals are long and 
slender, and others are stouter and more rounded, but all have this 
general appearance. The body is flattened, i.e., elliptical in trans- 
verse section, and the cilia are distributed over the body in lines, as 
in other species. Large individuals may .measure 170 ^Ji, or rather 
over, in length, and 50 ^ in breadth at the broadest part of the 
anterior end. 

The animal is multinucleate. All the nuclei in my preparations 
(picro-acetic acid, Dulafield's hsematoxylin) appear as rather loose 
masses of chromatin granules (see fig. 17). Other slightly stained 
bodies are also present in the endoplasm. They appear to be the 
bodies which Metcalf calls "endosarc spherules," and which occur 
in other Opalince. 



Of. Metoalf s (1909) recent monograph on the genus. 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 77 

In company with these larger forms were a number of smaller 
forms. These I take to be young forms. They are the shape of a 
flattened spindle, and contain few nuclei (see fig. 18). Possibly 
they are organisms which are on their way to encystment. The 
small form figured (fig. 18) measured 38 ^ X 13 ^. 

Bezzenberger (1904) has described Opalinoe from Biifo melanos- 
tictus, Rana cyanophlyctis , E. limnocharis, R. hexadactyla, and 
R. esculenta, var. chinensis, but he does not state from what part of 
Asia these animals came. 

Intestinal Parasites of Lizards. 

Parasitic flagellates were found in the gut in only two lizards : 
Hemidactylus leschenauUii and Mabuia carinata. Both these hosts 
contained both Trichomonas and Trichomastix , but a careful study 
was made of those in Mabuia only. 

( Trichomonas mabuice, n. sp. 
( Trichomastix mabuice, n. sp. 

I have elsewhere described (Dobell, 1909) in detail the structure 
of Trichomonas and Trichomastix batrachorum. The two organisms 
from Mabuia have a structure which is exactly similar. My chief 
reason for noting these organisms here is that they furnish a striking 
confirmation of what I have already described in the structure of 
the frog and toad parasites. 

Trichomonas mabuice (fig. 11) attains a length of 30 \^, and it is 
quite eas}^ to observe in the living animal, under an oil immersion, 
all the details of structure which I have already described in the 
much smaller T. batrachorum. Structures which, in the latter, 
were frequently only made out in stained preparations, and with 
considerable difficulty, can be seen in T. mabuia; with the greatest 
clearness. The relations of the nucleus, axostyle, blepharoplast, 
and undulating membrane are exactly as I have already described 
them. To describe the forms from Mabuia would be merely 
to repeat what I have already written. I will therefore content 
myself with figuring Trichomonas mabuice, and would refer any one 
interested in the structure of these organisms to my earlier paper. 

The Parasites of Tropidonotus stolatus. 

As recorded on p. 70, I found three parasites in the blood of this 
snake: a hsemogregarine, a spirochaet, and a trypanosome. The 
last two are new ; the first is probably the same as the " Danilew- 
skya" described in T. stolatus from Tonkin by Billet (1895). [Cf. 
also Dobell (1908).] 

(1) Trypanosoma tropidonoti , n. sp. " 
I propose to give this name to the new trypanosome which I 
found in the blood of a T. stolatus at Peradeniya (see figs. 13, 14). 



78 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

When observed in the fresh blood of the snake the organism 
exhibited no characteristics which would distinguish it readily from 
many other trypanosomes. It was actively motile, with a short free 
flagellum terminating the undulating membrane, which extended 
along about half the length of the body. The posterior (aflagellar) 
half of the body was drawn out to a sharp point. Though the 
trophic nucleus was easily visible in the living animal, the kinetic 
nucleus was observed only after staining. The cytoplasm was finely 
granular in appearance and uniform throughout. 

In smears stained by Giemsa's method, the following structure 
was observable (see figs. 13, 14) : — 

The body is sharply pointed at both ends, with the trophic 
nucleus lying near the middle as a homogeneous pink mass of 
granules. The flagellum and undulating membrane appeared the 
same as in the fresh preparations, but the kinetic nucleus, with the 
origin of the membrane, &c., could now be made out accurately. 
The kinetic nucleus itself is a small granule staining a deep purple 
with Giemsa's stain. It is remarkable on account of its position. 
Sometimes it was situated well behind the trophic nucleus (fig. 13), 
but at other times it was placed actually in contact with it (fig. 14). 
Intermediate positions were also seen. The latter arrangement, i.e., 
in contact with the trophic nucleus, gives the animal an appearance 
suggesting an organism which is halfway between a Crithidia and a 
Trypanosoma. The average length of the organism (including the 
free flagellum) is 30 ^-40 [i.. 

So far as I am aware, only two trypanosomes have been recorded 
from snakes hitherto : 3\ erythrolampri (Wenyon, 1908) from 
Erythrolam'prus asculapii (tropical America), and T.nai(je (Wenyon, 
1908a) from Naia nigricolUs (Africa). Only one of these was satis- 
factorily investigated as regards its nuclear apparatus (T. erythro- 
lampri), and it is a curious fact that it shows the same peculiarity 
which I have pointed out above in the case of T. iropidonoti. The 
two organisms are, in fact, very closely similar in other respects 
also. 

Another trypanosome in which the kinetic and trophic nuclei are 
in close proximity has recently been described — under the name 
T. pertenue — by Miss Robertson (1908) from the blood of the Ceylon 
geckoes, Hemidactylus triedrus and H. leschenaultii. 

(2) Spirochoeta tropidonoti, n. sp. 

This is the first record of a spirochset from the blood of a snake. 
It is therefore much to be regretted that my observations on it are 
exceedingly scanty. 

Only a single T. stolatus was found harbouring the organism. In 
the fresh blood preparations the spirochsets were rare, and in the 
stained smears made from the same blood they were still more 
difficult to find. Through a most unfortunate accident most of 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 79 

my stained preparations were lost before they had been carefully 
examined. 

No ticks were found on the snake, but one is tempted to suggest 
that these animals, which are common on many snakes, are the 
carriers of the spirochset. 

The living spirochgets (fig. 15) appeared as slender, flexible, 
corkscrew-like organisms, actively motile, and closely resembling 
S. duttoni in general form. In length they measure ca. 15 ^., and 
their breadth is probably about 0*5 jjl, though I have not been able 
to obtain sufficiently accurate measurements of the latter. 

In the films stained by Giemsa's method the organisms were 
coloured a uniform pink. 

In a single instance (fig. 16) I observed an organism which 
appeared to be on the point of dividing into two. But whether 
division had been longitudinal or transverse it was impossible to 
decide. The thickness of the organism certainly suggests the latter 
mode of division. 

The Hsmogregarine from Crocodilus porosus. 

Hsemogregarines have already been described from crocodiles 
in various parts of the world. Simond (1901a) appears to have 
been the first to record hsemogregarines from Crocodilia. He 
described (1901, 1901a) a form, under the name H. hankini, from 
the Indian gavial ; and he further noted (1901, p. 320) that the 
same organism occurred in Crocodilus porosus (?), and stated that 
Marchoux had found a similar parasite in a Senegal crocodile. 

Bornor (1901) almost simultaneously described a haemogregarine 
from Crocodilus frontatus and Alligator mississippiensis , and gave it 
the name H. crocodilinorum. If these prove to be the same species, 
then the priority of name rests with H. hankini; for, as Simond 
points out, his account was published a month before that of Borner. 
It is probable, therefore, that the Ceylon form from C. porosus is 
Hcemogregarina hankini, Simond. 

Minchin, Gray, and Tulloch (1906) figure a haemogregarine from 
a Central African crocodile, and this organism is repeatedly men- 
tioned in subsequent reports of various sleeping sickness commissions. 

The form which I found in the Ceylon crocodile bears a close 
resemblance to many of the figures of Simond and Borner. 

All the individuals which I examined were in red blood corpuscles 
from the circulating blood. They all presented the appearance 
shown in figs. 9, 10 ; that is to say, they were all large, doubled-up 
individuals. Sometimes the two halves were approximately equal 
in thickness (fig. 9), but sometimes one was considerably thicker 
than the other (fig. 10). In preparations stained by Giemsa's 
method the nucleus alwaj'^s appeared as a compact mass of deep 
purple granules (figs. 9, 10). In length the animals (doubled up) 
measured from 12 |i. to 15 \l. 



80 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

In the absence of more material, I can do little more here than 
record and figure the organism. 

The Parasites of White Ants. 

(1) Gymnonympha zeylanica, n. g., n. sp. 

As already . recorded (p. 74), I found the termites* {Calotermes 
militaris) which I examined at Peradeniya infected with a protozoon 
belonging to the family Trichonymphidse. 

The Trichonymphids are characterized by possessing a large 
number of flagella, which originally gave rise to thejj" inclusion 
among the Ciliata. [See ButschH (1887). S. Kent (1882), &c.] I 
have little doubt, however, that they are really referable to the 
Mastigophora (c/. Doflein, 1909). It is curious to note that Leidy 
(1877), who first gave us an accurate description of these organisms, 
remarks — speaking of Trichonympha — that they are " of obscure 
affinity, but probably related with the Turbellaria on the one hand, 
and by evolution with the Ciliate Infusoria on the other." 

The organisms which I found in Ceylon do not appear to belong 
to any of the genera hitherto described. [See Leidy (1881), Grassi 
(1888), Grassi and Sandias (1893), Frenzel (1891).] Leidyonella 
(Frenzel, 1891) is tlie form which appears to approximate most 
nearly to my organisms. 

As far as I am aware, no Trichonymphids have been described 
from Asiatic white ants before, but it seems highly probable that 
these parasites occur in white ants throughout the world. They 
were apparently discovered by Lespes in Europe in 1856, and were 
subsequently described in North America (Leidy), in the Argentine 
(Frenzel), and in Europe (Grassi and others). The closely allied 
form Lophomonasitis a frequent parasite of the common cockroach, 
Stylopyga orientalis. 

Gymnonympha zeylanica, as I propose to name the new organism, 
is distinguished by possessing comparatively few flagella, which are 
confined entirely to the anterior end of the body, as in Joenia and 
LopJiomonas, but there is no axostyle present. 

The general form of the animal (see fig. 1) is roughly ovoid or 
pyriform, but the body is so plastic that its shape is constantly 
undergoing change during life. At the extreme anterior end the 
body is drawn out into a small conical process surrounded by a 
curious vesicular cap (fig. 1). Where the cap unites, by its edges, 
with the conica,l process, the flagella arise, apparently in a single 
ring round the base of the cone. The length of the largest forms is 
about 150 (J,. The flagella measure only about one-half of the length 
of the body. Running backwards from the point of origin of the 
flagella, a series of striations can be seen extending for about one- 
third of the length of the organism. These striations appear to be 
situated in the investing cuticle. 

* All the individuals examined were workers. 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA PROM UEYLOJST. 81 

The nucleus is round, and measures about 15 [i in diameter. It is 
composed of a mass of small chromatin granules surrounded by a 
clear achromatic membrane. It usually lies at the anterior end of 
the animal. 

Inside the body, especially in the posterior region, a number of 
particles of wood can usua.lly be seen. How they are ingested I anv 
unable to say, as I have never observed an animal in the act of taking 
them up, nor is a mouth present, as far as I have been able to 
make out. 

In addition to these larger forms just described, I always found 
smaller animals possessing a somewhat different structure. The 
anterior end and arrangement of the fiagella was different, and the 
nucleus was situated posteriorly (fig. 2). I think these small forms 
probably represent young stages in the life-history of Gymnonyni'pha, 
but in the absence of any very definite intermediate forms, I must 
leave this an open question for the present. These small forms 
were usually about 30-40 \}. in length. 

No animals in division, or at different stages in the life-cycle, have 
I been able to find. 

(2) Nyctotherus termitis, n. sp. 

I pi'opose this name for the new sjiecies of ciliate which I found in 
the termite. Hitherto no Nyctotherus has, I believe, been recorded 
from white ants. 

N. termitis differs but slightly from several other members of the 
genus. It resembles N. ovalis, Leidy, of the common cockroach 
{Stylopyga orientalis) closely in general structure. The body is 
roughly ovoid, with the gullet situated near the middle, and running 
in obliquely with a very slight curvature (see fig. 21). It does 
not extend more than about halfway across the animal. There is a 
well-marked, though narrow, anus, near to which— on the ventral 
side — the single contractile vacuole is situated (see fig. 21). The 
meganucleus is ovoid or slightly horseshoe-shaped, and a micro- 
nucleus can sometimes be seen lying in close contact with it. At 
the level of the mieganucleus the body shows a more or less strongly 
marked constriction. Another similar constriction can be seen about 
halfway between this and the extreme anterior end. (C/. fig. 21.) 

The animal attains a length of 60-70 [x, and a maximum breadth 
of rather more than 40 \j.. 

It is rather a striking fact that the white ant should harbour a 
Nyctotherus so closely resembling that of the cockroach, when it is 
remembered that tlie Trichonymphids are also confined to these 
two hosts. 

(3) Spirochceta termitis, n. sp. 

Some of the termites which I examined proved to be heavily infect- 
ed with spirochsets. As these have not been previously described — 
so far as I am aware — I propose the name S. termitis for them. 

M 6(22)10 



82 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

It is of interest to note that Leidy (1877) found "a Spirillum" 
present in the gut of Termes flavipes (North America) ; and Grassi 
and Sandias (1893) also record "Spirilla" in the European termites 
which they investigated {Calotermes flavicoUis and Termes lucifugus). 
It seems to me highly probable that reinvestigation of these organ- 
isms would show them to be really spirochsets.* 

When alive, S. termitis is a long, slender, and very active organism. 
It moves rapidly backwards and forwards with the wriggling, 
flexible motion characteristic of the spirochsets. A well-marked 
bending and rolling up of the body may frequently be seen. 

The organisms which I observed (fig. 20) varied considerably in 
size, both as regards length and breadth. The longest individuals 
measured rather over 60 [x, but the breadth was never more than 
1 ^, and often less. 

The ends are pointed, and do not appear to bear free flagellar 
processes, such as are said to occur in some spirochsets {e.g., S. 
buccalis). Neither in the living organism nor in stained prepara- 
tions have I seen an undulating membrane. 

In films stained by Giemsa's method the organisms stained a 
uniform pink, or occasionally showed an indistinct granular structure. 
Owing to their slenderness it is exceedingly difficult to make out 
their internal structure. 

I found no forms which could be regarded with certainty as 
showing stages in division, though some of the longest organisms — 
in stained preparations — occasionally exhibited a break towards 
the middle of the body (fig. 20, longest individual), which suggested 
that transverse division takes place. 

Concluding Remarks. 

I wish, in conclusion, to summarize some of the inore interesting 
points which the observations recorded in the foregoing pages have 
brought to light. 

In the first place, I would emphasize the fact that my investiga- 
tions are not, and do not pretend to be, in any way exhaustive. 
I have merely examined such animals as chance allotted to me. 
Also in no case did I examine more than a small number of indivi- 
duals of any one species. Many animals, moreover, were examined 
with entirely negative results, and I am fully sensible of the fact 
that no definite deductions can be drawn from these few negative 
instances. The record of these cases has been given solely for the 
use of subsequent workers along similar Hnes. Nevertheless, apart 

* Since writing the above, I have been able to consult the full account of 
these organisms by Leidy (1881). His description and figures leave no doubt 
in my mind that his oi'ganisms were really spirochsets. Curiously enough, 
he has named the organisms Vibrio termitis. If mine .are the same as the 
North American forms, the correct name is therefore Spirochceta termitis, 
Leidy emend. DoboU (non Sp. termitis, Dobell). 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON. 83 

from these inconclusive negative results, I have obtained a few 
positive records, which appear to me to justify a few general remarks 
before I conclude. 

A point of some interest is in connection with the distribution of 
the protozoan parasites is frogs. I have found, as recorded in 
previous pages, that the Ceylon frogs harbour a set of Protozoa 
exactly parallel to the set which one finds in European frogs. In 
both one rinds two kinds of blood Protozoa : Hsemogregarines and 
Trypanosomes. In both one finds three genera of flagellates in the 
large intestine : Trichomonas, Trichomastix. and Octomitus {Hexa- 
mitus). In both one finds an Entamoeba in the large intestine. In 
both one finds cihates — belonging to the three genera : Opalina, 
Balantidium, and Nyctotherus — in the large intestine. In both, 
finally, one finds a ciliate of the genus Balantidium inhabiting the 
duodenum. The three flagellates and the amoeba correspond in 
general appearance so closely in the Ceylonese and European frogs 
that I cannot distinguish them from one another. 

Again, the Ceylon crocodile has been found to harbour a hsemogre- 
garine, whicli resembles not only that described from the Indian 
gavial, but also those found in African crocodiles and the Mississippi 
all gator. 

Then in the snakes. Apart from the new spirochset which was 
found, one finds hsemogregarines which resemble not only those 
found in snakes from other parts of Asia (India, Tonkin, China, 
Java, &c.), but also those in snakes from Europe, from Africa, from 
North and South America, and from Australia. The only snake 
trypanosome which I found is closely similar to another previously 
described from a tropical American snake. Fur; her, one Ceylon 
snake was found to possess a Trichomastix very like that which I 
have abeady described from a South American Boa constrictor. A 
similar organism occurs in all probability in European snakes. 

Then, in the case of the white ants, similar interesting finds have 
been recorded. Ceylon termites harbour a flagellate belonging to 
the remarkable family Trichonymphidse. These parasites have 
previously been found in termites in Europe, North America, and 
South America. The only other host of trichonymphids is the 
cockroach. It is therefore of interest to find that the Ceylon termite 
harbours a ciliate of the genus Nyctotherus, which very closely 
resembles that of the common cockroach, Stylopyga orientalis. This 
is a fact not without interest for the systematic entomologist. 
Lastly, the Ceylon termite possesses a spirochset, and there are 
indications that the North American and European termites harbour 
a similar parasite. 

Some further parallels could be added to this list, but it is perhaps 
unnecessary to develop this theme any further. Yet it seems to me 
that these facts are of something more than purely protozoological 
interest. 



84 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

It will not perhaps be superfluous to point out once more that 
I have, in company with other workers on Indian and Ceylon 
forms, found that lizards do not appear to be infected with blood 
Protozoa to anything like the same extent that European and 
African lizards are. 

One other point, in conclusion, appears to me worthy of comment. 
Wherever I have found trichomonads, I have always found both 
Trichomonas and Trichomastix associated together. This supports, 
I think, to some extent the view of Doflein, who believes that these 
two " genera " are in reality merely forms of one and the same 
organism. For my own part, however, I prefer to consider them as 
distinct genera for the present, mainly on the ground that no real 
intermediate forms have ever been discovered. This is, however, 
a matter of but small importance. 



LITERATURE REFERENCES. 

Berestneff, N. (1903), " Uber einen neuen Blutparasiten der 
indischen Frosche." (Arch. Protistenk., II., p. 343.) 

Bezzenherger , E. (1904), " Ueber Infusorien aus asiatischen 
Anuren." (Arch. Protistenk., III., p. 138.) 

Billet, A. (1895), " Sur les Hematozoaires des Ophidiens du Haut- 
tonkin." (C. R. Soc. Biol., X. (2), p. 29.) 

B'6r7ier, C. (1901), " Untersuchung iiber Hamosporidien." 
(Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., LXIX., p. 398.) 

Buischli, 0. (1887-89), "Infusoria" in Bronn's " Klassen u. 
Ordnungen." 

Castellani, A., and Willey, A. (1904), "Observations on the 
Haematozoa of Vertebrates in Ceylon." {Spolia Zeylanica, II., 
p. 78.) 

Castellani, A., and Willey, A. (1905), " Observations on 
Haematozoa in Ceylon." (Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci. , XLIX., p. 383.) 

Dohell, C. G. (1907), " Trichomastix serpentis, n. sp." (Quart. 
Journ. Micro. Sci., LI., p. 449.) 

Dohell, C. C. (1908), " Some Notes on the Hsemogregarines Para- 
sitic in Snakes." (Parasitology, I., p. 289.) 

Dohell, C. C. (1909), "Researches on the Intestinal Protozoa of 
Frogs and Toads." (Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., LIII,, p. 201.) 

Doflein, F. (1909), " Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde." Jena. 

Freyizel, J. (1891), '' Leidyonella corduhensis nov. gen. irov. spec. 
Eine neue Trichonymphide." (Arch. Mik. Anat., XXXVIII., 
p. 301.) 

Grassi, B. (1888), " Morfologia e Sistematica di alcuni Protozoi 
parassiti." (RC. R. Accad. Lincei., IV., p. 5.) 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM CEYLON, 85 

Grassi, J. B., and Sandias, A. (1893-94), " Tlie Constitution and 
Development of the Society of Termites. Observations on their 
Habits ; with Appendices on the Parasitic Protozoa of Termitidse, 
and on the Embiidse." (Translation, in Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., 
XXXIX. and XL.) 

Kent, W. Saville (1880-82), "A Manual of the Infusoria." 
London. 

Leidy, J . (1877), " On Intestinal Parasites of Termes flavipes" 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 146.) 

Leidy, J. (1881), " The Parasites of the Termites." (Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, VIII., p. 425.) 

Metcalf, M. M. (1909), " Opalina, its Anatomy and Reproduction, 
&c." (Arch. Protistenk., XIII.) 

Mincliin, E. A. (1907), " On a Hsemogregarine from the Blood 
of a Himalayan Lizard {Agama tuberculata)." (Proc. Zool. Soc, 
London, p. 1098.) 

Minchin, E. A., Gray, A. C. //., and Tulloch, F. M. G. (1906), 
" Glossina palpalis in its Relation to Trypanosoma gambiense and 
other Trypanosomes." (Proc. Ro3^ Soc, B. 78, p. 242.) 

Neresheimer, E. (1909), " TJber das Eindringen von Lankesterella 
spec, in die Froschblutkorperchen." (Arch. Protistenk, XVI., p. 
187.) 

Patton, W. iS. (1908), "The Htemogregarines of Maiimials and 
Reptiles." (Parasitology, I., p. 319.) 

Robertson, M. (1908), " A Preliminary Note on Hsematozoa from 
some Ceylon Reptiles." {Spolia Zeylanica, V., p. 177.) 

Robertson, M. (1909), "Studies on Cejdon Ha^matozoa. No. 1. 
Tlie Life -cycle of Trypanosoma vittatoe.'" (Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., 
LIII., p. 665.) 

Schaudinn, F. (1903), " Studien iiber krankheitserregende Proto- 
zoen : II. , Plasmodium vivax, usw." (Arb. kaiserl. G«sundheitsamte, 
XIX.) 

Simond, P. L. (1901), " Contribution a I'etude des Hematozoaires 
endoglobulaires des Reptiles." (Ann. Inst. Pasteur., XV., p. 
319.) 

Simond, P. L. (1901a), '' Sur un Hematozoaire endoglobulaire 
Hcemogregarina hankini, parasite du gavial." (C. R. Soc. Biol., 
LIII., p. 183.) 

Stein, F: (1867), " Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere." II., 
Abtheilujiig. 

Wenyon, C. M. (1908), " A Trypanosome and Hsemogregarine of 
a Tropical American Snake." (Parasitology, I., p. 315.) 

Wenyon, C. M. (1908a), "Report of Travelling Pathologist and 
Protozoologist," hx " Third Report of Wellcome Research Labora- 
tories, Gordon College, Kliartoum." London. 



86 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE. 

(The figures are not drawn to scale. The actual dimensions of 
the various organisms depicted are given in the text. Figs. 1 , 2, and 
20 were drawn under Zeiss 3 mm. apochromatic oil immersion X 
comp.-oc. 12. Figs. 3-10 and 12-15 were drawn under Leitz 1/12 
in. oil immersion. Figs. 11, 16-19, and 21 were drawn under Zeiss 
2 mm. apochromatic oil immersion, comp.-oc. 6.) 

Fig. 1. — Gymnonympha zeylanica, n. g., n. sp., a trichonymphid 
from the intestine of Calotermes ■militaris. (Picro-acetic 
acid, Delafield's hsematoxylin and eosin.) 

Fig. 2. — Small trichonymphid, from same preparation as preced- 
ing. (Probably a young form ?) 

Figs. 3-8. — Hcemogregarina, sp., from Rana tigrina. (Osmic 
vapour, Giemsa.) 

Fig 3. — Large intracorpuscular form. 

Figs. 4, 5, 6. — Various free forms from the blood plasma. 

Fig. 7. — Encapsuled form in a red blood corpuscle. (Living 
animal.) 

Fig. 8. — Empty sheath of parasite lying in red corpuscle. (Dry 
film ; absolute alcohol, Giemsa.) 

Figs. 9, 10. — Hcemogregarina, sp. (? H. hankini, Simond), from 
blood of Grocodilus porosus. (Dry films ; absolute 
alcohol, Giemsa.) 

Fig. 9. — Doubled-up organism, with limbs approximately equal 
in thickness. 

Fig. 10. — Form with slender doubled-up " tail." 

Fig. 11. — Tricho7nonas mabuice, n. sp., from the large intestine 
of Mabuia carinata. Large individual. (Sublimate 
alcohol, Delafield's haematoxylin and eosin.) 

Fig. 12. — Trypanosoma, sp., in blood of Rana tigrina. (Osmic 
vapour, Giemsa.) A red- corpuscle is shown in 
outline. 

Figs. 13 and 14. — Trypanosoma tropidonoti, n. sp., from the blood 
of Tropidonotus stolatus. (Osmic vapour, Giemsa.) 
The body is stained blue, the trophic nucleus pink, 
edge of membrane with flagellum red, the kinetic 
nucleus deep purple. 

Fig. 13. — A form in which the kinetic nucleus is situated some 
distance posterior to the trophic nucleus. (Red 
corpuscle in outline.) 

Fig. 14. — Form in which the kinetic nucleus is in contact with the 
trophic nucleus. 



Spolia Z-ylanira—Vol. Vlf.. Part XXVI. 



IHaU 11. 





5. -■'4. 



l> 



5. 



■pj/ 



%?>x^y 



-^ 




i%^.:: 






17. 








/ / 




DOBELL PARASITIC 



I"ROTOZOA TROM CEYLON. 



PARASITIC PROTOZOA FROM (^KYLON. 87 

Figs. 15, 16.—Spiroch(statropidonoH, n. sp., in the blood of Tropi- 

donotus stolaius. 

Fig. 15.— Living organism, beside a red corpuscle. Heart blood. 
Fig. 16.— Organism dividing into two. (Dry film; absolute 
alcohol, Giemsa.) 

Fig. 17.— Opalina virgula, n. sp., from large intestine of Rhaco- 
phorus maculatus. (Picro-acetic acid, Delafield's 
haematoxylin.) 

Fig. 18.— Small Opalina, from same preparation as preceding. 
Probably a young individual. 

Fig. 19. — Balantidium hyalinum, n. sp., from duodenum of 
Ba7ia tigrina. (Sublimate alcohol, Delafield's haema- 
toxylin.) 

Fig. 20. ~Spiroch(Eta termitis, n. sp., from the gut of Calotermes 
militaris. Various forms are depicted. (Dry film ; 
absolute alcohol, Giemsa.) 

Fig. 21.— Ntjctotherus termitis, n. sp., from intestine of Calotermes 
militaris. (Picro-acetic acid, Delafield's haematoxylin 
and eosin.) 



88 SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 



NOTES ON THE FRESH-WATER FISHERIES OF CEYLON. 

By A. WiLLEY, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Zoology in the McGill University, Montreal ; late Director 
of the Colombo Museum. 

(With one Plate and three Text Figures.) 



[The following notes are taken from Dr. Willey's preliminary 
account of the Inland Fisheries of Ceylon in the Administration 
Reports of 1908 and 1909.— Ed.] 

THE object of the inquiry is to obtain biological and, as far as 
may be possible, statistical information about the indigenous 
marketa-ble fishes, to devise measures for arresting a decline of the 
fisheries, and to introduce one or more useful species from abroad. 
As no records have been kept in former years, it is impossible to 
demonstrate that a progressive reduction in the amount of the 
catches is in fact taking place. There seems to be a general 
impression that this is the case ; and it is evident that the clearing 
of forests for plantation purposes must re-act upon the water 
systems of the cultivated districts by silting up the tributaries of 
the rivers. Tlie more the country is brought under cultivation, by 
so much the more should attention be directed to the habits of the 
food-fishes. And this is about all that can be, and perhaps all that 
need be, said on the subject of the decline of the fisheries. The 
illegal use of dynamite and narcotic poisons is not a danger which 
threatens the entire fish-fauna ; and it may be assumed that the 
steps which are already taken to prevent the application of these 
objectionable methods of capturing fish are adequate. 

The present investigation is mainly concerned with the fresh-water 
fisheries of the Western and the North-Central Provinces, the former 
being selected as tjrpical of river fishing, the latter of tank fishing. 
In this part 1 shall refer chiefly to certain aspects of the fishing 
industry in the Western Province. In the first place, however, it 
is necessary to note that for the understanding of this question it 
is important to realize at once and for all the essential economic 
difference which exists in Ceylon between sea fishing and estuarine 
fishing on the one hand and inland fishing on the other. Speaking 
generally, it may be said that there is no independent fresh -water 
fishing industry in Ceylon. What takes place is merely a collateral 
pursuit subservient to paddy cultivation and cattle raising. Sea 
and estuarine fishing is a main industry of the maritime districts ; 
river and tank fishing is a collateral industry of tlie interior. 




FiG. 8. — jNIan holding a " kemina" at Hauvvella. Tht> 
narrow end is covered by a coconut cap. 



FRESH-WATER FISHERIES OF CEYLON. 89 

TAp Baraive Fishery. — The Barawe reserve near Hanwella is a 
low-lying wooded tract , through which the Pusweli-ganga flows into 
the Kelani-ganga. After heavy rain the country is under water, and 
I have myself been compelled, in the month of May, to travel by 
boat for some distance down the high road from near the Hanwella 
resthouse. Hanwella is a good type of inland fishing station, people 
said to belong to the "Padduwa" caste being more or less per- 
manently engaged in fishing by various methods ; and the produce 
is brought into the village bazaar for sale in improvized markets 
at the roadside. 

On the Pusweli-ganga, upwards of a mile from the resthouse, the 
Barawe line-fishermen work singly from very small log boats called 
" mas marana oruwa," from which they catch excellent food-fishes, 
such as the walaya {Wallago attu), telliya {Mastacembelus armatus), 
and moda {Lates calcarifer), besides several species of the carp 
family (Cyprinidce). Fishes caught in the water-courses are called 
" ela malu," in contrast with " weli malu," which are taken from 
inundated fields. Of the latter, the lula {Ophwcephalus striatus) 
is the most important, and the batakola- telliya {Bhynchobdella 
aculeata)* one of the most interesting. They also capture in baskets 
great quantities of a small cyprinoid fish called saliya {Amhlypharyn- 
godon melettina) ; females of this species, three inches in total 
length, are egg-laden in December. In the Ihivetiya-ela, an arm 
of the Pusweli-gauga, a portion was fenced off at either end from 
the main stream in December, 1907, and I saw about thirty men, 
<5vomen, and children paddling about in the muddy water, each 
provided with a large conical hand basket (" eswattiya "), with which 
they scooped up small fishes, transferring them to bags carried on 
their backs, occasionally also capturing a large river prawn. 

Stretching a wattle fence (vetiya or veta) across an ela is a frequent 
practice. A narrow passage may be left at one end of it, and this 
will be occuj)ied by a long bamboo fish-trap, closed at the narrow 
end by a half coconut shell. The fence is made of impenetrable, 
close-set slips of bata-li or wild bamboo ; the fish-trap (" kemina ") 
(fig. 8),t about 7 feet long, is made of slips of una-li or plantation 
bamboo. Strips of bamboo are steeped in water to season them, 
and are kept soaking for eight days preparatory to the final splitting. 

Tlie " karakgediya " is a basket open at both ends, shaped like 
a truncated cone, about 25 inches high, made of Ixora sticks 
(ratamvela) ; each stick is pointed below, and the whole bound 
together above, leaving a hole just large enough to receive a man's 
arm. It is used in swampy fields ; the broad end with the pointed 
sticks is presented to the bottom at a venture, and the hand inserted 
through the arm-hole to grope for a possible catch. 

'■■■ I recorded this species from Ceylon for the first time in "'Nature," 
Vol. 77, 1908, page 345. 

t For the three illustrations accompanying this report I am indebted to 
Mr. O. S. Wickwar, who accompanied me on one of my visits to Hanwella. 

N 6(22)10 



90 SPOLIA ZEYLANrCA. 

They also construct elaborate fixed traps called " mas-ge " or 
" mas-kotuwa " ; these are tall fish-raazes, about 20 feet high, made 
of the same materials as the fences. They project high out of the 
water when the latter is low, but during flood time they may be 
entirely submerged. For example, May 9 was a day of great rain 
at Hanwella, and the entrapped fishes could only be taken in the 
early part of the day, before the waters had covered up the mas-kotu. 
Up to the present I have not found an opportunity of seeing fish 
taken out of a mas-kotuwa. Wlien I visited Hanwella in Decem- 
ber, 1907, they had fallen into temporary disuse, only being worked 
during the rains ; and I was told that there had been a mas-kotu 
fishery in the previous month of November ; May and June are the 
chief months for this fishery in the Kelani Valley. The mas-kotu 
may thus be defined as flood kraals, in contrast with the ja-kotu, 
which are fair weather kraals. An important carp, the hiri-kanaya 
{Labeo dussumieri), is taken in the mas-kotu at Hanwella ; and 
occasionally, though not in my experience, the lela {Barbus tor). 

Another piece of fishing gear employed by the Barawe fishermen is 
the " baru-dela " or casting net, the manipulation of which requires 
a great deal of skill. Other nets are the " atanguwa " or hand net ; 
and the " pala-dela," a net stretched between two poles, terminating 
in a small- meshed bag. 

Being much impressed by the intensive character of the Barawe 
fishery, I applied to the Mudaliyar of the Hewagam korale (Mr. H. A. 
Pieris) for information as to whether it had ever been more productive 
than it is now ; whether there had been any notable fluctuations in» 
the annual catches ; and whether or not he considered the methods 
of fishing unduly destructive of immature fish, leading to the 
diminution of the local fish supply. The Mudaliyar replied that 
the fishery had been more productive in times past owing to the 
fact that " the forest is now being gradually cleared of its timber, 
which causes the streams to dry up faster than in former years " ; 
there had been no noticeable fluctuations ; and he did not think 
that the present methods of fishing in his district were unduly 
destructive. This, of course, is a matter of opinion, which should 
be discussed by a competent local fishery committee. I wovdd 
point out here, however, that the fencing of natural water-courses 
so as to hinder the normal migrations of fishes, and the " muddying " 
of permanent waters so as to inhibit the normal respiration of fislies, 
are practices which call for comment. The deliberate stirring up 
of the mud in order to foul the water belongs to the same category 
as the use of dynamite and vegetable poisons ; or at least modern 
conditions of existence render it necessary to classify them together. 
The stirring up of mud is done sometimes by men, sometimes by 
buffaloes. Wakwella on the Gin-ganga, near Galle, seems a likely 
enough place for a fishing station, but in fact is disappointing. In 
August I tried to obtain a sample of the fishes frequenting those 



Fresh-water Jftsheries of ceylon. 91 

waters. The boatmen offered to put up a fence across the creek 
opposite to the resthouse at midnight ; then they would place a 
buffalo at some distance awsij towards the head of the creek, to 
trample up the mud, thus causing the fish to collect at the fence in 
their efforts to escape from the source of disturbance, where they 
could be taken in the early morning in baskets. I decided, rightly 
or wrongly, against it. 

It should be added that, besides the species which I have men- 
tioned above, several other first-rate food-fishes are habitually 
caught by the Barawe fishermen, e.g., river-eels, ganga-anda 
{Anguilla bengalensis), the butter-fish, walapota {Gallichrous hima- 
culatus), the eight-barbed three-spined catfishes, ankutta (several 
species of Macrones), the fresh-water gobies, weligowa {Gohius giuris) 
and kudupuwa {Eleotris fusca), the fresh-water garfish, moralla 
{Belone cancila), the climbing perch, kavaiya {Anabas scandens), 
and the koraUya {Etroplus suratensis). These are retained for 
home consumption and for sale in the roadside market at Hanwella 
opposite to the resthouse, although the neighbouring planters derive 
their fish supply from Colombo through the Kelani Valley Railway. 
When there is a superabundance, some of the larger fishes may be 
salted and kept for a few days. 

The " Wala " Fishery .—Hhe floods of tliis country are a principal 
factor in the inland fisheries, exercising as they do a beneficent, 
protecting, and distributing influence. They afford natural close 
-seasons for river fishes ; and they enable mud-loving and air- 
breathing fishes to spread themselves over the surrounding lowlands. 
A wala is a pit or depression in the ground in which flood water will 
remain for a long time after the inundation which filled it has 
subsided. They vary in extent from a few square yards to about 
a quarter of an acre ; the esteem in which they are held can be 
gauged from the fact that each wala has its own distinctive name ; 
the fishing of them requires co-operation, and the fishing rights are 
therefore vested in a body of related famiUes, the time of fishing 
being decided by the able-bodied men. It would be possible to 
register the recognized fishing walas of a district, but it has not 
occurred to anybody to do so ; such a return would be useful, and 
might be advantageously ordered by Government. 

As an example of primitive pond-culture the wala fishery is both 
interesting and important, and should on no account be stigmatized 
as " puddling," or mentioned disparagingly as one of those methods 
which " ought to be stopped." On the contrary, it is the beginning 
of systematic pisciculture, and is, or should be, capable of further 
development. 

The pits are left to be watered and stocked by floods, there being 
little attempt to assist nature, except by slight excavation and 
banking. At the proper time the water is baled out by means of 
winnowing baskets (" hal-kula "), or by large, wooden, irrigating 



92 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

scoops (yotu-kanda) suspended from crossed poles (figs. 9 and 10), 
according to the size of the wala. Wala-fishing goes on in places 
where no other fishing is available, and is one of the most prolific 
sources of fish supply for villages throughout the low-country, 
including the immediate environs of Colombo. 

At Tebuwana on the Kala-ganga there is no river fishing worth 
mentioning, but a considerable wala-fishery takes place during the 
dry weather which follows floods. The ponds contain stagnant 
water, and by repeated baling out of muddy water deep pools are 
formed in them, where fish accumulate sometimes in large numbers. 
I inspected one such pond, and witnessed the operation of emptying 
it ; it was called the Kohila-wala, because formerly an edible root 
(kohila) grew where the pond now is, some still remaining on the 
banks. The digging out of the yams and the subsequent flooding 
and scooping out of fish from the mud at certain spots has made 
three deep holes, in one of which there were signs of abundant fish. 
The baling took place on January 25. They commenced by deepen- 
ing an efferent channel and allowing the surface water to flow away 
through it ; then they dammed it up and started baling the water 
over the dam. In this case the baling was done by four men working 
two " hal-kula," each provided with two pairs of flexible handles 
held by a man on each side with both hands. The men swing the 
baskets between them and work away for three hours or more. The 
catch they said was not up to the average ; it consisted chiefly of 
madaya (Ophiocephalus punctafus), kavaiya (some were egg-laden), 
magura {Clarias magur), a few hunga {Saccobranchus fossilis), lula, 
ankutta, and batakola-telliya. Each hunga was knocked on the 
head before being taken out, on account of the dangerous pectoral 
spines. The total weight of fish caught was about 22 lb., and the 
value in the local market was put at Re. 1 • 50 only, an absurdly low 
figure,* but then it was not going to be sold for cash. As it was, the 
division of the spoil gave rise to much bickering, and one woman 
apparently refused to be comforted. 

The walas occur in places where shade is afforded by adjoining 
vegetation ; an overhanging tree makes a difference to the inhabit- 
ants of a pool. One of the symptoms of the decline of fisheries in 
certain parts of late years is the failure ®f the old walas ; and this 
is attributed to forest clearing in the neighbourhood, which has a 
two-fold effect, removing shade and increasing silt, large quantities 
of soil being washed down from the adjacent clearings. The filling 
up of walas by the deposition of sediment in consequence of forest 
clearing has been noted by the Maha Mudaliyar in connection with 
the Attanagala-oya, which flows past Henaratgoda. It may bo 
mentioned here that the alleged decline of inland fisheries as a whole 



* Of course, this only applies to one small wala; the total value of the 
wala catches in a given district would be something considerable ; and the 
same wala may be baled out three or four times in the year. 




Ftg. 'J. — A •• wnla" at Hanwella being baled out by means of an irrigation scoop 
(" yotii-kanda") over a low bund. 




Fk;. in — AiiotluM" view of the same "■ wala." 



FRESH- WATER FISHERIES OP CEYLON. 93 

has been attributed to various causes from first to last, but not once 
I believe publicly to what is perhaps the most deep-seated cause of 
all, namely, forest clearing. 

Undersized fishes are destroyed in the wala system of fishing, but 
not to such a great extent as by netting ; and it should not be 
forgotten that the capture of egg-laden females is as wasteful as the 
netting and trapping of immature young. It would appear that 
there is no practical method of stopping the waste ; if it is excessive, 
the only way to counterbalance it is by estabhshing nurseries and 
hatcheries ; and when one considers the small monetary value of the 
inland fisheries at their best, the idea that hatcheries in connection 
with the rivers of the Western Province would repay the expense of 
their upkeep seems to be excluded, at least for many years to come. 
There can be no doubt that they would be beneficial, and the 
installation of one inland hatchery should be seriously contemplated. 

Night-lines and River -fishing. — As with the Kelani-ganga, so with 
tlie Kalu-ganga, the main rivers do not yield the main fishery ; this 
is found in their affluents, the Pusweli-ganga and the Kuda-ganga 
respectively. The main rivers are, however, exploited to some 
extent by means of night-lines. At Tebuwana, on the occasion 
referred to in the preceding section, having taken a large number of 
madaya from the wala, two men who were noted experts at moda- 
fishing said they would go that evening between 7 p.m. and midnight 
to fish for moda or other large fish with rod and line, using madaya 
as live bait. Only one of them kept his courage to the sticking point , 
and, after some persuasion, was induced to go ; but there was a 
deval-maduwa close by, and the noise of people crossing the river 
to attend the festival was fatal to good fishing. The man said 
afterwards that he had had two bites of " guru-tambaya," but had 
failed to land the fish. 

The rod employed is a strong inflexible bamboo rod, which is 
supported over crossed or forked sticks from the shore. At several 
points along the banks of the river when travelling by boat one may 
notice a forked stick driven into the ground with a low semi-circular 
rampart in front of it, an ambuscade for lying in wait for moda, &c. 
The whole is called " malu bana." 

There is no doubt of the fact that river fish as food are scarce in 
Ceylon ; a trivial indication of this state of things is to be found in 
the circumstance that, as a rule, the last place in which to expect a 
dish of fresh fish is at a riverside resthouse. At Tebuwaua estuarine 
fish from Kalutara are procurable ; at Badureliya and Anguruwatota 
sardines are offered. 

On February 12 1 travelled from Badureliya to Anguruwatota on 
an untented raft supported by three dug-outs, in order to ascertain 
whether there might be any sign of an active fishery along the 
tributaries of the Kalu-ganga. Gliding gently along the Magura- 
ganga we passed deep pools in which large fish are known to lurk ; 



94 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

and here and there are cylindrical fish-traps (kemina). A place 
called Maguruwaka overlooks the confluence of the Kuda-ganga, 
Pelen-ganga, and Magura-ganga. This is the likeliest looking 
situation for a hatchery and fresh-water biological station that I 
know of in the Western Province. Here there were fishing boats at 
work, netting and angling, whipping the side deeps and catching 
black-blotched, four-barbed petiya {Barhus pinnauratus) and black- 
striped dandiya {Rasbora daniconius). This region is known as 
Molkawa, and the fishery may be conveniently referred to as the 
Molkawa fishery. 

Farther down the Kuda-ganga I came upon a catch of fish made 
by two canoes with pole net (pala-dela), pan-rena (a fish-guide or 
trace of bleached coconut leaves),* and kalavel (poisonous creeper). 
Small carp kept rising in a helpless floundering fashion to the surface, 
whence they were lifted by hand and thrown ashore ; a great 
quantity of frothy scum covered the surface of the water at this 
point. In one of the boats there were two large walaya, 24^ and 
25| inches long respectively, with a combined weight of 4| lb. The 
complete outfit for a Kuda-ganga fishing boat consists of a mass 
of bleached coconut leaflets, a net between two stakes, and some 
kalavel. A mile or so farther down the river I picked up a dead 
petiya {B. pinnauratus), S^ inches long, weighing 5 lb., a male in an 
immature condition. 

A lethal weapon sometimes employed along these rivers is the 
" kaduwa," consisting of a series of iron barbs riveted to an iron 
shaft. One in use on the Magura-ganga had 19 barbs placed close 
together, so as to form a toothed blade about a foot long ; the handle, 
2 feet long, was secured by a rope. The man who lield it was 
waiting near some rocks for an " ara " {Ophiocephalus marulius) to 
appear. If he should succeed in striking a large fish, it might swim 
away with the implement were it not secured by a line after the 
manner of a harpoon. 

A Koraliya Nursery. —As I have indicated above, the native walas 
are merely used as collectors. If anything is to be done for their 
improvement and development, some scheme of protected walas 
will have to be devised so that some of them can serve as nurseries. 
The obvious difficulty, namely, the circumvention of floods, is one 
which can only be met by concerted action based upon local 
knowledge. 

The carp family (Cyprinidce) , though numerically strong, does 
not figtire so prominently in the list of marketable fresh -water fishes 
in Ceylon as it does elsewhere. Of tlie non-predaceous indigenous 
low-country fishes which are amenable to cultivation, one of the 
most important, numerically and dieteticaUy, is the koraUya 
{Etroplus suratensis), a member of the family Chromides. This 

* For further remarks on pan-rena, reference may be made to my fishery 
observations in Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. V., 1908, page 150. 



FRESH-WATI5H li'TSITERTFiS OF CKYLON. 95 

species is one of those which, like the lula, nurse their brood, standing 
by to keep off the many enemies which prey upon spawn and fry. 
Its habits are known to the fishermen. It is captured in nets and 
in kraals, and unfortunately is netted on its spawning grounds. 
I inspected some of the latter in February and saw a koraliya, as 
it appeared, selecting a spot amongst aquatic roots in the river 
at Kalutara, for the purpose of depositing its eggs, as early as 
February 6. The spawning season is from the middle of February 
to the middle of April, and again about November, according to the 
statements of the fishermen. The aggressive pursuit of the spawning 
and brood-nursing fishes, involving the destruction of the eggs by 
the dragging of the nets, should be discouraged. Early in March 
I suggested to the Assistant Government Agent (Mr. J. Conroy) a 
)nethod of protection of the breeding sites as an experiment. Three 
weeks later when I went to Kalutara to see how the experiment 
was working I found the river in flood and the sites concealed. This 
observation explains the assertion contained in an earlier part of 
this report, that the floods provide natural close seasons for the 
river fishes. The spawn is the most vulnerable part of the koraliya's 
economy ; and the systematic capture of fishes during the exercise 
of their parental care cannot be defended.* 

The koraliya is known to attain the length of a foot ; and as the 
body is very high in proportion to the length, a full-sized fish is an 
object worthy of attention. It is netted in large numbers at a very 
tender age, 2 to 3 inches in total length (including the tail-fin), being 
utilized at this stage as curry stuff. It is also netted in quantity 
at a middle age, 5 to 7 inches, still immature. 

Introduction of Gourami. — The gourami {Osphromenus olfax) is a 
fresh- water fish belonging to Java, which has been introduced into 
Europe as an aquarium fish, and into Mauritius, Cayenne, and 
India as a food-fish. It is recorded as attaining a length of 2 feet 
and a weight of 20 lb. ; but it seems doubtful whether 20 lb. of 
muscle can be concentrated into a length of 2 feet. However that 
may be, it has long been known to possess an " exquisite flavour " ; 
and has quite recently been characterized in the Cambridge Natural 
History as " one of the best flavoured fishes of the Far East." 

Under these circumstances I had no hesitation in recommending 
Government to communicate with the Government of Mauritius in 
order to ascertain definitely whether the culture of the gourami is 
carried on there with conspicuous success. This was done, and a 
reply duly arrived, forwarding papers relating to this matter, and 
adding " that if it is desired to introduce the gourami in Ceylon, 
this Government will be glad to arrange for a supply of young fish 
being sent." The gourami, it appears, is not made the object of 
methodical cultivation in Mauritius, but, when desired, it is 

* River fishermea throughout the Panadure and Kalutara Totamune have 
been warned against the practice. 



96 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

transplanted from one place to another. A gentleman who has 
interested himself in acclimatization experiments in Mauritius, 
Mr. A. Daruty de Grandpre, states that the rearing of the gourami 
is very easy, as it will exist in any kind of fresh water, flowing 
or stagnant ; its habits are lierbivorous and insectivorous, and it is 
therefore valuable as a consumer of mosquito-larvae : it constructs 
a nest amongst aquatic herbs, where it deposits its eggs, which are 
defended by the male. 

About the middle of the year (1909), hearing that Mr. M. Kelway 
Bamber, F.I.C., F.C.S., was leaving on a visit to Java, and would 
be willing to secure some gourami for Ceylon, I wrote to him a letter 
giving recommendations for dealing with the fish in transit, and 
on September 15 Mr. Bamber retui'ned to Colombo with a small 
consignment of young gourami, from 6 to 8 inches in length. Soon 
after their arrival in Colombo one or two died, and the remainder, 
24 in number, were placed in a circular cement tank, 8 feet in 
diameter, in the grounds of the Colombo Museum, in which top- 
minnows had been kept for a long time previously. The tank was 
covered over by a cadjan roof, but the heat was too great and the 
light too intense, and in spite of all that was done for them they 
did not thrive. Some of them were afflicted with a skin disease ; in 
others' the eyeballs began to protrude, and this went on to such an 
extent that half of the eyeball projected from the socket. The 
symptoms of malaise finally became so distressing that I decided 
to send 20 of them to Peradeniya in three tubs covered with 
mosquito netting on October 14. The three remaining survivors, 
with eyes starting out from their sockets in a pitiful manner, Ave re 
removed to a glass aquarium situated in a verandah and provided 
with bamboo cylinders and tiles, into and under which they could 
retreat ; here they have subsisted upon boiled rice, minced raw liver, 
and worms; to my surprise, in course of time, the eyes gradually 
worked back into the sockets. These three individuals have been 
transferred once more to the Museum tank ; one of them blind in 
one eye. 

The score of gourami arrived in Peradeniya in good condition, 
and were turned into the large pond in the Gardens. As mentioned, 
this happened in October last, and it will be interesting to ascertain, 
in due time, whether the fishes have spawned; to encourage and 
assist them to spawn, fascines or small bundles of twigs should be 
placed here and there in the pond.* 

Anguluwa. — The largest fishes taken in the Panadure river, 
besides eels, are "tambalaya" {Lutjanus jahngarah) and " moda " 



[* On November 5, 1910, Mr. E. E. Green and I made an examination of the 
pond at Peradeniya and found no signs of the gourami. Two native fishermen 
were employed, and they used a vertical net somewhat Uke a Seine net. After 
an exhaiistive search they declared that there were no fish in the pond. The 
pond overflows into the Mahaweli-ganga, and it is probable that the fish have 
escaped to the river, althougli the ledge which guards the overflow would 
render this difficult but not impossible. — Ed.] 



FRESH-WATER FISHERIES OF CEYLON. 97 

{Lates calcarijer). Some of the most abundant fish caught in the 
weu" traps are called " anguluwa," of which there are two kinds : 
" tora-anguluwa " {Arius falcarius) and " wel-anguluwa " (Macrones 
gulio). The former species pi'oduces large yolky eggs ; the latter 
produces the usual small eggs of bony fishes. After the female of 
the "tora-anguhiwa " has laid a batch of eggs, each measuring 
about lialf an inch in diameter, enclosed in a transparent membrane, 
the male takes the soft eggs into his capacious moutli and keeps 
them there for many days until they hatch out as large fry, retaining 
the fry until the yolk is absorbed. The eggs which are thus carried 
about in the mouth of the male are called "kate-viju," as distin- 
guished from the " bade-viju " in the ovaries of the female ; tlie fry 
in the mouth are the " kate-petaw." The actual process of ingesting 
the eggs has not been observed. 

When the mouth of an ovigerous male is examined, the cavity is 
found to be stretched to its utmost capacity so as to hold 15 or moi'e 
eggs (see Plate, fig. 1). In this position the eggs are exjDosed to 
the respiratory current of water as it passes through the gill clefts, 
and at the same time they are protected from enemies. The 
oesophageal passage at the back of the pharynx is closed, and the 
palatine teeth are usually found to be greatly reduced as compared 
with those of females and of normal males (see Plate, fig. 7). The 
palatine teeth attain their greatest development in the female, and 
very rarely a small paired round group of vomerine teeth is to be 
found (see Plate, fig. 6). The intestine of the ovigerous male is 
generally shrunken to very narrow dimensions and devoid of contents. 
The ovaries of an adult female contain a very great number of 
eggs in different stages of growth, but of these only a few become 
mature at a time, and there is a great contrast in size between the 
mature and the immature ovarian ova. In one case there were only 
10 large eggs in the right ovary and 8 in the left. In another there 
were 21 large eggs in the right ovary, 24 in the left. 

Anguluwa is also caught in the Angulu Eliya lake on leaded lines 
baited with prawns, attached to kitul floats, resembling the"thathe" 
used in Nuwarawewa, as described above. 

Atukotuiva. — A very common and at the same time a very dainty 
fish in the Panadure river is the " koraliya " {Etroplus suratensis). 
Some time ago a statement appeared in the local press to the effect 
that this species is a bony fish of no importance. As it is one of the 
best of the estuarine fishes in Ceylon, the statement was probably 
based upon a misunderstanding, perhaps a confusion with the 
" kavaiya," which has the reputation of being bony and thick- 
skinned, though a valuable agent in the destruction of mosquito 
larvae. 

In the Panadure lake it is captured in a wide- meshed " baru-dela " 
in the following manner. Two men proceed in a boat on a pros- 
pecting tour, carrpng with them a quantity of leafy twigs, which 
o 6(22)10 



98 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

they plaoo upon the bottom, near the shore, in i to f fathom, 
marking the spot in the centre with a long branch surmounted by a 
leafy crown which rises above the surface. They bait the ground 
with a meal consisting of fried poonac mixed with plain kurakkan, 
which they call " koraliya-kema." Then they retire to a distance for 
about half an hour, and on returning cast the " baru-dela " over the 
central mark, picldng out the " koraliya," if any happen to be caught, 
from under the leaded edge of the net as it lies upon the bottom. 

In the Angulu Eliya lake " koraliya " is caught in an ingenious 
manner in artificial submerged thickets, called " atu-kotu " (sin- 
gular atu-kotuwa). Twigs and branches are piled up in a circular 
area 8 or 10 feet across, surrounded by poles driven into the 
bottom to mark it out and to keep the branches from drifting away 
with the current. This is left for two or four weeks, until the sticks 
exhibit a copious growth of algae, called "penda," upon which the 
koraliya feeds. When ripe for the catch, the whole is enclosed 
within a close-set bamboo tat preparatory to the fishing. The 
circumference of an " atu-kotuwa " measures about 60 feet ; the 
tats or " peleli " rise 2^ to 3 feet out of the water, in spite of which 
some "koraliya" succeed in leaping over it and in making good 
their escape. 

If the arrangements are completed in the afternoon, the fishing 
takes place early on the following morning. Two men get inside 
the enclosure, where the water has a depth of 4 to 5 feet, and com- 
mence handing out the larger branches to a third man outside, who 
places them in another pile close by. When the place is clear, a 
man takes a deep hand net (atanguwa) and carries it round the circle, 
keeping close to the tat all the time. The other man is meanwhile 
continuing the clearing and splashing in the centre to drive the 
fishes to the circumference. When the net has collected a fair 
number of fishes, it is emptied into a boat outside and returned for 
a fresh supply. In this way about 150 "koraliya" of all sizes up 
to 1i inches in total length were collected in my presence, and very 
few fishes of other kinds besides. The larger sizes of " koraliya " 
are worth about 6 cents each ; the bulk of the catch was taken 
immediately to Moratuwa ; they said the total value was Rs. 2, but 
the value was probably under-estimated. 

The custom of erecting " atu-kotu " commences in the Panadure 
lake abreast of Kaduruduwa, a coconut-planted islet about half a 
mile long, opposite to the Durawa village of Gorakana. 

Many other important and interesting food-fishes abound in 
the Panadure river. I will only mention here another prominent 
kraal fish, the " ileya " (called " lilawa " at Weligama), Megalops 
cyprinoides, which also frequents the Kelani-ganga estuary ; and a 
large line fish, the " kana-magura," Plotosus canius. Both of these 
species live for many hours out of water, rather an exceptional fact 
in the herring family, to which Megalops belongs. 



FRESH-WATER FISHERIES 'OF CEYLON. 99 

Mod A Fishery at Kalutara. 
Koraliya, aiiguluwa, and other fishes are caught in quantity in the 
Kalu-ganga estuary, but the chief speciaUty of this station is the 
moda fishery. The moda {Lates calcarifer) is an estuarine perciform 
fish of superior quality and large size, which so far as is known 
spawns in the sea. It is captured at many other stations in the 
low-country, including Elephant Pass, where it occurs in company 
with another well-known game fish, Polynemus tetradactylus , which 
is called kalawa in Sinhalese, kalemin in Tamil, bamin in Malayalam. 
Other food-fishes observed at Elephant Pass in November, 1909, 
may be mentioned here incidentally as showing an interesting 
association of species at that station. 

Arius falcarius, 15 inches long; anguluwa Sinh., kelaru Tarn. 
Belone strongylura, 15 inches ; the usual vernacular name for 
species of Belone is morala. Also in Panadure river 
under name habareliya. 
Chanos salmoneus, the milk fish ; weka Sinh., palei Tam. Not 
actually taken during my stay, but occurring during 
flood time. 
Chatoessus nasus ; koiya Tam., katu-goiya Sinh. A Clupeoid 
fish, remarkable in possessing a hard muscular gizzard 
such as occurs in the gray mullets. It is also found in 
lake Tamblegam and in the Panadure river, wheie it is 
called katu-massa. 
Chrysophrys berda, the calamara or black teralei. 
Elops saurus; manna Tam., renawa Sinh. Also in the Pana- 
dure river. 
Etroplus suratensis; o'ti Tam., koraliya Sinh. 
Gerres limbatus ; teralei Tam. 
Gerres lucidus ; teralei Tam. 
Hemirhamphus xanthopterus. 

Mugil olivaceus, a gray mullet ; manalei Tam., godaya Sinh. 
Platycephalus insidiator; eriyal Tam., mudu-weligowa Sinh. 

Also frequents the Panadure river. 
Plotosus canius. 
Sillago sihama, the kalanda; common at Panadure and 

Negombo. 
Synaptura orientalis, a flat fish. 
These are all common food-fishes, but I have not seen the bamin 
elsewhere than at Elephant Pass. I have examined another species, 
Polynemus plebeius, from the sea at WeHgama. 

The moda is frequently seen in the Kalutara fish market, and I 
obtained some returns from a party appointed for the purpose 
through the Kachcheri in order to ascertain the average quantity 
and value of this particular species put upon the Kalutara market 
within a limited period. It is caught mostly by angling near the 
railway bridge, sometimes by netting near the mouth of the river, 



100 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

presumably as the fishes are entering from the sea or descending 
from the river. It is rather remarkable that, so far as I know, there 
is no record at Kalutara of moda having been caught in the sea. 
The weight ranges from 1 lb. to 20 lb., and the value from 30 cents 
to Rs. 9. 

Ophiocephalus marulius. — This fish, which has been mentioned 
above, attains a larger size than does its relative the lula, reaching 
a weight of 12 to 15 lb. Colonel Gordon Reeves informs me that 
some small fishes called "gunarow," 3 to 4 inches long, were sent 
to him in May from Rajjammaana on the Amban-ganga, which 
he took to be the young of 0. marulius. He liberated them into 
his stew pond at " Wiltshire," Matale. They are described as 
having "large irregular blotches of claret colour on their upper 
parts, more especially towards the tail." The exact identification 
of these young fishes would be interesting, as nothing is known 
about the reproduction of 0. marulius. 

Improvement of Inland Fisheries. 

Pisciculture means the preservation of the spawn and fry of fishes, 
the stripping or expressing of ova from mature fishes and their 
artificial fertihzation, the prohibition of certain methods of fishing, 
and the regulation of existing fisheries in tanks and rivers. 

There are many instructive analogies between agriculture and 
pisciculture sufficient to justify the conjunction of a Board of 
Agriculture and of Fisheries. The variations in the growth of plants 
according to quality and elevation of soil is comparable with the 
growth of fishes in correlation with the size and latitude of rivers. 
The quantity of fish which can be raised as food in a given bulk of 
water depending upon the area and depth, but above all upon the 
usually unknown richness or poverty of the primary food supply in 
the water, is comparable with the quantity of vegetable food which 
can be raised per acre of ground ; and the liability of cultivated 
fishes and plants to fungoid and other pests is another common 
character. Besides these points of correspondence, there are other 
contrasts which should not be lost sight of, e.g., the difiiculty of 
transporting the ova of fish as contrasted with the ease with which 
the seeds of plants can be carried about ; the expense of maintaining 
a nursery of young fishes as compared with the automatic working 
of a nursery of yotmg plants ; the migratory habits of grown fishes 
as compared with the stationary habits of grown plants. When a 
thousand selected plant seeds are put into the ground, a thousand 
seedlings maj'- germinate on the spot and be subsequently planted 
out ; but when a thousand fish fry are emptied into a river or tank, 
they "swim gaily away," and unless very particular attention is 
paid to them they may never be Jieard of again. 

Proliibition of certain methods of fishing and the estabUshmenl 
of close seasons for certain fishes are difficult measures, which can 



t*RESH-WAfER FISHERIES OF CEYLON. lOl 

only be based upon a close familiarity with local conditions. Each 
river system and each tank area have to be treated separately on 
their own merits. Illegitimate fishing, such as the use of poison 
and dynamite and the wholesale damming of water-courses, does 
not usually take place in the vicinity of towns, but in more or less 
remote tributaries. On the other hand, the destruction of young 
fishes in paddy fields is a matter which calls for special attention, 
and reference should be made on this subject to the Report on 
Pisciculture in South Canara, by H. S. Thomas, Collector of South 
Canara, 1870, a copy of which has been procured through Govern- 
ment at my recommendation for the Museum Library. The point 
which requires comprehensive discussion is the destination of the 
waste water from paddy fields. If this water flows back into a river, 
or into an irrigation canal, the inundated paddy fields act as an 
efficient nursery for young fishes, provided that they are allowed 
free scope and are not trapped prematurely. Under such conditions 
a system of paddy fields is the model for a combined hatchery, 
nursery, and stock pond. 

Artificial fertilization and hatching require hatcheries and stock 
ponds which would be useful for re-stocking, with due discrimina- 
tion, both village tanks and city tanks. Replenishing the supply of 
fishes means turning immature fishes into fishable waters, where 
they can continue to grow to a marketable size ; unfortunately no 
size is too small for curry. But if Government undertook this work, 
somebody would have to pay and be paid. Recourse to artificial 
. fertilization may be unnecessary in certain cases where the seasons 
and localities of natural spawning are known. I have pubUshed in 
Spolia Zeylanica, Part XXIII., December, 1909, an account of my 
observations on the nesting habits of lula, the principal fresh-water 
food-fish of Ceylon, though not the largest. I am now in a position 
to add that an alUed species of Ophiocephalus , also used extensively 
as food and as bait for larger fishes, namely, 0. punctatus, called 
"madaya" or "mada-karaya," makes its nest amongst inshore 
rushes, though without the definite clearing that lula prepares, and 
in such spots, where there is an abundance of microscopic food for 
the ensuing fry, it deposits pale amber-coloured eggs with a single 
glistening oil-globule, which float at the surface like the eggs of lula, 
from which they could hardly be distinguished unless their parentage 
was known. I had seen a shoal of very young fry of " madaya " 
accompanied by their parents in a paddy field '' wala " at Bellana, 
near Matugama in the Kalutara District, in April, 1908 ; and on 
October 29, 1909, I saw a nest of the floating eggs in the Hunupitiya 
arm of the Colombo lake, behind Bishop's College, close to the shore, 
where there was a great quantity of the spherical aggregates of the 
colonial infusorian, Synura. 1 brought away some of the eggs and 
hatched them out, feeding the fry, after the yolk had been absorbed, 
on lake plankton, which I collected myself. 



102 s:polia zbylanica. 

The " kavaiya " {Anabas) and the " koraliya " {Etroplus sura- 
tensis) occur almost entirely in the maritime districts, and are 
therefore not suitable for stocking waters too far inland.* The eggs 
of "koraliya" are attached to the lower surfaces of stones and logs 
and are watched over by the male. On May 21, 1909, a koraliya 
nest was found in the Wellawatta canal, in the part called Paman- 
kada-ela, near the Spinning and Weaving Mills, beyond the Hilapane 
palama on the road to Nugegoda. I went there about 11 . 30 a.m. 
and saw the adults, both male and female, keeping guard. When 
the man who was with me advanced his hand to the small stone 
projecting from the bank of the canal under which the eggs were 
attached, the smaller, male, with cross markings conspicuous over 
fore body, approached and pecked at the man's fingers. The 
larger , female , kept a little in the background in deeper water. Each 
time the man touched the stone the male bit at his hand. The eggs 
were attached contiguously in a single layer on the underside of the 
stone, which was partially imbedded in the earth at the base of the 
bank of the canal. Some of the eggs were white, indicating failure 
and death. The living eggs were in an advanced stage of develop- 
ment, the embryo being formed and the yolk pigmented. The yolk 
is yellow, opaque, and darkly pigmented, but no pigment was 
present in the eye. The circulation of the blood is active, and the 
embryo can change its position within the egg membrane. In an 
egg under observation the free end of the membrane was already 
ruptured, and at one moment the head was partially extruded, 
exposing the eyes and the heart, and was then withdrawn again. 
The surface of the egg appeared minutely rogulose. The length of 
the egg, without the short stalk, is 2 mm., the width 1 mm., slightly 
narrower at the free end. Within 24 hours after finding the nest 
one of the eggs hatched out, the top of the egg membrane lifting up 
like a lid ; there is still no pigment in the eyes, and no mouth ; 4ength 
5 mm. On the second day after hatching pigment begins to appear 
in the eyes, and on the third day, when the larva is 6 mm. long, 
the mouth opens and respiratory movements commence ; foreign 
particles were noted adhering to what looked like a cement organ 
at the front of the head. The eggs of koraliya are very difficult to 
rear when removed from their proper habitat. On May 23, and 
again on June 1, more eggs were found attached to coconut husks, 
branches, and stones at Hunupitiya, Colombo, opposite the Bud- 
dhist temple. On October 28, 1909, another series of koraliya eggs 
containing formed embryos with pigmented yolk sac was found at 
Hunupitiya, in the Colombo lake, attached to the outer surface 
of a short length of water-logged bamboo stem. This species is, 
therefore, a perennial spawner. 

On May 26 a native tile (uluketa) was brought to me from , 
Welikada with a large patch of green waving spawns attached in 

* Kavaiya occurs in the great tanks, as at Kanthalai and Minneriya. 



FRESH-WATER FISHERIES OF CEYLON. 103 

contiguous clusters to the concave side of the tile on long transparent 
stalks. Out of water the appearance was that of a growth of green 
algae, or like a green scum. The egg tubes, each of which contains 
a single egg at the slightly swollen distal free extremity, are 
connected with a shapeless basal stolon which adheres to the tile 
and is beset with debris, whereas the tubes are clear and separated 
from the stolon by constrictions. The length of the egg tubes 
varies from 3 to 8 mm. The egg, as stated, lies in the distal dilated 
extremity ; it has green yolk with many oil-globules, and a diameter 
of about 0*5 mm. When the head of the embryo is formed and the 
tail detached from the yolk, the embryo lies at full length with the 
head pointing towards the base of attachment ; later, when the tail 
begins to jerk, the embryo can change its orientation, but just 
before hatching it is again found with head pointing to the base of 
the egg tube. The latter is nothing more than the enormously 
extended egg membrane ; a tube with its contained larva stretched 
at full length measured 6| mm., the larva 2 mm.; at hatching the 
total length of the larva is 2 '25 mm. These remarkable eggs 
proved to be the spawn of the fresh -water goby, Gobius giuris, called 
" weligowa," an important food-fish ; they are, however, difficult to 
rear without special appliances. On June 6 a fresh lot of weligowa 
eggs was found in a piece of iron piping, together with the parent 
fish, in the Hunupitiya division of the Colombo lake ; and on July 
28 I saw another deposit of the spawn, attached to the underside 
of a coconut leaf stalk in about 3 feet of water in the Colpetty arm 
of the lake. 

On August 31 a half -spent spawning " kendeya " (Barbus dorsalis), 
accompanied by a batch of adhesive eggs, was brought from the 
Colombo lake. The eggs measured 0'75 mm. in diameter, with a 
pale grayish translucent yolk nearly uniformly granular. The eggs 
had been caught in the act of being laid, and were apparently 
unfertilized. 

The above notes, necessarily fragmentary, will be found useful as 
giving indications of spawning seasons and habits, of which very 
little has been previously known in Ceylon. It seems to be the rule 
that solitary fishes or those that go about in pairs make nests and 
guard them ; gregarious fishes or those that go about in shoals do 
not generally make nests. The deposited eggs of such common 
fishes as kavaiya (Anabas), hunga (Saccobranchus) , and magura 
(Clarias) are still unknown. 

Lula is a predatory fish with excellent qualities. As mentioned 
above, it can be dried when obtained in superabundance ; a state- 
ment to the effect that lula is unsuitable for salting or drying in 
Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. V., 1908, p. 145, &c., requires to be modified; 
the practice of drying is carried out locally, but not generally. 
Other fishes in Ceylon which are worth cultivating on account of 
their value as nutriment are also predatory. There seems to be no 



104 SPOLIA ZBYLANIOA. 

non-predatory, nest-building species in Ceylon of equal value with 
the lula. The mahseer occurs in up-country rivers (Maskeliya) , but 
apparently is not very common in Ceylon ; and it is unsuitable 
for tank cultivation, being a migratory river fish of a pronounced 

type. 

It thus appears that there is a distinct scope in Ceylon for the 
cultivation of a non-predatory food-fish, such as the gourami, which 
would fill a gap in the fauna without displacing any native species. 
The recognition of a natural deficiency in the fauna of the inland 
waters of Ceylon is one of the chief practical results of this investi- 
gation, and indicates clearly that the already attempted introduction 
of the gourami should be j)ersevered with. Wlienever the fishes 
arrive in Ceylon from abroad they should be carefully acclimatized 
in a Government stock pond, and bj'' no manner of means turned 
loose indiscriminately. When in due course the time comes for 
them to be distributed amongst selected public waters, it would be 
useful to mark them by affixing to the base of the dorsal fin with 
silver wire' a small silver or aluminium label with a current number 
impressed upon it, the fishes so marked to be returned to the water 
if by chance they are captured ; and every time they are taken to 
be noted by some arrangement with local headmen. Whatever 
method of marking and recording be adopted, the principle remains 
the same, namely, to effect the introduction systematically and at 
considerable pains. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Arius falcarius from Angulu Eliya, August, 1909. 

Fig. 1.— Frontal view of ovigerous male, with mouth agape, 
exposing the eggs with their contained embryos in 
the buccal cavity. Note the convexity of the gular 
region. 

Fig. 2. — Embryo lying upon the yellow yolk inside the egg 
membrane, showing the paired efferent vessels of the 
yolk sac. The distal end of the efferent vessel is seen 
in front of the head, below which it enters the heart. 
Very slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 3. — Lower view of preceding, to show the unpaired efferent 
vessel of the yolk sac. 

Fig. 4.— Embryo (same stage as fig. 2) released from the tough 
elastic egg membrane by puncturing the latter with a 
needle. Total length of embryo about 21 mm. 



SPOLIA ^EYLANICA 




7. d 



A.W. del, ad nat. 



ARIUS FALCARIUS. 



West, Newman lich- 



FRESH-WATER FISHERIES OP CEYLON. 105 

Fig. 5. — Ventral view of advanced moutli fry to sliow partial 
enclosure of yolk sac by the larval parictes. Total 
length 50 mm. ; tail-fin deeply forked, lobes rounded. 
Wlien alive theie is a prominent white brow-spot 
on the level of tlie hinder quarter of tlie eyes in 
dorsal view. 

Fig. 6.— View of palate of adult female 14| inches long. The 
palatine tract on each side measures 25 X 12 mm., 
and the teeth are present in full strength ; between 
their anterior ends there is an exceptional pair of 
round vomerine groups, a, angle of gape; a', angle 
of jaw, acetabulum formed by the quadrate; the 
lower jaw has been removed. 

Fig. 7.— View of palate of adult male 11 inches long; size of 
palatine tract 17 X 8 mm.; no vomerine teetli; 
palatine teetli weak and sparse. 



6(22)10 



106 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



NOTES. 



5. Bamhlinfj Notes : — 

Life of the Leaf Insect. — The development of the common " Leaf 
Insect " {PulchriphyUium crurifoUum) is very slow. When kept in 
captivity eggs are constantly hatching out, and it is difficult to keep 
count of the separate broods. By isolating an insect, immediately 
after its emergence from the egg, I have ascertained that it takes 
about eight months to complete its development. This particular 
insect was isolated on November 25, 1909, and appeared in its 
mature form on July 26 of the present year. The actual time 
occupied in its development has been 243 days. In its adult stage 
the insect may live for a month or more. These figures are for the 
female insect. The development and subsequent life of the male 
will be much shorter. 

A Cannibal Bat. — [Augtist 7.) — I found the remains of a small bat 
in my verandah this morning, together with the wings and feathers 
of a " sun-bird " {Cinnyris zeylonicus), under circumstances plainly 
indicating that it had fallen a victim to a carnivorous bat, probably 
a species of Megaderma, of which we have two species {lyra and 
spasma) in Ceylon. Of Megaderma lyra (the Indian Vampire Bat), 
Blandford writes : " During the day this bat hides in caves, old 
buildings, roofs of houses, &c. The food may consist partly of 
insects, but it is certain that Megaderma lyra feeds on smaller bats, 
for one was detected and observed in the act by Blyth, and it 
probably lives chiefly on small vertebrata." 

A large Green Viper. — {September 15.) — An unusually large speci- 
men of the " Green Viper " {Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) was 
brought to me to-day. It had been suspended by the neck, and 
was almost dead. However, it appeared to recover when the 
ligature was removed. 

September 16. — The recovery of the yiper was only temporary. 
It died this afternoon, after bringing up a half -digested rat. It 
is quite the largest specimen that I have seen. Boulenger quotes 
31 inches as the limit of size. This specimen has a total length of 
40 inches, of which the tail occupied only 6f. Its girth across the 
middle of the body is 3J inches. The head, which is very evil- 
looking, has a breadth of If inches. It is of a beautiful grass green 
colour, with irregular elongate black dorsal patches, from which 
branches are given off enclosing large rounded areas on each side ; 
these enclosed areas are disposed asymmetrically. 



NOTES. 107 

This viper, in spite of its villainous physiognomy, is reputed to 
be the least dangerous of any of our venomous snakes, with the 
possible exception of the tiny Callophis, about the venom of wMch 
little or nothing is known. There are no recorded cases of death 
or of serious illness from the bite of the Green Viper. It is possible, 
however, that the amount of venom that could be injected by such 
a large specimen as that here described might result in more serious 
consequences. 

A Passenger-carrying Beetle.— The "Dung Beetles" {Coprini) 
are very generally infested by large numbers of parasitic mites, 
which can scarcely be classed as passengers. But a specimen of 
Scarabceus gangeticus recently flew into my room and — when 
captured — was found to be carrying a number of small winged flies 
These flies appeared to be in no way inconvenienced by the somewhat 
nnmnlinated process of unfolding and furling of the wings of the 

' ' "d, but 
16 flies 
eed in 
id find 
a store 

)mmon 

sidered 

llowing 

donally 

reeding 

tes (the 

liooking 

iitterfly 

)llowing 

aued its 

)utterfly 

•ound to 

meet it, making repeated pounces at rne iubcuu ao lv ,^^.^.^.^1 against 

the wire gauze. This particular butterfly, by the way, is supposed 

to mimic Papilio hector — a species that exhibits warning colours, 

and is credited with distasteful properties. It is doubtful if a 

squirrel would have much chance of capturing an uninjured butterfly 

in the open. 

Crows and their Ways.— In the last number of Spolia I 
described the chase of a full-grown hare by a crow. I have since 
rescued a young leveret from the unwelcome attentions of a pak of 
these omnivorous birds. When I came upon the scene the baby 
hare had its back against a high bank and was pluckily fighting 
the two crows, making feints at them with its front feet whenever 
they tried to approach too close. The crows appeared to be 
distinctly afraid of a front attack. They sidled about, just out of 



106 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



NOTES. 



5. Ramhlinfj Notes : — 

Life of the Leaf Insect. — The development of the common " Leaf 
Insect " {Pulchriphyllium crurifolium) is very slow. When kept in 
captivity eggs are constantly hatching out, and it is difficult to keep 
count of the separate broods. By isolating an insect, immediately 
after its emergence from the egg, I have ascertained that it takes 
about eight months to complete its development. This particular 
insect ■"'^^° ier^loff^rl mi 'Nrnvmnhftr 9.^ 1909. and aDi')cared in its 
matui 
occup 

femal Spolia Zeylanica, Voh VII., Part XXVI., 
will b December, 1910. 
AC 



^ „ ^^^^ * Correction Slip. 

of a " 

jj^^jigg Since writing my note on "A Passenger-carrying 

a spe Beetle," a not« on the subject has appeared in "The 

S'pasrri Entomologist's Monthly Magazine " for December, 1910 

Bland (p. 275), in which the fly has been described as a new 

buildi species, under the name of Limosina equitans, Collins 

insect (Fam. Borhoridce). 

for 01 E. E. GREEN. 

proba 

Al; 

men oi uue \jriccu vijjci ^j^ ,!,„»,.., ^^.^v. .--^ ...^^.^ — ^ _, 

brought to me to-day. It had been suspended by the neck, and 
was almost dead. However, it appeared to recover when the 
ligature was removed. 

September 16. — The recovery of the viper was only temporary. 
It died this afternoon, after bringing up a half -digested rat. It 
is quite the largest specimen that I have seen. Boulenger quotes 
31 inches as the limit of size. This specimen has a total length of 
40 inches, of which the tail occupied only 6|. Its girth across the 
middle of the body is 3i inches. The head, which is very evil- 
looking, has a breadth of If inches. It is of a beautiful grass green 
colour, with irregular elongate black dorsal patches, from which 
branches are given off enclosing large rounded areas on each side ; 
these enclosed areas are disposed asymmetrically. 



NOTES. 107 

This viper, in spite of its villainous physiognomy, is reputed to 
be the least dangerous of any of our venomous snakes, with the 
possible exception of the tiny Callophis, about the venom of wliich 
little or nothing is known. There are no recorded cases of death 
or of serious illness from the bite of the Green Viper. It is possible, 
however, that the amount of venom that could be injected by such 
a large specimen as that here described might result in more serious 
consequences. 

A Passenger-carrying Beetle. — The " Dung Beetles " (Coprini) 
are very generally infested by large numbers of parasitic mites, 
which can scarcely be classed as passengers. But a specimen of 
Scarabceiis gangeticus recently flew into my room and — when 
captured — was found to be carrying a number of small winged flies 
These flies appeared to be in no way inconvenienced by the somewhat 
complicated process of unfolding and furling of the wings of the 
beetle. Nor did they willingly leave the insect when handled, but 
accompanied it into the poison bottle. It is probable that the flies 
(which have been determined as a species of Borhorus) breed in 
the store of dung laid up by the beetle for its own family, and find 
this method of transport an easy way of obtaining access to a store 
of suitable food. 

Palm Squirrel and Butterfly. — I do not think that the common 
little striped squirrel {Sciurus palmarum) has ever been considered 
in the light of a possible enemy to butterflies ; but the following 
occurrence apparently shows that this animal may occasionally 
indulge in an insect diet. I have some large open-air breeding 
cages in front of my laboratory. A pair of Paqnlio polytes (the 
female of the hector form) occupied one of these cages. Looking 
across at the cage one morning I noticed the female butterfly 
fluttering about in a rather excited manner, and a squirrel following 
every movement — from the outside of the cage. It continued its 
fruitless chase for at least a quarter of an hour. Wlien the butterfly 
flew off to the opposite side of the cage, the squirrel raced round to 
meet it, making repeated pounces at the insect as it fluttered against 
the wire gauze. This particular butterfly, by the way, is supposed 
to mimic Papilio hector — a species that exhibits warning colours, 
and is credited with distasteful properties. It is doubtful if a 
squirrel would have much chance of capturing an uninjured butterfly 
in the open. 

Crows and their Ways. — In the last number of Spolia I 
described the chase of a full-grown hare by a crow. I have since 
rescued a young leveret from the unwelcome attentions of a pair of 
these omnivorous birds. When I came upon the scene the baby 
hare had its back against a high bank and was pluckily fighting 
the tAvo crows, making feints at them with its front feet whenever 
they tried to approach too close. The crows appeared to be 
distinctly afraid of a front attack. They sidled about, just out of 



108 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

striking distance, but showed their impatience by picking up bits of 
sticks and biting them viciously. I am afraid that the defenceless 
little animal would have had small chance of eventual escape if I 
had not interfered. I drove the birds away and placed the hare in 
a cage, liberating it the next day when the crows had found other 
occupation. 

Our local crow is the larger and more formidable hill species, 
Corone macrorhyncha. They are most pertinaceous marauders of 
the fowl yard. Newly-hatched chickens have to be confined within 
coops where these birds abound. They are systematic robbers of 
birds' nests, and frequently kill other birds. I saw a pair of crows 
single out a parrot from a small flock, drive it away from its 
companions, and knock it to the ground. There the parrot showed 
fight, and kept the crows at -bay until I came to the rescue. I 
picked up the parrot (getting severely bitten for my kind intentions) , 
drove off the crows, and liberated the victim, which appeared to be 
uninjured. In a moment the crows reappeared and took up 
the chase. The parrot was brought to earth again, and was rescued 
a second time. On this occasion I thought it best to keep it in 
confinement until the crows had lost sight of their anticipated prey. 

The amusing manner in which a crow will bamboozle a dog out 
of a bone has been described more than once, but may be repeated 
again irom personal experience, as I have seen the game played 
with my own dog on my own lawn. The manoeuvre is always 
worked by a pair of the birds. The dog is happily engaged with a 
bone on the grass. One of the conspirators quietly takes up his 
position behind, while the other approaches the dog from in front. 
The dog growls, but the crow gradually sidles nearer. Finally the 
dog leaves his bone and drives off the intruder. Having easily 
effected this, he returns expecting to enjoy his meal in peace. 
But, in the meantime, the second crow has seized his opportunity 
and has removed the bone of contention to the branch of a neigh- 
bouring tree, where he is joined by his comrade. I have seen the 
same tactics employed against a domestic fowl that had secured a 
savoury morsel. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



6. The Ceylon Giant Tortoise. — The following letter was written 
by me to the ' ' Indian Field " in answer to a correspondent who had 
confused the famous Colombo tortoise, which died in 1894, with 
one which is supposed to be still living at Matara: — " I have had 
my attention drawn to an article in the ' Indian Field,' which speaks 
of a giant tortoise at Matara. There is no doubt that if such a 
tortoise exist at Matara, it is not the one which was found in Colombo 
at the time of the British occupation in 1796. This famous tortoise 
lived for many years in the grounds of a villa called ' Uplands,' 



NOTES. 109 

in Mutwal, near Colombo. When ' Uplands ' was sold to the 
Government in 1894, for the purpose of building a graving dock, 
the animal was removed to Victoria Park, Colombo, where it 
survived only a week. It must have been considerably over a 
hundred years old at the time of its death. For nearlj^ twenty 
years before its death the tortoise was totally blind, but this 
infirmity did not prevent it from roaming over the ' Uplands' grounds. 
It is stated that when the bell was rung for meals, the tortoise would 
make its way to the bungalow to be fed. The shell and stuffed skin 
of this famous old tortoise are now in the Colombo Museum, so that 
I am able to supply the measurements of the animal. Total length 
from snout to tip of tail, 5 feet ; highest point of carapace above the 
ground, 2 feet ; length of shell, 3 feet 4 inches ; width of shell, 2 feet ; 
circumference of shell, 10 feet. This 'Uplands' tortoise was a 
specimen of Testudo elephanfina , a species which is still to be found in 
Aldabra, an island to the north of Madagascar, where it is preserved 
by the British Government. There appears to be no record of the 
circumstances in which this interesting specimen was brought to 
Ceylon." 

Since the above was written, the Librarian of the Museum has 
directed my attention to an article by M. Sauzier on " La tortue 
terrestre gigantesque de Colombo" in "La Petite Revue." The writer 
throws doubt on the suggestion made by the " Ceylon Observer " 
(April 25, 1870) that the tortoise was sent from Java as a present 
to one of the Dutch Governors of Ceylon, since Java does not 
possess any indigenous giant tortoise. He is disposed to believe 
that the Colombo tortoise came from Mauritius, which was occupied 
by the Dutch up to 1710. He agrees with the "Observer" that 
the tortoise was over two hundred years old at the time of its death. 
There appears to be no reliable information on this point. 

Lydekker in his book "Mostly Mammals " has erroneously 
stated that the Colombo tortoise died in 1897, and was a specimen 
of Teshulo sumeirei, and Gadow in his volume of " Amphibia and 
Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History has repeated these 
errors. The Colombo tortoise differs from T. sumeirei in having 
a small nuchal plate at the anterior end of the carapace. 

There are four closely allied species of Testudo found in Aldabra, 
and these are now grouped together as one species. These are 
gigantea, elephantina, hololissa, and ponderosa, and as the name 
gigantea is the oldest, it claims priority. So that the Colombo 
tortoise now bears the name Testudo gigantea. 

Since writing this note I have been infornied by Mr. P. E. Pieris, 
C.C.S., that there is a giant tortoise living at present near Galle. 
This is probably the " Matara tortoise " referred to by the corre- 
spondent of the •' Indian Field." Mr. Pieris lias promised to get 
iturtlier information on this point. 

JOSEPH PEARSON. 



110 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

7. An interesting Frog. — Mr. E. E. Green has handed over to me 
a curious frog from Maha Illuppallama, which has been identified 
as Cacopus glohulosus, described by Giinther in " The Reptiles of 
British India." Its chief interest lies in the fact that it is distended 
in an extraordinary manner so as to look like a ball, from which the 
head and limbs project. Giinther states that this distension is 
caused by a fluid contained in the abdominal cavity. A brief 
examination shows that this is not the case, and that the fluid- 
containing cavity is none other than the subcutaneous lymph 
sinuses which are greatly enlarged in this form. The dorsal sinus 
is especially spacious, and has a height of 15 mm. from* floor to roof. 
(The length of the frog from mouth to vent is 75 mm.) In Giinther's 
account he speaks of the distension of a female specimen being due 
to the growth of the ovaries, and his description suggests that the 
ovaries grow into the large cavity on the back. This is not possible, 
as the subcutaneous lymph sinuses are separate from the coelom. 
There is only one other species in this genus, namely, Cacopus 
sy stoma, which differs but slightly from C. glohulosus, and which 
resembles it in the robust appearance due to the enlargement of the 
subcutaneous lymph sinuses. This interesting character is not 
given in the diagnosis of the genus either by Giinther or Boulenger. 

JOSEPH PEARSON. 



8. The African Land Snail in Ceylon. — A very large specimen of 
Achatina fulica was sent to me in September by the Hon. Mr. C. T. D. 
Vigors, Government Agent, Western Province, from a garden at 
Moragalla,in Beruwalbadda of the Kalutara Totamune. The total 
weight of the animal and shell was 13 ounces, and the length of the 
shell from the apex to the base was 6| inches. This appears to be 
the largest specimen of this species recorded from Ceylon. 

JOSEPH PEARSON. 



■ 9. Symphyla of Ceylon. — When turning over stones and logs of 
wood, both in the neighbourliood of Kandy (1,500-2,500 ft.) and 
at Pattipola (6,000 ft.), a minute white centipede is frequently 
found. The group— Symphyla— to wliich it belongs i.s one of 
exceptional hiterest anatomically, as it helps us to bridge over the 
wide gap between insects and the centipede-like ancestor, from 
which they are commonly supposed to have been derived. In 
spite of the interest of the group, liowever, hardly anything is 
known of its embryology and little of its habits. 



NOTES. Ill 

The common species in Ceylon is identical with one found 
abundantly during the rains, and more rarely in dry weather in 
the compound of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. I have aheady 
described it (1910) under the name Scutigcrdla unguiculata, Hansen, 
sub sp. indica, and recorded its known distribution. 

On going through my Ceylon material prior to incorporating it 
in the general collection of the Indian Museum, two specimens of 
another species of Symphyla — Scutigerella orientalis, Hansen — 
were discovered. Hansen records the species from Java, Sumatra, 
Koh Chang Island (Gulf of Siam), and Bankok ; but I know of no 
previous record from Ceylon. These two specimens were found 
at Pattipola on July 2 or 3 of this year (1910), but I have no 
recollection of the circumstances under which they were found. 
It is, however, almost certain that they came from the jungle, as 
almost the whole of my collecting was done there. S. orientalis 
is both longer and stouter than 8. unguiculata (indica) , this difference 
being very evident even to tlie naked eye. The latter attains a 
length of little (if at all) over 4 mm. ; but niy specimens of the 
former are both about 6 mm. long. 

The Symphyla are always minute, but when examined under a 
strong hand lens they can at once be distinguished from the young 
of other centipedes by the presence of a pair of (stout and unjointed) 
cerci, which project backwards from the last segment of the body. 
Hansen (1904) gives tables, descriptions, and figures, from which it 
is easy to identify any of the species known to him. Since he wrote, 
Imms (1908) has described one additional Oriental species, Scuti- 
gerella suhunguiculata , found by himself in the Himalayas ; and I 
have described (1910) the common Ceylon and Calcutta form — 
S. unguiculata (indica). 

List of Works referred to. 

1904. Hansen, H. J. .. "The Genera and Species of Symphyla," 

Q. J. M. S. (N. S.), XLVII., 1904, 
pp. 1-101, PI. I.-VII. 

1908. Imms, A. D. . . " On a New Species of Symphyla from 

the Himalayas," Journ. Linn. Soc, 
Zool., XXX., 1909, pp. 252-255, PI. 
XXXI. 

1910. Gravely, F. H. . . " On a Subspecies of Scutigerella ungui- 
culata, Hansen, found in Calcutta," 
Rec. Ind.Mus.,V., 1910, pp. 157-159, 
text fig. 

F. H. GRAVELY. 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND PLANARTAN. /Cf- lWi'?I 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND PLANARIAN FROM CEYLON. 

By Dr. Iwaji Ikeda. Np'x^ ^?as* 

(With Plate IV. and one Text Figui-e.) ""^' *> 



IN March last Professor R. C. Punnett kindly handed me an 
interesting animal which was caught at Namunukula, Ceylon, 
by Dr. Willey, then the Director of the Museum at Colombo. At 
first I took the animal to be a land nemertean, but it soon became 
clear that I was dealuig with a land planarian. Further examina- 
tion has revealed the fact that the animal is not only an undescribed 
form of the Rhynchodemidae, but it also possesses several remarkable 
characters, some of which are quite new to the family. Moreover, 
some of these peculiarities are similar to certain typical character- 
istics of the family Cotyloplanidse. The following is a brief 
description of this curious land planarian, representing a new genus 
and a new species. I wish to record my thanks to Professor Punnett , 
who kindly gave me the valuable specimen in connection with my 
studies. 

Pseudartiocotylus ceylonicus, n. gen. et n. sp. 

The single specimen (Plate IV., fig. 1) was preserved in formaline 
and was in a fairly good condition, except that it was torn near the 
posterior end. The body, which is nearly round in section, is about 
28 mm. long and 2 mm. tliick at its broadest part. The anterior end 
is much broader than the posterior, which is pointed. Anteriorly 
the body is conspicuously compressed dorso-ventrally so as to form a 
distinct head-flap, which is turned upwards. On the ventral side 
of the head-flap there is a small depression, which is shallow but 
well defined, lying just in front of the anterior termination of the 
sole. Anteriorly and laterally the depression is bordered by a 
prominent ridge of a horseshoe shape, while posteriorly it becomes 
shallower, and gradually merges into the general ventral surface. 
By means of sections it has been ascertained that this ridge repre- 
sents anterior portions of the so-called glandular margins (" Driisen- 
Kante "), which are developed sHghtly below the lateral margins 
of the body, and extend backwards to about 3-5 mm. from the head- 
apex. Fuller description of this structure will be given later. At 
the very tip of the head there is present a small colourless spot (see 
Plate IV., figs. 1 and 3) measuring about 0'6 mm^ in diameter, which 
is, as I shall try to prove later, a sensory organ not hitherto dticribed 
in land planarians. Two small deeply-pigmented eye-spots (see 
Plate IV., figs. 1 and 3) are situated slightly behind the above organ. 

On the dorsal side the colour of the animal is dark brown mixed 
with a light violet tint, both ends', especially the anterior, being 

Q 6(2)11 



114 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

much more lightly coloured. There are three black dorsal stripes, 
the medium one being narrower than the two others. On account 
of the deep ground colour on the greater part of tlie body the stripes 
are more clearly defined at the two extremities, particularly at the 
anterior end, where the ground colour is much hghter. The colour 
of the ventral surface of the body is grayish, excepting a median 
colourless band represents the sole, which is shghtly elevated. 

The sole extends almost the whole length of the body, but ends 
abruptly behind the ventral depression of the head-flap. Near its 
anterior end the sole is ahttle broader, so as to show a special area 
(see Plate IV., fig. 4) about 0*4 mm. long. Close to both lateral 
edges of this swollen area are two fine parallel ridges (see Plate IV., 
fig. 4). On examining the sections it is seen that these two ridges 
are cihated, as also is the shallow groove between them. The mouth 
is a small elliptical sUt near the middle of the sole. The genital 
opening is about 5 mm. behind the mouth. 

All three kinds of the " Stabchen " (von Graff) are met with in 
the epidermal layer. Rliammites and chondrocysts generally occur 
together, and are very widely distributed almost over the entire 
body-surface, excepting the sole and that part of the head-surface 
which hes above the brain and is dorsal to the horseshoe-shaped 
glandular ridge. The chondrocyst (see Plate IV. , fig. 5, ch) is a rela 
tively large and oblong body, nearly homogeneous in structure, which 
is Hghtly stained with hsematoxylin. It is found almost always 
surrounded by a number of long and slender rhammifces {rm). The 
latter are easily distinguished from other " Stabchen " by their 
thread-Uke shape and curled, pointed endings. In those narrow 
regions which are hemmed in between the sole and the glandular 
margins (inclusive of the ridge), the two " Stabchen " are sparsely 
scattered, and the chondrocysts are rather indistinctly outlined (see 
Plate IV., fig. 8). The rhabdites are straight tMck bodies pointed 
at both ends (see Plate IV., fig. ^,rd), and are moderately stained by 
hsematoxyUn, more lightly than the rhammites, but more deeply 
than the chondrocysts, so that they are readily distinguished. The 
rhabdites are remarkably scarce. They are only found in those 
regions which He between the sole and the glandular margins, and 
extend posteriorly only as far as the ventral ciliated organs. They 
are never found in company with chondrocysts or rhammites. The 
presence of the three sorts of " Stabchen" and the peculiar distri- 
bution of the rhabdites mark definite, though not very important, 
points of distinction })etween the present species and other members 
of the Rhynchodemidse, since the latter, according to von Graff,* 
form a group in which the three " Stabchen " rarely occur together, 
and the rhabdites, if present, are usually scattered over the whole 
body-surface (as in Dolichoplana) , or over both the dorsal and ventral 

* Von Graff, Ludwig : Monographien der Turbellarien, II. Triclada Terri- 
cola (Land Planarien). Liepzig, 1899. 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND TLANARIAN. 115 

surface of the head. Further description of the distribution of the 
rhabdites in the horseshoe-shaped depression of the head will be 
given later in connection with tlie sensory and the glandular margins. 

Among the various epidermal glands, the erytlirophile and the 
marginal glands need only be referred to here, as the others have 
less direct relation to the classification. The erythrophile glands 
(Plate IV., fig. 5, ep) are in this species uniformly distributed over 
the entii'e surface, though they are a little more densely aggregated 
in the sole-epitheUum. They are readily recognized by their 
coai'se granular contents, which have a strong affinity for eosin 
stains. The presence of the erytlu-opliile glands and the chondro- 
cysts in the epidermis seems to preclude any direct generic 
relationship of the present form to Platydemus, in which the two 
structures arb completely absent. 

The marginal glands in this species are well developed, and have 
their openings on the glandular ridges and on the glandular margins. 
Then- posterior limit is about on the same level as that of the 
ovaries, being about 3'5 mm. from the head-tip. The glands are 
very large and long, reaching nearly to the brain or the lateral 
nerve cords and the gut (Plate IV., figs. 6 and 8, mg). They have 
an extremely oblique course from behind forwards, except at the 
head-apex, where they run directly downwards to open on the 
prominent ridge of this region (see Plate IV., fig. 6). The present 
species is peculiar in having both the erythrophile and the marginal 
glands, since, according to von Graff, these two glands rarely occur 
together in the land planarians. Hence he states that '" im Allge- 
meine en erytlu-ophile Kornerdriisen der Haut und Kantendiiisen 
einander ausschliessen scheinen, da es nur zwei Formen giebt, bei 
welchen beide zusammengefunden werden. Es sind dies Dolicho- 
plana feildeni und Polycladus gayi, doch kann ich wenigstens von 
letzter Species bestimmt angesehen, dass die Kantendriisen derselb- 
en gar nicht den Charakter der Kantendriisen der iibrigen Land- 
planarien an sich tragen, sondern sich mehr als eine lokale Anhauf- 
ung von birnformigen erythrophile Driisen darstellen. Es liegb 
dem nach hier derselbe Fall vor wie bei Rhynchodemus terrestris, wo 
in der Umgebung der Sinneskante — also an der Stelle pflegen — 
eine dichtere Anhaufung erythropliile Kornerdriisen zu beobachten 
ist."* It may be mentioned here that the present species is only 
remotely related to the genus DoUchoplana, since it lacks the 
important generic character of having the longitudinal parenchyme 
muscles developed only on the ventral side of the body. Von 
Graff's view of the relation between the erythro-phile and the mar- 
ginal glands may explain the nature of another kind of marginal 
glands which are found in the present species on the irmer or ventral 
border of the glandular ridge (see Plate IV., fig. 8, mg). These 

* Vou Graft', up. cit,, p. 06. 



116 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

secondary marginal glands, as they may be termed, appear to have 
several characters which are intermediate between those of the 
erythrophile glands and the true marginal glands; for instance, 
they are larger than the first, but much smaller than the second ; 
they are stained less intensely with eosin than the first, and are also 
stained very lightly with hsematoxylin. The erythrophile granules 
are more minute than those of the true erythrophile gland. As fig. 8 
represents, these secondary marginal glands form a thin layer (two 
or three cells thick in section) immediately below the glandular 
ridge. The two zones in which both sorts of marginal glands open 
to the exterior are separated from each other by a narrow area of 
the epidermis, which is characterized by containing a few closely- 
set rhabdites (see Plate IV., fig. 8, rd). There is a similar distinct 
layer of rhabdites more ventral to that just mentioned (see Plate IV. , 
fig. S,rd). Between the two rhabdite layers is interposed a narrow 
clear space of the epidermis (see Plate IV., fig. 6 and 8, sm), probably 
corresponding to the so-called sensory margin known in many land 
planarians. 

The structm-e, which may be compared with the " Sinneskante," 
is seen, in transverse sections tlu'ough the glandular ridges, to be ?. 
narrow clear space of the epidermis (about 0*02 mm. wide) lying 
between the two rliabdite-layers. Its most characteristic features 
are the total absence of nuclei in the epidermis of this region, and 
also the absence (probably apparent) of the basement membrane 
(see Plate IV., fig. 8, sm). The epidermis is here represented by a 
group of faintly stained fine threads which frequently anastmoose. 
These tlu"eads are directly continuous with a small, clear, and com- 
pact mass of elongated cells , wliicli are certainly nucleated. The cells 
run parallel to each other and obliquely to the epidermal surface. I 
have not been able to detect any distinct connection of the above 
cells to the nerve-fibres, which abound in the neighbouring parenchy- 
matous tissue. Nor have I found any ciHary appendages either on the 
sensory margin or on the whole epidermis, excepting that of the sole. 

Although there are still some points to be elucidated in the 
histology of the sensory tissue described above, I cannot entertain 
any doubt as to the homology of this structure with the " Sinnes- 
kante " observed by von Graff in many land planarians. Three 
chief points of houiology may be noticed : (1) the absence of nuclei 
in the external plasmic layer ; (2) the direct connection of the 
latter t3 the underlying nucleated spindle-shaped cells ; and (3) the 
absence or imperfect formation of the basement membrane. If 
the above homology be accepted, the species under examination 
differs in a striking manner from other land planarians with regard 
to the relative ]>ositions of the sensOiy and glandular margins. In 
all previously known cases the former invariably lies to the latter, 
while in the present case the relative positions are reversed. Lastly, 
it nmst be adclud that that horseshoe-shaped depression which is 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND PLANARIAN. 117 

bordered by the glandular ridge of similar shape has notliing to do 
with the so-called " Sinnesgriibchen," but seems rather to be an 
artificial effect, due to the contraction of the radial parenchyma 
muscles, which are specially well developed in this region, and extend 
from the ventral side of the brain to the dermal layers forming the 
roof of the depression (see Plate IV., figs. 6 and 8). 

The structure of the single eye-like organ (see Plate IV., fig. 9, ao) 
at the head-tip presents some points of interest. Fig. 9 represents 
a median saggital section tlu'ough a small portion of that region of 
the head which contains the organ. Here it is represented by a 
special clear part of the epithelium, which lies above a region of 
parenchyme, which is pecuUar in having none of the fine pigment 
granules wliich are elsewhere present in great abundance. In this 
region the epidermis (ao) contains neither nucleated cells nor any 
sort of epidermal glands, but consists merely of a plasmic layer, 
which takes the stain faintly, and which contains minute vacuoles 
and irregular radial striations, as if to indicate cell boundaries. In 
the parenchyme underlying this part of the epidermis there are 
ordinary parenchyme-cells . together with a few muscle-fibres and 
numerous nerve-fibres (npl). There is also a thin cell- layer 
composed of slender nucleated cells, which lie vertically on the 
basement membrane and the dermal musculature. Owing to the 
inadequate fixation of the specimen, I have not been able to make 
out what relations exist between the outei? non-nucleated plasmic 
layer and the inner nucleated layer. But from the close resemblance 
to the similar structm-es ah-eady described on the sensory margin, 
I am inclined to regard both layers as actually continuous with 
each other tlirough the basement membrane. 

A striking feature of the present species is the presence of paired 
ciUated organs on the sole. Seen in sections the groove itself (Plate 
IV., figs. 7 and 10, co) is rather shallow, and is bordered on either 
side by a comparatively prominent ridge. The cilia wliich cover 
the surface of the organ as well as the sole (see Plate IV., fig. 10, s) 
are longest on the ridges, shortest on the sole, and of an intermediate 
length in the groove. The epithehum lining the groove and ridges 
is formed of nucleated cells, which stain fairly, and have a coarsely 
reticulated plasma. The nuclei are perceptibly smaller than those 
of the neighbouring epithelial cells. The ciHated epithehum which 
lines the groove and ridges does not contain any " Stabchen " or 
epidermal glands, and is sharply separated from the overlying 
parenchyme by the distinct basement membrane and the two 
dermal layers (dm). The parenchyme in this region is rich in fine 
branches of the nerve fibres (see Plate IV., fig. 10, npl), which are 
probably connected with the ciliated organ. When I detected these 
curious organs, I supposed they might be something similar to the 
suckers of the Cotyloplanidse. But this is merely superficial, since 
both organs are entirely different in their histological structure. 



118 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

No particular mention need be made of the epithelial layer of the 
sole, except to point out that the epithelium is composed of a single 
layer of cubical ciliated cells, wliich are interrupted by numerous 
erythrophile and cyanophile glands. The " Stabchen " never 
occur in this region, though a very few rhammites are often found 
in that part of the epithelium which passes over from the sole 
to the inner ridge of the ciliated organ (Plate IV., fig. 10, rm). 
I have carefully examined the sections of the sole to ascertain 
if there were any sinking of the sole-epithelial cells into the 
parenchyme, as von Graff has observed in many species of the 
genus Rhynchodemus. But I have not recognized this phenomenon 
in a single case. This fact and the presence of the well-developed 
marginal glands must be regarded as evidence against the direct 
relationship of the present form to the genus Rhynchodemus. 

The structure of two eyes is essentially the same as described 
and figured by von Graff* in Platydemus grandis, Spencer. The 
only point of difference is that the vitreous body filling the interior 
of the eye-camera is represented in the present case by a homo- 
geneous substance perforated by many irregular clear spaces ; 
consequently there is no indication of any trace of the prismatic 
structures, which are, according to von Graff, always present in the 
so-called " Retina- Augen." But I fear that the deviation shown 
in the present instance is not actual, but is probably due to the 
improper fixation of the eye tissues. 

As mentioned above, the longitudinal parenchyme muscles (see 
Plate IV., fig. 7, Iprn.) are, as in all genera of the Rhynchodemida, 
except Dolicho'plana, developed all round in the parenchyme as a 
thick and continuous sheet surrounding the gut and the central 
nerve cords. 

The two ovaries are situated about 3*5 mnx. from the head end. 
They give rise to two slender oviducts, which run straight backwards 
along the dorso-lateral side of the two nerve cords. The testes are 
numerous, roughly 50 to 60 on each side, and are arranged generally 
in two irregular alternate rows. Their anterior extremities are 
about 0"5 mm. behind the ovaries, and they extend posteriorly as 
far as the mouth. The two vasa deferentia run posteriorly along the 
inner side of the oviducts. I regret thait owing to my careless manipu- 
lation while cutting the body with the scissors the connection of the 
common duct of the vasa deferentia with the penis was destroyed. 
Consequently I have not been able to determine how the common 
male duct enters into the penis, and how the latter opens to the male 
atrium. In the attached semi- diagrammatic figure representing 
the copulatory organs the broken parts are indicated by dotted 
Unes. At the level of the common genital opening (go) the male 
atrium (ma) communicates with the underlying female atrium (fa) , 



* Von Graff, op. cit., p. 144, figs. 1 and 2, in Taf. L. 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND PLANARIAN. 



119 



wliich is about 0*2 mm. wide. This female atrium is connected 
posteriorly with a long tubular cavity (ut) , which is about 1 mm. 
long and O'l to 0-15 mm. wide. The walls of the atrium and the 
tubular cavity are of the same structure, that is, the inner colunuiar 
ciliated cells, the outer thick muscular layer, and the outermost 
thick covering of the tubular glands. The glandular duct (gd), 
which is also invested with the tubular glands, opens into the female 
atrium by a small pore which lies on the left side and at the anterior 
end of the tubular cavitj^ The short proximal portion (va) of 
this duct is much narrower and less glandular than the greater distal 
part ; the former may probably be the so-called vagina. The 
glandular duct gives off a slender canal, which swells abruptly into 
a spacious cavity (sr) directed posteriorly and nearly horizontally. 




^:h 



A semi-diagrammatic figure showing the copulatory organs seen from the 
left side : fa, female atrium ; gd, female glandular duct ; go, common genital 
opening ; ma, male atrium ; od, oviduct on the left side ; pn, penis; sr, seminal 
receptacle ; ut, uterus ; r^a, vagina ; vd, vas deferens. 



The latter cavity communicates in a peculiar manner with the 
middle part of the tubular cavity (ut) through a broad aperture. 
The waUs of tliis cavity, too, are essentially of the same structure 
as those of the atrium and the tubular cavity, so that we may admit 
that these tliree cavities were originally derivatives of one cavity or 
primary female atrium. It is, however, somewhat difficult to 
clearly identify these different compartments with von Graff's 
diagrams illustrating the types of the copulatory organs. From 
the point of view of some structural and topographical analogies, 
I wiU call the three cavities respectively the female atrium, the 
uterus (the tubular cavity), and the seminal receptacle. That the 
uterus and the glandular duct communicate with each other by a 
connecting passage is a remarkable fact , which has been known only 
in Artiocotylus S'peciosus* (the Cotyloplanidae). Von Graff states : 



* Von Graff, op. cit., pp. -201 and 209. Text figs. 58 and 59. 



120 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



' ' Die merkwiirdige Erscheinung an den weiblichen Copulationsorgan 
der vorliegenden Art {A. speciosus) ist nun aber der Umstand, dass 
von der Stelle, wo der unpaare Driisengang in die Vagina einmiindet, 
ein knrzer Verbindungsgang zum Trichter des Uterusstieles abgeht 
und dadurch eine Communication mit dem Uterus herstellt. . . ."* 
In that species, too, the connecting passage " empf angt ebensowenig 
als der Uterus Schalendriisen." Then , the two structures in question 
differ slightly from each other in their respective relative positions 
and degrees of development ; that is, in Artiocotylus speciosus the 
structure is a simple canal passage, which arises from the proximal 
part of the uterus and ends in the vagina, while in the present 
species it is a spacious thick-walled cavity connecting the middle 
part of the uterus to the proximal end of the glandular duct. Thus, 
the female genital ducts are compared in this manner, and also when 
the probably superficial resemblance shown by the ventral ciliated 
organs and the suckers is borne in mind, the two otherwise remotely 
related forms may appear to exhibit a very close relationship. But 
at present I am not in a position to decide whether this interesting 
similarity has any phylogenetic significance. 

From the description and some collations so far given with regard 
to the principal specific characteristics, it will be manifest that the 
present species belongs to the Rhynchodemidse , and cannot be 
legitimately attached to any of the seven genera composing this 
family. In some external characters several of the seven genera 
bear more or less close relationships to the present species. The 
following table will make clear the comparison : — 

X means that the animal possesses the character of the heading 
under which it is placed. O means that the animal does not possess the 
character of the heading under which it is placed. 





Sole 


Ridge. 


Sensory 
Margin. 


Glandular 
Margin. 


Body Form. 


Cephalic 
Furrow. 


















■o 


s^ 


■a 






' 


















►-1-rt 


















































s% 


.£= ® 


•^n. 








o 


3 


s 


s 


s 


CD 




.2 'at 




£§ 




a 

2 




!zi 


'S- 


< 


Ph 


< 


PM 


< 


rt 


rt 


Q 


Ph 


o) 


Rhynchodemua 


X 








X 








X 


X 











X 


Microplana 








X 





X 


9 




X 


X 
X 











X 


Amblyplana 


X 








o 


X 











X 


N ematodemua 


o 





X 


? 


9 




X 











X 


Platydemus 





X 





X 





X 





o 





X 





X 


DoUchoplana 


X 


o 





X 





X 





o 


X 








X 


Othelosoma 


X 








? 


V 


X 


o 





X 


o 


Present species . . 


X 





o 


X 


o 


X 


o 


X 


o 


o 


o 


X 



* Von Graff, op. ciL, pp. 210-211. 



NOTES ON A NEW LAND PLANARIAN. 121 

Thus, as regards the above-mentioned chaiacters, DoUchoplana 
seems to most resemble the present form, next Platydemus and 
Rhynchodermis in order. Even DoUchoplana can hardly claim direct 
relationship to the present species, when we take into consideration 
those characters relating to the distribution of the longitudinal 
parenchyme muscles and the structure of the female copulatory 
organs. Platydemus is characterized by having a broad sole and by 
lacking the erythrophile glands and the chondrocysts of the integu- 
ment. Besides, the unpaired sensory organ, the paired ciliated 
organs, and the reversed relative positions of the marginal and the 
sensory margins are remarkable characters, aU of which indicate 
clear points of difference between the pi'esent species and the 
established genera of the Rhynchodemidae. 

For these reasons I propose to establish a new genus and speciyd 
for the animal as follows : — 

Pseudartiocotylus ceylonicus, n. g. et n. sp. 

The genus may be diagnosed as follows : The body is elongate 
and rounded, and the anterior end is blunt and flattened on the 
ventral side. The glandular margins are well developed in the 
head region and lie dorsal to the sensory margins, which are poorly 
developed. The sole is narrow but distinct, and in its anterior 
I part is modified into two-paired ciliated organs. Beside the two 
v Retina- Augen," a single unpaired sensory organ is present at the 
head-apex. 

As already referred to, Pseudartiocotylus ceylonicus bears a curious 
resemblance to Artiocotylus speciosus in having similarly constructed 
female genital organs. Whether this implies more than a chance 
resemblance ought not to be hastily decided from the present 
observations made on the single specimen. Similar hesitation 
must be expressed with regard to the resemblance between the 
ciliated organs of the present species and the suckers of Artiocotylus 
speciosus. I hope to have in the future a further opportunity of 
studying these interesting points. Here is von Graft's view of the 
origin of the suckers of the Cotyloplanidse : " Auch die Familie der 
Cotyloplanidse ist keine natiirhche Gruppe und die Gattungen 
Cotyloplana und Artiocotylus weisen rnich dem Baue ihres Nerven- 
sy stems und ihrer Musculatur — von dem aberranten Typus der 
Geschlechtsorgane bei Artiocotylus gang abgesehen — auf voUig 
getrennte Urspriinge hin. Der fiir die praktische Systematik so 
brauchbare Charakter der Saugnapfe diirfte also in jeder der beiden 
Gruppen selbststandig erworben sein." * 

* Voa Graff, op. cit., p. 285. 
B 6(2)11 



122 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

The following eight species of the Rhynchodemidse have been 
described from Ceylon : — 

(1) Rhynchodemus nematoides , Loman. 

(2) Bhynchodemus ceylonicus, von Graff. 

(3) AmMyjdana teres , von Graff . 

(4) Ambly plana Jiceckeli, von Graff. 

(5) Nematodemus lumbricoides , von Graff. 

(6) Platydemus thwaitesi, Moseley. 

(7) DoUchoplana jeildeni, von Graff. 

(8) DoUchoplana nietneri, Humbert. 

All the above species have been found to be distinct from the 
present species in their external characteristics. Some principal 
points of difference may be mentioned as follows : — 

(1) Rhynchodemus nematoides : yellow ground colour; four dorsal 

stripes. 

(2) Rhynchodemus ceylonicus : yellow ground colour ; three 

dorsal stripes are distinct throughout tlie length of the 
body. 

(3) Amhlyplana teres : body is relatively short and thick ; a 

deep reddish- brown colour ; no dorsal stripes. 

(4) Ambly plana hceckeli : yellow ground colour ; four dorsal 

stripes. 

(5) Nematodemus lumbricoides: grayish-brown ground colour; 

one dorsal stripe. 

(6) Platydemus thwaitesi : ground colour is nearly the same as 

in the present species, but the three dorsal stripes are 
distinct from the ground colour. 

(7) DoUchoplana jeildeni : the body is very large ; six dorsal 

stripes. 

(8) DoUchoplana nietneri : body is very large; six dorsal stiipes. 

Lastly, it may be added that I have examined some references* 
dealing witli a few species of the Rhynchodemidae which appeared 
later than von Graff's Monograph, but no allied forms have been 
found in them. 



* Mell, C. — Die von Oscar Neumann in Nordost-Afrika gesammeltan Land 
Planarien (4 n. sp. oi Ambly plana, ^ sp. of Platydemus), Zool Jahrb., Abt. 
Syst., Bd. 20, 1904. 

Laidlaw, F. F. — On a land planarian from Herule, Male Atoll, with a note 
on Leptoplana pardalis, Laidlaw {Rhynchodem,us ceylonicus ?), Fauna and 
Geogr. Maldive Laccadive Archip., vol. 2, 1903. 

Scharff, R. F. — New planarian (Rhynchodemus Howesi), Abstr. Jo urn. Roy. 
Micro. Soc, London, 1900. 



l.p.rn,. 



.^^^ 











> J,_? 









*r 



-m,. ^. 










' >v^_. 









mil 



''■■''•****iB4ji:.: 



..-^' 




E Wilson, Cambridge. 



NOfES ON A NEW LAND PLANARIAN. 123 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Fig. 1. — Coloured sketch of the animal in the preserved state, 

seen from the dorsal side, x 2. 
Fig. 2. — Ventral view of the animal ; tlie mouth and the genital 

opening are represented at the middle and the hinder 

part of the sole. X 2. 

Fig. 3. — Enlarged dorsal view of the head-end, to show the 
glandular ridge, the eyes, and the apical (sensory) 
organ. X 14. 

Fig. 4. — Enlarged ventral view of the head-end, to show the sole 
and the paired ciliated organs on the sole. X 14. 

Fig. 5. — Portion of the epidermal layer, taken from a lateral side 
of the skin. X 400. ch chondrocysts, ep erythro- 
phile glands, rm rhamniites. 

Fig. 6. — One of the median sagittal sections of the head-end. 
X 40. hr brain, cp cyanophile glands, g anterior 
termination of the gut, mg glandular margin and 
marginal glands, %p? nerve-plexus of the skin, rd^ 
rhabdites-layer below the sensory margin {sm). 

Fig. 7. — Cross-section through the • ciliated organs. X 40. 
CO ciliated organs, g gut, pm longitudinal paren- 
chymatous muscles, 7ng marginal glands and 
glandular margin, n nerve-cords, s sole in section. 

Fig. 8, — Portion of the ventral side of the head, taken from 
a median saggittal section of the head. X 400. 
mg marginal glands and glandular margin, mg ^ second- 
ary marginal glands, npl nerve-plexus, rd and rd^ 
outer and inner rhabdites-layers, sm sensory margin. 

Fig. 9. — Portion of the head-apex wath the apical sense-organ, 
taken from a median saggittal section of the head-end. 
X 230. ao apical organ, mg marginal glands, wpl 
nerve-plexus. 

Fig. 10. — Ciliated organ in a cross-section. X 400. dm dermal 
longitudinal muscles, rm rhammite, s sole-epithe- 
lium. 



124 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 



SOME NOTES ON THE CEYLON PEARL-INDUCING WORM.* 

By T. Southwell, A.R.C.Sc. (Lond.), F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Scientific Adviser to the Ceylon Covtpany of Pearl Fiahera. Limited, 
and Inspector of Pearl Banka. 



THE present series of barieii years on the Ceylon Pearl Banks 
has provided opportunities for extensive scientific research, 
which under other conditions would have been impossible. It is, 
however, extremely unfortunate that during these blank years the 
few oysters essential for scientific work have been almost unavailable. 
The only bed which now exists is confined to an inshore area, and 
the oysters found thereon only rarely contain the pearl-inducing 
parasite. Consequently the investigations on this interesting worm 
have been severely hampered by lack of material, and the research 
work has had to be directed into other channels, such as the investi- 
gation of the part played by currents with relation to exotic spat, 
the examination of rays and sharks for Cestode parasites, &c. 
Whereas normal oysters often each contain from 30 to 100 pearl- 
inducing parasites, the scatteied oysters now remaining rarely 
contain a single one, and 200 to 300 oysters may commonly be 
examined without finding a single larva. This condition is doubtless 
due to the inshore position of the oysters. 

Most people are familiar with the old ideas as to the nature of 
pearls, viz., that they were the tears of Nereids, or mysteriously 
consolidated di'ops of dew, or caused by lightning flashes. These 
poetic beliefs were subsequently superseded by others, which attri- 
buted the origin of pearls to grains of sand, abortive eggs, calculi, 
and the like. 

It was only in 1859 that the naturalist Kelaart, working on the 
spot, made the discovery that the formation of pearls was intimately 
connected with the occurrence in the oyster of " worms," and all 
subsequent work by other naturalists has only further proved and 
elucidated Kelaart' 8 statements and observations. In 1894 Thurston 
confirmed Kelaart's results, and further identified the worm as 
the larva of some Platylielminthian (flat worm). The extensive 
investigations made by Professor Herdman in 1902 further showed 
that the worm was a Cestode (Tape-worm), round the larvae of 
which pearls are formed. 

* From the Ceylon Marine Biological Laboratory (Ceylon Company of Pearl 
Fishers, Limited). 



CEYLON PEARL-INDFOING WORM. 125 

A pearl \h therefore the sarcophagus of a parasite, whose nearest 
relations include human and other animal tape-worms, all varieties 
of human hydatids (or Echinococcus), as well as those parasites 
which cause the " stagger disease " in sheep and goats, &c. 

The normal and typical life-history of Cestodes in general is too 
well known to require full repetition here. The adult worms occur 
exclusively in vertebrates (with the exception of Archigetes, which 
may become adult in the coelom of Tuhifex) , where they inhabit the 
internal organs. The larva or cysticercus may occur either in an 
invertebrate or in a vertebrate. The transference of the larvae to 
the final host takes place quietly, during a meal. Thus, the larvse 
of Tcenia solium occur in the tissues of the pig. If present, and if 
the flesh of this animal is eaten by man in an improperly cooked 
condition, the larvae become adult tape- worms in the human intestine. 
From these adults, eggs are passed out in the foeces, and the omni- 
vorous habits of the pig lead to the re-infection of this animal, and 
thus the cycle goes on. Homologous stages oi' Tcenia serrata occur 
between dogs and mice, and many other instances might be cited. 

The life-history, however, is not always of this type. In Hymeno- 
lepis murina both stages occur in the rat without the intervention 
of a second host, the larvae inhabiting the villi and the adult worm 
the intestinal cavity of the same animal. Such a life-history is said 
to occur in Hymenolepis nana found in man. 

The larvae of Bothriocephahis latus probably first enter some 
invertebrate host, and are then eaten by a pike or trout. If the 
infected fish are eaten by man, the parasites develop in the intestine 
into adult worms, which often attain a length of 30 feet. There 
are thus three hosts. With reference to this particular tape-worm, 
it is interesting to note that the primary larvae are the only larvae in 
the group Cestoda known to be ciliated. 

Further complications in the life-history of Cestodes are also 
known. Thus, Taenia solium is found adult in man. " The danger of 
its presence in the body of man, or in the flesh of the pig, lies in the 
fact that the larva or bladder worm (known as Cysticercus cellulosm) 
can live in the most varied organs. Thus, if by accident a mature 
proglottis be eaten, the embryos bore their way into the wall of the 
stomach, and entering the portal vein may reach in time the muscles, 
the brain, the eye, or even the heart itself, and attain the cystic 
(condition. Even more disastrous may be the result should some 
ripe joints of a mature worm work their way from the intestine 
back to the stomach. Should this happen (and though it has not 
been directly proved, the possibility is to be reckoned with) the 
result would be the release of vast numbers of embryos capable of 
inflicting fatal injury on the host. An abnormal Cysticercus of 
this species is probably Tcenia {Cysticercus) acanihotrias , Weinl.* 

* Gamble: "The Cambridge Natural History." Worms, Rotifers, and 
Polyzoa, p. 79. 



126 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The hydatids thus produced represent ouls-de-sac in the Hfe-h'istory 
of the parasite. It is to be noted that whilst the life-history of 
a Cestode is usually — almost always — completed in two hosts, the 
parasites may vary their hosts and occur adult in many genera. 
Instances of this kind are too numerous to mention here. The 
cysticercoid stages are in many instances equally adaptable with 
reference to their hosts, but it is to be noted that should the 
cysticercoid enter a primary host which is not eaten, or does not 
form the food of the second host, the life-history is never completed, 
and the larvae eventually die. 

The preceding details have been given in order to elucidate more 
fully the life-history of the pearl-inducing parasite, and to facilitate 
the understanding of what are obviously abnormal conditions and 
situations which occasionally befall the larvae found in the pearl 
oyster. 

Professor Herdman found that the globular <\ysts which normally 
occur in the tissues of the oyster were the larvae of a Cestode. which 
was named Tetrarhynchu-s unionif actor , Shipley and Hornell. When 
the infected oysters' were eaten by the ray, Bhinoptera javanica, the 
worm became adult in the latter fish. A further stage also occurred 
in the oyster in the form of an encysted but young Tetrarhynchid 
occurring on the intestinal wall, but no stage was found strictly 
intermediate in development between the widely different globular 
cyst in the oyster and the encysted but young Tetrarhynchid 
occurring on the wall of the oyster's gut. 

Free-swimming Cestode larvae were found in the tow-net taken on 
the banks, but, as Herdman says, " it is still uncertain whether the 
free-swimming larvae found on the Muttuvaratu Paar really belong 
to the life -history."* 

In addition to the tv^o stages found in the oyster, and the adult 
found originally in Bhinoptera javanica. and later in Tceniura 
melanospilos (large rays), other megacestoid stages were found in 
Batistes (a small file-fish). Since these file-fish were known to feed 
on oysters, it was pointed out that, although the Hfe-history was 
probably direct from oyster to Rhinoptera, it might be found that 
Batistes formed an intermediate host. " A more minute examination . 
however, renders the connection between the parasites of the pearl 
oyster and those of the file-fish a doubtful one,"t and, again, " the 
more advanced larvae from the pearl oyster have arrived at a later 
stage in development than the larvae found in Batistes.''^ % 

The life-history of this interesting parasite was worked out thus 
far as a result of Professor Herdman's investigation. Since that 
time the life-history has been further studied as time and material 

* " Ceylon Reports," Vol. V. 

t Shipley and Hornell. Vol. II., Herdman's '* Ceylon Reporls." 

X Loc. cit. 



CEYLON PEARL-INDUCINO WORM, 127 

allowed, and the following notes indicate some of the results 
obtained. 

(1) The Free-swimming Stage. 

Although the plankton, both superficial and deep, lias been 
collected and examined three times daily for two seasons, no Cestode 
larvae have ever been found. This negative result falls in line with 
results obtained elsewhere. In any case it would be obviously 
impossible to identify an adult specimen from a free-swimming larva, 
even should such larvae exist. So far as is known, only the larvas 
of Bothriocephalus lotus aie ciliated and free- swimming, although it 
is possible that some larvaj may be free -swimming without being 
ciliated. 

Little indeed is known regarding the earliest stages of many genera 
of Cestodes. 

Whilst examining the ripe proglottides from a specimen of Tetra- 
rhynchus rubromaculatus (?) obtained from the spiral valve of Trygon 
kuhli (which feeds exclusively on Polychaebes and small bivalves), 
I noted that the segmenting eggs, issuing in immense numbers from 
a rupture in a proglottis, were ciliated, a phenomenon I have not 
seen noted elsewhere. 

Up to the present nothing is known as to how the larvae of Tetra- 
rhynchus unionif actor enter the oyster, and the same may be said of 
most marine species of Cestode larvae. We do not know whether 
the larva is free -swimming, or whether it bores its way into the 
primary host, or whether it is ingested along with the food. In 
pearl fishing this question is of little importance, but the exact 
condition of affairs would be interesting as rounding off our 
knowledge of this interesting parasite. 

(2) The Globular Cyst in the Oyster. 

Figures of these cysts are given in Vols. II. and V. , " Ceylon 
Reports," and they represent the earliest stages known of Tetrarhyn- 
chus unionif actor. They are considered to be post-hexacanth stages. 
They vary in size. Some are as large as a pin's head, whilst otliei's 
are quite microscopic. There are all sizes intermediate between 
them, but they are all exactly similar in structure and development, 
and their only point of difference is purely that of size. It has been 
shown that these larvae multiply endogenously, that is to say, 
daughtercysts may arise within the parent cyst, and become liberated 
by a temporary rupture of the jsarental wall. Although the initial 
infection of the oyster is but slight, it may become extensive merely 
by endogenous reproduction of this kind, quite apart from a further 
infection from outside sources. This endogenous multiplication also 
accounts for the very varying sizes of larvae found in the oyster.* 



* Southwell: "Ceylon Marine Biological Reports," Part IV., 1910. 



128 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

These cysts are widely distributed in the tissues of the oyster, 
and occur particularly in the liver, in the mantle, and along the base 
of the giUs. As many as 120 have been counted in a single oyster, 
although the number varies very considerably. 

The globular cysts which occur in Placuna placenta (the window- 
pane oyster found in the backwaters of Trincomalee) are exactly 
similar to those found in the pearl oyster. In the cystic stages found 
in Placuna, Willey* also observed endogenous reproduction. In the 
examples quoted and figured by him the reproduction was poly- 
genetic, as several cysts were liberated at a time from the parent 
cyst. In the globular cysts found in the pearl oyster the endogenous 
reproduction has only as yet been observed to be monogenetic (one 
cyst being born at a time from each parent cyst), but there can be 
Uttle doubt that, when more oyster material is available, this endo- 
genous reproduction will be found to be polygenetic , as in the larvae 
inhabiting Placuna. A similar naultipUcation has also been noted 
in Polycercus — bladder stage of Tcenia nilotica from Cursorius 
europceus.'f 

It is round the cystic stages which occur in the pearl oyster that 
the orient or cyst pearls are formed. Other pearls are also found 
in the oyster, but they have no organic nucleus. Such pearls are 
termed muscle or seed pearls. Their origin is obscure, but they 
are always found near the muscle insertions, and are believed to be 
formed round a calcospherule of excretory origin, or by the sheer 
of muscles moving in different planes. 

The percentage of globular cysts in the oyster which ever become 
the nucleus of a pearl is very insignificant indeed. Occasionally 
several hundi'ed oysters can be examined each containing 20 or 30 
cysts, and not a single pearl is to be found. This fact lends colour 
and probability to the belief that only such cysts which, for some 
unaccountable reason, die in the tissues of the oyster become 
nuclei of pearls. 

Figm-es of sections of decalcified pearls showing a nucleus exactly 
similar to the larva found in the tissues of the oyster are given 
by Herdman in Vol. V., "Ceylon Reports" (Pearl Production, 
Plate II.), and there can be no doubt that this larva is the prime 
factor in pearl production, although very rarely grains of sand have 
been found in the centre of pearls. 

It has already been observed that no stage in the life-history of 
the pearl-inducing worm has as yet been obtained earlier than the 
globular cyst occurring in the oyster. This globular cyst is in many 
ways different from stages known to occur in the life-history of 
other Cestodes, such as Bothriocephalus latus or Tcenia nilotica. 



* " Report on tht> Window-pane Oyster of the Eastern Province," Jvme. 
1907. Spolia Zeylanica,Yo\.\.,VixrtX.YlI. 

t Haswell and Hill: " On Polycercus, a proliferating Cystic Parasite of 
the Earthworms" (Proc. Lin. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. VIII., 1894. 



CEYLON PEARL-INDUCING WORM. 129 

This fact was emphasized by Shipley and H/wpe.ll, who remarked . 
" Under slight pressure, as first seen it (the pearl-inducing larva,) 
exliibited a striking resemblance to a tiny Ti-eniatode, or it might be 
mistaken for a large Gregarine." * The figure nearest approaching 
that of tlie larva found in the pearl oyster is that of the onchosphere 
of Ta-nia cucumerina given by Gamble in Vol. II. ,' " Cambridge Natural 
History " (after Grassi and Rovelh).t There can be no doubt, 
however, that the larva is a Cestode. The possession of calcareous 
corpuscles, of spines on the collar, and of the protrusible proscolex- 
like head are all essentially Cestode characters, and doubt only arose 
on account of the isolated and more or less unconnected state of 
development of the globular cyst. 

(3) Encysted Tetrarkynchids on the Wall of the Gut in the 
Pearl Oyster. 

These are by no means rare, and are in almost every case confined 
to a particular part of the wall of the gut, ab.out one inch from the 
anus and on the terminal part of the gut. They often occur in 
clusters of three or four. They are small (about 1 mm.), but appear 
to be adult in every way, save that strobilization has not commenced. 
This encysted young Tetrai-hynchid is quite dissimilar to the 
globular cysts found in the same oyster. In the latter case the 
larvae are so young that the Cestodian characters are but ill-defined. 
In the former case a normal and full-grown Tetrarhynchid head is 
present. No stage or stages have been found intermediate between 
them, and the evidence that they are both stages in the life-history 
of the same parasite rests on circumstantial evidence and on evidence 
obtained by feeding experiments. We shall, however, refer to this 
matter again later. 

(4) The Adult Pearl-inducing Worm, " Tetrarhynchus 
unioni factor.'' 

The adult stage of the pearl-inducing worm was obtained by 
Hornell from the stomach of Bhinoptera javanica — a gregarious ray — 
and also later from the intestine of Tceniura melanospilos. In spite 
of the fact that hundreds of fish, including at least fifty large rays 
of various genera and species, and also a large number of Carchariidae, 
have been repeatedly and carefully examined during the last five 
years, the adult has never since been found, except in Ginglymostoma 
concolor, during the feeding experiments of 1909 and 1910, described 
in Parts IV. and V., " Ceylon Marine Biological Reports." This 
is a most remarkable fact, especially as the research, having been 
repeatedly fruitless, was carried on with increasing energy. 

* Shipley and Hornell. Herdman's " Ceylon Reports, ' Vol. II., p. 20. 

t And Herdman notes the resemblance in many ways to the larva of 
Acrobothrium figured by Giard and to the " figures ideales " of early stages of 
Tetrarhynchids given by van Beneden. 

s 6(2)11 



130 SPOLIA y.KYLANICA. 

Trawlinji lias liftftn almnsi continuous during evftry sefcisou. The 
fish caught have all been carefully examined, and although not less 
than 8,000 Cestodes, distribxited over 24 genera and 77 species, have 
been collected, the adult TetraThynchv,s unioni factor has never been 
obtained. 

It would almost appear that this fact in itself is sufficienti proof 
that the adult of the pearl-inducing worm is not Tetrarhynchus 
imionif actor. We have noted that (1) no larvae have been found \n 
an earlier stage of development than the globular cysts found in 
the oyster, (2) that altliough encysted Tetrarhynchids oc{uir in the 
oyster, no stage interinediate between the globular cyst and the 
young Tetrarhynchid has been found to prove that both these 
stages in the development belong to the same worm. Finally, 
we have seen that the adult has never been found in any of the 
Plagiosbomi trawled on the banks during the last five years. 

The evidence afforded by the feeding experiments, described in 
Part IV., " Ceylon Marine Biological Reports," is important. An area 
was isolated in the open sea by means of ex|3anded metal having a 
4-inch mesh. Into this area large specimens of the following fish 
were placed : Trygon walga, Tceniura melanospilos, Ginglymostoma 
Goncolor, Rhynchobatus djeddeiisis , Serranus undulosus (4 feet), 
Tetrodon stettatus. 

These fish were first medicated with male fern extract and castor 
oil. and then fed exclusively on oysters for several weeks. 

The lesults were rouglily as follows : — 

Tetrodon stellatiis and Serranus undulosus hved in a healthy 
state, but no adult Cestodes were found in them. 

Rhynchobatus djeddensis. — These specimens all died within three 
day£. They are dwellers on mud, and I attribute their death to the 
fact that they do not feed on oysters. No Cestodes found. 

Ginglymostoma concolor. — Adductor muscle of oyster found in 
stomach. Thirty-eight specimens of Tetrarhynchus unionifactor in 
spiral valve (other Cestodes also found) , and fifty -one Tetrarhynchus 
unionifactor in another specimen. 

Tceniura melanospilos. — Tetrarhynchus herdmani only in spiral 
valve. 

These results are described fully elsewhere,* and the point that 
immediately concerns us is the fact that Tetrarhynchus unionifactor 
was obtained in numbers on two separate occasions. 

Since the adult worm was never obtained by me on any other 
occasion, even though numbers of the same species of fish were 
examined, it seems almost certain that these specimens were 
developed from the larvee in the oysters eaten, and there are many 
points which favour tliis view. The mere fact that the adults were 
obtained by feeding is in itself almost sufficient to prove that they 

* " Ceylon Marine Biological Reports," Parts IV. and V. 



CEYLON PEAKL-INDUCIJSfG WOKM. 131 

are the adult of the pearl-inducing worm, for it is difficult to believe 
that their occurrence in the Ginglymostoma was a mere coincidence 
each year. 

The line sketch given of this worm in Vol. V., " Ceylon Reports," 
gives no details of the adult structure, which is somewhat unfortunate. 
A figure is, however, given in Part V., " Reports from the Ceylon 
Marine Biological Laboratory." 

The absence of the adult worm in the fish caught during the 
last five years is doubtless incident on the fact that oystei-s have 
practically been absent from the banks over this period. 

My own observations point to the fact that the fish found on tlie 
banks have steadily decreased in number during the last few years. 
It seems proljable that the fish have migrated to other feeding 
grounds, particularly those species which feed on molluscs. Whereas 
the moUuscan fauna of the banks is usually abundant, 1 have not 
found more than six specimens during the last two yeai"S, even 
though diving, trawling, and dredging has been carried on almost 
daily. This fact serves to show that other molluscs suffer equally 
with the oyster, and it seems natui-al to explain the absence of 
predatory fish as due to the lack of food over the plateau. 

We have seen that the adult pearl-inducing worm has up to the 
present been fomid in thi'ee species of fish, viz., Rhinoptera javanica, 
Hornell ; Tamiura melanos'pilos , Hornell ; and Ginglymostoma 
concolor, Southwell. 

There seems to be no reason for associating the adult worm 
exclusively ^vdth Rhinoptera javanica. In fact, it is somewhat 
surprismg to find that the adult worm has been found in this species, 
since the fish has only as yet been caught on the muddy basins of 
Dutch Bay, Portugal Bay, and near the Mannar channel. It seems 
likely that the adult worm occurs in all Plagiostomes which eat 
oysters, and I should not be sm'prised to find that subsequent 
research proved this to be the case. 

It is now well known that very many species of Cestodes occurring 
in maiine fishes in Ceylon have several hosts, and there is every 
reason for believing that the same is true of Tetrarhynchus unioni- 
factor. 

Some species of fish, such as Rhynchohatus djeddensis , possess 
tremendously powerful jaws with undulating, continuous, plate-like 
rows of teeth. It seems natural to suppose that fish possessing a 
powerful apparatus of this kind should feed on oysters and other 
molluscs. I have, however, had numerous proof s that they do not. 
Of ten specimens of Rhynchohatus djeddensis placed in the nui'sery 
for feeding experiments, not one survived the third day. Tlieii' 
normal habitat is on muddy and weedy basin in two to four fathoms, 
where they feed almost exclusively on crabs. They will die of 
starvation with oysters under their nose, and it may be taken as a 
general rule that fish normally living on a mudd}' basin of this kind 



132 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

do not eat oysters. Examples include Rhynchobatus djeddensis, 
Myliohatis nieuhofii, Pteroplatea micrura, Pristis cuspidatus, and 
possibly Rhino ptera javanica, all of which most probably have their 
own particular article of food. 

(5) Encysted Tetrarhynchids in Tehosts. 

There ar-e many Teleosts which feed on oysters. Amongst them 
may be mentioned — • 

(1) All members of the genus Tetrodori. 
, (2) Batistes mitis, Balistes undulatus, and Batistes stellatus. 

(3) Lnijanus argentimaculatus , and possibly other members of 

tliis genus. 

(4) Serramis undulosus, and possibly other members of this 

genus. 

The above list is not intended to be a complete one, but oysters 
have been found in the stomachs of all the species named. Tetra- 
rhynchid cysts only are in almost every case (and particularly in 
Balistes, Lutjanus, and Serranus) found in numbers in the intestines. 
Cysts have not been found in any species of the genus Tetrodon. 
These combined facts led to the original idea that Balistes might be 
an intermediate ]iost of the pearl-inducing worm, although later 
Shipley and Hornell pointed out the difference between the Tetra- 
rhynchids found encysted in tlie oyster and tliose encysted in the 
intestines of Balistes. Several species of Tetrarhynchids occur 
encysted in the intestines of the Teleosts previously named, and 
they are undoubtedly derived from the cysticercoids present in the 
different molluscs eaten. 

Encysted forms of Tetrarhynchus unionifactor also occur, 
particularly in Balistes and Serraniis. Recent work has shown that 
the encysted form of Tetrarhynchus unionifactor which occurs in 
Serranus and Balistes is exactly similar to that encysted in the 
oyster. Shipley and Hornell appear to have been wrong in stating 
that " The more advanced larvae from the pearl oyster have arrived 
at a later stage in development than the larvae found in Balistes."* 
It is certain that my encysted Tetrarhynchus unionifactor from 
Balistes is not the same species as those described by these 
authors from Balistes. However, tlie fact remains that encysted 
Tetrarhynchids have been obtained from Balistes and Serrayius 
which are exactly similar to tlie encysted Tetrarhynchid found in 
the oyster. The spines and general appearance are exactly similar, 
and the only diffcjence noted was that those found encysted in 
Teleosts were very slightly larger than those obtained from the 
oyster. 

* " Ceylon Reports," Vol. II.. p. 78. 



CEYLON P KARL-INDUCING WORM. 133 

It is to be noted here that we have been referring above to the 
encysted Tetrarhynchid, and not to the globular cyst found in the 
oyster. 

What is the significance of the stage of Tetrarhynchus unionifactor 
found in these Teleosts ? 

There can be no shadow of doubt that they are derived from the 
oyster. But in no case are the cysts further developed than those 
normally found in the oyster. These fish are not intermediate hosts, 
but carriers, and they illustrate the fact that the larvae of Tetra- 
rhynchus unionifactot can live in various hosts and in various organs, 
just as we liave seen to be the case in the cysticercus of Tmnia 
solmm and otJier Cestodes. If oysters are eaten by Batistes (or 
Serranus and Lutjanus), two things happen to the cysts in the 
oyster : — 

(i.) The encysted Tetrarhynchids in the oyster are transferred 
to the Batistes, where they encyst in the mesenteries, 
without developing any further. 

(ii. ) The globular cysts in the oyster are dissolved, and the larva 
is liberated; it migrates, develops into a young Tetra- 
rhynchid — the same stage is in (i.) — and encysts on the 
mesenteries. 

It might be argued from the preceding, that since the globular 
cysts develop into young Tetrarhynchids in Batistes, that therefore 
Batistes is a secondary host. 

We would point out, however, that the globular cysts often 
develop into young Tetrarhynchids in the oyster itself, and further, 
that if oysters are eaten by certain Elasmobranch fish, both the 
globular cyst and the young Tetrarhynchid become adult directly 
in the Elasmobranch. Similarly, it is almost certain that should 
Batistes be eaten by a suitable Elasmobranch, the young Tetra- 
rhynchid would become adult. The stages occurring in Batistes and 
in the oyster are the same. Batistes is not an intermediate host, but 
merely a carrier. In this way it may be useful in the life-history of 
the parasite, without being in the least necessary. If the species or 
specimen of Batistes is small, the encysted larva has a favourable 
chance of completing its life-cycle. 

In the case of Serranus undutosus, which hkewise contains encysted 
and young Tetrarhynchids of many species, and including Tetra- 
rhynchus unionifactor (but rnoi-e rarely than in Batistes), specimens 
often measure 4| feet in length and 10 to 12 inches in diameter. It 
is difficult in these cases to postulate a Plagiostomous host large 
enough to eat a fish of these dimensions. In these cases we can 
but logically assume that the Hfe-cycle of the various Tetrarhyncliids 
contained in these large Teleosts are never completed. They are 
culs-de-sac in the life-history of the parasite, a circumstance simu- 
lating the occurrence of hydatids in man, where the larvae giving 



134 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

rise to the disease have, owing to their adaptability within various 
hosts, lost themselves in the maze of their own hberties, and where 
the life-history is, of com-se, never completed. 

It is a significant fact that in Ceylon no adult Cestodes have ever 
been found in any Teleosts, even though larvse are numerously 
distributed within the order. This fact is most pecuhar, but so far 
as I know it is a usual and weU-known phenomenon, except amongst 
the family of Cestodes named Bothriocephalidae, adult forms of 
which occur in the salmon and in Gadus. 

Possibly adult forms of Cestodes may be found later in Ceylon 
Teleosts, but up to the present a most careful scrutiny has been 
fruitless. 

Conclusion. — It will be obvious from the preceding that there still 
remains much to be done before all the stages in the hfe-history 
of the pearl-inducing worm are fuUy known. Work on the elucida- 
tion of this problem has been seriously hampered during the last 
few years by the lack of material. 

There can be Httle doubt, I tliink, that the hfe-history of this 
parasite is du'ect from the oyster to such fish of the group Plagiastomi 
as feed on them, and that the stage fomid in various Teleosts is 
accidental, not necessary, and may be useful or otherwise. It would 
be interesting (1) to discover undoubted larvse prior to their enter- 
ing the oyster ; (2) to ascertain the exact way in which they enter the 
oyster ; (3) to ascertain why certain cysts produce pearls and the 
vast majority do not ; (4) to find stages between the globular cyst 
and tlie young Tetrarhynchid. These details are necessary to round 
oft" our knowledge of this worm. 

Although these questions remain -unsolved, infection of the oyster 
continues, and is never found faulty, except in such reef forms as 
occur in very shallow water where one supposes that the necessary 
fish seldom approach. 



SPECIES OF CEYLON PEDTPALPI. 135 



THE SPECIES OF CEYLON PEDIPALPI. 

ByF. H. Gravely, M.Sc, 

Assistant Superintendent in the Indian Museum. Calcutta. 

(Witli ojie Text Figure.) 



IN a recent paper on the Pedipalpi of Ceylon (1910) I published 
some notes on the habits of these curious creatures. Since 
this was written I have been able to inquire into their specific 
characters more fully than was then possible, and have in conse- 
quence to correct my identifications of some of the Tartarides. 
And further specimens of the long-armed form of the small jungle 
species of Phrynichus have now been obtained, which place beyond 
doubt its claim to rank as at least a definite variety. The object 
of the present paper is to supply correct identifications of the 
Tartarides, referred to in my previous one, which will involve the 
description of two new species, and to describe more completely 
this long-ai*med variety of Phrynichus 'pusillus. 

TARTARIDES. 

Mr. Pocock, when writing the Arachnid volume of the " Fauna 
of British India and Ceylon," was able to fit all the species there 
referred to into two genera, Schizomus, Cook, and Trithyreus, 
Kraep., following the classification adopted by Kraepelin in a 
volume of " Das Tierreich." He distinguished the genera by the 
width of the division of the posterior plate of the carapace, a 
character which I found to be greatly affected by the method of 
preservation adopted. 

In 1905, several years after Pocock's volume in the " Fauna " 
series was published, Hansen and Sorensen succeeded in getting 
together for study a very representative collection of Tartarides of 
both sexes from various localities in both hemispheres ; and together 
they published a monograph, in which the classification and specific 
characters of the tribe were dealt with by Dr. Hansen in a way 
that had never been possible before. In this paper the number of 
species is extensively added to, but no additional genera are 
recognized. Indeed, the distinction between the old genera Schizo- 
mus and Trithyreus is regarded as of only sub-generic value. These 
sub-genera, moreover, are re-defined, so that the distinction between 
them comes to be not the actual widtlx of the median suture of the 



136 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



posterior thoracic plate, but, whether (in Schizomus) or not (in 
Triihyreus) tlie reticulate markings of these plates are continued 
across it. 

Hansen records from Ceylon only the two species of Tartarides 
referred to in the " Fauna " volume as having been found there : 
Schizomus (s. str.) crassicaudatus , Cambr. , from Peradeniya. where 
they were found " under dead leaves and rubbish by M. Ferdinandus 
in the Royal Botanic Gardens," and Schizomus (Trithyreus) suho- 
culatus, Poc, from Pundalu-oya and Maturata.* Witli regard to 
the latter species, he states that the type (and only) specimen 
described by Pocock was immature — when full grown it is rather 




Fig. 2. 

Foot of first leg of female of each species of Tartarides known from 
Ceylon, x 60. 

A. Schizomus [s. sir. ) crassicaudatus , Cambr. (camera-lucida drawing). 

B. Schizomus (Trithyreus) peradeniyensis , n. sp. (camera-lucida 
drawing). 

C. Schizomus (Trithyreus) vittaius, n. sp. (camera-lucida drawing). 

D. Schizomus (Trithyreus) subocula,tus , Poc. (after Hansen). 

a large form ; and he re-describes both species very fully. A 
comparison of my specimens with these careful descriptions shows 
that only the specimens found under bricks, &c., belong to the 
species Schizomus {s. str.) crassicaudatus. This is in apparent 



* The original label of the Maturata specimens bears the inscription 
"Maturata. Galles " according to Hansen. This, however, is unintelligible 
as it stands, and I am indebted to Mr. Green for a suggestion that " Galles " 
refers to the Sinhalese word "gala" (= a rock), and that what is probably 
meant is " Maturata hills." 



SPECIES OF CEYLON PEDIPALPI. 137 

contradiction to the type of habitat recorded for the specimens 
found by M. Ferdinandus. from which the species was originally 
described ; but althougli the majority of my specimens were found 
under bricks, a few came from under stones, &c., among the sticks 
and dead leaves between the roots of tlie huge rubber trees near tlie 
Curator's office in the Gardens, and from small piles of stones mixed 
with rubbish, but always on or bordering upon open ground ; 
presumably, therefore, the rubbish from which M. Ferdinandus's 
specimens came had accumulated in some open situation. 

The similar but larger form, the female of which was found so 
abundantly in the shrubberies of the Gardens, and which in my 
previous paper was confounded with Schizomus crassicaudatus , 
proves to be distinct, and to belong to the sub-genus Trithyreus, as 
defined by Hansen ; it is a new species allied to iS. (T.) suboculatus, 
Poc. The sm.all green form also belongs to this sub-genus, and is also 
new. It is not, however, very closely allied to S. (T.) suboculatus, 
Poc, with which I identified it before seeing Hansen's elaborate 
description of mature specimens. These two new species may be 
described as follows : — 



Genus Schizomus, Cook (Sub-genus Trithyreus, Kraep.). 

Schizomus {Trithyreus) peradeniyensis , n. sp. 

iS. crassicaudatus (part), Gravely, 1910. 

6 Unknown. 

S Resembles the female of >S'. (T.) suboculatus, Poc, in all points 
described by Hansen, except the following : Eye-spots wanting.* 
In the first (antenniform) legs the femur is slightly longer than the 
tibia, and the foot is barely two-thirds as long as the tibia and 
about fourteen times as long as deep ; the second metatarsal joint 
is only two-thirds as long as the tarsus, being slightly shorter than 
the sum of the five proximal tarsal joints ; the second tarsal joint 
is not unusually long, being scarcely as long as the third ; the terminal 
tarsal joint is somewliat longer than the sum of the two proximal 
tarsal joints, and about two-fifths as long as the metatarsus. In 
life the dorsal colour is greenish-gray or brownish (never dark olive- 
green), varying considerably in different specimens, and passing 
into a somewhat reddish tint at the anterior end of the carapace 
and towards the extremities of the legs, the whole of the chelicerse 
being reddish-brown ; ventrally the colour is paler and more 

* When specimens are seen from above, a pair of ill-defined whitish patches 
will almost invariably be noticed in the position occupied by eye-spots in forms 
which bear them ; but a careful examination of well-illuminated specimens 
in different positions vxnder a Zeiss binocular microscope leads me to believe 
that these patches are in all cases due to the reflexion of light from the polished 
sides of the head immediately above the bases of the chelicerse, the chelicer* 
being partially visible thi'ough the earn pace, 

T «(2)11 



138 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

distinctly reddish at the anterior end. In spirit the ground colour 
is brown. 

Length. — Up to five and a half millimetres. 

Schizomus {Trithyreus) vittatus, n. sp. 
8. siiboculatvs , G-ravely, 1910. 

^ Unknown. 

9 Cephalothorax. — Eye-spots present, wiiitisb, in marked contrast 
to the surrounding green colour. Cephalic sternum longer than 
broad. 

Arms. — Moderately slender, slightly less than half as long as the 
body. Trochanter with its lower front angle (about 90°) incon- 
spicuous and much rounded, anterior margin convex. Lower angle 
of femur not very sharp, very slightly further from the basal than 
from the distal end of the upper margin of the joint. Patella 
almost three times as long as deep. Claw a little less than half as 
long as the upper margin of the tarsus. 

First legs. — Rather slender, about equal to the l>ody in length. 
Coxa terminating a little behind the anterior border of the gnatho- 
base of the chelicera. Femur a little longer than tibia. Foot nob 
quite as long as tibia (about seven-eighths of its length), scarcely 
nine times as long as deep, deepest at the end of the metatarsus ; 
second metatarsus scarcely as long as tlie sum of the five proximal 
joints of the tarsus ; terminal tarsal joint not quite as long as the 
sum of the three proximal joints, and shghtly more than half the 
length of the whole metatarsus. 

Fourth legs. — About as long as body ; femur rather moi'e than 
lialf as long as deep. 

Tail. — Short and stout, scarcely four times as long as deep, 
somewhat swollen in the middle ; three jointed, the tliird joint 
slightly longer than the sum of the other two. 

Colour. — ^Dorsal sclerites dark olive-green , in striking contrast with 
the pale integuments which connect them together, and which appear 
on the abdomen as whitish or somewhat orange -coloured, inter- 
segmental bands nearly one-fourth as broad as the dark green 
tergites, the posterior ones being somewhat narrower than the 
anterior. Abdomen with a large ventral dull ocliraceus patch 
bordered with green at the sides and behind. Cephalothoracic 
sterna whitish ; coxae pale olive-green below, whitish above ; tro- 
chanters and all connecting membranes of the appendages also 
whitish ; the whole of the chelicerag, the terminal joint of the arms, 
and all four feet reddish ; a crimson spot on the anterior surface of 
each leg on the connecting membrane between the femur and 
patella, these spots being most conspicuous on the last pair of legs. 
Eye-spots whitish, one on each side of the rosti-uiu. Colour scarcely 
affected by spirit. 



SPECIES OF CEYLON PBDTFALPI. 139 

Length. — Up to three and a half millimetres. 

This species is very closely alHed to 8. (T.) modestus, Hansen, 
from New Guinea and New Britain. It differs chiefly in having the 
anterior angle of the trochanter of the arms rounded and the 
anterior margin convex '; in having the foot of the antenniform legs 
proportionally shorter and stouter ; and in the greater stoutness 
of the tail, ^\^hich is, moreover, always somewhat swollen at about 
the middle of its length. 

The colour of 8. (T.) vitiatus is very constant even in young speci- 
mens, and quite distinct from that of 8. (T.) modestus, resembling 
i-ather tliat of another allied species, 8. (T.) procerus, Hansen, from 
Singapo]*e. The sharply defined white and green segmental bands 
of the abdomen ai-e always present . and are distinctly visible to the 
naked eye. 

Sections show that the specimens here described include without 
doubt many mature females. 

The chief interest of these two new species lies in the abundance 
in which they were obtained. Hansen had but a few specimens of 
each of the species he described . and can have had little direct evidence 
as to which points Avere likely to be constant and which were not. 
He found the proportions of different parts of the antenniform legs 
to be among the most useful characters by which to distinguish 
the species, especially in the female sex ; and the value of this 
selection is confirmed by the fact that in each of the long series of 
8chizomus {s. str.) crassicaudatus , 8. [Trithyreus) peradeniyensis , 
and 8. (T.) vittatus which I have examined these characters remain 
l^erfectly constant. Only in one instance have I noticed any 
abnormality, and as this occurred on one side of the specimen only, 
and affected the number of joints in the foot, it was presumably 
a malformation caused by some accident to the appendage in 
question. 

The form of the lower anterior portion of the trochanter of the 
arm is another useful character ; but this is less fixed, and should not be 
relied upon unless a good series of specimens are available. Thus, 
Hansen states that in 8chizom,tis {s. str.) crassicaudatus " the best 
distinguishing mark between this species and all other forms 
hitheito known is the presence of a process from the lower 
front angle of the trochanter of the palps "; this process, as they 
point out, is smaller in the female than in the male, and in the 
former I find it to be extremely variable in size, often minute, and 
sometimes entirely absent. The distinctive proportions of the parts 
of the foot of the antenniform legs being constant are of much 
greater systematic value, and it may not be out of place here to 
reiterate Hansen's emphatic statement that " measurement by the 
eye of such parts is quite insnfflcient "; the use of an eye-piece 
micrometer is absolutely necessary. 



140 srOLIA ZEYLANlCA. 

TARANTULIDM. 
(= Phrynichidse,) 

Genus Phrytlichus, Karsch. 

p. pusillus, var. graciUibrachiatus , n. 

6 Resembles P. pusillus {s. sir.) in all points, except the greater 
length and slenderness of the arms. In full-grown specimens the 
femur of these appendages varies from 19 ' 5 to 29 • 5 mm. in length 
in the variety, and from 9 • to 13 • 5 in the tjrpical form, the " mode " 
in both cases being intermediate between the two extreme 
measurements. 

? Body distinctly larger than in the male, arms proportionately 
somewhat shorter and stouter. Second abdominal sternum as in 
P. pusillus {s. sir.), i.e., with the pair of semi-lunar lobes small or 
absent. 

As intimated in my previous paper, this appears to be chiefly a 
low-country form, but I am very anxious to obtain if possible 
furtlier information as to its disti-ibution in the Island before 
committing myself to any more precise statement than this. 



LIST OF PAPERS REFERRED TO. 

1899. Kraepelin, K., " Scorpiones und Pedipalpi " in " Das 
Tierreich." 

1900. PoGock, R. /., " Arachnida" in "The Fauna of British 
India, including Ceylon and Burma." 

1905. Hansen, H. J., and Sbrensen, W., " The Tartarides, a 
Tribe of the Order Pedipalpi." Arkiv for Zool., vol. II., No, 8. 

1910. Gravely, F. H., "Pedipalpi of Ceylon." " SpoUa 
Zeylanica," vol. VII., pp. 43-47. 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 141 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 
Mutillidae and Scoliidse. 

By Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



'"pHE species described in tliis paper are mostly from the collec- 
-*- tion of Mr. 0. S. Wickwar, who is generously depositing the 
types in the British Museum. Most of the Mutillidse were collected 
by Mr, T. Bainbrigge Fletcher at Hambantota ; from him the 
Museum has also received long series of some species. Most of the 
larger species are identical with those collected by Yerbury at Trin- 
comalee and described by Cameron, but few of the smaller species 
are identical with those from Trmcomalee. Most characteristic of 
the Ceylon Mutillidae is the abundance of species in which the 
posterior margin of the thorax in the female is furnished with a row 
of rather long teeth ; this group, though not confined to Ceylon, 
seems to be much richer in species there than elsewhere. The 
range of many of the species is probably extremely limited ; for 
climatic conditions at Trincomalee and Hambantota are very 
similar, and the difference of the species in the two localities is 
not likely to be entirely due to insufficient collecting. The 
means of locomotion in the female are so limited that local forms 
are much more likely to be developed than m other families. 
In the genus TipJda I have observed that the part most affected 
in local races is the median segment ; and in the female Mutillidae 
the shape of the thorax seems especially subject to local influence, 
the median segment in the female sex being combined with the 
thorax. 

Mr. Wickwar has pointed out to me that the colour of the head 
and thorax, used as the main points of recognition m Bingham's Key, 
is not a reMable character ; in this I fuUy agree with him and with 
other authorities. 

Family MUTILLIDJE. 

Genus Spilomutilla, x4shm. 

Spilomutilla eltola (Cam.). 

Mutilla eltola, Cam. Mem. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, 
XLII.,p. 3, 1898. V. 

Spilomutilla eltola, Andre. Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr.. p. 251 
1907. 6 ?. 



142 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The male closely resembles S. ocdipus, Cam., but has no central 
spine on the posterioi margin of the median segment. The ocelli 
are present though small, and are not absent as stated by M. Andre. 
The genus Spilotnutillais not rich in species, and seems to be confined 
to Southern Asia. While agreeing with Bingham that M. ocdipus, 
Cam., may well be regarded as the male of M. rothneyi, Cam.. I 
consider that his suggestion that the wings have been accidentally 
lost is quite wild, as Cameron has pointed out. The name ocdijms 
has priority over rothneyi, and should be used for the species. 
Mutilla cotesii, Cam., which I have not seen, appears to belong 
to Spilomutdlla, but there is no mention in the description of spines 
on the sides of the thorax. I consider that ojnsoUduta, Cam., is 
a synonym of elfola. 

Hab. — Colombo (Wickivar) ; Hambantota {Fletcher). 

Genus IVIutilla, Linn. 
Key to the Species of Mutilla described here. 

1. — Posterior margin of the thorax with a row of acute spines: — 

A. Second dorsal segment with a spot 

of white pubescence on each side ; 
third and fourth segments with 
bands of white pubescence. 
{a) The bands on the tliird and fourth 
segments partly interrupted in 
the middle ; head red . . M. ianthv?. 

{b) The bands on the third and foiwth 
segments continuous ; liead 
usually black . . . . M. bainbriggei. 

B. Second dorsal segment immaculate . . M.porcella. 

II. — Posterior margin of the thorax without spines : — 

A. Second dorsal segment of the abdo- 
men immaculate. 
(«) Second dorsal segment longitudinal- 
ly rugose -striate ; thorax scarcely 
broadened posteriorly. 
a^. Second dorsal segment almost as 

broad in the middle as long . . M. pinguicula. 
h^. Second dorsal segment much 
narrower m the middle than 
long . . . . M. fumigata. 

(6) Second dorsal segment punctured ; 
thorax much broadened pos- 
teriorly . . . . M. thermophila. 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 143 

B. Second dorsal segment mth one spot 

or more of pubescence. 

{a) A s]Dot at the base and a band of 

golden pubescence on the apex 

of the second dorsal segment. 

a\ Head and thoi-ax red ; sides of 

the thorax sUghtly concave . . M. fletcheri. 
6\ Head red, thorax black ; sides 

of thorax slightly'- rounded . . M. mckwari. 
(b) Second dorsal segment marked A^ath 
spots of white pubescence. 
a^. The spots not lateral. 

a^. A spot at the base and at the 
apex of the .second dorsal 
segment. 
a^. Third dorsal segment covered 

with white pubescence .. M.pondicherensis,Jiad. 
b^. Third dorsal segment without 

white pubescence . . M. ocellata, Sauss. 

b^. A spot at the apex only of the 

second dorsal segment . . M. desiderata, 
b^ . The spots lateral ; third and fourth 
segments alst) with lateral 
spots. 
a^. Thorax strongly narrowed ante- 
riorly ; a spot on each side 
on the apex as well as on the 
middle of the second dorsal 
segment . . ., M. melanota. 

h^. Thorax not much narrowed 
anteriorly ; no spots on the 
ajjex of the second dorsal 
segment . . .. M. hexaops, Sauss. 

Mutilla pondicherensis , Rad. and Sich. 

Mutilla pondicherensis, Rad. and Sich. Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross 
p. 204, 1869. ?. 

Mutilla rufitarsis, Sm. Descr. New Spec. Hym. p. 199 
1879. ?. 

.f^oft.— Colombo {Wickwar) ; Hambantota (Fletcher). 

I have not seen the type of pondicherensis, but rnfitmsis agrees 
well \\dth the description, and I think there can be little doubt that 
both names refer to one species. Many Ceylon specimens have the 
head red, but I cannot see that the difference is specific. M. blanda 
Sm., is very closely related. 



144 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Mutilla ianthis, sp. no v. 

$ . Ferruginea , abdomine nigro , secondo segmento maculis duabus 
albopilosis lateral! bus, segmento tertio quartoque albopilosis in 
medio nigro-maculatis, area pygidiali longitudinaliter striata, 
thorace postice pectinato. 

Head and thorax strongly longitudinally rugose, pleura smooth 
and shining, abdomen closely and rather finely punctured, the 
pygidial area finely longitudinally striated. Eyes oval, situated 
a little nearer to the posterior margin of the head than to the base 
of the mandibles, the head rounded behind them, no broader than 
the thorax. Mandibles acute at the apex, with one very small blunt 
tooth on the inner margin. Scape shining and almost smooth, the 
second Joint of the flagellum distinctly longer than the third. Tho- 
rax about one -third longer than the breadth on the posterior margin, 
slightly rounded anteriorly and a little broadened posteriorly, the 
sides crenulate and slightly concave, the posterior truncation 
vertical, shining, and almost smooth , the margin above the base of 
the truncation with ten strong teeth increasing in length towards 
the middle, the row of teeth contmued by two or three very small 
ones on the sides of the truncation. No scutellar ridge. First 
abdominal segment much narrower than the second, which is 
broadest in the middle. 

Ferruginous, the abdomen black ; a large round spot of white 
pubescence on each side of the second abdominal segment before 
the middle, the third and fourth segments covered with white 
pubescence with a large black spot on the middle of each. Flagel- 
lum and the apex of the mandibles black. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Hah. — Hambantota, Ceylon [Fletcher) ; November. 

In some specimens the pile on the abdomen is golden instead of 
white . 

Somewhat allied to M. pectinospinata, Magi-. , but is a much smaller 
species. In the serration of the posterior margin of the thorax it 
approaches the group of serratula, Cam., but the markings on the 
abdomen are very different. 

Mutilla bainbriggei, sp. no v. 

$. Nigra, thorace pedibusque ferrugineis, abdommis segmento 
secundo maculis duabus lateralibus albopilosis, segmentis tertio 
quartoque apice albopilosis, thorace postice pectinato. 

Head and thorax coarsely rugose, abdomen finely punctured, 
pygidial area elongate ovate, very finely longitudinally striated, 
pleura concave, smooth. Eyes oval, situated nearer to the pos- 
terior marghi of the head than to the base of the mandibles, the head 
rounded behmd them, the scape shining and finely punctured, the 
second joint of the flagellum distinctly longer than the third. 
Thorax as wide as the head, very feebly rounded on the anterior 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 145 

margin, broadened posteriorly, the sides slightl}?^ concave and 
crenulate, about one -third longer than the breadth on the posterior 
margin, vertically trmicate posteriorly, the surface of the truncation 
shining, with a few indistmct longitudinal striae, the margin above 
the truncation pectinate, the four teeth near the middle long, the 
others scarcely developed. 

Black ; the thorax ferruginous ; legs, scape, and base of the flagel- 
lum fusco-feiTuginous ; second abdominal segment with a small 
round spot of white pubescence near the middle on each side, third 
and fourth segments with a transverse band of white pubescence 
at the apex ; pj^gidium dark fusco-ferruginous. Ventral segments 
with a sparse apical fringe of long whitish hairs. 

Length. 4 to 5 mm. 

Hob. — Hambantota, Ceylon {Fletcher) ; November to February. 

Very similar to recondifa, Cam., but differs in the sculpture of the 
pygidium and in the presence of teeth on the posterior margin of 
the thorax. 

Mutilla porcella, sp. no v. 

?. Fen'uginea, rugosa, thorace arcuato, postice truncato, sex 
dentato, abdomine nigro, tertio segmento albopiloso. 

Head and thorax rugose, the posterior truncation of the thorax 
coarsely longitudinally striated, abdomen finely punctured, the 
second ventral segment strongly punctured, the second dorsal 
segment longitudinally rugose -striate. Head scarcely broader than 
the thorax, not rounded behind the eyes, the posterior margin 
straight ; eyes oval, as near to the base of the mandibles as to the 
posterior margin of the head. Scape finely punctured, the antennae 
not very stout, the second joint of the fiagellum twice as long as the 
third, which is as broad as long. Thorax arched from the base to 
the apex, moderately convex, the anterior and posterior margins 
both very broadly rounded, more than half as long again as broad, 
the sides nearly parallel, slightly broadened on the median segment, 
the scuteUar tubercle distinct but small, the posterior margin with 
six well-defined teeth, the two median the longest, the posterior 
truncation almost vertical. Pleura smooth and shining, very 
sUghtly concave. Abdomen convex, the first segment much 
narrower than the second, the pygidial area much longer than broad, 
very narrowly truncate at the apex and finely punctured. Tibiae 
with three or four well-developed spines on the outer margin. 

Ferruginous ; the abdomen black ; the third segment and the 
ventral segments at the apex clothed m ith long whitish pubescence ; 
calcaria white ; flagellum fuscous. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Hab. — Hambantota, Ceylon (Fletcher) ; November. 

Easily distinguished from pinguicula, which is very similar in 
size, colour, and sculptiu-e, by the teeth on the apex of the median 
segment. 

u C(2)ll 



146 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

Mutilla pinguicula, sp. nov. 

?. Ferruginea, punctata, abdomine nigro, secundo segmento 
longitudinaliter rugose strigato, segmentis 3to, 4to, quintoque in 
medio sparse cinereo-pilosis. 

Head and thorax punctured -rugose, more finely and closely on 
the head than on the thorax, abdomen punctvu*ed, the second dorsal 
segment longitudinally rugose-striate, pygidial area not defined. 
Head rounded behind the eyes, very little broader than the thorax ; 
the eyes broadly oval, situated a little nearer to the posterior 
margin of the head than to the base of the mandibles. Antennse 
stout, the scape very finely punctured, the second joint of the 
flagellum nearly half as long again as the third. Thorax almost 
twice as long as broad, the anterior margin straight, the sides 
parallel, obhquely sloped posteriorly, the surface of the posterior 
slope rugose, the scutellar tubercle absent, a faint longitudinal 
carina on the median segment ; pleura shining and almost smooth, 
not concave, the dorsal surface of the thorax convex. Abdomen 
short and broad, strongly convex, the second segment less than half 
as long again as the breadth at the apex. Tibiae with only two or 
three very feeble spines near the apex. 

Ferruginous ; the abdomen black ; the third, fourth, and fifth 
segments sparsely clotlied with gray pubescence in the middle ; 
spines of the tibia? white. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Hob. — Hambantota, Ceylon {Fletcher) ; November. 

Mutilla thermophila, sp. nov. 

9. Ferruginea, tennessime punctata, abdomine nigro, subsessile. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen finely and closely punctured, the 
punctures on the second dorsal segment of the abdomen often con- 
fluent longitudinally. Head not quite as broad as the thorax, 
rounded behind the eyes, which are a Uttle nearer to the posterior 
margin of the head than to the base of the mandibles, oval and not 
very prominent. Antennse moderately stout and rather short, the 
second joint of the flagellum short, equal in length to the third. 
Thorax convex, nearly half as broad again posteriorly as anteriorly, 
about one -third longer than the breadth on the posterior margin, 
the sides not emarginate or crenulate ; the anterior margin 
straight, very slightly prominent at the angles. Pleura finely 
punctured, very shghtly concave, the propleura almost smooth. 
Abdomen subsessile, strongly convex, the first segment depressed, 
the second very broad, nearly as broad in the middle as long, 
sixth segment without a pygidial area. Second ventral segment 
coarsely punctured, deeply depressed transversely at the base. 
Tibiae almost smooth, with only one or two very slender spines near 
the apex. 



NEW HYMENOPTEBA FROM CEYLON. 147 

Ferruginous ; the abdomen black ; the pubescence sparse and 
whitish ; calcaria whitish. 
Length, 4 mm. 
^a&.— Hambantota, Ceylon (Fletcher) ; January. 

Mutilla fumigata, sp. no v. 

$. Ferruginea, abdomine nigro, segmento quinto in medio 
albopiloso. 

Head finely punctured-rugose, a little broader than the thorax, 
the eyes separated from the posterior margin of the head by a 
distance equal to about half their breadth ; antennal tubercles 
rather large, smooth, and shining, scape shining, finely and sparsely 
punctured, flagellum rather thick, the third joint as long as the 
second. Thorax coarsely rugose longitudinally, about twice as 
long as broad, the sides almost parallel, very slightly emargmate 
in the middle, obliquely sloped posteriorly, a low transverse carina 
a little before the apex. Pleura concave, shming, the metapleuraj 
finely punctured. Abdomen closely punctured, the second dorsal 
segment longitudinally rugose; pygidial area not very clearly 
defined, much longer than broad, shmmg, very finely and closely 
punctured. Ventral segments finely punctured, the second very 
coarsely and closely punctured. Ferrugmous, the apical half of the 
flagellum more or less fuscous ; the apex of the mandibles and the 
whole of the abdomen black ; a spot of white pubescence on the 
fifth dorsal segment. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Z^a6.— Hambantota, Ceylon {Fletcher) ; November. 

Mutilla fletcheri, sp. no v. 

$. Ferruginea, rugose punctata, abdomine nigro, segmento 
secundo basi macula magna aurea, apice aurea late fasciata. 

Head and thorax coarsely rugose-punctate, more coarsely on the 
thorax than on the head, pro- and meso-pleurse rather indistmctly, 
metapleurse more distinctly punctured. Abdomen finely and 
closely punctured, the second dorsal segment coarsely longitudinally 
rugose. Pygidial area small, elongate, nearly twice as long as 
broad, shining, very minutely punctured at the base. Head no 
broader than the thorax, rounded behind the eyes, which are situated 
much nearer to the posterior margin of the head than to the base of 
the mandibles ; the tubercles at the base of the antemise rather 
large, scape shining, the second jomt of the flagellum longer than 
the third. Thorax nearly twice as long as broad, shghtly rounded 
anteriorly ; the sides almost parallel, very feebly emarginate before 
the middle ; the pleura slightly concave. The carina on the first 
ventral segment of the abdomen is rounded at the apex. 

Ferruginous ; the abdomen black ; the flagellum (except the basal 
joint) fuscous ; a large spot of golden pubescence at the base of the 



148 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

second dorsal abdominal segment, a broad band, broadest in the 
middle at the apex of the second segment , and a narrow band at the 
apex of the third and fifth segments. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Hah. — Hambantota, Ceylon [Fletcher) ; November. Three speci- 
mens. 

This seems to be nearer to M. pulla, Andre, than to any other 
species. 

Mutilla wickwari, sp. no v. 

?. Nigra, capite ferrugineo, pedibiis testaceis, abdominis 
segmento secondo basi macula magna, apice fascia lata transversa, 
segmentoque tertio toto aureopilosis, area pygidiah nulla. 

Head closely punctured, thorax punctured rugose, pleura 
shining and almost smooth, abdomen finely and closely punctured, 
the punctures on the second segment more or less confluent longi- 
tudinally. Head no broader than the thorax, the eyes situated 
rather nearer to the posterior margin of the head than to the base 
of the mandibles, the head rounded behind the eyes. Antennal 
tubercles rather small, the scape finely punctured, the second Joint 
of the flagelhun lialf as loug again as the third ; an indistinct longi- 
tudinal carina on the front. Thorax half as long again as broad, 
a little narrower posteriorly than anteriorly, the sides very slightly 
convex, the pleura not concave. The carina on the first ventral 
segment is rather broad, with a small tubercle at the apex. No 
pygidial area. 

Black ; head and prosternum ferruginous ; legs testaceous brown ; 
a large spot at the base of the second segment, a transverse band, 
broadest in the middle, on the apical margin, the whole of the third 
segment and the fourth less densely convered with golden pubescence. 
The two anal segments with long pale hairs on the sides. The 
ventral segments narrowly fringed with golden hairs on the apical 
margin. An obscure ferruginous spot on each side near the angles 
of the median segment. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Hab. — Hambantota, Ceylon (Fletcher) ; November. Two speci- 
mens. 

Easily distinguished from M. fletcheri by the absence of the" 
pygidial area, the finer sculpture, especially on the second dorsal 
segment, and the shape of the thorax, the sides of which are shghtly 
convex instead of concave. 

Mutilla desiderata, sp. nov, 

?• Ferruginea. punctata, abdomine nigro, segmento 2do, 4to, 
quintoque macula albopilosa apice signatis, area pygidiali longi- 
tudinaliter striata. 

Head and thorax punctured-rugose, second dorsal segment 
longitudinally rugose, pj^gidial area very finely longitudinally 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 149 

striated, rounded at the apex. Eyes nearer to the posterior 
margin of the head than to the base of the mandibles. Head orbi- 
cular, no broader than the thorax, the second joint of the flagellum 
a little longer than the third. Thorax nearly twice as long as broad, 
very slightly rounded posteriorly, a httle more strongly anteriorly, 
the sides almost parallel, very feebly emarginate, the posterior 
truncation almost vertical and coarsely rugose. Pleura concave, 
almost smooth, with a few fine and shallow pmictures. Ventral 
abdominal segments very finely punctured, the second coarsely and 
closely punctured. Tibiae with two rows of spines. 

Ferruginous ; antennae fuscous towards the apex ; legs rufotes 
taceous ; abdomen black, a spot of white pubescence on the apical 
margin of the second, fourth, and fifth segments ; calcaria whitish. 
Pubescence white on the sides and ventral surface, black on the 
dorsal surface of the abdomen, pale ferruginous on the head and 
thorax. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Hah. — Hambantota, Ceylon [Fletcher). 

This seems to be alUed to nigrigena. Andre, and rufiventris, Sm., 
neither of which are known to me except by the descriptions. 

Mutilla hexao'ps, Sauss. 

Mutilla hexaops, Sauss. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fn., p. 356, 1867. ?• 
Mutilla ceylanensis, Ead. and Sich. Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross., VI., 
p. 247, 1869. ?. 

I cannot see that these forms are distinct. Bingham's distinctions 
between the two are not accurate ; Saussure distinctly says of 
hexao'ps "pedes ferruginei," and this corresponds with a specimen 
named by him in the British Museum collection, but Bmgham says 
" legs black, antemise feiTuginous." The antennae in hexaops are 
fuscous, the scape fusco-ferruginous. 

6 . Niger , abdomine ruf o , segmento primo , apice excepto septimo- 
que nigris ; alls flavo-hyalinis, scutello tuberculato. 

Black ; the pubescence gray ; segments 2 to 6 of the abdomen 
and the apex of the first ferruginous with hght ferruginous 
pubescence. Wings hyaline, tinged with yellow, nervures pale 
testaceous. 

Clypeus shining in the middle and sparsely punctured, with a 
median carina, the sides covered with long pubescence. Antennae 
stout, the second joint of the flagellum scarcely longer than the 
third. Head closely punctured, thorax rugosely punctured, a 
shining median line on the anterior half of the mesonotum, the 
posterior half more coarsely sculptured, with a deep longitudinal 
sulcus on each side. Scutellum raised in the middle into a low 
shining tubercle, with a deep, shining transverse depression at the 
base. Pleura coarsely punctured, the mctapleuric and median 



150 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

segment coarsely reticulate, two narrowly separated longitudinal 
carinse at the base of the median segment converging towards the 
middle. Abdomen shining and sparsely and finely punctured, 
more closely at the apex of the segments than at the base , and with 
a fringe of pubescence near the apex of the segments. The carina 
on the first basal segment is very shallowly emarginate beneath. 
Third abscissa of the radius equal in length to the first, the second 
half as long again ; first recurrent nervure received before two-thirds 
from the base of the second cubital cell, second at three-quarters 
from the base of the third cubital cell. 

Length, 14 mm. 

Hah. — Colombo, Ceylon (Wickwar). 6 ? in copula. 

The male is near foreata, Cam., but differs in the distinct, though 
low, tubercle on the scutellum, the shape of the carina on the first 
ventral segment, the clypeus, and the proportions of the cubital 
cells. M. acidalia, Cam., is doubtfully distinct. In most specimens 
of hexaops the wings are fuscous at the apex. 

Mutilla melanota, sp. no v. 

?. Nigra, rugosa, abdomina delicatissime punctato, segmentis 
3-4 albo bimaculatis, secundo quadrimaculato, pedibus fusco- 
ferrugineis. 

Head and thorax coarsely rugose, the mesopleurae smooth and 
concave, abdomen finel}^ punctured, the sixth segment closely 
punctured, flattened, the pygidial area not defined. Eyes large, 
situated nearer to the posterior margin of the head than to the base 
of the mandibles, separated from the posterior margin of the head 
by a distance less than their greatest breadth. Scape shining and 
almost smooth, the second Joint of the flagellum more than half as 
long again as the third. Thorax scarcely as wide as the head, 
broadened posteriorly, the anterior margin rounded, almost verti- 
cally truncate posteriorly, the sides slightl;v' crenulate, emarginate 
before the middle, the sides of the posterior truncation with small 
teeth, the thorax nearl}^ twice as long as the breadth at the base of 
the truncation. 

Black ; the apex of the scape and the legs f usco-ferruginous ; the 
second abdominal segment with an elongate ovate spot of dull white 
pubescence on each side before the middle, another smaller and 
transverse on each side on the apical margin, the third and fovirth 
segments with a large spot on each side, the sides of the abdomen 
and the apex of the ventral segments with long whitish pubescence , 
the apex of the second segment fusco-ferruginous. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Hah. — Hambantota, Ceylon {Fletcher) ; November. 

Allied to M. sexmaculafa, Swed., but the shape of the thorax is 
different. 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 151 

Genus Promecilla, Andre. 
Promecilla cyanosofna, sp. no v. 

?. Ferruginea, abdomine cyaneo, segmentis 2-5 apice macula 
parva albopilosa, thorace elongate, postice contracto. 

Head and abdomen finely and closely punctured, thorax rather 
more coarsely punctured, the posterior slope reticulate, the pleurae 
shining and sparsely punctured. Head scarcely broader than the 
thorax, naiTowed behind the eyes and rounded posteriorly, the 
eyes nearer to the posterior margin of the head than to the base of 
the mandibles. Thorax more than twice as long as the head, 
rounded anteriorly, arched to the middle and strongly sloped 
posteriorly, nearly three times as long as the gi'eatest breadth, 
narrowed posteriorly. Second abdominal segment long, twice as 
long as broad, apical segment shining, without a ])ygidial area. 

Ferruginous, the abdomen dark shining blue. A small spot of 
white pubescence on the middle of the anterior margin of the thorax , 
and one in the middle of the apical margin of each dorsal abdominal 
segment from the second to the fifth inclusive ; the first ventral 
segment ferruginous. 

As in most other species of the genus the second joint of the 
flagellum is much longer than the third. There are only one or 
two spines on the posterior tibiae near the apex. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Hab. — Hambantota, Ceylon (Fletcher) ; February. 

This species differs from ariel, Cam., in the colour of the legs 
and antennae and the smaller size and different distribution of the 
spots of white pubescence. In the latter point it also differs from 
regia. Sm., and metaUica, Cam. P. hesitata, Cam., has the head 
much broader posteriorly, and P. prcesfabilis , Andre, has no spots of 
white pupescence on the abdomen. 

Genus Stenomutilla, Andre. 

Stenomutilla egregia (Sauss.). 

Mutilla egregia, Sauss. Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4) , VII. , p. 351 , 

1867. ?. (necKlug.) 
Mutilla aureorubra, Sich. and Rad. Horae. Soc. Ent. Ross., VI., 

p. 304, 1869. ?. 
Mutilla placida. Sm. Descr. n. spce. Hym.. p. 198, 1879. 5'. 

Mutilla nobilis, Sm. (Cat. Hym. B. M., III., p. 33, 1855, 6), is 
almost certainly the male of this species, but it is better to keep 
tlxeni separate for the present. I have not seen Saussure's type, 
but Smith's species, the type of which is from Bombay, answers 
well to his description and figure. 



152 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Sub -family Methocin^. 
Genus IVIethOCa, Latr. 
Meihoca bicolor, Cam. 

Methoca hicolor, Cam. Mem. Manch. Lit. & Phil. Soc, XLI., 
p. 52, 1897. ?. 

Hambantota, Ceylon {T. B. Fletcher). 1 ?. 

Not previously recorded from Ceylon. The specimen differs 
from Cameron's description in having the head finely and sparsely 
pimctured ; the tibiae, as well as the tarsi, are testaceous, also the 
mandibles and the six basal joints of the antennae. The thorax 
is distinctly more slender than in Cameron's figure, especially the 
median segment ; but this may be an error in the figure. Tlie size 
as in Cameron's description is 5 mm. 

This seems to be the first authentic record of Methoca from Ceylon, 
for M. ruqosa, Cam., does not belong to the genus. 

Family SCOLIIDM. 

Genus Plesia, Jm-. 
Plesia petiolata (Sm.). 

Myzine petiolata, Sm. Cat. Hym. B. M., III., p. 72, 1855. 6. 
Myzine ceylonica, Cam. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), V., p. 18, 
1900. ?. 

Male specimens from Colombo taken in June are rather smaller 
than the tj'^pe, measuring only 9 mm. in length. The female varies 
much both in the closeness of the puncturation and the colour of the 
wings, and there is also much difference in the comparative length 
of the abscissae of the radius. It is quite possible that two species 
are represented in the series, but I can find no constant distinguish- 
ing character. Some of the specimens are alniost identical with 
Myzine claripennis, Bingh. The differences do not appear to be 
seasonal. 

Genus Tiphia, Fabr. 
Tiphia oswini, sp. no v. 

9. Nigra, nitida, alis subhyalinis, ubique spai'se punctata, seg- 
ment! median! carina mediali subobsoleta, pro- et metapleuris 
tenuiter oblique striatis. 

6. Niger, nitidus, alis subhyaUnis, apice leviter violaceo 
micantibus, clypeo apice incise, sparse punctatus. 

?. Clypeus transverse ; head shining, sparsely punctured ; scape 
and two basal joints of the flagellum shining, finely and closely 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM CEYLON. 153 

punctured, the second joint of the flagellum twice as long as the 
first and about equal in length to the third, the flagellum from the 
third joint opaque and very finely pubescent. Posterior ocelli more 
than twice as far from the eyes as from each other. Pronotum 
coarsely, but rather sparsely/, punctured, the posterior margin very 
broadly smooth ; mesonotum very sparsely punctured ; scutellum 
sparsely punctured, very broadly rounded at the apex. Propleura 
and metapleura finely and closely obliquely striated, mesopleura 
finely and very sparsely punctured. Median segment as long as the 
mesonotum and scutellum combined, subopaque, very minutely 
punctured, the three carinse near together, the median one almost 
obsolete, the two lateral ones nearly parallel, a little nearer together 
at the apex than at the base, the apex distinctly margined, the 
posterior truncation almost vertical. Abdomen shining, very 
sparsely punctured, most sparsely on the second segment, the first 
segment rounded at the base, the second segment with a transverse 
longitudinally striated groove at the base ; the sixth segment 
rounded at the apex, coarsely punctured, and with long sparse 
pubescence at the base, smooth at the apex. Second recurrent 
nervure received at about two-thirds from the base of the second 
cubital cell. 

Black, with whitislx pubescence ; calcaria fusco-ferruginous : 
wings pale fusco-hyaline, nervures fuscous. 

Length, 13 mm. 

£. Differs from the female by the usual sexual characters ; more 
closely punctured, the clypeus incised at the apex ; posterior ocelli 
only half as far again from the eyes as from each other ; the second 
joint of the flagellum distinctly shorter than the third, median 
segment in the middle shorter than the mesonotum, very feebly and 
broadly emarginate posteriorly, the three carinse distinct, the two 
outer ones a little nearer together at the apex than at the base. 
Radial cell narrowly rounded at apex, extending beyond the apex 
of the second cubital cell ; stigma rather large, nearly three times 
as long as broad. 

Black, wings sub hyaline, tinged -with fuscous on the apical half 
and with violet reflections. 

Length, 8 mm. 

Hah. — Pattipola, Ceylon (Wickwar), 1 6 1 ? ; Matale {Braine). 
16- 

This is a larger and more sparsely punctured species than constieta, 
Sm., the sculpture of the propleura is difl^erent, and the first ab- 
dominal segment is more strongly rounded at the base. The three 
carinse on the median segment are all clearly defined in consueta, 
and the colour of the wings is different, though somewhat 
variable. 

X 6(2)11 



154 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

Genus Scolia, Fabr. 

Scolia (DiscoUa) histrionica, Fabr. 

Scolia histrionica, Fabr, Ent. Syst. suppl., 256, 1798. ?. 

Hah. — Colombo. 

Scolia vivida, Sm. , is abnost certainly the male of this species, 
as suggested by Saussure. 

Grenus DieliS, Sauss. and Sich. 
Dielis rubromOfCulata (Sm.). 

Scolia ruhromaculata, Sm. Cat. Hym. B. M., III., p. 99, 

1855. ?. 
Elis {Dielis) ruhromaculata, Sauss. Spec. Gen. Scolia, p. 196, 

1864. ?. 

Ceylon specimens, as far as I know, are without red markings 
on the abdomen, and very closely resemble Scolia (DiscoUa) indica, 
Sauss. The male of indica is almost certainly eliformis , Sauss. The 
male of ruhromaculata is smaller, 20 to 25 mm. in length, is closely 
punctured, black, the abdomen strongly glossed with blue, the three 
apical segments with a fringe of long fulvous hairs. The wings are 
fuscous, slightly glossed with purple. 

Hah. — Kandy (Turner) ; Maskeliya (de Mowhray), 



A NEW MASON WASP. 155 



A NEW MASON WASP. 

Odynerus wickwari, u. sp. 

By Geoffrey Meade- Waldo, B.A. 



Description of Female. 

BLACK ; broadly at base and narrowly along the sides of 
clyx3eiis, scape of antennae beneath, narrow line running from 
between base of antennae to the most anterior of the ocelli, sinus of 
the eyes, the inner orbits bordered with a line which branches off 
towards the ocelli above, the cheeks entii-ely, anterior margin of 
pronotum broadening laterally ; two spots, the upper ovate, the 
lower elongate ovate, on mesopleurse, base of tegulse, a line on 
anterior margin of scutellum broader laterally, a narrow line inter- 
rupted medially on the post- scutellum, two triangular marks on 
medium segment yellow. Abdomen, apical margin of first abdomi- 
nal segment above, second abdominal segment, both dorsally and 
ventrally, much enlarged on ventral surface, two small spots about 
the middle of first abdominal segment, four spots at even distances 
apart placed transversely on segment 2, a series of three spots on 
segments 3,4, and 5, and the apical margin on ventral surface of 
segments 3 and 4, yellow. Anterior and intermediate legs, except 
the tarsi, posterior legs, with exception of femora, yellow. Apex 
of mandibles, entire median segment (except where yellow), first 
abdominal segment at base above and wholly on ventral surface, 
red. Posterior femora red above, the tarsi ferruginous- red. Wings 
hyaline, fuscous along the costa and in radial cell. Clypeus about 
as broad as long, truncate, and narrowed towards apex. Pronotum 
broad in front, median segment slightly depressed rounded at the 
apex ; first abdominal segment not petiolate, rather narrower than 
the second. Head and thorax coarsely and evenly punctured, 
abdomen shining impimctate, clypeus and abdomen clothed with 
a sparse gray pile. 
Length, 1\ mm. 

Description of Male. 

Th« male differs from female in several points in colouration. 
Clypeus yellow and slightly emarginate. Horseshoe mark on disc 
of mesonotum yellow. The following yellow markings present in 



156 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

female are not visible on the male, i.e., the spots on the first and 
second abdominal segments, the hnes bordering the inner orbits 
and branching in above the ocelli. 

Length, 7| mm. 

Habitat: Female, Oddichudan, Ceylon, N. P., Nov., 1908 (0. S. 
Wickwar). Male, Anuradhapura, Ceylon, N.C. P., Nov., 1908 
(0. S. Wickwar). 

Tliis species would come next to 0. difflnis in Bingham's Key 
('• Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera," Vol. I.). 

I have pleasure in naming this species after Mr. 0. S. Wickwar, 
who has done so much to further the study of Aculeate Hymenoptera 
in Ceylon. 



THE EGG-TOOTH IN THE CEYLON KRAIT. 157 



THE EGG-TOOTH IN THE CEYLON KRAIT, OR 
KARAWELLA (BUNGARUS CEYLONICUS). 

By Major F. Wall, I.M.S., G.M.Z.S. 



IN this Journal* some time ago Mr. E. E. Green recorded a most 
interesting discovery of Kraits [Bimcjarus ceylonicus) with 
eggs and hatching young. In January, 1907, visiting Peradeniya, 
I was able to examine the hatched young and three of the eggs, and 
suggested to Mr. Green opening the eggs with a view to investi- 
gating the egg-tooth. Accordingly the three eggs were incised, the 
embryos extracted, and we searched for the egg-tooth with the aid 
of a microscope, but were doomed to disappointment. I am fairly 
certain, however, that we did not examine the jaws of the two 
hatched young. At that time I had never seen the egg-tooth of 
any snake, but since have been able to do so in several species. It 
occurred to me the other day to re-examine these specimens in the 
hope of success, now that I know what to look for, and the exact 
site of this structure. Mr. Green very kindly presented me with the 
specimens, five in all, and the eggs which we had despoiled of their 
contents. I have re-examined these with the aid of a microscope, 
with the following results. In the three young extracted by us, 
which are (1) 6 measuring 5| inches, (2) 6 6| inches, and (3) S 
6| inches. I failed to discover any rudiment of the foetal-tooth, 
but in the smaller of the two hatchlings, which measures 9 inches, I 
was successful. I dislodged the structure from the prsemaxilla, 
and viewed it under the microscope, and find it is exactly like the 
f cetal-tooth I recently alluded to in the ' ' Bombay Natural History 
Jom^nal," which I extracted from the foetus of a pit viper. It 
bears a striking resemblance in form to a duck's head, the 
convexity of the head filUng the aperture in the front of the 
mouth, through which the tongue in later life is exserted while the 
jaws remain closed. The beak-like process projects forward sUghtly 
beyond the snout and ends in a horizontal cutting edge, witli which 
the embryo is able to effect its freedom. 

I think it worth while di'awing attention to the close resemblance 
in shape of this egg-tooth in an oviparous colubrine snake and the 
corresponding structure in the; young of a viviparous viper. In the 
one case a tough membranous investment has to be opened by the 

* Part III., Uctober, 1905. 



158 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

youiig snake, and in the other a delicate diaphanous membrane. 
I am puzzled to know the facts concerning the report given to 
Ml". Green that the parents were in the " nest " with the eggs and 
hatching young. There seems to be no doubt that tliere were two 
adult snakes in attendance, but were these S and 9, i.e. , the parents, 
as supposed ? It appears to me that there were undoubtedly in 
the " nest " two distinct broods of eggs. From one lot the young 
were hatching, and two of these measui-ed 9 and lOil^ inches 
respectively, the other were far less advanced in incubation, the 
contained embryos being little more than half the length of hatch- 
ings. These measurements have been abeady given. Now, if we 
assume that the two adults were the parents as originally supposed, 
then the existence of two broods must point to superf oetation , a 
condition which I do not think has ever been estabHshed in the 
breeding of snakes. Unfortunately the adult snakes were never 
sent with the eggs, and the point cannot be cleared up, and there is 
no proof of superf cetation. Another solution presents itself, and 
that is that both the adults were females, in different stages of 
impi'egnation. This seems to me the more likely explanation of the 
two broods, though it appears to me remarkable that two snakes 
should select and retire within the same hole to deposit and incubate 
their eggs. I have had a considerable number of opportunities of 
investigating the incubation of snake's eggs in a state of nature, 
and only once have I known a 6 in company with its mate after the 
deposition of eggs. In tliis case the species was Shaw's Wolfsnake 
( Lycodon strialus ) . 



NOTES. 159 



NOTES. 



10. Correction as regards the Ceylon Species of " Phlebotomus.'''' — 
In my account of tlxe species of Phlebotomus that occur in Ceylon 
(Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. VII., Pt. XXVI.) I divided these species into 
two groups, distinguished by the relative positions of the tip of 
the first and the anterior fork of the second longitudinal vein of the 
wing. In my key on page 59 P. argentipes was placed by some error 
in the wrong group. The key may be amended as follows : — 

(1 ) The tip of the first longitudinal vein of the wing 

but little in advance of the anterior fork of 
the second longitudinal vein. 

(a) Colour silvery brown ; the area of the 

wing paler than the anterior border ; the 
coxae yellowish ; the anterior branch 
of the second vein about twice as long 
as the distance between the two forks 
of the vein . . . . P. marginatus. 

(b) Dorsal surface of the thorax dark brown, 

the sides yellow. The anterior branch 
of the second longitudinal vein less than 
twice as long as the distance between 
the two forks . . . . P. argentipes. 

(2) The tip of the first longitudinal vein far in 

advance of the anterior fork of the second. 

(a) Thorax brown ; coxae yellowish ; the 
whole of the wings paler than the 
abdomen. The anterior branch of the 
second vein about five times as long as 
the distance between the two forks . . P. zeylanicus. 

(6) Colour uniform, dull yellowish-gray. 
Wings very narrow ; the anterior branch 
of the second vein shorter than the 
distance between the two forks . . P. babu. 

N. ANNANDALE. 



11. The Ceylon Jungle Fowl in Captivity. — During the experi- 
ments carried on by members of the Ceylon Poultry Club with the 
Ceylon jungle fowl several interesting incidents occurred which are 
worth recording. The following notes record some of these incidents. 



160 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

They occurred mainly in the experimental run put up by Mr. Clement 
Johnson, who was the only experimenter who succeeded in produc- 
ing some thirty hybrid chicks from a mating of a jungle cock with a 
domestic hen. 

At one time he secured two jungle hens, which he placed in a large 
covered-in run with a jungle cock and two domestic hens. These 
hens tamed down wonderfully quickly, and were great friends with 
the cock. After a time one jungle hen developed gapes, so it was 
caught and set at liberty. Writing of this hen, Mr. Johnson says : 
" Tlie jungle hen that 1 released interests me greatly. Its one object 
is to get back into the pen. It walks round and round outside or 
perches on the top Any sudden or unusual noise alarms it, and it 
flies or runs into cover. On the other hand, you can approach 
within a few yards' length of it, when it just calmly walks out of your 
path like a very tame domestic fowl, no hurry or flurry about it at 
all. It avoids fowls that cross its path. Since its release the jungle 
cock inside the run calls more or less all day long, and is undoubtedly 
distressed at seeing this hen at liberty outside his run. He gets 
frantic when she makes a run and disappears from view. I will 
give her a week or ten days' liberty, and then drive her back into 
the run again." 

This hen after haunting the scene of her captivity for many days 
disappeared one night. It is presumed tlxat she was destroyed by 
one of the jungle cats that patrol the neighbourhood. 

A little later the second jungle hen developed chickenpox. Fear- 
ing that infection would spread, Mr. Johnson had this hen also 
caught and liberated, but she likewise refused to depart from the 
scene of her captivity. But as her removal was deemed necessary, 
she was caught and taken away across a ravine and liberated in the 
jungle some quarter of a mile away. Next day, however, she turned 
up again, trying to get into the run. She was caught a second time 
and taken further afield and liberated. After this, as she did not 
return, it was thought she had gone for good. However, some days 
later she was back again. She was now quite cured of the chicken- 
pox, having evidently cured herself in the jungle, either by eating 
some herb or by living in surroundings natural to her. After this 
she continued to live in the garden outside the run, and used to walk 
about with some of the young hybrids which Mr. Johnson had bred, 
roosting at nights in the branches of a tree along with the hybrids. 
The fact of consorting with the wild hen rendered these hybrids a 
httle less tame than usual. This hen eventually made a nest in the 
garden and laid three eggs and sat on them. As she was running 
with immature hybrid cockerels and had always rejected their 
advances, these eggs were not expected to be fertile. They were, 
liowever, removed from the nest and set under a domestic hen, and, 
as expected, all proved infertile. There is Uttle doubt that, if 
Mr. Johnson had not left for England at this period, this jungle hen 



NOTES. 161 

would shortly havo produced fertile eggs by running with the more 
matured hybrid cockerel in the garden, and he would have produced 
the unique cross of hybrid cock and jungle hen. 

When lier own eggs were removed from the jungle hen's nest, 
they were replaced by three eggs laid by the domestic hen running 
with the jungle cock, and these she incubated. Just ao the time of 
hatching one egg got broken in the nest ; it was an addled one. This 
attracted thousands of ants to the nest, which not only drove off the 
sitting lien, but killed and partly devoured the two chicks just 
hatched from the other two eggs. It would have been a strange 
sight to have had a jungle hen strutting about the garden with some 
hybrid chicks. 

Jungle hens have never bred in captivity. Mr. Jolinson's opinion 
is that this hen would never have bred with the hybrid cock or any 
other cock if it had been confined within wire netting walls. 

On the other hand, the late Mr. Young of Udabagie had two 
jungle hens in captivity for considerably more than one year, and 
they were mating up with a domestic cock, and Mr. Young was very 
hopeful of producing hybrids from this mating, when his tragic 
death by lightning put a stop to the experiment. 

It was just at this period that Mr. Johnson left Ceylon for England. 
Before he left this jungle hen was enticed into the run and caught, 
and with the jungle cock was sent to Mr. G. C. BUss at Atagalla. 
The cock did not take kindly to the close confinement necessary 
while his big run was being put up in the new locaUty , and began to 
sicken; when turned into the big run he did not recover, so he was 
let out and given his Uberty. At night time, however, he returned 
to this run (in which the jungle hen had been also placed) and was 
allowed to go in. Next morning he was found dead. Thus, after 
captivity of sixteen months, ended the life of a most interesting 
bird — the progenitor of all the thirty hybrids that were produced 
during the experiments. This jungle cock only mated with the one 
domestic hen, and would have nothing to do with any other hen, in 
fact he drove them all away. Even when his own particular hen 
had been removed for a month owing to illness, he si ill would have 
nothing to do with any other. After the death of this cock the 
jungle hen became excited and wild, so she was given her liberty, 
and flew away to be heard of no more. The history of this hen is 
surely unique. She had lived either in the experimental run or in 
the garden just outside it for eighteen months. 

J. LLEWELLYN THOMAS. 



12. Pelenda Nuwara. — " A rampart of forest-clad mountains en- 
circle the great plai^i. which forms the adjacent villages of Morapitiya 
and Pelenda ; the earthworks which guarded the entrance can still 

Y 6(2)11 



162 SPOT.TA 7-RYLA-NIOA. 

be easily traced, while a raised Murapola of stone commands the 
mountain path which leads across the Atweltota to Kukul korale. 
Crowning a gentle eminence, which is surrounded by several thou- 
sands of acres of owita lands, and close to the limpid waters of the 
Pelen-ganga, are the plain squared stone columns of the palace of 
Vidiye Bandara ; alongside them stands the house of the Colombo 
Arachchige family, the descendants of some faitliful follower of the 
Prince. The position , intersected as it is by the numerous streams 
which fall into the river, is one of great natural strength, while the 
owita lands are capable of supporting a large population. Close by 
there are two villages of Porowakarayas of the Karawe caste and two 
of Chaliyas, no doubt the descendants of the Prince's camp followers ; 
while the Moorish villagers claim a similar ancestry. A stone 
cannon ball was discovered by me among some of the ruins during 
a recent visit, and there are numerous traces of ancient ironworks. 
The road taken by the Prince must have been the ancient path 
through Badureliya, Boralugoda, Hewesse, and Hinidumkanda, 
into the Galle korale. At the Saman Dewale at Latpandura, 2 
miles from Pelenda, is still preserved a cloth which is said to have 
been taken from a Portuguese elephant." 

The above is a footnote from page 40 of the second edition of 
my translation of Ribeiro's Ceilao (printed 1909). On June 4 last 
Mr. G. F. Plant, the Assistant Agent at Kalutara, and 1 commenced 
excavating the low mound which marked the site of the palace of the 
brave father of " Don Joao, by the Grace of God, King of Ceilao, 
Perea Bandar." Ten pillars of stone, some large and some small, 
but only one in complete preservation, marked the outlines of the 
original building. The upper couple of feet of the mound consisted 
of broken flat tiles, nearly all ornamented or grooved. Below 
appeared the cinders of the stout beams which had once supported 
the roof. And under these lay the piles of earth, the walls which 
had filled the spaces between the stone supports. Iron nails, 
varying in length from 2 to 11 inches, were found in large numbers, 
but the results were disappointing. The chief find was a plain 
box of soft copper, 1| inches square and fitted with a tight cover. 
Within, this was divided into 25 compartments, the central one 
containing a fragment of gold. In the others were recognized a 
pearl, still beautifully lustrous after 350 years underground, silver, 
a ruby, sapphire, topaz, coral, &c. In fact, this was a miniature 
Yantragala. One other object of interest there was, the quaint 
tile shown in the illustration. What its purpose was it is difficult 
to say. The circular hole in the forehead would seem to show that 
it was meant to be secured by a nail to the end of a wooden beam. 
With tender care the tile was carried under shelter in its bed of 
clay, and dried by a fire of coconut branches. But the transport 
to Kalutara in a hired Kalutara gharry proved too much for its 
enfeebled powers of resistance. The fragments, carefully backed 




Fig. 3. 



NOTES. 163 

wifch cement, now repose in the dignified atmosphere of the Colombo 
Museum. That is the last relic of the refuge of " Tuttarayakandan 
Taniyanwallan Ekangaviran Madiyantramantran,"* from where he 
fled, leaving his standard and his book of war songs, before the 
victorious arms of the boy of twelve, the Lion King of the future. 

One word more. Sixty-two villagers assisted us in the work of 
excavation. No one demanded payment. Their breakfast cost 
us Rs. 10-69, and we were enabled to show Government a saving 
of Rs. 39*31 on the sum which had been allowed us. (The 
photograph is by Mr. A. de Abrew, Proctor, of Kalutara.) 

P. E. PIERIS. 



13. Child'' s Play. — Capt. F. R. Barton thus describes a children's 
game in British New Guinea [vide Joum. R. An thro p. Inst. (Great 
Britain), 1908, p. 273]. "Four girls or more sit upon the ground 
in a circle facing inwards. They then place their hands, each girl 
nipping with forefingers and thumbs the skin on the back of the 
hand next to her. They then move their collected hands up and 
down in unison to the rhythm of the following song : — 

Kinimala Kinimala 
Lepa lepa maloa taitu 
Kepa kepa anaurio 
Melaule malare palaia. 

The song finished they leave go of each other's hands and drop 
them limply in a heap." 

Sinhalese children play an identical game, and sway their flexed 
hands up and down to the following jingle : — 

Kaputu kak kak kak 
Goraka den den den 
Umutu vav vav vav 
Dorakada gahe puvak puvak 
Batapandure bulat bulat 
Kaputage kate vela madulayi 
Kaputige kate ran massayi 
Magata kanta bat mallayi 
Vekande kande udin yan yan 
PeU doren usi kaputa usi. 

ARTHUR A. PERERA. 

* The honorific assumed by the Prince while at Pelenda, according to an 
ancient ola copy of the Rdidwaliya. 



164 



SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 



14. A convenient method of storing Butterflies in Paper 
Envelopes* — Triangular paper envelopes have been employed by 
travelling entomologists for the temporary storage of butterflies, 
for many years. But it has been usual to lay these envelopes 
haphazard in plain boxes, in such a manner that it is impossible 
to find any particular specimen without turning over the whole 
contents of the box. 

By the use of the special boxes here described the envelopes 
occupy very much less space, the contents are less liable to damage, 
and any individual specimen can be found and removed with the 
greatest ease without disturbing the remainder. 




Fig. 4. 



The boxes are made of tin plate, with partitions dividing them into 
trough-shaped spaces. The envelopes rest edgeways in the troughs. 
The boxes are fitted with two lids, above and below. 

Fig, 4 shows a box with the upper lid removed and the lower one 
in place. The box measures 9 in. by 6 in. by 3 in. The upper space 
contains a single trough {a) , and carries envelopes with a base of 
5| inches. 



* The above is abstracted, with some alterations, from the Proc. Ent. Soc, 
Feb., 1910, p. 3, The figures are reproduced through the kindness of the 
Entomological Society of London. — Ed. 



NOTES. 165 

"Fig. 5 represents tho reverse of the same box, witli two smaller 
troughs {b, c) to contain envelopes of half the size. 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6 shows a box of the same size, but designed for the smaller- 
sized envelopes alone, and containing four troughs {d, e, f, g). 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7 is a larger box, of just double the depth of the others, 
measuring 9 in. by 6 in. by 6 in., with a diagonal partition forming 




Fig. 7. 



166 SPOLIA ZJEYL/AJN lOA. 

a single trough above and below (h, i), capable of carrying onvelopes 
of a larger size. 

(In figs. 5, 6, and 7 the two lids have been omitted for sake of 
clearness.) 

These boxes are designed for three sizes of envelopes, which gives 
a sufficient range for butterflies of any size. Size 1 is made from a 
rectangle 8 in. by 5 in. Size 2 from a rectangle 6 in. by 4 in. Size 
3 from a rectangle measuring 4 in. by 2| in. 

It is found in practice that a box made according to fig. 4 will 
carry, without overcrowding, from 100 to 130 full envelopes in the 
larger trough, and from 175 to 200 in each of the two smaller spaces. 
Design 2 will hold in each of the four spaces 225 Lycaenidse, making 
a total of 900 insects. Design 3 will hold 75 or more filled envelopes 
in each of the two spaces. 

For convenience of examination the insects should be arranged 
in famiUes : the genera alphabetically in each family, and the species 
alphabetically in each genus. Subsequent additions can be slipped 
into their places without distm-bing those already in position. To 
keep the envelopes in place when the troughs are only partly 
occupied, triangular blocks of cork about | inch thick can be 
employed. For use as collecting boxes the troughs can be charged 
with empty envelopes, and the cork triangles wiU serve as markers 
to separate the unused envelopes as they are filled. 

The boxes illustrated are of the simplest design, as made by a 
local tinsmith in Ceylon. They can be improved by a coating of 
black japan on the outside. 

Messrs. Watkins & Doncaster have adopted this design, and are 
turning out boxes (to suit their special-sized envelopes) in stout 
japanned zinc, with perforated partitions at the end of each trough 
for the reception of naphthalene or camphor. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



15. On a curious Scolopendriform Caterpillar (" Homodes fulva,''"' 
Hampson). — Three species oi Homodes [crocea, Guen. ; vivida, Guen, ; 
and fulva, Hampson) are recorded from the Indian region, but the 
larva of none of these species has been described. 

A small dull-coloured larva was recently found wandering about 
in the verandah of my laboratory. Its form and movements were 
so peculiar that I had to examme it with a lens to assure myself that 
it was really the caterpillar of a Lepidopterous insect. 

Fig. 8a shows a bird's-eye vieAv of the larva (natural size). The 
lateral processes, which might at first .sight be mistaken for the 
limbs of a myriopod, are stout spatulate hau-s. 



NOTES. 



167 



During the progression of the insect they are kept in constant 
movement, being raised and lowered consecutively, simulating the 
action of the legs of a Scolopendra, but at a much lower speed. 
While at rest both the head and the posterior extremity are elevated, 
and the latter is frequently jerked from side to side in a mmatory 
manner. On closer examination it is seen that the posterior 
extremity simulates a second head. There is a pair of prominent 
black chitinous spots on the dorsum of the terminal segment which 
might readily be mistaken for eyes, and the spatulate hairs are 
suggestive of an arrangement of antennae and palpi. Even the 
terminal claspers lend to the deception, for they occupy the position 
of a pair of mandibles, and are held distended, as though ready for 
action (see fig. 86). 




Fig. 86. 



This caterpillar pupated in a tightly rolled section of the leaf upon 
which it had been feeding. It had fed up on Terminalia catappa, 
which happened to be the first food plant with which it was presented. 

The moth, which proved to be Homodes fulva, was disclosed on 
December 20. 

The fuUy-grown caterpillar measures 1 J inches in length. It is of 
a brownish-green colour, with inconspicuous maculations of a darker 
shade. Head reddish-brown. The first pair of abdominal claspers 
are small and practically obsolete, the others normal. The second 
segment carries ten long spatulate hairs directed forwards. There 
are two similar hairs on each side of the third and fourth segments. 
A single spatulate hair springs from each side of the fifth to the 
eleventh segments. The tAvelfth has a pair on each side, and the 
terminal segment has six of these hairs directed backwards, with 
a prominent black chitinous spot at the base of the outer hair on 
each side. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



168 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

16. On the Larva oj " Panilla alhopunctata" Wlk.—rThe larva of 
this Noctuid moth feeds commonly on the under surface of a large 
Polyporid fungus that vegetates on decaying stumps of trees. It is 
found more occasionally upon other woody fungi. 

The caterpillar is of the normal form of Quadrifine larvse, having 
only two pairs of abdominal claspers, and, when young, may easily 
be mistaken for that of a Geometrid moth. 

Its colouration renders it very inconspicuous, being of a pale 
translucent ochreous tint, usually with an irregular blackish blotch 
on the dorsum of the fourth and fifth segments, and a similar mark 
on the seventh and eighth segments. It is of a rather slender 
cylindrical form, and carries a few colourless hairs. 

Pupation takes place in a compact cocoon composed of pellets of 
the excreta of the caterpillar , which vary in colour with that of the 
fungus upon which it had been feeding. The cocoon is usually 
attached to the under surface of the fungus. It may be suspended 
by a short cord at one extremity, or may be attached at both 
extremities. 

The caterpillars were feeding during January and February. 
The moths emerged during February and March. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



CEYLON ALPHEID^. 169 



A 
CEYLON CRUSTACEA. 
Part 1.— Notes on the Alpheidx. 

By Joseph Pearson. 

(With three Plates. ) 




n^HE present report deals with a small collection of Alpheids 
-*- from the Colombo Museum. The members of the genera 
Alphens and Synalpheus, though numerous in individuals and 
species, are but little known to any but the specialist in marine 
carcinology. This is partly owmg to their small size, but mainly 
due to the fact that they generally take up their abode in the deep 
recesses of some sponge or in the crevices of a fleshy alcyonarian, 
and even, for want of more favourable shelter, in some friendly 
hole in a coral. Thus the casual collector may be in the midst of 
a rich Alpheid fauna without being aware of the fact. Often, how- 
ever, when sponges are brought up in the dredge and are emptied 
on deck, the Alpheids will emerge from their retreat. 

These tiny creatures are characterized by having an asymmetrical 
pair of chelae, one of them being extremely large, jierhaps half as 
big as the body of the animal, while the other is of normal size. 
The large chela does not appear to be restricted to one side of the 
body in any particular species. It may be either on the left or on 
the right side. It is hard to say along what lines this single large 
chela has been evolved, and the exact meaning of its abnormal 
development. The Alpheids live in holes, and it is conceivable 
that, like the hermit crab, the single large claw may be used to block 
the entrance to the shrimp's retreat. But this does not afford a 
satisfactory explanation, especially in view of the fact that an 
Alpheid is much more independent of its place of shelter than is the 
hermit crab. Moreover, many active Macrurans, such as some of 
the Palcemonidce , often have asymmetrical chelae. 

These small crustaceans are sometimes known as " snapping 
shrimps," on account of an interesting habit they have of snapping 
the fingers of their huge claw. When emptied on deck out of 
the dredge, or when put into a dish of water, they frequently betray 
their presence in this way, making a noise which may readily be 
heard at a distance of fifteen or twenty feet. 

I give here an interesting note on the habit of Alpheids, contri- 
buted- by my assistant, Mr. George Henry. He says : — 

" On one occasion I watched two Alpheids, male and female, 
courting. They were in a pie-dish, full of sea water, with several 
other" creatures, among which were some other Alpheids. The 

z 6(11)11 



170 SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 

larger specimen, which I took to be a male, was following the smaller 
(female) slowly round the pie-dish, and evidently " showing off," 
feeling her with his antennae, &c. The pair slowly crawled round 
and round the pie-dish, the female first, followed by the male. 
After a while a third Alpheid, presumably another male, became 
interested in the proceedings and approached the pair. When he 
was within a few inches of them, the first male discovered his 
presence and smartly whisked round, at the same time vigorously 
snapping his large chela. He did not attempt to attack the inter- 
loper, but merely snapped a number of times in succession, and this 
appeared to have the desired effect, because the intruder promptly 
fled. I was unable to make any further observation as a large 
cuttle-fish came scrambling round and crawled over the pair, much 
to the indignation of the male, who snapped his disapproval of this 
treatment." 

The knowledge of colour characters that one is able to derive 
from specimens of Alpheids preserved in spirit is naturally not very 
reliable. When living these tiny crustaceans are very daintily 
and even brightly coloured, and the large chela is always most 
conspicuous by reason of its well-defined colour, generally of a 
uniform scarlet. Perhaps nowhere else in Nature are the colours 
so vivid and so varied as those possessed by the coral fishes and 
other creatures which frequent the brightly coloured sponge masses 
and branching corals of tropical seas. The Alpheids form no 
exception to this rule. Owing to the small size the colours are not 
very noticeable, but then* brilliancy harmonizes with the general 
colour scheme of the coral reefs and sponge banks where the Alpheids 
abound. 

Our present knowledge of Ceylon Alpheids cannot be regarded as 
being by any means extensive, as it is based upon two small collec- 
tions — one made by Professor Herdman in 1902, and the other lying 
in the Colombo Museum and forming the subject of the present 
paper. As marine biological research in Ceylon has been mainly 
concerned with the Pearl Banks, most of the Alpheids hitherto 
described, and the majority of those dealt with in the present report, 
have come from that locality. It is true that Professor Herdman 
made collections all around the Ceylon coast, but those made on the 
Pearl Banks were much more intensive than those taken elsewhere. 
Consequently it is not surprising to find that of the eighteen species 
of Alpheids collected by him fourteen were obtained between Chilaw 
and Adam's Bridge. 

In January last I made a very careful examination of the fauna 
of Trincomalee Harbour and I found it surprisingly rich in Alpheids. 
Only six species were represented, but the number of individuals 
was very large. The presence of so many Alpheids may be 
accounted for by the abundant sponge fauna of Trincomalee Bay. 



CEYLON ALPHEED^. 



171 



The following is a list of the species described in the present 
report : — 

Synalpheus neomeris, var. streptodactylus , Coutiere. 

Synalpheus gravieri, Coutiere. 

Synalpheus biunguiculatus , var. exili'pes, Coutiere. 

Sy7ialpheus iwmido-mmms , Paulson. 

Alpheus ventrosus, H. M. -Edwards. 

Alpheus phrygianus, Coutiere. 

Alpheus hucephalus, Coutiere. 

Alpheus aculeipes, Coutiere. 

Alpheus frontalis, H, M.-Edwards. 

Alpheus rapax, Spence Bate. 

Alpheus his-incisus, de Haan. 

Alpheus audouini, Coutiere. 

Alpheus strenuus, Dana. 

The following table gives a list of Alpheids which have been 
described from Ceylon up to the present : — 



Herdman's 
Collection. 


MuseTxm" General Distribution. 


Synalpheus neomeris 


X 




Indo-Pacific, Australia 


var. streptodactylus . 




X 


. . Maldives, Ceylon 


Syn. gravieri . . 


X 


. X 


Maldives, Ceylon 


Syn. biunguiculatus 


X 




Indo-Pacific 


var. exilipes 




X 


Maldives, Ceylon 


Syn. laticeps . . 


. X . 




Maldives, Ceylon 


Syn. tumido-manus 




X 


Red Sea, Indian Ocean 


Syn. comatulorum 


X 




Indo-Pacific, Australia 


Syn. carinatus. . 


X 




Indian Ocean 


Alpheus ventrosus 


X 


. X 


Indo-Pacific, Australia 


A. idiocheles . . 


X 




. Maldives, Ceylon 


A. phrygianus. . 


X 


X 


Maldives, Ceylon 


A. hucephalus . . 




X 


Indian Ocean 


A. aculeipes 




X 


Maldives, Ceylon 


A. paraculeipes 


. X . 




Maldives, Ceylon 


A. paralcyone . . 


X 




. Maldives, Ceylon 


A. frontalis 




. X . 


Indian Ocean 


A. miersi 


X 




Indo-Pacific 


A. rapax 




X 


Indo-Pacific 


A. pareuchirus 


. X . 




Maldives, Ceylon 


A. his-incisus . . 


X 


X 


Indo-Pacific 


A. audouini . . 


X 


X 


Indo-Pacific 


A. strenuus 




X 


Indo-Pacific 


A. macrodactylus 


. X . 




Australia, Ceylon 


A. spongiarum 


X 




Maldives, Ceylon 



It is not surprising to find that of the twenty-five species and 
varieties of the Alpheidse obtained from Ceylon, only three species 
have not also been found in the Maldives, as one naturally expects 
the Maldivian crustacean fauna to be similar to that of Ceylon. 
Coutiere has described sixty-six species and varieties of Alpheids 
from the Maldives, and there is every reason to believe that when 
the Ceylon fauna has been thoroughly investigated a large number 
of species will be added to the present list of Ceylon Alpheids. 



172 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

In giving the sizes of the various species I have used the following 
symbols : — 

a = Total length of carapace along the mid-dorsal line, com- 
mencing at the base of the rostrum. 

fti to b^ = Lengths along the mid-dorsal line of abdominal 
segments 1 to 6 respectively. 

6' = Total length of telson. 

e = Greatest length of propodite of large claw. 

e^ =: Greatest height of propodite of large cl'aw. 

e^ = Greatest length of dactylopodite of large claw. 

I shall not follow Coutiere's terms for the parts of the antennules 
and antennae. 

For "stylocerite" I nhaW use antennular scale ; for " carpocerite," 
antennal peduncle ; instead of " scaphocerite," antennal scale ; and 
I shall use basal scale instead of Coutiere's " basicerite." 

The following is the literature which has been chiefly consulted 
in the compilation of the present lists : — 

1. Pearson. — Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Report. Supple- 

mentary Report No. XXIV. The Maorura. 
1905. 

2. Coutiere. — Gardiner's Fauna and Geography of the Maldive 

and Laccadive Archipelagoes. Les Alpheidaj. 
1906. 

Genus Synalpheus, Spence Bate, 1888. 
Cephalothorax laterally compressed. Abdomen well developed. 
Rostrum small and extremely variable in shape and length. Eyes 
covered by carapace. The orbital arches well defined and separated 
from rostrum and antennal sulcus by more or less well-defined 
grooves. Orbital spines in front of orbital arch always present and 
well developed, often equal in length to rostrum. First antennular 
article longer than the others. The antennular scale well developed. 
Basal antennal scale well developed. Pereiopods without epipodites. 
First two pairs chelate. First pair extremely large and asym- 
metrical ; the propodite without upper and lower notches ; the 
dactylopodite short. Carpopodite of second pair subdivided into 
five parts ; the first part at least equal in length to the sum of the 
three following parts. Dactylopodite of last three pairs either 
bifid or trifid. 

Synalpheus neomeris, var. streptodactylus, Coutiere. 

Synalpheus neomeris, var. streptodactylus, Coutiere. Fauna of 
Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Two specimens, from Trincomalee ; January, 1911. 
The rostrum and orbital spines are equal in length and about 
two-thirds the length of the first antennular article. 



CEYLON ALPHEID/E. ^'^ 

The first antennular article is twice as long as the thli'd and one 
and a half times as long as the second. The antennular scale extends 
to the middle of the median article. 

The antennal peduncle extends beyond the antennular peduncle 
by a distance equal to the third antennular article. The antennal 
scale is slightly longer than the antennular peduncle, but the leaf -like 
portion is considerably shorter. The basal scale bears two spmes : 
a larger ventral one which nearly reaches the middle of the median 
antennular article, and a smaller dorsal spine which extends as far 
forward as the orbital spine. 

This variety only differs from de Man's species neomeris in the 
form of the dactylopodites of the third and foUowmg pereiopods. 
The mam spme of the dactylos is narrower than in de Man's species, 
and not so curved. The dorsal spine is longer than in neomeris, 
and is about two-thirds as long as the mam spine. 

The two specimens are very small, and are, moreover, m a very 
bad state of preservation, so that satisfactory measurements of the 
body cannot be given. Measurements of the first three pereiopods 
are appended, but I cannot say with any certainty that they all 
belong to the same mdividual. The only value of these measure- 
ments, therefore, is that they give the proportions of the parts of 

the legs. 

Large chela. 

e = 5-0 mm. e^ = M mm. 

el = 1*5 mm. 

Second pereiopod.* 
i = 1683 ; 370t c^ = 165 ; 287 



c5 = 429 ; 330 
p = 1056 ; 363 
(i = 676 ; 148 



m = 2112 ; 363 
ci = 1501 ; 280 
c2 = 231 ; 280 
c3 = 181 ; 277 

Third pereiopod. 
m = 2310 ; 594 | p = 2046 ; 363 

c = 1122 ; 429 | d = 660 ; 214 

General Distribution.— MsAdivei^, Ceylon. 

Synalpheus gravibri, Coutiere. 

Synalpheus gravieri, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Ten specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 
This form is closely allied to Synalpheus neomeris, but difiers from 
it m having a longer antennal scale and a slightly shorter basalsc^e. 

* i = ischiopodite ; m = meropodite ; c^ to c^ = segments 1-5 of the carpo- 
podite ; p = propodite ; d = dactylopodite. a i^ tUc 

t The first of tliese nuiubers refers to the length, and the second to the 
width, of the segment in terms of l^. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



The dactylos of the third and following pereiopods is also different , 
the dorsal spine being extremely small. The propodite is pro- 
portionately shorter in this species than in Syn. neomeris. 

Dimensions of the body, 
a = 12"6 mm. I 6^ — 2*4 mm. 



fti = 2*4 mm. 
b'^ = 4*5 mm. 
63 = 3-2 mm. 
6'* = 3-2 mm. 
6^ = 2 • 4 mm. 



6^ = 5*2 mm. 
e =11-5 mm. 
e^ = 4*9 mm. 
e^ = 3 • 65 mm. 



Second pereiopod. 



i = 4356 ; 825 
m = 5181 ; 825 
c' = 3762 ; 594 
c^ = 792 ; 594 
c^ = 627 ; 594 



c* = 627 ; 627 
c5 = 1254 ; 660 
p = 2145 ; 693 
d = 1287 ; 244 



Third pereiopod. 
m = 4785 ; 1617 ' p = 3729 ; 825 

c = 2310 ; 957 6 = 1056 

General Distribution. — Maldives, Ceylon. 

Synalpheus biunguiculatus, var. exilipes, Coutiere. 

Synalpheus biunguiculatus, var. exilipes, Coutiere. Fauna of 
Maid, and Lgicc, 1906. 

Twelve specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; November, 1910. 

The rostrum and the two orbital spines are about equal in length, 
and the rostrum is much narrower than the orbital spines. The 
rostrum extends beyond the middle of the first antennular article. 

The first antennul»r article is one and a half times as long as the 
median article and two and a half times as long as the third. The 
scale reaches nearly to the middle of the median article. 

The antennal peduncle is one-third longer than the antennular 
peduncle ; its scale is only slightly longer than the latter, and the 
leaf-like portion of the scale is poorly developed. The basal scale 
consists of two parts : a longer ventral portion which extends to the 
middle of the median antennular article , and a smaller dorsal piece 
which extends as far forward as the tip of the orbital spine. 

The following are the dimensions of a typical specimen : — 

6^ = 1-5 mm. 
6^ = 2*5 mm. 
e =9*5 mm. 
el = 4 mm. 
e' = 30 mm. 



a = 1 


mm. 


b' = 1 


8 mm. 


6^=1 


8 mm. 


6^ = 1 


6 mm. 


6^= 1 


6 mm. 


6^ = 1 


25 mm 



CEYLON ALPHEID^. 1'^^ 

The large claw differs somewhat from that of 8. hiunguicvMus in 
liaving the spine at the distal end of upper palmar surface upturned 
so as to resemble the claw of Synalpheus apioceros. 

The second pereiopod is richly clothed with setae near its distal end. 
Its dimensions are as follows : — 



i = 2046 ; 561 
m = 2706 ; 561 
ci = 1617 ; 396 
c' = 363 ; 396 
c3 = 297 ; 379 



c* = 297 ; 379 
c5 = 627 ; 412 
p = 1254 ; 429 
d = 759 ; 198 



p = 2079 ; 528 
d = 396 ; 214 



The thu-d pereiopod has a single spine at the distal end of the 
posterior border of the carpopodite, and eight spmes on the posterior 
border of the propodite. The dactylopodite is biunguiculate, the 
two parts being almost equal. The dimensions are as follows :— 

i = 1089 ; 825 
m = 3399 ; 1056 
c = 1551 ; 627 

General Distribution.— Maldives and Ceylon. 

Synalpheus tumido-manus, Paulson. 
Synalpheus tumido-manus, Paulson. Red Sea Crustacea, 1875. 
Synalpheus neptunus, Coutiere. Bull. Soc. Ent., France, 1898. 
Synalpheus tumido-manus, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 
1906. 

One specimen, from the Pearl Banks ; November, 1910. 

Six specimens, from bottom of ss. "Violet," Colombo ; October, 

1910. 

Twelve specimens, from Colombo Harbour ; September, 1907. 

This species resembles Synalpheus biunguiculatus , but differs from 
it in the antennal peduncle being comparatively shorter. There is 
also a slight difference in the dactylopodite of the third pereiopod. 
The chela is also slightly longer in proportion to the height. 

The rostrum and orbital spines resemble those of Synalpheus 
huinguicuMus, var. exUipes, except that the rostrum is slightly 

longer. 

The first antennular article is twice as long as the distal article and 
slightly longer than the median. The scale extends past the middle 
of the median article. 

The antennal peduncle is only slightly longer than the antennal 
and about the same length as the antennal scale. The ventral part 
of the basal scale extends beyond the basal antennular article , and 
the dorsal part is but feebly developed. 



176 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The dimensions of the body are as follows :- 



a =8*0 mm. 
6^ = 2-6 mm. 
b^ = 3-4 mm. 
b^ = 2-56 mm. 
b^ = 2-25 mm. 
6^ = 1*9 mm. 



66 = 2-0 mm. 
6' = 3-2 mm. 
e =10*6 mm. 
e^ = 4*5 mm. 
e2 = 3-2 mm. 



c5 


= 825 ; 462 


p 


= 1485 ; 495 


d 


= 785 ; 198 . 



The dimensions of the second pereiopod are as foUows :- 

i = 2442 ; 660 c^ = 363 ; 429 

m = 3217 ; 660 

ci = 1914 ; 403 

c2 = 379 ; 412 

c^ = 396 ; 429 ; 

The dactylos of the third leg has the ventral part sUghtly shorter 
and broader than the dorsal part. There are eight spines on the 
propodite of the third leg. The distal end of the carpos bears a 
blunt process on the dorsal side and a sharp spine on the ventral. 
The dimensions are as foUows : — 

i = 1369 ; 891 p = 3069 ; 561 

m = 3679 ; 1056 rZ = 858 ; 264 

c = 1914 ; 693 
General Distribution. — Red Sea, Indian Ocean. 

Genus Alpheus, Fabricius, 1798. 

Cephalothorax laterally compressed. Abdomen well developed. 
Rostrum small, rarely extending beyond first antennular article. 
Eyes covered by carapace. The orbital arches well defined and 
separated from rostrum and antennal sulcus by more or less well- 
defined grooves. Orbital spines generally absent. First antennal 
article shorter than the second. Antennular scale much reduced. 
Basal antennal scale usually extremely small. Pereiopods with epi- 
podites. First two pairs chelate. First pair of pereiopods extremely 
large and show well-marked asymmetry. Propodite with or without 
upper and lower notches. Carpus of second pair subdivided into 
five parts, the proximal part being less than the sum of the three 
following parts, the last three pairs of pereiopods endmg in a simple 
dactylopodite. 

Alpheus ventrosus, H. M.-Edwards. 
(Plate v., Fig. 2.) 
Alpheus ventrosus, H. M.-Edwards. H. Nat. Crust., t. 2, p. 352, 
1837. 

Alpheus Icevis, Randall. J. Acad. Sci., Philadel., vol. VIII., 1839, 
and many others. 

Alpheus ventrosus, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 



CEYLON ALPHEID^. 177 

Six specimens, from Weligama. 

Three specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

According to Coutiere this is the commonest species of Alpheus, 
and the most widely distributed. 

I have followed Coutiere in including Randall's species along with 
that of Milne-Edwards. 

This is one of the few examples of an Alpheus possessing orbital 
spines. 

The rostrum, which extends almost to the extremity of the first 
antennular article, is well developed, and is separated from the orbits 
by well-defined grooves. 

The first and second antennular articles are almost equal and 
nearly twice as long as the distal article. The antennular scale 
reaches nearly to the middle of the second article. 

The antennal peduncle and scale are about equal in length, and 
extend beyond the antennular peduncle by a distance nearly equal to 
the third antennular article. There is a basal scale present which is 
nearly as long as the first antennular article. 

This species is characterized by having the cephalothorax laterally 
compressed to a marked degree. The carapace is very deep, and 
its greatest depth is equal to its mid-dorsal length. Instead of the 
lower edge of the carapace being rounded as in most species, there 
are several sharp angles which give this form a very characteristic 
appearance. 

The following are the dimensions of a typical specimen : — 



a = 9-0 mm. 


6"* = 3 • 5 mm. 


e 


= 14 -9 mm. 


fei = 1-7 mm. 


6^ = 2-8 mm. 


el 


= 6-0 mm. 


62 = 4-25 mm. 


6« = 3-0 mm. 


e' 


= 5-0 mm. 


63 = 3-6 mm. 


6" = 5-0 mm. 







The large claw is laterally compressed, and possesses no upper and 
lower teeth on the palm. The hands of both the first pereiopods are 
coloured bright orange in the living specimen and have a mottled 
appearance. Some of the specimens have a setiferous ridge on the 
movable finger of the smaller hand. The presence of this setiferous 
ridge is doubtless a sexual difference, and is probably confined to 
males. I cannot, however, give any proof of this, as in every 
specimen the first pereiopods are detached and are lying loose at the 
bottom of the bottle. 

The second pereiopod is not so slender as in most Alpheids. The 
hand is riclilj^ clothed with setae. 

The following are the measurements of the second pereiopod : — 

i = 2112 ; 825 ' c^ = 1023 ; 759 | c^ = 1221 ; 693 
■ m = 4290 ; 990 
ci = 2310 ; 792 
2a 



858; 


726 


! P 


= 1551 ; 693 


825; 


726 


1 d 


= 359; 297 

6(11)11 



178 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The third pereiopod is fairly strongly made. The dactylopodite 
is not nearly so slender as in most species of Alpheus. Dimensions 
of third pereiopod : — 

m = 4290 ; 1551 I p = 2706 ; 858 

c = 2673 ; 1155 | d = 1320 ; 660 

Altogether this species is a very distinctive one, and in many ways 
is different from a typical member of the genus. 
General Distribution. — Indo-Pacific . 

Alpheus phrygianus, Coutiere. 
Alpheus phrygianus, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Three specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

The rostrum is represented by an extremely small projection. 
It is contmued back between the eyes as a well-defined ridge. 

The antennular peduncle are comparatively long and slender. 
The proximal article is shorter than the distal and the median is 
twice as long as the distal. The antennular scale is rounded in front, 
and is half the length of the proximal article. 

The antennary peduncle is short and only extends to the end of 
the median antennular article. Its scale is still shorter, and only 
reaches to the middle of the median article. 

The following are the dimensions of the body : — 



a = 7'6 mm. 
fti = 1-9 mm. 
62 = 2-0 mm. 
¥ = 2-18 mm. 
b"^ = 2-5 mm. 
65 = 2-0 mm. 



6^ = 2'1 mm. 
6' = 2 • 69 mm. 
e = 8"1 mm. 
gi = 3 '67 mm. 

e2 — 2-2 mm. 



The hand of the large claw is peculiar, and the dactylopodite has 
a process directed backward, which makes the dactylos hammer- 
shaped. 

The second pereiopod is exceeding slender and has the following 
proportions : — 



i = 5775 ; 693 
m = 7326 ; 5181 

ci = 2772 ; 488 
c2 = 2871 ; 528 
c3 = 693 ; 528 



c* = 792 ; 528 
c5 = 1221 ; 594 
p = 2574 ; 693 
d = 1154; 307 



In the third and following legs the meros has a well-developed 
process near the distal end. At the distal end of the carpos there is 
a blunt process on the dorsal side and a spine on the ventral side. 



CEYLON ALPHEID^. 179 

The propodite has six spmes, and the dactylos is well curved and 
single. The dimensions of the third leg are as follows — 



i = 1386 ; 990 
m = 3993 ; 1221 
c = 3300 ; 726 



p = 2508 ; 581 
d = 192; 198 



This form undoubtedly belongs to the obeso-manus group. 
General Distribution. — Maldives, Ceylon. 

Alpheus BUCEPHALUS, Coutiere. 

Alpheus crinitus, Coutiere. Bull. Soc. Entom., 1898. 

Alpheus bucephalus ^Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

One specimen, from Trincomalee ; January, 1911. 

The rostrum is short and is not half as long as the first antennular 
article. The rostrum is continued with a median ridge which extends 
backwards between the orbits. 

The first and third antennular articles are equal, and both are 
shghtly shorter than the median article. The scale is small, and 
only half the length of tlae first article. The peduncle is only five- 
sixths the length of the antennal peduncle, and equal in length to 
the antennal scale. 

The single specimen is small, and is too mutilated for accurate 
measurement. 

The dimensions of the chelae are as follows : — 

e = 7-0 mm. ; e^ = 3-15 mm. ; e'^ = 2*7 mm. 

The fingers are very short, and the palm is high in comparison to 
its length. Both upper and lower palmar borders are smooth. 

The second pereiopod possesses a long second segment to the 
carpos. The dimensions are as follows : — 

i = 2277 ; 462 



m = 2970 ; 330 
c^ = 643 ; 297 
c2 = 1840 ; 330 
c3 = 462 ; 330 



c^ = 462 ; 346 
c5 = 660 ; 363 
p = 1221 ; 429 
d = 627 ; 165 



The third pereiopod is very broad. There is a well-developed 
spine on the ischium. The meros broadens out distally into a very 
prominent spine on the lower side. The carpos has a blunt spine at 
the distal end of its lower border. The propodus is short and has 
about eight spines irregularly arranged on the lower side. The 
upper side is richly clothed with setse. The dactylos is strong and 
curved. Dimensions : — 



m = 2310 ; 792 
c = 1155; 495 



p = 990 ; 429 
d = 52S; 165 



General Distribution. — Indian Ocean. 



180 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Alpheus aculeipes, Coutiere. 

Alpheus aculeipes, Coutiere, Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Two specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

The rostrum is poorly developed. 

The proximal antennular article is shghtly shorter than the distal. 
The median article is nearly twice as long as the proximal. The 
scale is short, and does not reach to the end of the first article. 

The antennal peduncle is one and a quarter times the length of the 
antennular peduncle. The spine of the scale is nearly as long as the 
antennal peduncle, but the leaf- like portion is shorter than the 
antennular peduncle. 

The dimensions of the body are as follows : — 



a =5-0 mm. 
b^ = 1-0 mm. 
fe2 — 1.2 mm. 
fe3 — J. 2 mm. 



b^ == 1-67 mm. 
b^ = 1-2 mm. 
6^ = 1 -3 mm. 
6' = 2*0 mm. 



e =7*6 mm. 
e =3*3 mm. 

2 

e =3-0 mm. 



The chela is exceedingly large in propottion to the body, and is 
probably about three-quarters as large as the rest of the body. The 
fingers are short. 

The dimensions of the second pair of pereiopods are as follows : — 



* = 2277 ; 363 
m = 2442 ; 251 
ci = 495 ; 231 



c2 = 1534 ; 238 
c3 = 379 ; 247 

c* -: 379 ; 257 



c5 = 561 ; 264 
p = 1105 ; 297 
d = 621 ; 115 



The third pereiopod has a small spine on the ischium ; the meros 
has numerous short spines on its ventral border ; near this border 
is a longitudinal ridge which ends distally in a well-developed spine. 
The short carpos has a similar ridge and spine. The propodite 
has about a dozen spines more or less irregularly arranged. The 
•dactylos is curved, and is characterized by the presence of a small 
process on its ventral surface. The carpos and propodos are richly 
clothed with setae. Dimensions : — 

i = 792 ; 594 | c = 1320 ; 462 | d = 373 ; 99 

m = 2475 ; 660 \ p = 1518 ; 363 | 

General Distribution. — ^Maldives, Ceylon. 

Alpheus frontalis, H. M.- Ed wards. 

(Plate VI., Fig. 3.) 

Alpheus frontalis, H. M. -Edwards. H. Nat. des Crust., 1834. 
Alpheus latifrons, H. M. -Edwards. J. Mus., Godefroy, 1874. 

de Man., Arch. f. Naturg., 1887. 

Alpheus frontalis, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 



CEYLON ALPHBIDJ5. 



181 



One specimen, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

The frontal region of carapace has a very characteristic appear- 
ance. There is no well-defined, sharply-pointed rostrum, but 
instead there is a broad lobe covering the bases of both antennules. 
This lobe is carinPited in the mid-dorsal line. The region of the 
carapace covering the eyes is greatly arched and bulges out 
considerably. The proximal and distal antennular a.rticles are 
subequal, and together are equal in length to the median airticle. 
From the anterior end of the proximal article there arises a well- 
defined bunch of long setae which point anteriorly and extend beyond 
the end of tlie peduncle. The antennular scale is poorly developed 
and is merely a broad lobe about half as long as the proximal article. 

The antennal peduncle is slightly longer than the antennular. 
The scale is short and does not reach much beyond the end of the 
median antennular article. 

The dimensions of the specimen are as follows : — 



a =10-65 mm. 

61 = 3-0 mm. 

62 — 4.5 iTurn. 

6^ = 3-6 mm. 

64 = 3-95 mm. 

65 = 3-0 mm. 



6« = 3-0 mm. 
6'^ = 5-25 mm. 
e ^10-5 mm. 
gi __ 4.4 mm. 
e2 ^= 3.5 mm. 



The first pereiopods have no teeth on the palmar borders. 
Dimensions of second pereiopod : — 



m = 3960 ; 561 
ci = 2409 ; 330 
c2 = 759 ; 396 
c3 = 561 ; 429 



c^ = 528 ; 462 
c5 = 858 ; 495 
p = 1452 ; 528 
d = 639 ; 231 



The third pereiopod has three spines on the posterior face of the 
carpopodite, and the distal end of this face also ends in a spine. 
There are seven spines on the propodite. The following are the 
dimensions : — 



m = 5082 ; 1221 




p = 3531 


; 359 


c =2640; 858 




d = 990 ; 


264 


Meral Distribution.- 


— Indian Oce 


an. 





Alpheus rapax, Spence Bate. 

(Plate VI., Fig. 4.) 
Alpheus rapax, Silence Ba,te. "Challenger," Macrura, 1888. 

One specimen, from Nachchikuda, Tamblegam. 

The median antennular article is more than twice as long as the 
distal. The proximal and distal articles are equal. The scale is 
not so long as the first article. 



182 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The antennal peduncle a-nd scale are about equal in length and 
shghtly longer than the antennular peduncle. Spence Bate figures 
the antennal scale as being much longer than the peduncle, but this 
appearance is due to the long setae on the front border of the scale. 

The following are the dimensions of the body : — 



a ^10-5 mm. 

61 = 2-95 mm. 

62 = 4.35 nim. 

63 r= 4-0 mm. 

64 = 3-7 mm. 

65 = 3-25 mm. 



6^ = 3*5 mm. 
}p = 4-4 mm. 
e =11-6 mm. 
gi = 3-5 mm. 
e2 = 4-35 mm. 



The large claw is flattened latera,lly, and its length is two and a 
half times the height. Both upper and lower palmar surfaces are 
smooth. 

There is nothing noteworthy about the second pereiopods. The 
measurements are as follows :— 



i = 4620 ; 462 
m = 3861 ; 429 
ci = 2310 ; 297 
c2 = 1947 ; 280 
c3 = 792 ; 297 



c^ = 792 ; 297 
^5 = 924 ; 330 

p = 1386 ; 396 
d = 825 ; 165 



The third pair of pereiopods are characterized by having no 
regular row of spines on the propodite and by the lanceolate nature 
of the dactylopodite. The dimensions are as follows : — 



m = 5610 ; 1023 


p = 3861 , 


594 


c = 3135 ; 759 


d = 2310 ; 


363 


Distribution . — ^Indo- Pacific . 







Alpheus bis-incisus, de Haan. 
Alpheus bis-incisus, de Haan. Fauna Japonica, 1839. 

Six specimens, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

Three specimens, from Trincomalee ; January, 1911. 

One specimen, from Colombo Harbour ; September^ 1910. 

I have had considerable difficulty in deciding whether to place 
some of the above specimens in Coutiere's varieties malensis and 
stylirostris. Minute investigation, however, has revealed the fact 
that there appears to be no constancy in the proportions of the hands 
of the first pereiopods and in the carpopodite of the second pereiopods 
upon which Coutiere estabhshed his new varieties. 

I have, in fact, several specimens which show intermediate condi- 
tions between de Haan's species and the variety malensis, both 
regarding the proportions of the hands of the first pereiopods and 
the relative lengths of the first and second articles of the carpos 
of the second pereiopods. 



CEYLON ALPHEID/E. 183 

With regard to the rostrum, I have found tliat it shows consider- 
able variation in this species, and consequently I do not consider that 
Coutiere was justified in creating the new variety stylirostris upon 
the form of the rostrum of a single specimen. A careful considera- 
tion of the whole question makes me unwilling to separate any of 
these specimens from de Haan's species. Coutiere' s knowledge 
of the Alpheidae is unsurpassed, and gives him an autliority which 
one hesitates to question. But one cannot help feeling that 
many of the characters upon which he has established new species 
appear to be unimportant, and in some cases the material at his 
disposal does not appear to have been sufficiently abundant to 
enable him to say with any justification that these characters are 
constant. 

In establishing his two new varieties, Coutiere makes use of 
certain characters, the chief of which are, (1) the relation between 
the total length of the propodite of the first leg {"p) and the length of 
the dactylopodite {d) ; (2) the relation between the height of the 
fingers (Ai) and the height of the palm of the first pereiopod (li^) ; 
(3) the relation between the lengths of the first (c^) and second parts 
(c^) of the carpopodite of the second pereiopod ; and (4) the relation 
between the length of the triangular rostrum [l) and the base of the 
triangle (6). 

The following table gives Coutiere's measurements for the three 
species : — 

Synalpheus his-incisus 

S. his-incisus, var. malensis . 

S. his-incisus, var. stylirostris . 

To illustrate how the Ceylon specimens difter from the above 
measurements I append the following table , givmg the characters of 
six specimens belonging to the present collection : — 



p h^ 
d h* 




I 
b 


2-75 .. 1-6 . 


. 1-7 . 


. about 1 • 5 


2-50 .. 1-34 . 


. 1-33 . 


. about 1 • 5 


Not given 


. 1-53 . 


. about 3 • 5 



Specimen. 


P 
d 


h^ 
h^ 




I 
h 


A 


2-61 .. 


1-40 . . 


1-43 . 


1-83 


B 


2-41 .. 


1-41 .. 


1-51 


2-48 


C 


2-73 .. 


1-59 .. 


1-56 . 


2-72 


D 


2-63 .. 


1-36 .. 


1-32 . 


2-60 


E 


Chela 


ateent 


1-53 . 


2-77 


F 


. •2-82 .. 


156 .. 


1-60 . 


2-50 



It will be seen that specimen C is the only one which approaches 
A. bis'incisus as diagnosed by Coutiere, except that the rostrum 
is too long. Specimen E appears to be similar to stylirostris. None 
appear to correspond to the variety malensis. 

I have no hesitation in identifying the specimens under discussion 
as Alpheus his-incisus, and, as I have pointed out, my examination 
indicates a considerable amount of variation in all those characters 
upon which Coutiere formed the new varieties. 



184 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

The rostrum is triangular, and is separated from the orbits by 
deep depressions. The shape of the triangle is not constant, and 
varies between the type figured by Coutiere as malensis and that of 
stylirostris. The rostrum does not reach the end of the first an- 
tennular article. The first antennular article is slightly longer than 
the second and twice as long as the third. The antennular scale 
reaches to the end of the first article. The antennal penduncle and 
scale are about equal, and are slightly longer than the antennular 
peduncle. 

The dimensions of specimen A are as follows : — 

a = 10 "0 mm. fee _ 3.5 mva. 

¥ = 2-5 mm. 6' = 4.3 ^^^ 

h^ = 2*5 mm. e = 17"0 mm. 

b^ = 3-2 mm. c' = 7-0 mm. 

6-» = 3-25 mm. e2 ^ 6-5 mm. 

55 = 2*6 mm. 

The large claw is of the " edwardsi " type, arid this form 
undoubtedly belongs to that group of species. 

The second p^reiopod calls for no further comment. The follow- 
ing are the dimensions in specimen A : — 

i = 4455 ; 643 I c" = 693 ; 528 

m = 4884 ; 561 
ci = 2838 ; 528 
c2 = 1848 ; 528 
c3 = 726 ; 528 

The third pereiopod has about seven spines on the propodite. 
The propodite is richly clothed with setae. The dactylopodite is 
long and curved. Dimensions : — 

i = 1746 ; 653 I ^^ = 4092 ; 528 

m = 5280 ; 726 \ d = 1518 ; 231 

c = 3184 ; 627 ! 

General Distribution. — Indo-Pacific . 

Alpheus audouini, Coutiere. 

(Plate VII., Fig. 5.) 

Alpheus edwardsi, Coutiere (not audouini). Bull. Soc. Ent. 
France, 1898. 

Alpheus audouini, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Five specimens, from the Pearl Banks; February, 1911. 

This form is very similar to A. edwardsi (audouini), but difters 
from it in the form of the palmar projections of the large claw. In 
A. edwardsi they are spinous and in the present species rounded. 

This species, although related to A. strenuus, differs from it by 
well-marked characters. The second antennular article is only one 
and a half times as long as the third. 



c^ = 1254 ; 544 
p = 2376 ; 627 
d = 1254 ; 247 



CEYLON ALFHEID^. 



185 



In A. strenuus a line joining the two palmar ridges of the large 
claw divides the hand into two equal parts. In A. audouini the 
distal portion of tlie hand is comparatively shorter, and sucli a line 
divides the hand m the proportions of 6 : 5. 

The second pereiopod shows a difference in the proportions of 
the first and second parts of the carpos in the two forms. In A. 
strenuus the first segment is only slightly longer than the second 
(1 • 12 : I). In A. audouini the proportion is 1 -6 : 1. 

The third pereiopod of the present species is not so robust as in 
A. strenuus, and the propodite does not bear so many spines. 

The following are the dimensions of this form : — 



a =6*6 mm. 




66 


= 2-0 mm. 


6^ = 1-7 mm. 




¥ 


= 2-62 mm. 


62 = 2-51 mm. 




e 


= 9*5 mm. 


63 = 2-3 mm. 




e^ 


= 4*0 mm. 


h^ = 2-62 mm. 




e2 


= 3-5 mm. 


65 = 1-6 xam.. 








Dimensions of second pereiopod 


— 




i = 2541 ; 462 




c^ 


= 396 ; 363 


m = 2640 ; 462 




c^ 


= 693 ; 396 


c^ = 1584 ; 363 




V 


= 1452 ; 429 


c2 = 990 ; 363 




d 


= 825 ; 198 


c3 = 495 ; 363 








Dimensions of third 


pereiopod :— 


- 




m = 3300 ; 627 




V 


= 2442 ; 363 


c = 1914 ; 396 




d 


= 1023 ; 165 


General Distribution. 


— Indo-Pacif 


ic. 





Alphbus strenuus, Dana. 

(Plate VII., Fig. 6.) 

A. strenuus, Dana. U. S. Expl. Exped., 1852. 

A. strenuus, Coutiere. Fauna of Maid, and Lace, 1906. 

Localities. — One specimen, from Weligama ; November, 1905. 

One specimen, from the Pearl Banks ; February, 1911. 

Five specimens, from Mandativu, Jaffna ; July, 1903. 

One specimen, from Nachchikuda, Tamblegam ; September, 1908. 

Six specimens, from Delft ; June, 1903. 

Nine specimens, from Kapalturai, Tamblegam ; October, 1907. 

This is a faii'ly common form, and is the largest of all the Ceylon 
Alpheids. It is closely related to A. edwardsi and A. audouini, 
but differs from them both in the relative lengths of the second and 
thu"d antennular articles. The second article is twice as long as the 
third, and the first article is intermediate in size. The antennular 
scale reaches to the extremity of the first article. The anteimal 
peduncle ia longer than that of the antennule. The spine of the 

2 b 6(11)11 



186 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



antenna] scale does not reach the extremity of the peduncle, but is 
longer than the antennular peduncle. The rostrum does not reach 
to the extremity of the first antennular article. 
The dimensions of the body are as follows : — 



a = 18'25 mm. 
fei = 3-6 mm. 
62 = 5-8 mm. 
h^ — 5-2 mm. 



6^ =, 6-0 nim. 
65 = 4-0 nim. 
h^ = 4-8 mm. 
h"' = 6*4 mm. 



= 24 mm. 
= 10-5 mm. 
= 10-0 mm. 



* 


= 7920 ; 


1089 


m 


= 8151 ; 


1056 


c" 


= 3960 ; 


858 



825 


c^ = 2145 


858 


825 


p = 3465 ; 


1023 


825 


d = 1848 ; 


429 



The large claw has been described and figured by Coutiere. 
The second pereiopod has the following proportions : — 

c- = 3531 
c3 = 1386 
c* = 1320 

The third pereiopod has the propodite provided with seven or 
eight pairs of spines arranged more or less irregularly on the anterior 
side. The dactylos is a strong slightly curved hook. The following 
.are the proportions of the parts : — 

i = 2970 ; 1815 | c = 6006 ; 1419 I d = 2475 ; 495 
m = 8580 ; 2442 | p = 6105 ; 1320 j 

The above dimensions are taken from a typical form of this species. 

The rostrum varies in length. In one specimen it passes well 
beyond the first antennular article , and in another it is as long as that 
article. Normally the rostrum is only about two-thirds as long as 
the first article. 

General Distribution. — Pacific ; Maldives, Ceylon. 



Explanation of the Plates, 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. — Synalpheus hiunguiculatus , var. exilipes. 

Fig. 2. — Alpheus ventrosus. 2a, frontal region of carapace, with 
antennae and antennviles X 8 ; 26, second pereiopod X 9 ; 2c, third 
pereiopod x 9 ; 2d, dactylopodite of third pereiopod X 21. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 3. — Alpheus frontalis. 3a, frontal region of the carapace, the 
antennules, and antennae x 6 ; 3b, second pereiopod x 8 ; 3c, third 



pereiopod X 8 

Fig. 4. — Alpheus rapax. 
pereiopod X 8. 



4a, second pereiopod X 8 ; ib, third 



Plate VII. 

Fig. 5. — Alpheus audouini. 5a, frontal region of carapace, the 
antennules, and antennae x 9 ; 5b, second pereiopod X 10 ; 5c, third 
pereiopod X 10. 

Fig. 6. — Alpheus strenuus. 6a, second pereiopod X ^ ; 6b, third 
pereiopod x 4, 



Spolia Zejlanica. Vol.VII. Part XXVIIl. 



Plate V. 




G Henry, del EWilsoii, Cambridge. 

FxG.l. SYNALPHEUS BIUNGLJICULATUS var EXILIPES. 
Fig. 2. ALPHEUS \^NTROSUS. 



Spolia Zeylanica Vol. VII Part XXVII 



Plate VI. 




G- Henry, del. 



EWjlson.Oamb.idge. 



Fig. 3 ALPHEUS FRONTALIS. 
Fig 4. ALPHEUS RAPAX. 



Spolia Zej/lanica. Vol.VlL Parl.XXVlll. 



Plate VII. 




G.Henry, del. 



FlQ. 5 ALPHEUS AUDOUINI 
Fia 6. ALPHEUS STRENUUS. 



E Wilson, Cambridge. 



GENUS OF SHORT-BEAKED QNATS. 187 

A NEW GENUS OF SHORT-BEAKED GNATS FROM CEYLON. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., Indian Museum. 

(With one Plate and one Text-figure. ) 



rpHROUGH the kind offices of Mr. E. E. Green I liave been 
^ entrusted with the examination of microscopic preparations 
of the larva, pupa, and imago of a pecuHar Httle gnat taken by Major 
MacDougall, R.A.M.C, in a swamp at Diyatalawa in Ceylon (alt. 
ca. 4,300 feet). The specimens are mounted in Canada balsam, and 
unfortunately include only one imago, a male ; but the structure of 
the fly and its immature stages is of such interest from a systematic 
point of view that I have ventured to describe the genus and species 
as new. In so doing I have, I may say, found it very much easier 
to give a description of the structure than if the specimen had been 
mounted dry in the ordinary way. 

It is a point worth considering whether more fixed and definite 
standards of entomological classification might not be reached if 
dried specimens were to be treated as of less account than those 
carefully mounted in some Uquid medium, which would prevent their 
more delicate organs from becoming shrivelled out of all recognition. 
Colour would, in some cases, have to go, but, if the preservation be 
properly carried out, there is no reason why even the finest scales or 
hairs should be lost in specimens kept in spirit or Canada balsam. 

The main interest of the new genus here described as Eamcia lies 
in the fact that it affords a complete Unk between the " Culicidae " 
of Theobald* and other recent authors, and the genera which these 
authors, intent on finding new pretexts for rending asunder what 
Nature has joined together, would separate as the family '' Core- 
thridse." In this particular instance the excuse for dividing 
famihes resides partly in the structure of the larva and partly in the 
short proboscis of the imago and the absence of scales on the head, 
body, legs, and veins of the wings. The larvae of different " Core- 
thridse," however, differ considerably more one from another than 
certain of them do from those of the " CuHcidae " ; there is far more 
difference in structure, to take parallel instances, between the 
proboscis of Stomoxys or even Philcematomyia and that of Musca 
than there is between that of Culex and that of Corethra, although 
even the most recent writers place Stomoxys and Philcematomyia in 
the same family as Musca, while Phlebotomus, although it un- 
doubtedly belongs to a family (Psychodidse) of which some species 
have densely scaled wings, has actually fewer scales on the wing 
than Chaohorus.'\ Nobody denies the affinity of Corethra and 

* Mon. Culicida;, iv., p. 15 (1907). 

t As regards the synonymy of the genera allied to Corethra, see Brunetti, 
Rec. Ind. Mus., iv., p. 317"(1911). 



188 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



Chaoborus, and even those authors who regard Corethra and its 
alUes as constituting a separate family are forced to ignore the fact 
that Pelorempis has scales on its cross- veins, although they assign 
this genus also to the Corethridse. Eamcia is eccentric enough to 
go further than Pelorempis in having at once a short proboscis, 
scales on the longitudinal veins (but not on the head or body) , and a 
larva with several peculiar characters. I am not prepared to say 
whether those who have made a special study of the group would 
assign it to the Culicidse {serisu suo) or the "" Corethridse." It 
differs from both groups in certain venation-characters, more 
especially as regards the position of the tip of the first longitudinal 
vein ; but the larva on the whole resembles that of Corethra, and 
if the sub-family Corethrinse is to be maintained, I would assign 
Earncia to it. 

I. — ^Description of the Adult Fly. 

Ramcia* gen. no v. 

The venation is culiciform in general disposition, but is charac- 
terized by the fact that the first longitudinal vein, running almost 
parallel to the subcostal, reaches the costal border at some distance 
from the distal margin of the wing. The basal and marginal cells 
are elongate and narrow, and the cross- veins are situated near the 
centre of the wing. 




&.C 




Venation of the two Corethrinae as yet known to occur in Ceylon : — A, 
Ramcia inepta, sp. nov. B, Chaoborus asiaticus (Giles), a species which occurs 
at Peradeniya. 

c = costal border ; s. c. =^ subcosta ; 1 r= first longitudinal ; 2 r= anterior 
branch of second longjitudinal ; 2' = posterior branch of the same vein ; 
3 = third longitudinal or median vein ; 4 = anterior branch of fovirth 
longitudinal ; 4' = posterior branch of the same vein ; 5 = anterior branch of 
fifth longitudinal ; 5' = posterior branch of the same vein ; 6 = sixth longitu- 
dinal. 

* Named, by special request of Major MacDougall, after the Royal Array 
Medical Corps. 



GENUS OF SHORT-BEAKED GNATS. 189 

The wing-margin (except the anterior proximal part) and the 
distal half of all the longitudinal veins are clothed with true scales, 
the proximal half of some of the longitudinal as well as the whole of 
the cross-veins bearing flattened hairs. 

There are no scales on the head, body, or legs. 

The eyes of the male as seen from the side consist of a transverse 
basal and a narrow vertical portion. The proboscis is short and 
feeble, much shorter than the palpi, which consist of four joints. 
The antennse have fifteen joints, of which the first is minute, the 
second large and globular, and the remaining thirteen (the flagellum) 
almost cylindrical, but tapering slightly at the distal end, verticillate, 
and clothed with fine hairs. 

The legs are moderately slender. They are clothed with stiff 
hairs and have simple, smooth-edged claws. The first tarsal joint 
is longer than tlie two succeeding joints together. The claws are 
smooth-edged and simple. 

The male claspers are of simple structure. 

The venation of this genus approaches that of the Psychodidse as 
regards the position of the tip of the first longitudinal vein, but is 
of a less simple character. 

Ramcia inepta, sp. nov. 

The abdomen is dark in colour, the thorax paler but probably 
reticulated or mottled with some dark shade. The wings are pale, 
except for an interrupted dark crossbar which embraces the extre- 
mities of the subcostal and first longitudinal veins, includes the 
petioles of the first submarginal and the second posterior cells, and 
appears in the form of spots on the costal and posterior wing-fringes, 
the anterior branch of the fifth and the distal end of the sixth 
longitudinal vein, completely omitting the third longitudinal and 
the main stem of the fifth. The spot on the posterior margin is 
considerably in advance both of that on the anterior margin and 
of that on the sixth vein. The tips of all the tibiae and the three 
distal joints of the tarsi of the first and second legs are dark. 

The subcostal reaches the costal margin a little in front of the 
middle of the wing, and the tip of the first longitudinal is not much 
in advance of it. The second longitudinal vein is angulate at its 
junction with the third, and its fork is a little in advance of that 
of the fourth. The anterior cross-vein is extremely short. The 
anterior branch of the fifth longitudinal arises only a short distance 
behind the posterior cross-vein. There are no longitudinal in- 
crassations or false veins, and the seventh longitudinal is entirely 
absent. 

The wing is moderately narrow, bluntly rounded at the tip, its 
anterior border being nearly straight and its posterior border 
regularly and not very strongly curved. 



190 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

Each joint of the flagellum of the antenna (of the male) bears a 
circle of very long stifE hairs at its base, and is clothed for the 
greater part of its length with shorter and softer hairs. The first 
jomt of the flagellum bears also several additional circles of long 
stiff hairs. The first jomt of the antenna is very small and in- 
conspicuous, the second nearly half as large as the head. The third 
{i.e., the first of the flagellum) is of moderate length and practically 
cylindrical. Joints 3 to 10 are subequal, joints 11 to 13 also sub- 
equal, but distinctly shorter than 3 to 10. 

The fourth joint of the palpi (of the male) is the longest, the 
second the shortest, the first and third being subequal. The basal 
joint is clavate, the others cylindrical ; all are clothed somewhat 
sparsely with slender hairs. 

The legs are not very long ; they are densely clothed with long 
straight hairs, among which shorter hairs are dispersed. The hind 
tibise are slightly incrassated at the tip. The femur and tibia of 
each leg are subequal, and in the first two pairs either joint is 
distinctly longer than the first tarsal joint, which in its turn is 
longer than the next three joints together. Li the hind leg, however, 
which is longer than either of the other two, the tibia is only 
slightly longer than the first tarsal joint, which is shorter than 
the next three joints together. The claws are slender and strongly 
curved. 

There is a small bunch of stiff slender hairs on the vertex just 
behind the eyes and another just in front of them. The thorax is 
sparsely clad with longer and stouter hairs, most of which curve 
backwards. The scutellum bears a very prominent bunch. The 
hairs on the abdomen, which are also scattered somewhat sparsely, 
are finer, more slender, and apparently softer. 

The basal joint of the male claspers is cyUndrical, about three 
times as long as broad and of about the same length as the distal 
joint, which is slender, not very strongly curved, narrowly blunt, 
and a little irregular at the tip. This joint is naked, but the basal 
joint is clothed in long hairs. 

Length 2 mm. ; length of wing 1*3 mm. 

II. — Description of the Larva and Ptjpa. 

The larva differs considerably from any that has previously been 
described , but bears a certain purely superficial resemblance to that 
of Stegomyia. Its most conspicuous features are its broad triangular 
head, minute eyes, long jaw-like antennae, which arise close together 
in front of the head, and the distinct segmentation of the thorax. 
There are no palmate chsetse on any part of the animal. When 
fully adult it measures about 2*5 mm. in total length, its head 
measuring 0*53 mm. by 0-72 mm. 

The head is flattened as well as broad, triangular in outline, 
pointed in front, but with the posterior lateral angles broadly 



GENUS OF SHORT-BEAKED GNATS. 191 

rounded. The antennae arise close together at the anterior end, 
each on a small prominence. They are slender and somewhat 
depressed, each bearing at the tip three stout and rather lengthy 
chaetse. Pressed backwards in their natural attitude of repose their 
tips He opposite the ocelli, which are dark, very minute, and circular 
in outhne. They are situated on the dorsal surface near the lateral 
margin. There are no compound eyes. Fine sensory hairs are 
arranged as follows on the dorsal surface of the head : one on each 
side a short distance behind the base of each antenna, one just outside 
each eye, and a row of about five parallel to the lateral margin , a short 
distance in front of each eye. There is an S-shaped row of short, stout, 
simple chsetae on each side of the head, commencing on the dorsal 
surface a short distance behind the eye and curving down on to the 
ventral surface. Immediately posterior to the bases of the antennae, 
on the middle Hne of the ventral surface, there is a bunch of slender 
pectinate chaetae which probably can be extended forwards, but in 
my specimens is folded backwards. The mandibles bear at the 
anterior end of their inner margin two stout rather blunt teeth, the 
outermost of which is the smaller of the two. Below these and on 
a different level six other teeth form an uninterrupted series, the 
first being the largest, the sixth the smallest, and the others subequal. 
Below the teeth there is a little T-shaped projection. The maxilla 
is rather slender and deeply notched on its free margin. The whole 
appendage is covered with minute chitinous projections. Two large 
chaetae are borne above the notch (the uppermost bearing a short 
subsidiary tooth on its upper margin) and two below it, the latter 
pair being very unequal in size. The lower lip is rather narrow, 
and the teeth on its anterior margin are slender, the central tooth 
being larger than any of the others, which are arranged approximately 
large and smaU alternately. There is a semi-circular row of stout 
simple bristles at the base of each maxilla, and at each side of the 
lower lip there are three sensory hairs, one situated near the end of 
the Hp, the other two arising together some little distance posteriorly. 

All the segments of the thorax are distinct and transverse. As 
seen from above, tiiey have an irregularly hexagonal outline, and are 
produced to a point at each side, both the anterior and the posterior 
margins being sinuous, or (in the case of the posterior margin of the 
third segment) distinctly excavated in the middle. Each joint bears 
on the lateral point a bunch of long simple bristles. 

The first segment of the abdomen, which consists of nine true 
segments, is broader than any of those of the thorax and more 
markedly produced at the sides, but otherwise resembles them. 
The succeeding joints are narrower and less distinctly hexagonal in 
dorsal profile. With the exception of the ninth, they bear a bunch 
of simple bristles at either side. The siphons are stout, of moderate 
length, and closely welded together ; apparently they lie almost 
in the same Une as the abdomen. They are provided round their 



192 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

free margin with several little organs, probably of a sensory nature 
and consisting of a minute chitinous structure shaped like a bird's 
mandible, from the base of which a slender chaeta projects. A 
bunch of long simple bristles arises from the ventral surface of the 
tip of the abdomen below the base of the siphons. There are no 
" floats " or " fins." 

In general structure the larva is not unhke that of Coretlira 
(Mochlonyx) velutina, but the position of the antennae is different, 
the head is much broader, the thoracic segments are not welded 
together, the abdomen is shorter and broader, the siphons are much 
stouter, and there are other differences. 

The pupa of Ramcia is not so pecuhar as the larva. The general 
shape is an elongate ovoid , and there is no very clear distinction in 
the outline between the thorax and the abdomen. The length is 
about 2 mm. and the greatest breadth about 0-7 mm. The 
breathing trumpets are long and slender. Their distal margin is 
distinctly emarginate dorsally, and there is a minute projection in 
the centre of the emargination. The antennae curve round entirely 
outside the eyes. The wings extend to the ventral surface of the 
abdomen and nearly meet in tlie mid- ventral line. The abdominal 
segments decrease gradually in width from before backwards. The 
tergites are produced laterally in a triangular form,|i.nd their free 
margins are minutely denticulated. The anal lamellae are slender 
and pointed ; they also are minutely denticulated round the edge. 

This pupa differs from that of most Cuhcidse in not having the 
cephalo-thoracic mass distinctly separated from the abdomen. The 
respiratory trumpets differ from those both of Culex and of Corethra, 
but resemble the latter more nearly. 

Unfortunately direct information as to the habits of the larva is 
not forthcoming, but light on this subject may be obtained by a 
study of the structure. The structure of the thorax indicates great 
freedom of movement , while that of the antennae suggests that these 
organs are employed in seizing prey. There can, I think, be little 
doubt, therefore , that the larva is actively predacious. The points in 
which it differs anatomically from the larva of Corethra (Mochlonyx) 
velutina are not so great as those which distinguish the latter from 
the larvae of Chaohorus plumicornis and Ch. pallida, and it is not 
too much to assume that in each genus the larval pecuharities are 
adaptive and due to differences in habits and environment rather 
than genetic divergence. 

The swamp in wliich the original larvae were taken has been 
drained, and neither Mr. Green nor Major MacDougall, both of 
whom have been kind enougli to search for further specimens, 
have been able to obtain more. It is, however, desirable that dry 
specimens of the imago should be examined, if only to satisfy those 
entomologists who regard the superficial character of colour as the 
most important. 



Spol. Zeyl. Vol.VII, 



Part XXVin. 




D.Bae-ohi, del.et.lith 



genus of shobt-b baked gnats. 193 

Explanation op Plate. 
Ramcia inepta, nov. gen., nov. sp. 

1. Wing (X 75), with scales from different parts further enlarged. 

2. Hind leg ( X ^0) : 2a, claws further enlarged. 

3. Proboscis and right palp of male (enlarged). 

4. Ptight maxilla and bunch of bristles at its base ( x 250). 

5. Right mandible ( X 250). 

6. Lower lip (X 75): 6a, pectinate chaeta from bunch in front of 

lower lip. 

7. Clasper of male ( x 250). 

8. Larva from dorsal surface ( x 36) : 8a, antenna fvirther enlarged. 

9. Pupa from ventral surface ( x 36) : 9a, dorsal view of breathing 

trumpet further enlarged.^ 



6(11)11 
2 c 



194 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA, 



SOME REMARKS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CESTODES 
IN CEYLON.* 

By T. Southwell, A.R.C.Sc. (LoncL), F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Scientific Adviser to the Ceylon Company of Pearl Fishers, Limited, and 
Inspector of Pearl Banks. 



THERE are few groups of animals in Ceylon concerning which 
so Httle is known as tlie Cestoda. As far as I have been 
able to ascertain, prior to 1902 only the following Cestodes were 
recorded : — 

Tcenia solium, Rud., from man. 

Tcenia saginata {?), Goeze = Tcenia mediocancellata , Kuch., 

from man. 
Dipylidium caninum, L. = Tcenia elliptica, Batsch. = Tcenia 

cucumerina , Bloch., from dog. 
Tcenia saginata has since been definitely identified. 

In consequence of the visit of Professor Herdman to the Pearl 
Banks in 1902, fifty-two new species were described by Shipley and 
Hornell in Herdman's " Ceylon Reports." Since that time nine 
other new species, also from marine fish, have been described in Part 
v., " Ceylon Marine Biological Reports," and a further seventeen 
new species from the same source are now being described by the 
writer. 

Castellani and Chalmers (" Manual of Tropical Medicine," 1910) 
report the occurrence of a single case of Echinococcus granulosus, 
Batsch. , but this was probably imported from South Africa. 

Twelve other species (eleven new) were recorded by Von Linstow 
{Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. III., Part XI., 1906), and seven species 
(including one Gysticercus) were recorded by Shipley {Spolia 
Zeylanica, Vol. I., Part III., 1903). 

The total number of Cestodes reported from Ceylon up to the 
present is therefore 100, described as under : — 

Seventy-eight species from marine fish (" Ceylon Reports" and 
"Ceylon Marine Biological Reports"); two species from man; 
one species from dog ; and tlie following list : — 

Hymenolepis septarai, v. Lins., from Upupa ceylonensis. 

clausa, V. Lins. , from Dendrocygna javanica. 

spinosa, v. Lins. , from Rostratula capensis. 



* From, the Ceylon Marine Biological Laboratory (Ceylon Company of 
Pearl Fishers, Limited). 



OCCUREENCE OF CESTODES. 195 

Tcenia spec. (?), from Haliastur Indus. 
Diorchis occlusa, v, Lins., from Phoenicopterus roseus. 
Davainea polycolcaria, v. Lins., from Corvus macrorhynchus . 
Diplochetes volvulus, v. Lins. , from Lobipluvia malabarica. 
Ophryocotyle ceylonica, v. Lins., from Lophoceros rjmgalensis. 
Brochocephalus paradoxus, v. Lins. , from Mgialitis moiujolica. 
Cittotoenia bursaria, v. Lins., from Lepus nigricollis. 
Ichthyotcenia cryptobothrium, v. Lins., from Chrysopelea ornata. 
Aphanobothrium catenatum, v. Lins., from Phmnicoptems 

roseus . 
Cysticercus, from Gervus axis. 
Duthiersia fimhriata, Dies., froua Varanus salvator and V. 

betujalensis . 
Bothridum pyihonis, Blainv., from Python nwlurus. 
Tetrabothrius erosiris, Lonnbg., from Sterna bergii. 
Tcenia polycalcaria, v. Lins., from Felis pardus. 
Tcenia meander, v. Lins., from Hipposideris speoris. 
Acantliotcenia sliipleyi, v. Lins., from Varanus salvator. 
Of these 100 species, the Ufe-history of four only is definitely 
known, viz. : — 

Tcenia solium, Rud. 
Tcenia saginata, Goeze. 
Dipylidium caninum, L. 

Tetrarhynchus unionif actor , Shipley and Hornell (the pearl- 
inducing worm).* 

Through the kindness of Drs. Castellani and Chalmers I have 
had tlxe opportunity of examining some parasites from the patho- 
logical laboratory of tlxe Ceylon Medical College. The collection 
contained the following : — 

{a) Two fragmented specimens of Tcenia solium, Rud., from 
man. Heads and a considerable portion of the " anterior " end of 
the worms absent. 

(6) Four specimens of Tcenia serrata {^ , Goeze, from dog. All 
without heads. 

(c) Eight specimens of Cysticercus cellulosce, Rud. (= Cysticercus 
acanthotrias, Wienl.) from man (described by Chalmers in Sjwlia 
Zeylanlca, Vol. II., Part VIII., 1905). 

{d) One part specimen without head of Tcenia saginata, Goeze, 
from man. Only about the terminal haK of the worm was obtained, 
and this comprised 170 proglottides and measui'cd 250 cms. (over 
8 feet). Each segment was approximately 12 mm. broad and 
from 18 mm. to 19 mm. long. The worm was markedly gelatinous 
in consistency, opalescent, and milky white in the fresh state. 

* In addition to the foregoing, nurnerous Cysticercoids have been obtained 
from martae fishes, tlie aduUs of which are undeterm,ined. 



196 SPOLIA ZEYLANlOA. 

(e) Seven specimens of Dipylidium caninum, L. , from a dog. 

Average length of worm, 85 mm. 
Length of largest segment, 6 mm. 
Breadth of largest segment, 3 mm. 
Total number of segments, 22. 

(/) One specimen of Ascaris lumbricoides , Linn. , from man. The 
specimen was a female of a grayish-brown colour. 

Length 230 cm., greatest breadth 7 mm. 

In addition to the foregoing, there were several fragments of a 
Cestode of the genus Taenia, said to have been obtained from a rat. 
No heads were present, and it was found impossible to identify the 
fragments further. 

It will be obvious from the foregoing that our knowledge of the 
Cestodes found in the common Ceylon animals is very Umited. 



Literature cited. 
Herdraan^ " Ceylon Pearl Oyster Reports," Vols. II., III., and V. 
" Ceylon Marine Biological Reports," Part V. 
Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. I., Part III., November, 1903. 

Do. Vol. II., Part VIII., March, 1905. 

Do. Vol. III., Part XL, January, 1906. 



t* 



AN EXPLOKATION OF THE BELIGAL-GE. l97 



AN EXPLORATION OF THE BELIGAL-GE, NEAR BALANGODA. 

By C. Hartley. 



XN August, 1910, I undertook a partial exploration of the 
-^ Beligal-ge, or Snail Cave, which is situated about twelve miles 
north of Balangoda and close to the tea estate of Dikmukalana, 
belonging to Mr. W. D. Holland. 

On a preliminary survey I found the cave placed in a most 
advantageous position, scooped out of a solid and almost perpendi- 
cular cHff of gneiss and some 30 feet above a small rivulet, to which 
there slopes steeply a bank or talus of earth overgrown with trees. 
The front of the cave faces nearly due west ; and at its southern 
extremity it plunges almost at right angles 79 feet into the rock. 
From this point it shallows rapidly, until after a considerable inward 
bend, forming a second recess in the rock, it grows even narrower, 
and finally tapers to nothing. The rock roof is lofty in the deeper 
parts, and the floor of dust strewn with boulders slopes gently 
downward to the northern end. Although no drip-ledge has been 
cut, the cave seems absolutely dry within ; a small wall of rough 
stones and earth has been built from the southern end some little 
distance northward ; and the drip from the cliff face falls entirely 
clear of the interior. In fact no more comfortable cave for inhabi- 
tation can well bejmagined. 

A considerablp amount of water finds its way down the cliff face , 
since a small patch of paddy land is situated immediately over the 
cave ; and the constant drip cutting on the loose soil of the slope 
at the mouth of the cave has laid bare and collected in pools an 
immense quantity of quartz chips once embedded in the soil. I 
carefully examined these fragments, and selected one or two which 
appeared to be implements. They are immediately distinguishable 
by their smooth waterworn faces from the sharply angular remains 
recovered beneath the soil. 

I found that the floor of eartli inside the cave had been greatly 
disturbed. Not only had the late Mr. Parsons carried out a small 
excavation near the southern end, in the course of which he found 
some human bones and other remains now in the Museum, but it 
has also been the custom among the neighbouring peasants to dig 
in the soil for the water-snail shells, fi-om which the cave takes its 
name, and which tliey burn for chimam to accompany their betel. 



198 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

During the whole time that I was engaged in digging a number of 
women and children were hard at work sifting the earth for shells. 
These consist principally of Paludomus gardneri, and more rarely 
of Paludomus dilatata, Acavus phosnix, Bulimus alhizonatus, 
Aulopoma hoffmeisteri, and Philopotamis glohulosa, which latter, 
my workers assured me, were not to be found within fifteen miles. 
1 engaged six men, and started work on August 11 by digging a 
trench leading from Mr. Parsons' s excavation northwards, and 
incidentally clearing out "the hole which he had dug and which 
bad become partially choked. Near the surface we found traces 
of recent civihzation : fragments of pottery, at first stout and well 
made, later thin and fragile, quantities of charred wood and bones 
mingled with archaic chips of quartz and chert, buttons, and a short 
length of cheap brass chain. Under similar circumstances in Europe 
one might have reckoned confidently on unearthing a few coins; 
but it is certain that none reached my hands. Between 2 and 3 
feet below the surface modern traces disappeared, and nothing 
came to Hght but fragments of quartz, chert, bone, and shells. 
At four o'clock we knocked off for the day, at a depth of 4 feet 
6 inches. 

As the earth was dug out, it was loaded into baskets, carried 
outside, and passed through a 1-inch sieve. I selected whatever 
struck my eye ; but it is likely that better work would have been 
done with a smaller sieve. One or two well- shaped bone implements 
were recovered by the women sifting the earth for snail shells. 

Next day, August 12, we resumed digging at the same place, but 
in less than an hour we found large boulders which barred our way, 
and were forced to abandon the hole at a depth of 5 feet. 

I thereupon selected a spot at the southern end of the recess in the 
rock wall already mentioned, and started a trench 8 feet long by 
5 feet in breadth. The digging, I may say, is extremely easy work, 
the earth being Hght and dry, grayish- brown in colour, and largely 
composed of sand, ashes, and bats' droppings. We found pottery 
down to 3 feet, with rare quartz chips ; below 3 feet the latter became 
more numerous. Chert was comparatively scarce, which is all the 
more surprising, as a boulder occurs in a stream within half a mile 
of the cave. I examined this later, and found it much splintered, 
having no doubt been drawn upon for gun-flints and strike-a-lights. 
In this second excavation some bones were recovered showing knife- 
cuts and, at a considerable depth, a small waterworn fragment of 
plumbago. At a depth of 7 feet 6 inches we were again stopped 
by boulders ; but snail shells and quartz chips were withdrawn by 
hand from under these. 

A thickness of 7 feet of cave-earth would in Europe lead us to 
assign a very remote antiquity to the bottom layer. Unless a cave 
is exposed to floods, such earth can only be composed of wind- 
borne dust and of particles adliering to the feet of beasts or men 



AN EXPLORATION OF THE BELIGAL-GE. 199 

who made the cave their home ; and it is unlikely that such fine 
matter could be deposited at a rate of more than 1 foot in a thousand 
years. In the tropics, however, another agent of accumulation 
must be reckoned with. All caves in Ceylon swarm with bats ; and 
their droppings even in a single year would add appreciably to the 
earth, while in a century they might, if undisturbed, perhaps amount 
to over a foot in thickness. 

On the morning of August 13 I opened a trench outside the cave 
in the sloping bank, heading at first uphill towards my second 
excavation. The soil here, being exposed to the action of rain, 
differed totally from the cave-earth from which it was derived. 
I excavated a considerable area, and found a uniform surface layer 
of black humus mixed with ashes, pottery, bones, shells, and chips 
to a depth of 2 feet. Below this we found stiff reddish-brown soil 
without ashes, but with quantities of quartz and chert chips, which 
grew ever rarer ; until at a depth of 3 feet in the brown earth, or 
5 feet from the surface, all traces of human work came to an end. 
In the brown earth I found neither pottery nor shells nor bones nor 
any sign of fire. Yet it was in the soil immediately below the layer 
of ashes that I found chips of quartz and chert most abundant. 
After carrying my trench 12 feet towards the cave, and meeting 
with more boulders, I dug another at right angles to the first for 
a distance of 6 feet and found precisely similar conditions. 

The Doctors Sarasin in their " Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher 
Forschungen auf Ceylon," pubhshed in 1908, describe on page 14 
the excavation of a similar " talus " in the Bintenna ; but they 
appear not to have found the same sharp dividing line between the 
black humus (which they do not record as containing ashes) and the 
brown earth rich in quartz fragments. It seems to me however 
that the b'rown deposit, which was evidently blown, kicked, or 
swept out of the cave above, must have required a lengthy period, 
perhaps some thousands of years, for its formation ; that the 
underlying layer free from chips was accumulated previously to 
man's appearance ; that the layer with chips and without ashes 
points to a period when man Hved without fire ; and that only the 
uppermost layer proves his acquaintance therewith. Too much 
stress must not be laid upon the results of a single excavation ; but 
I look forward with interest to further researches. 

This concluded my labours in the cave. I explored a few hill- tops 
in the neighbourhood, found a moderate number of quartz chips, 
and noted a large outcrop of good white quartz close to the cave. 
There is a considerable deposit of hard and heavy titanic iron ore 
within a few yards of the quartz ; but I could not find that any use 
had been made of it by the cave-dwellers. 

The harvest of implements which I reaped was a modest one. 
I brought away over five hundred specimens, of which a little over 
fifty have found their way into my collection. The best were a 



200 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

few bone needles or borers, two good hammers, and a certain 
number of blades, points, and scrapers. One waterworn pebble of 
micaceous gneiss has plainly been used as a rubber, both ends being 
much worn. But the conclusion is forced upon one, either that the 
cave-dwellers were very indifferent workmen, or that they were 
lacking in that quality so valuable to archaeologists, of leaving their 
tools about. 

On comparing the results of my digging with those achieved by 
the Doctors Sarasin, I find a general similarity, except in the case of 
the talus already mentioned. The identifiable animal remains were 
more numerous in their excavations in the Bintenna. It appeared 
to me that bones were surprisingly scarce in the Beligal-ge, those of 
the larger animals, such as deer and pig, being entirely wanting, 
while the enormous number of water-snail shells proved that my 
cave-dwellers were satisfied with the humblest fare. The imple- 
ments of quartz, crystal, and chert were neither more nor less rude 
in the one case than in the other. A distinguished archaeologist in 
England has favoured me with the following remarks : " The 
Veddas — if it be they who made them — must have been a very 
degraded people, worse than the most degraded we find about here 
of any period, except perhaps one lot who seem to have come for a 
short time in a short inberglacial period." These scathing sentences 
are absolutely justified by the roughness of the specimens— good 
palaeolithic work is as far superior to them as it is inferior to good 
neolithic work. The immense numbers of chips, cores, and refuse 
prove that the makers had abundant practice. The Doctors 
Sarasin note with justice the intractability of quartz as compared 
with flint. But the same plea cannot be admitted in the case of 
chert, and the chert implements recovered so far from caves are as 
rude as those of quartz and crystal. It is notable that a far higher 
level of workmanship and design is attained by implements found 
on hill-tops, and on the evidence before us I am inchned to beheve 
that the cave-dwellers represent the oldest and rudest type, while 
their descendants, armed with improved weapons and disdaining the 
wretched fare of their ancestors, forsook the caves and led an ampler 
and freer hfe on the hills, following the game in their seasonal 
migrations. 

Of animal remains discovered, the most important were the snails 
already mentioned, which seem to have formed their principal food 
supply. In addition, a fair number was found of the non-edible 
Helia {Acavus) yhoenix, described by the Doctors Sarasin as the 
" Hobelschnecke," or Plane-snail, used for smoothing wood, of 
which specimens are to be seen in the Museum. Bones of the follow- 
ing animals have been identified by Dr. Pearson : Madras langur 
{Semnopithecus priamus) and mouse deer {Traguhts meminna). 

On the other hand , the list of things wliich one would have liked 
to find, but did not, would fill several pages. 



EBVIEW. 201 



REVIEW. 

The Veddas : by C, G. Seligmann, M.D., and Brenda Z. Seligraann. 
Cambridge University Press. 1911. 



THIS handsome volume of over four hundred pages, with seventy- 
one plates, thirty-four musical records, numerous songs, and a 
vocabulary, may be taken as summing up all that we know or are 
likely to discover of the history, the traditions, and the usages of 
the fast vanishing race whose purest representatives are estimated 
by Mr. Parker at less than one hundred persons. An average of 
over four pages to each individual of a semi-savage tribe may seem 
excessive to those who do not reflect that the lower the type, 
the greater the interest ; and that, if a race could be discovered 
living under palseoHthic conditions, an allowance of pages twice 
as generous as we have here would be eagerly demanded. 

Dr. and Mrs. Sehgmann have gone to the root of the matter. 
They forsook civihzation for a time to hve intimately with the 
Veddas. They have shared their meals and their primitive accom- 
modation ; they have been near them in sickness and in health, in 
festivity and in mourning ; and we may well beHeve the handsome 
acknowledgment made in the preface to Mrs. Sehgmann ; " I feel 
convinced that the measure of success attained in gaining the 
confidence of these shy and extremely jealous people was entirely 
due to her presence and assistance." 

A full but discriminating use has been made of previous writers 
on this subject. The works of Knox, Tennent, and Parker are 
widely known ; but those of Virchow, Rutimeyer, and the Sarasins 
are mostly in German ; while much important information is con- 
tained in stray articles by Bailey, Nevill, Hartshorne, and others, 
which is here conveniently summarized. The question of pre- 
historic stone implements is dismissed with one plate and five pages. 
We cannot but think that more use might have been made of the 
researches of the Sarasins and of the collections of Messrs. Pole and 
Green. For the matter as a wliole we have nothing but praise. 
The authors expressly state that " this volume will scarcely touch 
on physical anthropology"; but a careful examination has been 
made of the Veddas' social and family life, rehgion, magic, cere- 
monies, music, language, and senses. There is very httle in the 
book which will not be understood by any intelligent reader ; but 
we think that the mode of testing for sight might have been 
explained at greater length for the benefit of the uninitiated. 

2d 6(11)11 



202 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Of the numerous illustrations, a few are partial failures owing 
to the forest gloom, but have been skilfully doctored, or, as Dr. 
Seligmann terms it, "faked." The greater part, however, are vivid 
presentments of wild Ufe, and one. No. LV., " Nila holding bow 
while reciting invocation," rises to the level of fine art. 

The " Conclusions " form the shortest chapter, and the authors 
agree in the main with Mr. Parker's theory that the upper ranks 
of the Veddas were absorbed by the conquering Sinhalese, who in 
their turn were influenced by the customs of the vanquished ; while 
the Veddas represent the untamed remnant who by accident or 
choice resisted or escaped absorption. 

A useful warning is given to tourists not to accept the Danigala 
Veddas as the children of nature they pretend to be. 

" These folk, who when we saw them wore their Vedda loin 
cloths and were smeared with ashes, are reported to wear ordinary 
Sinhalese cloths when not in their professional pose, and Mr. Bibile, 
who has himself seen one or more of them in sarongs, points out 
that the imposture is kept up for two main reasons : firstly, they 
fear that their cultivation might be stopped, or that they might be 
taxed if they did not appear to be poor fellows living on hardly-won 
jungle produce ; secondly, their pose of poverty interests strangers 
and procures them visitors, whose generosity is the greater, the 
more primitive their mode of life appears to be." 

These gentlemen, under a more extended franchise, will vote solidly 
for converting Ceylon into a great winter resort for passengers. 

C. HARTLEY. 



NOTES. 203 



NOTES. 



17. Further Note on Flies of the Genus " Phlebotomus ^ — Recent 
additions to the collection in the India Museum, including a 
number of specimens received from Mr. E. E. Green, enable me to 
supplement, and in one or two points to correct, my former notes 
issued in Vol. VII. (pp. 57-62) of Spolia Zeylanica, while the 
pubhcation of detailed descriptions of the species found in the 
Maltese islands by Mr. R. Newstead has made it possible to come to 
a decision as regards the identity of P. minutus, Rondani, and my 
own P. babu. In the first place, I may note that the examination 
of a large series of specimens of P. argentipes from different parts 
of India and from Peradeniya in Ceylon shows that the pecuUarities 
in venation exhibited by the form I described as P. marginatus , 
^eat as they appeared to be, are not beyond the limitations of 
variation found in the former species. I have, moreover, taken 
specimens in Calcutta the colouration of which agrees closely with 
that of the form marginatus. I am therefore forced to the conclusion 
that this form must be regarded merely as a variety of P. argentipes. 
It should also be noted that the figure of P. zeylanicus printed in 
my former paper (p. 60, fig. 4) gives, because of the angle at which 
the wing was drawn, a somewhat incorrect idea of the venation 
in that species ; fig. 5 on the same page is more exact in this 
respect. 

As I suggested would prove to be the case, my P. babu is clearly 
identical with Rondani's P. minutus. Mr. Newstead's careful 
description and figures (Bull. Ent. Research, II., pp. 62, 69-70, 1911) 
leave no doubt as to this, differences in proportions noted by him 
being evidently due to nothing but the method of preparation and 
examination of specimens. I can confirm his statements in every 
particular from specimens of P. babu examined in a fresh condition 
or preserved in spirit without fm-ther treatment. 

The changes proposed in this note therefore are — 

(1) that Phlebotomus marginatus should be known as P. 

argentipes, var. marginatus ; and 

(2) that the name Phlebotomus babu should be sunk in favour 

of P. minutus. 

As regards the former point, it is interesting to note that several, 
perhaps all, species of the genus exhibit a curious colour-dimorphism 
which is apparently not due to season or locahty, and certainly 
is not sexual. Thus, P. papatasi exists in Malta, according to 



204 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Newstead, both in a "typical pale form" and in a "dark form," 
and the same is the case with P. minutus in Northern Bengal and 
with P. major in the outer Himalayas (see Rec. Ind. Mus., IV., 
p. 340, 1911). 

N. ANNANDALE. 



18. Contest between a Mynah (" Acridotheres tristis'^) and a Locust 
{''Acridium violascens"). — 1 was a witness a short time ago of a very 
good instance of the method of defence in a locust wlien attacked 
by a bird. The mynah in question was quite tame, and had the 
run of the house and garden ; the locust flew on to the verandah, 
and in its usual blundering flight hit against the wall and came to 
the ground. It was immediately pounced on by the mynah, but 
at the moment of seizure the insect roUed slowly on to its side, 
drawing up the long hind leg and exposing to view the gray and 
black ocellated spots surrounding the spiracles. They certainly 
gave the insect a bizarre appearance, which was not without effect, 
as the bird immediately drew back obviously disconcerted. After 
a moment of hesitation it cautiously approached its beak within 
two inches of the locust, when again the leg was slowly drawn back, 
evidently also with the intention as a last resource of striking the 
bird a smart blow with the sharply serrated ridge of the tarsus. 
This had the effect of again postponing an attack, and two or three 
times the same manoeuvre was repeated on the approach of the 
bird's bill. It was very remarkable how the insect seemed to know 
that the startling effect was more pronounced the more slowly 
it moved over on to its side, and its apparent intelligence to be 
aware that it had, so to speak, only one shot in its locker which was 
to be used as a final resource. It was clear that once it had struck 
out, and possibly missed its object, the bird would have been imme- 
diately inside its guard, with disastrous consequences. Whether the 
above comes under the heading pseudaposematic defence (false 
warning colouration), i.e., the assumption by a defenceless insect 
of a terrifying attitude, or aposematic, or warning character of an 
insect able to protect itself, is not quite certain, but probably the 
latter ; which ever it was, it was quite clear to my mind that the 
insect derived distinct advantage from its terrifying attitude, and 
displayed an almost human intelligence in its use. 

I may add that the bird eventually gave up the contest, and the 
locust made good its escape. 

N. MANDERS. 

Note. — Since writing the above, it has occurred to me that an 
objection may be made to this interpretation ; the argument being 
that the bird's natural food was locusts and grasshoppers, which it 



NOTES. 205 

caught in large numbers in the garden, and therefore it must have 
been well aware of these terrifying marks, and knew that as a 
practical defence they were useless, and further, that as it was 
acquainted with the formidable hmd leg, it purposely put its 
beak within striking distance in order to draw its opponent's fire and 
render it for the moment harmless. 

It is somewhat doubtful in my judgment that the above objections 
are correct ; in the first place, the bird quite likely may never have 
seen these startUng spiracles, as they are normally hidden by the 
legs and wing covers and would not be visible under normal cir- 
cumstances; and again, if the insect had not by some mea.ns been 
aware that a certain amount of protection was obtained by them 
it would not have rolled slowly on to its side, by which means a 
greater effect was produced, but as quickly as possible in order to 
draw up the hind leg, its only means of defence. 

I mention these objections in order to show how two trained 
observers might well draw different conclusions from the same facts. 

N. M. 



19. The Effects of the Bite of " Ancistrodon hyptiale.''- — ^The other 

day I was bitten on the ball of the thumb by one of ray Ancistrodons 

(I have been keeping a few in captivity). Although I had been 

previously bitten without any effect, I washed my thumb in a strong 

solution of permanganate of potash and apphed a ligature of string 

above the bite, as the Ip^tter was a bad one, the fang having been 

broken off and left sticking in my thumb almost up to its base. My 

thumb then turned blue (due I think to the hgature, and not to 

the poison), and not wishing to take any chances I visited a native 

" Vedarala," who put on what he called a " caustic," though it 

did not burn at all, and only caused a shght smarting. Upon 

removal of the Hgature my thumb returned to its normal colour 

and became very stiff and swollen, as if it was going to burst ; there 

was also a slight local tenderness and aching. About five hours 

afterwards the swelhng began to subside and the stiffness to go, 

and the thumb became quite well in about twelve hours. Personally, 

I think that the effect of the poison on the blood was practically 

nil, and that all the symptoms were entirely local, resulting from the 

ligature, which I drew extremely tight. There was no sign of 

mortification about the place bitten. 

A. F. ABERCROMBY. 



20. Notes on Ceylon Snakes. — ^The commonest of Ceylon snakes 
are perhaps the following : Zamenis mucosus, Dryophis mycterizans, 
Naia tripudians, Lycodon aulicus, Dipsas ceykmensis, Dendrophis 



206 SPOLIA ZEYliANICA. 

bifrenalis, Oligodon suhlineatus ^ Vipera russellii, Tropidonotus 
stolatus, Tropidonotus asperrimus, and Helicops schistosus, though 
the list may vary greatly in different localities, Ancistrodon hypnale 
and Python molurus being both common in the northern jungles, 
while Trimeresurus trigonocephalus , so often met with in the 
Central Province, is rare in the north. I once encountered a 
young python at Yala, in the Southern Province, during the dry 
season, a most unhkely place to expect one, owing to the dry sandy 
condition of the district. It had probably worked its way down 
the river from the jungles further north. 

Among the less common varieties I have found several specimens 
of Dipsas forstenii and Dipsas barnesii round Anuradhapura, 
though I have never come across these in the Central Province or 
round Kurunegala, though at the latter place are some colonies of 
Tropidonotus plumhicolor. 

Snakes usually choose the type of country that suits their colour- 
ation, which country also suits their habits. Of all Ceylon snakes, 
the colour of Pytho7i molurus is the most inexplicable. It certainly 
blends with the sun and shadow effects of the jungle in a way which 
a uniform colouration would not do ; but what is the reason for 
this protection. It is not hunted sufficiently to render protection 
from man necessary, and there are no other enemies to prey on it. 
When young, a python might be attacked by a mongoose, but when 
as small as all that a uniform colouration would not be conspicuous 
and would serve as a protection. Allowing that the python is 
*' aggressively " coloured, it must be remembered that the latter is 
usually nocturnal in its habits, waylaying its prey after or about 
sunset, when its " sun and shadow " colour would be of no avail. 
The only conclusion is that the python is not as nocturnal as is 
commonly supposed, and probably waylays its prey at about six 
o'clock in the evening, when in the remote jungles the deer and 
small game go down to the tanks and water-holes to drink, though 
in more civilized and open country the game confine their drinking 
to after dusk. 

Another common Ceylon snake, Lycodon aulicus, causes much 
needless alarm by its resemblance to Bungarus ceylonicus, and is 
much feared by the natives on that account, who mistake it for the 
deadly " krait," as the Bungarus is called in India. Lycodon, 
however, is very common, while Bungarus is rare in Ceylon ; the 
former being distinguished by its pear-shaped head and regular 
scaHng, and the latter by its enlarged hexagonal vertebrae. If the 
snake is over 20 inches long it is probably a Bungarus. Of the two 
species of Bungarus found in Ceylon, Bungarus ceylonicus is rare, 
while B. cceruleus is very rare indeed, and even of the former I have 
only obtained two specimens, both from Rangalla, in the Kandy 
District. Owing to their snake-eating propensities they probably 
keep to tlie mountainous districts, where there are many 



Fis- '■ 




,IL. 




Fia. 1. — Abnormal chicken, ventral view. X \. 

R^ Normal riglit leg. 

R * and' R ^ Abnormal right legs. 

L. Left leg. 



Fia. 2. — Skeleton of pelvic girdle, showing attachnjent of the 
three right legs. 

R ^ Femur of normal right leg. 

R ^ and R ^ Femurs of abnormal legs, 

IL. Ilium. 

IS. Ischium 

PB. Pubis. 

IF, Ilio-sciatic foramen. 



NOTES. 207 

earth-snakes. In fact, at the Zoological Gardens in Regents park 
it has been found impossible to make them eat anything but other 
snakes. 

The pretty whip-snake, Dryophis mycterizans , has a peculiar habit, 
if caught and placed somewhere where it cannot escape, of raising 
itself up, opening its mouth, and expanding the lower jaw into the 
form of an oblong, which gives it a most ferocious appearance. 
Although I have repeatedly noticed this habit in low-country 
specimens, yet I have never seen one of the up-country snakes do it, 
though I have kept many of them. 

Very much the same aggressive behaviour is to be seen in Tropi- 
donotus stolatus, which puffs out its body in resemblance of a viper, 
while the rat-snake will often raise itself up and expand its neck 
with air, in emulation of the cobra. 

Considering how closely aUied Trimeresurus trigonocephalus is to 
the American Crotali, its custom of vibrating its tail rapidly when 
irritated is pecuhar, but I do not think this habit is in any way due 
to its relationship to the rattle-snake, as I have noticed the same 
behaviour in Dipsas ceylonensis. 

In view of the discussion which recently occurred as to the species 
of Dendrophis commonly found in Ceylon, it may be of interest to 
say that when last in England I asked Mr. G. Boulenger about it, 
and he gave it as his opinion that D. hifrenalis was the common 
variety, though there was very little distinction between it and 

^' ^'''^"^- A. F. ABERCROMBY. 



21. A hnormal Ch icken with Four Legs . — Some months ago a newly- 
hatched chick of the common domestic fowl was brought to me. 
The bird was peculiar in having two supernumerary legs — both on 
the right side of the body (see fig. 1). Such abnormahties in birds 
appear to be by no means uncommon. I was interested to see how 
the two additional legs were attached to the pelvic girdle, and for 
this purpose a skeleton of the specimen was prepared. Owing 
to the soft nature of the bones this process was by no means an 
easy one. 

The heads of the two additional femurs did not appear to be 
fitted into sockets, but the two bones were plastered down flat on 
the side wall of the right ischium (see fig. 2). The heads of .the two 
feniurs lay quite close together, and the two bones crossed over each 
other. The interesting point about these two limbs was that there 
was no tibio-tarsus present. Each femur was directly connected 
with the tarso- metatarsus. The femur and tarso-metatarsus of 
each supernumerary leg was the same size as the similar parts in the 
normal legs. Each supernumerary leg had only three toes. 



208 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Measurements taken. 

Total length of chick from beak to tip of tail 125 mm. 
Lengths of normal legs (R^ and L) — 

Femur 21 mm. 

Tibio-tarsus 33 mm. 

Tarso-metatarsus 21 mm. 

Foot with four toes, longest toe 24 mm. 

Lengths of extra legs (R'^ and R^) — 
Femur 21 mm. 
Tarso-metatarsus 21 mm. 



JOSEPH PEARSON. 



22. Sun- fish caught near Jaffna. — In May last I received word 
from the Government Agent, Northern Province, of the capture of 
a peculiar fish in Kayts harbour, near Jaffna. A photograph of the 
fish was sent on to me, and is here reproduced. So far as I can make 
out it is a specimen of Orthagoriscus truncatus, a fish which has a very 
wide distribution throughout the Atlantic and Pacific. So far as 
I am able to determine this is the first time this species has been 
recorded from Ceylon waters. In 1885 a small sun-fish was caught 
off Colombo and created a small sensation. The fish was exhibited 
in the Pettah, and hundreds of natives paid a small fee to see it. It 
is unfortunate that the fish was not identified nor obtained for the 
Museum collections. 

The present specimen agrees with 0. truncatus in having small 
hexagonal markings on the skin. In the original photograph these 
markings were readily made out on t)ie side of the body with the 
aid of a hand lens. The size of the specimen was — 

Greatest length 26 inches. 
Greatest height 13 inches. 
Greatest thickness 4 inches. 

The photograph which is reproduced was sent by the Government 
Agent, Northern Province. j^^^pj^ PEARSON. 



23. The Giant Tortoise at Galle.—Ra,m.h]ing about the grounds of 
Hirimbura, Garstin Hill, Galle, at present occupied by Mr. J. Black, 
is a fine old giant tortoise belonging to the same species as the old 
Colombo tortoise, viz., Testudo gigantea. This is undoubtedly the 
" Matara tortoise " to which I have already referred in Spolia 
Zeylanica, Vol. VII., Part XXVI., p. 109. The history of this tortoise 



^».' 




Sun-fish caught near Jaffna. 



NOTES. 209 

is by no means clear, and previous to the year 1843 nothing seems to 
be known about it. Mr. Black writes from Galle as follows : "He 
has been at the Hill as long as the oldest inhabitant can remember. 
Though quite active he is blind in one eye, and I do not think sees 

very well with the other I wrote to America to Mrs. Garstin, 

an old lady of ninety, the widow of the Rev. Norman Garstin, D.D., 
who Hved many years at Hirimbura as far back as 1843. She could 
not remember how the tortoise came to the Hill. Her son, also in 
America, writes that he remembers riding the tortoise when a boy. 
He left Ceylon about 1860." Mr. Paul Pieris, C.C.S., writes as 
follows : " The Galle tortoise is at Garstin Hill, about three miles 
from the fort, a spot which is very prominent as one sails past Galle. 
This tortoise is said to be one of two brought to the spot by Dr. 
Norman Garstin, Colonial Chaplain of Galle, certainly before 1846. 
The animal is about four feet across, and is still in fairly good health. 
It roams about the Hill, eating leaves and the very tender coconuts 
which drop from trees, and any food that the servants at the house 
throw to it. Garstin Hill was purchased by Dr. Garstin in part 
from a clergyman who lives in local recollection as William and in 
part from the neighbouring villagers. Garstin, I understand, built 
the bungalow. His administrators sold the land to my kinsman, 
the late Frederick Dias Abeysinha, Mudaliyar, who in a fit of spleen 
has left it to the church. I remember the Mudaliyar had some 
papers which he once showed to me, from which he proved to his own 
satisfaction that the tortoise was over 120 years old. Wliere those 
papers are I cannot say. Perhaps the Bishop may have them among 
the title deeds. The Mudahyar was also not unwilhng to give the 
animal to the Museum. Perhaps if the Bishop were informed of 
this he might carry out his desire. I am sorry that I cannot give 
you any further information, but you ought to have no trouble' 
about securing a photo of the animal from Galle." 

In April last I paid a visit to Galle and saw the tortoise for myself. 
He is a specimen of Testudo gigantea, and is slightly larger than the 
Colombo tortoise. He seemed perfectly happy, roaming at will 
through the dehghtful grounds of Mr. Black's residence, and was 
quite active. 

In addition to the Colombo and Galle giant tortoises, there was 
still another specimen, which was the property of Mr. A. A. Hankey, 
of ArncHffe, Colombo. This beast was brought from the Seychelles 
twelve years ago, and has now been sent to the Trevandrum 
Zoological Gardens in India. ^^^^^^ PEARSON. 



24. The Gourami. — ^In his Administration Reports for 1908 and 
1909 Dr. Willey describes the introduction of the gourami into 
Ceylon. Eventually three were placed in the small tank at the 

2e 6(11)11 



210 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

back of the Museum, and twenty were placed in the large pond in 
Peradeniya Gardens. In a footnote to Dr. Willey's paper on the 
Fresh- water Fisheries of Ceylon {Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. VII., 
Part XXVI., p. 96) I wrote as follows : " On November 5, 1910, 
Mr. Green and I made an examination of the pond at Peradeniya 
and found no signs of the gourami. Two native fishermen were 
employed, and they used a vertical net somewhat like a seive net. 
After an exhaustive search they declared that there were no fish in 
the pond. The pond overflows into the Mahaweli-ganga, and it is 
probable that the fish have escaped to the river, although the ledge 
which guards the overflow would render this difficult but not 
impossible." Since the above was written, Mr. Pertwee of Colombo 
has seen some of the gourami in the Peradeniya pond, so that it is 
not true that all the gourami have escaped to the river. I had the 
small Museum tank emptied on May 16, 1911, and found the three 
gourami in a flourishing condition. 

No figures are available regarding the exact sizes of the fish when 
first placed in the tank, but Dr. Willey, speaking in general terms 
of all the fish imported, said that they measured from six to eight 
inches in length. Those measurements refer to September, 1909. 
The following are the measurements of the three fish in the Museum 
tank taken in May, 1911 : — 

(1). (2). (3). 

Weight of fish . . 1 lb. 2 oz. . . 1 lb. 10 oz. . . 1 lb. 

Total length . . 12 in. . . 12i in. . . 10^ in. 

Height of middle 

of body . . 6 in. . . 6 in. . . 5 in. 

It is highly probable that a further stock of gourami will be 
imported, and after being suitably labelled they will be deposited 
in various tanks and ponds in different parts of the country. Here 
they will be protected to some extent from their natural enemies 
until they have become acclimatized and have fairly established 
themselves. If spawning is successful, as undoubtedly it ought to 
be, the young fry can be gradually transplanted either to other ponds 
where they will be preserved or directly to the rivers. 

JOSEPH PEARSON. 



25. Proposed further attempt to introduce the Gourami (" Osphro- 
menus olfax'') into Ceylon, ivith notes on a suitable locality. — The 
gourami is so well known and so highly prized as an article of 
food throughout the Far East, tliat its absence from the rivers and 
tanks of Ceylon constitutes one of the many mysteries of our local 
domestic economy. True, several attempts to introduce gourami 
into Ceylon waters have been made in the past, the earhest of which 



NOTES. 211 

1 have traced any authentic record being that by Mr. G. M. Fowler 
some ten or twelve years ago, but this, in common witl) other efforts 
since made by private individuals, came to nothing, chiefly for want 
of knowledge how to protect and propagate them and for lack of 
observation as to what actually happened after they were liberated 
in their new environment. 

As many readers will remember, the most recent attempt to add 
this species to our meagre show of palatable fresh-water fish was 
made in September, 1909, when Mr. Kelway Bamber, at the instance 
of Dr. A. Willey, brought up a consignment of about forty from 
Java, most of which were landed in excellent condition. Unfortu- 
nately lack of experience on the part of their custodians, or want of 
time to give them adequate attention, has resulted in yet another 
failure. The writer had several opportunities of observing a few 
of the above specimens which were kept for a time in the cement 
tank at the rear of the Museum, and in spite of their cramped 
situation they appeared to be doing well, and certainly gained 
considerably in size and weight. After a few months, however, they 
developed a fungoid growth immediately above the eye, and this, 
although apparently no inconvenience to the fish, was thought by 
Dr. Willey to be a misfortune of sufficient gravity for special 
investigation. Whether or not the learned Doctor ever determined 
the cause I have been unable to learn. Probably the restricted 
space, high temperature of the water, or other local condition was 
accountable ; anyway the appearance of fungoid growths on the 
eyes of fish is no new thing, particularly in the tr<?pics, and need 
not be taken into account when considering the advisabiUty or 
otherwise of introducing a new species. 

Dr. Willey 's successor at the Museum, Dr. Joseph Pearson, has 
recently looked into this question of introducing gourami into 
Ceylon waters, and at his suggestion the writer recently made 
an examination (or rather inspection) of the Kandy waterworks 
reservoir with a view to determine its suitability or otherwise as a 
permanent nursery for the propogation of Osphromenus olfax, and 
possibly other tropical fresh-water fishes which are not at present 
represented in our inland waters. 

For reasons set forth below, I am of opinion that the water in 
question is suitable in every way, and I strongly advocate the intro- 
duction of gourami therein. This fish thrives best in still or gently 
flowing water, a condition which is admirably filled in the above 
situation. It is also largely herbivorous, and the water indicated 
is well provided with subaquatic vegetation of a suitable nature. 
Marginal feeding grounds, which is an exceedingly important factor 
where breeding operations are to take place, could easily be pro- 
vided ; at present the banks are kept strictly bare and free from 
vegetation of any sort. Essentially a tropical species, the tempera- 
ture of tliis water is suitable in every way for the propagation of 



212 SPOLIA zeylaniCa. 

gpurami, as I learn it seldom, if ever, drops below 70^ F. At 
the date of my inspection (Jmie 17, 1911), after an unusually long 
drought, there was 35 feet of water at the outlet, shelving up to 
a few inches at the intake — an admirable condition for breeding 
purposes. 

There appear to be two natural enemies present, namely, the 
Indian otter and the fresh- water tortoise, but I do not consider either 
are sufficiently plentiful to constitute a serious menace, though unless 
checked they may become so. 

I am further of opinion that gourami, if allowed to reach the age 
of 9 to 12 months, would thrive well in the large lake at Kandy, 
but the great number of tortoises there renders successful breeding 
problematical. At present the reservoir contains no fish beyond a 
few small carp, probably Barbus mehecola (black spot), B. pinnau- 
ratus, and Rashora daniconius. 

The fact that this water is close to Peradeniya is a further favour- 
able circumstance, since any experiments that may be decided upon 
can be supervised by the Government Entomologist or other member 
of the Peradeniya staff. Further, the reservoir being enclosed and 
in charge of watchers night and day, the danger of poaching or other 
interference is reduced to a minimum. 

A. H. PERTWEE. 



26. On the Occasional Luminosity of the Beetle " Harmatelia 
bilinea." — ^This small beetle (shown in the figure as magnified about 
6 diameters) is extremely abundant, at certain times of the year, 
in many parts of Ceylon. It may be found resting upon the leaves 
of various shrubs in the jungle, and is often seen on the wing. 
It is noticeable on account of its remarkable pectinated antennae, 
and may be further distinguished by two conspicuous longitudinal 
ochreous stripes (one on each elytron) on a black ground. 

Although this beetle has been included by Olivier amongst the 
Lampyridse (fireflies and glow worms) , nothing appears to be known 
about its luminous properties. I have frequently examined living 
examples of Harmatelia, but have nover observed the faintest trace 
of luminosity, nor does the abdomen show any conspicuous photo- 
genic organ such as is noticeable on the under surface of all the 
typical fireflies. But that it can, on occasion, produce an appre- 
ciable fight is proved by the foHowing observation of Mr. John Pole, 
who, in sending me a specimen of the insect, asks if I am aware that 
it " gives light at night like a firefly." He reports that, one evening, 
at 7.30, in a mist and with a clouded moon, he " caught the animal, 
alight, on a tea bush, and boxed it as a small firefly." He adds that 
the light paled out before he reached home. The insect was kept 




X 6 

Harmatelia biline.a. 



NOTES. 213 

alive, and Mr. Pole tells me that on the following night the animal 
again became luminous, but that the light was. rather more subdued, 
and that at no time was it as bright as that of the common firefly. 
Other examples of the same species, examined by Mr. Pole at the 
same time, did not exhibit this phenomenon. 

Wishing to find out what had been recorded on the subject, I 
applied to Mr. C. J. Gahan, of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), who 
replied as follows : "I beheve nothing is known as to the luminous 
properties or otherwise of Harmatelia. The mere fact that Olivier 
included Harmatelia in Lampyridae counts for little, as I beheve the 
genus was unknown to him until he paid us a visit here a short time 
ago. Do you know the female of Harmatelia ? All our specimens 

seem to be males They (the females) might incidentally 

throw some light upon the position of the genus. I suspect that 
the female Harmatelia is Hke the male, except that it has simple 
instead of pectinated antennae ; my reason for thinking so being 
that we have one (apparently) female of a species (undetermined) 
which seems referable to Harmatelia. Have you ever heard anything 
of a glow worm in Ceylon which has a series of emerald green 
lights along each side of the body ? It is just possible that the 
female of Harmatelia may be luminous after this fashion ; that it 
may, in fact, be larviform like the female of the Phengodini, of 
which the males have fine plumose antennae and are not very 
different in structure from Harmatelia.'''' 

An examination of the series in my collection shows that these 
also are apparently all males — having elaborately pectinated 
antennae. So the problem of the female of this insect still remains 
to be solved. If any readers of Spolia should meet with a multi- 
illuminated glow worm, as described in Mr. Gahan's letter, I would 
ask them to preserve it and send it to me, dead or alive, but 
preferably the latter. 

Though Mr. Gahan speaks of the single species Harmatelia bilinea, 
Olivier (" Genara Insectorum," fasc. 53) records two species — hilinea 
and discalis — from Ceylon, both described by Walker in 1858. A 
study of my series, comprising specimens from Maskeliya (4,000 to 
5,000 ft.) and from Peradeniya (approximately 1,600 ft.), convinces 
me that we really have two distinct species ; but which is which 
I am not at present in a position to determine. The montane form 
(from Maskeliya) is the darker of the two, and has the prothorax 
proportionately smaller ; the head black and almost glabrous, with 
strongly raised frontal ridges above the insertion of the antenna; ; 
the median area of the prothorax uniformly black ; the costal margin 
of the elytra ochreous, and the whole under surface of the body of the 
same pale tint. The Peradeniya form has the head and prothorax 
ferruginous red, the latter with a black fascia on each side, which 
in some examples tends to spread over the central area ; the head is 
sulcate between the antennae and densely clothed with fulvous hair, 



214 SPOLIA ZEYLANlCA. 

and has no markedly prominent frontal ridges ; costal margin of 
elytra black, and under surface of body distinctly fulvous. My 
figure represents the species (or form) common at Peradeniya. The 
luminous properties were observed in the up-country species ; but 
the two, if really distinct, are so closely allied that they are unlikely 
to differ in this respect. 

Mr, J. Bourgeois, in a paper on " Malacodermes et Lymexylonides 
de Ceylan " (Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Vol. LXXVIII., 1909), has 
described and figured our Peradeniya insect under the name of 
Haplogeusis ceylanica, gen. et sp. nov. This is almost certainly a 
synonym of either Harmatelia bilinea or H. discalis. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



27. On the probable occurrence of Field Mice in Ceylon. — Blanford, 
in his volume on Mammaha (" Fauna of British India "), describes 
nine distinct species of voles from the Indian region, but nob a single 
one of these is recorded from Ceylon. At present, so far as zoological 
records are concerned, we have no voles in Ceylon. I am convinced 
that this omission is not really justified. 

During a recent visit to the Horton Plains I saw an animal in 
the resthouse garden that could have been nothing but a vole. 
And my companion (Mr. J. C. F. Fryer) observed another (probably 
of a different species) in a swampy piece of ground near the jungle. 
The latter individual appeared to be of the nature of a water rat, 
as when disturbed it took to the water.* 

The voles (or field mice and water rats) may be distinguished 
superficially from the true rats and mice by their comparatively 
short tails and blunt muzzles. The tail of a vole is never more than 
one-third the length of its body, while rats and mice have tails that 
are seldom less than half and sometimes equal in length to the body 
of the animal. 

WiU any of our sporting friends help us to establish the occurrence 
of voles in Ceylon ? The Horton Plains are the happy hunting 
grounds of sportsmen with rod, gun, and hounds, who must have 
unique opportunities of observing the wild Ufe of the locahty. A 
skin, accompanied by the skull, would settle the matter beyond 
dispute. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 

* Since sending in this note, I have had independent corroborative 
evidence of the existence of voles in the higher parts of Cejrlon. Mr. W. 
Ormiston tells me that, while fishing at Ambawella, he has often seen small 
reddish mice on the banks of the streams. He describes them as having the 
appearance and attitudes of English field mice.— E. E. G. 



NOTES. 215 

28. On some Butterflies of the Norton Plains. — At the time of my 
visit (in the middle of May) butterflies were neither abundant in 
unmbers or variety. The commonest species in the jungle paths 
were Lethe daretis, Gyaniris lanka, and C. singalensis. I was 
somewhat surprised to find at this elevation (between 6,000 and 
7,000 ft.) two species that are usually associated with the low- 
country and the lower montane regions. I caught a single example 
of Nepheronia ceykinica in the resthouse garden, and found Ypthima 
ceylonica frequenting the edges of the jungle. Ypthima singala, 
which usually replaces ceylonica in the higher hills, was conspicuous 
by its absence. Similarly, the typical up-country forms of Terias, 
venata, and libythea were not seen, though hecabe was on the wing. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



29, On an interesting aberration of " Vanessa (Pyrameis) 
indica.'' * — A curious aberration of this usually very constant 
butterfly has occurred amongst examj)les bred at Peradeniya, 
presumably consequent upon a stimulus induced by a sudden change 
of temperature. This butterfly is a distinctly montane species, 
seldom, if ever, occurring spontaneously below 3,000 ft. in Ceylon, 
but more frequent at still higher elevations. In India the species is 
said to range from 2,000 ft. upwards, but to be found more commonly 
at and above 4,000 ft. 

The food plant of Vanessa indica is Girardinia heterophylla var. 
palmata. According to Trimen, typical heterophylla is common on 
waste land in the low-country up to 3,000 ft., above which elevation 
it is replaced by its variety palmata, which differs from the type form 
principaUy in having the leaves, hirsute beneath. From its distri- 
bution V. indica appears to be restricted to the higher montane 
variety of Girardinia heterophylla. 

In May last I received from Major A. J. MacDougall some pupge 
of F. indica collected at Diyatalawa (4,300 ft.), together with a 
single full-fed larva. The pupae all disclosed butterflies of the 
typical pattern, but the single larva, after pupating in the warmer 
chmate of Peradeniya (1,500 ft.), appeared in a strikingly different 
form. 



* Since the preparation of ray note on an aberration of Vanessa indica, I 
have seen a description and coloured figure of what must be a closely sirailar 
aberration from Southern India. This account is in a paper by Mr. P. J. 
Lathy, " On some aberrations of Lepidoptera from the collection of Herbert 
J. Adams " (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1904, p. G5). The locality quoted 
is merely " Travancore, S. India." The circimistances of the capture are 
not given, nor the altitude at which it was taken. It would be interesting 
to know whether this specimen was caught on the wing, or whether (like my 
examples) it had been bred from larvae taken at a higher elevation. — E. E. G. 



216 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The main characters of the aberration are as follows. On the 
upper side the red area on the fore- wing is more widely extended, 
obliterating the usual black patch in the middle of interspace 1 , and 
the submarginal red band on the hind-wing does not include the 
black spots that are found in typical examples. On the under side 
the differences are still more marked ; the red area on the fore-wing 
is even more widely extended, and the subapical white streaks and 
spots in the black area have disappeared ; the hind -wing is almost 
entirely suffused with pale gray scales, leaving only a few 
nebulous patches of brown. If this specimen had been captured on 
the wing it might have suggested a natural hybrid between indica 
and cardui. 

From a subsequent batch of larvae that pupated under similar 
conditions I obtained two normal examples of the butterfly and one 
aberration precisely similar to the first. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



30. On " Megaderma lyra,"" its Habits and Parasites. — In a 
previous number of this Journal I have called attention to the 
carnivorous habits of bats of the genus Megaderma. I have found 
frequent signs of its depredations in the remains of birds and small 
bats dropped in my verandah. I have since seen the fragments of a 
mouse (consisting of the feet and part of the head, mingled with the 
characteristic excreta of a bat) that had evidently been captured 
and devoured by the same animal. But, until quite recently, I had 
never come to close quarters with the bat itself. Examination of a 
loft above the Royal Botanic Gardens Laboratory has, however, 
revealed a stronghold of Megaderma lyra. They were found to be 
swarming with a minute dipterous parasite, allied to the ' ' tick-flies " 
[H ippobosca) . The common bat parasite {Nycteribia) belongs to the 
same family {Pupipara) , but is apterous. The parasite of Megaderma 
has small but fully developed wings and is capable of flight. 

The destruction of small birds, due to these vampire bats, must 
be enormous. Day after day, for weeks together, I have found 
my verandah strewn with the wings and feathers of small birds, 
principally of the dainty little honey-sucker {Cinnyris zeylonicus). 
It would be interesting to know how the bat effects its capture. 
Though extremely agile on the wing, a bat is but a clumsy animal 
when it has to rely upon progress by means of its feet and claws 
alone. When the bat is abroad, the bird is snugly roosting in the 
recesses of a bush. How does the bat discover the presence of its 
prey ? Does it enter and explore bush after bush on the chance of 
happening upon a sleeping bird, or does it scent them from a 
distance and then hunt them down in their retreat ? 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



NOTES, 217 

31. Capture of a Mouse, by a large Spider. — ^The huge spiders of 
Soutli America, of the family Aviculariinoe , are known to capture 
and devour small birds and mammals. Our so-called " Tarantula " 
of Ceylon (Poecilotheria) is nearly allied to these bird-eating spiders, 
and may, perliaps, occasionally indulge in a similar dit^t, though no 
such instance has been actually recorded. They are certainly strong 
enough to overpower a small bird. Their principal food appears 
to be cockroaches, grasshoppers, and large beetles, with perhaps an 
occasional lizard ; one has been observed with a gecko in its clutches. 
I am now able to record an instance of its capture of somewhat 
bigger game. Mr. G. Harbord, of the Cotton Experiment Station, 
found one of these spiders devouring a mouse on the wall of a room 
in his bungalow near Anuradhapura. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



32. On the Employment of a Snake-stone in a Case of Centipede- 
bite. — Any first-hand records of the bites or stings of venomous insects 
are of interest. The following account was related by a friend who 
had recently been bitten on the naked foot by a large centipede 
(about 5 inches long). He describes the pain having been very severe 
at the time ; but after borrowing a "snake-stone" and applying it 
to the place he obtained immediate and complete relief. The stone 
adhered tightly to the wound, and remained attached for about 
an hour. There was no subsequent inconvenience from the bite, 
though the spot was tender for a few days. 

There is a very prevalent idea that the mere passage of a centi- 
pede over the bare flesh is followed by severe inflammation. I 
have always felt rather sceptical about this matter ; but the following 
occurrence lends some support .to the idea. My informant tells me 
that, while gardening a short time ago, a large centipede ran over 
his hand. He did not feel any bite and shook the animal oft" quickly ; 
but shortly afterwards the whole back of his hand swelled up. 
There were no marks of punctures. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



33. Notes on the Larvce of " Papilio polytes" " P. demoleus," 
" P. helenus " {race mooreanus) , and ' ' P. polymnestor " {race parinda). — 
In an attempt to obtain statistics as to the relative abundance of the 
three forms of Papilio polytes, mucli trouble has been caused by a 
complete ignorance of any points of distinction between the larvae of 
this species and those of P. demoleus. A search through the literature 

2f 6(11)11 



218 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



available has yielded no satisfactory information, while, on the other 
hand, it has brought to light an apparent confusion between the 
larvae of P. parinda and P. mooreanus. There appears to be, 
therefore, sufficient justification for a few notes on the four species, 
though it must be confessed that the material of P. mooreanus 
obtained up to the present has been very scanty. 






Fig. 1. — Larva of Papilio mooteanus (?). 
Fig. 2. — Larva of Papilio parinda. 
Fig. 3. — Larva of Papilio polytes. 
Fig. 4. — Larva of Papilio demoleua. 

In habit the larvae all feed on members of the natural order 
Rutaceae, and are usually found on the cultivated species of Citrus. 
The adult larvae, those in their fourth skin, may be easily distin- 
guished by the following key : — 

A. 4th and 5th segments markedly swollen ; 

much larger than succeeding seg- 
ments 

B. 4th and 5th segments not markedly 

swollen ; hardly larger than succeed- 



Section A. 



mg segments 



Section B. 



KOTES. 219 

Section A. (i.) Diagonal bands commencing 
on segments 8 and 10 
mainly brown and meeting 

in the dorsal middle line. . P. mooreanus (fig. 1). 
(ii.) Diagonal bands commenc- 
ing on segments 8 and 10 
mainly white ; not meeting 
in dorsal middle line . . P. parinda (fig. 2). 

Section B. (i.) Caudal tubercles white, 

much reduced . . P. polytes (fig. 3). 

(ii.) Caudal tubercles brown ; 

size moderate . . P. demoleus (fig. 4). 

By " caudal tubercles " are meant the projecting points found 
in most Papilio larvse on each side of the posterior portion of the 
terminal segment. Wlien young the larva usually has two pairs 
of caudal tubercles ; as it grows older the anterior pair are often 
lost, and even the terminal pair may become much reduced, as in 
polytes. 

Young larvae of polytes and demoleus are extremely hard to 
separate, and the following distinctions must not be too implicitly 
rehed upon. Wlien newly hatched, polytes is usually yellowish - 
brown, with an irregular yellow dorsal line; demoleus is blackish- 
brown, with a yellow "saddle " Umited to segments 7, 8, 9. These 
difterences, however, only apply when both larvse are in their first 
skin ; they soon change, and polytes then resembles demoleus in the 
characters enumerated above. 

After the first moult the caudal tubercles show good distinctive 
characters ; during the second skin there are two pairs of tubercles, 
of which the terminal pair are grayish- white, or white in polytes 
and brown in demoleus ; in the third skin the anterior pair of tubercles 
degenerates, but the posterior remain, and are always white in 
polytes and brown in demoleus. After the third change of skin the 
larvse attain their final scheme of colouration, and may then be 
easily known by the characters given in the key ; in addition it may 
be mentioned that in demoleus the " ocellus " mark on segment 4 is 
connected by a brown line with the dark area surrounding the legs ; 
in polytes there is no such connection. 

The young stages of parinda and helenus have not been sufficiently 
studied to give distinctive characters ; after the second moult, 
however, parinda is easily known by the absence of dark markings 
and the presence of minute blue spots, especially on segments 4 
and 5. At all stages both species are larger than either polytes or 
demoleus, if the comparison is made when the larvse are in the 
same skin. 

Pupal distinctions, as well as general descriptions, of the larvse 
can be found in various papers by Davidson , Bell, and Aitken in the 



220 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



" Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society " ; to avoid the 
necessity of reference, it may be mentioned that the pupa of helenus 
resembles that of polytes, but is sUghtly larger, p^nd is bent back 
at an angle of almost 90 per cent. Demoleus differs from polytes 
in being comparatively narrow across the hind part of the thorax ; 
polytes is very wide in this region, and as a rule is bent back 
at a greater angle than demoleus. Parinda is, of course, easily 
recognized by its superior size, as compared with any of the 
other species. 

In conclusion it should be noted that the above distinctions apply 
in Ceylon only ; in India, where other orange-feeding Papilios occur, 
considerable modification would probably be necessary. 

My thanks are due to Mr. E. E. Green, who has most Idndly figured 
the full-fed larva of each species. To avoid confusion, only the 
salient characteristics of each are represented, small unimportant 
markings being neglected. 

J. C. F. FRYER. 



34. " Filodes mirificalis,'^ a good species. — ^This pyrale was first 
described by Lederer in 1863 under the name Auxomitia mirificalis 
(Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., 1868, p. 391) ; subsequently it was re- 
described by Moore* as Filodes patruelis (Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 218), 
but in the "Fauna of British India" (Moths, Vol. IV., p. 297) 
it is reduced to the status of a variety of Filodes fulvidorsalis , Hubn. 
Mr. E. E. Green has always expressed the opinion that the two forms 
should rank as good species, and this view has now proved to be 
correct. Both species have been bred at Peradeiiiya, marked 
dift'erences being found in the larvae, while in every case the imagoes 
proved true to the maternal type. For a general description of F. 
fulvidorsalis the " Fauna of British India " must be consulted ; the 
following table presents the essential difi'erences between the two 
species : — 

Filodes fidvidorsalis. 
Wings . . No dark band or fascia 

crossing fore- and hind- 
wings. General colour, 
black with a steely re- 
flection. 



Thorax and base 
of fore -wings 

Build 



Bright orange 



Somewhat stout 



Filodes mirificalis. 

A conspicuous dark 
band always present. 
Colovir black, usually 
without metallic re- 
flection, and often 
with slight fuscous 
suffusion. 

Usually reddish fus- 
cous, but occasion- 
ally orange. 

Slender. 



* Mooro also referred to it uader its correct name in Lep. Ceylon, p. 331. 



NOTES. 



221 



As a whole the two species show a different fascies, tlie sum of 
the distinguishing characters having a greater effect than their 
consideration separately would suggest. No adequate descrip- 
tion of the larva of fulvidorsalis has been found, and therefore a 
detailed description is necessary to allow a comparison with that 
of tnirificalis. 

Wl)en full fed the general ground colour of the larva is apple-green, 
with the exception of the head (the 1st segment), which is yellowish- 
brown, and the 2nd segment, which is green tinged with brown. 
The markings are as follows : The 2nd segment with six black tuber- 
cular spots, a pair being situate on each side of the middle Une and a 
single spot over each leg (fig. 3) ; the 3rd and 4th segments similar 
to the second, but with an additional spot below the dorsal pair ; 
the 5th- 12th segments with three black spots on each side of the 
middle hne, one pair being situate towards the anterior margin of 
the segment and the third behind, forming a triangle, the interior 



fO\ 





^" 



'r' 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. . Fig. 4. 

Fig. 1.— Head and second segment of the larva of Filodes miriflccUis. 
Fig. 2. — Seventh segment of the same. 

Fig. 3.— Head and second segment of the larva of Filodes fulvidorsalis. 
Fig. i. — Seventh segment of the same. 

of which is occupied by a shining white plate, while there is a small 
white spot behind the apex of the triangle (fig. 4) ; in addition, on 
these segmentiB a subspiracular black spot and a spot over base of 
prolggs on segments 7, 8, 9, 10 ; segment 12 witli a pair of black 
spots united in the middle line, the white plates obsolescent ; seg- 
ment 13 much reduced, with a single dorsal spot and a pair 
on each side ; terminal segment with a black spot above anus and 
a spot on the hinder part of each clasper. From each of the 
tubercular spots arises a hair, those from the lateral spots being 
longest. The general shape of the larva is short and stout. 
Length 2*5 cm. 

The larva of F. mirificaUs resembles that just described in the 
general system of markings, but may be easily distinguished by the 
following points : It is more slender ; the ground colour is a blue- 
green (sage-green) instead of apple-green. The 2nd segment has a 
larger number of spots, there being three on each side of the middle 
line, and in addition an irregular composite lateral spot (fig. 1). 



222 SPOLlA ZBYLANlCA. 

The white " plates," which give such a characteristic appearance to 
the larva of fulvidorsalis , are much smaller, and are usually reduced 
to small lobes near the inner angles of the triangles of black spots 
(fig. 2). No differences have been observed between the pupae. 
The food plant in each case is Thurbergia fragrans, but the larvae 
will also eat T. allata and T. coccinea. Finally, it may be pointed 
out that there is a further Ceylon species, Filodes bilinealis, 
Hampsn., about the larva of which nothing as yet is known, though 
it must be widely distributed, having been taken both at Peradeniya 
and Wellawaya. 

J. C. F. FRYER. 



H. C. COTTLE, GOVERNMENT I*BINTER, COLOMBO, CEYLON. 



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