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MSN • SPORTSMAN^ llBRARY
3 9090 013 411 067
Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at
THE AMERICAN SPORTSMAN'S LIBRARY
THE SPORTING DOG
^ 9 o
THE SPORTING DOG
JOSEPH A. GRAHAM
WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON : MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.
All rights reserved
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Set up, electrotyped, and published January, 1904.
y. S. Gushing & Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood f Mass.f U.S.A»
TO THE MAKERS OF THIS BOOK
On a Virginia day, the winter of 1863, a human
mite peeped through a fence of chestnut rails at
the concord of a redhot Confederate landowner
and a Federal officer over an old white setter and
a bevy of quail, — " bunch of pah'tridges," they
said. Every year since, the pupil has been under
the tuition of men who know sporting dogs.
Amateurs, professionals, scientists, market-hunt-
ers, dog-thieves, financiers, jurists, loafers, and
clubmen; Bluenoses, Tarheels, Hoosiers, Cana-
dians, Britishers, Germans, Populists, and Squaw-
men, — for the unfailing indulgence with which
they have diminished his ignorance, he tenders
I. American Variations i
II. Shooting Breeds 12
III. Pointer Families 24
IV. English Setter Questions 40
V. American Llewellins 53
VI. Laveracks in America 84
VII. Irish and Gordon Setters 97
VIII. Greyhounds no
IX. Foxhounds 126
X. Beagles 143
XI. Chesapeakes and Water-spaniels . . .156
XII. Fox Terriers 164
XIII. Choosing a Shooting Dog 168
XIV. The Dogs they prefer 187
XV. Elcho and Faust "^04
XVI. Class 210
XVII. Training and Care 226
XVIII. Breeding 241
XIX. Bench Shows and Field Trials . . . 254
Sketches in the East and West 268
Bench-show Standards and Field-trial Rules . . 301
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
No Time to think Frontispiece
Llewellin. Light Type 17
Llewellin. Large Type 17
Pointer. Medium Weight 19
Pointer. Heavy Weight 25
Pointer. Heavy Weight "25
Pointer. Glenheigh Blood . . . . . '31
Pointer. Heavy Weight 31
Llewellin. Field-trial Type 71
Llewellin. Light Weight. Field-trial Type . . 71
Llewellin. Light Weight 80
Llewellin. Gleam Type 81
Modern Laverack 85
Modern Laverack 85
Gordon Setter 103
Irish Setter 103
Coursing on the Plains 117
Coursing Greyhound 122
The Mixed English and American Foxhound Pack of
THE Radnor Hunt 125
Fox Hunting in the Southwest and the Type of
Hound in General Use 129
American Foxhound. Trigg Strain . . . • 133
Foxhound. English Type 140
X List of Illustrations
American Foxhound. July Strain 140
Beagle. Working Type 145
Chesapeake Bay Dog 145
Hunting Beagles on Foot 149
Wire-hair Fox Terrier 165
Llewellin. Light Type 192
Llewellin-Laverack. Large Type 192
THE SPORTING DOG
THE SPORTING DOG
America is not England. After a century and
a quarter of firecracking Fourths the statement
is a political superfluity, but no study of sporting
dogs can reach clear going except across the dead
body of the contention that America is an ex-
tension of British jurisdiction and infallibility.
That settled, the next step is to thank Great
Britain for every one of our dogs of sporting
breed. In our actual sports we use setters and
pointers, foxhounds and beagles, greyhounds and
two breeds of water retrievers. Crosses and mon-
grels need not be counted. These regular breeds
are all British.
In technical classification the sporting division
includes all the hounds, the Clumber, cocker and
field spaniels, with the fox terriers and the rest of
the sporting terrier list. Some writers add col-
lies. In our country, however, none of these
other breeds — ignoring dog-fights and ratting —
2 The Sporting Dog
IS used to an appreciable extent in practical sport.
They are kept as fancy varieties and as compan-
ions. In fashion and on the benches the semi-
sporting dogs have forged ahead fast within a
few years, and now collectively outnumber in the
studbooks and shows the actual servants of the
gun and leash. Attractive they are, too, and
well worthy of care and study ; but only a volu-
minous and exhaustive treatise would need to
describe them in detail, since they do not differ
at all from their cousins across the water, where
the breeds have been elaborately set forth by
competent authorities and where the standards
for both countries have been fixed. Boston ter-
riers alone have an American status all their own,
and they are scarcely sporting dogs.
In what does the sporting dog proper differ in
America from the British dog of the same breed }
Greyhounds not at all, as yet, though if the wide
prairies had remained unfenced, there is a chance
that the climate and the jack rabbit, a faster and
stiffer traveller than the English hare, might have
caused a definite modification. Water retrievers
not much, though the Chesapeake Bay dog is an
American development, in form and raiment quite
unlike any British breed.
It is foxhounds and shooting dogs which have
become, under American conditions, something
essentially different from what the British sports-
American Variations 3
men established and have maintained as filling
their conceptions of utility and good looks.
Reduced to the simplest terms, the change
wrought over here comes to this: The dry cli-
mate of extreme temperatures, the nature of the
grounds and game, and the methods of hunting
the fox and shooting game birds cause the sur-
vival of the fittest to proceed in the direction of
a faster, lighter, more enduring animal ; perhaps
not more sensitive of nose, but quicker in the
reflexes of judgment and action which are the
sequences of scent.
An American will pardon every defect but one.
That one is inability to stand the pace. Conse-
quently, the dog which has more beef and timber
than his nerve and power can carry drops, as the
same American sportsman would say, into the
discard and is replaced by another which can go
the route at the pace.
For speed and endurance are built upon the
factors of strong muscle on a light bony struc-
ture, a heart action beyond the ordinary, and a
nervous energy which cannot be physically meas-
ured, but is even more necessary in a dog than in
a racehorse, because whip and spur cannot force
unwilling or failing powers.
Conformation counts for much with theorists.
It has an importance. Utterly bad shape is in-
compatible with easy speed. But the small varia-
4 The Sporting Dog
tions at which solemn criticism is often hurled
are more to the eye than to the deed. The ratio
of weight to power, the blood-pump, the energy
and the hunting zeal — these are what tell; and
to these ends American sportsmen have chosen
Bred their dogs, one might say, but the phrase
would be only a half-truth. The British — Ire-
land and Scotland are one with England in dogs
— are better breeders than we. They are far
and away the best in the world. Horses, cat-
tle, sheep, chickens, pigeons — what you will, the
British breed better than others if they take it
up at all.
Not that they know any science of breeding
concealed from the rest of the world. They love
the land and they love outdoor sport. With this
penchant for the land and its sports they have the
British — not less British than Yankee — gift of
shrewd common sense, and an insistence on
good form and approved standards which is more
British than Yankee. It is only justice to be-
lieve that if they had our land and our game,
and had undertaken to breed dogs to suit both,
they would have produced the typical American
qualities and at the same time have achieved
more of uniformity and breediness.
Americans are clear as to what they ask a dog
to do, but neglectful of any ten commandments
American Variations 5
or thirty-nine articles bearing on how he looks.
And, as such, they are indifferent breeders — at
least of dogs. It is history that an American
plunges into breeding with smart confidence,
overdoes at the start, wearies about at the point
where he might learn something, and seeks an-
other novelty. To the Englishman, sport goes
with the land and breeding with the sport. If he
surpasses in his breeding, he is gratified. If
things go awry, he keeps on breeding just the
same. In England the landowner has most of
the sporting dogs. In America nine out of ten
pedigreed shooting dogs are bred and owned by
lawyers, merchants, and other townsmen who
shoot by sufferance or invitation on the lands
of other people. Breeding, even shooting, is an
amusement and an incident. It is lightly picked
up, lightly pursued, lightly forgotten.
So the British are better breeders. Where we
have the advantage is in the abundance of game
— now, alas, becoming by degrees a scarcity —
free to almost anybody, a country of immense
extent, foxes which are wild animals, and the Bob
White, a bird upon which the field dog can ex-
hibit every quality, best to lie and trickiest to
hide of all shootable feathered creatures.
In the evolution among pointers and setters
of a greater proportion of energy to weight, it
has sometimes happened that public trials have
6 The Sporting Dog
brought out winners which seemed very small.
When these winners appeared alongside of the
larger and heavier dogs of older type the alarmists
cried out that the setters and pointers were
becoming degenerate from inbreeding and other
causes. Longer experience has rather dissipated
the alarm, though some of the city writers resume
the cry occasionally when they see a few small
celebrities benched near bigger beauties at a
show. Handlers and breeders who were among
the dogs saw that the quite small ones were
rather the exception at all times, and that winners
represented about a good, fair average ; more-
over, that the noticeably small-sized winners were
nearly always of exceptionally good make-up —
big little dogs — and, well mated, had a good
influence in perfecting the breed. Nowadays the
handlers and breeders work along, winning with
whatever can win, producing from what can pro-
duce ; finding that there are big ones, little ones,
and medium ones, and that academics must be
guided by practice, not practice by academics.
If the breeders do not stick to the game, the
handlers do ; and so far there has always been
a new crop of breeders coming on, with a few
leaders, like Mr. Pierre Lorillard and the late
Colonel Edward Dexter, who maintain their
patronage steadily through the years. The large
number of public events and the enormous pri-
American Variations 7
vate ownership of shooting dogs produce a result
which the more concentrated and deep-seated
breeding fancy in Great Britain cannot equal ;
and could not equal even if the fashion of driving
game had not diminished their use of dogs.
So the faster hounds of further-reaching and
mellower cry, so the setters and pointers of wider
range and keener temperament have been pro-
duced — not by any man's system of breeding,
but by the constant selection of those which
carry the pace under more exacting conditions.
British writers on sporting dogs are usually
ahead of us. They regard their work more
seriously. The better books on dogs in England
are elevated in tone, scientific in spirit, and com-
mendably thorough. With us there is a trifle too
much of the chip-on-the-shoulder or of the atti-
tude that about dogs anything will do. A report
has just been issued by the Fish and Game Com-
mission of a western state. It is bulky and quite
fancifully illustrated. The chapter on setters and
pointers states sweepingly that a great majority
of dogs used for private shooting or entered in
field trials are pointers. The writer, on this
premise, concludes that pointers suit the United
States better than setters. Just as this book
reached me, the entries of the Nebraska and
Manitoba field trials were announced. These
two entry lists included most of the dogs which
8 The Sporting Dog
the trials of 1903 have seen. They were the
beginning of the circuit. In the Manitoba Derby
were entered 46 setters and 16 pointers. The
all-age entries were 33 setters and 16 pointers.
In Nebraska the Derby had 52 setters and 26
pointers; the all-age stake 42 setters, one of them
Irish, and 24 pointers. If all had been pointers
or all setters, the difference would not have been
material, since either breed is, all in all, as good
as the other. But it makes a big difference
when an official report proclaims a fact which is
not a fact and draws a conclusion which is viti-
ated from the start. The subject was dogs and
the author set down carelessly a casual impres-
sion, formed nobody knows how. The studbooks
show a like preponderance of setters in private
The English do these things better. Stone-
henge, not now up to date even with revision,
was an example of lucidity, judicial care, and
ripened observation worthy of an honored place
in any literature. Rawdon Lee was a later au-
thority of the same type. Even Mr. Lane, whose
chipper book is but three years old, possesses a
freedom from pseudo-literary affectation and a
wholesome sincerity of treatment which inspire
confidence in his message as far as it goes.
Still, though we breed erratically and write
loosely, we undoubtedly have, in " class " of per-
American Variations g
formance at work, the best bird dogs and hounds
ever seen. If this seems a broad statement, I
must refer to English sportsmen of my acquaint-
ance who have done hunting and shooting on
That being the fact, it becomes worth while
to inquire into the history of our sporting dogs
and to formulate some of the methods we use in
The reader will understand that the American
modification here considered is not accepted by
all Americans. There has been a conflict, some-
times bitter, between those who would adhere
strictly to English ideals and standards and those
who would press into recognition the American
changes. The East, generally speaking, is the
conservative section, supported by many Cana-
English setter men have conducted the factional
contest most sharply. Soon after the introduc-
tion of bench shows, the American school, led by
bench and field judges like Major Taylor, now of
New York, Mr. P. T. Madison of Indianapolis,
Mr. P. H. Bryson of Memphis, General Shattuc
of Cincinnati, and Mr. W. S. Bell of Pittsburg,
insisted on awarding bench prizes to the lighter
type. Twice a club has been organized to formu-
late a new written standard. The first was fifteen
years ago, the second in 1 900-1 901. These new
lo The Sporting Dog
standards were not accepted by the other side, and
the dispute remains where it stood. The con-
servative side has been upheld by Messrs. John
Davidson of Michigan, William Tallman of Con-
necticut, Dr. Hair of the same state, James Mor-
timer of New York, and other judges. Usually
the Westminster Kennel Club has alternated from
year to year in selecting its English setter judges,
to give each side a chance to illustrate what it
means by type.
American foxhounds were also developed in
the South and West, though in practical hunting
they have the field to themselves, with occasional
crosses of imported hounds, in all the states.
There are only three or four packs of definite
English type which an English M. F. H. would
regard with approbation. Mr. Mather of Phila-
delphia and Major Wadsworth of Geneseo, New
York, have the best kennels of direct English
importation and style, Mr. Keene now aiming at
the same forward position.
The American sporting dog, therefore, as a
separate development, is a prevailing tendency
and not a res adjudicata. The changes involve
not a few contradictions which confuse a novice
listening to controversial assertions. But the
separate development is a certainty, and the lines
can be marked out with an intelligible approxima-
tion to definiteness.
American Variations ii
Definiteness as to the present. If I were to
picture the future, I should describe the notable
recent increase of preserves, some of exclusive
ownership, some of leased privileges over farm
lands, and make the deduction that fifty years will
extend over America something closely resembling
the British condition. But there will be other
books on sporting dogs to tell that other story
when the time comes.
Accurate impressions of the general value and
utility of shooting dogs in America cannot be
formed from any man's private judgment, even
when his experience is considerable. No man's
personal observation covers more than a small part
of the ground, and an assured estimate can be
obtained only by averaging a large number of
personal opinions collected from different parts
of the country, or by an analysis of the public
records. In preparing this book my effort has
been to combine these two methods in order to
reach results which will be reliably instructive.
As far as anything can be, the records of regis-
tration in the studbooks are free from narrow and
factional opinions. In the American Kennel Club
Studbook for 1902 there are 893 English setters,
708 pointers, 70 Irish setters, and 37 Gordon set-
ters. Out of the 893 English setters, 756 have
Gladstone or Count Noble blood ; in the great ma-
jority of cases both. There are 53 which are either
modern Laveracks or carry a controlling infusion
of that blood. There are 84 of prevailing Llewel-
Shooting Breeds 13
lin blood which have neither Gladstone nor Count
The American Kennel Club registration is pat-
ronized by owners in all parts of the country, and
is the only studbook which the bench show men,
considered as a class, use at all. The preponder-
ance of Llewellin setters, and the remarkable
command which the Gladstone and Count Noble
families have of the situation, are conclusive as to
the popularity of that variety of English setters.
No other registration is recognized at bench shows
except that of the American Kennel Club. The
tide of preference for Llewellin setters and for the
Gladstone and Count Noble blood is, therefore,
conclusively shown by the setter figures of this
studbook ; because the leading bench show special-
ists prefer the Laverack, and are often inexorable
in condemning the Llewellin. If the studbook
used by them presents such a proportion of
Llewellins, there seems to be nothing left of
doubt as to the English setter strains preferred
in American sport.
The Field Dog Studbook, conducted in Chi-
cago by the American Field, contains for 1902
about twelve hundred English setter registrations
and practically all of them have either Gladstone
or Count Noble blood, or both, though the Laver-
ack lines of Monk of Furness, Count Howard,
and others appear frequently. This volume
14 The Sporting Dog
shows one pure Laverack. The managers of the
Field Dog Studbook separate " straight-bred "
Llewellins from other Engb'sh setters, but this is
not worth noticing, while, since well meant, it is
confusing and unjust. There never has been a
fixed strain in or descended from Mr. Llewellin's
kennel. All through this book I shall use the
term " Llewellin " in connection with dogs which
have a large preponderance of Llewellin blood,
and the term " Modern Laverack " in connection
with dogs which have 'an overwhelming percent-
age of Laverack blood, and have been bred to the
In the Field Dog Studbook there are about
seven hundred pointers, thirty-nine Irish setters,
and twenty Gordons.
While on this subject, the registration of other
dogs practically used in American sports may be
noticed. In the American Kennel Club Stud-
book for 1902 there are one Chesapeake Bay dog
and one bitch ; three Irish water spaniel dogs and
one bitch. In the Field Dog Studbook for 1902
there are six Chesapeake Bay dogs and three
bitches; seven Irish water spaniel dogs and five
When it is remembered that the American
Kennel Club Studbook was originally established
by the field trial associations in the West, it is
curious to note the progress of what . may be
Shooting Breeds 15
termed the fancy breeds in America. In the
volume for 1902 there are registered 860 odd
Boston terriers, 1380 collies and 330 fox terriers.
When the studbook was established, the Airedale
terrier was almost unknown in America ; yet the
volume for 1902 shows a registration of some
hundred and sixty Airedales — a great many
more than the registration of Irish and Gordon
I may say that I made no attempt to exhaus-
tively verify these figures. They may be in error
slightly one way or the other. The evidence on
all points was so irresistible that I permitted my
first count to stand.
Of course these registrations do not tell the
whole story. The foxhound and greyhound men
have their special studbooks. It is also to be
said in connection with pointers and setters that
nearly all the collie and Boston terrier men regis-
ter their dogs, while in all likelihood three-quarters
of the three breeds of setters and the pointers in
use in the country are not registered. At the
same time the general story of the studbook
records is descriptive of the situation affecting
the various breeds of shooting dogs. In other
words, the shooting men of America use Llewel-
lin setters and pointers so largely that other
breeds scarcely can be called competitors. It is
also a basic conclusion that Gladstone and Count
1 6 The Sporting Dog
Noble setters have almost crowded out other
Llewellins and that King of Kent and Jingo
pointers are rapidly assuming the same position
of undisputed supremacy in their breed.
Not only on account of their numbers, but on
account of the sharp discussions about individuals
and types, the Llewellin setters must always oc-
cupy the largest space in any discussion of shoot-
ing dogs. In reference to these discussions and
to differences over the relative value of different
breeds of setters and different families of pointers,
the reader should understand that partisans never
do justice to the dogs on the other side. It is not
well to believe the Llewellin breeders who call
the modern Laveracks parlor dogs and diseased
picture dogs. As a matter of fact, I can testify
that these Laveracks make very useful shooting
dogs which generally come to hand without much
trouble. It would be a still greater mistake if one
believed in the various denunciations of Llew-
ellins. You will hear it said that the Llewellins
are suffering from inbreeding ; that they get
small and puny ; that they are all heels and no
brains. You can hear these assertions and many
others, not one of which is even approximately
A great many of the fashionable field trial
winners have been rather light and small, and
many of their descendants are not easy to train on
LLEWELLIN. LIGHT TYPE
Rodfield's Pride (Cowley's). By Champion Rodfield-Sport's Belle by Mane's
Sport. Count Noble, Gleam, and Gladstone blood. Winner of several important
stakes, autumn of 1902. Forty six pounds in field-trial condition. White-and-
orange. Owner, Mr. John Cowley, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This dog was the chief
winner among the setters and pointers in the prairie chicken trials of 1902.
LLEWELLIN. LARGE TYPE
Count Specso. By Count Rodstone-Nona H. by Gladstone's Boy. Litter brother
to Doc Hick. Weight, sixty-four pounds in ordinary condition. White-black-tan.
Steady and cleve/ shooting dog. Owner, Mr. J. E. Bright, St. Louis, Missouri. For
a large setter, Count Specso has great activity and endurance.
Shooting Breeds 17
account of their intense hunting and ranging
disposition. But this difficulty is more on the
surface than real, since the dogs in most cases
come under discipline quickly when the trainer
sets himself seriously to developing their bird
work. There are plenty of Llewellins which will
weigh sixty pounds and more, and plenty of
them which have brains enough to make circus
dogs if anybody cared to use them for such a
Giving the fixed name " Llewellin " in this
country to setters of certain blood has caused a
great deal of confusion, though it was a gracious
idea in the first place and it is no more than jus-
tice to Mr. Llewellin's liberality and labor in the
interest of field dogs. The trouble is that a great
many people do all their thinking on the assump-
tion that whatever strains to Mr. Llewellin's ken-
nel represents a concentrated breeding and a
definite type. Even a superficial study of the
subject shows that either a straight-bred Llewellin
is a paradoxical impossibility, or that every Llewel-
lin is straight-bred. The cursory student will also
find out that only a few dogs of Mr. Llewellin's
breeding were successful in helping to create the
American favorite. Later importations from his
kennel, like Gus Bondhu and Dick Bondhu, were
soon discarded, and the influence of some of the
earlier dogs, which are painted in glowing colors
1 8 The Sporting Dog
by the fancy writers, was utterly submerged in the
field trial kennels.
Many of the logicians and microscopists, who
do the theorizing for sporting papers, will cite
opinions and detached facts to the contrary, but
it remains that the American field trial type of
setter is essentially Gladstonian. For scientific
purposes, it would be accurate to call this type the
Gladstone setter rather than the Llewellin setter.
This Gladstone type is a leader among American
setters. It is wiry, compact, fast, and decisive,
with remarkable courage and ability to carry high
speed. Nevertheless, there are, as I have said,
any number of Llewellin types which should suit
all tastes. We see Llewellins having every attri-
bute of value except good heads and good tails.
Excellence at these two points is rather hard to
find if all the old standards in regard to muzzle,
skull, and stern are to be retained. There has
been a frequent complaint in the East that the
Llewellins represented a degeneration from true
English setter type. The gentlemen who present
this dogma have usually learned all they know
from studying bench shows, where the beauty of
the Laveracks has largely given them the prefer-
ence. To tell the truth once more, there are
vastly more Llewellins true to the old and ap-
proved English setter type than Laveracks; by
that I mean having good bodies and running gear.
Champion Cincinnatus's Pride. By Champion Cincinnatus-Champion Albert's
Nellie. Fifty five pounds. White-black-tan. Bench champion ; field-trial winner,
beating- Champion Tony's Gale and others. Llewellin blood through Count Noble
and Druid; Laverack through Tarn O'Shanter and imported Carlowitz. Regarded
as the best combined bench and field English setter of the present. Owner, Mr.
Edward A. Burdett, Radnor, Pennsylvania. The photograph was not taken at an
angle to do justice to the champion's excellent muzzle and fine shoulders.
POINTER. MEDIUM WEIGHT
King Cyrano. By Jingo-Kate Kent by King of Kent. White-and-orange. Direct
cross of Jingo and King of Kent blood. Winner of the Illinois all age, 1901, and other
places in trials. Known as the most thoroughly broken field dog that ever won a
Derby in the United States. Owner, Mr. J. A. Morton. Marshall, Illinois. In hard
field-trial condition, Cyrano weighs slightly less tlian fifty pounds.
Shooting Breeds 19
Until men cease breeding dogs, the name of
Edward Laverack will always stand highest. Any
breeder of dogs, though his fancy may be for toy
spaniels or mastiffs rather than for shooting dogs,
takes off his hat in veneration when he speaks of
Laverack. Every man of them knows that at a
time when communication was difficult and the
art of breeding had not been carried far, Mr.
Laverack produced a variety of setters which in
beauty and distinction have never been equalled
by any creation of the breeder's efforts. For a
half century these dogs have stood out easily at
the head of all others in their patrician appear-
ance ; in the elegance and symmetry which are
evidences of gentle birth. It is hard to breed
Laveracks good at all points, but when one does
come right it has a stamp of noblesse which no
other dog rivals. The Laveracks have always
had their friends in America, and probably will be
preserved for generations to set an example of
quality in breeding. In the field they suit a great
many practical sportsmen, and as long as they
please their supporters it is idle to speak dispar-
agingly of their abilities on birds.
Considering pointers and setters as rivals, we
come to a difficult question. Each breed has its
advocates, many of them so extreme that they will
listen to nothing in favor of the other. Setters
seem to meet the requirements in a larger variety
20 The Sporting Dog
of work and in more parts of the country. The
pointers are most popular in the Middle West,
where the country is open and the work is on
wheat stubble and similar ground. The setter is
a better water dog, and is the only bird dog suited
to a country where briers are thick. The pointer
suffers less from sandburs and is said to stand
the heat better, though I never could see any dif-
ference in this last respect. I am inclined to
think that out of an equal number of puppies one
could develop more good pointers than setters.
Pointers take to their work more readily, and in
the hands of an ordinary amateur are more easily
handled, though the rule is not universal. This
last quality, with the sandbur troubles of setters,
gives the pointer the lead in amateur hands
through the prairie states.
The Irish setter can nearly always be made a
good retriever on land and water, and probably
stands rough weather better than any other shoot-
ing breed. The Gordon's rough weather qualities
are little inferior. The studbook figures show
that neither the Irish nor Gordon setter has quite
met the taste of American sportsmen. I shall
endeavor later to account for this fact.
In the subsequent chapters in which the history
and the special qualities of these shooting breeds
are presented, it seems useful to describe briefly
the dogs which appear in present pedigrees and
Shooting Breeds ai
in those likely to come before the amateur in the
next twenty years, so that the inheritance as-
sembled in a dog's pedigree can be intelligently
studied by the owner who may be curious — as
every owner ought to be — about the potentiali-
ties of his dog's family history.
One cannot always follow the venerated coun-
sel, " experto crede," in overhauling the virtues of
ancient dog heroes. They were not all grace and
glory as the " expert " pencillers and rhapsodists
pictured them. When reading about them, one
can see that the writers and artists were exercising
their own powers instead of laboring for science ;
in which they followed the old rule of historians
and court painters. We must do what we can to
get at the plain truth.
Humans who have the eye for dogs will be
broad in spirit. There is room and there is
reason for many tastes. The true sportsman is
a connoisseur, and the true connoisseur would
rather revel in the perception of beauties and
achievements, than join the unhappy hunt for im-
perfections. Every expanded mind is first appre-
ciative ; every mean mind is first depreciating.
If a man has seen much of dogs, he can explain
certain inconsistencies of the apostles by remem-
bering his own inconstancies. I confess that I
have had many an enthusiasm.
When I have seen a bloodlike Laverack, say
22 The Sporting Dog
Queen's Place Pride, sumptuous among her sis-
ters as the star-gowned maiden of the fairy tale,
I have felt that a gentleman's instinctive love of
unexceptionable appointments should weed all
other kinds from his shooting establishment.
If I happen to watch the work of pointers like
Cuba Jr., Alford's John, or Alpine Lad, possess-
ing nearly all of the best setter qualities and some
advantages of their own, I can believe that setters
will disappear and leave the shooting field to
these Americans of the coat that never comes
Then it may be Marie's Sport, the Llewellin,
structured of steel splinters, born a hunter and a
leader, charged with vitality and character; and
I predict that this is the type which sportsmen
will cause to outlive all the rest through the selec-
tion of the fittest.
But if it is Mohawk, another Llewellin, I see
last, he makes the impression — stripped of
superfluities, lithe as an otter, quick as a ferret,
tireless as Mahomet's mare. He almost per-
suades me that he is the finished product, the
summation of improvement.
Irish setter men and Gordon men have their
sufficient grounds of choice and their satisfactions.
Perfected form and color are more than barren
elaborations of breeding effort. They do not
appeal to you, maybe, or to me. But the connois-
Shooting Breeds 23
seur's pleasure over them is healthy, and the
sportsman can, with either Irish or Gordon, find
both game and his own sort of pride. Who
knows that you and I will not be seized next week
with the Gordon or Irish fever?
It is the philosopher's best message that intol-
erance is only a name for ignorance; that only
those who have nothing to change never change
That nation is happiest which has no history.
Such is the good fortune of the pointer. While
the annals of that breed in America are to the
full as important as those of the setter, there are
few tales of conflict. The pointer men have been
at unity in essentials from the beginning. There
have been no quarrels over standards for the
bench and not many discussions except among
partisans of individual dogs. The question of
color has aroused no antagonism. There is no
strife over blood lines and families, since all
pointers of consequence descend practically from
the same English sources and along the same
In 1870 the pointers, like the setters, consisted
of what the writers choose to call " natives " ; that
is, dogs descended from irregular importations
and different in every locality. There were
many of the solid liver color, and occasionally a
man took pride in a specimen of the double-nose
or split-nose variety. This miscellaneous native
stock quickly disappeared after the field trial
POINTER. HEAVY WEIGHT
Tioga Sam. White-and-black. By Plain Sam-Lady of Rush,
through Hal Pointer and Plain Sam. Field and bench winner.
Austin, Mansfield, Pennsylvania. Photograph by Schreiber.
King of Kent blood
Owner, Mr. W. P.
POINTER. HEAVY WEIGHT
Ripstone. By Rip Rap-Pearl's Dot. Full brother to Young Rip Rap and Dot's
Pearl. White-and-black. Bench winner and field-trial performer. King of Kent and
Trinket's Bang blood. Owner, Mr. W. P. Austin, Mansfield, Pennsylvania. Photo-
u 1 o-l :1
Pointer Families 25
pointers began to win a reputation. One varia-
tion was introduced and attracted some attention
for a few years, but not much has been heard of
it for some time. This variation consisted of the
black Papes, imported from the kennel of Mr.
Pape of Newcastle, England. They were hand-
some dogs and of considerable quality, but for
some reason did not appeal to American breeders.
I can recall only one dog of that blood which com-
peted successfully against the prevailing strains.
That was Mr. Scudder's Rank. He was black
and his dam was a Pape, but his sire was the well-
known Croxteth pointer, Maximus, so that, after
all, his moderate success in the field trials can be
claimed as much for Croxteth as for the Papes.
Pointer history is marked by two epochs. The
first was the importation of a series of large and
handsome dogs by the groups around the West-
minster Kennel Club of New York and the St.
Louis Kennel Club in the West, though Croxteth,
the most serviceable, perhaps, of that lot of im-
portations, did not belong to either of these groups.
The second epoch began when Edward Dexter of
Boston and Captain McMurdo, his adviser and
handler, brought over and bred from Mainspring,
King of Kent, and Mainspring's sister. Hops ;
dogs of handier size, more snappy on birds and
of better sustained speed.
The dogs of both these epochs were of the
26 The Sporting Dog
same English field trial blood, the principal com-
ponents of which were Whitehouse s celebrated
lemon-and-white Hamlet, that dog's grandson,
Price's Champion Bang, Sir Richard Garth's
Drake, and Lord Sefton's Sam. Some antiqua-
rians talk of the Edge blood and the Sefton-Edge
combination, but that is mere pedantry and, while
interesting, is of no material importance. Of
considerably more significance is the Devonshire
blood, through Dr. Salter's Romp, which entered
into the breeding of Mainspring and Hops.
From an article by Mr. H. S. Bevan, whose
relatives were connected with the handling of
Dr. Salter's dogs, I gather that the black-and-
white color, with irregular ticking, came into Mr.
Dexter's kennel from Princess Kate, through this
same Romp. Prior to the appearance here of
Rip Rap, the black-and-white color, as once in
England, had been unfashionable to such an
extent that its appearance was hailed as evidence
of impure blood, but Rip Rap's transcendent
merit made the color actually fashionable, and so
quickly that nobody had a chance to argue about
it. From that time to this the black-and-white,
lemon-and-white, and liver-and-white have been
of equal dignity.
Sensation, a large and very handsome dog, was
imported by the Westminster Kennel Club. He
was, both in looks and in pointing ability, a supe-
Pointer Families 27
rior dog, but had not the decision and snap in his
bird work which the field trials required. In the
production of field trial quality he was by no
means equal to the smaller dog, subsequently
imported by the same club. Bang Bang, an orange-
and-white son of Price's Champion Bang. Bang
Bang sired Consolation, Roger Williams, and
other winners notable both in the field and on
the bench. By the late J. M. Tracy, the famous
animal painter, Consolation was regarded as the
most exquisitely proportioned pointer ever seen
In 1879 the Rev. Mr. Macdona brought over
his young dog, Croxteth, and sold him to Mr.
Godeffroy of New York. Croxteth was a large,
long-bodied, liver-and-white dog of fast gait, but
not what would be called handy in action. He
had a peculiarly long and narrow head which was
by the old-timers discussed considerably pro and
con. Like the " Sefton head " it had both ad-
mirers and critics, but the debate was mild and
did not last long. As a progenitor Croxteth
easily outclassed all of the early large dogs. His
son, Trinket's Bang, is still held by some handlers
to have been the best field pointer put down in
American trials. Another son, Ossian, was a
frequent winner. Robert le Diable, a third, was
esteemed the handsomest pointer of his day and
was a successful dog in the field. Trinket's
28 The Sporting Dog
Bang, in his turn, became a great sire, producing
Spotted Boy and other briUiant winners, and
Pearl's Dot, herself a Derby winner and the
greatest pointer matron of all time.
Among the potent pointer movements was the
old St. Louis Kennel Club, composed of Charles
H. Turner, E. C. Sterling, John W. Munson,
Charles C. Mafifitt, J. B. C. Lucas, and other influ-
ential sportsmen. Their first importation was the
very fast, high-class field dog, Sleaford. He did
not entirely please his owners, and in 1878 they
brought over Champion Bow, a son of Price's
Bang. In 1879 Mr. Turner imported the hand-
somest large pointer of the period, the well-known
liver-and-white Faust, by Lord Sefton's Sam.
Faust was the admiration of all pointer men in
his combination of high quality with size and
substance. Dr. Rowe once told me that in the
mere matter of intelligence in handling birds
Faust was the best pointer he had ever seen. In
1 88 1 the St. Louis people imported their first
small pointer, Meteor. While small compared
with a dog like Faust, he would be to-day a good-
sized dog. He was beautifully balanced, but had
the defect of a shallow head with high set ears,
and after his sensational defeat of Beaufort on
the bench the friends of the latter dog grum-
bled a great deal about the "common" Meteor
head. Meteor did very well in the stud, siring
Pointer Families 29
among others the field trial winner, Cornerstone,
he the sire of Judge Guinotte's winner, Bertraldo.
The Eastern men continued to import some
large dogs. One of the handsomest was Graphic,
a beautiful liver-and-white dog, a little long in the
body but with fine chest and with a head as long
and shapely as that of the best setters. His son.
Lad of Bow, was a still more showy and impressive
The New York show of 1889 probably pre-
sented the finest collection of pointers ever seen
on the bench in this country and is interesting
in history as having brought together the dogs
of the first and second epochs — the meeting kiss
of the old and the new. The pointer men had
always avoided one cause of dispute by divid-
ing their dogs into classes on the bench — light
weights and heavy weights. In this show appeared
Bang Bang, Graphic, Lad of Bow, Bracket, Beppo
II, Rumor, Duke of Vernon, Brake, and Pontiac.
Among the light-weight dogs were King of Kent
and Duke of Hessen, two dogs which figured in
the revolution of field trial pointers and are now
constantly found in the studbook pedigrees. With
eighteen in the light-weight class. King of Kent
was first and Duke of Hessen second. Speci-
mens of the other sex in that show were Meally,
Bloomo, Revel III, Queen Fan, Lass of Bow, and
Sally Brass II.
30 The Sporting Dog
A field dog which about this time began to
mark the new era was Tammany. He died com-
paratively young, but made an impression by his
courageous, decisive, and snappy work in the field.
Another dog of high class in the field was Van-
dervort's Don, an imported son of Price's Bang,
whose achievements were chronicled in the
Northwest, chiefly on prairie chicken, though he
was owned in Pittsburg.
All this time there had been a good deal of
bitterness among the pointer owners on account
of what they claimed was discrimination against
them in field trials by the judges who were sup-
posed to be wedded to the Llewellin setter. There
may have been a reason for this grievance, but it
is likely that the trouble was with the dogs. At
least there was never much more of that talk after
Mr. Dexter and Captain McMurdo brought out
their field trial pointers. Mainspring, by Salter's
Champion Mike out of Romp, was a dog which
had all the courage and decision of crack setters,
and speed to compete with even the best of them.
He and many of his progeny had a little defect of
style in hunting with rather low head. Count
Fauster, Spring and Castleman's Rex were some
of his winning sons.
King of Kent was a very fast dog of the same
dashing and courageous quality. Mainspring's
sister, Hops, was brought from Dr. Salter's
POINTER. GLENHEIGH BLOOD
Cuba, Jr. By Cuba of Kenwood-Florida. Bred in California. Liver-and-white.
Winner in important Eastern field trials and several times on the bench before he was
three years old. Medium weight. Owned by Stockdale Kennels, Bakersfield, Cali-
fornia. A dog of particularly responsive disposition and pleasant manners. A favorite
among sportsmen of all tastes.
POINTER. HEAVY WEIGHT
Champion Meteor's Dot II. By Meteor's Dot-Buda. Liver-and-white. Bench
champion. Owners. Mr. W. T. Payne, Kingston, Pennsylvania, and Mr. Ben Lewis,
Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. Called by some bench judges too light in head and bone
for a heavy weight, but a dog of symmetry and beauty. No field-trial record. Photo-
graph by Schreiber.
Pointer Families 31
kennel by Captain McMurdo, and to King of
Kent produced the phenomenal Rip Rap and his
younger sister, the beautiful little liver-and-white
Maid of Kent. Both of these dogs competed on
equal terms with the best setters and beat them as
often as not. Rip Rap decisively defeated Rowdy
Rod, the best Derby setter of 1890 ; and conquered
all criticism in 1891 by a famous four-hour heat
in what was equivalent to a championship stake,
which he ran with a high-class Count Noble setter
called Count Eric. Maid of Kent met the Llew-
ellin, Antonio, in the last heat of the same
stake, and many thought that she thoroughly out-
worked him, though he obtained the decision.
From Mr. Dexter's kennel appeared in succession
Tapster, Zig Zag, Selah, Delhi, and Khartoum,
along the same line of breeding.
Pearl's Dot, the unequalled mother of heroes,
was by Trinket's Bang out of Pearlstone. After
winning a Derby in Indiana, she was sent to
the breeding ranks, and achieved so much that
her name is likely to appear in almost as many
pointer pedigrees as that of old Rhoebe among
the setters. To King of Kent she produced
Strideaway; to Jingo, Young Jingo; to Rip Rap,
the black-and-white Young Rip Rap, Ripstone,
and Dot's Pearl ; Pearl's Fan is a half-sister.
Dot's Pearl, owned by Mr. Turner in Chicago, be-
came the worthy successor of her mother. She
32 The Sporting Dog
was a large and handsome liver-and-white bitch.
Bred to Jingo when very young, she produced
in two litters Lad of Jingo, Dot's Jingo, Drill-
master, Dot's Daisy, Two Spot, and Jingo's Pearl.
These dogs were all winners and are rapidly be-
coming producers; the misfortune being that
some of the best died early.
Jingo was by Mainspring out of Queen II.
He was developed by Captain McMurdo, but
did his later running in the hands of Mr. Nesbitt,
still to-day a prominent handler. Nearly all
pointer men and a great many setter owners
claim that Jingo had bird sense to a degree
beyond that displayed by any other field dog.
He ran successfully in important trials in dif-
ferent parts of the country. He has produced an
astonishing number of winners in the first and
second generation, including Young Jingo from
Pearl's Dot, the great orange-and-white dog King
Cyrano, Gorham's Jing, Jingo's Light, and any
number of others. Doc's Light, the three times
Derby winner in 1 900-1 901, is a grandson; as
is Percival Jingo, another lemon-and-white, the
Interstate Championship winner of 1902. An-
other grandson is Alpine Lad, a successful dog
in both his Derby and all-age form.
In connection with the light-weight dogs which
modified the pointer, Duke of Hessen is of
enough importance to be specially mentioned.
Pointer Families 23
He was a good-looking liver-and-white dog, well
made except that he was much more leggy than
the original conception of the bench show judges
approved. He was the fastest pointer of his time,
but w^as not equal to either King of Kent or
Mainspring in his ability on birds.
A famous son of King of Kent was K. C. Kent,
owned by Mr. Fernkas of Kansas City and
winner of the first stake opened by the Missouri
Field Trial Club. He was a large liver-and-white
dog of fine style and good looks. Hal Pointer,
another large and muscular liver-and-white dog,
continued the King of Kent blood through Plain
Sam and other sons and daughters. Tick Boy
and Kent Elgin were rattling good field dogs.
In 1888 Mr. Huston Wyeth of St. Joseph,
Missouri, imported the black-and-white Derby
winner, Osborne Ale. This dog, curiously enough,
was bred almost exactly like the cross with which
Mr. Dexter and Captain McMurdo afterward at-
tained such distinguished success. He was by
Priam, the sire of King of Kent, out of Malt,
a sister of Hops. Mr. Wyeth made no attempt
to push the fortunes of this dog and, though Ale
sired a number of excellent pointers, he did not
attain the reputation which probably he deserved.
He resembled Rip Rap closely in color and size.
Mr. Franke, also of St. Joseph, imported another
English winner, Luck of the Goat. This dog is
34 The Sporting Dog
best known in history as the sire of Pearl's Fan,
she the dam of K. C. Kent and Blackstone, the
latter a black-and-white winner on the bench and
in the field.
After the dazzling success of the Dexter dogs,
there was not much effort in the way of impor-
tation. Home talent was good enough. Occa-
sionally a winner out of old-fashioned lines, like
Lad of Rush, would come out. He was a liver-
and-white dog and a grandson of Lad of Bow.
But the overwhelming majority of pointers in the
hands of active sportsmen, as well as of field trial
handlers, soon began to carry the blood of Main-
spring and King of Kent, chiefly through Jingo
and Rip Rap.
Among the variations from the usual course of
things should be mentioned Champion Alberta
Joe, a magnificent liver-and-white dog, bred and
brought out by Mr. Thomas Johnson of Winni-
peg, Manitoba. In 1898 he won the North-
western Club's championship. Joe may be called
an outer line, but, as a matter of fact, he is bred
practically the same as the other prominent
American pointers. His sire and dam were
both brought by Mr. Johnson from Mr. Hey wood
Lonsdale's English kennel and trace back directly
to Bang, Sam, and Drake like the resto
An orange-and-white dog which may hereafter
achieve some status as a cross for the Jingo and
Pointer Families 35
Rip Rap dogs is Senator P. He won two cham-
pionships, one on the Pacific coast and one in
Manitoba. He is descended from the English
leading families through California lines different
from those of the favorite Americans. Senator
P. is a good-looking dog and a sterling field trial
performer, though he scarcely ranks in brilliance
with the greatest.
A recent English importation is Sally Brass,
an extremely stylish and merry little pointer which
won a place in the Eastern Club trials of 1901
and aroused the warmest encomiums on account
of her attractive style, though her speed was not
exactly first class. She was brought over by Mr.
S. C. Bradley for Mr. George Crocker, those two
gentlemen having a theory that they can make
some new history with both pointer and setter
blood from England.
One of the standing discontents of a busy man
is that he cannot attend many field trials. These
interesting rivalries bring together bird dogs of
chosen powers, and, as no two of the trial grounds
are just alike in topography and cover, he who
wishes to understand all the merits and defects
of great dogs would like to see as often as pos-
sible the running of stake events. Among my
regrets on this score is that I never saw Rip Rap
in the field. On the bench he was a specimen to
attract a sportsman rather than a fancier. He
^6 The Sporting Dog
was of just the right size for our American shoot-
ing, not large enough to carry extra lumber and
not too small for strength. Like many other
dogs which are enthusiastic and courageous in
the field, he was quiet and undemonstrative in
the kennel and on the bench. His white, black,
and ticked coat was a trifle rougher than that of
the usual bench show pointer and lacked the sat-
iny finish which the old pointer breeders regarded
as essential. He looked all over a hard, strong,
wise hunter. When I saw him, Robert le Dia-
ble, the greatest product of the St. Louis Kennel
Club's breeding, was also on the benches. He
was a much more showy animal than Rip Rap,
liver-and- white with thick ticking. Being in the
challenge class, he did not come into competition
with Rip Rap, but would have beaten him, I sup-
pose, under any bench judge, if they had been of
the same weight and in the same ring.
Mr. George J. Gould exhibited for two or three
seasons a kennel of pointers, which, in 1897, in-
cluded Lady Gay Spanker, Miss Rumor, Fur-
lough Mike and others. Lady Gay Spanker was
held to be the best of her sex on the bench at that
time. Mr. Gould used his pointers in his shoot-
ing expeditions, and they were by no means mere
exhibition dogs or playthings.
Meteor's Dot H, now holding the honors of a
championship, had an eventful history on the
Pointer Families 37
bench. He is a handsome liver-and-white heavy-
weight dog of great style and symmetry. In his
younger days when I saw him, some of the judges
called him a little leggy, but he probably filled
out afterward. He was owned by Major A. J.
Ross of Dallas, Texas, and travelled on the bench
until he came into the possession of Messrs. Lewis
and Payne of Pennsylvania. In competition at
the St. Louis show of 1899, he was beaten by the
New York dog. Sir Walter, but I thought he suf-
fered a little the worst of it through judicial over-
conscientiousness. The judge was a personal
friend of Major Ross and seemed to lean too
much on the side of scrupulousness. At that time,
whatever Sir Walter may before have been, he was
not the equal of Dot, as he had become throaty and
loose, while Dot was in the pink of condition.
Without attracting any great amount of atten-
tion or exciting any heated debate, the modern
pointers, even on the bench, seem to have made
a racial change and become short-headed in com-
parison with the old-time champions. It is rare
now to see a pointer as clean and long in the
head as were most of the winners twenty years
ago. Of course, at no time was a pointer ex-
pected to have the long, lean setter head, though
there was a day when the best specimens on the
bench had cleaner and more shapely heads than
are now usual The change has probably come
38 The Sporting Dog
from the influence of the field trial winners ; dogs
which, from their compact shape, naturally have
a tendency to thickness in the head.
Perhaps the most extreme example of the de-
parture of field trial pointers from the old bench
show fancy is Jingo's Light, himself a trial winner
and sire of Champion Percival Jingo. Light is
also recognized as the correct cross for Rip Rap
and other King of Kent blood, he being Main-
spring, Duke of Hessen, Croxteth, and Naso of
Kippen blood, with no line to King of Kent.
He is small, thick in cheek, white with lemon
spots only on the ears, and has ears set high.
It looks as if there might be trouble ahead on
the benches over pointer type; maybe the Eng-
lish setter battle repeated.
Much better in bench type are two young
liver-and-white dogs, out in the past two seasons,
Alford's John and Alpine Lad. John was the
most successful Derby dog of 1 902-1 903, and this
season has shown all his promised speed and
bird work among all-age competitors. He is of
the older lines of blood, his sire line being
Graphic and his dam going back to Croxteth.
Alpine Lad is of the Jingo-Dot's Pearl family in
the second generation. In both the prairie chicken
and quail trials of 1903 John performed better than
any other pointer, and must at the moment be
placed at the head of his breed.
Pointer Families 39
In the East the breeders are still ahead in bench
form. Mr. Throckmorton's Champion Duke of
York and Island Boy, and Mr. Mott's Princess
Alice, can, the chances are, beat anything now in
the West, as Mr. Westlake's Belle and Startle
almost certainly can, while Lansdowne Malt
would have no trouble at all in a Western show
with anything put down lately.
The last word about pointer families is sug-
gested by the chicken trials in the Northwest this
fall (1903). One prominent figure has been Lad
of Jingo. He has been himself placed several
times, though an old dog for trial work. The
feature, however, has been the winning perform-
ances of his progeny. Lad's Meally, Alpine Lad,
and Copper Coin have all been winners against
large fields of the best dogs in training. At the
Huron (Dakota) trials. Coin and Meally were
third and fourth in a Derby stake of twenty-six
starters, pointers and setters; while Lad of Jingo
was third and Alpine Lad fourth in the all-age
stake of thirty starters, including many previous
winners. Mr. Austin has been firm in his faith
about Lad in spite of some hard luck, and it is
good for sport that a great bird dog is getting the
fame he always deserved. Young Rip Rap, too,
has been fulfilling expectations by the winnings
of Rap's Pointer and Speck's Jingo Boy at these
ENGLISH SETTER QUESTIONS
Discussion of the English setter in America
would be a history of several volumes if all the
records and comments about strains and individ-
ual dogs were set forth in a way to satisfy every-
body who has taken an interest in the subject.
For the purposes of this book it will be enough
to briefly review the facts which are so familiar to
experts as to have become commonplaces. The
chief characteristics of the breed remain as they
have been so often described by Stonehenge and
other English writers.
It is color which, to the ordinary eye, differ-
entiates the English from the Irish and Gordon
setters as well as from a great deal of what has
been known as " native stock." There is one and
only one fundamental law of color which can be
applied without qualification to the English setter.
It is that the marking consists of a white ground,
upon which may appear small spots or large
patches of any of the recognized colors. These
are black, lemon, orange, liver, and tan. The
solid white or black or liver sometimes appears,
English Setter Qitestions 41
and solid orange rarely. No solid color is favored
or very frequent. It should be said that tan and
orange or lemon are practically the same. Dark
tan is orange and light tan is lemon. It is usually
called tan only when it comes in company with
black. That is, a dog is orange and white when
there is no black marking. He is white, black,
and tan when the orange color shades the black
markings, or appears in small spots on a prevail-
ing marking of black and white. Belton, which
not a few Americans in some way believe to be a
strain, is, of course, only a color. It consists of
black, orange, or lemon scattered in small spots or
splashes over a white ground. If both black and
orange " freckling " appear, the term " blue belton
and tan " is commonly used. If the " freckling " is
of one color, it is blue belton or orange belton.
These English setter colors constitute a ground
of industrious, if not profitable, dispute on ac-
count of the supposed relations of peculiar colors
to the Llewellin stock which is paramount among
the English setters developed in America during
the past thirty years. For the information of
those who are just beginning to study the subject,
it should be said that the claims of color advo-
cates have no particular support in history and
not much practical logic, but undoubtedly come
under the head of influential fashions and are not
to be disregarded. In America the common
42 The Sporting Dog
assertion and belief are that white, black and tan
is the correct and typical Llewellin color. Mr.
Llewellin himself, and his relative and associate,
Mr. Teasdale-Buckeli, have strenuously objected
to the drawing of a color line. In an urgent pro-
test a few years ago Mr. Llewellin pointed out
that a decided majority of his best setters were
either blue belton or lemon belton. It might be
said here in passing that he also remarked the
presence of black noses and dark eyes in all his
lemon and blue beltons. Among the blue beltons
he mentioned Count Wind'em, the best dog he
ever bred ; and among the lemon-and-whites
Countess Bear, perhaps the handsomest bitch.
Old Rhoebe was heavily marked white-black-tan ;
and Brewis's Dash II, which he bought at a
high price and introduced into his kennel as an
outcross, was a blue belton with tan shadings.
But Mr. Llewellin says that he regarded the tan
markings as a second-rate color when judged by
a preponderance of the best dogs in his own
On this side of the water, though all the advan-
tages have operated in favor of the white-black-
tan through strong and almost universal prejudice,
it is somewhat remarkable that the orange-
and-whites and lemon-and-whites have played an
important part even among the " straight-bred "
Llewellins. The first championship trial of
English Setter Questions 43
the Interstate Association in 1901 brought out
a card of high-class pointers and setters, most
of the setters being white-black-tan. Yet the
three placed dogs were lemon-and-white setters
of Llewellin ancestry. They were Sport's Boy,
winner and champion, Ortiz Lad and Count
Whitestone. This was in 190 1. In 1902 one
of the most successful dogs in the state trials
during the autumn was Rodfield's Pride (Cow-
ley's), another orange-and-white Llewellin. Pin
Money, a frequent winner for many seasons for
the Charlottesville kennel, was a blue belton, and
her sister. Belle of Hard Bargain, was orange-and-
white. Of course, an ancestress of these two
bitches, Daisy Hunter, was not a straight-bred
Llewellin, but the blood of the Llewellins so pre-
ponderated in their pedigree that the color of
Belle of Hard Bargain is quite as likely to have
been drawn from the Llewellin side as from the
Mr. Buckell holds that the belton color, either
blue or orange, is indicative of what he calls the
feminine side of the Llewellin, while the larger
area of black patches and spots with or without
tan indicates the more rugged, aggressive, and
masculine type. This would seem to be specula-
tion, and yet all of us must admit that in expe-
rience it seems to have some foundation. For
example, the most admired dogs in the remark-
44 The Sporting Dog
able Lady's Count Gladstone-Jessie Rodfield
family up to this date have been Prince Rodney
and Count Whitestone. Count is a delicately
marked lemon belton. Prince Rodney is a
strongly marked white-black-tan. Unquestion-
ably Prince is the more masculine of the two dogs,
not only in size and appearance, but in rugged-
ness and aggressiveness of character. It does
seem as if this example of two brothers had a
certain representative value, since a majority of
the successful Llewellins of the masculine type
have been strongly marked with black and have
had conspicuous tan shadings. Yet, on the other
side, it is not to be forgotten that Dora, the bitch
which introduced so much of the feminine quality
that breeders hastened to overcome it, was rough
looking and heavily marked with black ; her
handsomer son, Druid, having the same amiable
and docile "feminine" attributes. History does not
seem yet to have proved, though it may suggest,
that color is a mark of distinction between what
the faddists call the masculine and the feminine
types any more than it is a legitimate distinction of
the Llewellin strain. However, the amateur must
recognize the value of a fashion, whether or not
it is founded on facts and reason. White-black-
tan is beyond any doubt at present the recog-
nized and fashionable color of the Llewellins,
notwithstanding the notable successes of orange-
English Setter Qiiestions 45
and-white and lemon-and-white Llewellins in the
field trials. That Countess Meteor, dam of the
star Derby performer of 1 901 -1902, Mohawk, is
lemon-and-white, and that Rodfield sired as many
of that color as of any other, are facts that as yet
do not seem to have affected the sentiment favor-
ing the tri-color.
In connection with the subject of color there is
one matter of not a little consequence to the
practical sportsman. A great deal of quail shoot-
ing is done in cover which makes it difficult to
keep a busy dog in sight. Judging from my own
observation, I should say that four-fifths of the
work dogs do on quail is in cover of that sort.
In Maryland and Virginia birds are most plenti-
ful in the neighborhood of thickets and brushy
places. In the Indian Territory they are found
either near " draws " and small timbered water
courses, or else not far from the patches of corn
which are scattered among the pastures and cot-
ton fields. In Illinois and Missouri the same gen-
eral character of shooting presents itself to the
sportsman, though the country has a greater
area of regular cultivation. A dog heavily
marked with black is somewhat hard to follow,
even through the stubble and weeds in an ordi-
nary season. In the corn-fields and thickets a
^ dog of prevailing white color is much more read-
ily kept in view. If a dog gets out of sight and
46 The Sporting Dog
finds birds, the gun may be kept idle for many
precious minutes just at the time when shooting
luck would be otherwise at high tide. Most quail
shots will support me when I say that these
supreme shooting moments are very likely to
occur about dusk. This fact is, of course, due to
the well-known habits of the birds. To lose sight
of a dog at such a moment means often a profit-
less day. The orange-and-white dog has a de-
cided advantage as a self-supplying signal of
My bitch, Chiquita, during the two seasons
w^hen she was under my observation, was a fre-
quent source of irritation. She was one of the
greatest of bird finders, as field trial men in the
central West can attest. In truth she had too
much of that quality for comfort, since she was
more intent upon game than upon the gun, and it
was not an unusual thing for her to disappear in
the direction of a " birdy " place, to be found
after diligent search a half-hour later, stanchly
holding a covey. The upper part of her body
was nearly all black, and one could almost step on
her without recognition when she was on point ;
especially, as like most other dogs, she would
sink nearer and nearer to the ground the longer
she held birds. If she got into a corn-field, with
its occasional stump and its frequent spots of
black fungus on the stalks, I have known her to
English Setter Qitestions 47
cause the waste of an hour before the handler
could find her. Sure Shot, the fastest and widest
ranger of Jessie Rodfield's sons, is so heavily
ticked that he is almost a dark gray. He drops
on point. In public trials his handler is always
nervous lest he get out of sight, drop on birds
and be thrown out by the judges before he can
As a converse proof, I remember seeing Sport's
Boy and Ortiz Lad down in very heavy cover,
chiefly corn-fields and high weeds. An orange-
and-white dog for purposes of the eye in the field
is about the same as if he were pure white. These
two extremely fast and w^idely ranging dogs could
be seen flitting through the corn and weeds
almost every minute of the trial, when the darker
dogs in the same stake were often hard to follow.
The pointer, King Cyrano, and the setter, Rod-
field's Pride (Cowley's), have given me the same
pleasant experience when down together.
I mention this advantage of the orange-and-
white color, because I regard it as of genuine
Another unfashionable attribute which has a
useful function is a fault charged with some as-
perity against the Llewellins. It is the tendency
to carry a high flag in ranging and to take a point
with the tail in the same high position. For
the same reason just mentioned in speaking of
48 The Sporting Dog
the advantage possessed by the orange-and-v/hite
color, the high flag has a decided utiHty value to
the sportsman. A dog which carries its flag
high will nearly always point with high head.
It must be admitted that the attitude loses from
the standpoint of style as compared with the
low stern and more extended and intense position
of the pointer and of some setters, but a man
learns after experience to rather fancy the up-
right position and high flag. As a guide to the
eye it comes to be regarded with indulgence if
not with decided favor. Nearly all handlers
agree, too, in the belief that high head and
stern in pointing are indicia of spirit and vigor.
Recurring a moment to the question of color,
it might be said that probably the American
preference for white-black-tan is due to the
fame with which Gladstone and Count Noble
endowed it early in the days of public field trials.
Bergundthal's Rake and others carrying a large
proportion of Rhoebe blood were highly favored.
Their descendants took on a strong tendency to
the white-black-tan, and seem to have been the
chief influences in establishing the predominance
of the color.
A study of the English setter in America would
be imperfect if the superstition in favor of the
" pure " or " straight-bred " Llewellin were not
thrashed out in a way to convey the true state
English Setter Qtiestions 49
of the case to sportsmen generally. It is hardly
necessary to say that the word "pure" is entirely
misapplied. There never was and never will be
such a thing as a " pure " Llewellin in the true
technical sense of the word as it is used in the
science of breeding. Nor is there much more to
be said in defence of the term " straight-bred "
Llewellin. At least the use of the term in the
effort to establish a fashion is likely to depreciate
the substantial value of the Llewellin blood and
to seriously mislead the younger generation of
sportsmen. There was once such a thing as a
"straight-bred " Laverack, and even now the bench-
show Laveracks are much more nearly straight
bred than any Llewellin that ever lived. Mr.
Llewellin himself never made much attempt at
straight breeding. To be sure, he first confined
his experiments to the Duke-Rhcebe blood crossed
on straight Laveracks, but he introduced Sam
and Brewis's Dash II as outcrosses, and in late
years added blood which, though similar to that
of his original stock, came from totally different
lines. Mr. Buckell has said recently that the
breeding of Dash II was confused, and that the
dog was treated in the Llewellin kennel wholly
as an outcross, evidently possessing qualities
which did not belong to the blood from which
he was said to have come.
There is no definition of " straight-bred " Llewel-
so The Sporting Dog
lins which will bear analysis. The usual test is
that of tracing back in all lines to Duke-Rhoebe
and Laverack. Under Mr. Buckell's estimate
this definition must shut out everything which
has Dash II blood; and a student of pedigree
knows that such an exclusion would ostracize a
large number of the most respected names in
Llewellin pedigrees. Others have attempted to
limit the straight-bred " Four Hundred " to pedi-
grees which go straight to Mr. Llewellin's own
kennel. That test would exclude Bolus's Belton
and other dogs of unquestioned breeding and
Efforts to construct a straight-bred Llewellin
family sometimes run into a manifest absurdity.
For example, Gleam, the progenitor of one of the
most useful Llewellin lines, was rejected by the
exclusionists because Llewellin's Sam did not
suit them in breeding, notwithstanding the obvi-
ous fact that Sam, a field trial winner, was an
English setter as well bred — almost identically
— as Dash II and, if Gleam is evidence, of quali-
ties more desirable than those of Dash. The
same exclusionists have now admitted Gleam as
straight-bred. They would as well go further
and drop the " pure " idea altogether, letting
Llewellin blood stand for what it is — an influ-
ential but not separate element in English setter
English Setter Questions 51
At best, all setter pedigrees except those of the
Laveracks had not much authenticity up to forty
years ago, and Mr. Laverack was not beyond
suspicion. There was no doubt of their being
English setters if they came from the kennels of
well-known breeders among the country gentle-
men. The breeding was kept within setter lines in
most cases by such men and often conducted with
care and skill, but not much attempt was made to
preserve the facts of individual breeding. The
breeding was good, but the proof is missing.
Consequently, there is not, after all, a great deal
more to boast about in the Duke-Rhoebe-Laver-
ack combination, when it comes to stickling for
purity, than in the union of Mason's Jeff and
Old Fannie blood which produced the Campbell
setters and through Daisy F. enters into the
blood elements of so many of the very best field
setters in America.
Here again the reader will recognize the value
of a fashion. Though there is no special virtue
in a straight-bred Llewellin as dogs actually
stand, either on the records or in the possession
of setter quality, none the less there is a well-
defined fancy for this kind of breeding. If ama-
teurs are looking for advice on the subject, I
suggest that they weigh the value of a cult as
compared with practical judgment of the worth
of dogs and decide for themselves whether they
52 The Sporting Dog
prefer to be guided by one more than by
the other. All of the successful lines in the
American Llewellins are practically of equal
studbook value, and the beginner can safely
begin his tests of breeding at the third or fourth
generation from existing specimens of approved
looks, worth, and ancestral respectability. Noth-
ing but a phrase ever made Count Danstone any
more a Llewellin than Marie's Sport; and a
phrase which would rank the Cincinnatus Pride-
Queen Vic family below the untried progeny of
untried straight-bred sires and dams can only
be sharply condemned by good sportsmen. Race
horse practices have their excellent reasons in
their own domain of breeding science. English
setters are another story. Purity of race is a
good thing when it is good. Sometimes it is a
misnamed conglomeration, and sometimes it needs
breaking up and disturbance. At any rate, the
English setter is not strictly a pure breed, nor is
the Llewellin a straight strain. It is mere pre-
tence to treat them as if they were.
At the beginning of a brief series of English
setter studies, it may be as well to dispose at
once of the notion that there was ever a " native
stock " having any attributes of an established
family. It is surprising that any man should
mention the term in that sense ; yet I have
heard it used frequently by old sportsmen and
it often crops out in letters to the sporting
papers, apparently conveying the assumption
that there was a more or less fixed American
strain before the Llewellins and Laveracks
began to cut a figure. It almost goes without
saying that the " native stock " was simply what
it happened to be in each of a thousand locali-
ties. For generations before the Civil War —
that period coinciding almost exactly with the
establishment of field trials and regular records
in England — both setters and pointers had been
brought over at frequent intervals and had left
their progeny at different points from Maine
to Florida, and as far into the interior as enter-
prising field shots had then penetrated. Men's
54 The Sporting Dog
natural sense of fitness had generally kept set-
ters separate from pointers in breeding, but had
carried the breeding science to an extent very
slightly beyond that point. If a man wished to
breed setters, he seldom did more than use the best
stock in the neighborhood. When the Laveracks
began to come over, and later the Llewellins,
they were mixed with this neighborhood stock
to some extent, but were kept distinct when the
breeders possessed any enlightened aspirations.
Native stock, with its prevailing liver-and-white
and its frequent graftings on Irish and black-and-
tan, can be left out of the story except where
individual specimens, as in the case of some of
the Campbell dogs in Tennessee, exercised an
influence on the blood and families successful in
In America the authentic history of the Eng-
lish setter is a history of the Llewellins, with the
Laveracks appearing constantly in the bench
shows and always disputing with the Llewellins
the claim of correct type.
The first success of Mr. Llewellin's dogs in
the English field trials at once aroused interest
and caused importations. Well-informed fan-
ciers are acquainted with the oft-told story of
the Llewellin origin. It should be said, by the
way, that the term, as marking a special strain
of setters, is not recognized in England. Mr.
American Llewellins ss
Llewellin is known there merely as one of a
large number of gentlemen who have had suc-
cessful kennels of English setters. The triumphs
of his entries in the English field trials and the
attention which imported specimens excited on
this side led to a strenuous discussion, out of
which it came about by common understanding
that the term " Llewellin " should be given to
the strain in America. It is well to state that
field trials in England were and are compara-
tively small events and never had anything
resembling the relative prestige and influence
which they have won in America. Mr. Llewel-
lin, at home a field trial patron among few, is a
"bigger" man here.
Let the reader stop here and stick a pin. Let
him remember that the typical American Llewel-
lin cannot be understood without comprehending
that the American type is widely different from
Mr. Llewellin's ideals and from his own favorite
dogs. He bred the ancestors, but he did not
breed the type. This fact means much and
must be recalled wherever the word " Llewellin "
A brief word on the threadbare subject of
how Mr. Llewellin produced his English setters.
For many years before he took up the subject,
Mr. Laverack's beautiful setters had been the
centre of attention, and, in spite of the fact that
56 The Sporting Dog
they were regarded somewhat doubtfully by
shooting men, had gradually assumed the first
place in popular favor. Their most notable
characteristics were smoothness and symmetry
of proportion and beautiful, fine, fleecy, straight
coats, with the aristocratic color of lemon belton
or blue belton. It was the opinion of Stonehenge
and most of the English authorities that Mr.
Laverack's bitches were far superior to his dogs,
at least in field quality ; the Laverack tendency
to heavy and thick shoulders being a defect
more conspicuous on the male side. However
that may be, the blue belton bitch. Countess,
and her sister, Nellie, brilliantly distinguished
themselves both on the bench and at field trials.
At the same time, Mr. Statter's Dan and his
brother Dick achieved distinction in the trials.
Dan was a very large white-black-tan dog, the
upper part of his body being nearly all black.
He had been bred by Mr. Statter. His sire was
Barclay Field's Duke, a black-and-white dog,
one of the best early winners at trials and de-
scribed as very fast and extremely intelligent in
Dan's dam was Mr. Statter's Rhoebe. She
was not at all a brilliant field performer. Mr.
Llewellin describes her as "great, big, long, low,
and heavily built." Mr. Brailsford says that she
was slow, but that Mr. Statter regarded her
American Llewellins 57
highly, chiefly on account of the breeding of
her dam, Psyche, the latter having come of a
well-known and highly esteemed strain of setters,
the Beaudesarts, which had been for the most
part black in color. Rhoebe, however, had quali-
ties of some sort which made her a most suc-
cessful matron. Her sons and daughters were
winners for several years at the trials.
Mr. Llewellin bought the Laveracks, Countess
and Nellie, and the Duke-Rhoebe dogs, Dan and
Dick. Dan became the progenitor of nearly all
the first-class American field trial dogs. His
sister, Dora, was imported into this country by
Mr. Adams of Boston and left an important line
of descendants, the most favored and famous of
which was Druid, imported ahead of Dora and
owned by Mr. Arnold Burges of Michigan.
Another son was Drake, owned by Mr. Adams.
A dog whose name is of consequence chiefly
because it appears in a great number of pedi-
grees was Bergundthal's Rake. He was inbred to
Rhoebe. With Gladstone, Count Noble, Leices-
ter, and Lincoln, these dogs. Rake and Druid,
enter into the pedigrees of nearly all the fashion-
able Llewellin families in America. The six are
the foundation dogs of the American Llewellin.
If the student is after essential influences and
simplest terms, he can throw out all other
Llewellin importations as minor incidents.
58 The Sporting Dog
It will be seen that Mr. Llewellin's dogs were a
combination of Laverack with the Duke-Rhoebe
blood. These two foundations of the Llewellin
kennel differed so widely in characteristics that
the great variations in the appearance and quality
of their descendants are not remarkable. The
Laveracks were usually small or of medium size.
Rhoebe was very large herself and gave to all her
progeny a tendency to size. To this day it is the
case that some Llewellins look like Laveracks
and some like Dan and his mother. Some do
not weigh over thirty pounds, while occasional
specimens run up almost to seventy pounds. If
we assume that vigor, good sense, and level dis-
position were the characteristics of the Duke-
Rhoebes, whereas it is known that the pure
Laveracks as a rule were not remarkable for
mental qualities, at least in field work on birds,
it seems that the irregularities in this respect
which are noticed in the Llewellins may be at-
tributed to the two different foundation elements
used by the originator of the strain. Llewellins
are sometimes brilliant, sometimes commonplace,
and sometimes worthless. In the families which
are bred by active patrons of field trials there is
of late years a marked tendency to uniformity,
but the type so suggested is by no means a
general rule among even dogs bred by these gen-
tlemen. This type should, however, be described,
American Llewellins 59
since it apparently bids fair to attain more or
less of ascendency. It is represented by such
dogs as Tony Boy, Marie's Sport, Roderigo,
Gath, Lady's Count Gladstone, Rodfield, Geneva,
Sioux, and Mohawk. It is of medium size, com-
pact body, relatively small and short head as
compared with the Laveracks, and of harder and
thinner coat. Many of these dogs, like Glad-
stone, carry the tail curled upward almost like
that of a foxhound, though when at active work
in the field they commonly keep it below the
level of the back. They are usually characterized
by intense nervous energy, good speed in the
field, and a disposition to self-hunt. Breeders are
endeavoring to increase the size of field trial dogs
by selecting larger breeding specimens, but it is
not likely that the average size will much exceed
fifty pounds for the dogs and five pounds less for
the bitches. That weight seems to be some-
where about normal, for what may be called the
American Llewellin strain, just as the normal
height seems to be between twenty-two and
twenty-four inches at the shoulder.
The qualities which enter into the American
Llewellins cannot be understood without an ex-
amination of the leading dogs which enter into
Beyond comparison the first in importance is
Gladstone. This remarkable dog was a white-
6o The Sporting Dog
black-tan, by Llewellin's Dan out of the lemon-
and-white Laverack, Petrel. He was imported
in utero by Mr. Smith of Strathroy, Canada.
When a small puppy, he was bought by Mr.
P. H. Bryson of Memphis, Tennessee, and at-
tained his reputation while in the ownership
of Mr. Bryson and his brother, Mr. David Bry-
son. Gladstone won on the bench as well as
in the field, but it was probably the prestige of
the dog as well as the somewhat irregular char-
acter of bench-show entries in those days rather
than his strict show qualities which gained him
the ribbons. He weighed a little more than fifty
pounds and stood twenty-two and a half inches at
shoulder. In utility points he was a finely built
dog, quite thick in the shoulder but with superb
chest and perfect feet and legs. He was very
strongly made and of exceptional speed and stay-
ing power. His head was short, the muzzle was
inclined to be " snipey," and the ears were set
quite high. These defects of head, as rated by
bench-show standards, have been persistent in his
descendants, probably because the same faults
were more or less inherent in the entire strain as
well as in Gladstone himself. Under the old
field trial rules in force when Gladstone first
appeared in public, he was several times defeated.
At that time competition was judged by the
number of stanch points made by a dog, and it
American Llewellins 6i
consequently happened that an inferior dog with
good luck or a good handler could often beat the
most brilliant. In spite of an occasional defeat,
Gladstone was regarded by all good judges as the
best young setter ever seen in the United States.
His bold and brilliant character, positive, snappy
bird work and flawless courage gathered him a
host of admirers the whole length of the Missis-
sippi Valley and spread his reputation across the
Counted as a factor of importance in the
production of the American Llewellins, Count
Noble must be ranked next to Gladstone. He
was a large white-black-tan dog, long in the
body and not considered a well-proportioned
setter. He weighed sixty pounds. This dog
was imported by David Sanborn of Baltimore
from the Llewellin kennel, and owned by him up
to the time of Mr. Sanborn's death when he
passed into the possession of B. F. Wilson of
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He was by Mr. Llewel-
lin's favorite. Count Wind'em, and his dam was
Nora, by Dan out of Nellie. He was thus in-
bred to Dan, though the major portion of his
blood was Laverack, his sire. Count Wind'em,
being three-quarters Laverack. Like Gladstone,
he forced himself on public attention by the suc-
cessful brilliancy of his public performances. He
was a dog of great speed and wonderful endur-
62 The Sporting Dog
ance, particularly good on prairie chicken and
able to hold his own in any company on any
Druid was a good-sized dog and much hand-
somer than the average Llewellin. His propor-
tions were good and his color very attractive —
a finely marked head and heavily ticked body.
The shape of his head and the set of his ears
were better than those points in Gladstone and
other prominent Llewellin dogs. His tail, how-
ever, like those of his mother, Dora, and his
close relative, Gladstone, curled upward and was
carried high. Druid was a dog entirely differ-
ent from Count Noble and Gladstone in dis-
position. He was by no means a brilliant field
performer, but was a good bird dog. He inherited
Dora's amiable and tractable disposition, and it is
very likely that he exercised valuable influence
in modifying the headlong and often reckless
tendency of Gladstone blood. Certainly he must
be credited with improving the appearance of
the Llewellins as bench-show candidates. His
daughter, General Shattuc's Dido H, was a
bench-show champion of her day, and her son,
Cincinnatus, was also a bench-show champion as
well as a placed dog in some of the important
field trials. Dido was also the dam of the bench
champion. Dad Wilson.
Leicester was imported from Mr. Llewellin's
American Llewellins 6^
kennel. He was a lemon-and-white, by Dan out
of the Laverack, LIll II. It is said that he was
not trained for the field to any great extent,
although shot over some. He was a beautifully
formed dog, and, perhaps, the fastest of his day
as a mere matter of speed. He had, however, a
nervous disposition and apparently was easily
rattled, though not much was ever said about his
actual field quality. He was chiefly famous on
account of the success of his daughters when bred
to Druid, Rake, Gladstone, and other well-known
sires. His brother Lincoln was, judging from
the annals of those days, a much better dog than
Leicester. He was also lemon-and-white, stylish
in the field, and rated as a first-class bird dog.
His influence on American pedigrees comes
chiefly through his son, Gleam, a dog which in-
herited most of his characteristics and probably
some additional qualities from the beautiful
Countess Bear, another lemon-and-white, the
dam of Blaze, Gleam's mother. Gleam was a
very large, rough, orange-and-white of great
field quality. He comes into modern pedigrees
through his daughters, Daisy F. and Georgia
Belle. The former, herself half Llewellin and
half Campbell, was the dam of Daisy Hope and
Daisy Hunter; and Georgia Belle produced the
phenomenal litter which included Gleam's Sport,
Gleam's Pink, Maiden Mine, and Spot Cash, all
64 The Sporting Dog
of which were field trial performers of unsur-
passed natural quality. Gleam's Sport became
the sire of Marie's Sport; Gleam's Pink sired
Pink's Boy ; Spot Cash sired Spot's Girl ; and
Maiden Mine became the dam of some good
performers. Naturally the lemon-and-white color
appears often in the Gleam line. Marse Ben,
white-black-tan, is a dog also likely to perpetuate
the Gleam blood, which comes to him through
Almo, brother of Georgia Belle, and through
Mecca, she by Gleam out of Tuberose.
Bergundthal's Rake is a name which figures in
the early generations of a great majority of the
American Llewellin pedigrees. At one time he
was widely discussed on account of the large
amount of Rhoebe blood which he carried. He
came from Mr. Llewellin's kennel and was by
Dan, son of Rhoebe, out of Ruby, daughter of
Rhoebe. Ruby's sire was the Laverack Fred.
Rake's blood was believed by many authorities
to be extremely valuable and suitable for per-
petuation as the proper cross for dogs having a
preponderance of Laverack blood. Individually
he was not an attractive dog in any respect ex-
cept that he was large and powerful, with par-
ticularly strong bone. He was white-black-tan,
nearly all black, rough, and coarse-looking, and
without any of the fancy bench-show points.
Just what his field qualities were I have been a
American Llewellins 65
little perplexed to discover. In those days there
was a sort of freemasonry among the experts.
They seemed to regard it as somewhat non-
ethical to speak to outsiders of the faults of
prominent dogs. All of them mentioned Rake's
field qualities with reservation. Mr. A. C. Wad-
dell once told me that he had charge of Rake for
a time and that, while the dog had considerable
speed and disposition to hunt, there was a lack of
nose. Mr. P. T. Madison described the dog to
me as having plenty of nose, but not much judg-
ment in the use of it ; intimating that he was a
difficult dog to make serviceable in the field. He
appears in modern pedigrees largely through his
daughters out of Bergundthal's Fanny, a daughter
of Leicester and Dart, Dart being a sister of Druid.
From this source he comes into the modern stock
through Major Taylor's famous Lit, Lit's sister,
Bopeep, Bryson's Sue, Ruby's Girl, and others.
In the direct male line there is not much to per-
petuate Rake's erstwhile reputation. In a chapter
on breeding I shall refer to an interesting experi-
ment by Dr. Stark of Milwaukee, who by inbreed-
ing to Rake concentrated a remarkable number
of lines of Rhoebe. This experiment did not
result successfully and cuts Httle figure among
the later Llewellins.
Going back for a moment to Mr. Llewellin's
kennel, there is a name which must be mentioned,
66 The Sporting Dog
though the disposition for several years both in
America and England has been to breed away
from the influence. Llewellin's Dash II, some-
times called Armstrong's and sometimes Brewis's
Dash, was a great public performer in England,
becoming particularly conspicuous on account of
his competitions with the speediest setter of that
day, Macdona's Ranger. Dash II was a white-
black-tan of powerful build, by the Laverack,
Prince, out of Kate. His granddam, Armstrong's
Kate, stands on the records as being a sister of
Field's Duke, but, as I have elsewhere said, Mr.
Buckell seems to have no faith in the breeding
as thus given. Dash differed in form and char-
acter from the majority of Mr. Llewellin's dogs.
He became the sire of Dashing Bondhu and
other successful performers in Mr. Llewellin's
kennel. Mr. Buckell seems to think that he
introduced into the Llewellin blood additional
intelligence but diminished brilliancy and aggres-
siveness. In the American studbooks Dash II
is represented by Dashing Monarch and others.
Dashing Monarch was probably very much like
his sire — a strong, stoutly built dog, altogether
too heavy and meaty in front to suit American
breeders, but a more or less successful sire. For
a time I owned his daughter. Dashing Lavellette,
and I can believe that she stood for much of the
Dash influence. She was a handsome setter,
American Llewellins 67
black, white and ticked, with a finely shaped head,
but one which would have been heavy even in
a dog. She had a big chest and was wide in
front. Her speed and range were far below
American field trial demands, but she was a most
industrious bird hunter, with exquisite nose, and
a very agreeable dog to work in close cover. I
have some of her descendants now, but her own
physical characteristics entirely disappeared with
John Bolus's Belton was a dog which was the
subject of a debate during his lifetime. He was
a Llewellin and not a Llewellin, being of blood
lines similar to those of the Llewellins but having
come from another kennel. He was finally ad-
mitted as a straight-bred Llewellin. He was
a white-black-tan dog of superior field quality
and good looks, somewhat heavier than Glad-
stone, but not a large dog. He does not appear
in a great many pedigrees, but was an ancestor of
dogs like Topsy's Rod, Harwick, Mohawk, and
Before proceeding farther with the Llewellins
it might be well to introduce here a mention of
the Campbells, a family of short existence in both
directions, which received its name because the
Messrs. Campbell of Tennessee happened to own
the leading specimens at the time when field trials
first began. The origin of these dogs seems to
68 The Sporting Dog
have been located in the black setter, called Ma-
son's Jeff, and the lemon-and-white Old Fannie ;
which were said to have had the fine coat and
general appearance of the Laveracks, though no
one has ever found out much beyond that fact.
Campbell's Buck Jr. and Joe Jr. attained national
fame in defeating Gladstone and other celebrated
Llewellins. Joe Jr. was a half-bred setter, being
out of Buck Jr. by the noted Irish setter, Elcho.
He defeated Gladstone in a match race under the
old rules ; the race having been arranged by the
late Mr. W. A. Wheatley of Memphis and the Bry-
sons. Joe Jr. either was not a successful sire or
his blood became unfashionable on account of its
being a cross. The Campbell line is perpetuated
chiefly through Daisy F. and her daughters, Daisy
Hope and Daisy Hunter. Daisy Hunter espe-
cially was successful in giving her name a promi-
nent position in the studbook. Through her the
Campbell blood has appeared in winners like
Count Hunter, Seven-Up, and Vic's Vic.
While on the subject of contests between
Llewellins and "natives" the other great match
race, that between the Llewellin, Lit, and the
more plebeian Grousedale, may have a glance.
This v/as a three-days' race run in cold and dis-
agreeable weather, in which Lit overwhelmingly
defeated her rival.
The first field trial setter to lay the foundation
American Llewellins 69
of a debate in regard to changing the bench-show
standard was Gath. This pet of the field trial
men was by Count Noble out of the Gladstone-
Leicester-Dart bitch, Peep o' Day. He was a de-
parture from most of the ideals previously held
on both sides of the water. He was of light and
fine structure, and his action is said to have been
as easy and frictionless as that of a fox. He died
young, but made a remarkable impression, not
only on the memories of sportsmen but on the
Llewellin strain. He sired out of the Gladstone
bitch. Gem, a prized litter of which Gath's Mark,
Gath's Hope, and Harold were the best. Through
the first two Gath's blood lives in the veins of a
vast number of high-class dogs to-day. Gath's
Mark was a white-black-tan dog of medium size,
not handsome but of most sterling character.
After having been retired for some years he came
out when he was, I think, six years old and won
the championship stake. His brother, Gath's
Hope, was one 9f the largest Llewellins ever bred
in this country, standing about twenty-seven
inches at the shoulder. He was lemon-and-white.
Partly because of his color and partly because he
was believed to be soft, he was little bred to for a
time, but after Daisy Hope and Daisy Hunter,
his daughters, appeared, he became fashionable.
One of his daughters was the dam of Champion
70 The Sporting Dog
In connection with Gath there may be usefully
grouped a succession of dogs which deserve
special attention, on account not only of their
brilliant success in public trials and their promi-
nence in later-day pedigrees, but of their peculiar
character. These dogs are Roderigo, Count
Gladstone IV, and Mohawk. The type is what
some breeders would call feminine. Mohawk, the
latest high-class specimen of the type, is also its
extreme. It would be injustice to leave the im-
pression that such dogs are feminine in the sense
of being effeminate. The word is used to indicate
that they are of rather small size, sensitive to in-
fluences, easily affected by harsh treatment, and
generally of fine, rather than powerful, character.
They require encouragement rather than restraint
in their training, though enthusiastic, wide, and
persistent searchers when at work.
Roderigo was a white-black-tan dog, strongly
marked, weighing not much more than forty-five
pounds and of good structural points. His head,
shoulders, and foreparts generally were regarded
by many experts as ideal. His loin and quarters
were rather narrow^ and not in proportion to
his front. When first brought out in public,
he was a little too cautious in his bird work, but
subsequently developed great speed, range, and
finding quality. As all setter men know, he was
the greatest sire of his time. Most of the field
LLEWELLIN. FIELD-TRIAL TYPE
Charity. White-black-tan. By Tony Boy-Lena Belle. Owner, Mr. Pierre Loril-
lard, New York. An exceptionally brilliant performer. Since the death of Geneva,
her sister, severe field-trial critics say that Charity is one of the two really first-
rate female field-trial dogs in America, the other being Sport's Maid, owned by
Mr. Henry, of Butler, Missouri. By " first rate " these critics mean that these two alone
have in the highest form the qualities of speed, decisive bird work, and gameness
under all conditions of heat or cold, rain or shine. Peach Blossom and Annie B. are
candidates for admission to this select group.
LLEWELLIN. LIGHT WEIGHT. FIELD-TRIAL TYPE
Geneva. Field-trial champion (1903), National Championship Club. Now dead.
White-black-tan. By Tony Boy-Lena Belle. Winner in Derby and all age form.
Probably the highest in field class of her sex bred in America. Weight, forty pounds.
Breeder and owner, Mr. Pierre Lorillard, New York. Great speed, range, and
American Llewellins 71
trial setters of to-day trace to him in one or more
lines. His best son in the field and as a sire was
Antonio, the sire of Rodfield, Tony Boy, and a
number of other dogs which have no superiors in
Champion Count Gladstone IV, as were the
other dogs of this group, was bred almost exactly
like Roderigo, being by Count Noble out of a
Gladstone-Druid dam. He was a white-black-
tan dog, but nearly all white. He was even
worse than Roderigo in the quality of his bird
work in his early days, a trouble which seems to
have been caused partly by a period of harsh
treatment which he suffered when a puppy. He
afterward developed into the foremost field trial
winner of his time and succeeded Roderigo in
the position of the greatest sire. Late in life he
was purchased by a kennel in California conducted
under the patronage of Mrs. Senator Hearst. He
was equally successful in his last home. The
number of performers sired by this dog was phe-
nomenal. From Dan's Lady alone he produced
Champion Lady's Count Gladstone, Lady's Count,
Dave Earl, Count Danstone, and Albert Lang.
From Hester Prynne he got Sioux, Lady Rachel,
and Prime Minister.
Mohawk, the latest great dog of this type, has
blood lines essentially the same. His sire, Tony
Boy, is inbred to Roderigo, and his dam, Countess
72 The Sporting Dog
Meteor, is by Count Gladstone IV out of a daughter
of Roderigo. Mohawk is a small but thoroughly
well-built and symmetrical dog of the white-black-
tan color, chiefly white. In his Derby year he
was regarded by many as the highest class puppy
ever run in America. In his second season his
bird work suffered from some cause, and he did
not quite confirm the early impression. In his
third year he has redeemed his reputation and is,
in the autumn of 1903, the first of living setters
by the records. He has perfect action, great speed,
and a wider range than most sportsmen would care
to follow. His work on birds, though not pot-
tering, is catlike rather than bold and positive.
Under Mr. Whitford he won bench honors at
Chicago in the spring of 1903.
From the famous cross of Gladstone with Bry-
son's Sue came a number of dogs which stand as
milestones in the studbooks. Gladstone's Boy
was, perhaps, all things considered, the best indi-
vidual. He was a very large dog of sufficient
speed and exceptionally intelligent bird work. He
was the sire of a number of successful public per-
formers, among them, Fanny Murnan, Lora, and
Miss Ruby. His blood appears to be especially
successful through his daughters. Of entirely
different type from Gladstone's Boy was Dan
Gladstone, a rather small and compact dog, con-
sidered a close resemblance to his sire. He was
American Llewellins 73
a fairly good but not great performer in the trials
and was a success in the stud. Sportsman was a
very large dog of this cross and had no little pre-
tension to bench-show excellence. He was taken
to California and became prominent in the breed-
ing ranks of that state. Breeze Gladstone was
the most successful of the cross on the bench.
He was a strongly marked white-black-tan, of size
rather above the average, and was smoother in
conformation and much better in head than most
dogs of his breeding.
Paul Gladstone may be mentioned in connec-
tion with Bohemian Girl, the latter being the
mother of his best progeny. Paul was a small,
cobby, white-black-tan dog of fair field trial
form. He was an almost unchallenged bench
winner for two or three years. He was by no
means without faults, however, and I think would
hardly rank high on the bench if he were alive
to-day. His head was too short and, for the char-
acter of his muzzle, too thick.
Bohemian Girl was possibly the best daughter
of Count Noble. She was a large and rangy
black-and-white, with a slashing way of going
and admittedly the best field setter of her sex at
the time. In her public running she was owned
by Mr. Walter Mellier of Kansas City, but was
sold by him for $1000 to Mr. Shelley Hudson of
Kentucky. Bred to Paul Gladstone, Bohemian
74 The Sporting Dog
Girl became the mother of Paul Bo, owned by
Mr. Richard Merrill of Milwaukee. Paul Bo
excited the enthusiasm of setter men by his phe-
nomenal speed and handsome appearance. He
inherited much of his mother's size and rangi-
ness, with his sire's good looks and quality. He
had a white-black-tan head with heavily ticked
There would be an interest in describing all
the notable individuals of the Roderigo-Bopeep
family, among them Orlando, Bettye S., and
Chance. Space, however, limits the description
to Antonio, the most notable and successful.
Antonio was a handsome and heavily marked
white-black-tan of good size. He had an excel-
lent head, exceptionally good shoulders and legs,
and generally attractive appearance. He was
one of the best bird finders of the Roderigo-Bo-
peep family and probably had stamina and ability
to sustain speed to an extent not surpassed by any
dog that ever ran before the public. Through
Tony Boy and Rodfield his blood is at the top
of the present fashion among field trial pa-
No account of American setters would be quite
complete without a mention of Mingo, the son of
Druid. He was a favorite among Canadian setter
breeders for years, and his blood still counts for
much in approved pedigrees. He was nearer the
American Llewellins 75
early bench standards than most Llewellins and
of more than average performing ability in the
field. His sons and daughters were generally
good looking and almost invariably admirable
Mr. Dager of Toledo, Ohio, had a career as a
setter ow^ner which if not long was at least brill-
iant. He bought the two puppies, Cincinnatus
and Toledo Blade, in Tennessee under, I believe,
the advice of Major Taylor. Both of these
dogs were white-black-tan and of superior bench
type. Toledo Blade looked much like his sire,
Roderigo, and was one of the best field trial dogs
of a time of good ones. Cincinnatus was not
highly regarded by field trial men, but was placed
in good company. On the bench Cincinnatus
quickly won a championship. Under judges who
favored a rangy type he was invincible. In ap-
pearance this dog was an exaggeration of what
might be called the Druid shape. His skull and
muzzle were almost abnormally long but were
correctly formed. He was rather flat in chest
and weak in back ribs, but was otherwise good
and a remarkably refined specimen among large
dogs. From the successful show setter, Albert's
Nellie, largely Laverack in blood, he produced the
magnificent field performer and bench winner,
Cincinnatus's Pride. Pride is somewhat like his sire
without the extreme points. In all around quality
76 The Sporting Dog
he is the best dog shown in years, and promises
to live for many generations in the success of his
Considered from the field trial standpoint alone,
the most successful of sires living at this writ-
ing is Tony Boy, a light-weight white-black-tan
by Antonio out of a dam by Roi d'Or, a full
brother of Antonio. In stamina and endurance
at high speed Tony Boy ranked first during the
years of his public competition. In the stud he
has sired Champion Geneva, Mohawk, Clyde,
Tony Man, Sport McAllister, Pretti Sing, and an
astonishing number of other first-rate performers,
when it is remembered that for several years after
being retired he was not much used as a stud dog.
Champion Rodfield was owned by the late
P. T. Madison of Indianapolis, whose friendly re-
lations with field trial men extended all over the
country. Rodfield was, therefore, a fashionable
sire from his first season. His sons and daugh-
ters were quickly scattered over the entire United
States and Canada. He has the distinction of
having been considered nearer than any other
Llewellin to Gladstone in appearance and style of
work. He was a white-black-tan of sufficient
outward quality to win a championship on the
bench, though this honor was not achieved in first-
rate company. His blood lines were of the best;
being by Antonio out of a dam by Gath's Hope.
American UewelUns 77
Other sons of Antonio which are suggested by
the mention of Tony Boy and Rodfield are Cham-
pion Joe Gumming and Champion Tony's Gale,
both dogs of the usual Llewellin color and superb
field abilities. Dash Antonio was the equal of
either, though less distinguished.
Among the dogs descended from the Gleam
side of the Llewellin house one of the best was
the lemon-and-white Gleam's Sport. In actual
ranging and finding ability he was regarded as
the foremost dog of two seasons. At that time,
however, his color was less respected than it is
now and, like many of the Gleams, he had very
little of merry style in the field. Dogs were
placed over him in the trials which did not equal
him in solid work but surpassed him in attractive-
ness of style. His son, Marie's Sport, long the
property of Judge H. B. Ledbetter of Farmington,
Missouri, was also a little unfortunate in getting
somewhat less than the best of it from the field
trial judges. Yet, since he got considerably more
than justice on the bench, his supporters had no
right to complain. Marie's Sport was white-
black-tan, one side of his head being white. He
was a powerful dog of medium size, and game
to the last degree. His success in the stud was
remarkable from the first. His sons and daugh-
ters include the winners, Sport's Gath, Sport's
Belle, Champion Sport's Boy, Sport's Solomon,
78 The Sporting Dog
Prince Lyndon, Sport's Destiny, and Sport's
Lady. Almost without exception he gave the
quality of resolute, indefatigable hunting ability,
with accurate nose and stanch point work.
Judging from the past year or two, it is likely
that his daughters will be among the most suc-
cessful matrons in Llewellin kennels.
A clever rather than great son of Rodfield out
of a Marie's Sport dam is the orange-and-white
Rodfield's Pride (Cowley's). He was a high-class
winner throughout the fall of 1902, and wound up
as second to the pointer, Percival Jingo, in the
Interstate Championship stake. In the winter
trials he had gone out of condition and did not
show so well. His size is smallish and his bench
quality not more than ordinary. In the field he
is stylish and attractive.
Some judges would say that in strict class
Colonel R. is the best setter that ever ran in pub-
lic. In five starts he won two Derbies and two of
the principal all-age stakes. In each of his win-
ning trials the reports say that he distinctly and
obviously outclassed his competitors, and that the
judges did not hesitate a moment in placing him
first He is a white-black-tan dog of medium
weight and rather light construction. His dam.
Trap Jr., lemon-and-white, is, perhaps, the only
prominent English setter which carries the blood
of the Ethan Allen strain, well known in ConneC'
American Llewellins 79
ticut a quarter of a century or more ago. She
was a field trial winner herself. Mr. Edwards of
Cleveland, the owner of Colonel R., also has in his
kennel Uncle B., a son of Harwick and Dan's
Lady. Uncle B. probably participated in more
field trials than any dog that ever lived, and was
always dangerous. He was not quite first class
in brilliancy, but was a determined goer, and won
more than once against strong competition. In
the stud Uncle B. is making a record. In the fall
of 1903 his youngsters have shown better than
those of any other setter sire.
Oakley Hill was the great Derby winner of his
season in the central West. He was afterward
shown on the bench and, except in head, was con-
sidered by good judges one of the best modern
specimens of the Llewellins. He is a handsome
white-black-tan of medium size and compact shape.
He is a dog of intense force and courage, and is
already prominent as a sire. Veteran field trial
followers insist that his style at work was Glad-
stone's over again.
Lady's Count Gladstone is a dog much like
Oakley Hill in color and conformation. He is
the premier of the Count Gladstone IV-Dan's
Lady family. He won his field trial champion-
ship after a comparatively short experience and
against the pick of the country.
Among the young dogs one of the most notable
8o The Sporting Dog
is Marse Ben, not only because he is a good dog,
but because of his strong infusion of Gleam blood,
his dam, Mecca II, being inbred to Gleam. His
sire, Domoko, was a field trial performer, but not
a winner, by Antonio. Marse Ben is a strongly
marked dog, above the usual size, and of well-
knit, muscular physique and of essentially rugged,
masculine type. He was in the field just a little
short of first-rate speed as compared, for instance,
with his competitor, Mohawk, but his bird work
was astonishingly clever in most of his trials.
He beat Mohawk at their first meeting. On the
bench he would hardly be considered.
Prince Rodney is a young dog not unlike Marse
Ben in appearance but better looking. He is a
dog of great class, having both speed and nose.
He was placed in some of the state trials in his
Derby year and showed even better in his all-age
form. He may be called the chief of the Lady's
Count Gladstone-Jessie Rodfield family. Rodney's
full brother, Count Whitestone, has been called
the most stylish and graceful setter in the field
among those seen in public since the state trials
Before the story of the Llewellin individuals is
concluded, a word should be said of Dashing
Dixie, the winner of the Indiana all-age stake of
1889. She was owned by Judge Guinotte of
Kansas City, and was a sv/eet and handsome as
LLEWELLIN. LIGHT WEIGHT
Champion Peach Blossom. By Count Gladstone IV-Peach Mark. Her dam,
Peach Mark, herself the best California setter of her year, was a granddaughter of
imported Dick Bondhu and of Gath"s Mark. Peach Blossom weighs thirty-five pounds,
is very fast, stylish, and clever on birds. After beating the best dogs in California, she
came East and won the Illinois Club's championship, November, 1903. She is an
important study in Llewellin setters because she is the most typical living repre-
sentative of the Count Gladstone IV blood ; and because she represents in its extreme
form the small, compact, high-strung field-trial Llewellin which has been for years a
subject of controversy among the setter men. In the kennel she is an affectionate pet,
vivacious and intelligent. In the field she is dashing and brilliant. Her peculiar car-
riage of tail on point is shown in the photograph, taken by the author. Her owner is
Mr. W. W. Van Arsdale, Bakersfield, California.
LLEWELLIN. GLEAM TYPE
Prince Lyndon. By Marie's Sport-West Wind by Roderigo. White-black-tan.
Performed the remarkable feat of coming out in 1903 at seven years old, after several
seasons as a shooting dog, and winning first in public trials on chicken, beating noted
winners. Shows the prepotent Gleam characteristic of rugged, aggressive bird-finding.
Photograph bad in foreshortening, but good of the dog's front. Taken when two
years old. Lyndon's weight is about fifty-five pounds. Bred and owned by Dr. W. G.
Moore, St. Louis, Missouri. The position of the dog here shows the fashion of tug-
ging on the lead, which is encouraged by many field-trial handlers to promote eager-
ness, quickness, and dash in the breakaway when cast off in public competition.
American Llewellins 8i
well as high-class setter, being black, white, and
belton. She deserves special mention on account
of her pedigree. She was inbred to the Dash
blood, being a granddaughter of both Dash II and
his full brother, Dash III. After being retired
she was bred to Roderigo, and her two sons, Dixie's
Rod and Cap Tough, have both left descendants
Two peculiarities of Marie's Sport bid fair to
live long and crop out often in his descendants.
He had an odd tail — long, ropy, and carried ex-
tremely high over his back with a sidewise twist.
His coat was harsh and rough. These two points
appear in his celebrated son, Sport's Boy, the
lemon-and-white winner of the first Interstate
Champion stake. Boy is a small dog, but built
like a steel machine. He is so good in utility
points of construction that Mr. Davidson, usually
a stickler for quality, placed him above some re-
spectable winners on the bench. He has his sire's
long and poorly feathered tail and roughish tex-
ture of coat. In speed he rates with the best, and
when he is right, his endurance and bird work are
It has happened that the best four sons of
Marie's Sport have belonged to four of my per-
sonal friends; Sport's Gath to Mr. Charles A.
Robinson, Sport's Boy to Mr. Charles B. Cooke,
Sport's Solomon to Judge Ledbetter, and Prince
82 The Sporting Dog
Lyndon to Dr. W. G. Moore. The remarkable
prepotency of the Gleam blood is seen in all four
of these dogs. The peculiar determination of
their bird hunting is different in style from the
Count Noble and Gladstone way of going — dif-
ferent but not necessarily better — and betrays
the Gleam influence. Prince Lyndon, in my
judgment, is decidedly the best dog of the four
in the most desirable elements of setter quality,
though the least meteoric. He has for years been
one of my favorites, — ever since I saw him, when
just grown, become in a day the king of the ken-
nel among thirty dogs he had never seen before.
And he was not quarrelsome, only masterful.
When this season, after having been used as a
shooting dog all his life, he came out, seven years
old, and won first place on prairie chicken against
an array which included Captain Jack, Alford's
John, Lad of Jingo, and Sure Shot, I could not
have found more pleasure in the rare feat if he
had been mine. For he is a genuine dog. He
is of good color, of the right size, strong without
coarseness, excellent in bench type, and better
than all, of bold, cheerful and independent char-
acter. As I write, he is the latest Llewellin celeb-
rity, and I doubt whether there has ever been a
Llewellin celebrity more satisfying to the disinter-
ested sportsman. The setter which has surpassed
him in the chicken trials of 1903, McKinley, is a
American Llewellins 83
much younger dog with better field trial opportu-
nities. McKinley is a real dog, too, and is entitled
to all respect. He continues the blood of two great
Llevvellin winners, Count Gladstone IV and Lil-
lian Russell, but is what the faddists call " cold "
on his dam's side. He is a well bred English
setter, but not a "pure" Llewellin — the worse
for the "pures."
He resembles Rodfield closely in style, size,
form, and marking. One would say that, with
his bench form and blood lines, he is due to be
a great setter sire. It is an additional pleasure to
the sportsman to see that Mr. Duryea's Mohawk,
after his special style another true bird dog
whose reputation is no accident, subdued his
brilliancy of wide ranging long enough to win
the championship on chicken — that of the Mani-
toba Club. Mohawk has also beaten the first-
raters in some of the autumn quail trials, and has,
in 1903, the admitted best among field trial
setters' records as to class. All three of these
Llewellins are fit to prolong the race of English
LAVERACKS IN AMERICA
Purists who love exactitudes say that there are
few real Laveracks now living. Two or three
investigators have, with a flourish, brought out
from obscurity specimens which come down with-
out outside cross from the Laverack kennel and,
according to the Laverack creed, straight from
Ponto and Old Moll. Broadly speaking, all this
is an error likely to lead to confusion ; just as an
attempt to narrow the definition of Llewellin
threatens the same result. Most of the modern
bench-show Laveracks have such an overwhelm-
ing preponderance of straight Laverack blood
and have been so carefully bred for type that it
would be an error to call them by any other name.
In all truth they are more highly perfected Laver-
acks than anything Mr. Laverack himself ever
bred. As in the case of the Llewellin, I shall
give to such dogs the name to which they are
entitled by their type and essential blood lines.
Even Mr. Laverack's harshest critics, Dr. Walsh
(Stonehenge) and Rev. Mr. Pierce (Idstone), ad-
mitted that his dogs had high quality, uniformity
Ulverstone Rap (imported). Owner, Mr. George C. Thomas, Jr., Philadelphia.
Winner in the later spring shows of 1903. Held by Laverack specialists to be the
most typical Laverack shown for years. Beaten in the fall at Ladies" Kennel Associa-
tion and Brooklyn fall shows by Mallwyd Bang and Lingfield Bragg, both Laveracks,
but still regarded by expert judges as better than either in head and general symmetry.
Schreiber"s photograph shows clearly this dog"s rarely chiselled muzzle and skull and
well-balanced conformation. Compare his head, feather and carriage of tail with those
points in the Llewellins, Colonel R. and Rodfield's Pride. The difference of type will
be at once plain.
Champion Mallwyd Sirdar (imported). Owner. Mr. George C. Thomas, Jr.,
Philadelphia. Exceptionally fine action for bench show. Laverack of a type admired by
both fanciers and shooting men. Sirdar has an advantage over most Laveracks in
free, strong movement. He has already sired a free-going young Laverack in Albert's
Sirdar, and several really good field dogs from Llewellin dams. If any Laverack
crosses well with American Llewellins, it will probably be Mallwyd Sirdar.
Laveracks in America 85
of appearance, and abundant pointing tendency.
They also gave the females, at least, credit for
good speed and action. The fault which Stone-
henge particularly noted in the Laveracks seemed
in nearly all cases to turn up again in this country.
These dogs had not the hunting versatility, deci-
sion, and resourcefulness which mark field per-
formers of the first rank.
Most of the notable importations of Laveracks
in the '70's were made with reference to crossing
on the Llewellin stock after Mr. Llewellin's own
example. Mr. L. H. Smith of Canada brought
over several and reported in the public prints of
the time that they were satisfactory in speed and
hunting instinct, but of little value as shooting
dogs. Since Mr. Llewellin always said the same
thing of Phantom, Lill, and the other Laverack
bitches from which he bred after succeeding with
Countess and Nellie, there seems to be not much
to say in favor of the value of the pure Laverack
dogs of that time on either American or English
game. Petrel, Peeress, Victress, and others of
Mr. Smith's kennel came under the verdict which
was rendered in England against Phantom and
Lill. Yet in both countries these bitches, of small
value in the field, produced great bird dogs. And
the modern Laveracks are generally fair shooting
Laveracks in America are most important from
86 The Sporting Dog
two standpoints : first, their bearing as a factor in
the LlevvelHn blood ; second, their record on the
show benches. The first need not be mentioned
here, since it is part of the Llewellin history.
On the bench the Laveracks have had in this
country, as in England, the favor of all the judges
who are sticklers for " fancy." Mr. John David-
son, one of the most popular of American bench-
show judges, said to me once that it is impossible
to judge a setter without considering primarily
head, coat, and stern. Those, he said, were the
points which made a setter different from other
dogs. " Any mongrel," he continued, " can have
good chest, shoulders, feet, and legs, but if a dog
has not a setter coat, he is not a setter." Mr.
Davidson probably expressed the general thought
which has governed the long line of judges in
both countries who have maintained the suprem-
acy of the Laverack type on the benches. It w^as
difficult for a judge of the old days to set aside a
dog like Thunder in favor of a setter of inferior
quality; as in our time few of them can ignore
Since there is no dispute about the Laverack
type and very little about its breeding, the story
in America is soon told, though it has an interest
in many directions. In the field the Laveracks
have been more used and more useful than the
public records would indicate. Especially in
Laveracks in America 87
New England they have been highly regarded
by many good sportsmen and seemed to make
agreeable shooting companions. In the West
and South, on the other hand, they have not
Of the modern Laveracks, the beautiful dogs
shown for several years by Mr. Windholz of New
York may be taken as the beginning. In 1889
he showed Champion Rockingham, Champion
Count Howard, and Champion Cora of Wetheral,
and it was a beautiful exhibition. Rockingham
was a blue belton of good show points in all
respects, as his long list of successes indicates.
Count Howard was a much larger dog of the
same color. His skull was rather too large and
heavy even for his size, and his lip deep to the
point of looseness. Mr. Windholz also bred a
handsome one in Princess Beatrice.
About the same time Royal Prince II was
shown in competition with the Windholz dogs.
He was a more compact and smoothly turned
specimen of the blue belton color. In the years
following, the Laverack type was conspicuous in
Champion Sheldon, Champion Gilhooley, Cham-
pion Highland Fleet, all bred on this side, and
others w^ell known to fanciers.
It is likely that Monk of Furness was, taking
the country over, used in the stud more than any
other of the imported Laveracks. He was almost
88 The Sporting Dog
entirely white, the markings being very sHght.
He was a dog of beautiful head and general con-
tour, rather stiff and stilty in his action. A great
many of his descendants, now amalgamated with
the Llewellins, are to be found through the West.
Highland Fleet made more admirers among
the Llewellin men than most Laveracks. He was
an orange belton of medium size and neatly
turned ; having an appearance and action which
suggested travelling ability. Several gentlemen
who shot over him spoke highly of his field qual-
ities. He was good on birds and had enough
speed for the New England shooting.
Gilhooley was another orange belton. With
Highland Fleet and Orangeman, he stood at the
head of his tribe two or three years. He was a
larger dog than Highland Fleet and of more
strength and power but less quality.
There has been a sharp revival of the Laverack
fancy, the starting-point having been the importa-
tion of the orange belton. Barton Tory, in 1900;
though, perhaps, the movement may be said to
have been started with Albert's Woodcock, brought
over a year or two before. Woodcock was rather
a heavy dog with a typical Laverack head and a
well-marked orange belton coat. The owners of
Woodcock's puppies seemed to have been un-
lucky. Most of them died from one cause or
another. Barton Tory was exhibited by Mr.
Laveracks in America 89
Vandergrift of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Few dogs
have ever surpassed him in quahty. He had a hand-
some head and ahiiost perfect shoulders and front.
His weak point was a lack of proportion between
his strong foreparts and his quarters. In any-
thing like thin condition he looked almost as
if he might have been made up of two dogs.
Mallwyd Sirdar followed Barton Tory and de-
feated him when they first met. Sirdar, owned
by Mr. George C. Thomas, Jr., of Philadelphia, is
a rangier dog than Tory and has remarkably sty-
lish and free action for a Laverack. Judges who
make a specialty of that type have said that Sir-
dar's skull and muzzle are the finest seen for many
years. His faults are eyes of light color and some
looseness of elbow.
In the show season of 1903 the crack Laverack
was Mr. Thomas's Rumney Racket, which, with
his kennel companion, Madcap, did a great deal
of winning. Like Highland Fleet, he pleases the
Llewellin men more than does the average Laver-
ack. He is a handsome blue belton of good size
and rangy conformation. Some judges think that
Dr. Hair's Rumney Ranger has a better head
than Racket, but loses in other respects. Other
Laveracks of beautiful heads, coats, and quality
have been Bracken o' Leek, Flirt o' Leek, and
Queen's Place Pride. Mr. Thomas has lately
brought over Ulverstone Rap, and this dog now
go The Sporting Dog
stands as, taken all in all, the best Laverack in
These recent importations have usually the
lines of blood represented by Count Howard
and Monk of Furness, coming down from Tam
A setter of Laverack breeding which deserves
special mention is Champion Sue H., a large
lemon belton. She won a number of times in
the hands of Mr. James Cole of Kansas City as
well as after he disposed of her. If she had been
better in hocks and pasterns, she would have been
hard to beat anywhere. Bred to John Davidson's
Llewellin, Donald Bane, she produced, among
others, a dog called Ray, and he became the sire
of Cole's Lady, a good winner on the bench.
Bred to Cincinnatus's Pride, Cole's Lady produced
Lady Cole, a white-and-black setter which some
judges regard as the most beautiful setter now in
this country. Lady Cole always won whenever
shown, but has not been at any of the Eastern
shows since her debut in the puppy class in New
York. Her puppies by Oakley Hill, however,
won blue ribbons in the New York show of 1903.
While Lady Cole is not a Laverack, she is cer-
tainly not a Llewellin, and as she is likely to be
an important figure in the breeding records, I
mention her among the bench-show setters. She
is of medium size, white, with the exception of
Lavemcks in America 91
her ears, and slightly ticked. Her skull and
muzzle are wonderfully good, though some critics
would call them a little too refined. In fact, it is
difficult to find serious fault with her anywhere ex-
cept on the general ground that she has too much of
the " fancy " appearance to suit sportsmen. In jus-
tice to her breeder it is proper to say that in this re-
spect the impression is made rather by her color,
since she possesses more than the average bone
and muscle shown by bitches of her size.
There are two setters of the last-mentioned kind
of breeding which are not Laveracks, but prop-
erly, perhaps, belong in the same group, espe-
cially since both of them received distinguished
consideration from Mr. Mortimer, the dean of the
American corps of judges. One of these setters,
Winner's Victoria, I have never had any hesita-
tion in calling the nearest to faultless among dogs
of the general Laverack type. She was bred
almost a straight Llewellin, but the fact of her
appearance merely goes to show the deep influ-
ence of the Laverack blood in the Llewellins.
She was a blue belton, weighing forty-five pounds,
and built on what would be called cobby lines.
Her symmetry was little short of perfection.
Llewellin judges did not fancy her much on
account of her cobbiness. However, it should be
said that she probably never was shown in pre-
cisely fit condition except twice. Her owner
92 Tbe Sporting Dog
cared little about dogs, and she was nearly always
either too fat or otherwise below herself in looks.
Mr. Mortimer lifted her into the highest honors
at the Kansas City show in 1900. She was put
down there in perfect condition. He gave her a
special for the best setter, beneath her being
Highland Fleet, Albert's Woodcock, Sue H.,
Vic's Vic, and others of a very strong English
setter class. I have not a catalogue of that show
at hand, but my recollection is that the Irish
setters, Champion Ben Law and Champion Lord
Lismore, were in the list which she beat. In
the special for the best dog of any breed in the
show, Mr. Mortimer hesitated some time between
her and the Great Dane, Sandor vom Inn, finally
picking Sandor, putting her above quite a list of
The other dog to which I refer is Topgallant,
a large blue belton, w^eighing, I learn, over sixty
pounds. Mr. Mortimer picked him for emphatic
praise at the Chicago show of 1901, though the
dog did not get a ribbon from the judge. Top-
gallant won the North American Club Derby in
the fall of 1900. He is said to be a magnificent
bird dog, and he is certainly most impressive in
appearance, though I have never called him a
bench-show dog under the usual standards. He
is owned by Mr. H. Marshall Graydon of London,
Ontario. He is a grandson of Champion Monk
Laveracks in America 93
of Furness, but the striking point in his breed-
ing is his many lines to London, the once well-
known son of Mr. Smith's famous Paris. If the
English setter men of this country are looking for
size and vigor, they might very well give attention
to this handsome Canadian.
There would be a gap in an account of the
* Laverack type if the unflagging courage of Dr. J.
E. Hair, of Hartford, Connecticut, were not men-
tioned. Dr. Hair has been faithful to the typical
bench-show setter. He has owned Albert's
Woodcock, Highland Fleet, Beau Brummel,
Rumney Ranger, and a long list of the modern
Laveracks, having shown specimens almost every
season for fifteen years or more.
Laverack color has come to be almost entirely
blue belton or orange belton, — the markings
which Mr. Laverack preferred. Though there are
belton Llewellins and white-black-tan Laveracks,
neither is quite typical as a rule. Belton Llew-
ellins commonly have a muddy look, and the
heavily marked Laveracks are seldom shown in
public. Some of the bench-show breeders in
England have crossed successfully on the Llewel-
lins, especially on those strong in Dash H blood.
On the other hand, American Llewellin breeders
have produced some fairly good show specimens
from using English Laveracks as a cross.
In the modern Laveracks, bred largely for the
94 The Sporting Dog
bench qualities of coat and head, the hunting
powers have, as a matter of course, suffered ; and
yet these dogs are not parlor dogs, or, as Mr.
Buckell calls them, "diseased Laveracks." Not
only are some of the " pure " ones excellent shoot-
ing dogs, but when crossed with the Llewellin,
they usually produce attractive and satisfactory
performers, though not often approaching any-
where near field trial class. Most of the Monk
of Furness blood as mingled with the Llewellin
gave good-looking dogs which were easily broken
and were highly valued by their owners. At the
same time, it must be confessed that no one
could see where Monk of Furness added any-
thing of utility — the most to be said being that
he did not cause any degeneration of hunting
instinct or finding abilities.
In connection with Monk of Furness and other
modern Laveracks, I may, at the risk of giving
offence to the owners of such dogs, mention a
circumstance which has seemed to me peculiar.
It is that there is more difficulty in breeding
Laveracks structurally correct than Llewellins.
I should not call my own experience so extensive
as to be conclusive, but in nine cases out of ten
the modern Laveracks in this country seem to me
to breed such blemishes as bad pasterns and
hocks, ill-shaped feet, wrongly set shoulders, and
flat heads. Almost invariably they reproduce a
Laveracks in America 95
coat of fine quality and a good setter expression,
but in the points mentioned they do not seem to
equal the Llewellins in uniformity of results. I
bred several litters from imported bench winners
and their immediate descendants, and have owned
and seen quite a number having the blood of
Monk of Furness. My own observation of these
breeding defects is confirmed by reports I have
received from a few other breeders. I suppose
that the fact is due to the exaggerated attention
paid to the coat by bench-show breeders. If my
own somewhat limited observation represents a
general rule, it explains why the purely bench-
show Laverack in America never bred on. It
seems as if the exhibitors were compelled con-
stantly to go to England to find winners.
In their own field of beauty and distinction of
appearance the modern Laveracks are not only
the superiors of other English setters, but are, per-
haps, the handsomest and most bloodlike of all
dogs. Owners also find them attractive and
affectionate companions. One would suppose
that some way could be devised to blend their
superb quality with the speed and field work of
the later Llewellins. Since, however, it has been
tried many times without encouraging results, per-
haps the history of the future, as in the past, will
be that the Laverack with its specialized develop-
ment of fancy points will lead on the benches,
96 The Sporting Dog
while the plainer but more workmanlike LlewelHn
will be in control of public competition on game ;
the private owner being, according to his taste, a
Laverack fancier or a LlewelHn shooting man.
Mr. Thomas has on the largest scale yet at-
tempted begun to introduce Laverack blood. It
is only justice to say that this fall (1903) he sent
a brace of young ones to a prominent Western
field trial handler who told me that they had
speed and range for the work, with all the
Laverack beauty of head and coat. Distemper
stopped their training. They were by a Laver-
ack sire out of LlewelHn dams.
Setter type — correct type, true type, old type,
are some of the terms used — has misled some
judges who have handled principally the fancy
stock of various breeds at bench shows and have
made no special study of English setters. They
think of type only as Laverack. Laveracks, when
good, have peerless beauty, but not the old type
of Stonehenge. More Llewellins than Laveracks
are of thoroughly sound type. Cincinnatus's
Pride, essentially LlewelHn in type, though not
" straight " in pedigree, is a more soundly typical
English setter than any Laverack ever shown in
the country. So is Selkirk Dan, the Canadian ;
and so is Oakley Hill, barring his head. So is
McKinley; so is Sport's Gath ; so is Prince Rod-
ney ; so are several other of the fastest and best
field trial winners.
IRISH AND GORDON SETTERS
While it is an admitted fact that Irish setters
have not held their own either in pubHc events
or in the favor of private sportsmen, there is one
contrary fact which lends to this state of things
a trifle of perplexity. A large number of
thorough-going field shots who have owned and
seen numbers of dogs say that the best setters
they ever used were Irish. I have in mind ten
or twelve gentlemen in different parts of the
country who make this statement when talking
of their experiences. An example worth men-
tioning is that of Mr. Charles W. Scudder of St.
Louis. Few sportsmen anywhere have either
owned or shot over as many good dogs as Mr.
Scudder. For many years he has constantly
kept a picked string of ten or twelve in training and
has made no discrimination in favor of any breed.
Sometimes the majority of his dogs are pointers,
and in other years he has more of setters.
Frequently they are field trial performers. He
tells me without reservation that the best doer he
ever had was an Irish setter, which he describes
98 The Sporting Dog
as fast, stanch, handy on birds, and always ready
for work. He admits, however, that it took two
seasons to train the dog, and that during the first
year the animal would seldom point at all. Here,
perhaps, lies one explanation of the Irish setter's
loss of favor. It is certainly true that it has not
the natural pointing instinct or judgment in
locating birds to the degree shown in pointers
and English setters.
Before the country which is now the Territory
of Oklahoma was open to settlement, I was out
one day on the prairie with the late General, then
Captain, Woodson of the regular army, a keen
sportsman and an educated critic of dogs. A
friend had sent him a beautiful Irish setter some-
thing over a year old. The captain took the
youngster out this day to give him a trial on
birds. The dog started out in attractive fashion,
ranging fast and with high head on both sides of
the wagon as we drove along. Prairie chicken and
quail were both abundant in those days of
Oklahoma. In a few minutes the Irishman
struck a "bunch" of chicken. He did not make
game or hesitate, but dashed through them as if
they had been so many flies, and went ranging
along as bhthely as if nothing had happened.
The captain uttered a few muttered maledictions,
but fancied that the dog would settle down after
a little more running. Ten minutes later the
Irish and Gordon Setters 99
performance was repeated. The dog galloped
straight through a covey without looking to the
right or left or appearing in the least interested
in the birds. Captain Woodson remarked that if
the rascal would even chase, he would be satisfied
to give it further education. But not once during
the entire run was there evidence that the dog
recognized game. He passed into the hands of
somebody else in a few days, and I do not know
what was his further development. Very likely,
however, if the captain had turned the dog over
to a trainer, a season of experience would have
brought back a well-established and valuable
Irish setters are indisputably satisfactory to a
great many sportsmen. Those which are good
are hardy hunters, excellent retrievers, and ready
for either water or weather. The fact that they
do not reach their best until three or four years
old operates against them. I might record
another feature of the Irish setter character
which I have never seen mentioned. Though the
good ones are bold even to recklessness, the timid
ones are the most creepy and exasperating pot-
terers I have ever seen of any breed. This
trouble appears especially often on the female
In public field trials the Irish setters have not
been able to compete with pointers and English
loo The Sporting Dog
setters. It seems impossible to give them the
dashing, get-away speed which the judges expect
in a good stake, and they usually waste too much
time on their game when they do find it. In the
early days of field trials they contested fairly well,
the rules then counting the number of points as
a standard of competition. In 1879 Erin II
made a good showing in the Tennessee trials,
and at that same period Joe Jr., which was half
Irish, boomed himself by beating Gladstone in a
match race. The Irish setter. Friend, actually
did some winning under those early rules. After
field trials were placed on a settled basis, the Irish
practically ceased to compete, and their entries
soon became rare. The breeders have never en-
tirely given up the idea of beating English setters
and pointers in the field trials, but their success
has not been flattering. Mr. Washington of
Pittsburg tried it in 1890 with his handsome dog,
Sarsfield. Mr. Wenzel of Philadelphia entered
that year his Ready II and William H. in one of
the principal Derbies. Mr. George Gray, also in
the same Derby, entered Tillie Boru. She was
described as the best of the Irish entries of that
year in speed and range. As Mr. Washington
had for a number of years one of the strongest
kennels of these setters in the country, his lack of
success was regarded as almost decisive of the
chances in field trials. Nothing daunted, Mr.
Irish and Gordon Setters loi
Bishop of Cincinnati took up the idea with Fin-
glas, an imported Irish setter of unusual field
quality, bringing across the sea a considerable
youthful reputation. He was by Fingal III out
of Aveline and from one of the greatest British
strains. Mr. Bishop also had the full sister, Cole-
raine. In 1892 the American Club was organ-
ized on a somewhat new basis with separate
stakes for Irish setters, English setters, and
pointers, the three winners to run together for
the absolute. Finglas won first in the Irish set-
ter class and also won the absolute, beating the
pointer, Castleman's Rex, a son of Mainspring,
and the English setter. Hi Di, by Oath's Hope.
In the Irish stake Elcho's Maid and Hope Boru,
both owned by Gray and handled by Mayfield,
were second and third. In the previous year
Coleraine had won second in the all-age stake of
the Irish Setter Club, in which stake Dr. Jarvis's
Duke Elcho received the rather peculiar reward
of " favorable commendation." Finglas and Cole-
raine also competed in the regular Central Club's
stake in 1892, but neither was placed. In 1893
Fingalin, by Finglas out of the celebrated bench
winner, Ruby Glenmore, was second to the pointer,
Warwick Nellie, in the international Derby run in
Canada. There were eleven starters, and this win
must be regarded as a feather in the cap of the
Irish setter. In 1893 the Irish Setter Club ran
I02 The Sporting Dog
its stakes at Thomasville, North Carolina. Mr.
Thomson's bitch, Gem, by Shaun, won the Derby,
with Nugget II, a daughter of Finglas, second,
and Patricius, a son of Duke Elcho, third. In
the all-age stake Currer Bell IV, by Tim out of
Currer Bell III, was first. In 1895 the Irish
Setter Club ran its stakes at High Point, North
Carolina. The Derby was won by Lady Finglas,
a daughter of Finglas out of Lady Swiveller.
There were, however, but two starters. In the
all-age stake Dr. Davis won both first and second
with Lou and Currer Maid, both by Finglas out
of Currer Bell IV. This almost closes the chap-
ter of Irish setter field trial performances, though
others have occasionally been entered, Mr. Thomas
having started Prince Bloomfield last season.
On the bench the Irish setter is always attractive
on account of his beautiful color and good move-
ment. In numbers the exhibit, however, is nearly
always small. Each class usually consists of two
or three good dogs in the hands of professional
handlers, and as many more local specimens of
rather poor quality. The history of Irish setters
on the bench is easily told, since there are no
great differences of opinion which would create
contests. One high-class bench-winning Irish
setter is much like another — the differences be-
ing in relative detail. Two exceptions to this
rule may be noted in the present champion Lord
Heather Crack. Owned by Mr. William Clare Allison, Philadelphia. Photograph
by Schreiber. Few pictures so well illustrate a good Gordon make-up and coat.
Champion Lord Lismore. By Lord Elcho, Jr.-Belle of Orange. Inbred to Elcho.
Owner, Mr. J. S. Wall, Chicago. An exceptionally strong setter of perfect Irish color.
When the picture was taken he was not at his best in appearance, not having his full
length of coat.
Irish and Gordon Setters 103
Lismore and Mr. Thomas's Prince Bloomfield.
Lismore is one of the handsomest dogs now liv-
ing, but is more soHdly built and square in the
head than the usual run of Irish setters. The
difference is not great, but enough to mark him
as almost a type of his own. Prince Bloomfield
is a typical Irishman, but is one of the smallest
specimens ever taken into a ring.
Any one can see by glancing at the studbook
that one of the great progenitors of Irish setters
in America was Elcho. He was the first of the
great ones. His descendants are still winning
on the bench. His best son as a show dog was,
perhaps, Elcho Jr. Another son, a handsome
dog of the early days, was Berkeley. During
most of his bench career this dog was owned by
Mr. Moore of Philadelphia. Mr. Wenzel of Phila-
delphia was an ardent patron of the breed for
years, and his champions, Tim and Chief, were
regular winners. Another of the early importa-
tions was Erin, brought over by Mr. Turner of
St. Louis, who had imported Elcho in company
with the particularly handsome bitch. Loo II.
Champion Laura B. was one of the best bitches
on the benches fifteen years ago, her fine size and
style making her conspicuous whenever shown.
These imported reds of one and two decades
ago are in the pedigrees of nearly all American
dogs of the breed to-day.
I04 The Sporting Dog
Leigh Doane and her descendants were favor-
ites around Philadelphia for a number of years.
An imported dog of special reputation in the
field was Desmond II. He was by the famous
British dog, Frisco. He was entered in the field
trials on this side, but, like the rest of his breed,
failed to distinguish himself, though he won first
place in the Philadelphia Club's all-age stake of
Among the descendants of Elcho the most
successful bench-show dogs of recent days are
Lord Lismore, inbred to Elcho, and Fred Elcho,
both bench champions. Mr. Vandergrift of Pitts-
burg, who imported and showed so extensively in
various breeds for two years, brought over a typi-
cal and good dog in Prince Victor. All of the
winning dogs of late years, in fact, have been of
excellent type, averaging better in depth and rich-
ness of color than the champions of the earlier
The books usually say that the color may be
deep red or red with a yellow cast. In practice the
judges for several years have strongly preferred
the deep mahogany red, and it is now regarded
as the typical color. The general description of
the Irish setter in the matter of shape is that
of the English setter, except that the former
is higher on the leg and narrower all through.
A lightness of muzzle and lip which would be
Irish and Gordon Setters 105
regarded as a defect in an English setter is
entirely permissible in the Irish. Many of the
best have the flank tucked up and the loin curved,
suggesting the contour of a greyhound. These
greyhound lines, however, do not make extreme
speed. A good Irish setter is fast, but the speed
is not that of field trials. It is galloping rather
Mr. Guthrie of Mexico, Missouri, and some
other gentlemen in the West have recently dis-
cussed the plan of selecting specially fast and
heady Irish setters with the object of breeding
them up to field trial class. It is much to be
desired that gentlemen like Mr. Guthrie, who
has abundant means and is an indefatigable stu-
dent of the breeding science, will pursue this
object perseveringly. Whether or not he suc-
ceeds in meeting the English setters and pointers
on equal terms, he is at least likely to restore to
some extent the old popularity of a breed which
has great utility as a hardy, ready, and reliable
The Gordons have been even less successful
than the Irish in retaining the affections of the
multitude of shooting men. The reason usually
given by sportsmen who have tried and discarded
them is that they are self-willed and hard to
handle without having class which would be a
compensation for extra trouble in education. No
io6 The Sporting Dog
Gordon has yet had the rapidity of action which
the prevailing American taste demands, and
nearly all of them potter a great deal on foot
In color the Gordon is black-and-tan, the tan
appearing on the jaws, breast, and the inside of
the legs. The tan should be a rich red and
sharply outlined from the black. Theoretically a
slight dash of white on the breast is permissible,
but judges of this breed are so exacting as to
color that for practical show purposes a white spot
is a disqualification in good competition. The
usual English setter description of shape fits the
Gordon except that the latter is considerably
heavier in general make-up, and especially in
skull and muzzle. This natural heaviness is
aggravated by a tendency to take on flesh which
quickly reduces a speed not first rate at best. In
looks this breed is one of the handsomest, and
some fanciers are still loyal to its good qualities.
Though the breed takes its name from the
Duke of Gordon, at whose kennel the strain of
black-and-tans was fixed a hundred years ago, the
modern Gordon is really a specialized and devel-
oped form of the black-and-tan color in the Eng-
lish setter. Some of the English authorities
believe that the bloodhound was crossed on the
setter to produce what is known as the Gordon.
There is no evidence to that effect, but they make
Irish and Gordon Setters 107
the inference from the Gordons' tendency to
dwell on foot scent and from the frequent appear-
ance of red or haw in the corner of the eye.
Many black-and-tan setters of more or less
straight Gordon blood are scattered in all parts
of the United States, but the breeders who have
maintained regular kennels of the breed are few.
In the hands of men who understand them and
are good shots on single birds, a Gordon is often
a killing dog. Prior to the introduction of the
Llewellin and the modern pointer, Gordons were
highly prized by many persons who shot in the
thick cover of the East and North. The Llewel-
lin and pointer have now apparently taken their
places even in this kind of country. On the
bench Gordon entries are always a small class.
It was for some time claimed by many breeders
that the Duke of Gordon's black-and-tans were
the important ingredient in the Duke-Rhoebe
element of the Llewellin setter, but historical
investigation pretty well disposed of this claim,
and the Gordons must stand on their own foun-
dation of merit.
Mr. Harry Malcolm of Baltimore a dozen years
ago undertook to establish a kennel of Gordons
which would compete with other breeds in fast
and snappy field quality. Some of his best dogs
became quite noted — among them Whip and
Stubble. Stubble was taken west to Iowa and
io8 The Sporting Dog
competed in one or two field trials, where the
judges spoke of him with respect. I had the
pleasure of seeing some of Mr. Malcolm's dogs in
Baltimore, and found them very much more active
and alert than the average setter of the breed.
Later Mr. Malcolm seemed to lose interest in the
experiment, and nothing of his has come before
the public for some years.
When the sporting classes were at their high-
est popularity in bench shows, the crack Gordons
were Argus, Belmont, Beaumont, Little Boy, and
Royal Duke. These were all champions and
handsome specimens. In the West Dr. Oughten
of Dwight, Illinois, took up the Gordon and has
been liberal in his importations. One of his high-
class imported dogs was Heather Lad. In 1901
he brought out Heather Donald, the most richly
colored and best-coated dog seen for years. Don-
ald was also more vigorous and active than most
of the Gordons, though his skull was a trifle
lacking in type and his stern carried as high and
as much curled as the worst of the Llewellins.
Dr. Oughten imported nearly all of his dogs from
the kennel of Mr. Chapman of Scotland. The
same year Mr. Vandergrift showed a typical and
excellent dog, imported Duke of Edgeworth,
which could not exhibit his best form as he was
well along in years and showing his age. Later
Mr. Vandergrift obtained a better specimen in
Irish and Gordon Setters 109
champion Downham Victor, brought out in the
New York show of 1902.
In 1890 the Gordon Setter Club ran a field
trial stake in connection with one of the South-
ern trials. It was not a success in either entries
or character of performance. The winner of
first was Bendigo, Beaumont second, and Belmont
third. In 1893 there was a Gordon setter trial
at Freetown, Massachusetts. Again the starters
were few and the performance by no means brill-
iant. The Derby winner was Mr. Arnold's Don,
Pearle's Jolly G. winning the all-age stake.
There have always been enough Gordons to
furnish a few good specimens for the leading
bench shows, but as a general fact they have
become in number of comparatively little impor-
tance. Their fine noses and accurate work on
single birds have retained for them a few patrons,
and that is about the sum of what can be said of
them as field dogs on American game.
Coursing, in its ancient and honorable char-
acter and its association with the early aristocracy
of sport, may deserve the first place in the annals of
dogdom. The chief English classic, the Waterloo
Cup stake, is getting along toward the close of
its century. The records of breeding have been
kept regularly during a period much longer than
that covered by any other breed of dogs.
In America, however, this sport is of limited
extent compared with shooting or fox-hunting.
In the open it is pursued only where the jack-
rabbits are abundant on the trans-Mississippi
prairies. Enclosed or park coursing has flour-
ished in only two cities, San Francisco and St.
Louis, though it has been taken up spasmodically
at several other points. To tell the truth, com-
paratively few Americans have seemed to be in-
oculated with the spirit. Both on the plains and
in the cities the typical American has often taken
up the sport for a few years, but usually to dis-
miss it for something more to his taste. It is the
Grey bounds 1 1 1
first generation of Irish, Scotch, and English who
have maintained it even to the extent of its Hm-
ited fashion. They have old-country memories.
Their sons take up base-ball or horses or shoot-
ing. The hostility of the anti-cruelty societies
has had something to do with the reluctance of
the average United States citizen, but the difficul-
ties and disappointments of maintaining and
training a kennel of greyhounds have been more
effectual in slackening interest.
Greyhounds are not lacking in intelligence of
a sort, and many of them are affectionate and
playful companions. They have one fatal weak-
ness which unfits them for companionship. A
coursing-bred greyhound has an insatiable desire
to pursue any small animal in sight. A man who
goes walking or driving with a brace of these
dogs is fortunate if he does not find himself in-
volved in a quarrel with the owner of some small
dog, cat, or chicken which has excited the pur-
suing instinct. A kennel of coursing dogs must
be kept almost like a stable of horses. They
need a great deal of exercise and must be care-
fully handled — both to avoid the danger of their
chasing and destroying pet animals, and to reduce
the risk of injuring themselves on hard roads,
fences, and stones. Another trouble which has
disgusted many an owner is the scarcity of good
trainers and kennelmen. I have known perhaps
112 The Sporting Dog
twenty Americans to go into coursing with some
enthusiasm and find themselves, after expending
a year or so of time and considerable money,
facing an important stake without a single dog in
condition to compete. Enthusiasm does not last
long under such misfortunes.
Coursing has its infinite variety of technical
learning, the outgrowth of the intense British
interest and many years of experience, but its
general rules are simple. Two dogs are put into
slips, and as soon as the hare is sighted are allowed
to run, tugging in the slips until the hare has had
sufficient " law " and the slipper is certain that he
can throw them off on equal terms. Off they
dash. The dog first reaching the hare gets credit
for speed according to the distance by which he
beats his competitor — one, two, or three points.
Then the scoring begins on the " turns " and
" wrenches " and the " kill." The turn is when
the hare is forced around at more than a right
angle ; the wrench is where it swerves at a less
angle from its course on account of being pressed
by the dog. Ability to closely work the hare is,
therefore, as important as speed. A dog is " cun-
ning " or " wise " when he learns to cut corners
and head off the prey. Any considerable amount
of this over-education disqualifies the dog. An
honest dog is one which runs true to the hare.
In a stake the dogs which win in the first series
are run in braces the second round, and so on
until the winner comes out in the final.
On the plains most of the private coursing is
with a few dogs, and the rules are not closely ob-
served. When a regular public event, either on
the plains or in a park, the affair is managed with
great strictness. The judge must almost neces-
sarily be mounted in order to follow the work
with accuracy. The slipper must understand his
business and have his slips in good condition, so
that when he pulls the cord they fly off evenly.
He is also expected to judge carefully when it is
proper to deliver his dogs. In order that the
dogs may be readily distinguished, one wears a
white and the other a red collar, which is merely
a loose piece of cloth.
In accordance with the English tradition, cours-
ing in the open is regarded as the only legitimate
form of the sport. The old American coursers
who had a pride in their fancy attempted to pre-
serve the tradition. The circumstances were
against them. All the important events for years
were determined on the plains, but it was found
that the expense of going from place to place and
the extreme uncertainty of conditions were diffi-
culties more severe than most men cared to en-
counter, after they had tried it for a year or two.
In 1897 t^^ American Waterloo Cup, the most
important event, was taken to an enclosed park at
114 The Sporting Dog
Davenport, Iowa. Since then it has regularly
been held in enclosures, the best and most suc-
cessful one having been at Delmar Park, St.
Louis, in the fall of 1902. This stake brought
picked dogs from Texas, California, Montana,
Iowa, Colorado, and Kansas. The judge, Mr. John
Grace, and the slipper, his son, Mr. James Grace,
were both brought from San Francisco to con-
duct the running. The winner was the California
dog, Roman Athlete; the runner-up, Tiburon,
was owned in St. Louis, but was of California
birth and training. This stake contained the full
complement of sixty-four dogs. It may be said
to have brought out practically all of the best in
training anywhere in the country. In 1903, the
American Waterloo was taken to Oklahoma City.
The winner was again a Californian, nominated
but not owned by Mr. Rosseter, named Rubber
Ankles. Rubber Ankles is by imported Fortuna
Favente, brother to Fabulous Fortune and him-
self runner-up to Thoughtless Beauty, the English
Waterloo winner of 1896. Yours Truly, from
Colorado, was the runner-up. The American
Derby, at the same meet, was won by Tatlah,
owned by Mr. McDougall of Butte, Montana.
Tatlah is by Crawford Lad, and from a dam of
American stock. The Futurity winner. Path-
finder, is by the Lowe dog, St. Clair. So breeding
honors are still rather to the credit of the old
Greyhounds 1 1 5
importations. Butte has developed in the past
three years a warm interest in coursing.
As in the case of race-horses, Americans have
drawn their greyhound blood from the most ap-
proved English sources. San Francisco imported
quite a number from^ Australia, but the blood
lines were the same, going back to Contango,
King Death, and Scotland Yet, representing from
year to year the latest successes in England, as
the Greentick, Ptarmigan, or Herschel blood came
to the fore.
History will never tell who was the first Amer-
ican to see a jack-rabbit. Whoever it was, he
must have instantly felt the need of a greyhound.
This large hare of the Western plains has a dash
of speed which takes him quickly out of the range
of any ordinary dog, and an endurance which pre-
cludes the idea of being captured by any plan
which involves his stopping from exhaustion
ahead of a slow pursuer. On rising ground I
have seen jack-rabbits run straight away from
ordinary greyhounds of native or cold stock. The
greyhounds were soon willing to quit the chase
and return to camp.
Greyhounds were early introduced on the plains
by cattlemen who had a taste for sport. Some
army officers and soldiers on the frontier made a
point of bringing out dogs for the same amuse-
ment. It was not, however, until about 1885 that
ii6 The Sporting Dog
regular coursing began to be known in the United
States. Dr. Q. Van Hummell was among the
pioneers and most active promoters of the sport.
He imported a number of dogs early in the day
and took some interest in breeding. Among his
first breeding was to Babazoun, the son of the
English dog, Britain Still. He owned Verdure
Clad, a daughter of Greentick. Subsequently, on
a visit to England in 1895, he obtained Astron-
omy, a fawn son of Herschel, and Just Eclipsed,
a daughter of that great English sire. Colonel
Roger D. Williams of Kentucky was another
About the time of Dr. Van Hummell's first
activity a number of Kansas gentlemen, including
Mr. D. C. Luse and Dr. G. I. Royce, resolved to
get some greyhounds with which they could estab-
lish the sport of coursing under a regular system.
They brought over the brindle-and-white Trales,
and two half-sisters of the Waterloo winner. Miss
Glendyne. Dogs of their breeding became quite
successful and the blood still exists. Most of the
Trales and Glendyne dogs were close workers
and good scorers, but were short of first-class
By far the most important event in the history
of early coursing in America was the decision of
Mr. H. C. Lowe, a brother of the well-known
English breeder of field dogs, Mr. F. C. Lowe, to
make his home in America. Mr. Lowe located
in Lawrence, Kansas, where he still lives. He
showed remarkable judgment in the selection of
his first breeding stock. The stud dog was Lord
Neversettle, a son of Jester. Neversettle was a
large dog, white with brindle markings. Of the
other sex Mr. Lowe chose White Lips, black-and-
white, a daughter of Hotspur, and Partera, a
brindle, bred, like Lord Neversettle, from the
Ptarmigan-Gallant Foe blood. White Lips be-
came the greatest producer that ever has lived or
probably ever will live in America. Partera was
a good second. Most of the progeny of White
Lips were either solid black or black-and-white;
those of Partera brindles or reds. For a number
of years the Lowe dogs almost made up the his-
tory of coursing as far as stated events were con-
cerned. They won important stakes from Texas
to Dakota and from St. Louis to San Francisco.
Perhaps the most noted, if not the best, was
Prince Charlie, the black-and-w^iite winner of the
International stake of 1893. As Mr. Lowe would
phrase it, Charlie was " extremely fast and remark-
ably clever." Another great black-and-white son
of White Lips was Boomerang, which Mr. Lowe
sold to the Bartelses, a family which took the lead
in coursing matters in Colorado. The most fa-
mous daughter of White Lips was Diana, owned
by Mr. Charles A. Robinson of St. Louis when
1 1 8 The Sporting Dog
that gentleman had the best greyhound kennel
east of the Missouri River. Diana was a wonder-
ful greyhound. She was one of the few which
seem to run well under all conditions and even
when not in good training. She was a medium-
sized black of powerful build and standing on
perfect feet and legs. She was a great deal too
wide in front and heavy in shoulder for a bench
winner, but proved that these qualities may be
entirely consistent with great speed and endur-
ance when not existing to the point of being an
actual defect. In the fall of 1895 Diana won one
and divided another of the great stakes on the
plains, and in February of the next winter went to
California and beat all the dogs that could be
gathered in the central event offered by Pacific
Coast coursers at the opening of Ingleside Park.
Among other dogs bred by Mr. Lowe were
Melita, a black, very nearly or quite the equal of
Diana, though she did not achieve the latter's
public record ; St. Clair, almost entirely white, the
fastest of Mr. Lowe's breeding ; St. Lawrence,
another black-and-white ; Sylvia, a black ; and
Quickstitch, another black. These were all from
White Lips. Partera's products by Lord Never-
settle were Master Peter, the whirlwind brindle
Patria, Lord Clifton, and other winners. Another
of her sons was Pretender, a w^hite and brindle
dog which coursed with only moderate success
but became the sire of Tiburon, a noted Cali-
fornia winner which was runner-up for the Ameri-
can Waterloo Cup of 1902 in the ownership of
Mr. Ralph Orthwein of St. Louis.
After Lord Neversettle's usefulness as a stud
dog ceased, Mr. Lowe used Prince Charlie for
several years. He made, however, what most of
his fellow-breeders called the mistake of inbreed-
ing, and used Lord Neversettle's daughters from
Partera with Prince Charlie. He turned out a
number of winning dogs, but did not maintain
with that breeding the prestige established by his
first efforts. Recently he imported into his ken-
nel Northern Surprise. The best Eastern Derby
dog of 1902 was by Surprise.
In 1894 Mr. Edward Mulcaster, a relative of
the great English coursing man, Tom Graham,
came to America with some dogs selected for
him by Mr. Graham. Mulcaster became the most
successful trainer in the United States and trained
for one season for Mr. Robinson. Durinor his
career of a few years as a breeder he imported
Glenkirk (full brother of Gallant's dam), Gilda,
Jim o' the Hill, Scandal, and, perhaps most im-
portant of all. Miller's Rab, the speedy old black.
From Glenkirk and Gilda he bred the winners,
Dakota, Fear Not, Gilkirk, and others. From
Miller's Rab came Master Dennis, Magician, and
I20 The Sporting Dog
Miller's Rab introduced more fire and quick-
ness into American greyhounds than had been
before seen, but most of his descendants were
troubled with small feet and fine bone. Mul-
caster sold him to Mr. Robinson in St. Louis, and
the old fellow died in Robinson's possession.
Miller's Rab dogs were easily trained and were
always ready to do their best. In this they dif-
fered markedly from Mr. Lowe's dogs. It was a
peculiarity of the latter that they seldom came
up to their best form except after thorough train-
ing, and were frequently disappointing in the
hands of inexperienced coursers.
In the East Mr. Herbert Watson was for a
long time the most active spirit. That he re-
mained active was an evidence of keen sports-
manship, since he was compelled to travel to the
West to see his own dogs run. Among other
dogs Mr. Watson owned imported Royal Crest,
a black son of Greentick. This dog of Mr.
Watson's has been brought to the attention of the
public again lately by the performances of his
About the year 1898 the centre of interest in
coursing moved bodily to California, where en-
closed park running became the fashionable
Sunday sport. The whole population began to
be interested, and large sums of money were in-
vested in the park. For some years before that
Grey bounds 121
time Messrs. J. H. Rosseter, John Grace, and a
few enterprising Californians, who had been de-
voted to the sport, often journeyed to Kansas or
Dakota to see the chief events. Coursing became
popular in California. Mr. Rosseter and other
gentlemen interested spared no expense or trouble
in bringing over dogs from England. The great-
est of these and unquestionably the greatest
coursing dog America ever saw was For Free-
dom, obtained, as his name suggests, from the
English kennel of Messrs. Fawcett. This dog
was a phenomenon. He had none of the appear-
ance of the classic English winner. He was
light and waspy in shape, with a rough coat and
coarse tail. In actual performance, however, he
had no rival. It was said that his coursing would
nearly always consist of a flying dash up to the hare,
three or four quick points of scoring and a kill ;
short courses, leaving him fresh. He was equally
good at all points of the game. After his retire-
ment he was bred to extensively, but his early
descendants were by no means able to carry out
the expectations of their breeders. Later prog-
eny may do better, though he died young and
may never have struck the right nick.
In California, notwithstanding the importation
of For Freedom and dogs like Fortuna Favente,
the famous Waterloo Cup contender, the blood of
Emin Pasha has been more successful, while that
122 The Sporting Dog
of the Lowe dogs sent to California has also over-
topped in breeding quality the Herschel and other
later fashions. In fact, it is high praise for the
early importations in various parts of the country
that they have held their own in competition with
the latest. For example, the winner of the Amer-
ican Waterloo Cup in 1901, Monsoon, had for a
sire Caliph, a dog descended from Mr. Lowe's
Lord Neversettle-White Lips cross, and his dam
was by Mulcaster's Jim o' the Hill out of the
same breeder's Scandal. The winner of the cup
in 1902 was by Emin Pasha, and his dam was
Fair Helen by Mulcaster's Dover out of his
Gilda. The runner-up, Tiburon, was by the
Lowe dog. Pretender, and his dam by Mr. Wat-
son's old black. Royal Crest, by Greentick. The
best dog in the stake was Sacramento Boy, a win-
ner of nineteen stakes in California and of over
four thousand dollars in money. This dog was by
Winged Foot, he by Mulcaster's Jim o' the Hill
out of Carmen, also bred by Mulcaster. Since
these dogs won against products of the choicest
and latest breeding, the only inference is that the
dogs brought over by Lowe, Watson, and others
fifteen years ago were as well bred and as good
as those now existing in the best English ken-
Coursing lends itself particularly well to bet-
ting, but outside of San Francisco the betting
Sacramento Boy. By Winged Foot-Tipperary Lass. American bred. Sire's
blood from Tom Graham's kennel, England. Fawn-and-white ; medium weight.
Winner of nineteen stakes and over $4000. Owner, Mr. D. Walsh, Sacramento,
California. A fairly fast greyhound, but his special excellence has consisted of quick
and sure scoring on turns and wrenches after reaching the hare.
Greyhounds 1 23
adjunct has been of little consequence. In St.
Louis the slackness of betting has been due to
the strict anti-gambling laws. On the plains
the attendance has been oversmall for wagers
of noticeable amount. Without these obstacles
coursing might have degenerated altogether into
a gambling affair. It is exciting ; perhaps more
so than any other sport with animals. The races
come fast, one after the other. It is very easy to
bring off between twenty and thirty courses in
an afternoon. Small betting is quickly tempted
by these rapidly succeeding and blood-stirring
Little attention has been paid in America to
showing greyhounds on the bench. Usually
some professional handler has one or two good
bench specimens, which he carries around
because he is practically certain of winning prizes
with them on account of the small competition.
These bench winners nearly always disappear
from view after their usefulness in this respect
has passed. Few devoted coursers care to put
their dogs on the bench. Exhibitions are a pro-
lific source of disease among dogs of any kind,
and especially among greyhounds. Then, too,
coursers have a prejudice against showing. A
prominent English expert told me that the
courser who patronizes bench shows in his coun-
try is likely to create an impression that his dogs
124 The Sporting Dog
are degenerating. In San Francisco, however,
and St. Louis coursing dogs have frequently
been freely exhibited. The best display ever seen
east of the Rockies was in the St. Louis show of
1897. Mr. Robinson carried off nearly all the
honors with a particularly fine string, the cracks
of which were Magician, Sylvia, and Dakota. I
had the curious experience of seeing my dog,
Dakota, the public qualities of which Mr. Robin-
son controlled, beat some dogs which I exhibited
for Mr. Lowe, wdth whom I had an arrangement
for controlling his St. Louis string. Mr. Lowe
had the luck the next month to beat all of Mr.
Robinson's crack dogs in a coursing stake at
Davenport with Melita and Quickstitch, which
were then at their best, and gave a magnificent
exhibition of speed and working powers, in the
hands of Mr. E. J. Brown, the St. Louis coursing
Just what the future of greyhounds in America
will be is hard to predict. It is said that the popu-
larity of the sport in California has considerably
fallen off, and at this moment there is a notice-
able decline in St. Louis. Six or eight years ago
there were more than twenty regular clubs in the
states of the plains. Now there are very few.
The multiplication of wire fences which are a
menace to dogs, with other discouragements, has
checked the open plains events. The American
Coursing Board maintains its authority and keeps
up an elaborate studbook for registration, but
there seems to be a slender prospect for coursing
to attain among us anything like the importance
it possesses in Great Britain, or even to maintain
the prestige it has won at times in the past.
Whippet racing is not much known in America,
though it has a few votaries and has been occa-
sionally introduced as a novelty. Even in Eng-
land this sport is not held in esteem. It is
followed chiefly among the miners and colliers
of certain English districts. The whippet is a
small greyhound, with a terrier cross to give
quickness in the getaway. The racing is in en-
closures and for short distances, the whippets
being trained to race at a red cloth or other
object. English sportsmen tell me that it has
more crookedness and trickery than any other
amusement with dogs.
America has much more of fox-hunting than
the average citizen might suppose. In England
hunting is a sport of such eminent prestige that
society news, fiction, and even poHtical reports
are continually keeping it before the public. In
America nobody hears of fox-hunting except its
votaries. In fact, they are rather a secretive lot,
generally living at a distance from the cities and
rather priding themselves on a contempt for the
public prints. The sporting papers rarely have
anything of hunting information which comes
directly from authentic sources.
Yet there are few counties in the South or
Southwest which have not their quota of fox-hunt-
ing enthusiasts. While not exactly one of the
devotees, I can vouch from personal observation
for the statement that between the Delaware Bay
and the Texas Panhandle nearly every neighbor-
hood has its esteemed foxhounds — toward the
Panhandle using them for wolves as much as for
the " beast of stinking flight."
Nor is the wolf the only game to share the
attentions of the American hound. Some care-
fully selected and costly packs are used chiefly
for deer ; while the wildcat, being at once worthy
game and a hated depredator, becomes in other
localities the main object of sport. In Taney
County, Missouri, there is a magnificent preserve
on the White River where nearly a hundred wild-
cats were killed last season with the hounds ; not
all by the hounds, perhaps the majority being shot
after taking to the trees.
Indeed, if I were writing a volume on Ameri-
can hounds, the most exciting chapters would be
descriptions of wolf hunts and the battles with
which they conclude. Hounds have to be hounds
in this sport ; for the hunts are hunts and the
battles are battles.
Between Boston and Richmond there are many
hunt clubs — the Philadelphia neighborhood alone
having two score — which conduct the sport after
the English style. Some of these follow the
drag for the most part. The packs are often of
American breed ; as often English. The mem-
bers would not, I think, take issue at all with the
differentiation that they are riding clubs rather
than fox-hunting associations in the American
Major Wadsworth, of the Genesee Valley
Hunt, has made a point of developing a high-
class pack of English blood, but during the past
128 The Sporting Dog
year has lost a number of his best hounds from
an epidemic ; so that at the moment Mr. Charles
E. Mather, near his Avonwood seat in the Phila-
delphia country, is the unchallenged owner of the
best pack of the English type. Major Wadsworth
has also been using a dash of American blood in
the two years just passed. He has brought over
English blood at various times since 1876, first
from the Fitzhardinge, and at intervals from the
Sir Baltic Cunard, Badminton, d'Tredegar, and
other packs. Mr. Mather's original draft from
the Belvoir (Duke of Rutland's) hounds in Eng-
land has been vastly improved by careful breed-
ing, retaining its English " sortiness " and adding
something of American speed and nose. Mr.
Redmond Stewart of the Green Spring Valley
Hunt, Baltimore, through Mr. Mather's courtesy,
has been enabled to experiment with a cross
of these improved English hounds on American
stock. Mr. Stewart reports that two of his
best hounds are of this cross, but that he has not
obtained the " clarion tone " in tongue, which old
American fox-hunters regard as an essential qual-
ification. Our Canadian friends hunt, of course,
and have in the Montreal Hunt pack the only
hounds of late English blood regarded as rivalling
those of Major Wadsworth and Mr. Mather. Dr.
Mac Each ran is the ruling authority on hounds in
the Montreal Hunt and has kept up a high stand-
FOX HUNTING IN THE SOUTHWEST AND THE TYPE OF
HOUND IN GENERAL USE
The dark-colored hounds are black-and-tans, of the character so often niet among
favorite Southwestern strains.
ard. When Mr. Foxhall Keene went abroad last
spring, he expressed an intention of bringing
back a complete pack. It is reported that he sent
over 40^ couples, bred and hunted as a pack.
The Meadowbrook Hunt will have the advantage
of these hounds. It may be that Mr. Keene's pack
will equal Mr. Mather's.
A volume designed to show American varia-
tions from English traditions cannot, however,
dwell long on the hunt clubs which uphold those
Radically, the difference between American and
British hunting is that the first is a matter of
hounds and the other a question of horses and
horsemanship. Glorious sport as a riding party
across country furnishes, the American style is
more to the purpose when we are on the subject
Not long ago, Mr. Hudspeth, the owner of a
pack in Jackson County, Missouri, which has
been bred consecutively for over fifty years by
his uncle and himself, said to me : " You see
that big hound ? On looks he is the best hound
in the pack, but it will take another cross to
bring his blood up to the standard. I like this
English blood to give color and style, but the
original importation and the first cross are not
tough enough for our work. The sire of this
dog is an English stud dog which a friend
ijo The Sporting Dog
broueht over for me to use as a cross. His
feet are what we call soft. They may have been
good enough for the well-kept country on the
other side, but, especially with the unnecessary
weight and bone he carries, a run of half an
hour with my pack makes his feet so sore that
he cannot be taken out for a week after."
When descanting on hounds, an American
nearly always talks this way : " No hound ever
made that red-and-white quit. She may look
a little lathy, but when they start she's around,
and when they finish she's in front."
The hound which strikes, holds, and stays in
front is always the American foxhound man's
admiration. The bone, the color, the symmetry,
— these are all incidents. It does not disturb
him to have what a Pharisee would call a
As for the horse, that is the least of the South-
ern hunter's troubles. Sometimes the fox-hun-
ter has a steady old jumper which he finds more
useful than the ordinary; but more often he
will tell you that he can get along well enough
in a buggy if he can be sure that he has the
hounds to meet his notions.
" God bless the ladies," of course. A South-
ern gentleman would challenge Achilles on a
contradiction. Just the same, the sentiment is
likely to be a sotto voce objurgation of the same
words but one, when American fox-hunters start
out for a night with the hounds and the ladies
express an intention of joining. " He goes fast-
est who goeth alone " is not a principle in an
English country house party, but it is in Ameri-
can fox-hunting. The ladies of the South and
Southwest do ride to hounds sometimes, but when
it comes to a real run, I have heard their pull-back
influences condemned too often for me to assign
any poetry of chivalry to the fox-hunter's gospel.
An Eastern M. F. H. who has hunted in
England, in our Atlantic States, and in the
South, lets me quote to this effect : —
" The English hound is taught to run as a
pack, not to do individual work. The pack is
taken to a cover in which a fox is marked, so
to speak, where the earth has been stopped up
the night before so that he lies above ground.
There is generally no fox-trail scent left, and
the hound only gets the scent when the fox is
started from his resting-place. This scent is,
of course, the hot scent of the started fox. He
then breaks cover, and they pursue him with
that best scent of all in their noses.
" The Englishman seems to work on the idea
that a hound has to be up to carrying so much
weight across country; but the American hound
is only required to have so much speed, endur-
ance, nose, ears, eyes, and voice.
132 The Sporting Dog
" In America there are no covers kept as there
are in England. There is no earth stopper ex-
cept at Montreal. Consequently the American
hound has got to work as an individual. Our
woodlands are larger and rougher than in Eng-
land. It is almost impossible to be always with
the hounds in their work, on account of the
swamps, cliffs, and other natural obstacles.
" One method of hunting in America is to go
out at early dawn, having a pack of hounds that
work as individuals ; scatter them here and there
for a quarter of a mile, and let them finally strike
the trail of a fox that has passed the night before.
This may be simply a feed trail ; sometimes the
trail where the fox has gone off to rest for the
day. If a feed trail, it is likely to be in a swamp
where they go after frogs, or in a field where they
go after mice and other small animals.
" The American hound's nose is keener, and
you can easily see that it has got to be, as he is
obliged to follow a trail which is several hours
old. When he finally gives tongue on his trail,
the other hounds honor his voice and gradually
the whole pack gets on the trail and works it up.
This by many is considered the best sort of hound
work, as it not only instructs one as to what the
hound may do, but also as to the habits and man-
ners of the fox."
If I have made plain the American variation
AMERICAN FOXHOUND. TRIGG STRAIN
<^HJt°JH k" ^^'?;f«-bl3ck-tan. Owned by Mr. W. I. Varner. Varner, Arkansas,
^tl , o/-, ■rr^^'ri'' ^? °"'' °^ ^^^ P^^^ ^°' the test on New England foxes at Barre
Tnn ! i" o''^"^ '^^^'^'■^'^ °^^' ^"^ ^'- Varner-s select Southern pack did not
appear at the Barre trials. This hound is a flyer and reliable on trail
in foxhounds, the reader is ready to learn what
experts think of the separate strains known as
distinctively American. In order to make this
study convincing, I have asked my friend, Mr.
William I. Varner of Varner, Arkansas, one of
the most careful students of the subject and a
hound breeder of long experience with both foxes
and deer, to write the chapter on American hound
families. Fox-hunters will decree that Mr. Var-
ner's word has weight. More's the pity that the
great test of Southern hounds on New England
foxes, proposed by Mr. Smith of the Grafton
Hunt, Worcester, Massachusetts, for the meet
at Barre this fall (1903) fell through because of
unexpected burdens thrown upon Mr. Smith's
time. Mr. Varner had undertaken the commis-
sion of gathering a pack of eight July Walker
and Trigg hounds for the test. Better luck for
the sport next year !
Mr. Mather has kindly consented to give the
reasons for his choice of direct English blood.
These two studies, by Mr. Varner and Mr.
Mather, are in their respective cults authoritative.
I am gratified to believe that they throw more
light on the subject of foxhounds in America than
has ever before come from the press. If they dis-
agree, that is all the better for the stimulation of
the truth-seeker. After all, there is substantial
agreement. Both argue that the English hound
134 Tbe Sporting Dog
must be bred to a more alert and active type for
our foxes and country. The only issue is whether
the breeder shall take the American hound as it
stands or start with a fresh importation.
AMERICAN HOUND STRAINS
By William I. Varner
Three families of foxhounds are most promi-
nent in the South at the present time, while there
are several packs of local fame, the result of indi-
vidual fancy in breeding and crossing; not dis-
tinct enough, however, to be considered a type.
Then there have been many English importations,
used mainly for outcrossing, and hardly ever kept
pure. At least I am sure that this is true of our
Southern country. These three strains are the
Walkers, the Triggs, and the Julys, or July-Bird-
The Walkers are chiefly bred by men in Ken-
tucky of that name, and have been shipped to
nearly every part of America where foxes are
found and where there are devotees of the chase.
They have been very carefully bred from the best
of Virginia stock, crossed with carefully selected
English dogs. Wash Maupin of Kentucky was
the founder of this strain, and was himself a man
of glorious memory, to whom the brotherhood in
the United States are greatly indebted for his
judgment and care, and for the purity and point
of perfection to which the strain has been brought.
The model the old gentleman evidently had be-
fore him was based upon endurance and game-
ness, with as much speed, nose, and mouth as were
compatible with these qualities. And he suc-
ceeded marvellously. The Walker hounds are
fast; yet have fine powers of scent and are
musical of tongue. For grit and bottom they
are without superiors. From experience I can
speak of them as good and indefatigable hunters.
As trailers they take quite a cold track, but are
rather too careful in working, since it causes them
oftentimes to be lingerers-on-track and hesitating-
on-dodges. As a general thing they hew close to
the line and are said to be track-straddlers. Many
prefer a hound should straddle, but with me it is
a fault. In trailing a fox up it enables the fox
to get too long a lead ; while in running with
other dogs which have the forward manner of
catching up track, a straddler is frequently thrown
out or left far in the rear. For catching foxes
many prefer the Triggs and Julys, but for a rous-
ing fine chase, with plenty of mouth and a run to
a finish, the Walkers are excellent. In size and
build they are rather larger than the Julys and
the Triggs, showing more bone and substance;
nor are they quite so trim. They have strong
loins, stout muscular legs, yet something lighter
136 The Sporting Dog
than the English pattern. Many very beautiful
dogs come of this breed. Their ears are short,
yet soft and thin, while their coats are coarse and
their tails strong and bushy. In color they are
usually black-white-tan; though quite a lot of
them are white and spotted, sometimes with black,
sometimes with lemon.
The Triggs are a combination of Maupins and
Birdsongs. Some forty years ago, about the
close of Birdsong's life, Hayden C. Trigg of Ken-
tucky paid him a visit at his old home, Thomas-
ton, Georgia, and bought seven or eight of the
best foxhounds he had. He did likewise with ref-
erence to the Maupins, and then united the two
strains, producing, after many years of judicious
breeding and great discrimination in mating, a
foxhound combining the toughness of the Mau-
pins together with the speed and energy of the
Birdsongs. Many declare them to be without a
peer in America, nor have I, in my experience,
found anything better.
Birdsong, an exquisite in point of training,
breeding, and selecting of foxhounds, developed
the Irish family almost to a point of perfection.
These dogs he got from the grandson of Patrick
Henry of Revolutionary fame. Two, Mountain
and Muse, had been imported from Ireland dur-
ing the time of the Taylors and Governor Ogle
of Maryland. They were crossed on the Virginia
Foxbotmds - 137
Redbone stock, and the outcome was a foxhound
par excellence. They were our first fox-killers.
Falling into Birdsong's hands, they were bred to
a point of nicety perhaps never before equalled.
One mistake, however, he seems to have made ;
in trying for extreme speed, beauty, and quality,
he rendered them somewhat tender and delicate.
Still, his chief aim was to breed fox-catchers, and
this they were beyond peradventure. Trigg, in
uniting these with the Maupins, has succeeded,
by long and persistent endeavor, in fusing the
fleetness of one and the stamina of the other to a
July blood represents the influences of one
hound, chiefly as bred on the Birdsong strain. A
short time before Trigg's visit to Birdsong, Miles
Harris of Georgia had purchased from the Gos-
nell pack of Maryland the ever memorable July.
This hound was very strongly bred in the Irish
blood, and was also obtained for a fancy price.
As an individual he was wonderful for speed, en-
ergy, and endurance ; about the medium in size,
and in color a " dingy black," with long brush on
his tail, and feathered both on his fore and hind
legs. Some of the Birdsongs procured by Trigg
were immediately descended from him, and were
had at a larger figure than any of the others,
showing the estimation in which Birdsong held
his get. Such was the fancy of the Georgians
138 The Sporting Dog
themselves for him that nearly every fine bitch in
the state was bred to him. Afterwards his de-
scendants were bred in-and-in, sometimes ruin-
ously close. Yet since inbreeding stamps the
characteristics of a family strongly, they make
fox-killers of the highest order. The Julys have
caught out most of the foxes in Georgia. They
hunt rapidly, trail rapidly, and run rapidly. They
do not take scent quite so readily as some others,
but make it up in fast hunting; and when they
strike, they move hurriedly on, catching in " here,
there, — and gone." They get close to a fox on
the jump, and press him in an amazing pace.
This close inbreeding, I fear, especially in the
hands of the injudicious, has injured the stamina
and gameness of the strain a bit. But where they
have been in the hands of owners who displayed
judgment and discernment, they have been found
to be fox-catchers without peers. To those who
lay main stress upon such a termination in run-
ning foxes, these and the Triggs are preferred
above all others.
The prevalent colors in this July-Birdsong fam-
ily are black and tan, with or without white points,
and reds, with or without white. This latter
marking is especially frequent among the direct
Julys, and the shades vary from deep red to pale
fawn. They are, also, more than often marked
with gray, — gray spots, gray borders, or sprinkled
with gray. In build they are upon very racy
Hnes, Hght of bone and wiry. Their coats are
coarse and long, their tails strong, straight, and
usually heavy in brush; while their ears are short,
soft, and thin. Their tongue or cry in running is
short and given in rapid succession. They are
disposed to squeal at intervals. The energetic
fire, peculiar to most American fox-breeds in
tonguing, is pronounced, and no one needs to tell
you that whatever is in front is moving. While
you cannot but wish that the note were fuller, you
find yourself wondering whether any living ani-
mal could sound a stronger cry when going at the
clip they travel. It is hard for a deer or a red fox
to stay ahead of them — that is a well-trained
pack of them — for two hours.
PURE ENGLISH HOUNDS
By Charles E. Mather
What hounds shall I use ? From the point of
view of one who wishes to follow a pack of fox-
hounds across the country, what constitutes a
good pack of hounds .^ Fifteen or twenty couple
of hounds that work and run well together can
find a fox, where foxes are to be found, follow the
scent to the death or until the fox goes to earth,
and all be in at the finish ; all the while keeping
up the music that adds the charm to the sport.
I40 The Sporting Dog
What is necessary to produce this result ?
1. Uniformity of size; and of color if you
want a beautiful pack ; medium size preferred ;
drafting out the old and slow hounds annually
and keeping those of special merit to train the
young hounds in the early fall.
2. Good conformation and good feet.
3. Good nose and tongue.
4. Well-disciplined hounds that will not run
riot, keen to work and quick to get away on the
fox, and with endurance to last out the run as long
as the fox stays above ground.
5. Hounds that will trot home with the hunts-
men at the end of the day with their sterns up,
feet well, and be ready for the morrow.
Now, how would you go about obtaining a pack
of hounds to produce this result ; and a pack that
would produce its like from year to year.?
Let us suppose that you wanted to race horses,
what would you do? Only one answer. You
would purchase from the best families of thorough-
breds that your purse could command. The fox-
hound has been bred with care for a longer time
than the thoroughbred horse. It has been devel-
oped to a greater degree of perfection and
uniformity. Its pedigree antedates that of the
thoroughbred horse. There is no more reason
why you should use any other than the thor-
oughbred hound for the chase than why you
FOXHOUND. ENGLISH TYPE
dancer. Third generation bred in America from Belvoir blood. A hound of high
fiiiish, with intelligence, nose, and voice. Stallion hound of Mr. Mather's kennel,
near Philadelphia. The heavier chest and bone can be perceived by comparing this
hound with those of Mr. Varner.
AMERICAN FOXHOUND. JULY STRAIN
Yorick. Puppy. White-black-tan. Owned by W. I. Varner, Varner, Arkansas.
Selected by Mr. Varner as his Derby entry for the Barre meet, 1903. The lighter
frame and head of the American hound of the South are typically plain in Mr.
Varner's young favorite.
should use other than the thoroughbred horse
for the race.
There is no such distinction in fact as an
EngHsh foxhound and an American foxhound.
A thoroughbred foxhound is the same in Eng-
land as in America. We come down to the dis-
tinction of hounds of pure blood and hounds that
have been crossed with other breeds. These
crosses have been so numerous that it is impos-
sible to breed these crossed or so-called " native "
hounds with any degree of certainty as to what
the produce will be. It is a demonstrated fact
that every departure in breeding from the pure
blood is a step backwards, and destroys some one
of the qualities necessary to that perfect hound
for the chase which has been brought about by
centuries of breeding in England. When this
pure blood is developed in America and hunted
on our wilder foxes, I think that the result is a
more alert and active hound, although in time it
may have less bone than those bred in the old
In my opinion the American hound is not a
distinct breed. Being made up of numerous
crosses from time to time, with no kennel records,
there is hardly a type which you can point to and
say, " Now, this is an American hound." To
illustrate what I mean, I refer you to two " Amer-
ican " hounds which were winners in the recent
142 The Sporting Dog
Brunswick Fur Club trials of 1903 and supposed
to be the best America can produce. One looks
like a pointer and one like a very poor sort of a
half-English, and Mr. Hitchcock and Mr. Smith
are trying to persuade themselves that there is
such a thing as a breed of American foxhounds.
I have noticed at the bench shows of the Ameri-
can classes that the first prize usually goes to the
hound most nearly resembling the English (or
I have seen many ; but I never saw a hound in
America which I thought could possibly improve
a good English hound by crossing. The crossing
has all been done — by those who know anything
about it — by breeding their best-made American
bitches to a pure-blooded English hound. All the
" American " hound men breed to first-rate pure
blood whenever they get a chance. Yet, if you call
the result an English hound, they feel offended.
Oh, dear, no, they would not have an English
I would no more think of breeding to Mr.
Hitchcock's "Judy" or to Mr. Smith's "Shirley"
than a Kentucky breeder of thoroughbreds would
think of sending his Longfellow or Hanover mares
to a hackney stallion ; and what sort of a mongrel
do you think the crossing of " Shirley " and " Judy "
would produce .f*
If the white man who first saw a jack-rabbit
felt the need of a greyhound, the first one to see
a cottontail surely resolved to send back to Eng-
land for beagles, and when he attempted to hunt
the wily and pugnacious 'coon, his intention
became a yearning. American cottontails were
made for beagles or beagles for cottontails, and
the destiny of each for sporting purposes was
complete only when they came together.
Historically, the development of beagles in
this country is like that of bird dogs. From
colonial times these small hounds were brought
over by Americans or by visiting Englishmen
and introduced along the Atlantic coast. Few
persons bred them with care. Generally they
became mixed with foxhounds and produced a
stock of small hounds resembling the English
harrier, which was spread all over the settled
parts of the country, most extensively in the
South. They were often used on foxes, espe-
cially when the object was to shoot the depreda-
tors instead of to capture them after the orthodox
144 The Sporting Dog
fashion. These half-sized hounds were also fav-
ored on deer by hunters who followed the plan of
When the era of bench shows set in, all dog
breeds and beagles with the rest began to be
systematized. The pioneer of American breeders
was General Rowett of Carlinville, Illinois. He
selected his foundation stock carefully, and to
this day most beagles which may be called
American-bred trace to his kennel. His stand-
bys were Sam and Dolly. He bred about 1880
a dog called Warrior, which became the property
of Mr. Turner of St. Louis and sired from Rosy,
another Rowett, the famous Champion Lee, chief
winner in some of the New York bench shows,
and the patriarch of the kennel of Mr. Pottinger
Dorsey of New Market, Maryland, who was for
years the most prominent American breeder.
Mr. Dorsey bred Fitzhugh Lee and Lee H,
and from his imported Chimer produced Dor-
sey's Pilot, another of the successful American
In the bench-show fancy the climax of interest
was reached in 1890 and the two or three years
preceding. At that time Mr. W. Stewart Dif-
fenderfer of Baltimore was exhibiting his favorite,
Champion Lou. She was not only a superior
beagle, but was so attractive in disposition that
she was a pet on the bench. Mr. Diffenderfer
BEAGLE. WORKING TYPE
Champion Freeland. By imported Florist-Triumph. In view of championship
field winnings Freeland is to be regarded as the first of living beagles in America.
Height, WVi inches; weight, 32 pounds. Owned by Guyasuta Kennels, Bellevue,
Pennsylvania. On the home side he is descended from Dorsey's Lee, and therefore
from Rowett's beagles. Handled in his public field trials by Mr. McAleer. His sons
and daughters made a fine record of winning in the fall trials of 1 903.
CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG
This is a fine specimen of the short-coat type. She belongs to one of the original
members of the Chesapeake Bay Dog Club. Bred from the Carroll Island strain.
Weight, sixty pounds Sedge color.
once showed me at his house a cabinet filled to
overflowing with cups and medals which Lou
had won. Mr. A. C. Krueger of Pennsylvania
was exhibiting at the same time. He was the
owner of the little twelve-inch dog, Champion
Bannerman. He also at different times owned
Cameron's Racket and Rattler HI. A handsome
and shapely little dog somewhat lacking in sub-
stance was Royal Krueger, the son of Champion
Bannerman. This dog was exhibited for several
years by the Hornell-Harmony kennels of New
York, and his name appears in many of the latest
pedigrees. The Somerset Kennels, the owner of
which was, I think, Mr. Phoebus, exhibited suc-
cessfully for some years. Their best dog was
Storm, which was so fully up to the fifteen-inch
limit that there was frequently a contest over his
eligibility. This kennel also owned a superior
bitch called Cloud. Mr. Shellhass of Brooklyn
was for some years a noted breeder and frequently
appeared in the ring as judge. In Massachusetts
and other parts of New England the beagle
became a favorite hound. Mr. Reed of Barton,
Vermont, Mr. Arthur Parry, Mr. Laick, and Mr.
Rutter of Massachusetts were prominent patrons
of the breed.
With the introduction of field trials in 1889
the interest in bench shows rapidly declined
among the beagle men, and in the last few years
146 The Sporting Dog
the entries at bench shows have been few,
although the quahty from the bench-show stand-
point has been fully maintained.
Mr. Parry won first honors, which included the
special prize for the best dog of all classes, at the
inaugural trials of 1889, with the wonderfully good
all-round dog, Frank Forest. Frank had won a
championship on the bench, being the best show
dog of his time with the possible exception of
Fitzhugh Lee. He was a happy medium between
the overstout English dog and the rather weedy
sort which began to appear too frequently in
American kennels. He was of a good white-
black-tan color, and strong at all points. His
field winnings show that he was a little dog
of first-rate nose and pace. He is a most impor-
tant figure in pedigrees of the strictly American
branch. An illustration of this is the line of
breeding to the present popular American sire,
Sailor. Frank Forest sired Clyde, Clyde sired
Royal Forest, and Royal Forest sired Sailor.
Frank Forest was sired by Riot, bred by Mr.
Dodge of Michigan, from Rowett stock and by
Rattler out of Spider. Mr. Reed of Vermont was
the breeder and owned Frank's dam, Skip, a stout
and strong hound. The breeding is an example
of the occasional success of depending upon get-
tins^ a mean between two extremes. Riot was a
dog which few breeders liked as an individual.
He was my property between 1889 and his death
some three years later. He was a small dog,
scarcely thirteen inches, and utterly lacking in
substance. He had a badly pinched muzzle,
small bone and a color, nearly all black, which
was unattractive; yet he possessed what might
be called the type qualities to a conspicuous
degree. He had perfect eyes and expression, a
good, hard coat and a brush just right in length
and texture. He was owned by Mr. Krueger at
one time, but afterwards went to Michigan where
I obtained him.
Riot was a queer little beast. He was entirely
useless in the field, being incurably gun-shy. He
had a nose so exquisite that he astonished the old
rabbit-hound owners down on the Eastern Shore
of Maryland where I kept him. The coldest trail
had no puzzles for him, and his voice was as mellow
as a French horn. His gun-shyness did not ap-
pear to result exactly from fright, but he treated
the noise rather as if it were disagreeable. He
would hunt with zest until a gun went off. Then,
without lowering his brush or appearing to be in
the least alarmed, he would quickly turn around
and trot off home. I also owned Frank Forest's
sister, Dolly, a charming little hound. When I
gave up my beagles. Riot and Dolly were left
on the Eastern Shore, and I am told that their
descendants, now sadly degenerate with plebeian
14B The Sporting Dog
rabbit-dog blood, are still following trails in the
pine thickets of that section.
Another good little hound whose name appears
in modern pedigrees was Champion Ringwood.
One of the best bitches of her day was Champion
Lonely, whose name also frequently appears in
the recent editions of the studbook.
Some five or six years ago there was in the
East a revival of interest in regular beagle packs.
It was accompanied by importations from Eng-
land, where these hounds are bred to a much
closer uniformity of appearance and quality than
on our side. Among the kennels which have
regular organization and which both exhibit on
the bench and use hounds in the field are the
Guyasuta (Messrs. McAleer and Johnston), the
Rock Ridge (Mr. Rockefeller), the Windholme
(Mr. Peters), the Somerset (Mr. Post), and the
Hempstead (Mr. Kernochan) packs in the neigh-
borhood of New York, and the Middlesex (Mr.
Higginson) beagles near Boston. Mr. Kernochan
died recently and his beagles were dispersed
before that event. The Guyasuta pack includes
Champion Freeland, one of the few winners of
beagle championships in the field. He was
sired by Florist, apparently the most valu-
able of recent importations. Other dogs im-
ported during this recent revival were Truman,
Primate, Fiddler, Orangeman, and Pilgrim. Mr.
Kernochan, whose death has recently lost a high-
spirited sportsman to the American world, was
the most liberal importer. He gave up his regu-
lar pack before he died, and his best hounds
became the heads of several promising kennels.
Imported Baronet has also become a successful
Rather a remarkable little hound is Sailor,
owned by Mr. Peterson of Homestead, Pennsyl-
vania. He may be called strictly American-bred.
His pedigree includes Frank Forest, Rattler,
Bannerman, and Cameron's Racket. He is small,
barely over the thirteen-inch point, but was suc-
cessful in the trials.
Kentucky has become quite a beagle centre
recently. The leading kennel there seems to be
that of Mr. Laurence Gentry of Lexington. His
principal dog is Champion Blitz. This little bench-
show champion is partly of imported blood, being
by Baronet, and partly of what we call our Ameri-
can strains. His dam's pedigree includes Ring-
wood, Lonely, and Bannerman.
Another young beagle w^iich did some sharp
winning as a puppy is Alonsita Round. He may
be called of typical American breeding, his line
including Dorsey's Pilot and Frank Forest.
Always the phrase used to describe the beagle
is " miniature foxhound," and nothing could be
better, since it describes both the dog's appear-
ifo The Sporting Dog
ance and the purpose of his existence. The most
important feature of the beagle from a bench
standpoint is the head, which includes ears.
Under the standard favored by most judges the
head makes up over one-third of the total scoring,
or, to be exact, thirty-five points. Much impor-
tance is attached to the eyes, which must be full
and pleading, the general beagle expression, and
the ears, which should be very long and of pliable
leather. Frequently in ordinary-sized beagles the
ears spread nearly or quite seventeen inches.
Beagle judges also are sticklers for coat, demand-
ing a rough and hard texture, the reason being
that the dog must do his work in briers and other
severe cover. The tail or brush is also looked
upon as a cardinal point of type. The color
should preferably be the tri-color, or white-black-
tan, of the best foxhounds ; but it may also be
white-and-black, white-and-tan, or mottled. Some-
times straight-bred beagles are almost solidly
black-and-tan, or tan. The outside limit of size
of a beagle is fifteen inches at the shoulder. Both
in field trials and on the bench it is common to
divide entries into two classes ; those between
thirteen and fifteen inches, and those under
In the central West the beagle is used very
little. Rabbits are too plentiful. Consequently
the beagle is, in the first place, not needed, and, in
Beagles 1 5 1
the second place, his work does not show to ad-
vantage when the rabbits are so abundant that
the trails are badly mixed. Meat hunters in the
West can kill more rabbits with a bird dog than
with a pack of beagles, and, to tell the truth, the
sportsmen who are not meat hunters regard the
rabbit as an inferior game, or as they frequently
express it " nigger meat." A little farther South,
where the country gets rougher and more thickly
timbered, half-bred beagles are used for tracking
deer, though most of the deer hunters whom I
have known preferred the large and slow foxhound
of the English type. I refer now not to the more
sportsmanlike deer hunters, but to the slow
trackers who care nothing for the chase and are
simply after the market.
Much can be said in advocacy of packs of bea-
gles bred and used after the English practice.
With us that custom has not yet taken firm root.
When we write of packs, it must be understood
that the term is not precise. We may mean
either of two things. The beagles put down at
our field trials are bred and hunted for individual
merit. The pack competitions at these trials are
made up of fours, sometimes eights, selected not
without regard to uniformity, to be sure, but pri-
marily for class in performance rather than sorti-
ness as a lot. The Guyasuta beagles are a field
trial and hunting kennel. The Rock Ridge bea-
152 The Sporting Dog
gles are of the same sort. On the other hand
Mr. Higginson's Middlesex Hunt pack is kept
and hunted strictly as a pack, Mr. Higginson
using his hounds both on hares and with the drag.
In establishing a regular pack, whether the in-
tention is to ride or follow afoot, the master first
seeks uniformity of look and pace. Uniformity of
look includes color, size, shape, expression, coat,
and the typical points of ear and brush. It is a
pretty art to breed up to a finished standard. In
work a perfected pack not only presents equality
of pace, but similarity of style. The master toler-
ates no flyers in front, no stragglers behind. The
overfast as well as the overslow must be drafted
out and sent away from the kennel. Whatever
the duration of the run, the hounds must not
As men and women of leisure take more to field
sports, no doubt beagle packs will become more
numerous. But our American way will alone do
for the cottontail hare. It best suits our Ameri-
can way of doing things. Beagles are selected
and hunted that they may drive for the gun. The
cottontail is a dodger. Ahead of hounds it will
almost invariably circle back after a few minutes
of running. There is no sport in riding to that
sort of hound work; not much afoot without a
gun. The sport is for the hounds to keep molly
moving until she comes to the gun. And the
beagle must know how to hunt as well as how to
strike and drive, must recognize the likely places,
and search for the cold trail left by the cottontail
in its ramblings the night before.
It is generically a difference like that between
American hunting of the fox and English riding
Field trial men are developing a cleaner and
more active type of beagle here, though, curiously,
the separation of type began long ago in England,
and by regular beagle men has been only of re-
cent years recognized in America. From Rowett's
time until lately beagle men accepted the type
of stocky, cobby hounds, as it appeared on the
benches. But the more active fellows are ap-
pearing in all public field competitions, and the
change will probably be seen more distinctly than
heretofore on the bench.
Keeping a regular pack, with an eye to both
pack appearance and pack running, should be an
attractive fancy for American ladies who take to
outdoor recreation. It is both science and amuse-
ment to maintain such a pack, with all the inter-
est of a foxhound pack at one-tenth the expense.
Maintenance of regular packs of either beagles
or foxhounds goes against the grain of one basic
law of American sport, a law which explains to
some extent the departures from English methods
in all sporting dogs. It is that the American
154 The Sporting Dog
dislikes to be burdened with three dogs when
one will do the work. He is always looking for
the dog of accuracy and speed to take the place
of the three slow dogs. As long as the American
has no landed estate of his own for a game pre-
serve, as long as he must usually travel a distance
to get his sport and cover a lot of ground to
find game, this will be the prevailing American
It is hard to say how far the pursuit of raccoons
constitutes an approved sport. However that may
be, 'coon hunting is a zestful amusement in all the
South and Southwest, and possesses fascinations
for many gentlemen whom it would be unjust to
designate by any name less worthy than that of
true sportsmen. A thoroughly good 'coon dog is
a much respected individual, and his fame fre-
quently spreads far and wide over a dozen coun-
ties. Sometimes he is a straight-bred foxhound ;
sometimes a straight-bred beagle ; sometimes he
is a mixture of the two, and often he inherits the
blood of the old English harriers which were fre-
quently brought over in the early colonial days.
A good 'coon dog must be reliable as to nose,
intelligent in hunting, and thoroughly game. The
latter quality is of some consequence because the
'coon is a good fighter, being possessed of extreme
activity and no contemptible punishing powers.
Of course a 'coon does not usually go out of his
way to find a battle, and in most cases he is cap-
tured after he has been treed. But even then he
is Hkely to get away unless the dog is willing and
capable in the line of quick and busy conflict.
All in all, the beagle, pure and mixed, has had
a career in the hunting experiences of the United
States quite as important as that of the foxhound
and not much inferior to that of the shooting
dog. In the drag-hunt and " tame " fox country
a pack of beagles, I can imagine, is more desirable
in some respects than a foxhound pack, if not as
elevated in dignity. The miniature hound is a
more attractive and interesting specimen of the
dog, and a beagle pack is more easily kept and
CHESAPEAKES AND WATER-SPANIELS
Retrieving from water is in a bad way as part
of American sport. A glance at the benches of
any show tells how feeble is the interest. Unless
it is one of the stronger Eastern events, there are
no Chesapeake Bay dogs and a few ordinary speci-
mens of the Irish water-spaniel.
When I asked one of the organizers of the old
Baltimore Chesapeake Bay Dog Club how he
explained the decay of that breed, he replied,
" There is no decay of dogs ; the decay is of
Western sportsmen have a different reason,
though the " decay of ducks " is also afflicting
their section. I asked the most persistent duck
shot among the club men of St. Louis why there
were not more dogs of the water sort. His answer
was : " Why should there be even so many ? It is
as easy to gather dead ducks as to pick up decoys,
and both can be done at the same time. We keep
three or four Irish water-spaniels and a few Chesa-
peake Bay dogs at the club-house, but they are
seldom used. Nobody cares to bother with them
Chesapeakes and IVaterspaniels 157
when they are really of no service, whether you
shoot from a blind or a tank." His opinion is
widely representative, since for two generations
St. Louis has been the greatest duck-shooting
centre in the world, its wild fowl territory cover-
ing an area of lakes and " slews " along the Miss-
issippi and Missouri, beside which the Chesapeake
and its inlets are, with all their fine traditions, but
a small spot on the map.
In the central West and down through Texas
most of the duck shooting is on still water —
marshes, small lakes, and sloughs. Ducks lie
where they fall. As the St. Louis amateur said,
it is less troublesome to gather the birds when
you are ready than to handle a retriever — per-
haps none too well trained, perhaps hard mouthed,
and certainly a wet nuisance ; not to be overnice
about a smell.
My St. Louis friend added a supplementary
verdict to his dismissal of the two retrieving
breeds. " If I were going to use a retriever," he
said, " it would be an Irish setter. Our waters are
not rough and our autumns mild and dry. A
setter can stand the work, is far more intelligent
and tractable, and is a quail and chicken dog
Ducking men are not sticklers for pedigree, and
many of them in the West prefer a cross-bred dog
to either its water-spaniel mother or setter sire.
158 The Sporting Dog
This setter and spaniel cross is enough of a water-
dog for all ordinary needs, and is an improvement
in brains and behavior. Sometimes the cross
makes a rattling good quail and snipe dog.
Everybody is familiar with the Irish water-
spaniel. He is so unlike any other dog that to
be seen is to be both noticed and remembered.
His topknot, his bare, 'possum tail and his closely
curling coat mark him in any dog company.
The Chesapeake is not so peculiar or distinct.
In fact, he is of rather common appearance.
Stout and strong, sedge or rusty brown in color,
the coat dense and close, he is not a beauty. The
breed came into being in the upper part of the
bay shores in Maryland. What breeds produced
this dog is not fully established. The staple folk-
yarn of the Chesapeake is that an errant princess
of the dog kind travelled out on the marsh seeking
adventures, and had a love-affair with an otter of
the other sex. The fruit of the damosel's romance
was the Chesapeake Bay dog. The dense coat
and fondness for water are the contribution of the
paternal side. This version of the ancient tale of
the Water Nick is, of course, plain rot. If the
dog-maiden had encountered an able-bodied otter,
— even throwing aside the science of genus fertility,
— she would either have kept her distance or ever
after have rued the day of her errancy.
General Ferdinand C. Latrobe, ex- Mayor of
Chesapeakes and IVater-spaniels 159
Baltimore, who is the best authority in the world
on Chesapeake Bay dogs and who has had per-
sonal supervision of the strain kept by the Car-
roll Island Club, the classic home of the breed,
says : —
" Many years ago a vessel from Newfoundland
ran aground near an estate called Walnut Grove,
on the shores of the Chesapeake. This estate
belonged to Mr. George Law, a member of a
well-known Maryland family. On board the ship
were two Newfoundland dogs, which were given
by the captain to Mr. Law in return for kindness
and hospitality shown to himself and his crew.
The beginning of the Chesapeake dog was a cross
between these Newfoundlands and the common
yellow-and-tan-colored hound, or ' coon dog,' of
that part of the country.
"The marked characteristics of the Chesapeake
Bay dog give every evidence of the truth of this
story. The strong power of scent, its hardihood,
its shorter hair, its medium size, and its remarkable
endurance come from the hound, while its love of
water, its powers of swimming, its extraordinary
ability to endure cold, its furry coat, wonderful \ o
intelligence, and general good temper are all due [ \
to the Newfoundland. There has doubtless been
added, from time to time, some water-spaniel cross,
which has helped its remarkable retrieving quali-
ties. The yellow-and-tan of the hound, combined
i6o The Sporting Dog
with the black of the Newfoundland and the in-
troduction of the spaniel, produced the liver color
of the true Chesapeake Bay dog. In course of
time the Chesapeake Bay has, in Maryland, be-
come a distinctive breed.
"At the Carroll Island Club, of which the
writer has been a member for over thirty years,
and the records of which go back for over a
century, this strain of dogs have been carefully
bred, and for many years the pedigrees have
been kept. The same care in breeding the
Chesapeake Bay has been followed at some of
the other clubs.
" From Carroll's Island the stock has been sent
to the Curri tuck-sound clubs, and also to the
Pacific coast. On the island are still preserved
many of the old names of celebrated dogs. We
have now a Jimmie, Turk, Dan, Jack, Gill,
Mollie, Lady, Tim, Drake, Belle, etc., the wonder-
ful retrieving powers of whose ancestors are fully
set forth in the records of the ' big bags ' of days
On the bench the chief exhibitor among the old
Chesapeake Dog Club set was Mr. J. D. Mallory,
who usually took out most of the ribbons when
he put his dogs down.
Both the Irish water-spaniel and the Chesa-
peake Bay dog are gallant swimmers and hardy
retrievers. The Irishman is sadly weak in the
Chesapeakes and IVafer-spaniels i6i
quality of temper, and neither of these breeds
smells too sweet. In the dry and long summers
of the West they are liable to skin diseases —
mange and the like. The Irish spaniel is par-
ticularly unfortunate in this susceptibility to
eczema and mange. So, except in duck retriev-
ing as a steady profession, these two breeds are
not attractive. Few men get more than a week
or such a matter on ducks in a year, and shooting
becomes thinner picking every season. So the
water retrievers do not win supporters.
Still, there are followers of the sport who stick
to their retrievers. The Carroll Island Club, of
Baltimore membership, is where the Chesapeake
Bay dog is most highly honored and most care-
fully bred. Ducks or no ducks, General Latrobe
and his friends will no doubt maintain the excel-
lence and purity of their strain for a long period.
Many good-working Irish water-spaniels are dis-
tributed through the lake country between the
St. Lawrence and the Red River of the North,
where retrieving is a necessary adjunct of duck-
ing and where the water is too chilly for a setter,
though the duck season begins early. An excel-
lent animal of the useful type. The O'Donoghue,
left a family up in that region when he died a few
years ago. There is enough other good blood to
preserve the integrity of the breed as long as may
be desired. Champion Dan Maloney is the last
1 62 The Sporting Dog
typical Chesapeake I have seen on the bench in
the West. But there are many others in private
If ducks could be protected from the reckless
slaughter which follows their flight every mile
from the breeding grounds to the Gulf and back ;
if only spring shooting could be effectually
abolished, these two breeds, magnificent in the
water, would have an increasing popularity. If
the ducks are to disappear, neither breed seems
to possess the agreeable house and yard qualities
which would sustain competition with other dogs.
Americans who study the dog family regret
that the Chesapeake Bay dog, until the advent
of the Boston terrier about the only breed of
native production, should fall into decline before it
is sufficiently established to breed true and per-
petuate the type. That they do not breed re-
liably is the experience of nearly all who have
made an experiment; though I confess that I
am not acquainted with the kennel records of
the Carroll Island Club. I do know that I had a
bitch, from close-coated sire and dam, which had
a long, straight, open coat and a rather foxy or
Spitz head ; and that, bred to a capital close-
coated dog, she produced straight and open coats
in half of her puppies. Anybody who has seen
these dogs perform in the water would share the
dog fancier's hope that the breed may be special-
Chesapeake and IVafer-spanfels 16
ized and perpetuated. I recall one splendid chap
on the ocean beach, which would dive through
the heavy breakers by the hour if a friendly hand
would share his sport by throwing a stick. We
who live in the West cannot be depended upon
to help, but the Chesapeake dwellers ought to
perfect the breed if only from pride in the name.
While it requires something of a conscious
effort on the part of owners to make a practical
sporting dog of the fox terrier in America, the
wide distribution and great numbers of this breed
literally force a special attention. Leaving out
mongrel hounds and bird dogs of doubtful ex-
traction, it would seem that, taking the country-
over, fox terriers outnumber any other well-de-
fined breed of dogs. Their sporty appearance
and the ease with which they are kept seem to
present attractions to all kinds of people.
Since visiting at a friend's place in the coun-
try some months ago, I feel compelled to give
fox terriers a position among true sporting dogs.
This gentleman has a large property and man-
ages a still larger adjacent estate belonging to
female heirs. He has a dozen fox terriers about
his place and will not admit any other dog. His
reasons for settling down on these terriers invite
reflection. He says that they are more agreeable
company, are better watch-dogs, do not suck eggs
or worry sheep, stay at home, are hardier and less
WIRE-HAIR FOX TERRIER
Ruby Matchbox (imported). By All Bristies-Oronsay Value. Crystal Palace
winner in England. Owned by Mr. J. Wallace Wakem, Chicago. Typical wire-hair
terrier in size, coat, color, and expression.
Fox Terriers 165
troubled with diseases. Horses and cattle like
to have them about, and rats and weasels stay
away. On the sporting side he finds them help-
ful on 'coons and rabbits. They soon learn to
trail quite a little, but that is not their field of
usefulness. They are good on 'coons because,
while they are weak on the trailing side, they
are much quicker than hounds in preventing the
escape of the game after a tree has fallen, or
when for any other reason the 'coon has been
compelled to take the ground. When rabbits are
numerous enough to be troublesome, fox terriers
are effective. They can start more rabbits than
can beagles or large hounds ; and if a man knows
how to hunt the American hare and how to sta-
tion himself, he would rather have a dog which
starts game quickly than one which trails faith-
fully. As to squirrels, my friend says that the
fox terrier is the best squirrel dog he ever saw.
We have, therefore, a legitimate ground on
which to class these popular little dogs as mem-
bers of the American sporting class.
There have been four fortresses of the fox
terrier fancy. First came the Blemton (Mr.
August Belmont) ; then the Warren (Mr. Ruther-
ford), the Cairnsmuir (Mr. Carnochan), and the
Norfolk (Mr. Gooderham). These first three
have been around New York and the last at
Toronto, Canada. From these great nurseries
1 66 The Sporting Dog
fox terriers, both smooth and wire hair, have
been distributed all over the United States and
British America. Each of the four has imported
freely. They have given to the fanciers the
Vicary and other fashions in English terrier
There have been two high tides in fox terriers.
The first was when Mr. Belmont had the gay
little white dog, Lucifer, the still more typical
but not so compact Rachel, Bacchanal, Dusky
Trap, and others. In the height of his enthu-
siasm I remember seeing Mr. Belmont industri-
ously treading the sawdust and judging a large
class of terriers at a New York show some fifteen
The other wave of popularity was when Mr.
Carnochan took up the fancy in earnest, and Mr.
Raper, the English professional, sent over the
smooth Claude Duval and the great wire hair.
Go Bang. Mr. Carnochan not only placed Go
Bang in his kennel, but also secured that other
son of Meersbrook Bristles, Champion Thorn-
field Knockout. Lately he has kept himself at
the head of the wire hair fancy by bringing over
Champion Barkby Ben.
Mr. Rutherford now has Dusky Don 11, Clau-
dian, and a half-dozen other smooth stud dogs,
and has recently enlarged his kennel.
From these four kennels and from many other
Fox Terriers 167
importations, no end of more or less permanent
establishments have been undertaken, covering
every state in the Union.
The fox terrier must surely be the most adapt-
able of all dogs. You can see him revelling in
the snow around Duluth and St. Paul, equally
lively and at home in Mobile and New Orleans.
There could scarcely be such a thing as an
exhaustive study of fox terriers in America un-
less one were going to bring out a set of tomes
like that of the California Bancroft's historical
compilations. Nothing worth while would at-
tend such an attempt, since a fox terrier is a
fox terrier, and either does or does not come up
to the standards fixed on the English benches.
Moreover, our English friends usually manage
every year to trot out a few new champions
which they are willing to send over to replenish
our supply and perhaps to set new fashions of
long heads and toppy ear carriage. Every bench-
show season is a sort of new era in terriers.
CHOOSING A SHOOTING DOG
When the amateur sportsman has means and
opportunity, the easiest and the cheapest method
of making a selection is to buy a matured dog
which has beauty, style, speed, nose, brains, fash-
ionable pedigree, and a finished education. But
such dogs are not picked up every day, and, like
horses of the same class, come high when you
undertake to purchase them from men who un-
derstand their value.
In selecting a dog or judging a man it is a
good rule not to pass judgment on defects alone.
There never was a perfect dog, and critics of the
shallow sort are fond of exhibiting their knowl-
edge by dwelling on minor defects. What you
desire, primarily, is a dog of fairly good looks and
a reliable efficiency of work. Keep those qualities
always in mind. Of course, you wish to escape
all blemishes as far as possible ; but do not be
misled into condemning a dog good in essentials
because somebody perceives a few hairs too many
at the end of the tail or a fraction of an inch less
leather than he fancies in the ear.
Choosing a Shooting Dog 169
In the field, also, be careful not to attach too
much importance to slight faults which appear at
a first trial. Be sure that the dog is of the right
stuff and then go ahead. Remember that most
of what a dog knows he learns from experience.
A young dog with no experience is likely to have
many faults which disappear rapidly with work on
game. You cannot compare the work of a dog
which has seldom or never been afield with that
of a veteran which has long been accustomed to
game. An experienced eye will tell quickly
whether a man or dog is a born fool or rascal,
but the amateur cannot afford to judge hastily.
Some of the errors which make the worst im-
pression and which sportsmen condemn most
severely are those which are easily cured. There
are authorities who say that false pointing is an
inherent weakness of either nose or intelligence.
I am surprised that any man who has owned
dogs should make such a statement. One kind
of false pointing may be an incurable disease or
weakness, but the ordinary kind usually disap-
pears with experience. Most of the immediate
descendants of Count Noble had a strong ten-
dency to false point, but in few cases was it per-
sistent. Cincinnatus was an example. One man
who attended field trials at that time condemned
him severely and told me that the dog would as
soon point a drove of pigs as a bevy of birds. I
lyo The Sporting Dog
have, however, no reason to suppose that Cincin-
natus was not a good bird dog. Certainly Mr.
Dager used him for regular shooting, as he would
scarcely have done if the dog had been a de-
ceiver. A daughter of Cincinnatus, which I
owned, was in her first year a most annoying
victim of this fault. In her second year I took
her on a shooting trip to the Ozarks. It hap-
pened that the place I visited was almost entirely
bare of game, owing to a severe winter the pre-
vious year. Not being able to find game, the
bitch took to false pointing. I think it safe to
say that at times she pointed a hundred times in
a space of two or three acres where there was no
sign of birds. She had been worked but little
for some time, and a lack of practice and her
anxiety to find something were the causes of the
trouble. Later, when she was put in regular
training, she became as positive and clean-cut in
her bird work as a man could wish. For several
seasons she was the shooting dog of Mr. Weems
of Quincy, Illinois. He is a practical sportsman
" with no foolishness about him," and he regarded
her as an exceptionally efficient dog. Field trial
dogs often show this fault, from the fact that very
few birds are killed over them, and they become
a little puzzled as to what it is all about. This
was the case of Seven-up, a fast and stylish field
trial dog in his Derby year and several times a
Choosing a S booting Dog 171
winner. He did not locate at all well at that
time, but when used in regular shooting became
accurate and skilful in his bird work. Lady
Maud Mannering, a clever winner, also devel-
oped this fault for a time. Sport's Gath, a fine
shooting dog as well as a distinguished field trial
winner, would do a great deal of false pointing
when he was worked, without any shooting to tell
him what kind of game was wanted. To make it
clear, I should add that in treating this fault as
venial I am considering dogs which in the im-
portant respects show character and intelligence.
If a dog is silly or stupid his pointing will con-
tinue silly or stupid.
Gun-shyness is a trouble which amateurs and
clumsy trainers are unable to deal with success-
fully. Except in extreme cases, however, it gives
a good trainer little trouble. Many of the finest
dogs begin that way. While nobody would call
it a merit or a good sign, it is not to be regarded
as any great misfortune, if only the handler
possesses a little tact and knowledge. Jingo's
Light, the pointer, became badly gun-shy from
rough handling his first year. He is but one of
a number of great performers which went through
the same experience.
There is one fault which does come under the
head of good signs. That is flushing in the
heyday of youth and inexperience. A young dog
172 Tbe Sporting Dog
which points too willingly and is stanch from
the first is not likely to exhibit later any great
energy or class. To a good dog the stanchness
on point comes with a little experience and only
that way. If a young dog recognizes game, the
fact that he jumps into it a second later is rather
to the credit of his courage and spirit than other-
wise. At one of the Illinois field trials, Dan-
forth's Nick threw himself out of competition by
a memorable bit of flushing. He flushed two
large bevies one after the other and had both
scattered down a ditch bank. For about two
minutes he kept the air full of birds, exciting the
laughter of the spectators and the ire of Updike,
his handler. Nick is now a staid and sober
shooting dog, retaining his speed and hunt, and
adding thereto an entirely comfortable stanch-
ness on birds.
Bolting or ranging beyond control of the
handler is another of those faults of which
superficial critics make much, but which, in nine
cases out of ten, is readily controlled. This is
the fault of overboldness, and its contrary is an
apparent shyness and timidity in the kennel and
with strangers. This latter fault is another
which it will not do to emphasize too much.
Some of those which seem most shrinking and
quiet around the kennel are the boldest and most
tireless workers when they get out. Vice versa,
Choosing a Shooting Dog 173
some of those which are the most fussy and
anxious in the kennel are quitters and dullards
in the field.
Jealousy is a bothersome fault. If, however,
a handler once with a check-cord gets a dog in
the habit of stopping at command, the annoyance
Defects which the bench-show experts dwell
upon frequently need not trouble the amateur
sportsman unless he intends to exhibit. Bench-
show men ask for narrow shoulders in shooting
dogs and greyhounds. It is reasonable to sup-
pose that they are right, and yet almost every
first-class shooting dog has round and muscular
shoulders. This is not to be confused with heavy
and cumbersome shoulders, which are always to
be condemned. Even in greyhounds the rather
thick shoulder is the rule among first-class dogs
as far as I have been able to observe them. A
dog which Mr. Watson picked, not only as the
best greyhound, but as the best dog, in the some-
what celebrated exhibition at St. Louis, in 1897,
was Magician, a son of Miller's Rab. Mr. Wat-
son specially admired the dog's narrow shoulders
and straight front. Yet Magician was never a
very fast dog, was a very poor killer, and won his
coursing honors almost purely on his staying
powers. This latter attribute he did not get from
his shoulders, because he had not at any time
174 The Sporting Dog
what one would call a smooth gait, at least as
compared with real flyers. If Mr. H. C. Lowe
ever bred a dog with what the bench-show men
would call good shoulders, I never saw it. Yet
no other man has ever sent out as many winners
of the first flight.
There are two cardinal questions in choosing
a shooting dog. One is the breed to be selected,
and the other is whether the specimen shall be a
male or female. As to the breed, the inquirer
would do better to learn for himself which he
likes best. For the young sportsman I should be
inclined to recommend the pointer or the Laver-
ack English setter. Either of these will do good
work with less of scientific handling than will in
most cases be required of the other strains and
breeds. The modern Laverack is generally
docile, responsive, and quick to begin pointing.
I have also seen many young amateurs who got
along well with Gordons. These dogs are usually
rather self-willed, but are not disposed to range
out of hand, and are generally very sure from the
first on single birds in heavy cover. Both the
Laverack and Gordon have the additional advan-
tage of carrying their pedigrees in their looks, and
impress all bystanders with the fact that they are
In picking a young puppy before weaning time,
I should advise the amateur to select the fattest
Choosing a Shooting Dog 175
one, provided the color suits him. The fat pup
will not necessarily be the largest one, but is tol-
erably sure to be the vigorous and aggressive one.
Only tolerably sure, however, because the runt is
sometimes the crackajack.
In the matter of size, I emphatically recommend
the medium. Neither very large dogs nor very
small ones usually carry the best qualities of the
breed. The normal is, nine times out of ten, the
right. I do not so much refer to the disadvan-
tages of size per se, as to the fact that anything
which tends abnormally one way or the other is
likely to be deficient in the essential qualities.
In the matter of male or female, my own judg-
ment is positive, though there will be many to
disagree. The female field dog usually shows
best in the early stages. She is quicker and han-
dier, and has enough vixenish fire in her bird
work to present at least the appearance of earnest
effort. On the other hand, I say without hesita-
tion that I never saw a bitch which developed first-
class head-work, and few of them train on. To be
sure, some have won the highest championships,
but I do not believe that they did it with their
heads. I have seen a number of high-class
bitches, but I never saw one exhibit those feats of
intelli2:ence which I have seen a number of times
in the setter Doc Hick, and more than once in
the pointer King Cyrano, as well as in other dogs.
176 The Sporting Dog
Hick, in fact, had few equals even among his own
sex. He seldom appeared at his very best in a
field trial, because he usually ranged just about
far enough to keep a little outside the other dog.
It was his head-work which made him specially
superior, and it required some knowledge of him
to fully appreciate his faculties. He had one
habit which I have not seen elsewhere developed
to the same degree, but which every field dog
could have with benefit. He never bolted and
never came in to his handler, but whenever he
went down into a ditch or behind a clump of
bushes he would turn his head around in a pecul-
iar way and take a glance to see whether the
handler was coming along; then he would dash
on about his hunting business.
There may be bitches which have this sort of
mental faculty, but I can only say that I never
saw one. My advice, therefore, is that if one
wants a snappy, quick, handy dog, he would prob-
ably be better satisfied with a female. It is only
justice to say, too, that more dogs than bitches are
likely to loaf. But for the very highest class of
work, which includes a recognition of conditions
and dealing with them to the best advantage, I
should say decidedly, Stick to the dog.
In gathering together morsels of advice for the
amateur, I might cite a verdict which I recently
saw in a letter from Dr. Rogers of Mississippi, an
Choosing a Shooting Dog 177
experienced field shot and a popular field trial
judge. Grading the dogs which he has seen,
Dr. Rogers places them in this way: for speed,
Paul Bo, setter ; range, Daisy Hope, setter ; bird
sense. Jingo, pointer; handling, Bohemian Girl,
setter; nose, Gath, setter; iron courage, Glad-
stone, setter. It seems that Dr. Rogers picks the
pointer for natural cleverness in dealing with
birds, and the setter for speed, courage, and per-
haps acute nose.
In the matter of color for either pointer or set-
ter, I rather prefer orange-and-white, with plenty
of white, but it is not the fashion in either breed.
The fashionable color for pointers is liver-and-
white, and for setters white-black-tan with good-
sized black patches.
Choosing dogs for different kinds of game and
different sections of the country brings up again
the qualities of the special breeds. Some men
use cocker spaniels for ruffed grouse. It has
always seemed, though, that they sought grouse
in order to work the spaniels. Frank Forester
long ago nearly covered the American view, Eng-
lish-bred though he was, when he said that on
game which makes a very slow dog necessary, a
good shot can do better without any dog at all.
If a shrewd man were after ruffed grouse on a
wager, he would take a well-broken, but fairly
speedy setter, or would leave his dogs home and
178 Tbe Sporting Dog
rely upon his own knowledge of the bird's habits.
Shooting certain game over cockers may do in
England where the game is preserved in known
places, and where it may be "gathered" almost
as a boy gathers chestnuts from trees which he
spotted in the summer woods and has been watch-
ing ever since. In America somebody or some-
thing must find game. Ground must be covered.
So with woodcock and snipe. There are times
and places when a spaniel or a very slow pointer
would keep the air vibrant with good shooting,
but the vigilant shot under such joyous circum-
stances would kick up his own shooting. On
most of the woodcock and snipe days when the
birds are scarce enough to call for the services of
a dog, what a man needs is one which will keep
moving, well out at times, has a long-range nose
and both decision and caution in signifying the
presence of birds. Only a pointer or setter can
so perform, and the setter is likely to be the
better on account of water and thick cover.
On prairie chicken I like a pointer. While
the nights may be cool, the days are hot in the
prairie country during the chicken season. A
setter stands heat as well as a pointer, but he does
not manage it as well. Setter men would assign
the cause to the pointer's not being a plucky dog
under discomfort; pointer men would put it on
the ground that their breed has more sense.
Choosing a Shooting Dog 179
Anyhow, a setter of good class generally over-
heats himself in August or early September
chicken shooting by beginning at a pace too fast.
He either pumps himself out or loses his nose.
The pointer usually regulates his speed better
and gives a more killing day. He does not begin
with a gait beyond his capacity to stand the hot
weather. On the prairie the setter's only advan-
tage is that his feet stand the cutting effect of the
dry grass much better.
In the quail season the comparison is reversed
and, all things considered, the setter is the more
useful dog in average quail country, the pointer s
one decided advantage here being his indifference
to the always recurring bur troubles of the setter.
This all goes to the question of relative effi-
ciency. A man can get his fun and sport with a
cocker or any dog which he fancies and knows
how to handle. Maybe, if we Americans devoted
more attention to the pleasure of trying the spe-
cial qualities of different dogs and less to mere
shooting, field sport would really be better worth
while. As the sport goes, however, the rule
stands that the devotee would for all American
upland game better use a tolerably fast and busy
setter or pointer, or depend on his own fieldcraft.
The cocker and other sporting spaniels are en-
gaging little fellows, among the brightest, most in-
telligent and affectionate of dogs. They quickly
i8o The Sporting Dog
learn to obey whistle and voice. The spaniel
style of hunting is with nose to the ground. The
style, with their short legs and heavy bodies,
makes their range limited; as, in fact, the pur-
pose of their breeding contemplates. It is not
desired that they travel wide. They penetrate
any cover and in a rough, tangled country can
rout out game better than most dogs. One who
likes and understands them can make them useful
and pleasurable in certain kinds of shooting. It
still remains true, however, that in America the
setter and pointer, even on grouse and woodcock,
are much more serviceable to the gun.
When the tramp is the first motive and shoot-
ing an incident; when one is botanist by avoca-
tion and sportsman as bird or beastie may happen ;
when the wandering is for the sake of woods and
fields, with the contingency of knocking over a
cottontail or squirrel or grouse if it taunts the
eye and gun, then the sporting spaniel for me.
The cocker or field spaniel will get into less
trouble and make more entertainment than any
other dog. You can talk friendly gossip to him
and have always a responsive audience. Any-
thing that pleases your lazy hours to teach, he
will learn. You could not lose him if you tried.
He will watch while you sleep, and with nose,
ear, and brain most exquisitely acute. While he
is not a producer of big bags, his area of action
Choosing a Shooting Dog i8i
being small, he will hustle out a wonderful variety
of game in a loiter of a few days and, unless he
is a Clumber, will always tell you about it aloud
in time. No dog within my knowledge is so
readily brought under command and so human in
its companionship. Breeding for shortness of leg
and perfection of coat has not yet diminished
these, his psychical charms. His thick jacket
will be a receptacle of burs and mud, but it will
protect him in brier and rain. In an outing afoot
for its own sake, pick the sporting spaniel ahead
of everything else canine.
He who would cut up the map into sections for
the assignment of dogs thereto must know much
beside temperatures. In far Manitoba pointers
are popular because pinnated and sharp-tail
grouse are the best game, and August and Sep-
tember the best season. In the Gulf States
setters are used freely, because there they shoot
quail all winter and mostly in brushy country.
The dogs which are most successful in the East
also seem to excel on California quail and gen-
erally through the Pacific slope. It would be
wise to find what is to be done before checking
off sections for different breeds or different types.
When pondering on a pedigree, the amateur
will find all kinds of opinions. I should be in-
clined to put it in this way, beginning with Eng-
lish setters. If you desire a fashionable pedigree,
1 82 The Sporting Dog
look for Tony Boy, Count Gladstone IV, Rod-
field, or one of their sons. If you wish to be sure
of having a first-rate, genuine, determined bird
dog be sure to have Marie's Sport or Prince Luci-
fer blood close up. I am inclined to place great
faith in Prince Lucifer blood, since every dog
I ever saw which typed after that sire was good.
Not to mention such field trial winners as Sport's
Solomon, Sport's Boy, Sport's Lady, and Dash
Antonio, all having Lucifer dams, I can cite the
case of a dog by a son of Prince Lucifer, which I
owned and afterwards sent down to Maryland.
He w^as a genuine bird dog through and through,
and was one of the few which always retrieved on
the run, perfectly willing to retrieve, but cheer-
fully anxious to get through with it and go about
his hunting again. There was something spar-
kling and soldierly about this dog, which especially
attracted everybody who saw him work.
Recognizing an appearance of inconsistency,
considering what has been said in this volume in
praise of the many superior public winners of
such breeding, the author should caution ama-
teurs who contemplate the purchase of young
Llewellin setters of the fashionable blood repre-
sented by the descendants of Count Gladstone
IV and Roderigo. In the characteristic sub-
families of that blood about two puppies out
of five will be attractive dogs. The best are
Choosing a Shooting Dog 183
delightful realizations of class. But three out of
five are likely to be insignificant, frivolous, and
useless to any good sportsman. Why this is a
fact is a story of some tedium and need not be
told ; nor has it anything to do with straight
breeding or inbreeding. It is enough to warn
readers who are not acquainted with the secrets
of field trial kennels that it is a fact, and that they
would better not order from a distance young
dogs of this fashionable blood without a guaran-
tee of individual worth.
In the pointer pedigree, fashion requires Rip
Rap and Jingo blood. Perhaps extreme fashion
would be something like this : by King Cyrano,
Lad of Jingo or Jingo's Light, out of a dam by
Young Rip Rap, Ripstone, or Plain Sam. For a
comfortable and reliable shooting dog, I should
look for the Jingo blood crossed on the best of
the Croxteths, say the descendants of Trinket's
Bang or Ossian.
It may be useful for an amateur to know that
there are differences in temper, among not only
individuals, but breeds. Irish and Gordon frailty
in preserving their good humor may partly ac-
count for their lower degree of popularity. Gor-
dons are the most uncertain of temper, Irish next,
then pointers; and English setters are the most
cheerful with friend or foe. A Gordon is likely
to be morose and sulky under correction, often
184 The Sporting Dog
showing resentment for a long time afterwards.
At the other extreme, an EngHsh setter usually
takes reproof amiably, jumps up gayly, and forgets
To sum it up, whether of one breed or one
strain or another, you should look for moral stam-
ina, nervous energy, and proper physical propor-
tions. Next demand beauty and breediness, and
lastly insist on pedigree. If you can get these
qualities, you have a dog as good as anybody's,
no matter in what company you shoot.
One scientific and practical reason for demand-
ing a pedigree lies entirely apart from mere fashion
and prestige, and rests upon what might be called
the potentiality of inheritance.
Every man who has had occasion to employ
large numbers of men or women has more or
less clearly perceived the strange abruptness with
which an individual will come up against the
limit of his or her powers, a limit beyond which
further development is hopeless. In my own pro-
fession I have employed several hundred young
men and women. I may be allowed to say that
they were, as people go, of select intellectual
abilities. Time and time asrain I have been
startled at the suddenness with which the limit
would be reached ; and at the utter impossibility
of carrying capacity a step beyond that point.
Last year I asked Dr. Stanley Hall of Clark
Choosing a Shooting Dog 185
University, one of my boyhood's teachers, whether
this period marking the cessation of mental de-
velopment had ever been made the subject of
special study by a competent expert. Dr. Hall,
who, as his old pupils are proud to know, is the
first of American authorities on child develop-
ment, answered that no investigation of conse-
quence had ever been applied to this period. I
take it for granted, therefore, that it is still an
untilled field. One can easily understand the
difficulties of conducting such an investigation ;
yet the results would be of definitely more value
than any amount of child study, especially since
they might lead to a discovery of the indicia
which in childhood foreshadow the limitations of
However this may all be, as a proposition in
general science, it is certain that in a pedigree
of high performers there lie possibilities of devel-
opment. It is hard to tell in the case of a puppy,
even up to a year old, just what direction devel-
opment will take or how far it can be carried.
A half-bred yearling horse may have all the
appearance and action of a thoroughbred and
may entice the unwary sportsman into the ex-
pense of training, but in a race at anything over
half a mile the cold element will show itself.
Puppies of poor breeding are often handsome,
active, and attractive; and those of the highest
1 86 The Sporting Dog
breeding are often common in appearance in the
early stages. At maturity the poorly bred will
become common, and those of champion ancestry
will show their blood. There is a strong proba-
bility that the latter will go on improving for a
long time, and that the former will stop short
and often go backward after a certain limit is
It is hardly necessary to say that this does not
constitute an invariable rule and that, like most
dogmas which relate to living creatures, it is
subject to many exceptions and variations. But
Jthe percentage of probabilities is immensely on
the side of the good pedigree. The qualities
of the great ancestors are likely to ripen into
power ; maybe a little late, but, on the other hand,
maybe a little better for not being precocious.
If a matured dog is good through and through,
he makes his own pedigree. But I should never
think twice of a young one which had not a
pedigree of public performers. Private tales of
untested, unwitnessed performances need too
much verification, about as much as a mother's
baby yarns. Public competition alone is the basis
of value in a pedigree.
THE DOGS THEY PREFER
If I were the reader and somebody else the
writer, I should find most of pleasure in this chap-
ter and that on foxhounds.
When reading articles on the comparative
merits of sporting-dog breeds and individuals, I
have usually been annoyed by soon perceiving a
narrowness of view and a limited experience. It
may be the fact that every man's natural limita-
tions make him narrow. However that may be,
I am cheerfully willing to confess that my own
experience is not all of the world. To furnish
the reader with the results of competent observa-
tion by disinterested followers of field sport in
different parts of America, I have asked some
representative sportsmen to let me give their
views of what a shooting dog should be.
Mr. Harry R. Edwards of Cleveland, Mr. H.
Marshall Graydon of London, Canada, and Mr.
Martin Voorhees of St. Louis are three hard-
going and genuine amateur field shots. Mr. Ed-
wards shoots in Ohio and also on his preserve
in North Carolina and other parts of the South.
1 88 The Sporting Dog
What he says was written to me in a private let-
ter some time ago. He at first refused, but finally
gave me permission to make it part of this volume.
To those who do not know Mr. Edwards I may
say that he is a modest gentleman who would be
the last to extol his own dogs or discuss in public
his personal recreations. Just as I esteem the
privilege of his acquaintance, the young reader
seeking information should esteem the unaffected
recital of a thorough sportsman's progress from
unsatisfactory to wholly enjoyable dogs. To
some it may be an introduction to say that Mr.
Devereux, the friend and associate mentioned in
Mr. Edwards's letter, is the foremost amateur
reinsman of America.
Mr. Graydon tells of what he has discovered
about the kind of dogs to suit the Canada coun-
try in which he lives. Mr. Voorhees has shot
chiefly in Missouri, Southern Illinois, and the
South bordering on the Mississippi. He is a
superb shot and uncompromising about the effi-
ciency of his pointers and setters.
All three have shot over dogs of low and high
degree. Each has seen his private shooting dogs
win field trials. The distilled result of their ex-
perience appears here for the benefit of amateurs
whose ofJportunities with dogs and on game are
Following them is Mr. P. H. Bryson, the owner
The Dogs tbey Prefer 189
of Gladstone from the dog's puppyhood to his
death. Mr. Bryson has judged at numerous
bench shows and field trials, and has seen
numbers more, besides his private shooting every
year, which began before there was a Llewellin
setter or a field trial pointer in the world. In
many treasured private conversations Mr. Bryson
has told me about the dogs he has known. When
I began this account of the sporting dog's devel-
opment in America, I at once asked Mr. Bryson
to make a comparative study of Llewellin setters,
taking Gladstone, the foundation of the Ameri-
can type, as the basis of comparison. The vet-
eran sportsman courteously agreed, and I have
the pleasure of putting in permanent form the
ripened conclusion of his varied studies.
TRIAL WINNERS AS SHOOTING DOGS
By Mr. Harry R. Edwards of Cleveland
Some ten years ago Mr. H. K. Devereux and I
went to Mason, Tennessee, at the invitation of
Dr. Maclin. We had borrowed four dogs. Like
most shooting dogs, they were worthless.
Mr. Devereux had a dog called Spot Cash, one
of the great Vanguard-Georgia Belle litter, in
the hands of George Gray. We went to Grand
Junction to see Spot Cash run, and took Dr.
Maclin with us, as Devereux had purchased Spot
Cash from the doctor.
190 The Sporting Dog
I purchased Trap Jr. from Gray, and she was
the first good dog I ever owned. I also purchased
a Dan Burges puppy called Harvard. The winter
following Devereux and myself shot over Trap
Jr. and Spot Cash and for many years thereafter.
Spot Cash had been classed a bolter. Yet after a
little shooting he developed into a first-class
shooting dog. Trap Jr. had every quality she
should have had and was an ideal shooting dog.
Harvard started at Bicknell, Indiana, and was
not placed. The next winter we used him to
shoot over. As he developed such speed, range,
and bird-finding ability, we decided to start him
in the all-age stakes. In the meantime I had
bought Harwick, and in 1896 at West Point he
ran second to Tory Fashion and was regarded as
high in class as any dog out that year. The sea-
son following, 1897 and 1898, I started Harvard
and Harwick. Gray had them both, and at the
same time handled Marie's Sport and Harold
Skimpole. Harvard lacked in style and could
not be classed with the other three. Harwick
had broken a leg as a puppy and this handicap
forbade placing him that season. Ever since
1896 I have hunted over Harvard and have yet
to see a dog to beat him in giving you an oppor-
tunity to shoot. He proved to be what I term a
In 1898 Gray placed Harwick third in the
The Dogs they Prefer 191
all-age at West Point. That year, and for several
years after, I shot over Harwick, and cannot im-
agine a more attractive dog. He had been spoken
of as a bolter. The first time I had him out in
Ohio in a very close country, he adapted himself
to the conditions and hunted absolutely to the
gun. I well remember being out with some Ohio
sportsmen in the Western part of this state. We
had a large party, and a number of dogs well re-
garded by their owners. One evening some one
said he did not have any use for a field trial dog.
A friend of mine spoke up and said, " To-morrow
I wish you all to come with Mr. Edwards for an
hour and see two field trial dogs work." Seven
men went out in the party. I took Harvard and
Harwick. Notwithstanding the seven guns, these
two dogs did perfect work and the gentlemen
said they had never seen a good dog before.
I bred Harwick to Dan's Lady when Johnson
had her, and for the service received two pups,
one of which was Uncle B. Gray did not think
well enough of him to train for the Derby, but
afterwards entered him in all-age stakes, and you
are familiar with his record. Mr. Devereux told
me to breed Trap Jr. to Marie's Sport. I said,
" No, sir, I have just as good a dog, namely,
Harwick." Trap Jr. had by Harwick three pup-
pies. Two I sold. The third was Colonel R.
If there has been anything out of higher class in
192 The Sporting Dog
the last few years, I don't know. When he won,
he did not give the judges any chance to dispute,
and I have always been sorry he could not start
in the championship in 1900, owing to having
cut his leg in a wire fence. I gave Mr. Devereux
a half-interest in Uncle B. We ran him in the
all-age stakes for the ensuing two years. For
this reason I have not shot over him as much as
over Colonel R. As regards Uncle B., I would
say that he makes a superior shooting dog and is
very tractable. He was never taught to retrieve,
but picked it up naturally. Owing to the many
years' handling in field trials, he is given to go
until he finds birds, and the first season I hunted
over him he did not hunt to the gun. Afterwards
he worked all right, and it is a pleasure to shoot
over him. He knows where to look for birds, and
I feel sorry for a man who cannot make a bag
Colonel R. went so fast in his Derby and all-
age form that Gray doubted whether he could be
taught to restrain his speed and adapt himself to
what is required of a shooting dog. Gray was
wrong. Colonel R. has developed into the best
shooting dog I ever saw. He starts off at speed,
hunts his ground out in a sensible way, does not
come in to you, and holds up as well as any dog I
have. Last winter I hunted him four hours a
day for three weeks, and I could not have asked
LLEWELLIN. LIGHT TYPE
Colonel R. By Harwick-Trap, Jr. White-black-tan. Count Noble and Gladstone
blood, with line to Ethan Allen native setters. One of the most brilliant of field-
trial performers. Owned by Mr. Harry R. Edwards. Cleveland, Ohio. Representative
of the rangy, wiry field-trial Llewellins which Laverack men dislike, but which field-
trial handlers eagerly seek on account of their class and stamina.
LLEWELLIN-LAVERACK. LARGE TYPE
Topgallant. By Roy of London-Fanny. Blue belton. Weight over sixty pounds.
Winner of the North American Derby (Ontario), 1900. Llewellin blood through
Champion Paris (five crosses); Laverack through Champion Monk of Furness. Fast
and steady shooting dog. Owner, Mr. H. Marshall Graydon, London, Canada. One of
the big, sound, active, intelligent American setters which refute the shallow claim
that the breed has deteriorated since the early days. Americans have no lack of
breeding stock from which to get setter size and power, though the general taste,
in both the States and Canada, favors lighter types.
The Dogs they Prefer 193
a dog to show a better advantage. His nose is
the best, and he minds to perfection. He adapts
himself to any country he may be in.
Some two or three years ago I bought Sport's
Belle. I have hunted over her for the past two
years, and she, like my other trial winners, is a
most excellent dog to shoot over.
I have had some other very good dogs, but to
my mind they are not to be compared with the
dogs I have mentioned. In other words, my idea
of a high-class shooting dog is a dog good enough
to be placed in the Southern trials. Yet I do not
think the average sportsman could take a dog
home after a field trial and use him to shoot over
without some further training. The average
sportsman is too eager for game to give a dog a
fair chance. Mr. Devereux and myself have gone
South for eleven years, and pretty much every
year Gray has been with us. After a dog was
through field trial work we would go out with
Gray, and Gray would handle the dogs, and in
his care these dogs became accustomed to shoot-
ing and to the general mix-up that is apt to
occur when birds get up and several are killed
or wounded. Always in the fall in Ohio-, Mr.
Devereux and myself handle the dogs alone. In
this manner they have been accustomed to be
shot over, and have made practical shooting dogs.
Harwick, Uncle B., Colonel R. and Sport's
194 The Sporting Dog
Belle are all dogs that mind readily and do not
have to be corrected very often. The very best
one of the bunch for a sportsman to take out to
find birds and get them is Colonel R. There
were very few birds last winter. If we had had
the ordinary dogs, we would not have had any
shooting at all. I hunted some three or four
weeks, and found an average of eight to nine
bevies a day. To be absolutely honest, I don't
think the dogs flushed three bevies of birds dur-
ing these three or four weeks.
I think that when people rail against field trial
dogs they are misinformed. A dog to get a place
in an all-age stake must necessarily have all the
attributes that go to make a high-class dog.
Generally speaking, he must be under good con-
trol. All he needs to make him a first-class
shooting dog is experience in good hands.
DOGS FOR CANADA SHOOTING
By Mr. H. Marshall Graydon of London, Ontario
You ask me for expression of opinion on the
kind of dogs that are best suited for field work on
the birds usually found in Western Ontario, and
in reply I would say that, as quail are much the
most abundant of our upland game birds, a wide-
ranging dog, with considerable speed, so applied
that he is always hunting for birds and at the
The Dogs tbey Prefer 195
same time is hunting them not for his own amuse-
ment but to the gun, is the most effective. Of
course, the term " wide-ranging " is a comparative
one here, because, while our fields are quite large,
they are not like the prairies in Manitoba, where
there is no underbrush and a dog can be seen at
a great distance. The quail section of this coun-
try is comprised of wheat stubble and corn-fields,
with considerable bush land to which the birds
invariably fly on being flushed, and a dog that
ranges so widely as to be constantly out of sight
and out of hand is certainly a disadvantage,
whereas the same dog might be quite satisfactory
on prairie land.
We also have considerable partridge shooting.
My opinion about a partridge dog is quite con-
trary to the popular idea. I think the best par-
tridge dog should be quite fast if he has the
requisite nose and bird sense to back up his speed.
I have usually found that when a dog is recom-
mended as being particularly killing on partridge,
he is generally a very slow, pottering sort of fel-
low. I have had considerable experience in par-
tridge shooting with all kinds of dogs, and I think
the best dog I ever saw was quite fast. It is
astonishing, considering the speed with which
she moved in cover, how few birds she flushed.
On the other hand, she would find very many
more than any slow dog I have ever seen. This
196 The Sporting Dog
was a very large setter bitch that I sold to Fred
M. Stevenson of Menominee, Michigan, and if this
should by any chance catch his eye, I think he
will approve of what I say. Though she was up
in years when I sold her to him, she was still a
wonderful good dog to shoot over.
Woodcock are not plentiful enough in this
country for there to be any real cock dogs.
There are no dogs hereabouts kept for exclusive
use on woodcock, their experience being limited
to one or two odd birds that are picked up in a
day's shooting on quail and partridge.
Much the same might be said of snipe, for, ex-
cept along the St. Clair flats, there are very few
snipe to be found here.
In reference to the manner in which a dog should
be broken, while I believe that the more a dog
is taught the more useful he will be as a shooting
dog, yet overtraining often takes place, from the
natural quality of the dog himself. For a field
trial dog, of course, I do not advocate such a high
degree of training as for a shooting dog. I think
a field trial dog should be taught to be only obedi-
ent to whistle and motion of hand, to point and
back stanchly, and let his other natural qualities de-
velop themselves. He will be a more brilliant dog
than if taught to be too dependent upon his hand-
lers. On the other hand, for field shooting, in my
opinion, a dog that retrieves is much more killing
The Dogs they Prefer 197
than one that does not. All things being equal,
the more thorough his yard training the more
useful he will be, provided he is given enough
experience on game to make him self-reliant and
clever in finding and locating birds. Nothing
will make a dog so clever as actual experience
on game. I have seen several instances of un-
trained and half-bred mongrels owned in the
country that, from constant opportunities to hunt
birds, were really much more shrewd in finding,
and in a day's hunt would probably have many
more points to their credit than better bred and
broken dogs which city sportsmen might hunt side
by side with them. Had the better bred or better
broken dogs the same opportunities, I think they
would probably be much superior. As dogs can-
not make opportunities for themselves, I believe
that it is more the opportunities that make the
HOW MUCH BREAKING?
By Mr. Martin Voorhees of St. Louis
You ask me how much I think shooting dogs
should be broken to be most effective and agree-
able ; also what my requirements are of them.
In the first place I am, as might be expected,
very particular about my dog having a good nose.
Then I exact stanchness ; naturally, the steadier the
dog on point, when he is also brimful of nervous.
198 The Sporting Dog
excitable energy, the better I like him, but he must
have the latter requisite. A dog that just potters
through his work won't answer my purpose. I
should much prefer to have him flush occasionally.
I am a special admirer of a high head, style, and
speed. There is nothing I dislike more than to
see a dog get his nose to the ground and " wiggle
and fiddle " along until he has located his game.
Ranging ground with judgment probably wins
me as quickly as anything else. I have known
dogs which were always within sight in close,
thick cover, working with energy and dash, but
the moment I would go to the open were off at
lightning speed, with no field too large for them.
This I call hunting to the gun ; and must acknowl-
edge that I am a crank on the subject.
As to training, I want a dog absolutely steady
to shot and wing, backing at sight ; and the
promptness of his " bidability " appeals to me. I
do not require retrieving, but, of course, much
prefer it if it does not interfere with other more
This amount of breaking is all I wish, and, in
my judgment, all that a dog can stand and still
retain those high natural qualities which I feel to
be so necessary.
It is my opinion that I have shot over as many
overtrained dogs as dogs lacking education.
Blood lines and field superiority are far ahead
The Dogs tbey Prefer 199
of size and appearance to me. Of course I
wouldn't care to be on record as saying that I do
not admire the long square-muzzled, gazelle-eyed,
silky-haired beauties, but I wouldn't feed the
handsomest that ever bustled on this fitful earth
that wasn't a worker in the field.
LATER LLEWELLINS COMPARED WITH GLADSTONE
By Mr. P. H. Bryson of Memphis
Having seen the first field trial ever held in the
United States and next to the last (at Grand
Junction, January 20, 1903), and most of those
held at intervening dates, owning no dogs now,
and not being interested in any that are bred,
what I say about English setters is an unbiassed
opinion. This opinion has been formed after
many years attending bench shows and field trials
and breeding English setters.
Starting with my ownership of Gladstone, con-
ceded to be superlative by almost all those who
saw him, and taking him as my standard to judge
those that followed him, I would state that from a
field trial standpoint, in short heats of one to two
hours, I have seen dogs I thought his equals.
These dogs were used only as field trial dogs, run
in short heats, and always kept on edge for ex-
hibition purposes. Gladstone was used during
the shooting season on all day or longer hunts,
200 The Sporting Dog
and as an all-round shooting dog on quail, snipe,
woodcock, and prairie chickens. While he had
more experience on quail, I never shot a gun over
a better snipe dog. The woodcock shooting over
him was in February as they came along on their
northward flight; these migrants being met with
in shooting quail in that month. His chicken ex-
perience was not so great as that of dogs kept in
a chicken country ; still, he was as good as one
would wish in that line. He possessed nose,
natural sense, style, speed, and endurance ; more
of the last quality than any dog I ever saw hunt a
whole day. He was used as a retriever for all
kinds of game and did his work well.
Gladstone's Boy had all the qualities of his
famous sire, except that he did not have quite as
much speed and style. Had he been kept and
used as a field trial dog, instead of a shooting dog
to shoot over in all kinds of weather and all day
for a week at a time, he would have been invin-
cible in that role. He did not have the variety
of style of his sire. His points were stylish,
but like one another. He came the nearest of
quitting even with Gladstone in an all-day hunt
among all the dogs I ever saw go in the field with
the old fellow, and they met often in a friendly all-
Gath was the best field trial dog in my opinion
that ever ran in the United States. He was
The Dogs they Prefer loi
poorly raised and did not have the nourishment
he needed when growing. Hence he had not the
strength of a dog better treated when a puppy.
Then he came in contact with Sue, one of the
best as well as one of the most cunning dogs on
birds that ever entered a field. Her experience
and cunning, she having more of both when Gath
was hunted with her, caused Gath to run " under
a hack " when he met her and others in Mr.
Short's hands, who handled Gath in his second
year. I saw Gath and Gladstone in all-day hunts,
and Gladstone never turned a trick but Gath was
ready with the next.
Roderigo I regarded as rating close up to Gath
as a field trial dog. Like most of the sons of
Count Noble, he would false point considerably
when he was tired. He had the dash and vim of
Gladstone on game. Gath, on the other hand,
had the speed and range of any dog, and worked
like a well-oiled piece of machinery; and in his
maturity would go away from Sue and dogs that
had met him as an inexperienced puppy. Nothing
seemed to rufifle him then, and he always carried
his head to work with his heels. Unlike Sue, he
never used his brains to rob an opponent of any
honest work, but he needed no coaching to do his
work well. His dying young was a great loss to
Gath's Mark was another great dog showing
202 The Sporting Dog
Gladstone's qualities. Had he fallen into hands
that would have used him for field trial purposes,
he would have been among the crowned kings of
the setter world. His owner used him for every
conceivable purpose, from chasing pigs to hunting
rabbits with hounds. With all these drawbacks,
he was a hard dog to beat at the trials. He had
speed, range, nose, and bird sense, and always used
Rodfield resembled Gladstone in appearance
more than any dog I ever saw. Indeed, he was
like a twin brother in appearance. His record as
a field trial dog is too well known to mention
here. When I saw him at the St. Louis show, I
advised my friends to breed to him.
Antonio was very much like Gladstone in
appearance and manner of hunting his ground.
He did not put the electricity into his hunt like
Gladstone and Roderigo, but, to use a street ex-
pression, he " got there all the same." He was a
great bird finder and no hot corner in a field trial
ruffled him in the least. His style was much like
Gath's in handling game. No dog he ever met
quit with a better score than he made on game.
He had bird sense, speed, nose, endurance, and
style ; though, as stated, he was not the equal of
Gladstone or Roderigo. Like Gladstone, Gath,
and Roderigo, he had great stride, and ran with
ease, showing no friction when in motion. He
The Dogs they Prefer 203
got over the ground much faster than he seemed
to do. This was apparent when a quick, choppy-
going dog met him in the same heat.
Mohawk, one of the latest as well as the best
dogs of to-day, is of different type from any of
those I have mentioned. He is handsome, runs
with ease, and is fast. He approaches his game
differently. His is more of the feline way of
stealthiness. He rather creeps into his points
with little tail action until he smells game.
Those dogs I first named made most of their point
work on the run, jumping into their points suddenly
ELCHO AND FAUST
Mr. Charles H. Turner of St. Louis deserves
a special chapter, even if it must be a short one, in
any history of American sporting dogs. He was
the force and substance of the old St. Louis
Kennel Club ; was, personally, the importer and
owner of the pointers, Faust, Keswick, and Spin-
away, and the Irish setters, Elcho and Loo H;
and was the breeder of the great Irish setter
bench winner, Berkeley. In the accurate sense
of the word he may be also called the breeder of
Joe Jr., the conqueror of Gladstone. Mr. Turner
has not shot a gun for twenty years and has fallen
out of the knowledge of the present generation
of sportsmen. In fact, he was never much known
in public prints.
His importation of Elcho is an interesting
little story of itself. Being a young man of large
inherited wealth and a keen sportsman, he was
anxious to get something which might be classed
as the best. An Irishman in St. Louis had mar-
ried a young girl who had been the maid of Mr.
Turner's mother. Like most Irishmen, he was a
Elcbo and Faust 205
bit of a dog man, and Mr. Turner asked him if
he knew in Ireland anybody who could select
the best Irish setter on that side. The Irishman
promptly gave the name of Mr. Cooper of Cooper
Hill, Limerick, Ireland. Correspondence with
Mr. Cooper followed. A bench show was on
hand at Dublin, and to that show Mr. Oppen-
heimer, then living in Russia, had sent the young
dog, Elcho. Mr. Cooper purchased Elcho and
the Irish setter bitch. Loo II, for Mr. Turner, and
sent them over. Elcho was a beautiful dog of
rich color and by far the best Irish setter from a
bench-show standpoint that had been seen in
America. His field qualities, however, were not
first-class, and Mr. Turner sold him to Dr. Jarvis
of Vermont, after getting from his loins the great
bench-show dog, Berkeley, which Mr. Turner sold
for $1000 to Mr. A. H. Moore of Philadelphia.
Berkeley was a good dog in the field, but lacked
style on point, nearly always dropping. A paint-
ing of Berkeley, by Tracy, still adorns the breeder's
Mr. Turner imported Erin and Thor from
Ireland. Erin was a dog of high field quality,
but of very bad temper. On one occasion he
attacked Mr. C. B. Whitford, who was his trainer,
and Mr. Whitford was compelled to knock him
down with a piece of fence rail. Mr. Turner
thinks that Erin was never quite the same dog
2o6 The Sporting Dog
afterward, though he found no fault with Mr.Whit-
ford, who had been compelled to defend himself.
Thor Mr. Turner regards as beyond compari-
son the best field dog among the many Irish of
which he had knowledge. This dog could not
win on the bench, as he had, like many Irish set-
ters of that time, a white line down his face and
considerable white on his breast and feet As a
field dog Thor was fully able to compete with the
great pointers which Mr. Turner had by that time
brought over. He was sold to General Shattuc
Before his parting with Elcho, the Campbells
of Tennessee, who were related to Mr. Turner by
marriage, got from him permission to breed their
English setter. Buck Jr. When Buck Jr. arrived,
Mr. Turner started out to his kennel with her in
a buggy. On the way she escaped and came
near having an affaire cT amour with a shaggy
Newfoundland. Thus Joe Jr. barely missed not
being born, or being born half Newfoundland.
Mr. Turner entered into correspondence with
the famous pointer breeder of England, Pilking-
ton, and imported Faust, then regarded as the
greatest pointer in that country. Faust was an
extremely intelligent dog, strong in the body, but
rather short-legged as compared with his kennel
companion. Champion Bow, which was imported
by other members of the St. Louis Kennel Club.
Elcbo and Faust 207
On account of the dog's intelligence and attrac-
tiveness, Mr. Turner kept Faust at his own home
a great deal of the time.
A year or two later Colonel Hughes of St.
Louis, now of Denver, developed an interest in
pointers, and in his behalf Mr. Turner sent over
to Pilkington for a brace of dogs. The latter
quoted to him Meteor and Maxim at $700 for
the brace, saying to Mr. Turner that Meteor was
the best young dog in England, but that, being
a sheep-killer, and for no other reason, the dog
could be spared for America. Mr. Turner ordered
the brace for Colonel Hughes, but they arrived
in bad condition from their voyage, and Colonel
Hughes declined to accept them. A few days
later he changed his mind, and the dogs became
his property. Meteor never developed, Mr. Turner
says, any sheep-killing tendencies on this side.
He was regarded as a small dog for those times,
though he weighed several pounds above the
light-weight limit of fifty-five pounds. If Jingo's
Light, one of the present fashions in the United
States, had come along at that period, he would
probably have been shot for being dwarfish. He
weighs only forty-eight pounds. Though smaller
than Faust and Bow, Meteor developed such field
quality that his owner and friends were fully sat-
isfied, and he became one of the pillars of pointer
breeding in this country.
2o8 The Sporting Dog
These dogs, imported by Mr. Turner and his
St. Louis friends, mark an era in training. Before
that time, at least in the central West, no such
finish had ever been given to the education of field
dogs. Faust, Bow, Meteor, and Maxim were all
broken almost perfectly by their English handlers.
They would stay at heel quietly until each was
ordered out by name. At the sound of the
whistle they would stop as if shot, to be di-
rected by the hand to right or left. Their retriev-
ing was faultless. It was their perfection of
training which made them a sensation in and
about St. Louis, as much as their speed and
bird work. At least two American trainers got
their inspiration and first reputation from these
Mr. Turner's name also has an important rela-
tion to American beagles. He organized a pack
of beagles, and among others owned Warrior,
which was the sire of Dorsey's Champion Lee;
and Lee was the greatest beagle of his time. Mr.
Turner describes Warrior as a good rabbit dog,
but not impressive in looks. He was tan-and-
white, with short ears, rather a poor head, and
high on the leg.
Personally interesting among Mr. Turner's ser-
vices to the field dog fancy was his discovery of
Mr. C. B. Whitford. Mr. Whitford was an edu-
cated and well-bred young New Englander. Mr.
Elcho and Faust 209
Turner brought him out into the West and
made him kennel manager. Mr. Whitford broke
Berkeley and other young dogs, and handled the
older ones in the field.
Mr. Turner is now a connoisseur in porcelains,
wines, and harness horses, and the proud grand-
father of three handsome children. He still
retains, however, some of the fire of his old inter-
est in bird dogs, and his strong memory enables
him to recall most agreeably the incidents of
Amateurs whose experience in sporting dogs
is just beginning are likely to be puzzled by the
constant use of the word " class " in public prints
and in the private discussions of the sophisticated.
In its application to bench-show exhibits the
word is not so difficult to understand. Those
who so use it generally mean one of two things,
either that the specimen under consideration has
a general distinction of appearance which is
better expressed by the word " quality," or that
the typical points regarded as essential by the
specialists are present to an extent which over-
shadows minor defects. For example, in the case
of a pointer, a general smoothness of finish and
symmetry of parts might produce an impression
of class, though small defects of detail would im-
press one who was following the rules as he had
read them in the books. In setters I might cite
the example of a noted winner, the orange belton,
Queen's Place Pride. This Laverack had un-
doubted class. Her coat, color, and finish were
beautiful, and her head and expression remark-
ably fine. Her class was apparent to the most
negligent observer, but she had important defects
of structure — being decidedly out at elbows and
over long and flat in body. It was her superb
class which enabled her to defeat a great many
setters which, according to a tape-line scoring,
might have outpointed her.
But it is in comparing the work of dogs in the
field that the word is used in so many senses
which puzzle the amateur. Some men speak
of class when they have in mind nothing but
speed and range. Those, however, who are care-
ful about meanings employ the term to desig-
nate a high degree of ability in all the essentials
of performance. That is the only accurate
Coming to definitions, class means the ability
to do at high speed and with rapid accuracy what
the mediocre can do only with deliberation, slowly,
and under favorable circumstances. In addition
to this definition a strict judge might add that
class includes the doing naturally and with little
practice what an ordinary specimen can do only
as a result of severe education.
Just why class in the field is attractive to most
men and especially to Americans is something
which is explained in the remark of the old fox-
hunter, who said, " I don't keer much for these
extry fast hounds, but I always feel a little better
212 The Sporting Dog
when old Brag is out in front." Hardly one man
in four will say, theoretically, that he admires par-
ticularly fast dogs ; but three out of four will look
for the fastest dog they can find when they are
either buying outside or selecting one of their
own breeding for personal use. This means
merely that the American does not propose to
see some other man's dogs taking the lead from
his in a fox-hunt or working on the outside in a
Class is the same attribute in all competitions,
whether of men or animals. It is of such basic
importance in the search for truth that anything
is worth while which illuminates or illustrates.
Begin with man. To bring out a plain illustra-
tion let me say that, allowing for the obvious pos-
sibility of a mistake, the finest mind which I ever
had the pleasure of seeing at work was that of the
late Jay Gould. I have never found reason for
modifying the opinion, though I have been at
close quarters with two Presidents of the United
States, several convention candidates for that
high honor and a number of possibilities, twenty
or thirty college presidents, and not a few national
authorities on various subjects, not to mention a
hundred or so of successful authors. I saw Mr.
Gould but once, and then for probably not more
than thirty minutes. My professional duties^placed
me where I listened to his view of a question then
extensively interesting the West, involving many
side topics of commerce, transportation, and poli-
tics. To this day the beauty — I use the word
with matured appreciation — of that wonderful
mental machine in action comes vividly to my
memory. Without apparent effort, in a low voice,
and not once "false pointing," he described, meas-
ured, compared, selected, rejected, and welded;
bringing into view, not only the general facts
and arguments ordinarily connected with the
subject, but a vast array of material which indi-
rectly had to do with its settlement; touching
upon statutes, human enthusiasms and prejudices,
necessities and rules of commercial development,
transportation, building of cities, and the momen-
tums and checks which in alternate periods stimu-
late or retard investment. His mental process was
extremely rapid but frictionless and conducted with
unswerving precision. A clarification which the
average educated man would painfully and, in all
likelihood, confusedly reach after a couple of days'
study he seemed able to attain in ten minutes by
that insight which with direct celerity seizes and
measures the essential.
You cannot call such mental action hasty or
hurried. It is well within itself, and is as reliably
accurate as the slowest operation of a lesser mind.
In other words, it is class.
Jacob Schaefer is an example of class among
214 The Sporting Dog
billiard players. I never saw Schaefer in a great
match, but I have seen him give big odds to a
good amateur. He played with almost unnatural
rapidity. The stroke came as quickly as he could
get the cue in position ; yet it would be foolish-
ness to suppose that his play lacked any accuracy,
or that he was at all in doubt as to the result of
Cesar Thomson will transcribe a set of awkward
violin runs into octaves and tenths and play them
with added velocity. Yet, his pupils tell me, he
practises less than any other great fiddler.
Put a first-rate professional baseball player on
the bases. Some might suppose that his apparent
willingness to take chances was only blind and
reckless daring, when, in fact, his perception of
where he is coming out is much more definite,
and his adjustment of capacity to the task much
more scientific than can be predicated of the
cautious and hesitating player in the tenth-rate
These illustrations make plain, at least to me,
what is meant by class when the term is intelli-
gently used. Now see how it works in our study
of dogs. It is often true that the foxhound which
habitually goes out in front does not do it because
he possesses the higher order of mere speed.
The fact is more likely to be that he can use his
fox sense and can rely upon his nose when going
Class 2 1 5
at a great pace. While the dog of lower grade
may be able to run faster, simply as a matter of
running, he cannot carry his head and nose with
him when under severe exertion. I have seen
greyhounds of great speed which did not dare
extend themselves, because they had discovered
that they could not score except at a moderate
gait. On the other hand, a dog like Diana or
her sister Melita could " sit down " behind a jack-
rabbit and score just as fast as he could make
moves — let him do his utmost.
One day, after the setter. Sport's Boy, had given
a not very good account of himself in a public
trial, — a case of " rabbit rattles," — I went out
into the country with Mr. Askins, his trainer,
to give the string of dogs some work. Sport's
Boy and another dog were put down in a large
field. A ravine, probably a quarter of a mile
long, ran through the centre of the field. The
other dog, a very good animal, began ranging
across the field. Boy started straight for the
ravine, running the full length of it at lightning
speed and coming down the other side. When
halfway down he stopped as if changed to stone,
never slackening his speed until he jumped into
the point. He hesitated two or three seconds,
moved his tail slightly, as a dog usually expresses
doubt, and turned around sharply to the right.
Without lowering his head or showing the slight-
21 6 The Sporting Dog
est indecision after the first moment of doubt,
he marched thirty or forty feet and stiffened to
a stanch point on a large bevy of birds. Some-
body will say that any dog would do that. I say
that any dog which did it would be a high-class
dog. In the first place, there was the speed at
which the whole performance was acted ; in the
second place, there was the instinct by which he
chose the ravine as the place most likely to harbor
birds ; in the third place, there was the bird sense
with which he skirted the ravine instead of wast-
ing time in searching out particular spots ; in the
fourth place, was the instantaneousness with which
his nose told him of the scent of birds ; in the
fifth place, was the quickness with which he rec-
ognized that he had felt only the scent of where
birds had been ; and, in the sixth place, was the
positiveness with which he went straight on body
scent to where the birds were. The other dog
was a much more than ordinary animal and a few
minutes later might have done exactly what Boy
did. But the fact remains that he did not do
it, and that the coming champion, with equal
chances, beat him in the whole series of acts lead-
ing to the location of a bevy.
One of the best exhibitions of class shining
through disadvantages was that of the Llewellin
setter, Joe Gumming, when he won his champion-
ship. This performance brings up a story which
Class a 17
I have never seen in print. In the final heat of
this championship stake Joe Gumming was to
run for first with Dave Earl. Joe had severely
injured his foot, and Mr. Titus, his owner and
handler, who was always tender-hearted with his
dogs, decided to draw him. The judges, however,
were anxious to have the dog finish the competi-
tion, and Mr. Titus's friends persuaded him to let
Joe go on as long as there was a fighting chance.
The development showed how closely a dog can
come to winning a championship without reach-
ing the honor. This was the fortune of Dave
Earl. When they were put down Joe went lame
for a few minutes, but soon warmed up, forgot his
foot, and began to show nearly his fastest and best
form. At that, handicapped as Joe was, Dave
Earl had a shade the best of the heat and seemed
likely to win the championship. It was a long
three hours for an injured dog which was com-
pelled to show championship speed and bird
work. Toward the end of the heat Dave Earl
ranged up to a clump of bushes, nosed at it an
instant, and passed on, A few minutes later Joe
Gumming swung over to the same clump of
bushes, hesitated, dashed around to the leeward,
and made a stanch point on a bevy. Of course,
nothing is a more decisive incident in a field trial
than when one dog misses a find and the other,
with precisely the same opportunities, makes a
21 8 The Sporting Dog
location. Consequently, as the dogs were not far
apart in other respects, the decision and the
championship went to Joe Gumming.
King Cyrano, the orange-and-white son of
Jingo, is a pointer which always impressed me
particularly with his class, for the reason that,
even when he first appeared in his Derby year, he
was what a field trial man would call badly over-
trained. His trainer, Mr. Updike, had been pre-
viously giving his entire attention to shooting
dogs and was probably the most finished trainer
in the West. All of his dogs at that time obeyed
the slightest order and retrieved with perfect
manners. A dog which, after such an elaborate
course of training in his youth, could begin by
winning a Derby and afterward compete success-
fully with the best dogs in his all-age form must
have had inherent class of the highest order. In
his second season I saw him put down with a
fast pointer, Spring Dot, owned by Mr. Turner of
Chicago. Cyrano is not a large dog, in fact
barely up to the average size. That day he
was going so high that he looked as big as a St.
Bernard. The two pointers dashed into a large
weed field where the growth was scanty except in
one corner. Notwithstanding the speed of his
competitor, Cyrano swung round the field on the
outside and then made straight for the heavier
growth in the corner. There he jumped into a
sharp point on a bevy. A few minutes later he
took a course ahnost touching the fence, on the
other side of which was a corn-field. He jumped
again into a quick point, evidently locating the
birds on the other side of the fence. His handler
rushed up and threw him over the fence. The
birds proved to be running. He followed them
accurately and cautiously, finally bringing them
to a flush to order two hundred yards from where
they were first located. The class of the perform-
ance appears in the fact that the dog evidently
knew exactly what he was about at all times and
managed his actions to suit the conditions. High
speed did not interfere with the accuracy of his
In the same trial the Derby dogs, Marse Ben
and Prince Rodney, gave an attractive exhibition
of class. Both of these dogs subsequently dis-
tinguished themselves as worthy of the highest
consideration. In their Derby year each had a
fine turn of speed, Rodney the faster. As they
looked very much alike, they made an attractive
race. Just after the start Marse Ben swung
around to the right into a corn-field. I was rid-
ing on the right and the other judges followed
Rodney, leaving me to look after Ben. It was
the year of the great drouth and the field, except
for the standing corn, was almost as bare as a
floor. I heard a shout a little behind me to the
220 The Spoding Dog
right, which evidently meant that some one saw
the dog in that direction. I turned my horse
and rode into the corn. Gilchrist, Ben's handler,
came running along to take care of his dog.
While going rapidly through the corn, Ben
stopped on a stylish point. Two birds got up.
In puppy fashion he made a jump or two in
their direction, but quickly changed his mind
and stopped on another stiff point. The rest of
the birds soon after flushed in front of him.
Some outsiders thought that Ben had flushed
the first two birds either wilfully or from an error
in judgment in getting too close to them. As a
matter of fact, the birds flushed wild on account
of the absence of cover. The dog really made
a perfect exhibition. Fifteen minutes afterward
Marse Ben did almost identically the same thing
in another patch of corn. The birds flushed
ahead of him, but after he had established his
point. Just after the judges ordered the dogs
up, Rodney imitated the performance, jumping
quickly into a stanch point on a bevy in a corn-
field almost as bare of under cover as if it had
been ploughed. One would have to see the pace
at which these dogs were going and the bareness
of the corn-fields to appreciate the keen noses and
cleverness with which they established point on
If there be an absolute best, field trial history
would probably give the premium to the per-
formance of Mr. Herman Duryea's setter, Sioux,
in her second championship winning. There was
no competition, as all the other dogs had been
drawn and she was running with her kennel mate,
Clip Wind'em. The weather had been rainy the
day before and had suddenly turned cold, freezing
the occasional drizzle as it fell and making the
ground severe for not only the dogs but the
horses, glassy as it was on the surface. Though
the mud and rain were frozen all over her legs
and underbody, the little setter went three hours
and a half at high speed. When taken up she
was in a wretched plight, showing the ordeal
through which she had been put. Birds were
very plentiful and nobody knows exactly how
many points she made. The judges counted four-
teen bevies found by the dogs or flushed by the
riders, and Sioux must have made at least twenty
points with only one or two slight and excusable
Most of these incidents refer to dogs in West-
ern competitions and illustrate the taste of West-
ern men. None the less, class shows itself even
in Massachusetts and Connecticut, though it
takes a somewhat different form where dogs are
expected to adapt themselves quickly to small
fields, to the caution of work on ruffed grouse,
and to the unreliable habits of the jack-snipe.
222 The Sporting Dog
My impression is that the alertness, nervous en-
ergy, and quick intelHgence which make class in
one part of the country make it in another, and
that a high-class dog with a little experience is
high-class anywhere. I can say, at least, that
when nearly twenty years ago I introduced
Llewellins to the lower part of the Eastern shore
of Maryland, a practised amateur who got a very
fast young dog — for those days — became very
proud of the animal's ability to outpace the na-
tives and to find bevies ahead of other men's
It must be admitted that in the small and
patchy fields and thickets of the East, obedience
and caution are more exactingly required. The
West does, speaking generally, admire speed and
range, and the East lays stress upon biddableness.
I find that among the many persons who come to
me for information and advice this more or less
general contrast is manifested. During the writ-
ing of this chapter, a devoted amateur shot, a
prominent St. Louis physician, dropped in to
consult me about breeding a bitch. I told him
that the only dog I had at home was a handsome
youngster by Sport's Gath, which was promising,
but rather a shooting dog than a high-class per-
former. The doctor was much obliged, but con-
cluded to look further. About the same time a
gentleman in the East wrote me in regard to two
young dogs which he bought at my suggestion
not long ago. He said that in his judgment the
youngsters were first-class, but that his trainer
wanted to reject them because they were hard to
handle. I see that Mr. Buckell has recently
made a criticism along this line in regard to the
English field trials. He says that the trainers
control the entries and that they pick dogs
which are trained with the least trouble. This
disposition of the trainers he regards as respon-
sible for the inferior natural class of the dogs now
contending in public on that side of the water.
It is likely that Eastern amateurs will have to
read their trainers a lecture if they desire dogs
which are capable of what a Western man would
call first-rate bevy work and are at the same
time responsive to command.
Mohawk, Mr. Duryea's latest crack setter, has
given two recorded exhibitions of class. In his
Derby year at the United States trials he was on
a wide cast, going a great pace, for at all times
he is one of the fastest of setters. He jumped a
ditch and in the fraction of a second from the
take-off of the leap he caught scent. When he
struck the ground he was flattened on a stiff
point, his head turned to the bevy. The next
year, in the same club's all-age stake, he was sev-
eral hundred yards from Avent, his handler, rang-
ing at speed. Passing a bushy place, he whipped
224 The Sporting Dog
into a quick point, head and stern up. In a
moment a rabbit jumped out. Mohawk held the
point. Avent came in sight, signalled the judges,
and called " Point ! " As the handler reached the
dog, another rabbit scudded away. Avent began
to grumble about the luck. The judges reached
the scene, the dog still immovable, and ordered
Avent to flush. He told them that the point
seemed to be on a rabbit. But he walked ahead
of the dog and flushed a bevy of quail. Here were
speed, nose, decision, intelligence, and stanchness.
Everybody's dog does these things except when
witnesses are present. In public tests, however,
we must be satisfied with an occasional perform-
ance in which the whole combination of desir-
able field qualities is shown to a high degree;
and we are glad to have a few to treasure for
purposes of illustration.
But the end of the whole matter is that every
amateur should have a dog to please himself.
Speaking for one kind of taste, I am not backward
in saying that, while I admire and appreciate
these extremely high-class performers when
owned by other men, my private favorite, even in
the West, would always be a good-looking and
stylish dog of medium speed, and not only bird
sense but intelligence and responsiveness in all
other respects. This is because I very much
admire quality and appearance, and because I am
Class 22 s
a moderate walker and rather a poor shot. But
I have discovered that nine good field shots out
of ten among amateurs are like the old fox-hunter
to whom I have referred, and enjoy seeing their
dogs out-ranging other dogs. If that is their
enjoyment, they are right, and this analysis of class
which I have attempted will be of use to them as
well as to those who desire to measure the work
in public competitions.
TRAINING AND CARE
Most writers advise amateurs not to train their
own shooting dogs, on the principle of every
man to his trade. In the general interest of field
education the contrary advice should be given.
The amateur who trains his own dog may not
queer the dog, and cannot fail to do himself a
world of good. It is a fact of statistics that nine
dogs are well trained for the field where one man
is qualified to associate with either a dog of good
field manners or a sportsman of discretion. Grad-
uates in the school of experience will agree with-
out dissent that the training of dogs is a lesser
problem than that of training the men who do the
shooting. Among the drawbacks of the sport is
the misfortune that in almost every party there is
an individual who acts the role of salt in the ice
cream and fly in the ointment. He yells at every
new movement of the dog ; he breaks shot ; he
cannot let the dog retrieve in peace, but must rush
up and grab the bird ; he will shoot at rabbits and
larks ; he does everything to make the dog com-
mit the faults which a year of education has barely
Training and Care 227
corrected; then he spreads reports about your
"no good" pointers and your cheating trainer.
There is the man who sends a young dog to a
trainer ; lets the latter work just long enough to
establish a yard obedience ; writes in a hurry for
the dog to go on a "hunt"; does not take the
trouble to learn what methods and orders the
trainer has used or whether the animal is in a
physical condition for endurance ; swears at dog
and trainer because he doesn't find an exact
machine in work and a trolley car in staying
Dogs could do with less schooling if the men
who used them had more. There would be more
dogs of the dien eleves class if nobody might shoot
over them except those who could prove a char-
acter for at least letting them alone.
But these corrupters of dog youth are not to be
exterminated or cured. It is rather a waste of
time to discourse upon their shortcomings.
Training dogs for the gun is an art of some de-
tail, and this chapter can only mention the leading
principles. If the amateur wishes to master the
art as it is practised in America, he can find the
directions in the books of Mr. Waters, or in
the smaller but excellent treatise of Mr. Haber-
Upon one general proposition I should like to
lay especial emphasis. It is that a dog should
228 The Sporting Dog
have a chance to ripen under experience. Les-
sons hurriedly crammed do not take deep root in
either the human or canine mind. Slow develop-
ment is nearly always the best development. It
should be the rule, if one desires his dogs to be
really finished and perfected, to leave them with a
reliable trainer for two seasons. Some of the best
dogs reach their form slowly, preserving their
natural good qualities only by coming under dis-
cipline without the severity of a rushed education.
When Mr. Burdett bought Cincinnatus's Pride as
a young dog, the selection was made on account
of the dog's beauty and attractive disposition.
Mr. Burdett expected to get a shooting dog for
his Southern trips. Richards, I think, was his
trainer at that time. Mr. Burdett owned Anne
of Abbotsford, one of the best field trial winners
of the day. After the trainer had had the two to-
gether in the Northwest for several months, he
wrote to Mr. Burdett, saying_that, unless he was
mistaken, he would have a surprise ready in a few
weeks. A little later came a letter saying that
Pride was beating Anne in the class of his work.
Mr. Burdett was indeed surprised and doubtful ;
but permitted the trainer to have his way, and the
dog world knows the flashing career of Pride in
the Southern trials of the next season.
The pointer. Jingo, was another case of late
development. In his first experience he had not
Training and Care 229
a great deal of speed and almost no style. The
superficial observer would have called him a good
reliable shooting prospect. Under sensible train-
ing he gradually increased his range and speed
until he reached the form which made him the
crack pointer in both his Derby and all-age years.
A finished dog retrieves promptly to order
from land and water ; " heels " at a word and
remains until ordered out ; he is quiet in buggy
or wagon ; respects the whistle and obeys the
hand of his handler at any distance ; is steady
to shot and wing; neglects rabbits and all fur;
backs at sight of a decisive point.
Comparatively few dogs are polished to the
extent of being perfect in all these respects.
Field trial work calls for the least allowable
restraint. In America the tendency is to break
dogs, even for the gun, as little as comfort and
efHciency permit. The main proposition is that
the dog must find birds, and without delay. An
American shot will pardon mistakes and lack of
polish ; incompetency, never. Fancy accomplish-
ments only irritate the American when the "get
there " abilities are weak. Still, a really educated
dog does all these things I have named, and does
them cheerfully. Since American shooting calls
for a higher class of efficiency than the sport
demands in Great Britain, it is the more impera-
tive that a trainer should have plenty of time in
230 The Sporting Dog
which to inculcate the self-control of education
without diminishing range, speed, and zest in the
A trainer cannot give knowledge to a dog;
that comes only with natural intelligence and
experience. What the trainer does is to estab-
lish habits contrary to the dog's natural inclina-
tions. This cannot be done except by lessons
many, many, many times repeated. The principle
is stated in the phrase, "steady coercion, sym-
What the bow is to the fiddler, the hammer to
the smith, the color-box to the painter, the check-
cord is to the dog trainer. There are men who
will tell you that they train by stinging their dogs
with bird shot when not obedient. Others tell
you that thumping with a stick, or punching
with a gun-barrel, or a few kicks in the ribs will
do the work. For that kind of men that kind of
training may be all right. A dog often becomes
good by mere experience in spite of such obsta-
cles, but his goodness must not be credited to
the mistake in treatment. The many uses of the
check-cord combined with the spike collar, need
not be recited, but, in a general way, the amateur
can make no mistake if he understands that the
check-cord is used in establishing nearly all the
acts which a field dog learns to perform as a part
of training. With the cord you make a dog
Training and Care 231
understand precisely what it is you want him to
do. If he disobeys or makes a mistake, he realizes
what you mean when he receives correction. ^
Retrieving is the main trouble of the trainer,
and may be said to include nearly all the other
things in his repertory. That is, in the course
of teaching a dog to retrieve, you could incident-
ally teach him to obey almost any other order.
The great central rule is to make the dog obey
one simple command at a time and not confuse
him with anything else. Patiently compel him
to follow a simple direction over and over again
until he connects the order instantly with the act.
First make him sit on his haunches until he hears
the word of release ; then make him hold a pad
in his mouth until similarly relieved ; then make
him pick it up from the floor ; then fetch it from
a little distance. After this yard breaking is satis-
factory, take him in the field and make him go
through the same performances many times with
a dead bird. Even then, when he gets under the
excitement of regular hunting, he will forget the
Here is where the amateur often demoralizes
the dog's education. He becomes interested in
hunting and wants to shoot and get birds. He
indulges the dog's disobedience and piles up
trouble for subsequent efforts at education. The
imperative rule is not to mix up the human desire
232 The Sporting Dog
to get game with the process of teaching the dog.
You must let the birds be entirely secondary until
the dog retrieves not only reliably but with good
Nowadays, nobody cares for a natural retriever.
Natural retrieving means that the dog recovers
birds when he feels like it and that he falls into
many bad habits. A modern trainer does not
regard a dog's natural retrieving as having any
bearing on the subject. The animal must retrieve
under a force system and strictly to order.
Many sportsmen do not permit their dogs to
retrieve, believing that it interferes with the class
of the work and that it leads to such annoyances
as the chewing of birds and constant pottering
after imaginary dead game. Some like to shoot
with a brace of high-class dogs which do not re-
trieve and a quiet old chap which does nothing
else. As a rule, however, the American field
shot does not own many dogs and insists upon
Backing is often naturally or quickly acquired,
but more often it is a matter of compulsion to
make a dog promptly recognize another's point.
Some dogs otherwise excellent are extremely jeal-
ous, and are unhappy unless they can carry their
noses a little in front. Llewellin setters are
especially erratic in this respect. A good trainer
has his dogs stop quickly at a word or whistle,
Training and Care 123
and practises them with a cord in the field until
they obey without question. The order generally
consists of some definite word, such as " whoa,"
accompanied with the straight holding up of the
hand. In this way backing can afterwards be
quickly taught in actual work ; the whistle sig-
nal to stop being accompanied with the hand
Dealing with a timid or gun-shy dog is a neces-
sary part of the art. It is a fact that a great
many of the very cleverest dogs, both pointers
and setters, are at first gun-shy. The usual
method of treatment is to fire small pistol loads
around the yard until the dog ceases to pay
attention. Some trainers use the pistol when-
ever the dogs are called out to feed. Making
this a regular practice, young dogs are supposed
to associate feeding with the noise and do not
require any special lessons.
Modern training does not expect a dog to
" charge " or lie down to shot or wing. The idea
is that the dog handles his work better if he is
permitted to observe where the birds go. This,
however, is a matter of taste and some owners
still wish their dogs to charge.
In nearly all American country there is a great
deal of early annoyance on account of rabbits.
Many dogs cease of their own accord to pay
much attention to rabbits after a few birds have
234 The Sporting Dog
been shot over them, but as a rule a bird dog v/ill
point on rabbit. The chief trouble occurs less
from the rabbits themselves than from the pres-
ence of scent where rabbits are at all abundant,
certain dogs being prone to potter over it and
A watchful trainer, with a few sharp orders to
" go on," is generally able to get rid of this diffi-
culty after a short time. The main thing is
never to shoot a rabbit or to pay any attention
to it yourself. If you do not mind it, a dog will
not be slow to follow your example.
Field trial work is handling rather than train-
ing. The handler endeavors to reach just the
difficult line where a dog can be directed on a
course, and still be independent in ranging and
absorbed in his search. Natural qualities and not
forced habits are the standards. All that matter
does not concern the shooting amateur.
Foxhounds and beagles are not trained. They
are "entered," or practised, when young, by having
short runs with the old hounds. The only real
training is to require the hound to honor the horn,
and to refrain from riot on the road.
Greyhound training is a fine art of itself, but
rather resembles the management of a race-
horse. The object is not to discipline, but to put
in the highest possible physical condition. The
only teaching consists in slipping a few times on
Training and Care 235
hares to inculcate readiness in leaving slips and
in scoring. The trainer avoids unnecessary work
on hares, as the greyhound is likely to learn too
much and become "cunning."
In the matter of caring for dogs the general
theory is simple. Every dog is naturally a vaga-
bond and is the better for a bit of opportunity to
loaf and wander. But in the case of valuable
animals the liberty is rarely permissible. As far
as the dog's welfare is concerned, the simplest
form of kennel is as good as any. That consists
of a cheap wire fence and a rough board sleeping-
place. The only necessary points are that the
sleeping-place be free from draughts, and dry.
If it can be made deep and dark, the dog will be
happier. From that provision up to the most
elaborate and ornate kennel is a matter of the
owner's taste and has little to do with the good
of the dog. I would rather have a cheap, rough
kennel and change it from one piece of ground to
another at least once a year, than to have the
most expensive affair so situated that dogs must
remain on the same ground for many years. If a
man undertakes to raise puppies, he will find that
in a year or two one piece of ground becomes a
hatching-place of distemper and of distemper in
the worst form. I really believe that it is better
to leave puppies on the open ground without a
roof over their heads than to place them in a
236 The Sporting Dog
kennel where other dogs have been kept for any
length of time. The most lavish use of disin-
fectants will not secure immunity, though it re-
duces the danger.
A great physician said last year in a conven-
tion that with only four medicines nearly all dis-
eases could be treated in common practice : calo-
mel, quinine, carbolic acid, and iodide of potash.
Dogs have exactly the same diseases which afflict
men, and respond to the same medicines. With
some changes these four standard medicines are
all that the owner will ordinarily find necessary.
The dog physiology is particularly susceptible
to calomel, and that mineral should never be
used. Substitute castor oil or cascara for calo-
mel, and the medicine chest is pretty nearly full, ex-
cept for santonin and areca nut against the great
enemy — worms. Santonin is used for young
dogs and in the case of common worms ; the areca
nut for tapew^orm. Carbolic acid, of course , is
for external skin troubles and wounds. Salicyl-
ate of soda should take the place of iodide. It is
an intestinal disinfectant, or " blood purifier," and
while not a specific for distemper, is by all odds
the most valuable among the simple medicines
so far applied to that disease. The dose is from
three to eight grains, according to the dog's age,
three times a day. Hyposulphite of soda is used
for the same purpose. It would be useful also if
Training and Care 237
the owner could have at hand a bottle of salad or
olive oil. Dogs are prone to eat bones and other
hard substances, and these cause frequent obstruc-
tions. The oil is given in wine-glass quantities
as a lubricant. It has been for years an honored
belief that dogs should be fed on bones. No
doubt they can digest bones much better than
can other domestic animals. Nevertheless, a dog
risks his life when he swallows sharp-pointed
bones, and the wise kennelman will not permit
risks in the case of valuable animals. The well-
known setter, Kingston, died in that way, and
hundreds -of other deaths can be traced to the
It is easy to give a dog liquid medicine if one
person will hold his jaws shut while the other
pulls out the pouch of the mouth and pours in
If there is but one dog, ordinary table scraps
are the best food. In a large kennel it is better
to follow the usual greyhound practice of feed-
ing " stirabout," which in this country consists
of corn meal thoroughly boiled with some kind
of cheap meat scraps ; usually, in the West, crack-
lings from the packing houses. For puppies the
best food is milk, or soup, thickened with graham
bread. A very cheap and most useful variation for
all ages is ordinary beans or peas, thoroughly boiled
with pork to impart the meat flavor and relish.
238 The Sporting Dog
Never use corn meal alone. In fact, it is a poor
food in any form of mixture if graham bread or
oatmeal is available.
In active training field dog men could learn
a great deal from greyhound trainers. There
are few handlers of shooting dogs who know
how to get or keep their dogs in good condition.
For the last week of a greyhound's training and
when he is at a meeting, he is fed on a manufac-
tured biscuit in the morning and solid, raw, lean
beef in the evening. A greyhound seems to
get both blood condition and nervous energy on
this feeding, and I have no doubt that a setter,
or pointer, on the eve of a field trial would come
to a sharper edge if fed something the same way.
It is true that a shooting dog or hound should
not have even half the proportion of meat fed to
a greyhound in training, but each would be the
better for more than is commonly allowed. While
field dogs are not as delicate or as liable to
suffer from exposure as greyhounds, they have
their susceptibilities and need some care, other
than they get at field trials, to guard against
congestions, exhaustions, and the effects of
In a field trial kennel is usually a tank filled
with " dip " to destroy fleas and prevent mange.
The favorite solution — liked because it does
not hurt the eyes and facilitates the quick work
Training and Care 239
of "sousing" the dog, head and all — is lye and
sulphur. A box of extra strong concentrated
lye is dissolved and into the water is stirred four
or five pounds of sulphur over a fire. This mix-
ture is diluted with about a barrel of water and
is ready for use. Some kennelmen add an ounce
or two of sulphuric acid.
These are the essential accessories of the regu-
lar kennel. Nothing else needs to be said except
that it saves money and trouble to call a veteri-
nary when serious sickness first appears. While
that advice is good, the owner of a dog should
also have the books of Dr. Wesley Mills and
"Ashmont" in his library.
One crime of the kennel the humane societies
should place among the objects of their labor. It
is the severe working of a pregnant female — a
practice due to a superstition about the hunting
instinct being strengthened in the pups. After
the life of the young mammal has once begun,
all the dam will ever do is to furnish nutrition
and guard from enemies. Cold science knows
that a foetus is as much a parasite as a tapeworm.
Severe work and excitement interfere sadly with
nutrition, and a bitch so treated is very likely to
have puppies so weakened that they will develop
rickets or other diseases. Shun the man who
would sell you puppies nourished by a mother
overworked in her pregnancy. He would as
240 The Sporting Dog
well be praising blind or idiotic ancestry. Good
dogs may come from such an unfortunate mother,
but they do not start with a square chance.
Another superstition which causes as much
troublous apprehension to the breeder as any,
is a belief that when a female is mated with an
undesirable male, subsequent litters by other
males are affected. Without going into the rea-
sons, it may be said conclusively that this is a
physical impossibility and that breeders need never
give it a thought. If there were anything in it,
the Hanover family of race-horses would not be
thoroughbreds, for Bourbon Belle had a trotting
colt before she foaled Hanover.
One more superstition — the mad-dog scare.
Personally I do not believe that there is such a
specific disease as hydrophobia from a bite.
There are tetanus, meningitis, strychnine poison-
ing, and a rabies which can be communicated by
contact. In practice such things are all to be
dreaded. Don't be alarmed about hydrophobia,
but keep your eye on a dog which begins to act
queerly. Isolate him, give him a purgative, and
send for the veterinary.
To the " questing intelligence " breeding is
the main end of all studies in animals. It is
attractive to mental curiosity because it is both
momentous and elusive.
For purposes of biological science there is no
difference between homo and canis. If the in-
quirer can discover the operations of cause and
effect in the heredity of one mammal, the whole
book of life lies open. So far, however, there is
not much to tell, — will not be much, now, until
the biologists work out Mendel's law
If a purveyor of formulas gives you advice about
breeding dogs, go your way and take the opposite
course. In so doing you are as likely to succeed,
and you will have the satisfaction of being inde-
pendent and original.
Everybody has copious opinions about breed-
ing; nobody has much knowledge. In all trades
it is so easy to write words of wisdom and
so hard to pay a dividend ; so easy to see ghosts
and so hard to make them walk. Commentators
on the breeding of horses and dogs can construct
242 The Sporting Dog
more theorems and present more deductions in
an hour than can be proved in fifty years of
For it must be remembered that breeding is not
mathematics, but merely experiment and empiri-
cism ; that, except within certain broad Hmits,
nobody can tell where a calculation will land.
John H. Wallace, the trotting horse authority,
once said that in breeding two and two sometimes
make four, but often only three. That phrase
condenses the story as far as it has gone. To
every breeding formula the answer is : It may be
so ; sometimes it is and sometimes it isn't.
There are two broad rules which may be counted
upon. One is that a breed or variety, in propor-
tion to the length and thoroughness of its estab-
lishment, will reproduce its general characteristics.
The other is that nothing can change within the
purview of a human generation the essential char-
acteristics of a genus. Each characteristic can
only be increased or diminished. None will dis-
appear and there will not be new ones. For
example, every animal of the dog tribe, from a
coyote to St. Bernard, has an acute nose and
depends much on the olfactory sense for its
knowledge of objects. Every one of the tribe
also " points " more or less in approaching hidden
game, and every one retrieves or carries things
about in its mouth. These characteristics are
intensified in field dogs ; but any dog can be, if
its game-hunting instinct has not been too much
bred away, easily taught to recognize hidden
game, point, back, and retrieve. In field dogs,
since these ineradicable nerve habits of all ca-
nines have been intensified by long years of
selection, the production of a special aptitude in
breeding and the development of it in training
may be forecast with assurance. The same rule
holds in general physical qualities. Beyond that
fact not much is predicable. The breeder may
succeed in getting good dogs, but one would wait
long to find a dog which at maturity exactly real-
ized in looks or character the image which was
before the breeder's mind when he made the mat-
ing. A phenomenon never reproduces itself; it
may produce something as good or better, but
never a fac-simile. So you can't tell about the
sons of great dogs any more than about the sons
of great men.
The making of cut-and-dried systems and rules
has an almost morbid attraction for both authors
and audiences. Hundreds of horse breeders be-
lieve in the " figure " system — a rank absurdity
in its main propositions and yet having a certain
valuable attachment of facts and suggestions.
Some dog breeders have a rule of breeding twice in
and once out, and some alter the proportions to twice
out and once in. One of the commonest calcula-
244 The Sporting Dog
tions is that if one side of the house is big, the
other should be little, or vice versa ; so with fine
and coarse. If a man has a potterer, he thinks to
get the golden mean by breeding to an uncon-
trollable bolter. The favorite formula among Eng-
lish setter men is to get into the pedigree fifty per
cent of Laverack and fifty per cent of Duke-Rhoebe
blood. I suppose that in a year or two pointer
men will begin to figure on the same percentages
with King of Kent and Mainspring. One man
has childlike faith in the rule of a big dam and a
small, nervous sire. Another believes in the small
dam and the big, masculine, rugged sire. Some
purists hang out a " no trespass " sign against an
outcross. This has come to be a fetich with many
field dog breeders, though the Llewellins are the
result of a sharp outcross and though in pointers
Mainspring and Rip Rap both came from a cross
of Devonshire pointers on the Drake and Hamlet
blood. Another set of breeders are perpetually
looking for crosses, though the records should tell
them that a cross, while often useful and necessary,
is in many more cases a grasping at the shadow
and losing the substance.
Inbreeding is a subject of most positive opin-
ions and most baseless sermonizing. Perhaps
nine people out of ten believe that inbreeding
produces puny and degenerate descendants. Like
other breeding practices, sometimes it does and
sometimes it doesn't. One of the finest families
of Irish setters, of which the famous Geraldine
was a member, came originally from an acciden-
tal union of Palmerston with his full sister. Quail.
The most remarkable incident of inbreeding of
English setters in this country was that of Dr.
Stark, then of Wisconsin and afterward of South
Dakota. Taking Mr. Adams's Dora, by Duke
out of Rhcebe, as a foundation, her daughter by
Rock — he also carrying Duke-Rhoebe blood —
was bred to Bergundthal's Rake, he being closely
inbred to Rhoebe. From this union came Madam
Llewellin, and she was bred back to Rake, pro-
ducing a large lemon-and-white dog named Wild
Rake. This dog went into the hands of Mr.
W. W, Titus, and afterward belonged to Messrs.
W. C. Kennerly and P. H. O'Bannon of Vir-
ginia. The last I heard of him he belonged to
Mr. Jester of Delaware. Wild Rake was of little
or no value, as all these breeders proved, but he
had plenty of size and physical vigor and no de-
ficiency of intelligence — that is, of intelligence for
ordinary purposes. But from the continuous in-
breeding to old Rhoebe, and, perhaps, from the
Rock blood which he carried, he had little defin-
ite ambition or responsiveness to training. I had
one litter from him which were all large dogs,
two of them almost giants. The largest ones
were fairly good on birds, but very slow. One of
246 The Sporting Dog
the medium-sized brothers became an exception-
ally fine bird dog, but gave considerable trouble
to the trainer at first by his gun-shyness and tim-
idity. The other was rather hard-headed and ob-
stinate, but developed into a fast, high-class, and
valuable dog. I think that these two drew their
best characteristics from their dam, which had a
strong inheritance of blood from Bolus's Belton.
There are some other notable experiments of
inbreeding. One was the mating of Gath, a
grandson of Gladstone, with Gem, a daughter of
Gladstone. The result was a litter of large,
strong and gifted dogs, the leaders of which were
Gath's Mark and Gath's Hope. Marse Ben, a
large, strong, vigorous dog, of which I have fre-
quently spoken in this book, is a result on his
dam's side of close inbreeding ; and he has lately
been bred back to his dam, giving a litter of
puppies not lacking in size or strength. Tony
Boy, the finest example among setters of endur-
ance at high speed, is close up to Roderigo on
both sides. Mr. James Cole of Kansas City bred
Lady Cole back to her sire, Cincinnatus's Pride,
and got a litter of strong, beautiful puppies.
These examples are not cited to persuade any-
body that inbreeding is a rule to follow for its
own sake. Indiscriminately applied, such a rule
would be vicious. I mention them to show that
there is no law of inheritance under which
inbreeding produces puny and weak specimens.
It all depends on selection and circumstances.
One trouble about close line breeding is the
tendency after the second generation to split up
into the original elements.
Some people will tell you that a sire and dam
must both be good in order to produce good
descendants; and yet Gladstone's dam was indi-
vidually worthless, and Rodfield's dam has been
described to me as of no value except for her pedi-
gree. It frequently happens that a dog is much
better than either his sire or dam. I can cite an
example in a litter which I bred from the grey-
hound Mystic Maid, herself only a moderate per-
former. I bred her to Astronomy, a still more
moderate dog, and the result was one of the best
litters of greyhounds I ever saw. All of them
were unlucky except Astral Maid. She alone
came to coursing form. During the season when
she was in good training she won every stake in
which she was entered. She was far superior in
looks and coursing quality to either her sire
or dam. Another greyhound case is that of Mon-
soon, winner of the American Waterloo Cup of
1 90 1. Monsoon's dam. Little Fairy, was a dwarf-
ish and w^iippet-looking thing, but well bred.
Monsoon, except for a tendency to run cunning,
was one of the best greyhounds ever started in
St. Louis, a class beyond either sire or dam.
248 The Sporting Dog
Wiseacres often say that breeders should wait
until animals are fully matured before breeding ;
yet the pointer, Dot's Pearl, had six winners in
two litters, all produced before she was two years
old. My own experience is that the very first
litter is the best and is all the better if produced
from the first season.
Perhaps the safest advice to the young breeder
is to recommend the rule of Lord Falmouth in
breeding race-horses. His idea was to use very
few mares, but to have none except such as had
won a classic stake. Then he bred these mares
to the best winners of classic stakes. In other
words, he selected the best winners he could get
and bred them to the best winners he could find.
Such a course will be disappointing, but in the
long run it must necessarily keep a man as near
the front as any rule would carry him. For ex-
ample, if he had followed the rule in pointers, he
would probably have a continuous line of breed-
ing from Trinket's Bang, King of Kent, Duke of
Hessen, Rip Rap, and Jingo. In setters, his
line would be ' from Gladstone, Count Noble,
Roderigo, Count Gladstone IV, Antonio, and
Tony Boy. Of course, he might have been led
off by breeding to such dogs as Wun Lung,
Topsy's Rod, and Rowdy Rod, all of which were
brilliant dogs but inferior as producers. Still, on
the whole he would have been successful.
There is another breeding rule of equal horse
sense value. That is to get what the noted
breeder and trainer, Andy Gleason, used to call
" old pie " bitches. Gleason meant those females
which, without any apparent reason, have the
quality of reliably producing high-class dogs, no
matter how mated. Gleason himself had one of
this kind in Don's Nellie. Dave Rose had one
in Lady May. Titus had one in Betty B. All
of these were setters. Pearl's Dot is an example
in pointers, and Mr. Lowe's White Lips the most
conspicuous in greyhounds. Perhaps the best
advice in breeding is that the breeder should
secure bitches of this kind. Neither I nor any-
body else could tell him where to get them, but
the advice is none the less good. Very few of
the " old pie " bitches would have been selected
by tape-line critics. Betty B. was fairly well bred,
but she weighed less than thirty pounds, and
would have been rejected by any theorist. White
Lips was not fashionably bred as Englishmen
would call it, but she reached results by some
inherent virtue of reproduction.
Mr. Charles Askins, an experienced breeder
and handler and secretary of the Handler's
Association, has a rule that the important thing
in breeding is to know what the sire and dam are.
As he puts it, a man can take chances on any-
thing back of the third generation if the sire and
250 The Sporting Dog
dam are both winners of vigorous character. Yet,
against Mr. Askins's convincing illustrations, one
may remember the experiment of Mr. Hulman of
Indiana and Captain O'Bannon of Virginia, who
organized the famous Blue Ridge Kennel, with
Rose as trainer. At one time these gentlemen
had almost a monopoly of the great setters of the
country, including Gath's Mark, Gath's Hope,
Antonio, and Dan Gladstone, together with such
matrons as Fannie Murnan, Lily Burges, Gossip,
and Laundress. This kennel was by no means
a failure, and the experiments produced many
winners; but it sadly disappointed its projectors.
They expected to turn out phenomena. The
blood which they produced is still valuable in field
dog kennels. A similar experience befell the
Manchester Kennel, at the head of which was
that unrivalled bird finder. Gleam's Sport.
When considered impartially, the breeding of
field dogs has been a story of real success. There
are not so many failures as the pessimists think,
and the steady progress has been upward. The
average has been remarkably good. It must be
remembered in all breeding that the winners are
comparatively few. No matter how good the
breeding theory and practice, the dogs which
stand out as superior to all other dogs must al-
ways be the exceptions. That proposition proves
itself, but is not always believed.
There is an inexorable law which book authori-
ties do not seem to recognize. It is the law which
tends unceasingly to a reproduction of the average
quality of the breed. It constantly pulls upward
to the average and constantly pulls down. You
can take all the phenomena of a season for
breeding purposes and the chances are that your
result will be merely an excellent average of the
breed. Some people have a way of charging this
to atavism. As a matter of fact, atavism, or the
tendency to throw back to some remote ancestor,
is not as threatening as the talk about it would
indicate. The law of perpetuating averages is
not only threatening, but it is ever present and
eternal. It is that law which the breeder must
recognize and reckon with. His wonderful
winners will come along occasionally ; but he
must understand that, whatever his breeding
stock, he does very well if he gets results up to
a good standard.
Discussion of breeding and citation of facts and
illustrations could go on indefinitely; but this
chapter can stop at no better place than with the
foregoing statement of the law of averages, a
law of such force that the greatest individual dog
cannot often raise the level, while despised indi-
viduals can gain posthumous laurels through the
greatness of their children. The only practical
application of the law is to use the best individ-
252 The Sporting Dog
uals of the best descent, and then be prepared
Breeding is all a matter of probabilities. The
skilful breeder minimizes the danger of defects.
When he gets a fine specimen all the world hears
him "holler." When he gets a dozen plugs he
remembers that silence is golden ; he shuns fame.
Even about his fine ones his hindsight is better
than was his foresight as to how he did the trick.
And this is the art and science of breeding.
Mendel's law is the present sensation among
students of heredity. Any one who expects to
acquire trustworthy knowledge of the rules under
which nature conducts inheritance must watch
the labors of the investigators who are developing
the Mendel discovery. Mendel gave it out years
ago, but the scientific world is just making use of
his work. Roughly stated, Mendel's law is that
when certain plants are crossbred, and the de-
scendants are interbred, a proportion will have
the prepotency of one ancestor, a proportion that
of the other, and a proportion a combination of
both. In other words, the crossbred form is not
permanent. How far the law applies to animals
has not at this time been ascertained. But at
least, the Mendel law bids fair to completely
upset some of the most tenaciously held deduc-
tions of old writers, who thought that when they
said " like produces like " they could make their
corollaries and multiply their factors as if they
were dealing with inanimate paints or building
material. The law seems to deny most of the old
notions about inbreeding, or to call for new ex-
planations. Whatever the inquiry may settle,
the lecturer on the "science of breeding" must
pause until the limits of Mendel's law are deter-
mined by verified observation.
BENCH SHOWS AND FIELD TRIALS
Public competitions are the only means of
determining accurately the qualities of horses or
dogs used in sport. Private competitions might
answer the same purpose, but no dependence can
be placed upon the information which comes from
such surroundings. It grows too fast between
point of origin and written history. Even in the
case of public competitions and public records
the two elements of personal ignorance and per-
sonal bias cannot be eliminated. Publicity, how-
ever, usually produces enough of checks and
attrition to furnish a reasonably reliable record
in the long run.
So definite is the comparative value of public
competitions, that I, for one, have little faith in
the opinions on sporting dogs formed prior to
the introduction of field trials and bench shows
in England. I have seen and read too many
foolish tales from well-meaning but narrow imagi-
nations to pay much attention to a comparative
judgment formed without opportunities of com-
parison. There was a great deal of good breed-
Bench Shows and Field Trials iss
ing before the days of public competition, but it
was irregular and not severely tested. There
may have been a few superlative specimens.
Even so much, however, I would accept with
In the case of greyhounds the record of prog-
ress is plain enough since the establishment of
the institutional public event, the Waterloo Cup,
three-quarters of a century ago. At that, there
are plenty of ignorant people who think that
there never has been a second Master McGrath
or Coomassie, though, by what I should regard
as a safe gauge, it may be assumed that neither
of those animals would last through the second
round of a modern Waterloo running.
In foxhounds, also, a sufificiently progressive
standard may have been fixed by the constant
competition of hounds in the great semi-public
packs of the English hunting counties. In
America the foxhound has been largely devel-
oped by a survival of the fittest in private con-
tests. That, to again insist, does not produce a
great deal of confidence in the neighborhood
reputation of certain hounds. A record of supe-
riority is not standard until it becomes public.
The student of sporting dogs will hear a great
deal of discontent with bench shows and field trials,
but, v/hatever the drawbacks may be, he will con-
tinue his studies in their records.
256 The Sporting Dog
The first bench show in America was held at
Mineola, New York, in 1874, in connection with the
Queens County Agricultural Fair. It was princi-
pally made up of shooting dogs. Mr. Orgill, who
had a handsome family of small pointers, was one
of the principal exhibitors. The first West-
minster Kennel Club show was held in 1876, and
that association has thenceforward been recog-
nized as the leading factor in bench shows.
In fact, I believe that it is the only club which
has had a permanent financial success. The
dog public is a small part of the population in
America, if we count only those who care for the
fine points of the breeds. In the last analysis it is
men of European birth who really sustain Ameri-
can bench-show activity. The history of bench
shows in a community usually is that the first
one which is held after a period of desuetude is
a pecuniary success, since the general love of
novelty and the friendliness of the newspapers
move a crowd. Then, from season to season, the
affair dwindles, and finally the club goes out of
existence. Four or five years pass, and another
nucleus of enthusiasts launches a new bench-
show club to go through the same experience.
In the early days sporting dogs constituted the
important part of the exhibits. Of late years the
owners of sporting dogs have paid more attention
to trials on game and have neglected bench shows.
Bench Shows and Field Trials isi
This has always been true of greyhound men and
has lately become equally characteristic of field
dog and hound owners. Meanwhile, the interest
in fancy breeds has rapidly developed, and it is now
the collies, Boston terriers, pet spaniels, and fox-
terriers which are the large entries and which
For a long time the classes of bench shows
were under A. K. C. jurisdiction made up in each
breed of pupp}^ open, and challenge classes. A
dog got into the challenge class after a certain
number of wins in the open class, and became a
champion after a certain number of wins in the
challenge class. This classification fell into dis-
favor because, by taking a moderate specimen
around to the smaller shows where there was
little competition, it was easy to create a cham-
pion and mislead those who trusted the bench
shows for records of excellence. The present
system is puppy, novice, limit, open, and winners
classes. The limit class is for those which have
only done a certain amount of winning; the
open class is for any dog without regard to win-
nings ; the award of winner is made to the best dog
taken from the open, limit, and novice classes. In
other words, the winner in each of these classes
is put into the ring and the best dog is picked.
The championship is achieved after a certain num-
ber of wins in the winners class. When the winners
258 The Sporting Dog
class was first adopted by the American Kennel
Club, the championship followed a certain number
of wins, all shows being on the same footing.
Later was devised the present system of grading
the shows according to the number of entries,
and crediting the candidate for a championship
with a certain number of points according to the
number of entries. An attempt was recently
made to grade the shows according to the amount
of money offered in prizes, but many exhibitors
disapproved and the project was for the time
Field trials followed quickly the importation of
English winning pointers and setters. The chief
interest developed in the central West, though
the New York and other Eastern people also early
began their field trial competition. At first the
entries were a miscellaneous lot, which would
excite amusement if they appeared before latter-
day judges. Irish, Gordon, crossbred, and native
English setters, most of them merely pet shooting
dogs, appeared together. At the beginning the
system was to judge according to the number of
points. Five points was made the standard, and
the dogs which made five points were taken into
the second series. That rule soon reduced itself
to absurdity, since a very cheap dog of fairly good
nose could, with a bit of luck or alert handling,
get his five points, while a high-class dog would
Bench Shows and Field Trials 259
throw himself out by a flush. The field trial men
then introduced the " heat " system, in which they
followed the rule of coursing. That is, when the
braces were drawn, each dog which beat his com-
petitor was carried into the next series, and so on.
This, however, w^as found not to work satisfacto-
rily, since by the drawing of two first-rate dogs
together, or by a difference in conditions, or by
accidents, the best dogs in a stake were frequently
beaten. The " spotting " system was then adopted
and prevails to-day. The field rules of most
clubs call for three judges. The dogs are drawn
in braces by lot and are put down in that order for
the first series. The judges then pick out, with-
out regard to any special number, the dogs which
they think have class enough to be among the
winning probabilities. Further running is left to
the discretion of the judges, who run the animals
in braces or singly in order to satisfy themselves
of the comparative merits. Shooting is rarely re-
quired in field trials at present. The judges, how-
ever, sometimes order the handler to shoot over
a point in order to test the dog. In most trials
the heats are from twenty to forty minutes. In
the principal championship stakes the rules
usually require the heats to be three hours long.
In all trials the judges are required to insist upon
the quality of performance and not the mere num-
ber of points. They are instructed to look for
26o The Sporting Dog
bird sense, as well as for speed and range, but are
warned against stress upon retrieving, that being
an artificial and not a natural performance.
I should advise every one who desires to be
informed about field dogs to attend a few of these
public trials. He will find an agreeable lot of
sportsmen and will learn a great deal about the
qualities of dogs which he would never discover
from the reports or even from personal conversa-
tions with actual spectators. Not that the reports
are usually anything but accurate, but that they
necessarily assume a foundation of knowledge on
the part of the reader. I have found that people
who depend upon reading or hearsay grossly ex-
aggerate the faults and shortcomings of these
field trial dogs. They do not realize that the
standard of judgment is beyond comparison
higher and more severe than that applied to
everyday dogs. It would also be a valuable edu-
cation in many respects if the student would
make a few entries in public trials and get into
the competition of patrons. He cannot learn to
estimate dog performance in any other way so
quickly and thoroughly. At the same time, I
should warn him strongly against entering second-
rate dogs merely through good nature or curiosity.
Field trial clubs are anxious to get as many entries
as possible in order that their prizes may be allur-
ing, but it does not do field trials any good, and it
Bench Shows and Field Trials 261
makes the investigator feel a bit foolish if he sends
dogs to the races which have not been thoroughly
tried out against a veteran performer of standard
merit. Most field trial patrons have gone through
this disagreeable experience, and the beginner
would as well avoid it by watchfully trying out
his candidates, without waiting to make the trials
before a crowd.
Both field trial and bench judges are nearly
always honest and sincere. They are far from
omniscient and have their notions ; especially
when they have good intentions combined with
weak memories and still weaker powers of dis-
crimination ; and this often happens. With bench
judging there is not much dissatisfaction — except
where type is a standing dispute — of a justified
kind. The best dog nearly always gets the blue
ribbon, the doubt arising oftener over the second
and third places.
Field trial owners have more incompetence to
meet, at least more inconsistencies and unac-
countable fancies. The association of handlers
have asked that clubs give consideration to a list
of judges approved by handlers as representatives
of the owners. Possibly a definite and intelligible
system of judging will grow out of this effort.
Heretofore it has been discouraging for owners
to encounter this week judges who are tickled by
style, next week lovers of speed and range and the
262 The Sporting Dog
week after sticklers for carefulness in locating
birds. The most demoralizing judges are those
who have in their minds no fixed rules at all, but
divide up the awards as politicians distribute
nominations — to satisfy geography and various
interests. Still, judges seldom pick a poor dog,
and at the end of every season the best ones are
found to have done the most winning. Granting
this, it is likely that field trials will begin to de-
cline, — as coursing invariably does in such a case,
— unless the owners find judges upon whose
mental processes as well as moral intent they can
rely with some certainty. A step toward a more
reliable method would be to abandon the three-
judge custom at field trials and employ one judge,
giving him power to select his own assistants to
follow different dogs. As the practice now goes,
winners are often selected by the judge who has
the most of that petty self-assertion so commonly
found in company with narrow comprehension ;
or by a compromise in which each judge's first
choice is set back for a dog not really first-class,
but good enough for a sort of "nobody objects"
agreement. Progress and experience may be ex-
pected to adjust these tribunal troubles, which,
after all, only show that high-class dogs are more
abundant than they used to be at field trials, and
that finer powers of analysis are demanded to
determine the many close contests.
Bench Shows and Field Trials 0.6:^
The rapid vogue of coursing in San Francisco
was measurably, if not chiefly, due to the unshak-
able faith of owners and public in not only the
bo7ia fides, but the mens cequa of the judge, John
Grace. When a field trial owner invests $250 or
$300 apiece in a string of young setters or pointers,
he likes to know what to expect, and he will not
repeat the trouble and expense if the judging is
unreliable and inconsistent. One umpire, referee,
or judge is the best system in all contests of sport.
Field trials will almost certainly come to the gen-
eral conclusion of experience.
Including Canada and California, the recog-
nized public field trials number annually about
twenty-five on quail and chicken, with four or five
for the beagles, and at least two, one in New Eng-
land and one in Kentucky, for foxhounds. The
circuit on birds begins in August with the chicken
trials of the Iowa or Nebraska clubs and moves
later over into Canada, keeping the handlers busy
for several weeks, though most of them take a
rest before the quail trials open in Ohio about the
middle of October. The state clubs run along
until the first of December, the Interstate Cham-
pionship, now called the American Championship,
for winners, being decided at the conclusion of
the state events. The "big" private clubs, the
Eastern and the United States, have held trials re-
spectively in North Carolina and near the Tennes-
264 The Sporting Dog
see-Mississippi line. Just after the United States
trial, usually about the first of February, what its
members call " the " championship has been com-
ing off. This is the event which has been won
by Tony's Gale, Joe Gumming, Lady's Gount
Gladstone, Sioux, and Geneva. It is a special
club, not under any other body, but the win-
ning of the stake has so far been esteemed the
crowning performance of each season. The title
of this body is now the National Ghampionship
Lately there has been a movement to consoli-
date the American, — Interstate, — the Ganadian,
and the National championships, so that an un-
disputed winner may be crowned each year. But
some differences of opinion and some incon-
veniences of travel will probably operate against
any stable plan of concentrating on one field dog
championship. One or another championship
association may dissolve, — the finances being a
burden when entries are so limited, — and thus
leave a single trial supreme for a season, but
others will arise, for reasons of geography and the
convenience of owners.
None of these associations has an extensive
membership or the elements of permanence. In
effect they are little more than agencies for the
owners and handlers. Their funds consist almost
wholly of entrance fees. Most of them consist of
Bench Shows and Field Trials 265
a president and a secretary, with one or two active
helpers from the scanty membership. The sec-
retary does most of the management. Even the
championship clubs lack stability and coherence.
In 1902, for the American Championship Associ-
ation, Mr. James Pease of Chicago paid a large
part of the winnings out of his private means. In
1903 the stake fell through altogether. I have
heard that the National Championship Club costs
Mr. Hermxan Duryea $1000 a year as a personal
contribution. The Eastern Club has always been
the strongest of the field trial clubs, but in its
early days it consisted chiefly of Messrs. James L.
Breese, Pierre Lorillard, and a few of their New
York friends. Mr. Lorillard is still active, with
Mr. George Crocker and three or four more as
his dependable associates. Some time, it is fair
to assume, the field trial clubs will be better
organized and consolidated, with reliably good
grounds and systematic management.
Somebody might compile a key to the relative
meanings of adjectives applied to sporting per-
formers. It is human nature to connect a word
with its significance in ordinary affairs. When
they read that a race-horse is slow, a " dog," or
an " ice-wagon," people cannot always remember
that the comparison is with the greatest winners
and not with common private stock. Nor can
they grasp the fact that every horse on that
266 The Sporting Dog
particular track can, in condition, do a mile in less
than I : 40, while the best horse on the track could
not beat i : 38, a percentage plenty wide for bet-
ting purposes, but very narrow as related to horses
in general. A Yale foot-ball player may be de-
scribed as the weak brother of the team. Readers,
especially those who know little of the game,
easily imagine that the young man is a poor speci-
men among other young men, whereas he is a
picked athlete, and weak only by a small margin
as compared with the three or four other men in
the whole land who play the position better.
Sporting writers are compelled to pronounce opin-
ions within the respective grades of performance,
but on top of that they are rather more of the
Sir Oracle than is wholly necessary. And the
worst of it is that deductive writers pick up these
reportorial phrases as not relative but absolute
records, and deliver dogmas to the multitude
about inferiority and deterioration.
The corrective is to remember that on a first-
rate race-track every horse is fast ; that when the
big colleges compete in foot-ball, every player is a
selected and trained man ; that in every prominent
field trial of dogs each pointer or setter has been
chosen from among many good ones, and that not
even a yellow ribbon ever goes on the collar of an
inferior dog at one of the big bench shows. In
the presence of the sophisticated a dabbler would
Bench Shows and Field Trials 267
better not boast too much about what his neigh-
borhood dogs would do with field trial winners.
Somebody may call for demonstration ; and if he
tries to demonstrate, he will be quickly reduced to
a state of chumpish confusion.
SKETCHES IN THE EAST AND WEST
[These little tales are not romances, but exact recitals — as to the
dogs — of incidents in the field. It is hoped that they convey some
On the Eastu'n Sho'
" I des gvvine back ter de Eastu'n Sho',
I done got tiahd o' Bawltimo',
'Ca'se I'se wuhkin' hahd
In de white folks' yahd,
En' I don' git time ter res' no mo'."
To us not yet of the toga he was the doctor ;
to the young voters he was Doctor Ed ; to those
of three decades he was Ed ; to the venerable he
was Eddy. On the Eastern Shore of Maryland,
where the families are as old as the land boun-
daries and are interrelated, these gradations, mix-
tures of familiarity with recognition of dignity,
Once a season the doctor shot quail on the
judge's place. The old man, a small laird in his
way, lived on land which had been in his family
since the Proprietary times. His notion of tres-
pass was English and baronial. Whether he
would go to extremes or not was not openly
tested, but every boy and poacher believed that
Sketches in the East and West 269
taking gun and dog on the judge's domain was
fraught with more danger than the fun was worth.
The doctor alone had the passport, and because
both he and his dogs had the " manners of gentle-
men." He was a physician, just old enough to
be settled in practice, with that talent for repres-
sion of rougher impulses which Eastern Shoremen
of the old school cultivated early in life, and with
that firm practical purpose in all he did which
was more common in the slave states than fiction
has ever explained. I was a lad and his pupil in
" Come along to-morrow," he said to me one
November evening. " It's the time to have my
pet day, and I'll show you the best quail shooting
in the country and that fine old gentleman, Judge
Winder, at home."
It was before the advent of knowledge about
Llewellins and Laveracks. The doctor's two
setters were "natives," one liver-and-white, one
lemon-and-white, clean-cut, bright-eyed, and lov-
able. The doctor did not play with them. Nor
did he scold or strike. When he spoke, he
meant something and they understood. When
he did not speak, they knew that there was noth-
ing to do.
At a quick order they jumped into the buggy
and lay quietly. We drove along the old river
road for a jogging hour. A couple of miles away
270 Tbe Sporting Dog
from the destination the leader of the expedition
stopped at a stubble field.
" This is cousin George's farm," he said.
" We'll send the dogs around that field. They
are reliable enough, but we have a reputation
with the judge for good behavior, and it won't
hurt to take off the edge a Httle. Get out, Bob."
And a minute later, " Get out, Hicks."
With a wave of the hand to each, " Bob, over ;
One after the other they scrambled over the
rail fence. Then a sharp, " Ho ! " Both stopped.
" Bob ! " and a wave of the hand to the right.
" Hicks ! " a wave to the left. Off they dashed,
skirting the field in opposite directions. Bob
stopped at a bush near a pine thicket which was
one boundary of the field. The doctor picked
up his gun.
" No, it's only a rabbit. See how he moves his
tail and peers at the bush. He'll go on."
And Bob left the despised cottontail to be
trapped by the country boys or chased by the
But the thicket was good cover for other game,
and Bob pointed again, this time stiffly extended,
with eyes strained and one foot raised.
Again the sharp order. Hicks stopped short
and looked around inquiringly. A wave of the
hand brought him across the field. Another call.
Sketches in the East and West 271
This time the hand went straight up, warningly,
and Hicks took a backing position.
" Never let your dog make a mistake, and he
won't make one," said the doctor. That sounded
reasonable and called for no remarks.
Guns ready, we walked up to Bob's point.
" You do the shooting. I want to be sure on
the jump that the dogs don't get any foolishness
into their heads. Walk ahead of the dog."
With the nervousness which a poor shot can't
help feeling in the presence of a master, I flushed
the birds ; and of course shot too soon. I had a
choke-bore gun, then new in fashion and over-
choked for quail. But I hit a bird and saw
Like the dogs, I was not going to take any
liberties with the doctor, and waited for orders.
" Bob ! dead ; fetch." Bob followed the point-
ing finger and came to the fallen bird. But he
did not pick it up. He looked and then looked
again. He turned to the doctor for light on the
" What's the matter ? " The doctor went up
to examine before rating the dog for disobedience.
" Well, that was a centre. Come here."
The load from my choke-bore had struck the
bird a shade high and along the back, tearing it
into a mangled strip a foot long.
272 The Sporting Dog
" I agree with the dog," laughed my men-
tor. " I wouldn't pick up such a butcher's job.
If you're going to use that gun on anything
but ducks and crows, you'll have to give some
Meanwhile Hicks had been called up. They
were sent across the field again without results.
We returned to the buggy and drove on, letting
the dogs range along at will, though the doctor
kept an eye on them. As we approached the
judge's big swinging gate they were ordered again
into the buggy and lay there, panting, but quiet,
as we drove up the lane to the roomy old white
house. The judge was looking for us.
" Good mornin', Eddy. Good mornin', young
man. Come in, come in. We'll have dinner in
a few minutes. Sharp at twelve's the order to
Maria to-day for the hunters. How's your wife,
Eddy ? I was just thinkin' about your father last
night. I'll have a boy watch your dogs."
This last was superfluous, as the judge knew.
But he went through the form.
" Never mind the dogs, judge. They will stay
in the buggy. Just put the horse up anywhere."
He held up a finger and spoke sternly to the
" Quiet, now. Mind." The buggy moved off
to the big stable yard, the dogs accepting the
situation and getting ready for a nap.
Sketches in the East and West i-j:^
The early dinner was another amiable fraud.
The host would have been robbed of his day if
we had not been ready to sit for two hours and
give him all the county-seat gossip of politics and
the bodily complaints of leading citizens. His
judgeship had been of the Orphan's Court — the
Maryland probate court. After the old landown-
ing fashion, he had not been trained for a profes-
sion, and had done little but manage his not too
large property and read political speeches. In
his lonely age, slaves gone and corn prices low,
he was too much attached to the land to sell, and
too proud to move to town with his few hundreds
of cash income. He believed none the less
stoutly in his position and its various duties, —
hospitality, church, and politics the chief. The
period had many such pictures of dignity and
pathos, as the old order lingered in the new.
First, of course, we must range up to the side-
board and take brandy and sugar, the brandy of
his own distilling ten years before. Then the
dinner — enough for ten. The judge's two hours
went rapidly. All three of us were related to
two-thirds of the " known " people of the county
and to each other. There was no waiting for
topics. But the old gentleman knew his obliga-
tion to a hair.
"Well, well. I'm keepin' you from your gun-
nin' and it will be dark before you get to shootin'
274 The Sporting Dog
right." Eastern Shoremen used to rebuke pre-
ciseness by cutting off their " g's " as well as their
The dogs were called, and the judge looked at
them approvingly as they stood waiting for orders.
" If all the huntin' dogs did as much credit to
their raisin' as Eddy's, I couldn't have the heart
to •keep 'em off the place, I reckon, and I wouldn't
have a bird or a rabbit left. But I won't stand
these fellows who come prowlin' around, startin'
the sheep to runnin' and the hens to cacklin,' and
the whole farm to makin' noises. I had an egg-
suckin' darky cur killed no longer back than last
week. That Billy Walker is the only one of these
white men who don't pay their taxes and want to
use other men's land that makes me sorry I don't
let him come. He can school a dog, I'll say that.
He's got a pair of 'beadles,' as he calls 'em, for
rabbits, and a little rat-tailed ' pinter ' gip for birds.
I don't know how he does it, but he's made the
beagles hunt without yelping. They'll chase rab-
bits within a hundred yards of your house and
you'd never know it. Of course, Billy don't shoot
too close to a house when he isn't wanted, but he
can crack away with his little gun in a back field
or the woods and nobody knows but it's somebody
who's got business. He takes his ' beadles ' and
his ' pinter ' out together, and when he comes to a
rabbit place the gip just walks along at his heels
Sketches in I he East and IVest 275
as if she never saw a gun. If it's a field where
birds use, then she goes out, and the beagles fol-
low Billy and never try to get ten feet away. He's
got no land of his own and he will gun around.
Before Christmas he's generally got all the rabbits
and birds thinned out except mine. He has some
respect for me or is afraid I'll have his dogs shot.
But these farmers who do their own work he just
holds as natural prey for a gunner who has sportin'
By this time we had come to the old orchard,
the dogs at heel.
" One at a time is best for them," said the doc-
tor. "Hicks! g'wan!"
The dog galloped out, following the hand to
"Bob! g'wan!" And Bob went to the left
along a fence in the corners of which were
bushes and briers. But the birds were resting
in the centre of the orchard, where four or five
rails had been left irregularly piled across one
another. After ranging along the sides, stopping
to nose out a bush or a clump of grass, as the old
" natives " nearly always did, they were brought
down toward us through the trees. The liver-
and-white caught scent barely in time. The
birds had not been moving. But he was in time
and froze stiff, the other backing instantly. The
doctor brought down two birds, and I punctured
276 The Sporting Dog
the air. Then he sent a dog to retrieve each
The judge went back to the house, after tell-
ing us at some length how he had never cared for
gunning, but had done some " fox ridin' " and
helped to make a few match horse-races of county
We shot along with the usual variations of suc-
cess but with no mistakes for the dogs. Late in
the afternoon we struck a weed field which sloped
to a marsh bordering the river. The doctor laughed
oddly as he expressed a wonder whether the old
field had any birds.
Bob began to point, crawling along, the other
dog backing and creeping a dozen paces behind.
I was on tiptoe, excited and expecting something
to happen every second. The doctor took it easy,
being unaccountably contented, as I afterward re-
called. The time seemed a quarter of an hour.
I suppose it was two minutes. As we came to
twenty yards from the marsh, all at once there
arose the biggest lot — I can't call it a bevy — of
quail I ever saw together, or ever shall see unless
I go to California, where bevies unite into colo-
nies. My own nerves were unequal to the sight,
and I did not shoot at all. The doctor clipped
one out of the bunch as they reached the marsh.
After it was retrieved he explained.
" This field always gives the same show," he
Sketches in the East and West 277
said. " For some reason, there are usually about
three broods here. Sometimes they are all in a
flock like this, sometimes separate. But they
always run ahead of the dog till they get near the
marsh and take refuge scattered on the tussocks.
If you don't mind wetting your ankles, we can
get two or three of them, though they're hard to
flush out there, and the dogs can't find them with
We wet our ankles and got the two or three
birds. But it was not what I call pleasant shoot-
ing, and the dogs were bothered as much finding
dead birds in the water and marsh grass as we
in getting through the mud.
Going around the other side of the farm, we
flushed a bevy on a ditch bank grown dense with
heavy grass, now down and matted. When the
dogs were ordered on, they trotted toward the
thicket where the quail had taken refuge, nosing
as they went. Fidelity to history compels any
annalist to say that the dogs of the good old times
pottered no little and did not wander so far that
the owner of a ringing voice — and who does not
know the long and musical reach of the " hollers "
which men learn when they hunt a fox or a 'coon
at night? — could not control them without a
whistle. In fact, the whistle is a modern innova-
tion on the Eastern Shore.
Nosing, then, and trotting rapidly but cau-
278 The Sporting Dog
tiously, Bob, usually the leader, stopped to a posi-
tive point on the ditch bank.
" There's never two bunches along this ditch,"
said the doctor, doubtingly. He had the old
farm's capacity well conned.
But it was a pdint and there must be something.
We glided forward. Nothing flushed. The dog
still pointed. Walking around him and kicking
the grass, we could still raise nothing. The master
looked for a terrapin, a roosting place, everything
which might explain the insistent point. He at
last spoke a regretful and reproachful word to
Robert and called him on. Bob seemed to say,
"Well, if you can't, I will." He leaped for-
ward and pounced on some object in the grass.
This was the worst kind of knotty Greek to me
and it stumped even the veteran. We could see
not a thing to explain the dog's action. He would
not act that way over a mole or field mouse. But
he was right, after all. Carefully pulling apart
the grass, we saw the brown coat of a quail. It
was so tightly wedged into the heavy growth that
it could not move. Anything but a flawless nose,
any dog of the overhurrying kind, would have
passed it by and turned its hiding device into a
brilliant success. Dropping out of the bevy as
the others spread into the thicket, the bird had
dashed into an opening, only to find itself both
caged and wing-locked.
Sketches in the East and West 279
The other dog had his turn in showing us a
slightly peculiar experience. Cantering along a
growthy old hedge, where the doctor was expecting
to raise a bevy unless we should get it in the ad-
joining fields, Hicks came to a stop, evidently
pointing, but with that " not just for keeps " air
which shooting men so easily distinguish from a
decisive point. We took it to be a momentary
rabbit episode and made no haste. As we drew
near, a big bird rose over the hedge. After a
swift glance, the doctor let drive. With a broken
wing a blue hawk flapped to the ground ; his
angry, fearless eyes seeming to snap and his strong
talons ready for enemies. While my companion
started to jump over a low place in the hedge I
thought to hold the dog. But Hicks was still
pointing. Following the direction of his nose I
looked into the hedge; there was a bunch of
feathers, which, I soon saw, concealed a half-eaten
quail. When the hawk was killed and stowed
away to become a stuffed specimen, the doctor
informed me that he had never before seen a blue
hawk eat his prey where it was struck, or stick to
it in front of man or dog. " Must have been sav-
agely hungry," he said.
The sun was by that time low, and we went
back to the judge for another toddy, a supper,
and a smoke. And then the ten-mile drive home
in the cool, drowsy autumn night.
iSo The Sporting Dog
So on the Eastu'n Sho' the right men handled
their dogs before the war, and after the war,
while the old generation lasted. The fields were
small, the dogs not fast, and the birds none too
plentiful. But there were as good shots as ever
lived, and genuine sport. Nor have the right
men been without sons to shoot and not shout;
to carry mannerly dogs, or none, to lands where
they are guests.
In the " Nation "
My host led a double life. Between March and
October he was a thriving farmer and stock-raiser.
In the fall and winter he found daily sport and
not a little profit in training dogs. In the eyes
of the Indian law he was a laborer in the employ
of a "citizen." In truth he was the master of
broad acres of corn, wheat, and pasture land.
Technically the land right w^as held by the mem-
ber of the tribe, no outsider having the privilege ;
my friend was his hired man. But that con-
venient legal fiction did not prevent the " hired
man " from managing the great farm, or series of
farms, as if he were the proprietor, the nominal
cultivator only receiving a share of the proceeds
for his good luck in being a citizen of the
It was a perfect country for the training of dogs.
Sketches in the East and Vilest 281
Quail were abundant, prairie chicken not at all
scarce, and woodcock came along twice a year
in fair numbers. As for snipe, there is little
ground left in the States which can afford snipe
shooting to be compared with the spring sport in
parts of the territory. Broad, level prairies per-
mitted the most ambitious dog to show his range.
Patches of corn well dried by October were fa-
vorite feeding spots for both chicken and quail and
taught the dogs to come in close and proceed
with caution ; while the many damp ravines or
" draws," often thick with good-sized trees and
bushes, were training schools of the same kind.
When the weather was added to the other attrac-
tions — the clear skies and dry air of October and
November in the territory are the perfection of
climate if there is anywhere perfection — the
place was a happy hunting ground good enough
for a shooting man who could choose immortality
and forbid civilization to disturb the status.
My entertainer's dog reputation tended as far
North as Chicago and as far East as Memphis.
He had acquired special repute for correcting
faults which ignorant trainers or thoughtless
owners had produced. This kind of fame was an
annoyance. As he put it, he hardly ever saw a
dog of unblemished character any more. Most of
his training season was filled with work on the
reformation of criminals. In the wire enclosure
282 The Sporting Dog
behind the house would often be thirty or forty
dogs, ahnost every one the possessor of a de-
spised vice. There were bolters, blinkers, and bird
eaters ; there were the gun-shy, the jealous, and the
savage. However, most of them belonged to men
who had money to spend ; and the director of this
odd reform school had a cool philosophy of life
for himself, as well as that imperturbable patience
which conquered the dog rascals. He did his
work well and charged well. It cost him little
to keep the dogs and every year he laid away in
bank a useful addition to his farm revenues.
When I woke at six o'clock in the morning it
was to hear a repetition of decisive commands
ringing out in the quiet dawn. " Halt ! " " Go
on ! " " Pick it up ! " " Come in ! " I found the
professor at work on a pupil in an enclosure forty
feet square, wired off as a training yard. The dog
was a two-year-old pointer, never before handled.
A check-cord kept him under control. The lesson
was in retrieving.
" I'll tell you the biggest secret of training," said
the tutor as he paused for a few minutes. " Once
make a dog stop to order without question, and
you've got him. To teach anything else comes
easy; because, in the first place, you can make
him see what you want, and then you have him
where he is already admitting your power instead
of rollicking off on business of his own. I find
Sketches in the East and West 283
that the army people fastened on a good word
when they selected 'halt' It is sharp and clear
and unlike other words. I use it always and in-
struct my customers to keep it up on dogs that I
He turned to his labors. The pointer was un-
willing and sulky, but the more he sulked the
more positive the discipline. " Go on ! " The
dog would crouch and refuse, but a touch of
the whip would send him on. When halfway
to the corner where lay the retrieving pad, he
would hear the call " Halt ! " Then " Go on ! "
Then " Halt ! " So two or three times until
he reached the pad. " Pick it up ! " Grudg-
ingly and mincingly he took the pad in his
mouth. " Come in ! " and the cord was drawn in
fast, hand over hand. " Sit down ! " He went on
his haunches. " Deliver ! " He rose and held the
pad to his tormentor and preceptor.
" All this repeating looks foolish to you, maybe,"
said the trainer; "but I've been over it twenty
times already with this dog and will go over it
fifty times more. In two weeks he will forget
all this sulkiness and be getting fun out of the
thing. It's peculiar how much pleasure a dog
finds in the mere faithful obedience to a com-
mand when he learns that he is pleasing you and
doing something in the way of a game with you
for a partner."
284 The Sporting Dog
We had breakfast and the conveyance was
brought up, a roomy spring wagon, the body
of which, beyond the one front seat, was filled
with a big, light crate, capable of holding eight
or ten dogs. Two horses, of course. In the
territory nobody ever did, as far as known, drive
" We will go out about six miles to Duck Creek.
I don't like to work dogs where there are fences.
You can't follow them so well."
So we plunged down the steep bank of the little
river which ran through the ranch, and scrambled
up the opposite steep bank, and struck out. Any-
body could see that there would be quail all about,
but we were not merely after quail and the wire
fences were too many near the small settlement
on one side of which was my friend's land.
When we struck the open country it was a
rolling prairie, a draw running through the cen-
tre. Two of the dogs were put down, both set-
ters, one of which, as the trainer said, did not
retrieve at all, and the other a vast deal too much.
Both ranged out far and fast, working their way
toward the draw. We hurried along after them,
bumping over the roadless prairie, w^hich was not
as smooth as it seemed. One of the dogs at-
tracted my attention by running backward and
forward in long casts over the same ground. I
asked what he was about.
Sketches in the East and West 285
" He's blinking. There are birds and he won't
leave them, but he won't point while he sees you.
He doesn't trust strangers. He was thrashed
severely several times when a pup for flushing,
and he connected the punishment with the birds
in his way of thinking. He's a brother to King's
Rod. You know Rod was going to be one of
the great champions, but he got handler-shy for
the same reason. It took John L. Barker a
whole season to drive the fear of birds out of
Rod. All that Kingston litter were extremely
sensitive to punishment. You take the team and
pretend you are driving off. I'll get down and
see whether Dick won't point."
Sure enough, when I turned the team away,
Dick cut his eye at me and gradually drew on
a bevy of quail. When flushed, they scattered,
near the draw. The trainer did not shoot, ex-
plaining that he wished to have Tony under
control before a bird fell. Each dog began to
make single points rapidly. At every flush Tony
would look eagerly for the bird to drop. With
a dozen singles thus located in the draw, Dick
was returned to the wagon and Tony left with
" Get down and watch this crazy retriever."
We left the wagon standing and took up Tony's
case. A single point in the draw, a plain flight,
a clean shot, and a dead bird. It had scarcely
286 The Sporting Dog
touched the ground before Tony was after it. He
jumped on it in a frenzy and began to crunch it.
All the trainer's " Halts " had no effect. The bird
was rescued in bad condition. ^
'*' I shouldn't have let him go, but I wanted you
to see how bad an eager dog, which naturally
retrieves, can be made by a man who is excited
about getting hold of every bird that falls. Some
dogs soon begin to think of retrieving and nothing
else. This is the worst I ever saw, but any high-
strung dog can be spoiled when young by too
much hurry in recovering birds."
Next time a check-cord was snapped quietly
on Tony's collar when he pointed. And he did
point superbly, — perfect nose and immovable posi-
tion. The bird was flushed and killed. At the
instant of firing the trainer called, " Halt ! " Tony
heeded nothing but the bird. But when he
reached the length of the cord, he jerked himself
off his feet. " Halt ! " again rang out twice.
Tony came to his senses and stood ashamed.
There was no whipping. The dog was led
quietly to the bird, being compelled to stop three
or four times on the way. When he reached the
spot, he was still not allowed to pick up the bird,
but several times checked within a foot. Finally
the order to retrieve was given and sedately
executed. The lesson was repeated several times,
and in a half-hour Tony was, though not cheer-
Sketches in the East and West 287
ful about it, stopping at command and retrieving
to order for the time being.
We moved over to a part of the prairie where
the draw began to be a creek bottom and a long
strip of corn ran out from a small farm-house.
Here was where we were to find some chicken.
" Now I'll show you that bolter. You say you
saw him cut his throat at the Indiana field trials.
Well, he don't bolt now. I've had him two sea-
sons, and he's just a great dog. Come, Boy."
A tall, rangy Llewellin setter was thrown out.
He swung off at a fast gallop and was soon far
out, working toward the corn. A short, sharp
whistle. Boy stopped and looked back. A wave
of the arm sent him in a contrary direction.
Another whistle, and he was sent back toward
the corn. The whistle again, this time followed
by prolonged notes. Boy came galloping in and
brought himself to a standstill at the wagon.
" You see that he is under control all right.
And it was not much trouble. When he learned
me and what I wanted, he quit his self-hunting.
But with such a dog you have to be persistent
from the first, or else you may be forced to use
so much nagging that he becomes discouraged."
Boy was sent out again. He pointed. A
single old chicken rose wild. Instead of going
into the corn, it rose high and started across
the prairie in rhythmic, yellowhammer flight. It
288 The Sporting Dog
settled a half-mile away. Boy was waved an order
to follow. He had been watching the bird and
saw where it went down. He ran in a straight
line until he was within a hundred yards. Then
he slowed down to a trot and began quartering
cautiously, coming nearer the bird with every
" That old cock will flush wild all day. We'll
never get him, and it's no use keeping after him.
But I call that a rather nice piece of bird sense
for a fast dog." The chicken flushed wild, to be
sure, and the dog was called in.
" If you never saw a dog that would drive a
man to drink, you'll see one now."
Two dogs were put out. One was a clean-
limbed, racy pointer bitch ; the other was a very
handsome blue belton setter dog.
" This setter is a grandson of Monk of Fur-
ness, crossed on Gath's Mark blood. He is an
extra good bird dog, but so jealous that he must
get in front or die trying."
The dogs went out gayly, the pointer at a
remarkably fast and smooth gait. In a few
minutes she had a point near the heavy grass at
the edge of the bottom.
" Never mind her. It's quail. Watch that
The setter caught sight of the point, flattened
on the ground like a greyhound, and dashed
Sketches in the East and West 289
madly toward the tense figure of the bitch. As
he approached he slackened speed, but did not
stop until he was a length in front. He was too
close and the bevy flushed.
" It's not worth while to put him through his
regular lesson here. It would do no good. I've
simply got to make him stop a hundred times
when I call and gradually get control over him
in backing. He knows now that he's wrong, and
for the sake of discipline I must dust his skin a
little." Joe took his dusting meekly and went
back to the crate.
Then for the pointer. Her owner had spoiled
her by teaching her to flush ahead of him. She
had acquired a habit of flushing so far ahead that
shooting was usually barren of results. When
the gun was fifty yards away, she would go into
the birds, in her owner's shooting. On the scat-
tered birds which the setter had flushed she soon
had a point.
" After that rascal's flush she will be more
uneasy on point than ever, but if I can conquer
her now, it will be the best kind of experience.
You stay here."
The handler walked toward the point slowly,
stopping quietly every few paces, and, as he came
near, talking caution in level tones.
" Ste-a-a-d-y-y, Queen ; who-o-o-a."
The bitch shook like the aspen leaf of old.
290 The Sporting Dog
She was controlling herself with effort. But the
leisurely movements, and slow, warning tones of
the man had their effect on the responsive nature
of the dog. He came almost close enough to
get his hand on her ; not quite, though. At the
last moment she could curb herself no longer,
and jumped at the hiding quail. The handler
reproved her with a stern word and let her go
on, keeping her close ahead with repeated
" I shan't put on the cord if I can get on with-
out. She must learn to let me get ahead of her."
Next time the luck was better. She pointed in
erect attitude, head up. The handler drew slowly
near, crawling the last few steps to produce the
imitative sense of caution. He got his hand on
her collar and gradually drew in front, the bitch
uneasy but not breaking her point. He let her
follow, moving very slowly, for the short distance
before he flushed the bird. But he flushed ; not
she. That was the object of the meeting and it
was accomplished, not only that time but several
times before the opportunities on the scattered
birds were exhausted.
We spent the day in the same fashion, putting
down each delinquent more than once, and repeat-
ing the respective lessons. Each time there was
some improvement, except with the jealous Joe.
If the handler happened to be very close to the
Sketches in the East and West 291
point, he could stop the dog to a reluctant back,
but to get the point ahead was a literal mania.
In fact, the dog never was cured. With my
friend, the handler, he became prompt to back,
but in the hands of his owner or anybody else, he
steals and ravishes points to this day.
That trip to the territory was one of the most
illuminating experiences I have ever had with
dogs. It was not all spent in the reform school
exercises. There were days of unequalled quail
and chicken shooting over better-behaved dogs.
But one can get shooting in any state. One
finds a born handler only here and there. The
patience, coolness, and discrimination are given
to few men. Every field shot should have a
course of instruction with such a handler, that
he may learn how easily dog vices are developed
by unschooled human habits, and how easily
cured by intelligent persistence.
Our Derby Entries
Figuring on his string of two-year-olds in the
winter is no more racking and no more pleasur-
able to the racing owner than is the testing of
his Derby candidates to the field trial sportsman.
He is hopeful and apprehensive. Some of the
pups have shown quality, but all have defects.
He cannot know what new marvel the other
292 The Sporting Dog
fellow ^ may have ready to spring. He cannot
exactly remember how and by what balance the
winners of last year beat the good non-winners.
From experience he is aware that he may leave
at home the youngster which would win, and may
waste the season on one which does not exactly
please the judges. The same experience has
taught him that the saddest and costliest words
with which a performer before the public can be
labelled are "nearly, but not quite." For the
dog public is to the full as fickle and cruel as the
political public or the dramatic public. The star
of the day or of the season is lifted on a pedestal,
and the " almost as good " is lashed down to the
plug ranks with contemptuous adjectives.
Picking puppies for the Derbies is picking
everything a pointer or setter can possess of
merit. It is picking bird sense, obedience, style,
speed, and pluck. It is also picking health and
good digestion. Just what degree of superiority
here or there will capture the judges is a doubt-
ful proposition in advance ; but it is certain that
to win, a dog cannot be conspicuously weak in
any standard attribute. And if he be not a good
** doer," able to eat well and keep in shape under
vicissitudes of travel and excitement, his chance
Perhaps it is in May, when the professional
handlers are going to the Northwest to prepare
Sketches in the East and IVest 1(^2
for the big circuit of trials. Perhaps it is in
August, when the more amateur-Hke owners and
trainers are to take a fling at the nearest state
trials — maybe Virginia or Alabama or New York
or Connecticut. Wherever it is, the rules are
about the same, and the competition will be stiff
enough to call for the best dog you can turn out.
And the best Derby dog is simply the dog
which, with experience and stricter training, will
be the best shooting dog. It is the pup with a
nose to locate surely, ambition to carry it fast,
and style to please the eye. You may hear of
good shooting dogs as if they were something
totally different from field trial dogs, but the
better the shooting dog, the nearer it is to being
a field trial winner. I never quite understood
of what a grouse or snipe or woodcock dog is
compounded. I never saw a dog kept exclusively
for snipe or grouse ; and but one kept primarily
for woodcock, that one being a black-and-white
setter owned by a market hunter on the best
woodcock ground in the world. The sportsmen
whom I have met shoot snipe and ruffed grouse
over their dogs when they can find the game,
but they take that kind of luck as it comes. To
choose a dog for ruffed grouse and hunt only for
grouse would be in any country I have seen a
queer use of time. In New England it may be
different, but surely not different in any state
294 The Sporting Dog
south of Long Island. I would not call that man
much of a handler, or much of an amateur with
dogs, for that matter, who could not adjust range
and speed as he pleased. When you want range
you " want it bad," and when you want close work
you can get it ; so it's wise to have the speed and
range available. The quail we have with us
always. The snipe and woodcock may show up
and may not.
So, when picking our Derby entries, we are
picking shooting dogs which will beat our friends'
shooting dogs in finding and working game.
The wise old handler and I went out to say the
final word about five young dogs averaging a year
and a half in age. In past seasons we had en-
countered some fair luck; some unpleasantly bad.
This time we were after a sure thing, and our
twain wisdom was enough to tell us that from the
sure thing we must deduct twenty per cent for
our optimism and twenty more for the difference
between the best private test and the subsequent
public performances. Ask any piano player or
opera singer about that last twenty per cent, and
he will say that it is not far from the safe rule.
Somehow, everything seems to dwindle between
the last evidence of private capacity and the first
time the performer measures up against the big
We had Dan, a rangy, ragged, but light-going
Sketches in the East and IVest 295
liver-and-vvhite pointer, from a Jingo — Dot's Pearl
— sire and a dam tracing to Croxteth and
Sensation ; Jeff, a white-black-tan Llewellin, by
Sport's Gath, dam by Cincinnatus's Pride ; Lucy,
a Llewellin, by Count Whitestone out of a Marie's
Sport dam ; Susan, an orange-and-white pointer,
by a son of Rip Rap ; Bricks, an orange bel-
ton Laverack of unusual speed showing, and an
We decided that it would be best to take them
where they had never seen the ground and run
them in braces. The spot was an open stretch
of pasture and wheat land in Illinois; no better
bird country for trying out dogs in the late
First Dan and Lucy went down. For fifteen
minutes we watched and followed them.
" Well, what do you say ? Dan's a good pup,
but I don't quite like his style."
" No ; nor I. He's the best bird dog of the
bunch. Isn't he a serious chap 1 No play with
Dan. He's as sure and stanch as any old dog,
and he has speed. But he isn't quite fast enough
to be a whirlwind, and he carries his head down
level with his shoulders, and his tail is like a
stick tacked on his hips ; he's all dog, and I want
to have the finishing of him, but I'm not crazy
about his chances in a Derby."
" Lucy, the little fraud, could do the trick if she
296 The Sporting Dog
would, but she looks too ladylike to me. One
minute she skims over the stubble as if she didn't
touch it, and the next she is following Dan and
just waiting to see what he will do. She has gait
and sweet style and a long-range nose, but there
isn't enough devil in her. If she would get down
to strict business, her ticket would be good for
some end of any money. But in a pinch she'd
just about give us this Alphonse and Gaston act,
and they'd laugh at our nice little girl."
" Look at Dan. Now, isn't that a dog for
keeps ? He went at that point too far off, but he
was sure, and never moved while Lucy danced
into the birds. I pretty near think he'll have to
be entered, and let his style come out the best it
can. He's the same every hour in the day, and
can go that lick just as long as any dog in the
kennel will stay with him."
" That will do to think over. Put them up and
try Jeff and Susan."
Susan was much like Lucy, but lacking the
airy gait ; a jolly, choppy little miss ; friendly
with us and with her mate; tolerable in speed
when the notion took her, but having no fighting
blood to kindle the spirit of contest or the desire
for prey. Jeff was a biggish puppy of ample range
and of more speed than he seemed to have. For
field trial purposes he did not have enough of a
dash-away spurt on the start. Even chubby little
Sketches in the East and West 297
Susan led him out for the first hundred yards;
and he had a tendency to false point. He was
perfectly independent in ranging and, if he did
not check himself for a half-point at nothing,
would go faster and faster for a long cast.
" I believe I can make a first-class all-age dog
of Jeff," said the handler, "but I don't believe
there's time to get him over these ways this fall.
He's going to need forcing away from rabbits and
stinkbirds, and a good lot of quail and chicken
killed over him to make him want to get there
from the start. It looks to me as if his mind
needed making up about what he's out for. He
can go fast, and he acts as if he had the stuff in
him. I look for him to get better all the time.
Susan will have more friends if she never goes
to the trials. Most people would love her for a
shooting dog. A boy could handle her in a
week. She just naturally likes to please. Some
of these fellows who can't manage a wide-going
dog would be tickled with her. You could work
her on any game you pleased. You're the home-
body. Miss Susan."
Dan was brought out again as a trial horse for
the Laverack. The latter had a jaunty, cocky
style, head well up and stern switching merrily.
There was nothing to keep him from being a
fast dog except his disposition. With good
conformation and free action, he went a pace at
298 The Sporting Dog
times that raised hopes, but he had no eagerness
of ranging and would circle and come back, or
stop and nose into bushes or fence corners. The
difference between him and the plainer pointer
was the difference between the dilettante and
the unswerving worker. Tie tin cans to their
tails, and Bricks would probably have reached
home first; his capacity for extreme speed was
greater. In actual work the pointer would have
been ahead of him on the outside, the inside,
around, across, and in every other direction where
birds were to be found. The Laverack was a
beauty in style, and it was easy to see that in a
brushy country of small field enclosures he might
be a charming dog. He would cover such a coun-
try pretty fast. But, hunted from horseback or a
wagon, he would be behind the gun half the time.
We changed them around and tried the setters
together and then the pointers. With some minor
variations the outcome was the same. In fact, all
through we were merely confirming what we had
found out before but did not like to admit.
" I tell you what we'll do. It's no fun getting
beaten. As it stands to-day, Dan is the best pup
we have, and he is not classy enough. Jeff will
be in it next year, but that's not this year. Lucy
has the foot of the party and the class, but she
keeps both for seldom occasions. She is not
reliable. Susan and Bricks are out of it entirely.
Sketches in the East and West 299
There are too many 'buts' and ' ifs ' to spend
entry fees and express charges on. We'll go to
the trials and have fun with the other boys. And
then we'll do as Jim Martin did. Two years ago
he had a Rodfield pup which died just before the
trial season opened. He's like the fishing man who
let the six-pound bass get away. That pup was
the most remarkable of all pups when he was on
earth. He's been getting greater and greater
every day since. Jim has lied about him until
the tales have become sacred history. We must
break a pup's leg, and then tell about what would
have happened to the duffers at the trials if we
had just brought our dog."
And that's how we had strictly talking parts at
the trials of one season.
BENCH-SHOW STANDARDS AND FIELD-
Head large, flat, stop well defined, and with a depression running
from stop to occiput ; full development of occipital bone imperative.
Nose large, long, deep, and broad (black in all except lemon-and-
white, when it should be deep flesh color). Nostrils large and
open. Ears moderately long, filbert shaped and lying flat ; set low,
thin leather. Eyes medium size, not set wide apart, and of various
shades of brown, varying with color of coat. Lips full, not thick nor
Neck arched, firm, round, not too short ; no tendency to throati-
ness, no dewlap. Shoulders long and sloping. Chest deep, with
narrow sternum. Ribs moderately sprung, not flat. Loins broad
and slightly arched. Hips thick, strong, and muscular. Stifles well
bent. Front legs should be straight and strong. Hind legs well
crooked and well muscled. Feet of good size, but not too large ;
round and catlike. Pads full and tough. Nails short and thick,
with plenty of hair between toes. Tail set on well up, and taper to
a decided point, the straighter the better ; carried low, and action
free. Coat fairly dense, and not too soft. Color, liver-and-white,
black-and-white, orange-and-white, whole black, or whole liver.
Scale of Points. — Skull and nose (lo), 20; eyes, ears, lips, 4;
neck, 6; shoulders and chest, 15 ; hindquarters and stifles, 15 ; legs,
elbows, and hocks, 12; feet (8), tail (5), coat (3), 16; color (5),
symmetry and quality (7), 12.
STANDARD OF ENGLISH SETTER CLUB
(England, followed by Laverack men in America)
Scale. — Head, 20 ; neck, 5 ; body, 30 ; legs and feet, 20 ; tail, 5 ;
symmetry, coat, and feathering, 15 ; color and markings, 5 ; total, 100.
Head. — Should be long and lean, with a well-defined stop. The
skull oval from ear to ear, showing plenty of brain room, and with a
well-defined occipital protuberance. The muzzle moderately deep
and fairly square ; from the stop to the point of the nose should be
long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length ; flews
not to be pendulous ; the color of the nose should be black, or dark,
or light liver, according to the color of the coat. The eyes should
be bright, mild, and intelligent, and of a dark hazel color — the
darker the better. The ears of moderate length, set on low, and
hanging in neat folds close to the cheek ; the tip should be velvety,
the upper part clothed with fine, silky hair.
Neck. — Should be rather long, muscular, and lean, slightly arched
at the crest, and clean cut where it joins the head ; toward the
shoulder it should be larger and very muscular, not throaty, though the
skin is loose below the throat, elegant and bloodlike in appearance.
Body. — Should be of moderate length, with shoulders well set
back, or oblique ; back short and level ; loins wide, slightly arched,
strong, and muscular. Chest deep in the brisket, with good round,
widely sprung ribs, deep in the back ribs ; that is, well ribbed up.
Legs and Feet. — Stifles well bent and strong, thighs long from
hip to hock. The forearm big and very muscular, the elbow well
let down. Pastern short, muscular, and straight. The feet very
close and compact, and well protected by hair between the toes.
Tail. — The tail should be set on almost in a line with the back ;
medium length, not curly or ropy ; to be slightly curved or scimitar
shaped, but with no tendency to turn upward ; the flag or feather
hanging in long pendant flakes. The feather should not commence
at root, but slightly below, and increase in length to the middle, then
gradually taper off toward the end ; and the hair long, bright, soft,
and silky, wavy but not curly.
Symmetry, Coat, and Feathering. — The coat from the back of the
head in a line with the ears ought to be straight, long, and silky (a
slight wave in it not objectionable), which should be the case with
the coat generally ; the breeches and forelegs, nearly down to the
feet, should be well feathered.
Color and Markings. — The color may be either black-and-white,
orange-and-white, lemon-and-white, liver-and-white, or tricolor, that
is, black-white-tan; those without heavy patches of color on the
body, but flecked all over, preferred.
STANDARD OF ENGLISH SETTER CLUB
(America. Called the Llewellin Standard. Adopted in 1900. Followed by
field trial or Llewellin men)
Head (20). — The form of the skull is an eminent characteristic.
It is not so heavy as that of the pointer and is relatively without the
furrow and marked prominence of the occipital bone, which should
be but shghtly defined. The skull, with moderate dome, should
be long and narrow, rather than wedge shaped between the ears.
The brows should be at a sharp and decided angle from the nose.
The stop should be well defined and clean cut, with a slight furrow
between the eyes.
The nose should be long, and of width in harmony with the skull,
without any fulness under the eyes. Its length should be from
three and one-half to four and one-half inches, from the inner cor-
ner of the eye to the end of the nose, according to the size of the
dog; four inches should represent the average.
Between the eyes and point of the nose the line of the muzzle
should be straight. A dish-faced or a Roman nose is objectionable.
The nostrils should be wide apart and wide in the openings ; the
end of the nose should be moist and cool ; black or dark liver in
color, except that in white, or lemon-and-white, dogs a pink nose
may be pardoned.
The jaws should be exactly equal in length. A "snipe nose" or
" pig jaw," as the short receding jaw is called, is a serious fault.
The lips should be of a form to show a rather square muzzle, but
should not be too full and pendant at the angles, nor reach the
extent of hanging.
The eyes should be set with their angles straight across. They
must be full of animation, with the width between them in propor-
tion to the size of the head and face. They should be equally free
from a close-set and fi-om a wide, staring expression. The best
color is a rich brown.
The ears should be carried closely to the cheeks and hung well
back and set low, of moderate length, slightly rounded at the ends,
without the slightest tendency to prick or to show the inside ; the
leather thin and soft and clothed with silky hair about two inches
As a whole, though avoiding both extremes of lightness and heavi-
ness, the head should be light rather than heavy, clean cut, of length
and size in harmony with the body and possessing true English
Neck (5). — The neck should be long and lean, gradually widen-
ing from the head to the shoulders, and joining them in a graceful
curve. It must not be throaty.
Shoulders and Chest (15). — The shoulders and chest should not
be too heavy ; they should be formed to admit perfect freedom of
action to the forelegs when in an extended stride.
The shoulder-blades should be deep, wide, sloping well back, and
standing close together at the top, and the chest between the
shoulder-blades should be of moderate depth, and thin enough to
allow the shoulders to lie flat and move with freedom ; of such pro-
portions as not to suggest undue weight on the forelegs, either great
depth or great width at this point being objectionable.
The wide or round chest between the shoulder-blades, forcing
them wide apart, is a most objectionable form. The drop in the
chest should be just back of the elbows, the chest sloping upward
from this point toward the neck, permitting the dog to carry his
neck and head up with ease. Back of the shoulders and of the play
of the forelegs, the ribs should spring gradually to the middle and
then gradually lessen to the back ribs, which should have good
Back and Loin (10). — The loin should be strong, with moderate
length, slightly arched, but not to the extent of being reached or
The back should be strong at its junction with the loin, sloping
upward in a slight rise to the top of the shoulders, the whole form-
ing a graceful outline of medium length. Any sway or drop in the
back is objectionable.
Hips, Quarters, and Stifles (10). — The hip bones should be promi-
nent and wide apart, but not enough so as to give them a ragged
appearance. There should be good length, and without too sudden
droop, from them to the whirlbone at the root of the tail ; the quar-
ters should be wide at the top and well muscled. The stifles should
be well bent, but not exceedingly so.
Legs, Elbows, Hocks, and Feet (15). — The arm should be flat,
muscular, strong, with bone fully developed, and with muscles hard
and devoid of flabbiness ; of good length from the point of shoulder
to the elbow, well let down at such angles as will bring the legs fairly
under the dog, the elbows in proper position being on a line with the
bottom of the chest.
The elbows and toes should have the same direction, turning
neither in nor out, pointing straight from rear to front; if not
straight, the inturned leg and toes are the less objectionable. The
foreleg should be flat, and taper gradually from the elbow to the
pastern joint ; it should feel hard and flinty, with no looseness of
skin. The pasterns should be short, strong, and nearly round, with
the slope from the pastern joint to the foot deviating but slightly
from the perpendicular.
The hind legs should have wide, muscular thighs, a well-developed
lower thigh, and wide, flat hocks ; the cowhock is to be avoided.
The feet need careful consideration, as the utility of the dog de-
pends upon them. Of the two types, the round, or catfoot, is much
to be preferred to the long or harefoot. The feet should be closely
set and strong ; well padded, with toes well arched, and clothed with
short and thick hair.
Stern (5). — The stern, as the tail is termed, should be carried
straight, or with a slight curve upward, not higher than slightly
above the level of the back. Any tendency to curl upward or side-
ways is a fault. It should taper to a fine point, with only length
enough to reach the hocks, or less. The feather must be straight,
silky, falling loosely in a fringe, and tapering to a point when the tail
is raised. There must be no bushiness whatever.
Coat and Feather (5). — The coat should be flat and of moderate
length, with an absence of curl. In condition it shows gloss and
quality. It should not be too long or soft, nor woolly, yet fine
enough to preserve the setter character. The feather on the legs
should be thin and regular.
Color and Markings (5). — Color is a matter of fancy, and too
much stress should not be laid upon it. Black-white-tan, black-
and-white, blue belton, lemon-and-white, lemon belton, orange-and-
white, orange belton, liver-and-white, liver belton, solid white, black-
and-liver, are recognized colors.
Symmetry, Size, and Weight (10). — The harmony of all the parts
is to be estimated. Symmetrical dogs will be slightly higher at the
shoulders than at the hips. The judge is specially directed to look
for that balance and harmony of proportion, and style of natural
movement, which suggest the rapidity, ease, and endurance needed
in a high and maintained rate of speed, rather than for the excellence
of any particular part ; to disapprove of undue massiveness, coarse-
ness, and clumsiness, lack of size and absence of setter character, no
matter what the outline may be. Experience indicates that the best
size for dogs is from forty to fifty-five pounds, for bitches thirty-five
to fifty pounds. Taste and the particular kind of work required may
govern to some extent, but it may be said that the most useful set-
ters, as a rule, are in weight midway between the extremes men-
tioned. The height should be about twenty-two to twenty-three
inches at the shoulder in dogs, and twenty-one to twenty-two in
The head of this setter is long and lean, skull oval, well-defined
occipital protuberance ; brows raised, muzzle moderately deep, fairly
square at end. Nostrils wide, jaws of nearly equal length ; flews not
pendulous ; nose dark mahogany or chocolate ; eyes rich hazel or
brown. Ears of moderate size, fine in texture, set on low, and well
Neck moderately long, very muscular. Shoulders deep and slop-
ing ; chest rather narrow but deep ; ribs well sprung ; loins muscular
and slightly arched ; hindquarters powerful. Hindlegs to hocks
strong and muscular ; hocks to heel short and strong. Stifles well
bent. Forelegs with plenty of bone ; elbows well let down, inclined
neither in nor out. Feet rather small, very firm ; toes strong, arched,
and close together.
Tail moderate length, set on low, tapering to a point, carried
scimitar-like or straight. Coat on head, front of legs, and tips of
ears, short and fine ; on other parts, of moderate length, flat, free
from curl or wave. Feather on upper part of ears, back of fore and
hind legs long and fine ; hair on tail of moderate length. All feath-
ering as straight and flat as possible.
Color, golden chestnut or mahogany red, with no trace of black.
White on chest, throat, toes ; streak on nose or face ; small star on
forehead not to disqualify.
Scale of Points. — Head, lo; eyes, ears, neck (5), 15 ; body, 15 ;
shoulders, forelegs, and feet, 12 ; hindlegs, 10; tail, coat, and feather
(8), 16; color, 8; size and style, 14.
The Duke of Gordon claims to be the originator of this breed
(1820). The points of the Gordon setter are very nearly the same
as those of the English setter, except as follows : The skull is some-
what heavier than that of the English dog, but in other respects is
about the same. The nose, too, is a trifle wider. In shape, the flag
is the same as the English setter, except that it is a little shorter ;
the coat is certainly denser and coarser than either the Irish or Eng-
lish setter, inclined in very many good specimens to a decided curl,
though a curl is 7iot to be sought after in this breed.
The coat is a point much insisted upon. The black should be
rich and glossy, and the tan a deep, rich mahogany red, without the
slightest trace of fawn or yellow. The tan should appear on lips,
cheeks, throat, spot over the eyes, forelegs nearly to elbows ; hind-
legs as far as the stifles, and on the tmder side of the flag, but not
extending to the long hairs. These are the only two colors admitted
on the Gordon, though a little white is not seriously objected to, yet
it is considered by good judges as a decided blemish. The prize
winners of to-day are absolutely free from white.
Scale of Points. — Skull, lo; nose, lo; eyes, lips, and ears, 4;
shoulders and chest, 15; back, quarters, and stifles, 15; legs, 12;
neck, 6 ; feet, 8 ; flag, 5 ; symmetry and quality, 5 ; texture of coat
and feather, 5 ; color, 5 .
STANDARD OF CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG CLUB
Head, including ears, lips, and eyes, 14; neck, 6; shoulders and
chest, 14; back, quarters, and stifles, 14; legs, elbows, hocks, and
feet, 14; stern, 4; symmetry and quality, 6; coat and texture, 16;
color, 12; total, 100 points.
The head is broad, running to nose only a trifle pointed, but not
at all sharp ; eyes of yellow color.
Ears small and placed well up on the head.
Face should be covered with very short hair.
Neck only moderately long, and with firm, strong appearance.
Shoulders and chest full liberty, with plenty of show for power and
no tendency to restrictions of movement ; chest strong and deep.
Back, quarters, and stifles fully as much if not more powerful than
forequarters, and be capable of standing prolonged strain, and ten-
dency to weakness must be avoided.
Ducking on the broad waters of the Chesapeake Bay involves, at
times, facing heavy tides and seas, and in cases of following wounded
fowl a dog is frequently subjected to a long swim.
The legs, elbows, and hocks should therefore be short, showing
both bone and muscle, and with well-webbed feet, of good size. The
forelegs should be rather straight and symmetrical. It is to be un-
derstood that short legs do not convey the idea of a dumpy forma-
tion. The elbows should be well let down, and set straight for
development of easy movement.
The stern should be stout, somewhat long, the straighter the
better, and showing only moderate feather.
The Chesapeake Bay dog should show a bright, lively, intelligent
expression, with general outlines good at all points. In fact, he
should be a dog worthy of notice in any company.
The coat and texture should be short and thick, somewhat coarse,
with tendency to wave over the shoulders, back, and loins, where it
is longest. It must be nowhere over one and one-quarter to one and
one-half inches long. That on flanks, legs, and belly should be
shorter, tapering to quite short near the feet. Under all there should
be a short, woolly fur, which should well cover the skin, and readily
be observed by pressing aside the outer coat. This coat preserves
the dog from the effect of wet and cold, and enables him to stand
severe exposure, a shake or two throwing off all water.
The color should nearly resemble wet sedge grass, though toward
spring it becomes much lighter by exposure to the weather. A
small, white spot or frill on the breast is admissible. Color is im-
portant, as the dog in most cases is apt to be outside the blind, con-
sequently too dark a color is objectionable. The deep liver color of
the spaniel makes a much greater contrast, and is therefore to be
The weight should be about sixty pounds. Too large a dog is
unwieldy and lacks quickness of movement. Bitches are usually
smaller than the dogs, but not necessarily so.
The head is large, but not heavy, brow pronounced, but not high,
of good length, making girth about i6 inches. Nose long and wide ;
ears set low and lying close to cheek. Neck long and clean without
throatiness. Shoulders long, well muscled, sloping, and the true
arm long and muscular.
Girth of chest 30 inches in a 24-inch tall dog. Back ribs very
deep. Back and loins very muscular ; couplings very wide even to
raggedness, with slight arch of loins. Hindquarters very strong,
elbows set straight, neither in nor out. Legs perfectly straight and
strong, large size of bone at ankle all-important ; feet round, catlike,
and strong. Color black-white-tan, black-and-white, and various
pies of white and the color of the hare and badger. Coat dense,
short, hard, and glossy. Stern gradually arched, carried gayly over
back, fringed with hair and tapering to a point.
Scale of Points. — Head, 15; neck, 5; shoulders, 10; chest and
back ribs, 10; back and loins, 10; hindquarters, 10; elbows, 5 ; legs
and feet, 20 ; color and coat, 5 ; stern, 5 ; symmetry, 5.
American foxhounds are judged according to the idea of more
lightness and activity all through. In American hounds the black-
and-tan, with little or no white, and the tan or red, with a small area
of white, find as breed colors more indulgence than in the English.
(American Beagle Club)
A miniature foxhound, solid and big for his inches, with the wear-
and-tear look of the dog that can last in the chase and follow his
quarry to the death.
In head he differs in an appreciable degree from the foxhound.
Head. — Skull moderately domed at occiput; cranium broad and
full ; ears set on low, long and fine in texture, front edge closely
framing and inturned to cheek, rather broad, rounded at tips, and
with an almost entire absence of erectile power at their origin.
Eyes full, prominent, rather wide apart, soft and lustrous, brown
or hazel in color ; orbital processes (eyebrows) well developed ;
expression gentle, subdued, and pleading.
The muzzle of medium length, squarely cut, and stop well defined.
Jaws level ; indentation between eyes ; lips with only moderate
Nostrils large, moist, and open.
In other parts he should resemble the foxhound, and be as strongly,
perhaps even more symmetrically, made with an equal development
of quality and character.
Size is of importance ; this dog must not exceed fifteen inches in
height at the shoulder.
General appearance is that of a handsome, strong, rather leggy
dog, with very striking physical characteristics.
Head. — Skull of medium length, rather broad, with but a slight
stop ; muzzle long and broad to the end ; eyes dark brown and with
an intelligent expression ; ears long and covered with curls.
Chest. — Deep rather than wide. Loin somewhat arched.
Stern. — Strong at root, tapering to a fine point ; hair on it very
short, straight, and close lying.
Legs and Feet. — Legs long, but strong in bone ; feet somewhat
large. Stifles rather straight ; hocks w^ell let down.
Coat. — All over little curls, hard and not woolly. On forehead a
top-knot of long hair, falling over eyes in a peak. Legs to have as
little feather as possible.
Color. — A rich dark liver, free from white, though a little of the
latter on breast or toes should not disqualify.
(Condensed from Charles H. Lane's " All About Dogs," published by John
Lane, New York)
The points of greatest importance in the fox terrier are head, ears,
legs and feet, neck and shoulders, back, loin and hindquarters, smart-
ness, activity, size, and " terrier character."
Head. — The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, broader
between the ears and gradually tapering to the eyes, free from wrinkle.
But little slope, or indentation, should be visible, except in profile.
The jaw should be clean cut, rather long, powerful, and muscular,
with little or any fulness or bulging out at the cheeks. There is a
very slight falling away below the eyes, but this must be very gradual,
and not to such an extent as to give a snipey, or wedgy, appearance,
The lips should be feirly tight, without any superfluous skin. The
nose must be quite black. Stern set on rather high, carried gayly,
Appendix 3 1 1
not carried above a " right angle '^ with back ; if anything, a trifle
Legs and Feet. — Point of extreme value, to which greatest atten-
tion should be given. Elbows well let down, in straight line with
body. Forelegs, however viewed, "straight as gun barrels," with
upright, powerful pasterns ; strong in bone, clothed with muscle
from elbow to foot, giving a most solid, unbroken appearance ; feet
round and catlike, very compact, toes short and only moderately
arched, soles hard as adamant ; foot should neither turn in or out, —
if any deviation, should turn in ; no dewclaws behind.
The coat should be smooth, harsh in texture, very close and
abundant, a jacket to protect wearer from all weathers. Colors :
white should predominate. Brindle, fallow, liver, or red markings
Size. — The fox terrier must neither be leggy nor too near the
ground; neither must he be cloddy, but should have plenty of
" liberty " and galloping power, with good bone and substance, fair
speed and endurance being essentially requisite for his legitimate
calling. Seventeen pounds in hard working condition is a fair aver-
age weight, but this may vary a pound or so either way. Make,
shape, good shoulders, and chest being far better criterions, in this
respect, than actual weight.
The above appHes to smooth, but is also an excellent standard for
wire-hair fox terriers, which are judged on same lines, except coat,
which in the latter should be about two inches long, and very dense
and wiry, not shaggy or woolly, on any account.
FIELD TRIALS — RUNNING RULES
(Field rules are about the same in all clubs. In championship stakes the
heats are required to be of greater length than in ordinary open events — usually
Dogs shall be drawn by lot, and numbered in the order drawn.
Each dog shall run in the first series as a brace with the next avail-
able dog in that order. After the first series has been run through,
the judges shall announce which dogs they wish to see run again
and the order of running them, and the judges shall have the power
of calling up and running again any dog or dogs irrespective of
previous announcements. Discretion is given the judges to run the
3 1 2 Appendix
dogs as often and in whatever order they wish, until they are satisfied
which are the best dogs ; but they may announce the winners any
time after the first series ; provided the first and second prize winners
shall have run together.
The number of times a dog points, backs, etc., shall not necessa-
rily give him the preference ; but the judges shall consider the quality
of the performance rather than the frequency of the occurrence, and
shall give greater credit to the dog showing in the highest degree
those qualities which are essential to a good field dog for practical
use. The judges may run the dogs in braces or separately, as they
may desire, the competing dog being kept at heel when run sepa-
rately. The standard of work shall be a well-balanced performance ;
that is to say, the judges will consider the quality commonly called
" bird sense " ; the intelligent and useful beating out of the ground
within proper limits ; roading and pointing ; ability to find ; obedi-
ence, and work to the gun ; speed, range, nose, and endurance. This
is intended to include all the details, such as backing, general train-
ing, etc. As to ranging, the judges will consider long straightway
casts as faulty work if there are available sections left unworked,
and if the casts mentioned are habitual. This shall not apply to a
long cast taken intelligently betimes to work out a likely place when
the ground is unfavorable near at hand, providing the dog's usual
range is good. Swinging repeatedly around behind the handler at
the end of a cast, working the same ground over frequently, leaving
repeatedly good ground unworked, frittering away time on bare, un-
promising ground, running with no purpose of finding, and looking
much after the handler, are faulty methods. Continual whistling and
assistance on the part of the handler will also lower the dog's per-
formance. A dog must obey commands with reasonable prompt-
ness. Loud and continuous whistling or shouting will seriously
impair a dog's standing in the competition. As to pointing, back-
ing, roading, and drawing, a distinction shall be made between what
the dog does himself and what the handler does for him. Coaching
and helping a dog in general when he is on the scent of birds must
lower the grade of his performance. When, through the marking of
birds, one handler has succeeded in getting more points for his dog
than his competitor, the judges must consider the merit of the dog
independently of his handler's assistance. Working to the gun is of
great consideration. Faults of puppies in this respect may be treated
more leniently than similar faults of dogs in the all-age stake. The
purpose of the trials is to determine which dogs have the best natural
qualities and are the best field dogs for practical use.
The perfect training and obedience of a dog shall not be necessary
to entitle him to win, natural merit being paramount. But every
dog must be so trained and under such control as to be susceptible
of handling to such an extent as to be of use in actual hunting on
the field and to enable the judges to properly judge of his merit as a
field dog. The purpose of the bird dog being to afford sportsmen
pleasant experience on the field, it is necessary for every dog in the
trials to be properly trained.
RUNNING RULES FOR BEAGLE TRIALS
(National Beagle Club of America. Foxhound trial rules, except that shoot-
ing is not considered, are in general on similar lines. Foxhound trials do not
present brace competitions. The hounds are run as a pack and the losers
weeded or spotted out)
After the running of the first series is finished, the judges shall
announce which dogs they wish to see run again and order of run-
ning them. Discretion is given the judges to run the dogs as often
and in what order they think best, until they are satisfied which are
the best dogs.
If competition is close, the judges are requested to give greater
credit to the dog that is obedient to the commands of his handler.
A dog will be expected to maintain an efficient range throughout a
heat and to show hunting sense in his work. Hunting sense is
shown by the desire to hunt for game, the selection of likely places
to hunt in, the method of hunting the places, the industry in staying
out at work, and the skill in handling and trailing the game after it
The judges are instructed not to place undue credit on speed, it
being the desire of the Club that accuracy in trailing, voice, endur-
ance, starting abilities, style, and obedience be the principal points
of merit, but nothing in the foregoing shall excuse a dog for potter-
ing, or for failure to leave his handler in hunting his ground. Every
dog will be expected to go on when ordered, to cover his ground
thoroughly, to obey the commands of his handler, and to show a
desire and ability to find game as well as to drive it.
In the classes for packs, team work, not individual work, shall
count. The dogs will be expected to hunt within easy distance of
one another, to hark in quickly, and to drive at an even speed well
A person selected, when ordered by the judges, shall discharge
one barrel of a gun over each dog or brace of dogs while driving.
If the dog exhibits signs of gun-shyness, both barrels shall be dis-
charged over him on the trail. If the dog is thus proved to be gun-
shy, he shall be debarred from competition in the trials.
Adams, Mr., owner of setters Dora
and Drake, 57.
Airedale terriers, 15.
Alberta Joe, 34.
Albert Lang, 71.
Albert's Nellie, 75.
Albert's Woodcock, 88-89, 92, 93-
Alford's John, 22, ^S, 82.
Alonsita Round, 149.
Alpine Lad, 32, 38, 39.
American Championship field trial,
American Coursing Board, 124-125.
American Kennel Club Studbook,
12, 13, 14.
American Waterloo Cup, 113, 122.
Anne of Abbotsford, 228.
Antonio, 31, 74, 76, 80, 248, 250.
Comparison of, with Gladstone,
Armstrong's Kate, 66.
"Ashmont," books of, 239.
Askins, Charles, 249-250.
Astral Maid, 247.
Astronomy, 116, 247.
Australia, greyhounds imported
Avent, trainer, 223-224,
Bang (Trinket's), 31, 34, 183, 248.
Bang Bang, 27, 29.
Bannerman, 145, 149.
Barkby Ben, 166.
Bartelses, the, 117.
Barton Tory, 88.
Bishop, Mr., promoter of Irish set-
Beagles, i, 143-155.
Bench-show standard for, 309.
Cottontails and, 152-153.
Field trials for, 263.
Fox terriers and, 165.
Kennels of, 145, 148.
Packs of, 148, 1 5 1- 1 54, 208.
Running rules in field trials, 313.
Training unnecessary with, 234.
Beau Brummel, 93.
Beaudesart setters, 57.
Beaumont, 108, 109.
Bell, W. S., 9.
Belle of Hard Bargain, 43.
Belmont, 108, 109.
Belmont, August, 165-166.
Belton (Bolus's), 50, 67, 246.
Bench shows, benefit from, 254-255.
Chicago (1901), 92.
Classes at, 257-258.
First American, 256.
Kansas City (1900), 92.
Mineola, N.Y. (1874), 256.
New York (1889), 29.
Bench shows \_contimied'\ —
St. Louis (1897), 124, 173.
St. Louis (1899), 37.
"Westminster Kennel Club(i876),
Ben Law, 92.
Beppo II, 29.
Bergundthal's Fanny, 65.
Bergundthal's Rake, 48, 57, 64-65,
Berkeley, 103, 204, 205.
Betty B., 249.
Bettye S., 74.
Blemton kennels, 165.
Blue beltons, 42, 43, 87, 91.
Blue Ridge Kennel, 250.
Bob White, the, 5.
Bohemian Girl, 73-74, 177.
Bolting, 172-173, 287-288.
Bolus's Belton, 50, 67, 246.
Bones, danger of feeding, to dogs,
Boston terriers, 2, 15, 162, 257.
Bow, 28, 206.
Bracken o' Leek, 89.
Bradley, S. C, 35.
Breaking, question of, in shooting-
British vs. American, 4-5.
Breese, James L., 265.
Breeze Gladstone, 73.
Britain Still, 116.
Brown, E. J., 124.
Brunswick Fur Club trials (1903),
Bryson, David, 60, 68.
Bryson, P. H., 9, 60, 68, 188-189,
Buckell, Mr. Teasdale-, 42, 43, 49,
50, 66, 68, 223.
Buck Jr., 206.
Burges, Arnold, 57.
Butte, coursing at, 114-115.
Cairnsmuir kennels (fox terriers),
Cameron's Racket, 145.
Campbell setters, 67-68, 206.
Canada, dogs for shooting in, 194-
Captain Jack, 82.
Cap Tough, 81.
Care of dogs, 235-240.
Carnochan, Mr., proprietor Cairns-
muir kennels, 165, 166.
Carroll Island Club, 159, 160, i6l,
Castleman's Rex, loi.
Champion Bang, 26.
Champion Bow, 28, 206.
Champion Mike, 30.
Chesapeake Bay dogs, 2, 14, 156-163.
Bench-show standard for, 307.
Origin of, 158.
Chicken trials, 39.
Cincinnatus, 62, 75.
False pointing by, 1 69-1 70.
Cincinnatus's Pride, 52, 75-76, 96,
Class, definition of term, 21 1.
Claude Duval, 166.
Clip Wind'em, 221.
Clubs, field trial, 264-265.
Hunt, in America, 1 27-129.
Clumber spaniels, i.
Clyde, 76, 146.
Cocker spaniels, i, 179-180.
For ruffed grouse, 177.
Cole, James, 90, 246.
Cole's Lady, 90.
Collies, I, 15, 257.
Colonel R., 78-79, 191-194.
Color, of English setters, 40-45.
Importance of, in quail-shooting,
Colors, preferred, for pointers and
Conformation, importance of, 3-4.
Cooke, Charles B., 81.
'Coon dogs, 154-155-
Fox terriers as, 165.
Copper Coin, 39.
Cora of Wetheral, 87.
Cottontails and beagles, 143, 152-
Count Danstone, 52, 71.
Count Eric, 31.
Countess, 56, 85.
Countess Bear, 42, 63.
Countess Meteor, 45, 71-72.
Count Fauster, 30.
Count Gladstone IV, 70-71, 83, 182,
Count Howard, 13, 87, 90.
Count Hunter, 68.
Count Noble, 57, 61-62, 73, 169,
Count Noble setters, 12, 13, 15-16.
Count Whitestone, 43, 44, 80.
Count "Wind'em, 42, 61.
Coursing, 1 10-123.
Judges in, 263.
Crawford Lad, 114.
Crocker, George, 35, 265.
Croxteth pointers, 25, 183.
Cuba Jr., 22.
Currer Bell III, 102.
Currer Bell IV, 102.
Currer Maid, 102.
Dad Wilson, 62.
Dager, Mr., owner of setters, 75, 170.
Daisy F., 51, 63, 68.
Daisy Hope, 63, 68, 177.
Daisy Hunter, 43, 63, 68.
Dakota, 119, 124.
Dan (Llewellin's), 60, 64.
Dan (Statter's), 56.
Dan Gladstone, 72-73, 250.
Dan Maloney, 161.
Danforth's Nick, flushing by, 172.
Dan's Lady, 71, 79, 191.
Dash II, 42, 49, 66.
Dash Antonio, 77, 182.
Dashing Bondhu, 66.
Dashing Dixie, 80-81.
Dashing Lavellette, 66-67.
Dashing Monarch, 66.
Dave Earl, 71.
Exhibition by Joe Gumming and,
Davidson, John, 10, 81, 86.
Desmond II, 104.
Devereux, H. K., 188, 189-193.
Devonshire setters, 26.
Dexter, Col. Edward, 6, 25.
Diana, 11 7-1 18.
Dick Bondhu, 17.
Dick (Statter's), 56.
Dido II, 62.
Diffenderfer, W. Stewart, 144-145.
Diseases of dogs, 240.
Dixie's Rod, 81.
Doc Hick, 175-176.
Doc's light, 32.
Dog shows. See Bench shows.
Dolly, 144, 147.
Don (Arnold's), 109.
Don (Vandervort's), 30.
Donald Bane, 90.
Don's Nellie, 249.
Dora, 44, 57, 245.
Dorsey, Pottinger, 144.
Dorsey's Pilot, 144, 149.
Dot (Pearl's), 28, 31, 249.
Dot II, 36-37.
Dot's Daisy, 32.
Dot's Jingo, 32.
Dot's Pearl, 31-32, 248.
Downham Victor, 109.
Drake, 26, 34, 57.
Druid, 44, 57, 62.
Duke of Edgeworth, 108.
Duke Elcho, loi.
Duke (Field's), 56.
Duke of Hessen, 29, 32-33, 248.
Duke-Rhoebe combination, 57-58.
Duke of Vernon, 29. *
Duke of York, 39.
Duryea, Herman, 83, 265.
Dusky Don II, 166.
Dusky Trap, 166.
Edwards, Harry R., 79, 187-188
Elcho, 68, 103, 104, 204-205.
Elcho Jr., 103.
Elcho's Maid, loi.
Emin Pasha, 121, 122.
English setters, 12, 40-52, 96.
Bench-show standards for, 301.
Cheerfulness of temper of, 183-
English setters \_continued'\ —
Preference for, in America, 13-16.
See Laveracks and Llewellins.
Erin, 103, 205-206.
Erin II, 100,
Ethan Allen family, 78.
Exhibitions. See Bench shows.
Fabulous Fortune, 1 14.
Fair Helen, 122.
False pointing, 169-171.
Fanny Murnan, 72, 250.
Faust, 28, 204, 206-208.
Fear Not, 119.
Females, working of pregnant, 239-
Fernkas, Mr., owner of K. C. Kent,
Field Dog Studbook, 13-14.
Field's Duke, 56.
Field spaniels, i.
Field trials, benefit derived from,
Beginning of, 258.
Date of establishment, in Eng-
Judges at, 259, 261-262.
Methods of judging at, 258-259.
Number of annual, 263.
Running rules, 311-313.
Unimportance of, in England, 55.
Fingal III, loi.
Fitzhugh Lee, 144, 146.
Flirt o' Leek, 89.
Flushing, fault of, 1 71-172, 289-
Food for dogs, 237-238.
Forester, Frank, 177.
For Freedom, 121.
Fortuna Favente, 114, I2I.
Foxhounds, i, 2, 10, 126-142,
Foxhounds \_continued~\ —
Bench-show standard for English,
Enghsh vs. American, 141-142.
Families of, in the South, 134.
Field trials for, 263.
"Miniature," 149-150, 155.
Packs of, 10, 127-129.
Training unnecessary with, 234.
American vs. English, 1 31-132.
Ladies and, 1 30-1 31.
Fox terriers, 15, 164-167, 257.
Bench-show standard for, 310.
Specimens of, 166.
Franke, Mr., importer of Luck of
the Goat, 2)3-
Frank Forest, 146, 149.
Fred Elcho, 104.
Furlough Mike, 36.
Gath,59, 69, 177, 246.
Comparison of, with Gladstone,
Gath's Hope, 69, 76, loi, 246, 250.
Gath's Mark, 69, 201-202, 250.
Example of inbreeding, 246.
Gem, 69, 102, 246.
Geneva, 59, 76, 264.
Gentry, Laurence, 149.
Georgia Belle, 63.
Gilda, 119, 122.
Gilhooley, 87, 88.
Gladstone, 57, 59-61, 67, 177, 189,
Later Llewellins compared with,
Gladstone's Boy, 72, 200.
Gladstone setters, 12, 13, 15-16, 18.
Gleam, 50, 63, 77, 80.
Gleam blood, 77, 80, 82.
Gleam's Pink, 63-64.
Gleam's Sport, 63-64, 77, 250.
Gleason, Andy, 249.
Glendyne greyhounds, 1 16.
Go Bang, 166.
Godeffroy, Mr., owner of Croxteth,
Gorham's Jing, 32.
Gould, George J., 36.
Gould, Jay, as an illustration of
Gordon Setter Club, 109.
Gordon setters, 12, 14, 20, 105-109.
Bench-show standard for, 307.
Specimens of, 108-109,
Uncertainty of temper of, 183-
Grace, James, 114.
Grace, John, 114, 121, 263.
Graphic, 29, 38.
Gray, George, 100, 189.
Graydon, H. Marshall, 92, 187-188,
Greentick, 115, 116, 120.
Greyhounds, i, 2, 1 10-125.
Breeding-results with, 247.
Food of, 238.
Jack-rabbits and, 115.
Training, 234-235, 238.
Grouse, cockers for hunting, 177.
Guinotte, Judge, 29, 80.
Gun-shyness, 171, 233.
Gus Bondhu, 17.
Guthrie, Mr., promoter of Irish set-
Guyasuta beagles, 148, 151.
Hair, Dr. J. E., lo, 89, 93.
Hal Pointer, 33.
Hall, Dr. Stanley, 184-185.
Harold Skimpole, 190.
Harris, Miles, 137.
Harwick, 67, 79, 190, 191, 193.
Hearst, Mrs., 71.
"Heat" system of judging at field
Heather Donald, 108.
Heather Lad, 108.
Hester Prynne, 71.
Hi Di, loi.
Highland Fleet, 87, 88, 92, 93.
Hope Boru, loi.
Hops, 25, 30-31.
Hornell- Harmony kennels, 145.
Hounds, pure English, 139-142. See
Beagles and Foxhounds.
Hudson, Shelley, 73.
Hudspeth, Mr., foxhounds owned
Hughes, Colonel, pointers imported
Hulman, Mr., organizer of Blue
Ridge Kennel, 250,
Hunt clubs, American, 127.
"Idstone" (Rev. Mr. Pierce), 84.
Dr. Stark's experiments in, 65,
Of foxhounds, 138.
Interstate Championship field trials,
43, 78, 263.
Irish Setter Club, 101-102.
Irish setters, 12, 14, 20, 97-105,
Bench-show standard for, 306.
Irish setters \_cottHmied'\ —
Bench-show winners, 102-104.
Field trial performances, 101-102.
Retrieving by, 157.
Uncertainty of temper of, 183.
Irish water-spaniels, 14, 156, 158,
Bench-show standard for, 310.
Island Boy, 39.
Jack-rabbits and greyhounds, 115.
Jealousy, fault of, 1 73, 232, 288-289,
Jeff (Mason's), 51, 68.
Jester, Mr., owner of "Wild Rake,
Jim o'the Hill, 119, 122.
Jingo, 16, 32, 34, 177, 183, 248.
Late development of, 228-229.
Jingo Boy (Speck's), 39.
Jingo's Light, 32, 183, 207.
Gun-shyness of, 171.
Jingo's Pearl, 32.
Joe Cumming, 77, 264.
Exhibition of "class" by, 216-
Joe Jr., 68, 100, 204.
John (Alford's), 22, 38, 82.
Johnson, Thomas, 34.
Jolly G., 109.
Judging, in coursing greyhounds,
In field trials, 258-264.
July-Birdsong foxhounds, 1 34-138.
Just Eclipsed, 116.
Kate (Armstrong's), 66.
K. C. Kent, 2>?„ 34-
Keene, Foxhall, 10, 129.
Kennels, 235-236. See Packs.
Kennerly, W. C, 245.
Kent Elgin, 33.
Kentucky, beagles in, 149.
Kernochan, Mr., owner of Hemp-
stead pack, 148-149.
King Cyrano, 32, 47, 175, 183.
Quality of "class" in, 218-219.
King Death, 115.
King of Kent, 16, 25, 29, 30-31, 33,
34, 38, 248.
Kingston, death of, caused by bone,
Krueger, A. C, 145.
Ladies, and fox-hunting, 1 30-1 31.
Beagle packs as an attraction
Lad of Bow, 29, 34, 183.
Lad of Jingo, 32, 39, 82.
Lad of Rush, 34.
Lady Cole, 90-91, 246.
Lady Finglas, 102.
Lady Gay Spanker, 36.
Lady Maud Mannering, 171.
Lady May, 249.
Lady Rachel, 71.
Lady's Count, 71.
Lady's Count Gladstone, 59, 71, 79,
Lady Swiveller, 102.
Lane, Charles H., 8, 310.
Lansdowne Malt, 39.
Lass of Bow, 29.
Latrobe, Gen. FerdinandC, 158-160.
Laura B., 103.
Laverack, Edward, 17, 19.
Laverack setters, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18-
19, 55-56, 84-96.
Breeding difficulties, 94-95.
Faults of, 85.
Foundation dogs of Llewellin
Laverack setters \_coiiiinued'\ —
Hunting qualities, 94.
Importance of, in America, 85-86.
Llewellins vs., 95-96.
Size of, 58.
Specimens of, 87-93.
Value of, 19.
Ledbetter, H. B., 77, 81.
Lee, 144, 208.
Lee H, 144.
Lee, Rawdon, 8.
Leicester, 57, 62-63,
Leigh Doane, 104.
Lemon-and-whites (Llewellins), 42.
Gleam line of, 64.
Lill H, 63.
LiUian Russell, 83.
Lily Burges, 250.
Lincoln, 57, 63.
Lit, 65, 68.
Little Boy, 108.
Little Fairy, 247.
Llewellin, Mr., 42.
Llewellin setters, 12, 13, 14, 16-18,
Coloring of, 41-42.
Foundations of, 57-58.
Gladstone compared with later,
Jealousy an attribute of, 232.
Origin of, 54-57.
Pure (so-called), 48-51.
Qualities, mental, 58-59.
Size of, 58, 59.
Specimens of, 55-56, 59-83, 96.
" Straight-bred," 49-51.
Weight (normal), 59.
Lonely, 148, 149.
Lonsdale, Heywood, 34.
Loo n, 103, 204.
Lord Clifton, Ii8.
Lord Lismore, 92, 102-103, 104.
Lord Neversettle, 117, 119.
Lorillard, Pierre, 6, 265.
Lou, I02, 144-145.
Lowe, F. C, 116.
Lowe, H. C, 1 1 6- 1 1 7, 174.
Lucas, J. B. C, 28.
Luck of the Goat, 31, 33-34.
Luse, D. C, 116.
Maclin, Dr., 189.
McDougall, Mr., owner of Tatlah,
MacEachran, Dr., authority on
McKinley, 82-83, 96.
McMurdo, Captain, 25, 31, 32.
Madam Llewellin, 245.
Mad-dog scare, 240.
Madison, P. T., 9, 65, 76.
Maffitt, Charles C, 28.
Magician, 119, 124, 173.
Maiden Mine, 63-64.
Maid of Kent, 31.
Mainspring, 25, 30, 33, 34, lOl.
Malcolm, Harry, 107-108.
Mallory, J. D., 160.
Mallwyd Sirdar, 86, 89.
Manchester Kennel, 250.
Manitoba Derby, the, 8.
Marie's Sport, 22, 52, 59, 67, 77, 81,
Marse Ben, 64, 79-80.
Exhibition of "class" by, 219-
Specimen of inbreeding, 246.
Mason's Jeff, 51, 68.
Master Dennis, 119.
Master McGrath, 255.
Master Peter, 118.
Mather, Charles E., 10, 128, 133.
Maupin, Wash, 134-135.
Meally, 29, 39.
Mecca II, 80.
Medicines for dogs, 236-237.
Meersbrook Bristles, 166.
Melita, 118, 124.
Mellier, Walter, 73.
Mendel's law applied to dogs, 252.
Merrill, Richard, 74.
Meteor, 28, 207-208.
Middlesex Hunt beagles, 148, 152.
Miller's Rab, 119, 120, 173.
Mills, Dr. Wesley, 239.
Miniature foxhounds, 149-150, 155.
Miss Glendyne, 116.
Missouri Field Trial Club, 33.
Miss Ruby, 72.
Miss Rumor, 36.
" Modern Laverack " defined, 14.
Mohawk, 22, 45, 59, 67, 70, 71-72,
76, 80, 83, 203.
Exhibitions of " class " by, 223-
Monk of Furness, 13, 87-88, 90, 94.
Monsoon, 122, 247,
Montreal Hunt Club, 128-129.
Moore, A. H., 103, 205.
Moore, Dr. W. G., 82.
Mortimer, James, lo, 91, 92.
Mulcaster, Edward, 119.
Munson, John W., 28.
Mystic Maid, 119, 247.
Naso of Kippen blood in Jingo's
National Championship Association,
Nebraska Derby, the, 8.
Nellie, 56, 85.
Nesbitt, Mr., handler of Jingo, 32.
Norfolk kennels, 165.
Northern Surprise, 1 19.
Nugget II, 102.
Oakley Hill, 79, 90, 96.
O'Bannon, P. H., 245, 250.
Old Fannie, 51, 68.
Old Moll, 84.
" Old pie " bitches, 249.
Orange-and-whites (Llevvellins), 42.
Value of, in quail-shooting, 47.
Orange beltons, 88.
Orangeman (beagle), 148.
Orangeman (Llevvellin setter), 88.
Orgill, Mr., exhibitor of pointers, 256.
Orthwein, Ralph, 119.
Ortiz Lad, 43, 47.
Osborne Ale, 33.
Ossian, 27, 183.
Oughten, Dr., Gordon setters im-
ported by, 108.
Packs, beagle, 148, 151-154.
Foxhound, 10, 127-129.
Pape pointers, 25.
Parry, Arthur, 145, I46.
Partera, 117, 119.
Partridge shooting, qualities in dogs
essential for, 195.
Paul Bo, 74, 177.
Paul Gladstone, 73.
Pearl's Dot, 28, 31, 249.
Pearl's Fan, 31, 34.
Pease, James, 265.
Pedigree, question of, in choosing
dogs, 1 81-186.
Peep o' Day, 69.
Percival Jingo, 32, 78.
Petrel, 60, 85.
Philadelphia, hunt clubs about, 127.
Pierce, Rev. Mr. (" Idstone "), 84.
Pilot (Dorsey's) 144, 149.
Pin Money, 43.
Plain Sam, 33, 183.
Pointers, I, 12, 16, 24-39, 207-208.
Bench-show standard for, 301.
G. J. Gould's, 36.
Gun-shyness of, 2T,t,.
Pedigree dicta for, 183.
Prairie chicken and, 178-179.
Preferred colors for, 177.
vs. setters, 19-20.
Prairie chicken, field trials on, 263.
Pointers for hunting, 178-179.
Pretender, 118- 119, 122.
Pretti Sing, 76.
Prime Minister, 71.
Prince Bloomfield, 102, 103.
Prince Charlie, 117, 119.
Prince Lucifer, 182.
Prince Lyndon, 78, 81-82.
Prince Rodney, 44, 80, 96.
Exhibition of "class" by, 219-
Princess Alice, 39.
Princess Beatrice, 87.
Princess Kate, 26.
Prince Victor, 104.
Quail (Irish setter), 245.
Quail, field trials on, 263.
Quail \_continued'] —
Setters for hunting, 179.
Quail-shooting, in Canada, 195.
Importance of color of dogs in,
Queen II, 32.
Queen Fan, 29.
Queen's Place Pride, 22, 89.
"Class" quality of, 210-21 1.
Queen Vic, 52.
Quickstitch, 118, 124.
Rabbit dogs, fox terriers as, 165.
Rabbits, annoyance caused trainers
Raccoon hunting, 154-155.
Racket (Cameron's), 145.
Rake (Bergundthal's), 48, 57, 64-65,
Ranger (Macdona's), 66.
Rank (Scudder's), 25.
Rap's Pointer, 39.
Rattler III, 145.
Ready II, 100.
Retrievers, water, i.
Retrieving, fault of, 232, 285-286.
From w^ater, 156.
Revel III, 29.
Rex (Castleman's), 30.
Rhoebe, 31, 42, 56-57, 58, 64.
Richards, trainer, 228.
Riding to hounds, 127, 129-132,
Ringwood, 148, 149.
Rip Rap, 26, 31, ZZ, 34» 35-36, 183,
Ripstone, 31, 183.
Robert le Diable, 27, 36.
Robinson, Charles A., 81, 117-118.
Rock Ridge beagles, 148, 151-152.
Roderigo, 59, 70-71, 182, 201, 202,
Roderigo-Bopeep family, 74.
Rodfield, 45, 59, 69, 74, 76, 182.
Compared vi'ith Gladstone, 202.
Rodfield's Pride (Cov^^ley's), 43, 47,
Rogers, Dr., field trial judge, 176-
Roger Williams, 27.
Roi d'Or, 76.
Roman Athlete, 114.
Romp, 26, 30.
Rose, Dave, 249, 250.
Ross, Major A. J., 37.
Rosseter, J. H., 121.
Rowdy Rod, 31, 248.
Rowett, General, 144.
Royal Crest, 120, 122.
Royal Duke, 108.
Royal Forest, 146.
Royal Krueger, 145.
Royal Prince II, 87.
Royce, Dr. G. I., 116.
Rubber Ankles, 114.
Ruby Glenmore, loi.
Rumney Racket, 89.
Rumney Ranger, 89, 93.
Sacramento Boy, 122.
Sailor, 146, 149.
St. Clair, 114, 118.
St. Lawrence, 118.
St. Louis, duck-shooting about, 157.
St. Louis Kennel Club, 25, 28, 36,
Sally Brass, 35.
Sally Brass II, 29.
Salter, Dr., 26.
Sam (beagle), 144.
Sam (Llewellin's), 50.
Sam, Lord Sefton's (pointer), 26,
Sanborn, David, 61.
Sandor von Inn, 92.
San Francisco, coursing in, 120-122.
Schaefer, Jacob, as an example of
Scotland Yet, 115.
Scudder, Charles W., 97-98.
Sefton-Edge combination, 26.
Selkirk Dan, 96.
Senator P., 35.
Setters, coloring of, 40-45, 177.
Gun-shyness of, 233.
Hunting with, 17, 178, 179.
Qualities of, to be judged, 86.
vs. pointers, 19-20.
See English setters, Gordon set-
ters, Irish setters, Laver-
acks, atid Llewellins.
False pointing by, 1 70-1 71.
Shattuc, General, 9, 206.
Shellhass, Mr., beagles bred by, 145.
Short, Mr., handler of Gath, 201.
Shows. See Bench shows.
Sioux, 59, 71, 221, 264.
Sir Walter, 37.
Sleeping-places for dogs, 235.
Smith, L. H., 60, 85.
Snipe, use of dogs in hunting, 178.
Snipe shooting in Canada, 196.
Somerset kennels (beagles), 145.
Spaniels, quality of companionship,
180. See Cocker spaniels
and Irish water-spaniels.
Sport McAllister, 76.
Sport's Belle, 77, 193-194.
Sport's Boy, 43, 47, 77, 81, 182, 215-
Sport's Destiny, 78.
Sport's Gath, 77, 81, 96.
False pointing by, 171.
Sport's Lady, 78, 182.
Sport's Solomon, 77, 81, 182.
Spot Cash, 63-64, 189.
Spotted Boy, 28.
" Spotting " system of judging at
field trials, 259.
Spring Dot, 218.
Squirrel dogs, fox terriers as, 165.
Stark, Dr., experiments in breeding
by, 65, 245.
Statter, Mr., setters bred by, 56-
Sterling, E. C, 28.
Stevenson, Fred M., 196.
Stewart, Redmond, 128.
"Stonehenge" (Dr. Walsh), 8, 56,
Sue, 65, 72, 201.
Sue H., 90, 92.
Superstitions concerning treatment
of dogs, 239-240.
Sure Shot, 47, 82.
Sylvia, 118, 124.
Tallman, William, 10.
Tam o' Shanter, 90.
Tan markings of Llewellins, 42.
Taylor, Major, 9, 75.
Teasdale-Buckell, Mr., 42, 43, 49,
50, 66, 68, 223.
Temper of setter breeds, 183-184.
Terriers. See Boston terriers attd
The O'Donoghue, i6i.
Thomas, George C, Jr., 89, 96.
Thornfield Knockout, 166.
Thoughtless Beauty, 1 14.
Tiburon, 114, 122.
Tick Boy, 33.
Tillie Boru, 100.
Tim, 102, 103.
Titus, W. W., 245, 249.
Toledo Blade, 75.
Tony Boy, 59, 71. 74. 7^, 182, 248.
Result of inbreeding, 246.
Tony Man, 76.
Tony's Gale, 77, 264.
Topsy's Rod, 67, 248.
Tory Fashion, 190.
Tracy, J. M., 27, 205.
Sketch illustrative of, 280-291.
Training period, duration of, 228.
Trales, the (greyhounds), 1 16.
Trap Jr., 78, 190, 191.
Trigg, Hayden C., 136.
Trigg foxhounds, 134-136.
Trinket's Bang, 31, 34, 183, 248.
Turner, Charles H., 28, 204-209.
Two Spot, 32.
Ulverstone Rap, 89-90.
Uncle B., 79, 191-192.
Updike, trainer, 172, 218.
Vandergrift, Mr., importer and ex-
hibitor, 88-89, 104, 108.
Vandervort's Don, 30.
Van Hummell, Dr. Q., 116.
Varner, William I., 133.
Verdure Clad, 116.
Vicary terriers, 166.
Vic's Vic, 68, 92.
Voorhees, Martin, 1 87-1 J
Waddell, A. C, 65.
Wadsworth, Major, 10, 1 27- 1 28.
Walker foxhounds, 134-135.
Walsh, Dr. (" Stonehenge "), 8, 56,
Warren kennels, 165.
Warwick Nellie, lOi.
Washington, Mr,, kennel of Irish
setters owned by, 100.
Waterloo Cup stake, no, 255.
Water retrievers, i, 2.
Water-spaniels. See Irish water-
Watson, Herbert, 120.
Weems, Mr., experience vi^ith a
daughter of Cincinnatus,
Wenzel, Mr., supporter of Irish
setters, 100, 103.
Westminster Kennel Club, 25.
Wheatley, W. A., 68.
Whippet racing, 125.
White-black-tan, American prefer-
ence for, 41-42, 48.
White Lips, 117, 249.
Whitford, C. B., 205-206, 208-209.
Wildcat hunting, 127.
Wild Rake, 245.
William H., 100.
WiUiams, Col. Roger D., 116.
Wilson, B. F., 61.
Windholz, Mr., modern Laveracks
owned by, 87.
Winged Foot, 122.
Winner's Victoria, 91-92.
Wire-hair terriers, 166.
Woodcock (Laverack setter), 88
Woodcock, in Canada, 196.
Use of dogs in hunting, 178.
Woodson, General, 98-99.
Worms, medicine for, 236.
Wun Lung, 248.
Wyeth, Huston, ■^2'
Young Jingo, 31, 32.
Young Rip Rap, 31, 39, 183.
Yours Truly, 114.
Zig Zag, 31.
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