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v^y / . '^' ^ ••"Hrl^t'^.'O^ 

Compliments of 





Volume VI 






Resolute and Shameock IV 3 


The Tarpok v ... 23 

Fish Facts and Fancies 61 

The Senses of Fish 71 

Salmon Fishing 85 


St. Simon 95 

Man O' War 103 

The King and Queen of the Trotting Track . .115 


The International Polo Cup 135 

The Polo Season of 1922 . 147 


Foxhounds and their Handling, by Lord Henry 
Bentmck 163 




WHEN Sir Thomas Lipton challenged for 
the third time for the America's Cup in 
1913, he stipulated that the competing 
yachts "shall not exceed 75 feet on the water- 
line and that the best three out of five races 
shall decide the issue/' 

This challenge was rejected by the N. Y. 
Y. C, and Sir Thomas was informed in 
plain words that any stipulation on his part 
would bar the way to a race for the Cup. 

On April 18th, Sir Thomas sent an uncon- 
ditional challenge without any stipulation 
as to the size of the defending yacht, but 
stated that the challenger would be a 75 

This challenge was eventually accepted 
for a series of races in September, 1914, 
and it was understood that the rule requir- 
ing a yacht "to rate at the highest limit of 


her class in certain cases shall not apply 
to this match." 

During the negotiations Sir Thomas 
wrote: "I appreciate the grounds on which 
the N. Y. Y. C. desires to keep alive the 
right to defend with a yacht of greater 
length than the challenger, but am convin- 
ced that the right is so opposed to the best 
interests of this important international 
event that it will not be exercised." 

In September, 1913, a 75-foot "defender" 
was ordered by a N. Y. Y. C. syndicate. 
The designer and builder selected was Na- 
thaniel G. Herreshoff . 

Mr. Robert W. Emmons, 2nd, was ap- 
pointed manager with Mr. Charles Francis 
Adams at the wheel and Captain Chris. 
Christiansen as professional assistant. This 
vessel was named "Resolute." 

In October Mr. Alexander S. Cochran 
gave William Gardner an order to design 
a trial yacht of a like length. This vessel 
was built at Lawley's yard in Boston, was 
christened "Vanitie," and was sailed at firsrt 


by Captain Dennis, who resigned after a 
few races and Captain Harry Haff took 

A third vessel, "Defiance" by name, was 
designed by George Owen for a Philadelphia 
syndicate, and was built in Maine. 

The underbody of Resolute was of man- 
ganese bronze. Above the waterline she 
was of light steel construction, single 
riveted. Her decks were of aluminum, and 
she had a thin bronze blade of a centre- 
board. She drew normally 13 feet 8/4 
inches, and, with the board down, 22 feet. 

Vanitie was of much stronger construc- 
tion, being double riveted throughout, and 
was built of manganese bronze, and the first 
season was unpainted but polished. She 
also had a centre-board. 

Defiance was built of wood. 

It was soon apparent that Herreshoff 
had designed the smallest vessel and that 
the time she would be allowed depended 
upon her headsails, for Resolute had a for- 
ward and an after step for her mast. In 


the former case she had a short bowsprit 
and carried a single headsail. In the lat- 
ter, a longer bowsprit and a double head- 
rig. She eventually adopted the latter 

During the season of 1914 a number of 
trial races were sailed by these three vessels. 
Although Resolute won the majority of 
these races, it was often by a very small 

Defiance did not win a race, and retired 
on July 23rd. 

On August 16th Shamrock IV, accom- 
panied by s.y. Erin, arrived in New York 
Harbor, and, owing to the War, was hauled 
out in South Brooklyn with her underbody 
hidden by canvas. 

Resolute and Vanitie were put in commis- 
sion in 1915. This caused adverse criticism 
in England, for it was thought there that, 
as the challenger had to remain idle owing 
to the war, the American vessels should do 

During the season of 1915 Vanitie was 


sailed by Commodore C. Vanderbilt with 
Captain Christiansen in attendance. 

The two yachts sailed a number of trial 
races, and also joined the N. Y. Y. C- cruise. 

In the run from Xew London to New- 
port Vanitie distinguished herself, for carry- 
ing a club-topsail in a strong breeze she 
outsailed the fleet. Resolute was disabled, 
and many of the large schooners did not 
face Point Judith. 

During the racing of these two seasons 
Resolute had been well managed and very 
well sailed, but Vanitie, a beautiful vessel 
to look at, had suffered from changes of 
management as well as changes of skippers. 

It was believed by many yachtsmen that 
her true form had not been seen, and it 
was thought that she could be greatly im- 

8 sport on land and water 

Trial Races 1914 

Jwne 2 Long Island Sound, 



Vanitie won by 



3 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 



6 Long Island Sound, 

Vanitie won by 



10 Sandy Hook, 

Resolute won by 



11 Sandy Hook, 

Resolute won by 



12 San,dy Hook, 

Resolute won by 



23 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 



25 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 



26 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 



July 8 Newport, 

Resolute won by 



10 Newport, 

Resolute won by 




18 Newport, 

Resolute won by 0. 53 

31 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 23. 17 

Aug. 1 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 5. 35 

4 Newport, 

Resolute won by 2. 21 

5 Block Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 5. 19 

Tkial Races 1915 m. s. 

July 3 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 4. 48 

5 Long Island Sound, 

Vanitie won by 3. 05 

6 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 2. 25 

10 Long Island Sound, 

Resolute won by 4. 48 

13 Sandy Hook, 

Resolute won by 5. 27 

14 Sandy Hook, 

Resolute won by 0. 52 


15 Sandy Hook, 

Resolute won by 



27 Newport, 

Resolute won by 



Aug. 5 Newport, 

Resolute won by 



6 Buzzard's Bay, 

Vanitie won by 



7 Massachusetts Bay, 

Resolute won by 



10 Massachusetts Bay, 

Resolute won by 



There were also a number of races in 
which one or the other did not finish, also 
several races of Resolute vs. Defiance and 
Vanitie vs. Defiance. 

In October, 1919, Sir Thomas Lipton re- 
newed his challenge, which was accepted, 
and July 15, 1920, named as the date for 
the first race. 

Shamrock IV was taken to Jacob's yard 
at City Island for a thorough overhauling. 
Designed by Nicholson and built of three 


thicknesses of mahogany, she was of the 
lightest construction yet elastic and strong. 
Some alterations were also made to her hull. 

It was the first time that the critics could 
see her underbody, and they were not im- 
pressed by her beauty of line. 

Mr. Cochran presented Vanitie to the 
Cup Committee, and they placed her in the 
hands of Rear Commander George Nichols, 
who sailed her cleverly during the trial 
races of 1920. 

Vanitie's rail was cut away from about 
two-thirds way aft to lighten her and free 
her decks, and later on the rail was removed 
from stem to stern. Her centre-board was 
also altered so as to throw the weight more 

The first trial race between Resolute and 
Vanitie was sailed in Long Island Sound on 
May 22. Resolute, when in the lead, car- 
ried away her mast. 

The yachts were then taken to Newport, 
where they sailed eleven races in which both 
yachts finished; 


m. s. 



won by 

5. 39 



3. 16 



33. 07 



1. 00 



0. 54 



0. 57 



4. 02 



3. 49 



0. 14 



1. 07 



0. 42 

Vanitie allowed Resolute 1 m. 8 sees. 

On June 26 the Committee selected Res- 
olute to defend the Cup, and Commodore 
Nichols was appointed navigating officer. 

The boat with the slightly better record 
had been chosen. The issue had always been 
in doubt until the yachts were over the finish 
line, and correction for time allowance had 
been made. 

Each leg of every course was considered 
by the Committee. The outcome showed 


a slight advantage in favor of Resolute. 

The Committee had to consider that the 
management and sailing of Resolute had 
been nearly perfection, and that Mr. Adams 
had sailed the yacht during three seasons 
and knew her every whim. 

Shamrock IV had been easily outsaihng 
Shamrock III off Sandy Hook, the latter 
having arrived from England to act as a 
tuning-up trial vessel. 

Mr. William P. Burton, the amateur 
skipper of the challenger, was at a great dis- 
advantage, for he was sailing a yacht that 
he knew little about. 

Measurements of Cup Yachts 

Resolute Shamrock IV 

Sail area 
8775 sq. ft. 10,459.4 sq. ft. 

Length over all 
106.34 ft. 110.39 ft. 

Length water line 
74.97 ft. 75 ft. 


Quarter beam length penalty 
1.23 ft. 3.97 ft. 

Racing length 
76.20 ft. 78.97 ft. 


3650 cubic ft. 3879 cubic ft. 

Draught penalty 

0.58 ft. 
Rating measurement 
83.5 ft. 84.4 ft. 

Shamrock IV allows Resolute 7 min. 1 
sec. Resolute was painted white and Sham- 
rock IV light green. 

During the races the yachts experienced 
e%^ery kind of weather — dead calm, heavy 
wind, thunder squalls, rain, and fog. 

The first race was on July 15th. Res- 
olute, when nearly 4 mins. in the lead, and 
just before rounding the outer mark, parted 
her throat halliards, which spread the jaws 
of her gaff, and she retired from the race. 

This action on her part was commented 
upon, for being in the lead and having over 


7 mins. allowance, it was thought by many 
that she should have endeavored to finish 
the race down wind. 

Her managers, however, were probably 
wise, for having discovered that they had 
the better vessel to windward, it was better 
to take no risks with damaged masthead 

It was said later that Shamrock IV had 
sprung her bowsprit. 

Twenty minutes after the start of this 
race, I felt convinced that barring accidents 
the Cup was safe, for Resolute not only 
outpointed her rival, but was also a trifle 
quicker in stays. 

The second start was unsuccessful, for, 
after sailing two sides of the triangle in 
baffling, light winds, the race was declared 

This race was resailed on June 20th. 
There was very little windward work as the 
wind shifted. Shamrock won by 2 min. 26 
sees. Shamrock covered the course in 9 
mins. 27 sees, better actual time. 


Third Race, Mh Start, 15 miles to wind- 
ward and return. 

This race was a deadheat as far as actual 
time is concerned. Both the yachts sailed 
over the course in the identical time. Res- 
olute winning on her time allowance of 7 
mins. 1 sec. 

This was a race that was full of interest. 

The two boats crossed the starting line 
on the starboard tack, Shamrock to wind- 
ward and 19 sees, in the lead. Shamrock 
came about immediately, and in a few min- 
utes Resolute followed. This put Burton 
well in the lead with a free wind, and left 
the course open to him to point further off 
the wind than Resolute in an effort to realize 
what it is believed to have been the designers' 
object when he planned the challenger, that 
is, to be able to sail much faster than usual 
by sailing a little off the wind, and so to 
sail around the defender. 

For nine and a half miles they both held 
this port tack. Shamrock sailing faster but 
Resolute pointing higher. 


When Shamrock came about, the yachts 
were about a mile apart. As the two yachts 
approached one another, although Sham- 
rock had the right of way, she could not 
force Resolute to come about, so tacked and 
stood in shore again slightly in the lead. 

As they approached the New Jersey coast 
Shamrock came about and Resolute fol- 
lowed. The yachts were now together with 
the defender on the weather side. Then 
followed a great fight for a free wind, both 
yachts feinting and tacking back and forth. 
In half an hour they tacked twenty times. 
Each time they tacked, Shamrock, picking 
up her speed more slowly than Resolute, 
lost time. 

When the two boats started for the turn- 
ing stake. Shamrock was 400 yards astern. 
Following the same course for seven and 
one half miles with identical sail, Shamrock 
had overhauled only about 30 yards of Res- 
olute's lead when thej^ rounded the stake. 
She was 2 mins. 6 sees, behind, and, being 
slow in changing sails, lost more time. 


She footed faster down the wind owing 
to her greater sail area, and, finally blanket- 
ing and then passing Resolute, finished 19 
sees, ahead, making the race a dead heat 
in actual time. 

The next time the yachts went to the 
start there was a 36 mile gale blowing from 
the southwest and the race was called off 
by mutual consent. 

This was greatly criticised by the arm- 
chair yachtsmen, who could not understand 
that the modern racing yachts, without rails 
or protection for the sailors, are not safe 
conveyances in a thrash to windward in a 
gale of wind and a rough sea. It was the 
danger to human life, not the question as 
to whether the yachts could withstand the 
punishment, that caused the race to be called 

Then followed two unfinished races, owing 
to lack of wind. 

The fourth race on July 23rd, over a tri- 
angular course, was won by Resolute by 
9 mins. 58 sees, corrected time. Shamrock 


having been reineasured with a shorter top- 
mast now allowed 6 mins. 40 sees. 

The fifth race, on July 27th, — 15 miles to 
windward and return, — was won by Reso- 
lute in 19 min. 45 sees,, and the thirteenth 
defense of the America's Cup became yacht- 
ing history. 

Great credit was due to Mr. Adams for 
the masterly way he had handled Resolute. 
Following in the footsteps of his forefathers, 
who had sailed the Ship of State through 
much rough water, he had added to the 
laurels of an illustrious name. 


American Cup Races, 1920 

Resolute versus Shamrock IV 

1st Race July 15 30 miles to windward 

and return. Sham- 
rock IV won. Reso- 
lute disabled. 

2nd '' " 20 Triangular course — 

Shamrock won by 2 
mins. 26 sees. 

3rd " " 21 30 miles to windward 

and return. Reso- 
lute won by 7 min. 
1 sec. 

Uh " ** 23 Triangular course — 

Resolute won by 9 
min. 58 sees. 

5ih " " 27 30 miles to windward 

and return. Reso- 
lute won by 19 min. 
45 sees. 



{Tarpon A tlanticus) 

THIS game fish has the local names of 
Tarpon, Tarpum, Grand Ecaille, Savalo, 
Sabalo, Savanilla, Savalle, Silver Fish, and 
Silver King. 

He belongs to the family of Elopidea, 
and is the largest of the herring tribe. His 
habitat at sea is in the warm waters of the 
Atlantic Ocean and of the Gulf Stream. 
He is found along the coasts of Brazil and 
Central America, as well as among the is- 
lands of the West Indies and also along the 
gulf coast of Mexico. In the summer time 
tarpon are numerous all around the Gulf 
of Mexico and on the east coast of Florida. 

A few fish have been known to appear in 
midsummer as far north as the New Eng- 
land coast. I have seen several in the New 



York Aquarium that had been taken in nets 
in New York Bay. In the summer of 1919, 
I saw a fine specimen that was caught in a 
net in Narragansett Bay near Newport. 

Little is known of the habits of the tarpon 
when in the open sea. I never met them at 
sea but once, and that was in the month of 
February along the edge of the Gulf Stream 
off New River Inlet. On that occasion I 
sailed through a large school on the surface 
swimming south. 

Tarpon are often taken in the nets off 
Hillsboro Inlet, which is not far from where 
I met them. 

They arrive among the Keys of lower 
Florida in smaU schools of an average weight 
in February, and from then on their num- 
bers increase until midsimmaer. These 
schools of fish dwell in Bahia Hondo, Mat- 
ecumbe Sound and other channels for a few 
days before working their way into the 
Gulf of Mexico. If a Norther blows they 
go to sea, and return later. Other fish enter 
the rivers of the east coast of Florida. 







The building of the East Coast Railway 
greatly disturbed their customs, for many 
of the fairways they were in the habit of 
journeying through were closed by trestles 
and viaducts. At that time schools of fish 
appeared in Biscayan Bay, and many were 
taken off the mouth of Arch Creek. These 
fish were evidently looking for a passage 
through to the west coast, having found their 
usual route further south barred by the 

On the west coast tarpon are to be found 
in Shark, Harney, Broad, Turner's and 
Losman's rivers, and among the Thousand 
Islands. In Surveyor's Creek, Estero, and 
the Caloosahatchee River, also in the Passes 
that divide the outer islands such as Captiva 
and Boca Grande, and up along the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

These fish are supposed to return south in 
early November, but many remain in the 
deep holes of the rivers during the winter 
and do not show unless the water is at least 
as warm as 68 degrees. 


Where these fish come from is not known, 
but they appear to arrive from the West 
Indies via the Gulf Stream. 

There is another migration up the west 
side of the Gulf that appears to come from 
the rivers of Mexico. They begin to arrive 
at Aransas Pass in March. 

It is not known where they spawn. Some 
people believe it happens at sea but, from 
what I have seen, I believe they spawn in 
brackish water at the headwaters of streams, 
or at the head of the tide, for it is there only 
that you find small fish. 

Fifteen miles up rivers in Cuba I have 
taken large tarpon that were evidently spent 
fish, not only from their appearance but be- 
cause they had little strength. It is pos- 
sible they also spawn on the flats and sand- 
bars inside the outer islands. 

Tarpon are very susceptible to the cold, 
and love warm water. When in the rivers 
and not looking for food they will lie on 
the bottom, coming up from time to time for 
a mouthful of air and then retiring to their 


resting place, after which air-bubbles will 
arise to the surface. 

It is this action that makes the natives in- 
sist that these fish have lungs and use them 
for breathing. Then again they will lie on 
the bottom for hours as other fish do, with 
little or no motion of the fins. 

I once saw quite a school of large tarpon 
lying on the bottom in the Los Angeles 
River in the Isle of Pines. They took 
no notice of the launch, although we 
passed over them twice in seven feet of clear 

I once caught a bab^^ tarpon five inches 
long in a gill net in New Kiver. He was 
badly gilled, yet lived all day in a tub. He 
did not act as other fish do, but allowed me 
to stroke him gently and, tarpon-like, 
showed no fear. From time to time he 
would rise to the surface as the large fish 
do in the rivers, then go to the bottom of 
the tub again, and in a moment the bubbles 
would slowly issue from his mouth. 

The long lower jaw of the tarpon shows 


that he is a bottom feeder, and lives on crabs ; 
yet he also feeds on school fish such as mul- 
let, needle fish, and the like. 

Although the tarpon's mouth is as hard 
as stone, there is a very sensitive cuticle that 
covers the roof of the mouth. When you 
see a tarpon in a river jump you may be 
sure that a crab has nipped this cuticle. 
When they jump in the sea it may be done 
to get rid of ramoras. 

I believe that the tarpon not only come to 
the rivers of Florida in the spring and early 
summer for the purpose of spawning, but 
that like the salmon they return to the same 
river as a rule, and that many fish remain in 
deep holes in the rivers throughout the 

This belief is based on the fact that in 
the late 80's and early 90's there were many 
tarpon to be found in the Peace River. 
During the freeze in 1894 many himdreds 
of tarpon were killed by the cold in this 
stream. The banks were lined with dead 
fish of the largest kind. Since that time, 


few tarpon are to be found in the Peace 

I was in Florida at the time of the "Big 
Freeze," hving in a houseboat on the St. 
Lucie River. The mercury went to 18 de- 
grees, and the river water steamed and 
smoked. It was not the cold that directly 
killed the fish, but the cold seemed to have 
consumed the oxygen in the water, for the 
fish died from asphyxiation. 

For two hundred miles both shores of the 
shallow Indian River were banked with 
dead fish, mostly so-called surface feeders 
such as snook, bluefish, and the like. The 
bottom fish did not seem to be affected. 

I saw many bluefish of five pounds flop- 
ping along on the surface, but no mullet. 
These wise fish went to sea in schools the day 
before the !N'orther arrived. 

We picked up nineteen green turtles that 
were benumbed by the cold and floating 
on the surface. These turtles were stacked 
on the lower deck of the houseboat and 
revived much to the consternation of the 


crew, although they were compensated for 
their troubles the following day when they 
disposed of the turtles at Fort Pierce for 

I have fished for tarpon in the St. Lucie 
River in midwinter. For days you would 
not see any fish but if you waited until after 
a few days of hot sun had warmed the water 
to 68 degrees they would begin to roll and 
show themselves and would then take live 
silver mullet bait. 

It took me some time to find out how to 
keep mullet alive, for if you put them into a 
well in a boat they bruise their noses against 
the sides of the well and die. 

I procured oat bags and laced barrel 
hoops around them on the outside. I then 
ran drawing strings around the mouths of 
the bags. After placing half a dozen live 
mullet, taken by cast-net, in each of several 
bags I practised with them to find out in 
what depth of water the mullet were most 
comfortable. I then tied the bags to the 
roots of trees along the bank of the stretch 


of river I proposed to fish. In this manner 
I always had fresh, live bait at my con- 
venient disposal. 

I found the new moon was the best day 
of the month to fish. One winter, on the 
new moon in January, I took a 187-pound 
tarpon; and on the following new moon, in 
February, I landed a fish weighing 165 

This fishing was done from a row boat; 
but in later years and since the advent of the 
Wilson spoon I have fished in a small launch. 
A live bait behind a launch soon dies and re- 
volves like a pin-wheel which destroys one's 
line, but the Wilson spoon skitters and does 
not revolve in the water. 

Tarpon are greatly attracted by this 
spoon, and it has been a blessing to me in 
Cuba where no mullet were to be had. 

I built two fishing yachts, the Savalo and 
the Kona, for tarpon fishing in Cuba, and 
fished there almost every winter from 1904 
to 1920. 

I have cruised from Nipe Bay to the 


westward around Cape San Antonio and 
as far as Cienfuegos on the south coast, and 
also to the Isle of Pines 60 miles south of 

Tarpon are to be found in certain rivers 
in Cuba at all times of the year. I say 
certain rivers, for the tarpon is a clean fish 
and does not favor muddy water. The soil 
of Cuba is red and rich, so that the streams 
that drain the cultivated lands are mostly 
muddy; in such rivers no tarpon are to be 

There are large swamps in Cuba, and the 
rivers that drain these swamps run clear. 
It is in these rivers that the most fish are to 
be found. 

The Rio Negro and Jatibonico drain over 
one hundred square miles of swamp, and in 
these rivers the tarpon abound. 

The Damuji Hiver is also a river of fairly 
clear water, and at times there is good fish- 
ing there. 

These rivers are all on the south coast of 


Cuba. On the north coast a small river 
with a long name, the Zaraguanacan, is 
often full of tarpon. 

The fish do not seem to go above the tide. 
The limit of the mangroves, which do not 
grow along the fresh water, seems to be the 
limit of the tarpon from what I have seen, 
yet Mr. Zane Grey says he found tarpon 
one hundred miles up the Panuco River in 

The fish do not run as large as at some 
places in Florida, although I have taken fish 
of 130 pounds in weight and have lost 
heavier ones. The headwaters of the rivers 
abound in small fish. I have at times seen 
hundreds of tarpon that would weigh from 
10 to 15 pounds and have taken them four 
inches long. 

On one occasion I found a narrow stretch 
of the Jatibonico Kiver simply alive with 
15-pound tarpon. I landed U in an hour's 
fishing and must have "jumped" 25 more 
fish. At another time and in another river 


I "jumped" 52 large tarpon in three days' 
fishing of the flood tides. 

My fishing journal tells me that I landed 
254 tarpon in Cuba, which means that I must 
have hooked over 1,000 fish, for it is not 
possible to save more than one hooked tar- 
pon out of five fish hung on a Wilson spoon. 
The weight of the spoon helps the fish to 
free himself. 

I invariably turned the hooked fish loose 
unless they were damaged. They some- 
times bruise their gills in jumping and bleed 
profusely. In such cases the fish will not 
live if liberated. 

The natives of Cuba spear tarpon and I 
am sorry to say net the small ones. Both 
there and in Mexico the fish are eaten fresh 
as well as salted. 

My method of fishing in Cuba has been 
trolling a large sized Wilson spoon with 
sixty feet of line over the stern of a small 
launch. The launch travels at the rate of 
four miles an hour. If a fish is hooked in 
a wide part of the river I have the launch 


circle the fish. It is easy to land a 100- 
pouiid tarpon in 8 minutes by this method 
if you understand fighting fish. 

If a fish is hooked in a narrow stream it 
is necessary to keep the boat away from the 
fish until he is well spent. In narrow 
streams you lose many fish for they jump 
into the overhanging branches of the man- 
grove trees which line the banks and tumble 
back into the water leaving your tackle en- 
tangled among the branches. 

The Cauto on the south coast is the only 
river in Cuba that is navigable. The 
other streams are often from eight to ten 
feet deep, excepting where they flow into 
the sea ; here you will find wide bars with but 
four feet of water. 

It is a delight to fish in these rivers in 
winter for there are no sharks to rob you of 
your fish nor any insects of any kind except- 
ing a few mosquitoes at sunset if your yacht 
happens to be five or, ten miles up a river 
and moored to the windward bank. The 
rivers are lined with mangroves and dotted 


here and there along the banks with royal 
palms, the most beautiful of trees. 

Of this tree Davis wrote: "The royal 
palm is the characteristic feature of the land- 
scape in Cuba. It is the most beautiful of 
all palms and possibly the most beautiful of 
trees. The cocoanut palm, picturesque as 
it is, has a pathetic resemblance to a shabby 
feather duster and its trunk bends and 
twists as though it had not the strength to 
push its way through the air and to hold it- 
self erect. But the royal palm shoots up 
boldly from the earth with the grace and 
symmetry of a marble column." 

At sunset the small white cranes and 
egrets fly upstream to their roosts. They 
flit along close to the surface of the river 
and it is amusing to watch the tarpon rise 
at their shadows as they fly by. 

There is a pond of brackish water on Pine 
Island, Florida, which has no outlet to the 
sea and contains many quite small tarpon. 
The spawn must have been dropped by 
birds or carried to the pond on the backs of 


alligators. Owing to the poor food these 
fish do not increase in size. 

I do not take any interest in fishing for 
tarpon with so-called light tackle. I believe 
a 15-thread line is quite light enough and 
that the * 'punishment should fit the crime.'* 
In other words the charm of heavy fishing 
is being "up against" a big fish and landing 
him as quickly and as humanely as possible. 
The chief pleasure is the give and take be- 
tween man and fish. 

The theory that fish are cold-blooded crea- 
tures and therefore do not suffer is all very 
well as a theory but I never want any fish 
to dangle at the end of my line and even- 
tually commit suicide. 

What anglers mean when they tell stories 
of fighting a salmon for an hour or longer 
is beyond me. Any salmon up to 45 pounds 
in weight ought to be killed in twenty min- 
utes even with light grilse tackle if the angler 
knows how to fish. 

Fishing with a 16-ounce grilse rod I once 
rose, hooked, landed and weighed in 50 min- 


utes, five salmon that weighed 128 pounds. 
This was not done with, intent but in the 
regular course of fishing. 

What I do believe in is fishing for tarpon 
with a plain reel without any drag. The 
science of tarpon fishing was lost when the 
reel drag was invented. It came about in 
the following manner : 

The science of sea fishing was first de- 
veloped along the Atlantic seaboard in the 
early 60's and the Striped Bass {Roccus 
lineatus) was the interesting fish which 
started this development. 

The multiplying reels and Cuttyhunk 
twisted linen lines were invented for this 
purpose, it being discovered that these fish 
were too quick for the old single action reels 
and that the braided cotton lines were not 
strong enough to hold these active, agile 

The method of fishing was casting a bait 
into the white tumbling surf from the rocks 
or from stands built for that purpose. 

The three jointed rods of ash or lance- 


wood used at first were later abandoned for 
two-piece rods of Japan or Calcutta bam- 
boo, and these rods were later developed into 
the two-piece split bamboos with guides and 
tips of agate of the present day. 

The reels had no drag but were supplied 
with a musical click of small value. Later 
on in the 80's a light drag was placed on the 
left side of the reel for tarpon fishing, to 
prevent the line from over-running in case 
of carelessness. 

The first tarpon fishermen were old bass 
fishermen who had learned the trick of play- 
ing heavy fish with rod and reel and they all 
fished with the right thumb on the reel as it 
had been their custom so to fish when casting. 

A few of us took up tarpon fishing with- 
out ever having done much bass fishing and 
we fished with the left thumbs on the reels 
and pumped the fish with our right hands. 

This method had a great advantage for 
the right hand was always free, away from 
the reel handle and out of danger, yet always 
ready to reel in the slack. 


The man who attempted to cheek a fish 
with his right thumb on the reel and then 
reel in the slack with his right hand was 
always in danger of the back lash of the 
reel handle. 

E. H. Vom Hofe, the celebrated tackle 
manufacturer, was one of the first and most 
successful tarpon fishermen, and, being an 
expert bass fisherman as well, always fished 
with his right thumb on the reel. 

We often discussed the two ways of fish- 
ing and I could not persuade him that my 
way was right and his way was wrong until 
one day as he was playing a heavy fish at 
Captiva Pass the reel handle broke his right 

The Rabbeth drag had already been in- 
vented but was taboo according to the Tuna 
Club Rules, so Vom Hofe sat up nights un- 
til he had perfected the reel drag as we know 
it to-day. 

He showed it to me and I had the first 
reel made with the new invention. He 
described it to me at the time as a "reel with 


which a man can fish who has no thumbs 
at all." (1902.) 

Later on the B -Ocean reel was adopted 
by Mr. Boschen, the greatest fisherman of 
all time, with a free running spool and sta- 
tionary handle for heavy sword-fishing, for 
this fish takes sudden dives of two hundred 
feet and more and if you cannot quickly 
free the line your rod is pulled out of your 
hands or broken. 

The tackle as it exists to-day is capable 
of holding and landing a 1,000-pound game 
fish and the reels will hold 1,200-feet of 24- 
thread line. 

The drag is necessary for swordfish, 
marlin, and giant tuna, for you cannot fight 
such heavy fish for four and more hours with 
thumb pressure only, but for tarpon and 
tuna up to 200 pounds in weight thumb pres- 
sure is quite sufficient and much more sports- 

I killed five tuna that weighed 491 pounds 
in six hours with a plain reel and have 
landed very many tarpon weighing from 187 


pounds down without any reel drag, so I 
write of my own personal experience. 

With the invention of the reel drag the 
science of tarpon fishing received a coup de 
grace. It is no longer fishing but "coffee 
grinding" and the fish have no chance what- 

I have seen men at Boca Grande block 
the line at the first jump of a tarpon, start 
the launch engine and tow the fish ashore 
with his mouth wide open. 

That is not fishing; it is murder! 

Tarpon can readily be killed on light 
tackle, only it takes more line and more 
time and the rod enjoys most of the 

With light tackle you must follow the fish, 
with heavy tackle the fish comes to you. 
As hooked tarpon always float with the tide 
or current it is at times hard work, but when 
you hear of a fisherman who has been an 
hour or more killing a tarpon you may be 
quite certain he has been trying to pull the 
heavy fish against the tide. 


The Light Tackle Club at Aransas Pass 
died a natural death, for many members 
have told me they gave up going there be- 
cause they wearied of light tackle yet did 
not like to go back to the only real sport, 
heavy tackle. 

Mr. L. G. Murphy holds the Aransas Pass 
record for light tackle, a tarpon 6 feet 9/4 
inches long. 

At Catalina Island a marlin of 185 
pounds and a tuna weighing 145/4 pounds 
have been landed with light tackle by Mr. 
Jump. This is done by setting the drag 
at the proper tension so that a long run of 
the fish will not break the line. The angler 
holds the handle of the reel which works but 
one way when the drag is on. The fish 
takes the line from the reel with the set drag 
and the fisherman reels in the slack when he 
can get it. It takes skill, time, and patience 
but to me it does not give the satisfaction of 
being "up against" a big fish. 

If the advocates of light tackle for tarpon 
would go back to the plain reel instead I 


can promise them plenty of exercise and 

I am greatly interested in all fish and have 
a real affection for the tarpon. He is a 
gentleman among fishes. He is not in the 
least afraid of man or boat and when once 
hooked does not attempt to run away or 
take advantage of his great strength. 

His one idea is to get rid of the hook 
which annoys him and he will jump clear of 
the surface many times and attempt to free 
himself. If these tactics fail he will then 
swim close up to the boat, raise himself out 
of the water and shake his head. It is then 
that he is usually lost. 

He is the grandest and most beautiful 
silver fish that swims and he has the best 
manners of any of the denizens of the deep, 
for he avoids all snags, stumps, or obstruc- 
tions in a river when hooked and never takes 
advantage of the fisherman but fights 

I have the greatest admiration for this 
Silver King of sea fishes. 

the tarpon 45 

Methods of Tarpon Fishing 

The first tarpon were taken bottom fish- 
ing. It was the custom to anchor the boat 
at some chosen spot that was frequented 
by the fish and then to chum with pieces of 
cut mullet. Two hooks baited with the 
better part of a mullet on each hook were 
cast out. The angler watched one rod and 
his guide took charge of the other. 

I always took pains that my rod pointed 
towards the spot where my bait lay so that 
when the latter was picked up the line would 
run free from the reel. The fish was 
allowed to take fifty feet of line before strik- 
ing because a tarpon will pick up a bait and 
move off with it in his mouth before gorg- 
ing it. 

The theory that loose line must be coiled 
in the bottom of the boat was for novices 
that could not pick up a rod without check- 
ing the fish. 

Tarpon that have gorged the bait, unless 


hooked in a vital spot, fight much harder 
than those that are hooked in the mouth. 

The drawback to bottom fishing was that 
the fish were all destroyed and could not be 
set free. 

The snoods were made of deerskin or cot- 
ton cord partly for the reason that wire is 
stiff and the fish would drop such a bait and 
also that if a shark picked up the bait he 
would bite through the snood and free him- 

I always used the snoods made of three 
strands of fine wire twisted. They were not 
so easily seen, were pliable arid took more 
fish, besides I enjoyed playing the mackerel 
shark for they are great jumpers and s-trong 

When the Van Vleck hook was invented 
the general method of fishing changed. It 
had been discovered that when trolling the 
greater part of the fish were hooked over the 
incisors which are very large in the tarpon 
and that the fish would jump and throw the 
hook. Mr. Van Vleck had hooks made with 


the belly nearer the point of the hook, which 
made it more difficult for the fish to get rid 
of the hook when jumping. 

I say this hook was invented, yet I have 
seen in the Naples Museum, the very same 
hook found in Pompeii (destroyed a. d. 
79) and probably used for trolling for tun- 

We then either trolled for tarpon or an- 
chored in strong tideways in the Passes with 
a strip of mullet for bait and with one hun- 
dred feet of wet line. When a tarpon was 
hooked your guide would throw the buoyed 
anchor rope overboard and you would follow 
the fish. Having your anchor buoyed saved 
time and it also gave you a reserved position 
to return to. 

When Mr. Mygatt discovered Boca 
Grande as a fishing possibility (1898), 
owing to the great depth of water there 
drift fishing was adopted. 

The leader used is of heavy strong piano 
wire six feet in length and at the upper or 
rod end of the leader a sinker is fastened 


to the swivel or ring with a light piece of 
string. The hook is baited with a live blue 
crab or a strip of mullet. The launch goes 
under power to the entrance to the Pass and 
drifts in with the tide. The fisherman keeps 
the hook off the bottom, in other words 
slowly trolls the bait close to the bottom 
where the tarpon lie. 

As the depth of water changes, the length 
of line is changed. If you hook a fish his 
first jump frees the sinker. The drawback 
to this fishing is that the sharks are numer- 
ous and steal the hooked fish. 

To my mind this is the most uninteresting 
form of tarpon fishing, for to hook a fish 
near the bottom in 60 feet of water does not 
give the same sensation as travelling along 
at four miles an hour and hooking near the 
surface, a fish that immediately leaps in 
the air. A tarpon will also jump twice 
as often in 8 feet of water. 

I have seen forty or more boats drifting 
fairly close together at Boca Grande on a 
moonlit night and consternation caused 


among them by the sudden jumping of two 
or three large hooked fish. 

It is a popular and lazy form of sport 
where fish are plentiful, and as the tarpon 
is an elusive fish and difficult to find, Boca 
Grande is much frequented for the fish are 
known to be there in numbers. 

To me the great charm of tarpon fishing 
is to hunt for the fish and find them, which 
you can do in rivers as they often swim 
along the surface, or if lying on the bottom 
come up from time to time for air. 

Fish hooked in the mouth can readily 
be set free. Your guide is provided with a 
large barbless release-hook which he inserts 
in the fish's jaw and then removes the fish- 
hook with his gloved hand. 

The season for tarpon fishing in Florida 
is from the month of May to October. 

At Aransas Pass, Texas, they fish in the 
Gulf outside the jetties with live or dead 
silver mullet. The drawbacks are the rough 
water and the numerous sharks. June and 
October are the best months. 


When I was in Tampico, Mexico, the 
method of fishing was trolling a dead silver 
mullet behind a tow boat. We fished at the 
jetties seven miles below the town or ten 
miles up the Panuco River above Tampico. 
There is also a Laguna that contains small 
tarpon. Owing to the trade wind, after- 
noon fishing is difficult. The best months 
are February and March. 

In the Panama Zone, the fishing is done 
from the shore below the spillway of the 
Gatun Dam. The method of fishing is with 
the fly and the season is from May to 
November. If the Canal had no locks the 
tarpon would now be in the Pacific as well as 
in the Atlantic Ocean. 


When going seafishing I always choose 
from the new to the full moon, for fish feed 
at night when there is a moon, and are there- 
fore less hungry than after dark nights. 


This does not apply to Boca Grande 
where the moon is necessary for night fish- 

The days of the changes of the moon, 
especially the first day of the new moon, 
are the best days during the month for tar- 
pon fishing. The probable reason for this 
is that the tides are high and strong at such 
times, which means more food or more in- 
clination to feed, for the new moon increases 
the activity of all fish. 

When on a fishing trip I never dry my 
lines. Salt water preserves linen lines and 
a wet line is stronger than a dry one. The 
lines must be thoroughly dried indoors at the 
end of a fishing trip. Never dry lines in 
the sun or wind for they are fatal. Lines 
used in fresh water must be dried daily. 

After a day's fishing unreel the hne and 
reel it on again with care. This is done to 
take the strain off the reel-drum and to pre- 
vent the reel from spreading. 

Split bamboo rods are the only rods that 


are strong and durable enough for heavy 
fishing. For ease and comfort fish with a 
rod that is not over six inches longer than 
you are tall. Long rods are back breakers. 

When I first visited Catalina Island in 
1900 I broke at the butt, a defective 6 ft. 
9 in. rod, which, when repaired, was 6 ft. 
5 in. long. With this rod I killed 13 tuna 
that weighed 1,411 pounds in fourteen days 
and discovered the advantage of a short rod. 
I now fish with split-bamboo rods in one 
piece, tip and butt all in one, 6 ft. 5 in. long. 

'My success at Catahna in 1900 was the 
cause of the Tuna Club Rules. The Secre- 
tary of the Club informed me as I was leav- 
ing the island that they had desired that an 
experienced tarpon fisherman should try the 
tuna but that they were disappointed with 
my "great success!" 

The Tuna Club Rules followed. They 
were quite right to limit the size and strength 
of lines but an angler should be allowed to 
choose his own length of rod. It takes 
better hands to fish with a short stiff rod than 


with a long pliable one and in heavy fishing 
comfort and ease is the desideratum. 
If the insects are bad use: 


Oils of Camphor, Cedar and Citronella 
in equal parts. For the bites of insects Pine 
Oil is the best palliative. If subject to sun- 
burn **Face Paint" is an absolutely sure 
preventative. It makes one look like a Red 
Indian but it is pleasant to use and no sun 
has the slightest effect on skin covered with 
this mixture. 

Prescription for Face Paint to Prevent 

3 oz. Yellow Ochre 
2 oz. Burnt Sienna 

4 oz. Mucilage of Quince or Flax Seed, 

or bandohne, Rosewater, to make one 
pint. Shake well before using. 

Put in a large-mouthed bottle and apply 
with absorbent cotton and when nearly dry, 
spread evenly over the face with the fingers. 

54 sport on land and water 


As far as my personal knowledge is con- 
cerned the first tarpon was landed with rod 
and reel by Mr. W. H. Wood on March 
25th, 1885, bottom fishing in Surveyors' 
Creek, Florida. Mr. Wood's great ambi- 
tion was to land a tarpon while fishing from 
the shore or beach. 

I know of over a dozen fish that have been 
taken that weighed 200 pounds or more. 

The first was landed by Mrs. Stagg and 
weighed, I believe, 205 pounds. 

Edward Vom Hofe's fish followed on 
April 30, 1898, 210 pounds at Captiva Pass, 

N. M. George took one of 213 pounds 
at Bahia Honda, Florida, on April 8th, 

Dr. Howe wrote me from Mexico that he 
had captured a 223-pound tarpon at Tam- 

The largest tarpon I ever saw was caught 


off Tea Table Key, Florida, on May 15th, 
1904. I was told that it weighed 224 
pounds. Charlie Thompson, a professional 
fisherman, was the lucky angler. 

W. A. McLaren holds the record for a 
fish taken in the Panuco River, Mexico, on 
March 27th, 1911. Length 7 ft. 8 ins.; 
girth 47 ins. Weight 232 pounds. 

Mrs. W. Ashby Jones caught a tarpon 
in the Caloosahatchee River, Florida, in 
1916, that weighed 210 pounds. 

Mr. B. W. Crowninshield has a record of 
25 tarpon taken between sunrise and sun- 
set at Boca Grande and I believe Mr. L. 
G. Murphy has a like record at Aransas 

The greatest fishing I ever heard of was 
done by Mr. and Mrs. Magill on a cruise 
along the west coast of Florida in 1915. 
They captured 176 tarpon that weighed 
16,377 poimds. The heaviest fish weighed 
196 J pounds, eleven weighed over 180 and 
forty over 150 pounds each. 



There were 785 tarpon weighed at 
Useppa Island in 1917 and but 23 of them 
weighed over 150 pounds. 

At Aransas Pass, Texas, the following 
fish were liberated after being measured: 

1906. . 



. 1,333 


. . 700 

Beginning of light tackle 


. 720 



. 800 

49% on light tackle 


. 718 

66% " " 


. . 530 

64% " " 


. . 960 

78% " " 

The falling off between 1907 and 1908 
was partly owing to the introduction of 
light tackle but also to the extension of the 
jetties which made the channel dangerous 
and rough. 

In the 90's the tarpon that were weighed 
would average about 100 pounds but of 
late years the average has fallen to about 
80 pounds. This would lead one to believe 


that the number of heavy fish is decreasing. 

I beheve that the tarpon of over 150 
pounds in weight are of great age and that 
they grow very slowly. I judge this from 
the fact that they are dainty feeders, for 
there is very little undigested food found in 
them when examined. 

Several thousand fish have been destroyed 
yearly for over twenty-five years and 
although it is now the custom to liberate 
most of the hooked fish many of these tired 
tarpon become the victims of piratical sharks 
and those that are taken in nets are usually 
destroyed by the fishermen owing to the 
damage they do to the nets. 



"THE chief motive and jumping power of 
a fish is in its tail, which, as it hits the water, 
straightens out the curving body and shoots 
it forward, allowing the pectoral and ventral 
fins to strike flat with their full power. 
The caudal, dorsal, and anal fins have 
steering functions to perform, while the 
pectoral and ventral pairs of fins are chiefly 
intended for balancing purposes." 

"Fish would be unable to navigate on an 
even keel without these horizonal fins, for 
the centre of gravity of most fish is toward 
the head or dorsal side." 

"To help matters, a fish is supplied with 
an air-sack, which renders it bulk for bulk 
about the same weight as the water it dis- 

Some fish like cold water and seldom leave 
it, while other fish, the tarpon for example, 



are uncomfortable if the water, is below 

The salmon, after first leaving its birth- 
place, being a square -tailed fish and there- 
fore a bottom feeder, passes its Hfe, when 
not on spawning bent, in the deep sea. 

According to the scientists, the bulk of 
sea water is relatively cold, for heat rays 
are quite lost at about 250 fathoms, so that 
even in the tropics the upper stratum of 
warmish water is comparatively thin. The 
ooze dredged from the floor of the tropical 
ocean is said to be too cold to handle with 
comfort. This is caused by the northerly 
creep of the cold waters of the Antarctic. 

At the surface there is an automatic 
regulation. When the temperature rises 
there is increased evaporation which checks 
the rapidity of the rise ; and if the tempera- 
ture is lowered a blanket of water vapour 
forms which checks the rapidity of the fall. 

According to Sir John Murray, at the 
depth of 50 fathoms it is probable that the 
temperature of sea water does not change 


2° F. at any one place throughout the year. 

In the great depths, the temperature of 
sea water is at freezing point (32° F.) at 
all times. 

It is supposed that salmon dwell in the 
depths, hut it is not known how deep the 
water is or, therefore, what temperature 
they are accustomed to. 

The few fish that have been taken on 
trawls south of Newfoundland, and also 
many miles off the coast in the Pacific, are 
supposed to have been journeying or stray 

When the salmon arrive in the rivers of 
Eastern Canada in the late spring or early 
summer, the river water is from 38-48° F., 
but in early July I have tested the water 
temperature in the Grand Cascapedia River 
and found it to be as high as 70° F. (1921) . 

This great change of water temperature 
makes the fish listless, and it is not to be 
wondered at that under such circumstances 
the salmon can with difficulty be enticed to 


One of the peculiarities of the salmon is 
that it is one of the few fish that is not only 
comfortable in both salt and fresh water, 
but can also probably stand a water tem- 
perature that varies from the freezing point 
to 70° F. 

Most other sea fish that at times frequent 
rivers do not ascend above the head of the 
tide, but the salmon, sea trout, and shad go 
into fresh water, although the yearly visits 
of the latter are of short duration, for they 
return to the sea at once after spawning. 

Some of the Atlantic salmon remain in 
the Canadian rivers all winter and return 
to the sea in the spring as kelts, while ail 
Pacific salmon are supposed to perish in the 
rivers after spawning. Whether this is a 
wise provision of nature in order to prevent 
the salmon from increasing beyond their 
food supply in the sea is a question, but it 
is more probable that as the snow melts in 
the mountains the waters fall and the fish 
are unable to return to the sea from the 
spawning beds. 


It is not known how the salmon find their 
natal rivers when they return to fresh water 
on spawning bent, but we have proof that 
they do so, for every salmon river has its 
distinctive type of fish. 

At the breeding establishment at Stor- 
montfield on the Tay, large numbers of 
smolts, which had been marked by the re- 
moval of the adipose fin, were taken as grilse 
on their return from the sea. 

We seldom take salmon under 17 pounds 
in weight in the Grand Cascapedia, but last 
season there was a run of 8 and 9 pound fish 
of a type quite different from the native 

These were evidently fish from a smaller 
stream that had been prevented from enter- 
ing their natal river owing to a log- jam or 
other obstruction. 

The last two seasons had been years of 
low water conditions, and in some rivers a 
two years accumulation of logs was floated 
down on the high water in 1922. 

The salmon in the Upsalquitch, which is 


an affluent of the Ristagouche River, aver- 
age from 7 to 8 pounds, whereas the Rista- 
gouche fish are double that in weight, aver- 
aging 18 pounds. 

The former river was stocked for a 
number of years with the fry of the main 
stream, in an attempt to increase the size 
of the Upsalquitch sahnon, but it made no 
difference in the weight of the latter nor 
was there any evidence that the fish ever 

Salmon prefer rapidly running rivers be- 
cause the waters that tumble down rapids 
and over rocks and stones contain more 
oxygen than do the waters of leisurely nm- 
ning streams. 

In the days when the river Loire in 
France was frequented by salmon, it was 
noticed that the fish entered the left branches 
of the river, the waters of which hurry 
down through the valleys from the central 
plateau, but none were found in the streams 
that flow slowly into the Loire from the 
plain on the right bank. 


421/2-30-30 pounds 


It was evidently the quality of the water 
that they sought, water that was replete with 

Professor Jordan says that * 'salmon are 
'geared' to the river to which they are 
native," and that fry should not be liberated 
except in streams to which they are geared. 

It may be possible that they are geared 
to the amount of oxygen in the water that 
is grateful to them, as well as to the short 
or to the long and weary journey to the 
head-waters of their native river. 



IT is not surprising that the Germans are 
not known as a race of anglers, for the 
somnolent carp is their national fish, and 
the salmon of the Rhine are not supposed 
to rise to a fly. They do, however, enjoy 
trout fishing in the streams of the Black 
Forest and at other places, and a few good 
books have been written by Dr. Heintz ^ 
and others on the gentle art in fresh water. 

What interests me most is that several 
German scientists have studied fish in a most 
intimate and thorough manner. They have 
examined thousands of Rhine salmon and 
they are the chief authority for the belief 
that salmon do not feed in fresh water. 

Fish are monocular and see a different 
picture with each eye. The outer surface 
of a fish's eye is flat to prevent injury in 

1 Der Angelsport im Silsswasser, by Karl Heintz. 



the water and to avoid unnecessary friction 
in swimming. 

The most interesting diflPerence between 
the human eye and the eye of a fish is that 
the normal eye of a human being when in 
repose is set at farsight and must be f ocussed 
in order to see an object that is near by. 
Fish, on the contrary, are normally near- 
sighted, and their normal vision is set in 
repose at about 3 feet. In order to see at 
a distance the eye mechanism must be 
employed, and it is believed that they then 
cannot see more than 30 feet under the best 
conditions of strong light and clear water. 

If the water is at all cloudy their vision 
is affected as the human sight is by a heavy 

Beams of light are broken as they enter 
the water so that a fish does not see objects 
above the surface of the water where they 
are but higher up. For example, a man 
walking along the bank of a stream appears 
to the fish to be walking in the air. All 
objects above the surface of the water 


appear to the fish to be swimming in the 

A fish lying on the bottom of a stream 
has double the horizon that the human eye 
controls when looking down into the water. 
A fish, therefore, can see the angler long 
before it can be seen by the angler, and has 
time to scurry away. 

Professor Hess has made some interest- 
ing studies of the effect of different colored 
light-beams on the eyesight of fish, and has 
come to the conclusion that most fish are 
totally color-blind. 

He claims that fish see colors as a totally 
color-blind person does. Red to them 
looks black, white is the lightest shade, 
green is light grey, yellow and blue are dark 

If this is a fact, the multicolored salmon 
and trout flies, so interesting to look at and 
toy with, would be just as effective if tied 
with black, white, and grey feathers only. 

Although fish have no outer or middle 
ear, they have an inner ear, or so-called 


labyrinth. Three canals run in circles from 
this labyrinth. It contains the hearing 
stones (Asterisciis) , and, with the canals, is 
full of fluid. 

The circles have to do with the stability 
of the fish, for if they are severed the fish 
wobble about in the water. 

Fish do not hear as we know hearing, but 
are sensitive to strong sound waves on the 
water, and especially to those made under 

For example, you may strike two stones 
together in the air without moving a fish 
but if you repeat the action below the sur- 
face you will frighten all the fish within 
a wide radius. 

Dr. Kreidel made the following experi- 
ment at Kloster Kremsmiinster, where the 
fish in a pond had for many years been daily 
assembled to be fed by the ringing of a 
bell. Kreidel had the bell rung from a 
distance by electricity without any move- 
ment of the bell itself, and not a fish ap- 


proached. He then removed the clapper 
and had the guardian toll the bell. 
Although there was no sound the fish ap- 
peared in scores, attracted by the moving 
bell and by the guardian. 

This seems to prove that fish "hear" 
strong waves of sound that jar the waters 
but do not hear different tones. They 
"hear" all movements on the bank of a 
stream, all the jarring sounds or noises in 
a boat or canoe, but do not hear the human 

Some fish have the so-called "power" of 
changing their color to suit their environ- 
ment and for other reasons. This power is 
known as the chromatic function, and is sup- 
posed to be as automatic as is a maiden's 

It is influenced through the eyes by the 
sympathetic nerves, and is usually used for 

If you place a light-colored flounder on 
a dark bottom it will gradually adapt its 


color to its surroundings, and even become 
mottled if the bottom is covered with light- 
colored stones. 

A totally blind salmon becomes black in 
color and one that is blind in one eye be- 
comes black on the opposite side of the 
blind eye. The latter happens because the 
nerves of the eyes cross one another. The 
blind eyes, having lost their sympathetic 
power, are no longer charmed by the light 
and the color of the fish suffers. 

The dark-colored back of a salmon is to 
protect it from its enemies in the air, while 
its silver sides and underbody prevent its 
enemies in the sea from readily seeing it 
against the brilliantly reflected light from 

A fresh run channel-bass is quite light in 
color but soon becomes a dark bronze in 
brackish water, while the blue-green back of 
a tarpon becomes almost black, and it then 
is known as a black fish and one that will 
not take a bait. 


Some fish become much more briUiant in 
color at spawning time, which is for the 
purpose of attracting the opposite sex. 

After spawning the sahnon lose their 
bright coats and become, through weakness 
and lack of nourishment, dark and slimy 
kelts. If they remain in the river all winter 
they do not regain their beauty until just 
before they return to the sea in the Spring. 

Some fish have a stronger sense of smell 
than others. It is most strongly developed 
in sharks, although they are not true fishes. 
They forage by night, have very small eyes, 
and rely greatly on their powers of scent, 
but most fish hunt their food by sight. 

I have a great belief in the strong scent- 
ing powers of salmon which I have tested 
by occasional "doped" fly fishing. 

One day last season, when the water was 
rising and the river was very dirty, I took 
in five hours five salmon that averaged 29 
pounds, with a doped fly. 

Another day, with salmon all about, I 


could not rise a fish. In the afternoon I 
doped a fly and took three good fish, all of 
which were foul hooked in the "nose"! 

This does not prove anything beyond the 
fact that the fish did not object to the scent, 
for you cannot be certain that it attracts 
them unless you can plainly see the fish you 
are angling for. 

If a salmon rises short, and you scent the 
fly, and the fish does not return, it may 
mean that it has changed its position and 
moved up stream as they often do, or if after 
scenting the fly you hook a fish, it is never 
certain that it is the identical fish that rose 

If you can plainly see the salmon, as 
sometimes happens, and having exhausted 
every effort to move it you then try the dope 
with success, it should mean that it is the 
scent that was the added attraction. 

A fellow angler has written to me on this 

*'I thought you might like to hear my 


experience with the 'magic oil' ^ you were 
kind enough to tell me about last Spring. 
I used it during the first part of the season 
with very good success. After the water 
became very low and clear it did not seem 
to work, nor did any of our other salmon 
flies do much. I had one or two very 
curious experiences with this oil. One day 
I was casting into a pool and saw a fine 
fish. I cast over him several times but he 
took no notice of the fly. I then poured a 
few drops of the oil on to my fly. Some of 
these fell into the water and passed directly 
over where the fish lay. He came up im- 
mediately to the top just as if he wanted to 
smell of the oil and the next time the fly 
went over him he took it. This happened 
to me three or four times with fish that I 
was unable to get up without the oil. I 
believe that when the water conditions are 
good the oil is helpful and brings up fish that 
might otherwise stay down. 

"I entirely agree with you in regard to 

1 Oil of Rhodium. 


the usefulness of magic oil in high and 
cloudy water. One experience of mine I 
forgot to mention in my last letter. We 
had a big rain early in June and the water 
was milk white. It did not seem worth 
while going down to fish, but as I had noth- 
ing to do I thought I would try it and put 
on some of the magic oil to see if the smell 
would attract them, even if they could not 
see the fly much. At my first cast I hooked 
and killed a nice fish and afterwards lost 
two others. As I was fishing with a moder- 
ate sized fly, I think it very doubtful 
whether the fish would have seen the fly at 
all. I did not see them until they had taken 
the fly. In low and very clear water, 
especially when the temperature of the 
water is high, I doubt if anything but a dry 
fly will get the fish up. At such times the 
ordinary salmon flies do not appear to be 
attractive, and I have even seen fish leave a 
pool to get awajr from them." 

Scent is much more quickly diffused in 




the air than in the water, yet it is readily 
carried by running water. 

When casting, the salmon fly describes 
almost a half circle, so that the scent of a 
doped fly covers a wide area of the pool, 
yet when fishing with a scented fly for a 
fish that can readily be seen it is wise to 
"'troutfish" by casting directly above the 

Fish are apparently intended to smell, for 
many fish have in place of the usual pair of 
nostrils two pairs of external openings, one 
placed above the other. 

Water is drawn into these small pockets, 
which are lined with delicate membranes and 
brought into contact with the nerves of 

Their method of smelhng differs from 
that of air-breathing animals who, owing to 
the air-tube system of smelling, have the 
power to sniff in pleasant odors or snuff out 
those that are unpleasant. 

By drawing air in through the nostrils 


they can increase the pleasant sensation or 
by expelling the air avoid bad odors. 

Some fish have no nostril pockets, the 
nerves being directed into external proc- 

The salmon has a lateral line which ex- 
tends from the tail to the head and ends in 
small dots or pores. 

This line consists of fine tubes that are 
full of fluid, and are connected through 
minute holes in the scales by fine nerves with 
the so-called side-nerves of the fish. 

With this mechanism a fish is enabled to 
judge the water pressure and know the 
direction and the strength of the current, 
and also when it is approaching an obstruc- 
tion in the river. 

It also enables the fish in the dark to find 
the branches of the river or the brooks it may 
be looking for. 



THE reason we know so little about salmon 
is because, even in a river, it is so seldom 
that we can see their movements. 

When angling for trout you can more or 
less rely upon their appetite, and often may 
fish for them when they are feeding, but as 
it is supposed that salmon do not need food 
when in a river you have to depend upon 
their whims and fancies. 

The fact seems to be that they are most 
likely to take when the river begins to rise, 
and the lucky moments are shortened or 
lengthened by the rapidity of the rise. The 
quicker the rise, the shorter those lucky 
moments are. 

The most propitious time to take salmon 
is when the river has cleared after a rise and 
begins to fall; for the rise of water having 
enticed the fish to move up stream, those 



that take are most probably newcomers in 
the pool which have not settled down at their 
new station. 

There is nothing more tiresome than the 
monotony of casting the full length of a 
long pool, or the full length of a long day, 
without rising a fish. It becomes mechan- 
ical boredom as all expectation departs, but 
the single rise of a fish renews one's anticipa- 
tion and banishes all sense of weary toil. 

If a fish is hooked there is a feeling of 
satisfaction and pleasure that cannot be 
described, for the supreme moment in 
salmon fishing is the hooking of a fish. 

Until I had taken a few salmon I could 
not understand the story of the Scotch noble- 
man, who after hooking a salmon always 
handed the rod to his gillie with the request 
that he should kill the fish, and after this 
had been accomplished resumed fishing. 

The hooked salmon is a poor general, for 
he usually does most things that are to his 
disadvantage. A hooked tarpon always 
takes advantage of the current or tide, but 


the salmon, unless foul-hooked, usually goes 
up stream, in which case he must fight the 
force of the stream as well as the restraint 
of the rod. 

That a salmon should desire to go towards 
the spawning beds is a pleasant thought, 
but why should the fisherman be invited to 
go there also? 

When you take into consideration that a 
forty-pound salmon can be easily killed in 
a rapid running river in twenty minutes 
with light grilse tackle that pulls but a few 
pounds, and consider what a 10-pound bone- 
fish might do under the same conditions, 
you wonder at the lack of determination of 
the salmon. 

The reason for this seems impossible to 
fathom, for the 40-pound Pacific salmon I 
have taken in salt water at Campbell River, 
V. I. are very hard fighting fish that would 
utterly destroy my Cascapedia tackle. 

The current in Discovery Strait is heavy 
and strong, and I have seen anglers fishing 
with stout salmon rods travel two miles on 


the tide with the tips of their rods in the 
water most of the time before they could 
stop the strong fish, and seldom avoid losing 
all their line or breaking their tackle in the 

This would lead one to believe that it must 
be the change from salt to fresh water, or 
else the change of water temperature, that 
affects the energy and fighting powers of 
the fresh-run Atlantic sahnon, or perhaps 
although not "too proud," they may be too 
fat to fight. 

A 20-pound salmon is usually a better 
fighter than the heavier fish, for they do not 
fight according to their weight. The live- 
liest fish and the one that gave me the best 
sport weighed but 10 pounds. 

I am aware that all this is piscatorial 
sacrilege, and that the salmon to most 
anglers is the gamest of game fishes, but, as 
they generally graduate into salmon fisher- 
men from troutfishing, the larger fish nat- 
urally impress them greatly. 

My opinion is, after all, the opinion of 


but one fisherman and he a sea-fisherman 
who, having fished the seven seas and ex- 
perienced the thrills of battle with most of 
the giants of the deep, as old age approaches 
has taken up the more gentle art of salmon 

Salmon fishing is the best sport that can 
be enjoyed in fresh water, and the life on 
a Canadian river is a continual joy. 

The fascinating play of light on the run- 
ning waters, the music of which is so pleas- 
ant to the ear, the contrast of the fresh light- 
green foliage of the deciduous trees and the 
dark shadowy branches of the hemlocks, 
the bright blue of the Northern sky, and the 
life-giving purity of the air, become deeply 
engraven on the angler's memory, and once 
enjoyed are never forgotten. 


Club Waters Grand Cascapedia River 


Six Rods 

413 Salmon = 8478 pounds. 
2 " over 40 pounds. 
55 " 30 pounds and over. 
113 " 17 " " under. 

Heaviest fish, 42J pounds. 
Average,, 20J pounds. 

My Fishing 1922 
75 Salmon =1553 pounds 
49 " 20 pounds and over 
10 " 30 
Heaviest fish, 42J pounds. 
Average, 20.72 pounds. 



Cascapedia Club Water Grand Cascapedia River 

7 Rods 









40 and over 














































. 27 




































1 8 and under 




Total weight 




Average weight 






IN July, 1883, owing to the death of Prince 
Batthyany, his horses were sent up to be 
sold at auction. 

Matthew Dawson bought the two-year- 
old St. Simon by Galopin~St. Angela for 
the Duke of Portland for sixteen hundred 
guineas, and although the colt's engage- 
ments were void owing to the death of the 
owner and breeder he was probably the 
cheapest horse ever sold. 

As a two-year-old he won the Halnaker 
and the Morton Stakes at Goodwood, the 
Devonshire Nursery at Derby, the Prince 
of Wales Stake at Doncaster, and a match 
against the Duke of Westminster's colt 
Duke of Richmond. 

The following year, 1884, he won the 
Epsom Cup and the Ascot Gold Cup, beat- 
ing Tristan twenty lengths. The latter 



then won the Hardwick Stakes, which means 
that the dead-heat for the Derby that year 
would have been a dead-heat for second 
place if St, Simon had been eligible to start. 
He then won the Trial Match, beating 
Tristan again. 

It was never known how good a horse St. 
Simon really was, for he won his races with 
ease and was never beaten. 

He was retired to the stud at the end of 
his three-year-old form in full vigor of 

He stood for one season at Heath House, 
Newmarket, at 50 guineas, and twenty 
Xnares were bred to him. He then was 
sent to Welbeck, and was in the stud from 
1886-1907, and his stud fee was increased as 
his sons and daughters won brackets until 
it reached 500 guineas in 1899. 

During his life as a stallion he covered 
740 mares, 578 of which were pronounced in 
foal. The greatest number of mares that 
he served in one season was 47. 

As his get appeared on the turf it seemed 


as if he were creating a special type of 
thoroughbreds, just as Stockwell had done 
thirty years earher. 

They were high-class, short-backed horses 
with a deal of daylight under them. His 
early colts were of this type, but many of his 
early fillies were remarkable for magnificent 
sloping quarters, and many of them were 
not in the least on the leg. St. Simon him- 
self stood 16 hands 1 inch. 

The get of St. Simon also inherited the 
extraordinary vitality of the Galopin strain. 

There could hardly have been a greater 
contrast than his sons Persimmon and St. 
Frusquin. The former was fully three 
inches taller and the latter a smaller horse 
all over. 

I saw Persimmon, carrying a 3 fb. penalty 
for having won the Derby, beaten at New- 
market in 1896 by St. Frusquin by a head 
in the Princess of Wales Stakes, and asked 
the handicapper who stood beside me, *' What 
weight would bring those two horses to- 
gether?" and he replied, "Three pounds!" 


It is estimated that, making full allow- 
ance for the Duke of Portland's mares that 
were mated with him, St. Simon's earn- 
ings in the stud during his twenty-two years 
as a stallion amounted to $1,250,000. 

He was the premier stallion of England 
from 1891-96 and again in 1900 and 

It has been calculated that while he was 
in the stud his sons and daughters won 

Up to 1891, with the exception of Flori- 
zel II, he sired great fillies only, but later on 
the colt type improved both in looks and 

In 1896 his son St. Frusquin won the 
2,000 Guineas, and Persimmon won the 
Derby and St. Leger. 

He sired the winners of two Two Thou- 
sand Guineas, St. Frusquin and Diamond 

Four winners of the One Thousand were 
daughters of his; SemoUna, La Fleche, 
Amiable, and Winifreda. 



The Derby was won by Persimmon and 
Diamond Jubilee. 

The Oaks distinguished him five times 
with Memoir, La Fle.che, Mrs. Butterwick, 
Amiable, and La Roche. 

He was also the sire of four winners of 
the St. Leger — two fillies, Memoir and La 
Fleche, and two colts. Persimmon and 
Diamond Jubilee. 

This is a record that has no equal on the 
British turf. 



MAN O' WAR by Fair Play-Mahubah 
was foaled at the August Belmont stud 
farm in Kentucky in 1917, and was sold at 
Saratoga as a yearling to Mr. Samuel D. 
Riddle of Glen Riddle, Pa., for $5,000. 

Mr. Belmont sold all his yearlings that 
year at auction, and had greatly desired to 
retain this beautiful colt, but decided at the 
last moment that if he did so it might inter- 
fere with the sale. 

Man O' War is a chestnut with a star and 
slight stripe on his forehead. He is a level- 
built beautiful horse to look at, and as a 
three-year-old was a giant in strength and 
full of quality. 

Some good judges thought he was a 
trifle too long in the back and too wide across 
the chest, but my personal opinion was that 



it would be difficult to improve his looks. 

If you study his pedigree you will find 
that he is a wellbred, but hardly a fashion- 
ably-bred horse. Merry Hampton is rather 
a blot in his pedigree; but in the fifth re- 
move you will find the stout blood of 
Galopin twice, first through Fair Play's 
granddam by Gaillard and again through 
Rock Sand's dam by St. Simon. 

Macgregor, who won the Two Thousand 
in 1870, and broke down just before the 
Derby, had a good reputation; and Under- 
hand was said to be a very good horse. 

Rocksand was a great money winner, win- 
ing $250,848 on the turf, but he was a good 
horse in a very poor year, which was well 
proven when he was badly beaten by Ard 
Patrick and Sceptre in the Eclipse Stakes 
in 1903. 

The direct male is better; and Man 
O' War gets his color through Spendthrift 
and Fair Play, very good horses and both 

Man O' War cannot be registered in the 

MAN O' WAR 105 

English stud book owing to the mare Aero- 
lite. She was the dam of the three great 
American racehorses Spendthrift, Fellow- 
craft, and Rutherford; and she was also the 
sister of that good horse Idlewild. This is 
quite good enough for America, but there 
are several mares in the remote crosses of 
Aerolite's pedigree that cannot be traced in 
the book, for they end in the **woods." 

Aerolite was by Lexington-Florine by 
Glencoe. The best of American breeding. 

Descent of Man O' War in Direct 
Male Line 

Godolphin Arabian, 1724, bay. 
Cade, 1734, bay. 
Match'em, 1748, bay. 
Conductor, 1767, bay. 
Trumpator, 1782, black. 
Sorcerer, 1796, black. 
Comus, 1809, chestnut. 
Humphrey Clinker, 1822, bay. 
Melbourne, 1834, brown. 


West Australian, 1850, bay. 
Australian, 1857, bay. 
Spendthrift, 1876, chestnut. 
Hastings, 1893, brown. 
Fair Play, 1905, chestnut. 
Man O' War, 1917, chestnut. 

Descent of Man O' War in Direct 
Maternal Line 

Mr. Layton's Violet Barb Mare. 

Daughter, by Dodsworth. 

Trumpet's Dam, by Place's White Turk. 

Daughter, by Brimmer. 

Brown Farewell, 1710, by Makeless. 

Sister to Guy, 1722, by Greyhound. 

Bay Bloody Buttocks, 1729, bay, by 
Bloody Buttocks. 

Spinster (Widdrington's), 1735 chest- 
nut, by Partner. 

Spinster (Leedes's), 1743, gray, by Crab. 

Daughter, 1751, by Janus. 

Daughter, 1758, by Skim. 

Expectation, 1779, gray, by Herod. 

MAN O' WAR 107 

Anticipation, 1802, chestnut, by Dening- 

IManiac, 1806, chestnut, by Shuttle. 
Harriet, 1816, chestnut, by Stripling. 
Daughter, 1835, bay, by St. Nicholas. 
The Slayer's Daughter, 1843, black, by 

Daughter, 1863, by Underhand. 
Mizpah, 1880, bay, by Macgregor. 
Merry Token, 1891, bay, by Merry 

Mahubah, 1910, bay, by Rock Sand. 
Man O' War, 1917, chestnut, by Fair 


As a two-year-old, Man O' War started 
ten times and was defeated, owing to a poor 
ride, in one race, the Sanford Memorial at 
Saratoga. He was pocketed in this race, 
and was beaten half a length by Upset to 
whom he gave 15 pounds. 

He won the Keene Memorial, Youthful, 
Hudson, Tremont, United States Hotel, 
Grand Union, Hopeful, and Futurity 


Stakes and $83,325 in money, and finished 
the season with a great reputation. 

As a three-year-old he won eleven races 
and $166,140, and was not beaten during the 
season. He was extended but once when 
giving John P. Grier 18 pounds in the 
Dwyer Stakes, but eventually won the race 
under a drive by two lengths. 

He won the Preakness, Withers, Belmont, 
Stuyvesant Handicap, Dwyer, Miller, Tra- 
vers, Realization, Jockey Club Stakes, Poto- 
mac Handicap, and the Kenilworth Cup in 

His total winnings in two years were: 

He was trained by Mr. Feustel and 
ridden by Kummer, Loftus, and Shuttin- 

He was hailed the champion race horse of 
all times, yet he had not met a really good 
horse in his two years racing career, for John 
P. Grier, though a fast horse, could not 
stay, and when he met Sir Barton the latter 

MAN O' WAR 109 

was no longer the champion he had been in 

In the Potomac Handicap he gave Wild- 
air 30 pomids and a beating, which was 
probably his best performance, for the track 
was heavy and he carried 138 pounds. 

His reputation as a racehorse depends 
entirely on having beaten the watch which 
he did on several occasions. 

When he won the Withers on June 12th, 
he ran the mile in 1.35f with 118 pounds 
up. This was a record at the weight as 
well as a record for one mile in a race. 

In the Belmont, carrying 126 pounds, he 
ran the mile and three-eighths in 2. 14 J, the 
same time as was made by Sir Barton the 
previous year and at the same weight. 

When he beat Jolm P. Grier in the Dwyer 
Stakes he ran the first half in 46 a record, 
the three quarters in 1.09f, the mile in 
1.36. These were also records at the weight, 
126 pounds. 

In the Travers at Saratoga he ran the 


mile in 1.35f, and the mile and a quarter 
in 2.01|. This was never beaten except 
by the disputed time of Whiskbroom of 2 
minutes flat in 1913. 

He ran the Jockey Club Ij miles in 
2.28f and the Realization If miles in 
2.40f, and in the Stuyvesant Handicap 
gave Yellow Hand 32 pounds and a beat- 

It was a great pity that he did not meet 
the reliable Exterminator in the Saratoga 
Cup, and that he was not raced in America 
as a four-year-old or sent to England to win 
the Ascot Cup, for turf history can now 
never explain how really great a horse he 

He had proved that he was a game horse 
and that he could carry weight, but competi- 
tion alone decides the worth and stamina 
of the racehorse, and he really was never 
asked the question. 

He goes down to history as a "riddle 
horse" in more than one sense. 

Those sportsmen who believe in the time 

MAN O' WAR 111 

test will always contend that Man O' War 
was the best horse that ever ran. Those 
who do not believe in the watch will always 
consider Luke Blackburne, Hindoo, Han- 
over, Salvator, and Sysonby greater race- 
horses than Man O' War. 



Uhlan 1.58 

Worlds Champion Trotter, 1912-1921 
First Two-Minute Trotter in the Open 
BLACK gelding, foaled 1904; feather in 
forehead, left front coronet and both hind 
pasterns white; height, 15^ hands. Bred 
by Mr. Arthur H. Parker, Bedford, Mass.; 
passed, August, 1907, to Mr. Charles 
Sanders, Salem, Mass. ; from whom he was 
purchased by Mr. C. K. G. Billings, 
September, 1909. 

Sire, Bingen 2.06|, sire also of Lucile 
Bingen 2.03|, Admiral Dewey 2.04|, Sis 
Bing 2.06J, The Leading Lady, 3, 2.07, 
Bingen Silk, 3, 2.07J, J. Malcolm Forbes, 
4, 2.08 and 250 other standard performers; 



of the dams of Lee Axworthy 1.58| 
(champion trotting stallion), Straight Sail 
2.04|, Hollyrood Bob, 3, 2.04|, Arion 
McKinney 2.05J, King Watts 2.05^, and 
over 120 other standard performers. 
Bingen, by May King 2.20, son of Elec- 
tioneer 125, son of Hambletonian 10; dam, 
Yomig Miss (dam of six standard per- 
formers), by Young Jim 2009, son of 
George Wilkes 2.22, son of Hambletonian 
10 (Note: Bingen is the first and only 
horse to sire a two-minute trotter, Uhlan 
1.58, and the dam of one, Lee Axworthy 

Dam, Blondella (dam also of Indian 
Hill 2.111^ on half-mile track, Lexington, 
amateur matinee record to wagon 2.15|, 
Uhleen, dam of Uhlan Brooke, 2.08|, 
all by Bingen; and of Blackwood 2.19^, by 
AlHewood 2.09J), by Sir Walter Jr., 
2.181 son of Sir Walter 2.24^, son of 
Aberdeen 27, son of Hambletonian 10. Sir 
Walter, Jr.'s dam, Kate Clark, by Ameri- 
can Clay 34, son of Cassius M. Clay, Jr. 22, 


son of Cassius M. Clay 18, son of Henry 
Clay 8. 

Some Performances of Uhlan 

Readville, Mass., Aug. 25, 1908. The Blue Hill 
Stake, 2:30 trot; value $4,500. 
Uhlan, bl g, 4, by Bingen R. Procter 111 

Three others also started. 

Time— 2.10J, 2.104, 2.11. 

Columbus, O., Sept. 21, 1908. 2.10 trot; purse 
Uhlan, bl g, 4, by Bingen R. Procter 111 

Thirteen others also started. 
Time— ill Mile 

31| 1.02i 1.34-i 2.07i^ 

314 1.03 1.35J 2.07i 

32i 1.04 J 1.364 2.08i 

Columbus, O., Oct. 1, 1908. 2.09 trot; purse 

Uhlan, bl g, 4, by Bingen R. Procter 5 11 

Locust Jack, gr g, by Keller Thomas 

McHenry 12 2 

Ten others also started. 

Time— 2.09J, 2.08|, 2.07J. 

12.07^ a new world's record for four-year-old trotting 


Lexington, Ky., Oct. 13, 1908. Walnut Hall Cup, 
2.15 trot; value $3,000. 

Uhlan, bl g, 4, by Bingen . R. Procter 111 

Eight others, including Spanish Queen, also started. 

Time— i i J Mile 

34 1.07 1.38i 2.09J 

32i 1.03J 1.34i 2.07i 

32 1.04i 1.35 J 2.074 


North Randall, O., Aug. 10, 1909. 2.07 trot; 
purse $1,200. 
Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen R. Procter 1 1 

San Francisco, Sterling McKinney, Nahma, Lady 
Jones, Wilkes Heart and Spanish Queen also started. 
Time— i i i Mile 

31J 1.03f 1.36 2.06^1 

31f l.Olf 1.33i 2.03J 

Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 19, 1909. 2.07 trot; purse 
Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen R. Procter 1 1 

Five others also started. 

Time— 2.08f, 2.07^. 

North Randall, O., Aug. 25, 1909. Match, trot- 
ting; purse $ . 

Hamburg Belle, b m, by Axworthy. . . .Andrews 1 1 

1 Previous world's record for five-year-old trotting geld- 
ing 2.05J, by Major Delmar. 


Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Procter 2 dis 

Time— i i I Mile 

31 1.01 1.31 2.0li 

30J 59i 1.30 2.01} 1 

Readville, Mass., Sept. 3, 1909. Match, trotting; 

purse $ . 

Uhlan, big, by Bingen R. Proctor 1 1 

Hamburg Belle, b m, by Axworthy .. Andrews 2 2 
Time— J i f Mile 

3lf 1.02| 1.33^ 2.04| 

31 l.Oli 1.32 2.03^ 

Columbus, O., Sept. 24, 1909. To beat his own 
world's record of 2.03^ for five-year-old trotting 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen R. Procter won 

Time— i i f Mile 

31 1.02 1.32 2.02i 


North Randall, O., July 9, 1910. To beat 2.10, 
trotting, to wagon. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i i i Mile 

32 1.02 1.33 2.02| 

1 Still, in 1921, the world's record for both one and two 
consecutive heats in a trotting race. 


North Randall, O., Aug. 8, 1910. To beat 2.02f, 
trotting, to wagon. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i 4 i Mile 

30i 59f 1.30J 2.01 

North Randall, O., Aug. 12, 1910. To beat 2.01, 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i f Mile 

29f 59 1.29f 1.58f^ 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

29f 291 30f 29 

Readville, Mass., Aug. 30, 1910. To beat 2.01, 
trotting, to wagon. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Mr. C. K. G. Billings lost 

Time— i i f Mile 

29| 1.00 1.30 J 2.02^ 

Hartford, Conn., Sept. 9, 1910. To beat 2.04|, 
trotting, to wagon. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen. . . .Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 
Time— 1 i f Mile 

30f l.Oll 1.32J 2.0li 

1 Previous world's record for trotting geldings, 1.59|, 
by Major Delmar. This mile in 1:58| was the first ever 
trotted "in the open," in two minutes or better. 


AUentown, Pa., Sept. 21, 1910. To beat world's 
trotting record over half-mile track, 2.06|. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i I J Mile 

32 1.03J 1.35 2.05i 

North Randall, O., Aug. 7, 1911. To beat 2.01, 
trotting, to wagon. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen. . . .Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 
Time— i i i MUe 

29 J 59f 1.30 2.00 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

29i 30i 30i 30 

North Randall, O., Aug. 11, 1911. To beat 1.00, 
trotting, to wagon; half-mile dash. 
Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen. . . .Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

ime — i i 



14 28i 



Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 

28i 271 

Separately, each eighth: 

1st 2d 



14 14i 



Goshen, N. Y., Aug. 24, 1911. To beat his own 
world's half-mile track trotting record, 2.05|. 


Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen. Charles Tanner won 

Time— ill MUe 

31 1.01 1.32 2.02f 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

31 30 31 30| 

White River Junction, Vt., Sept. 19, 1911. Ex- 
hibition, trotting, half-mile track. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i J Mile 

31^ l.Oli 1.32f 2.04^ 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 4, 1911. To beat the track 
trotting record, 2.01 J. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— J ^ I Mile 

28J 57J 1.28i 1.59J 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

28f 28^ 31 31i 


Moscow, Russia, June 14, 1912. Exhibition, trot- 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— J i f Mile 

30 1.00 1.30 2.04^ 

1 Not an official performance, but four seconds faster 
than the Russian trotting record, 2.08. 


Lexington, Ky., Oct. 8, 1912. To beat the track 
record, trotting, his own 1.59J. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i f Mile 

30 59 1.28 1.58^ 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

30 29 29 30 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 11,1912. To beat the world's 
record for trotting teams, 2.07f. 
Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen, and Lewis Forrest, bl g, by 

General Forrest Charles Tanner won 

Time— ill Mile 

31| l.OOf 1.31f 2.03i 

North Randall, O., July 7, 1913. To beat the 
track record, trotting, his own 1.5 8 J. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner lost 

Time— J i f Mile 

29J 59^ 1.29i 1.59i 

Grand Rapids, Mich., July 28, 1913. To beat the 
track trotting record, 2. 06 J. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i i Mile 

291 59j 1.311 i.59| 

1 Previous world's trotting record, 1.58^, by Lou Dillon, 
in 1903. 


Goshen, N. Y., Aug. 19, 1913. To beat his own 
world's half-mile track trotting record, 2.02|. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner last 

Time— J i S Mile 

30 J 59 J 1 1.324 2.03f 

Hamline, Minn., Sept. 5, 1913. To beat the state 
trotting record, 2.05^. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i J i Mile 

30 59| 1.30-1 1.59f 

Galesburg, 111., Sept. 19, 1913. To beat the track 
trotting record, 2.03J, by Alix. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i I Mile 

30 1.00 1.30J 2.00i 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 6, 1913. Quarter-mile dash, 
to establish a trotting record. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen Charles Tanner won 

Time— i i 

13j 27 

Separately, by eighths: 
1st 2d 

13J 13i 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 9, 1913. To beat 2.03, the 
world's record for trotter with running mate. 

1 The only half ever trotted in 1.00 or better on half- 
mile track. 


Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen, and Slats, b g, thorough- 
bred Charles Tanner won 

Time— } i I Mile 

28J 57i 1.25i 1.54i 

Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

28f 28^ 28 29i 

Saratoga, N. Y., Aug. 13, 1914. Exhibition, trot- 
ting, to saddle, grass course. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings (192 lbs) won 

Time— 13. 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 8, 1914. Exhibition, trot- 
ting, to saddle. 

Uhlan, bl g, by Bingen 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings (192 lbs) won 

Time— 13 J. 

Lou Dillon 1.58^ 

The First Two-Minute Trotter 
World's Champion Trotter, 1903-1912 

Chestnut mare, star and snip, near hind 
ankle white; height, 15.0| hands. Foaled 
1898. Bred by Mess Henry and Ira Pierce, 
Santa Rosa Stock Farm, Santa Rosa, Cal. 


Purchased by Mr. C. K. G. Billings, May, 
1903, at Cleveland, O. 

Sire, Sidney Dillon 23157, sire also of 
Helen Stiles 2.06|, Ruth Dillon 4, 2.06J, 
Dolly Dillon, 2.06f (to wagon), Stanley 
Dillon 2.07| and 100 others with standard 
records; and of the dams of Emma Har- 
vester, 4, 2.04:1, Expressive Lou, 3, 2.08J, 
Lou Bilhngs, 3, 2.08f, Dillon Axworthy, 3, 
2.10^, etc., etc. Sidney Dillon by Sidney, 
2.19|, son of Santa Claus, 2.174, by Strath- 
more 408, by Hambletonian 10; his dam, 
Venus, two mile record 5.04 (dam also of 
Adonis 2.11|, Cupid 2.18 and Lea 2.18|), 
by Captain Webster 10173, son of William- 
son's Belmont. 

Dam hou Milton (dam also of Cornelia 
2.19|, Redwood 2.21^, Aileen 2.264 and 
Ethel Mack, 3, 2.29 J), by Milton Medium 
2.254, son of Happy Medium 400, by Ham- 
bletonian 10. Milton Medium's dam Fan 
(dam also of Hattie 2.29f), by Sackett's 
Hambletonian 1727, son of Hambletonian 


Some Performances of Lou Dillon 
Cleveland, O., June 16, 1903. To beat 2.14-, trot- 
ting, to wagon. 

Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i i I Mile 

33 1.04| 1.35f 2.06-]-^ 

Cleveland, O., June 29, 1903. To beat 2.06J, trot- 
ting, to wagon. 

Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i i i Mile 

31f 1.03i 1.34 2.04|i 

Cleveland, O., July 11, 1903. To beat the world's 
record for trotting mares, to sulky, 2.03f. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon. .M. Sanders won 
Time— i i i Mile 

31i l.Olf 1.32J 2.03^ 

Cleveland, O., July 31, 1903. To beat the world's 
record for trotting mares, to sulky, 2.03^. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon. .M. Sanders won 
Time— i i f Mile 

30i l.OOf 1.31| 2.02| 

Brighton Beach, C. I., Aug. 17, 1903. Exhibition. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon. .M. Sanders won 
1 Previous world's trotting record, 1.58^, by Lou Dillon, 
2.07, by Lucille. 


Time— i ^ J Mile 

28|^ 59 1.30i 2.03f 

Readville, Mass., Aug. 24, 1903. To beat the 
world's record for trotting mares, to sulky, 2. 02 J. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon. .M. Sanders won 
Time- i i I i f I f Mile 

15j 30J 45J LOOf 1.15| 1.31 1.46 2.00 ^ 
Separately, each quarter; 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

301 301 301 29 

Separately, each eighth: 

1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 
15i 15 15 15^ 15 15i 15 14 
Cleveland, O., Sept. 1, 1903. To beat her own 
world's amateur trotting record to wagon, 2.04'f . 

Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i ^ f Mile 

32 1.02i 1.33J 2.04J 

Cleveland, O., Sept. 12, 1903. To beat the record 
of Maud S., 2.08J, trotting, to high-wheel sulky. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon. .M. Sanders won 
Time— i i i Mile 

32j 1.04 1.35 2.053 

iThe fastest first quarter ever trotted. 

2 The world's first two-minute mile by a trotter; previoiis 
world's trotting record, 2.02i, by Cresceus. 

3 The fastest mile ever trotted to high-wheel sulky, with- 
out pneumatic tires. 


Cleveland, O., Sept. 19, 1903. Exhibition, trot- 
ting, to wagon. 
Lou Dillon, eh m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won ^ 

Time— i i I Mile 

33i 1.05J 1.36i 2.05i 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 10, 1903. To heat 2.04^, 
her own world's amateur trotting record to wagon. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i i I Mile 

31 1.01 1.30J 2.0lf 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1903. Free-for-all trot, 
amateur drivers, to wagon, for Memphis Gold Cup.^ 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings 1 1 

Major Delmar, b g, by Delmar 

Mr. E. E. Smathers 2 2 

Time— i i -I Mile 

1st heat 30 1.00 1.32 2.04f 

2d heat 32f 1.03 J 1.33 2.04f 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1903. To beat her own 
world's record of 2.00, trotting. 
Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon . . M. Sanders won 

iLast half in 59^ seconds; last quarter in 28| seconds. 

2 World's race record for trotters to wagon, for both 
one and two consecutive heats, driven by either amateur 
or professional reinsraan. World's record for two con- 
secutive heats in a race to either wagon or sulky. 


Time— i i f 4 f J i Mile 

15j 30 44f 59j 1.14^ 1.284 ^-"^H l-^Sj 
Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

30 294 29 30 

Separately, each eighth: 

1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 
15j 14| 14| 14| 14| 14i 15 15 
Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 28, 1903. To beat her own 
world's amateur trotting record, to wagon, 2.01 f. 

Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— 4 i f 4 f f i Mile 

15 294 44j 59j 1.14J 1.294 l-^^ 2.00 
Separately, each quarter: 

1st qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 

294 29J 30i ^04 

Separately, each eighth: 

1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 
15 144 14j 15 154 14f 154 15 
New York Speedway, N. Y. City, Nov. 11, 1903. 
Special exhibition, to wagon. 

Lou Dillon, ch m, by Sidney Dillon 

Mr. C. K. G. Billings won 

Time— i 4 

1st heat 29 59 

2d heat 25f ^ 584 

1 First quarter of second heat the fastest ever trotted 
or paced, to any hitch. 


Produce op Lou Dillon 

1907 — Lou Billings, 3, 2.08-J, b m, by John A. McKer- 

ron 2.04^. 
1908 — Gretchen B % b m, by John A. McKerron 

1910— Mack Dillon, 6, 2.21i, ch g, by John A. 

McKerron 2.04|. 
1911 — Ben Billings, ^ pacer, 6, 2.05J, b g, by Bingen 

1913 — Expressive Lou, 3, 2.08 J, b m, by Atlantic 

Express 2.07f. 
1914 — Virginia Lou, b f, by The Harvester 2.01. 
1915 — Bay colt, died as a weanling, by The Har- 
vester 2.01. 
1917 — Harvest Lou, 3, 2. 17 J, ch m, by The Harvester 

1919 — Harvest Dillon, b c, by The Harvester 2.01. 
1920— Etawah Dillon, b c, by Etawah 2.03. 

1 Gretchen B., Lou Dillon's foal of 1908, is the dam of 
Harvest Grant, 4, 2.10J, Harvest Sprite, 3, 2.19^ and 
Girl of the Fields, 2, 2.26J, trotting, 5, 2.08, pacing. 

2 Ben Billings, Lou Dillon's foal of 1911, has a three- 
year-old trotting record of 2.17^, in addition to his six- 
year-old pacing record of 2.05^. 



THE World War was disastrous to Eng- 
lish polo, for it not only cost the lives of 
many of the important players of the game, 
but also destroyed most of the best English 

The game continued to be played in the 
United States in a half-hearted manner 
during the early years of the War, but 
ceased when America joined the belligerents 
and sent her polo players to the front. 

Playing was resumed soon after the 
armistice, for it had not been forgotten that 
the International Cup was in the custody of 
Great Britain. 

In 1920 a challenge was sent and accepted 
for a match of the best two out of three 
games to be played at Hurlingham during 
Jxme, 1921. 

The best American ponies were assembled 



and sent to England in charge of Mr. H. V. 
Colt, who conditioned them with great skill. 

Messrs. Devereux Milburn, Louis E. 
Stoddard, J. Watson Webb, Thomas Hitch- 
cock Jr., C. C. Rumsey, and Earle Hopping 
left for England in the Spring, having been 
chosen as the best exponents of American 

Milburn was appointed captain, and dif- 
ferent combinations of the six men were 
tried out before the final selection for the 
team was made. 

It was finally settled as follows: 


1. Louis E. Stoddard 

2. Thomas Hitchcock, Jr. 

3. J. Watson Webb 
Back, Devereux Milburn 

Number One and Back were old Inter- 
national Cup players, while Webb and 
Hitchcock, the latter being but twenty-one 
years old, had to face a new experience. 


Webb was a registered left-handed 

It was a wonderful combination of ex- 
perience and steadiness coupled with youth 
and dash. 

The English also took a long time to 
decide what players should form their team, 
and finally decided on: 


1. Lieut. Colonel Tomkinson 

2. Major Barrett 

3. Lord Wodehouse 
Back, Major Lockett 

With the exception of Lord Wodehouse, 
who played back on one of the unsuccessful 
teams in 1909 at Hurlingham, it was the 
identical team that had won the Cup at 
Meadow Brook in 1914, but they were seven 
years older. 

Polo above all other games is one of quick 
thinking. Mind, eye, and muscles must 
work together and respond quickly. This 


combination only happens in youth, for when 
a man passes thirty-five he slows up. 

The first game was played at Hurhng- 
ham on June 18, 1921. 

First Game 

First Period, — England attacked im- 
mediately, but America soon retaliated. 
From a free hit for a foul hook Webb 
scored for America. Stoddard, after a fine 
run scored shortly afterwards, then in a 
scrimmage Wodehouse saved. The Ameri- 
can ponies appeared to be faster and han- 
dier. Score: America 2, England 0. 

Second Period, — England pressed most 
of the time. Wodehouse hit out very well. 
A good attack by first Barrett and then 
Lockett ended in a pass which Tomkinson 
put through, giving England her first goal. 
America soon retaliated, a good long shot 
giving them their third goal. From the side 
Barrett made a good long shot, which was 
stopped by Milburn, and another shot at the 
goal also failed. Webb then made a good 


save. In running across the ground, Tom- 
kinson broke his stick. The period ter- 
minated by a cross given against Hitchcock, 
Tomkinson galloping right up to him. 
Score: America 3, England 1. 

Third Period. — A successful penalty shot 
by Barrett was followed by a brilliant 
American run terminating in a goal. A 
palpable cross by Webb in front of Lockett 
resulted in Barrett taking the shot, which 
went wide. After a hit out England got a 
good goal from a fine lofty shot. From 
some good midfield play England had an 
opening, but Barrett's pony was too slow 
in the No. 1 position, which he was momen- 
tarily in. From a slight mistake in mid- 
field the Americans got a good and easy 
goal with a near side shot. End of period, 
5-3. A very level contest. 

Fourth Period, — England had much the 
better of this period. In the first attack 
Tomkinson's final shot just missed, and an- 
other English shot from a difficult angle 
also. A good near side backhander by 


Wodehouse picked up by Tomkinson just 
missed. After consistent attack and spe- 
cially good play by Wodehouse England 
got another goal. From the throw-in Eng- 
land made a good attack, and just missed 
the goal from a backhander. Tomkinson 
got away alone, his final near shot missing 
by inches. Score, 5-4. Up to this point 
the English team had more than their share 
of the attack, but their shots at goal were 
generally failures. 

Fifth Period. — England's goal was in 
danger, but the centre of the ground was 
now rather bumpy, and everyone was mis- 
hitting. The pressure was relieved by good 
combination between Barrett and Tomkin- 
son. The ball broke when near the Ameri- 
can goal. A good combined American 
attack led off by Hitchcock resulted in a 
goal hit by Milburn. From the throw-in 
the Americans again attacked, and got a 
goal from the scrimmage. The Americans 
again seemed to have the faster ponies dur- 


ing this period, and also to be the more 
accurate hitters. Score, 7-4. 

Sixth Period, — Play took place on the 
boards, and England was a little sticky 
and mishit. America attacked and rushed 
the ball through. The Americans appeared 
better mounted, and after combined play 
scored again. England recovered, and 
made a good attack which went wide. They 
seemed to be outponied in this chukker. 
Score, 9-4. 

Seventh Period. — The Americans from 
the throw-in on the boards made a brilliant 
run and scored a goal, followed by another 
fine run on the boards, Barrett saving. The 
Americans were given a free shot which 
failed, but after the ball had been met they 
got a lucky goal. A beautiful run by 
Barrett just failed in the final shot. An- 
other very fine attack by Wodehouse .was 
saved. England pressed, but the Ameri- 
cans saved, the ball going out over the side. 
From the throw-in the Americans attacked, 


and missed a chance — the first of the after- 
noon. England again put up a good attack, 
but the final shot by Barrett just failed. 
Final score, 11-4. 

The Americans played a very nice, 
clean, hard-hitting game, and their shooting 
at goal was deadly. They missed but one 
try during the afternoon, whereas the Eng- 
lish missed a great many goals, often by 
inches, but in this case an inch is as bad as 
a mile. 

It seemed to be the old matter of the 
superiority of the forward American polo 
seat with the eye on the ball that made this 
great difference. 

The English team played good polo imtil 
the fifth period, when the score stood 5-4 in 
favor of America. Then the Britishers 
seemed to lose their morale and did not keep 
their places, which allowed the dangerous 
Milburn to do as he liked both in attack and 
in defence, of which he took full advantage 
and scored a goal. 

Meadow Brook scored six goals in the last 


three periods, winning the game by 11 goals 
to 4 goals. 

Taken as a whole, there was not much 
difference in the quajity of the ponies, yet 
the American mounts seemed to last out 
their periods better than the English. This 
probably came from the fact that the Ameri- 
can ponies had all been conditioned under 
the experienced eye of one man. 

Second Game, June 22 

America, 10 goals — England 6 goals. 

The Match 

First Game June 18, 1921, at Hurling- 



1. Louis E. Stoddard 

2. Thomas Hitchcock, Jr. 

3. J. Watson Webb 
Back: Devereux Milburn 


1. Lieut. Col. TomkinsK)n 

2. Major Barrett 


3. Lord Wodehouse 

Bach: Major Lockett 

America 11 goals — England 4 goals. 

Second Game 

June 22, 1921 
America 10 goals — England 6 goals. 
The challengers very early established a 

lead which England could never overtake 

though they played well. 

The matches now stand America 4 — 

England 3. 



THIS was the greatest polo season America 
had ever experienced, owing to the visit of 
the Argentine, Eastcott, and Irish teams. 

The Argentines: Captain Lacey and 
Major John Nelson, David Miles and John 
Miles, a hard-hitting, hard riding, and very- 
expert team, had won the championship of 
Chili in 1920, and later defeated all comers 
in their native land. 

In the winter of 1922 they shipped a large 
stud of ponies to England. The players 
followed in the spring, and succeeded in 
winning the three principal British tourna- 
ments, first the Champion Cup at Hurling- 
ham, followed by the Open Cup at Roe- 
hampton and the Whitney Cup at Rane- 
lagh. This attracted the attention of the 
American polo players, who invited the 



Argentines to visit the United States on 
their way home. 

Four American polo combinations were 
formed with the International Four dis- 
tributed as fairly as possible among the four 

The first tournament was held at the 
Rumson Country Club. Here Argentine, 
conceding five goals, was defeated by 
Orange County for the Herbert Memorial 
Cup by 13-10. The final was won by Mea- 
dow Brook captained by Milburn. 

In the Open Championship Argentine 
defeated the Shelburne House four, and 
then won the final from the so-called 
Meadow Brook team. 

The chief event at Philadelphia was a 
Handicap Tournament. After the other 
teams had been eliminated, the final game 
was to have been played between Meadow 
Brook and Eastcott, but owing to the sad 
death of Mr. C. C. Rumsey, Meadow Brook 

These two teams met at Meadow Brook 


in the semi-finals for the Monty Water- 
bury Cup with the understanding that the 
outcome of the match should decide the de- 
faulted game at Philadelphia. 

In this event Eastcott won, but in turn 
was defeated by Shelburne House for the 

The Argentines not having met the 
Meadow Brook International four, a match 
was decided on. 

Mr. Stoddard had unfortunately been in- 
jured in a practice game with the Flam- 
ingoes, so Mr. J. C. Cooley, the No. 1 of 
the latter four, a 5-goal man, took his place 
on the Meadow Brook team. 

The Meadow Brooks won the first game 
by 7-4. 

The second game was more interesting. 
At the beginning of the second period 
Argentine scored a goal, and did not score 
again until the seventh period. Meadow 
Brook had scored five goals in the mean- 
time. Argentine scored one goal in the 
seventh and two in the eighth. 

150 sport on land and water 

Final Score 

1st Game Meadow Brook 7 Argentine 4 
2nd Game Meadow Brook 5 Argentine 4 

This was a fine performance, for the best 
Argentine ponies having been saved for 
this event had enjoyed a long rest. 

These ponies were later sold at auction 
at record prices. 



Lord Henry Bentinck 


with introduction by 

viscount chaplin 


By Viscount Chaplin 

THE history of the little treatise, by the 
late Lord Henry Bentinck, on handling a 
pack of hounds out hunting is not without 
its interest, and it has authority, I may add, 
of the highest order. 

It is the copy of a letter written to me 
by the late Lord Henry Bentinck himself, 
one day not very long after I had bought his 
pack of hounds, from Loch Ericht, his small 
shooting lodge in the famous deer forest 
of Ardverickay, only six miles from Dal- 
whinnie station, on the Highland line. It 
was written on a day when there was such 
a tremendous blizzard that even he, who was 
never known to miss a day in any week in 
the course of the stalking season, was un- 
able to go out. 



So he occupied himself by writing to me, 
in a letter, the contents of the little pamphlet 
in question, and its republication, which has 
been the subject of our correspondence. 
To this I replied by saying that I thought 
it ought to be published, and I asked his 
leave to do it. But this he would not give 
me, saying he could write something much 
better than that, and would do so, some 

But I had it printed for private circula- 
tion, and I gave a copy to several of the 
older Masters, and among others one to 
Mr. George Lane Fox, of Bramham Moor 
celebrity, who the day after Lord Henry's 
death sent a copy to Bailys Magazine, who 
published it. 

And here a word about my own relations 
with the late Lord Henry may not be out 
of place. 

He was the fourth son of the fourth Duke 
of Portland, who died in 1854, being suc- 
ceeded by his second son, the Marquis of 
Titchfield (the eldest son having died in 


1821) ; the third being Lord George Ben- 
tinck, who in his earher days was the 
Napoleon of the Turf; and the fourth, Lord 
Henry, who in the hunting world was very 
much what his brother George had been 
upon the turf/ And, these three brothers 
it was, or rather the forces they were able 
to command, which enabled them to estab- 
lish Mr. Disraeli as Leader of the Con- 
servative Party, and finally to defeat, and 
oust, Sir Robert Peel from power, after 
their homeric conflicts in connection with 
the Repeal of the Corn Laws. 

For reasons I need not enter into now 
Lord Henry shortly afterwards abandoned 
politics altogether, and his favourite pur- 
suits were, for the remainder of his life, 
hunting in the winter, deer-stalking in the 
autumn, and playing whist in the summer, 
in which he was facile princeps — in fact, in 
those days he was said to be the finest player 
in Europe. 

1 See Life of Disraeli, by Buckle, Vol. III., pp. 110-218, 
129, 133. 


My acquaintance with him was on this 
wise : I knew him, and well, from the time 
I was a boy. He had been Master of the 
Burton Country in Lincolnshire for many 
years — nearly thirty, I think — one of the 
three counties in England which were 
hunted six days a week at that time, and 
where his chief supporter was my uncle, Mr. 
Charles Chaplin, who gave him a subscrip- 
tion of 1200Z. a year, and whose tenants on 
an estate of between twenty and thirty 
thousand acres used to walk for him a very 
large number of puppies, than which noth- 
ing is more important for the successful 
breeding of a first-class pack of hounds. 
And I succeeded him within no long period 
after I became of age, my uncle having died 
while I was still at Christ Church, in the 
University of Oxford, when I continued the 
old subscription. It was shortly after that, 
however, that Lord Henry expressed his 
wish to give up the country, whereupon I 
bought his hounds for 3500Z. and took the 


Burton Country myself, of which he had 
been the Master for so many years. 

Lord Henry was a man of quite excep- 
tional ability, as I had every reason to be- 
lieve — not only from what I knew myself, 
but, some years afterwards, from no less an 
authority than that of Mr. Disraeli, and in 
the way I shall describe directly. And, 
from all the experience I have had since 
then, I have very little doubt that his was 
probably the best brain ever given to the 
breeding of hounds, and hunting; and he 
was also, I think, upon the whole, one of 
the best horsemen, and with the finest hands 
upon a horse that was difficult to ride I ever 
knew, with the possible exception of Lord 

I may add that it was from Lord Henry I 
learned everything I ever knew about 
horses, hounds, deer-stalking and deer- 
forests, and sport of all kinds, and a great 
deal about politics, too. And it was by him 
practically, before he abandoned politics, as 


is shown in one of Mr. Buckle's most admir- 
able volumes of the Life of Disraeli — it was 
by him and his exertions, freely admitted 
by Mr. Disraeli himself, that he was success- 
fully run into the leadership of the Party 
after Lord George Bentinck's death.^ 

Lord Henry Bentinck died at Tathwell, 
on the last day of 1870, in one of my houses 
in Lincolnshire, which I had lent him with 
ten thousand acres of shooting, and there he 
used to practise rifle-shooting in the sum- 
mer, with pea-rifles, at both rabbits and 
hares, which were rather plentiful on some 
parts of the estate at that time, in prepara- 
tion for the stalking season in the autumn, 
where he seldom missed a stag with a differ- 
ent weapon, killing, on an average about a 
hundred every year himself. 

And, when Parliament met, early in Feb- 
ruary afterwards, if I remember rightly, 
and I was shown into Mr. Disraeli's room, 

iSee Life of Disraeli, by Buckle, who showed himself 
in that work as another great English historian. Vol. III., 
pp. 116, 128-132, 133, 135. 


at his Party Dinner, to which he was kind 
enough to invite me when the Queen's 
Speech was read, he accosted me as follows : 

"Ah!" he said, "you and I have both lost 
a great friend since we parted." 

"Yes, sir," I replied; "I know that Lord 
Henry and yourself were great friends at 
one time, and he has often talked to me 
about you." 

"Yes," he said; "and I always wished it 
could have remained so." And then, after 
a pause, he added: "I have always said 
that, take him all round, I think upon the 
whole that Henry Bentinck was probably 
the ablest man I ever knew." And very 
soon afterwards dinner was announced, and 
we went into the dining-room. 

I make no comments on Lord Henry's 
description of GoodalVs Practice, in the 
handling of his hounds, excepting this: I 
agree with everything he says, but it is neces- 
sary to remember this — the Burton Country, 
where his chief experience lay, was a country 
of comparatively small and manageable 


fields of horsemen ; very different from those 
you see in the Quorn, the Cottesmore, the 
Pytchley, and the chief fashionable grass 
countries, and sometimes the Belvoir, on 
the grass side of that country. But the 
principles which are inculcated, nevertheless, 
hold good ; and, once a pack of hounds have 
learned to know, and believe in, their hunts- 
man, they are never happy away from him, 
and there is nothing they won't do, and no 
effort they won't make, to get back to him. 
Tom Firr was a notable instance of this in 
the Quorn; but then he had the best Master 
in England (Lord Lonsdale) to help him, 
and no one could handle a big field better 
than he could, that I've ever seen; and the 
way in which he controlled a field of possibly 
five or six hundred horsemen on a Quorn 
Friday was a triumph of organization I 
have never seen surpassed. 

For instance, when drawing one of their 
crack coverts in that country, the field was 
kept away some distance from it, often 
nearly a whole field, until the fox had gone 


away, and the huntsman had got hold of his 
hounds sufficiently to get a start with him; 
and then, when the field got the order to go, 
my word! There was a charge of cavalry 
with a vengeance, to get up to them. 

Lord Annaly did the same thing in the 
Pytchley and had the same complete control 
of his field ; and in this way with the combina- 
tion of Lonsdale and Firr in the Quorn, and 
Annaly and Freeman in after years in the 
Pytchley, there could not have been a 
happier arrangement for successful sport 
out hunting, if there was any scent at all. 

They were two first-rate huntsmen also. 
The rarest and most difficult thing in the 
world to find in my experience is a really 
good huntsman. 

And here I can't omit some reference to 
Tom Smith, who was originally my second 
whipper-in — who was afterwards huntsman 
to the Bramham Moor hounds, and became 
so celebrated for many years in that country ; 
and though it never was my fortune to see 
him hunting hounds myself, I know it must 


have been so — from so many sources, all of 
which came from men who were absolutely 

He comes, too, of a famous family of 
huntsmen of that name, three generations of 
whom, I think I am right in saying, had been 
huntsmen to the Brocklesby hounds — one of 
the oldest and best packs of hounds in the 
country at that time. 

I have often said it was easier to find a 
good Prime Minister than a real good hunts- 
man, and Heaven knows that either is dif- 
ficult enough; and I incline to think it is 
more so than ever now for Ministers to-day, 
whose difficulties are far greater than they 
ever were before my time. How many have 
there been since Lord Palmerston, the first 
that I remember? 

Curiously enough, the only two men 
prominent in public life that I knew person- 
ally and at all well, when I became a member 
of the House of Commons in 1868, were 
Lord Palmerston and the old Lord Derby; 
but they were both of them members of the 


Jockey Club, and in that way I got to know 
them well. 

To go back to GoodalVs Practice from 
which I'm afraid I have rather strayed — 
I think that the good work done by Bailys 
Magazine for so many years should not be 
thrown away, and that this admirable little 
treatise called GoodalVs Practice should be 
preserved in the interest of Fox-hunting for 
the use of this and future generations. 

The language is so simple, and so much 
of it is ordinary common-sense, that any 
one can understand it. 

It would be invaluable for Hunt servants, 
both huntsmen and their whippers-in who 
serve under them in particular — ^many of 
whom are seldom taught enough by their 
superiors or masters. I think it is a better 
education in their case which is needed more 
than anything, and I will conclude with an 
instance of what I mean. 

I was rather late one morning in arriving 
at a gorse covert in the Belvoir Country; 
Coston covert, I think it was, into which the 


hounds had just been put to draw. I had 
come from Barley Thorpe, and I saw at 
once it wasn't the huntsman who was in the 
covert with the hounds, and I was told it was 
the first whip, Freeman, who had never 
hunted them before, the huntsman being 
disabled by a fall the previous day. I knew 
him quite well, so I went into the covert to 
see if I could help him. 

"So you are handling the hounds, I under- 
stand," I said, "for the first time to-day?" 

"Ah, yes. Squire," he said, "and I can 
do nothing with them," he replied. 

"Well," I said, "I've been at it all my hfe, 
and perhaps I could tell you one or two 
things which might be useful." 

"I should be most grateful if you would," 
he said. 

He had been blowing his horn whenever 
the fox crossed a ride, with the same note 
that ought only to be used when he has gone 
away, or he has caught him. 

So I replied, "Put your horn into its case 
to begin with, and don't blow it again like 


you have been doing, or till your fox has 
gone away, or till you want to draw your 
hounds out of covert, which you should do 
with one or two long-drawn notes; or till 
you have caught your fox and got him lying 
dead before you. Then you may blow the 
note you've been using as long as you like. 
That is one thing. 

*'The next thing is this: when you've gone 
away with a fox, and come to a check, don't 
go to help your hounds till they ask you, 
and the way you will know they are asking 
you is this, and these hounds (who at that 
time were constantly interfered with) will 
ask you immediately because they are ac- 
customed to it. 

"You will see them standing with their 
heads up, waggling their tails, and doing 
nothing to feel for the scent or to help them- 
selves. When you see that, go straight into 
the middle of the pack, turn your horse, say 
'cop-cop,' or anything you hke, trot off, and 
they will go with you like a flock of sheep. 

"Trot gently up to wherever you think 


your fox is most likely to have gone, and if 
you are lucky enough to hit off his line, they 
will go all the easier with you the next time. 

"Now," I said, "that is enough for to-day, 
and I shall stay out to see how you get on." 

I stayed out till quite late in the evening. 
It was in the Spring. He was fortunate 
enough to hit off his fox the first time, and 
before the evening the hounds had taken to 
him complete^, and he could do anything 
he liked with them. 

'He was so nice and modest-minded a fel- 
low that he came half a mile out of his way 
to meet me on his way home, and when we 
met he said, "I couldn't go home. Squire, 
without thanking you for what you told me 
this morning. The ambition of my life is 
to be a hmitsman. I am most anxious to 
learn, and you are the first person, gentle- 
man or huntsman, who has ever told me a 
single thing." 

"Well," I said, "you seem very apprecia- 
tive, and whenever you find j^ourself in a 
difficulty either as whipper-in or huntsman, 


if you will write and tell me what it is, I 
will tell you anything I can to help you." 

That is the difficulty, I fear, with too 
many of the younger ones in that profession, 
and nothing could help them more than what 
they would learn from Lord Henry Ben- 
tinck's plain and simple letter to me on 
GoodalVs Practice, I sent a copy of it to 
Freeman very shortly afterwards, and we 
corresponded frequently, and do still; and 
no one that I know has a better reputation 
as a huntsman to-day, or shows more sport 
than he does. 


April, 1922 




1. — IN handling his Hounds in the open, 
with a Fox before him, he never had them 
rated or driven to him by his whips; never 
hallooed them from a distance. When he 
wanted them he invariably went himself to 
fetch them, anxiously watching the moment 
that the Hounds had done trying for them- 
selves, and felt the want of him. He then 
galloped straight up to their heads, caught 
hold of them, and cast them into a body a 
hundred yards in his front, every Hound 
busy before him with his nose snuffing the 
ground, his hackles up, his stern curled over 
his back, each Hound relying on himself 
and believing in each other. When cast in 
this way, the Huntsman learns the exact 



value of each Hound, while the young 
Hounds learn what old Hounds too believe 
in and fly to, and when the scent is taken up 
no Hound is disappointed. When the 
Huntsman trails his Hounds behind him, 
four-fifths of his best Hounds will be staring 
at his horse's tail, doing nothing. 

The Hounds came to have such confidence 
in Goodall, that with a burning scent, he 
would cast them in this way at a hand gallop, 
all the Hounds in his front making every 
inch of ground good ; while with a poor scent 
he would do it in a walk, regulating his pace 
by the quality of the scent; the worse the 
scent, the more time the Hounds want to 
puzzle it out. 

On this system the Hounds are got to 
the required spot in the very shortest time, 
with every Hound busily at work, and with 
his nose tied to the ground. 

On the opposite vulgar plan, the Hunts- 
man, galloping off to his Fox, hallooing his 
Hounds from a distance, his noise drives the 
Hounds in the first instance to flash wildly 


in the opposite direction; four or five minutes 
are lost before the whip can come up and 
get to their heads ; then they are flogged up 
to their Huntsman, the Hounds driving 
along with their heads up, their eyes staring 
at their Huntsman's horse's tail, looking to 
their Huntsman for help, disgusted, and not 
relying upon themselves, especially the best 
and most sagacious Hounds. A few min- 
utes more are lost before the best Hounds 
will put their noses down and begin to feel 
for the scent, a second check becomes fatal, 
and the Fox is irretrievably lost. Often- 
enough, in being whipped up to their Hunts- 
man in this way, when crossing the line of 
the Fox with their heads up, they first catch 
his wind, and then, as a matter of course, 
they must take the scent heelways, the Fox, 
as a rule, running down the wind. This 
fatal piece of bungling, so injurious to 
Hounds — is always entirely owing to the 
Huntsman; it is neither the fault of the 
whips or the Hounds; it never can occur 
when the Huntsman moves his Hounds in 


his front with their noses down. In these 
two different systems Hes the distinction be- 
tween being quick and a had hurry, 

2. — When the Fox was gone, in place of 
galloping oif after his Fox without his 
Hounds, blowing them away down the wind 
from such a distance that half the Hounds 
would not hear him, and he would only get 
a few leading Hounds still further separated 
from the body, Goodall would take a sharp 
hold of his horse's head, quick as lightening 
turn back in the opposite direction, get up 
wind of the body of his Hounds, and blow- 
ing them away from the tail, bring up the 
two ends together, giving every Hound a 
fair chance to be away with the body. 

It is impossible to over-estimate the mis- 
chief done to a pack of Hounds by unfairly 
and habitually leaving a Hound behind out 
of its place : it is teaching them to be rogues. 
For this purpose, Goodall had one particular 
note of his horn 7iever used at any other 
time except when his Fox was gone, or his 
Fox was in his hand: the Hounds, learning 


the note, would leave a Fox in covert to fly 
to it. Hounds are very sagacious animals; 
they cannot bear being left behind, nor do 
they like struggling through thick covert; 
but if that note is ever used at any other 
time the charm is gone; the Hounds v^ill 
not believe in it; you cannot lie to them 
with impunity. This was Goodall's great 
secret for getting his Hounds away all in a 
lump on the hack of his Fox, and hustling 
him before he had time to empty himself. 
This was his system for getting his Hounds 
through large woodlands: to come tumbling 
out together without splitting, and sticking 
to their run Fox. This is the explanation 
of the famous old Meynell saying, "In the 
second field they gathered themselves to- 
gether, in the third they commenced a ter- 
rible burst/" 

3. — Goodall's chief aim was to get the 
hearts of his Hounds. He considered 
Hounds should be treated like women: that 
they would not bear to be bullied, to be de- 
ceived, or neglected with impunity. For 


this end, he would not meddle with them in 
their casts until they had done trying for 
themselves, and felt the want of Mm: he paid 
them the compliment of going to fetch them; 
he never deceived or neglected them; he 
was continually cheering and making much 
of his Hounds; if he was compelled to dis- 
appoint them by roughly stopping them off 
a suckling vixen or dying Fox at dark, you 
would see him, as soon as he had got them 
stopped, jump off his horse, get into the 
middle of his pack, and spend ten minutes 
in making friends with them again. The 
result was that the Hounds were never 
happy without him, and when lost would 
drive up through any crowd of horsemen to 
get to him again, and it was very rare for a 
single Hound to be left out. 

It is impossible to over-rate the mischief 
done to a pack of Hounds by leaving them 
out; it teaches them every sort of vice, up- 
sets their condition, besides now exposing 
them to be destroyed on the railway line. 
There is no more certain test of the capacity 


of a Huntsman than the manner in which 
his Hounds fly to him and work for him 
with a will, 

Goodall, Old Musters, and Foljambe 
were undoubtedly the three Master-minds of 
our day. Their general system of handling 
Hounds was much the same, though each 
had his peculiar excellence, and each has 
often said that if they lived to be a hundred 
they would learn something every year. All 
three agreed in this, that it was ruinous to 
a pack of Hounds to meddle with them be- 
fore they had done trying for themselves. 
The reasoning upon this most material 
point is very simple. If the Hoimds are 
habitually checked, and meddled with in 
their natural casts, they will learn to stand 
still at every difficulty, and wait for their 
Huntsman; every greasy wheat- field will 
bring them to a dead stop, and however hard 
the Huntsman may ride on their back, two 
or three minutes must be lost before he can 
help them out of their difficulty, whilst in 
woods he cannot ever know what they are 


about. (For once the Huntsman can help 
them, nineteen times the Hounds must help 
themselves.) It was Old Musters' remark 
that for the first ten minutes the Hounds 
knew a good deal more than he did, but 
after they tried all they knew then he could 
form an opinion where the Fox was gone, 
but not before. 

Mr. Foljambe attached the greatest 
importance to getting his Hounds away to- 
gether. Before his Hounds were a field 
away from a wood you might hear him sing 
out, "Want a Hound," and his horn would 
be going at their tails until he got Mm, and 
when got, he would drop back and not care 
to go near them until they had been five or 
ten minutes at a check. But if a single 
Hound was wanting when a Fox was killed, 
however great the run, he would harp upon 
it for a month. 

Goodall combined, with his other ex- 
cellencies in the field, condition and kennel 
management quite the best. Mr. Foljambe 
was by far the best breeder of Hounds, and 


had the keenest eye for a Hound's work — 
nothing escaped him. Mr. Musters was the 
best hand at fairly hunting a Fox to death, 
and could make a middling lot work like 
first-rate Hounds. 

Old Dick Burton was Lord Henry's first 
huntsman in the Burton Country, and 
showed great sport for many years. He 
was the best hand at breaking a pack of 
Hounds from hares, and teaching them to 
draw, upon which so much depends. He 
always drew his woods up the wind, throw- 
ing his Hounds in fifty or sixty yards from 
the wood, and allowing them to spread, so 
that every Hound should be busy, with his 
head down, looking for his Fox; and had 
them in his front, making noise enough to 
cheer them and enable them to know where 
he was; and in cub-hunting made the 
Hounds find their cub for themselves, and 
would not have him hallooed at first across 
the ride. (Nothing is truer than the old 
saying, ' 'A Fox nicely foumd is half killed/' ) 
He would trot through the hollow covert 


with his Hounds behind him, and an oc- 
casional blow of his horn, to wake up any 
chance Fox, and get Hounds in the thick 
covert, where they could not use their eyes, 
as quick as possible, and then give them as 
much time as they liked. Nothing is worse 
than hurrying Hounds through strong 
covert, or forcing them to draw over again a 
covert when they are satisfied that there is 
not a Fox in it. The blackthorn and gorse 
coverts he would always draw down the 
windy keeping carefully behind his Hounds : 
by so doing, first, the Hounds have their 
heads down, and never chop a Fox — they do 
not see him. The Fox hears them, and the 
wildest Fox is off at once, and the cubs learn 
to steal away after the Hounds are gone. 
Second, it enabled him to get the body and 
tail Hounds out of the covert without hunt- 
ing the line of the Fox through the strong 
gorse; brought the two ends together all 
away on the hack of the old Fox — the true 
secret of getting a sharp hurst. 

No man could turn out a highly-mettled 


pack of Hounds, and so young a lot steady 
from hares as old Dick Burton. In the 
year 1859, when the Hatton country was as 
full as Blankney with riot, we found in 
Hatton Wood, at a quarter before twelve, 
and in the month of February, ran from 
Fox to Fox until half -past three, when all 
the second horses being beat and a fog ris- 
ing up, I rode amongst the Hounds, coming 
away from Hatton Wood the last time to 
see what I had got. To my astonishment, 
I fomid my pack consisted of 11 couples of 
puppies and 5 J of old Hounds!! We had 
had an old dog kicked, and old "Darling" 
leading them, then five years old, and show- 
ing himself for the first time. 

Old Dick's principle was to break his 
puppies by themselves, showing them all 
the riot he could in the summer, and drilling 
them severely, but never allowing a whip to 
FLOG THEM after they had escaped to his 
heels, or to flog them when coming out of a 
wood and cutting them off. After being 
well drilled, he would then take them 


amongst the cubs and smash up a Htter of 
cubs, blooding them up to their eyes to make 
them forget their punishment, and to care 
for nothing but a Fox. Hounds being un- 
steady for hares, when Foxes are plenti- 
ful, is entirely the fault of the han- 
dling. The highest praise that can be given 
to a Huntsman is for a fool to say: "We 
had a great run, and killed our Fox; as for 
the Huntsman, he might have been in 
BED." A Huntsman's first boast should 
be that all his Hounds required was to be 
taken to the covert-side and taken home 
again. His greatest disgrace is, first, to 
have his Hounds squandered all over the 
countr5^ and to leave them out; second, to 
be unable to get them out of a wood; third, 
not to know to a yard where he lost his Fox 
— if properly managed, the Hounds will 
always tell it to Mm.