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Contaiatag » u l l and PAHTfOVLAit Iritkoctioms for 








HAWKING, tfc-. 


*Z%e various Metbods to be obferved in Breeding and Dieting of HORSES 
both for the Road and TtfRF ; alfo, the Management of DOGS, GAME- 

Atid THE Manner of Curing their various Diseases and Accidents. 





With COPPER-PLATES, rcprcfeftting all the difpeuent Kinds of N E T S 
SNARES, and' TRAPS, that arc now made Use of in Fowling j and the 
Implements for Angling. 


Printed tor G. G. J. and J. R O B I N S O N, No. a<, PateH-kostbr-Row. 

M*D€C.LXXXV^ - •_ 










THE mind of man is incapable of a conftant application, 
,eithcr to ftudy or bufinefs ; it is therefore highly neceflary to 
relieve it, at convenient feafons, by fuch relaxations as may refrefli 
its faculties, and recruit the animal fpirits that have been diffipated 
by laborious purfuits, or a length of ftrid attention. And when 
the amufements to which we have recourle, on fuch occafions, are 
friendly to health, delightful to the fenfes, and perfedly confiftent 
with innocence, they have all the recommendations we can poffibly 

The diverfions that are the fubjed of thefe flieets, are entirely 
of this nature, and are fo peculiarly adapted to icenes of rural life, 
that a jud knowledge of them is confidered as a neceflary accom- 
plifhment in gentlemen, who devote their vacant hours to the 


vi P R E F A C E. 

It would be needlefs to enlarge on the fatisfadions and advan- 
tages they are capable of affording us. No profped of nature can 
. awake more pleafing ideas in the imagination, than a landflcip, 
diftributed into verdant woods, and opening lawns, with the diver- 
fTty of extended plains, flowery meadows, and clear ftreams : the 
hea^t of a contemplative beholder melts into fecret raptures at the 
inchanting view, and he is immediately prompted to hail the Great 
Benefador who fheds fuch a profufion of beauties around him; 
But when he likewife regards them as fo many rich magazines, 
intended for the accommodation of his table, as well as for the 
improvement of his health, and the folace of his mind, he begins* 
to think it a reproach to him to be unacquainted with the manner 
of acquiring thefe enjoyments that were created for his ufe with Co 
much liberality ; and he is then convinced that Hunting, Fowling, 
Fiftiing, and Riding, are more neceffafy to his welfare than at firft 
he might imagine. 

In order therefore to render thefe, and other rural recreations, 
as intelligible and familiar as poffible, we have carefully colleded 
the bed obfervations that have been made on each article ; we have 
confulted all authors on this occafion, and have feleded every 
particul^ from them, that we thought would contribute to plea- 
fure and improvement 5 and, as we were delirous to render this 


P R' E F a: C E; vii 

work as compleat' as ^pdfHbkj we hgve prevailed upon feveral gen- 
. tlemen of diftinguifhed abilities and experience, to favour us with 
a great number of intercfting paffages, that we are perfuadcd wil^ 
be very acceptable and ihftrudHve to thofc who. have. an inclinatipn 
to gain a competent knowledge of thefe agreeable fubjeds. 

As our intention was to make this performance equally per- 
fpicuous and regular, we have digefted it into the form of a Dic- 
tionary, in which we have been careful to range under each head 
every particular peculiar to it, fo as to illuftrate the articles in the 
moft efFedual manner; by which means we have rendered the 
whole fo methodical and familiar, even to a common comprehen- 
fion, that we flatter ourfelves we (hall not be taxed with obfcurity 
in any material circumftance neceflary to be underflood. We may 
likewife venture to add, that the plan we have purfued, through 
the whole courfe of thefe fheets, will eafe the curious of the 
expence and trouble of confulting a number of books written on 
thefe fubje<5ls, fince, as we have already intimated, all imaginable 
care has been taken to cxtrad from the moft •approved authors, 
whatever obfervations may be neceflary to give our readers a clear 
and expeditious knowledge of all the different branches of thefe 
pleafing recreations j as well as receipts from the different authors 
of eftabliflied reputation, for the cure of moft complaints incident 



to Horfes, Dogs, Cocks, 6cc/ which iti this edition is confiderahljr 
enlarged ; as well as the articles Hunting, Fifhing, Fowling, &c. 
&c. with proper inftrudions for the moil ignorant to prevent their 
being impofed on in purchafing Horfes, by defigning Dealers ia 
thofe valuable animals. 










A6 S 

ABATE; a horfc is faid to aBatc, or 
take down, his curvets, when working 
vpon curvets, he puts his two hind legs to 
the groxind both at once, and obfervcs the 
lame exaftnefs in aU the times. 5^^ Curvet. 

ABSCESS, proceeds from a blpw, hurt, 
<)r fomc violence, mcident to feveral ani- 
tnals, as horfes, Iheep, poultry, &c» 

In Horses, a cataplafm or pulticc of 
lime, reduced to a fine powder, and mixt 
with wine and oil in equal quantities, ought 
to be applied to the part afFcfted \ or one of 
wheat-flour, ftceped in vinegar, with half an 
ounce of manna majr be ufed in its ftead* 

In Sheep, the method is to open the tu- 
mour, in what part focvcr it is found, and 
after letting out the matter, to pour into the 
wound fomc melted pitch, and burnt fait 

In Poultry, they open the abfcefe with 
a pair of fciflars, prefllng out the corruption 
with their fingers ; and then give them let- 
tuce chopped fmall, and mixed with bran 
lleeped in water, and fwcetened with honey 
to eat. 

ABATIJRES, is foiling the fprigs or 
grafs that a ftag throws down in pafling by. 


ACCLOYED, fignifics pricked. A horfe'a 
foot when pricked in Ihoeing is faid to be 

ACHE, [in hxirfei\ a pain in any part of 
the body ; a difeafe that caufes numbnefs 
in the joints, and proceeds from cold, ta« 
ken upon hard and violent exercife or la* 
bour ; for which there are feveral remedies. 

ACOPUM, a fomentation to allay the 
fenfe of wearinefs % alfo a medicine for horfes^ 
ufed for the fame purpofe, and prepared thus : 
Take half an ounce of caftoreum, adraces two 
ounces> of bdellium half an ounce and half 
a quarter, opopannax an ounce, fox greafe 
half an ounce> pepper an ounce, laferpi- 
tium three quarters^of an ounce, ammoni* 
acum two ounces, pigeons dung as much, 
half an ouuce of galbanum, one ounce and 
a quarter of nitre, three quarters of an 
ounce of fpuma nitri, laudanum two oun- 
ces, pyrethum and bay-berries of each 
three quarters of an ounce, cardamum two 
ounces, rue feed two ounces, feed of agnus 
caftus one ounce, parflcy feed half an ounce, 
dried roots of flower-de-luce an ounce and 
quarter and half, oil of bay as much, oil 
of fpikenard three quartern of a pound, 
B * oleum 


oleum qrprinum fourteen ounces, the old- 
eft olive oil a pound and half, pitch fix 
ounces, turpentine four ounces 5 every one 
of them that will diflblve, melt fcparateJy 
by themfelves, then mingle them together 
with the reft of the ingredients, firft beating 
to fine powder 5 after they have boiled a lit- 
tle on the fire, take ofF the pan, and ftrain 
the liquor into a clean gallipot, to be kept 
for ufe : in adminiftring this medicine, give 
not above two fpoonfuls at a time, in a pint 
of fack or mufcadinc wine, and if by long 
keeping it hardens, fbften it with a little 
cyprefs oil. 

It is both a medicine, and an ointment, 
helping canvulfions, ftring-halts> colds, 
&c. in the finews and mufcles, draws forth 
all noifome humours, and being put up into 
the noftrils of a horfe, by means of a long 
goofe feather, anointed therewith, dift)ur- 
thens the head of all grief. 

It diflblves the liver, troubled with all 
oppilations, or obftruftions, helps ficcity 
and crudity in the body, banilhes all wcari- 
tiefs ; and, laftly, cures all forts of inward 
difeafcs, if given by way of drench, inwine> 
bcer^ or ale, 

ACTION OF THE MOUTH, is the agitation 
of the tongue, and the mandible of a horfe, 
that by cliamping upon the bridle^ keep his 
mouth frelh. You may fee by the white ro- 
py foam, that a horfe has the a6^ion of the 
mouth, which is a fign of vigour> mettle, 
and health. 

ACULER, a French word, ufcd ia the 
academies, importing that a horfe working 
upon volts in the manage, does not ga far 
enough forwards at every time or motion, 
fo that his (boulders embrace, or take in, 
too little grourid, and his croupe comes too 
near the center of the volt. 

This horfe has acuJe, becaufe the horfe- 
man did not turn his hand, and put him on 
with thfi calf of the inner leg.. 

Horfes have a natural inclination to this 
fault, innvaking dcmi-volts. ^J^^Volt. 

When the Italians work a horfe upon the 
demi-volts, called repolons, they affed to 
make them aeule, o^ cut QxotU See £n- 

TA9LER, ai)d HiPOLPNit 


ADDER.STUNG, is faid of cattle when 
ftung by adders, or bit by a hedge hog or 
ihrew, for which complaint ufe an ointment, 
made of dragon's blood, with a little barley-' 
meal and the white of an egg. 

ADVANCER, one of the ftarts or 
branches of a buck's attire, between the 
back antler and the palm. 

Ta AFFOREST, is to turn land into fo- 
reft ; and, on the contrary, to DISAFFO- 
REST, is to turn land from being foreft to 
other ufes. 

AGE OF AN Horse. To know how old a 
horfe is, there are feveral outward charaflers ; 
I. his teeth, whereof he has in his head juft 
forty ^ that is, fix great wong teeth above,* 
and fix below on one fide, with as many on 
the other, that make twenty-four, called 
grinders i then fix above, and as many be- 
low in the fore part of his mouth, termed 
gatherers^ and making thirty- fix; then four 
tuflies on each fide^ named bitt-teethy which: 
make jult forty. As mares ufually have no 
tuiks, Aeir teeth are only thirty-fix. 

A colt is foaled without teeth ^ In a few 
days he puts out four, which are called pin- 
cers, or nippers j foon after appear the four 
feparaters, next to the pincers; it is fome- 
times three or four months before the next, 
called corner teetb, pufli forth. Thefc 
twelve colt's teeth in the front of the 
mouth, continue, without alteration, till 
the colt is two years, or two years and a half 
old> which makes it difficult, without grqat 
'care to avoid being impofcd on during that 
interval, if the feller finds it his intereft to 
make the colt pafs for either younger or 
older than he really is : the only rule you 
have then to judge by is his coat,, and thq- 
hairs of his mane and tall. A colt of one 
year his a fupple, rough coat,, refembling 
that of a water fpaniel, and the hair of his 
mane and tail feels like flax, and hangs like 
a robe ujitwifted ; whereas a colt of two 
years has a flat coat, and ftraight hairs, like 
a grown horfe. 

At about two years and a half old, fome- 
times fooner, fometimes later, according as 
he. has been fed, a horfe begins to change 
his teeth. The pincers, which come the 


lirft, arc alfo the firft that fall j fo that at 
three years he has four horfe's, and eight 
colt's teeth, which are eafily known apart, 
the former being larger, flatter, and yel- 
lower than the other, and ftreaked from the 
end quite into the gums. 

Thefe four horfe pincers have, in the 
middle of their extremities, a black hole, 
very deep i whereas thofe of the colt are 
round and white. When the horfe is com- 
ing four years old, he lofes his four fepara- 
ters, or middle teeth, and purs forth four 
others, which follow the fame rule as the 
pincers. He hath now eight horfc's teeth, 
and four colt's. At five years old he fhcds 
the four corner, which are his laft colt's 
teeth, and is called a horfe. 

During this year alfo, his four tufks 
^'which are chiefly peculiar to horfe*s) come 
behind the others ; the lower ones often 
four months before the upper ; but what- 
ever may be vulgarly thought, a horfe that 
has the two lower tufks, Tf he has not the 
upper, may be judged to be under five years 
old, unlefs the other teeth. ftiew the con- 
trary ', for fome horfes that live to be very 
old never have any upper tufks at a!l. The 
two lower tuflcs are one of the moft certain 
rules that a horfe is coming five years old, 
notwithftanding his colt's teeth may not be 
all gone. 

Jockies and breeders, in order to make, 
tbcir colts feem five years old when they are 
but four, pull out their laft colt's teeth -, 
but if all the colt's teeth are gone, and no 
tufks appear, you may be certain this trick 
lias been played : another artifice they ufe, 
js to beat the bars every day with a wooden 
mallet, in the place where the tufks are to 
appear, in order to make them feem hard, 
as if the tufks werejufl ready to cut. 

When a horfe is coming fix years old, 
the two lower pincers fill up, and, inftead 
of the holes above-mentioned, fhew only a 
black fpot. Betwixt fix and feven the two 
middle teeth fill up in the fame manner ; 
and between feven and eight the corner 
teeth do the like ; after which it is faid to 
be impofTible to know certainly the age of 
a horle, he having no longer any mark in 
cbe mouth. 


You can indeed only have rccourfc to the 
tufks, and the fituation of the teeth, of 
which I (hall now fpeaki 

For the tufks you mud with your fingef 
feel the infide of them from the point quite 
to the gum. If the tufk be pointed flatj 
and has two little channels within fide^ you 
may be certain the horfe is not old, and 4t 
the utmoft only coming ten. Between ele- 
ven ^nd twelve the two channels arc reduced 
to one, which after twelve is quite gone, 
and the tufks are as round within as thcf 
are without; you have no guide then but the 
fituation of the teeth. The longeft teeth ^re 
not always a fign of the greateft age, buc 
their hanging over and pulhing forward, as 
their meeting perpendicularly, i$ certain 
token of youth. 

Many perfons, whilft they fee certaiil lit- 
tle holes in the middle of the teeth, ima- 
gine that fuch horfcb are but in their fe- 
ven th year, without regard to the fituation 
the teeth take as they grow old. 

When horfes are yoiing, their teeth meet 
perpendicularly, but grow longer, and pufh 
forward with age : bcfidcs the mouth of a 
young horfe is very flefhy within the pa- 
late, and his lips are (arm and hard : on the 
contrary, the infide of an old horfe's mouth 
is lean both above aiid beloW, and feems to 
have only the fkin uport the bones. The 
lips are foft and eafy to turn Up with thd 

All horfes are marked in the fame msirther, 
but fome naturally, and other, artificially. 
The natural mark is called Begue^ and fome 
ignorant perfons imagine fuch horfes are 
marked all their lives, becaufe for many 
years they find a little hole, of a kind of 
void in the middle of the feparatefs and Cor- 
ner teeth; but when the tufks are grown 
round, as well within as without, and the 
teeth point forward, there is room to cpn- 
jedlure in proportion as they advance from 
year to year, what the horfe's age may be, 
without regarding the cavity above men- 

The artificial manner is made ufe of ' bv 

dealers and jockies who mark their horfes, 

after the age of being known, to itiake them 

B 2 appear 

A G-E 

appear only fix or feven years old. They do 
it iri this manner : they thfow down the horfc 
Jo have hini . more at command, and, with 
a ft eel graver, like what is ufed for ivory ^ 
hollow the middle teeth a little, and the 
corner ones fomewh&t more;, then fill the 
holes with a little rofin, pitch, fulphur, or 
fome grains of wheat, which they burn in 
with a bit of hot wire, made in proportion 
to the hole. This operation they repeat 
from time to time, till they give the hole 
a lafting black, in imitation of nature ; 
but in fpite of all they can do, the hot iron 
makes a little yellowifh circle round thefe 
holes, like what it would leave upon ivoty j 
they have therefore another trick to prevent 
dcteftion. Which is to make the horfe foam 
from time to time, after having rubbed his 
mouth, lips, and gums with falt^ and the 
crumb of bread dried and powdered with 
fait. This foam bides the circle made by 
the iron* 

Another thing they cannot do, is, to 
counterfeit yoimg tulks,* it' being out of 
their power to make thofe two cranaies 
above mentioned which are given by nature: 
with files they may make them (harper or 
flatter^ biit then they take away the miAing 
natural .enamcj, fo that one may always 
know, by thefe tuflcs, hdrfes 'that are pad 
feven,, till they come to' twelve or thirteen. 

2. See* that the* hbrft be'nDt too' deep 
burnt 0^ .the lampa(s> and that his fleih lie 
fmooth with his bars C for if too deep burnt 
his hay and provender will flick herein,, which 
will be vcry.troublefome to him. 
. 3. Look to his hoofs, which if rugged, 
and as it were feamed one feam over ano- 
ther 5 or if they be dry,, full and crufty,. or 
crumbling, it is a fign of very old age j on 
the contrary, a fmooth, moift, hollow, and 
well founding hoof, betokens youthfulaefs 
in him, 

4, His eyes, which if round, full flar- 
ing, and flarting from his head, if the bits 
over them be filled, fmooth, and even with 
the temples, and no wrinkles either about 
hid brow, or under his eyes, then he is. 
youi)g -, but, if . otherwife, he has the con- 
Ifary characters, .aad it is a fign of old age. 


5. His hafr j for if a horfe that Is of anf 
dark colour, grows grifley only abdut hii- 
eye-brows, or underneath his mane, or anjr 
horfe of a whitifli colour fhould grow mean* 
nelled, with either black or red meannels* 
all over his body> then both are fi-gns of old 

6. Laftly, the bars in* hrs mouth, which if 
great, deep, and in the handling rough and 
hard, ftiew he is old j. but if they be foft,, 
(hallow, and gentle in the handling, he \% 
young and in a good (tate of body ; but if 
he has two flefhy cxcrefcences on the undef 
palate it will hinder him from drinking. 

The following particular remarks about 
their age„ af c taken out of M . de^ SolleyJeVs 
Compltat Horfeman. 

1. When ia horfc is "two years and a half 
old, he has twelve foal-iecth> in the fore part 
of his mouth, and about that'timc*, or loon 
after, four of them do fall, v^it. two aBove 
and two below, in the very middle ; thoirgH 
in fome hoxfes, • they do not fall till th?et 
years ; ia their* ftfcad - four . others appear*,, 
called' nippers or gatherers; miich ftrbngcfr 
and' larger then the foal teeth ; and then hi 
is. Commonly two years and a half old, o^ 
at mbft but three. 

2. At ' three and a half, and fbmctitxi'es at 
four yearsv He cafts the next-fotir foarl-teeth, 
viz^ two above, .and two below;* and ia 

•their room come foui* teeth CdMcdi/eparaters. 
There remain then but four foal-teeth in 
the comers, which he commonly changes 
at^fouf years and a half r it i^ therefore nc- 
ceflary to keep in memory, two and a half, . 
three and a half, and four and a half ; that 
is to fay, when a horfc has cafl two teeth 
above, and as many below, he is but two 
years and a. half old : when he has caft four 
teeth above, and as many below, he has at- 
tained to the age of three years and a half i 
and as foon as he has caft fix above, and a$ 
many below, which is to have them all 
changed,, he is then come to four years and 
a half.. 

3. It is to be obferved, that the corner 
teeth in the upper gums, are caft before 
thofe in the nether ;. on the contrary, the 
under tulhes grow out before the upper ; 


A G E 

MnA horfes are often fick whdn the tuAes'oT 
•the upper gums cut, but arc never fo> when 
the ochftrs belov corrie forth. 

4. The calhes are proceeded by no foal- 
tee th, but grow up when a horfc is about 
tkfee years and a baFf old, ' and generally 
appear befo^re dhe comer teeth ^re caft* 

So foon 86 the gatherers sxiA/epara/ers hare 
pierced and cut the gums, they make all 
their griywth in fifteen days, but the corner 
teeth da not grow (6 Suddenly : yet that 
does not hinder^ but at dxir very firft 
appearing, they are . as thick and broad as 
the others^ but are no higher than tlie thick- 
nefs of a ctnwn pfece> aikl very Ibarp and 

5. Wh^n a borfe has no mdre foaUteeth, 
and his corner teeth begin to appear, 
he is in his fifth year; that is» he is about 
46\ST ytzt% and a half» and is. going in his 
fifth year. 

When he firft puts <rat hisr comer teeth, 
they aro of equal height with the gums on 
the outfide, and the infide of them is BUed 
with tiefh, till he be near five ; and when 
he conoas to be five vears old, that-flefli dt£» 
appears, and there will remain m the place 
of it a hollow ; that is, they are not fo high 
on the infide as on the oucfide, which they 
avill conr>e to bej about a year after their 
firft appearing* 

So that' when a horfe^s corner teeth are fil- 
led with fleih, you may confidently affirm 
that he is not five* 

6. From five to five and a half^; the cor-^ 
ner teeth remain hollow on the infide, and 
that part which was filled with fte(h is 

7* From five and a half to fix, the hollow 
on the infide fills up, and the teeth become 
fiat and equal at top. Only a little. cavity re- 
mains in the middle, refembiing the eye of 
a dry bean, and then they fay the horfe is 
entering fix 

And fo long as a horfe^s corner teeth are 
not fo high on the infide as the out, he is 
ftill faid to be but five, tho' he be five and a 
half, and fometimes fix. 

8. You may alfo take notice, that at four 
years and a haL^, when the corner teeth ap- 


pear^ and are filled on the infide with fle(^, 
the outfide of them will then be about the 
thicknefs of a crown piece above the gums, 
and will fo continue till five ; and from 
thence to five and 2^ half, the outward edge 
will be about the thicknefs of two crown 
j)ie'ces above the gums .• at fix they will be 
;iear the breadth of one's little finger above 
the gums, and his tulhes will be at their 
full length. 

. At fevcn years, they will be about the 
thicknefs of the fccond or ring finger above 
the gums, andthe hollow alrm^ quite worn 
and gone : 

9, At eight yeats old, the houfe will be 
raz'd ^ that is, none of his teeth will be hol- 
low, biit'flat qui tie over, arid near the thick* 
ncfs of the middle finger above the gums. 

10. After a horfe is r raz'd, one, cannot 
judge of his age, but by t^c length of his 
fore-teeth, or by his tuflies^. 

As the gums through time grow lean, fo 
they make the teeth appear long 5 and it is 
certain,, that fo much the longer a horfc's 
teeth are, he is fo much the older; and as 
he grows old, his teeth appear rough and 
become yellow : not but that there are fome 
old faKM-fes who have very fliort and white 
teeth ; and people fay of fuch horfes, they 
have a good mouth confidcring their age. 

Some alfo have a black fpeck in their 
teeth, refembiing the true mark, a long 
time after they have paflfcd eight or nine, 
but then it is not hollow. 

lu The tufi>es are the raoft certain mark, 
whereby to know a horfe's age. 

If a horfe be but fix, the upper tufhes 
will be a little channelled, or fome«vhat hol« 
lowed and grooved on the infide ; and when 
he is above fix they fill up, and become a 
littke round on the infide. 

This obfervation never or rarely fails. 

If you feel the tufiies of his upper jaw 
with your finger, and find them worn equal 
with the palate, the horfc is then at leaft ten 
years old : this remark feldom proves defi- 
cient, unlefs the horfe when young has car- 
ried a bigger mouthed bitt than was proper 
for him. 

Young horfes always have their under 



tuflics fliarp ^nd pointed, pretty long, fome- [ 
what edged <>o both fides, and without any 
ruft upon them y but as they become aged, 
their tufhes groW big and blunt, round and 
fcaly, and in vej^ old horfes, they arc ex- 
tremely thickj><^und and yellow. 

iT^-^Ar-hork is faid to be Jhell-toothed^ 
when he has long teeth, and yet black fpecks 
in them, and this mark lafls during life ; 
it is cafily known, becaufe the mark appears 
in the other fore teeth as well as in the cor- 
ner teeth. 

13. In advanced age, the. points of the 
gatherers ftand outward a little ; and when 
the horfe is extremely old, they point almoft 
ftrait forward ; but while he is young, they 
ftand almotl ftraight up, and are juft equal 
with the outer edges of thofe above. 

Sometimes the upper teeth point forwards 
in this manner ; but for the mod part the 
under do it. 

,14. After the mark is gone, rccourfe may 
be had to the horfe's legs, to know whether 
they be neat and good to his flank if it be 
well truflcd, not too full or fwallowed up : 
as alfo to his feet and his appetite. 

15. In young horfes, that part of the 
nether-jaw bone which is three or four fin- 
gers breadth above the beard, is always round, 
but in old horfes fliarp and edged -, fo that 
a man who is accuftomcd to it, will, before 
he opens a horfe's mouth, judge pretty near 
of his age. This is a good remark. 

16. Some pull the (kin of the nether jaw 
bone or ihoulder a little to them, and if 
the fkin continue long without returning; to 
it's place, it is a fign, they fay, the horfe is 
not young, and the longer it is in returning, 
the older he is : a man fliould not truft much 
to this obfcrvation, becaufe the {kin of a 
lean horfe, though young, will be longer 
to it's place than the fkin of an old horfe 
that is fat and plump. 

17. Vou may alfo judge of a horfc's age 
by looking on his palate ; becaufe as he 
grows old, the roof of his mouth becomes 
.leaner and drier towards the middle j and 
thofe ridges which in young horfes are pret- 
ty high and plump, diminilh as they cncreafe 
%n age j fo that in very old horfes, the roof I 


of the mouth is nothing but fkin and 

This remark is good, efpecially in mares, 
that feldom have any tufhes to know their 
age by. 

18. Grey horfes become white as they 
grow old, and when very aged white all over, 
yet is is not to be inferred from thence 
that no horfes are foaled white, thoujgh ' it 
happens but very rarely : however thofe that 
are foaled grey, are known by their knees 
and hams, which, for the moft part, fiili 
continue of that cdour. 

19. If you do hot require exadtnefs, but 
only to know- whether the r horfe be )!oung 
or old, lift up the upper lip; and if . his 
upper teeth be long, yellow^ and over-paf- 
fing thofe below, it denotes age ; as the con« 
trary figns, viz. fhort and white teeth, 
and the teeth of the upper jaw not ovcr-paC- 
fing thofe below, betoken youth. 

20; There are fonne fort of horfes, whofe 
teeth always continue white and fhort, as 
if they were but fix years old. 

To prevent being cheated, obferve if there 
be any fcratches on the outfide of the hol- 
lows of the » teeth, becaufe the graver fome- 
times flips and fcratches the other parts of 
the teeth ; for then you may conclude him 
counter-marked; and an artificial hollow^ 
is much blacker than a natural one : take 
notice alfo of his upper tu(hes ; the infide 
of which fhould be grooved or hollow, till 
the horfe be feven years olds and farther, 
obferve whether he has any figns of age, 
fuch as the upper teeth long, ovcr-pafling 
thofe below, and yellow ; the lower part of 
the nether-jaw-bone, fharp and edged j the 
under tulhes worn, big and fcaly ; if he 
have thefe tokens, and yet appear marked^ 
it is very probable that he is counter mark- 
ed. For other particulars ; fee Seeling^ and 
teeth of a horfe. 

As to a bunting, or race horfe, he ©ught 
to be five years old, and well weighed before 
you begin to hunt him 

For tho'it be a frequent cuftom among no- 
ted horfemen to train their horfes up to hunt* 
ing at four years old, and fome fooner, yet at 
that age his joints not being full knit, nor he 




c6me to his beft ftrength and courage ^ he is 
difabled from performing any matter of fpeed 
and toughnefs ; and indeed put to fore labour 
and toil fo young, he runs very great hazard 
offtrainsy and the putting out o( fplenls^ ffa- 
vinsy curbsy and wind-galls ; bclides the daunt- 
ing of his fpirit, and abating his natural cou- 
rage, infomuch that he will become melan- 
cfioly, ftifF, and rheumatic, and have all the 
diftempers of oU age, when it might be ex- 
pefted he Ihould be in his prime. 

AGE OF A Hart, is judged by the furni- 
ture of his head. — At a year old, there is 
nothing to be fecn but bunches —At two 
years old, the horns appear more perfedlly, 
but ftraitef and fmadler.— At three they 
grow into two fpars ; at four into three ; 
and fo increafe yearly in branches, till they 
are fix years old ; after which their age is 
not with any certainty to be known by their 

AGIST, properly a bed, or refting place; 
whence to agift, fignifies to take in and feed 
the cattle of ftrangcrs in the king's foreft, 
and to gather money due for the fame. It 
is alfo extended to the taking in of other 
men's cattle into any man^s . ground, at a 
certain rate per week. 

' AGISTOR, an officer that takes in cattle 
of ftrangers to feed in a foreft, and receives 
for -the king's ufe fuch tack- money as be- 
comes due upon that account. 

In Englifli they are otherwife called Guft- 
takers, or Gift- takers, and made by letters- 
patent to the number of four, in every foreft 
where his majefty has any pannage, 

AID ; to aid, affift, or fuccour a horfe, 
is to (uftain and help him to work true, and 
mark his times or motions with a juft exaft- 
nefs. Hence they fay. 

Affift your horfe with the calves of your 
legs, help him with a nice tender heel, aid 
him with your tongue : it is not enough to 
aid this horfe with the rod, he mufthave 
harflier aids 

Aids are the helps or affiftance that the 
horfeman gives from the gentle and mode- 
rate effefts of the bridle, the fpur, the cave- 
fon, the poinfon, the rod, the aftion of the 
legs, the motion of the thighs, and found 
of the tongue. 



We give thefc aids to prevent the correc- 
tion and chaftifement that is fometimes ne« 
ceiTary in breaking and managing a horfe. 

You will neveY ride well unlefs you be 
very attentive and aftive, without precipi- 
tancy^ in not lofing or miffing your times^ 
and in giving the aid feafonably, for with- 
out that you will accuftom your horfe to 
dofe upon it. If your horfe does not obey 
the aids of the calves of your legs, help him 
with the fpur, and give him a prick or 

This forrel horfe has his aids very nice ; 
that is, he takes them with a great deal of 
facility and vigour : — this gentleman gives 
his aids very fine, that is, he imitates and 
rouzes up the horfe feafonably, and helps 
him at juft turns, in order to make him 
mark his time or motions juftly. — The 
barb knows the aid ; he obeys or anfwers 
the aids, he takes them finely. — You do not 
give the aids of the cavefon with difcretion ; 
you make a correftion of them, which will 
baulk your horfe. See Brouiller. 

Inner aids. Outer Aids. The inner 
heel, inner leg, inner rein, &c. are called 
inner aids ; the outer heel, outer leg, 
outer reign, &c. are called outer aids. See 

AIR, is a cadence and liberty of motion, 
accommodated to the natural dlfpoficion of 
the horfe, which makes him work in the 
manage and rife with obedience, meafure, 
and juftnefs of time. Some riding-matters 
take the word Air in a ft rift fenfe, as fig- 
nifying the manage that is higher, flower, 
and more artful or defigned then the terra 
a terra ; "but others give it a larger figni- 
fication, including under that fenfe, a terra 
a terra ; for if a horfe manages well in a 
terra a terra, they fay the horfman has 
happily hit the air of the horfe ; in gene- 
ral the walk, rrot» and gallop, arc not ac- 
counted airs, and ye fome very good rid- 
ing mafters would underftand by air, the 
motion of the horfe's legs upon a gallop. 
For inftancc, they will fay fuch a horfe has 
not the natural air; that is, he bends his 
fore-legs too little; you fhould give or 
form an air to your horfe> for he has no 



natural air, and fince his haundies arc vjory 
good he is capable of the manage, if you 
do but learn him an air. 

All your horfes have an air naturally ; 
that is, they have motion enough with their 
fore- legs to take a cadence, if they arc put 
to work at ferra a terra : — this horfc always 
takes his leffon with his own air : — fix or 
confirrm that horfe in the air h,c has weaken: 
—this forrel takes the air of the curvets, but 
that prefents himfclf with an air caprioles : 
— this mare has no inclination nor difpofition 
to thefe airs : are terms ufed in the manage. 
See Pesate. 

High airs, or high manage, are the mo- 
tions of a horfe that rifes higher than terra 
a 'terra^ and works at curvets, balotadei, 
croupades, and caprioles. In regard that 
horfe has the beginning or firft fteps of 
raifed airs, and of himfelf affefts a high 
manage, you ought to ufe this his difpofi- 
tion difcreetly, that he may not be dif- 
heartened or baulked; for your high airs 
make a horfc angry when he. is too much 
put to it ; acid you ought to fupply his 
flioulders very well before you put him to 
leap. See Pesate and Leaping. 

AIRING OF Horses. Airing brings 
feveral advantages to horfcs. 

Firji, It purifies their blood, (if the air 
be clean and pure) it purges the body from 
many grofs and fufFocating humours, and 
fo hardens and enfeams a horfe's fat, that it 
is not near fo liable to be diflblved by or- 
<linary exercife. 

Secondly^ \t teaches him how to let his 
wind rake equally, and keep time with the 
other aftions and motions of his body. 

Thirdly^ It fharpens the appetite, and 
provokes the ftomacb, (which is of great 
advantage both to Gallopers and HunUrs^ 
which are apt to lofe their flomach either 
through excefs or want of exercife :) for the 
iharpnefs of the air will drive the horfc's 
natural heat, from the outward to the inward 
parts, which heat, by furthering concoc- 
tion, creates an appetite. 

Markham dircds, if a horfe be very fat, 
to air him before Jun-rife^ and after yi«- 
fftting\ and aiiQiher author fays^ that no- 


th^ng is more wbolefome than early and late 
airings: others again do not approve of 
thi$, and urge, that as all things that any 
ways hinder .the ftreivgth and vigour of na- 
ture are to be avpjded ; now that extremity 
of cold, and bein£i: out earlv and late do 
fo, is evidcr^tly feen by horfes that run 
broad all winter, which however hardly 
bred and kept with the befl: care and fodder, 
yet cannot by any means be advanced to fo . 
good cafe in winter, as an indifferent. paf- 
ture will raife them to in fummer : and as* 
this holds true of no£lurnal colds, it muf^ 
needs be verified in fome proportionate 
rneafure of the morning and evening dews, 
and that pjercing cold which is obferve(^ to 
be more intenfe at the opening and clofe of 
the day, thag any part of the night. 

Befidcs th^t, the dews and moifl: rimes 
do as much injury (o a horfe as the fharpeft 
colds or frofts, and if a horfe is any ways 
inclinable to caiarrbs, rheums, or any other 
cold diftempers, he is apt to have the hu- 
mours augmented, and the difeafe fenfibly 
increaPsd by thefe early and late airings. 

But if he be not had forth to air till the 
fun be rifen, it will chear his fpirits ; and 
it is feen that all horfes love the fun's 
warmth, as in thofe that lie out a*nights, 
who will repair to thofe pl^Cjcs where they 
can have mod benefit of the beams, of the 
fun, after he is rifen, to relieve them froa^ 
the coldnefs of the preceding night. 

And befides the benefit of the fun, the 
air will be more mild and temperate, a3 
that it will rather invigorate than prey upoa 
his fpirits, and more increafe his itrength 
than impair it. 

And as for bringing down a horfe's fat, 
we need not be at a lofs for that, and to 
keep him from being purfive, and too high 
in fiefh, to reduce him to cleannefs, and a 
more moderate Hate of body : for it is but 
keeping him out fo much longer at a time, 
both morning and evening, and you will 
undoubtedly obtain your end by fuch long 
airing, joined with true found heats i and it 
is from the length of airings that you muft 
expeft to bring your horfe to a perfect wind 
and true courage » 



*- li 

A N B 

AIRY, or AERY, a term ufed to cx- 
prefs the reft of a hawk or eagle. 

AMBLING; a motion in ahorfcthat is 
much dcfircd, very ufcful, butnot eafilv to 
fee obtained the right way, notwichftanding 
the vain confidence of the various profeflbrs 
of it, who, though they fo confidently aflerc 
the fuccefs, yet diflfer in their nnethods to 
efFcft it : for fooie will teach it in new 
ploughed fields ; others will teach a horfe to 
amble from the gallop ; many ufc no better 
way for it than by weights. 

borne arnble in hand, not ridden •, others 
by the help of thinner fhocs, made on pur- 
pofe : many fold fine foft .lifts about the 
gambrels of the horfe v fomc amble by the 
hand only, others ufc the tramel, which 
indeed if rightly managed is good: but the 
bcft way of all is to try with your hands, 
by a gentle and deliberate. ra<:kjng and 
thrufting of the horfe forward, by helping 
him in the weak part of the -mouth with 
your fnaiBe, which muft be*fmooth,' big, 
and full; and correfting him firft on one 
Ude, then on another, with the calves of 
your .legs, and fometimes with a fpur. 

If you can make him of himfelf fall into 
an amble, tho' fliuffling difordtrly, there 
will be . much labour faved ; for that aptncfs 
to amble will" make him, with, more eafe 
and lefs danger i'p the ufe of the tramel, 
find the motion without ftumbling or amaze- 
ment , but if you find he will by no means 
either appreliend the motions or intentions, 
then ftiuggle not with the animal, but fall 
to the ufc ofthetramel* which fee for that 
purpofe under Tramel. See Rules for 
Buying Horfes. 

AMPHIBIOUS Animals, arc fuch as 
live partly on the land and partly in the 
water, as badgers, otters, ducks, &c. 

ANBURY, or AMBURY; a kind of 
wen, or fpungy wart, growing upon any 
part of a horfe's body, full of blood ; the 
manner of curing of which, is to tie it about 
hard with a thread, or rather with a horfc- 
hair, and in eight days it will fall ofi^, then 
ftrcw upon it the powder of verdigreafe to 
kill it at the root, and heal it up again with 
green ointment ^ but if it be fo flat that 

A N G 

I nothing can be bound about it, then take 
it away with an incifion-knife clofe to tlic 
fkin, or elfe burn it with a (harp hot iron, 
cutting. it round about fo deep as to leave 
none of the root behind v and after having 
applied turpentine and hog*s lard melted 
together, heal it up as before : but if this 
wart grows in a finewy part, where a hoc 
iron is improper, eat out the core with oil 
of vitriol, or white fublimate, then ftop the 
hole with flax dipt in the white of an egg, 
for a day or two, and at laft dry it up with 
unflaked lime and honey. 

Or, for thefe w^rts put 3 ounces of pow- 
der of copperas in a crucible, with i ounce 
of arfenic powdered; place the crucible in 
the middle of a charcoal fire, ftirring the 
fubftance, but carefully avoid . the ma- 
lignant lleams : when the matter appears 
fomewhat rcddilb, take the crufible offthe 
fire, and after it is cool, break and beat the 
matter into a very fine powder, incorporate 4 
ounces of this powder with 5 ounces of album 
raHs, and make an ointment to be applied 
cold to warts, anointing fhem lightly every 
day, and they will fall off like kernels of 
nuts, without caufing any fweUings in the 
legs, if the application be orderd fo as 
only the warts be anointed, and the horfe 
be not worked or ridden during the cure : 
and after the warts fall off^, drefs the fore 
with the Countcfs's ointment i which fee 
defcribed under its proper head. 

ANGLING, is an art, which as it pleads 
great antiquity, fo the knowledge thereof 
is with much difficulty to be obtained ; but 
fome obfervations concerning it will not be 
amifs. And firft, the angler muft remem- 
ber by no means to fifli in light and dazzling 
apparel, but his cloathing muft be of a dark 
Iky colour : and at the places where he ufes 
to angle, he fhould once in four or five days 
caft in corn boiled foft ; if for carp or tench, 
oftner : he may alfo caft in garbage, beafts 
livers, worms chopt in pieces, or grains 
fteeped in blood and dried, which will at- 
tvdidi the fifti thither : and in fifliing, to keep 
them together, throw in half a handful of 
grains of ground malt, which muft be done 
in ftill watery butinaftream you muft caft: 

C your 


]^ur grains above yourhook^ and not about 
ic« for as they float from the hook, fo will 
they draw the fflh after tbenr. Now rf yon 
would bait a ftream^ get fome tin boxes 
made fuH of holes no bigger than jnft dt 
Yor a worm to creep through, which fill 
therewith, and having feftened a plummet 
to fink them, place them into the ftream, 
with a ftring fattened thereto, that they nrray 
be drawn out at pleafure ; by the fmalJnefs 
of the holes aforefatd, the worms can crawl 
out but very leifurely, and as they crawl 
the fi(h will refort about them. 

Now if in a ftream you would bait for 
falmon, trout, umber, or the like, take 
fbme blood, and therewith incorporate fine 
day, barley and malt, ground, adding fome 
water, all which make into a pafte with ivy 
gum, then form it into cakes and caft them 
into the ftream : if you find your bait take--' 
no effeft in attrafting of the fi(h, you may 
conclude fome* pike or perch lurk there to 
ftize his prey, for fear of which the fHIi 
dare not venture thereabout ; take therefore 
your troll, and let your bait be either 
brandlings or lob- worms,, or you may ufe 
gentles or rninows„ which they wUl greedi- 
ly fnap at. 

As for your rod, ft muft be kept neither 
too dry nor too moift, left the one make it 
brittle^ and the other rotten i and rf it be 
ftiltry dry weather, wet your rod a little 
before you angle, and having ftruck a good 
fi(hy kfcp your rod bent, and that will hin- 
der him from running to the end of the 
line, whereby he will either break his hold 
or hook : and if you would know what bait 
the fifh loves beft, at the time of yourfifh- 
ing, when you have taken one, flit the giPI,. 
and open and take out the ftomach, opening 
it with out bruifing, and there you wiU find 
what he (cd on laft, and had a fancy to, 
whereby you may bait your hook accord- 

When you fifli. thdrer yourfclf under 

fome bufh or tree, fo far from the brink of 
the river, that you can only difcern your 
float ; for fifh are timorous, and very eafy 
to be affrighted: Knd you will experimen- 
tally find the beft way of angling with a 

A N (3 

fly, IS down the river, and not up; nercher 
need* you ever to make above fix trials in t 
place, cither with fly or ground bait, when 
you angle for trout, tor by that time he will 
either oflfer or take, or rcfufe the bait, and 
not ftir at all 5 but if you would have fifh 
bite eagerly, and without fufpicion, yoir 
may prefcnt them with fuch baits as there arer 
naturally inclined to, and in fuch manner as' 
they arc accuftomcd to receive them ^ and 
if you ufe paftcs for baits you muft add 
flax or wool> with which mix a littlt butter 
tapreferve it from wafhing oflF the hook j 
aud laftly, obferve. 

That the eyes of fuch fifhes as you kill^ 
are moft excellent baits on* the bookr fop 
almoft all forts of fiflx* 

BireSions for FLV-FrsRiNay noith a Ltfi aj 
finh neeejfary Ingredients as evury Ahglevh 
Jbould bt fupplied with. 

Firft, let your rod be light, and very gentle, 
the beft are of two pieces^ (See the Article 
RODJ and let not your line exceed, (cfpccr- 
ally for three or four links next to the hook) 
three or four hairs at the moft> though you 
may frfh a little ftrongcr above in the upper 
part of your line : but if you can attain to- 
angfe with one hair, you fhall have morc^ 
rifes and catch more filh.. You muft be furc 
not to cumber yourfelf . with too long a line, 
as moft do : and before you begin to angle, 
endeavour to have the wind on your back, 
and the fun, if it fhines, to be before you, 
and to fiih down the ftream i and carry the 
point or top of your rod downward, by whichr 
means the (hadow of yourfelf and rod 
will be the Icaft feen to the fifh •, for the fight 
of any fhade alarnrs the fifh> and ipoil^ 
your [port, of which you muft take great 
care. In the middle- of Marcb^ till which 
time a man.fhould not catch a trout, or iu 
/tfril^ if the weather be darky or a little win- 
dy or cloudy, the beft fifhing i-s with the 
palmer-worm, but of thefc there are divers 
kinds, or at leaft of divers colours ; thefc 
and the May-^y are the ground of all fly-ang- 
ling, which are to be thus Ki>ade : 


AN G- 

■ Firft, you muft arm your hook with the 
line in the infide of it, then take your fcif- 
larsy and cut fo much of a brown mallard's 
feather as in your own reafon will make the 
wings of it, you having withal regard to 
the bignefs or littlcnefs of your hook ; then 
lay the outmoft part of your feather next to 
your hook, then the point of your feather 
next the fliank of your hook; and having fo 
done, whip it three or four times about the 
hook with the fame filk with which your 
hook was armed ; and having made the filk 
faft, take the hackle of a cock or capon's neck, 
or a plover^s top, which is ufually better $ 
take off the one fide of the feather, and then 
take the hackle, filk, or crewel, gold or fil- 
ver thread, make thefc faft at the bent of the 
iiook ; that is to fay, below your arming i 
then you muft take the hackle, the filver or 
gold thread, and work it up to the wings, 
Shifting or ftill removing your finger, as 
you turn the filk about the hook : and ftill 
ik>oking at every ftopor turn, that your gold, 
or what materials foever you make your fly 
of, do lie right and neatly; and if you find 
Aey do fo, when you * have made the 
head, make all faft: then work your hackle 
ttp to the head, and make that faft : and 
with a fieedle or pin divide the wing into 
two, with the arming filk whip it about crofs 
^ays betwixt the wings, and with your thumb 
]FOU muft turn the point of the feather to- 
wards the bent of the hook, and work three 
or four citnes about the fiiank of the hook, 
view the proportion, and if all be neat and 
to your liking, faften. 

Indeed, no dire£tion can be given to make 
a man of a dull capacity able to make a 
fiy well : and yet this with a little praftice 
will help an ingenious angler in a good de- 
gree : but to fee a fly made by an artift in 
that kind, is the beft teaching to make it -, 
and then an ingenious angler may walk by 
the river and mark what flies fall on the wa- 
ter that day and catch one them, if he fees 
the trout leap at a fly of that kind : having 
always hooks ready hung, with him, and ha- 
ving a bag alfo always with him, with bear's 
hair, or the hair of a brown or fad-coloured 
beiferj hackles of a cock or capon, fcveral 

A N G 

coloured filks and crewel to make the bo- 
dy of the fly, the feathers of a drake's head, - 
black or brown flieep's wool, or hog's wool, 
or hair, thread of gold and of filver; filk 
of feveral colours, cfpecially fad-coloured, 
to make the fly's head ; and there be alfo , 
other coloured feathers, both of little birds 
and of fpcckled fowl 5 having thofe with him 
in a bag, and trying to make a fly, though 
he mifs at firft, yet fliall he at the laft hit it 
better, even to fuch a perfeftion, as none 
can well teach him ; and if he hit to make 
his fly right, and have the luck to hit alfo 
where there is ftdrc of trouts, a dark day, 
and a right wind, he will catch fuch num« 
bcrs of them, as will encourage him to grow 
more and more in love with the art of fly- 

Not having particularly enumerated the 
materials neceflary for fly-making, it will not 
be improper, once for all, to do it. Firft, 
you muft be provided with bear's hair of dt-* 
vers colours ; as grey, dun, light and dark 
coloured, bright brown, and that which 
(bines : alfo canriers hair, dark, light, and 
of a colour between both: badger's hair, or 
fur: fpaniel's hair from behind the ear, 
light and dark brown, blackifli and black : 
hog's down, which may be had, about Chrift- 
mas, of butchers, or rather of thofe that 
make brawn j it (hould be plucked from un- 
der the throat, and other foft places of the 
hog, and muft be of the following colours, 
viz. black, red, whitilh, and fandy; and 
for other colours, you may get them dyed 
at a dyer's -, feal's fur is to be had at the 
trunk-maker's j get this alfo dyed of the 
colours of cow's and calPs hair, in all the 
diflPerent (hades, from the light to the darkeft 
brown ; you will then never need cow's or 
calPs hair ; both which are har(h, and will 
never work kindly, nor lie handibmely : get 
mohairs, black, blue, purple, white, violet ; 
Ifabella, which colour is defcribed as of a 
bright gold colour purple : philomot, from 
feuille morie, a dead tear, yellow and orange : 
camlets, both hair and worfted, blue, yellow, 
dun, light and dark brown, red violet, pur- 

{>le, black, horfe-flefii, pink, and orange co- 
ours« Some recommend the hair of abor« 
C 2 tive 


tiyc colts tod calves } but feal's fur> dyed 
as above is much better. 

;A piece of an old Turkey carpet will 
furnifh excellent dubbing, untwjft the yarn, 
and pick out the wool, carefully fcparating 
the different colours, and lay ic by. 

Some ufe for dubbing barge-fail, concern- 
ing which the reader is to know, that the 
fails of wefj-country and othtr barges, when 
old, are ufually converted into tilts, under 
which there is almoll a continual fmoke 
arifing from the fire and the fteam of the 
beef-kettle which all fuch barges carry, and 
which, in time, dyes the tile ot a fine brown ^ 
this would be excellent dubbing, but that 
the material of thefe fails is (heep*s wool^ 
which foaks in the water, and foon becomes 
very heavy: however, get of this as many 
different (hades as yofu can, and have feal's fur 
and hog-wool, dyed to match them ; which, 
by reafon they are more turged, flifF and 
light, and fo float better, are in molt cafes, 
to be preferred to worfted, crewels, and, 
indeed, to every other kind of wool ; and 
obferve that the hog-wool is befl: for large, 
and the fcal's fur for fmall flies. 

Gpt alfo furs of the following animals, viz. 
the fquirrel, particularly from his tail j fox 
cub, from the tail where it is downy<, and of 
an adi -colour ; an old fox, and old otter, 
otter cub, badger, fulimart, or filmart ; a 
hare, from the neck, where it is of. the colour 
of withered fern ; and, above all, the yellow 
fur of the martern, from the gills or fpots 
under the jaws. All thefe, and almoft every 
other kind, of fur, are eafily got at the fur- 
rier's. 1- 
Hackles are a very important article in fly- 
making : they arc the long flender feathers 
that hang from the head of a cock down his 
necki there may alfo be fine ones got fron) 
near his tail 5 be careful that they are not 
too rank, which they are when the fibres 
are rhore than half an inch longj and for' 
fome purpofes thefe are much too big: be 
provided with thefe ot the following colours, 
viz^ red, dun, yellpwilli, white, orange, and 
perfect black, aad \4'henever you meet, aliye 
or dead, v»it:h a cock of the game- breed, 
whoic hackle is of a (Irong brown-redj never 

AN G' 

fair to buy him s but obferve that the feathers 
of a cock-chicken, be they ev(r fo fine for 
fhape and colour, are good for little; for 
they are tpo downy and weak to ftand 
ere£t after they are once- wet> and fo are thofe 
of the Bantom cock^ 

Feathers arc abfolytely neceflfary for the 
wings, and other patrts of flies ; get therefore 
feathers from the back and other parts of 
the wild mallat:d„ or drake^ the feathers of 
a partridge, efpecially thofe red ones that are 
in the tail :. feathers from a cock pheafant's. 
breaft and tail, the wings of a blackbird, a 
brown hen> pf a ft^rling, a jay,, a land rail,, 
throflle, a .fieldfare, and a water coQtj the 
feathers frogni the crown of the pewit, plover^ 
or lapwing •, green artd cofypcc coloured 
peacock's ^nd Wack oflrich ; herle ; feather* 
from a heron's neck and wings •, and rcmeov* 
ber, that in moft inftances, where the drake's 
or wild mallard's feather is hereafter direc- 
ted, that from a darling's wing will domucb 
better, aa being of a finer grain^ and iefs 

Be provided with marking-filk of alt 
colours, fine but very ftrong, flaw-Clk, gold 
and filver flatted wire or twift,. a Iharpknifc^ 
hooks of all Gzes, hog's briftles for loops to* 
your flies, (hoemaker's wax, a large aecdld to» 
raifc your dubbing when flatted with work* 
ing, and a fmall but fharp pair of fciflars^ 

And lafl:ly, if any materials required in the 

fubfequent lifl:. of flies may have bc^a 

omitted in the foregoing catalogue, be care* 

ful ^o gdd tbc^T) %o yqur former ftock as oftea 

; as you fliall find any fuch omifTions* ' 

Remember, wi^.aH your dubbing, to mix 
bear's hare and hog's wool, which are ItifF^ 
aiKl not ape to ip>bibe the water, as the fine 
furs, and moft other kind of dubbing do r 
and remember :alfo, that marcern's fur is the 
beft yellow you. can ufc^ 

The ufe of^a-bag is-atteaded with man^ 
inconveniences, of which, the mixing and 
wafling your materials arc not the leall : to 
prevent which the following mcrthod is 
recommended : tak.e a piece of fine grained 
parchment, of feyen inches by nine, and fold 
it fo that the fize and proportion of it will be 
that of a fmall p^avo volume » then opca 


A N G 

it, and through the firH- leaf, with a (harp 
penknife and ruler, make three crofs cuts, 
at the fame proportionable diftance as thofe 
in Fig. I, in the Plate of Fishing Imple- 
ments, and with a needle and filk ditch the 
two leaves together, as in that figure ; let 
<tarh of the margins be half an inch at Icaft. 

Then, with a pair of compafTes, take the 
diftance fro*rj A to B, and fet it in the nniddic 
of a finall piece of parchnrient i and lijketvifc 
fet on th« f^me diftance to the right and left, 
and at each extremity cut off, with a penknife 
and ruler, . tl>€ fpare parchment, obferving 
that the fides are cxaOly parallel. 

At aljpvic a quarter of an inch from the top, 
T¥>ake a {:ut througl;} the firfl: and third divi* 
fions, and, with a; pair of fciflars^ fnip out 
the loofe.'picccs. 

Then fet on the di (lance from A to C, and 
cut as before, leaving the middle divifion an 
inch longer at bottom than the others : when 
this is done, your parchment will have the 
fhape and propoi tion of Fig. 2. and you may 
cut the upper flap as jt appears there. 

Be careful thiat the cuts, and indeed all 
your work, are exaftiy fquare i and when 
this is done, turn in ^ the fides and ends of 
the parclvTient> ib cue a& before, and prefs 
the folds ^it]ii.a folding-ftick, and you. have 
one pockfct, ihap^ti as Fig.- 3. which put 
into the Aril: partition. 

Purfue ihe fame method with the fame 
pockets, and thofe,. for the other partitions j 
and in thi& manner proceed till you have com- 
pleted fix leaves, which are to make the firft 
of your book} the larger of rhefe pockets 
are to hqld hog's wool, feal's fur, and bear's 
hair, and the fmaller the finer furs ; which 
are thofe of the martern, fox-cub, i^c. 

In each of the fix divilions, in every leaf, 
with a fadier's hollow punch, make a hole; 
to which end take a thin narrow ftick of' 
beach, or any hardifh wood, and when the is in its place, put the ftick down in- . 
to the pocket, and, obferving the center of 
the divifion, give the punch a fmvt blow 
with a mallet ; thefe holes will flicw what is 
contained in each of the pockets. 

The next leaf may be fmgle ; flitch 
it ax:rofs' with double filk diagonally^ and 

41 N G 

crofs thofe ftitches with others, and the 
fpaces will be of a lozenge-(hape ; let the 
ftitches be half an inch in length: into 
thefe you tire to tuck your dubbing, when 
mixed ready for ufe. 

The next leaf ftiould be double, ftitched 
with a margin as • the others; and through 
the firll fold cut a lozenge, as big as the fizc 
will allow of; into this you may tuck three 
or four wings of fmall birds, as the ftarling, 
landTrail, the throttle, i^c. At the back of 
this leaf few two little parchment ftraps, of 
half an inch wide very ftrong; through which 
put a fmall, but very neat and (harp pair of 

You may, on another finglc leaf, make 
four or five crofs-bars of long ftichcs, through 
which, as y^ell on the back as the forcfide, 
you may put large feathers^ namely, thofe of 
a cock-pheafant's tail, a ruddy brown hen, 

The next three leaves fliould be double ; 
ftitch them through the middle, from fide 
to fide, and with the compaflcs defcribe a 
circle of about an inch and half diameter; 
cut out the parchment within the circle ; 
under fome of the margins, when the leaves 
are ftiched together, you may tuck peacock's 
and oftrich herle,. and in others lay neatly the 
golden feathers of a pheafant's breaft, and 
the gray and dyed yellow mail of a mallard. 

1 hree double leaves more, with only twcv 
large pockets in each, may be allotted for 
filk of various colours, gold-and filvcr twift, 
and other odd things ^ fix fingle leaves more 
will compleat your book; ftitch them from 
fide to fide with diftances of half an inch, 
and crofs thofe ftitches with others, from top* 
to bottom, with fomewhat greater diftances ; 
and into every other fpace, reckoning from 
top to bottom, lay neatly and fmoothly 
a ftarling's feather ; do the fame on the back- 
fide, and fo for. two leaves. 
. The other leaf you may fill with land* 
raiVs and other fmall feathers, plovcFs tops> 
and red and black liackles. 

The firft and laft leaves of your book may 
be double, ftitched in the middle, from fide 
to fide, but open at the edges : which will 
leave you four pockocsliks thofeofacommoa 


A N G 

pocket-book ; into which you may put hooks, 
and a fmall piece of wazj wrapped in a bit of 

To the page that contains the mixed dub- 
bings, there (hould be an index, referring to 
every divifion contained in it, and exprcf- 
fing what fly each mixture is for. 

When, your book is thus prepared, fend 
it to the binder with dire£tions to bind it 
as ftrong as pofllble ; let him leave a flap to 
one of the boaids, and faftcn it to a yard of 
ribband to tie it. 

The ufefulnefs and manifold convenicncJes 
of a book are apparent; and whoever will be 
at the pains of making fuch a one as this^ 
will find it preferable to a magazine-bag. 



Pike Angling. 

The pike loves a ftill, Ihady, unfrequent- 
ed water, and ufually lies amongft pr near 
weeds; fuch as flags, bulrufhes, candocks, 
reeds, or" in the green fog that fometimes 
covers (landing waters, though he will fome- 
times (hoot out into the clear ftream. He 
is fometimes caught at the top, and in the 
middle, and often, elpccially in cold weather, 
at the bottom. 

Pikes are called jacks till they become 
twenty-four inches long. 

The bait for pike, befides thofc mentioned 
under the Article Pike, are a fmall trout, 
the loach and miller's thumb, the head-end 
of an eel, with the fkin taken oflF below the 
fins, a fmall jack, a lob-worm, and in winter 
the fat of bacon. And notwithftanding 
what others fay againfl: baiting with a perch, 
it is confidently aflferted, that pikes have 
been taken with a fmall perch, when neither 
a roach nor bleak would tempt them. 
. Obferve that all your baits for pike muft 
be as freflias poflTible. Living baits you may 
take with you in a tin kettle, changing the 
water often ; and dead ones (hould be carried 
in freih bran, which will dry up the moifturc 
that otherwife would infedt and rot them. 

A method of fifhing for pike, which has 
been thought worthy of a diftinft trcatife j 
for which method, and for the fnap, take 
thcfe directions i and fiilt for trolling ; 

A N (J 

And note that, in trolling, the head of 
the bait-fifi mud be at the bent of tHe hook ; 
whereas, in fifhing at the fnap, the hook muft 
come out at or near his tail. But the eflen* 
tial diflference between thefc two methods is, 
that in the former the pike is always fuffered 
to pouch or fwallow the bait, but in the latter 
you are to (Irike as foon as he has taken it. 

The rod for trolling (hould be about three 
yards and a half long, with a ring at the top 
for the line to run through ; you may fie a 
trolling- top to your fly rod, which need 
only be ftronger than the common fly top. 

Let your line be of green or (ky-coloured 
filk, thirty yards in length, which will make 
it neceflfaiy to ufe the winch, as is before 
dire<5led, with a fwivel at the end. 

The common troUing-hook for a living- 
bait, confids of two large hooks, with one 
common (hank, made of one piece of wire, of 
about three quarters of an inch long, placed 
back to back, fo that the points may not 
(land in a right line, but incline fo much 
inwards, as that they with the (hank may 
form an angle little lefs than equilateral. 
At the top of the (hank is a loop left in 
the bending the wire, to make the hook 
double, through which is put a flrong 
twified brafs wire of about fix inches long i 
and to this is looped another fucli link, buc 
both fo loofe that the hook and the lower link 
may have room to play: to the end of the 
line faflen a fteel fwivel. 

But there is a (brt of trolling-hook diflPe- 
rent from that already defcribed, and to 
which it is thought preferable, which will 
require another management i this is no more 
than two fingle hooks tied back to back with 
a (Irong piece of gimp between the (hanks ; 
in the whipping the hooks and the gimp 
together, make a fmall loop, ahd take into 
it two linksof chain of about an eighth of an 
inch diameter i and into the lower link, by 
means of a fmall (laple of wire, fallen, by 
the greater end, a bit of lead of a conical 
figure, and fomewhat (harp at the point. 
Thefe hooks are to be had at the fifi-iing- 
tackle (hops ready fitted up ; but fee the 
form of them. Fig. 5. 

This latter kind of hook is to be thus 


• A N p 

Ordered, viz. put the lead into the mouth 
of the bait-vfilh, aud low it up, the fifli will 
Kve fome time ; and though the weight of 
the lead will keep his head down, he will 
fwim with near the fame eafe as if at liberty. 

But if you troll with a dead-bait, as fome 
do, for areafon which the angler will be glad 
to know, 'Viz. that a living-bait makes too 
great a (laughter amortg the fifh, do it with 
a hook, of which the following paragraph 
contains a difcription. • 

Let the (hank be about fix inches long, 
and leaded from the middle as low as the 
bent of the hook, to which a piece of very 
ftrong gimp muft be faftened by a ftaple, 
and two links of .chain ; the Ihank muft be 
barbed like a dart, and the lead a quarter 
of an inch fquare : the barb of the (hank 
muft ftand like the fluke of an anchor, which 
18 placed in a contrary direftion to that 
of rhe ftock. See Fig. 6. Let the gimp 
be about a foot long, and to the end thereof 
fix a fwivel : to bait it, thurft the barb of 
the (hank into the mouth of the bait-fi(h, 
and bring it out at the fide near the tail : 
when the barb is thus brought through it 
cannot return, and the filh will lie perfeftly 
ftrait, a circumltance that renders the trou- 
ble of tying (he tail unneceflfary. 

There is yet another fortof trolling-hook, 
which is, indeed, no other than what moft 
Writers on this fubjedt have mentioned ; 
whereas the others^ here defcribed, are late 
improvements ^ and this is a hook either 
(ingle or double, with a long (hank^ kaded 
about three inches up the wire with a piece 
of lead about a quarter of an inch fquare at 
the greater or lower end ; fix to the (hank an 
armed wire about eight inches long : to bait 
this hook'thruft your wire into the mouth of 
the fi(bj quite through his belly, and out at 
his tail, placing the wire fo as that the point 
of the hook may be even with the belly of the 
bait-fifli, and then tie the tail of the fifh with 
ftrong thread, to the wire ; fome faften it 
with a needle and thread, which is a neat 

Both with the troll and at the fnap, cut 
away one of the fins of the bait-fi(h clofe at 
the gillsj and another behind the vent on 

A N G 

the contrary fide, which will make it play 
the better. 

The bait being thus fixed, is to be thrown 
in, and kept in conftant motion in the water, 
fomctimes fufiered to fink, then gradually 
raifed ; now drawn with the ftream, and then 
againft it, fo as to counterfeit the motion of a 
Imall fifh in fwimming. If a pike is near, he 
rniftakes the bait for a living fifl), feizcs it 
with prodigious greedincfs, goes off with it 
to his hold, and in about ten minutes pouches 
it. When he has thus fwallowed the bait 
you will fee the line move* which is the fignal 
for ftriking him ; do this with two lufty 
jerks, and then play him. 

The other way of taking pike, viz. with 
the fnap, is as follows: 

Let the rod be twelve feet long, very ftrong 
and taper, with a ftrong loop at the top to 
faften your line to ; your line muft be about 
a foot (horter than the rod, and much ftron-* 
ger than the trolling- line. 

And here it is ncceflfary to be remembered, 
that there arc two ways of fnapping for pike, 
viz. with the live and with the dead fnap. 

For the live fnap, there is no kind of 
hook fo proper as the double fpring hook"; 
the form whereof, in two views, is given in 
the plates Fig. 7. and 8. To bait it, nothing 
more is neceffary than to hang the bait-fifli 
faft by the back* fin to the middle hook, 
where he will live a long time. 

Of hooks for the dead-fnap there arc many 
kinds. Fig. 9. of the plate is a reprefenta- 
tion of one, which after repeated trials, has 
been found to excel all others hitherto 
known ; the defcription and ufe of it is as 
follows, viz. Whip two hooks, of about three 
eighths of an inch in the bent, to a piece 
of gimp, in the manner direfted for that 
trolling-hook, a view* of which is given in 
the plate, Fig. 5. Then take a piece of lead, 
of the fame fize and figure as directed for 
the trolling-hook above-mentioned, and drill 
a hole through it from end to end : to bait 
it, take a long needle^ or wire ; enter it in 
at the fide, about half an inch above the tail, 
and with it pafs the gimp between the (kin 
and the ribs of the fim, bring it out at his 
mouth i then put the lead over the gimp, 


A N G 

draw it down 'mto the fifh's throat, and *prers 
his mouth clofe, and then, having a fwivel 
to your line, hang on the gimp. 

In throwing the baic, obfervc the rules 
given for trolling j but remember, that the 
more you keep it in motion, the nearer it 
rcrembles a living fi(h. 

When you have a bite, ftrike immediately 
the contrary way to that which the head of the 
pike lies, or to which he goes with the baits 
if you cannot find which way his head lies, 
ftrike upright with two fmart jerks, retiring 
backwards as faft as you can, till you have 
brought him to a landing place, and then 
do as before is directed. 

As the pike fpawns in March, and before 
that month rivers are feldom in order for fifh- 
ing, it will hardly be worth while to begin 
trolling till April -y after the weeds will be 
apt to be troublefome. But the prime month 
in the year for trolling is OSlober, when 
the pike are fattened by their fummer's 
feed, the weeds are rotted, and by the falling 
of the waters the harbours of the fifh are eafily 

Chufe to troll in clear, and not muddy 
water, and in windy weather, if the wind be 
not eafterly. 

Some ufe in trolling and fnapping two or 
more fwivels to their line, by means whereof 
the twifting of the line is prevented, the bait 
plays more freely, and, though dead, is 
made to appear as if alive ; which, in rivers, 
is. doubtlefs an excellent way : but thofe 
who can like to fi(h in ponds or ftill waters, 
will find verv little occafion for more than 

The pike is alfo to be caught with a min- 
now, for which method take the following 

Get a fingle hook, -flendeo and long in 
the (hank 5 let it rcfcmble the (hape of a 
fliephcrd's crook ; put lead upon it, as thick 
near the bent as will go into the minnow's 
mouth ; place the point of the hook diredlly 
up the face of the fifh ; let the rod be as long 
as you can handfomely manage, with a line 
of the fame length, caft up and down, and 
manage it as when you troll with any other 
bait : if, when the pike has taken your bait. 

A N G . 

he funs to the end of the line before he hath 
gorged it, do not ftrike, but hold ftill 
only, and he will return back and fwallow it : 
but if you ufe that bait with a troll, I rather 
prefer it before any bait that I know. 

In landing a pike great caution is neceflary, 
for his bite is efteemed venomous : the belt 
and fafeft hold you can take of him is by the. 
head, in doing which,- place your thumb and 
finger in his eyes. 

If you go any great diftance from home, you 
will find it neceflary to carry with you many 
more things than are here enumerated, moft 
of which may be very well contained in a 
wicker panier of about twelve inches wide, 
and eight high, and put into a hawking-bag, 
of the form as in Fig. xo. The following is a 
lift of the moft material ingredients: A rod 
with a fpare top, lines coiled up,and neatly laid 
in round flat boxes ; fpare links, fingle hairs, 
waxed thread, and filkj plummets of various 
fixes, of the form' of fig. 11. floats of all 
kinds, and fpare caps : wormrbags and a 
gentle-box. Fig. 12. in thePlatej hooksofall 
fizes, fome whipped two fingle hairs ; fliot, 
flioe^maker's wax, in a very fmall gallipot 
covered with a bit of leather^ a clearing 
ring, tied to about fix yards of ftropg. cord, 
of the fliapc pf Fig. 13. the ulc of this is to 
difengage yoiir hook when it has caught a 
weed, i^c. in which cafe take oft' the butt 
of your rod and flip the ring over the re-* 
maining joints^ and hplding it by the cord,^^ 
let it gtntiy fall -, a landing-net, the .hoop^ 
whereof muft be of iron, and made witfijointsj 
to fold, in the fliape of Fig. 14. anda focket 
to hold a ftaff*. Fig. 15. Take with you alio 
fuch baits^ as you intend to ufe. That you 
may keep your fifh alive, be provided with 
a fmall hoop-net to draw clofe to the top, 
and never be without a fliarp knife and a pair 
offciflars; and if you mean to ufe the arti- 
ficial fly, have your fly-book always with 

And for the more convenient keeping and 
carriage of lines, links, fingle hairs, ^c. 
take a piece of parchment or vellum, k^tn 
inches by tenj on the longer fides fet oflf 
four inches, and then fold it crofs-wife, fo 
as to leave a flip of two inches, of which 



A N G 

hereafter ; "then take eight or ten pieces of 
parchment, of fevcri inches by lour, put 
them into the parchment or vellum, fo fold- 
ed, and, fev^ up the ends ; then cut the flap 
rounding, and fold it down like a pocket- 
book: laftly, you may, if you pleafe, bind 
the ends and round the flap with red tape. 

And having feveral of thefe cafes, you may 
fill them with lines, £f?r. proper for every 
kind of filhing; always remembering to put 
into each of them a gorger, or fmall piece 
of cane, of five inches long, and a quarter 
of an inch wide, with a notcli at each end, 
with this» when a fi(h has gorged your 
hook you may, by putting it down his throat 
till you feel the hook, and holding the line 
tight while you prefs it down, eafiiy difen- 
gage it. 

' And if you Ihould chance to break your 
top or any other part of your rod, take the 
following directions for mending it : cut 
the two broken ends with a long flope, fo 
%hzt they fit neatly together ; then fpread 
fome wax very thin on each flope, and, 
with Waxed thread or fllk, according as the 
fize of the broken part requires^ bind them 
very neatly together: to faften^ofF, lay the 
fore finger of your left hand over the bind- 
ing, $nd> T^ith your right, make four turns 
of the thread over it : then pafs the end of 
your thread between the under fide of your, 
finger and rod, and draw your finger away; 
laftly, with the fore finger and thumb of 
your right hand, take hold of the firfl: of 
the turns, and gathering as much of it as 
you can, bind on till the three remaining 
turns are wound off, and then take hold of 
the end, which you had before put through, 
and then draw clofe. See Fig. 16*, 17. 

For whipping on a hook take the follow- 
ing diredVons : place the hook betwixt the 
fore finger and thumb of your left hand, 
and, with your right, give the waxed filk 
three or four turns round the ihank of the 
hook : then lay the end of the hair on the 
infide of the fliank, and with your right 
hand whip down, as in Fig, 18 ; when you 
arc within about four turns of the bent of 
the hook, take the fliank between the fore 

A N G 

finger and thumb of your left hand, and 
place the end of the filk clofe by it, liolding 
them both tight, and leaving the end tOk 
hang down, then draw the other part of the 
filk into a large loop, and, with your right 
hand turning backwards, as in F'ig. 19,' 
continue the whipping for four turns, and 
draw the end of the filk, which has all this' 
while hung down under the root of your lefo' 
thumb, clofe, and twitch it ofi^. 

To tie a water knot, lay the end of one 
of your hairs about five inches or lefs, over 
that of the other, and through the loop, 
which you would make to tie them in the 
common way, pafs the long and the (hort 
end of the hairs, which will lie to the right 
of the loop, twice, and wetting the knot 
with your tongue, draw it clofe, and cut off^ 
the fpare hair. Seo Fig. 20. 

The ftraw worm, or rufi^ coat, I take it 
is the mofi: common of any, and is found^ ir^ 
the river Colne., near Uxbridge-y the Nevf- 
Rivery near L$nd9ni the Wandle^ which 
runs through Carjhalton in &urry \ and in 
mofl: other rivers. Two of this fpecies of 
ihfefts, drawn from nature, are given in the 
Plate, Fig. 22 and 23 j and Fig. 24 is the api 
pearance of the cadis when pulled out of \ii 
cafe. As to the ftraw* worm, I am aflured bv 
thofe converfant with it, that it produces 
many and various flies, namely, that vrliich 
is called about London the withy- fly, afli 
coloured duns, of feveaal fliapes and dimen- 
tions, as alfo light and dark browns ; all of 
them affording gteat diverfion in northenv 
fl:reams. ^ 

To preferve cadis, graflioppers, catter- 
pillars, oak-worms, or natural flies, the 
following is an excellent method : cut a 
round bough of fine green -barked withy, 
about the thicknefs of one's arm, and taking 
off the bark about a foot in length, turn both 
ends together, into the form of an hoop, 
and fatten them with a pack-needle and 
thread j then ftop up the bottom with a 
bung-cork: into this put your baits, tie it 
over with a colewort-leaf, and, with a red- 
hot wire bore the bark full of holes, led- 
Fig. 11, and lav it in the grafs every niffhr . 
D " in 


A N G 

tn this maniter cadis may be kept till they 
turn to flies. To gralhofq^ers yoti may put 

But, that I may not miflead : I take the 
ruff* coat to be a fpecies of cadis inclofed in 
4 huflc about an inch long, furrounded by 
bits of ftonc, flints, bits of tile, &?c. very 
Clear equal in their flze, and moft curioufly 
compacted together like mofaic. 

One of the infe£ts laft defcribed, was in the 
fiver Wandle in Surry ; I put it into a 
fmall box, with fand in the bottom, and 
yrettcd it five or fix times a day, for five 
days ; at the end whereof, to my great amaze* 
ment, it produced a lovely large fly, nearly 
of the fliape of, but lefs than a common 
white-butterfly, with two pair of cloak wings 
and of a light cinnamon-colour : the figure 
of thehuflc, and alfoof the fly, in two pofi- 
tions, is given in Fig. 25, 26, 27. This 
fly, upon enquiry, I find is called, in. the 
Borth, the large light brown;. in hflandy 
and fome other places, it has the name of 
the flame-coloured brown; and the ntietJiod 
of making it, is given in the additional lift 
of flies for September \ where, from itsfmell, 
the reader will find it called the large fcetid 
light brown. 

There are many other kinds of thefe won- 
derful creatures, which bx the reader's 
grcaftr fatisfaAion, in the figures 28, 29, 
JO, 31, are accurately delineated. 

For your float, in flow flreams, a neat 
found goofe-quill is proper ; but for deep 
or rapid rivers, or in an eddy, the cork, 
fliaped like a pear, is indifputably the beft; 
which fliQuld not, in general, exceed the flze 
of a nutmeg; let not the quill, which you 
put through it, be more than half an inch, 
above and below the cork ; ^nd this float, 
though fome prefer a fwan^s quill, has great 
advantage over a bare quill ; for the quill 
being defended from the water by the cork, 
does not foften, and the cork enables you 
to lead your line fo heavily, as that the hook 
finks almofl: as foon as you put it into the 
water ; whereas, when you lead but lightly. 
It does not get to the bottom till it is near 


A N G 

the end of your fwim. See the form of the 
float. Fig. ]6. and in leading your line, be 
careful to balance them fo nicely, that a 
▼ery fmall touch will fink them ; ibme ufe 
for this purpofe lead ihaped like a barley- 
corn, but there is nothing better to lead with 
than fliot, which you muft have ready cleft 
always with you ; remembering, that when 
you fi(h fine, it is better to have on your 
line a great number of fmall than a few 
large fhot. 

Whip the end of the quill round the plug 
with fine filk, well waxed ; this will keep 
the water out of your float, and preferve 
It ftreatly. 

In filhing with a flolit, your line mufl; be 
about a foot fliorter thkn your rod ; for if it 
is longer, you cannot fo well command your 
hook when you come to difengage the fifli. 

Perch and chub are caught with a float, 
and aifo gudgeons, and fometimes barbie 
and grayling. 

For carp and tench, which are feldom 
caught but in ponds, ufe a very fmall goofe 
or a duck-quill float ; and for ground-ba't, 
throw in every now and then a bit of 
chewed bread. 

Some may chufe to noake their own lines ; 
in whirh cafe, if they prefer thofe cwifted 
widi the fingers, they need only obf^rve the 
rules given by the arucle for that pufpofe ; 
but for greater neatnefs and expedition, I 
would recommend an engine lately invented, 
which is now to be had at almoft any fifli- 
ing-tackle (hop in Londoni it confifts of a 
large horizontal wheel, and three very fmall 
ones, inclofed in a brafs box about a quarter 
of an inch thick, and two inches in diameter ; 
the akis of each of the fmall wheels is con- 
tinued through the under-fide of the box, 
and is formed into a hook : by means of a 
flrong fcrew it may be fixed in any pod or 
partition, and is fet in motion by a fmall 
winch in the centre of the box. 

To twifl: links with this engine, take as 
many hairs as you intend each ihall confift 
of, and, dividing them into three parts, tie 
each parcel to a bit of fine twine, about fix 


A N G 

inches long> doubled^ and put tlirough 
the aforefaid. hooks ; then take a piece of 
lead, of a conical figure, two inches high 
and two in diameter at the bafe, with a hook 
at the apex, or point ; tie your three parcels 
of hair into one knot, and to this, by the 
hook, hang the weight* 

Laftly, Take a quart or larger bottle- 
cork, and cut into the fides, at equal dis- 
tance, three grooves ; and placing it fo as 
to receive each divifion of hair, begin to 
twift : you will find the link begin to 
twift with great evennefs at the lead; as it 
grows tighter, (hift the cork a little upwards j 
and when the whole is fufEciehtly: twitted, 
take out the cork/ and tie the link into a 
knot ; and. fo proceed till you have twifted 
links fufiicicDt . for your line, obfcrving- to 
Icffcn the number of hairs in each link in fuck 
proportion as that the line may be taper. 
Sec tlifi engine. Fig. 32. Fig 33. is the 
form of the cork. 

When. you ufe the fly, you will find it 
iieceflary; to continue your line to 4 greater 
degree, of fincnefs •, in order to which, fup- 
pofmg thp line to be eight yards in length, 
failen a. piece of three or four twifted links 
tapering^ till it becomes, of the fize of a fine 
grafs, and to the end of this fix your hook-; 
line, which (bould be either of very fine 
grafs,. or filk-worm gut. A wcck*s prafticc 
will enable a learner to throw one of thefe 
links, and he may lengthen it, by a yard at 
a time> at the greater end, till he can throw 
fifteen yards neatly; till when he is to 
reckon himfiplf but a novice. 
- For the cplour, you muft be determined 
by that of the river you fiQi in ; but I have 
found that a line of the colour of pepper 
and fair, when mixed, will fuit any water. 
. Many inconveniences attend the ufe of 
twifted hsurs for your hook-line i filk^worm 
gut is both fine and very ftrong, but then 
it is apt to fray ; though this may, in fojue 
QDeafure, be prevented by waxing it well. 

Indian , or fc a- grafs, makes excellent hoolc* 
lines^ and though fome object to it as being 
apt to grow, btittle, and to kink in ufing, 
with prapf f management it is the beft. mate- 
rial for the^purpoCe yet. known,, efpecially 
itopdfred in the following manner : 

' A N G 

Take as nuny of the ftncfl: you can get, 
as you pleafe, put them into a veflel, and 
pour therein the fcummed fat of a pot 
wherein frefli, but by no means fait meat 
has been boiled ; when they have lain three 
or four hours,. take them out one by one, 
and ftripping the greafe off with your finger 
and thumb, but do not wipe them, (Iretch 
each grafs as long as it will yield, coil them 
up in rings> and lay them by, and you 
will find them become noar as miall, full as 
round, and much ftronger than'' the beft 
fingle hairs you can get. To preferve them 
moift keep them. in a piece of bladder well 
oiled, and, before you ufe them, let them 
foak about half an hour in water; or, ia 
your walk to the river*Iide^ put a length ot* 
it into your'moutb. 

If your grafs is coarfe, it will fail hea- 
vily in the water, and fcare away the fith ; 
on which account, gut has the advantage. 
But, after all, if your grafs be fine and rounds 
it is the beft thing you can ufe. 

Suppofing you - would make the plain 
hackle or palmer, which arc terms of the 
fame import, the method of doing it is as 
follows, viz. 

Hold your hook in a horizontal pofirian* 
with the (hank downwards, and the bent of 
it between the fore-finger and thumb of 
your left hand ; and having a fine briftle, 
and other materials, lying by you, take 
half a yard of fine red marking filk, well 
waxed, and,, with your right hand, {^ive 
it four or five turns about the ifaank or the 
hook, inclining the turns to the right 
hand .• when you are near the end of the 
ftiank^ turn into fuch a loop as you are 
hereafter direded to make for fattening off, 
and drjiw it tight, leaving the ends of the 
filk to hang down at each end of the hook. 
Having finged the end of your briftle, lay 
the fame along on the infide of the (hank of 
the hook, as low as the bent, and whip four 
or five times round ; then finging the 
other end of the briftle to a fit length, turn 
it over to the back of the ftiank^ and^ pinch- 
ing it into a proper form, whip down and 
fatten off, as before -direftedi which will 
bring both ends of the filk into the ^ot^ 
After you have waxed yoiu: filk again, take 
Da jthnoc 

A N G 


three or four ftrands of an aftrich feather, 
and holding them, and the bent of the hook 
as at firft direftcd, the feathers to your left 
hand, and the roots in the bent of your hook, 
with that end of the filk which you juft now 
waxed, whip them three or four times 
round, and fatten oflF: then turning the 
feathers to the right, and twitting them and 
the filk with your fore-finger and thumb, 
wind them round the (hank of the hook, 
ftill fupplying the (hort ftrands with new 
ones, as they fail, till you come to the end 
and fatten ofi^ When you have fo done, 
clip off the ends of the feathers, and trim 
the body of the palmer fmall at the extre- 
mities, and full in the middle, and wax 
both ends of your filk, which are now divi- 
ded and lie at either end. of the hook. 

Lay your work by you, and taking a 
flrongbold hackle,* with fibres about half 
an inch long, flraiten the ftem very carefully, 
and holding the fmall end between the fore- 
finger and thumb of your left hand, with 
thofe of the right, ftroke the fibres the con- 
trary way tathat which they naturally lie; 
and taking the hook, and holding it as be- 
fore, lay the point of the hackle into the 
bent of the hook with the hollow, which is 
the paleft fide, upwards, and whip it very 
faft to its place ; in doing whereof, be care- 
ful not to tie in many of the fibres ; or if 
you fiiould chance to do fo, pick ihcm out 
with the point of a very large needle. 

When the hackle is thus made fatt, the 
ytmott care and nicety is nccefiary in wind- 
ing it on i for if you fail in this, your fly 
is fpoiled, and you mutt begin all again ; 
lo prevent which, keeping the hollow or 
Rale fide to your left hand, and as much 
as poflible, the fide of the ftem down pn the 
dubbing, wind the hackle twice round, and 
holding fatt what you have fo wound, pick 
out the loofc fibres, which you may have 
taken in, and make another turn : then lay 
hold of the hackle with the third and fourth 
fingers of your left hand, with which you 
may extend it while you difengage the 
loofe fibres as before. 

lo this manner proceed till you come to 
within an eighth of an inch. of. the end of 

A N G 

the (hank, where you will find an end of 
filk hanging, and by which time you will 
find the fibres at the great end of the hackle 
fomewhat difcompofed ; clip thefe off clofe 
to the ftem, and, with the end of your mid- 
dle finger, prefs the ttem clofe to the hook, 
while, with the fore-finger of your right- 
hand, you turn the filk into a loop ; which 
when you have twice put over the end of 
the fiiank of the hook, loop and all, your 
work is fafe. 

Then wax that end of the filk which you 
now ufcd, and turn it over as before, till 
you have taken up nearly all that remained 
of the hook, obferving to lay the turns 
neatly fide by fide ; and laftly^ clip off the 
ends of the filk : thus will you have made 
a bait that will catch trout of the largeft 
fize in any water in England. 

And left the method of fattening off, 
which occurs fo often in this kind of work, 
(hould not appear fufiiciently intelligible, 
the reader will fee it rcprefented in Fig. 34. 

It is true, the method above dek:ribed 
will i:equire fome variations in ihe cafe of 
gold and filver-twitt palmers ; in the making 
whereof, the management of the twift is to 
be confidered as another operation; buc 
this variation will fuggeft itfelf to fevery rea- 
der, as will alfo the method of making thofe 
fiies, that have hackle under the wings. 

As the foregoing directions mention only^ 
the materials for making the feveral fliesV 
the reader may yet be at a lafs both with 
rcfpcdl to their form and fize ; therefore we 
have in the Plate given the five, which may 
be confidered as radical flies ; and they 
are, the palmer. Fig. 35, the green-drake 
;^6f the dun-cut, 37, the hawthorn-fly, 38, 
and the ant-fly, 39, The two firtt are each, 
a fpecies by itfelf ; the third is a horned fly : 
the fourth has hackle under his wings;; 
and the fifth, as mott flies of the ant-kind 
have, has a large bottle-tails and to one* 
or other of thefe figures, it is imagined all^ 
flies are reducible. 

In adjufting their different fizesj it muft; 
be owned there is great difficulty > all. that 
can be faid is, that the figiires 11 and 12,/ 
exhibit the. ufual fize of the palmer, the^ 


green and gray-drake. Fig« i^, may ferve 
as a ipecimen for moft flies that are not 
direfled Co be made large i and when direc- 
tions are given to make the fly fmall, the 
reader is to conliderFig. 14, as an example. 

Gnats cannot be made too fmall. 

Some» in making a fly, work it upon, 
and fallen it immediately to, the hook-link, 
whether it be of gut, grafs, or hair : others 
whip on the fhank of the hook aftiffhog's 
bridle bent into a loop; concerning chefe 
methods there are different opinions. 

The letter, except for fntall flics, fcems 
the more eligible way j and it has this advan- 
tage, that it enables you to keep your Bies 
in excellent order; to do which, firing 
each fpecies feparately, through the loops, 
upon a fine piece of cat-gut, of about feven 
inches long ; and firing alfo thereon, through 
a large pin-hole, a very fmall ticket of parch* 
ment, with the name of the fly written on 
it; tie the cat-gut into a ring, and lay them 
in round flat boxes, with paper between 
each ring ; and when you ufe them, having 
a neat loop at the lower end of your hook- 
line, you may pAit them on and take them 
off at pleafiire. 

In the other way, you are troubled with 
a great length of hook-link, which, if you 
put even but few flics togethery is furc to 
entangle, and occafion great trouble and lofs 
of time. And as to an obje6lion which fome 
make to a loop, that the fifli fee it, and 
therefore will not take the fly, you may be 
affured there is nothing in it. 
See Ground Angling*. 
Ground Bait. 
Ground Plumbtng. 
. When JOQ have hooked a fifh, never fuf- 
ferhinvtarun out with the line: but keep 
youp ro4 bent, and as near perpendicular 
as yoi^can; by this method the top plies* 
to every pull he makes, and you prevent tnei 
ftraining of your line : for the fame reafbn. 

Never raifc a large fifli out of the water by 
taking the hair to which your hook is faft- 
efied> OP iivdeed any part of the line into^ 
your hand •, but either put a landing-net un- 
der hirar, or for w^t of 'that, your hat> you 
aay fl)^.flibing^ lay. hold, of your 

A N G 

line to draw a fifh to you ; but this muft bi 
done with caution. 

Your filk for' whipping hooks an3 other 
fine work, muft be very miall ; ufe it dou- 
ble and wax it, and indeed any other kind 
of binding, with (hoemaker's wax, which of 
all wax IS the tou^heft, aud holds bed : if 
your wax is too ftifF, temper it with tallow. 

If for fliong fifhing, you ufe grafs, which, 
when you can get it fine, is to be preferred 
to gut, remember always to foak it about 
an hour in water before you ufe it: this 
will make it tough, and prevent its kinking. 

Whenever you begin filhing, wet the end 
of the joints of your rod j which, as it 
makes them fwell, will prevent their loofe** 
ening. And, 

If you happen with rain or otherwifc tO' 
wet your rod, fo that you cannot pull the 
joints afunder, turn the ferrule a few times 
round in the flame of a candle, and they 
will eafily feparate. 

Before you- fix the loop of briflle to your 
hook, in order to make a fly, to prevent it» 
drawing, be fure to finge the ends of it in 
the flame of a candle; do the fame by the 
hair, to which at any time you whip a hook. 

If at any time you happen to be overheat-^ 
ed with walking, or other exercife, avoid 
fmall liquors, efpecially water, as you 
would poifon; and rather take a glafs of 
rum or brandy; the inftantancous efFci^ls' 
whereof, in cooling the body, and quench- 
ing drought, are amazing. • 

Never be tempted in the purfuit of your 
recreation to wade ; atleaft not as I have" 
feen fome do, to the waifl. This indifcreet' 
pradlice has been known to bring on fe— 
vers that' have terminated in abfcefles, and; 
endangered the lofs of a limb# 

Be always neat in your tackle, and provi- 
ded with plummets, a knife, difllsrcnt kinds- 
of hooks, floats, and a few fhots, or any 
thing clfe you ought to be furnifhed with,. 
before you fct out for your recreation. 

In a pond it is befl to angle nearthe ford 
where the cattle go to drink, and in rivers^ 
in fuch places where, fuch fort of ftlh you 
iotendto angle for," do ufually frequent ; as 
for breams, in the deeped and quieted part 


of the river ; foi; gels und^r over-hanging 
banks » for chub^ in deep (h^ed holes ; for 
-perch', in fcowers % for roach in the fame 
;place as perch ; Cor (roues in quick ftreams, 
and with a By upon the (Ircani on the top 
of the water. 

And if you fi(h in fuch places where you 
can difcern th^ gravelly bottom, then be 
fure that you conceal yourfelf as much as is 

In fuch waters as are peftered with weeds, 
roots of trees, and fuch like, fi(h lie clofe 
and warm, and they refort thither in great 
ihoals, and there they will bite freely; but 
take great care how you caft in the hook, 
and how you flxikc a bite, for the leaft 
rafhnefs lofes hook and line. 

And if the hook happens to be entangled, 
you Ihould be provided with a ring of lead, 
about fix inches round, faftened to a fmall 
pack-thread, and thruft the ring over the 
rod, letting it go into the water, holding 
faft by the other end of the packthread, 
and work it gently up and down, and it will 
foon difengage the hook. 
• It is good angling in whirlpools, under 
bridges, at the falls of millsi and ia any 
place where the water is deep and clear, and 
not difturbcd with wind, or weather. 

The beft times are from Jpril to OSIober, 
for in cold, ftormy and windy weather^ the 
filhwill not bite; and the beft times in. the 
day are from three till nine in the morning, 
and from three in the afternoon till fun-fet. 
•. If the wind be eafterly, it will be in vain 
to go to angle ; but ypu may angle well, 
enough if it blow from any other point, 
provided it do not blow hard ; but it is be{l 
in a foutherly wind, and a clofe, louering* 
warm day, with a gentle wind, and after 
a fudden (hower to difturb the water, at 
which time they will beft rife at the fly, and 
bite eagerly ; and the cooler the weather is 
in the hottcll month, the better it is. 

In winter all weathers and all times, 
arc much alike> only the warmefl: are the 

It is very sood angling a little before the 
fUh fpawn, for then their bcHits being full, 
they frequent fandy fords to rub and loofen 

A NGf 

their bellies, at whif:h tinie t\ity wjU b»ir^ 

It is alfo very good angling in a dull, 
cloujdyday, ^fteraclear, moon-(hiny night-, 
for in fuch nights they are fearful to ftir to 
get foo4, lying clofe, lb that being hyngry 
the next d^y, they will bite boldly and 

At the opening.of fluices and mill dams^ 
if you go with the courfe . of the water, you 
can hardly mifs of fi(h that fwim up tht 
ftream to feck for what food the water brings 
down with it. • 

It is good angling at the ebb, in waters 
that ebb; and 6ow.(. but yet the flood is to 
be. preferred, if the tide is not ftrong. For 
fly-eihing, /ce APRIL, AUGUST, (^c. 
For proper diredtions, /ta /irticle FisiiiNo. 

Dire£li(msi and Caulions t^ be ohjervid in 


To know at any time what baits fifli ara 
willing to take, open the belly of the firft 
you catch, and take his ftomach very ten-* 
derly ; open it with, a fbarp penkntf^, and 
vou will difcover what he then feeds on- 
The procuring proper baits- is not the leaft 
part of the angler's (kill. 

The ants- fly is to be met with.fnom 7«vtf 
to Sjepttmber^ and may be kept tn a bottle 
with fome earth, and the roots of grafs itove^ 
the ant-hills where they arc bred. They, 
are excellent bait for roach, dace^ and chub,.' 
if you angle with them under.the wai^r about 
a hand's breadth from the bottem. 

It is ufual for every anglei:,to haw his pe- 
culiar haunt. Now for the attri^ing and 
drawing together the fiih into fuchr a place, 
it will be proper once in four or five days to 
caft in fome corn boiled foft, or garbage^- 
or worms chopt to pieces, or grains fl:c<ped: 
in blood and dryed ; but for carp and tench* 
ground malt is the moft proper to keep;them 

If you (iih in a ftrcam, it will be bcft-toi 
caft in the grain above the hook, down tkci 

-The beft way, of angling with the fly .is> 
down the river> not lip^ and in order to. 

A N G 

make them bite freely, be ijure to iife fuch 
baits as you know they are naturally inclined 
COj and in fuch manner as they are accuf- 
tomed to receive them* 

If your baits be of pafte, for the keep- 
ing them on your hook, add a little (lax, 
or wool* 

The eyes of fi(h are good baits for all 

Wear not light coloured or gay clothes 
when you are fifhing, but rather black or 
dark coloured $ and, if poflible, fhelter 
yourfeir under fome bu(h or tiee, or ftand 
(6 far from the baok-fide that you can but 
difcern the float ; for fi(h are timorous, and 
fearful of every thing they fee. 

The next thing to be obferved is the 
floating for fcale fi(h, in either pond or river. 
Firft, take notice that the feed brings the 
fifli together; and there is no better in all* 
angling than blood and grains, though pafte 
is good, bat inferior to thefe. 

Remember to plumb yo^r ground ang- 
ling wkh fine tackle, as fmgle hairs for half 
the line next the hook» round and fmall 
plumbed, according to the float. 

Other fpecial baits are thefe j brandling, 
gentles^ pafte,. dock -worms, or caddis, 
Cotherwife called cock-bait^ they lie in gra- 
velly h\i(k, under the ftones in the river. 

The natural fly is a fure way of ansling 
to augment the angler's diverfion : with the 
palmer, may-fly, and oak-fly the angler 
mufl: ufe fuch a rod as to angle with the 
ground- bait i the line muft not be {o long 
as the rod. 

Let the angler withdraw his fly as he (hall 
find it mod convenient and advantageous in 
bis angling : when he comes to deep water, 
whofe motion is flow, let him make his line 
about two yards long, and drop his fly 
behind a bufh, and he will find excellent 
fport. F^r Past It and Worms fee their 
Qwn Ariides. 

ANGLING^ band. 

Is of three forts. 

The fifft is performed with a line about 
half the length of the rod> a good weighty 

A N G 

plummet, and three hairs next the hook^ 
which is called a running line, and with one 
large brandling, or a dew worm of a mo« 
derate fize, or two Jmall ones of the firft, 
or any other fort proper for a trout, or in- 
deed almoft any worm whatfoevcr^ forif^i 
trout be in humour to bite, he will bite at 
any worm, and if you fifli with two, bait 
your hook thus : 

Firft, run the point of your hook in ac 
the very head of your firft worm, and fo- 
down through his body, till it be paft the 
knot, and then let it out, and drip the worm 
abx>ve the arming, (that you may not bruife 
it with your fingers) till you have put on the 
other, by running the point of your hoo>k 
in below the knot, and upwards throtigh 
his body, towards his head, till it bejufl: 
covered with the head, which being done> 
you are then to flip the firft worm dowa 
over the arming again, till the knot of both 
worms meet together. 

The fecond way of angling in band, and! 
with a running line, is with a line fome- 
thing longer than the former, and mt\k 
tackle made'after the following manner : 

At the utmoft extreoMty of your, line^ 
where the hook is always placed jn all othe^ 
ways of angling, you are. to have a large 
piftolor carbine bullet, into which the enci 
of your line is to be faftened, with a peg or 
pin even and dole with the bullet, and 
about half a foot above that, a branch oT 
line of two or three handfuls long, ornrorc,. 
for a fwift ftream, with a hook at the end 
thereof, baited with fome of the forc^ 
mentioned worms i and another half a foot 
above that armed and baited after ihe fame 
. manner, but with another fort of worm,, 
without any lead at all above ; by which 
means you will always certainly find the true 
bottom in all depths, which with the plum*- 
mets upon your line above yotr. can never 
do, byt that your bait muft always drag, 
while y<(u are founding, (which, in this way 
of anglih]g^ muft be continually) by which; 
means,^ yoa« ace like to have more trouble,, 
and perhaps lefs fuccefs. And both thefo- 
ways of angling at the bottom, are moft 
l^oper for a dark, and muddy water^^, by rear- 

A N 6 

• • • ■ ■ 

fbn that in fuch a condition of the ftrcam, 
a man may ftand as near as he will^ and. 
neither his own (hadow, nor the ncarnefs of 
the tackle, will hinder his fport. 

The third way of angling by hand with a 
ground bait, and much the beft of all 
. others,, is with a line full as long, or a yard 
longer than your rod, with no more than 
one hair next the book, and for two or three 
lengths above it, and no more than one 
fmall pellet of (hot for a plummet, your 
hook little, your worm of the fmalleft 
brandlings, very well fcoured, and only one 
upon your hook at a time, which is thus to 
be baited; the point of your hook is to be 
put in at the tag of his tail, and run up his 
body quite over all the arming ; and ftill 
fffipt on an inch, at leaft, upon the hair, 
the head and remaining part hanging down- 
wards, and with this line and hopk thus 
baited, you are ever more to angle in the 
•ftreanis, always in a clear rather than a 
troubled watery and always up the river, 
ftill cafting out your worm before you, .with 
a clean light,- one handed rod, like an 
.artificial fly, where it will be t^ken fome* 
times at the top, or within a very little of 
the fuperficies of the water, and almoft al* 
ways before that light plumb can fink it to 
•the bottom, both by reafon of the ftream, 
' andalfo that you muft always keep your 
, worm in motion, by drawing Itill back to- 
wards you, as if you were angling with a 

And' indeed whoever (hall try this way, 
will find it the beft of all others, to angle 
with a worm in a bright water efpecially j 
but then his rod muft be very light and 
pliant, and very true and finely made, and 
with a Ikilful hand it will fucceed beyond 
cxpedtation: and in a clear ftrcam, is un- 
doubtedly the beft angling for a trout or 
grayling with a worm, by many degrees, 
that any man can make choice of, and the 
moft cafy and pleafant'to the angler. 

And if the angler be of a conftitution that 
will fuffer him to wade, aad will flip into 
fiietail of a (hallow ftrcam to the calf 6f the 
leg, or knee, and fo keep off the bank, he 
Iball take almgft what filh he pleafes. 

A N G 

f The fccond way of angling at the bottom 
is with a cork,* or float, and that is alfo of 
two forts. 

With a worm ; or with grub, or caddis. 

With a worm> vou are to have I'ourlinc 
within a foot or a foot and a half as long as 
your rod, in a dark water, with two, or if 
you will, with three; but in a clear water 
never with above one hair next the hook, 
and two, or three, or four, or five lengths 
above it, and a worm of what fize you 
pleafe ; your plumbs fitted to your cork, 
and your cork to the condition of the river, 
(that is, to the fwiftnefs or flownefs of the 
ftream) and both when the water is very 
clear, as fine as you can, and then you arc 
never to bait with more then one of the lef- 
fcr fort of brandlings : or if they be very lit- 
tle ones indeed, you may then bait with two 
after the manner before directed. 

When you angle for a trout, you arc to 
do it as deep, that is, as near to the bottom, 
as you can, provided your bait<lo not drag, 
or if it do, a trout will fometimes. take it in 
thatpofture: if for a grayling, you are then 
to fifh further from the bottom, he being 
a fifli that ufually fwims nearer to the mid- 
dle of the water, and lies always loofe j or 
howiever is more apt to taife than a troutl* 
and more inclined to raife tlian to defcend 
even to a groundling. With a grub or cad- 
dis you are to angle with the fame length 
of line ; or if it be all out as long as your 
rod, it is not the worfci with never above one 
hair for two or three lengths next the hook^ 
and with the fmalleft cork, or floit, and 
the leaft weight of plumb you can, that will 
but fink, and that the fwiftnefs of your 
ftream will allows which alfo yoy may 
help and avoid the violence of the current, 
by angling in the returns of a ftrcam, or 
the eddies betwixt two ftreams, which alfo 
are the moft likely places wherein to kill 
a fifli in a ftream, either at the top or bot- 

Of grubs for a grayling j the afli grub 

which is plump, milk white, bent round 

frorn head to tail, and exceedingly tender, 

.with a red head ; or the dock- worm ; or the 

grub of a pale yellow, longer, lanker, and 



tougher than the other, ^^ith rows of feet 
t^l Gbwhhis belly, and a red head, alfo are 
the bcft, /. e. for a grayling; becaufc though 
"a trout will take both thefe, (the afti grub 
efpecially) yet he does not do it fo freely as 
.the other } and a certain author fays, he 
has ufually taken two graylings for one 
trout with that bait s but if he happened to 
take a trout with it, it was commonly a 
Yery good one. 

Thefe baits arc ufually kept in bran, in 
which an afii grub commonly grows tougher, 
and will better endure baiting ; though he' 
IS ftill ' ib tender, that it will be neceflary 
to warp in a piece of ftiff hair with your arm- 
ing, leaving it Handing out about a draw's 
breadth at the head of your hook, fo as to 
keep the grub either from flipping totally 
off when baited, or at leaft down to the 
point of the hook, by which means your 
turning will be left naked and bare, which is 
neither fo fightly^ norfo likely to be taken, 
though to help that ('which will often how- 
vrtr fall out) you may arm the hook defign- 
'ed for this bait with the whiteft horfe hair 
that you can get, which itfelf will refemble, 
and mine like that bait, and confequently 
•wilt do more good, or lefs harm, than arm* 
ing of any other colour. * ^' 

Thefe grubs are to. be baited thus i t\it 

hook is to be put in, under the head^ or the 

chaps of the bait, and guided down the 

middle of the belly, without, foffering it to 

^pecp out by the* way, for then (the afli grub 

efp^ially) will ifiue out water and milk, 

till nothing but the ikin ftiall remain^ aind 

the bend of the hook will appear black 

through it, till the point of your hook come 

•ib low, that the heart of your bait may reft, 

and llick upon the hair that ftands out to 

liold it,' by which means it can neither flip 

-of itfelf, neither will the force of the ftream 

nor quick pulling out, upon any miftake, 

itrip off. 

Now the caddis or cob bait (which is a 

•fure killing bait, and for the moft part furer 

•than any of the other) may be put upon 

the hook two or three together, and is fome- 

times (to very great effed) joined to a 

vorm^ and fometimct to an artificial fly. 


to cover the point of the hook ; but is al- 
ways to be angled with at bottom (when 
byitfelf efpecially) with the fined tackle j 
and is for all times in the year, the molt 
holding bait of all other whatfoever both for 
trout and grayling. See Snap-Anglino, 
Float- Angliko, Trimmer^ Angling, and 
Fly-Angling, Rock-Fish tNo, Bladder* 
ANGLiNd, Maggot-Fishing. 

To allure Fish to bite. 

Take gum- ivy, and put a good quantity 
of it into a box made of oak, like tfaofe the 
apothecaries ufe of white wood for their 
pills« Rub the infide of the box with this 
gum^ and when you angle, put three or four 
worms therein, letting them remain but a 
fliorttime; for if long, it kills them: then 
take them out, and ufe them, putting more 
in their dead, out of the worm-bag and 
mofs ; and continue to do this all day. 

Gum-ivy is a tear which drops from the 
body of the larger ivy, being wounded. 
It is of a yellowifli red colour, of a ftrong 
fcent, and fharp tafte. That which is fold 
in the (hops is often counterfeit and adui* 
terate: therefore to get true gum-ivy, at 
ACcbaelmas or fpring, drive feveral great 
nails into large ivy-ftalks, and having 
wriggled them till they become very loofe^ 
let them remain, and a gum will iflTue out 
of the hole. Or you may flit feveral great 
ivy flialks, and vifit them once a months 
oroftener, to fee what gum flows from the 
wounded part. This gum is excellent for 
the angler's ufe; perhaps nothing n^orefo 
under the form of an unguent. Alfo, 

Take afla-fcetida, halt an ounce; cam- 
phire, two drachms; bruife them well to- 
gether with fome drops of oil of olive, and 
put it into a pewter-box, to ufe, as the re* 
ccipt from Monfieur CbarraSy Some, in- 
fl:ead of oil of olive, ufe the chemical oil of 
lavender aud camomile ; and fome add the 
quantity of a nutmeg of 3^^»iV^ turpentine 
to it. But for a trout in a muddy wacer^ 
and for gudgeons in a clear water ; the beft 
unguents are thus compounded, viz» 

Take afla-foetida, three drachrtis ; cam« 

phire, one drachm ; Fentce turpentine, one 

drachm, beat all together with fome.dropa 

E of 


» . 




A N G 

of the chemical oils of lavender and canfio«- 
fnile, of each an equal quantity; and ufe 
it as in the firft direftioa- 

Take Venice turpentine, the befthive-ho- 
jiey, and oil of pollibody of the oak, drawn 
by .rptort ; mix all together^ and ufe it a« 
the firft ointment is direilcd. 

Take oil of ivy-bcrri^s, made by ex$wf- 
Con or infufion^ :?^nd put fpme in a box> and 
ufe ittofcent afew worn^s juft 'bcfi)fe you 
«fc thenf>» 

Diffolve gwn-ivy in the -oil of fpike^ «nd 
anoint the bfiit with it, for a pike. 

Put canrphirc in the nfK)fs whtif-eia we 
yourtworms, the day you angle. 

Diffolvc^two ouncesof gufn-ivy in a giJH 
erf* fpring water ; mix the nfi together with 
the like quanisity of the oil of fweet ^efwnds i 
then uke what quantity of worms you intend 
fO'ufe that d*y> being firft wiJl fcoured in 
itiois, and .put ithfmjn lin^n ^hru-ms(sfche 
.ends of *he weikver*& waijp whon -he has 
finilhcd^his piece) well waihed i» fpr^ng- 
•water, and fqueeiacd;: tho^i wet fibc thr.iji?f?6 
in this compofition^ andjput them and the 
. 3iirorms into .a linen (mg, <)u£ of which vk 

. Take afla-fcetida> thrice ;drachijis 5, fpiifee- 
navd of Spain, one drachm r put them in. a 
|>int of firing ^ater, and kt thpm ^and'in 
^ (hady place fourteen days ia the. ground : 
then take the folution out, end haviog 
drained it through a linea cloth^ put to 
the liquor one drachm of Ipermaceti, and 
keep it clofe ia a ftrong glafs bottle. When 
you go to angle, take what quantity of 
worms you incend to ufe that day> (th^y be- 
ing firft well fcoured in mofs^ put them up- 
on a china, faucer, and pour a little of thi« 
water upon them i, then put them in the 
mofs again and ufe them. 

Take juice of camomile, half a fpoon*- 
ful ; chemical oil of fpike, one drachm -,, 
pil of comfrey by infufiony one . drachm, 
and a half^ goofe-greafe, two drachms 1 
thefe being well diflbived over the fire, 
let them ftand till they are cold ; then put 
them into a ftrong glafs bottle, which keep 
unftopped three oc four daysj ft op it at- 


terwards very well, and when yoti Mgk^ 
anoint the bait wkh thi« compontion.r 

Some add to it three dxacl^ms of the fpLi-^ 
fit of vitriol^ and call it the univerial and 
•infallible bait. 

Take a handful of -houfe-leek,. and half 
a handful of inn^r <gFeen ba^k of tlie ivy^ 
•ft^lk ; pou^d thefe we^l together, and pnei#- 
oiit the juice,, and wet your rnx^ thece^ 
wiph. When yoci* angle, p^ fix or eight 
worms therein out of the other bag. 

Some ufe the juice of nettles, and Jioute*- 
leek, as the >laft r-eceipt^ and fonvc on^y ttipr 
jui^e of houfc-Jeek. 

^m^ anoint their baits with 4^he taarraw 
(got o^ of a hefon'a f;high-bon,Cfi and ibni^ 
•ufe the fat and greafe ota heroic 

Oil; of anojifecd,. fpikcnard o( $pMf^fpejp^ 
•macetiy po^wdered cummin-feed, gajlbanuoH 
ftrc all highly cominA^nd^ ^ and maybe trie$ 
.(lAgiy OF 'Coaafpoftprndedirt eithfor gpaia^ ^ ii^ 
a.pafte;^ CO: pfed .a$ *»guefHs^ , ^ . 

. . jyi^e iup a.pftftc with Nmutb»rry .jlMce^ 
•^^ge-hog's f^ oil oCtVi^ter {lilio^ ^4 ^ 
/ew drops ^f oil of iperwy.-Fpj^, Sj^p^ 
^jiighly conrMsnend.thifi^ . 

Oi/ of acip^r^ r<>feHi0ry^)%pd .^^ 
of each, mixed with-t^ .worgia, er-JiAcPSkfl^^, 
i^ffVld to- G^^t '^^yg^^offmci^ 

4io -iifti wy,l i;efift;i& ; . . * .' .. -i - : 

SeargulL's fat^ ipi^g wiith f«f i*go juijC^^ 
is an a:titra£U've 'Ungu^nt. 

Unpickled Samphire l^r4iife^> V^f^ (Mp ^ 
b^lfe foR gfoucKl^bait with .li^aWit oii,*4s- 
excelknt fpr caxpy breatTii. or te^nch. . J^JLffy 
bean-fiouf, ..with ^ Uttle honey^, wetted^ 
with redified fpirics of wine and a little oil 
of turpentine, made up in fo^ill pellets^- 
and thrown in over nighi^ will make the fiQx 
very eager, and keep them at the place ^ 
where you^ will be fure to find thtm ncxc 

Take the oiI& of camomile^ lavenderj» 
annifeed, each a quarter ofan o^ncejc he* 
ron's greafe^ and the beft of ' afla-fcetida^, 
each two. drachms» two fcruplesof eummia* 
leed, finely beaten to powder^. Venice tHr« 
pentine, Gaaiphire,>and^galbaaumr of eacb 
a drachn) i a4d «wo ^aios of civets aw£ 


mtkethem into an unguent; this muft b« 
kept clofc in a glaaxd earthen pot» or it 
loies much of its vircue \ anoint your line 
with it as before, and your expe£btion 
will be anfwcrcd. See Paste. 

ANGLING in the middle^ for trwt 

9r graylings 

Is of two forts i I, with a pink> or min- 
€X>W9 for a trout. 

2. With a wornij grub, or caddis, for a 

As for the firft it i^ with a n>innow, half 
a fpotpr a foot, withip . the furface of 
the water \ fome indeed ^ufe minnows kept 
in fait s but otbers^ difapprove of them, un- 
lels where living Ones are not poifible to be 
had; nor are artificial ones to be ufed, 
where the natural pnes are to be had : but- 
s^ boil head with his ^11-fins cut off* is by 
iome recominertd^d as a better bait for a 
trout, (at fometifloes of the year efpeoially^ 
than a minnow, and a loach much better 
than either. 

Tbefecond wayof angling^in the middle 
is with* the worm> grub, caddis, or any 
other ground bait for a grayling i he taking 
it niuch better there than at the bottom, as 
has been faid before i and this is always la 
a clear water, and with the finefl; uckle. 

To which may be added alio, and with 
very good reafon, a third way of angling by 
hand with a ground bait, as a third way of 
fifhing in the middle, which is common to 
both trout and graylings and the belt way 
of angling with a worm of all other; 

^betim far A^ G LI If G,/eafonaiIe and 


Calm and clear weather is very good to 
angle in ; but cool eloudy weather in fum- 
Bier is.beft } provided it be not fo boideroufly 
windy a# that you cannot guide your tackle! 

Th^ cooler the weather is in the hptteft 
months, the better it is : and if a- fuddeo 
violent fliower hath^difturbqd and muddied 
theriyer, then is the time for angling in tbi^ 
ftteaoi' at the grouQd with a led worm. 

AN C ^ 

In* IJke manner it is a vtry good time for 
angling before the fi(h fpawn j for then their 
bellies being fuH, they come into fandy 
fords, and there rub their bellies to loofen 
them, at which time they will bice very 

If you would fi(h for carp and tench, you 
muft begin early in the morning, fifliing 
from fun rifing till eight of the clock, and 
from four in the afternoon till night, and 
in hot months till it is very late. 

In the heat of the fummer, carps will (hew 
themfelves on the very top of the water, 
at which time,, if ypufifti with a lob worm, 
as you do with a natural fly, you have ex- 
cellent fport, efpccially if it be among 

ItiMareb^ JpriU Septemhery and all the 
winter ( in which feafon filh fwim very deep 
near the ground) it is beft fifliing in a fcrene 
warm day, for then they will bite fatter : 
but all the fummer time mornings, even- 
ings, and cool cloudy weather, arc the 
beft times for angling. 

Here take notice, that you wilLfind that 
filh rife beft at the fly after" a fliower of rain, 
that has only beaten the gnats and flies into 
the river, without mudding it. 

The proper months and. times of the day 
for the fly, are Marcb^ Aprils May^ and the 
beginning oijunei in which months, fifli 
in the morning about nine of the clock $ 
and' in the afternoon between three and four. 
A warm evening is alfo very feafonable, if 
the gnats play much. 

It is al(o a very good time for angling af- 
ter a clear moon fhiny night, if the fucccedr 
ing day prove cloudy; .for if the iiih have 
abftained from food all night, ("for in bright 
nights they will not ftir for fear j the next day 
they are hungry and eager, and the gloomi- 
nefs of the day will make them bite boldly. 

It is a good time for angling, when you 
^rceivethe trouts toleap pleafently at the 
flieS' above water i or the to purfu^ 
other flfh. 

In a word, an experienced anglrr obr 
ferves the times, feafons, and places i other- 
wife, though his baits are ever io good^ 
they will have but little effed. 

E ? If 

' AN G " 

If you go along with the coorfe of the 
wattrr at the opening of fluices or mills, 
you will find that trout and other fifli will 
then come cut to ferk for what food the 
water brings down with it. 

And firJl in the extremity of heat, when 
the earth is parched with a drought, there 
is but little fport to be had, especially in 
either muddy or clear (hallow rivers. 

Secondly, in the winter, or fpring time, 
when any hoary froft happens, the filh w li 
not bite kindly all that dny, except it be in 
the evening, and that proves fcrene and 
pleafant. But it is not proper to fifli at any 
time, when the wind blows fo high that you 
cannot manage your tackle to advantage. 

Thirdly, it is not good filhing in the time 
of (hecp-fhearing, for then the fifh glut 
themfelves with what is wa(hed oflTthe (heep, 
and will fcarce bite till that feafon be over. 

Alfo the (harp eaft and northerly winds 
do very mu.h obftru6k the recreation of 
anglers : nor is it good to fifli immediately 
after fpawning time : for at that time their 
appetite is much palled. 

It is very ftrangc to be obferved, what a 
natural inftinft there is in ftlh, in foreknow- 
ing the approach of a fhower of rarn, for 
upon the approach of a cloud that threatens 
a (hower, they will not bice $ and the ob»- 
fervatioh of this has faved feveral anglers 
from being wet to the Ikin. 

Laftly,. if the preceding night prove dark 
and cloudy, the fucceeding day will be no 
good day to angle in, unlefs it be for fmall 
fifti J for at fuch time the larger prey abroad 
for the leflTcr ; who by inftindfc knowing the 
danger hide themfelves till the morning j 
and having faftcd all night, become then 
very.hungry, while the larger having gorged 
themfelves, lie abfconded all the day, For 
direflions for Aktificial Ftr-FisHiNG, 
fee the Article Fish. 

ANGLING LINE; to make this line, 
the hair fliould be roond aod twitted even, 
for that ftrengthens it, and fliould alfo be as 
near as may be of equal bignefs ; then lay 
fhcm in water for a quarter of an hour, 
ivhereby you will find, which of them 
(brink, then twift them over again,, and in 

AN G* 

• • < • . 

t!ie twitting,' (bme intermingle filk, wliicfr' 
is not good, but a line of all filk is not amiis ;* 
alfo a line made of the ftrongcft luteftring- 
is very good, but that will foon •-ot with' 
the water : now the beft colour for lines, is 
forrel, white and grey ^ the two tail colours 
for clear waters, and the firft for muddy*" 
rivers, neither is the pale watery green dc- 
fpifcable, which colour may be made thiisf 
put a pint of flrong allum, half a pound of 
foot, a fmall quantity of luice of walnut' 
leaves, with the like of allum into a pipkin^ 
boil them about half an hour together, then, 
take It off the fire ; when it is cool, fleep 
your hair in it ; or f\U, thus, boil inr a bottle 
of alium water, fomewhat more than a: 
handful of marigold flowers, t3t a yellow; 
fcum arife ; then take half a pound of green 
copperas, with as much verdegreafe, anc^ 
beat them together to a fine powder ; and^ 
with the hair, put them into riie allunr 
water, and let it lie ten hours, oriDorer 
take the hair out, and let it dry. Set Lines^* 
FOR FiSHrirc. 

ANGLING ROD The time to provrdtf 
(locks is in the winter folfticc, when the: 
trees have fhed their leaves and the fnap is* 
in the roots ; for after yunuary it afcends' 
again into the trunk and branches, at which^^ 
time it is improper to gather docks, or 
tops ; as for the (locks they fhould be lowe^ 
erown, and the tops the bett rufli ground 
ftioots that can be got, not knotty, but pro-' 
portionaMe and Sender, for otherwife they^ 
will neither caft or ftrike well, arid the? 
line by reafon of cheir unpliablenefs, muttf 
be much endangered i nowwhenr both flock* 
and top are gathered in one feafon, and as^ 
flraic as may tmc, bathe them> (except thV 
tops) over a gentle fire, and ufe them not 
till fully feafoncd, which is a year and four 
months; but they are better if kept tWo 
years j and for' the preferving, borh from^ 
rotting, or worm eating, rub them ovei* 
thrice a year with fallet, or linfeed oil / 
fweet butter will fcrve if never falted' \ and 
With any of thefe you muft chafe your rods 
well •, if bored, pour in either of the oils^ 
and let them foak therein twenty-four hours,; 
then -pour it out again; this wilLpncfenra 




A *T '"G 

the tops and ftocks from injuring. See 
Line, Hook, Float, and Rod, 6?f, 

Nig'^f ANGLING; and Ground ANGLmG. 


Great fifh (but chiefly trouts) are fhy, 
and fearful of enfnarements ; and ob- 
fervc the morfl fecure feafon to feek their 
fQod^ and that is at night. 

For night angling you muft provide large 
garden- worms ; or inftead of them, black 
fnaiis : and having baited your hook with 
them, caft them off at a diftance, and then 
draw your line to you again upoi> the fur- 
face of the water, not fuffering the bait to 
fink ; with which ufe not a leaden plum* 
met, but only a float ; but in ground-ang- 
Kng you mufl: ufe a plummet without a 
float ; and this method of ground-angling 
is very good in cold weather, for then the 
fifli lie low^ 

• You may ea6ly hear the fifh rife, and 
therefore give him time to fwallow the biit ; 
and then gently give him a twitch to fecure 

If you find that the fifii does not freely 
take the bait at the top of the water, 
put fome lead to it, and flnk your bait, and 
proceed as in day angling. 

• It has been obfcrved, that the bcft trouts 
bite in the night, and do mod comnnonly 
rife in the ftili deeps, feldom in the quick 
ftream^'. See Bladder Angling, ""Drab* 

LING, G*r. 

^ ANT I COR, (or advanf coeutf) IS an in- 
JlammatioQ in a horfe between his fore-legs, 
the faifne with the quinzy in mankind. Mod 
Writers are agreed, that this diforder pro- 
ceeds from hard -riding, expofing a horfe to 
the cold, and giving him cold water to 
drink when he is hot, full feeding, and 
Vrhatever elfe may caufe a fudden (tagnation 
of the blood. Some will have it to pro- 
ceed from fatnefs and rank feeding. 

• Wheii you touch a fweUing of this kind, 
the impreflion of the fingers remain for fome 
time, as if you had made them in a bit of 
puflT pafte, filling up again by degrees, as 
the pafte would rife. This fwelling coft- 
taias bloody waterj that infinuates betweea 


the fleOi and the (kin, and proves that al) 
the blood in the veins is corrupted. 

The cure (hould firft be attempted by 
large and repeated bleedings, to abate the 
inflammation i and Mr. Gib/on approves of 
ftriking one or other of the veins of the 
hind parts to make a revulSon. Next to 
bleeding, if the horfe be coftive or bound 
in his body, clyfters are of ufe ; and Dr. 
Bracken direfts the following as a general 
one. Take leaves of mallows and pellitory 
of the wall, of each three handfuls; camo-» 
mile flowers, 'one handful; annifeed and 
fweet fennel-feed, each half an ounce; lin- 
feed, one ounce \ boil thefe in three quarts 
of water to two ; then (train and prefs out 
the liquor ftrongly, and add of caryocofti- 
num el^Auary one ounce, common fait 
two ounces, aftd common plaifteroil three 
ounces mixt. Thefe fhould be injefted 
through a very long pipe for the purpofe, and 
as warm as a man can bear his cheek to the 
fide of the bladder it is jtied up in, and it 
ihoold be repeated every two or three days,, 
as occafion ofl^ers. 

ANTLER, a Hart or branch of a deer's 

Bes Antler, the ftart or branch next 
above the brow- antler 

Br^^«ANTL£Ri the ft^t or branch next 
the head. 

APOPLEXY,^ or Falling Evil, a dif- 
eafe that feizes the heads of hawks, com- 
mon^ly by reafon of coo nnuch greafe and 
Itore of blood \ or becaufe they have beei^ 
too long in the heat of the fun^ or have 
made too long a Bight in the heat of the 
day : and as it is very cuitomary wlrh them to 
be full of greafe in the mew : it is very .good 
when they are empty to give them a little 
lard, or fweet butter, foakcd in rofc water^ 
fweetened with a \\ tie fiigar candy pounds 
ed I but the beft thing of all is^ to draw 
their meat through black cherry water* 

A POPLhX Y, {in . Horfes. ) See Pf\ LSY. 

APOSTHUME, (in Hawks! a difeafein 
the head, attended with fwcUings then in $ 
occafioned b? divers ill hunnours, and the 
heat of the head t it may be difcovercd byv 
the fwelling of the eyes^^ by the moiftunq: 


• > 

A P P 

ihtt comes from their eaAj and by their 


For cure give them t pill of butter^ as 
big as a nut, well wafhed in rofc-water, 
and mixed with honey of rofcs and fine 
fugar, for three or four mornings, when 
they have meat : they muft be held on the 
firft till they have made one or two mewts, 
then take four drams of the feed of rue, 
two drams of hepatic aloes, andoncfcru- 
ple of fafFron j reduce all to fine powder, 
and mix them with honey of rofes, and 
make a pill, and give them : it will purge 
and fcour their heads j then about two-hours 
after give them fomc good hot meat. 

When the nares of a hawk are ftufFed up 
with filth; after a convenient fcouring, take 
pepper and muftard^feed, beaten to a fine 
powder, *put into a linen doth, and deep 
it for fomc time in ftrong white wine 
vinegar; of which put fome drops upon her 
nares, that they may pierce in, and they will 
foon fcour her head. 

APPROACHING, im Fowlinc; is a 
particular device to approach or come near 
thofc birds that are Ihy, which frequent 
marlhy and watery places, without being 
fccn by theni. 

This is performed by a fort of machine, 
of three hooks tied together, all at proper 
diflance, according to the height of the 
rhan that is to ufe it, and having boughs 
tied all round it, and with cords to bear on 
his fhoulders \ fo that a man getting in is 
concealed by the boughs, and can approach 
near them unfufpeded till he comes within 
reach of (hot. 

As for herons, wild gecfc, duck, teal, &?^. 
they are apt to keep the waters in the day- 
time, and on the meadows near the brinks 
of the rivers, and as far as they can from 
hedges and trees, tor fear of being fur- 
'prized i and when the water is 2 or 300 
paces dilUncefrom trees, they will leave the 
middle of the ftream, and muddle along 
the fides of the river where the water is 
Aiallow; but' when they perceive anybody 
near, even a beaft tx> pafs along, they wiU 

^t tht fid€9 and wkhdiaw to the middle 

A P P 

Geefe, ducks and teals quit the water m 
the evening, and pafs the night in the fields, 
but in the morning return to the water : 
however you may cafily approach them by 
the means of a machine, as reprefented ia 
the following figure, carried by a man, 
where he is concealed ; and they may be 
(hot whenever he is within a due diftance 
from them. See Plate II. 

To make this nuchine, take three fmall 
hoops, which you are to tie with a cord ia 
this manner ; take a cord D, £» M, N, tid 
two etids together , and doing the fame by 
the other two, divide the whole into four 
parts, and yet nothing muft be cut ; and 
faften to every ^quarter D, E, M, N, another 
cord, five or fix feet long, pafs the head of 
it through the middle^ fo that two of the 
cords remain before and the other behind i 
or elfe fix a piece of wood in the ground, 
the height of the man that is to carry the 
fnachine, put this cord upon it, and take a 
hoop F, C, L, O, which you muft tie to 
the four quarters with the four cords, ex- 
adly to the height of the cincture ; take 
aoother hoop and tie it likewife to the four 
cords^ Gj B, K, P, againft the middle of 
the thighS) and the third in the like^manner 
to the fame cords, high as the ancles, and 
then place fome very light branches of trees 
quite round thefe hoops, and tie them to 
three hoops, ordering them fo that the' birds 
may not fee the perfon within the machine 
with his gun *, but in cafe he finds that the 
birds feem to difcern him, he muft advance 
very gently towards them. 

The birds, which keep moving conti« 
nually, feeing him come near, will fancy ic 
is thcmfclves that drew near the tree, and 
not the tree near them, by which means he 
may come near enough to fire upon them. 

The beft time to make ufe of this ma« 
chine is in the morning, when the birds are 
. returning out of the fields ; for he may fire 
upon them as they pafs, becaufe they will 
not pafs all together but in feveral flocks* 

APPUI, or ftay upon the hand, is the 
reciprocal fenfe between the* hor&'s mouth 
and the bridle-hand, or the fenie of the afUoa 
of the bridle in the horiemaa'S'hand* 
* The 

A P P 

The tnre and right appui of the hind, is 
the nice bearing or ftay of the bridle -, fo 
that the Tiorfc, awed by the fcnfibility and 
tcndcrncfs of the parts of his mouth, dare 
not reft much upon the bitt-mouth, nor 
chack or beat upon the hand to withftand it. 

Such ahorfe has a dull, deaf, appui i that 
^s, he has a good mouth, bur his tongue is 
fo thick chat the bitt can't work or bear 
upon the bars ; for the tongue being not 
fenfible;, or tender as the bars, is benumbed 
or hardened by the bitt ; fo the appui is not 
jgdod. This and the following are terms 
' ufed of an appui. 

The bitt does not prcfs the bars iu the 
quick, by reafon of the* groffhcfs of the 
tdligue, or elfc of the lips* 

Your horfe has a reft or ftay that forces 
the hand, which fhews that he has a bad 

This horfe has no appui, no reft upon the 
hand ; that is, he dreads the bitt mouth, he 
is apprehenHsre ofxhe hand, and he cannot 
fuffer the bitt to prcfs, or bear, though ne- 
ver £b little, upon the parts of his mouth ; 
and thus it comes to p^fs he does not eafily 
obey the bridle. 

A horfe tK<4t is taught a good ajl^ptciy if 
you mean -to giv:c that horfe a good reft 
upon the hand, it behoves you to gallop 
him and put him often back ; a long ftretch 
gallop is very proper for the fanve end, for 
in .galloping he gives the horfeman an op- 
portunity of beiring upon the hand. 

Such a horfe has too much appui y he 

'throws himfelf too much upon the bitt •, a 

*h6rfe'that has a fine ftay or reft upon the 

hand, ^ e. ^qual, firm, and lightj or one 

that obeys the bridle. See Hand. 

A full appui upon the hand, is a firm ftay, 
without retting very heavy, and without 
"bearing upon the hand* 

Harfes for the army ought to have a full 
^ippui upon the hand» 

A more than full tcft or a^ui upon the 

hand, is faid of a horfe that is itopped with 

''fome force-, but ft ill fo that he does not 

'^forcc the hand. This appui is good for fuch 

riders as depend Vkj^od the bridle^ inftead of 

•their* thigbii 



0/ Flyfijbing in the month of April ; or the 
flies taken for fijhing in that month j or the 
making of artificial flies. 

All the fame tackles and flies that were 
taken in thc< month of March^ will be taken 
in this monh alfo; (fee March) with this 
diftinftton only, concerning the flies, that 
all the browns be lapped with red filk^ and 
the duns with yellow. 

r» To thcfe, a fmall bright brown, made 
of fpaniel's fur, with a light grey wing, in 
a bright day and a clear water, is very well 

2. There is alfo a little da^k brown, the 
dubbing of that colour,- and fome violet 
camlet mixt ; and the wing of the grey 
feather of a mallard. 

Alfo dob with the hair of a dark browtt 
fpaniel, or calf, that looks ruddy by being 
expofed to wind and weather, warp with 
yellow. Wing dark ftarling's feather.. 
Taken from eight to elev^en. 

This is a good By> and to be feen in moff 
rivers ; but fo variable in its hue, as the fca- 
fon advances, that it requires the clofeft at* 
tention to the natural fly, to adapt the mate- 
rials for making it artificially ; which is alfo 
the cafe with the violet or afli-coloured dun.. 
When this fly firft appears, it is nearly of a 
chocolate colour ; from which by the middle 
of May ^ it has been obferved to deviate to 
almolt a. lemon colour : northern anglers^ 
Cull it, by way of eminence, the dark brown ••' 
others call it, the fo.ur-winged brown : ft 
has four wings lying flat on its back, fome-. 
thing longer than the body, which is 
longifti but not taper; thi$fly muft be made 
on a fmallifli hook. 

J. From the fixth of this month to the 
tenth, there is a fly, called the violet fly,* 
made of a dark violet ftuff^, with the wings^ 
of the grey feather of a mallard. 

4. About the 12th of this month comes 
in the fly, called the whirling-dun; which 
is taken every day, about the mid-time of 
the day, all this month through ; and by 
fits, from thence to the end wjuncy and 


. f 


is commonly made of the down of a fox's 
cub, which is of an a(h colour at the roots 
next the (kin, and ribb'd about with yellow 
filk, the wings of the pale grey feather of 
the mallard. 

Alfo you may ufe an artificial fly called 
the litLle wbirling-dun which is made thus : 
the body fox-cub, and a little light ruddy 
brown mixed, warp with grey or ruddy Glk, 
a red hackle under the wing ; wing of a land- 
rail, or ruddy brown chicken^ which is 

.A killing fly in a bluftering day, as the 
great whirling- dun is in the evening, and 
late at night. 

5. There is alfo a yellow dun ; the dub- 
bing of camel's hair, and yellow camlet, 
and wool mixt, and a white grey wing. Alfo 
dub with a fmall quantity of pale yellow 
crewel mixed with fox-cub down from the 
tail, and warp with yellow i wing of apalifli 
darling's feather. 

Taken from eight to eleven, and from 

two to four. 

6. There is alfo this month another little 
brown fly, befides that mentioned before, 
made with a very Sender body, the dubbing 
of dark brown and violet camlet mixt, and 
a grey wingj which though the direftion 
for making be like the other, is yet another 
fly, and will take when the other will not, 
eipecially in a bright day and clear water. 

7. About the 20th of this month comes 
in a fly, called the horfe-fleih fly *, the dub- 
bing of which is a blue mohair, with pink- 
loured and red tammy mixt, a Ight co 
loured wing, and a dark brown head. This 
fly is ta'.en bed in the evening; and kills 
froni two hours before fun-fet till twilight, 
and is taken the month through. 

To the former flies may be added : 
1. Light Bloa. Body, light fox-cub 
fur, a little light foal's hair, a little fquirrel's 
l>loa, and the whitifli yellow of the fame, all 
thcfe well mixed together ; warp with yellow 
fUk : wing, of a light fieldfare's feather. 

a. Dun. Body, dunnefl; fijmert, or mar- 
tern's fur; Indian fox-dun; light dun fox- 
cub ; coarfe hair of the ftump of a fquirrel's 
i«il of a brightiiU brown, or a yellowifh caft ; 


• * 

warp with yellow filk : wing, the light fea- 
ther of a fieldfare, 

3. Plain Hackle. Body, black ofl:rich 
herl, with red or black cock's hackle over it ^ 
and in hot weather add gold twifl:. 

4. Red Hackle* Body, red filk and 
gold-twifl:, and a red cock's hackle, till 
June. Afterwards ufe orange filk for the 
body. Ao. excellent fly. 

N. B. This is more properly the orangcr 
fly. It refembles m colour a Seville 
orange. Wings may be added, either 
of a ruddy hen or chicken, or of the 
fofteft feather of a rook's wing ; the 
firfl: will give it an orange, the latter a 
dunnifh hue. It has four wings, two 
next the body, of a very dark grey co- 
lour, and twp ferving as a cafe over 
. them, fometimes of a dirty-blackifli 
colour, and fometimes of an orange 
J. Bloa Watch et. Is- a fmall fly, and 
appears on the water in a cold day (hook 
No. 9 or 10, in Plati Angling) the body, fur 
of a water-rat, black part of a hare's fcut, the 
pale roots cut oflF, a very little brown bear's 
hair : warp with pale brown, or olive- coloured 
filk : wing, of a hen blackbird. 

6. Yellow Watchet. Body, water-rat's 
fur, the blackeft part of a hare's fcut,. green- 
i(h yellow crewel, for feet ; warp with green 
filk : wing, the lighted part of a blackbird's 

7. Knottfd Grey Gnat. Body, darkeft 
part of a hare's fcut, dark brown foal's hair, 
dark fur of the black of an old fox; warp 
with grey filk : wing, the bloa feather of a 

8. Green-Tail. Body, dark part of a 
hare's fcut, and darkefl; bloa fur of an old 
fox : light part of a fquirrel's tail, and a 
hair or two of the coarfe brownifh part of it 
for feet ; warp with a(h-coloured jSlk : wing^ 
of a hen pheafant. 

9. Sand Fly. Body, dark brown foal^s 
hair, a little bloa fquirrcFs fur, and the 
whitifh yellow of the fame; warp with yel- 
low filk : wing, the light part of a fieldfare'ji 

10. Bi^iGHT Bear. Dubbing, of bright 


A R A 

bear's hair, warped with fad cloth -coloufed 
filk : wings, of a ftiepftare's quill feather: 
others dub the body with yellow filk, which 
is better. 

II, Yellow Dun, Dubbing, of yellow 
wool, and a(h-coloured fox-cub down mixed 
together, dubbed with yellow filk : wings, 
of the feather of a fhcpftare's quill : others 
dub it with dun bear's hair, and the yellow 
fur got from a martern*s fkin, mixed to- 
gether, and with yellow filk : wings, of a 
fliepftare's quill-feather. Make two other 
flies, their bodies'dubbed as the lad ; but in 
the one mingle fanded hog's down ; and in 
the other black hog's down : wings, of a 
ihepftare's quill-feather : and there is alfo 
taken an excellent fly, made of dun bear's 
hair, yellow martcrn's fur, fanded hog's 
down, and black hog's down, all mixed in 
an equal proportion together; warped with 
yellow filk : wings, of the feather of a fliep- 
ftare's quill. Thefe feveral flies mentioned 
for April, are very good, and Will be taken 
all the fpring and fiimmer. 

AQUATIC, that lives, breeds, or grows, 
in or about the water i as aquatic animalsj 
plants, 6ff. 

ARABIAN HORSE. Gentlemen and 
merchants who have travelled thofe parts, 
report, that the right Arabian horfes are 
valued at an incredible and intolerable 
price; being valued at 500/. and as others 
fay, at i, 2', and 3000/. an horfe. That 
the Arabs are as careful of keeping the ge- 
nealogies of their horfes, ' as princes in 
keeping their pedigrees : that they keep 
them with medals ; and that each fon's por- 
tion is ufually <wo fuits of arms, and one of 
their horfes. 

The Arabs boaft, that they will ride four- 
fcore miles without drawing bitt ; but this 
has been ptTforiTied by fome of our Englijh 
horfes : and much more was done by a high- 
wayman's horfe, who having committed a 
robbery, oh the fame day rode from London 
to Torky being 150 miles. 

Notwithftandirig their great* value, arid 
the difficulty of bringing^ them from Scan- 
daroon to England by fea, yet by the care, 
and at the charge • of fome brecdtrs in the 

A R R 

north of England^ the Ardhian "horft has' 
been no Arranger to thofe parts ; and per- 
haps at this day fome of the race may be 
fcen there, if not the true Arabian ftallioh* 
Set Stallion. 

ARCHED LEGS; a horfe is faid to have 
arched legs when his knees are bended arch-^ 

This cxpreflion relates to fore-quarters^ 
and the infirmity here fignificd, happens ta 
fuch horfes as have their legs fpoiled with 

The horfes called Braflicourts, have like- 
wife their knees bended arch- wife ; but this 
deformity is natural to them. 

ARM OF A Horse. 5^^ Fore Thigh. 

To ARM- A horfe is faid to arm him- 
fclf when he prefles down his head, as if he 
would check, and bends his neck fo as to 
reft the branches of his bridle upon his coun- 
ter, in order to difobey the bitt mouth, 
and guard his bars and his mouth, which 
are relieved by over-bending his neck. 

Since your horfe arms himfclf, give him 
a knee'd branch that will raife him, and 
make him carry his head well. .5^^, to 



A horfe is faid to arm himfclf with the 
lips, when he covers his bars with his lips, 
and makes the preflure of the bitt too deaf 
and firm ; this is commonly done by thick- 
lipped horfes. You muft order your bitD- 
maker to forge you a bitt-mouth, with a 
cannon, or fcratch-mouth, that is broader 
near the bankets than at the place of it's pref- 
fure, or reft upon the bars; and this, will 
hinder your horfe from arming himfclf with 
.his lips. 

Sometimes we fay, the lips arm the bar ; 
/. e. cover, or fcreen it. See Disarm. 

ARM AN, a confcQion of wonderful cf- 
fi'cacy to prevent a total lofs of appetite in 
horfes. See Drench. 

ARRESTS, are mangy humours upon 
the finews of the hinder legs of a horfe, be- 
tween the ham and the pattern. They fcl- 
dom appear upon the fhank finew. 

Their names are taken from their likenefv 
to the arrcfts or. the fmall bones of a fiQi. 
iSrtf Rat-tail. 



ARZELj a horfe is faid to be arzel, that 
lifias a white mark upon his far foot behind. 

Your fuperftitious cavaliers perfuadc thcm- 
fi^lves, that by an unavoidable fatality, fach 
horfes are unfortunate in battle : and fuch 
is the ftrengrh of this prejudice that they do 
not care to ufe them. 

ASSART, an offence committed in a fo- 
reft, by plucking up thofe woods by the 
roots that are thickets or coverts to the fo- 

ASTHMA, TN Farriery, is either moift 
or dry : the moift, is when there is a free dif- 
charge of matter by the noftrils in confe- 
quence of coughing j the dry, is when the 
cough produces little or no difcharge. 

The moift afthma is a cough that proceeds 
from a load of phlegm, or of (limy matter, 
difchargcd into the veffels of the lungs, oc- 
cafioning difficulty, and fometimes great 
oppreffion in breathing : it is manifefted by 
the following fymptoms : the flanks have a 
fudden and quick motion ; the horfe breathes 
fliort, but not with his noftrils open, as is 
obferved in horfes that are feverifti or broken- 
winded : he fkft wheezes fome time and 
rattles in hi> throat ; then he coughs ; and 
this cough is fometimes dry> at others it is 
moift : he frequently fnorts after coughing, 
and throws up pieces of phlegm through the 
mouth or nofe j and after drinking he fre- 
quently does the fame j he alfo does the 
fame at the beginning and ending of his cx- 
ercife: this difcharge gives him conftderabie 
relief. Some horfes wheeze fo exceffively, 
and arc fo extremely {hort-windcd>,that they 
cannot eafily move vtntW they have been gently 
cxercifed for fome time in the air j though 
after that they will go through their work to 
admi ration • 

This moift afthma Ihould carefully be 
diftinguiflied from that purfivenefs and thick- 
ivindedneft which full or foul fcedhng occa- 
fions; alfo from the fame fymptom when it 
is occafioned by a want of exercife, or tak- 
ing up a horfe from winter-grafs ; in which 
cafes the former is cured by a decreafcy and 
the latter by an increafe of feeding. 
.Afthmatic complaints, whether the moift 
9 theory, are ufually tedious and obftinate; 


but if the horfe is young, and the difeafo 
not of long ftanding, a. recovery is fome- 
times brought about. The exercife Ihould 
be moderate, and in open air; the diet 
ihould be fparing, for, in all difeafes of the 
lungs a full ftomach renders the oppreffion 
greater : their hay ftiould be of the beft fort, 
always fprinkled with water, given in fmall 
quantities, and the oftener in proportion, as 
there is iefs at one time: their corn and 
water ftiould be managed with the fame care. 

If the horfe is full of rich blood, bleed 
freely, and repeat the operation as often as 
the oppreffion and the difficulty of breathing 
may require : if his blood is poor, propor- 
tionably Iefs ftiould be taken away ; and un<« 
Iefs the cafe is very urgent bleeding may be 

Give over night a bolus with two drachms 
of calomel, and next morning the following 
purging ball : 

Take one ounce of aloes ; of gum wnci* 
moniacum, affa-foetida, galbanum, and oil 
of annifeeds, of each two drachms i treacle^ 
enough to niake them into a balL 

This bolus and purging ball may be re- 
peated at due didances of time, and on tht 
days^ free from purging give every morning 
one of the following pectoral balls. 

Perioral BalL 

Take of the cordial ball,- half an ounce}., 
of powdered fquills and Barbadoes tar, (or, 
in its ftead, the common balfam of fulphur) 
of eacb two drachms :. make, them into a ball ' 
for one dofe. Or, 

Take gum ammoniacum, afla-fcetida^ gal^ - 
banum, and liver of antimony, of each two 
ounces; freih fquills, enough to form a 
pafte; which make into balls of from one 
to two oimces each, according to the greater -' 
or Iefs violence of^ the difeafe. 

The dry afthma, called alfo the nervous 
afthma, is a cough proceeding from fome 
irritation on the nerves in the membranous 
part of the ' Itings and midriff* ; but there i^ . 
not any thing difchargcd by it except a little 
clear water, from the nofe, notwithftanding 
the violence of the cough, and its continu- 
ance when once bcfgun, which for fome time 
is almoft: inccifant. \ .the coughing fits have : 


A S T 

no regular rfturn ; they are more freqiftnt -f^ 
%hen walking than in other exercife^ except 
when Aiddently (topped after bard riding, 
&c. on which occafions the cough is very 
troublefome ; after drinking it is trouble- 
fome^ too i and a change of weather will 
fometimes make it very teazing for two or 
three days ; is generally wor(t in a 
morning. Sometimes, when no particular 
ciFcumftance occurs to diforder the horfe, 
the cough will be fcldom heard for a week or 
two together j and yet, though this cough is 
(q teazing, the horfe eats heai:tily, hunts, 
and performs his buiinefs very well j if he is 
tolerably treated, he keeps a good coat, and 
maintains moft of the ufual (igns of health. 

At eight years of age the dry afthma com- 
monly makes its appearance. The cough 
may begin at four or five, and at times be 
very .viSlent ; but at eight, and after, he 
labours wick his flanks, and that in the great- 
f ft degree after feeding : he hath now an 
almoft conftant working of his lioftrils, and 
a motion with his fundament ; after which 
it ufually terminates in broken-wind or in 

Bleeding in moderate quantities is more 
or Icfs neceffary, according to the flrength 
of the horfe, and the difficulty of breathing; 
after which give the following bolus at night 
repeat it the next night, and on the morning 
following work them off with a proper 

The Preparative Bolus. 

Take calomel, two drachms j and honey, 
enough to make a bolus. 

In eight or ten days repeat one bolus at 
night, and the next morning repeat the 

During the operation of thefc medicines, 
it is neceffary to keep the horfe well clothed 
and littered : and he (hould be well fupplied 
with fcalded bran and warm water. 

After the fecond purge, give one of the 
following balls every morning, letting him 
faft two hQurs after each, and contiaue their 
Hife for two months, or longer 


4fibmatk Balls. 

Take antimony, finely levigated, half 
a pound ; gum guaiacum, four ounces ; 
myrrh and gum ammoniacum, of each twt> 
ounces ; Venice foap, half a pound ; honey 
or treacle, enough to make a n^^fs, of which 
two ounces miy be uken for one ball. Or, 

Take gum ammoniacutn, frefh fquills,^ 
and Venice foap, of each four ounces p 
annifated balfam of fulphor, one ounce ; 
make them into a mafs, of which two ounces 
may be made into a ball. 

If the difeafe be obftinate, the bolus with 
calomel may be repeated at proper intervals, 
with or without the purge, taking care that 
it does not falivate. 

On diffe6ting horfes that have laboured 
under the dry afthma for fomc time, the 
heart and the organs of refpiration appeat 
fomcwhat enlarged : which preternatural 
enlargement is an efFeffc of the continual 
labouring with the.breath, and not the cauie 
of the difeafe. 

Court of ATTACHMENTS, a court 
belonging to the foreft, wherein the officers 
do nothing but receive the attachments of 
the forefters, and inroll them in the ver* 
durer's rolls, that they may be in readinefs 
again ft the time that the court of Swain^ 
mote is kept •, for that this court cannot de- 
termine any offence or trefpafs, if the value 
thereof be above four-pence \ for all above 
that value muftbe inroUed in the verderer's 
rolls, and fcnt from thence to the court of 
Swainmote, to be tried there according to 
the laws of the foreft. 

For notwithftanding the greateft part of 
all the prefentments do firft begin in this 
court, yet this court cannot proceed farther 
therein j neither is a prefcntment in this 
court any conviftion againft the offender 
in thofe offences, becaufc he may traverle 
the fame, until it has paffed the court of 
Swainmote*^ to which all trefpaffcs prcfent- 
cdat the court of attachments muft neccf- 
farily come, before the offenders can be 
puniflied, or ftand conviAed, as guilty in 
law of their offences. 



ATTAINT, is a blow> or wound, re- 
ceived by a horfe in his inner fcer, from 
another horfe that follows hi'm two clofts : or 
from an over reach in frofty weather, when 
a horfe being rough Ihpd, or having fhocs 
with long calkerd, ftrikcs his hinder feet 
againft his fore legs, or leg. This word is 
lakewife ufed to fignify a blow that the 
korfe's foot receives from the fore, or hind* 
cr oppofite foot j or a blow given by one 
ef the hinder feet ftriking againft che cronet 
of the fore foot. Hence they fay. 

Your horfe could not have given himfelf 
a ruder attaint : for I find with the probe, 
that it penetrates between the hoof and the 
coffin bone, which give rcafon to fufpeft 
that the tendon is affedted, and that the at- 
taint reaches to t;he cronet. 

Upper attaint, is a violent blow given 
with the two hind feet, upon the fincw of 
the fore leers. 

ATTIRE OF A Deer. Of a flag, ifper- 
feft, is called the burr : the pearls, (the little 
knobs on itj the beam ; the gutters, the 
antler 5 the fur-antler royal, fur-royal ; and 
all at top the croches. 

Or A Buck ; the burr, the beam; the 
brow-antler, the fur-antler j the advancer, 
palm, and fpellers. 

If croches grow in the form of a man*s 
hand, it is then called a palmed head. 
Heads bearing not above three or four, the 
croches being placed aloft, all of one height, 
are called, crowned heads: heads having 
doubling croches, are called forked heads ; 
becaufe the croches are planted on the top 
of the beam, like forks. 

If you. are alked what a Hag bears,, you 
are only to reckon the croches he bears, and 
never to exprefs an odd number: as if he 
hath four croches on his near horn, and five 
on his far ; you muft fay, he bears ten, a 
falfe right on his near horn, (for all that the 
beam bears are called rights:) but if four 
on the near horn, you may fay he bears 
twelve, a double falfe right on the near 
horn : for you muft not only make the 
number even, but alfo. the horns even with 

A a G 

AV ANGERS, the fame as Advancers. 

AUBIN is a broken going, or pace of 
a horfe between an amble and a gallop : 
which is not cfteemed. 

AVERTI, a French word ufed in the 
manage, as applied to the pace or mt>tion 
of a horfe : fignifying a motion that is in- 
joined, regulated, and required in the 

Pas ecoute, and Pas d'ecole, (r e. lifiren- 
ing paces, or fchool . paces) fignify the 
fame thing. 

AUGUST, the flies of this month are the 
fame as ufed in July ; which fee. 

1. Then another ANT-FLV,the dubbing of 
the bl^ck brown hair of a cow, fome red 
warpt in for the tag of his tail, and a dark 
wing : a killing fly. 

2. Next, a fly called the Fern-Fly ; the 
dubbing, of the fur of a hare's neck i and' 
that is of the colour of fern, or brackin ; 
with a darkifli grey wing of a mallard's- 
feather. A killer too. 

3. Befides thofe, there is a white hackle; 
the body of white mohair, and wrapped- 
about with a white hackle feather; and thi^ 
is aflTuredly taken for thiftle-down. 

4. We have alfo this month a HairyLong^ 
Legs •, the body made of bear's dun, and 
blue wool, niixt, and a brown hackle fea-- 
ther over all. 

5. Alfo another made of lightiflibear's hair 
and a dunni(h hackle; add a few hairs ot 
light blue rhohair and a little fox cub dowoj 
warp with light grey, or pale blue filk ; the 
head large the latter is to be ufed chiefly irt: 
a. cloudy windy day with a long line and the 
head of this infe<9" only. 

The Peacock Hackxe, and three fol- 
lowing flies of M^, and the two fubfequent 
months,and the brown of the laft month, ferve. 
alfo for this ; in which alfo are taken the. 

1:. Gr£y-Fly. Body, light grey foal's, 
hair mixed with the dark part of a hare's 
fcut •, warp with grey filk : wing; a hen* 
pheafant's feather. 

2. Black Ant-Fly. Body darkcft part: 
of a hare's fcut, and dark brown wool, or 
flieep's ruflTet,. equally mixedj. and. one fin^ 



gle ruddy herl of a peacock^ all twifted 
together ;. warp with copper-coloured filk : 
wing, a fieldfare's feather* 

3. Brown Ant-Fly. Body bright brown 
bear's hair, niuch weather beaten, almoft of 
an orange-colour towards the tail, and there- 
fore a few hairs of a light brown, or Same 
coloured calf, or fpaniel's hair to be added 
in the tail-part 5 warp with orange-coloured 
filk : wing the light feather of a fieldfare or 

Nofe. The following method of imitating 
the black and irown Ant-Fly with other 
materials have been found to fucceed. 

1. Black-Ant. Brown bear's hair, and 
a little grey fquirrel's hair next the roots, 
peacock herl 5 warp with copper-colour or 

2. Brown-Ant. Light barge-fail, feal's 
fur and brown bear's hair, peacock herl j 
warp with orange : wings of this and the 
former, flarlings' feather longer than the 

3. Buss-Brown. Dubbing, of the light 
brown hair of a cur ; the head black : wings 
of the feather of a red hen ; warped with 
oraijge coloured filk. 

4. Hbarth-Fly. Dubbing, of the wool 
of an old black fheep, with fome grey hair& 
in it, for the body and head: wings of a 
light Ihepftare's quill-feather,, warped on 
with, black filk. 

5. Pismire-Fly. Dubbing, of bright 
brown bear's hair, w^ped with red filk : 
wings of the faddeft- coloured fhepft are's 
quill-feather. A good fly. 

AVIARY,, a place fet apart for feeding 
and propagating birds. It fhould be fo 
Urge as to give the birds fome freedom of 
flight, and turfed to avoid the appearance 
of foulncfs on the floor. 

AIRY, or AERY, a nefl: or company 
of hawks or eagles, fo called from the old 
French word aire. See Hawk. 

BABBLING, isfaid of hounds which are 
too bufy after they have found a good 

BACK. To back a horfe, or mount a 
Horfe,, aiios^ 15 to. mount him bare-backed 


or without a faddle. A weak-backed horfe 
is apt to {tumble: fuch a horfe defends 
himfelf with his back, is when he leaps and 
plays with liis fillets, and doubles his reins 
to incommode his rider. 

BACKING A Colt, after he has been 
exercifed fome time morning and evening, 
and you find him obedient, as direfted un- 
der the head of colt ; 'and when you have 
made him trot a good pace about in your 
hand, fee whether your tackling be firm and 
good, and every thing in it's true and pro^ 
per place \ when having one to ftay his. 
head, and govern chafing therein, you may 
take his back, yet not fuddenly but by de- 
grees^ with divers heavings and half-rifings, 
which if he endure patiently, then fettle 
yourfelf I but ifhe (brink and diflike it, then- 
forbear to mount, and chafe him about 
again, and then offer to mount,^ and do thi& 
till he be willing to receive you%. 

After you are fettled, receive your ftir- 
rups, and cherilh him, put your toes for- 
ward, let him that ftays his head lead him. 
forwards half a dozen paces, then cherifh 
him again, (hake and move yourfelf on the 
faddle, then let the (layer of his head, re- 
move his hand a little from the cavefon, as 
you thurft your toes forwards, let him move 
him forward with his rein, till you have- 
made him apprehend your, own motion ofi 
the body, and foot, which muft go equally* 
together, and with fpirit, alfo that he willt 
go forward without the other^s afliftancc,, 
and ftay upon the reftraint of your own* 
hands ; then cherilh him, and give grafs,^ 
and bread to eat 3 alight from his back, 
mount and unmount twice or thrice to- 
gether, ever mixing them with cherifhings 5. 
thus exercife him, till he be made perfeA in* 
going forwards, and ftanding ftill at plea** 
fure ; this* being done, the long rein may 
be laid afide, and the band about the neck,, 
and only ufc the trenches and cavefon with^ 
the martingal, and let the groom lead- the. 
way before, or another horfe going, only 
ftrait forwards, and. make him ftand ftill, 
when you pleafe, which will foon be efi^edt-- 
ed by trotting after another horfe, fometimcst 
equal with him, fometimes before,, fo> 
i tha£: 


that he fix upon ito certainty but ybur own 
bleafurc, and be fure to have regard to the 
well carriage of his neck and head^ and as 
the martingal flackens, fo (Iraighten it from 
time to time, 

; BACK WORM, or filander i a difcafe 
incident to hawks, 

Thcfe worms are about half a yard long, 
trouble the birds very much, and in time 
will kill them -, they lie warpc up in a thin 
fkin about the reins, and proceed from 
grofs and vifcuous humonrs in the bowels, 
occafioned through ill digeftion and want 
of natural heat. 

This diftemper is ^afily difcerned by 
thefe fymptoms, viz. by the hawk's (linking 
breath, calling her gorge, croaking in the 
night, trembling, ruffling, and writhing 
her tail ; by the muting, which is fmall and 
tinclean ; and alfo by keeping at a ftay in 
a low date of health. 

The back worm is rarely quite killed, 
but a careful falconer giving her cloves of 
garlic, ftcepcd in wormwood once a month, 
and once a fortnight, againft his putting her 
into the mew, which will qualify the worm; 
without this care flic will be fuddenly fpoiled. 

There is another fort of filander, which 
lies in the gutorpannel, being long, fmall, , 
white and red worms — for cure take aloes 
hepatic, filings of iron, nutmeg, and as 
itauch honey as will fcrve to make them in- 
to a pill, which give her in the morning as 
foon as fhe has caft j and after (he has muted 
it clean away, then give her good hot meat. 
See Worms. 

BADGER, of this animal there are two 
kinds; the dog badger fo called, on ac- 
count of refembling a dog in his feet ; and 
a hog badger, as refembling a hog in his 
cloven feet. 

The latter are diflFcrent from the former, 
•being whiter and larger, and having thick- 
er heads andfnowts j they do alfo differ in 
their food, the one eating fiefli and carrion 
like a dog.; iind the other roots and fruits 
Jik^ a hog : and thefe kinds of badgers, 
•where they have their earths ufe to caft their 
tfianUyOr dung, in a fmall hole, add cover 
at4 whereas .the dog badgers make their 

K A D 

liants it a good diftance from their bun-dWs» 
which are deep with a variety of chambers^ 
holes and angles. 

The hog badger being fat and laty, earths 
in open, eafy and light grounds, whereas 
the other fore frequent thickets, rocks, and 
mountainous places, miking their retreats 
deeper and narrower, 

A badger is known by fevcral other 
names, as a grey, a brock, a borefon, or a 
baufon : the young ones are called pigSj 
the male is called the boar^ and the female 
the fow. 

The badger is • naturally a very fleepy 
cfeature, and feldom ftirs out bat in the 
night feafon tofcek his prey ; and above all 
other food, hog's flcfli is moft grateful to 
his palate ; infomuch, that if you take a 
piece of pork, and trail it over the badger's 
burrow, he will foon make his approach 


They live to a great age, and when their 
fight fails them by reafon of old age, they 
keep to their burrows, and receive their 
food from the younger. 

They are <^f ia very chilly and cold naturCy 

and therefore will not go out when it fnows. 

Their flefti is of a fweet rankifli taftc, but 

is eaten in many countries. 

The beft feafon to take them is \<iSepiember. 

They have very fliarp and venomous 
teeth } their legs are longer on the right 
fide than on the left, fo that when they 
run, they chufe the fide of an hill, bank, 
furrow or cart-rout. 

The dog badger's ears, fnout, and throat 
are yellowifti, and they are longer legged 
than the hog badger : they accompany not 
together, yet they both prey on all manner 
of fowl, young pigs, rabbets, and the likei 
food J doing great hurt in warrens. 

They are llout and are hardy in defending 
themfelves, and will endure fevere blows s 
yet their nofe and fnout is fo tender, that 
a little blow thereon will kill them. 

Although the badger and the foK are 
much alike in feveral qualities, yet they of- 
ten fight with one another, efpecially on the 
account of food, fo that it is good fport to 

fee the conteft between them. 



* % 

The hunting and purfuing thena however 
is much the fame at the concIuGon : but 
the badger runs to his earth or burrow, 
much fooner than the fox, and been earthr- 
?d, makes good and defends his caftle much 
longer 5 and to fay the truth, the pleafure 
of the chafe does chiefly confift in the un- 
kennelling and unearthing of them, which 
requires (kill and labour. 

You are to take notice, that although all 
hounds will eagerly purfue, and hunt both 
th« fox and the badger, yet there is not one 
of them that will endure to i^td on their 
flclh ; and there are fome dogs more pro- 
per for this chafe than others ; thofe are 
the terriers, fpoked of in fox hunting, which 

The labour and ingenuity of badgers in 
snaking their burrows, is worth obferva- 
tion* When they earth, after they have en- 
tered a good depth for the clearing the earth 
€uc, one lieth on his back and another layeth 
earth on his belly; and fo taking his hind- 
er feet in his mouth, draweth him out of his 
burrow : and he having unladen himfclf of 
earth goeth to the fame work again, and 
thus they do till their chambers, or places 
<>f retreat, are finifhed,. 

Then they proceed to gather in their 
furniture, that is, the materials for their 
couch or lodging, as ftraw, leaves, mofs, 
and the like, which with their feet<and head 
they warp up fo clofc together, that they 
will get to their burrows a pretty good bun- 
dle. Some burrows have fcven or eight 
dillinA chambers. 

OfbunHngtbe BADGER. 

In doing this, younouft'feek the? earths, 
and burrows where he lies, and in a clear 
moonfhine night go and ftop all the bur- 
rows, except one or two, and therein place 
fomefacks, faftencd with drawing ftrings, 

which mav Hiut him ia asfoon as hedrain- 


eth the bag. 

Some ufe no more than to let a hoop in 
the mouth of the fack, and fa put it into 
the hole; and as foon as. the badger is in 
thcfack and ftrainech it^ ,the fackilippeth 


off the hoop and fecures him in it, where 
he lies trembling till he is taken. 

Thefe facks or bags being thus fet, call 
off the hounds, beating about all the woods, 
coppices, hedges and tufts, round about,, 
for the compafs of a mile or two, and what 
badgers are abroad, being alarmed by the 
hounds, will foon betake themfelves to > 
their burrows •, and obferve that he who is ^ 
placed to watch the facks, muft ftand clofe 
and upon a clear wind ; oiherwifc the badgcrr 
will difcover him, and will inimcdiately fly 
fome other way into his burrow. 

But if the hounds can encounter him be- 
fore he can take his fanduary, he will then » 
(land at a bay like a boar, and make good 
fport, vigoroufly biting and clawing the* 
dogs. The general manner of their fightings 
is lying on their backs, ufing both teeth and : 
nails, and by blowing up their Ihins defend 
themfelves againfl: all bites of the dogs, -and 
blows of the men upon their nofes, as afore- 
faid. And for the better prefervation of 
the dogs, it is good to put broad collars 
about their necks made of greys ikins.- 

When the badger perceives the terriers to * 
begin to yearn him in his burrow^ he will • 
ftop the hole betwixt him and the terriers, , 
and if they ftill continue baying, he will - 
remove his couch into another chamber, or 
part of the burrow, and fo from one to arip- - 
ther, barricading the way before them, as - 
he retreats, until he can go no farther; 

If you intend to dig the badger out of his . 
burrow, you muft be provided with the 
fame tools as for digging out a fox; and 
befides you fliould have a pail of water to > 
refrefli the terriers, when they. come put of 
the earth to take breath and cool themfelves. 

It will alfo be neceffary to put fomefmall 
bells about the necks of your terriers, which 
making a noife may caufe ihe badger ta* 
bolt out. 

The tools ufed for the digging out of the 
badger, being troublefome to be carried on i 
men's backs, may be brought in a cart. 

In digging you muft confider the fitua- 
tion of the ground, by which you-may judge r 
where the chief angles are; for elfc, inftead:^ 
of advancing the work, you will hinder k.. 

B A 1 

In this order you may bcfiege them in 
their holds, or caftles, and may break their 
platforms, parapets, cafemates, and work 
to them with mines and countermines, un- 
til you have overcome them. 

There are advantages which accrue by 
killing this animal. Their flefli, blood, 
and greafe, though they are not good food, 
yet arc very ufeful for phyficians, and apo- 
thecaries, for oils, ointments, falves, and 
powders for fliortnefs of breath, the cough 
of the lungs, for the (tone, fpraincd finews, 
colt aches, &c. and the (kin being well 
dreffed, is very warm and good for antient 
people, who arc troubled with paralytic dif- 

' BAG IN ANGLING. A line is faid to bag, 
when one hair, (after it is twilled) runs up 
more than any of the reft. 

BAG IN FARRIERY, IS whcn, in order to 
retrieve a horfe's loft appetite, they put an 
ounce of affa-fcetida, and as much powder 
of favin, into a bag, to be tied to the bitt, 
keeping him bridled for two hours, feveral 
times a day : as foon as the bag is taken 
oflF, he will fall to eating. The fame bag 
will fcrve a long time. 

BAIT; a thing prepared to take, or 
bring iilhes to. Ste Alluring Fish. 

There arc three forts of baits for taking 
fifti : the natural ones, and thofe generally 
^ are living, as worms of all kinds, cfpecially 
the red maggots, bobs, frogs, grafshop- 
pers, bees, beetles dores, butterflies, 
which arc admirable for the chub, wafps, 
hornets, fnaikj fmall fifli, &c. 

Next arc the artificial baits, which are of 
two forts : firft fuch as imitate the living 
baits, cfpecially flies for every month and 
feafon of the year \ nay almoft for every 
filh, fo great is the variety of them, that 
•frequent the meadows and rivers. 

Thefe flies are made on the bodies of 
your hooks, the bodies of your flies being 
made cf wool, and the wings of feveral 
forts of feathers, coloured to the life, re- 
fembling thofe you counterfeit, and with 
thefe draw your hook gently on the top of 
the water, and generally againft the ftream, 
and the fifti will bite at them with greedi- 
ncfs. See Fly-Fishing, Angling, &c. 


The fecond fort of artificial baits, arc 
partes of feveral oompofitions, of which 
more in Article Paste : but for the pre- 
fent, we are to obferve, concerning the Red, 
or earth worm (for the taking of which, 
confult that article) it is good for ffnalt fifli 
all the year round, and fmall fifli are good 
baits for pikes at all times: fheeps blood 
and cheefe, are good bait in April ; the 
bobs, dried wafps, and bees, are for Mayi 
brown flies for June : maggots, hornctsj 
wafps, and bees, for7«^; fnails in Augufti 
grafshoppers in September j corn, bramble 
berries, and feeds, at the fall of the leaf ; 
your artificial pafl:cs, are for May^ June^ 
and July ; and frogs for March. 

Concerning all your artificial flies, the 
great dun fly will do the latter end of F^- 
bruary^ if there be fair weather, for it is 
a time the air is warm, and that the fi(h be- 
gin to partake of the fun's heat, fo that 
in reafon, you may expe6t they will bite 

The little dun fly is proper for March ; the 
ftone, or May fly, for April ; the red and 
yellow for May ; the black, dark, yellow 
and moorifti fly for June \ the wafp, and 
fliell, and the cloudy, or blackifli fly is for 
Au^ufi\ but generally filh more eagerly rife 
at thefe flies at this feafon, when ntioft forts 
of flies refort to the water fide. 

The be ft way to make thefe flies, is to 
get the living ones of the feveral kinds, 
thereby to imitate nature, both for (hape, 
colour, or fize, for the nearer the better. 

Thofe fifli which bite the moft freely at 
flies are chubs, chevins, trouts, and fal- 

To make the great dun fly ; let the body 
be of black wool, and the wings of the dun 
feathers of a drake*s tail. 

The little dun fly has his body made of 
dun wool, and his wing of the mail of a par- 
tridge* Thefe are for March. 

The body of the ftone, or May fly, muft 
be of black wool, but under his wings and 
tail muft be of a pale yellow, with fome filk 
of that colour, and his wings muft be of 
drake's down. This fly is for April. 

The red or ruddy fly, muft have his body 
made of reddifti wool of the mail of a mal- 


» » • . . 

t" vJ *■ . , , ^ ^ 


>• :2N r:- f v/A..., , 

• . 

( i 

'r i. 


B A I 

B A I 

lard, and the red feathers of a capon's tail. 
Ihis fly is for May. 

The yellow, or grcenifh fly, muft have 
his body made of black wool, with a yellow 
lift on each fide, and the wings of a red 
cock's mail. 

The moorilh fly has his body made of 
dufkifli wool, and the wings of the blackifli 
mail of a drake. 

The tawny fly mufl: be made of a tawny 
wool, the wings made contrary one againft 
the other, of the whitifli mail* of a white 
dr^ike. Thefe flies are for June. 

1 he wafp fly is made of black wool, cap- 
ped about with yellow filk^ and the wings 
of a buzzard's down, or of a drake's fea- 
thers. This fly is for July, 

The IhcU fly, termed alfo the green fly, 
has the body made of greenifh wool, and 
his wing of the herle of a peacock's tail. 
This is alfo for July. 

The cloudy dark fly mufl: be ipade after 
a diflferent manner, formed on a fmall piece 
of cork, bound about with black wool and 
black (ilk, and wings of the under mail of 
a mallard, vith a black head. 

When you draw it on your hook, be fure 
doitfothat no part of the hook be difcern- 
cd. TliW&Y n (ot Juguft^ 

Ihe roughen the bodies of the flies are, 
and the more' fhining, the better they are 
cfteemedi and when you have got a fet of 
good flies, they will ferve you many years, 
if kq)r carefully. 

Take this for a rule^ that the brighteft 
flies are for cloudy and dark v^eather, and 
the dark flies, are for bright and clear 

It may fiot be improper to lay down fome 
dire&ions here, for artiflcial fly fi(hing. 
Firft, obfervc to have the wind in your 
back, and in cafting ofi^ your line, be fure 
the fly fall flrft to the water. 

For every fort of fly have fevcral of the 
fame difl^ering in colour, to fuit with the 
feveral waters and weathers. 

In flow rivers, or ftill places, cafl: your 
line as far as you can, and let it fink a little, 
then gently back) and • let tAe fly 
l^furely with the current ^ygur lin^ 

(hould he. as long again as your rod, unleft 
the river be very fliallow and clogged up. 

You mult have a nimble hand, and quick 
eye, to ftrike prefently upon the rifing of 
the fifh, otherwife the fifli will be apt to 
throw out the hook, finding his ininake. 

As to what concerns live baits, remember 
they are to be kept each fort by themfclves* 
and to be fed with fuch things as they are 
wont to eat when at liberty. 

The red worm takes mutrh* delight in 
black fat earth j if you mix fome fennel 
chopt fmall with it, they will improve very 

Give them fometimes a little ox or cow 
dung newly made i you may keep them in 
a box, or fmall bag. 

But red worms« as alfo all other forts of 
worms fc9ur quickly, grow very tough and 
bright by putting them into a thin clout, 
greafed with frefli butter, or greafe, before 
you put them into mofs, which is the beft 
to keep them in ; the mofs muft firft be 
wafhed clean, and the water fqueezed out ; 
and for the food you are to give them, drop 
a fpoonful of cream into the mofs every 
three or four days, and remove the mols 
every week, keeping it in a cool place. 

White great maggots are to be fed with 
fheep's fuet and beatU liver cut fmall. 

Frogs and grafshoppers do well in wet 
mofs and long grafs, which much be moifr 
tened every night : cut off their legs and' 
wings when you ufe them. • 

1 he bob, caddis-worm, cancer, and fuch 
like, are to be preferved with the fame 
things where you take them. 

Live flies muft be ufed as you catch 

The wafp, hornet, and hnmble beci niay 
be dryed in an oven, after the bread is 
drawn, but have a care in fcorching them % 
then dip their heads in flieep's blood, which 
muft be dryed on ; and fo keep them in a 
clean box, and they will continue good for 
a quarter of a year* 

Laftly, as for compound paftes, there are 

fcveral forts; which fee under Article 

Pastj^ } particularly a way of boiling beaiis, 

G with 

B A I 

with which you may take great quantFty of 

Take a new pot glazed on theinfide, and 
boil fome beans in it, fuppofe a quarter of 
a peck, with river water v after you have 
fteeped them for feven or eight hours in 
fome water that was almoft warm, when 
they are near half boiled, put in three or 
four ounces of honey, according to the 
quantity of the beans, and two or three 
grains of muik; let them boil a little, 
and ufe them in this manner : 

Seek out a clean place, where there are 
no weeds, that the Bfli may fee and take 
rfic beans at the bottom of the water. The 
place fhould be two or three hundred paces 
from their holes; according to the bignefs 
thereof J throw in your beans at five or fix 
in the morning and evening, for the fpace 
of feven or eight days, to the end you may 
draw the fifli thither ; and. three days before 
that on which you defign to filh, bait them 
with the beans before ordered, except that 
before you take them off the fire, you mix 
with them fome of the bcft aloes reduced 
into powder,, about the quantity of two 
beans ; give it a boil and then take it off. 

The fifh that eat it, will void all they 
have in their bodies, and for three days 
after will faft, and then will come to feek 
for food, i» the place where they found the 
bait, therefore you muft be ready at two or 
three in the afternoon to fpread your nets -^ 
and when you have done fo>and thrown in 
eight or ten handfuls of beans, withdraw in 
erder to< retum thither again pretty late 
in the evening for calling the net. Se^ 
Allure Fi&h to Bait> An^glino- and 
Ledger Bait. 

To. BAIT, or BATE,, (in Falconry.) is 
when a hawk Butters with her wings, either 
from perch, or fift, a& if it were ftriving to 
get away^ 

BAITS for inioxtMtingfowh 

There- arc fovcral artificial. baits^ for in- 
toxicating. of fowl, without tainting or hurt^* 
ing their fie(h» fome of which are composed 
as f4i>lloweth : 


Take a pectc, or leffcr quantity, of wheati, 
rye, barley, peas, or tares, to which put 
two or three handfuls of nux vomica, and 
boil them in running water until they are 
almoft ready to burft, then take it off the 
fire, and when they are cold ftrew them 
upon the land, where you defign to take the 
fowl, and fuch as cat thereof will imme- 
diately be intoxicated, and lie as if dead, 
fo that. you may take them up at pleafure, 
provided you ftay not too longy. for the 
dizzinefs will not lafl: long upoa them^ 
therefore be near at hand. 

As the greater fort of land fowl are thus 
taken, fo may you take fmall birds, only 
with this alteration^ that inftead of wheats 
peas, or the like grain,- you ufe hemp-feed^ 
rape feed, or canary^feed, but. above all. 
muftard feed. 

If you approve not of nux vomica, you 
may boil the faid grains or feedis in the lees 
of wine (the ftrongcr the better) as .you did* 
in the runmng water, and apply them ta 
ufe as aforefaid, aad it will woric the fam© 
effedb, being efteemed more wholefome,^ 
having nothing of that poifonous nature itv 
its but in an hour or two- the fun^s will, 
be perfeftly wrought off* 

Inftead of boiling^the faiid'^rain£\or (tt6,y 
in the lees>. you may Itecp-them therein j , 
but then- they will require a long tinae be* 
fore they are fufficiently fwola.aod fit for. 

Or inftead of nux vomicaj or^ lees of 
wine,, yovi/ may. infufe the faid grains, or 
feeds,, in. the juice of hemlock, mk thereim 
the feeds of. henbane and poppy, or either 
of them . Thefe muft ftand two or thre© 
days.infufing, bcfoM to firew.on 
the grounds for ufe«^ 

Having (hewed you how to take land 
fowl, I fliall give fome inftrudions for tha 
taking of water fowl,«efpecially at fuch timea 
as they range up and down to feek thein^food 
on. land.; toi^! eflPe£ting of which.. 

Take the feeds, leaves, .and roots u)f this 

herb called bellengc^ and. having cleanfed 

them from all filth,, put. thecn kito a vcfTel 

o£ dean running water, and let. th«m Ho 

ftcepii^ thereiD. twGirty-fow boussacile^i 


B A L 

tt>€n boil tliem in the faid water until it is 
jiltnoft confumcd ; take it off the fire, let it 
ceol i then fcatter it in fuch places where the 
fowl have their haunts ; they will greedily 
cat it fo that they will become in^mediately 
intoxicated, and lie in a ftupor as if dead; 
but you much watch them, for the fumes 
will foon wtfar off. 

Some add to this decoAion, the powder 
of brimftone boiled therein, which is very 

For deftroying of crows, ravens, kites, 
and fuch like mifchievous birds that are in- 
jurious to warrens and parks for the killing 
coneys and lambs, as alfo chickens : take 
the garbage or entrails of any fowl, or for 
want thereof, of a pig or rabbet -, this gar« 
bage fteep in the lees of wine with nux 
vomica^ and when it is well infufed therein, 
put in fuch places where thefe birds ufe to 
rcfort, which muft be very early in the 
morning, or in the evening \ and having a 
place prepared to lie concealed in near at 
hand, you may take thofe that are intoxica- 
ted by the^eating. 

Or inftead of the garbage, you may take 
little pieces of flefli, and thruft therein a 
fmall piece of nux vomica, clofing the place 
that it may not be difcerned, and fcatter 
the faid pieces up and down where their 
haunts are^ and it will have the fame effe61:.' 

Having (hewed how to take fowl and 
birds by intoxicating baits, I will give you 
a receipt how to cover them, that they, 
may be made tame. 

Take a fmall quantity of fallct oil, more 
or lefs, according to the bignefs of the fowl 
or bird, and drop it down it's throat ; then 
chafe it's head with a little ftrong white- 
wine vinegar, and it will foon be perfeftly 

BALOTADES, are the leaps ofahorfe 
between two pillars, or upon a ftraight line, 
made with juttnefs of time, with the aids of 
the hands, and the calves of the le^s ; and 
that in fuch manner, that when his fore feet 
are in the air, he fhews nothing but the 
Ihoes of his hinder feet without yerking 

Thus it is that the air, or manage of 


balotades differs from caprioles ; the hoife 
yerks, or ftrikes out his hinder legs with sMm 
his force, keeping them near and even. 
Balotades differ likewife from croupades in 
this, that in the former the horfe Ihews his 
(hoes when he lifts, or raifes his croup, but 
in croupades he draws his hinder feet under 

BALZANE. See Whitefoot. 

BANDOG, a dog for the houfe, bull, 
bear, Cifi*. which (hould be chofen with fuch 
like properties and qualities, that he has a 
large and very big body, well fet, a great 
head, fharp fiery $yes, a wide black mouth, 
flat jaws, with a fang on either fide, appear- 
ing lion like faced : his ceeYh even on both 
his jaws and (harp, a great breaft, big legs 
and feet; fliort tail ; not too curft nor too 
gentle of difpofition, nor laviih of his bark- 
ing, no gadder ; and laftly, that he hath a 
good Ibrill voice for the terror of thieves. 
See Doc. But for the choice of them when 
youngy/ee Shepherd's Mastiff. 

BANGLE EARS, an imperfedion in a 
horfe remedied in the following manner: 
take his ears, and place them fo as you 
would have them (land, and then with twa 
little boards, three fingers broad, having 
two long firings knit to them, behind the ears 
fo fad in the places where they Hand that 
they cannot ftir ; then behind the head at 
the root of the ear, you will fee a great deal 
of empty, wrinkled (kin, which you muft 
pull up with your finger and thumb, and 
clip away with a fharp pair of fciflars clofc 
bv the head; then with a needle and filk 
ftitch the two outfides of the fkin together, 
and with green ointment heal up the fore» 
which done, take away the fplints that hold 
up the ears, and in a fhort time you will 
find them keep the fame pofition you placed 
them in. 

BANQUET, is that fmall part of the 
branch of the bridle that is under ibe eye, 
which being rounded like a fmaiJ rod, ga» 
thers and joins the extremities of th€ bitt to 
the branch, and that in fuch manner, that 
the banquet is not feen, but covered by the 
cap, or that part ofthie bitt that ia .next the 
branch. ^: 

■* * • 

G 2 Banquet 


Banquet line^ is an imaginaryline drawn 
by the bitt^makers along the banquet in 
forging a bitt, and prolonged upwards and 
downwards to adjuft the defigned force> or 
weaknefs of the branch in order to* make it 
ftifF or cafy : for the branch will be hard 
and ftrong, if the fcvil hole is on the out- 
fide of the banquet line with refpeft to the' 
neck; and the branth will be weak and 
cafy if the fevil hole is on the infide of the 
line, taking thecenter from- the neck. . See 
Branch and Shovldi^r. 

BAITING, is 'when a hawk flutters with 
her wlngs^ cither from perch or fift, as if it 
were driving to get away, 

BANDS or a saddlb ; are two pieces of 
flat iron, and three fingers broad, nailed upon 
the bows of the faddle, one on each Cide, 
contrived to bold the bows, in the fituation 
that makes the for m^f the faddle. 

To put a bow in the band, istoriail down 
the two ends of each band to each fide of 
the bow. 

Befides thefe two great bands, the fore 
bow has a fmall one,, called the wither- 
band, and a crefcent to keep up the wither-^ 

The hinder bow haslikewife a fmall band 
to ftrengthen it. 

To Bar a Vbin, or ftrikc it^ is an? ope- 
ration performed by a farrier upon the veins 
of a horfe's legs, and other parts of his 
body, with intent to fl:op the courfe, and 
leflfen the qi>antity of the malignant hu- 
mours that prevail there. 

When horfes have got traverfe mules, or 
kibed heels, and rat tails, or arreft in the 
hinder legs, the cure is to bar a vein. 

In order to bar a vein, the farrier opens 
the (kin above it, and after difengaging it; 
and tying it above and below, he ftrikes 
between the two ligatures. 

BARB. a hofle brought from Barbary t 
fuch horfes are commonly of a (\pnder light 
fize, and very clean Ihaped, and fmall legs. 

The Sfanifb and Englijh horfe, are much 
better bodied, and have larger legs thasn the 

The Barb is little interior to the Arabian^ 
SpMtJhj or Turkijh horfc^ but he is ac- 



counted by our modern breeders too llender 
and lady-like to breed on, and therefore inr 
the north of England^ they prefer the Spanijb^ 
and Turkijh hone before him. 

He is fo lazy and negligent in his walk,, 
that he will Humble on carpet ground. His 
trot is like that of a cow, his gallop low,, 
and with much cafe to himfelf. But he is 
for the mofl: . part finewy and nervous, ex- 
cellent winded, and good for a courfi?, i^ 
he be not over weighed* 

The nKHintain barbs' are accounted the 
bed, becaufe they are the ftrongeft and 
largcft : they bdong to the AlUnbeiy who 
value themthcmfelves> as much as. they arc 
prized by any other nartion, . and therefore 
they will not part with them to any perfoi* 
except to the Prince of the. Bandy .who caii 
command them for his own ufe at. any time, 
and at his pleafure, . 

But as for the other more ordinary forts^ 
they are to be met with. pretty. common m 
the hands of (everal .of our nobility and 

BARBARY FALCON, bv fome called 
the Tartaret Falcon^ is a bird feldom found 
in any country, and isxalled a pafiehger, as* 
well as a haggard. 

It is fometimes leflTcr than the tercel-^ 
gentle,, and plumbed red under the wings^ 
flrong armed, with long talons and ftretch- 
ers. * ^ 

The Barbary falctm is adventuroufly bold,. 
znd you may fly her with the haggard all 
May and June. They are hawks very flack 
in mewing at firft ; but when once they be- 
gin, they mew their feathers very fafl:. 

They are called Barbary falcons, becaufe 
they make their pafi[age through that coun- 
try, and Tunis, where they are more fre- 
quently taken than at any other place. 

BARBED^ implies beared like a flfli* 

BARBEL, isfo called, on account of the 
barb or beard, that is under his nofe or 
chaps, and is a leather-rmouthed-fifh ; and 
though he feldom breaks his hold when 
hooked ; yet if he proves to be a large one, 
he often breake both rod and line. The 



male is efteen^ed much better than the 

They fwim together in great Ihoals, and 
gurc at their worft in /fpnl, at which time 
they fpawn, but come foon in fcafon : the 
places whither they chiefly refort, are fuch 
as are weedy and gravelly rifing grounds, in 
ivhich this filh is faid to dig and rout with 
his nofe, Kke a fwine. i , 

In the fummer he frequents the ftrpngeft, 
fwiftcft currents of the w^ter, ^ deep 
Jbridges wares, (sfc. and is apt to fettle him- 
fclf amongft the piles, hollow places, and 
mofs or weeds -, and will remain there un- 
mbveable; but in the winter he retires into 
/ddep waters^ dnd helps ihe fenriale tp ^nal^e 
a hole ia the fands to hide heir fpawn, in,.. to 
hinder its being devoured by othef fifli, 
1'his fiQi Is o/ good tafte and Ihapc, cfpe- 
cially his palate is curioufly (haped : it is 
a very curious and cunning filh, for. if h^ 
baits be not fweet< clean, well fcoured, and 
kept in fweet mofs, he will not bice i bui 
well ordered and curioufly kept he will bite 
wth great eagerncfs. 

The bed bait for him is the fpawn of a 
falaK>n> trout or any other fifli -, and if you 
would have good fport with him, bait th^ 
places where you intend to fiih with it ^ 
night or two before, or with large worms 
cut in pieces, and the earlier in the morn- 
ing, or the later in the evening that you fi(h> 
the better it will be. 

Alfo the lob worm is a very good bait : but 
you muft be fuie to cover the hook all over 
with the bait. 

Green gentles arc alfo a very good bait ; 
and fo likewife are bits of tough cheefe laid 
in fteep for twenty-four hours in clarified 
honey 5 with which if you bait the ground, 
you can hardly mifs taking them if there be 

Graves, which are the fediment of tallow 
melted for the making of candles, cut into 
pieces, are an excellent ground bait for bar* 
^h gudgeons, and many other fifli, if 
thrown in the night befofe you angle. 

Your rod and line muft be both. long and 
ftrong> with a running plummet on the.linc, 
9nd let a little bit <^ lead be placed a foot 



or more above the hook, to keep the bullet 
from falling on it; fo* the worm^ will be at 
the bottom where they always bite, and 
when the fifli takes the bait, yoUr plummet 
will lie, and not choak him ; and by the 
bending of the rod you may know when he 
bites, as alfo with your hand you will feel 
him make a ftrong fnatch, then.ftrike, and 
you .will .rarely fail if you play him well 
and le^Ve hitxx i.but in fliort, if you manage 
him *not dexteroufly he will break your 

' Fiftiing for barbel is at bed bun a dull 
recreation. They area fullen fifli, and bite 
butflo^Iy.' The angler, drops in his baic„ 
the bullet at the |:K>ttom of the line fixes, it 
tpi one fpot of the fiveri. Tired with waiting 
for a bite, he generally lays down his rod, 
and ejcercifiog the patience of a fetting dog, 
w^its till he lees the top of his rod move ? 
(hen begins a druggie between him and the 
6fli, whjch he calls his fport; and thac 
being over, he lands his prize, frefb bait^: 
his hook, and lays in for another. 

The beft time for fifliing, is about nine in 
the morning, and the propereft time for it is 
the latter end of May, June, July^ and the 
beginning of Juguji. 

BARBS, OR BARBLES, are l<;nots of 
fuperfluous flefii, that grows upon the chan^ 
nels of a horfcs mouth : that is the interval 
that feparatcs the bars, and lies under the 

Though it fcems to be a nieer trifie, thefii 
however will hinder a horfe from driakin^ 
as ufual y and if he does not drink freely; 
he eats the lefs, and languiflies from day to 
diiy, perhaps,, without any one's taking 
notice of it. 

They are eafily feen by drawing the 
tongue aGde, and cured by fnipping them 
clofe off and waftiing the mouth with fait 
and water. 

BARKING, this fox hunters call the 
noife made by a fox in the time of clicket- 

BARDELLE, is. a faddle made in^the 
form of a great faddle,- bot only of cloth 
fluffed with ftraw; ^d tiedtighi dow(iv 
without cither kathcr> - wood^ or iron \ they 



arc not ufcd in France^ but in Italy thev 
trot their colts with fuch faddles^ and thote 
who ride them^ are called Cavalcjadours^ or 

B A R N A C L E*S, horfe twitchcrs, ot 
brakes 5 thefe are things which farrrers ufe 
to put upon horfes nofes^ when they wil! not 
(land quietly to be (hod, blooded or •dre(}ed 
if any fore j fome call them pinchers, but 
then they are fo termed to diftingui(h^them 
from the foregoing, (incc thefe have*handles, 
whereas the others are bound to the nofe 
with a lace or cord. Indeed there is athird 
fort, though difFering very little from the 
firft. This fort is held together at the top by 
a ring incldfing the buttons, fi^ft haying the 
top buttons held by an >iron pin Hvctted 
through them, but the meaneft fort of all 
is that which we called roller barnacles, or 
wood twitchers, being only two rollers of 
wood bound together, with the horfe*s nofe 
between them, and for want df better they 
ferve inftead of iron branches. 

BARS OF A Houses Mouth, are the 
ridge, or of that place of the 
gum that neverfecars anyteeth, and is fituated 
between the grinders, and 'the tulhcs, on 
each fide of the mouth : fo thatthat part of 
the gum which lies under, and at the fide 
of the bars, retains the name of gum. 

The bars are that part of the mouth upon 
which the bitt (hould reft and have it's ap-^. 
pui, for though a fingle cannon bears upon 
the tongue, the bars are fo fenfible, and 
tender, that they feel the effeft of it even 
through the thicknefs of the tongue. 

Thefe bars fhould be (harp ridged, and 
lean i fince all the fubjeition a horfe fufFers, 
proceeds from thofe parts i for if they have 
not thefe qualities, they will be very little 
or not at all fenfible, fo that the horfe can 
never have a good mouth: for if they be 
flat, round and infenfible, the bitt wVll not 
work it's -effeft, and confequently fuch a 
horfe can be no better govern^ by the 
bridle than if one took hold of his tail. 

A 'horfe »is rfaid ito fall /oul of the bar, 
wh«n in the ftablc he entangles his legs 
upoorthe4>artitioii bar* that is put to fepa- 
rate two horfes, and keep them from taU 
liag upon one another. 

B A T 

Barbs and vigorous ticklifti hoffcs -are 
apt to fa)l foul of the bar, and when they 
do they (Irugglc and fling, and wound 
thcmfeives in the hoc?ks and thighs, and 
the legs, and are in danger of laming them- 
felves, unlcfs you fpccdily cut the cord that 
keeps up the end of the bar, and fo fuffcr 
that end to fall to the ground. 

BAT FOWLING, is a night exercife^ 
and tak«s aU forts of birds, both great and 
fmall, that robft not only on the ground, 
but on (hfubs, bu(hes, hawthorn trees, 
and the like places, and is therefore proper 
for woody, rough and bulhy places. 

The depth of winter, is the beft feafoit 
for this fport, and the darker the night9 
and the colder the weather, fo much the 

As to the manner of bat-fowling, it may 
be performed either with nets, or without, 
juft as you plcafe. 

If it be without nets, and fuppofirig tho 
company to be twelve or fifteen, one- third 
part of the number fhould carry poles, to 
which (hould be bound at the top little bun- 
dles of dry wifps of hay, or ftraw, (or inftead 
of them, pieces of links, or hurds dipt in 
pitch, rofin, or the like that will blaze) 
another third part are to attend upon thofe 
fires with long poles, rough and bulhy at 
the upper ends, to knock down the birda 
that By about the lights : and the other third 
part muft have long poles to beat the buflies, 
and other places, to caufe the birds to fly 
^bout the lights, which they will do, being 
as it were amazed, and will not part from 
them, fo that they may be knocked down 
very eafily : and thus you may find good di« 
verfion for dark nights. 

One of the company fliould alfo carry a 
candle and lanthorn, that if all the lights 
(hould happen to be extinguilbed, they may 
be lighted again ; but you muft be fure to 
obferve the greateft filence pofilble, efpe- 
cially till the lights are kindled. 

BAT FOWLING with Nets is perform- 
ed as follows ; let two or three perfons carry 
lanthorns and lighted candles, extend in 
one hand (fuch as are ufed in Low Belling, 
which fee) and in the other hand fmall nets, 





femething like a rackct> but Icfs, which 
muft be fixed at the end of a long pole, to 
btat down the birds as they fit at rooft ; 
they being furprizcd at the great blazing 
light, will fct ftill till they are knocked 

A crofs-bow is very ufcful in this fport/ 
to fhoot them as they fit- 

BATHING A FALCON, is when weaned 
from her ramaged fooleries, being alfo hi- 
red, rewarded, and thoroughly reclaimed, 
ike is offered lomc water to bathe herfelf in, . 
in a bafon where flie may ftand up to her 
thighs ; for doing this you muft chufe a 
temperate clear day. When you have thus 
hired the hawk, and rewarded her with 
warm meat, carry her in the morning to- 
ft)me bank, and there hold her in the fun, . 
till file has endued her gorge, taking off her 
hood that (be may prune and pick herfelf^ 
having fo done, hood her again, fefi her. 
near the bafon and take oflB her i hood ; let 
lior bathe: again, as long aft' ihepleafes ; : 
after (he has done, take her up, let her pick 
herfelf as before, and then feed her;, but, 
if' (he d6es not like ta bathe herfelf in the 
bafon, then fliew. her fome fmaU river or; 
brook for that purpofe. 

By the ufe.ot*this bathing, (he will gain 
ftrength • and a iliarp appetate^^ . and fo grow* 
bold ; but give her no wafhedimeaton^thofc: 
days thatihe bathes. 

BATTLE ROYiAL,. [in cock-fighting) 
» fight betweca three,, five, or feven cocks 
all engaged together, fo that the cock which 
Ifaiiids longeft-^gets the day. S^e Cockino« 

BAWK IN ANCLiNG^.isa knotia ahairj. 
or link of aline, occasioned often by the. 
twifting ofan eel,* and if not rcdififid in 
dme the lino will break in^ that place. . 

BAWRELj is a hawk^. for.iargenefs and. 
lkape>. fomewhat like a lanmeri .but . hath 
a longer ^body and tail ;. (he is generally a. 
£ift goer aforehead, and a. good field hawk, 
and io inclofures will kiU a pheafant^ but be- 
ing a. long winded hawic is uafit for .coverts^* 

To BAY, to bark as a dog does.; among. 
Biuntfmeh deer are faid 'to bay, when; after 
they have been bard % run. they, tura head^ 
a^o&tbe hounds^ 

B E A 

BAY COLOUR. A bay horfe is what we 
commonly call red, inclining to chefnat. 

This colour varies feveral ways : it is 
a dark bay, or a light bay, according as it 
is more or lefs deep : and we have likewifc 
dapple bays. 

All bay horfes have black manes, which 
diftinguiflies them from the forrel, that, 
have red or white manes. 

BAYARD, a bay horfe. 

BEAGLES,, hunting dogs, of which 
there are. feveral forts, viz. the fouthern 
beagle, which is fomething Jefs than the 
deep mouthed hound, and fomething thicker 
and fhorter. 

The fleet northern^ or cat beadle, which 
is- finaller, and of a finer ih ape than the* 
fouthera beagle, and is a hard runner. 

Thefe two beagles by croffing the ftrains,< 
breed an. excellent fott, which, are great 

•There is alfo a very fmall fori of beagles, . 
not bigger than a lady's lap-dog, which - 
make pretty divcrfion in hunting the co- 
ney-; and alfo the fmall hare, if the weather^ 
be dry ; but by reafen of the fmallncfs, - 
this fort is not ferviceable» 

B£^K, the nib, lor bill, of a bird in fal- 
conry, the upppr part of a. hawk's bill that/ 
is crooked. . 

BEARING, [in cock fighting] the fight- • 
iag of thofe birdis with their bills, or hold- 
ing with the bill,, and ftriking with the heels.v 

BEAM, [in the- head of a deer J is that : 
part which bears the antlers, royals and.- 
tops,, and .the. little, ftreaks therein, called.-; 

BEAM FEATHERS, arc the Jong fea- - 
thers of a^ hawk's wing^ 

Of/ the nature^' and properties of' a- BEAR; > 
and after what manner bunted.. 

There arci two 'forts oC bearsy a greater ' 
and a lefler ; the laft is» more *ap& to.*climb: 
trees than^the other.^ 

Bears are bred in many councrres-; .in thei 
Helvetian. jilpine-^rcgion, ,thcy^ arc foftrong'i 
and courageous, that they can tear to pieces 
both o^cen. and horfes^ /or which .caufe the? 


B E A 

lahabitanfs are ftudioufly laborious in the 
tiking them. 

A bear is of a moft venerous and luftful 
difpofuion, for day and night the females 
with molt ard<:nt inflaming defires, do pro- 
voke the malfs to copulation, and for this 
caufe at that uvnc they are moft fierce and 

The time of their copulation is in the be- 
ginning of winter, and the manner ofitij"- 
like to a man's ; the males moveth himfclf 
upon the belly of the female, which lieth 
flat on her back, and they embrace one ano- 
ther with their fore feet j they remain a very 
long time in that aft. 

They are naturally very cruel and mif- 
chicvous unto all tame bedls, and very 
ftrong in all parts of their body but their 
head, where a fmall blow will kill them. 

They go to mate in the beginning of the 
winter, fome fooner, fomc later, accord^* 
ingto their reft and feeding; and their heat 
lafteth not more than fifteen days. 

When the (he-bear pcrceiveth herfclf 
with whelp, (he withdraw's herfelf into fome 
cave or hollow rock, and there remains till 
flie bring^s forth her whelps. • 

When they enter into their den, they 
convey themfelves^ backward, that fo. they 
may put out their footfteps from the fight 
of the hunters. 

The nature of all of them is to avoid cold, 
and therefore in the winter time they hide 
thcmfelvcs, chufing rather to fufFer famine 
than cold, lying for three or four months 
together, and never fee the light ; where- 
by, in a manner, their guts are clung to- 
gether; and coming forth, are fo dazzled 
by long darknefs, being in the light again, 
that they ftaggcr and reel to and fro: and 
then by a fecret i nil inft they remedy the 
ftraightnefs of their guts, by eating an herb, 
called Arum; in Englifli Wake-robin, or 
Calues foot ; by acidity whereof their guts 
are enlarged : and being recovered, they 
remain more fierce and cruel than at other 
timesi while their young are with them. 

They arc whelped moft -commftnly in 
Mdrcb ; fometimes tWa^ and not above five 
in number : the nrioftparcof theni are dead 


one whole day after they are wlnelped, but 
the (he bear fo licks them and warms theni 
with her breath, and hugs them in her bo- 
fom, that (he quickly revives them. 

As foon as the dam perceiveth her cubs 
to grow ftrong, (hefackleth them no]<«7gerj 
by reafon of their curftnefs ; as they will 
bite her if they cannot get fuck enough. 

After this (he preyeth abroad upon any 
thing (he can meet with, whjch (he eats and 
cafts up to her young ones ; fo feed them 
till they can prey themfclvcs. They will 
climb a tree for the fruit. 

If they be hunted they will follow a man» 
but not run at him unlefsthey are wounded. 

They are very ftrong in their paws ; they 
will fo hug a man, or dog, till they have, 
broke his back, or fqueezed the guts out of 
his belly : with a fiogle paw they will pull a 
lufty dog to his tearing and devouring 

They will bite fo Severely, that they will 
bite a man's head to the brains : as for aa 
arm or leg, they will cru(h it> > as a Idog doen 
a (lender bone of mutton. ']■. -. . 

When they arc hunted, they are ib heavy 
that they make no (peed, and arc always ia 
fight of the dogs : they (land not^ia bay as 
the boar, but fly wallowing^; but.!if the 
hounds ftick iq, they will iljght valiantly in: 
their own defence ; fometimes they will ftand 
up ftraight on the hinder feet, which 
you may take; as a fign of fear'and cow- 
ardice> for they fight ftouteft > and? ftrongcift 
on all four. » 

They have an excellent fcent, and wilL 
fmell farther than any other beaft, except a 

They may be hunted with hounds, maf- 
tifFs, or greyhounds ; and they are chafed 
and killed with bows, boar-fpears, darts 
and fwords : fo are they alfo taken in fnares» 
cayes, pits, and with other engines. 

They naturally abide in great mountains ; 
but when it fnows, or in hard weather, thca 
they defcend into* vallies and foxefts for 

They caft their Ie(res fometimes in round 
croteys, 'and fometimes flat, . like a bulloek^ 
according to their feeding. 



' 'Thef'^fovMtmmg2i\opy and at otW 
times an amble : but they go moft at eafc 
y^cvL they wallow. 

When they come from their feeding, 
they beat commonly the highways and 
beaten paths, and wherefoever they go our 
of the highways, there you m^y be furc 
they are gone to their dens : for they uTe 
no^ doubling nor fbbtiltie9.r 

They tumble and wallow in water and 
mire, as fwi^ie, and they feed like a dog : 
fomie fay their Btfii is very good food. 

The beft way of finding the boar is with 
a l^arv hound* ; and yet he who i^ without 
one, may trail after a bear as- we do after a 
buqk or ror, and you may lodge aisd hunt 
them as you do a buck. 

For the more fpeedy eMcution, mingle 
maftiffs among the hounds ; for they will 
pinch the bear, and fo pirxvoke her to 
anger, until at laft threy^ bring her to the 
ba^ or elfc drive her our of the plaia into 
the covert, not letting her be at relt till ffae 
fights in- her own' defence. 

BI^ARD m Anx;lin43, is'that part of the 
heok which is a little above the point, and 
ppqje(%ing out, lo hinder the &(h hotn flip- 
ping oflF the hook. 


OP A HORSE, is *tha€ part 'underneath the 
lower mandible on the outiide, and above 
the chin, which bears the curb .of the bridle. 
Icis^alfo called the chuck. See Cukr^ atid 

BEARD- OP A (h>RSB, fhauld neither be 
too high raifed, nor to flat, fo that the 
curb may reft in it's Hght place. 

It fhould have but little flefh upon it, 
and be almoft nothing but fkin and bone, 
without any kind of chops, hardnefs, or 

High BEARING^ Cock, one larger than 
the cock he fights with. 

BEASTS OF THE Chase^ are five, the 
buck, the doe, the foK, the roe, and the 

BEASTS OF THE Forest, are the hart, 
the hind, the hare^ the boar, and the 
wolf. ^ 

BEASTS ahd Fowls or the Warren, 

a IS* A 

are^ebeliafe, the coneys th« pheafant, smf^ 
the partridge. 

BEARING CLAWS : the foremoft toes 
of a cock are fo called by cock-fighters, 
which, if they be hurt or gravelled he 
caimot fight. 

To BEAT, [with Hunters") a term ufed of 
a ftag which runs firft one way and then 
another, ,who is then faid to beat up and 
down : alfo the noifc made by conies irt roD* 
ting time, which is called beating, or 

BEAT UPON THE Hand See Chack. 
• HEAT, to beat the duft or powder, ia 
faid of a horfe that at each time or motion^ 
does not take in ground or way enough, 
with his fore-legs. 

A horfe beats the duft at terra a terra^ 
when he does not imbrace, or take in ground 
enough with his ffaoulders, and makes all 
his times and motions too Ihor.t, as if he 
made them in one place. 

He bcats> the duft at curvets, when he 
does them too precipitately, and too low. 

Me beats upon a walk, when he walks too 
(hort, and makes but little way, whether 
in ftraight lines, rounds, orpafTagings. 

BEAVER, this animal differs not much 
from the otter, excepting his tail, being of 
colour fomewhat yellow, interfperfed with 
afli. There are great numbers of them in 
Virginia^ NewSngland^ New-Tork^ and 
^(hofe parts : and the river Tivf in fFaJer^ . 
was once famous fbr this animal. 

They are an amphibious animal like the 
otter, living both on land, and in water ; 
both frefh and fait j keeping in the laft in' 
the day, and on the firft in the night: but 
without water they cannot live ; for they 
participate much of the nature of fifh, which 
may be gathered from their tails and legs. 

They are much about the bignefsof nnun- 
grel curs ; their fore-feet are like thofe of 
a dog, and their hinder like thofe of a 
goofe, having a web to aflift them in fwinn- 
ming : they have a ftiort head, a flat hairy 
fnout, fmall round ears, very long teeth ; 
and the under teeth ftanding out beyond 
their lips, about the breadth of three 
fingers, and die upper about that of half a 
H fiogerj. 


ftnrger/ being very broad, crooked, ftrdng, 
and fliarp, let deep in their mouths ; being 
their only weapon (o defend thenifelves 
againit other anlniab, and take fiih, as it 
were, upon hooks ; and with thefe they will 
foon cut afunder a tree 4s thick as a man's 
thigh : the tail is without hair, and covered 
over with a (kin like the fcalcs of a filh, 
about half a foot long^ and fix fingers 

B E A V E R.H U N T I N G. 

: The common method of hunting them is 
thus : their caves, or places of abode, be- 
ing found, in which are feveral chambers, 
or places of retreat, by the water-fide, built 
enc over another for them to afcend or de- 
fcend, according as the water rifes or falls ; 
and the building of them is admirable to 
behold ; being made with fticks, and plaif- 
tered with dirt, very artificially, in form of 
a bcLC-hive 3 but for largenefs, as big as a 
moderate fized oven. 

Thefe caves being found, you mufl: make 
a breach therein, and put a littfc dog in it 5 
which when the beaver perceives, he in- 
ftantly makes to the end of his cave, and 
there defends himfejf with his teeth till all 
his building is razed or dcmolilhed, and he 
is expofcd to his enemies, who kill him 
with proper inftruments. The dogs ufed for 
killing them are fuch as for the otter. 

The beaver cannot dive long under water, 
but mufl: put up his bead for breath ; which 
being feen by thofe that are hunting them, 
they kill them with gun-ftiot, or fpears, fuch 
as are ufed for killing the otter. 

They are taken for their fkins and cods, 
which are of a high price : thofe flcins are 
befl: that are blackeft. 

One who dwelt in Virginia, gives the fol- 
lowing account of them. That they dwell, 
or inhabit, in low, moorifh,- boggy places, 
through which runs a rill of water j and 
this rill, at fome convenient place, they 
flop by making a dam crofs it 5 and by this 
dam (which is made artificially with earth 
and fticks) they make their caves •, and to 
which belong commonly two or three hun- 
iJfpd beavers, refembiing as it were ^ town. 


If this dam is at any time broken by any 
to take them, or otherwifc becomes decayed, 
(the water being their chief 'tcfuge^ they 
immediately repair it. 

And by obfervation, they have a chief 
over them, who takes care thereof; the 
reft are very obfervant to him when he has . 
affemblcd them together, which he does by , 
flapping his tail in the water, and fo making . 
a noi fe. 

BED and BEDDING in Angling, arc 
faid of hairs where they arc twifted kindly, 
fo that the link is equally round in every 
part. Alfo the fubftance of the body of aa 
artificial fly. Eels are faid to bed, wheo 
they get into the fands or mq)d in large 

BED OF Snakes j a nanrje hunters give to 
a knot of young ones ; and a roe is faid to 
bed when (he lodges in a particular place. 

BELLING, > [with hunters] the noifc 

BELLOWING, 5 made by a hart in rut- 
ting time, 

BELLY ; a thick bellied, a well-bodied, 
a well thick-flanked horfcj that is, a horfe 
that has large, long, and Well made ribs ; 
or fuch as are neither too narrow nor.too 
flat: thence they fay. 

Such a horfe has -no body, he is thia 
flanked ; that is, his ribs are too narrow,, or 
fliort, and th^ flank turns up : which makes 
his body look flanklefs, like a greyhound. 

A horfe of this nature is commonly called 
in French 2in efirac i which generally fpeak* 
ing, is a fine fort of tender horfcs, not very 
for travelling or fatigue, unlefs they feed 
very heartily. 

We rejedt all coach-horfes that arc not 
well bodied, all that are narrow or thin 
gutted, and fecm to have the hide or ficin of 
their flanks Hitched upon their ribs: but a 
hunter is not the worfe liked for being light 
bellied: nay, on the contrary, he is prcrr 
ferred to a thicker flanked horfe, provided 
he is well winded, of good mcitlc, light, 
and a great eater. 

BELLY-FRETTINGi 7 1^ a grievous 

BELLY-ACHE. J pain in.thc beU 

ly of an horfe, bcfides the cholic, proceed- 
ing either from eating of -green pulfe, 
which grows on the ground, or raw, un- 


B I R 

iried peas, beans, or oats; or elfe when 
fliarp fretting humours, inflammations, or 
abundance of grofs matter, is got between 
the great gut and the panicle: the figns 
of which pain, is much wallowing, great 
groaning, (^c. 

The cure is to rake the horfe, by firft 
anointing your hand with fallad oil, and 
thrufting it into his fundament, and pulling 
out as much dung as can be reached ; and 
afterwards to give him a glider of water and 
fait mixed together i and then give him to 
drinft the powder of wormwood and cen- 
taury, brewed in a quart of malmfcy. 

BEVY, OF Roe-Bucks, [with* Forefters] 
Ji herd, or company of thofc beads, 

BEVY, Of Quails, [with Fowlers] is a 
term ufed for a broody or flock of* young 

BEWITS [in Falconry] pieces of leather^ 
to which a hawk's bells are fadened, and 
buttoned to his. legs. 

BILLITTING, [among Hunters] the 
ordure, or dung of a fox. 

BINDING, [in Falcony] a term ufed in 
tiring i or when a hawk feizes his prey« 

BIRD. Birds are either land-fowl, or 
water-fowl. Thofc that arc brought up in 
cages, require that fome cafe ihould be 
taken of them when they happen to be hurt, 
,orfall fick ; for which the following rcme- 
dres may be ufed, as there is occafion. 

For thofe that are hurt, gently pull oflF 
the feathers from the place, or you may cut 
them I and fpreading a villa magna plaifter 
upon foft leather, applying it thereto. 

To bring birds to an appetite, take 
rhubarb, agaric, aloes, faffron, cinnamon, 
annife, and fugar-candy, of each a dram ; 
beat all thefe ingredients together, and re- 
duce them into a powder j and give them a^s 
much of this powder as will lie upon a filver 
penny, in a pellet, at night ^ and this will 
make them caft much. 

To purge birds, and bring them to a fto- 
mach, give them two pills of the old liquid 
conferve of province rofcs, of about the 
bignefs o( a fmali pea. 

We proceed next to -the ways how to fake 
birds that are at large : there is a way of ■. 

B I R 

intoxicating, and catching them with your 
hands ; in order to w'.iich, take fome lees of 
wind, and hemlock juice, and having tern- 
pe/ed them together, let fome wheat, for 
the fpace of one night, be fl:eeped therein j 
then throwing the fame into a place where 
the birds refort to feed, when they have 
eaten thereof, they will drop down. 

There are various, ways of taking birds ^ 
one of which is in the night, with a low- 
bell, hand-net, and light 5 a fport ufed ii? 
plain, and champaign countries; alfo in 
ftubble fields, efpecially that of wheat, from 
the middle of Offoier to the end of March j 
and that after this manner. 

At night, when the air is mild, and the 
moon does not ftiine, take your low- bell, 
which muftbeof a deep and hollow found, 
offuch a reafonable Gze, that a man may 
carry it conveniently with one hand ; and 
which does toll juft as a fheep's while it 
feeds : you muftratfo havea box, much like 
a large lanthorn, and about afoot and^i half 
fquare, big enough, for two or three great 
lights to be fet in it; and let the box be 
lined with tin, and one fide open, to- caft 
forth the light , fix this box to your breaft 
to carry before you, and the light will caft 
a great diftance before you, very broad, 
whereby you may fee any thing chat is on 
the ground, within the compafs of the 
light, and confequently the birds that rooft 
on the ground. 

As for the taking them, have two men 
with you, one on each fide > but a little af- 
ter you, to the end they may not be within 
the refleftioh of the light that the lanthorA 
OF box cafls forth ; and each of them muft 
be provided with an hand-net of about three 
or four foot fquare, which muft be fixt to a 
long ftick, to carry in their hands -, fo that 
when either of them fees any bird on his fide, 
he muft lay his net over them, and fa 
take them up, making as little noife as 
poflTiWe ; and they muft not be over hafty 
in running to take them up \ but let hin% 
that carries the light and low bell, be the 
foremoft, for fear of raifing others, whicft 
their coming into the limits of light may 
Hz- occafion^ 

Bl R 

occafion ; for all is dark, cixccpt whcr^ the 

light cafts its reflexion. 

'Tis to be obferved, that the found of 
the low-bcU caufcs the birds to lie clofe 
and not dare .to ftir, while you put your nets 
over them : and the light is fo terrible to 
them, that it amazes them: and for caution 
you mudufe all imaginable fileoce^ for fear 
of raifing them- 

If you would praQife this fport by your- 
feif, then carry the low-bcU in one hand, as 
before dire£lcd, and in the other a band.- 
net, about two foot broad, and three foot 
long, with an handle to it s which is to lay 
upon them as you fpy them. Some like 
this way better than the former. 

If you take a companion, you naay have 
a fowling-piece, to the cad that if you efpy 
a hare> the better way is to ihoot it : for it 
is hazardous to take it with a net. * 

Some there are, who inftead of fixing the 
light to their bread: as aforefaid, tie the 
low-bell to their girdle, by a ftring which 
iiangs to their knees, and (heir oiotions 
cauk the bell to ftrike i and then they carry 
the -light in their hand, extending the arm 
before them; but the lanthorn, or box, 
mud not be fo large as that which yoia fix 
to your bread. 

Another way of fiking fm^U bird^, is by 
bat fowling, the fame being likewife a 
^night-exer.cifc i by which you may take all 
fores of birds, both great and fmall, that 
rooft not only on the ground, but on (brubs, 
bufhes, hawthorn trees, and the like places. 

The depth of winter is the beft feafon for 
ithi^ fport ; and the darker the night, and 
colder the weather, fo much the betier. Sec 

Some take great and fmall fowl by night 
in champaign countries, with a long tramel- 
net, which is much like the net ufcd for 
the low-bell both for fhape, bignefs and 
rpeih : for which fee Plate XVT. This net 
is to be fpreadupon the ground, and let the 
nether or further end thereof, being plumbed 
with fmall plummet:S of lead, lie clofe on 
the ground -, and then bearing vip the former 
end by the llrengch of men, at the two 
fpi'emoft. ends only, trail it aiong the 


gnound; not fufifering the end which \m 
borne up to come near it, but at leiift a 

Then at each end of the net mud: be car* 
ried great blazing lights of fire, fuch as 
have been fpoken of before $ and by the 
lights men itmfi:* with long poles, raife 
up the birds as they go, and as they raiie 
under the nets, to take chem : and you majr 
in this manner go over a whole corn-field 
or other champaign ground, which will yield 
both pleafure and profit. 

There are, and may be, more ways 
than one for taking fmall birds, when the 
ground is covered with fnow ; to indance in 
the. following one 5 fee Hate ^ II. Fig. %i 
pitch upon a place in your yard or garden, 
from which you may fee the birds about 
twenty or thirty paces from fome window 
or door, froni whence the birds cannot fee 
you> to the end they may not be frightened:; 
clear this place of the fnow, to the breadth 
i)f fix or kvcn foot, and of the fame length 
fo as to form a fquare, as reprefented by the 
lines, Q, P, Q, R : place a wooden table, 
or door in the middle, as at A, to which 
you muft have fattened before at the fides, 
B, C, D, E, feme fmall pieces of pipc^* 
daves, about fix inches long and .an inch 
broad : but before you nail them on, naake 
a hole, exceeding the thicknefs of the nail^ 
to the end it may eafily turn about each nailw 

Tou are, under the four ends which are 
not nailed, t0 place four pieces of tile, or 
flate, to hinder them from penetraxing into 
the ground, as you .may fee at F. and G, in 
fiich a manner that the table may not be 
fixed, but with the lead jog fall down. 

You mud make a fmall notch* or little 
day, in the end of the table, at the place 
marked H, in order to put into it the end 
Aaff marked I.> which fhould he feven 
inches long, and one broad, and the ofiher 
end ought to red upon a piece of tile, or 
flate i fo that the door, or table, hanging 
thereon, would be r^ady to fall towards the 
horfe, were it not for that piece of wood 
which is boared towards themiddle^ in order 
to put ifi and fatten the end of aiinall cord, 

- whofic 

whoCe other end is conveyed to the window 
W door M, Nj defigned for this purpofe. 

This done, put fome ftraw npoi) the ta- 
ble lo cover it, with fonoe corn underneath 
It, and a little about it : now, fo foon as 
the hungry little birds fee the earth free frpm 
faow, and covered with ftraw, they will fly 
thither, and when they have eat up the corn 
fibout the table^ they will alfo proceed to 
feed upon that under it : you muft from 
tinne to time peep through fome hole in the 
door, or leave it little open, and when you 
find the birds have got under the machine, 
pull the cord M,' which will draw out the 
ftickl, and fo the table will fall upon the 
birds, which you mud prefently fcize, and 
fee your niachme as before. 

If the table does not fall readily enough, 
)>ut fo that the birds may have time to ef- 
cape, and if it b.e not heavy enough of it- 
felf, you muft lay earth, or fome fuch thing, 
upon it, that fnay the kaft frighten the bird» 
from coming near it. 

bmall birds may be taken in the night- 
time, with nets and Ocves : they retire in the 
winter time into coppices, he(^ges, and 
bufhes, jby reafon of fevere cold and winds 
which iccohiinode them. The net made ufc 
of for this purpofe, is that which the French 
call a carreler, reprefented ia Plate II. 

JFig. J. 

Tafc^ two poles, AB C D, E F G H, let 
itbem be ftraic, and light, tenor twelve feet ' 
long .; to the end the net may be lifted up 
high enough wherewith to take the birds : 
•jie the n€>t to thcfe two poles, beginning 
with the two corners, at the two fmall ends 
A, E,- tie the other two corner^, C, G, as 
far as you cap toward the two thick ends of 
the poles, D, H, faften packthreads all along 
.at both the lides, or two or three places j 
i:o each you may fee marked by the capital 
and fmall letters, a B, b C, F, d. There muft 
be three or foiir pcrfons employed, one to 
carry the net, ^mother to carry the light, and 
a third a long pole. 

As foon in the night as you have got to 
the place where you think -the birds are 
f ctired, and hav^ found a good bufl), or kind 
of thicket^ tb( npt mu^ be unfolded^ and 

B 1 R 

pitched where k Ihould be, and exa^ly tp 
the height of the bufli : and it muft he {q 
ordered, that the net be placed between 
the wind and the birds ; for it is the nature 
of all birds to rooft with their breafts againft 
the wind. The other perfon with the 
lighted torch, muft ftand behind the middle 
of the net, and the third muft beat the 
bufhes on the other fide of the hedge, and 
drive the birds towards the lights he muft 
lay on ftoutly with his pole; the bird^ 
fuppofing it to be day wULmake towards the 
light, and fo falling into the net, become a 
prey to you : When you have taken them 
out, you may pitch your net again. 

In ^rcat timber woods, under which holly 
bufhes grow, birds ufually rooft i And there 
much game is to be met with. 

By this way, twenty or thirty dozen of 
birds, have been taken in one night. 

This fport is fo much the better when the 
weather is cold and dark. 

You may divert yourfelf from SepUmbtr 
to y^r/7, in taking all forts of birds in the 
middle of a field ; and make ufe of the fol^ 
lowing device : 

Pitch upon a place in a piece of ground 
early in the mdrning, remote from tajj 
trees and hedges ; where ftick in the grouqtd 
three or four branches of coppice wood, z^ 
A, B, T, Plate II. Fig. 6. five or fix feet 
high, and fo intermingle the tops of them^ 
that they may keep clofc and firm like f 
hedge : take two or three boughs of black- 
thorn, as C, D, let them be as thick and 
clofe as may be, and place them on the top 
of the coppice branches, where you mu|: 
make them faft : provide yourfelf with 
four or five dozen of fmall lime-twigs, 
nine or ten inches long, and as flender aa 
can be got : glew them all along, within 
two inches of the thick end, which muft 
be cleft with a knife.: place them near, and 
upon the hedge, and let them be kept up 
by placing the cleft end (lightly upon the 
point of the thorns, and let the middle be 
borne up a little with fome other higher 
thorn, fo that they may ftand floping, 
without touching one another j ranging 
them all in fuch a manner, that .a bird can- 


B I R 

not light upon the hedge without Being en* 
tangled. See Plate IL Fig. 6. 

You fhould always have a bird of the fame 
fort you defign to catch, and bring, him up 
in a fmall cage that is light and portable : 
thefc cages muft be placed upon fmall fork- 
ed fticks, as F, G, ten inches from the 
ground, ftuck on one fide the artificial 
hedge, or bulh, at a fathom's diftancc ; af- 
ter which retire thirty paces towards -S, 
where you are to fticfc two or three leaved 
tranches in the ground, which may fcrve 
far a lodge, or ftand, to hide yoarfelf. 
' When you have taken three or four birds 
of any fort, you muft make ufe of a device 
repreftnted by figure 4 : take a finall.ftrck, 
?, H, twa feet long, and fix it quite up- 
.right in the ground, at the diftance of about 
two fathoms from the tree j faften a fmall 
packthread to the end 1, which muft bt: 
t)n a fmall forked ftick, L M, two feet 
high, and fix it in the ground, four fathoms 
dillant from the other, I H : let the end of it 
"be conveyed to your (land, then tie the 
"brrds you have taken, by the legs, to that 
packthread, between the ftick I H, and the 
ftrked one, L M : the fetters N, O, P, Qj R, 
rcprefent them to you : the thread made ufe 
fef for this purpofe, muft be two feet long, 
Wnd fo Dack that the bird may ftand upon 
the ground. This done retire to your ftand j 
fthd when you (ee fome birds fty, pull your 
^a^kchread S, and the birds that are tied 
will fly, by which means you may take a 
great many birds ; for thofe that hover in the 
^ir perceiving the others fly, wiH imagine 
they feed there, which will bring them down, 
and they will light upon the lime twigs \ 
from which you may take them without any 
fficulty. • 

As foon as the fmall birds have done 
with their nefts, which will be about the 
end of July^ you may take them in great 
numbers, when they go to drink along ri- 
vulets, about fprings, ditches, and pools, 
in the fields and woods. See Phte 1,1. 
Fig. 7. 

Suppofe the place marked with the letter 
A, fhould be the middle of a ditch, or 
pool full oi water,, where the birds come to 

B I ft 

d'rinlc, malie choice of a bank where tR^ 
fun comes but little, as at B : remove everf 
thing that may obftru£t the birds to come* 
eafily at the water ; take (evcral fmall lime- 
twrgs, a foot long, which you muft lime 
over, to within twa inches of the thickcrt 
end, which muft be fharp pointed, in or- 
der to fix them in a row along the bank B>. 
in fuch a manner, that they may all lie 
within two fingers breadth of the ground t 
they muft not tauch one another :^ wheii 
you you have enclofed this bank, cut fome 
fmall boughs or herbs, all which place 
round the waters at the fides marked C, L, Y^ 
where the birds might drink, and this will 
oblige them to throw tbemfelves where the 
lime-twigs are, which they caangt difcern> 
and leave no places uncovered round the 
water, where the birds may drink, but that 
at B -.then retiring to your ftand to con- 
ceal yourfelf, birt \o as that you may fee all 
your lime-twigs, and when any thing i$. 
catched,. haften to take it away and replace 
the lime-fticks, where there is occafibn,. 
Rut as the birds which come to drink, con»- 
fidcr the place where they are to- alight for ir,. 
for they do it not at once, but reft upon* 
fome tall- trees if there be any, are on the 
top of buflies, and after they have been there 
foine time, get to fome lower branches, and 
a little after alight on the ground ; in this, 
cafe you muft have three or four great 
boughs like thofe reprefented at the fide Y, 
which you are to pitch in the ground at the 
beft place of accefa to the ditch, about st 
fathom diftant from the water: takeoff^ the 
branches from the middle, to near the top, 
and let the dift>ranched part be floping to- 
ward the water, tathe end you make notch- 
es therein with a knife, at three fingers 
diftant from each other, in order to put in. 
feveral fmall lime twigs, as you fee by the 
cut i you muft lay them within tv/o fingers- 
breadth of the branch, and fo dilpofe them 
in refpeft to one another, that no bird 
which comes to alight thereon can efcape 
being entangled: it is certain if you take 
fix dozen bf birds, as well on the boughs as 
on the ground, you will catch two-thirds 
on the branches at Y. See?hxt\h Fig. 7. 


T-hetime for this fport is from two in the 
•morning till evening, half an hour before 
fun-fet^ but the bcft time is from about 
ten to eleveii, and from two to three; and 
laftly an hour and a half before fun-fet, when 
they approach to the watering place in flocks, 
becaufe the hour preiles them to retire to 

The beft feafon for this diverfion, is when 
the weather is hotteft i you muft not follow 
it when it rains, nor even when the morning 
»dcw falls, becaufe the birds then fati^fy 
thcmfelvcs with the water they find on the 
leaves of trees, neither will it be to any pur- 
pofe topurfue the fport when the water after 
great rains lies in fomeplaces on the ground : 
it muftiirft.dry up, or tlfe you will lofe your 

Large, as well as fmall birds^ are taken at 
4uch watering places. See Low-Bell and 


BIRDLIME, ftuff prepared after different 
ways: the common method is to peel a 
good quantity of holly bark about mid- 
fummer, fill a vcffel with it, put fpring 
water to it, boil it till the grey and white 
bark arife from the green, which will require 
twelve holers bpjling^ .tnen take it off the 
fire, dram the water well froai It, feparate 
the barks, lay the green bark on the ground 
in fome cool cellar, covered with any green 
Tank weeds, fuch as dock-thiftles, hemlock, 
&c. to a good thicknefs ; let it lie fo four- 
teen days, by which time it will be a pcr- 
fe£k mucilage ; then pound it well in a ftone 
mojtar, till .it become a tough pafte, and 
that none of the bark be difcerniblei you 
then w^fh it well in fome running dream, 
as long as you perceive the lead motes in 
it: when put it into an earthen pot to fer- 
ment,' fcum it for four or five days, as often 
as any thing rifes, and when no more cornes 
change it into a frefli earthen veiTel, and 
prcferve it for ufe in this manner. Take 
what quantity you think fit, piit it in an 
earthen pipkin, add a third part of capons 
or goofe grcarfe to it, well clari6cd, or oil 
of walnuts, which is better, incorporate 
them on a gentle fire, and ftir it continually 
till it is cold, and thus it is finidied. 

To prevent froft : take a quarter of as 


niujch en oF petroleum as you^ do- gooHs 
greafe, and no cold wilt congeal it: the 
Italians make theirs of the berries of tho 
mifletoe tree, heated after the fame manner^ 
and mix it with nut oil, an ounce to a pound 
of lime, and taking it from the fire, add half 
an ounce of turpentine, which qualifies it 
alfo for the water. 

Great quantities of bird-lime are brought 
from DamaJcuSy fuppofed to be made of 
fcbeftens, becaufe we fometimes find .the, 
kernels r but it is fubjeft to froft, impatient 
of wetj and will not laft above a year or two 
good. There comes alfo of it into England 
from Sfain^ which refifts water, but is of an 
ill-fcent : it is faid the bark of our lantona, 
or way-faring fhrubs, will make as good 
bird-lime as any. 

How to ufe Birdlime. 

When your lime is cbldi take your rods; 
and warm them a little over the fire; then 
take your Iime» and wind it about the top 
of your rod, then draw your rods afundcr 
one from another and clofe them again, 
continually plying and working them to- ' 
gether, till by fmcaring one upon another, 
you have equally beftowed on each rod a 
fufficient proportion of lime. 

If you lime any firings, do it when the 
lime is very hot and at the thinneft, be- 
fmearing the firings on all fides, by folding 
them together, and unfolding them again. 

If you lime draws, !it muft be done like- 
wife when the lime is very hot, doing a 
great quantity together, as many as you 
can well grafp in your hand, toffing arid 
working them before the fire till they are all 
bcfmeared, every draw having its due pro* 
portion of lime j having fo done, put them 
AJp in cafes of leather for ufe. 

The bed way of making water Birdlime 
is the following : 

Buy what quantity you think fit of the 
dronged birdlime you can procure, and 
wafli it as Jong in clear fpring water, till 
you find it very pliable, and the hardticfs 
thereof removed \ then beat our the water 
extraordinarily well, till you cannot per- 
ceive a drop to appear, then dry it welf ; 
after this, put it into an earthen pot, and 
•mingle therewith capon's greafe unfalted, 


B I R 

as much as will make it run, when add there- 
to ifwo l^oonfuls of ftrong vinegar, a fpoon- 
ftjl of the bcft failad oil, and a fmall quanti- 
ty of ^mr^ turpentine; this is the allow- 
ance of thefe ingredients, which muft be 
added to every pound of ftrong birdlime as 

Having thus mingled thcm,boil all gently 
over a fmall fire, ftirring it cominually j. 
then take it from the fire, and let it cool ; 
when at any time you have occafion to ufe 
ft, warm it, and anoint your twigs or ftraws, 
or any other fmalt things, and no water will 
take away the ftrength thereof. 

This fort of lime is belt, efpecially for 
ffiipes and fieldfares. 

Of taking fmall Birds which ufe hedges and 
bufhes^ njDttb lime-twigi. 

The great lime bufli is beft for this ufe, 
which you muft take after this manner : 
cut down the main branch or bow of any 
buftiy tree, whofe branch and twigs are 
long, thick, fmooth, and ftraight, with- 
out either pricks or knots, of which the 
wjUow or birch tree are the beft ; when you 
have pickt it and trimmed it from all fuper- 
fiuities,. making the twigs neat and clean, 
then take the beft birdlime, well mixed 
and wrought together with goofe greafe, or 
capons greafe, which being warmed, lime 
every twig therewith within four fingers of 
the bottom. 

The body from whence the branches have 
their rife muft be untouched with lime. 

Be fure you do not daub your twigs with 
too much lime, for that will give diftafte 
to the birds, yet let none want its propor- 
tion, or have any part left bare which ought to 
be touched, for as too mu^h will deter them 
from coming, fo too little will not hold 
them when they are there. Having fo 
done, place your bulh in fome quickfet or 
dead hedge near unto towns ends, back 
yards, old houfcs or the ifke j for thefe are 
the refort of fmall birds in the fpring time ; 
in the fuiooier and harveft> %i groves. 

B IR ' 

bufhes, or white-thorn trees, qufckftt hedges 
near corn fields, frtrit trees, flax and hemp 
lands : and in the wrnttr about houfes, 
hovels, barns, ftacks, or thofe places where 
ftand ricks of corn, or fcattered chaff, &c. 

A s near as you can to any of thefe haunts 
plant your lime bufli, and place yourfelf 
alfo at a coavenient diftance undifcovcred, 
imitating with your mouth feveral notes of 
birds, which you muft learn by frequent 
praftice, walking the fields for thif pur- 
pofe very often, obfcrving the variety o€ 
feveral birds founds, efpeciaHy fuch as they 
call one another by. 

Some have been fo expert herein, thac- 
they could imitate the notes of twenty fe- 
veral forts of birds at Jeaft, by which they 
have caught ten birds to another's one that 
was ignorant therein. 

If you cannot attain it by your indxiftry^ 
you muft buy a good bird-call, of whicb 
there are feveral forts, and eafy to be made j 
fome of wood, ibme of horn, fome of cane, 
and the like. 

Having learnt firft how to ufe this call, 
you fhould frc and call the birds unto you, 
and as any of them light on your bufh, ftep 
not out unto them till you fee them fuffa- 
ciently entangled ; neither is it rcquifite to 
run for every fingle bird, but let them alone 
till more come, for the fluttering is as good 
as a ftale to entice them. 

This exercife you may ufe from Ain-rifing 
till ten o'clock in the morning, and froni 
one till almoft fun-fet. 

You may take fmall birds only with liAc- 
twigs, without the bufh. 

Some have taken two hundred or three 
hundred fmall twigs about the bignefs of 
rufhes, and about three inches long, and 
have gone with them into afield where there 
were hemp cocks: upon the tops of half a 
fcore lying all round together, they have 
ftuck their twigs, and then have gone and 
beat that field, or the next to it, where they 
faw any birds, and commonly in fuch fields 
there are infinite numbers of linnets and 
green-birds which are great lovers of hemp- 


B I R 

And they flying in fuch vaft flocks> they 
have caught at one fall of them upon the 
cocks eight dozen at a time. 

But to return, there is another way of 
taking birds^ with lime-twigs, by placing 
near them a ftale or two made of living 
baics^ placing them aloft that they may be 
vifible to the birds thereabouts, who will 
no fooner be perceived, but every bird will 
come and gaze, wondering at the ftrangenefs 
of the fight, and having no other conveni- 
ent lighting place but where the lime-twigs 
are, you may take what number you like of 
them. But the owl is a far better flale than 
the bat, being bigger and'more eafily to be 
perceived^ befides he is never feen abroad^ 
but he is followed and perfecuted by all the 
birds that are near. 

If you have not a living bat or owl, their 
ikins will ferve as well, ftuffed, and will lad 
you twenty years ; there are fome haveufed 
an owl cut in wood and naturally painted, 
with great fucceia. 

Another method of taking all manner of fmall 
Birds vifith Birdlime. 

In cold weather, that is in froft or fnow, 
all forts of fmall birds gather together in 
flocks, as larks, chaffinches, linnets, gold- 
finches, yellow-hammer^, buntings, fpar- 
rows, &c. 

All thefe, except the lark, perch on trees 
or buflies, as well as feed on the ground. 

If they refort about your houfe, or adja- 
cent fields, then ufe birdlime that is well 
prepared and not too old \ which order after 
the following manners 

Put ehc birdlime into an earthen difli, ad* 
ding to it fome frcfti lard or capon's greale, 
putting one ounce of either to a quarter of 
a pound of birdlime, then fctting it over 
the fire, melt it gently together ; but you 
fnuft be fure not to let it boil^ which would 
take away the ftrength of the birdlime and 
fpoil it. 

It being thus prepared, and you being 
furniftied with a quantity of wheat-ears \ 
cut the flraw about a foot long be0des the 


B I T 

ears, and lime them for about fix inch^ 
from the bottom of the ears to the middle 
of the ftraw ; the lime being warmed that it 
.may run the thinner upon the ftraw, and 
therefore be the lefs difcernable, and liable 
to be fufpcfted by the birds. 

Then go into the field, carrying with you 
a bag of chaff, and threlbed ears, which 
fcatter around- for the compais of twenty 
yards in width (this will be beft in a fnowy 
feafon) then flick up the limed ftraws with 
the ears leaning, or at the ends touching 
the ground, when retire from the place, and 
traverfe the ground all round about $ and 
by that means you difturb the birds in 
their other haunts, and they will fly to the 
place where the chafi^, ^c. has been feat- 
.tered, and the limed ftraws fet up, and 
by pecking at the ears of corn, and finding 
that they ftick upon theni, they will flraight- 
way mount up from the earth, and in their 
flight the bxrd-limed ftraws lying under 
their wings, will caufe them to fall, and not 
being able to difengage tfaemfelVes from 
the ftraw, may be taken with eafe. You 
muft not go and tike them up, when you 
fee five or fix entangled, for that may pre-- 
vent you from taking as many dozen at a 

If the birds that fall, where your limed 
ftraws are, be larks, do not go near them 
till they rife of themfelves and fly in great 
flocks ; by this method fome have caught 
five or fix dozen at a time. 

Some of thefe ftraws may be laid nearer 
home, for taking finches, fparrows, yellow- 
hammers, iSc. which refoit near to houfes, 
and frequent barn-doors j where they may 
be eafily taken by the foregoing method. 

Having performed this in the morning> 
take away all the limed ears, that fo the 
birds may feed boldly, and not be difturbed 
or frighted againft next morning, and in the 
afternoon bait the lame place wUh frelh chaff 
and ears of corn, and let them reft till the 
next morning; and then having ft«ck up* 
frefli limed wheat*cars, repeat your morning 
birding recreation. 

BISHOPING, a term amongft horfc- 

cd\)rfeTs, which they ufe for tbofe tophiftica^ 

I tions 

B I T 


.tions they ufe to make aa old fiorfe appear 
young, and a bad one good, &c. 

BITCH, if Ihc grow not proud fo foon as 
you would have her, fhe may be made fo, 
by taking two heads of garlic, half a cador's 
ftone, the juice of creffes, and about twelve 
Spanijh Bies or cantharides, all which boil 
together in a pipkin which holds a pint, 
with fome mutton, and make broth there- 
ofi give her fome twice or thrice and (he 
will infallibly grow proud : the fame pot- 
^^6 given to a dog will make him dcfirous 
of copulation. 

Again, when (he islined and with puppy, 
you muft not let her hunt, for that wUl 
make her caft her whelps, but let her walk 
i3p and down the houfe and court uncon- 
fined, and never lock her up in her kennel, 
for fhe is then inn patient for food, and there- 
fore you muft make her fome broth once a 

. If you will fpay your bitch, it muft be 
done before ever (he has a litter of whelps, 
and in fpaying her, take not out all the 
roots or firings of the veins, for in fo doing, 
it will nrwch prejudice her reins, and hinder 
her fwiftnefs ever after, whereas by leaving 
.fome behind it will make her much ftronger 
and more hardy ; but whatever you do, 
jfpay her not when Qic is proud, for that 
ivill endanger her life, but it may be done 
fifteen days after ; though the beft time of 
all is when the whelps are fhaped within 

For the reft. ^ See Dogs> and cbifoftng of 

BITT, or HoRSE-BiTT, in general, figni- 
fies the whole machine of all the iron ap- 
purtenances of a bridlej as the bitt-mouth, 
the branches, the curb, the fevil-holes, the 
tranchefil> and crofs the chains i but it often 
fignifics only the bitt-mouth in particular. 

BITT-MOUTH, is a piece of iron forced 
fcveral ways, in order to be put into a horfe's 
fnouth, to keep it in fub]e(51:ion. 

Of tbefc bitt-mouths, fome are finglc 
eannojv mouths, fome are cannon mouths 
with an upfct, or mounting liberty ;, fome 
fcatch mouths,, feme mouths after the form 
of a barge, fome with two long turning 
olives, and feveral other forts i all with dif- 

fcrenf liberties for the tongue, or without 
liberty. . 

But all bitt-mouths ought ftill to be pro- 
portioned to the mouth of the horfe, accord- 
ing as it is more or lefs cloven and wide, or 
more or Icfs fcnfible and tender; according 
as the tongue and lips are higher or flat- 
ter, and as the palate is more or lefs fleOiy : 
obferving with all, tJiat if the horfe be old, . 
the palate will always have but little fle(h 
upon it, 

A bittrmouth aU ofT a*piece, without a 
joint in the middle, is called by the French^ 
a bitt thatpreiTes^/if rentier. See Bars. 

BITTS: the iron which is put into a 
.horfe*s nxoutb, is called a bttt, or bitt« 
mouth; in the middle whereof there is. al- 
ways an arched fpace, for the lodging of 
the tongue; which is. called the liberty. 
It is the opinion of the Duke of NewcaJiU^ 
that as little iron as poflible,*ihould be put 
into a horfe's mouth : and we feldom ufe 
any other than fnafflea, cannon -mouths 
jointed in the middle,, cannon with a faft- 
mouth, and -cannon with a port-mouthy 
either round or jointed. 

As for the bitts in ufe, befide the fnaffle, 
or fmall watering bitt, there is the cannon- 
mouth' jointed in the middle, which always 
prejferves a horfe's mouth whole and founds 
and though the toogue fuftains the whole 
effort of it, yet it is not fo fenfible as the 
bars ; which are fo delicate, that they feel its 
preffure through the tongue, and thereby 
obey the leaft motion of the rider's hands. 

The larger it is towards the ends fited to 
the branches, the gentler it will be. We 
fliould make ufe of this mouth to a horfe as 
long as we can ; that is, if with a fimple 
cannon-mouth we can draw from a horfe all 
the obedience he is capable of giving, it 
will be in vain to give him another > this be* 
ing the very beft of all. 

The cannon with a faft mouth is all of one 
piece, and only kneed in the middle, to give 
the tongue freedom : It is proper to fecurc 
thofe mouths that chack or beat upon the 
hand': it will fix their mouths, becaufe ic 
refts always in one place -, fo that deadening 
the fame,, in a (panncr,^ thereby,^ the horfe 


B I T 

lofes his apprehenfivencfs, and will foon re- 
lifti his bitt-mouth better than the laft; 
which being jointed in the middle, refts un- 
equally upon the bars, this however be- 
caufe not jointed in the middle, is more 
rud^. The middle of this bitt (hould be a 
little more forward, to give the more play 
to the horfe's tongue ; and the bitt (hould 
reft rather on the gums, or outfides of the 
bars, than upon their very ridges. 

The fourth fort is called, the cannon- 
mouth with the liberty ; after the form of a 
pidgcon's neck. When a horfc's mouth is 
too large, fo that the thicknefs thereof fup- 
ports the mouth of the bitt, that it cannot 
work it's eflFefts on the bars, this liberty will 
a little difengage it, and fuSer the mouth 
of the bitt to come at, and reft upon, his 
gums ; which will make him fo much the 
lighter upon the hand. 

The port-mouth, is a cannon, with an 
upfet or mountain liberty •, proper for a 
horfe with a good mouth, but a large tongue 
working it's effe£):s upon the lips and gums : 
and becaufe the tongue is difengaged, it 
will fubje£t • the horfe that hath high bars, 
and in fome degree fenfible. This ufeful 
bitt, if well made, will never hurt a horfe's 
head. f» 

The fcatch- mouth, with an upfet or 
mountain liberty, is ruder than a cannon- 
mouth, becaufe not fully fo round, but 
more edg^d'j and preferable to them inone 
rcfpeft ; which is, that thofe parts of a can- 
non-mouth to which the branches are faf- 
tcncd, if not well rivcttcd, are fubjeft to 
flip J but the ends of a fcatch-mouth can ne- 
ver fail, becaufe of their being over-lapped ; 
and therefore much more fecurc for vicious 
and ill-natured horfcs. 

Mr. PignateV^ cannon -mouth with the 
liberty, is proper for a horfe with a large 
tongue and round bars, as being only fup- 
ported a little by his lips. Care fliould be 
iiad, never to work a horfe with one rein, 
as long as he has one of thefe bitt-mouths. 
The defer iption Sir William Hope gives of 
this bitt is, that it has a gentle falling and 
moving up and down ^ and the liberty fo low 
as hot to hurt the horfe's mouth j and ccr- ., 

B L A 

tainly the bed bitt for horfes that have any ' 
thing of a big tongue. 

Some are of opinion, that the bed way to 
fit a horfe exaftly with a bitt, is to have a 
great many bitts by them, and change till 
they hit the right : but at firft, be furc to let ' 
him have a gentle one; and be rightly 
lodged in his mouth, fo as not to frumple 
his lips, or to reft upon his tulhes : then let 
him be mounted, and pulled two or three • 
fteps back ; whereby you will know if his 
head be firm, if he performs frankly, or only 
obeys with rcludtancy ; that fo you may give 
him another bitt, which may gain his con- 
fcnt. If he inclines to carry low, you are ' 
not to give a liberty for the tongue, which 
will rife too high; for that by tickling his- 
palate, would bring his head down between 
his legs. Note^ that large curbs, if they be 
round,, are always moft gentle. 

BLACK, MOOR, or coal-black, is the 
colour of a horfe that is of a deep, (hining, 
and lively black. Horfes entirely black, are 
accounted dull, but thofe with a white foot 
or white fpots in their forehead^ are more 
alert and fprightlv. 

BLACK-BIRD; this bird is known by nil 

She makes her neft many times when th« 
woods are full of fnow, which happens very 
often in the beginning of March ; and builds 
it upon the ftumps of trees, by ditch-fides, 
or in a thick hedge ; being at no certainty, 
like other birds : the outfide of her ueft is 
made with dry grafs and mofs, and little 
dry fticks and roots of trees ; and (be daub* 
all the infide with a kind of clayey earth ; 
fafhioning it fo round, and forming it fo 
handfome and fmooth^ that a man cannot 
mend it. 

They breed three or four times a year, ac- 
cording as they lofe their nefts ; for if their 
nefts are taken away, they breed the fooner; 
the young ones are bfought up with almoft^ 
any meat wKatfoever. • 

This bird fings about three fnonths in the 
year, ior-four at moft, though his fong is 
worth nothing; but if he be taught to 
whiftle, he is of fomc value, it being very 

• ,1 i- • * ioud,- 

B L E 

laud, though coarfe; fo that he is Ht for a 
large place, not a chamber. 

When black-birds, thrufhes, (Jc* are taken 
old and wild, and are to be tamed, mix 
fome of their kind among them, putting 
them into cages of three or four yards fquare, 
in which place divers troughs, filled, fome 
with hawes, fome with hemp-feed, and fome 
wfth water ; fo that the tame teaching the 
wild to eat, and the wild finding fuch a 
^change, and alteration of food, it will, in 
twelve or fourteen days, make them grow 
v«ry fat, and fit for the ufe of the kitchen. 

Bladder Angling, isas much for diver- 
fion as ufe. It is generally praftifed in large 
ponds, with an ox*s bladder, and a bait 
fixed on an armed hook, or a fnap-hook. 
The quick rifing of the bladder after it has 
been pulled under water, never fails to ftrike 
the fi(h as effe6tually as a rod ; and let him 
ftruggle as much as he witl the bladder al- 
ways fecurcs him. See Angling. 

BLAIN, a diftempcr incident to beads, 
being a bladder growing on the root of the 
tongue, againft the windpipe, which fwclls 
to fuch a pitch as to flop the breath. It 
comes by great chafing and heating of the 
ftomach, and is perceived by the bead's 
gaping and holding out his tongue^ and 
foaming at the mouth. To cure it, caftthe 
bead, take forth his tongue, and then flitting 
the bladder, wafh it- gently with vinegar and 
a little fair. 

BLAZE. See Star and Whitf-Face. 

'BLAZES. It is a notion, that thofehorlcs 
that have white faces or blazes, if the blazes 
. be divided in the middle, crofsways, is the 
, mark of anodd difpodtion. 

BLEAK, and bleak-fishing : fome call 
this a frcfh water fprat, or river fwallow, be- 
caufe of it's continual motion ;. and others 
Mrill have this name to rife from the whitidi 
colour> which is only under the belly. 

It is- an c^ger flfli> caught with all forts of 
worms bred on trees or plants > as alfo with. 
flies, pafte, and fteep^s blood, G?^, 

And they nnay be angled for with half a 
fcore l^ooks at vonce, if they can be all 
fadehed -on: he will alfo in the evening 
take a natural,, or artificial fiY*- ^^^ ^ ^^^ 

B L E 

day be warfn and clear, no bait fo good for 
him as the fmall fly at top of the water: 
which he will take at any time of the day^ 
efpecially in the evening: and indeed there 
are no fifli yield better fport to a young 
angler than thefe ; for they are fo eager that 
they will leap out of the water for a bait: 
but if the day be cold and cloudy, gentles 
and caddis arc bedj about two feet under 

There is another way of taking bleak, 
which is by whipping them in a boat, or on 
a bank-fide, in frefti water, in a fummer'* 
evening, with a hazel top, above five or fix 
feet long, and a line twice the length of the 
rod : but the bed method ,is with a drabble v 
which is, tie eight or ten fmall hooks a-crofs 
a line, two inches above one another, the 
biggcd hook the lowermod, (whereby you 
may fometimes take a better fifli) and bail; 
them with gentles, flies, or fome fmtill red 
worms i by which means you may take half 
a dozen, or more at a time. 

BLEMISH, a hunting term i ufed wbeiv 
the hounds, or belles, finding where thq 
chace has been, make aprdflfcr to etnt^r, but 
return. • . ^ • 

BLEND-WATER, calted. alfo Mqre^ 
HOUGH, a didemper incident to black cattle,, 
comes cither from the bloody from the yel- 
lows, or from the change of ground'. In or- 
der to cure it, take bole-armoaiac, and a$ 
much charcoal dud as. will fill a(i egg-fliell, 
a good quantity of the inner bark of an oak> 
dried and powdered, by pounding the whole 
together, and give it to the bead in a quart 
of new milk, and a pint of earning* 

BLEYNE or BLEYME. an inflamma- 
tion arifing from bruifcd blood between the 
horfe's fole and the bone of the foot, to^- 
wards the heel : of thefe there are three forts,, 
the fird being bred in fpoiled wrinkled feet^. 
with narrow heels, are ufually featcd in the 
inward or weaked quarter. In this cafe the 
hoof mud be pared, and the: matter let out ;, 
then let oil de merveille be poured in, and 
the hoof be charged with a remolade of 
foot and turpentine.— The fccond fort, be* 
fides the ufual fymptoms of the fird, infers 
the gridkj and mud be e^tirpatedj as in 


B L O 

the cure of a quitter bone, giving the horfe 
every day, .moiftcned bran, with two ounces, 
of liver of antimony, to divert the courfe of 
the humours, and purify the blood. — ^The 
third for^ of bieymes, is occafioned by fmall 
ilones and gravel between the flxoe and the 
fole. la this cafe the foot mufl be pared, 
and the matter, if any, let out : if there be 
no matter then the^brulfed fble mu(l be taken 
out, but if there be matter the fore mud be 
drefled like tbe prick of a nail. See Hooi 

Moon BLIND, denotes horfes that lofe 
their fight at certain times of the n^oon'$ 
age : to cure which^ take half an ounce of 
lapis calaminaris, heat it red hot, and quench 
k in a quarter of a pint of plantain water or 
white-wine : to this add half a dram of aloes, 
and a fpoonful of camphor, in powder i and 
letting them diflblvc, drop part of it into the 
eyes of ihe horfe. 

BLINDNESS in Horses, may be thus 
difccrncd : the walk, or ftep of a blind horfe, 
is always uncertain and unequal : fo that he 
dares not fet down his feet boldly, when led 
in one's hand : but if the fame horfe be 
mounted by an. expert horfeman, and the 
horfe of hioifelf bje a horfe of metal, then the 
fearcf the fpurs will roake him gorcfolutely 
and freely, fo that his blindnefs can hardly 
be perceived.. 

Another mark by which you may know a 
horfe that has loft his fight, is, that when he 
hears any body enter the ftable, he will prick 
up his ears, and move them backwards and 
forwards : the reafon is, that a vigorous horfe 
having loft bis fight, miftrufts every thing, 
and is continually in alarm at the lead noife 
he hears. 

BLOCK, (in Falconry) is the perch upon 
which they place the hawk; It ought to be 
covered with ^loth. 

BLOODHOUND, is of all colours ; but 
for the generality of a black brown, and red- 
difh in feveral places, efpecially upon the 
.bread: and cheeks : they have long, thin, ^ 
hanging down ears, and differ from other 
dogs only in their cry and barking. 

Being fet on by the voice or word of their 
k^^pcry to feck about for game, and having 

B L O 

found it, tliey will never leave off the pur*- 
fuit, until it be tired ; nor will they change; 
it for any other frelb game that they meet 
with ; and they are obferved to be very obe- 
dient to their mafters. 

Thefe hounds are of that property, that 
they do not only keep to their game while 
living, but it being by any accident wound- 
ed, or killed, will find it out >. and that by 
the fcent of the blood fpcinkled here and 
there upon the ground, which was ftied in 
it's purfuit 5 by which means deer-ftcalers 
are often found out. 

The blood-hound differs little or nothing; 
in quality from the Scottijh fluth-hound, ex- 
cepting thsjt they are of a larger fize, and not 
always of one and the fame colour ; for they 
are fomc times red, fanded, black,, white,, 
fpottcd, and of all colours, with other 
hounds ; but mofl: commonly either browa 
or red. 

They fcldom bark,, except in their chace y 
and are attentive to the voice of their 

Thofe that are white are faid to be quick- 
eft fcented, and fureft nofed, and therefore 
are bed fgr the hare -, the black ones are bcfl: 
for the boar, and. the red for the hart andi 

Though this is the opinion of fomc, yet 
others differ from them, becaufe their colour 
(efpecially the latter) is too like the game 
they hunt ; although there can be nothing, 
certain colle(iited from their colour; but in* 
deed the black hound is the hardier, and. 
better able to endure the cold than the white 

They mufl: be tied up till they hunt y yet 
are to be let loofe now and then a little, to 
eafe their bellies ; and their kennels muft be 
kept fwcet and dry. 

There is fome difficulty in diftinguiQiing* 
a hound of an excellent fcent ; but fome are 
of opinion,, that the fquare and fiat nofe is 
the bed fign of it; , likewife a. fmalL head, 
having all his legs of equal lengths,, his breafl: 
not deeper than his belly^ and his back plain* 
to his tail;- his eyes quick, his ear« hanging, 
longi his tail nimble, and the beak of his. 


BT. O 

n6fealways to the earth ; and efpecially fuch 
as are mod filent and bark leaft. 

You may now confidcr the various difpo- 
fitions of houndsj in the finding out of their 

Some are of that nature, that when they 
hare found the game, they will-ftand ftill 
till the huntfman comes up ; to whom, in 
Filence, by their face, eye, and tail, they 
fliew the game: others, when they have 
found the toot-ftcps go forward without any 
voice, or cither (hew of ear or tail : another 
fort, when they have found the -footings of 
the beskft, prick up their ears a little, and 
either ""bark or wag their tails j and others 
^ill wag their tails and not move their 

Again, there arc -fome that do none of 
thefe; but wander upland down, barking 
•about the furcft marks, and confounding 
their own foot-fteps wi^h thofe of the beaft 
'tTiey hunt : or elfe forfake the way, and fo 
•run back again to the firft head ; but when 
they fee the hare, are afraid, not daring to 
come near her, except fhe ftart firft. 

Thefe, -with others -who hinder the cun- 
ning labour of their colleagues, trufting to 
•their feet, and running before their betters, 
deface the beft mark, or elfe hunt counter, 
ftndt^e up with any falfe fcent inftead of the 
true one; or, never forfake the highways, 
and yet have not learnt to be filent. 

To thefe alfomay be added, thofe which 
cannot difcern the footing, or pricking of 
the hare, yet will run with fpecd when they 
'fee her ; purfuing her very hotly at the firft, 
and afterwards tire, or hunt lazilv. All 
thefe are not to be admitted into a kennel of 

But on the contrary, thofe hounds which 
are good, when they have found a hare, make 
fhew thereof to the huntfman, by running 
more fpcedily-, and with gefture of head, 
-ears, eyes, and tail, winding to the form, or 
hare's mufe, never give over profecution 
with a good noife. They have good hard 
feet and ftately ftomachs. 

And whereas the nature of the hare is 
fometimes to leap, and make headings ; 
ibmetimes to tread foftly, with a very fn)all 

impreffion In the earth ; or fometimes toli« * 
down, and ever to leap or jump out and 
into her own form, the poor hound is fo 
much the more bufied and troubled to re- 
tain the fmall fcenrt of her pricking that (he 
leaves behind her, in which cafe it is requi- 
fite thatyou aflift the hound, not only with 
voice, eye and hand, btit with a feafonablc 
tune alfo, for in frofty weather the fcent 
freezes with the earth, fo that there is no cer- 
tainty of hunting till it thaws, or that the 
fun rife. 

In like manner if a ffreat deal of rain fall 
between the ftarting or the hare and time of 
hunting, it is not right to hunt till the water 
be dried up 5 for the drops difperfe the fcent 
of the hare j and dry weather coUedteth it 

The fummer-time alfo is not fit for hunt- 
ing, becaufc the heat of the weather con- 
fumeth the fcent ; and the nights being then 
but ftiort the hare travelleth not far, feeding 
only in the morning and evening : befides, 
the fragrancy of flowers and herbs then 
growing, flattens and diminiflies the fcent 
the hounds are guided by. 

The beft time for hunting with thefe 
hounds, is in autumn 5 becaufe then the 
former odours are weakened, and the c^rth 
barer than at other times. 

Thefe hounds do not only chafe their 
game while it lives, but after it is dead 
alfo, by any manner of cafualty, make to 
the place where it lies; having in this point 
a fure and infallible guide; that is, the 
fcent and favour of the blood, fprinkled 
here and there upon the ground ; for whe- 
ther the beaft is wounded and livesii and 
cfcapcs the hands of the huntfman, or if it 
be killed and carried quite out of the park, 
(if there do bur remain fome marks of blood 
fhed) thefe dogs, with no lefs facility and 
eafinefs than grecdinefs, will difcover the 
fame by it's fcent, carrying on their purfuit 
with agility and fwiftncfs ; upon which 
account they deferve the name of blood- 

And if a piece of flefti be fubtlely ftolen 
and cunningly conveyed away, although all 
precaution imaginable is ufed, to prevent 



all appearance of blood, yet thefe kind of 
dogs, by a natural inftinftj will purfue deer- 
flrcalcrs, through craggy ways and crooked 
meanders, till they have found them out; 
and fo efFeftually as that they can difcover, 
feparate, and pick them out from a great 
number of perfons; nay they will cull them 
out, though they intermix with the greateft 

. BLOOD, a diftemper in the backs of cat- 
tle, which will make a bead go as if he drew 
his head a(ide, or after him. In order to 
cure it, you fhould flit the length of two 
points under his tail, and let him bleed well; 
but if he bleeds too much, knit his tail next 
the body, and then bind fait and nettles 
bruifed into it. 

BLOOD-LETTING, the figns or indi- 
cations of blood-letting in a horfe are thefe : 
his eyes will look red, and his veins fwell 
more than ordinary ; he will alfo have an 
itching about his mane and tail ; and be con- 
tinually rubbing them, and fometimes will 
fhcd fbme of his hair j or he will peel about 
the roots of his ears, in the places where the 
head-ftall of the bridle lies ; his urine will 
be red and high coloured, and his dung 
black and hard, likewife if he has red inflam- 
mations,, or little bubbles on his back, or 
does not digeft his meat well ; or if the white 
of his eyes is yellow, or the infide of his up- 
per or nether lip be fo, thefe are figns that 
he (lands in need of bleeding. 

The propereft time for bleeding horfes, is 
in the winter and cool months, from January 
to July-y. (but in July s^nd Augujl^ by reafon 
the dogdays are then predominant, it is not 
good but only in cafe of necelTity) and fo 
from Auguji to January again. 

As to the manner of bleeding; you muft 
never take fo much blood from a colt as from 
an older horfe, and but a fourth part as much 
from a yearling foal ; you -muft alfo have 
regard to the age and ftrength oP the horfe, 
and before you bleed him, let him be mode- 
rately chafed and excrcifed; refting.a day be- 
fore, and three days after it, not forgetting ^ 
that April and OStoher arc two principalTea- 
fj)ns /or that purpofc i and he will alio bleed i 


the better, if he be let to drink before he \%^ 
blooded, fo that he be not heated. 

Then tie him up early in the morning to 
the rack without water or combing, left his 
ipirits be too much agitated, and draw with 
a pair of fleams of a reafonable breadth, 
about thrce^pounds of blood, and leave him 
tied to the rack. 

During the operation, put your finger in? 
his mouth and tickle him in the roof, mak- 
ing him chew, and moving his chaps,, which 
will force him to fpin forth : and when you 
find he has bled enough, rub his body well 
over with it, but eljpecially the place he ig; 
blooded on, and tie him up to the rack for 
an hour or two, left he bleed afreftx :-f6r that: 
will turn his blood*. 

BLOOD y-HEELED-CocK. Sic Heelers 

Ebullition of the BLOOD. A difcafc 
in horfes which proceeds from want of exer- 
cife, and gives rife to outward fwelling$>^ 
frequently miftaken for the farcin. 

an horfe by an inflammation of the blood, be« 
ing over heated by hard riding or other hard , 
labour, yet gets between the fkin and the- 
flefh. and makes a horfe to rut, fcrub'-and- 
bite himfelf; which, if let alone too long, v 
will turn to a mange, and is very infeftious . 
to any horfe that (hall be nigh him \ and the - 
cures Both-for this and the mange, befidcs* 
the general ones, of bleeding in^ the neck . 
vein, fcraping him and other things, ar£ 

BLOOD SHOTTEN eves. in. Horses,, 
In all inflammations, of the eyes, whether r 
from external or internal caufes, bleed in> 
mediately, according to the ftrength of the 
horfe ; purge once every week, and on the 
days that purges are not operating, let diu- 
retics be given, fuch as.nitre, to two orthrec ■ 
ounces a- day in mafhes of bran. The diet, 
if in thehoufe, fliouldte malhcs ^f bran, or 
fcalded barJey ; and, whilft theinflammatioa-- 
is confiderable, hay, oats, and all hard meat, . 
which' requires chewing^ (hould be avoided; ; 
hardiabour, , and fometimes hanging down^a 
the htad to graze, is hurtful. 

Dip a doflil of lint, or a very foft fpongb. 
in the following eye- water, and wa(h the.eye-^ 


5 L O 

lid with it two or three tittij^s a-day ; and, If' 
opportunity favours, fquceze the. fponge fo 
as a few drops may run into the eye each 
time yoo bathe it. 

Take of red fofe leaves dried two drachms, 
infufe them in half a pint of boiling water, 
until it is cold; then add to the drained li- 
quor twcntv grains of fugar of lead. 

When the inflammation is nearly gone, I 
the following will be the mod proper for ' 
completing uie cure; as it not only repels 
the humours, but greatly ftrengthens the 
-veflHs alfo. 

Take of white vitriol, half an ounce; fu- 
gar of lead, one drachm ; diflblvc them in a 
pint of pure water. 

If the inflammation is very conGderable, 
and the veins on the infide of the eye-lid arc 
very full, rhuch relief is given by opening 
one of the mod tprgid of them with a 

If there is much fwclling, as frequently 
liappens after blow^, bites, &c. a poultice 
of fcalded bran, or the crum of white bread, 
boiled* mud be applied and renewed as of- 
ten as it cools^ 

Sometimes, from the violence of the in- 
flammation, the coats of the eye lofe their 
natural tranfparency, and turn white, or of 
a pearl colour; in confcquence of this, the 
fight is greatly diminifhed, if not totally 
obftrudleq; but fomctimes a white blider 
forms itfelf on the cornea, as large as a grape : 
this always relieves, and when ic breaks, the 
cure is fpeedily effcfted. 

la grofs habits, and where there fcems to 
be naturally a wcaknefs in the eyes, dif- 
pofing to this difeafe, recourfe is fometimes 
had to rowelling, with confiderablc advan- 

It may not be amifsto give in this place a 
caution againd the ufe of powders in eye- 
waters ; for, iq the fird dace of inflamma- 
tion, the eye is very tender, and the fined 
powder will irritate it, aixi occafion. more 
or lefs pain ; therefore, medicines that admit 
of folotion, are the only proper ones in thefe 
. BLOSSOM oa peach coloured Horse, 


is one that has His white hair intermixed all 
over with forrel and bay hairs. 

Such horfes are fo infenfible and hard, 
both in the mouth and in the flanks, that 
they are fcarce valued : befides that, they are 
apt to turn blind. 

BOAR Wild, although England affords 
no wild boars, yet being fo plentiful in Ger- 
many and other countries, and affording fo 
noble a chace, which is fo much ufed by the 
nobility and gentry in thofe parts^ I fliail 
give the following account : ' 

A wild boar is called a pig of the founder, 
the fird year of his age; a hog the fecond j 
a hog's deer the third ; and a boar the fourth ; 
when leaving the founder, he is alfo termed 
a Angler or langlier. This creature is far- 
rowed with as many teeth at fird, as he fliall 
ever have afterwards: which only encreafc 
in bignefs, not in number; among thefe they 
have four called tuihes or tufks, the two up- 
permod of which do not hurt when hie 
ftrikes; burferve only to whet the other two 
lowed, with which they frequently defend 
themfelves and kill, as being greater and 
longer than the red. This is reckoned a 
beadof venery by huntfmen. 

The common age df a boar is twenty-five 
or thirty years ; they go to rut about Decern- 
her^ and their great heat lafts about three 
weeks, and although the fows become cold 
of conditution, not coveting the company 
of the boar, yet they do not feparate until 
January ; and then they withdraw themfelves 
unto cheir holds, wherein they keep clofe 
three or four days, not dirring thence, c(pc- 
cially if they meet with fuch places where 
fern grows, the roots of which they delight 
to eat. 

It is eafier to take a boar in a toil in April 
or May^ than in any other feafon, by reafon 
they Ueep at that time more foundly, which 
is caufed by their eating of drong herbs, and 
buds of trees^ which -moidcn their brains, 
and caufech fleep. Alfo the fpring time oc- 
cafions their deeping. 

Their food is on corn, fruits, acorns, chefr 
nuts, beech- mad, and all forts of roots i 
when they are in marfliy and watery places, 



.ilC U'-aXHT } 


•.♦sex A. I 



they feed on water-c reflfes, and fuch things 
as they can find ; and when they arc near 
the fca coaft, they feed on cockles, mufcles, 
dyfters, and fuch like fi(h. 

A boar moft commonly lies in the ftrong- 
eft holds of thorns and thrck bu(hes> and 
will (land the bay before he will forfake his 

If he i$ hunted from a ftrong thick co- 
vert, he will be fure to go back the fame 
way he came if it be poffible ; and when he 
is rouzed, he never ftops, until he comes to 
the place where he thinks hin>felf molt fe- 

If it fo happens that there is a founder of 
them together, then, if any break founder, 
the reft will run that way; and if he is 
hunted in a hold or forcft where he was bred, 
he will very difficultly be forced to quit it, 
but fometimes he will take head and feem 
to go drawing to the outfides of the covert ; 
but it is only to hearken to the noife of 
the dogs ', for he will return again, from 
whence he will hardly be compelled till 
night ; but having broken out and taken head 
end ways, he will not be put out of his way 
by man nor beaft, by voice, blowing, or any 
thing elfe. 

A boar will not cry when he is killed, ef- 
pecially a great boar ; but the fows and young 
ones will. In fleeing before the dogs, he 
neither doubleth, nor croficth, nor ufeth fuch 
fubtleties as other beads of chace do, as be-^ 
ing heavy and flow, fo that the dogs are dill 
in With him. 

Hciv to hunt a BOAR at force with dogs. 

The feafon for hunting the wild boar, be- 
gins about the middle ofSeptember, and ends 
in December, at which time they go a brim- 

It is not convenient to hunt a young boar 
of three years old at force j for he will ftand 
up as long (if not longer) than any light 
deer, that beareth but three in the top ; but 
in the fourth year you may hunt him at force 
as you do a hart at ten, and will ftand up as 
long. Therefore if a huntfman goes too 

near a boar of four years old, he ought tb 
mark whether he went timely to his den ol* 
couch, or not; for commonly thofe boai-s 
which tarry till day-light, -go into their dens^ 
follov/ing their paths or ways a long time, 
efpfcially where they find fern or beech mafts> 
whereon they feed j they are very hardy i ^ 
and in the raifing of this animal one need not 
be afraid to come near him, for he values 
you not, but will lie ftill, and will not be 
reared alone. 

But if you find a boar which foileth ofcen-^' 
times, and which routeth fometimes here and 
fometimes there, not ftaying long in a place, 
it is a fign that he has been feared, and with- 
drawe.h himfelf to fome refting place, and 
fuch boars moft commonly come to their 
dens or holds two or three hours before day, 
and the huntfman muft take care how he 
comes too near fuch a boar, for if he once 
finds him in the wind, or have the wind of 
his dogs, he will foon be gone. 

It is alfo to be obferved, that if a boar in- 
tends to tarry in his couch, he makes fome 
doublings or croflSngs at the entry of it, up- 
on fome highway or beaten path, and then 
lies down to reft •, by which means a huntf- 
man being early in the woods may judge of 
his fubtlcty, and accordingly prepare to hunt 
him with dogs that are either hot fpirited or 

If it be a great boar, and one that hath 
lain long at reft, he muft be hunted with 
many dogs^ and fuch as will ftick clofe to 
him, and the huntfman, or fpear-man, on 
horfcback, (hould be ever amongft them, 
charging the boar, and as much as poQible 
to difcourage him : for if you hunt fuch a 
boar with five or fix couple of dogs, he 
will not regard them, and when they have 
chafed him a little, he will take courage, 
and keep them at bay, ftill running upon 
any thing that he fees before him j but if 
he perceives himfelf charged and hard laid 
unto with dogs, he will be difcouraged, and 
turn head and fly to fome other place for re- 

You ought alfo to fet relays, which fliould 

be the beft old ftauncheft hounds of your 

kennel -, for if they Ihould be young hounds, 

K and 


and fuch as are fwift and rarti to fcize him 
before the reft conne up, they will be killed 
or Ipoilcd by him. 

But if he be a boar that is accuftomed to 
flee end ways before the dogs, and to take 
the champagne country, then you may caft 
off four or five couples at firft, and fet all 
the rcll at relays, about the entrance of the 
fudds where ycu think he is likely to flee; 
for fuch a boar will feldom keep the hounds 
at a bay, unlefs he be forced, and if he does 
ftand at bay, then the huntfman ought to 
ride in unto him as fecrctly and with as little 
noife as poflfible, and when he is near him, 
let them caft round about the place where 
he ftands, and run upon him all at once, 
and it will be odds, but that they will give 
him his death's wound with their fpears or 
fwords, provided they do not ftrike too 
low / for then he will defend the ftrokes 
with his fnout ; but be fure you keep not 
too long in a place, but ufe a quick mo- 

You may alfo take notice, that if there be 
collars of bells about the dog's necks, a boar 
will not fo foon ftrike at them ; but flee 
end- ways before them, and feldom ftand at 

It is expedient to raife a boar out of the 
wood €arly in the morning, before he hath 
made water, for the burning of his bladder 
quickly makes him weary -, when a boar is 
firft raifed, he is ufed to fnufF in the wind, to 
fmell what is with, or againft him. 

Now if you ftrike at him with fword or 
boar-fpear, do not, as has been faid, ftrike 
low, for then you Will hit him in the fnout> 
which he values not, fince he watches to 
t«;:kc blows on his tulhes or thereabouts i 
but lifting up your hand ftrike right down, 
and have a fpecial care of your horfe, for 
if you ftrike and hurt him, fo will he you 
if he can ; therefore in thus aftaulting 
boars, the hunters muft be very careful^ 
for he will rulh upon them with great fiercc- 

However, he very rarely ftrikes a man, till 
he is firft wounded himfelf, but afterwards 
it behoves the hunters to be very wary, for 
he will run fiercely, without fear, upon his 


purfuers, and if he receives not his rriortat 
wound, he overthrows his adverfary, unlefs 
he falls flat on the ground, when he needs 
not fear much harm ; for his teeth cannot 
cut upwards but downwards; but with the 
female it is othcrwife, for die will bite and 
tear any way. 

But further, as the hunting fpears ftiould 
be very broad and fliarp, branching forth 
into certain forks, that the boar may not 
break through them upon the huntfman, fa 
the beft places to wound him are the mid- 
dle of his forehead, between the eye-lids, or 
elfe upon the ftioulder, either of which is 

Again, in cafe the boar makes head againft 
the hunter, he muft not fly for it, but meet 
him with his fpear, holding one hand on the 
middle of it, the other at the cnd» ftanding 
one foot before another, and having a watch*- 
ful eye upon the beaft, which way foever he 
winds or turns; for fuch is his nature, thac 
he fometimes fnatches the fpear qui of the 
hunter's hands, or recoils the force back 
again upon him j in thefe cafes there is no- 
remedy, but for another of his companions- 
to come up and charge the boar with his 
fpear, and then make a (hew to wound hin\ 
with his dart, but not calling it, for fear of 
hurting the hunter. 

This will make the boarr turn upon the fe- 
cond perfon, to whofc affiftance the firft muft. 
again come in, with which both will have 
work enough : nay when the boar feels him- 
iclf fo wounded that he cannot live, were it 
not for the forks of the boar-fpear, he would 
prefs upon the vanquiftier and revenge his; 

And what place foever he bites, whether 
man or dog, the heat of his teeth caufeth aa 
inflammation in the wound. 

If therefore he does but touch the hair of 
the dog he burns it ofi^j nay huntfmen have 
tried the heat of his teeth, by laying hairs 
on them as foon as he was dead, and they 
have ftiri veiled up as if touched with a hoc 

The boar is a beaft of fuch great force> 
andfo flow of foot by reafon-of hisheavinefs> 
that he is not properly termed a beaft of ve- 



Bcry, for he chiefly trufts in his fl:rcngth and 
tu(bes to be his defence, and not to his ftrc ; 
fo that he is more properly to be hunted with 
ftout maftiffs than by greyhounds, which can- 
not fo well defend themfelves from his 

Alfo it fpoils them from hunting other 
flying chaces, by rcafon he leaves fo ftrong 
a fcent, fo that they hunt with greater eafc 
than at light chafes, which are more painful 
to them to find^ and to hold the fcent. 

The way to know a great Boar hy his foot ^ tec. 

To know him by his foot, the form or 
print of it ought to be great and large, the 
toes round and thick, the edge of the hoof 
worn and blunt, without cutting and paring 
the ground fo much as the younger doth : 
and the guards, which are his hinder claws, 
or dew claws, fliould be great and open, one 
from the other; the treading of his foot 
fiiould be deep and large, which indicates 
the weightinefs of his body, and his fteps 
ihould be great and long. 

By the length and depth of his routing his 
Czc may be known ; becaufe a wild fwine 
routs deeper than our ordinary hogs, becaufe 
their fnouts are longer : and alfo by the 
length and largenefs of his foil, when he 
wallowethin the mire j alfo when he comes 
out of the foil, he will rub himfelf again fl: a 
tree, by which his height will appear; as 
alfo when he flicks his tuflies into it, by 
which the largenefs of them will appear ; 
they alfo obfcrve the bignefs of his leiTcs, 
and the depth of his den. 

A boar is faid to feed in the corn ; but if 
in the meadows or fallow fields, they fay he 
routeth or wormeth, or ferneth i but when 
he feeds in a clofe, and routeth not, they fay 
he grafcth. 

Boar hunting is very ufual in France^ and 
they call it/anglier. In this fort of hunting 
the way is to ufe terrible founds and noifcs, 
as well of voice as horns, to make the chace 
turn and fly, becaufe they are flow and truft 
tQ their tuiks for defence. But this mufl: be 


done after his c|en or hold is difcovered, and 
the nets be pitched. 

Though thefe wild boars are firequent in 
France^ we have none in England ;- yet it 
may be fuppofed that we had them here 
formerly j but did not think it convenient to 
preferve that game. 

In the French hunting, when the boar 
ftands at bay, the huntfmen. ride in, and 
with fwords and fpears flirike on that fide 
which is from their horfes, and wound and 
kill them. 

But the ancient Roman method of hunting 
the boar, was fl:anding on foot, or fetting 
their knees to the ground, and charging di- 
reftly with their fpears : and the nature of 
the boar being fuch, he fpits himfelf with 
great fury, running upon the weapon to come 
at his adverfary, and fo, feeking his revenge, 
meets his own deftruflion. 

BOAR ; A horfe is faid to boar when he 
flioots out his nofe as high as his ears, and 
tofl^es his nofe in the wind. See Wind. 

BOBBING FOR Eels. You muft pro- 
vide a large quantity of well fcoured lob- 
worms, and then with a long needle pafs 
a thread through them from head to tail 
until you have ttrung about a pound. Tie 
both ends of the thread together, and then 
make them up into about a dozen or twenty 
links. The common way is to wrap them 
about a dozen times round the hand, and 
then tying them all together in one 
place, makes the links very readily. This 
done, faften them all to a fmall cord, or 
part of a trowling line, about four yards in 
length. Above the worms there (hould be 
a fmall loop to fix the worms to, and for a 
lead plummet to refl: on. The plummet 
fhoulU weigh about half a pound, or from 
that to a pound, according to the (Iream^ 
the fmaller the line the Icfs the plumb : it 
fhould be made in the fliape of a pyramid, 
with a hole through the middle for the line 
to pafs through ; the broad part of the plum- 
met I or the bafe of the pyramid, fliould be 
towards the worms, becaufe they will keep 
it more fteady.;: When you have put your 
plummet on your line^ you mult faften it to 
K 2 > ,a ftrong 

BFO 17 

B a D 

*" ftrong, ftiff, taper pole, of about tHree 
yards long, and then the apparatus is 

Being thus prepared^ you mud angle in 
muddy water, or in the deeps or fide of 
ilreams. and you will foon find the eels run 
llrongly and eagerly at your bait. Whca 
you have a bite,, draw them gently up to- 
wards the top of the water, and then fud- 
dcnly hoilt them in the fhore, or in your 
boat ; by this means you may take three or 
four at a time. 

BODY OF A Horse. In chufinga-horfe 
you muft examine whether he has a good, 
body, and is full in the flanks. It is no 
goodfign, when the laft of the Ihort ribs is 
at a confiderable diftance from the haunch 
bone, or when the ribs are too much ftraight- 
^ncd in their compaf^ ; they ought to be as 
high at the haunch bone, or very little lefs 
when the horfe is in good cafe \ but though 
fuch horfe may for a time have pretty good 
bodies, yet if they be much laboured they 
will lofe them. 

A narrow chdted horfe can never have a 
good body., nor breathe well; and fuch 
horfes as have ftraight ribs and being great 
feeders, and confequently come to gulf up 
t^eir bellies, fb as it not being pofllble for 
the entrails to be contained within the ribs, 
they will prefs down and make a cow's belly; 
thefe are alfo' difficult to be faddled, but 
have generally good backs, and though their 
croups are not fo beautiful; being for the 
mofl part pointed,- yet to fupply that they 
have excellent reins ; thefe horfes are com- 
monly called fow backs. 

A light bodied and fiery horfe a man ne- 
ver ought to buy, becaufe he will foon de- 
Itroy himfelf, but fiercenefs ought never to 
be confounded with vigour and high met- 
tle, which lail: does not confifl in fretting,, 
trampling,, dancing, and not fufFering any 
horfe to go before him,, but in being very 
fcnfible of the fpurs. 

You ought to (bun light bellied horfes, 
which arc very apt to be troubled with fpa- 
kins,. jardens, &c. and. as- painful fcratches 
in the hind-legs often take away a horfe's 
belly^ this ought not to deter you from buy- 

ing, unlefs they be in th^ back finew of the 
legs, a pretty way above the pattern joint,, 
which is one of the moft troublefome exter- 
nal maladies a horfe can have. 

Except a low cafed horfe eats much hay,, 
he cannot be made plump, which will make 
him have a belly like a cow with a calf,, 
and may be remedied with a furcingle a foot 
and a half broad, with two little cufhions to 
it, that may anfwer to the top of the ribs on 
either fide the backbone^ to preferve the 
back from being galled. In the next place 
conflder the Sank. 

You are to obferve that the- flrongeft (late 
of body, which is the higheft fielh, provided 
it be good, hard, and without inward foul- 
nefs, is the befl \ yet you muft take notice,, 
that his fhape and feeding are to be confi- 
dered ; to his fhape and body, fome that 
be round, plump, and clofe knit will ap- 
pear fat, when they really are lean and in' 
poverty \ and others that are raw boned,, 
flendcr and loofe knit together, will appear 
lean, deformed, and poor, when they arc 
fat, foul, and full of grofs humours. 

So likewife as to their feeding; fome will 
feed outwardly, carrying a thick rib, wheA 
they are inwardly clean, and without all man- 
ner of foulnefs : and there are others that 
appear clean to the eye,, fhcwing nothing 
but fkin and bone, when they are full of in- 
ward fatnefs: in this cafe there are two helps,, 
the one inward, the other outward. 

The inward help is only fmart exercife,.. 
which diffolves and melts the foulnefs ; and 
flrong fcourings, which will bring it 

The outward help in handling and feeling 
his body, efpecially the ribs towards his 
flank, and if his flefh generally handle loofe 
and foft, your fingers finking or pitting in, 
it. is a fignof his foulnefs; but if his fleih be 
hard and firm, and only upon his hindmoft 
rib handles fpft and downy, it is a fign there 
is greafe a^d foul matter within,, which: 
muft be removed let him- appear ever fo« 

If he be fat and thick, and as it were 
clofed up under the chaps, or if his jaws- 
handle full and fleih yj it is a fign of much* 


B O T 

ibulnefs) both in the head and body i but 
if he handle thin, clean^ and only with 
fome lumps or fmall kernels within his 
chaps, in fuch cafe, it is a fign only of fome 
cold newly taken. 

BOLSTERS OF a Saddle, are thofe 
parts of a great faddle which are raifed upon 
the bows, both before and behind, to hold 
the rider^s thigh, and keep him in a right 
pofture, notwithftanding the diforders the 
horfe may occafion. 

Comman faddles havTc no bolfters. We 
ufe the expreflion of fitting a bolder, when 
we put the cork of the faddle into the bol- 
der to keep it tight. 

That part of the faddle being formerly 
made of cork, took firft that name, though 
now is made of wood. 


BORING, an operation in ufe for the 
cure of wrenched Ihoulders in horfcs ; which 
is performed thus : having cut a hole in the 
flcin over the part afFe&cd, they blow it up 
with a tobacco-pipe, as a butcher does 
veal 5 after which they thruft a cold flat 
iron, like the pointof a fword-blade, eight 
er ten inches up between the fhoulder-Wade 
and the ribs. 

BOTTS. Worms. Horfes are very fub- 
]t& to thofe vermin, of which there are fe- 
veral forts j vizj the botts, the round worm 
Fefembling thofe of the earth, and the af- 
earides, which are worms about thefize of 
a large fowing needle, and have flat heads. 

Worms in horfes are principally owing to 
abad digeftion, a wcaknefs^in the fliomach,- 
and a tender conftitution. In order there- 
fore to prevent the formation of thefe trou- 
blefomc animals, a bitter drink prepared of 
aedoary, gentian roots, galengals, camo- 
mile-flowers, jcfuits bark, and juniper ber- 
ries, Ihould be frequently given; which 
will ftrengthen the organs of digeftion, and 
effedually prevent the growth of thefe crea- 

The fymptoms which indicate worms are 
various, as the animals are difl^erent : and 
feated in different parts of the body. The 
botts, when they are fcatcd in the ftraight gut, 
are never dangerous, and often thruft out 


with the dung. They generally come in 
the month of May and June ; nor do they 
hardly ever continue above a fortnight. But 
when they breed in the ftomach of horfcs, 
they often caufe convulfions, and deftroy 
the horfe. The botes that breed in the fto- 
mach, are about the fize of large maggotSy> 
compofed of circular rings, with little (harp 
prickly feet along the fides of their bellies 
like thofe of the millepedes; they have great 
heads and fmall tails, and are of an orange 
colour. They are generated in the ftomach,. 
and in the ftrait gut ; thofe in the gut are of 
a paler colour than thofe in the ftomach, in 
other refpefts they are the fame : the eggs of 
thefe worms are lodged in the ftomach about 
rts lower orifice ; but under the inner coat 
thereof, which they burft through with their 
tails, and hind part of their bodies foremoft 
when they are formed into life, the forepart 
of their bodies remaining fo firmly in the 
mufcular coat, that when a ftomach is 
examined, and one of thefe worms is found 
there, it is with difficulty forced out. PVom 
this mufcular coat they fuck their nouri(h« 
ment, and often, by ulcerating the party 
fpeedily deftray the horfe. Sometimes at 
their coming to life, they caufe convulfions, 
and until Ae fit comes on^ there is rarely 
any previous fymptom (fee Convulsions) i 
though if a bott is difcovered in the dung, or 
if any have been feen a little time before, the 
caufe may be readily judged of. 

For the mo ft part, Aprils May^ or June^ 
arc the feafons^ in which the bott-worms are 
troublefomc j and are generally thofe thar 
are feated in the gut, from whence they are 
thrown out with the dung very frequently, 
and are furrounded with much yellow matter. 
After the juft named feafon, they are rarely 
feen, and when they appear, feldom conti- 
nue more than two or three weeks ; thefe are 
not fo dangerous, as thofe in the ftomach, but 
they occafion the horfe to rub his fundament 
very frequently againft any poft that he can 
come at ; they make him very lean^ and his 
hair ftares like that of a furfcitcd horfe; he 
frequently ftrikcs his belly with his hind- 
feet, feems as if he was griped now and then 
but not fo violently as to roll^ &c. as in co- 


licky complaints j he will often lay him- 
felf down on his belly very quietly, and 
then get up to eat as though nothing 
ailed him. If a bott is feen in his dung, 
and he frequently rubs his tail as though 
it itched', there is no doubt of the botts 
being the caufe of all other fymptoms. 

The long round worms are like the earth- 
worms, except they are fharper at their ends, 
and arc tougher in the middle ; they arc 
often eighteen inches long, and as thick as 
a fmall finger. Thefe worms are met with 
in all fedfons of the year, and make a horfe 
very inaftive and difpirited. 

The afcarides, called alfo needle-worms, 
are a fmall flender fort of worms, with flat 
heads j they are fometimes of a whitifh, at 
others of a blucifti colours they are princi- 
pally in the fmall guts and in the reAum, 
and are thrown out in great abundance with 
the excrements ; they are obferved in all the 
feafons of the year; and make the horfe look 
lean and jaded, his coat ftare, he often ftrikcs 
his belly with his hind-feet, lays down quiet- 
ly upon his belly, and after a (hort time, he 
rifes up without any figns of uneafincfs. 
And what is more peculiar to this fort of 
worms than to others, is, that they occafion 
fick fits that return frequently, but foon go 
off each time, after which he eats with a 
good appetite 5 but his tongue is ufually 
white and his breath offenfive. 

Truncheons are a (hort thick fpecies, with 
black and hard heads. 

As the general fource of worms is a vitiated 
appetite and a weak digeftion, bitters will 
be needful to mend the ftomach, and mer^ 
curial, with other metallic preparations, to 
deftroy the prefent raccj and prevent the 
generation of future ones. Of metallic 
bodies, the propereft are mercury, antimony, 
tin, and iron. 

As in all worm cafes purging precedes 
every other means, give him in the morn- 
ing, falling, the following bolus ; 

lake of calomel, three drachms, or half 
an ounce; diapence, half an ounce; treacle, 
enough to make a bolus. The next morn-* 
ing give one of the purging balls, dire<5lcd 

BOW ♦• 

under the article Purges, and repeat the 
bolus and purge every eight days. 

Or, the bolus and purge may be united 
as follows, and given every eighth day. 

Rub two drachms of quickfilver. with half 
an ounce of Venice- turpentine, until no 
gliftening can be difcerned ; then add of 
Succoto^'Jne aloes, one ounce j of gin- 
ger, two drachms ; treacle, enough to make 
a ball. If this purge too flowly, add as much 
jalap as is neceffary. 

Dr. Bracken advifes, to begin the cure by 
giving the horfe two quarts of warm 
ale-wort, three mornings, and on the fourth 
to give the purge : thus the worms will be 
lefs able to refill the cffefts of the purge, and 
fo be driven out more effedually. 

Fine rafpins of tin and wffithiops mineral, 
of each half an ounce 5 or one ounce of the 
filings of iron, may be given in a malh, or 
with corn, every night, for three or four 

If the horfe is tender and weakly, and. 
feeds but poorly, give him the follow* 

Stomach Drink.' 

Take gentian root, fix ounces ; camo« 
mile flowers, two handfuls ; Peruvian-bark, 
two ounces ; filings of iron, half a pound ; 
juniper berries, four ounces ; infufe them 
fix or eight days in three gallons of ale, 
fliaking the veflTel now and then ; after which 
give a pint of the clear liquor two or three 
times a day. 

If the horfe is robuft, but hath worms; 
from full but bad feeding, give him, with his 
corn, a handful of rue, garlic, tanfey, favfn, 
or other fuch like vegetable. Some have 
ventured to give half an ounce of cut tobacco: 
with the corn, once a day, for two or three 

The round worms are generally deft toyed; 
with filings of tin j joined with bitters, and a 
purge now and then thus : 

Take the filing of tin, and myrrh, of 
each half an ounce ; make them intp a ball 
with honey, and repeat it twice a day. But 
before giving this ball, give a purging ball 

... Ifvitli 

B O T 


%Irh aloes, and repeat it once in eight 
days. * 

If any come away dead, you may conclude 
that they are all killed. 

But of all the fpecies, bott-worms are the 
YTorll, particularly if ihey arc in the ftomach, 
thofe in the guts being rather troublefome 
than dangerous. To deftroy the botts in the 
ftomach, calomel fhould be firft given, and 
that freely i but as the convulfions foon 
fhut up the horfe's motith, and, ufually, 
there are no preceding fymptoms to warn 
you before the violent attack, therefore if 
botts are any way fufpefted, lofe no time, 
immediately get down the following bo- 

Take calomel and London philonum, of 
each half an ounce ; honey, enough to 
make a bolus i and, if poiTible, repeat a 
lefler dofe, in four or five days, and a com- 
mon purging ball the day following -, but 
if the mouth be clofed, proceed as dircftcd 
in the articles Convulsions and i>TAC- 

Botts in the ftrait gut are eafily deftroyed 
by giving a large fpoonful of favin, twice 
a day, in bran, or corn, a little moiftcned, 
and aa aloetic purge at proper diftanccs 
from each other. 

Both common fait and falt-petre are very 
efficacious in cafes of worms, particularly 
againft fpecies not yet mentioned, and that 
in fomc counties are called needle-worms i 
they are flender, about an inch long, of a 
ycUowifli colour. Two ounces of cither of 
thefe falts may be given every night in a 
ma(h or any other convenient method, for 
two or three weeks. 

With regard to other kinds of worms, 
the above medicines will alfo be fufficicnt* 
The botts in the ftrait gut may be cured by 
giving the horfe a fpoonful of favin, once or 
twice a day, in his oats, or bran moiftened. 

You may alfo add three or four cloves 
of garlic, and a purge of aloes. 4$^^^ Worms. 

BOUILLION, is a lump or excrefcencc 
of fleih that grows either upon or juft by 
the frufti, infomuch that the frufti flioots 
out like a lump of flclh, and makes the 
horfe halt j and tftis we call the flefh blow- 
ing upon the frulh. 

Your manage horfes, which never wet 
their feet, arc fubjvdt to thefe excrefcenccs, 
which make them very lame. 

BOULE r IE 5 a horfe is called boulette, 
when the fet-lock, or paftern joint, bends 
forward and out of its natural fituation : 
whether through violent riding, or by reafon 
of being too fhort jointed, in which cafe the 
Icaft fatigue will bring it. 

BOUIE; a horfe is called boute, when' 
his legs are in a ftraight line from the knee 
to the coronet. 

Short jointed horfes are apt to be aboute, 
and on the other hand long jointed horfes 
are not. 

BOW BEARER, an under officer of the 
foreft, whofe oath will inform you of the 
nature of his office, in thefe words — I will 
true man be to the owner of this forejl^ and to 
his lieutenant^ and in their abjence^ I Jhall 
truly over/ee^ and true inquijitio-n make as well . 
of /worn men, as un/worny in every bailwicky 
both in the north bail andjouth bail of this fo^ 
refi^ and all manner of trejfajs done either 
to vert or venijon^ I Jhall truly endeavour to 
attach or cauje to be attached^ in the next 
court cf attachment ^ there to be prejent with- 
out any concealment had to my knowledge \ /o 
help me God. 

BOWET 7 a young hawk fo called by 

BOWESS 5 falconers, when ihe draws 
any thing out of her neft, and covets to 
clamber on the boughs. 

BOWLINE: the firft and greateft cun- 
ning to be obferved in bowling, is the. right 
chufing your bowl, which muft be fuitable 
to the grounds you defign to run on. Thus 
for clofe alleys your beft choice is the flac 
bowl. 2. For open grounds of advantage, 
the round ,byaffed bowl. 3. For green 
fwards that are plain and level, the bowl 
that is as round as a ball. ' 

The next thing that requires your care is 
the chufing out your grounds, and preven- 
ting the winding hangings, and many 
turning advantages of the fame, whether it 
be in open wide places, as bowling-greens, 
or in clofe bowling alleys. 

Laftiy, have your judgment about you,, 
to obfcrve and diftinguilh the rifings, fal-^ 



lings and' advantages of the place where 
you bowl. 

BOWS OF A SADDLE, are two pieces of 
wood laid arch-wife, to receive the upper 
part of a horfe's back, to give the faddle it's 
;duc form, and keep it tight. 

The fore-bow which fuftains the pommel, 
is compofcd of the withers, the breaft, the 
points or toes, and the corking. 

The withers, is. the arch that rifes two or 
tthree fingers over the horfes withers. 

The breads are placed where the arch, or 
upper part of the bows, ends. 

The points, or toes, are the lower part 
*of the bow: and the corklngs are pieces 
of wood formerly -pieces of cqrk, upon 
•which we fit and make faft to the bolfters. 

The hind- bow bears the troffequin, or 
4juilted roll.* 

The bows are covered with finews, run 
all over the bows to make them ftronger; 
then they ftrengthen them with bands of 
iron to keep them tight j and on the lower 
Tide of the bows, nail on the faddle ft raps, 
with which they make faft the girths. 

BRACE, is commonly taken for a cou- 
ple, or pair, and applied by huntfmen to 
feveral beafts of game, as, a brace of bucks, 
foxes, hares, f5?r. alfo a brace of greyhounds, 
h a proper term for two. 

BRAMBLE-NET, otherwifc called a 
hallier; is a net to catch birds with, and of 
feveral fizes : the great mefhes muft be four, 
fquare, thofc of the leaft fize are three or 
four inches, and thofc of the biggeft are 
five: in the depth they (hould not have above 
three or four inches, but as for the length 
they may be enlarged at pleafure : but the 
ihorteft are ufually eighteen feet. 

If you intend to have your net of four 
iTiefties deep, make it of eight ; forafmuch 
as it is to be doubled over with another net ; 
likewife between the faid doublings ; the 
inward net fliould be of fine thread, neatly 
twifted, with mefhes two inches fquare, 
made lozenge wife, with a neat cord drawn 
through all the upper melhes, and one 
through the lower, whereby you may fix it 
to the doubled hallier : then, laftly, faften 
your net to certain fmall fticks^ about a foot 


and a half, or two feet long, and about the 
fame diftance from each other: the inward 
net -muft be both longer and deeper than the 
outward, that it may hang loofe, the better to 
entangle the game. See Plates VII. and 

BRANCH STAND, (with Falconers) a 
term ufed fignifying, the making a hawk leap 
from tree to tree, till the dog fprings the 

BRANCHER, a young hawk, newly taken 
out of the neft, that can hop from bough to 

BRANCHES op the bridle, are two 
pieces of iron bended, which is in the inter- 
val between one and the other, bears the 
bitt-mouth, the crofs chains, and the grub ; 
fo that to one end they anfwer to the head- 
ftall, and on one other to the reins, in order 
to keep the horfe's head in fubjeftion. 

With regard to their form and ftrufturej 
branches are either ftrait, in form of a piftol^ 
for young horfes to form their mouth ; or 
after the Conftable of France's faftiion, pro- 
per for a horfe that carries his head well. 
Some are in form of a gigot or leg, which 
will prevent horfes from carrying too low ; 
fome in form of a bent knee, contrived for 
horfes that arm themfelves againft the ope- 
ration of the bit ; and others after the French 
fafhion, which is hardly about ^ of an inch 
at the fevil hole, and kneed i | of an inch 
at thejarret or ham. It is to be obferved, 

1. That the farther the branch is from the 
horfe's neck, the more efFeft it will have. 

2. That fhort branchtrs ceteris paribus arc 
under and their efforts more fudden than 
thofe of longer. 3. That the branch is to 
be proportioned to the length of a horfe's 
neck J and one may fooner err in chufing 
one too (hort than too long. 

A hardy, bold or ftrong branch, is one 
that brings in the head. 

A weak branch, is a branch that was for- 
merly ufed for raifing the head, but now is 
rejefted •, efpecially fince the difcovery of 
the error of thofe, who fancied that it raifed 
after the fame manner with the kneed- 
branches. See Banc^tet and Shoulder. 

BRASSICOCJRT, or brachicourt; is 

a horfe 

B R E 


a horfc whofc fore legs are nafurally bended 
arch- wife ; being fo called by way of dif- 
tinftion from an- arched horfc, whofc legs 
are bowed by hard labour. 

BRAYE, anobfoluteFr^/^fi&word : made 
ufc of by fomc ta fignify the entry of the 
horfc's throat ; or the extremity of the chan- 
nel towards the maxillary bones. 

BRA YL, a piece of leather flit to put Up- 
on the hawks wing to tie it up. 

BREAD FOR HORSES : horfes are fome- 
timesfed with bread, to hearten and ftrength- 
en them : the way to make the fame, is two- 

1. Take wheat-meal, oat-meal, and beans, 
all ground very fmall, of each a peck ; ani(e- 
feed, four ounces ; gentian, and fenu-greek, 
of each an ounce ; liquorice, two ounces ; 

. all beaten into fine powder, and fearfed 
ivell : to which add the whites of twenty 
new laid eggs, all well beat, and as much 
ilrong ale as will knead it up : then make 
your loaves, like to houfe- bread, but not 
too thick ; and let them be well baked, but 
not burnt ; then give it him, not too new 5 
and let him have it five or fix mornings to- 
gether, without any provender. 

2. Take of wheat-meal, rye-meal, beans 
and oat- meal of each half a peck, ground 
very fmall; anife-feed and liquorice, an 
ounce of each ; and white fugar-candy, four 
ounces : beat all into fine powder, with the 
whites and yolkes of twenty new-laid eggs, 

•well beaten ; and put to them as much 
white-wine as will knead it into a pade ; 
which then make into great loaves, and bake 
them well : and when two or three days old 
give him to cat thereof, but chip away the 

For racc-horfes, there are three forts of 
bread ufed -, given fucceffively, for the fe- 
cond, third, and fourth fortnight's feeding.^ 

. I. Take three pecks of clean beans, and 
one peck of fine wheat s mix them together, 
and grind them into pure meal ; that done, 

. bolt in pretty fine, and knead it up with 

.good ftorc of frelh barm, but with as little 
water as may be ; labour it well in a trough, 
break and cover it warm, that it may fwell: 

.then knead it over again, and mould it into 

B R E 

large loaves, in order to be well baked. 
When they are drawn from the oven, tnrh 
the bottoms upward, and let them cool : at 
three days old you may give your horfe this 
bread, but no fooner ; as nothing is more 
apt to furfeic than new bread. Or you 

2. Take two pecks of clean beans, with 
two pecks of fine wheat, and grind them 
well together 5 then bolt, and knead it with 
barm, or lightening, and make it up as you. 
did the former bread. With this bread, 
having the cruft cut quite away, and oats, 
or fplit beans, mingled together, or fepa- 
rately if you think fit, feed the horfc as be- 
fore, at his ufual meals. Or, 

3. Take three pecks of fine wheat, and 
one peck of beans ; grind, and bolt them 
through the fineft bolter you can get ; then 
knead it up with new ftrong ale and barm, 
beat together, and the whites of twenty eggs, 
or more, and no water at all ; but inftead 
thereof a fmall quantity of new milk : at 
laft work it up, bake and order it as the 
former : and with this bread, having the cruft 
cut off, adding clean oats and fplit beans, all 
mixed, or feparate, feed your horfe at His 
ordinary feeding-times as you did in the 
fortnight before. 

BREAK ; to break a horfe in trotting is 
to make him light upon the hand by trot- 
ting, in order to make him fit for a gallop. 
To break a horfe for hunting, is to fupple 
him, to make him take the habit of run- 

BREAM, is of two kinds ; the one a fait, 
and the other a frelh-water fifti, but are very 
little different from each other, either as to. 
tafte, fhape, or nature. 

The bream is a very broad (haped fifh, 
and thick, fcaled excellently, large eyes, a 
little fucking mouth, difproportionate to 
his body, and a forked tail. 
. It is a lufty, ftrong fifh, fo that you muft 
be fure to have good tackling. 

It hath two fets of teeth, is a very great 
breeder; the melter having two large melts, 
and thefpawner as many bags of fpawn. 

That which I fhall chieflytreaf of, Ihall 

be the frefh-water breams which at full 

la growth 

B R E 

growth is large, breeding either in ponds 
and rivers, but principally delighting in the 
former v which if he likes, he will not only 
grow exceeding fat, and fairer in them 
than in rivers, but will fill the pond with 
his iflue, even to the ftarving of the other 

They fpawn in JunCy or the beginihgof 
Jujy \ and are great lovers of red . worms, 
cfpccially fuch as are to be found at the root 
of a great dock, and lie wrapt up in a round 
clew: alfo flag worms, wafps, green flies, 
and gralhoppers (whofe legs mult be cut off), 
and palle ; of which there are many forts 
whicti are found very good baits for him, 
but the bell are made of brown bread and 
honey ; gentles young wafps, and red worms. 
The belt feafon of angling for him is from 
St. Jameses day until Bartbolomew-ixdic. 

BREAM FISHING: with hook and 
line obfcrve tbefe direftions i which will 
alfo. be of ufe in carp-fifliing. 

Procure about a quart of large red worms,- 
put them into frefh mofs, well wafhed and 
dried, every three or four days j feeding 
them wiili fat mould and chopped fennel, 
and they will be thoroughly fcoured in 
about three weeks. 

Let your lines be filk and hair ; but all 
filk is the befl: : let your float be either fwan 
quills or goofe quills 

Let your bait be as bi^ a red worm as 
you can find, without a knot j get a pint 
or quart of them in an evening in garden- 
walks, or chalky commons, after a ihower 
of rain ; and put them with clean mofs well 
wafhed and picked, and the water fqueezed 
out of the mofs as. dry as you can, into an 
earthen pot or pipkin fet dry, and change 
the mofs frefh every three or four days for 
three weeks or a month together; then your 
bait will be at the bcft, for it will be clean 
and lively. 

Having thus prepared your baits, get 
your tackling ready and fitted for this fport. 
Take three long angling rods, and as many 
and more filk, or filk and hair lines, and as 
many large fwan or goofe quill floats, l*hcn 

B R E 

take a piece of lead and fatten them to the 
low ends of your lines. Then fatten your 
link-hook alfo to the lead, and let there 
be about a foot or ten inches between the 
lead and the hook ; but be fure the lead be 
heavy enough to fink the float or quill a 
little under the water, and not the quill to 
bear up the lead, for the lead mutt lie on the 
ground. Note, that your link next the hook 
may be fmaller than the reft of your line, if 
you dare adventure, for fear taking the pike 
or pearch, who will affuredly vifit your hoaks 
till they be taken out, as I will ftiew yba 
afterwards, before either carp or bream 
jvill come near to bite. Note alfo, that when 
the worm is well baited, ^it will crawl up 
^and down as far as the lead will give leave, 
which much enticeth the fifti to bite with- 
out fufpicion. 

Having thus prepared your baits, and 
fitted your tackling, repair to the river, 
where you have fcen them fwim in ikulls or 
fhoalsin the fummer time in a hot afternoon, 
about three or four of the clock, and watch 
their going forth of their deep holes and 
returning, which you may well difcern, for 
they return about four of the dock, moft of 
them feeking fo6d at the boctbm, yet one 
or two will lie on the top of the water, rol-, 
ling ai)d tumbling themfelves whilft the reft: 
are under him at the bottom, and fo you 
fliall perdeite him to keep centincl ; then 
mark where he plays moft and ftays longcflr, 
which commonly h the broadeft and deepett 
place of the river, and there or near there- 
abouts, at a clear bottom and a*convenient 
landing-place, take one of your angles rea- 
dy fitted as aforefaid, and found the bottom, 
which fhould be about eight or ten feet deep, 
two yards from the bank is beft. Then con- 
fider with yourfelf whether that water will 
rife or fall by the next morning, by reafon 
of any water-mills near, and according to 
your difcretion tike the depth of the place, 
where you mean after to caft your ground- 
bait, and to fifli, to half an inch j that the 
lead lying on or near the ground-bait, the 
top of the float may only appear uprighc 
half an inch above the water. 


B R E 

Thus you haying found and fitted {or the 
place and depth thereof, then go home and 
prepare your ground-baitj which is next to 
the fruic of your labours, to be regarded. 

The Ground'Bait. 

Take a peck, or a peck and a half, ac- 
cording to the greatnefs of the ftream and 
deepnefs of the water where you mean to 
angle, of fweet grofs-ground barley-malt, 
and boil in a kettle, one or two warms is 
enough ; then ({rain it through a bag into a 
Wb, the licjuor whereof hath often done my 
liorfe much good; and when the bag and 
male is near cold, take it down to the water- 
fide about eight or nine of the clock in the 
evening, and not before ; cad: in two parts 
of your ground bait, fqueefed hard between 
both your hands, it will fink prefently to 
the bottom, and be fure it may reft in the 
very place you mean to angle; if the ftream 
run hard or move a little, caft your malt in 
handfuls a little the higher, upwards the 
flream. You may between your hands 
clofe the malt fo faft in handfuls, that the 
water will hardly part it with the fall. 

Your ground thus baited and tackling 
fitted, leave your bag with the reft of your 
tackling and ground bait near the fporting 
place all night, and in the morning about 
three or four of the clock vifit the water-fide, 
but not too near, for they have a cunning 
watchman, and are watchful themfelves 

Then gently take one of your three rods, 
and bait your hook, cafting it over your 
ground bait, and gently and fecretly draw 
it to you till the lead refts about the middle 
of the ground'bait. 

Then take a fccond rod and caft in about 
a yard above, and your third a yard below 
the firft rod, and ftay the rods in the ground, 
but go yourfelf fo far from the water-fide, 
you perceive nothing but the top of the floats^ 
which you muft watch moft diligently ; then 
when you have a bite, you Ihould perceive 
the top of your float to fink fuddenly into 

B R £ 

the water j yet neverthclefs be not too hafty 
to run to your rods until you fee that the 
line goes clear away, then creep to the 
water-fide, and give as nriuch line as poflihle 
you can : if it be a good carp or bream, they 
will go to the farther fide 'of the river, then 
ftrike gently, and hold your rod at a bent a 
little while; but if yOu both pull together 
you are fure to lofe ydur game, for either 
your line or hook, or hold will break ; and 
after you have overcofiie them, they will 
make noble fport, and are v6ry fliy to be 
landed. The carp is far ftronger and more 
mettlefome than the bream. 

Much more is to be obfcrved in this kind 
of fifh and filhing, but it is far fitter for 
experience and difdourfe than paper. Only 
thus much is neceflary for you to know^ 
and to'be mindful and careful of, that if the 
pike or pearch do breed in the river, they 
will be fure to bite firft and muft be taken. 
And for the moft part they are very large, 
and will repair to your ground bait, not 
that they will cat of it, but will feed and 
and fport themfelves amongft the young fry 
that gather about and hover over the 

The way to difcern the pike and to take 
him, if you miftruft your bream hook, for 
1 have taken a pike a yard long feveral times 
at my bream hooks, and fometimes he hath 
had the luck to ftiare my line, may be thus : 

Take afmall blake, or roach, or gudgeon, 
and bait it, and fet it alive among your rods 
two feet deep from the cork, with a little 
red-worm on the point of the hook ; then 
take a few crumbs of white bread, or fome 
of the ground-bait, and fprinkle it gently 
amongft your rods. If the pike be there, 
then the little fifti will fkip out of the water 
at his appearance, but the live-fct bait is 
fure to be taken. 

Thus continue your fport from four in the 
morning till eight, and if it be a gloomy 
windy di»y, they will bite all day long. But 
this is too long to ftand to your rods at one 
place, and it will fpoil your evening fport 
that day, which is this : 

About four of the ctock in the afternoon 
L 2 repair 

B R£ 

repair to your baited-place^ and as feon as 
you come to the water-fide, caft in one half 
of the reft of your ground bait, and ftand 
off: then whilft the filh are gathering to- 
gether, for there they will mod certainly 
come for their fupper, you may take a pipe 
of tobacco, and thea. in with your three 
rods as in the morning : you will Bnd exceU 
lent fport that eyening till eight of the 
clock ; then caft in the refidue of your 
ground bait, and next morning by four of 
the clock yifit them again for four hours, 
which is the beft fport of all ; and after that, 
kt them reft till you and your friends have a 
mind to more fport. 

From St. James'^-txAt until Barthokmew- 
tide is the beft ; when they have Had all 
<ie fummer's food they are the fatteft. 

Obferve laftly, that after three or four 
days filhing together, your game will be (hy 
and wary, and you (hall hardly get above a 
bite or two at 4 baiting ; then your only 
way is to defift from your fport about two or 
three days ; in the mean time, on the place 
you late baited, and a^ain intend to bait, 
you (hall take a turf of green, but fhort grafs, 
as big or bigger than a round trencher ; to 
the top of this turf, on the green fide, you 
(ball with a needle and green thread fallen 
one by one as many little red worms as will 
near covei* all the turf : then take a round 
board or trencher, make a hole inth^c mid- 
dle thereof, and .through the turf, placed on 
the board or trencher, with a firing or cord 
as long as is fitting, tied to a pole, let it 
down to the bottom of the water, for the 
fifli to feed upon without dil^urbance about 
two or three days \ and after that you have 
drawn it away, you may enjoy your former 

BREAST of a horfe. See Counter. 

BREASTS, part of the bow of a faddle. 
See Bows. 

BREAST-PLATE, or Tree ; is the 
llrap of leather that runs frorh one fide of 
the faddle to the other, over the horfc's 
bread in order to keep the faddle tight, and 
binder it from Aiding backwards when the 
horfe goes upon a rifing ground. 

BUEAIH, OR Wind. This word fig- 

B k £ 

nifies fometimes the eafy refpiration of a 
horfe, and fometimes it implies the eafe and 
reft orrepofe of a horfe. 

As, give your horfe breath, do not ride 
him down : give that leaping horfe a long 
breathing time between the turns or repeti- 
tions of his manage. 

This barb has always held his wind equal- 
ly upon his manage. 

This horfe is mafter of his wind or breath. 
This laft exprefl[ion is applyed to horfes that 
fnort, and our jockies take fnorting for a 
fign of a long-winded horfe. SeeSftoKr. 

BREED, is a place where mares for 
breed, and ftal lions are kept, in order ta 
raife a ftud. Hence they fay. 

To keep a breed ; to govern and manage 
a breed. 

All the mares in this breed have taken ; 
I. e. they are with foal. 

To make a good breed, you cannot chufe 
a better ftallion than a Spanijb horfe, nor 
better ftud mares than Naples mares. 

BREEDING of Horses. In order to the 
raifing a good and beautiful race of horfes, 
it is necefiary to chufe for a ftallion* a finb 
barb free from hereditary infirmities, fuch as 
weak eyes, bad feet, fpavi'ns, purfinefs, 
cheft foundring, 6?^. only with this diftinc- 
tion, that defers which happen by accident 
are not to be accounted hereditary. 

Having provided yourfelf with a ftallion, 
let him be fed for three months before he is 
to cover the mare, with found oats, pca^, 
or beans, or with coarfe bread and a little 
hay, but a g6od quantity of wheat ftraw; 
leading him out twice a day to water j and 
after he has drank, walk him up and down 
for an hour ; but not fo as to make him 

If he is not thus put into heart before he 
covers, he would be in great danger, of be- 
ing purfey and broken winded, neither 
would he be able to perform the talk j or 
at the beft the colts would be but pitiful and 
weak s and notwithftanding you have thus 
fed him well, you will take him in again 
very lean. 

If you put him to too many marcs, he 
will not ferve long, his mane and tail will. 


^^- - 


B R £ 

fall off through poverty, and you will find 
it a difficult tafk to recover hinn again for 
the year following. 

Therefore let him have mares, but ac- 
cording to bis ftrength, that is twelve, fif- 
teen, or at moft twenty. 
■ Mares go with foal eleven months, and 
as many days as they are years oid : as for 
example, a mare of ten years old will carry 
her foal eleven months, and ten days j fo 
that a perfon may fo order his mares to be 
covered, that their foals may be brought 
forth at a time when there will be plenty of 

About the end of May put your mares 
into an inclofure capable of feeding them 
the whole time the ftallion is to be with 
them, or that they are in feafon, in which 
inclofure all the mares are to be put 
together^ as well thofe which are barren as 

Firil take oflT your ftallion's hind fiioes, 
but let his fbre (hoes remain on for the pre- 
fervation of his fcct^ then lead him forth, 
and let htm cover a mare twice in hand to 
render him more calm and gentle ; after 
which take off his bridle and turn him loofe 
to the reft, with whom he will become, fo 
familiar, and treat them fo kindly, that at 
laft they will make love to him ; fo that 
not One of them will be horfed but as they 
aire in feafon. 

In this clofure there ( builc a little 
lodge, into which the ftallion may retire to 
fecurc himfelffrom the fcorching heats; and 
Jh the lodge there (hould be a manger, to 
give him oats, peas, fplit beans, bread or 
whatever elfe he likes beft ; and hcmuft be 
thus entertained during the whole time he 
is with the mares,, which will be. about fix or 
fcven weeks. 

Youjtiuft likewife takexare thatthe ftal- 
lion and the mare have the fame food, viz, 
if the former be at hay and oats, which 
is commonly called hard meat, the latter 
fliould Ifkewife be at hard' meat j othrerwife 
Ibe will not fo readily hold. 

Marcs which are very grofs hold with 
much difficulty ; but thofe that are indif- 
ferently fat and plump conceive with greatcft 


To bring a mare in feafon, and make her* 
retain, let her eat for eight days before (he is 
brought to the horfe, about two quarts of 
hemp feed iii the morning, and as much at * 

If (he refufe it, mix it with a little bran or 
oats, and if the ftallion eat alfo of it^ it will - 
contribute much to generation. 

As for the age of the ftallion, he ihould 
not cover before he is fix years old, nor after 
he is fifteen ; but the laft may be regulated^ 
according to his ftrength and vigour. 

As for the mares they (hould not be cover- 
ed before they are three years ok! ; but in ' 
this refpetl: you may take njeafures from the ' 
goodnefs of the mares> and the foals thac: 
they bring forth. 

In the laft place, you may furni(h yourfelf 
with young breeding mares from your own ' 
race ; which being found of a good breed*, 
will bring forth more beautiful foals than 
any other. But you are not to make ufeof- 
your colts forftallions; bccaufe they will' 
much degenerate from the goodnefs of the 
true barbs, and at laft become like the na»- 
tural race of the country. 

It is therefore advifable never to chufca- 
ftallion from your own breqd ; but rather 
to change Jiim for a good bard or Spanifl) 
horfe, yet ftill make choice of the fineft* 
mares of your own ftock to breed upon. 

BRIDLE, is fo termed when all it's ap-^ 
purtenances are fixed together in the feveraL 
parts of it for the government of a horfe, . 
and they are thefcr i* The bittor fnaffle/ 
which is the iron work put into a horfeV> 
mouthy of whioh there-are fevcral forts,- which' » 
fee under the Article Bitt. 

2. The head-ftall, being two fmall lea- 
thers that come from the top of - the head tc» 
the rings of the -bitt. 

3. Fillet, that which lies over the forehead f 
under the foretop, if the horfe have trap-^ 
ings; this is ufually adorned witharofe,., 
or the like, or leather fet with (hads, or 

4. The throat band, being that leather 
which is buttoned from the head band unco ? 
the throat. 

5. Reins> jhc long /thong of leather that : 



eeimes fmm the rings of the bitt^ and being 
caft over the borfe's head> the rider holds 
them in hi« hands^ whereby he guides the 
hprfe ^s he pleafes. 

6. The button and loop at the end of the 
reinf > by which it is fallened to the ring of 
the bitt^ the other end of the reins having 
only a button fo large that it cannot go 
through the ring of the bitt on the ot4ier 
fide ; this is called a running rein, by which 
a horfe is led at a good diftance, and has li* 
berty to leap a ditch, or mount a hedge. 

7. The nofe band, a leather that goes 
over the middle of the nofe, and through 
the loops at the back of the head-fiall, and 
fo buckled under the cheeks ^ this is ufually 

8. A trench. 

9. A cavefan, being a falfe rein to hold or 
lead a horfe by. 

10. A martingal, which is a thong of lea«* 
tbcr, the one end fattened under the horfe's 
cheeks, and the other to his girth between 
his legs, to make him rein well to catt up his 

11. ChafF-halter J a woman's bridle is the 
fame only it is doubled reined. 

BRIDLE-HAND, is the horfeman's left- 
hand, the right-hand being the fp^ar or whip- 

7b /wallow the 6&tdle, is faid of a horfe 
that has too wide a mouth, and too fmall a 

BRILLIANT; a brilk, high mettled, 
{{ately horfe is called brilliant, as having a 
raifed neck, a fine motion, excellent haunches 
upon which he rifes though never fo little 
put on. 

To BRIM, a fow is faid to brim, or go to 
brim, that is ready to take boar. 

BRING m A Horse, is to keep down the 
nofe of a horfe that bores and toITes his nofe 
up to the wind ; this we do with a good 
ftrong branch. See Banqjtet and Wind. 

BROCK, a term ufcd to denote a badger. 

A hart too of the third year is called a 
brock or brocket ; and a hind of the fame 
year, a brocket's fitter. 

BROKEN-WIND, a diforder that a horfe 
b fubjeft to when he is fuffered to (land too 

B R O 

long in the liable without excrcifei by which 
rneans hecontraAs grofs and thick humours 
in fuch abundance, that adhering to the hol« 
low parts ' of his lungs, they ftop his wind- 
pipe. SeeWinD. 

BROOK HAWKING, is a fport that i$ 
managed with the gerfalcon and jerkin, the 
haggard falcon, and the talTel gentle. 

There are in many places ponds enclofed 
with woods, bulhes, and the like obfcurities, 
fo that they are concealed from paflengers» 
and fuch places ducks much refort to. 

For the training up a hawk to take them, 
obferve the following diredions : 

The hawk being in all poipt^ ready to fly, 
be provided with two or three live traia 
ducKs, and let, a man lie concealed in fome 
bulb by the pond with them ; {o that when 
you come to the place, and the hawk being 
ready for the fudden flight, beat the bufli 
where the man lies concealed with the duck, 
with a pole, who mu(t fend forth one of 
them, to the end that the hawk may think ic 
is put up by you, and if ftie takes it with a 
courage reward her well. 

This is the way to train up a gofs-hawk to 
catch a fowl at fowce. 

The hawk being trained to this, you may 
boldly go with her to the ponds where the 
fowl lies, and creeping clofe to the place 
raife them by beating about with a pole, and 
when any rife, let go your hawk from your 
fitt, and if fhe feize, let her take pleafure 
thereon and reward her well. 

It is very neccflary to have a Ipaniel with 
you : for if the hawk is well acquainted with 
the fport, (he will be fo nimble at the catchy 
that they will fall into the water tocetherj 
and by that means the fowl will go to plunge, 
fo that then the fpanicl will be of good fer- 
vice and will not difplcafe the hawk. 

BROOD, the young of fifli or fowls. 
The brood of fea-fifh is fpawned, and lies in 
ftill waters, where it may have reft to receive 
nourifhment, and grow to perfeftion ; and 
here it is often deftroyed by weirs, draw- 
nets, or nets with canvafs, or fuch engines at 
the bottom of them, in harbours, havens and 

BROOK, a little river or fmall current of 


B U C 

water; and is diftinguiflied from a river, by 
flowing only at particular fcafons, whereas a 
river flows at all times. 

BROUILLER, is when a horfe is put to 
any manage, plunges, traverfes, and appears 
in difordcr. Hence they fay. 

This gentleman is not mailer of his legs, 
he makes his horfe brouiller, i. e. he makes 
him traverfe and call down his head, the fpur 
being too hard for him, 

BROW- ANTLER, that branch of a deer's 
horn next the head. 

BUCK. In his firft year, is called a fawn \ 
the fecond, a pricker; the third, aforrel;. 
the fourth, a fore ; the fifth, a buck of the 
firft head \ and the fixth, a great btick. 
This beaft is common in mofl countries, be- 
ing as corpulent as a hart, but in fize re- 
fembling more a roe, except in colour : the 
males have horns, which they lofe yearly ; 
the females none at all. As for the colour, 
it is very different ; however, they are moflly 
branded and fandy, with a black lift all along 
the back. Their flefli is excellent for nou- 

BUCK HUNTING. Having under the 
jfrticle -HART treated largely, as to their 
nature, and the ways of hunting them, there 
needs the lefs to be faid as to hunting the 
buck, and the rules for taking him ; for he 
that can hunt a hart or ftag well, will not 
hunt a buck ill. 

Befides, falldw deenbcing common among 
us, and thofeufually in parks and enclofures 
of divers fituations and ftatures, different 
from one another j it would be a difficult 
taflc to give inftru6tions for every parti- 

And indeed it is the proper bufinefs of 
every keeper of parks, fc?r. to underftand 
the nature and craft of his deer in hunting ; 
all which arc to be acquired by experience 
more than reading; however I (hall concifely 
inform you of what relates to buck-hunting 
as now pra£tifed. 

There is no fuch (kill and art required in 
lodging a buck, as in harbouring a hart or 
ftag, nor fo much drawing after, but you 
may judge by the view, and obfervc what 

"B U C 

grove or coppice he enters $ for a buck does 
not wander up and down as the hart, nor 
change his Uyer fo often, or ufe fo many 
crofTings, doublings, ftiifts, and devices* 
nor doth he flee fo far before the hounds, 
but avoids the highway and open places, as 
much as he can ; he is not lo crafty or fo 
ftrong to beat a river, or to ftay fo long at 
foil i neither is he fo free to take a great ri- 
ver, nor muft it be deep \ but being clofc 
hunted, he will flee into fuch ftrong coverts 
as he is accuftomed to, and it has been ob- 
ferved, that fome bucks that have leaped 
over a park pale, after a ring or two, have 
returned of themfelves, chufing rather to die 
where they have been acquainted, than in a 
ftrange place. 

The buck groans and trots as the hart bel- 
leth, and with a wqrfe no^fe and rattling in 
the throat ; leaps lighter at the rut than tiie 
ftag 5 neither will thefe two beafts come near 
one another's layer, and they have fcldom 
or never any other relays, than the old 

Thev alfo herd more than the hart does, 
and lie in the drieft places, though if they 
are at large they herd but little from MMy 
to Auguft. 

Now the greatcft fubtlety a huntfman 
needs to ufe in hunting the buck, is to have 
a care of hunting counter or change, beoaafe 
of the plenty of fallow deer that ufed to come 
more direftly upon the hounds than the red 
deer does. 

The doe begins to fdtWn about the^end of 
May, and continues till Midfummer. 

The bucks me**' or ftied their li^rns or 
heads every year about, or in Aprils and J>ai-t 
of Mt^i and their new ones are burmiked 
about the end o^ Auguft. 

The buck makes his fewmifliingin diir^rs 
manners and forms as the hart, according to 
the diverfity of food, and the time of the day, 
morning and evening, but 'they are moft 
commonly round. 

The buck comes in fealbn in July^ and 
goes out in September. 

The doe comes in feafon when the buck 
goes out, and goes out at twelfth-tide. 



In buck-hunting the fame tiounds are ufcd 
t as in running the (tag. In forcfts and chaccs 
.as they lie at layer, fo they are hunted. 

In parks where they are inclofcd, the fport 
is not fo diverting^ by reafon of the greater 
change and foil, unlcfs they break out and 
run the country, which they feldomdo. 

But deer that lie out, 4;hough near the 
park, make for the generality better chaces 
than foreft deer. 

^be keeper JhooHng a BUCK to l^e run down. 

. In order to facilitate the chace, the keeper 
'Comnnonly felefts a fat buck out of the herd, 
which he (hoots to maim him, and ihen he 
isrun down by the hounds. 

As to the method of hunting the buck j 

•thecompany generally go out very early for 

the benefit of the morning, fometimes they 

.^have a deer ready lodged, if not, the coverts 

rare drawn till one is rouzed ; or, fometimes 

in a park a deer is pitched upon, and forced 

.-from the h^rd, then more hounds are laid on 

*to run the chace j if you come to be at a 

fault, the old itaunch hounds are only to be 

relied upon till you recover him again : if he. 

.be funk and the hounds thrufl: him up, it is 

called an imprime, and the company all 

ibund a recheat *, when he is run down, 

*«very one drives to get in to prevent his 

.J>eiflg torn by the hounds. 

Fallow deer feldom or never ftand at bay. 
He that firft gets in, cries hoo-up, to give 
notice that he is down, and blows a death. 
When the company are all come in they 
paunch him and reward the hounds ; and ge- 
. .nerally ;the chief perfon of quality amongft 
them takes fay, that is, cuts his belly open, 
to fee how fat he is. 

, When this is done^ every one has a chop 
at his neck, and the head being cut off is 
ihewn to the hounds to encourage them to 
run only at male def r, which they fee by the 
hornSj and to teach them to bite only at the 
head : then the company all itanding in a 
ring, one4>Iows a fingle death, which being 
done all .blow a double recheat, and fo con- 
clude the chace with a jgencral halloo of hoo- 


up, and depart the field to their feveral 
homes, or to the place of meeting; and the 
huntfman, or fome other, hath the deer put 
acrofs the buttocks of his horfe, and fo carries 
him home. 

BULLFINCH, a cage bird: but has 
neither fong. nor whiftle of his own, but is 
very apt to learn if taught. 

a fifli that has a broad head, and wide mouth, 
with broad fins near the eyes, and has many 
under the belly ; and inftead of teeth, has 
rough lips, which aflift him in napping at 
the bait : he has alfo fins on his back, and 
one below the belly, and his tail is round, 
and his body all over covered with whiti(h, 
blackifli, and brownifh fpots : they begin to 
fpawn about Aprils and are full Gt fpawn all 
the.fummer fcafon. 

The manner of fifliing for them is as fol- 
lows : 

The common abode or haunt of this fifli is 
in holes, or among ftones, in clear water, in 
fummer j but in winter they take up their 
quarters with the eels in mud. They are a 
limple and lazy fifli, and are eafily caught in 
fummer, and you may fee him in hot-weathcr 
funning himfclf on a flat gravelly ftone, up- 
on which you may put your hook, which 
muft be baited with a very fmall worm near 
the mouth, and he will feldom refufe the 
bait, fo that the mo ft bungling angler may 
take him. It is indeed an excellent fifli for 
tafte } but of fo ill afliape that many women 
do not care to drefs it. 

BURR, the round knob of a horn next a 

deer's head. 

BURROCK, is a fmall weir or dam, 
where wheels are laid in a river for taking 
of fifli. ^ 

BURROWS, holes in a warren which ferve 
as a covert for hares, rabbets, tsfr. 

BUSTARD, a kind of great fluggifli 

BUTTERS, is an inftrument of fteel, fit- 
ted to a wooden handle, with which they pare 
the foot, or cut the hoof of a horfe. 

BUTTON, of the reins of a bridle in a 
ring of leather with the reins paflcd through 
it, which runs all along the length of the 


t • 

C A G 

• reins. To put. a Fiorfe under the button is, 
when a horfc is flopped without a rider upon 
his back, the reins being laid on his neck, 
and the buttons lowered lb faQ: down, that 
the reins bring in the horfe's head, and fix 
it to the true pofture or carriage. It is not 
onlyjthc horfes which are managed in the 
hand, that mull be put under the button, for 
the method muft be taken with fuch horfes 
as arc bred between two pillars, before they 
are backed. 

CA D D OW, a bird, otherwifc called a 
chough, or jack-daw. 
CADENCE, is an equal meafurc or pro- 
portion, obferved by a horfe in all his mo- 
tions, when he is thoroughly managed, and 
works juftly at gallop, terra a terra, and the 
airs : fo that his times or motions have an 
equal regard to one anothec ; that one does I 
not embrace, or take in more ground than 
the other, and that the borfc obferves the 
ground regularly. 

Horfemen fay. This horfe works always 
upon the fame cadence 5 he follows the ca- 
dence ; he does not change his cadence ; he I 
remains equally between the two heels. 

He is fine and gentle in all his aids; and 
when put to the manage, he never interrupts 
his cadence. 

This horfe has fo fine a mouth, and works 
with fo much liberty in his fhoulders and 
haunches, that he keeps his cadence with 
great facility : nay, He takes a very good ca- 
dence upon his airs, without ftepping falfe, 
without jumbling, and works equally in 
both hands. See Counter-Time andTiME, 
CADEW, the ftraw-worm, an infeft, ufed 
as a bait in anglii^g. 

CADGE, a round frame of wood, upon 
which falconers carry their hawks. 

CAGE FOR Partridges 5 a device to keep 
them in, and of which there are fcvcral forts. 
We (hall begin with that invented to con- 
tain a hen partridge, and fcrves to call cock 
partridges to her in order to takfc them. See 
Plate III. Fig. 2. 

This cage is pretty enough, takes up but 
little room, is very portable, and is but little 
feen : ^tis made of an old hat, whofe brim 


is cut off, and the bottom is wood, which 
(huts and opens, to put in and take out the 
partridge ; and a hole muft be made in the 
bottom of the hat, which is uppermofr, 
through which the bird puts out it's head to 

You have alfo a hook at it, made of a 
thick iron wire, to hang the cage upon as 
there is occafion ; and you muft make one' 
or two at the place marked V. to the end 
the bird may eat and drink ; and therefore 
a piece of wood is fattened or nailed at the 
door below, of about half a foot in length, 
pointed at the ends, in order to fix it in the 
ground, that fo the cage may be kept 4n 
good order when you have a mind to ufc 

This fort of cage is very proper for the 
purpofe dcfigned. 

And yet you keep the partridges in it only 
when you carry it to call : for in the day- 
time you are to keep them in a great cage, 
or room. 

The following figures reprefent other forts 
of cages i and the moft common is that we 
are about to defcribe next, and may in Ihort 
ferve for a model to make others by. 

The cage is made of two pieces of the 
bottom of a* cafk, marked with the letters 
AHC, and BGD, cut round at the top, 

The^ fliould be nine inches long, and a 
foot broad ; they faften them at the lower 
part to another piece of wood of the fame 
breadth, and fifteen or eighteen inches in 
length: you have a lath, or fmall wooden 
ligature at top, marked with the letters AB, 
fifteen or eighteen inches long, and half an 
inch broad, iand thick; which is nailed to* 
two round boards, in order to keep them 
together : you muft cover the void part of 
the cage with a green, or Ibme dark grey 
coloured cloth, inclining to brown, and 
tacked with fmall nails : leave two or three 
holes at top, for the partridge to put her 
head through, when ihe has a mind to call 
or hearken. 

A little door muft be made at F, one of 
the end boards ; for example, at that mark- 
ed with No. I. that you may put in, and 
M take 


take out- the birds : you muft make two 
openings in the other board, as you fei^rc- 
prcfenrcd by the letter H, they mud be long 
and narrow, that the partiidge may be able 
to cat and drink : you miift fallen a thoog, 
girth, or cord, to the ends AB, fend the 
iame about your neck, when .you have a 
jiiind to carry the cage from <?ne place to 

You may obferve the reft from Pllte III. 

Wc prefentyou next with another very, 
ufeful fort of cage for the bird, when wildi 
becaufe Ihe will ftruggle \xi the carriage^, and 
be fo fatigued when you come to th€ de- 
pgncd place (a? has been frequently expe- 
jrienced) that fhe v/ill not vouchfafe to call : 
fo you muft be obliged to fet the cage on the 
ground, in order to ufe her the next morn- 
ing; becaufe a fox, or fome other voracious 
animal, may kill the bird : here is a cage fet 
forth by two figures j the fecood fhews you 
the particular parts; ^nd it is. not yet covered 
with iron wire, as it ought to be when it is 
complcat: you therefore take the model by 

You muft take wo boards, EGAD, and 
F H Y C, each of therii about fifteen 
inches fquare> and have two bows gf thick 
iron wir<:, made like a door, or rather like 
the two boards at the ends of the ppeceding 
cages nail both the boards at the ends of 
the two fqu^re boards, and fik a board over, 
of the fame breadth as the other two, and 
a foo,<i.a half fquare ;, in fuch a manner, 
that the fide of the bows which is fquare, 
may be level with the great board ;. then 
few, the cloth over the two bows, in order 
to form a cage, qyite the fame as the fe- 
cond above;, between the two boards, 
AK, -BY, fo that, the three boards are cx- 
tcjided quite round about,, three pr four 
fingers- breadth over ; and picceSfof wood, 
as at GHEIs muft be placed' at all the 
corners- to keep the fides tight, and bind 
the cloth in the middle ; then cover the 
whole with brals or iron wire, of the thicli- 
. nefs of a common little pin j and to accom- 
modate your bird with foodi you muft have 
a fmall drawer, or- little trough, with an 
cfttiog and drinking-ptacc, at- the fide C,. 

e A ^L ^ . ., 

* • 

between tfie cage and irctn wire, at the litttW '.. •' 
letter a\ and theiefore that cloth fide ofT 
the cage adjoining to the feeding-place,, 
muft be open with bars, fo diftanced from 
esi^ch othec, th^ the partridge may eafiiy put 
her head between them in order to eat and • 
drfnk. -. . \ .' 

CALADE, or Basse; is the defcerit, or 
floping declivity of a rifing manage ground j*;.. 
being a fmall eminence, upon which werid'e * 
down a horfe feyeral times, putting him to- 
.a fhort gallop, with hrs fore-hams in the* 
air, to make him learn to ply and blend his 
haunches, and form his ftop upon the aids 
of the calves of his legs, the ftay of the 
bridle, and the cavcflTon, feaforiably given ;: 
for without thefc aids he would throw him^ 
fclf too much upon his Ihouiders, anii not 
bend his- haunches. < .. 

Horfemen fav,. Work your horfe in a 
calade, after tpc \talian way ; ride him 
ftraight, and then. you make good ufe of the 

Thefe calades will difcourage your horfej. 
and perhaps- ruin his hams ; tor you have 
pitched upon too deep a declivity : and be- 
fides, you do not make the aids of the bridle 
accord with thofe of the calves of. your 
legs. ' 

CALF,.(among Hunters) a niale hart, o^ 
a hind of the firlt year. 

weather, and are apt to. make horfes tread al- 
together upon the toes of their hind feet, and 
trip ; they alfo occafion blcymes, and ruin, 
the back finewsi ncverthelcfs they are nc- 
ceffary in a time of froft \ and it is more cx-p 
pedicnt that a horfe fhould run fuch a rifle,, 
than the rider ihouldbe in continuaLdangec 
of breaking his limbs.. 

Whenever there is occafion to ufe them,- 
order the farrier to pare the horn a little low 
at the heel, and turn down the fponge upon, 
the corner, of the anvil, fo as to make the 
calkin- in the form of the point of a hare's* 
ear, which will do little damage : whereas* 
the great fquare calkins quite fpoil tlve 

Calkins, are either fingle or double^ that 
at one end of the (hoe,, or. at both :\ thefc 



•' '. 

• : . C A L 

'^ \b& are deemed lefs.hurtful; as the horle can 
€read more even. 

. CALL, (with Hunters) a leflbn blown up- 
on the* horn to comfort tl^ hounds. 

CALLS, natural and artificial ; a fport 

. }>ra6lifed much during the wooing feafon df 
partridges^ efpecially for taking cock part 
tridges; for which they put a hen into a cage, 

.^o CaVl and briilg them near. 
./ This way in general of taking them, is in- 

• deed laborious, and requires as much exa<5t- 
nefs, a$ to the artificial part in imitating their 
voices ; and you can commonly pretend to 
take but one at a time. 

Partridges begin to pair about Feiruaryj 
or the beginning oCMarcby if the weather is 
not cold, and continue in their wooing till 
the end of Jufy. 

A great many are of opinion, that you will 
deftroy the breed by taking the. cocks in this 
manner i but it is a miftake, for they do more 
mifchief to the hens they couple with, than 
good, hindering them to fit ; and will break 
thei r eggs if they can find them : and in the 
iieft we often find but fmall coveys of young 
partridges, which happens fo, becaufe the 
cock being too hot, and too alfiduoufly pur* 
fuing the hen that would lay, (he cannot dif- 
tnga^t herfclf from him, and get to hcrnefti 
and fo cbufes rather to lofe her egg, than go 
thither in fight of the cock that would break 
all the neft. 

'Tis further to be obfcrved, that the cock 
never knows his ncn's neft ; and therefore 'tis 
more eafy to take him when Ihe fits; for be- 
lieving (he is loll, he goes to the firft he 
meets with. 

This fport may be praftifed every day 
during the aforefaid wooing feafon, from 
day- break until fun-rifing, and from fun- 
fetting until night. 

The figure, Plate III. Call L reprefents 
the manner how to make them. Suppofe 
the fpace from K to I, to be a hedge that in- 
clofes fome piece of wjfieat, barley, of other 
grain J fet your hen partridge in a thin, 
open, fine wire cage, fo that (he may be fecn 
at a good diitance out of the cage ; the 
letters TVY is the fpot where (he (hould be 
plaeed i then place your net called a hal- 


Her, (fee MaLlier) quite round,. as you' 
fee it formed by the letters KLMNO 
P QR S, each part about twenty feet diftant" 
from the cage, then retire behind the hedge : 
if any cock partridge on the ground calls,* 
the hen will preTently anfweri nor will the 
cock fail to come to her; and five or fix will 
fometimes come together, and fight with 
each other juft under -the net, which of 
them (hall have the hen, until at length- 
fome of them find themfelvcs entangled : 
you muft not prefently fally forth in this* 
Cafe, for perhaps fome more may be likcwifc 
cnfnarcd, nor can they foon difentangle 

The obferving one- caution will fave a great 
deal of pains to the fportfman ; and that is, 
let him never pitch in any place, but where 
he has heard fome c^ck call ; then pitch 
within fixty or eighty paces, that they may 
be within hearing of each other. 

Let the cage be coloured green, and let 
the bars be at fuch a diftance, that the hen 
may thruft out her bead and neck to hearken 
and call; and if you have well trained 
her to this fport, (he will be induftrious at 

But as for cages for partridges, the reader 
is referred to that article. 

Having done with the natural calls, we 
proceed to the artificial ones. 

The following figures reprefent the form 
of them. Fig. 3 and 4. 

The firfl: (hews the outfides, the fecbnd the 
infidej they are beft made of box, walnut- 
tree, or fuch kind of hard wood, and 
formed of the bignefs of a hcn*s . egg, with 
two ends, AB, bored through from end to 
end ; and about the middle D C, there muft 
be a hole about the bignefs of a fixpence, 
hollowed within to the bottom, then have 
a pipe of a fwan*s quill, and the bone of a 
cat's foot, opened at one end, which you- 
muft convey into the hole A. and fo thruft 
it in the hole D j the other end of the bone 
A, muft be ftopped ; then take a goofe 
quill opened at both ends, which muft be 
put in at the hole B, until the end C be at 
the end D of the bone j then blowing at the 
end B, you make the noife as the cock par^ 



C A G 

fridge does; which varies much from the 
call of the hen : and you muft remove far- 
ther or nearer the end C of the quill, from 
and to the end of the bone B, until you 
have found the exadt notej for it is not 
foon done : the call being fixed, and you 
expert in the notes, get a net called a 
pocket net, the form of which is here de- 
fer! bed. Fig;. 1. See Quails for other 


To this net fix a pliant (lick, of about 
four or five feet long; with which you may 
go abroad early in the morning, and iate in 
the evening, or as occafion fervcs: when 
you hear a partridge call, you have the 
manner of pitching the net» and the placing 
yourfclf reprcfcnted in Plate III. For exam- 
ple> fuppofe you hear the partridge call at 
A, hide yourfelf fiat upon your belly at B, 
having planted your net juft in the way or 
furrow, between yourfelf and the partridge, 
but within ten or twelve feet of the net ; 
efpecially if there be any bu(h, or advantage 
of ground to fhclter you. The way to fet 
the net, is tatie the packthread number i. 
which pafies into the buckle, number. 2, of 
the net, into the end of the ftick, which muft 
be ftuck in the ground : and fo bending it 
like a bow, fafien the other thread to the faid 
flick in the ground, to the other fide, or 
furrow : having in like manner tied it to the 
end of the packthread^ number 3. which 
pafifes through the buckle> number 4. fo that 
the two buckles 2 and 4 may come pretty 
near each other; then take one end of the 
pocket net> number 5 and 6> and caft it over 
the bended ftick, fo that it may lie thereon : 
the other end nrv^y lie on the ground^ in 
fuch manner, that if any thing endeavours to 
pafs by that way, it muft needs run into the 

Every thing being in order^ and hearing 
the partridge call, you muft return two or 
three anfwcrs louder or fofter according to 
the dirtance from whence you hear the call> 
only as loud as to be heard, and the par- 
tridge will prefently make near you, then 
giy^ him a loft call : when he has anfwered 
th4 firft call, he will begin to run, and com- 
ing near the net, will make a little paufe 

* • • « . 

and rufli on, fo that the upper part will fall 
on him, and entangle him ; then take him 
out, and you may be able to take feveral 
after this method : but this way o{ taking) 
them lafts only during the time of their 
breeding, which is jJ^l, May.^ June, and- 
July. . • 

There is another way of raking partridges 
with the call and a broad net: having found . 
out your partridge with a call as aforefaidt 
pitch your broad net : which fliould be four- . 
teen or fifteen yards long, and feven or eight 
deep; fpread this over the ground near 
them, the length ways to them, then peg 
down the net to the ground on all fidesj 
except that towards them, and raife them up 
in the midft, by a ftick about four feet long 
with a notch in the top, the better to hold, 
the line or net from flipping, and bend the 
ftiik from the net to make it ftiffer, which 
ftick muft be thruft into the ground the bet- 
ter to hold. 

When you have in this manner fixed your 
net, you muft either have a natural or artifi* 
cial ftalking-horfe tp drive them into your 
net, but the natural one is reputed the beftj 
if trained up for the fport. 

CANARY-BIRD, an admired finging- 
bird, of a greenifii-yellow colour, that takes 
it's name from the place from whence they, 
came, viz. frorn the Canary-rifles^ and na 
where clfe; but of late years, there is a fort 
of birds,thac are brought in abundance from 
Germany y . efpecially from Tirol, and arc 
therefore called German birds ; being a much 
better fort than the other, though their ori- 
ginals are fuppofed to have been firft brought 
fiom I he fame place. 

Thefc birds, that is the cocks, never grow 
fat, and they cannot be didinguilhed by 
fome country people from common green- 
birds; though the canary-birds are much 
luftier, have a longer tail, and differ much ia 
the heaving of the palTages of the throaty 
when they fing. 

But to make a right choice of this bird, 
and to know when he has a good fong; in the 
firft place, let him be a long bird, ft ending 
ftxaight, and not crouching, butjprightly 


• • 

.«* - . ■ • . • , •. •• • 

• , ♦ .' 

tiKe a fparrovr-hawk, itahding wkh life iuid 
. boldhef^ and not ijjbjta to-be tearful. 

Thcfe birds being fo much cficcmed fojr 
their pleafmg ibng are fdinetimes fold at a 
high price, more or lefs, according to the 
goodnefsaild excellency of their notes, there 
being a gr'eat difFtrence in them. 
-. It is very adviiable before you buy, firft 
/to h*ar them fing, for the buyer will then 
^L4>lcafe his ears i for one fancies a fong-bird, 
another a very harfh bird, if he be not fo 
fwcet ; though undoubtedly the beft canary- 
bird in general, is that which has the moft 
variety of notes, and holds out in Tinging 
the longeft. 

in order to. know whether a bird is in 
health before you buy him, take him out 
of the ftore cage, and put htm in a clean 

C£age fingly, and if he ftand up boldly, with- 
out crouching or fhrinking in his feathers, 
9nd look with a briikeye, and not fubjed to 
clap his bead under his wing,, it is a fign that 
hg^ is in good health ; but yet he may be an 
ufiheakhy bird. 

But the greateft matter is to obfcrve his 
dunging; if he bolts his tail like a nightin- 
gale after he has dunged, it is a great fign 
that he is not in perfe^ health ; though he 
may ling at prtfent and look pretty briik, 
you may affure yourfclf, it will not be long 
before he will be fick ; but if his dung be very 
thin like water, or of a (limy white without 
any black in it, it is a fign of approaching 

When a canary-bird is in perfeft health, 
his dung lies round and hard, with a fine 
white on the outfide and dark within : dries 
quickly, Wd the larger the dung is the bet- 
ter, fo that be long, round and hard ; but 
as to a feed-bird, he very feldom. dungs fo 
hard, unlefs he be very young. 

Canary-birds are fubjed to many difeafes, 
as impofthumes, which afFe£t the head, and 
caufe them to fall fuJdenly from the perch, 
and die in a fhort time if not fpeedily 

The mod approved medicine is an oint- 
ment made of frefh butter and capon's greafe, 
melted together, with which anoint the 
top of the bird's headj for two or three 

« 4 

. . CAN 

jdays together, and it will dilTolve it, and 
ctafe him ; but if you have let it alone too 
long, then after you have anointed him three 
or four time&, fee whether the place of his 
head be foft, and if fo open it gently and 
let out the matter, which will be like the 
yolk of an egg; when you have done this, 
anoint the place, and this will immediately 
cure him. 

And if you find the impofthume at any 
time return, do as before direAed \ you muft 
alio give hhm figs, and in his water let him 
have a (lice or two of liquorice, with white 

Some are fo curious as to breed thefe birds 
in England y and they have excelled all 
others. For the ordering of thefe birds 
when they begin to build, or are intended 
for breeding, make a convenient cage, or 
prepare a room that may be fit for that pur- 
pofe, taking care to let it have an opening 
towards the rifing of the fun ; where you 
muft have a piece of wire, that they may 
have egrefs and regrefs at their pleafure: 
when this has been done fet up fome brooms, 
either heath or fra;l, in the corners of it, 
opening themjn the middle, and if tHe room 
^be pretty high two or three vew- trees may 
be fet up, but not too near, as the birds 
will not endure to fee themfelves fo near 
each other's nefts ; as the cock and hen will 
be apt to fly on an hen that is not matcht to 
*them, when they fee them near their neft, 
which many times caufes the fpoiling of their 
eggs and young ones. 

in the next place you muft caufe fome- 
thing to be made fo convenient, and of fiich 
bignefs as may hold meat a confiderable 
rime, that you may not be difturbing thtm 
continually, and a proper veflTel for water 
alfo ; and the place where the feed is intended 
to be put, muft be fo ordered that it may 
hang out of the reach of the mice, for they 
are deitroycrs of them: you muft likewifc 
prepare fome fluff of feveral forts of things,. 
fuch as cotrori, wool, fmall dead grafs, cIk 's 
hair, and a long fort of mofs that grows 
along by ditch fides, or in the woods, for 
them to build their nefts with. 
, Dry them well befvTC you put them to- 

- C A N. . . 

gethcr, the*. mingkaMwell, and put. f hem 
up into a net like' a cabbage-net, hanging ii 
fo that they may with cafe pull it o\it. 

You muft alio fet perches about the room, 
and if it be large enough fct a tree in the 
middle of it, that fo they may take the more 
pleafure ; and always remember to propor- 
tion your birds according to the largcncfs of 
the room, and rather let it be under ftocked 
than^over ftocked, for they are birds that 
love their liberty. 

When you perceive them to begin to 
build and carry ftufF, give them once a day, 
or in two days at leatt, a little greens and 
ibme coarfe fugar ; for that will caufe a flip- 
perynefs in the body, that fo the eggs may 
come forth without injuring the birds: for 
they die many times in laying the firft egg, 
which js a lofs to the breeder •, firft in refpefl* 
to his* firft breed, then to the unpairing of 
the cock, to which you ought to put another 
hen, whether he will pair or no : but it 
would be much better if that cock was taken 
out, than fuflrcred to continue in the breed- 
ings place, efpecially if it be fmall -, but in a 
large place with feveral pairs he cannot do 
that injury, and it will be a difficult matter 
to diftinguifti which is the cock of that hen 
that died, and as difficult to take him in a 
large place, without doing more injury than 
the birds would do : fo that it will be beft 
to let him reft till the end of the vear \ when 
if you leave but two or three pair together, 
it will be the l?eft way to take him our, and 
match him with another hen, and then put 
him in again. 

Befides, when you find that they have built 
their ncfts, the nets that have their breeding 
ftufF in them may be taken away, for they 
will be apt to build upon their eggs with hew 
ftufF, if they do not fct prefently. 
^ As to the time of their breeding, it is 
ufually three times a year, viz. in Jprily May, 
JunCi and fometimes in Auguft : as for order- 
ing the young ones, they muft not be left 
too long in the ncfts j for they are very apt 
to grow fullen, and will not feed kindly i 
therefore they arc to be taken out at about 
nine or ten days old, and put into a little 
baiket and covered over with a net, or t\i^ 

• • • • . • 

they wilt be apt to jnihp out upmi the fiift 
opening of the boflokj add be hurty' if theys 
fall down. 

They muft alfo bfc kept very warm for the 
firft Week : for they will be very texWIer, (lib* 
; jeft tokthe cramp, and not digeft their me^t» 
if they take- cold. * '^ • 

And when they arc taken' from, the old ca- 
naries, let it be in the eveninfg, and if pofli^ 
ble when the old ones are out of fight; others 
wife they will be very apt to take diftafte 
when they fit again and have young ones, and 
ready at every fright to forfake both theijf 
young and their eggs. 

As to the preparation of their meat; foale 
fome of the largeft -rapc^iced* in water for 
twenty or twenty-^foop hour: but! if the 
water be a little warm twelve hours m^y be 
enough, then drain the water from the feed^ 
and put a third part of white bread to it, and 
a little canary-feed in flower, and mix them 
all together. 

With a fmall ftick take up a little at the 
end of it, and give eve/y bird fome, two or 
three times over; for if you overcharge 
their ftomachs at firft^ they feldom thrive 

Remember that the old ones give them 
but a little at a time, and the meat they re« 
ccive from them is warmed in the ftomach, 
before they giv-e it them, and then all rape 
is hulled, which lies not fo hard at tht 
ftomach, as thofe feeds which have the ikin 

Neither muft their meat be made too dry; 
for then they will be apt to be vent burnt^ 
as all i^eds are hot. 

It is obfervable, that the old ones conftant-^ 
ly drink after they have eaten feeds, and a 
little before they feed their young ones : and 
they commonly fit a quarter of an hour or 
more feeding them, to keep them warm, that 
the meat may the better . nourifh them ;• 
therefore when you have fed them, let them 
be covered up. very warm, that their meat 
may the better digcft. 

The feveral names of thcfc birds at dif- 
ferent times and ages are ; fuch as arcabove 
three years old are called Runts, thofe 
above two are named Erifics^ and thofe of 


( . 

•. /. CAN*' ' 
.. • • 

fire* firft year, that the old ones bring up 

arc called Branchcrsj thofe that are new 

floWn and cannot feed themfclvcs Pufliers, 

and thofe that are bred up by hand Ncft- 

Kngs, .,."': 

CANCELLIER, a term ufed in falconry, 
when a Kght flo^n hawk in her ftooping turns 
fwoor tKrcotiiaiesvpon the wing, to recover 
fterfelf before Iht: fcizes. 

CANKER ts Hawks, a diftcmper breed- 
ing in the throat and tongue, proceeding from 
foul feeding. 

CANKER IN Horses, is a very loathfome 
difeafe,. which if continut:d long uncured, fo 
fcfters and putrifiei the part, that it will eat 
to the very bone ;. and if it happens to come 
upon the tongue, will eat it afunder-, light- 
ing upon the nofe, it. devour? .the. griftlc 
through, and if it comes upon any part of 
the flcftiiit' will fnet und gnaw it a great 
breadth. It will be eafily known, for the 
places where it is wiU be raw and bleed much, 
andj^whitcfcurf will often grow upon the 
infc'cccd part. 

This difcafe may be caufed .many ways, 
cither by the engendering of melancholy anqi 
foul blood in the body, by unwholefomc 
meat, and by fomc (harp and fait humoursr, 
proceeding from cold not long before taken, 
which will render his breach very liink* 

When this difeafe is in the mouth, it will 
be full of bliftcrs, and the bcall will not be 
blc to e^it its. provender. . 

It proceeds from crude undigefted meat, 
ranktiefs of foodi ot unnatural heat coming 
from the ftomach, and fometimcs from cold 
taken in the head ; where the rheum binds 
upon the roots and kernels of the tongue, 
which: has, as> it were, ftrangled and made 
Arajgbr ^c pnffagesof the ftomach : . when 
the- eycSjarc.infefted .with if, which proceeds 
&0mia r^okwbjpod^ defccnding from the head, 
it breeds a little worm like a pifmire^ that 
gr6ws irt the ^cbrner next his nofe, and it will 
eatic ia tw'ne>.&'<?. -., . 

It OMty be.knowri by the gr^eat and. fmall 
pimples- wrtbin.^tid without .thfi eyelids. 
• The cure»;t there are.'.cnat}y things: in geiie- 
inl good for the cure of this dillcmper, in any 


.part ofa -iiorfc's body, but more particularly 
for that in the mouch and nofe. 

Take half a pint of white wine, the quan- 
tity of a walnut ofroch aluai, h^lfa fpoonfui 
of bay fait, one fpoonfui of Englijh honey, 
red fage, rue, rib-wort, bramble leaves, of 
each a like quantity, boil them io the white- 
wine till one fourth part be confumed, and 
injeft this water into the fore, or if it be in 
the moud), walh the place with a clout faf- 
tencd to a flick, and drefs him with it twice 
a day or oftencr. Or, 

Take the juice of plantain, as much vine- 
gar, and the fame weight of the powder of 
alum, and anoint t\\t fore with it two or three 
times a day. Or, 

Reduce a like quantity of ginger and 
alum to a fine powder, mix them well to- 
gether till they are like a falve, and very 
thick, and anoint the part after it has been 
very well .walhtd with alum water and vine- 
gar. Or, 

• Take half a pound of alum, a quarter of 
a pint of honey, columbine and fage leaves, 
of each a handful ; boil all in three pints of 
running water, till one pint be confumed ; 
this is good for a canker in the mouth par^ 
ticularly,. being wafhed with it morning and- 
night. Or, 

Take white vitriol one ounce, diflblve it* 
in a pint of water, and with this wafh the 
mouth two or three times a day. Or, 

For foul uLceca, and to ipake the hair 
grow : take a quart of tar, put to it half a 
pound of bjeac's greafe, and an.aunce of green 
copperas, a quarter of a pound of faltpetrei 
twoounces of wax,*a quart of honey, a quar- 
ter of a pound of rofin,.two ounces of yerde*. 
greafe, and a quart of linfeed oil ; boil it till 
halfi^-confunxcd, then drain the liquor and 
keep iKclofe in a pot, to be ufed oa oc* 
eafion, warining^it when y^u appjy it to the 
fore. , . ' j 

CANKER IN Dogs s a diftqmper that 
feizes thpir ears, but docs not much incom-?- 
mode them. . 

'. ) rhe cure ;. take ^wa ounces lof foap, the 
fame quantity of oil of tartar, fulphur, fal+ 
arii»ontaic> and ferdegecafe^. incorporate all 




together with vinegar and aqua-fortis, with* | 
this rub the parts affe&ed aiid it will cure. 

CANNON MOUTH of a Bitt, is a 
round but long piece of iron^ confiding fonne- 
times of two pieces that couple and bend in 
the middle, and fometimes 0DI7 of one piece 
that does not bend^ a$ in the cannon-nnouth 
a trompCn 

Cannon-mouths of all forts are defigned 
to keep the horfe in fubjeflion \ and are fo 
contrived that they rife gradually towards the 
middle, and afcend towards the palate ; to 
the end that the void fpacc left underneath | 
may give fome liberty to the tongue. 

CAPARAtsSON, OR Horse Cloth, is a 
fort of cover for a horfc. 

For led horfcs it is commonlv made of 
linen cloth* bordered round with woollen, 
and eniiched with the arms of the matter up- 
on the middle, which covers the croupe, and 
with two cyphers on the two fides. 

The caparaflbns for the army are fome- 
times a great bear's flcin, and thofe for 
(tables are of finglc buckram in fummer, and 
of cloth in winter. 

CAPELET, a difcafe inhorfes, when the 
tip of the hock is moveable, and more 
fwelled than ordinary ; when it is fmall it 
does no great damage, but if it grow large 
it will be p^unful, and make a horfe lofe his 

When thefc fw-ellings arc obferved in their 
beginnings, they fliould be rubbed with re- 
fol vents and repellents, fuch as vinegar, or a 
mixture of vinegar with fpirit of wine and 

CAPON, a cock chicken gelded as foon 
as left by the dam, that being the beft time, 
if his ttones be come down, or elfe as 
foon as he begins to crow. They arc of two 

The one is to lead chickens, ducklings, 
young turkies, pea-hens, pheafants, and 
partridges, which a capon will do all to- 
gether both naturally and kindly, and by 
means of the largenefs of his body will 
cover and brood thirty or thirty- five of 

Nay he will lead them forth nu)re fafely^ 


and defend them much better againft kites 
and buzzards than the hen. 

Therefore the way to make him like them^ 
is with a fmall fine briar, or clfe fliary nettles 
at night, beat and fting all his breaft and ne- 
ther parts, and then in the dark to put the 
chickens under him, the warmth of which 
will take away the fmart, and induce him to 
be fond of them. 

CAPR IOL£S,are leaps that a horfe makes 
in the fame place without advancing, in 
fuch a manner, that when he is at the height 
of his leap, he yerks out with his hinder 
legs even and near. It is the mofi: difiicult 
of all the high manage. It differs from crou- 
pades in this^ that in a croupade the horfe 
does not (how his flioes ; and from a balo- 
tade in this, that in a balotade he does not 
yerk out. 

Your horfe will never work well at capri* 
oles unlefs you put him between two pillarst 
and teach him to raife firtt his fore quar- 
ters, and then his hind quarters, while his 
fore are yet in the air j for which ends you 
mutt give the aids of (he whip and the 

If you would teach your horic to make ca- 
prioles, and yerk out handfomely with his 
hinder feet, ftay and help with your hand, 
and your heels. 

This leaping horfe takes to caprioles him- 
felf, for he makes equal leaps, and that upon 
the hand, i. e. without forcing the hand, 
and retting heavy upon the bridle. See t$ 

CARACOL, is an oblique pifte or tread 
traced out in a femi-round, changing from 
one hand to another, without obferving a re- 
gular ground. 

When horfes advance to charge in battle, 
they fometimes ride up in caracols, to per- 
plex the enemy, and make them doubtful 
whether they are about to take them in the 
front, or in the flank. 

Caracol is a Spanijb word ; and in that 
language fignifies the motion that a fqua* 
dron of horfes makes, when upon an engage* 
ment, the firtt rank has no fooner fired their 
pittols, but they divide, and open it into two 


C A R 

half ranks,- the one wheeling to the right, 
the other to the lefr^ along the w^ngs of the 
boidyi to the-rear. Every rank obfervcs the 
faoie order of firing j and turning or wheel- 
ing froip the front to the rear, is called a ca- 
racol. * 

To caracol, is to go in the form of half 
rounds* - 

CAREER; this word fignifies both the 
ground that is proper for the manage a.nd 
courle, and race ot a horfe that does not go 
beyond two hundred paces. 

This barb makes a very good career, from 
pacing to (topping. 

This Englijb horfe does not finifh his 
career; that is^ does not finifh his courfe 
with the fame fwtftnefs ; and does not move 
fo (hort and fwift at the middle and end as 
at the beginning. 

This bpantjh horfe is fit for the ringj he 
has a fliort and fwift career, and holds it an 
hundred paces. 

Carp, is generally taken for the queen 
of frelh water fifli ;• being fubtle, and living 
longed of all fiQi (excepting the eel) out of 
it's proper element. 

Carp and loaches are obferved to breed 
fcveral months in one year, which pikes and 
moft other fifli do not, This is partly 
proved by tame and wild rabbits, * as alfo by 
feme ducks, which will lay eggs nine of the 
twelve months i there are ducks that lay not 
longer than about one month. And it is the 
rather to be believed, becaufe you fliall fcarce 
or never take a male carp without a melt or 
a/craalc without a roc or fpawn, and for the 
moft part very much, and efpecially all the 
fummer feafon ; and it is obferved, that 
they breed more naturally in ponds than in 
running waters, if they breed there at all ; 
thofe that live in rivers, are taken to be 
much the better meat. 

And it is obferved, that in fome ponds 
carps will not breed, efpecially in cold pondsi 
but where they will breed, they breed in- 
numerably ; Jriftotle 2ii\ci Plhiy fay, fix times 
in a year, if there- be no pikes nor pearch 
to devour their fpawn, when it is caft upon 
grafs ,. or flags, or weeds, where it lies ten 
or twelve days before it be enlivened. 


The carp, if he hath water room and good . 
feed, will grow to a' very great bigncfs and 

As the increafe of carps is wonderful for 
their number, fo there is not a reafon found 
out, by any, why they (hould breed in fome 
ponds, and not in others of the fame nature 
for foil and all other circumftances : and as 
their breeding, fo are their decays alfo very 
myfterious; I have known fixty or more 
large carps put into feveral ponds near to a 
houfe, where by reafon of the flakes in the 
ponds, and the owners conftantly being near 
to them, it was impofllble they fhoald be 
ftole away, and w.hen hd has after three or 
four years emptied the pond, and cxpefted 
an increafe from 'them by breeding young 
ones, he had, as the rule is, put* in three 
melters for one fpawncr, and found neither 
a young nor oldcarp remaining. 

Janus Dubravius has writ a book of fifh 
and fifti-ponds; in which he fays, that carps 
begin to fpawn at the age of three years, and 
continue to do fo till thirty : he fays alfo, 
that in the time of their breeding, which ig 
in fummer, when the fun hath warmed both 
the earth and the water, and fo apted them' 
alfo for generation, that then three or four 
male carps will follow a female -, and that 
then (lie putting on her feeming coynefi?, 
they force her through weeds and flags, where 
flie lets fall her eggs or fpawn, which fticks 
fall to the weeds, and then they let fall their 
melt upon it, and it becomes in a fhort time 
to be a living fi'fli. It is thought the carp 
does this fcveral months in the year, and 
many believe that moft filh breed after thjs 
manner, except the eel : and it has becii 
obferved, that when the fpawner has weak* 
ened herfelf by doing that natural office, that 
two or three melters have helped her front 
ofi'the weeds by bearing her up on both fidci 
and guarding her into the deep. Ir is thought 
that all carps are not bred by generation; 
but that fome breed other ways, as fome pike 

The phyficians make the galls and ftones 

in the head of carps to be very mcdicinablc j 

btit it is not to be doubted, but that m Italy 

they make great pi'ofit of the fpawn of carps, 

N -by 

C A R 


by felling it to the Jews, who make it into j 
red caviare, the Jews not being by their law 
adnnittcd to eat of caviare naade of the ftur- 
geon^ that being a fifh that wants fcales, and 
as may appear in LevU. xi. by them reputed 
to be unclean. 

Much more might be faid out of him, 
and out of jirijlotle^ which Duhravius often 
quotes in his difcourfe of fifties ; but it m?ght 
rather perplex than fatisfy, 
. The haunts of river carp are, in the winter 
months, the brpadeft and mbft quiet parts 
of the river ; but in fummer theyjie in deep 
boles, nooks and reaches,, near fom'e fcour, 
and under roots of trees, hollow banks, and 
till they are near rotting, amorigfl: or near 
great beds of weeds, flags 6fr. 

Pond carp cannot, with propriety, be faid 
to have any haunts, only it is to be noted 
that they love ^ fat rich foil, and never 
thrive in a cold hungry water. 

They breed three. or four times a year/ but 
their firfl: fpawning-time is the beginning 
of May. 

Baits for the carp, are all forti of earth and 
dunghill worms, rfag-worms, grafhoppers, 
though not at top, ox-brains, the pith of 
an ox*s back-bone, green peas, and red or 
black cherries, with the ftoncs taken out. 

Fiffi with ftrong tackle, very near the bot- 
tom, and with a fine grafs or gut next the 
hook, and ufc a goofe-quiU float. Never 
attempt to angle for the carp in a boat,, for 
they will not come near it. 

It is faid there are many carp in the Thames'^ 
weft ward o( Londotiy and that dhoMt February 
they retire to the creeks in that river ; in 
fome of which many above two feet long 
have been taken with iwi angle. Anglers Jure 
Guide, 179. 

Carp live the longeft out of the water 
of any fifli. It is a common pradice in Hal- 
land, to keep them alive for three weeks or 
a month,, by hanging them in a cool place, 
with wet mofs in a net,, and feeding them 
with bread. and milk« 


Ji ^erfoa. who angles for a carp, muft 


arm himiffeff with abundaricc of piatrence, 
becaufe of his extraordinary fubtilty and 
policy: they always.chuft tolieih the deep- 
en places, either of pdnds or rivers, whei^c 
there is but a fmall ruhhhig fttdam. 

Obferve, that they will fcldom bite inxold 
weather ; and you cannot be cither tob early 
or too. late at the fport in hot weather j arid 
if he bite you need not feir His hold, for he 
is one of thefe leather-nriouthtd fJfli, that 
have their teeth in their thfoat. 

Neither muft you forget, in angling for 
hirii to have a ftrong rod arid linie; and 
fince he is fo very wary, it will be proper to 
entice hirti, by beating the ground with a 
coarfe pafte. 

He feldom reful%s the red worip in Martha 
the caddis in Juney rior the gralhoppersin 
June, April, znd September: 

This fifh does not only delight in worms^ 
but alfo fweet pafte i of which there is grfcac 
variety J the beft is made up of honey and 
fugar, and ought to be thrown intothe water 
fome hours before you begin to angle*, neither 
will fmall pellets thrown into the water two 
or three days before, be the worfc for thi$ 
purpofe, efpecially if chicfken's guts, garbage^ 
or blood mixed with bran and cow-dung be 
alfo thrown in. 

But more particularly, as to a pafte very 
proper for this ufe, you may make it in the 
manner following : take a fufficient quan- 
tity of flour, and mingle it with veal, cot 
fmall, making it up with compound of 
honey, then pound all together in amor- 
tar, ib long, till they are fo tough, as to 
hang upon the hook without wafliing off. 

In order to effcft which the better, mingle 
whitifbwool with it; and if you keep it all 
the year round, add fome virgin's wax, and 
clarified honey. 

Again,, if you filh with gentles, anoint 
them with honey, and put them on your 
hook, with a deepfcarlet dipped in the 
like, which is a good way to^ dec^ve the 

Honey and crumbs of white breadmiyed; 
together,, is alfo a.vcry good paftc^ 

To make carp fat, and very, large : when 
your pond, In April, begins to grow, rcry 




low in iraptei',,Ti^e all the fides of it wiCft 
an iron tike, ^^hofcthe water is fallen away; 
then fpw hay-feeds, and rake it well ; by 
this oieaas, at the latter end of fummer, 
there will be a good growth of grafs j which, 
when winter comes, and the pond begins 
to rife by rain to the top, it will overflow 
all that grafs, and be a feeding- place for 
them, and make th^m exceeding fat. As 
for the way of taking a carp in a muddy 
pond, fee Tench. 

In taking a carp either in pond or river, 
if the angler intends to add profit to his 
pleafure, he muft take a peck of ale-grains, 
and a good quantity of any blood, and mix 
with the grains, baiting the ground with 
it where he intends to angle. 

This food will wonderfully attraft the 
fcale-filh, as carp, tench, roach, dace, and 

Let him angle in a morning plumbing 
his ground, and angling for a carp with a 
ilrong line ; the bait muft be either paftc, 
or a knotted red worm, and by this iheans 
he will have fport though. 

CARRY Low; a horfc is faid to carry 
low, that has naturally a fpft, ill-(haped 
neck ; and lowers his head too much. 

All horfes that arm themfelves, carry 
low 5 but a horfe may carry low without 
arming ; for when he arms himfelf, his neck 
is too fupple, and he wants to evade the 
fubjedion of the bridle : but when he car- 
ries low,, he has his neck ill-placed, and ill- 

To carry well, or in a becoming pofture, 
is faid of a horfe, whofe neck is raifed, or 
arched, who holds his head high, without 
conftraint, firm, and well placed. 

To CARRY, (with Falconers^ is a term 
ufed of a hawk ; who is faid to carry, when 
Ihe flies away with the quarry. 

CARRYING, (with Hunters) a term 
ufed of an hare ; of which when (he runs on 
rotten ground, or in a froft fometimes, and 
it flicks to her feet, the huntfmen fay, (he 

CASTINGS, (in Falconry; a term by 
which isunderftbod any thing that is given 
an havyk^ to cleanfe^ and purge his gorge ; 


CASTING, oit oyERT»ijR0iBfi«0| a Horsi r 

thjc way to do this, is to bring hini upotv 
farht eveh ground, that is fmooth and foft, 
or in the barn, upon foft ftraw ; when take u 
long riJpe, double it, and ^aft a knot a yard 
from the bow ; put the bow about his neck, 
and the double rope betwixt his fore-legs, 
about his hinder pafterns, and under his fet<- 
locks; when you have done this, flip the 
ends of the rope undcrne^ch the bow of his 
neck, and draw them quick^ and they wiH 
overthrow him; then make the ends fafl:, 
a«d hold down his head, under which you 
muft always be fure to hav€ fto; c of ftraw. 

If you would brand, a horiieon the buttock, 
or do any thing about his' hinder legs, that 
he may not ftrike, take up his contrary fore- 
leg ; and when you brand him, take care 
that the iron be red hot, and that the hare 
be both feared away and the fiefli fcorched 
in tvtry place, before you let him go. 

CASTING-NET: there are two forts 
of thefe flfliing-nets, but much alike in uie 
and manner of cafting out, wherein the 
whole fkill of the working confifts.. For the 
fig^^^i f^^ the plates III. and IV. 

When this net is exaftly thrown out, no- 
thing efcapes it, bringing all away within 
it's extent, as well weeds, ft^icks, and fuch 
like trafli; but it is thereby often brokcj 
wherefore you muft be careful in what bot- 
toms you caft it, and how it is caft off, that the 
net may fpread itfelf in it's due dimenfions. 

Draw a loop, S, Plate IV. Fig i. of the 
.main cord, over your left arm, and grafp 
with your left hand, all the net from T to 
V, about three feet from the bottom, where 
the leads haiig, and let the leads juft reft on 
the ground : with your right hand take up 
about a third part, as from D to L, and caft 
it over your left (houlder, like a cloak : then 
take another third part, from A to I in 
your right hand, and let the refidue remain 
hanging down : when you have done this, 
ftand upright, and being at the place where 
you intend to caft it off, incline yourlelf 
firft, a little towards the left hand, that you 
may afterwards fwing yourfclf about to the 
right yrith the greater agility, and then let 
the net launch out into a pond ; but take 

N 2 ' C«iC 


care that the threads, or mclhes of the net 
he not entangled" with your buttons, left 
you be in danger of being drawn in after 

CASTREL,7 a kind of hawk, which 
' KASTREL,i much refembles the lanner 
'in fhape, but as to fizc is like the hobby : 
her game is the growfe, fhe will alfo kill a 
partridge j but yet is a bird of a vtry cow- 
ardly nature, a flow goer aforehead, and 
therefore not much in ufe. 

CAT is a beaft of prey, even the tame 
one i and faid to be of three kinds, i • The 
tame cat. 2. The wild wood cat. 3. The 
'mountain cat. The tame or domcftic cat 
is diverfified with an almoft infinite variety 
of colours and ftreaks ; but the natural co- 
Jour, in a wild ftate,. is a brown tawney, 
variegated with ftreaks of a whitifh colour. 
In France the cats are all of a blueilh lead- 
colour, and in the north o( Europe they arc 
all Over white. 

9 r 

All which are of one nature, pretty much 
of the fame fhape, but differ in fize ; the 
wild cat being much larger than the tarhe, 
and the mountain cat is larger than the wild 

' The tame cit is a creature fubtle and 
Varchful, very familiar and loving to man- 
4cind, and an enemy to rats, mice, 6?r. which 
it. feizes. on as it*is prey.. 
' Thefe animals ufually generate in the 
winter-feafon, making a great yawling or 
crying; go fifty-fix dayi,' or eight weeks, 
with young ; bring forth feveral at a time : 
they cover their ckcrdnenis, and love to 
keep their old habitations. See Pole-Cat. 

CATARACT, is a malady in the eyes of 
an hawk not eafily removed •, arid fomctimes 
incurable, when it is too chick and of a long 

It proceeds from grofs humours in' the 
head, which frequently do not only dim, 
but extinguilh the fight ; md fometimes the 
hood is the caufe of this mifchief. 

The cure is to be cfi^efted, by fcouring 
her two or three days with aloes or agaric : 
then take the powder of wafhed aloes, finely 
beaten, one fcruple, and two fcruples of 
fugar candy ; mingle thefe together, and 


with a quill blow it into the bawk^s ^ffc^led 
eye three or four times a day. 

This is the gentleft, and moft fovereiga 
medicine of any yet known ; but if this 
will not do, you muft ufe ftrohger remedies, 
as the juice of celandine roots, bathing their 
eyes often with warm rofe-water, in which 
the feed of fenu^greek has been boiled. 

CATARACTS are alfo called moon*eyes, 
and lunatic-eyes. About the age of five or 
fix, the fymptoms of a lippitude come on ; 
they continue to come and go while the 
cataraft ripens, which is ufually two years: 
at this time all pain in, and running from 
the eyes abates, and the horfe goes 

Sometimes the cataraft forms itfclf without 
any preceding lippitude ; it is then called a. 
dry cataraft : in this cafe the eye is not fhut 
up with the fwelling, .but it appears cloudy^ 
and the horfe cannot fee very diftinftly. 

Sometimes the eye appears funk, and a$ 
ifit was wafting ; then the cataract is ufually 
a long time in forming, and the other eye, 
for the moft part, continues good, thougli 
in all pther inftances when one eye goes^ 
the other foon follows. 

Catarafts are of different colours ; fome 
arewhitiflii others are of a pearl blue j and- 
fometimes they have a greenifti caft. To 
difcoverthis diforder before it is ripe, lay 
your finger on the eye-lid, and rub it over 
the eye; then immediately look into the 
pupil, and the cataraft will feem' to havfe: 
loft its place. 

The cataraft once formed is never .cured, , 
except depreffingor extrafting it be called a. 
'cure V'biit this operation hath riot yet been 
atteaipted on the eye of any horfe.. This 
difca(e confifis in a thickening or opacity of ^ 
the membrane of the cryftalline humour, by 
which the rays of light are prevented from 
pafiing fo as to anfwer the ends of 

All that feems pofllbly ufeful towards a ; 
cure,is when the lippitude begins to difcover 
itielf, to remove it withalLpoQible. fpeed, , 
and by every preventive ibetUod to guard • 
againftits return; 

^ CATTLEi A coUeftive name import- 


, • • • • 

ing-all qua3ruj)cd3^ ufcd either In tilling the 
ground^ oi- for the food of man. Under 
cattle fomc include all quadrupeds which 
aflbciate, or go in herds, as ftieep, oxen, 
hogs, horfcs;, £s?^. Others define cattle to 
be all'tame, animals which graze : cattle are 
f6metimes divided into great, comprehend- 
ing oxen, bulls, cows, calves, horfes, ^c. 
^nd fmall, including flieep, lanibs, goats, tf^r. 
Black Cattle implies all of the ox kind. 

CAVALCADOUR, is a word ufcd at the 
tourt o{ France^ and among the Families of 
th€. Blood, Signifying the Querry i that is, 
Matter of the Hbrfe, 

Thus we fay, the Querry Cavalcadour of 
the. Queen*s ftablea ; of Monfieur, or the 
Duke of Orleans" (tables. 

In Italyy this word fignifies the perfons 
"who trot Golts with bardelle faddles. See 

\ CAVALIER. One that underftandi 
horfes,* and is. pfadifcd in the art of riding 

CAVEZON^ a fort of nofe-band, . either 
of iron, leather^ or wood, fometimes flat, 
at other times/ hollow or twifted, put on 
the nofis of a 'horfe, to wring it, and fo 
forward. the/f)lippling and breaking of thjC 
horfe. Aa/ifon.cavefon IS a femi-circle oif 
hand of irortj corififtihg of two or three 
pieces jointed by hinges, and mounted with 
ahead ftall, a throat band,- and. two ftraps 
or reins With three rings; one .rein paflcs 
through the middle ring ; wHtn we rtiean to 
make a horfe walk round a pillar, through 
the two fide rings wc.pafs the two reins, 
which the rider holds in his hand, or makes 
fall to the. faddle, in order to keep the 
liorfe's head in fubjeftion^ tPf. . 

CAUriNG-lRON, an iron witH' which 
farriers fearr thofe parts of ^ hgrfe that re- 
quire burning. :. . 
CAWKING-TIME,;- (\vi Falconry) a 
hawk's treading time. 

CHACKv oa beat upon the Hand . a 
horfe is. Ciid to chack, .or 'beat iipcn the 
hand",' when his head is not fteadyy but he 
tofles. up. his. nofe, and Ihakcs ir ail 6f -a 
fiidden, tO' avoid 'the fubjeftion of tHe bri- 
iile* ta. order CO fix and fecure.his head, 


you need only to put under his hofe-ban* 
a fmtll flat band of. iron bended archwifc,' 
which anfwers to a mattmgale. ' 
A CHACE,? is a ftation for wild beafts 
A CHASE,! oftheforeft: from which^ 
it diflfers in this rcfpeftj that it may be in 
the poflciTion of a fubjeft, which aforeft,. 
in it's proper and true nature, cannot; nei- 
ther is ir commonly fo large, nor endowed 
with fo many liberties, at the courts of at- 
tachment, fwain-mote, juftice feat of eyre,. 
6?r. On the other hand^ a chace differs from. 
a park, for that it is of a larger compafs,;. 
having a great variety of game, and more 
overfeers, or keepers. — R)r beafl: of the 
chace and the terms ufed fee the Article 

— y » 

What fort of Chace is mofi proper firft to trat'H' 

a huntifig-iprffi'to: 

Some would have a horfe that is defigned 
either for a buck-hunter or fox-hunter, to 
be ufed at firft, and trained up in that fort 
of exercife ; others are of opinion, that thofe 
chaces are too violent fora^ yo4ng' horf^^ 
and therefore- chufe to" tr'ain hhn^ iiiTtei* 
harriers : which lafl feqms to bt the moft! 
eligible. ' . ' ! 

As' for the flag, buck, and hirid, there SiS 

not. much difFerence in the hiintiiiTg of them i , 

fi> that" the inconvenicnccsfrorh each/ch^pe,^ 

are in a manner thfe fame alfcf : "for ivhich- 

foever you hunt, it. is^either iii coY^^of at! 
force^ I' • .. '• : J 

I . If a deer be hunted in a park, they ufually 
chufe the moft woody parts of it, as a re-f 
fiige^ from the purfuits.; of their enemres ; , 
which is both unpleafant to; thcf riden a^nd 
troublefome to the horfe, to' follow the dogs 
through-, the thick, buflies: 'and beffdesV in 
parks the ground' is. ufually 'full, of mole- 
banks, trenches, fc?rr which is dangerous 
for a young horfe to gallop on^ tili h'ft has 
attained to fome perfection in his-ftrbke. - ; 
• But if they be tufrfed'oiit of the- parlc,^ 
and hunted atfcyrcey y6u will find, 
fpon as. yoUi- have unharboured '"or* roiizecf 
them, . thcywill imnrtedrately make out end •. 
ways before the hounds, five • or fix, nay,- . 

. . fdtnc-^- 



cry;». fp.&viftlyi. that a hoffc ipuft be com- 
pdlcd to ruQ up ajvi down hill jvithout any 
iiHpr.anllEoD, leaping hedge, ditch,, and 
dak i. nay, often crofling rivers to the great 
danger or the rider, as.well as.of the horfe. 
So tn^t it (hould fecm altogether improper to 
pgt.a young horfe to fuch violent labour, at 
the fir(l». till he hath been inured to hard 
fcrvice by. praftic^ and degrees* 

And beudes, the feafon for thefe chaces 
l)eginning about yidfummer, and ending 
at tjolyroodtide^ is a part of thq year in 
ivji;ch the fun's hc;at is exceffive ; that ber 
fides tlie fwiftnefs and violence of this chace« 
and the danger of cracking .his wind, and 
burfting his belly ; (and the Araining of hi^ 
limbs by fuch defperate riding, and cre- 
ating in a young lu^rfe a loa^hfiarnencfs to 
his labour, by undergoing fuqh violent and • 
unufual fervice i) the fun's exceflive heat 
does fo.icorch the carih, that a vipleot chace 
would hazard the melting of his grea(e : and 
the weight of the rider, by rtafon of the 
bardnels of the ground, would oQcafioh foun- 
dering, fplints and windgalls; infomuch, 
that in, a 0iort time the horfe would prove 
altogether ufelefs« 

Horfes employed in this violent exercifc, 
ihould be fuch as have been trainedLto hunt* 
ing by long pradlice and experience. 

Youn^ horfes, (fays the Duke q[ Nezj^^ 
tqftJe) being as fub}^ to.difeaf<;s as young 
^bildrei^ : therefore t^e adyifcis, tha^ any m^ 
that would buy an horie for ufe In his ordin^f:^ 
occafions, as for jour4iics,;h^VTking^ or hunt- 
>>^gi fl)c>uld never buy a horf<^ ti)l the mack 
be out of his mouth ; and if he be found of 
windy limb, and fight, hp will lall eight qr 
nine years, with good Iceeping, and never 
fail you : and therefore, (he adds) 1, am al^ 
W^ys ready to buy for fuph purpofes, an old 
i)4g9 of fome huntfman or falconer, that is 
found, and that is the \}fvful nag : for he gal- 
lops on all gropndS| litaps over hedges and 
ditches i and fuc^ an one will not fail you 
in your journey, or any where, and is the 
ipnly nag of ufe for pleafure or journey. 

The next chace is that of the fox j which 
although it 46 a recreation much in ufe, and 
higjily applauded by the generality of the | 

, iiobility ^nd: gcatf y, ye,t Is gmyjv^X^nt foij 

the trainiQg. of a young hpr/cj Jt. being 
fwjft without refpite, and of a long c'ontinu-' 
ance too ; both which are diftafteful to the' 
hgrfe : but the greateft inconvenience tha^' 
happens to a horfe in this cafe is^ thaC 
when a fox is unkenneljed, he feldom or ne- 
ver betakesihirnfelf toa champagne country, 
but remains in the ft^'ongeft coverts ^nd 
thickefl: woods : fo that a horfe can have but 
Ijtde pleafure in accompanying the hounds, 
witliout running the rifle of beina; ftubbedj 
or fome fuch dangerous accidents. 

The fitteft horfes for this chace, are horfes 
of gteatftrength.aqd ability : this chace be- 
ginning at Cbriftttfas^ which is the wprfc 
time of riding, and ends at t,ady-day^ when 
the ground, is beft for it. 
. The next chace is the ot<er ; lyhich is not 
convenient for a horfe, becaufe he that will 
truly purfue this arpphibious s^nimal, nui({ 
often fwim hi^ horfi;, to the equal hazardj 
both of the rider and the horfe. 

The hare, therefore, is the beft ch^ce 
both for pleafure and delight, 

Ix is indeed fwifjc, and of fprne endurapce, 
Jike that of the fox^ b^t, far more plcaf^nc 
to the horfe, becaufe hares coipmonly run 
the champagne country : and the fcent riot 
being fo hot as- that of the fox, the dogs are 
oftener at default, ^r^d by th^t means the 
horfe has many fobs s by which means he re- 
covers wind, and regains ftrcngth, 

This chace begins at Mich^^cljnas^ ^nd 
Wts till the cn4,o^F<?ir/^<ary. 

The beft cj^gs t;o bring a horfe-to perfect 
tipn of M?ind, and fpeed, are 9.ect norther^ 
hounds J for they, by means of their hard 
running, will draw, him up to that ^xtrapr-* 
dinary fpeed, chat he will not have t^me. to 
loiter J apd by <;ondnu?l praf5ti,gei will be 
inured and habituated to the viplence of 
their fpeed, th^t in a (hort time he will be 
able to ride on all forts of ground, apd bj^ 
at fuch command U{pQn the hand, that he: 
will llrike at what rate you pleafe : an^ threi| 
quarters fpeed will be lefs troubleipmc to 
him than ^ Canterbury gallop. 

This m^ probably bp one of the reafons 
why your northern breeders^ for the gene- 



raKtVt excel thofc of thcfouth; firice cer- 
tainly the fpeed of their hounds contributes 
much to the excellence of their hbrfesj and 
renders them able to endure a four mile 
courfe without fobs i which fortie horfc.mcn 
call runnings 

CHAFFTNCH, a Tinging bird, that takes 
It's name from it's delight in chaff; and by 
fome admired for its fong, though it has not 
much pleafantnefs, or fweetnefs in it. 

They are caught in plenty in flight time; 
but their ntOis are rarely found, though 
they build in hedges and treesof all forts, 
and niake them of mofs and wool, or any 
thing^almofi they can gather up : they have 
young ones twice or thrice a year, which 
are feldom hrtd from their nell, as being a 
bird not apt to take -another bird's fong, nor 
to whiftle ; fo that it is bed to leave the old 
ones to bring them up. 

The Efex finchcrs are generally allowed 
to be the beft fort, both for length of fong 
and variety, they ending with feveral notes 
that are very pretty* 

It is an hardy bird, a^nd will live almofl: 
upon any feeds, none coming amifs to him $ 
and he is felddm fubjeft to any difeafe, as 
the canary-bird and lionet are; but he will 
be ye'ry loufy, if not fprinkled with a little 
wine, two o'r three times a month, 

nerally to meet with ten ftavcs of cocks, 
and to make one of them twenty-one bat- 
tles^ (more or lefs) the odd battle to have 
the maftery. 

CHALLENGING, [hunting-term] is 
ufed of hounds and beagles, when at firft 
finding the fcent of their game, th^y prefently 
open and cry : the huntUnen then fay,, they 

CH ANFRIN, is the fwe part of a horfe's 
head extending from under the ears^ along 
the interval, between the eye-brows^ down 
to his nofe, 

or Blaze. 

CHANGE A House, or change Hand ; 
18 to turn or bear the horfe*s head from one 
hand to the other, from the right to the 
left, and from the left to the right; 

"Xotti &ould never change your horfe. 

C W A 

without pulhing him forward upon the turn;, 
and after the turn, pufli him on flraight, in 
order to a fVop. 

This horfe changes from the right with, 
an ugly grace. See Entire, Nails Walk^ 
and aPASSADE of five tifnes. 

CHANNEL OF a Horse, is the hollow 
between the two bars, or the nether jaw 
bones, in which the tongue is lodged : for 
this purpofe it fhould be large enough, that 
it be hotprefled with the bitt mouth, which 
(hould have a liberty in the middle of it. 

at the 

the tip 

CHAPE, [with hunters" 
end of a fox*s tail ; fo called as the 
itfelfis termed breach, drag, or bru(h. 

CHAPELET, is a couple of ftirrup- 
leathcrs, mounted each of them with a. (^ir- 
rup, and jointed at top in a fort of leather 
buckle, called the head of the chapelet,. by 
which they arc made faft to the po mmelof 
the faddle, after being adjufted to the rider's^ 
length and bare i they are ufed, to avoid 
the trouble of taking up or letting down the 
ftirrups, every time that a gentleman mounts> 
on a different horfe and faddle^ and to fgp* 
ply the want in the academy faddle, whict 
have no ftirrup to them. 

CHAPERON OF A. BiTT-MouTFj, is a- 
word only ufed for fcatch^mouths, and all 
others that are not cannon- mouths, fignify- 
ing the end of the bitt that joins to the- 
branch, jud by the banquet. 

In fcatch-mouths the chaperon is round,, 
but in others it is oval ;. and the fatae part- 
that in feat ched,. and other mouths, is called- 
chaperon, is in cannon^mouths called, fron- 

CHARBONy (L ^* coal,) is an. obfolete 
French word j fignifying that little black 
fpot, or mark, that remains after a large 
fpot, in the cavity of the corner teeth of a« 
horfe, about the feventh or eight. year>. 
when the cavity fills,, and the tooth, bcingf. 
fmooth and equal, is faid to be raifed. 

CHARGE, ia a preparation of an oint- 
ment>, of the confiftence of a thick decoc- 
tion, applied: to the Ihoulders, fplaits,^ in-- 
flammations>« and. fprains o£ horfe&« 

The parts affected are rubbed and chafedi 
with this compolition^: after which you may; 


co\rer them with finking paper, if you 
VrilL ' 

Charges are made two ways, viz. either 
withemmiellures, i. e. a mixture of honey, 
turpeatine fuet, and other drugs ; or ^ith 
yemdladc, Whidh is a mixture erf the lees of 
wine with the drugs of emmiellure. 

Farriers confound the names of charge 
cmmiellurcs and remolade, and indifferently 
;ufc one for the other. 

CHASTISiEMENTS, or corrections j 
nre thefe fevere and rigorous efFcds of the 
aids ; for when the aids are given with fe- 
verity, they become punilhments. 

CHAUSSE Trop-haut j' a white foot- 
ed horfe is faid to be fuch, when the white 
makes run too high upon the legs. 

CHECK, [in Falconry | a term ufed of 
a hawk when (he forfakcs her proper g^me, 
to, fly at pyes, crows, rooks, or the like, 
crofling her in her flight. 

CHEST-TRAPS, a kind of boxes or 
traps, ufed to take pole-cats, fitchets, mar- 
tens, and the like vermin, that are inju- 
rious to warrens, dove houfes, or hen rooiVs : 
the firft of them being with a fingle, arid 
the other with a double entrance, are repre- 
fented thus : Now for the making and ufing 
them, take three pieces of oak or elm-board, 
of an equal bignefs, like to that which is in 
Plate IV. Fig. 2. with A, B, C, D : let 
them be four feet long, on-e over, and about 
an inch thick } which nail together juft like 
a coffin, and clofe up one end with a piece 
of the board, which muft be nailed faft on, 
as A C E.F i likcwife nail over three main 
boards, another piece, as A, Fi G, H, 
which. much be as large as any of the reft, 
tut.riot /o long by tw'O parts in three : and 
for the reft of the covering, ydu muft have 
another piece of the fame board : on the 
other fide of the boards make a little hole 
witK a'gimbkt, at the places marked G, H, 
where faften two lUil^, that may be driven 
into the board that lies on the top, fo as to 
Tcrve foi^ fockets, or as the axle of a coach : 
To that the board may cafily be lifted up and 
let down : and at the other end I K, nail 
Another jiece of timber, juft equal to that 
^marked A, F, G, H; which muft only be 


fattened to the upper, boards in fuch manaery 
that being let down^ the whole may fcem to 
be a cheft . cloCe 'ftiut ; then get" two pieces 
of wood, as L, M, P, O, t^d feet IbngJ 
and ohe inch and a half thick, and pierced 
at the eiid i-r, M, \«rith a hole big enougR 
to . turn, ones little finger in ; nail thefe on 
the two fide boards, about the middle of 
them, juft oppofite to each other, with ^ 
piece of wood an inch fquarc, (haped at 
both ends like an axletree, which put eafily 
into the two holes L, M ; at the middte of 
the faid' axletree, frame a mortice or H61e 
to fatten and tie a ftick O, N, which may 
fall down upon the moving plank, when 
it is let down ,• and this is intended to 
prevent any besift from lifting up the cover 
when Once it is down. 

Before you nail all the * boards together, 
make a hole in that plank marked A,B C D, 
at the place marked U, X ; which hole 
fhould be two inches long, and half an inch 
over, juft oppofire thereto, and in the other 
plank bore a little hole with a gimblet as at 
R. that you. may put. in a fmall cord^ at 
the erfd whereof you tie your tricker Rj n, 
S,N,T, made of a ftick as big as one's little 
finger, which though fattened at the end 
R, may however have liberty enough -to 
move up and down, and muft pafs through 
the hole {J, about two in'ches'*0ut," with a 
notch or two at T ; about' the end of it tic 
yoor bait on this tricker within the cheft trap, 
which ought to be appropriated to the nature 
of the beaft, or vermin, you intend to take. 

For the fetting.this trap, you. muft have a 
ftrong cord upon the moving planj<', near 
the middle of it marked Y j towards the 
end at the* other end the faid cord, tie a 
fmall ftick marked^U, an inch and half long, 
and half as big as ones .finger, formed at one 
end.iikea wedge, fo the trap being lifted 
-half.a foot as you fee it rcprefented in the 
figure, and the cord' which paflcth over the 
axletree, Z, O, the little ftick may have pne 
end in the notch T ofyour tricker, and the 
other, end in the hole Xv.,and then is your 
trap or engine fet right as it Ihould be : if 
your tricker be a quarter of an inch clear 
from the bottom when any vermin is-once 


kij and gives but one touch to the bait^ 
which is on the trickcr that gives way, 
down falls the moving plank with the door 

fall (hut. 

The other trap with the double entrance 
is nnuch the bcft, becaufc the vermin you 
intend to take may fee through it to behold 
the prey, and come in at which fide they 
plea^3 and therefore will fooner venture. 

It is made much after the fame manner. 
with the former, having two turning planks, 
and the tricker ought to be in the middle at 
Z : fo jhere needs no farther dircdlions to be 
given about it. . See Plate IV, Fig. 2. 

CHEVALER : (a French word) ahorfe is 
faid to chevaler, when in paflfaging upon a 
walk or a trot his far fore leg croflcs or over- 
laps the other fore leg eycry fecond motion. 
See To Passags. 

CHEVIN ? A frelh water fi(h, hav- 

CHUB-FISH X ing a great head. 

CHEVIN-FISHING, this fifh fpawns in 
Marcby is very ftrong, though unaftive, 
yielding in a very little time after he is ftruck, 
and the larger he is the more quietly he is 

As for his food, he loves all forts of 
worms and flies, alfo cheefe, grain, black 
worms, their bellies being flit that white 
may appear. He affefbs a large bait, and 
variety of them at one hook ; but more par- 
ticularly he delights in the pith that grows 
in the bone of an ox's backs but you niuft 
take care to keep off the tough outward Ikin, 
without breaking the inward tender one. 

This fifti is to be angled for early in the 
morniifg with fnails; but in the heat of the 
day, make ufe of fome other, bait, and in 
the afternoon fifli for him at ground or fly i 
of the lafl: of which there is none. he covets 
more than a great moth with a large head, 
whofe body is yellow* with whitilh wings, 
which is commonly found in gardens about 
the evening. 

CHEWING BALLS FOR Horses: thefe 
balls are ufcd for reftoring lofl: appetite, an 
infirmity to which horfes are very incident, 
proceeding from a fait humour, and bit- 
ter phlegm, which obftiudts the paflage of 
the throat, and makes them loath their food • 


The compofition of thefe balls is as fol- 
lows : 

Take a pound of aflTa-foedita, as much li- 
ver of antimony, and half a pound of the 
wood of a bay-tree, an equal quantity of ju- 
niper wood, and two ounces of pellitory of 

Pound all the ingredients apart to a grofs 
powder, in order to which the woods mufl; 
be firfl: very well dried, then put them all 
together in a mortar, and incorporate them 
with a large quantity of good grape verjuice 
well clarified, pourjng it in by degrees, till 
they are reduced to a mafs, of which make 
balls of an ounce and an half, and dry them 
in the fun : wrap one of thefe balls in a li- 
nen clout, and tying a thread thereto make 
the horfe chew it for two hours in the morn- 
ing; and he will eat as foon as you unbridle 
him : do the fame at night, and continue 
this m^hod till the horfe recovers his appe- 

When one ball is confumed put in ano- 

Thefe balls may be ufed on the road, as. 
you travel, being tied to the bridle ; balls of 
Venice treacle may be ufcd in the fame manner 
with good fuccefs. 

C H O L I C, OR Gripes in ' Horses. 
Among all the diftempers incident to a 
horfe, none perhaps is fo little undcrftood by 
the common farriers, as this •, and for want 
of neceflfary knowledge, they give the fame 
medicines in all cafes ; but as this diforder 
may proceed from different caufes, the me- 
thod, of cure muft alfo vary : as othcrwife 
the medicine intended to cure the diforder 
may augment it, and render it fatal. The 
three fpecies into which we (hall divide this 
diforder are, 

1. The flatulent or windy. 

2. The bilous or inflammatory, and 

3. The dry gripes. ■ 

The horfe troubled with a flatulent or ^ 
windy cholic, is very reftlefs, often lying - 
down, and as Ujddenly rifing again with a 
fpring ; ftrikcs his belly with his hinder feet, 
ftamps with his fore feet, and refufes his 
meat. When the gripes are violent he will 
have convulDvc twltchcs^ his eyes turned 


C H O 

up, and his limbs ftrctched out as if dying, 
and his ears and feet alternately hot and cold : ' 
he falls into profufe fwcats, ^nd then into 
cold damps : ftrives often to dale, and turns 
his head frequently to his flanks ; he then 
falls down, rolls abou^t, and often turns on 
his back : this laft fymptom proceeds from a 
ftoppage of urine, which generally 'attends 
this fpccies of cholic, and may be in'creafcd 
by a load of dung prcHing on the neck of 
the bladder. 

The windy cholic often proceeds from 
drinking cold water when hot, to relieve 
which, empty the ftrait gut with a fmall 
hand dipt rn oil, which frequently gives room 
for the wind, before confined in the bowels, 
to difcharge itfelf ; and by taking off the 
weight that prefled upon the neck of the 
bladder, the fiippreflion of urine is taken off, 
upon which the horfe immediately (tales and 
becomes much cafier. Or, 

Immediately give one of the balls prc- 
fcri bed hereafter for the ftranguary: that 
done, empty the redum as direfted under 
the Article Glystbr. 

Where the urine is fuppreflcd by a load on 
the reftum, diuretics are neceflarily hurtful. 
Before that impediment is removed, as foon 
as the reftum is emptied, rub'the fundament, 
and a little way in the 'reftum, with foft 
foap : thus you will farther affift the difcharge 
of urine. 

Bleeding is advifable, at leafl: when the 
horfe is ftrong; but always open the neck- 
vein, and omit the ufelefs and cruel cuftoin 
of cutting acrofs the bars in the mouth. 
^ While the above is performing, a carmi- 
native glyfter mav be prepared, or a glyftcr 
may be given of the fame of burning tobac- 
co, with which the bag may be filled from the 
fhank of a pipe, the head being held in the 
mouth of him who blows the fmoak. As 
foon as. the bag is fall, tie it, atid proceed as 
with any other fort of gly fter. ' Or, 

You may give the following ball and 
glyflrers, which feldom fail of givine; re- 
lief: ' 

; Take of Strafburgh turpentine and juni- 
per berries, pbunded, of ^ich an duncfe ; of 
fait pr^irtclla, or fait-petre, atn ounCe 5 oil of 

C H O 

junipfer, one iram ; fait of tartar; two drarhf ; • 
make the whole into a balT With a fyrnp 6f ' 
fugar. It may be 'given -whole, and wafhed 
down with a decoftion of juniper berries, or 
a horn of ale. 

If the horfe, foon ^ter 'taking this bafll, 
does find no relief ^ it will be ncceffary, trt* 
an hour or two, to give him anorheri>aH, 
with the addition of a dram of fak of amber,' 
which may be repeated a third time/if found 
neceflary. During the fit, the horfe may be' 
walked and trotted gently, but fhould by no 
means be jaded: tetween the taking of the 
two balls, the following may be given f 
Take of camorli'rle Bowers, two handsfuj,. 
anife, coriander, and fennel feeds, dfeich an- 
ounce; boil them in three quarts of water 
to two J and zddDtiffy*^ elixir, or gin, half a: 
pint ; oil of amber, half an tnmce, and orl 
of camo.uile, eight ounces. Or, 

Take two handsful of catnomtle flowers, 
two ounces of anifteds, half an ounce of long 
pepper ; boil them a few minutes in five- 
pints of water •, then pour offth'eliquor, and 
add to it a quarter of a pint of^olivc ml, and- 
one ounce of common fait. 

When the gripes are occafioncd by drink- 
ing cold water when lidt, the'fdllowtng wiHf 
generally remove the itomp\Mnti 'Take oT 
the powder of anife, cummin • and fennel- 
feeds, of each half an ounce; of camphirc^ 
two drams ; of pellitory of Spain, .one 
dram ; oil of juniper, fifty drops : make 
the whole into a ball with fyrup'of fugar, 
and wafti it down with a horn or two of 
ale. ' 

If thefe Ingrediertts (hould not be at hanS, 

ive the following drink i Take of caftile or* 

ard foap, and of'falt-petre,. each one ounce ; 
or juniper berries and ginger, of each ha?f 
an ounce: boll the whole* in a pint aixd an 
half of ale, adding a large onion; (Vri^iri 
the liquor from the ingredients, and give it 
the horfe. You may repeat the dofe, if the 
firft thould not anfwer the intention. ^ 

When the horfe begins to recover, he will 
lie quiet, without darting or tumbling; and 
if he continues in this quiet ftatc an hoiir, 
you may conclude that the whole danger is 



ever, . Care ihould alfo be taken that the 
horfe be well rubbed, clo^thed, and littered 
with clean ftraw up to his belly. 

The fymptoms of a bilious or inflamma- 
tory cholic, are a fever, great heat, panting 
and drynefs of the mouth ; lie alfo generally 
throws out a little l.oofe dung, with a hot 
ifcalding water, which, when it appears black- 
ifli, or of a reddifli dolour, indicates an ap- 
proaching mortification : to' remove which, 
t^ke of fenna, three- ounces; of fait of 
tartar, half an ounce: infufe the whole in 
a cfuart of 'boiling wafer, for an hour; 
then ftrain it off^ and add, two ounces of le- 
niti^ eleduary, and four ounces of Glauber'^ 

If the diforder is not removed, but the fe- 
Ver and inflanimation continue to increafe, 
attended with a difcharge of .flefh-coloured 
vater, the event will be fatal ; and the only 
medicind that bids fair to prevent it is, a 
ftrong decoftion of Jefuit's bark, given to 
the quantity of a pint every three hours^ mix- 
ed with a gill of red port wine. 

A quart of the fame decoAi on, with two 
ounces of Venice turpentine, diflblved in the 
Iplksof two eggs-» an ounce of diafcordiuniy 
a,nd'a pint **of i*ed wine, niay be gfven twice 
4. day, by ^fray bf glyfter. But it will be rie^ 
ecflary, if^-the horfe recovers, to give him 
itftcrwards two or three mild purges of rhu- 

The fymptoms of the dry gripes are 
known by the horfe's frequent and fruitlefs 
attempts to' dung, the blacknefs and hard- 
liefs of the dung, the frequent and quick 
ftiotion of the tafc, the high colour of his 
urine, and his great reftleflhels and uneafi- 
hefs, which nriuft be removed by the following, 
method: the ftrait gut Ihould bc.Jmmedi- 
ately examined and erapded, with a' fmalf 
hand dipped ih oil, and the following glyf- 
ter injefted twice a day :. Take of marfli- 
liiallows and camomile- flowers, of each a 
large handful : pf bay7berrics and fwect fen- 
nel feeds bruifed, of each one ounce; boil 
the whole in a gallon of water to three 
quarts; pour ofi' the clear liquor into a 
pan, and add a patt of linfced, or any com* 
;mon oij. * 


The purging drink made of fena, &fc. 
defcribed above, ftiould be given till the 
fymptoms are removed, and his bowels un- 
loaded. During the continuance of this dif- 
order the horfe' Ihould have no other food 
than fcalded bran, and warm water gruel, or 
white water, made by diflblving four ounces 
of gum arabic in a quart of warm water, and 
mixing it with his other water. 

Befides plenty of gum arabic water for his 
drink, give him, every two or three hours, a 
pint of the following purging-drink, until 
feveral loblc ftools arc procuried. 

Gum Arabic, Water, ; called alfo White-rjuater. 

• • • • * 

Djflfclve four ounces of gum arabic in a 
quart of water, and mix it with the water 
which the horfe drinketh, in fuch proportion^ 
as may fecm to b? pcceflary. 

A Purging Brink. 

Take of fena three, Glauber's fait 
four ounces i infufe the fena in three pints of 
boiling water, for half an hour; then to the 
flrained liquor add the Glauber's falts. 

If the fymptoms do not give way very fopn,, 
but rather increafe, the cafe becomes defpe- 
rate ; and if the hot, ill-colouredy ftialcing 
water appears, a mortification is begun, and 
death is at hand. In this cafe give a pint of 
a ftrong decoftion of th&.bark ; with a quar- 
ter of a pint of red wine, every three. qK four 
hours; and every high t and- m<)rjriing give 
the following: glyfter. . ' 

Diflfolve two ounces 6£ Venice turpentine 
in the yolks of two eggs ;. then gradually 
mix with It' a* quart of a ftrong inrufion of 
the bark in water» and a piqt of r^jd xvi^e* 
Give this for one glyfter. 

To. fome horfes of little value,, the fpuow- 
ing hath been ufeful : 

Diapente one ounce, diafcordium, half an 
ounce, myrrh two dpams, oil of amber two 
drams, make a. ball, and repeat it three times 
a^day. • ' . ^, • ' / 

The fgafmodic. cbblic, or dry gripes, is 
Oa ' known 



known by the horfd*s frequent motion to 
dung, but without cffeft j and the hard- 
nefs of what little he can difcharge ; the 
almoft conllant and quick motion of his 
tail ; the high colour of his urine, and 
his great rcftleflhcfs. When he is very 
ill, he frequently lays down, rolls about, and 
gets up again in a hurry. He haih fcveral 
other fymptomsthat attend the flatulent co- 
Jic, fuch as convulfive twitches, turning up 
his eyes, and (Iretching out his limbs : and 
yet his motions fcem rather more fluggifh in 

Its moft frequent caufe is coftivenefs : the 
dung hardening and obftruAing the bowels, 
it becomes acrid, and irritates tbem too; its 
vifcidity detains the wind, whence the belly 
is dillended j and by the quantity of the re- 
retained excrement, prefling againft the 
neck of the bladder, the urine is detained, 
and a fwelling is often occafioned about the 
fundament; and along *the (heath. 

From this account of the difeafe, it i^ evi- 
dently neccflary to empty the re&um, by 
raking it with a fmalt hand *, and immediately 
after that, an emollient oily glyfter muft be 
thrown up, and repeated night and morning ; 
and the above purging drink given as there 
direfted, until the bowels arc freed from 
their troublefome contents. 

In all thefe forts of colic, the diet (hould 
be fcaWcd bran, the white- water, and water- 
gruel. When the fymptonns abate, and the 
horfe can eat a little hay, the bed Ihould be 
picked out for him. 

As he can bear it, he (hould be carefully 
but well rubbed, cloathing (hould not be 
(pared, and the litter (hould be in great 

• If the horfe hath freedom from the vio- 
lence of his fymptoms one hour, the dan- 
ger may be fuppofed to be at an end : but 
during the (it he (hould be attended by one 
perfon, at lead, and that conftantly, to pre^ 
vent him injuring himfelf : this holds good 
in all the fpccies of this difeafe. 

. It is common to give hot medicines in all 
colic complaints J but they are only proper 
in the flatulent fort; and even there great 
caution is nece(rary in ufing them ; for^ be- 

C H O 

fide the danger of rarefying the wind too 
much, they increafe . the difagreeable fymp- 
toms, by their ftimulus on the neck of the 
bladder; and; in fomc cafes, by rarefying 
the blood, and difpofing the bowels to in- 

In common cafes, to remove the gripes 
and pains in the bowels, caufed by drinking 
cold water when hot; or from taking cold 
after hard exercife, a cordial-ball may bt 
given with a dram of camphire, and forty 
drops of the oil of juniper well mixed to- 
gether. Or, 

Take yenice treacle two ounces, foap-pill 
two drams, camphire half a dram, fmall beer 
two pints ; mix them together for one dofc, 
and keep the horfe warm for forty-eight 

The reader, from the account we have 
given of the difl^^rent (pecies of the colic, 
will be abundantly convinced how nece(rary 
it is to be acquainted with each, that he 
rnay be enabled to adapt proper medicines^ 
and relieve the creature from excruciating 

CHOPS 1 are maladies mthe palate of ^ 

CLEFTS t horfe'^s mouth, caufed cither 

RIFTS 5 by eating coarfe ^nd roi^K 
hay, full of thifttes and other prickly ftuff^ 
or by foul provender full ot (harp feedsi 
which by frequent pricking the bars of his 
mouth, caufes them to wrii>kle and breed 
corrupt blood, which may turn to a canker z, 
which if it (hould come to that, it is to be 
cured as a canker ; but to prevent it, wa(h 
his mouth with vinegar and fait, and anoint 
it with honey. 

And for the rempving of thefe di(l:cmpers 
pull out his tongue, (lice it with an in- 
cifion knife, and thrult out the kernels, or 
corruption, then wa(h the parts as before dl- 

But to prevent their coming at all, the be(t 
way is to wafh his mouth or tongue often 
with wine, beer, or ale,, and fo blifters will 
not breed in it, or any other dileafe. 

CHOPS ? do alfo often happen in a 

CRACKS 5 horfe's legs on the bought ot 
the pafterDi accompanied with pain^ and a 


C H U 

t • • - 

very noiibme ftcnch, wh'^ch is fomecimes 
taufed by a (harp malignant humour that 
frets the Ikin. 

The cure may be eflFedked by firft (having 
away the hair from the complaint, in order 
to keep it clean> and applying the white ho- 
ney charge, or coachman's ointment, which 
will fpeedily heal the chops, if the application 
be con ftantly renewed. . 

CHUB FISHING. This fi(h is full of 
fmall forked bones, difperfed every where 
through his body ; eats very waterifli, and 
being not firm, is in a nianner taftelefs : it is 
the beft of any to entertain a young angler, 
as being eafily taken : in order to which you 
inuft look out for fome hole, where you fhall 
have twenty or more of them together in a 
hot day^ floating almoft on the furface of the 

Let your rod be ftrong and long, your 
line not above a yard long and very ftrong, 
baited with a grafshopper, which bob up and 
dowh on the top of the water, and if there 
beany chubs they will rife, 
. But you muft place yourfelf fo as not to be 
ieen, for the chub is a timorous fifh, and the 
Iea(tfliadow wiU make him fink to the bot- 
tom; though he will rife again fuddenly^ and 
this is called bobbing. 

When your hook is baited, drop it gently 
about two feet bctbre the chub you have 
pitched upon by your eye to be the beft and 
faireft, and he will inftantly bite greedily at 
ky and be held faft, for he is a leather 
ihouthed fifti, fo that hecari Seldom break his 
Hold i and therefore it will be beft to give 
hftn play enough and tire him; or other- 
wife you may endanger your line. 
• If you cannot get agrafthoppcr, you muft 
bait your hook with any kind of fly or worm, 
and if you will fiih with a fly, grafshopper, 
or beetle, it muft be at the top ot the 
water : ^ut if with other baits underneath 

In March and April you Ibould angle for 
the chub with worms ; in June\ and Ju ly 
with flies, fnails and cherries : but in J%y- 
ffifi and September, ufe a pafte made with 
FarmefaA or Holland cheeie^ pounded in a 

C H U 

mortar with faflPron ; adding to it a little 

Some ufe a pafte made of cheefe and tur- 
pentine for the winter feafon, at which time 
the chub is in his prime : for then his forked 
bones are either loft or turned into griftles ; 
and his fle(h is excellent meat baked ; his 
fpawn is admirable, and if he be large, the 
throat when the head is well waftied is the 
beft part of the filh. 

Howeyer in hot weather you muft angle 
for this fifli in the middle of the water, or 
near the top of it ; but in cold weather near 
the bottom. 

'CHUSING or Docs : in order to chufe a 
dog and a bitch for good whelps, take care 
that the bitch come of a generous kind,, be 
well proportioned, having large ribs and 
flanks; and likewife that the dog be of a 
good breed and young ; for a young dog and 
an old bitch breed excellent whelps. 

The beft time for hounds, nitchfes, ot 
bratchets to be lined in, are the months of 
January i February and March. \, 

The bitch fliould be ufed to a kennel, that 
(he may like it after her whelping, and ftic 
ought to be kept warm. 

Let the whelps- be weaned after two 
months old -, and thou'gh it be fome difficulty 
to chufe a whelp under the dam, that wilt 
prove the beft of the litter, yet fome approve 
that which is laftj and account him to be the 

Others remove the whelps from the ken- 
nel, and lay them feveraland apart one from 
the other ; then they watch which of them 
the bitch firft rakes and carries into her k^n^ 
nel again, aiid that they fuppofe to be the 

Others again imagine that which weigha 
leaft when it fucks to be the beft : this is 
certain that the lighter whelp will prove thd 

As foon as the bitch has Uttered, it ispro- 
per to chufe them you intend to preferve, and 
drown the reftf keep the Wack, brown^^op 
of one colour ;. for the ipotted are not much 
to be efteemed, though of hounds the fpotted 
are to be valued. 

Hounds for chace are to be chofen by their 

coLoiurs : 


•coloutis : tkc white with black ears, apd a 
black fpoc at the fetting on of the t^l, are 
the mod principal to compofe a kennel of, 
and of good fcent and condition. 

The black hound, or the black tanned, 
or the alUIiver coloured, or all \vhite : the 
true talbots are the befl for the llronger line : 
the grizzled, whether mixed or unmixed, fo 
they be fliag-haircd, are the bed verminera, 
and a couple of thefe are proper for a ken* 

In fhort, take thefe marks of a good 
hound 2 that his head be of a middle propor- 
tion, rather long than round ; his noftril^ 
wide, his ears largCj his back bowed, his fil- 
let great, haunches large, thighs welLtrufTed, 
hams (Irait, tail big near the reins, the reft 
flendcr -, the leg big, the fole of the foot dry* 
and in the form of that of a fox, with large 

CINQUE PORT, a fquare net refembljog 
a cage, taking it*s naple fronp the five jen- 
trances into it: if, is,of excellent^ufe for any 
pond or river,, fwift or ftanding water, for 
catching of fi(b, and the w-ay to fet it is re- 
prefcnted in the figure. 

To make ufe of. thi-& net, provide four 
ftrair^ (trong polejs, afifwerable in length to 
the depjh of the water; ftiarpcn the great 
ends like (lakes,, and notch them within a 
foot of the ends, to fallen the four corners 
of thp n^t, asEFGHj make the little 
notches on the fame poles ar a convenient 
diflaTice, for the faftening^tht^ four upper cor- 
iiers in the fanae manner^ as A B C JD^ (S^^ 
Plate lY. Fig^ 3, . . -^ ^ 

Th« bottom, of the net is fqur , fqpar^ 
without any entrance; in order to place this 
with the greater conveniency, get a boat to 
put the net icv the water^ for the poles mult 
be driven fall into the^round^ and at fuch a 
proper diftancc, that the net may be ftrctched 
out ftifi^, each pole anfwering to his fellow 
in an exad diret^' line i and this may fuiiice 
». any. .(landing watery but if. it be in a 
fwift ftrcam, the motion of the water will al- 
ytiys move the nee, and fo frighten away the 

Now in order to prevent this inconveni- 
f^ftctj fafteii f<>mevftrong. fti^cks at the very 

C L A 

top of the four poles, to ftraiten and (bengith^ 
en pne another, and .to keep all tight ; as 
for example, obferve, the farhe pointed and 
marked with little ^, . ^, f, ^ . and you will 
cafily comprehend it \ but theo if y.ou faftea 
two others crofsways from A, a, .unto great 
D and little d^ and 'from C, Cy to great B, 
and little. . f .V iou need not fear it> for the 
water can have no power over it.* Ste PlatQ 
IV Fig,;3. : " ^Z 

. CLAP £iq Falconry] the nether pgrtof a 
hawk's beak. 

C L A P ,- N E T, AND Looking-class, 
otherwiCe called doringor daring, U a devigi^ 
to catch larks with ; for whic|i end you are to 
provide four (licks, very (Iraight and light, 
about the bignefs of a pike, twQ<of.whK^ 
fhould be four feet nine inches long, and 
fhould all be notched at the ends, as in, the 
figure of thefe (licks marked with the little 
a and t \ at the end 6, faden on qxic fide m 
(lick of about a foot long, of the fame bign 
n^fs with the other four (licks, and on .the 
other fide a fmall peg of wood, marked A^ 
three inches long; then get four (licks more, 
each a foot long, as the letter /, each mufl: 
have a cord nine feet lot^g, fa(lened at the 
bigger end thereofi: as e^/i every one of them 
(hould have a buckle at the end ^, for the 
commodious fafteoing of them to t^hc reip/ec- 
tive (licks, when you go about to ifpread youc 
net, which is plainly reprefented ^n J^^atel^V^ 

fig- 5.- . 

You are alfo to provide a cord, 4, ^, i, ^ 

which OKifi have two branches, «, k^. xfjAt i)€ 

them i$ to be. nine feet and .a h^lffloRg^[Chf| 

other ten, with a.bucklcr ar each^ead> ^thq 

reft of the cord^ from h to g^ muft. be t)C-* 

tween twenty-two and twenty-fojar -yards 

long; and all thefe cords, as wpll the Jong; 

ones, as thole with the fticks, (hould :be 

rong twideu, about the bignefs^ of one'^ 

little finger. The next; thing, to be pfo-^ 

vided is a (lafF, w, /;, about four feet long^ 

painted at the end Mfj^and. ^ ^the,fn(i;», 

fatten a lirtlc ball of wood, for tiiQ convex 

nierit carrying of thefe many ne;Cc(raric;s,,» int- 

fooie facks or wallet 5 you muit alfq ha^vf^ a^ 

fmall iron fpade to level the ^roui^d^ ^^IQ^ 

fee occafionj 'and two fmall rods, like that 


ra^ffecMl/ 1p'^ %'^) cBidi eighlieen* indies 
long, .havings a great tmdf Li'^ancl :thereto tf 
fmall ^k iRT^ed) as jf), "wif h af)Ql2lcchi>ead n^ar 
tile ^nti (^ th% faid rod i^md abiAii jetcet* w; 
being 4)tar nin« inciicsfrom it, tic jviatfaer 
packthpead -with two c-nd«, eatrh -haoging 
clear •a foo% Icyng^ at each end- tie a'ticde* 
pecked ftitk> as^, r, •ztrA at the finallerend* 
ctft1»e faid rod, tfie a Jpacktbread -with four 
dout^k^, i^i<rh nntfft form two loops, as ^; 
-which tie to the legs of fome larks : yiou muft 
haveadib ttMo frnall reels, asF^G, by the help 
ivheredfyou rnay make the larks tiy^ as there 
is otcafion : the next thing ^osi are ;tb pee-' 
pare, is a looking^glafs : for which/^^ Lark' 

Whe« n VB thus fixed, put aifmall Jrnc in- 
to the ♦*i>ley, and your giafs is finiifhed ; you 
muft ^! ace it between th* two nets, neafr the 
jmddle of them, at the letter/, and carry the 
line to the 1)edge, fo that pulling the line 
ye^tmy make the looking-glafs play in and 
out as children do a whirligig, made of an 
zpp)>t and a nut. -Always keep it turning, 
that the twinfkling of the glafs againft the 
fim, may |)rdv6ke the larks to come to view 
it. ^ ' 

When yd^ intend to pitch your nets, be 
fore to have the wind either in front or be- 
hind them, left- if it be in either fide, it 
kinders their {Slaving: chufe fome open 
place, and let it -be remote from trees or 
hedges, at leaft an hnndred paces $ then the 
ground being clear from a)l ftones and rub- 
bilh, fpread the net after the > manner ex- 
preffed in the figui^, viz. the-l<^geft fticks 
faftehcd to that part ©f th^ net which is 
largeft r as for example, in the figure, that 
en your right hand is* bigger than the other. 
You naaft drive the peg e, into the ground, 
and pafs the -end a, of the ftick, into the 
buckle of OBe< of the cords of the net ; and 
the peg d, into the othcf loop of cChe fame 
end J alfo do the fame to the other ftick, at 
the end /, but before you drive your peg 
into the ground, ftrain the cord c, /, as 
much as you can -, then take two of the 
ftiblcs, fLsf^ft whereof one has a cord nine 
feet and a half long, and the other half a 
foot lefs > jput the knot ^/'of the ftrongcft 

C L A 

cofd about the end of the fkrther * ftick'; 
and. retiring, drive your peg /,• .into the 
grouady jutt oppoGte to the two little pegs 
r, /; that done, coming to the other endy 
jStfrfs your flicks, into one of tlie ftiorter 
cords, and' io drive your pegs jufl: with the 
others, in a dineft line, as c, /, /, that your 
cord a, e, cf the net, may be thoroughly 
ftraiiied. Being thus direftcd to fet one net, 
you cannot well fail to fet theothtr; only 
ohfervefo to place them, that when they arc 
drawn, one may clap about half a foot over 
thee other. 

The next thing to be done is, to take the 
grand cord, wcich is to make your net play : 
place the large branch ^, about the end of 
the ftick ^, and the other branch k, about 
the ftick k ; then tie the knot Zr, fo that it 
may reft in the middle, and carry the end to 
your lodge ; ftrain it a little, and faften it 
with a peg A, and about JB, make fome kind 
of hold-faft, for the better ftraining it, and 
that it may not flip again through your 
hands ; juft even with the faid holdfaft, make 
two holes D, E, in the ground,- to thruft 
againft with your heels : as for your lodge it 
jnuft be made with bou^ghs, in fuch a mari-f 
ner that you may have a. full and ciear view 
on your nets before j and the fame flionld be 
covered over head, and not very rhigh, that 
you may have a profpeft of all birds coming 
and going. ' * 

The laft thing upon this occafion, iis the 
placing your calls, (foF fo are the live larks 
termed here) and the figures dirtfft you ia 
what place to fet them : fet ^rouj* little flick 
py in the firft place, and let the .upper part 
be about fix inches out of the ground 4 then 
place the two others q\ r, on the right, and 
the other on the left, juft at w, of the rod, 
where the cord of the faid pegs is fixt; thA 
done, tie the end of one of the packthreads 
of one of the reels, about three or .four 
inches from m, near the place marked ,;/, and 
carry your reel to the letter F; the like! you 
muft do with the other rod, tied at theendie?, 
and at equal diftances tie the call larks tby 
the fccty fo that when you fee any birds near 
you, it is but twitching yourxords, and you 
force the larks to mount a little, that thereby 


C O A 

the others may take not!rc of them: and 
when they are within yoiir didance, pull 
your main cord and your net flies up> and 
claps over them. 

CLAMPONNIFR. or Claponmier ; an 
obfolete word, figtiifying a long jointed 
horfe^ that is, one whofe pafterns are long* 
flender, and over pliant. 

The word is properly applicable only to 
bulls or cows, for la Clafonnier^ in French, 
is in them what the paftern is in a horfe. 

CLEAR W ALK, a term relating to game- 
cocks; and fignifies the place that the fight- 
ing cock is in, and no other. 

CLEFTS OR CRACKS m the Hbels. 
A difeafe incident to horfes, that comes 
cither from over hard labour,, which occafions 
furfcits, or by giving them unwholcfome 
meat; or by wafhing them when hot. For 
their cure (have away the hair and apply the 
oil of hempfeed, or linfeed, and take care 
to keep them clean. See Chops, 

• CLOSE, BEHIND, is a horfe whofe hoofs 
come too clofe together: fuch horfes are 
commonly good ones. 

'To CLOSE A Passadb justly, is when 
the horfe ends the paflfade with a demivolt, 
in good order, well narrowed and bounded, 
and terminates upon the fame line upon 
which he parted, fo that he is ftill in a con 
dition to part- from the hand handfomely at 
every lafl time or motion of his demivolt. 

CLOYED \ A term ufed by farriers 

ACCLOYED J of a horfe, when he has 
been pricked with a nail in (hoeing. 

common honey and powder of copperas, of 
each a pound and a half, fet them over a 
gentle fire in a pot, mixing them well to- 
gether, by ftirring them conftantly till they 
boil: then take the pot off inilantly, and 
when it is grown half cold, put it an ounce 
of arlenic in powder, then fet ^t on the fire 
again, ftirring it contii^ually, tUl it begins to 
boil ; then take it ofi^ th'e~fire immediately, 
and keep ftirring it till it grows cold : but 
take care to avoid thenoifome fmelh 

Anoint the part fljghtly with this oint- 
ment once every two days, -after it has 
been ihaved and rubbed with a wifp. This 

c o c 

is good for fore legs that are nQt^durdf^ 
pains, mules, clefts, anxl rat-tails. 

COCK, a domeftic bird, and the male of 
the hens, It is the common opinion that a 
cock Ibould never grow fat, and that he 
ought to fupply a dozen of hens, from 
which he is diftinguiflied by his fpurs and 
comb : the eggs which hens lay without 
being trod, muft not be hatched, for they 
will addle: cocks are, gelt, when young» 
to make capons. 

This bird in general is the moft virile^ 
flately, and majeftical of all others 5 and is 
ve^y tame and familiar with mankind 1 
naturally inclined to live in habitable houfes : 
he is hot and ftrong in the aft of generation^ 
and delights in open plains, where he may 
lead forth his hens into green paftures 
and under hedges, that they may warm and 
ba(k themfelves in the fun ; for to be put 
up within walled places, and paved courts 
is moft unnatural to them, neither will 
they thrive. 

Now in the choice and fliape of a dung-, 
hill cock he (hould be, according to our 
Englijh authors, of a large and well fized 
body, long from his head to the rump^ 
thick in the girth ;{his neck (hould be long, 
loofe, and erefted up high, as the pelican^, 
and other birds of prey are ; bis comb, wat- 
tles, and throat large, of a great compafs^ 
ragged, and of a very fcarlet red ; his ^yt% 
round and large, the colour anfwerable to 
the colour of his plume or main, as grey 
with grey, red , with red, and yellow withi 
yellow s his bill crooked, ftiarp or ftrongly 
fee on his head .: the colour fuitable to the 
colour of his feathers on his head ; his mane 
or neck feathers very long, bright and 
(hining covering from his head to his IhouU 
ders ; his legs (trait, and of a ftrong beam, 
with large long fpurs, (harp, and a little 
bending, and the colour black, yellow, or 
browni(h ; his claws ftrong, (hort, and well 
wrinkled ; his tail long, bending back, and 
covering his body very clofe. his wings very 
ftrong: and for the general colour of a 
dunghill cock, he (hould be red : he (hould 
be valiant within his own walk; and if he is 
a little knavi(h fo much the bettcri hp (hould 

- be 

c o c 

ht often crowing, and bufy in fcratching the 
earth to find out worms, and other food for 
his hens, and invite them to- cau For the 
Ttfiaiment and Breeding Dunghjll-Cocks 
and Hens, fee the Article Poultry. For 
Game Cocks Jet Game Cocks. 

COCK FEEDING, is when a cock is 
taken frrm his walk,, he (hould be fed a 
month before he fights : for the firft fort- 
night feed him with ordina^ry wheaten bread, 
and fpar him for four or five days that he 
has been in the pen-, afterwards fpar him 
. daily^ or> every other day, till about four 
days before he is to fight. 

For 'ti)C fecond fortnight, feed him with 
fine wh^fitcn bread, kneaded with whites 
of eggs and milk, and give him every meal 
twelve picks, or corns of barley. 

He (hould not have water ftand by him, 
for then h^ will drink too much ; but let 
him have water four or five times a day. 

If be be too high fed ftive him, and give 

him a clove of* garlic tn a little fweet oil, 

, for fame few days \ if too low fed, give 

him the yolk of an egg,, beat and warmed 

(till it be as thick as treacle) with his 


For four days before fighting, give the 
cock byflbp, violet and ftrawberry leaves, 
chof>tfmaJl infrelh butter; and the morn- 
ing he is to fight put down his throat a piece 
of ire(b butter, mixt with powder of white 

COCKING-CLOTH, a device for catch- 
iog.pheafants with: for which take a piece 
of coarfe canvas, about an ell fquare> and 
pttt it into 2f tan pit to colour : then hem it 
about, and to each corner of the cloth fow 
a^piece of leather, about three inches iquare, 
and fix two fiicks crofswife, to keep it out, 
as Ai. B, C, D» in the fi^re, fee the Plat^ i 
: there n^u 11 alfo be a hole in the cloth to 
look^ out. at, as at £, which is reprefentcd 
in the figure; and being provided with a 
fn^il ihort guo^ when y^oy are' near enough, 
hold out the aforefaid cloth atr arm's end, 
and put the muzzle of the gun out at the 
hoie, which fi^vcs as iir reft for the gun, and 
fo kt fly>, and you will (cldom mifs i* for 
by this meaas the pheafants will let you 

come near them, a(Kl the cock will be fo bold 
as to fly at it. See, Plate IV. Fi^. 3, 

COCK-PIT, a place made tor cocks to 
fight in^ being ufually a houfe or hovel 
covered over,' feaced like an amphitheatre. 

The place on which they fight is a clod, 
that is, the green fod ; which is generally 
made round, that all may fee^ and about 
which there are feats and places for the fpee-* 
tators to fit at, three heights, or more, one 
above another. 

On the weighing morning, that perfon 
whofe chance is to weigh lad, is to fet his 
cocks and number his pens, both main and 
byes, and leave the key of the pens upon 
the weighing table, (or the other party, if 
he pleales, may put a lock on the door) 
before any cock is put into the fcale, and 
after the firft pack of cocks are weighed,. a 
perfon appointed by him that weighed firft, 
(hall go into the other pens to fee that no 
other cocks are weighed but what are fo fet 
and numbered, provided they are within 
the articles of weight that the match fpecify ; 
if not, to take the fallowing cock or cocks, 
until the whole number of main and bye 
cocks are weighed through. And after they 
are all weighed, you are to proceed as foon 
as pofllble to match them, beginning at tl>e 
lead weight firft, and fo on ; and equal 
weights or neareft weights to be fcparaced, 
provided by that feparation a great number 
of battles can be made, and not other wife ; 
and all blanks, that is, choice of cocks, 
are to be filled up on the weighing day, and 
the battles divided and ftruck off for each 
day's play, as agreed on, and the cocks that 
weigh the leaft are to fight the firft. day, and 
fo upwards. 

At the time agreed on by both parties to 
fighting) the cocks that are to fight the firft 
battle are brought upon the pit by the 
feeders^ or their helpers; and after being 
examined, to fee they anfwer the marks and 
<^lours fpecified in the match-bill, they arc 
gj^ven to the fctters-to, who, afcer chopping 
them in hand, give them to the gentlemen 
who are called matters of the match (who 
always fit oppofue to each other), when they 
turn them down u^i the mat-, and the 
P fetters- 

c o c 

fettcrs-to arc iiot to touch them, except 
ihcy cither hang in the mat, in each other, 
or get clofe to the edge of the pit, until they 
leave off fighting, while a perfon can tell 

When both cocks leave off fighting, until 
one of the fetters-to, or a perfon appointed 
for telling the law, can tell forty gradually ; 
then the fettcrs-to are to make the neareft 
way to their cocks, and as foon as they have 
taken them up, to carry them into the middle 
of. the pit, and immediately deliver them 
on their legs beak to beak, and not to touch 
them any more until they have refufed fight- 
ing, fo long as the teller of the law can tell 
ten, without they are on their backs, or 
hung in each other, or in the mat j then 
they are to fct to again in the fame manner 
as before, and continue it till one cock 
rcfufes fighting ten fevcral times, one after 
another, when it is that cock's battle that 
fought within the law. 

But it fometimcs happens that both cocks 
refufc fighting while the law is telling j 
when this happens, a frefh cock is to be 
hovelled, and brought upon the mat as 
foon as poffible, and the fetters-to are to tofs 
up, which cock is to be fet to firft, and he 
that gets the chance is to choofe. Then 
the other which is to be fet to la[t, muft be 
taken up, but not carried off the pit ; then 
fetting the hovelled cock down to the other 
five feparate times, telling ten between each 
fetting-to, and then the fame to the other 
cock ; and if one fights and the other refufes, 
is a battle to the fighting cock j but if both 
fight, or both refufe, it is a drawn battle. 
The reafon of fctting-to five times to each 
cock is, that ten times fctting-to being the 
long law, fo on their both reujfing, the law 
is to be equally divided between them, as 
they arc both entitled to it alike. 

Another way of deciding a battle is, if 
any perfon offers to lay ten pounds to a crown 
(that is, if he is a perfon thought capable of 
paying it if he lofes, or one whoftakeshis 
money upon the mat), and no perfon takeis 
it until the law-teller tells fortyj and 
calls three feparate times, *' Will any* one 
take it ?'! and no oHr does, it is the cock'^ 

c o c 

battle the odds are laid on, and the fetters-* 
to are not to touch the cock during the time 
the forty i^ telling, without cither cock 
is hung in the mat, or on his back, or hung 

If a cock (hould die before the long law is 
told out, although he fought in the law, 
and the other did not, he lofes his battle ; 
for fure there cannot be a better rule for a 
cock winning his battle than killing his 
adverfary, in the limited time he is entitled 
to by cock laws. 

There are often difputes with the fetters- 
to, as alfo with the fpeftators, that is, in 
fetting-to in the long law, for often both 
cocks refufe fighting until four or five, or 
Icfs times, are told ; then they begin telling 
from the cock's fighting, and counting but 
once refufed, but they (hould continue their 
number on, until one cock has refufed ten 
times: for when the law is begun to- be 
told, it is for both cocks : for if one cock 
fights within the long law^, and the other 
not, it is a battle to the cock that fought, 
counting from the firft fetting-to, . 

AH difputes about- bets, or the battle- 
being won or loft, ought to be decided by 
the Tpeftators, for if the bets are nor paid^, 
nor the battles fettled according to judgment 
then given, it would be a good evidence in: 
law it an adtion is brought for a recovery 
offuch bets. The crowning and mantling; 
of a cock, or fighting at the fetter-to's hand; 
before he is put to the other cock, or breaks 
ing from his antagonift, is allowed no« 

COCKREL, a young cock bred for fight- 

COCK ROADS, a fort of net contrived^ 
chiefly for the taking of wood-cocks j the 
nature of which bird is to lie clofe all day 
under fome hedge, or near the roots* of fome 
old trees, picking for. worms under dry. 
leaves, and will not ftir without being dis- 
turbed : neither does he fee his way weH. 
before l^im in a morning early j but towards 
evening he. takes wing to go to-getwater> 
flying generally lowj and' when they find 
any^thoroiigh-fare in any wood, or range of 
trees, they ufc to venture through ; and: 


c o c 

therefore the cock-roads ought to be made 
in fuch places^ and your cock-nets planted 
according to the figure. See Plate JV. 

Fig, 7* 

Then fuppofing that your range of wood 
be about thirty paces long, cut a walk thro' 
it about the middle, about thirty-fix or 
forty broad, whith muft be dircdlly ftraigjn^ 
with all the ihrubs and under-wood carriro 
away ; in like manner ihould all the boughs 
that hang over ,the faid walk be cut off : 
then chufe two trees, oppofice to each other, 
as reprefented in the figure marked A, Bj 
and prune, or cut off all the front boughs, 
to make way for the net to hang and play. 

In the next place, provide two ftrong 
logs of wood, which open or cleave at the 
biggeft ends, as marked C, D ; the middle 
parts tic faft tofome boughs of the tree, as 
the letters E, F, direft, and let the tops 
hang over, as G, H, reprefcnt. 

You ihould always have ready good ftore 
of pullies, or buckles made of box, brafs, 
or the like, according to the form defigned 
by the figure, which fhould be about the 
bignefs of a man's finger, and faften one at 
each end of the perches or legs, G» H, hav- 
ing firft tied. oo. your pullies, about the two 
branches marked 3, a cord, of the rhLcknefs 
of one's little finger ; then tie another knot 
on the faid cord, about the diftance of an 
hand's breadth from the firft knot, marked 
4, and fo let the two ends of the cords hang 
down about a foot long, that therewithall 
you may faften them to the pullies which 
are at the ends of the two perches or legs, as 
are marked I, L, clofe to the notches G, H 
clap a fmall packthread into each pully, 
which Ihould reach to the foot of the trees, 
that by the help thereof, you may draw up 
two ftronger cords into the faid pullies, 
where you hang the net, and not be forced 
always to climb up into the tree. 

Laftly, provided a ftand to be concealed i 
about half a dozen boughs pitched up to- 
gether, may ferve for that purpofe ; with a 
ftrong crooked ftake forced into the ground, 
juft by the ftand, on which faften the lines 
of the net. 
When it is drawn up, remember to tie a 

C O I 

ftonc to the ends of each of the two cords, 
about four or five pounds weight each, 
that when you let go, the ftones may force 
down the net with a ftronff fall ; and pull up 
both the ftones, and upper part of the net, 
clofe to the pullies 1, L : the ftones are 
marked M,N, and the figure reprefents the 
whole net ready for ufe. 

The ends of both lines muft be drawn to 
your lodge, or ftand, and wound two or 
three times about the crooked ftake, to pre* 
vent the falling of the net, till fome game 
flies againft it. 

COCK'S WALK, the place where a cock 
is bred ; to which ufually no other cock 

CODS, OR Stones swelled -, a malady 
in horfcs that comes many ways, either by 
wounds, blows, bruifes, or evil humours, 
which corrupt the mafs of blood that falls 
down to the cods 5 or from a rupture, fcfr. 

For the cure, take bole-armoniac reduced 
to a fine powder, vinegar and whites of eggs 
well beaten together, and anoint' the part 
with it daily, till the fwelling abates : and 
if it impofthumate, where you find ft to be 
fofc, open it with an hot iron, or incifion- 
knife, if it does not break of itfelf, and heal 
it up with green ointment. 

COFFIN, OR HOOF OF A Horse, is all 
the horn that appears when he has his foot 
fet to the ground s and the coffin bone is 
that to the foot, as a heart or kernel : the 
latter is quite furrounded, or ovcr-fprcad 
by the hoof, frufli, and fole, and is not per- 
ceived, even when the horfe's fole is quite 
taken away; being covered on all fides by 
a coat or flefli, which hinders the bone from 

COILING OF THE Stud, is the firft 
making choice of a colt or young horfe, 
for any fervice : which by no means muft 
be done too early: for fome horfes will fliow 
their beft ftiape at two or three years old, 
. and lofe it at four ; others not till five, nay, 
not till fix; but then they ever keep it; 
fome again will do their belt day's work at 
fix or fevcn years old, others not till eight 
or nine. 



COLDS, fin Farriery] there are a few 
difeafes incident to a horfe, which do not 
originate from a cold : and as no perfon 
ufcd to horfes can be ignorant when the ani- 
mal is affeftcd with this difeafe, it will be 
fiifficient to defcribe the nature of a cold, 
and the ufual fymptoms that attend it. 

Colds proceed from various caufcs j the 
mod: ufual are riding horfes till they are hoc, 
and fuffering theoi to (land expoied to the 
air. The removing a horfe from a hot ftar 
ble to a cold one : aDd4f the horfe has beea 
high fed and cloathed, the cold contra6ted 
in this manner will often prove very violent : 
they alfo often get cold by not being care- 
fully rubbed down, and the fweat rubbed 
off, when they come from a journey, 

Young horfes when they are breeding 
their teeth ; particularly when the tu(hes are 
cutting, are mpre fubje£t to take cold than 
at any other time. 

When a horfe has taken coW, a cough 
will follow, and he will be htavy and dull 
in proportion to the fevcrity of the difeafe. 
The eyes will be fometimes moift and 
watery, the kernels about %ht ears under the 
jaws will fwcll, and a thin mucous gleet will 
iflue from his nofe* If the cold be violent 
the horfe will be feveriifa, his flanks work, 
he will refufc his water, and loath his hot 
meat. When the horfe coughs ftrong and 
fnorts after it, eats fcaldcn bran, and drinks 
warm water j is but little off his ftomach, 
and moves brifkly in his (ball; dungs and 
ftales freely, and without pain ; his (kin 
feels kindly, and his coat does not ftare ; 
there is no danger, nor any occafion for 
medicines. You ftiould however bleed him, 
keep him warm, give him fome feeds of 
fcalded bran, and let him- drink freely of 
warm water. 

But if he feels hot, and rcfufes his meat, 
it will be neceffary to bleed him plentifully, 
and give the following drink : take three 
ounces of frelh annifeeds, and one dram of 
faffron •, icfufe them in a pint and half of 
boiling water ; pour oflT the clear liquor, 
and diffolve in it four ounces of honey, ad- 
ding two fpoonfuls of fallad oih This 
drink may be given every night, and with 


proper care will fully anfwer in all fuddeti 
colds where there has been no previous dif-' 
order. . . 

Or you may give the following peftoral 
ball: Take of the frelh. powder of fenu- 
greek, annifeed, cummin feed, cardamums, 
elecampane, colts-foot, and flower of brim- 
f^gHf of each three ounces > juice of li-^ 
quoVIce diflblved in a fufiicient quantity of 
mountain wine, fafiron in powder half an 
ounce, olive oil and honey, of each eight * 
ounces, oil of annifeeds an ounce ; mix the 
wholq together with as much wheat Sour as : 
will be fufHcient to make into a pafte. 

Thefe balls are of excellent ufe, and given 
in fmalJ quantities about the iize of a pul- 
let's egg, will encourage a free perfpirationj 
but in cafe of a fever, they ifaould not be 
continued but with the greateft cautioiu 

Warm cloathing about the head and neck 
is particularly ufeful here, as it promotes the 
running at the no& : this difchairge is increa- 
fed too by the warm water which ts^ alwaya ^ 
given him to drink, and by the warm caaflies • 
which for this end fliould be put into thf 
manger rather hotter than he can ea£ ehem, 
in order to his being, as it were, fumigated 
with the fteam afcending from them,: boforO' 
it cools. 

It Ihouldbe well attended to, that- when 
a horfe has a cold, cough, or other difeafe, 
attended with a difcharge at the noftriis^ 
great care is neceflary to keep him clean, 
Horfes do not cough the phlegm upby the 
mouth, as it is common with men, but pafs 
it all by. the nofe; in confequence of which 
they throw it about, making every thing 
nafty that is near them : in allfuch likecafes,! - 
give them their hay well fliook and fprink-- 
led, and. put it in fmall quantities at a time,, 
for hii breath will fpoil it fo, that fometimet 
it will ficken him and beget a diflike there- 
to : when he is not eating, put a little draw 
into the manger, to catch the phleern that he- 
throws about by coughing -, and alio, that b7 - 
taking away the ftraw the manger may^ more- 
eafily be cleaned, which fhould be done 
every time he is fed : be careful too, to 
clean his nofe well every time that be eatsoc • 
drinks. Horfes are naturally dean^ and 



xirce to a great degree ; and in thefe difeafes 
their recovery depends (6 much qj^ their be- 
ing kept clean, that thefe dire<Etians cannot 
be too nnuch attended to* 

When the Bgns of a cold or of a cough 
attends^ but without feverifhnefs (after due 
bleeding, and a purge or two), give one of 
the following balls every morning, to pro- 
mote perfpiration ; but if any degree of 
fever actends, avoid all warnung roedi-- 

The Peroral Ball. 

Take of the frefh powders of annifeed, ele- 
c^HVipane, carraway-feeds, liquorice, turnt)e<» 
ric, and' flour of brimflone, of each three 
ounces •, of liquorice juice (diflblvcd in wa- 
ter, enough to make it of the confiflence of 
honey)) four ounces of the befl fafFron, in 
powder, half an ounce ; of fweet oil and 
honey, of each half a pound i of the oil of 
annif^edfi' one ounce •, and of wheat-flour, 
enough to make the whole into a pafle. 
Of this pafte balls may be made about the 
fize of a pullet*s egg. 

Dr, BrAckcn^s GorJiai Bali; 

Take annifeeds, carraway-fdeds, the greater 
cardomum feeds> of each one ounce ; flower 
of brimftone, two ounces ; turmeric, one 
odnce and a half) faffron, two drams : 
liquorice juice (diflblved in fmall beer) one 
ounce, elecampane feeds, half an ounce; 
liquorice powder, one ounce and an half i 
wheat flour, enough to make the whole into 
a pafte. 

Thefe cordial balls are an improvement 
on the long famed Markbam's B^ll. 

An hour's exercife every day will greatly 
haften the cure : it alfo greatly promotes 
the difcharge of rowels, which are fome- 
tinies necellary> when a horfe is loaded with 

COLICK OR Cholic j the rooft peculiar 
figa of the wind colick in horfes, is the 
fuelling of their body, as if it was ready to 
burft; accompanied with tunf^bling and 
toffing. See. Cholic«. 


It is alfo known by his flrretching hi* 
neck, or legs* by his flriking at his bclly^ ^ 
by his lying down and rifing often, flamp* 
ing with his feet, fe?r. 

There are many remedifa proper for this^ 
difeafe, of which I here mCmion but one. 

Take half a pint of white wine, warnrr 
it, put to it fix ounces of |0, and fifty 
drops of fpirit of hartfhorn ; and give it 
the horfc ; but if he be full of blood, firft 
blcf^him : if this dofe does not cure him, . 
givfcTiim another, with an hundred drops of? 
fpirits of hanihorn. <WCholic. 


of the harnefs made of leather and canvas, 
and fluffed with flraw or wool, to be put 
about the horfe's neck. 

COLT, a word in general, fignifying the 
male and female of the horfe kind *, the fir(£ 
likewife, for diftinftion fake, being called ». 
horfe colt, and the other a filly. 

After the colts have been foaled, yovt 
may fufFer them to run with the mare till 
about Michaelmas, fooner or later, according 
as the cold weather comes in ; then they 
mufl be weaned •, though fome perfons are 
for having them weaned after Martinmasy or 
the middle of November* The Author of > 
the Compleat Horfeman is of opinion, that 
the reafon why moft foals advance fo flowly,. 
and are not capable of fervice till they are * 
fix or feven years old, is becaufe they have- 
not fucked long enough; whereas if they 
had fucked the whole winter over, they* 
would be as good at four or five years old, 
as they are now at eight. 

They ought to be kept in a convenient^ 
houfe> with a low rack and manger for their* 
hay and oats, which muft be fweet and 
good ;. with a little wheaten bran mixed- 
with the oats, to caufe them to drink> andi 
to keep their bodies open.^ 

But fince there are fome who alledgej. 
that oats make foals become l^lind, or their 
teeth crooked ; the fame Author is of opi- 
nion, that oats will wear their teeth, and-, 
make them the fooner to change^ and alfo» 
raze j. therefore he judges it to be the beft 
way to break them in a mill, becaufe that 
by endeavouring with their j)iw$ to bruifc- 



aAd chew them, they ftretch and fwcU their 
eye and nether jaw -veins, which fo .attraft 
the blood and humours that they fall down 
upon the eyes, and frequently cfccafion the 
lofs of them : fo. that it is not the heating 
quantities of oats; but the difficulty in chew- 
ing, chat is the caufe of their blindnefs. 

Further, tIfiR colts thus fed with grain, 
do not grow thicki(h upon their legs, but 
grow broader, and better knit, than if they 
had eaten nothing buc hay and bran, and 
will endure fatigue .the better. 

But above all they muft be kept wet and 
cold, which are hurtful to them, nothing 
being more tender than they are. 

For proof of this, take a Spani(b ftallion 
and let him cover two mares, which for age, 
beauty and comeKtiefs, may admit of no 
difference between them ; and if they be 
both horfes colts, or both fillies, which is 
one and the fame thing, let one run abroad, 
and the other be houfed, every winter, kept 
warnn, and ordinarily attended \ and that 
colt that has been kept abroad fhould have 
large flefby ihoulders, flabby and gouty 
legs, weak paflerns, and ill hoofs ; and (ball 
be a dull, heavy jade, in comparifon to th€ 
other which is houfed, and orderly kept; 
and which will have a fine forehead, be well 
ihaped, have good legs and hoofs, and be 
of good ftrength and fpirit: by which you 
may know, that to have the fineft ftallion, 
and the beautifulleft mare, is nothing, Jf 
they are fpoiled in the breeding up. 

•It is worth obfervation, that fome foals, 
under fix months old, though their dams 
yield abundance of milk, yet decay daily, 
and have a cough, proceeding from certain 
pellicles, or Ains, that breed Mn their flo- 
machs, which obflru6t their breathing, and 
at laftdeftroy them entirely. 

To remedy this malady, take the bag 
wherein the cok was foaled, dry it, and 
give him as much of it in milk as you can 
take up with three fingers : but if you have 
not prefcrvcd the bag, procure the lungs 
of a young fox, and uTe it inftead of the 
afore faid powder. 

It will be proper to let the colts play an 
hour or two, in fome court-yard, iic. when 
ritis fair weather, provided you put them up 



again carefully, and fee that they tjtc no 

When the winter is fpent, turn them Into 
fome dry ground, where the graft is ftiore 
and fweet, and where there is gcKxl water, 
that they may drink at pleaCure ; fer it is not 
neceffary that a colt fhould fill his belly im- 
mediately, like a horfe that labours hard. 

The next winter you may take them into 
th€ houfe, and ufe them jutt as your other 
horfes ; but let not your horfe-colts .and 
fillies be kept together, after the firft year. 

This method may be obfcrvcd every fum- 
mer and winter, till you break them, which 
you may do after they have been three years 
old ; and it will be a very eafy thing, if 
you obferve the aforefaid method of houling 
them, for ordering them the fecond year as 
you do other horfes, that they will be fo 
tame and gentle, that you need not fear 
their plunging, leaping, kicking, or the 
like ; for they will take the faddle quietly. 

sAs for all thofe ridiculous ways of beat- 
ing and cowing them, they are, in cfFeft, 
fpoiling them, whatever they call it^ in 
ploughed fields, deep ways, . or the like ; 
inflead of which, let the rider ftrive to win 
them by gentle ufage, never correding them 
butVhen it is neceffary, and then with 
judgment and moderation. 

You will not need a caveifon of.cordj 
which is a head-ftrain, nor a pad of ftraw ; 
but Only a common faddle, and .a common 
cavefTon on his nofcj fuch as other horfes 
are ridden with } but it ought to be. wejil 
lined with double leathers and if you 
pleafe you may put on his mouth a water- 
ing-bitt, without reins, only the head-flall, 
and this but for a few days ^ and then put 
on fuch a bit: as he fhould be always ridden 
with^ and be fure not to ufe fpurs for fome 
time after backing. . 

Take notice, that as yearlings, muft be 
kept abroad together, fo thofe of two years 
old together J the like for thofe of three 
yearlings, which ordering is naoft agreeable 
to them. See Foal and Stud, 

In order to make him endure the faddle 
the better, the way to make it fanoiliar td 
him, will be, by clapping the faddle with 



your hand as it ftandft upon his bac||^by 
ilriking it^ and fwaying upon iCj dangling 
the ftirrups by his fides, rubbing ihem 
againft his fides» and making much of him> 
and bringing him to be familiar with all 
things about him > as {training the crupper^ 
fattening and loofening the girths, and tak- 
ing up and letting out the ftirrups. 

Theft as to the motion of him, when he will 
trot with the faddle obediently, you may 
WH(h a trench of a full mouth, and put the 
&me into his mouth, throwing the reins 
over the'fore part of the faddle, fo that he 
may have a full feeling of it ; when put 
eh a martingal, buckled at fuch a length, 
that he may but juft feel it when he jirks up 
his head *, then take a broad piece or leather 
and put about his neck, and make the ends 
of it faft by plaiting of it, or fome other 
way, at the withers, and the middle part 
betone is weafand, above two handsful be-* 
low the thropple, betwixt the leather and 
his neck: let the martingal pafs fo, that 
when at any time he offers to duck,. or 
throw down his head, the caveflbn being 
placed upon the tender grifle of h\s nofe, 
may corre6t and puniih him ; which will 
make him bring his head to, and form him 
to an abfolute rein : tirot him abroad,..and if 
you find the reins or martingal grow flack, 
firaiten them, for when there is no feeling,, 
diere is no virtue. See Backing a Colt. 

COLT-EVIL, a difeafe to which both 
'fione-horfe and gelding are fubje& : it hap> 
pens to the firft, by an unnatural fwelling 
of the yard and cods, proceeding from 
wind filling the arteries, and hollow finew, 
or pipe of the yard ; and alfo through the 
abundance of feed : and it.affedbs a gelding, 
for want of natural, heat to. expel any 

There are -feveral things very good for 
this diftemper: as the juice of rue mixed 
with honey,, and boiled in hog's greafe ; 
bay leaves, wich the powder of fenu-greek 
added to it : with which the part. affected is 
to be anointed. and fheached. 

A foftfalve made of the leaves of bctony, 
and. the herb art ftamped with white wine,, 
is. prober to anoint the fore i . the fiieath alfo 


muft be wafiied clean with lukewarm vine^- 
gar, and the yard drawrr out and wafhed" 
alfo; and the horfe ridden every day into 
fome deep running water, tofllng him to 
and fro, to allay the heat of his members, 
till the IjMlling be vaniflied i and it will not 
be amiiIRo fwim him now and then : but 
the beft cure of all, is to give him a mare,., 
and to fwim him after it*. Sef. Sheddino 

COLT-T AMINO, is the breaking oPai 
colt, fo as to endure a rider, ^c. 

Thefe animals being naturally of them-* 
felves unruly, you Ifaould make them fami- 
liar to you from the time they have been 
weaned, when foals ; and fo winter after 
winter, in the houfe, ufe them to* familiar 
adions, as rubbing, clawing,, haltering^ 
leading to water,, taking up their feetj, 
knocking their.hoofs> and the like ;. and Q>> 
break him to the faddle.. 

The beft time is at three years, orfour atr 
moft ;. but he who will have the patience to 
fee his horfe at full five, fliall be fure to* 
have him of a longer continuance, and) 
much lefs fubje£t to difeafe and infirmities.. 

Now in order to bridle and faddle a colt,, 
when he is made a little gentle, take a fweet * 
watering trench, wafhed and anointed withs 
honey and fait, which put into his ma(h, and. 
fo place it that it may hang about his tu(h). 
then ofier him the faddle, but with that care* 
and circumfpcdion, thatyou do not. fright: 
him with it, fufiermg him:to finell at it,.t^> 
be rubbed with it> and then to feel it i. and. 
after that, 'fix jt on, and girth it faft i* and at 
what part and motion he feems moft coj\ . 
with that make him. moft familiar of any 


Being* thus faddled and bridled^ lead himi 
out to water, bring him in again ; . and whem 
he has ftood a little,, reined^ upon the- 
trench, an hour or more, take ofi^ the bridle " 
and faddle,. and let him go to his meat till, 
the evening, and. then lead him out as be-* 
fore; and. when you carry him in again to* 
fct him up, take off his faddle. gently, and: 
drefs.him, clothing him for all night. 

COMB. The creft or red flclhy- tuft 
growing upon a.cock'js.head.. 



- r^? C O M ME N C E, OR initiati, a^ 
. lioRSE, is to putr him to the firft leflTooSj in 
( order to break him. 

To commence this horfe you muft work 
cliim round the pillar. Sei Rope, 
CONEY. 5iitf Rabbet. 
CONSUMPTION [in Farriery] a con- 
fumpcion is npthtng more than a want of 
nourilhment> or the decaying of the body, 
particularly by a wafting of the mufcular 

The feat of the true confumption is the 
kings; it begins there with hard knots, 

which, increaiing, occafion a. cough : thefe 
knots fuppurate, and at length burft, and 
arb formed into ukers, which difcharge a 
matter that caufe all the moft: difagreeable 
fymptoms, and renders the cafe incurable. 
The fame fort of knots, and the fame pro- 
grefs of them in the mefentery, forms what 
is called an atrophy. 

. 1 he fycnptoms of a confumption are a 
difficult breathing, and by fits a (harp 
cough ; frequeiic faeezing, whkh fometimes 
caufe a groaning : a dullnefs and watrynefs 
of the eyes ; the ears and feet are almoft al- 
ways hot i the flanks move quickly, and feem- 
ingly vmeafy. Sometimes there is a run- 
ning at the nofe, and generally a difcharge 
that way of a yellowifh, togghiib matter : 
the horfe fweats greatly with very little ex- 
€rd& ; he hath but little appetite to hay, 
though a good one for corn ; after which the 
Jieaet gTieatly increafes. At times thefe fymp- 
fioms almoft vaniih ; but, with the leaft ex- 
traDndinary degree of exe^ife, ot error in 
foeding) they return ; fo are betteraod worfe 
^xitil death puts aa end to. the whole. Some 
horfes look (leek, though the Belh is coati>- 
nually wafting ; others: have a rough coat, 
and appear a& if they were furfeitcd- Oa 
difleAiog borfcs th^t bane died confumpti ve^ 
the foft fat is all confumed ; but none of 
the harder or fuecy, which, is yellower in 
proportion as the horle is leaner when he 

The above fymptoms ane attendant on 
horfes when there is a confiderable abfceis in 
any of the bowels* 

When a thick yellow matter is difcha^ged i 


frqp the nofe, the horfe growing rery thin, 
fweats greatly, the flanks heave >yith a redou- 
bled motion, the cough (hort and raitliog, 
there is no hope of a cure. If the horfe is 
•young, the mattei^ of a whitifh colour that 
is thrown out at the nofe, or when it is 
watry, and only appears now and then> aiid 
not conftantly, the profpe^t is more favoura* 
ble, and encourages to theufe of roeans for 
relief: thoiugh, however favourable the fymp- 
toms are, recovery is uncertain ; arelapfe 
is eafily produced ; and a natural weaknefii, 
out of the reach of art, is for the moft part an 
attendant. i . . 

Hot, fiery horfes, that are very aftive 
at the firft ftarting, but that fomi tire; ape 
the moft fubicift to this difeafe* 

The hard knots in the lungs may lay quiet 
a long time, occafioning no other difhii^ 
ance than the dry cough ; and if they cari 
be diflblved without fuppuration,- acure will 
be performed* To this end bleed in fmall 
quantities; one, or at the nnoft two pints are 
enQugh atone time ; and repeat it according 
to the oppreffion in the breathing. Fedoral 
medicines may be occa&only givea to pallin 
ate prefent fymptoms, butr the bard knots 
can only be di0blved by mercurial and asitt- 
nrionial medicines. • 

Take two drams of caloraid, cnix h 
well with half an ounce of the confisrr of 
rofes, and give it the laft thing' at night : 
repeat this bolus as often as you can with- 
out falivating or purging ; and if a moderafis 
evacuation by the anus be wantingv give a 
gentle purge, at proper diftaoces, a$^ ne^ 
may require^ 

Every morning and evening give the 
following powder,, to the quantity of aa 
ounce, or an ounce and a half,. £6r each 

Take fafiron- of antimony, finely* leviga- 
ted, gum guiacum, and nitre, of eachiequai 
parts ; make them into< a fine powder. Qr^ 

Take of cinnabar of antinoony^ finely 
powdered, one pound ; of gum guiacum 
and nitre, of each half a pound % give 
him an ounce of this powder twice a day, 
taking care at the fame time to wet Im 


•• /v 


.' '> ' ' • , 

* - .\ 

*^ '^ ( *' 


♦ - 

— - -•» * - M 1« 



Btrt as this diforder is very difficult to 
cure, the horfe ihould be turned when poSi- 
blc into fpring grafs, or rather into the fait 
marihes j which will generally prove nnore 
falutary, and fooner effeft the cure, than all 
the medicines yet known : becaufe the herb- 
age has a ftrong tendency to corre£t the blood 
and juice : and the open air^ and proper 
cxercifc, arc at the fame time of the ut- 
moft benefit. 

The diet, if in the houfe, and parti- 
cularly when taking the mcfcuriai bolus, 
Ihould be the beft and the fweeteft hay, 
with malhes of bran ; and the horfe muft 
be kept dry; but good air and grafs is 
better. Avoid low> damp grounds^ and 
a rank grafs ; a high and dry common is the 
bed : but the befl: of all is to turn him into 
a fait mar(h ; there he will need no other 
food, medicine, or care, but what will de- 
pend upon himfelf. 

That fort of confumption called an atro- 
phy, is attended with but little cough, no 
running at the nofe, and no appearance of a 
he£tic fever : but the fleih waltes, and the 
horfe grows proportionabiy hide-bound. 
The nature of this difeafe is the fame as that 
of the confumption ; and the cure, both as 
Co time and manner, is the fame. Alfo, in 
either cafe, if a cure is performed, kmuft 
be while ttledifcafe is in its infancy^ and be- 
fore the hard knots have any tendency to 

Perhaps the medicines recommended may 
be thought too expenfive, efpecially if the 
horfe be itfelfof little value: in this cafe,« 
ihcir place may be fupplicd by tar-water, 
and poffibly this may prove a very falutary 
medicine, and be of the greatefl; ufe to 
thick-winded horfes. 

COP, the top of any thing 5 alfo a tuft 
on the head of birds. 

COPING-IRONS, inftruments ufcd by 
Falconers, in coping or paring a hawk's 
beak, pounces, or talons^^ when they are 

CORK, or CORKING of a Saddle, the 
pieces to which the bolfters are made faft, 
fo called from having formerly been made of 



are the extremities of the four lines of the 
volt when you work in fquare. 

four teeth that are placed between the 
middling teeth and the tufties, being two 
above, and two below, on each fide of the 
jawi which Ihoot when the horfe is four 
years and an half old. 

the loweft part of the pattern which runs 
round the cotiin, and is diftinguifhed by the 
hair which joins and .covers the upper part 
of the hoof. Or, 

CORONET, 7 OF A Horse's foot, is that 

CRONET, \ part on the very top of it 
where the hair grows, and falls down upon 
the hoof: the coronet Ihould be no more 
raifed than the hoof ; for if it makes a ridge^ 
or height round it, it is a fign that either 
the foot is dried up, or that there are a great 
many humours in the coronet, that may oc- 
cafion the crown-fcab, and other fores^ to 
which that part is fubjeft. 

CORRECTIONS, and helps for a 
Horse. Before he is taught any lefTons you 
ought to take notice, that there are fevcxi 
helps to punifh him for faults committed in 
his leflbns. 

1. The voice; which when fweet, and 
accompanied with chcriftiirig, is helpful : 
but when rough and terrible, and accompa- 
nied with ftrokes or threatnings, a correc- 

2. The rod -, which is a help in the fhak- 
ing, and a correftion in the ftriking. 

3. The bitti an help in it's fwectnefs, the 
fnaffle in it's fmoothnefs, but both correc- 
tions; the one in it's hardnefs, and the 
other in it's roughnefs -, and both in flatnefs 
and fquarenefs. 

4. The calves of the legs ; which being 
gently laid to the horfe's fides, are helps ; 
but corrections when you ftrike them hard, 
as giving warning that the fpurs are about 
to follow. 

5. The ftirrup and ftirrup-leathcr ; which 
are correAions when ftruck againft th^ hinder 
part of the flioulder, but helps when thruft 
forward in a quick motion. 

CL 6. The 

c o u 

6, Tht fpur J that is helpful when genjly 
delivered in any motion that calls for quicl^- 
nefs ,and adlivjty, whether on or above the; 
ground ; and a corrcftion, when it is ftruck 
hard in the fide^ upon any floth or fault 

7. The ground; that js an help, when 
plain and fmooch, and not painful to tread 
upon ; and a correftion^ when rough, deep, 
and uneven, for the amendment of any 
yiciqus habit contracted. 

. CORVET, 1 [in the Manage] an air, when 

CUJiVET, J the hqrfe's legs are more rai- 
fed than in the demivolts, being a kind of 
leap up, and a little forward, wherein the 
horfe raifes both his fore-ftet at once, equally 
advanced, (when he is going ftrait forward, 
and pot in a circle) and as his fore-legs 
are falling, he immedi^itely raifes his hind- 
legs, as he did hi^ fpre , that is, equally ad- 
vanced, and not pne before the other : fq 
that all his four legs are in the air at once j 
^nd as he fets them down> he marks but 
twice with them. 

Horfes that are very dull or very fiery, 
^re improper for curvets ^ they being the 
moft difficult air that they can make, and 
requiring a gre^t cje^l of judgment in the 
rider, as well as patience in the horfe^ %q 
perforni it. 

COSSET, a colt, calf^ lamb, Csff. takei^ 
^nd brought up by (iaq4 without the d^m. 

CPUgrilNG, [hunting term] the lodg^ 
ing of a boar ; as the diflodging of that 
bead is called, Re^ripgo/a baar. 

COUGH ap4 ASTHMA, [in Farriery] 
no diforder hgs given more perplexity to 
farriers ({lan a fettled cough. The caufes of 
this 4}f<;^flP ^T^ various \ ^i>d it is of the ut- 
Hfioft jmportai^cfi fo dii^inguif^ one cough 
from another, as otherwife it will be impof- 
fibfl^^tp effcA ^ cure/ 

A frough is cajled dry, when it is with- 
out any difchargc by the nofe \ and it is 
G^U^d mpiiVj. when fuck a difcharge at- 

A cough i» pften the efeft of other dif- 
•e^fes,' ill managed : in this cafe it is habitual, 
an^l often degenerates in(o an afthma, or pro- 
duces a broken wind* If it proceeds from 

c o u 

tubercles, or' from hard ^nots in the lungs^ 
or frppi gn abfcefs there j it is not very 
tFpublefome when th^ horfe is at reft, buir 
when he is at any ^xercife it is very te^zing^r 
If the cough proceeds from the liver^ it is 
a fliort, dry cough 5 the flanks will perpe- 
tually work •, the mouth, lips, and eyes, will 
appear yellowifli, the duqg will be whitifh^ 
and the urine high coloured : third is fre- 
quent j yellow clouds are often perceiye4 
in the cye^ and a general Jangoi^r and indo- 
lence is observed. In this cafe, if the cough- 
is of long fljgnding, or if an abfcefs is formed 
in the liver, a curf is l^ardly to be expected* 
A cold obftrufting pcrljpiration through tha 
fkiq, ^nd deternnining \t in too great abun-r 
dance to the lungs, or to the glands of thir 
wind-pipe, by its; irritation is a C2^ufc of 
coughing. Worms often excite a cough t 
and the teeth, particqlarly the tuihe^ whei> 
they are cutting, generally do the {z,m^: 

A dry cough is not always a bad fyrpp^ 
tomj particularly when it is caufe<i by acol(£ 
in narrow-cheiled hprfes, and is not of long 
ftapdingj though it is acknowledged*, thaf 
if a dry cough continue long after the com«^ 
mon fymptpms of a cold, U ftrpagly indi- 
Mtes oth«r infirmities j mprc ^fpeeially i^ 
^hcrci&a great Ipfcpfflclh a/id. ftre«g?h, ». ^ 
confyqipplpn i^ thrc^^ened.. 

If teething is the c^ufp in y^wpg horf«s> 
bleedings ^ccor<ling to th^ viplenc^. of tiif- 
difeafe, and the ftrength of the horfie, is nc- 
ceJpfary i and give, now and then, a warm 


^ If worms are the c^uife, their d^ftruftioir 
is the cure of the cough : and faof an^pther 
difeafe cauQng a cough, the removal of th^c 
difeafe is the cure of the cqugh. 

Several circumftances in the management 
of cQughs n[iay be feep under the article. 

If the cough is of long ftanding, attended 
with lofe pf appetite, walling of flplh, and 
weaknefs, it denotes a confumption ; and 
rhat the lungs are full of knotty hard fub- 
ftances, called tubercles. When the cougli: 
proceeds from phleghm aqd mucilaginous, 
matter ftufBng up the veflels. pf the luags>.. 
his flanks have a fudden qgick motion, he* 
breathes thick,, but not with his noftriU dif^- 



c o u 

tended, like one that is broken-winded ; his 
cough is fometimes moill and fomctinies 
dry and hulky 5 before which he wheezes, 
and fometimes throws Out of his nofe or 
inouth large pieces of white phlegm, cfpe- 
^daily after drinking, or when he begins or 
^nds his exercife; and this dicharge general- 
ly gives vety great relief, and the complaint 
is removed by the following proceeding : 

If the hoffe be full of flefti, take from 
him. a moderatd quantity of blood. The 
next day give him fcaldcd bran, and in the 
Evening the following ball : Take of dia- 
ptnte one ouncfc ; of calonlel well prepared 
and fufEciently fublimed, two drams -, make 
the whole into ^ ball with a fu£Scient quan- 
tity of honey. 

This ball muft be repeated the following 
flight; be careful not to let the borfe go 
into the wet, but keep him warm and well 
"trloathed^ let his drink be warm water, fof- 
f ened with bran 5 his hay fweet and dry, and 
his nri^nger-meat fcalded bran, with a fpdon- 
tu\ 6f honey in each feed. The morning 
dfter the feeond ball, give hind a common 
purge, which is to be repeated once in fiv6 
*r fix days, till he hii takcii thrfee purges , 
and before tfach one ball, as above directed 
After each purge, thb following drink fhould 
be given, to * prevent any ill efFedts that 
might otherwife proceed from mercurial 
medicines : take of the (havings or rafp- 
ings of,guaiacum wood, halt a pounds 
raifins of tl>e fun four ounces, coltsfoot a 
large handful ; diced liquorifh half an 
ounce J boil .them in three quarts of ipring 
or ri^er w^ter, to t\Vd quarts ; pour off the 
dccoftion, and diffolve in it four ounces of 
honey. Give one half of this in the morn- 
ing, after the purge has done working, and 
the other morning following. 

After this method has been purfued for 
fonrte time, the following balls may be given 
-every morning, and will greatly contribute to 
perfcdl the cure: Take of cinnabar of anti- 
mony finely levigated, fix ounces; ^um 
immoniacum, galbanum, and afla-foetida, of 
each two ounces; faffron half an ounce: 
make the whole into a pafte for balls, with 
a proper quantity of lioncy. 


TKefe balls are verv well calculated to 
anfwer the purpofe intended ; but if too 
expenfive, the cordial ball may be given, 
with an eighth part of powdered fquills, and 
Barbadoes tar. 

Great care mud be taken to give the 
horfe proper exercife, in a free open air ; and 
that his diet be very moderate. The quan- 
tity of hay he ufually eats Ihould be 
abridged, given in fmall quantities, and 
fprinkled with water; and his ufually allow- 
ance, both of corn and water, divided into 

It may not here be iniproper to add, that 
fome young horfcs are {ubje(^ to coughs on 
cutting their teeth, and their eyes are alfo 
affedted from the fame caufe. In thefe cafes 
always bleed, and if the cough is obftinatc 
repeat it, and give warm mafhes, which are 
commonly fufficienf alone to remove this 
complaint. Biit when the cough is an at- 
tendent on worrtis, as it often is in young 
hoffes, futh medicines mull be given as are 
proper to deftroy thefe vermin. 

COUNTERPOISE. The liberty of the 
aftibn and^ feat of a horfeman; fo that in 
aiil the motions made by the horfe, he does 
not incline his body more to one fide than to 
the other, but continues in the middlfc of 
the faddle, rearing equally on his ftitrups, 
in order to give the horfe the proper and 
feafonable aids. 

COUNTER. TIME. Is the defence or 
refiftance of a horfe that interrupts his ca- 
dence, and the meafure of his manage, oc- 
cafioned either by a bad horfeman, or by 
the malice of the horfe. 

COUNTER OF A Horse. That part of 
his forehead which is between the fhoulder, 
and under the neck. 

removing fores in horfes. See Scabbed 
Heels, for its preparation. * 

COUP DE BRIDLE, the fame as ebril^ 
lade. See Ebrillade. 

COUPLE, two things of the fame kind 
fet together; a pair; thus a couple of conies 
or rabbets, is the proper term for two of 
them ; fo it is likewife ufed by hunters for 
two hounds ; and a couple and a half, for 
) 0^2 three* 

c o u 

three. Couple is alfo a fort of band tp tic 

COURSING WITH Greyhounds, is a 
recreation in great cftccm with many gen- 
tlemen. It affords greater pleafurc than 
hunting in fome refpeflts. As, Firft, becaufc 
it is fooner ended. Secondly, it does not 
require fo much toil. Thirdly, the game 
is tor the moft part always in fight. Fourthly, 
in regard to the delicate qualities and (bape 
of the greyhound. 

There are three fcvcral courfes with grey- 
hounds, viz. at the deer, at the hare, and 
at the fox. 

For the deer there arc two forts of courfes, 
the one in the paddoc, and the other either 
in the foreft or purlieu. 

For the paddock, there mull be the grey- 
hound, and the terrier which is a kind of 
mongrel greyhound, whofc bufinefs is to 
drive away the deer before the greyhounds 
are Dipt, and moft ufually a brace or leafh 
arc let flip ; feldom more than two brace. 
See Greyhound. 

As for the paddock courfe, fee Paddock. 

Courfes of the DEER in the foreft or purlieu. 

There arc in this two ways in ufe, the one 
is courfing from wood to wood, and the 
other upon the lawns by the keeper's lodge. 

If you courfe from wood to wood, you arc 
iirft to throw fome young hounds into the 
wood to bring out the deer, and if any deer 
cofne out that is not weighty, or a deer of 
antler, which is buck, fore, or forel, then 
you are not to flip your greyhound, which 
•are held at the end of the wood, where the 
deer is expe6ted to come out, which the 
keepers have good judgment to know. 

And if you miftruft that the greyhounds 
will not kill him, then you may wayJay 
him with a brace of frcfli greyhounds. 

For courfing upon the lawn, when you 
have given the keeper notice, he will lodge 
a deer for your courfe, then by coming 
under the wind, you may come near enough 
to flip your greyhounds for a fair courfe. 

c o u 

Courfing the HARK. 

The beft way in this, is to go and finrf 
out one fitting, which is cafily to be done 
by walking crofs the lands, either ftubblcj 
fallow, or corn, and cafting your eye up and 
down J for in the fummer feafon they fre- 
quent fuch places for fear of ticks, which 
are common in woods ; alfo the rain and the 
fall of the leaf offends them. 

The reft of the year, you muft beat up 
and down with poles to flart them out of 
their form$ and retreats, and (bme hares will 
not ftir, until they are almoft touched, and 
it is a certain fign that fuch hares will make 
an excellent courfe. 

If a hare fit near any clofc or covert, and 
have her head towards the fame with a faii: 
field behind her, you may ride with as mucK 
company as you have between her and the 
covert before flic be put up. and then flio 
is likely to make her courfe towards the 
champagne, for flic feldom takes the fame 
way that her head is, when flie fits in her 

When a hare is juft ftarted, you give her 
ground or law, which comnwnly is twelvc- 
fcore yards or more, according to the 
ground where flic fits, or etfe you lofe much 
of your fpprt by putting an end to it too 
foon $ and it is very pleafant to fee th^ 
turnings and windings, that the hare will 
make to fave herfelf, which fometimes prove 
effeftual to her. 

"the laws obferved /» COURSING. 

The following were eftabliflied by the 
Duke of Norfolk^ in the reign of Queen 
Elizaketh, and were fubfcribed unto by the 
chief gentry, and thence held authentic. 

I. That he that is chofen Fewterrer, or 
that lets looft the greyhounds, fliall receive 
the greyhounds matched to run together 
into his leach as foon as he comes into the 
field, and follow next to the hare-finder, 
or he who is to ftart the hare until he 





ao u, 

come tiAto the foroij and no horfemanor 
footman is to go beforcj or on any Tide but 
directly behind^ for the fpace of about forty 

2. You ought not to courie a hare with 
tnore than a brace of greyhounds. 

3. The hare-finder ought to give the hare 
three fo-hoes before he puts her from her form 
or feat^ to the end the dogs may gaze about 
and attend her darting. 

4. They ought to have twelve fcore yards 
law before the dogs are loofed> unlefs there 
be danger of lofing her. 

5. That dog that gives the firft turn, if 
after that there be neither cote, flip, or 
yrcqch, he wins the wager. 

6. If one dog gives the firft turn and the 
other bears the hare, he that bears the hare 
ihall win the wager. 

7. A go-by, or bearing the hare, is ac- 
counted equivalent to two turns. 

8. If neither dog turns the hare, he that 
leads laft to the coverts wins. 

9. If one dog turns the harc> ferves him- 
felf and turns her again, it is as much as a 
cote, and a cote is efteemed two turns. 

10. If all the courfe be equal, he that 
bears the hare fhall win ; and if he be not 
born, the courfe fliould be adjudged dead- 

11. If a dog takes fall in a courfe, and yet 
perform his part, he may challenge the ad- 
vantage of a turn more than he gave. 

12. If a dog turns the hare, ferve himfelf, 
and give divers cotes, and yet in the end 
ftand ftijl in the fields the other dog, if he 
turns home to the covert, although he gives 
no turn, fhall be adjudged to win the 

J3» If by misfortune, a dog be rid over 
in his courfcj the courfe is void ; and to fay 
the truth, he that did the mifchief ought to 
inalce reparation Ibr the damage. 

14. It a dog gives the firft and laft turn, 
and there be no other advantage betwixt 
them, he that gives the odd turn (hall win. 

1 5. A cote is when the greyhound goech 
endways by his fellow, and gives the hare 
a turn. 

1 6. A cote ferves for two turns, and two 


. trippings or jerkins for a cote : and if flie 
turneth not quite about (he only wrencheth. ' 

17. If there be no cotes given between a 
brace of greyhounds, but that one of them 

. ferves the other as turning : then he that 
gives die hare moft turns wins the wager: 
and if one gives as many turns as the other, 
then he that beareth the hare wins the 

18. Sometimes the hare doth not turn^ 
but wrench j for (he is not properly faid to 
turn, except fhe turns as it were round, and 
two wrenches ftand for a turn. 

19. He that comes in firft to the death of 
the hare, takes her up, and (aves her front 
breaking, cherifheth the dogs, and clcanfcs* 
their mouth from the wool, is adjudged to 
have the hare fbr bis pains. 

20. Thofe that are judges of the leafh, 
muft give their judgment prcfcntly before 
they depart out of the fidd. 

COWRING [in Falconry] a term ufed of 
a young hawk when fhe quivers and (hakes 
her wings, in token of obedience to the old 

CRABBING [in Falconry] is when hawks 
ftand too near and fight with one another. 

7'i&^ CRAMP AKD CoNvxfLSiONS, are the 
contraftions of the finews, veins, and muf- 
cles, in any member or part of the body of 
a horfe, &f r. 

The figns of knowing it are, that the 
horfe will be fo ftifl^, that the whole ftrength 
of a man is not able to bow him ; he will be 
lame and well again, as if it were in a mop- 

There is alfo another kind of cramp that 
(eizes upon a horfe'^s neck and the reins of 
his back, and univerfally all over his body, 
which may have proceeded either from a 
great cold, or from the tofs of blood, 
whereby a great windinefs enters his veins 
and benumbs the (inews. 

This diftemper alfamay be known by his 
head and neck ftanding awry, his ears up-» 
right, and his eyes hollow, his mouth dry 
and clung, ;\nd his back will rife like a ca- 
mel's : which diforders are to be cured by 
giving him fomcwhat to make him fweat^, 


C It A 


«nd by loading him with warm woollen 

CRAPAUDINE, or tread upon the 
Coronet, is an imperfeftion in a horfe's 
foot, being an ulcer on the coronet, from 
whence iflues a filthy matter, which by it's 
iharpnefs dries up the horn beneath the part 
where the tread is made, and forms a kind 
of groove, or hollow, down to the very fhoe. 

CRATCHES, A fwellfng horfes are 
liable to, on the pattern, under the fetlock, 
and fometimes under the hoof j for which 
reafon ic is diftinguiibed into the linew 
cratches, which affedt the (inew, and thoic 
tipon thecronet, called quitterbones. 

CRAW OR CROP OF Birds, the fame as 
Ingluves. See Ingluves. 

CRAY, a diftcmper in hawks, almoft the 
lame as the Pantas^ proceeding from cold, 
by reafon of ill diet and long feeding with 
cold, ttale meat. 

CRAY.FlSH.NET : cray-filli, or crevi- 
fes, are readily taken with the following 
fort of net, and other inftruments reprefcnt- 
'Cd in the figure, Plate IV. Fig. 8. 

Provide four or five fmall nets about a 
foot fquare, tie them to a round withy hoop, 
or the like, as you fee marked in the figure 
C, D, E i procure alf9 as many (laves as A, 
B, eacli of them five or fix feet long, 
with three forks at the end, to which fatten 
the hoop at three equal diftances, in fuch 
manner that when you lay the net fiat on 
the ground, the ftick may (land upright on 
the three forks. 

Provide alfo a dozen rods or tticks in 
length five or fix feet, cleft at the fmall end 
marked in the figure I, wherein you may 
place fome (kinned frogs, the guts of chick- 
ens or the like ; having baited the tticks go 
out, and where you find any likely hole 
in the water, there leave it, and fo after 
this manner lay the rett in the moft likely 
places, and walk in and out vifiting the 
tticks i^whexi you perceive any fixed to the 
baits, gently move the baited end towards 
the middle of the water, and doubt not 
that cray-fi(h will keep their hold; when 
that is done, put your net iutt under the 
bait and fofdy lift up the bait, and as foon 


• . . 

as the cray-filH feel the air, tney let g^ 
their hold and fall into the ntU 

CkEANCE 1 A fine, frtiall, long line 

CRIANCE ? and even fpun packthread; 

CRIANTS J which is fattened to a 
hawk's leafh, when (he is firft lured. 

CREAT, is an ufher to a riding matter, 
or gentleman bred in the academy, with 
intent to make himfelf capable of teaching 
the art of riding the great horfc* 

CREPANCE, is a cratch or chap in a 
horfc's legs given by the fpunges of the (hoc 
of the hinder feet croffing and ftrikiog 
againtt the other-hinder fo6t« . 

This cratch generates into an ulcer, 

CRESCENT (among Farricrsl a horl^S 
is faid to have crefcents, when die point 
or that part of the coffin bone, .or little 
foot which is moft advanced, falls down, 
and prefifes the fole outwards ; and the mid* 
die of the hoof above the toe Ihrinks and. 
becomes flat by reafon of the hollownefs 
beneath it > though thofe crefcents be really 
the bone of the little foot, which has left 
It's place and fallen downwards, fo as the 
under part of the foot, that is the fole and 
the toe, appears round^ and the hoof above 
fiirinks in,. 

CREST FALLEN, is an imperfeftion or 
infirmity in a horfe, when .the upper pare 
of his neck, in which his mane grows, called 
the crett, hangs either on the one fide or 
the other, not ikanding upright as it ought 
to do. 

This proceeds for the raott part from po* 
vcrty, caufcd by ill keeping, and cijpeclally 
when a fat horfe falls away fuddenly upon 
any inward ficknefs. 

The remedy is as follows : firtt raife it up 
with your hax^d, and place it as it ought to 
ttand : then let a pcrfon ttanding on the 
fide the crett falls from, hold up the cre{b 
with one hand, .and thruft out the bottom 
of it with the other, fo that it may ttand 

T his being done, draw a hot irpn^ broad 
on the edge, on that fide through the (kia 
(driving his neck firtt on the bottom of the 
crett, then in the midtt of it, and laftly at 
the letting on of the hairj and no deeper 


• » 

thm on theothcr fide, from whence the creft 
falls : tliea gather up the ikin with your 
£and ^nd ^pply two pafters of Ihoemakers 
wax, laid one againft the other at the edge 
of the WQundj and with fmooth fplints itay 
the fkin> thgt it may fbrink neither up^ 
vard nor downward. 

Then clip away all the fparc fkin, which 

?ou bad gathered with your hand» with a 
)arp pair of f(;iflars» ^ nd ftitcb the ikin to^ 
getber in divers places with a needle fuU 
ef filk> and ftitch (he edges of the plaider 
glib to prevent it from breaking. 

And VaH; of ^11 anoint the fore with tur- 
pentine honey, and wax: melted tpgethcrj 
^d the pl^es which you drgw witl>' fhe 
hot iron, with & piece of greafe in^dei wanafb 
^nd thus do twice every day till it be whole*. 

But yqu mud be fure to take care th^t 
jour fplints ihrink not r though afcer aU 
the belt cure for this malady is to let the 
^orfe blood, and to keep him very well -, for 
the ftrength and fatnefs wil^ raife the crefb 

CREVICE i- /. e. chop, clift, or chink. 

CRICK^ is when a horfe cannot turn hit 
Qeck any manner of way> but hplds it fore 
aright, infonnuch that he cannot take his 
meat from the ground without great pain. 
The cure is^ t;o thruft a Ibarp hot iron through 
the flefli of the neck in feveral places, ^% 
^ree inches diftapce^ and rowel all of them 
with horfq-hair, flax> or hemp, anojnting 
^he rowels with hog's greafe. 

CRINETS 1 [with Falconers] ftnaU 

CRINITES I black feathers in hawks, 
like hairs about the fore. 

CROATS, OR Cravats, arc horfes 
brought from Croatia in Hungary, which for 
the moA part bea( upon the band> and bear 
up to the wind : tliat is, bear their neck 
high, and thrud out their noie,. fliaking 
iheir head. 

The Croats are fubjed to be hollow Of 

CROTCHES^ [with Hunters] the little 
^uds that grow about the top of a deer or 
Mart's horns. 

CROP o* €RAW ^ BiRUft. Sn In- 

€I,U VS8«. 

G R a 

7 fwidi Hunters] the or- 
\ dure or dung of # 



CROLTP^ OF A HoRSB, ought to be large 
^nd round, fo that the tops of the two 
haunch bones be not in view of each 
other, the greater diftance between thefe 
twQ bones the better ; bu(^ yet it is an im- 
perfedtion, if they be too high, which iSk 
called horn hipped, though the blemilh 
will in a great meafure difappear, if he caa 
be made fat and lufty. 

The croup fhould have it's compafs from^ 
the haunch bone, to the very dock, of 
onfet of the taiJ> and Ihould be divided ia 
(wo by a channel or hqllow all along to tho 
very dock* 

A racking Croup is when » horfe's fore 
quarters go right, but his croup in walking 
fwings from fide to fide •, when fuch a horfe 
trots, one of the haunch bones will fall^ 
and the other rife,, like the beam of a bal- 
lance, which is a fign that he is not ver^ 

CROUPADE; [with Horfemen] is a* 
leap in which the horfe pulls up his hind 
legs, as if he drew them up to his belly. 

Croupades differ frorrv caprioles aad ba« 
lotades, in this, that in croupades the horfe* 
does not jerk, as he does in caprioles and- 

CROWNET, is an invention for catching 
wild fowl in the winter feafon, and whict^ 
may be ufed in the ds^-time : this net is 
made of double thread, or fine packthread ; 
the meflics ihoqld be two inches wide, the 
length about ten yards, and the depth threes 
It mud be verged on the fide with good"* 
ftrong cord^ and ftretched out in length ve- 
ry it iff, upon long pole$ prepared igr thai 

When you are come to the place where 
you would fpread your net,, open it and lay 
it out at it's full length and breadch ; then 
fatten the lower end of the net all along the' 
ground, fo as only to move it up and down i 
the upper end of the nc^ muft ftand extend- 
ed on the long cord j. the further end there- 
of being ftaked firft to , the earth by attrong. 
cord about five yacd^ diftant from the net: 


phce this cord in an even Hnc with tlic low- 
er edge of the net : the other end of the 
cord muft be at lead twenty-five yards, to 
reach unto fome natural or artificial fheltcr, 
by the means of which you may. lie conceal- 
ed from the fowl, othcrwife you cannot cx- 
pe6t any good fuccefs. 

The net muft be placed in fuch exaft or- 
der that it may give way to play on the fowl, 
upon the leaft pull of the cord, which muft 
be done fmartly, left the fowl ihould prove 
too quick for you. 

This device may be ufed for pigeons, 
crows, or the like birds, in the corn-fields 
newly fown, as aifo in ftubble fields, pro- 
vided the ftubble do conceal the net from 
the fowl. 

It may alfo be ufed for fmall birds at barn 
doors \ but then you muft lay for them fome 
train of corn and chafiT to entice them to the 
net, lying concealed. 

This crow net may alfo be fpread to 
great advantage and pleafure in the morn- 
ings and evenings, where you know their 
haunts arc, at which time in hard weather 
fowls arc wont to fiy in great flocks, to 
and from the land with and againft the 
wind, and then they fly ciofe to the ground 
in open countries and low lands, which ge- 
nerally are not full of inclofures, and when 
they are within reach of your net, let go and 
it will rife over them, and bring them back 
to the ground with a fmart blow. 

CROWNED; a horfe is faid to be crown- 
ed, when, by a fall or other accident, he is 
fo hurt or wounded in the knee, that the 
hair fheds and falls off without growing 
again . 

CROWNED Top, or Tops, [with Hun- 
ters] are the firft head of a deer, fo called 
becaufe the croches areraifed in form of a 

CROWN SCAB in Horses, a white or 
mealy fcurf, caufcd by a burnt, yellow and 
malignant matter that breaks forth at the 
roots of the hair, where it dicks to the (kin 
and makes it frizzled and ftare, and at laft 
fcalds it quite of. Of this there are two 

. I. The dry crown fcab^ that is without 

C U L 


^. The moift one, which Is fo by reafon 
of alftinking water ifTuing out of the pores, 
I and communicating it's ftench and moifture 
to the neighbouring parts. 

It appears on the coronet, and often all 
over the paftern to the joint, the part being 
much fwelled, and will run up almoft to the 
knee if not timely prevented. 

The cure may be effefted by taking two 
ounces of Brazil tobacco cut fmall, or at 
leaft ftripped from the ftalks, and infbfe ic 
for twelve hours in half a pint of ftrong Ibi- 
rit of wine, ftirring it every hour, that the 
fpirit of wine may penetrate the fubftance of 
the tobacco, and extrafb all it's tindure. 

Chafe the fcab with this without taking 
oflTthe ikinj and afterwards rub it very hard 
with a handful of tobacco, repeating this* 
once a day till it is well. Or you may lee 
the part be dreflcd with a compofition of 
equal parts of marfh-mallows, ointment^ and 
yellow bafilocon fpread on tow and applied 
all round the coronet. At the fame time a 
dofe or two of phyfic (hould be given, and 
afterwards the diuretic balls mentioned in a 
following article on the grcafe. The com- 
mon pradtice is, to walh the parts with a 
vitriol water, but the above is much fafer 
and more expeditious. 

CRUPPER, the buttocks of a horfe, 
the rump : alfo a roll of leather put under 
a horfes tail, and drawn up by the thongs 
to the buckle behind the faddle, fo as to 
keep him from cafting the faddle forwards on 
his neck. 

CRUPPER Buckles, arc large fquare 
buckles fixed to the faddle-tree behind, to 
faften the crupper, each buckle having a 
roller or two to make it draw eafily. 

CUB, a young bear, or bear's whelp 5 
r among huntets] a fox and amartern of the 
firft year are alfo called cubs, 

CUD. Sometimes cattle lofe the cqd by 
chance, fometimes by ficknefs, poverty, 
mourning, £^r. to cure which take four 
leaven or ryc*bread, and fait, and mixing it 
with human urine and barm, beat it in a 
mortar : then making a large ball or two of 
it^ put them down the beaft*s throat. 

CULVER, an old word for a pigeon or 


! ♦ - .'U*. L, 

•I* ■»« 



dove, y^bence come culvcr-houfe or dovc- 

CURB, is a chain of iron made fad to the 
tipper part of the branches of the bridle, 
in a hole, called the eye, and running 
over the beard of the horfe, 

CURB OF A Horse's Bridle confifts of 
the following parts : 

1. The hook fixed to the eye of the 

2. The chain of the SS, or links. 

3. The two rings or mails. Large curbs, 
provided they are round, are always themoft 

But care mud be taken that it rclls in its 
proper place a little above the beard, other- 
ivife the bitt-m«uth will not have the cfFc6l 
that may be expeftcd from it. 

To give a leap upon the Curb, is to (horten 
the curb by laying one of the mails or S, 
like joints of the chains over the reft. 

Curb is a hard and callous tumour which 
runs within fide of the horfe's hoof in the 
great finew behind, above the top of the 
horn, which makes him halt and go lame 
when he has been heated. It is to be cured 
by the like methods as a fpavin. See Spa- 

VI N. 

To CURTAIL A Horse, i. e. to dock 
him or cut off his tail. 

Curtailing was not ufed in any nation fo 
much as till lately in England, by reafon of 
the ^rcat carriage, and heavy burthens our 
hori^s are continally employed in carrying 
or drawings the Englijh were formerly 
ilrongly opinionated, that the taking off 
tbefe joints, made the horfe's chine or back 
much ftronger, and more able to fupport a 
burden ; but it is n%t now fo much pradtifed 
as i t was. 

The manner of performing the operation 
is, firft to feel with your finger or thumb, 
till you have found the third joint from the 
fetting on ef the horfe's tail, when raife up 
all the hair, and turn it backwards ; then 
taking a very fmall cord, and wrapping it 
about that joints and pulling it as tight as 
poflible it canj which you muft do three or 
four times about the tail, with all poflible 
tightnefs, and make fall the ends of the 


cord : after which take a piece of wood witf* 
the end fmoothand even, of the juft height 
with the firunt of the horfe's tail, and fet it 
between the horfe's hinder legs, having firft 
trammelled all his fore legs, lb that he can 
no way ftir, lay his tail upon the wood, 
taking a very ftiarp ftrong knife made for 
that purpofe, fct the edge thereof as near 
as you can guefs between the fourth and 
fifth joint, then with a large fmith's hammer 
ftriking upon "the back of the knife, cut the 
tail off. 

If you fee any blood iffiie, you may know 
that the cord is not ftraight enough, and 
therefore fliould be drawn ftraighter i but 
if no blood follow, then it is well bound. 

When you have done this, take a red hot 
burning iron, made of a round form, of the 
full compafs of flefli of the horfc's tail, 
that the bone thereof may not go through 
the hole i with this fear the flclb, till it be 
encrufted J and in the fearing you will clear- 
ly fee the ends of the vein ft art out like pap 
heads ; but you muft ftill continue fearing, 
till you fee all that was moifr, to be fmooUi, 
plain* and hard, fo that the blood cannot 
break through the burning j then you may 
unloofe the cord, and after two or three days, 
when you perceive the fore begin to rot, 
do not fail to anoint it with frefti butter, or 
hog's greafe and turpentine, till it be 

CURVET. See Cor vet, 

CUT, To cut or geld a horfe, is to ren- 
der him impotent, after which he is called a 
gelding, by way of diftindion from a ftonc- 

Commonly your rouflbns (^ e. your 
ftrong, thick- bodied Dutch horfes) are ftonc- 
horfes and not geldings. 

The beft way to cure a horfe biting 
and kicking, is to geld him. 

To CUT THE Round or Cur the Volt. 
is to change the hand when a horfe works 
upon volts of one tread, fo that dividing the 
volt in two, he turns and parts upon a right 
line to re-commcnce another volt. 

In this fort of manage the riding-mafters 
are wont to cry, cut the round. 


D A C 


when the feet of a horfc interfere, or with 
the flioe one hoof beats off the fkin from 
the paftern joint of another foot. This is oc- 
cafioned by bad (hoeing, wearinefs, weak- 
nefs, or not knowing how to go, whereby 
the feet entangle. 


J Thefc 

two fifhes, as alfo a roach, are much of the 
fame kind, both in manner of feeding, 
cunning and goodncfs ; and commonly in 

The haunts of dace are gravelly, fandy, 
and clayey bottoms; deep holes that are 
Ihaded -, water-lily leaves, and under the 
foam caufed by an eddy : in hot weather 
they are to be found on the (hallow, and ar? 
then bed taken with an artificial fly, grafs- 
hoppers, or gentles, as hereafter direfttd. 

Dace fpawn about the latter end of Af^^r^it, 
and are in feafon about three weeks after j 
they are not very good till about Michael- 
mas, and are beft in February. 

Baits for dace, other than thofe mentioned 
by fValtoriy are the oak-worm, red-worm, 
brandling, gilt-tail, and indeed any worm 
bred on trees or bu(hes, that is not too big 
for his mouth : almofl: all kinds of (lies and 

Though dace are as often caught with a 
float as roach, yet they are not fo properly 
float- fiffi ; for they are to be taken with an ar- 
tificial gnat, or ant-fly, or indeed almoft any 
other fmall fly in its feafon : but in the 
Thames^ above Richmond^ the largeft arc 
caught with a natural green dun grafliopper, 
and fometimes with gentles ; with both 
which you are to fi(h, as with an artificial 
fly ; they are not to be come at till about 
September, when the weeds begin to rot i but 
when you have found where they lie, which 
in a warm day is generally on the (hallow, 
'lis incredible what havock you may make : 
pinch off the firft joint of the grafhopper's 
legs, put the point of the hook in at the 
head, and bring it out at the tail ; and in 
this way of fifhing you will catch chub, efpe- 
cially if you throw under the boughs* 


But this can be done only in a boat, for 
the management whereof be provided with 
a (laff^, and a heavy (lone faftcned to a ftrong 
rope of four or five yards in length i fatten 
the rope to the head of the boat, which 
whether it be a punt or a wherry, is equally 
fit for this purpofe, and fo drive down with 
the ftream : when you come to a (hallow, or 
other place where the fi(h are likely to lic^ 
drop the (lon^, and, (landing in the (lern, 
throw right down the (Iream, and a little ta 
the right and left: after trying about a 
quarter of an hour in a place, with the ftaflT 
pufh the boat about five yards down, and fo 
throw again. Ufc a common fly line, about 
ten yards long, with a ftrong fingle hair next 
the hook. 

It is true, there is lefs certainty of catch- 
ing in this way than with a float and ground 
bait ; but to thofe who live near the banks 
of that delightful river, between Wind/or 
^xid IJkworihi and who can take advantage 
of a ftill, warm, gloomy-day; to fuch it 
will aflford much more diverfion than the 
ordinary inartificial method of fifhing in tke 
deeps for roach and dace. 

In fi(hing at bottom for roach and dace> 
ufe for ground-bait, bread Toakcd about aa 
hour in water, and an equal quantity of bran ; 
knead them to a tough confiftence, and 
make them up into balls, with a fmall peb- 
ble in the middle> and throw thefc balls in,, 
othcrwife they will draw the fi(h beyond the 
reach of your line. 

Fifli for roach within fix> and for dace 
within three inches near the bottom. 

They will bite at any fly, bat efpecially- 
at the (lone caddis fly, or may fly, the latter 
endof^r/7, and moft part of May: it is 
an excellent bait, floating at top of the wa- 
ter : of which you may gather great quan- 
tities from the reeds and fedge, by the 
water-fide : or from hawthorn bu(hes, 
that grow near the bank of a (hallow gravel 
ftream, upon which they greatly delight to 
hang : and alfo at anr-flies, of which the 
blackeft arc the beft^ found in mole-hills^ 
Juney July, Auguft, and September \\>iK\q\\ 
you may prcfervc for your ufe, by puttir^gj 



ibem aUve into a glars bottle, havmg firft 
put into it feme of tUc raoift earth from 
whence you gathered them, with fome of 
the roots of the graf$ of the faid hillocks, 
and laying a clod of earth over the bottle : 
but if you would prcfervc them above a 
month, put them into a large runnet, which 
b^ been firft wafhed with water and honey 
en the infide, and then you may preferve 
them three months : but the beft time to 
make ufc of th^m, is when they fwarm, 
which is generally about the latter end of 
Julyy and the beginning oi Auguft. 

This fort of fifli, in a warm day, rarely 
refufes a fly at the top of the water j but 
irmember when you fifli under water for 
bim, it is beft to be within a handful, or 
fometimes more, of the ground. 

But. if you would find dace or dare in 
winter, then, about All-bollow-tide, where- 
cvcr you fee heaths, or fandy grounds 
plowing up, follow the plough, and you 
will find a white worm, with a red head, 
as big as the top of a man's little finger, 
very foft ; that is nothing but the fpawn of 
a beetle i gather thefe, and put them into 
^ vcffel, with fome of the earth from whence 
they were taken, and you may keep them all 
the winter for an excellent bait. 

DAPPLE-BLACK, is a black horfe, that 
in his black fkin or hair has fpots and marks 
which are yet blacker, and more (hining, 
than the reft of the (kin. 

Wheh bay horfes have marks of a dark 
bay, we call them dapple bays. 

DAY- NET. A net generally ufed for 
taking fuch fmall birds as play in the air, 
and will ftoop cither to prey, gig, or the 
like; as larks, linnets, buntings, £2?^. 
The time of the year for ufing this net, is 
from Augufi to November ; and the beft time 
is very early in the morning : and it is to be 
obfcrved, that the milder the air, and the 
brighter the fun is, the better will be the 
fport, and of longer continuance. The 
place where this net ftiould be laid, ought 
to be plain champagne, either on Ihort 
ftubbles, green lays, or flat meadows, 
near corn fields, and fomcwhat remote from 
towns and villages : you muft be fur^ to let 


your net He clofe to the ground, that the 
birds creep not out and make their efcape. 

The fafhion of this net is dcfcribcd in Plate 
V. Fig. 1. It is made of a fine pack- 
thread, with a fmall mefli, not exceeding 
half an inch fquare : it muft be three fathom 
long, and but one broad ; the ftiape is like 
the crbw net, and it muft be verged about 
after the fame manner, with a fmall but 
ftrong cord, and the two ends extended 
upon two fmall, long poles, Suitable to the 
breadth of the net, with four ftakes, tail* 
ftrings, and drawing-lines. 

This net is compofed of two, which muft 
be exadtly alike ; and are to be la^d oppofite 
to each other, fo even and clofe, that when 
they are drawn and pulled over, the fides 
muft meet and touch each other. 

You muft ftake this net down with ftrong 
ftakes, very ftiflF on their lines, fo that you 
may with a nimble twitch caft them to and 
fro at pleafure ; then fatten your drawing- 
cords, or hard-lines (of which there muft be 
a dozen at leaft, and each two yards longj to 
the upper end of the foremoft ftaves ^ and fo 
extend them of fuch a ftraitnefs, that with a 
little ftrength they may rife up the nets» and 
caft them over. 

Your net being thus laid, place your 
gigs, or playing wantons, about twenty or 
thirty paces beyond, and as much on this 
fide your nets : thefe gigs muft be faftened 
to the tops of long poles, and turned into 
the wind, fo as they may play to make a 
noife therein. Thefe gigs are a fort of toys 
made of long goofe-feathers, like fiiuttle* 
cocks, and with little fmall tunnels of wood, 
running in broad and flat fwan-quills, made 
round, like a fmall hoop; and fo with 
longer ftrings faftened to the pole, will, 
with any fmall wind or air, move after fuch 
manner, that birds will come in great flocks 
to play ^out them. 

When you have placed your gigs, then 
^place your ftale ; which is a fmall ftake of 
wood, to prick down in the earth, having 
in it a mortice-hole, in which a fmall, long 
and flendcr piece of wood, about two feet 
long is faftened, fo as it may move up and 
K % down 


down at pleafure : and fallen to this longer 
(tick, a fmall line, which running through a 
hole in the aforcfaid ftick, and fo coming 
up to the place where you are to fit, you 
may, by drawing the line up and down with 
your right hand, raife up the longer ftick 
from the ground, as you fee occafion. 

Faften a live lark, or fuch like bird to 
this longer ftick, which with the line mark- 
ing it to ftir up and down by your pulling, 
will entice the birds to come to your net. 

There is another ftale, or enticement, to 
draw on thcfe birds, called a looking-glafs ; 
{fee Atticle Lark) which is a round ftakc of 
wood, as big as a man's arm, made very 
fliarp at the end, to thruft it into the ground : 
they make it very hollow in the upper part, 
above five fingers deep ; into which hollow 
they place a three fquarc piece of wood, 
about a foot long, and each two inches 
broad, lying upon the top of the ftake, and 
going with a foot in the hollownefs : which 
faid foot muft have a great knob at the top, 
and another at the bottom, with a deep 
flendernefs between, to which flendcrnefs 
you arc to faften a fmall packthread, which 
running through a hole in the fide of the 
ft:ake> muft come up to the place where 
you fit. The threc-fquare piece of wood 
which lies on the top of the ftake, muft be of 
fuch a true poifc and evennefs, and the foot 
in the focket fo fmooth and round, that it 
may whirl and tarn round upon the leaft 
touch J winding the packthread fo many 
times about it, which being fuddenly drawn, 
and as fuddenly let go, will keep the engine 
in a conftant round motion : then faften 
\vith glue, upon the uppermoft flat fquares 
of the three-fquare piece, about twenty 
fmall pieces of looking-glafs, and paint all 
the fquare wood between them, of a light 
and lively red ; which in the continual mo- 
rion will give fuch a rcfledlion, that the birds 
will play about to admiration until they are 

Both this and the other ftale, are to be 
placed in the midft between the two nets, 
about two or three feet diftance from each 
other ; fo that in the falling of the nets, 
the cords may not touch or annoy them : 
neither muft they ftand one before or alter 


another, the glafs being kept in a continual 
motion, and the bird very often fluttering. 
Having placed your net in this manner, 
as alfo your gigs and ftales, go to the further 
end of your long drawing-lines and ftale- 
lines, and having placed yourfelf, lay the 
main drawing-line acrofs your thigh, and 
with your left:,, pull the ftale-line to (hew 
the birds ; and when you perceive them to 
play near and about your nets and ftales, 
then pull the net over with both hands 
with a quick, but not too hafty, motion ; 
for otherwife your fport will be fpoiled. 

You muft always remember to lay behind 
you, where you fit, all the fpare inftruments 
and implements to be ufed i as the ftakes, 
poles, line, packthread, knitting-pin and 
needle, your bag with ftales, a mallet to 
knock in the ftakes upon occafion : and, 
laftly, be fure that the firft half dozen of 
birds you take, be kept alive for ftales; for 
you muft not be unprovided therewith upon 
any account. 

Having thus treated of the day- net, 
(the fame being commonly ufed by all bird- 
men) I fliall give the explanation of the fe- 
veral parts by letters, as exhibited, Plate V. 
Fig. I. 

A, fliews the bodies of the main net, 
and how they ought to be laid. B, the 
tail-lines, or the hinder lines, ftaked to the 
ground- C, the fore-lines, ftaked alfo to the 
ground. D, the knitting-needle. E, the 
bird-ftale. F, the looking-glafs ftale. G, 
the line which draws the bird-ftale. H,- the 
line that draws the glafs-ftale. I, the draw- 
ing double lines of the net which pulls 
them over. K, the ftakes which ftake down 
the four nether points of the net, and the 
two tail-lines. L, the ftakes that ftake 
down the fore-lines. M, the fingle line, 
with the wooden button to pull the net over 
with. N, The ftake that ftaketh down the 
fingle line, and where the man (hould fit, 
O, the wooden mallet. P, the hatchet : and 

DECEIVE ; a horfc is faid to be de- 
ceived, upon a demivolt of one or two 
treads : when working, (for inftance) to the 
right, and not having yet finiflied above 



half the dcmivolt, he is preffcd one time or 
motion forwards^ with the inner legs, and 
then is put to a reprize upon the left, in 
the fame cadence with which he begun ; and 
thus he regains the place where the demivolt 
had been begun to the right, and works to 
the left, 

Thus you may deceive a horfe upon any 

DECOY-BIRD, a bird made ufe of to 
call others of the fame fpecics to them : 
they are ufually kept in a cage, and from 
thence decoy birds into the nets or fnares 
prepared for them. 

The hen partridge is the bird chiefly made 
vifeofin France (or this purpofc, which is 
placed at the end of balks, or ridges, where 
they fpread their nets to draw in the cock 
that hears her. 

D E C O Y-D U C K, a duck that flies 
abroad, and lights into company of wild 
ones ; and by being become acquainted with 
them, by her allurement, flie draws them 
into the decoy-place, where they become a 

DECOY- POND, a place made on pur- 
pofe, by the means of which great numbers 
of ducks, teal, fcfr, are drawn into a fnare ; 
and that by the fubiilty of a few of their 
own kind, which, from the egg, are train- 
ed up to come to hand for the fame purpofc. 

The manner of doing it, and the making 
the decoy pond, with the feveral apartments 
belonging to it^ require a long difcourfe j 
but indeed no particular rules and directions 
can be given therein, as being varioufly 
inade,s. . according to the fituation of the 
place, which mud be confidered : fo that 
iVich pcrfons who would make one, would 
do bcft to view fomc that are already made : 
they arc frequent in divers parts t)f the 
kingdom, but cfpecially in Lincoln/hire, 
Cambridge/hire i and fuch fenny countries-, 
for the ground mufl: be moift, moorifli, and 
fenny, with the conveniency, if poflible> of 
a river running through or by it. 

I ihall therefore only fay, that the place 
where thefe decoy-ducks entice them, rauft 
not be very broad, but fct thick on both 
64e4 with ofien?> and there muft be nets at 

D E F 

the top, and entrance, to be let down bjr 
the man who is to attend it, and who, whea 
he fees the ducks all entered in, draweth tl^e 
net, by which means they are taken. 

And great caudon is to be ufed, that the 
nets are not let down till all the ducks are 
within the limits of the nets •, for if any 
fhould efcape, it would be very prejudicial^ 
for fuch a duck, or ducks, would be fliy, 
and fcarcely be drawn into the like fnare 
again, which would occafion others in the 
company to . be fliy too, and the decoy 
would be much prejudiced thereby. 

DEAFNESS. The cuftom of cutting away 
the hair out of the horfe's ears in order to 
them look better, fubjefts them to cold, and 
is frequently the caufe of deafnefs for a 

DEER, a wild beaft of the forefl:. 

DEER-HAYES, engines, or large nets^ 
made of cords to catch deer in. 

DEER-NECKS in Horses. See Necks^ 

DEFAULT, a term in hunting, when 
the hounds have loft their prey in their 

The chief confidefations at default are, hovt 
long the hare has been on foot, and how far 
the hounds make it good ? If (he has not beea 
run half her time (as near as judgment caa 
be made) the huntfman muft try expedi- 
tioufly a wide circle, changing his dogs hard 
and quick on the highways> and fo perfift in 
trying* circle within circle, till he returns to 
the place the dogs threw up at. On the 
other hand, if Ihe has been drove hard three 
parts of her time, or is near dead run^ (he 
will only leap off a few rods, and quaty until 
one or other of the dogs jumps upon her. 
Therefore, in fuch cafe the huntfman needs^ 
only to try a fmall circle, not nimble, but 
flow and fure, with great caution and care-» 
for the compafs being fo little, he has no 
occafion to draw fo hafty about as if twice as^ 

Take heed of talking too loud to the 
hounds, as there are dogs of Ihy, fearful tem- 
pers, that wiJJ Ccarcebear fpeakingto. Give 
aie a dog of patience and good temper^ 
that does not hunt becaufe it is his bufinefs^ 
but loves it naturally i one with a moderatcr 


D E F 

Voice and clear, that fpeaks to an old bound 
an defaolt, quick, but notnoify, and chcrilhes 
him nimbly, very often, and in a tone that 
enforces life and courage, and compels him 
tO' flop perpetually. 

Beware un haunted ground, the inconveni- 
cncy attending it will be too .apparienti 
avoid likewifc the prevailing fault ofleaving 
the recovery to endeavour to prick ; it is not 
the huntfman's bufinefs, but the company 
In the field 5 therefore he fhould not upon 
any account attempt it. For whiUl he is 
moping about, the dogs throw up, not one 
in twenty has his nofe to the ground. If 
it happens to be a long dead default, pay 
fome regard, huntfmen, to the tender-nofcd 
babbling dog you difregard in the morning; 
the delicacy of his nollrils may be fufceptible 
of the fccnt a long time later than a (launcher 
hound. You have faid, fuch and fuch a dog 
deferves hanging, he will open at nothing 
at all fay you -, but beware, my friend, if 
it is not the contrary, and owing to his fu- 
perior excellence of fccnting : for a hare that 
relieved at .twelve at night, the tender 
hound you condemn will challenge cheerily 
next morning, and in the prcfcnc difheart- 
ening cafe, if he does but open, it may en- 
courage fome (launcher hound to run in and 
(loop ; which, after a long tedious default, 
he would not otherwife do. Huntfmen dif- 
trefTed, to make their dogs try and (loop 
(when it has been found which way the 
hare has baulked them) have wrung an old 
hound's cars fo cleverly, he has roared as if 
he had hit upon a burning fcent, which has 
invited the pack together, and given them 
fuch fpirits, every dog has (looped and tried 

On recovery, judgment may be made from 
the time the hare has run, and time (he has 
quafy how long (he may be likely to (land ; I 
the huntfman is never to quit the default 
•whilft day-light and weather permit : if the 
hare is not killed or taken up, there is no 
good reaibn why it is not hit o(F, and it (hould 
be a (landing maxim, that it is ever as eafy 
to recover a loft hare as to ilart a frefh 

By a long qua^, after a moderate hunt> 

D E F 

a hare often becomes ft iff, therrfore the 
hunters ft»ould prefs in upon the dogs, cfpe- 
cially in covert j many hares are eat up by 
the hounds for want of forming fome fuch 
judgment, and then the (imple huntfman 
damns and fwcars at the dogs; whereas his 
own defert fhould be a cudgel for his ftupi- 
dity, the hounds being entitled to every 
hare they hunt ; it is the chief reward of 
their labour and merit. 

There is another prevailing notion, very 
vulgar, much talked of, and lefs underftood, 
that the longer a hare has been hunted, the 
weaker the fcent grows. I never found fuch 
an alteration, and if any judgment is al- 
lowed to be made from the behaviour 
of the hounds, the old ftaunch dogs will be 
found to rate on, towards the conclufion of 
the hunt, with additional vigour, not from 
decay of fcent, but the contrary; whence 
they become, every inch they go, more 
fenfible of their near approach to the hare> 
than all the hunters in the field. 

But fhould it be maintained, the fmcil 
does really decreafe,.the more a hare is prcf- 
fed, what can it be owing to ? To lay it 
down as fad, without o(Fering fome reafon^ 
is certainly a very arbitrary determination. 
Is it becaufe ftie is run out of wind i If that 
is allowed, cafuids, who maintain hounds 
hunt the foot, mu(l give up the argument* 
For what reafon can be a{rigned why a hare's 
feet, immediately before her death, do not 
leave as ftrong and equal fcent as at ftarting. 

Hares, or other creatures, hard run, per- 
form their infpiration and expiration very 
quick, at lead fix times in proportion for once 
they otherwife would, if cool and not urged. 
Now, if fix expirations, under fevercpurfuir, 
are equal to one, when a hare is juft ftart* 
ed, what difference can there be in the 
fcent ? 

It may i^e alledged, the fcent lies ftronger 
at firft, becaufe it makes its return from a 
full ftomach, or that at darting the lungs 
having not fufFered much diftention, flie 
breathes free, which running low to the 
earth, intermixes better with the herbage. 
On the other hand, that a hare long hunt* 
ed rum high^ and of courfe emits her breath 


D E S 

farther off from the furfacc, therefore more 
liable to be fooner feparacedj and overcome 
by wind and air. 

To the firft part I anfwer, the faftcr a hare 
runs^ the longer (he itretches ; and the lower 
flie lies to the ground, the farther the hounds 
are behind ; and her breath (though expired 
everfo free) remains a long time, in propor- 
tion to the diilance before the dogs come 
up to enjoy it. 

In the fecond place, the hard-hunted hare 
makes her ftrctches Ihorter, which brings her 
body naturajly more upright and high from 
the furfacc, and the fcent hereby is more li- 
able to be . fooner overcome by wind and 
weather. But then as ihe breathes quick in 
proportion, and fhortens her pace in a fend- 
ble degree^ the hounds, fo much as Ihe 
fliortens, fo much do they haften, being 
drawn on by an increafing fcent, even until 
madam feels them at her heels. 

Another reafon, more natural and eafy 
than cither of the aforefaid, why a hare, to- 
wards the end of the hunt, is often difficult 
to be killed, is, that if (he holds her circuit, 
(he confines her works in a much (horter 
compafs, doubles here and there over and 
over ; (hifts,, redoubles, and tries all places 
for reft and fecurity, making a great deal of 
foiling in a little fpace, which variety of 
equal fcent puzzles the dogs exceeding- 

DEMI- VOLT. See Volt. 

DESULl OR. A vaultcr or leaper, who, 
leading one horfe by the bridle, and riding 
another, jumped from the back' of one to the 
other, as the ancient cuftom was after 
they had run feveral courfes or heats. This 
pradice required great dexterity, being per- 
formed before the ufe of cither faddles or 
ftirrups. The cuftom was praftifcd in the 
army, when ncccffity required it ; but chiefly 
among the Numidians^ who always carried 
two horfes, at lealt, with them for that pur- 
pofe, changing them as they tired. The 
Hufiars have ftill fome remains of it; 
and we now fee the moft dexterous feats of 
this kind, that perhaps were ever known in 
any age -or nation, performed by our coun- 
trymen, Mr. jiftleyy Mr. Hughes^ (^c* 

D I A 

DEVUIDER, a term in the acadcmie^i, 
applied to a horfe, that in working upon 
volts, makes his fhoulders go too faft for 
the croup to follow ^ fo that inflead of 
going upon two treads, as he ought, he- 
endeavours to go only upon one : which 
comes from the refiftance he makes in de- 
fending againft the heels, or from the fault 
of the horfeman, that is too hafty with. hia> 
hand. See Hasten. 


A diabetes is, wh en a horfe pifles thin and 
pale urine, and that frequently, and in 
greater quantity than is proportioned to 
what he drinks j if this difeafe continues, it 
foon proves fatal j and, indeed, it is rarely 
cured -, for the horfe foon lofes his flefh, his. 
appetite decreafes, his ftrength fails, and 
death fpeedily enfues. It may be noted,, 
that fome young horfes, when they are firft 
backed, pifs themfelvcs though fear, and 
pafs a great quantity ; but in this cafe gentle 
ufage is all that is requifite. 

If a cure is attempted (which fometimes 
is fuccefsful in young horfes) let the food be 
dry, and fuch as requires the leaft water ; as* 
meihes, and corn fprinkled with water; and 
what little hay is given fhould be of the beft 
fort, and given often infmall quantities, well 
fprinkled with water. 

Make frelh linrie-water three times a- day t 
as foon as it clears, and before it cools, give 
a quart of the clear water each time, and 
every night and morning give the follow^ 


Take of Peruvian bark, fi;ncly powdered,, 
an ounce and an half; roach allum, half 
an ounce 5 treacle enough to make a 

If thefe do not fucceed, give a quart oT 
allum-poflet, three times a day,, inllead oT 



Take of quick-lime, that is light and but 
lately burnt, one pound ; put it into an 
earthen vcffcl, and pour upon it two gallons 


D I S 

of •water; let them (land until the lime is 
fettled, then tlie clear water may be poured 
ofF, and muft be kept well corked in bottles, 
if net immediately ufed, 


Take a pint of milk, and two drams of 
allum, finely powdered ; boil them together 
until the curd is well fcparated ; then pour 
off the thin liquor, which is called whey, or 

Any other aftringents, except allum, ihould 
not be freely ufed j for by making the body 
coftive, they incrcafe the difcharge by urine. 

DIAPHRAGM. Sec Pleura. 

DIGGING A BADGER, isdiQodging or 
raifing him out of the earth. 

DIMNESS OF SIGHT, a diforder in 
horfes, proceeding from blood-lhotten eyes. 
If the ball of the eye be found, the cure is 
efFefted by keeping the horfe warm, with a 
hood of iinen cloth fitted to his head, 
and anointing the eye-lids twice a day with 
a compoGtion of fugar-candy, honey, and 
while nde-water. In two or three days the 
eyes will be well again ; after which the 
creature ihould be blooded. In this difor* 
der you ought by no means to clip or med- 
dle with the bladders on any part of the 

DISARMING THE LIPS of a Horse, is 
the preventing them from taking off the 
true preiTure or appui of the mouth, when 
they happen to be fo large as to cover the 

DISARM; to difarm the lips of a horfe, 
is to keep them fubje£b, and out from above 
the bars, when they are fo large as to cover 
the bars, and prevent the true preflure, or 
appui of the mouth, by bearing up the bitt, 
and fo hindering the horfe from fe<:ling the 
cffeifls of it upon the bars. 

Give your horfe a bitt with a cannon 
croup or cut, which will difarm his lips ; 
orelfeputthe olives upon him; which will 
have the fame cfFcdt. 

7*^ DISGORGE, istodifcufs, or difperfc 
an inflammation or fwelling. Hence they 


Your horfe*s legs are gorged, or fwelled \ 
you muft walk him out to difgorge them. 

DISUNITE : a horfe is faid to difunite, 
that drags his haunches, that gallops falfe, 
or upon an ill foot. Sec Gallop False. 

DOCK [or TrouflcqueveJ is a large cafe 
of leather, as long as the dock of a horfc's 
tail, which ferves as a dovcr to the tail of 
leaping-horfc's i and is made faft by ftraps 
to the crupper, having leather thongs that 
pafs between the thighs, and along the 
flanks, to the faddle ftraps, in order to keep 
the tail tight, to hinder it from whifking 
about, to make the horfe appear broader 
at the croup. 

DOCK, [with Huntersjthe flelhy part of 
a boar's chine, between the middle and the 
buttock : alfo the flump of a beaft's tail. 

DOCK-PIECE OF a Horse, fliould be 
large and full, rather than too fmall : if a 
horfe gall beneath the dock, greafe the pare 
every day, and wafh it with fait and water, 
or good brandy, but the latter is the moft 
efFedual remedy, if the horfe will endure 


DOGS; a dog is a domeftic aoimaU 
made ufeoffor the guard of a houfe, and 
for hunting : the dog is the fmybol of fidelity, 
* and amongft all irrational animals, may de- 
fervedly claim a moft particular preference, 
both for their love and fervices to mankind; 
ufing humiliations and proftrations, as the 
only means to pacifv their angry maftera 
who beat them, and turn revenge after 
beating into a more fervent love. For the 
penalty offtealing dogs^ &c. /ee Game Laws. 
As there is no country in the world where 
there is not plenty of dogs, fo no animals 
can boaft of a greater variety, both in kind 
and fhape ; fome being for buck, others for 
bear, bull, boar, and fome for the hare, 
coney, and hedge-hog, while others are foe 
other ufes, according ta their various na- 
tures, properties and kinds ; neither are the 
ufes and kmds of them fo general, but their 
bringing up is alfo as eafy, there being no 
great regard to be had as to their food, foir 
they will eat any thing but the flefh of their 
own ipecies, which cannot be fo drefTed by 




the art of man^ but they will find it out by 
their fmelling, and fo avoid it. 

Becaufe fome authors fcem to lay a ftrefs 
upon the colour of dogs, we fhall infert in 
as ihort a manner as poflible what they fay, 
and begin with the white coloured dogs j 
which for the moft part are not good to run 
after all forts of beads, but are excellent for 
the ftag, efpecially if they be all over white ; 
that is, pupped without any fpot upon them : 
and. experience has taught people to put a 
value upon fuch dogs, by reafon of the na- 
tural inftinft they have to perform every 
thing well they are dcGgned for before curi- 
ous hunters, having admirable nofes, and 
very good at ftratagems : in Ihort, thcfe dogs 
are valued becaufe they arc naturally lefs 
fubicft to difeafes than others, by reafon 
of the predominancy of phlegm in them, 
which gives them a good temperament of 

A black hound is not to be defpifed, ef- 
pecially if marked with white, and not red 
fpots J feeing this whittncfs proceeds from a 
phlegmatic, conftitution, which hinders him 
from forgetting the Icffcn he is taught, and 
makes him obedient ; whereas dogs that 
have red fpots, are for the moll part very 
fiery, and hard to be managed, by reafon 
of the bilious humour that prevails, and 
caufes this irregularity within them : and 
therefore a black dog with white fpots is 
valuable, being ufually hardy enough, will 
bunt well, is (trong and fwift, and holds 
out a long time : he will not forfake the 
chace, and when you are beating the water 
for fporc, he will not be frighted at it : and 
laftly, he is the more eftccmed, becaufe 
thofe didempers incident to dogs, fcldom 
befall him. 

There are fome grey coloured dogs that 
are good, and others you ought not to med- 
dle with; that is, mongrels, which come 
from a hound-bitch that has been lined by 
a dog of another kind, or from a bitch of 
another kind that has been lined by a 
hound : hounds cannot be good if they do 
not entirely retain the nature that is pecu- 
liar to them J and when they do, grey dogs 
arc to be coveted, becaufe they arc cunning. 


n^vcr faulter, and grow not dlfcouraged in 
the queft. *Tis trne, their fenfe of fmel- 
ling is not fa exquifite as that of, thofe 
before mentioned, but they have other qua- , 
lities which make amends for it; for they 
are indefatigable in hunting, being of a 
robufler nature than others, and heat and 
cold, which they fear not, is alike to 

Yellow dogs, are thofe which have red 
hairs inclining to brown ; and as choler is 
the moH predominant humour in this animal, 
fo he is found to be of a giddv nature, and 
impatient, when the beaft he follows makes 
turns, feeing heftill runs forward to find him, 
which is a great fault ; and therefore they are 
feldom made ufcoftohunt any other than 
the wolf, or fuch black beafts as are rarely 
inclined to turnings : they are too fwift, 
open but very little, efpecially in very hot 
weather ; they are naturally impatient, and 
therefore hard to be taught, as they are un- 
eafy under correftion. They are more fub- 
jeft to difeafes than other dogs, by reafon of 
that over fiercenefs of temper, which makes 
them hunt beyond their ftrength. 

As to the proportions, fizes, and features 
of dogs, Mr. Liger fays, the large, tall, and 
big hounds, called and known by the name 
of the deep-mouthed, or fouthern-hound, 
are heavy and flow, and fit for wood- lands, 
and hilly countries^ they are of deep 
mouth, and fwifc4f^enders : they are gene- 
rally lighter behind than before, with thick 
Ihort legs, and are generally great of body 
and head, and are moft proper for fuch as 
delight to follow them on foot at ftop-hunt- 
ing, as fome call it ; but by moft is termed 
hunting under the pole : that is, they are 
brought to that exadlnefs of command, that 
in the hoxteft fcent, and fullcft chace, if 
one but ftep before them, or hollow, or but 
hold up or throw before thern the hunting- 
pole, they will ftop in an inftant. and hunt 
in full cry after you, at your own pace, un- 
til you give them encouragement by word 
of command; which much adds to the 
length of the fport, and pleafure of the 
hunters, fo that a courfe oftentimes lafteth 
five or fix hours* 

S Oppofite 


Oppofite to the deep -mouthed or fouth- 
crn-hound, arc the long and flendcr hounds, 
called the fleet, or northern- hound ; which 
. are very fwift, as not being of fo heavy a 
body, nor having fuch large cars : thefe will 
cxercife your horfes, and try their (trength j 
they are proper for open, level and cham- 
pagne countries, where they may run in view, 
and full fpeed j for they hunt more by the 
eye than by the nofe, and will run down a 
hare in an hour, and fometimes fooner : but 
the fox will exercife them longer, and bet- 

Between thefe two extreems, there are a 
middle fort of dogs, which partake of both 
their qualities as to ftrength and fwiftnefs, 
in a reafonable proportion: they are gene- 
rally bred by croffing the drains, and are 
excellent in fuch countries as are mixed, 
-y/z. fome mountains, fome inclofures, fome 
plains, and fome woodlands ; for they will 
go through thick and thin, neither need 
they be helped over hedges, as the huntfmen 
are often force to do by others. 

A true, right Ihaped, deep-mouthed 
hound, Ihould have a round, thick head, 
wide noftrils, open and rifing upwards, his 
cars large and thin, hanging lower than his 
chops, the fleeces of his upper lip Ihould 
be longer than thofe of his nether chops, 
the chine of his back great and thick, ftrait 
and long, and rather bending out than in- 
clining in : his thighs well trufled, his 
haunches large, his fillets round and large, 
his tailor fl:ern ftrong fct on, waxing taper- 
wife towards the top, his hair under his 
belly rough and long, his ears large and 
lean, his feet dry and hard, with ftrong 
claws and high knuckles : in the whole^ he 
ought to be of fo juft a fymmetry, thn 
when he ftands level, you may difcern which 
is higheft his fore or hinder parts. 

For the northern, or fleet-hound^ his 
head and nofe ought to be flender and long- 
er, his back broad, his belly gaunt, his 
joints long,, and his ears thicker and ftiorter i 
in a word, he is in all parts flighter made, 
and framed after the mould of a grey- 


By croffing thofe breeds, as before obfenr- 
ed, you may bring your kennel to fuch a 
compofition as you think fit, every man's 
fancy being to be preferred j and it is awcll 
known faying. 

So many men, Jo many minds ; 
So many bounds^ Jo many kinds. 

Though I (hall refer the reader to the *dif^ 
eafes incident to dogs, under their refpeftive 
head; their being bitten or flung by fome 
venomous creatures, and others being not 
eafily reducible to an article by itfelf, it 
fliall be added here : As when they are 
fl:ung by fome adder, or other infeft of that 
nature, you muft take an handful of the herl> 
crofs-wort, gentian, and as much rue^ 
the fame quantity of Spanijh pepper, thia 
broth, ends of broom and mint, of all aa 
equal quantity; when th^t is done, take 
fome white-wine, and make a decoftion of 
the whole, letting it boil for an hour in a 
pot : then ftrain the whole, into which sjpuc 
an ounce of diflblved treacle, and let the 
dog fwallow it, and obferve how to wafli the 
bite therewith : if a dog is bitten by a fox,, 
anoint it with oil wherein you have boiled 
fome rue and worms. 

To cure the Bites and Stings of Venomous 


If dogs, &JV. are bitten by any venomous 
creatures, as fnakes, adders, &?f. fqueeze 
out the blood, and wafli the place with fait 
and urine ; then lay a plaifter to it, made of 
calamint pounded in a mortar with turpentine 
and yellow wax, till it come to a falve. IC 
you give your dog fome juice of calamint 
to drink in milk, it will be good ; or aa 
ounce of treacle diflTolved in fome fwcet wine*. 
For morejee Venemous Bites^ 

Rules to be ebjerved for keeping Dogs itt 


As pointers and fpaniels, when good of 
their kiad and well broken are very vali^ 



nble to a fportfrnan, it is worth while to take | 
fome care to preferve them in health. This 
very much depends on tlnnr^iet and lodg* 
ing; frequent cleaning their kennels, and 
giving them frefh ftraw to lie on is very 
neceffary; or infummer time, deal fhavings 
inftead of ftraw, or fand in hot weather will 
check the breeding of fleas. If you rub 
your dog with chalk, and brufh and comb 
him once or twice a week, he will thrive 
much the better ; the chalk will clear his 
(kin from all greafinefs, and he will be the 
Icfs liable to be mangy. A dog is of a very 
hot nature: he ihould therefore never be 
without clean water by him, that he may 
drink, when he is thirfty. In regard to their 
food, carrion is by no means proper for 
them* It muft hurt their fenfe of fmelling, 
on which the excellence of thefe dogs greatly 
depends. Barley meal, the drofs of wheat- 
flour, or both mixed together, with broth 
or ikim'd milk, is very proper food. For 
change, a fmall quantity of greaves from 
which the tallow is pfeffed by the chand- 
krs, mixed with their flour ; or flieep's feet 
well baked or boiled, are a very good diet, 
and when you indulge them with fleih it 
fhould always be boiled. In the feafon of 
hunting your dogs, it is proper to feed them 
in the evening before, and give them no- 
thing in the morning you take them out, 
except a little milk. If you ftop for your 
own rcfrefliment in the day, you ihould alfo 
refrefli your dogs with a little milk and 
bread. It has already been obferved, that 
dogs are of a hot conftitution j the greateft 
relief to them in thefummer, is twitch grafs, 
or dog grafs, which is the fame thing. You 
ihould therefore plant fome of it in a place 
you can turn them into every morning; they 
will feed freely on it, be cured of the fick- 
jiefs they are fubjeft to, and prefer ved from 
any extraordinary heat of the blood : but 
unlefs the grafs be of this fort, it is of no 
cfFeft. If you be not acquainted with it, 
any gardener can furnifh you with enough 
to plant as it is a nuifance to them, and it's 
roots run fo quiek through the ground as to 
injure their crops* 


On the Mange and Us Cure^ 

Dogs are fubjeft to the mange from being 
fed too high, and allowed no cxercife, or 
an opportunity of refrefliing themfelves with 
dog grafs, or by being ftarving at home i 
which will caufc them to eat the vileft ftuflF 
abroad, fuch as carrion, or even human ex- 
crement : either of thefe will heat their 
blood to a great degree, which will have a 
tendancy to make them mangy. The cure 
may be eflPeded by giving ftone-brimftone 
powdered fine, either in milk or mixed up 
with butter, and rubbing them well every 
day for a week with an ointment made of 
fome of the brimftonc and pork lard, to 
which add a fmall quantity of oil of tur- 

Another medicine. Boil four ounces of 
quick-filver in two quarts of water to half 
tne quantity, bathe him every day with this 
water, and let him have fome of \t to lick, 
'till the cure be perfefted. Or a fmall quan- 
tity of troopers ointment rubbed on the 
parts on its flrft appearance will cure it. It 
will alfo free loufy puppies from their lice. 
Or euphorb album two ounces: Flour of 
fulphur, Flanders oil of bays, and foft foap, 
each four ounces. Anoint and rub your 
dog with it every other day : give him warm 
milk and no water. The cure will be per- 
formed in about a week. 

On Poifon of Dogs ^ aniits Curi% 

If you fufpeft your dog to be poifoned 
with nux vomica ^the poifon commonly 
made ufe of by warrencrs, which ufually 
caufes convulfive fits and foon kills;) the 
moft efi^eftual remedy, if immediately ap- 
plied, is to give him a good deal of com- 
mon fait 5 to adminifter which you may 
force open his mouth, and put a ftick acrofs 
to prevent his (hutting it, whilft you cram 
his throat full of fait, at the fame time 
holding his mouth upwards i and it will dif-* 
S 2 folvd 


folve fotbat a fufficient quantity will bfe 
fwallowcdto purge and vortiit him. When 
his ftooiach is fuffici(;ntiy cleared by a free 
paflTage obtained by ftool, give hinn fomc 
■warm broth frequent, to prevent his ex* 
piring from fatnefs.; and he will recover. 
This fuccefs I have experienced : 1 have 
4lfo met with this prefcription : As'foon as 
you fufpeft your dog to be poifoned, give 
him a common fpoonful of the oil ot Englijb 
pitch, if a large dog, or in proportion if a 
Icffer ; which, 'tis fa id, will carry off the 
malignity of the poifon the fame day. But 
of this medicine i have not had an oppor- 
tunity of making trial. 

To dejtroy fVorms in Dogs. 

Dogs are very frequently troubled with 
worms i but more particularly whilft they 
are young, any thing bitter is fo naufeous 
t;o thefe worms, that they are very often 
voided by taking two or three purges of 
aloes, or (which is the fame thing) Scot% 
pills, four or five being a dofe for a large 
dog I this is to \ft repeated two or three 
times in a week. If this does not fucceed» 
you may give him an ounce of powder of 
tin mixed up with butter, in three dofes, 
which feldom fails to cure. Or of the herb 
favin dried and rubbed to powder, give 
about as much as will lay on a fhilling for a 
dofe ; which will entirely dcllroy worms and 
their feed. 

On Madn^s of DogSy dnd its Antidote. 

As the human fpecies are liable to this 
fatal and terrible malady from the bite of a 
dog or animal that is mad, as much as 
they arc from one another -, it is well worthy 
our beft care and endeavours to find out a 
remedy or antidote againft its malignity. 
As foon therefore as you find your dog has 
been bitten or worried by any dog fufpedled 
to be mad, diffolvc one pound of common 
falr> in a quart of warm foft" fpring or run- 
ning water; and let him be well waftied 
therewith : if he has received no wound, 
you need not be under any appreheniion for 

•D O G^ 

the confequences } but if there is any 
wound, you muft fquceze and bathe it well 
with your fait and water for half an hour, 
and bind a little fait upon the part for twelve 
hours ; and give him the following medi- 
cine, which never fails of a cure. 

The Medicine. 

Take of rue fix ounces, London treacle^ 
garlic, fage, and filings of pewter, of each 
four^ounces ; boil them in four pints of beer 
until half be walled : the remainder to fland 
together till ufed : the dofe is fix common 
fpoonfuls twice a day till the whole be 

To pre/erve the Feet of your Dogs from 


A pointer ought not to be hunted oftener 
than two or three days in a week : and un^ 
lefs you take care of his feet and give him* 
good lodging as well as proper food, he will 
not be able to perform that through the fea- 
fon. You fhould therefore, after a hard days 
hunting, wafti his feet wiih warm water and. 
fait, and when dry walh them with warm 
broth, or beer and butter, which will heal, 
the forencfs> and prevent a fettled ftiffnefs. 
from fixing. 

For Strains, BIot»s^ or fmall Wounds «r 


If your dog has received any little wounds, 
by forcing through hedges, or gets any 
lamenefs frono a blow or (train ; bathe the 
wound or grieved part with fait aitd coldl 
vinegar (for warming it only evaporates the 
fine fpiritj and when dry,, if a wound, yoik 
may pour in it a little Fryar's Balfam, whicb 
will perform the cure Iboner than any me«- 
thod that I have experienced. 

On Coughs^ and Colds, of Dogs* 

Dogs are very fabjeft to a cough, with: 
very extraordinary choaking, which is of- 
ten thought to arife from a cold or fpme ih.« 



ward diforder ; and I think it is often occa(i- | 
oned by their eating of fi(h bones. To guard 
againfl: it^ order your fervants to throw all 
fuch fi(h bones where the dog can't get at 
them. But if the diforder be from a cold, 
let bleeding be repeated in fmall quantities^ 
if neceffary ; but if it be what is called the 
diftemper in dogs, and they appear to be 
very low in fpirits, bleeding is better omit- 
ted. Let meat broth or milk broth warmed 
be the chief of his diet, and the following 
medicine : Take flour of fulphur, cold 
drawn linfced oil and falt-petre, of each 
one ounce ; divide iH^to four dofes, giving 
him one dofe every other day ; and let him 
have plenty of clean draw to lie on. Or one 
fpoonful of honey daily. 

DOG-MADNESS. A diftemper very 
common among all forts of dogs; tjnere are 
no lefs than feven forts of midncfs, amongft 
which fome are efteemed incurables but be- 
fore we proceed to particulars, it will be 
neceflary to (hew how it comes, and what 
are it's firft fymptoms. 

The firft caufe proceeds from high feeding, 
want of excrcife, fulncfs of blood and cof- 
tivenefs : as for the two firft, you muft 
obferve when you hunt them, that they 
JDhould be better fed than when they reft, 
and let them be neither too fat nor too lean, 
but of the two rather fatter than lean, by 
which means they will not only beprefcrvcd 
from madnefs, but alfo from the mange 
and fcab ; which difeafes they will be fubjeft 
to for want of air, water or excrcife : but 
if you have the knowledge to keep them 
in an even temper, they may live long and 
continue found ; as for water they Ihould be 
their own carvers; but for exercife and diet, 
it muft be ordered according to difcretion, 
cbferving a medium ; and for the latter, 
give them once a week, efpecially in the 
heat of the year, five or fix fpoonfuls offal- 
lad oil, which will cleanfe them ; if at other 
times they have the quantity given them of 
a hazle-nut of mithridate, it is an excellent 
thing to prevent difcafe, and it is very good 
to bleed them under the tongue, and behind 
the ears. But if madnefs has feized them 
before you perceive itj they muft be rcmo- 

D O G 

ved from the reft, for fear of an infedion, 
and go to work with the reft. 

The fymptoms of this difeafc are many and 
eafily difcerned; when any dog feparates 
himfelf contrary to his former ufe, beconies 
melancholy or droops his head, forbears^ 
eating, and as he runs fnatches at every 
thing ; if he often looks upwards, and.thac 
his ftern at his fetting on be a little erecSb^ 
and the reft hanging down ; if his eyes be 
red, his breath ftrong, his voice hoarfe, 
and that he drivels and foams at the mouth ; 
you n^ be afifured he has this difttm* 

The feven forts of madnefs are as follow ; 
of which the two firft are incurable, viz^ 
the hot burning madnefs, and running mad* 
nefs ; they are both very dangerous j for all 
things they bite and draw blood from will have 
the fame diftemper : they generally fcize on 
all they meet with, but chiefly on dogs : 
their pain is fo great it foon kills them. 1 he 
five curable madnefles are ; 

Sleeping madnefs, fo called from the dog's 
great drowfinefs, and almoft continual flecp- 
ing J this is caufcd by the Jittlc worms that 
breed in the mouth of ||ie ftomach from 
corrupt humours, vapours, and fumes whiclx 
afccnd to the head : for cure of which, take 
fix ounces of the juice of wormwood, twa 
ounces of the powder of hartfliorn burnt, and 
two drams of agaric, mix all thefe together 
in a little white wine, and give it the dog to 
drink in a drenching horn. 

Dumb madnefs, lies alfo in the bloody 
and caufes the dog not to feed, but to hold 
his mouth always wide open, frequently 
putting his feet to his mouth, as if he had a. 
bone in his throat : to cure this,, take the 
juice of black hellcbore> the juice oifpatula 
patriJa^ and of rue, of each four ounces ; 
ftrain them well, and put therein twa drams- 
of unprepared fcanFMHony, and being, mixed 
well together, put it down the dog's throat 
with a drenching horn, keeping his head up 
for fonrvc time, left he caft it out again ;, 
then bked him in- the momh, by cutcing 
two or three veins in the gums. 

It is faid, that about eight drams of the 
juice of an herb called hactlliorn^ or dog's? 



tootTi, being given to the dog, cures all 
forts of madnefs. 

Lank madnefs, is fo called by reafon of 
the dog's leanncfs and pining away : for 
cure, give them a purge as before direfted, 
and alfo bleed them : but fome fay there is 
no cure for it. 

Rheumatic, or Slavering madnefs, occa- 
fions the dogs head to fwell, his eyes to look 
yellow, and he will be always (lavering and 
drivelling at the mouth ; to cure which 
take four ounces of the powder of the roots 
of poUibody of the oak, fix ounces of the 
juice of fennel roots, with the like quantity 
of the roots of mifletoe, and four ounces of 
the juice of ivy : boil all thefe together in 
•white wine, and give it to the dog as hot as 
he can take it, in a drenching horn. 

Falling madnefs, is fo termed, becaufe it 
lies in the dog's head, and makes him reel 
as he goes, and to fall down : for cure, 
take four ounces of the juice of briony, and 
the fame quantity of the juice of peony, 
with four drams of ftavefacre pulverized : 
mix thefe together and give it the dog in a 
drenching horn ; alfo let him blood in the 
ears, and in the feivo veins that come down 
his (boulders -, and indeed bleeding is nc- 
ccflTary for all forts of madnefs in dogs. 

To prevent dogs from being mad, that 
arc bitten by mad dogs, is done by bathing 
them : in order to which take a barrel or 
bucking tub full of water, into which put 
about a bulhel and a half of foot, which 
mull be ftirred well, that it may be diffol- 
Ted J then put in the dog that is bitten, and 
plunge him over head and cars fevcn or 
eight times therein, and it will prevent his 
being mad ; but he fhould alfo be blooded. 

When dogs happen to be bit as aforefaid, 
there is nothing better than their lickirlg the 
place with their own tongues, if they can 
reach it; if not, then let it be waftied with 
butter and vinegar made lukewarm, and 
let it afterwards be anointed with Venice 
turpentine ;. ic is alfo good to pifs often on 
the wound ; but above all take the juice of 
the ftalks of ftrong tobacco boiled in water, 
and bathe the place therewith ; alfo wafli him 
in fea water, or water artificially made lalt : 
give him likewife a little mithridate icward- 

P O G 

ly in two or three fpoonfuls of fack, and 
fo keep him apart, and if you find him aftef 
fome time ftill to droop, the beft way is to 
hang him. 

It may not be amifs to add what a late 
author advifes one who keeps a dog, which 
is, to have him wormed, a thing of but 
little trouble and charge, and what he be^ 
lieves would prevent their being mad ; and 
if they are, he is of opinion that it prevents 
their biting any other creature; for heafferts 
he had three dogs bit by mad dogs, at three 
feveral times j they were wormed, and 
though they died mad, yet they did not 
bite nor do any mifchief to any thing he 
had : and having a mind to make a full ex- 
periment of it, he (hut one of them up in a 
kennel, and put to him a dog he did not 
value : that the mad dog would often run at 
the other dog to bite him ; but he found 
his tongue fo much fwelled in his mouth/ 
that he could not make his teeth meet : 
that that dog, though he kept him with the 
mad dog till he died, yet did not ail any* 
thing ; he kept him two years afterwards^ 
and gave him no remedies to prevent an/ 
harm which might come from the biting 
of the mad dog. 

But as there are feveral forts of madnefs 
in dogs, he was not certain whether the cf- 
fei^s were the fame in all; but his dogs 
feemed to die of the black madnefs, which 
is reckoned the moft dangerous, and there- 
fore he could not tell how far the following 
receipt might be efFeclual in all forts of mad- 
nefs, though it had not failed in curing all 
the dogs that he gave it to which were bitten^ 
and all thofe he gave it not to died. 

The remedy is this : Take white hellebore 
and grate it to powder, which muft be 
mixed with butter, and given to the dog : 
the dofc muft be proportioned to the 
fize of the dog; to a very fmall lap-dog you 
may give three grains, to a large maftifFfix* 
teen grains, and fo in proportion to other 
fizes. He add, that the befl. way is, to 
give him a fmall ^quantity at firft, that it 
may be increafed as it is found to work, or 
not to work ; but that as it is a ftrong 
vomits and will, make the dogs fick for a 
. little timej fo they muft be kept warm that 



day it is given them, and the next night, 
and they muft not have cold water; but 
-when it has done working, towards the af- 
ternoon give them fomc warm broth, and 
the next morning give them the fame before 
you let them out of the houfe or kennel. 

The fame author fays, this is an extraordi- 
nary remedy for the mange ; that he never 
knew three dofes fail of curing any dog that 
had it, except he had a furfcit with it ; 
^hich if he had, let him blood alfo> and 
anoint him two or three times over with gun- 
powder and foap, beat up together, and it 
will cure him. 

It is aiTerted by a gentleman who has 
cured feveral creatuites that have been bit by 
mad dogs, with only giving them the mid- 
dle yellow bark of buckthorn, which muft 
be boiled in ale for a horfe or a cow, and in 
milk for a dog ; and that being bit by one 
himfelf, he ventured to take nothing elfe : 
but that it muft be boiled till it is as bitter 
as you can take it» 

Tie Choice of a Doa and Bitch for ireedif^ 

good Whelps* 

The bitch ought to be one of a good 
kind, being ftrong and well proportioned in 
all parts, having her ribs and flanks great 
and large. 

Let the dog that lines her be of a good 
breed j and let him be young, if you intend 
to have light and hot hounds ; for if the dog 
be old, the whelps will participate of his 
dull and heavy nature. 

If your bitch does not grow proud of her 
own accord^ fo foon as you would have her, 
you may make her fo by giving her the fol- 
lowing broth : 

BoH two heads of garlic, half a coftor's 
•ftone, t1>e juice of creffes, and about twelve 
Spanijh flies, in a pipkin that holds a pint, 
together with fome mutton, and make 
broth of it 5 and give of this to the bitch 
two or three times, and flie will not fail to 
grow proud, and the fame pottage given to 
the dog will make him inclinable to copu- 

After your bitch has beea lined and b 

D R A 

with puppy, you muflr not let her hunt, for 
that will be the way to make her caft her 
whelps : but let her walk up and down un- 
confined in the houfe and court j never 
locking her up in her kennel ; for (he is 
then impatient of food, and therefore you 
muft give her fome hot broth once a day. 

If you would fpay your bitch, it muft be 
done before ftie has ever had a litter of 
whelps ; and in fpaying her take not away 
all the roots and ftrings of the veins : for if 
you do it will much prejudice her rcins^ 
and hinder her fwiftnefs ever after : but by 
leaving fome behind, it will make her mucb 
the ftronger and more hardy. 

But by DO means do not fpay her white 
Ihe is proud, for that will endanger her 
life : but you may do it fifteen days 
after ; but the beft time of all is when the 
whelps are (haped within her. For more fee 
Pointer, Greyhound^ Spaniel, i^c. 

DOG-DRAW (in the forcft law] a ttrm 
ufed when a man is found drawrng after a 
deer by thefcentofa hound, which he leads 
in his hand. See Back-Berond. 

DOLE FISH. That filh which the fiOier- 
men, employed annually in the north fcas, 
ufually receive for their allowance^ 

DORLNG ? c r M ^ r 

DOTTEREL. A bird fo named from W% 
doting foolifhncfs, in imitating the aftions 
of the Fowlers, till it be catched in the net f 
of thefe birds, there are many in Lincohflnre. 

To DOUBLE [Hunting term] ufed of ar 
hare who is faid to double, when ftie keeps- 
in plain fields, and winds about to deceive 
the hounds. 


horle doubles his reins when he leaps feveral 
times together to throw his rider. 

This Hamingue doubles his reins and 
makes pontlevis. See Pontlevis. 

DRABLING in Angling, is a method 
to catch barbels. Take a Itrong line of fix 
yurds„ which, before you fatten it to your 
rod, muft be put through a piece of lead„ 
that if the fifti bite, it may flip to and fro,, 
and that the water may fbmetimes move it 


D R A 

tjn the ground : bait it with a lob-worm 
well fccured, and fo by the motion the bar- 
bel will be enticed into the danger without 
ftifpicion. The beft places are in running 
water near piles, or under wooden bridges, 
liipported with oaks floated and Oimy. 

l^RAG, I in Angling] is a piece of iron 
with four hooks placed back to back, to 
which aline is faftened ; ufcful to the angler, 
only to fave an entangled line, or when it 
nips olFhis rod. 

DRrtUGHT Horse, A horfedcftincd for 
the cart, plough, &?f . in the choice of which 
for either or thefc purpofes, being that 
which they call the flow draught, one is to 
be chofen of an ordinary height : for horfes 
in a cart, unequally forted, never draw at 
cafe, but the tall hangs upon the low horfe. 
Our Engli/b authors fay, he (hould be big, 
large bodied and ftrong limbed by nature, 
rather inclined to crave the whip, than to 
draw more than is needful j and for this pur- 
pofe, mares arc moft profitable, if you have 
cheap keeping for them ; for they will not 
only do the work but alfo bring yearly in- 
creafc : but care muft be taken to have 
them well forehanded, that is, to have a 
good head, neck, bread, and (boulders; 
but for the reft it is not fo regardful, only 
let her body JDe large ; for the more room a 
young foal has in its dam's belly the bet- 
ter : and be fure never to put the draught 
horfes to the faddle, for that alters their pace, 
and hurts them in their labour. See Pack- 


Some fay, that a horfe defigned for draught 
or labour, ought to have a head with large 
bones, and not flediy, that fo he may not 
be fubje<5t to difeafed eyes ; that his ears 
ought to be fmall, (Irait, and upright, and 
bis noftrils (hould be large and open, that 
he may breathe with the more eafc and free- 
dom 9 that thofe horfes that have their fore- 
heads funk a little downwards about the 
ryes, are generally good for labour : 
whereas thofe who are defigned for the fad- 
dle, ought to have them even and pretty 
large y that the forehead (hould be always 
marked with a ftar, unlefs the horfe be of a 
grey or white colour. 

D R A 

You muflr fee that he has a* bright and 
lively eye, full of fire, and pretty large and 
forward in his head, having large balls, and 
railed pits, and never funk, which fhews that 
the horfe is old, or begot by an old (lallion $ 
aud if he has a bold Took it is alfo a good 
fign : funk eyes or elevated brows are indeed 
figns of fome malignity in a horfe; but thefc 
fort of horfes will generally undergo much 

His mouth fliould be pretty wide, being 
a quality very elTential to it, the palate not 
flelny, and the lips thin : the mouth alfo 
(hould be cool, and full of foam, by which 
you may difcover the good temperament of 
a horfe, and that he is lefs fubje^ to be 
heated than another; not that the mouth 
(hould be that which muft be moft regarded 
in a draught horfe ; for if he has a bad one 
he often draws well. 

We do not require fine Chen's in draught- 
horfes, that not being e(rential ; all that is 
to be faid on this occafion is, that fuch ani- 
mals ought to have pretty thick and flefhy 
ones, but his breaft (hould be large and open, 
his (houlders (hould be thick, tha't he may 
draw the eafier, and that his harnefs may not 
fo foon hurt him : if he be fomcwhat heavy 
he is the better for draught ; for the more 
he is nearer the ground, the more he is 
valued for that purpofe. He ought to have 
double loins which may be feen by their 
being a little raifcd up towards both fides of 
the back-bone ; he ought alfo to have large 
and round fides, to the end that he may have 
the more guts, and a better flank : you need 
noL be afraid of his having a great belly, pro- 
vide it be not cow-bellied, which will make 
him appear deformed; he Ihould have full, 
but not broad flanks, that he may not fway 
in the back at his labour. 

That horfe is efteemed which has a large 
and round buttock, that neither (inks down 
or cuts : care (hould be taken that he fhould 
have a firm and ftrong tail, that the dock 
(hould be thick, well furni(hed with hair, 
and placed neither too high nor too low, 
both which contribute much to the defor- 
mity of the buttocks. The legs are parts of 
the body of a horfe which are moft (o be 


D R A 

«confidcrcd, as being thofc which are to fup- 
port the burthen of the whole body, to which 
they ought to fuit ; therefore his legs Ihould be 
rather flat and broad than round, the round- 
nefs of the leg being a defcft in a horfe def- 
tined to labour which will foon/uin him ; as 
for the hinder legs, the thighs (hould be long 
and flefliy, and the mufcle that is on the out- 
fide of the thighs (faould be flelhy, large, and 
very thick : it is a fault to find them fall down 
plump when the horfe fteps ; it is alfo a fign 
6f weaknefs in the loins or hams : however 
you arc not to confiderthe hind legs fo much 
as the others, they being not fo fubjeft to be 
faulty : the fore ones being very often bad 
when theothei^ are good. Ihofehorfcswhofc 
legs are too long and too large for their 
height, are faulty, and you ought not to buy 
them. You mult always obferve that he 
ftands well and plump, when he ftops in any 
place, and if he does not, you may conclude 
lie is not good. 

The ufual way to know the age of a horfe, 
is by his teeth, eyes, fcfr. for which the 
Reader is referred to the article of Age of a 
Horse, Eyes of a Horse, f^c. 

The nether jaw of the horfe Ihould be 
examined very well, to fee that it be in- 
commoded with no gland, which may occa- 
iion the ftrangles> and be a means to kill 
him. * 

Something may be faid concerning the 
feeding of a draught-horfe ; but for the fer- 
vant who looks after him, he ought to be 
tip veiy early, and fee that the harnefs be 
in good order ; and take away the old hay 
out of the rack, lay frefli in, and clean the 
manger, ridding it of all ordure, earth, or 
foul dung ; and while the horfes are eating 
their hay, he ought to take them one after 
another out of the ftable, to curry them ; 
for if he fliould do this work within, the duft 
will fly to the other horfes. 

If perfons would be perfuaded of the ne- 
cefllty there is to drefs horfes well, they 
would not be fo often furprifed at the lofs 
of them, for want of this care, though they 
feed them ever fo well. 

It is from the filth that is upon and about 
them, that many of the diftempers which 
befal them have their rife, and prove their 

D R A 

deftruQjon : and it may be held for an inva- 
riable maxim, that a horfe with lefs food, 
methodically difpcnfed, and well dreflTed and 
curried, fhall be fatter, and more^ghtly, 
than another who has more provkider giveti 
him, and whofc^effin^^s- negleftedj and 
therefore the matter ot a family ought to 
be on the watch, and fee that his fervants 
(if they are of themfelves carclcfs) be not 
wanting in this particular. 

Such fort or fervants ought to be good 
humoured, handy, tradable, nervous, and 
hardy; and in order to drefs a horfe well, 
they ihould hold the curry-comb in the 
right hand, and the horfe in the left, near 
the buttock, and lightly move the comb 
backwards and forwards along his body, and 
continue fo to do till no more filth or dutt 
come ofi^i and then they muft, with a dull- 
cloth, wipe ofl^ all the duft that lies on the 
horfe,taking care to do it over his body. 

They fliould daily, after they have dufted 
their horfes, take a whifp of ftraw, and twitt- 
ing the fame hard, wet it in water, with 
which they fliould rub them all over, 
more efpecially the legs : by this means 
they will remove obftruftions, and facili- 
tate the pafl^age of the animal fpirits, which 
caufe motion : indeed it cannot be cxpefted 
this fecond drcfling fliould be praftifed every 
day, but it ought to be done as often as fer- 
vants have any leifure for it, particularly 
when the weather does not permit them to 
labour abroad j and if they are defeftivc 
therein, the matter of the family ought to 
be careful, and make them do it. When 
the horfes are thus dreflcd, the next thing 
is to take the comb, and gently to comb 
their manes and tails *, and then they are to 
be led out of the ftable to water, and to 
chear and divert them as much as poflible. 

Moft part of the difeafes to which horfes 
are fubjeft, proceed from their drinking 
bad waters ; fuch as thofe that are too vivid^ 
or too raw, muddy, and too cold. To pre- 
vent thefe inconveniences, you muft obferve; 
that if you are near a river, you fliould in 
fummcr-timc, by all means, lead your 
horfes thither i but as little as may be in 
the winter, if you have a well near home i 
for well-water frcfti drawn, during the 
T feafon, 

D R A 


i^aibn, IS warm and coniequcntly good 
for the horfes : If yoo arc remote from any 
river, and that in fummcr-time you have no 
other than fprmg water to give your horfes 
ta drink, you muft draw the famie a good 
'while before it is given them, and cxpofe it 
to the fun in 4:ubs, or very clean (tone- 
troughs, that you may by that means cor- 
reft the great crudity of the water, which 
is extremely injurious to them: you muft 
fcldom or never carry them to drink maftiy 
water, which has very bad qualicies^ and 
will not agree with them. 

When your labouring horfes have drank 
their water, you muft give them their oats 
in a manger, that has been firft of all clean- 
ed : the oats (houid be well fitted and clear- 
ed from di^, before you give '^cm to them j 
you ought to take care to fmell to them, 
and fee if they fmell of rats, or are mufty,. 
which will make the horfes loath them. 
You muft likewife, above all things, ob- 
ferve whether there arc any fmall feathers 
among the oatSr which may» if left therein, 
do the horfe a great deal of injury : the 
quantity of oats allowed to each horfe is 
fometimes toon and fometimes Icls, but 
ever enougti to make them keep up their 
flefh ; and while the horfes are eating their 
oats, the fervants arc to take their break • 
fafts, and afterwards go to harnefs them for 
the plough or cart, as their occafion requires. 
But before they do this, they muft ex- 
amine whether any thing hurts them, either 
at tiie breaft, ihoulders or hams ; and they 
muft fee that the collars about their necks be 
fupplied with every thing, that is requifitc for 
them :: if they are to draw in a cart, you 
muft fee that the pad upon the back 
does no way hurt them, that the fame fits 
every way even, and that it be well ftuiFed 
with hair in the pannels, for fear it fhould 
be too hard upon theiiorfe's back. 

The horfe beii>gthiis managed, and every 
thing in good order for the work,, whether 
with plough or cart, thofe fervants who do 
underftand their bufinefs well, do not work 
them at firft too hard,but every turn let them 
gently breathe ; whereas if they do other- 
wife, they will very often find theiD decline 

their ibod, after their return from- labour-^ 
by which ill management they fometimes 
run the danger of foundering, or havings 
their greafe melted ; and therefore to work 
them gradually is the beft and fafeft way. 
When the horfes arc returned from the- 
plough, i^c. as towards noon«»tide, or thc- 
like, they are ufually all in a fweac^ and' 
then the men muft not fait to rub them witbi 
a whifp of ftraw ; this is the Hrft thing they- 
are to' do after they ^tc brought into the 
ftable ; then let them pn:pare fume bran- 
which is. very well moiftened^ which put' 
before them in the manger, to nuke themt^ 
mumble the fame, and this will make th^m 
eat the hay with a greater, appetite > the 
bran being x>rdcred as before, will cool their 
mouths, which are dried,, through the heat 
occafioned within by their drawing/, and^ 
notwithftanding the horfes are thus hot^ it^ 
is very rarely that any inconvenience liap- 
pens to them, efpecially if the water whereia 
the bran has been fteeped^be iifed rather 
hot than cold : when fuch precautions are* 
not taken, it is no wonder the owners Md 
their fervants, very .often find the;ir horfcS; 
loath their food, the dry nefs of their tongues- 
rendering all. the food infipid tO' tbem> 
and therefore thofe per fans who love theii;- 
horfes, ought' carefully to obferve itiin^ 
method,, and they will flhdtheir account in^ 

We daily fee perfons who pretend'' 
well {killed in the management of horfes^ aa^ 
(bon after hard labour as they are brought 
back to the ftable, never fail to rub their 
legs with whifps of ftraw, alledging that, 
this is the waytorefrelh and fupply themiyr 
and confequently to refrefh them very much i- 
but they are much miftaken in the potnt^^. 
for the horfes after hard labour^ muft not. 
have their hunMurs nauch agitated i and by 
this adion they muft needs fall upon their 
legs,, which will tend to make them very 
{iiff and ufelefs:. The author adds, that he 
was willing to give them fhh informatipa/ 
and caution^ judging it very neceiTary for^ 
Sht avoiding thofe inconveniences which; 
happen daily by that ill method,, which ouit 
not be followed after fucb adxngnitioDj but; 


%7 fkok who are obftinate in tbclr waf^ and 
^il( ruin their horfes : not that our author 
iiifappro^es the rubbing of their legs^ which 
he fays is (^rery wholefome ; but it muft not 
be done "when they are too hot ; and they 
IhouM confine themfelves only to the rubbing 
of their bodies when they are in a fweatj and 
let i!heir legs alone. 

Their racks being well fupplied with hay, 
^ou muft fuffer your horfes to reft two hours, 
W thereabouts, then lead them to water, to a 
fiTer, if near, or otherwile asabove direfted i 
and then in a little time after they have eaten 
their oats, to work again with them : in the 
eveningi when your plowiqg or other work 
is overs the firft thing to be done after they 
ore tied to the rack, ia to iift up their 
feet, and fee if there is any defeft in the 
ihoes» and ttt the fame time cake out with a 
knife^ the earth and gravel which is lodged 
in the foot betiween the fhoe, and the fole, 
and put in fome - cow«<lung : this your fer- 
¥ants x>ften jiegle£b, and therefore the maftet" 
ought to fee them do it. 

A thing very efiential for the prefervation 
ef all forts of horfes, is good litter, which 
CO thefe animals^ is comparatively the fame 
4M dean iheeta to men* There are many 
mho fuffer the dung to rot a great while 
wider their hories ; (bme through lazinefs 
m'M -not clean their ftab'les^ and others fay 
they leave the dung there that it may re- 
ceive moire juice, and be the better manure 
for the ground i but it is very wrong rea- 
foningj to fay we do this to fave five (hil- 
lings, and lofe ten : but you are to under- 
ftand, that the dung being heaped up for a 
<onfiderabte time, does fo over-heat the 
liorfe*s feet^ that this alone is enough to ruin 
them entirely. 

'Hence al(b ariie fo many inconvenienctes 
to the .owners .of them, that they are often 
obliged to keep them in the ftable without 
doing any work, which embarraffes either 
4he mefter to Whom they *belong, or the 
fcrvant who has the care to drefs them -, and 
this inconvenieoce proceeds only from their 
ignoranoe of theeaufe: and therefore it is 
<x * the ^bigheft importanee that the ft^bk 


D R A 

ihotild be deanfcd as often as poJlTible^ and 
the horfes have frefli litters given them ; 
befides, it is natural to believe, that all 
animals hate their own ordure j and'it is ab- 
furd to think, that a horfe, which is one of 
the cleaneft among them, fhould not do the 
fame. . 

Frefti litter has a virtue to make horfes 
ftale as foon as they come into the ftable, 
whereas when they find no fuch therein* 
they decliflc ftaling; and, if people were 
fenfible what refrefhment it is to a horfe to 
ftale at his return from labour, they would 
be both mere curious and careful to let him 
have that which would promote it than they 

This ftaUng after much fatiffue, will pre- 
vent obftru6tions in the neck of the bladder, 
or paflTage of the urine : but if otherwife, 
and that this fame urine comes to lodge in 
the bladder, it will caufe fome inflarhmationi 
there; which are very dangerous evils for 
horfes, and of which they very often dic", 
without prefeiK relief: hence you may judge 
of the neceflity there is to let your horfes fre- 
quently have Irefti litter. 

As to the remaining care you ought tp 
have of your horfes, fo that they may pafs 
the night as they ought, there needs no 
more after you have well rubbed them, than 
to fupply their racks with hay enough* 
which they may feed upon after they have 
eaten their oats : and continuing thus daily 
to manage them, it will be the means to 
keep them in a condition to do you good fer- 
vice. If you would fee more about buying 
other forts of horfes, fee Rules for BirviNp 

DRAW-GEAR, denotes a kind of harneHi 
for draught-horfes. 

DRAW-NET. A device wherewith to 
catch birds, and efpecially woodcocks ; the 
-figure of which will be found under that 
Article i to which fomething to be faid here 
does refer. There arc two ways, fays a 
French author, to defend the cords or lines 
of your draw-net from your hands, and to 
keep you from cold. Suppofe the crotchet 
or hook R, in the faid figure. Number 2, 
T 2 ftiould 

D R A 

fhould be denoted here by the figare r ; 
the ends of the two cords 2 and 3, and the 
two lines 5 and 6, were the cords to keep 
the net extended -, when you fit in your 
lodge, hold the place marked 7, very firm 
in one hand, and with the other pafs the 
two redoubled cords together, to the figure 
4, between your legs, and bring them over 
your thigh 5 then keep them tight enough, 
quit the places, and fo with either of your 
hands you will hold the cords without trou- 
ble ; but you. muft be very ready in opening 
them, and feparajte your knees when the 
woodcock gets into the net. See Plate V. 
No. I. 

Another way of holding the net without 
feeling any cold, or hurting your hands^ is 
£een in the figure, No. a. 

Suppofe the feat in the lodge be towards 
the letter R, drive the ftick H into the 
ground ; it muft be about twa inches thicks 
and the breadth of four fingers above ground: 
at a foot and a half from this littk (lake, as 
jou go towards the draw-net, at the places 
'marked K and M drivei two other thick 
flicks into the groundj^ and they muft not 
^exceed a foot above ground ; ^ hole fbould 
be bored Ln them within two inches of the 
upper end, into which yop may thruft a 
iing^r: rake a turned piece of wood, N,C,Oj 
whofe ends N, O,. muft be no. thicker than 
one's little finger, that they may the more 
eafily turn in the two holes I and L, into 
which you muft thruft them : you muft make 
a hole in the middle of the faid round piece 
of wood, big enough to receive a peg as 
thick as your finger, and five or fix inches 
long. This piece of wood ought to be fixed 
in the holes before you drive the two ftakes 
into the ground. 

, Befides this, take another piece of wood, 
H, G, F> let it be flat like a piece of a pipe- 
ftave, and cut at both ends in the form, of a 
half moon, that fo being joined to the ftakc 
H, it may hold. The machine being thus 
made, when you have fpread and mounted 
your net,, fuppofe the two lines A, B, were 
it's cords, raifc them both with the fame 
hand^ and doubling them with the other at 

D R A 


the letter C, give them a turn about th** 
end C, of the peg in the middle / then pufti^- 
ing the other end E, on the fide of the net, 
give the turned j ftick, or. round piece of 
wood, N, O, two turns, and fatten it, by 
putting fome of the ends of the marcher H^ 
againft the ftick H, and the other at F, 
againft the end of the peg E, fo that the 
weight of the draw-net, by this marcher or 
trap, will flop the turned ftick and hinder 
its turning* You may by this device keep 
your hands in your pockets, without being 
afraid of the net's falling; but keep the 
end of your foot always. upon the rpiddle- 
part G, and when the bird cornes. tOryour 
draw-net, ftir your foot, and the net will 
as readily fall as if. you held it.wich. your 

This triple draw-net ferves chiefly forpai^ 
.£cs made about, forefts 5 they are very convc«- 
nient,. becaufe one man can pitch.feveral oT 
them, without, being obliged to watch thie 
coming of woodcocks. See the form a/: tbid 
net in Plate V. Fig-* 3. • 

la orderto the making this n^t> you muft. 
take measure of the breadth and height of 
the place where you are to ufe it, ,and faften 
it to a nail, ia order to meafure ofir.t^^ fquare- 
meihes ^ as you^ wijl finfi un4ei; xht Article 
Net, and Net-makiko,. whcrp wc tr^tof 
making a net that will a bagywhick 
muft confift of good thick thread, ctvifted 
four-fold, and the mefb^s muft be ten or a^ 
dozen inches broad. 

It is difiicult, in great foreftst^ aiid wdpdi 
that are equally ftrong and tall, to makt 
glades,, without felling a great many trees i 
and yet you arc not fure your draw-net will 
do, without you meet with a place of tea 
or a dozen arpents or more, . each of which 
confifts of an hundred perches fquare, with- 
out any trees, and that the glade adjoins c# 

In, cafe you can have no fuch> you may try 
the following invention, defcribed inPlate\^ 

Fig- 4^- 
Pitch upon fome clear place on the fide 

of a foreft -, for example, fuppofe A D to 
be the iox^^^ and the ibace between the tree 


n R A 

A . and the letter E, to be the void fpace, 
five or fix fathoms broad ; pitch upon a tall 
and ftrait tree on the fide of the wood, as 
that marked A, lop off the branches towards 
your clear ground, and faften to the top of 
the tree a ftrong pole, as K, R, Z ; find 
out a tree in the wood of a middling big- 
nefs, as that reprefented by E, F, let it be 
as high and ftrait as pofllble : when you have 
taken ofF all the branches, carry it to the 
place where your draw-net is, and making a 
hole in the ground, as at E, four or five feet 
deep, and fix or feven fathom diftant from 
the edge of the foreft A, put the thick end 
of it into this hole. Lift it up, and let it ftand 
upright, after you have firft tied within two 
or three feet of the end F, fome bands of 
wood, fattened end to end to one another, as 
you may fee by the letters a, i, c, dy e^fy Sec. 
and then let them be kept tight, with wooden 
hooks fixed q[uite round in the ground: they 
ihould be nine feet diflant from the foot E^ 
and ordered like ropes at the mad of a (hip : 
at the fame time care muft be taken that 
none of them reach to the glade, or fpace 
"between A and E, fi^r fear of entangling the 
net. You muft fo fet your tree which you 
have cut, that the point F incline two feet, 
or thereabouts, towards the pafsto the foreflri 
and you are to fatten the puHy C to the fmall 
cnd,:witha cord or packthread thruft through 
It I as aMb ,to the tree A, and through the 
pully L. You may leave the thick cords 
there j but becaufe thieves might be tempted 
to ileal them, the beft way is to leave only 
the packthreadsf, and even to fliorten them, 
by tying a fmall packthread B to one end, 
and twitting the other about the trunk of the 
tree, at a place where they are not to be 
come at, efpecially with climbing up as far 
as the part H of the cut tree : but the bett 
way is. to take with you a light ladder, fix or 
eight feet high, by which you may more eafi- 
1^ fecure your goods. 

Another invention is, after the flight is 
over, to tack two cords together, by the 
means of which you may convey up as many 
flx>nes as far as the pullies ; then take a ftick 
y,. two feet long, and cleft at both ends^ 

D It A 

about which fold all the reft of the cord^y 
after which pafs them both into the clefts at 
the ends of the ftick, and let the whole mount 
up. Thus the ftones S,T, will come down ta 
half the height of the trees, becaufe the cord*^ 
aretied togetherat the lettcrX,and there wiir 
the ftick V hang downwards : fo that to or- 
der things rightly, you mutt hav.e a long pole 
with a hook at the end» wherewith to hook 
the piece of wood V, and pull" itj or elfc 
take a packthread, and tie a ttone as big as a 
hen's egg to it, that you may throw it be- 
tween the two cords over the ftick V, and 
by that means to pull it as with a hook« 
It remains only to obferve, that you may 
place feverat draw-nets round about the fo- 
reft, and even one man can pitch ten or a 
dozen of the triple ones. 
. This article might be thought to remaid 
impcrfeft, without fomethinglbould be faid 
relating to the flying, or buckled draw-ner> 
by fome called pantine ; which is of ufc in all 
places^ and efpecially in countries where 
there is nothing but coppices and forefts, 
whofe owners will not allow the felling any 
trees, or cutting of branches, neceflfary for 
the ufc of the former nets.. Se^ Plate V. 

Take two polfes, asE>.B, D,X, as thick as- 
your arms, of twenty-one feet long; they 
muft be ftraight and light, and pointed at 
the thick end: faften to each fmall end B,I>„ 
an iron> copper, or fuch like buckle, to fervc 
inftead of a pully: you muft alfo have a 
draw-net with buckles, into which you muft:* 
pafs a ftrong packthread; that is even, and- 
twelve fathom long : this packthread is de- 
noted by the letters B, G, D^ F ; you muft 
fold* it, that it may not be entangled with the 
net : you muft in like manner have a wooden 
hook F, of a foot long, for the convcniency 
of carrying your implements, to ufe as yoiii 
have occafi'on. 

It is to be obferved, that this draw-net 
muft be pitched no where but on the fides of 
a coppice, near fome vineyard, in the hig(i^ 
ways or walks, in a foreft or park -, elpecially 
when thefe places adjoin to fields, or open, 
grounds, in the middle or between woods*. 


t)ll A 

I • 

^ I 

"Vbu rnkj likewifc fpread this net along a ; 
brook, at the bottom of a pond, and indeed, 
in a manner, in all places frequented by 
tvoodcocks. You mult ufe it in the foU^w- 
ihg manner : 

' Suppofe the tree L (hould be the fide of \ 
the wood, or fomc other place where you 
have a mind to pitch your net, you muft 
unfold it, and tslke an end of the tliick 
packthread which pafTes through the buckle^ 
and tie it to the end of the pole at the letter 
B i pafs a fmali packthread £, K, into the 
buckle which is at the end 6,and tie it to the 
firft buckle B of the net, that you may draw 
it like a bed-curtam ; then flick the pole Q, 
£, quite round the wood L, in fuch a nuin- 
;her, that it may Hand firm in the ground^ 
and flope a little towards the tree. Take 
the other end of the thick packthread F and 
pafs it alfo into the buckle or ring; D^ which 
you are likewife to pitch in the ground, 
about five or fix fathom diftant from the 
' wood, or other .pole, B, £ ^ then withdraw 
fcven or eight fathom diftant from the net, 
to the foot of fome tree or buih, or clfc to 
fome branch which you have pitched oa pur- 
po(e, over-againft the net, as at the place 
marked F^ here you muft fix the hook^ and 
tie the end of the thick packthread, and then 
pull the whole till the net is mounted; 
you muft next twift the cord twice or thrice 
about the hook, to the end that you may 
keep it tight, while, you .go to pull the fmall 
packthread £, in order to extend the net; 
when this is done return to the hook, unfold 
Ihc cord, and fit near the bufh or cover, 
without ftirring, having your eye always to 
the net, that you may let it fall when the 
Woodcock gets into it, which you muft kill 
as foon as taken i and fetting your net readi- 
ly again do as before. It would not be amifs 
to put a fmall packthread into the laft buckle 
D of the net, as on the other fide, by which 
^you will readily adjuft the draw-net. 

, Thefe fort of draw-nets ihould have no 
other than lozenge meflies, becaufe they 
jtnuft glide along the cords, like a bed-cur- 
tain i the net fliould not be above five or fix 
£afhon\ wide, and two and a half or three in 


height. Ihe meihes l&ouldBe twotnchet 
broad, or two ^nd a half or three at moft | 
the net ibould be made of fine but ftrong 
thread, and the copper buckles faftened to 
all the mdhes of the laft upper row B, D5 
the leaver muft be itiade twice as long as you 
^ould have i^he net to be in extents then 
having a quarter more than the meafure of 
the height you cxnift acconrimedate the 
buckles^ which being adjufted in the manner 
wherein ^they ought to ftand, pafe a mid^ 
dling cord, or elfe a packthread as thick a& 
a writlnfi-pen« into all thefe buckles. 

Tou ihould have two other fmaQ padc- 
threads B, G« D, C, which you muft pafs ia« 
to the laft range of the meflies of both fide^ 
one of which muft be faftened to the buckle 
B, and the other to that at D, in order to 
keep the net right when you make ufe of itj 
and therefore the two ends £ and G muft be 
loofe, and longer than the height of the nee 
by ten or twelve feet : this net muft be of a 
brown colour. 

The draw-^nets are ufiially made with lo- 
zenge meflies, becaufe there are few perfons 
who know how to make them otherwife, but 
others advife them to make as much as you 
can of fquare mefiies ; for when they are thu^a 
wrought and pitched in the pafies, they are 
fcarce to be feen, and when entangled will 
contra^ the nets tpo much in fome plaqea# 
and darken the place, which frightens *the 
woodcock, and laall either make him go |?ac^ 
or pafs it over.^ 

You are to obferve concerning draw- nets 
with lozenge meflies, that more thread an4 
labour is required, than for thofe with four 
fquare ones, which are made fooner, and have 
no fuperfluous me&ies. However, everyone 
is at liberty in their choice either of one or 
the other. 

If you would have a draw-net with lozenge 
meflies, meafure the breadth of the place 
where you are to fpread it, make the net 
near twice as long as that meafure. It's 
height fliould be from that branch where thie 
pully is, to within two feet of the ground ; 
and that you may comprehend it the better, 
confulc the firft figure under the article 


D^R E 

Vboococic The breadth is from tKe let- 
tur V to- the letter Xj being the places where 
the (lones- Ihould fall, which are luppofed to 
he f^ftcncd at M and N ; when the net is 
ipread,. the height*(hould be taken fronri the 
puUy toconw down near, to the letter X; the 
ntt muft therefore be made one-third part 
longer than the height^ for being extended 
in br^dthj it will (hortcn one-third -,. when 
t<hc whole net is n)dhed^ you muft have a^ 
oord that i$ not quite fo thick as your little 
finger> through all the meihes'of the lad range 
Mj N I you fpuft faft«n both fjdcs, tying the 
tfac fix firft njc^cg'Of the row tcgcther to the 
cords fo that tb^y may flipalonjgi do th^ 
itme'by tht oih^r fide : thefe two places muft 
be dift^noedy. according to th^ width pf the 
p^^ U^viog tbt reft of the pnefties gf (he net 
ttev9 loofc, fo as to flip or be dr^wn from 
one fide to the other like a bed*curtain ritheh 
to ^acH of (h^ps cords tic a.packrhread^ which 
y«J muft P>f* w^PO the laft range of melhes 
Qft ihn fidc^ that fo.y^ou may hilon the nft as 
it fcouid be, to two trees A, Bi.a fow ar ?wo 
^f the cord fliould be fviffer^ to hang dowji 
sit each end of the net^ wh^rewifji tone the 
ftoncs,.when you would fpread the net,. 

If you would have a draw<-net wi(h.fquare 
me&eS) take thfC bre^lth and. h^ightj and 
vork gs albre&i^ ^ when the net is fit}iQ»ed» 
Yerge it M>ove with a prf tty ftrong cord, and 
nafs t#vp packthreads. through the meihef, on 
both &4p&» in (he faire m^ner as in that 
made lozenge-wifc,. and leave alfo bqth ends 
of the cord fo that the ftones may be tied 


DRAWING [with Huflfersl i8> beating 
tJift Ipu/hes after a fox ; drawing ^mifs, is 
a term ufeid whtn the hounds or beagles 
hit the fcentof their chace contrary, fo as 
ijxliit Up-the wind,, whereas they flaould have 
doAi: it downs in that cafe it is faid, they 
4rawr^fni&* . 

.DRAWING ^N. THE 5lot, is when ihe 
boujlds.tQUch the fce^t.^nfi-diaw on till they 
l)i£ all itbe fanae ic^ntw 

DRAWING A Ca«Tj f?Wo;ig Bowlers] is 
vioniog ithe wd, without birring the bowl, 

er blocks 

. DBAY. Thf fwmfer fiMfrclsineftsb^ik 
o» *bfe tops of trces^ 

D R r 

DRENCH : is a fort of decofttop prepa-- 
red for a (ick horfc; and compofcd of feveral 
drugs mentioned, in Mr, Sol/Neil's Completi 

They put the drench upon the end of ^' 
bull's pizzle, and thruft it down his throat, 
in order to recover his appetite and ftrength. 

DRIFT OF THE Forest, is an cxaft; 
view and examination taken at certain tirpcs,; 
as occafioa ihall ferve, to know what beads- 
are there j that none common there, but- 
fuch ^s have rights and that the forefl be 
not overcharged with foreigners beasts or 

DRINKING or Hokses, irnmediately 
after hard riding, &f^.. is very dangerous \. 
and therefore they Ihould not be fufFcred to- 
do it, tjll th^y be thoFOpghly cooled, aiid* 
have eat fome oats ; for many by drinking 
too foon have died upon it, or become lick. 

A horl'e after violent labour, will never 
be the worfc by being kept half a day from' 
watery but may die by drinking .an>hourtoo> 

DRIVERjS. A machine for driving ph©a- 
f|nt pp^ts^. confiding of good ftrong p^ier 
\fr^f)ds, fuch as baflcet-nhakers ulV ^ thefe are 
to be fet in a handle and twifted, or bound' 
>Vath fflOtll oziers in two or three plapes. See 
PUfe V, Fig. §. 

DRIVING OF Pheasant-Powts ; for the 
driving and taking of ppwts or young phea- 
faots IP nets } when you have found out an; 
eye of pheafantsj place your net crofs thc> 
little paths or ways they have made, which, 
are much like ihe^p tracks, poflTibly you (h^^ii^ 
find out one of their principal haunts,. which< 
may be done by the barenefs of the ground^,, 
their mutings and the feathers that lie feat* 
tered about. 

To do this you (hould always take thj&, 
wind with you, it being cuftomary for them; 
to run down the wind ; and place your nets^ 
hollow, loofe and circularly, the netTier parf 
of which muft be faftened to the ground, andi 
the upper fide lying hollow, loofe and bend- 
ing, fo that when any birds rulh in,, it O^ay., 
fall and entangle them. 

Havipg fixed your net go to the haxiDff,, 
and if yoju find jthem fquteied, call them to^ ^ 



•gcther with your call : and when you find them 
begin to cluck and pip one to another, then 
forbear calling, and take an inftrument, by 
fome called a driver, made of good ftrong 
white wands or oziers, fuch as are ufed by 
baflcet-niakcrs, which is to be fet in a handle, 
and in two or three places twifted or bound 
with fmall oziers, according to the figure, fee 
the Plate V. With this driver, as foon as 
you perceive the pheafants gathered together, 
make a gentle noife on the boughs and 
bullies about you, which will fo fright them 
that they will get clofe together, and run 
away a little diftance, and then (land -, after 
this make the fame no'ife a fecond time, and 
this will fer them a running again ; taking 
the fame courfc till you have driven them in- 
to your nets ; for they may be driven like fo 
many (beep. 

If they happen to take a contrary way ; 
then make a raking noife, as if it were in their 
faces ; and this noife will prefently turn them 
the right way. 

But in ufing the driver obferve, 

1. Secrecy, in keeping yourfclf from their 
fight ; for if they efpy you they will run and 
hide themfelves in holes under fhrubs, and 
will not ftir till night. 

2. You muft have regard to due time and 
leifurc, for rafhnefs and over hafte, Ipoil th« 

DROPPING I [in Falconry,] is when a 

DRIPPING J hawk mutes direftly down- 
wards in feveral drops, not ycrking her dung 
ftrait forwards. 

DRY.To put a horfe to dry meat is to feed 
him with corn and hay after taking him from 
grafs i or houfing hirn. 

DUBBING OF A Cock, fwjth Cock Maf- 
ters] a term ufed to fignify the cutting of a 
cock's comb and wattles. 

DUBBING, [among Anglers] is the 
making artificial flies, the materials for which 
arc fpaniels hair, hogs hair dyed iif different 
colours J fquirrcls, Iheeps, bears and camels 
hair, oftrich, peacock and turkey wing fea- 
thers, &?f. See Fish. 

DUCKS are amphibious birds, that live on 
land and water, of which the male is called 
M drake : there are two forts of them, viz. 

D U C 

the wild and the tame ^ the tame duck is fed 
in the court-yard, walks flowly, delights in 
water, fwims fwiftly, but fcarce ever rifes 
from the ground to fly. For Tame Ducks, 
fee the Article Poultry. 

As for wild ducks, thofc who are difpofed 
to employ part of their time in taking them 
with nets, 6fc. (hould ever have fome wild 
ones made tame for that purpofe i for the 
wild never affociate themfelves with thofe 
that are of the real tame breed : therefore be 
always provided with fevcn or eight ducks, 
and as many drakes, for fear of wanting upon 
any occafion ; becaufe they are often loft, 
and much fubjeft to mifcarry. 

The nets muft never be placed but where 
you have a foot of water at leaft, nor much 
more; fo that marflies, fands, flats, over-flown 
meadows, and the like, are the moft proper 
places for this fport. 

The nets ufed are the fame with thofe for 
plovers, and they are fet after the fame man- 
ner, only thefe are under water, and you need 
no border to conceal the net. The figure, 
Plate VI. will fliew you the net fpread ; your 
main fticks fhould be of hron, and ftrong in 
proportion to their length. 

But if the main ftick be of wood, faften 
good heavy pieces. of lead along the cord at 
about a foot diftance on the fides of the net 
to fink it down into the water, that the ducks 
may not efcape by diving: thefe pieces of 
lead are reprefented in the cut along the cord 
Q, S. See Plate VL Fig. i. 

Several fmall wooden hooks are likcwife 
fixed all along the verge of the net A,B,C,D, 
oppofite to the perfon that holds the cord to 
keep it tight, or elfe they alfo place fome 
lead there, to hinder the birds from rifing, 
that are caught. 

The hooked ftake X, and the pully V^ 
ought to be concealed under the water, that 
the ducks may not fee them. The lodge 
fhould be made of boughs, as under the word 
plover, which the reader may confult. Up* 
on the brink of the water, when all is ready, 
take the diicks and drakes, and place the 
firft in this manner: tie fome of them before 
your net, and as many behind at Y, by the 
legs, but fo that they may fwim up and 




I9 .citing fach grain or chippjAgs ii fou 
ihall throw to them for that prnpofe. Keep 
the drakes bf yon in your lodge s when you 
perceive ia flock of wild ducks come near 
you, let fly one of the decoy drakes, which 
wiH prefeBtlyjoin the wild ones, in expe^a- 
tion of his mate ; and not finding her there, 
dw wilt begin to call ; which being heard by 
tte femafo ded by the legs, Ihe will begin 
tto cry out, and provoke the others to do Ac 
fame : upon which the drake flies to his mat*, 
«Md generally draws the whole flock with 
tfaim, which greedily fall to eat the bait laid 
4or them. Now the ducks being once come 
within your draughty pull your cords with 
.the quickeft motion- you can ; And having 
thus taken them, let go your decoy-duck, 
and feed them well ; you may kill the wild 
iODct, and fi> fet your acts again as you fee 

r\ The wind h^ppena fometimes fo contrary, 
diatthe drake cannot hear his tnate when (he 
cries $ in which cafe you muft let go a fe- 
oood and a third to bring ift the flock yon 
idtfign to furprizei and your decoy-ducks 
iliould have fome mark of diftinftion, for 
the ftore i^ittlily knowing them from the 
wild ones, ^ the fewing ibfaiething about 
iheir 1^, cir the like: when the %at6r is 
troubled, and it bai^ rained a little, or that 
tbe wtearher is nMfty> it ia the beft time to 
tdce ducks with nets. 

A fecond way of taking ducks with nets is 
liytwon^ts, and which muft be fet in a 
•pl^C' where there ist at leifthalf a foot water, 
that they may be concealed 1 and therefore 
thofe who catch ducks in the water fliould al- 
ways be boojced. ^ Plate VI. Fig* a. 
The ftaves or fiick^ B, C, E, D, ought to be 
m$dt of iron, feven feet qt feven feet and 
# half long, and proportionably thick : the 
pickets, or flicks A, F, fliould be made 
fbr6ng' and half a foot longi the others, 
D, if, ihould be of the fame (trength, each 
4iaving a cord D, C, three fathom long : the 
tUves of the net M> O, fliould be longer 
than the others bv three inches, or half a 
IbMrthe lodge K, fliould be fixteen or 
^tghcein ikhom diftantftom fbe nets 1 the 
loiot N of the cord, where two other cords 

are made Mt, as N, G, Hy O, fliould be flue 
r or fix toiiea diftaat from ' the firft flares' i 
and forafmuch asi all thefc cords of tht nets 
fliould be failBened with all your force^ fticlu 
or pieces 'of wood half a foot long fliould be 
fixed flopli^gly .in the ground, dft the fide of 
the letters I, L, M, O, to keep the iron ftavts 
down in. the water, fiiom whence they hnng 
them out, by diawing die cord K» N. 

Manage your decoy*ducks and drakes as 
before i there it no need that the wil^i ducks 
fliould fwim on the water before yo^ draw 
your net$, for you take them at the fame 
time diey alight upon it. 

A third way of catdiing wild ducks, is 
with bird-lime ; of which take three or four 
pounds of that which is old and rotted ; to 
each pound put two handfuls of charcoal^ 
burnt fl:raw, and as much nut oil as the flieM 
of a hazel-nut can contain ; mix and work 
the whole together for a quarter of an houi^ 
and anoint one or more . cords therewith, 
ea<ih of them being ten or twelve fathom 
long ; and conveying them to the place where 
wild ducks frequent, get a boat, if you do 
not care to go into the water, and fet the 
cords among the ruflies or other herbage, 
whither the ducks* retire : pitch thetwoftavoi 
in fuch a manner that the enfls may be even 
•with the water, and tie a very ftiffcord to 
them» which mull be borne up on the water 
with fome bundles of dry ruflies ; when the 
ducks are got among the herbs and ruflies, 
they will at length come to the cord, which 
will embarafs them, at which time they 
will endeavour to take wing ; but not being 
able to do fo, thev will drown themfelves 
in endeavouring to get loofe. 

Aiburth way of taking wild ducks in the 
water, is with noofes or fprings made of 
horfe-hair, otherwife called running flips and 
horie-hair collars, a cheap and eafy way, ef- 
pecially in fuch low marfhes as are overflown 
not above a foot and a half deep ; obferve 
their moft frequented haunts, and there throw 
a little corn for two or three 'days, to em- 
bolden and draw them on : for having once 
fed there, they will not fail to return thither 
every day. 

You mufl: then plant feven or eight dozen 
U of 

o«f.yirfi# Vimfri((g jfip^^df^nalLiKire or horfc- 

•hditi-coUars, tied two mttHteo.tdgethcr, as 

^in Plite VI.. Kg. 39 to lUtlc (harp pointed 

..ftakbs^^ ihewn. by the letters I> K, L, M, N, 

O ; they niuft be fixedfo far into the ground^ 

Uhat the. uf per ends of them and the collars 

may be juft hid a little JU/ider the water ; and 

;(hen throw:fortie borlcy). or tbelike^grain, 

amongft^ehi> that foiyommay catch them 

^either by the nock or legs :* you mullrefort 

■ditcher twice or thriceievecy day to. fee how 

you focceed. 

' The •coilars may in like manner be placed 
as in the fecond figure following : Take a 
iiharp pointed ftake about two feet long, 
in iproportioa to the depth;Qf the water, as 
•.y, ; V > bdrc two Jioles ohraugh the thick end 
T> into which put twa flicks> is P, R> and 
Q«S, each «of them (hould be about, the 
thicknefs of one's little finger, and two feet 
Jong ; they muft be firmly fet in and well 
.pegged; faften, your collars or flipping 
^nota to the- end of your ftick, as the let«- 
tters P» Q» R, S, deoote: this done, and 
ihaving fixed your ftake T, V, in the ground 
4b far. that it may be all under water> fo as 
,that your knots may juft fwinx open on the 
top of it : then call your grain or chip- 
|>ings of bread in and out among the faid 
Kakes, the better to entice the ducks 10 
come : you may make ufe of feveral. of theie 
ftakes, and place them feven or eight feet 

. There is a fifth way of catching wild 
ducks, and that is with hooks and line, as 
appears by Fig. 4. t < 

. Faften your lines well and. firmly to ftrarp 
pointed fticks, as (hewed by the figure 
marked G, and ftake down the fiicl^ Into 
the ground, then bait your hook.H, with 
an acorn or bean F> or with a fifh or frog, 
asatC; you may alfo b^t with a worm, 
as at V, by thefe you may learn to bait with 
paftes, or the like ; and you woiUd do well 
to feed the ducks two or three days before, 
at the place where you intend to fet your 
lines and hooks, the better to draw them oo> 
and embolden themi and you fhould alfo 
vifit your fport every morning and evening^ 

D U W 

to. take up What^you ^ave'I caoght, ,and to 
re^ify.what "maybe tmifs. . t t ^ . !• ;'/. ': 

Some of. our JSnglifii aoth^s having fyi 
down. a nnethodjhow welhall preferrerwiM 
ducks, fay we muft will in a little piece of 
i^ground, wherein there ;i& ibme finallpond 
or fpring, covering the topiof .it all x>ver 
with a ftrong net ; the pond muft 4ie fet with 
many tufts ipf ozifcrs^ aod hiave many feertt 
holei and cre^s .; which ^111 inure fihetn so 
.feed there, though canSned. j : 

The wild duck, when (he lays, wiU teat 
from the drake, and hide her lieft, or clfe 
he will fuck her eggs,. -After (he haahatcb. 
ed, Ihe is very carefql to breed her yiouh^^ 
and needs nq attendance more than «neac> 
which given twice a day, as fed*- 
ded bran, : oats, or fitches. Thic houfe hen 
will hatgh wild duck-eggs aa. well as tame^ 
and the meat will be much better ;. yft eve^ 
ry time the ducklings . go- Jntb the water^ 
they arc in dangcp of th<:; kites, biccaufe the 
hen cannot guard them. Teal|»* widgeons, 
fhell drakes, or green plovera, may bfiM». 
dered alfo in the fame niadnec aa wild 
ducks. , . ' . . . » ,^^fv 

DUCKER^t ilia kind.offiookthftt li 
DOUCKER^j S -.fighting will . fiw.^toiK 
the dod< almeftatrev^vJtroke I\««gjhrci« 
. DULL; the oaarka otra^d^ll, ftupid;hoiA^ 
are white fpot^ remind tjiexqre 4ind oq die^dp 
of the noie upon any ^enoraVcolour wbath 
foever: thefe iitarks. i^rc hard' tp-bf diftin- 
guiftiedina wMcebbrfei tt^^^gk thcdKiilgtl- 
take the ifpots for fign. of. .ftppiditjf, it it 
certain they are gr^at Ggas q( the goodftcl^ 
of a horie, and th^ hocfes that have, 
very fenfible and quick upon the fpur. 
DUN, Sii Colours of a Hoftss^ 
DUN HOUjN£Xi. thefe d<>gs are gM4 
for jail chafes^ and .therefose of general 

The beft coloured ^e fuch as. ate duntop 
the back, having their fore-quarters (an^'d 
or of the complexion of a hare's legs : but 
if the hair on the back be black and their 
less freckled with red and blacki they cheii 
umally prove excellent hounds^, and indeed 
there are tdm of a dun colour to b« jbun^ 

^' bad;; 

:. </ 

\ai > iurd the vorft . of chem are facb/whoft 
legs arc of a whitilhcokkir* ♦ 

It tk'^nderftil in thefe creatdres, to ob- 
fttv^' horn much: they ilick upon the know^ ^ 
ledge of-theit txiafter/ elpecialfy his voice 
and homy and no one's eUe : nay more than 
thati they know the diftant voices of their 
Mkm, and do know? who are babbkers ^hd 
liars^ and who not s and will follow }}he one 
and not the other, t 

Now for hounds t the weft country, Cbi* 
fi>ir€^ and Lam^ftery with other wood-land 
and mountain couhtriesj breed our flow 
Itc^ancft, whidi k « large great dog, tall and 

' Iriin^eftirjbir^y Bu^ardjhire and many well 
mixt foils, where ehaoEipagne a^d covert are 
df equal- largeaefs,! prepuce a nniddle fized 
dog oC a .more* jiiinble compofure than the 

: LaftlyV die north parts, as Tarkjbire^ 
Qimiefl^i NMbitmbertandy and inany other 
pUiif^chavni^giie countries, bixed the light, 
ohnbhr, imft^ fl^nder^ fleet hound. 
> After all thefe, die little beagle is 
athibuted to Our country ; the fame that is 
eaHed ;chegc|ze hound : bi^fidea the maftiff, 
odnck^feems to be a native of England^ we 
aMratitdn up moft excellent greyhounds 
fh#hlcb feem to Have been brought hither by 
ttMsGuuk) in our open champagnes. 
. .All thefe dogs have deferved to be famous 
in adjacent and remote countries, whither 
they >are feat for great rarities, and ambi* 
iwtifiy fought for by .their Lords and Princes i 
although only the fighting dogs feem to have 
been known to the ancient authors; and 
perhaps in that age hunting was not fo 
much cultivated by our own country* 

DUNG OP A HoRSS, fliould be obferved 
upon a joura^y ) if it be too thin, it is a 
Ggn that either his water was too cold and 
piercing, or that he drank too greedily of it ; 
if there be among his ordure whole grains 
4>i oats, either he has not chewed them well, 
or his ftomach is weak ; and if his dung be 
4»lack, dry, or come away in very fmall and 
liand pieces, it:is a lign that he is over heat* 
ed in his body. 

: Vifcoust'oriflimy durig,. votWdBfa^Acfe- 
horfe, (hews that h^ is not duly prepared ;> 
in . which cafe his garlic, balls and exercife- 
are to be continued till his oi;f}ure: comd.^ 
from him pretty dry, and without moift-j 

•DUST AMD SAND will fometimes fo dry 
the tongues and mouths of horfes^ that they 
Idfe their appetite, 

'In fuch'cafe give them bran well moiften* 
ed with wiiter, to cool and rcfrelh their 
mouths and tongues, or moiften their* 
mouths with a wetTponge to oblige them to 

DUST : to beat the duft. See Beat. 


EARS or AN HoasE, fliould be fn^p 
narrow, ftrait, and the whole fubfbam^ 
of them thin and delicate : they ought to 
be placed on the very top of the head, jandi 
tbeir ;points, when ililed, or pnclqed -uppi 
fliould be nearer than their roots. ;ii oint vj i 
When a horfe carries his»ears poiotbd ioiA 
wards, he is faid to^ have a bold, hiE^fdy^ 
or briflc ear; alfo when a horfe is traveHin^r 
he fliould keep them firm^ and not (Hkaw 
hog) mark every ftep by motion ^ hm 
ear. >: . ' > -m!) r: 

To cure a pain in ja ihorfc's'^ears-^c 
cleanfe them well, focifear the hovfe I^kmUI 
run mad, and then put in ibma hoirieyu filt 
petre, and very clean water j; mix the HhsHm 
together, .and dipping a Itnea'Cloth thefei* 
to attradb the moifture, continue the applM 
cation till the cure is'effieAetlvj; I . * > nA 

To take out any. thing incommpdioiti$ m% 
horfe's ear, put in an equal quantify of oM 
Oil and nitre, and thruft in- a Uttle^wtyDl : 
if fome little animal has got in, you^muft 
thrufl in a tent fattened to the end of a fticki 
and fteeped in glutinous rofini turn it.ia 
the car, that it may flick to it. 

If it be any thing clfc you moft open the 
ear with an inflirument, and draw it out vith 
an iron ; or you may fquirt in fome Water ; 
and if it be a wound, you mufl drop in pro* 
per medicines to cure it, 

?(? EARTH, is to go under ground, to 
run into a lurking hole, as a badger or a 
fox does. 




E 0» 

FARTH^^WORMS, or reptiles yinth 
fi^rtre both for food 'for birds, aad baits for 
fxfli ; and as it is (bmetimes difficalt to find 
tbem^ riie ^Uowihg methods are fist domro> 
by which you nnay have them almoft in ail 
fcafons of the year. • 

The 6r{l, is to go into a meadow^ or 
fqnie other place, full of herbs or grafs^ 
where vou fuppofe there may be fuch forts of 
worms; add there to dance, or tadier cram- 
pie with your feet for about half a quarter 
of ^n hour^ without cealing, and you will 
fee the worms come out of the earth about 
you, which you may gather, not as they arc 
creeping oiit> but after they are come quite 
out i for if you (hould ceafe trampling for 
never fo Ihort a time, they would go in' 

Another time to get worms, is when 
Aetc arc green walnuts upon the trees $ 
tjdce a quarter, or half a pound of them> aod 
put into the quantity of a pail of water, rub* 
hm^ the iiuiks of the nuts upon a brick, 
^r fquare tile^ holding them in the bottom 
cf the water : continue to do this till the 
water ii become bitter, and of a tafte that 
Ae warms wiil not lilce : fcatter this watec 
upon the place where you judge worms to 
iki and they will /come out ot the ground 
ib! is^quarter of an :hotir« . Ste Worms.: 
: £^ILLAI>E, is a check of the bridle 
%iikh tfae horfemen gives to the horfe by 

• jerk of one rein, when he, refufes to 

An ebrilladecliffiers from afaccadc in this^ 
Am ii&ccade is a jerk made with both- reins 
in! once. 

* kteft people' confound thefe two words, 
under the general aame of a check or jerk of 
she bridle^ but let it be as it will, it is al* 
ways a chaftifcment, and no aid, and the 
ufe of it is banifhed the academies.. 

eCAVESSADE, is a jerk of the cavef- 

£CHAPE: an echape tn a horfe got be- 
tween t^ ftallion and a mare of a different 
breed and different countries. 

ECHAPER, to foSer a horfe to efcape, 
OF flip upon the handi^ agallicifm ufed in 

the Aeademiea, implying :t^ gi\s(him/Jie4d^ 

orputon at full fpMd« Ir i * j uv A 

KGOUTB:; Ajp^ca or nn^HtoD^.^ ^horfe. 
He is faid t^ be tcbute, on'^Omimst^ whmtT 
he rixles well upon the.hMdifin^ iitrlii^ Qom«' 
paftly put uponrhifr •hii0A<:he«,i>Md.JHnutSfor: 
liftens no the .heels or fp^yj4i4 coiiliqiie$.- 
duly baiancdd between, the bte W iiw^fhflMfi«; i .. t^ a- l^n .ra.( 

This happens, when a . Jborfe '>bf3Ka ffaMt 
fenfe of the wis of thehandiandlhiedi; . ' 

ECURIE,. is a covert place for tile^iqdg-^^ 
ing and houfing of hoHes. 

£CUYtiR, a iFrentb: word, <iw AgSjfi^ 
querry) has different fignifications in Fr^Mmi 

In the acadenoy or :maba^>' thCiiiKitog- 
mailer .goes fay the name- of fovfo;, , ; . i a 

EEL. It is agreed byjraoft nieii» thaR) 
the eel is a moft dainty, fids s itha R^mmA 
have efteemed her the Helena of theic^ftaftai 
and fomethe-^qi^een ofpalase-pkiafupew. But 
moft men diiirr about dMar4mt4ifig^:<>€M«fr 
i^y they ibroed by ^nefsilioniat Mfaet .itfliiik^ 
and others that they hrced^ a9.tonie. ffdrmn- 
do, of mud; aa racs and mice^'and fiAny 
ether living creatures are brcA ka ErypAi hf 
the fun^s heat, when : it Bxvm^ iq>Qn me Met ^ 
flowing of the river NUmi or . avxixxd' thm 
putrefa^OB of the earthy and <difters:ioilttr 
ways. Thofe thatr deny tHem aq iarced' hf 
generation as other fifls ido, aflk, if iMf.mfOat 
ever faw an eel to have a fpawn or m^ i 
and they are anfwered«. that they naaqr be al-. 
certain of their breeding as if thqr had ieeb' 
fpawn : for they fay, that they are ottfaio; 
that, eels have; all pares fit for! generation^ 
like other fifb, but fofmaH^as not to. he 
eafily difcemed, by reafoo of their facnefti 
the he and the fhe eel cnay be difttnguiiheii' 
by their fins. And Rondeletius fays, he hm- 
feen eels cling together like dew^-wormfi. 

And others fay, that eels growing - oidi , 
breed other eels out of the corruptioa of 
their own age, which Sir Fnmdr Bacm Xvcf^. 
exceeds not ten years* And othecs fay, that: 
as pearls are made of glutinous dew^drepa, 
which are condenfed by the ftm'Sihenttm 
thofe countries, {o eels are bred ^f aparticNi- 
lar dew falling in the au>nths:ofiU^<fr:^iKKif 

an tle'fanOcsioC.iBne: poiticuldr i p^ckioi! 
ii«er%'ia;didiCKrfl'^^y,^Ba&iiit from ^ftcVcftdyi 

nnPBd>aDCkK*eels:|)iftnd (bmeloCth^ aocichts: 
Iw^ cattfd the eelis thic are thus brdd> the 
ofiwriDg of Jove* 'Thet^'^ar-hcea fetit 
ifiuic. beginning oH.}^/^ in.airiMcr .nofCfar 

omrvifch fUimg^ilsrabam the .i^knefsiafT 
^ltew>«ad.i!l^dc ^?1^ bn'thfi topof Ahfttn 
immp^ ^^^lidk'aS' motes anefaid to be tn the; 
#|n: xhv t^keiijofooher rivera>.as niunely in 
Sn$t^, wiiereihey are calleci *i^}vdrS'; and 
a pond or mere near Stafford/hire^ wh^te 
talenl^ohe/Ia firanfiB^^ ftt^dhpihadH'ieils 
tflMMnd &; |Krach» rthac 'manjrfofithelpoorsr 
Ibcc ^ of firojxie that ; i^fiabm/oear ita i^ rake 
i%cW eelfr ouf of ^this more 'wiblk ifiTiea^ or 
iheecs^ and4iiake alitndofeol^caikerof tfaeitiY 
and ^t; it. as bread. .And GigfSB^tr.^tdMes 
ipeiYtrahk JSnir. to-lar^. cbac ht En^hmiximT^ 
hr4Xk iOanid calkd r £/f, b^; ifeafon of the. in* 
H^rrieyabie'-humber of edbrthsftbresddimJtbi 
BiMf ihat eels may bcbrdd ds^fpnew fKCrms^ 
and fome kind of bees and vafps are either 
l^f d^^9 or out of the corruption of /die 
earth> feents . to be ' made j prophble' bf rtM 
bUriiacks and^aong gofiings iDred by: the 
ibl^Siheat, and the roc^n ^ank&Df an sAd 
fliipy ^aadltacohtd.drtree^:} bothlwliich/tarG 

Camd€ny2itidi Gerhard \n his HeriaL ' - *, - r 
ft isfai'd by :&dirid^&//^9. that. thofc eels 
Aal are bi^d in^^siinns d3at:rdiikc.t«v t>j' a^i 
BMr^^r toichef feai/ skSfcr stmtn'^M. the. fxtfli 
%rafedi^.a& t^e' £alnioajdloea .whda thiyAmvA 
rnie^^ftcid t^ fatosWacefTi; and; chough Siir 
Francis Bacon will allow the eel's life to be 
but ten years, yet he, in his hiftory of life 
and detflh^ intentioik si ^hnptey- viklonging 
to the iS^2»40iMmpeyor<<tabeJTy3de fianfe, and 
fb kept for almoft threefcore years : and 
ihJt^^tfe/ol andopleaianc. obferda<ians)!jyfifere 
Miaick^of fhift kki^x^f, that Cr^«i the orator 
^b<> kept her, lamemed her deaths. . And we 
tt^M4o6Mr\Uakewell, x\utHortenfias'\tta 
feen to weep at the death of a iacnprey that 
]£b'had kept li&n^i ' ^ ' ' 

It i^ -grants 'by aU ormv&rsked, ^ateek\ 
fer'k&aut fix months^, that is to fay, the fix 

Er B: L.. 


d^9¥fib. neith^ iH #h?>R|«§»5 «PWP f Nc iP!Q«?U, 
ia !wHic^ ijljey ttTg^j ^Vti%ltf g«! i«t9>hc, 

togefbjcr bed UiQtnfH*J<^ flf»4rl^v«:'||j^^ovtt 

• feeding. :upoA any ^kn^lg^iiis^fme^ fm^\(m 

1 h4V^.bfenj<>|}rpr(t^d<<>/d«^ftl»)iq|||ffff^«^^^ 

: tb(»fe>f»^ iipWi*ibftd«rtifiliH>r«t^y4pr;^ 

■ b^ag JlWeivf0cT(>n4usslcJv«|ftrj3|j)^t^r^ 
G^«fr quotes Albertus to^^Xftxikf^ ^<^ 
ye^jf^^f'j, Aat; yHfiirfr winter: rt>eAiigi^^ 
cc5idj^thiaA.iyiii^j^*.fj«Jl?jdi4 ib>^ j»ti|iy.VHi5v 
ftind;:gec:pucaf t-he yi9^r in^);at|ta(c^* « JvtfS 
la^^rhnMow,. Itijft*i^(id»y.-«wu*^, ^wtfetfesBR 
iM)4^dir^€«i^lMf9l. lifttfiiJI^^/roft'yiej^ 

tiheratw ,7Aridf(S#nri^'iflflMW/'t|iat ys^i-hnfOr^f 

with fpades; wh^r^ t>o , >water was neai: to tl 
pkcef ' The eeljs^ irppit^^nf. of co^l, fo.jir 
hMhiibeos ,«Winiedar <fc^%ft%.,^»affl[i. mi^^i^ 
w^aH' bas'beeii;;l«w>wRi t<^^|vf r^f $iiv%:a\«^ 
oTtlw/lvaMr. ] -.^ ^:jif[ . .j ?., ..,- \ , ' ;• ... 
ii;SQitne cMruf|]albiri(;hfirs;Aa^'tIv^ na^^ipe^^it 
fUhi ob£ervc,5^t; t&Qfcj arefcycral^^o^ 
liiu6eToC .eels, ids th*>i^lvc;r .c^Ji,.,^ .gi 
eel,wkh! .wbiclilthe .fflr^fir .?9^MMr^j abg^ 
^n<litht)fe itt^€j tHtteA^jg|i^i.finfJ,ajfrl; 
eeil^ ^h^h^ j):nMf^flataA.4ibiggfrti^ 

9wdioary:iidlilucatf©v« ^fi&IVrw^fi 44«if«fi% 
arddiilH' ^ i^ldocn' ;{9)|Aii ^4^ th|^>!na|ioii^ 
t[h(^fe 6{v(erar kihd^ ofN^ei^ !^»); &;- fomi;^. 
(jit^rflty . hrtdi qM "^ o^^ tb^ )fl?r^lVticia: of tbq 
<rWtfai md. foNAe^jby d^^t f^n^ Qtjier ipayt a^ 

^k>;a%*eittb()tf^i«f§w tbattl» 

filver eel is bred by generaiiojii jH^txvat bjr 
fpimwn^ :%^ 53>«hqr^.,fiftttc^.>^ ihatt hctf 
t»of>fl fecftaa ^JfcT^rl ffoj^^ihar,. being tAeA» 
littie. Jire:::eelfri 4ip biggw; iM>c longer. thaa<a: 

:_ cTflheroel/nMy b(ij.'.4y»ig^fljitfcdi.v^$ l^njtjt- 
oft^i^fc^ai iftifh ^QW^ered -iaw^ with a.4oi>^ 
Y^tev^cWtnnofW^ i^»5i©?.t;:Oi^ af|>e9v chicixnijv 
4H ilh«igttts ol aay! , fifhy . f^ \m\t\k^ almoft an>| 
t-hihg^ (for he is agreedy iUb> He may b^- 
<?^gh^ wkh (a 1-ittk lamprey,' which fomo 
call a pride, afld (fi^^in^^e h'^ months. Ij^- 
fsit«id'(naay/0f/th£ni^i^tl)kf: ^'ham$Sy,z\Si^\a\ 
irtsny:pfltid-htap^,ia^9ther44??crs., ; i 

/iNote/ Thgijb* CHE^iftkiow^ fti« in the day;, 
but then hides himfelf, and 'therefore is. 


E ff Ij 

. nM^cfi^to itkB b«hk 01^ ci^ hy' 

throwing « Aftilg<>eibfe the ftrearft wftli/maiiy i 
'' 'iH it» and thoTe baited with the afore* 
^\ ti^V 'dddor'plummet/or jlfone, 
tliro#n ihittPtlrit^ rivei^'^kh this line, that fo 
<^ Hhijiti the^nto^ihg find it hear to fome > 
SKj^placei ^nd^^Mtake'itup with a drag- 
libbk'»r«tlifer*lirc.' ' 

"Eels ido-*ii6t tiftfaUjr ikir in the day time, 
for then they )iide themfelves under Ibme 
ciihre.1^;.^' imdrr boards or planks about 
flBod'gat«s, or weau-e^^'^f mills, ot in hdes 
in the fiver bfcnks 1 W that • you obDsrving 
yd!Qr'ti>[i1^ iA^a warhi day, when the water i^ 
)o#fefl:,* may^take a fltohg 'ihiall' hook tied 
to a ftron^ line, or to a ftring about a yard 
Bng, and t^cn into:'6hc of thcfe holes^or' 
betweeii any boardsf about a mil), or under 
an^ great flmiS or plank, or any [ilace where 
you think an eel npay hide or flielter herfelf,- 
ydu may; ivith thic hetj^'of aifhort ftickput 
m yoiir bait,- t>Ut leifurely, and as far as ydu 
may conTeatently :^ and it is fcarce to be 
doubtc!d> btrt that if there be an eel within 
the. fii^c of 1t| i^.ne^l^ill bite inlbantly^ 
and'- as certainly ' ^orge it: you need not'tb havt^hlnf, If you pull him not out 
0f' the hb|e' tob ^Ui6kly, but pull him out 
l^ degrees ; for he lyin^ folded double in his 
hdfe, wtll with the lielp of his tail break all,* 


' The -daunts of the eA'are weeds, under 
rt)Ots^ fturnpsof ti^es^' holes, and clefts of 
tfa^' earth, ^oth- i^ the ^i^s and at the 
bpttom, and in the plain mud : where they 
lie inrith only' thtfr^^4»eady out. Watching 
forpfey: ™y>i-i- alfb^ fodttd under great 
ftohes, oldtHiriber,^'aboiitflood-gatejl, weares, 
bridges, and'dldlnilfe'j they delight in ftill 
waters, and in thofe that are foul and muddy ; 
though the fmaller fccli'are to be met with 
in all forts ^f rivers arid foils. 

■Although the manned iin which eels, and 
indeed all. fifti lift gen^Med/ is fuffkiently 
;i6ttled| as appears in the foregoing notes. 

I there yet ren^iiiswa: qudftioh/undeddoii hfy 

i aaturalift^y and that . is, . Whethtb; tha t ^ 

j bean onparoos/or^aviviparoua^fidi V:\Wkli4m 

\ inclines to the latter o^inioai: ' The IblbMfitt 

ing relation from Bdwlier may'gti Jiear Ao' 

determme*thefqueftion. ^^ i^^ ^ri'iqefio 

Taking it for granti^d thea.t2iat:.oeklji»i 

not (pawn; all wc hayc:to fiy in thia f^cd^'i 

that'^ though, as: our 'author 'teUi ,vih thttg& 

are never out feafoi^ yet^ as Ibche /a^^^t#]a 

are beft in Winter, and vfor&la'Miy A-m^ 

, it is to be noted of eels, that the longer th^ 

live the better they are. AnfjUr^ s Sme Qidd^ 

104. : :' . \a\\. \ ^ .14 

Of baits for the eel, the beft .are : loltfr 
worm, loach minnows, fmaU ^pope^ pe%rQ{t 
with the fins cut off^ pieces of vajpy QAk 
efpecially bleak, or being very luoid,; wititit 
which I have taken very large ones. . . . ^\\ 

As the angling for ells is noHvery pleafftnt 
amufement, and is always atteaded wilk 
great trouble and tlie rifque of tackle, ma*^ 
ny, while they angle for other fifii, lay linea 
for the eel, which they tie no ts^eeds, flagSj 
&r. with niarks to iind them byj or you 
may take a long packthread line, with a 
leaden weight at the end, and hook^ iQOped 
on at a yard diftance front each other : faftea 
one end to the flags, or on the Ibor^ - and 
throw the lead out, and let the line Ue foaie 
time, and in this way youmay probably^ 
take apike« . . ^ 

The river Kennel \n Berkflbire^ the Sscur in 
lyorfetjhire^ Iri in Lancajbire^ and AnkiaMf 
in lAncoliiJhire, are famed for producing excdn 
lent eels : the latter to fo great a degree, ^$ 
to give rife to the following proverbial 
rhyme : 

Ankbdm eel, and Wltbam pike» 

la all England \% none like. 


But it is faid there are no eels fuperior 14 
goodnefs to thofe taken in the head of the 
New River near IJlington ; and I myfelf have 
feen eels caught there with a rod and lii^c^ 
of a very large fize 

Eels, contrary to all other fifli, 
fwimup, but. always down the ftream< 


* . i . • 

•clTiAer6Wi>r,! fix lili€;Si. (<»• what mimljcr 
IfPH^think^fij;^ each of them about fixceen 
yards long, and at every two yards, pnakq 
#tn«f)9^cl h<ng on a hook armed^. either to 
^bufclofv^hr^edrQr .fiJ.k.tiyill>. for. that is bet--, 

Sli«h.»n|.^ire : Jj^it ydur hooky, wi?}i nvi-j 

^^WrjJ-itioiJ^very Boqtejktithtre:^? ra line 
baiteCit 'jand ^D the Unes mud iie acrois thq 
fi^c<9: in ^ the dd^peft places either; witl^ 
ftones^ or pegged down, lying in the bof>{ 
»nnr Teu ipaft .^wtch al^r night, or fife 
SffiFf **arly i^ the mfi^^nQ ^t'\yj^^k,of^^}f, 
(opP:QlfQyou .wijl Ipij^ naany.diat were hui^) 
MkI 4raw wup the linesiy ypon each of which 
3Fflu^.9iay ./expert. , two, oir,.Jchr6c. «cls ok 

ui U^hySPJ^A^i tolls inftnirpenf U mad^ 
for^the mbft part with three forks or ^ccthi 
JWgSd- W.^hp: f¥^\ b«t {pnv:';tiavq fjHir, 
3Viuch^40:.ari^ the belli this they ^rike into 
.the mud at the bottom of the river,, and if it 
jcbancf to. light where they lie^ there is no 
l^r.qf taking ^cm: . 

. t But t9 take.^e {^rgeft eel^ of all, . nigHt^ 
/^ooks^are to be^l^jcecji M^itH fmall rq^ches^ 
-aod tH^.hook^ qf^uft lie in th'e,mouti} of x\^q 

EEL-BACKED Horses, are fticn as have 
jbjack Ul^s along their backs. 
. npFFfiCTS OF THE Hand, are taken for 
ti^^s^ L fy. the motions of the hand that 
tcirvf to ^Qndud t^ horfe. . 

inhere 9|[)e fourcfffds of tfie hand, or four 
ways of making life of the bridle, namely, to 
puih the horfe forwards, or give him head i 
m haUi him in ^ a^d.^wn thke4)lMid either to 
thcxigbtorleft,; >^Na^^V. ^, / 
^^EJ^VERSi a, fortqf gr4gs,,VJ«?fmaU! cel&, 
whicji fH a cpn;a|a tiipe flf 4c Rpar, fv^inp on 
the tqp^ftlie.ira^qr, about ^riyfe/^piyj GIoh- 
V^w aud^^cc ij^ouned up in . fnd^l i nets.: 
(y.a. peculiar; a^nner of drefl[u\g they ' are 


^•1 r .'J 

fgl embrace a volt, when \n working upon 

roks he mak^s a good way every time whh 
nis fore-legs, 

,, ?^uth -f horfe has embraced a good deal of 
ffrou,p4 ;• for wh^o the place where his fore- 
t^cf ftopd, to WW re they now (land, he hai 
^ipbraced^ of gone over> almoft a,fppt,^nd a 
half ' , ;. 

If be doca not etpbrace a ^ood dejilrof 
;r9iunij, he wjUonly beji^ tjie.diift s^^that is^ 
le w^n futhis f(^rc'fi(i\;llw hy.^'xK^ placQ 
from whence be lifted |;&em^**^-.;^ - . . ''. 
\ Thus the oppofite term, to. enibrace a volt 
is, beatingthe duft. '"' "J, - 

_ .,A horfe cannot take in. too inucK^grcdind^ 
provided Bjs; cl-oupe Vs^^aot ;tl^rq)K/pu]L| 
;h^^ js^..prc)v,id^, it dqc^ ,ni}% ^(^.QHf,9t.m^ 

EMPRlKlkD; * [Ruling tcTO^ 
hunters when a hart forlakes the herd, 
.ENCRAIlJ^Es. ai> old, obfolcte and im- 
proper word, fignifyfng,^^; wjther-tung^ 
or fpoiUdin th^. withers. .. ^ ^ j^,^ ^ ^ 

;, r(?'ENJ5EW, Jfn fjfh;pQtyJi^,<i,Vx^ 

when a hawk fo digclls her meat, that Ihj? ,not^ 
only difcharges her gprge o£.it,.*but* ^vea 
cleanfe's her pandcl. . • ^ / 

uftd wheha liawk's fVatnefs nave!j j))^ck i^pta 

L ARCS, IS jCQ,naake^aTO jmbracc p;xQre grouijd 
tlwa.Hc; .cove'rccC."r..\!^.J/ •.,.,. ''. \ , . . 
. This is donp .whea ahprfe works .upon a^ 
roupd',^,jpr...upoBL volt%, and. apnf ouches- too. 
near the centjpf;^ fOitpat u is gcuredjie flio^J^j 
ga^ia. nj9f/e^:*g5puad, .br.^fakg a.^rcatq- oop'- 

..'^ To enlarge your Ii^nrfe^' y.6'u ifhould" prick, 
hirh with both heels, or aid him with, the^ 
?^ yo^u;,icga^ aad:l?Qar ypur hand out- 
wVds*...;, . ^ " . ,: ^ . . \rr -V . 
' ^ xoucrhcjxfeiuuipws^inlaf^him pride, 
hfm wTtn tlfie inner heel, fiiftaining ^im,with^' 

the outer Le^ i'lor^^r to prei^ bnio forwards,, 

and tnake.his jjiouldersgo^ ' ti . 

, , tJijan fuch occ^fion^ the tiding: maftpVii 


for purging a falcon, or horle of hrs glmt ancl 
gre^fe. . ' ' 

ENSEELED fin Falconry] a termxircd of 
a hawk, which is faid to be enfeel'^d; i^hen a 
•thread is drawn through her upper eye-lid, 
and made fad [under her beak, to cake away 
orob(lru(f): the fight. 

ENTABLER. A word uft4 in the acadc* 
mies, as applied to a horfe whofe croupe 
goes before • his fhoulders in working upon 
volts: for in rcgular/tnahage one nalt of 
the iboulders ou^t to be be tore the croupe. 
Your horfe entables* for in working to the 
right, he has an inclination to tltrow him* 
felf upon the ti^ht heel, but that fault you 
may prevent by tikiiig hold of the right 
rcin^ keeping your, right leg near, and re- 
moving] your left leg as far as the horfe's 
(boulders. « 

A horfe cannot commit this fault without 
eommitting that fault that is called in the 
academies acyler, which fee; btit aculer 
maty be without ^htabten S^i, Acvjusk and 
Emibhace. ^ 

Td ENTER A Hawk, a jerm ufedof a 
hawk, when fhe firft begins to'kilK 

9> ENTER HovsTDs^ iy to inftraa: them 
haw to hunt. 

The time of doing this is when they are 
Ihrcflteen or eighteen month9 old, then they 
are to be taught to take the water and fwim ; 
they are to be led abroad in the heat of the 
•day to enable them to endure exercife ; they 
jnuft be led through flocks of (heep and war- 
dens to bring them to command. 

They muft be brought to know their 
names» to underftand the voice of the huntfi 
fflan, the found of the horn, and to ufe theii; 
own voices. 

Noon is the beft time of entering thdrp, in 
a fair warm day ; for if they be entered in a 
mornings they will give out when ^e heat 
comes on . 

Take in the moft advanced^ that the game 
may not ftand long before them, butthat the 
hounds may be rewarded i you ought to do 
this at leaft once a week> for two months fuc- 
'Ceffivety. . 

B^thia meaai^tlief wi»be fafleihedfad 

feafoned with that ganie you enter them ac^ 
that they will not leave off the puriuit. 

You muft alfo take care to enter them witb 
the beft and ftaunoheft hounds that c^ be 
got, and let there be not one barking cur ii 
the -field. - . ... 

The hare is accounted the beft game tft 
enter your hounds at, for whatfoever dMoe 
they are defigned for, they will €heiiak|r 
learn all 'turns and doubles, and how ci 
Come to the hollow ; they will alfo come t* 
have a perfeft fcent and hard feet, by'being 
ufed to highways, beaten paths^ and ^ 
hills. ; '^ 

' They muft at firft have all the advaotagfei 
gtvfcn them that may be, and when the halt 
IS ftart<jd from her form, let the fcent cool a 
little, bbferviog which way (he went^ and 
then let the hoimds bie- laid on^with^e^ut** 
moft advantage and help that <:an be, eitii^ 
of wind, view, or holtoW, or the priddng in 
her paflsige; ' . j : 

ffor will It be amifs,- \f thdy ha^ the ad*. 
vantage of a hari^ tired the *^amfe morning ii 
her courfe. 

Care muft alfo be taken that they hunt fair 
and even, without lagging behind, ftragglhi^. 
on either iSde, and running wildly on head ; 
aftd in cafe' any -be fo?md-c?)Airtfiitting tech 
feults, they muft be^^eateftMnto the-rfcft of 
the pack, and forced to the fcent aloqg witl^ 
them. ' . . 

The like is to be done ifthcy refirfc to 
ftrike upon a default, but ran on babbKng 
and yelpii>g without the fcent^ by doing 
which they draw away the reft of thedogs^ 
until fome of the elder dogs take it^ then 
let them be cheri(hed wttH horn and hoi* 



' If any of the young whelps, trufting mad 
to their own fcents than to rite reft of tfte 
pack, and confetiuently are caft behind, work 
out the defaults by their own nof(Js, and' come 
to hunt ^uft and true^ In focH- cafet tbqr 
muft have alt man'ner ofene ou rag ero enc and 
af&ftanee, and they muft hi left to work it 
but of thentfdves^at their own pace; ' for fttdk 
dogs can qever prove ill, if they are not 
ipoiled by over haftinefi^ and Wnbttibai 
- •-- lor 

> ^ 


! • 



fqr a lutje patience in t|ie hunters, and their 
•ewn experience will bring them to be tHe 
chief leaders. 

. .When the hare is killed, the cjogs muft not 
be allowed to bre^k hefup,'but 
beaten offj then Ihe is to be cafed .and cut 
to pieces," with which the young hounds muft 
be rewarded ; and by this means in a (hort 
time the whelps will be brought to great im- 

Some are of opinion, that the beft way to . 
enter young hoilnds is to taWe a live hare, ! 
and to trail hereupon the ground, fome- ■ 
times one way and fometimes another, and 
Having drawn her at a convenient diftance 
off to hide her there, and the dog taking the 
wind thereof will run to and fro till he Ends 
lien " ' 

The hjuntfoian ought to underftand Mfell 
the nature and difpontion of the hounds in 
finding out the game, for fome of them are 
of that nature, that when they have found 
out the footfteps they will go forwards with- 
X)ut any voice or (hew of tail. 
^ Others agarn, when they have found a 
head,. will (hew. the game •, fome again having 
'found the footings of the beaft,will prick up 
"$ieir ears a little, and cither bark or .wag 
their ilcrn or ears. 

Again, there are fdme that cannot keep the 
fcent, biit wander ap and down and hunt 
counter, taking up any falfe fcent; and 
others again cannot hunt by foot, but only 
by the fight of the game. 

For entering the hounds at a hart or buck 5 
let him be in the prime of greafe, for then 
he cannot ftand up or hold the chace fo 
^long. ' 

The foreft pitched upon Ihould have all 
the relays at equal proportion as near as may 
be 5 then let the young hounds be placed 
.with five or fix old ftaunch hounds to enter 
them, and let them be led to the fartheft and 
laft r-elay, and caufe the hart or buck to be 
hunted to them, and being come [up, let the 
oli hounds be uncoupled, and haying fotin4 
the bartj, having well entered the cry, let the 
young ones be Uncoupled; and if any of 
them arc found to lag behind, whip or beat 
xhem forwards. 
' Jn what place foevcr you kill the hart, 

E N T' 

immediately flay his neck ind reward th# 
hounds i for it is beft to do fo while he is 

But for the more ready entering them, the 
few following inftruftions may be of ufe : • 

Let them be brought to the qua,rry, by 
taking five or fix nimble huntfmen, and each 
having two couple of dogs led in Hams, and 
haying unlodged the hart, purfue him fair 
andfoftly without tiring the hounds ; and af- 
ter two or three hours chace, when you 
find him begin to fink, then caft ofl^ your 
young ones. 

Another method, is to take a buck or ftag 
-in a toil or net, and having difablcd him by- 
cutting one of his feet, let him lopfe, then 
about half an hour after gather the young 
hounds together, and having found out the 
view or flot of the buck or hart by the blood- 
hound, uncouple your young dogs,' and let 
them hunt, and when they have killed their 
game, reward them with it, while it is hot ^ 
the moft ufual part being the ne9k flayed. 

Some enter their young hounds, within a 
toil , but that is not fo good : for the hart 
or buck does nothing then but turn and 
caft about, becaufe he cannot run an end^ 
by which means they are always in fight of 
him, fo that if afterwards they were to run 
at force, a free chace" being out of fight, 
the dogs would foon give over. See Hunts- 
man. '• 

Here take notice, that with whatfoevel* 
you firft enter your hounds, and therewith 
reward them, they will ever after love 

Therefore if you intend them for the hart, 
enter them not firft with the hind. 

ENTERFERING. A difeafe incident 
to horfes, that comes feveral ways, being 
either hereditary, or by fome ftifFnefs in 
the pace -, or £y bad and ovier broad fhoe- 
ing \ which caufe hinrt to go fo narrow be- 
hind with his hinder feet; that he frets 
one againft anpt-her, fo that there grows 
hard mattery (cabs, which. are fo fore that 
they make him go lame i the figns being 
his ill going, and the vifible marks of the 

The cui-e : Take three parts of Iheept 
' X' • ^ d«ng 


dung newly made, and one part of rytf or 
whcaten flower, which mud be dried tind 
aonixt well with the dung ; kneading ic to a 
pafte ; then let ic be made up into a cake and 
baked, and apply this warm to the part, and 
h will heal it foon ; or elfe anoint it with tur- 
pentine, and verdegreafe, mixt together^ 
finely powdered. 

ENTERMEWER |in Falconry] is a 
hawk that changes the colour of her wings 
by degrees. 

To ENTERPEN [in Falconry] a term 
ufed of a hawk, who they fay enterfennetb \ 
that, is, Ihe has her feathers wrapt up,fnarled, 
or entangled. 

ENTER VIEW [in Falconry] a term ufed 
for the fecond year of a hawk's age. 

ENTIt R. The French word for a Hone 
horfe ; entter is a fort of horfe that refufcs to 
turn, and is fo far from following or obferv- 
ing the hand> that he refifts it. Thus they 

Such a horfe is entier on the right hand, 
he puts himfelf upon his right heel, and will 
not turn to the right. 

If your horfe is entier^ and refufes to turn 
to what hand you will, provided he flies or 
parts from the two heels, you have a remedy 
for him ^ for you have nothing to do but to 
put the Newcaftle upon him ; i. e. fupple him 
with a cavejQTon made after the Duke of 
Newcaftliz way. 

ENTORSES. See Pasterm. 

ENTRAVES, and Entravons, See 

ENTREPAS, is a broken pace or going, 
and indeed properly a broken amble, that is 
neither a walk nor trot,, but fomewhat of an 

This is the pace or gate offuch hotfes as 
I^ave no reins or back> and go upon their 
Ihoulders,. or^ of fuch as are fpoiled in their 

ENTRIES [Hunting term] are diofe 
places or thickets through, which deer are 
found lately to have pafled,. by which their 
largenefs or iize is guefled at,, and then: 
the hounds or beagles are put to them, for 

EPARER,. A word ufed ia the me- 

E X P 

nagej^ to fignify the Hinging of a horfe, 
or his yerking or ftriking out with his hind 

In caprioles, a horfe muft yerk out behind 
with all his force ; but in balotades he ftrikes 
but half out; and in croupades he does not 
ftrike out his hind legs at all. 

All fuch yerking horfes are reckoned 

ERGOT. Is a ftub like a piece of foft 
horn, about the bignefs of a chefnut, placed 
behind and below the paftern joint, and 
commonly hid under the tuft of the fet- 

To DIS-ERGOT, or take it out, is to cleave 
it to the quick with an incifion knife, in or- 
der to pull up the bladder full of water that 
lies covered with the ergot* 

This operation is fcarce praftifed at Paris^ 
but in Holland it is frequently performed up- 
on all four legs, with intent to prevent watery 
fores and other foul ulcers. 

ESQUiVAINE. An old French word^ 
fignifying a long and fcvere chaftifement of a 
horfe in the menage. 

ESSAY OF A Deer [Hunting term] is the 
bread or brifket of that animal. 

ESTRAC, is the French word for a horfe 
that is light bodied, lank bellied, thin flank- 
ed, and narrow chefted. See Belly^ Light 
Bellied, Flank, Jointer, i^c. 

ESTRAPADE, is the defence of a horfe 
that will not obey ; who to get rid of his rider, 
rides haftily before, and while his fore-hand i&. 
yet in the air, yerks out furioufly with his 
nind legs, ftriking higher than his head waa 
before, and during his counter-time^ goca 
back rather than advances. 

ESTRAY. A beaft that Ts wild in any 
lordfliip, and not owned by any man; in 
which cafe, if it be crycd according to law ia. 
the next market towns, and it he not claimed 
by the owner within a year and a day >^ it falls. 
to the lord of the manor. 

To KXPEDIATE, fignifies to. cut out 
the balls of dogs feet, to. hinder them fronx 
purfuing the King's game,. But Mr. Manr 
ivood taysy it implies the cutting ofiTthe four 
claws of the right fide i an^ that the owner 


of every dog in the foreft unpxpediated is to 
forfeit 3J. and ^d. . 

To EX.TENP A HORSB> fome makeoie of 
this exprefllon^ importing to make a horfe 
grow large. 

EYES OF Horses that arc very bright, 
lively, full of fire, pretty large and full, are 
mofl: efteemisd j but fuch as are very big, are 
not the bed ; neither fhould they be too gog- 
gling or daring out of the head, but equal 
with it; they mould alfo be refolute, bold 
and briflc. 

A horfe to appear well fliould look on his 
objedlBxedty, with akind of difdain, and not 
turn his eyes another way. 

The eye of an horfe difcovers his inclina- 
tion, paflion, malice, heaKth, and difpod- 
tioQ i when the eyes are funk, or that the 
eye-brows are too much raifed up, and as it 
were fwelled, it is a fign of vicioufnefs and 

When the pits above the eyes are extreme- 
ly hollow, it is for the moft part a certain 
token of old age, though horfe s got by an 
old ftallion have them very deep at the age 
of four or five years % as alfo their eyes and 
eye-Uds Crinkled and hollow. 

In the eye there are two things to be con- 
sidered, 1. The cryftal, 2. The bottom or 
ground of the eye. 

The cryftal is that roundnefs of the eye 
which appears at the firft view, being the 
moft tiranfparent part thereof^ and h Ihould 
forcrcarnefs refcmble a piece of rock cryftal, 
fo that it may be plainly feen through i be- 
caufe if it is otherwife obfcure and troubled, 
it is a fign the eye is not good. 

A reddifh cryftal, denotes that the eye is 
either inflamed, or that it is influenced by 
the moon: a cryftal that is feuille mart, or of 
the colour of a dead leaf upon the lower 
part, and troubled on the upper, infallibly in- 
dicates that the horfe is lunatic •, but it con- 
tinues no longer than while the humour adu- 
ally poflefles the eye. 

The fccond part of the eye that is to be 
obfcrved, is the ground or bottom, which is 

Eroperly the pupil or apple of the eye, and to 
e good, ought to be large and full : it may 
he clearly perceived, that you may know 


if there be any -dragon, i. i. a white fpot, in 
the bottom thereof, which makes a horfe 
Ijlind in that feye, or will do it in a (hort 
time ^ this fpeck at firft appears no bigger 
than a grain of millet j but will grow to fuch 
a bignefs as to cover the whole apple of the 
eye, and is incurable. 

If the whole 'bottom of the white, 
or or a tranfparcnt greenifli white, it is a 
bad 'fign, though the horfe be not quite 
blind, but as yet fees a little : however, it 
ought to be obfcrved, that if you look to 
his eyes when oppofite to a white wall, the 
reflection of it will niake the apples of them, 
appear whitifli, and fomewhat inclining to 
the green, though they be really good ; when 
you perceive this, you may try whether his 
eyes have the fame appearance in another 

If you. can difccrn as it were two grains of 
chimney foot fixed thereto, above the bot- 
tom of the eye, it is a fign the cryftal is tranl-^ 
parent, and if befides this, the f^id bottom be 
without fpot or whitenefs, then you may con- 
clude that the eye is found. 

You ftiould alfo examine whether an eyr 
which is troubled and very brown, be left 
than the other, for if it be, it is unavoidably 
loft without recovery. 

Examine diligently thofe little eyes that 
are funk in the head, and appear very black, 
and try if you can perfeftly fee through the. 
cryftal, then look to the bottom of the eye, 
and fee that the pupil be big and large ; for. 
in all eyes the fmall, narrow, and long pupils 
run a greater ri(k of lofing the fight than any 
other. For their dijorders and cure^ J^e 


EY E OF A Horse. Some general obferva* 
tions from thence to difcover the quality or 
condition of a horfe : 

I. The walk or ftep of a blfnd horfe is 
always unequal and uncertain, he not daring 
to fet down his feet boldly when he is lead ia 
one's hand ; but if the fame horfe be mount- 
ed by a vigorous rider, and the horfe of 
himfcif be mettled, then the fear of the 
fpurs will make him go refolutely and freely, 
fo that his blindnefs ftiall fcarccly be per- 

X 2 2. Another 

* « « 


E Y B 

2. Another mark by which a horfe tliat 
is (lark blind may be known, is, that when 
he hears any pcrfon entering the ftablc, he 
will inftancly prick up his ears, and itioye 
them backwards and forwards; the reafon 
isy becaufe a fprightly horfe having loft his 
fight nriiftrufts every thing, and is conti- 
nually in an alarm upon the lead noife he 

3. When horfcs have ciither the real or. 
baftard (Irangles, or are changing their foul 
teeth, or are putting out their upper tuflies, 
feme of them have their fight weak and 
troubled, fo that a man would judge them 
blind i and fometlmes they aftuaJly become 

Note, that this weaknefs of fight happens 
Gftener in calling the corner teeth, than any 
of the reft, 

4. The colours moft fubjeft to bad eyes 
are, the very dark grey, the flea-bitten, the 
white fpotted, th^t of peach bloflbms, and 
frequently the roan. For the cure of had eyes^ 
fee Ulcer. 

EYE or THE Branch of a Bridle, is 
tlie uppermoft part of the branch which is 
flat. with, a hole in it, for joining the branch 
to the headilall,' and for keeping the curb 

A horfe unfliod of one eye, is a rallying 
jexpreffibn. Importing that'he fs blind of an 

' EYE OF A Bean, is a black fpeck or mark 
ia the' cavity of the corner teeth, which is 
formed about the age of five and a half, and 
continues till feven or eight. 
"And it is from thence we ufually fay, fuch 
a horfe marks ftills and fuch a one has no 
mark. . See Teeth* . 

""^EYt-FLAP: A little piece of leather, 
that covers the eye of a coach-horfe when 

EYESS. 1 A young hawk newly taken 

NYESS. 1 out of the ncll, and not able 
to prey for herfelf 

It being difficult to bring fuch a bird to 
perfcflion, ftie muft be fed, firll in a cool 
room that has two windows, one to the 
north and the other to the eaft, which are 
to be opened and barred over with laths. 

F A L 

* * . ' . 

I but not fo wide as for a hawk to get out, 

or vermin to come in ; and (he chamber 

ought to be ftfewed with frefti leaves, fefr. 

Her fobd muft be fparrows, young pige- 
ons, and (beeps hearts ; and her meat ihould 
be cut while flie is very young or little, or 
Ihred into fmall pellets, and fhe mxift be fed 
twic6 or thrice a day, according as you find 
her endure it, or put it over. 

When Ihe is full fummed and flies about, 
give her whole fmall birds, and fometimes- 
feed her on your filt, fuffering her to fttaitt 
and kill the' birds in vour hand, and fomc- 
times put live birds into her rbom, and let 
her kill and feed on them, arid hereby yoti- 
will not only neul her, but takd hei* otf from, 
that fcurvy quality of hiding* her prey. 

-Again, go every morning into the room* 
and call her to your fift : as foon as ftie has 
put forth all her feathers, (4ke Her out 6f thfc 
chamber and furniQi her with .bells, hewits, 
jefles, and lines.; it' will be abfolateiy necef- 
fary to feel her at firft, thit flic may uie bet- 
ter endure the hood and handling 1 and ^hc 
hood (hould be arrufter, one that is large and. 
eafy, which muft be j5ut on arid polled oflT 
frequently, ftroking her 9ften*on the kead. 
till (he ftandi gently j and iti the evening'Xin* 
feci her by candlg light. ' SeelbemdHiiir bf 
Seeling a Hawk. 

EYRE OF THE Forest. The juftice-feat: 
or court, i^frhich ufed to be held every tl^ree 
years by^th'e juftTces of the foreft,. Journey i'fttf, 
up and down for that purpofe.. 

EYRIE [in Falconry"! a brood, o.r neft,, 
a place where hawks build, and. hatch their, 

FALCADE i .a horfe makes falcades when'? 
lie throws himfclf upon hts haunirhes% 
two or three times, as in very quick corvets \ , 
which is done in forming a.ftop and half / 

A falcade therefore, is this a6Hoa of the 
haunches and of the legs, which bend very, 
low, as in corvets, when you make a ftop or. 
half ftop. Thus they fay, 

This horfe flops well ; for he makes two- 
or three falcades, . and iiniflics his ftop with ,a^ 


F A L 

Tfiis horfc has no hauncKes, he will make 
ao fa) cades. 

The falcades ofthathorfe are fo much 
prettier^ that in making them his haunches 
are low. 

Stop your horfe upon the haunches, in 
riiaking him ply them well j fo that after 
forming his falcades, he muft refume his 
gallof^ without making apcfatej that is, 
without flopping or marking one time : and 
thus he will make a half-ftop. See Stop, 
Half-stoi», Haunches, '/2»i Time. 

FALCON. \ Of thefe there are feven 

FAULCON. J kinds, viz. falcon gentle, 
^^ haggard falcon, the Barbary or tartaret 
falcon, the gerfalcon, the faker^ the lanner, 
the Tunician. 

Falcons of one kind differ much, and are 
differently namcd> according to the time of I 
their firft reclaiming, places of haunt, and 
the countries from whence they corhe ; as 
mewed hawks, ramaged hawks, foar hawkft, 
cycfles; and thefe again are divided in- 
to large hawks, mean hawks, and flendcr 

^ -AH thefe have different males ai)d plumes 
according, ^0 tne^na^urc of the country from 
whence they co^p;,as Ibme are black, fome 
blanl^^prrulTtyi):, and they alfo are different 
in difpofition, as fome are bell for the field, 
and Qtheys forthe river. . ' 

as. long, as (lie js in the tyrie. Thefe are 
very troublefome in their /ceding, they cry 
very much, and are not entered but with dif- 
ficulty ; but being once well entered and 
Quarried, prove excellent hawks for the hern, 
nver, or any fort of fowl, and are hardy and 
full of mettle. 

The fecond is a ramage falcon, which 
name (he retains from the time of her leav- 
ing the eyrie, during the months oijuneyju- 
ly and Auguft., 

Thefe are hard to be manned, but be- 
ing well reclaimed, are not inferior to any 
hawk. . ' 

The third is a foar-hawk ; To called, ^^^- 
Umb&r^ O^ober^ and November. 

F A L 

Tfiie ffrft plumes they have when they for- 
fake the eyrie, they keep a whole year be- 
fore they mew them, which are called foar- 

The fourth is termed murzarok, (the lateft 
term is carvifl, as much as to fay, carry on 
the fift) they are fo called January^ February^ 
March J zndJprfl, and till the middle of May,. 
during which time they muft be kept on the* 

They are for the m oft part very great ba* 
tcrs, and therefore little eaters : they arc bad 
hawks, frequently troubled with filander 
worms, and are rarely brought to be good fof • 
any thing. 

The fifth are called enter- mews, from the 
middle of May to the latter end of December; 
they are fo called bccaufe they caft their, 

FALCONER. One who tames, mana^ 
gcs, and looks after falcons, or other 

FALLING-EVIL wHorses. A difeafe 
proceeding from ill blood,. and cold thin, 
phlegm gathered together in the fore part of 
the head, between the panicle and the brain, , 
which being difperfed over the whole brain, 
fudrfenly caufes the horfe to fall, and bereaves- 
Him of all fenfe for a time. ^ 

• The fynnptoms of this diftemper are, when 
the horfe is falling, his body will quiver and. 
(juake, and he will foam at the mouth, and 
when you would think him to be dyino-, 
he will rife up on a fudden and fall to hi«- 

Spanijb^ Italiatiy and French horfes, are- 
more fubjcd to this diftemper than the En?^- 

The cure : Bleed the horfe in the neck,, 
taking away a good quantity of blood 3 and 
bleed him again in the temple veins and eye- 
veins, four or five days after;, afterwards 
anoint his body all over with a comfortable - 
friftion, and bathe his head and ears with oil! 
of bay, liquid pitch and tar mixed together, , 
and make him a canvafs cap quilted with 
Wool, to keep his head warm, and give him . 
a purging or fcouring. SccValsy. 

FALLOW,* being^of a palilh red colour,^ 


F A L 

like that of a brick half burnt ; z$ fallow 

. FALLOW-HOUNDS, are hardy, and of 
a good fcent, keeping well their chace with- 
out change; but not fo fwift as the white; 
they are of a (Irong conftitution, and do not 
fear the water, running furely, and are very 
hardy J commonly love the hart before any 
other chace, 

Thofe that are well jointed, having good 
claws, are fit to make blood-hounds, and 
tholk which have fliagged tails are generally 
fwift runners^ 

Thefc hounds are fitter for princes than 
private gentleman, becaufe they feldom run 
more than one chace, neither have they any 
great flomach to the hare, or other fmall 
chaces ; and that which is worlt of all, they 
are apt to run at tame beads. 

FALSE QUARTER in a Horse, is a 
deft, crack, or chine fometimes on the 
outfide, but for the moft part on the indde 
of his hoof, being an unfound quarter, ap- 
pearing like a piece put in, and not at all 
intire: it is attended with a- violent pain 
and opening as the horfe fets his foot to the 

/This diftemper, as to the inward caufe, is 
the cfFcc'l of a dry brittle hoof, and narrow 
heels i it comes by ill (hoeing and paring, 
or elfe by gravelling, or a prick with a nail 
<xr flub, which will occaGon halting, 
and wateriih blood will iflue out of the 

The cure : Cut away the old corrupt 
hoof, and having the whites of nine eggs, 
powder of incenfe, unflaked lime, maflic, 
verdigreafe, and fait of each four ounces, 
mix them together, and dip into them as 
much hards as will cover the whole hoof, 
and apply them to the forrence, and lay 
fwine's greafeall about it the thicknefs-of an 
inch or more i do this likewife underneath, 
and tie on all fo fall as that it may not be 
ftirred for a whole fortnight at Icaft, then 
renew the fame application, and the horfe 
wiil require no other drjcfllngto compleat the 

FAR, BXi appellation given to any part 
pf a horie's right fide ^ thus» the far foot, the 


far fiioulder, ^c. is the fame with the right 

foot, the right flioulder, £s?^. 

FARCIN, J A creeping ulcer, and 

FARCY, > the mod loathfome, 

FASHION, 3 ttinking, and filthy dif- 

eafe, that a horfe can be affefted withi 

proceeding from corrupt blood, engendered 

in the body by over heats and colds, which 

by fpreading and dilating themfelves, will 

at laft over-run the whole body of the horfe; 

but it commonly arifes in a vein, or near 

fome mailer vein that feeds and,nourifhes 

the difeafe. 

This diftemper is fometimes occafioned 
by fpur-galling with rufty fpurs, fnaffle- 
bitt, or the bite of another horfe infe<Sted 
with the fame difeafe : or if it be in the leg, 
it may come by one leg's interfering with 
the other, fc?^. 

In the beginning of this difeafe a few fmall 
knobs, or tumours, arc found on the veins. 
They refemble grapes, and are painful to 
the touch, fo that the creature will (hew 
evident marks of it's uneafinefs on their be** 
ing preflTcd with the finger. They are at firft 
very hard like unripe grapes, but in a very 
little time become foft blifters, which 
break and difcharge ablood/niatter, and be-- 
come very foul and untoward ulcers. This 
difeafe appears in different places in differ- 
ent creatures. Some fliew it firft on the 
head, fome on the external jugular vein, 
fome on the plate vein, extending from 
thence downwards on the infide of the fbrc-* 
leg towards the knee, or upwards towards 
the brificcti in fome it firft appears about 
the pafterns, on the fides of the large veins 
of the infide of the thigh, extended towards 
the groin ; and in others on the flanks, 
fpreading by degrees towards the lower 

Th Method of Cure. 

When the farcy attacks only one part of a 
horfe, and where the blood veffcls are fmall, 
it may be cafily cured ; but when the plate 
vein is affefted, and turns chorded, and efpe- 
cially when the curial veins within fide of 
the thigh ar« in that condition, the cure be- 


comes .very difficulty and the creature is 
rarefy fit for any thing after it» but the 
meaneft drudgery, Thofe therefore who 
depend upon fome particular medicine, and 
flatter themfelves with being able to cure 
with it every fpecles of the urcy, will find 
themfelves wretchedly miftaken; various 
medicines are neceflfary, according as the 
difeafe is fuperHcial or inveterate : the for* 
xner is eafily cured, nay fometimes moderate 
^xercife alone will be fufficient; but the 
latter requires knowledge and experience, 
and fometimes baffles the mod ikilful, and 
defies the whole power of medicine. Co- 
pious bleedings are abfolutely necelTary, 
cfpecially if the creature be. fat and full of 
blood. This evacuation always checks the 
progrefs of a farcy in it's beginning ; but 
the good efFefts of it vani(h too foon, efpe- 
cially if the horfe be too low in Befli. Atter 
bleeding mix four ounces of cream of tartar, 
with a Sufficient quantity of lenitive eledtu- 
ary, to make it into balls, and give the dofe 
every other day for a week ; and at the fame 
time give him three ounces of nitre every 
day in his water, While thefe medicines 
are given inwardly to remove the caufc, let 
the tumours be rubbed twice a day with the 
following ointment : Take of ointment of 
elder, four ounces ^ of oil of turpentine, two 
ounces; of fugar of lead> half an ounce; 
of white vitriol powdered two drams : mix 
the whole well together in a glafs mortar, 
and keep it for ufe* 

If the tumours break and run a thick well 
.di^efted matter,, ij: is a fign that the difeafe 
is conquered, and the creature will foon be 
well; but it will be neccffary to give him 
two ounces of the liver of antimony every 
day for a fortnight, and two ounces every 
other day for a fortnight longer. This me- 
thod will never fail in a farcy where the 
fmall veins only are affefled; andafmall 
time will complete the cure. 

But when the farcy afFeds the large blood 
vefiels, the cure will be far more difficult. 
When the plate or crurial veins are chorded, 
tofe no time,, but bleed immediately on the 
oppollte fide^ and apply to the dillempered 
veiA the following medicine ; Take of the 



oil of turpentine fix ounces, put it int^jk 
pint bottle, and drop into it by decrees 
three ounces of oil of vitriol -, be careful in 
mixing thefe ingredients, for otherwife the 
bottle will burft ; when therefore you hare 
dropped in a few drops of the oil of vitriol 
into the bottle, let the mixture reft till ie 
has done fmoaklng, and then drop in more,, 
proceeding in this manner till the whole is 

If the fafcy be fituated in the loofe and- 
fle(hy parts, as thofe of the flanks or belly, 
the mixture fhould confift of equal parts df 
oil of turpentine and oil of vitriol ; but 
when the feat of tile difeafe is in the parts 
lefs flefliy, the proportions above are beft 
adapted to perform the cure. The medi- 
cines muft be ufed in the following manner t 
Take a woollen cloth, and with it rub the 
parts affeded, and then apply fome of the 
compound oil to every bud and tumour ;. 
continue this method twice a day. At the 
fame time give cooling phydc every other 
day; the balls and nitrous draughts men^* 
tioned above will anfwer the inteation. By^ 
this treatment the tumours will digeft and 
chords diflfolve i but it will be neceffary to 
give the liver of antimony to compleat the 
cure and prevent the relapfe ; and alfo drefs. 
the fores whea well digcfted with a mixture 
of bees-wax and oil, which will heal them^ 
and fmooth the fkin. 

Sometimes the difeafe will not eafily yield 
to this treatment, cfpecially when fituatedt 
near the Banks and lower belly. In this 
cafe it will be neceffary to bathe the parts, 
with the above compound oil as far as the 
centre of the belly, and at the fame time 
give acourfe of antimonial medicines. The 
following compofition is reckoned ftronger 
than that given above, and on that account 
is often ufed where the difeafe is obftinate :. 
Take of fpirits of wine four ounces j of the 
oil of vitriol and turpentine, of each two 
ounces; and of verjuice fix ounces;, 
mix the whole with the caution above di-- 

When the before method fails> and the- 
diftemptr becomes inveterate, the follow^ 
ing. medicine is recommended, by an emi^ 


F A R 

»ef!t praflitroacr : Takr of linfced oil half I 
> pin€ ; of the oilsiof turpentine and petre, 
^r each three ounces ; of the tindture of 
euphorbium and hellebore, of each two 
drams ;'of oil of bays, ^wo ounces ; of oil 
of origanum «nd double aqua-fortis, of 
each half an ounce : mix. the whole together 
with great caution, and when the ebulli« 
tion is x)ver. .add two ounces ofBarbadoes 

' This imedicine' muft be rubbed on the 
tumours and chorded veins once in two or 
three days; obferving, that if the mouths 
of the ulcers are choaked up, or the fkin fo 
.thick over them as to cdnfine the matter, to 
open a pailage with a fmall hot iron, and 
deftroy with vitriol the proud fleft, after 
which it may be kept down by tduching 
itoccafionally withoil of vitriol, aqua-fortis, 
or butter of antimony. 

Thefc arc the beft methods for curing the 
•farcy; a difcafe which has baffled the at- 
tempts of the moft (kilfuJ, and deftroyed 
many an uftful creature. Some of our far- 
rers.give the moft draftic and dangerous 
medicinrs, and even put corrofive fublimate 
or arfcnic into the buds, after opening them. 
But this is a very bad praftice, and often 
abfolutely kills the creature it was intended 
to cure; for if a fmall quantity of it gets 
into the blood, death is the inevitable con^ 

' ' Bleed, according to the ftrength of the 
horfe, and the apparent violence of the in- 
flammation, though, if he is poor, this 
evacuation will rather injure than relieve, and 
is never ufeful after the firft onfet of the 

Diffolve four ounces of cream of tarter, in 
-a pint of water, by boiling them a few 
minutes; and whilft hot, pour /ofF the clear 
liquor upon half an ounce of fcnna leaves; 
let them ftand until they are cold ; then 
give the ftrained liquor in one dofe, and re- 
peat it every fecond morning for a week, or 
until it begins to purge. 

The belly being rendered foluble by the 

•above, give the horfe half an ounce of nitre 

cyery day, for three or four weeks, either 

mixed in a malh of bran, or diflblved in his 

driok^ as he will befl: take it* 

rflp A(R 

Night and morning riib'tlie Mlcfwmg^t^ 
pellent ointment ^ell into the knobs* 

Repellent Ointment. 

Take white vitriol, two drams 9 fugar of 
lead, half an ounce $ oil of turpentine, twd 
ounces i green ointment of eld^r, four 
ounces ; mix them well together. 

By this means the knobs are ufually dif- 
perfed : but fometimes they break and run-; 
and if the matter is of a good confidence^ 
and there is a difpofition to heal, lay afide 
the above repellent ointment, and drelfi with 
the digeftive jointment, fpread on tow, and 
fecured in the befl: manner that the part will 

If any little lumps remain without haii*, 
give two ounces of the liver of antimony in 
his corn every day, for a fortnight ; then one 
ounce every day for another fortnight. In- 
ftances are very rare where the procedure 
fails to remove this degree of the difeafe. 

In the fecond degree, the larger veflTels 
are enlarged and knotted ; the feet, the paft- 
erns, and the flanks are aflefted : in this cafe, 
greater difficulty attends ; but if you begin 
early with it, the cure is more cafy and 

In this, as in the former degree, be^in 
with bleeding, according to the horfe ^s 
ftrength; or, as before obferved, bleeding 
muft be omitted if the horfe is poor ; due 
care being taken, as ab«ve directed, co 
render the bowels lax. Let the knobs 
be rubbed well with the following lini- 

Liniment for the Farey. 

Take oil of turpentine, fix ounces ; drop 
into it, by a little at a time, three ounces 
of the oil of vitriol ; the oil of vitriol will 
make the oil of turpentine very hot ; for 
which reafon the oil of vitriol fhould be ad« 
ded by very fmall quantities at a time, and 
a fliort fpace (hould be allowed betwixt one 
pouring of the oil and another. When the 
whole is mixed, let the mixture ftand to be 
cold before it is ufed* - 



TJijs^mixcure. may be nnad^ wUIv eq\»l 
parts of the oil of turpeatlne ami the oil 
of vitriol, when it is to be applied to the 
loofe fleiby parts^ a$ the nanks or the 

Wherever there is any fwelling or knobs, 
rub them rather gently with a woollen cloih y 
and then, with a feather or other conveni- 
ent means, rub in fome of^the aboye lini- 
ment, and repeat it twice a day. 

After the bowels are made foluble, begin 
with the ufe of the nitre, as above diredted, 
continue the liniment an4 the nitre until the 
knobs digeft, and are nearly diflblved : and 
wj^n* the matter appears kindly, and the 
edges of the ukers are free from all callo^ty^ 
lay aifide the nitre, and gii^e the antimony as 
before directed. When, the ulcers fcem 
difpofed to heal, apply the digeftive ointippn^ 
inftead of the liniment. 

Sonnietimesfpurringoathe fide of the belly, 
or on the flanks, is the caufe of this difeafe 
there. 1 o diftinguifh a few knops of the 
farcy kip^i from, knots profluced on the veins 
fpqm any other cauie, it may be obferved, 
that thofe of the farcy kind are painful and 
fmarting $. the hair ftands up like a little 
tuft on the knots $ and if they difcbarge any 
npatter it is of agreafy, and yetvicid quality. 
To remedy thefe, if you perceive thetn early, 
before any increafe is naade, apply a poultice 
of bran and vinegar, or verjuice, and renew 
it once^ every day : if proud flefh arifes, 
touch it with the oil of vitriol, or other cau- 
ftic, juft before each poultice is applied. In 
this cafe the difeafe being local, externals are 
all that are needful ; but if the knots fpread, 
in confequence of a habit or conftitution 
favouring their inicreafe, rub them with the 
above liniment, until the matter is of a 
good quality, and the ulcers feem to heal -, 
then bathe them with either of the following 
mixtures, and give an ounce of the falFron 
of antimony in the corn twice a day. 

JXfmtient Mixtures for the Farcy Knots. 

Take redified fpirits of wine, four ounces ; 
oil of vitriol, and oil of turpentine, of each 
two ounces 3 veijuice^ or iharp yinegar> 
fix o\mces. Or^ 

F A R 

' Take white vitriol, one ounce ; diflblvc 
.it in four ounces of water 5 add to this, four 
ounces of fpirit of wine, in which, half an 
ounce- of camphor is firft diffolvcd ^ and 
fix ounces of verjuice, or ftiarp vine- 

In the third and worft degree, which is 
when either of the other degrees, through 
neglp£t, or other caufes, become inveterate ; 
or, where at the firft the difeafe appears 
at one fide of the body, and fbon fpread s 
upon the other ; in this advanced degree of 
the difeafe, the colour and other qualities of 
the knots and of the fores ihould be attended 
to, for fometimes they appear ycUowilh, arc 
hfirdiih or fcirrhous about the edges, which 
proceeds often from the liver ; in fuch cafe 
the difcaie in the liver mutt be attended to, 
or the cufe will be fruftrated. In cafe of 
this yellowiflb hue, give the following: 

Take one handful of the root of fliarp- 
pointed dock, illiced; one ounce of nrionk's 
rhubarb. J of madder, turmeric, and liquor- 
ice roots, of each half an ounce ; boil them 
in three pints of water to two pints 1 then ta 
the ftrained liquor, wljile warm^ add two 
drams ofiafifroo, and one ounce ofcafiile- 
foap : give half of this at night, and the 
other half in the morning, until the yellow- 
nels in th^ knots. begin to wear off. 

If the knots look bl^ackifii, a mortification 
is threatened) and the bark mull be given 
freely in forge- water. 

If the means recommended in the fccond 
degree have been ufed without the defired 
efficacy, rub the knot?, wherever there t^ 
any fwelling, with the milder blue ointment, 
to difperfe them j but if they are already 
bur(V, drefs the ulcers v^rith the foUpwing : 

Take quickfilver and Venice-turpentine, 
of each ope ounce; mix well by rubbing 
them together until t^ie quickfilver difap- 
pears. If the knots burft, and a proud flefh 
fils up their orifices, deftroy it with a little 
oil of vitriol i or, if the hardncfs of the fkiii 
hinders the matter frqm being difcharged, 
open it with a fmall cautery, then drefs therri 
with the quickfilver and turpentine above- 

Y Mercurial 


Mercurial Alterative Balls* 

Take quicklilvcr, two ounces; divide 
it well with one ounce of Venice-turperi- 
tine ; then add to it of diapente and gum 
guaiacum, of each two ounces; honey, 
enouc^h to make it into eieht balls, one of 
which may be given every fccond or third 
morning. Or, 

Take antimony, half a pound-, quick- 
filver, four ounces ; flower of brimftone, two 
ounces ; gum guaiacum, ^edoary, and 
galangal roots, of each two ounces; carui 
or coriander feeds, four ounces ; make them 
into a pafte with honey, and give three or 
four ounces every day. 

In fome cafes, crude antimony given 
to the quantity of two ounces, every day 
-with the corn, is very efFeftual : but after 
each fuch dofe the hdrfe fliould be gently 
cxercifed an hour or more. In all difeafcs^ 
indeed, when a courfe of antimony is in ufe, 
the exercife ihould be daily, but moderate ; 
and it is of fome importance that the feeding 
be very good of its kind; it Ihould be 
nourifliing and cordial, given in fmall quan- 
tities, and proportionably the oftenen An- 
timony frequently purges when given in large 
dofes ; this is prevented when given in fmall 
ones, and gradually incrcafing them ; though 
fometimes a gentle aftringent is required to 
be joined. 

But above all other means, giving mer- 
curials as alteratives, promrfe and indeed 
produces good effcfts. Repeated fuccefs hath 
attended the following in the word cafes. 
. Take turbith-mineral, twenty or thirty 
grains ; Venice-foap, an ounce ; make them 
into a ball to be given every other night for 
a fortnight ; then reft a week, and proceed 
again in the fame manner: if it fickens or 
gripes the horfe, or if it runs oflT by (tool, 
add to the ball two drams of philonum, or 
five grains of opium. If it falivates, defift 
immediately, and give a purge, and repeat 
it in feven or eight days afrcr : when all ap- 
pearance of the mouth being afFedkcd is gone, 
begin again with the turbith in leflcr dofes, 
and repeat thcmjuft fo as to prevent its 

It fliould not be forgot, that horfes fa* 
livate more eafily than men •, probably by 
reafon of the more open texture of their 
falivary glands;- and perhaps, in part, by the 
horizontal poGtion of their guts retarding 
the paflage of the mercury longer than it is 
in men : however, be this as it will, we 
muft attend to the flrft appearance of faliva* 
tion, and check it with all poflible fpeed, 
otherwife the horfe will be fuflTocated in a 
few days. A moderate degree of falivation 
cannot be kept up in a hor^, fo if not early 
checked the veffels will prefently be fo tur- 
gid, as to prove deftruftivc 

During the courfe, be very careful to 
keep him from cold : if he is a ftrong, frelh 
horfcj he may loofe three or four pounds of 
blood once or twice on the day that the tur- 
bith is omitted ; walk him out half an hour 
or more, when, the weather will permit ; but 
when he comes in he muft be well curried* 
If his mouth is tender, feed him with boiled 
oats, or boiled barley, or fcalded bran. 

After the uie of the turbith is ended, - 
he may have aquatt of hemp- feed every day 
with his com. Lime-water, with the water 
which is given him to drink ; at the firfl: 
mix them in equal parts, afterwards more 
and more of' the lime-water gntil he will 
drink it alone. 

^ The blue ointment, comiyiended above, 
and' in various other parts of this work, is 
made as Tollows ; alfo the ftron^cr fort. 

Milder Blue Ointment. 


Take of tried hog's lard, four pounds ; 
of quickfilvcr, one pound; of Venice tur- 
pentine, two ounces. Rub the quickfiiver 
with the turpentine till the quickfiiver dif- 
appears, then add the lard, and mix them 

Stronger Blue Ointment; 

Take of dried hog's lard, two pounds i 
of iquiekfilver, one poiind : of Venice tur- 
pentine, two ounces ; mix them as directed 
for the milder blue ointment. 

The ingenious Dr. Bracken recommends^ 
the mercurial oiiitment, for rubbing the* 



rcltords and tumours before they breaks in 
order to difporfe them ; and when they .are 
broke, to drefs the fores with a mixture 
compofed of equal parts of fV»/Vtf turpen- 
tine and quickfilver. If by this means the 
mouth become fore, a gentle purge (hould 
be given to prevent a falivation. This is 
doubtlefs a very good method, and if care 
be not waAtingi will often prove,efFe6lual. 

He alfo recommends the following altei-a-' 
tive ball : Take of butter of antimony and 
bezoar mineral, of each one ounce i beat 
them up. with half an ounce of cordial ball, 
and giv^ the bignefs of a iivalnut, or three 
quartets of an ounce every day for two or 
three weeks, falling two or three houfs after. . 

WATER-FARCIN. This difeafe has 
no refemblance to a true farcy, it is really 
a dropfy, and is of . two kinds, one pro- 
duced . by a feterifli difpbfition terminating 
on the (kin, as often happens in epidemical 
. colds : the other a lyue dropfy, where the 
water is not confined to the belly and limbs, 
but is . found in different parts of the body, 
where a great number of foft fwellings ap- 
pear, which yield to the preflure of the 
finger. The laft generally proceeds from 
foul feeding, or from the latter grafs or 
fogs, which generally rifes ia great plenty 
, mornings and evenings at the autumnal fea- 
fons, and greatly injure the health of fuch 
horfesas continue abroad* Nor is this all, the 
cold rains common at the fame time increafe 
the evil^ and render the blood (luggilh. and 

The firft fpccies may be relieved by flight 
fcariHcations in the indde of the leg and 
thighy with a (harp penknife ; but in the 
other fpecies,we muft endeavour to difcharge 
,the water, recover the crafis of the blood, 
and brace up the relaxed fibres of the whole 
bodyi In order to' this a purge muft be 
given every week or ten days ; and imme- 
diately after the firfl:, the following balls : 
Take of nitre, two ounces 5 of quills pow- 
dered, half an ounce ; of campnorone dram ; 
and of honey a quantity fufficient to make the 
whole into a ball. 

Let one of thefe balls be given' every 
day 5 and to render it more efFcdual, let it 
be wafhed down with a horn or two of the 


following drink : Take of black hellebore, 
frefti gathered, two pounds : wafli, bruife, 
and boil it in fix quarts of water, till two 
quarts are wailed : Itrain off the liquor, and 
pour on the remaining hellebore two. quarts 
of white wine, place it in a gentle heat, and 
let it infufe forty-eight hours ; ftrain it off*, 
and mix both together, and give the horfe 
an horirfuj. or two after each ball. Or, 

When the horfe has been treated in this 
manner a fufficient time, that is, till the 
water is evacuated, and he begins to reco- 
ver, give him a pint of the following infu- 
,fion every night and morning, for a fort- 
night, fatting two hours after it: Take of 
gentian r<>ots» and zcdoary, of each four 
ounces; of camomile-flowers, and the tops 
of centaury, of each two handfulsj of 
Jefuit's bark powdered, two ounces 5 of 
juniper-berries, four ounces ; of filings of 
iron, half a pound ; infufe the whole in 
two gallons of ale for a week, (baking tl^ 
velTel often. 

FARRIER. One whofe employment is 
to fhoe horfes, and cure them when difeafed 
or lame. 

FARRIER'S Pouch, s^ leather bag in 
which they carry nippers, drivers, (hoes for 
all fizes of feet, good fliarp nails, and aU 
that is proper for new fhoeing a horfe that 
has loft his fhoe upon the road. 

If you have no Farrier with you, you muft 
always in your equipage have a Farrier's 
pouch well provided, and a groom that 
knows how to drive nails. 

FATTENING (yr Horses : there are a 
multitude of things prefcribed for this pur^ 
pofe, of which chefe that follow have by exr 
perience been found to be the beft. 

I. Take elecampane, cummin-feed, ta- 
merifks, anife-fceds, of each two ounces, 
and a handful of groundfel i boil all thefe 
very well with three heads of garlic, cleanfed 
and ftamped, in a gallon of ftrong ale : 
ftrain the liquor well, and give the horfe a 
quart of }<^ lukewarm in a iporning, andfet 
him up hot. Do this for four or five morn* 
ings, and afterwards turn him to grafs, if 
the weather' pcrQiit, but if it does not keep 
him in the houfe; and befidcs the aforcriij 
Y 2 drink, 

F V^ T 

drink, take the fine pbSvder of elecampane, 
and the f;ime quantity of cummin-feeds 
powdered, and every time you give him 
provender, fprinkle half an ounce of ' this 
powder by little and little therein, for fear 
he fhould naufeate it, uhtil it be quite eaten 

!• Put two' fpoonfuls of diapente in a 
pint of fweet wine, brew them together, 
and give it the hbrfc for three mornings j 
for that will take away all infe£tioas and 
fickhefs from the inward parts : then feed 
him with provender, at lead: three times a 
day, vti:. after his water in the morrting, 
after his water in the evening, and at nine 
o'clock at night. And if you perceive that 
he does not eat his provender well, then 
change it to another, and let him have moft 
of that food he loves beft. 

3, Let the horfe blood; then put half a 
bufhel of coarfe barley meal into a painfull 
of water, ftirring it about for a confiderable 
time, then let it (land till it (ink to the 
bottom ; pour off the water into another 
pail for the horfe's ordinary drink, and ma&e 
him eat the meat that remains at the bottom 
of the pail three times a day, morning, 
noon, and night ; but if he refufe, or feem 
tinwilting to eat the meal alone, mix it wlith 
a little bran j the next day leiTen the quan- 
tity of bran, and at laft give him none at 
all, for it ferves only to accuftom him to 
«at the meal : or you mav mix a fmall quan- 
tity of oats with the meal : and diminilh it 
by degrees as before. 

It is to be obferved, that the barley muft 
be ground every day as you ufc it, for it 
quickly grows four, after which the horfe 
will not tafte it. 

There arc many horfes which may not be 
fattened, by keeping them to this diet for the 
fpace of twenty days. 

Barley ground after this manner, purges 
the horfe, and cools his inward parts ; but 
the greateft efficacy lies in the water, which 
is impregnated with the mod nouriftiing fub- 
ftance or the meal. 

When you perceive your horfe to thrive 
and grow lufty, you may take him off from 
Jiis diet by degrees, giving him at firft^ oats 

F'E A 

once, and bjlrley-roealtwice a day, tlli«n 
oats twice, and the-meal once, till the horfe 
is perfedly weaned* 

In the mean time you may give him hay, 
and good ih-aw alfaifyou pleiafe, but you 
muft HOt ride him, only walk him fofcly 
about half an hour in the middle of the 

After the horfe has eaten barieyvAineal 
eight days, give him the following purga- 
tive, if you find'he ftatids in rfced 'of*it : 
Take an dbn'ce bf the Sneftali^s, aAd half 
anounceof ag^lric, and roots of fldwerde-lis^ 
and bf Florence^ of each an ounfce ; ^ pound 
all thefe three to powdter, and min^e thenn 
tvith a quart of milk, warm as it' comes 
from the cow, if it can <:onyemently be 
had, and keep the horfe bridled fix hours 
before, and fix hours after the taking of it^ 
'without difcontinuing his ufual diet. 

This pHirgatidn will operate '^fieftiiaHy, 
the hunrfours beings al^ady ^r^artkl, and 
the body moiftthed,' will nfotbccafion any 
diforder or heat, and the horfe will Tifibly 

After the operation of the purgative is 
quite ceafed, the horfe muft he- kept eight 
days at diet- as Before. 

Ifhorfes of value, diat are fullof metde> 
And of a hot and dry conftitution, were ta 
be kept to this diet for a ^ convenient ipace 
of time, once a year, it would infalliably 
preferve them from feveral diftempers % and 
It is eipecially ufeful at the end of a cant^ 
paign, or after a long journey. 

If your horfe lofes his ap]^ettte, (as it 
often happeris) when he begins to eat, you 
may tie a chewing-ball to hiaf bitt> renew- 
ing it fo often till he begin to feed heartily 
on ihe barley ^ for thofe balls not only re- 
ftore k>ft appetite, but purify the bloody 
prevent difeafes, and contribute to the fat- 
tening of the horfe. 

FAULT. See DsFAutr. 

FAWN. A buck or doc of the firft 

FEATHER in a Horse^s Forehead, 
i^c. is nothing elfe but a turning of the 
hair, which in fome refembles an 'car 


F E L 

'of b'a^ley> and in others a kind of oylct- 

' When it reaches a good way along 
the upper part of the neck^ near the 
lTiane» it is a good mark; and if it be 
on- each* fide of the neck^ the mark is the 

''So likewifc if there be in the forehead 
two or three of thefe oylets, feparate from 
-each*''other, or fo joined that they form a 
'kind of^ther : or if the like mark be upon 
the ply of a horfe's hind thigh> and upon 
cthe-back part of it^ near to where the end 
of his dock or- rump -reaches, it is a veiy 
good niark. 

FEATHER also upon a Horse, is a 

ibrt of natural frizzling of the hair, which 

in ibme places rifes above th§ lying hair, 

and there cafts a figure .refembling the top 

of -an car ^corn. 

There are feathers in feveral places of a 
horfc^s body, -and particularly between the 

Many believe^ that when the feather is 
lower than the eyes, ^tis a fign of a weak 
fight 5* but this remark is not always^ cer- 

A Roman fcz^ety is a feather upon a horfe*s 
-heck, being a row of 4iair turned back and 
'raifed, which forms a mark like a back-fword 
near the mane. 

FEEL* To- fed a horfe^in the hand, is to 
•obfcrve that the will of the horfe is in the 
iiand, that he taftes^the bridle, and has a 
good appui in obeying the bjtt. 

T^teed a horfe upon the haunches, is to 
obfcrve that he plies or bends them, which 
is contrary to leaning or throwing upon the 

FELDFARES, tb& Manner of taking tbm hy 

Wattr Birdlime. 

Take your gun about Michaelmas^ or 
when the cold weather begins to come in, 
and kill fome feldfares, then take one or 
two of them, and fallen to the top of a tree, 
in fuch a manner, that they may feem to be 
alive. When you have done this, pre- 
pare two or three hundred twigs, take a 

F E R 

good birclien bough, and therein place your 
twigs ; having flrft cut off all the fntiall twigs, 
fet a feldfare upon the top of the bought 
making it faft, and plant this bough .Where 
the feldfares refort in a morning to feed i 
for they keep a conftant place to feed in, till 
there is no more foodfor them left« 

\By this means others fiying near will 
. quickly. elpy the top bird,, and fly. in whole 
flocks, or a great number to him. 

FERME A Fermb ; a word peculiar to 
the menace fchools, figniiying in the fame 
place, without ftirring or parting. 

You muft raife t\i2X}Mxk ferme a ferme. 
This horfe leaps upon firma a firma^ and 
works well at caprioles. 

FENCE MONTH, the month wherein 
deer begin to fawn, during which it is 
unlawful to hunt in the forejt. It be- 
gins June the 1 9th, and continues to Jufy the 

There are alfo certain fence cm* defence 
moAths, or feafons for fi(h, as well as wild 
beaflis, as appears hy Weft^ a. G. 3. in thefe 
words i all waters where falmon are taken, 
Jhall h in defence from taking any Jalmonsy 
fr^m the Nativity of our Lord^ unto St. Mar* 
tin's day : likewife that young falmons Jhall 
not be taken or deftroyed by nets^ S^c. from 
tbe midft ^/ April, to the Nativity of St. John 

FERRET, is a creature that is bred 
naturally in England, but not in France, 
Germany, Italy, and Spain ; they are tamed 
for the ufe of thofe who keep warrens, and 

The body of this animal is longer than 
is proportionable : their colour is variable^ 
fomctimes black and white upon the belly ; 
but moft commonly of a yellowifli iandy 
colour, like wool dyed in urine. 

The head is fomething like that of a 
moufe^ and therefore into what hole foever 
(he can put it, all the body will eafily follow 

The eyes are fmall but fiery, like red hoc 
iron, and therefore flie fees moft clearly in 
the dark. 

Her voice is a whining cry without chang-^ 
ing of it : (he hath only two teeth in her 



tnether chap> ftanding oiit, and hot joined 
.and growing together. 

The genital of the male is of a bony fub- 
:ftance, and therefore it always ftandeth 
ftifF> and is not lefler ac one time than ano- 


The pleafurc of the fenfc of copulation^ 
is not in the genital part but in the mufcles^ 
tuniGles, and nerves wherein the faid genital 

When they arc in copulation, the female 
ilieth down) or bendeth her knees« and eon- 
tinually crieth like a cat, either becaufe the 
male claweth her with his hails, or by reafon 
^of the roughnefs of his genital. 

1 he ferret ufually brings forth feven or 
-eight at a time, carrying them in her belly 
for forty, days : the young ones are blind 
for thirty days after they are littered, and 
'.they may be ufed for procreation, as 
their dam is, within forty days after they can 

When chey have been tamed, they are 
nouriihed with milk or barley-bread, and 
they can fail a very long time. 

When they walk they contraft their long 
back, and make it ftand upright in the mid* 
die round like a bowl : when they are touch- 
ed, they fmcll like a martel, and they fleep 
very much. 

The ferret is a bold audacious animal, aji 
enemy to all others but his own kindj 
drinking and fucking in the blood of the 
.beaft it biteth, but eateth not the flefh. 

When the warrencr has occaifion to ufe his 
ferret, he firft makes anoife in the warren to 
frighten the conies who are abroad into their 
burrows, and then he pitches his nets j after 
that he puts the ferret into the earth, having 
.muzzled her mouth, fo that fhe may not 
feize but only frighten the conies out of 
•their burrows, who arc afterwards driven by 
the dogs into the nets or hays, planted for 


FETLOCK, is a tuft of hair as big as the 
hair of the mane, that grows behind the 
paftcrn joint of many horfcsj horfesoflow 
.fiae have fcarce any fuch tuft. 

Some coach-horfes have large fetlocks ; 
':and others have fo much hajr upon theirs, 

F E V 

th^t if the cbachrmin does not.takecar^ id 
keep them clean and tight, they will be 
fubje£t to the watery fores called tb^ 

FEVERS, [in Farriery] Horfes are vciy 
fubje£b to fevers, from a great variet|r 
of caufes, and care Ihould be taken as 
foon as the creature is feized, to attempt the 

When a horfe is feized with a fever, he 
wilt be remarkably reftlefs, ranging from 
one end of the rack to the other; his flanks 
work ; his eyes appear red and inflamed^ 
his tongue parched and dry, his breath ho^^ 
and of a (Irong fmell ; he is often fmeUiog 
to the ground, lofes his appetite, and though 
he will takt. the hay into his mouth, does 
not chew it; his whole body is hotter than 
ordinary, but not parched : he dungs oftea» 
little at a time, ufually hard, and in fmall 
pieces. His urine is high coloured, and he 
gentcrally flales with pain and difficulty : be 
is always craving for water, and drinks often> 
but very little at a time ; and his pulfe is 
much quicker than common. 

Whenever a fever is perceived, the firft 
part of the cure is bleeding, and the quan*- 
tity, if the horfe is ftrong, and in good con- 
dition, would amount to two or three 
quarts. When this has been done, give him 
four times a day a pint of the following in- 
fulion : Take of baum, fage and camomile 
flowers, of each a handful: of liquorice 
root fliced an ounce; and o^ nitre, three 
ounces ; POur upon thefe ingredients two 
quarts of boiling wat^ : and whe^ cool 
ftrain it ofl^; fqueeze into it tHe juice 
of three lemons, and fweeten it with 

The horfe Ihould eat nothing but fcalded 
bran, given him in fmall quantities ; burif 
he refufes this, let him have dry branfprinW- 
led with water, and let a little hay be put 
into his rack, as a fmall quantity of it will 
not be prejudicial, and a horfe will oftea 
eat hay, when, he will not touch any^ thing 
elfe. His water ihould be a little warm^ givea 
often, but in fmall quantities ; and his cloth- 
ing moderate, too much heat being pernici- 
ous in a fever. 



This method^ with good nurfing, will 
often prove fufficient to reftore the horfe to 
health; but if he rcfufcs his meat, more 
blood (hould be taken from him, and the 
drink continued ; if his dung be hard and 
knotty, the following clyfter Ihould be 
given z Take of marlhmallows, two hand- 
fuls ; of camomile flowers one handful s aind 
of fennel feeds, one ounce : boil the whole 
in three quarts of water, till one quart is 
wafted ; then ftrain off the liquor, and add 
to it four- ounces of treacle, and a pint of 
common oil* 

This clyfter fhould be given every other 
day 'j and the intermediate day, the follow- 
ing fhould be given : Take of cream pf tar- 
tar, and of Glauber^s falts,. of each four 
ounces ; diflblve them in barley-water, ^nd 
add one ounce of linitive eleduary. 

By purfuing this method, the horfe will 
begin to recoyer, and he will rclifti his hay, 
though his flanks will continue to heave 
pretty much for. a^ fortnight; but nothing 
more will be requifitc to compleat the 
cure, than walking him abroad in the air, 
and giving him plenty of clean litter to reft 
on in the ftable. % 

But there is another and much worfe fort 
of fevers ta which horfes are very fubjeft, 
and which often proves fatal, if not properly 

The fymptoms of this diforder are a flow 
fever, with great deprefllonj he is fomc- 
times inwardly hot, aiid outwardly cold ; 
and at other times hot all over, but not to any 
extreme* His eyes appear moift and lan- 
guid; his mouth is continually moift, fo that 
he is not deflrous of drinking ; and when 
lie does* a very little fatisfles hinr)« He eats 
very little, , and even then moves his joints 
in a loofe, feeble manner, and grates his 
teeth very difagreeably ; his body is gene- 
rally open, his dung fo ft and moift, his 
ftaleing . irregular, fometimes making little, 
at others a. large quantity of water, which 
is of a pale. colour, and has very little fedi- 

The firft relief is to take from him a 
moderate quantity of blood, let it not ex- 
ceed, th^ec pinfj, but repeat the operation 



in proportion to his ftrcngth> fuUnefa, cough;, 
or any tendency to inflammation ; after which 
the nitre drink already defcribed, may be 
given, with the addition of an ounce of inake ^ 
root, three drams of faffron, and the fame 
quantity of camphire firft diflblved in a little 
fpiritof wine. 

The diet and management will be nearly 
the fame in all forts of fevers ; and, in gene- 
tal, the following rules, if attended to, will 
be found ufeful. Let them have very little 
hay at a time in the rack, but always the beft 
that can be picked out \ if the hay is given^ 
out of the hand the horfe will fometimes eat>. 
whereas without fuch care he would not :: 
kindly hoifes particularly require to be fo> 
fed. Oats are to be avoided, biu bran,.either 
fcalded or fprinkled with a little water^ if 
frefli and fweet, may be frequently given in: 
fmall quantities; It is a bad cuftom in thefe: 
cafes to force warm water on horfes, it often* 
creates a naufea and lofs of appetite ; if he 
will drink warm water, or warm oatmeal- 
gruel that is very thin, he may, but if he 
prefers cold water let him have it, for the 
cold often removes a. naufea arul reftores the- 
appetite; it ftiould alfo be given as often ^ 
as. he pleafes, though not in nill draughts,. 
TJic cloathing may be the fam^ as in health,, 
for fevers in horfes^do not go off as in men, 
by great fweats, or by any other increafed. 
evacuation, but gradually abates by means . 
of a ftrong perfpiration J indeed, when the: 
kernels about the head and neck are fwelled, , 
thefc parts may be kept a little warmer, as > 
by this means a difcharge at the in— 
creafed, which is very falutary*. Here it is. 
ncceflary to caution againlt the pra£l:ice.of« 
fome who fyringc the nofe, and thereby pro- 
duce other fwellings in the adjacent parts*. 
When a horfe begins, to recover, carefully/ 
avoid over feeding him, for by fuch a prac-- 
ticc oBftinate relapfes or furfcits,are. produT 
ccd ; to increafe the quantity of his food on- 
ly, as his ftrength increafcs,. will prevent ill*, 
cffcfts and produce the advantages re- • 

There is good reafon to expcfl a fpeedy > 
recovery, when the fever is obfcrved to abate, > 
tlie mouth is lcfs.parchcd> the grating pf the.; 

teeth i 

F E V 

teeth T$ not rrtuch heard ; when the horfc 
begins to eat, and lay himfelf down ; if his 
(kin feeh kindly, and his eyes fecnn lively. 
But, if the appetite does not mend, or if it 
dedinds, and if the heat continues, the cafe 
is dangerous. When there is a running at 
the nofe, it is generally of a reddifli or green- 
ilh du(ky colour *, it is thickifli and clanimy, 
flicking to the hairs in the noftrils : now if 
this matter becomes clear and watery, it is 
a favourable fign ; but if it continues thus 
vifcid and ill- coloured j if the horfe at the 
fanfie tinie fneezes frequently ; if the fle(h is 
ilill Babby, and he feems hide-bound ; if the 
wtfaknefs increafes, and the joints fwell ; the 
kernels under his jaws are loofe, and yet 
fwellcd'; if he lifts up his tail with a qui- 
vering mbtlon, the cafe is defperate in- 

We will- introduce the method of cure by 
a remark on the pulfe and the method of feel- 
ing it ; in general it is obferved, that on a 
medium the pulfe of a horfe in health, whofc 
circulation is unaffected by any accident, is 
perceived forty times in a minute, and that 
if in fiich a horfe the number of pulfations 
increafe to fifty, the heat of his body far eic* 
ceeds the heat of a healthy itate, or, in other 
yfords, he is in a fever. To difcovcr the 
pulfations, lay your finger on the artery in 
the (ide of the neck, juft above the chcft, or 
feel for the arteries in the temples, or in the 
infide of the legs, particularly the fore-legs, 
and you wfll perceive them very diflinft. 
The fame end is obtained by laying your 
hand on the horfe's fide to count the motions 
of the heart. 

In proportion to the degree of heat and 
the ftrength of the horfe, bleed from three 
to fix pounds, and if there is any apprehen- 
fion ot coftivenefs, give him a laxative glyf- 
cer I after this, let him have more or lefs, 
from two to four ounces, of the following 
faline powder, two or three times a day, ac- 
cording to the violence of the fever, which 
in the infiammatory fpecies often requires 
fun dofes ; diflblve it firfl: in three or four 
pints of water, then add to it as much more 
water as he will drink at once, and that 
cither warm or cold, as the horfe will take it 

F E V 

bell i if a litle bran or barley-flour be mix- 
ed* with this liquor, it will be lefs difagree* 


TT^i Saline Powder. 

Take lalt-pctre, five pouids; fait of tar- 
tar, one pound;, mix them well in an iron 
or marble mortatv and then put it up in a 
bottle well corked, to be ufed as re- 

During the ufe of this, or of any other 
preparation with nitre, the horfe fliould be " 
permitted to drink at pleafure, for nitre, in 
order, being very ufcful, requires to be well 

If by thefe means the horfe begins in a 
few days to eat a little, this method alone * 
will be fufiicient, if care in nurfing is not 
negleAed : but if the appetite does not re- 
turn, nor the fever abate, repeat the bleed- 
ings and continue the faline powder as before 
direfted ; and if coftive, give the following 

Laxative Cooling Drink. 

Take of cream of tartar, and of Glauber's 
fait, each four ounces ; diflblve them in a 
fufficient quantity of water for him to drink 
at one time. 

As foon as by thefe methods he begins to 
eat, and the violence of the fymptoms in ge- 
neral give way, though his flanks do heave^ 
which will be the calc feveral days after the 
abatement of all other fymptoms, there will 
nothing farther be requtfite, than to walk 
him gently abroad now and then in the day, 
and to allow him plenty of litter. 

In cafe of violent inflammation with the 
fever, which is attended generally with pain 
or fwelling, or both, in particular parts » 
the fame method in general will be required 
as in the cafe of fimple fevers, only the bleed- 
ings fhould be more plentiful, and, perhaps^ 
oftner repeated •, as alfo a more liberal ufe oF 
the faline powder, and other cooling means* 
See Inflammation of the Pleura, fcfc. 

The cure of intermittents will confift jn a 
a cautious ufe, or an omifllon of bleedings 


actording^to tlie horfc^ ftrcngth : and duftng 
^hc intervals of the fits, to give an ounce of 
Peruvian bark, finely powdered, repeating 
it eveiy four hours whHc the fit is abfent. 
If the bark runs off with a lax, add i-o it a 
little diafcordium, or other aftringent^ 
enough to check that effeft ; but, perhaps, 
affter the firft day or two it may not purge, 
fo that except it continues to produce that 
effect, the aftringents arc beft omitted. In 
cafe of any other fpccies of fever intermit- 
ting, the fanrte method may be ufed as 
where an intermittent is the original dif- 

The low kind of fever rarely admits of 
bleeding, yet does not abfolutely forbid it ; 
great circumfpcftion is here ncceffary, for 
lymptoms which ufually reqtrire this evacu- 
ation, will in this cafe foon give way, from 
the very nature of the difeafe : however, if 
the horfe is young and ftrong, if his veflels 
feem filled with a rich blood, two or three 
pounds may be taken away in the beginning 
of the difeafe, and may be repeated as the 
force of any inflammatory fymptoms may in- 

Whether the bleeding is ufed or not, 
give the following cordial falinc mix- 

Take of crude fal ammoniac, two ounces ; 
diffolve it in three pints of water ; then add 
to it pnc ounce of Virginian fnake-root, 
finely powdered, and three drams of Englifh 
fafllron ; mix, and give a pint three times a 
day, more or lc6, as the urgency of the 
fymptoms niay require. 

lf,notwithftanding this,the fever increafes, 
the appetite grows lefs ; if the urine is 
thin, pale, and frequently fje£ted ; the dung 
changeable, as to moifture and drynefs ; if 
his gums feem red and fpongy ; if the coat 
(tares ; the cafe being now $langerous, give 
the following balls : 

Compound Fever Balls, 

Take of bark, finely powdered, one ounce ; 
of Virginian fnake-root, half ah ounce ; 
camphire, one Jram ; honey enough to 
jnakc a balls to be given with each dofc of 


tlie cordial faline mixture I or with the fof-- ' 
lowing camphorated drink, according as the 
fymptoms may require the one or the other. 

For horfes of fmall value, the follow- 
ing balls may be fubftituted for the above- ' 

Take of diapente and mithridate, each 
half an ounce ; camphire, one dram ; make 
them into a ball, to be given every four or 
fix hours, with a horn full of an infufionof - 
fnake-root, rue, and diafcordium. 

The Camphorated Drink. 

Take of camphire one dram, diffolve ic in 
reftified fpirit of wine, one ounce j add to it 
gradually a pint of diftilled vinegar, and give 
half a pint for a dofe,. mixed with a pint of 
thin gruel, or of water in which a little braA ' 
hath been ftirred. 

If the horfe is coftive, laxative clyftcrs 
ihould be given ; though gentle and warm 
purges are rather to be preferred : if a 
purging comes on» let it continue if it is mo- 
derate ; but if it feems to enfeeble him, add 
gentle reftringents, fuch as diafcordial to his' 
drink ; or, if needful, add more powerful 

In this fort of fever a horfe often ftalcs 
with great difficulty, and his fpirits are there- ' 
by much depreffed. In this cafe prepare 
his drinks with frelh made lime-water, which 
ihould be clear, but retaining as much of the 
heat as poflTible, that is excited by the addi- 
tion of the lime to the water. If, notwtth- 
ftanding this, the urine is (till defedtive, fo 
that the body or limbs begin to fwell, give 
the following diuretic drink : 

Take nitre one ounce ; Venice turpentine, 
diffolved with the yolk and white of one egg, 
half an ounce i then gradually add a pint of 
a ftrong decoftion of marftimallow leaves, < 
or of parfley roots i let this be given for 
one dofe, and repeat it every four or fix hours, 
until the urine flows freely. « 

In this difeafe, drinking is abfoluteiy ne- 

ceffary to dilute the blood, and therefore if 

the horfe refutes warm water he (hould fa^ 

indulged with fuch as has had only the chi^ 

Z taken 

taken off^ by (landing fome time in the 
liable. And this will be no difadvancage) 
fpr the warm vfzuf forced on borfesy pails 
their ftomachs for a time, and confequently . 
takes away theii' appetite i' but t.his water, 
which ha$ only Hood ifiL the ftable^ redores 

If this method /hould not prove fufficient, 
byt the fever continues to increafe, the fp4- 
lowing ball3. ihould be; gjtycf^ inimedlately) , 
^% the danger augments ^leyery h^ur : takcj 
of contrayerva-root, myrrh^ an4 fnake-ropt. 
powdered, cf each two drams; of fafFron, 
one dram : of mithridate, or Venice treacle, 
half an ounce, make the whole into a ball, 
•with honey, which Ibould be given twicr a 
day* and.wa(hed down- withi two or three 
horns of an infu&oa. of fnftk!9*ro<H, fweetened 
with honey^ and acidulated with half a pint 
of vinegar. . . 

Jf thefe balls (hould not anfwer the in* 
t^ntion (whkh will not .often be the cafe) 
a^d to each a dram of ^a^nphire, and, when 
tbe horfe is of value^ the f^mc quantity oi 
caflor. , ; ' 

\ Or, the fotlowiisg drink may be given, 
which has been often attended with fuccefs: 
tlike. of canophtre oa^ dram> diflblyed :ia an 
ounce of rectified fpirit of wine, pour it gfa^ 
c^^HKUy^ ii^to a pint of diAHlqd viii<egar> and 
giy^. i|! at twodoifes*. . • • : 

• perhaps there is not a more powerful ^nd. 
e^t;<^|^a) medicine; known. than camphare^ lA 
Bi\ ihefe kinds o( putrid fevers^ being a6live, 
atteil^vating^ and particularly calculated, to 
proflfw^ feci^tions of urine and perfpiration* 
tipie two principal outlets by which the febrile 
niajCt«rs ^e difchiarged *» and it would befor-^ 
tunate For the poor bead, and advantageous 
s^ tbe farrier^, if it were oftener given than at 

h id necefiSiry to be ob(erved» that if the 
h,orfe flhould prove coftivc, clyfters^ or an 
opening drink» wHl be neceflary j and ihould 
h.e pu]rg4:> care muft be taken nqt to fupprefs 
itig^if moderate^ but if it continues long 
enough to render the horfe feeble, add 
d^fccvdiuno* to his drink i^ilead of mithri- 
daj^. , 
l^itlnother necelTary .oblervacion xs^ to kt. 



y> / 

F E V 

hioT^ drink plemifully, as that will greatJ^ 
tend to promote the operation of the above 
medicines, ax^i conf^^quently render thea^ 
rnofe eiF^fbual in curing (he difordcr. . . 
.. A particular regard ihould alfo be had' to 
h\& ftaiing,. which mud be reprefled by proper 
aflringents, and giving him lime-water, if 
it fbould Bow in too great quantities r and o» 
the other bajod^ if it happe;i&, that he i^ too 
remifs that way, and ftales too little^ aa to 
occafion a fulnef^ and fweUln^g of , his body 
and leg£^ the foHowmg drink ihorild be given:: 
Take of fal-prunjcllay or nitfe, ope, ounces 
of juniper berries, and Venice turpentine^ oC 
: each half an ounce, make the whoU iiito a? 

^ It • 

; ball, with oil of amber^ 

Two or thj;ee. of thefe balls tnay oe.givea> 
! at proper inpervals) and waAicd. down withr 
' a deeoflioa of naapliu»a|lows^ fweetencd wick 
hone-y. • . . . 

Th6.(e are the beftr rMchods oS managpog- 
fevers, and will gieneraily prov^; fuccefsful ^' 
hwt fometinves art willfail^j and thje.lioric 
wiU difcbarge a gireeoiih ^or r^ddiih gleec 
from his noftTilS) aad. fneeze very fxeqpent- 
ly ; he will continue to lofc his flefh, bcconae 
hide* boundv refufe his fioear, fwelL about the 
jointfir, ao<l his eyts a^pp^ar^as; ^ fucd and^ 
dead> and a purging cnfue, in which he wilt 
di (charge a fG^tid^^ . ^ark' frot^^red^ n^titfr i. 

when theic fynnpwro^ VB^^^t hift. 9^^ P^ayp, 
be coofidered as defperate, and aj I attempts* 
tQ favc him wiJJ. be in^vain*. ... \ > 

But, on the contrary, whea his fkiti fi^clr 
:kindly> hi^S' ears aiftd /eet ,po^tin^,pf a^ 
i moderate warmth, his ey^s look briik' ii^ii 
; lively, his nofe icon ttnuis clear ^apd dry^*. 
his appetite, mend^i he lays down. witb&> 
eafe, and dung» and fi:ales regujarly, you* 
may conclude that the danger is over^ and. 
nothing wanting but care to compleat ths^ 

But you muft be very attentive to his* 
feeding, and not fufFer him to eat too much^, 
his diet fliould be light ; a fmajl quantity 
onl/given him atone time, arid increafedbjr 
degrcesy as he gathers ftrength j for. horfcs 
have often catched great furfeits, and rclap*- 
fed into their formor difcaf^ nnerely thxpughu 
over- feeding* 





»j - 

^ ^oafttimes the^jTever will be brought to 
(i^temxiti or leave the .creature for a time. 
iC this. fl>oul4 . happen, be very careful as 
foon as you find the fit is over, to give him 
an ounce of Jcfuit'jsrbark, apd repeat it every 
£x hours, t^U the creature has taken five or 
fix ounces /: if any eruptions or fwellings, 
the;y ifaould he en^ouraged^ as they are gpod 
fympiboflis, ^od denote a terminatioQ of tht 
diftemper, and that na more roediciqes are 

- In the years I7g^j and 1733$ a terrible 
epidemic fever raged among the iiorfes, and 
it was. thcA fouAd by experience, that th^ 
fimpleft method was attended with the beft 
fufictfks «^ that thofe who cre^ed the dif- 
teoiper in the fpUowing maoder were rarely 

Tne 6r(t operation was to bleed largely* 
fo the ijuafiticy of ^hi-ee quarts, if the horfe 
was ftsoagaa^ full df flelh ^ and if his lungs 
irei^ 119^ reliet»ed by itj but continued ftuJ9^ 
aad Jofided^ ihe. Ueediog was repeate^^ and a 
rowel put in the cheft or belly. 

Tbeie previous opo^'ations being perform-^ 
«4 Mke care to dilutei the bloody by giving 
^ creatiire i^ntyof i«ater,or wbit&drink ; 
ind let hid meat be wxirm bran ma(hes» and 
li^ hay fpriitkled. If the. fever ^irid in« 
cnsafr^ wliich may be known by tbc fymp* 
toms above defcribed^ give him an ounce 
oC^tcre thrice a day in his water^ or made 
up into a ball with honey. Let his body be 
i^pt cool And open, with the opening drink, 
^ven cwioe or thrice a week ; for an ounce 
%{ Mt of tartar may be given every day, difr 
folved in bis water, obferving to omit the 
nitre. After a . week's treatment \ti this 
manner^ the cordial ball may be given once 
or itwice a day, and wa(hed down^^witb a^ 
iafufion of liquorice * root fweeten^d widi 
Moneys to which may: be added, when th^ 
pUegm is tough, or oough.dry and hufky^ 
a quarter of a pint of linfced, or fallad oil, 
missed with ait eiqual quantity of oxyniel of 
fi)yiUs. ' w ..i. , ./ 

> Care ihouUbe Xftken^on thefjc occaEoQS tg 
keep jtbe^adr^aodcthroattw^rmor, than qomf 
mon, as the t]|Qrernete abom the J attor ^re. gpj 
Aenaijr fiMUed»!M frt-omotea free perfp^ra- 

tioni and bicreafe the rnnning at the nofe> 
which has the fame eiTc6l in a horfe as fpit«i 
ting in the human fpecies. But never at- 
tempt to fyringe the nofe, as forae too often 
do, . tQ^ promote the difcharge; for it ha$ 
quite a contrary efieft, and will leiSen the 
quantity of matter which fhould be incrcafed 
as/nuch as poffible. The checking of this 
niatter, not only increafcs the fever, but al* 
fo occafions bad fwellings in the parts and 
glands, in and near the head. And let me 
once for all remind the praditioner, that all 
fuch difcbarges are critical, and thrown off 
by nature to free berfeK from the load that 
opprelTe^ her, and oqnfequently flipuld by 
^U n^eani^ be promoted. 

FAUNTS } The dung of deer. 

FIMASHlWf the dunging pf any fprt 
of wild beads. 

FJO IN JH(a^SBS« A difeafe that takes it'a 
name from a w^rt pr broad pierce of &c(k, 
growing upoA the fru& towar4a tbe.beel, re« 
fembling a Bg in (hape* 

It proceeds from fome hurt received in tbo 
foot, that haf& not beea thoroughly cured : or 
by a Aubor oail» bone, thorn, or ftoaeiandl 
foncietiQWs by an over rea^h upon the bed <np 

The bed method of treating them all jsj 
to cut them as clean away as po/Iiblei snd 
if any part is left behind, which was not eafy 
io icpme at with the knife, toiich it with 4 
cai;iftic s and if tb^t f^iU to deftroy Che foiall 
remains, fecure a bit of fublimate upon it« 
When the root, is fairly cleared away^ and 
not before, waflv the part daily with the fol- 

Take of gajls, allum, and white vitriol, ill 
powder, each two ounces; boil them a few 
mii^.i^jbes in ibur, pint^pf lime-water j and, 
when cool enough* ppur off the clear liqvoo 
'm%p a bottle, fw ufe. 

If any of the root remains, it will groir» 
and the cure is as fv off as before it was be* 
gu,0« .... .... . "* 

/ Jf, injcpttiflg of thefe^crefcences, an ar- 
tery ilDfijjld be WQi^Bded, or a profufc bleed« 
ing com.e€tn,\ajdoffU:Qfi;U«vtm4y be preffed 
OY^ tht orifice of the Weeding, veffcls : over 
Z 2 . this 

F I R 

this lay other pledgets of tow, fecurc them j 
clofcly, and in fuch a quantity, as that a due 
prciFurc an the part may be made by ban- 
dage : remove the dreffings m two or three 
days, but not wholly.; leave the doffil of 
lint which is next to the wounded veffcls to 
digcft away ; if it adheres at alh cover it up 
as before with pledgets, fecurcd as at the 
firft, to prevent a frefh bleeding. After the 
firft removal of the dreffings, continue to ex- 
amine and drefs the part every day. 

FILANDERS. A difeafe in hawkS, 6f 
which there arc feveral forts : they are worms 
as fmalF as a thread, and about an inch Ibng; 
whicb lie- wrapt .up in a thin Ikin-^ er net, 
near the reins, apart from cither gut or 

FILLETS. The loins of a horfc, which 
begin at the place where the hinder part of 
the faddle refts.^ 

• FILLY. A term among horfe-dealers to 
denote the fcniale or mare colt. 


may be removed by lifting up the eyc-lid> 
after the eye has' been walhed with wine, 
and-ftroaking it gently with one's thumb, 
Witb wheat flour : alfo common fait, or fait 
nf lead, beateo fine and put into the eye is 
proper to confume a film ; or you may wafli 
the borfe's eye with your fpittle in the morn- 
ing fading, having fii'fl: put a little /alt into 
yourmoiithr but there is nothing fo efFcc- 
tual, as fal-armoniac beaten and put intothe 
eye, and repeated every day till the film is 

FIRBV To give the fire to a horfe, i^ to 
apply the firing .iron red hot to fomc preter- 
natural fwelling in order to difcufs it-; which 
is oftentimes done by clapping the firing iron 
to the (kin without piercing through* 
.' We give fire to tarcy knot^^by running a 
pointed burning iron into the ulcer. 

We likcwife give fire for wrenches of the 

FIRING IRON is a- piece of copper or 
iron about a foot long, one end of which is 
itNide fiat, an<i forged like a knife, ^ the back 
of it being hal& an inch thick, and the fore 
edge about fivx oryfix^ times' thinner 
• When the farrier haa^ made his. firing irea 

F I af 

red hot in his forge, he applies the thinrie(B^ 
part to a horfe*s (kint and fo gives the fire t&^ 
the hams^ or fuch places as ftand in need of 

FISHi^ As to the quaKty of breeding 
them> it Ts fcarce to be found* out by any 
certain fymptom ; for fome verypromifing 
ponds do not always prove fbrvice^ble : one 
of the beft indicationsof a Weeding pond is^ 
when there is good quantity of rufli and gra- 
zing about it, with gravelly (hoaIs> fuch as 
hbrie-ponde ufiSaM)?- have";' f& that when a 
water takes thus to breeding, with* a few 
milters andfpawners, two or three 6feadi, a 
whole country may beftocked in afliort time. 
Eels and perch are of vei^y good i»fe to kee{> 
down the ftock of fifh ;• fop they prey muck 
upon the fpawn and fry of bred* filh, and 
wilkprobably deftroy the fuperfluityofthem. 
As« for pikey perch, tendh^ > polish; &el 
they are obferved to breed m atmoft any 
waters, and very numcroufly s onl^-eeli 
never breed in ftahding waters tharare with^ 
out fprings ; and in fuch are neither found 
nor cnereafcj but by putting in i yet where 
fprings are^ they are n^ver wanting, thot^ 
not put in^ And, v^hic4i is moft ftraiigeelf 
alii no p^rfon evet^ f^w in an eel) theleaft 
token of propagatio^n, either by milt or 
fpawn; fo that whether they brctd at all^ 
and how they are produced, are queftiona- 
equally myfterious,. and never as yet rtf^ 
folved. ' , . . ' ; .. ^r*- 

:- For the method of feeding fifll, taketb;^ 
following remarks: i. Inaftevtr, thirty or 
fc)i^ty carps may bfc kept up from Oii^^w^ 
to March y without feeding; and byfilbiiig 
with tramels or flews in March, or jiprii^, 
you ma)(^ take from your great waters to rc^ 
cpuit the tt^ws 5 but* you muft ftot- f«il tl» 
feed all lUmmeri from March to OSoktr 
again, a« conltantly as cooped chickens at^ 
fed, and it will, turn to. as good aa ac-4^ 

a% The care.of feeding; is beftcommiited 
to a butler or gardener, who fhould be al«^ 
ways at Hand, becaufe the conftant and regu« 
lar ferving of the fifii, conduces veiy- n^tieH 
to their well eating and thriving;' 

3i Any fort. vf'grain bpiledis-good to feed 


F I S 

witbi^ eJl^eciallf peafe^ and malt coatfe 
ground ; the grains afccp brewing while fre(h 
and* fwcet are very proper ; bur one buihcl 
of malt not brewed will go as far as two 
of grains^; chipptngs of breads and fcraps 
off* a tablcy deeped in tap droppings of 
ftrofig beer or ale, are excellent food for 
carp r of thefe the quantity of two quarts 
vo thirty carp every day. is fufficient, and to 
feed morning aiid»ev«ning,. is^ better than 
once a day only. 

4. There is & fort of food for fi/h. that may 
be called accidental, and is no lefs improv- 
ing than the bed that can be provided ; and 
that is, when: the ponds happen to receive 
^e wa^ of commons, where many (beep 
have pafture, the water is enriohed by the 
ibil, and will feed a much greater number 
of carp- than otherwife it would do; and 
ftrther, the dung that falls from cattle 
flanding in the water in hot weather, is alfo 
a very gi^eac nouriftiment to fifh. 

5* More particularly^the moft>proper food 
to.raifepike to an extraodinaiy fatnefs, is 
eel^, and without them it is not to be done 
but in a long time -, otherwife fmall perohes 
are the bcft meat you can give them. 
Bream put into^a pike-pond, breed exceed- 
ingly j' and are fit to maintain pikes, that 
will take care they fhall not encreafe over 
much; the numerous fry of roaches and 
rouds which aome from the greater pools 
ime the pikes . quarters^ will likewife be 
good diet for them, 

6. Pikein all ftreams^ and carp in hun- 
gry fpringing waters, being fed at certain 
times, will come up and take their meatal- 
moft from your hand ; and it is a diverting 
ebjeA>. to fee the greedinefs and ftriving 
that will be among them for the good-bits, 
with the boldnefs they will aU»in to by 
eonftant and regular feeding. 
» 7. Themoft convenient feeding place is 
towards the mouth of the pond, aL the 
deptb of about half a yard ; for by that 
mean&the deep will be kept clean and neat,' 
as it were a parlour tb retire to and reft in : 
riiemeat, thrown into the water, without: 
•ther €rouble>will be picked up by th^fiih,: 
and aothing. Aiall be loft i yet there are. fe- 

veral ingenious devices for giving^ thenn. 
food, cfpecially peafe ; as a fquarc board 
letdown with^the meat upon it by the four 
corners>.whencc a ftring comes^ made faft to 
the endof a ftick like a fcale, which may. 
be readily managed, 

8w When fi(h are fed in the larger pools 
or ponds^here their nunU>er« are allb great,< 
there will be fome expence as well aspains u 
but as foon as they are taken out, and i& 
appears how they are thriven^ you will^ 
allow both well employed, either nlialt boil- 
ed or frefli grains is the beft food in this, 
cafe. Thus carp may be fed ancj raifed* 
like capons, ai^ tench will feed as. well,, 
but perch are not for a ftew in feeding; 

As to the benefits^ that redound from the> 
keeping of fi(h, befides furniftiing your 1^-. 
ble,. obliging your friends, and railing^ 
money>^ your land will be vaftly improvedi. 
fo as to be really worth, and yield more; 
this way than by any: other employment 
whatfoever : for fuppofe it to be a meadow^ 
of 2/; per acre : four acres in pond, will re->- 
tura you every year a^thoufand fecjcarpj^ 
ftQm the leaft fize to fourteen or fifteen in-^ 
ches longi befides pike, pecch, tenchv 
and other fry j the carp are falcable,^. andi" 
will bring 6d, gd. and perhaps iid. a piece,>» 
amounting in all to 25/. which is 6/. 5/^. 
per acre, the charge of carriage oi>ly to bo 

When a great is defigned-to ber 
brought, you take the firft fpit of the groundi 
upon which the bank-is to ftand, and fornr^ 
the pan of the pond. Now in cafe you^ 
convey the earths taken^ tjience to fome. 
place where it may be eafily removed upon. 
your tillage land,; let it lie there to rot che 
fed, and there is not a better manure to be> 
had, being alfo more than pays the charge, 
of digging and carrying it off. ^ 

Yo\x gain the making^pf ftewsj.. and it, 
may be other ponds forthe convenience ofj 
your cattle,, altar one expence i , for if yo^ [ 
are obliged to dig clay and earth for your' 
bank,; it is eafily. taken where it.does.this^ 
as otherwife. . 

If the foil about the watcrslfe ii any wife; 



rmoorlfh, tt m*y be planted with ozlerSi 
virhich yield a oeitain yearly crop* 

The fttd of the pond when laid dryland 
3thc corn, /• r. oats, ivhich you may have 
upoti the bottom, - thoygh meer mud> is 
very confiderable. 

If cattle grace xvear your great pools, 
they win delight to come ahd ftand in the 
^ater, which conduces much to the thriving 
^f your beads, as well as to the feeding of 
your flfli by their dunging, as has been al- 
ready hinted : it is therefore advifcabk to 
have ponds in cow paftures and graaing- 

. ' A^ to the fowing of oats in th« bottom of 
4 pond, take care tb dry your great Water 
once in three, or at moft four years, and 
tlwt at the end <>( January ^ or beginning of 
M4rch which (if the year do not prove 
<^tfry ^lifeafdnabk) Veill be time «ttoughi 
Aft^ Michaelmas following, you may put 
itt a great flock of filh, and thin Afem ih 
flicceeding years as the feed declines.' dee' 
Pond Heads. 

- FISHIKG-FLIES, are both natural and 
artificial ; the natural are almoft mnUri^e- 
rable^ of which I Ihall name only the ft>oft 
pi-ihcipal^ viz. the dun-fly; the ftone or 
ih<ijr-fly, the tawny-JSy, the vine-*fly, ' the 
fliell-fly, the cloudy. and blackilh-fl]^, the 
flag fly-, alfo caterpillars,- canker-fliesybear* 
flies, fcf^. all which appear either fooner or 
later, according as the fpring proves for- 
ikrard or backward ; ^nd thefe fli^s are all 
^od in their feafon, f6'r foch fith as rile at 
llie fly. 

The better to know the fly thefifli covets 
rtioll, when ytucome to the river- fide in 
the morning, beat the bulhes with yourrod, 
anc^ take up Ss many various fort^ as ybii 
<«aD, and make a trfal of them, and bythat 
iheans you will find which fort they bite moft 
eagerly atj though they will fometimes 
change their fly, but this is only when they 
have glutted themfelves with that fort they 
likcbeft. » 

There are two ways of fiflijtig With thefe • 
iMtural flies, viz. ciflier on th^ furface of 
the water, or a little underneath tt. - ^ 

If you angle for chevin, roach ol* daoe> 




move tiot the tiatutalfif fw}fcly uri^n jfo% 
fee the fifli make at it, but rather jk^tilt glide 
freely towards hij» with the (Ir^anrii but i^ 
it be in a ftiU and flaw water, draw che, fijr, 
(lowly lide^WiLys by him, and. this ^iU.caufe 
him to purfueit eagerly. 

As for the artificial fly> it is fipidom ufedt 
bat in. bluftering weather, when the wacera^ 
are fo difturbed by th€}.wind> thgt, a ^afMralf 
fly cannot. well be feen^ nor reft ypoia 

There are twelve forts of dubs or artificial 
fliei, of which thefe that follow are ^epda**' 
cipal. : ' : . i' 

1. For MffT^Tit, the dun^jr;. n»ideofduft 
wool, and the fcttthers ^\ the .paitridge'a 
wicig s of the body made of J»lack wool and 
the feathers of a black drake. ... 

3* For jiprily the ftone-fly.s the body 
made of black wool,; d^edyeUow vn^prthA 
wings and tailv i . 

3. For the beginning of M^^ the ntddy* 
d^; made of red wool and: bound about 
wub black fiUt, with the feathers of a black 
dapon hasigiog dakigHng on )m iide% nexc 

his tatet . . 

4. Fcrr J^»tf, the ^ecnblht-f^ ; thebo<^ 
made of black wool^ with a yiellow lift on 
either fide, thewin^ taken off* the. wings 
of a buazard, bound with black brokca 

5. The moorifl'i-fly, the body made a£ 
dufkilh wobli^nd (die .wings of the lidackifti 
mail of a drake. 

6. The tawny- fly good till the middle of 
Jun€\ the body madC' of. tawny wooJ, the 
wings made contrary onreagaioft.the othcxj 
of the whitilh mail of a white drake. 

7 . For July^ the wafp- fly ; the bady mad; 
of black wdol, cafl: about (with yiilltiw filks 
and fhe wings of drakes feathers; . . 

8. The fteel-fly, good in the ontddje of 
Jufy\ the body nmdewiih gfeemfliwool, 
caft about with the feathers of a peafe^k'% 
tail, and the wings madfe x>f dhofe of the 
buzzard. '^ 

• 9. For ^guji^ the drake«£y $ ;. tbe.bp^y: 
made with black wooicaftfabout^withJMaci^ 
iilk,*his Wings of the mailiof a idack drake* 
with « black' h«4d# F^ ik9 JifftfrntMnds 


4^ FiJB, tmd DifeSUetu far iakhig Urn, Jet 

0m*t umier tbair pttfer jtrticie ; as for Caiu>-! 

JfiMtthG /t$ Carp, /ixd for F£Y<Fisbing 

JiK the different Manths,. Apnl> Augufl:^- 

f . FHh^na mcr tkat has been fomc^hat 
dlfturb^ b^ rath, or in a cloudy day, when 
the waters are moved by a^geACte breeze ; xS^ 
the Wmds be gemcle, the bcft aDgling will bd 
in fwift dreams, bac if it faJon^s lomewhat. 
jftiiohg,. but not fo but that you may convt'- 
Bientfy guard your cackle,, the fiflr will nfc! 
in plain' deeps; 

a. 'Always angle iviiika-frnaU By andelear: 
ivings,. in clear rivers f. but ufe larger in 
Bluddy places. 

3. Keep at as good ^iflancel&om the wa-» 
ti!r^fidcat you can, and BOi dowa the (ireatn 
Wkh xiat foa at your face, and touch not the '. 
water wirfis yotw Hne. 

.4. When the water becomes brownifli af* 
titt raih, aife an orange fiy ; and in a clear 
day,, a light colofired Ey> and a dark fly fof 
cUfk waters, i^e. 

5^ Havefitveralof dteiaiheof eyery Ibrt 
e£fty, difTeringui colour, t6j&)ijt the coloura 
Qf £ryecal:wa£e!Fs and weatiiers. * f 

6b. Letahe fly &lliirifc into the.water;/abd 
not the line,, which will be apt to fright the 

.7. Le? youir Khe be twice the liengfihr of 
ymirrady urrlefsr the river be encumjskefcd 
vricb' waodL 
. &. in i]<aw rivers, or ftilS pieces, ctft. the < 
fiy oirtar cho&tbeciyer^ add let it Ibnkla^Uttle 
in I3he watef> and drawr it gencSy back with 
the current. 

9. Bftaftemicof a qiuck eye and nimbLe 
traod, to ftrike pcefently with the rifing; of 
the fiih^ left be ihoukl kan: time to fpew 
out the hook. 

Every one that delights ia fly-fiDiing, 
odght to learn the way of naaking two (brts 
of artiicial ^es; the paltner, ribbed with 
Clver or gold, and the may-fly^ 
. In the making of the palmer- fly, you mu(t 
arm your line on the infide of the book, and 

F I S^ 

I cut oflT tb itfuch of » mallard's feathers tbi 
niake the wings, 

. Then lay the outermoft part of the feather 
next the hook, and the point of the feather 
towards the fliank of the hook,, whip it three-. 
or four times about the hook with the fame 
filk you armed your hook, and make the lillc* 
faft. • 

Take the hackle of lihc neck of a cock or 
capon, (but a plover's top is bed) and take 
off one fide of the feather, and then take-, 
the hackle, filk, m gold or filver thread,, 
aad make.^li thefe faft ae the bent of the' 
hook, working them up to the wings, (hift- 
ing your fingers every tura and making ti 
flop, then the gold will fall sight,, which, 
aiake faft. 

After this, take the hook betwixt yourfin»- 
ger and thumb, in the left hand, and with Zt 
ntcdlt or pin part the wifigs in two, then' 
with the anting filk, (having faftened all. 
hitherto) whip it about as it falls acr-ofs be^ 
tween thie wings, and with your thumb turn^ 
the point of the feather towards the bent of 
the hook, then work it three or four times; 
about the ibank, and faflren it $ and view the. 
proportioa for other flies* 

If you make the grounds of hog's^wool,.. 
faody,.idack,. or .white, orbear's-waol^ or of 
a^red bullock^ work thefe gnotmds bo a. waxed.: 
flUk, and arm aad: let on due' wings a& before, 

The body of the may^fiy muflibe wroughc:. 
with fome of thefe grounds, which will be 
admirablyt wdK when. ribbed wish black haii). 
or filk. . . 

* Othecs make them with'&ndiy hf)g'swoQlv 
ribbed with black .filk^ and nvingod. with ^\ 
mallard's featlier,, according to the Angler's;* 
fancy. D 

, The oak-fly muA be madib with orangot 
tawny,, or orange Qoloiiiicd'cre.wei^ and blade 
for the body ; and the brawn of die mallacd'Si 
feather far the wingsw 

Laftly^ theiie is another fly,, tbe body of* 
which is . made of the ftcain of a peacock's 
feather.. . 

Mard ia the month tO' begin to angle 
with the fly, but if the weather prove windy 
or cloudy, there arc fcveral forts of palmers 


* ^ 

. ■ * 

F I« 

-that iire good at that time : the fir ft is a 
black palmer, ribbed with filvcrj the fecondj 
a black palmer with an orange tav^y body^ 
thirdly, a palmer whofe body is all black ; 
laftly, there is a red palmer, ribbed with 
gold, and a red hackle nuxed with orange 

Obferve, that the lighteft flies are far 
doudy and dark weather^ and the darkeft for 
bright and lights and the reft for indifferent 

Salmon-flies fliould be made with their 
wings ftandingone behind the other, whether 
two or four, and of the gaudieft colours that 
can be^ for he delights in fuch ; and this 
chiefly in the wingfi, which muft be long as 
well as the tail. 

You are to note that there are twelve 
kinds of artiBcial made flies to angle with 
tipon the top of the water. Note by the 
way, that the fitteft feafon of ufing thcfe, 
is a bluftering windy day, when the waters 
are fo troubled that the natural fly can- 
not be fcen, or reft upon them. The firft 
is the dun* fly in March, the ibody is made 
of dun-wool, the wing? of the partridge's 
feathers. The fccond/is another dun-fly, 
the body of black woo^, and the wings made 
of the black drake's feathers, ^nd of the fea- 
thers under his tail. Thctturd is the ftone- 
fly in jdpril, the body is made of black wool 
made yellow under the wings, and under 
the tail, and fo made . with wings of the 
drake. The fourth is the ruddy-fly in the 
beginning of May, the body made of red 
wool wrapt about with black filk, and the 
feathers are the wings of the drake, with the 
feathers of a red capon alfo, which hang 
dangling on his fides next to the tail. The 
fifth is the yellow or grcenifti fly, in May 
likewife, the body made of yellow wool, 
and the wings made^^of the red cock's hackle 
or tail. The fixth is the black-fly^ in 
May alfo, the body made of black wool, and 
Japt about with the herlc of a peacock's 
tail I the wings are made of the wings of a 
l>rown capon, with his blue feathers in his 
iiead. The feventb is the lad yellow-fly in 


1 yitne, the body is made of black wool* wirk 
a yellow lift on either fide, and the wings 
taken oflp the wings of a buzzard, ^botintf 
with black l)raked hemp. The eighth is 
the moorilh'fty, made with the body of 
duflcifh wool, and thc^ wings made of the 
blackiSi male of the jdrake. The aiiith it 
the tawny-fly, good until the middle oijunei 
the' body made of tawny wool, the wine^s 
made contrary pne againft the other, made 
of the whitifti mail of the wild drake. 
The tenth is the wafp- fly in Jufy^ the body 
made of black wool, lapt about with yellow 
&lk, the wings made of the feathers of the 
drake or of the buzzard. The eleventh is 
the ftiell'fly, good in A^d July, the body 
made of greeni(h wool, lapt about with the 
herle of a peacock's tail^ and the wings made* 
of the wings of the buzzard. The twclftii 
is the dark drake-fly, good in Augufty the 
body made with black wool, lapt about witk 
black filk X his wings are made with the mail 
of zin-bag the peacock's feather, and ground* 
of fuch wool and rrewel as will' make the 
grafshopper; and note, th^t ufually the 
fn^alieft flies are the bed ; alfo, that the light 
fly does ufually make moft fport in a dark 
day, and the darkeft and leaft fly in a bright 
Of clear day; laftly, that you are to repair 
upon any occaQon to youMinagazine4>ag, 
and vary and make them lighter or darker 
according to your fancy or the i^j. 

The May-Pij may be found in and about 
that month, near to the river-fide, efpeci- 
ally againft rain ; the oak-fly on the butt or 
body of an oak or afli, from the beginning 
of May to the end o^Auguft ; it is a browhim 
fly, and eafy to be found, andftands ufually 
with his head downwards towards the root 
of the tree ; the fmall black-fly, or hawthorn- 
fly, is to be had on any hawthorn-bufh after 
the leaves are ofi^ : with thefe and a fhort 
line, you may dape or dop, and alfo with a 
grafshopper behind a tree, or in any deep 
hole, ftill making it to move on the top of 
the water aa if it were alive, and ftill keeping* 
yourfelf out of fight, you will certainly have 
fport if there be trout* 



F I S 

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F I S 

'A def crip Hon of prefer halts for the Jeveral \ 
/orts of Fi&H referred to in the foregoing 


1. Stone-fly, found under hollow ftones 
at the fide of rivers, is of ft brown <x)Iour, 
with yellow ftreaks on the back and belly, 
has large wings, and is in fcafon from jlpril 
to July. 

2. Green-diHce, found annong flones by 
river (ides^ has a yellow body ribbed with 
^rcen, is long and (lender, with wings like a 
butterfly, his tail turns on hisbackj and from 
May to Midfummer is very good. 

3. Oak-fly,found in the body of an old oak 
or a(h,with its head downwards, is of a brown 
-colour, and excellent from May to September ; 
for trout, put a cod-bait or gentle on the 
point) and Jet it (ink a few inches in clear 

4. Palmer-fly, or worm, found on leaves 
of plants, is commonly called a caterpillar^ 
and when it comes to a fly is excelleat for 

5. Ant-fly, found in ant-hills from June to 

6. The may-fly is to be found playing at 
the river-fide, efpecially againft rain. 

7. The black-fly is to be ibund upon c^ttf 
hawthorn, after the bud^ are come oflT. For 
she flies proper for each months fee tbe articles 


1 . Take the blood of (heeps hearts, and 
mix it with honey and flower worked to a 
proper confiftence. 

2. Take old cheefe grated, a little butter 
fuflicient to work it, and colour, it wiiii 
fafl^roh : in winter ufe rufly bacon inftead of 

3. Crumbs of bread chewed or worked 
with honey, (or fugar), itu)iftened with gum- 
ivy water. 

4. Bread chewed, and worked in the hand 
till ft iff. See for more under tbe Article Paste 
FOR Angling : as alfo for Worms und^r its 
f roper article. 

(FLA '"^ 

wo R M S. 

t . The earth-bob, found ih fandy ground 
after plowing} it is white with a red head 
and bigger than a gentle ; another is found 
in heathy ground, with a black or blue head. 
Keep them in an earthen ve(rcl well covered, 
and a fufficient quantity of the mould they 
harbour in. They are excellent from April 
to November. 

1. Gentles, to be had from putrid fle(h : 
let them lie in wheat bran a few days before 

3. Flag-worms, found in the roots of flags, 
they are of a pale yellow colour, are longer 
and thinner than a gentle, and mu(t be 
fcowered like them. 

4. Cow-turd-bob, or clap-bait, found un- 
der a cow-turd from May to Michaelmas i it 
is like a gentle, but larger. Keep it in its na- 
tive earth like the earth-bob. 

5. Cadis-worm, or cod-bait, found under 
loofe ftiones in (hallow rivers 5 they are yel- 
low, bigger than a gentle, with a black or 
blue head, and are in feafon from April to 
July. Keep them in flannel bags. 

6. Lob*worm, found in gardens ; it is very 
large, and has a red head, a ftreak down the 
back, and a flat broad tail. 

7. Marih- worms, found in mar(hy ground t 
keep them in mud ten days before you ufe 
them : their colour is a bluei(h red, and are 
a good bait from March to Michaelmas. 

8. Brandling red- worms, or blood-worms, 
found in rotten dunghills and tanners bark ; 
they are fmall red-worms, very good for all 
fmall filh, have fometimes a yellow tail, and 
are called tag tail. 

F I S H and m S E GTS. 

1; Minnow, s.Gudgeon, j.Roach, 4.Dace, 
5. Smelts; 6». Yellow Frog, 7. Snail |Slit, 
8. Grafshopper. 

FITCHt 1 a pole-cat; alfo the fkia 

FITCHOW, J or fur of that creature. 

FIVES. See Vives. 

FLAG-WORM, an infeft fo called, be- 
cau(e it 1% found and bred in flaggy ponds 


F L E 

or Mgy places^ hanging to the fibres, or 
fmall firings that grow to the roots of the 
flags, and chcy are ufually inclofed in a yel« 
low or rcddifli hulk or cafe. / 

FLANKS, the fides of an horfe. In a 
ftn& fenfe, the flanks of a horie are the ex- 
tremities of his belly, where the ribs arc 
wanting, and below the loins. They fliould 
be full, and at the top of them on each fide, 
ihould be a feather -, and the nearer thofe 
feathers are to each*othcr, fo much the bet- 
ter : but if they be as it were within view, 
then the mark is excellent. 

The diilance between the laft rib and 
haunch-bone, which is properly the flank, 
fliould be fliort, which is termed well-cou^ 
pled i foch horfes are mofl hardy^ and will 
endure labour longeft. 

If a horfe have a flank full enough, you 
are to confider whether it be too larger 
that is, if over-againft that part of the 
thigh called the fiiffle, the flank fall too low ; 
for in chat cafe it is a great advance to pur- 
fineft, efpecially if the horfe be not very 

A horfe is faid to have no flank if the lafl: 
of thefhort ribs be at a confiderable diftance 
from the haunch-bone ; although fuch 
horfes may for the time have very good 
bodies, yet when they are hard laboured, 
they will loofe therrt. 

A horfe is alfo faid to have no flank when 
his ribs are too much ftraightened in their 
compafs, which is eafily perceived, by 
comparing their height with that of the 
haunch-bones, for they ought to be as 
high, and equally raifcd up as they are, or 
but very little lefs, when the horfe is in good 

A horfe is likewrfe faid to have little 
flanks, to be forrily bodied, to be grunt- 
bellied and thin gutted, when hfs flank turns 
up like a greyhound, and his ribs are flat, 
narrow and fhorr. 

A well flanked horfe, is one that has wide 
and wclJ-made ribs, and a good body. In 
this cafe the whole flaiik is ufed in the room 
of gut. 

FLEAM^ IS a fmall in/lrument of fine 
fieel^ coippofed of two or three moveable 


lancets for bleeding a horfe ; and fome 
times making incifions upon occafion, and 
fo fupplying the room of ah incifion-knife. 

To prevent Flies teazing Cattle. 

Boil bay-berries in oil, and anoint then) 
with it, and they will never fit on cattle ; 
or, wet the hair of horfes, with the juice of 
the leaves of gourd at Hidfummer^ and they 
will not moled them. If cattle are anointed 
with the juice of arefmart, flies will not 
come near them, though it is the heat of 

To FLING, is the fiery and obftlnate aftioa 
of an unruly horfe. 

To fling like a cow, is to raife only one 
leg, and^give a blow with it. 

To fling, or kick with the hind-legs^ 
5^ Yerr. 

FLINTS, for fowKng-pieces (hould be 
clear, but whether dark or light coloured 
is immaterial. Their fize ihould be fuited 
to the gun, and be neither too large and 
thick, or too fmall and flight -, the firfl: wil^ 
not give freely, and the other will be apt to 

.FLOATS FOR Fishing, are made divers 
ways ; fome ufe the quills of Mujcovy ducks,^ 
which are the bcfl: for flow waters, but for . 
ftrong ftreams cork floats are the beft |. 
therefore take a good found cork, without 
flaws or holes, and bore it through with a 
hot iron, into which put a quill of a fit pro- 
portion \ then pare the cork into a pyramidal 
form, of what fize you pleafe,. and grind it 

For your float, in flow dreams, a neat 
round goofe-quill is proper*, but for dc^cp 
or rapid rivers, or in an eddy, the coj;k, 
ihaped like a pear, is inciifputably the beft ; 
which fliould not, in general, exceed the fize 
of a nutmeg f let not the quill, which you 
, put through it, be more than half an inch 
above and l)elow the cork > and this float, 
though fome prefer a fwan's quiil, has great 
advantage over a bare quill ; for the quill 
being defended from the water by the cork„ 
does not foften, and tlie cork enables yout 
A a z to 


tolcad your lirterfo htavily, as that'tHebook 
finks almaft as foon- as you put into the 
water J whereas, when you lead but light- 
ly, it does not get to the bottom till it is 
near the end of your fwim. fiee die form 
of the float, Plate IX. Fig. 16. and, in 
leading yoxir* lities, be carcfAil to balance 
thenn fo nicely, that a very fmall touch-will 
fmk thenn ; feme ufc for chis purpofe^ lead 
ihaped like a barley-corn, but there is bo- 
"thihg better to lead with than iliot, which 

•'ydu mud have ceady cleft always with you ; 

*rcnFiembering, that when 'you 'fifh fine, it is 
better to have on your line a great n^iflober 
of fnaall than a few largefhot. 

Whip the end of the quill round the plug 

^w^th 'fine'filk,''*yell waxed; this will keep 
the water out of your float, :and» prcfcrve it 

FLCAT-ANGLING. In this the line 
Ihould be longer thaa the rod. by .two or 

^ three feet, and let the pellet that isi put up- 
on it be neither fo heavy as toifink ehe<:ork 
or float, nor lb light as to hinder the fmall- 

' eft touch from pulling it under. water, be- 
caufe that is the only .fign. you have of a Inte. 
In rivers it will be moft proper to make.ufc 
of a cork; but in Handing waters a quill 

• may fcrve well enough. 

In fifhing with a float, your line muft 

' be about a foot ihorter than your rod ; for 

' if it is longer, you cannot fo.well command 
your hdcrk when you come to difengage the 

Pearch and chub arc caught with a, float, 
'and al(b gudgeons^ and fometimes.ibarbel 
and grayling. 

For carp and tench, which - are : leldom 
caught but in ponds, ufe a very fmall goofe 
or a duck-quill float ; and for ground 4>ait 

^ thrown in, every now. and ^ then, a bic of 
chewed bread. 

For barbel, the place ihould bc: baited 

' the night before you fifti, with ;graves, 
which are the fedimenc of melted: tallow, 
and may- be had at the tallow-cbandlers : 

' ufe the fame ground-bait while you are 
fi(hing, as for roach and dace. 
. In filhing^ with a float for chub la warm 

F L'Y 


I weatltfT/ fi/h at mid-water, in cool loycr^ 
and in cold at the. ground. 

FLOUNDERS, may be fifhed for all day 
long, either in a fwift jftream, or in the rtill 
de^p water ; but beft in the ftream, in the 
months of ^pril^ M^y^ J^ne, and July : the 
pivpcr t)aits, sire all fores of worms, wa(ps» 
and gentles. 

FLY- ANGJ.ING, Let the rod be light 
and the line twice. as .long. a& your rod, and 
very ftrong at top, ,and»f^row: gradually ta- 
per. You mud contrive, tb ,|)4vc the wind 
on your back, and the fun,. ifit(biqes, to 
bc.b^fcire ypu, and .to fifh down the ftream': 
find carry ,che point or top of your rod 
.dqwjiw^rds, by .:\^hich meani^ the.fbadow of 
«yourfelf and, the ^ rod, tpo,^ will, be. the, Icaft 
offenfive to thefifli, for the fight of anyjhadc 
difturb$ the $(h^ and fpoils iport. 
; In Ma^cbyrov Aprily if the weather be dark, 
-:pr aUttle windy or cloudy, the bed fi(hing 
; is with the palmer-^worm, which, with the 
may-Qy, are the ground of all fly angling. 

Till you are a proficient, every throw 
.will gp,r near tQ;C;o(l you a.|iook:. therefore 
prattife for fpme time without one ; or, get 
your flies dreflfed on filk-worms ^ut,' and 
and you will not eafily ..break them oflT. 
Sei Articles Fishii^g, Angjuing, &f^. 

The beft times to ufe a fly are, when the 
r river has bee^ a little idifcoloured by' rain, 
and is again clearing, or in a cloudy, breiczy 
day. When the wind is high, chufe the 
ftill deep ; when fmall or , none, the. rim- 
.ning (lreams,.and ufe 4;hen the , natural, in 
boifterousi yreacher fhe artificial fly. , In cfcar 
ftreams. ufp a fmall fly ; i^ iefs clcar» one 
larger ; a light coloured fly in a bright day 1 
a dark f)y for dark, waters/ and an orange By 
in muddy ones. 

To FLY ON Head, [in Falconry] is, 
vrhen a hawk mifling her quarry, betakes 
herfelf to the next check, as crows, &c. 

To FLY CRQSS [in Falconry] isfaid of a ' 
hawk w^en ihe flips at gre^t birds^ as cranes^ 
gcpfe, 6?r. 

To FLY THE Heels : a horfe is faid tp By 
the heels when he {Obtys the fpur. See Spur 
and HfiSLSt 


F O A 

FOAL. Colt is the young male of the 
horfekind, as filly is the ftmalc. It is no 
difficult matter to know the Ihape that a 
'foal IS like to be of, for the fame fhape he 
carries at a month, he will carry at fix years 
old, if he be not abufed in after keeping ; 
and as the good fti'ape appears, fo do the 

• defedsalfo. • 

And as to heighth, it is obfcrved, that a 
large Ihin-bbne, long from the knee to the 

• paftern, fhcws a, tall horfe ; for which, 
'another way is, to fee what fpace h^ has 

between his knee andwhithcrs, which being 

'cfoiibled, it will be his heighth when he is a 
competent horfe. 

There are alfo means to know their good- 

[ ncfs 5 for if they are ftirrxng fpirits, free 

' from ^fFfights, wanton of difpofition, and 
very adive * af leaping and running, and 
ft riving for maiflery, fuch generally prove 
good mettled horfcsV and thofe on the con- 
trary are jades. 
And i( their hoofs be ftrong, deep,. tough, 

' fmooth, upright Handing, and hollow, 
they cannot be bad ; therefore the Barhary 

' horfe is ^cU known by his hoof.* 

Foat^ aVcu(b!ly foaled about the begin- 
ning df fummer, and it is cuftomary to let 
him run till Michadmas with the mare, at 
Avhich time they may be weaned. Some 
how/svcr maintain, that a fo#I \s rendered 

' much foontt* fit for fervice by being allow- 
ed to fuck the whole winter, and weaned 
''" 3hbut Candlemas or Shrovetide. V^htn firft 

'weaned, let them not be kept in the hearing 
6i their dam, but fliould be kept in a conve- 

•' Dlent hbufe with a low rack and manger for 
liay and oats '5 the hay muft be very fwect 
and fine, efpecially at firft, and a litile white 

■' trari fhould be mixed with their oats in or- 
der to keep their bodies open, and make 
thena'cat and drink freely. When foals arc 
. 'kept iip in the winter, they are not to be 

• immured continually in the ftable ; but in 
. the middle of the dav, when the fun (hines 

warm, they (hould always be allowed to 
play about' for an hour or two, dnd when 

• the winter is ovcr^ they (hould be turned 
into fome dry ground where the grafs is 
fweet and Ihort, and where there is good 

*' water, that they' may drink at plcafure. 

F O O 

The Winter after they may be kept In the 
ftable without any further card than -^tc 
which is taken of other horfes*, but after 
the firft year, fillies and colts (hould not be 
kept together. For tbi manner of kreaking 
them fee the Article Horse. 
'FODDER, any kind of meat for.horfes, 
or otTicr cattle. In fome places hay and 
ftraw mingled together, isj)cculiary deno- 
minated fodder. 

FOGGAGE, [in the forcft law] .is rank 
grafs not eaten up in fummer. 

FOILINQ, [among Sportfmcn] the foot- 
ing and treading of a. deer, tbatisoa the 
grafs and fcarce vifible. .... 

FOLD NET, a fort of net with which 
fmall birds are taken in the>otght,eas vepire- 
fenlted in Pkte VII. Fig. 1. and which may 
be carried by dnt man, if fmall ; or if iai^e, 
two may manage tc, and is as follows ;?. , 

When the net is fixed onr^huth fides to 
two* ftrong, fttait, and light* pole$» you 
muft have, at leaft, two or three lufty men 
to aflift you, all very filcnt ^ thepoltsss where- 
on your nets are tied, flioulU be about 
twelve feet long, that fo they may boldiup 
the higher. ; « .. 

He who bears the lights, which fhould be 
t6rches> muft' carry them behind the nets in 
the mid ft of them, sU>out two yards from 
them I and (o order it as co catxy the acts 
between the wind and the birds** who all 
naturally rooft on their perches with their 
' breafts againft the wind ; . by this means> the 
th^t beats the buihes on theother fidcof the 
hedge, will drive them* out the way to-* 
wards the light. ' ' » . 

When you find any bird in your net, jbou 
need not make much hafte, for it will en- 
fnare them of itftlf, and they cannot get 
away fuddenly. 

FONCEAU, is the bottom, or end, of 
a cannon-bitt-mouth ; that is, ; the part of 
the bitt that joins it to the banquet. . See 


FOOT OF A HOKSE, confifts of the hoof 
or cofiin •, which is all the horn that ap- 
pears when the horfc's foot is fet on the 
. ground, 
' It is a great impcrfeftion to have feet too 

^ ' large 


large and fat, or to have them little : 
fuch horfes as have them too little are for 
the moft part very heavy, and apt to ftumble, 
efpecially if with fuch feet they have weak 
legs, and too long patterns j on the other 
hand, too fmall feet are much to be fufpec- 
tcd, bccaufe they are often painful and fub* 
jeftto cloven quarters, and other imperfec- 

FOOT ot A Horse, is the extremity of 
the leg, from the coronet to the lower part 
of the hoof« 

The four feet are diftinguifhed by four 
different names j the two fore feet are by 
fome called the hands of a horfe, but that 
term is in difufe ; the common exprefllon 
being the far fore foot, to denote the right 
foot before -, the near fore foot, the ttirrup 
foot, and the bridle hand foot^ to denote 
ihe left before. 

Of the two hinder feet, the right is called 
the far hind foot : and when fpears were 
vfed, it was called the fpearfoot^ becaufe in 
retting the fpear, the focket of it anfwered 
the right foot. ' 

TKe left hind foot, is called the near foot 

FAT-FOOT ; a horfe is faid to have a 
fat foot, when the hoof is fo thin and 
weak, that unlefs the nails be drove very 
ihorr, he runs the rifle of being pricked in 
Shoeing; the Englifi horfes are very fubjeft 
to this difofder. A horfe's foot is faid to 
be cicrobe, /. e. robbed or ftolen^ when 
it is worn and wafted by going without 
ih6es> fo that for want of hoof it is diffi- 
cult to iboc them. 

FOOTGELD, 7 an amercement, or 

FOUTGELD, y fine laid upon thofc 
who lie within the bounds of a foreft, for 
not lawing or cutting out the ball of their 
dogs feet s and to be quit of footgeld, is a 
privilege to keep dogs^ there unlawed and 

FOREHEAD of a Horse, fcould be 
fomewhat broad j fome would have it a 
little raifed, but a flat one is more beautiful. 
A horfe (hould have in his forehead that 
which we call a feather, which is a natural 
irizzling or turning of the hair y if he have 


I two that are near, or touch, the mark is ta 
much the better. 

If a horfe be neither white, dappled nor 
approaching thefe colours, he fliould have a 
ttar or blaze in his forehead : it being a de- 
fedt, not only as to th^ beauty, but often 
as to the goodnefs of the horfe of any dark 
colour to be without one. 

FORE-LEGS of a Horse, conGftofan 
arm, fore thigh and the (hank, both which, 
the larger, broader, and more nervous they^ 
are, the better, 

FORE-LOIN, [with Hunters] is when a. 
hound going before the reft of the cry^ 
meets chace and goes away with it. 

FOREST, a great wood,, or place pri- 
vileged by royal authority, which differs* 
from a park, warren, or chace y being on- 
purpofe allotted for the peaceable abiding; 
and nourifhing of beafts and fowls thereto* 
belonging ; for which there are certain pecu- 
liar laws, officers, and orders, partofwhicfc 
appear in the great charter of the foreft. U'*' 
properties are thefe : 

1. A foreft truly and ttrfiSHy taken, can- 
not be in the hands of any but the King,,, 
becaufe none elfe has power to grant a com- 
miffion to be a Jufticc in Eyre. 

2. The next property is the courts, ,as» 
the Juftice-fcat every three years, the Swain- 
mote three times a yekr,^ and the Attachment 
once every forty days.. 

3. The third projperty may be the officers 
belonging to it, for the prefervation o£ 
vert and venifon ; as the Juflice of the* 
foreft, the Warder or Keeper, the Verdurers^ 
the Fortfters, Agiftors, Rcgarders, Beadfcs, 
tsfr. which fee in their proper places. 

But the principal court of the foreft is the- 
Swainmote, which is no Lcfs incident there- 
to, than a pie-powder to a fair; and if 
this fails there is nothing of a foreft re- 
maining,, but it is turned into the nature of 
a chace. 

Forefts are of that antiquity in England^ 
that, excepting the New- Foreft in Hamp^ 
fbirey credcd by William the Conqueror ^ 
; and Hampion-Coun ereftcd by Henry VIII. 
it is faid their is no record or hiftory which, 
makes any ceruin mention of their creftion,. 


F O U 

though they arc mentioned by fcveral writers, 
and in divers of our laws and ftatutes. 
There are 69 forefts in England^ 13 chaccs, 
and 800 parks j the four principal forefts are 
Ncw-foreft, Sherwood-foreft, Dcan-foreft 
and Windfor-foreft. 

FORESTER, is an officer oftheforeft, 
fworn to prcferve the vert or venifon there- 
in^ and to attend the wild beads within his 
bailiwick, and to watch and endeavour to 
keep them fafe by day and night j he is alfo 
l!o apprehend all offenders againft vert 
and venifon, and to prefent them to the 
courts of the foreft, to the end that they 
may be punfSied according to their 

FORKED HEADS, [with Hunters] all 
deer-heads which bear two croches on the 
top,, or that have their croches doubled. 

FORKED-TAILS, a name given in fome 
parts of the kingdom to the falmon, in the 
fourth year of its growth. 

FORME, a French term for a fwelling 
in the very fubftance of a horfe's paftern, 
and not in the (kin ; they come as well in 
the hind legs as in the fore, and though it 
be an imperfeftion not very common, yet 
it is dangerous, as it will admit no other 
remedy but firing and taking out the fole ; 
neither can the tire be given to the part 
without great difficulty and hazard. 

FORMICA, is adiftemper which com- 
monly feizes upon the horn of a hawk's 
beak, which will eat the beak away, occa- 
fioned by a worm. 

FORMICA is alfo a fcurvy mange, which 
in fummer time very much annoys a fpa- 
jiiel's ears, and is caufed by flies and their 
own fcratching with their feet. 
- For the cure : Infufe four ounces of gum- 
dragon in the ftrongeft vinegar that can be 
got, for the fpace of eight days, and after- 
wards bruife it on a marble (lone, as paint- 
ers do their colours $ then add two ounces 
bf roach allum and galls $ mingle all well 
together and apply it to the part affefted. 
* FORMS, OR Skats, [hunting term] ap^ 
plied to a hare, when flie fquats in any 

FOUR CORNERS i to wofk upon the 

F O U 

four corners, is to divide (in imagination) 
the volt or routid into four quarters; the 
horfe makes a round or two or trot or gal- 
lop, and when he has done fo upon each 
quarter he has made the four corners. 

To FOUNDER a Horse, is to over-ride 
him, or to fpoil him with hard working. 

FOUNDERING in the Feet, a dif- 
temper that afFefts a horfe by .means of hard - 
riding or labour, or by heats and colds, 
which diforder the body, and excite malig- 
nant humours, that inflame the blood,' 
melt the grcafe, and make it defcend down- 
wards to the feet, and there fettle ; which 
caufc a numbnefs in the hoof, fo that the 
horfe has no fenfc or feeling'in iti and is* 
hardly able to ftand, and when he does he 
ihakes and quakes as if he had an ague fir 
upon him ; fomctimes this malady proceeds 
from his being watered while he is very hbt, 
and his greafe melted within him, and thea 
fuddenly cooled by fetting him upon, cold 
planks without litter; or by taking his fad- 
die oflf too foon, or elfe by letting him ftand 
while hot in fome fhallow water up to the 
fetlocks ; by means of which extraordinary 
coldnefs, -it caufes the melted greafe to fall 
down into their feet, and their to cake and 

A horfe may alfo be foundered by wearing 
ftraight fhoes, aad by travelling upon hard 
ground • 

The fymptoms by which you may know 
when your horfe is foundered upon his fore 
feet, and not his hind feet, is by his treading 
only upon his hind feet, and as little as 
he can upon the other j or his going crouch*- 
ing and crumpling upon his buttocks -, and 
when fometimes he is foundered upon his 
hin4 feet, and not upon his fore feet, (which 
happens but felrdom) it may be known bj 
his' feeming weak behind, and his refting 
himfelf as much upon his fore feet as he 
9^an ; being afraid to fet his hinder feet tx» 
the ground, ... 

The general method of cure is : firft, to 
pare all the horfe's foles fo thin that you 
may fee the quick : then to bleed him well 
at every toe , ftop the vein with tallow and 
rofin, and having tacked hollow ihoes on 



• * ^ ' . . • ' . . - ♦.,,.' 

his feet» ftop them with bran^ tar; and talr 
Jow, as boiling hot as may be -, repeating 
this every other day for a week together, 
and afterwards to give him good exercife^ 

CHEST FOUNDERING, a diftcmper 
proceeding from crudities in the ftoniach, or 
other weakne0es obltrudting the pa0age of 
the lungs. ^ 

This is difcovered by the hprfe's often co- 
v.eting to lie down, and (landing ftraggUng 
with his fore legs 5 the fymptoms. being 
nluch the fame as in purfinefs ; the only 
difference is, that young horfes are fubjefb 
to cheft foundering as well as old ; where* 
as thofe horfes which are troubled, with 
purfinefs are generally fix years old and 

,(Gn&^ with much » refreshing and cool* 
log, f cures the former, but encreafes the 
latter*' - • 

' The cure : Take fiv^ or » fix , penny wqjrth 
^foil of petre, and jingle it with an equal 
quandtf of^ICvor beefj and with your hand 
jrub this mixture on the part.affeded, a red 
hot fire*fhoveli being held againil it while 
you are ruhbiag it. 

FOUNDERING in the Bodv, i&caufed 

hy ahorfe's e^ing coo mi|ch:proveader fud* 

^filyi while he is, too hot an^ .panting^ fo 

that his food not being well digelled breeds 

ilirhumourSr which b)( degrees fpread thcm- 

fdiYcs all over his .me^nbers, and at length 

^oes-foi opprefs his body ^ renders 

hiaxL extremely, w^ak, and makes him^ in* 

e4>able <^ bowing his joints n and when he 

liasr.laid dawn /cannot nk again ;- nor can he 

cither ftale or dung without great pain, . 

lit i^ alfo caufed 'by drinking too often 

upon a journey while he is^ hot, not being 

jriddeai after ic« •. . ; * ^ 

t Thefympcoms ate, the horfe will be chilly 

Md quake for , cold after , drinking i. and 

fbme of his drink will come out at nQfe> 

and. m a* few d«ys his legs will fwell,^ and 

after a. while begin to pe^I^ he. will bave^ 

dry coughy his eyesw^lLwaters; and t)is noife 

run with, white pMegnp^tic ftuff, |^e ^wUl 

forfake. iiia. me.»t,. j^d hang down his head 

tos extreme pain in the manger. 

F O W 

< • • » 

• • 

JFor the cure :. Firft, rake the horfe*s fun- 
dament and give him a clyfter ; then put:, 
half an ounce of cinnamon, and of liquorifli 
and annifeeds each two fpoonfuls in fine 
powder, and five or fix fpoonfuls of honey 
into a quart of ale or fack, fet it on the fire 
till the honey is melted, and give it hinx 
lukewarm to drink, riding him afterwards 
gently for an hour, clothe him and litter 
him war;n, and keep him falling for two 
hours. mqre: fprinkle his hay with water, 
fift his oats clean from the duft^ and give ii 
him by little arid little ; let him drink warmi 
mefl^es of malt and water; and when he has 
recovered ftrength, bleed him in hii neck: 
vein, and perfume his head with frankincenle 
once a day, , 

FOWLING is ufed two manner, of ways^ 
either by enchantment or enticement; by 
winning pr wpping the fowl unto you by 
pipe, whittle, or calli orelfeby machinei 
Of lengincs, which furprize thenri una- 

Fowls are of divers fpecies,. which differ 
in their .nature a? theii: feathers j which by 
reafon of the many ditferent kinds, for bre- 
vity fake, (haU be.pnly . diftingiiilhcd herd 
intp . ty^9 kinds^ land-fowl and water- fowl. 

, The- water- fowl arc fo called from thi 
natural dplight. they .tal^e jn. and afcout the 
watcj;, .gathering from thence all their food 
and nutriment* 

• ^» 

, JHere ft may be. pbf^rved^ that water- 
fowl are in their own nature the moft lul)- 
tjl - aijd chinning., pf birds, and n(ioft careful 
of thpir own faScty^ anci hence tndy havct. 
by fome authors^ b^en compared to an or- 
derly and well governed .canip, having, 
fcouts on laiid afar off*> .courts of guards; 
Cflntinels, ,and aU. foirts of oih)er watchYut 
officers,, fufrpunding the Jbody^ to give aii 
alarm, of the approach* of any feemiiig, 

And if you . obfprv^ you, will find that 
there will be always fpme firagglihg foVl^ 
i^hich.lie aloft.. from the greater numbei-^ 
which ftiU call firft. 

Now It is the nature of water-fowl ib fly 
in great jfiocks^ haying always ^ regard t'c> 
the general fafctyj fo that if you fee a tin'gle 


F O W' 

fburi or ^a cOupleHyr K^ther^ ^ may 
imagine they hawe. bteon ifotnewt[cire afFrighc*- 
cd nom the reft by fpme fu^^kn^ifturbaace, 
or apprehcnfion of dagger, but fo naturally 
are they inclined to focietyi that they feldom 
leave wing till they meet together again. 

And this is occafioncd iiot o(aly by the 
near a^proai^ .ol'^man, buc^alfo by tjj^t beat- 
ing oi haggards upon the rivers^ gs- alfo by 
the appearance lOf the bold buzzard and ring* 

Of water-fbvl^ tbere arc,^wo,ki(>d5» fuch 
as live off the water, and fuch as live on the 
IPtter Witbouc rfMriMiiniftg^in' it;; >bp£^ wad- 
log, and divibg f^r it ;wicii (IfAir Iqiig legs ; 
the other, wcb-footed and fwinij as the 
fwam, goofcj maUaid^ &V. 

As to tile manner of fcprling,r or taking 
fowl) fee under each particular kind in their 
poper places alphM>ettcally. 

FOWLINGPIECEi that piece is always 
reckoned the beft, whicii has the longeft 
barrel, with an indifferent bere under a bar* 
quebufsy though every fqwjpr ibould have 
than of fuch dtficrcnc forts ^d fizes as are 
fuitable to die ganrie he d^Ogns to kill : 
as to the barrel, let it be well poliflied and 
fttiooth .within, and the b^re of an equal 
^igoefs^ which . tnay be prov«l by putting 
a. piece of pa(l:eboar<|, cut of t^ exa& 
roundnefs ot the top« which gently put 
down to the touch-hole ; and if it goes down 
well and even, without (tops or flipping, 
you may conclude it even bored. The 
.bridge^paa muft be fome^what above the 
,touch-hole, only with a notch in the bridge- 
,pan, to let down .a little powder » which will 
< prevent the gun fronarecoilijnga which other- 
.wife it is apt to do. 

Aa to the locks, chv^fe fuqh as are ;Well 

. filled with true, work, whofe fpriogs muil: be 

neither too Orong, qor too ;Weak j, and let 

itheiha/nmer be well hardened, ^nd plUble 

ito ,go down to, the pait with, quick oiotion 

<at the touching the trickcr; for the ;trial 

' thereof, move it gently to the lock i and if 

it.goc^, with jtrks, in> circyler rnoppn, it 

is well made i as for the (Ipcks, walnut-tree 

- ocajb ire very good s-tbe maple is (he fincfl| 

' beft for ornament t , 

F O W 

Jjf, ^looting, obfcrve to ihOot with the 
wind, if pofllole, and not againfl it; and 
rather fide ways, or behind the fowl, than 
full in their faces. 

Next chufe the mod convenient 
(belter you can find, as hedge, bank, tree, 
qr any t,hine plfe which may hide you from 
t^ view^fthe fawl. 

Take care to have your dog. at your hcejs 
under good command, not' daring to (lir 
till you give the word, after having dif- 
charged your piece : for Tome ill taught 
dogs will, .ypon the.fnap of the cock, pr,e- 
fcntly^ ru(h put and fppil your fport. 

Jf you have not^ihelter enough, by reifon 
of the nakedoefs of the banks and want of 
tre^S, you .mud creep upon your hands and 
knees und<pr the baivks, and layipg fiat upc^n 
your belly, put the muzzle of your , pi^ce 
over the bank, and fo take your level ; for 
a fowl is fo fearful of man, . th^t^ though , an 
hawk were foaring over her bead, yet at 
the fight of a man (he would take to the 
wing, and run the fifk of that danger. . 

It is neceffary for any gentleman, wh.Q 
fports ,n>uch to have $wo^ns : the barrel 
of one about two fcjft nine inches, ^ whicK 
will fervc very well for the beginning of tf^e 
feafon, apd fpr ,wobd*:(h.9otiag i the other 
about three feet tli^ree inches, for open* 
ihooting afceif Michaelmas : (he birds by 
that time are growa fo.iby, that your (hoots 
muft be at longer diftances. Biic ifyou in- 
tend one gun to ferve for all purpbfes, then 
a three feet barrel (or thereabouts) is molt: 

A long gun is lefs liable to do mifchi^f 
to the fportfman, and is more certain to hit 
its mark, being not fo foon put afide in 
. uking fight. . 

4t appears from ya^rious trials, that tl)c 

fiiotfly as regularly, or more fo, and with 

,2S much force, without any wad betwixt the 

. powder and (hot, as it docs wich wad only. 

*Tis difficult" to keep the ihot from mixing 

with the powder; but it^dpcs hot figniry 

/ ho>y thin your ^wad is betwixt the powder 

, and (hot, fo it docs i^ui ke^ep.,^thcm from 

mixing. But the (hot ^y^ the thicker and 

B b. 


F O W 

flrongcr from having a pretty gOQJ wiul 
clofdy rammed over them. * . 

It is a common praftice to load witli a 
pipe bowl of powder, and a bowl and a half- 
or (hot ; and when they find they cannot 
kill often, think they do not put Ihot 
enough, fo put in more, and are obliged 
to Icffcn the quantity of powder to prevent 
its recoiling ;' not conffdering this axiom, 
•* that aflion and re-aftion ace equal"— —— 
that upon difcharge of powder the gun is 
forced bacV, as the (hot is forwards, in pro- 
portion to the weight of fhot to the weight 
of the gun -, fo that by putting \t^ a larger 
load of (hot, and \lt($ *|>owder, y,ou wilM?e 
Itrock n[>ore, and tlic bird ybii (hoot at left; 
fo that though you put many (hot itito the 
bird, they will not have force enough to 
kilL unlefs at a very (hort diftance. 

To maielSun, Barrels bf ' a fine hrewn 
' \ • Colo\ir. •••'•;'• 

As a brown -barrel feems to be' the moll 
plealing to a fporflm^n,' tlie following is a 
Certain and eafy method to perform it : 

Kubyour barril bright wilh fafnd priper, 

-or ifbrjght fcour it yrtth dry bt-fckdufr to 

take of all grcifinefii,' ^fid^ fit a flridk or 

piece of wood into, the muzzle long enough 

to hold it by. 

Bruife roughly about half an ounce of 
.ftonc-brimftone, and fprinklc it over a gen- 
tle fire either of wood, or coal, or charcoal*; 
hold your barrel over the fmoak, turning 
and drawing it backwarid and forward until 
it be equally tinged all overs this done, fct 
it in a cellar or damp r6om till next day, in 
which time you will find it has thrown out 
a fine ruft, over which you may draw your 
finger to fpread it even, alike, and let it 
Hand another day. If you perceive any parts 
that have not taken the ruft, you are to' 
fcour fuch parts bright, and repeat the above 

It is then to be polifhed with a hard brufh 
(which is fir (t to be rubbed with bees- wax) 
and after with a dry woollen or rough linen 
fag, which wilPtnake it look of a beautiful 
brown colour. This rubbing mu(t Jbe ^e- 

peatcd every <fay fo long a$ ir throws botr 
any roughnefs. No oil or greafe Ihbuld 
come on it for fome time, as that may brings 
o(F the ruft by places i but if by negleft it 
(hould get fo Arong a roughnefs, that you 
cannot get it down with common rubbing^, 
in that cafe wipe it over with fweet oil, and 
rub it oflF gently- with a clean lisfen rag, and. 
the next day you may pdlilh itT.down with^ 
your bru(h, as before direfted. 


Dire^onsfir keeping your Guns in order^^ 



If your lotk afid furniture are bright^ 
the bed way^ to fave €h( trouble, as welt ai 
prevent the damage ^^thai! maybe done by 
unflcilful poli(hing,'is4Mirer to {bfitsr them to 
ruft, which mayeafily^be prevented by fre- 
quently rubbing all the btrght parts with k 
fmall bru(h, dipp;rd \ti fweet tf\\^ whici} 
fhould b^' well rubbed' oflT with ^ linen rag : 
a-nd this (hould* -ndver be negleft'ed both be^ 
foHi and after ufing it: ' ' ... i 

It is needlefs to take thb ^lock .often to 
pieces, if yoa take k off and brufh it with 
plenty of oil, and pull op the* cock and 
hammer a few tifties, the dftrt with the! oil 
will Wi>rk itfelf oiK,^whicht is to^be wiped 
oflPy aiid a jit'tle clean oil puo jqu <hofc parts 
where -^^ere is aiiyffrifti6n,"will anfwecthc 
purpofe. ' ' 

• • • 

Te wajh out ibt Barrek • 


' Fin it either with cold or warm wate?,. 
and empty it and fet it (ttfnd' a few minutes^ 
and the air and mbifture will'f<>fttn the foil^., 
left fn^MTfi the fifing of the powder fo as to- 
come off the eafier. You imay ufe fand wirii 
yourrag or tow td wa(h it out, which will, 
remove any of the foil th^t flicks hard to* 
it without hurting its fmoothnefs. Caic 
muft be taken to wipe it very dry, and if 
it is to be fet by for a time, it will be proper 
to wip9 it out with an- oily rag and ftop the 
muzzle with the fame, otherwife it will be- 
apt to ruft. 5^^ Stalking Horss and Shot 

FOX HUNTING. The (hape and pro- 
portion of thU bealt is^ fi> well known,, being 



,i6 opmmotDi tbat h is necdlefs' to defcribe 

A fox in the Rrft year is called a cub % 
in the fecond a fofe ; and afterwards an old 
foK. It is a bcaft of chace, ufually very 
• .prejudicial to the hufbandmen> by taking 
away and deftroying lambs>. geefc^ poul- 
try, ' (^c. 

.His nature is, in many refpefts, like that 
of a wolf> for they bring as many cubs at a 
litter the one as the other ; but in this they 
differ^ the fox littering deep under the 
ground, but the wolf doth not. 

A bitch fox is very difficult to be taken 
when Ihe is bragged and with cub, for then 
flie will lie near her burrow, into which (he 
runs upon hearing the leaft noife : and in- 
deed at any time is (bmewhat difficult, for 
the fox (as well as the wolQ is a very fubtle 
crafty creature. 

Fox hunting is a very pleafant exercife, 
for by rcafon of his ftrong, hot fcent, he 
makes an excellent cry : and as his fcent is 
hotted at hand, fo it dies the foonefl:. 

And befides, he never flies far before the 
. hounds, trufting not to his legs, ftrength 
or champaign grounds, but ftrOngeft co-' 
verts. When he can no longer ftand before 
the ground, he then taketh earth, and mud 
be dug out. 

If greyhounds courfe him on a plain, 
his laft refuge is to pifs on his tail, and flap 
it in their f^ces as they come near him; 
and fometimes fquirting his thicker excre- 
ments upon them, to make them give over 
' the courfe or purfuit. 

When a bitch fox goes a clicketting and 
feeking for a dog, (he cries with a hollow 
voice, not unlike the howling of a mad dog, 
and in the fame maqrier flje cries when (he 
mifles any of her cubs: but never makes 
any cry at all when (he is killing, but dc-. 
fends herfelf to the lafl: gafp. * 

A fox will prey upon any thing that he 
can overcome, and will feed upon any fort 
of carrion : but their dainties, and the food 
'they moft delight in, is poultry. 

The fox is taken , with ^reyhiunds,* ter- 
riers, nets, and ^ins. Of terriers there are 
two forts. See T£RR1£rs. 


Fox Hunting above Ground. 

To hunt a fox with hounds you muft draw 
about groves, thickets, and bu(hes, near 
villages : for in fuch places he lurks to prey 
upon poultry, tf^.^but if you can find one 
it will be nece(rary to flop up his earth, the- 
night before you intend to hunt, and that 
about midnight, for then he goes out to 
prey ; and this muft be done by laying two 
white (licks acrofs in his way, which will 
make him imagine it to be fome gin or 
trap laid for him, or elfe they may be ftop* 
ped up clofe with black thorns and earth to- 

The beft hunting a fox above groundj is 
in January, February^ and March, for then 
you (hall beft fee your hounds hunting, and 
beft find his earthing-, and befides at thofe 
times the fox's (kin is beft in feafon. 

Again, the hounds hunt the fox beft in 
the coldeft weather, becaule he leaveth a 
very ftrong fcent behind him^ yet in cold 
weather it chills fafteft. 

At firft only caft off your fure finders, 
and as the drag mends, fo add more as you 
dare tru/t them ; avoid carting ofi^ too many 
hounds-at once ; bccaufe woods and coverts 
arc full of fundry chaces, and fo you may 
engage them in too many at one time. 

Let fuch as you caft off at firft, be old 
ftaunch hounds which are fure, and if you . 
hear fuch a hound call on merrily, you may 
caft off fome others to him, and when they 
run it on the full cry, caft off the reft, and 
thus you Ihould complcat your chace. 

The words of comfort are the fame which 
are ufed in other chaces, attended with the 
fame hallooings and other ceremonies. 

The hounds (houJd be left to kill the fox 
themfelves, and to worry and tear him as 
much as they plcafe : fome hounds will eat 
him with eagernefs, 

When he is dead hang hirn at the end of 
a pikeltafF, and halloo in all your hounds to 
bay him i but, reward them riot with any 
thing belonging to4he f o^ ^ for it is not 
good, ntither ^illthe hounds in <:ommon 
tat it. * • • 

B b 2 0/ 


Of bunting a Fox under Ground, 

• • • • 

If in cafe a fox does fo far cfcapc as to 
earth, countrvmen muft be got together 
with fliovcls. fpades, mattocks, pickaxes, 
t*?r. to dig him out, if they think the earth 
jioi coo great- 

fhey make their earths as near as they 
can in ground that is hard to dig, as in clay, 
ftony ground, pramongft the roots of trees : 
and their earths have commonly but one 
hole ; and that is ftraight a long way in 
before you come at their couch. 

Sometimes craftily they take poiieflion of 
a badger's old burrow, which hatha variety 
of chambers, holes, and angles. 

Now ta.facilitate this way of hunting tlue 
fox : the huntfmen muft be provideci witli 
one or two terriers to put into the carxh after 
him, that is to fix him into an angle : for 
the earth often confifts of many angles : the 
ufe of the terrier is to know where he lies, 
for as foon as he finds him he continues 
baying or barking, fo that which way the 
noife is heard that way to dig him. 

But to know the manner of entering and 
farther ufe of thefc forts of dogs, fee Ter- 


However I (hall here add, that as in the 
firft place you muft have fuch as are able to 
4>gi ^^ y^u^ terriers mufl: be furnifbed with 
bells hung on collars, to make the fox bolt \ 
the fooner $ befides the collars will be fome 
imall defence to the terriers. 

The inftruments to dig with. are thefe ; a 
iharp pointed fpade, which ferves to begin 
the trench, where the ground is hardeft, and 
broader tools will not fo well enter; the 
round hollowed fpade, which is ufeful to 
dig among roots, having very (harp edges ; 
the broad fiat fpade to dig withal, when the 
trench has been pretty well opened, and the 
ground fofter; mattocks and pickaxes to 
dig in hard ground, where a fpade will do 
but little fervice ; the coal rake to cleanfe 
the hole, and to keep it from flopping up 
clamps, wherewith you may take either fox 
or badger out alive to niake (port with after- 

And' it w6uld b^' ^ery convenient to nin 
a pail of welter to refrefh your, terriers. witH, 
after they are come out of tht earth to take 

After this manner you may bc(iege a fo:it, 
tf^, in their ftrongeft holes' and caftles, and 
may Ifrcak their c^afcmates, platforms, pa- 
rapets, and work to them with mines and 
counter-mines till you have obtained what 
you defired. But for ibe managing ibtfe 
dogs J fee Terri£Rs. 

To diflroy Foxes. 

'take a Hieep's paunch, aiid tie it to a 
lon^ (tick, then rub your (hoes well up6n 
It, that he may not fcent your own feet ; 
draw this paunch after you as a trail, a mile 
or more, and bring it near foific thrck-head* 
od tree i leave your paunch, and get in^o 
the tree with a gun, and as it begins to he 
dailc, you will lee. him come after the fceiit 
of the mail, where you may (hoot him : . 
draw the trail if you can to the windward df 
the tree. 

The beft way is, to fet a fleel trap in the 
plain parts of a lar^ field, out bf the way 
of all paths, ye^ not near a hedge, 6r any 
(helter $ then open the trap, fet it on the 
ground, and cut out jufl: die form th6re6f 
in a-tiirf, and take out as much earth as to 
-make rbom to Hay it ; then cover it again 
verv neatly with the turf you cut out ; and 
as tne joint of the turf will not dole exaftty, 
get fome mold of a new caft up niole^hill^ 
and put it clofe round the turf, (licking 
fome grafs in it as if it there grew ; mal^e 
it curious and neat, that it might even de- 
ceive yourfelf. Ten or twelve yards from 
the trap, three feveral ways^ fcatter fome of 
the mole-hill mold very thin, on a place 
fifteen or fixteen inches fquares then oq 
thefe places, and where the trap is placed* 
lay three or four fmall bits of cheefe, and 
then with a (beep's paunch draw a trail of a 
mile or two long to each of the three places*, 
and from thence to the trap, that the fox 
may come to one of thefe places firft,- fos 
th^n he will approach the trap more boldly i^ 
and thus you will never fail of him. He 

F R B 

fare let your trap be ioofc, that h6 may draw 
it to fome h<;dge or cavert> or he will bite 
off his leg and be gone. 

Tc make a Spring Urap. 

Tie a ftring to fome pole fet faft ib the 
ground, and to this ftring make faft a fm^ll, 
ftort ftick, madt thin on the upper fide> 
with a notch at the lower end at it \ tlisen 
fet another flick faft in the ground^ with a 
nitch under it; then bend down the pole, 
and let both the nicks or notches join as 
flight as may be ; then open the noofe of 
the ftring, and place it in the path or walk ; 
where if you lay pieces of cheefe, flcfli, and 
fuch like, it will entice him that way. 

Or, greaie the foles of your fhoes with 
hog*s m a little broiled, and as you come 
from the wood, drop in feveral places as you 
pafs, a piece of roafted fwine's liver, dipt 
in honey, drawing after you a dead cat, and 
he will follow you, fo that you may (hoot him. 

A Hook to take a Fox tied to a Tree. 

This hook is made of large wire^ and 
turns on a fwivel like the collar of a grey- 
hound; it is frequently ufed in catching 
wolves, but oftencr for the fox. They 
hang it from the ground (6 high that he 
muft leapio catch it; and bait it with fleft, 
liver, cheefe, ^c. and if you run a trail 
with a &eep*s paunch as before direded, it 
will draw him tne more ca61y to the bait. 

FOILING [with Hunters) the footing 
and treading of deer that is on the grafiij 
and fcarce vifible, 

FRANK CHACE, is t liberty of free 
chace in a circuit adjoining to a foreft, by 
which all men» though thcv have land of 
their own within that compate arc forbidden 
to cut down woo(^ &tf. without the view 
of die foreften 

FRAY* A deer is faid to fray her head> 
when (he ruba it agaioft a tree to renew it, 
or camle the pills of her new homa to come 

FRBAM [with Hunters} a term ufed of 
a boar» that makes a noife at nit(ing time« 


FREE WARREN, the power ofgrtnt- 
ing or denying licence to any to hunt or 
chace in fuch or fuch lands. 

To FRILL ( in Falconry] a term ufed of a 
hawk ; as the hawk frills, i. e. trembles or 
(hi vers. 

FROG,, [among Farriers} the fame as^ 

FROGS; to deftroy which, take a fheep^ 
ox, or goat's gall, and bruife it by th|& 
water-fide ; the frogs will gather to it, a^ 
it will kill chem. 

To prevent their croaking^ fet a candle 
and Ian thorn upon the fide of the water cr 
river tha; waters your garden. 

Toads will not come near your gardeflj. if 
you plant fage and rue round about it. 

FROTH. The ipouth of a horfe Ihould 
be full of froth, and if he continually cam{> 
upon the mouth of his bitt, it is a token of 
a good horfe : for few bad ones have this 
aftion I beOdes that, his mouth being always 
moift, will not ib eafily over-heat, and it \%^ 
a fign that the bitt gives him pieafure. 

If the froth b^ thin or Buced, and of a pale 
grey, or yellowifh colour, it denotes a bad 
tempered brain \ but if it be wUte and 
thick, cleaving to his lips and branches of 
the bridle, then you are ta look upon the 
mouth as frelhi and that the horfcL is oTa 
ftrbng conftitution and found in his body. 

FROWNCE) a difeafe incident to hawks, 

FROUNCE ) proceeding from moift and 
cold humours^ which fall down from their 
heads to the palate and root of their tongue^ 
by which means they lole their appetite, ao^ 
cannot dofe their dap. 
. Some call this the eagles batte» for tfafjr 
feldom die of age> but of the over •growing; 
of their beaks* 

FRUSH, oa Faoc or a HoRst|. is a (art 
.of tender horn which arifes in the micldlc of 
the fole, and at ibme diibmce fiom i^ toc> 
divides into two branches^ mnaitta towards 
the heel in die fban of a fork« Tnus dief 


Look after thb hot fe» for the fiefii is V9fb 
in upon the fru(h i I fee an txcrcfccnce^ or 
fprouting of flc(h ia that part^ 



There is a fig in that forreVs frufh ; and 
this roan has a 1 cabbed frulh ; and here is 
another that has a fat frufh, i, e. a frufli that 
•is too thick and too large, 

FRUSH, a diforder incident to horfcs, 
yjrtf Scabbed Heels. 
• FULMAR r, OR FuMER ; a pole-cat, 
fitch or fitfhow. 

• FUMETS, the ordure or dung of a hart, 
the fanne asfcjvmets. 

FUZEE, [in Farrieryl two dangerous 

fplents joining fronri above downwards. 

They differ frorti fcrews or thorough fplents 

iA this,' that the latter arc placed on two 

. pppofite fides of the legs. •S'^^ Spi^bnt. 

GA B L O C K S, artificial fpurs, made 
cither of iron, brafs, or filver, and 
•fixed on the legs of game cocks j fomc call 
them gaff. 

' GAGG-TEETH, [in Farriery] is a de- 
left thar rarely happens to young horfes, 
and to be difcovered by putting fomething 
Into the mouth and looking at the large 
grindery, which in this cafe appear unequal, 
•and in eating catch hold of the infide or the 
cheeks, caufing great pain, and making 
-them rufufe their food. 

OAlToR GATE, is the going, w pace 
-of a horfe. Hence they fay this horfe has 
a good gait, but the other has a broken 
•gait 5 this horfe goes well, but the other 
does not. 

•GALLING OF A Horse's Back. To 

prevent it^ rake a lamb's fkin, well furniflied 

with hair, and fit it neatly beneath the pan- 

nel of the faddle, fd that the hairy fide may 

' ^bc next tlic horfe, 

.This does not harden but fweat, and fo 
. hot only keeps that part from galling, but 
is good for fuch hories as have been lately 
cured, which would otherwife gall again. 

After a journey you ought to take off the 
-faddle and feel the horfe's back, whether 
he has been pinched or galled or not, which 
will be the beft difcovered a^ter he has ftood 
an Tiour or two unfaddled, by the 'fwelling of 
the part oppreflrd- - , 

Ifit be only fwelled, fill a bag with warm 


dung, and tie it upon the fwellifig, whicli 
will not only prevent it from growing worfe, 
butalfo probaljly quite difperfc it. 

Or you may rub and chafe the fwclling 
with good brandy, or fpirit of wine, and 
having foaked the place well with it, fet 
fire with a lighted paper to what remains of 
it, and the fwelling will difappear, when 
the fire eztinguifiies of itfelf ; but if the 
fkin be broke, wa(h it with warm claret, 
mixed with a fourth part of fallad oil« or 
frefh butter ; or bathe it often with brandy 
if the horfe will endure it. 

When a horfe's back is galled upon a 
journey, take out a little ot the ftufiing 
of the pannel over the fwelling, and few a 
piece of foft white leather on the infide of the 
pannel ; anoint the part with fait- butter 
and t,^^Tj evening wipe it clean, rubbing it 
till it grows fofr, anointing it again wjth 
butter, or for want of that with greafe : 
walh the fwelling, or hurt, every evening 
with cold water and foap, and drew it with 
fait, which (hould be left on till the horfe is 
faddied in the morning. 

HARNESS-GALLS. See Harness. 

GALLOP, is a motion of a horle that 
runs at full fpeed, in which making a kijvi 
of leap forwards, he lifts bi:>th his legs 
almoft at the fame time ; when thefe are ia 
the air, juft upon the point of touching the 
ground, he lifts both his hind legs almofi; .^ c 

Of a horfe that has an eafy light gallop, 
that gallops fine, they fay, he gallops upon 
his haunches, he does not prefs heavy 
upon the bridle^ he bends his fore jegs well, 
he has a good motion with hin), he is well 
coupled^ keeps his legs united. 

The great gallop, or the hunting gallop ; 
or the gallop with a long firetch, or gallop 
with all the heclsj /. e. full fpeed. 

A (hort light gallqp, %4 e. a flow ga^« 

GALLOP, is the fwiftcft natural pace 
of a horfe. 

Here you .are to . take notice, that a horfe 
in galloping forwards may lead with which 
fore leg he pleiafes, thDdgh horfes do it^mofi: 
commonly with their right fore leg ^ but 



ifith whatever fore leg they lead, the hind 
hg of the fame fide noufl follow it,otherwifc 
their legs are faid t6 be difunited- 

in order to remedy this diforder, you muft 
ftay your horfe a little upon the hand, and 
help him with the fpur on the contrary fide 
to thut in which he is difunitcd. 
' As for example : if he be difunited on the 
right fidei help him with the left fpur, by 
Raying him (as before) upon the hand a 
)ittle> and alfo helping him at the fame time 
with the calves of the legs. 
' And farther, in a circle a horfe is confined 
%o lead always with his fore-leg within the 
turn, Qtherwife he is faid to gallop falfe i 
but in all cafes the hind leg of the fame 
fido muft ever follow* 

LaiUy, when you make trial.of a galloper, 
obfcrve if he performs it equally, and pu(b 
k on fomewhat hard> that you may know 
by his ftpp .whether he have ftrength and 
irigoui^,. which is termed, a, fund or fource> 
^tnd if be. be alfo fenfible of the fpur^ 

^ GALLOP, ott Cantbrbuuy-Rate, is a 
pttc between a full fpeed and a fwift runr 

GALLCWPADE. TJhe fine gallopade, 
.^e (hoit gallop) the liftcning gallop, the 
jgaliopofchefchool i it is a hand gallop>.or 
/gallop upon the hand> tnwhich a horfe gal- 
loping upon one or two treads, is well unit- 
ed, and well raccourci knit together, well 
coupled > and will fet under him. Hence 
.they fay^ 

This borfe^nakes a. gallopade, and works 
with one haunch, i. fi, inftead of going up- 
on one tread, whether right out or in' a 
circle, has one haunch kept in fubjeftion, 
let the turn or change of the hand be what 
it will; fo that the inner haunch, which 
. looks to the center of the ground, is moce 
. narrowed, and comes nearer to that center 
than the Ihoulder does : and thus the horfe 
does not go#altogether to that fide, and his 
way of working i& a little more than . one 
tread, and foioewhat lefs th^n two. 

The diflfcrence between working, with one 

^haAinch in, and galloping upon .volts, and 

managuig upon /f rr^ ^z terra, is in galloping 

iipon..volis, aiid. working /^rra a /^rr^.i the 


G^ M 

I two haunches are kept fubjeA, and the two 
haunches are in, that i,s^ within the volt; 
but in galloping a |:aaunch in, only one is 
kept fubjeft. 

To gallop united, to gallop upon.agood 
and right foot, isj when a horfe that gallops 
right out, having cut the way, or led with- 
either of his fore feet, continues to lift that 
fame leg always fiift, fo that the hinder |eg,* 
of a fide with the leading fore-leg, frtuft 
jikewife be raifcd fooner than the other hind' 

For inftancci if the right fore l^g leads* 
before the left, then the right hind leg niuft* 
likewifie move fooner tlian the left.Hind leg;' 
and in this order muft the horfe continue to^= 
goon. . '^ 

To g.?nop faft, td difunite, to drag the- 
haunches, to change feet, to go or run upon 
falfe feet, to gall6p upon tlie falfe foot, is 
when the galloper having led with one of 
the fore legs, whether right or left, doc^ 
not continue to make that leg always fet 
out firfl, nor to make the hind leg of afide* 
with the leading leg, to move before its- 
o|>pofite hind legj that is to fay, the orderly 
going is interrupted. 

A horfe that gallops ' falfe, gallops with^ 
an uubecoming air/ and incomunodes the- 

If your hcrfe gallbps falft,' 9r difunite,- 
and if you have a. mind to put him upont 
keeping the right foot,. and uniting well his^ 
haunches, you muft bring to wfth the calves-, 
of your legs,, and then with the out fpur,, 
that i^i the fpur that is contrary and* oppo- 
fitc to the fide upoa which he difunites :.ft > 
that if he difunites to the. right, you nuift^ 
prick him with the left heel: 

GAME-LAWS. For- the informatibhj 
and fatisfaflion of my readers, I' hlaveherc 
inferted abftra<Ss of all the Adls of Fatrlia-* 
ment relating to the game, whereby they and \ 
fportfmen may • know the refpeftive times t 
when they are to begin, and when they pe- 
to leave off fporting, and alfo the penalties- 
and puniftimcnts of infringing or breaking: 
the above Acts. Agreeable to the Aft. of 
24 Geo. Ill, certificates required before tha: 
firft day qC Offohri.A'jS^i fliall. bear date* 




on .t;T»t; da? <^ (be month on which the fame 
{hall b.c iflued, and (hall remain in force 
until the firft day of July next following. 
1^0 certificate Ihall iflbe between the firft 
d^y of Oifoi^r, 1 784, and the firft day of 
ilianb ^785 ; and every certificate which 
(l^all iffue after the faid firft A2,y of March ^ 
ijiu Ihall be KTued between the firft day 
of March and the firft day of July in each 
y^ar,. and (ball bear date on the day of the 
cnbiich on which the fame Ihall be ifTued^ 
'and (hall be in force for twelve calendar 
months, commencing from the date ; and 
if any clerk of the peace, his deputy, or 
fteward clerk, ifiuing certificates, other- 
wife than diredled, to forfeit 50/, ^4 Gi^^.III. 
fef. 2. c. 43. /. 5. But certificates may if* 
fue to any perfon beyond the feas, who hath 
or (hall have, in any year, firft arrived into 
England, any time after the firft day of Ju- 
Jj^ in fuch yeari but in every fuch cafe, the 
caufe fiiall be fpecified, either in the body 
or at the foot of fuch certificate ; to bear 
dace on the day it is iflued, being ftamped 
with double duties, and to be in force till 
the firll day o( July next following the date 
thereof, 24 Geo. III. y^. 2. c. 4j. /. 6. 
Every qualified perlbn, after the faid firft 
day o( OStober,, i784» fhootihg at, killing, 
taking, or (hooting any pheafant, partridge, 
Hcarh-fowl, or black game^ or arty groufe, 
or red game, or any other game, or kill- 
ing, taking or deftroying, any hare, with 
any greyhound, hound, pointer, fpaniel^ 
fctting-Qog, or other dog, without having 
obtained fuch certificate* (hall forfeit the 
fum of 50/. 24 Geo, HI. Jef. 2. c. 34. /. 7. ' 
Clerk prpeace, 6?^. (hall on or before No- 
Siember 1, 1784, and in every fubfequcnt 
year, on or before Auguft i a, in each year, 
.make out and tranfmit to the Stamp-office, 
London^ alphabetical lifts of the Certificates 
fo granted by them, diftinguifhing the du- 
ties paid on each refpe<Slive certificate fo 
liTueo, and on delivery thereof the receiver- 
.general'of the ftamp duties (hall pay to 
clerk of peace, ^c. Tor the fanw: one far- 
thing a name i and in cafe of negledt or re* 
fufal^ or not inferting a fulU true and per- 
fcd account/he (hall forfeit aoA 24 Geo. 111. . 


G A M 

fef 2. c. 43. /. 9. Lifts may be inf^eSecI 
at Stamp-office for tj". each fearch, 24 Geo. 
III. fef. 2. c. 43. / 10. If any qualified 
perfon, or having a deputation, iliall Ibe 
found in purfuit of game> with gun, dog, 
or net, or other engine for the deftrudtion 
of ^ame, or taking or killing thereof, and 
(hall be required to (hew his certificate, by 
the lord or lady of the manor, or proprietor 
of the land whereon fuch perfon (hall b6 
ufing fuch gun, &?r. or by any duty ap- 
pointed game-keeper, or by any qualified 
and certified perfon, or by any o(ficer of the 
ftamps, properly authorized by the com«\ 
miftioner, he (hall produce his certificate | 
and if fuch perfon (hall refufe, upon th€ 
production 01 the certificate of the perfoa 
requiring the fame, to (hew the certificate 
granted to him for the like purpofei or in 
cafe of not having fuch certificate to pro- 
duce, (hall refufe to tell his chriftian and 
furname, and his place of refidence, and 
name of the county where his certificate 
was i(rued, or (hall ^ve in any fatfe orlfic- 
titious name, he (hall forfett 50/. ^4 GeoJtt. 
fef. a. c 43. f. 12. Certificates do not au* 
thorize any perfon to (hoot at, kill, take or 
deftroy any game, at any time thut is pro^ 
hibited by law, nor give any per(bn a right 
to (hoot at, &r. unlefs he be duly qualified 
bylaw, 24 Geo. III. fef. 2. c. 43* /. 13. 
No certificate, obtained under any de- 
putation, (hall be pleaded or given in 
evidence, where any perfon (hall (hoot at, 
(!?c. any game out of the manor or lands 
for which it was given, 24 Geo. llLfef. «.• 

Tdyrng Monies, ti'aftfpbrtation, 5 Ge0. 
III. c. 14. * Robbing warrens, feteny with- 
out clergy, 9' Cj^^, I. yi 22.' Killing-them aa 
the night, or erideaTOiinng • to k^ll thrm, 
fiaeof los. or commititienrv*22 and 13 G$r^ 
II. c. 25./, 5, 6. Unqualified perfons ufing 

f;uns to kill them fame may befeifitd, ^Jac. 
. r. 1 3 . /; 5. Sialking'deer without leavc^ 
loA J 9 Hen^ VII; e. tt. Hunting or kil- 
ling them, 10/. eofts, and furetks^ror good 
behaviour, 5 Eliz. r. 2f. Buck-(lallsr or 
engines kept by unqualified pei^Ms, may 
be fcized, 3 Jac. 1. r. 13. Setting -or buy- 


Courfing or kilHhg them wichout conicntt 
ao/. 13 Car. IL c. io« Hunting, takings 
kiliingyOr wounding, 30/. or tranfporcacioni 
3 ^///* UL c. to. 5 G^^. I. c, 15. 9 Gtf^. I. 
c* d2. 10 G^. II. ^. 32. Deilroying pales 
or waUs of inclosed grounds without con* 
fcnt> 3o/» 5 Geo. L €. is* J- 6* Keeper of 
park kilting or taking them, 50/. 5 G&o. L 
c. 15. Robbing places where kept^ felony 
without oleDgy, 9 Geo. I. c. 22. 

All lords of manors or other royalties 
may appoint game-keepers, 23 and 23 
Car. 11. c. 25. /. d. and empower them to 
kill game, 2 Burris Juft. 225. But if he 
diifofes of game without the lord's con-< 
fent, he (hall be conimitted for three 
months, and kept to hard labour, 5 Anncy^. 
14. /« 4* But no lord ihall make above one 
game-keeper within one manor, with pqwer 
to kill game, and his name ihall be entered 
with clerk of peace; certificate whereof 
ihall be granted by clerk of peace, on pay- 
ment of one (billing. Unqualified game* 
keepers killing or felling hare, pheafant, 
partridge, moor^ heath-game or groufe^ he 
ihall forfeit 5/. by diftrefs, or commitment 
for three nfK>nths, for the firft offence^ and 
for every- other four, 9 Anm. c. 21. /. i. 
No lord (hall appoint unqualified game* 
keeper, or one who is not bona fide fervant 
to fuch lord, or immediately employed and 
appointed to take and kill game for fole 
ufe of lord ; other perfons under colour of 
authority for taking and killing game, gr 
keeping any dogs or engines whatfoever for 
that purpofe, (ball forfeit 5/. In like man- 
ner, 3 Geo A. c. 11. /. 1. Every deputation 
of a game-keeper to be regiilered with 
clerk of the peace, or in the (herifi^ or 
fteward's court books of the county where 
lands lie, and annually take out certificate 
thereof, ftamped with an half-guinea ftamp, 
^ Geo. III. /g/l 2. e. 43. /. 1. Every 
game-keeper, from and after the pafling 
of this aft, who (hall fo deliver his name 
andplacje of abode as aforefaid, and require 
a certifiicate, (hall be annually intitled there- 
to, ftamped as before direfted from clerk 
of peace or his deputy, (herifF, or fteward's 

G A M 


clerk, to the effeft of the form in the aA 
fct forth, 24 Geo. III. fef. 2. $. 43. /. 3. 
Clerk of peace, ^c. after figning certifi- 
cate, (ball iflTue fame ftamped to pcrfon re- 
giftering deputation, on. requiring lame, 
for which he may receive \s. 24 Geo, HI. 
fef. 2. c. 43 / 4. Neglefting, or refufal 
of iftuing certificates, incurs a forfeiture of 
sot. %4GeoM\,/e/.2. c. 43t/. 4. recoverable 
in courts o( fFefiminJler, court of Seffion,of 
Jufticiary, or Exchequer in Scotlandy by ac- 
tion of debt or information, for the ufe of 
the plaintiff, with double cofts of fuit, 
24 Geo. III. /. 2. c. 43 /. xS. And more- 
over be liable to pay the duty on fuch certi- 
ficate, 24 Geo. llh/ef, 2. c. 43. /. 4. Clerk 
of peace, (jfe. riiay iffoe his certifi- 
cate to any game-keeper firft appointed 
in any year after firft July in that year, 
24 Geo. HI. /ef. 2. c. 43, /, 6. If any 
lord or lady of a manor, or proprietor 
of land, (hall make any new appointment 
of a game-keeper, and (hall regifter de- 
putation with clerk of peace, &?^. and ob- 
tain a new certificate thereon, the firft 
(hall be void ; any perfon afting under the 
fame, after notice, fliall be liable to all the 
penalties of the game-laws, and thofe againft 
unqualified perfons, 24 Geo. IIL fef, 2. f. 

Every perfon tracing or courfing hares in 
the fnow fhall be committed for one year, 
31 Eliz, c. 5. unlefa he pay to church- 
wardens, for the ufe of the poor, qos. for 
every hare, or become bound by recogni- 
zances with two fureties in 20/. a-piece, 
not to offend again ; and every pcrfon 
taktag or dcftroying hares with any fort of 
engine, (hall forfeit, for every hare, 120/. 
in like manner, i Jac.l. c. 27. /• 2. Per- 
fons found ufing engines liable to puniih- 
mcnt inflided by 31 Eliz. c. 5. See above, 
and 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 25./. 6. Un- 
qualified perfons keeping or ufing (hooting 
dogs, or engines to kill or dcftroy hares, 
fliall forfeit 5/ to the informer, with double 
cofts, 2 Geo. Ill, s. 19. by diftrefs, or com- 
mitted for three months for firft off^ence, 
and for every other four, 5 Anne, c. 14. 
/. 4* Taking or killing hare in the night- 
C c time 


time, forfeit 5/. g Anm^ ^-^S*/*?* '^^^ 
whole to the informer, with double cofts, 
^ Gio. III. c. 19. as direfted by 5 Anne^ c. 
14. 9 Anney €. 25. /. 3. Killing or taking 
with gun, dog, or engine, hare in the 
night, between the hours of fcven at night 
and fix in the morning, from OSober 12 to 
February 12. and between the hours of nine 
at night and four in the morning, from Fe- 
bruary 12 to Sober 12, or in the day-time 
upon Sunday or Cbriftmas-day^ to forfeit 
not iefs than 10/. nor nK)re than 20A for 
the firft offence 5 nor Iefs than 20/. nor more 
than ^o/. for the fecond offence j and 50/. 
for the third offence; with cofts and charges; 
and, upon negleftor refufal be committed 
for fix or twelve calendar months, and 
may be publicly whipped ; final appeal to 
Quarter feffions, 13 Geo. III. c. 8o. Per- 
Ions armed and difguifed ftealing them, fe- 
lony without clergy, 9 Get), I. c. 22. Hig- 
Icr, chapman, carrier, inn-keeper, viftu- 
aller, or alehoufe-keeper, having in his 
cuftody, or buying, felling, or offering to 
fale, any hare, unlefs fent up by fome per* 
fon qualified, (or any perfon felling, ex- 
pofing, or offering to fale, hares, 28 G^^.II. 
r. 22.) (hall forfeit for every hare, 5/. the 
whole to informer, 2 Geo. IIL /. 19. 

For preferring heath-cocks or poles, no 
perfon whatfoever, on any wafte, {ball pre- 
fume to burn, between February 2 and June 
^h ^^y S^^St ^^"S' heath, furze, gofs, or 
fern, on pain of commitment for a month, 
or ten days, to be whipped and kept to 
hard labour, 4 and 5 ff^. and M. c. 23. / 1 1. 
Shooting heath-cocks, groufe, or moor- 
eame, contrary to 1 Jac. I. tf. 27. /. i. and 
killing any of them in the night, or ufing 
gun, dog, or engine, with fuch intent, 
contrary to 9 Anne, c. 25. and 13 Geo. IIL 
€, 8o. And carriers and others having fuch 
game in their pofTedion, contrary to 9 Anne^ 
c. 14. are all liable to the fame penalties, 
and recoverable in fame manner as thofe 
offences are fubjeded to in regard to fhoot- 
ing, fcfr. hares. 

Officers of the armv, without leave of the 
lord of the manor, deftroymg coney, hare, 
pigeon> phcafant^ or partridgej^ or hisMajef- 



ty's game, (hall forfeit c/« to the poor % and 
the commanding officer, for every offence, 
committed by any foldier under his com- 
mand, (hall forfeit 20i. in like manner^ 
and if, upon demand, he ihall not in two 
days pay faid penalty, he (hall forfeit his 
commiffion. Vide The yearly Mutiny Aft, 
Taking partridges, by nets or other en- 
gines, upon another's freehold, without 
fpecial licenfe of owner of fame, \ol. half 
to him who fhall fue, and half to owner or 
pofTeffioner, 11 Hen. VII. ۥ 17. Shooting 
at, &fr. partridges, with gun or bow, or 
taking, l^c. them with dogs or nets, by 
7 Jac. I. r. II. or taking their eggs out of 
their nefts,' liable as perfons (hooting at^ 
&?^. hares, and alfo 20J. for every bird or 
^gg> ^s is fhewn in the preceding pages con- 
cerning Hares. Selling, or buying to fell a* 
gain, a partridge,(except reared and brought 
up in houfes, or from beyond fea) forfeit 
for every partridge los. half to him who will 
fue, and half to informer, ijac. I. c. 27. /.4« 
Taking, killing, or deftroying partridges 
in the night forfeits for every partridge, 
los. half to him who will fue, and halt to 
lord of the manor, unlefs he licence, or 
caufe the faid taking or killing, in which 
cafe his half (hail go to the poor, recove- 
rable by church-warden ; and if not paid io 
ten days, to be imprifoned for one month ^ 
and moreover, (hall give bond to juftice, 
with good fureties not to offend again for two 
years, 23 Eliz, c. 10. To kill a partridge 
in the night is 5/. penalty, gAnne, c. 25./. 3. 
the whole whereof is given to the informer, 
2 Geo. III. €. 19. and may be recovered 
within three months, 5 Anne^ c. 14. before 
a juftice of peace, or within fix months, by 
aftion in Court of Record at W^eftminfter^ 
9 Anne, e. 25. with double cofts, 2 Geo. llh 
c. 19. Keeping or ufing any greyhounds, 
fetting-dogs, or any engine for deftroyine 
partridges, 5/ to be levied and recovered 
as the like penalty for killing Iiares, by 
5 Anney e. 4. /. 4. as. before is fliewn.. 
Penalties for ufing gun,, dog, fnare, net, 
or other engine, with intent to take or dc^ 
ftroy partridges in the night, or on Sunday 
or Cbr0mas^dayy fame^as ufing them againft 



|iare9» hy j^ G^o. IIL r. So. as in thfe 
foregoing page. Carriers and others having 

!)artridges in their pofleffion, liable to fame 
brfeitures as having hares-; and the fame 
laws againft Ihooting them as for fliooting 

All the laws refpeAing the penalties and 
recovery of them, for taking them by nets, 
Inare, or other engines, without licenfe of 
|he owner, bv Hen. VII. <. 17. And for 
Ihooting, or deftroying them with dogs or 
fnares, (dc. by 7 Jacl. c. 11. or tiding 
their eggs, by i Jac. I. c. 27. / 2. And 
for felling, and buying them to fell ^gain, 
\>y laft cited ad (except that the. penalty 
for a pheafant is ao^.) and for deftroying 
ichem iri the night (excepting as aforefaid,) 
by 23 Eliz. c. 10. ^Amdy c. %<. /. 3. and 
13 Geo. III. c. 8o. And for keeping or 
ufing fporting-dogs or engines, for dcftroy- 
ing them, by 5 jinnee c. 14. /. 4, Or for 
ufing gun, dog, or net, for deftroying them 
on Sunday or Cbrifimas-day^ by 13 Geo* III* 
$. 8o. and for carriers and others having 
them in their pofleffion j all thefe laws are 
pMtatis mutandis verkatim^ the fame as thofc 
refpeding partridges. 

Perfon profecuted for any thing done in 
purfuance of this ad, he may plead the ge- 
neral iflue, and give the fpecial matter in . 
evidence for his defence ; and if upon trial 
verdid pafs for defendant, or plaintiff be- 
come nonfuited, defendant Ihall have treble 
cods of plaintiff, 24 Geo^ IIL fej. t. c. 3. 

Qualifications for killing game (befides 
the late new tax J are, i. Having a free- 
hold eilate o( looL per annum f 22 and 23 
Car. II. r. 2c. 2. A leafehold eftate, for 
99 years, of 150A per annum. 3. The 
eldeil fon or heir-apparent to an efquire, or 
perfon of fuperior degree. 4. 1 he owner 
or keeper of a foreft, park, chace, or war- 
ren. Sec Bl. Com, 174, 175. Unqualified 
perfon keeping doss or engines to deftroy 
ihe game, to forfeit 5/. 5 ^nne^ c. 14. 
^eftridions in the laws concerning the pre- 
fer vatipn of game, feems to affed all per- 
fons whomfoever, whether qualified or not, 
4 Burn^s Jufi. 219, 248. No perfon (other 


than the Kinged fon), unlefs he have lands 
of freehold to the value of five marks a- 
year, (hall have any game of fwans, on pain 
of forfeiting them, half to the King, and 
half to any perfon (fo qualified) who Ihall 
fcize the fame, 22 Edw. IV. c. 6. Any 
gentleman or other that may difpend 40J'« 
a-year freehold, may hunt and take wild-- 
fowl with their {paniels only, without ufing 
a net or other engine, except the long-bow, 
«5 /if». VllL c. II. From perfons not 
having lands of 40/. a-year, or not worth 
in goods 200/. ufing gun or bow to kill 
deer,, any perfon having 100/. may fcize 
fame to his own ufe, 3 Jac.l. c. 13. Kil- 
ling in the night, between the hours of nine 
at night, and four in the morning, from 
February 12 to OSlober 12, any game, by 
anv perfon, whether qualified or not, fub- 
jed to fame penalties as killing hares at 
that time of night, by 13 G^^. III. r. 8o. 
as has been already (hewn. Every perfon 
qualified to kill game, (hall, previous to 
his (hooting at, killing, or deftroying any 
game, deliver in writing his name and 
place of abode, if in England^ to the clerk 
of the peace, if in Scotland^ to the flicriff 
or fleward clerk of the county where rcfi- 
dent, and annually take out a certificate 
thereof, (lamped with a two guinea (lamp, 
24 Geo. III. /ef. 2. c. 43./. 1. and from 
and after the palling of this ad, every fuch 
qualified perfon who (hall fo deliver in 
England or Scotland^ his name and place of 
abode as aforefaid, and require a certificate 
thereof, (hall be annually entitled thereto, 
damped as aforefaid, from clerk. of peace 
or his deputy, Iheriff, or (leward clerk, to 
the effed of ihe form in the ad fet forth, 
24 Geo. \\l. fef. 2. ^•43./. 3. Clerk of 
peace, 6fc. after he (hall have figned fuch 
certificate, (hall forthwith ifluethc fame, 
(lamped, to the perfon fo delivering in his 
name and place of abode, and requiring 
the fame, for which he fliall be entitled to 
receive \s. for his own trouble; 24 Geo.Wl. 
JeJ. 2. c. /^2'J'^ Negled in, orrefufal of if- 
fuing certificates, incurs like forfeiture, and 
which are recoverable in like manner, and 
with fame cods as to game-keepers, which 
Cc i( fee 



fee ; befides liable to pay the duty Oft 'fiich 

certificate, 24 G^(7. HI. Jef. ^. c. 45. /. 4. 

The time for fporting in the day is, /ram 
one hour before fun-rifing, until one hour 
after fun-fctring, 10 Gio. III. tf. 19. The 
fporting feafon for buftarda is frorti Du^m* 
htr 1 to MMTcb u For groufc or rcd--gan>e, 
from Augufi 12 to December 10. Hafct 
may be killed all the year, under the rt* 
driftion in 10 Geo. Hi. r. 19. Heacfc fo%l, 
or black game, from Angu^ 20 to Deeember 
fo, 12 Geo. III. c. 55. Pheafants, from 
Olfobei' 1 to February 1 . Partridges, from 
.September! to February 11, a Gen. lILr. 10, 
Fowls, widgeons, wild-ducks, wild-gecfe, 
at any time, but in Juney July^ Augufi^ and 
September y 10 Get). HI. r. J2. 

From and after OStoter 1, 1^841 ift aH 
cafes where the penalty by this aA, does 
not exceed 20/. jufticc of peace fhall, upon 
information or complaint, fummon the 
party and witneffes to appear, afid proceed 
to hear and determine the matter inafwm* 
mary way, and tipon due proof by conffcf- 
fion, or upon the oath of one witnefs, give 
judgment for the forfeiture; and ifiue his 
warrant for levying the fame on offender's 
goods, and to fell them, if not redeemed 
within fix days, rendering to party oveiplus, 
«nd if his goods be infufHcient to anfwet' the 
penalty, Aral I commit offender to prifon, 
there to be for fix calendar months, unleft 
penalty be foonerpaid ; and if party be ag- 
grieved by the judgment, he may, upon 
giving fecurity amounting to value of for- 
feiture, with the cofts of affirmance, appeal 
to the next general quarter fcflions, when 
it is to be heard and finally determined ; 
and in cafe the judgment be affirmed, 
feffions may award fuch cofts incurred by 
appeal, as to themfclves (hall feem meet, 
24 G^^. Wl.Je/. 2. c 43./. 19. Witneflcs 
neglecting or refufing to appear, without 
reafonable excufc, to be allowed of by the 
juftice, Ihall refpeftively forfeit, for every 
offence, 10/. to be levied and paid as other 
penalties, by this aft 24 Geo. III. fe/. 2. c. 
j4. /. 20. Juftice to caufe convi<5tion to be 
made out to the efFcft of the form fet forth 
in the aft 2\G€oAll. /ef. z. ^.43. /.a i. 

- 15; A M 

Juftice may mitigate penmltfei as fte dmiiaft 
i&t, fo that die reafoaable cofts and chat^ck 
t»f ofiioers and iiifiarmers, &r difoovery auid 
profecutioft, be always allowed, over and 
abOTC oiitigation, and fo as iame doies not 
reduce the penalty to Icfs than a mai^Cf^ 
over and above tbe cofts and dui||es^ C4 Geo. 
ill fef 2. t. 4j. /. 2:2. 

Ic is felony to take any fwsms that be hiw^ 
fully marked^ though they be at targei 
and fo it is unmarked fwens, if they be do« 
meftical or tame, fo long as itiity kt^p 
within a man's manor, or within his prrvata 
rivers^ or if they happ^ to eibipe from 
them, and are purfiied and taken^ and 
brought back agaisn \ but if tfai^ be abro^) 
8Ad atcaifi their natural liberty, ^then the 
property of thens is loft> and fo loag fe^ 
tony cannot be committed hy taken thefn^ 
Bum's Juft. Ta. Game. 

Same laws agaimft ftiooting wnld*fb^Is ai 
for ftiooting harcs^ by i Jac I. c* 27. 
/. t. 

\ have here aHb added an ablbraft from 
the kte aft of parKamcM for pre?ehting 
the ftealing of dogs, which ftews the 
great regard the legiflator has to tbe canine 

By the ftatute of 10 Geo. III. for prevents 
ing the ftealing 6f dogs, it is enafted, that 
after the ift day q( May^ 1770, if any per- 
fon (hall fteal any dog or dogs of any kind 
or fort whatfoever, from the owner thereof^ 
ox flrofti any pcrfon intrufted by the owner 
thereof with fuch dog or dogs; or*fl^all 
fell, buy, receive, harbour, detain, or keep 
any dogs of any kiad or for t wtiatfoever, 
knowing the fame to have been ftolen aa 
aforefaid, every fuchperfon being xronvi^ed 
thereof upon the oath of one credible witc* 
ncfs, before two jufticcs of the peace, ftlalt 
for the firft offence forfeit and pay any fum^. 
not exceeding 30/ nor tefs than 20/. and 
the charges ofconviftion. And iacafefoch 
penalty fliall not be forthwith paid, the of^ 
fender to be comrtiitted to goal for any 
time not exceeding twelve months, nor lefs 
than fix, or until the penalty a^d chargea 
arc paid. Any perfon guilty of a fubfequent 
offence^ to forfeit and pay any fam nor e)». 



ceedijDg 50/. nor left clun 39/. together 
wkh the charges^ which penalties to. be 
paidj i>nie moiety thereof to the informer^ 
and the ethqr ^ ^he poor of the pariik. On 
non-payment the offender to be imprifoned 
for any Ufloe not exceeding i& moAtbs nor 
ItSi than ia> . or until the pepalty and 
ob^rges fiiaU )ae Qaid, and be pubUckly 

Juftkiefi ta gift ant warmntfr to fessrch £br 
dog^ ftoieiu ^nd in cafe, any fuch dog or 
dogis, oir tJMir fkipSt ^hall upo^ fuch fcarch 
be found, to take and reflore every ^h dog 
ojr ftln IB the owner, ^ the: pecfons in 
wh^ .iCvftady ai»y f^ich dog or (kin (ball 
be JMrndi, are iiftble ta the like penaltiea 
aod piiAi9Qimeiit& Perions aggrieved may 
a^eal 10 the ^uarcer-feffionsi ;and the 
dctfrnfunation there to be final. 

GAME-<:OCK. Many gciickq^^n who 
(qOcw the diverGon of fighu9g:Cock6^ by 
not bciftg weU aa^QAipted loripfh il\e me- 
diodft cMcefning brefiding thegi, are pre- 
¥C»Qed; frasi.ejKJpyimg ,tbe moft diArable 
part of the fancy i therefore, the refult of 
anany years experience upon that fubjedb, 
will be well receired by all. lovers of the 
%ortv M '^y other perfpns ^ho* have the cu*- 
liefity to^read the tollowing obfervations* 

The choice of a cock fliouid be from a 
ftraiii which has behaved weU> that ifl| 
from thofe who haxe alfways won the odd 
battie whtB equally matched ; for it is 
• g^nerat opinion aoDong perfoas >vbo are 
wdJacqtiafnted ,wi(l) the fancy^, thfft: cocks 
capaMe of fo doing are goodpnes. But this 
is. not always; DO- b9 depended on foit afecond 
batde with the fame cock -, for cocks^ that 
to all appearances won the fird time they 
feught very eafy> yet have been much hurt^ 
and' in their fecond battle^ after a few 
UowSy ftood fitiil and been beat. Neither 
k thift the only thing, againfl a cock's win- 
fitng twice -, for after having fought the 
battle he was matched for, it feldoni hap- 
pens but he is neglected 5 yet an opportu- 
nity offering to fight him in the courfe of 
tight or ten days, hereceives^a hurry with 
another co( the.pens, and becaufe his 
-goodnefs makes him fpar well for fome 


two or three minutes, it is concluded he is 
fit to fight : and if he has to combat with a 
cock that has never fought, and well to 
iight, it is almoil certain he will be beat>« 
tho' perhaps a much better cock in blood* 
It fboKtimes happens during the courfe 
of a battle, particularly if one of the cocks 
is'blinded^ that the fetter- to gets a blow 
in the hand, which will prevent him uQng: 
it tbrahree or four days ; judge then what 
a ficuaxion one of thefe poor animals mult 
bfe in iromi the number of wounds he mufl: 
confequently receive during a fmart battle 
of.fifteea or twenty minutes ; yet if a good 
cock in blood, he will appear in two or 
three weaks time as if he had not been 
hurt : but never trufl to appearances of 
this forty for be aflfured, after a cock has* 
fought a hard battle,, he will not be fit 
to Bght again the fame feafon -, and very 
oisen, after your have been at the expence 
and trouble of .keepmg him at his walk 
another year, he will only k>fe your money^ 
by reafon of his having received (bme hurt 
ifii^s firft battle, which he has never been 
a^e to get the better of, and which the 
be^ft judges could not difcover; nor is he fit 
after to breed from ;. but there arc fomc 
gentlemen who have been fortunate 
enough, to have bred good, chickens from a 
cock that has fought feveral times ; alfo 
thofe who have had cocks that have woa 
fcvcral battles* It fometimes happens 
that jcocks that have fought feveral times- 
get good chickens, buc then they have an 
elegance of make, and a remarkable con^ 
ftitution to recommend them ; and indeed 
if they had not been pofTcfTed of fomething. 
very rare to be found in the common run 
of cocks, a pcifon of judgment wpjuld never 
have bred from them. As to cocks winning; 
feveral battles^ it fometimes happens that a. 
cock wiU win three or four feafons running 
inreg^ilar matches, or win a welch main>,bue: 
then he mufl: be a very fevcrc ftriker j and 
for another's winning feven or eight battles, 
in a feafon, it ought to be confidered what 
he has had to fight againfl, a parcel of 
half-b^ed, ill-waked,- dunghill things \ 
orelfe fome young fanciers have, been jjre- 



vailed upon to fight chickens againft him, 
or cocks much under his weight 5 when 
if he had had a frelh cock come agatnfl; 
him only the fccond time he fought, of 
equal weight and goodnefs, and, as well to 
fight, it is very great odds but he muft 
have been beat. 

The properties a cock ought to be pof- 
feffed of that is bred from, are thefe, firft, 
you (hould be well acquainted with the 
(lock he fprung from i the next objcft you 
muft pay an attention to, is to be affured 
he is perfedlly found, which to find out is 
rather difficult 5 but the bcft method is 
ftriftly to obferve his manner of feeding, 
for if he will eat corn enough to make 
his crop very hard, and digeft it quickly, 
k is a lure (ign his conftitution is good, as 
it is that he is rotten, if he eats but little, 
and has a bad digeftion. 

There are alfo other methods to be ob- 
fervcd on this occafion, fuch as running 
him down in a field, or to fpar him with 
another cock, when if he turns black in 
the face at either of thefe exercifcs, you 
may be certain he is not found 5 but to 
make fure try thefe, and every other me- 
tliod you can devife ; for it is impoffible 
to be too particular in this article. 

As CO the exterior qualifications, his 
head (hould be thin and long, or if (hort, 
very taper, with a large full eye, his bekk 
crooked and (lout, his neck thick and 
long, (for a cock with a long neck has a 
^reat advantage in his battle, particularly 
if his antagonift is one of thofe kind of cocks 
that will fight at no other place but the 
head) ; his body fliort and compaft, with 
a round breaft (as a (harp brcaflfed cock 
carries a great deal of ufelcfs weight about 
him, and never has a fine fore-hand'; his 
thighs firm and thick, and placed well 
up to the (houlder (for when a cock's 
thighs hang dangling behind him, be a(ru- 
red he never can maintain a long battle) ; 
his legs long and thick, and if they corre- 
spond with the colour of his beak I think 
Jt a perfeftion j and his feet (hould be 
broad and thin, with very long claws. 

With regard to his carriage, it (hould be 


be upright, but not ftifly ib; his walk 
(hould be (lately, with his wings in fome 
meafure extended, and not plod along 
as fome cocks do, with their wings upon 
their back like geefe. 

As to the colour he is of, it is immaterial, 
for there are good cocks of all colours -, but 
he (hould be thin of feathers, and they 
(hort and very hard, which is another 
proof of his being healthy, as on the con- 
trary, if he has many, and thofe foft and 
long, it favours much of his having a bad 

A cock po(refled of all thefe qualifica* 
tions, fuppofing him in a condition to fight, 
ought not to weigh more than four pounds 
eight or ten ounces ; for if you breed fronri 
a cock that weighs five pounds and up- 
wards, and your hens are of a good (ize, 
which they ought to be, the cocks they 
produce, if well walked will be too large 
to fight within the articles, and this will be 
a great lofs to the breeder ; neither (hould 
they weigh much lefs than the weight 
mentioned, for if he is not greatly fuperior 
in fize to the hens you put him with the 
produce will not have that (hare of bone 
they (hould have, and conlequently if 
they fight againft well bred cocks they will 
lofe a great deal in match, which every one 
that follows this fancy knows the refute 
of, or at leaft (hould do. ^ 

Having mentioned the requifites for the 
choice of a cock, be certain the hens you 
tend him to breed with are (bund ; which 
to find out, ufe the fame rhethods mentis 
oned to be made ufe of with a cock ; alfo 
be a(rured there has not been the leaft 
taint in their race for many generations 
paft. As to other qualifications with re^ 
gard to feather, make and (hape, they 
(hould exaflly correfpond with the cock's, 
except their bodies, which (hould be 
roomy behind for the produdtion of largo 


The next thing to be confidered is the 
place for you to breed at ; this (hould at 
leaft be near half a mile from any houfe 
where fowls are kept, for fear of having 


G A M 

your hens trod by other cocks^ nrhich is 
often the cafe if they ramble within fight of 
each other : it (hould alfo be a confiderable 
diftance from any wood or coppice ; that; 
is, it ought to be fo far, that there would 
not be a probability of their (Iraying near 
it, for the vermin that infeft thofe places 
will de(troy your chickens; and fometimes 
is affords an opportunity for a fox to run 
away with your cock^ or one of your hens 
during the day-time. 

If your fituation is on a dry gravelly 
ibiU it is the better, and as you mud by 
no means breed at a place where there ia 
not a conftant fpring of clear water, con- 
trive if you can to let it run off in a f»iiall 
ftream by the houfe, if ever fo inconfide- 
rable i by which means your fowls will 
always have clean water without any trou- 
ble i but if you are obliged to draw the 
water out of your well with a bucket, be 
attentive to give it them frefh very often. 

It is the prevailing opinion among 
many perfons, who are fanciers, that a farm 
houfe is a good place to breed game chick- 
ens, becaufe oi the many out-houfes and 
ftables for them to (helter in during bad 
weather> and thinking as they are threfh- 
ing the greateft part of the year, there will 
be always food for them. It is true, dry 
places:, where they may amufe tbemfelves 
when it rains, are very convenient, but 
buying them corn fhould be of no moment 
to a gentleman who wilhes to fee his cocks 
cut a figure in a match. 

As it is probable the reader would wifli 
Co know objedions againft breeding at a 
farm-houfe$ they are becaufe people in 

Seneral keep a number of hogs> geefe> and 
ucks, which foul all the water about the 
place, and unlefs chickens have -clean wa- 
ter, they will never make thorough found 
cocks. Neither is it a good walk Cora cock, 
on account of the many hens that are 
tifually kept at thefe places ; for it mud 
be underftood, by his having fo great a 
variety he will debilitate himfelf ; and to 
clear up this point, is only determining 
whether a debilitate perfon is able to go 
through the fame exercifes as one who has 
Mver entered into any debaucheries. Alfo 


eoncerning the water, it is abfolutely m 
neceffary tnat cocks and hens (hould have 
clean water, as well as chickens, if you 
mean co keep them found. But to Hni(h 
the deicription of the fuuation you (hould 
choofe to breed at, let the place where 
they are to rooft in be dry, and free from 
any offenfive fmclls ; as to the (ize of it,, 
it is not very material, only do not let it 
be too fmall, nor the roofting perch too 
thick for them to gripe, nor higher thaa 
they can afcend and defcend with eafe i. 
which will prevent them from having fwel- 
led feet, a dcfedb that (hould be carefully^ 
guarded againft, it being looked upon C<y 
detrimental, that feeders have refufcd to- 
accept them, when they have been perfe<5t 
in every other refpeft ; which confcquently^ 
muft be a great lofs to thofe who only 
breed cocks to lend. 

In the beginning o( February put your 
cock and hens together, and not before,, 
taking care that your hens have not beea 
with any cock fince they laid their laft 
clutch of eggs : alfo regulate the number 
you put down according to the qnantity of 
chickens you want to breed, but never put 
put more than four to one cock, and let 
them be fillers, for by putting different 
forts together, you never can breed witb 
any certainty ; likewife, it is neceffary yoa 
(hould pay an attention to how they agree,. 
for if the cock takes a difiike to any of the* 
hen^ fas it is fometimes the cafe), take hee 
up, for you had better lofe breeding witb 
her a feafon, than to have chickens whea 
there is the leaft probability of their turn*- 
ing out badly. 

Before your hensbegiato lay, provide 
feparate nefts for them,, if there is only one,, 
and as they generally want to lay about 
the fame time ia the day, it will occafioa 
them to drop their eggs in improper places> 
and fometimes to quarrel : likewife lee 
them be as far afunder as the breeding; 
place will admit of* 

The fir(t egg they lay, as^ it generally 
runs a great deal fmaller than the reft, of 
the clutch, you need not fave, but let it 
be marked and left ibr a. nelt egg ;. thi% 



dofie. take all the othcrt out of the neft' 
ihc fame day they are layed, and put ihetn 
in i box with bran, taking care they are 
riot throwrt about nor changed s for ft>me 
perfons who breed cocks think it no harm 
to get pofleffion of another's ftrain (no 
matter by wha* means,) if they believe 
they are better than their own ; but to be 
certain if this happens, write yoHr name 
Upon every egg you mean to fet, direftly 
as you take it out of the neft, which, 
though your eggs may be ftolen, will 
prevent your having others fubftituted. 

When your hens begin to grow broody ; 
do not lave any more of their eggs, but 
Itave them in the neft, as it will entice 
tliem to fit the fooner j and the reafon 
for your a6lino^in this manner, is, that af- 
ter ihcy (liew a defire of wanting to fit, 
thty are never in perfeft health, which 
may be perceived by their countenance 
turning white, the Ihrivelling of their 
combs, and by their fcreaming when the 
cock comes near them ; nor will they ever 
permit him to tread them but when he 
does it by furprize j therefore, it is not 
likely the chickens thofe eggs produce, 
could poffcfs the fpirit that chickens pro- 
duced from eggs layed by the hens when 
they are_ in full health ; and it is really an 
opinion, this is the reafon why two forts of 
chickens ('fome very good ones, and others 
but indifferent^ have been hatched at the 
fame time from the produce of one cock 
and hen i and if it has happened that the 
eggs layed while fhe was in health have 
been deftroyed during the time of fitting, 
and thofe laid by her after (he began to 
grow broody preferved, the hen or cock, 
or perhaps both, have had their necks 
broke for breeding bad chickens, when 
at the fame time, it has not been their 
demerit, but the perfon whofe care they 
were entrufted to. 

Having made thefe remarks with regard 
to the eggs the moft proper to fit on, it is 
probable you will want to have two 
clutches of chickens from each of your 
hens in a proper fcafon *, to cffeft which 
do not let them fit upon the firft clutch 

C A M ' 

<jf eggs they lay, but pitwidk hcifs for that 
purpofe* whether dtanghill or game is* not 
^ry material, but the former i& to be pFe- 
red, as by their being lefs apt to quarrel, 
the chickens will not ruu fo much dan- 
ger of being trod to death ; but tnake 
yourfelf thoroughly affured, the^ have 
not got that fatal diflempcr called the 

When you fyi them, let their nefts be 
made in large earthen pans, at leaft a foot 
and a half from the ground^ with clean 
ftraw rubbed foft, which will prevent their 
being annoyed by vermin, for fome hens 
have been actually killed by fwarms of 
fmall infefts that have found means to get 
at them when they have been fet in ok! 
boxes or tubs ; which accidents pans will 
entirely prevent. As to the number of 
eggs you put under each hen, they ought 
not to exceed twelve j for a hen iektom 
hatches more than that Dumber of chick- 
ens if (he fits upon feventeen, by her not 
being able to give them all the proper de- 
gree of heat they require -, and very often 
by having too many you fpoil them all : 
neither is fetting an odd number, fuch 
fuperflitious notions having been long abo-* 

Do not fet your ftrangc hens where the 
others can get at them, as their wanting 
to fit would occafion the eggs to be broke ; 
and if they did not want to fit, they would 
quarrel, which would be attended with the 
fame lofs. Let plenty of viftuals and 
water be always near the hens that are 
fitting ; and if the place where theyjfit is 
floored, provide a quantity of gravel, by 
which means they will be able to eat, drinks 
and trim themfelves at their pleafure. 

As you will take the eggs from any one 
of your breeding hens that want to fit, you 
muft at the fame time confine her, or elfe 
(he will become very troublcfome, by 
getting into bne of the other hen's neft, 
and fo prevent her from coming to lay : 
and as this in all probability may occafion 
them to quarrel, you fiK>uld take great care 
to prevent it ; for very often when they 
begin fighting, they never run peaceably 



togetlicr afterwards. Befidcs, there are 
t>tner ill canfeqticnces attend their quar- 
rellitigy for if the two hens that have quar- 
relled happened to be nriiftreffes over the 
others, and get the leaft disfigured, they 
wll be attacked by them, and if they are 
not parted very foon; it will hindir them 
from laying * any more that feafon, and 
ibme times they cnfitely fpoil one another. 
To prevent thefe idifagreeable circum- 
stances, when any of them wants to fit, arid 
it is hot agreeable to you fhe Ihould, keep 
her under a. crate clofc to the fpot where 
you always feed your fowls, until fuch 
time as her heat for fitting is gone off, 
which will not hurt her, if (he has a dry 
place to ftahd in when it rains, which you 
may procure her,* by putting fomething 
over that end of the crate where flic roods 5 
for were you to feparatc them in fuch a 
manner as they could not fee each other, 
when you put them together again it would 
toccafioo a qtiflrel. 

Sup^ofe' -all' your kehs hiave laid their 
•firft cluftch 6f eggs» and gone off wanting 
•to fit, when they begin to lay their fecond 
clutch^ jult' proceed in the fame manner 
<as you did with the firft, only with this dif- 
ference, of letting them fit on their own 
eggs : for by no means let them lay a third 
clutch before you permit them to fit, as 
they wiH be weakened b,y fuch a proceed- 
ing verv much: neither will the chick- 
. ens be 10 good ; for it muft be undeHlood 
you made a tre^'afs upon nature in not per- 
mitting them to fit the firit time they want- 
ed« and not only that, but the feafon would 
'get too far advanced : it being the prevail- 
ing opinion of all good judges that chickens 
i>red to fights (hould be hatched in the latter 
end of A^rcb, or in the months of yipril 
and May. And- indeed experience will 
fliew the neceffity there is of abiding by 
this obfervation ; for if chickens are hatch- 
ed in February^ or the beginning of March ^ 
iieithout the feafon is remarkably mild, it 
is a great chance, but half of them die : 
befides the trouble you would be at in 
keeping <hem in the houfe $ thol% that do 
4if cj thrive fo flowly by reafon of tlieir be- 


I ing cramped with the cold when youngs 
that the other chickens hatched in /fpril or 
May, by never having any illnefs, will be 
much finer in every refpeft before the end 
of July i and as it is not good policy t^ 
fight a match of chickens, there is no occa- 
fion for them to be hatched fo early, being 
equally as forward to fight as cocks bred in 
April or May, Nor can any perfon, who 
is not well acquainted with breeding, con* 
ceive the amazing difierence there will 
be between a clutch of chickens hatched in 
April or Afiiiy, and one hatched in July or 
^^m/fy although from the fame cock and 
hen ; for as thofe bred in the fpring will 
run cocks (to make ufe of fome phrafes 
made by fportfmen) high upon leg, light 
fiefhed, and large boned ; when thofe bred 
in the fummer will be quite the reverfe, 
and confequently will have to fight (i( his 
antafi;onifl: was bred in a proper feafon) a 
much larger cock^ though no heavier than 

As one-and- twenty days is the time allots 
ted for a hen to hatch her chickens in, 
if your eggs are fet as foon as you have a 
fufiicient number laid, they will hatch the 
twentieth day, and when the weather 
has been remarkably -warm they will be* 
gin hatching the nineteenth. Thefe re- 
marks you fliould be attentive to, and take 
the chickens from her as they hatch, for if 
you do not, and they fiiould not hatch nearly 
together, flie will leave ofi^ fitting fo clofe 
as file fiiould do, after two or thre care out 
of their fliell, and confequently, if flie does, 
the reft muft perifii. The chickens that 
are taken from the hen, while the reft are 
hatching, muft be kept warm, which you 
may do, by putting them in a neft made of 
wool, and covered with fiannel, taking care 
at the fame time that they are put in a place 
where the hens cannot hear them, for if 
file does, file will leave off fitting imme- 
diately, and fly to the place where they are. 

If you have four hens hatch chickens in 
the courfe of three or four days, and each 
hen upon an average has not more than ten, 
take the chickens from one, and divide 
thcHi amongft the ^thcr three, which you 
D. d maf 



may do in an evening, after tliey have been 
feme time at rood ; and the hens they are put 
tOy will nurfe them the inofmng followmg» 
in the fame manner as thofe •they hatched 
themfelves ; but Aiould th^y not have 
above eight «ach, you may let them all be 
brought up by tw^ hen«, which will fave 
you the expcnce and trouble of keeping 
four, as two- wiU anfwer tile fanae pwpo/e ; 
befidesr your chickens wiU bo( have fo 
many enennies. 

If it is dry weadrer and the fun ihinet, 
you may p^tyour chickens out of doors, 
the next day after they are hatched, plac- 
ing your bens vfider erates« to prevent 
their rambling too far$ but if the^weat^er 
is cold and the ground wet> keep them in 
a room, aftd coaBne the hens in the iame 
manner fuppofing they were out, which wiU 
eccafion them to hover the chickens neiufch- 
oftener than if they had their liberty -, but be 
Aire there is fpace enough for tbe chtckeiis 
to get into the crates, becaufe if th<:y arc. 
obliged to fqeeze io> k ivill make them 
grow long bodied» as will their often going 
between garden rails* which they will do if 
diere are any near* and they caanot By over* 
Many perfons decUre,. who could ha^ 
had no experience in breeding fowls,, that 
they did not think k necefiary that a hen 
Ihould be confined while her chickens ar^e 
young, and had juft fenie enough to fay*, 
tliat nature never defigned it; if a hea 
ihould lay a. ckicch ot eggs fecretly in 
January y as it is not uncomnK>5- for young 
• hens to lay in that month and fit upon them^ 
confequently, if there are any chickens 
hatched, it muA be in Februarjy when if 
ihe is not taken in doors, but left to range 
where ihe p]eafes,.the cold northerly winds 
and wet weather, which are ufual at that fea-^ 
fon of the year, will deftroy all of them. 

Breeders differ very much with refped to 
the food that is given chickens for the firft 
ten or twelve days after they are hatched i 
they grow be ft when fed with bread and egg, 
mixed in the fame manner as for young ca- 
nary birds i and if it happens to be wet wea- 
ther, that you are obliged to keep them in a 
room, give them once a day bones of raw 
nmtton or beef to pick, for as they are de« 

G A Rf 

prived* by being confined, of th« infedb and;^ 
worms they are always picking; up wkeo^ 
ranging about in the fijelds, it U neaeflary- 
they ihould have fome meat^ and. when^ 
given them in this manxicr,. itisbettfrxJiaoi 
when it is cot for them, as it not only helps 
tadigeft their owa food quick*. l>uti^oKls- 
them exercife and acnufemenu 

It is requifioe you ihould pxf great actto^ 
tentioA to chaogiag their water very often*, 
for as it is* givea thorns ln^.ver» ih^Uiyw 
veiTelsthey ibonmake yi^dlrtf-y byirequointly 
runniiig through it,, whetb^ in a room- or 
out of 'doors : i^eiides wiion the bea is out». 
as il^e &oul4 alwaj/^ placed whep-^ 4^ha4iJa< 
ftilnes^ the watc^ ge«^ wacnv by cbero ^i^^* 
beii^ fpch a fn^U quantiqy*> wbtphis^tf^ 
difagreeable ^m th«n^^ fo much*- -tibat sb^- 
have refufed driokiag it^ when- the inftao^. 
you bave gi^^ea {hoon iire^, Jff^t&s, t^hf^^ 
drank till they have ^ea/ick;*. w^cb oijjgbt 
tD be prcwtt<ed,, 

When your chickqisare^/SMtnjglii p14j' 
begin feeding theomin j^arley^ and lat your 
beas haFC thisir libeity.i but- if jmuihoMld 
not have the coavenience of aiiioniBg^water* 
take care to p)ace the veflels fronrwhich they* 
are to drink, on tb^ (bady iide of tho boiiic^ 
and ik^ oftfner yout cki^^(^ theff) WWPT 
xht better^ Hkewiiia U^ )xour chicke;!^ o(i- 
a pl^e wjbere tbene is gray^l*. n^iiclf • oaajr b^ 
e^e&edby having direeor four ^carftioads^ 
thacibil thrown up in thefatnemaaaeraaa^ 
bank which feparates two iieldsi and at feed^ 
ing tinE^e ficfitser their bar);^ pn rboth fi^?^^^ 
it|. which iA ibme i^eafMse wiU i>refra^(c;yf>Hr 
heas from beating ^i^hoth^r's^ickei^s^iker 
wife the early clpt^hes ^oo) worrying the 
latter ones. It will aUp be of great iervicar 
towards keeping them liMind, for as tbef 
cannot help eating, inwetwe^er* a quan- 
tity of whatever foil their corn is fcattered* 
upon, you may be aiTufed ^gravel is the 
wholefomeft. Be iure alfo that they do not 
drink any foap fuds,. or ge; to .^y fiMhf 
places i for if they do it engenders difteq^- 
pers in thena which very often turn to that 
fatal one the roope* a difeafe for which 
there are many remedies* but never anjr 
fo effeftu^^:iafrJK«iki0g their m<^\ and 


tJ AM 

"^Kicl^ method ererf peHbn fliould take^ 
MS focm as they are certain any one has the 
^diforder. Some perfons think fowls have 
the roope, -when they have only a matter' 
refemblin^ water, running from their no* 
ftrib (which is occafioned by a Cold) ; and 
though this for certain is the* firft ftage 
ef that diftemper, yet if you but change 
Ttheir rwaSk, and take cate of them, they 
nrill wco^ wiehouc being fo mtrch hurt 
4B to previent their bein^ bred from. Fowls 
'eflen have not had their conftitution hurt, 
•idehottgh their heady have been fwelled by 
a €o^d^^ ^hat cores Jiave been cut out from 
"Under their eyes ; for this has been a fud« 
*4tn sttacky and as fudden' a recovery ; but 
^eft yourfeff a€ured> rf they do not lofe 
their running upon changing their walk, 
4ind it becomes thick and fiini», chey have 
got the roope. 

' . The proper timrcstOf feed your chickens, 
4tfc i» the morning when you let them out; 
4t noon^ and abeut^ an^ hour before you lee 
dkeoi goto roof): f aild do not give them 
morie at once than they can eat, that is, 
<do not let there ^e vitals always upon 
ch^-gravd, for if you do, chey will not take 
thie exereifc Wrich is^^ieceflaty they fliouldy 
*o Riore* tftan ihVjr wilP iFthcy are^kept too 
lon^ ^ithontf feidding V siAd- to explain the 
Aefcefiity theI^^is for adding in this manner, 
IS only to figure-to yowfelf when you* have 
Been- obKged towait an hour or two longer 
fer your diAhcR than ufoa!, how incapable 
yoiaf' Rave ftuhdyourlblf during that time 
to undertake any thing ever fo trifling ; as 
on thr other hand,^ when you have been at 
a table where a great number of delicacies 
have induced ]rou to eat more than nature 
required, you muft have found yourfelf 
equally incapable of doing any one thing 
except to fleep. 

Ifyour breeding hens have all got chick- 
ens, as it is probable they may by fitting on 
their Ifecond dutches of eggs, take up your 
cock, and put him-, to another walk ; 
for by the hens bein^ engaged, and not 
accompanying him, he will get vidous 
and morofe, and perhaps beat the chick-- 
ens, wha by bdng young and'unableto 
bear his blows will pine away and die i 

t; A M 

bpiides, by his being fent away, the hem 
will take care of them much longer. As 
ibon as you can well di(kiinguift the 
diflTerent fpecies between the chickens, 
break the necks of all the pullets, except 
you mean to favc any to breed from ; for 
as you mud break their necks when they 
are three or four months old, the trouble 
you will be at in keeping them fo long« 
adKl to feed them as you do the reft, will 
be more than they are worth for the table ; 
befides, as you bred them to have fo much 
bone, the expence yoii have been at for 
barley will buy chickens that will eat much 
better. But iuppofing your fituation in 
life is fuch that the expence is not an objeA 
worth your notice, it would be diminifhing 
their number which is very requifite, as it 
eccafions them to thrive the faftcr. In fliort, 
it would in all probability prevent your 
giving any away ; for was you to be vifited- 
by any of y€>ur friends, their feeing &> many 
pultets, might irtduoo them to folicit one^ 
and if they are perfons you would wiih to 
oblige, you cannot deny their rcqueft; 
the confequence of which will be, if ever 
any of thefe gentlemen Oiould take part in 
a Match againft you, your cocks will have 
CO f^ght againft their own relations : which 
gentlemen who follow this diverfion fhould 
live with their friends as if they would one 
time or another become their enemies ; and 
although this maxim may. feem rather 
fevere, yet was it adopted on many other 
occafions, it would be found a very necef- 
fery one. 

When your chickens want to go to roofl:, 
let the perches you provide for them be 
found and covered with woollen cloth, 
which will prevent their growing crooked 
breafted, neither (hould it be thicker than 
they can gripe with eafe, as that would 
occafion them to grow duck footed. This 
laft article when it happens is a great de- 
triment to them, by reafon of their not be-* 
ing able to ftand fo firm In their battle 
as they otherwifc would do, were their 
claws in a prope^ direAion. The perches 
iikewife Ihould be placed no higher than 
they can afcend with eafe, moving them 
D d a as 


as they grow more able to fly, but rfevcr 
place thcra too high (that is, not higher 
than four or five feet till they arc three 
months old\ for fear it fliould occafion 
them to hav^e fwelled feet; and if the 
perches are not taken down the hens ufed 
to rooft on, they will rooft there again be- 
fore the chickens are able to follow them, 
which will render the chickens uneafy, 
and as they will attempt it every time they 
go to rooft, till they can accpmplifli their 
views, their wings or claws may be broke, 
which would entirely fpoil them. 

It is probable, you wiU be difagreeably 
perplexed on account of their fighting for 
maftery, particularly as you have fo many, 
for very often they fight until they tear 
the fkin from one another's heads halfway 
down their necks, and when this happens, 
fportfmen call them peeled pated, by rea- 
fon that the feathers never grow aftjCFwards 
where the fkin has been broke i and this 
is fo great a defed, that the oppofite par- 
ty may refufe to let them be weighed, 
alledging they have a great advantage over 
a cock with a fair hackle ; and if they 
ihould aft in this manner, after you have 
been at the trouble and expence of. bring- 
ing them up to be cocks, (without you 
choofe to fell them) you will be obliged to 
break their necks. There are alfo other 
iil confequences, if they are permitted to 
fight a long tmie^ fuch as their getting 
feem eyed, cankered mouths ; und to be 
explicit, fomecimes they make one another 
in fuch a condition as obliges you* te kill 
them diredUy. 

Now, to prevent their fighting from be- 
ing attended with fuch difagreeable con- 
fequences,. af^r they have begun, divide 
them intor as* many parties as you can find 
feparate apartments> leaving the ftcong- 
eft /Upon the ground, and when thefe have 
fVlly eftablilbed their authority over each 
0ther (which you make them do in the 
eourfe of two days,, by holding, which you 
find the weakeft in your hand, and bufiet- 
ing him with your handkerchief while the 
other ftrikes him, and if this wont do, 
confine him without viftuals for a few 
hours until he is cold,^^ when by his being 

O A Nt 

ftiflf and fore, aiid the ofher fr^fli> a^ers^ 
blow or two he ^ill not attack him again) 
you may put down the ftrp^ipgeft fropi one 
of the parties that ate ftiut up, who by he^ 
ing kept fhort of food> will fubmit di* 
reftly to run under all thofe that are down ; 
aud when they are fo far re)conciled as to 
pern)it hiili.ta fpn amongft them, py& 
down the ftronge^ from another parcy^ 
which will fubmit in the fame . maoipfBry 
and by puri\>ing this method^ in the^ 
eourfe of^ a few days you will be able 
to get them all down. When once fet« 
t]ed, they will go very peacably together, 
except by accident one of them* fboold 
get disBguredj which if fuch a things 
(hould happen, «a^d they do not feem to 
be perfectly reconciled, fend hirn-to ano* 
ther walk for fear of a general quarrel. 

Do not permit the hens to run longec 
with the chickensy then while they remain 
miftreffes over tberpj but fend thena,aj^ 
the pullets you have fayed to another walk i; 
as k will be a feafon of the . year your 
brood cock can be of no fcrvice, by put- 
ting him down with the chickens^ he will 
be as good to tJberxv as a bell-^weadier. to a^ 
flock 9f i]|>eep$ befides, yoy wil^l fave -a. 
walk, and in this : manner ' th^ ;vuil rua 
peaceably together {]£ yo}\jprtve^Jisaiy h^^ 
from coming near them), until you i^vaat 
the walk for breeding at ag^in. ^ Be. fMre 
you get good walks for thole to be nuuie 
cocks of, but by no nieana put th^na doi^ir 
at farm houfes, nor at any place ifhene 
there is the leaft probability of their get- 
ting to other cocks, for it you do,, yoa 
may be alTured of having them fpoiied^ 
In fhort,. if they are not put, to good 
walks,^ where they w411 have plenty o£ 
good command clean water, you had bet^. 
ter break their necks. When you takei 
them ta their walks^ cut off their combs, 
^c» as clofe as you can.; and by following^ 
thefe methods, your brood walk will be 
clear for you to begin, breeding, in apra^ 
per time the next feafon* 

Having mentioned about moving youc 
hens to, another walk, I nruift caution you. 
not to put them down where there are any. 



och<r benSy not even duDgbill ones/ for. 
though thefe will not fight long enough to 
do your hens any injury^, they .will disfigure 
them, which is as bad, becaufe it will, fee . 
them a fighting among themfelves> and if 
you mean to breed from them the next fea- 
foHy it would certainly be better to let them 
run without a cock; for if they do, not lav 
after they have began to mouUttill the clutch . 
(^eggs you would wiih to.fet, you will not 
be certain to the father of your chickensv 

It is requilite you Ibould know the good- 
n^ of thole already bred before you 
breed another whole feafon from the iame 
cock and hens^ but do not cut them out as 
fQnie pepfoos do> who think if. they die 
game they muft be good ones ; for in- 
ftaoce, fome gientlemen's cocks» although 
very good game, have been beat very eafy 
^ half bcedcocks^ that have been 
good linkers i whereas if they had made as 
good,u(cof their heels as their antagoniHsj 
th?y would ^eafily have made them run 
away* Byt to be ingenuous^ the method 
ypv follow, to find out their goodnefs> is 
to choofe three or four that are ihortefl: 
vpon ,leg (becaufe they are fkicCt to fight 
when iiags[^^ from tho& that were hatched 
in t(ic carljc part of the fealbn, and if you 
are c^nceraed in a match about February 
or jii$rcb^ have them weighed in;, but 
fupppfing you ihould not have any thing 
Uf dp witU a naatch) lend them- where you 
are.^e dKy: will be well loolked after^ and 
faf ij^iiigtheJsattle'm^ fight fpr, 

youypay have them weigjied to fight in 
tbemaiD> and as you would not have lent 
them witboiut its being a creditable match> 
they coqfequently will have to fight again ft 
gpgd cocks. If you lend fouv>. it is proba-* 
bic three may fight i but there is great 
odds, that one does ; and about an equal 
chance that two does i but let us fuppofe 
three fights you would be to blame to back 
them> and indeed it would be judgment for 
you to lay againft them to the amount of 
she battle money, for although your flags 
may be much better than the cocks they 
fight again(l> yet if it fhould be a long 
battle, the cocks mud win without a mere 
chanc<^ which good fportfmcn never will 


trull to. It IS alfo requifite you fhould in- 
form yourfelf, if'you can, whofe cocks 
your fiags fight againfl, and what charaftcr 
they bear, by fo doing, you will be a bet- 
ter judge what your (lags are able to do j 
likewife pay a flriiSt attention to their man- 
ner of fighting, for if they keep the battle 
upon an equal poife againd good cocks, 
and only feem to be beat by age, do not be 
out of humour, and break the necks of 
thofe at their walks, as you may expeft 
great things from them when cocks. 
SuppoHng they ihould have in this manner, 
breed from the fame cock and hens again 
the next feafon, and fhould they win the 
odd battle when cocks, be very careful 
of your brood cock ; for if you are, and by 
keeping him from the hens during the lat- 
ter part of the feafon, you may breed from 
him feven or eight years, as a cock that 
will get good chickens, being, a very va- 
luable acquifition to a breeder. 

It is not meant when it is faid yoa may 
breed from your cock fo many feafons, that 
it fhould always be from the fame hens, 
neither is there any occafion to crofs them 
every feafon, for it they are good, be con-, 
tented, (and do not let every cock you 
fee fight a good battle, entice you to breed' 
from him), for by putting your young hens 
to your old cock, and a young cock to your 
old hens, you may keep them' in their full 
vigour at leaft four years. But never breed' 
from flags or pullets without your old' ones, 
as no fowls can ever be pofiefTed of every 
neceflary requifite to breed from, until 
they have moulted twice, and^ when you do 
crofs your breed, be very carefut what fort 
you do it with, and the nearer the colour 
of your "own the better, as the produce 
will run more regular in feather. 
, Now, permit me to recommend you to- 
tranfaiSl the bufinefs relative to trying your 
flags, without mentioning it even to the 
perfon that feeds them, which you may 
efFcft by cutting ofl^ the points of your flags 
heels when you take them from their walks> 
and fending them as cocks : but if he 
fhould have fome fulpicion they are. flags* 
(as it is probable he will, if he underflands^ 

<5 AM 

his bufine fs) and aflcs you, do not Inform 
hiai, neither tell him they are your own 
breeding, or that they are all of one fort ; 
by which means, whether they are good or 
bad, no perfon will be acquainted with it; 
for if they (hould turn out te be of the firft 
rate, and you have told the feeder they are 
yburown, and that you have a great many 
brothers^ he tells his helpers, and they 
their companions, by whkh means, when 
your cooks come to fight the next year, 
you will not be able to get a bet, without 
Uying fix to four, and fuppofing you lay 
an equal fum upon .every battle, if your 
cocks do win three out of five in one day's 
fighting, you will be juft icven in your 
bets ; but if they fhould lofe three out of' 
five the next day, and you kept laying 
guineas, you would be ten lofer. 

This is fufEcicnt to fliow, how iiecef- 
fary it is to aft with fecrefy. And to pre- 
vent any one from knowing that yeur cocks 
are of a fore, when you mark your chick- . 
ens, do it two or three (Afferent ways, but 
do not truR: to your memory oil this occa-^' 
fion, let it be ever fo good^ for by having 
two or three forts, each marked in a diffe- 
rent manner, may create cbnfufion^ if not 
inferted ina book. 

It will be requifite to make fotae necef-' 
fary remarks, to be attended to by any gen- 
tleman that is going to fight a match. In 
fine, when any gentlemian has an inten-^ 
tention of fighting a match, no matter 
whether for one day or for a week, before 
he comes to an agreement, he ftioulH. vilit 
all his walks, to fee if the cocks are fafe 
and in a condition fit to be taken up *, if 
they are, the n^xt thing to be confidered is 
to fecure a feeder, one whofe cocks he has 
known to fight well during the courfe of 
many matches, and not by his only having, 
the name of a good feeder, for many are 
called by that name who have little preten- 
fions to it ; and if they have had the good 
fortune to win a match or two, it has not 
been owing fo much to their good feeding, 
as to the excellent ftrings of cocks that 
have been fent in by the gentlemen who 
tmployed them* UJcewife to fecure a 




^od fetter- to, ont ^hom you hw^ fi»n 
often . and know ta be clever, for it ia the 
fame with this art as that •concerning feed- 
ing ; manjT pretend to be adepts in* it, 
who do not know when a cocfc wants reft, 
or when he (hoald be made to light. It 
nrra^^t be^rnderfllood the wrnningef amatcli 
ct^itHy depends npoh thofe two perfom, 
ibr a good feeder, and- a good fctter-toi 
win a match* wirfi aw rndii^rent ftring of 
cocks, againfr a bad fecdfer and fetter-t^ 
with an excellent one : and as there are 
generally two who haive more merit than 
any that pretended to this art, theperioiv 
who fecurcs them iti his- intereft wiH ce)Ilfi^• 
qvently hare a great advantage over hia 

In the chtMce of a fightuig- cock, fo«r 
things are chiefly to be confidered, viz. 

Shape;, colour, courag;^ and a fhai^ 

r. As to fliipe, yow imrfl! not chwfeofie 
either too large or too fmalf; for the firft 
is unwieldy, and not aftive, the other it 
weak and tedfouHih his^ fijghtingr and botk 
very difficjilt to be nrairfied*: the nrriddle^ 
fized cock is therefore rpoft proper feiryeur 
jiurpofe^ as being Wrong, rttmble, an* ^a- 
flly matched; his;head dught to B% finill, 
with a quick larg^ eye,.and*2rWiMi^fte^, 
which (as Mr. Markfram obferv«s)^ AouM 
be crookt, and tffg at the fitting oti, is^ 
colour fiii table to. tJre plumed his featfters^, 
whether black, ybnW,;dr'rWatfir,.e/h '- 

The beam of his leg ii to bfrvocf ftwigi» 
smd' according to his plume, *Wtie, g^ey, or 
yellow i hi; ipurs roughs long, and- ffia^, 
at lirtle bending, and poihcingjbward. 

2. The colour of a. game cbdt ought to 
be grey, yellow, or red, with a blMk 
breaft ; not but there are many ^tRer piles, 
or birds of different colours- rery excel- 
lent, and may be difcovered by praftice 
and obfervatton, but the three former, hf 
experience, are ever found the beffc The 
pied pile may pafs indifferently, but the 
white and dun are rarely known to be good 
for any thing. 

If your cock's nCck beinvefled with a 
fcarlet complexion^ it is a fign he is 


G A fiC 

Aroiig] lully Bnd >courageou& ^ bu( oa the 
eoatrary^ if pa^p and wan, it denotes him 
to be faiatj aod defedttvc ia his ftate of 


3. Ypu may know his courage by his 
proud, uprighr*ftanding» and itarely tread^in 
walkings and if he cronfs frequentJy in the, 
pen it is a^deoaonftratioa of^irit. 

4. Hit naitrow heeU ^^ il^pnels of heel) 
is known no otherwiie than by obferration 
io fighting ;> and that is, when upon every 
jifing ht ib hils,^ tha( he draws blood £roai 
his advcr^aiy, g^ing his ipors conunuaUy> 
and^a^-fvetry blow threatening him with-Jm- 
juiy^HNCe de«idy^ 

f^er^^noie, k fi the-^ini9v of the luoft 
&il&il ^ftokifn«Aers» that a ibarp heeled 
4KK:kj s^Hi^h he be Tomewhat ialfebr is better 
thao a tme co«k ^th a duU heel v the^oaibn 
i» Miiii the OAQ ^ghts lof^ but ieldom 
wounds, while the other carries a heel io h^ 
taljaHa>}9?ei9f4iioQae&£pi?oducesan expec- 
.ttati^oiptbe and of she battle^ and |tha^gh 
he be-not'^ hv^ lis to ^endure the mmoft 
.hc«!ingftf(Q G$^9moniy there is l^tleopcaTion 
for it,, he being a quick difpatcher of his 

Now Ibovkiyow cock prove both hardy 
and n^^09r Imek^i he i^ thisn the b<fft bird 
f^Miea n tnabe choice of. 

Xo ipKpai9:» cock 00 £ghtj^ foA with a 
piir .of fine ibe VB ciH all his^nitpe cleie o<F 
90 hif Mck^&om the head xjt the letting on 
9i the Aoulders. 

•a, "Qip otfaU the feaibers frofu the tai^, 
«jk)i(e «o J^ rump; the Mdder it appears, 
. ehtibe«tbr isthe;tao«^in-CQoditione 
- ; 2p ^aa4 his wiiigs by the le«:\g^h of the 
inft littng ieather^ find clip the Kfk flope- 
wi(e> with 4ivp paincsi, that in ^hisxif^qg he 
nay cherewiih endanger an eye of his ad- 

44 Swspe imoo^ and iharpeq h^s ipvf s 
with a penknife* 

5. And iaftly^ fee that (here be no fea- 
thers on the cron^ of his head for his oppo- 
nent to iak4 hold of them, owiften his head 
all over with your fpittlcj and turn him in- 
to the pit to try his fortune* For 9iber pu- 
ticularSiJee Matching of Cocks* 

G Air 

GAME-HEN Ihould be rightly plumed f 
a^ blacky brown, ^ccklcd grey, griffel, or 

f'ellowilbi. thcfc being the moft proper co- 
ours for fuch a hen oT the game : it flic be 
tufted on the crown, it is fo much the bet- 
ter, for that denotes courage and r efi^lucion^ 
and if ihehave the addition of weapons^ 
they conduce very much to her excellency 5 
her body ftould be big and well poked be- 
hind» for the produAion of large eggs : but 
it is advifcablc to obferve how flic behaves 
henftlf to her chickens^ whether friendly or 
ffowardly : amd take efpecial notice of her 
carriage amongO; other hens ; if Ihe receive' 
abufcsfrom them whhont revenge^ or Ihew 
anj token of cowardife, value, her not» ^r 
vot^ may depend upon it her obickens w^l^ 
ipe good Cor Jio things 

GAME-KEEPERS, arc thofe who have 
the care of keeping and prcferving the 
game, and are appointed to chat office by 
lords of oianors, ^c, who not being uiider 
the degree of cjquire, xwf by a writing, un- 
der their hands and fealst authorife one or 
t»Ofe {(ano^-^epers, who qciay fciajc gunsy 
dogs^ or nets ufed by unqualified perfons, 
for cieftroying. the game. Game-keepers 
are aifo to be perfons either qualifiedby Jaw 
to kill the g^mcy or to be truely and pro* 
perly the lervant? ^f the lords or ladies of 
majors ^pointing thenr> i and no gapie* 
keepers can qualuy any perfoa to fuoh an 
end, or to keep dogs, ^c. as may bq fccn by 
the feveral game adts. See Game Laws. 

The peribn^quallGed toJceepguqs, dogs,^. 
ii(. are thofe who have a free warren, 100/. 
a year by inheritance or for life^ or a Icafe 
for ^^ years of ii^<:J^per ann. alfo the cldcft 
.fons of efquires, i^c. A lord of a manor 
may appoint a^ game-keeper within his ma- 
nor and royalty to kill hares, pheafants, par* 
tridges> &^^ for his own uie, the name of 
whom is to be entered with the clerk of the 

Eac^e of the coupty $ and if any other game- 
cpef, or one iUegatly autborifed^ under 
colour of his authority, kills gaine, and af* 
terwards fells it, without the confent of the 
perfon that impowers him, he is on convic^ 
tion to fuiier corporal puniibnient. 
GANACHES> (fp called in tYench) in 



farriery, arc the two •bones on each fxdc of 
^-t he hinder part of the head, oppofite to the 
* neck, or onfet of the head, which form the 
lower jaw and give it motion. 

It is in this place that the glands orlceN 
;tiels of the strangles and the glanders are 

tjARTH, OR Fish-Gatith. A wear or 
-dam in a river for the catching fith. 

GARTH-MAN. One who owns an open 
wear where fifh are taken. 

GASCOIN. The inner thigh of an horfe, 
which begins at the ftifle, and reaches to the 
-pla, or bending of the ham. 

GAUNT B£LLYED,oR light bjsllyed 
Horse, is one whofe belly Ihririks up to- 
wards his flarik ; whence you may conclude 
he is extremely coftive, and annoyed with 
much unnatural heat^ fo as t6 be always 
very walhy, tender^ and unhealthy, after 
Jiard labour. 

In order to the cure of it, it muft be ob- 
ferved, that all horfcshavc two fmall firings, 
reaching from the cods to the bottom of the 
fbclly, one on each fide; you muft therefore 
•with your finger break thefc ftrings, and 
•then anoint the part every day with frefh 
*fautter and the ointment fopulneum, mixed 
in equal quantities. 

GAZE-HOUND. 7 A dog more behold- 

G AST-HOUND. Sen to the iharpnefs of 
liis fight, than the nofe or fmcllirig, by viN 
tue of which he makes excellent fport wijth 
the fox and hare : he is alfo very exquilite 
'in his eleAion of one that is not lank. or 
lean, but full, fat, and round; which if it 
happen to return and mingle with the reft 
of the herd, this dog will foon fpy it out, 
itaving the reft untouched ; and after he 
hath fet fure fight upon it, he feparateth it 
from the company, and having fo done, 
never ceaieth till he hath worried it to 

Thefe dogs are much ufed in the north 
•f England, and on champagne ground ra- 
ther than bufhy and wooden places s and 
•they are more ufed by horfemcn than foot- 

If it fo happens at any tirne that fuch a 
4og takes a wrong way, upon the matter's 

tJ E L 

making fomeufual fign and familiar t6ken« 
he returns forthwith, and takes the right 
and ready courfejbcginningihechace afrefli; 
fo that with a clear voice and fwift foot, he 
follows the game with as much courage and 
nimblenefs;as he did at firft. 


GELDING, is a horfe whofe tefticles ane 
cut out, fo that he is not fit for a ftal-> 

GELDING A< Horse or Colt. In the 
perforniing of riiis three things are to be 
obferved ; firft the age, then the feafon of 
the year, and laftly the ftate of the fnoon. 

As to the firft, if it be a colt, he may be 
gelded at nine days old, or fifteeh, if his 
ftones be come down ; for the fooner you 
geld him, the better for the growth, agt, 
' and couraige ; but a farrier may geld a horfe 
at any age whatever, if he be careful of the 

As to the tinrve of the year, it tio«ild4»e 
don^ between April- zxA May, or in the be- 
ginning of Junt at fartheft } or at the fall of 
' the leaf, ^hich is about the latter end of 

But for the third thing, viz. the ftate of 
the moon, the fitteft time is always when 
the moon i« in the wane or decreafe. 

As to the manner of gelding, whether it 
be a foal, colt, or horie, ^ter fpu have caft 
him upon fome foft place, cake^he ftoiKs 
between your foremoft finger and youfgreac 
finger^ then flit the cod and prefs the ftones 
forth ^ when that is done, with a pair of 
fmall nippers made of fteel, box, or brazii 
wood, being very fmooth, dap the ftnngs 
of the ftones between them veryiiear> cut 
to the ietting on of the ftones, and prcfe 
them fo hard, that diere may be no flux ^f 
blood, then with a thin drawing cauterizing 
iron, made red hot, fear away the ftone : af- 
ter that take an hard plaifter, made of rofin, 
wax, and waflied turpentine, well diflolved 
together, and with yonr hot iron, melt it 
upon the head of the ftrings i that being 
done, fear them, and melt more of the 
falve, till fuch time as you have had a 
good thicknefs of the falve upon the 
ftrings. • 

. a E .N : 

Laftly> loofe the nippers^ and da fo to the 
•tjier (lone 5 fill the two flitE of the cod with 
white. fair, anoint all the outfide of the cod 
with hog's grcafe; an3 then let the horfe 
rife ; keeping hiin in a parm (table loofe, 
that he may walk up and down> for there is 
nothing better for him than moderate exer- 

But if you perceive that he fwells in the 
cod and (heath veiy much, chafe him up 
and down, arid make him trot an hour in a 
day^ which, will foon recover him and make 
him found. 

OENNET. Akindof 5j)/f»x}i&horfe; alfo 
a kind of cat bred in Sfain, fomewhat .big- 
ger than a weafel, of a grey or black colour, 
bpt ih^ fur of the black is the mod: valu- 

GENTIL. 1 A fort of maggot or worm, 

GENTLE* I often ufed for a bait to catch 
ftfli. . . 

y pu n>ay bre;ed and keep gentles thus .: 
take a'p/ece of beafts liver, and with acrofs 
flick, han£ it in fonae corner over a pot or 
barrel, half full of dry clay, and as the gen- 
tles growbi^ they will fall into the barrel and 
fcour themlelves, and be always ready for 
ufe whe^Ibeveryo,u incline to fi(h; and thefe 
gentles may be thua created till. after M'- 
i}>aelmas* But if you/defirc to keep gen- 
tles t,o (ilh .with all the year» then get a 
dead cat or a kite, and let it be fly-blown, 
and when the gentles begin to be alive and 
to ftir, theabury it and them in foft moift 
earth, hut a^ frcp frpft as you can, 
and thefe you may dig up at any timt when, 
you inteqd to ufe them j thefe will laft till 
March, and about that time turn to be 

But if you be too nice to foul yowr fingers, 
which ^ood anglers feldom are^. then take 
this bait : get a handful of well made malt, 
and put it into a diih of water, and then 
wafh and rub it betwixt your hands till you 
make it clean, and as free from hu(ks as you 
can i then put that water from it, and put 
a fmall.qyantity of fre(h water to it, and fet 
it in Something that is fit for that, purpofe ; 
over the fire, where it is not to boil apace, 
but kilur^cly and very- foftly, until it be- , 

G I R 

comes fomewhat foft, which you may try 
by feeling it betwixt your finger and thumb j 
and when it is foft, put your water from it, 
and then take a (harp knife, and turning 
the fprout end of the corn upward, with the 
point of your knife take the back part of the 
hu(k off from it, and yet leaving a kind of 
inward hu(k on the corn, or clfe it is mar- 
red; and then cut off chat fprouted end, 
that the white may appear, and pull off the 
hu(k on the cloven fide, and then cutting 
off a very little of the other end, that fo 
your hook may enter ; and if your hook be 
fmall and good^ you will find this to be a 
very choice bait for winter or fum- 
mer, you fometimcs cafting a little of it in- 
to the place where your float fwims. 

GERFALCON. 1 A bird of prey, that is 

GYRFALCON.J of a fize between a 
vulture and a hawk, and of the greateft 
ftrength next to an^ eagle. 

GESSES. The furniture belonging to a 
hawk. See Jessies. 

GIGS, otherwife called Bladders, or 
Flaps, are a difeafe in the mouth of a horfe ; 
they being fmall fwellings or puftules, with 
black heads, on the infides of his lips, under 
his great jaw teeth, which will be fome- 
times as big as a walnut, and fo painful 
withal, that he will let his meat foil out of 
his mouth, or at lealt keep it in his moutli 

Thefe gigs proceed from foul feeding, 
either of grsus or provender ; and you may 
feel them with your finger. 

la order for a cure, pull forth the horfc's 
tongue, and (lit it with an incifion knife, and 
thruft out the kernels, or corruption ; and 
afterwards wafti the place with vinegar, fait, 
or allum- water, and they will do well ; but 
to prevent their coming at all, wafh the 
parts with wine, beer, or ale. . 

GIRLE, [among Hunters] a roe-buck of 
two years old-. 

GIRTHS oF,A Saddle. The ftrong can- 
vas (Iraps, which being buckled under a 
hoffe's belly, ferves to fix the ^ddle. See 

GIRTH, f with cock-maftcrs] the com- 
pafs of a c^k*s body. 


G L A 

GtRTH-WEB. That ftuflF of which the 
girths of a faddle arc made. 

GLANDERS.|A diftempcr in horfcs,pro- 
cecding, atcording totheFr^fi& accounts, 
from corrupt humours about the lungs and 
heart, arifing neither from the blood nor 
phlegm, but from the one and the other 
bile, and therefore it is called dry. 

It is difcovered by the horfe*s growing 
kan on a fudden, and by touching his flanks 
with your hand, which will make them 
found like a dram ; and the horfe can neither 
eat nor cough, though he endeavours- it, and 
feels terrible (harp pains inwardly as if he 
had fwallowed a bone. 

This difeafe has long been reckoned in- 
curable, and a reproach to the art of farriery. 
But anatomical refearches hare convinced 
Qs, that this opinion is unjuftly founded, and 
that the glanders, unlefs the bones of the 
nofc are rotten, may, in general, be cured. 
I fay in fleneral> becaufe this diieafe is fome-. 
times ot fuch malignancy,^ and the matter 
difcharged fo acrid and foetid, that the parts 
contiguous are foon deftroyed, and all at- 
tempts to cure the tlileafe by medicine ren- 
dered abortive. 

Symptoms of Ac Glanders^ ^ 

' The matter difcharged from the no- 
firils of a glandered horfe, is either white, 
yellow, or greenifli, fometimes ftreaked 
or tinged with blood i when the difeafe is 
of long (landing, and the bones are fouled, 
the matter turns blacki(h, and becomes 
very fcetid. The glanders is always at- 
tended with a fwelling of kernels or glands 
under the jaws, but in every other refpcft 
the horfe is generally healthy and found, 
till the diftemper has continued fome 
time, and the morbid matter afiedcd other 

If a thin limpid fluid is firft difcharged, 
and afterwards a whitifh matter ; if the 
gland under the jaw does not continue to 
fwell, and the diforder has been recently 
contraded, a fpeedy cure may be expe£ted \ 
for^ then the pituitary membrane is but 
(lightly inflamed, and the glands only over- 

C L A 

loaded not ulceratedl But wlien the antter 
adheres IHce glue to the iniide of the no^ 
ftrils; when the internal parts ofthe nofc are 
raw, and of a livid or a(h colour ; when the 
matter becomes (^id,, andiof a bloody or 
a(h colour, the difeafe isftubborn,. and the 
cure uncertain; 

M. dela Fojeltss difcovered that the (eat 
of this difeafe is in the pituitary membrane 
Which fines the partition alonK the in'flde of 
th^nofe, the cavities of the cheek Bones on 
each fide, and the cavities above the orbits 
of the eye. 

ff the difea(e be of the m/Idfcr kind,. the 
cure may be performed, iiy inje£tions and* 
fumigations in the following: manner : Let 
t^e trcTtme be firft bled, and treated in die 
fame manner as we have aH-eadjrdireded for 
a cold; in the mean time kt an emollienc 
ejefbion, confiftingof a deeo6Hon^linfeedt 
marfhmailowS). elder, camomile-flowers^, 
and honey of rofes, be thrown up die 
noftrils as far as poflible with a ftrong. 
fyringe^ and repeated three timea a day.^ 


Take ]infeed,one ounce *, camomife-flow- 
ers, a handful ; boil them gendy for a few 
minutes in a pintand half of water; them 
(train off the liquor, to be ufed three or 
four or times a-day,' as warm as can be ad-- 
mitted^ without injuring by the heat If 
thefe procure not an abatement of the di(^ 
charge, in ten or fourteen days^ uie lime* 
water> or the following. 

Re/fringeuf Inje^ons^- 

Take roach-allum^ one ounce; diflolve 
it in a quart of lime-water, and add of (harp 
vinegar, half a pint. Or,. 

Take of allum and white vitriol>. of each^ 
four ounces ; calcine them in a crucible,, 
and when cold, powder the calx, and mix 
it with a gallon of lime-water,, aiul & quart 
of vinegar. Let the whole ftanddll d^e 
heavy parts are fubfided, and then decant the 
liquor for ufe. 

This injcftion muft be thrown up with a 



^nifgprdirde times irxiiijr^ ushdbn orders, 
sJkd the hoftiih fo ai iga t eJ ' with the pcmders 
ef fraDkintenfe, ma^k, amber and cinna- 
b^, homt cm -on' iron, hcsited' for that pur* 
pbfe i the rmoak or fume of thefe ingredi^ 
cnt^ being eafily conveyed through a tube 
'into the noftrils. 

This* method, if begsn in time« will 
•prove* faccefsfuL But when the difeafe is 
of long ftandiog, or very inveterate^ there 
is no other method of cure, than by trepan- 
ning the caviiSes above defcribed ; that is, 
•cutting out a piece of the bone,* with a pro- 
per in ftmnxent, and walhing die parts af- 
ieded with proper medicines ; for by this 
Aeana:tbetnorbid matter wiU be removed, 
and the wound and perforation wUl foon 
fill up with good flelh. No perfon however 
can perform this operation unlefs he well 
^nderflandsthe anatomy of an horfe, and the 
manner of condudking fuch manual actions i 
fo that it will be needleft to defcribe it 

Btrt as internal medicines are ufeful in the 
cure of moft di^brders, fo in the glanders 
they arp abfolut^ly neceflary. Give there^ 
fore tl^ creature a quart or three pints of a 
ilrong dec^dion of guaicum cKips^ every 
.day during the whole cure, and purge him 
at proper intervals. A towel in his cheft 
will alfo be of great ufe. 

For the cure of the inlanders, Mortimer 
grves die folio wtng receipt. Take a pint of 
children's 'chamber-lye, two ounces of oil 
of turpentine, hdf a pint of white wine vi- 
jiegar, four ounces of flour of brimftonci 
lialf a handful of rue ; boil this compofi* 
tion till it comes to a pint, and give it to 
the horfe falling i and let him fafl: after 
it fix hours from meat, and twelve from 

GLEAD. . A fort of kite, a bird of prey, 
which may be taken with lime twigs in the 
following manner : When you have found 
any carrion on which kites, crows, pies, &^« 
are preying, fet lime-twigs every night 
about the carrion, but let them be fmall and 
not fet too thick ^ if otherwife, they being 
fubtle birds, they will fufped fome danger 
pr mifchief intended againft them. 


G O A 

When you peirfciveoneto be fafl:, do not 
advance to him prefently, for moft common^ 
ly when they are furely caught they are not 
fenfible thereof. 

They may be taken another way, and that 
is, by joining to a packthread feveral noofes 
of hair up and down the packchread, and 
pegging it down about a yard from the car- 
rion : for many times when they have got- 
ten a piece of flefli, they will be apt to run 
away to feed by themfelves, and if your 
nooies be thick, it is two to one but fome 
of the noofes catch him by the leg, 
- GOATS are a kind of cattle that take 
delight in buflies, briars, thorns, and other 
trees, rather than in plain pafture grounds, 

The buck goat has under his jaws twd 
Wattles or tufts like a beard i his body (hould 
be large, his legs big, his joints upright, his 
neck plain and fiiorti his head fmall, eyes 
large, and horns large and bending ; his 
hair thick, clean and long, being in many 
places iborn for feveral ufes. 

He is of great heat, and alfo fo vicious 
that he will not (hun covering his own dam, 
though file be yet milch •, through which 
heat he foon decays,' and is High fpent be-> 
fore he is fix years old. 

The female goat alfo refembles the male, 
and is valued if fiie have large teats, a great 
udder, hanging ears, and no horns, at lead: 
fmall ones. 

There ought not to be above loo ot 
them in one herd, and in btiying it is better 
to buy feveral but of one herd, than to 
chufe in divers parts and companies, that 
fo being led to their pafture, they may not 
fcparate, and they will better agree in their 
houfes; the floor of which ought te be 
paved with ftone, or elfe naturally to be of 
gravel, for they are fo hot, they muft have 
no litter under them, but yet muft be kept 
very clean. 

1 he chief time of coupling them, or co- 
vering with the buck, is in autumn, before 
the month of December, that fo they may 
kid and bring forth their young the better, 
againft the leaf and grafs ^cinjg frefh and 

tender i 
£e 1 


tender; at which time tbcy will give the 

more milk. 

They are very prolifick, bringing forth 
two and fomctimes three kids at a time; the 
bucks muft be a little corrcfted and kept 
low to abate the heat and lafcivioufnefs of 
their natures, but young does ftiould be al- 
lowed to have abundance of milk. 

Neither (hould you give any kid to a goat 
of a year or two old to nourilh, for fuch as 
they bring within the faid tin:)e arc improper 

for it. 

You muft not keep your goats longer 
than eight years, becaufe they being by that 
time weakened by often bearing, will become 


Thefe animals require fcarcc any thing 
that is chargeable to keep them, for they 
browfe and feed wholly together as (heep 
do, and climb up mountains againft the heat 
of the fun with great force; but they are not 
fo fit to be about houfes as fhecp are ; being 
naturally more hurtful to all manner of 
herbs and trees. 

As for their diftempcrs, except it be in a 
few particulars^ they arc the fame as thofe 
of flbeepr 

The chief profit of them is their milk, 
which is eftecmcd the greateft nouriftier of 
all liquids (womens milk only excepted^ 
and the moft comfortable and agreeable to 
the ftomach; fo that in barren countries it 
is often mixed with other milk for the mak- 
ing of checfe, where they have not a fuffici- 
ent ftock of cows. 

The young kids are very good meat, and 
may be managed in all refpefts after the 
fame manner as lambs. 

GOD WITS, as alfo knots, grays, plo- 
vcrs> and curlews, being fowls cfteerncd of 
all others the moft dainty and dearcft, are 
effeftually fed with good chiker wheat and 
water, given them three tin>es a day, viz. 
morning, noon and night; but to have them 
extraordinary fine, take fome of the fineft 
wheat meal, and mingle it with milk, and 
make it into a palte, conftantly fprinkling 
it while you are kneading it, with grains of 
fmall chilter wheat, till the parte be fully 
mixt together therewith, then make it up 
into little pellets, and ftecping them in 

G O L 

water, give to every fowl according^as he 19 
in largenefs, till his gorge, be well filled, 
and continuing to do this as often as you 
find his gorge empty,- and in a fortnight's 
timcy they will be very fat ; and with this 
cramming any kind of Ibwi whatever may 
be fattened. 

GOING TO THE Yault, [with Hunters} 
a term ufed of a hare, which' fometimcs; 
though not feldom, takes the ground like a 
coney. i 

GOLDFINCH. A feed bird of v«ry cu- 
rious colours, and were they not fo plenti- 
ful, would be highly eftecmcd by us* 

They are ufually taken about MicbailmMs^ 
and will foon become tame ; but they dif- 
fer very much in their fong, for fomc of 
them fing after one falhion, and fome of 
them after another. 

They frequently breed in the upper part 
of plum-trees, making their nefts of the 
mofs that grows upon apple-trees, and of 
wool : quilting the infide with all forts of 
hairs they find upon the ground. 

They breed three times a year, and the 
young are to be taken with' the neft at about 
ten days old *, and to be fed as foHowsi: 

Pound the hemp -fcjcd very fincina moi^ 
tar, then fift it through a fieve, and add to 
it as much white bread as hemp-feed, >nd 
alfo a little flower of canary-feed-; then 
with.a fniall ftick or quilU take.up as much 
as the bignefs of a white pea, and give them 
three or four times, 'ieverkl times aiAiy-^ 
this ought to he made.frefli cvo'y dfl[yi*:fov 
if it be four it will profently fpoii' their ftoH 
machs, caufing them to caft up'thefr meat 9 
which if they do, it is ten to one if they live. 

Thefe young birds muft be carefully kept 
warm till they can fcedthemfclves, for they 
are very tender, yet may be brought. up te 
any thing.' 

In feeding, be fure to make your bird, 
clean his bill and mouth, if any of the meat 
falls upon his feathers- take it off, opelfo 
they will not thrive. 

Such as eat hemp-feed, to purge thcm^ 
(hould have the feeds of melons, fuccoiy, 
and mercury ; or elfe let them have lettuco 
and plantane for thatpurpofe*. 


G R X 

When there is no nctd of purging, give, 
theo^ two or three times- a week a little fu- 
gar or loam in their meat, or at the bottom 
of the cage ; for all feeds have an oilinefs^ 
fo that if they have not fomething to dry it 
up, in length of time it fouls their ftomachs 
and putsthem into a flux, which is of a very 
dangerous confequence. 

GORGE [in Falconry] that part of a 
hawk which drCt receives the meat, and is 
called the craw or crop in other fowl 

GORGED^ u e. fwellcd j this horfe's 
paftern joint is gorged, and the other has 
bis legs gorged^ you mud walk him out 
to difgorge them, or take down the fwel- 

GOSHAWK, 1 [j.^.grofs-hawk] a large 

GOSSHAWK.) hawk ofwhich there are 
feveral ' forts, differing in goodnefis, force 
and hardneis, according to the diverfity of 
their choice in cawking; at which timc> 
when hawks begin to fail to likings all birds 
of prey do aflemble themfelves' with the 
gofhawk and flock together. 

GOURDY-LEGS. A diftemper in horfes,. 
caufed by pains and other flefl^y fores. 

The way to cure them, is firfk to fhave 
away the ha>ir upon and;about the fare^place, 
as clofe* as* may^ be^ . and then to anoint it 
wiA linfeed^ oil and aqua yitac, fhaken to* 
geiher- till' they arepcrfeftly mixt; and re- 
new the mixing of it as often as you have 
occaGon to ufe it, bccaufe they will fcparate 
by (landing, without being fliaken r ^nint 
die ibre ^ace with, this every day till the 
fore be made whole. 
• GRAYLING, i In angling for this fi(b, 

GR AILING. J your hook muft be 
armed upon the (hanks with a very narrow 
plate of lead, which (hould be (lendereft at. 
the bent of the hook, that the bait (which 
is to be a large grafshopper, the upper- 
moft wing of which rhuft be pulled off ) 
may come over it the more eafily: at 
the point let there be a cad-bait in conti- 
nual motion. 

The jag-taitr which is a worm of a pale 
f)ei}i*colour with a yellow tag on it's tail, 
i« ao cxcellentbatc for the grayling laMarcb 

and .^//. 
■ TJhc haunts of the grayling^ are fo nearly |. 

G R A 

the fame with thofe of the trout, that in 
filhing for either you may, in many rivers, 
catch both. 

They fpawn about the beginning of 
yfpril, when they lie moftly in iharp> 

Baits for the grayling are chiefly the 
fame as thofe fo^ the trout, except the min* 
now, which he will not take fo freely. He 
will alfo take gentles very eagerly. When 
you filh for him with a fly, you can hardly 
ufe one too fmall. 

The grayling is much more apt to rile 
than defcend; therefore, when you angle 
for him alone, and not for the trout, rather 
ufe a float, with the bait from fix to nine 
inches from the bottom, than the running- 

The grayling is found. in great plenty in 
many rivers in the north, particularly the* 
Humber^ and in the^^, which runs through^ 
Hereford/hire ^nd Monmcutbjbire- into the 

GRAPES. A word (bmetimes ufed tO' 
(ignify the arrefts, or mangy tumours that 
happen in a horfe's legs. See Arrests. 

UQ GRAPPLE. A horfe is faid to grap- 
ple, either in one or both legs ; the expref- 
lion beihg peculiar to the hinder legs. 

He grapples both legs when he lifts them' 
both at cnce, and raifes them with precipi- 
tation, as if he were curvetting* 
-. He grapples one leg when he raifes it* 
precipitately higher than the other, without.' 
bending the hzrxu Hence they fay, 

Your horfe harps or grapples, fo that hci. 
muft have the ftring-haltin his hough. 

GRASS. To put a horfe to grafs,:to turnc 
him out. to grafs, to recover him. 

To take a horfe from grafs to keep him^ 
at dry meat. 5^^ Dry^^^^ Green Mbat. 

GRAVELLING. A misfortune thathap-> 
pens to a horfe by travelling, by little gra-- 
vel ftones gcttinjg between the hoof and the 
(hoe, which fettles at the quick, .and thcre^' 
fcfters and frets. 

The way to cure it, is*to take off" che (hoe, 
and then to dr&w the place with a. drawing* 
iron till you come to the quick;, pick out: 
all the gravel, .and.fquecze^out the natter; 


G R fi 

anil bUK>d found therein, and afterwards 
\^a(h it clean with copperas, water, then 
pour upon it fheeps tallow and bay iait 
melted together, fcaWing hot, ftop up the 
hole with hards, and fet the (hoe on again, 
and at two or three times dreffing it will be 
whole ; but do not travel or work him be- 
fore he is quite well, or let bis foot omie to 
a^y wej:. 

GRAY-HOUND. 7 A hunting dog that 
GRE-HOUNP. } defervcs the firft 
GRliY-HOUND.i place, by rcafon i>f 
hin fwiftnefs, ftrength and fagacity in pur- 
fuing his game ; for fuch is the nature of 
this dog, that he is fpeedy and quick of foot 
to follow, fierce and Itrong to overcome, 
yet filont^ coming upon his prey una- 

The bed of them has a long body« ftrong 
and pretty large ; a neat (harp head, fpark* 
ling eyes, a long mouth and (harp teeth; 
iittle ears with thin griftles, aftraitbroad 
and ftrong breaft, his fore legs ftrait and 
ihot^t, his hind legs long and ftrait, broad 
ifaouldcrs, round ribs, ftefhy buttocks^ but 
not fat, a long tail, and ftrong, and full of 

Of this kind, thofe are always fitteil to be 
chofen among the. whelps that weigh lighteft, 
for they will be fooner at the game, and fo 
hang upon it, hindering its fwiftneis, till 
the heavier and ftrong hounds-come to offer 
their afliftance ; and therefore^ befides what 
has been already faid. 

It is requifijte for a greyhound to have 
large Bdcs^ and a broad cnidrifF, fo that he 
may take his breath in and out more eafily : 
his belly fliould alfo be fmall,(which others- 
wife .would obftrud the fwiftneis of his 
courfej his legs long, and his hairs thin and 
foft : the huntfman is to lead thefe hounds 
on his left hand> if he be on foot, and on the 
right if on horfeback. 

The beft time to try and train them to 
.their game, is at twelvemonths old, though 
fome begin fponer with them ; with the 
males at ten months, and the females at 
tcight months pldj which laft are gene- 
rally more fwift than the dogs; they muft 
alfo ;be kept in a ^ip .while jd^road^ till 


t%ejr <aiit fee ihirir courfe ! nekher fliewtd 
you run a yoiung dog till the game has been- 
on foot a confiderabde tinoe^ left being ovw 
greedy of the prey he flxains his liaibs to0 

The ^eyhounds are moft in requeft ^itk 
the Germans^ who give them the nam^ of 
windfpily alluding to their fwiftnefs > but the 
Fretub make moft account of thofc that are 
bred in the mountains of D/r/»i«//a, or in any 
other mountains, efpecially of Turiy^ for 
fuch have hard feet, long cars^ and a 
briftly or bufhy tsuL 

As to the breeding of greyhounds, in this 
you muft have refped to the country, 
which Ihould be champagne, plain, or higlL 

TJie beft valUes are tbofe where there 
are no coverts ; fo that a hare may ft and 
forth, and endure a courfe of two or three 

Take notice as to the breeding of grey* 
hounds, that the beft dog upon an indiffer- 
ent bitch, will not get fo good a whelp aa 
an indifferent dog upon the beft bitch. 

Obferve in* general as* to breeding ; that 
the dogs and bitches, as oear as you can,, be 
of an equal age, not exce&iing four yeara 
old ; however lo.breed with a young dog and 
an old bitch, may be the means cfproductn^ 
excellent whelps, the goodneis of which you 
may know by their ihapes. 

In the breeding of greyhounds in the firft: 
place, the dieting of greyhounds confifts itf 
thefe four things^ food, exercifcy airing,; and 

The food of a greyhound is t^o-fold ; 
in general, the. maintaining of a dog in 
good bodily condition ; and in parttcu«- 
iar, when a dog is dieted for a wager, 
or it may be for fome dift3emper he is trou* 
bled with* 

The general food of a greyhound ought 
to be chippings, crufts of bread, (oft bones 
and griftles ; the chippings fcalded in becG 
mutton, veal, or venifon broth : and when 
it is indifferent cool, then make your bread 
only ftoat in good milk, and give it your 
greyhounds morning and evening, and this 
will keep them in good a ftate of body. 


G R E 

B«t If your dog be poor, fickfy and 
weak, then take iheeps heads, wool and all^ 
clean waflied^ and having broke them to 
pieces, put them into a pot ;: and when it 
boils, fcum the pot, and put a quantity of 
oatmea} into it, and fuch herbs as pottage 
is ufually made with ; boil thefe till the 
flcfh is very tender, and feed your dog with 
this morning and evening, and it will reco- 
ver him. 

If you cfefign your greyhound for a wager, 
then give him his diet bread as follows: 
cake half a peck of good wheat,, and half 
a peck of the fineft, drieft oatmea}, grind 
them together, boult the meal, and having 
fcattered in it an indifferent quantity of li^ 
quoriceand annifeeds, well beaten together, 
knead it up with the whites of eggs, and 
bake it in fmall loaves, indifferent hard, then 
ibak it in beef or other broths -, and having 
walked him and aired him half an hour a^ 
ter fim-rife in the morning, and half an hour 
htl»t fuA'-fetting, give him feme of it to 

He ought to be courfed three times a 
week, rewarding him with bloody which 
will aftidnate and encourage him to profecute 
his game ; but forget nos to give the hare 
all the jisrfl and lawhii advantage, fo that flie 
may ftand long before the greyhound, that 
thereby he may (hew his utmoft ftrength 
and (kill before he reap the benefit of his 

If he kill, do not fuffer him to break the 
kare, but take her from him,. ?and clean 
his chaps from the wool^ of the hare, give 
him the liver and lights, and then take him 
ifip in your leafh, lead him home, and waih 
his feet with fome butter and beer, and put 
him into the kennel, and half an hour after- 
wards feed him. 

Upon the courfing days> give your hound 
a wztk and butter, or oil,, in the morning, 
and rrothing elfe, and then kennel him till 
he goei to the couWe* 

The kennelling greyhounds after this 
numner breeds in them luft, fpirit, and 
mmbleilefs % it alfo prevents feveral dan- 
gerous cafuakies, and keeps the pores 
clofe> fo as not to fpend till time of ne- 

G R E 

ceflfty i therefore fiifFer not your hound tO' 
go out of the kennel, but at the hours of 
feeding, walking, courfing, or other necef- 

GREASE [with Hunters) the fat of a 
boar or hare ; but. the former has common- 
ly the word bevy added to it, and is termed 
bevy greafe. 

GREASE MOLTEN. A dift'emper in 
a horfc, when his fat is melted by over hard 
riding or labour, and may be known by his 
panting at the breaft and girting place, and 
heaving at the flank, which will be vifibic 
to be feen the night you bring him in,, and 
the next monring, 

GREASE. A fwelling and gourdineli 
of the legs of a horfe. If the horfe be full 
of fleOi, the cure is to be begun by evacua* 
tions, fuch as bleeding, purging, &^. and* 
keeping his heels as clean as poflible, by 
waffling them with warm water and foap -^ 
for nothing promotes the greafe more thaa 
negligence and nailinefs. In general turn- 
ing out in the day-rime, moderate exercife,* 
a large and convenient fiall, with good dref- 
fing,. are the bed remedies ; but if the 
greafe be got to a great height, and there is 
a naufeous difcharge, after cutting off the 
hair,^ and wafhing the heels with foap and 
water,. bathe them with the following wound 
water, pretty warm, twice or thrice for three 
days. Take roch allum, and white vitriol^ 
of each two ounces; powder them together 
and burn them in a clean fire (hovel, till 
they become a white calx^ ; then caike pow- 
dered camphire, one ounce, bole-armoniac, 
in powder, two ounces ; river or rain water 
two qU2R*ts. Make the water hot, and flir 
the other things into it. When you ufe ity 
it Ihould be maken up, and a little of ic 
warmed in a pot,, and the fores waflied with- 
a piece of fponge or rag. Or, 

Take of lime-water a pint, ofrock-al- 
lum and white vitriol, each an ounce. 

Sotne ufe a laced flocking, which may be* 
nhadeofftrong canvas that will not ftretch r- 
this flocking Ihould be nicely fitted to the 
leg, and kept on moderately tight, by which^ 
means the enfeebled vefTels will be fup- 
portcd until they recover their tone. 


G R £ 

Somcunnes there will be cracks in the 
Ikin about the pafterns : thcfe cracks are 
fore, and difcharge a thin humour, which 
lodges fand and dirt ; and fometimes thcfe 
cracks form thcmfelvcs into fcabs : when 
thcfe arc obfervcd, clip the hair there as 
ihort as pofllbley fpread a thin pledget of 
tow, with the digeftive ointment, and ap- 
ply it to thtrfc cracks and fcabs ; over this 
pledget lay a poultice of bran, fcalded, and 
renew the pledget every morning, and the 
poultice every tour or five hours -, continue 
thefe until the fwelling abates, and the 
cracks, ^c. aredifpofed to heal : then, in- 
(lead of the ointment and poultice, wa(h the 
part every day with the above repellent 
wafli, and keep on a tight (locking until 
the flrcngth of the partjs confirmed. See 

But if rhefe fliould fail, let the part be 
bathed with old verjuice twice a day, and a 
proper bandage applied. This will infalli- 
bly anfwer if the complaint proceeds from a 
relaxation of the veffels* If the horfe be 
full of flefh, the cure muft be begun by 
bleeding, rowels, and repeated purging; 
after which, the following balls fhould be 
given, to the quantity of two ounces a day 
for a month or fix weeks, either mixed up 
with honey, or in his feeds : Take of yel- 
low rofin four ounces, fait of tartar and fait 
ofprunel, of each two ounces; ofCaftile 
foap half a pound; and of oil of juniper 
half an ounce; make the whole into balls 
of two ounces each, and give one of them 
every morning. 

Thefe balU will carry off the offending 
humours, and free the blood from its noxi- 
ous qualities ; but at the fame time the 
creature takes thcfe internal medicines, ex- 
ternal applications muft not by any means 
•be omitted. The legs fliouid be bathed 
and fomented in order to breathe out the 
ftagnant juices, or render them (o thin, that 
they may be able again to circulate with the 
common current. The difcutient fomenta- 
tion, mentioned in the Articles of tumours, 
&c. will anfwer the intention, efpecially if 
ahandful of wood-afhes be previoufly boiled 
in the water and applied twice a day. After 

G R E 

the parts have been well fomeated> ieC the 
following poultice be applied ; and this me- 
tlK>d purfuedtill the fwellings arefubfided: 
Take of honey one pound, of turpentine 
fix ounces, incorporate thefe well together 
with a fpoon ; and of the meal of fenu- 
greek and linfeed, of each four ounces ; 
and boil the whole in three quarts of red- 
wine lees, to the confidence of a poultice. 
Take the velTel from the fire, and add two 
ounces of camphire in powder ; fpread it 
on thick cloths, and apply it warm to the 
legs, fecuring it on with a (trong roller. 

When the fwelling is fubfided, the fores 
fhould be drefied with the .following oint- 
ment: Take of honey four ounces; of white 
lead powdered, two ounces ; and of verdi- 
greafe in fine powder, one ounce j mix the 
whole intoan oint(nent. 

But if the fores are very foul, drefe them 
with two parts of the wound ointment and 
one ofasgyptiacum, and apply the following 
poultice : Take of black foap one pound $ 
of honey half a pound, of burnt allum four 
ounces, of verdigreafe, powdered^ two 
ounces, and of wheat-flour a fufHcienc 
quantity to make the whole of a proper 

Spread the above on a thick clothe and 
faften it on with a roller. 

This difordcr is always attended with 
fcvcr^ heat, reftlelsnefs, flartling, and trem- 
bling, inward ficknefs^ and fhortnefs of 

His dung is extremely greafy, and he 
will often fall iqto a fcowering ; his blood, 
when cold, will be covered with a thick fkin 
of fat, of a white or yellow colour, generally 
the latter ; the congealed part of the fcdi^ 
ment appears like a mixture of fize and 
greafe, lo extremely flippery that it will not 
adhere to the fingers, and thq fmall portion 
of ferum flippery and clammy. The creature 
foon, lofes his flefli and fat, the latter of 
which is probably diflblved into the blood : 
and thofe that have fl:rength fufficicnt to fuf- 
tain the jirft Ihock, commonly grow hide- 
bound for a time, and their legs fwcU great- 
ly, in which ftate they continue till the blood 
and juices arc reftificd i and if this be noc 


GftK ^ 

furfi$tt is gencfMI-y 'the cdinfeau«iKife, dnd 
c»iiK» bb- r<imov«d-b(it with the ^uteft 
difficulty. • ■ ■■■ ; •' '^■'■- ' • • ' 



V hi- 


Thtf;firft prbfee^ing iirtd b*Wd p^ttl^^^ 
plpntifelly, and repeat the'opc<fatUirt two or* 
three d^ys' fuWcffively, but to take care 
xkax aftc^ tHe firft bleieding to take a fmall 
quantityat a^ime, as-otherwife^thedi-eftture 
MTould be rendered too weaktofupport him- 
felf, and his blood too poor to be eafily rer 
croited; AbibOA as he has been bled the 
firil tioYe^^let tvfo or three^rdtvefe be made, 
arid ttecemfoili^M'^^clyfteirs prefi:ribtd^n th^ 
Article of Fevers, be daily thrown^ up to 
mitigate the fever, and cleanlfe tfie'^intcf- 
tincs frum greaiy nriatter. Plenty of'wateif- 
grael ihould at the fame time be^iven him, 
and fbiiMtimes^iWiirm.^ if^ater, 9ri«h a foiali 
quantity of nitre diffolvcd in it^ -Thelattcr 
will be^of^reat fervice, as it will prevent the 
bioodfroOTrunniing* 'inter grurhoiis concre* 
tions, that prove the fource of innumerable 
di&rdera,4i4ibt:caufe a total fifagnacion; and 
confequcmlp t^e death of th« ain fmai* 
.. In thia manner th^ horfe vc&x^ be- treated 
till the fever is wholly gont?, 4Uid>ke^has re- 
covered .his. appetite^ when it will be necef- 
faryto^ivehimiive or fix alternative purges 
at a weeks diftance from, each other, which 
^ili make him ihde and pcr^iveplefitifuUy, 
aadiat the fame! time bring, down the fwel* 
ling of his legs. ^ The following are well 
calculated f6r thii purpofe : Take of fuc* 
cotrine aloes, fix drams \ Qf gum^guiacum> 
in powder, half an ounce ; and of diapen- 
te, fix drams ; . make the whole into a ball 
with a fpoonful. of oil of. amber, and a 
fufficient quantity of fyrup of buckthorn. 

Take of fuccocrine aloes, an ounce (or 
ten drams \) ialt of tartar, half an ounce \ 
ginger, one dram ; treacle, make 
ajb^il; if it be quicken this 
df>it^ add to it.twQ drams <^ jalap pow- 

Repeat this purging ball every eight, or 


G R E 

at the rfioft every ten days, and on the days - 
free from purging, give one of the follow- 
ing dvery morning. 

- 'Diuretic Balis. 

Tike of Venice-foap, arid yellow, rofin, 
pach* half a pound ; fait of tarfar and nitre, 
eath two ounces ; oil of juniper, half an 
isunce; beat them into a pafte, and give 
two ounces, or more, cyery morning, mak- . 
ing it firft into a ball. . 

Inftead «!)f thefe balls, twoounces of ni* 
trfr may be-given every day, allowing plen- ' 
ty of water -with 4t ; wl>ere it agrees with 
the'ftomach it,anfwers~very well, but as the • 
blood in this difbrder is poor and cold, and 
the whole -habit of body needs evc-/ aflifl:- 
ance that can contribute to its recovery, the 
above balls are the nfioft advifeable, and 
would be much improved as flrrengthcn ers, 
if^to each' dofe you added half an ounce of • 
the filings .of iron, or rutted iron in pow- 
der. • • 

'If the legs are extremely full, foment 
th«m twice ^ay with ^3 fomentation made ' 
with bay-berries, wormwood, and camo* 
nTile*«fiowers *, an ounce^ or a little more of 
each may be allowed for a gallon of water, » 
to be boiled together for a few minutes i ^ 
aiXd if the fores be very foul", drefs them 
with the cleanfing ointment, fpread on 
pledgets of fine tow, large enough to cover - 

• r 

* • * ■ 

'\ Ckanfmg Ointment. 

" Take half a pound of the dfgcftive oint- 
ment, melt it gently oyer- a fire; when 
melted remove it, and as it cools, carefully 
•ftir into it an ounce of verdigreafe, finely 
powdered; continue to ftir it until the 
' ointment becomes ftifF. 

Over the pledgets that cover the fores ap^ 
ply the following poultice as ofteif as you- 
ufe the fomentation. 

Di/tutient P$ultice, ' 

' Scald a fufficient quantUjr of bran, with a 

1 1 




0,11 E. 

proper qftantityof jthc fomant^tionjuftnofVir 
pr«rcrife6:ri ; add to it a fmall quantity af 
oil to prevent it from drying and ftickingi 
and fprinkle upon the face of each poulHce 
wHcn applied^ a quarter of an ounce of 

Whatever medicines or methods arc 
ufcd^ a good noufifhing diet {hojjlfi be al- 
lowed ; and, if pofrible» the horfe mull be.^ 
put to grafs where he can (belter hinpfelfi^ 
a (table or a (hed^ at pleafure : the want of 
this laft will greatly prevent the effeftof 
the bed medicine^i and wit}i it medicines 
will rarely be wanted. If he cannot h^^ 
ttirned out day and nighty nor even in t(i&< 
day-ttme> he muS. have a roomy (lall> where 
he can napve about, lay dowii> and ftretch: 
himfelf at full length ; it woul4 be beft 
if he had the whole liable to walk in^ for 
thien;he would be more apt to lay dowa of^ 
tens a circumfta^ce that conduces, very 
much to advantage^ for coaftanrftai^fliog in , 
aftall is whiuc frequently caufc&,.aDd by 
confequence mud continue the difeafe. 

By purfuing this method the horfe will 
foon be . «Uft i6» ^ 4ua bufin^s: for this 
purge will encrcafe hia flelbj and mend his, 
appetite i particulars of the greaitefl: conf4(- 
quence in the cure^ and wbich*fiM^>C be 
obtained by giving a JMrTe the common 
purges of idoes ^ the method purfued by 
moft farriers in the cure of the molten 

GREAT HARE [with Hunters] a hwe 
in the third year of her age. 

GREEN-FINCH is a bird of a very 
IDean fong. 

. They are plentiful in every country, and 
breed the fillieft of any, commonly making 
their nefts by the highway- fide,.where every 
body that finds them deftroys them at Jirft., 
till the hedges are pretty wellxsovcred with 
green leaves -, but they ufually fit very early 
in the fpring, before the hedges have leaves 
upon iheifi} and build with green mois that 
grows at the bottom of the hedges.^ quilting 
their nefts very forrily on the infidc; nay, 
they are oftcmimes fo flight that a ftrong 
wind ihakes them to pieces> aQddrop&cither 

the young ones or the eggs* 

and -di^.yowM a«e yory^ha^^^a bri«g tipi ;. 

they «v^y bcT:d wi^h l«^^Jt«^bc«^ 
feed foaked, and are very apt to taltt: tl(e 
whiftle, rather than any other bird's fong » 
but they will never k^ill /t^emfelves with 
ringing and whiftling. 

TM'gr««ii-fineh;isr feWofSkfubj*^ 
difc4fc|. bujtt^ be top; gro^„ tbejro ! bKiQgi 
noine:^f ^ fqed-:b|rdS' like^him f0i:-grm^- 
ing/oesceffiye.fat^. ifyoq give hkn hemp^ 
feed> fofKthen* lw»*i« gpo4 f^r. nothing >uc 
th^ fph % let him thierefore : have: oq^fie but 

GREENrWUe»,[in the Foreft Law}%- 
niAes every tbiogit^at groiwa^ green withia 
the forefll ;.a9di»t Js alfac^lLedrV&l^T) stfikk 

GRJCE:, A ycfung wild boan 
.GRIG, Aifi(b>theraiaUefckio4ofeoL. 
Xn GRQA^£ £wiih Hitntert} a: buck, ia 
faid CO. groaon qnthoot^ whea h^: nMikos . at 
noife,at,iti£ting.. . • 

GROOM, i Amao-Mfho: lotito aftetvhodeft, 
iand? IhoukLrdmwan hioi^dlfi after /og^mle 
latid kind armanser to^Rards )mxSc^m tocn- 
igltge tiiem to.lotr him ^.fora hDrii;uiirck-.» . 
ioned one of ths: txiofl loviogiortaisiiioa to - 
mxo :of aU ojbken hraccsiandupi cinery reipd£fc 
the imcifb obedienc, 

Therelbiie.if heibe dealt with: mildly aad 
gently bis* kindnefs will be reciprooaln^ bpf 
i£ harm. and ch6le«> 
ric^ he.will put the lKxrfeoui:t>f.:pAtieBce»« 
andniake him becomd rebeUbus^ aod ocou- 
libn his biting, and ftriking. » 

Therefotae. the groont mould . fiequently. 
d^ly>'toy> and^play withthehorfcs* under faw^ 
care» talking, toxhem^ and tgi ving them gopd: 
words^ leading them outinto the fim-fliine^i 
there run andihew them) all the dlverfion^' 
he caa*. 

He muft alfo duly curry-comb and dreii^ 
him, wipe. away the duflr, pick. and cleaa 
him, feed, pamper, and! cheriAi' him %} 
and conftbntly .employ himfelf in .doin^ 
fomethifig abcut him,, as looking to his^ 
heelsi taking up .his foet, nibbing upon tb«» 
foles, &^« 
tfay> hcoi^tCaJcfiCfibin) Ibivdl ^refl:» 


G R E 


Ifwtticrtriay alnfl6tlfee'hisown^fe<te^^U^ | ^jpatiy this fcafon, (b »t1iat the nourilhment 

coat ; hehnult likcwifckcep- his feet {topped 
- and anointed daily, Ms heck ft ee from 
Scratches and other forances^ ever having a 
''Watchful eye over hlnij and overlooking 
all his aftiotis, as well fcedmg as^drinking ; 
■that Ib'no-ihw2<rd infimticy may fcizc-bpon 
him ; but <hat He may be able to difcover 
It, and ctfdeavoupto cure. The 4^aHfic^- 
tions-neceflFary'in ^ grooni, art ofcedicnc^, 
fidelity, patietrce, ^ilfgence, &c. • * - ' 
'Firft, he ought to love *his horlfe Jn the 
'next'degree to bis mafter, arid endeavour 
by fiiir tifage to gain 'a reciprocal lave from 
htay and an exaft obedience ; which if he 
Hknbws ho# to payhis fnaftel-,:hciviH the 
* better be able *t6, Search it hi^ hoWc *: ainli 
"hoih the one and ttie other arc xo, be ob- 
taincd by fair means, rather than by piffioh 
and outragq. For thofc who arc fo irra- 
tional themlblves, as not tobc able to com- 
tn^d their owo paiSons, are not fit totinf- | 
dcrtake the reelaiming of an hoVfe, -Wlto is 
by nature an irrational creature. V i 

Hfcifiilft then put in 'praftice the pjiiti- ! 
^nce, wiiich he ought at all times to 'be 
mafter of, ^nd by that, and fair means, 
*fce 'ihay attain his end : ^pv np dreatureis 
TOorc Vaftablc^than a horfe, if he be ufed 
with kindrtcfs to'wip fiitn. 

The next thing requifitc "to a groom 2s 
'neathefs, as to keeping his Itablc clean 
^ept, ahd ifn order j faddles, ho ufing* 
-cloths, ftirrtirps, leaAers and girths cleaii, 
^attd above all his horfb cleah drdfed and 

'LalHy, diligence is rftquilite in a daily 
^ftHarge of ins duty, and obfcrving any 
the fmalleft operation, whether cafual or ac- 
cidental, either in his countenance, asfymp- 
-torms of ficfknefs j or in his limbs and gait, 
as lamenefs : or in his appetite, as forfak* 
ittg bis meat ; and immediately upon any 
fuch difcovery to feek Out a remedy. 

This . is the fubftancc of the duty of a 
^grooni in general. 

We wiH fuppofe Bartbohmew-tide^ to be 
twwcomc, and the J)rixie ahd length of 
the grafs to be now napped by the fcvefc 
frtiStt and cold-dews- which uftJally accom- 


thereof turns into raw crudities, and the 
' coldnefs of the night (which is injurious fo 
horfes) abates as much fiefh and luft as he 
getteth in the day, wherefore he is now tt> 
-'be takeaiip from. grafs, whilfl: his coat lies 
fmoprfi and fleek. 

TItc horfc defigncd for' hunting, &?r. he- 
lp^ brought home, the groom muft let 'him 
tip for that night *i^i fomc fecurc and Tpactn 
:ous 'place, where^hemay evacuate his-Body, 
and *ib be'brou^t to ^warnicr keepind; by 
(legreesj and the next dayfct himup ih tHe 
ftablc. w 

It is Indeed held a general rule amongft 
^moms> hot to clothe or drefi their horfts 
•tlH two or three days after their ftabitng*; 
but thcrcfeems no other reafon biit ctiftom 
for this prafticc: 

. Son)e alfo give the horfe wheat ftraw to 
take up hb belly at his flrft houHng i but 
'others utterly difapprove of it. 
I F6r the nature of a hoffc being hot 'antf 
dry, ifhefecds on ftraw which is fb ; Hkr- 
-^ife, it xVould ftraiteh His ^uts, and caiffe 
an 'inflammation in his liver, 'and by thdc 
means diftenhper his blood i ^nd befidcs it 
woiild make his body f6 ^edftive, that Ic- 
"i^dttld claofe a retention of nature, and 
'caufe hrrh toduM with gfeat pain atidcf^. 
; cuity, wherdas foil fboding would txpH 
the excrements according to the trtie'intert- 
tion and inclination of tiature. Therefdi^ 
let moderate airing, warm cloathiag, good 
old hayj andoldeorn^ ftipplyiihe place of 
whekt-ftraw. ' 

The firft bufinefe of a groom after )^ 
hath brought his horfe into nie ttable^ ft,ta 
the morning, to water him, #nd to nSb hit 
body over with a warm wifp, a litdemoif- 
ten^^ and afterwards with a woollen 
cloth ', alfo to clean his (heath with his wht 
hand from all the duft it had contraAed du- 
ring his running, and to walh his yard di- 
ther with whitc-winc or water. "* 

He muft then trim him after the manner 
that other horfes are trimmed, except the 
rnftde of his ears, which ought not to Ijc 
meddled with for fear of making him cat^h 
coW. ' '- - 

F f 2 ^ In 


H E 

In the next place hc^ muft take tim to 

. the Farrier's, and there get him (hod with 

.a fet of Ihocs, anfwerable to the Ihapq pf 

his feet, and not to pare his ifcet to make 

them fit his (hoes. . , 

Let his feet be well opened between the 

quarters and thefrufh, to prevent his b^ng 

hoof bound, and let them be opened ftrait, 

, not (ideways i for by that means, in two or 

three fhoeings^ his heels (which, are, (he 

ftrength of his feet) wiU be cut.quitc aw4y, 

.Pare his foot as hollow as you qaii> and 

then the (hoe will not prefs upon it* 

The (hoe ought to come near the heel, 
but not to be fet fo clofe as tp bruife it, 
nor yet fo open as to catch in his (koe^> if 
he happens to over reach at any time, and 
,io hazard the pulling them oiF, the break- 
ing of the hoofj or bruifing of his 

The webs of his (hoes ought tp be nei- 
ther too broad nor too narrow, but. of .a 
middling, (ize, about the breadth .pf an 
. inch, with flopped fpunges, and even with 
his foot ; for though it would, be for the 
. advantage of a travelling horfe's heel, to 
have a (hoe fet a litde wider than the hoof 
. oa both (ide^ .that the ^oe naay bear his 
, weight, .and (i9t,l>is foot touch. j;hi? ground, 
jet the hunfcf jheing often forced to gaUop 

^£^ ror^tffit ^P^SY ^?^^}\a)'^^ ^^ '^^^^ them ^ 
|atger/it would h^zara. his lameing, and 

. pulling ofFhis Ihdes,^a^,has been before pb« 

■^^ Thefe IS an old ^TQytv\iy' before behind ^ 

and behind l?efdre \ that is, in the fore feet 

^tfi^.y^in^ijic .^behind^. and jin the liipder * 

rif^ th(fy^ lie before i t|ljeref()re'the farrier 

''^^M^\^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ priek 
bl^pj.lp^t leave a Qpace at the heel of the 

forejget,. and.^l^ac^ between the nails at 
. the, toe. ', ! ' , ^ .'" o : 

Having got his^ftioepfet on as above di- 
jrcfted, a great dictX of his hoof- wi'll be . 
l|;ft to be cut off at his toe. 

That being cut off, and his .feet fmoothed 

with a file> he will (land fo l^m, and jiis 

. feet will be fo ftrong, that he wi^.^ttpad.^^s 

boldly on (lanes as on carpet ground. 

The horfe being (hodj and it being time 


to water him, let him (Vandii^ the water, 
which, will (in, the opinions of fome) clofe 
rup the holes, which the drtying of the nails 
'has made. . 

Afterwards have him gently home, tie 

him up to the rack, rub him all over, body 

^and legs, with dry ftraw, then (iop up his 

^feet with cow-dung, give him a quartern 

.of clean £fted old oats, and. a quantity of 

hay, fu^cieut to ferve him all night, and 

leave hini till the next morning. 

>7!9GROiP£oji Tickle, is a method of 
fifliing, by putting ope's hand into water- . 
holes where fi(h lie, and tickling them 
ab^uf the .gills ; by which means they will 
become fo .quie^, that a nfiap may takp 
them in his hand and* throw them upoa 
land I ^r if they are lar^e fKh, he may 
thruflt his fingers into their gjlls and brixig 
them out* . . ♦ 

. GHOUND ANGUN'G, is a way of 
.fiOjiing uoder water without a float, only 
withaplumbjoflcad, or/a bullet^ which is 
better, l>ecau(,wijl (q|l.on the ground. 
;,cTlu3niet,hod of filhing is very expedient 
in Cold weather, when the filhfwim.vcnr 
low. ,^ . , . ' .;.:.. 

. TVjbuUct js ta'lpe place4 about i^xni inf- 
ches froip tjie baited bpjdk ; the toprip^ft 
Be very 'gentle, that thQ./6(h may tli^ fpor/e 
.ea01y ruQ away with, the t^it^ and h0\ be 
feared witli the ftiflfnefs qf the rod : yoa 
muft.AOt (Irike as foon as you fee the fifii 
bite, but flack ^ your line a little, that 
he may the, beitcr fwallow the bait and 
hook. T • . 

As far:the tackle, it ought to be fine and 
(lender j ftrong and big lines only ferve to 
fright the fi(h. 

The morning and evening are the chiefe(t 

feafons for the ground-line for troui; \ hut 

if the day prove cloudy,, or the water 

. muddy, you may fi(h at ground all the day 

long. See Anolh^o. 

GROUND BAIT. Such places, as you 
frequently angle at, you (hould once a 
wdck at leaft, caft into, all forts of corn 
boiredfoft„ grains wafhed in blood, and 
.dried and cut to pieces, fnails, chopped 
worms, fowl-guts, bcafts-guts, and livers. 

G U D 

. by which carp and tehch are drawn to the 
place J and, to keep* them together, throw 
half an handful of ground malt now and 
then as you angle. See Bait. 

GROUND PLUiMBING, is the finding 
out the depth of the water in fifliing ; to do 
which you (hould ufe a mufltet-buUet 
with a hole made in the middle of it, or 
any other fort of plummet, which muft be 
tied to a ftrong twift, and hung on the 
hook, which will cffeft the bufmefs. See 

GROUPADE [in Horfcmanfhip], a 
lofty kind of manage, and higher than the 
ordinary curvets; 

GRUBBING A CocK'[with Cock-fight- 
ers], a term ufed for the cutting off the fea- 
thers under his wings ; but this is not al- 
lowable by the cock-pit law ; neither is it 
allowable to cut ofi^ his feathers in any 
handling place. 

GUDGEON J this fifli, though fmall, is 
of fo pleafant a tafte, that it is very little 
inferior to a fmelt. 

They fpawn twice in the fummcr fcafon, 
and their feeding is much like the barbel's 
in ftreams and on gravel, flighting all man- 
ner of flics V but they arb eafily taken with 
'afhialhred*>^drm, fifhiil^ near the ground 5 
,and being a Icathcc-mouthcd fifli, will not 
eafily get off the, hooli^when ftruck. 

They are uiually fcattcred up and down 
'every- lyver in thclhallows, in the heat of 
fummer; but in autumn, when .the weeds 
begih*to grow four or rot; and the weather 
colder, thpi) they gather together^ and get 
into tftb deeper parts of the water ; and are 
to be ' fifhed for there, with your hook al- 
ways touching' the ground, if you fifti for 
him with a float, or with a cork; but 
many .will fifli 'for the gudgeon by hand, 
with a runnitig-line pponthegro«rid,'with- 
but a cork, as a trout is filhed for ; and it 
is an excellent way, if you have a gentle rod 
and as gentle a hand. 

But although the fmall red worm before- 
mentioned is the bcfl: bait for this filh, y^t 
wafps, gentles; and cad-baits will do vcrj^ 
well: you may alfo fifli for gudgeons with 
two or three hooks at once, and find vci-y 
pleafant fportj^ where they rife any thing 

H A 1* 


large : when you angle for them, ftir ujp^ 
the fand or gravel with a long pole ; this 
will make them gather to that place, and 
bite fatter, and with more cagernefs. 

GUNIAD- 7 This fifli is excellent 

GUINARD. 3 food j and is not found 
any where but in a large water called P^iw- 
ble-mere: but that which is mofl: remark* 
able is this, that the river which runs by 
Cbejler^ has it's head or fountain in Meri^ 
onetbjhire^ and it's courfc runs through this 
Pemlle mere, which abounds as much with 
guniads as the river Dee does with falmon, 
of each both aflTording great plenty ; and 
yet it was never known that any falmon wa^s 
ever caught in the mere, or ever 'any 
guniads taken in the river* 

GUN-POWDER. The beft is fmall- 
grained, hard to crumble between the 
finger and thumb, and of a blueifli colour. 
See Gun, or Fowling-Piece. 

GYRFALCON. See Gerfalcon. 

GYRLE> a roe-buck, fo called the firfl: 

HAIR, in fpeaking of horfes, the 
French ufe the word ^^//(/\ e. hair), 
to fignifiy their colour : ancl fometimes it 
is ufed to fignify that part of the flank that 
receives the prick of trie fpur. 

Pale hair are thofe parts of the (kin that 
approach more to white than the reft, being 
not of fo high a tinge. 

Staring hair (or planted coat) is faid 
of a horfe whofe hair briftles up, ' or rifes 
upright; which difordcr is owing to being 
ill curried, not well covered, or too coldly 

In order to make the hair o( an horfe 
finooth, fleek, and foft, he muft be kept 
warm at heart, for the leaft inward cold 
will caufe the hair to ftare ; alfo fweat him 
often, for that will lobfen and raife the 
duft and filth that renders his coat foul ^ 
and when he is in the height of a fweat^ 
fcrape ofi^ all the white foam, fweat, andk 
filth, that is raifed up, with an old fword 
blade, and that will lay his coat eyen. and 
fmooth, and alfo when he* is bled, if 
you rub him all over with his own blood, 



• • • • • 

ancj to.coiumue two or three d[ays, and 
^ufry and drcfs him .well,^ it will make his 
coat fhine. 

Hair falling, or (bedding from the mane 
jOr tail of a horfe, is caufed either by fome 
'heat taken, that has engendered a dry 
mange there ; or it proceeds from fome 
furfeit, which caufes the evil humours to 
refort to thofe parts. 

To cure this, anoint the horfe^s mane 
and creft with black foap ; make a ftrong 
lee of afh alhes^ and wa(h it all over with 

But if a canker (hould grow on a horfe*s 
tJiil, which will cat away both fleQi and 
bone ; then put fonric oil of vitriol to it, 
and it ^ill confume it : and if you find the 
vitriol corrodes too much^ you need only to 
wet it with cold water, and it will put a 
llop to it. 

If you havf a mind to take away hair 
from any part of a horfe*s body, rub it 
with the gum that grows on the body of 
ivy, or the juice of fumitory that grows 
among barley, or boil half a pound of lioie 
in a quart of water^ till a toorth pare is 
confumed; to which add an ounce of orpi- 
ment, and lay a plaifter on any part of the 
horfe, and it will do the bufinefs in a few 

HALBERT, is a fmall piece of iron one 
inch broad, and three or four inches long, 
foldered to the toe of a horfc's flioe which 
jets out before, to hinder a lame horfe from 
reding, or treading upon his toe. 

The halbert ihoes do of neceflity con- 
ftrain a lame horfe, when he goes at a mo- 
derate pace, to tread or reft on the heel, 
which lengthens and draws out the back 
linew that was before in fome meafure 

HALLIER-NET or Bramble-Net, an 
oblong net to take quails, ^c. See PUtes 
VII. and XII, See Bramble-Net. 

HALTER FOR A Horse, is a head-flail 
oi Hungary \c2i\\zx^ mounted with one, and 
fometimcs two llraps, with a fecond throat- 
band, if the horfe is apt to unhalter hiaw 

H A L 

f^ALTER CAST, is an excoriation of 
the pattern, occafioned by the halter being 
entangled about the foot upon the horli^'s 
endeavouring to rub his neck with his hin- 
der foot. 

Unhalter; a horfe is faid to unhalter 
himfelf, that turns off the halter. 

If your horfe is apt to unhalter himfcif, 
you muft gee him a baiter with a throat 

Strap, or ftring of a halter, Is a cord or 
long ftrap of leather made fad to the head- 
ftall, and to the manger, to tie the horfe. 

Do not bridle your horfe till you fee if l^e 
is haher call. See Trick* 

Halter cafl Is thus : when a horfe endea- 
vours to fcrub the itching part of his body^ 
near the head or neck, one of bis hinder 
feet entangles in the halter, which by the 
violent ftruggling of the horfe to difengage 
himfelf, he fomeeimes receives very dan- 
gerous hurts in the hollow of his paftern. 

For the cure of this, take liofeed oil and 
brandy, of each^Q equal quantity i ihake 
them together in . a glafs till they are well 
mixt, and anoint the forancc, morning 
and evening, fird having dipt aw^ the 
hair.; but cake care to keep the foot very 

Another eafy remedy is, take oil^nfl 
wine, of each an equal ^^uantityj boil 
them together, till the wine is ev^uporatedi 
and appljr the remainder of the oil once a 
day to the part, which will be quickljr 

HALTING [in a Horfe). A limping, or 
going lame, an irregularity in the motion 
of an horfe arifing from a lameocfs in the 
Ihoulder, leg, or root, which makes him 
(pare the part, or ufi: it timorouHy. Halc^ 
ing happens fometi^a before, and fome-* 
times behind ; if it be before, the hurt 
muft of neceifity be in the fhouldery knec^ 
flank, paftem, or foot. 

If ic be in the fliouider, it muft be to- 
wards the withers, or in the pitch of tbf 
Ihoulder, and may be known in that he will 
a little draw his leg after him» and not 
life it fo nimbly as the other* 



If ^e jQaft It more outward than the | 
other, it is a.figa.of lameaefsi, and that the 
gnefrli^l^ in the ihoulder : then take him in 
your hand and turn him (kort, on either 
hands <vvd yoiti^ w^iU find him to complain of 
th^ Ihoplder he is la<ne of^ and he will 
either faFOur that leg or trip in the turning v 
alfb. Igit^encfs' may be feen by him while 
ft^f^Dgin the flable; where he will bold 
the ram(^;leg..ojui; more than the other, 
ai^i i( when. you ace upon hia backs he 
cangipkin& more than otherwife he does, the 
gijef certainly lies in the withers $ fo that 
griping him hard you will perceive him to 
Ihlsi^ .afi4 perhaps oflPer to bite. 

If he treads thick and fhort before, then 
the gl'iff i^upon the pitch of the ihouldcr, 
cl0fe. to the breaft, which nuy be dtfco- 
vered by fettiog the thumb, and pveffiog it 
)i^ ag^inft.the place,. and thruHing him 
with it (if you would have him go^ back) 
vpcfd whi^ be will (brink, and put back 
hb legt foo< and body: if the grief be in 
the 6l)>OM^» it may be known by pinching 
him^ with the fore fingers and thumb, and 
theji hs will hold up his leg and offer to. 

But^ if thp :gnef be in the knee» it may 
b^ dafcQvered by the horfe's ftiff going ; for 
he will HOC bf^d it f^ nimbly as he does the 

If it be in the flank, or fhtn-bone, the 
f^Etme may be feen or felt, it., being a back 
fin^w, iplinter^ ftrain^ or the like* 

If itvbe in the bending of the knee, it is 
at maland^r, which is aUb eafily difco* 
, vered. 
*■ Farther, when the paftern, or joint, is 
aflTeded, it may be known by his not bend* 
lag it fo) well as the other : and if you put 
your hand upon the place, you will. find it 
very hot. 

. If it be in the foot, it mu<ft be either in 
the coronet or fole s if in the coronet, pro- 
hahly it comes by fome Hrfixn or wrench* 

If in the hoof bylbme over-rcach,. or 
diftemper in^of ftboiyt- th&.froih. 
; If in the foje frora fome prick^ aetloy, 
nail, i^c. 


Ham 7 of a horfe, is the ply or 
HOUGH 5 bending of the hind legs», « 
and likcwife comprehends tl^e point behind^, 
and oppofite to the ply, called the hock. 

The hams of a horfe Ihould be large* 
full, and not much bended i as- alio dif- 
charged of fle(b, nervous, fupple, and dry,, 
otherwife. they will be fubje£ti to many, im- 
perfe<5lions, as the* cape lef,: curb, jardotij< 
iclander, fpaviti, variile, . veffignon, &^. 
HAMBLING 7of Dow, (in the foreft:, 
HAMELING \ law] U'thfr.fame as ex- 
pediting or lawic^$ properly the, hamftring* 
ing, or cutting otdogs m the ham. 

HAND, is anxAfure of a fi(t clinched^ 
by which we compfote the beigbth of a 
horfe: the French caU it paume, and had 
this exprelfion and meafyre firft imparted 
to them from Uege. 

A horfe of war fbould be fixteen handa 

. Hand : (jpiear^hand, or fword-hand is the 
horfeman's right-hand. 

Bridle--haad, h the left-hand of the horfe- 
man. There are feveral exprellions which - 
relate to i:he bridle-hand, becapfe that gives 
motion to the bitt-mouth, and ferves to^^ 
g^ide the horfo much more than the otb^r 
helps. I 

A horfeman ought to hold his t>ridk«>hand 
two or three fingers above the pomniel of • 
the faddle* 

This horfeman has no hand ^ that is, he 
does not make ufe of the bridle- but unfea^ I 
fonably, and does not know h(y^ to giver » 
the aids or helps of the haml with due 

To keep a horfe upon thb hand,, is to: 
feel hioi in the day upon the hand, and to 
be prepared to avoid any furprifal or difap«- 
pointment from the horfe« 

A horfe is faid to be, or refl^ upon thr: 
hand, that never refufes, but always obeys^ 
and anfwers the effefts of the band. . 

To make a horfe right upon the hand^y 
and free in the ftay, he might be taught to 
know the hand by degree^: and gentle nic« : 
thods ; the horfennan muft turn turn, oirl 
change hands^ ftop.him^ andjnanage ,with; 



dexterity the appuu or prcffure of his 
YniHjth) foas to make him fuffer chearfully 
and freely the efFeft of the bitt-mouth, 
without rcfifting, or refting hieavy upon the 

The fhort, or hand-gallopi teaches horfcs 
tobc right upon the hand. 

'Aii'ght hand. A good horfeman ought 
to^ hdve a^iigfit* hand ;\ that is, he ought 
only to feel' the hbrfe upon his Hand, in 
orfier to refift him when hfc attempts to flip 
from it ;■ he *dught, inftead of cleaving to 
th^.bfidlei-loweritas fooa as he*has made 
his refiftante. 

_ J • • 

If a horfe^ through an ovcr-baiing eager- 
nefs to go forward, preflcs too much upon 
the hartd, you ought to flack'your hkrid at 
certain times, and keep a hard hand ac other 
tirnes, and fo difappoint the horfe of prcf- 
fiflg Continually upon the bitt. 

Now this facility or liberty in the horfe- 
iTftiH <if flacking and lliffening the hand, is 
•what we call a good harid. ^ ^ • 
•'^b-flick, or -cafe the hand,- is to flacken 

thtf bridr^. 

* To l>old up, Of' fuftain the hand/ k ^o pull 
thd bridle in. » 

1 To guide a horfe by the hand, is to turn 
or change hands upon one tread. 

' A: horfe is faid to force the hand when he 
doesi not fear the bridle, but runs away in 
fpitc of the horfeman. 

To make a horfe part fVom the hand, or 
fuffer him to flip from the handj is to put 
on ac full fpeed, 

I To make a horfe part right from the 
hand, he fliould not put hinifelf upon his 
back or reins, but bring down his hip:i. 

* All hands« A horfe that turns upon all 
hands upon a walk, trot, or gallop. 

To work a horfe upon the hand, is to, 
manage him by the effeft of the bridle, 
without interpofing any other helps, except- 
ing thofe. of the calves of the legs, upon 

Fore* band and hind-hand of a horfe, is 
an expreffion diftinguifliing the pares of a 
horfey a) divided into- the fore and hind 
parts, by the (ituation .of a horfeman's 



I The parts of the fore-hand, arc the fiead 
and neck, and the fore-quarters.* 

Thofc' of the 'hind-hand, include all the 5 
6ther parts of his body. ' • • • .' 

HAND-HIGH, is a term ufed in Irorfe- « 
manfhip, andjpeculiartothe En^Hft) nation, 
wHameafiire the height or tallnefs of a horfe ' 
by haridii beginning with the hdel, and • 
tneafuring upwards t6 the higheft hair upon i 
the' withers.' A hand is fd'ilif inched.* ' ^ 
i HA-NDLING, fwith Cock-fighftrs] a - 
term that figriifics the meafuring the girth. > 
of^them,- by gripingone's hand and fittgtrs ^ 
about the cock^s.body. 
: HAQUENEE, an obfolete Freneb word - 
for an'amHe horfe. 

TV HARBOUR, | hluiiting term] a hart • 
is faid to harbour when he goes to refl: ; and" "^ 
to unharbX)ur a deer, is ro diflpdge him. 

HARD Horse, is one that is infenfible 
of whip or fpur. r ^ *. 

i^ARE, i« ^ beaft 6f Venciyj or the fd- ' 
reft 5 peduliarly fo terrhedMn the* fecond 
year of her age ; in dhe firft .fticf i& called a • 
leveret ; and in the third a'great^'hare.- By 
oW forefters' the hare *&' called the ki^ig • (rf ' 
all beafts of vencry. • ' ' 

There are four forts of hares j "foffttflive 
in the mountains', fom^ in the fields, fonoei 
'in marflies, and.fome e^efy where withotit 
any certain place of abode. The mountain 
hares are the fwifteft ; the field hares are 
not fo nimble; and thofe of the marflies • 
are the floweft ; but the wandering hares* 
, are moft dangerous to follow,* for they arc 
fo cunning in the ways and mazes of the • 
.fields, running up the hills and rocks, be* ' 
caufe by cullom they know a nearer way \ 
with other tricks, to the confu&on of - 
the dogs, and difcouragement of the- 

It will not be improper to give a dc-- 
'feription of the parts of a hare, fince it is 
admirable to behold how every limb and- 
member of this beaft is compofed for cele-' 

In the firft place the head is round, ninr.-' 
ble, fliort, yet of Convenient length, ar.d 
apt to turn every way. 


.H A R 

The ears are long and loftyj like thofc 
cf an afs ; for nature has fo provided, that 
every fearftil and unarmed creature (hould^ 
have long and large ears, that by hearing 
it might evade it's eneniies, and fave it^ 
felf by flight : the lips continually move, 
ivhile they are aOeep as well as awake ; and 
from the flit they have in the middle of their 
nofe comes the name of hare-lips, found in 
fome men* 

The neck of a hare is long, fmall, round, 
foftand flexible ; the fhoulder-bonc ftraight 
and broad^ for her more eafy turning ; her 
legs before foft, and Itand broader behind 
than before, and the hinder legs longer 
than the fore legs : the bread is not rtarrow, 
but Htted to take more breath than any 
other bead of that bignefs : it has a nimble 
back and a fleihy belly, tender loins, hol^ 
low fides, fat buttocks fllled up, and flrong 
and nervous knees. Their eyes are brown, 
and they are fubtle, but riot bold; feldom 
looking forward, becaiife they go by leaps : 
their eye-lids coming from their brows, 
are too (hort to cover their eyes, fo that 
when they flecp they remain open. 

They have certain little bladders in their 
belly, filled with matter, out of which 
both fexes fuck a certain humour and anoint 
their bodies all over with, by which they 
are defeaded againft rain. 

Though their fight is dim, yet they have 
an indefatigable faculty of feeing j fo that 
the continuance of it, though but in a mean 
degree, makes amends for the want of the 
excellency of it in them. 

They feed abroad, becaufc they would 
conceal their fornis, and never drink, but 
content themfelves with dew, which makes 
them frequently grow rotten*- 

As it is faid before, every limb of a hare 
is compofedfor fwiftnefs, and therefore (he 
never walks or treads, but jumps ; her ears 
lead her the way in the chace, for with one 
of them flie harkeneth to the cry of the 
dogs i and theotherfhe ftretches forth like 
a fail, to help forth her courfc : always 
ftretching her hinder beyond her former, 
' and yet not hindering them at all s and in 
|)aths and highways fli^ runs more fpeedily. 

H A R 

The hares of the mountains often exercifc 
themfelves in the vallics and plains, and 
through pradice grow acquainted with the 
ntircft way to their forms, or conftant 
places of abode ; fothat when at any time 
they are hunted in the fields, fuch is their 
fubtil dodging, that they will dally with the 
huntfman till they feem to be almoft 
taken, and then on a fudden take the near- 
eft way to the mountains, and fo take fanc- 
tuary in the inacceflfible places, to which 
neither dogs nor horfcs can or dare 

Hares which frequent bulhes and brakes 
are not able to endure labour, nor arc very 
fwift, becaufc of the pain in their feet, 
growing fat by means of idlenefs, and not 
ufing themfelves to running. 

The field hare, being leaner of body, and 
oftener chafed, is more difficultly taken by 
reafon of her Angular agility ; for when 
(he begins her courfe, fhe bounds, up from 
the ground as if (he flew, afterwards pafles 
through brambles, over thick buO^es and 
hedges, with all expedition -, and if flic Com- 
eth into deep grafs or corn, Ihe eafily deli- 
vers herfeltand Aides through it, always 
holding up one ear, and bending it at plea* 
fure, to be the moderator of her chace. 

Neither is (be fo improvident and prodi- 
gal of her (Irengthi as to fpend it all in one 
courfe, but ftie has regard to the force of 
her purfuer, who if he be (low and fluggi(h, 
flbe is not profufe of her ftrength, nor ufes 
her utmoft fwiftnefs, but only advances 
gently before the dogs, yet fafcly from their 
clutches, refcrving her greatcfl: ftrength 
for the time of her greateft neceflity, know- 
ing file can out-run the dogs at her pleafure, 
^nd therefore will not ftrain herfelf more 
than (he is urged. 

But if flie be purfued by a dog that is 
fwifter than the reft, then flie puts on with 
all the force flie can, and having once left 
the hunters and dogs a great way behind 
her, (he makes to fome little hill, or rifing 
ground, where (he raifes herfelf upon her 
hinder legs, that thereby (he may obfervc 
how far ofi^, or how near her purfuers arc. 
G g The 

H A 

The younger hares, 6y rcafon of thejr^ 
weak limbs, tread heavier on the earth than 
the older, and therefore leave the greater 
fccnt behind them. 

At a year old they run very fwiftly, and 
cheir fcent is ftronger in the woods than m 
the plain 6elds ; and if they He down on the ' 
earth (as they love to do) in red fallow 
grounds, they are cafily defcried. 

Their footfteps in winter ari more appa- 
rent than in fummer,. becaufe as the riights 
are longer, they travel further; neither dof 
they fcent in wintermornings fo foon as it is- 
day, till the froft is. a little thawed j but 
cfpecially their footfteps are uncertain atf 
the full of the moon, for then: they leap and ' 
play together, fcattering or putting out their 
fcent or favour ; and in the fprhig-tin^e 
alfo, when they do engender, they confound 
one another's footfteps by multitudes. ' 

Hares and rabbets arc mifchievous to nur- 
fcrics and newly planted orchards, by peel- 
ing oflFthe bark of the plants j for the pre- 
vention of which fome bind topes about the' 
trees to a fufficient height; others daub 
them with tar, which being of itfclf hurtful 

H A R 

fear of hounds, apd for want of hearin^^ th^y. 
grow fat before others of their kind. ^ 

Hare Hunting. 


To diftingiLiifli a male hare from the fe- 
male, you^may know "htm as jfou'Kuhtl'iini 
to "his form, by^his beating the h'ara bigfu- 
ways V he alfd feeds ^ther out in the.';^lairfsi 
dndhiakeshis dotiblfngs arid crofiings much* 
to young plants, the mifchicf is prevented ' wider, and 6f greater Cofnpafs' than the fc.- 

by mixing it with any kind of grcafe, and 
bolting k Over a fire, fo as both may in- 
corporate J then with a brufli or little 
broom, daub over the ft em of the tree as 
high as^ a rabbet or hare can reach ; do this 
in November, and ic will fecure the trees foV 
that whole year, it being the winter-timd 
only in which they feed upon the bark. 

Alfo fome thin ftufFout of ^ houfe of of- 
fice, or the thick tempered with water, has 
been often applied with good fuccefs; or 
the "White* wafli made ufe of by plaifterers 
for whiteing houfes, done once a year over 
the treeswith a brufti, will preferve therti 
frorn hares, deer, and. other animals. 

As for fuchKares as are bred in warrens, 
the warrencrs have a' crdfty device to fatten 
them, which has been found by experience 
to b^ effeftual; and that T^, by putting 
wax into their ears to make them deaf,, and 
then turning them into the place where they 
arc to feed, where, being freed from the 

It IS generally believed that a hare natu- 
rally knows the change of weather,* froni 
one twenty-four hour^'co another. • ' 

When fhe goes to her form, (he will fuffcr 
the dew to touch her as little * as !heckrf,' 
but takes the highways and beaten pathjsT* 
agaift, when ihe rJffs but of her form, iflhfc 
couches her ears and fcut, and f^ni'ndt very' 
faft- at firll, it is an infallible figh that fhtf ' 
is old ind crafty. v. . ' 

They ^o to buck commonly in January^ 
February y and March, andfometimes all the* 
warm months : fometimes fcckirig the buck 
at feven or crght^ miles diftaht from the ' 
place they ufually fit at, following the hrgh-' 

male'dothi whef-cafs the female will keep 
dofc by fome covert fide, Whing aha^ * 
winding ?n thii^buffxcs like a coney;' ind i¥'*' 
^e g6t6 relief in th<i corn fields, (hiy feldohi '* 
Crofles over the furrpwsi but follows th^hi' * 
^long, flaying upon the thickfeft tufts of corii 
to'fted.;^ • ■; '■ "■' '^' ' '••'•I'.-'* • -. -^ 

I Yc/ti'may Hkewife know a buck at his 
fifing out of his form, by his hiindir Jparts^/*' 
"irhich arc more upon' the whitiflh^ and Kis* '" 
(houlders, before he rifes will be redder than 
the'- doe's, having fome loofc long fiairt'"* 
grov^mg onthem. • '- * ^ ' ''' * 

Again,, his head ^js fhorter and better 
trufled,'* his hi^ about his lips loii^r, and 
hiseaPs ftic3"ter itidHiore grdy ': th^e'Kaifs ' 
updn the fcrriale*s <;hinc aref of a blacklKE '' 

Artd befides, when hounds hunt a female . 
hare, fhe willHile more crbffing and' ddulv.' * 
ling, feldomrilaking our fnd-wSys*'befohe f" 
the hounds ; whcrtai the malc'^iifts cdntrii- ^ ' 

' • • - rilfx * 

' i41y, for na,ving once, made a turn pr two 
about his form, then fa^e well hounds, for 
he will frequently leacj thern five, or fix miles 
before ever he will turn his hcad„ . 

When you fee that yous hounds have 
found where a hare hath pafTed to. relief up- 
on the 'highway-fide, ana hath much dou- 
bled and croITed upon dry places, and never 
fnuch broken out nor relieved In the corni 
It is a fign fhjc is b^utj lately come thither : 
and then commonly ihe will flay uponfome 
high place to look about her, apd to chufc 
out a place tp form .in, which fhe will be 
loth to part with. As of all chaces the hare 
makes the greateft jpaftime and pleafure, S6 
^it is k great delight and fatisfadtipn to fee 
the cr?ft'^of this fmall animal for her'felf- 
'brefervatidh. . . . , 

Aha the better to uhderftanq theni, con- 
Udler what weather it is : if it be rainy, thpn 
the hare will, hold the highways more than 
at 'any other nme, and if (be cpme to the 
fide of any ypung grqve.or fpring, (he will 
fcarcely enter, but Iquat down by tl^e fide 
of It till tbe hounds have over-fhot her, and 
then ttic will return, the very fanic way flic 
camt, tq tne place from whence (he was 
ftarted, ancl will riot go by the way into any 
covert^ (qi fear gf the wet and dew that hangs 
bi)on the boughs.. ., , ., ^ 

^ In this qafe, the huntfmah pu^Tit to ftay 
iH^ hiindred paces before he comes to t^e 
wood (ide, by which means he will per- 
ceive whether fl^e/Q^up^as aforefaid, y^hich 
ifttih d6, he mu(l halloo in his hqupds» an^d 
; <^h i^hem back^ ^hd that p^'efently, that the 
'fiotinds^nSay not think it the counter (he 

■cAWefirift., ... .,...;. • •• *•.. . ,; 

The next thing that is to bc.obferved is, 
the ^lace W[here the hare (its, and upon whgt 
wind (be makes, her. form,, either upo^i.the 
north or (outhwind; (he will not willingly 
run into the wind, but, run upon aiide, or 
. down the wind 5 but if (he fofqi in the water 
it ?s a fign fhe is foul, and mea(Jed; ^fyou 
liunt fuch a one, have a fpecial regard all 
Ac day to the brook-fides, for thcre,^ and 
mar plafiies, (he will make all hercrofllngs, 
dotibliftgi, E^c. 

Some hares have been fo crafty, that as 

H A R 

• , , .• ' ' • . 

foon as they have heard the found ofa horn, 
they would inftandy ftart out of their form, 
though it was at the diftance ofa quarter of 
a mile,-aQd go and fwim in fome pool, and 
reft upon fome ruQi-bed in the midft of it; 
^nd would not ftir from thence till they have 
heard the. horn again, and then have ftarted 
QUtagain, fwimmingtoland, and have ftood 
up before the hounds four hours before they 
could kill them, fwimming and ufing all 
fubtlctie^ and croQings in the water. 

Nay, fuch is the natural craft and fubtlety 
ofa hare, that fometimes, after flie has been 
hunted three hours, (he will ftart a fre(h 
hare> and fquat in the fame form. 

Others havingbeen hunted a confiderable 
time,, will creep under the door of a (hccp* 
cot, and there hide themfclves among the 
flieep; orwben they have been bard hunted, 
will run in among a fiock of (heep, and will 
bv nq means begotteA|Outfrom among them 
till the hounds are cpupled up and the (heep 
driven into tlieir pens* 

Some of them, (atud tha^(eems.fomewh9t 
ftrange) will take the ground like a coney, 
and that is called going to the vaylt. 

Somp hares will >gp .up one fide of the 
hedge and cqmfi dioyi^n the Qther, the thick- 
nefs of the hedge being the only diftance be- 
tween the 9ourXcs»..j ; / ., 

A hare that hasi^eei^iqlofely hunted, has 

got upon a qvicktfcij.hedge, and ran. a goad 
way upon the top, thereof, and then leapt 
ofi^.uppn the ground^;- .1 

. And they will (r^qpeptjy betake them <• 
fclves to (urze-lj)u(hes, and wijH leap from 
one to the pthprj^ .whereby the hounds are 
frequently in default. 

Some affirnii that a hare a/ter (he Ms been 
hunted two hours.and more, has ^tlcogtb, 
^o fave herfelf, got upon an old wail ^ file 
feet high fron) the grojund» and' hid herfelf 
in a hole that was made for fcajEFolding^ 
and that Tome hares have fwam over the ri- 
vers Tretif ztid iSev^rn., . . ! .. • . n . 

. A hare i^ fuppofed not to live: above fevea 
years af |he nrioft, etfpecia)ly the bucks, and 
if a buck and doe. (ball keep ooe quarter to- 
gether, they will never fuflfer. npy.ftrange 
hare to fit by them> and therefore it is faid 
Gg2 by 

H A R 

f>y way of proverb, the more you hunt, the 
more hares you (hall have ; becaufc when 
yon have killed one hare, another will come 
and poffcfs his form. 

A hare hath a greater fcent, and is more 
eagerly hunted by the hounds, when fhc 
feeds and relieves upon green corn, than 
at any other time of the year; and yet 
there are fomc hares that naturally give a 
greater fcent than others, as the large wood- 
hares ; and fuch as arc foul and rheafled keep 
near to the waters : but the fmall red hare, 
which is not much bigger than a coney, is 
neither of fo ftrong a fcent, nor fo eagerly 

Thofe hares that feed upon the fmall 
branches of wild thyme, or fuch like herbs, 
are generally very fwift, and will ftand long 

* up before the hounds. 

Again, there are fome hares more fubtle 
and cunning than others ; young hares which 
have never been hunted are foolifli, and 
are neither of force nor capacity to iife tuch 
fubtleties and crafts, but moft commonly 
hold on end- ways before the hounds, and 
oftentimes fquat and ftart again, which 
greatly encourages the hounds, and enters 

' them better than if the hare (hould fly end- 

' ways, as fometimes they will for five or fix 
miles an end. 

The females are more crafty and politic 
than the males, for thev double and turn 
Ihorter, which is unpleafantto the hounds j 

^ for it is troublefome to them to turn fo of- 
ten, delighting more in an end-way chace, 
running with all their force: for thofe : 
hares which double and crofs fo often, it! 
is requifite at default, to caft the greater 
eompafs about, when you beat, to make it 
out, for fo you will find all her fubtleties, 
and yet need not ftick upon any of them, 
but only where Ihe went oh forward i by 
this means vou will abate her force, and 
compel her to ufe doublings and croflings 

To enter hounds to a hare, let the huntf- 
man be fure in the firft place to make them 
very well acquainted with himfelf and his 
voice, and let them underftand the horn, 
which he fliould never blow but when there 
is caufe for it* 

,. H AR 

When you enter a young kennel of 
hounds, have a fpecial regard to the country 
where you make the firJB. quarry, for fo they 
are like to fucceed accordingly ; fince their 
being entered firft in a plain and champagne 
country, will make them ever after delighc 
more to hunt therein than elfewhere *, and ic 
is the fame with the coverts. 

In order to have the bed hounds, ufe 
them to all kinds of hunting, yet do not 
oblige them to hunt in the morning by 
reafon of the dew and moifture of the earth ; 
and befides, if they be afterwards hunted in 
the heat of the day, they will foon give over 
the chace, neither will they call on wiUingl/ 
nor chearfuUy, but feek out the fhades to 
fleep in. 

But yet many are of opinion^ that to hunt 
both early and Jate in the morning, by 
trayling, profits the hounds as to the ufe of 
their nofesj and by keeping them fometimes 
in the heat of the 4^y, pr till night, incites 
courage in thfem. ' ., , 

The beflr feafon to enter young houncls^ 
is in September and Olldbery for then the 
weather is temperate, and neither too hoc 
nor too cold ; and this is the feafon to find 
young hares that have never been hunted, 
which are filly and ignorant of the poUijic 
•oroflings, doubling^, (dc, of their fifcs, 
running, commonly , end- ways, frequently 
fquatting, and as often ft^rting; by which 
encouragement the hounds are the, better 
entered. ^ * 

Some hares hold the high-beatenj ways 
only, where the hounds can have* no CcfinL ; 
therefore, when the huntfman. find?, bis 
hounds ar a default it\ the hi'ghwayj.Jpt'Jii^n 
hunt on until he finds where the Harc'hath. 
broken frqm the highway, or hath .foui\d 
fome dale or frclh place where the hounds, 
may recover fcent, looking narrowly on the- 
ground as he goes, to fee to find the fpoting^ 
or pricking of the hare. " ! . 

There are other places wherein a Round 
can find no fcent; and that is, in fat and' 
rotten ground, which flicks to the feet of 
the hare ; and this is called carrying,, and' 
fa of confeq^uence Ihc Ifeaves' no' fcent behind 
her J . 

• • ^ '• • * Th«rc- 

H A R 

There are alfo certain the'year 
in which a hound can find no fcent, and 
that is in the fpring time, by reafon of the 
fragrant fcent 6f flowers and the like. 

But avoid hunting in hard frofty weather 
as much as you can, for that will be apt to 
furbate or'founder your hounds, and caufe 
them to lofe their claws ; befides, at that 
time a hare runs better than at any other 
time, the foles of her feet being hairy. 

In a word, the bed way of entering 
'young hounds, is with the afliftance of 
; old ftaunch hounds, fo they will be better 
learned to calt for it at a doubling or de- 

ff^al time of the year is befi for Hare -hunt- 
ing \ bow to find hevy ft art ber^ and chafe 

The beft time to begin hare-hunting, is 
about the middle o^ September^ and to end 
towards the latter end of />^r///7ry, left you 
dcftroy the early brood of leverets, 

And btfides when the winter comes on, 

,the moiftnefs and coolnefs of the earth in- 

creafeSy which is agreeable to the nature of 

f he hounds, and very acceptable, they not 

liking extremes either of hot or cold weather. 

Thofc hounds that arc two years old and 
upwards, may be 'cxcrcifed three tinrjfes a 
weeki andi the 'hunting fo often will do 
^them gocd, provided they be well fed ; and 
they may be kept the greateft part of the 
,day, both to try their ftoutnefs, and to 
make them ftout. "^ . 

Ifany hound (hall have found the tfayl 
^f a hare, when (he hath relieved that nighr, 
the huntfman ought not to be too ,hafty, 
but let the hounds make it of themfelves j 
^nd when he perceives that tlrey begin to 
draw in together, and to call on frelhly, • 
then h^ ought to encourage thern, cfpccialiy . 
that bound which hiinteth belt, frequently 
ealliog him by his name. 

Here you may take notice that a hare 
leaveth better fcent when (he goes to relief, 
than when fi>c goeth toward her form ; for 
when fhe relieves in the field, (lie coudieth 
her body low upon thf iground, paflirigbfcen 

/ . ^ 


over one piece •. f ground, to find where 
the beft food lies, and thus leaveth the beft 
fcent, crofTing alfo fometimes : befides, 
when (he goes to her form, (he commonly 
takes the highways, doubling, crofling, 
and leaping as lightly as (he can ; in which 
places the hounds can have no fcent by 
reafon of the duft, Csf^. and yet they will 
fquat by the fides of highways, and there- 
fore let the huntfman beat very well the 
fides of thofe highways. 

Now having found where a hare hath re- 
lieved in fome pafture or corn-field, you 
muft then confider the feafon of the year, 
and what weather it is : for if it be in the- 
fpring time or.fummer, a hare will not thea 
fit in bufhes, becaufc they are frequently 
infefted with pifmires, fnakes and adders i 
but will fit in corn-fields and open places. 

In the winter time, they fit near towns* 
and villages, in tufts of thorns and bram- 
bles, efpecially when the wind is northerly 
or foutherly. 

According to the fea(bn and nature of the- 
place where the hare is arcuftomed to fit, 
there beat with your hounds, and ftart her;, 
which is much better fport than trayling of 
her from her relief to her form* 

. After the hare has been ftarted, and is ort 
foot, then ftep in where you faw her pafs,. 
and halloo in yo.ur hounds, until they have 
all undertaken it, and go on with it in full 
cry ; then recheat to them with your Horn,* 
following fair andfoftly at firft, making not 
too rhuch noife either with horn or voices 



fpr at the firft, hounds are apt to prerflioot 
the chace through to much heat. ' * 

'.But wherl they have run'a fpaceofani 
liour, and you fee the hounds a<^ well iri 
•with it, and ftick well upon it, then youi 
may come in nearer with the houndis, be- 
caufe by that time their heat will be cooled^ 
•and they will hunt more foberly.. 

BCit, above all things, mark the- firft: 
doubling, which muft bc70ur direflrion for 
the^holcday 5 for all the doubling thirJhd- 
fliall make afterwards will belike the form- 
er, and according to the polices thait youi 
(hall feeher ufe, and the place where youi 
bunt, vpu nauft-make your compa(reS' great: 

J' r '• : *^ : •! • , ** ., . •^'. ^^ 

I .il».^* 'w^ » ..J>« ... •«<iil «>< Off" 

H A "R 

or Uttie,.loogorfliort, to hcjp th«defauks, 
Always fcckiijig the moifteft and moft com- 
modious places for the hounds to fcenc ifl. 

tlo conclude > thofe whodelight in hunt- 
ing .the hare, muft rife early, left they be 
ckprivcd of the fcent of her footftcps, by 
which means the dogs will-be incapacitated 
to follow their gamej for the nature of the 
.feent is fuch that it will not remain long, 
"but fuddcniy, in a manner every hour, v«- 
nilhcth away» See Hunting. 

three feveral forts of nets reprefented in 
J^late Vm, arc proper cither for hares or 

In the placing of thefe obfervc the path 

or traft in any coppice, or furrow, by which 

any hare ufes to pafs ; likewife how the 

wind is, ib as to iet them as the hare and 

wind may come together : if the wind 

be fide-ways it will do well enough, but 

never let it blow over the net into the hare's 

/ace, for he will .fcent beth it and you at a 

diAaacc ;-tbe two pointed lines A C, in the 

iirij ^ure, denotes the foot-paths whereby 

the^ame ufes to pais. Then prepare three 

or four more (takes according to the length 

c^the net ; whkh ilakes fhould be about 

the. bignefs of one's thumb, and near foisr 

Ifeec long, iharpenedat the greater end, and 

j^jhttiecrooked at the fmallcf R|.S, T j ftiek 

them in the ground fomewhat doping, as If 

fo forced by the wind : two of them are to 

be fet at the two fides of the way and the 

^AJddlc, as there is occaGoa ; they muft 

only hold up the nex from falling,, but in 

a V€;ry flight manner, that if the game run 

ugaiivft it, it may fall down, and fo entangk 

hmi : be fure to hide yoorfelf in fome ditx:h 

or buib^ behind a tr^re, ox the. like place, 

behind the fvet, then when you perceive the 

game to be paflEed give a ihout^ flinging your 

hit at wem, whidi will put.tbem into Aich 

a furf>rifie that they will fpring on, and 

jTun juft into the net, fo that you muft be 

lumbie to. take them, left they break out 

and efcape* 

But observe, this net is not fo grounded 
in windy weather as in fair. 

The midcficmoft flap muft he fet rnucli 

ir A R 

' afrer the fanrje manner as the fi)i-'mer ; as to 
t^ie way and wind, you fee how the two 
cords ac each end of the net ougKt to 5e 
difpofcd : next you muft have two flicks, K, 
L, My N, each four feet lone; and twice 
as thick as one's thumb, which are to Be 
cut exaftly fmooth at each end and fixed 
. thus, take the flick H, I, put it oh the edge 
of the way upon the cord L> which is on 
the bottom of the net, and the other cord is 
to be placed at the top of the ilick ; then gar 
along behind the net, fuppofting ft with 
your hand, and place your fecohd ftick jutt 
as you'did the firft i but you ffiould endea-* 
vour to lean a little towards the way where 
you exp<8£l: the, game will come,.. for the 
beafts running fiercely againft the net will 
'force the flicks to give wa)r, arid fo'thc nec 
falls on him. 

There is another net reprefented by the 
laft figure, which is Icfs trou^lcfome than 
cither of the fornrier, only it maiv be farther 
difcerned, yet It is gbodfof rabocts in fucti 
foot-paths, and ^ohTj^ uled for tfie'm an*i 
hare^ ; whereas the others are lifefiil alio fqr 
the taking of wolves, foxes, badgers, and 
pole cats, irhc true time to fet th'efe nets 
is at break of dayj till hatf an hour before 
fun-rifing, and fioixi half an hour iDcforc 
fun-fetitill.<iarki ' , . 

MARNESS ,t^Att5;.lomeei^^^^ this 
breafts of coach-flbrt^s arc galled by the 
harnefs, or rife iii hard buhcHeSj cfpccially- 
in rainy weather. 

Tociii-e this, firft iHavi off fhc hair atidut 
the fore vcrjs .cIofc,:aad fiib the whole 
breaft wijtft alajierof water and Blatk ioap^ 
then walH that part oftlie breaft whicTi is 
ufually covered with the petrel, with fait 
and water, fufFerlfig it to dry off iifcTf. 

If the hardncfs ofariy part of the Harnefs 
occafions the g^Ilin^ take it away, er cck 
Vcr it with little bgmefs. 

tl AIlIilER J a houndj his cqafinoj 
or tracing. by foot* is naturally endued with 
an admirable gfft offmdling, being .alfa 
bold and courageous in the pyrfuit pf his 
game, of which tliere arc ftvcral kinds, and 
all differ in their feryices i fonfic are foi- tlie 
liare, the fb)l, wolf. Hart, poic-cati weatcl^ 


H A, R 

coQffy, b^pkA badger, otter, 6?^. fomc for 
one thing, fomc for another. 

The hound moll in ufc and proper for 
hare-hunting, may be confined to few forts 
and eac/i excellent in nature, • To wit, the 
dc<:p-tongucd, thick-lipped, broad and 
long-hung fouthern hounds. The fleet 
Iharp nofed dog, cars narrow and pointed, 
deep cheftcd, with thin flioulders, protend- 
ing a quarter of thq fox drain. The rough 
wire-haired hound, thick-quartered, well 
hupg, not too flclhy ftiouldered, together 
with the ropgh or fmooth beagle. Each 
of thcfe ibrts, have. three excellencies^ Gfr, 
It is not Dofliiblc, withjuftice;, to commend 
one before another, for kind, colour or 
Icryice, preference being given according 
to the. humours and inclinations of fportf- 
mcb, the tribe of whom are very nqmerous, 
and. of confequence, diflPqrent in opinion. 

He that (leVights in a long ch^ceof (ix 
hours, often more, and to be in with the- 
dogs, all the time, let him breed of the 
fouthern hounds, or fuch heavy dogs as 
Suffice gentlemco run in the weald. They 
m^c .good deep bafs mi^fick, aflTqrd, great 
diVjej-rjon,,and confidexing. how dirty the 
country., is, fatigue the healthy foQtm?n 
vecy little. In an open country where., 
there is good riding, prefer the fecpnd fort, 
with ? qu^r^er of the fox-ftrain, thefe fuit 
the 'more eager, aftive horfenjan, aqd 
fpqpd . their .tongues, generouOy* making 
delightfnl harmony, and at the. fame time 
go, at fucja a rate, a harq diyrft. not play 
many, tricks .before them j they, feldom 
allj^w her tin^ie to loiter, fhe muft rua- ands 
cootinuc^.her foiling or change foil*. if th^ 
latter, fh^ . dies ^ keep in huntfman, fre(h 
ground oh the turf, is in fome dcgrcje a 
C09 tinned, view,, otberwifc hang your dog^s, 
(barring ^all^ extraordinary accidents, of 
highways' and (heep . blcnriiih) for I would 
Bo^morc cxqi^fe the lof& pf a hare on frefb 
fward,j,unlefs,thc huntfmcn's fault, whic;ti 
b jtoQ often !thc.qafe, th^^ I would a ken: 
ne\ of .fox- hounds lofing rcynar^ in full 
chacej, the i^afojos agaipft Jt ia both di- 
vcffiofljS are the; fame^ 

The * flow iiouads. generally pack bcft. 

Qf the . fpcond fort, niany not being oC 
equal fpeed,. (for it is hard to procure an 
even kennel of faft hounds), will be found 
to tall, which is an inconveniency, for the 
hind dogs labour on to overtake the lead- 
ing hounds, and fejdom or ever flop, nor 
are of the leaft ufe bqt to enlarge the cry, 
unlefs at an over-run, which happens at 
the top of the. morn, for a quarter ot a mile 
together, then the old hounds, thrown, 
out or tailed, often come up, and . hit the 
fault off. The fqutbcrn • dogs are not 
fo guilty of running, a-hegd,. for as they^ 
pack well together, from tlieir equality of 
fpeed, (it being cafier to excel the flow 
than the faft) at the leaft balk^ there are 
ten npfes on the ground for one. The third 
/pecies of hounds you will feldom fee an 
entire kennpl of, being in fom^. parts not 
much encQur4gC(;i : They are of northern 
breed, and in great efteem, being bold 
dogs, and by many.huntfmen preferred for 
the otter and martin.: in fome places they 
are encouraged for foy hounds, but bad ta 
breed from, being .too fubjeft to degene- 
rate and produce thicks low, heavy (hould- 
ered dogs, unfit for the chace. Beagles,, 
rough or fmo.oth,, have, their admirers,, 
they fpend their tongues free in treble or 
teqor, andgo a greater rate than the foutb« 
crn hounds, but tail abominably.' They^ 
ran low to ground, therefore enjoy the fcent 
better thati tallei: dog§, efpecially when 
the atmofphere lies low# In an enclofed 
country they do beft* as they mufe witb 
the hare, and at trailing or default, are 
pretty good foi; hedge-rows^ 
. Of the two forts the rough, or wire-ha'f ed„ 
^^'^^ generally good fliouldered dogSj and 

Tell filleted, pre preferred. 
SmoQth-haired beagles are- commonly 
deep hung, thick lipped, and large noftril- 
led, but often fo foft, folid, and bad quar-* 
tered> as to be Ihoulder-fliook and crippled 
the firft; feafon's hunt, and have frequently^ 
that unpardonable fault of crooked Ie^<)^ 
. like the tarrier, or right Bath tjurn-fpit. 
Few of them will endure a tolerable himt,. 
or at default bear hard charging* After 
two hours running, obferve them crippled 



and down, the huntfman may go on hinri* 
felf, for what affiftanc^j many of them give 
him, and it is plain from their form and 
Ihape, that they are not defigncd for hard 

So much for harriers, a deal may be faid 
for and againft the feveral kinds : it is a 
wide unfetded point to give opinion upon ; 
but to fum up the whole in a few words, 
(launch, true hounds of any fort, aredefira- 
ble, and whoever has them of pretty equal 
age and fpeed, with the requifites of pack- 
ing and hunting well together, whether 
fouthcrn, northern, fox-ftrain, or. beagle, 
can boaft an invaluable advantage in the 
diverfion, and which few gentlemen, let 
them breed ever fo true, can attain to but 
in years. 

The proporties to be confidered in the 
choice of a hound, are, to prefer the dog of 
a middling fize, with his back longer than 
round, nofe large, with noftrils bold and 
wide, cheft deep and capacious, fillets great 
and high, haunches large, hams ftraight, the 
folc hard and dry, claws large, ears wide, 
thin and deep, more round than fharp, eyes 
large and protuberant, forehead prominent, 
and upper lips thick, and deeper than the 
lower jaw. 

HART, is the moft noble and (lately 
bead, and in the firft year is called a hind- 
calf, in the fecond a knobber, in the third 
a brock, in the fourth a ftaggard, in the 
-fifth a ftag, and in the fixth a hart. 

Harts are bred in moft countries* but 
the anciens preferred thofe of Britain be- 
fore all others, v/here they are of divers co- 

Thefe excel all others in the beauty of 
their horns, which are very high, yet do 
not grow to their bones or fcalps, but to 
their ikin, branching forth into many 
fpears, being folid tliroughout, and as hard 
as ftones, and fall off once a year. 

JBut if they remain abroad in the air, 
and are Ibmetimes wet and Ibmetimes dry, 
they grow light i by which it fliould feeni 
they are of an earthy fubftance, concrete, 
and hardened with a ftrong heat, made like 
unto bones. 

H A R 

• * 

They lofc their horns tv^ry year in the 

n?nng. . ' 

At one year old they have nothing but 
' bunches^ that are fmall fignificators of horns 
to come : at two. years they appear more 
pcrfeftly, but ftraic and fingle : at three 
years they grow into two fpars ; at four 
into three, and fo increafe eyery year in 
their branches till they are fix; and above 
that time their age is not certainly to be 
known by the head. 

Having loft their horns, in the day-time 
they hide themfelves, inhabiting thefhades 
to avoid the annoyance of flies, and feed, 
during that time, . oply in the night. 

Their new horns come out at firft like 
bunches, and afterwards (as has been faid 
before) by the increafe of the fun's heat 
they grow more hard, covered with a rough 
fkin, which is called a velvet head i ^nd as 
that fkin drieth, they daily try the ftrengch 
of their new heads upon trees, which not 
only fcrapeth ofi^ the roughnefs, but by the 
pain they feel thus rubbing them, they arc 
taught how long to forbear the comparfy 
of their fellows i for at laft, when in their 
chafing and fretting of their new horns 
againft the trees, they can feel no longer 
pain and fmart in them, they fe6m as if 
they thought it were high time to forfake 
their folitary dwellings, and return again to 
their former condition. 

The reafon why harts and deers fhcd their 
horns annually are thefe : 

Firft, becaufe of the matter of which 
they confift i for it is dry and eartfily like 
the fubftance of green leaves, which alfo 
fall annually j likewife wanting glewy or 
holding moifture, for which'reafon the horn 
of a hart cannot be bent. 

Secondly, from the place they grow up 
on, for they are not rooted upon the IkuU, 
but only within the Ikin. 

Thirdly, from the the efficient caufe j for 
they are hardened bcth with the heat of 
fummer and cold of winter ; by means of 
* which the pores which Ihpuld receive the 
nourilhing liquor are Ihut up and ftopped, 
fo that their native heat neccfTarily dieth^ 
which does not fo happen in other bcafts, 
I whofc 

• • 

^££ :2t- . - 

I— h^MTr "* '<'^ < 



"K Xarkx 

J)>rv^J' /tfrioAMt^Zar^J'artrui^Af, ko. 


H A R 

whofe horns are for the moft part hollow: 
and fitted for long • continuance i but the 
new bunches fwelling up, towards the 
fpring, thruft offthe old horns, having the 
alliflance of boughs of trees, weight of the 
horns, or. bjr the willing^ excurfion of the 
bead: that beareth them. 

It has been obferved, that when a hart 
prickech up his ears, be windeth (harp, very 
far and fure, and difcovereth all treachery 
4gainft him ; but if they hang down and 
wag, he perceives no danger. 
► Their age is difcerncd by their teeth •, 
they have four on both fides, with which 
they grind theif meat ; befides two others, 
which are much larger in the male than in 
the female. 

All thefe beafts have worms in their 
heads underneath their tongues, in a hollow 
place where the neck^bone is joined to the 
head, which are no bigger than fly-blows.- 

The blood of the hart is not like that of 
other beafts, for it hath no. fibres in it, and 
therefore it does not congeal. 

His heart is very great, and fo are all 
thofe of fearful beafts, having in it a bone 
like acrois. 

• He hath no galU and that is one of the 
caufeaofhis long life, and therefore are his 
bowels fo bitter, that the dog will not 
touch them unlefs they be very fat. 

• The genital part of a hart is all nervous ; 
t^e tail fmall ; and a hind hath udders be- 
Mf^een her thighs, with four fpeans like a 

QOW» . - . 

Thefe are above all other beafts both in-" 
geiHOus and fearful, who although they 
have large horns, yet their defence againft 
other four-footed beafts js to rutv away. 
' The hart is ftrangely amazed, when he 
heatf any one call or whiftle in his fift : for 
trial.jpf wfai^h, fome fceinj^ a hart in the 
plain in motion, having called him,' crying 
w^je, warp>^i:akc; heed ; and thereupon have 
feen hfm inftantly turn back, making fome 
liidj^'ftand. i ' x . . ^v. . 

He. hears very perfeftly when his head 
a94 t^rsrdre kvfiSkci i but imperfe^ly when 
hfitet$;jthwT ddvin. . . ' ^ ^ 

When he 1$ on foot^^ ancLnot afraid, he 

H A R 

f admires every thing he O^cs, and takes a 
pleafure to gaze at them. 

A hart can naturally fwim a great way, 
fo that fome which have been hunted in 
forefts near the fea, have plunged into it^ 
and have been killed by fiftiermen twelve 
miles from land. 

It is reported of them, that when they 
go to rut, and for that purpofe are obliged 
to crofs fome great river or arm of the fca, 
they aflfemble in great herds, the Itrongeft 
going in firft, and the next in ftrength fol- 
lowing him, and fo one after the other, re- 
lieving themfelves by refting their heads on 
the buttocks of each other. 

The hind commonly carries her calf eight 
or nine months, which ufually falls in May, 
although fome alter : fome of them have 
two at once, and eat up the (kin wherein 
the calf did licr 

. As the calf grows up, flie teaches it to 
run, leap, and the way it muft take to de-* 
fend itfelf from the hounds. . 

Harts and hinds are very long lived, liv- 
ing commonly an hundred years and up- 


Gefmer^ /peaking of the hunting of the 
hart, fays, ' This wild, deceitful, and fub- 
tle beaft, by windings and turnings often 
deceived it's hunter, as the harts of Mean- 
dros flying from the terrible cry of Diana^s 
hounds :' wherefore the prudent hunter 
muft frame his dogs, as Pythagoras did his 
fcholarsi with words of art to fet them on, 
and take them off again at his pleafure. 

Whereof he muft firft of all encompafs 
the beaft in her own layer, and founharbour 
her in the view of the dogs, that they may 
never lofe her flot or footing. 

Neither muft he fet upon every one, ei- 
ther'of the herd, or thofe that wander foli- 
tary alone, or a little one, but partly by 
fight/ and partly by their footing and fu- 
met, make a judgment of the game, and 
alfo obferve the largenefs of his layer. 

The huntfman, having made thefe dif- 

cbveries in order to the chace^ takes off 

Hh the 


H A R 

the coupling, of the dogs, and fom^ On 
horfeback, the oth<?rs oa foot, follow the 
cry, with the greateft art, obfervation, and 
fpced, remembringand intercepting him in 
his fubrle turnings and headings -, with all 
agility leaping hedges, gates, pales, 
ditches-, neither fearing thorns, down hilU, 
nor woods, but rnountingafrefli horfe* if 
the firft tire ; follow the largelt head of 
the whole herd, which nnuft be fingled out 
of the chace ; which the dogs perceiving, 
mud follow 3 not following any other. 

The dogs are animated to the fport by 
the winding of hprps, and the voices of the 

But fomctimcs the crafty bead fenda forth 
his little fquire to be facriBced to the dog^ 
and hunters, inftead of himfelf, lying clbfe 
(he mean time. la this cafe, thehuntfman 
mud found a retreat, break off the dogs« 
«nd take in, that is, learn them again, 
until they be brought $o the fairer game ; 
which riieth with fear^ yet ftill ftriveth by 
flight, until he be wearied and breathlef^. 

The Nobles call the b?aft a wife hart, 
who, to avoid all his enemies, runneth into 
the greateft herds, andfo brings a cloud of 
error on the dogs^ to obftrqft their farther 
purfuit; fometimes alfo beating fome of 
the herd unto his fqotipgs, that fo he n>ay 
the more eafily cfcape, by amufing the 

Afterwards he betakes himfelf to his 
keels again, ftill running with the wii>cl, 
not only for the fake of refreftment, but 
alfo beeaufe by that means he can the mor^ 
eafily hear the voice of his purfuers, whe- 
ther they be far from hin3> ox near to 

But at laft bein^ again difcovered by the 
hunters, and fagacious fcent of the dogs, be 
flies into the herds of cattle, as covsts, flicep^ 
^c. leaping' on a caw or ox, laying the 
fore parts or his body thereon, that fo touch- ; 
ing the earth only with his hinder feet, he 
niay leave a very fmall or no fcent at all 
behind for the hounds to difcern- 

A chief huntfman to Lewis XII. of France, 
aftrms,'That on a time, they having a hart 
in cbacej on a fudden the hounds were a( 


a faultj fo ai the game .wat out oT fightj; 

that not a c^.woukl once ftir hi&foot^ at 
which the hunters were aUamaaed $ at Laft; 
by cafting their eyes about, they difcovered 
the fraud of the crafty beaft. 

There was a great white-thorn, which 
grew in a ftiady place, as high as a moderate 
treej which, was' eocompaffi^d about with 
other fmaller (hrubs ; into this, the bare 
having leaped, ftood there, aloft, the 
boughs fpreadkig from one to another, aod 
there remained till he was thruft through 
by the huntfman, rather than he wovld 
yield himfelf up a pirey to the hounds hia 
mortal enenues.^ 

. But their ;ufud manper is, when they ike 
themfelves hard befet, and every way inter- 
eep(ed, to ncrake force at their enemy with 
their hoi na^ who firft conies upon him> ua- 
kfs they be prevented by fpear or 

" When the beaft i& flain the huntlnaan 
Yitb his horn wiadeth the fall of the bea^ ) 
and then the whole company conies up^' 
blowing their horns in triumph for fuch a 
QQnqucft:; anrK>ng whon>^ ahe fkilfuleii* 
opens the beaft, rewards the hounds with* 
what properly - belongs to them, £m- their 
futpre encouragement : for which futp^k^ 
the.huntfmen dip bread in the blood of tbt' 
beaft to give tt>, the hounda. 

The rutting time i& the middle of SStp- 
len^bery and continues two months: the* 
Qlder.they. are the hotter, and the better' 
they pleafe the hinds, and therefore they go- 
to rut. before the ^hg Dnes ; and being 
very fiery» tiley wiUnqifuflFer^aay of them 
tp cocne i^ear the hinds> till they have fatis* 
ficd their venereal appetite. 

3ut for ^ll ^is, the young ones are evien 
with the old,. for when they perceive thaa' 
the old are grown weak by expeis bl riittitig^^ 
the young wiH frequently attack thcni, aii^' 
make them quit the place, that they may 
be mafters ofthe fport. 

They may be eafily killed in ruttine^ 
time* for they follow the fcenta of the 
h^da^ with fo much eagemeisi, laying their 
nofes to the ground, that tbey.aiind that 

oftty^adoothing elfc;«. 


H A R 

ft isTcry dangerous for any man to come 
near them at that tin>e, for then chty will 
make at any living creature of a different 

In (ottie places their lull arifts in OS^ber. 
and alfo in May i and then (whereas at other 
tinies the males live apart from the females) 
they go abouc like lafcivious loversj feek- 
ing the company of the females. 

The males, in their raging luft^ make a 
peculiar noife. 

One male will cover manv female!^, con- 
tinuing in this appetite tor one or two 

The females fcem chaftci and unwilling 
to admit of copulation by reafon of the ri- 
gour of the genital of the male ; and there- 
fore they fink down on their buttock Sj 
when they begin to feel his femen^ as it has 
been obferved in tame harts \ and if they 
can, the females run away, the males ftriv- 
ing to hold them back with their fore-feet. 

It cannot be well faid, that they are co- 
vered ftanding> lying, or going, but rather 
rlinning I fo are they filled with greateft 

When one month or fix wedcs Is over of 
their tutting, they grow much tamer ; and 
laying afide alt fiercenefs, they return to 
their foil tary places, digging -every one by 
himfelf a fevcral hole or ditch, in which 
they lie, to affwage the ftrong favoiw of 
their lufl ; for the^ ftink like goat3> and 
their face begins to look blacker than at 
other times : and in thofe places they live 
till fome fhowers of rain fall s after which 
they return to the pafture again> jiving in 
flocks as they did before. 

The female having been thus filled, ne- 
ver aflbciate again with the male i\\\ ihe is 
delivered of her burthen, which is in about 
eight months, and produces generally but 
one at a time, very foldom two j which (he 
lodges cunningly in fome covert. If foe 
perceive them ftubborn and wild, foe will 
oeat them with her feet till they lie clofe 
and quiet. 

She oftentimes leadeth forth her young, 
teaching it to run, and leap over bufoes, 
ftones, and fmall forubs, and fo contiaueth 

H A R 

all the fufnmer long, while-, their own 
ftrerilgth is the moft confiderable. 

It is ytty pleafant to obfcrvc them, when 
they go to rut, and make their vault \ for 
when they fmcU the hind, they raife their 
nofe up into the air j and if it be a great 
hart, he will turn his head and look about 
to fee whether there be none near him to 
interrupt andfpoil his fport. 

Upon this, the young fly away for fear j 
but if there be any of equal brgnefs, they # 
then drive which foall vault firli ; and in 
the oppofing each other, they fcrape the 
ground with their feet, (hocking and but* 
ting each other fo furioufly, that you may 
hear the noife they make with their horns, 
half a mile, fo long till one of them is the 

The hind beholding this encounter, never 
ftirs from her ftation, expeftlng, a& it were, 
the vaulting of him who foall get the maf- - 
try, who having got it bellows, and then 
inftantly covers her. The coats or colours 
of harts are of three different forts, bre^wn, 
red, and fallow ; and of each of thefe coats 
there proceeds two forts of harts, the one 
great, and the other fmall. 

Of forown harts, there are fome great, 
long, and hairy, bearing a high head, of a 
red colour, and well beamed, who will 
ftand before hounds very long, being long- 
er of breath, and fwifter of foot than thofo 
of a foorter (tature. 

1 here arc another fort of brown harts^ 
which are little, foorc and welUfet, bearing 
commonly a black mane, and are fatter and 
better venifon than the former, by reafon 
of their better feeding in young coppices. 

They arc very crafty, efpecially when in 
greafe, and wilt be hardly found, becaufe 
they know they are moft enquired after •, 
befides, they are fcnfible they cannot then 
ftand long before the hounds. 

If they be old, and feed on good ground, 
thc^a are their heads black, fair, and welt 
branched, and commonly palmed at the top. 

The fallow harts bear their heads high, 

and of a whitifo colour, their beams fmall, 

their antlers long, flender and ill grown } 

having neither heart, courage, nor force. 

H h a But 

H A R 

But thofc which arc of a lively red fal- 
low, having a black or brown lift down the 
ridge of the back> are ftrong, bearing fair 
and high heads> wc^U furniihed and beamed. 
As there are fevcral forts of harts, fo alfo 
have they different heads, according to their 
age, country, reft, and feeding. 

Here you muft take notice, that they 
bear not their firft head (which we call . 
broches, and in a fallow deer pricks^ until 
ihey enter the fecond year of their age. 

In the third year they bear four, fix, or • 
^ight, fniall branches : at the fourth, they 
bear eight or ten : at the fifth ten or 
twelve : at fix, fourteen or fixteen : and at 
the feventh year, they bear their heads 
beamed, branched and fummed, with as 
much as ever they will bear, and do never 
multiply, but in greatnefs only. An old 
hart cafteth his head fooner than the young, 
and the time is about the months of Febru- 
ary ^nd March. 

Notit that if you geld a hart before he 
hath a head, he will never bear any \ and 
if you geld him when he has an head, he 
will never after mew and caft it : and fb if 
he be gelded when he hath a velvet head. 
It will ever be fo, without fraying or bur- 

As foon as they have cafl: their heads, 
they inftantly withdraw into the thickets, 
biding themfelves in fuch convenient places 
where they can have good water and fl:rong 
feeding, near fome ground where wheat 
and peas are fown : but young harts do ne- 
ver betake themftlves to the thickets till 
they have borne their third head, which is 
in the fourth year. 

After they have mewed, they will begin 
to button in March and April i and as the 
fun grows ftrong, and the feafon of the 
year puts forward the crop of the earth, fo 
will their heads increafe in all refpedls i fo 
that by the middle of June^ their heads will 
be fummed as much as they will bear all the 

7be Names andDiverJiiy of Heads ^ according 
to the Term fifed by Hunters, 

That part which bears the amlers, royals, 

H A R : 

and tops, is called the beam, and the little 
ftreajcs therein are called gutters, 

Th^t which ia about the qruft of the 
beam is termed pearls, and that which is 
about . the bur itfelf, formed 'like little 
pearls, is called pearls bigger than the reft. 

The bur is the next head, and that which 
is about the bur is called pearls -, the firft 
is called antler, the fccgnd fur-antler : all 
the reft which grow ^afterwards, until you 
come to the crown, palm, or croche, arc 
called royals and fur-royals ; the little 
buds are broches. about the top^ are called 

Their heads alfo go by feveral names ; 
the fir ft head is called a crowned top, be- 
caufe the croches are ranged in form of a 

The fecond is called a palmed top, be- 
caufe the croches are formed like a man's 

Thirdly, all heads which bear not above 
three or four, the croches- being placed 
aloft, all of one height, in form of a cluf- 
tcr of nuts, are to be called heads of fo 
many croches. 

Fourthly, all heads which bear two in 
the top, or having their croches doubling, 
are to be called forked heads. 

Fifthly, all heads which.. have double 
burs, or the antlers royals,^ and croches 
turned downwards, contrary to other heads^ 
are only called heads. See Hunting. 

How to know an old Hart by the Slot, Entries^ 
Matures, Foils, Fewmets, Gait and fFalks^ 
Fraying-fiocks^ Head and Branches. 

Firft, by the flot. You muft take good 
notice of the treading of the hart's foot ; if 
you find the treading of two, the one long, 
and the other round, yet both of one big- 
nefs, yet the long flot, will indicate the 
hart to be much larger than the round. 

And befides, the old hart^s hind-foot 
doth never over-reach the fore foot j that 
of the young ones do. 

But above all take this obfervation : when 
you have found the flot of a hart in the 
wood> take notice what manftcr of footing 

H A R 

it is^ whether worn or (harp ; and accord- 
ingly obferve the couatry, and judge by 
that whether either may be occafioned 

For harts bred in mountains and ftony 
countries have their toes and fides of their 
feet worn, by means of their continual 
climbing and refting themfelves thereon» 
and not. on the heel; whereas in other 
places they ftay themfelves more on the heel 
than toes ; for in foft or fandy ground they 
flip upon the heel, by reafon of their weighty 
and thus by frequently ftaying themfelves 
thereon, it makes the heel grow broader 
and bigger. 

And thus may the age of a hart be known 
by his flot or treading. 

The next thing to be confidered is the 
fewmets; and this is to be judged of \n April 
and May. If the fewmets or fewmiihing be 
large and thick, they intimate that the hart 
is old. 

In the months of June and July they make 
their fewmets in large croteys, very foft •, 
and from that time to the end of Auguft^ 
they make them large, long, knotty and 
anointed, and gilded, letting them fall but 
few and fcattered. 

In September and O^oher^ there is no long- 
er palfiog a judgment by them, by reafon of 
the rut. 

Thirdly, in order to know the height and 
thicknefs of a hart, obferve his entries and 
galleries into the thickets, and what boughs 
he has over-ftridden, and mark from thence 
the height of his belly from the ground. 

By the height of the entries, a judgment 
is niade of the age of a hart ; for a young 
deer ufually creeps, but the old ones are ftiff 
and (lately. 

His largenefs may be known by the height 
of his creeping as he pa(res to his harbour, 
the young deer creeping low> which the old 
will not (loop to. 

Fourthly, take notice of his gait, by which 
you ntay know whether the hart be great 
and long, and whether he will (land long 
before the hounds or not| for all harts 
which have.alongftep will ftand up a long 
.whilCjL being fwiftj light and well breathed ; 

H A R 

but if he leave a great (lot, which is the (igrf 
of an old deer, he will never (land long when - 
he is chaced. 

Laftly, take notice of his fraying-poft ; 
where obferve, that by how much the hart 
is the older, the fooncr he goes to fray, and 
the larger is the tree he chufes to fray againd, 
and one fo (Irong that he cannot bend with 
his head. 

All ftags as they are furni(hed, beat their 
heads dry again ft fome tree or other, which 
is called their fraying poft; the younger 
deci: do it againft weaker, leflTer, and low- 
er trees i fo that accordingly hunters judge 
confidently of their age, and of the nearnefs 
of their harbour, for that is the laft adion 
or ceremony they ufe before they enter it. 

A^ to the head and branches, ^ hart is old, 
(irft, when the compafs of the bur is large, 
great and well pearled. 

Secondly, when the beam rs large bur- 
thened and well pearled^ being ftrait, and 
not rendered crooked by antlers. 

Thirdly, when the gutters in it are large 
and deep. 

Fourthly, when the firft antler, called an- 
tellier, is large, long, and near to the bur, 
the fur-antler near to the antler ^ and they 
ought to be both well pearled. 

Fifthly, the reft of the branches which 
are higher, being well ordered and fet, and 
well grown,. according to the largenefs and 
proportion of the head, and the croches> 
palm, or crown, being great and large >too> 
according to the largenefs of the beam, are 
figns of an old hart. 

How tojeek a Hart in his Haunts, and/eeJing^ 
places, according to the Seafons of the Tear. 

All harts change their manner of feeding 
every month i and as Novemler is the con- 
clufion of their rutting-time, I (ball begin 
with that month : in this they feed in heatha 
and broomy places. 

In December they herd together, and 
withdraw themfelves into the llrengths of 
the forefts, to (belter themfelves from the 
cold winds, fnows and frofts, and feed ock. 
the holm trees, elder trees, brambles, or 



H A R 

any green thing they can find ; tud if it 
friows, they will (kin or peel the trees like a 


In January^ February^ and March, they 
leave herding, but will keep four or five 
in company, and in the corners of the foreft 
will feed on the winter-pafturc, fomerioies 
making their incurfions into the neighbour* 
ing corn fields, if they can perceive the 
blades of wheat, rye, or the like, appear 
above ground. 

In Jprsl and JWiy, th«y reft in their thick* 
ets and other bufhy and Ihady places^ during 
that feafon, and ftir very little till rutting^ 
time unlefs they aredifturbed. 

There afc fome harts fo cunning, that 
they will have two feveral layers to harbour 
in, a good diftance one from the other/ and 
will frequently change (for their greater fe- 
curity) from the one to the other, taking 
dill the benefit of the wind. 

In thcfc oionths they go not to the foil, by 
reafon of the moifture of the fpring, and 
the dew that continually overfprcads the 


In June^ July, and Augufty they are in the 
pride of their greafc,^and do rcfort to fpring- 
coppices and corn-fields, only they feldom 
go where rye or barley grows. 

In September and OSober^ they leave their 
thickets apd go to the rut, during which 
feafon thcfy have no certain place either for 
food or harbour* He ought not to come 
too early into the fprings or hewts where he 
thinks the hart feedeth, and is at relief, for 
they ufually go to their layers in the fprings; 
and if they be old, crafty deer, they will re- 
turn to the border of the coppice, and there 
liftcn whether they can hear any approach- 
ing danger, and if they once chance to vent 
the huntfman or the hound, they will in- 
ftantly diflodge. 

Now is the huntfman's proper time : let 
faim beat the outfides of the fprings or thick- 
ets ; if he find the track of a hart or deer, 
he ought to obferve whether it be fre{h, 
which may be known by the following to- 
kens ; the dew will be beaten off*, the foil 
firefli, or the ground broken, or printed with 


other tokens i fo he may judge his game 
lately went that wliy. 

Having found his flot or treading, and the 
hound fticking well upon it, let him hold 
himfliort; for he (hall draw better being 
. fo held than if he were let at length of the 
I learn; and thus let him draw till he is conne 
to the covert, if polfible, taking notice, by 
the way, of the flot, falls, entries, and the 
like, till he hath harboured htm. 

Having done this, let him plafii down 
fmall twigs, fome above and fome below, 
as he ihall think fit ; and then while the 
hound is hot, let him beat the outfides and 
make ring-walks twice or thrice about the 
wood, one while by the great and open 
ways, that he may help himfelf by the eye i 
another while through .the thickets and co- 
verts, for fear lefi: his hounds (hould over* 
(hoot it, having ftiH better fcent in the co^ 
vert than highways. 

If he is in doubt, whether the hart is gone 
out of the ring- wallcs, or fears he has drawn 
amifs, then let him go to the marks that he 
plafhed, and draw counter, till he may take 
up the fcwmet. 

Dire^ious for harbouring a Stag^ 

The harbonrer having taught his hound 
to draw mute always round the outfide of 
the covert, as foon as his hound challenges, 
which he knows by his eager fliourifhing and 
ftraining his learn, he is then to feek for his 
flot ; if he finds the heel thick, and the toe 
fpreading broad, thefe are fie;ns that it is an 
old deer, efpecially if it is fringed, that is 
broken on both the fides* 

And if the ground^be toohard to make 
any judgment from the flot, he muft draw 
into the covert, as he pafles obferving the 
fize of the entries ; the larger and higher, 
the older the deer : as alio his croppings of 
the tenders as he pafles ; the younger the 
deer the lower ; the older the deer' the higher 
are the branches. 

He ought alfo to obferve his fewmifliings 
as he pafles, the largenefs of which befpeaks 
the largenefs of the deer : he inuft alfo foe 


curious \n obFcf vingp tht fniying«pofl:> which 
is u£bally the laft opportimity he has to judge 
by; the eldefl: deer fraying higheft againft 
the largeft trees, and thefe being found, it 
may be concluded his harbour U not far 

Therefore he ought to draw with more 
circumfpeAioni checking the drawing- 
hound to fecure him from fpendiog when be 
comes fo near a3 to have the deer in the 
wind, which when you* have difcovered by 
his cagcmefs that draws him, let him retire 
fiime diftance back, and round the place 
with the hound, firft at a confiderable dif« 
tance> and then if he finds him not difttirbed, 
kt him make a fecond round within that $ 
and this will not only fecure you that he is 
in the harbour, but will alfo fecure his con-- 
tinuahcc there } for he will not, (except he 
be forced) pafs that taint your hound left in 
the rounding of him. 

. So that having broke a boivgh for his di-^ 
refUon» be may ait. any time unharbour that 

How to find a Hart lofi tbt TSigbt hifore. 

A huntfman may fail of killing a hart di- 
vers ways ; fometimes by reafon of great 
heat^ror by being overtaken with the night, 
or the like« 

If it ihould h^pen fo do as follows : 

Firft, they who follow the hounds, muft 
ipark the place where they left the chace, 
and at break of day bring the blood*hound 
to it with the kennel after him. 

If any houad vents, whom he knows to be 
no Itar nor faabler^ he ihall put his hound 
to it, whooping twice, or blowing two notes 
wtthhi&horn>to call on all his fellows about 
himi and if he fisds'thac the hart is gone 
ioto ibme likely covert or grove, then muft 
he^lraw his hounds about it, and if he there 
renews the flot ^ view, let him firft con* 
itder whether it be right or not ; if it be 
right let him blow his horn. 

And if he happens to find five or fix lay- 
crS). let it not feem ftrange, for harts hunted 
and 4><3nft do fre()ucntly make many layers 

H A R 

together, becaufe they cannot ftand, but lie 
and feecL 

Harts, which are hunted, moft commonly 
runup the wind, and ftrait forwards as faras 
they are able, and finding any water or foil, 
do ftay a longtime therein, by which means 
their joints are fo benumbed and (liffened, 
that coming out, they cannot go far, nor 
ftand up long, and therefore are forced to 
take up with any harbour they can find which 
may be a prefent covert to therh. In the 
feeking of a hart in high woods, you muft 
have regard to two things } that is, the 
thickets of the foreft, and the feafon. 

If it be in very hot weather, gnats, horfe* 
fiies, and the like, drive the deer out of the 
high woods, and they difperfe themfelves in- 
to fmall groves and thickets, near places of 
good feeding. 

According to the coverts which are in the 
foreft, fo muft the huntfman make his enqui* 
ry ; for fometimes the hart lies in the tufcs 
oif white thorn, fon^times under little trees^ 
other whiles under gteat trees in the high 
woods and fometimes in the fkirts of theto- 
reft, under the (belter of little groves and 

And therefore the huntfman mu(l make 
his ring-^watk large or fmall, according to 
the laiigenefs of thofe harbours or coverts. 

Haw to wtbariour a Hsirt and cafi of $bt^ 



When the relays are wicll ftt and placed, 
let the huntfman with bis pole W4lk before* 
the kennel of hounds, and being come 'to 
the blemifiies, let him take notice of the 
(lot, and fuch other marks as may be obferyed 
from the view of the deer, in order that he 
mav know whether the hounds run riot or 

Then the huntfman muft caft abrolid about 
the covert, to difcover the hart when he id 
unharboured, the better to diftingutih hin) 
by his head or otherwife. 

• The hart being unharboured, let all the 
bounds be caft off, then crying one and all, 


H A R 

Tt bim^ to bim^ ^bafs be^ tbaCs be, with 
other fuch words of encouragement. 

If the blood-hound, in drawing, chance 
to over-ihoot, and draw wrong or counter, 
then the huntfman mud draw him back, 
faying, J?^*, back^ Soft, Joft^ until he hath 
fet him right again \ and if he perceive that 
the hound bath mended his fault, by his 
kneeling down and obferving the flot or 
portS|» he muft then cherifli him, by clapping 
him on the back, and giving him his encou- 
raging words ; thus muft he draw on with 
his hounds till he defcries the deer. 

Some deers are fo cunning and crafty, 
that when they are unharboured from their 
layer, they will coaft round about to find 
fome other deer, whereby the hounds may 
bp confounded in the change of hunts. 

If the huntfman have the hart in view^ 
he ought fttU to draw upon the (lot> blow- 
ing and hallooing till the hounds are come 
in. When he finds they are in full cry, and 
tak« It right, he may then mount, keeping 
binder the wind and coaft, to crofs the hounds 
that are in chace, to help them at default, if 
need requires. A huntfman ought never to 
come nearer to the hounds in cry, than fifty 
or fixty paces, efpecially at the firft uncoup- 
Ung9 or. at cafting off the relays; fi^rit a 
hart make doublings, or wheel about or 
acrofs before the hounds,(as he feldom does) 
if then you come in too haflily, you will 
fpoil the flot pr view, and fo the hounds, 
for want of fcent, will be apt to over-ftioot 
the chace. 

But if after you have hunted an hour, the 
huntfman perceives that the hart makes out 
end-ways before the hounds, and that they 
follow in full cry, taking it right, then he 
may come in nearer, and blow a recheat to 
the hounds to encourage them. 

Hereupon the hart will frequently feek 
other deer at layer, and rouze them, on 
p^rpofe to make the hounds hunt change, 
and will lie down in fomeof their layers fiac 
upon his belly, and fo fuffer the hounds to 
over-flioot him j and that they may not 
either fcent or vent him, he will gather up 
ajl his four feet under, his belly,, and will 
blow or breathe on fome moift place of the 


ground, fo that the bounds may pafs by him 
polfibly, though within a yard^ and never 
vent him. 

For which caufe huntfmen (hould blemiih 
at thofe places, by which they fee the hart 
enter into a thicket, to the end, that if the 
hounds ihould fall to change, they may re- 
turn to thofe blemifties, and put the hounds 
to the right flot and view, until they have 
rouzed and found him again. 

A hart has anothcFway to bring the hounds 
to change, and that is when he fees himfelf 
clofely purfued, and that he cannot fliun 
them, he will break into one thicket after 
another to find dattt^ rouzing and herding 
with them, continuing fo to do fometimes 
above an hour, before he will part from them 
or break herd. 

Finding himfelf fpent, he will break herd 
and fall a doubling and croifing in fome hard 
highway that is much beaten, or elfe in fome 
river or brook, in which he will keep as long 
as his breath will permit him ; and if he be 
far before the hounds, it may be then he wilt 
ufe the former device, in gathering his legs 
under his belly, as he lies flat along upon 
fome hard dry place. 

Sometimes he will take foil, and fo cover 
hitnfelf under the water, that you fliall per- 
ceive nothing but his nofe. / •' 

In this csJe the huntfman niuft hare a 
fpecial regard to his old hounds, who wili 
hunt leifurely and fearfully, whereas the 
young hounds will over-flioot their gaoxc. 
. If the hounds happen to be . at a default, 
and hunt in ieveral companies^ th^h it may 
be guefled that the hart hath brokea herd, 
from the frefli deer, and that the ffe^. deer 
have feparated themfelves alfo: thea notice 
is to be taken how the old ftaunch hounda. 
make it, and to obferve the floti and whei\e 
you fee any of the old hounds* chaUepgc,' 
cheriih and encourage that hound or hounds,. 
haftening the reft in to him> crying hi^-k:. 
to fuch a hound, calling hi'm by his namcu' * 
Here it is to be noted, that they cannot 
nrake it fo well in the hard highways as in' 
other places, becaufc they cannot hawCithcre 
fo.perfeft a fcent, . either by reafoni of i the. 
tracks or footing of divers forts of beafts; lor/. 

* by 


H A It 

*bjr r^afon of the fun drying up the moiftare, 
fo that the duft covcreth the flot. Now in 
fuch places (fuch is the natural fubtlcty of 
the bcaft for fclf-prefervation) the hart will 
make nnany crolTings and doublings, hold- 
ing them long together, to make the hounds 
give over the chace. 

In this cafe, the firft care of the huntfman 
k to make good the head, and then draw 
round apace j firft down the wind, though 
deer ufually go up the wind $ and if the 
way is tod hard to flot, then be fure to try 
far enough