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Full text of "The sportsman's directory; and park & gamekeeper's companion: being a series of instructions, in ten parts, for the chase in its various classes ... with copious directions for trapping and destroying vermin, and detecting the operations of the poacher, to which is added an appendix, containing numerous valuable receipts, and useful abstracts of the game laws, and the laws of coursing"

571 







THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



THE 

SPORTSMAN'S DIRECTORY; 



BEING 

A SERIES OF INSTRUCTIONS, IN TEN PARTS, 

FOR 

THK CHASE IN ITS VARIOUS CLASSES: COURSING SHOOTING FISHING 

THE PRESERVATION OF GAME AND DECOYS SELECTION AND 

TRAINING OF THE POINTER AND SPANIEL BREEDING 

PHEASANTS PARTRIDGES RABBITS, ETC. 

WITH 

COPIOUS DIRECTIONS FOR TRAPPING AND DESTROYING VERMIN, AND 
DETECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE POACHER. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

AN APPENDIX, 

Containing numerous valuable Receipts, and useful Abstracts of the Game 
Laws, and the Laws of Coursing. 



BY JOHN MAYER, 

GAMEKEEPER. 



THE SEVENTH EDITION, 

Comprising the most recent Changes in the Theory and Practice of Sporting. 



LONDON: 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. 

MDCCCXLV. 



LONDON . 
GEORGE WOODFALL AND SON, 

ANGEL COURT, SKINNER STREKT. 



PEEFACE. 



THAT conventional diffidence of tone, which is 
the ordinary characteristic of a preface, may con- 
veniently be dispensed with in an introduction to 
a seventh edition. Some half dozen years ago, 
the revision of John Mayer's quaint, honest little 
manual, for the professional sportsman, was en- 
trusted to the Editor of the present volume, who 
then almost wholly re-wrote it, and made such 
additions as rendered it, so far as it went, com- 
plete. The sixth edition being consumed, and 
the changes which time always brings about having 
affected some of its details, the Publishers resolved 
upon having them amended, and offering the old 
Gamekeeper a seventh time for public patronage 
and approval. He who has once again to crave 
allowance for his homely original, has the grateful 
duty to perform of returning his acknowledgments^ 



IV PBEFACE. 

for the flattering reception already extended to 
hisprotegg, added to the pleasant hope of success 
for his present, from the prosperity of his former 
venture. 

London, January, 1845. 



CONTENTS. 



PART THE FIRST: THE CHASE. 

PAGE, 

Stag Hunting ......... 1 

Fox Hunting . ....,. 4 

Hare Hunting . 9 

Otter Hunting 12 

Badger Hunting ........ 12 

Training Hounds 13 

Coursing . . . .. . . . . .17 

PART THE SECOND : SHOOTING. 

Use of the Gun 20 

Flint and Detonating Guns 22 

Beating for Game 26 

Deer Shooting 28 

Pheasant Shooting . 30 

Breeding Pheasants '.31 

Partridge Shooting . . 33 

Grouse Shooting . . . . . . . .34 

Woodcock Shooting 36 

Snipe Shooting ......... 37 

Wild-fowl Shooting 38 

Dotterel Shooting 40 

DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 
Breeding, Selection, Training, Treatment . . . .41 

Selection .46 

Training. To break the Spaniel ...... 50 

To break the Pointer 50 

Treatment . 54 

Directions for the Gamekeeper . . . . . .57 



VI CONTENTS. 



PART THE THIRD. 

PAGE 

Preservation of Game . . 59 

Preservation of Fish . 63 

Decoys for Ducks 65 

Pigeons . 67 

Description of the various sorts of Pigeon ... .70 

PART THE FOURTH. 

Various ways of taking Pheasants , . . . .76 

Resorts of Partridges . . . . . . . .80 

Various ways of taking Partridges . . . . .82 

Taking Partridges with Birdlime .83 

To take Woodcocks by Draw-Nets, &c 84 

To take "Woodcocks with Birdlime . . . . .93 

PART THE FIFTH. 

Methods for taking Small Birds ... . . . .94 

To take Birds with Birdlime 101 

For taking Small Birds with Lime Twigs . . . .105 

Another Method 108 

To take Wheat-Ears, Larks, and Quails . . . .110 

PART THE SIXTH: RABBITS. 

Rabbit Shooting 116 

Ferreting Rabbits 117 

PART THE SEVENTH. 

Fish Ponds 118 

Fishing . 119 

To take and preserve Eels . . - . . . . .126 
Preservation of Live Baits for Angling . . . . .127 



CONTENTS. Vll. 



PART THE EIGHTH : VERMIN TRAPPING. 

PAGE 

For taking Foxes 128 

The Polecat 132 

The Stoat 133 

The Weasel 134 

The Mole 135 

Buzzards, Kites, Hawks, &c 137 



PART THE NINTH. 

Technical Terms used in Sporting . . . . .142 
Colours and Marks of Dogs 147 

PART THE TENTH: RECIPES. 

To destroy Rats 148 

For trapping Woodlarks and Nightingales .... 148 

Food for them 149 

Rheumatism in Dogs 149 

To make a Dog inclinable to copulate . . . . .150 
Hoveling in the Lights . . . . . . .150 

Mange 150 

Red Taint or Mange 152 

To make a Dog fine in his Skin .152 

To destroy Worms ..... ... 152 

Another 152 

Another 152 

Distemper 153 

Another 155 

Worms 156 

Wounds 156 

For a green Wound ....... . 157 

To cure Mange without Scent 157 

Purges 157 

When a Dog strips in his Feet 157 

Sore feet . ... .158 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
External Canker in the Ear . . . . . . .158 

Another 158 

Internal Canker .159 

Swelling after bleeding . . . . . . .159 

Canker in the Teeth 159 

Films over the Eyes, Clouds, &c. . . . . . .160 

Old Wounds or Sores 160 

Distemper in the Kidneys 160 

Another 160 

Strains . .161 

When a Dog looks heavy, &c .161 

Swelled Seats 161 

Bruises in the Joints . . . . . . . .161 

To prevent Hydrophobia 161 

When a Dog is Poisoned 162 

Torn Ears 162 

Staggers and Fits 162 

Bilious Complaints in Dogs . . . . . . .162 

Food for Greyhounds when Training . . . . .163 

Fleas 163 

To Cure the Skins of Dogs, Foxes, &c., &c 163 

How to administer Medicine to Dogs 164 

To case-harden Locks . 165 

To colour the Steel Furniture of a Gun . . . . .165 
To bring the Grain up in Gun Stocks, &c. . . . .165 
To preserve Gun Barrels from Bust . . . . .166 

To colour Gun Barrels . 166 

To render Boots Waterproof ...... 167 

APPENDIX. 

Selections from the Game Laws, more immediately appertain- 
ing to the Duties of Gamekeepers 169 

The Laws of Coursing 176 



THE 

SPORTSMAN'S DIRECTORY. 



PART THE FIRST : THE CHASE. 

STAG-HUNTING. 

THE red-deer, or stag (cervus elephas), with the excep- 
tion of the roe, the only species of the deer tribe indi- 
genous to this country, is still an animal of chase in 
England, though no longer drawn for, or hunted as a 
wild animal. Stag-hunting, as a wild sport, gradually 
decreased, as the inclosure of waste lands and a high 
system of cultivation advanced. The only county in 
which it now exists is Devon, where the extensive 
moors still occasionally afford a run with a wild stag. 
Though, as a rural sport, it is entitled to a notice here ; 
from its very partial existence, a brief allusion to its 
details will be sufficient for all ordinary purposes. 

The stag-hound, once so renowned, is no longer bred 
for, or used in, this description of chase. In the Royal 
Kennel, the most extensive, as well as perfect stag- 

B 



2 THE CHASE : STAG-HUNTING. 

hunting establishment in Great Britain, the hreed con- 
sists of careful crossings of the purest fox-hound blood 
in the kingdom. With the exception of a more rigid 
discipline, necessary in organizing an absolute obedience 
in the field, the treatment of the stag-hound and the 
fox-hound is the same. The method of capturing and 
treating the stags, intended for the use of the field 
during the season, is a novel feature, however, in the 
annals of the chase, but a most important item in the 
sport of stag-hunting. The system of taking them 
depends, of course, mainly, upon local circumstances ; 
that adopted in Windsor Forest is thus pursued. As 
soon as a herd of stags is met with, it is given chase to 
by a mounted party. From the season of the year, 
(August or September,) the deer, fat and unfit for strong 
or continued exertion, are soon blown and easily over- 
taken. The individual to be captured, once fixed upon, 
the slightest demonstration ensures his rejection by the 
herd ; he is abandoned and driven away. He now be- 
comes an easy prey. A burst of a mile or two forces 
him to take soil. There he is permitted to remain till the 
keepers with their lassos come up ; the noose is thrown 
around his antlers ; he is bound and consigned to a 
cart. Should he bolt from the water during the operation 
of lassoing, a rough kind of greyhound, trained for the 
purpose, is slipped at his haunches, who seizes and holds 
him till he is secured. The stag intended for the field is 
kept upon dry food, hay, beans and corn, his treatment 
being as artificial as the purpose for which he is meant. 



THE CHASE : STAG-HUNTING. 3- 

Outlying stags are occasionally drawn for. When un- 
harboured and imprimed, they will make head straight 
across the country ; and when closely pursued will 
return to the herd, put up another, and sink into his 
place, particularly when in the grease, by which means 
they save one another. To prevent the change, you 
should take the marks of your stag. 

The buck (the male fallow-deer) will do the same ; 
running, however, a smaller ring, the former being more 
venturous. They haunt, in November, in furze and thick 
shrubs ; in December, in high slopes ; January, in young 
wheats and rye ; February and March, in thick bushes ; 
April and May, in coppices and springs ; June and July, 
in out- woods and purlieus, near young corn. 

When you are in search for outliers, either stag or 
buck, go up wind early in the mornings, to find them at 
relief or feed, when you may watch them to cover. 
This done, go for a bloodhound ; take him upon the 
lyam, or cord ; try the ring walks, entries, goings out, 
&c. ; and where you find fresh view or slot, and 
furnishings in the rides and glades, make blemishes and 
plashes in the slope. These, in case your dog over- 
shoot, will enable you to draw counter and recover your 
beat. You will know when you are near the stag, by 
the dog's bearing hard upon the lyam, and beginning to 
lapise, or open, which you must prevent. When found, 
if he is for a hunt, have the hounds upon a side lay, near 
where you think he will pass. Rouse him up ; when 
imprimed, loose your hound, and give the signal for 

B 2 



FOX-HUNTING. 



laying the pack upon his trail. As he tires, his coat 
becomes black. He will then lurk, skulk, and sink 
lying down with his legs doubled under his belly, and 
his nose to the ground, to prevent the scent flying. 
Hounds are then likely to overshoot him ; in that case 
the system for his recovery is the same as when fox- 
hounds are at fault, and will be found treated at large 
under that division of the chase. 

The ceremonials formerly used on the death of a stag 
are become obsolete in this country. Some of those 
practised ;on the Continent are singular enough. In 
Germany all who are present at the death are required 
to pull off their gloves, or redeem them by a fee to the 
huntsman ; the unfortunate Louis XVI. never failed to 
take off one of his gloves on such occasions. 



FOX-HUNTING. 

As far back as the reign of Richard the Second, the fox 
is found to have been an animal of chase ; but hounds ex- 
clusively kept for his pursuit have not existed more than 
a century and a half. During that period the whole sys- 
tem of fox-hunting has undergone a change, not alone as 
regards the chase itself, but even the time of day dedi- 
cated to it. As, however, an historical 'notice of that 
sport does not suit the purpose of this book, we at once 
proceed to offer the best practical hints for the manage- 
ment of fox-hounds in the field, and to suggest how best 



FOX-HUNTING. 5' 

science may operate in furtherance of the modern taste 
for that most popular of British rural sports. 

In drawing for your fox, the size and nature of the 
cover, and the state of the weather, must be principally 
your guides. With small patches of gorse, the only 
general rule to be observed is, to suit the strength 
thrown in to the space to be drawn . A large body of 
hounds, in a small cover, will chop more foxes than they 
will unkennel. In one of moderate extent, with calm 
weather, draw up wind, that he may not hear you too 
soon ; in a storm, cross upon the wind, lest you come 
upon him before he is aware that hounds are near him. 
The hour of trial for a huntsman is that with which the 
business of the day commences. When you throw your 
hounds in, cheer them as if your heart was in your 
voice. Let all you do be done with animation. Cheer 
them as they draw ; it gives life to yourself, to them, 
to your field; remember spirit is the very essence of 
fox-hunting. Never lend yourself to assist hounds in 
chopping a fox ; do not be deceived about the necessity 
for blood recollect stag-hounds do not want for dash, 
and they rarely taste it. Should a fox by accident be 
chopped, if the cover be small, do not let them eat him in 
it ; nothing is so likely to cause its being abandoned for 
the future. 

When your fox breaks, do not suffer him to be 
tally'd till well clear of the cover, as it may head him 
back into the mouths of the pack. Once fairly away, 
get the body of hounds upon him if you can ; but do not 






6 FOX-HUNTING. 

go without some strength. Blow your horn, that the 
field, and your whips in particular, may know that he 
is gone. These should cheer and not rate to cry; hounds 
should be taught to regard the first tongue thrown as a 
sound to he flown to with pleasure not a signal to he 
obeyed by crack of whip. When they settle to the 
scent, keep well on their line, with your eye to the body, 
as the least likely to overrun it. 

Should they check, let your first cast make good the 
head ; to know where he did not go is next in import- 
ance to the knowledge of where he did. Bear in mind 
this is the most trying of all difficulties; the first check 
is the moment of greatest peril. Hounds rarely check 
upon a fox that is forward, unless from taint ; if he has 
turned, he has been headed, or has fixed upon a point 
which he has determined to make good. Do not now 
get among your hounds, nor suffer the whips to scatter 
them. Get them speedily back to the spot up to 
which you know they brought him ; and, once there, let 
them spread and use their natural sagacity. If you re- 
quire to cover a large space, make two divisions, cast- 
ing one yourself, your first whip doing the same with 
the other. Let it be ever present to you, that, while you 
are at fault, your fox s not ; and that, as the distance 
increases between you, the chances multiply fifty-fold in 
his favour. When hounds are to be stopped, the less 
threatening the better ; they should not be allowed to 
associate the ideas of fear and the field together. When 
hallooing to a scent, take care that you do not drown the 



POX-HUNTING. 7 

note of a hound that has thrown tongue; trot quietly up 
to a cold scent, bringing hounds up on their mettle most 
likely will cause them to run on the expectation of it. 
If you have viewed your fox to ground, and it he such 
an earth as you can bolt him from while the pack is on 
fire, let them have him, unless some strong reasons in- 
duce you to spare his life. Hounds are little served by 
blood when they are cooled, and their courage is down ; 
a fox thrown among them after an hour or two spent in 
digging is only a fox sacrificed, and one more chance of 
a blank day. The change of the hunt is an accident 
impossible to guard against, and very difficult of detec- 
tion. Your staunchest houmis will generally keep to 
the first scent, and you must use your knowledge of 
your pack in such cases as your safest resource. It will 
serve you to bear in mind that the scent of a dog-fox is 
much stronger than that of a vixen. 

The head whipper-in must be completely under the 
command of the huntsman, always maintaining his 
halloo, stopping the hounds that divide or run from it, 
and getting immediately forward with them to the 
huntsman. His station, whilst drawing the c x overs, 
is always on the side opposite to the huntsman, keeping 
near enough to him however to hear arid obey his 
halloo. While the huntsman is riding to his head 
hounds, the whipper-in may be useful in various ways ; 
he may clap forward to any great earth that may by 
chance be open; he may sink the wind to halloo, or 
mob a fox when the scent fails ; he may keep him off 



8 FOX-HUNTING. 

his foil, stop the tail hounds, and get them forward; 
and has it frequently in his power to assist the hounds. 
The most essential part of fox-hunting, the making and 
keeping the pack steady, depends entirely on the first 
whipper-in, as the huntsman should seldom rate, and 
never flog a hound. 

In turning his hounds, the whipper-in should per- 
form his office as quietly as possible : if he rate and 
crack^ his whip, they cannot be expected to draw : 
naturally they will throw up their heads, and leave so 
much ground untried. If they draw towards the 
huntsman, he should let them alone, merely riding be- 
hind them in his direction. Always let him hit the 
hound offending first, and rate him by name after : he 
need not spare the thong if the fault be one deserving 
punishment, but hit him always behind the shoulder, or 
as far from his head as possible. Rioting, a generous 
fault, is to be cured by vigorous and decisive measures ; 
for skirting, there is rarely any remedy except the halter. 
When difficulties occur, the less the speculative opinions 
of the field are listened to the better. Let a huntsman 
then watch narrowly his trustworthy hounds, and at the 
same time weigh the probable points that his fox would 
make : thence only can he hope for assistance, or coun- 
sel to be relied on. 

When there are various scents, and the hounds di- 
vide, so as to make it uncertain which is the hunted 
fox, let the whipper-in stop those hounds farthest down 
the wind, as they can hear the others, and will reach 



HARE-HUNTING. 9 

them soonest ; it is useless to attempt stopping those 
up the wind. In heathy countries, in dry weather, 
foxes will run the roads ; and if gentlemen then ride 
close upon the hounds, they may drive them miles to no 
purpose without any scent, as high-mettled fox-hounds 
will seldom stop whilst horses are close at their heels. 
Sheep and hirds, by their running and chattering, often 
give indications of the point of the lost fox. These, 
however, and many such, are more points of practice 
than general rules for fox-hunting. The ordinary code 
of field instructions is comprised in the observations 
which we have here epitomised : they are the charts by 
which the huntsman may steer ; it must depend upon 
his own skill and care, to turn them to profitable ac- 
count. 



HARE-HUNTING. 

TIME, that changes all things, has not been idle with 
this division of the chase. Not only is the system of 
hunting different to that formerly pursued, but the 
kind of hound used for it is essentially altered. In- 
stead of the slow, deep-mouthed southern, the diminu- 
tive beagle, or harrier, a sort of composition between 
both, the dwindled fox-hound, is now generally em- 
ployed in hare-hunting. If we understand by the 
word harrier, the dog constituting a pack of hare- 
hounds, we shall find him not of any peculiar species, 
but a combination of various breeds suited to the 



10 HARE-HUNTING. 

country for which they are intended. Hares now are 
never trailed to their forms. In drawing for them in 
the open, the huntsman will do well to remember that 
on their seats they have little or no scent, and that 
when started in cover they will frequently hunt the 
hounds for the purpose of making foil. If the scent be 
true, the cry will grow more faint ; if it be forward, it 
will increase ; this is the best guide when hounds are 
hunting out of sight, though it is, by no means, at all 
times to be relied upon. If you hear your hounds 
break cover, without being able to discover for what 
point they are making, it will assist you to know that a 
hare almost invariably faces the wind. 

Once on foot, you will find her make use of many 
artifices, such as running to a head, heading back, 
thereby foiling the ground ; then throwing two or three 
times, and making head again, which puts the dogs to 
a check, causing them to overshoot, and gives her an 
opportunity of throwing in again, and returning on the 
foil. In this case, make your casts counter till you 
come to her home, where you will find her. Some- 
times, when she is very hard run, she will take vault : 
sometimes, after several throws, she will lie down, take 
to the water, &c., and let the hounds overshoot. The 
more that good-seasoned hounds are left to themselves, 
the better they will hunt, the more sport they will 
afford, and the more surely kill : in general, they are 
too much hallooed. A hare should be patiently followed 
through all her doubles, for in this consists the fair 



HAKE-HUNTING. 11 

sport of hare-hunting. Rememher that stillness and 
silence are indispensable. Should she be headed back, 
which often happens, either from the speed of the dogs, 
or from her constant aim to double, the pack will gene- 
rally overrun the scent : it is therefore proper to keep 
a considerable distance behind the dogs, that, left to 
their own efforts, they may perceive their loss, turn, 
and recover. The greatest difficulty with which the 
huntsman of harriers has to contend, is the chance of 
running heel; hounds are so fond of scent that they 
will hunt when any is to be found. An intimate know- 
ledge of the disposition of each hound in his pack, is 
his best refuge in such dangers. Let him sit quietly 
and watch them closely. His old hounds will take the 
hint when they see him pull up, and if he be silent, set 
diligently to inquire his reasons. If he then discover 
that they are not confident in carrying it forward, he 
may be certain that they have been running heel. No 
rule can now assist him, save that in lifting his hounds 
he hold his peace. When he speaks they naturally ex- 
pect he has something to communicate of moment, and 
up go their heads to catch it. 

Hares, when out of their knowledge, always run 
well : if they start down wind they seldom return, and 
then hounds may be hallooed, encouraged, and pushed. 
In the field, be careful not to ride over the dogs, speak 
to them in time ; and in roads and paths pull up and 
make way for them. On all occasions, when it is pos- 
sible, avoid riding on the line of your tail hounds : it 



12 OTTER AND BADGER-HUNTING. 

is a practice on every account objectionable : they are 
constantly in jeopardy from it, and wbere scent has 
been overrun, it will probably be irretrievably ruined. 
Let the young huntsman ever bear this maxim in re- 
membrance, that care and patience are the surest sub- 
stitutes for the practice and experience of his elder 
brethren of the craft. 



OTTER-HUNTING, one of our earliest sports, and for- 
merly very popular, is now nearly obsolete. There are 
but very few packs kept in England for the purpose, 
and tjiey are quite private. That the pursuit of this 
most destructive animal, for its extirpation is of infinite 
importance to the lover of the angle, all who know the 
vast mischief done by it to our waters, are aware. In 
1804 one was killed near Leominster, that weighed 
thirty-four pounds and a half. Its age was supposed 
to be eight years ; and it was calculated that during the 
latter four or five, it consumed annually a ton of fish. 
We shall return to the otter when we have to speak of 
the trapping of vermin. 



BADGER-HUNTING is still more rare, but as, occasion- 
ally, instances occur in which a knowledge of the 
animal's habits and resorts may be found useful, it will 
be as well briefly to allude to them. During the day 
he chiefly confines himself to his burrow, a strong earth, 



TRAINING HOUNDS. 13 * 

with numerous ramifications. At night he goes abroad 
in search of his prey. That is the time to hag all his 
entrance holes, and, leaving persons to watch them, to 
commence your chase with a few staunch and resolute 
bull-terriers. Pasture ground, on which cattle have 
fed, is a likely place to find a badger, hunting under the 
dung for grubs : the borders of preserves, too, are fre- 
quently his haunts, as he is very partial to game. Moss 
heaped up in cover, or cow-dung newly disturbed, are 
sure signs that he is not far off. Once put up, he will 
run directly home, where your bags will secure him. 
Fires lighted at his earths will keep him out, if it be 
your object to have a run rather than to make sure of 
the quarry. 



TRAINING HOUNDS. 

FEEDING-TIME is generally chosen for teaching young 
hounds to answer to their names, and for enforcing 
other habits of obedience. The hounds should be called 
singly, and by name, to their meals. Those called 
should immediately approach you, and be taught, when 
touched with the handle of your whip or switch, to 
follow you close. A roll-call should be made of all the 
hounds in and about the kennel, several times in a week. 
Severe discipline should be kept up among them, but 
no periodical or general whippings be resorted to, which 
are at once barbarous and useless. The huntsman, or 
feeder, should sleep within hearing of the kennel, lest 



14 TRAINING HOUNDS. 

his hounds should become disorderly and riotous in the 
night. 

Dogs sometimes take a particular antipathy against 
one, which they will fall on in a body : when symptoms 
of this kind appear, he should be removed. Bitches 
should be withdrawn on the first symptoms of their 
heat, and young unentered dogs separated from the 
pack. Hounds should be well kept between the sea- 
sons, and prevented from growing fat by exercise : a 
good swim in a river once a week, with a long run after 
it, will be found very beneficial. Young hounds should 
be branded on the side with the initials of their owner's 
name, to prevent loss or dispute. Their ears should 
be rounded at six months old in cool weather, that 
they may not bleed too profusely ; but this operation 
should not be performed whilst they are under the in- 
fluence of distemper. 

Spaying is seldom done effectually ; a very skilful 
person should be employed ; for if the bitch be not cut 
clean, she will be troubled with her periodical heats, 
although barren. A young bitch may be spayed about 
a fortnight after her first conception, but probably the 
safest time is whilst she suckles. When spayed bitches 
do well, they are amongst the best of their species, 
being firm-fleshed and good runners, and extremely 
serviceable in a pack which hunts late in the season. 
In breeding, never put an old dog and bitch together ; 
and never breed from either that are unhealthy. It is 
the judicious cross that makes the complete pack : if 



TRAINING HOUNDS. 15 

you find a cross succeed, always pursue it : if a favourite 
dog skirts a little, put him to a thorough line-hunting 
bitch, and such a cross may succeed. Be cautious of 
breeding in and in. Young hounds are usually put out 
to walk, or keep, till old enough to he admitted into 
the kennel; when they return from this their first 
school, become reconciled to the in-door discipline of 
the kennel, and will readily answer to their names, it is 
time to couple them, in order to take them abroad 
to complete their education. Couple dog and bitch 
together as far as practicable. Young ones which are 
troublesome or awkward, may at first be coupled with 
old hounds: they must not be coupled carelessly or 
loosely, or the young dog may slip his collar, and, being 
frightened, stray away. Collars with the owner's name 
should be put on such as it is feared may strav. A 
few couples at a time should be taken out at first, and 
taught to follow the huntsman on foot : they must next 
be taught to follow the horse ; then to run in company, 
without skirting or skulking; to be strictly obedient 
to the voice of the huntsman; to beware of hunting 
improper objects ; to be staunch to the scent they are 
defigned to be entered on ; and then they should run 
one or two trail scents, as trials. It will be now proper 
to lead the fox-hounds amongst those animals which 
they should neither touch nor notice ; the most im- 
portant of which are sheep and deer. A few dogs may 
be uncoupled among the deer or sheep ; attendants, 
being ready with their whips, should walk up and 



16 TRAINING HOUNDS. 

down, caressing those dogs which are quiet, and chiding 
those which notice the sheep ; threatening them with 
the smack of the whip, and calling out perpetually, 
" 'Ware sheep!" not failing to flog those severely which 
are inattentive ; this must be repeated in the most strict 
and severe manner, as often as it may be necessary. 
The fox-hound must next be taught not to run at the 
hare ; and this lesson must be given in the field, as with 
the sheep. 

Young fox-hounds must be first stooped to a vermin 
or strong scent, such as the martin cat, badger, or fox : 
and when once well blooded, they will retain an attach- 
ment to the scent, a fondness which must, however, be 
strengthened by discipline. To make a trail scent, a cat 
may be killed and spread open, and dragged over the 
land intended for the run : some prefer a bunch of red 
herrings. Two or three couple of the steadiest and best 
nosed line-hunting hounds should always be present at the 
training of young hounds, as the example of the former 
is of great service in perfecting the young dogs. The 
old hounds should take this in turn. The young pack 
may now be entered in that part of the country which 
it is intended they should hunt in the season, and be 
blooded to their proper game. For fox-hounds, cubs 
must be found in the covers, or bag foxes provided. 
They should be inured early to the strongest and thick- 
est covers, where the martin cat may be found, whose 
scent is attractive to hounds; only a few couples of 
puppies at a time should join the pack. 



COUKSING. 



COURSING. 

THIS sport comes properly under two heads ; some 
persons keeping greyhounds wholly for the purpose of 
public racing for prizes, others using them merely as 
instruments of private amusement. In both cases, how- 
ever, the rules for breeding, rearing, and training, are 
essentially the same. There is a popular fallacy exist- 
ing in many districts where coursing is only followed 
as a private pastime, that greyhounds for mountains 
and rough wild downs should not be too highly bred. 
There is a passage in Beckford that applies directly to 
such impressions : " I have often heard, as an excuse 
for hounds not hunting a cold scent, that they were too 
high-bred. I confess I know not what that means ; but 
this I know, that hounds are frequently too ill-bred to 
be of any service." 

The fine thorough-bred greyhound, known to all 
coursers, is no new species, (though, until the hare became 
the quarry in coursing, the wiry-haired race was used 
as alone fit to pull down the mountain and forest deer,) 
as, in its silky coat and blood-like shape, it is found in 
most of the pictures of Charles the F^rst. No doubt it 
has since undergone many changes for the better, moie 
especially in the crosses to which it was subjected by 
the skill and industry of the late Lords Orford and 
Rivers. All that the moderate courser of the present day 



18 COURSING. 

has to attend to is, how he manages the best hlood that 
he can now procure at little trouble and moderate out- 
lay: of course the brief treatment of the subject in a 
work of this nature, is not intended for such as keep 
large studs for public running. 

The earlier in the year you breed, the better ; late 
puppies rarely turn out well. When you put a favourite 
sort to the dog, it will be a serviceable precaution to 
have another bitch warded at the same time, which will 
enable you to rear all your litter without injury to the 
dam. The advantage from this system is, that you will 
have trial of all your produce ; when you destroy any, 
you may destroy the best. This was Lord Orford's 
system : he never got rid of a puppy till he had expe- 
rience of his quality. When the whelps are removed, it 
will serve the mother to give her some gentle medicine ; 
three purging balls, one every other morning, will be 
found to set her right sooner than if nature were left to 
herself. For rearing greyhound puppies, the same 
general rules apply as with all others, except that being 
more deHcate they require a greater share of care and 
attention. Their bitterest foe is distemper, so long con- 
sidered as beyond all hope from human aid or skill. 
Modern improvement seems to have, at last, found a 
remedy for that formidable disease : in the Appendix a 
recipe is given, as infallible, upon an authority there is 
every reason to respect. 

The maxim that " the good that is in a horse goes in 
at the mouth," is equally applicable to stock of all de- 



COURSING. 19 

scriptions. Above all, let it be ever present with those 
who rear greyhounds that if neglected in their youth, 
no after process avails them aught. Their food should 
be substantial, such as oatmeal and broth, very thick, 
oatmeal cakes made thick and soaked in tepid milk, and 
flesh hung up so that they may have to use exertion to 
reach it ; the pulling at it giving liberty to the neck and 
strength to the jaws. Never confine them long. Con- 
stant exercise is as necessary to the development of their 
powers as judicious feeding. Let them accompany you 
as much as possible in your rides and walks in the 
former, as they grow in strength and age, increasing the 
speed when an opportunity is afforded of doing so, with- 
out injury to their action, the certain consequence of fast 
work on roads or other hard surfaces. A greyhound, to 
be symmetrical, should be shark-jawed, prick-eared, 
with a long neck, thin withers, deep shoulders, broad 
hooped back, broad loins, flat sides well let down, deep 
gaskins, straight legs, short from the hock to the pastern 
joint, thin feet, pointed, a very long fine stern, and large 
floating veins. It will improve greyhounds' looks, and 
save their health, to dress them daily with a moderately 
hard brush, using a little oil. 



c 2 



20 



PART THE SECOND: SHOOTING. 



USE OF THE GUN. 

THE first object, in acquiring the use of the gun, is 
to get the better of any trepidation or apprehension at 
the moment of discharge ; till this is done, no accuracy 
of aim can be hoped for. In order to this, the learner 
should first shoot at a dead mark, and then proceed to 
sparrows, which in their covey and flight most resemble 
partridges, and are for this reason to be preferred to 
swallows ; besides which, they are a mischievous bird, 
while the latter are highly useful in the destruction of 
insects, and they are too difficult an aim for a young 
beginner. In presenting the piece, place the left hand 
near the guard, almost on a level with the right ; but 
a long or point-heavy piece must be held with the left 
hand farther extended. In taking aim, it is best to 
keep both eyes open. In firing, the point of the gun, 
or sight in a right line from the mark upon the breech, 
should be levelled point-blank with the object; and 
then the finger must instantaneously pull the trigger, 
as on this quickness of the hand the whole art of 
shooting depends. On all occasions look your danger 
full in the face, and steadily at your mark. Partridge 
shooting is generally the first sport attempted by the 



USE OF THE GUN. 21 

young gunner, for which purpose one or two dogs and an 
experienced friend are quite sufficient company. Be 
circumspect and deliberate ; the dogs standing and the 
birds having been sprung, in a moment calculate the 
proper distance at which to fire, and then cock and 
shoulder the piece. Always aim at one particular bird, 
not firing at random at the whole covey, or " into the 
brown of them;" and, till well accustomed to shooting, 
always aim at the object point blank. A bird may be 
permitted to advance from fifteen to thirty yards from its 
springing, before the gun is cocked, and the shot may be 
made from thirty-five to fifty paces distant. Experience 
will soon direct the sportsman to fire full a hand's 
breadth before the bird, at a distance of forty yards, and 
from that to a foot or upwards, should he have a long 
shot. 

In shooting, flying or running, let the object get a 
fair distance before you take the gun up : then throw it 
upon the object at full sight, and pull instantly. The 
finger being a day's march behind, is the principal cause 
of missing, as that gives liberty or time for flinching. 
Never carry your gun with the object, nor shoot before 
it, as it cannot get out in the compass of a point-blank 
shot, and it may turn, in which case your shot will pass 
it. If you are fond of snap-shooting, which is requisite 
in cock and rabbit shooting, mind never to hold full 
upon the object at short distances. If a side shot, take 
its head; if going from you, take its wing. Never 
shoot full at coveys ; called " flanking them," &c. 



22 FLINT AND DETONATING GUNS. 

When you miss, and seem confident that your sight was 
good, depend upon the fault heing in the finger not 
pbeying the eye ; therefore be not intimidated, but en- 
deavour to pull quick the instant you see the gun cover 
the object : you cannot be too sharp ; stretch your eyes 
wide open, and look hard. If you feel disposed to 
flinch, take a sandwich and a glass of brandy; after 
which, stand as still as possible at least five minutes, and 
then proceed. There are many directions in which your 
objects fly and run, but none can get out in the compass 
of a point-blank shot. Pheasants and woodcocks (being 
in cover) will obstruct your sight, by flying right before 
a tree, holding their heads back, to keep the direction ; 
in which case you must immediately step aside. 



FLINT AND DETONATING GUNS. 

THE principle of ignition by percussion cap and detonat- 
ing has now become so general as to have entirely super- 
seded the old plan of discharging sporting guns by means 
of flint and steel. A few of the old school still insist 
that there is nothing like flint ; that the gun so supplied 
shoots stronger than the detonator, while Young Eng- 
land would scorn being seen in the field so appointed. 
The truth is, in point of igniting the charge there is very 
little difference between the time consumed by the two 
principles. If this be so, the superior convenience of 
the detonator can admit of no question. Let your flint 



TO CLEAN DETONATING GUNS. 23 ' 

lock still decorate the sides of pistols and blunderbusses, 
for domestic purposes, but circumvent your game with 
copper caps. As the construction of the detonator differs 
materially from that of the flint gun, the following sug- 
gestions will not be out of place. 



TO CLEAN DETONATING GUNS. 

1. Commence the process by clearing from the sur- 
face of the gun any impurities that may be on it. 

2. Clean perfectly with a wet rag, as soon after use 
as possible, every part of the breech and lock on which 
the detonating powder acts, and the pegs with wet tow : 
should you only do this as a temporary cleansing, rub 
the wet places dry, and give them a coating of oil ; in- 
deed, a wash of oil all over the piece will be no bad 
precaution. 

3. To take the barrels from the stock, place the 
handle of a turnscrew against your breast, and pressing 
the stock against the barrels, slide your fore-finger to the 
end of the screw. This will act as a prop, and steady 
your lift on the bolt's head : during this process, let the 
locks be at half-cock. 

4. Having released your barrels, put them into a pail 
of water, and oil carefully your stock and ramrod. 

5. Fill both barrels with cold water, and rinse them 
till it runs out without being stained ; then place them 
near the fire, with the muzzles downward, and let them 



24 TO CLEAN DETONATING GUNS. 

drain perfectly. Then put clear water into the pail to 
the depth of six or seven inches, and having prepared 
your cleaning rod, work it up and down till the water is 
driven through the pivot holes quite clean : repeat this 
system with hot water and a clean washer. 

6. This done, dry the outside of the barrels, and 
again set them up to drain. In a few minutes dry the 
inside also, by means of a rod tufted with flannel : you 
must change the latter frequently. You may ascertain 
whether your work be perfectly done by placing the 
peg-hole opposite the flame of a candle ; if it be clear, 
out goes the light. 

7. Finish with a strong brass brush till you remove 
the lead ; after brushing it lustily up and down for a 
few minutes, turn the muzzles downwards, strike them 
against a piece of soft wood, and the lead will drop out. 
Do not force the brush too near the breech. 

This chapter on the detonating gun cannot be more 
appropriately wound up than with the following direc- 
tions, published several years ago in a pamphlet written 
by that eminent artist, Purdey. 

" Load with the cocks down, which prevents the pow- 
der from being forced out of the pegs that receive the 
copper caps. When ramming down the shot, observe 
the distance the end of the brass worm is from the muz- 
zle of the barrel, to prevent overcharging. Always ram 
down hard. 

" Prime the last thing : otherwise, in ramming down 



TO CLEAN DETONATING GUNS. 25- 

the wadding, the powder will be driven into the caps, 
and become so firmly compressed as to destroy their 
effect. 

" Should the caps be put on by mistake, prior to 
loading, force them off with a turnscrew, and replace 
them with new ones. 

" Never put the cocks down upon the caps when the 
gun is loaded, as it compresses and spoils the detonating 
powder, and is very dangerous, the cocks being liable to 
be lifted up by catching hold of any substance, and 
their falling will explode the gun. If left at half-cock, 
this cannot possibly happen. 

" Keep the copper caps dry ; if exposed to the fire 
for a few minutes, when required for use in damp wea- 
ther, they will never fail. Take care that no oil or 
grease gets to them. 

" The caps made with the purified detonating powder 
should always be used in preference to those which are 
made with fulminating mercury, and called ' anti-corro- 
sive.' This powder is dangerous, as it inflames with 
very slight pressure, and detonates with such extreme 
violence, as frequently to burst the shields of the cocks, 
and split the pegs. It also- wears them out in one 
quarter the time the other does, and is likewise very 
foul, and will not keep : it injures, moreover, the inside 
of the barrels and breeches. 

" For cleaning the detonating lock as at present con- 
structed, the following implements will be required, as 
also for taking it to pieces previous to the process : A 



26 BEATING FOE GAME. 

spring cramp, several small turnscrews, two or three 
hard tooth-brushes, and a penknife or scraper. 

" In taking the lock to pieces, first let down the cock, 
and having provided means for keeping the various 
screws, &c., distinct from each other, remove the main 
spring, with the aid of the cramp. Next take off the 
bridle; then press the scear against the scear spring, 
and with the other hand push the cock back as far as it 
will go. Let the scear spring then go back, and the 
scear pivot will come out easily, which will permit the 
scears being removed. Unscrew the scear spring screw, 
and lift out the spring. 



BEATING FOR GAME. 

You will know if there is game in your beat by 
scratchings, buskings, racks, and paths in the fields and 
covers; creeps and muses at the sides and in the 
hedges ; crotes and droppings about them ; chalkings 
and markings of woodcocks in the rides round ponds, 
&c., in covers ; mutings of snipes in marshes, meadows, 
fens, spring-heads, &c. Grouse frequent the hang of 
the hills, by the bogs. When they discover you, the 
cock challenges, when they all run or take wing, and 
will go a mile in a straight direction and then drop. 
Pheasants are found in young rough covers, the first 
fortnight ; after which, being disturbed, they go to the 
high slopes, where, the leaves being on, they save them- 
selves for a while, and beat you. Early in mornings, 



BEATING FOB GAME. 27" 

and late in afternoons, you will find them reading : then, 
if your spaniels are good, not hanging on the haunt, 
babbling, and plodding, but quick in taking the "road," 
and knowing the toe from the heel, you will be able to 
get shots at them before they reach the high slope. 

Partridges you will find in turnips, stubbles, rough 
grounds, shady places, clovers, grass, and particularly 
in fresh broken-up woodlands, where there are plenty 
of ants' eggs : these are famous breeding grounds. In 
the pairing season, which is called their wooing time, 
(the proper season for training young dogs,) you will 
find them chiefly in fallows and turnips that are left 
until April : it is then time to leave off, as they are at 
nest or nesting. In the season, when they become wild, 
use babbling spaniels round the fences near turnips, 
which will cause them to run and lose each other : they 
will then lie close, and enable you to pick them up singly. 
You will often see a whole covey take wing, and fly 
straight ahead two or three fields. Many sportsmen 
will pursue and beat very close for them, which is gene- 
rally in vain, as they often take a circuitous route, and 
return scudding under the hedges ; therefore, if you are 
inclined to find them, return, and beat the grounds from 
whence you drove them first. Much fagging might be 
saved gentlemen, by the keeper's going forward and 
beating the bare grounds with a racing terrier, that has 
plenty of tongue. This mode will bring the birds into 
less compass. 

Hares you will find in the standing corn, which they 







28 DEER,- SHOOTING. 

will follow, as long as there is any ; from whence you 
should drive them with beagles, waiting for them at the 
gates, &c. After the corn is cut, they go to the turnips 
and stubbles, where you will generally find them about 
a hundred yards from the sides, some in the fences, c. 
In wet weather they lie on the hills, and in dry weather 
in the valleys. In their breeding time they like damp 
grounds, as it cools them. 

Quails you will find in the stubbles; rails in the stand- 
ing barleys, clovers, &c. ; and woodcocks by the sides 
of the rides, walls, rotten banks, and ponds, in cover : 
where, when you are beating for them, boys should be 
placed on trees, to mark : if you wish not to disturb the 
game, have some to brush, or close-mouthed dogs, which 
they do not much mind. 



DEER-SHOOTING. 

DEER-STALKING, as a wild sport, is, among us, so much 
confined to the remote districts of Scotland, and, even 
there, so dependent upon circumstances wholly local, 
that it is not considered necessary to enter into its details 
in this epitomised volume. In shooting park deer, (an 
operation generally delegated to the gamekeeper,) he 
should be careful to ascertain their ages, and whether 
they be in high condition or not : particularly if the does 
be wet or dry. He should never shoot end-ways. A 
buck should be shot through the head ; a doe through 
the shoulder, as a bloody shoulder is held in high esti- 



DEER-SHOOTING. 29" 

mation. Immediately after they have fallen, run up and 
cut the throat. Be as expeditious as possible in lacing, 
casing, drawing the shoulders, paunching, &c., as the 
fat will pull off with the skin, and the buck, in hot 
weather, will turn green. Some break deer up hot, 
others the next morning : the latter is best. They are 
generally ridden to the gun, though lying in wait for 
them in a tree, or close copse near their walks, will 
answer the purpose in most cases. As these observa- 
tions apply to the duties of the gamekeeper, the follow- 
ing hints will also be of service to him. 

To know a wet doe from a dry one, observe her coat : 
if she is dry you will see little twists of hair sticking up, 
which are called quills : she will set her head and sin- 
gle up high, and appear more round and straight. The 
wet doe looks heavy, stalks along slowly, hanging her 
head and single low. These are the most prominent 
marks, and can scarce be mistaken. Should you want 
to take them to removes, or bucks to stall-feed, if the 
stall or lodge is not constructed properly for that pur- 
pose, build a pen where they are usually fed, near a tree, 
with hurdles double height. Have a gate that will fall 
to and fasten quickly. Feed them till they come in 
freely ; then place yourself in the tree, with a cord tied 
to the gate, by which means you can take them. They 
are sometimes taken with a toil, or net, into wm'ch they 
are driven with a reel made with long feathers, and a 
cord a hundred yards long ; and sometimes a dog is 
seud to drive them in. Where trees stand convenientlv 



30 PHEASANT-SHOOTING. 

across their main walks, tie two lines, one above the 
other, the height they run ; drive them in with a dog. 
When deer are forced, their horns lie straight with the 
neck, which will, when in, entangle them. If they are 
to be stalled, tie their legs, and saw their horns off just 
below the antlers ; blind them with sacking, and then 
take them to stall. 

The best food for them is cut clover-hay and oil-cakes, 
ground and* mixed. Common feed in the park is hay, 
beans, chestnuts, and drum-headed cabbages. When 
taken with the greens, (which you may know by their 
leaving the herd, and lying in wet grounds, when their 
teeth are generally loose,) give them dirty potatoes, 
grown in loamy clay, and clover hay. If they will not 
feed, cram them with barley-meal pellets; and they 
must be housed. There should be vaults, made by the 
sides of hills, in parks, for deer to lodge in when the 
weather is very wet ; and feeding stalls in different parts. 
Vert, (which is all kinds of green wood in a forest,) with 
the beech-mast, makes the venison much finer flavoured 
than park feed ; though this may be much improved, by 
carrying them plenty of browse- wood. Stock may be 
three head per acre, if properly fed. 



PHEASANT-SHOOTING. 



PHEASANTS lie upon corn and stubbles, as long as any 
food is to be found, and in the neighbouring coverts or 
hedi-rows, where they may be seen morning and even- 




BREEDING PHEASANTS. 31 ' 

ing at feeding time. They resort much to the sea-shore, 
when within a moderate distance, being fond of salt, and 
frequent marsh land, if there is proper cover for them. 
Such situations are peculiarly fitted for preserves, if 
there is a supply of wood within a moderate distance. 
Alder, willow, and other aquatics, in springy or marshy 
soils, is a good harbour for them. In winter they roost 
in the middle branches of the oak. Their food, in this 
season is hawthorn berries, insects, and reptiles, or they 
will even feed on carrion. The dogs for shooting phea- 
sants in woods should be the purest bred and strongest 
formed spaniels, such as are not afraid of the thickest 
*and most thorny covers. In extensive woodlands the 
team of spaniels cannot be too numerous or too full of 
tongue. Pheasants and red-legged partridges, which are 
two or three years old, will run till they cray fairly be 
said to be coursed or hunted by the dogmas if aware of 
the gun should they dare to spring. 

As an important kem in this sport, a few practi^H 
rules for breeding pheasants cannot find HBfTFer place 
than subjoined to those for their destruction. 



BREEDING PHEASANTS. 

LET your pheasantry be well constriteted with perches, 
hiding-places made with reeds tied round stakes put up 
along the centre, and boxes round the sides. Your 
stock may be five or six hens to one cock ; they will 
drop their eggs in various places : they must be gathered 



BREEDING PHEASANTS. 

every day, and put into wheat, small ends downwards, 
till you have got a sufficient quantity for a clutch or set- 
ting, which may he from seventeen to nineteen. If you 
want to send them any distance, they must he packed in 
wool. The silk hens are the hest for incubation, the 
heat of the common hens heing apt to shell-bake the 
birds in the eggs. When it so happens, put them into 
water rather more than lukewarm, which will relieve 
them ; you will know when it takes place by the eggs 
moving. When hatched, their first feed should be the 
eggs of ants, fresh curds, and bread, with a small portion 
of chickweed, groundsel, or lettuce, cut fine : all these 
mixed carefully. It will be some days before they will 
eat grain ; till then give them but very little water. Be 
sure to cover the train of your frame before the dew 
falls, and not to uncover it till it is quite off in the morn- 
ing ; such humidity being very hurtful. Remove your 
frame every other morning, first sweeping the dew off 
the grass where you intend to set it : here should be 
plenty of Dutch clover. Feed often, always beginning 
at daybreak. When they will eat grain freely, the other 
food may be gradually left off. After a month, you may 
let them have constant water, and plenty of cabbages. 
If the weather proves cold, give them white peas, or 
small tick beans, w Let them always have plenty of sand 
laid in small heaps ; this will rid them of vermin, and 
keep *^pTri;tTfc^p!>*^pyjpiBd^ KA. scale 

on the end of the tongue : this being removed, apply garlic 
and tar mixed to the wound. Next follow the snickups, 



PARTRIDGE-SHOOTING. 33 

which is a sore upon the rump ; break it, and nip the 
virus out, and apply fresh butter. They must now be 
separated, each put into a box by itself; for if they are 
left together, they will pick the sores and draw each 
other's entrails out. There must be something soft over 
their heads in the boxes, or by jumping they will hurt 
themselves : coarse sacking is proper. After they are 
well, it is better to turn them into the cover you intend 
them for, where should be hiding-places made for them, 
with stakes driven down lined with reeds or straw. 
Wheat sheaves are best, tied at the top and the tails 
spread open ; upon which they will hop, and pick the 
wheat out. These should be near their lodges, and well 
stored with different kinds of grain, plenty of buck- 
wheat, white peas, and tick beans. Let plenty of white 
clover be sown in the pasture grounds which they fre- 
quent. When you go to feed them, always use a whistle, 
which they will come to freely. The same process will 
do for partridges, only you should have the Bantam or 
Spanish hens for sitting. 



PARTRIDGE-SHOOTING. 
NEVER follow coveys which will not lie, birl rise on a 
slight alarm, and fly straight forward to a considerable 
distance ; but patiently wait their return, as they will 
generally, by a circular flight, return to the place from 
whence they were at first flushed. Some drive the 
fences and coverts with noisy spaniels. Leave no part 

D 



34 GROUSE-SHOOTING. 

of the ground untried, as when coveys are separated and 
the birds frightened, and driven about, they may lie in 
places not at all suspected, and sometimes so close, as 
almost to be trodden upon. 

When game i$ scarce, the sportsman must make ex- 
tensive circles, and observe great silence and circumspec- 
tion : some keep spaniels detached, sending them for- 
ward with a keeper, to hunt all the turnips and other 
likely haunts. 

In throwing off young dogs, it may be necessary to 
give them the wind, which they will afterwards in- 
stinctively keep. Shooting-dogs should, as much as 
possible, be brought to attend to signals by the hand ; 
and though under good command they may be allowed 
a pretty extensive range, yet all should be kept as much 
as possible within sight, and young ones ever within 
hearing. 

The wounded partridge may be instantly killed by a 
slight knock on the back of the head against the gun- 
stock. 



% GROUSE-SHOOTING. 

THE Scotch and Welsh mountains are the principal 
places for grouse-shooting. Bed grouse are plentiful in 
the moor-lands of Derbyshire, Lancashire, Cumberland, 
and Yorkshire. They do not now come further than 
Staffordshire. A hardy J^id deep-flewed setter is far 
preferable to the pointer for grouse-shooting. Half a dny 



GROUSE-SHOOTING. 



35 



Grouse 



is quite long enough for the stoutest dog to be employed 
in this labour, at the end of which he should be re- 
lieved. In this way a brace or two of dogs may be fully 
employed, being kept in relay. The shooter shouj 
wear the lightest possible dress, over a flannel shirt anl 
drawers, having his legs and feet well defended, 
can only be killed, at least in any numbers,, in 
weather, and from about eight o'clock 
till you are weary. When the season 
grouse will only lie from ten or eleve 
large shot and the largest piece . 
necessary. If two or more shooters 
should make an extensive circle to 
another remaining behind to drive 
run hundreds of yards forwadj 
is to aim to kill the old COO 



away in order to divert you 

pack will lie still till you may attt 

the head with your gun. To find 

ginning of the season, take a| muni 

as you can hunt steadily togefiiej* 

found and marked down, take up at 

dog. When grouse are wild, a perfoi 

among them will sometimes cause them to' 

very close. The bullet must be perfoi 

holes intersecting each other in the centre. 

of the ball in the air frightens, the birds. Care mi 

taken to give sufficient eleva%>n to the ball 

danger. 




WOODCOCK-SHOOTING. 



WOODCOCK-SHOOTING. 

WOODCOCKS are generally to be found, in the greatest 
abundance, within a few miles of the sea-coast : though 
they traverse the whole country, their haunts are near 
springs and coverts, and where the upper staple of the 
soil is productive of worms. Their creeps, in the early 
part of the season, are in hedge-rows and clumps of 
trees, upon soft heather, among the cover, or on the 
margin of ponds, and in springy bottoms ; afterwards in 
young wood, and in the skirts of woods. The only dogs 
for cock-shooting are setters, or good questing spaniels ; 
and good noses are indispensably necessary, if the birds 
are not plenty. The cock is not easily flushed, but 
conceals itself under the stubs, or any cover ; it is often 
very sluggish. It will often, when marked, be found 
to have run considerably wide, a circumstance which 
must be allowed for. 

Woodcocks rise heavily, with a flapping of the wings, 
and in their flight skim leisurely along the ground, pre- 
senting a fair mark ; when, if missed, they seldom fly far. 
But when flushed among tall trees, they rise with great 
velocity, and louder flapping of the wings ; when they 
have risen so high as to be clear of the trees, they take 
their usual horizontal flight. This is the only difficult 
part of cock-shooting ; much use and quickness being 
requisite to catch an aim through the branches of the 
trees. Markers are very useful in woodcock-shooting, 



SNIPE- SHOOTING. 37 

who may also beat the covers with poles ; and when the 
cocks have heen flushed, by these or the dogs, they will 
land in some ditch, fence, or bank, at no great distance. 
Woodcocks inhabit the woods during the greater part of 
the winter season, but are invisible in severe and con- 
tinued frosts, excepting the few which find cover near 
springs that never freeze. Woodcocks, when wounded, 
may be instantly killed by pricking them behind the 
pinion joint just under the wing : an act of charity no 
benevolent sportsman will delay. 



SNIPE-SHOOTING. 

SNIPES are distinguished as the common, the jack, 
and the great snipe : snipe-shooting is commonly per- 
formed without a dog, or with a well-seasoned pointer. 
In the winter season, snipes frequent low and moist 
ground, and shelter in rushy bottoms. In summer, 
they are found in hilly or moorland districts. When 
disturbed and flushed in breeding time, the cock snipe 
practises various mano3uvres. He ascends to a vast 
height very rapidly, making a bleating noise. After 
poising himself awhile on his wings, he falls with equal 
rapidity, whistling and making a drumming noise, 
either by the flapping of his wings or with his voice. 
Snipe-shooting affords the greatest trial of the marks- 
man's skill. In their walks, you may sometimes flush 
them nearly under your feet: then remain perfectly 



38 WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 

quiet till they have done twisting in their flight, as 
they may perhaps give you an opportunity of firing 
while describing the semicircle; but if you present in 
haste, you cannot bring the gun up to a proper aim. 
If they rise at a moderate distance, down with them 
before they begin their evolutions; when they cross, fire 
well forward. Snipes lie best in windy weather, and 
when flushed present a good mark by hanging against 
the wind. Endeavour to get to windward of them, 
and to catch a cross shot; thus you will not be so 
much embarrassed by their zigzag flight. Snipes are 
to be found in bottoms not frozen. First, go silently 
down wind, and beat up the wilder ones; then send ais 
old pointer up wind, to find those which lie close. 



WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 

THE birds most commonly sought are the duck and 
mallard, dun-birds, easterling, widgeon, and teal, with 
the coot, which (though held in no estimation, from its 
being so very plentiful) is, however, when stuffed and 
dressed like ducks, very little, if at all, inferior to them. 
Wild-fowl shooting is sometimes practised by night, 
during the utmost severity of the winter. Shots, even 
in the day-time, may be obtained by concealment and 
careful watching; but, in general, flight-time, or soon 
after twilight, is the season for this sport, which may 
be pursued from that time as long as the shooter can 



WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 39" 

hold out against the cold and fatigue. Warm clothing 
and double woollen stockings must be provided; and 
waterproof boots are indispensable ; a fur or skin cap 
should be worn, as the wild-fowl are always alarmed at 
the sight of a hat. The gun must be of as great length 
and weight of metal as the gunner can manage. He 
who would shoot wild-fowl only a few hours after flight- 
time, must acquire the faculty of shooting by the ear, 
and this he will soon obtain by practice. He must 
direct his aim by the noise of their wings. The dog 
proper for the shore is the roughest and most hardy 
spaniel, whose business is to bring the fowl when shot ; 
and who, on his return home, should be accommodated 
with a warm and dry lodging. A stake forked at top, 
sometimes called a bumper, should be provided : this is 
to be driven into the earth as a support from which to 
fire the long and heavy duck-gun : but it is much more 
pleasant, on shore, to fire with a barrel not exceeding 
four feet, and of considerable substance and bore, which 
a strong arm may easily manage ; this, with Bristol pa- 
tent shot, or better still, the patent wire cartridge, will 
kill at a distance of about from a hundred to a hundred 
and twenty yards. The beginning of a thaw, or a frost 
with snow and sleet, are the most favourable times for 
this diversion. 

The shooter must fix on some place of concealment, 
and shift his standing as occasion may require. When 
a flat or punt is employed, he may pass along the 
creeks which divide the marshes, and by silence and 



40 DOTTEREL-SHOOTING. 

caution get within reach of the fowl in their feeding 
places. If the game is plentiful, several dogs should 
be employed, and a supply of guns provided ready 
loaded, hesides a great gun, which may be fixed on a 
stancheon in the punt : great care must be taken not to 
overload the boat. In shooting wild-fowl, it is neces- 
sary to fire well before the birds, taking an aim two or 
three feet above them, being guided by practice and 
existing circumstances. Tubs are sometimes sunk in 
the earth by fowlers, or recesses dug in the sides of 
hills, from which to fire ; but the best plan is for the 
proprietors of grounds frequented by wild-fowl, to run 
up a few sheds, where a swivel or two may be employed 
to advantage. 



DOTTEREL-SHOOTING. 

THE stories that have been propagated of this game 
being taken by the shooter stretching out an arm, or 
holding out a leg, which induces the birds to make a 
corresponding motion with their wings or legs, are 
founded only in fable. Naturally these birds are very 
shy, and fly off on any approach to them: but the 
sportsmen who are the most successful with them, spring 
the whole trip or covey purposely, once or twice, and 
then ride round them, which makes them all huddle 
together into a small compass. When thus induced to 
run together, the whole may be fired at, and ten or 



DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 41 

twelve are often killed at a shot : firing at a single bird 
would be considered as a mere waste of powder. 
Epicures consider the dotterel as amongst the greatest 
dainties. 



DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 

BREEDING, SELECTION, TRAINING, TREATMENT. 

As dogs are the greatest acquisition to a sportsman, 
particular caution should be observed in breeding them. 
If in and in^ they are liable to be stupid ; if different 
kinds are crossed, such as setters and pointers, cross 
upon cross, &c., they are generally very ugly ; therefore 
keep your breed unstained, severally by themselves. 
It is certain that dogs, or any other animals, are more 
fleet when bred from a young mother than from an old 
one. Let your bitches, all the time they are in whelp, 
see and enjoy game, as it will create a zest for it in the 
young ones. Keep all your puppies till they can run, 
and then you will see some come boldly up to you, and 
others skulk behind their dam, or to any obscure place : 
the bold ones are to be your choice. When the puppies 
are on the dams, give the bitches plenty of broth and 
boiled milk, which will the better enable them to bring 
the litters to maturity. When they are two months old, 
rub a small portion of tar upon their noses once a week; 
and about once a fortnight give them a small ball of 
sulphur and honey, mixed with flour. 



42 DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 

Iii rearing, you may give them a few lessons. Begin 
with a piece of bullock's liver boiled, too large for them 
to gorge ; throw it, and let them fetch it. If they will 
not take it freely, throw it at their mouths, which will 
make them fond of it. Let them enjoy it ; and when 
they begin to break it, rub a small ball with it, and let 
them fetch that, or a cross. Have them on cords, about 
twenty yards long, and when they will not come to the 
call or whistle, draw them slowly to you. When they 
come, reward them with a bit of the liver. When 
they bring it freely, teach them to crouch to it, crying 
" Down charge!" drawing their fore- feet forward with 
yours, and bearing them down by the ear. Then teach 
them to hold up, chucking them under the chops till 
they rise and fall to the word. Great kindness must 
be shown at this tender age, as severity will damp their 
courage, and ruin them : never look morosely on them, 
nor show a greater partiality to one than another, as 
they are excellent physiognomists. When they begin 
to understand, and are strong enough to enter the field, 
let them chase larks, race and play ; but if they will 
not run out, take a horse and ride a few miles every 
day with them, which will give them foot and courage. 
Then give them another trial, and if they run out well, 
let them chase, &c., till you find they will bear to be 
brought to by degrees : call and whistle, and reward 
them when they come ; keep them at heel a little while, 
then set them off; let them keep out, and endeavour 
to make them quarter, by walking across, and pointing 



DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 43 

with your hand. When they do it freely, teach them 
to crouch to the holding up of the hand, and to rise to 
the words " Hold up ! " after which, when they come 
upon the haunt, and are likely to puzzle the hirds up, 
by crying " Hold up !" they will throw their noses up, 
and find the hirds out by their flying scent. When 
you see they have got the wind, by crying " To-ho ! " 
they will stop: walk up, keep them to their point. a 
little while, then flush the birds. If they chase do not 
chastise them, but take a piece of liver upon a cord, and 
drag it in a zigzag direction. 

When the dogs are beating, fire a pistol, and make 
them crouch to it, by crying " Down charge." After 
reloading, cry " Hold up ! " bring them up wind to 
the drag, lay them on the road, make them point it, and 
draw steadily till they find it, then reward them with 
a bit of it. Practise this for some time, then procure a 
live bird, tie a string to its leg forty yards long, make 
a hole in the ground, put the bird into it, and cover it 
with a tile. Stake the end of the string and let the 
dogs find the bird. When they are pointing it, draw 
the tile ; and when the bird takes wing, fire your pistol, 
make the dogs crouch down to it, then cry " Hold up ! 
hey! lost!" and let them find it. Be up with them, 
and cry " Dead! dead!" to prevent their killing it 
then give them a reward, which, at the word " dead,*' 
makes them drop the game from their mouths. This 
will prevent their breaking their game. Next procure 
a rabbit, fasten a cord round its neck, and proceed as 



44 DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 

before. When they point it, fasten their cords to pre- 
vent their chasing, as the rabbit, when it gets to the 
end of the cord, will bolt about in different directions. 

In teaching your dogs to back, cry " To-ho !" and 
point to the dog that is standing. If they do not take 
it that way, take a dog by the ear, direct his head to 
the dog that is pointing, and with your other hand 
stretch his stern out, in which pointing attitude make 
him remain for some time : this mode will soon bring 
him to it. If a dog^&ash in, always go up and stake 



his cord, letting him have a sharp check collar on. 
When they break fieid, or hang on the haunt, hide your- 
self; and when they return, by missing you, they will 
feel alarmed at being lost, which will make them fearful 
of breaking away again. You must not let them hunt 
for you long, lest they take fright, when they will throw 
their heads up, cling their tails in close between their 
gaskins, and set off full run ; at which time calling is of 
no use, therefore you will be very liable to lose them. 
When a dog takes to watching and following, change his 
companion ;, put him with a slower dog. Throw them 
off right and left, making them cross each other inde- 
pendently. If he continues to follow and watch, hunt 
him single-handed till he finds his own game freely, by 
which means he will get the zest, and become more 
anxious and independent. If a dog blinks, you must 
encourage him as much as you can. Take him on a 
cord, and lead him up ; give him a reward often. If he 
blinks the gun, rub the reward on it, and let him smell 



DOGS USED IN SHOOTING. 

it, with a bird tied to the butt. If he runs home, 
appoint somebody to give him a good flogging on his 
arrival, and put him to bed without his supper. Next 
morning take him out hungry ; carry plenty of liver or 
cold meat in your pocket to give him when he behaves 
well. This will bring him to, if repeated. Never let 
any one feed your tender-tempered dogs but yourself. 
If a dog comes to heel, and remain there, pass your 
whip smartly behind you, as if undesignedly, at the same 
time whistling, and crying, " Hey ! off!" &c. 

Every one accustomed to the breaking of young dogs 
and colts, will have observed that they will for a time 
take their lessons readily, with great docility and appa- 
rent steadiness; and when you begin to think they 
may be depended on, they will on a sudden become 
captious, weary of their trouble and restraint, turn 
sullen, pretend to have forgotten all they had learned, 
and put in practice all kinds of rebellious tricks, in 
order to liberate themselves. They will refuse to fol- 
low, or when thrown off, will idle and skulk or hunt 
listlessly, turning their heads as if watching an oppor- 
tunity to escape, and may at last perhaps run entirely off. 
This must be remedied by a continued use of the collar 
and line, with a strict treatment ; but do not use too 
much severity, so that in the end the labour may be 
rendered both familiar and pleasant. After this contest 
for the mastership, you may depend upon their general 
good behaviour. Too long training without a gun is 
dangerous, as they are liable to lose the zest. Never 



46 SELECTION. 

suffer dogs to go self-hunting, as they will contract ill 
habits : you may teach them twenty new tricks before 
you can break them of one old one, their memories 
being so very retentive. When you go among a number 
of them treat them impartially ; rub all their ears and 
crops, and pet them equally alike ; for if a dog finds 
himself neglected or unnoticed, you will see him turn 
melancholy, and go to his bed. 



SELECTION. 

IN choosing a pointer or setter, let his muzzle be open, 
flew-jawed, rather short : let him have full hazel eyes, 
called hare's eyes, his poll rising to a point, his ears 
long and falling down between the neck and jaw bone, 
which is called being well hung. The neck and head 
should be set on straight, so that when he points, his 
nose turns up rather above the horizontal line. Let 
his shoulders be deep, and well let down ; his elbows 
well in. He should have straight and large legs ; small 
feet, a little pointed, standing true, and the balls small 
and open : narrow withers, back a little hooped, broad 
loins, deep in the fillets and gaskins, short from the 
hock to the pastern-joint, flat sides, fine floating veins, 
straight croup, stern set on high and straight, being very 
fine ; if a setter, with a deep feather. 

Ill-bred dogs you may know by their being fox-muz- 
zled, small-eyed, bat-eared, fan-eared, short- necked, 
having the head set on like a pickaxe, broad withers, 



SELECTION. 47 

round shoulders, elbows out; small legs, feet out, called 
cat-footed ; thick balls, round barrel, round croup ; 
clumsy stern, set on low; sickle-hams, &c. The best cross 
is a handsome high-mettled fox-hound for a sire, and 
an over-stanch pointer-bitch for a dam ; then you will 
have plenty of foot and courage, and no false point. 

When you have chosen a dog agreeable to the 
description already given, take him into the fields and 
see if he be a gallant beater, ranging high, running 
within himself, not over-reaching nor clambering, his 
nose up and turned to the wind, endeavouring to catch 
the flying scent ; making his casts, twists, and offers 
gallantly; not hanging on the haunt, nor puzzling for 
the ground scent. He must quarter his ground regu- 
larly, and independent of his partner ; not missing the 
corners of the fields. He must neither skulk, skirt, 
break field, follow, watch, blink, hug, labour, nor point 
at sight, nor be hard-nosed, or near-scented ; but wind 
his game at long distances, keep his points fast, back 
the same without jealousy, crouch to dog, bird, and 
gun, to the signal of the hand, and the words " To-ho !" 
without being captious or capricious. The latter means 
his standing, when you call, and neglecting to come. 
If you see him chap his point, it is an excellent 
symptom ; if he mouthe and hug his game, it discovers 
the real zest. If a dog has not been well trained when 
he comes upon the haunt, you will see him flourish, 
twist, dash, jump, run at shot, &c., which are the effects 
of high courage, and are to be remedied by practice. 



48 SELECTION. 

Spaniels should be flew-jawed, well hung, open-muz- 
zled, rather long in the neck, with great liberty in the 
back ; very short thick legs, a little bandy and well 
feathered down and through the balls; thick coat and 
skin, good temper, high courage, and be good stickers ; 
which you may know by trying them in cold rainy 
weather, when, if they will rough well, not coming to 
heel, nor sitting on the roots of trees, licking and pick- 
ing themselves, making beds, &c., you may depend upon 
their being right in the breed. Next observe, if they 
quest and road their game steadily, knowing the toe 
from the heel, opening as the scent strengthens ; not 
jumping, dashing, or flourishing over the road, by which 
means they lose their hit, beat counter, and hang bab- 
bling on the haunt; when, if another dog own at a 
distance, they are apt to stand at bay, instead of pack- 
ing. The principal thing to be observed in managing 
them, is to keep them from running outside, making 
them hunt at hand, and down to charge ; prevent their 
following, by throwing them off right and left ; babbling 
and standing at bay, by running up, and flogging or 
driving them off; prevent their chasing hares and rab- 
bits, by the words " Ware Flix ! * 

Never chastise a dog after he has committed a fault, 
but as nearly in the act as possible. When you punish, 
have him upon a training cord ; do not loose him till 
he has become reconciled ; if you do, he will very likely 
skulk; therefore coil your cord upon your hand, and 
keep him at heel some time, then give him liberty upon 



SELECTION. 49 

the cord by degrees. If you discover any symptoms of 
skulking, stake the cord, and leave him behind a field 
or two ; then return, and if he seems cheerful, give him 
a reward. Let him off upon the cord, and when he 
beats freely, you may venture to remove it altogether. 
If a dog is callous to the whip, with a slip cord hold him 
up with your hand till he is alarmed. You may use the 
whip at the same time. 

Some dogs are so very tender in their tempers, that 
they will not bear any punishment from the hand : these 
you must let punish themselves, by check collars and 
cross-puzzles. Not knowing from whence the punish- 
ment comes, they are not offended with you. These 
are for pointers and setters : for spaniels use loaded 
collars, &c. 

For hare and rabbit-shooting use the short-legged 
wire-haired beagles ; they are flew-jawed, heavy hung, 
and deep mouthed : if well managed they will never 
leave trail, till their game is either dead, or run to 
ground. When you want to call away, endeavour to 
cross the trail and take them up, as rating will cause 
them to change and leave trail when a hare breaks 
cover ; which they should not do, but run the ring, and 
bring her back. Always take them to and from cover 
in couples, to prevent their breaking away. 



50 TRAINING. 



TRAINING. 

TO BREAK THE SPANIEL. 

A MATERIAL duty of shooting-dogs or spaniels is to seek 
and bring in the dead or wounded game. To prevent 
their breaking feather, or mangling the birds, pains must 
be taken, and they may with care be made sufficiently 
tender-mouthed. They should be so well disciplined as 
for only one at a time to obey the order to fetch game. 
Pointers may be taught to perform this office as well as 
spaniels. Dogs may be brought into the field at from 
eight to nine months old, previous to which they should 
be taught to follow and hunt such game as they can 
find, which will be all sorts of wild birds ; and their first 
lesson should be to come in when called, which, well 
impressed on their memories, will be useful ever after. 
They should next be taught not to pursue sheep, do- 
mestic poultry, or other improper objects ; and the 
sooner these lessons, with that of fetching and carrying, 
are taught to the puppy, the better. 



TO BREAK THE POINTER. 

THE success of this depends much on the true breeding 
of the dog, but still more on the unwearied patience 
of the breaker, as that single virtue is worth all the 
so-called secrets of professed breakers put together. 



TRAINING. 51 

The pointer puppy being accustomed to follow, and to 
observe the word with tolerable obedience while abroad, 
may be taken to some convenient and quiet place, 
in his check collar, and there pegged down to a string 
about twenty yards long. The breaker must take with 
him his whip and some eatable of which the puppy is 
fond, as it is by reward and punishment that the animal 
must be taught ; but the former must be chiefly con- 
fined to the caresses and kindness of the master. He is 
now to be taught to comprehend and obey the phrases, 
on his understanding of which all practice depends : 
as, " Take heed !" " Down !" to stop or crouch down, 
" Down charge !" " Back !" " Come here !" " Dead !" 
" Hey on !" " Go seek !" or " Hold up !" when he is 
nosing the ground too close in the field, like the spaniel 
or hound. " 'Ware !" should be applied to every object 
against which the dog is cautioned ; as " 'Ware hare ! " 
"'Ware horse !" "'Ware bird!" and to these must be 
added other necessary phrases. They must not, how- 
ever, be too numerous, and all the lessons should be ex- 
tremely plain and distinct, suitable to the animal's com- 
prehension. Most of these lessons may be given with 
the dog thus in hand, the remainder must be reserved 
for the field'. Stripes are necessary, in the first instance, 
to direct him as to the positions or motions required. 
These being understood, the breaker has only to stand 
and give the word distinctly, in a caressing tone, for every 
separate act. Encouragement, and sometimes reward, 
should follow punctual performance; whilst rating or 

E2 



52 TRAINING. 

punishment should warn the pupil of the consequences 
of disobedience. He should at first be threatened by 
the mere crack of the whip, and if its real use become 
necessary, it must at first be inflicted very sparingly. 
If the dog become torpid and sulky from affright, which 
will often happen, or appear determinedly obstinate, 
instead of severe whipping and harsh treatment, the best 
method is to stay proceedings awhile. 

The dog being compelled to crouch down, the breaker 
should stand over him, whip in hand, looking stead- 
fastly, with his eyes fixed on those of his pupil, and 
showing a determination to be obeyed, which he will 
well understand. This may be continued for ten or 
fifteen minutes, when the dog should be approached 
with kindness, and a new attempt made to enforce 
obedience. During training, the pointer puppy must 
be inured to the report of the gun and the smell of 
powder. The sweet and peculiar smell of game should 
also be rendered familiar to him ; while, by using him 
to dead game, he may be made tender-mouthed to the 
birds he afterwards picks up or carries. His drillings 
should be continued once a day during two or three 
weeks, but should never be too long at one time, as 
this only serves to fatigue and discourage the puppy. 
In the interim he should have daily pleasing excursions 
in the field, and the example of stanch old dogs should 
be frequently exhibited. The young dog must be taught 
to obey the whistle as well as the voice. 

Two or three, in check, may be pegged down one 



PBESERVATION OF GAME. 61 

pigeons being on the wing. In the fields you may hear 
the drag-net brush over the stubbles, and the hares cry 
when taken by gate-nets or wires. When you think a 
particular field (where one or two large coveys jug) will 
be drawn, put three or four old sickles into long han- 
dles, and stick them upon the tops of the stetches, edges 
reversed ; these, if they carry the tail of the net, will 
divide it, but they must be very sharp. Unsuspected 
plashes, made in the rides and glades in covers, will 
catch the prints of the poachers' feet, by which you will 
often be enabled to make them out. Sometimes, when 
they look very fresh, you may, by walking counter, 
come upon them. 

The best outside covering for a keeper to go out with 
at night, is an ass-skin dressed, with holes for the arms 
and loops in front. In this, with an invulnerable cap, 
covered with the same, he may lie down anywhere, 
without being suspected. 

To find wires in cover, observe upon which side the 
haunt for feeding lies ; on that side crosswise they are 
planted : get in some five or six rods, and about the 
same distance into young slop from the wall, and where 
you have found one by the break or moss, you may per- 
haps follow the rest. If there should be no break, get 
two wires in a line, take an object on the other side of 
the cover, to which walk, looking sharp right and left, 
and you will be sure to find them, particularly if there 
are hares in them, as they will be so much easier seen. 

Hay-nets, and other cumbersome apparatus for the 



62 PRESERVATION OP GAME. 

destruction of hares, have, with the largest parties of 
poachers, given way to the simple provision of one or 
at most two purse-nets, of very fine materials. The 
chief trouble is in stopping and reducing the creeps, 
which in the more advanced parts of the seasons, is 
much abbreviated by the expedient of a large slice of 
turnip dropped near each, equally efficacious also on 
the principle of a scarecrow. 

Pheasants are also taken in creeps, near their feeding 
places by a single wire, and on the same principle as 
hares, before described. 

Partridges, after their roosting places have been ascer- 
tained, are captured simply by means of a horse-hair 
noose, fixed to a small stake in the ground. Several of 
these are laid in the traverses, about a yard asunder ; on 
being entangled, the birds strive incessantly to come at 
each other, thus keeping the noose to its utmost stretch, 
till they become quite exhausted and incapable of fur- 
ther struggling. 

Deer are taken by putting a wisp of hay at the 
root of a tree, between two stubs ; and fixing a hoisting 
halter before it. When he pulls the hay it will take 
him. Or hang two apples upon the body of a tree, 
high enough to make him reach up ; and a sharp hook 
being driven in just under them, it will catch him under 
the jaws on his slipping down. The poacher then lies 
in ambush, from whence he runs and cuts the deer's 
throat. They take fawns, by paring their feet when 
first dropt ; this will keep them at lodge, where they 



PRESERVATION OF FISH. 63 

will grow fat, and be easily taken by two people sur- 
rounding them with a net ; or by means of a dog, with 
which many are coursed and taken in moonlight nights a . 



PRESERVATION OF FISH. 

FISH are taken in various ways ; by a drag and flews, 
during the night. Instead of plunging, poachers lash 
bricks to a cord, and draw them to and from each other, 
across the river or pond. To prevent this, put some old 
sickles, scythes, or swords, into large lumps of wood, 
and drop them in zig-zag directions along the river or 
pond ; likewise stumps, with nails driven down into the 
bottom. To find luggers, trimmers, sunk baits, eel-pots, 
eel-lines, starkers, &c., walk on the sides of the waters, 
with a pole and a strong cord, having a drag or creeper 
on it : this, properly used, will find them ; it must be 
thrown in different directions, late in the evenings. 

Pord-netters are a class of poachers not generally 
known. What is called the pord-net consists of two 
staves shod with iron, to which is fastened a net. In 
quick running stony waters it is used with great effect. 
The poachers wade a shallow stream, drive the trout to 
their holds, and placing the staves so as to bring the net 
round a stone or hold of any kind, they are said to pord, 

* Like St. Augustin's Confessions, these aphorisms seem of very 
questionable service. Peter Pindar's ostler never tried the effect 
of greasing the teeth of his customer's horses, till put up to the stra- 
tagem by his ghostly adviser. EDITOR. 



64 PRESERVATION OF FISH. 



or poke the points underneath, till they are forced to 
come out and strike into the net. Carp are driven into 
their hordes, under the sides, where, with a semicircular 
net, they are taken, hy puddling them till they fly into it. 
Some have been taken (after first being collected into 
one place, by feeding with new grains and blood), by 
intoxicating them with crummy bread squeezed on a stone, 
impregnated with coculus indicus, and oil of asp. They 
will come up, and you may take them with a landing- 
net, but a casting-net is much better. In June, carp 
and tench are very busy " roding," when you may feed 
them into the shallow waters, and take them with a 
casting-net, and stock your stews for the year. Always 
let the net lie till the fish rise, as carp strike into the 
mud, if there is any, but cannot remain there long, as it 
makes them sick. When you drag a pond, have two 
drags, one about three yards behind the other, as the 
fish will strike the mud, and let the lead-line slip over 
them, when, thinking they are safe, they precipitate 
themselves into the other net. For tench, you may let 
flews stand with a brass candlestick on each side, a yard 
distant, on a float : they will fly from one to another. 

To keep trout alive, whilst carrying them a long dis- 
tance, mix one ounce of white sugar-candy, a piece of 
saltpetre the size of a walnut, and a table-spoonful of 
flour together ; this is sufficient for a pailful of water, 
which must be hard spring water : this proportion, often 
repeated, will keep them alive. Carp and tench will 
travel in clean whole wheat-straw many miles, if laid in 
layers, as the straw retains the air for them to suck. 



DECOYS FOR DUCKS. 65 



DECOYS FOR DUCKS. 

THE contrivances called decoys are generally confined 
to the fenny countries. They are large ponds, dug in the 
fens, with four or five creeks, running from them to a 
great length, and each growing gradually narrower till 
it comes to a point. The hanks are well planted with 
willows, sallows, osiers, and similar kinds of underwood. 
Into these ponds the fowls are enticed hy ducks bred up 
tame for the purpose ; (for the decoy-ducks, heing fed 
constantly at certain places, become at length so familiar 
as to feed out of the hand ;) and, as they are not con- 
fined, they fly abroad and return at pleasure. During 
the proper season of the year they take frequent flights, 
and sometimes, after being gone several weeks, return 
home with numerous flocks of fowl. As soon as the 
decoy-man perceives the flocks settled in the pond, he 
goes down secretly to the angles of it, under cover of 
hedges made with reeds, and then throws a quantity of 
corn into such shallow places as the decoy ducks are 
accustomed to, to which they immediately resort, fol- 
lowed by the strangers. Thus they are every day enter- 
tained without any disturbance, the bait being some- 
times thrown into one place and sometimes into another, 
till they are insensibly led into the narrow canals of the 
pond, where the trees on each side hang over-head like 
an arbour, though at a considerable height from the 
water. Here the boughs are conducted with such art, 

F 



64 PRESERVATION OF FISH. 

prod, or poke the points underneath, till they are forced to 
come out and strike into the net. Carp are driven into 
their hordes, under the sides, where, with a semicircular 
net, they are taken, by puddling them till they fly into it. 
Some have been taken (after first being collected into 
one place, by feeding with new grains and blood), by 
intoxicating them with crummy bread squeezed on a stone, 
impregnated with coculus indicus, and oil of asp. They 
will come up, and you may take them with a landing- 
net, but a casting-net is much better. In June, carp 
and tench are very busy " roding," when you may feed 
them into the shallow waters, and take them with a 
casting-net, and stock your stews for the year. Always 
let the net lie till the fish rise, as carp strike into the 
mud, if there is any, but cannot remain there long, as it 
makes them sick. When you drag a pond, have two 
drags, one about three yards behind the other, as the 
fish will strike the mud, and let the lead-line slip over 
them, when, thinking they are safe, they precipitate 
themselves into the other net. For tench, you may let 
flews stand with a brass candlestick on each side, a yard 
distant, on a float : they will fly from one to another. 

To keep trout alive, whilst carrying them a long dis- 
tance, mix one ounce of white sugar-candy, a piece of 
saltpetre the size of a walnut, and a table-spoonful of 
flour together ; this is sufficient for a pailful of water, 
which must be hard spring water : this proportion, often 
repeated, will keep them alive. Carp and tench will 
travel in clean whole wheat-straw many miles, if laid in 
layers, as the straw retains the air for them to suck. 



DECOYS FOB DUCKS. 65 



DECOYS FOR DUCKS. 

THE contrivances called decoys are generally confined 
to the fenny countries. They are large ponds, dug in the 
fens, with four or five creeks, running from them to a 
great length, and each growing gradually narrower till 
it comes to a point. The banks are well planted with 
willows, sallows, osiers, and similar kinds of underwood. 
Into these ponds the fowls are enticed by ducks bred up 
tame for the purpose ; (for the decoy-ducks, being fed 
constantly at certain places, become at length so familiar 
as to feed out of the hand ;) and, as they are not con- 
fined, they fly abroad and return at pleasure. During 
the proper season of the year they take frequent flights, 
and sometimes, after being gone several weeks, return 
home with numerous flocks of fowl. As soon as the 
decoy-man perceives the flocks settled in the pond, he 
goes down secretly to the angles of it, under cover of 
hedges made with reeds, and then throws a quantity of 
corn into such shallow places as the decoy ducks are 
accustomed to, to which they immediately resort, fol- 
lowed by the strangers. Thus they are every day enter- 
tained without any disturbance, the bait being some- 
times thrown into one place and sometimes into another, 
till they are insensibly led into the narrow canals of the 
pond, where the trees on each side hang over-head like 
an arbour, though at a considerable height from the 
water. Here the boughs are conducted with such art, 

F 



68 PIGEONS. 

when they have young ones, will feed them well, which 
a cropper, in consequence of the largeness of his crop, 
seldom will. 

Carriers breed but slowly, having rarely more than 
three or four pair a-year ; they are constant lovers, and 
very seldom tread any but their own mate, and are 
therefore hard to match when separated. 

On the contrary, a powter may be taken from his 
own mate, and he will match to another in a day or two, 
so that bastard-bred pigeons are most serviceable for 
those who breed them to supply the table. 

Great care must be taken to make convenient places 
to breed in ; each pair of pigeons must have two nests ; 
those with baskets in them are best ; for before one pair 
can go out of the nest, or feed themselves, the old ones 
will lay and be sitting ; I have often, indeed, seen a 
second pair hatched before the first could feed them- 
selves, and the old ones feed both pairs. Be sure, when 
you take the young ones, to clean the nest, or put in a 
clean basket, for cleanliness is of great service to pigeons. 

Never let them want food, for if you do, they cannot 
be provided with soft meat in their crop when the young 
are hatched, without which, they will certainly die ; or 
if you feed the old ones by hand, they will go and feed 
their young immediately with what they get, which, 
being too strong for their powers of digestion, kills them. 
The best way is to let them have food always by them 
in a box, with a hopper in it. 



PIGEONS. 69 

Breed young ones for stock in the spring ; those bred 
in the winter, being generally cramped, never prove good 
breeders. 

The reason I recommend baskets to breed in is, tame 
pigeons seldom build their nests, the want of which a 
basket supplies. Be sure to take care that no vermin 
come among them. 

Of those bred in pigeon-houses, the grey pigeon, in- 
clining to ash-colour and black, is the best ; the female 
generally shows her fruitfulness by the redness of her 
eyes and feet, and by a ring of gold colour round her 
neck. 

There are two seasons in the year in which you may 
stock your pigeon-house. The first is in May; as these 
first pigeons, having strengthened themselves during the 
winter, are in a condition soon to yield profit to the 
buyer. The second is in August ; for at that time there 
are a great number of young pigeons that have been 
well fed with the corn which their dams have plentifully 
supplied them with, from the harvest. 

You must take care to furnish your pigeon-house 
according to the size of it : if you put but few in, a long 
time will elapse before you will have young pigeons for 
use, for you must take none out of it before it is well 
stocked. 

Be sure to feed in hard weather ; and in benting time, 
which is when the corn is in the ear. Keep out the 
vermin, and you will never want stock. 

Give loam, mixed well with salt and cummin- 



70 PIGEONS. 

seed, made up in lumps and dried; which materially 
assist them in breeding. 

Never let them want fresh water. The best food is 
tares : the mornings and evenings are proper times to 
give them their food, but never at noon, for fear of 
breaking their rest, which they usually take at that 
hour : roost is very necessary with the food they eat, to 
make them thrive. 

Pigeons will live eight years, but they are only pro- 
lific for the first four, afterwards they are worth nothing : 
when once past that age, they deprive you of the profit 
you might reap by others that are younger. 

If you wish to furnish your table with young ones in 
the winter, you must not wait for them till they can fly, 
but take them when they are grown rather strong, and 
pluck the largest quills out of their wings, which will 
confine them to their nests ; or tie their feet, by which 
means they will be fat in a very short time. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS SORTS OF PIGEONS. 

I. Runts, the largest kind of pigeons, called by the 
Italians tronfo^ may be divided into greater or smaller : 
those which are commonly called the Spanish runts 
are much esteemed, being the largest sort of pigeon, 
but they are sluggish, and more slow of flight than 
the smaller sort of runts; while the smaller are not 
only better breeders, but quicker of flight, which makes 



PIGEONS. 71 - 

them much fancied. The colours of their feathers are 
uncertain. 

II. The next which make the largest figure, but are not 
in reality the largest birds, are the croppers ; so called 
because, by attracting the air, they usually blow up 
their crops to an extraordinary size, so as to be some- 
times as large as their bodies. This sort is valued 
in proportion to the facility with which it can swell up 
its crop. Their bodies are about the size of the smaller 
runt, but more slender; their feathers are also of various 
colours. 

III. The shakers are of two sorts, viz. the broad- 
tailed, and the narrow-tailed : these are so called, be- 
cause they are almost constantly wagging their heads 
and necks up and down. The broad-tailed are dis- 
tinguished by the tail feathers, about twenty-six in 
number ; the narrow-tailed have not so many. 

These, when they walk, carry their tail-feathers and 
crest spread like a turkey-cock ; they have likewise a 
diversity of feathers. 

IV. The jacobins, or cappers, so called on account of 
certain feathers which turn up about the back part of 
the head. Some of this sort are rough-footed : they are 
short billed ; the iris of the eye is of a pearl colour, and 
the head is commonly white. 

V. The turbit, which some suppose to be a corrup- 
tion of the word cortbeck, or kortbek, as they are called 
by the Dutch, which seems to be derived from the 
French, court-bee, and signifies a short bill, for which 



72 PIGEONS. 

this pigeon is remarkable ; the head is flat, and the 
feathers on the breast spread both ways. The turbits 
are about the same size as the jacobins. 

VI. The carriers are pigeons so called from the use 
which is sometime made of them in carrying letters to 
and fro a . Certain it is that they are very nimble mes- 
sengers, for some authors affirm it has been found by 
experience, that one of these pigeons will fly three miles 
in a minute, or from St. Alban's to London in seven 
minutes : this, it is said, has been tried. 

We have an account of the passing and repassing 
with advices between Hirtius and Brutus, at the siege of 
Modena, who had, by laying grain for them in some 
high situations, used their pigeons to fly from place to 
place for their food, having before kept them hungry, 
and in the dark. 

A coachman, who drove one of the Colchester coaches, 
frequently brought one down with him, and turned it 
off in the town of Colchester, whence it would fly back 
to London in a very short time. 

These pigeons are about the size of common pigeons, 
and of a dark blue or blackish colour, which is one way 
of distinguishing them from other sorts : they are also 
remarkable for having their eyes compassed about with 
a broad circle of naked spongy skin, and the upper chap 
of their beak covered more than half from the head with 

* The expression is a faulty one. Weight would be fatal to its 
flight ; the carrier-pigeon is not capable of transporting that which 
is generally understood by the term "letter." EDITOR. 



PIGEONS. 73 

a double crust of the like naked fungous substance. 
The bill or beak is moderately long, and black. 

These birds, though they are carried many miles from 
the place where they are bred or brought up, or have 
themselves hatched or bred up any young ones, will im- 
mediately return home as soon as they are let fly. 

When persons wish to use them for carriers, they 
should order them after the following manner: Two 
friends should agree to keep them, one at London and 
the other at Windsor, or at any other places. He who 
lives at Windsor must take two or three cocks or hens 
which were bred at his friend's, at London : and the 
other, two or three that were bred at Windsor. When 
the person in London has occasion to send any advice 
to his friend at Windsor, he must roll up a little piece 
of paper, and tie it gently with a small piece of string 
about the pigeon's neck. 

But here you ought to remember, that the pigeons 
you design to send with letters, must be kept much in 
the dark, and without meat for eight or ten hours pre- 
vious to their being turned out ; and then they will rise 
and turn round till they have found their way, and con- 
tinue their flight till they reach home. 

With two or three of these pigeons on each side, a 
correspondence might be carried on in a very expeditious 
manner. 

VII. The Barbary pigeon, or barb, is another sort, 
whose bill is, like that of the turbit, short and thick, 
having a broad and naked circle, of a spongy white sub- 



74 PIGEONS. 

stance, round the eye, like that of the carrier. The iris 
of the eye is white, if the feathers of the pinions incline 
to a darker colour ; but red, when the feathers are white, 
as in other birds. 

VIII. Smiters are pigeons supposed to be the same 
that the Dutch call draayer. This sort shake their 
wings as they fly, and rise generally in a circular man- 
ner : the males, for the most part, rising higher than 
the females, and frequently falling and flapping them 
with their wings, making a noise which may be heard 
a great way off", caused by an evolution often the means 
of breaking or shattering their quill feathers. 

These very much resemble the tumbler pigeon : the 
difference being chiefly this, that the tumbler is some- 
what smaller, and in its flight will tumble itself back- 
ward over its head : the diversity of colours in the 
feathers is of no consequence. 

IX. The helmet pigeon is distinguished from the 
others, because it has the head, the quill-feathers, and 
the tail-feathers, always of one colour, either black, 
white, red, blue, or yellow; while the other feathers of 
the body are of a different colour. 

X. The light-horseman. This is supposed to be a 
cross strain, between a cock cropper and a hen of the 
carrier breed, because they seem to partake of both, as 
appears from the excrescence of flesh upon their bills, 
and the swelling of their crops. These are not inclined 
to leave the place of their birth, or the house that they 
have been used to. 



PIGEONS. 75 

XL The bastard-bill pigeons are something larger than 
the Barbary pigeon : they have short bills, and are 
generally said to have red eyes, though probably eyes 
of that colour belong only to such as have white feathers. 

XII. There is a pigeon called the turner, said to have 
a tuft of feathers hanging backwards on the head, which, 
an author asserts, parts like a horse's mane. 

XIII. There is also a pigeon of a smaller sort, called 
the finikin, but in other respects like the former. 

XIV. There is another pigeon called the spot, sup- 
posed to take its name from a spot on the forehead, 
just above the bill ; the feathers of its tail are always 
of the same colour with the spots, while all the other 
feathers are white. 

XV. The mahomet, or mawmet pigeon, supposed to be 
brought from Turkey, is singular for its large black eyes ; 
but the other parts are like those of the Barbary pigeon. 

The manner of distinguishing the males and females 
among pigeons, is chiefly by the voice and cooing ; the 
females have a small weak voice, and the males a loud 
and deep one : they are also distinguished by their size. 

The food which is generally given to pigeons is 
tares, but if spurry seeds were mixed with them, or 
buckwheat, those grains would forward their breeding ; 
however, with only tares they may be expected to 
breed eight or nine times a year, and then they seldom 
hatch above one at a time ; but if they be in full vigour, 
they will breed a pair at one sitting. 

In the feeding of pigeons that have no young ones, 



76 VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PHEASANTS. 

it is advisable not to let them have more food at one 
time than they can eat, because they are apt to toss it 
about and lose a great deal of it. They must not be 
without water, being of themselves dry birds, and subject 
to contract dirt and fleas. The dove-cote should be 
carefully cleaned once a week, if not more frequently. 



PART THE FOURTH. 

VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PHEASANTS. 

PHEASANTS are taken with nets, in crowing-time, which 
is about the end of February, and in March, before they 
begin to breed. It is done either generally or parti- 
cularly; the first is, when the whole eye, viz., the old 
cock and hen, with all their young ones, or pouts, as 
they flock or run together in thick woods or coppices, 
are taken ; or particularly, when none are taken but the 
old, and such of the young as are of an age fit for 
coupling ; so that you cannot have any assurance with 
your nets to strike at more than one or two at a time ; 
for pheasants are of a melancholy or sullen disposition, 
and when once they have coupled, do not associate in 
flocks, like other birds. 

In order to take pheasants with ease, you must be 
acquainted with their haunts and usual breeding-places, 
which are in young, thick, and well grown coppices, 
free from the annoyance of cattle or pathways; for 
being of a very timid nature, they do not abide or 



VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PHEASANTS. 77 

breed in open or plain fields, nor under the covert of 
corn fields, or low shrubby bushes. 

Having found their haunts, next you are to find their 
eye or brood ; and here you are to observe, that phea- 
sants come out of the woods and coverts three times a 
day, to feed in fresh pastures, green wheat or other grain, 
about sunrise, at noon, and a little before sunset. The 
course to be followed is, to go to that side of the wood 
where you suppose they make their sallies, and watch 
the places where they come out ; or to search their 
haunts ; for you may see the young pouts in that season 
flbck and run together after the hen, like chickens. 
Again, if you go to their haunts early in the morning or 
late in the evening, you will hear the old cock and hen 
call their young ones, and the young ones answer them, 
and accordingly direct your path as near as you can to 
the place where they are, then lie down as close as pos- 
sible, that you may not be discerned ; observe how they 
lodge together, the better to know how to pitch your 
nets with advantage, at once of wind, weather, and 
place ; and take care that all be done as silently as pos- 
sible, otherwise they will betake themselves to their legs, 
and not to their wings, unless forced to it by a close 
pursuit. 

But the most certain way to find them is, to have an 
artificial pheasant-call, wherein a person should be very 
expert in the imitation of their notes, and the time when, 
and to what purpose they use them ; their calls are much 
the same as those used by hens in clucking their chickens. 



78 VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PHEASANTS. 

The chief period for using the call is in the morning 
early, or about sunset, at which time they seek their 
food, and then the note must he to call them to feed ; 
but though these are the best occasions, yet it may be 
used at other times, only altering the notes for calling 
them together. 

Having the perfect use of the call, the knowledge of 
their haunts, and the time to take them, choose some 
private place in which you may not be discovered, and 
then call at first very softly, lest any should be lodged very 
near you, and be frightened at your loud note ; but if 
nothing replies, then raise your note higher and higher 
till it be extended to the utmost compass, and if any 
be within hearing, they will answer in as loud a note as 
yours, provided it be tuneable, or else all will be spoiled. 

As soon as the pheasant answers, if it be at a good 
distance, creep nearer and nearer, still calling, but not 
so loudly : as you advance nearer, so will the pheasant 
to you, so that you will come in sight of it, either on 
the ground or at perch, always imitating it in the true 
note. Then cease calling, and spread your net between 
the pheasant and yourself, in the most convenient place 
you can find, making one end fast to the ground, and 
holding the other in your hand by a long line, so that 
when any thing strains it, you may pull the net close 
together. This done, call again, and as soon as you 
perceive the pheasant come under your net, rise up and 
show yourself, upon which, being frightened, she will 
spring, and so become entangled in it. 



VARIOUS WAYS OP TAKING PHEASANTS. 79 

^n case many pheasants answer the call, and from 
several parts of the wood, keep your first station, and 
as you hear them make towards you, get your nets 
ready. Spread them conveniently about you, viz. one 
pair on one side and another on the other, lying close, 
without any noise, only that of your call, till you have 
allured them under your nets, and then stand up to 
frighten them as before directed, that they may be 
entangled. 

Another way to take pheasants, which is considered 
better than the former, is, to be provided with a live 
cock, (tied down to your net,) who, by his crowing, will 
draw others in. You must lie concealed in some bush 
or secret place, and when you see any pheasant come to 
your net, then draw your line, and the net will fall on it 
and take it. 

To take pheasants by snares. When you have found 
their passage out of the wood to their usual places of 
feeding, there plant a little stake, with a couple of 
snares of horse-hair, one to lie flat on the ground foV 
their feet, and the other about the height of their head, 
to take them by the neck ; and in case there should be 
more passes than one, do the like to every one of them. 
Then take a circle, and when you are in a direct line 
with the pheasants and the snare that you have fitted, 
make a gentle noise to frighten them. They are also 
taken by wires in the creeps and rides in covers, and in 
wheat, where they are bred at harvest time, and near 
their perching trees in cover. 



80 RESORTS OF PARTRIDGES. 

If, by their dunging and scraping, you perceive that 
they frequent any place, you may then make use of 
such hedgerows as are directed to take fowl with lines 
and birdlime ; only plant your running lines from them, 
of a convenient height, and still place one to lie flat to 
entangle their legs. 



RESORTS OF PARTRIDGES. 

PARTRIDGES, being naturally cowardly, fearful, simple 
birds, are easily deceived or beguiled with any device 
whatever, by train-bait, engine, call, stale, or other 
enticements. 

The places they delight in most are corn-fields, espe- 
cially while the corn grows, for under that cover they 
shelter themselves and breed. Neither are those places 
unfrequented by them when the corn is cut down, in 
consequence of the grain they find, especially wheat 
stubbles, the height of which they delight in, as it serves 
to shelter them. When the wheat-stubble is much trod- 
den, they betake themselves to the barley-stubble, pro- 
vided it be fresh and untrodden ; and they will hide 
both themselves and coveys in the furrows, amongst the 
clods, brambles, and long grass. 

After the winter season is come, and the stubble- 
fields are ploughed up, then they resort to the upland 
meadows, and lodge in the dead grass, or under hedges, 
amongst mole-hills, or under the roots of trees. Some- 



RESORTS OF PARTRIDGES. 81 

times they resort to coppices and underwoods, especially 
if any corn fields are near, or where broom, brakes, fern, 
&c., grow. 

In harvest time, when every field is full of men and 
cattle, in the day-time you will find them in the fallow 
fields which are next adjoining to the corn-fields, 
where they lie lurking till evening, and then they 
feed among the sheaves of corn ; as also early in the 
morning. 

When you know their haunts, according to the 
situation of the country and season of the year, your 
next care must be to find them there, which is done 
several ways. Some do it by the eye only ; and this 
can never be taught. By long experience alone, is the 
art learned of distinguishing the colour of the birds 
from that of the earth, but every facility for the study 
is afforded. They are so lazy and so unwilling to take 
wing, that you may almost set your foot upon them 
before they will stir, provided you do not stand and gaze 
on them, but continue in motion, otherwise they will 
spring up and be gone. 

Another way to discover them, is by going to their 
haunts very early in the morning, or at the close of the 
evening, which is called the jucking-time, and there 
listening for the calling of the cock partridge, which is 
very loud and earnest ; after some few calls the hen will 
answer. By these means they meet together, which 
you may know by their chattering one with another : 
upon hearing which take your range about them, draw- 

G 



82 VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PARTRIDGES. 

ing nearer and nearer to the place you heard them juck 
in ; then cast your eye towards the furrows of the land, 
and there you will soon find where the covey lies. 

The best, surest, and easiest way for finding par- 
tridges, is by the call, having first learned their true 
and natural notes, knowing how to tune every note to 
its proper key, and applying them to their due times 
and seasons. 

Being perfect herein, either mornings or evenings, (all 
other times being improper,) go to their haunts, and 
having concealed yourself in some secret place where 
you may see and not be seen, listen awhile if you can 
hear the birds call ; if you do, answer them again in 
the same notes; and as they change or double their 
notes, so must you in like manner: thus continue 
till they draw nearer and nearer to you. Having them 
in your view, lay yourself on your back and lie without 
motion, by which means you may count their whole 
number. 



VARIOUS WAYS OF TAKING PARTRIDGES. 

AMONG the many stratagems resorted to for taking 
partridges, a singular method has been adopted by 
some poachers, viz., to provide a setting-dog, upon the 
head of which they fix a lantern, for the purpose of his 
ranging the field in the night : on his stopping, the 
poachers know where the partridges lie, and draw the 



TAKING PARTRIDGES WITH BIRDLIME. 83 

net up to him accordingly. The gamekeepers of the 
Earl of Carlisle, being on their nightly perambulations, 
were not a little astonished and alarmed, at seeing a 
light traversing a field in a very singular manner ; they 
prepared their guns accordingly, and in a short time 
the light made a sudden stop, when three or four men, 
whom they had not descried, making their appearance, 
they were secured in the act of drawing a large net up 
to the light, upon the head of the setter, as before men- 
tioned. 

The nets for taking of partridges must be every way 
like pheasant nets, both for length and breadth, except 
that the meshes must be smaller, being made of the 
same thread, and dyed of the same colour. 



TAKING PARTRIDGES WITH BIRDLIME. 

GET the best and largest wheat-straws you can and 
cut them off between knot and knot, and lime them 
with the strongest lime. Then go to the haunts of par- 
tridges, and call ; if you are answered, prick your limed 
straws at some distance from you, in many cross-rows 
and ranks : cross the lands and furrows, taking in two 
or three lands at least ; then lie close and call again, 
not ceasing till you have drawn them towards you, so 
that they be intercepted by the way by your limed 
straws. These they no sooner touch than they will be 
ensnared ; and as they run together like a brood of 

G 2 



84 TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 

chickens, they will so besmear and daub each other, that 
very few will escape. 

This way of taking partridges is only to be used in 
stubble fields, from August till Christmas : but if you 
wish to take them in woods, pastures, or meadows, then 
you must lime rods, as mentioned for pheasants, and 
stick them in the ground after the same manner. 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 

WOODCOCKS seldom, if ever, fly in the day-time, 
unless forced to it by man or beast, and then they retire 
into thick woods, where there are void spaces, covered 
on all sides, in which they remain the whole day, 
searching for earth-worms under the leaves, &c. When 
night comes, they go out of the woods in quest of water, 
where they may drink and wash their bills, which they 
have fouled by thrusting into the earth ; and having 
passed the night in meadows, as soon as the day begins 
to appear, they take their flight to the woods. In their 
flight they use shady places, and coast it along a great 
way in search of the tallest woods, that thev may be 
the more concealed, and be more under cover from the 
wind. They always fly low, till they find some glade 
to go across, nor dare to fly among trees, because, like 
hares, they cannot see well before them, for which 
reason they are easily taken with nets spread along 
the forest, or in the glades. Draw-nets are very pro- 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 



85 



fitable in such countries as are very woody, for you 
sometimes may take a dozen of woodcocks in them. 




Suppose then that your range of wood be about three 
hundred paces long, more or less. In some place 
towards the middle, cut a walk through it, so that 
there may be a space of twelve yards between the tree 
A and the tree B, as above ; it must be well cleared, 
and without trees, bushes, underwood or stones, and 
twelve yards square ; then prune or cut off all the front 
boughs of the two trees, A and B, to make way for the 
net to hang and play without being entangled. The 
next thing is, to provide two strong logs of wood, 
which open or cleave at the biggest ends, as marked 
C and D ; tie the middle parts fast to some boughs of 
the tree, as the letters E and F direct, and let the tops 
hang over, as G and H represent ; the next may be a 



86 TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 

little distance from the trees. You should always have 
in readiness a good store of pulleys or buckles, made of 
box, brass, or the like, which should be about the 
size of a man's finger, according to the form designed 
by the second figure, and fasten one at each end of the 
perches or logs, G and H. Having tied your pulleys 
marked 3 to the two branches, with a cord of the 
thickness of the little finger, then tie another knot in it, 
about the distance of a hand's breadth from the knot 
marked 4, and so let the two ends of the cord 5 and 6 
hang down about a foot long each, that you may fasten 
them to the pulleys, which are at the end of the perches 
or logs, as represented by the letters I and L, close to the 
notches of the perches G and H. These notches serve to 
hinder the pulleys from descending lower than the place 
where you would have them remain. Then insert into 
each pulley a small packthread, and let the end of each 
reach to the foot of the trees, that by the help of them 
you may draw up two stronger cords into the same 
pulleys where you hang the net, without being always 
forced to climb up into the tree : these latter you may 
let remain, provided you live among honest neighbours. 
The last thing to be provided is a spot where you may 
lie concealed, and wait for the coming of the wood- 
cocks; it matters not on which side, provided it be 
forty or fifty feet from the middle of the net, as at the 
place marked R. About half a dozen boughs of the 
height of a man interwoven may serve for a stand. 
You may sit upon a little haulm or fern, and at three 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 87 

or four feet distance from thence towards the net, force 
a strong stake into the ground, at the place marked Q ; 
whereon fasten the lines of the net when it is drawn 
up. It is not necessary to make use of two pulleys ; 
one only is enough on a side, as at N, and the other 
at I. Tie a long pole at one of its ends, and let the 
other be fastened to a tree a little ahove C, by a cord, 
which will give the pole liberty to be raised up or 
lowered, as you would raise up or lower the net ; the 
sportsman should have one cord to hold, and place him- 
self on the side of the tree B, where he may not be 
discerned. 

When a woodcock is taken, the net must be let 
down as readily as possible, for he may by struggling 
make his escape. The net must be immediately set up 
again, for it may happen that the other woodcocks will 
come in and be taken ; which you may miss, if tedious 
at your work. 

It often happens, that a man perceives a great 
thoroughfare of birds between some coppice or timber- 
woods, over a piece of ground, where he want? the 
conveniency of a good tree, to oppose some other, 
which possibly stands according to his mind; but 
whether he wants one or two, if he finds the place 
likely, let him take one or two trees fit for the purpose, 
and plant them deep in the ground, that they may 
stand all weathers. 

If you would take woodcocks by nets in high 
woods, by driving them into them, your net must be 



88 TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 

like the rabbit-hays, but not so strong, and about forty 
yards long, and you should have two or three. Being 
provided with nets, and having the assistance of five or 
six persons to go into the wood with you, (which should 
be seven or eight years' growth, the older the better,) 
go into some part about the middle, if it be not too large, 
and pitch your nets along as you do for rabbits, but one 
joining to the other slopewise hanging over towards 
where you design to drive the cocks. 

Your nets being thus fixed, let your company go 
to the end of the wood, at about ten rods asunder, and 
having sticks in their hands, make a noise, also using 
their voices as if they were driving cattle along, and 
go forward till you come to the place where the nets 
are set, and you will not fail to catch those in that part 
of the wood : when such part of the wood is thus 
driven, turn your net slopewise on the other side, and 
going to the other end, observe the same directions : 
you may, by these means, take them at any time 
of the day. 

Such as may wish to take woodcocks in a wood, 
by gins, springes, and nooses, need not lose any time, 
after they have set them, but go at four in the after- 
noon, and the effect will be much the same : they must be 
provided with several dozens of these snares, more or less, 
according to the places in the wood where the woodcocks 
are. These nooses are made of good long horse-hair, 
twisted together, with a running buckle at one end, 
and a knot at the other, which is passed through the 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 89 

middle of a stick cleft with the point of a knife ; then 
open it, and put in the end of the horse-hair noose, 
make knots to keep it tight, and also to hinder it from 
passing through the cleft : this stick is about the thick- 
ness of the little finger and about a foot long, being 
sharp-pointed at one end, the better to fix it in the 
ground. Having bundled them up, go into a coppice, 
such as has most leaves, in order to find if any wood- 
cocks are there ; this may be perceived by the leaves on 
the ground, which will be ranged both on one side and 
the other by the woodcocks, in searching for worms 
under them, and by their droppings, which are of a dark 
grey colour. When you find there are woodcocks 
there, take a round of about forty or fifty paces, which 
is represented by the following directions : 




The most proper places for this purpose are amongst 
bushes and small coppices, and the manner thus. Sup- 
pose the branches marked ABODE were so many 
stumps ; make a small hedgerow, of half a foot high, 
of broom, furze, brambles, &c., from one stump to an- 
other, leaving a gap in the middle for the woodcocks to 



90 TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 

pass, as at F G H I ; so that the woodcock, walking in 
the wood in search of food, and finding this hedgerow, 
will follow it till he comes to the gap; for he will 
never fly, and therefore you should fix the string there, 
opened in a round form, and laid upon the flat ground, 
supported only by some leaves. The form of the ex- 
tended snares are represented in the foregoing plate. 

If in walking in the woods you should find nooses, 
and the like, that are set five or six inches above the 
ground, such as are denoted by the letters F and G, it 
is a sign partridges frequent that place, and that persons 
come to take them. There are those who make little 
hedgerows of different lengths, and in different num- 
bers, as they think fit, according to the game they sup- 
pose the place may afford. 

It has been observed, that woodcocks in the night- 
time frequent springs and similar places, because they 
do not freeze ; and those persons who make it their 
business to catch them, will not forget in the morning 
to walk along the sides of rivulets, springs, marshes, and 
ditches, that are under the covert of woods, in order to 
find out whether any woodcocks had been there the 
night before ; for they will not fail to return thither if 
they have been once there before, and therefore snares 
should be laid for them, as represented above. 

Suppose the oblong square, denoted by the letter H, 
should be a ditch full of water, frequented by wood- 
cocks, and that its bank should be that side represented 
by the figures 2, 3, 4. 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DRAW-NETS, ETC. 91 

Stop all other places, by which they can come at the 
bank of the ditch, from 2 X as far as A Z, with broom 
and the like things, and on the fairest bank make a 
small hedge, 2, Y, P, 3, M, N, about five or six inches 
high, and about half a foot distant from the water ; but 
in this hedge leave gaps at the distance of about five or 
six feet from each other, more or less, according to the 
extent of the place. These passes are denominated by 
the letters P, 3, M, N, where the snares or springes are 




laid. Those who follow this sport, fix at the edge of 
the gap, five inches high, and not so thick as a man's 
little finger, and within half a foot of the other side of 
the pass, a small bow., two or three fingers high, which 
forms, as it were, a round gate or door facing the 
stick A. 

Then have a small wooden flat crochet, seven or eight 
inches long, with a notch in it, near the end R, which 
put into the stick A, and the other end pass under the 



92 TO TAKE WOODCOCKS BY DBAW-NETS, ETC. 

bow; also take a switch of hazel, or some other wood, 
that being folded will grow straight of itself; this rod, 
a finger thick, and about three feet long, fix in the 
small hedge ; tie to the end V a packthread, half a foot 
long, to the end of which fasten a horsehair snare or 
springe, with a small stick cut at both ends, and made 
like a wedge to cleave wood with. The reject must be 
folded and pass the letter P underneath the bow, and 
the same must also be done by the end of the small stick ; 
fasten it under the edge S of the bow, and raising the 
bird-trap or snare, fix the other end of the stick in the 
notch R, by which means the machine will be kept 
tight, then extend the snare P into a round, or over the 
trap ; but it must be so pliant, that as soon as the wood- 
cock passes through* and sets his foot upon the trap, the 
reject will immediately unbend, and catch him by the 
leg. 

Others fasten a small circle to the trap, that the wood- 
cock may have more room for his feet, and so make the 
reject of use to catch him ; for it may happen, that, as 
he crosses the gap, he does not pass over it. 
- This second device, with the circle, is represented by 
the letter K. 



93 



TO TAKE WOODCOCKS WITH BIRDLIME, ETC. 

WOODCOCKS and snipes are difficult to discover, on 
account of their lying close, and not resorting much to- 
gether, especially in the day-time. 

The custom of woodcocks is usually to lie on hanks 
hy hedges and ditches exposed to the sun ; and you may 
take notice, that on a day after a moonshiny night, 
they will suffer you to come nearer to them, and find 
them, better than after a dark night. 

Snipes naturally lie by the sides of rivers, when all 
plashes are frozen, and always with their heads up or 
down the stream, and not across it. In order to find 
them, a person must be expert in the knowledge of 
their colours. 

In order to take woodcocks, &c., with birdlime, 
provide yourself with sixty or seventy twigs, which 
daub with birdlime neatly and smoothly ; and having 
found their haunts, which you may discover by their 
droppings, generally in low plashy places, and such as 
have plenty of weeds, arid are not frozen in frosty 
weather ; there set your twigs, more or less, as you think 
fit, at about a yard distance one from the other, placing 
them so as to stand sloping, in various ways; and if you 
design to see sport, you must be concealed. If there be 
any other open places near to that in which you have set 
your twigs, beat them up, or else set twigs there too. 



PART THE FIFTH. 



METHODS FOE TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 

THERE are various ways of taking birds, one of 
which is in the night, with a low-bell, hand-net, and 
light ; a sport used in plain and campaign countries; also 
in stubble fields, especially those of wheat, from the 
middle of October to the end of March ; and that after 
the following manner : About nine o'clock at night, 
when the air is mild, and the moon does not shine, take 
your low-bell, (of a deep and hollow sound, and of a 
size that a man may carry it conveniently with one hand,) 
which tolls in the manner of a sheep while it feeds. 
You must also have a box, much like a large lantern, 
about a foot and a half square, big enough for two 
or three great lights to be set in it. Let the box be 
lined with tin, one side open, to cast forth the light : 
fix this box to your breast, an d* the light will be cast a 
great distance before you, very broad, whereby you may 
see any thing that is on the ground within the compass 
of the light, and consequently the birds that roost on the 
ground. 

Then, for taking them, have two men with you, one 
on each side, but a little behind, that they may not be 
within the reflection of the light that the lantern or box 
casts forth ; each of them must be provided with a hand- 



METHODS FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 95 

net of about three or four feet square, fixed to a long 
stick, to carry in their hands ; and when either of them 
sees a bird on his side, he must lay his net over it, and 
so take it up, making as little noise as possible. They 
must not be over hasty in their operations, but let him 
that carries the light and low-bell be the foremost, for 
fear of raising others, which their coming into the limits 
of the light may occasion; for all is dark, except where 
the light casts its reflection. 

It is to be observed, that the sound of the low-bell 
causes the birds to lie close, and not dare to stir, while 
your nets are passed over them, the light is so terrible 
to them ; but you must be quite silent, lest you raise 
them. 

If you wish to practise this sport by yourself, carry 
the low-bell in one hand, as before directed, and in the 
other a hand-net, about two feet broad and three feet 
long, with a handle to it, to lay upon them as you spy 
them. This way is sometimes preferred to the former. 
But, instead of fixing the light to the breast, as before 
stated, some tie the low-bell to the girdle, by a string 
which hangs to the knees, when their motion causes the 
bell to strike; they then carry the light in the hand, 
extending the arm before them ; in which case, however, 
the lantern or box should not be so large as that which 
is fixed to the breast. 

Another way of taking small birds, is by bat-fowling ; 
this being likeAvise a night exercise. By this means you 
may take all sorts of birds both great and small, not 



96 METHODS FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 

merely such as roost on the ground, but on shrubs, 
bushes, hawthorn trees, and the like places. 

The depth of winter is the best season for this sport ; 
and the darker the night, and colder the weather, so 
much the better. 

As to the manner of bat-fowling, it may be practised 
with nets or without : if without, suppose your company 
be twelve, let one-third part carry poles, to which little 
bundles of dry hay or straw, dipped in pitch, rosin, or 
the like (so that it will blaze), must be bound at top : 
another third part of the company must attend at the 
fires with long poles, rough and bushy at the upper end, 
to knock down the birds that fly about the lights : an- 
other third part must have poles to beat the bushes and 
other places, to cause the birds to fly about the lights; 
which they will do as if amazed, not departing from 
them, so that they may be knocked down. 

It will be proper for one of the company to carry a 
candle or lantern, that in case the lights be extinguished, 
they may be kindled at pleasure ; and be sure to observe 
the most profound silence, especially till the lights are 
kindled. 

Another way with nets is performed thus : Let two 
or three go with lanterns and candles lighted, extended 
in. one of their hands, such as before described when 
using the low-bell ; and in the other hand small nets, 
like a racket, but less, fixed at the end of a long pole, 
to beat down the birds as they sit at roost ; which, sur- 
prised with the great blazing light, will not stir until 



METHOD FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 



they arc knocked down. A cross-bow, for this kind of 
sport, is very useful, to shoot them as they sit. 

Some take great and small fowl by night, with a long 
trammel-net, which is much like the net used for the 
low-bell, both for shape, size, and mesh. This net is to 
be spread upon the ground, and the nether or further 
end being plumbed with small plummets of lead, should 
lie close on the ground ; and, at the two foremost ends 
-only, being borne up by men, let it trail along the 
ground ; not suffering the enf whiej^ is borne up, to 
come near the earth by at least a yajP^> At each end of 
the net must be carried great blazing lights, as before 
described ; and some men should be stationed by the 
lights, with long poles, to raise up, the birds as they go, 
and as they rise und^f the nets to take them. 





There are various ways of taking small birds, when 
the ground is covered with snow; as the following, for 
instance : Fix upon a place in your yard or garden, 

H 



98 METHOD FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 

from which you may see the hirds, about twenty or 
thirty paces from a window or door, where they cannot 
see you, that they may not he frightened; clear this 
place of the snow, to the breadth of six or seven feet, 
and of the same length, so as to form a square, as repre- 
sented in the preceding plate. 

Within the lines 0, P, Q, R, place a wooden table, 
or door, in the middle, as at A, to which you must have 
fastened before, at the sides B, C, D, E, some small 
pieces of pipe-staves, about six inches long and one 
broad; but previous to nailing them on, make a hole 
exceeding the thickness of the nail, that it may turn 
loosely upon it. 

You are to place under the four ends which are not 
nailed, four pieces of tile or slate, to hinder them from 
penetrating into the ground, as you may see at F and 
G, in such a manner that the table may not be fixed, but 
with the least movement fall down. 

Make a small notch, or little stay, in the end of the 
table, at the place H, in order to put into it the end of 
the staff marked I, which should be seven inches long 
and one broad ; the other end should rest upon a piece 
of tile or slate, so that the door, or table, thereon, would 
be ready to fall towards the house, were it not sustained 
by the piece of wood, which is bored towards the 
middle, in order to put in and fasten the end of a small 
cord, the other end of which is conveyed to the window 
or door, M, N, designed for this purpose. 

This done, put some straw upon the table to cover it, 






METHOD FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 99 

with some corn underneath, and a little about it. As 
soon as the birds see the earth free from snow, and 
covered with straw, they will fly thither ; and when 
they have eaten up the corn about the table, they will 
also proceed to feed upon that under it. You must 
from time to time peep through some hole in the door, 
or leave it a little open, and when you find the birds 
have got under the machine, pull the cord M, which 
.will pluck out the stick I, and the table will fall upon 
them, which you must presently seize, and set your 
machine as before. If the table is not heavy enough of 
itself to fall readily, lay something upon it to increase 
its weight, provided it be not the means of frightening 
the birds. 

Small birds may be taken in the night-time with 
nets and sieves : they retire in the winter time into cop- 
pices, hedges, and bushes, to shelter themselves from the 
severe cold and winds, which incommode them. The 
net made use of for this purpose is that which the French 
call carralet, as under : 




Take two poles, let them be straight and light, of 
the length of ten or twelve feet, that the net may be 

H 2 



100 METHOD FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS. 

lifted up high enough to enable you to take the birds : 
tie the net to these poles, beginning with the two cor- 
ners at the two small ends ; tie the other two corners 
as far as you can towards the two thick ends of the 
poles ; fasten packthreads all along at both the sides, 
or two or three places, to each. There must be three 
persons employed, one to carry the net, another the 
light, and a third a long pole. 

As soon in the night as you have got to the place 
whither you think the birds are retired, having found a 
bush, or kind of thicket, the net must be unfolded, and 
pitched the height of the bush. It must be so arranged, 
that it be placed between the wind and the birds ; for 
it is the nature of all birds to roost with their breasts 
against the wind. The person with the lighted torch 
must stand behind the middle of the net, and the third 
must beat the bushes on the other side of the hedge, 
and drive the birds towards the light. 

In great timber woods, under which holly-bushes 
grow, birds usually roost ; and there good store of game 
is to be met with. 

By this way twenty or thirty dozen birds have been 
taken in one night. 

This sport is always better when the weather is cold 
and dark. 



TO TAKE BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 



101 



TO TAKE BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 

PITCH, early in the morning, upon a place in a piece 
of ground remote from tall trees ; and hedge, or stick 
in the ground, three or four branches of coppice-wood, 
represented in the cut as A, B, T, five or six feet high ; 
and so intermingle the tops of them, that they may keep 




close and firm like a hedge. Take two or three houghs 
of blackthorn, as C, D, let them be thick and close, and 
place them on the top of the coppice branches, where 
you must make them stick fast ; provide yourself with 
four or five dozen of small lime-twigs, nine or ten inches 
long, and as slender as can be got ; smear them over 
with birdlime, within two inches of the thick end, which 
must be cleft with a knife ; place them there and upon 
the hedge, and let them be kept up by placing the 
cleft end slightly on the point of the thorns. The 



102 TO TAKE BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 

middle should be borne up a little with some higher 
thorn, so that the twigs may stand sloping, but without 
touching one another ; ranging all in such a manner, 
that a bird cannot light upon the hedge without being 
entangled. 

You should always have a bird of the sort you 
design to catch, and bring it up in a small cage that is 
light and portable. These cages must be placed upon 
small forked sticks, as F, G, ten inches from the ground, 
stuck on one side of the artificial hedge or bush, at two 
yards' distance : after which retire thirty paces towards 
S, where you are to stick two or three leaved branches 
in the ground, which may serve for a lodge or stand ta 
hide yourself. 

When you have taken three or four birds of any 
sort, you must make use of a device represented by 
the second figure. Take a small stick, I, H, two feet 
long, and fix it upright in the ground, at the distance 
of about four yards from the tree ; fasten a small pack- 
thread to the end I, which must be on a small forked 
stick, L, M, two feet high, and fix it in the ground 
eight yards distant from the other I, H ; let the end of 
it be conveyed to your stand, then tie the birds you 
have taken by the legs to that packthread between the 
stick I, H, and the forked one L, M : the letters N, 
0, P, Q, R, represent them to you : the thread made 
use of for this purpose must be two feet long, and so 
slack that the birds may stand upon the ground. This 
done, retire to your stand; and when you see some 



TO TAKE BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 103 

birds fly, pull your packthread S, and those that are tied 
will take wing, by which means you may take a great 
many; for those that hover in the air, perceiving the 
others fly, will imagine they feed there, and coming down, 
so light upon the lime-twigs ; from which you may take 
them. 

As soon as the small birds have done with their nests, 
which will be about the end of July, you may take them 
-in great numbers, when they go to drink, along rivulets, 
and about springs, ditches, and pools, in the fields and 
woods. 




Suppose the place marked with the letter A, in the 
above plate, should be the middle of a ditch, or pool full 
of water, where birds come to drink. Make choice of a 
bank wljere the sun comes but little, as at B ; remove 
every thing that may obstruct their coming easily at 
the water ; take several small lime-twigs, a foot long, 
and smear them over, to within two inches of the thickest 
end, which must be sharp-pointed, in order to fix them 
in a row along the bank B, in such a manner that they 



104 TO TAKE BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 

may all lie within two fingers' breadth of the ground : 
they must not touch one another. When you have 
inclosed this bank, cut some small boughs or herbs, and 
place them all round the water at the sides marked 
C, L, Y, where the birds may drink, and this will oblige 
them to throw themselves where the lime-twigs are, which 
they cannot discern. Leave no place uncovered round 
the water where the birds may drink, but that at B ; 
then retire to your stand to conceal yourself, but so that 
you may see all your lime-twigs, and when any thing is 
caught, hasten to take it away, and replace the lime- 
sticks where there is occasion. But as the birds which 
come to drink examine the place where they are to 
alight for it, they do not drop at once, but rest upon 
some small trees, if there are any, or on the summits 
of copse, and after they have been there some time, 
move to some lower branches, and a little after alight 
on the ground; in this case, you must have three or 
four great boughs, like those represented at the side Y, 
which you are to pitch in the ground at the best place 
of access to the ditch, about two yards distant from the 
water. Take off the branches from the middle nearly 
to the top, and let the disbranched part slope towards 
the water, make notches therein, at three fingers' dis- 
tance from each other, in order to put in several small 
lime-twigs, as you see by the plate. You must lay them 
within two fingers' breadth of the branch, and so dis- 
pose them in respect to one another, that no bird which 
comes to alight thereon can escape being entangled ; it 



FOB TAKING SMALL BIRDS WITH LIME-TWIGS. 105* 

is certain, if you take six dozen of birds, as well on the 
boughs as on the ground, you will catch two-thirds on 
the branches at Y. 

The time for this sport is from two in the morning 
till half an hour before sunset, but the best is from 
about ten to eleven, and from two to three ; and lastly, 
an hour and half before sunset, when the birds approach 
to the watering place in flocks, because the hour presses 
them to retire, and go to roost. 

The best season for this diversion is when the weather 
is hot : you must not follow it when it rains, nor even 
when the morning dew falls, because the birds then 
satisfy themselves with the water they find on the 
leaves of trees : neither will it be to any purpose to 
pursue the sport when the water, after great rains, lies 
in places on the ground ; it must first dry up, or else 
you will lose your labour. 



FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS, THAT FREQUENT 
HEDGES AND BUSHES, WITH LIME-TWIGS. 

THE great lime bush is best for this use, which you 
must make after this manner : cut down the main branch 
or bough of any bushy tree, whose branch and twigs are 
long, thick, smooth, and straight, without either pricks 
or knots ; the willow or birch is the best. When you 
have trimmed it from all superfluity, making the twigs 



106 FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS WITH LIME-TWIGS. 

neat and clean, then take the best birdlime, well mixed 
and wrought together with goose-grease, which being 
warmed, lime every twig therewith within four fingers 
of the bottom. 

The body from whence the branches have their rise 
must be untouched with lime. 

Be sure you do not daub your twigs too much, for 
that will give distaste to the birds : yet let none want 
its proportion, or have any part left bare which ought 
to be touched : for as too much will deter them from 
coming, so too little will not hold them when they are 
there. Having so done, place your bush in some quick- 
set or dead hedge near towns' ends, back yards, old 
houses, or the like ; for these are the resort of small 
birds in the spring time. In the summer and harvest, 
place your bush in groves, clumps of whitethorn trees, 
quickset hedges near corn fields, fruit trees, flax and 
hemp lands; and in the winter about houses, hovels, 
barns, stacks, or those places where ricks of corn stand, 
or chaff is scattered. 

As near as you can to any of these haunts plant your 
limed bush, and place yourself at a convenient distance, 
unexposed, imitating with your mouth several notes of 
birds, which you must learn by frequent practice, walk- 
ing the fields for that purpose very often, observing the 
variety of several birds' sounds, especially such as they 
call one another by. 

Some have been so expert herein, that they could 
imitate the notes of twenty different birds at least, by 



FOR TAKING SMALL BIRDS WITH LIME-TWIGS. 107 

which they have caught ten birds to another person's 
one that was ignorant. 

If you cannot attain it by your industry, you must 
procure a bird-call, of which there are several sorts, easy 
to be made ; some of wood, some of horn, some of cane, 
and the like. 

Having learnt first how to use this call, you must sit 
and call the birds to you, and as any of them light on 
your bush, do not attempt to take them till you see 
them sufficiently entangled; neither is it requisite to 
run for every single bird, but let them alone till more 
come, for the fluttering is as good as a lure to entice 
others. 

This plan you may use from sunrise till ten o'clock 
in the morning, and from one till almost sunset. 

You may take these small birds with limed twigs 
only, without the bush, in this manner : 

Take two or three hundred small twigs, about the 
thickness of rushes, and about three inches long, and 
go with them into a field where hemp cocks are : upon 
the tops of about ten of the cocks, which are nearest 
together, stick the twigs, and then go and beat about 
that field or the next, where you have seen any birds ; 
and commonly in such fields there are infinite numbers 
of linnets and green-birds, which are great lovers of 
hemp-seed : these birds flying in such vast flocks, a 
number may be caught at one fall of them upon the 
cocks. 

There is another way of taking birds with limed 



108 OF TAKING SMALL BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 

twigs, by placing near them a lure or two made of live 
bats. In order to render your lure more conspicuous, 
place it on something elevated, that it may be visible to 
the birds thereabout ; it will no sooner be perceived, than 
every bird will be attracted to the spot, and having no 
other convenient lighting-place but where the lime-twigs 
are, you may take a great number of them. But the 
owl is a far better lure than the bat, being larger, and 
therefore the more easily to be perceived ; besides, he is 
never seen without being followed and persecuted by all 
the birds that are near. 

If you have not a living bat or owl, a stuffed one will 
answer the same purpose : there are some who have 
used an owl cut in wood, and naturally painted, with 
good success. 



ANOTHER METHOD OF TAKING SMALL BIRDS 
WITH BIRDLIME. 

IN cold weather, that is, in frost or snow, all sorts of 
small birds gather together in flocks, as larks, chaffinches, 
yellowhammers, buntings, sparrows, &c. 

All these, except the lark, perch on trees or bushes, 
as well as feed on the ground. 

If they resort about your house, or adjacent fields, 
then use birdlime, that is well prepared and not too old, 
in the following manner : 

Put the birdlime into an earthen dish, adding to it 



OF TAKING SMALL BIRDS WITH BIRDLIME. 109 

some fresh lard or capon's grease, putting one ounce of 
either to a quarter of a pound of hirdlime. Then set it 
over the fire, and let it be gently melted, taking care 
not to let it boil, as that would destroy its strength. 

It being thus prepared, and having furnished yourself 
with a quantity of ears of wheat, cut the straw about a 
foot long, exclusive of the ears, and lime them for about 
six inches, from the bottom of the ears to the middle of 
the straw; the lime being warmed so as to run the 
thinner upon the straw, and be the more imperceptible, 
and less liable to be suspected by the birds. Then go 
into the fields, carrying with you a bag of chaff and 
threshed ears, which you must spread on the ground 
for the space of about twenty yards in width, (this will 
be best in snowy weather,) then stick up the limed 
straws, with the ears leaning, so that the ends touch 
the ground, then retire from the place, and beat the 
grounds round about. By these means you disturb the 
birds in their other haunts, and cause them to fly to the 
place where the chaff and corn have been scattered, and 
the limed straws set up, when they will peck at the ears 
of corn, and finding that they stick upon them, they will 
instantly fly away : the limed straws, lying under their 
wings, will cause them to fall ; and not being able to 
disengage themselves, they may be taken with ease. 
You must not, however, take them up when you see 
only five or six entangled, for that may prevent you from 
taking as many dozens at a time. 

If they are larks that fall where your limed straws 



110 TO TAKE WHEAT-EARS, LARKS, AND QUAILS. 

are, do not go near them till they rise of themselves and 
fly in great flocks ; by this method some have caught 
five or six dozens at a time. 

Some of these straws may be laid nearer home, for 
taking sparrows, chaffinches, yellowhammers, &c., 
which resort near to houses, and frequent barn-doors ; 
where they may be easily taken by the foregoing 
method. 

Having performed this in the morning, take away all 
the limed ears, that the birds may feed boldly, without 
being disturbed or frightened ; in the afternoon, bait 
the same place with fresh chaff and ears of corn, and 
let them remain there till the next morning; then having 
stuck up fresh limed straws, commence your amusement. 



TO TAKE WHEAT-EARS, LARKS, AND QUAILS. 

WHEAT-EARS are taken under ground, as follows : 
Dig two pits of earth, in the form of the letter V ; put 
two single hair nooses into a stick, split in the centre, 
with two ends left whole ; lay it across the centre, with 
the bottom of the nooses within an inch of the bottom ; 
then lay the earth over them, leaving the two ends open 
about six inches long, into which they will go freely ; 
when they come to the centre, the light appearing from 
the other side induces them to proceed, and in turning 
the corner they are taken. 



BABBITS. Ill 

LARKS are taken by springes or long cords laid across 
each other, at any length you please. Stake them at 
the ends, open the nooses at least two inches in diameter, 
and place them equal on each side of the twine ; then 
sprinkle a little chaff in a ridge over them, quite thin. 
Place yourself in a ditch, ready to take them out. 

QUAILS are taken by a call, by which you will find 
where they are ; then get the wind of them ; lay your 
net, which should be eight yards by eight in size, and 
two inches and'a half meshes, on the stubble ; silk is best. 
Lie behind the net, and imitate their note. If the cock 
answers, mimic the hen ; and if she answers, mimic the 
cock, and they will come quite close. When under the 
net, crawl up to it, and tread the edges down, and take 
them out. In their wooing time, which is from March to 
July, as with partridges, they are easily taken ; but it is 
better to wait for the bevy till the latter end of August. 



PART THE SIXTH. 



RABBITS. 

THERE are two sorts of rabbits, viz. the wild and the 
tame : those that are wild are bred in warrens, are 
smaller and more red, have active bodies, are shy and 
watchful, and their flesh is more delicious from the 
liberty they enjoy, and the superior nature of their food; 
they are more lively than the tame ones. The tame 



112 BABBITS. 

are sometimes made use of to supply warrens; and 
there, in process of time, they become more active and 
wild. 

The males being given to cruelty, kill all the young 
ones they can come at ; therefore the females, after they 
have kennelled, hide them, and close up the holes in 
such a manner, that the buck may not find them : they 
increase wonderfully, bringing forth every month ; there- 
fore, when kept tame in huts, they must be watched, 
and, as soon as they have kennelled, must be put to the 
buck, for they will otherwise mourn, and hardly bring 
up their young. 

In the choice of tame rabbits, you need not look to 
their shape, but to their colour : the bucks must be the 
largest and finest you can get : and that skin is esteemed 
the best that has the most equal mixture of black and 
white hair together: but the black should rather shadow 
the white : a black skin with a few silver hairs, being 
far preferable to a white skin with a few black ones. 

As to the profit of tame rabbits, every one that is 
killed in season, that is, from Martinmas till after 
Candlemas, is worth five others, as being much better 
and larger: and the skin will fetch more money. Again, 
the increase is more : the tame ones, at one kennelling, 
bringing forth more than the wild ones ; besides, they are 
always ready at hand for the dish, winter and summer, 
without the charge of nets, ferrets, &c., and their skins 
paying their keeper's expense, with interest. 

One doe will produce eight litters in a year. The 



BABBITS. 113 

average of five at a litter is forty, which, at Is. 6</., will 
amount to 3l. ; at which rate forty does will bring 1201. 
yearly. The manure (which is very excellent) will pay 
half their food, and the extra prices at which the breed- 
ing does and bucks are sold will cover losses. 

Proper food for tame rabbits is the sweetest, shortest, 
and best hay you can get ; one load will feed two 
hundred couple a year, and out of the stock of two 
hundred, as many as are sold in the market may be 
used in the house, and yet a good stock maintained to 
answer all casualties. The hay must be put to them in 
little cloven sticks, that they may with ease reach and 
pull it out, but so as not to scatter or waste any ; and 
sweet oats and water should be put for them in troughs 
under the boxes ; this should be their ordinary and con- 
stant food, all other being given medicinally. Two or 
three times in a fortnight, give them green victuals, to 
cool their bodies, but sweet grain should be seldom used, 
as nothing rots them sooner. 

In hot weather use pollard with pea-meal, instead of 
grains, as they must not be given when sour; young 
clover, tares, &c. When they get pot-bellied, give them 
young green broom, and some bread well toasted. 

Great care must be taken when any grass is cut for 
them where there are weeds, that there is no hemlock 
amongst it, for though' they will eat it greedily, it is 
present poison, and suddenly kills them. Their huts 
must be cleaned every day, as the stench arising from 
their ordure greatly annoys them. 



114 RABBITS. 

The infirmities to which tame rabbits are subject 
are twofold : first, the rot, which comes of giving them 
green meat, or gathering greens for them which have 
the dew on ; therefore, let them have it but seldom, 
and then the dryness of the hay will absorb the 
moisture. 

Secondly, there is a certain madness sometimes among 
rabbits, caused by the rankness of their keeping, arid 
which is known by their wallowing and tumbling with 
their heels upwards, and leaping in their huts ; to cure 
this, give them tare thistles to eat. 

Wild rabbits do a great deal of damage to trees, and 
all sorts of corn, their teeth sparing nothing that they 
come near ; to prevent this, take some very small sticks 
of willow, well dried, dip one end in some melted brim- 
stone, and stick the other into the ground ; let them be 
about six feet distant from each other, and set fire to them. 

Rabbits are taken in various ways. If in cover, they 
afford excellent sport with the gun. If the covers are 
large, quarter them with a reel made of long feathers, 
on a cord ; this, set about six inches high, will keep them 
up to the guns. If they He in hedgerows, double them, 
and plant one or two guns at the end where the racks 
meet, and you will be sure of sport. If they are in the 
ground, ferret them out, and take shots at them as they 
run. If you want to extirpate them, use nets and wire 
with the guns. In warrens, they trap them at the 
mouths of the eyes (here you will take stoats, &c.), and 
wire them in the " chops." Pitfalls are made with dou- 



BABBITS. 115 

ble falls, meeting each other, covered over similar to the 
common hutch-traps, but without doors ; the drop is in 
the centre : these should be winged. 

When you intend to wire, go in the morning dew, in 
dry weather ; put down tillers where you intend they 
should stand, and lay a small piece of white paper 
opposite every one, to find them by. In the evening, go 
and plant your wires, which must have stumps to drive 
into the ground : this may be done easiest with a mallet. 
Set tljem, bottoms three inches from the ground, right 
over where they pitch, in the short cross-paths called 
chops, in the middle of fields. When you can get a 
few carrots, lay them along in the deep sides of furrows, 
about two yards distant ; plant a trap betwixt them, as 
they will quickly run from one to another. In winter, 
when the snow lies on the ground, these, or parsley, are 
sure to draw them. Where furrows lead to covers or 
holds, plant in them and the main paths at evening ; 
then go in the night and drive the rabbits in with dogs, 
or a flint and steel is a good substitute. The striking 
and walking at the same time will cause them to run to- 
wards home. You may smoke them out of their holds 
with powder of orpine and stone brimstone. When you 
wire in cover, discover on which side of a ride the holds 
are ; and on the contrary side to that from whence they 
are coming to feed, about a yard in, plant your wires, as 
they come out very cautiously, and pass very quickly 
into the other side, where they are taken. This is per- 
formed in their main paths. 

i 2 



116 BABBIT-SHOOTING. 



RABBIT-SHOOTING. 

HOWEVEB it may appear to the inexperienced, it is a 
known fact that there is as much or more caution neces- 
sary in rabhit-shooting than perhaps in the taking of any 
other game. The best weather for this sport is in the 
intervals of storms, when the sun breaks forth with re- 
newed splendour, and when there is little wind moving. 
In this sort of weather, rabbits will feed at all hours of 
the day, and are more easy to come at than when the 
weather is dry. The best way of approaching them un- 
observed is by wearing dark clothes, and always crouch- 
ing as near the ground as possible, with a slow and 
regular pace. In coming up to them it is best to have 
the wind in the teeth, as that hinders them from scenting 
any one until within gun-shot. If a sportsman should 
come upon a number of them feeding together, and, on 
account of their size, not be able to distinguish young 
from old, by a gentle whistle, or other small noise, it 
will - be found that the old ones will immediately seek 
the covert, while the young ones remain pricking up 
their ears. For shooting rabbits in winter, first provide 
dogs of good nose and foot, who will stick close to the 
same rabbit till he is either earthed or shot. Terriers, 
some think, answer the purpose best. The most proper 
station to be taken is in a tree, near the earth, which 
should be previously stopped, or at the corner of a wood 



FERRETING RABBITS. 117 

commanding two ways. Some people think No. 3 the 
best shot for rabbits, as they require a very hard blow. 

Gentlemen or farmers wishing to protect any piece of 
ground from rabbits, have only to place round it a piece 
of newly-tarred cord, which no rabbit will pass. It is 
also understood, that a slice of turnip, placed at the 
entrance of each muish a , will effectually deter any hare 
from passing through. 



FERRETING RABBITS. 

FERRETING rabits is performed by covering the 
mouths of the burrows in a hedgerow, or any place 
where they lie convenient for being well attended with 
purse nets. A sufficient number of attendants must be 
properly placed, and the profoundest silence observed. 
The ferrets, or cafe, as they are styled, must be coped, 
that is, muzzled, or have bells tied round their necks, or 
they might not be recovered. The man who earths the 
cat, should keep on the windward side of the burrow, 
a general rule to be observed ; for if the degree of alarm 
be too great, the rabbit will rather remain, and be torn 
in pieces, than bolt. The instant a rabbit is netted, the 
person waiting must throw himself upon it, and kill it 
as speedily and with as little noise as possible ; but 
there is no sport unless rabbits are quite plentiful. 

a Meuse, in modern phraseology. 



118 



PART THE SEVENTH. 



FISH PONDS. 

PONDS should be kept clean, as fish will not thrive in 
the dark, and among filth. The process is as follows: 
To take the mantle off the water, lash hits of scorrels, 
about four feet long, to each other, with spunyarn, 
length according to the sheet of water; choose con- 
venient places to take it out ; lash one end to a stake, 
and the other to the stern of a boat, then shove the boat 
round as much as you can of the mantle, and have a 
man with a three-pronged fork to throw it out, as it is 
driven on shore. To cut weeds from the bottom, collect 
a number of old scythes, cut the cranks off, and a piece 
of the points; have them riveted end to end, so that 
they have liberty to move ; fasten a line to each end. 
By drawing them to and fro, you may clear the bottom. 
In stocking ponds, put from three to five spawners 
to one milter : sixty brace of carp, and forty brace of 
tench per acre, if a quick stream. Bushy wood should 
be put into the breeding-ponds, for the spawn to hang 
upon. When store-ponds are drawn off, make creeps 
with sods of flot grass, set up leaning to each other, and 
sow oats in them. If there is another pond to preserve 
the fish in, let the oats be ripe before you let the water 
in, then remove the fish back. Select the largest, and 



FISHING. 119 

put into your stews. If two, you can have different 
sizes, each by themselves : if thought proper, the 
spawners and milters may be kept separate. It is good 
to feed them in the stews, with corn, wash from a 
scullery, and new grains mixed with blood, &c. Your 
stews should be down a reach, or stream, and good 
pond-stocks, so that the water can be quickly drawn off, 
when, with a landing-net, you can take fish out at a 
short notice. 



FISHING. 

THIS sport is divided into netting, snaring, bobbing, 
and angling with rod, hook, and line ; and a variety of 
baits living, artificial, or dead. Of river fish, the most 
esteemed are the salmon, trout, pike, grayling, perch, 
roach, dace, chub, barbel, pope or ruff, smelt, gudgeon, 
and eel. The principal pond-fish are carp, tench, and 
eels. 

The fishing-tackle should in the first instance be 
purchased ; but if home-made, the rod should be ground 
hazel, the cob-nut is best, though ground ash is some- 
times used. For the bag-rod, hiccory and bamboo 
shaved are the best; the joints must be made to fit 
with the utmost nicety. The salmon-rod is generally 
made of ash, with a whalebone top. Lines must be 
made of horsehair or silk ; the hairs even, and of a gray 
or white colour for clear water, but of a reddish brown 



120 FISHING. 

or chestnut for muddy water, or ground angling. Floats 
should he made of the hardest and hest quills, and their 
load so well constructed that the float may be kept 
perpendicular with the top, just above the surface of 
the water, so as to be moved or drawn by the slightest 
nibble. A cork float, nearly the shape of a spinning 
top, is used for fishing with a heavy bait ; the cork 
employed must be completely sound, and carefully 
bored through the centre with a red-hot wire ; then cut 
across the grain about two-thirds of its length, and the 
remaining third or summit of the float rounded, and 
smoothly finished with pumice-stone. For the con- 
venience of disengaging the fish taken by float-fishing, 
the line should be about a foot shorter than the rod ; 
and the length of the rod about fourteen or fifteen feet, 
light, stiff, and elastic, so as to strike at the extremity 
of the whalebone. For bottom fishing,, the following 
tackle will be found requisite : 

Lines of various sorts, carefully rolled, and good 
single hairs ; loose hooks, of various sizes ; hooks tied 
to coarse or fine gimp ; floats of cork and quill, with 
spare caps ; split shot and small bullets, to advance the ' 
float ; shoemakers' wax, for arming the hooks ; silk of 
various sizes and colours, to tie them on ; the colour of 
the silk to resemble that of the bait ; a plummet to 
sound the depth of water. A clearing-ring, to disen- 
tangle the hook from weeds, &c., is to be run along the 
rod and let gradually down the line to the object which 
fastens the hook. If it is some immoveable object, the 



FISHING. 121 

line will break just above the hook when you pull the 
twine attached to your clearing-ring ; but if only weeds, 
let your ring descend below the hook, and it will break 
the weeds, and probably save both line and hook. To 
these must be added a sharp penknife, a pair of scissars, 
a small whetstone to sharpen the hooks, a landing-net, 
disgorger, and a light fishing basket or creel. The 
angler should always conceal himself as much as 
possible; and if practicable, place himself so that his 
shadow may fall from the water. The best sport is 
generally found in deep holes clogged with weeds, or 
under the roots of old trees. 

In fly-fishing, let the angler keep out of sight, by 
remaining as far as possible from the water-side, and fish 
down the stream, with the sun in his face, when it is 
practicable : the line may be twice as long as the rod, 
unless the river is weedy or full of other obstructions. 
In clear water, use a small fly with clear wings; in 
muddy water, use a larger. The fly should be thrown 
on the water so neatly that the line do not touch it, 
and its colour should suit that of the water and air. 
Be provided therefore with a stock of orange, red- 
brown, black, and light-coloured flies. In slow or still 
waters, cast the fly across, and letting it sink a few 
inches, draw it leisurely back, when it will describe a 
circle. When you have a bite, strike instantly, or the 
fish will clear the hook. Continue walking down the 
stream, unless there is a strong wind, when it is better 
to remain near some sheltered and deep place. 



122 PISHING. 

Trimming is practised in still parts of a river, or in 
canals and large pieces of water. A round cork, half a 
foot in diameter, is used for this sport, with a groove, 
on which to wind up the line: the hook must hang 
ahout mid-water, and as much line be allowed on the 
other side of the cork as will reach to the bank, where 
it must be made fast ; and thus one person may attend 
to several lines. When a pike or other fish runs off 
with the bait, the line veers off the trimmer, without a 
check, to the end. On taking up the line, a jerk is 
necessary to hook the fish. 

Trolling is in use for pike, salmon, and eels. The 
trolling-rod is twelve or fourteen feet long ; but a com- 
mon rod may be employed, having a strong top fitted 
to it, with a small ring at the end for the line to pass 
througb, and one ring on each joint, set on so straight 
that the line may run freely, and that no sudden check 
may prevent the fish from gorging the bait. The line 
must be silk, thirty yards long at least, and have a 
swivel at the end, to receive the armed wire or gimp ; 
it is to be wound on a reel, fenced at the butt-end of 
the rod. When trolling hooks are too large, cut off the 
wire about an inch from the lead, and fasten about a 
foot of strong gimp securely to the wire, leaving a noose 
at the other end of the gimp, large enough to pass the 
bait through, to hang it on the line. When the hook 
is baited, it must be put gently into the water and kept 
in constant motion, sometimes being suffered to sink 
nearly to the bottom, and then gently drawn up again. 



FISHING. 123 

If pike are there and inclined to bite, they will do it 
soon : it is of no use to remain long at one spot, if you 
do not have a bite ; which when you do, you must be 
sensible of, even in deep or muddy water. Let your 
fish then have all the line he will draw, as he does not 
swallow the bait till he reaches his haunt, where he may 
be allowed from five to ten minutes to pouch the bait ; 
the line must then be wound up gently till the fish be 
seen ; this he will often suffer pretty quietly, even though 
he should not have gorged. 

If the bait be still in or across his mouth, you must 
allow him more time. Should he be sensible of the 
hook, and be struggling to clear his mouth of it, endea- 
vour to make it more secure by a jerk, and, by playing 
with the fish, tire it out ; but should he have swallowed 
the bait, veer out plenty of line, but mind to keep the 
fish clear of roots of trees or other impediments, till 
you can land him with your net. A large pike must 
not be lifted out of the water by the line and rod, as 
when suspended, he will by his weight most probably 
draw off the hook, and fall in again. Never, in trolling, 
throw the bait too far in, or you will alarm the fish. 
Pike are attracted by a large bait, but are more likely 
to be taken by a small one, which they will sooner 
swallow; keep your bait clear of weeds. A rough 
wind, that is not cold, and clear water, are favourable 
for trolling; it is seldom of any avail to fish for pike in 
troubled water. Pike are sometimes taken by ledger- 
baits, or lines left by night, and also by snaring with a 



124 FISHING. 

noose of wire fixed to a strong pole. The snarer at- 
tends to those deeps or holes to which pike resort during 
the greatest heat of a summer's day; then he gently 
slips the wire over the head and gill fins of the fish, and 
with a jerk hoists it to land. If it be a large pike, it 
requires considerable exertion to bring it to land. Pike 
are in season from May to February. The best months 
for trolling are February and October; in the latter 
they are in the best condition. Snap-angling is also 
practised for pike. The snap has two large hooks 
placed back to back, with a small one in the centre, on 
which to place the bait. The float is to swim down 
the current, and on perceiving a bite you must give a 
sudden jerk or snap : keep the line tight, and without 
giving him any play draw the fish to shore, and land 
him with the net. Very large pike can seldom be caught 
by the snap. 

Trout are in season from March till Michaelmas, and 
are taken with live baits ; the best for this purpose is the 
lob- worm : he is also taken with a fly, and will readily 
bite an artificial one : he will bite a fly on the surface, 
but it is better to sink it about half a foot. Trout 
generally shelter themselves under banks or large stones, 
or among weeds, with only their heads visible, and thus 
watch their prey. Proceed silently up the stream, and 
stir the water from the bottom with a pole, then throw 
the bait into the troubled water ; when they will fre- 
quently take it immediately. The best trout are taken 
in the night ; where they are plentiful they bite raven- 



FISHING. 125 

ously, lying on the top of the water, ready for their prey. 
Use no lead, but throw the bait gently across the sur- 
face, and draw it back towards you : trout and chub are 
dibbled for with a strong rod and a short line. 

When you are angling, use ground-baits made with 
stale bread crumbled, or bran squeezed round a stone 
and thrown in ; these should be put into the eddies, 
where you intend to fish, a short time before. Strike 
the water with your pole a few strokes, and it will bring 
them. Trout are taken with a fly thrown and drawn 
on the surface of the water, jerking with the rod, as if 
it were skipping along. The flies should be made like 
those you find in the different months, using a dark one 
in a very bright day, and a light one in gloomy weather. 
The best time for fly fishing is when there is a little 
breeze, to make a small curl upon the water. Trout 
will take a frog in rainy weather. When you take jacks 
with flews, or by drawing water off, so as they are 
unhurt, put those that are fit to kill into shallow water, 
where you can take them with a sniggle ; pass it very 
slowly down the water before the fish, draw it over his 
gills, then with a sudden jerk you may throw him out. 
If there should happen to be a curl upon the water when 
you want a fish, pass a few drops of oil of amber down 
the stream or wind, where you want to take him, and it 
will, by causing a calm, enable you to see him. 



126 



TO TAKE AND PRESERVE EELS. 

To take eels, there should be traps or brays at the 
heads of the ponds to receive them when they run in 
heavy showers, or pots filled with sheep's entrails, and 
sunk. In marsh ditches, use a net about twelve feet 
long in the cod, and nine feet wide ; put three hoops of 
different sizes into the cod, to keep it open ; corks and 
heavy leads in front, with a cord at each end to draw 
it up. Take distances about twenty yards at a time, 
first taking the eels out. When you find they strike 
into the mud, use spears. Bobbing in a creek, where 
the salt water comes in, is good sport. Anchor your 
boat across, into which you must throw them as quick as 
possible when you feel the check. The bob is made 
with coarse worsted passed through lob-worms, and 
coiled into a large bunch ; this is to be put on a strong 
cord, on a pole a convenient length, with lead over the 
worms, about a pound weight. 

To make a reserve of them, when taken, have a 
bricked cistern, three feet deep, that is fed by a running 
stream ; put them into it, make a fagot with small 
round w r ood, and tie both ends with small chains : have 
another fastened to each of them, giving it length 
enough for the middle to reach near the curb of the cis- 
tern, where have a hook fixed to hang it upon. The eels 
will draw into the fagot, and by pulling it out quickly, 
you may suit yourself with a dish at pleasure. It is right 
they should be fed with good wash, mixed with blood. 



PRESERVATION OF LIVE BAITS FOR ANGLING. 127 



PRESERVATION OF LIVE BAITS FOR ANGLING. 

KEEP every kind by themselves. Put red or bramble- 
worm into a red clotb, with a handful of fennel, and some 
black rich mould, taken from the bottoms of elm-trees. 
Renew it every night, and every other day put a little 
fresh cow-dung to it. Large gentles or maggots should 
be put into sheep's suet or bullock's liver, cut small. 
Scour them in sand, in a flannel bag : hang them near 
the fire an hour or two, when in the suet or liver. Frogs 
and grasshoppers keep well in moss and grass, wetting 
it every night. Frogs may be killed before putting them 
on the hook, by pricking them in the spinal marrow. 
Fish will readily bite at them if moved about. Dry 
young wasps, hornets, and bees, slowly by the fire, then 
dip their heads in blood and honey mixed, and dry them 
again : these are good for carp and tench. Worms or 
gudgeons are for perch and eels. Paste for roach, dace, 
&c., is to be made as follows : Take bean-meal, rabbits' 
flix, bees' wax, and sheep's suet ; beat them well in a 
mortar, with a little clarified honey ; temper the paste 
before a fire, and stain it with vermilion, or cherry-juice, 
if in season. 

To dip your baits in when angling, take oil of asp, 
coculus Indicus berry, and assafetida, equal quantities ; 
beat the berries well, and add as much honey as will 
bring it to a proper consistence. Keep it in a small jar, 



128 FOR TAKING FOXES. 

well corked. This will impregnate the water, and draw 
the fish. 

To draw fish, also, take sal-ammoniac, young chives, 
omentum, or calf's caul, of each a quarter of a pound: 
beat them in a mortar to a consistence to make pellets, 
and cast them into the corners of ponds ; this will draw 
carp, chevin, or barbel. For roach and dace, wine lees 
mixed with oil, and hung up in a chimney-corner till it 
looks black. Or take two pounds of bran, one pound 
of white pea-meal, and a sufficient quantity of brine to 
bring it to a consistence, by beating it in a mortar. 
For perch and pike, use bullock's liver, black snails, 
blood and opoponax, beaten well. 



PART THE EIGHTH: VERMIN TRAPPING, 



FOR TAKING FOXES. 

As the destruction of foxes is sometimes a part of the 
duty of the gamekeeper, we offer a few rules applicable 
to it, albeit an occupation which we hold as " more 
honoured in the breach than the observance :" 

To trap a fox in cover, make a shrape with some loose 
moulds where the hares' paths meet, and lay some small 
pieces of sheep's liver, broiled over wood embers, about 
it ; draw a sheep's paunch, or oil of rhodium, on rags, 
from it in different directions. This should be done 



FOR TAKING FOXES. 129 

about six o'clock in the evening ; or it may be done in 
the night. When you miss the baits, look for the 
prints; if you perceive the ball of a fox, plant two traps, 
heads outwards, about six inches apart; cover them very 
carefully. The bridge of a trap should bear a pound 
weight, i. e.y a pound weight should just spring it before 
it is covered ; this will allow a good depth of earth to 
cover it. Never touch the earth with your hands till 
'you have rubbed them with the baits, and take away the 
the pieces so used. Lay the baits as before, some in the 
centre, and two or three at the edge of the jaws of the 
trap : this will bring his pad on to the bridge. Never 
lay any baits on the bridge, as his motion is too quick to 
be caught by the muzzle. 

If, on your shrape, you should discover the prints of 
a house-cat, marten-cat, pole-cat, or stoat, place a jay in 
the centre, fasten it down, and lay your other baits as 
before ; or part of a rabbit, cut open. Lighter traps 
will do for these, when there is no probability of a fox 
coming. When you plant for the marten separately, 
pour a few drops of the tincture of valerian upon the 
moulds which lie on the trap, and let the bait be a jay 
or pigeon fastened behind it. 

To trap a fox in a field, plant three traps in a triangle, 
heads outwards, by the side of a field ; two in the fur- 
row where you have balled him ; he is sure to return 
the third night, if not sooner. Cut a hare or rabbit 
open, and stake it down in the centre ; then begin to 
draw the bait about two yards from it on one side. Take 

K 



130 FOR TAKING FOXES. 

a large circle, and come the same distance ^on the other 
side ; there take your drag up. When he comes either 
way, this will cause him to check, and throw at the hait, 
when he will he taken. Your drag may be a sheep's 
paunch, or as before. A rat, in a water furrow, the 
water standing two inches deep, fastened on a stake, 
with a trap at each end, will do. 

The following method has been practised with good 
success : let the party employed go round and carefully 
search for their earthing places, wherever they are, and 
make the mouths of them quite fine with mould ; then 
come again the next morning, and observe whether the 
earth has been trampled on, and if he sees the prints of 
his feet tending outward and inward, he may then be 
assured he is safe within his hole or earth ; on which let 
him take a good strong hay-net, such as are used in 
some warrens, pitched all round at a proper distance, put 
the sticks slightly into the ground, that as soon as he 
strikes the net, it may fall upon and entangle him ; but 
if placed tight, he will tumble over, and by that means 
escape. Another caution is necessary : when he has set 
the net, he must put some bells in three or four different 
places, that he may hear when he strikes the net ; then 
run in upon him and keep him entangled, otherwise he 
will get out again, and seizing him by the back part of 
his neck, muzzle him and tie his fore legs together, that 
he may not scratch his muzzle off. 

To trap him at earth, level the moulds at the entries 
with a stick, any time in the day ; go the next morning, 



FOR TAKING FOXES. 131 

and you will see if he has been out or in. If he is in, 
pass your traps in as far as will admit their springing ; 
heal them properly, then get some sticks and arch the 
hole over; lay sods upon them till the hole is quite 
darkened. As he approaches carelessly till the light 
appears, he will be in the trap before he is aware of it. 

To poison cubs, pass some arsenic, with plenty of 
beaten glass in it, into young rooks, young rabbits, rats, 
entrails cut in lengths, &c., and throw them into the 
covers near their earths. 

To poison the old dog and vixen, where you see their 
ball and billot in fields, lay some balls, made of broiled 
sheep's liver shredded fine, and mixed with goose grease, 
honey, corrosive sublimate, and ground glass. This will 
disperse quickly in their stomachs, and prevent their 
throwing it up. 

If you wish to take cubs alive, pitfall them at the 
mouths of the earths, or dig them. You will often find 
them in rabbits' burrows, where they are easily dug out ; 
tie a piece of net on the end of a stick, to draw them 
with ; shove it against them, and they will snap at it, 
and entangle their teeth, when you must twist it round, 
and draw, having a sack ready to receive them. 

Among the artifices of foxes are, the vixen leaving 
her cubs when they can run, going a little way from 
the earth, and lying down, waiting to see if they will 
venture out to follow her ; if they do, she returns and 
most cruelly worries them, being aware of the danger to 
which they expose themselves. They rob badgers of 

K 2 



132 TO TRAP VERMIN: THE POLECAT. 

their earths, by leaving their billot and urine at their 
entrances. The latter, being more cleanly, leave them 
the filthy habitation. Rabbits they rob by frightening 
them away. When they are after their prey, in cover, 
they lie down close in the runs where game come to their 
feed, and throw on to them. When at feed they roll 
and creep about, till within throw, at which they are 
very dexterous. In dark nights, they look poultry 
down j their eyes being like small balls of fire, make the 
fowls reach their heads down till they fall. 



THE POLECAT. 

PLANT traps by the sides of warm sunny hedges, with a 
leveret or young rabbit hung over the bridge rather more 
than its length, so as to make the polecats jump, when 
they will drop into the trap; or make little arches, a yard 
long, at the corners of the posts of gates or stiles, turn 
them as the fence goes, through which they will be sure 
to turn, seeing the light appear from the other side. 
Plant your trap in the centre. The following is another 
method of destroying them : at night, after your fowls 
are gone to roost, sift some sand before every little hole 
you suspect they may come in at, and look at them again 
in the morning early before the fowls are moving, and 
you will soon discern the prints of their feet ; then set a 
common hutch-trap, baited with a piece of fowl or small 
bird of any kind ; hang the bait on the nail over the 



THE STOAT. 133 

bridge, as before observed, and if you should catch one 
of them, remember to make the print of his feet in the 
sand, which will enable you to know it better another 
time. If you have not a hutch-trap, put at the place 
where you have tracked him a small steel trap, and place 
a brick on each side, so that he cannot avoid coming 
over the trap, which must be covered carefully with fine 
mould. Do this in the afternoon ; then cover it with a 
thin board, that the fowls may not spring it in going to 
roost ; then take the board or shelter away, and go in 
the morning before the fowls move, and if you should 
not catch him the first night, observe the same method 
for a few nights more, and you will be sure of him. 



THE STOAT. 

IN all chicken-gardens and pheasantries, two or more 
hutch or box traps should always remain set under the 
walls or pales, baited with any small bird or chicken, 
or with rabbits' and fowls' entrails. Let the traps be 
placed on the outside, close under the walls or pales, 
with the back part against them ; make a wing or low 
paling, about eighteen inches high, with old pales, or 
form a small hedge, about the same height, from each 
end of the trap, extending four or five yards aslant, 
and about two or three yards open at the end from the 
wall, which will be a guide for stoats to enter into the 
trap, for they like to run under such places ; and unless 



134* THE WEASEL. 

prevented in proper time by the method here laid down, 
they will enter and destroy great numbers of rabbits, 
pheasants, and poultry, in one night. In most warrens, 
therefore, it is generally customary to have traps con- 
stantly set and baited, otherwise there would soon not 
be any rabbits left. In hare-warrens likewise, hutch 
or box traps should be placed in divers parts of the 
warren, with the two ends painted white, and rubbed 
over with the entrails of any animal, which will prevent 
the hares from entering it, but allure the vermin. Let 
them be always baited in the same manner as before 
directed, and if you find they come to your hen-houses, 
use the same method, and they will naturally come into 
the trap and be caught ; should you not have a hutch 
trap, set a small steel trap in the same manner as for 
the polecat. 



THE WEASEL. 

WHEN you have discovered that a weasel has de- 
stroyed your chickens, or sucked the eggs, get a hutch 
or box trap, and bait it with a small bird or egg ; and 
if you should be at a loss to know at which place he 
enters, make some shrapes either with sand or fine 
mould: and when you have discovered which way he 
comes, place some steel traps. 



135 



THE MOLE. 

THIS animal is in some places, but more particularly 
in the north of England, called a Want, and contrary to 
the habits of most other vermin, lives chiefly under- 
ground, doing great mischief in gardens, &c. When 
'you find moles come, observe the outsides for their angle 
or run ; or if there is a path in a field, it is very pro- 
bable that they have a run across it ; or they will fre- 
quently have one at a gateway. These are what are 
called the main runs, about two or three inches under 
the earth, and may easily be found by turning up the 
earth, along which they will run ten times in a day. 
When you have discovered one of these runs, you must 
tread in the earth tight, and when you come that way 
again, see whether it is as you left it ; if you perceive 
the mole has been along, then set a trap, by which 
means several may be caught in an afternoon, these 
being their main roads out of one part of the ground to 
the other ; it will be of little use to set a trap in any 
other angles or runs. In the spring, when they run 
near the surface of the earth, they make a great many 
different angles in search of worms, on which, and 
chaffers, they chiefly feed. 

If they make hills in your fields or garden, take 
notice of the places before mentioned, and set a trap in 
the following manner. Take a piece of board half an 



136 THE MOLE. 

inch thick, four inches and a half long, by two and a 
half wide, and put a small hoop or bow at each end, 
with just room for the mole to go through; in the 
centre, at each side, put two small pegs, in order to 
keep him in the trap ; for sometimes one that is shy, 
when he finds the peg before him that springs the trap, 
will turn out at the side, spring the trap, and not be 
taken ; it is necessary therefore to use these small pegs, 
which will keep the mole in the straight road, placed as 
before directed. 

In the next place, get two strong horsehairs or 
pieces of small wire, and in the centre or middle of the 
bow, at each end, make a' hole to put the hair or wire 
through double, then open the hair or wire just to fit 
and lie close inside of the bow like a noose ; get some 
fine mould, and make it moist, like paste, and work 
some of it with your finger and thumb all round the 
inside of the bow, so that the horsehair or wire may 
not be seen. Through the hole in the centre of the 
trap let a short bit of string come. Put a forked peg 
tight in the hole, that may keep the string from slip- 
ping through, till the mole, by going through, pushes 
it out ; then the string slips up. When you have thus 
prepared the trap, open one of these runs, exactly the 
length of the trap, put it down in the run quite level, 
and make it smooth, that there may be no light dis- 
covered. Then take three good strong hooked pegs, 
two on one side, and one on the other, and stick them 
down tight ; then procure a good stiff stick, about four 



BUZZARDS.; KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 137 

feet long, stick one end in the ground tight, bring the 
other end down to the trap, and hitch it in a loop, that 
comes from the hair or wire, and it is set. When the 
mole comes, he pushes out this little peg, the string 
draws out, the bow-stick flies up, and the mole is 
caught. In the spring, when you catch a she mole, 
rub her back part about the bows and the inside of the 
traps. Observe, when you have caught all that you 
perceiv.e to move, you need only look round the outside 
of your fields, and keep some traps constantly going 
there, and they will lay hold of them as they come in 
and out. If you put some dead moles in the runs it 
will prevent their coming, and keep your grounds free 
from these troublesome vermin. 



BUZZARDS, KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 

THE large black eagle buzzards frequent parks and 
warrens, and often catch leverets, young rabbits, and 
pheasants, or any thing else that moves, as soon as the 
morning light approaches, for they are very early birds. 
In winter-time set a steel trap, bait it with the entrails 
of rabbits or fowls ; in the spring, bait with the skin of 
a young rabbit, stuffed, and tied to the bridge; but 
after the young rabbits begin to run about, sometimes 
the birds are shy, and will not strike, unless they see 
them run. The steel traps for these vermin should 
strike seven or eight inches high, in order to clear the 



138 BUZZARDS, KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 

bait, otherwise the jaws might only catch the bait and 
miss the vermin. 

The grey bob-tailed buzzard or puttock is of much 
the same nature as the former, hunting parks and 
warrens, for the destruction of rabbits and pheasants, 
going in search of them when the morning light appears. 
It is smaller than the eagle-buzzard, which is its only 
difference from that bird. You may catch it with the 
steel trap before described, baited with the entrails of 
fowls or rabbits, or with some of the pieces of rabbits 
which may have been accidentally killed. It is to be 
caught easiest in winter time, for then it haunts one 
place for a month together in a warren, and at that 
season it is short or destitute of food. 

The large forked-tail kite is the largest and heaviest 
bird of the hawk kind in England, but ~not near so 
fierce as the eagle-buzzard, being rather of a sluggish 
and indolent disposition, not caring much to hunt after 
prey ; but when the other kites and hawks have killed 
any birds, it comes upon them, and beats them away, and 
then devours the birds themselves. These birds chiefly 
dwell in woods and desert places, and frequent the sides 
of rivers and brooks, being fond of fish, and often eat 
the tails of the fishes which the otter has left. You 
may catch them by setting two traps in the same man- 
ner as you do for the buzzard ; bait them with, a piece 
of fish, if you have it, or with a rat, or the entrails of 
fowls or rabbits ; and when once you discover the places 



BUZZARDS, KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 139 

they haunt, you may catch them with the greatest 
facility. 

The large hlue Sherard kites frequent forests, heaths, 
and other lonesome places, hut especially bogs and 
marshy grounds, where they destroy great numbers of 
snipes, to which they are the worst enemy of any birds 
of prey of the hawk kind. They beat all over the bog 
with the greatest regularity and exactness, till they find 
them lying ; for the nature of the snipe is, if they per- 
ceive their enemy in the pursuit, to lie as close to the 
ground as possible, when the kite strikes directly upon 
them. 

These vermin are very remarkable for one particular : 
if ever you observe any of them coming in the morning, 
you will be certain to see them return the same way 
back in the afternoon ; and three or four succeeding 
mornings they will have the same beat, if they are not 
disturbed. Whenever, therefore, you see one go in the 
morning, get a trap set ready against his return, baited 
with a rabbit's skin, stuffed and put on the bridge of the 
trap, but remember to cover the trap carefully with moss : 
if you set it in a green sward, then cover it with grass, by 
which means they are generally taken. 

The blue Sherard hawk in many respects resembles 
the blue kite last described, and may be taken in the 
same way. 

The large brown white-rump ring- tailed hawk is the 
most pernicious and mischievous hawk that flies ; espe- 
cially in destroying the partridge, which it takes not so 



140 BUZZARDS, KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 

much by swift flying, as by tbe following stratagem : 
when he finds a covey, and springs them, he flies after 
them as fast as he is able, and continues keeping them 
on the wing till they are too much exhausted to be able 
to make their escape. 

The small ring-tailed hawk is the largest of the 
sparrow-hawk kind, and is a very fierce and perniaious 
bird, destroying chickens and young ducks, in yards, &c., 
about farm-houses. In the fields, it kills blackbirds 
and thrushes ; and in the winter season, fieldfares and 
other small birds fall a prey to it. 

The sparrow-hawk is seldom known to destroy 
chickens or any other kind of poultry, unless driven 
by the greatest extremity of hunger ; birds which fly 
wild in the fields are chiefly the prey of this little 
hawk. It may be caught in the same way as the 
others. 

Ravens and crows you may take best by laying a 
joint of flesh in the centre of two furrows, drawn across 
each other, in the middle of a field. Plant the traps, 
one about four inches from the bait, another about a 
yard ; as they walk up the furrows they will be taken. 
Single wire springes laid in the furrows, with one side 
turned up a little, will take them by the legs. Eggs 
dropped singly about the land, with two or three clods 
set up to plant traps between ; or half an egg-shell 
stuck on the bridge of a trap, with moist clay, and put 
just under water, at the edges of ponds ; or^one put in 
a three-fanged stick, and set up in the water with the 



BUZZARDS, KITES, HAWKS, ETC. 141 

trap before it, the water being a little too deep for them 
to go to it, they will set their feet upon the bridge to 
reach it. 

To poison them, lay the ribs of a horse in the arm 
of a naked tree, about the middle of a cover; chop 
some flesh, entrails, &c., and mix plenty of nux voinica 
with it. 

To have sport with magpies, where you see them 
feed, make little twists of white paper, open at the top, 
wide enough to admit the head. Lime the inside edges, 
pass them into the ground with a dibble, then drop a 
small piece of flesh into each ; when they pop their 
heads in they will become hoodwinked, and fly almost 
out of sight, then drop down, and so on. Pigeons may 
be taken in the same way, with brown paper, and two 
or three peas dropped into each. This is to be done 
where they feed. 

To take herons, (being great enemies in fisheries,) 
take a small roach, or very small eel ; put it upon an 
eel-hook with a line ; lay it in the water, where it is 
about six inches deep : fasten the line to the side. A 
few of these, laid where they frequent, will not fail of 
success. 

Calls for vermin, quails, rails, &c., may be had of the 
bird-fanciers in London. Crying like a hare will bring 
ravens, crows, magpies, jays, hawks, &c. ; and crying 
like a rabbit, will bring polecats, stoats, &c., from the 
rabbits' holds, which is easy to do with the mouth. 



142 
PART THE NINTH. 



TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN SPORTING. 
OF pointers, setters, spaniels, greyhounds, and terriers, 
two are called a brace, and three a leash ; of hounds, 
beagles, &c. ; two are called a couple, three a harle, or 
couple and half; of spaniels and terriers, more than two 
brace of different kinds are called a tue, or rough 
muster: several brace of spaniels are called a pack. 
In some counties it is common to say a couple of spaniels. 

Blood-hounds and greyhounds when tired, are said to 
be overhaled. Pointers, setters, spaniels, terriers, &c., 
floored or jaded. Spaniels quest, tongue, and babble on 
the haunt. When setters and pointers open, they are said 
to vick or lapise. The foxhounds challenge on drag or 
kennel, and hit him off. The harriers call on trail or 
form, and make their way. When they overshoot and 
are at fault, they are said, when trying back, to traverse. 
When the fox or hare is dying, they run mute, and set 
their sterns and hackle up. This is the time when horse- 
men are flung out, not having the cry to lead them to 
the death. 

When quadruped animals of the venery or hunting 
kind are at rest, the stag is said to be harboured, the 
buck lodged, the fox kennelled, the badger earthed, the 
otter vented or watched, the wild boar couched : the 
squirrel is at dray, the hare formed, the rabbit set, and 
the marten-cat treed. 



TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN SPORTING. 143 

When you find and rouse up the stag and buck, then 
they are said to he emprimed : unkennel the fox, then 
he is on the pad ; dig the hadger, unvent the otter, 
uncouch the wild boar, untree the squirrel and marten- 
cat, start the hare, bolt the rabbit. To investigate, 
or follow by the prints of the feet is a great qualifica- 
tion in a sportsman. They are called the slot, or view 
of deer, of all kind. You may know when they have 
been coursed, by the cleft widening, and the dew-claws 
printing the ground; if an old one, by his gait, i. e. 
manner of walking or straining, which latter is at full 
speed : he does not overreach as young ones do. The 
seal of an otter ; the ball of a fox ; the pricks of a hare ; 
the prints of a badger, &c ; scratching of rabbits. Of 
pheasants, grouse, partridges, quails, and rails, the 
rode ; of woodcocks and snipes, the creeps : the traces 
of all, in the snow. The excrement or ordure is called 
the suage of an otter, the fumet or furnishings of deer, 
the billot of a fox, the fiants of a badger, the lesses of a 
wild boar, the buttons or croteys of the hare and rabbit, 
the spraints of the marten-cat, &c. ; the droppings of 
pheasants, partridges, &c. ; chalkings and markings of 
woodcocks ; and mutings of snipes. The tail is called 
the pole, potter, or eel of an otter ; the single of deer, 
the brush of a fox ; the white tip, the chape ; the stump 
of a badger ; the wreath of wild swine ; the brush of 
the squirrel and marten-cat ; the scut of the hare and 
rabbit ; the drag of polecats, stoats, &c. ; the train or 
pole of the pheasant. 



144 TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN SPORTING. 

When the feathered trihe are at rest, the grouse 
are said to be challenged ; the pheasants chuckered or 
perched ; partridges jugged ; quails piped ; rails craked ; 
woodcocks fallen; snipes at walk. When in search, 
spring grouse, pheasants, and rails ; flush partridges, 
woodcocks, quails, and snipes, when they are said to he 
on the wing. In your heat, in the early part of the 
season, you find a pack of grouse, a nide of pheasants, 
a covey of birds, a bevy of quails, a fall of woodcocks, a 
walk of snipes; rails, hares, &c., singly. Often you 
find from ten to fourteen brace of birds in one covey ; 
the cause is the birds nesting near each other, by which 
means the young ones get together, and one bird takes 
more than belongs to her, which is called robbing. 



When animals of the quadruped kind are inclined to 
copulate, the following phrases are used. 

FEMALES The roe or hind, go to tourn. Doe, to 
rut, or rutting. Wolf, to match, or make, or making. 
Otter, to her kind. Vixen, to clicket, or is clieketing. 
Wild Sow, to brim, or is brimming. Goat, to rut, or is 
rutting. Hare, to clicket, or is clieketing. Rabbit, to 
buck, or is bucking. Badger, to brim, or is brimming. 
Bitch, is in heat, or getting fond. Polecat, Stoat, Ferret, 
&c.,'are bucking. 

MALES The Stag or Hart, bellows. Buck, groans, or 
troats. Wolf, howls. Otter, whines. Fox, barks. 



TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN SPORTING. 145 

'Boar, freams. Goat, rattles. Hare, beats or taps. 
Rabbit, ditto. Badger, yells. Pole-cat, Stoat, Ferret, 
&c., chatter. 



A Cote is when a dog passes his fellow, takes in, 

obstructs his sight, and turns the hare. 
A Form where a hare has set. 

At Gaze looking steadfastly at any object when stand- 
ing still. 

A Layer where a stag or buck has lodged. 
Beat Counter backwards. 
Bend forming a serpentine figure. 
Blemishes when they make short entries, and return. 
Blink to leave the point or back, run away at the 

report of the gun, &c. 
Break field to enter before you. 
Chap to catch with the mouth. 
Curvet to throw. 
Doucets the testicles or stones. 
Embossed tired. 

Flourish to twist the stern, and throw right and left 
in too great a hurry. 

Going to Fault a hare's going to ground. 

Handicap To match dogs. 

Hard-nosed having little or no sense of smelling. 

Hug to run close side by side. 

In-and-in too near related, as sire and daughter, dam 
and son, &c. 

Inchipin or Pudding the fat gut. 



146 TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN SPORTING. 

Jerk an attempt to turn, by skipping out. 

Lapise to open or give tongue. 

Mort the death of deer. 

Near-scented not catching the scent till too near. 

Plod to hang upon the tragonings or doublings. 

Run Riot to run at the whole herd. 

Sink to lie down, cunningly drawing the feet close, 

and bearing the nose on the ground, to prevent the 
scent flying. 
Skirt to run round the sides, being too fond of the 

hedges. 

Slip losing the foot. 
Speans or Deals the teats. 
Spent when the deer is nearly dead, which you may 

know by his stretching his neck out straight. 
Strainetk when at full speed. 
Tappish to lurk, skulk, and sink. 
To Carry or Hod when the earth sticks to their feet. 
Tragoning crossing and doubling. 
Trip to force by you. 
Tuelthe vent. 
Twist a sudden turn of the head, when the scent is 

caught sidewise. 
Vick to make a low noise. 
Watch to attend to the other dog, not endeavouring 

to find his own game, but lying off for advantages. 

In coursing it is called running cunning. 
Wiles or Toils are engines to take deer with. 
Wrench a half-turn. 



147 



COLOURS AND MARKS OF DOGS. 

A FRIEZE down the face, a white square on any part 
of the hody, is called a ticket ; white round the neck 
is called a garter ; single spots are called ticks ; small 
ones (confused), are called mottle ; single ones patches ; 
a liver patch white, ditto mottle, ditto tick, black patch 
.white, ditto yellow, pale ditto, a hlack tan, heagle-eyed. 
Whole colours are, black, white, lemon, yellow, whey- 
coloured, dark brindled, brown, &c. 

Hounds are grizzled, brindled, badger-pied, &c., which 
colours are indicative of strength. The hair on their 
backs, which rises, is called the hackle; the tail the 
stern. In breeding this kind of dogs, their tongues 
should be studied, as well as good make and shape. 
By the depth the flew of the jaw hangs, you may in a 
great measure judge of the depth of their tongues. 
For sweetness of cry, your kennel should be composed 
of different kinds, as follows : large dogs, that have 
deep and solemn mouths, swift in spending, to bear the 
bass in concert ; then a double number of roaring and 
loud-ringing mouths, these bear the counter-tenor; then 
some hollow plain sweet mouths, to bear the middle 
part : these, with a couple or two of small singing 
beagles, to bear the treble warble, will make the cry 
complete. They will not hang off, but pack well, each 
being enchanted by the melody*. 

* This is a fancy sketch of Mr. John Mayer. 

L 2 



148 



PART THE TENTH : RECIPES. 



To Destroy Rats. 

ONE pound of flour of malt, three drops of oil of 
rhodium, two ounces of loaf sugar, eight cloves, and a 
tablespoonful of caraway seeds, all beat fine in a mortar. 
Lay it in small parcels where they frequent, three or 
four nights, till they eat it freely; then add prepared 
arsenic, and set water in different places, with some in- 
fused into it. To prepare the arsenic, pour spirit of salt 
on it till it dissolves. When it is thus managed, it will 
not make them sneeze, which is the cause of their 
refusing to eat it. You will often find their runs in 
banks very thick : cut little benders, dip them in treacle 
and meal mixed with the poison ; pass them into the 
holes, leaving the bottoms clear ; this will stick on their 
backs, and they will lick it off. When you trap them, 
use only the feed ; plant the traps amongst it, putting 
two or three drops of musk on the bridge of each trap. 
This will cause them to be taken by the head, which 
will prevent their crying to alarm the others. 

For Trapping Woodlarks and Nightingales. 

Your bait must be meal-worms, which may be 
found under mangers in stables, where the mulch has 



RECIPES. 149 

not been disturbed for some years. You may breed 
them in meal, in which they must be kept. These 
birds are taken with a spring trap, which covers them 
with a net. 

Food for them. 

For the nightingale, fresh lean meat, cut small, and 
ants' eggs mixed. For woodlarks, paste made with 
white pease-meal, eggs, fresh butter, and honey, slowly 
"fried in an iron pan, till it becomes crisp ; put the butter 
in first, then the eggs, and stir them, then the meal and 
honey ; keep stirring them all the time. For canaries, 
when moulting, foreign poppy seed, with boiled eggs and 
crumbled bread mixed. 

Rheumatism in Dogs 

May be discovered by its local affection, and some- 
times by a swelling in the neck, loins, or legs. Oppose 
the first attack, and never suffer an animal to go into 
the field when affected with the disease, or with cold. 
Warm lodging, and two or three days' indulgence near a 
good fire, with a dose or two of calomel, will generally 
cure a first attack. Also, a warm bath for a quarter of an 
hour, the dog being afterwards rubbed dry, and put to bed 
warm : which may be frequently repeated, if necessary. 

To raise a perspiration, give forty or fifty drops of 
laudanum, and two teaspoonfuls of spirit of ammonia, 
or hartshorn, in warm beer, or cordial. Rub the parts 



150 RECIPES. 

affected two or three times a day, with the following 
mixture : oil of turpentine, two ounces ; spirit of harts- 
horn, two ounces ; laudanum, two drachms ; sweet oil, 
two ounces : the whole well mixed together. 



To make a Dog inclined to Copulate. 

Give him, in warm sugared milk, seven drops of 
cantharides ; the same quantity for a bitch. 



When a Dog is seized with a Hovering in the Lights. 

Give him half a drachm of asafoetida, every other 
night, well mixed in lard or butter. 



Mange 

Is generally occasioned by neglect, or want of cleanli- 
ness; and not unfrequently from the want of a sufficiency 
of nourishing food. In this case, external applications, 
and nourishing food, are the best remedies; but if it arise 
from repletion or surfeit, calomel and the most powerful 
alteratives are required. Then take ^Ethiop's mineral, 
one ounce ; cream of tartar, one ounce ; nitre, two 
drachms : divide the whole, when mixed, into sixteen, 
twenty, or twenty-four doses, according to the size of the 
dog, and give one dose every morning and evening : but 
when weakness or poor living occasions this disorder, 
sulphur in their drink will be sufficient, with an occa- 



RECIPES. 151 

sional purge, should it be necessary, of an ounce or 
upwards of salts, or two or three spoonfuls of salts, or 
two or three spoonfuls of syrup of buckthorn, rubbing 
them with a mercurial unction. Care must be taken 
not to salivate the animal, and he must not be permitted 
to lick himself, or to catch cold ; either of which may be 
fatal. 

In a slight case, brimstone and hog's lard may effect 
-a cure ; or you may apply the following : roll brimstone 
powdered, four ounces; powdered foxglove, two ounces; 
sal-ammoniac powdered, half an ounce ; Barbadoes aloes, 
one drachm ; turpentine, half an ounce ; lard, six or 
eight ounces ; mix them. Ointments are too apt to be 
smeared over the hair, without being applied to the 
skin. Jt requires at least two hours to dress a dog 
thoroughly : the hair should be parted almost hair by 
hair, and a small quantity of ointment should be rubbed 
actually on the skin, between the parted hairs, by means 
of the end of the finger. After every part is done, the 
hair may be smoothed down ; and if the operation has 
been neatly performed, the dog will scarcely show any 
marks of it. After three or four such dressings with 
the last-named ointment, the dog may be washed with 
soft-soap and water, and the ointment again applied 
when dry ; which is to be repeated till the cure is com- 
plete. The dog must be kept muzzled, and be warmly 
lodged and carefully kept from taking cold during this 
operation. The same ointment may also be applied to 
eruptions, or canker in the ear. 



152 RECIPES. 



To Cure the Red Taint or Mange. 

Anoint with black sulphur, train-oil, and a little tar; 
give him internally half an ounce of sulphur and a 
quarter of an ounce of liver of antimony, in lard or honey. 
The latter is best. 

To make a Dog fine in his Skin. 

Give him a tablespoonful of tar, in oatmeal, made 
into a ball. 

To Destroy Worms. 

Take from ten to thirty grains of calomel, in a paste 
ball, made with butter and flour; and the next morning 
two drachms of socotrine aloes, in butter. 

Another. 

Give the yolk of an egg, with two scruples of saffron 
in it. Let the dog fast till the next morning. 

Another. 

Give as much ground glass, finely powdered, as will 
lie on a shilling, in lard or butter. This must be re- 
peated, and the glass should be very fine. 



RECIPES. 153 



Distemper in Dogs. 

Changes in the atmosphere, low keep, and neglect, 
are among the principal causes of this disease. The fol- 
lowing are the usual symptoms of this malady in young 
dogs: sudden loss of spirit, activity, and appetite; 
drowsiness, dulness of the eyes, and lying at length with 
'the nose to the ground ; coldness of the extremities, of 
the ears and legs, with heat of the head and body, 
sometimes nearly scorching; sudden emaciation and 
excessive weakness, particularly in the hinder quarters, 
which hegin to sink and drag after the animal ; the flanks 
pinched in ; an apparent tendency to evacuate from the 
bowels a little at a time ; sometimes vomiting ; the eyes 
and nose are often, but not always, affected with a dis- 
charge. In an advanced stage of the distemper, spasm- 
odic and convulsive twitchings will be perceived, with 
giddiness, turning round, foaming at the mouth, and fits, 
which would probably terminate in madness. In this 
stage of the disease recourse must be had to professional 
aid, or the animal be put out of existence. In distemper, 
the dog will probably refuse food for some days, and 
should be supplied with warm milk and water, broth, 
gruel, or whey ; he should be also taken out into the 
air ; his bed should be warm and dry ; and in cold 
weather he should be permitted to lie by the fire, in a 
moderate degree. Mild doses, of from two to three 
grains of calomel, should be given daily in milk, for four 



154 RECIPES. 

or five days, with intermissions : this will reduce the 
fever, and bring the bowels to their natural state. 
James's powder is generally a certain remedy ; or anti- 
monial powder and calomel, three parts of the former 
and one of the latter, may be given, from eight to fifteen 
grains, with the same effect. It should be made into 
balls about the size of a hazel nut, with treacle or honey, 
and flour ; and rubbed slightly over with fresh butter or 
lard. A tablespoonful or two of castor oil may be given 
occasionally ; sometimes a teaspoonful of powdered 
rhubarb, with two or three grains of calomel, have been 
highly useful. Mercury or antimony should be first 
given in very small quantities, increasing the doses 
according to the nature of the case, and the constitution 
of the patient. Mr. Blane's Distemper Remedy, with 
which directions are sold, will be found highly beneficial. 
To recover the dog from the debility left by distem- 
per, and the remedies necessarily given to cure it, light 
flesh meat, and rich broths of beef or neat's feet, arid 
milk broth with rice, should be given : balls of slack- 
boiled beef bruised to a pulp, in a mortar, are very 
nourishing. Beer cordial, with ginger, moderately 
sweetened, is very useful. Strengthening medicines 
generally given, are from twelve to forty drops of 
laudanum in a glass of port or good beer ; or in a large 
teaspoonful of friar's balsam; and four teaspoonfuls 
of water, given once or twice a day for a week. Bark 
and port wine have been found highly useful ; from one 
to two drachms of the bark given at a time. These 



RECIPES. 155 

medicines should not be given till the bowels have been 
cleared and the fever reduced. During the disease, the 
discharge from the nose and eyes should be wiped away 
as often as possible, and the bed kept dry and clean. 
When taken out for air, the dog should be encouraged 
to eat grass, and to lap in running water. 

When a vomit is necessary in distemper or any other 
disease, a teaspoonful or a tablespoonful of common 
salt, in a teacupful of warm water, will produce one; 
or tartar emetic may be given, from one to four grains. 

Another Way to Cure the Distemper. 

Give from four to seven grains turbith mineral, in 
boiled liver, shredded fine, and beat: this to be re- 
peated. Put a seton behind each ear, to prevent its 
seizing the cap of the brain : give him plenty of warm 
broth, and keep him in the dry. If the inside of the 
tuel should make an external appearance, which often 
happens at two or three months old, boil one ounce of 
logwood, cut small, in a quart of milk, till it is reduced 
one-fourth ; strain it off, and give a teacupful every 
morning, till it disappears. Or two ounces of dragon's 
blood pulverized, and a piece of alum the size of a 
walnut, boiled in three pints of skimmed milk, till 
reduced to a quart. A teacupful of this to be given 
every day *. 

* As any thing that holds out a hope of succour in this formid- 
able disease merits trial, it is here stated that Mr. Coate's Distemper 
Balls have been pronounced of extraordinary excellence by many 
high authorities. 



156 RECIPES. 

Worms. 

When dogs are subject to these, their coats will stand 
up, and their appetite be excessive, without producing 
any improvement in the appearance of the animal ; the 
belly will be hard, and sometimes swollen, accompanied 
by a short husky cough. A purge of the usual quan- 
tity of fine aloes, with from two to eight grains of 
calomel, should be given them, and two or three days 
after begin a regular course of worm medicines. Take 
the finest tin filings, two drachms ; cowhage, half a 
drachm ; calomel, fourteen grains ; to make four, six, or 
eight balls, according to the size and strength of the dog; 
give one every morning for a fortnight, with occasional 
omissions if necessary : let the dog's food and lodging be 
good in the interim. Or one or two large spoonfuls of 
linseed oil, with a teaspoonful of oil of turpentine given 
every morning fasting for a week, will sometimes effect 
a cure. Or give walnut leaves boiled in milk. 

Wounds. 

Friar's balsam is an excellent application for a fresh 
wound. Or a spoonful of brandy and a few drops of 
laudanum may be applied. Thorns and splinters must 
be carefully got out, and either of the above applied 
immediately. A poultice or black pitch plaster is the 
best application to extract thorns. Tincture of myrrh, 
or aloes, is sometimes preferable to friar's balsam for a 
wound in its early stage, as the latter generally closes 
the wound too soon. 



RECIPES. 157 

For a Green Wound. 

Hogs' lard, turpentine, and bees' wax, equal quan- 
tities, and a quarter of the quantity of verdigris : these 
are to be all simmered over a slow fire till they come 
to a salve. 

To cure a Dog of the Mange, without Scent. 

Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of sublimate in one 
ounce of spirit of salts : boil it in a quart of water, and 
wash the parts affected. Muzzle the dog. This re- 
peated, will effect a cure. 

Purges. 

Rue, beat fine, and put into lard or butter-milk, is a 
good purge. 

From five to seven grains of calomel is a good purge 
and purifier. 

But the best purgative is socotrine or fine aloes, from 
half a drachm to a drachm for a small dog, and two or 
three drachms for a full sized hound : inclose the pow- 
der in a ball of flour and lard, or butter. 

When a Dog strips in his Feet. 

Wash and soak them well in bran and warm w r ater, 
with a little vinegar ; then apply tincture of myrrh ; 
and in the morning, previous to his going out, anoint 
them with a little fresh butter or sweet oil. Do the 
same under his arms, flanks, &c., where he strips. 



158 RECIPES. 

Sore Feet. 

Butter-milk, greasy pot-liquor, or water-gruel, are 
the best remedies to apply to dogs' feet that have be- 
come sore from travelling, or the hardness of the 
ground : some apply brine, but this is apt to inflame 
them if used before the feet are healed. The dog should 
be kept at home, or his feet be wrapped up till they 
are healed ; when brine and vinegar may be applied to 
harden them. 

To cure the External Canker in the Ear. 

Pulverize a piece of alum, the size of a large walnut ; 
boil it in half a pint of water ; clean the scabs of the 
ear, and apply it with a large piece of sponge, as hot as 
possible : hold the sponge on till cool. Repeat it two 
or three times each day, till it is cured. Butter of anti- 
mony, diluted in milk, till it is the thickness of cream, 
will cure it. 

Or half an ounce of red precipitate, finely levigated, 
and made into an ointment with two ounces of hogs' 
lard. 

Canker in the Ear. 

A mixture of soap and brandy, to be poured into the 
ear, and w r ell rubbed into the external parts; it may be 
diluted with one-third water, if necessary. Particular 
care must be taken to protect the dog's eyes. 



KECIPES. 159 



To cure the Internal Canker in the Ear. 

Put a seton in the neck, just under the ear; and 
with a piece of sponge on the end of a pliahle stick clean 
out the ear, using a little soft-soap. When it is quite 
clean, then dip the sponge into copperas water, and pass 
it in, turning it gently round. To make the copperas 
water, beat a piece the size of a large nut, and put it 
into an ounce phial, filled with spring water : shake it 
well when you are going to use it. Make the seton 
with horsehair and tow, cased with hogs' lard : pass it 
through with a red-hot iron ; tie a piece of silk to each 
end to move it by. 

When a Swelling arises after Bleeding. 

Apply a fomentation of camomile flowers. 

Dogs may be blooded in the jugular or neck vein ; 
one, two, or even eight ounces in some cases, may be 
taken from them. 

For the Canker in the Teeih. 

In cases of sufficient importance, rub a moist tooth- 
brush on a piece of blue-stone vitriol, or burnt alum, 
and rub the teeth well ; which, on repetition, will eat 
it off. 



3 60 RECIPES. 

For Films over the Eyes, Clouds, fyc. 

Pulverize a piece of blue-stone vitriol, the size of a 
pea; put it into an ounce phial filled with spring 
water; wash the eyes with it, letting a little pass in. 
This, repeated, will soon effect a cure : or a little scuttle- 
bone blown into the eye every other morning. 

For an Old Wound or Sore. 

Hogs' lard and honey, of each half a pound ; turpen- 
tine, a quarter of a pound; pulverized verdigris, two 
ounces : let them be simmered over a slow fire, and the 
ointment applied hot. Five grains of calomel should 
be given occasionally, in the form of a bolus. 

When the Distemper hangs in a Dog's Kidneys. 

Give him a wineglassful of antimonial wine, with a 
teaspoonful of spirits of turpentine in it ; which, being 
repeated, will strengthen him. 

To Prevent the Distemper. 

Inoculate puppies when they are a fortnight old, with 
the cow-pox. Make the incision inside the arm. 

Another. 

Keep sulphur in the water, give occasional purges, 
with exercise, and free access to dog-grass. 



RECIPES. 161 



For a Strain. 

One ounce of spirits of turpentine, half a pint of old 
beer, and half a pint of brine. Bathe the part affected, 
and repeat it if required. Or, one ounce of sal-ammo-- 
niac and one pint of vinegar : keep the dog quiet. 

When a Dog looks heavy and sleepy in cold Weather. 

Give him old beer, sugared, and toasted bread crum- 
bled into it. To be given quite warm. 

Swelled Seats. 

Rub with a pomade, composed of camphorated spirit, 
or brandy and goose grease, two or three times a 
day. 

For a Bruise in the Joint. 
Oil of turpentine. To be well rubbed in. 

To prevent Hydrophobia, or Canine Madness. 

As soon as possible after the bite is received, well 
wash the part: apply salt, squeeze the incision, and 
bind as much salt on it as you can, stopping the circula- 
tion above it. Keep the dog tied up. 

M 



162 RECIPES. 



When a Dog is Poisoned. 

Give him a tea-cupful of castor oil. After he has 
vomited well, continue pouring olive oil down his throat, 
and rubbing his belly. 

Torn Ears. 

Ears torn in the hedges, or by other means, may be 
touched with laudanum and brandy, and alternately 
with oil. 



When a Dog staggers, and falls down in a Fit. 

This generally happens in hot weather. If there is 
water at hand throw him into it ; or he may be let 
blood in the mouth, by passing a knife or phleme across 
two or three bars next the teeth. This, however, will 
never happen, if the blood be kept in a proper state. 



Bilious Complaints in Dogs. 

These are occasioned by high living and want of 
exercise. The best remedy is a good dose of calomel ; 
but in obstinate cases a strong dog may take turbith 
mineral, or yellow mercury, from six to twelve grains, 
in a pill or ball. 



RECIPES. 1 63 

Food for Greyhounds when Training. 

Take wheat-meal, and oat ditto, equal quantities, 
liquorice, aniseeds, and whites of eggs ; beat them into 
a paste, make loaves, and bake them : they are to be 
broken and given in rich broth. 

Fleas. 

Constant cleanliness is the best preventive. Lather 
the coat well all over, and through to the skin, with 
the strongest soap ; adding pearl-ash, if necessary; 
taking care to kill all the fleas within reach : then wash 
clean. This, repeated a dozen times, will exterminate 
them. 

Or an ounce of pepper, boiled in a quart of water, is 
a good wash to rid dogs of these vermin ; but Scotch 
snuff, steeped in gin, is infallible. 

To Cure the Skins of Dogs, Foxes, Fawns, Cats, $c. 

In casing these animals, begin at the muzzle, and 
from the pelt downwards, when they are to be stuffed. 

Let alum be beaten fine, and put into boiling water, or 
boiled in the water with a little salt, in the proportion 
of one pound to two gallons. Put the skins into a tub, 
and cover them with the water when it is lukewarm. 
Let them stand four days ; then take them out and rub 
them well the way the hair lies, with lukewarm water 

M 2 



164 EECIPES. 

and bran, (the bran had better be strained off,) then 
take them out, and extend them upon boards with nails, 
and put them out to dry. 



How to Administer Medicines to Dogs. 

Place the dog upright on his hind legs, between the 
knees of a seated person, with his back inwards : a 
very small dog may be taken altogether into the lap : 
place a napkin round his shoulders, bringing it forward 
over the fore legs, by which he may be secured from 
resisting. The mouth being now forced open by the 
pressure of the fore finger and thumb, upon the lip of 
the upper jaw, the medicine may be conveniently intro- 
duced with the other hand, and passed sufficiently far 
into the throat to insure its not being returned. The 
mouth must now be closed, and kept so till the medi- 
cine is seen to pass down. When the animal is too 
strong to be managed by one person, an assistant is 
requisite to hold open the mouth ; which, if the dog is 
very refractory, is best effected by a strong piece of 
tape, applied behind the holders, or fangs of each jaw : 
a ball or bolus must be passed completely over the root 
of the tongue, and dexterously pushed some way back- 
wards and downwards. When a liquid is given, if the 
quantity is more than can be swallowed at once, it 
must be removed from the mouth each deglutition, or 
the dog may be strangled. The head should be com- 
pletely secured, and a little elevated, to prevent the 



RECIPES. 16*5 

liquid from running out. Soft, or nauseous balls, should 
be wrapped in thin paper ; tasteless medicines, calomel, 
&c., or purging salts, may frequently be given in food. 

To Case-harden Locks. 

Take the plate, hammer, cock, and screw, put them 
into an iron hardening pan, with burnt soles of shoes ; 
set them into a coal fire, blow it up, and continue lay- 
ing small pieces of deal round and on it, for about an 
hour. Cease to blow the fire after the pan is hot. 
Have a dish of water to receive them, when taken out of 
the fire, which must be instantaneous, pan and all, as 
the air getting to them will prevent the marl colour. 

To Colour the Steel Fittings of a Gun. 

Clean them well with fine emery-paper, hold them 
over embers till they turn blue ; have a piece of sponge 
dipped in olive oil ready to pass over them the instant 
they are out of the fire. Repeat it till they are a good 
blue colour. 

To bring the Grain up in Gun-Stocks, fyc. 

Hold the gun-stock over a lighted paper, then with a 
fine file rub it off, repeating it till it comes to your 
mind. If any sap arises, apply aquafortis and rose- 
pink mixed ; burn it in slowly, then file it again, and rub 
it well with pulverized pumice-stone in a rag, till it has 
a good face. The following mixture may be constantly 
used : spirit of turpentine, bees' wax, and alkanet-root, 



166 RECIPES. 

simmered over the fire till it has the consistence of soft 
salve. This, applied with a piece of woollen, will give 
a beautiful gloss to gun-stocks, furniture, &c. 

To Preserve Gun-barrels from Rust, occasioned 
by Salt Water. 

Three ounces of black-lead, half a pound of hogs* 
lard, and a quarter of an ounce of camphor, boiled over 
a slow fire : the barrels to be rubbed with this mixture, 
which, after three days, must be wiped off with a linen 
cloth. This process need not be repeated above twice 
in the winter. 

To Colour Gun- Barrels. 

One ounce of blue-stone vitriol, dissolved in a tea- 
cupful of warm water, six ounces sweet spirit of nitre, 
and one ounce tincture of steel (such as creates rust) ; 
put these into nearly half a pint -of spring water: well 
shake it, and it is fit for use. Let the barrel be pro- 
perly cleaned, with a buff strap, or fine emery paper. 
A little unslacked lime will take the oil or grease off; 
then take equal quantities of spirit of salt, aquafortis, 
and water ; shake it well, and rub the barrel with it ; 
let it stand till next day: this is called pickling. Then 
apply the mixture with a piece of soft rag; let it stand 
one day, and rub it with a superfine steel scratch-brush, 
repeating it till it comes to your mind. Wash the 
barrel over with boiling water, and apply a little sweet 
oil with alkanet. 



RECIPES. 167 

To render Boots Waterproof. 

Drying oil, one pint ; yellow wax, two ounces; turpen- 
tine, two ounces ; Burgundy pitch, one ounce : melt 
them over a slow fire, and add a few drachms of essen- 
tial oil of lavender or thyme ; brush the boots with this 
in the sun,, or at a short distance from the fire. The 
application to be repeated as often as the boots become 
dry, until they are fully saturated. This is the method 
'recommended by Colonel Hawker. The late Dr. 
Harward recommended the following process : for new 
boots take half a pound of bees' wax, one quarter of a 
pound of resin, and the same quantity of mutton suet 
or tallow : boil them together, and anoint the boot well 
with the preparation, lukewarm. Should the boots 
have been worn, substitute beef suet in the place of the 
mutton or tallow. 



APPENDIX. 



A GENERAL epitome of the Game Laws, as at present in 
force, is almost as necessary an instrument for servants in 
sporting capacities as any other article used in their craft. 
Still, however abridged, it could not be brought within the 
limits of an appendix to a work of this nature, the utmost 
extent that it will permit being a brief notice of the most 
important changes that have been recently effected. With 
this intent, it is my purpose to confine myself to cases of 
daily occurrence, applying the law to that which is con- 
stantly arising in the course of a sporting servant's duty. 
Ten years ago the Game Laws, in all their complexity, were 
better known than they are now in their simplified form 
because it requires a lapse of long extent to infuse into the 
general mind any code of laws, however plain and condensed. 
With this slight preface, and requesting allowance will be 
made for the difficulty of making notices, necessarily cur- 
tailed, sufficiently comprehensive to be useful, we will at 
once proceed with our object. 

By Stat. 1 and 2 William IV. a c. 32, sec. 12, " The lord 
or steward of the crown of any manor, lordship, or royalty, 
may appoint one or more keepers to preserve or kill the 
game within the limits of such manor." A material alter- 
ation, as under the old law the power only extended to a 
single deputation. 

* Commonly called "The Recent Game Act." 



170 APPENDIX. 

By the new law, " all game is made property, and full 
power is given to the owners of such property, as well lords 
of manors as any person having the right to kill game upon 
such land, by virtue of any reservation or otherwise ; or for 
the occupier of such land, (whether there shall or shall not 
be any such right by reservation or otherwise,) or for any 
gamekeeper or servant of either of them ; or for any person 
acting by the order or in aid of any of them, to demand the 
game from the person having it, and to take it from him if 
he refuse to give it up, for the use of the person entitled to 
the game, upon such land, forest, park, chase, or warren." 
(Sec. 36.) The only modifying clause being, " that it appear 
to have been recently killed." This authority, however, is 
strictly limited to game. 

TRESPASS. " Every gamekeeper, or servant of any person 
having the right to kill the game, or the occupier of the 
land, or his servants, may require every trespasser in pursuit 
of game, or woodcocks, snipes, quails, landrails, or conies, 
to quit the land where he shall be found, and to tell his 
Christian name, surname, and place of abode ; and in the 
event of his refusal, or giving a false or general description 
of himself, to apprehend and take him before a justice of 
the peace, to be fined." (Sec. 31.) 

Keepers of lords of manors have no authority to kill game 
except upon the land of which the lord is owner, or where 
the .game belongs to him, as on commons or wastes, under 
the statute, or where it may be reserved to him out of any 
lease, or where he has a right of free warren. (Sec. 6.) 

" A gamekeeper, appointed for any manor, lordship, or 
royalty, may take from any unqualified, that is, uncertifi- 
cated persons, all such dogs, nets, and other engines and 
instruments, for the killing or taking of game, as shall be 
used within the limits of his right or authority." (Sec. 13.) 



APPENDIX. 171 

By the statute as regards trespass, an exception in favour 
of hunting or coursing is made, so long as the trespasser is in 
fresh pursuit of any deer, hare, or fox ; but this right does 
not extend so far as to enable any one to beat for a hare, 
but only to pursue it when started in other land, when the 
courser has found it. (Sec. 35.) 

An appeal to the Quarter Sessions is given against any 
conviction for trespass ; and there is a proviso in the act, that 
any person charged with trespass shall be at liberty to prove, 
by way of defence, any matter, which would have been a 
defence to any action at law for such a trespass. (Sec. 30.) 

By a very general error, it is supposed that the game 
belongs in all cases to the tenant, under the late act, and 
that he can permit or discharge any one from killing it. 
That a tenant or occupier may warn persons in ordinary 
cases off his land there can be no question ; but if for the 
purpose of killing game under the authority of the landlord 
(by virtue of the 7th section of the Act) they go upon the 
land, the tenant cannot interfere ; if he could, the landlord's 
right would be defeated. On the other hand, where any 
lessor or landlord has the right to the game, in exclusion 
of the tenant, the tenant is liable to a penalty for killing 
it, or permitting any other person to do so, without the 
landlord's authority. (Sec. 12.) B 

DECOYS. As these ponds are maintained at great cost 
and trouble, the law looks upon them as property engaged 
in trade, and affords the same protection to the proprietor 
of a decoy that it does to an individual occupied in any 
calling of skill or industry. 

a As the extent of the privilege of free warren is not generally 
known, it may be well to state, that it is confined to the hare, the 
rabbit, the pheasant, and the partridge. 



1-72 APPENDIX. 

Persons are not only liable as trespassers for entering a 
decoy, and killing the fowl, but an action lies for discharg- 
ing guns adjacent to it, whereby the fowl are driven away, 
and the owner damnified. (Keeble v. Hickeringall, 11 
East, 573.) 

A man has a right, however, to set up a decoy on his own 
ground, notwithstanding it is near to his neighbour's land. 
(Per Holt, C. J., c. 7, 11 East, 576.) 

FISHING AND FISHERIES. Unlike game, fish become the 
property of him who first captures them ; but, notwith- 
standing they are his as soon as taken, he may be subject 
to an action at law, or other proceeding, for the manner in 
which they came into his possession. 

Besides this liability under the common law, a person now 
taking or destroying fish in any water running in or through 
any land adjoining or belonging to the dwelling-house of 
any one owning the water, or having the right of fishing 
therein, is guilty of a misdemeanour : and if any person 
take or destroy, or attempt to take or destroy, any fish in 
any water (not being such as before mentioned) but which 
is private property, or in which there is private right of 
fishing, he is liable to pay, on conviction before a magis- 
trate, beyond the value of the fish, a penalty not exceeding 
5 (7th and 8th Geo. IV. c. 29, s. 34, 35). 

An act passed in the same year (7th and 8th Geo. IV. c. 
30, s. 15), " subjects to seven years' transportation, or impri- 
sonment not exceeding two years, every one who breaks 
down or destroys the dam of any fish-pond, or any water 
which shall be private property, or in which there shall be 
any private right of fishing ; or who shall put any line or 
noxious ingredient into the water with intent to destroy the 
fisk" It is important especially to notice this latter sta- 



APPENDIX. 173 

tute, as its enactments are new, and consequently are not 
found in any but recent works relating to fish and fisheries. 

In conclusion, I have to allude to a very prevalent im- 
pression, that all persons are qualified to angle anywhere 
with impunity. It is a perfectly erroneous idea, originating, 
most probably, in the fact that many proprietors of waters, 
who object to trolling, casting, or trimmering, offer no oppo- 
sition to fair bottom-fishing. It is, however, a pure matter 
of clemency, as this, as well as every other description of 
fishing, can be practised as of right or toleration only. 
EDITOR, Sixth Edition. 

The subjoined may be found of service to the game- 
keeper : 

By an Act passed on the 10th of July, 1817, for the Prevention 
of persons going armed by night for the destruction of game, the Act 
56th Geo. III. cap. 130, also the Acts of 39th and 40th Geo. III. 
cap. 50, relating to rogues and vagabonds, are repealed ; and in lieu 
thereof it is enacted, " That if any person or persons, having entered 
into any forest, chase, park, wood, plantation, close, or other open or 
inclosed ground, with the intent, illegally, to destroy, take, or kill 
game or rabbits, shall be found at night, that is to say, between the 
hours of six in the evening and seven in the morning, from 1st Octo- 
ber to 1st February ; between seven in the evening and five in the 
morning from 1st February to 1st April; and between nine in the 
evening and four in the morning for the remainder of the year ; 
armed with any gun, cross-bow, fire-arms, bludgeon, or any other 
offensive weapon ; every such person so offending, being thereof law- 
fully convicted, shall be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall 
be sentenced to transportation for seven years, or shall receive such 
punishment as may by law be inflicted on persons guilty of misde- 
meanour, and as the Court, before which such offenders may be tried 
and convicted, shall adjudge." 

And by 13 Geo. III. c. 55, s. 2, " No person shall kill, destroy, 
carry, sell, 'buy, or have in his possession, heath-fowl, commonly 



174 APPENDIX. 

called Hack-game, between the 10th day of December and the 20th 
day of August ; nor any grouse, commonly called red-game, between 
the 10th day of December and the 12th day of August ; nor any 
lustard, between the 1st day of March and the 1st day of September, 
in any year, upon pain of forfeiting, for the first offence, a sum not 
exceeding 20 nor less than 10, and for the second and every 
subsequent offence a sum not exceeding 30 nor less than 20, one 
moiety thereof to go to the informer, and the other moiety to the poor 
of the parish ; and in case the penalty be not paid, and there be no 
distress to be had, the offender may be committed to prison, to be 
kept to hard labour for any time not exceeding six nor less than three 
months." 

By 23 Eliz. c. 10, s. 2 and 5, it is enacted, that no person, of 
whatever estate, degree, or condition, shall take or destroy any phea- 
sants or partridges in the night-time, upon pain of forfeiting 20s. for 
every pheasant, and 10s. for every partridge. 

And by 9 Anne^ c. 25, s. 3, if any person whatsoever shall take 
or kill any hare, pheasant, partridge, moor-game, heath-game, or 
grouse in the night-time, he shall, on conviction before a justice, for- 
feit the sum of 5, one-half to go to the informer, and one-half to 
the poor of the parish, to be levied by distress, or for want of dis- 
tress, to be sent to the house of correction for three months for the first 
offence, and four months for every after offence.- These penalties, 
however, being thought insufficient, by 13 Geo. III. c. 80, s. 1, it is 
further provided, that if any person shall kill, take, or destroy any 
hare, pheasant, partridge, moor-game, or heath-game, or use any dog, 
snare, net, or other engine, with an intent to take, kill or destroy 
the same in the night-time, viz. between seven o'clock at night and 
six in the morning, from the 12th of October to the 12th of February, 
and between nine o'clock at night and four in the morning, from the 
12th of February to the 12th of October, such person being convicted, 
upon the oath of one witness, before one justice, shall forfeit for the 
first offence a sum not exceeding 20, nor less than 10; and 
for the second, a sum not exceeding 30, nor less than 20 ; one 
moiety thereof to be paid to the informer, and the other moiety to 
the poor of the parish. 



APPENDIX. 175 

By 14 and 15 Hen. VIII. c. 10, it is enacted, that no person, of 
whatever estate, degree, or condition they may be, shall trace and 
kill any hare in the snow, on penalty of 6s. Sd. for each hare. 

And by 1 Jac. I. c. 27, whoever shall trace or course any hare in 
the snow, shall on conviction before two justices, by confession, or 
oath of two witnesses, be committed to jail for three months, unless 
he pay to the churchwardens, for the use of the poor, the sum of 20s. 
for every hare he shall so take or destroy ; or shall, after one month 
after his commitment, become bound with two sureties in 201. a-piece, 
before two justices, not to offend in like manner. 

It is also by the same act provided, that every person, who shall 
at any time take or destroy any hares with hare-pipes, cards, or with 
any such instruments, or other engines, shall, on conviction before 
two justices, by confession, or oath of two witnesses, suffer the like 
penalties. 

And by 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 25, s. 6, if any person be found 
setting or using any snares, hare-pipes, or other like engine, and 
shall be thereof convicted, by confession, or oath of one witness 
before one justice, within a month after the offence committed, he 
shall give to the party injured such satisfaction as the justice shall 
appoint, and pay down immediately to the overseers, for the use of 
the poor, a sum not exceeding 10s., or else shall be committed to the 
house of correction for a time not exceeding one month. 

And by 1 Jac. I. c. 57, s. 2, any person, who shall take the eggs 
of any pheasant or partridge, or swan, out of the nest, or wilfully 
break, spoil, or destroy the same in the nest, shall, on conviction 
before two justices, by confession, or oath of two witnesses, be com- 
mitted to jail for three months, unless he pay on conviction, to the 
churchwardens for the use of the poor, 20s. for every egg; or, within 
one month thereafter, become bound, with two sureties in 20. each, 
not to offend again in like manner. 



176 



THE LAWS OF COURSING. 



THE following Rules and Regulations for the better 
guidance of all Coursing Societies, were agreed to at a 
general meeting of noblemen and gentlemen assembled at 
the Thatched House, in St. James's Street, London, on 
Saturday, the 30th of June, 1838, and recommended for 
adoption by all Coursing Clubs in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. The Earl of Stradbroke in the Chair. 



GENERAL RULES. 

1. Two stewards to be appointed by the members at dinner 

each day, to act in the field the following day, and 
to preside at dinner. They are to regulate the plan of 
beating the ground, under the sanction of the owner or 
occupier of the soil. 

2. That the time of putting the first brace of dogs in the 

slips shall be declared at dinner on the day preceding. 
If a prize is to be run for, and only one dog is ready, 
he shall run a bye, and his owner shall receive forfeit ; 
should neither be ready, the course shall be run when 
the committee shall think fit. In a match, if only one 
dog be ready, his owner shall receive forfeit. 



THE LAWS OF COURSING. 177 

3. The judge ought to be in a position where he can see the 

dogs leave the slips, and to decide by the colour of the 
dogs to a person appointed for that purpose ; his decision 
to be final. 

4. The judge shall not answer any questions put to him re- 

garding a course, unless such questions are asked by 
the committee. 

5. If any member make an observation in the hearing of the 

judge respecting a course during the time of running, 
or before he should have delivered his judgment, he shall 
forfeit one sovereign to the fund, and if either dog be his 
own, he shall lose the course. If he impugn the decision 
of the judge, he shall forfeit two sovereigns. 

6. That all courses run at this Society shall be from slips. 

7. That no person shall run a greyhound by a name different 

from that in which he has appeared in public, without 
first giving notice of such alteration, under a penalty 
of five sovereigns. 

8. That any member of this Society, or other person, running 

a greyhound at the meeting, having a dog at large which 
shall join in the course then running, shal forfeit one 
sovereign ; and if belonging to either of the parties 
running, the course shall be decided against him. 

9. No greyhounds to be entered as puppies, unless born on 

or after the 1st of January of the year preceding the 
day of running. 

10. If, in running for prizes, the judge shall be of opinion 
that the course has not been of sufficient length to 
enable him to decide as to the merits of the dogs, he 

V 



178 THE LAWS OP COURSING. 

shall inquire of the committee whether he is to decide 
the course or not ; if in the negative, the dogs must be 
immediately put again into the slips. 

11. When a course of an average length is so equally divided 

that the judge is unable to decide it, the owners of the 
dogs may toss for it ; but if either refuse, the dogs must 
be again put in the slips, at such time as the committee 
may think fit ; but if either dog be drawn, the winning 
dog shall not be obliged to run again. 

12. In running a match, the judge may declare the course 

to be undecided. 

13. If a member shall enter more than one greyhound, bond 
fide his own property, for a prize, his dogs shall not run 

together, if it be possible to avoid it ; and if two grey- 
hounds, the property of the same member, remain in to 
the last tie, he may run it out, or draw either, as he shall 
think fit. 

14. If a greyhound stand still in a course when a hare is in 
his or her sight, the owner shall lose the course ; but if 
a greyhound drop from exhaustion, and it shall be the 
opinion of the judge that the merit up to the time of 
falling was greatly in his or her favour, then the judge 
shall have power to award the course to the greyhound 
so falling, if he think fit 

15. Should two hares be on foot, and the dogs separate before 
reaching the hare slipped at, the course shall be unde- 
cided, and shall be run over again at such time as the 
committee shall think fit, unless the owners of the dogs 
agree to toss for it, or to draw one dog. 



THE LAWS OF COURSING. 1?9 

16. A course shall end if the dogs are unsighted from any 

impediment, after being fairly in with their hare. 

17. If any member or his servant ride over his opponent's 
dog when running, so as to injure him in the course, 
the dog so ridden over shall be deemed to win the course. 

18. When dogs engaged are of the same colour, they shall 

each wear a collar. 

19. It is recommended to all union meetings to appoint a 
committee of five, consisting of members of different 
clubs, to determine all difficulties and cases of doubt. 



LOCAL RULES. 

1. That the number of members shall be regulated by the 

letters in the alphabet, and that the two junior members 
shall take the letters X and Z, if required. 

2. That the members shall be elected by ballot, that seven 

members constitute a ballot, and that two black balls 
shall exclude. 

3. That the name of every person proposed to be balloted for 

as a member shall be placed over the chimney-piece 
one day before the ballot can take place. 

4. That no proposition can be balloted for, unless put up 

over the chimney-piece, with the names of the proposer 
and seconder, at or before dinner preceding the day of 
the ballot, and read to the members at such dinner. 

N 2 



180 THE LAWS OF COURSING. 

5. That every member shall, at each meeting, run a grey- 

hound his 9 wn property, or forfeit a sovereign to the 
Club. 

6. No member shall be allowed to match more than two 

greyhounds in the first class, under a penalty of two 
sovereigns to the fund, unless such member has been 
drawn or run out for the prizes, in which case he shall 
be allowed to run three dogs in the first class. 

7. If any member shall absent himself two seasons without 

sending his subscription, he shall be deemed out of 
the Society, and another chosen in his place. 

8. That no greyhound shall be allowed to start, if any 

arrears are due to this Society from the owner. 

9. That any member, lending another a greyhound for the 

purpose of saving his forfeit (excepting by consent of 
the members present), shall forfeit five sovereigns. 

10. Any member, running the dog of a stranger in a match, 

shall cause the name of the owner to be inserted after 
his own name in the list, under the penalty of one 
sovereign. 

11. No stranger to be admitted into the Society's room, 

unless introduced by a member, who is to place the 
name of his friend over the chimney-piece, with his 
own attached to it, and no member to introduce more 
than one friend. 

12. That the members of the Clubs shall be 

honorary members of this Society ; and, when present, 
shall be allowed to run their greyhounds, on paying 
the annual subscription. 



THE LAWS OF COURSING. 



181 



13. That Messrs. (three or five members, 

including the secretary for the time being) shall form 
a committee for managing the affairs of this Society, 
and that they shall name a person, for the appro- 
bation of the members, to judge all courses run in 
this Society, and that all doubtful cases shall be re- 
ferred to them. 

14. That this Society shall meet on the in , 

and course on the following days. 

15 That the General Rules be recommended for the adoption 
of all Coursing Societies, and the Local Rules applied 
in all cases where they shall be practicable and con- 
venient. 




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