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U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS
1 vi W^*- •
Prepared and released by the
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES, U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
WASHINGTON. D. C.
M. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OOCUM£Ji»lV
APR 26 1949
Committee on Vn-Am^erican Activities
U. S. House of Representatives
John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman
Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia
John McSweeney, Ohio
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri
J. Parnell Thomas, New Jersey
Richard M. Nixon, California
Francis Case, South Dakota
Harold H. Velde, Illinois
Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research
John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee
spotlight On Spies
This is the story of Communist spying in the United States. But
don't look for the names of spies. We don't name them.
What we are trying to. do is to show you that there IS such a thing
as a Soviet spy system in our country, whatjt is after, how it works,
and what it has succeeded in doing so far. It is the right and duty of
every American citizen to know these facts.
The information we are setting before you is based on many long
hours of investigation by the staff of the Committee on Un-American
Activities and many hundreds of pages of testimony by witnesses, some
of them former spies for the Soviet Union in the United States.
What is a spy?
A person employed by or in the service of a foreign government,
either with or without pay, to secure information considered vital to
the waging of a shooting or economic war against another country.
Will you find them in America?
Are all spies in America citizens of foreign countries?
No. Many American citizens have been recruited in the service of
What governments have spied on us in the past?
The Germans during World Wars I and II had agents in this coun-
try. Many of these were caught and convicted.
The Russian Government has had spies in the United States since
1922, but their operations were not exposed until recently.
Why do the Russians continue to spy on us?
The aim of the rulers of Russia is to take over the United States
along with the rest of the world. Her spies are here to pave the way
for a Soviet America.
87652* — 49 — -1 1
Hotv do Soviet leaders think we can he taken over?
By a revolt led by Communists in this country during some kind of
national economic crisis, or through an armed attack.
How big is the Soviet spy ring here?
Naturally, we can never know the exact size, but former ringleaders
have confessed there are thousands of Russian agents, as well as many
more thousands of Americans, who are selling us down the river.
In fact, we are the NUMBER ONE target of Russia's spy effort.
Does this constitute a dangerous situation?
To answer this it is only necessary to quote the testimony of the
Honorable J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of In-
vestigation, before this Committee, which was that "The Communist
Party of the United States is a fifth column if there ever was one."
He also said there are 74,000 Communist Party members in the United
States, but, "What is important is the claim of the Communists them-
selves that for every Party member there are 10 others ready, willing,
and able to do the Party's work.
This means that at a time of national crisis, the United States would
have nearly 825,000 persons who are either spies, traitors, or saboteurs
working against us from within.
Can our country afford this?
Why is the United States the number one target of the Soviet spy
Well, the United States is the most powerful and advanced nation
on the earth today. Its scientific and technical success is matched by
none. Russia wants the industrial capacity of the United States.
Just what are Soviet spies after?
Everything there is to know about the United States.
What do they want most?
Production secrets of the atom bomb.
What about other military defenses?
They want to know everything about them, too.
The Committee has uncovered recent secret orders from abroad to
spy leaders in the United States listing twenty-odd categories of infor-
mation they want on the armed strength of this country.
Total number of aircraft formations; combat and numerical strength of units
Distribution of base and alternate airfields, their technical equipment and
New types of planes
New technical inventions in the aviation field, in detail, whether applicable
in the air or on the ground
Infantry — numerical strength, distribution, organization, combat manuals,
firing power, training status, morale, combat status, officers' staff
Artillery and armored troops, particularly production, application of V-i and V-2
General description of the naval fleet and organization
Principal Navy bases and descriptions
Organization and distribution
New inventions in chemical warfare
Are the spies after diplomatic secrets?
Yes, they want American plans for dealing with Russia and other
Also any secret or open agreements which America might have
with other countries. Even the foreign policy ideas of individual
politicians must be furnished by the spies.
What about our industry?
Soviet Russia keeps a close watch on it. Here are some of the things
Communist spies have to report on, according to secret spy orders in
the hands of the Committee on Un-American Activities:
Principal branches of industry, especially war industry; the production of
various enterprises and branches of industry
Location of industry, especially war industries
Status of various firms, their productive capacity, type of production, num-
Construction of new industrial plants, especially war plants
Technical innovations in industry
Work of engineers, research institutions, and laboratories
Any other economic facts?
Yes. For instance, everything about our natural resources and raw
materials — with the stress on those having possible military value.
Is this all?
No. As we said, they want to know EVERYTHING about the
But we don't make any secret of some of the things Russia wants,
No. But Soviet Russia wants more than we are willing to give.
Well, America wouldn't let spies obtain our REAL secrets, would
Not intentionally, but an ex-Soviet spy told this Committee that this
country is the easiest in the world for spies to work in and obtain secret
Why is this?
Because of the number of Soviet sympathizers whose jobs put them
in a position to get secret information.
Because of the naive attitude of many Americans about the Com-
Who runs the Communist spy system in America?
Russian Communists who are trained in espionage and sent over
here to direct the spy work on the spot.
Are they the real bosses?
No. They are the "foremen." They see that American spies carry
out Soviet orders for secret information and that the secret information
gets back to Russia.
The REAL boss is the Soviet Government.
How do they get into this country?
One class of Russian spy leaders gets in on fake travel papers and
quickly drops out of sight. Only trusted Communist lieutenants ever
are in close contact with them. Even they know them only by sOme
simple name such as "Al," "Carl," "Bill," or "Jack."
How else do Russian agents get in?
Some are sent here as military, political, or as other official repre-
sentatives of the Soviet Government. They may be attached to the
Soviet Embassy in Washington, D. C, or the United Nations head-
quarters in New York.
Still others are disguised as "commercial agents" for the Soviet
Union. They have quietly carried on their spy work in such com-
mercial firms as "World Tourists" and "Amtorg Trading Company"
in New York City.
Even those officials who are not working with org:-nized spy rings
are ordered to collect what information they can while in the United
How could the United Nations he used?
An outstanding example is the former Russian military attache in
Canada, who was exposed as the head of a huge spy ring working
against the Canadian Government. He was forced to leave Canada,
but he later was admitted to the United States as a UN representative
for the Soviet Union.
Or take the case of the Russian "encnneer" stationed at UN head-
quarters in New York who was arrested by the FBI on March 4, 1949,
with an American employee of our own Government and charged
1^0 these Russian spy agents work in one big ring?
No. They run a lot of separate spy rings. Each agent and his ring
are kept in the dark about the work of the other rings.
Who serve as the actual thieves for these spy rings?
Self-styled "loyal" AMERICANS, believe it or not.
You mean an American would actually betray his own country
to help Sotnet Russia?
We. have confessions to prove it.
But what kind of people can they be?
Treasonable creatures who enjoy the privileges of American citizen-
ship and talk loudly about their loyalty, but all the time are REALLY
loyal only to Russia.
This boils clown to Communist Party members and their sympa-
Are all Communists spies?
Yes, in one sense, for it is every Communist's duty to report anything
he learns that might help the Soviet Union.
But in the organized spy rings, v^'hose target includes America's top
secrets, only carefully selected Communists and sympathizers are used.
Hotv are American Communists recruited for spy rings?
First of all, every Communist's record is filed in Moscow. When
Soviet leaders notice an American Communist who seems particularly
suitable for spy work or is in a good spot to learn American secrets,
or render some other service, he is marked for the role of a spy.
Sometimes American leaders recommend a comrade for the work,
and Moscow checks his record and gives the okay.
W^hat kind of records does Moscow keep?
Everything about a person. For instance, his job, education, family,
acquaintances, finances, politics, criminal record, if any, and personal
habits. Even such personal things as his ability to hold liquor. Some
of this information can be used as a club over the individual if he
threatens to break.
Are American Communists trained in spy work?
Not in any formal way. All Party work involves secret, under-
handed actions so a seasoned Communist could step right into spy
work when ordered.
If inexperienced Communists are in a spot to help the spy rings, they
might be given "special treatment."
What is this "special treatment"?
They are invited to join small Communist "study groups" which to
outsiders appear to be harmless social gatherings or discussion groups.
Actually, these gatherings are used to teach the "students" blind
loyalty to the Soviet Union and to get them into a conspiratorial frame
of mind against the American Government.
Communist spy agents get progress reports on the "students" and
when it looks as though they are ready to do anything for the Soviet
Union, the agents will take them into the spy rings.
Do these Americans betray their country for money?
Not all the time. Sometimes when an American Communist enters
a spy ring, he is shocked if money is offered to him.
Russian agents have had to trick some American agents into taking
What's back of these rewards?
Useful as blackmail in case a spy gets scared and wants to quit. For
that reason, spies who receive money are forced to sign receipts which
are sent to Moscow.
How can spies be tricked into taking money?
Usually by giving them lump sums of money for "expenses."
Then there are "good will" presents such as expensive rugs, which
four American spies in high U. S. Government jobs received from the
Is an American ever *' forced" into a spy ring?
Sometimes. We know of an American in our War Department
who was scared into stealing secrets because the Russians threatened
to harm his relatives in Russia.
Russian agents make a special effort to find out and use Americans
with close relatives in the Soviet Union.
Would anyone but a fool be willing to spy for Russia?
No. But you'll find "fools" in pretty HIGH places.
Soviet spy rings contain well-educated and able Americans who are
looked up to by their fellow men. They may be scientists, lawyers,
professors, writers, Government career workers, and even successful
businessmen who have been filled with Communist poison.
Do these spies really know what they're doing?
Wouldn't you ?
87652° — 49-
Well, just how does a spy ring operate?
Picture a production line. At one end, we have the American spy,
who is steahng material Russia is interested in. Next, we have the
"go-between" who receives the material from the spy and passes it on
to the Russian boss. Then it's headed for Russia.
Can you give more details?
Let's take it step by step.
Suppose the American spy works in the War Department. He
keeps his eyes and ears open for every bit of information he can learn.
He goes out of his way to be friendly with others who might know
something of value. He snoops in the files and records when no one
is looking. He learns a lot this way, because no one knows he is a spy.
What happens then?
Committee investigations have shown that the spy turns his informa-
tion over to a "go-between" or "courier." Sometimes he tells the
courier what he has heard ; sometimes he gives him notes, and copies
of letters or other papers revealing secret plans. Sometimes he even
steals original records from the Government files and turns them over
to the courier.
Just who is this '* courier"?
A trusted American Communist who acts as messenger for a Russian
spy boss. This courier picks up information gathered by American
spies and passes on to them orders from the Russian agent in charge.
If the Russian had to personally contact all his spies, he would arouse
Hotv does the spy get information to the courier?
They make a date to meet — maybe at a restaurant, a drug store, or the
home of a Communist. Maybe even in a park or on a street corner.
There the spy turns over his material and finds out if the Russians want
any particular job done. The spy knows die courier only by some alias
such as "Carl" or "Helen."
Is this the only way?
No. The spy can mail information to an address of a trusted Com-
munist, where the courier will pick it up.
Whafs the next step?
Well, the courier has to get the stuff to a Russian agent. One ex-
courier told us he would sometimes have a trusted photographer make
tiny pictures of the secret information (known as microfilm) so that
it could be delivered less conspicuously.
In the case of original documents that were stolen, diey had to be
photographed right away so the spy could put them back in the files
before they were missed.
How does the courier carry this stolen booty?
The most obvious ways, in the cases we know of.
A brief case, or, if die courier is a woman, a large purse, knitting
bag, or shopping bag.
The courier furtively hands over his haul to a Russian agent whose
job is to get it to Russia.
How DOES it get there?
There are plenty of tricky ways. For instance:
Short-wave radio, if it's "hot" news
Diplomatic mail pouches from Soviet Government officials here
Russian officials who travel back and forth on United Nations and other
Russian undercover agents traveling on false passports
Communist businessmen whose custom it is to take business trips abroad
Hotv can a seaman help?
Easy. No one pays any attention to his traveling because it's his
livelihood. Even if his ship doesn't touch Russia, he can still deliver
secret messages to Communists in other countries, who will see that
they reach Moscow. Sometimes these people are not really seamen at
all, but Communist agents with fake seamen's papers.
What precautions are taken in sending stolen material?
Radio messages are sent in code.
Official Russian mail cannot be opened by anyone.
And for Russian undercover agents and Communist seamen who
serve as couriers, there are countless clever ways to hide secret informa-
Can you name some of these?
The back is removed from a dime-store pocket mirror, tiny photo-
graphs of secret material are inserted against the glass, and the back is
Tiny photographic films, containing secret messages, are soaked in
a solution to make them flexible as cloth. Then this soft film is tightly
rolled up, put into a small cylinder, and inserted into a tube of
Any other methods?
Sometimes the film is softened in the same way and cut up and
sewed inside the lining of neckties.
Messages have also been placed in hollow parts of toys and in the
hollow handles of safety razors.
What happens when the information gets to Russia?
The Russians sort out the information which is pouring in. Bits of
information from separate American spy rings are pieced together. If
something is missing to make a complete picture of some American
project, orders go back to the spy rings to concentrate on that particular
Don't spies ever duplicate each other's work?
All the time. Because, besides carrying out special orders, American
spies pick up any and all information they can lay their hands on.
Furthermore, each spy ring in America works independently of the
The screening process takes place in Russia.
Isn't this a costly operation?
Sure. But it's so important to the Soviet Union that money is no
object. Russian agents are free-handed in their offers of "gifts" to
American spies. They have handed out as much as two thousand
dollars at a time.
Where does the money come from?
The Soviet Government, and sometimes wealthy American Com-
munists or sympathizers.
where does the Communist Party of the United States fit into
It's a separate org'anization from the huge spy network although the
network draws upon the Party for spies and couriers and any other
help it may need.
But u'ouldn't spies who are Party workers he easy to spot?
No. For it is Party policy to give "super" secret membership to
certain classes of people such as students, scientists, teachers, office
•vorkers, administrative, and Government workers.
Other Party members are kept from knowing these people are in
the Party. They never hold Party membership cards or attend regular
Party meetings. In fact, they're not allowed even to discuss their real
political view with anybody.
So ivhat job a Commiimst holds has a lot to do with his selection
for spy work?
Yes, if he's in a position to steal information for the Russians. And
a file clerk can be as useful as an executive.
But a highly placed Communist is valuable in still another way — he
can use his influence to get other Communists into jobs involving
What about spies in our Government?
Two former couriers for spies within our Government told your
Committee how they worked.
One courier headed a ring of spies who were in such Federal agencies
as the War, State, Navy, Justice, Treasury, Labor, Agriculture, and
Commerce Departments. The other received information from high
The couriers said other spy rings operated at the same time in our
Were the spies in spots where they could steal secrets?
Several spies had such important jobs that it was their duty to handle
confidential State Department papers.
Several others actually worked within one of our Government's own
intelligence groups during the war. Others within the armed forces.
Did they succeed in stealing information?
Your Committee has copies of more than 60 secret State Depart-
ment papers — deahng with American diplomatic relations with other
countries— which were stolen by a spy. We can't tell you what some
of them say because even now it would endanger the safety of our
Yet this was just the result of one spy's work in one week. THINK
WHAT THE TOTAL OUTPUT MUST BE.
Are spies after our Government secrets RIGHT NOW?
You can be sure of it.
Where would you find spies in industry?
Well, we told you they wanted to know everything about our
But, particularly watch for them in :
Atomic plants Steel firms
Aviation companies Maritime industries
Submarine companies Chemical and other research institutions
Munitions works Communications
Transportation Oil and mining industries
Why these particularly?
Important from a war angle.
What has happened in the atomic field?
Since the atom bomb is Russia's chief worry right now, she has
several spy rings concentrating on that alone.
Where are these atomic spies?
Your Committee has shown that they have penetrated right to the
very heart of our atomic work. Some agents working for the Com-
munists have contacted scientists working in the most secret branches
of atomic research.
Then haven't they made away with some of our atomic secrets?
Wc KNOW they have, but just how much of the entire formula of
the bomb is unknown.
How about aviation?
We know of a Russian agent, skilled in aviation, who, with the help
of other spies, collected a huge store of confidential aviation data. It
contained photographs, blueprints, and notes which were personally
flown to Moscow by the chairman of the then active Soviet Purchasing
Two spies were decorated by the Soviet Government for this.
And the suhmarine field?
Blueprints, photographs, and technical descriptions have been
sneaked out of American submarine companies by spies and sent to
In several cases, Russian agents directing the work were Soviet naval
captains pretending to be civilians with entirely different interests.
Can you give an example in the steel industry?
Yes. An American scientist held a top research job with one of our
biggest steel companies. He was a spy and, every week or two, he
flew half way across the country to turn over information to a Russian
What is the interest in steel?
New formulas for making it, for one thing. The amount of steel
produced is another.
What Communists in industry CAN he trusted?
None, when you get right down to it. It's every Communist's duty,
even as a mechanic or office worker, to pick up any information around
the plant he can lay hands on. Though he may not act under an
organized spy ring, he can often turn up information which Moscow
This applies to Communists in the Government and anywhere else,
How would secrets from- Comm^unists outside a spy ring get to
Here's one example:
A Communist in a submarine-building plant regularly gave infor-
mation he gathered about the plant to the Communist Party organizer
in his district. The organizer sent it on to national Communist Party
headquarters which in turn handed it over to a Russian spy.
Any other way?
Communist union officials could also send through the channels
described above any important material collected by a Communist
Just how successful is the Soviet spy system in America?
An Army general said that when this country is compared with
Canada you get some idea of the success because Russian spies in
Canada obtained an enormous amount of information.
Why can we he sure of this?
Because the spies have been with us for close to 30 years and America
is only beginning to wake up to the fact that there are such things as
Until lately, Communists even succeeded in getting Government
positions no matter how secret the work.
All this is pretty serious, isn't it?
Very, very serious.
But in the case of much important information, Russian agents
haven't had to steal it. We have GIVEN it away.
What do you mean?
For one thing, we have tried to be friendly to Russia and as a result
Russian officials have been able to collect a lot of our industrial and
military inventions just by buying patents for the inventions from our
Government Patent Office. This is done right out in the open with
Has this been done on a large scale?
So large that Russia has practically EVERY American patent dealing
with industrial, chemical, and military inventions which have been
released to the public. This runs into the hundreds of thousands.
What do these patents cover?
Here are a few of the types bought by Russia:
Bomb sight Bomb-dropping device
Military tank Helicopter
Airplane Mine sweeper
Ship control Ammunition
But won't Russia do the same for us?
Russia has refused to give out a single one of her patents since 1927.
What else have we GIVEN away?
During the war, because they were our aUies, Russian visitors were
invited to inspect our country and its defense industries. One of the
results was that the Russians betrayed our friendship and printed a
thick book which can easily be used as a handbook for bombing and
sabotage against the United States.
What does the hook show?
In pictures, maps, and words, the location and lay-outs of our Na-
tion's large power dams and power plants, aircraft and auto fac-
tories, plants dealing with metals, bridges, railroads, and important
Is America doing anything to protect herself from Soviet spies?
Yes. The world's finest investigative agency is on the job — the
FBI. It is aided by Military and Naval Intelligence.
Isn't this enough?
Far from it. Every patriotic American must be on the alert and
report all suspicious activities brought to his or her attention to either
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Army or Navy Intelligence
services, local police departments, and/or the Committee on Un-
This is particularly important since the spy network is growing
bigger because of new sources for spies.
What are these new sources?
New Communist governments such as Poland, Hungary, Czecho-
slovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania.
How is this of help to Russia?
These countries send Communists over here to represent them in
their embassies and legations, in the United Nations, and on other
These Communists are just as willing to spy for Russia as a Russian
Communist. For all Communists everywhere are loyal to the Soviet
Is there any proof?
The former top military officer of a Russian satellite embassy, in
Washington, D. C, got disgusted with the Communists and exposed
a spy ring working from his embassy.
What did he confess?
He said the spy ring he knew about in America was Nation-wide
and looking for scientific, political, and industrial information about
He said the ring was directed from the Russian Embassy in Wash-
ington and information collected sent out in diplomatic mail pouches
to Russia by way of another country.
What else did he say?
That other spy rings could be found here in the embassies and
legations of all Balkan countries under control of Russia.
When necessary, the United Nations was also used as a hide-out for
these Balkan Communist spies.
What should tve do about the Soviet spy system in America?
Redouble our efforts to root out the spies and send them to jail or
Since American Communists are so necessary to the Soviet spy rings,
we must also concentrate on exposing every one of them, wherever
they may be found.
New laws are needed, too.
What kind of laws?
Laws that will give tougher penalties to anyone stealing secret infor-
mation for Russia, whether in peace or in war.
Laws that will clamp down on the activities of Russian agents in
this country and of American Communists in foreign countries. Any
other laws that will help us stamp out the spy network, as well as
Is it too late to start now?
Of course not. Spying is a never-ending business with the Russians.
New secrets are being born every day as American science and
what we do NOW to stop the spies and Communists means a lot to
the future safety of our country.
What is the Committee on Un-American Activities doing about
Your Committee's job is to show the American people what the
Communists are up to, and suggest any new laws needed to deal with
The Committee is doing everything it can to run down the Com-
munist spy rings in this country and has already succeeded in exposing
many of the spies. It has also offered a new law to Congress and is
studying still others — all aimed at curbing the Communist spy business.
What can I do to help?
Do some deep thinking about what the Soviet spy system and the
American Communist mean to the safety of our country.
Then let your Government and your Congress know that you want
to see REAL ACTION to rid our country of these menaces.
Conditions in America present the
most fertile soil for Soviet espionage.
— Victor Kravchenko,
Former Soviet official.
The Communist Party is like a sub-
merged submarine; the part that you
see above water is the periscope, but
the part underneath is the real Com-
munist organization; that is the con-
— J. Peters,
Russian head of a Commiuiist
spy ring in the U.S. A.
U. S. GOVERNHENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1949
For sale l)y the Suporlntendent of Documents, V. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, U C. - Price 10 cents
BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 9999 05445 2121
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