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Prepared and released by the 





APR 26 1949 

Committee on Vn-Am^erican Activities 
U. S. House of Representatives 


John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman 

Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania 
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia 
John McSweeney, Ohio 
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
J. Parnell Thomas, New Jersey 
Richard M. Nixon, California 
Francis Case, South Dakota 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 


spotlight On Spies 

This is the story of Communist spying in the United States. But 
don't look for the names of spies. We don't name them. 

What we are trying to. do is to show you that there IS such a thing 
as a Soviet spy system in our country, whatjt is after, how it works, 
and what it has succeeded in doing so far. It is the right and duty of 
every American citizen to know these facts. 

The information we are setting before you is based on many long 
hours of investigation by the staff of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities and many hundreds of pages of testimony by witnesses, some 
of them former spies for the Soviet Union in the United States. 

What is a spy? 

A person employed by or in the service of a foreign government, 
either with or without pay, to secure information considered vital to 
the waging of a shooting or economic war against another country. 

Will you find them in America? 

Are all spies in America citizens of foreign countries? 

No. Many American citizens have been recruited in the service of 
other governments. 

What governments have spied on us in the past? 

The Germans during World Wars I and II had agents in this coun- 
try. Many of these were caught and convicted. 

The Russian Government has had spies in the United States since 
1922, but their operations were not exposed until recently. 

Why do the Russians continue to spy on us? 

The aim of the rulers of Russia is to take over the United States 
along with the rest of the world. Her spies are here to pave the way 
for a Soviet America. 

87652* — 49 — -1 1 

Hotv do Soviet leaders think we can he taken over? 

By a revolt led by Communists in this country during some kind of 
national economic crisis, or through an armed attack. 

How big is the Soviet spy ring here? 

Naturally, we can never know the exact size, but former ringleaders 
have confessed there are thousands of Russian agents, as well as many 
more thousands of Americans, who are selling us down the river. 

In fact, we are the NUMBER ONE target of Russia's spy effort. 

Does this constitute a dangerous situation? 

To answer this it is only necessary to quote the testimony of the 
Honorable J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation, before this Committee, which was that "The Communist 
Party of the United States is a fifth column if there ever was one." 
He also said there are 74,000 Communist Party members in the United 
States, but, "What is important is the claim of the Communists them- 
selves that for every Party member there are 10 others ready, willing, 
and able to do the Party's work. 

This means that at a time of national crisis, the United States would 
have nearly 825,000 persons who are either spies, traitors, or saboteurs 
working against us from within. 

Can our country afford this? 

Why is the United States the number one target of the Soviet spy 

Well, the United States is the most powerful and advanced nation 

on the earth today. Its scientific and technical success is matched by 

none. Russia wants the industrial capacity of the United States. 

Just what are Soviet spies after? 
Everything there is to know about the United States. 

What do they want most? 

Production secrets of the atom bomb. 

What about other military defenses? 

They want to know everything about them, too. 

The Committee has uncovered recent secret orders from abroad to 
spy leaders in the United States listing twenty-odd categories of infor- 
mation they want on the armed strength of this country. 


These include: 


Total number of aircraft formations; combat and numerical strength of units 
Distribution of base and alternate airfields, their technical equipment and 

Civilian aviation 
New types of planes 
New technical inventions in the aviation field, in detail, whether applicable 

in the air or on the ground 
Robot planes 

Ground troops: 

Infantry — numerical strength, distribution, organization, combat manuals, 
firing power, training status, morale, combat status, officers' staff 
Artillery and armored troops, particularly production, application of V-i and V-2 


General description of the naval fleet and organization 
Principal Navy bases and descriptions 

Chemical units: 

Organization and distribution 
New inventions in chemical warfare 

Are the spies after diplomatic secrets? 

Yes, they want American plans for dealing with Russia and other 

Also any secret or open agreements which America might have 
with other countries. Even the foreign policy ideas of individual 
politicians must be furnished by the spies. 

What about our industry? 

Soviet Russia keeps a close watch on it. Here are some of the things 
Communist spies have to report on, according to secret spy orders in 
the hands of the Committee on Un-American Activities: 

Principal branches of industry, especially war industry; the production of 
various enterprises and branches of industry 

Location of industry, especially war industries 

Status of various firms, their productive capacity, type of production, num- 
ber employed 

Construction of new industrial plants, especially war plants 

Technical innovations in industry 

Work of engineers, research institutions, and laboratories 

Any other economic facts? 

Yes. For instance, everything about our natural resources and raw 
materials — with the stress on those having possible military value. 

Is this all? 

No. As we said, they want to know EVERYTHING about the 
United States. 

But we don't make any secret of some of the things Russia wants, 
do we? 

No. But Soviet Russia wants more than we are willing to give. 

Well, America wouldn't let spies obtain our REAL secrets, would 

Not intentionally, but an ex-Soviet spy told this Committee that this 
country is the easiest in the world for spies to work in and obtain secret 

Why is this? 

Because of the number of Soviet sympathizers whose jobs put them 
in a position to get secret information. 

Because of the naive attitude of many Americans about the Com- 
munist danger. 

Who runs the Communist spy system in America? 

Russian Communists who are trained in espionage and sent over 
here to direct the spy work on the spot. 

Are they the real bosses? 

No. They are the "foremen." They see that American spies carry 
out Soviet orders for secret information and that the secret information 
gets back to Russia. 

The REAL boss is the Soviet Government. 

How do they get into this country? 

One class of Russian spy leaders gets in on fake travel papers and 
quickly drops out of sight. Only trusted Communist lieutenants ever 
are in close contact with them. Even they know them only by sOme 
simple name such as "Al," "Carl," "Bill," or "Jack." 

How else do Russian agents get in? 

Some are sent here as military, political, or as other official repre- 
sentatives of the Soviet Government. They may be attached to the 
Soviet Embassy in Washington, D. C, or the United Nations head- 
quarters in New York. 

Still others are disguised as "commercial agents" for the Soviet 
Union. They have quietly carried on their spy work in such com- 
mercial firms as "World Tourists" and "Amtorg Trading Company" 
in New York City. 

Even those officials who are not working with org:-nized spy rings 
are ordered to collect what information they can while in the United 

How could the United Nations he used? 

An outstanding example is the former Russian military attache in 
Canada, who was exposed as the head of a huge spy ring working 
against the Canadian Government. He was forced to leave Canada, 
but he later was admitted to the United States as a UN representative 
for the Soviet Union. 

Or take the case of the Russian "encnneer" stationed at UN head- 
quarters in New York who was arrested by the FBI on March 4, 1949, 
with an American employee of our own Government and charged 
with spying. 

1^0 these Russian spy agents work in one big ring? 

No. They run a lot of separate spy rings. Each agent and his ring 
are kept in the dark about the work of the other rings. 

Who serve as the actual thieves for these spy rings? 
Self-styled "loyal" AMERICANS, believe it or not. 

You mean an American would actually betray his own country 
to help Sotnet Russia? 

We. have confessions to prove it. 

But what kind of people can they be? 

Treasonable creatures who enjoy the privileges of American citizen- 
ship and talk loudly about their loyalty, but all the time are REALLY 
loyal only to Russia. 

This boils clown to Communist Party members and their sympa- 

Are all Communists spies? 

Yes, in one sense, for it is every Communist's duty to report anything 
he learns that might help the Soviet Union. 

But in the organized spy rings, v^'hose target includes America's top 
secrets, only carefully selected Communists and sympathizers are used. 

Hotv are American Communists recruited for spy rings? 

First of all, every Communist's record is filed in Moscow. When 
Soviet leaders notice an American Communist who seems particularly 
suitable for spy work or is in a good spot to learn American secrets, 
or render some other service, he is marked for the role of a spy. 

Sometimes American leaders recommend a comrade for the work, 
and Moscow checks his record and gives the okay. 

W^hat kind of records does Moscow keep? 

Everything about a person. For instance, his job, education, family, 
acquaintances, finances, politics, criminal record, if any, and personal 
habits. Even such personal things as his ability to hold liquor. Some 
of this information can be used as a club over the individual if he 
threatens to break. 

Are American Communists trained in spy work? 

Not in any formal way. All Party work involves secret, under- 
handed actions so a seasoned Communist could step right into spy 
work when ordered. 

If inexperienced Communists are in a spot to help the spy rings, they 
might be given "special treatment." 

What is this "special treatment"? 

They are invited to join small Communist "study groups" which to 
outsiders appear to be harmless social gatherings or discussion groups. 

Actually, these gatherings are used to teach the "students" blind 
loyalty to the Soviet Union and to get them into a conspiratorial frame 
of mind against the American Government. 

Then what? 

Communist spy agents get progress reports on the "students" and 
when it looks as though they are ready to do anything for the Soviet 
Union, the agents will take them into the spy rings. 

Do these Americans betray their country for money? 

Not all the time. Sometimes when an American Communist enters 
a spy ring, he is shocked if money is offered to him. 

Russian agents have had to trick some American agents into taking 

What's back of these rewards? 

Useful as blackmail in case a spy gets scared and wants to quit. For 
that reason, spies who receive money are forced to sign receipts which 
are sent to Moscow. 

How can spies be tricked into taking money? 

Usually by giving them lump sums of money for "expenses." 
Then there are "good will" presents such as expensive rugs, which 

four American spies in high U. S. Government jobs received from the 

Soviet Government. 

Is an American ever *' forced" into a spy ring? 

Sometimes. We know of an American in our War Department 
who was scared into stealing secrets because the Russians threatened 
to harm his relatives in Russia. 

Russian agents make a special effort to find out and use Americans 
with close relatives in the Soviet Union. 

Would anyone but a fool be willing to spy for Russia? 

No. But you'll find "fools" in pretty HIGH places. 

Soviet spy rings contain well-educated and able Americans who are 
looked up to by their fellow men. They may be scientists, lawyers, 
professors, writers, Government career workers, and even successful 
businessmen who have been filled with Communist poison. 

Do these spies really know what they're doing? 

Wouldn't you ? 

87652° — 49- 

Well, just how does a spy ring operate? 

Picture a production line. At one end, we have the American spy, 
who is steahng material Russia is interested in. Next, we have the 
"go-between" who receives the material from the spy and passes it on 
to the Russian boss. Then it's headed for Russia. 

Can you give more details? 

Let's take it step by step. 

Suppose the American spy works in the War Department. He 
keeps his eyes and ears open for every bit of information he can learn. 
He goes out of his way to be friendly with others who might know 
something of value. He snoops in the files and records when no one 
is looking. He learns a lot this way, because no one knows he is a spy. 

What happens then? 

Committee investigations have shown that the spy turns his informa- 
tion over to a "go-between" or "courier." Sometimes he tells the 
courier what he has heard ; sometimes he gives him notes, and copies 
of letters or other papers revealing secret plans. Sometimes he even 
steals original records from the Government files and turns them over 
to the courier. 

Just who is this '* courier"? 

A trusted American Communist who acts as messenger for a Russian 
spy boss. This courier picks up information gathered by American 
spies and passes on to them orders from the Russian agent in charge. 

If the Russian had to personally contact all his spies, he would arouse 

Hotv does the spy get information to the courier? 

They make a date to meet — maybe at a restaurant, a drug store, or the 
home of a Communist. Maybe even in a park or on a street corner. 
There the spy turns over his material and finds out if the Russians want 
any particular job done. The spy knows die courier only by some alias 
such as "Carl" or "Helen." 

Is this the only way? 

No. The spy can mail information to an address of a trusted Com- 
munist, where the courier will pick it up. 


Whafs the next step? 

Well, the courier has to get the stuff to a Russian agent. One ex- 
courier told us he would sometimes have a trusted photographer make 
tiny pictures of the secret information (known as microfilm) so that 
it could be delivered less conspicuously. 

In the case of original documents that were stolen, diey had to be 
photographed right away so the spy could put them back in the files 
before they were missed. 

How does the courier carry this stolen booty? 

The most obvious ways, in the cases we know of. 
A brief case, or, if die courier is a woman, a large purse, knitting 
bag, or shopping bag. 

And then? 

The courier furtively hands over his haul to a Russian agent whose 
job is to get it to Russia. 

How DOES it get there? 

There are plenty of tricky ways. For instance: 

Short-wave radio, if it's "hot" news 

Diplomatic mail pouches from Soviet Government officials here 

Russian officials who travel back and forth on United Nations and other 

Russian undercover agents traveling on false passports 
Communist businessmen whose custom it is to take business trips abroad 
Communist seamen 

Hotv can a seaman help? 

Easy. No one pays any attention to his traveling because it's his 
livelihood. Even if his ship doesn't touch Russia, he can still deliver 
secret messages to Communists in other countries, who will see that 
they reach Moscow. Sometimes these people are not really seamen at 
all, but Communist agents with fake seamen's papers. 

What precautions are taken in sending stolen material? 

Radio messages are sent in code. 

Official Russian mail cannot be opened by anyone. 

And for Russian undercover agents and Communist seamen who 
serve as couriers, there are countless clever ways to hide secret informa- 


Can you name some of these? 

The back is removed from a dime-store pocket mirror, tiny photo- 
graphs of secret material are inserted against the glass, and the back is 
then replaced. 

How else? 

Tiny photographic films, containing secret messages, are soaked in 
a solution to make them flexible as cloth. Then this soft film is tightly 
rolled up, put into a small cylinder, and inserted into a tube of 

Any other methods? 

Sometimes the film is softened in the same way and cut up and 
sewed inside the lining of neckties. 

Messages have also been placed in hollow parts of toys and in the 
hollow handles of safety razors. 

What happens when the information gets to Russia? 

The Russians sort out the information which is pouring in. Bits of 
information from separate American spy rings are pieced together. If 
something is missing to make a complete picture of some American 
project, orders go back to the spy rings to concentrate on that particular 

Don't spies ever duplicate each other's work? 

All the time. Because, besides carrying out special orders, American 
spies pick up any and all information they can lay their hands on. 
Furthermore, each spy ring in America works independently of the 

The screening process takes place in Russia. 

Isn't this a costly operation? 

Sure. But it's so important to the Soviet Union that money is no 
object. Russian agents are free-handed in their offers of "gifts" to 
American spies. They have handed out as much as two thousand 
dollars at a time. 

Where does the money come from? 

The Soviet Government, and sometimes wealthy American Com- 
munists or sympathizers. 


where does the Communist Party of the United States fit into 
the scheme? 

It's a separate org'anization from the huge spy network although the 
network draws upon the Party for spies and couriers and any other 
help it may need. 

But u'ouldn't spies who are Party workers he easy to spot? 

No. For it is Party policy to give "super" secret membership to 
certain classes of people such as students, scientists, teachers, office 
•vorkers, administrative, and Government workers. 

Other Party members are kept from knowing these people are in 
the Party. They never hold Party membership cards or attend regular 
Party meetings. In fact, they're not allowed even to discuss their real 
political view with anybody. 

So ivhat job a Commiimst holds has a lot to do with his selection 
for spy work? 

Yes, if he's in a position to steal information for the Russians. And 
a file clerk can be as useful as an executive. 

But a highly placed Communist is valuable in still another way — he 
can use his influence to get other Communists into jobs involving 
secret information. 

What about spies in our Government? 

Two former couriers for spies within our Government told your 
Committee how they worked. 

One courier headed a ring of spies who were in such Federal agencies 
as the War, State, Navy, Justice, Treasury, Labor, Agriculture, and 
Commerce Departments. The other received information from high 
Government officials. 

The couriers said other spy rings operated at the same time in our 

Were the spies in spots where they could steal secrets? 

Several spies had such important jobs that it was their duty to handle 
confidential State Department papers. 

Several others actually worked within one of our Government's own 
intelligence groups during the war. Others within the armed forces. 


Did they succeed in stealing information? 

Your Committee has copies of more than 60 secret State Depart- 
ment papers — deahng with American diplomatic relations with other 
countries— which were stolen by a spy. We can't tell you what some 
of them say because even now it would endanger the safety of our 

Yet this was just the result of one spy's work in one week. THINK 

Are spies after our Government secrets RIGHT NOW? 
You can be sure of it. 

Where would you find spies in industry? 

Well, we told you they wanted to know everything about our 

But, particularly watch for them in : 

Atomic plants Steel firms 

Aviation companies Maritime industries 

Submarine companies Chemical and other research institutions 

Munitions works Communications 

Transportation Oil and mining industries 

Why these particularly? 

Important from a war angle. 

What has happened in the atomic field? 

Since the atom bomb is Russia's chief worry right now, she has 
several spy rings concentrating on that alone. 

Where are these atomic spies? 

Your Committee has shown that they have penetrated right to the 
very heart of our atomic work. Some agents working for the Com- 
munists have contacted scientists working in the most secret branches 
of atomic research. 

Then haven't they made away with some of our atomic secrets? 
Wc KNOW they have, but just how much of the entire formula of 
the bomb is unknown. 

How about aviation? 

We know of a Russian agent, skilled in aviation, who, with the help 
of other spies, collected a huge store of confidential aviation data. It 

contained photographs, blueprints, and notes which were personally 
flown to Moscow by the chairman of the then active Soviet Purchasing 
Two spies were decorated by the Soviet Government for this. 

And the suhmarine field? 

Blueprints, photographs, and technical descriptions have been 
sneaked out of American submarine companies by spies and sent to 

In several cases, Russian agents directing the work were Soviet naval 
captains pretending to be civilians with entirely different interests. 

Can you give an example in the steel industry? 

Yes. An American scientist held a top research job with one of our 
biggest steel companies. He was a spy and, every week or two, he 
flew half way across the country to turn over information to a Russian 
spy agent. 

What is the interest in steel? 

New formulas for making it, for one thing. The amount of steel 
produced is another. 

What Communists in industry CAN he trusted? 

None, when you get right down to it. It's every Communist's duty, 
even as a mechanic or office worker, to pick up any information around 
the plant he can lay hands on. Though he may not act under an 
organized spy ring, he can often turn up information which Moscow 

This applies to Communists in the Government and anywhere else, 

How would secrets from- Comm^unists outside a spy ring get to 

Here's one example: 

A Communist in a submarine-building plant regularly gave infor- 
mation he gathered about the plant to the Communist Party organizer 
in his district. The organizer sent it on to national Communist Party 
headquarters which in turn handed it over to a Russian spy. 


Any other way? 

Communist union officials could also send through the channels 
described above any important material collected by a Communist 

Just how successful is the Soviet spy system in America? 

An Army general said that when this country is compared with 
Canada you get some idea of the success because Russian spies in 
Canada obtained an enormous amount of information. 

Why can we he sure of this? 

Because the spies have been with us for close to 30 years and America 
is only beginning to wake up to the fact that there are such things as 
Soviet spies. 

Until lately, Communists even succeeded in getting Government 
positions no matter how secret the work. 

All this is pretty serious, isn't it? 

Very, very serious. 

But in the case of much important information, Russian agents 
haven't had to steal it. We have GIVEN it away. 

What do you mean? 

For one thing, we have tried to be friendly to Russia and as a result 
Russian officials have been able to collect a lot of our industrial and 
military inventions just by buying patents for the inventions from our 
Government Patent Office. This is done right out in the open with 
our permission. 

Has this been done on a large scale? 

So large that Russia has practically EVERY American patent dealing 
with industrial, chemical, and military inventions which have been 
released to the public. This runs into the hundreds of thousands. 

What do these patents cover? 
Here are a few of the types bought by Russia: 

Bomb sight Bomb-dropping device 
Military tank Helicopter 

Airplane Mine sweeper 

Ship control Ammunition 

Bullet-resisting armor 


But won't Russia do the same for us? 
Russia has refused to give out a single one of her patents since 1927. 

What else have we GIVEN away? 

During the war, because they were our aUies, Russian visitors were 
invited to inspect our country and its defense industries. One of the 
results was that the Russians betrayed our friendship and printed a 
thick book which can easily be used as a handbook for bombing and 
sabotage against the United States. 

What does the hook show? 

In pictures, maps, and words, the location and lay-outs of our Na- 
tion's large power dams and power plants, aircraft and auto fac- 
tories, plants dealing with metals, bridges, railroads, and important 

Is America doing anything to protect herself from Soviet spies? 

Yes. The world's finest investigative agency is on the job — the 
FBI. It is aided by Military and Naval Intelligence. 

Isn't this enough? 

Far from it. Every patriotic American must be on the alert and 
report all suspicious activities brought to his or her attention to either 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Army or Navy Intelligence 
services, local police departments, and/or the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

This is particularly important since the spy network is growing 
bigger because of new sources for spies. 

What are these new sources? 

New Communist governments such as Poland, Hungary, Czecho- 
slovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania. 

How is this of help to Russia? 

These countries send Communists over here to represent them in 
their embassies and legations, in the United Nations, and on other 

These Communists are just as willing to spy for Russia as a Russian 
Communist. For all Communists everywhere are loyal to the Soviet 


Is there any proof? 

The former top military officer of a Russian satellite embassy, in 
Washington, D. C, got disgusted with the Communists and exposed 
a spy ring working from his embassy. 

What did he confess? 

He said the spy ring he knew about in America was Nation-wide 
and looking for scientific, political, and industrial information about 
our country. 

He said the ring was directed from the Russian Embassy in Wash- 
ington and information collected sent out in diplomatic mail pouches 
to Russia by way of another country. 

What else did he say? 

That other spy rings could be found here in the embassies and 
legations of all Balkan countries under control of Russia. 

When necessary, the United Nations was also used as a hide-out for 
these Balkan Communist spies. 

What should tve do about the Soviet spy system in America? 

Redouble our efforts to root out the spies and send them to jail or 
to Russia. 

Since American Communists are so necessary to the Soviet spy rings, 
we must also concentrate on exposing every one of them, wherever 
they may be found. 

New laws are needed, too. 

What kind of laws? 

Laws that will give tougher penalties to anyone stealing secret infor- 
mation for Russia, whether in peace or in war. 

Laws that will clamp down on the activities of Russian agents in 
this country and of American Communists in foreign countries. Any 
other laws that will help us stamp out the spy network, as well as 
Communist cells. 

Is it too late to start now? 

Of course not. Spying is a never-ending business with the Russians. 
New secrets are being born every day as American science and 
industry progress. 


what we do NOW to stop the spies and Communists means a lot to 
the future safety of our country. 

What is the Committee on Un-American Activities doing about 
all this? 

Your Committee's job is to show the American people what the 
Communists are up to, and suggest any new laws needed to deal with 

The Committee is doing everything it can to run down the Com- 
munist spy rings in this country and has already succeeded in exposing 
many of the spies. It has also offered a new law to Congress and is 
studying still others — all aimed at curbing the Communist spy business. 

What can I do to help? 

Do some deep thinking about what the Soviet spy system and the 
American Communist mean to the safety of our country. 

Then let your Government and your Congress know that you want 
to see REAL ACTION to rid our country of these menaces. 


Conditions in America present the 
most fertile soil for Soviet espionage. 

— Victor Kravchenko, 

Former Soviet official. 

The Communist Party is like a sub- 
merged submarine; the part that you 
see above water is the periscope, but 
the part underneath is the real Com- 
munist organization; that is the con- 
spiratorial apparatus. 

— J. Peters, 

Russian head of a Commiuiist 
spy ring in the U.S. A. 


For sale l)y the Suporlntendent of Documents, V. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, U C. - Price 10 cents 


3 9999 05445 2121 

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