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Full text of "Sprague's journal of Maine history"

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CLARENCE HALE-FRANK E. GUERNSEY-W. SCOTT HILL 

CHARLES F. HOLDEN— NELLIE WOODBURY JORDAN 

JANUARY— FEBRUARY— MARCH 




,3 76 



The LESLIE E. JONES Co. 

Office Outfitters 

Typewriters of all Makes. Wood & 

Steel Filing Equipment 

416-17 EASTERN TRUST BLDG. 
BANGOR, MAINE 



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Conservative Investment Bonds 

WE OFFER 
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Issues. Specialists in Maine Securities 

Augusta Portland Bangor 



Wi\t Jiatemlb iTOnrmng ^^nttu^l 

Goes to press later than any other paper reaching Central Maine. It 

handles messages by wire up to 3 o'clock in the morning. If you 

want the latest news, READ THE SENTINEL. 

$5.00 per year by mail for cash. 

Hatermlb ^fnttttrl J^ubltBlitng domtJawg 
ITatrrttUb. ilainr 



IT PAYS TO SAVE 



Lay your plans to start your savings 
account with this bank on your very 
next pay-day. Set aside One Dollar — more if you can spare it — come to 
the bank and make your first deposit. Small sums are welcome. 

Put system into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little regularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are in duty 
bound to pay the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The 
dollars you save now will serve you later on when you will have greater 
need for them. 

PISCATAQUIS SAVINGS BANK. Dover, Maine, 
r. E. GUI:BNSEV, Pres. W. C. WOODBtXBY, Treas. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied— Is Your Protection 

JOHN T. CLARK & CO. 

Clothiers 

BANGOR, : : : : : MAINE 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 




What is the width of the spread? 

(Courtesy of E. & A. R. R.) 



CONTENTS 

THE STATE OF MAINE 3 

A POLITICAE CAMPAiriN DOCITINIENT 8 

A LETTER TO KING JAMES I 10 

FRANCIS O. I. SMITH (ILLUSTRATION) 12 

PINE TREE FRINGED PENOBSCOT 13 

A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DAVID RAY 14 

CHARLES ALCOTT FLAGG (ILLUSTRATION) 20 

EARLY KENNEBEC TAVERNS 21 

GRAVES OF REVOL,UTIONARY SOLDIERS 23 

A MAINE COLONIAL HOUSE 28 

A CONGRESSMAN FROM PISCATAQUIS 29 

FLAGG'S ALPHABETICAL INDEX 31 

THE EDES P^AIMILY 32 

A NOROMBEGA ITEM 35 

MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 36 

CATECHISM OF CONSTITUTION 40 

COLONIAL AND LOCAL HISTORY 41 

A GEM AMONG MAINE TOWN HISTORIES 44 

INDIAN WOMAN DESIRES RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE 4 4 

CHARLES ALCOTT FLAGG 45 

MAINE CENTENNIAL TOWNS FOR 1921 46 



54 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset County 

Never a Failure — Never a La^v Suit — What more do you ■want? 

(Member Soc. Col. W^ars; Sons Am. Rev.; Past A. A. G., G. A. R.) 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan, Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 




HONORABLE CLARENCE HALE 

Distinguished Judge of the United States District Court 
for the District of Maine. 

The following is from " Who'^ Who ir. America ": ,01% 

HALE Clarence, Judge; b. Turner, Me., Apr. 1.5, 1848; s. James Sullivan and Betsey (Staples) 
H.; brother of Eugene H. (q. v.); A. B. Bowdoin Coll., 1869, later A. M. and LL. D.; m. Mar- 
garet RolHns, of Portland, Me., Mar. 11, 1880. Admitted to bar 1871, and practiced at Portland. 
City solicitor, 1879-82; mem. Me. Ho. of Rep., 1883-86; U. S. dist. judge, Dist. of Me., 1902—; 
Republican, Congregationalist, Pres. bd. overseers Bowdoin College; afterwards Trustee of 
Bowdoin College. Clubs: Cumberland (Portland); Union, University (Boston). Address, 
Portland, Me. 



Sprague^s Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX January, February, March, 1921 No. i 



THE STATE OF MAINE 

All address delivered by Honorable Clarence Hale of Portland, 
Maine, before the Maine Society of New York, March, ip20. 

The State of Maine is a hundred years old. It is a memorable 
thing to be a hundred years old. But Maine history is almost three 
hundred years old. A hundred years ago Maine was a new State 
with an old history. "While New England is spoken of as a new 
country," says John Fiske, "its record is, in fact, that of an old 
country. Its towns have a history which dates back to the times 
of James the First." The year James First came to the throne, 
1603, Martin Pring sailed Penobscot Bay. The year before that, 
while Elizabeth was still Queen, Gosnold saw the shores of Maine. 
In 1605, Captain George Weymouth set up a cross on Monhegan 
in token of the sovereignty of James the First; and the dimness 
of time does not prevent the island of Monhegan and Pentecost 
harbor, and the hard adventure of the Popham colony, from taking 
their place in Maine history; and all these ventures in discovery 
were long before the Mayflower, long before Massachusetts history 
began. A generation later, in the last years of Charles the First, 
came the permanent settlement under the Gorges patent, the pro- 
prietorship of which extended from the Piscataqua to the Penob- 
scot, to which was given the name "The Province of Maine." 
These men came to Richmond's island and made homes, set up 
English civilization and the English church and English politics. 
They were the king's men ; they were aristocrats ; they hated Puri- 
tans and Puritanism ; they hated Massachusetts and all her works. 
Their chief, Ferdinando Gorges, at 70, fought for Charles the 
First at the Siege of Bristol, and died two years before the death 
of his king. 

It was not until 1652, under Cromwell, that Massachusetts began 
to extend her sway over the Maine province. Then followed poll- 



4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

tics between the rule of Massachusetts and the rule of the Royalists. 
Charles the Second took Maine away from Massachusetts, as Fiske 
and Parkman have so well told. Again, in 1665, Massachusetts 
took possession. After the death of Gorges, the Massachusetts 
Bay colony bought out his interests, paying 1250 pounds; and it 
was not until 1692 that the province charter finally fixed the status 
of Alassachusetts in control of Maine, and called it the District of 
Maine. 

With all the politics Maine has had, I suppose there has been 
nothing so full of stress as those English politics of the seventeenth 
century, translated to Alaine shores. It is interesting to note that 
the first politicians of Maine were English Royalists. The first 
minister who made a career in Maine was Robert Jordan, the 
English churchman, land-ow^ner and politician, the precursor of a 
large body of sturdy men and women all over the country ; for all 
the Jordans are his descendants ; and they combine the blood of 
English churchmen and Royalists with the blood of those who came 
to Massachusetts Bay and laid the foundation of English repre- 
sentative government in America. And so, I repeat ; that one hun- 
dred years ago Maine was a new State with an old history. 

The two early histories of Maine are histories of the Maine 
Province and the District of Maine. Williamson's two volumes, — 
of great value and of great detail, — printed in 1839, bring Maine 
down only to the year 1920, the time of the separation. Twenty- 
five years before Maine became a State, its story induced Governor 
Sullivan to write its history, one of the best early .State histories. 
Governor Sullivan appreciated the Maine mind and character ; he 
says that while "the soil of the seacoast was hard and reluctant to 
the plow, its leading type of men were like Julius Caesar ; they 
knew how to distinguish difficulties from impossibilities." James 
Sullivan was a philosopher as well as a historian. He shows how 
the Maine character partook of its history. He says: "The mind 
of a nation seems to be well represented by the ocean, which is 
forever in motion and turbulent, with but short intervals of calm- 
ness ; and yet, by the nature of its specific weight, tending to a 
state of quiet." W'hen he wrote that sentence he must have had 
his eye upon his map. There was the District of Maine spread 
out before him ; York, Cumberland and Lincoln counties. There 
was the long stretch of shore. It is three hundred miles from 



THE vSTATE OF MAINE 



Kittery to Calais, but in that contour of coast are many and deep 
indentations ; so that the sailor man can sail his boat in the net- 
work of bays and make a voyage along three thousand miles of 
Maine seacoast. The people who lived there at that time got their 
li\ing and their character from hard contests with the forest and 
the sea ; those two inherent sources of life ; those two grim de- 
stroyers of all that is false. 

With the character which Maine men inherited, both on the 
conservative and on the progressive side, it was as inevitable as 
the tidal march of the ocean on her shore that her citizens should 
have the sturdy cjualities w^hich have made Maine history. The 
expected happened ; the old District has an heroic story. Liberty 
w-as something more than a gesture. It had to be fought for. At 
the outbreak of King Philip's War, in 1675, ^^ ilhamson records 
that there were about six thousand souls constituting the popu- 
lation of Maine Province, and about three times that number of 
Indians in the Maine forests. From that time to 1754 there were 
six distinct Indian wars. In other words, this devoted band of 
pioneers were almost constantly fighting savages for eighty years. 
In 1745, Sir William Pepperill, of Kittery, led Maine men on the 
modern crusade which captured Louisburg, the stronghold of Amer- 
ica ; so bold a project that Parkman gives to it, in his history, the 
simple heading: "A Mad Scheme." A generation later, in 1775, 
one of the most heroic incidents of the American Revolution hap- 
pened on Maine soil. A thousand sturdy men under Arnold en- 
dured the terrible privations of the Maine forest and the rigors of 
advancing winter, in an attack upon Quebec, wdiich barely failed 
of success, and of thus changing American history. 

I have pointed out these incidents to illustrate the spirit of early 
Maine. I have not tried to tell its story. Mr. Baxter and Dr. 
Burrage have done that in enduring form. They are historians of 
whom Maine is proud — of whom any State would be proud. 

The District of Maine, then, before she became a State, had a 
distinct history apart from Massachusetts. She had a character, 
she had a college — for Bowdoin is twenty years older than the 
State. There was reason, then, a hundred years ago, for Maine 
people to have the courage to start out to become a State. 

In the quaint old volume of the Record of the Constitutional 
Convention, in 1819, I find a fund of history. In it is recorded a 
letter of ex-President John Adams to Daniel Cony of Augusta, In 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



reply to a letter of Judge Cony asking the ex-President's advice 
in the matter of Alaine becoming a State. Adams' reply was clear 
and sharp and typical of an Adams. He referred to the debt of 
gratitude which Maine owed to Massachusetts; but he said that 
sometime some bold, daring genius would arise in Maine who would 
inspire her people with his own ambition, and, he added: "He will 
tear off Maine from Massachusetts, and leave her a State below 
mediocrity in the Union." When Mr. Adams gave this advice he 
undoubtedly had her great past in mind. He thought it would be 
better that Maine and Massachusetts should continue to have one 
history, even though, generations before, they had two histories. 
But the world will say whether he was right in prophesying for 
Maine a future ^below mediocrity." The debates of the Consti- 
tutional Convention do not show Maine intellectual character below 
mediocrity. They compare well with the debates in the great Con- 
stitutional Conventions of Virginia, Massachusetts and New York. 
They show appreciation of the conditions of the country and of 
the State. They are a valuable and fitting preface to Maine his- 
tory. They are well worth reading today by the men of Maine. 

I need not speak of the men in that convention. They were men 
who rank high with the other great men of Massachusetts. They 
furnished a fitting forecast of the men of Maine who were to suc- 
ceed them, in politics and statesmanship, in literature, in commerce 
and in industry, in every sphere of human interest and labor. 

The span of a hundred years, after all, is not long. I have 
known one of the descendants of Robert Jordan who voted for 
every President from Washington to Lincoln. As a young man 
I knew old men who, when young, participated in that convention. 
They have been followed by men like them in character, attain- 
ments and ability. I cannot pretend that I am unprejudiced in 
speaking of the men of Maine who followed. They are splendid 
figures in the generations just past. They made the State famous 
forever. Longfellow and Hawthorne would make any state or 
nation famous. I hardly dare trust my voice to speak of Fessen- 
den, Hamlin, Morrill, Blaine and many who have followed. The 
world has known them ; the Nation today feels the impress of their 
work and the impulse of their memory. 

The strenuous — the heroic — spirit of the old District has endured. 
Witness Maine's record in the Civil War, we witness Howard and 
Chamberlain, and a score of other great military chieftains. Wit- 



THE STATE OF MAINE 



ness such an incident as this : On a summer night in 1863, a Con- 
federate privateer stole into Portland harbor and took out the 
Revenue Cutter "Caleb Cushing," a sailing vessel. The next morn- 
ing the mayor, Jacob McLellan, did not wait for the Army and 
Navy. He, together with the collector, Jedediah Jewett, mobilized 
the citizens of Portland into a fighting force. They rigged up 
steamers and followed and caught the rebel craft. They captured 
the privateersman and his crew, and held them in prison until the 
war was over. This Maine incident is said to be one of the most 
dramatic of the Civil \Var. It was little noted though it will be 
long remembered in Maine. 

I am not giving a Homeric recitation. But no man can refer to 
Maine heroism without pointing to the most famous man of the 
generation, in Maine, and perhaps in the Nation. We can never 
forget the thrill the world felt when the message was flashed through 
the air : "The Stars and Stripes are nailed to the North Pole" ; 
and we knew that what men had long thought impossible had been 
accomplished by Peary of Maine — of Bowdoin ''j'j. 

I have talked to you about the forests, the seashore, and the 
politics of the old District. They are still there. The unresting 
sea can never change or fail. The forest, too, is not vitally changed 
by the busy axe of industry. Maine is still two-thirds forest. 

The total acreage of Maine is 19,132,800 acres. The acreage of 
forest lands of the State is, today, over fifteen million acres. The 
Forest Commissioner says that, so far as can be gathered from all 
sources, it is safe to say that the forest lands of Maine have not 
become less since 1870. In 1902 the Forest Commissioner made 
the report that there were 31,500 square miles of territory; and 
of this 21,000 square miles were forest. The forest lands appear 
to have increased somewhat. In many parts of northern Maine 
the forest acre is worth more than the farm acre ; many old farms 
are becoming young forests; in the improved methods of forest 
culture and wild-land management, the percentage of acreage is 
apparently increasing. Of course forest values are greatly grow- 
ing. The report of the Board of State Assessors shows that the 
assessed value of forest lands in Maine, in 1870, was $5,156,356; 
in 1900, $19,631,755; in 1920, $61,922,567. The facts from official 
records afiford complete answer to the charge that the forests of 
Maine are disappearing and are losing their actual and relative 
values. Be of good cheer. You may still come to Maine and find 



8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

her forests. Some of them full of game. You will find her poli- 
tics, too; some of them, too, it is said, full of game. 

The record of Alaine in shipbuilding and fisheries tells the story 
how the men of Maine have used the sea. The use of the forests 
and of the water power, in the pulp and paper industry and other 
great labors, show ho\\' the men of Maine have drawn upon the 
forest, and how they have added value to it. 

They have added value to the hand of labor as well as to prop- 
erty. Maine has never believed in some of the modern philosophy 
of labor. She has followed the doctrine taught by .Vbraham Lin- 
coln to the Workmen's Association in 1864: "Let not him who 
hath no house tear down the house of his neighbor ; but rather let 
him strive diligently to build a house for himself." 

The fat lands of the \\'est have been called the garden spot of 
America ; but Maine has well attained her repute as the summer 
Paradise of the world. ITer forests and sea make their greatest 
appeal to the world of busy men and women who here, in summer, 
renew the strength which the husy year has taxed. 

If I am permitted to give a ,^ast, in these dry times of prohibition, 
(in which also, by the way, you must remember that Maine leads), 
I will recall an old toast which I heard Tom Reed give at a great 
Maine meeting in the earlier and wetter days of the republic : 

"Here's to the State of Maine; settled mostly by the blood of 
Old England, always preferring liberty to ancestry; a strong old 
Democratic State, yet among the first to help give liberty to the 
slave ; may her future be as noble as her past. Here's to the State 
of Maine; the land of bluest skies, of greenest earth, of richest 
air ; of strongest and sturdiest men, of fairest and truest women 
under the stm." 



A MAINE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN DOCUMENT PRINTED 
AND CIRCULATED IN 1829 

(Contributed by Georg-e E. Minot of Belgrade. Maine) 

THE LAST BULLETIN REFUTED 

The deposition of one Delia Bodge, containing the most indecent 
charge^, against Mr. Hunton, has been published in an Extra from 
the office of the Bangor Republican, and the substance of it vaunt- 



A POLITICAL CAMPAIGN DOCUMENT 



ingly set forth in the Argus under the head of "MORE EVI- 
DENCE." It may seem superfluous to notice her statements; but 
we are unwiUing any falsehood of the slanderers should go uncon- 
tradicted, be it ever so base and contemptible, particularly as the 
means of refutation are at hand. As further evidence of the char- 
acter of this Delia Bodge, it may be mentioned that while her father 
by his last will made a handsome provision for each of his other 
children, he bequeathed her ONE DOLLAR. To what disgrace- 
ful and abominable means will an unprincipled and desperate party 
not resort ! 

DEPOSITION OF THE NURSE 

I, Margaret Chandler of W'inthrop in the County of Kennebec, 
of lawful age, do testify and say, that I was in the family of Jona- 
than G. Hunton^ for the last three weeks previous to the death of 
Mrs. Hunton, and that I saw nothing unkind or improper, but on 
the contrary he was very kind and attentive to her in her sickness. 
I was the nurse in the family ; and I further say that I never told 
Delia Craig, who afterwards married a Cottle, and then run away 
with a man named Bodge, anything of the kind, which she has 
stated in her deposition of September the eighth, A. D. 1829, taken 
before Nathaniel McMahon, Justice of the Peace. I further state 
that the said Delia Bodge was generally considered a woman of 
loose character, and whose word would not go far where she was 
known. I further state that previous to the three weeks above 
mentioned I had lived in the family of Mr. Hunton for the space 
of seven months, during all which time he was kind and attentive 
to his wife and family. 

Margaret Chandler. 

Kennebec ss. — Sept. 11, 1829. — Then personally appeared the 
above-named Margaret Chandler, and made oath to the truth of 
the foregoing deposition by her subscribed. 

Before me, Seth May, Justice of the Peace. 

1. Jonathan G. Hunton of Readfleld was Governor of Maine 1830-31. 



lo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Wlnthrop, Sept. ii, 1829. — We the subscribers, having been ac- 
quainted with the above-said Margaret Chandler for a long time, 
are satisfied that she is a woman of truth and veracity. 

Samuel Wood, 
Seth May, 
Alex Belcher, 
John May, 
H. B. Farnham, 
Samuel Cordis, 
Saaiuel Wood, Jr. 

REGISTER'S CERTIFICATE 
I hereby certify that it appears by the records in my office that 
Rachael Craig, the widow of Thomas Craig dec'd, was appointed 
sole Executrix, of his will, and that subsequently George Waugh 
was appointed administrator of the goods and Estate of said Craig, 
not administered upon by said Executrix with the will annexed, 
and returned an inventory August 5, 1817; and I find no evidence 
on my records of any other Executor or Administrator on the 
Estate of said Thomas Craig dec'd. 

^^'ILLIAMS Emmons, 
Register of Probate Co. Kennebec. 



A LETTER FROM GEORGE POPHAM TO KING JAMES I., 
WRITTEN DEC. 13, 1607 
The Lewiston Journal Magazine recently published the follow- 
ing, its editor saying that it is "an exact copy of an interesting 
paper, found among the treasures of a Bath attic." The paper 
was written at the settlement of the Popham Colony in the Province 
of Maine, when all of the territory now comprising what Captain 
John Smith later named New England, was known as Northern 
Virginia. 

THE FIRST STATE PAPER WRITTEN IN AMERICA 

George Popham to King James I., 13 December, 1607 
At the feet of his Most Serene King, humbly prostrates himself 
George Popham, President of the Second Colony of Virginia. If 
it may please the patience of your devine Majesty to receive a 
few things from your most observant and devoted though unworthy 
servant, I trust it will derogate nothing from the lustre of your 



A LETTER TO KING JAMES I n 



Highness, since they seem to redound to the Glory of God, tlie 
greatness of your Majesty and the utihty of Great Britain. 

I have thought it, therefore, very just, that it should be made 
known to your Majesty, that among the Virginians and Moassons, 
there is none in the world more admired than King James, Sov- 
ereign Lord of Great Britain, on account of his admirable justice 
and incredible constancy, which gives no small pleasure to the 
natives of these regions, who say, moreover, that James, under 
whoes rule and reign they would gladly fight. Tahanida, one of 
the natives who was in Great Britain, here proclaimed to them 
your praises and virtues. What and how much I may avail in 
transacting these affairs and in confirming their minds, let those 
judge who are well versed in these matters at home, which I wit- 
tingly avow that all my endeavors are as nothing, when considered 
in comparison with my duty towards my Prince. 

My well considered opinion is that in these regions the glory of 
God may be easily evidenced, the empire of your Majesty enlarged, 
and the welfare of Great Brittain speedily augmented. So far as 
relates to commerce, there are in these parts, shagbarks, nutmeg 
and cinnamon, besides pine Avood and Brazillian cochineal and 
Ambergris, with many other products of great value, and these in 
the greatest abundance. 

Besides, they positively assure me that there is a sea in the oppo- 
site or western part of the Province, distant not more than seven 
days' journey from our fort of St. George in Sagadahock; a sea 
large, wide and deep, the boundaries of which they are wholly 
ignorant of. This cannot be any other than the Southern Ocean, 
reaching to the regions of China, which unciuestionably cannot be 
far from these regions. 

If, therefore, it may please you to keep open your devine eyes 
on this matter of my report, I doubt not but your Majesty will 
perform a work most pleasing to God, most honorable to your 
greatness, and most conducive to the wealth of your kingdom, which 
with ardent prayers I most vehemently desire. And may God 
Almighty grant that the Majesty of my Sovereign Lord, King 
James, may remain glorious for ages to come. 

At the Fort of St. George, in Sagadahock of Virginia, 13 Decem- 
ber, 1607. 

In all things your ]\Iajesty's devoted servant 

George Popham. 



12 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




Francis Ormax Jefferson v'^^riTii 

One of the most brilliant lawyers and versatile minds at the 
Cumberland bar was Francis Orman Jefferson Smith. He was 
born in Brentwood, N. H., Nov. 23, 1806, and died in Deering, 
Maine, October 15, 1876. 

Of positive convictions regarding all subjects of importance 
which commanded his attention, possessing a natural aggressive- 
ness in advocating and acting upon them, as a lawyer, political 
leader, Congressman and publicist, the name of F. O. J. Smith 
was, for a lifetime, very much in the public eye in both state and 
nation. 



MAINE IN POETRY 13 



WHERE THE PINE TREE FRINGED PENOBSCOT 
RIVER FLOWS 

There Katahdin lifts supreme 

O'er the hnk of lake and stream 
That bind the hills of green that ever glows, 

With a mighty water chain 
In the intervales of Maine 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Plere the Alaster wrought with love 

In the skies so fair above, 
At every vista's turn his favor shows, 

Castled rock, and bloom of plain. 
In the intervales of Maine 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River tlows. 

Blest the water ways to roam. 

Blest the sacred forest gloam. 
Where the twin flower, and the loved arbutus blows. 

Sweet the thrush's twilight strain 
In the intervales of Maine, 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Other skies may be as fair. 

Other scenes may be as rare. 
But 'tis here a lasting memory ever goes. 

With a love that ne'er can wane 
For the intervales of Maine, 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot Ri\er flows. 

Geo. a. Cleveland. 



14 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DAVID RAY, AND THE 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF OTISFIELD, 

COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND 

(By Charles F. Holden.) 

David Ray, the subject of this sketch, was born in \\'rentham, 
Mass., September 7th, 1742, the son of Samuel and EHzabeth, and 
the oldest of nine children. His mother's maiden name was Tuel. 

November 15th, 1770, David married Eunice Whiting, the daugh- 
ter of a prominent Wrentham family. At the breaking out of the 
war of the Revolution he belonged to a company of Minute-men 
and was ordered into action on the day of the battle of Lexington. 
He served in the Ticonderoga campaign under Gen. Gates, and 
in what was known as the "Secret Expedition to Rhode Island." 
In all a service of about five years, during which he received an 
officer's commission. 

The Continental money he received for his service had depreci- 
ated till forty dollars would bring but one dollar in specie, and a 
pair of boots cost live to six hundred. (Barnes' School History.) 

Mr. Ray at the time of leaving the army was 38 years of age 
and had a wife and two young daughters — Eunice and Polly. A 
company of men in Boston and vicinity owned at that time a town- 
ship of land in the Province of Maine, and held out inducements 
for families to go there and settle. Mr. Ray made a journey of 
exploration and concluded to move his family to the new district, 
which he did in the spring of 1780, locating at first on the west 
side of Crooked River near what is now Ede's Falls, in the town 
of Naples, then a part of Otisfield ; he made a clearing and built 
a house in which he lived for about three years, and where his 
third daughter — Betsey Whiting — was born. 

Before leaving Wrentham Mr. Ray had agreed with the propri- 
etors of the town to build a grist-mill for grinding corn and rye, 
if a suitable site was found ; he discovered such a site at the outlet 
of Saturday Pond, and in the year 1781 had a mill in operation; 
this proved a great public benefit not only to the few people who 
had settled in Otisfield, but others who for many years came from 
Norway, Paris and Hebron (now Oxford) ; the mill being situated 
several miles from where he lived, Mr. Ray set aside two days each 
week, when he staid and ground for whoever came. 

At the end of two years he built a log house near the mill and 



A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DAVID RAY 15 

moved his family into it May 6th, 1783 — moving by ox-cart or sled 
over what was but a bare semblance of a road. A few years later 
Mr. Ray built on the same stream, a saw-mill, also by contract with 
the town proprietors, entered into at Groton, Mass., Sept. 6th, 1786. 
For building these two mills Mr. Ray received deeds to about three 
hundred acres of land in the immediate vicinity of Saturday Pond. 
David Ray was not the very first of the Otisfield pioneers, a few 
families having preceded him by short periods. These were George 
Pierce, Esquire, Benjamin Patch, Daniel Cobb, Joseph Spurr, Jona- 
than Moors, and Samuel Reed ; these were all located at various 
intervals south of where Mr. Ray established himself and his mills, 
beyond which to the north was still an unbroken forest. 

By the year 1787 various other families had come to the new 
township, and Mr. Ray started a movement to organize some sort 
of local town government, and a petition was drawn up and signed 
as follows : 

To George Pierce, Esq., one of the Justices of the 
Peace for the County of Cumberland, Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts : 

We the subscribers, being five of the inhabitants 
of the Plantation of Otisfield, do hereby apply to your 
Honor for a warrant to call a meeting of the inhab- 
itants of said plantation at the dwelling-house of Dea. 
Stephen Phinney, in Otisfield, on Tuesday, ye 15th 
day of May next, at ten o'clock, A. M., to act on the 
following questions, to wit: 
I St, to choose a Moderator. 
2nd, to choose a Plantation Clerk. 
3d, to choose Selectmen. 

4th, to choose Assessors, and to do such other busi- 
ness as may be thought necessary. 

(Signed) David Ray, 

Benjamin Patch, 
Joseph Hancock, 

JOH NATHAN MoORS, 

Samuel Gammon. 
Dated April 23, 1787. 
This was the first public meeting for town purposes held in Otis- 
field. At that meeting David Ray was chosen Moderator; Joseph 
Wight, Jr., clerk; David Ray, Benjamin Patch and Noah Reed, 
Assessors; and Johnathan Moors, Collector. 



i6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Though assessors were elected, no money tax was assessed for 
several years. They made assessment for highway taxes to be 
worked out on the roads, which at that time meant felling trees, 
cutting away stumps and moving the larger stones to make a chance 
for ox-carts. 

From the time of this first meeting Mr. Ray served the town in 
some official capacity for twenty-five consecutive years. In 1794 
he was chosen its first treasurer; in 1810 he was elected to repre- 
sent his district in the General Court of Massachusetts. 

In 1 812 — Sept. 2 — a convention was called to meet in the town 
of Gray, "to consider the distressed condition of our country," and 
Mr. Ray elected as delegate, and the following were chosen as a 
committee to draft resolutions: Dr. Silas Blake, Grinfill Blake, 
Esq., Captain Daniel Holden, Benjamin Wight and David Ray. 
Just what resolutions were reported by this committee or what 
action was taken by the convention at Gray I am not informed. 

As Mr. Ray was now about seventy years of age this was prob- 
ably about the last of his public service; I will therefore take up 
again the more personal side of his life. After moving into his 
log house near the mill his fourth daughter — Abigail Mann — was 
born, and in 1795 he built a frame addition to the log house for 
a schoolroom, and employed Major \\'illiam Swann at his own 
expense, to teach. The school was intended for the benefit of his 
daughters, and though the eldest was then married, she was a reg- 
ular attendant, as were several others from families living within 
reasonable distance. An interesting fact incident to this primitive 
school, was the making from birch bark by the Ray daughters, of 
copy books for the schoolroom, from which they learned to write — 
pa])er being very scarce and expensive. 

The first valuation of the town was made in April, 1795, and 
Mr. Ray's name was highest on the list, so that in those days of 
small values he was considered as in good circumstances. He was 
a public-spirited man in the sphere in which he moved. He gave 
an acre of land for the site of the first meeting-house built in town, 
and a large lot adjoining for a public burial-ground. 

In January, 1795, he entered into a contract at Groton with the 
proprietors of the town, to build the first meeting-house ; this was 
situated on the summit of "Otisfield Hill," afterward known as 
"Meeting-House Hill," and in later years as "Bell Hill" ; Mr. Ray 
was so much interested in this undertaking that he furnished needed 



A SKETCH OF THE EIFE OF DAVID RAY 17 



material and money, and when the house was completed he took 
six of the pews. 

During this same year he built for himself a new two-story frame 
house near the log house in which he was living; this new dwelling 
was a fortress for strength. The timbers were mostly eight inches 
square, and it was boarded with two-inch oak plank firmly pinned 
to plates and sills wnth oaken pins. The heaviest winds never shook 
it. The chimney was a marvel in itself — fifteen feet square in the 
lower story, with three open fireplaces and two brick ovens ; the 
largest fireplace would take wood six feet long, and each of the 
ovens was large enough for a village bakery. In this house the 
"First Congregational Church" was organized and the Rev. Thomas 
Roby installed as pastor. 

Mr. Ray was a man of benevolent and kindly character. If 
people whom he knew to be poor came to his mill with grain to be 
ground, he took no pay; if a man was down, he did not pass him 
by on the other side, but gave him a helping hand ; he instructed 
his daughters to be kind and courteous to strangers, telling them 
they might be entertaining angels unawares. 

I have previously omitted to state that Mr. Ray was, for that 
day, a skilful physician — the first in Otisfield — having studied in 
earlier life with Dr. Mann of Wrentham, and possessing quite an 
extensive medical library ; his services were of great value and 
were much sought for many miles about. He died December ist, 
1822, aged 80 years and 84 days. 

Mrs. Eunice Ray was a woman of genial and sunny disposition, 
who made those around her cheerful and happy. Of settled re- 
ligious convictions, she brought up her family in the fear and ad- 
monition of the Lord. She was an excellent horsewoman and rode 
much in the saddle, as did all her daughters ; there Avere no wagon 
roads for twenty years in their section, and all travel was on horse- 
back; Mrs. Ray made frequent trips to Portland, and twice went 
as far as Wrentham in the saddle. She w'as a skillful weaver, and 
wrought many curious fabrics for the use of her family, and for 
bedding and table use ; her w^ell-trained fingers could spin the finest 
quality of linen thread. This remarkable woman never grew old 
in her own mind — at the age of ninety-five she would walk a third 
of a mile to a neighbor's and back. She died July 4th, 1843, lack- 
ing but a few days of 97 years. She was buried by the side of 
her husband, on Meeting-House Hill, in the cemetery donated by 
him for public use. 



i8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A few years subsequent to the coming of David Ray and family, 
there came to Otisfield the family of John Holden, from Groton — 
probably about 1785 — and later that of Captain Daniel Holden, 
both of whom had served in the Army of the Revolution. In this 
connection it is a matter of pride with me to state that from Mas- 
sachusetts alone no less than 147 Holdens took part in that fateful 
war which was destined to become so important an epoch in the 
world's history. These were descendants of Richard and Justinian 
Holden, who came from Sultolk, England, in the brig Francis, in 
the year 1634, and landed at Watertown. 

In John Hoi den's family were four sons — John, George, Jesse 
and Henry. Two of these sons married daughters of David Ray — 
John choosing Polly, the second, and Henry taking Abigail Alann, 
die youngest ; this latter couple making their home with their father 
and mother Ray, and caring for them in their old age, receiving 
in return the larger portion of David Ray's estate. 

Henry Holden and his wife raised a family of eight sons and 
three daughters, all of whom lived to adult age, and several to 
unusual advanced age. This large family was born and reared in 
the large frame dwelling house previously referred to as built by 
Mr. Ray in 1795. With the assistance of his growing sons he 
cultivated many acres of the farm land, and operated the grist-mill 
and saw-mills; the writer, a grandson of Henry Holden, well re- 
members the remarkable old homestead which was almost as much 
home to the grandchildren as their own. 

I recall the big open attic with its various objects of interest — 
a great hand-made cradle in which every Holden of that family, 
and the children of many visitors, had been rocked; old-fashioned 
beds on which one could lie through storm or shower and listen 
to such soothing music as can be heard only from the rain upon 
the roof ; among other things were three swords, each of a different 
style of blade and hilt — these had belonged to David Ray and used 
by him during his service in the army. 

In a room below was the weaving and spinning equipment of 
my great-grandmother Eunice Ray — the old loom with its heavy 
hard-wood frame, the spinning wheel and reel, and a smaller wheel 
for flax. All these were also used by my grandmother in the earlier 
portion of her married life. In the large square living-room on 
the lower floor was the immense fireplace with its long swinging 
crane and an assortment of iron cooking utensils of varied shapes 
and sizes, and on either side a great oven built into the massive 



A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DAVID RAY 19 

chimney; these ovens were filled every Saturday with quantities 
of the wholesome foods which nourished the stalwart sons and 
healthy daughters of our New England ancestors. Before my own 
day an addition had been connected with the big house, and this 
contained a large pantry, a feature of which was the "meal chest" ; 
this was a long covered chest with four divisions, each holding 
several bushels, in which was kept flour and meal of wheat, corn, 
rye, and barley, ground in the grist-mill nearby, from grains raised 
on the farm. 

At a later period — probably about 1820 — the town having become 
more closely populated, another meeting-house was built under the 
hill, and known as the "Free-Will Baptist" house; this site was 
also taken from die Ray estate, and here for many years the "Free- 
Willers" met and listened to the vigorous expounding of that doc- 
trine by various preachers from round about. This meeting-house 
was situated a few minutes' walk from Henry Flolden's home, and 
every Sunday the Hoidens literally kept "open house," and I might 
add, "open barn," for here came the minister often on Saturday, 
to remain perhaps till Monday — sure of a welcome and good fare 
for himself and horse — and here came various friends and rela- 
tives who lived several miles away to "bait" their horses, and during 
the hour and a half between sermons, to partake of the generous 
hospitality of the Holden house ; the big round family table was 
always filled, often a second time, while others found their way 
into the pantry and freely helped themselves to pie and cheese which 
was abundantly set out upon the broad shelf. Mr. Holden himself 
was a reserved sort of man, and little given to conversation, yet 
this open hospitality was one of his chief pleasures, and I mention 
it as illustrative of the sterling type of citizens who were among 
the earlier settlers of the old State of Maine. 

Xearly fifty years later still, the old Free-W'ill house was re- 
modeled and became the "Union Meeting-House," to which came 
those of any and every denomination and creed, and where some 
of the descendants of the earlier generations still meet for Avorship. 

Across the level road, directly opposite this little church, in the 
peaceful cjuiet of the beautiful country cemetery, is the last resting 
place of Henry Holden and all of his children ; several grand- 
children — great-grandchildren of David and Eunice Ray — are yet 
living, but their number is small, and they too must soon "cross 
the road." 



20 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




CHARLES ALCOTT FLAGG 

Was born in Sandwich, Massachusetts, October 1, 1870. Graduated from Bowdoin College 
in 1894. Soon after this he commenced his life work as librarian by entering the New York State 
Library School at Albany. In 1896 he became assistant and later sub-hbrarian in charge of 4 
history and genealogy at the New York State Library at Albany. In 1900 he resigned this posi- 
tion to accept the charge of American History in the Catalogue Division of the Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. He remained there until 1913 when he was called to assume charge of the 
Public Library of Bangor, Maine, where he remained until the time of his death. 

He received the degree of B. L. S. in 1899 from the New York State Library School, and inT1902 
the George Washington University conferred on him the degree of M. A. He was a member 
of the American Library Association, the Maine Library Association, the Maine and the Bangor 
Historical Societies, the New England Historic and Genealogical Association, the American His- 
torical Association, an honorary member of the Piscataquis Historical Society. His church was 
the Unitarian and his political party the Republican. He died in Bangor. March 28, 1920. 

He was compiler and author of "An .\IphabeticaI Index of Revolutionary Soldiers Living in 
Maine " which has recently been published as a serial in the Journal. It is one of the most valu- 
able Maine historical items ever presented to the public and is the only complete authentic col- 
lection of the names and data of Maine Revolutionary Soldiers now existing. 



EARLY KENNEBEC TAVERNS 21 
EARLY KENNEBEC TAVERNS 

(By W. Scott Hill.) 

Read before the Maine IVriters' Research Club by Mrs. Mabel 
Guodzvin Hall, at its z'ery interesting annual meeting at the Hallo- 
well House, Halloivell, Maine, February iS, ig2i. 

The colonists to New England brought many of the home customs 
with them, and in time came the demand for the tavern, the com- 
bination of all the services of public houses in England, where food, 
wines and liquors were sold, lodging for travelers and strangers, as 
well as stabling and feeding horses and cattle. There were strin- 
gent laws for failing or refusing to care for man or beast. Taverns 
were also places for public meetings and social gatherings. 

The first tavern in Cushnoc, now Augusta, on the west side of 
the river, was on the corner of what is now Grove and Green 
streets, and was built and kept by Josiah French probably in 1763. 
This was a log house. David Thomas kept the first house of 
entertainment on the east side in 1764, just above Whitney Brook. 
He afterward moved to the Fort lot where he had another tavern. 
I think this was afterwards used as a cooper's shop by Freeman 
Barker when burned about 40 years ago. In 1784, Amos Pollard 
had a tavern on the south side of what is now Market square, 
probably where the Opera House block now stands. It was fre- 
quently used for public meetings and was an important place in 
the village. Hilton's tavern was a large farm building just north 
of Whitney Brook, built before Bangor road was laid out, and 
faced on the Shirley military road, as did the Great House of 
Col. Howard built in 1770. Wdiitney Tavern w^as another early 
tavern at the corner of Clark street and Bangor street. The brass 
knocker was taken from its front door. This tavern had a two- 
story piazza like the old Cushnoc House. It was torn down many 
years ago. Reed's tavern was a later one, and stood on the site 
of 40 and 42 Bangor street, into which it was remodeled a few- 
years ago. 

Currier's tavern in Hallowell was a noted tavern when Hallowell 
was the center of trade on the Kennebec. The site was on that 
part of Water street known as Joppa, a large square two-story 
house. It was torn down years ago after being used as a boarding 
house known as the Granite House. 

Gage's tavern was one of the early taverns before the laying out 



22 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

of the present \\^estern avenue. This was on the farm formerly 
owned by James R. Townsend. At the time this tavern was built, 
all the teaming from Farmington and intervening towns to Hallo- 
well, then the seaport, was over the road near here, long since dis- 
continued, which ran in a direct line from the Whitman corner 
to Hallowell. The shack built for the Italians a few years ago 
and still standing was on this abandoned roadbed. The tavern was 
burned about twenty years ago, and the old sign "Gage's Tavern" 
stored in the cellar was destroyed with it. It was a two-story 
frame house. 

Norris's tavern is still standing on the old road from Hallowell 
to Manchester Cross-Roads. It was a finely built house, the inside 
finish being much better than most houses built at that time, which 
was in the early years of 1800. This, like Gage's tavern, was for 
travelers west of there going and coming from Hallowell. It is, 
or was occupied by Italians and a sad wreck of its former self. 
The large barn connected with it was struck by lightning and burned 
a few vears ago. 

The business of the Norris, Gage and Currier taverns was ruined 
by the building of the back route railroad from Lewiston, through 
Greene, Leeds, Monmouth and other towns, to Waterville, and the 
Leeds and Farmington railroad, and Hallowell lost its prestige as 
a commercial center. 

Piper's tavern, still standing on upper AX'ater street, was a noted 
tavern. \\^ater street was originally laid out from this house. The 
handsome wrought-iron sign frame is still in place, but the sign 
long since disappeared. The Fuller tavern on Maintop, built and 
kept by the late John J. Fuller, was a favorite house for the travel- 
ing public from the country north of Augusta. It was moved to 
the west side of Northern avenue, and is now occupied as a farm- 
house by C. Wesley Cummings. The old Cushnoc House was built 
by Amos Partridge in 1803. For eighty-five years it bore a con- 
spicuous part in the business life of Augusta, especially the period 
of the Civil War, 1861-1865. It was ruuied by fire Dec. i, 1888, 
and one week later sold with the two stables adjoining to the Lith- 
gow Library Association for the site of Lithgow Library. 

One of the reminders of stage coach days is the house at Brown's 
Corner, built for a tavern by Samuel Homans more than a century 
ago, and occupied more than sixty years by the late Howes Robbins 
and his son, Prescott. It was a finely built house, still standing 



EARLY KENNEBEC TAVERNS 23 

and now ttsed as a farmhouse. The long bowHng alley still remains, 
though used for other purposes. This was a favorite resort for 
pleasure parties in days long gone by, as well as for travelers. 

Bachelder's Tavern, in Litchfield, still standing, was a noted 
tavern in stage coach days from Augusta to Portland. It was a 
station for changing horses, and for many years after the passing 
of the stage coach a fa\'orite house for merry-makers in that section. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS IN THE 

KENNEBEC REGION, INSCRIPTIONS 

COPIED IN 1921 

(By Mrs. Mabel Goodwin Hall, HaUowel], INIaine.) 

Joseph Abbot — Died Nov. 30, 1832, and is buried at Strickland's 
Ferry. He was private and corporal. He served as corporal 
in Capt. William Smith's co.. Col. Abijah Pierce's regt., enlisting 
from Lincoln Co. 

Samuel Adams — Died Jan. 7, 1828, aged 67. Buried at Greene, 
beside wife Susanna, who died Sept. 6, 1852, aged 85. She rec'd 
pension in Greene in 1840, giving age as J 2. 

Thomas Agry — Born in Barnstable, Aug. 6, 1756, came to Hallo- 
well in 1781, died April 25, 1821, and is buried at Hallowell. 
Corporal in Capt. Oliver Colburn's co.. Col. Arnold's regt., 1775. 

John Allen — Died Dec. 22, 1834, aged 74, and is buried at Greene, 
beside his wife Cynthia, who died Sept. 6, 1844, aged 85. He 
was on the Rev. pension rolls July 1834. Cynthia was on the 
pension list, 1840. 

Thomas Allen — He died at Winthrop (later Manchester), Jan. 31, 
1814, aged 74 yrs. He is buried in the small cemetery at Monk's 
Hill, Manchester, beside his wife Rachel. His headstone is 
broken and the inscription destroyed. His tax was remitted by 
the town in 1778 on account of military service in 1775. 

Samuel Ballon — Died March 2, 1819, aged 61, and is buried in 
small cemetery on State road near No. Monmouth, beside his 
wife Hannah, who died Sept. 8, 1841, aged 78. Hannah was 
on the pension list, 1841. 

John Beeman — Died March 1, 1827, aged y2, formerly of Deer- 
field, Mass. He served in Capt. Alexander's co. in the march 
to Canada, March, 1776. He Is buried at Hallowell. 



24 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Batchelder Bennett — Born in 1743, died March 7, 1820. Buried 
at W'inthrop. He served as corporal in Capt. Abiel Pearce's co., 
which marched from Middleborough, Mass. 

Squier Bishop, Deacon — Born Nov. 4, 1733, died Sept. 6, 1801 ; 
buried near Stanley's at Winthrop. He served as private in 
Capt. John Blunt's co., Col. Samuel McCobb's regt., and was 
M'Ounded, receiving a pension in 1793. 

Zadock Bishop — Born in Rehoboth, April 24, 1749. He died after 
1840 and is buried at Leeds, having a gov't stone. He served as 
private in Capt. John Wood's co.. Col. I\iul Dudley Sargent's 
regt. 

John Blake — Died Jan. 20, 1848, aged 90, and is buried in Gardiner. 
He was on the Rev. pension rolls in 1833 and 1840. 

Benjamin Brainerd — Born in Haddam, Conn., Jan. 25, 1747-8. Died 
Dec. 16, 1788, and is buried near Stanley's, Winthrop. He was 
allowed 12s. by vote of the town for military service. 

Reuben Brainerd — Born in Haddam, Conn., Apr. 13, 1752, died 
May 31, 1824. Buried at East W'inthrop. He served as private 
in Capt. Edward Eell's co.. Col. Comfort Sage's regt. 

Josiah Brown — Born Nov. 5, 1761, probably in Epping, N. 11. 
Died Oct. 15, 1816, and is buried at Monmouth, beside his wife 
Mary, who died May 3, 1847, aged 81. Mary rec'd a Rev. pen- 
sion 1840. 

Ichabod Burgess — Died Dec. 17, 1834, aged 82 yrs., 8 mos., and 
is buried between A\'ayne and Strickland's, beside his wife, 
Keziah, who died Sept. 5, 1842, aged 82 yrs., 4 mos. He served 
3 yrs. in Capt. Chas. Church's co. and re-enlisted for during the 
war. 

Isaac Case — Born in Rehoboth, Mass., Feb. 25, 1761, was ordained 
a Baptist preacher, 1783; came to Maine and gathered the first 
church in Thomaston, 1784, and was its pastor 8 yrs. ; came to 
Readfield, 1792, gathered a church, and officiated as its pastor 
till 1800. Died Nov. 3, 1852. He is buried at Monk's Hill, 
Manchester. He enlisted from Swanzey, in Capt. Peleg Shear- 
man's CO., Col. John Hathaway's regt. ; also, same Capt., Col. 
Thomas Carpenter's regt. ; also served in 2 other companies. 

Joel Chandler — Born New Ipswich, N. H., Sept. 10, 1757. He 
died Apr. 19, 1794, and is buried at Winthrop. Served as pri- 
vate in Capt. Nathan Smith's co., Col. Samuel McCobb's regt., 
also in Col. Henry Jackson's regt. in 1781 for 3 yrs. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 25 

John Chandler — Born New Ipswich, N. H., Nov. 17, 1754. He 
died Nov. 7, 1837, and is buried at Winthrop. He came to this 
tow^n in 1769, then a wilderness. Served as 2d Lieut., Capt. 
Timothy Foster's co., Col. Joseph North's regt. Commissioned 
July 2T^, 1776. He was at Ticonderoga in 1776. 

Nathaniel Chase — Died June 3, 1850, aged 90, and is buried at 
Litchfield. He served as private in Capt. Nathan JMerrill's co., 
in a detachment raised in Cumberland co., on Penobscot Ex- 
pedition. 

Jonas Childs — Born Apr. 15, 176 1-2. He died Feb. 14, 181 5, and 
is buried at Hallowell. Served in Capt. Hastings' co., Col. Jack- 
son's regt., enlisting from AVatertown. Rec'd a pension. 

Isaac Clark — Born in Attleborough, Aug. 16, 1741, died June 30, 
1824, and is buried at Hallowell. Served in Castine Expedition. 

Benjamin Clough — Born Oct. 7, 1764, died June 12, 1840; buried 
at Monmouth. Enlisted from Winthrop; is on pension rolls in 
1835 and 1840. 

Thomas Colby — Born 1762, died March 2^, 1806, and is burled at 
Litchfield. He enlisted near the close of the war at the age of 
16, from Amesbury. Served as private in Capt. Moses Nowell's 
CO., Col. Titcomb's regt. 

Samuel Cole — Died March 29, 1844, aged 88; buried at Barker's 
Mills, Lewiston. He served as private in Capt. Nathan A\'atkins' 
CO., and was at Valley Forge, 1777-1778; also other service. 

Saul Cook — Born in Marshfield, May, 1758; died Jan. 8, 1846; 
buried at Litchfield. He was a revered citizen. On pension 
rolls of 1835 and 1840. 

John Coombs — Died Nov. 20, 1835, aged 76. and is buried at Read- 
field. He was formerly from Stratham, N. H. He served 5 
yrs., 9 mos. in the Rev. war, one enlistment was in Capt. Richard 
Weare's co., Col. Scammell's regt. 

John Couch — Born 1760 in Wiscasset, died March 14, 1830, and is 
buried in Hallowell. He enlisted from Hallowell, Capt. Cocks' 
CO., Col. North's regt. 

Hugh Cox — Died Nov. 17, 1835, aged y6, and is buried at Farm- 
ingdale. He served as private, enlisting from Bristol, Lincoln Co. 

Thomas Davis — Died Nov. 16, 1844, aged 85 ; buried on Litchfield 
road, Hallowell-Farmingdale. "He was a Frenchman by birth 
and came to this country with Count De Grasse to assist our 
countrymen In fighting the battles of Liberty." He enlisted from 



26 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Falmouth, served as private in Capt. Joseph Pahiier's co. 
Simon Dearborn — Died July 17, 1853, aged 92; buried near No. 

Monmouth. He served in the 3rd N. H. regt. and enlisted from 

Epping as private. 
John Dennis— Born May 10, 1741 ; died Apr. 30, 1816; buried in 

the Grant Neighborhood, Litchheld. He was a mariner, and was 

appointed Prize jMaster of the ship "Franklin" during the Rev. 

war. 
Jeremiah Dummer — Born in Newbury; died Aug. 18, 1834, aged 

71 ; buried at Hallowell. Private, Capt. Thomas Mighill's co., 

Col. Nathaniel Wade's regt., service 3 mos., 4 days. Pensioner, 

1833- 

Nathaniel Dummer — Born at Byfield, March 9, 1755; died Sept. 
15, 181 5, and is buried at Hallowell. Came to Hallowell, 1789. 
He was appointed Commissary of prisoners in Rev. war, stationed 
at Providence. 

Richard Dummer — Born in Newbury, A-Iay 19, 1757; died Sept. 2, 
1832; buried at Hallowell. Same military service as brother 
Jeremiah (Dummer). 

Abijah Fairbanks — Born in Medvvay, Mass., Jan. 21, 1745. Setded 
in A\'inthrop, 1800. Died Aug. 13, 1830, and is buried near Stan- 
ley's. Served as Corp., Capt. Joshua Partridge's co.. Col. John 
Smith's regt. 

James Fillebrown — Died Apr. 4, 1838, aged 81 ; buried at Readtield. 
He served as corporal, enlisting from Mansfield, Mass., service 
5 mos., 19 d. 

Thomas Fillebrown — Born A\'oburn, Mass., Oct. 8, 1768; died June 
14, 1844; buried at East Winthrop. Resided in Hallowell, re- 
moved to Winthrop, 1810. Served as private, Capt. John Berr's 
CO., Col. Jacob Gerrish's regt., service 4 mos., 3 days. 

Jirah Gish — Buried at Leeds, having a gov't stone. He served as 
private in Capt. Simeon Fish's co.. Col. Freeman's regt. 

Caleb Fogg, Rev. — Died Sept. 6, 1839, aged 78. Buried near No. 
Monmouth. He enlisted from Newburyport in Capt. Phineas 
Parker's co. 

Enoch Greeley — Born, Kingston, N. H., Aug. i, 1754; died Feb. 
28, 1815; buried at Hallowell. Served in Capt. Phillip Tilton's 
CO., Col. Enoch Poor's regt. 

John Hains — Died May 16, 1809, aged 71. (He was born in Ex- 
eter, N. H., Oct. 6, 1738.) Buried in Hallowell. Came to H. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 27 

1785. Served in Capt. John Rice's co., service 3 days. 

John Ham. Died No\. 29, 1848, aged 90 yrs., 8 mos. He is buried 
at Monmouth. He enhsted June 24, 1779, from Newington, 
N. H., for duration of war. 

Levi Harriman — Born Jan. 17, 1760, in Henniker, N. H. Died 
Sept. 2, 1832, and is buried in the Grant Neighborhood, Litch- 
field. He was assigned to Capt. Bagley's co., duty during the 
battle of Bennington. He enlisted again, Aug. 6, 1778, and joined 
the army in R. I. 

Obadiah Harris — Born in \\'rentham, July 7, 1736; died July 5, 
1800; buried at Hallovvell. Served in Capt. Samuel Fisher's co.. 
Col. Ephraim Wheelock's regt., service 4 days. 

Israel Herrick — Born Dec. 3, 1721 ; died Sept. 14, 1782; buried at 
Barker's Mills, Levviston. He lived in Topsfield, Methuen, Box- 
ford, and Lewiston, Maine. Entered the army as Lieut., 1745. 
Served in 19 campaigns ; left army 1763, as brevet-major. Fought 
at Bunker Hill. 

Thomas Hinkley — Born at Brtuiswick, Dec. 7, 1736, died Dec. 11, 
1821 ; buried at Hallowell. Enlisted July 3, 1778, service 6 mos., 
12 days. 

Asa Hutchinson — Died June 26, 1848, aged 88 yrs., 7 mos., and is 
buried at Fayette. He was a native of Amherst, N. H., and 
served in the N. H. militia. He is on the pension rolls of 1835 
and 1840. 

Israel Hutchinson — Born in Amherst, N. H., March 3, 1765. He 
entered the army at the age of 14. Was chosen by Washington 
as one of his Life Guards, where he served 18 mos., till the army 
was disbanded. He drove the first team through the forest from 
Litchfield to Hallowell. He died June 12, 1850, and is buried 
on Litchfield road, Hallowell-Farmingdale. 

Bartholomew Jackson — Died Sept. 27, 1S37, aged 89. Buried at 
East AVales. Rev. pensioner. 

John Kezer — Died July 20, 1843, aged 80 ; buried at East Winthrop. 
Private, Capt. Samuel Huse's co.. Col. Jacob Gerrish's regt., ser- 
vice 3 mos., 4 days. 

(To be continued.) 



^8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A MAINE COLONIAL HOUSE 

^Contributed by Evelyn L. Gilmore, Librarian, Maine Historical Society) 




House built by Capt. George Tate, mast-agent for George II, 
succeeding Col. Thomas W'estbrook. Tate bought the land, near 
the Stroudwater river, in 1753; the house was completed in 1755. 
The timber for its frame came from the woods near by, but the 
fine carved work was brought from England. Fireplaces are in 
every room, including the slaves' cjuarters. The house was never 
painted and is entirely without closets. 



A CONGRESSMAN FROM PISCATAQUIS 29 

A MAINE CONGRESSMAN FROM PISCATAQUIS 
COUNTY IN 1847 

(By Frank E. Guernsey.) 

Hon. James S. \\'iley, a member of the Piscataquis bar, and for 
many years a practitioner at Dover, Maine, was born in the town 
of Mercer, Mame, January 22, 1808. When he first came to Dover 
he was an instructor in the Foxcroft Academy. In 1846 he was 
elected as a Democrat to the Congress of the United States, and 
served as Representative in the thirtieth Congress from March 4, 
1847, to March 3, 1849. He died at Fryeburg, Maine, in 1891. 

It is related that when he sought the nomination for Congress, 
being a man of limited means he traveled the entire district on foot, 
defeating for the nomination, his chief opponent, the late Alexander 
M. Robinson, also of Dover, an eminent lawyer in his day, who 
conducted his canvass with greater ease and speed, as he traveled 
about the district with a horse and buggy. Mr. Wiley's service in 
Congress, while it was not long, being confined to a single term, 
nevertheless was not without practical result as he managed to save 
from his salary, which was then $6 per day, a sufficient amount to 
build on his retirement from public life a splendid home at Dover, 
constructed after the architecture of the colonial houses of Virginia. 
Due to his comparatively short service in Congress his activity 
there was necessarily limited, but he made a speech, which in the 
light of subsequent events was prophetic and of interest to this day. 
When Mr. Wiley entered Congress, this country was at war with 
Mexico, and during the latter part of his services, the war having 
ended, terms of peace were under discussion in the United States, 
and questions of indemnity involving the ceding of New Mexico 
and California to the United States were under consideration. The 
most distinguished senator of the times, Daniel Webster, was un- 
compromisingly opposed to the policy of the acquisition of more 
territory by the United States on the grounds of the unconstitu- 
tionality of the measure and of the worthlessness of the territory 
involved, as he asserted. Webster stated on the floor of the Senate, 
"I am against the creation of new States." Again, "I say, sir, if 
I am asked today whether, for the sake of peace, I will take a 
treaty which brings two new States into this Union, on its southern 
boundary, I say No — distinctly, no. I have said on the southern 
boundary, because there the present proposition takes its locality. 



30 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

I would say the same of the western, the eastern, or any other 
boundary. I would resist today, and to the end, here and every- 
where, any proposition to add any foreign territory on the south 
or west, north or east, to the States of this Union as they are now 
constituted and held together under the Constitution. Sir, I hold 
this question to be vital, permanent, elementary, to the future pros- 
perity of this country and the maintenance of the Constitution." 
And the distinguished senator added that the opposition on consti- 
tutional grounds, "if not the undivided was the preponderating sen- 
timent of the whole North." 

On the 1 6th day of May, 1848, Mr. \\'iley in the House of Rep- 
resentatives made a speech replying especially to Mr. Webster's 
argument. In the course of his speech he stated, "No doubt the 
senator is correct in his opinion so far as the Federal States of the 
North are concerned, but, sir, I am confident that such is not the 
sentiment of New Hampshire. No, sir, the recent election there 
has told the story for the Granite State, and I know, sir, that such 
is not the sentiment of INIaine. 

"But, sir, opposition to the measure of acquisition is just what we 
should expect from Whig States, and Whig Representatives and 
Senators here. They have always been opposed to the enlargement 
of our border. Their policy has rather been to curtail and contract 
the area of freedom. Yes, sir, the Senator from Massachusetts is 
in principle opposed to the acquisition of any more territory, except 
a harbor or two on the coast of Massachusetts, There are some 
whale men from that State who pursue their occupation in !the 
Pacific and they must be provided for of course, but no more new 
States must be added to the Union, for Massachusetts might not 
in that case, exert her due weight of influence in the councils of 
the nation. On the other hand when you come to the question of 
ceding away — selling out territory, inhabitants and all, for a mere 
nominal equivalent, why, then the Senator is not quite so scrupulous 
as to the right to do so — as the State which I have the honor in 
part to represent once had the misfortune to learn, to her ever- 
lasting regret." 

In the course of his remarks Air. A\'iley, with prophetic vision, 
declared that the territory we would acquire was far from being 
worthless territory and only an Indian country, as Mr. Webster 
claimed. He predicted the development of California into a rich 
agricultural country, particularly Upper California. He predicted 



A CONGRESSMAN FROM PISCATAQUIS 31 

the vast mineral wealth of the Pacific slope and rich deposits of 
gold within the territory to be acquired. This speech was made 
on ]\Iay 16, 1S48. 

Gold in large Cjuantities was discovered in 1848, and in the spring 
of '49 there was the greatest rush of peaceful migration westward 
that the world has ever witnessed. Upwards of 50,000 emigrants 
went by land and sea from the east to the region west of the Rocky 
I\Iountains to California, where many of them remained and laid 
the foundation of the development of one of the largest and richest 
States in the Union. 

Had the views of Mr. Webster prevailed, California would have 
been a part of Mexico today and the development of the United 
States in the west would have been far different than at present. 
Instead of a nation reaching from ocean to ocean, the republic of 
InIcxIco, a far more populous and powerful nation, w"Ould have cut 
us off from the Pacific, and Japanese who are attracted to Cali- 
fornia by soil and climate, would have swarmed on to the coast 
unrestricted, and have presented to us a Japanese question that 
would have been of tremendous national embarrassment, rather than 
of local importance, as it is at the present moment. 

The vision of the Down East Yankee was sound, though it was 
at variance with the ablest legislator of that day, Daniel A\'ebster. 



FLAGG'S ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF REVOLUTIONARY 
PENSIONERS IN MAINE 

This exceedingly valuable work compiled by the late Charles 
Alcott Flagg, was published as a serial in the last two volumes of 
the Journal. Only two hundred copies of this have been preserved 
in book form. It makes a book of 91 pages with 3 illustrations. 
It contains the names and data of fourteen thousand one hundred 
and sixty-one such pensioners. It is neatly bound in paper boards, 
schoolbook style with label titles. This is the only authoritative 
work of any extent upon this subject ever published in Maine and 
is invaluable to all interested in Revolutionary history and ancestry. 
Price, $3.00. Orders for this may be mailed to Sprague's Journal, 
Dover, Me., or to A. J. Huston, 192 Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 



32 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 
THE EDES FAMILY 

(By Edgar C. Smith) 
Prinninent in the Printing- Industry for 170 Years 

I recently had an interesting interview with Samuel D. Edes 
of Foxcroft, the veteran printer and former editor and publisher 
of the Piscataquis Observer. Mr. Edes retired from active labors 
many years ago and now resides at the old homestead on Edes 
avenue, Foxcroft. His physical infirmities confine him to the 
house, but his active mind is unimpaired and his reminiscences 
of his more than seventy years' residence in Dover and Foxcroft 
and of the printing trade in general are of much interest. 

Mr. Edes comes from a race of printers. The name Edes has 
been prominent in the annals of the printing trade in New England 
for nearly one hundred and seventy years. The great-grandfather 
of Samuel was Benjamin Edes of Boston, who, with John Gill in 
1754, founded the Boston Gazette and Country Journal. This paper 
was the official organ of the Massachusetts Bay Colonists before 
and during the Revolution and in those stirring times numbered 
among its conlrilnttors such men as John Adams, James Otis, 
Samuel \\'arren, John Hancock and many others of equal note. 

The paper was the official gazette of the town of Boston as well, 
and all public notices of the town were printed in its columns. 

Benjamin Edes besides being an editor and publisher was a man 
of considerable note in his day. When the Revolution of the col- 
onists broke out he had acquired a comfortable fortune for those 
times. But the war ended and the Constitution of the new nation 
adopted, the interest in his paper waned ; no longer those great men 
of the day contributed their able and patriotic articles to its columns, 
and its list of subscribers gradually fell off. Notwithstanding the 
loss of patronage, he continued the publication of his paper until 
September 17, 1798, and after that date maintained a small job- 
printing office, up to the time of his death, which occurred in De- 
cember, 1803. 

Another notable member of the Edes family was Peter, the son 
of Benjamin, and a great-uncle of Samuel D. Edes of Foxcroft. 
He was born in Boston, December 17, 1756, and died in Bangor, 
March 29, 1840. Peter Edes was the first printer in Augusta and 
the first in Bangor. After attaining his majority he was in com- 
pany with his father in the publication of the Boston Gazette. 
After withdrawing from the partnership he conducted a job printing 



THE EDES FAMILY 33 

office In Boston for a time, then located in Newport, R. I., and pub- 
lished a newspaper called the Newport Herald. 

In 1795 Mr. Edes located in Hallowell, in that part of the ancient 
town which is now Augusta, and commenced the publication of the 
"Kennebeck Intelligencer." He remained at Augusta until 18 15, 
publishing his newspaper and maintaining a job printing office. 
The name of the paper was changed in 1800 to the "Kennebec 
Gazette," and in 1810 the name was again changed to the "Herald 
of Liberty." In 1815 Peter Edes removed to Bangor and founded 
the Bangor Register. He published the Register a little more than 
two years and then sold it out. 

After disposing of his interests in Bangor, Mr. Edes went to 
Baltimore to live with his son Benjamin, who was a printer in that 
city. He remained there until his son's death in jST)2, when he 
returned to Bangor and passed his few remaining years in the 
family of his daughter, Mrs. Michael Sargent. As a pioneer 
printer of Maine, Peter lules is in the front ranks. From his press 
were issued many of the important, and now rare books and 
pamphlets connected with the founding of the printing trade in 
Maine. 

George Valentine Edes, father of Samuel, was a pioneer printer 
of Somerset County, also the first printer to locate in the County 
of Piscataquis. He was born in Boston, February 14, 1797, and 
died in Foxcroft, November 26, 1875. His father died in 1805, 
when George was but eight years of age, and he was placed in the 
family of his uncle, Peter Edes. In 1810, when but thirteen years 
of age, he commenced his apprenticeship in his uncle's office at 
Augusta. In 1815 when his uncle Peter removed to Bangor, he 
remained with him and was employed at the printing office there 
until 1S17, when Peter Edes sold out. 

After this, George returned to Hallowell and worked for a time 
in the office of Ezekiel Goodale. In 1823, in com])ai]y with Thomas 
J. Copeland under the firm name of Edes & Copeland, they estab- 
lished the first printing office in Somerset County at Norridgewock 
and commenced the publication of the Somerset Journal. This 
partnership continued only about a year and a half when Mr. Cope- 
land purchased the Edes interest. Mr. Edes, however, continued 
as an employee until 1836. In 1838 when Piscataquis County was 
incorporated George V. Edes came to Dover and opened a printing 



34 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

office and commenced the publication of the Piscataquis Herald, 
the first number being issued June i, 1838. 

This paper espoused the Whig cause and it is said to have been 
the first newspaper in the country to advocate the nomination of 
William Henry Harrison for the presidency. In 1842 the name 
was changed to the Piscataquis Farmer, and again, in November, 
1847, the name was changed to the Piscataquis Observer, under 
which title it has ever since made its weekly appearance. From 
1838 until some time in the early 70's George V. Edes was the sole 
proprietor and publisher of this paper, but at that time a partner- 
ship was formed with his son Samuel D. Edes, under the firm name 
of G. V. Edes & Son. 

On January i, 1875, Fred D. Barrows was admitted as a partner 
and the firm name changed to Edes & Barrows. After the death 
of the senior member of the firm, in November of that year, Samuel 
D. Edes took over his father's interest and the publication of the 
paper was continued under the firm name of Edes & Barrows until 
1888, when the Observer Publishing Company was formed, and 
Samuel D. Edes retired from active interest in the Observer, 
although for a number of years he acted as editor of the paper. 
Another brother, George A. Edes, learned the printers' trade and 
when a young man located in a South Dakota town and established 
a newspaper there ; after he removed to Morgan Hill, California, 
and twenty-two years ago established in the latter town the Morgan 
Hill Times, which is still published by Mr. Edes' svtccessor in busi- 
ness, he having died about eleven years ago. 

It is doubtful if another family in the State of Maine can boast 
of such a record. The foundmg of six New England newspapers, 
four of which were State of Maine publications ; the establishing 
of four pioneer printing offices in Maine, in localities where none 
before existed, are achievements worthy of a permanent memorial. 
The last survivor in the State of this family of printers is Samuel 
D. Edes, above referred to. He learned his trade in his father's 
cases. Learned every phase of this business as those old-time 
printers always did, they edited the newspaper, were compositor 
and pressman and in many instances were printer's devil. They 
are a type of a bygone day and only a scattered few of these vet- 
erans like Mr. Edes remain to link the present with the past. 



A NOROMBEGA ITEM 35 

A NOROMBEGA ITEM 

(Contributed by Nellie C. Dodge, Ellsworth, IMaine.) 

I find the following on page 52 of an old English book entitled : 
"God's Wonders in the Great Deep, recorded in Several wonderful 
and amazing accounts of Sailors who have met with unexpected 
Deliverance from Death when in greatest danger." "Gravesend; 
Re-printed by R. Pocock, and sold by the Booksellers in Paternoster 
Row, 1803." 

"Rich^l Clark, of Weymouth, was master of a ship called the 
Delight, which in 1583, went with Sir H. Gilbert for the discovery 
of Noremberga ; it happened that the ship struck on the ground, 
and was cast away. Of those that escaped shipwreck, sixteen got 
into a small boat of a ton and a half, and had but one oar to work 
with. They were seventy leagues from land, and the weather foul. 
The boat being over burthened, Mr. Hedley made a motion to cast 
lots, that those four who drew the shortest should be thrown over- 
board, provided if one lot fell on the master, yet he should be 
preserved for all their safeties. The master disavowed the accept- 
ance of any such privilege, replying that they would live and die 
together. On the fifth day Mr. Hedley and another died, whereby 
their boat was lightened. Five days and nights they saw the sun 
and stars but once, so that they only kept up their boat with their 
single oar, as the sea drove it. They continued four days wdthout 
sustenance, except what the weeds in the sea and the salt water 
did afford. On the seventh day they had sight of Newfoundland, 
and came to the south part thereof. All the time of their being 
at sea the wind kept south ; if it had shifted she had never come 
to land ; but it turned to the north in half an hour after. Being 
all come to shore, they gave God praise for their miraculous de- 
liverance. There they remained three days and three nights, making 
a plentiful repast upon berries and w^ild pease. After five days 
rowing along the shore, they happened to meet a Spanish ship of 
St. John de Luz, who brought them to Biscay, where the visitors 
of the Spanish Inquisition came aboard, but by the master's favour, 
and some general answers they escaped ; yet fearing a second search, 
by going twelve miles one night, they got into France, and safely 
arrived in England." 



j6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 



This Department is open to 
contributions from all teach- 
ers and pupils. 



Conducted by Augustus O. 
Thomas, State Superintend- 
ent of Schools, Augusta, Me. 



PROJECTS IN LOCAL HISTORY IN THE AROOSTOOK 
STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Maine's Centennial Celebration is over but not so its memories. 
They will continue to thrill with pride the hearts of her sons and 
daughters until another hundred years of achievement, greater even 
than the last, shall inspire those living in 2020 to prepare a better 
and more worthy commemoration. 

Something like seventy towns and cities from Kittery to ]\Iada- 
waska, from Eastport to Upton, and a large number of schools 
have in some way contributed to the success of the Centennial and 
have given citizens in all parts of the State a renewed interest in 
its history. 

History like charity should begin at home, and in order that our 
boys and girls may become the best 2\merican citizens they must 
know something of home affairs and local interests. No man or 
woman can be considered broad-minded or well educated who is 
indifferent to the conditions of the community of which he or she 
is a part. 

In our schools then, the child must be taught that his town is a 
unit of the county, the county of the state, the state of the nation, 
in order to develop an intelligent and elevating civic patriotism 
and to i)ut him more fully in touch with his local political, social 
and industrial environment. In doing this a long stride has been 
made toward teaching him to know and love his country. 

Local history has received far too little attention in our land. 
We are careless of our relics and monuments, which to be sure 
are of a different kind from those of Europe but no less interesting 
and important to preserve. Let us trust that a deep appreciation 
of the value of Maine's splendid history shall be one lesson learned 
and remembered from the Centennial. 

During the year Dr. Thomas. State Superintendent of Schools, 
issued a booklet called "One Hundred Years of Statehood," which 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOL 37 

contains many helpful suggestions for studying local history accord- 
ing to the "source" method. 

This little book so fascinated me that I was seized with a desire 
to see how big a project could be worked out in my history class, 
so when the fall term opened, each student was given a copy and 
it was read aloud during the recitation period with a view to carry- 
ing out many of its suggestions. 

There were thirty- four members in the class. They came from 
all parts of the county and from several towns outside of Aroos- 
took. The variety of interest added zest to the problem and from 
that day until the project was completed, there was no lack of 
interest shown. 

To describe fully each project would make this article too long, 
but in order to give an adequate idea of the scope of the under- 
taking, perhaps it is best to enumerate them and to state briefly 
the sources from which material was secured. 

History of Railroads in Aroostook — Material obtained from old 
newspaper clippings and scrap-book. 

History of the Presque Isle Public Library — Obtained from libra- 
rian and members of committee at time of establishment. 

The Churches of Presque Isle — From past and present ministers 
and church records. 

The Village Schools of Presque Isle — From Rev. G. M. Park, 
town historian ; past and present superintendents of schools ; town 
reports ; school reports and catalogs. 

The Rural Schools of Presque Isle — From History of Aroostook 
by Hon. lidward Wiggin ; Supt. S. E. Preble; town reports 1883- 
1920; "Star Herald." 

Our Service Flag — A story of Presque Isle's war service, from 
information secured from Col. Frank M. Hume ; Capt. E. H. 
Cooper; Principal of P. I. H. S. ; Ernest M. Libby, Y. M. C. A. 
worker ; Y. D. Roster, and several ex-service men. 

History of Madawaska — Pictures, data from old citizens. 

Churches of Madawaska — From History of Madawaska, super- 
intendent of schools, citizens. 

History of Madawaska Training School — From Miss Mary Now- 
land, many years the principal. 

Protection of Wild Lands — From Maine Forestry Department ; 
Chas. L. Weeks, Chief Warden of Aroostook and Big Machias 
Rivers. 



38 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The Canning Industry in Maine — From E. M. Lang, Jr., Port- 
land; Miss Alfreda Ellis, Assistant State Ckib Leader, Orono. 

Northern Maine Fair- — From secretary's reports ; president of 
association. 

Potato Industry in Aroostook — From F. P. Loring, Instructor 
in Agriculture ; Maine Department Agriculture Year Book ; school 
library ; farmers. 

An Aroostook Industry, Lime — From Mr. Dane Willard, pro- 
moter of the idea. 

Automobiles in Presque Isle — From L. S. Bean and other deal- 
ers ; papers. 

History of Fort Fairfield — From Ellis' History; Census Book 
1920; citizens. 

Town Schools of Fort Fairfield — From Fort Fairfield Register; 
Public Library ; Town Reports. 

Churches of Fort Fairfield — From Ellis' History; Report of 
1904 ; pastors ; citizens. 

Sports that Children Enjoy — From Playground Magazines, per- 
sonal observation and experience. 

History of Aroostook State Normal School — From Rev. G. M. 
Park; teachers in the school at its opening; school catalogs; "Sal- 
magundi," the school paper. 

Lumbering in Penobscot — From Thoreau's "Maine Woods"; 
E. B. Draper, Bangor; Delmont Emerson, Island Falls; Merrill 
Mill Co., Patten; Henry Prentiss, Bangor; Bangor Commercial, 
April 20, 1920. 

Lumbering in Aroostook — From woodsmen, dealers in lumber. 

History of New Sweden — From a book written about New Swe- 
den in 1880 by M. E. Olson ; citizens. 

History of Maine Central Institute — Catalogs, reports, alumni. 

The vStarch Industry — From Rev. G. M. Park, H. E. Duncan. 

History of Sherman — From a descendant of the pioneer settler 
and other citizens ; town records. 

History of Caribou — From A. W. Spaulding, a prominent citizen, 
newspaper articles. Public Library, Hon. Edward Wiggin's history. 

History of Hartland — From Eastern Somerset County Register, 
selectmen, citizens, American Woolen Co. 

Great Northern Paper Co. — From employees. 

History of Houlton Higli School, 1899-1920 — "North Star"; the 
school paper; pictures and information from alumni, teachers. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 39 

The Playground — From State Department of Education. 

Sports in Maine — Pictures and information from proprietors of 
sporting camps. 

This hst shows that data was gathered from ex-town officers, 
present officers, pastors, school superintendents, oldest living citi- 
zens in the towns ; from county, town, school and church records ; 
from old diaries, newspapers, school catalogs, scrap-books, from 
the public libraries. 

\\'hen the students had selected what they considered important 
and authentic material they proceeded to preserve it in books of 
their own making, which exhibit originality and artistic ability in 
arrangement and decoration. 

Those who chose to write the history of a school finished the 
binding in school colors, and in one instance the school seal fur- 
nished the decoration for the cover. 

From their research these students discovered the truth of the 
old adage, "where there's will there's a way," and pursued in the 
face of discouragement many voyages to obscure sources to be 
happily rewarded with the information they were seeking. Present 
day afifairs were not forgotten and in some instances old and new 
methods are contrasted. 

Nearly all of the books are illustrated with kodak pictures snapped 
by the girls themselves or solicited from their friends, and there 
are many beautiful Aroostook scenes as well as pictures of homes, 
schools, churches, barns, potato-houses and farm machinery. 

Aside from the knowledge gleaned in local history, they have 
had practice in writing business letters to persons in responsible 
positions. I feel sure in every case they have courteously expressed 
their appreciation for the material and information given them. 
Several dedicated their booklet to the man or woman who gave 
them assistance. 

They have learned something about the make-up of a book; its 
title page, table of contents, index, arrangement of illustrations and 
binding, and are convinced that art plays an important part in book- 
making. 

More valuable than all this is the fact that these student-teachers 
are going out in all sections of the State to quicken an interest in 
history for Maine children. They have learned and will pass it 
on that our State has a local history worthy of study and that she 



40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

will continue to play in the future as she has in the past, an im- 
portant part in the Nation's development. 

We hope the interest aroused will continue to grow, and develop 
such a strong love for Maine that the priceless traditions of strength, 
manliness, patience, uprightness and confidence in God possessed 
by her pioneers shall continue to be exhibited in her posterity in 
order that she may be an "enlightened, cultivated. God-fearing, 
free democrac}." 

Nellie Woodbury Jordan. 



CATECHISM OF CONSTITUTION 
(Published by arrangement with The National Security League.) 

LESSON I 

O. W'hat is the Constitution? 

A. The Constitution is a written document providing a form 
of government for the United States. 

O. Who framed the Constitution? 

A. Representatives of the people in Philadelphia in 1787. 

O. Who was the President of the Constitutional Convention? 

A. George \\'ashington. 

O. AMiat made the Constitution necessary? 

A. The Articles of Confederation, which preceded the Con- 
stitution, were inadequate to hold the States together. 

O. Why was the Constitution adopted? 

A. The preamble of the Constitution declares that "we, the 
people of the United vStates, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic trancjuility, provide for the com- 
mon defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings 
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish 
this Constitution for the LTnited States of America." 

O. How was the Constitution ratified? 

A. By the people of the United States, acting through special 
conventions, "chosen in each State by the people thereof." 

O. When did it become efifective? 

A. On the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

FIRST TEACH THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE 
THEIR OWN TOWN, COUNTY AND STATE AND YOU HAVE 
GONE A LONG WAY TOWARD TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 



Preserve this issue of the Journal. You will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations! It will be of priceless value 
to them. 



COLONIAL AND LOCAL HISTORY IN OUR SCHOOLS 
During the past year, while Col. Edward L. Logan was com- 
mander of the Massachusetts department of the American Legion, 
he instituted a campaign there for stimulating and intensifying the 
study of American and local history in the public schools as a first 
step towards the promulgation of true Americanism. 

The Boston Transcript in commenting upon this at the time, 
reached to the roots of the entire subject in saying: 

"Colonel Logan finds, in his investigations through the Ameri- 
canization committee of the Legion, that there are many schools 
which ignore our Colonial history altogether, beginning their in- 
struction with the Revolution. To do that, it is needless to say, 
is to ignore the most interesting part of Massachusetts history, 
and really to leave the Commonwealth up in the air without any 



42 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



underpinning. The secret of interesting children in history is the 
abihty to vitalize it with personages and with incidents, and such 
vitalizing persons and incidents are comparatively rare after the 
Revolutionary period. By that we do not mean to imply that our 
post-Revolutionary history should be neglected. To leave out 
Webster, Sumner and the Yankee Division would be as grievous 
and stupid a fault as to leave out the Pilgrim Fathers. Rut all 
these later heroes stand on the Fathers' shoulders ; it is through 
an interest in and knowledge of them that the boy or girl of today 
mav readily acquire an interest in the history of the Commonwealth 
since it became a State of the American Union. 

"Really to interest the young in historical study and knowledge 
is a gift on the part of a teacher, but it need not be so rare a gift 
as some suppose, because the interest is latent m every child, ask- 
ing only to be intelligently met. Does not the dramatic appeal to 
the child? And what is history but a drama? The great trouble 
is that historical study is deliberately made a thing of rote, a droned 
rigmarole, in many of the schools. It wants the element of human 
interest ; and if teachers do not know how to impart this element, 
they should be taught how. It may be a good thing for Colonel 
Logan and the committee to overhaul the normal schools in this 
regard." 

What the Transcript urges regarding the study of the colonial 
history of Massachusetts, is of ecjual importance in this State, 
possibly more so, as our colonial period begins with the French 
settlement at St. Croix Island in 1604, sixteen years before adverse 
winds compelled the Pilgrims to begin the making of history at 
Plymouth Rock. 

Moreover, there is yet another fact augmenting the value of all 
American colonial history — fully as cogent a reason for its study 
as any, and yet seldom referred to ; and that is that when one begins 
its study on any line of research, from any angle whatsoever, one 
is at once in the most interesting part of European history. Our 
history is so intertwined with old world political convulsions of 
two and three centuries ago — momentous epochs in the world strug- 
gle of the ages between the forces of freedom and despotism, that 
it is impossible to read the one without a desire to more fully under- 
stand the other. 

If a knowledge of the evolution of freedom and human rights 
from Magna Charta to the armistice of 1918 is essential in germi- 



COLONIAL AND LOCAL HISTORY 43 

nating Americanism, the schools of this country have a grave duty 
to perform in this regard which cannot be doubted or ignored. To 
neglect it would be as illogical as for the Bible student to ignore 
the history of the Children of Israel. 

Those who were privileged to listen to the address of Major 
William B. D wight of New York, representing the National 
Security League, at the S. A. R. Washington Anniversary Banquet, 
in Portland, Feb. 22, 1920, will recall with what earnestness and 
eloquence he advocated an awakening along these same lines, if 
we in America are to successfully resist the Karl Marx peril. He 
criticised much of the present method of studying history in the 
schools, and very forcefully urged that it be localized and Ameri- 
canized. 



James Mathison, Superintendent of the Oquossoc Angling Asso- 
ciation at Indian Rock, Maine, in the Rangeley region, contributes 
to the Journal the following copy of the records of that Associa- 
tion, dated May 24, 1884: 

"James P. Baxter, Portland, Maine, May 24th to June 3rd, inclu- 
sive, six days' fishing with his son, Percival P., took fifty-two fish, 
four of which weighed twenty-four pounds. The largest w^as taken 
in Cupsuptic Lake June 3rd by Percival and weighed 7f pounds 
before being dressed. The guide made his weight 8 pounds when 
taken from the water. The weight of the four fish when caught 
was as follows: 8 lbs., 6^ lbs., 5 lbs., and 4I lbs. — 24 lbs. 

W'ritten by Mr. James P. Baxter." 



A GEM AMONG MAINE TOWN HISTORIES 

Minnie Atkinson of Newburyport, Mass., is the author of a 
neatly bound book of 122 pages and twelve illustrations, entitled 
"Hinckley Township or Grand Lake Stream Plantation," which 
is a real gem. Already we believe between eight and nine hundred 
Maine Town Histories have been published. So far as we know 
this is the second one of a Maine plantation that has ever been 
printed, the first one having been the historical sketch of Jackman 
and Moose River Plantation which appeared in the Journal, Vol. 3, 
No. 2. 

Any true story of the developments of a town from its pioneer 
days to its time of maturity and prosperity as a municipality, is a 



44 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

bit of history of the utmost xakie and interest to the student of the 
history and growth of a conimonweahh ; ahvays a fascinating tale 
of human endeavor and uhimate achievement. 

We recall many such items of jMaine history which are classics, 
such as "Old Hallovvell" by Emma Huntington Nason, "An Old 
River Town" — a history of Winterport — by Ada Douglas Little- 
field, etc. None of these superior literary productions has sur- 
passed and but few equal Miss Atkinson's book. She commences 
with much of importance relative to the Indians in the Passama- 
quoddv region prior to and during the Revolution, when Colonel 
John Allen, under General Washington, was the superintendent of 
all the Indian Tribes in eastern Maine, and follows the develop- 
ment of this plantation full of interesting, fascinating and impor- 
tant historical details to the present day. After a careful perusal 
of this book we do not hesitate in heartily recommending it to our 
readers. 



AN OLD TOWN INDIAN WOMAN DESIRES THE 
RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE 

The following was recently received by Governor Baxter: 

Old Town, ]\Iaine, February 21, 1921. 
Percival P. Piaxter, 

Governor of Maine, 

Augusta, Maine. 
Dear Sir : 

Now that the women of Maine ha\"c full suffrage, we, the wards 
of the State of Maine, members of the Penobscot tribe, believe that 
we should have the right to vote in all tribal meetings. We are 
informed that the present agent of our tribe submitted the question 
of whetlier Indian women had such right to the last State admin- 
istration but that Secretary Ball gave no definite answer. Local 
attorney advises that we always had the right to vote and that the 
agent cannot refuse to accept our votes at election time and sort 
and count the same, as provided by statute. 

W^ill you not kindly refer this matter to the attorney general's 
■office that our agent may be fully informed in the premises. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Mrs. Peter Nicolar. 



CHARLES ALCOTT FLAGG 45, 

CHARLES ALCOTT FLAGG 

Report Co:\r:MiTTEE on Resolutions 

The year 1920, so eventful historically, has for the Bangor His- 
torical Society been notable necrologically, for among officials here 
one year ago and not witlf^tis today are Charles Alcott Flagg, Libra- 
rian and Cabinet Keeper, and also a valued member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee ; Dr. Thomas Upham Coe, for nearly forty years 
Treasurer and also prominent on the Executive Committee; and 
William Warren Fellows and James Putnam \Valker, both faithful 
and exceedingly useful members of the Executive Committee. 

Resolved, That the Bangor Historical Society, assembled in an- 
nual session, and with a full realization of the great loss sustained, 
gives voice to heartfelt appreciation of the zealous and devoted 
services of our departed associates. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the records, and 
copies be given to the press for publication. 

Edward M. Blanding, 
William C. Mason, 
Fannie Hardy Eckstorm, 

Committee on Resolutions. 
Bangor, Maine, Jan. 4, 192 1. 

Adopted by Bangor Historical Society at annual meeting, Jan. 4, 
1921. 

Attest : Edward Mitchell Blanding, 

Secretary. 



MAINE CENTENNIAL TOWNS FOR 1921 

The Maine Centennial towns for 1921 are Concord, Peru, Canton 
and Cumberland, rather less than the usual number. Concord is 
a little farming towm far up the Kennebec valley, in Somerset 
County, bordering on the river. It does not appear in the records 
why it was named Concord, but its name may have suggested some- 
thing to the late incorporators of the next town to the west, which 
was called Lexington. Concord was settled soon after the Revo- 
lution by Major Ephraim Heald, who came from Temple, N. H. 
There are people enough to have a celebration with the help of 
the neighbors. 



46 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Peru and Canton are adjoining towns in Oxford County, on the 
Androscoggin river, and may possibly have a combination cele- 
bration. If they don't it will be a rival affair, although the town 
with the Chinese name is somewhat larger than the other. Both 
are on the Rangeley division of the Maine Central Railroad. The 
towns are twins, having been incorporated on the same day, Feb. 5, 
1821. 

Canton is a lively town and will have a big centennial celebration 
some time in the summer. It has about 2000 people, three churches, 
an opera house, summer hotel, several garages and all the outfit of 
an up-to-date town. Peru with the villages of West Peru and 
East Peru has about 1000 people in its borders. The town was 
originally a grant of land to citizens of Falmouth who moved there, 
the Knight, Lunt, Brackett and Bradish families, followed by the 
Walkers, Trasks and Baileys. Peru will no doubt have a cele- 
bration. 

Cumberland is a town on Casco Bay and may be a part of Greater 
Portland some time. It takes in numerous islands off shore, in- 
cluding Chebeague Island, where there's a postoffice, also Crow, 
Goose, Hope, Bangs, Sand, Sturdivant, Stave, Ministerial, Bates, 
Broken Cave and others of the 365 islands in the bay. Cumberland 
Center is the largest community in the town and Greeley Institute 
is an old preparatory school. Cumberland Foreside has numerous 
summer residences and on Chebeague Island there are half a dozen 
summer hotels and cottagers are numerous. 

— Kennebec Journal. 



Coin and Stamp Collectors 

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Stamp Catalogues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 

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MAINE INLAND SCENERY 




A Canoe Iioad of Trophies 

(Courtesy of B. & A. R. R.) 



CONTENTS 

John Gardiner, Barrister 49 

Indians 61 

Poem — To the Pine Tree State 69 

Poem — A Bit of Maine 70 

Washburn Family. Livermore, Maine 71 

Letters 72 

Patten Library 76 

James Phinney Baxter 78 

Samuel L. Boardman 80 

Karly Churches in Maine 81 

Early Settlement on Kennebec 83 

Peter Edes 85 

Maine History in the Schools 87 

Editorial 93 

^ YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset County 

^^^ / I Never a Failure — Never a La'w Suit — Wliat more do you Trant? 

^^ T (Member Soc. Col. Wars; Sons Am. Rev.; Past A. A. G.. G. A. R.) 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Slsowliegan, Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 




JOHN GARDINER 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX April, jNIay, June, 1921 No. 2 



JOHN GARDINER, BARRISTER 

(By Bertram E. Packard) 

There are two houses still standing in Maine which are inti- 
mately associated with the subject of this sketch. 

On the eastern bank of the Kennebec, a little way above, and 
opposite the little village of Richmond, stands a large, rambling, 
wooden structure, known as the Old Pownalborough Court House. 
It was built about the year 1753 by Major Samuel Goodwin, the 
agent of the Plymouth Company, as his official residence, and as 
a Court House for Lincoln County, at that time comprising the 
larger portion of central and eastern Maine. The old house Is 
of great historic interest and is still occupied by the descendants 
of the original proprietor. Here the lawyers of that early period 
argued their cases and transacted their customary legal business. 
The voices of John Adams, James Otis, James Sullivan and David 
Sewall were often heard w'ithin its walls. Here the early Justices 
came on horseback to preside when on the Circuit. The building 
also served the purposes of an inn and was their temporary domi- 
cile. And here also, the able, eloquent and scholarly laAvyer, 
John Gardiner, often appeared, clad in the wig and gown of an 
English barrister. Some three miles distant in the little hamlet 
now known as Dresden Mills, he resided in the two story tarm 
house erected by his father, Dr. Sihester Gardiner, sometime prior 
to 1760, and still standing in an excellent state of preservation. 

Although the family of Gardiner is one of the most prominent 
in our New England history, numbering among its members many 
who have been celebrated in our annals, yet history is strangely 
silent concerning John Gardiner. One of the most prominent men 
in Boston and Maine during the years immediately subsequent to 
the Revolution, and probably the most talked of man in the news- 
papers of that day, only the most fragmentary glimpses of his 



50 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF AIAINE HISTORY 

life and career can be gleamed from our numerous historical and 
biographical records. 

He was the oldest son of Dr. SiKester Gardiner and was born 
in Boston, December, 4th, 1731. The career of Dr. Gardiner is 
too well known to need more than passing mention. He was one 
of the most distinguished men of his time and was very wealthy 
for those days. He became the largest single owner in what was 
known as the Kennebeck Purchase, a corporation formed in 1753. 
He first estabhshed settlements in Pownalborough, and later in 
what was at that time known as Gardinerstown. He brought to 
this work of development an uncommon zeal and energy and was 
very successful. The city of Gardiner was named in his honor, 
and his decendants still reside in the beautiful old English manor 
house just outside the city on the banks of the Kennebec. 

John recei\ed his early education in Boston, and in 1745, at 
the age of 14, he was placed in the ofiice of Benjamin Pratt, after- 
wards Chief Justice of New York, to study law. He remained 
there three years, and in 1748 was sent to London to pursue his 
legal studies. Broader and more liberal ideas prevailed in England 
than were common in Puritan Boston and he found a wider field 
for his talents. The profession of law was looked upon with less 
aversion than was the custom in a community where church offi- 
cials were also the legal officers. He studied at the Inner Temple, 
and was under the instruction of Sir Charles Pratt, who after- 
wards became Lord Chancellor Camden. In 1761, at the age of 
30, he was admitted a barrister by the Honorable Benchers of the 
Inner Temple and the Courts of Westminster Hall. He practised 
before Lord Mansfield, and soon won his distinguished favor. 
He acquired a brilliant reputation and it appeared at one time 
that he was destined for very high legal honors. He also prac- 
tised law on the Welsh Circuit, and while there married Margaret 
Harries of Haverford \\'est, a woman of most excellent family. 
Here his oldest son, John Silvester John, was born in 1765. Of 
his private life in England but little is known. He frequented 
Drury Lane Theatre when David Garrick and Mrs. Gibber were 
famous there, and it is related that Jacob Bailey, the early pio- 
neer missionary to Maine, when in London for ordination, was his 
companion to the theatre. 

But while in London he became intimate with the poet Churchill, 
and the reformer John Wilkes, and when the latter was arrested 



JOHN Gx\RDINER, BARRISTER 51 



on a general Secretary of State's warrant, he was junior counsel 
for his defense. He also argued with success in the defense of 
Beardmore and Meredith, who, for writings in support of Wilkes, 
had been imprisoned on a general warrant. His pronounced Whig 
principles as opposed to the prevailing Tory sentiment in Eng- 
land at that time, greatly surprised Lord Mansfield, and blasted 
all hopes of his political success. In reference to his efforts in 
these trials, there now remains in the possession of Mrs. William 
R. Cabot of Boston, his great-great-granddaughter, a valuable and 
beautiful piece of plate, bearing this inscription: " ' Pro libertate 
semper strenuus.' To John Gardiner, Esq., this waiter is pre- 
sented by Arthur Beardmore, as a small token ot gratitude, for 
pleading his cause and that of his clerk, David Meredith, against 
the Earl of Halifax, then Secretary of State, for false imprison- 
ment, under his warrant, commonly called a Secretary ot State's 
warrant, that canker of English liberty — 1766." 

It is of more than passing interest to consider a little more in 
detail Mr. Gardiner's connection with this celebrated case, for it 
illustrates forcibly that in most of his ideas he was far in ad\'ance 
of his age and generation. Wilkes, although a rake and a prodi- 
gal, unfaithful to his wife, whose fortune he wasted, lacking in 
generous de\otion to any political ideal, nevertheless by sheer 
pluck and impudence led in the fight to establish in the law of all 
English speaking countries five great principles of political free- 
dom: the immunity of political criticisms from prosecution; the 
publicity of legislati\e debates; the abolition of outlawry which 
condemned a man in his absence; the protection of property of 
houses from unreasonable search and seizure; and the right of 
the duly elected representative to a constituency to sit in the 
legislature, unless disqualified by law. No matter what personal 
objections his colleagues may have had to his opinions and writings, 
so great were his achievements that his name became a household 
word in America. In the eyes of our forefathers, he was one of 
the most conspicuous combatants against the doctrine so obnox- 
ious to them: that men might be maltreated, imprisoned, exiled 
and disfranchised for the supposedly evil tendencies of their politi- 
cal opinions. Lord Camden said of the warrant: " If such a 
power is truly invested in a Secretary of State, and he can dele- 
gate this power, it certainly may affect the person and property 
of every man in this kingdom, and is totally subversive to the 



SPRAGUE'S fOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



liberty of the subject." The law of the case with which Mr. 
Gardiner was connected, namely, that search must be by warrant, 
describing the property to be seized, is embodied in the Consti- 
tution of the I'nited States. 

At a time when party feeling ran high it can readily be seen 
that his espousal of such a cause would seem nothing less than 
heretical to the prexailing Tory influences. It was probably a 
political move to tender him the Chief Justiceship of the province 
of New York in 1766, which he promptly declined. Two years 
later, howe\er, in 1768, he accepted an appointment as Attorney 
General of St. Kitts, one of the West India islands. It is probable 
that this was a position which he would ha\e hardly chosen for 
himself save for necessit\', for it was \irtually a political banish- 
ment. Here he became so active as a Whig that it was found 
expedient tor him to leave the island, and after remaining in 
Jamaica for a time, he went to Martinicpie, where he successively 
held ofiice under the British and French governments. 

The following letter to his father, dated St. Kitts, January 8th, 
1783, well illustrates his political principles: " I am a staunch 
Revolutionary Whig, you know, and abhor all king craft and 
priest craft. Such have been my principles since I could judge 
for myself, and such, I trust, will be the principles I will carry 
with me to the grave. I have borne a place here under his most 
Christian Majesty which I have discharged the duties of with the 
utmost fidelity and integrit\', and without the least view to gain, 
and in such a manner as I would have served his Brittanick Maj- 
esty, had I been entrusted. And it is with gratitude I mention 
it, I ha\e recei\ed e\ery protection and every mark of friendship 
from His Excellency, Count Dillon and the French officers here, 
insomuch so that time shall not obliterate my regards to them." 

In the early summer of 1783, at the instance and through the 
efforts of James Sullivan, he returned to Boston, and in a letter 
to his father, dated Boston, July 14th, 1783, he writes: "Gov- 
ernor Hancock, Samuel Harris, and Dr. Cooper have all received 
me with the greatest cordialit\', and General Washington, in con- 
sequence of letters from the French Ministry, overwhelmed me 
with civility during the four days I stayed with him." 

He immediately resumed the practice of his profession, and in- 
duced his brethren to resume the legal costume, which had been 
laid aside. The custom, however, was not of long continuance, 



JOHN GARDINER, BARRISTER 53 

and it was said to have been gi\en up from a countnman hearing 
one of the judges, in his gown, using most profane language towards 
a man from whom he was purchasing wood, and expressing his 
astonishment to his friends as to how the Boston parsons would 
swear. 

That he visited Maine during the year of his return to Boston 
is e\idenced by a letter written by Major Goodwin of Pownal- 
borough to Jacob Bailey in Nova Scotia, under date of September 
9, 1783, in which he says: "John Gardiner is with his brother 
William, looking after his father's interests." Rev. Samuel Parker 
of Trinity Church wrote to Bailey, December 22nd, of the same 
year, saying: " Your old triend. Dr. Gardiner, has a son returned 
from the West Indies, who in order to ingratiate himself with the 
ruling party, does little else than curse and damn his father as 
an old fool. . . . Howe\'er, it won't do. He will not get his 
father's estate by this conduct." 

In October, 1783, he petitioned the General Court, " Although 
the Father hath eaten sour Grapes, yet your Petitioner's Teeth 
have not been set on edge, — his political opinions have been, and 
are in total, the very re\'erse of his said Father's," and prayed 
not to be " visited for the political sins and offences of his said 
Father." 

But that he was held in high esteem in Boston is evidenced by 
the fact that he and his family were recognized as citizens of 
Massachusetts by a special act of the Commonwealth passed 
February 13th, 1784, reading: " An act declaring and confirming 
the citizenship of John Gardiner, his wife, and of Anne, John 
Silvester John, and William Gardiner, their children. 

Whereas, the said John Gardiner was born in Boston, the me- 
tro|)olis of this Commonwealth, and while a minor was, by his 
father, sent to Great Britain tor his education, where for a suc- 
cession of years he remained a distinguished friend to, and through 
a vicissitude of fortune, hath continued an avowed and inflexible 
assertor of the rights and liberties of his native country, and a 
bold opposer of the enemies thereof; and ha\ing lately returned 
to reside in the said metropolis, and soon expecting his said wife 
and children, he and they ought to be declared free citizens of 
this said Commonwealth." 

On July 4th, 1785, he was selected as the town orator and dedi- 
cated his oration " To the First Citizen of the World, The Most 



54 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Illustrious George Washington, Esq., late Commander-in-Chief of 
the forces of the free United States of America, with the most 
afTectionate respect. By his most obliged fellow citizen, The 
Author." It contains the following allusion to Bunker Hill: 
"Again the battle bleeds; nor do fair freedom's sons give way 
till their whole stock of ammunition's quite expended. Regardless 
of his precious life, disdaining shameful flight, the illustrious 
Warren falls, his country's hero, and his country's pride! What 
though within these hallowed walls his mouldering relicks lie, 
without a sculptured stone to mark the spot, yet shall his fame 
be known, his memory live, to latest ages!" 

It is not strange that there should ha\'e been violent and often 
times bitter controversies between John Gardiner and his father. 
Dr. Gardiner was an avowed Loyalist, spending the 3'ears of the 
Revolution in England because of his political beliefs. He was 
also a zealous and consistent believer in the forms and doctrines 
of the Church of England. John, on the contrary, was as we 
have seen, a Whig in political belief, and at the same time was a 
Unitarian as to religious belief. He took an active part in the 
alteration of the Hturgy of King's Chapel, of which his father had 
been tor many years warden and an acti\'e member, and was 
largely instrumental in its becoming the first Unitarian Congre- 
gational Church in the United States. He would attend services 
at Trinity Church, where his son, adhering to the ancient faith, 
was assistant minister, for he said he must hear Jack preach, and 
would make the responses from his altered book while the people 
were repeating from the Book of Common Prayer. 

It was in consequence of these disagreements that Dr. Gardiner 
devised the bulk of his property to his second son, William, be- 
queathing " To John Gardiner, Esq., Barrister at Law, late of 
the island of St. Christopher, now resident at Boston, New England 
(as 'tis said) I gi\-e only the sum of one guinea." He relented 
however, and in a codicil made the same year, 1786, gave him 
one thousand pounds, and devised to him his house and lot on 
Marlborough Street and one half his Pownalborough farm. While 
it may be observed that these estates were without limitations, 
while the estates devised to William were entailed, yet it is clearly 
evident that Dr. Gardiner intended that the bulk of his property 
should pass to W^illiam, and in event of his dying without issue, 
to his grandson, Robert Hallowell. 



JOHN GARDINER, BARRISTER 55 

In 1786, his wife having died, John Gardiner removed to Pownal- 
borough with his three children. It might seem strange that a 
man possessed of his brilHant talents and accustomed to move in 
the best society, should have moved to what must have been at 
that time nearly an unbroken wilderness. But we must remember 
that he was nearly sixty years of age, and here w^as a valuable 
property which he had just inherited; he might have seen the 
opportunity to represent the town in the General Court, which 
position he later occupied; furthermore he was near the bulk of 
his father's estate, and at one time it seemed very uncertain that 
it would descend as his father had planned. But these are mere 
suppositions, and no reliable information can be ascertained as to 
his real motives. He took an active part in the affairs of the 
town and in 1788 was the moderator of the town meeting. Among 
his gifts to the town was a lot of land for church purposes, pro- 
vided the minister kept a school for instruction in English. He 
often appeared as counsel in cases tried in the nearby Pownal- 
borough Court House, where he invariably attracted attention 
from his copious learning, his polished manners, and his attractive 
elocution. He was easily the most learned and cultivated lawyer 
in Maine; and no one at the bar of Massachusetts excelled him 
as a general scholar, or in the variety of his intormation. 

Possibly the most important case in which he appeared as 
counsel was that of the Frenchman, Louis Porronveau, from 
Penobscot, 1791, for murder. The judges were Increase Sumner, 
Robert Treat Paine and Nathan Gushing. Mr. Gardiner and 
William Lithgow, Jr., were the counsel for the defense, and secured 
an acquittal. It is claimed, however, that strong prejudices favor- 
ing the French influenced the verdict. The case was of sufficient 
importance, so it is said, that the French Consul came down from 
Boston for the trial. 

In 1787 he was elected as a representative to the Massachusetts 
General Court from Pownalborough. During his live years in the 
Legislature he achieved his greatest eminence because of his decided 
stand concerning many important questions of the day. His ripe 
scholarship, rare w-it, and ability as a strong and vigorous writer, 
caused him to be one of the best known men in New England. 
In debate he was fearless, and exceedingly sarcastic and vitupera- 
tive tow^ard his opponents. The w-riter is indebted to an unpub- 
lished manuscript of the late Charles Allen, Esq., for a valuable 
summary of the measures he advocated while a member of the 



S6 SPRAGUE'vS JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



General Court. He plcnsed his friends and irritated his enemies 
by advocating: — 

1. A removal of the restrictions on theatres. This was in direct 
opposition to the current pul:»Hc opinion. Among his opponents 
on this question were Governor John Hancock, Samuel Adams and 
Harrison Gray Otis. His famous speech on this subject was de- 
livered of date January 22nd, 1792, and while the measure failed 
of passage at that time it was finally passed in 1794. 

2. He was strenuous in his ad\-ocacy of laws to prevent the 
entailment of estates and lor abolishing such as might then be in 
existence. He aided effectually in abolishing the law by which 
the oldest son inherited a double portion of his parent's estate; 
and another to alwlish the clumsy process of common reco\ery, 
so that a tenant in tail could by deed dock the entailment. 

3. He opposed the formation of certain associations b>- lawyers, 
whereby they made a sort of close corporation of law and con- 
spired to injure the people in their rights. By these organizations 
called by him the " Bar Call," none but those especially favored 
were admitted to practise. 

4. He attacked lawyer-made law generally and wished for its 
reform, winning for himself the title of the " Law Reformer." 

5. He ad\ocated the abolition of special pleading, so as to sim- 
plify the practise in the courts. He was zealously opposed in this 
by the celebrated Parsons and other lawyers, and the measure 
failed of passage. Forty years after, however, this measure was 
adopted to general acceptance in both Massachusetts and Maine. 

6. He opposed the custom of permitting men who held ofihce 
under the United States government to be officials under the 
state government also. Da^■id Sewall was a federal judge, and 
while such was chosen a member of the General Court. Mr. 
Gardiner held that the federal government, was in its relation to 
the state government, a foreign government. He was sustained 
in his contention both by the legislature and public opinion. 

7. He repeatedly favored and labored for the separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts. 

8. He early proposed establishing a college in Maine, and Bow- 
doin College was chartered in 1794, a year after his death. 

9. He advocated the granting of land to soldiers of the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

10. He favored putting a gallery into the House of Representa- 



JOHN CxARDINER, BARRISTER 57 

ti\es, for the conxenience of the pubhc, which might thereby be 
enabled to observe their proceedings. 

11. He repeatedly derided the common application of the prin- 
ciple expressed in the Latin saying: " De Mortuis nil nisi bonum," 
declaring that if it were obeyed both the pen of the historian and 
the voice of the orator would be stopped. 

12. He introduced and ad\ocated a bill creating a lottery to 
build what is now known as the upper bridge over the Eastern 
Ri\er in Dresden. 

For his opinions the papers of that period at times reported him 
approvingly, and at other times criticised, ridiculed and abused 
him. Correspondents wrote about him o\-er fantastic and fictitious 
signatures, at times calling him eloquent and learned and at other 
times referring to him as a fool. But from the character of the 
measures he advocated and opposed, it may be gathered that he 
was from his earliest years, in the uncomfortable but none the 
less commendable position of being far in advance of his genera- 
tion. While, as was natural, he failed in passing most of his 
measures, >et it must be conceded that he was a man of genius 
and marked ability. 

In October, 1793, he started for Boston from Pownalborough on 
the packet Londoner, wiiich carried a heavy deck load of lumber. 
A severe storm came up and the vessel w^ent down off Cape Ann, 
October 15th, 1793, and all on board were lost. Later his chest 
of clothing floated ashore which confirmed his fate. 

He had dreamed of being drowned on the trip; but he laughed 
at such superstitions. Homer would have told him that " dreams 
proceed from Jo\c." 

Mr. Gardiner was one of six lawyers in Maine raised to the 
degree of barrister, the others being William Cushing, David 
Sewall, Theophilus Bradbury, David Wyer, and William Wet- 
more. The rule for a barrister in England was that this degree 
should not be received unless the candidate had resided three 
years in one of the Inner Courts, if a graduate of Oxford or Cam- 
bridge, and five years provided he was not a graduate of either 
of these colleges. Although Mr. Gardiner was not a college gradu- 
ate, he receixed his Master's Degree from the University of Glas- 
gow in 1755, and from Harvard University in 1791. In 1791 he 
appears to have been a member of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery of Boston. His nephew, Hon. Robert H. Gardiner, in 
his autobiography, says of him: " He had an astonishing memory. 



58 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF AIAINE HISTORY 

was an admirable belles-lettres scholar, and particularly distin- 
guished for his wit and eloquence. He was a very fine classical 
scholar, and could repeat entire books from his favorite Greek 
authors." The same writer records his recollections of "his short, 
stout person; his hair tied up in a silk bag, and his quick, loud, 
commanding voice." 

His son, Rev. Dr. John Sih'ester John Gardiner, was a marxel- 
ous scholar in the classics, and was prominent as the rector of 
Trinity Church for twenty-fi\e years. Phillips Brooks refers to 
him as the most eloquent and influential clergyman in Boston 
during those years. 

His speech on the theatre constitutes probably the most mas- 
terly- defense of theatrical representations ever made in America. 
This speech was never delivered, as he was told that it would be 
wholly above the comprehension of his audience, and he acceded 
to the advice, printing it instead of delivering it in the House of 
Representatives. It fairly bristles with Latin and Greek quota- 
tions, the notes are more copious than the text itself, and it makes 
an octavo volume of some one hundred sixty pages. He finds 
Biblical authority for his contention, stating that " whoever is 
read in the history of the Drama, must know that the ancient 
drama took its rise in religion." He cites St. Paul as borrowing 
whole sentences and quoting several passages from the Greek 
writers of comedy. He supports his argument by the Song of 
Moses, the Psalms of David, the Songs of Solomon and the Reve- 
lations of St. John the Divine. He goes at great length into the 
early development of the Greek and Roman theatres and presents 
an elaborate sketch of the early Greek stage. He then comes 
down to more modern times making an exhausti\e argument as 
to dramatic representations in Italy, France, Spain, Holland, 
Germany and England. He brings out many specific advantages 
to be deri\-ed as to improvement in speech and pronunciation, 
ease and grace in public speaking, and thinks the theatre would 
have a very beneficent effect on young clergymen. Referring to 
Whitefield, he says: " Whitefield, Sir, if I have been rightly in- 
formed, was originally a stage player; he carried the oratory and 
the action of the Theatre into the Pulpit, and from the tones of 
his voice, assisted by gestures and action, (although his eye was 
against him) he captivated and carried away the multitude! " 

The writer recently ascertained the fact that there is in the 
possession of Harvard University, a Bible presented b>' John Gar- 



JOHN GARDINER, BARRISTER 59 

diner. It is a Latin Bible, perfect in the fine t\'pe of 1514. The 
following inscription in the handwriting of Mr. Gardiner is found 
pasted inside the Bible: "This Bil)le was delivered to John Gar- 
diner upon his return from Great Britain in October, 1755, by his 
father, Dr. Silvester Gardiner, who informed him that in his last 
illness the preceding year. Dr. Charles Brockwcll, who was then 
the King's Chaplain at the Chapel in Boston, delivered this to 
him, saying ' Doctor, you have been very kind at all times to me 
and my family, and have attended us, and administered medicine 
to us from time to time, without charging or taking anything from 
me, therefore: I have nothing to recompense you with, but to 
show my respect and gratitude as far as I can, permit me to re- 
quest you to take care of this Bible, and in my name to present 
it to your son, John, when he returns from Glasgow. I value it 
very much. It was given to my father by King Charles the First, 
who presented it to him with his own hand, alter having taken it 
down from a shelf in his library when my father was there with 
the royal martyr.' " 

Relative to the unknown reasons which actuated Mr. Gardiner 
in removing from Boston to Pownalborough, the waiter has re- 
cently discovered a letter written by Mrs. Robert Hallowell Gar- 
diner from Oaklands in 1863, to Mrs. Margaret Elton, in w^hich 
she says: " Distinguished as a scholar, his associates were of the 
aristocratic class, into which he also married, an accomplished 
Welsh lady of family. He returned to his own country at the 
close of the Revolution, when wise men were striving to allay 
excitement and promote tranquillit>'. His position was peculiar, 
and it was probabh- in disgust of manners to which he would not 
conform that he retired to the estate his children had inherited 
from his father." 

In this letter Mrs. Gardiner seems to con\-e\' the impression 
that although an enthusiastic advocate of democratic principles, 
yet Mr. Gardiner by birth, education and en\'ironment was essen- 
tially an aristocrat. Upon coming to Boston he found a new 
democracy, where all men were free and equal regardless of birth 
or education. While he firmly believed in the principles of this 
democracy, yet he found it impossible to conform with dignity 
to their manners and customs. This explanation may throw a 
little light upon his reasons for removing to Pownalborough. 

Note — The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to the unpublished autobiography 

of Hon. Robert Hallowell Gardiner, 1st. of Oaklands: to an unpublished manuscript written by 

the late Charles Allen. Esq., of Wiscasset: to Foote's "Annals of King's Chapel: "Updyke's 

History of the Xarraganset Church:" and to the Journals of the Massachusetts Legislature 

from all of which he has freely drawn for information contained in this brief sketch. 

Sanford, Me , Feb. 24, 1921. 



6o SPRAGUE'S TOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




^ 5 



MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS 6i 

THE MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH 
THE WHITE SETTLERS 

(By Ethel M. Wood) 

I. Aboriginal Tribes of Maine. — ^ The aborigines of the state of 
Maine, comprising something less than one-third of the Indian 
population of New England, belonged to one of the four nations 
of the greatest of the nati\-e races of North America, the Algic 
or Algonquin. The Algonquins occupied a large territory, their 
domain extending along the eastern coast from Newfoundland to 
Virginia and westward to the Mississippi Ri\er, and this people 
played a much more important part in the early history of the 
United States than any of the other aboriginal nations. Those 
of the Algonquins who occupied the territory included in the 
present state of Maine separated into two distinct families, although 
they trace their descent from a common ancestry. These two 
divisions are the Abenakis' and the Etechemins. The very der- 
ivation of the name Abenakis our ancestors of the East)/ as 
well as their legends and traditions in regard to their creation by 
the Great Spirit, tends to give us the impression that they were 
an original people. They inhabited the land from Mount Aga- 
menticus in the extreme south-western part of Maine, as far east 
as the St. George River. 

Of the Abenakis, there were four tribes: the Sokokis or Sockhi- 
gones, the . Anasagunticooks, the Canibas or Kennabas,' and the 
Wawenocks. The Sokokis were a large tribe living along the Saco 
River with two principal villages, one at Pegwacket, the site of 
the modern Fryeburg, and the other about twenty miles below on 
the Great Ossipee Ri\'er. The powerful and warlike Anasagunti- 
cooks had their habitation along the Androscoggin River, claiming 
jurisdiction over the ^-alle^' of the i\ndroscoggin from its source 
to the sea. Their fa\orite meeting place was at Pejepscot situated 
by the lower falls of the Androscoggin, later known as Brunswick 
Falls, and here they often held councils with members of other 
tribes. In the Kennebec Valley the Canibas held sway, — a numer- 
ous people made up of four subordinate tribes, the Sagadahocs, 
the Cussenocks, the Ticonnets, and the Norridgewocks, all under 

1 This name is also found in the following forms: Abenakis, Abanaquis, Abaniquois, Waba' 
naki, Wambanaghi, and Abenaques. 

2 Vetromile's " History of the Abenakis," page 26. 

3 Called also Cannibas and Kanibals. 



62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the leadership of the great chief, the Bashaba/ as they called him, 
who dwelt tipon Swan Island, a small island in the Kennebec be- 
tween the present towns of Richmond and Dresden. The Bashaba 
ot the Canibas held a nominal sway oxer the other Maine tribes, 
and his influence extended even beyond the borders of the prov- 
ince. The most easterly of the great tribal divisions was that of 
the Wawenocks, inhabiting the country from the Sagadahoc to 
the St. George River. These Indians were particularly strong and 
athletic, unsurpassed in bravery, and were faithful allies oi their 
neighbors, the Canibas. The principal tribes of the Etechemins 
were the Tarratines, the native inhabitants of the Penobscot 
region, and the Openangos, or Quoddy Indians, to be found about 
Passamaquoddy Ba>- and the Schoodic River. It has been esti- 
mated that the Abenaki warriors numbered in 1615 about five 
thousand and the Etechemins, six thousand, making a total of 
eleven thousand. From this it may be inferred that the whole 
native population, men, women, and children, numbered not more 
than thirty-six or thirty-seven thousand. 

II. Indian Life. — From a physical standpoint the Algonquins 
were the best of the aborigines. They were of medium height, 
very erect in bearing, and ne\er among them was one found to 
be deformed or ill-proportioned. Their features were finer and 
more regular than the races of the North and West. Their eyes 
were black and brilliant, their teeth ivory-white, and their beard- 
less faces of a reddish copper hue. They were quick, alert, keen, 
and acute of perception. Accustomed to all manner of hardship 
from childhood, they were possessed of great strength and marvel- 
ous powers of physical endurance and were noted for longevity. 

The dress of the Maine Indian consisted mostly of skins, espe- 
cially of deer and sable, being worn with the fur in winter, while 
the skin shorn of the fur was the garment for summer. Some 
of these mantles were painted, or elaborately embroidered with 
beads. Others were made by interweaving threads and feathers. 
Both men and women were tond of liright colors. The warriors 
painted their faces and all delighted in ornaments of plumes and 
shells. Their particular admiration was for anything that glit- 
tered, and they adorned themselves with brooches, bracelets, and 
ear-rings of bright silver. The Indians near the Penobscot and 
Kennebec rivers were even more gaudy in their personal adorn- 

4 " Bashaba" is generally considered an official title, although some authorities regard it as 
the name of an Indian chief. This latter view does not agree with that of Southgate who speaks 
of " Madockawando, Sagamore of Penobscot, and Bashaba of the Indian Tribes." History of 
Scarborough, page 102.— [Coll. Me. Hist. Soc. Vol. Ill, p. IO2I 



MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS 63 

ment than those further west. Weymouth, the early voyager, 
says of them, — " They painted their faces very deep, some all 
black, some red, with stripes of excellent blue over their upper 
lips, nose and chin, and wore the white-feathered skins of some 
fowl round about their head, jewels in their ears, and bracelets of 
little, white, round bone fastened together upon a leather string."^ 

Their homes were fashioned of boughs and bark. The best 
wig^vams were oblong, from twenty to forty feet in length and one 
story in height. They were supported on crotched posts and 
thatched with bark. A fur rug hung at the entrance in place of 
a door and there w'ere no windows. Inside platforms were built 
around the walls for seats and the floor was strewed with fragrant 
hemlock boughs. 

For temporary hal^itations they often used conical wigwams less 
firmly built and smaller, being only about twehe or fifteen feet 
in diameter. The fire was built in the center and the smoke 
escaped through an opening at the top. The Indians were ex- 
tremely hospitable and always glad to welcome strangers to their 
homes where they would share with them their meals, consisting 
of fish or game and such vegetables as they could raise with their 
scanty knowledge of agriculture. An exception should be noted 
in the case of the Etechemins, however, tor they did not till the 
soil,*" but depended for food solely upon what they obtained by 
hunting and fishing. 

Although in a state of barbarism, the industrial life of the Indian 
is worthy of note. The Abenakis were more or less skilled in 
agriculture and made rude tools for themselves. They ingeniously 
planted their corn and beans in the same hills in order that the 
corn-stalks might serve as poles for the beans. They well knew 
how to boil the sap of the maple tree into sugar and syrup, but 
it was not until after the advent of the white man that the Indian 
learned how to make his maize into bread. The tradition of the 
proverbial indolence of the Indian warrior does not seem to be 
borne out in the life of these tribes. 

Their government was very simple in character, permitting 
great freedom to the individual and exacting little political sub- 
ordination. As has been said,-' the Bashaba was the great mon- 
arch of the region. The natives were divided into tribes in accord- 

5 Weymouth's True Relation, p. 146. 

6 Parkman, Jesuits in America, page xxii 

7 See page 62. 



64 SPRACIUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



ance with the totcmic clan system. In other words, the clans 
traced their origin to a common ancestor, the mystical bird or 
arjmal, and traced descent through the maternal line. Each tribe 
had its sagamore or chief and council of wise men known as sachems. 
It was their business to determine all questions pertaining to war 
and peace. The sagamore was chosen for life and was generally 
succeeded by his son or a near relative. Chiefs of the larger 
nations had under them subordinate chiefs who conducted the 
affairs of small tribes, and at stated seasons of the year special 
meetings of all the chiefs were held for the purpose of settling 
cjuestions affecting the whole nation. 

The Abenaki Indian was famous tor his gentleness and docility, 
and indeed he did lack that instinct of cruelt\- which was so evi- 
dent in the Iroquois and others. He was scrupulously honest 
with his neighbors, and was never given to unfair or treacherous 
dealings. He had a social code emanating from custom which 
was his law. His morals were generally good. His gratitude for 
favors received was deep and lasting, but just as deep and lasting 
was his remembrance ot an injury, — for "an Indian never for- 
gets." He was jealous and revengeful and felt it perfectly right 
to return evil for evil. Cruelty for its own sake he did not prac- 
tice, but only in revenge or retaliation. He was very bra\e and 
daring, the result of a se\'ere earh- training and he was wont to 
boast of his valorous deeds. Patience w^as one of his virtues, 
even in the face of real abuse. Although naturally silent, yet in 
the Indian councils he was often an impassioned orator. He was 
ambitious ot power and would strain every nerve in order to gain 
some coveted position. His thirst for intoxicating liqi\ors was in- 
tense and the white man's " fire water " proved a great curse to 
him. 

The primitive religious conception of the Maine Indian was 
animistic. He was wont to invest the inanimate things ot nature 
with flesh and blood; in other words he did indeed 

" See God in clouds and hear Him in the wind."^ 
The Indian was polytheistic belie\ing in a Great Spirit' and many 
lesser spirits, both good and evil. He was very superstitious and 
everything which partook ot the nature of the mysterious had for 
him a peculiar fascination. The name " manitou," given to good 

8 Pope; " Essay on Man", Book I, line 100. 

9 Some recent authorities are of the opinion that the idea of a creative or all-powerful spirit 
was beyond the Indian's conception, and that the Indian's " Great Spirit" was the invention of 
the Englishman and was elaborated by him. 



MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS 65 

spirits, in itself signifies mystery. Tiie Indian's God was hardly 
more than a personification of mystery for the Indian does not 
ascribe to his God an ideal character since he regards him as little 
better than his worshippers. He had his dwelling in a remote 
region somewhere in the West where he received the good Indian 
after death to enjoy immortal life in this blest abode. The un- 
worthy ones were gi\en o\er to be scalped by their enemies. The 
good spirits or tutelar deities were thought to ha\'e their abode in 
some tree, rock, or animal, which was venerated accordingly almost 
to the extent of idol worship. There were also many evil spirits, 
the most baleful ot which was a female spirit, who was regarded 
as the dispenser of death. By the performance of many rites and 
sacrifices the Indian sought to appease the wrath ot such enemies 
and to avert their evil influence. Among the Penobscot Indians 
there was a strong belie! in an evil spirit called Pamola who dwelt 
on Mount Katahdin. They feared to approach this place lest he 
devour them and nothing could induce them to overcome their fear. 
Interesting legends were handed down among them relating the 
experiences of luckless Indians whom he had sjjirited away to his 
wigwam in the interior of the mountain. Another evidence of the 
superstitious nature of the Indian is the powerful influence exerted 
over him b>' his Pow-wows, a sort of combination of priest and 
physician. In his eyes these men were vested with marvelous 
and supernatural powers, and were supposed to hold communion 
with spirits and demons. Great was the veneration in which these 
men were held, and this part of their religion seemed to be the 
most firmly grounded, for it was the last to surrender to the teach- 
ings of Christianit\'. — Such, in brief, was the life of the Maine 
Indian when first the European invaded these shores. 

III. Early English Relations ivith the Indians. — The British 
government, encouraged by the glowing reports of the pioneer 
voyagers, Gosnold and Pring,'° and stirred with jealousy by rumors 
of French expeditions to the New World, sent out George Weymouth 
in 1605 to explore the region along the coast of Maine and take 
possession in the name of the king. From this voyage dates 
almost the first knowledge we have of intercourse between the 
Maine Indians and the English. The policy followed by Weymouth 
in respect to the natives was unfortunate enough when viewed in 
the light of subsequent history, and his action is to be regretted. 

10 Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring had explored the coast of Maine in 1602-3. 



66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The beginning of the acquaintance of EngHsh and Indian, however, 
was most auspicious, for friendUness was manifested on both sides. 
After exploring the coast for some distance Weymouth anchored 
in Penobscot Bay and his men hunted, fished, and planted vege- 
tables on the fertile shore. The movements of the strangers soon 
attracted the natives and a party of the Indians encamped on the 
shore nearby, in order that they might better observe the men 
on the vessel. Three of the natives in a canoe approached to 
within a short distance of the ship but no amount of coaxing or 
of bribing with trinkets would induce the timid savages to come 
on board. A few kni\'es and beads were thrown to them in the 
canoe and they departed seemingly much delighted. In the morn- 
ing they returned and this time ventured on board. They were 
kindly recei\'ed, and the white men told them by means of signs 
that they wished to open trade with them. This evidently pleased 
them, and after being bountifully fed, they paddled away. From 
this time on more Indians were attracted to the strange ship and 
an extensive trade was opened, the natives exchanging skins of 
beaver, otter, and sable for the beads, knix'es, combs, and hatchets 
of the white men. 

The Indians would remain on deck for hours in the most friendly 
way and often the hospitable captain would in\ite them to a meal. 
They were particularly fond of peas, and on one occasion asked 
that they might take some to their squaws. The peas were given 
them in a pewter dish. That the>' were honest is shown b\- the 
fact that they caretulK- returned the shining pewter dish, which, 
because of their inherent lo\-e of glittering things, we know they 
must have co\eted. The white men in turn visited the Indians 
on shore where they were most hospitably entertained. One 
Owen Grififin remained over night with the natives, three of their 
number having been sent on board as hostages. All went well 
for a time and trade flourished, much to the advantage of the 
English, who, for trinkets of the value of five shillings, could obtain 
sometimes as many as forty valuable skins. One day a canoe 
approached the ship and its occupants made known to \Ve>'mouth 
that their chief and his men were at a little distance inland, where 
they had man\' furs for sale. \\'e\'mouth, suspecting treachery as 
usual, sent Griflin on shore to reconnoitre. He found two hundred 
and eight>-three men with the chief, and their bows and arrows, 
dogs and trained wolves so terrified him that he was sure of foul 



MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS 67 

dealing on the part of the innocent red men. He returned to the 
ship with his tale, and that night three Indians were decoyed on 
board by offers of the peas of which they were so fond, and locked 
into the cabin. Later the captain sent out a boat and two others 
were kidnapped by treachery and deceit. Hardly had they been 
hidden when royal messengers from the Bashaba drew near the 
ship, ignorant as }et of the fate of their friends. They were con- 
veying a very gracious invitation from the great chief, asking the 
strangers to visit him, but the guilty Weymouth, thinking it best to 
depart immediatel}' , did not accept. When the kidnapping of their 
warriors was discovered, friends of the prisoners came pite ously 
begging that they be returned, but the captain was inexorable and 
set sail with his prey. 

Nahanada, one of the kidnapped men, was a sagamore while 
his companions, Skitwarroes,'' Assecomet, Tisquantum, and Deha- 
mida were men of high rank. They were kindly treated, but the 
act of We>'mouth had made the name of Englishman a synonym 
for treachery and consequently the English settler was hated and 
feared by the native upon the coast of Maine. The captives were 
taken to England where they attracted much attention. Three 
of them were given to Sir Ferdinando Gorges who taught them 
English and learned from them much concerning the land from 
which they had come. By the information thus obtained he 
learned that this must be a goodly land, and, as a result the Plym- 
outh Company was formed for the purpose of colonizing it. Gorges 
himself says of the kidnapping of the Indians, — "This accident 
must be acknowledged to be the means of God of putting on foot 
and giving life to all our plantations.'"" 

Two years later the Popham colony was sent out and Skitwarroes, 
with them, returned to his native shores. They anchored off Stage 
Island, and the Indians soon began paddling about them in their 
canoes. These natives had probably not heard of the treachery of 
Weymouth, for they gladly began to trade with the Englishmen 
and seemed to rejoice at their coming. As Popham approached 
Pemaquid, however, the attitude of the natives changed and they 
fled from the white men in terror. It happened by some chance 
that Nahanada had found his way back to his home and he recog- 
nized Skitwarroes who had for so long a time been his companion 

11 Other spellings of the name are Skidwarroes and Shetwarroes. 

12 Drake's Book of the Indians: chap. 2, p. 2. 



68 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

in captivity. They embraced with great joy, and Popham's wel- 
come was assured. The natives invited them to visit the Bashaba, 
and Gilbert sailed eastward toward his abode until forced by un- 
iavorable weather to return. The chief, when he heard of the 
effort which had been made, sent his own son to open negotiations 
with reference to establishing trade. Gilbert received the envoys 
kindh", and on the following day, which was Sunda>', they attended 
public worship with the white men, conducting themseKes with 
dignity and reverence. 

These Indians farther toward the East were more approachable 
and kindlier in spirit than those on the Sagadahoc and the Popham 
colonists carried on a flourishing trade with them. It is a recog- 
nized fact that this trade was a great stimulus to further coloniza- 
tion. In addition to the other hardships which the little band of 
Englishmen suffered during the following w^inter, they in some way 
became involved in a quarrel with the Indians. After the death 
of Popham, there was little law and order in the colony and the 
Indians were ill-treated and insulted. There are various stories 
concerning their relations with each other during the winter, but 
the authenticity of these stories is uncertain. At any rate the 
Popham store-house was burned, whether by accident or by in- 
cendiary Indians, and the discouraged Gilbert with his remaining 
colonists abandoned their fort and returned to England where they 
painted the character of the Maine Indian in the blackest of terms. 

The English still visited the Maine coast for the purpose of 
trade, and two of the captains, Edward Harlow in 1611, and Thomas 
Hunt in 1614, had kidnapped several Indians and were more cruel 
than Weymouth because they sold them into slavery. John Smith, 
in 1614, and Thomas Dermer, in 1619, attempted to revive the 
settlements at Sagadahoc, and Hubbard says in his " Narrative:" 
" By Dermer's prudence and care, a lasting peace was effected 
betwixt the nati\es of the place and the English; and mutual 
confidence was restored so that the plantation began to prosper.'"^ 

By reason of this peace the settlements ot that region had an 
unbroken existence until the outbreak of the First Indian War. 
Traders from the Plymouth colony established a post at Cushe- 
nock, the site of Augusta, in 1628, and a peaceful traffic was carried 
on for thirty-four years. During this whole period of comparative 
friendliness they did nothing to impro\e the condition of the 

13 Hubbard, Narrative of Indian Wars: p. 289. 



MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS 69 

Indians and provided them with neither teachers nor preachers. 
When trade ceased to be profitable they lett them. Many of the 
coast settlers were a reckless, almost godless class ot people, who 
dealt in all ways treacherously with the Indians. Suffering from 
the lack of a clerg>'man in their midst and the habit of Sabbath 
observance they gave themselves o\'er to license and dissipation 
and inspired little respect and much terror in the hearts of their 
red neighbors. 

( To be continued ) 

TO THE PINE TREE STATE 

(Arthur W. Stewart) 

I Hail Thee, Pine Tree State, 

The land that gave me birth ; 
There is no fairer spot to me 

On God's green earth. 

I Hail Thee, Pine Tree State 

And my heart with rapture thrills 

As I look upon thy rivers, lakes 
And pine clad hills. 

I Hail Thee as a state 

Conservative 'tis true, 
But sure to reach success 

In whate'er you tr>- to do. 

I Hail Thee for thy statesmen 

Who have helped to place thy name 

High among thy sister states, 
High in the halls of fame. 

I Hail Thee for th\' writers. 

And the good that they have done 

In all the evils we've attacked, 
And the victories we have won. 

I Hail Thee for thy sires and dames, 

Of sturdy stock were they; 
We little know what they endured 

For this enlightened day. 



yo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

I Hail Thee for thy soldiers, 

Foremost in every battle fought 

To uphold the honor of their state 
And bring tyranny to naught. 

I Hail Thee for thy foremost place 
When of champions there is need ; 

As e\er may your motto be 
Dirigo — We lead. 

I Hail Thee Pine Tree State, 

I hail thee once again, 
And may your star forever shine, 

Great State of Maine. 

Augusta, Me., May, 1921. 



A BIT OF MAINE 

(Helen L. Worster) 

W'ith a box of bulbs to an absent friend 

I send a little bit of Maine, 
A shallow box can hold. 

To sprout upon your Jersey plain. 
And 'neath warm skies unfold. 

But if the magic power I had 

To make my wish come true. 
The sunset dream that last night clad 

Our hills, I'd send to you. 

The rain wet breeze to you should bear 
The Mayflower's breath, the lark's refrain, 

For your true heart, where'er you fare, 
Is still a bit of Maine. 



Bangor, April, 1921. 



THE WASHBURN FAMILY 71 

THE WASHBURN FAMILY OF LIVERMORE, MAINE 

Mr. R. M. Washburn, in a recent issue of the Boston Sunday 
Herald, referring to this family of famous sons of Maine, says in 
part: 

Its cradle, now in a private family museum at Livermore, Me., 
in the 11 children of Israel and Martha Benjamin Washburn, has 
rocked more renown, in quality and quantity, together, than any 
other, I believe. Their lives ought to teach the kind of mothers 
we know, howexer complacent now, in their own fancied triumphs, 
a lesson of humility. These lives are now recorded by me with 
more propriety than apparent, because I have been unable, as 
yet, to establish a kinship with them. 

These are the facts and figures of the 11 children, in the order 
of their birth, of Israel and Martha Benjamin Washburn, of whom 
I write. 

1 — Israel of Portland, Me. 1813-83. State representative; 
congressman ; Governor. 

2 — Algernon Sidney of Hallowell, Me. 1814-79. Banker. 

3 — Elihu Benjamin of Chicago, 111. 1816-87. Congressman; 
Secretary of state under Grant; minister to France. 

4 — Cadwalader Golden of Madison, Wis. 1818-82. Congress- 
man; go\ernor; Washburn-Crosby Flour Company. 

5 — Martha Benjamin Washburn Stephenson of Mandon, N. D. 
1820-09. 

6 — Charles Ames of Morristown, N. J. 1822-89. Elector from 
California; minister to Paraguay, 

7 — Samuel Benjamin of Avon, N. Y. 1824-90. Sea captain; 
naval officer, civil war. 

8 — Mary Benjamin Washburn Buffum of Louisiana, Md. 
1825-67. 

9 — William Drew of Minneapolis, Minn. 1831-12. Clerk of 
Congress; state representative; congressman; United States 
senator; Washburn-Pillsbury Flour Company. 

10 — Caroline Ann Washburn Holmes of Minneapolis, Minn. 
1833-20. 

11 — William Allen Drew of Livermore, Me. Died at 1 year. 

To sum up, the average age of these 1 1 children is 64. The last of 
them, a daughter, died in 1920. It is significant that the seven 
brothers who lived made their mark in six different states and 



72 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



were not borne on In* the inertia of family in one state. They 
include two great business men. In the public service, where they 
have been best known, they include two state representatives, 
four in Congress at the same time, one being clerk; two governors, 
two foreign ministers, one in France at the time of the Commune; 
one secretary of state and one United States senator. The Field 
family was a great family in quality, but yields to this in quantity 
of ciuality. 

Maine, to me, has not seemed alive enough to her great sons 
who are now dead. I once asked, in a town library there, tor a 
life of Blaine. The attendant, dazed, inquired what Blaine. I 
replied that it was my wife who wanted the book, but that I would 
return with the full name, which I had stupidly neglected to get. 
What state has greater names than Hale, Frye, Dingley, Reed and 
Blaine? 

A monument should be erected in Portland, where it can be 
easily reached and seen, on the Reed Esplanade, looking toward 
Mt. Washington to the west, by the mothers of Maine, to Martha 
Benjamin Washburn. It should be a shaft with her figure upon 
the top. It should be octagonal, and should bear upon its seven 
sides the names of these seven sons, and upon the eighth the infant 
boy and the three daughters. While fathers often live in history, 
the mothers, who mould the characters of the children, are too 
much forgotten. 

Of such has the great family of Washburn, of Maine, in quantity 
and quality, together, excelled. 



LETTERS 

Saint Cloud, Florida, March 21, 192L 
I have been greatly interested in your articles' on the Bench 
and Bar of Maine, but as a native of Waldo County I feel like 
calling your attention to the omission of names of men who were 
the peer of any lawyers at any other county bar. You placed 
Joseph Williamson the most prominent, giving E. K. Smart and 
A. G. Jewett casual notice. I do not for an instant suggest by 
design, for I know by experience in a small way the trials of a 
historian. 

1 The writer refers to an address on a Century of the Bar of Maine, delivered by the editor 
of the Journal, before the Maine Bar Association in January of the present year, and later pub- 
lished in the Lewiston Journal Magazine. 



LETTERS 73 

Jonathan G. Dickerson, who died a Judge, Neniiah Abbott, 

member of Congress in 1860, W. G. Crosby, formerly Governor, 

Enoch K. Boyle, County Attorney, W. H. Folger, Colonel in Army, 

later judge, Frank O. Nickerson, a general in the army, who died 

in Roshndale, Mass., four years since, at age of 91, a strong lawyer 

and persuasive advocate. A. G. Jewett was a classic scholar and 

fine gentleman, well read in the law, away back in 1840, when he 

contested with Hannibal Hamlin tor the Congressional nomination 

and nearly deieated him, afterwards minister to Peru. In later 

years Belfast was his home. During the last twenty years of his 

life he lived on a farm, gave but little attention to law books, 

but appeared in court in a short faded jacket, the terror of all 

lawyers; most courteous to the trial judge but a bulldozer to his 

opponent. He went to Rockland and tried cases against Gould, 

to Houlton, and went right to the marrow in the Powers case, 

to Portland against Judge Webb in a railroad damage suit, terribly 

embarrassing Webb b>' his personal attacks. Abbott was a great 

lawyer and advocate. When Jewett was lambasting him on one 

occasion the judge interfered. Abbott replied: " Don't stop him, 

Judge, for we shall never ha\'e one like him again." Dickerson 

was a leader of the wild cat faction of democracy and E. K. Smart 

of the Wool Head. Dickerson developed in law later. Smart 

never was great in the law, but one of the strongest and sturdiest 

politicians Maine ever had. Had he been with the majority party, 

his career the last twenty years of his life, would have left a 

name to be remembered. Enoch K. Boyle was a waif, an orphan 

from the poor farm, an orator and ad\-ocate. He li\ed on his 

will for years, having hemorrhage of the lungs at intervals, and 

could be tracked from his office to his home by blood. A fellow 

of fine preserve. Most genial in his association, most courteous 

to all. He had about ten years of successful practice, and then 

was taken away, less than 40. 

Col. N. H. Hubbard of Wlnterport would take fair rank with 
Joseph Williamson. Learned in the law, but not an advocate. 
They both prepared cases for sonie more brilliant fellow to present 
to the jury. Folger was a fine fellow, a good law>-er and fair 
advocate. 

I know you will pardon me for this letter, written from an im- 
pulse after returning from Tampa, after an absence of some weeks 
to find an accumulation of Lewiston Journals, that paper that has 
prevented me for 39 years from obtaining a divorce from the 



74 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

State of Maine. I, too, was a Statesman of Maine. As a follower 
of old Solon, and Senator from Waldo County in 1879. My 
room-mate being Chase of Sebec, with whom I corresponded to 
the day of his death. A good practical, solid, sensible gentleman. 
I now notice that his son has also represented the County in the 
Senate. 

W. \V. Thomas and (I think) Judge Morrison of Franklin County 
and myself, are the only survivors of that Senate of 79, the last 
of the Mohicans. Moody of the Council is back as representative 
from York. Nor must I forget Wm. H. McLellan of Belfast, 
Attorney General. Cool, learned in the law, an ingenious builder 
of all sorts of arguments in his mastery address to juries. Waldo 
County regarded him as one of her best. When A. P. Gould ad- 
vised that the Court had business to be referred to the Supreme 
Court, he said to the Conference they cannot revise their opinion 
in the Madigan Case. McLellan who opposed strenuously such 
reference exclaimed Mr. Gould, they will revise and find the law 
to do it. 

Well I will bring this incoherent epistle to a close. I w^as 76 
March 5, and have fully recovered my health in Florida, where 
I came a paralytic and physical wreck three years ago. 

I resided in Boston from 81 to 83, and in Chicago for 33 years 
where I edited the Chicago Opinion for 14 years. Have written 
some on old timers for Belfast Journal, occasionally for Lewiston 
Journal. 

Yours truly, 

CassHss Clay Roberts. 

JOHN BURROUGHS 

Mr. Freeman F. Burr of Augusta, Maine, geologist, employed 
by the Central Maine Power Company, contributes the following 
letter from the late John Burroughs, the great American geologist. 

In a note accompanying it he says: 

Enclosed is a copy of a letter from John Burroughs, and is one 
of several letters received from the great naturalist, all equally 
cordial and sincere, and all testifying to the simple, unassuming 
humanity of the man. In the date, I find that the year is omit- 
ted: it would not be a serious error to say that it was written 
in 1911. 

The son, Julian, was a college mate of mine at Harvard. The 
alphabetical arrangement in classes placed us side by side in the 



LETTERS 75 

philosophy course referred to in the letter, and it was through this 
accident that I first came in personal contact with Mr. Burroughs 
himsell. This must have been in 1899. 

It may be worth while to recall another incident. It was on 
the occasion of a reception to M. Henri Bergson, the distinguished 
French philisopher given in one of the halls of Columbia Uni- 
versity. Entering the hall, I looked for the lion of the occasion, 
and discovered him standing in the midst of a small group of 
earnest men and women. On the other side of the room was a 
much larger group, gathered about some person whom I could 
not at first identify: in a moment this person turned, and I found 
that the center of attraction was John Burroughs. 

West Park, N. Y., June 2d. 
Dear Mr. Burr: 

Yes, my son remembers you in Phil, 1 a at Harvard, & I recall 
being with him at one of the lectures. He is the Julian Burroughs 
to whom you refer. He is married & has two charming little 
girls. He li\'es here & runs the fruit farm. 

I do not think the gray & red squirrels ever cross. Last summer 
I heard of two gray red squirrels such as \ou describe not tar 
from here. I tried to see them but only caught a glimpse of the 
tail of one of them as it ran into a hole under the eaves of a house. 
Its tail was decidedly gray. The nest of oak leaves to which you 
reter is more like the work of the gray squirrel. I think you 
might shoot one of those squirrels for purposes of identification. 
Maybe a new species has suddenly appeared. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) John Burroughs. 

(From Prof William Otis Sawtelle, at Haverford College.) 

Haverford, Pa., March 21, 1921. 
My dear Mr. Sprague: — 

Realizing that all the nice things that can honestly be said about 
your Journal and the work that you are doing for Maine doesn't 
really help much, unless your subscription list is thereby increased 
I am enclosing check for four dollars and am asking you to send 
me two copies of the Journal. 

There are not many people in this part of the world who are 
interested in Maine history so I am unable to add any new names 
to your list of subscribers; but I am most anxious to show you 



76 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF ^lAIXE HISTORY 



in some tangible form, how much I appreciate what you have 
done and what you are doing for the State and what >'Our Journal 
means to me personally. 

Sincerely yours, 

Wm. Otis Sawtelle. 

(Ernest L. McLean, Augusta.) 

I am certainly glad to do my bit towards the support of a peri- 
odical of the merits of Sprague's Journal. 

(From Honorable Henry E. Dunnack, State Librarian, Augusta, Maine.) 

Flagg's " Alphabetical Index of Re\-olutionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine," is one of the finest pieces of work that has been carried 
out under \our direction. I hope you will soon start some other 
items. 

PATTEN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF BATH STARTED 

IN 1847 

The Patten Library Association in Bath was started by George 
F. and John Patten with 132 citizens, who, on October 9, 1847, 
signed a paper of agreement to become subscribers to a stock 
joint library and organized in the office of Israel Putnam, Bath's 
" war mayor," the doctor presiding, and the late E. S. J. Nealley, 
collector of customs for this port for many years, acting as secretary. 

The meeting in Dr. Putnam's office was November 8, 1847. Mr. 
Nealley continued as secretary until 1876 when he was followed 
by C. B. Lemont until his removal to Boston, when James S. 
Lowell became the secretary and has held the office since. George 
F. Patten was elected first president, holding the office until 1857. 
Caleb S. Jenks presided up to 1862; Amos Nourse, a leading 
physician of Bath and for a term U. S. senator from Lincoln 
county, to 1865; Rev. S. F. Dike, D. D., to 1870; Israel Putnam 
to 1876; E. S. J. Nealley to 1882; John Patten to 1887; Galen 
C. Morse until his death; Hon. Harold M. Sewall became presi- 
dent and is still the executive head. 

August 6, 1852, George F. and John Patten purchased at auction 
sale for vS300 the King library, all the books, cases, maps, globes 
that had been collected and used by Maine's first governor, Wil- 
liam King, and presented the property to the Library association 
on condition that " the same revert to the donors in event the 



PATTEN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION yj 



association should ever be dissolved and also on condition that a 
suitable room be obtained for the whole library." 

It was May 6, 1878, that John Patten, one of Bath's grand 
old citizens executed a deed of trust to the association, gi\ing- to 
it a house and lot on Center street and providing that whenever 
the city established a public library and appropriated not less than 
S300 yearh' for its maintenance, the propcrt>' should lie trans- 
ferred to the city. The following week the trust was accepted and 
the books were transferred from the hall in the top story of the 
building in which the Johnson bakery is located on Front street 
in January, 1880, to the Center street building where the library 
had its home until the present structure on the park was pre- 
sented by Galen C. Moses in 1887. 

This gift of Mr. Moses was on condition that a site be provided, 
he agreeing to pay j? 10,000 for the construction ot a suitable build- 
ing thereon. Time went on and the city government took no 
action toward providing a site, nor did it ever thank the generous 
donor for his gift. Finally, when it seemed that the offer would 
lapse, ladies and gentlemen came to the Bath Independent and 
requested that it would aid in obtaining, by one of its popular 
subscription efforts, money for the site. Even then, nothing was 
done for several months when those interested returned and again 
begged the Independent to act, saying that unless it did, " no one 
else would and that the offer of Mr. Moses would lapse." The 
Independent acted and a subscription movement was started like 
one of the recent war drives; the Torrey mansion on the present 
site of the library was purchased; then the Snow building on the 
extreme point ot the park was bought with its land adjoining the 
Torrey grounds, thus making a complete square of the park; 
George Edward Harding, for his part of the enterprise, had his 
firm of architects in New York city provide the plans of the 
building, which he presented the association. Roughly estimated, 
the total cost of the purchase of the properties on that corner of 
the park and the grading amounted to $8500. Then Mr. Moses 
made good his offer and laid out more than $10,000 in the con- 
struction of the library structure. December 29, 1890, he trans- 
ferred the property to the city and January 1, 1891, the library 
was opened to the citizens of Bath, free for all time. 

The above is a clipping from a newspaper If any of the statements are inaccurate, or im 
portant facts have been omitted, will the Patten Library kindly furnish them to the Journal ? 
(Editor.) 



78 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 
JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER 

(By the Editor) 

A brilliant human light was extinguished, when, on Sunday, 
May 8, 1921, at his home in Portland, occurred the death of James 
Phinney Baxter, father of Governor Percival P. Baxter. It is 
onl\- the truth to say that he was one of the greatest of Maine's 
eminent men of the present generation. He was born in Gorham, 
Maine, March 23, 1831, the son of Dr. Elihu and Sarah (Cone) 
Baxter. When nine years of age his parents moved to Portland 
which was e\er after his home. At that time there was in Port- 
land a far famed school for boys known as " Master Jackson's 
School." He was a scholar there until thirteen years ot age when 
he attended the Lynn Academy four years. At first his parents 
were desirous of his becoming a lawyer and he entered the office 
of Rufus Choate in Boston for this purpose, but failing health 
compelled him to return to Portland, and his legal studies thus 
interrupted were never resumed. He entered into the business of 
importing dry goods with the late William G. Davis who was later 
prominent in the affairs of the Maine Central Railroad. Baxter 
and Davis were pioneers in the canning and packing business and 
Maine owes them much for successfully de\'eloping this great 
industry in our State. 

Possibly his experience as a boy in the Portland schools con- 
vinced him that the opportunities for impro\ing educational con- 
ditions there were ^'ast. But from whatever source his inspira- 
tion may have come he was for a lifetime a consistent and per- 
sistent advocate of whatever would advance the cause of educa- 
tion in his city and his State. 

Successful in all of his undertakings he acquired a large fortune, 
but wealth did not narrow his vision, shri\-el his manhood, or dry 
up his milk of human kindness. His benevolence and philanthropy 
as a private citizen and his activities in organized charities are 
known to all men. 

To his native town and his adopted city he has donated public 
libraries, and has made other munificent gifts in other directions 
of a pul)lic nature. The city of Portland and the State of Maine 
have in innumerable ways been benefited by his life efforts. 

A publicist of strong convictions, fearless in his positions when 
believing that he was right, he was long an important factor and 
a moulder of thought in political and public affairs. And yet 
political management as such never appealed to him. He ne\-er 



JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER 79 

held but one important office, so far as we are aware, which was 
when the people of his city demanded his services as mayor which 
position he held for six years. 

He was at the time of his death president of the Portland Public 
Library, the Baxter Library of Gorham, the Benevolent Society 
and since 1890 of the Maine Historical Society, also an overseer 
of Bowdoin College. He was connected with the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Society, the American Antiquarian 
Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society and the Old Colon>' Historical Society. 
He also held the office of secretary of foreign correspondence of 
the American Antiquarian Society. 

But this many sided man will be best known in the field of 
literature and historical research, and as an authority on New 
England history, especially that portion of it pertaining to Maine's 
colonial period. In this regard he has left monuments for him- 
self which will last through the ages. 

His intellectual activities for the past century have amazed 
those of his friends who fulh^ realized what a busy life he led along 
other and diverse lines. In his younger days Mr. Baxter con- 
tributed poetry to literary journals like The Home Journal, Shil- 
laber's Carpet Bag, Godey's Lady's Book, the Portland Tran- 
script, etc. We have not the necessary data at hand to enumerate 
all of his labors as an author. Williamson's Bibliography of 
Maine, published in 1896, has a list of twenty-seven at that time. 
Among his most important works are The Trelawney Papers, 
George Cle\'e and His Times, The British Invasion from the 
North, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and His Province of Maine, The 
Pioneers of New France in New England, The Voyages of Jacques 
Cartier, Journal of Lieut. William Digby, 1776-1777. Only six 
years ago (1915), he contributed to the literature of the world 
an important and learned study of the Bacon-Shakespeare con- 
troversy. This was published under the title of " The Greatest 
ot Literary Problems " and elicited much discussion among re- 
viewers and men of letters. 

Twenty-four volumes of the Documentary History of Maine, 
have been published all of them part of the Collections of the 
Maine Historical Society. The first two volumes were edited by 
William Willis, and Charles Deane, and the two volumes of the 
Farnham Papers, were edited by Mary Frances Farnham. The 
other twenty volumes which include the Trelawney Papers, were 



8o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF AIAIXE HISTORY 

edited by Mr. Baxter. The nineteen volumes of the Baxter Manu- 
scripts represent one of the greatest feats of historical research 
e\er performed by any one person that we have knowledge of. 
Mr. Baxter, at his own expense visited and personally examined 
all of the records, letters, deeds, or writings of any description 
pertaining to the history of Maine, in the archiv^es of Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, Quebec, London, and Paris, 
and jjrocured copies ot them. These are what constitute the 
"Baxter Manuscripts." They are invaluable to all students of 
Maine history. No accurate story of Maine's Colonial and Revo- 
lutionar}' periods, or of any parts thereof, can ever in all the fulness 
of time, be written or compiled without reference to them. 

It is truly a large footprint on the sands of time. It is the 
record of a great and worthy achievement. 



TABLET TO THE LATE SAMUEL L. BOARDMAN 

It has been the custom of the Maine Federation of Agricultural 
Associations, which comprise most of the agricultural organizations 
in Maine, to erect, every alternate year, in the Maine College of 
Agriculture a bronze tablet in memory of someone who has dis- 
tinguished himself promoting agriculture in this state. Recently 
in connection with the Farmers' week activities at the college, a 
tablet was erected and dedicated in memory of Samuel Lane 
Boardman, who died in 1914, and who was well known as an 
agricultural editor and writer. 

Mr. Boardman was born in Bloomfield, now the town of Skow- 
hegan, in 1836. He was assistant editor of the Country Gentleman, 
Albany, N. Y., in 1859; editor of the Maine Farmer from 1861 to 
1878; editor of the American Cultivator, Boston, in 1873; editor 
and publisher of the Home Farm, Augusta from 1880 to 1886; 
agricultural editor of the Kennebec Journal from 1889 to 1892; 
secretary of the Maine State Agricultural Society, 1855 to 1874; 
member of the Maine Board of Agriculture from 1872 to 1874; 
trustee of the Maine State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, 1874 to 1879; member of the board of managers of the 
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 1885 to 1887. 

The dedicatory exercises were followed by a meeting of the 
Maine Federation of Agricultural Associations. 



EARLY CHURCHES IN P(3RTLAND 8i 

EARLY CHURCHES IN PORTLAND 

(By Florence Whittlesey Thompson) 

Prior to the Revolutionary War there were but two churches 
in that part of Fahiiouth which is now Portland. One was the 
old First Parish, a rough log house on India Street near Middle 
Street, in w^iich Parson Smith began his noted pastorate in 1727, 
and which was replaced in 1740 by a new wooden structure on 
the site of the present First Parish Church on Congress Street. 
The other was Old St. Paul's, an Episcopal Church on Middle 
Street at the corner of Church Street. This, also a wooden struc- 
ture, was built in 1765. Old St. Paul's was an off-shoot of the 
First Parish, but not its first one, for there were others in neigh- 
boring villages, but St. Paul's was the first that was not trinitarian 
Congregational. 

There were many reasons why certain of Parson Smith's parish- 
ioners sought another church. Some did not like his preaching. 
Some objected to paying the salaries of two ministers, those of 
Parson Smith and his new colleague Rev. Mr. Deane, but many 
w^ere of English birth and had been brought up in the Church of 
England and had only been attending the First Parish Church 
because there was no other church. In 1763 the break came. 
Forty men, many of whom were men of affairs and position in 
the town, organized themselves into a parish and asked the Rev. 
Mr. Wiswell of the Congregational Church of New Casco to be 
their minister. He accepted their call, went to England for Epis- 
copal ordination, and returned to be the first minister of Old St. 
Paul's where he remained until the church and Portland were 
burned in 1775 by the British. 

Those members of the new parish who had been members of 
the First Parish continued to be taxed for the support of the 
mother church, but after 1772 the First Parish returned to Mr. 
Wiswell the money that had been collected from St. Paul's and 
two years later joined St. Paul's in a petition to the General Court 
in Boston to abolish the tax. In the meantime, the English 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts con- 
tributed twenty pounds a year towards the support of the minis- 
ter of St. Paul's. 

The Revolutionary War had a most disastrous effect upon both 
the First Parish and the Episcopal Church, but especially upon 
the latter. As most of its members were royalists, many, including 



82 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




(Cnn-tesy of J. P. Gi'cnier, Supt. State Printing) 
FIRST PARISH CHURCH, PORTLAND, MAINE 

the minister, left the country. Parson Smith's house being burned, 
he moved to Windham to hve with his son. His colleague, Mr. 
Deane, moved to Gorham and there were only occasional services 
held by them in Portland. 

The First Parish Church, because of its location (then considered 
far up town) escaped the ravages of the fire that destroyed the 
lower town. Although it was badly shattered by the enemy's 
firing it was not beyond repair and remained the meeting place 
for Congregationalists until the present beautiful stone church 
was built in 1826. 



EARLY SETTLEMENT ON THE KENNEBEC 83 

There were no Episcopal services during the war and it was 
not until 1783 that the remnant of the Episcopal Church met to 
reorganize. In 1787 a second edifice was erected which was of 
wood like the first and on the site of the old church. Owing to 
the distressing effects of the war, the church was in a struggling 
condition for fifteen years or more. 

In 1803 a splendid group of men whose names are still known 
in Portland history took the church in hand. They sold the 
church and lot at public auction, and bought another lot a block 
further up the street where they built a new church on Middle 
Street facing Pearl Street. This was a brick church with a mas- 
sive tower and an open belfry in which hung a deep toned bell. 
This church continued to be known as St. Paul's until 1839 when 
the parish was again reorganized under the name of St. Stephen's, 
by which name it was known until it was burned in the great 
Portland fire of 1866. 

In 1820 during the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Ten Broeck, while 
this organization was still called St. Paul's, the Diocese was 
formed — the same year in which the State of Maine was admitted 
to the Union — so that in 1920 both the Diocese and the State 
celebrate their Centenary. 



AN EARLY SETTLEMENT ON THE KENNEBEC 

(By Robert H. Gardiner. ) 

Few localities along the Kennebec River offer more interesting- 
history than the present town of Dresden. It was a part of what 
was known as the Frankfort Plantation which includes the present 
towns of Dresden, Wiscasset, Alna and Perkins. Later on in 1760 
these towns were incorporated under the name of Pownalboro in 
honor of the Massachusetts governor of that date. Pownalboro 
(Dresden) became the shire town and so remained for 34 years. 
In 1794 Dresden, Perkins and Alna were set off, while the name of. 
Pownalboro was retained for that section now known as Wiscasset 
This latter name was adopted in 1802 and the good old name of 
the original incorporation was lost to that section. 

Pioneer life always included protection against the Indians, so 
we find records of a block house where all could take refuge in the 
time of attack. This house no longer exists, but close to it in point 
of space was built in 1761 a large Court House which still remains. 



84 vSPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Many a conflict between the Garcliners, Bayards and Qtiincys 
took place within these walls and here rang the eloquence of Presi- 
dent John Adams, Judge Gushing and the Sewalls. In 1760 the 
famous Boston Massacre case was tried here and John Adams the 
lawyer for the defence of Captain Preston, travelled from Boston 
to Pownalboro on horseback following a blazed trail, a far cry to 
our present speed by automobile, but was the journey less pleas- 
urable? This old court house is now the residence of direct de- 
scendants of Samuel Goodwin, the first owner, who had his grant 
directly from the builders, The Plymouth Company. The Good- 
win family preserve as nearly as possible the old furnishings which 
include valuable portraits of Thomas Johnson, whose mother was 
a daughter of Samuel Goodwin, and of Rebecca Prescott, grand- 
daughter of Samuel Goodwin. The upper stor\- of the house re- 
mains with one exception as in the old court days. The old court 
room has been partitioned off into bedrooms. 

Battles of tongues were not the onl\- kind that waged in Pow- 
nalboro. During the Revolutionary War, Mr. Jones, familiarly 
known as " Mahogany Jones " on account of his dark complexion, 
prompted b\' i^atriotism headed a small party who w^ent to the 
house of Brigadier Gushing, took him out of bed, carried him o\'er 
to the Penobscot and delivered him to the British. 

Any sketch of Pownalboro or Dresden would be far from com- 
plete which does not include the stor\' of St. John's Church and 
the Rew Jacob Baile>', the first rector and missionary to these 
parts. Through the influence of Dr. Sylvester Gardiner, a glebe 
lot of one hundred acres was granted by the proprietors of the 
Kennebec Purchase and by November 1770 the church was erected 
and sufficienth' completed for the first service. Near by it was 
built the parsonage, long promised to Mr. Bailey. He gave most 
unselfish de\'Otion to his scattered flock, but during the Revolution 
showed such loyalty to the Ro>'al cause that in 1778 persecution 
was so great that he was obliged to flee the country. The loss of 
the shepherd was followed by the desertion of the flock and both 
church and parsonage fell down. Thus the lot was forfeited, but 
the Company by suit regained possession and the property was 
granted to Trustees, (Samuel Summer Wilde, then of Hallowell, 
a justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts who removed to 
Massachusetts on the separation of Maine; James Bridge of 
Augusta; and Robert Hallowell Gardiner), for the benefit of the 
minister of the Congregational Society in Dresden, so long as no 



A PETER EDEvS ITEM 85 

Episcopal Society shall exist in said town, but when an Episcopal 
Society shall be established and a minister settled over it in said 
town then for the use and benefit or said Episcopal minister. Said 
society was established, but only fragments of its records remain 
and the fund is still held by succeeding Trustees for the benefit 
of the Episcopal Church. 



A PETER EDES ITEM 



A valuable and interesting historical document has l)cen given 
to the Bangor Historical Society, in the form of a letter written 
by Peter Edes, who came to Bangor o^•er 100 years ago and estab- 
lished the first newspaper to be published there, to Sam Dutton, 
Esq., one of the city's prominent early residents. The letter 
inquires of Mr. Dutton of the outlook in Bangor for the estab- 
lishment of a newspaper, Mr. Edes, who had been conducting a 
newspaper in Augusta, having been obliged to give up his busi- 
ness there because of a falling off of his business due to the entry 
in the field of a third newspaper in Hallowell. Mr. Dutton's 
reply must have been fa\orable as Peter Edes came to Bangor 
shortly alter and set up his plant. The historical society came 
into possession of the letter thru the kindness of William J. Dut- 
ton, of San Francisco, Cal., grandson of Sam Dutton. 

The letter follows: 

Augusta, March 29, 1814. 
Sam Dutton, Esq. 
Dear Sir: 

Since Mr. Goodale has established a News Paper in Hallowell, 
my customers are falling off. I therefore think it my duty to 
seek a place where I can procure a living for my family, as I am 
confident three papers cannot be published here to any profit ; 
and the Hallowell people will do any thing to pre\ent their paper 
from being discontinued — I wish I could say the same of Augusta. 

A printer is wanted at Bath, and I ha\-e received a letter from 
a gentleman there on the subject; I have mentioned the business 
to some of my friends here, and they advise me in case I should 
leave Augusta, to prefer Bangor. 

If it be the wish of the people at Bangor and the neighboring 
towns, to have a printer, be so good as to draft a subscription 



86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

paper with a prospectus and forward it to me, and I will strike 
some off and send them to \ou for circulation. Tho the paper 
would be published at Bangor I think some general title would 
be more taking with the people, such as The Hancock, or Hancock 
& Washington. A few gentlemen might get together and agree 
upon some title. If seven or eight hundred good subscribers 
could be obtained I would make arrangements to be with them. 
In which case I should depend upon some gentlemen to assist 
in the editorial department. 

I shall rely solely on your opinion with respect to the eligibility 
of the place for a printer confident you would not advise me to 
a measure that you thought would be injurious to me. 

Your friendship and assistance in this undertaking will confer 
an obligation upon me, which I would endeavor to cancel when 
I become an inhabitant of Bangor. 

Your with respect and esteem, 

Peter Edes. 

A line from you as soon as convenient will be received with 
pleasure, and I hope satisfaction. 



GENERAL BUTLER ONCE A MAINE SCHOOL TEACHER 

No less a personage than General Benjamin F. Butler taught 
two or more terms in the little schoolhouse in Corn\-ille, Maine. 
Butler was a nati\e of New Hampshire but studied for a time at 
Colby College. Being poor he worked his way thru college by 
teaching school. That is how he came to be a resident of Corn- 
ville. Ben was a picturesque character e\en in his youth with 
the same lop-eye he carried in older life, which gave an uncertain, 
cjuizzical expression in his facial landscape, and kept the college 
from being dull. Calvinism held full swa>' at Colb>- when he was 
a student, and absence from prayers or sermons was a heinous 
offence. The faculty consisted of nine doctors of di\inity and with 
the student body numbered about 100. The president one Sun- 
day in preaching about the elect calculated that only about six 
of 100 souls could enter the kingdom of hea^•en, wherefore Butler 
petitioned to be excused from further attendance on di\'ine ser- 
vice, because he said with the nine doctors of divinity in his 100 
he stood no chance. Only the audacious sarcasm for which he 
was always noted sa\ed him from expulsion for such sacrilege. 

— Lewiston Journal. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 87 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 



This Departj^ient is open to i Conducted by Augustus O. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM AEL TEACH- I ThOMAS, STATE SuPERINTEND- 

ERS AND PUPILS. ! Ent oe Sciiools, x\ugusta, AIe. 



EXTRACTS FROM MAINE HISTORIES WRITTEN BY 
SCHOOL CHILDREN 

(By Augustus O. Thomas.) 

No study is more enticing than the achievements of men and 
the study becomes doubh- interesting when it has to do with the 
beginnings of things with which we are now perfectly famiHar, 
Many of the schools of our state, from the little country school 
on the hillside to the girls in our state normal schools, are doing 
research work in local history and are producing some very fine 
stories of the beginnings of their towns. Miss Nellie Jordan, with 
her class in the Aroostook State Normal School, produced some 
wonderful books, each student taking for her own work her local 
town. In some instances, the book compiled is a community 
affair, each child contributing some fact or some paragraph or 
some source material from which the paragraph is written. I hope 
the work may be carried on in future years. Teachers who ha\e 
not begun it will find explicit directions in our little booklet, " One 
Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading Facts of 
Maine." 

I am giving herewith some of the paragraphs culled from the 
books sent in to the office by schools throughout the state. It 
will be noted that these paragraphs are finished exercises in Eng- 
lish and show a \-ery nice discrimination of leading facts. It is 
really worth something to the child or even to a high school stu- 
dent to make some original in\'estigation from the sources of 
information, collect that data around a central idea and write it 
up definitely and purposefully. I am pleased to call the atten- 
tion of the teachers of the state to the following very fine para- 
graphs or extracts from Maine books. 



88 SPRAGUE'S J(3URXAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



TOWN HISTORIES 



HISTORY OF CARIBOU 

(By Charlotte F. Doe.) 

" One of the important e\'ents in the history of Caribou was the 
building of the dam across the Aroostook River in 1889 by the 
Caribou Water Compan\'. In 1887, the first Electric Light Com- 
pany was organized and a plant was installed and run by steam 
on the banks of the Caribou Stream. In 1892, the Water Com- 
pany installed the power house at the dam." 

HISTORY OF SHERMAN 

(By Viola M. Hughes.) 

" Growth of Sherman Mills. There are now sixty-five residences 
in town, one modern flour mill, a starch factory, four grocery 
stores, three blacksmith shops, two dry goods stores, a grange 
store, a harness shop, a well eqtiipped garage and a few other 
stores which deal in miscellaneous goods. The grange store does 
from 880,000 to $90,000 of business each year. The census this 
year gave the population of the town a little over eleven hundred. 
The town is steadily increasing in size and wealth." 

NEW SWEDEN 

(By Minnie O. Peterson) 

" In 1873, the colony had increased to six hundred. Fifteen 
hundred acres of land had been cleared, four hundred of which 
were laid down to grass. There were 22 horses, 14 oxen, 100 
cows, 40 cahes, 33 sheep and 125 swine owned by the colony. 
The commissioner recommended that all special state aid to New 
Sweden should cease as the colony could very well take care of 
itself." 

MADAWASKA 

(By Elsie Chassie.) 

" One of the first attentions of the Maine governor was to make 
known to his new subjects the constitution under which they 
were henceforth to live. It was for this purpose that an Irish- 
Catholic of good education and well acquainted with the French 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 89 

language, James Madigan, was sent to them as a civil missionary. 
Madigan went over the country giving lectures and teaching the 
people about the U. S. constitution, the administration and the 
civil government. He was for a time postmaster, instructor, col- 
lector of taxes and magistrate for the whole region. But as soon 
as one locality was ready to take up the administration of its own 
affairs, he would pass his functions to the citizens." 

H ARTE AND 

(By Gertrude Davis.) 

" Perhaps one of the most important and interesting of the 
early settlers was William Moore. He erected a log house not 
far from where the offices of the American Woolen Co. stand at 
present. Mr. Moore built a saw mill which soon became a very 
busy place, as there was no other for several miles from there. 
It is related that the original mill was built entirely of wood, 
everything being made from wood but the saw. The first dam 
he built of logs and it was not far from the dam owned by the 
American Woolen Co. at present. It is said that so little dis- 
turbed was the wilderness by the encroachments of the settlers, 
that at times Mr. Moore allowed the machinery in his mill to 
run all night in order that it might frighten awa}' the bears and 
other forest prowlers." 

HIRAM 

" General Peleg W^adsworth, a graduate of Harvard College, 
was Hiram's great educator in the early da>s. W^hen eighty years 
of age he rode through the town on horse back, announcing that 
he had provided a private school at the Town House and wanted 
all the good little boys to attend free of expense." 

FORT GEORGE — CASTINE 

(By Frieda W. Hatch.) 

" Its history dates back to the year 1779 when Great Britain 
was at war with her colonies. The Americans were mostly de- 
pendent on the Maine seacoast for their supplies of lumber, fish, 
etc., and to prevent them from getting these, the English deter- 
mined to establish a military post there. Castine, or Bagaduce 
as it was then called, was chosen for the site of this and late in the 



90 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

spring of the year 1779, British soldiers, about seven hundred in 
number, landed and began clearing the land." 

" Castine has had many experiences. It has been held by the 
Indians, Dutch and English. After the Revolution, Castine be- 
came rapidh' settled and for a long time it was the most impor- 
tant mart of business in the eastern part of Maine. Ship building 
was formerly the leading industry." 

SCHOOLS 



FORT FAIRFIELD — TOWN SCHOOLS 

(By Eva M. McShea.) 

" Another important change in 1881 was the purchase of text- 
books by the town. We may picture the hard times of the early 
students when we consider the condition of the country, how hard 
it was for most of the people to make both ends meet. W^e can 
picture the sacrifices, and what a joy it must have been to many 
bovs and girls when they were told that their books were to be 
free." 

PRESQUE ISLE 

(By Alda E. Haines.) 

" The first school in the village was held in a room above the 
saw and grist mill of Dennis Fairbanks who was the founder of 
the town. This school was taught by the daughter of Mr. Fair- 
banks who had what was then considered a good education. She 
must certainly have had patience, enthusiasm and courage or the 
inconveniences of such a room and the lack of ecjuipment would 
have made the school a failure. That it was not a failure we 
are sure, since the boys and girls who attended it became Presque 
Isle's most honored citizens." 

HOULTON — HIGH SCHOOL 

(By Winifred Duplisea.) 

" In 1915 there began a new era in the history of Houlton High 
School with the completion of the new building. This building 
was erected just beyond the old Central Building at a cost of 
$50,000. It is a large brick building, one of the best in Maine, 
containing in addition to its many recitation, study and lecture 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 91 

rooms, well stocked physical and chemical laboratories, domestic 
art and science rooms, typewriting rooms, manual training 
rooms, gymnasium and auditorium. It is furnished throughout 
with hard wood, and has a steam heating system, and is well 
lighted with electric lights, while its ventilating system is exceed- 
ingly good." 

PRESQUE ISLE— RUR.\L SCHOOLS 

(By Mercie Ruth Wilson.) 

" The schools should be gi\-en great credit in the ways that they 
have helped themselves. Nearly every rural school has its own 
treasury with a goodly sum in it. This year the Whittaker school 
raised through community entertainments one hundred and eighty 
dollars. Practically every school has good pictures, a small library, 
a bubbler drinking fountain, oil stove for warm lunch, organs or 
victrola with cabinet. The Reach school is the only one to have 
a piano. Sash curtains have been made by the children and hung 
at the windows. The money is usually raised by means of the 
old-fashioned box social, many schools raising one hundred dollars 
at one social." 

AROOSTOOK STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

(By Chrystal E. Waddell.) 

" During the first two years, the students were required to 
board in private families. This made the work much more diffi- 
cult on account of distance. In 1905, a beautiful dormitory w^as 
erected for the girls. At that time, it was the best in the state." 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Spragaie, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
Rivei". 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

FIRST TEACH THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE 
THEIR OWN TOWN, COUNTY AND STATE AND YOU HAVE 
GONE A LONG WAY TOWARD TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 



Preserve this issue of the Journal. You will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations ! It will be of priceless value 
to them. 



ORIGIX OF THE STATE NAME OF MAINE 

The National Geographic Magazine in an article on " The 
Origin of American State Names " (Aug. 1920, p. Ill) says: 

The generally accepted version of the origin of the name of 
Maine is that it was so called by some early French explorers 
alter the French pro\-ince of that name, wherein was located the 
private estate of Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I. of England. 

There is another meaning ascribed to the name, fairly well 
supported by authorities. According to this \'ersion, the fisher- 
men on the islands along the coast of Maine always referred to 
that region as the " Mayn land," and in support of this theory 
we find that the colony referred to in a grant of Charles I. to Sir 
Fernando Gorges in 1639 as " the province or county of Mayne." 



:djtorials 93 



THE MAINE NATURALIST 

Is the name of the latest Maine periodical to appear upon our 
table. Two numbers on April 1 and October 1 of each year are 
to be issued at ol.OO per year. It is published b\' the Knox 
Academy of Arts and Sciences at Thomaston, Maine. Norman 
Wallace Lermond, a well known student of natural history, biol- 
ogy, etc., is its managing editor. Its " department editors" are 
all experienced research writers along these lines as follows : 
Arthur H. Norton, Portland; Prof. Alfred O. Gross, Brunswick; 
Alton H. Pope, Waterville; Edith M. Patch, Orono; Prof. C. H. 
Batchelder, Orono; Edwin W. Gould, M. D., Rockland; Louise 
H. Coburn, Skowhegan; Prof. John M. Briscoe, Orono; Prof. 
Edward H. Perkins, Waterville; Prof. Wm. L. Powers, Machias. 
It has several fine engravings of beautiful specimens of Maine 
botany, birds, etc., and a photograph likeness of Dr. Dana W. 
Fellows, President of the Josselyn Botanical Society of Maine. 
There is certainly an immeasurable need for a Maine publication 
devoted to this work of such value to science and to Maine. 
The Journal extends its congratulations, cordial welcome and 
bestows its blessing, sincerely hoping that the people of our State 
will gi\"e it their generous support to which it is entitled. 

The editor in\ites all who are interested in this phase of Maine 
history in the following note: 

" We want every scientist, naturalist, nature lover, student and 
teacher in Maine, young and old, to become a member of our 
Knox Academy family, and to make free use of the Naturalist in 
recording their observations, their ' finds,' telling about their trips 
to the woods, fields, lakes and seaside. Tell the rest of us some- 
thing of the habits, songs or actions of the birds, mammals, in- 
sects, flowers, etc., seen on these trips. Work out the life history 
of some insect — there are thousands of insects whose life his- 
tories are unknown, or only partly known — note the kinds of 
insects \isiting the difterent kinds of flowers. There is much still 
to be learned of the habits of birds and animals (all kinds of ani- 
mals, from the amoeba to man). Send in photographs. We shall 
award prizes to young nature students making the best ones." 



The fountain head of organized eftort in historical research and 
history teaching in the schools, in this country, is the American 



94 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Historical Association. It was organized at Saratoga, N. Y., 
Sept. 10, 1884, and incorporated by Congress, Jan. 4, 1889. 

It is obliged by its act of incorporation to report annually to 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, concerning its pro- 
ceedings and the condition of historical study in America. These 
reports are printed by the go\ernment. Its 33d report for the 
year 1917, has just been issued at Washington. The meeting for 
that year was held in Philadelphia, Dec. 27-29. 

Since 1904, a conference of delegates of historical societies has 
been held in connection with its annual meetings. 

The above mentioned report (page 26) says: " At these con- 
ferences, are considered the problems of historical societies — - for 
example, the arousing of local interest in history, the marking 
of historic sites, the collection and publication of historical mater- 
ial, the maintenance of historical museums, etc." 

Since 1911, it has assumed a guiding interest in that invaluable 
periodical the History Teachers Magazine. It co-operates with all 
State and local historical societies. 

In Maine there are only four societies allied with it. These are: 

The Maine Historical Society, Portland; the Bangor Historical 
Society, Bangor; the Piscataquis Historical Society, Dover, and 
the Maine Genealogical Society, Portland. The states altogether 
have a total of 350 of these societies. Massachusetts leads the 
nation with 75; other New England States are as follows: 

Maine 4, New Hampshire 3, Vermont 1, Rhode Island 5. Among 
other States, Penns>'hania has 45, New York 43, Illinois 36 and 
Indiana 27. 

OUR ANCESTRY 

On May 3, 1921, when the U. S. Senate were debating the ques- 
tion of restricting immigration to America, that giant debator, 
Senator Reed, of Missouri, made reference to American ancestry 
in a general way. The Senator's pungent remarks are historically 
true and apply to the origin of the people ot Maine, the same as 
they do to those of all the New England States and all other por- 
tions of the country as well. 

We append the following brief excerpts from his speech: 
But where did you come from? I question whether there is a 
man in this room whose ancestors have been here four genera- 
tions who can say that he comes from any one blood. In your 



EDITORIALS 05 



veins meet and mingle the bloods of many peoples. Do you call 
yourself an Englishman? Then what are you? English blood 
is a polyglot, if such a thing be upon all this earth — the original 
Celtic stock conquered by a German tribe, overrun by the Ital- 
ians, who were called Romans then; partially conquered b\- the 
Danes and their blood left there; and then another German tribe, 
which gave to Britain the name of England, because that tribe 
was the tribe of Angles; then a mixed breed of Norsemen and 
French, who had established themselves in part of France and 
who had named it Normandy because the Norsemen had overrun 
it. This breed of English is therefore a breed of man\' breeds, 
and I have no question it was the meeting and the mingling of 
these different strains of blood which made the Englishman what 
he is to-day, the most dominant character in all the world, the 
most determined in his policies, the most deathless in his deter- 
mination, the great conquering race, that with but 38,000,000 
Britishers in the British Isles floats the flag of England over one- 
third of the world's surface and over one-third of its population. 
So, if you are English, 3'ou are pretty well crossed up. 

But why spend time over there? Let us come home. At the 
time of the Revolution, 26 different languages were spoken in 
the city of New York. We had the Pennsylvania Dutch with 
us then, so provincial, so attached to their old customs, that in 
parts of Pennsylvania to-da>- they still speak their original tongue, 
although the ancestors of some of them came here 175 years ago. 

Then there were the French Huguenots. Somebody proposed 
here a moment ago to close the door on account of religion. There 
is not the descendant of a French Huguenot in the United States 
whose ancestor did not come here to escape religious persecution. 
They were the outcasts of their country. They were driven away 
because they did not worship God according to the forms and 
ceremonies which had been laid down for them b\' others. So 
they came in great numbers, and to-day every man I know of 
who has a drop of that blood in his veins is proud to boast of it. 

How did your ancestors get here, anyway? Do you think that 
God Almighty went around and picked out a few select indi- 
viduals of the highest character and morals and respectability 
and brought them here, and you ha^•e descended from that par- 
ticular stock? You are descended from people who came here 



96 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF AIAINE: HISTORY 

not one whit better than the men and women who are coming 
now. A lot of your ancestors worked their passage over here 
as bondsmen and sold themselves into temporary slavery in order 
to get here. Some of you may find, if you will go back far enough, 
that your great-great-great-grandmother was sold on the auction 
block and paid for in long, green tobacco by the enterprising gentle- 
man over here who wanted a wife. Some of you may easily now 
trace your ancestors back to the fellow who came over here with- 
out a dollar in his pocket, clattering wooden shoes upon the docks, 
with a wife following him, with an old shawl over her head and a 
pack of kitchen tools upon her back. 



You Can^t Go Wrong 

In Boosting Maine Strong 

The first real action in the state-wide industrial development for 
Maine was started by The Lincoln Worsted Company, where a fine 
brick factory is now bein,<i erected, and you can not only make a 
sound, profitable investment, but, help boom Maine by purchasing; at 
this time for what you can afford of the 8'^ accumulative, preferred 
stock, of THE LINCOLN WORSTED COMPANY, and receive what 
generally goes to bankers, — a fifty per cent, of bonus, in common 
stock. Par value of both classes of stock $10.00 per share. 

For further particulars address THE LINCOLN WORSTED 
COMPANY, LINCOLN, MAINE, L. .1. Co burn. Vice President. 



Coin and Stamp Collectors 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

Prices I Pay — of every U. S. Coin 
Avorth over face — 15 cts. 

W^ANTED What are your wants? Perhaps 

Rare Coins, Stamps and Curios I can supply them 

Stamp Catalogues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 

W. B. GOULD 

292 Hammond St. Bangor, Maine 



JULY— AUGUST— SEPTEMBER 




The LESLIE E. JONES Co. 

Office Outfitters 

Typewriters of all Makes. Wood & 

Steel Filing Equipment 

416-17 EASTERN TRUST BLDG. 
BANGOR, MAINB 



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Municipal, Railroad and Public Utility 
Issues. Specialists in Maine Securities 

Augusta Portland Bangor 



Sltf^ Mat^rmlb Ulnrmng ^^nttn^I 

Goes to press later than any other paper reaching Central Maine. It 

handles messages by wire up to 3 o'clock in the morning. If you 

want the latest news, READ THE SENTINEL. 

$5.00 per year by mail for cash. 



IT PAYS TO SAVE 



Lay your plans to start your savings 
account with this bank on your very 
next pay-day. Set aside One Dollar — more if you can spare it — come to 
the bank and make your first deposit. Small sums are welcome. 

Put system into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little regularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are in duty 
bound to pay the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The 
dollars you save now will serve you later on when you will have greater 
need for them. 

PISCATAQUIS SAVINGS BANK, Dover, Maine. 

p. E. GUERNSEY, Pres. W. C. WOODBURY, Treas. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied — Is Your Protection 

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Clothiers 

BANGOR, : : : : : MAINE 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 



MAINE INLAND SCENERY 




CONTENTS 

A Rare Honor. Judge Spear 

Mount Desert 

Maine Indians 

A Home Rule for Ireland Meeting in Bangor, Alaine. in 1SS6. 

Making' History in the Maine Woods 

Captain Steven Smitli 

Hon. James Phinney Baxter 

Fort Halifax 

Unofficial Postal Regulations in the INlaine Woods 

Pejepscot 

i Smock Marriage 

■Rebecca Weston Chapter 

Chesuncook School House 

Maine History in the Schools 

Editorial 



m 

101 
IL'O 
126 
126 

lao 
i:;i 
i:!2 

l.'!;" 

i:;5 
i;!7 

VAS 
140 
141 

i4(; 



YEARS^he Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never u Failure — jVever a La>v Suit — What more do you ■want? 

(Member Sec. Col. Wars: Sons Am. Rev.; Past A. A. G., G. A. R.) 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES. Skowhegan Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 



55 




J^-t(.^^ 



Associate Justice of the Supi-eme Jisdicial Court of Maine 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX Jt'LY, August, September, 192 i No. 3 



A RARE HONOR FALLS TO ASSOCL\TE JUSTICE SPEAR 
OF THE MAINE SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT 

A decision of the highest EngHsh court sustaining one by the 
Maine Supreme Judicial Court which overruled an English decision 
is worthy of record in the history of Maine. This occurred in 
1920. 

The following, relative to this matter, recently appearing in an 
American law periodical, is an accurate account of the same : 

The House of Lords has overruled former English decisions and 
considered and approved a decision of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Maine, which dissented from the English cases. The decision 
in the Maine case, one from Waldo county, was drawn by Asso- 
ciate Justice Albert M. Spear of Gardiner. 

The Maine case becomes interesting as only two courts of last 
resort in the world have passed upon the question at issue and only 
three decisions have been promulgated, two in England and one 
in this state. 

The first English opinion in re Tootal's Trusts is found in Law 
Report, Chancery Division, page 532. This case, in an elaborate 
opinion, held that an European or American could not gain a 
domicile of testacy or intestacy in pagan countries like China, India 
or Egypt, assigning as an insurmountable reason the incompati- 
bility of character between the European and the Asiatic, namely: 
'"The difference between the laws, manners and customs of Chinese 
and Englishmen is so great as to raise every presumption against 
such a domicile." 

In the year 1909 the Maine case, Mather vs. Cunningham, 105 
Maine, 326, arose, involving the identical question discussed in 
tJ-ie English case. Justice Albert M. Spear of Gardiner (Maine) 
drew the opinion. Cunningham had a domicile of origin in Bel- 
fast, Waldo County, Maine. He had lived at the time of his death 



loo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF ^lAINE HISTORY 



about 40 years in Shanghai. He died leaving a will, attested by 
two witnesses, valid if probated in Shanghai but invalid if pro- 
bated in Maine where three witnesses are required. Upon this 
statement of facts administration was granted upon his estate by 
the probate court of Waldo county and the case came on appeal 
to the law court for decision. The only question was whether 
an American could gain a domicile of choice in Shanghai, China. 

Justice Spear considered the English case at length, rejected the 
doctrine therein announced and held that Cunningham could and 
did gain a domicile in Shanghai where his will could be probated 
and his estate settled. 

During the year 1918 the same question again came up before 
the House of Lords in Gasdagli vs. Gasdagli, Law Reports, Appeal 
Cases, February. 1919, A. C, in re Tootal's Trusts, the Maine 
case considered, the English case overruled and the Maine case 
approved. The House of Lords say in announcing the doctrine 
of the Maine case : "Opinion of Chitty, J-, in re Tootal's Trusts 
XX and decision of Lord Watson in Abd-ul-Messih XX over- 
ruled." The Lord Chancellor in discussing the ALiine case gives 
an analysis of the reasoning and c^uotes the conclusion in full. In 
speaking of the opinion he says: "The Supreme Court made an 
elaborate examination of the case in re Tootal's Trusts and of many 
criticisms and comments which had been made on that decision, 
and arrived at the conclusion that its doctrine could not be sup- 
ported." 

Lord Haldane in expressing his approval of the ]\Iaine case said: 
"I think the American court in ^^lather's case was right upon the 
facts to refuse to follow what would seemingly have been Judge 
Chitty's opinion." 

Lord Atkinson, referring to the ]\Iaine case, in his opinion, said 
of it: "These decisions (English cases) or at any rate the prin- 
ciples supposed to be extracted from them, have been commented 
upon and dissented from in an important decision of the Supreme 
Court of Maine, Mather vs. Cunningham." 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY loi 

MOUNT DESERT 

The Story of Saint Sauveur 

(By AVilliam Otis Sawtelle ol' Haverford, Penn.) 
(Read before the Bangor Historical Society, April 5, 1921.) 

Saint Sauveur 
"The place is a beautiful hill rising goitly from the sea, its sides 
bathed by tivo springs; the land is cleared for tiventy or thirty-five 
acres, and in some places is covered witJi grass almost as Iiigli as 
a ma)!. It faces the south and east, and is near the mouth of the 
Pcntcgoet, zvhere several broad and pleasant rivers, zvhich abound 
in fish, discharge their zvaters; its soil is dark, rich and fertile; 
the port and harbor are as fine as can be seen, and are in a position 
favorable to command the entire coast; the harbor especially is as 
safe as a pond." — From Father Biard's account of Saint Sauveur, 
1613. 

TnE Story of Saint Sauveur ^ 
"Ad ma for em Dei gloriam.'' 

The story of Saint vSauveur had its beginnings in the court of 
Henry IV of France and its termination in the achniralty courts 
of England. As early as 1604 Pierre du Gast, Sieur de Monts," 
was on the coast of Maine and in the court of Henry I\^ schemes 
were forming for the conversion of tlie natives in that far-away 
country. To Father Coton, the king's spiritual adviser, had been 
intrusted the details of a plan which resulted in the appointment 
as apostles to New France of Father Pierre Biard, professor of 
Hebrew and theology at the University of Lyons, and of Father 
Enemond Masse, socius of Father Coton. 

The two missionaries accordingly in 160S, went to Bordeaux 
expecting to embark at once for Port Royal; Imt no vessel was 
available. Antagonism towards their order was manifested and 
Lescarbot, though a good Catholic, has recorded that he could see 
"no need of these Docteurs sublimes who would be more usefully 
employed fighting heresy and vice at home." 

1 .John Daw^son Oilmary Shea's Chailevoix, Book III, pp. 241-28G. 
Jesuit Relations: Thwing-. A'ols. Ill and IV. 
Rev. T. J. Campbell. Thiee Historic Events in Maine, 
w. S. Bnrrpfp. Tbp Bet'innings of Colonial INTaine. pp. 100-117. 
-The text of De ]\Ionts' Patent from Henry IV is to be found in Church- 
ill's Voyag-er, 2: 796: Murdock's Nova Scotia, 1: 21: Purchase, 18: 22fi: Hazard, 
2: 45. It is dated Nov. 8, 160.3, and revoked in 1607, thus permitting- the 
Jamestown Grant of 1606 to take precedence of all other grants in America. 
Biard's Hug^uenot Emig-ration to America, 1:341. 



102 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Finally, in i6io, a vessel belonging to Poutrincourt who had 
ohtained from the Huguenot De ]\Ionts, a patent for Port Royal, 
was about ready to sail. It was arranged that Fathers Biard and 
Masse should be of her ship's company, but when two of her 
owners who were Huguenots, learned that they were giving passage 
to members of the hated order, they refused absolutel} to allow 
them on board, adding that nothing short of a direct command 
from the Queen Mother could secure a place for them, and even 
then, only upon condition that every other Jesuit in the kingdom 
should accompany them. 

The expedition was on the verge of a collapse as far as the 
Jesuits were concerned and Fathers pjiard and Masse retired to 
the college of Eu to await developments. They were not kept long 
in suspense, for the Marcjuise de Guercheville " who had declared 
herself protectress of the American missions, learning of their 
plight, hastened to relieve the situation by buying out the shares 
of the refractory merchants and making the two Jesuits together 
with herself, partners in trade with Poutrincourt. For permitting 
this transaction, which laid the fathers open to criticism as sharers 
in a commercial enterprise, Father Coton was censured and Madame 
de Guercheville did not escape rebuke. But Champlain justified 
the deal which permitted the missionaries to sail without further 
delay. 

It was in midwinter, January 26, 161 1, at Dieppe, that the Jesuits 
embarked. "We were," says Biard,* "36 persons in a ship called 
the Grace de Dieu of about sixty tons. \\'e had only two days 
favorable wind ; on the third we found ourselves suddenly by con- 
trary winds and tides driven within one or two hundred yards of 
the cliffs of the Isle of Wight in England, and it was well for us 
that wei found good anchorage ; without \vhich all would have 
been decidedly over with us. Having escaped from there we landed 
at Hvrmice and afterwards at Newport where we spent 18 days.'" 

3 Madame de GuercheviUe is mentioned by some writers as the -wife of 
the duke de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. This is an error. Her first hus- 
band was Henri de Silly, comte de la Roche-Guyon, and her second, Charle.s 
du Plessis, seigneur de Liancourt. Gabrielle, a daughter by her second 
naarriage, became the wife of Francois, due de la Rochefoucauld, in 1611, 
and was the mother of the famous author of the "Maxime." For genea- 
logical references see: Collected Works of La Rochefoucauld, in the series 
of Les Grands Ecrivains de la France, Paris, 1868, l:xcv. 

* Biard to Balthazer, letter from Jesuit archives at Rome: R. P. 
Auguste Carayon S. J., Paris, 1864. 
Translation in Brown's Genesis of the United States, 1:475. 



MOUNT DESERT 103 



An ill wind it was that blew the Grace de Dieu to the Isle of 
Wight and a harsh fate that kept her in the harbor of Newport 
for nearly three weeks, for from this chance visit there was to 
result a sequence of events, replete with tragedy and suffering, 
not destined to end, even with the failure of Madame de Guerche- 
ville's foreign missionary projects. 

"On the i6th of February," continues Biard, "the first day of 
Lent, a favorable northwest wind sprang up, enabled us to leave, 
a'l.d accompanied us until we left the channel behind." But some- 
thing of which Father Biard made no note was also left behind, 
for information with reference to the destination and purpose of 
the Grace de Dieu soon reached the authorities in Eondon and 
they were not slow to act. 

' In i(')i2, Cai)tain Samuel Argall was appointed admiral of 
\'"irginia and "commissioned to remain in Virginia and to drive 
out foreign intruders from the country granted to Englishmen by 
the three patents of James I." 

Another record reads that he was "dispatched with commission 
to displace the French, who had taken the opportunity to settle 
themseKes within our limits." Thus plans were made by the 
English to destroy Saint Sauveur a year before its founders knew 
where it was to be located. 

The Jesuit Fathers braved the February storms of the North 
Atlantic and in the little craft, no larger than some of the fishing 
boats that now frequent Southwest Harbor, the dreary days length- 
ened until four months passed before a landfall was made; and 
then it was to be greeted by a bleak and desolate wilderness. Diffi- 
culties soon arose between them and Poutrincourt, the younger, 
known as Biencourt, which need not here be described, but which 
caused Gilbert du Thet. sent in charge of supplies for the colony, 
some time later, to report to Madame de Guercheville upon his 
return to France, that impossible conditions existed at the Port 
Eoyal mission. This decided the Marquise to found a mission 
for the Indians at Kedesquit, where the city of Bangor now stands, 
having doubtless been informed by Biard of this location, which 
he himself had visited in 161 1. 

5 Brown, Pir.st Republic in America, 178. 
Brown, Genesis of the United States, 815. 



I04 v'^PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Against the Kedesquit district as a colony site, Champlain '■ 
advised strongly, since the English had but a short time before 
taken French fishing vessels near Mount Desert,' and he begged 
that the new mission might be established somewhere in the St. Law- 
rence region, preferably at Quebec, where energy and money could 

be expended to far better 
advantage beyond the reach 
of the rapacious English. 
But IMadame de Guerche- 
ville would not listen to the 
sage advice of Champlain 
and on March 12th, 161 3, 
there cleared from Hon- 
tieur, France, for Kedes- 
(|uit. the Jonas, of one 
hundred and twenty tons, 
a ship purchased from De 
Monts by the marquise and 
ecptipped by her with the 
aid of subscriptions and 
donations from the Queen 
Mother, the IMarquise de 
Verneuil, M a d a m e de 
Sourdis and many other 
ladies of the French court. 
Soldiers, sailors, artisans, 
colonists, and the two Jesu- 
its, Father Jacques Quen- 
tin and Lay Brother Gil- 
bert du Thet, comi)rised 
the ship's company, while 
horses, cattle, agricultural 
implements, munitions of war and all sorts of necessary supplies 
made up the cargo. 

Started for Kedesquit 
After two months at sea the Jonas, on May i6th, reached Cape 
de la Have in Acadia, where a landing was made, mass celebrated 

'■•Shea's Charlevoix, 1:274. 

Champlain's Voyage.s, Ed. Kioi;. 112. 
■^ Biard's Relations. 




MllilMIl^^ 



Jl 



The ^laiquKse de A'eineml, %\ ho was a 
famous beauty of the court of Henry IV. 
in Madame de Guercheville's time. She 
supplied the utensils for the mass which 
were used by Father Biard and his asso- 
ciates at Saint Sauveur. 



MOUNT DESERT 105 



and a cross erected, bearing the de Guercheville arms. Possession 
of the coast from the St. Lawrence to Florida, with the exception 
of Port Royal, was declared in the name of the Alarquise de 
Guercheville, under letters patent from Louis XIH, ignoring en- 
tirely the English claims to a large part of the same territory. 
Leaving La Have, a call was made at Port Royal, where Fathers 
Biard and Masse joined the ship, which soon cleared, ostensibly 
for Kedesquit, a place she was never destined to reach. In the 
words of Biard, "God ordained otherwise." Even the will of 
Antoinette de Pons could not prevail against an eastern Maine fog 
and as the Grace de Dieu had been forced by the elements, to seek 
shelter in the harbor of Newport, so the Jonas was compelled to 
tarry in proximity to Mount Desert, anxiously awaiting clear 
weather that she might proceed to her destination. 

For two days and two nights in their pitiful plight, fearful of 
being dashed to bits upon forbidding shores, tacking first one way 
then another when light breezes sprang up, or drifting helplessly 
in a slatting calm, the little company remained enveloped in fog. 

"Our tribulation," says Biard, "led us to pray to God to deliver 
us from danger, and send us to some place where we might con- 
tribute to His glory. He heard us, in His mercy, for on the same 
evening we began to discover the stars, and in the morning the fog 
had cleared away." 

A fair sight that was that rose before their vision on that May 
morning of long ago. There in all the glory that spring imparfs 
to hillside and valley, lay the Island of the Desert Mountains, ifs 
tall pines and pointed firs, mingling with birches, whose lighter 
shades made marked contrast with darker evergreen ; while barren 
summits, catching the rays of the long hidden sun, gleamed like 
hammered brass.'* 

Arrived at Bar Harbor ^ 

Captivated by the beauty of the scene before them, what wonder 

that thoughts of Kedesquit gave place to joyous contemplation of 

the ever changing shadows that played upon the mountain slopes. 

passing in quick succession, as the brisk northwest wind dissipated 

s This peculiar metaUic lustre is well shown by Sargent's :Mountain on 
the west of Jordan's pond, when viewed at some little distance off shore. 
Among- the older fishermen, Sargent's is still known by its old name, 
'Brassy Mountain." 

^Parkman places the first anchorage of the .lonas "not far from Schooner 
Head," but the lack of a harbor in that vicinity precludes that location as 



io6 SPRAGUK'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

the low-hanging' clouds. So inviting was the prospect that all ideas 
of continuing the voyage, for the present at least, were abandoned 
and the Jonas came to anchor at Bar Harbor. "We returned 
thanks to God," wrote Biard, "elevating the Cross, and singing 
praises with the holy Sacrifice of the Mass. We named the place 
and Harbor Saint Sauveur." 

Hardly had the songs of praise and thanksgiving ceased when 
a violent dispute arose between the colonists and sailors, over an 
agreement made before the expedition left Honfleur. 

The sailors had shipped with the understanding that they were 
to remain three months at any port in Acadia that Father Biard 
might select, it being implied that Kedesquit would be that port. 
The crew now maintained that their time should date from their 
arrival at Mount Desert, but to this demand the Jesuit Fathers 
refused to submit. 

The CLE^■ER Indian 

The argument was brought to a close only by the appearance 
of an Indian signal fire which had been kindled on a hilltop to 
attract attention. Upon receiving an answer from the ship a canoe 
soon put out from the shore bearing messengers who asked if they 
could be of service to those on shipboard. Learning that Father 
Biard was of the company the Indians were at once interested 
since they had chanced to make his acquaintance two years before 
when he lodged with them at Pentagoet while on his trip to the 
Penobscot and the Kennebec in 1611. In answ^er to queries as to 
the best route to Kedesquit the Indians made reply : "Why go to 
Kedesquit? This is a better place here at Pemetic, where it is so 
pleasant and healthy that when the natives are ill anywhere else, 
they are brought here to be cured." 

But Biard, who was strong in his determination to carry out 
the instructions of Father Coton and Madame de Guercheville, 
remained deaf to this plea for Pemetic and took no interest in 
Mount Desert as a colony site. But the Indians had another argu- 
ment which no Jesuit missionary could resist. "But you must 

the site of the fir.=t landing- of the Jesuits. Bar Harbor is 13 statute miles 
from Fernald's Point, while Cromwell Harbor is 12. Rougrhly speaking', 
the distance from Cromwell Harbor to ^Manchester's Point is slightly over 
three leagues, while to Fernald's Point it is about 3.4 leagues. Allowing 
for F.iard's approximations, it seems more than likely that ^ladame de 
Gueicheville's colonists first landed on the point now occupied by the 
Kennedy cottage, Bar Harbor. 



MOUNT DESERT 107 



stay," they insisted, "for our Sagamore Asticou "' is very ill and 
if you do not come with us to his wigwam he will die without 
baptism. He will go to hell and you will be the cause of it. He 
wishes to be baptized." 

Without further parley and without loss of time, Father Biard, 
Lieutenant La Mothe ^^ and Simon, the interpreter, found them- 
selves in the canoes of the Indians, whose musclar arms bent 
unceasingly to the paddles until the "three leagues" to Northeast 
Harbor were covered and the encampment of Asticou on Man- 
chester's Point came into view. 

Hastening to the side of the great chief reputed to be dying, 
Biard was chagrined to find that he had been duped by his Indian 
guides, for Asticou was in no immediate danger of giving up the 
ghost. A heavy cold with a touch of rheumatism had been some- 
what enlarged upon by his faithful subjects and when Biard de- 
manded of those who had brought him thither some explanation 
of the situation, they adroitly changed the subject by pointing to 
Fernald's Point directly opposite, with the recommendation that 
it be utilized as the site of the proposed mission. 

Decided on Fernald's Point ^- 
This ocular demonstration appealed so strongly to Biard, who 
has recorded "that the savages had in reality reasonable grounds 
for their eulogies," that upon his return to the Jonas he advocated 
warmly the establishment of their mission at the mouth of the 
Sound. All thoughts of proceeding to Kedesquit were abandoned 
and "it was unanimously agreed that we should remain there and 
not seek further, seeing that God Himself seemed to intend it, by 
the train of happy incidents that had occurred." Shortly after, 
the Jonas made the trip around the hills from Bar Harbor to 
Northeast, the name of Saint Sauveur was transferred to Fernald's 

i''The name is now given to a summei- colony and postoffice at the head 
of Northeast Harbor. 

"All attempts to connect La Mothe with the family of Sieur Antoine 
de la Mothe Cadillac who received a grant of Mount Desert and adjacent 
mainland from Kins" Louis XIV in 1689, have so far been fruitless 

'■'Named for Tobias Fernald, emigrant ancestor, Reginald FeVnald of 



Capt. John Mason's New Hampshire company, 1631, a seafaring young man 
trom Kittery, who m. Comfort, dau. of Andrew and Patience "Gott Tarr 
and inherited the Point upon the death of his father-in-law 

Andre\v Tarr. emigrant ancestor, Richard, first settler at the extreme 
^''ir °^i-,*\P*^ '^""' 'Gloucester, came from Gloucester to Mount Desert soon 
after 1762 and built a log- cabin on the site of Saint Sauveur. Fernald 
replaced the cabin with a comfortable farmhouse which is still standing- 
Descendants of Tobias and Comfort are numerous: several of them have" 
in distant parts, won distinction in the educational and scientific world ' 



io8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Point and the first French Jesuit mission upon what is now terri- 
tory of the United States was estabHshed. A rustic chapel, the 
furnishings for which the Marquise de Verneuil ^'^ had provided, 

protected a rude altar upon 




which the linen supplied by 
Madame de Sourdis ^* found 
place. The several tents do- 
nated to the expedition by 
Queen Marie de Medicis dotted 
the greensward and afiforded 
temporary shelter to the colo- 
nists while the Jonas, her long 
voyage terminated, rode quietly 
at anchor, not far from the 
shore. 

From ]\Ianchester's Point, ^^ 
the ancient camping ground of 
those Children of the Rising 
Sun, the Abenaki ^° gazed with 
friendly interest across the blue 
waters of Somes Sound upon 
their new neighbors, who 
through their instrumentality, 
forsook the idea of a Christian mission upon the banks of the 
Kenduskeag and elected to labor among the natives of Pemetic. 
But amid these beautiful surroundings all did not go well, for, 
says Biard : "When we had landed in this place, and planted the 
Cross, we began to work, and with the work began our disputes, the 
omen and origin of our misfortunes. The cause of these disputes 

"Henriette de Balsac d'Entraigues, :\Iarqui.=!e de Verneuil, b. 1570, d 163.3; 
a famous beauty of the French Court, daughter of Marie Touchet. 

i^'Isabelle Babou de la Bourdai.siere, dau. of Jean de la Bourdaisiere and 
his wife Prancoise Robertet, dau. of Floiimond Robertet, Seigneur d'Alluye, 
Secretary of State under Louis XII and Francis I. Isabelle m. Francois 
d'Escoubleau. ^Marquis de Sourdis. The Cardinal de Sourdis was her son 
and Gabrielle d'Estrees her niece. 

^^ Named for John Manchester, originally from Scarboro, who went to 
Machlas with the first colonists, 1762, to that region, removed later to 
Mount Desert and settled on the point which still bears his name. A son, 
John Jr., m. ]\iary Hadlock, dau. of Samuel Hadlock, for whom upper and 
lower Hadlock Ponds were named. The Hadlock farm was just noith of 
Manchester's holdings and was part of Asticou's encampment. Samuel 
Hadlock, Jr., m. Sarah, dau. of John Manchester, and removed to Little 
Cranberry Isle, becoming founders of the Cranberry Isle branch of the 
family. 

"'A more or less fanciful derivation of the word Abenaki. See Rev. 
Eug'ene Vetromile S. J., Me. Hist. Society Coll., 6: 203, Also same publi- 
cation, Frederick Kidder, 2: 228. 



Fernald's I'uJiil. the .site of Saint 
Saiiveur, the first French Jesuit 
settlement in North America, 1613, 
with the farm buildings of Tobias 
Fernald. This as it appeared to 
Francis Parkman when he visited 
the place with Elijah Hamlin. The 
date of this visit is not certain, 
but it vi^as befoi'e his first book, 
the Pioneers of New France, was 
issued. 



MOUNT DESERT 109 



was that our captain, La Saussaye, wished to attend to agricidture, 
and our other leaders besought him not to occupy the workmen in 
that manner, and so delay the erections of dwellings and fortitica- 
tions. He would not comply with their rec^uest, and from these 
disputes arose others, which lasted until the English obliged us to 
make peace. ..." 

How long these quarrels lasted it is impossible to determine since 
Biard's "Relation" contains but few definite dates ; but from the 
fact that Argall ^' sent a letter to England, addressed to one 
Nicholas Hawes, in June, 1613, in which veiled reference is made 
to his hostile expedition to the northward, the result of the inad- 
vertent visit of the Grace de Dieu two years before in the harbor 
of Newport, it is probable that the English captain was ofi: the 
coast of Maine about the middle of July. 

Threatened by Spain on the south and by France on the north, 
Virginia seemed likely to be encroached upon and on July 11, 1612, 
Argall "was appointed admiral of Virginia and commissioned to 
remain in Virginia and to drive out foreign intruders from the 
country granted to Englishmen." ^"^ 

DkstructiOxX of The Mission 

And thus it chanced that Argall while on his way to Port Royal 
to execute the orders received from Sir Thomas Dale, marshall of 
Virginia, fell in with an Indian off the Mount Desert shore, who, 
mistaking him and his crew for French, by signs, gestures and a 
few words told of the nearby settlement. 

In a twinkling all was activity on board the Treasurer. Her 
fourteen guns were shotted and primed, her course was changed 
and her crew of 60 men eagerly prepared for an attack. The 
astonished Indian, realizing too late his fatal error, was loud in 
Iris lamentations, while the Treasurer, with the wind fair astern, 
sped in the Western Way, past Great Cranberry Isle, and leaving 
Greening's Island to starboard, made straight for the doomed settle- 
ment on Fernald's Point. 

The shrill cries of the seabirds were soon drowned in a cannon- 

^" Pin-chase, ilacLaliose ed.. ir>:90. "I leturned again to my ship," wrote 
ArgaU, "the twelfth of :\Iay, and hastened forward my businesse left in 
hand at my departure: and fitted up my ship, and built my fishing- Boate, 
and made readie to take the first opportunitie of the wind for my fishing- 
Voyage, of which I beseech God of His mercy to blesse us." Alexander 
Brown tersely remarks: "He was going- fishing for Frenchmen." (Genesis 
of the United States, 2:fi44.) 

i** Bro-»v'n, First liepublic in America, p. 178. 



no SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

ade ^'' that rent the hull and tore the rigging of the Jonas, left to 
her fate by Ea Saussaye, who at the first sign of trouble discreetly 
took to the woods. La Flory, La Mothe and the Jesuit Gilbert 
du Thet with a few brave fellows succeeded in gaining the deck 
of their vessel but they could do little. Even the sails had been 
unlaced that they might serve as awnings, so the ship could not 
be manoeuvred but lay at the mercy of the attacking party. Du Thet 
had loaded and fired the cannon, but in the excitement had neglected 
to take aim, so no damage was inflicted upon the enemy. Soon he 
fell shot through the body by a musket ball, while shortly after 
La Flory received a wound and Le Moine of Dieppe and Neven 
of Beauvais, "two very promising young companions," were either 
shot or drowned while trying to escape, and Argall was an easy 
victor in this \ery uneven conflict. 

"The victorious English," says Biard, "came on shore, where 
we had our tents and our houses just begun, and sent out in all 
directions in search of our Captain, saying that they wanted to 
see our commissions ; that this land belonged to them, wherefor 
they had fallen upon us, when they found us here; but that if we 
should be able to show that we had acted in good faith, and that we 
had come under authority of our sovereign, they would respect 
that, as they wished in no way to imperil the good understanding 
between our two kings. The misfortune was that La Saussaye 
could not be found, whereupon the shrewd and cunning English- 
men seized our trunks, broke them open industriously and having 
found in them commissions and Royal Patents, seized them; and 
putting everything else back in its place, just as they found it, they 
nicely locked the boxes again." 

On the day following, La Saussaye driven by hunger from his 
woods retreat, gave himself up. He was at first treated kindly 
by Argall, who asked to see his commissions. 

When these important papers could not be produced, for the 
very good reason that they were in Argall's pocket, the English 
captain stormed and ranted, called the French outlaws and pirates. 

"'Brief Tntellieance from Virs'inia. Pui-chase, ]MacLahose ed., 10:214. 
states that Arsiall made no use of his cannon, that "he approached so 
neere to a Ship that lay before their Fort, that he beate them all that 
were therein with IMusket shot from making any use of their Ordnance, 
save one of the two Jesuits, who was killed in ariving- Are to a Peece ..." 
This account differs from Biard. There was no fort erected at Saint Sau- 
veur and the brief time that intervened between the arrival of the French 
at Fernald's Point and Argall's attack, was spent by La Saussaye in 
farming. 



I 



MOUNT DESERT iii 



threatened them and told them they all deserved death. "And 
thereupon," says Biard. "he divided the booty among his soldiers, 
consuming the whole afternoon in this business." 

Of Saint Sauveur little remains to relate. Lay Brother Gilbert 
du Thet who had received his death wound in the futile defense 
of the Jonas, expired the next day in the arms of Father Biard 
and was buried at the foot of a large cross wdiich had been erected 
on the arrival of the settlers. Nine days later, the bodies of 
Le ]\Ioine and Neven having been recovered, they too were interred 
near the same spot ; all three the first victims of the initial conflict 
upon American soil, between French and English, which w'as to 
result in a horrible warfare destined to continue almost unceasingly 
until the victorious General Amherst received the formal submis- 
sion of the Marquis de Vaudreuil in the Place d' Amies at Mont- 
real, almost a century and a half later. 

Of the remaining 45 colonists, thirteen including Father Masse 
and La Saussaye were turned adrift in a small boat, well supplied 
however with provisions, trusting that some French fishing vessel 
would pick them up and convey them to France. This party was 
soon joined by Bailleul, the pilot of the Jonas, who, upon the 
approach of Argall, had gone to reconnoitre and learning his in- 
tentions had taken shelter on Greening's Island or one of the Cran- 
berry Isles. Off the Nova Scotian coast two vessels were sighted 
which rescued them, and after some further suffering and priva- 
tion, landed all safely at St. Malo. 

Fathers Biard and Ouentin together with Captain La Flory, 
Lieutenant La Mothe and the rest of the company were taken to 
Virginia in the Jonas, where they all narrowly escaped hanging 
by order of Sir Thomas Dale. Argall, who had guaranteed their 
safety, was brought to a realizing sense of the injustice that his 
theft of La Saussaye's commission had wrought, confessed his base 
act, produced the stolen papers and no further talk of the gallows 
Vvas heard. 

The Mission but a Memory 

Later in the autumn, upon command of Dale to obliterate every 
trace of the French from Mount Desert, St. Croix, and Port Royal, 
Argall, forcing Fathers Biard and Ouentin to accompany him, 
visited Saint Sauveur and completed the destruction begun in July. 
When his vessels the Treasurer and Jonas, captor and captive, 



112 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

spread their sails and shaped their course out the Eastern Way 
for St. Croix, they left astern at Fernald's Point nothing but a 
blackened pile of smouldering embers ; and at the close of that 
autumnal day, as the sun set behind the peaks of Western Moun- 
tain, painting the sky a lurid red, from the funeral pyre of Saint 
Sauveur there came one last answering flare and Madame de 
Guercheville's mission was but a memory. 

The; Documents in the Case 

The two French fishing vessels which picked up Father Masse, 
Commandant La Saussaye and the pilot of the Jonas off the coast 
of Nova Scotia, arrived at St. Malo, at about the same time, and 
there the castaways received a warm reception from the bishop, 
governor, magistrates and the people in general. Needless to say, 
the story of the English attack aroused bitter resentment and the 
recital of the capture of Saint Sauveur, coupled with the tale of 
hardship and suffering, w^hich the settlers had been obliged to 
undergo, brought public sentiment to a high pitch of indignation, 
especially since both nations were at peace ; and it was not long 
before King James received a letter -'■' from the British ambassador 
at Paris, from which the following extract is made. Sir Thomas 
Edmondes, the ambassador, writing on October 13. 161 3, after 
calling attention to English interference with the French whale 
fishing at Greenland, "which discontentment is also further aggra- 
vated by another advertisement which is come hither that the 
English shippes at Virginia tooke a French shippe, which was 
going to make a plantation in those partes, and killed divers of 
the men ; but as they here say, used greatest crueltie against cer- 
taine Jesuittes whicli were in said vShippe." 

Not many days after the receipt of Edmondes' letter, King James 
received a communication from Louis XIII, asking for an ex- 
planation of the vSaint Sauveur incident. LTnfortunately this letter 
of the French king-' is not on record, but one from Admiral Henri 
de Montmorency, which accompanied it. has been preser\ed and 
is as follows : 

=^'' Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2: (562. 

-1 Brown. Genesis of the United States. 2:fiH4. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., 
21:186. This letter was discussed at a meeting- of the Maine Hist. Soc. 
and was first published in the Boston Daily Advertiser of Aug'. 31, 1870. 

Williamson, Bibliography of :Maine, 2: 134. 



MOUNT DESERT 113 



H. de Montmorency, Admiral of France, to King James: 
"Sire: 

"I thought it was my duty to accompany the letters which the 
king, my master, wrote you with some of my own, in order to have 
the honor to offer to your majesty, my very humble service and 
to entreat you to be favorable (since as admiral under the author- 
ity of the king, I have charge of the marine aft'airs of this king- 
dom), that I represent to you the just complaint and the injury 
which the French have received from some of your subjects, who 
being in an English ship called the 'Treasurer,' whereof Samuel 
d'Argail is captain, went to that country of Canada called New 
France to the harbor of Pentagoet, where they found a small settle- 
ment which was begun by permission of the king, with our leave, 
and at the expense of Madame la Marc^uise de Guercheville, lady 
of honor to the queen, through a good and holy zeal to lead the 
poor savages of the said country to a civil conversation and to 
preach to them the doctrine of Jesus Christ, and for that purpose 
a number of Jesuit fathers were there. 

"But your said subjects have ruined this plan ; they have attacked 
the colony; they have slain many men, and among others, two of 
the said Jesuits ; and besides, they carried away two others with 
them into Virginia, (by what people say) ; and have abandoned 
the rest of the people to the mere}' of the waters, in a small skiff. 
We know well enough. Sire, the goodness, and the unusual clem- 
ency with which you are filled, and that you are so far removed ' 
from such inhumanity that you will assuredly do justice in the 
matter, when you are informed of it. Therefore in the name of 
France, and of the private parties interested in these Countries, 
I beg your Majesty for three things: — 

"One, that you will command the two Jesuit fathers to be re- 
turned in safety with the other prisoners ; the other, that restitution 
shall be made for so remarkable a robbery, which cost the said 
dame Marquise more than a hundred thousand livres of loss. And 
the third, that your Council or the Company of Virginia may be 
obliged to declare and explain as far as where they understood 
to be carried, the boundaries and confines of that said country of 
A^'irginia, inasmuch as we thought the difficulty might have come 
on account of the neighborhood of the two colonies. But your 
majesty knows that for more than 80 vears, the French have been 



114 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

in possession of it, and have given to it the name of New France. 
The hope that your majesty will be . . . how prudently to remedy 
this, and find it good, if it please you, that Mons. de Buisseaux, 
ambassador, may be interested more particularly with it, to give 
us an answer to it as favorable as the complaint of it is reasonable, 
and full of justice. 

"Nevertheless, I pray God, Sire, that he may give your majesty 
a very long and very happy life. 

"Your very humble servant, 

"H. De Montmorency. 

"At Fontainebleau. the NXA'III of October, 1613." 

Indorsed : To the King of Great Britain : "A letter from the 
Admiral of France to his majestic concerning Samuel Argall," etc. 

The English Privy Council at once began an investigation of 
the charges of Montmorency and dispatched this letter -- to Sir 
Thomas Smythe of London, treasurer of the Virginia Company: 

"We have latelie received divers Complaints exhibited by the 
French Ambassador on the behalfe of certaine Frenchmen of 
Rochelle, St. John de Luz, and others, some of them concerninge 
outrages committed upon them (as is alleged) on the coast of 
Canada by Captain Argall employed for Virginia ... as appear- 
eth by the memorialls presented by the French Ambassador, w'hich 
we send you here withal. 

"Forasmuche as it will be expected that His Majesty should 
forthwith give some satisfaction to the said Ambassador, . . . 
we have thought good first to require you to accjuainte some of 
the Councell of Virginia here withal . . . and to returne us their 
several and particular answers . . . with all expedition, that the 
Ambassador may receive his answer from his Majestie or his 
Boord . . . " ' 

To this order in Council the Treasurer and Council of Virginia -" 
made reply that no news had been received from Virginia since 
the preceding June, the order having been passed in January, but 
when news were received they felt sure that they could give the 
"Lord Embassador of France" satisfaction. 

A letter from Sir Thomas Edmondes -* to King James, written 
from Paris on January 2, 1614, relative to the numerous interviews 

"Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2: 677. See also Documents relat- 
ing- to the colonial history of the state of New York, 3: 1. 
=3 Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:679. 
-*Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:677. 



MOUNT DESERT ir 



which the British ambassador had held with the French Secretary 
of State on the subject of the French at Mount Desert has an 
important bearing upon the P'rench official attitude on the question. 
Edmondes writes : 
"Sire : 

"... Finding Monsr. de Villeroy. that tyme, in a better moode, 
than when I formerly debated these matters with him, I made it 
appear unto him by manie instances, that the interest which they 
(the French) pretended to have in the discoveries which we had 
made with great perill and charge (concerning the which he had 
before spoken^ to me much out of square) was contrarie to the 
received custome and practise of all nations, wherewith he was so 
well satisfied, as he said, that he would no more dispute the matter 
with me. ..." 

It is of passing interest to note that Edmondes,-' later in the 
year, reports to Ralph Winwood, the English Secretary of State, 
that he had an interview with the King and Queen in regard to 
the French complaint against his English Majesty's subjects for 
wdiat was done at Saint Sauveur, and speaking of Marie de Medicis, 
Edmondes adds : "Whereunto she made me no other answers then 
that the complaints were great which she received of the spoyles 
which were committed upon the French by his Majesties subjects, 
as she was forced to make an extraordinary instance for the re- 
dresse of the same." (English State Paper Office.) 

Argall's Authority 

The "Treasurer," Captain Argall, sailed from Virginia about the 
iSth of June, 1614, and arrived in England in July bringing passen- 
gers and letters. Among the documents were depositions of the 
French in Virginia, while the passengers included Captain Flory 
and two other Frenchmen of the Saint Sauveur colony. Soon after 
Argall's return, the Council of Virginia sent a reply to a letter 
from the Privy Council, certain portions of which refer to Saint 
Sauveur.-*^ 

"That it is true that Captain Argall did take a French ship 
within the limits of our Colony, wdio Avent about to plant, contrary 
to the extent and privilege of his Majesty's letters patent to us 
granted. That he did it by command of the governor of our 

"SBrown, Genesis of the United KStates. 2:757. 
-«Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:731. 



ii6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Colony by his commission to him given under the seal of the 
colony, and by virtue of such authority as is to him derived from 
his Majesty's great seal of England. 

"That whereas, it is said, it was 200 leagues from our plantation, 
intimating thereby that it was out of our limits, we say the coast 
lying next E. N. E. and W. S. W. many more hundred leagues will 
not deliver them without our borders, we have granted unto us 
from 34 to 45 degrees of north latitude, and from E. to W. from 
one sea to another, with a certain clause that if any other nations 
should get land to the north of 45 degrees, and by any river or 
lake, or by land travel should come to the southwards, to plant 
behind our backs, that it should be lawful for our governor to 
resist, displant, and take by force any that make such attempt. 

"And we do further avow that the said ship was taken between 
43 and 44 degrees, which in express limitation is within his Ma- 
jesty's grant and is annexed to the royal crown. And that this is 
proved by the several confessions of divers of the French examined 
by Sir Thomas Dale and certified accordingly unto us by him. 

"And that the said Captain Argall. besides his several commis- 
sions for his justification to us showed, hath further produced 
unto (us) a testimonial or certificate under the seal of our Colony, 
that he hath in his voyages no way exceeded the commission to him 
given . . . that upon cross-examination . . . certified the said 
ship and other . . . Letters Patents, and that therefore we sup- 
pose (he should) be wholly for the fact excusable. 

"Concerning the aggravation of circumstances. We (reply) 
Argall had not above 60 men in his ship. That the (French) first 
shot"' at him; besides the ship and her app(urtenances), which 
was redelivered at the recjuest of the French A(mbassador), was 
not to the value of 200 pounds sterling, as we are (able to) prove 
by the several inventories delivered by the F(rench) to the Mar- 
shall of Virginia, and together with their (examinations) unto us 
certified. 

"Secondly, to the imputation of inhumanity used by him (to his) 
prisoners, we say it is wholly false. That neither Monsieur Saus- 
saye nor any other were detained as prisoners, but that he went 
and returned from ship to shore at pleasure. That Captain Argall 
did propound to them three offers : 

^This .seems improbable, owing' to the well-known defen.seless condition 
of the Jona.s. It Ms. ho'wever, not svirprisingr that the English and the 
French accounts of Saint Sauveiir would vary somewhat in detail. 



MOUNT DESERT 117 



"i. First, to give them a small pinnace, with sufficient victuals 
(to) carry them all to France. 

"2. Secondly, to give them passage from thence to the bank, 
120 leagues from Cape Brittayne, there to meet certayne French 
shipping. 

"3. Thirdly, to give Monsieur Saussy their Captain, a shallop, 
and as (many) of his men as he would choose, with sufficient pro- 
vision to their own wage, and to carry the residue (with him) to 
Virginia. (And) that condition was chosen by the Captain, and 
accordingly performed. 

"These offers are proved by the confession of Monsieur Saussay, 
his two Jesuits, the Master, and at least ten other of the company, 
which are ready to be shown, with many attestations of great 
humanity and . . . courtesy shown to them . . . 

"And that these our reasonable answers considered, the King of 
France is neither in his Hon's (Honours?) nor title anyway injured 
by the just defense of our own, and maintainance of those limits 
and extent of territory given unto us by his Majesty's Letters 
Patents many years before the French had any footing to the south 
of Canada. 

"Neither hath Madame de Guercheville any reason to expect 
reparation, having entered without our leave, within our limits and 
dominion, by force to plant or trade, contrary to the good corre- 
spondence and league of these two most royal Kings. And if any 
particular be hereof doubted or replied unto, we will be ready to 
give testimony and further answer thereunto." 

After receiving the communication just quoted, the Privy Coun- 
cil made the following reply -* to the French complaints. This 
reply was indorsed: "D(elivered) ye Fr(ench) Amb(assador by) 
Mons. Edmo(ndes). 1614. Answer to the French Complayntes." 

"Reply to the complaints presented to the King by Sieur Bis- 
seaux, resident Ambassador to the King. From the most Christian 
King. 

"Reply to the fourth complaint concerning Virginia. 

"Captain Argol admits that he has taken the French ship in 
Cjuestion, within the limits of our Colony on account of this, that 
contrary to the privileges granted the said Company by Letters 
Patent from the King, it attempted to intrude and establish itself 

-sBrown, Genesis of the United States, 2:733. 



ii8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



by force, and that what he has done in this matter has been done 
by virtue of the commission, which had been granted to him under 
the seal of the said Company, for that very purpose, which author- 
ity is derived from the special powers granted by His Majesty to 
said Colony under his Great Seal, and that nevertheless the said 
vessel has been returned at the request of the Ambassador. Not- 
withstanding which reply, His Majesty wishing to show the Ambas- 
sador the wish he cherishes to give all the contentment and satis- 
faction possible, has caused orders to be issued, that the said 
Captain Argol shall be produced to account for what he has done, 
at any time and whenever the Ambassador shall desire it. And 
that Turner, his Lieutenant, shall in like manner be produced as 
soon as he can be apprehended." 

The Reply to the eighth complaint was touching the Marchioness 
of Guercheville : — 

"As to Madame the Marchioness of Guercheville, she has no 
reason to complain; nor to hope for any reparation; seeing that 
her ship entered by force the territory of the said Colony to settle 
there, and to trade without their permission to the prejudice of 
our treaties and of the good understanding there is between our 
kings." 

Madame de Guerciieville's Replies 
It would seem that the claims of Madame de Guercheville re- 
ceived a fair consideration in the courts, for on October 21, 1614. 
she wrote a personal letter -" to the Secretary of State. Sir Ralph 
Winwood : 

"I have learnt the obligation I am under to you, before having 
the happiness of knowing you, which makes me doubly thank you, 
and entreat a continuation of your courtesy for the reparation of 
the great wrong which has been done me, and for the recovery of 
the Frenchmen who remain in Virginia. I promise that I shall 
be infinitely obliged for what shall be returned in so just a resti- 
tution and even more will ever be your most obliged and afifection- 
ale to serve you." 

It seems curious that Madame de Guercheville should have per- 
mitted Champlain's advice to go unheeded and that she allowed 
her settlement to be established within the limits of disputed terri- 
tory. Charlevoix,"*^ the Jesuit historian, criticizes her commandant. 



=9 Brown, Fir.st Republic in America, p. 2l[h 
30 Shea' .s Charlevoix, 1:285. 



MOUNT DESERT 119 



La Saussaye, severely for not staying at Port La Have, (Lunenburg 
county. N. S.), where a landing was made before coming to Mount 
Desert. "He should have gone no further," says Charlevoix, "he 
would ne\er have been attacked by the English there, for the English 
intended only to carry on the fishery at Mount Desert Island, and 
were not in force to get involved in Acadia, where they must have 
siipposed the French on their guard ; moreover, they did not know 
Port de la Have, the entrance of which is easily defended. Madame 
de Guercheville, on her side, erred in not intrusting her enterprise 
to someone already acquainted with the country ; and it is incon- 
ceivable how two missionaries, who had already spent two years 




I'lujtcj-,KMih JLi\ (c.iutis\ or W Jl 111 11 _Liii^ 1 Ml 
CHAMPLAIN MONUMENT — SEAL HARBOR 

there, did not suggest all this to La Saussaye, who was disposed, 
and doubtless had orders to follow their advice." 

The excitement which broke out in France when news of the 
so-called Argall outrage reached that country, soon subsided when 
it became understood that the affair concerned only private indi- 
\iduals. The Jones was sent back to Madame de Guercheville, the 
French prisoners were all released, and although the Marquise had 
asked for compensation for her losses, she was obliged to content 
herself wath the return of the vessel, realizing when it was too late, 
the grave error she had made in not listening to Samuel de Cham- 
plain. Father Coton is blamed by Champlain, since it was by 



I20 vSPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

his advice that Madame de Guercheville undertook the estabhsh- 
ment of her mission. Coton, because of his high official position 
in the Society of Jesus, could easily influence the Patroness of the 
Jesuits and it is little wonder that his counsels, rather than those 
of Champlain, prevailed. 

To Charlevoix's comment, John Gilmary Shea adds a note in 
which he calls attention to the fact that the English had, to Biard's 
knowledge, captured French fishing vessels in the vicinity of Mount 
Desert but a few years before, and concludes with a statement in 
regard to Fernald's Point as a colony site for a French mission, 
that "the choice of the spot for a settlement seems mad." 

Even so, it is of more than antiquarian interest that this ancient 
Jesuit mission of Saint Sauveur, whose name is perpetuated in the 
little mountain rising abruptly on the north and west of \^alley 
Cove, found place upon Mount Desert Island. Shortlived though 
it was, this Fernald's Point settlement has left an indelible stamp 
upon the early annals of the Island of the Desert Mountains, and 
Mount Saint Sauveur, symbolic in its rugged majesty, well serves 
as a memorial to those intrepid blackrobed followers of Loyola, 
who, forgetful of self, braved ocean's peril and hostile attack to 
labor for the greater glory of God among primitive peoples of 
primeval tribes. 

THE MAINE INDIANS, AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH 
THE WHITE SETTLERS 

(By Ethel M. Wood.) 

(Continued from page 69.) 
IV. Early French Relations with the Indians 

Turning now from the English to the French and their accjuaint- 
ance with the aborigines, we find that from their first appearance 
here, from the earliest expeditions of Champlain and De IMonts. 
the most amicable relations existed between the two races. These 
early French settlers used every means in their power to make 
allies of the natives, the most potent of wliich were, without doubt, 
trade, intermarriage, and religion. 

The French in Canada and the upper part of Maine established 
an extensive fur trade with the Indians which the latter found 
more satisfactory than that carried on with the English. The more 
conscientious French endeavored not to cheat the Indians. There 



THE MAINE INDIANS 121 



were, of course, some dishonest traders among them, but generally 
they gave value for value in so far as they were able, quite the 
reverse of the English who seemed to glory in the fact that they 
were getting something for almost nothing. For example, Capt. 
John Smith, in his account of his experiences on the Maine coast, 
says, "We got for trifles eleven thousand one hundred martens, 
and as many otters." ^ It seems that as he neared the Penobscot, 
his "trifles" were not so well received, for the Indians of that region 
had learned of the liberal prices to be obtained from the French. 
The French also secured an advantage over the English in the fact 
that they furnished the Indians with guns and ammunition, teach- 
ing them their use. The English, fearing to trust the savages, had, 
as a matter of precaution, withheld firearms from them, but the 
French saw that they could make better allies of them by furnish- 
ing them with implements of war. 

In establishing friendly relations with the Indians, the French 
were greatly aided by their marriage alliances with the various 
tribes ; very many of the French settlers took Indian wives, and 
prospective colonists were even advised to bring no women with 
them in their expeditions, in order that they might contract matri- 
monial alliances with the natives. Baron Castine is said to have 
had five Indian wives, and was a man of great influence in the 
Penobscot tribe. The English with their pride of birth had stood 
aloof and had kept their blood unsullied from alliance with a savage 
people. The French lived among them almost on terms of equality 
and therefore were in a position to win their intimate and lasting 
regard. 

In no way, probably, did the French gain a greater influence 
over the aborigines of Maine than by the dissemination of their 
religion among them. To the superstitious Indian nature, Cathol- 
icism made a strong appeal. Its elaborate rites and ceremonies 
embodied sufficient of that mysticism, which was so essential to 
his religious nature. An old chief when asked why the Indians 
were so much more attached to the French than to the English 
replied, "Because the French have taught lis to pray unto God, 
which the English never did." - This is the Indian's condemnation 
of the Englishman and he administers a further rebuke in the fol- 
lowing terms : "You have returned us evil for good. You put the 

1 Smith'.? History of Virginia, etc.: page 213. 
-Abbott; History of Maine, p. 337. 



122. SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

flaming cup to our lips ; it filled our veins with poison ; it wasted 
the pride of our strength. Ay, and when the fit was on us, you 
took advantage — you made gain of us . . . The earth is for the 
life and range of man. We are now told that the country spread- 
ing far from the sea is passed away to you forever, — perhaps for 
nothing — because of the names and seals of our sagamores. They 
never turned their children from their homes to sufifer. Their 
hearts were too full of kindness, their souls too great." " The 
P'rench from the first assumed toward them a brotherly attitude 
and were honest in their dealings with them. Is it to be wondered 
at, therefore, that their religion should seem a reality to this simple 
people ? 

From the very beginning of the French settlements, Jesuit mis- 
sionaries came from France for the purpose of conveying the 
Gospel to the natives. In i6o<), Biencourt, the son of Poutrin- 
court, the early explorer, embarked to the new world for the pur- 
pose of establishing a settlement at Port Royal in Acadia. Through 
the efforts of Antoinette de Pons, Marchioness de Guercheville, 
there accompanied him upon this voyage two Jesuit priests, Fathers 
Pierre Biard and Enemond Masse. Father Biard thus states the 
twofold purpose of their mission, first, "to act as spiritual adviser 
to Sieur de Biencourt, and, second, to become acquainted with and 
learn the disposition of the native to receive the gospel." * In 1611, 
Biard, with Biencourt and party, sailed to the Sheepscot River in 
search of food. At night some Indians encamped on the nearby 
shore and spent the evening in singing and dancing. The French- 
men on deck began to mimic them, doing it so cleverly that the 
Indians themselves paused to look and listen. In the morning the 
two parties held conversation through the medium of an interpreter, 
a captive Indian, whom the French had brought from St. John. 
I'iencourt was conducted up the river a little distance and then 
through Pleasant Cove to their chief, who, they said, would give 
them corn. He had none to spare, however, but was very willing 
to trade in furs. Father Biard, distinguished by his priestly garb, 
and because of the fact that he carried no weapons, was treated 
with especial courtesy. Through the interpreter, he held a little 
religious service in their midst, which seemed to make some im- 

sAVilliamson: Vol. 2, p. 112-11.3. ..-,,..,. , ., 

^ See History of Kennebec County, :\Iaine. Chap. 2, Na.sh .s Indian.s of the 
Kennebec, p. 13. 



THE MAINE INDIANS 



12 



pression upon them. He later wrote that he found them "a teach- 
able people who listened with respect and who seemed to be not 
far from the kingdom of God." ^ 

Soon after the return to Port Royal a serious quarrel arose 
between the hot-headed Biencourt and his spiritual advisers, with 
the attending result that their labors were much interfered with. 
The Marchioness de Guercheville, in the meantime, hearing of the 
dissension, determined to send out a colony which should not be 
disturbed in its missionary enterprise. With this expedition which 
followed two years after, she sent out two more Jesuits, Fathers 
Ouentin and Lalemand, and Gilbert du Thet. a lay brother. Stop- 
ping at Port Royal for Fathers Biard and Masse, they continued 
their voyage, intending to sail up the river and settle at Kadescjuit 
or Kenduskeag, the present site of Bangor. Unfavorable weather 
drove them from their course and they came ashore at Mount 
Desert. They intended, after the storm had abated, to continue 
on their way, but the Indian^ would not listen to such a proposal. 
They pointed out the beauties and attractions of the place, and 
when these inducements failed, they appealed to the humanity of 
the Jesuit fathers by a woeful tale of the illness of their chief and 
his need of Christian baptism before his death. This appeal did 
indeed touch the hearts of the priests, and even when they found 
that the sagamore was suffering only from an attack of rheuma- 
tism and was not in a serious condition at all, they decided to make 
this their abiding place. A settlement was made on the island and 
named St. Sauveur. Owing to the success attending their minis- 
trations to a sick child, the missionaries came to be regarded as 
almost superhuman beings. A lasting impression was made upon 
the Indians which resulted in many conversions to the Catholic 
faith. The Jesuits remained until the settlement was destroved 
by Samuel Argall of Virginia and they themselves were taken away 
as captives. Later some Capuchin friars took up their abode on 
the shores of the Penobscot where they labored zealously for the 
conversion of the natives. 

Some of the Indians of the Canibas tribe in their journeyings 
to and from Canada had come under the influence of the Jesuits 
a1 the French town of Sillery " and had become greatly interested 

5 See Palfrey's History of New En.yiand: Vol. 4. p. 31. 

8 Sillery was on the site of the modern St. .Joseph, situated on the Chau- 
diere River some miles south of Quebec. 



124 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

in their teacliing. They had been converted through their inter- 
course with these missionaries and with the Christian Indians of 
that place, and on their return to their home in the fertile valley 
of the Kennebec, they endeavored to preach the gospel to their 
own peoi)le. Finally they sent a request for a missionary to the 
civil governor and religious superior of Quebec, and on Aug. 29, 
1646, in response to this request Father Gabriel Dreuillettes came 
to dwell among them. He built a chapel at Old Point in Norridge- 
wock ; and in the Abenaki villages he nursed the sick, baptized 
the dying, and though handicapped by his meagre knowledge of 
the language, he gave them as much instruction as he could. From 
Norridgewock, the northernmost Abenaki settlement on the Ken- 
nebec, he went down the river to the English post at Cushenock 
(Augusta) and thence to the mouth of the Kennebec and along 
the coast to the Penobscot, where he found several Capuchins 
under Father Ignace. These received him very kindly. He spent 
the winter at an Indian village three miles above the present site of 
Augusta, where the natives erected a rude chapel for him. This 
station was known as the Mission of the Assumption on the Ken- 
nebec. Father Dreuillettes required three things of his converts : 
that they abstain from intoxicating liquors, that they live at peace 
with their neighbors, and that they give up their medicine men with 
their mysterious charms. This last, the problem of the medicine 
men, was the most difficult, but the missionary finally won. In 
the spring the red men started out on their great annual hunt and 
with them went their missionary. The strenuousness of this hunt- 
ing life was almost beyond his strength but he made no complaint, 
patiently enduring every hardship that he might the better win the 
confidence and respect of the Indians. The next year Father 
Dreuillettes left them and returned to Canada, but they expressed 
so much sorrow at his departure and begged so persistently for 
his return that he later spent another winter with them. Again 
he appears in 1650 at Plymouth in the capacity of agent of the 
Abenakis, soliciting from this province, under whose jurisdiction 
tliev lived, some protection from the hostile Mohawks. He after- 
^vard continued his w^ork among the Indians until his station was 
destroyed by the British in 1674. 

Dreuillettes was followed in 1685 by two brothers. Fathers Vin- 
cent and Jacques Piigot, who took up the work at Norridgewock. 



THE MAINE INDIANS 125 

By this time the teachings of the former missionary had faded out 
and the brothers had to begin with the very simplest of rehgious 
truths. They exercised great control over the Indians, and were 
particularly active in urging them on against the English. Their 
successor was the famous Father Sebastian Rale,' a man of much 
education and culture. He w^as sent from Quebec in 1693 to the 
Abenaki village where he had an unbroken ministry until his 
tragic death in 1724. It would be impossible to measure the sac- 
rifice which it required of him to give up the comforts of civiliza- 
tion to live among the savages. No luxuries did he have, and all 
too few' of the ordinary comforts of life. 

Father Rale took pains to adorn his church and to provide it 
with all the furnishings necessary to the performance of its rites 
and ceremonies, thinking that in th'S way he could more easily 
interest the savages in the w^orship. The scjuaws vied with one 
another in adorning the shrine of tne Virgin Mary. Father Rale 
even trained a "clergy" of forty young men to assist him in the 
service. Great multitudes of Indians were wont to come from 
far and near to attend the church services, and Rale, in a letter 
to his nephew, said : "You would be edified with the fine order 
they observe and with the piety they evince." '' In his mission of 
"instructing them and forming them to Christian virtues" ^ he 
found few idle moments. The mass was celebrated in the early 
morning, after which the priest instructed the children and young 
people in the catechism. From then until noon he gave himself 
up to hearing and answering the questions of his people on any 
and every concern of their lives. The afternoons were spent in 
visiting the sick and all who were in special need of his minis- 
trations. At sunset, evening prayers w-ere held in the church. 
Aside from the sermons on the Sabbath and on feast days, Father 
Rale passed "few working days without making them a short ex- 
hortation for the purpose of inspiring a horror of the vices toward 
^vhich their tendency is strongest, or for strengthening them in the 
practice of some virtue." ^^ The evenings were the only time 
which the good man had to himself, and then he was busily engaged 
in making a dictionary of the ^Kbenaki language, in the hope of 
reducing the dialects to writing 

(To be continued.) 

"The name is variously spelled Rale, Ralle, Rahle, Rasle and Rasles. 
** Cummings, Mission of Father Rasles; p. 12. 
^ Cummings, INIission of Father Rasles; p. 11. 
1" Cummings: p. 13. 



126 SPRAGL^E"S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

A HOME RULE FOR IRELAND MEETING IN BANGOR. 
]\IAINE, IN 1886 

On the evening of Monday, June 7, 1886, the citizens of Bangor 
held a mass meeting in the old Norumbega hall, to indorse the 
Gladstone-Parnell bill for home rule in Ireland, then i)ending in 
the British Parliament. 

The report of this meeting in the Whig and Courier says : "It 
was one of the grandest demonstrations ever held within its his- 
toric walls." 

The meeting was called to order by the Mayor, Edward B. 
Nealley. Chief Justice John A. Peters presided, with the follow- 
ing vice-presidents : Hannibal Hamlin, John Appleton, Samuel H. 
Blake, Albert G. Wakefield, Charles Hayward, William B. Hay- 
ford, William H. AlcCrillis, Lewis Barker, George W. Ladd, Joseph 
P. Bass, Samuel F. Humphrey, Eben S. Coe, Rev. George W^ Field, 
D. D., Rev. Edward McSweeney of the St. John's Catholic Church, 
Rev. M. C. O'Brien of the St. Mary's Catholic Church, Nathan C. 
Ayer, General George \"arney, Llewellyn J. Morse, John Varney, 
Charles V. Lord, Greenleaf J. Clark, Dr. Thomas N. Coe, Dr. Isaac 
Strickland and Philo A. Strickland. Its secretaries were F. H. 
Getchell and E. P. Boutelle. Speeches were made by Franklin A. 
\\'ilson, General Charles Hamlin, Lewis Barker, Daniel F. Davis, 
W. H. McCrillis, Patrick H. Gillin, Rev. H. Barnard Carpenter 
of Boston, Rev. George W. Field, D. D., Rev. leathers McSweeney 
and O'Brien and Dr. D. A. Robinson. Resolutions strongly favor- 
ing home rule for Ireland were passed. "Joseph P. Bass moved 
that a dispatch be cabled to ]\Ir. Gladstone carrying to him the 
sentiments of the meeting,'' which was "unanimously carried." 
Letters were read from John P. Don worth of Houlton, John B. 
Redman, Ellsworth, Governor Robie and James G. Blaine, Augusta, 
and Congressman Charles A. Boutelle, wlio, at the time, was in 
A\^ashington, D. C. 

So far as we know, Philo A. Strickland, E. P. Boutelle and 
Patrick H. Gillin are the only ones now living whose names ap- 
peared in the report of this meeting. 



MAKING HISTORY IN THE MAINE WOODS- 
CULTURE FOR THE LUMBERJACK 

(By the Editor.) 

When the writer was a lad and for years thereafter there were 
no "lumberjacks" in the vast and dense forests of northern Maine. 



MAKING HISTORY IN MAINE WOODS 127 

They were all "woodsmen,"' whether choppers, swampers, ox or 
horse teamsters, river drivers, cooks or cookees. The old-time 
woodsman was ever known by his outer garment which invariably 
was a bright red woolen shirt. When he went into the woods he 
carried on his back an old meal bag stuffed with a few supplies 
from his home that the good wife thought he might need during 
an eight months' sojourn in the heart of the great wilderness fifty 
or a hundred miles beyond the head of Moosehead Lake. These 
crews of woodsmen started on foot from Bangor, and walked a 
distance of sixty miles to Greenville at the foot of Moosehead Lake, 
where they embarked on the lake by steamboat ; usually receiving 
reinforcements from the farms in every town and hamlet along 
the way. 

It should be understood that in those days — fifty to sixty years 
ago — there were very few foreign-born Maine woodsmen, except 
some from New Brunswick, then called "bluenoses." The latter 
class would work summers in the lumber mills at Bangor and other 
points along the Penobscot river, and for the lumber operators in 
the woods for the winter, and drive the logs on the rivers and 
streams in the springtime. The much larger portion of these woods 
crews were, however, pure-blooded sons of Maine, whose fathers 
came here from Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and who had 
descended straight from the old Pilgrim and Puritan stock. 

Thoreau when he wrote "Maine Woods" had never heard of 
lumberjacks. When Fanny Hardy Eckstorm wrote her charming 
epic story of the "Penobscot Man" as late as 1904. she at least 
ignored this appellation. 

As the old-time saw mills began to give place to the great pulp 
and paper industry and Bangor on the Penobscot was no longer 
"the largest lumber market in the world," the red shirts gradually 
dropped out of the ranks to be filled by a rapidly increasing army 
of a distinctly different type of man. They came in droves from 
Boston and other seaport cities, ordered by mail from labor agen- 
cies. The new crowd was wholly cosmopolitan. They hailed from 
every nook and corner of the earth and from all the ports of men 
in western and eastern Europe. The first view of the lumberjack 
was beheld when this influx strange to the deep, dark shadows of 
the woods of Maine, began. He was first discovered and this name 
bestowed upon him by that wizard in the portraiture of Maine 
country and backwoods life. Holman Day, not more than a quarter 



128 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



of a century ago. Theodore Roosevelt or Woodrow Wilson were 
never more successful in the coinage of words than was Day in 
this one, for it has since been universally adopted. 

One of the largest employers of these lumberjacks, is the Great 
Northern Paper Company. Its policy of dealing with the public 
has from the first been a broad and generous one. This fact is 
\\ell illustrated by its having constructed and maintained in this 
v.ilderness practically at its own expense, about 135 miles of good 
graveled turnpike roads, and by its acts saying to the public : 
"Come on and use these roads for pleasure or business as you may 
desire. They are free for all." 

There are about seven thousand of this new type of woodsman 
working in its Spruce Woods Department. 

The passing of the old conditions and the time-worn customs 
and methods of the fathers of the Maine lumbering was, several 
years ago, perfectly apparent to its manager and his lieutenants. 
Gradually and quietly they have revolutionized their entire woods 
system, upon an entirely new basis, designed to meet the swiftly 
changing conditions. A "welfare department," with its moving 
pictures, its libraries, victrolas, night schools and reading rooms 
for the use of rough-neck swampers, choppers, etc., would today 
surely astound the Babbs, the Stricklands, the Morrisons or the 
John Ross' of the past generation, though they were all great and 
wonderful men for their times. And yet as startling as it may 
seem, it is exactly what is now being accomplished in the wild 
timberland districts, in the counties of Aroostook and Piscataquis. 
The plan is amazingly progressive. It is in absolute harmony with 
tlie most advanced thought on the problems of immigration and 
labor. 

Thus, far removed from the lure and temptations of the crowded 
cities, where Maine's wild life exists, where the bear and the moose 
have their homes ; where the loon laughs and the beaver builds his 
castle ; where the pine and the hemlock murmur their weird re- 
frains, and the roar of windy blasts from mountain tops, and the 
scream of the eagle is heard, new Americans are being made. 
They have been started on the road to refinement and good citizen- 
ship, without noise or fuss. And by the same token, the relations 
of the employer and the em])loyce are wisely adjusted, equalized 
and harmonized. 

Its latest venture in this social and welfare work among the 



MAKING HISTORY IN MAINE WuODS 129 

lumberjacks, is the founding of an illustrated monthly magazine, 
entitled "The Northern," with Harry B. Coe, late of Portland, 
for its editor, who is well known for his experience and ability 
as a writer and publisher. Its sole purpose is to furnish its thou- 
sands of employees with a publication of their own, devoted wholly 
to their own interests and welfare. It announces that it is "A 
]\Iagazine of Contact, Between the Management and the Men of 
the Great Northern Paper Co. — Spruce Woods Department." It 
is unique. Culture and the woods life of the lumberjacks are 
delightfully intermingled in its columns. It is breezy, attractive, 
and full of excellent matter, appropriate for its reading constitu- 
ency. It will be a bright addition to Maine literature. The first 
number appeared in April, of the present year. In this issue the 
editor says : "The Social Service Division of the Spruce Wood 
Department of the Great Northern Paper Company is the develop- 
ment of an idea which had its inception in the active brain of 
Manager F. A. Gilbert in his desire to bring to the people of the 
Spruce Wood Department more of the pleasures of life and to 
afford them opportunities for diversion which they could not other- 
wise get. 

"That is the reason for its existence and its excuse for func- 
tioning. 

"Mr. M. S. Hill was appointed superintendent about a year ago, 
since which time his plans were developed to their present stage, 
of bringing to the wilderness those pleasures of city life which we 
all enjoy having, in entertaining and instructive reading, in music 
and in moving pictures. 

"Reading is provided through traveling libraries which are rented 
from the State through the office of the State Librarian, these 
libraries being placed at the company's headquarters at Pittston, 
Seboomook, Grant Farm, Rice Farm, Dyer Brook and Monticello. 
A librarian is in charge and books can be had at any time. From 
these headquarters places, the books, vmder certain necessary re- 
strictions, can be used by the men in the outlying camps and oper- 
ations of their several natures. 

"Besides the libraries, current event and fiction reading is offered 
through weekly and monthly magazines, fortv of which go each 
issue to these headquarters places and during the woods operation 
season to the principal depot camps as well, and from those places. 



I30 SPRAGLE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

after being read, they are forwarded to the smaller camps located 
farther back in the woods. 

"Victrolas have been placed at the same places and sets of records 
arranged in programs of about twenty-live selections each, and the 
aim has been to make them sufficiently varied to cater to all tastes, 
so that there is included a variety from the latest fox trot to the 
big Red Seal records of grand opera by the greatest singers. These 
concert programs are sent in rotation to these several places to give 
them a new set of records at stated intervals." 



CAPTAIN STEPHEN SMITH, WHO LIVED IN MACHIAS, 
MAINE, IN REVOLUTIONARY TIMES 

(By Mark A. Barwise.) 

John Smith came to Barnstable, Massachusetts, from England, 
about 1630, was betrothed to Susanna Hinckley, daughter of 
Samuel Hinckley and brother of Thomas Hinckley, afterward gov- 
ernor, in 1642, and married in 1643. In 1663 he succeeded Rev. 
William Sargent as pastor of the Barnstable church. Subsequently 
he went to Long Island and New Jersey and in 1675 removed to 
Sandwich and in 1676 became pastor of the Sandwich church, 
continuing as such until 1688, when his pastorate was terminated 
at his own request, he being 74 years of age. The record of his 
death is obscure as to the year but the probability is it occurred 
October 2, 1710, at the extreme age of 06 years. 

Stephen Smith was a descendant in the fourth generation of 
John and Susanna (Hinckley) Smith and the son of Samuel and 
Bethia Smith. He was born in Sandwich, Massachusetts, and 
married in 1762, Deborah, daughter of Johnathan and Patience 
Ellis, of Plymouth. In 1772 vStephen Smith removed from Sand- 
wich to Machias, in the District of Alaine, where, but nine years 
before, a settlement had been made. In 1776 he was appointed 
Truck-master to the Indians, by the Provincial Congress. The 
duties of this office were to supply the Indians with provisions, 
and to keep them from taking an active part against the Colonists 
In the Revolutionary War. The next year he was spoken of as 
Captain Smith, of the militia, and he was associated with Col. 
Allan, Col. Eddy and Maj. vStlllman, In the defense of the settle- 
ments in Eastern Maine. He showed himself, in the numerous 



HON. JAMES ^PHINNEY BAXTER 131 

skirmishes, to be a good commander, and one whom the Indians 
respected and obeyed. That he was a generous man and one who 
contributed to the support of the church, is shown by the fact that, 
in the subscription, "that the Rev. James Lyon tarry here this pres- 
ent year (1778) and preach the Gospel among us," Stephen Smith 
is recorded as giving "four thousand boards, or £12," which is 
the largest subscription on the list. Perhaps it may be inferred 
that he owned a saw mill from the above. 

Four of the ancestors of Capt. Stephen Smith, on his mother's 
side, came over in the Mayflower, viz: John Tilley and his wife 
Elizabeth, their daughter Elizabeth Tilley and John Rowland. 
John Rowland married Elizabeth Tilley soon after their arrival 
at Plymouth. Hoi)e Rowland, daughter of John and Elizabeth, 
and Elder John Chipman were married in 1646, and their grand- 
daughter, Bethia, daughter of Hon. John Chipman, married Samuel 
Smith and was the mother of Stephen Smith. 

Captain Smith died in Machias, September 29, 1806. 



HON. JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER 
In Me MORI am 
In memory of one whose life has been a benediction. 
We gaze upon thy silent face. 
In reverence to one who was truly great, 
Reflecting upon thy long life of usefulness; 
As Poet, Historian and Philanthropist 
Thy name will e'er be remembered 
Throughout the State, in every age. 

Great men of renown have lived before thee, 

And thy life has drank anew 

From the fountain head of knowledge 

From the sweetest, pure and true ; 

Now thy soul will e'er be feasting 

In that better land above 

^^'here no sorrow, pain or anguish 

Enters the sacred realm of love. 

Victoria Aurora Magnusson. 
Librarian, Baxter Memorial Library, Gorham, Maine. 
June 2, 1 92 1. 



132 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




PORT HALIFAX AS COMPLETED IN 1755 

Drawn by C. Marshall Stewart, Senior Illustrator in 
the Division of Publications, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C, great-great-grandson of 
Phineas Stewart, one of the carpenters employed in 
its erection, from records filed in the Library of 
Congress. 

FORT HALIFAX, 1754 

(By Arthur W. Stewart.) 

In the early part of 1754 Gvovernor Shirley gave orders "For 
the building of Fort Halifax on an eminence near a fork of land 
at Taconick Falls, and that a strong blockhouse be built on the 
same fork of land * * * and also that a road be cut through 
the woods on the mainland between Fort Halifax and the store- 
house at Cushnock." 

This location was at the confluence of Kennebec and Sebasticook 
rivers, and probably was chosen as it was the only known way of 
communication between the Norridgewock and Penobscot Indians, 
and was the route travelled by the Penobscots in their journeyings 
to Quebec, and also because it was on the northern boundary of 
the Plymouth Company's grant, which document says : "It lyith 
within, or between, and extendeth itself from ye utmost limits of 
Comaseconty which joineth ye river Kennebeck towards the west- 
ern ocean, and a place, ye falls of Nequamkick, and ye space of 



FORT HALIFAX, 1754 i33 

fifteen English miles on either side of said river, and all of ye said 
river Kennebeck that lyeth within said limits." 

Captain William Lithgow, who commanded Fort Halifax, stated, 
"Nequamke Falls are five or six miles below Ticonic Falls." 

Five hundred soldiers were detailed for guard duty during the 
building of the fort. Governor Shirley gave the command of the 
troops and mechanics of the expedition to Captain John Winslovv, 
who was made General of the Province. He was a great-grand- 
son of Edward Winslow who came over in the Mayflower, and 
commanded a trading expedition to the Kennebec one hundred and 
sixty years before. 

General Winslow's plan of the fort was as follows : In the center 
a blockhouse of two stories, twenty feet square on the ground and 
the second story twenty-seven feet square. Around this and front- 
ing each of its corners were four one-story buildings to be used 
as barracks ; these buildings were enclosed by palisades built of 
hewed timber and forming a square of one hundred and twenty 
feet, and the whole enclosed by eight hundred feet of palisades 
placed in the form of a star. 

This plan, however, was changed, at the suggestion of Captain 
Lithgow, who succeeded General Winslow, September 2, 1754. 
Captain Lithgow moved the four one-story buildings used as bar- 
racks and joined them in a line south of the blockhouse built by 
Winslow, which formed the northeast corner of the fort. In the 
opposite or southwest corner was another blockhouse built by 
Captain Lithgow, and of similar formation and dimensions as the 
other. 

In the northwest corner he erected a two-story building forty 
feet by eighty feel, which was used as officers' quarters, storehouse 
and armory. South of the barracks was an entrance covered by 
a small house to be used by the guard. The whole was surrounded 
by a palisade joining the blockhouses in such a way that the occu- 
pants could command a view of all sides of the fort. 

A small redoubt was also built by Winslow on the top of the 
hill back of the fort and similarly enclosed; this was ecjuipped with 
a swivel and two cannon. Cai)tain Lithgow built a second block- 
house on the hill to command a view of the falls where consider- 
able fishing was dcjne, and where a fishing party \\as attacked by 
the Indians. 



134 SPRAGCE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The cannon and ironwork for the arming of Fort Hah fax were 
carried up the river on two gundalows, or scows, which drew about 
two feet of water, and were towed on their journey by the assist- 
ance of the soldiers who guarded them. 

The workmen employed in building the fort were Gershom Flagg, 
of Boston, who acted as foreman. He was a housewright and 
glazier, and was employed on Fort Richmond on the Kennebec,, 
and Fort Pownall on the Penobscot. He was a member of the 
Plymouth Company, and was the ancestor of the Flaggs, Bridges, 
Norths, and Fullers, of Augusta ; James Cocks, who was a captain 
in the Revolutionary army. He married a sister of Gershom Flagg 
and settled in Hallowell in 1762, where he became prominent in 
town affairs ; Phineas Stewart, the great-grandfather of the writer 
of this sketch, who was born in Rowley, Massachusetts, in 1732^ 
and was a soldier in the Crown Point Expedition, in 1756. He 
removed to Howardstown, which is now a part of Skowhegan, 
]\Iaine, in 1776; Stephen Gulliver, wdio settled in the vicinity of 
Waterville; Henry HascoU, Thomas Clemons, Benjamin Easty, 
Jonatlian Gibbs, Ralph Hemmingway, Edmund Savage, Nathaniel 
Sullivan and Uriah Tucker as carpenters; John Edwards, William 
Parks and Robert Williams as masons ; Abram Wyman as team- 
ster, and Jonathan Howland as cook. 

The compensation received by these men, when compared with 
the artisans' wages of the present, seems rather meager. The fore- 
man received six shillings and eight pence, and the journeyman 
carpenters four shillings per day ; the masons received sixty-six 
shillings and eight pence per month ; the teamster two shillings and 
two pence, and the cook one shilling per day. 

The fort was not completed until 1775, and as we glance at the 
blockhouse built by General A\'inslow which is all that is left of 
Fort Halifax, few realize that it is less than one-tenth the size of 
the original, which was the strongest and most extensive fortress 
in the state in the seventeenth century. 



PEJEPSCOT 



135 



UNOFFICIAL POSTAL REGULATIONS IN THE 
MAINE WOODS 

(Contributed by William F. Atwood, Jr., of Bangor.) 

Fifty years ago the hotel, store 
and buildings at Chesuncook 
Lake were owned by the late 
John H. Eveleth of Greenville. 
During the summer and the 
autumn hunting seasons, many 
tourists had camps and lodges 
on the shores of the lake and 
at other points in the vicinity. 
The late Leonard Hilton of 
Kingslnir)- was for several years 
subsequent to 1869, manager at 
Chesuncook for Mr. Eveleth. 

These tourists desired their 
mail carried b}- canoe and horse- 
back riders from the Chesun- 
cook postofhce to their respec- 
ti\'e abiding places. 
Mr. Hilton conceived of a unique plan which he called a "tourist 
dispatch," by which he sold stamps to the campers, the receipts 
from the sales being used to pay these private mail carriers. 
The above cut represents these stamps. 




PEJEPSCOT 
All alone and unmolested. 
Dwelt a tribe of the Anasagunticooks, 
By the Androscoggin River, 
Dwelt this tribe of the Pejepscots. 

LTp and down the mighty river 
In canoes they paddled daily; 
Through the forests roamed for hunting 
All young braves of the tribe so dusky. 

Then the white man came among them, 
Built his cabin near their lodges, 
By the Androscoggin River, 
River of the mighty waters. 



136 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF ^lAIXE HISTORY 

Time went on, one day at evening 
By the Androscoggin River, 
Sat a hunter with his peace pipe. 
Of the tribe of the Pejepscots. 

Long he sat there thinking, dreaming 
Of the people come among them. 
Of the many pale-faced people 
Who had settled there among them. 

Then the smoke from out the peace pipe 
Curled and wreathed and wandered skyward, 
Till at last this dusky dreamer 
Saw therein a mighty vision. 

Saw beside that mighty river 
Flickers of the lights and firesides. 
That no longer came from camp-fires. 
But from homes pale- faces builded. 

Then he saw beside the river 
Mighty wheels by water turning; 
Heard the roar of bridled water 
As it tumbled down the courses. 

Then he rose, this dark-hued hunter. 
Paddled back to tribe and kindred, 
Told them of his dream and vision, 
As the western sun was setting. 

Years have gone, as have the red men, 
From among the pale-faced people. 
And we see no longer visions, 
Visions, as he saw at sunset. 

Mighty wheels are there in motion. 
Run by water where he paddled ; 
Logs are fallen by the river. 
Where he sat and smoked the peace pipe. 

He no longer sits there dreaming. 
But the kindly, pale-faced people, 
Ever mindful of the tribe so dusky. 
Call the land for the Pejepscots. 

NelIvIE Ricker, AVinthrop, Me. 



A "SMOCK MARRIAGE" IN MAINE IN 1772 137 



A "SMOCK AIARRIAGE" IN MAINE IN 1772 

(By Sam E. Conner.) 

Under the old laws if, upon marriage, a woman came to her 
husband without any of this world's goods, clothes or money, he 
w'as not liable for her debts. The records of the State show that 
at least one smock marriage occurred in Maine, so called because 
the bride wore only a smock when she took the nuptial vow. 

It was also the law that persons desiring to enter the state of 
matrimony, but who lived in a community where there was neither 
a minister nor magistrate, could by appearing before witnesses, 
reading to each other the marriage ceremony and signing a mar- 
riage agreement, become lawfully wedded. The smock marriage 
to which reference is made took place in the Knox county town 
of Friendship in 1772 and the old record on the town's books was 
as follows : 

"Certificate — This may certify all whom it may concern that 
W. Elwell of Meduncook hath been duly published to Hannah 
Thomas of Meduncook. Si'd, Sedate Wadsworth, Clerk, Medun- 
cook, April ye i8th, 1772. 

"Meduncook, May 12th, 1772. Whereas the Subscribers, Wm. 
Elwell & Hannah Thomas, being lawfully published & desirous 
of entering into the holy state of Marriage & being confined in a 
place where there is neither a minister or magistrate, do by these 
presents & in the presence of Almighty God & before these wit- 
nesses that may sign this instrument, engage Sc do take each other 
as man & wife & do promise to behave to each other in a tenderly 
Si affectionate manner as man & wife, according to the laws of 
God & man, according to the best of our capacities & as tho we 
were married by a magistrate or minister. In witness whereof, 
we have hereunto set our hands. 

"William Elwell. 

"Hannah Thomas, her X mark. 

"Signed in the presence of we the subscribers, & that the man 
took her as it were naked & gave her clothes to put on. — Wm. S. 
Frost, vSamuel Condon, Cornelius Morton, Mary Condon, her X 
mark, Otis Pinkham, Hannah Pinkham, Mercy W. Larry, her X 
mark. 



8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



"N_ B. — Wm. Elwell & Hannah Thomas took the common prayer 
book after they had signed the above instrument & read the church 
ceremony of marriage to each other in a serious manner before 
the witnesses to the above instrument before me — Wm. S. Frost. 

"The aforesaid Wilham Elwell & Hannah Thomas were married 
in the above manner, May 12th, 1772 — their first child, a daughter, 
named Hannah, was born June ye 21st, 1772; their second, a son, 
named Elias, born April ye 5th, 1776." 

There is one other authentic smock marriage on record where 
the bride appeared unclothed during the ceremony. This took place 
ill England in 1797. While there probably were others, the general 
record shows that in all such marriages the bride stood concealed, 
except for her hand and face behind a curtain, or else in an adjoin- 
ing room, with her hand extended through and holding that of the 
bridegroom. Eater, it appears, that it was the custom for the 
bride to appear clothed only in a chemise and then with a smock, 
which was a baglike arrangement of cotton cloth. 



REBECCA WESTON CHAPTER 

(From D. A. K. ^lagazine. May. 1021.1 

Rebecca Weston Chapter (Dexter, Me.) aided in the celebration 
of Armistice Day, 1920, by unveiling a boulder to mark the site 
of the town. The Edward J. Poulliot Post of the American Legion 
and the members of the D. A. R., led by the Fay and Scott Band, 
marched to the lot, which is now owned by J. Willis Crosby, the 
members of Rebecca Weston Chapter marching up the hillside and 
forming a semicircle back of the tablet. After the music and 
invocation, Mrs. J. Willis Crosby, Regent of the Chapter, delivered 
the following address : 

"This year of 1920 is a notable one. The tercentenary anni- 
versary of the landing of the Pilgrims on our shores is being cele- 
brated throughout New England. This year also marks the cen- 
tennial of the independence of our beloved State of Maine. So it 
seems most fitting that we observe at this time some historic facts 
of our own town of Dexter. 

"Because of our manv patriotic sons who ofifered their services 



REBECCA WESTON CHAPTER 139 



to their country in the Civil War, later in the Spanish-American 
War, and more recently the World War, it seems eminently fitting- 
that we, the Daughters of the American Revolution, should unite 
with the boys of the American Legion in the observance of Armis- 
tice Day. 

"We are to unveil a tablet marking the site of the first dwelling- 
in Dexter, and there is a bit of most interesting history connected 
with it. In 1794, James Bridge, of Augusta, purchased from the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts the present township of Dexter. 
He soon sold it to Charles Vaughn, who was acting for a company 
in Massachusetts. Vaughn was unable to meet the conditions in- 
volved in the purchase of this land, and Dexter passed through 
several hands before Andrew Cragie, of Cambridge, Mass., pur- 
chased and induced settlements upon it. 

"During the year 1800, Cragie sent Samuel Elkins from Corn- 
ville to locate a suitable site for a mill. He chose the outlet of 
the body of water which was later named Lake Wassookeag. and 
began at once to hew timber for the structure. The mill proved 
an attraction, for the same year Ebenezer Small and John Tuckler 
came here to secure locations for future homes. Mr. Small made 
a clearing, put up a log cabin, and raised a crop of corn. The 
next spring he returned to New Hampshire for his wife. There 
was no road further than Harmony, so with necessary household 
goods loaded on a handsled and with Mrs. Small seated on top, 
they continued their journey. There was not even a footpath to 
guide them through the forest, and it was with great difficulty that 
they found their way, by means of blazed trees, and at last reached 
their destination. 

"The hardships endured by these early settlers seem almost in- 
credible. At one time food was so scarce that people travelled 
forty miles, on horseback, to Norridgewock, and bought corn for 
$2 per bushel, and a certain youngf man went to Athens to work 
in a hay field for a peck of corn a day. 

"The contrast between those early days and the present is great. 
Today the town of Dexter is beautiful, with its picturesque scenery 
of hill and dale, lake and stream, wooded hills, shady streets, its 
many churches and educational institutions, varied business enter- 
prises, and fine residences, with their well-kept lawns and shrub- 
bery, and fine farms, of which we are justly proud. And here in 



I40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the shadow of these venerable and stately ehiis, we, the members 
of Rebecca Weston Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, take pleasure in unveiling this boulder w^ith inscribed tablet, 
marking the site of the first dwelling in Dexter, and we dedicate 
it to the memory of Mr. and Mrs. Small, who so bravely faced the 
dangers and hardships of pioneer life." 

(Mrs.) Annie M. Brirv, Historian. 




OHESUNCOOK SCHOOL HOUSE 

The State of Maine cares for and educates many children whose 
homes are scattered along the borders of its 14,000 to 15,000 
scmare miles of forestry and upon 146 islands along its seacoast. 

This is known as "The Unorganized Territory School System 
of Maine." It is unique and differs from any other scheme of 
school teaching in the country that we are aware of. All the 
children under this system receive educational privileges, both 
elementary and secondary. There are now in the unorganized 
townshi|)s from 40 to 60 schools, each school having from 2 to 50 
scholars. 

The above is a picture of one of these schoolhouses located at 
Chesuncook Dam in Piscataquis County. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 141 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 



This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. Schools, Augusta, Me. 



THE CASTINE CONFERENCE 

Under the laws of the State of Maine the state superintendent 
of public schools is authorized to direct and call a conference for 
superintendents of schools for one week. This conference has 
met for a dozen years at Castine on the Penobscot Bay and has 
become an institution in the educational affairs of the state. It 
is the plan of the state superintendent of schools to discuss with 
his co-workers intimately the vital problems of school management 
and school administration. It is customary also to invite to ad- 
dress the conference distinguished and eminent educators and 
others who have a message to deliver. 

So much importance is attached to this conference and to the 
week's study of educational affairs in the state and to the develop- 
ment of a program for school improvement that the state author- 
izes the payment of the traveling expenses of the superintendents 
who attend. In fact all superintendents are directed by law to 
attend unless excused by the state superintendent of schools. 

Unusual interest attached to the program of the Castine Con- 
ference, July II to 15, iQJi. It was a great pleasure to meet again 
our old friend John H. Finley of the New York Times, formerly 
Commissioner of Education of New York and President of the 
University of New York. Dr. Finley had recently returned from 
several months abroad, during which time he studied intimately 
European aff'airs. Dr. Finley has a wonderful touch with world 
aff'airs and the most intimate relation Vv-ith edvicational situations. 
His talk on the situation in Europe was intensely interesting, while 
his educational lecture was provocative of thought of the most 
progressive type. Dr. P'inley was accompanied by Mrs. Finley 
and our great regret is that they could not ha\e stayed longer. 

Mr. MacGregor Jenkins of the Atlantic IMonthly proved to be 
all that his friends said of him when he was selected for two 
addresses. His lecture, "The Reading Public," was an intimate 



142 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

discussion of ourselves, while his "Fellow Travelers" intensified 
the same theme. The ripe experience of Mr. Jenkins as a pub- 
lisher and molder of thought authenticated what he said and made 
it extremely interesting. 

Dr. W. Carson Ryan, Jr., of the New York Evening Post was 
present during the whole of the week and came into close touch 
with the superintendents and their programs. His lecture on 
Thursday was of an extremely high order. It showed a complete 
understanding of modern educational movements and a progres- 
sive attitude toward standardizing ideals. Dr. Ryan was formerly 
connected with the Bureau of Education at Washington. He takes 
up his post as head of the Department of Education at Swarth- 
more College this autumn. He will continue his relations with 
the New York Post. The Post was one of the first great daily 
newspapers to recognize the necessity of advertising the best in 
education, and secured Dr. Ryan because of his knowledge of 
educational affairs and his intimate touch with leading educators. 

I\Trs. Katherine Cook of the Bureau of Education at Washing- 
ton brought a message from the federal government. The pro- 
gram was crowded, which made it impossible to allot a full period 
to her address. Our regret is that she could not have spent a 
longer time at the conference. The states need a closer touch 
with the people in the federal bureau of education who are largely 
our official unifying agents. 

Senator John Francis Sprague, one of our own Aiaine men, gave 
a delightful and instructive lecture on "Some Famous Men and 
Women of Maine." vSenator Sprague is the owner and editor of 
Sprague's Journal of Maine History. He sees almost more clearly 
than anyone else in Maine the necessity of conserving the wealth 
of historical material of the Dirigo State for the edification and 
profit of future citizens. He is deeply in sympathy with our move- 
ment to teach the children of the schools the lessons of history and 
the price our forefathers paid for present-time civilization and the 
opportunities afforded them. The Senator spent the whole of the 
week at Castine, which gave him something of an idea of the 
struggle of the Maine superintendents to improve themselves in 
the art of managing schools and improving the teaching staff. 

Dr. Phillip Davis, who exemplifies staunch Americanism, elec- 
trified the conference with his rich phrasing and fluent description 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 143 



of the foreign in America. Dr. Davis came up somewhere in 
Russia. He left that country at the age of about fourteen and 
landed somewhere in America. While he claims Boston and Mas- 
sachusetts as his home, he is mostly of America and all for 
Americans. As a worker he is one of the foremost Americans 
of foreign birth and in sympathy with American ideals he may be 
classed with Jacob Riis and Mary Antin. 

]\Iiss Emma Serl of Kansas City, Mo., was popular with the con- 
ference. Her philosophy of method was highly appreciated. Her 
quiet, dignified, but positive manner of address not only interested 
but carried conviction. She opened up the technical situation as 
applied to education and emphasized the fact tliat teaching is a 
technical and skilled profession. 

The chief criticism of the conference may be found in the fact 
that the program was possibly too much crowded, and that there 
was not enough time to discuss our own intimate problems, but 
it is very difficult to arrange an even balance between the inspira- 
tional, instructive lectures and the round tables. At times those 
we engage fail tO' appear, and at other times everyone appears 
who is named on the program. There seems to be no way to know 
definitely how much time will be left for our conferences. On 
the wliole the gathering was an enjoyable occasion, an inspiration 
and a high light with which to begin the new year. 



LOCAL HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 

There is a mistaken notion among the teachers in regard to 
carrying on the project work in local history. Some think the 
plan was simply for the centennial year, while in reality it should 
continue for all time. The books which have been made by the 
schools and pupils are splendid specimens of the history project. 
Teachers are understanding better than ever how to proceed, how 
to develop interest in local history on the part of their pupils. 
Two books of unusual merit are just received. 

One of these books is from South Bristol, by Laura M. Bridges. 
It is dedicated to the progressive citizens who are making the 
town the best town. This dedication is significant and has a tend- 
ency to develop local boosters. The book contains short historical 
sketches and descriptions of the town, together with a brief account 



144 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



of its development as a summer resort. The map of South Bristol 
is very difficult to draw, as anyone will readily see by reference 
to the map, and Miss Bridges has done a fine piece of work. The 
book is tastefully and effectively illustrated. 

The other book is by Aima Hodgkins and is a history of New- 
castle. It is beautifully written and effectively illustrated. It 
gixes many interesting and valuable paragraphs in regard to the 
early history of Newcastle. Some of the pictures would be an 
inspiration to an artist. They show how very beautiful may be 
our lands adjoining the sea. There are two pictures in particular 
which art could not portray, one is the view along the Damaris- 
cotta and the other the Ox Bow in the Sheepscot River. This 
ox bow bend in the Sheepscot River is like unto the great ox bows 
in the alluvial plains of the Mississippi, but even more picturesque. 
I hope the teachers will continue the local history project with 
increased efficiency and interest on the part of the children. I am 
pleased to set up again the outline of study which may be found 
in "One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading 
Facts of Maine," which I wTote last year: 

Outline of Study for the Town 

1. When organized. 

2. When settled. 

3. Changes in boundaries. 

4. ]\Iake map of state and town, showing rivers, highways, rail- 

ways, trolley lines, boat lines, etc. 

5. List public ofiicials and names, offices held, also important 

dates. 

6. Historic places, if any, within the town ; old landmarks should 

be located on map and written up, also photographed. 

7. Important events which have taken place in the town listed 

chronologically and brief narratives written. 

8. Brief account of the development of education, high schools 

and academies. Events which distinguish the schools in 
any way and mark their advancement. 
0. Persons who were born in the town and have achieved dis- 
tinction. 
10. Collect [)ictures of persons, places and buildings. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 145 



11. Names of persons and first events; settlers, families, births, 

death, marriage, school, church, Sunday school, priests 
and ministers, teachers, store, bank, post office, railroad, 
boat or trolley, etc. 

12. Wherever possible secure old newspapers, letters and diaries. 

13. Write up whatever facts are collected in narrative form, put- 

ting in names, dates, etc., illustrate when advisable by 
maps and pictures. 

14. Do not forget to take a forward look at the opportunities 

there are for young people in Maine and what the state 
tmder the coming generation is to become. Have more 
advanced pupils list items which if observed will make 
Maine a greater state. 

15. At the close of the narrative or photograph add a note telling 

how you got your material or information, from whom, 

etc. 
The books in which this original investigation is recorded may 
be made of ordinary paper, covered with wrapping paper nicely 
ironed out and tied or pinned together. The books may be made 
up by individuals, or it may be a school enterprise with all of the 
children contributing. Teachers who desire copies of the booklet 
"One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading 
Facts of Maine," may secure the same by addressing the state 
superintendent of schools at Augusta. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post ofRce, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

FIRST TEACH THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE 
THEIR OWN TOWN, COUNTY AND STATE AND YOU HAVE 
GONE A LONG WAY TOWARD TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 



Preserve this issue of the Journal. You will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations ! It will be of priceless value 
to them. 



MELVIN SAIITH HOL\\^\Y 

The city of Augusta, and the State of Maine, lost one of its very 
best citizens when Melvin Smith Holway died at his home in that 
city, May 2i, 1921. He was a good man in every sense of the 
word and a splendid type of the noblest citizenry of our State. 
He was born May 26, 1861, in Augusta, eldest son of Oscar and 
Olive A. (Fowler) Holway. He fitted for college in the Augusta 
schools, entered Bowdoin College in his 17th year, graduating with 
honors in 1882. He graduated from the Harvard Law School in 
1884, studied law for a time in the office of W. L. Putnam at 
Portland and was admitted to the Kennebec Bar in 1885 and has 
since that time practised law in Augusta. 

He had been city solicitor and served in both branches of the 
city government and had been a member of the school board. He 
was not only an able lawyer but an able and successful business 
man as well. 

He was president of the Oscar Holway Company, of which his 
father was the founder ; a director in the Old Town Woolen ]\Iills ; 
president of one of the woolen mills at Guilford; one of the oldest 
•directors of the First National Bank, of Augusta, and a director 



EDITORIALS 147 



of the Fuller-Holway Company. He was a leader in the Y. M. 
C. A.; a trustee of the Lithgow Pubhc Library; a deacon of the 
Congregational Church; overseer of Bowdoin College, and was a 
member of the Masonic bodies. 

His long-time friend, Arthur G. Staples, had a most beautiful 
appreciation of him in the Lewiston Journal. From this we take 
the following excerpts : 

'.'It would be difficult to eulogize the life and character of J\Ir. 
Holway. The plain truth is sufficient. There seemed no fault 
in him. He was gentle, patient, sacrificial, generous, thoughtful, 
learned, full of laughter and of joy. Never obtruding; yet plain 
enough when it came to any issue of right or wrong, was his 
religious life. He was one of those of whom Paul spoke, 'stead- 
fast, immovable, abounding in the work of the Lord.' He had 
absolutely not one showy attainment. 

"He was not a forceful or aggressive public speaker. He was 
not a good story teller. He talked but little except in the company 
of a few. But he had bed-rock character. I never knew any such 
absolutely time-defying, deep-laid, bed-rock foundations of man- 
hood in a man of my age and association as he had. . 

"He was never a stoic. He was somewhat of an epicurean. He 
loved the good things, but so temperately, so sensibly, so reservedly, 
that his society was an education. He knew how to get the best 
out of books. He knew how to write wonderfully and should have 
been a great essayist and authority on literature rather than a 
lawyer. He had the qualifications for such work as that of Wil- 
liam Lyon Phelps. . . . 

"I have been personal in this writing; because I wished to be. 
I want to lay my wreath on the grave of the best of men. His 
home-town newspaper contained tributes from others who have 
known Mr. Holway. I saw a brother attorney of Mr. Holway's 
Sunday at the sea-shore hurrying home as though it were his own 
brother. I too have lost one — a. brother of the sunny days, a 
brother of the old Fraternity; a brother of the hedge-rows, of 
friendly roads, of adventures in contentment — when earth was 
young and when there were no clouds anywhere in the blue. 

"That this should happen on the eve of the greatest of reunions, 
at commencement-time, gives it a touch of extra bitterness. But 
if we shall imitate his life ; follow his word, so gently and so sweetly 



148 SPRAGUE'vS JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

S£;id SO many times of yore — we shall make the best of it. For I 
am very sure that Mr. Holway's life is an exceeding great lesson 
r-nd that his beneficent influence must go on through many years, 
and that he has made the best of a life of tremendous value to 
society, a scholar, a gentleman, a soldier of the cross." 

Mr. Holway was also deeply interested in the history of the 
State of Maine, and had from the first been a subscriber to and 
an enthusiastic supporter of the Journal. 



TO SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS AND TEACHERS 
The editor desires to call especial attention to the "Maine His- 
tory in the Schools" department in the Journal, ably and interest- 
ingly edited by Dr. Thomas, the State Superintendent of Public 
Schools. We gladly give the schools this space. It is designed 
as a medium for an interchange of views by superintendents and 
teachers relative to the teaching of local history. It can be made 
just as interesting and as valuable to the schools of Maine as you 
yourselves may make it. Its success is up to you. We are in 
hearty accord with the move and believe it will be useful and 
successful. 



THE SPIRIT OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE FROM 
FOREIGN NATIONS WHICH ANIMATED OUR FORE- 
FATHERS 

Letter op Hon. Saml. Adams to Same. Freeman, Esor., 1777 
My dear Sir : 

I have had the Pleasure of receiving several letters from you. 
and I thank you for the Intelligence therein communicated to me. 
I beg you to continue your favors, although it may not be in my 
Power to balance the Account. 

Our Aflr'airs are now in a very critical Situation. There is strong 
Reason however to promise ourselves a favorable Issue. Men of 
virtue throughout Europe heartily wish well for our Cause. They 
look upon it as indeed it is the Cause of mankind. Liberty seems 
to be driven from every other Part of the Globe. The Prospect 
of our afifording for its Friends an Asylum in this new World, 
giving them universal joy. France & Spain are in Reality, though 
not yet openly yielding us Aid. Nevertheless, it is my opinion 
that it would he more for the future Safety, as zcell as the Honor 



EDITORIALS i49 



of tJie united States of .liiieriea if they could establish their Liberty 
and Independence, zvith as little foreign Aid as possible. If we can 
struggle thro our Difficulties alone and establish ourselves, we 
shall value our Liberties as dearly bought the more, and be less 
obliged, and consec[uently the more independent on others. ]\Iuch 
depends on the Efforts of this year. Let us therefore lay aside the 
consideration of every Subject which may tend to a Disunion. 
The Reasons of the late Conduct of our General officers at Tycon- 
daroga must endure a strict Scrutiny. Congress have ordered an 
Inquiry, and for this Purpose Genl. Schuyler & St. Clair are or- 
dered to Head Quarters. Gates immediately takes the Command 
of the Northern Army. 

He gains the Esteem of the Soldiers, and his Success in restoring 
the Army there the last year, from a state of Confusion & Sickness 
to Health and good order affords a flattering Prospect. In my 
opinion he is an honest and able officer. Bad as our Affairs in 
that Quarter appear to be, they are not ruinous. Reinforcements 
of regular Troops are already gone, & I hope the brave N. England 
melitia will joyn in sufficient Numbers to damp the Spirits of 
Eurgoyn. One grand Effort now may put an end to the Conflict. 
I am 

Your aff'ectionate Friend 

Samuei. Adams. 
To Samuel Freeman, 

Postmaster at Falmouth, Me. 



THE MAINE WRITERS' RESEARCH CLUB 
The Maine Writers' Research Club, now five years old, held its 
spring meeting at the Y. W. C. A. rooms, Lewiston, v^aturday, 
May 21, 10-21, with eighteen present, including nearlv all the Lew- 
iston and Auburn members. Luncheon was served at 1.30. Those 
seated at the attractively arranged tables in the Y. W. C. A. dining 
room were : Mabel G. Hall, Hallowell ; Jessica J. Haskell, Hallo- 
Avell ; Rose D. Nealley, Lewiston ; Anna L. Dingley, Auburn ; Mrs. 
George F. French, Portland; Florence Waugh Danforth, Skow- 
hegan ; Sarah B. Field Seymour, Auburn ; Ella Matthews Bangs, 
Portland; Mary Louise Stetson, Auburn; Mabel S. Merrill, Lew- 
iston; Annie Lawrence Pratt, x\uburn ; Ethel C. Pierce, Lewiston; 
Alice Frost Lord, Lewiston; Theda C. Dingley, Auburn; Mrs. 



150 SPRAGUE"S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A. L. Talbot, Lewiston; Frances Wright Turner, South Paris; 
]\Irs. E. C. Carll, Augusta; Emmie Bailey Whitney, Lewiston. 

The meeting was called to order by the president, Jessica J. 
Haskell, and as this was the bi-annual election of officers, a nom- 
inating committee was appointed by her, consisting of Mrs. Carll, 
Mrs. French and Miss Dingley. They reported the following, who 
were unanimously elected: Pres., Mrs. Florence W. Danforth, 
Skowhegan; vice-pres., Miss Ella M. Bangs, Portland; sec.-treas., 
Theda C. Dingley, Auburn; board of review, Mrs. E. C. Carll, 
Mrs. George F. French, Mrs. Emmie Whitney, Miss Jessica Has- 
kell. Mrs. S. L. White of Houlton. 

In the absence of the secretary-treasurer. Miss Louise H. Coburn, 
owing to illness, only a partial report was given. The club now 
has on hand in the treasury $742.61. Miss Dingley reported on 
the arrangements and progress toward the publication of a com- 
panion book to "Maine, My State," wliich the club proposes to 
get out. as their next undertaking of importance. The first of the 
stories have already been received by the committee which is the 
same as served in the publication of the former book. Mrs. Boyd 
Bartlett of Castine and Miss Dingley was chosen to present the 
matter of the publication of the book to the school superintendents 
at their annual meeting in Castine this summer. 

The possible publication in book form of the Fairfield letters, 
which are running in the Lewiston Journal magazine and in which 
the club is deeply interested, was discussed and it was voted to 
assist as much as possible in bringing out the book. 

A letter was read from Mrs. Eva L. Bean of Biddeford, report- 
ing the critical illness at Trull hospital of Cora Bickford. the first 
president of the club. It was voted to send Miss Bickford a gift, 
with flowers and a letter of sympathy. 

The afternoon's entertainment was furnished by Miss Mabel L. 
Merrill, who read a delightful little story, "Mary, Queen of Cus- 
tards." of which she is the author. 

At the invitation of Mrs. Beulah Sylvester Oxton, the summer 
meeting will be held in Thomaston. 



I-armington, in its early history, was closely identified with 
Hallowell ; in fact that town was the source from which it derived 
most of its sup] •lies, says the Franklin Journal. The first explor- 



EDITORIALS i^i 



ing party came to Farmington from Topsham in 1776, proceeding 
up the Kennel^ec in canoes as far as Hallowell, which at that time 
contained three or four houses and some fish-stores. From that 
place they proceeded by land over a bad road for a short distance 
and for the remainder of the way through a wilderness by aid of 
the compass. Early in 1777 another party came from the vicinity 
of Hallowell and finally with the first company formed an associ- 
ation in Hallowell, Dec. 17, 1777, known as The Proprietors of a 
township on Sandy River, later known as Reuben Colburn and his 
Associates. ]\Ieetings of thi^ Association were generally held at 
Amos Pollard's, in that part of Hallowell now Augusta. After 
some delay a title was obtained to the tract of land and the town- 
ship was laid out, and the first meeting of Colburn and his Asso- 
ciates was held at Sandy River on the 15th of October, 1783. 
Among the early settlers were Jeriah Blake, who came from that 
part of Hallowell which is now Augusta, as did Enoch Craig. 
Robert Kannady, Calvin Edson and Gerret Burns. Mr. Craig in 
the winter of 1789 went to Hallowell with Dorothy vStarling. his 
intended wife, for the purpose of getting married, there being no 
person living nearer, qualified to solemnize marriages. Mr. Kan- 
nady was also married in Hallowell. ^Supply Belcher came to 
Farmington from Hallowell in 1791 and with him John Church, 
both of whom figured largely in the early history of Farmington. 
Ezekiel Porter and Gershom Collier were the first to settle on what 
was afterwards known as Porter Hill. They, too, came from 
Hallowell. During those early days most of the business was done 
by the exchange of articles, corn and grain and neat stock being 
the staple commodities. Considerable quantities of grain were 
hauled to Hallowell, the nearest market, and this trade continued 
for many years. The first county road was laid out from Hallo- 
well to Farmington, through Chesterville, and the mail was first 
brought to Farmington from Flallowell about 1703 by Zaccheus 
Mayhew. The mail was carried on horseback until 1829 when a 
two-horse team was employed. Thus Hallowell was really an im- 
portant element in the settlement and development of the good old 
town of Farmington. — Lewiston Journal. 



The Bangor Historical Society is indebted to Prof. \\'illiam Otis 
Sawtelle of Haverford, Pa., for an exceedingly valuable collection 



1^2 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



of old-time Bangor prints attractively framed, and they are dis- 
played in the historical room of the Bangor public library. The 
titles of these historic and exceedingly valuable prints are as fol- 
lows: Views of Bangor in 1837; Mercantile Row with Bangor 
House in Distance, 1834; City Hall, 1853; Court House, 1853; 
Theological Seminary, 1853; Lovers' Leap, 1853; Dwinel House, 
1856; Custom House, Bangor House and Church; Old Town Saw- 
nn'lls, 1884; Indian Island, Old Town, 1854; View of Bangor in 
1859; Bangor Electric Railway Cars, 1889, and Kent-Cutting 
jMansion. 



Liston P. Evans, editor of the Piscataquis Observer, in his 
report of the meeting of the Elaine Press Association at Bangor, 
Sept. 17-18, 1920, says: 

It is an interesting fact to me that five men who were at the 
banquet were natives of Piscataquis county or went from there. 
They were : 

Charles F. Flynt of the Kennebec Journal, who was born in 
Abbot; Roland T. Patten of the Independent-Reporter, Skow- 
hegan. who was born in Monson or at least went from that town ; 
Francis M. Joseph, a leading Waterville job printer, who went 
from Monson ; John F. Sprague, publisher of Sprague's Journal 
of Maine History, who was born in Sangerville; and the writer, 
wlio was born in Brownville. 



The Journal acknowledges its thanks to Hon. Job H. Montgom- 
ery of Camden, Maine, for his historical address at the centennial 
celebration of the town of Penobscot in Hancock County, Sep- 
tember 14, 1887, and published this year at Camden, Maine, by 
the Knox Publishing Company. It is an interesting and valuable 
addition to the historv of Maine towns. 



Though not generally known by the present generation, says the 
Lewiston Journal, soldiers once guarded the Kennebec court house 
during a murder trial. Nine prisoners were tried for the killing 
of Paul Chadwick of Windsor in 1809, the tragic incident growing 
out of controversies over the settlement and boundary lines of the 
township lands. The service of the militia cost $11,025. The 
commissary department of one company of 50 men in service 16 
davs included three barrels of pork, 17 J gallons of molasses, 28 



EDITORIALS 153 



pounds of chocolate, 22\ bushels of potatoes, 800 pounds of ship 
bread, 1462 pounds of beef and 59 gallons of rum. But, despite 
all this, the nine prisoners walked out of the court room free men, 
at the close of the trial. 

The Rockland Gazette is publishing a most valuable historical 
sketch of the Waldo Patent from the pen of Dr. George L. Crock- 
ett of Rockland, entitled "Romance of the Waldo Patent." It 
contains much important data never before published, which Dr. 
Crockett has rescued from oblivion in his research work regarding 
this subject. 

The Journal hopes to be able to publish it in whole or in part 
in the near future. 



^\'e recently published in the Journal, (vol. 8, p. 196), a "History 
of the Blaine Alansion," by Norman L. Bassett of Augusta. 

This was an interesting and valuable article and its historical 
v.orth was recognized by the Americana of New York, one of the 
leading historical periodicals of the country, in its last issue of its 
current volume, taken from and properly credited to the Journal. 

In the Americana's literary notes, in the same number, we find 
the following : 

"In Sprague's Journal of Maine History, a quarterly magazine 
now in its ninth year, published at Dover, Maine, the editor, Mr. 
John Francis Sprague, is not only producing a work gratifying to 
the present-day reader, but one W'hich will have ever increasing 
value as the years pass by. In the last two numbers are papers of 
notable interest : 'Indian Treaties in Maine,' a subject having a 
bearing upon the hunting rights of Indians in that State as adjudi- 
cated in its Supreme Court some few years ago; a 'History of the 
Blaine Mansion' in Augusta, with mention of visits there by Presi- 
dents Grant and Roosevelt ; an address on 'The State of Maine,' 
by Hon. Clarence Hale, a Justice of the United vStates District 
Court, before the IMaine Society of New York ; besides a long 
list of graves of Revolutionary soldiers in the Kennebec region; 
and much other important matter." 



In Thomas A. Edison's famous I-16 questions which have at- 
tracted so much attention is: "Who is called the 'father of rail- 



154 SPRAGUE'S J OURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

roads' in the United States?" The answer is "John Stevens, 1749- 
1838, of Hoboken, N. J." 

Had it occurred to Mr. Edison to ask, who was the father of 
tlie international raihvays in America, the answer would have come 
very near being: John Alfred Poor, of Portland, Maine. He was 
born in Andover, Maine, then known as East Andover, January 8, 
1808. He died in Portland in 1871. He was a pioneer in the agi- 
tation for international and transcontinental system of railroads. 
He was the chief promoter of the first one built upon American 
soil, the old Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railway, and now the 
Grand Trunk svstem. 



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SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 155 



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MAINE INLAND SCENERY 




FROM W. i;. KEXJ)ALL'.S COLLECTION OF MAINE AGRICULTURAL 

ETCHINGS 



CONTENTS 

Nature Worshipers 157 

Maine History in the Schools of Maine 160 

Franklin Pierce and the State of Maine 165 

The Maine Indians 170 

Graves of Revolutionary Soldiers ; 175 

Morrill Family Reunion 180 

Lines on the Morrill Family Reunion 183 

Chronicles of the Family of John Morrill 184 

In Memoriam 191 

Good Will Home Association 196 

Maine History in the Schools 198 

Editorial 203 

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JAINIES PHINNEY BAXTER 
1831—1921 

Maine's most noted historian and author, and, the leading- authority on 
Maine colonial history. Editor and compiler of the "Baxter ^Manuscripts." 
For sketch of the life of Mr. Baxter see the Journal, vol. 9, p. 78. 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX October, November, December, 192 i No. 4 

NATURE WORSHIPERS MAY FIND IT ALL IN THE 
STATE OF MAINE 

(By the Editor) 

These arc diverse vleivs of great and inspired icorshipers of 
nature. The Creator fasJiioiied and generously bestozced upon that 
portion, of His earth zvhieli is nozu the State of Maine, zvonderful 
and gorgeous gifts. Here is big nature, silent, relaxing, restful 
and inspiring. Henee all humans zvlio adore nature and zvorship 
at her s/iriue, may here find complete satisfaction and happiness, 
and haz'c their Iiearts filled zcit/i thrills of joy. 

Ye children of the mounlain, sing of your craggy peaks, 
Your valleys, forest laden, your cliffs where Echo speaks; 
And ye, who by the prairies your childhood's joys have seen. 
Sing of your waving grasses, your velvet miles of green : 
But when my memory wanders down to the dear old home, 
I hear, amid my dreaming, the seething of the foam, 
The wet wind through the pine trees, the sobbing crash and roar, 
The mighty surge and thunder of the surf along the shore. 

I see upon the sand-dunes the beach-grass sway and swing, 

I see the whirling sea-birds sweep by on graceful wing, 

I see the silver breakers leap high on shoal and bar. 

And hear the bell-buoy tolling his lonely note afar. 

The green salt-meadows fling me their salty, sweet perfume, 

I hear through miles of dinuiess the watchful fog-horn boom ; 

Once more, beneath the blackness of night's great rooftree high, 

The wild geese chant their marches athwart the arching sky. 



158 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The dear old Cape ! I love it ! I love its hills of sand, 
The sea-wind singing o'er it, the seaweed on its strand ; 
The bright blue ocean 'round it, the clear blue sky o'erhead; 
The hshing boats, the drii)i)ing nets, the white sails filled and 

spread ; — 
For each heart has its picture, and each its own home song, 
The sights and sounds that move it when Youth's fair memories 

throng ; 
And when, down dreamland ])athways, a boy, I stroll once more, 
I hear the mighty music of the surf along the shore. 

Joe Lincoln (Joseph Crosby Lincoln) 

in National Masfazine. 




MAINE COAST-LINE SCENE NEAR CAI'E ELIZAllETli 



For the sea is murderous, cruel, and catlike in its treacherous 
habits, and all shore men know it. It tem])ts one out upon its sur- 
face, toys with you for an hour most pleasantly to yourself ; then 
suddenly and fiercely tosses you up, and you, coming down beneath 
an overturned boat, — why, the "beautiful sea" has enriched its vast 
death-chamber with another corpse ! 

Two yachtsmen, after storm, — out of whose clutch their yacht 
had been wrenched as bv the hand of God, — were strollimr on a 



NATURE WORSHIPERS 159 

beach one morning, with the dear old pines on the one hand and 
the dread billows still rolling hungrily on the other, when, clamber- 
ing around a point of slippery rocks, they suddenly saw, half 
embedded in the sand, two white faces, both young, lying side by 
side. A man's and woman's face, both young, lying so closely that 
the pale cheeks almost touched. Doubtless they had, when warm 
with life, touched each other lovingly a thousand times, for surely 
these two lying thus on a foreign beach, a thousand leagues from 
home, were lovers, death-mated. They were young emigrants 
seeking by faith another and a better country. God grant they 
found it ! * * * * * 

But the woods, the dear, frank, innocent woods. God bless 
them ! They kill no one. At their sw^eet roots no lovers, sleeping, 
die. Along their green edges no man and maiden lie side by side, 
killed by their treachery. Once in a hundred years, perhaps one 
man, and he by accident, is killed by the falling of a tree — some 
poor, dead tree that could not stand one instant longer, nor help 
from falling just then and there. Ay, the dear woods that kill no 
one, tempt no one, but rather warn you to keep out of their depths, 
near their bright margins, where the sun shines, flowers bloom, 
and open spaces are ; the woods that cool you so with their untaxed 
restfulness ; that never moan of nights because they have killed 
any one, but rather because any one, for any cause, must be killed, 
the world over. Yes, yes. St. John was right. There will be "no 
sea there !" 

W. H. H. ^TuRRAY in 
"Lake Champlain and Its Shores." 

Notliing so fair, so |)ure, and at the same time so large, as a lake, 
perchance, lies on the surface of the earth. Sky water. It needs 
no fence. Nations come and go without defiling it. It is a mirror 
which no stone can crack, whose quicksilver will never wear ofl-', 
whose gilding Nature continually rei)airs ; no storms, no dust, can 
dim its surface ever fresh ; — a mirror in which all impurity l>re- 
sented to it sinks, swept and dusted by the sun's hazy brush. — this 
the light dust-cloth — which retains no breath that is breathed on 
it, but sends its own to float as clouds high abo\e its surface, and 
he reflected in its bosom still. 

Henry D. Thoreau in 

"Walden Pond." 



i6o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Maine is a mosaic of bright spots in life, inlaid with more gen- 
uine, worth-while, health-giving pleasure places than any other 
State in the Union, and framed between the most picturesque moun- 
tain range in eastern America and a seacoast, in beauty and utility, 
unequaled in any country in the world. 

Walter Emerson in preface to 

"The Latch-string." 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS OF MAINE 
Evidence Is Increasing That the People of Maine Want It 

The editor of the Journal read a paper before the history depart- 
ment of the Maine Teachers' Association in Portland, Maine, 
October 27, 192 1, entitled, "Should Maine History Be Taught in 
the Public Schools?" 

The fact that all of the daily and a large number of the weekly 
newspapers of the state gave this effort at an argument in favor 
of the proposition, such generous publicity, is convincing proof 
that the people of Maine are heartily behind the movement to have 
the history of Maine a part of the general course of study in the 
schools of Maine; that they desire that their children should have 
knowledge of the history of their own state, as well as, quoting 
from that great American, Walt Whitman — "the small theater of 
the antique or the aimless sleepwalking of the middle ages." 

The paper herein referred to was published in full in the Lewis- 
ton Journal. 

From CoNt;RESs:\rAN Hersey 

\\'ashIngton, D. C, October 31, 1921. 
John F. Sprague, 
Dover, Maine. 
Dear John : 

Permit me to extend to you my warmest congratulations upon 
vour verv practical and valuable address before the teachers' con- 
vention at Portland on teaching the history of Maine in the schools. 
Every boy and girl should understand the leading events of the 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS i6i 

history of the state. Also they should be familiar with the lives 
of the men who have made the state. I hope your modesty will 
not hinder you from making this address a part of the next issue of 
your valuable Journal. 

Sincerely yours, 

Ira G. Hersey. 

(Editorial Kennebec Joui-nal, October 28, 1921) 

"Should Maine History Be Taught in the Public Schools.^" was 
the subject of the able address given by John F. Sprague at the 
Maine Teachers' Convention in Portland, yesterday. As might 
be expected, the editor of Sprague's Journal of Maine History 
made a convincing argument and one of absorbing interest as well. 

It is to be supposed that the grandchildren of Adam and Eve 
asked cjuestions about, their grandparents, that being in accord 
with natural desire, but for many thousands of years the accuracy 
of historical research may be questioned and it is known that tradi- 
tion became a warp to be filled in with the variegated coloring 
supplied by the imagination. Later more attention was paid to 
the fact and less to the fiction, and historical research "kept pace 
with the expansion of every phase of human enlightenment." 

Now if history is to be taught in our schools — and no one will 
seriously oppose that — it follows, or should, as a matter of course, 
that attention should be given to the study of Maine's history. The 
history of our state may not be comprehended without recourse 
to the history of certain other parts of the world, history that had 
a very important part in shaping our own along with the world's 
affairs. Mr. Sprague very aptly shows that the impulses which 
had to do with this part of the land during its formative period 
had their origin in old world conditions at a time when they were 
undergoing far-reaching changes. How may a child accjuire knowl- 
edge of Maine history and escape some valuable conception of 
European affairs when : "The very roots of the history of Maine 
begin in the splendid dream of the French nation, a new France 
in the new world" ? 

Then, viewed from another angle, the speaker rightly concludes: 
"First teach the boy and girl to know and love their own town, 
county and state and you have gone a long way toward teaching 



i62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

them to know and love their own town, county and state and you 
have gone a long way toward teachhig them to know and love their 
country." And that is the way we would ha\e our youth travel. 

(Editorial Bangor Commercial, October 29, 1921) 

John F. Sprague of Dover, in a valuable address given Thurs- 
day at the convention of teachers in Portland, made a strong argu- 
ment for more extended teaching of Maine history in the public 
schools. It is nothing new for Mr. Sprague to offer vigorous 
remarks along this line as he has frequently done so in his historical 
publication. 

The Commercial is thoroughly in accord \\itli the views of Mr. 
Sprague as has more than once been expressed in these columns. 
A\'e do not wish to give the impression that Maine history is not 
taught in Maine schools but with very few exceptions we believe 
that it is not sufficiently taught, that the attention paid to our own 
rich history is far too meagre. 

( )ur early history is a large part of the early history of New 
England. As a part of Massachusetts our IMaine soldiers took a 
very ]:)rominent role in our early wars and in the Revolution, 
although it has been the custom to give the credit therefor largely 
to Massachusetts. A knowledge of the history of our state is not 
onlv a vital part of the education of our people but it remains a 
constant source of pleasure and interest to those possessing it. 
We believe with Mr. Sprague that this is a matter demanding m(ne 
extensively the attention of our educators although we are glad 
to note that in recent years more and more effort is being made in 
many of the schools to give the |)upils a good ground work of Maine 
history. 

As our early days become more and more distant it is increasingly 
difficult to collect historical data and AFr. Sprague in his journal 
of history and the efforts of the Maine Historical Society and local 
organizations such as the Bangor Historical Society are doing a 
splendid work that will be aj^preciated by future generations of 
Maine |)eople. 

(Editorial Portland Herald, October 2S, 1921) 

Addressing the Department of History at the Maine Teachers' 
Convention yesterday, John Francis Sprague, editor of Sprague's 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 163 

Journal of Maine History, made an earnest and eloquent ai)[)eal 
for the teaching of the history of Maine to the pupils of Maine, 
pomtmg out that it was equally essential, if not more essential, 
that they become thoroughly acquainted with the li\es and char- 
acters and accomplishments of the pioneers of Maine and the his- 
torical events that transpired on Maine soil, as it is to be taught 
the doings and hopes and aspirations of ancient warriors and 
statesmen of centuries ago. 

He referred to the popular campaign for the teaching of Ameri- 
canism and democracy and declared his firm belief that in teaching 
the history of the state and the locality in which the pupil resides 
is a vital and necessary first step, for without love of city and town 
and state, how can a child expect to develop a love of country. 

Referring to the statement of Dr. Leonard P. Ayres of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation that only twelve per cent, of the children 
who enter the public school remain until they are sixteen A-ears 
of age and that 83 per cent, of the children are studying Latin. 
French and other languages other than English, which less than 
five per cent, will ever use, he quoted the lines of Pope : 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind : 

Just as the twig is bent. 

The tree's inclined." 
And said : 

"And right here the point that I would make, the seriousness 
of which impresses me deeply is that the 88 i)er cent. — or whatever 
it may be, of children who do not long remain in the schools, many 
of whom do not even graduate from the high school or the acad- 
emy, should be taught the fundamental principles of democracv ; 
that in the graded schools these twigs should at least be bent towards 
the patriotism of democracy and that interesting them in the history 
of the highway over which they daily travel, of the pioneers of 
their own town, of the things with which they are familiar is a 
first and long step in its accomplishment." 

This point was further em])hasized when he said he would have 
the pupil "as much interested in the thrilling story of Arnold's 
expedition through Maine, as in the question of whether or not 
the Spartans betrayed their allies. Would have him know some- 
thing of what a deed of land means when it savs that a farm 'lies 



i64 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

north of the Waldo Patent,' as well as to know all about Demos- 
thenes' speech on the embassy." 

Editor Sprague has called attention to an important feature of 
the educational system, one that should be given careful considera- 
tion on the part of educators and parents alike. 

(Editorial Evening Express, Portland, October 29, 1921) 

There should be no necessity of a Maine man's appearing before 
a group of Maine teachers and arguing for the teaching of Maine 
history in Maine schools. That broad and extensive instructions 
regarding this state and its past should be given the boys and girls 
is so self evident a proposition as to admit of no denial. That 
there has been a lack in this regard is no doubt due in part to the 
fact that the curricula of our schools ha^•e been so crowded with 
subjects, one striving with another for a place therein, that there 
has been a tendency to overlook matters that ha\e not been espe- 
cially urged by individuals interested. 

In a paper read by him at Thursday's session of the Maine Teach- 
ers' Association, John F. Sprague of Dover presents with unanswer- 
able logic and in the pleasing style which always characterizes his 
writings, the case of Maine history. 

In this paper Mr. Sprague not only demonstrates why Maine 
pu])ils should be instructed in Maine history, but he gives in brief 
outline the story of our past and tells how it was linked with the 
great events which stand as the mile posts to mark the advance of 
civilization and the develoinnent of popular government. 

Maine history is so indissolubly and so conspicuously linked 
with world history is one of the reasons Mr. Sprague gives for 
urging the paying of greater attention to the subject in our schools. 

Another and fully as important a reason that is given by him 
for a more extended study of our state is that such a study engen- 
ders patriotism and creates good citizenship. 

Patriotism is defined as love of and devotion to one's country, 
and it is axiomatic that the more our children know of our past 
and the more they find to admire in it. the greater will be their love 
for it. 

In Mr. Sprague's opinion two false ideas relative to the impor- 
tance of knowing Maine history are more or less prevalent among 



FRANKLIN PIERCE 165 

Maine people. One is that as ]\laine early came under the political 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts it has no distinct place in early Ameri- 
can history. The other is that it we have a history it is not of 
interest or value to any but lovers of anything that is antique and 
venerable. 

Both these are false premises, as ]\Ir. Sprague conclusively 
shows. From the days of \\'aymouth, as he says, down to the 
Governors of the present day "Maine has had a continuous record 
of potential events in the history of democracy in the world," and 
these records have an important bearing on the problems that now' 
confront us. 

It is a satisfaction to learn, as the Dover historian states near 
the conclusion of his deeply interesting paper, that the state super- 
intendent. Dr. Thomas, and his assistants are now making the study 
of Maine history an important feature in the regular course of 
study in the schools of Maine. 

(Editorial Piscataquis Observer, November 3, 1921) 

John F. Sprague delivered an address before the department of 
history at the Maine Teachers' Convention in Portland last week 
which received the hearty commendation of those v.ho heard it 
and of the daily papers, many of which spoke of it at considerable 
length editorially. 

The subject was the teaching of Maine History in the public 
schools, a matter which Mr. Sprague has consistently advocated 
for years in his Journal of IMaine History, and he made a strong 
argument for it. 

All who are in harmony with the spirit of the foregoing should 
do everything possible to sustain Dr. Thomas in his efforts to have 
the schools of Maine teach the youth of Maine the story of the 
past and the present of their own native state. 



FRANKLIN PIERCE AND THE STATE OF MAINE 

(By Charles E. Waterman) 

Franklin Pierce, fourteenth President of the United States, was 
a product of New Flampshire, but he came into personal contact 
with the people of the State of ]\Iaine on two occasions during his 
lifetime, or, to be more exact, he came into contact with the people 



i66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL (3F AIAIXE HISTORY 



of Maine on one occasion and nearly came in contact with them 
on another. 

In 1820, when sixteen years of age, Pierce entered Bowdoin 
college, and, after the customar}- four years course, graduated. 
The next year after he entered this college came Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, and, although belonging to diiferent classes, the two young- 
men became warm friends. This friendship lasted through life. 
When Pierce ran for the Presidency in 1852, Hawthorne wrote 
a biography of his friend for the campaign. In payment for this 
work Hawthorne was appointed surveyor of customs for the port 
of Salem. \\'hile holding this position, Hawthorne, in ransacking 
the lumber in the basement of the custom house, came upon a faded 
letter embroidered on cloth which so stimulated his imagination 
that he wrote that classic of American fiction, "The Scarlet Letter." 

In this biography of Pierce and that part of it devoted to his 
college life can be found two statements which are interesting to 
and connected with Maine people. The first is that his class chum 
was Zenas Caldwell, and the second that "during one of his winter 
vacations Pierce taught a country school." 

These two statements can be taken together. Zenas Caldwell 
was the son of William and Nancy (Woodward) Caldwell and 
born in the town of Hebron, afterward Oxford, in that part known 
as East Oxford, and being the friend of Pierce secured the school 
in his neighborhood, locally known as District Number Six, a dis- 
trict located near the birthplace of the writer and therefore of 
interest to him, for his friend. Not much has come down regarding 
his pedagogy, and the fact of his teaching this school might have 
been forgotten had he not attained the Presidency and therefore 
put a distinguishing mark on this schoolhouse. He had one pupil, 
however, that was destined for state-wide recognition at least, — 
John Jasiel Perry, who became a lawyer, editor, major-general of 
militia and was member of Congress during the term of Pierce's 
encumbency at the \\ hite House. 

It might be recorded here that Caldwell came to an early death. 
He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1824 and was immediately 
elected jirincipal of Yarmouth Academy. He died in 1826 while 
holding the position. 

Pierce was a brilliant and active man. Of his attainments as a 
student, Hawthorne savs : 



FRANKLIN PIERCE 167 



During the early part of his college course, it may be 
doubted whether Pierce was distinguished for scholarship. 
But for the last two years he appeared to grow more 
intent on the business in hand, and, without losing any of 
his vivacious qualities as a companion, was evidently re- 
solved to gain an honorable elevation in his class. His 
habits of attention and obedience to college discipline were 
of the strictest character ; he rose progressively in scholar- 
ship and took a highly credible degree. 

Leaving college he studied law, then entered political life, in 
which he rapidly advanced. On the north side of the pedestal 
supporting his statue on the capitol grounds in Concord can be 
seen the following in regard to his political life: 

Member Nezv Hampshire Legislature at 2j and Speaker at 2/ 

Congressman at 2g 

United States Senator at ^2 and Resigned at 57 

Later in Life Declined the Office of Attorney General of the United 

States; that of Secretary of JUar; the United States Senator- 

s/iip and Governorship of New Hampshire 

President of the New Hampshire Constitutional Conz'ention 

President of the United States 

Died at Concord October S, i86c) ' 

This inscri])tion concerns the history of New Hampshire particu- 
larly. Where he expected to come into personal touch with the 
people of Maine for the second time was in Mexican War service. 

\\ hen President Polk called for volunteers, two regiments were 
assigned as New England's quota. One of these regiments was 
to be raised in Massachusetts and the other in the remaining states, 
two companies to each. 

Pierce had been brought in a military atmosphere. His father, 
General Benjamin Pierce, had been a Revolutionary soldier, serving 
seven years in that war. There was a military company attached 
to Bowdoin College during the four years he lived in Brunswick 
and Pierce was one of the officers. He was a southern sympathizer, 
and, therefore greatly interested in the Mexican war. He intended 
to take part and was early slated as one of Polk's generals. In 



i68 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

1847 there were not many trained soldiers, therefore a poHtical 
general was a necessity as well as a privilege. Pierce was not 
unmindful of dramatic effect, and perhaps had the morale of his 
troops in view through force of example. Although sure of his 
general's star, he enlisted as a private in a company raised in Con- 
cord, but on the passage of the bill to increase the size of the army 
was appointed colonel of the New England regiment, which after- 
wards became the Ninth United States Infantry; and before reach- 
ing Mexico received a commission as brigadier general. 

This regiment was a pet scheme with General Pierce, in which 
was associated Truman Bishop Ransom. Colonel Ransom, at the 
opening of the war, was president of Norwich (Vermont) Uni- 
versity, an institution founded by a \\'est Pointer, Captain Alden 
Patridge, and which has always maintained a military character. 
In all, up to the opening of the world war, 517 of its graduates 
had been in the United States military service. Six of these 
reached the rank of major-general and eight that of brigadier- 
general. It has also produced three rear admirals, the most noted 
of whom was George Dewey, victor at ^Manila Bay. Over 700 of 
its graduates served m the world war. 

Inasmuch as this regiment was to have had two companies from 
Alaine, it interested the writer to quite an extent. Upon inquiry 
at the Maine Adjutant General's office, however, no record of such 
organizations could be found. An application to the Adjutant Gen- 
eral's office in Washington brought no better results. General H. 
P. AlcCann, who held the office at that time, wrote : 

It does not appear from the official records on tile in the \\ ar 
Department that any company belonging to the Ninth Regiment 
United States Infantry, of which Franklin Pierce was colonel, 
was raised in the State of ]\Iaine. 

It seems therefore, no units of ]\Iaine troops were raised for 
this regiment. There are several reasons that may be assigned 
for this default. Maine was not favorably inclined toward the 
war. It was considered a plan to increase slave territory. Then 
the regiment was assembled and mustered into service at Fort 
Adams, Providence, Rhode Island, where :Maine could see and 
hear little of the bustle of preparation. Nevertheless, it sounded 
somewhat singular that no mention of the regiment appeared in 
the documents of the time, or of the organization of troops for 



FRANlCtIN PIERCE 169 



the war. Albert Cireenlaw, when adjutant general of Maine, foimd 
records of the raising of two companies for the Mexican war, not 
in his office but in that of Secretary of State. These companies 
were raised in the town and vicinity of Sanford, more esi^iecially 
in Shapleigh. The roll discovered is in the form of a single com- 
pany, but according to Edwin Emery's history of Sanford, the 
men were organized into two com|)anies, the officers of the Sanford 
comi)any were Moses Goodwin, ca])tain, with Charles E. Webb 
and Samuel S. Thing, lieutenants. The captain of the Shai)leigh 
company was William Emery, lliese comi)anies were organized 
and mustered, then disbanded, costing the state the sum of $167.00 
and, it might be added. Captain Goodwin a banquet for the men. 
These men were raised for the Eirst Regiment of Maine \'olun- 
teers, but that was ea.ly in the war and before the quota had been 
agreed upon. The roll, which has never been i>rinted, follows with 
the exception of age and occui)ation of the members. 

\\'E, whose names are hereunttj aflixed, do severally consent, 
and by our signature hereunto made, do agree to be enrolled into 
the Company to be raised by Moses Goodwin, Jr., of Shapleigh, a 
citizen of the State of Maine, acting under the authority of the 
vio\ern()r thereof, which Company is to form a component part 
of the "Eirst Regiment of Maine Volunteers," which Regiment is, 
when called for, to l)e mustered into the service of the United 
States, and ])laced at the disposal of the President, under authority 
of an act ])roviding for th.e prosecution of the War declared in 
said Act to exist between the Rei)ublic of Mexico and the L^nited 
."states. And we do further hereby covenant and agree, to be holden 
by this enrolment, and well and faithfully to serve as members of 
said Comi)any, according to the time for which we shall be mus- 
tered into the service of the L^nited States. 

Enrolled from Shapleigh June 25, 1846, Moses Goodwin, Jr., 
Alexander H. Prime; June 26, 1846, Samuel Gewish, Eranklin 
Hubbard, William Hammet, Ichabod Abbot, George Abbot, Benja- 
min Gowan, Orsamery Jellison, George E. W^entworth ; June 27, 
1846, Simon Huntress, Albea Norton, James M. Trafton, ^^'illiam 
Muchnow ; June 29, 1846, W'illiam X Hussey his mark, Moses 
Littlefield ; July 2, 1846, Hazenk X Xason his mark, John H. Brag- 
don, Solomon Littleheld ; July 11, 1846, Thomas B. Seavey ; July 



lyo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



i6, 1846, Stephen Damon; July 17, 1846, Daniel U. Challier; July 
24, 1846, Elisha Wentworth; July 2y, 1846, Da\id B. Smith; August 
6, 1846, Reuben Horn. 

From Sanford June 25, 1846, Samuel Lord, Asa Low, Charles 
E. Weld, Samuel S. Thing, Samuel B. Emery, John Day, Albert 
Day, James M. Burbank, Jason Hamilton, Jordan D. Frost, James 
E. Wilson, Samuel M. Frost, Otis Y. Chandler, George Kinney, 
Joseph N. Wilkinson, William H. Wiggin ; June 26, 1846, Dennis 
Hatch, Richard Lunny, Orrin Day, John S. Carter, Caleb S. Emery, 
Edward Ricker, Lnthur W. PauL' June 27, 1846, James P. Nut- 
ting; June 29, 1846, Joseph Jellison, Reuben G. A\'entworth ; June 
30, 1846, John T. Hickbonol ; July 2, 1846, Nehemiah Welch ; July 

16, 1846, William H. Lord; July 18, 1846, Isaac Reed, Samuel L. 
Pillsbury, Joshua Littlefield, William E. Pillsbury, Daniel Zebulon ; 
July 20, 1846, Joseph Welch signed to take A. P. Hubberd's place ; 
July 23, 1846, Leander Garey, George W. Witham ; July 25. 1846, 
D? M?; August 6, 1846, Joseph Welch. 

From Saco August 20, 1846, \\'illiam Emery, 3d. 

From Waterboro July 8, 1846, Horace A. Pinkham, Ivory Thing. 

From Acton July 9, 1846, Daniel Nason, Simon W. Brackett, 
Aaron Goodwin, Jr., Ivory Goodwin; July 15, 1846, Charles H. 
Rowell ; July 18, 1846, Calvin Sanborn ; August 5, 1846, Noah 
Marsh. 

From Lebanon July 14, 1846, John Ricker, Jr., Frederick A. 
Wood, Joseph Stacpole ; July 16, 1846, Nathaniel W. Keay ; July 

17, 1846, Latan? X Penn his mark; August 6, 1846, Nathaniel 
Wentworth. 

From Alfred July 20, 1846, P. H. Burnham, Stillman B. Allen. 



THE MAINE INDIANS AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH 
THE WHITE SETTLERS 

(By Ethel Al. AVood) 

(Continued from page 125) 

V. King Philip's War 

The Indians and English in Maine were generally at peace with 
each other until 1675, a year of general unrest in New England. 
At this time the towns and plantations in Maine numbered thirteen, 



THE MAINE INDIANS 171 



Kittery, York, Wells, Cape Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Falmouth, 
Pejepscot, Sagadahoc, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Pemaquid, and 
Monhegan. The Indians were much fewer in number than when 
the white man first came in contact with them, for a dreadful 
plague had decimated their ranks. This disease, believed to be 
either small-pox or yellow fever, was contracted from the English, 
and it ravaged the whole region from Massachusetts as far east 
as the Wawenock tribe in Maine, in some cases extinguishing whole 
tribes. The bleaching bones of the dead were found by the set- 
tlers. As has been said, the two races lived in comparative friend- 
liness for many years. They even shared each others' hospitality, 
but still the Indians felt that the English cared only for their furs, 
and consequently they learned to put more trust in the French, 
who manifested some interest in the natives for their own sake. 

King Philip's War broke out in the Plymouth colony in June 
1675, and in a few weeks Maine was astir. Captains Lake, Pette- 
shall, and Wiswell were appointed "a committee of safety for the 
eastern parts. "^ They met to decide upon a course of action, and 
finally sent a party up the river for the purpose of disarming the 
natives. Meeting a party of five Androscoggins and seven Kenne- 
becs, they made them surrender their arms. In the course of the 
proceeding, Sowen, a Kennebec, struck at one Hosea Mallet and 
would have killed him had not Mallet's friends restrained the sav- 
age. Sowen's companions begged that Jiis life be spared, and ran- 
somed him with forty beaver skins. An agreement of peace was 
then made with Mahotiwomet, the principal sagamore of the Ken- 
nebecs, who, by the way, was called by the English by the romantic 
title of Robinhood. The entire tribe was assembled the next day 
and a dance held in honor of the peace. From the Merrimac to 
Pemaquid, there was a visible agitation among the natives, and a 
change in their attitude toward the English settlers which boded 
ill. The first overt act of hostility committed by the Indians 
occurred on the fifth of September when the house of Thomas 
Purchas at Brunswick was sacked. While no one was injured, 
the family was threatened with further disaster. On September 
12 occurred the first Indian massacre in Maine. The victims were 
Thomas Wakely and his family of eight persons at Falmouth. The 
youngest daughter, Elizabeth, aged eleven, was taken captive, but 



1 Hubbaid's Indian Wars: p. 301. 



172 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

after nine months she was restored to the Enghsh through the 
instrumentality of Sqaundo, chief of the Sacos. In the three months 
following this first massacre, seventy-two white persons were killed 
between Casco and the Piscatac^ua, largely by the Sacos and Andro- 
scoggins. 

Scarborough was a town which suffered much in this and subse- 
quent Indian wars. In and about this town lived members of the 
Saco tribe, the fiercest of all the Maine Indians. The inhabitants 
and natives were bound by what was called a "treaty of amity and 
tribute," - which required that each person should pay annually the 
nominal tribute of one peck of corn to Madockawando, sagamore 
of Penobscot and Bashaba of the Indian tribes. It was fortunate 
that heretofore the Indians had made no trouble for the settlers, 
for Scarborough would have been in a particularly dangerous sit- 
uation in the event of an attack, since it was far removed from 
any available aid. King Philip had tried in \ain to induce the Sacos 
to join him. but they probably would never have done so except for 
a certain unfortunate occurrence which happened about this time. 
The wife of Squando was one day crossing the Saco in a canoe 
with her baby. Some British sailors nearby thought this a good 
opportunity to test the truth of the common belief that an Indian 
child swims as naturally as a young puppy or duck. Accordingly, 
as she was about to land, they approached the canoe, and, in a half- 
joking manner, overturned it, throwing the occupants into the 
water. The little one sank to the bottom, and the mother barely 
saved it from drowning. The child died soon after, and naturally 
the angry Squando attributed the sad even.t to the recent ducking 
which the child had received. He was now determined to join 
in the attack against the English settlers. He was a man of genius 
and ability and consequently had much infiuence with other tribes. 
Now stirred with grief over the death of his child and filled with a 
lasting hatred of the English, he called the neighboring Indians 
to councils and war dances, and soon induced them to join him in 
making war upon the English. 

The first attack made upon any citizen of Scarborough was on 
September 20 at the house of Robert Nichols at Blue Point near 
Dunstan. The two old people, Mr. and Mrs. Nichols, were alone; 

-See 'Me. lli~=.t. Soc. CoU. Series 1, Vol. 3. p. 102. 



THE MAINE INDIANS 173 

they were killed and the house burned. Another attack was made 
in October, this time upon Alger's garrison house, situated at some 
distance north of the settlement at Dunstan. The garrison house 
and twenty-seven dwelling houses were burned to the ground, and 
the homeless families left to suffer. Other attacks were made 
during the year. During the winter there was a cessation of hos- 
tilities, but on the thirteenth of May a three days' siege of the Black 
Point garrison in the southeastern part of the Town of Scarbor- 
ough was begun. As a result of the siege only three men were 
killed and one taken captive by the Indians. The leader of the 
band, Mugg, a Penobscot chieftain, was killed, and his death caused 
much relief among the settlers, who had long regarded him as a 
veritable scourge. In the meantime the garrison was reinforced, 
and in the next engagement, compelled the foe to withdraw after 
sustaining a severe loss of men. 

On September 24 Newichawannock (now South Berwick) was 
attacked by a band of Indians under the leadership of Andrew 
of the Sacos and Hopehood* of the Kennebecs. One of the name- 
less heroines of the war figured in this encounter. Among the 
dwellings attacked by the savages was that of John Tozier, in which 
fifteen women and children were alone and un]M-otected. A terriljle 
fate would undoubtedly have been theirs, had it not been for the 
noble heroism of a young girl of eighteen, who made the door fast 
and held it by main strength while her friends escaped by a back 
way. Finally the door was beaten down, and the savages enraged 
at being thus outwitted showered blow after blow upon the poor 
girl ; then, leaving her for dead, pursued the fugitives. The brave 
girl afterward revived, and lived to a good old age. 

The traders at .Sagadahoc upon the Kennebec were trying to 
keep the war from their midst, and Abraham .Shurte, an honest, 
kind-hearted magistrate of Pemaquid, was emi)loyed as a i)eace- 
maker. He invited some of the sagamores to Pemacjuid and there 
they told him their grievances, that is, how certain of their number 
had been taken captive and sold into slavery, and how, through 
the fact that the English had withheld firearms and ammunition, 
they had suffered from lack of food during the winter and some 
had actually died of starvation. Mr. Shurte promised them justice 

* Hoijehood was the .son of the chief Robinhood referi'ed to on paqe .^0. 



174 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

if they would remain at peace. Later he issued an invitation to 
the sachems of all the tribes to meet him in council at Teconnet.^ 
Shurte sailed in his own boat to Sagadahoc at the mouth of the 
Kennebec, where he took on board Capt. Sylvanus Davis, whom 
the committee had appointed to accompany him. A large number 
of Indians awaited them at Teconnet, including chiefs from the 
Kennebecs, Penobscots, and Androscoggins. Squando of the Sacos 
did not appear. Tarumkin of the Androscoggins spoke eloquently 
in favor of peace and the other chiefs readily agreed with him, 
but no general treaty could be made in the absence of Squando. 
The Indians pleaded for guns that they might kill necessary game 
for themselves, but the English, fearing lest they might give or 
sell their guns to the Sacos, refused their re(|uest. Hunger and 
famine now stared them in the face. Driven to desperation and 
despair because of the refusal to grant them arms and ammunition, 
they became angry and abruptly terminated the council bv their 
sudden departure. 

The warriors of King Philip were circulating tales of warlike 
deeds, exciting revengeful thoughts in the breasts of the Maine 
tribes. The first war party was formed of certain of the Kennebecs 
in alliance with the Androscoggins. On August 13, 1676, they 
plundered the trading fort of Richard Hammond at the outlet of 
Merrymeeting Bay, where three were killed and sixteen taken 
captive. A brave young woman fled in the night to Sheepscot and 
warned the settlers there of the impending danger. From there 
they went to Clark and Lake's post on Arrowsic Island. Only 
a few escaped from the fort ; Capt. Lake of the committee was 
among those who perished, and Capt. Davis was wounded. There 
was a general devastation along the coast from Piscataqua to Pema- 
quid, but during the winter the Indians were obliged to go to the 
English for food and there was a temporary peace. 

(To be continuei3.) 
3 Teconnet was near the site of the pi-esent town of AVinslow. 



Winthiop Agricultural Society, 1820 

President, Samuel Wood. 
Vice-President, Nemeiah Pierce. 
Corresponding Secretary, Deacon Joseph Metcalf. 
Treasurer, Alexander Belcher. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 175 

GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS IN THE 
KENNEBEC REGION— INSCRIPTIONS COPIED IN 1921 

(By Mrs. Mabel Goodwin Hall, Hallowell, Maine) 

(Continued from page 27) 

Paul Lancaster — Lieut. Died Feb. 18, 1814, aged 79. Buried at 
E. Winthrop. Enlisted from Ipswich. Served as ensign and 
lieutenant. 

Daniel Lane — Capt., is buried at Leeds, the grave being marked 
with gov't stone. He was ist Lieut, in Capt. John Lane's Co., 
in seacoast defense, probably stationed at Cape Ann. Was de- 
tained as prisoner at Dartmoor prison nearly 2 years. 

James Lawrence — Died July 3, 181 1, aged 66. He is buried at 
Evergreen Cemetery, Monmouth-W'ayne. Fie came to Wayne 
from Sandwich, Mass., in 1786. He enlisted from Sandwich as 
private in Capt. Ward Swift's (2d Sandwich) Co. of militia. 

Stephen Longfellow — Died Nov. 3, 1824, aged yS, and is buried at 
Hallowell. He enlisted July 13, 1778, from Ballstown I'lanta- 
tion, as private in Capt. John Blunt's Co., Maj. William Lith- 
gow's detachment of militia, service i mo. 15 days, defending 
the frontiers of Lincoln Co. 

James Lord — Born in Ipswich, 1737, died Feb. 13, 1830, and is 
buried in the Grant Neighborhood, Litchfield. He served 3 yrs. 
in the old French war and 4-^ yrs. in the Revolution. Held 
Lieut. 's commission and commanded the company which led the 
w ay to Bunker Hill on the morning of the battle. 

John Lovejoy — Died Jan. 11, 1831, aged 80. He is buried at Fayette 
beside his wife Martha, who died Nov. 2, 1847, aged 93. "He 
served in the Revolutionary war faithfully and with honor." Is 
on rolls from Amherst, N. H. 

Nathl. Lovering — Died Dec. 30, 1842, aged //, and is buried at E. 
Winthrop. He served in the ]\Iass. militia. Is on the pension 
rolls of 1835 and 1840. 

Andrew^ Mace — Died Apr. 6, 1845, aged 88, and is buried at E. 
Readfield. Pensioned Feb. 15, 1806, for life; amount of annual 
pension, $144.00. He served as private and sergeant in Mass. 
militia. 

Ebenezer Mayo — Died Apr. 29, 1814, aged 57, is buried at Hallo- 
well. He served as private and sergeant, enlisting from Eastham, 
Mass. 



176 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



William Morse— Born, Methuen, Mass., July 22, 1762; died Apr. 
17, 1844; buried at Hallowell. He served as private in Capt. 
John Peabody's Co., Col. Ebenezer Francis's Regt. 

John Mower— Died Feb. 4, 1854, aged 94 yrs. 10 mos. He is buried 
at Greene. He served as private in Capt. Nicholson Broughton's 
Co., Col. Glover's Regt. Pensioner in 1835 and 1840. 

Thomas Neal— Died Sept. 20, 1835, aged 83; is buried at E. Read- 
field. Served in the Revolutionary war; is on the 1835 pension 
rolls. 

Samuel Norcross — Died Dec. 2, 1800, aged 75 ; is buried at Hallo- 
well. Served as private in Capt. John Blunt's Co., Col. Samuel 
McCobb's Regt. Service, 3 mos., Penobscot expedition. 

Nathan Norris — Formerly of W'areham, Mass., died July 13, 1825, 
aged 75 ; is buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Monmouth-\\'ayne. 
He served as ])rivate in Capt. John Gibbs' Co., Col. Ebenezer 
Sprout's (4th Plymouth Co.) Regt. 

Elisha Nye— Capt. ; born in Sandwich, Mass., Apr. 22, 1745; died 
May 12, 1833; buried at Hallowell, having a gov't stone. Served 
as Lieut, in Capt. John Grannis' Co.; commissioned Jan. i, 1776; 
also captain, entered service Jan. 4, 1776. 

Hugh W. Owen — Died Jan. 16, 1846, aged -j-j , and is buried at 
\\'ales. Fie served as private in CajH. John Read's Co.. Col. 
James Flunter's corps, raised for defense of eastern Massachu- 
setts; enlisted Apr. 12. 1782; service 7 mos. 9 days. Pensioner 
1835 and 1840. 

Dr. Benjamin Page— Died C)ct. 28, 1824, aged -j"^. He is buried 
at Hallowell. Served as physician in the N. H. line. 

David Paul— Died Aug. 25, 1850, aged 89, and is buried at Bar- 
ker's Mills, Lewiston. 1835 Bounty list gives residence Lewiston, 
enlisted from New Gloucester. 

Obadiah Pettingill— Born in Brockton, h>b. 9, 1761 ; died Mar. 29, 
1846; buried at PTnion Cemetery, Leeds. He served in Capt. 
Joseph Cole's Co., Col. Robinson's Regt., service 5 mos. 25 days. 

A\'illiam Pettingill— Born in Bridgewater, Mass., 1759; died Nov. 
16, 1846; buried at Pinion Cemetery, Leeds. He served in Cai)t. 
Cole's Co., Col. Robinson's Regt. 

Isaac Pilsbury— Born in Amesbury, T762; died May 4, 181.1, aged 
52 ; buried at Hallowell. He served in Capt. Gray's 3rd Co. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 177 



Benjamin Pratt — Died Sept. 16, 1825, aged 68, and is buried at 
Greene. He was a private in Mass. militia. On pension rolls 
of 1835. 

Abraham Pray — Born in Berwick, Sept. 20, 1753; died Jan. 20, 
1840; is buried at Hallowell. Sergeant in Gapt. Samuel Darby's 
Co., Gol. James Scammon's Regt. (30th). 

John Rice — Born in Bristol, Eng. ; died May 29, 1835, ag<?d 76. 
Buried on Litchfield road, Hallowell. He was a soldier of the 
Revolution, receiving a pension 1835, private in Mass. militia. 

Bradley Richards — Gapt.; died June 12, 1821, aged 71; buried at 
Hallowell. Private in Gapt. Thomas Gogswell's Go. Ensign. 
Lieut, in Gol. Loanimi Balden's 38th Regt. 

Matthias Ridley — Born in Saco, Feb. 4, 1749, died May 13, 1837, 
and is buried Wayne-Strickland's Ferry, beside wife, Dorcas. He 
was a corporal in Capt. Jeremiah Hill's Go., Gol. James Scam- 
mon's Regt. 

Luther Bobbins — Died Sept. 15, 1840, aged 83. Buried at Greene. 
Private and Quartermaster in Mass. Militia. Rec'd pension in 



i; 



'00- 



John Rogers — Born in 1758, died Apr. 18, 1824. Buried at Litch- 
field Plains. Revolutionary pensioner. 

Abraham Shaw — Gapt.; died Ai)r. 8. 1813, aged 55. Is buried at 
Winthrop. Born in Middleborough, Mass., Aug. 10, 1857. He 
marched on the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775, with Gapt. Isaac A\'ood's, 
Gol. Theophilus Gotton's Regt. Went to \\'inthro]) in 1797. 

Elisha Shaw — Died Aug. 6, 1839, aged 81, and is buried at L^nion 
Gemetery, Leeds. He served in the Mass. state troops as sergeant 
and ensign. Revolutionary [jcnsioner, 1835. 

John Skinner — Born Dec. 2/, 1749; died Mar. 16, 1844; buried at 
Barker's Mills, Lewiston. Ser\ed in the Gontinental Army, 
engaged for town of Gape Elizabeth, joined Gapt. Smith's Go., 
Gol. Patterson's Regt., term 3 years. Pensioner in 183s and 
1840. 

Matthias Smith — Died June 20, 1812, aged 53 vrs. Is buried at 
Readfield. He was born in Rehobeth, Mass., Aug. 30. I7S9- 
Served as private in Gapt. John Blunt's Go., Gol. Samuel Mc~ 
Gobb's Regt., from June 28 to Sept. 28, 1779. 



178 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Samuel Smith — Died Oct. lo, 1811. Buried at Hallowell. Served 
as private in Capt. Sherman's Co., Col. Gerrish's Regt. 

z\din Stanley — Born in Attleborough, Mass., 1761 ; died Nov. 20, 
1850; buried near Stanley's, Winthrop. He served 3 years in 
the Rev. army. Was engaged in the battles of Springfield and 
Rhode Island. Went to Winthrop about 1785. Pensioner in 
1835 and 1840. 

Solomon Stanley — Born in Attleborough, Mass., May 13, 1740. 
Died Mar. 9, 1819. Buried at Winthrop. Private in Capt. Jabez 
Ellis' Co. of Minute Men who marched from Attleborough, Apr. 
19, 1775; also as ensign in Capt. Caleb Richardson's Co., Col. 
Timothy AA'alker's Regt., Oct. 6, 1775. 

Daniel Stevens — Born in Brentwood, N. H. ; died Mar. 24, 1796; 
buried at Hallowell. Served as sergeant in Capt. Ezekiel Ladd's 
Co., Col. Timothy Bedel's Regt. ; also Capt. Benjamin Whitcomb's 
Co. of Rangers, N. H. line. 

Joseph Stevens — Born in Billerica, Oct. 17, 1720; died Oct. 4, 1791 ; 
buried at Winthrop. W'as allowed 12s. for military service by 
the town, Jan. 15, 1777. 

Enoch Strout — Deacon; died Apr. i, 1832, aged 71; buried at 
AA-'ales. He was formerly from Limington, Me. Served as pri- 
vate in Capt. Joshua Jordan's Co., Col. Jonathan Mitchell's Regt. 

Thomas Taylor — Died Feb. 18, 1825, aged 89; buried at Barker's 
IMills, Lewiston. He enlisted from Dracut, as private in Capt. 
Stei)hen Russell's Co. of militia. He fought at Lexington and 
Saratoga. 

Jeremiah Towle — Born 1753; died Dec. 6, 1835, aged y-j \ buried 
near No. Monmouth. He fought at Trenton, INIonmouth, \\'hite 
Plains and Stillwater, was with Washington at Valley Forge 
and was present at the execution of ]\Iajor Andre. He was 
wounded, 1777. 

Noah Towne — Died Mar. 10, 1841, aged 84 yrs. 11 mos. Buried 
at Litchfield. Served as private in N. H. line. Pensioner in 1835 
and 1840. 



GRAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS 179 

Aaron True — Died Apr. 3, 1837, aged 79 yrs. 7 mos. ; buried at 
So. Litchfield. Served as private in Capt. Stephen Jenkins' Co., 
CoL Jacob Gerrish's Regt. Service i mo. 2 days. Pensioner 
in 1835. 

John Wadsworth — Born in Stoughton, Mass., Nov. 11, 1762. ' Died 
Apr. 18, 1834; buried at East Winthrop. Served as private and 
musician in Capt. GulHver's Co., Col. Henry Jackson's Regt., 
for six months from June, 1778; also enlisted April, 1780, for 
nine months, in Capt. Daniel Lunt's Co., Col. Benj. Tupper's 
Regt. Pensioner in 1835. 

Braddock \\'eeks — Died Oct. 11, 181 1, aged 50; buried in Ever- 
green Cemetery, Monmouth-\\ ayne, beside his wife, Bethiah. He 
served in the Rev. war, enlisting from Falmouth. Bethiah Weeks 
rec'd pension, 1840. 

James Weeks — Died Mar. 10, 1843, aged 82 yrs. Buried at Mon- 
mouth. Served as private in Mass. militia. Pensioner in 1835. 

Benjamin \\'hite — Died Dec. 18, 1833, aged "j-j. Buried at Chelsea. 
Enlisted from Plallowell, service 3 mos. Penobscot expedition. 

Jonathan Whiting — Born in Wrentham, Mass., May 25, 1726. Died 
Oct. II, 1807. Buried near Stanley's, Winthrop. Served as ist 
Lieut, in Capt. Timothy Foster's Co., 2d Lincoln Co. Regt. of 
Mass. militia. 

John Wilcox — Born Apr. 26, 1759; died Mar. 10, 1844; buried at 
Monmouth. He enlisted from Tiverton, R. I. Pensioner in 1835 
and 1840. 

Dr. John Wingate — Died July 25, 1819, aged 76. Buried at Hallo- 
well. Served as surgeon in the Revolutionary war, enlisting from 
Hallowell. 

Joshua Wingate — Born in Amesbury, Mass., Mar. 4, 1747; died 
Oct. II, 1844; buried at Hallowell. Served as ensign in Capt. 
Matthias Hoyt's Co. of Minute Men, which marched on the 
alarm of Apr. 19, 1775, service 9 days. 

John Witherell — Born 1758; died June 12, 1854; buried at Mon- 
mouth Ridge. He was private and serg. in the Mass. militia, 
serving as quartermaster during the war. 

Samuel \\'ood — Sept. 10, 1759-Sept. 10, 1848; buried at Stanley's, 
A\^inthrop. He enlisted from Middleborough as private. His 
company marched to Bristol, R. L., service 73 days. 



i8o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

MORRILL FAMILY REUNION AT NORTH BERWICK, 
MAINE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1921 

The first Morrill family reunion, which was held at the old 
ancestral estate at North I'erwick, Maine, on September 3, 192 1, 
was very successful. 

The morning was given over to the inspection of the numerous 
historical places on the estate. This was under the personal direc- 
tion of the hostess, Mrs. Harriette (Randell) Alorrill, and the vari- 
ous places pointed out and the story told, as only she can tell them. 

Starting from the house along the shore of Bauneg Beg Lake, 
the first object of interest is the old pot hole of the Indians, now 
little more than a slight depression in the earth. It is beneath the 
great i)ines, on a slight bluft' near the lake. Here, around this camp- 
fire stood the wigwams of the Indians who were snowed in while 
on their way to Canada after a raid on Kittery, and here was born 
the child of their white cai)tive, Katherine Allen. Food was so 
scarce the whole party nearly starved to death, and the cries of the 
white infant, starving slowly, so annoyed the savages that the 
mother was forced to gather faggots and after lighting them lay 
on her living infant, she being too weak with hunger to offer resist- 
ance. 

Later she was enabled to elude the \igilance of her captors long 
enough to discover in the ashes a single hij) bone of the child. This 
she carried for weeks in her dress until it was discovered by a 
squaw, who destroyed it because it made "s(_|uaw heaj^ laugh." 
meaning it ga\e her ])leasure. 

From Breezy INjint one follows the shore along a fine road 
beneath the beautiful i)ines, until near the Maine road, A\hen we 
came into the old Indian trail from Kittery to Canada. ()ne-half 
minute along this ancient highway brings one to the \\'inthro]i 
Morrill homestead, which is still in ^'ery good repair, thanks to 
"Dan and Hattie." Here is also the first schoolhousc in these parts. 
Across the street in the great barn is stored the "wonderful one- 
horse shay" and its companion, a well preserved top buggy, which 
was the cause of certain jealous neighbors dubbing the owner "the 
aristocrat of Bauneg Beg." 

Beside this barn lies the old cemeter\- with its four generations 



MORRILI. FAMILY REUNION i8i 

of owners and their wives, lying side by side in a row. At their 
feet, in the second row, are their children and so on. 

The "'old homestead" is rich in traditions and antiques. A spin- 
ning wheel, flax wheel, child's dress, andirons, ancient lantern, 
foot warmer, and bread toaster are only a few of the many things 
preserved by the present owners. Here is to be seen one of the 
first melodeans made, which is i)umped, not by foot power, but by 
hand, as it sits on any convenient chair or table. 

Through the courtesy of our host the writer had the pleasure of 
visiting the "Tidy lot," which lot belonged to the John Tidy who 
married Hannah, daughter of John (i) Morrill. Adjoining it is 
the lot of Peaselee, ancestor of two governors. 

Many other interesting spots are here, but must be left for future 
use; truly it was worth a long day's journey just to spend a morn- 
ing in the company of the owners of this i)lace. It is doubtful 
whether there is an(;ther estate just like it in America. 

At noon a bountiful dinner was served in the (irange hall by 
the local descendants of the Morrill family, to which (ner lOO 
persons did ample justice. After dinner several group i)h()tos were 
taken, when the guests adjourned to the hall to enjoy the following 
program : 

"Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow," all standing; 
one moment of Ouaker (silent) ])rayer. A brief outline of the 
early history of the family was given by Hon. Melville P. Morrill 
of Natick, Mass. Mr. Morrill, w\n) is 85 years of age and did not 
expect to be called u])on, held the close attention of every one ])res- 
ent and i)ro\ed that he is thoroughly versed in his ancestry. Al- 
though he has traveled extensively in his lifetime, and is not now 
a resident of this state, he still kee])s his faith in the natives of 
J\Iaine. .Said he : 

"I am proud of the fact that I was born in the .State of Maine; 
no better people live in the United States. I have met them in 
all parts of the west, and Maine people have done more to start 
the western states right than any other eastern state ; and the Mor- 
rills have certainly done their part wherever they have been 
located." 

Mr. Morrill has been a Mason for sixty years, having held all 
the offices in the higher bodies. Some years ago, the Grand Lodge 



i82 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAI. OF MAINE HISTORY 



of Massacliiisetts presented him with a "Henry Price Jewel," a rare 
honor. 

"The Litchfield Branch, by One of Them," was read by the 
author, L. B. Morrill of Lewiston, who presided at the meeting 
Song, "Auld Lang Syne," by audience; "Historical Glimpses of 
Bauneg Beg," from the pen of Harriet R. Alorrill, was read b} 
Mrs. Rosa Morrill Brown of Newton Highlands, Mass. Poem b_v 
W. IT. Totem of Seattle, Washington, read by ]\Iiss Grace Hussev 
of South Berwick. Mrs. Delia Morrill Greenfield presided at the 
piano. 

The discussion which followed was led by Senator Mathew C. 
Morrill of Gray, Maine, and Hon. M. P. Morrill of Natick, Mass. 

The following" officers were elected : President, L. B. Morrill of 
Lewiston ; vice president, William H. Austin of North Berwick ; 
secretary, Mrs. Delia Greenfield, Rochester, N. H. ; historian, Mrs. 
Ethel Morrill McCollister, IVIexico; treasurer. Nelson C. B. Mor- 
rill, Rochester, N. H. 

The oldest person present was Ephriam Morrill of South Law- 
rence, Mass., age 86 years. The list of guests follows : Lewis 
Morrill, age So years, of Providence, R. I. ; the following were 
from North Berwick : Mr. and Mrs. \\'. H. Austin, Mrs. Bessy 
Emma Morrill, Mvian E. Morrill, age 5 years, Charles O. Morrill, 
Elizabeth Morrill Ricker, Katherine M. Ricker, age 5 years, Wm- 
throp Ricker, age 4 years, E. Raymond Morrill, L. M. Sherburne, 
Ida M. Sherburne, Sumner C. Morrill, Grace I. Morrill, Katie A. 
Morrill, Charles A\'. Abbott ; those from South Berwick were Nellie 
M. Hussey, Miss Grace Hussey; from Wiscasset, Mr. Clifford P. 
Dow, Mrs. Blanche Dow Fowle, Mrs. Emma Morrill Dow, Mrs. 
Earle Dow, Philip G. Dow, age 2 years one month, Charles H. 
Dow, age 2 years; from West Cumberland, Mrs. H. H. Morrill, 
Mr. Edwin C. Morrill, Mrs. Emma M. Morrill, Mr. Fred H. Mor- 
rill, Miss Inez I. Morrill, Mrs. Mary C. Brackett ; from Falmouth, 
Mrs. Ada Morrill Winslow, Mr. Ernest W. Winslow, Charles E. 
Winslow, age 5 years. Miss Lena B. Winslow ; from Portland, Mr. 
Walter E. Morrill, Mrs. W. J. Hunton, Mrs. Morrill Hamlin ; from 
Lewiston, Mrs. Sadie (Morrill) Morrill, Mr. L. B. Morrill; from 
Norway, Maine, Mr. and Mrs. Frank P. Morrill ; from Grav, Hon. 
and Mrs. M. C. Morrill ; from East Dover. INIrs. Lena Dow, Miss 



MORRILL FAMILY REUNION 183 

Eleanor Dow ; from Cornish, Florence L. j\Jorrill, Annie L. Mor- 
rill, Fred L. Morrill; from W'aterville, Mrs. W. P. Stewart; from 
Mexico, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Davey, Miss Maude E. Davey, 
Mrs. Everett McGee, Mrs. Blanche Alyward, Evelyn G. Alyward, 
age 8 months, Miss Laura J\L Morrill, Mrs. Ethel Morrill McCol- 
lister, Mrs. E. E. McCollister, Master Andrew L. Bandon McCol- 
lister ; from Berlin, N. H., Mr. and Mrs. Peter Anderson : from 
Rochester, N. H., Mrs. George E. Greenfield, Mr. Nelson E. B. 
Morrill, Mrs. Mary Kelley Morrill, Mrs. George E. Greenfield ; 
from Union, N. H., Mrs. Ethel Morrill, ^Irs. G. W. Morrill; 
from Dover, N. H., Clyde R. Morrill ; from Newton, Mass., Mrs. 
Rosa Morrill Brown ; from Natick, Mass., Miss Julia L. Morrill ; 
from West Somerville, Mass., Mr. Frank L. Morrill, Florence O. 
Morrill, age 8 years; from Haverhill, Mass., Mrs. Florence N. 
Osgood; from Lawrence, Mass., Mr. John H. \\'ilkinson, Mrs. 
Lillian Wilkinson ; from Mansfield, Mass., Mrs. Will Freeman, 
Mr. Will Freeman, Miss Nettie Freeman, Robert A. Freeman, 
age 9 years; from East Deerfield, Mass., Mr. Plarvey A. Morrill, 
Grace A. Morrill ; from Alliston, Mass., Ethel Al Shumway ; from 
Marblehead, Mass., Mrs. S. B. Dingley ; from Somerville, Mass., 
Mr. and Mrs. Fred ^^^ Morrill ; from Lawrence, Mass., Mrs. John 
H. Wilkinson ; from Bauneg Beg, Me., Mrs. Harriette Randell 
Morrill, Mrs. Daniel P. Morrill; from Mechanic Falls, Mrs. E. A. 
McCollister, house guest of E. E. McCollister. 



LINES ON THE MORRILL FAMILY REUNION, NORTH 
BERWICK, MAINE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1921 

By WiHiam D. Totten of Seattle, Wa.shing-ton, Great-grandson of Enoch 
Morrill, Who Was Born in Corni.sh, Maine, February 6, 1769 

Visions of beauty sweetly come 

Of scenes near old Atlantic's shore, 
With thoughts of our ancestral home, 

\\'hose memories sacred we adore. 

As pilgrims meet at sacred shrines. 

Their holy saints to contemplate. 
Meet we where stand the ancient pines. 

Brave souls of old to venerate. 



i84 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



God-fearing pioneers were they, 
From creeds of bigotry apart ; 

Content to labor day by day, 

Sisters and brothers, hand and heart. 

Morrills in name, and hving true 

7'o moral rules, their course to guide,- 

Gladly their story we review 
\\ ith j)atriotic joy and pride. 

One soul inspiring i)urpose runs 

Through our devotion to our sires, — 

To nobly li\e as worthy sons 
And keep alive loves altar fires. 

Let us assemble every year 

As kinsmen near Atlantic's shore, 

And honor them with hearts sincere, 
\\ hose memories sacred we adore. 



(Fiy :\lr.s. Ethel [IMoiiiU] :\lcColli.ster) 

CHRONICLES OF THE FAMILY OF JOHN MORRILL OF 
KITTERY, MAINE, 1640-1920 

Very few of the early settlers of the territory now known as the 
State of Alaine can boast a longer hst of distinguished descendants 
than that of John Morrill of Kittery. Not only in Maine but in 
many other states as well, are these names household words, for 
they were pioneers in manufacturing, political, religious and educa- 
tional pursuits. 

Almost nothing has been ])ublished about them collectively, due 
in part, i)erhaps, to the fact that each one has been so busy pushing 
forward in strange unblazened trails that there was no time to con- 
template the ])ast. Moreover, the Quakers were never given to 
"shouting their deeds from the housetops." It has been said that 
the Quakers were such good citizens that they often counted for 
far more during the Revolution for offices they performed for the 
government, than if they had fought in the ranks. 



CHRONICLES OF THE MORRILL FAMILY 185 



In writing the history of the Morrill family one could not easily 
separate it from the history of beautiful Bauneg Beg, which has 
been truly said to resemble in many characteristics the lake of 
Killarney, celebrated in song and story the world over, for the 
history of Bauneg Beg is the history of the family, who were the 
first white settlers upon its shores, coming when the Indians alone 
listened to the music of the waters, or searched for the plentiful 
fish and game which then abounded. 

Beneath the same great timber pines which cast their shadow 
over the red man, today walk the descendants in the eighth genera- 




A (lliiiii'-'- •'\ :;.iiiiM^ I :. u l>akc frdin ];ri-rz\- i'i>ini 

tion, going about the business of log sawing at the ancient mill, 
or the numerous errands of the home nestling almost in the shadow 
of the old homestead built many, many years ago. Many descend- 
ants come each year from far off cities to rest and recuperate from 
their labors. 

The first white owner was Ferdinando Gorges, who explored the 
coast of what is now a part of Maine in 1635-6; in 1639 he w^as 
granted a charter of a great tract wdiich he called New^ Somershire. 

It included Kittery Commons, so-called, which extended from 
the Salmon Falls River on the south to Bauneg Beg hills on the 
north. There in what is now Kittery Township, In the following 
year, 1640. was born the first American of our line — John Morrill. 



i86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The name had been very popular in the days when persons were 
named for famihar objects such as fish, hand, etc. It is derived 
from Latin meaning "yellow hair" and was popular in Italy, France, 
Holland and the British Isles. 

England claimed two Morrill families with coat-of-arms. Al- 
though the founder of this family in America was a wealthy Eng- 
lishman, it is not known to the writer whether he was related to 
either of the titled families. 

This John was a brickmason. In 1686 he was licensed to "con- 
duct" a ferry and house of "entertainment." His wife, Sarah, 




First School House at Eauneg- Beg: Lake — An Old-Tim.- ( "liaise 

was a daughter of Nicholas Hodgson, who was in Hingham, Mass., 
as early as 1635, and was killed by Indians in W'dh, Maine, 1704. 
Her mother was a supposed daughter of John A\'incoll. 

In 1674 John Morrill's father-in-law gave him a deed of Birch 
Point in what is now South Berwick. In 1676 he exchanged this 
for land at Cool Harbor (Eliot), still in the family. Between 
1 658- 1 703 he was granted 3,100 acres by King George, which in- 
cluded Bauneg Beg lake. He was a Quaker as were many of his 
descendants, as we shall see. A great-great-grandson, John (5) 
had seven children, all of whom died unmarried. This John (5) 
was born in Eliot, October 17, 1797, lived on the homestead there 
and died in 1881 ; his wife Sarah f lenkins ) having died in 1868. 



CHRONICLES OF THE MORRILL FAMILY 187 

An admirer of Andrew Jackson, for whom he named a son born 
in 1843. 

John (i) had six children. The oldest, John, born 1668, was 
a blacksmith. He had the homestead at Kittery. Ordered by the 
military officers in session at York, August 25, 1720, to erect a 
garrison of refuge near the ferry for the benefit of "ye inhabitants 
and families from William Frys' to John Morrill, son of Nicholas, 
inclusively." Sarah (2) married George Huntress in 1701. Edah 
(2) married Jonathan Nason in 1702. Hannah married John Tidy 
same year. John (2) married Hannah Dixon, lived at North Ber- 
wick, was prominent in town affairs, being a large land and slave 




Tlic ll(ni.se Wiiillinip .Miirrili I Unit m ITtiy at 
Bauneg- Beg- Lake, North Berwick 

owner. One slave was willed to his wife with the provision that 
she be freed at her death. Some of our most prominent lines 
sprang from his sons, particularly Jedediah (3), Peter (3), and 
Peaselee (3). The others were John (3), Thomas (3), Richard 
(3), and Stephen (3). 

Abraham (2), son of John (i), married Phoebe Heard but died 
soon after without issue. Elizabeth, the youngest of John's (i) 
family, married Thomas Hobbs in 1721. She lived in Boston. 

Jedediah (3), son of John (2), held 2,000 acres of the King 
George grant. Was prominent in town affairs. To his son Win- 
throp he gave the tract of land at Bauneg Beg, Peter's share nearer 



i88 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

what is now North Berwick village, and Josiali the homestead. 
He was one of those versatile pioneer spirits who could "turn a 
hand" to any kind of work; in addition to carrying on his great 
farm and the mill at Bauneg Beg, he was a blacksmith and was 
one of the first in Maine to practice medicine. A Quaker in religion. 
The first three mills built were burned by the Indians. The first 
dwelling was a log cabin, soon followed by a small frame house. 
In 1769, when W'inthrop (4) came there with his bride, Susannah 
(Lewis), who rode on horseback through the forest from York, 
he built the fine colonial mansion which still stands, and the present 
mill. The Indians, having learned that he was a "William Penn 
man," never molested him. This mill is now run by his great- 
grandson, Daniel Morrill. 

His daughter, Anna, was the first white child born at Bauneg 
Beg. Last summer her great grandson, Mr. A. A. Thompson of 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, visited Bauneg Beg. During his visit he 
was presented with a chair which had been a gift to Anna from 
her mother. Originally there was a set of six of these old "1700" 
Windsor chairs. Anna Morrill before her death divided these 
chairs between her daughters. 

Winthrop in his old age was cared for by his grandson, Nathan 
Morrill. 

Nathan was the father of the present owner of the estate, Mr. 
Daniel Morrill. He was cared for in his turn by his son, and 
Daniel's wife has a number of stories which grandpa told her, one 
of which she passed on for this article. It was told to Nathan by 
his grandfather, Winthrop. 

An Indian brave with his wife and papoose asked at Jedediah's 
house for shelter from an approaching storm. The baby was 
strapped to a board as was their custom. Bidden to enter, they 
stood the board and baby against the outside of the house. "Bring 
baby in, it rains," said Mr. Jedediah. The brave replied. "Me 
toughen baby." When ready to resume their journey they found 
the papoose "toughened" indeed. The water from the eaves falling 
on his head ran into his mouth and drowned the child. They stoical- 
ly carried it down by the river and buried it, continuing their jour- 
ney as though nothing had happened out of the ordinary. 

Doors were never locked in these times and it was an every-day 
occurrence for \\''inthrop and his wife to awake in the night and 



CHRONICLES OF THE MORRIEL FAMILY 189 



lie quietly in their great four-poster bed in the kitchen, and watch 
the Indians who had stolen quietly in and were warming them- 
selves by the fireplace, talking softly in their gutteral, their swarthy 
faces lighted by the blaze of the great logs. When warm and rested 
they carefully covered the fire with ashes as they found it, and 
resumed their journey, never disturbing this Quaker family, who 
had no fear of them. 

Nathan very closely resembled in features Andrew Jackson, 
whose staunch admirer he was, being as they used to express it, "a 
Jackson man." To his son Daniel's wife, Harriette (Randell), all 
seekers of our lineage owe a great debt of gratitude. For forty 
years she has been an able and untiring assistant to one and all. 
Her prolific pen often working far into the night to record the 
many interesting morsels of family history which she so well knew 
how to make interesting, even to the most casual reader. 

This couple are the last of their line, having lost all their chil- 
dren many years ago. But Mrs. Morrill's great mother love w^ould 
not be starved; several girls have been fed, clothed and educated 
by her and worthy boys helped to start in life. At present she has 
three, the youngest not yet of school age. 

Tedediah, Jr., son of Jedediah, settled in the town which w^as 
afterward named for him, "Morrill," in Knox County, near Bel- 
fast, Maine. Two others, Josiah and Peace married Meader, set- 
tled in the eastern part of the state. One of his granddaughters 
was a famous Quaker minister of Seabrook, New Hampshire. 
This lady. Mrs. Elizabeth Morrill Folsom, was the dearest friend 
of T- G. Whittier's mother. On her death the poet wrote the lines 



of 



The Friend's Burial 

"My thoughts are all in yonder town. 

Where, wept by many tears. 
Today my mother's friend lays down 

The burden of her years. 

Oh, not for her the florist's art, 
The mocking weeds of woe ; 

Dear memories in each mourner's heart 
Like heaven's white lilies blow. 



190 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

How reverent in our midst she stood 

Or knelt in grateful praise ! 
What grace of Christian womanhood, 

Was in her household ways. 

For still her holy living meant 

No duty left undone ; 
The heavenly and human blent 

Their kindred loves in one. 

An inborn charm of graciousness, 

Made sweet her smile and tone, 
And glorified her farmwife's dress. 

With beauty not its own." 

Many pictures of this lady and others, sisters, cousins and other 
relatives are still preserved by North Berwick descendants. The 
quaint and prim Quaker head-dress, white folds at neck and shawl, 
make very aristocratic photos. 

John (2), son of John (i), had a son, Stephen, who married 
Elizabeth Winslow of Falmouth. Peter (3) had a daughter killed 
and scalped by the Indians. As the story is told, she and an older 
brother had been sent into the forest to get a hemlock broom. She 
happened upon some lurking savages, who were waiting for dark- 
ness to attack the settlement. She screamed and the savages caught 
and scalped her to prevent the spread of the alarm. She expired 
on her father's doorstep. 

When the Indians learned that they had killed a Quaker maiden 
they were filled with regret ; on their return march north they 
stopped at a small lake, some three miles away and carved her pic- 
ture on a great tree. 

This lake was then named "Picture Lake" and is still so called. 
The tree was often visited and the story is still told beneath its 
boughs by the old inhabitants to the children of today "in her 
memory." 

Peter's (3) son, David, was the ancestor of ex-Congressman 
Daniel Jackson Morrill of Johnstown, Pa. Daniel J. was born 
at N. B. Aug. 8. 1821. served in Congress 1867-71. Interested in 
steel mills, his mills had at one time the largest daily output in 



IN MEMORY OF 191 



America. \\'as the first to use Bessemer steel for railroad, created 
the great Cambria Iron Works. At the time of the Johnstown 
disaster, a cousin, Thomas Morrill, chemist of the Cambria Iron 
Works, lived near him. When Thomas' house was swept away 
he and his wife jumped, being lashed together. Both were expert 
swimmers, so they progressed favorably till a floating house held 
them under till nearly drowned, but it finally passed on. At last 
they caught a line and were drawn into the attic window of Daniel 
Jackson's great mansion. Clothing was made by cutting holes in 
blankets with a pair of discarded scissors found in an old desk in 
the attic. Here they remained for three days till a rescuing party 
reached them. 

(To be continued) 



IN MEMORY OF 

Dr. George A. Phillips 



Dr. George A. Phillips died at his home in Bar Harbor October 
21, 192 1. He was born in Orland, Me., April 18, 1854. He grad- 
uated from the University of New York (now Cornell Medical 
College) in 1882 and had practiced medicine ever since in Han- 
cock County, first at Ellsworth and since 1901 at Bar Harbor. He 
was a leading physician in that part of Maine and a public man 
of note throughout the state. 

He w^as a member of the Legislature 1919-20 and 1921-22. He 
w^as a gentleman of culture, a student of wide range and familiar 
with the best literature. He was deeply interested in two subjects 
that have always interested the writer, Maine's colonial history 
and the preservation of wild life in our state. He had a host of 
friends all over ATaine, who will regret his departure from this 
life. 

Samuel M. Giles 

Samuel M. Giles, for many years a prominent and well-known 
resident of Sangerville, Me., was born in \^ienna, Me., February 
6, 1832, died at Camp Etna, June 21, 1921. Until about 11 years 
ago his home for about 40 years had been in Sangerville. 

His occupation in life had generally been that of farming, lum- 
bering, etc. He was a man of staunch and upright character. 



192 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



always siqiporting measures in his town which were progressive 
and for the pubhc good. He was in every sense of the word a 
good citizen ; a true and loyal friend and never wavered in his 
support of the principles which he believed in and adhered to. 

He was, at the time of his death, one of the oldest members of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellow^s in Piscataquis County. In 
this great fraternal order he had always taken a deep interest, had 
been a very active member and held prominent offices in the sub- 
ordinate and grand lodge. 

Politically he was a Republican and in religion he was a mem- 
ber of the Universalist church, but many years ago he made a study 
of what is now known as "modern Spiritualism" and embraced 
its philosophy and became a firm believer in the truth of its phe- 
nomena. He was an officer in and a leading member of the Maine 
State Spiritualist Association. 

His funeral occurred at Odd Fellows' Hall in Guilford, June 
22. The services were conducted by Good Cheer Lodge, I. O. O. 
F., and Golden Link Rebekah Lodge. 

The following poem was penned by one of his friends and pub- 
lished In a recent number of the "Banner of Life" of Boston: 

"My good old friend, All hail to thee 
Since thou hast entered eternity. 
Where angel friends hold communion sweet. 
With all thy dear ones there to greet. 

We would have kept thee longer still. 
Within our sphere thy place to fill, 
But by that wise and wondrous po\\er. 
The summons came to that bright bower 

Where no more pain will come to thee. 
Where your soul is now unfettered free, 
So we must not mourn but carry on, f-;.. 
The work you so nobly tried to perform. 



Alw^ays ready with heart and hand. 
To lend thy aid to a fellow man. 
To work unceasingly for the right. 
Thy presence still will bring us light. 



IN MEMORY OF 193 



Your blessings we shall still receive, 
For your interest in us we believe, 
Still holds good, from that fairer shore. 
And to Camp Etna you come once more. 

To blend your love and fill your place, 
'Tho we may not see your form or face, 
'Tho your familiar figure is hidden from view. 
You, yet are there the living yoii. 

And I believe with many more. 
The old Camp will grow as ne'er before. 
For with strong forces for the right, 
Etna will hold aloft the Banner of Light. 

So all hail to thee, my elder brother, 

Let us all live for one another ; 

If out of the temple of flesh and clay, 

Or encased therein, let us work while 'tis day. 

Unity, Me., August 4, 1921. C. B. Crosby." 

Frederick H. Costello 

Frederick H. Costello, the well-known author who has been 
for the past 30 years manager of R. G. Dunn & Go's, local agency, 
died Tuesday, August 2, 1921, at the age of 69 years, 10 months and 
8 days. He leaves beside his widow, one son, Harold Gostello, who 
now lives in Terra Bella, Cali^ 

The funeral will be held from the home Friday afternoon at 2 
o'clock and the burial wall be in Mt. Hope cemetery. 

Mr. Gostello lived in Bangor for the past 35 years, during 
which time he was connected with the local Dunn Agency. For 
the past 5 years of his service he was a reporter and for the past 
30 years has ^ ciated as the manager of the local branch. 

He was always a profound student of history and wrote a num- 
ber of books, mostly boys' stories built around valuable historical 
data, wdiich he spent most of his leisure time in collecting. During 
his lifetime he collected an excellent historical library and was an 
authoritv on matters of historical and political interest. 



194 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Frederick H. Costello was born in Bangor, September 4, 185 1. 
He was educated in the public schools of the city and by private 
tutors. In his early twenties he journeyed west to California, 
where he became principal of a private school in that state, a posi- 
tion he held for several years. 

In early life he was unwell a great deal of the time, but in Cali- 
fornia he recovered his health by being out of doors a great deal 
and by doing gymnastic work. In 1886 he came east and became 
associated with the R. G. Dunn Co., at their Bangor agency. For 
the first 5 years he was a reporter and then he became manager. 

In 1903 he married Mrs. Mabel E. Hennessey of Bangor and they 
have lived since then at 15 Poplar Street. 

On account of ill health Mr. Costello was obliged to give up 
his work at the R. G. Dunn office last fall and Mrs. Costello has 
carried on the work for him. His poor health was brought on 
largely by overwork, his friends think, as he was accustomed to 
work hard at his office days and to study for his own pleasure late 

at night. 

Among his published works are the following books : The Two 
on Galley Island, Master Ardick, Buccaneer, Under the Rattle- 
snake Flag, On Fighting Decks in 1812, A Tar of the Old School, 
and Nelson's Yankee Boy, Sure Dart, Morgan's Youngest Rifle- 
man and The Girl with Two Selves. 

Mr. Costello' s books for boys met with a ready sale and re- 
ceived very favorable notices from the critics as they deserved, 
for they were the product of a man who had fine control of Eng- 
lish and who made a profound study of his facts. He always wrote 
very interestingly and displayed an historical knowledge that was 
only explained by his constant study and his love of the work, to 
which he devoted most of the time not given to his office duties. 

Mr. Costello was especially well versed in the history of the 
Revolutionary War and in matters of the sea and his maritime tales 
■iisplayed the knowledge of a sailor. 

He was also much interested in politics and kept in constant 
touch Avith governmental afl^airs, the Bangor newspapers often 
being enriched by communications from him on current news, 
these always showing a thoughtful mind and wide study. 

Mr. Costello was a thorough gentleman, courteous, kindly and 



OXFORD AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 195 

affable, one of the best of husbands and fathers and a neighbor 
who was universally esteemed and respected. 

Hon. Edwin M. Johnson 

The death of Hon. Edwin M. Johnson, long one of the most 
prominent business men and political leaders of eastern Piscatac|uis, 
occurred suddenly at his home in Brownville, Me., on Tuesday, 
October 11, 1921, in his 77th year. He was born in Orono, the 
son of Moses S. and Betsey (Snow) Johnson, attended school in 
that town and East Maine Conference Seminary and Westbrook 
Seminary. The most of his life was spent in this town and he 
had extensive business interests here and in other parts of the state. 

He took an active interest in town, county and state affairs. For 
six years he was chairman of the board of selectmen. He was 
state assessor from 1909 to 191 5, represented the county in the 
state senate in the session of 1899-1900 and was always high in 
the counsels of the Republican party. He is survived by his wife 
and one son, Edwin S. Johnson of Brownville. 



Oxford Agricultural Society 

Incorjiorated February 24th, 18 14. 
Annual meeting, ist Tuesday in January. 

President, Seth Morse. 
Secretary, Caleb Prentiss. 
Treasurer, William Reed. 

Trustees, Daniel Stowell, Elias Stowell, William C. Whitney, Abner 
Rawson, Wm. Barrows, Seth Morse, Joel Robinson. 

Committee of Correspondence, Cyrus Hamlin, Benjamin Chandler, 
Alanson Mellen, Samuel F. Brown, Thomas Clark. 

John Chandler of Monmouth was Sheriff of Kennebec County 
in 1809. Pitt Dillingham and Samuel Weston were Deputy Sheriffs 
at Augusta, John Hazeltine at Gardiner, and Daniel Evans and 
Jesse Robinson at Hallowell. 



196 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

GOOD WILL HOME ASSOCIATION 

The writer in a public address 
once described the school and its 
founder at the Good Will Home 
Association at Hinckley, Maine, 
as follows : 

"A school unique in some 
ways and great in every way, 
founded and presided over by 
one whose capacity for training 
and building real manhood has 
become so well understood and 
so highly appreciated that his 
talents in this direction are 
recognized as those of a genius, 
is situated on the westerly banks 
of one of the beautiful and most 
historic rivers on the North At- 

REV. GEORGE W. HINCKLEY lantic COast." 

In the year 1889 the Reverend George W. Hinckley of Guilford, 
Connecticut, with no capital but a great vision, abundance of cour- 
age, a belief in Providence and possessing all of the human elements 
w4iich make a noble and cheerful optimist, began this great work. 
He has acquired an enviable and well deserved reputation as a great 
and successful teacher of youth, one who can take crude and raw 
material of boyhood and make it into good and successful man- 
hood. He has accomplished this and established this now famous 
and almost wonderful institution without noise, fuss or organized 
publicity. Modest and unassuming, he has never been, and by tem- 
perament could not be, a seeker for front page or gallery applause. 

Hundreds of children in Maine unfortunately circumstanced 
have owed an inestimable debt to this institution. Its value to our 
state cannot be measured. 

The Independent Reporter of Skowhegan in its issue of July 21, 
1921, published an interview w^ith Mr. Hinckley, in which he gave 
a brief and interesting review of his work. In this among other 
things he said : 




GOOD WILL HOME ASSOCIATION 197 

"In May, 1889, I purchased one hundred and twenty-five acres 
of land, situated in the town of Fairfield, Somerset County, Maine. 
This farm was paid for with two thousand dollars which had been 
contributed by sympathetic people, in sums ranging from five cents 
to two hundred dollars; the contributions had come from all parts 
of the country. This first purchase was an important step in a 
plan which I had cherished from boyhood — a plan to form a philan- 
thropic and educational institution for needy and imperilled, but 
deserving boys. It was a more extensive and comprehensive plan 
than it was wise to discuss in those days of small beginnings, there 
seemed to be no reason for attracting ridicule by telling of dreams 
of great things for God and humanity when only dimes and nickels 
were available, and when at best, the project was in its primeval 
stage. My dream was based on faith in God's power; upon the 
belief that the country is the best place for boyhood and develop- 
ment of character; upon the conviction that to make philanthropy 
effective in young life, a change of environment is often necessary; 
upon the theory that in laying foundations for future citizenship 
there is no substitute for family life, and that an old-time New 
England family often consisted of fifteen children, but not often 
of a larger number ; upon the persuasion that in the development 
of character, neither a home nor a school nor industry nor discipline 
nor religious training is in itself sufficient, but that all are needed. 

I believe that anything worth doing is worth doing well ; that 
nothing worth doing can be accomplished in any other way than 
by long continued persistent effort ; that when philanthropic people 
fully understand the plan and its possibilities, they would rally to 
its support and development, and that I would be allowed to see 
to some extent, the plan mature and fructify." 

It may not be in the ordinary use of the term a "state institu- 
tion," yet all good citizens of Maine must be proud of the fact that 
this great and worthy institution is within our state and each should 
deem it a pleasurable duty to render it material aid as well as sym- 
pathy and praise. 



Postmasters in Maine in 1843 

Auburn, S. H. Pickard ; Ellsworth, Joseph A. Wood ; Calais, 
William Goodwin ; Augusta, Richard S. Perkins. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 



This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. Schools, Augusta, Me. 



FURTHER SUGGESTIONS RELATIVE TO LOCAL 
HISTORY IN SCHOOLS 

From ("One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred 
Leading- Facts of Maine") 

Maine History from the Sources 

Almost every town in the State of Maine offers an opportunity 
for pupils to gather from the sources many facts of history. In 
South Berwick stands the old Hamilton house which figured in 
the life and interests of John Paul Jones. In the town of Kittery 
is the Sir William Pepperell mansion, the Sparhawk mansion, now 
occupied by Hon. Horace Mitchell. In Winslow is old Fort Hali- 
fax ; at Fort Kent the old blockhouse still stands. There are battle- 
fields, old buildings, Indian trails, war trails and trails of the 
pioneers in all sections of the state, the home of Longfellow, the 
Oaks about which he wrote. Trophies of Peary's Arctic explora- 
tions are to be found in the museum at Bowdoin College. There 
is endless variety of interesting materials for study first-hand. 

How to Conduct the Study 

The work should be well planned by the teacher before it is under- 
taken. Pupils should be instructed to make a map of the town, 
to find out from whatever means possible where the first settlement 
was made and when. Find the names of the early settlers; are 
there any descendants of the earliest inhabitants now living in the 
town? Children should get from the oldest settlers the stories of 
the early days — tradition handed down from the preceding genera- 
tion; photographs and descriptions of old buildings and historic 
places should be made. 

The children in the history classes may be detailed to specific 
features of the local history; some may gather any information 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 199 



relative to the town of the present day. Children should be in- 
structed in collecting data to reject unreliable information, to dis- 
tinguish between first-class evidences and unreliable data. When 
the data are gathered the pupil should make a brief, carefully writ- 
ten narrative covering his project. 

Mr. Sprague, publisher of the Journal, also submits to this depart- 
ment the following "suggestions for the study of Maine local his- 
tory" and an offer of awards as follows: 

1 The name of your county? 

2 From whence was its name derived ? 

3 Date of its organization? 

4 Give the number and names of the plantations, towns or cities 
in your county. 

5 How does a town differ in its organization from a plantation? 

6 Difference between a plantation and an unorganized wild land 
township ? 

7 How do the children in unorganized townships obtain an edu- 
cation ? 

8 The name of your own town? 

9 The date of its first settlement ? 

10 Give names of some of its pioneers or first settlers. 

11 Date of its organization? 

12 Give names of the town officers — selectmen, overseers of the 
poor, assessors, clerk, treasurer, school committee, road com- 
missioner, etc. 

13 How are these officers chosen and qualified? 

14 State the powers and duties of such officers. 

15 Give number of votes by political parties cast at the last three 
state elections in your town or city ; same at the last Presiden- 
tial election. 

16 If you reside in a city give date of its organization, its officers 
and their powers and duties. 

17 Differentiate between the town and city form of government? 

18 Give reasons for or against the study of Maine history in Maine 
schools. 

19 What men or women of state or national fame have been na- 
tives of vour town or citv? 



200 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



20 Give any other data about your town that your teacher may 
regard as of historical interest. 
The Journal will present to the scholar writing, under the direc- 
tion of his or her teacher, the best composition answering the above 
questions, two bound volumes (7-8) of Sprague's Journal of Maine 
History, and to the scholars writing the next three highest ones,, 
each a year's subscription to the Journal. Awards for the same to 
be made by the State Department of Public Schools. 

The work of gathering and preserving the historical data and 
sources of information of today for the use and benefit of the people 
of tomorrow is not only a pleasant and enjoyable task but is of 
vast importance as well. The following excerpt from a paper by 
Prof. Alvord, of the University of Illinois, read at the Seventh 
Annual Conference of the American Historical Societies at Indian- 
apolis, December 28, 1910, and published in the Annual Report of 
the American Historical Association for the year 1910 — (Wash- 
ington, 1912) p. 251, is an interesting and concise presentation of 
this thought. 

"In the middle of the seventeenth century — about the first third 
of the seventeenth century — there lived in London a bookseller by 
the name of Thompson, who was regarded by his neighbors as a 
crank, because he gathered everything that was printed or written 
■ — that floated in the atmosphere in his particular neighborhood — 
the floatsam and jetsam of life in London. It consisted of printed 
newsletters ; it consisted of invitations to dinners ; it consisted of 
notes between one gentleman and another ; it consisted of programs 
of vaudeville shows in Vauxhall Gardens and elsewhere — every- 
thing that was a record of the times. He had a vision of posterity 
and gathered it all ; but he did not know how to classify and use 
it; he simply gathered. He wrote on each one the time and the 
conditions under which he had collected it. They were tied up 
and piled in piles, and after his death somebody bought the col- 
lection and presented it to the British Museum, and it lay there 
until Macaulay found it and used it. He saw in this collection a 
vision of life during the civil-war period of England, and with the 
assistance of his imagination he pictured for us, from this collection 
of odds and ends, the life of that period. 



MAINE HISTORY IN THE SCHOOLS 201 

"So I say that any historical society, no matter how broad or 
narrow its scope, should gather material, for someone has said, 
'The literary rubbish of one generation is the priceless treasure 
of the next.' The members of the historical societies should have 
a vision of posterity. What is interesting to you that has come 
down from the past? Some old colonial newspaper; some playbill 
when the English were occupying Philadelphia and having a gay 
time; something that keeps you in touch with the old days? That 
all interests you today and helps you to rebuild the past, and so what 
we are gathering today will be considered treasures by the next 
generation. We should have a vision of posterity, and that is the 
basis on which an historical society should be conducted." 

And the above will a])])!}- with C(|ual force to schools and school 
libraries as well as to historical societies, for the aims of each are 
the same. 



Questionnaires Sent to Pupils 

By 

True C. ]\IorrilIv 

Superintendent of vSchools, Bangor, Maine 

Questionnaire Concerning the GEOGRAriM' oE Youk Town 

Dear Pupils : 

The eighth grade bo}'s and girls of Bangor, Maine, are anxious 
to receive information from you concerning the following points. 
Kindly write your answers to the following outline in interesting 
story form, so they w^ill be of interest to boys and girls of yoiu" own 
age. 

^^'hat was the town's population at the last census? 

How many schools has it together with their enrollment?^ 

Brief description. 

Locate your town as to its nearness to some prominent physical 
feature of the state, e. g. upper Kennebec A^alley. Lake ^^'ebber 
noted for, etc. 

Kinds of soil and for what best adapted? 

To what river system are the lakes and streams in your section 
tributary? How many lakes and ponds have you? 



202 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



What arc the important historical facts concerning- the settlement 
of your town? 

What historical places or events are marked by monuments or 
tablets? If none, is anything being done to encourage such work? 

Has anyone of national fame been born in your town or lived 
there as a permanent resident? For what noted? 

Means of transportation and communication. 

What is your chief trading center? Why? 

What nationalities are prominent ? 

What are the chief products and industries of your town' 

Names of different settlements in your town and the ])rincipal 
industry of each. 

What are the town's resources for maintaining its present size 
and future growth ? 

About how much taxable property is owned by summer residents ? 
Chief attractions and resources that attract capital and summer 
visitors. 

Kindly include anything of special interest with respect to your 
town or omit any of the above points that do not apply. Picture 
post cards or samples of products as paper, cloth, etc., will be grate- 
fully received. 

We want to know about your town. 



A new organization was perfected in connection with the recent 
Maine Teachers' Association convention when an association was 
formed to be known as the Association of Secondary School 
Principals of Maine. The following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, William E. Wing, principal of the Deering High vSchool ; 
vice-president, William 1j. Jack, principal of the Portland High 
School ; secretary-treasurer, Clarence P. Quimby, principal of the 
Cony High School. The three members of the executive com- 
mittee are Prin. L. E. Moulton of the Edward Little High, Clarence 
E. Proctor of the Bangor High, and Principal Woodbur}^ of Thorn- 
ton Academy. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

FIRST TEACH THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE 
THEIR OWN TOWN, COUNTY AND STATE AND YOU HAVE 
GONE A LONG WAY TOWARD TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 



A NEW MAINE BOOK 

"Somerset County in the World W ar" is the title of one of the 
most im])ortant Maine books recently issued, its author being Flor- 
ence Waugh Danforth of Skowhegan, Me. Mrs. Danforth is well 
known in the literary circles of Maine. 

This is a book of 330 pages, tinely illustrated, and is a complete 
history of Company E of the National Guard of Maine. She has 
set an example that other patriotic ])eople ought to follow in every 
county in the state. The history of these brave men who crossed 
the ocean to defend America in the darkest days of the world war 
should he comi)iled and preserved for future generations now when 
the data and all the facts are easily accessible. 

Maine has had a glorious record in all of the American wars for 
defense. It begins in 1745 at the siege of Louisburg, when the 
name of Sir William Phips of Kittery Point. Me., was inscribed 
on the roll of Anglo-Saxon heroes and knighted Ijy England for 
his valor, and it is a ])art of the history of the wars of the revolu- 
tion, 181 2. the S])anish war and the world war. 

D. H. Knowlton &: Company, publishers at Farmington, Me., 
are now publishing a series of little paper covered books called 
"Excelsior Classics." One of their latest issues is an exceedingly 
interesting and scientific history of Maine Gem-Stones by Charles 
A. Waterman, a well-known Maine newspaper writer and author. 



204 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

It is a valuable Maine brochure on a subject of much importance 
that but few Maine people have extensive knowledge of. 



HONORABLE D. A. ROBINSON 

Bangor, Me., October 25, 1921. 
Editor Sprague's Journal : 

I was much interested in your account of the Home Rule meeting 
in your last issue of the Journal ; but I want to say for your infor- 
mation that, in the language of Daniel Webster, "I aint dead yet." 

Sincerely yours, 

D. A. RoBixsoN. 

The above letter from Dr. D. A. Robinson of Bangor, Me., re- 
veals the committing of a blunder. Probably the most self-aggra- 
vating mistake known to humans is the one that the maker of can- 
not blame onto anyone but himself, where it is not the result directly 
or indirectly of any other person's carelessness, absentmindedness 
or stupidity. 

Frequently an ingenious and resourceful mind, will, in such 
cases, light upon some co-laborer who can easily be made "the 
goat." Not so in this matter. This is a fact, though a sad one. 
For many years we have known Dr. Robinson as a leader in the 
business, professional, social, intellectual, religious and political 
life of the city of Bangor; when this i)articular blunder was made 
we knew all this, had known it for more than a cpiarter of a century 
and knew that he was then alive and enjoying the same eminent 
place in the citizenship of Bangor now as then. 

We are exceedingly sorry that this occurred but we have no 
copyist in our office, there is no one in the print shoj) that prepares 
the Journal for publication, no proof-reader, no one that can be 
blamed except 

The Editor. 



LETTER FROM DR. GEORGE L. CROCKETT, 
ROCKLAND, MAINE 

Rockland, Me., July 2nd, 192 1. 
Dear Sprague : 

Gen. Samuel Waldo died at what is now Brewer, Maine. His 



EDITORIALS 205 



body was first buried at Fort Point (Fort Pownal), then exhui-ned 
and taken to Boston. 

In 1768 his heirs and family had a council at Boston, at which 
they made an indenture to divide the land of the AValdo tract among 
themselves. 

I never knew this until last Sunday, when I found the original 
indenture dated at Boston 1768 and recorded at SutTolk County. 
This family agreement passed into the hands of the famous Samuel 
Adams and now^ is in my office. 

In the near future I shall give the i)ublic a copy of the original. 
It clears u^) many names and locations. 

In 1793 the heirs of old Samuel Waldo, who died at Brewer, 
1759, gave full power of attorney to Gen. Henry Knox to become 
owner, manager, etc.. of the Waldo Patent. This same year Knox 
had Monvel explore the Waldo Patent. I base my limits of the 
Patent on the Journal of Monvel, the original that I gave Harold 
Sewall. 

I have no deed of Knox County earlier than 1710. 

I hope to get up to see you this summer for a good chat. Mrs. 
Crockett will go with me. The Angel of Cushing is' very ill. Have 
not heard from Sam for some time. 

Good luck, etc., 

Dr. Crockett. 



OTIS O. ROBERTS 

Dexter will ha\e th.e honor of sending the only Maine man, as 
far as known, to be the nation's guest on Armistice Day and to 
be one of the nation's official mourners at the burial of the unknown 
American soldier. 

The invitation has been extended to Otis O. Roberts of this 
town, late sergeant in Co. H, Sixth Maine Volunteers, and wearer 
of the Congressional Medal of Honor for valor in the field, to come 
to Washington for Armistice Day, all expenses paid by the nation. 
Mr. Roberts has accepted the invitation w^hich came from Adjutant 
General P. C. Harris. 

It is understood that similar invitations have been extended to all 
holders of the Congressional IVIedal of Honor in the countr}-. Mr. 



2o6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Roberts has the distinction of being one of thirty odd soldiers in 
the Civil war to receixe the highest decoration awarded in this 
country for valor on the battlefield. 

He was the son of Christina ( Ryerson ) and Amos Roberts and 
was born in the town of Sangerville, Me., on Alarch 20, 1842. Mr. 
Roberts won the medal for bravery at Rappahannock Station, Vir- 
ginia, on November 7, 1863, when, single handed, he captured a 
Confederate flag, which, a few days later, accompanied by an honor 
guard he took to Washington and delivered to the Secretary of 
A\"ar. The awarding oi the Congressional Medal of Honor soon 
followed. A year later at the Cedar Creek engagement in the She- 
nandoah \^alley he sufi:'ered wounds which resulted in the amputa- 
tion of a foot. 

Only a few days before Mr. Roberts was to depart he was in- 
formed that the order inviting him to attend had been rescinded. 
A cog had apparently slipped in the military machine at \Vashing- 
ton. This machine is generally su]iposed to be bound together 
largely by red-ta])e, so it is possible a piece of it had broken. 

Anyhow, Otis O. Roberts was for a brief time a rather disap- 
pointed old hero. 

The Reverend Father C. T. Maney learning of his predicament, 
immediately moved about among his neighbors and told them the 
story. This resulted in his raising in a few hours a sufticient sum 
of money to pay all of the expenses of the trip. 

Thus through the eft'orts of Father Maney and many other loyal 
citizens of Dexter, the journey was made. 



Honorable John C. v^tewart, a prominent lawyer of York Village, 
Maine, has recently edited and comi)iled one of the most im])ortant 
Maine items of historical value that we know of. It is entitled 
"Biographical Sketches of Natives of Maine Who Have Served 
in the Congress of the United States," and has contributed it to 
the Journal for publication. We shall publish it serially beginning 
the first part in the January-February-]\Iarch number of vol 10, 
which will be the next issue of the Journal. We look forward to 
this being greatly appreciated by (jur readers. 



EDITORIALS 207 



Honorable George C. Wing, Jr., has written for the Journal an 
historical and descriptive sketch of Mount Katahdin. which will 
be a valuable addition to the literature upon this subject. Much 
has been said about it in the press, in magazines and on the forum, 
but so far as we are aware this is the only accurate historical paper 
ever prepared. Mr. Wing's research extends from the earliest 
writers, Greenleaf, Williamson, etc., to Commissioner Parsons of 
the Maine Inland Fish and Game Department. We can assure our 
readers that this will appear during the next ( loth) volume of the 
Journal. 



The lournal's library has 'ecently been ])resented with a copy 
of "Sketch of Deer I^le.'' Mame, by George L. Hosmer ( Boston, 
i8<)6). This gift is from our esteemed friend. Dr. B. Dake JNoyes 
of Stonington, Maine, and we extend to him our sincere thanks 
for the same. 



The Saunterer in the Portland Sunday Telegrani has been shown 
the log book of the brig Brutus of Bath on its voyage to Barbadoes, 
beginning December 25, 1825, and ending with its voyage from 
Havana to Portland in August, 1827. The hrst master of the brig 
was Har\'ey Preble, who in June, 1827, was succeeded by William 
Thomes. In this log book are recorded the s]ieed of the vessel, 
direction of the wind, latitude by obse'-vation and general remarks. 
As a fair specimen of the remarks the following are copied from 
the record of June 4, 1827: "First part of this 24 hours commences 
with light breeze and fine weather, middle and latter part much 
the same. Part of crew employed, bent sail and got ready for sea. 
The wind from southward. So ends this day. I joined the brig 
May 26, 1827." This was evidently written by Master William 
Thomes. 



2o8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 
(EDITORIAL IN HALLOWELL ADVOCATE) 

(March 4, 1820 ) 

The bill for the admission of Maine has at last passed the Senate 
with the amendments. These amendments are, first, the bill for 
the admission of Missouri, without restrictions, and secondly, a 
pro\'ision for the exclusion of slavery from all that part of the 
territory purchased of France, which was called Louisiana, which 
lies north of 36 deg. 30 min. north latitude. This last provision, 
introduced by Mr. Thomas of Illinois, is denominated the com- 
promise. The advocates of slavery have insisted vehemently upon 
having the whole western world beyond the Mississippi kept open 
as a market for their slaves; and their opponents ha\e contended 
for the utter exclusion of slavery therefrom. 

By the compromise the friends of humanity will accomplish 
much, perhaps all that can be done in the present state of feeling 
and interest in the slave-holding states — 

There may be some danger of the repeal of this provision for 
the restriction of slavery when the slave-holders shall ha\-e in- 
creased in numbers and strength, by the admission of Missouri 
and others. We believe that a period of greater infatuation, and 
more prostituted for zeal for servitude than the present, will never 
arise. The light of truth and the principles of justice and religion 
will hereafter illumine the whole of our country, not excepting 
e\"en those dark and degraded portions now blackened by the 
curse of slavery and we trust that e\'er\' future Congress so far 
from repeating this restricti\e provision, will regret and blush for 
their predecessors, that it had not been extended to the whole 
instead of a part. 

The bill with these amendments was sent down to the House for 
concurrence, and occasioned a very spirited debate, which we this 
day present to our readers. 

We have, more than once expressed, in unequivocal terms, the 
opinion which we entertain of the conduct of the Senate, in coupling 
Maine and Missouri. 

It appears by the debate, that the memiiers of the House are 
not insensible to the gross insult offered to them, and to the nation, 
by this unprincipled mode of legislation. 

The House would undoubtedly concur ai; once in the compro- 
mise, but they cannot, without self-degradation, concur in the 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 209 

union of the Missouri bill with that 01 Maine, which was proposed 
and rejected in the first instance, and before the bill was sent 
to the Senate. 

FLAGG'S ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF REVOLUTIONARY 
PENSIONERS IN MAINE 

This exceedingly valuable work compiled by the late Charles 
Alcott Flagg, was published as a serial in the last two volumes of 
the Journal. Only two hundred co[)ies of this ha\e been preserved 
in book form. It makes a book of 91 pages with 3 illustrations. 
It contains the names and data of fourteen thousand one hundred 
and sixty-one such [)ensioners. It is neatly bound in paper boards, 
schoolbook style with label titles. This is the only authoritative 
work of any extent upon this subject ever published in Maine and 
is invaluable to all interested in Revolutionary history and ancestry. 
Price. $3.00. Carders for this may be mailed to Sprague's Journal, 
Dover, Me., or to A. J. Huston, 192 Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 



A book of unusual interest, which has been presented to the 
Waterville Historical Society by Edward G. Meader, is Record 
Book No. I of Waterville Engine Company No. 3, one of the first 
and finest of the fire-fighting organizations to be organized in that 
city. From this book may be gleaned many facts of historical 
interest which become increasingly fascinating and precious as 
time goes on. To anyone who is at all interested in the past of 
the city, especially in the work done by one of its pioneer fire 
companies, reading of the book, almost in its entirety, will prove 
a genuine joy. It barkens back to the past, the long, long ago, 
and tells accurately something of the work of W'aterville's sterling 
old citizenry whom this generation and perhaps no generation can 
hardly be said to exceed in any particular. 



The city of Westbrook will possess a public park and a public 
place of amusement for social meetings, according to the will of 
Cornelius L. Warren of Waltham, Mass., allowed in Probate Court 
in Portland recently. Joseph A. Warren, Philip Dana and John 
E. Hyde of Westbrook are made trustees of a fund to be obtained 
from real estate belonging to the testatrix in Standish and West- 
brook, including the "Elms" in the latter city and the library at 
Cumberland Mills. 



INDEX 



Abenakis 61-69 Castine conference 141-43 

Adams, Samuel 148-49 Centennial towns, 1021 45-46 

Alford, Professor 200 Chadwick, I'aul 152-53 

American Historical Associa- Chandler, Margaret 9, 10 

tion 93-94 Chesuncook Lake 135 

Ancesti-y 94-96 School House 140 

Argall, Captain Samuel China (Asia) 11 

103, 109-12, 113, 114, 115-18 Churches, early, in Portland 81-83 

Aroostook State Normal School 36 Cleveland, George A. ly 

Association of Secondary School Cobb, Daniel 15 

Principals of Maine 202 Colonial historj- 41-4"3 

Atkinson, Minnie 43 Cong-regational Church, Otisfleld 17 

Atwood, William F.. .Jr. 135 Congressional Medal of Honor 

Augusta 32 Maine man 205-6 

taverns 21 Conner, Sam E. I37 

Constitution, catechism of 40 

Copeland, Thomas J. 33 

g Cornville gg 

Costello, Fi-ederick H. 193-95 

Dachelder's tavern 23 Craig-, Rachael 10 

Bailey, Rev. Jacob 50, 84 Thomas 10 

Bangor 32 Crockett, George L. 1.53, 204 

Commercial 162 Crosby, C. B. I93 

Historical Society 45, 85, 151-52 -^'''S- -T. Willis 138 

Register 33 Curriei-'s tavern 21 

Banisters in Maine 57 Cushnoc House 21 

Barrows, Fred D. 34 p. 

Barwise, Mark A. 130 '^ 

Bassett, Norman B. 153 ])ai;torth, Florence \'\'augli 203 

Bath library 76-77 Day, Holman F. 127-28 

Bauneg Beg' Lake 18!. l>ecr Isle 207 

Baxter, James Phinney 43,78-80,131 Dexter D. A. R. 138-40 

Percival P. 43 Dodge, Nellie C. 35 

Biard, Father Pierre 101-120,122-23 Domicile, law of 99-IOO 

Biographical sketches of natives Dresden 83-85 

of Maine who have served in see also I^jwnalborough 

the- Congress of the United Dreuillettes. Father Gabriel 124 

States 206 Dunnack, Heni-y E. 7fi 

■'Bit of Maine" (poem) 70 Dutton, Sam 85-86 

Blaine Mansion 153 

Boardman, Samuel L. 8(1 

Bodg-e, Delia 8-9 Edes, Benjamin 32 

Boston Gazette and Countiy George A. 34 

Joiiinal 32 George Valentine 33-34 

Briry, Annie M. 140 Peter 32-33, 85-86 

Brown's Corner tavern 22-23 Samuel D. 32-34 

160 
61-69 



E 



Brutus (brig) 207 Emerson, Walter 

Bun-, Freeman F. 74-75 Etechemins 

Burroughs, John 74-75 Eveleth. John H. 13.5 

lUitlei-. General Benjamin F. 8(; Excelsior Classics 203 



212 SPR^VGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Farming-ton 


150- 


-51 


Fernald's Point 


107- 


-11 


Flag-g-, Charles Alcott 


20, 31, 


45 


Fort Halifax 


132 


-34 


Fort St. George 




11 


Free AVill Baptist Cliurcli, 


Otis- 




field 




19 


"Free-Willers" 




19 


Freeman, Samuel 


148 


-49 


French, Josiah 




21 


"Friend's Burial" (poem) 


189 


-90 


Fuller, John J. 




22 


Fuller tavern 




22 



Henry 18-19 

John 18 

Holway, Melvin Smith 146-48 
Home Rule for Ireland meeting 12t) 

Hosmer, George L. 207 

Hunton, Jonathan G. 9 

Huston, A. J. 31 



Indian women 44 

Indians, Maine 61-fi9 

Indians, IMaine, and their rela- 
tions with the white settlers 

120-25, 170-74 



G 



Gage's tavern 21-22 

Gammon, Samuel 15 

Gardiner, John 49-59 

Robert H. 83 

Dr. Silvester 49-50 

Giles, Samuel M. 191-93 

Gilmore, Evelyn L. 28 

Gladstone-Parnell bill 126 

Good Will Home Association 196-97 
Grand Lake Stream Plantation 4 3 
Graves of Revolutiona.ry soldiers 

in Kennebec i-egion 23-27, 175-79 
Great Northern Paper Company 

128-30 
Guernsey, Frank E. 29 



James I 10-11 
Jesuit missionaries 101-120, 121-25 

Jewett, A. G. 72, 73 

Johnson, Edwin IM. 195 

Jones, "]Mahogany" 84 

Jordan, Nellie Woodbur-y 40 

K 

Kedesqiiit 103, 104. 105 
Kennebec County court hoirse 152-53 

Gazette 33 

Journal 161-62 

Kennebeck Intelligencer 33 

King, William, library of 76-77 

King Philip's War 170-174 



H 

Hale, Clarence 
Hall, ]\Iabel Goodwin 
Hallowell 
Hancock, Joseph 
Harries, Margaret 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel 
Herald of Liberty 
Hersey, Ira G. 
Hill, W. Scott 
Hilton, Leonard 
Hilton's tavern 
Hinckley, George W. 

Township 
Historical societies 
History, local, in the schools 
36-40, 41-43, 143-45 
160-65, 198-202 
Holden. Charles F. 

Captain Daniel 



21, 23, 175 

21 

15 

50 

166-67 

33 

161 

21 

135 

21 

196-97 

43 

94 

148. 

14 
18 



"Lake Champlain and its shoi-es" 159 

"Latch-string, The" 

Lawyers, Waldo County 

Lermond, Norman Wallace 

Letters 

Lewiston Journal 

Lincoln, Joseph Crosby 

Litchfield 

Livermore 



"Lumberjacks" 



M 



IMcCollister, Ethel (IMorrill) 

]\tachias 

McLean, Ernest L. 

INTagnusson, Victoria Airr-ora 

IVTaine, origin of name of 

IMaine, State of (address) 



12- 



12- 



16(1 
74 
93 
76 
10 

158 
23 
71 
126-30 



184 
130 

76 
131 

92 
3-8 



INDEX 213 

Maine Naturalist 93 Piper's tavern 22 

Society of New Yorlc I! I'iscataquis County 33, 152 

Writers' Research Club Farmer 34 

21. 149-50 Herald 34 

Making- history in the Maine Observer 34, 165 

woods — culture for the lum- Poetry 13, 69-70, 131, 13.5. 157-58 

berjack 120-30 Pollard. Amos 21 

Mather vs. Cunningham 99-100 Poor, John Alfred 154 

Mathison, James 43 Popham, George 10-11 



Mexican war, Maine in 



107-70 Porronveau, Louis 55 



IVlinot George E. 8 I'ortland early churches 81-83 

Montgomery, Job H. iri2 Evening- Express 104-65 

Moors, Johnathan 15 Herald 102-04 

Morrill, John, family 184-89 Pownalborough 55, 83-85 

True C. 201-2 Court House 49. 83. 84 

]Morrill family reunion 180-83 Printing industry 32-34 

pQP,;,i 183-84 Prize contest in local histoi-y 199-200 

]\Ioses, Galen C. 77 Projects in local history 30-40, 143-45 

Mount Desert 101-120 

Katahdin 207 j^ 

Murray, W. H. H. 159 

Kailway pioneer 154 

J^ Rale, Sebastian 125 

Ray, David 14-19 

Naturalist, see Maine Naturalist Rebecca Weston Chapter 138-40 

Natuie worshipers may find it Reed, Senator 94 

all in the State of INIaine 157 Reed. Noah 15 

Newspapers 32. 33. 34 Samuel 15 

Nicolar, Mrs. Peter 44 Thomas B., toast to Maine 8 

Norris's tavern 22 Reed's tavern 21 

Norumbega 35 Revolutionary Soldiers Living 

in jNlaine, Alphabetical In- 

O dex of 20, 31, 76 

Revolutionary soldiers' graves 

Observer l^ublishing Co. 34 • t^ i, r^ • 

"^ in Kennebec Region. in- 



Old Point 124-25 

"One Hundred Years of State- 
hood" 30 



scriptions 23-27. 175-79 

Ricker, Nellie 130 

Roberts, Cassuss Clay 74 

Ofiuossoc Angling Association 43 ,_,. .^ „,_ „ 

_ , , „ UtlS vJ. Z05-D 

<^ti-sfleld 14-19 i,„^i,^_,^„^_ J, ^^ 204 

P 

s 

Packard, Bertram E. 4 9 

Partridge, Amos 22 Sagadahock 11 

Patch, Benjamin 15 Saint Sauveur, Story of 101-20 

Patten, John 76, 77 Sanford 169-70 

Patten Library Association 76-77 Sawtelle, William Otis 

"Pejepscot" (poem) 135-36 75-76, 101, 151-52 

Penobscot (town) 152 Scarborough 172-73 

River (poem) 13 School children, INIaine histories 

Phillips, George A. 191 by 87-91 
Phinney, Dea. Stephen 15 Schools, local history in 

Pierce, Franklin, and the State 36-40, 41-43, 143-45, 148. 160. 

of Maine 165-170 198-202 

George 15 unorganized 140 



214 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Secondary school principals of Tourists' despatch 135 

Maine, Association of 202 Town, outline of study for 144-45 

Secretary of State's warrant 51-52 histoiies 43-44 

Shapleigh 169-70 



u 



Shurte, Abraham 173-74 

Smart, E. K. 72, 73 

Smith, Edgar C. 32 Unorg-anized Territory School 

Francis Orman Jefferson 12 system 140 
Captain Stephen 130-31 

Smock marriag'e 137-38 \T 
Somerset County 33 

"Somerset County in the World Virginia, Second Colony of 10 

War" 203 

Somerset Journal 33 W 
Spear, Albert M. 99 

Sprague. John F. Wakely, Thomas 171-72 

78, 12ti, 157, 160-65, 204 "Walden Pond" 159 

Spurr, Joseph 15 Waldo, Samuel 204 

Stewart, Aithui- AV. 69-70, 132 Waldo County lawyers 72-74 

C. Marshall 132 Patent, romance of 153 

John C. 206 Washburn, R. M. 71 

Supreme Judicial Court 99-100 Washburn family of Livermore 71-72 

Swann, Iilajor William 16 Waterman, Charles A. 203 

Charles E. 165 

fj* Waugh, George 10 

■Where the Pine Tree Fringed 

Tahanida 11 1 'enobscot River Flows" (poem) 13 

Tate, Captain George 28 Whiting, Eunice 14, 17 

Taverns, Early Kennebec 21-23 Whitney tavern 21 

Thomas. Augustus O. Whittier, John Greenleaf 189 

36, 87-91. 141. 148, 198 Wight, Joseph 15 

David 21 Wiley, James S. 29-31 

Tliompson, Florence Whittlesey 81 Wilkes, John 50-51 

Thoreau, Henry D. 159 Wing, George C, Jr. 207 

"To the Pine Tree State" (poem) Wood, Ethel M. 61, 120, 170 

69-70 Woodsmen 126-30 

Totten. William D. 183-81 Worster. Helen I.. 70 



LIST OF PLATES 

Hon. Clarence Hale 2 

Francis Orman Jefferson Smith 12 

Charles Alcott Flagg 20 

A Maine Colonial House 28 

Maine Inland Scenery 47, 97, 155 

John Gardiner 48 

Indian Women Making Baskets 60 

First Parish Church, Portland, Maine 82 

Albert M. Spear, Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 98 

Henriette de Balsac, Marquise de Verneuil 104 

Fernald's Point, the Site of Saint Sauveur 108 

Champlain Monument — Seal Harbor 119 

Fort Halifax as Completed in 1755 1,32 

"Tourists' Despatch" Stamp 135 

Chesuncook School House 140 

James Phinney Baxter 156 

Maine Coast-line Scene Near Cape Elizabeth 158 

Glimpse of Bauneg Beg Lake from Breezy Point 185 

First School House at Bauneg Beg Lake — An Old Time Chaise 186 

House Winthrop Morrill Built in 1763 at Bauneg Beg Lake, North 

Berwick 187 

Hinckley, Rev. George W 196 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Sprague's Journal Publications For Sale 



Piscataquis Biography and 

Fragrnents .... Sprague $1.00 

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Maine Revolutionary Pen- 
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Maine One Hundred Years 

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Sir Hiram Maxim. .Sprague .75 

Robert Bayley, the First 
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Sprague .75 

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OFFICE SUPPLIES 

C. 0. Barrows Co. 

Portland, Maine 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 



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