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Full text of "Spring and early summer wild flowers"

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F!M LIBRARY 




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SPRING AND EARLY SUMMED 
WILD FLOWERS =§ 




Published by 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

CHICAGO 

1924 



CO 



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This is the second of a number of Field Museum 
leaflets describing some of the more interesting wild 
flowers of the Chicago region. The first leaflet of this 
series is entitled* "Spring Wild Flowers", and a third 
illustrates the summer wild flowers. 

LIST OF BOTANICAL LEAFLETS ISSUED TO DATE 

No. 1. Figs . $ .10 

No. 2. The Coco Palm 10 

No. 3. Wheat 10 

No. 4. Cacao 10 

No. 5. A Fossil Flower 10 

No. 6. The Cannon Ball Tree (in preparation ) . . . .10 

No. 7. Spring Wild Flowers . .25 

No. 8. Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers . . .25 

No. 9. Summer Wild Flowers 25 

No. 10. Autumn Flowers and Fruits 25 

D. C. DA VIES 

DIRECTOR 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
CHICAGO, U. S. A. 



Field Museum of Natural History 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
Chicago, 1924 

Leaflet Number 8 



SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER 
WILD FLOWERS 



BLUE FLAG. IRIS 

(Iris versicolor) 

In everything but size the Blue Flag of sunny- 
swamps and open river-lands bears a close resemblance 
to the well-known garden plant. It has the same 
sword-shaped erect leaves, and the same type of 
flowers. Three outer segments of the blossom are 
violet-blue, variegated toward the base with green, 
white and yellow. The inner portion of the flower 
consists of three narrower parts, more erect and often 
lighter in color. 

The Fleur-de-lis is the emblem of France. (Iris 
Family) 



[33] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




SPIDERWORT. TRADESCANTIA 
(Tradescantia species) 

The Virginia Spiderwort shown in the picture, 
although a native of the eastern states, has escaped 
from gardens to grow commonly in moist fields and 
thickets as a native plant. It is a tall smooth herb with 
very long, narrow and long-pointed leaves that are 
more or less grooved down the center. The handsome 
blue blossoms are in clusters at the top of the stems 
and from day to day open one at a time. Sometimes it 
is called "Widow's Tears" in allusion to the thin jelly 
into which the blue flowers seem to dissolve after their 
brief opening during the morning hours. 

The Day-flower is a similar plant. It has strag- 
gling stems, shorter leaves, and the buds are inclosed 
in a heart-shaped sheath or spathe. 

The Latin name is in memory of John Tradescant, 
who was the gardener to Charles the First of England. 
The Wandering Jew, the common pot plant, is a small- 
flowered kind of Tradescantia. (Spiderwort Family) 

[34] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 




BELLWORT. UVULARIA 

(Uvularia species) 
The lily-like yellowish flowers that hang singly 
like slender bells identify the Bellwort of rich woods. 
Its few blossoms are borne near or at the top of the 
slender stem among the thin, often more or less folded 
leaves. The leaf-bases encircle the stem which is 
forked at some distance above the ground. Below the 
fork it is nearly leafless. (Lily Family) 

[36] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




SOLOMON'S SEAL 

(Polygonatum species) 

The Solomon's Seal of woodlands is well marked 
by its small greenish-yellow flowers that are borne on 
delicate drooping stalks at the base of each leaf. The 
stems, which are leafy only above, are a foot to several 
feet high. They rise at intervals from creeping, 
knotted or jointed rootstocks which bear the prom- 
inent scars or "seals" of the stalks of former years. 

There are two species of Solomon's Seal, the Small 
or Hairy and the Great or Smooth variety. Besides 
other differences, the former has some fine hairs on the 
under leaf-surfaces that are entirely lacking on the 
foliage of the smooth species. (Lily Family) 

[E6] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 




BLUE-EYED GRASS 
(Sisyrinchium species) 

There is no prettier sight in a meadow than a 
patch of Blue-eyed Grass. It is a neat, usually erect 
stiff-stemmed little plant sometimes only a few inches 
high, at other times taller than the surrounding 
grasses. Its leaves and stems are very slender. 

The buds are enclosed at the top of the stem in 
a very narrow, green, sheath-like leaf or spathe, that 
is open down one side. From this opening, one blos- 
som at a time spreads its blue petals and lasts only 
for a day. If the sky is overcast, the flower awaits 
the sun before it opens. Often the spathe terminates 
in a pointed tip that overtops the flower. (Iris Fam.) 

[37] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




SPRING ORCHIS. SHOWY ORCHIS 

(Orchis spectabilis) 
The several showy violet-purple and white flowers 
of this native orchid are borne near the top of the low 
angled stem in a loose and lengthened cluster or 
raceme. There is a narrow pointed leaf at the base 
of each flower, but the broad principal leaves are only 
two, and rise from the ground at the base of the 
flower-stalk. 

The Spring Orchis of rich woods is well-termed 
"Showy," for its flowers are about an inch long and 
generally two-colored, the lower part or "lip" of the 
violet-toned blossom being ordinarily white. (Orchid 
Family) 

[38] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 




POGONIA. SNAKEMOUTH 
(Pogonia ophioglossoides) 

Often hidden deep in a bog or low meadow, but 
well worth the seeking, the Pogonia raises its solitary 
fragrant orchid-flower on a slender stem about a foot 
high. The flower is of a pale rose-color except for the 
crested and bearded yellow or white lip. There is 
rarely more than one blossom to a stem. At about the 
middle of the stalk there is one lance-shaped leaf 
(sometimes two) and another smaller leaf or bract at 
the base of the flower. (Orchid Family) 

[39] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




BUTTERCUP. CROWFOOT 
(Ranunculus species) 

There are many species of Buttercups, always 
recognizable by their waxy, yellow petals arranged to 
form a cup in the center of which are many stamens. 
Usually the leaves are deeply parted into wedge- 
shaped or narrower divisions. The stems may be lax 
or quite erect. 

The species illustrated is the Swamp Buttercup, 
one of the most showy species, its golden flowers 
measuring an inch or more in diameter. The large 
leaves, borne on long stalks, are three-parted and the 
divisions also are cleft or divided. With age the 
hollow stems of this species may partially lie on the 
ground when they root at the joints. The Hispid or 
Meadow Buttercup is also common; the three leaf- 
divisions are merely toothed along their edges and its 
stems are never trailing. 

There are many traditions relating to this plant. 
Children hold a flower under a playmate's chin, a yel- 
low shadow proving a fondness for butter. (Crow- 
foot Family) 

[40] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 9 




MEADOW RUE 
(Thalictrum species) 
The Meadow Rue of rocky woods, brook margins 
or wet meadows is distinguished as much for the fern- 
like delicacy of its fine foliage as for its graceful 
flowers. These are borne in loose sprays and are 
abundant but have no brightly colored petals to make 
them showy. They consist only of drooping or erect 
clusters of greenish-yellow, white, or purplish filament- 
like stamens. At their base there may be four to five 
tiny green or colored sepals. 

The stems of this perennial are a foot to several 
feet high and bear only a few, but large, leaves which 
are made up of many leaflets arranged in threes. Each 
leaflet is on a tiny stalk of its own. (Crowfoot Family) 

[41] 



10 



Field Museum of Natural History 





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Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



MITERWORT. BISHOP'S CAP 
(Mitella dvphylla) 
The Bishop's Cap of rich woods has about a dozen 
tiny bell-shaped white flowers placed at rather distant 
intervals for several inches along the upper portion of 
a slender stalk. This flowering-stem bears a single 
pair of heart-shaped leaves near its middle and just 
below the first flower. The other leaves, also heart- 
shaped and with toothed edges, are at the base of the 
plant which seldom exceeds a foot in height. 

[42] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 11 




PITCHER PLANT. HUNTSMAN'S CUP 
(Sarracenia purpurea) 

The odd purplish-veined leaves of this peat-bog 
plant are funnel-shaped pitchers with a rounded arch- 
ing hood at the opening and a wing-like flange down 
one side. They are usually partly filled with water. 
Often they also contain drowned insects which have 
been unable to crawl out because of the downward- 
pointed bristles lining the inner surface of the hood. 

[43] 



12 



Field Museum of Natural History 




WILD STRAWBERRY 

(Fragaria virginica) 

Nearly everyone knows the wild strawberry or 

recognizes it when first encountered in the open woods 

and fields, for both in flower and fruit it closely 

resembles the cultivated plant. 

In our common variety the white flowers are 
borne in small clusters on a stalk, usually erect and 
shorter than the leaves. Its berry is considered by 
many to be of finer flavor than that of any domesti- 
cated sort. Izaak Walton, the famous fisherman, prob- 
ably referred to the wild strawberry when he quoted 
his Dr. Boteler: "Doubtless God could have made a 
better berry, but doubtless God never did." (Rose 
Fam.) 

[44] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



IS 




WILD ROSE 
(Rosa species) 
The wild rose, native to all temperate regions, has 
been cultivated since time immemorial and from it 
have been developed the innumerable garden kinds. 
Several states, including Iowa, have adopted the wild 
rose as the state flower. There are many native 
species. 

The Smooth or Meadow Rose that frequents moist 
rocky places is a low (2-4 ft.) bush with few or no 
prickles on the stems. After the petals fall the green 
sepals stand erect on the top of the "haw" or "hip". 

The Swamp Rose of wet places is usually a taller 
shrub with stout recurved spines. The sepals spread 
and fall off long before the fruit develops. 

Another common species is the Pasture Rose of 
dry or rocky places. Its leaves are more coarsely 
toothed along the edges than those of the Swamp Rose 
and the spines are usually more slender and less 
strongly curved. (Rose Family) 

[46] 



14 Field Museum of Natural History 



HAWTHORNE. HAW 
{Crataegus species) 

The usually very thorny branches of this common 
shrub or small tree are characteristic. Sometimes the 
spines are nearly as sharp as needles. It is handsome 
when covered in the spring by the clusters of white 
flowers, small but rose-like in form, and often pro- 
duced in such abundance that they seem to whiten the 
bush. Each blossom is composed of five roundish 
petals surrounding five to many stamens. The leaves 
are more or less toothed or lobed, or sometimes, as in 
a commonly cultivated species, cleft. 

The Hawthorne is a relative of the Crab Apple. 
The red or yellow (rarely black) fruits are like minia- 
ture apples. They have the same "blossom-end" with 
the dry sepals attached. The fleshy apple-like pulp 
enclosing the seeds is often eaten by children. (Rose 
Family) 



f 46] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 15 




[47] 



16 



Field Museum of Natural History 




LUPINE. SUN-DIAL 

(Lupinus perennis) 
The Lupine is known as much for the color it 
gives to open sandy slopes as for the beauty of the 
individual plants. It is a perennial herb, a foot or two 
high, with several leafy stems each of which termin- 
ates in a long wand or raceme of showy but rather 
small pea-shaped flowers. The leaves are divided into 
7-10 parts which spread from a common center like 
the spokes of a wheel. 

A Lupine, the "Bluebonnet" is the state flower of 
Texas. (Pea Family) 

[48] 







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^ 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



17 




POLYGALA. MILKWORT 
(Polygala species) 

The Field or Purple Milkwort has rose-purple 
(or green) flowers in compact clover-like heads. 

The best known species of Polygala is called 
Senega Snakeroot. It is a perennial of rocky soils 
with small white pea-like flowers forming a "spike." 
The hard knotty roots send up a cluster of stems 
about a foot high, rather densely clothed with lance- 
shaped rough-margined leaves. 

The Fringed Milkwort, or the "Flowering Win- 
tergreen" is quite different. Its large pea-like flowers 
occur singly in the axils of the clustered upper leaves. 
(Milkwort Family) 

[49] 



18 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



CEANOTHUS. NEW JERSEY TEA 
(Ceanothus species) 

This low (1-3 ft.) shrub of sandy or rocky slopes 
bears a profusion of tiny white flowers in pretty 
clusters at the tips of the new branchlets. The leaves 
of an eastern species are said to have been used for 
tea during the American Revolution. 

A number of kinds of Ceanothus are ornamental 
shrubs. (Buckthorn Family) 

[50] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



19 




GOLDEN ALEXANDERS. EARLY MEADOW 

PARSNIP 

(Zizia aurea) 

A weedy but showy plant of meadows and 

swamps, this perennial herb is readily recognized by 

its small golden-yellow flowers. These are borne in 

clusters at the tips of short stalks which radiate from 

the top of the stem like the ribs of an umbrella. The 

leaves are much divided into many roundish, toothed 

and long-pointed leaflets; the smooth stems are a foot 

high or more. (Parsley Family) 

[51] 



20 



Field Museum of Natural History 




SPOTTED WINTERGREEN and PIPSISSEWA 
(Chimaphila species) 

Among the plants that grow in dry woods none 
are more easily known than the Spotted Wintergreen 
and Pipsissewa. They are distinctive because of their 
thick shining leaves arranged in irregular circles on 
the low stem. The disk-like flowers are near the top 
of the flower-stalk, which rises a short distance above 
the leaves. 

The leaves of the Spotted Wintergreen have light- 
colored markings on their upper surfaces; the flowers 
are white. The Pipsissewa, or Prince's Pine, as it is 
also called, has pink flowers and green leaves. 

The flavor Wintergreen is derived from a related 
plant. (Heath Family) 

[52] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



21 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



INDIAN PIPE. CANCER-ROOT 
(Orobanche species) 

This plant has no green leaves. Its slender white 
or brownish flowering stalks rise from a scaly, more 
or less subterranean stem. The similarly colored tube- 
or bell-like flowers are five-lobed at the flaring open 
end. 

The Indian Pipe is a root-parasite, i.e. it is a plant 
that lives on others by obtaining its nourishment 
directly from their roots. It, therefore, does not 
require leaves for the manufacture of its own food. 
(Broomrape Family) 

[53] 



22 



Field Museum of Natural History 



.41 












'•C * , " » 



PENTSTEMON. SMOOTH BEARD TONGUE 

(Pentstemon laevigatus) 
A relative of the Snapdragon and the Foxglove 
of gardens, the Pentstemon also has tubular flowers, 
flaring or dilated at the throat and somewhat two- 
lipped at the opening. There are a number of species, 
all perennials with opposite leaves. 

The Smooth Beard Tongue of fields and thickets 
has rather narrow, smooth leaves, broadened at the 
base; the "tongue", i.e. the sterile filament contained 
within the white or purplish flower, is only slightly 
bearded. (Figwort Family) 

[54] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



23 




WOOD BETONY. LOUSEWORT 
(Pedicularis canadensis) 
No other plant of dryish woods and thickets can 
be mistaken for the Wood Betony. It is readily dis- 
tinguished by its head-like clusters of brownish-yellow 
two-lipped flowers that terminate the hairy, leafy 
stems and by its narrow, deeply scalloped or lobed 
leaves. Usually several stems, a foot high, more or 
less, rise together from the perennial root. The upper 
and arching part of the flower curves over the lower 
and spreading "lip." (Figwort Family) 

[55] 



24 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



INDIAN PAINT BRUSH. PAINTED CUP 
(Castilleja species) 

Some of the leaves of this slender herb are 
crowded together at the top of the stem and colored 
brightly with red or yellow so that they form a 
"painted cup", or suggest a brush that has been dipped 
in a paint-pot. The flowers are comparatively incon- 
spicuous* slender tubes, with two lips and are more or 
less hidden among these gayly colored leaves. 

The Indian Paint Brush is usually a plant of open 
places. There are many species, all of which are 
showy. The Narrow-leaved Paint Brush is the state 
flower of Wyoming. (Figwort Family) 

[56] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



25 




PARTRIDGE BERRY 

(Mitchella repens) 
This is a smooth evergreen herb that creeps about 
the bases of trees, especially at the foot of pines and 
other conifers of dry woods. Its shining roundish, 
dark green leaves are often marked with white lines. 
Its white fragrant waxy flowers, borne in pairs, are 
often tinged with purple; its edible but nearly taste- 
less berries are scarlet. Altogether, it is an attractive 
little plant usually bearing in the spring bright fruits 
that have persisted over winter and dainty tubular 
flowers with densely bearded lobes. (Coffee Fam.) 

[57] 



26 



Field Museum of Natural History 




VIBURNUM. ARROW-WOOD 
(Viburnum species) 

The Viburnums are upright shrubs with showy 
flat-topped clusters of small white or rarely pinkish 
flowers and usually roundish leaves. In some Vi- 
burnums the flowers around the edges of the clusters 
are enlarged and produce no fruit. The Snowball 
Bush is a "freak" species of cultivation, all of its 
flowers being sterile and of large size. 

The Maple-leaved Arrow-wood or Dockmackie of 
rocky woods is pictured. (Honey-Suckle Family) 

[58] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



27 




GOLDEN RAGWORT. SENECIO 
(Senecio aureus) 

The bright yellow daisy-like flowers of the Senecio 
are in a loose or open rather flat-topped cluster at the 
top of stems which have most of their leaves crowded 
together near the ground. These lower and roundish 
leaves are borne on long slender stalks ; the few upper 
and slender leaves are sessile on the flowering stems. 

Another name for this plant, "Swamp Squawk 
Weed" indicates its preference for wet places such as 
low meadows and thickets. The flowers are really 
flower-heads, composed of many tiny flowers, as is the 
case of the White Daisy and other members of the 
Composite or Sun Flower Family. 

[59] 



28 



Field Museum of Natural History 




WHITE DAISY. OX-EYE DAISY 

(Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum) 
Daisies belong to the Composite or Sun Flower 
Family, a group of plants characterized by the familiar 
flower-heads that are composed of rays, often brightly 
colored, arranged in a circle around the numerous and 
tiny disk-flowers. 

The White Daisy is a smooth, erect plant of fields 
and meadows. Its leaves are toothed or lobed and 
taper from a somewhat egg-shaped tip to a very 
slender stalk-like base. 

This plant, although a native of Europe, now 
grows in the United States. (Daisy Family) 

[60] 



Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers 



29 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

COREOPSIS. TICKSEED 

(Coreopsis lanceolata) 
An herb with 1-2 ft. stems that branch only near 
the ground and terminate in showy yellow flower- 
heads, the Coreopsis makes a fine "cut-flower". Indeed 
it is often cultivated for this purpose particularly as 
it grows abundantly with little care. The rays or 
"petals" of the Coreopsis are toothed at their tips; 
the stem leaves are few, much longer than broad and 
narrowed toward the stalk-like base. (Daisy Fam.) 

[61] 



30 Field Museum of Natural History 



This is the second of a number of Field Museum 
leaflets illustrating some of the more common or inter- 
esting wild flowers of the Chicago region. The first 
leaflet of this series is entitled "Spring Wild Flowers" 
and a third, dealing with summer flowers is in prep- 
aration. 

J. Francis Macbride. 



The photographs, unless otherwise credited, are by L. W. 
Brownell with the exception of the Lupine by H. H. Smith and 
the Pitcher Plant from a reproduction of this plant in the 
Museum. 



[62]