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Full text of "The staff work of the Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1901 : embodying some of the war letters sent to the Morning post from South Africa"

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The Staff Work of 

The Anglo-Boer War 

1899-1901 



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Naval Administrations 
1827-1891 

The Eiperience of 6{ Yean 

BT THB LATB 

SiK JOHN HENRY BRIGGS 

IDITID BY 

LADY BRIGGS 
If^iti 8 lilMstrdtmi h fhettgravuri 



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The Staff Work of 

The Anglo- Boer War 

1 899- 1 90 1 

Embodying some of the War Letters sent 

to the ' Morning Post ' from 

South Africa 

By 

Lady Briggs 

Illustrated 



London 
Grant Richards 

9 Henrietta Street, Covent Gaiden, W.C. 
1901 



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THE MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE 

LATE SBOtBTAKV OF 3TATB FOR WAR 

AND TO 

THK STAFF OFFICER OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS 
CONNECTED WITH THE ANGLO-BOER WAR OF 1199-1901 

AS A RECORD OF THBIR UNCEASING LABOURS 



253104 

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PREFACE 

Tawr BEADBR8, 

I feel tiiat it IB 8 little preBmnptnoiu of me to offer 
the public a volnine on the " Staff WoA of the War," and I 
am all too oonsdons of its Bhortcomings. Bat if my friends 
and critiGB come to the concliuion that in sinte of its 
defects, it serves a useful purpose in setting forth the work 
done by the non-combatant branches of the army, then I 
shall feel my efforts will not have been qnite in vain. 

I was indaoed to take np pablic writing in connection 
with the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1901, for the 
Morning Poit, by a mis-statement that appeared in the Cape 
SKmea as to my duties whilst nnrsing dck prisoners of war 
on b(»rd the Manila in Simons Bay. My'letter to the Edit<» 
correcting this error led me to give a short description of the 
medical wwk then being done amongst the prisoners, both 
in the transports and in the hospitals. At that time there 
were many deaths amongst them from enteric fever, and a 
feeling of oneasiness was abroad that all was not being done 
by the anthoritaes for their relief and to combat the disease. 
My testimony had a decidedly reassuring effect on pablic 
oianion, as is proved by many letters that I received from 
botb Ehiglish and Dutch in the Colony. 

Since the last Sondan campaign my jonmalistic pro- 
pensities had found no outlet, neither hod I sought one in 
South Africa. At the commencement of the war my heart 



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PKEFACE 

wu set OD Darsing the aok and wounded, but this was not 
to be. M7 health soon anfiered from the stnun, tuod the 
conditions nnder which the work had to be carried on. An 
attack of fever iiioapaoitated me for several weeks, bat 
luckily was not fatal, as was nnhappily the case with mj 
friend and fellow-worker, Miss Mary Kingsley. Daring my 
oonvaletoenoe I wrote two letters giving an aooonnt of the 
priBonen of war, which appeared in the Morning Post on the 
4th and lOth of May, 1900, and from then nntil the end of 
the year I was a oontribctor to that ionmal, and most of 
my letters are embodied in this volume. 

I am well aware that many excellent works hy "Fint 
CUbb Men" have already been published, that tiiere are 
many more to follow ; and ill mnst not be snppoaed that I am 
vying with the " Favonrite Sex " in offering to the pablio my 
hnmUe endeavonia. 

In describing tiie staff work of the war, and other ad- 
ministrative departments that have not been stricUy military, 
bnt have yet coatribnted in no imall degree to the maintenance 
of Briti^ supremacy in Sontb Airioa, I only oontribote the 
jnoverbial " widow's mite." 

Several of the sabjects I deal with have as yet hardly 
been tooohed. Some of the problems referred to mugt await 
readjutment nntil after Uie war haa ceased and the era of 
peace has began, and others, again, can only be properly 
treated in an official work, with all the resoaroes of the War 
Office, Bocb as rnporta and minatee, at the dispoaal of the 
author. 

ELIZABETH CHABLOTTE BRIGOS. 
Caslton Hotel. 



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CONTENTS 



L Capk Tows 1 

n. CLABXUOMT SAKITAStrX 11 

m. Fbuomebb or Was 18 

rV. Stellbnbosch — The Cehtbe or Sedition . . 3ft 

v T- The Tkahspobt Depasthbnt .... 46 

\/ yi. The Abhy Field Transpobt ... 62 

TH. The BEUotmT Defasthent 80 

VilL The Abut Obdhance Depabthent ... 94 

*y ££. Natal Ootebnubnt Bail^ay .... 104 

■^^ X. Ihtebial AMD Cape Government Bailways . 112 

./ XL Bailwat Btatt Oppicees 122 

Xn. Btapp College 127 

Xm. Pbebs Cenbobs add Was Cobbespondbnts . , UO- 

XIV. Abhy Field Post Office 162 

XV. Imtelliobhce Defabtxent 170 

XVI. The Natal Bsioade 192 

XVn. Dblaooa Bay 198 

XVUI. The Tboofb im Beiba 208 

XIX. Eihbesley— No. 11 General Hospital , 219 

XX. Lite at Bobbof 226 

XXL UAFBKIHa TO POTCHEFSTBOOM . .239 

XXn. Put otbk thb Bobdkb 255 

»Tiir, FoBCED Mabchino 260 

XXIV. Entby of Teoopb into JoBAMNEasuKa . 274 



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CONTENTS 

mtr. pui 

XXV. The Uilitakt Hospitau ih JoHANNBaBiTBa . 290 

XXTL The French Ambulance, JoHANHESsoKa . . 300 

JULVlI. The Militabt Governor or Johannbbbitbo . 306 

TrXVIII HiLITASY POLICINO OV JOHAMNEBBUsa . . . 310 

Ttxi^ HiLiTABY Officers as Adminibtrators 

0)f JUBTICE S21 

XXX. Uinino 334 

XXXL Natitk Affaibs 343 

XXXn. JOHAHKEBBORQ HUNICIPALITT .... 369 

XXXin. The Financial Adtisbb in Johannebburq . 364 

XXXTT. CusTOHB, Goncesbionb, and Loans . . . 369 

XXXT. Pretoria ano the Iribh Hospital . . . 363 

XXXVI. Auxiliary Aii» to the Field Force . . 396 

XXXm. " Princess Christian" Hospital Train . . 402 

XXXTni. The Hospital Ship "Princess of Wales" . 409 

TTXXIX. THB SEKTICE BaTTERY OF THE IST KORTHCH- 

BERLAND Volunteer Artillery, xnotvn as 

THE Elbwice Battery 420 

XL. Sir Charles Boss' Cult-Oun Battery . 431 
XLI. The Mounted Voluntebb Aids to the Field 

Force 436 

XLII. "Strathcona's Horse" 444 

XLin. Befork of the War Office .... 462 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Marqueti <^ Ltaadoxmt, K.G. . . tyauitpitet 

A Drift 66 

A Siege Pott Card 15d 

Boer Demand for the Surrender a/ Kimberlry ... 228 

"Prineeu Chrittian" HoepUal Train 402 

Mo^riiid Ship "PriaetM of WaJet" 409 



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CHAPTKR I 

CAPE TOWN 

Tax militaty intereiit of the whole o£ the dvilised world, 
vhich has been chiefly oentred dniiiig the last year in 
South Africa, was never more intensely felt than daring 
the first few months of the Anglo-Boer campaign. Cape 
Town has nerer been bo important in all its history. 

It is the great base for everything connected with the 
war, and from whence all news ia dlstribnted to every 
qoarter of the globe. ThQ orders from the castle, the head- 
q^aarters of the general commanding the lines of commaitica- 
tion, cause niany a flatter of satisfaction at the realisation of 
fervent wishes or pangs of regret at hope deferred. 

Everybody seemed in a state of aQcertwnty, and there 
was a bewildering vagaenees as to all plans, qoite a new 
experience for methodical Englishmen straight from htnne. 
In view of the military exigencies the greatest core was 
exercised that profoand ignorance of all operations in the 
Free State and elsewhere shoald prevail, and those troops 
that were daUy entrained to proceed somewhere "ap 
ooontry" shoald not be informed of their altimate dee- 
tinatiou antal they were within the zone of the press censor, 
which 80 effectaally prevented the news of Lord Boberts' 
(and later Lord Xitchener's) plans of condacting their <q>era- 
taons from filtering throagh antil sach times as the informa- 
tion ooold do no harm, whether possessed by zealoas friends 
or secret enemies. 



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S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Since l^e commeDcement of the war Cape Town has 
«xoeUed itaelf. Tbe civil population Iuib Btrained eyeiy 
neire to meet the sadden emergencies, and willingly placed 
at the dispoeal of the military erery oonvenienoe in their 
posaesBion, and ungrudgingly accorded priority of attend- 
ance in hotels, in oonveyanceB, and on every conceivable 
occaoon to their martial brothers. 

At times one ooold not help comparing the dty to 
imperial Bome in the days when Nero marched his all- 
conquering legions throng^ ber city gates. For weeks there 
was, and is still, one continual stream through the streets 
of soldiers and war material : batteries of artilleiy, 
squadrons of cavalry, regiments of infantry, all converg- 
ing to the railway station from the docks, &om the campe 
that Borronnd the town, and from those more distant, snch 
aa Stellenbosoh ; together with long trains of heavy trans- 
port waggons, with soppliee and stores drawn by noisy 
traotum engines, teams of oxen and mnles ten to foorteen 
in length; which, all combined, form a procession that 
reqaires very skilfnl hn-nflling to prevent the civil <4ement 
being totally tinable to carry on the r^alar bnsiness of the 
town. The earnest endeavoors of every individual to con- 
tribute his mite to the great object in view greatly fadlitatee 
the municipal authorities in their management of the general 
traffic, and reflects t^e greatest credit on all concerned. 

Cape Town and its environments affisrd ample scope for t^e 
study of human nature in its manifold phases. Social life 
is well represented at Mount Nelson Hotel, whiob is second 
only in the luxuriance of its appointments to the GhSzMcb 
Palace in Cairo, the summer palace of the late Ismail Pasha 
of Egypt, whose extravagance in erecting places of residence 
nearly made his country bankrupt. Military life on active 
service may be studied in the camps, hospital life may be seen 
under many aspects, and the instances of public benevolence 



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CAPE TOWN 3- 

and private philanthropy were never Tnorenumeronain every 
direction than are observable at this present moment in 
SoDth Africa, but for the very enumeration of which there is 
no space available. 

In additaon to his arduous admioistrative duties as general 
•of the lines of commnnioation that Sir F. Forestier Walker 
has to perform he is constantly inspecting some newly 
arrived regiment or battery, or is in command of the forces 
that have been mustered in the various camps to take part 
in epecified ezerasee to test the knowledge and training of 
botii officers and men in strategy and tactics. The import- 
ance of the information thus required is obvious, especially 
when he has under consideration general orders, which are 
made out daily. 

To give an instance : — On Tuesday, May 8, all the available 
troops at Qreen Point and Maitland Oamps were ezerciBed 
in tdme-marching — ^that is to Bay, a point of concentration is 
named in base orders, and the hour when each unit should 
arrive at that point. The officers in command of the several 
units make their own oalcolationB, and on the correctness of 
these their troops arrive in time or tiiey do not 

I am unable to give the exact strength of the force that 
took part in this ezeroise, or the names of the commanders of 
the mounted troops that came from Maitland Camp ; but as 
r^;ards those that come from Green Point I can give more 
detailed information. Two forces moved off at 8.30 and 
9 AH. respectively. The first consisted of about 150 rank 
and file of the 4ith North Sta&ordHhires and about 350 rank 
and file of the 4th West Yorkshire regiment, under the 
command of Colonel Mirehonse, 4th North Staffordshire, 
marching over the Eloof to Camp's Bay, while the force that 
left at 9 A.M., was composed of 350 rank and file of the 6th 
Boyal Warwicks, three Masdme, detachments of Cape Gar- 
riecm Artallery, and 370 of Strathcona's Horse, the wh(Je 



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4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tmder the command of Colonel Price, 4tli West Yorkshire 
regiment, and Cape oommandant, and took the road by the 
Qaeeu's Hotel, Sea Point. When within a qoarter of a mile 
of Camp's Bay, the moimted anits from Maitlaud Camp were 
seen winding down the hill, and on arrival the whole force 
was drawn ap ae fcdlowe, with the right resting on the 
road : Lord Strathcona's Hfnrae and Yeomanry in front in 
squadron columns, and echeloned in rear the three Ma Ttiia 
detachments of Cape Oarrison Artillery on the right, and the 
three militja battalions in order of precedence in line of 
half-battalion qaarter columns, at twelve paces interval 
between liie r^^ents and six paces between the half- 
battalitms. 

The concentration was fairly accnrate with the exception 
of Paget'e Horse, which arrived a little after the boor named. 
(11 AM.) and formed up, echeloned in rear <rf the left flank of 
the in^try, the whole force being under the command of 
Colonel Cooper, base commandant, until the arrival of Sir F^ 
Foreetier Walker, who made his inspection and watched the 
execution of a small scheme to repnlse an invasion from the 
sea for the supposed purpose of marching on Cape Town. 

The experience of actual warfare that is being gained day 
1^ day at no great distance from the spot where this exercise 
took place gives a reaUty to the lessons that the commanding 
officers wish to inculcate, especially on ttie grave imp(n1>- 
ance of taking advantage of everything that affords cover 
ixom the enemy's fire. I have heard it said that the Boers 
can hide even behind a daisy ! They are never to be seen. 
Certainly they can give us many points in this. 

The general having expressed himself as satisfied with the 
strategy and dispodtioQ of the troops, orders were given for 
the respective forces to march back to their camps, which 
ended a very interesting and instructive field-day for those 
engaged, and to lookers on like myself much real gratification. 



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CAPE TOWN S 

It must not hovever be asaamed that this description 
nfen to an occamon&l asBembly of the troops at the bate. 
Practice in varioiiB exercises are of daily oocnrreDce, and no 
effort is spared to train the men and give their officers the 
opportnnity to handle their oominands with the aasnrance 
bred of practical knowledge, so that they may be equal to the 
more ardnons work required of them when they take their 
places in the line of battle, wherever the Commander-in- 
Chief may, in his discretion, deem beet to station them, 
so as to bring to an end a guerilla warfare that ia still causing 
great aoeasinesa as to the fate of dear ones engt^ed, and 
the sad oonseqaenoes it will hare on the prosperi^ of 
the conntry, though none on the ultimate resnlt of the 
war. 

A year's campaigning has had a modifying infinenoe on 1^ 
martial eidrit of the nation, which at one time ran to fever 
height, and affected every man and woman in the empire ; 
an enthnsiasm that caused much anxiety to offioisls at the 
War Office, whoee basiness it wae to select from enoh abnn- 
dance of mateiial. 

Ever BJnce the war began tiie greatest difficulty that 
officers commanding the various bases have experienced has 
been to restrain the eagerness that the troops have all shown 
in their demre to get np to the fighting lines, or to retnm 
thither after having been in hospital, before they have 
sufficiently recovered their health. 

Nothing has been so grati^ring as to see the good fellow- 
ship between the officers and men of the Imperial forces and 
volunteer corps, and it may be taken as the etrongeet evi- 
dence that the unity of England with hw colonies is bnilt on 
the rock of brotherly love, without which no political federa- 
tion could endure the strain of a severe test. 

The social conditions existing now in the army in Soutii 
Africa will do much to hrmtt about tlie total disappearance of 



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6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tfae " classes agunst the masses " sentiment that was rife a 
few decades ago. 

Men from the highest Btationa of life hare hastened to 
enrol themselves as privates, or have shown themselves ready 
to serve in say capacity, even as male driver, so as to prove 
their patriotism and help the Government. 

An instance of this : — A mother had her first-bom son, a 
distingoished officer, in the 1st Life Guards, her hnsband was 
a major in the Teomanry, and her younger son was a private 
in the CLy.B. When she went to see the laat-mentioned 
member of her family she was kept waiting abont the camp 
for faonrs, nntil he was released from doty, and then he was 
not permitted to introdnce her to his most jnnior commis- 
sioned officer. A cnrioofi contrast to the reception accorded 
her when she visited her hnsband and eldest son in the same 
camp! 

Discipline must be maintained, and one private must be 
treated exactly like another ; bnt this wholesale volnnteering 
obviously reqnired great tact if difficulties were to be 
avoided, and, to the credit of both officers and men be it said, 
Uiat discretion was an attribute seldom conspicuous by its 
absence. 

In r^ard to the men, whatever their social status, and 
however unaccustomed to subordinate positions, they readily 
submit to army discipline and regulatione. They treat them 
as their part of the game in which they were anxious to join 
— ^tbe true spirit of volunteering, which naturally reduces 
friction to a minimum, 

Maitland Camp is sitoated abont six miles from Gape Town, 
and one and a half from Observstcoy Boad Station, a charm- 
ing walk on a day when there is not too much wind, which 
however is seldom the case, and consequently it is very often 
dusty. It is the place where most of the mounted troops are 
sent on arrival in Table Bay. It has been need as a rest 



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CAPE TOWN 7 

camp BtBoe the war b^an in October 1899, and in eveiy wa; 
it is admiraUy suited for the pnrpoBe. Being on a platean, 
slightly elevated above t^e anrronnding country, it is well 
drained and, after rain, dries np in a very short time, a great 
advantage when horses have to stand for long periods in the 
open. Add to this, that at the bottom of the slope, within 
easy reach of the oamp, mns a stream of good water, and one 
realises what an excellent site it is for the purpose for which 
it has been selected. 

After the long sea voyages tiie horses have had coming 
from the British Isles or from other distant parts of the 
world, they natnrally require a certain period of rest to recover 
from their cramped positiona, close quarters, and other trials 
animals as well as men have to endnre on board a crowded 
transport, in varying olimatesand weather conditions for weeks 
at a stretdi, and this time of rest they almost invariably had. 

Maitland Camp commands another view of Table Monntain 
not less fasonating to the beholder than that seen from the 
sea. It is flanked on the left by the pictnresqne " Devil's 
Peak," and on the right by the " lion's Head," which slopes 
away to the ronnd backed hill known ae the " Bomp," or 
" Signal Station," where, as the latter name indicates, ships 
are signalled to the busy transport offices in the docks. 

Mutland Camp, owing to ite nstoral position, is very 
healthy ; but when it is borne in mind that many thonsands 
of animals have been picketed on the ground during the 
war, it is not snrprising if there are occasions when the men 
are decidedly of opinion that a change to a new spot would 
not be a bad move. 

To give an idea of what has been recently through this 
camp, here are some details: — Household Cavalry, Carabineers, 
7tb Dragoon Quards (the Old Black Horse), the Scots Greys, 
Inniskillens, 8th Hnssars, the Prince of Wales' 10th, the 12th 
Lancers, 17th Lancers (Death or Glory Bt^s), some twenty 



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8 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

bfttteriee of Boyal Hone Artillery and Royal Field Artillery, 
iinth ammnnitioa colnmns, Imperial Yeomanry, Colcnual 
Monnted Infantiy, Rifles, and YoluateerB, besides lar|^ drafts 
of remonnt horses and moles, making up someUiing like 
30,000 to 35,000 animals. 

At times there have been as many as 3000 troops in this 
oamp, thoogh the nnmber varies fnnn day to day jnBt as ships 
arrive with fresh contingents to replace those that have left 
for the front. 

When I was at Maitland Camp, on May 9, 1900, I 
saw a squadron of Strathcona's Horse, of which I give an 
aooonnt in another chapter, a detachment of Lovat's Sooate, 
both detained 1:^ an attack of inflaenza amongst tiie horses, 
and the Donegal Militia Artilleiy that had jiut retnmed 
from St. Helena, where they had been sent for guard duty 
on the S.S. Bavaria that oonveyed some of the Boer prisoners 
to their island place of exile. In another part of tiie oamp 
was the Elswick battery of six naval gans. And last, but 
not least, there was the Army Veterinary Hospital. 

The snoceas of the war largely depends on the supply and 
management of the animaU, but, as yet, the public do not 
seem to have folly realised the great importance of this 
obvions fact ; at least they have not given the same pnx^ cX 
it as Aey have to other branches of the services. 

The hospital amngementa for sick and wounded horses 
are only second in importance to the care of the human being. 

In Maitland Camp, the army veterinary officers organised 
a hosptal for animals that in every respect oorresponds to a 
well regulated hospital for soldiers. The principal veterinary 
officer explained to me that there were two field veterinary 
hos^tala in South Africa, each divided into two folly 
equipped sections: one at Maitland Camp, one at Oiaoge 
River, another at Kaaupoort, and a fourth at Bloemfontein 
or were moving from place to place as required. A third 



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CAPE TOWN 9 

hospital had to be caUed for from India, as, with shame be it 
coiifes§ed, that no snch orguiisation exiats in England. 
These BectionB are all mobile, and the whole eqaipment 
adiqitod f<Hr mule pack transport, bo that the hospital can 
be potihed on with an advancing force, relieving it of its 
Berions cases of woonde, lameness, and disease, which bo 
often hamper the movements of cavalry, artillery, and other 
monnted troops in the field. The peraoimd of these hospitals 
is composed of Enropeans and Indians, and comprises, in 
addition to the veterinary officer in charge, a snbordinate 
staff, consisting of a sergeant farrier, line orderlies, shoeing 
smiths, and clerks, who ore Enropean soldiers ; and a native 
eetaUifihment which includes a veterinary assistant, water- 
carriers, sweepers, grooms, &c The necessary dmgs, instm- 
ments, and soigical appliances are all carried in neat chests 
marked with a horse's head, each weighing 801b., so that a 
pair just make np a mule load, 1601b. India has taught 
ihe lesson that an establishment of trained men is necessary 
to care for, and nurse, oar noblest animal when he is wounded 
in battle or sick from the privations which are tiie inevitable 
portion of man and beast taking part in long marches and 
deadly engagements during a period of warlike operations. 
In the lines devoted to sick horses — which are generally a 
short distance apart from those in the remonnt camp — I have 
seen invalids looking very sorry for themselves, with l^eir 
heads and legs bandaged np as carefully as if they were 
human beings. Some had been shot in three or four places, 
and when they heard the voice of the veterinary Burgeon they 
looked round for sympathy in a manner which showed they 
were accustomed to receive it. 

The Army Veterinary Department has had to augment 
tiieir staff in the same way as the Royal Army Medical Corps, 
by engaging dvilians. In all their appointments, however, 
only folly qualified veterinary surgeons have been accepted. 



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10 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and it is doe to th« patriotism of those who TolaDteered, to 
«a.j that many left lai^ practices at home to join the South 
African Field Force. 

Whilst Yeterinary-Colonel I. HatthewB was shnt np in thd 
besieged town of Lad^mith, Yeterinary-Lientenant-Colonel 
Baymont was in sole charge of the department in Sonth 
Africa. Willi Hie relief of that town the former took np his 
duties as principal veterinary officer, and the latter carried 
on the work on the lines of communication. Lord Roberts, 
in his despatch of April 16, 1901, says : 

Ajucy TsTSRiKABr DsPABTMBNT. — This d^tartmeut, under 
Veterinary-Oolouel I. Matthews, has performed good work. The 
peace establishment being too small for the reqairemenia of a 
large war, uecesaitated the employment of 123 dvil veterinar}- 
. surgeons, who, however, soon adapted themselves to the con- 
ditions of active service, and did mut^ good work. Great aasiflt- 
ance was afforded by the ezoeUently-orgaiuHed field veterinary 
hoepitals so kindly lent by the Government of India, These 
hospitals leave nothing to be desired as regards supplies and 
equipment, and the p^eanMl of native N.C officers, shoeing 
smiths and tnoned attendants rendered most valuable service. 
There has been a notable immunity from contagious and ordinary 
diseases, except glanders, of which there have been &00 cases, 
all of which the department was fortunately able to quickly 
suppress. There has also been an ezoeptionat freedom from horse 
sickneBB ; under 200 deaths out <^ more than 210,000 horsee and 
mules. 

Shonld my readers consider that I have been too prolix in 
my description of a veterinary field hospital I must plead in 
excuse the extreme importance of my subject, and can, I know, 
call upon any cavalry or artillery friends to bear me out. 



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CHAPTER II 

CLAREMONT SANITARIUM 

The saborbs aronnd Cape Town are, by descriptioa and 
illoBtratioii, well kaown, especially those lying between 
the viaeyardB of Constantia and Sea Point. The military 
hoepitals, no less than the camps, tended to bring them 
prominently into public notice, and make all connected with 
them interesting to friends at home who had some member 
of their family temporarily located in either hospital or camp 
at this great base. 

I am not going into any description of those sabnrbe 
beyond saying they are very beantifiil, nor into the qnes- 
tiona of the management of the three general hospitals, 
two of which were stationed at Wynberg and one at Ronde- 
boBoh, with the Portl&nd hospital attached for a time to 
No. 3 at the last-mentioned place. Too many hare done this 
already, and I conld not give sach graphic acconnts of the 
work done in them, however mach I tried, thongfa I will 
endeavour to say a word or two about the Claremont sani- 
tarinm, which has not come in for qnite so much attention 
from the able pens of authors and oorreepondente as the 
Wynberg establishments — a circnmstance on which the 
institation donbtless is rather pleased than otherwise. When 
vfJomea have been written that are yet unthought of, much 
of the good work that contributed to the well-being of our 
troops in South Africa will never be heard of, and especially 
that done for those who have saSered in health or limb from 



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IS THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

the e£Eecte of the war; bnt it may not be oat of place to 
mentioQ the help rendered to our conraleocast officers by 
this inirtdtutioii, which, ia its main characteristics, is anique, 
and ran on porely American metihods. It is a branch of tiie 
Medical Missionary and Benevoleat AsBOciation, and has its 
headquarters at Battle Creek, Michigan, U.S. There ore 
altogether abont fifteen branches in different parte of the 
world. These are known as " sanitarinmB," and they devote 
their earnings to the relief of the eick poor. It was only in 
1866 that tliis particular philanthropic impulse first foond 
expression, and since then it has spread from Michigan, 
where it has raised a perfect corps of phydcianB and nnrses 
a thousand strong; to Chicago, Illinois; St. Helena, Cali- 
fornia ; Lincoln, Nebraska ; Portland, Oregon, in the United 
States ; Basel, in Switzerland ; Calcutta, Australia, and 
London, where the branches are all weU equipped. 

English people are always interested in the philanthropic 
schemes and institutions of our American coosins, and at 
this moment are especially grateful to them for helping and 
cheering them with their purses and sympathy in this hour 
of national stress. 

The Claremont " sanitarium " is a large building of con- 
mderable architectural merit, is utnated on a alight emi- 
nence in a beantiful valley, and commands a magnificent view 
(^ Table Mountain, of whidi the eye never tires. It ia only 
six miles away from Cape Town, and ia eaaily accessible by 
either train or electric tram, so that this faaven of rest and 
quiet does not labour under the disadvantage of being " such 
a long distance from Cape Town," which was the reason given 
1^ the anthorttaes for the nou-^icoeptance of some beautiful 
private residences for l^e free use of officers as "sanitariums," 
which caused soreness of heart to the proposers. 

The Board of Managers of the Claremont " sanitaiiam " 
have proved themselves to be a liberal-minded set of gentle- 



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CLAKEMONT SANITARIUM 13 

men. Tbej divided off a large portion of their be&ntifiil 
bnildiog tor the ezolosive use of convalescent military officers, 
who are drafted titere to regain their health and strength 
after a period of enfTeriiig from Bickness or wonndB from 
Wynbez^ base hospital. There is accommodation for abont 
fort^ officerB. The rooms and corridors are all lofty, large, 
well lifted, and excellently furnished. They have their own 
army doctors and their own chef. Each officer has also his 
own servant. 

The treatment for the regoUr patiente in the " saoitariam " 
is Btoict to the last degree. On his arrival a new patient is 
Bsbjected to a microsoopic examination, the resouroea of the 
{Aysiolt^ical laboratory are brought to bear on his case, a 
splendid Rdnt^n rays apparatus is tamed on him, and no 
kboae is left untamed to ascertain the caases of his malady. 
The diagnoBLB being determined, the patient enters on a 
thorough and systematic coorse of treatment, and every 
rational measore known to modem scieQce is at hand ready 
for nse as the doctors shall determine. All the halnts of a. 
patient's life must conform to the mlea and principles laid 
down for him by his physicians, which are rigidly upheld ^3y 
tiie nurses of the institution. The main thought of aU the 
nursing staff is that it is the patient rather than the disease 
they have to cure. A patient is under doctor's orders oon- 
tinnally — in diet, exercise, and rest. Before a nnrse can 
take her place and be put in charge of a case she must be a 
well-educated woman, have had a long training in ordinary 
nursing, and a special one in hydro-therapeatic treatment. 
She must have an intelligent knowledge of Bassi&n, Turkish, 
electric, son, and electric light baths. She must be able to 
instruct in gymnastic, caliathenic, and Swedish exercises, 
and a multitude of other things, to enumerate which would 
fill a volume. 
The Board of Managers states in its circular that the 



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1* THE ASGLO-BOER WAR 

menu of the " sanitarium " is not that of a fashionable hotel. 
They are quite right. Until lately only two meals a day were 
allowed to the patients : now there are three. Very light 
food, and little of it, is the motto for the dining table. 
Frait is the chief item — every meal begins with it and ends 
with it The doctors maintain that the diet-sheet prescribes 
qnite enough for any one not hopelessly devoted to gonr- 
mandimng. Speaking personally, if I, as a convalescent 
patient, had to spend any considerable time there, I shonld 
certainly beg for something to eat from the officers' table. A 
rational system in diet generally means a list of fads and 
fancies, strenuonsly objected to by all true Britons, and moat 
of all l^ army officers. I have a great regard for a first-class 
ch^, and ontil I had tasted his culioary products I should 
leave for future consideration distorbing questions of the 
relative dietetic properties of hie compounds and their 
compatibility. When nursing help is transferred to the 
military side of the building, and complaints of a dyspeptic 
nature are made, such expressions may often be heard 
as: "Well, if you will mix fruit and milk, oysters and 
vinegar, and eat a heavy dinner in the evening, what else can 
yon expect but the derangement of the digestive organs ? " 

The sister in charge of the Claremont "sanitarium" is, of 
course, an American — genial and hospitable. After a short 
ocmversation as to the methods and scientific principles which 
obtain with all rational people, she inquired whether I, as a 
nnrse, wore corsets ? I laughingly replied that I did. " Well, 
I am snre ! I am surprised ! " she rejoined, I mildly 
inquired whether such an article of dress violated all prin- 
dples of scientific and rational ladies' dress. " Why, yes ! " 
Has no one ever told you that before ? " said the sister, with 
a look of pity. 

In gcnng over the iustitution I had noticed some very 
pretty nsters in their clear blue dresses and hemstitched 



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CLAREMONT SANITARIUM 15 

collars and caSa. Their waifit measnremeDte were in all 
cases mnch larger than ifl usual even among noTBeB, who, aa a 
mle, are not in the hahit of tight-ladng. Indeed, they coold 
not carry on tJieir profeBsional daties in a busy hospital if 
they were. 

In my innocence I had ascribed this disregard for the 
nsaal conventionalitiBs in dress to a desire on the part of the 
aathorities to meet the wishes of those members of Parlia- 
ment at Westminster, who show by their qaestions in the 
House of Commons that tiiey are fearfol lest the ladies, who 
go ont from England to help to narse sick friends and foes, 
are directing their skill to oormpting the doctors' ideas of 
duty and discipline rather than to the realisation of their 
avowed nussion and the intelligent carrying out of the 
doctors' orders for the alleviation of pain and suffering. 

If onr Bolicitons representatiTes in Parliament could 
realise the enormous amount of work that is done in oar 
military hospitalB, and under what trying conditions it is 
acoompliahed, th^ would see what little time and inclination 
were left for any sndi " tommy-rot," as a distinguished officer 
el^[antly described the insinuation contained in the questions 
of hon. members. Greater advantage would accrue to the 
pnblic service if their attacks were made on Uie administra- 
tive rather tJkan on the ezecative branch of the Boyal Army 
Medical Corps. 

The absence of thoroughly worked out plans, and the 
eonaequent haphazard Bystem, are the chief causes of the 
waste of labour and material, bat in this the Medical Depart- 
is not alone — it sins in company with a few other sections of 
the army. 

But in justice to both the administrative and executive 
branches of the army they are not altogether to blame for 
the defects that have appeared in the condact of the war. 
Mnch of it is due to the House of Commons, and a liberal 



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16 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Bhare can be placed to the aoooant of the nation itself 
for nob inaiBti ii g on having an army sufficient for it» 
needa. 

When Mr. Blmger's ultimatum was published to the world, 
the German Emperor sud, " Great Britain would require a 
bnndred millions sterling, 200,000 men, and a year to finish 
the work that the action of the Sontb African Bepublics had 
brought about." His Majesty's estimate has already beui 
exceeded in men and time, and the money voted by Pariift- 
mcoit hae reached the figure of eighty-six miUions, whicih 
includes, of course, the twenty-one millions in the regular 
annual rote for the army. 

Id the state of public feeling existing at the beginning of 
the war, what would the country have thought of the 
Secretary of State for War if he had presented proposals on 
the lines considered necessary l^ the Bmperor of Germany ? 

It must be remembered that the whole nation ridiculed the 
force that the Boers could bring up against us, and were 
perfectly satisfied that in three months all would be over and 
the British expeditionary foroe would be eating their 
Christmas dinner in Pretoria. A year has gone by since 
that time, and in its course has revealed weakness where 
strength was expected, and stubborn resistance where least 
anticipated. 

When events do not fellow the order laid down in our pre- 
conceived opinions it is usual to fix the blame on some one, 
and as due consideration is not given to ascertain the real 
came of the mistakes, it often happens that it falls to the lot 
of one who least deserves it ; indeed, to the one that has 
battled against great opposition to avert the very conse- 
quences that he oonld not indoce others to anticipate. 

What would have been the fate of the Government if 
Lord Lansdowne had asked for fifty nullions to prosecute the 
war in South Africa, and had declared the necessity of 



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CLABEMONT SANITARIUM 17 

"^ll'^'g oat the mill^ the volnnteerB, and reqneated the 
aid of the coloniea fifteen months ^o ? 

Svsn sober-minded m^nbers of I^Uament, who foresaw 
that the war would be no diild's play, woold have thought 
he had gone Btark staring mad. A vote of CMUore would 
have been pasaed in the House, and the conseqaenoeB are not 
difficult to imagine. 



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CHAPTER III 

FBISONEBS OF VfAB. 

In all former wars, after the formal declaration of peace, it 
has lollovod that the prisoners of war have been restored to 
the Qoreroments to whidi they respectively belong. Bnt in 
thifl conflict only one side has pristmers, and there is no 
qnestion of formally announcing peace. 

We were, indeed, told by Lord fioberts in the December 
of 1900, before he embarked for England, that the war in 
Sonth A&ica was practically over, bnt he has since had to 
admit that he was a little premature in his statement. 
Indeed, the words were hardly uttered before the condition 
of affairs proved the very reverse to be the case. Bef(»e 
he arrived at the end of the voyage a period of graver 
anxiety for Cape Colony had set in, espedally for Cape Town, 
than had characterised the operations dnring any period of 
the campaign. Capturing of convoys, taking of priaoners, 
unexpected conflicts amongst tlie hills, simnltaneoaa attaoka 
on five garrisons, raids into the vidnity of Cape Town itself, 
are incidents which followed each other in quick succession, 
and prodnoed a feeling of anxiety that had never previously 
been felt in the capital of Cape Coltmy. 

A general rising of the Datch colonists never appeared so 
imminent as daring the first week after Lord £oberte' return. 
Indeed, bo disappointed was he at the torn affairs had taken, 
that he wrote to the Mayor of Portsmouth the following 
letter, which in its simplioily is full of pathw : 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 19 

Hj gratitude on being thought wortiiy of the high honoor 
firoposed to be oonferrod upon me hj the borough of FortHmouth 
is BO verj great that it led me to acquieeoe in na-ming an early 
date to Tiait the town. I did ao, however, contrary to the very 
strong feeling that it would be more suitable to postpone all 
pnUk entntainmento until afbirs in South Africa are more 
settled, and we can see the end of the war which is still being 
carried aa in that unhappy oonntry — a war reeolting in dafly 
lose of life to our soldiers and fresh bereaTemeots to their famUies 
at home. It is most distasteful to me to be hononred,./S(0(2, and 
called upon to rejoice while so many people are in bitter grief ; 
and beffve we can properly return thanks for the cloud being 
roDed away, which has tm more than a year darkened faomea and 
crushed the hearto of so many people in this country. Forts- 
month waa the first to tdfor me by cable any hoooor, and that 
town shall be, I trust, the first I shall visit. 

The tnmsportiiig of troops, especially mounted men, 
was never more actively carried on. The railing of 
8000 Teomamy, many of whom are re-enlisting, demon- 
strates the fact that the old failings of underratiiig the 
power of the enemy, and of being over saogoine, have 
reappeared. It is with the character of the Boers we have 
to reckon as well as with them numerically, not foi^tldng 
ibe extent and nature of the country. 

The discovery of guns and ammunitiou at Rondebosch and 
places ronnd Cape Town was a rude awakening to the autho- 
rities, and, in consequence of the knowledge they poesesB 
-that 12,000 rifiea were secreted abont the city before 
tlis war began, they have been obliged to set abont 
taking defensive meaenres, Buoh as entrenchments, the laijd- 
iug of men and naval guns from the ships of war on the 
station, and adopting the precaution of sending to sea of 
the prisoners of war on the transports and from the various 
«ampB just as everybody thought the war was over. The 
2000 men is Green Point Camp, even without arms, 



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» THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

might under ezdtemeot overpower their guards, more par- 
ticnlarlj if aided a little from the outside. At times there 
are some 5000 piisoners is Gape Town and Simonatown. 
In all abont 18,000 Boere are imprisoned; aboat 5000 
are vegetating in St. Helena and 5000 more in Ceylon ; 
there ar« aboat 500 on parole; aeveral hnndreda confined 
in camps in tiie Transvaal, in the Orange Biver Colony, and 
in Natal. The only comforting reflection in oonntsction with 
theae figures is, that the war most soon oome to an end 
through attrition alone. 

The responsibility connected with the guarding and main- 
tenance of BO many prisoners of war is a very heavy one, 
not only as far as the present is concerned, but their fate in 
the future gives ample scope for serioua reflection. If they 
resolve to accept the inevitable and live in peace under 
British rule the difficulty is not great, but if on the contrary 
a spirit of resentment and deure for revenge is encouraged, 
then the prudence of brining back so many men to carry 
on spssmodio guerilla warfare, which would necessitate a 
laige military force being kept permanently in the country 
to repress sudden outbreaks, has to be considered. 

If a little Btory of the " Highland Laddies " is true that 
comes from difierent parts of the^Orange River Colony, and 
is Epical of Tommy's powers of attraction, then the chief 
obstacle to friendly relations between the English and Dutch 
will soon be overcome. 

It appears that when some of the Highlanders were sick 
and wounded, and were attended to by the Dutch women of 
the neighbourhood, they showed so much sympathy for them 
that their own men folk were quite jealous. And in excuse 
they said, " Only think, they are so poor they cannot afford 
to boy tronsers ! " 

That the women of all nationalitiea love soldiers and 
sailors better than their civilian brothers is a generally 



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PRISONERS OF WAR «j 

admitted fact ; and that Ihitcli women — not to say children 
— were not altc^^ether free from this weakness in spite of 
their protestatioaB to the contrary, has been proved to 
demoostratioii over and oyer again. 

When the Datch women and ^lildren who bad con- 
gr^ated in Barberton in sach nnmbers as to make it 
uncomfortably fall, thonght, on Mr. Krnger's birthday, they 
would make themselres as obnoziona aa possible to the 
BiitiBh garrison by marching through the streets in pro- 
cession waving the flags of the two late B«pnblic8, they 
cnxsed every " Khaki " they met, nsing the most filthy 
language and throwing sticks and stones at them as they 
paaeed. A certun ofScer thought snch proceedings ooght to 
be stopped by force and went to the governor about it. His 
reply, however, was that of a true Englishman. " Oh, let 
them alone, th^ are not doing much harm, and it amuses 
them ; besides, I want to play cricket." 

The women soon got tired of their gam^ and were ready 
to respond first to the blandishments of rollicking Jack o' 
the Sea, and then to Mr. Thomas Atkins. So complete 
was their downfall that they combined to ^ve the " Khakis " 
a dance, which would have been a great success bnt for one 
or two B^tef ol ones, who insisted on making a note of the 
names of tiieir faithless sisters for the information of their 
husbands and brothers on commando or at St. Helena. 
When these good ladies had performed their task they 
marched off, leaving the unpatriotic ones to enjoy the 
company of oar soldiers and sailors, who made good use of 
their time. 

If we can only get hold of the women there woold be no 
tronble with the men. Ilie rising generation would never 
hear of the sorrows qf the present, and in a decade or so the 
Dutch would be as good citizens aa any that can be found in 
our vast colonial empire. 



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it THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Vaniga natioiui have ■nry freely abased us for oar eevmiy 
to the Boera fighting agaiiwt ns, to the prisoners we have 
taken, and to their familiee left on the famu in the affected 
districts. 'Even members in the Hooae of Commons hare- 
oftan acoased the CommuideT-in-Chief of tiie Forces with 
wanbm eraelty in regard to his orders for &rm homing, and 
the oondnot of oar soldiers to women and children has been 
aabjected to anfair criticism. 

When die besieged in Ladysmith were rednoed to rtarva- 
tion rations, the pickets, on more than one occasion, hrongfat 
in a oouple of htmgiy men as prisoners of war to farther 
r^itn^m'ali the scsnty stock of provisions. 

lliia was a striking contrast to the order Marshal Bazaine 
issaed to the troops onder his command in Mexico, dated 
October 15, 1865, which ran thos : — 

Je voos invite a faire savoir aux troupes boub tob wdree que 
j'admets paa qa'on fusse dee priaoniuers. Tout individa quel qu'il 
salt qni sera pris lee annes k la main sera mis k mort. Aucan 
exchange de pnBomuers ne se fera. 

BazuKK. 

A prisoner killed in action was found to have in his 
pockets seven pasBes from seven different generals! A 
declaration that he had sarrendered hie arms was also on his 
persoQ. 

By the words of the Boer prisoners themselves, and the 
Dotdi ladies that helped to nnrse them, I will show how 
their captors have treated them. 

Jast at the b^inning of the war a few prisoners were kept 
at Dnrban, and in the later st^es a camp had been prepared 
for them at Ladysmith. But in Simonstown and Cape 
Town the great majority have been detained, and sent from 
thence to St. Helena or Ceylon. 

On April 10 there were aboat 5000 prisoners of war 



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PRISONERS OF WAR %s 

divided between tlieae two places, some in tranfiporta, some 
in camps, and some in boapitaL 

It was my fortnne to see tlia arriral of General Cronje, 
with his wife, grandson, and secretary, at Salt Hirer, which 
is a railway jnootdon not tax trota Cape Town. Though the 
honr was as early as 6 A.M., General Sir F. Forestier 
Walter with his staff was there to receive the Boer leader, to 
aooompasy him to Simonatown, and to safely oondnefe him 
and his ftdlowers to her Majesty's ship Doris, the fl^-ship 
of Admiral Sir Bobert Harris, Commandei^in-Chief of t^ 
Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of A&ioa station. The 
admind's quarters were placed at the disposal of General 
and Mrs. Cronja 

Idter in the day trains bringing heavy freights of prisoners 
passed through Cape Town station on the way to the docks, 
where about 3000 Tranavaalera and Free Statera were trans- 
ferred to the transports Oritnt, MoTigolian, CUy of Cvuaiimdgt, 
and the Manila. The last-named had then been employed 
as a prison-ship for the last five months. 

In Chrifitmas week I aooompanied tiie staff officer in charge 
of the prisoners to the Manila to see those on board, visitors 
at that date being permitted to go over the bansporte with 
a pass. I was naturally anxious to meet the men who had 
eanaed such reverses to British arms in Natal and in Cape 
Colony. 

Imagine my surprise, however, when Colonel Sohiel, 
Captain de Wet Hamer, Adjutant Waldeok, and the nul- 
liwiaires Julius Jeppe, Carl Euasic, and De Villiers, chief 
of the detectives, and other prominent Boers, insisted on 
whaHig hands with me. They had mistaken me for a 
sympathiser, there being three or four on board at the 

Since then I have learnt that it is the cnstom of the Dutch 
to shake hands on all oocasions and with everybody. 



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34 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

litUe hod I thonght that, after safely depoaitmg at Netley 
officers and men of the Highland Brigade who had been 
wounded at MagerGfontein, I Bhonld retnm to South Africa 
to Baperintend the nTirBing of Boer prisoners on the very 
same ship within three months. Bat inscratable are t^e laws 
of fate. 

I had been called to the telephone at the Monnt Nelson 
Hotel by the seoetary to the principal medical officer of the 
base at Cape Town to reqaest me " to go to the Woodstock 
Military Hoepital to receive instmctionB to proceed to 
Simonstown to take charge of tick Boer prisoners." These 
I soon fonnd were principally suffering from enteric fever, 
contracted in the trenches at Paardebeig when living and 
dead men and horses were herded for days together. My 
appointment was the reverse of what I had desired. I had 
wished to bring comfort and consolation to the sick and 
dying who had been fighting in support of onr Queen and 
her beneficent rule, and I thought it was too great a strain 
on my patriotieDi to do the same for her enemies who were 
prisoners in our hands. With all the eloquence I could 
command I entreated that I might be appointed to a more 
coi^enial post, and even tried all my powers - of persnasiou 
on the general himself; but military discipline must be 
maintained, and I was only comforted by the assurance that 
I should not be kept long at such a duty. 

" I think it wiU be very interesting work, and it is clear 
that the Boer prisoners in oar chaige must be nursed and 
cared for," said the tactfnl general. So I had to go to 
Simonstown, where epidemics of enteric and meaales were 
raging. There can be no donbt that the want of space on 
the transports for from 800 to 1200 men, who by habit are 
not cleanly in their persons and whose clothes are terribly 
dirty, does not tend to stamp out a oontagions disease when 
once it has been started. On April 4 the 800 prisoners 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 25 

<m board the Manila were landed and put in the new camp 
tbat had been prepared for their reception, and on the 
following day the; were joined by their compatriots on board 
the (hty of Cambridge, except the sick who were in hospital 
on both ships. There were sirty cases of measles on board 
the Manila on the previons day, bnt fearing to be left on the 
ship all except ten marched off with the other prisoners, 
covered np in their blankets of many colours. It is a cnstom 
of the Boers to band^e their heads and put on all the 
dothes they can possibly find when they aie ill. When 
measles first showed itself an effort was made to isolate the 
oases, bnt as the nomber rapidly increased the attempt had 
to be given np for want of space on ships so crowded with 
hnman beings. 

When these prisoners were first put on board they suffered 
snch mental agony as conld be compared to nothing in 
thw' lives. 

The greater number of them had never seen the sea, and 
had no idea what a ship was. When they saw their comrades 
go up the gangway and then disappear they felt perfectly 
satisfied that the " Booineks" were taking their revenge for 
Uafeking, ladysmith, and Kimberley. They thought the 
ship was some infernal machine, with a hole in the bottom 
that let them into the sea. 

The wheels of the military coach move very slowly until 
there is a panic, and then the arrangements that should have 
been made in anticipation are foand to have been barely 
commenced, and, consequently, when the exigentnea of the 
moment are imperative there ia a rnab and an unprepared- 
ness that creates confusion, discomfort, and irritation. So 
when the prisoners were finally ordered to be put ashore 
neither the camp nor the hosjdtal were ready for their recep- 
tioD. The contingency of Boer prisoners, and the aick 
among them, should have been antidpated at the very 



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S6 THE ASGLOBOER WAR 

oommenoement of tlie war. Now, towever, the state of afEairs 
is being unproved every day. Storea of all kinds are bein^ 
sent for use, doctors and norsea are being increased in 
nomber to cope with the work, and thorongli measures are 
being taken to remedy tKoee evils which a little enei^ in 
the first instance might have averted altogether. 

Simonstown is not at this time, and is not likely to be 
again, the slow little naval station it was prior to the ont- 
break of the war. In the bay, which is the best in Sonth 
Africa, there is a fine display of shipe, all of which fly either 
the white ensign of her Majesty's ships of war or the bine 
ensign with the yellow anchor that notes the hired transpmta. 
At this time there was a fleet of hired transports plying 
between England and Sonth Africa that no other nation 
conld pnt on the face of tiie waters, even if they empli^ed 
every vessel that oonld steam. There were over a hnndred 
numbered transports, and nearly as many hired freight ships 
for the conveyance of armaments and stores. 

Simon's Bay has been able to take a prominent part in 
showing the power and strength of Great Britain during this 
eventful epoch, especially in her naval aspect Sneh ships 
OS the Monarch, Powerful^ Terrible, NiiAe, Doris, Forte, 
PMlomel, and PeloTiLs have anchored in the bay under Uie 
shelter of the mountains that protect the harbour from the 
fierce south-easters which rise so suddenly and are so 
prevalent on this coast. 

Then, again, Simon's Bay is brilliantly illuminated during 
the whole night by the many searchlights that are kept ocm- 
Btantly turned on the transports employed as prison ships 
and on the camps of the prisoners of war. A picket-boat 
supplied by the flagship also patrols the harbour. Tet, in 
spite of all these precautions, one or two prisoners have 
escf^d from the ships, though there is less risk of their 
leaving prisons afloat — as they kiiow nothing of swimming. 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 87 

and simply detest water — than of escaping from places of 
ooDfineiaent asliore, for tlie Boers are well aoonstomed to 
barbed wire, high walla, and mountain climbing. 

Simonstown wae quite excited on April 6 over a desperate 
eBatt made by the prisoiiers in the old camp to escape, in 
which about thirty of them were aucoeBsfiil. It seems very 
odd, after attempts at tunnelling had once been disoovered 
that farther efforts of the same uatnre could hare taken 
place in the same camp. On the first occasioa the prisoners 
kept back a oonple of spades that had been given them to 
dig tranches round their tents. On the second they had 
nothing better than their pannikins with which to excavate. 
To escape detection they evenly spread the mould over the 
floor of their tents. If the truth b. told, the gnard and 
those who are in charge of them are .^together too lax in 
tlieir Rupervision and too kind in their treatment of the 
prisoners. 

At about half-past seven in the evening the officers of the 
army and navy, the doctors and nurses, who make the British 
Hotel their headquarters, were surprised in the middle of 
dinner to see the military officers suddenly leave their places 
and the hotel. Everybody made for the balcony to seek for 
the explanation. Ur. Hilhouse, a naval officer of his Majesty's 
ship Doris, read the signal from the flashlight of his ship. 
"De^ierate efforts to escape from Csmp No. 1," and with 
Dr. Houseman went off at once. They were rewarded far 
their trouble by seeing the prisoners making for the moun- 
tains, fdlowed by the gnard, who were to fire at or bayonet 
them if they refused to retnm. Soon afterwards we saw 
some brought back between sentries. One poor Kaffir boy 
was killed becanse, when challenged, he did not reply, for the 
simple reason that he did not onderstand and coold not speak 
English. Some of the prisoners were bayoneted in their 
recapture, and were taken in a critical condition to the new 



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28 THE JNGLO-BOER WAR 

Palace boajntal. All bat seven were recaptared. When 
Colonel H'Calmont and Colonel Erans viBited them and 
addressed them l^ name, the wounded . prisonere were mnoh 
ashamed of the part they had token in the plan to escape ; 
but it wonld hare been a different story if their eSbrte had 
been entirely Bnccessful, for then several hundreds of them 
wonld have got safely away. 

Some of the prisoners who had been in hiding among the 
recesses of the hill, walked straight into the arms of oar 
soldiers, who had been lying down behind boahes, where 
they had been concealed for hoars. To get really away 
wonld be difficult, for the monntains are well guarded by 
troops, and every movement at night is plainly made virable 
I^ the searchligbte from the ships of war. At Cape Town 
many caastio remarks are made as to the inability of the 
guards at Simonstown to keep prisoners of war from 
making tunnels and escaping. I will not try to make ex- 
cases, for oar want of watchfolnese is only too apparent, 
thoagh dae rather to the fact that the gaarde were ineoffi- 
oient than to neglect of daty. 

The despatch on Tuesday, Apiil 3, of 500 of the most 
tronbleBtmie of the prisoners of war, among them being 
General Cronje and his wife, grandson, and secretary, on the 
Miiyxtukee to St. Helena was a great relief to the naval 
Bnd military aatboritiee who were entrasted with their 
castody. 

When General Cronje was transferred from the admiral's 
qaarters on her Majesty's ship Boris to the Milvxtukee, which 
does not favourably compare with the spick-and-span flagship, 
he was heard to remark that bia quarters were not so com- 
fortable as those be had occupied daring the past month, 
though they were all right. The presence of General Cronje 
was a great restraint on the officers of the Doris, as no visitors 
of any kind were allowed on board. The saf^narding of 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 2& 

Bnch an important priaoner was a great responsiHlity, and 
leqoiied the exercise of the Btrictest vigilance, and it was 
with expresfflonfi of joy that the MilwavJeee with her freight 
of prisoners was seen to steam slowly oat of the bay, 
convoyed by his Majesty's ship Niobe, to the island that ia 
rendered famona in history as being the place of banishment 
of the great Nf^leon. 

After the discharge of Boer prisoners, be it from men- 
of-war or transports, the first dnty nndertaken is that of 
thoroughly disinfectdng and cleansing the quarters th^ hare 
ooonpied, for it mnst be borne in mind that Transraalera 
and Free Staters, taken as a whole, have a deep-seated 
dislike to baths and clean olothes. As can be readily 
imagined, this oonstitntes a great trial to those who, like 
myself, have had to give them personal attendance. 

When I drove from Mafeking to Fotchefstroom I was 
bronght water to wash in the morning in a breakfast-cup by 
the mother of ten children, the mistress of the farmhouse 
where I had been accommodated for the night. When I 
realised what it was meant for, I surprised the family not 
a little by going to the dear running stream, five steps fr<mi 
the door, to fetch a bucketful. These good people nsnally 
pnt in a comer of a cloth into a cap foil of water, smear it 
over their faces, and pass the towel round the fanuly. 

The aniral in the bay of the transport Coluwhia bringing 
the naval brigade belonging to his Miy'esty's ship Pouxrfui, 
■mlth the gallant Captain, the Hon. Eedworth Lambton, was 
the OGcamon of a great demonstration, and showed beyond 
a doubt that it requires a sailor to give a true, ringing, 
lusty cheer ! The bluejackets hurrah with a will, and the 
reeolt is such that neithnr soldiers nor a civilian crowd can 
compare with them in the heartiness of their vocal welcome. 
The ringing cheers for onr retnming naval heroes from 
Ladyamitii was first taken up by the transport CHiy of 



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so THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Cambridge, then by the Manila, followed hy the other prison- 
flhips &B they pftased, to be farther augmented by the men 
who manned the ngging of the Doris, the Mona/rdi, Hie 
Hfidbe, the Ptndape, the Bamhler, and, last bnt not least, \e3 
their comrades on board the Powvrfvi. It was a grand si^t, 
and one that impressed every beholder, 

I am told that at no distant date naral works on a grand 
scale, with dry docks and store houses, are to be undertaken 
here, and that in a few years Simon's Bay will be the head- 
4]aarterB of a naral station more in aooordanoe with the vast 
interests of the empire in this part of tiie world wbud) it is 
the bnsineBS of the navy to protect. 

After the escape of these thirty Boer prisoners from the 
camp nearest to Simonstown, or Noah's Ark oamp as it is 
called — from the rock and the fort which be&r that name, 
and near which it is pitched — the remaining prisoners were 
all removed from thenoe to Green Point camp. Cape Town, 
to be ready for embarkation to St. Helena. 

President Kmger need not hare contemplated taking 
reprisals on his prisoners of war at Pretoria for this action on 
oar part, for the greater nomber of those who ware destined 
for temporary banishment were pleased to go. As a matter 
of fact, the captwn of the deck on the transport Manila, 
a Boer prisoner, oame to Major Usher, the commandant, to 
reqaest permission for several prisoners on board (the names 
of whom he gave) to be allowed to join the Milwaukee, whidi 
was taking General Cronje to St. Helena. The request oonld 
not be entertained, however, as it was only preferred two boors 
before the time of starting. On the hills the diraate in 
St. Helena is almost perfect ; from April to October it is 
veiy fine. 

Seeing the look of disappointment on the coontenaDoe of 
the captain I inqnired why the men were so anxiotis to go. 
He readied that, as the petitioners conld not retom to their 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 31 

ooontry, their wives, and their fatailiea, they wonld Tather be 
in a place where the; could move about a little more freely 
tium on hoard a ship. " Besides," he added, " the Bommer is 
coming on there and winter here, and so it wonid be mnch 
niuer and be an agreeable change." 

When the AfU'wavkee arrived with my friends the Boer 
priacmeTB, Commandant Schiet tried his Inok again at the 
game of escaping, bat his missive, asking for assistance fell 
into the wrong hands. It was delivered to the captun of a 
British warship instead of the commander of one belonging 
to the kingdcmi of Holland. Since tlien his chagrin has had 
tame to modify, and he is said to have declared that the next 
time he was caught fighting it would be on the ode of the 
Bntish he would be found. 

The £9!. Sdma Gvardum is of opinion that the Boer 
prifloners on the island cannot complain o£ harsh treatment. 
In honour of the birthday of Mr. Kruger sports were 
held at the camp, with General and Mrs. Oronje as patrons, 
and Commandant Eloff as President. The first item on the 
iwogramme was the despatch of a congratulatory message to 
the ez-Preodent, and then the sports, which included 
orthodox contests and also a " stock trek," " Inskie Oom," 
and a race for fouis-in-hand, were snccessfully oairied ont, 
the events taking up two days. At the dose, Commandant 
Eloff distributed the prizes, and the Transvaal and Orange 
Free State Volkslieds were sung. 

Accommodation for 5000 prisoners of war was made at St. 
Helena, but that was quickly filled op. Similar arrange- 
ments were also made at Ceylon with tiie same results. 

One or two attempts to escape were made in Colombo 
Harbour. Bnt the advantage of having islands as places of 
imprisonment for prisoners of war is obvious. To get away 
without a ship is impoesible, and no master of trading vessels 
can be found to nm the risk of taking them on board, and no 



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32 THE ANGLO-BOEH WAR 

officer on a man-o'-war of any iiatioii&lity would dream of 
BDch a thing. 

To escape and wander about an island has do charm, as » 
conple of Frenchmen fonnd ont, when, after aimleealy walking 
for miles they were discovered in a Bnddhiet temple hj the 
mial police, and broogbt back to camp. 

In oonBdqaence of the nnfavoTirable conditions existing in 
Simonstown for safeguarding large numbers of prisoners of 
war, where they have many sympathisers among the residents, 
it was decided to send them all to 6t. Helena as &st as 
arrangementB can be completed ; and, in tiie meanwhile, some 
of the military anthorities were tuging that martial law shall 
be proclaimed in Simonstown. Bat unless there is a grave 
necessity for it, and one that cannot otherwise be overcome, 
it will not be dooe, for snch a measure is a great reetnunt on 
the liberty of the whole oommnnity, grievously disotgamses 
commerce, and adds greatly to the labours of the military 
and railway officials, which, however, after a whole year ci. 
fighting and coaxing has had to be adopted. The difficulty 
of guarding the prisoners at this time was considerably 
lessened by the addition of two companies of the Western 
Division of artillery, and two troops of cavalry, made up of 
details of t^e 7th Dragoon Guards and 16th Lanoers, which 
marched into camp to martial strains. 

If the presence of soldiers and sailors tends to make a place 
gay then Simonstown is a very lively spot, especially in the 
evening, when Jack Tar fraternises with his brother Tommy 
Atkins over a " glass of sommat." 

Colonel M'Calmont, of the 6th battalion of the Royal 
Warwicks, the then commandant of Simonstown, was relieved 
to a certain extent of the tension of his responsible position 
by this increase of force, though it was not sent to his assis- 
tance until there was proof positive of the necessity by the 
escape of the prisoners and the difficulty of providing search. 



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PR^ONERS OF WAR 33 

partieB to find and bring back those who had ran the gaunt- 
let to regain their liberty. Colonel M'Calmoot ia a good 
Boldier, fond of his men, and is ever to be found near at band 
when dnl^ calls. 

If I were Ctunmander-iu-cbief I shonld recommend that a 
special medal should be given to those who bad anything to 
do with prisoners of war. 

In regard to the hospital that is set apart for the sick 
amongst them, a perfect tranaformation scene had taken 
place there in a fortnight. The old Cape Garrison Artillery 
Barnusks, which has been converted into the Palace hospital, 
has nndergone such a oonrse of cleansing and pnrifying as 
it has never known before. An army of whitewashers and 
Bcrabbers, with a plentifnl supply of disinfectants, has pro- 
dnoed an odour very different in character from that which 
greeted me when first I visited the new hospital. Its present 
efficient and highly-organised condition refiects the highest 
credit on Dr. C&rr€, the principal medical ofiScer for Simons- 
town, especially considering the initial obstacles he had to 
overcome. He now has a staff of medical men and nurses 
adequate to cope with the severity of the epidemic of enteric 
fever among the prisoners, the seeds of which th^ unforton- 
ately broi^bt with them from the trenches of Faardeberg. 
At last, thanks to Dr. Carry's direction, and the skilful exer- 
tions of his staff, it is abating, and another threatened dangra 
has been happily averted. 

Dr. CarrS has had a very extensive experience in hospital 
oif[aoisation in Africa, for, in addition to his present position, 
he was prindpal medical officer to the Uganda Railway, 
medical officer to the Uganda Belief Expedition, and principd 
medical officer to Colonel Martyr's Equatorial Province Ex- 
pedition for the reoconpation of the old Egyptian stations on 
the Upper Nile down to the Victoria Nyanza. Likewise Dr. 
G. 0. Hall, on the staff, knows a good deal of Africa, for he 



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S4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

was for ten years in private pTaotioe in JacobediJ, and daring 
the time the place was occupied by the Boers he voUinteered 
for ambulance work amon^ them, and attended to those tiiat 
were wonnded at the battle of MageTsfontein, of which 
engagement he was an eye-witneSB. He was in Jacobsdal 
nntil Lord Roberts Teliered the town and set him free. Dr. 
Hall appears to have been specially destined by Providence 
to bring comfort and consolation to the enemy in su^ness, 
for on his arrival in Gape Town he was at onoe pnt in medio^ 
charge of the sick prisoners of war on the transport MongoUa/n, 
and after they had been placed ashore at the Palace hospital. 
Anotiier medical officer on the ataS is Dr. Houseman, of St. 
George's. From the very commencement of the war he 
offered his services to the Government, and before being 
posted to Simonstown he spent five months at Wynbei^ base 
hospital, where he had ample opportunities of stodying the 
varione phases of enteric fever peculiar to South Africa, of 
which he is making a special study. 

As for the nurses at the Palace hospital, they are an 
exceptiooal set of interesting and clever women, ^ster 
Morris has had the experience of going through the siege of 
Kimberley. She gives graphic acoonnts of how the shells from 
tl>e Boer gons came whizzing through the air and through the 
hospital buildings, bnrstang near, but never, by God's provi- 
dence, within the walls dedicated to the sick and suffering. 
She knows but too well how men, women, and children were 
carried in to be treated or to die — ^the result of shells exploding 
in various parts of thn town. She can speak from her own 
personal experience of the intensity of the feelings of relief 
that was felt throughout Kimberley when the siege was 
raised. Surely, it will be readily admitted that it is a great 
test of patriotism and of Christian virtue to come to Simons- 
town to nurse the Boers who wrought such havoc and caused 
such misery to the people in Kimberl^. Another lady who 



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PRISONERS OF WAR St 

waa helping in the g;ood cftnse at the Palace hospital at tliia 
time, and who was respoDdble for ntnct of the organifialdon. 
was Mies Muy Eingsley, whose uaine, qaite apart from het 
ommection with the famous Charles Kingsley, is well known 
as an authoress, a traveller, and a stadent of life and its con> 
ditioiis in West Africa, and as a collector of fresh-water fish. 

Bat the irony of fate is more particalarly striking in the 
oase of Mrs. von Wielligh, who was also helping to nnrse sick 
prisoners. She is the wife of the commissioner for prisoners 
of war at Waterval, near Pretoria. Her hnsband is better 
known as the snrveyor^eneFal who erected the beacons tJiat 
were to define the territories of the Fortngaese and Swazis 
according to the MacMahon award. 

Mrs. TOD Wielligh told me that her hnsband took care 
that all the money and other things Bent to the British 
prisoners came safely to hand, and that the best of everything 
pnndiasable was allowed free access to them. As r^ards 
foodstaffe and stores of a like nature there was no scarcity, for 
they came freely through Delagoa Bay, and the country itself 
is prodnotave of farm prodace, as the women of the Transvaal , 
with the assistance of the KafiSrs, carry on the work just the 
same as if th^ men-folk were not otherwise eng(^;ed. Bnt 
all this hardly coincides with Lord Roberts' request ta 
President Kruger that the prisoners he captured shall be 
b«ated as prisoners of war and not as ordinary criminals. Mrs. 
von Wielligh is a weU-edncated woman, a tb<nx)iig^ politician, 
and upholds, before all things, the sentimeiitB and traditions 
of liie country of her adoption. She makes no secret of the 
£act that she came to nurse at the hospital jnst to see how we 
treat her people when they are sick; and the evidence of 
such an one is all the more valuable. She says, " The doctors 
and nnrses do all that is possible for them, and they are 
exceedingly well off." 

Daring the last fortnight in March and the first fortnight 



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S6 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

in April (1900) two of the great choraoteristica of the Engliah 
people could not have been better exemplified than here in 
Simonstown — the detennination not to see a danger antil the 
last moment, Uien to take thorongb measiires to overcome it 
and to "see the thing throngh." For that period there were 
only one doctor and three nuraes to start the Palace hospital 
and look after the sick. Now there are three medical men, 
twelve nnrses, and twenty orderlies. Daring the month two 
hundred patients were treated, and chiefly owing to the 
vimlenoe of the epidemic of enteric there were thirty deaths. 
This high rate of mortality has at last been brought to a far 
lower ratio, though not without the saorifioe of a moet 
valoable life — Miss Mary Kingaley died in Simonstown, and 
was, by her own express desire, buried at sea. In the pw- 
formance of this ceremony both the naval and military took 
part. 

The other two ladies who were nursing at the commeooe- 
ment had their health undennined, and the doctor was also so 
seriously ill that his life for a time was despaired of. 

About this time Dr. Treves said, " The two things to be 
avoided in South Africa were women and flies." 

The flies are in millions. They blacken every place. They 
get into everything prepared to eat, and into tbe tooi that ia 
put on the tables (when there are any), while the caps and 
glasses have to be kept covered to prevent these winged pests 
jFrom floating in their contents ! ' 

I spent one interesting afternoon at the naval hospital in. 
Simonstown. like everything belonging to the navy it 
was spotlessly clean. I was shown over the wards by Dr. 
Richardson, who has been singularly successfnl with the 
wounded of the Naval Brigade. Captain Prothero, of his 
Majesty's ship Doris, told me later that in every case tbe 
doctor had been able to save the injured limb from amputa- 
tion. To have done so is marvelloas, considenng the shattered 



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PRISONERS OF WAR 37 

oonditbn of varione ganshot fractures aa seen by means of 
nidu^raphs, which vere shown to me by Dr. Bichardson in 
snoh an interesting manner that I could readily understand 
the grave natnre of the damage done by the shells and bnllets. 
I should nerer have gaessed from his modest and retiring 
demeanour how wonderful had been soma of his onres bad 
not Captain Frothero told me of them. The flag-captain 
spc^e of the naval doctor's alnlit^ from his own practical 
ezperienoe, as he had himself been BQCcesBfally treated after 
having been severely wounded at the battle of Graapan. 

On Monday, April 16, her Majesty's ship Dorig went to 
Cape Town to be dry-docked, prior to the admiral going 
round to Durban to see what his officers and men of the 
Naval Brigade were doing ; of one thing he was sure — good 
work. It is reported from Ladysmith that a yonng naval 
cadet, and very email for his age, was seen riding abont in 
doee vidnity to the enemy. He was asked by a staff officer, 
decorated with the ribbons of many orders, " What are you 
d(Hng here, youngster ?" " I am naval adviser to the Com- 
mander-in-chief, sir," was the reply, witii a respectful stdnte. 
If this story be true — and he is always as ready to meet an 
imexpected contingency— it may be safely predicted that 
tiiis bright little naval officer Hds fair some day to become 
a Commander-in-chief himself in our first line of defence, 
unless some untoward circumstance occurs to blight his 
promising career. 



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CHAPTEE IV 

STELLEHBOSCH— THE CBNTBE OF SEDITION 

Toe Dutch in Sooth Africa think nothing of going twenty 
uilea on horseback or in ox waggons to see a friend, and, 
indeed, the English coIoniBts troable ae little after a short 
residence in the coantry. 

There is not half the fuss made about it as there is about 
going from the West-End in London to Highgate or Hamp- 
Btead. This being so, one may almost say that Stellenboscb 
is a suburb of Cape Town. 

Meet people in England have now heard of this town, both 
on account of its unenviable reputation and on account of 
having relations and iriends in the artillery and mounted 
troops, who have been stationed in this remount camp from 
time to time. 

Then there is a military coUoquialisni that has an 
unpleasant sound for those to whom it is applied. To 
be " Stellenboeched " is a term often used to describe 
some one who has blundered or is not wanted on account of 



In one way or another everybody has heard of SteUenbosch, - 
and all loyal subjects of the King regard the place as the 
centre of seditdon, where it is rumoured bonSres were lighted 
on the hills to celebrate reverses to Biitish arms. Whether 
that be so or not, true it is that the use of the Victoria College 
was refused for a concert in aid of sick soldiers in the remount 
camp at tlie beginning of the war, though it is freely lent in 



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THE CENTRE OF SEDITION 39 

lesB stormy timeB for charitable porpoees of a like deaoriptioii. 
Hub circnmBtaQce gave riae to much Dnfavouable oomment 
in political circles in Cape Town, especially as the college 
reoeiTOB a Government grant. 

Since I hare been in Sonth Africa I bare taken the 
greatest intereet in the animals for the motinted troops, as 
so mnch in this war depends on their numbers and on their 
condition for active serrice. The opportunity, therefore, of 
visiting this remonnt camp was not to be neglected, more 
especially as it was my last chance, for I was on the eve of 
starting for Beira (this was written on the voyage between 
Cape Town and Delagoa Bay, where it was posted), to 
go thence into Ehodesia to join, if possible, Qeneral Sir 
F. Carrington's force, Fnrther, I thought it would enable 
me to see one of the oldest Enropean settlements in South 
Africa, and ascertain at the same time the caose of its 
unenviable reputation. My excnrsion to the camp, and the 
drive to Mr. Herold's farm, which the principal veterinary 
(^cer thonght of purchasing for the Government as a con- 
valescent hospital for sick horses, concluded the first half of 
my prc^rsmme. 

A visit to StollenboBch is always recommended to strangers 
as being a good example of an old Dutch town. It is 
situated in a beautiful valley on the north bank of the Eerst 
Biver, in the centre of an amphitheatre of picturesqae moun- 
tains. The highest and most perfect in outline is called 
" Stellenbosch Mountain," and another, further to the 
left, is known as "Simon's Mountain." The houses are 
regularly built, and are surrounded by gardens full of 
lovely flowers of every hue ; the streets are spacious, 
wj'tlt venerable oaks on each side, forming long avenues 
of trees in all directions, such as are seldom seen in any 
town in Eorope. Streams of swift-running water flow 
on both sides of the streets all through the year, making 



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40 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

a mnnnnrmg sound aj^re^bld to hear, and refreshing the 
air as they epeed on their rapid coarse. Stellenbosch 
is thiity-siz milea distant from Cape Town, and is 
bounded on the north by the Faarl Division, on the east 
by the DinsioD of Worcester and Caledon, on the soatb 
by the sea, and on tJbie west by the Gape Division. Since 
the date of its foondation Stellenbosch has always taken 
a leading part in politice, in religion, in society, and in 
education. 

Before the front entrance of the Theological Seminary, 
which stands on the site of the house where the first goTemor 
lived — Simon van der Stell — rises a stately oak, planted there 
some 200 years age by his wife, whose maiden name was 
Bosch, which, united, gave the place its name and ori^nated 
the compound word of Stellenbosch. 

The landdrost, or magistrate, in oldest Dutch days, ruled 
over a district that practically had no northern limit, except 
the power, for the time being, of the Qovemor and C!ouncil in 
Cape Town, which they exennsed merely to make themselves 
felt by native tribes. Later on, however, districts were cut 
off north and west. Stellenbosch is the second oldest parish 
of the Dutch Reformed Church, and was established in 1685. 
In Bomaa Catholic or Church of England ecclesiastical 
language and meaning it wonld be called the second oldest 
diocese in South Africa — a very extensive and a very 
important bishopric of the Chorch. 

Formerly the ministers of the Dutch Beformed Church often 
completed their studies in Holland or some other fluropean 
country, but now every student receives his theological in- 
Btmction at the seminary in SteUeobosch, which is a separate 
establishment altogether from the Victoria Ccdl^e. With 
Bach unlimited means of forming public opinion, it is easily 
seen how Stellenbosch ezennsea such a powerful influence on 
all political qnestions throughout South Africa. 



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THE CENTRE OF SEDITION *I 

Beligion, in all ages, haa ever been an important factor in 
determining the politics of a State. 

After the occnpation of the Cape by the Britiah in 1815, 
which was ceded with other Dntch posEeaEdons 1^ a foncid 
treat; to the British Goremment by the Kingdom of Holland 
for the sum of £15,000,000, and not by conqaest as is 
thought by some, Stellenbosch became one of the places 
where British officers on fnrloagh from India stayed for their 
health or for hmiting; and while there they entered freely 
into the pleasnres and participated into the home life oE the 
Datch residents. It was at this time a settled and wealthy 
oommnni^, depending on its chief indastry — wine making — 
the same as it does to-day, with the addition of cattle rearing 
and sheep mns. 

A strong Butch feeling has always been a dominant f eatnre 
in the place, but in those days it did not as now mean anti- 
British. When the route to India was shortened by the 
opening of the Snez Canal, which made it possible for British 
officers to retnm home on short leave, they ceased coming to 
Stellenbosch, and shortly after the good feeling was replaced 
}jj one antagonistic to British mle. This is attributable in 
s great measure to a long series of mistakes of Imperial 
polity. By sad experience we are now reaping the error of 
our ways, and are more disposed to treat with respect and 
oonedderation than we formerly were the opinions of onr 
public men on the spot ; who, if they are worthy of the confi- 
denoe placed in them, are surely in a better position to g&ugs 
public opinion in the Colony and the requirements of the 
country than stay-at-home politicians, however well-inten- 
tioned they may be. The best security of all for a steady 
and consistent method of government, [however, will be to 
place the affairs of the Colonies, like our foreign policy 
and the navy, outside the arena of party discussion. 

Stellenbosch, being the chief educational centre, attracts 



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4a THE AS'GLO-BOEK H'AR 

atndents from all parte of SonUi Africa. Sir Joltn Henehell's 
Byirtem of local government schools first obtained there, 
many of the mastera being Scottish; then came GoTem- 
ment Bobotris, Bnperaeded by a syBtetn of Government-aided 
■dux>ls in 1865, under the snperintMident-generalBhip of 
Sir Tjwgham Dale. In 1874 the Higher Education Act was 
passed to enable the Ooremment to found, at snitaUe 
centres, collies for professional education, and sucb as was 
required by aspirante for nniversitj' degrees, and the ontotsne 
has been that five have been established : the South Afri^M 
Coll^ie, Cape Town ; the Victoria CoU^e, Stellenbosch ; the 
IHocesan College, Bondeboech; St. Andrew's CoU^e, 
Qrahamstown ; and GUI College, Somerset Bast. 

Nearly all the Btndents of Stellenbosch are of Dntch or 
Hugnenot descent, coming from homes in the ctdony, and not 
a few from tiia Transvaal and the Free State, owing to the 
constant and close intercourse in business, intennairiagea, 
atad much travelling with the late Republics in times of peace. 
They are of excellent physique, good ability, though lacking 
the indirect means of education enjoyed by youths of tha 
same social standing in older dvilised countries. They 
are good riders, good shots, good football players, and 
are in every respect like college boys in England, ^eir 
occupations and amusements are also much the same; 
there is the College Volunteer Corps, the Victorian 
Athletic Club, the Mountain Club, tennis clubs, and debating 



The bnildinge of the Victoria College are very imposing, 
in the Greek order of architecture. When they were 
opened in 1881, on the two handreth anniversary of the 
founding of Stellenbosch, our late Queen grstdously permitted 
them to bear her name, which shows that a better state 
of feeling existed at that date than is unhappily now the 



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THE CENTRE OF SEDITION *S 

the joaths who go to the Victoria College for tiieir 
education in the majority of caseB have had their yonog minde 
Batarated with difirespect for their British fellow colonists 
before they arrive, and in spite of the eSorta niade by 
ProfesBor Walker and ProfeaBor Macdonald to etimnlate a 
better feeling, their beet endeavoars are nullified by other 
inflaenoes, especially by those of the Dutch Reformed 
Choroh. When a cironmatance oocnra, such as a refusal by 
the Rer. F. H. Neethling of the hall for a concert for siek 
soldiers, the students all go against the professors and stand 
by their minister. Since it is destined that the British and 
Dutch are to lire together in Sonth Africa, and that all will 
soon be onited once a^ain nnder the Union Jack, let ns hope 
that old animosities will soon die away, and that the Dutch 
will, in the near fntnre, be as loyal and trae to the Throne 
sod Empire as are the French Canadians to-day. It is the 
natural and the best thing that could happen, for in every 
phase of political and home life the interests of Cape Colony 
and Natal are intimately connected with the Transvaal and 
Free State, the latter being branches of the Colonies that 
were only severed within living memory. 

In support of the foregoing statements, especially as 
regards the prop^anda of disloyalty to the British Empire, 
circulated through the medium of Dutch Ministers in Cape 
Colony, I feel I cannot bring stronger corroborative evidence 
than the following extract taken from a pamphlet published 
by the Imperial South African Association, which has the 
h<HM)ar of having Lord Windsor as its President and Mr. 
George Wyndham, late Under Secretary of State for War, as 
its chief original starter : — 

" The Rev. A. Morrees is the clergynmn of the Dutch churoh 
at the Eaarl. After the news of the battle af Mogerefontein he 
held a specifd service of thanksgiving in hia church, for which the 
opening hymn was, 'Rejoice, the Lord is King.' The other 



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44 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

hymoB kdA prayers were full of thanks and rejoicing. Mr. Sfor- 
leeB himself probched the BenntHi, taking for his fecial sabjeot 
'The Empire of Babylon.' He drew out a very olerer parallel 
between the downfall of that empire and of another, ^lioh might 
have been taken to mean either the British Empire or a spiritual 
Babylon, but thera was no doubt on the part of any of his hearers 
as to which was meant. He also has a son who left the Cape 
Colony before the outbreak of the war to join tiie "Boee forces. 
The Ber. Professor de Voe is a professor in the theological semi- 
naiy at Stellenboech, which is the Dutoh eduoatloiial oentara of 
Oape Colony, and has been used to promote in every way the 
growth of Afrikander ideals among the stndmts, and the spread 
of the *3^ial' as opposed to the English language. Two of the 
professor's sons left the colony shortly before the war brt^e out, 
avowedly to join the forces of the Bepublio. It is customary for 
the Cape Colonial Qovsmmeut to give railway tickets at reduced 
fares to students returning home from the college upon the oer- 
tificate fronL one of the profesaore certifying that they are bonA 
fids students returning home on vacation. When the Transvaal 
students, who were studying at Stellenbosch were oommandeered 
before the outbreak of the war to join the Transvaal forces, the 
professor furnished tham with certificates that they wore actually 
going home on vacation, and they did obtain their railway tickets 
at reduced rates in consequence, so tiiat the Transvaal forces were 
actually recruited, through the professor's action, at the expense 
of the Cape Colony. One of the profeeeor's eons, who joined the 
Transvaal fwoee before the war broke ont, wrote back that he 
had gtme to fight for his nation. The professor, with others of 
the Stellenboecb Collie, has been most active in advocating, 
organising, and extending the boycott (rf the British loyalists, in 
order to make it impossible for British and Dutch pec^le ever to 
live side by side again in South Africa. Hr. D. J. De Wet is a 
field cornet in the division of Prince Albert in the Oape Colony. 
He made a fieiy and most disloyal speech at the Gra&f Beinet 
meeting, and has before attempted to do very much harm by 
propagating in his district the inventitms of the Boer Frees 
regarding abominable and unprintable atrodties and barbarities 
said to have been perpetrated by British soldien and volunteers. 
The other two members of this del^ation — vii., Hr. Botha, of 



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THE CENTRE OF SEDITION 45 

Rudmumd, and Mr. Du PleasiH, a farmer, of Cradock, are unicnown 
mm, or, at any rate, have not been able to be identified, as both 
Dames are veiy oommon among the Franco-Dutch familiee of the 
Oape CMony. These are the men who claim to represent Hw 
majori^ of the people of the Cape Colony, who preach the goepel 
of peaoe and who profess loyalty." 



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CHAPTER V 

THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 

The brilliant man^^ment of the arrangemente of the 
Transport Department of the Admiralty, as is evidenced by 
the conveyance of troops, guna, am munition, and stores, has 
been as conspicnoiiB during the present war as it was when 
called npon to make similar efforts to meet the exigencies 
caused l^ the Crimean War and the Indian Matiny, when a 
high encomiom was passed npon it by both the Home and 
Indian Gorenunents. The way the Transport Department 
has responded to the herculean labours thmst npon it tmoe 
onr tronbles began in South Africa in October 1899, has been 
as gratif^g to the Admiralty as it has been the envy and 
admiration of onr foreign friends and rivals. 

Lord Charles Beresford in his celebrated memorandnm, 
which, as a Lord of the Admiralty, he presented to the Board 
for consideration, says : — 

" The Transport Department appears to be in a thoroughly well- 
regulated condition, looking at what oocurred in the Suakia 
campaign, when in a short time this department was enabled to 
[dace as many as 116 veaselB of various tonnage at the disposal of 
the Government." 

What a small fignre is this aa compared with the 400 
ships it has chartered during this war, and which are 
constantly running to and fro round the coast, conveying 
troops and stores, gnns and horses, 6000 miles at least, 
from the shores of England, to say nothing of those ships 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 47 

brining contingeiits firom Australia, India, and Canada, 
together with freighte of all aorte from the Argentmes, or 
from anywhere that can contribute horses or any war mate- 
rial that is required by a large army in Uie field. It is an 
achievement the world has never seen before ! Snch a disj^y 
of magnificent Atlantic liners haa never before assembled in 
one place at one time in the history of nations! The ships 
in Table Bay are a sight to see ! If our mlera really wished 
to impress the world with the bonndleaa wealth and great 
strength of England, it would only be necessary to bring 
together all our merchant steamers that hare been employed 
by Government for this campaign, and with the vessels be- 
longii^ to the Boyal Navy on tho station, form a cordon 
round them. This after all would only show to the observers 
a section of the ships in the mercantile service which carry 
GOT vast commerce all over the world, and would but repre- 
■mt the men-o'-war that form the ordinary naval eatabliah- 
ment of the Cape of Good Sope and west coast of Africa station. 
A day or two ago, after leaving Simon's Bay, where there 
were five imposing ships of war, and six magnificent vessels 
belonging to l^e Peninsular and Oriental Company, the 
Orient, the " City " Companies with two of the " Donald 
Carrie " Company, the three beaatiful yachts owned by Lord 
Brassey, Colonel Harry McCalmont, and Mr. Bibby, I counted 
in Table Bay 130 ships, ranging &om between 12,000 to 
5000 tons each, with a large nnmber of smaller craft, 
almost all chartered by the Government for transport pur> 
poses in connection with this war. Sven this lai^ number 
did not inclade the vessels actually alongside discharging 
their freight of men and war material of every description, 
nor those that were preparing to return to England with 
nek and wounded, making a total of about six vessels a day 
for the Transport Department officers to see ooaled and 
saf ^y in or out of port. 



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48 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Id B|dte <^ the great demands made by tbe Government on 
the Boyal liail eteameis, our network o£ postal and paaBenger 
traffic has in no way had to snSer, so great are the reaourcseB 
of the merchant sendee. 

At the Sonth Arm, and, indeed, at every wharf in the 
docks that han anything to do with the Government stores, Sir 
Edward Chichester, principal transport officer, is the man 
at the helm. He is generally siud to be the hardest worked 
man in Gape Town. In fact, nothing can exceed the zeal 
and Bnergy, tbe tact and temper, of every officer engaged in 
the embarkation and transport of 250,000 persons, and more, 
with their bi^gage and all the impedimenta of war that has 
passed throngh their hands since hostilities began, to say 
nothing of the horses and mules for 40,000 monnted troops 
and road transport whit^ have been gathered from tiie foor 
quarters of tbe globe, and been landed in TaMe Bay or coast 
ports, and in due course sent up country by train. The coaling 
of so many ships, providing stores, and repairing damages ind- 
dental to ressals on long and trying sea voyages, heavily 
tax the resources of the responsible officials. 

The officers of tbe Koyal Navy in tbe Transport Depart- 
ment hare bad the hearty support of the captains and 
officers of the vessels that have been chartered for War Office 
requirements, and the Government cannot feel too grateful to 
them for their co-operation, especially as there is no hope^>f- 
reward spirit in their cheerful and ready servioe. Withont 
their aid the enormous army now in Sonth Africa could not 
have been transported across 6000 miles of sea without 
friction, and with no greater losses tiian two vessels, the 
lAsmtyre Castle and tbe Denton Orange, and one collision, the 
Wmgfield with the ill-fated mail steamer Mexican. 

After tbe disembarking tbe naval officers have completed 
their 1>ask, and the military staff officers take on the work 
which, for them, means plenty of hard labour and late hours. 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 49 

Their work is not Bach a straigbtforward affair. They have 
to separate and sort oat the cargoes that have been deposited 
in the sheds to suit the Teqaiiements of varioas departments 
of the Army and their sab-divisions, as well as for indiridaala. 
Everything being wanted at oace, everything very important, 
bat which orders and onavoidable connter orders from head- 
qaaiters often rednce their energiea to a state of " love's 
labonr lost." 

It wonld be almost impossible adequately to describe the 
great service that the Transport Department of the Admi- 
ralty has rendered to the ooantry in the coarse of the war in 
Sontb Africa. 

By the aid of a few facts and figares concerning tfao 
hondred odd vessels that have been chartered as truDBports 
since the month of October 1899 some idea may be conveyed 
to tiie British taxpayer, who so cheerfully bears the increase 
of expenditare which has been imposed by the Government 
to meet the consequent heavy expenses. 

Bnt for the aid that the mercantile marine was able and 
ready to give, the ^gantic task of transporting 250,000 
troops from England, India, Anstralia, and Canada, and land- 
ing them and their horses, stores, and manitions of war in 
varioBS parts of Africa conld not have been accomplished. 
Nearly every company has cOBtribated its qnota, and it is not 
that the Leyland Line has done better than any other that I 
have selected one of their vessels, the ATmewian, as an example 
to enlighten the public and to show them how their money is 
being spent. It is merely a chance circomstance. When this 
vessel paraaes her aaoal avocations she carries cattle and 
cargo between Boston and Liverpool, and has accommoda- 
tion for abont sixty passengers. She is admirably adapted 
tor the purpose of carrying cavalry, and for steadiness 
and cuisine she is as good a ship as I ever wish to travel 
in. She is a large boat — 8885 gross tonnage, 525 ft. long. 



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50 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and aven^;es fourteen knote an honr in her tnnsatiantac 
wyagei. 

On October 1 she anired in Liverpool from BostOD witih 
700 head of cattle and no paesengerB. Shortly afterwards 
Captain Pitt, II.N., anrreyed her on behalf of the Admirall^, 
and she was taken over oa a transport. The vessel was tlien 
pnt into the hands of naval contractors, and fitted ap (br the 
acoommodafabn of troops and horses — an ondartaking that 
costs a few thousands of pounds. On October 17 she sailed 
for Tilbury Dock and arrived on the 20th, embarked there 
the 66th, 14th, and 7th batteries of Boyal B^eld Artillery and 
an ammnnition colomn, Tn%ln'ng altogether 26 officers, 730 
men, and 651 horses, nnder the command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hunt. For two days after embarkation the ship wae 
detained by a dense fog, but got oB" on the 24ith at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, together with the transports Orient, 
City of VitTma, Mohawk, and the Nomadia.. Good weather 
prevailed throughout the voyage, though going through the 
tropics it was very hot, a loss being entailed of fifteen horsee. 
On November 13 Transport No. 25 arrived in C^^ Town 
at 1 P.M., but was ordered to proceed with all speed to 
Durban, and accordingly Buled from Table Bay at four 
o'dook, sighting as she left the Orient, the second to oome in 
out of the five ships that left the Tilbuiy Dock at the same 
time. Durban was reached on the 16th, but before the bar 
ooald be crossed the ship's draught hod to be lightened to 
20 ft. by pumping out her ballast tanks, after which the 
Armenia'n, was made fast to the quay at 4 p.m. By five o'clock 
the first tnin with gnns left for Estoourt, and by five the 
next morning all the men and horses, guns, ammunition, and 
stores were disembarked, entrained, and were tn rovie to the 
front. Thna was the whole business of covering 7000 miles 
of sea completed without casualtiee in twenty-four days and 
one hoar. 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 5X 

The ofiGcer who Bnpermtended the diAemb&rkation wfts 
Ci^rtain Holland, of the Boyal Indian Marine. The Armmian 
amved at Durban, landed her troopa, and was ancdiOTed in 
the " roads " awaiting freah orders before some of the trans- 
porte that had sailed with her had reached Cape Town, the 
Bdbaeqnwit fate of the 66th and 7th batteries ts a sad fltoiy, 
and there is no need for me to describe how badJy they were 
out op, how eleven of their gans were oaptored and taken to 
Pretoria. It is also well known that Lord Koberta' only 8on]wRB 
killed in trying to save them, and that Captain Beed, of the 
66th battery, got a V.C. in a similar attempt. Nor need I 
enamerate the names of the brave soldiers of the King who 
lost thur lives, were wonnded, or were taken prisoners on t^is 
oooasian. Many of them were of the Armenian's first 
freight. The names will readily occur to many of my 
readers, whose losses they still monm. 

On November 21 the Armenian once again set sail sonth- 
wards, and having observed an economical speed arrived on 
the 24th in Table Bay. The captain immediately reported 
himself to Sir Edward Chichester, at the clock tower, the 
prindpal transport officer, who is bo well known and so 
greatly admired for bis untiring devotion to dnty. 

The capture of our gone and other features in the battle of 
Coleouo oocasioned a feeling of great depression in Rng|*«i<j, 
avd the Government was straining every nerve to rebiere tiie 
loss. The Armenian had done so exceedingly well that the 
Director of Transports was anxious to secaxe the 8.8. Ftc- 
torian, sister ship, wbidi had just returned from Boston, as 
a transport', but the directors of the Leyland Line oonld not 
eee their way to this unless the Ai-maUan was relefued 
at Cape Town to carry on their great transatlantic trade. 
The times were pressing, the Vieiorian inEngland was better 
than the Armeiiian in South Africa, so the fittings for 
troops and horses were landed in Cape Town, and Transport 



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52 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

No. 25 Baited on December 5 for Boston, U.S., going vid 
StL Vincent for coal, &nd arriving on ihe 28th, there to 
resiime her ordinary commerdal duties. On Jonaary 5, 
1900, she left agun, having filled up with passengers, cargo, 
and cattle, and steamed into the Hirer Mersey on the 15th. 

The Armenian was then again pnt into the hands of the 
contractors, fitted np once more to convey cavalry, and sailed 
to Southampton on February 4. On the 7th 50O men of the 
7th Dragoon Ooards were embarked, 200 men, drafts for other 
r^fiments, and Bearer Company No. 20, 476 horses, and 35 
officers, all under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Lowe, 
7tb Dragoon Guards. 

The 7th Dragoon Qnards has always been a popular 
re^ment, and in spite of the chagrin felt throughout the 
country consequent on the reverses to our arms that had 
marked np to that date the course of the war, they had a hearty 
send off. By this time not only bad the Government, but 
every "man in the street," fully realised that the Boers 
were not like the Dervishes. By sad experience the nation 
had learnt that a " safe return " to all the fine fellows who 
had left for the Cape was not by any means assnred. Her 
Boyal Highness Princess Beatrice intended to wish them 
*' God speed," but was unable to do so. At nine o'clock in 
tlte morning the embarking of the troops b^i;an, and at two 
o'clock they were all on board, and the Armenian, as 
TVansport No. 25, was again under weigh. 

The captain told me, he on one occasion shipped 800 head 
of cattle in forty-five minutes in order to catch the tide. 

The sickness among the troops on this voyage oat was 
extraordinarily severe, nine men died before reaching Cape 
Town. When the Armenian conveyed the artillerymen t» 
Durban the health of the troops was excellent. 

Shortly after leaving England both the men and horses of 
the 7th Dragoon Guards began to develop infiuenza, and the 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 5S 

first mfts to die had compUcatione of pneumonia added, and 
was bnxied at sea just before the ship arriTed at St. Yinceut ; 
another died while coaling there. The weather was beaatifnl 
— warm, with nice dry breezes. The origin of the sickness 
oonld only be accounted for by the fact that the weather was 
very bleak on the day of embarkation, which had thorongbly 
chilled the men and animala before starting. The horses 
^re suffering from the same complaint, though only six oat 
of 475 died on the voyage, whilst nine men succumbed to the 
disease. Whatever started the epidemic, it certainly was very 
severe among both officers and men. In most cases the 
symptoms varied oonsideTably from those that usually cha- 
racteriso " la grippe.** 

When the regular hospital on board was fall, the sick were 
comfortably accommodated on the starboard side of the saloon 
deck ; one officer was nursed in the chart room and another 
in the captain's cabin. At one time or another nearly every 
person on the ship was attacked, there being forty or fifty cases 
a day, many of which were complicated with pneumonia. 
No effort was spared to combat the disease. There was no 
scarcity of skilled advice or trained attendance, for, in addi- 
tion to the medical men attached to the 7tb Dragoon Gnarda, 
there was the 20th Bearer Company, with the full comple- 
ment of doctors and trained orderlies. Tet in spite of every 
care and attention each day claimed its victims. 

A funeral at sea is always an impressive sight, particularly 
if it is a military one, attended by volley-firing. If, in addi- 
tion, tiiis melancholy office has to be performed twice a day, a 
great gloom soon settles over the unhappy ship, and forcibly 
re-acts on those who are sick and who recognise the meaning 
of the firing. They naturally inquire which of their com- 
rades has gone, and wonder if it will be their own turn 
next. 

Bveiything that "^'H and kindness could snj^est was done 



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5* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

for the suAt by Colonel Lowe, Major Reilly, and Captain P. 
Jonea, RA.M.C., and whatever waa good for them waa given 
witiiont stint. To prevent the depression caused 1^ the 
funerals, the volley-firing waa commenced a little before and 
continned after the three regulation shots, so that the nek 
men were misled aa to the meaning of the firing. 

Though stem in discipline nothing oonld exceed the kind- 
ness of Colonel Lowe to the sick and dying troopers of hie 
regiment, sitting beside their cots, speakingwords of comfort 
to the poor fellowB, no matter what honr of the night they 
niight pass away or wish to see him. So utterly depressed 
were his men becoming liiat at last he oi^anised tourna- 
ments, boxing matches, and BmokingH»ncerta in the evening. 
A few of the brass inatrnments were also bronght ont to 
make np a band. Thoa by order the men were obliged to 
amnse themselves, the example being set by the colonel 
himself. The effect was soon perceived on the spirits and 
general health of the troops. 

At noon, March 1, the Armenian steanted into Table Bay. 
The next day she was berthed in the Booth Arm Dock ; all 
nif^t was spent in discharging stores and ba^^age ; and on 
the morning of the 3rd she disembarked bixrps and hcnsee, 
and retired to anchor in the roadstead to await orders. The 
7th Dragt>OQ Gnards proceeded to Maitland Camp, where 
health and vigour soon retomed to them. 

After transporting 475 horses it can readily be anderetood 
that a ship requires to be tboronghly cleaned, and the 
Armenia/n't crew set abont doing this with a will, so aa to be 
ready to execnte the next commission aa soon as the Govern- 
ment's orders were recaved. 

Bvery week thonsands of troops were landed in Cape 
Town, hither with tons of stores of every description, from 
an old shoe for the " Abaent-minded Beggar" fund to a 
siege gnn of fifteen tons weight. What to do with all the 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 55 

things, and where to find Htx)rage room, was a problem that 
taxed to the utmost all Sir E. ChicheBter'B inventive genins 
and powen of organisation. Then the ships that bring them 
have to be dealt with. To co&l them is a big bnsiaess, and 
was in the charge of Identenant lingham, R.N. The victual- 
ling of them is very important, though the feeding arrange- 
ments are generally undertaken by the varioiiB oompanies 
to which the ships belong. It appeared to miuiy to be a 
great waste of public money to have had so many ships 
idling at Gape Town and Simonstown, bnt how to utilise 
them, and yet have sufficient at hand in case of a sudden 
emeigen^^, was a matter that required grave consideration. 

For instance, this transport costs the Government £13,000 
a month, whether she is employed or lying idle in Table Bay 
or Simon's Bay. Sir Edward Chichester is a oonsdentions 
public servant, and though many transports were apparently 
doing nothing in those waters, yet he had his eye on them, 
and, in the circumstances, did the best with them in the 
ooantry's interest. 

iSx. Chamberlain having asked for 2000 additional Bosh- 
men from Australia it was decided that the Armenian should 
go to Sydney to fetch the New South Wales contingent. So 
after filling op with coal she proceeded eastward on March 19, 
and in twenty days entered the harbonr, averaging on the 
run thirteen and a half knots on seventy tons of coal per day. 
The contingent consisted of for^ officers, two n<m-comn)is- 
sioned officers, 717 men, and 749 horses. For the extra 241 
horses that were taken on above the number shipped for the 
7th Dragoon (jnards more fittings had to be pat into the 
ship at Sydney, and, of course, the animals were more 
(tamped in consequence. Still, only thirteen died, and there 
were no cases of illness on board. These 717 horses were 
embarked and placed in their stalls in two hours less ten 
miontes! 



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56 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

The day of the departare of the Imperial Bnshmen was 
proclaimed a pablic holiday, which enabled the ooloiiiBtB to 
display their enthasiaem and loyalty. It was regarded as a 
great complimeat to the colony that the Imperial Govern- 
ment had actually asked for the troops. 

Prerionsly contingents had been offered, and the Colonial 
Office bad accepted. The popnlation was simply wild with 
excitement, and hnndreds longed to join, bat had to be 
refused as the nnmbera had been made op. There is no end 
to the legions that might still be mobilised if his Majesty's 
Government were bnt to hold np a little finger. 

So eager were some men to go that, in spite of the 
greatest vigilance, there were twenty-seven stowaways on 
Transport No. 25, and it was the sane in the case of the 
VictoTian that went to Melbonme, the MaiOuUteai. at 
Hobart Town, and the Port of Manchetter at Brisbane. 

When the Armenian embarked the troops at Sydney, 
after having taken in 4000 tons of coal, thonsands came to 
witness the operation, and it being St. Geoi^'s Day, the 
patron saint of England came in-for more recognition and 
honour than nsaally falls to his lot. 

In a weak moment permission was given to the friends of 
troops to come on board, as the ship had to wait for twenty- 
fonr bonrs for the men to settle down to prepare their messes, 
&G., as some of them had never seen the sea before. In a 
few minutes every possible place was crowded with people, 
and when the whistle was blown to clear not a stir was made ; 
every effort to induce them to letom to the shore was 
foiled. They were deaf alike to threats and persuasion. At 
last, in desperation, the troops were ordered below, and then 
gentle presenre was brought to bear on their friends. Such 
enthusiasm has rarely been witnessed in the Colonies before, 
and has fairly outdone the Mother Country in her most 
excited moments. Colonel Mackay was in oommasd, and a 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 57 

finer set of officers and men for physique baa never been 
brought together. Hardly a man was cnder 5 ft. 9 in., and 
many of them were 6 fL 3 in. 

The War Office having received the intelligence that 
certain Boer conunandos were laying in stores and ammnni- 
tion in the Zontspansberg district, the Government 
determined to send the Bushmen into Bhodesia, vid Beira, 
to meet them ; so the ArmeTiian sailed sway from Australian 
waters and brought them all safely into the mnddy waters 
of the Pungwe River on May 17. On arrival the captain 
thought they were going to leave Mm in the same hnrry as 
the artillerymen and 7th Dragoon Guards had done, but he 
was vastly mistaken. 

The military authorities, with the concurrenoe of the senior 
naval officer, thought the troops were far better off on board the 
ArToenian than they could be in camp at Beira. The chances 
of iheai being moved up by the railway were very remote, as 
its incapabilitiea for the military requirements were only too 
well known to the man on the spot -, bo for twelve days 
longer they had to be kept on board, and at the end of that 
time the captain discovered what excellent appetites those 
Australians had ! 

He certainly fed them well ; every man per day had l^lb. 
o£ fresh baked bread, 21b. of fresh meat, Irish stew or 
curried meat for breakfast, soup, beef, and potatoes for 
dinner, and (pudding on Sunday) tea, bread, and butter, 
cold meat and pickles for supper. No salt food was used. 
The 7th Dragoon Guards were fed ia the same way, but the 
artillerymen, on the first voyage, were on Government rations. 
The captain lud in a stock before he left Sydney that he 
thonght would be ample. He began with 1400 tons of fresh 
water, 65.0001b. of beef, tons of floor and potatoes, 12,000 
bottles of mineral water, 2000 bottles of beer, boxes of tea, 
cases of concentrated milk, and innumerable other stores in 



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68 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Bunilar qnantatieB; bnt when he left Beira for Oape Town 
very littJe was left The number of men fed on board from 
Sydney to the disembarkation of ihe Boehmen wm equal to 
1426 officers and 23,592 men for one day, independently of 
the ship's crew of 86 men. The Arm^iian started as a 
transport in October, and has np to date at Cape Town — 
June 6 — steamed 40,504 nantical miles, and has never 
stopped at sea for repairs or patting glands of engines. She 
has maintained a speed for that long distance of thirteen 
knots an honr, and at a coal consumption of seventy tons per 
day, which speaks well for the architect of the ship, for the 
engineers, and for all the officers. 

The Armenian is still employed as a Govemment trans- 
port, and continnes to give the same excellent results, which is 
typical of all the ships of the company to which she belongs. 

Sir li^ward Chichester is a naval officer snoh as one's 
fancy pictures, and his departure from Cape Town is sorely 
regretted by everybody, especially by captains of Ij^nsporte, 
for with all his peculiarities, which struck terror to the l&x 
and inefiicient, he was very popular down in the docks, being 
no respecter of persons. Like most naval officers he is a 
great autocrat, but is so nice about it that the majority of 
people prefer his manner to that of a perfect democrat. 

I arrived in Cape Town in the Christmas week of 1699 cm 
board the 8.B. Tantailim Castle, which on that voyage had 
brought oat the siege train — I5th Southern and 15th 
Western Garrison Artillery. The holiday made the state 
of the docks more unsatisfactory than usual. The wharfs 
could not be cleared because the natives were away ot would 
not work. The howitzer gons that composed the train were 
heavy material to move abont more than was neoess&ry. 

The military wanted the TaTitallon Caetle to go round to 
the South Arm, bo that the guns might be grounded near 
the railway that would take them to wherever they might be 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 59 

ordered to operate t^amst the enemy, but the Sonth Arm 
was reserved for transportB, and the interests of the company 
clashed. The question was finally settled by the siege train 
being damped down on the wharf where the ship had 
anchored, bnt in spite of aU obstacles it was in a few honrs 
entrained for the f^e State. 

My education in the transport of troops and war material 
made creditable progress in the two days I spent in Cape 
Town docks. 

I often bethought me of the experience gained l^ Sir 
Henry Ward, High Gommissioner of the Ionian Islands, 
when he anived in Marseilles jnst as the Frenoh army was 
embarking for Italy, and I wondered whether he would have 
considered we embarked and disembarked onr batteries of 
artilleij, regiments of cavalry, and battalions of infantry 
and all the impedimenta of war with greater facility and 
nqndity than onr French neighbonre did on the occaaioa — 
feats in military transport that so fired his enthnsiasm as to 
make him appreciate the advantc^es, and do all in his power 
to promote organisation for war, instead of r^farding such 
preparations as nselees trouble and waste of public money.* 

When I thought I saw a suitable opportunity I asked 
Sir Edward Chichester where I might see the Commaader- 
in-ohief of the station. I told him I had a letter of intro- 
duction to bim from Lord Walter Kerr. I did not know it 
then, but I have since learnt that Sir Edward, beneath a 
rough exterior, hides a kind and friendly heart. 

His reply to my inquiry was: "In Simonstown,l8nppOBe," 
and this brief answer was said in such a gruff tone that I 
was frightened and said no more. Two months elapsed 
before I saw him again, and as I had been told by the late 
admiral, the Hon. William Ward, that I have a speciat 
claim on the good will of all ttaral officers, I thought I 

* 8m " Nanl AdmiaUtntloiu," bj ffii Jobn Bd^s. 



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60 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

most screw up my courage to B&y Bomething to make Sir 
Edward a little more friendly towards me. 

With a good deal of perturbability I went to him after 
dumer and nervously asked if he remembered me. His 
smile reassured me, and when he answered, " Of coarse I 
do," I felt it was all right. " Bat why have yoa never been 
to see me ?" he inqnired. " Because I was too mnch afraid 
to come without safficient excuse," I answered. 

" No wonder ! yoa andd want me to do anything for you 
when yon had a ticket for the Commander-in-chief. Where 

" I have one for yoa too, bat yoa scared me so that I have 
never been brave enough to present it ; I would sooner have 
given it to an angry bear at the end of a long pole ! " 

This BO amased the captain that from that hoar we have been 
the best of friends. Everybody likes Sir Edward Chichester. 
He was the most popular man in Cape Town. He certunly 
waa kinder to me in essentials than anybody in South Africa, 
which is saying a great deal when every one was so good. 

I must give my readers an American's opinion of the 
principal transport officer. Two men were shown into his 
office in the clock tower one morning dressed in mufti — cme 
wearing a bright green tie. Their names had been sent up, 
but Sir Edward chose to ignore the fact. 

When they entered one sat in a chair and the other 
occupied the comer of the writing-table. Turning to his 
secretary Sir Edward said : " Who is that fellow in a green 
tie ? " (Secretaries to naval officers soon learn that silence is 
golden, and to answer with a smile.) The wearer replied, I 
am Mr. So and So, veterinary officer on such a ship that 
has arrived in the bay from America. But he did not say 
sir, nor did he change his position on the writing-table — and 
turning to the other visitor Sir Edward said, "And who are 
you, sir ? " "I am Major of the so and so ship, sir." 



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THE TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT &\ 

"Then whyareyoa not in nniform?" "Becanae ire are not> 
on dnty, sir." " What are yon doing in my office then P " 
" We come to report oar aniral, Bir." 

" Don't yon call that being on duty, yon d fool ? " and 

taming to the veterinary surgeon, Sir Edward eaid, " Get 
off my table and dreae yonraelf in uniform before yon come 
to Bee me." 

Whilst this dnologne had been going on between Sir 
Edward and the major, the American vet. sat on the comer or 
the taUe dangling hie left leg and appearing mnch amoeed. 
When ordered to get off the table he stood up and leisnrely 
eyed Sir Edward from head to foot, and back again, and said : 
" Well, I guess yon are a ram joker ! I wish I had brought 
my camera with me, I shonld like a ' snapshot ' of yon.'" 

This piece of impertinence brought forth a whole broadside 
of strong langDSf^e, which sent the major and the wearer of 
the green tie homedly down the corkscrew etaircase, bnt in 
his exit the nndatmted Yankee was heard to say, " I will not 
be done out of my snapshot. I will wait abont nntil I see 
yon come ont. I want to show my friends in America what 
a specimen yon are ! " 

Sir Edward ofton refers to this episode, and repeats the 
stoiy with a heartiness and gnsto that can only be fonnd 
when sailors " spin a yam." 

A visitor going to the clock tower for the first time comes 
to the conclnuon that it must be the office of a martinet 

On the right-hand doorpost is a board on which in flaming 
red letters the following words are painted : " This is the 
Principal Transport Office and not a general inqniry office."' 
ITpetairs in the office itself is another board which ^ves the 
agreeable information that there is " No red tape here." 

Ijord Roberts, in his despatch of April 16, 1901, gives, 
great jnraise to Sir Edward and his staff for the work done at 
the docks. See the end of this volnme. 



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CHAPTER VI 

THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 

The ioUowing remarks on thia moBt unpoztant braocli of the 
army miut of necessity be reiy inadequate to the flabjeot, 
bnt I feel that incompetent though I am to deal at all witii 
Hm work done by the Army Service Corps in South Africa 
during this great war, the leading facts that I hare cx>llected 
may possibly be read by those who would not ventare on a 
more comprehensive treatment of the sabjeot Ezoepfc for 
occasional lettera to the daily press, the public are bat 
ill-informed cm the duties and responsibilitiee devolving ui 
the non-oombatant branches of the army. 

(ihraphic aoooonts are oonstantly given of the %hting and 
deeds of valour in this or that battle, or the oonspionous 
bravery of thia or that ontpost, bnt little is heard of the 
ardnoQB labours of those who are entmsted with the transport, 
with the feeding, the clothing, and the regular supply of 
ammunition to the fighting men, npon which enooess depends. 

The following lines appeared in Zioyd't Weekly on April S, 
1900, and were copied into the Beint Poit in which journal I 
read them, and as they give such anamnnng description of the 
life and work of t^ Army Swvice Corps, I reproduce Uiem. 

"The Army SxEYiac Mak. 

" Tearin' onward thro' the land, maiohin' day an' night, 

A-flanldn' 'ere, attaokin' there, till the last big finishin' fight, 

Ts country's proud of Tommy, the man as oarrias the gnn. 

But what of the Army Servioe Man and what of the woric 

'e'« done ? 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 6i 

It'a '-wMg^nfi' up, an' 'clothm" 'era, and grub for 

flrerTwhera, 
An' thfl noD-oombatant ' A.S.if . ' 'aa got to get it there. 
80 'e 'aa to get up with the bloomin' sun an' stay up 

with the bloomin' moon 
A. ahovin' on stores of evety kind from boots to a war 



" There's Bobs a-eittin' in Bloemfontein, an' BuUer in Natal, 
Methuen up at Kimberley, Clemanta near Aliwal, 
All of 'era openin' 'ungry mouths for everything under the 

nm, 
Without the Army Service Man — Oh, what prioe 'im with 
thegunt 
It's ' girders ' 'ere, an' ' pontoons ' there, an' ' stores for 

the 'oqiital base,' 
Odds u>' ends for the gen'ral staff, and lioe for the 

Uoomin' sayve. 
An' tiie further they go the more they wont, an' the 

'arder it is to swid ; 
But the * A.8,U.' 'as to get it there if it oost 'is life in 
the end. 

" There's them that looks down on the ' A.S.M.' cause 'e ain't 
at work with a gun. 
But 'e's daily sweatiu' his lerel best at work whicli 'as got to 

be done, 
For a gun's no good nor the man be'ind without botli powder 

and grub; 
IPA«n ilte army wheeTt a mooin' round, Ae ' AJS.M.'s' the 'vi. 
Ob, it's * fotage ' 'ere, an' ' eleepeis ' there, all sorts by 

the 'underd ton. 
An' the ' AJS,M,' 'as to 'andle the lot, an' got none of 

the fightin' fun ; 
'E gets ecanty sleep an' curses free, an' 'e ain't much 

time to diD<-, 
But 'e'e doin' 'la dooty for Country and Queen when e's 
feedin' the fightln' Mne." 

E, H&1.1.EWELL. 



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64 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Th» words of Colonel Sir Howard Vincent, M.P., are, how- 
ever, more in acoordaooe with the character and work done by 
the Army Service Corpa, and will be read with a seriooBiiess 
that could not be giren to the views of the Army Service man. 
In a speech dealing with the army in Sonth Africa in April 
1901 he said in the section devoted to the feeding of the 
troops : 

"It has been said that 'an army fights on its belly.' This is 
more tme of the British army than of any other. The officers 
are accustomed to every luxury, the men to more ample fare. 
Unless well fed it can do nothing. It is, moreover, a voluntary 
army. 

" To every British soldier in the field hoe co be conveyed every 
day for necessaries do less than 6^lb. avoirdupois, of which 
l^Ib. are for cases, tins, ix., leaving 51b. net. For eveiy 
native follower, Sib. For every horse, 121b. has to be brought 
up, and for every mule, 81b. 

" Yon may take it that, in round numbers, the field force in 
South Africa numbers 2SQ,000 British troops, with 50,000 camp 
followeiB. That is a quarter of a million persons, with 70,000 
horses and 80,000 mules, who have to be provided for npon this 
scale. The total is absolutely appalling. It means the daily 
conveyance of over 800 tons of neoeBBariee for the troops, for 
camp followers, and for animals. The forethought necessary for 
the purchase of these enormous stores is great. The calculations 
must be made months ahead. But it is small compared to the 
difficulties of sea and land transport. Yet so smoothly have 
things worked, bo admirable have been the arrangements, that 
not only have supplies never been short, but there has been 
scarcely a difficulty about a single meal, save on the loss of a 
convoy. I do not hesitate to say that no great army in the 
field has ever been so well fed, and with snch extraordinary 
regularity. 

" Honour to whom honour. The credit for this state of things 
rests in part with the authorities at home, in part with the 
Transport Department of the Admiralty, but most of all with 
the Army Service Corps and the organisers of army transport. 
It is a duty to pay homage to this service, whose labour is greatest, 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 65 

whose opportmiity For distdnction is, least, but upon whom depeods 
the fighting effidency of the ftoldier, more than upon armament, 
and more than apon leadenhip, for if it fail both guns and 
generals are valuelese. 

^e troops in South Africa have received as a daily ratirai 
per man: lib. of fresh or preeerred meat (increased to l^lb. 
iriien the anpply of cattle has been abundant), IJlb. of fresh 
breed at lib. of biecoit, fioor, or meal, Jib. of potatoes or other 
fnsh Togetablea, or ^Ib. of oniona, or 1 tin of pea-soup, los. of 
ohooolate, or ^c^. of coSee, or \ol. of tea, with Sox. of sugar, 
Jos. of salt, and ^oz.of pepper; and 12o2. of jam or marmalade 
a we^ 

In addition to this, spirits and lime juice have to be carried 
for imoe as the Gommander-in -chief may direct, and hospital 
diets of arrowroot, bovril, brandy, calFs foot jelly, ohampagne, 
ooooa pasto, oom flour, roast fowls, condensed milk, extracts of 
meat, port wine, &c., besides a large quantity of disinfectants. 

These sttwes, independently of tents, clothing, arms, and 
aaunnnition, have had to be oonveyed not alone by sea, but also 
along a single line of nulway, both in Oape Colony and Natal, 
and then by oz-waggon and mule transport. 

It will thne be seen that the force Great Britain, aided 
by her ocdoniea, has pat in the field in South Africa is the 
lai^eet military expedition that has ever been landed in a 
ooontry beyond the eeas. 

Being a great naval and over-«ea oommercial Power, the 
mere transport in ahipB of 250,000 men, with all their impedi- 
menta of war, was a £ar earner aooomjdiahment tjian would 
have been possible for any o^er nation. But to have found 
this vast number of men rolnnteering for military service in 
a distant country is no mean achievement for a non-military 
people. 

The experience gained in the Zulu and other native wan 
in r^;ard to croae-conntiy transport has, naturally, been of 
the greatest nse in making arrangementa of the eame nature 
for this campaign in Sontli Africa. Officers with practical 



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66 THE AXGLO-BOER WAR 

knowledge have been appointed to fnlfil specific duties, and 
have been bronght £roni India or elsewhere for tbe express 
porpose. 

Oz'Waggon transport is the most OBefol and reliable for 
general stores when they cannot be conveyed by railway, if 
it were only possible to treat the animals with the considera- 
tion their nature requires. Bnt alas I in time of war this is 
often oat of the qnestion when convoys hare to keep together 
in tlie face of the enemy. 

Oxen can with great endnrance drag heavy loads over bad 
roads that wonld be impracticable for draught horses, and 
throngh drifts that are perfectly appalling. 

With tbe transport great difficulties have arisen owing to 
these drifts, which have with great frequency to be crossed 
in Africa. 

Hie real significance of tbe word "drift" is a rivei^bed 
ranning right across the road, which is caused by the heavy 
downpour of rain that falls at certain seasons of the year, 
little by little the bottoms and sides of these water^x)iirses 
become so worn away, that some of the drifts are fully fifty 
feet deep, and tbe incline of either bank is at an angle of 
forty-five degrees, and very ru^;ed, with deep holes and big 
stones. 

The sketch on the opposite page will give a better idea of 
one than any words of mine oonld convey to the mind, and 
show the efforts the animals make to reach the smnmit of tbe 
bank at the other side of the water-oourse. 

Sometimes the bed of the river is dry, but at others it has 
a stream that flows at a rate of six miles an hour, throngh 
which the animals have to nearly swim across, having the 
whole weight of the waggons on their necks. All the enei^ 
of tbe driven is required to urge them forward, both tbe 
use of the voice and whip being indispensably necessary to 
accomplish that end. The Naval Brigade had some severe 



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„Coogle 



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THE ARfilY FIELD TRANSPORT 67 

Btrn^ling with their big gnus in croaaiiig drifta ; they havs 
often been entirely aabnierged. I shall never torgbt going 
through some terrible ones in a Cape cart, when I drove from 
Mafeking to Potchefstroom. They were agonising moments 
to me; bnt I am told that the worst drifts are the ones over 
the Bhenoeter River and Rorke's Drift throngh the Buffalo 
Biver. 

My experiences of drifts were made in fine weather. Kot a 
shower of rain added to the trials inseparable to OTOss-oonntry 
tnvelliog over bad roads — I might say no roads, daring a 
period of active hostilities. 

Hie storms arise very suddenly and a small stream is 
quickly converted into an impassable monntain torrent. In 
a oonple of hours the water will rise ten or fonrteen feet, 
oanying all before it. This occurred in Ladysmith, and 
drowned a large number of Boers who where taking cover 
from our guns in the bed of the river. 

In the wet seasons many of these fords are impassable for 
days, and in the case of riven for weeks together. 

After a heavy storm convoys are compelled to wait until 
repairs are made or a bridge can be thrown across, before the 
passage can be attempted. 

Working parties under a Royal Engineer usually go on in 
advance to remove big stones, Gil up the bottom a little and 
make the sides of the incline less slippery, by laying down 
matting or sngar canes, which they cany witii them for the 
purpose. 

The waggons have often to have double teams of oxen (32) 
harnessed to them, and the troops assist with long ropes, knee- 
deep in water. For heavy guns as many as twenty pairs of oxen 
were employed. AVhen a wa^^n gets into serious difficulties 
it has to be off-loaded, and, at the oppodte bank, loaded up 
again ; in the meanwhile the long line of transport has to 
halt till the operation is finished. 



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68 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

AnoUier difficulty in regard to all cross-oonntry trarellinif 
in Soath Africa is the ever-changing condition of the tracks. 
What is BIX inches of dnst will in an hour become a thick, 
greasy mnd, that is even worse to contend with. Few who 
hare not seen the effect of wet weather can realise the com- 
plete breakdown and block whidi takes ^ace at the pass^ie 
of even a edngle donga or ravine. 

On tiie night of July 23, General Canningham's brigade 
when at BronkhOTs-spmit, a place tiuity-fire miles from 
Pretoria, suffered severely from the weather. There waa a 
heavy thunderstorm, and the wind was bitterly oold — it 
generally is after rain in South Africa — and the troops had 
to sleep ont in the open veld without their blankets, on 
account of the transport waggons having stock in a bog and 
coold not be released. On that night, one poor young officer 
in the Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders, lieutenant 
McLaren, died of exposure, as did also five men and 
500 oxen. 

Withont the much-enduring oxen tiie transport of such 
tons of food stuffs, clothing and ordnance stores could not 
have been accomplished, or had rinderpest been as severe 
during the past two seasons as has unhappily been the ease 
in preceding years. 

Another great thing in favour of oxen is that they require 
fewer hands to look after them than horses and mules ; no 
rations need be carried for them, as their natural food ia 
grass, which is nearly always to be found on the road. Their 
rate of progtew, however, is slow. A single waggon can go 
three miles an hour, and can manage to cover fifteen or 
twenty miles a day, but with large oonvoys eight or ten is 
the most that is expected of them. Oxen should never be 
hurried, they should never be worked in the daytime. Night 
is the best time of all for oxen to trek, as it gives them the 
whole day to graze. 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 69 

Generally the oonvoya atart at 4 am. and march till 8 ; and 
then the cattle are ontepanned onldl 6 o'clock in the evening, 
bat, of ooorse, in war-time many ezceptiona hare to be made. 
When in the near presenoe of the enemy and the likelihood 
ai captnie, all consideration for the ftTiimnia has to give way 
to the safety o£ the convoy. They have even been yoked 
twenty to thirty-aix boors at a stretch. 

Owing to the enormona extent of oonnlsy over which the 
operataonjB have taken place, the necessity of providing a 
field transport of snoh dimensions was never contemplated 
before the war began, nor was it fully realised for the first 
oonple of months of actual hostilitiea. That socb a provision 
was immediately possible was m^nly due to the almost 
onlimited resonrow of money and aea transport which we as 
a nation possess, and to the readiness of the people in all parts 
of the empdre to lead, a helping hand to the anthoritieB in 
Pail Mall. 

In acoordanoe with all the arrangements made 1^ the War 
Office, the field transport was on the basis of one army 
corps, and to that extent there was material available, bat 
the oooTse of evwits has indi^atably proved that a great 
continent cannot be oonqaered and held by sach an intag- 
nifioant force. At the same time, it woold be nnreasonable 
to saggest that snob tranaport material as has been 
required for this campaign should have been already on hand 
in Government depAts in ordinary times of peaoe. The 
outlay and upkeep would not have been commensurate with 
the advantages gained. 

With such a predisposition existing to unfavourably oriti- 
cue and find fault with what has been done, it must be 
taken as exoeptiona! praise that the field transport has not 
as yet been prominently brought to puUic notice, as was the 
fate ot the Boyal Army Medical Corps. 
In t^e words of the distisguiahed writer on "Army 



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70 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Reform " in his Xllth article in fche Fall Mall Gazette, he 
Bays: — 

The oorpe (Army Service), t^ongh stiD in its infancy, has had 
to face tiie strain of a great war in Booth Africa, and has stood 
the test far better than many older organisationB. There has 
been a remarkable absence of oomplaint regarding the feeding 
and transportation of oar soldiers during the campaign, and it is 
one oi the bright spots in Uie history of the war that the sapidy 
and transport services, which before the inauguration of the 
Army Searvice Corpe have always been considered the weakest 
parts of onr military macbinoy, should, in the light of the latest 
and severest test, have proved one of the strongest. 

This well-merited eulogy applies equally to those who 
oi^anised, collected, and transported the materials required 
from the English side of the water, as to those who received 
and employed them advantageously on the South African 
shores. 

Great difficulty was experienced when the pressure of 
landing troops and stores was at its height owing to the 
smallness of Cape Town harbour and dock accommodation. 

The continaal arrival of vesBela of all descriptions loaded 
to their fullest capacity and every description of man and 
materials rendered it impossible to immediately berth them, 
and find wharf space for their cargoes. Then, again, the 
stress of circumstances was so severe in these early days, 
that decisions arrived at one day had to be revised to suit the 
sudden exigencies that seemed of paramount importance at 
the moment. Orders to disembark ships in Cape Town were 
frequently countermanded in favour of Durban, or held in 
abeyance for a time ; and so, with one thing and another, 
vessels had to wait for days and sometimes for weeks in 
the harbour before they discharged their cargoes. 

When ships were berthed and unloaded the great work of 
■applying the fighting lines with stores came into play. 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 71 

Fortitoee who have never been in Sonth A£rIoB, it ia an 
impossibility for them to form any idea of the difficnltieB 
esooontered by erery branch of the army in this campaign. 
Even men on the spot who are in chai^ of sections c^ the 
Beld force cannot realise the magnitude of the undertaking 
of their own particular corps, as it is distributed over the 
whole affected area ; and this is especially the case with the 
transport branch of the Army Service Corps, with their 
thonsands of vehicles and tens of thonsands of animal* and 
tiieir hourly difficoltieB which have to be contended against^ 
difficnlties oansed by the action of the enemy, by the nature 
of the country, by the temper and vagaries of the hnman 
element, the consequences of the weather, and the ravages 
of disease amongst man and beast. It is simply marvellous 
to reflect on these trials, and note how they have been sur- 
mounted. Compare the transport arrangements of the army 
in Sonth Africa with those that characterised the manage- 
ment of the oommissariat department in the Crimean war ! 
The satisfactory working of this branch of the army is 
undoubtedly due to the able guidance of Sir William 
Kicbolson, who came from India to take np the duties of 
director of transport, and to his efforts being bo capably 
snj^emented at Cape Town by Colonel Bridge, and by 
Colonel Banbury in Pretoria. But for the loyalty and die- 
m|dine of all the o£Scers and men connected with the corps, 
not foi^tting those in Fall Mall who anticipated require- 
ments, Buoh resulta would have been impoBsible. 

In the opening days of the campaign the ozganisatioa of 
the transport of the British Army was in accordance with 
the prinidples on which the army establishments were based, 
viz., the decenindisation of the transport and subsequent 
distribution amongst units themselves. This is commonly 
known as the SegifoenteU Transport System, each regiment 
or nnit being responsible for its own vehicles, and so being 



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7S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Belf-oontained to a limited extent. Then oame the connect- 
ing links to the main soaroea of aapply to the nnit. The 
firBt of these links waa the brigade or divisional troope 
supply and ammunition colunne, from which the nnit re- 
filled, and finally came the snpply and ammnnition "paAs," 
whidi connected the supply oolnmns with the main or 
advanced depdts on the railway lines of communication. 

This system had been developed dnring the last twenty 
years, and all calctilatioaB for eqnipm^it, stores, food, and 
ammunition had been worked oat so as to conform to it. 
Bat the sudden increase in the number of troops from one 
army corps to five necrasitated some re-arrangements of the 
existing organisation, and soon after the arrival in Cape 
Town of the chief of the stafE (Lord Kitehener) he issued, 
in the name of the Reld Marshal, the orders for reorgani- 
sation on the bams of the ceiUraliacUion of the field transport, 
as opposed to the wTiiitiVg daxniralisation of the same. Thos 
everything was gathered in and issned as needed. The 
effects of this change were, perhaps, more fai^reaching than 
was antidpated or dedred. All calculations were upset, and 
it was impossible to foresee requirements and supply them. 
This re-arrangement of the transport did not apply to the 
army in Natal, where the War Office system worked satisfac- 
torily throughout the campaign, under the direction of Colonel 
Moi^an, A.8.C. 

Colonel Sir Howard Vincent says : 

The Field Army Order oF January 24, 1900, abcdished the 
carefully matorod War Office scale of tTanapoit by a etioke of the 
pen ; it made it all general. Every company of the Army Service 
Corps was divided into two. Kew officers on a liberal scale of 
allowBooe were imported. It was a risky experiment in mid- 
stream. Bat Lord Kitchener is great in reorganisation. His 
energy, enthusiasm, dedsion, and ubiquity command the greatest 
admiration. His object was that the transport should always be 



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THE JBMY FIELD TRANSPORT 78 

workiiig as reqoired for tbe whole airmj, althoogfa a marching 
nnit might be rating. 

The military correspondent on Army Keform, whoee 
aitiiole in the Pall Mall Gazette I have already referred to, 
dunks otherwise ; and as his criticiBms are, in the opinion of 
the service, based on common sense, I gire them. He 

In Cape Oolony, where the tran^Kwt was rewganised, regi- 
mental tranapMrt withdrawn, and the whole formed into oompanieB 
at equal strength, regardless of the work each was called upon to 
perform, iiiB result was chaos. Ko system could be more 

After a few weeks of confosion, antomatioally there waa a 
gradual tendency to revert to the old ways, bnt the links in 
tbe chain bad been broken, and it waa impossible entirely to 
return to tbe system originally in working order, and one 
tiiat was qoite capable of ezpaasiou so as to meet the great 
pressure occasioned by tbe oontintial arriTal of large numbers 
<^ troope and stores from England and all parte of t^e 
world. 

It is ^[traordinary what a tendency tliere is to reform a 
aystem or initiate a new one when there is a temporary 
difi^onlty or Uock, instead of adding to the strength and 
efficiency of tbe existing one, espedally as in the present 
case it was not a question of inefficiency, bnt insufficiency of 
the corps to carry on the eTer-increaeing daties caused l^ 
this anpiecedent«d war. 

At a dinner in Sheffield in Kovember 1899, Lord Charles 
Beresford said that 30,000 men shonld be sent to Natal to 
recover onr losses, instead of the SOOO proposed, but his 
wotda found no fsvoor at that time. 

Want of appreciation of tbe enemy's forces and oiganisa- 
tk«, especially the skill with wbicb the Boers could handle 



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74 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

modem aitillery, w» at tiie beginmng tit hostOitieB the real 
cameB of tlie bad management of the war, if it can be bo 
deacribed. 

No military Power had had an opportanily of forming an 
opinion on the valae of the Krapp gun, the Crenaot gun, 
and Itmg-raoged and heavy ordnance in a country with a 
climate like Soath Afr ifja. 

In order to give some idea of the magnitude of the trana- 
port whidi has been need, no leas than 5000 mole-waggons 
hare passed throng^ the hands of the transport department, 
and aboat the same number of ox-wa^^ons. Taking the load 
of a mole-waggon at one and a half tons, and of an ox-wag^cm 
at two and a half tons, this means a carrying capacity of 20,000 
tons of food, forage, equipment, and ammonition reserve. 
This is, of oonrae, exclusive of the more or less technical 
vehicles accompanying the fighting troops, in tiie way of 
water^«art8, guns, ammunition-wa^^ons, ambulances, together 
with a variety of other carts, such as poBt-carta, conveyances 
for the army pay officers, Cape carts, Scotch carts, and 
things on wheels of every description, even to traction 
engines, motor oars, and bicycles, which in the total number 
of vehicles would probably be nearer 3000 than 2000 more 
to be dealt with. 

Now for some figures as to the animals employed to move 
these vehicles from place to place. 

Since onr army in South Africa has reached the respec- 
table nnmber of 250,000 men, I believe I am correct in 
■tating that the greatest number of mules employed with the 
field tratwport at any one time (exclusive of Uioee newly 
arrived, sick, or in remount camps, and of course not 
counting those with mounted fighting troops) were about 
46,000 and about 70,000 oxen. 

During the campaign the whole field transport has been 
entirely remounted once, and sections of it two or three 



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THE ARMT FIELD TRANSPORT 75 

times, BO tliat it will easily be seen what becomeB of the 
mules and oxen when the wear and tear of the war plays 
anoh haroo with the animal life of one section of the army 
in South Africa. 

For the efficient direction of this enormons transport 
equipment, it is necessary that there shonld be a peraormel 
commensnrate in efficiency and numbers to cope with the 
duties and responsibilities involved. 

Of Imperial officers and men there were somewhat over 
3000, who were occupied chiefly as a directing and supei- 
vising staff ; the actual drivers both of mule and ox-wag^ns 
were natives of the country, of whom there were some 
14,000 always employed. In addition, there was a large 
proportion of civilian overseers or conductors who could 
speak English, Dutch, and Kaffir. These were mostiy 
British subjects belonging to South Africa. 

Before leaving this subject it is interesting to note the 
remarkable aptitude of the South African natives for driving 
long teams of animals. Cape boys who have hardly ever seen a 
mnle will, in a remarkably short time, become efficient drivers. 
The help rendered to the 'military by the local people and by 
the natives is beyond all praise, and the good nnderstanding 
that exists between the Imperial officers and men with the 
European inhabitants and natives may be taken as a good 
omen of a peaceful aud speedy settlement of this vast sub- 
continent after the cessation of actual hostilities. 

In dealing with the work done during the campaign by 
the army field transport, it woold be impossible to omit 
the mention of the invaluable services rendered to the 
Government by the firm of Julius Weil & Co., whose name 
is well known to all in connection with the provisioning of 
Hafeking, dnring the nine months it was besieged, and 
the assistance the firm rendered in every way to General 
Baden Powell during that trying time. As far back as 



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76 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

1887, JnlinB Weil was called *'the man that moves tlie 
army," 

In die ordinaty way, tdus firm of ooatnuston cany on a 
bnsineas something like " Carter, Patenoa," with this vast 
difierence : that their carrying or transporting work has to 
be done over large tracts of thinly populated ooontry, instead 
of conTeying goods to teeming mnltitndes in a drcnmferenoe 
of a few square miles as in London and the sabnrbs. 

The firm of Julias Weil & Co., Government oontiaoton, 
were mei^;ed into " The Imperial Transport Service," their 
officers being given temporary army rank. To dislangniBb 
them they wore the initials of L T. 8. on their ehonlders, 
and of course they were dad in khaki 

It was quite a etndy to work out all the distinguishing 
initials and badges, tabs and stars, ribbons strught and 
ribbons askew, with bits of tartan here and a patch tliere, 
tc^tJier with feathers and tofts of all descriptions ; but by 
degrees one remembered them all. 

What England would have done in the Sooth African 
crisis without the loyalty and help of such firm£ as Jnlius 
Weil, both at home and in the affected districts, it is hard 
to say. 

The tract of oountiy between Mafeking and Pretoria was 
largely served by the Imperial transport service, and, 
indeed, the advance convoys were sent as far as Macbado- 
dorp, if not actually as far as to Pilgrims' Beet. The firm 
employed over 2000 waggons, which required about 40,000 
oxen to work; and as lai^ quantitira were from time to time 
captured by the enemy, numbers of oxen killed through one 
Oaose and another, it needed no less than from 85,000 to 
100,000 oxen to keep up the efficiency of the service. The 
firm employed in drivers and leaders nearly 7000 men 
(natives), in overseers, conductors, and inspectors (who had 
all to be mounted), about 500. The clerical stafi" al<me 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 77 

exceeded 200 men. The ntunber of miles travelled back- 
wards and forwardB by the oxea was oonsiderably orer 
25,000; and this enonDons distance was covered b; ikeae 
alow-fKoing beaBte under the most trying circnmstaDoeB, snch 
as forced marching and within range of the enemy's fire. 

The diffioaltieB to be overcome by the contractors can be 
better appretnated when I explain that as many as 200 
waggons, with their teams of sixteen oxen each, have been 
eaptnred at one time; the loss being made good imme- 
diately, and the work of transport proceeding without delay. 
Captnred convoys (Government) of 400 waggons have several 
timed been reported in the papers, and what a loss each 
entails may be gathered from the fact that the purchases of 
waggons and teams have been made at almost full original 
value ; the actual woi^ of bnying animals and waggons being 
also done at great risk. 

The officers employed had to obtun wagons and teams by 
Tolontary sale from various fanners, in small lots and at 
great distances ; they then bad to collect them at given 
pointe and get them away in safety — a feat that was not 
always snccessfolly accomplished, as De Wet or some other 
Boer general would be first at the given points and swoop 
away the lot ! 

The oxen used in the Imperial transport service were all 
Sonth African bred, and those purchased to fill np casnalties 
had to go on foot to the chief centres of the firm, aa the 
rolling-stock of the railway was all reqnired for the move- 
ment of troops. 

Convoys have to carry, in addition to military stores, a 
la^e amonnt of baggage for their own nse on the road, aa 
well as for the troops that escort them. They take with 
them snch uninteresting things (which are also very heavy) 
as bnok-suls, iron pails, pots and pans, wa^on grease, lifting 
jacks, picks, shovels, extra reims, bolts, screws, shackles, and 



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78 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

a vftiiety of tools chat appear to me to belong to a foi^ <»■ 
a blaokamith's Bbop. 

Aa the Boers made a point of burning op the graae behind 
them, extra weight had to be carried in fodder for the oxen, 
which at other times grazed on the veld ; and, as a matter 
of fact, they thrive better on the atnmpy grass, however 
Bcaniy, than on the best forage that conld be given to them. 

Convoys are often the mediom of oommnnication between 
different forces, as was the case at Elands Kiver, where a 
telegraphic connection was maintained with General Baden- 
Powell at Bnstenberg, by Colonel Hore; and, when the wires 
were cat, and it was clear enough, it was maintained then by 
heliograph. 

In ont-of-the-way places like Beira, and thence to Bamboo 
Creek, the transport was carried on with even greater 
difficulties. There was nothing bat a two-foot-gaoge railway 
to oonvey the troops, horses, and stores between these places. 

The sixty-three miles that separate these towns nsnally 
required twenty-four honrs for the jonmey, daring which 
time excitement was provided bjr varions parts of the train 
derailing, from the engine down to the last carriage. 

When the first contingent of Australian Bushmen took 
this jonmey the train ran off the rails sixteen times. 

The conntry between Beira and Bamboo Creek is perhaps 
the most malarioas in Africa. It is known as the "Fly 
Conntiy," and certainly the moaqnitoes are too terrible for 
words to describe. The mortality amongst the horses was 
very great, and most of the men suffered from fever, though 
in the majority of cases they happily did not snocumb to it. 
Both men and animals were kept on the ships instead of bui^ 
landed for as long a period as poecdble, as the leeser evil. 

The difficnllies of transport and the loss of life have been 
something stapeodoos in this war, and if in futore campaigns 
traction engines can be eo perfected and rendered reliable, a 



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THE ARMY FIELD TRANSPORT 79 

great saving will be e&eoted, bat so far as they- have been 
employed, except in Cape Town and on fairly good roada, 
they hare not answered satisfactorily in South Africa, and 
moch the same may be said of the motor-cars. One day 
tiiey will do well, getting over the ground with great speed, 
bnt the next there are breakdowns that take honrs to repur, 
with the reenlt that everything is thrown into confnsbn by 
the irr^nlarity of their behavionr. It is better to be alow 
and sore in times of war, if celerity and pnnctnality cannot 
be combined. 

To keep an army of over a qnarter of a million of men fed 
and molnle over a whole continent, 6000 miles from the main 
base, is a feat that any army and its oi^anisers may feel 
pnmd ; and in spite of all that may be aaid to the disparage- 
ment of the War Office, the Admiralty, and the Treasnry, 
the nation baa every reason to be satisfied with the achieve- 
ments of all the public departments, and with the contractors 
employed by Government. 

As for the work done on the spot by the soldiers, buIots, 
and civilians that make np the Sonth African field force, 
nothing bnt praise is dne to them from their fellow conntiy- 
men for their loyalty and devotion to dnty. 

Lord KobertB in his despatch of April 16, 1901, gives a 
detailed description of the Field Transport, which ia ^vcu in 
exteiuo at the end of this volome. 



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CHAPTER VII 

THE RBMOmiTT DEPARTMENT 

The first line deacribing uiy one of the non-oombstant 
branoheti of tbe umj now in Sonfch A£rics might begin : 
" This ie perhaps the most important department of the fieM 
force now on active eerrice in that oonntiy"; and, as the 
efficient management of eaoh and all is most neoeesary to the 
BncceiB gf British arms and the final settlement of the area 
affected, the remark would not be bo far wrong. THa nnpre- 
jndiced person can be fotind to deny that it is most appUoable 
to the BemoDDt Department. 

For months the cry has come from South Africa " Send ns 
men who can ride and shoot, and serviceable horses on which 
to monnt them." 

In the next few pages I will endeaTonr to show that this 
demand from the seat of war was not made to the home 
authorities in rain. 

Boring Hm past year 200,000 horses and mnles have been 
landed at the different ports in Sonth Africa— ezclnsive of 
those sent to Beira for the Ausbalian oontingeDts, collected 
together in all parts of the world wherever there were any 
to be purchased. 

Id addition to the horses beltmging to the regiments and 
batteries, a monthly supply, at Hm rate of 6000 or 7000 
animals more, as remounts, has been maintained from over 
the sea, which has been further augmented by those that 
were obtained in the oountiy itself. 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT 81 

WiUi these figures — which at times have been greatly 
exceeded — it will be seen that the Government has fully 
reoogniBed the necessity of providing remounts for the 
troops. 

To meet this great demand, officers have been despatched 
to bny horses ia thousands. They have gone throuf^ the 
length and breadth of the British Isles in search of them, 
and have travelled as far afield as to Australia, Canada, the 
United States, to Argentina, to Austria, to Hungary, and to 
any place where suitable horses could be bought. Officers 
have, likewise, beeu hurried off to Italy and Spain for mnles, 
and between September 20, 1899, and October SO, 1900, no 
fewer than 26,000 horses passed through the port of Durban. 

The generally received opinion in regard to the animals 
purchased is that they are not the best that could be bought, 
and that a large percentage of them ia altogether unfit for 
aotive service in South Africa. 

To what extent this may be true, I am not prepared to say, 
though I am to maintain that they are the best obtainable. 
When they are seen in " mobs " or " tied in knots," looking 
thin and nngroomed, they certainly do not present a smart 
appearance, yet, despite these unfavourable impreesions, the 
horses and males are carefully selected, and that by men who 
understand the points of a hbrse. 

The general public is also under the impression that the 
Admiralty charter vessels that are to be used exclusively as 
horse-ships ; this is not so. The remount department charter 
their own freight-ships, which have throughout the war given 
the best results. 

As regards the percentage of loss in carrying horses and 
moles, the mortality has not been attributable to any fanlt 
of the steamers selected, or to their fittings, but to natural 
caoses, such as poeamonia, infiuenza, and other diseases 
Q among animals. The great difference of temperature 



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82 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

and higt winds have also told on the health of the animala. 
Those that came from Canada were still wearing their winter 
coats on arrival in a hot African sammer. This applies to all 
horses except Aoetralian. 

The steamship Frah, Elder, Dempster & Co., 2520 tone, 
which cannot be called a large boat, took two loads of horses 
£rom the Plate. 

The first time she had 555 horses on board and lost none ; the 
second time she had 581, and the mortality was only one horse. 

As regards the size of the ships, some of the smaller boats 
have resnlts to record eqoally as good as the bigger vessels. 
Indeed, the advantages are difficult to estimate, as on one 
voyage a ship may lose a hundred horses and in l^e next 
none at all, irrespective of the size of the vessel or length of 
the Tojrage. 

The life of officers on board horse-ships that convey the 
animals from shore to shore has oooaaionBlIy bad some veiy 
dramatic incidents to mu:k the time, and to break the mono- 
tony of the jonmey. 

The cattlemen employed to look after the horses and 
moles are jacked up in the various countries visited by the 
remoant officers, and some of them are very desperate 
characters — the " riff-raff" of the world- 

A major, in chai^ of a freight of moles which he had 
bought in South America, once fonnd himself in a " tight 
place." 

' Before the ship had been two days at sea, the cattlemen 
began to quarrel ; they refused to do their work, and a mutiny 
with serious consequences seemed imminent The major 
held a council of war with his veterinary surgeon, and 
included in it the captain of the ship, as part of the crew had 
taken sides with the cattlemen. That some means would 
have to be adopted to re-establish discipline and compel the 
men to retam to their duty was certain. The armoury of 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT 8S 

tiie ship compriaed only a few obsolete guns, for which there 
was no ammnnitioD. 

The major's own revolver was the only weapon that coald 
have been used effectively. The position, however, was 
deq>erate. An order was given for the cattlemen to come on 
deck, and then those of the crew who were loyal appeared, 
each armed with his gan, and stood before them. 

The major spoke very earnestly to the catUemen, and told 
them that if they did not perform tlieir duty and pat a stop to 
their present course of conduct he would be obliged to shoot 
them ; and whilst uttering the words he meaningly touched 
his revolver. 

The cattlemen were not prepared to be shot just then, and 
fully believing that the major, the captun, and the veterinary 
officer were quite capable of carrying out this threat on the 
instant, with the guns in their hands, they promised to obey 
orders in future ; and when they were dismissed to their own 
quarters they forthwith set about attending to the animals, 
thoroughly cowed in spirit. 

Thns happUy ended an incident that for a time presented 
an ugly aspect. But for this bold display of armed strength, 
which was brought to bear on the situation not an hour too 
soon, there is no doubt that the murder of the major and 
those who supported him would have been the result of the 
cattlemen's mutiny. A desperado, aa these men were, 
actually murdered the British consul, Mr. McMasters, at 
Beira, for no other reason than that he could not get what he 
wanted at once. 

The real work of the remount departments in South Africa 
begins when the animals are landed. 

From the beginning of the war reoeiving-camps were 
formed at Durban, Fort Elizabeth, Cape Town and Stellen- 
boech, to which tiie horses and mvles have been taken from 
the ships as they arrived, to rest and recover from their long 



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84 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and tcyiiiff Toyagds. Tkrooglioiit the whole campaign this 
has been the rule, though there have been inBtancea when 
thwe has been some extraordinary preasnre, or when the 
horses have borne the voyage exceptionally well, Thia period 
of rest is osnally two or three weeks, though sometimee the 
oonditioD of the animals necessitates a longer time before 
they are in a fit state to enter on the hard work of the 
campaign. 

Many nnfavonrable criticisms have appeared in the press 
on the work done by this department as regards the kind of 
horses porohased, and the want of care of the Aninnal both 
before and after they are employed, as well as the neglect 
they have been subjected to whilst on active service. 

I have also heard many observations on the delinqnenoies 
of the remount officers which I have listened to with amane- 
ment, as setting forth the ignorance of the critios as to the 
real facts of the case. 

That these criticieme are fotmded on fact, that ib to say on 
isolated instances of want of thonght or want of knowledge, 
there is no doubt : but is a public department to be judged 
by a few acts of omismon, or by the bnlk of the work 
performed ? 

I conld myself mention one or two oversights tiiat, if pro- 
perly worked up in big t^pe, welt garnished from a vivid 
imagination, might read rather like a serions indictment and 
cause a Buooession of public shudders. 

There is no question connected with Soath Africa that 
presents ao many difficuItieB as that of animals ; both equine 
and bovine. Beams are written on it annually, and this year 
has been specially prodactive in valuable suggestions. Every 
person one meets has opinions on the subject, and letters 
from correspondents to the Tirties have recently appeared 
giving some uccellent hinte; but they should be brought 
i^ain to notice when the mind of those charged with dealing 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT 85 

with giich matters is not so fully esgroBaed with present re- 
quirements tliat are so urgent that only the best onder the 
circumstances can at the present be attempted 

Some recommend that the Ghtvenunent shoold undertake 
the breeding of horsefi for the army, and th^ bring fonrard 
excellent schemes to that end; bat my late hnsband, who 
took the deepest interest in all Goremment transactions, 
waa utterly opposed to the principle of the GForemment 
becoming a great commercial company. Let them enoonrt^ 
trade by ponihasing from respectable finos whatever the re- 
qnirements of the State demand, but not become great 
prodnoers as well as being great consumers. Sach a policy 
would be a great blow to the spirit of enterprise that ia the 
chief characteristac of onr commercial life. That the qoes- 
tion of breeding good and serviceable horses for the army 
will occupy a prominent posiidon in current literature ia 
certain, and that the inapector-^neral of remounts will be 
bombarded with everybody's views aa to what ought to be 
done is not less likely, though I believe he is no supporter 
of aahemes in which the Government should nndertake the 
reHponsibilit^ of establishments of this kind. 

Such and kindred subjects must often occupy the atten- 
lion of the officers in the remount department, far oftener 
than those who write occasional letters to the press, or those 
who manage aSairs so well in comfortable chairs in conntiy 
houses. The strong and weak points are constantly brought 
under the notice of the department in the form of reports ; 
and this year there has been plenty of experience gained that 
will be most valuable when the time comes to give this matter 
of the supply of remounte serious consideration in connec- 
tion with the general scheme for the reform of the army. 

The exigencies of war have been especially trying to the 
cavatiy and artillery horses ; and the greatest proof of this 
was bronght to my mind when I had driven from places 



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86 THE ANGLO'BOER WAR 

aloDg the roQte that had beeD taken b; the advaadiig army. 
HorseB dead and dying were left on the road in hnndredB, 
and — disgnsting e^bt — their carcaaes were being torn 
aaunder by dozens of greedy mltureB. 

Some idea of the wear and tear in horseflesh that has taken 
place in South Africa may be gathered from the fact that no 
fewer than dxty horses of the A Battery B.H.A. died from 
exhanetion in one day, the resnlt of making some ascent in 
the march to Machadodorp or to Klgrim's Rest. 

A single squadron of Lancers passed more than 400 horses 
through its ranks in a few weeks, and during the war several 
regiments have been entirely remonnted, a necesEdty which 
resnlted, not from bad or nnstiitable animals, want of care or 
ignorance of their management, but attributable to overstrain 
in long mardies and the loads they have had to carry. 

To meet snch like heavy demands as these which have 
been made by the mounted forces in the £eld, the remoant 
department has had to exert itself to the utmost, and that it 
has responded to them satisfactorily is proved by the fact 
that remounts have been issued to repair the losses without 
delay. 

In order to do this, remount depdts have been established 
in Pretoria, Standerton, Bloemfontein, Kroonstad, Kim- 
berly, and all important military centres, which are fed from 
the resb-camps at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, 
and Queenstown, Durban, Pietermaritzbnrg, and other places 
on the lines of communication. 

On an average, an advanced depdt would contain about 
2000 animals, whilst a base dep6t would at times have double 
that number. 

The remount camps are divided into lines and kraals ; in 
the former are the invalids looking very sorry for themselves 
whilst waiting for the visit of the veterinary officer. The 
kraals are large squares of about 100 yards, thus : 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT 





ooooo 


Cavalry HoTMa. 


Tento for 
NatiTw. 


Yeomanry Honei. 


Draught. 





the animala being fed from mangers rtumiog down the 
centre of each diviaion. A circular memorandum from the 
inspector-general informs all those concerned that imme- 
^ately on the arrival of animals they are to receive the 
personal attention of the veterinary officer. 

Those that have ondnly soSered from the journey are to 
be kept separated from the rest, and upon notification that 
horses are expected to arrive, bedding for them shonld be 
drawn, hot grael and bran mashes prepared, and their 
comfort seen to in evei^ way as far as possible. 

The following figures show the number virtnally used up 
daring the advance from Bloemfontein to Pretoria in fonr 
months : — 



Total. 







Cayalrt. 






Horaw. 




Cobs. 


Holes. 


April . 


. 659 




1516 . 


— 


Mr . 


. 2450 




1035 . 


— 


June 


898 




598 . 


— 


July . 


. 2869 




892 . 


■ — 




f376 


+ 


8541 


^ 
















AKTILLEaY. 






Honeft. 




Cobs. 


Hnlei. 


April . 


. 648 




161 . 


. 1459 


May . 


. 1083 




14 . 


528 


June 


. 597 


... 


83 . 


58 


July . 


536 




— . 


— 




2859 


+ 


208 + 2045 = 



„Coogle 



THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

Offickks. 
Hone*. Cob*. Hules. 



April . 
M»y . 
June 


. lU 
164 
88 


::: 


714 
562 
182 


::: - 


July . 


71 




309 


... — 




382 


+ 


1767 


















TBAiraPOET. 






HoTsea. 




Oobc. 


Ifulei. 


April . 
May . 
June . 


■ - 


... 


136 
988 
183 


... 7790 
... 6233 
... 1382 


July . 






106 
1406 


... 2368 
+ 17,788 






Yeohahby. 






HO»M. 




Cobe. 


Unlea. 


April . 
May . 


28 




4S4 
1011 


;:: i 


June . 


98 




66 


— 


Julj . 


. 289 




1045 


... — 



Grand total .... 39,365 
(See the despatch at the end of the Tolnme.) 

That the Bemoant Department requires the servioes of a 
large nnmber of officers and men is evident from the above 
figures, in which, however, the debilitated beasts are not 
inclnded. 

Many reliable and respoasible officers have to be deputed — 
mostly drawn from the cavalry or artillery, to purchase and 
bring the large nnmber of animals that are required to carry 
OQ this conSiot in Sonth Africa from distant coantries, uid see 
to tb«r embarkaticHt and entraining at both ends of tdie 



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THE REMOUIfT DEPARTMENT 89 

jonni^. Ths handa required to feed ttnd water them alone 
□amber a few thonsands. 

In the original and snoceeding supplementary estimates 
presented to Parliament daring the period of tiie war, the 
vote for the pnrchase of remonntB stands for a sam cd three 
or fonr nuUitms sterling. If the returns at this department 
as to tiie loss of transport by land and sea ; the pay and 
allowance of officers, men, and natives ; forage and stable 
stores of all kinds, were separated from the expenditores of 
other departments, the same wonld form no inconsiderable 
item in the total of sixty-five millions already provided by 
the nation for war purposes. 

The strength of an advance remonnt depdt is nsnally one 
commanding ofScer, one adjutant, three officers, six rongh 
riders, and 600 natives, which latter are divided into batches 
of thirty and placed nnder the snperintendence of white men. 

The responsibility connected with the issning of these 
animalB is very oonsiderable, especially when the reqnisitionB 
from the officers of mounted corps have been so heavy as 
has unhappily been the case throughout the war. Forced 
marching and chasing De Wet have resulted in terrible 
havoc amongst the cavalry and artillery horses, to say nothing 
of the min to the health of the men themselves. 

Shortly after the occupation of Bloemfontein, the remount 
depOt, which had only just been established, issued remounts 
in one day to the nnmber of SOOO animals, which I believe 
is the " record nnmber." 

When this fact came to the knowledge of Lord Boberte he 
directed attention to a previous memorandum, and issued the 
f<dlowiiig army order to all officers with mounted troops : 

The Held-Marshal Commanding-m-chief f uUy recK^nises that, 
under certain circamBtancee, and when some important advan- 
tage can be gained by sostained rapidity of movement, the 
Ba«ri£oe of bones may become a military Heeessity. Coolin- 



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90 THE AXGLO-BOER WAR 

genciee of this nature have ocoarred during the recent operatitHte, 
and have no doubt contributed in no Bmall degree to the present 
condition of the mounted corps. On the other hand, there hare 
been periods when the troops have halted, or only marched abort 
diBtances, and on theee occasions it is to be feared that due care 
has not alwayB been taken to feed the horeea at short intervals, and 
to water tbem whenever the opportunity offered. Moreover, Lord 
Koberts has frequently obeerved that men remain mounted when 
there is do neoeeeity for it, and on the line of march be has never 
yet seen the horses being led. 

Making every allowance for long and rapid marches, want of 
water, and deficient forage. Lord Boberts is of opinion that, if 
the horses, more particularly those of the cavalry and mounted 
infantry, had been better cai'ed for, fewer of them would have 
become useless. The supply of remounts is not unlimited, besides 
which, fresh horses are not likely to be immediately forthcoming 
at the moment when they may be most urgently wanted. The 
success of military operations in this country largely depends on 
the mobility of the troops employed, and this ceases as soon as 
the horsee fall into bad condition. 

The Field-Marshal Commanding-in-chief is confident that the 
officers to whom this order is addressed are as anxious as him- 
self to maintain the efficiency of their respective corps, and he 
appeals to tbem to spare no trouble in looking after the feeding 
and watering of their horses, and to see that the men dismount 
and that the horses are allowed to graze on every possible 
opportunity. 

His lordship draws the special attention of general and com- 
manding a£Scers to this subject, which is of vital importance to 
the army in South Africa, and he holds them responsible that his 
instructions are clearly understood and strictly complied with by 
all those serving under them. 

That certun instances of thoughtlessneBB in remaining 
mounted when the horses might have had the benefit of a 
short rest, and that every chance of grazing, &c., was not 
seized, is most trae ; but, taken as a whole, the men are bo 
fond of animals that the order was only applicable occasionally. 
It IB the wear and tear of the war, the inanperable dificolfies 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT 91 

connected with it that kills both mftn and beaet, and oonee- 
quently result in that miscalcnlation complained of by 
Sir William Harconirt, when critiBising the estimate o£ 
£16,000,000 voted in the Hoose of Commons in December, 
1900. 

It is generally admitted that this war has been more pro- 
dnctiTe in " unexpected derelopments " than it is nsaal for 
Governments to anticipate during a period of hostilities. 

It is to provide for probable contingencies that the estdmates 
are framed. 

While in South Africa I made a special point of nnder- 
standing bow things in connection with horses were managed, 
and how, in the harry and msh, they were looked after. 

All along the lines of commonication I found stationed 
small parties of men (British soldiers and natives, whose 
duty it was to water and feed the horses in the remoant 
trains, and exercise them if opportunity permitted). Owing 
to the great distances and the inconvenience of conducting 
a heavy military traffic on a single line of railway, this is a 
freqoent operation between the points of departure and 
destination, and one that can hardly be accomplished in less 
than three honrs. 

The officers and men in the Remount Department are 
perha{» better acquainted with Dutch farms than any other 
section of the Imperial army. They could furnish some 
valuable information, as to the quality of the land, and the 
nature and quantity of the water supply, that would be 
most interesting to intending colonists whose talanta lie in 
agriculture, iu breeding and retuing of farm stock, and the 
cultivation of grain and produce. 

In Bloemfontein the Bemount Department had three 
farms ; one of 4000, another of 6500, and a third of 20,000 
acres respectively. On each of these were erected kraals, 
where the animals were fed every morning and evening, and 



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9S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

daring the rest of the day they were allowed to graze witiiia 
certain limits. 

Oa each farm, in addition to tlie regalar remoant staff, 
was a veteriaary sm^eoQ with hifi assi^taDts. On Fisher's 
farm, near Bloemfoatein, there is stabling for 800 animals, 
and when the stabling in the town itself was fall, the over- 
flow was sent to this farm. Only snch horses aa were ready 
for immediate issne were kept in the Bloemfontein stables, 
for obvioQS reaflons. Hie arrangements made by the 
department for the remonnting of the Natal army were 
conducted on similar lines; and between October 1, 1899, 
and September 2, 1900, no fewer than 20,000 conld have 
been received and issued to the varions corps in that part 
of the theatre of war, to replace thoae that snccambed to 
the hardships inseparable in war in such a monntainoos 
distnct. 

IVom the foregoing it will be seen that the remounting of 
an army in the field of 250,000 men is no small matter, and 
that the organisation pre-existing mnst have been fairly 
good and snffioiently elastic to have allowed such enormous 
expansions that this unprecedented war has necessitated, 
and which h^ nndonbtedly been attended with each marked 
auccess, that nothing bnt praise is dne to those who have 
laboured night and day in the discharge of their duties, and 
in overcoming the difficolties connected with their impcfftant 
deportment. 

The trials that confront the remount officer are so over- 
whelming that it seems almost hopeless to try and cope with 
them. Not the least of these is the prevalence of horse 
^cknesB, a disease peculiar to horses, asses, and moles in 
Sonth Africa, which is so severe that the rate of mortality 
consequent on it amounts in periods of epidemic to 90 per 
cent. — epidemics that recnr each October, and last to April 
or May, though varying from year to year in severity. 



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THE REMOUNT DEPARTMENT QS 

With s pennanent gairiBOn of about 50,000 troops which 
will have to be kept mounted, the loss in horsefleah from 
this disease will be snch a aerioas item of expenditure that 
the GForemment will probably appoint a commission to 
undertake acientii£c investigations that may lead to the 
disooTBiy of the canaes and ancceed in suggesting an effectual 
remedy. 

Eminent baoteriologifits have been engaged for a decade 
or so in researches that have led to a eertaia amotmt of 
useful information, which, if the remedies and precautions 
were more generally adopted, might reduce the losses in 
animal life to an appreciable degree, though not leading to 
t^e due that will eradicate the disease altogether. 

Of my many experiencee in connection with the army 
none have given me greater pleasure, nor interested me more, 
tiian those in which the horse has been the central figure. 
The hours I spent iu visiting the various remount camps 
was time well spent. No lover of animals could have com- 
plained of the care taken of the horses in them, of which 
there were types from England, Ireland, Australia, Hungary, 
North America, Ai^;entina, Burmah, India, and South Africa. 

Iu every instance the staff officers were most courteous, 
and ready to direct my eapecial attention to anything 
remarkable. They pointed out the differences between 
the varione breeds, bat this was a class of information 
that Bomettmee was rather beyond my powers of com- 
prehension. 

A remount dep6t ia a wonderful sight, as evincing the 
power of steam, and what near neighboure it has made of all 
the inhaHtants of the earth ! 

But a few short weeks previously, both the men and 
animals concentrated on a small patch of veld in South 
Africa were living under all sorts c^ other conditions in 
every part of the globe. 



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CHAPTER VIII 

THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT 

As the British army is entirely Toltmtary, it follows as a 
matter of course that the whole male popnlation does not 
gravitate towards it in the same way as if ooosoriptioQ com- 
pelled every man to serve in either the navy or the army. 

The two years the Germans, for instance, serve in line regi- 
ments, or the three years they spend in the cavalry, natmtdly 
give every man an Interest in the army that does not exist 
amongst the civilian population of this empire. Those who 
hare shown a special desire to combine military knowledge 
and the use of arms with their civil avocationB have in times 
past had little in the way of enoouragement ; and if the war 
in South Africa has taught anythii^ it has taught the value 
of volunteers, and that in future both they and the militia 
must be treated with more consideration and greater courtesy 
than hitherto by both the Government and the regular army. 
This war has been really a bleeaing in disguise. It has 
pulled the nation together, and has united all the colonies 
with the mother-country in a way that nothing else could 
have done. 

Whilst in South Africa I spent my time very industriously 
in trying to onderstancl l^e working of the component parts 
that are comprised in the general term army organisation, 
and in my search for knowledge I have often been surprised 
to find the important work that is accomplished by depart- 
ments that many people — the majority of civilians — hardly 



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THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT $5 

know by aame, and have no idea of their daties and reapon- 
sibilities, nor what a general collapse there wonld be in the 
fighting lines if there weie any slackness in the discharge of 
them. 

It was in no spirit of fanlt-finding that I visited ail these 
camps and centres of military activiiy, for no self-respecting 
person shoold rentnre to circnlate adverse criticisms on 
the performance of this or that department until he had 
thoroughly appredated the difficnltieB to be overcome by it. 
This appreciation conld be efEectnally gained only by sharing 
in the work of the department and endeavonring to see if it 
could be done better. Without adequate knowledge criti- 
cism is useless. What is wanted is that the general public 
shonld interest itself intelligently in its institutions, bo 
that it may with a proper understanding raise objections to 
the extravagant expenditure of the money it provides, or 
to the administration of those in charge of the public 
services. 

I have stated elsewhere in this volume that my great wish 
in writing this book is to try and interest those, especially 
ladies, who through want of opportunity know less than 
I do of military matters, and to inform them how their men 
kind, especially those entrusted with the management of 
transport and stores for the fightii^ troops, have discharged 
.tiieir important though often thankless and inglorious 
tasks. 

Except by those in service circles, it is not generally known 
what the duties of the Army Ordnance Department really are. 
Many people regard the work as a part of that done by the 
Army Service Corps ; and this is not so strange as it would at 
first appear, as it is not so mtmy years since the Control 
Department provided the army with all stores and sapplies. 

Then, ^ain, the term " Army Service " would lead to lie 
1 that all the wants of the troops were met by the 



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96 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Army Service Corpe. Bnt the reality is very differoDt, for 
the Army Ordnance Department is charged with the supply 
of ereiy kind of store except food and forage and medical 
dmgs and appliances. The sapply of the two first necessaries 
is the business of the Army Service Corpe, who are a sort 
of general provision and provender merohsnte. Id a time of 
uege, or when dvil stores cannot be brought into a town, veiy 
important sort of merchants they are. Bnt for Captain 
Haggard and the officers of the Army Service Corpe the civil 
popnlation wonid have been in far sorer straits in Joiiannee- 
biug than they have actaally found tiiemselves doring these 
long months. 

Mow, the words " every kind of store " is in itself a very 
indefinite term to those nnaoqaunted with the army's wants, 
and have no knowledge of the size of its mouth — one tiiat is 
BO big that it requires daily tons of stuff to fill it ! Medical 
instruments and dmgs are provided by tiie Royal Army 
Medical Corps for men, and by the Army Veterinary Depart- 
ment for horses. The pay for the troops falls to the lot of 
the Army Fay Department — and vary important all these 
things are. The want or shortness of any of them would 
produce serious consequences to the army in the field, bnt 
happily, such has not been felt to any appreciable d^^ree 
in any part of the extended area over which the British 
army has operated in South Africa, thanks to the foresight of 
the antiioritieB at home, and to the unremitting energy of the 
officers and men of the departments, who strain every nerve 
to get their stores to the places where they will be reqnired 
l^ the fighting units. 

Food, forage, medicine, and pay, though obvioosly of first- 
class importance, do not by any means satisfy this gaping 
mouth. The Army Ordnance Department must provide much 
more. To begin with guns : there were no fewer than eighteen 
different natures brought into the field, each wiUi its own 



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THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT 97 

special smmnnilaon ; then come ^im-monnfciagB, gun-carriages, 
limber anmmnitioii-wa^onB, and spare parts of all kinds ; 
cartridges and shells of every sori^ and many descriptions of 
UxAb for repairing damage, all of whioh go to make up the 
military term " equipment," and without whicli the artillery 
mi^t not be fit for use at some critical moment. I saw a 
blackamiUi'a foi^ hastily got out and a huge fire blazing away 
to repair a wheel whose tyre had come off, and in a very short 
time the invalid was sent rolling away as merrily as ever. 
However long it may take the army officials to do some 
things, they can on ocoaaons do work as ezpeditioaBly as the 
Bnu^test Yankee, 

When in Eimberley I saw many things that were new and 
strange to me bendes the diamond mines, and amongst 
others some "live shells " in the ordnance oamp, which had 
to be treated with great respect nntil the foses were removed, 
as serious accidents had ocoorred in the town owing to 
people bringing in live shellB that had been left abont by 
the Boers, and had exploded in the hands (A their nnfor- 
tnnste bearers. Major Parsons, who at this time was in 
charge of this oamp, showed me sheds fall of harness for 
draught ftnimfttaj saddles for riding horses, pack saddlery for 
pack transport, picketing gear, horse-shoes in thousands, 
and stable necessaries for all t^hitii^Ih ■ small arms of all 
aorta, rifles, carbines, lances, swords, bayonets, pistols, 
and aooontrements, borne on obaq[e of the ordnance 
department. 

I saw also vast qnantitdes of clothing, i.e., wearing apparel, 
the varions articles of attire to fit all sizes of the male form, 
from giants of siz feet six to tiny men of five feet nothing ; 
flome tag enough to meet on figures that measure a yard and 
a half Toondthe waist, and others small enongh for those who 
can lay claim to no more than twenty-two inches. To my 
1 knowledge Colonel Bicardo tnmed over a couple of 



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98 THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

groBB of Bmasher ItatB before he oonld find one Boffiaentiy 
becoming to his style of features and delicate shade of com- 
plexion. At last he was satisfied, bnt later in the daj he 
presented me with his pnrohase, as the paggaree was not the 
right oolonr, thongfa I found it most naefol in my next croas- 
conntry treh. This dry goods warehonse had to fnmish 
cdothing for officers of all ranks, soldiers of all degrees, and 
provide great coats for native drireia, which ka qoalifey as 
well as for abundance waa a sight that was highly gratifying 
to those who hare the welfare and comfort of the troops at 
heart, and was a Batisfaotory eridence of the faithful fnliil- 
ment of the terms imposed by Government npou the oon- 
traotors. 

The Army Ordnance Department is also responsible for the 
provision of all wa^;ons, carts, and vehicles, together with 
their equipment ; for all kinds of sdentdfio irigniLlling aooes- 
soriea, and the technical stores nsed by the Royal Engineen 
for tel^raph and siege train porposes; stores for bearer 
oompanies, for field, stationary and base hospitals ; for tents, 
oamp eqnipage, blankets, waterproof sheets, and tools for 
everybody — and that means a good deal ! 

To give a few figures. Between the months of September 
1899 and December 1900, 87,000 tons of ordnance stores 
were shipped from England to Sonth Africa for the nse of 
the army, in addition to those purchased, to the amount of 
nearly two millions sterling, in Cape Colony, in Natal, and in 
the annexed territories. 

During this period, amongst numberless other things that 
oould be mentioned were 753,000 blankets, 850,000 water- 
proof sheets, 700,000 bars of soap, 300,000 nose-bags and 
firinges for horsee, 250,000 seta of picketing gear, 2,000,000 
horse and male shoes. But these few items are sufficient to 
give an idea of the scale upon which ordnance stores have 
had to be purchased and despatched to the seat of war to 



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THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT 99 

meet the reqairemente of a force of nearly 250,000 men 
under arma. 

The mere enTuner«tion of ordnance stores will not make it 
elear to the mind of those who are not accnst'Omed to dwell 
on each mattera, and aie oonseqnently nnable to realise what 
BD<^ fignrea mean in the aggregate. Aa an illnstration I will 
take an instance of what will the most readily appeal to the 
interest of the non-profeBsional intellect 

The equipment of a base or general hospital inclndes the 
artades neoesaary for a hospital say of 520 patients — though 
th^ generally are fitted to rDOeive 1000 sick — of which 
twenty wonld-be officers. 

Every reader of thia book will have some experience of 
aioknees in their own homes, or amongst Uieir friends, and 
can readily brii^ to mind the thousand and one things that 
are indispensably neceesary, without considering the medicines 
and surreal instmments and dresaingB ordered by the doctors. 

In a large military hospital, bedsteads, spring mattresses, 
and beds and bedding of every desoription have to be thought 
of, that are always pre-existiDg even in a cottage home; 
tiien a large quantity of every sleeping requisite has to be 
allowed, so as to permit of constant changes, sooh as wool 
mattresses, pillows, sheets, blankets, and sleeping salts. 
Then water-tanks, stoves, cooking appliances, and the 
crockery ware, indispensable to serve the prepared food to 
the sick and to sostain those who attend on them, have to be 
jwovided. As for the pots and pans, of all kinds and sines, 
they will readily suggest themselves to all those ladies 
charged with the respondbilify of managing a home, and to 
not a few men who have to perform these dnties for themselves, 
or who have to listen to endless tales of woe on their retam 
to the bosom of their family after a hard day's work of a 
more masculine character. But however these domestio 
fiends may dance before them, they will probably find such 



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100 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

things as mosquito nets and fly whisks oonapionons bjr thur 
absence. Not so the poor ordnance officers ! They have to 
think of flies and mosqoitoes, and to provide meaanrea to 
siitigate these plagnes that drive both man and beast neul; 
distracted in South Africa. So terrible are they that Mr. 
Treree, the eminent sni^eon, coald think of noUiing worse 
whereto to compare the ladies that came to Cape Town, and 
where thej were bnzzing abont and dipping their wings into 
everything, and canmng mnoh irritation to the hapless staff 
officers who had not the tdme to play abont, however mnch 
their inclination lay in that direction. 

The equipment of a general hospital comprises the fnniitnre 
and all necessary articles for the oomfort of t^Le twenty 
or thirty nnrsing sisters who form part of the penowtul. 
Withont going too mnoh into detail, there are for a base 
hospital of 520 beds 263 different kinds of articles in the 
equipment, which make a total of 24,866 when multiplied to 
their foil number. Of every article received and issued, 
down to the tiniest screw, an accurate account must be 
kept, which of oonrse entails a large amount of derioal 
work. 

The peculiar chaiacteristics and conformation of the 
country in whidi this war has been wi^ed have enhanced 
and multiplied the difficulties which the department has 
usually to oontend against. 

The equipment of the British army is based on oonditicniB 
which would prevail in a civilised country in Europe, with 
good roads ; and oonsequentiy the vehicles and their bameas 
are all fitted for hoi«e draught In South Africa, however, 
this had all to be changed ; there are eiUier no roads or else 
they are mere tracks with impassable drifts and dongas, 
fixcept in the case of gun-carriages and limber and some 
ammunition waggons, all vehicles are drawn l^ mules or oxen. 
This has entailed the provision of mule harness for 60,000 or 



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THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT lOl 

70,000 mnleB. The Tdhiclee hacl, likewise, to be adapted to 
meet Uie altered ooaditioiiB and fitted with a peciUiar screw- 
brake to the hind wheels which in used in this oonntiy b; 
both Afrikanders and Boers alike. It is no lees certain that 
the horse shoes originally provided wonld not fit moles, and 
ooDBeqnently lai^ additional nombers were sent for their nse 
from Snglutd. 

When ahipe arriTed in the do<^ it was oftep iaaoA that 
their whole freight consisted of ordnance stores only, which 
gave plenty of work for ordnance officers to do in arranging 
for their disembarkation. For months their daily toil lasted 
from daybreak to midnight, Snndays inolcded. When the 
stores had been discharged in their hundred tons from the 
steamers they disappeared into the sheds in the Sonfch Arm^ 
where they were classified, separated, and then despatched by 
rail to the ordnance dep6ts which supplied the forces at the 
front. 

It was, however, frequently necessary to divert large 
portionB of the cai^oes to Durban or to the other coast ports, 
from which places the mode of np-conntry transit was the 
easier of accomplishtaent. This was particularly so at the 
commencement of the campaign. So pressing were the 
demands at times, before the reserves of stores had arrived, 
that vessels have had to be boarded in the harbour and the 
particolar kind of ammunition taken out and sent on to 
Durban by another ship, that had coaled. This was also the 
sort of work at high presstire that was grang on, though in a 
lesser degree, at Dorban, Port Elizabeth, and East London. 

Where all have done eo well it is impossible to ptnnt to a 
department that has done better than the others ; but I 
think it will be generally allowed that the ordnance officers, 
witii their sta&, both at home and at the seat of war, are not 
one whit behind the best ; and bnt for their foresight and 
energy in anticipating the requirements of the fighting force 



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104 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

it ooold not be said with trntb, aa it can to^y, that at no 
time have the tuea Buffered from lack o£ storee and equip- 
ment, and that no arm; has ever been so well and regularly 
Bopplied with all that is requisite to wage a snocessful war- 
fare as the British force now in South Africa. 

The other day I saw a critioiBm on our pIsy-^onseB, and 
the question was asked, " Why are the plays not as successful 
in England as in other countries P " and the answer was : 
"Because the English cannot play, they can only woi^!" 
An officer who in normal times is a great glatton for work 
Bud : " Ah ! yes; bat I never had the faintest notion what 
work was nntil I came to South Afrioa as an ordnonoe 
officer." 

As the troops adranoed, and as the operations covered a 
larger area, the work increased in proportion. From all 
parts of the Orange Birer Colony and the Transvaal tele- 
gtaniB arrived in hundreds for stores and ammunition which 
were not easy to satisfy with only a single line of railway, 
and that constantly internipted by the depredations of tlie 
enemy; and, of course, the ordnance department had to take 
their turn with all the other aervioes of the army. Hatters, 
too, were complicated by ori^al orders being counter- 
manded, which caused a diversion from the intended destina- 
tion to a totally different one, sometimes after the train or 
convoy had started ; but every other oonsideration has to 
give way to the movements of the troops in the field, and 
for obvious reasons they are not divnlged and are subject to 
rapid alteration. 

With so mncb technical work to be done, it is important 
that ordnance officers should have & special training. All 
the officers in the Army Ordnance department must have 
served for four years in a re^ment, and then have passed a 
oourse at the Ordnance College. In this conrse they are 
instructed in the manufacture, inspection, and sse of all 



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THE ARMY ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT lOS 

warlike sdA other storeB, ^nd also in tihe regnlatiotiB relative 
to their ouetody and iasne to the troops. 

The warrant officers, non-conuniflaioned offioere, and men 
are oompoaed chiefly of clerks and tradesmen. There are 
alao in the, corps armament artificers, viz., mechanics ekilled 
in the repair of gans and moontdngs, and armourers — that 
is, men trained to the repair of small arms. 

Promotions depend on a soldier's capability ; and in the 
higher ranks a man cannot get advancement nnless be has a 
first-class certificate of ednoation ; and, to their credit be it 
said, there are more men holding these certificates in the 
ordnance department tiian in any other branch of the service. 
To condade this chapter on the transport and snpply of 
storea at the seat of the war it woald be wrong not to make 
some allusion to the staff at the War Office in London, who 
have never failed to meet the argent demands imjxMed from 
South Africa. It is hard to conceive the difficolties attendant 
on making arrangementa for the forwarding of so many 
milUon pounds' worth of all kinds of warlike stores, the 
details of which were so ably conducted by Sir Heniy 
Braokenbury and his capable assistants. The public will 
never know the debt they owe to this officer, who is spoken 
of on all hands as being pre-eminently the man of the hour 
at Uiat dark period when we received so many reversea 
following closely one on the other, and when really clear- 
headed and business judgment was all-important to the 
country. The great ability displayed by Sir Heniy at this 
critical period may not be known to the man in the street, 
but it cannot fail to have been appreciated by those in power, 
and it is to be hoped that he will receive in due course the 
faoDOnrable reoompcnce which such servioea deserve. 

In the despatch at the end of this volume, it will be seen 
Ziord Roberts fully appreciates the work done by this depart* 



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CHAPTER IX 

NATAL GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 

EyxRTBODY knows that the efficient worbing and safeguard- 
ing of a great railway in times of war are matters of firBt-rate 
importance. The railways in South Africa which hare been 
Dsed daring the cam^tiga now drawing to a close oonstitate 
three separate syatems : the Natal Government Railway, 
the Cape Government Bailway, and the Imperial Govern- 
ment Railway — Hie Imperial Government taking over 
entirely the lines which belonged to the Orange Free State 
and the Transvaal. In order to appreciate the work accom- 
plished by the railways it is necessaiy to set forth some 
of the facts. To recount the moltitadinons services rendered 
during the presanre of the last year would, of oourse, be too 
great a task, but a record of at least some of the things the 
railways achieved may have an appropriate interest at the 
ooDolnBion of the operationB. As the Natal Government 
Railway had to lead the way in carrying oar troops and 
mnnitionB of war to the part of the colony which had been 
invaded almost Himnltaneonsly with the expiration of Mr. 
Ernger's oltimatam, I propose to describe some of the work 
condncted over the lines in that quarter. 

The Natal Government Railway anthoritieB hare daring 
the oonfiict had the entire control of the line under their own 
employes — the military appointing only rtdlway staff offioerB 
to act as intermediaries between themselves and the railway 
managers — as well as to see that things worked smoothly and 



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NATAL GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 105 

that trains were not nndnly delayed — a matter of serions 
moment on a single line, where the orossiiig of trains has 
to be oarefolty calcnlated. The lines of the Natal Qorem- 
ment are ooustrncted on the colonial gauge of 3 ft. 6 in., 
and are single thronghoat. Those chiefly employed in con- 
nection with the military operations were the main line from 
Port Natal or the Point (Dorban) to Ladysmith, Newoastle 
and Charleetown, a distance of 307 miles ; the main line 
from Ladysmith to Harriamitb, a stretch of sizty miles ; the 
North Coast line from Durban to the Tngela, a distance of 
soxty-nine miles ; and the Greytown line, which branches off 
from Fietermaritssbni^, a length of sixl^-nine miles, making 
a total oi 501 miles. The railhead station, however, np to 
the relief of ladysmith was Chiereley, a hnudred and Bizty- 
siz miles and a half from Durban. The striking and almost 
nniqne features of these railways are the many steep 
gradients and sharp onrree, the prevailing gradient between 
Durban and Ladysmith being exceptionally heavy, namelyi 
1 ft. in 30 ft., and the ruling ourratnre 300 ft. radius, 
incline and bend being often found in combination. The 
main lines north of Ladysmith, however, have slightly easier 
gndes, 1 ft in 40 ft. or 1 ft. in 50 ft. Every one has heard 
a great deal about the difficult country in which Sir Bedvers 
Boiler bad to fight, and the figures I have given will convey, 
at least to militaiy officers and railway engineers, some 
definite idea of the general's task. 

Trains running between Durban and Charlestown have to 
ascend in the aggregate 12,600 ft, which is equivalent to 
about two and a third miles of a vertical rise. This demon- 
strates some of the difficulties to be surmounted in the 
canying on of traffic to prosecute a great war and to support 
the civil population. The bosiness of loading tnuns is, in 
oonsequenoe of gradients, a most serious problem. Under 
ndinaiy conditions it is necessary to alter the goods train 



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106 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

load no fewer than thirteen times between Fort NfttsI and 
the Border station, the gnws load of the tnun hauled between 
aertain points on the steepest portions of tiie track being 
only 137 tons. Think of this in connection with the oon- 
reyanoe of naval 4*7 gnns and batteries of artiUery ! The 
large and nrgent militaiy traffic witii which the Natal 
Govemmeot Railway anthorittes had suddenly to cope was 
carried on in such an efficient manner night and day tbrongh- 
oot Uie Btm^le, that Lord Roberts telegraphed to Hr. 
Hunter, the general manager, expressing his appreciation of 
the Borvioes rendered. The first troops to arrive in the 
oolony were the Manchester Regiment, which was landed at 
Port Natal on September 20, 1899, from the steamer Omd. 
When the vessel went alongside the wharf the whole r^- 
ment was disembarked, and within three hours it was 
entrained for its destinafciDn up oountry. Hie same time 
was taken in despatching other infantry r^^ents, whilo 
the forwarding of batteries of artillery and field hospitals, 
whose material required the use of cranes, occupied on an 
average aboat six hoars from the time the steamer came 
alongside the wharf. 

In connection wi^ railway operationB, armoured trains 
have balked largely before the public The construction of 
these ponderons uistramentB of war demonstrates the enter* 
prise and zeal of the locomotive department of the railway. 
In addition to the six armoured trains, special carriages were 
prepared for the 6 in., the 4-7 in., and other heavy gans, not 
to speak of the moonting on tracks of the electric search- 
light apparatus which was used at Cluevdey, for tiie purpose 
of communicating with Sir George White at I^dysmith, 
during that long and wearying siege. What has been said, 
however, does not finish the story of train adaptation. Evea 
before the fighting began two complete hospital trains were 
constructed out of Natal Government Railway coadiing 



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NATAL GOFEBNMENT RAILWAY 107 

stook, and were delivered on October 9 and 10, while the 
famons Prinoees Christian train, which was all white, was 
qoite new. These trains conveyed between the beginning^ 
of the war and the end of Angnst, 28,000 officers and men, 
while other special and ordinary trains were employed in 
conveying an additional 7000 officers and men, making a 
total of 30,000. In this cocneotion it is worthy of remem- 
brance that the Princess Christjan tnun, in the course of its 
maiden trip, was the first throagb ta«in to enter Ladysmith 
after the siege was raised, crossing the River Tngela by 
the temporary trestle bridge on March 19, 1900. On the 
following day it began ite errand of mercy in bringing back 
the sick from the now historic town of ladysmith to 
Durban. It is hardly necessary to say that the hospital 
trains were fitted with electric li^t and all sorts of con- 
veniences, and t^t they were kept in a state of thorongh 
repair. The aid of the railway was sought by the base 
hospitala at Eatcoort, Mooi Biver, Howiok, and Finetown 
Bridge, which th% department lighted with electricity. It 
Bopidied the current by means of accnmnlatore fixed in 
tracks periodically charged at the nearest electric light depdt, 
aad it connected the main wire with the hospitals from 
sidingB. The aooomolators naed in connection with tiie X 
rays at the varions hospitals were also filled ap and chai^^ 
by the railway aothoritieB. 

No effort was spared by the Natal Qovemment Railway 
officials to assist the Army Medical Corps by 3[dadDg oon- 
venieraoeB at their disposal — goods sheds, for instance, elec- 
trically lighted, wherever there was a call. They made 
arrangements for the muntenance of supplies of medical 
comforts in special vans, and afforded every facility for 
conveying accessories with regularity to the army in the 
field. The eomperataon of the railway people with Colonel 
Moif^an, director of snppliee, enabled that officer to work 



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108 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

out with oocoraof hie highly saooessfnl plans for foeding 
the forces. The resnlt wu that in Natal the Brmj was 
nerer on short rataons. On the oootrary, ereiy seoldon waa 
on the whole well-fed, a point on which General Boiler was 
always most solicitons. The supply of water occasioned as 
mnob anxiety as the food qaestion. The method adopted to 
secnie a supply was the arrangement of a anooesaion of 
oylindrioal tanks on the line adjacent to the camps. These 
tanks were filled from others which were fitted on railway 
waggons, and Inxrafi^t by train from the pumping stations, 
twenty to twenty-five miles distant While the boope were 
being concentrated before the battle ot Colenso, the whole 
t^ General Bnller's foroes were fomiahed with water in the 
way described. Daring the fonx months' siege, when the 
water supply was cat ofE, the plant for condensing water 
from the river for the 20,000 personB shut np in the be- 
leaguered town was found there through Uie forethought of 
the railway department 

On September 29, 1899, tdie Volunteers of Natal were 
called ont The day was a public holiday, being Michaelmas 
Day, and many were away from home. Despite this ciroum- 
fltauoB, and notwithstanding the fact that many resided at 
ocmsiderable distances from railway stationB, the men in 
every part of the colony responded to the call with each 
promptitude, tliat by the evening of October 2, nearly 1500 
officers and men, witii horses, guns, and equipment, were in 
tiieir allotted places. So excellent was all this that the late 
and much-lamented Major-General Sir William Fenn Symona 
expressed in a general order his appreciation of the " celerity 
and smartnesB with which the Natal Volunteers turned out 
and assembled at tlieir stations," recording at the same time 
that the railway airangementa were perfect. The Indian 
contingent, consifitdng of 8311 officers and men, 2792 horses, 
29 guns, and 1500 native attendants, with Btores, ammani- 



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NATAL GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 



109 



tion, and eqnipment, reqniring the employment of twenty- 
Beren transport ahips, began to anive at Port Natal on 
October 3, 1899, and oontdnaed coming till October 27. 
From the time of the first fire Bhipa being berthed, at and 
Sifter twelve noon, the troope were all landed in LadyHmith, 
191 milee distant, in leas than twenty-four honra. 

Hha following particnlarB give a cle« idea of the enormona 
nunber of troops, guns, snppliea, live Btock, he., conveyed 
over the Natal Government railways from the opening of 
the campcugn np to the end of Angast, 1900, a period of 
nearly^twelve months ; 

Offieem and men 166,195 

Women and children 181 

Natives and Indians 11,131 

Vehicl« 1,607 

Guns 267 

AmmonltaoQ (boxes) 9S8S 

Baraga and stores (tons) .... 6591 

Pontoons S9 

Traction engines and oarriagea ... 80 



Fbom Dubbah ahs Ponrr ohlx. 



Traopi. 


OfitMn. 


HetL 


Emm 
andHolM. 


Ghma 


Imperial troopi from Kng- 

Utkd and C^w porta 
Natal Volimtoeia . . 
bTegolaitioop.. . . 


S40 

1812 
4S 
182 


7971 

eisis 

1820 
4438 


27B3 

1S18S 
780 
3388 


2B 
78 

e 

8 


Total. . 


aSTT 


66638 


24036 


117 



„Coogle 



THE AN6L0-B0ER WAR 

SnPFUss, Ac. 



16d,S0« 

Hay and forage .... 28,600 
Bb«wood, ooal, ^ 30,241 



lore atook (horses, mules, oxen, and sheep), 91,614 head. 

The wwk of the railway engineering staff waB immemae in 
connection with the reoonatraotion of bridgea, cnlverta, per- 
manent way, water-tanke, &a, which, in spite of every effort 
to protect them, had been mthleasly destroyed. In the short 
space of five days, a trestle bridge at Frare was erected in 
place of the 300ft. iron structure which had been blown np. 
Only four days were ocoapied in laying down a branch line, 
four miles long, from Chiereley to the army's encampment 
at Hnssar ; while some twenty days were taken np in the 
oonstraction of another trestle bridge orer the Tngela at 
Colenso, to replace temporarily what was the lai^fest bridge 
in Katal Operations were continued night and day, the 
work after atmset being carried on with the aid of a powerful 
seaichligbt. Altogether no fewer than seventy-two bridges 
and onlverts were blown np by the Boers, and thirty-two 
different portions of the railway were destroyed. 

Lord Roberts expressed his appreciation of the work done 
by the Natal Qovemment Railway in the following words, 
which I take from his farewell speech on December 7, 
when leaving Dnrban for Oape Town en route to England to 
take np his dnties as Commander-in-chief, and initiate the 
reforms that are to take place at the War Office : 

From Beptember 20, 1699, to October 80, 1900, the number 
of troops passing throogh Durban oomprised 2450 officers, 68,374 
men, 26,789 horses, and 117 gnus. In addition to this, there 
had been sent np to the troops 206,289 tons of supplies, 32,000 



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NATAL GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 111 

ton of bay and fc«age, and 82,000 tons of firewood and coal. 
Tbwe have been also a large number of men, wonnded and 
in-ralido, brongbt down here, amounting to no lees than Sl,d35 
offioars and men. These figures will show yoa to what extent the 
powers of Durban have been taxed, and nothing pleeaee me more 
— beUering now titat at this time I can oonfidantl; say that the 
war is practioallj over — than to bear testimony to the noble way 
in which the Durban officials responded to oar wants, and to 
thank them all on the part of the aimy in a most heartfelt 
manner for the aid they hare given as. Of coarse, it was <m]y 
natmal that Dorban should be more intimately aasooiated with 
the Natal 7vi.A Vaaso than with the fortunes of the troops which 
I myself had the honour personally to command, and I was 
ddigfated to see, not kmg ago, that Sir Bedvers Buller, in very 
•lo^ient terms, bore testimony to the help which his troops had 
iteaived from cma and all in Dorban. 



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CHAPTER X 

IHPEBIAI, AND CAPE OOTEBNHENT RAILWAYB 

AiTEB a year's experience in ahnoet every 'part of Sontb 
Africa a£Eected by the war, and witb oi^iortniiitKa of fbnning 
an opmion on almost every administratiTe department, I 
have no hesitation in staling that whatever fanlta of jndg- 
ment, or errors in individual anieept)<m of doty may have 
ocrcorred during this Anglo-Boer war tiiere is scaroely an 
ofSoer or man, whatever his podtion, that has not done his 
ntmost to forward the Imperial caose. These remarks also 
apply to the many ladies, whose servioe the Army Medical 
Corps describe as, perhaps, the best of the campaign. It is 
not only those who are in direct military employ that hare 
done 8o well, but those who indirectly OMitribote to the great 
object in view, whose adB of hennam have not even been 
surpassed by those nine gallant men who received the 
coveted V.C. from their Commander-in-chief at Pretoria. 
In Cape Town and Durban, and all along the lines of oom- 
muiicataon, the staff ofiSoera and those serving nnder them 
have for months — getting on for two years — been working 
at high pressnre, with a corresponding effect on their nervoos 
system, though, in justice be it said, it is never observable in 
the reception of any one who vimta the castle, the main 
barracks, or the docks on legitimate buBinesB. The greatest 
courtesy is extended to all, from tiie general to the youngest 
offioer on the staff. 
Amongst so many hundreds and thousands it is nnreaaon- 



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CAPE RAILWAYS US 

able to expect that ereiybody shoold exliibit an equal amount 
of intdligsnce and phyaical strength, which latter has not 
infreqaently been the cause of "breakdowns," which have 
been exaggerated by thrae who make it their business to 
critidse nnfaToorably. In sfnte of all that may be said in 
r^iard to want of foresight and Uie bad management of the 
war, it mast be remembered that the requirements hare been 
enormoae; yet the oi^aniBation has Bomehow expanded to 
such a wonderfnl degree that onr foreign critics stand 
amazed and declare tliat no other nation conld have conveyed 
2SO,000 troops &om point to point with fewer mistakes. 

Personally, I prefer to make a statement of facts as 
correctly as I can, and leave to the pnblic the jadgment as 
to whether the work done is good or bad, adequate or in- 
adequate. 

In a former chapter on the Natal Government fiailway many 
remarks will be found that are eqoally ai^)Ucable to the 
case I am about to set forth ; and as the Imperial and Cape 
Government rwlways aie a continnation of each other, I will 
deal with both together ; though these remarks should be 
regarded merely as an ontline of their contribntion to the 
snccessfol issue of the war in Sonth Africa, and not the 
reeolt of the whole of their labours. 

The systematic despatch of troop trains to different parts 
of the colony, and into the Free State, is second to nothing 
in importance, and was for a long time in charge of Colonel 
WyncoU, D.A.A.Q. Abont seven trains per day nsed to 
leave the Sooth Arm, conveying troops, supplies, and stores. 
A sqnadron of cavalry, a battery of artillery, or a battalion of 
infantry requires two trains for their men, horses, guns, 
vehidee, and stores. The railway is a single medium, or 
3 ft 6 in. gauge, and there are numerous crossings which 
bare to be arranged for. All troop trains stop for at least 
an hoar — remount trains nearer three hours — three times 



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11* THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

per day, to feed men and horses. Hot water is kept ready, 
that the men may have tea, and each train oarries three days' 
supply of rations for the men and forage for the hoiwe. In 
addition to'the organisation which this military traffic requires, 
Coltmel WyncoU personally attended to the departure of the 
mul trains to Bloemfontein and Kimberley, aa staff offioen 
and persons of importance nightly proceed in them to the 
chief seat of war, and to the military bases en route. As far 
as possible, the ordinary passenger seirioe is also carried on 
with xegahxity. 

The steep gradients and sharp carrea that characterise the 
Natal line are not difficulties that have to be contended 
against l^ Colonel Girouarol, Il£ilitary Director of Imperial 
Railways, and Mr. Elliot, the General Manager of the Cape 
Qoremment BaOway, except on that section which connects 
Pretoria with Lorenzo Marques ; there the physical diffi- 
oolties are aren more severe, resembling the rack-and-pinion 
railways that ascend the aides of the monntaioH in Switzerland. 
In addition, the railway authorities on the Cape side have had 
to counteract the erratic proceedings of an extra " traffic 
manager," known to the public as Do Wet, whose activities 
required no less than seven construction trains, constantly at 
work, to repair the enormous damage done ; during the 
month of September the line was cut somewhere every day. 
As yet all efforts — and they have been many — have failed 
to deprive this destroyer of lines of his functions, for 
he possesses superior speed and knows well how to 



People is England, aocostomed to the smooth working 
and well-organised lines, can hardly appreciate the difficulties 
that this occasioned, eapecially as the presence of the enemy 
obliged night ranning to cease, for safety's sake, thereby 
greatly increasing the traffic to be dealt with during the 
hours of daylight, half of which were spent in repairing 



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CAPE RAILWAYS 115 

dama^, thus leaving bnt a Bmall portion for regalar 
traffic. 

The Cape Goremment Bailwaf is tlie eame as the Natal 
line, a single line thronghont. The length of those portions 
that were required for use by the military were practi- 
cally: 

Htl««. 

Oape Town to Tryburg 774 

Bait Biver to Simomtown SO 

Port ElisbeUi to Do Aar 839 

Naaapocort to Norval's Font 

Bosmead to Stormberg Junction 

Eart London to Aliwal North . 

Albert Jomddtni to Bethuli^Bridge 

1594 

Of this total the enemy had poseeesion of 374 miles. 
These figures, however, by no means represent the total 
mileage that has now to be worked, for, Einoe the relief of 
Mafeking, trains ran to Bnlawayo, a distance from Cape 
Town of 1360 miles. From Cape Town to Pretoria is 1040 
miles, and Pretoria to Koomati Poort is 292 more. It will 
thna be seen that the military and railway anthorities hare 
a very great length of line to protect. In conBidering these 
enormous distances and their sorronnding circnmstances, 
who can venture to criticise unfavourably the organisation 
and administrative ability of Colonel Gironard, Mr. Elliott, 
and Mr. David Hunter, all of whom have so harmoniously — 
with the military — directed such a gigantic undertaking ? 

Colonel Howard Yinceut, in a paper read at the United 
Service Institation, says the German calculation is that not 
more than 40,000 men can be fed on a single line ; but 
120,000 men, with stores and baggage, and 60,000 animals, 
with their complement of vehicles and forage, were ctuveyed 
over the single Cape Goremment line of 3 ft. 6 in. 



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116 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Now thftt thd time is near at hand for Bamming np 
results and rewarding those who have rendered yeoman 
serrice in the canse of British aapremaoy in South Africa, 
none will he found to have heen more zealoas in their duty 
than those who have had the control of railway traffic, civil as 
well as military. 

The small number of BOldierB in the colony at the com- 
mencement of the war, in October, impelled the rtulway 
department to render considerable asBistance to the militaiy 
in guarding the several lines by night and day, in order 
to prevent damage at vulnerable points by sympathisere 
with the Free State and South African Republic, thus 
allowing of the safe passage of the srmy until troops in 
sufficient numbers could be landed to protect the lines of 
communication. 

Had this assistance not been forthcoming, seotions of the 
line would certainly hare been destroyed and traffic wonld 
have been stopped — probably for weeks — especially con- 
sidering the rebellious state the Cape Dutch were in at this 
period. 

Daring the time the Boers were in the colony they inflicted 
considerable destruction to the ndlwaya — tearing up rails, 
blowing up calvertfl and bridges, utterly destroying the 
important bridges at Nerval's Font, Bethnlie, Modder 
Biver, Fourteen Streams, Lenwfontein, and Oorlogs Spruit, 
damaging stations and men's quarters to a frightful 
degree. 

In the notable defences of Kimberley and Mafeking, the 
railway staff took an active part, some of the officers and 
men being mentioned in despatches; and at those places 
which were taken possession of by the Bepnblican forces 
the staff exhibited considerable courage in remaining at their 
posts up to the last moment. Their hours on duty were 
anxious and long. More than one driver stood to be shot 



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CAPE RAILWAYS ll7 

rsther than yield hie place on the engine. On September 20, 
1900, a drirer was ahot dead while naming a night train ; 
hia serioosly wounded mate plucky stuck to hia poat and 
brought his dying comrade into Heidelborg. 

Lord Boberts* latest act prior to sailing from Cape Town 
(or England was to sanction the issue of a special medal for 
all engine-driTera engaged on endangered lines throughout 
South Africa during the war, be himself personally testifying 
to their heroic services. The Cape Government issued a 
circular notifying this decision, which caused intense satis- 
faction among railway men. 

The heroism of these men is constantly related by those 
who come in contact with them and know their danger. 

The present fai^reaching organisation of the Imperial 
railway in the month of April 1900 had scarcely begun to 
take form. The staff of the South African field force con- 
osted of the Director of Bailways aud some few officers of 
the Royal Engineers, who acted as Deputy-Assistant Directors 
of Bailways, and, as troops arrived, railway staff officers were 
appointed to the principal stations. 

1 have heard many adverse crlticiamB on the folly of 
having soldiers to run a railway — that it was not their 
proper nUtier, and that it was impossible for them to work a 
great line as well as civilians who have spent their lives at 
the basineas. This is nndoubtedly sound argument in times 
of peace ; but how conld a company find men in sufficient 
numbers to meet the demand and face the dangers that 
eadi step forward taken by the advandng army entailed ? 

How oonld civilians, unaided, direct tiie entraining and 
feeding of troops as they were pMsed on in their myriads ? 
Would " Tommy Atkins " have been obedient to their 
(nuers ? 

Many devices were employed to find a anffident number 
of reliable railway men to work the constantly increasing 



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118 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

length of line, Bome being soldiers with railway experience. 
All that could be 8pai<ed were lent by the Cape Goremment 
Railway; Bome were the employ^ of the old Free State 
Bailwfty, and advertising was freely reBorted to. A regiment 
of pioneers, consisting chiefly of railway men, was raised in 
December in Cape Town, to be employed in repairing the 
bridges destroyed by the enemy, this invalnabla oorpe being 
commanded by Major T. E. Capper, R.E., with Major L. T, 
Seymour as seooucl in command. 

Just to show the dangers thrae railway pioneers had to 
encounter, I will mention that whilst at Orange Biver, 
Modder Barer, and Nerval's Pont, they carried on their 
important work in imminent danger from the enemy's fire. 

On Jnue 5 Ko. 5 Company was ordered north to 
repair the bridge at Bhenoster Spmit They arrived at 
Boodewal in the evening of June 6, and the next morning 
were attacked by General Be Wet with a large force and 
fonr gnns. 

In company with about forty details of other regimente, 
who were on the station, they defended the place for abont 
so. hoars, and surrendered, after losing Captain Gale and six 
men killed and several wounded. They were marched about 
the country for about a month, and were then pat over tlie 
Natal border with 700 other prisoners. 

The right and centre wings were ordered to Zand Biver 
June 10, and arrived there on the 12th for the purpose 
of repairing the bridge. On the morning of the 14th 
they were attacked at daybreak by a commando, under 
Commandants Kouz and Borman, said to be abont 800 
strong. 

After a fight of several horns' duration, the enemy was 
driven off with a toss, as was afterwards ascertained, of nine 
killed and thirty, wounded. In this fight Major L. T. Seymour 
(who was mainly responnble for the raising of the regiment). 



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CAPE RAILWAYS 119 

ZientenAnt Clement, and fire men were killed, and one officer 
wad five men wounded. 

Suing the period the enemy's forces were in Gape 
Oolo&T'e territoiy the Cape Government Railway retained 
complete control orer their lines. All that was neoeseary 
for the army railway officers was to see Hak the Cape 
Goranunenk Bailway aathorities were not asked to carry ont 
impostdbilitieB, and for titiis purpose Colonel Ginraaid's 
officers were posted at varioos points of the syetem to act as 
intermediaries, and to control the direct military traffio. 

Upon the occapation of Bloemfontein, however, the 
railway management assomed a totally different aspect. 
There heing no existing stafE avulahle for the Free State 
Bailway, the military had at once to assume direct and sde 
ocmtrol from Norral's Font, employing, as a temporary mea- 
sore, tiie old Free State Bailway employ^ who had left tiie 
oonotry on hostilities being inuninent, hot were ready to 
retnm <m the British oocapation. The working statf was 
farther augmented from men in the servioe of the Gb^ 
Ckiromment Bailway. 

Ko greater proc^ of Colonel Girooard's appredation of 
civiHan help conld he addnced than the appointonent of Hr. 
"Bay, at the Gape Government Bailway, to be traffic manager 
of the Imperial military railways, and no words can oonvc^ an 
idea of ^le help rendered by the Cape Government Bailway 
to the militaiy anthorities in all emergencieB. Whatever 
reqnimtdons were made— and they ware large and constant, 
often caiudng great inconvenience to the department — 
they were cheerfully given, whether it was in the services 
of the staff or saptdies; military requirements being para- 
raonnt. 

Prior to the arrival of the first troopship at Cape Town, in 
November, 1899, a tinte-table had been framed 1^ the rail- 
way department for the prompt despatch np-coontry of the 



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120 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

first army corps, and as the whole of tlie South Ann at the 
docks was placed at the disposal of the militaiy for the du- 
embarkatioa of troops and their sapplies, the men entrained 
praoticaUy alongside the steamers, and were sent directly to 
their sereral destinations withoot delay. 

It was a matter of comment that transports were signalled 
hat the troops were never seen, so quietly were they entruned 
and sent away. 

Sabseqoently large nnmbers of troope, horses, moles 
and stores were sent inland from Port Elizaheth and East 
London ; bat in regard to the number of men, horses, mnles, 
vehicles, gons, &c.r and the tonnage of forage and supplies 
of all descriptions, they oome nnder their respectdve depart- 
ments. All frei^t, however, whether men, animals, or 
stores, carried over the rulways, was conveyed at so mnch 
per short track, a bogie vehicle counting as two shtnts. 
The military requisitioned for the number of carrii^;8B or 
tracks which they required, and loaded them to their fall 
capacities as they saw fit. 

The demand for trucks for the conveyance of military 
stores was so great that for months fully two-tiiir^ of the 
entire Cape stock of trucks were entirely in the possession of 
the mihtary, and even with that the cry for tracks was ever 
heard. In this particular perhaps something more might 
have been done by the military. Instead of trucks being 
anloaded and retamed for further use, many were kept for 
weeks on the lines, serving the purpose of store hoasee ; 
but tracks will not unload themselves, and labour at certain, 
paints was hard to get. 

Important work was undertaken by the locomotive depart- 
ment in armouring trains and converting carriages, vans, 
and trucks into five complete hospital trains for conveying 
the mck and wounded to the hospitals at the coast. 9-ft. 2-in, 
wad 6-in. guns were mounted on special trucks, mainly 



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CAPE RAILWAYS 121 

designed by the locomotdre officials, and the resiilt gavB 
evwy Batififactdoii to the military anthoritieB. 

It is worth recording that in consequence of the almost 
oomplete stoppage of the coal mines within the colony, and 
the impossibility of obtaining coal from the Orange River 
Coloi^ and l^e Transvaal, from which, prior to the outbreak 
of tlie war, the department was taking from 150,000 to 
200,000 tons per annom, it became abaolntely necessary to 
angment the supply on hand by ordering Welsh coal with 
the least possible delay. A quantity was purchased at the 
following high prices, and delivered at the several ports, 
viz., Cape Town, £4 \hs.\ Algoa Bay, £3 173. M.; and 
East London, £^ Ts. 6t^ per ton. This excessive price was 
doe to a coal strike in Wales, coupled with the fact that the 
Admiralty, War Office and Colonial Office had chartered so 
many steamers for various purposes that the freight charges 
had increased by leaps and bounds. Ever since the war 
b^[an the railway deparbnent has had to pay considerably 
enhanced prices for imported coal. Tet it is satisfactory 
to know that daring the year there has been a net profit 
tea. the railway receipts. Owing to the large military require- 
ments, in one week £17,000 more was earned than in a 
corresponding one of the previous year. 

It has been officially announced that the railway systems 
of the Orange Biver Colony and the Transvaal will continue 
to be administered as Imperial military railways for the next 
three years at least, and will then be handed over to Uieir 
respective Govemmenta. 

Earl Boberts, in his despatch on the work done by the 
AdminifltratiTe services of April 19, 1901 — see at the end of 
this volume — ^beara grateinl testimony to the arduous labours 
of ^e railway staff, both military and cuviL 



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CHAPTER XI 

RAILWAY STAFF OFFICERS 
Staff Officers are generally aopposed to be to a large 
extent ornamental, and to a certain degree nsefal, bnt they 
are not generally nnderstood to be called npon to orer- 
borden themselves with work. 

I have heard several officers express their opinion that the 
railway staff officer was nothing better than a "glorified rail- 
way porter," with nothing to do bat walk op and down the 
platform and look " pretty " in his staff cape and red tabs. 

No one who has any knowledge of the dntaee and responsi- 
bilities connected with the staff work of the Imperial military 
railways in Sonth A&ica would credit snch a statement 

If they only answered dlly questions which are pat to 
them in rapid succession, they wonid have something to do 
and enough to test their good breeding. 

Take a railway st&S officer at large stations or castres of 
distribution, Elandsfontein for example, the Clapham Jxaaatixm 
of Sonth Africa. No fewer than five lines converge in 
Urn railway centre, and those in charge are called npon to 
deal with traffic of all kinds from the Cape, from Natal, from 
Pretoria, and from the Delagoa line ; from Johannesburg and 
from Springs — the latter a ooal-mining district. !E3ands- 
fontein is not only a great junction, through which, in ordinary 
times of peace, 210 trains pass daily, bnt it is also a great 
depdt for military stores, the receiving and distributing of 
which to the various army corps is, if taken separately, a 



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lUILWAY STAFF OFFICERS liS 

great imdertAkiiig. The entraiimig and detramiug of troopa, 
with all their paraphernalia, the controlling of such passenger 
traffic as a state of war pennitB, the costody and passing on 
<^ prisoners of war, censoring telegrams, issuing of travelliog 
pormita, and the control of a considerable staff of both 
militaiy and cdrilians, provide other occupations than walking 
np and down the platform looking " pretty." 

The qaali£cations that appear to me to be most necessary 
for the position of a railway staff officer at a place like Mands- 
fontein are, in the first place, that he shonld possess ab 
impertnrbable good temper, with natural amiability i firmness 
in dealing with the varied human elements whioh like a 
kaleidoBOope pass before him ; readiness in emergency ; taot 
and disorimination, if he is to cope snocessfoUy with tiie task 
Bet him by the chief of the staff. 

The ndlway staff officer shonld be something of a liDgoist, 
in i order to commonicate his instmolions to the polyglot 
ccnnmnnity that make their reqnests in lingoes tiiat are 
eoongh to bewilder any ordinary man. Exclusive of the 
foreign and native languages, dialects from various parts of 
the British Empire are not a little confusing when tiiey come 
alt(^[etlier. A knowledge of Ihitch, French and German, 
and a certain amount of Zola, Basuto and Hindafltuii is 
indispensable. 

An army of such dimensions as that transported to Sooth 
Africa has a large month ; and Mr. Atldns, if he most ^gbt, 
must also be fed, and with regularity. 

When the army halted at Bloemfontein for food and 
equipment an enormons quantity of stores had to be worked 
up to meet immediate requirements as well as to form 
reaervea in anticapation of the next advance. 

From a railway staff officer's point of view, 4ihe war has 
been conducted in three great rushes : the msh to Bloem- 
fontein, the rush to Pretoria, and the msh east. 



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184 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

In the oi^anisatioa of each of these great moremente the 
difficulty most felt was the Bhortaess of 1^ staff and of the 
rolling stock, but above all, the iDteirnption to traffic, caused 
by the oontiniul dam^^ to the line, and the stoppage of 
night trains. 

The traffic managers and their asBlstants were in all cases 
civilians of experience, but the engineering staff was 
officered almost entirely by the ihilitary, thongh it mnst be 
noted that this did not necessarily mean only Royal Engineers 
officers. Colonials and others were employed in the depart- 
ment. 

It coold not, howerer, be expected that a staff hastily got 
together could work smoothly at first. The military did not 
nnderstuid the dvilians, and the cavilians did not quite take 
to the somewhat overbearing and inconsiderate ways of the 
military, both on and off the railway. It may not be without 
point here to observe that when these oolonialB were in the 
positions of command their own demeimour was frequently the 
most inconsiderate and overbearing of all. The Guards wero 
perhaps the most successful of any set of officers in holding 
t<^[ether in harmony the various human elements that came in 
contact on the railway. Inl^edisoharge of uncongenial duties 
the Guards, both by precept and example, may claim to have 
got the best work out of the men nnder their orders, and 
that eon amore. 

It was in such cases that the nulwsy staff officer was 
seen to such advantage and his tact and temper tested. He 
was a sort of " Buffer State " ; and was responsible that only 
authorised persons and goods proceeded by rail. His duty 
made it necessary often to say " No " when he would greatly 
have preferred to say " Yes," the applicant being frequently 
very angry at the refusaL Hence it will be seen that mnch 
depended upon 'this much-abused person, the railway staff 
officer. 



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RAILWAY STAFF OFFICERS 125 

As regards the method of dealing with the traffic, th« 
chief of the staff issued the orders as to what was required, 
whether r^^ent's supplies or ordnaooe, and tm) ont nor 
anything else was permitted to pass. It often happened, how- 
ever, that some argent troop-more compelled all previons 
arrangetnents for ordiaary traffic to be set aside. The 
collection of cattle tracks and bogie flat tracks that were 
neoessary for a troop more meant the practical Baapension of 
remonnt traffic and the disoi^nisation of the sapply traffic. 
This dislocation ooald not, perhaps, be set right for a day or 
two, as the tracks were naturally landed empty at the opposite 
end of a long joomey from that at which th^ were reqaired to 
be refilled. In spite of all these diffioalties, a Urge amount 
of traffic was got thxoagh, owing chiefly to the doggoi 
determination of the military and cavil staff. The energy 
and rapidity with which the line was repaired was often 
amazing, traffic being sometimes reaomed eren before the 
DirectfMr of Bailways had had time to hear of the inter- 
raption. 

Foreign attaches were often heard expressing their earprise 
at the way the work waa done, and by men who had had no 
former training in these daties. Had there been a moment 
of real ill-feeling between the military and civil authorities in 
the trafl^ department, things woaldjhave worked ill and gone 
to the bad. Instead, the daties connected with the railway 
were carried on with an energy that sorpassed De Wet him- 
self, and redaced all his endeavonrs to small acconnt. 

In stating the case for the railway stafE officers it mast 
not be snpposed that I claim for the working of the railway 
that it ooald not have been better. The ignorance of many 
officers of all ranks as to the working of railways was a 
serions festnre. It caaeed orders to be given and carried 
oat which led to the most disastroas results in the traffic — 
oonseqaences entirely attribatable to the ignorance of the 



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186 THE AXGLO-BOER WAR 

giver of tlie order. Also a number of good railway men in 
the ranks never found their way into the Imperial Militaiy 
Bail way from the same canee, aa well ae from a nataral nnwil- 
lingness to part with them. I know that such stress of 
(nrcnmatances occurred, that men were put on an engine 
who had no idea of how to work it, and hare been heard to 
say, " It is all very eaay to say ' all right,' or ' go ahead,' 
bat how do yon start the blooming thing ? " If there was 
so little knowledge of how to start, bow was the stopping 
oomingoff? 

Let OS hope steps will be taken to remedy these defects 
before another campaign, and tiiat the lessons of history 
may be better learnt and applied in the fntnre. It is not, 
however, encouraging to this hope to remember that the self- 
same difficulties arose and were pointed out in a standard 
work OQ the railway operations in the Franco-German war. 



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CHAPTEE XII 

THE STAFF COLLEGE 

Teb one institntlon in the British Army above all others 
conoeming which more ignorance prevails in and out of the 
service is the Staff College. What is the Staff College ? 
Trae, it is an edncational establishment, bnt its work is 
done in qoite a different way to that most people sappose. 
The nnfortnnate Staff College is expected to do for a man 
more, aye, far more, than any other establishment in this 
world, or professor for a pupil. It is snpposed to convert a 
dnllard into the most brilliant and unerring staff officer, and 
the unreasoning and nnreasonable officer into a most capable 
one. When gold or some other metal is obtained from a 
mine it is submitted to an assayer for anal^is, and this 
expert really determines the nature of the "find" and its 
fineness. Now, the Staff College only does for the army 
what the assayer does for the mine-owner. The professors 
at the Staff College, after all, can only ascertain the qnali- 
ficationa of tiie officers who stady onder them. In testing 
minerals chemicals are nsed, and it often happens that 
pcntiOQB of the minerals nnder test become incorporated 
with the chemicals used as agents in the test. So it is at the 
Staff College : during the proceas of the test at that establish- 
ment, a large number of officers of different branches of the 
service are brought together, and this intercourse leads to a 
dissemination of mihtary knowledge. Officers discover that 
offioen of their branch of the service do not poBBess an 



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128 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

ezdndre knowledge of thia militaiy sabject, or that ; they 
also diecorer the jKunta on whidi their knowledge is either 
defective or erroneone ; they leam also that altfaongh they 
stay belong to different branches of the Bervice, yet they are 
able to work t(^ther hormonionBly to bring about a oartain 
reBolt. Bnt how is this done ? Some fancy that an attraapt 
ie made at the Staff College to bring about this deednble 
reanlt by cramming the poor officers who go to that estab- 
lishment, witii a knowledge of higher mathematics, chemistry, 
and other nseless snbjecta. Now, no greater error can be 
made than to suppose that the Staff Collie course oonaists 
in the learning by rote of figures relating to military details 
and a certain number of cut and dried military marims. 
What are the sulijects then which are taught at the Staff 
College ? They are the following : — 

(L) Military history, tactics, and strat^y. 

(ii) Held and permanent fortification. 

(iiL) Military topography. 

(yr.) Staff duties. 

(v.) French and Gterman. 

But how is the inatruction in these subjects carried on, and 
what is the real necessity for instmction in each of the above- 
named sabjeots P It has already been hinted that the officers 
studying at the College at one time mutually instTuct cue 
another ; it should also be understood that rapidity in dealing 
with the problems given out is also an essential feature in the 
system of instruction adopted. To explain this system it will 
perhaps be best to deal shortly with each of the subjects 
tanght separately. 

(i) Milttaiy history, <6c. — It is hardly necessary to ex- 
plain that from military history it is that most <^ the 
lessons of strategy are to be learnt. In reading of post 
campugns conducted by the renowned generals of t^e world. 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 12» 

we leoTD that the adoption o£ certain precaations led to 
victory, and their net^lect to defeat and disaster ; we learn 
tJutt oertsin atrategioal manaanvree when ezeonted hy a par- 
ticular general, nnder certun existing conditions, were sticceae- 
fol and bad a beneficial bearing on the subsequent operations 
of this general's army, yet the identical manoenvres conducted 
by another general, under slightly different conditions, it will 
often be learnt, ended in disaster. It is from actnal war 
experience that one learns how far the tactics of the period 
have been modified by the progress in armaments, new pro- 
pellents, &c,, and it is to military history that a soldier turns 
for a true account of that actial straggle on the battlefield 
which finally decides as to the side with which the victory 
rests. Strategy is taught at the Staff College by creating a 
ntuation which resembles one which has actnally oocorred in 
war. Sometimes the situation is created merely on paper, 
the theatre of operations selected being one chosen from 
history, at other times a situation is created on the actual 
ground, either near Camberley, or may be even at a 
distance from the Staff College. The former exeroiaes are 
woriied out by officers, either in groups or individoally ; 
they are allowed the use of books, but a date is always 
fixed by which the arguments. Sec, on the sabjeot 
mnst be handed in. The latter class of problems are 
generally dealt with on the field of operationB ^Jy groups of 
officers. Tactical problems are generally worked on similar 
lines. But as in this case actual units can be dealt with 
on the ground, the greater part of the instruction in tactics 
is given at the time the exercise takes place. An area 
near Camberley, Beading, Newbury, or some other point 
easily reached from Camberley, is chosen for the day's 
operations, and the officers are told off as brigadiers, 
divisional commanders, and staff officers to the several 
brigades and divisions which it is assumed will take part in 



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130 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

the operations; next, a HchemeoB nearly as possible resemUing 
one likely to occur in war is set, the brigadiers and divisional 
commanders, with their staffs, write ont the orders for their 
commande which the sitoation appears to demand, and the 
exercise is worked ont to even the disposition of the imagi- 
nary diTisioDB, brigades, and battalions on the actnal ground. 
The day's operations are afterwards thoroughly disoDSsed, and 
errors are pointed ont. In this way many details of staff 
arrangements come to light, and the effects of neglect of 
trivial details of staff work also show themselves in the failure 
in this or that part of the field. The officers are not required 
nowadays to burden their memories with a whole mass of 
detail concerning the moTementa of armies in the theatres of 
the wars they deal with, nor are they called npon to remember 
the wanderings of the tmite from one part of the field to 
another in the famous battles of the world. It is to the main 
resnlta to be expected from the adoption of this course, or 
that, that their attention is directed. It is not every man 
who knows all the propositiona in the twelve books of Ihiclid 
who can work out a " rider " ; so it is with strategy. It will 
not be denied that t^e officer who can often rattle off all the 
well-known maxims of war — so called — as fluently as the 
parson can the Lord's Prayer, is the last person who can &pply 
the proper maxims to the military situation of the moment 
Daring bhe present war Mr. Khodes asked an officer shnt up 
in Kimberley during the siege, what course he would adopt 
if given command of the army — this was at the time of 
Magerafontein. This officer happened to be a Staff College 
officer, and therefore, according to the opponents of the Staff 
Collie coarse, he ought to have argued somewhat on the 
following lines : " Theory demands that for a large army the 
' line of communication ' shall, if possible, be a nulway ; 
now, there is only one railway through the Free State to 
Bloemfontein, and therefore I would, if given command. 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 131 

adranoe witlt my mun army either from Notral's Pout or 
from Betholie vi& Springfontein or Bloemffaktein." How- 
ewat, the answer of the officer in question was totally different. 
He stated that given a safficientBritish force in Matal to deal 
with the Boers known to be in that portion of the theatre of 
operations ; given also that there were anffioient British 
troops in Cape Colony to safeguard the " lines of oommani< 
cation," and to pat down any rebellion likely to break oat in 
Cape Colmy ; given, farther, that a sufficient force remained 
over in Sonth Africa to deal with any Boer force likely to be 
met Boath of the Taal Biver in the western theatre of prepa- 
rstiiHui, then if he were given command and die preparations 
for an advance were complete, he would at once make an 
adranoe with his main western army on Kimberley, and after 
taming the Boers under Cronje oat of their stronghold at 
Magetsfonteio, he woald poraoe the main body of this Boer 
force even should it retire either along the Modder or the 
Taal Biver. But why did this officer give auch a reply? 
Simply because the first and most important maxim in war is 
that a conunander shall bring superior forces against the 
portifHi of the enemy's army at the dedaive point. This is a 
maxim which never changes, and is as old as the hills ; Julius 
Cnsar probably knew no other, and the campaigns of the 
great Napoleon teem with examples of how he brought about 
this oombination of superiority of bis troops at the decisive 
point. At the opening of the Transvaal War the decisive 
pcont in the western theatre of operations was for the time 
being the point of concentration of the Boer forces in this 
theatre, viz., Magersfontein. Strange as it may appear to the 
unreasoning critic of the present day, to no other military 
maxim is so much importance attached at the Staff College 
as to this one, and to no other oonsideration than that of 
bringing aboat a superiority of force at the decisive point is 
60 much attention paid in the strategical and tactical 



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ISS THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

problems oonBidered at tfa&t institiition. There is no greater 
fallacy than that which credits strategy with being a science 
which mnst be conducted in aocnrd&nce with a certain narrow 
set of roles, lines similar to those by which some teetotal clnb 
or abstinence society is conducted. Strategy ia, after all, 
based on common sense ; and it is not the Staff GoUege, but 
rather the ignoramos and the pedant who give a false concept 
tioD of the elements which mahe np the science. In all 
matteia of this world one oan leam from the recorded expe- 
riences of others the common-sense way of dealing with the 
more difficnlt problems which present themselves in erery 
calling of life daily — if Nature has not given one an afann- 
dauce of common sense as an inherent gift, the Staff College 
cannot. By tboK less blessed, strategy and tactics are 
militaiy nutters that are written down and talked down as 
" pare theory," and are merely recorded as the experiences 
of military grandaseiffneura. 

(u.) Field and permanent fortifiatHon. — Borne consider that 
fortification is a sabjeot which concerns the Eofpneers alone, 
and wonder why the precious time of a wonld-be staff officer 
shoold be wasted with this subject, which they suppose con- 
sists essentially of a mass of details concerning the dinen- 
cdons of varions parts of redonbts, forte, &&, often possessing 
some cross-bred name. Bat the Staff College stndent is not 
expected to become an Engineer, and therefore he is not called 
upon to deal with the details of this subject As in tactics, 
the instrnotion given in field fortifioation is given on the 
gronnd. A scheme is set in which units of an army are sup- 
posed to take part ; Uie officers work either individually or in 
groaps, and make all the arrangements for their supposed 
oommaDds on the actual ground ; the prof essw criticises the 
dispositions, and the students are called on for their reasons 
for doing tMs andinot that, and so on. But why should field 
fortification be considered so much a special subject? In its 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 133 

essence is it not, after all, a form of applied tactics ? Per- 
manent fortification, further, does not coDsist entirely of an 
elaborate dispomtion of cnpolas, raveline, cotmtergnards, &c., 
and of roles to determine the dimentdonB for tbis part of a 
work or that. There is another aspect from which this 
Bnbject can be looked at, and that is the strategical aspect. 
It is to the strate^ of permanent fortification, if it may be 
so called, that the attention of the Staff College stadent is 
directed. He is familiarised with tiie reasons which have 
prompted the creation of fortresaeB along one section of an 
axinting frontier on one scale, and on a totally different scale 
on some other section of the same frontier ; in fact, the whole 
oonsideration of the qneatioD of frontier defenoe from the 
point of view of strategy is folly gone into. Similarly, the 
strategical relations of the permanent defences of varioos 
important places to field armies likely to be operating in their 
n^ghbonrhood are fnlly dealt with. In this subject also the 
etndents are not called on to remember details ; bat only a 
knowledge of the principles governing the selection of the 
pconts to be defended is expected from them. Will any one be 
found to hold that snch^^knowledge is nnnecessary on the part 
of the staff c^cer ? Sorely not. The En^neer may in the first 
place be called on for the exposition of his views on soch a 
matter, bot the officer whoee doty it is to give a decision 
regarding the acceptance or rejection of the Engineer's advice 
sorely ooght to be one possessing some knowledge of the 
general principles of this sabject. 

(iiL) Miiita/ry topography. — It is necessary to state for 
general infomistion that military topography does not consist 
in the production of highly accurate and artistic maps of a 
road or tract of country. Of all snbjects taoght at the Staff 
College this la the one in which a more searching test of the 
capadty of the student to work against time is made tbim in 
any other. Whether the map to be produced is a road 



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1.14 THE AXOLOBOER WAR 

sketch, or the map of a river line, or that of a tract of country, 
a tactical echeme is always associated with the prodnction of 
a representation of the physical features of the groand to be 
dealt with dnring the day. The relation of ground to 
mancenvre and of maDOiuTre to ground, in this manner, 
is TiTidly bronght before the student. The importance of 
this relation has been amply demonstrated in Sontli Africa 
since October 11,1 899, and therefore it is not necessary to say 
more on the sobject here. 

(iv.) ^afi (furies.— -The last, bat by no means the least 
important, subject tangbt at the Staff College is, for the want 
of a more comprehensiTe title, called staff duties. This 
subject deals with the wants of an army, the different depart- 
ments that are charged with the responsibility of providing for 
these wanta, and the relation of these departments to one 
another. It is a subject which covers a wide area: it deals 
with the {Nothing of an army in peace and in war, with the 
feeding of an army at all times, with the provision of trans- 
port for an army, with the conveyance of troops by land and 
by water, with camps for a force, large or small, and with the 
preparation of all that is required for the well-being and 
comfort of the men in the same. Under the head of staff 
duties are also considered the questions relating to marches 
and the writing of orders for the same, detailing measures 
for safety, arrangements in connection with supply, Sx. The 
majority of the schemes in this subject are also worked out 
on the actual ground, generally by officers in groups. Some 
organised unit of the army is bronght into requisition, the 
student officers are detailed to the various staff billets which 
the unit is allowed in our organisation, and a scheme is set 
dealing with some requirement of this force on the anppoii- 
tion that it is operating under certain conditions, either in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the Staff College or even in 
some more distant area. In this manner the students 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 185 

become aoqnainted with the details of onr army orguuBatioo, 
the hnndred and one wants of the troops snder the varying 
ctmdittons of peace and war service, and the Btndents also 
learn to whom they shall refer this matter and that With- 
out learning the details in connection with railway construc- 
tion and traffic management, without acquiring any extensive 
knowledge concerning electricity and telegraph instmmenta, 
&C., the Btndente yet do become aoquainted. with a sufficient 
knowledge of railways and of telegraphs to enable them even 
to deal consistently with questions relating to the use of 
railways and telegraph for the benefit of troops. 

(v.) French, and German — The only languages now taught 
at the Staff College are French and German, and each officer 
must pass a qualifying teat in one or other at least of these lan- 
goagea before he can obtain a P.S.C. Perhaps the aoquisi- 
tion of a language is, after all, only an accomplishment, still, 
it cannot be denied that it opens up to the man possessing it 
a wider field of literature, past and current, and therefore this 
man can keep himself more in touch with modem thought in 
cooDtriea other than his own. Will any one maintain that 
there is no advantage in this ? 

Svmmary, — The foregoing examination will show that an 
attempt a made, at least, to make the instmction at the Staff 
College practical ; and yet one must admit that men go to the 
Staff College, and after a two years' residence still remain un- 
practical. How is this to be accounted for ? The regulations 
for admission to the Staff Collage require commanding 
officers to answer certain questions oonceming woold-be 
candidates for the institntion. If these qaestions were in 
every case answered without fear, favour, or affection, i.e., if 
commanding (^cers would dry up the milk of human kind- 
ness in their nature, when considering applications from 
candidates, the complaint would be less frequent that this 
duffer or that was a Staff College graduate It is neces- 



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196 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

eary to repeat tbat the Staff Coll^;e cannot do for a oan 
that which no other a^ncy in this world can do fcff 
him. Now, in the South African campaign the " inky- 
fingered," Staff-College- trained officer is aaid to have been a 
failare, and names are ereo mentioned in this connaotiaiL 
To deal with this question fairly, it must be pointed oat that 
the method of instruction of ten years ago at the Staff 
College cannot be compared with the presenWay mBfantctioD, 
and therefore it is unreasonable to condemn the Staff College 
of to-day because a papil of the establishment of antiqaated- 
method-of-iDStruction days proves himself incompetent. In 
common fairness it mnst be admitted that daring General 
Hildyard's regime at the StaffCoIlege reforms were institnted 
and the instruction brought np to date. If the nation really 
desires to reap the foil advantage from this establishmenti 
two things are absolntely necessary, vix, that faTOaritism 
mnst cease, even as regards the selection of Staff College 
graduates for important staff billets ; and in every case that 
the graduate be chosen for the partiailar appointmmt who has 
the qtecial aptitude for the partieular dutiea of the vaoant 
appointment. Lastly, the question ariaes, of what use are 
highly trained staff officers, if the generals they are called 
upon to advise and assist have not studied their profession 
and fail to follow the reasoninge of these staff officers ? So 
there are two sides to this question, as to every other. There 
are as good fish in the sea as have been taken out of it, so 
also there are as good officen in the British army who have 
not been through the Staff College as there are t^cera who 
have passed through that establishment. Bat is this a good 
reason for abolishing the Staff College ? Sorely, the answer 
of an unprejudiced person cannot but be, No. la it Dot the 
case that the British army would benefit rather than other- 
wise by extending the advantages, even in a modified form, 
to a large number of officers. The officer who can go away 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 137 

from the Staff College after two yean^ honest stady'and claim 
that he has learnt nothing, most be either a craes fool or a 
conceited idiot. It has been admitted that all officers who 
graduate at the Staff College do not possess the necessary 
qoolifioations for staff appointments. Bnt can the privil^^ 
of writLDgF.S.C. after their nuQes be denied these? Certainly 
not. Although they may be wanting in some respecto, there 
are few indeed who hare not improved by imdergoing the 
two years' coarse of study; and if the distinction of the 
coveted letters were withheld from all bnt those thought to 
be qoalified for the staff, is there not a danger that many 
wonld be deterred by feelings of pardonable pride from 
mmang the risk of failnre, so to speak, and thereby a rednc- 
tion in ihe tinmber of candidates for the college might 
follow? Students of human nature, it is fanded, will 
answer. Yes. Is tUs not an argoment for increasing 
lai^y the nomber of stadents at the Staff College, so as 
to remove the idea that the sole reason for the existence 
of this establielunent is to provide staff officers rather 
than to diaaeminate military knowledge thronghont the 
British army ? By increasing the number of students, the 
powers that be would have the field of selection for impor- 
tant appointments very much extended for them, and the 
officers of the army would approach nearer to the ideal 
article than they do to-day. The officers of the different 
arms of the service would be brought into closer contact 
with one another in their matnrer years if they had to 
study together ; and too much is not expected when it is 
stated that such an arrangement would tend to increase the 
sympathy between the different branches of the service, and 
would also result in a more perfect understanding of the 
ftmctioQB of these branches by officers of all arms than is the 
case to-day. The foundation would also be laid for a better 
understanding between staff and regimental officers ; and one 



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1S8 THE ASGLO-BOER WAR 

of tiie moBt Berions complaints of the day ooncems Uie lack of 
sympathy betweeo the etaff and the regimental officen. 

Owing to the great demand daring this war iac every 
trained officer availalile, the College at Camberley has had to 
be closed for the year. Both in South Africa and in En^and 
I hare heard many military men of rarionB ranks and ages 
exprosa the hope that it might never be re-opened; but this is 
not the view entertained in Pall Mall, as it recommenced 
its edacational functions as nsnal on the 22nd of January. 

The failnre in the field of some of the most tmated Staff 
College graduates, and the brilliant snccess of certain 
generals that have never been near it hare been meet extra- 
ordinary, and lent a certain colour ta the adverse criticism 
that has been levelled at this famous establishment and its 
gradnates, and, in the opinion of some, these resnlts amply 
justify the total aboUtioD of the college. 

They argue : ' ' What is the use of a college that turns out 
only a set of ' Btupid officers ' good for nothing ? The test of 
actual war proves the truth that the course of inebmctaon 
they receive only maddles their heads ; and, beeddes, it Is very 
expensive, and takes up two valuable years of their lives 
— time that might be better emplc^ed." 

Kow, in India just the reverse of this opinion is heard. 
There is quite an agitation going on amongst military men 
for a special Staff Coll^;e for teaching Indian officers the 
higher parts of the science of war, which will find additional 
recmits witii the return of the troops that have taken part in 
the South African campugu. To anybody that is unpre- 
judiced and knows the conditions of service in India, such an 
instdtutdon would be a great boon. 

There is no such college in India to which a man can go 
who wishes to make his mark in hie profession. 

The officers in the Indian Staff Corps are not, generally 
speaking, rich enough to afford to go to Camberley, and it 



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THE STAFF COLLEGE 139 

seeoiB a pity that young officers who are keenly alive to the 
importanoe <tf Belf-improvement and aiudonB to rise by their 
merits, have not the chance of doing bo. 

A staff college ooold more satisfactorily cany on the 
instractive work that is being done by teachers who hold 
classes of all sorts in different parts of India, which are 
neceBearily very expensive to both those who teach and 
those who are tangbt. 

There are many great families in India that would readily 
BOpport SQch an eatablifibment, and, if onr military organisa- 
tionB are to be made adequate to the needs of the Empire, 
encouragement mast be extended to every part of it where 
men may be fonnd to serve in the army and anziooB to fit 
themselves for military service in its higher branches. 



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CHAPTER XIII 

PRESS OENBOBS A}fD WAB 00BBE8P0NDSNTB 

Fboh a war correspondent's point of view there is no staff 
officer connected with the field force so important as the 
chief press censor. He is the all-important one anumget 
them. 

Daring the greater part of the war, ontil the return of 
Earl Roberts, Lord Stanley, M.P., occupied this important 
and difficult position, and Major Bagot, M,P., was the great 
man at Cape Town ; at Durban, Major W. I. Jones, Wilt- 
shire Regiment, was press censor. 

On arrival at the Cape, erery war correspondent had to 
report himself and show his licence and other credentials, 
which, if satisfactory, and the newspaper he purported to 
represent was not already served with the maximum number 
of press men at the place to which he desired to proceed, 
then facilities and passes to travel were ^ven to him as 
far as the militaiy arrangements pemutted ; though it 
has often happened that correspondents have bad to make 
their own way independently as best they could. If they 
were zealous in their work, and if tke journals they repre- 
sented were generous in their financial arrangements, the cost 
they entailed in getting about the country after information 
was very considerable. But news is a commodity the public 
is willing to pay for, and it is but seldom that newspaper 
proprietors are not sufficiently alive to their own interests to 
allow lai^ sums for travelling expenses and remoneratuig 



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PRESS CENSORS 141 

those who face the dangen, diffionlties, ancl hardehipB in 
time of war with the recompense that iB their doe. Not to 
do 80 would be a very false economy. 

The fact that the position of a war correapondent accom- 
panying the troops ia very ardnona and trying, is indiepntably 
proved by the heavy losaea amongst them in the war now 
pending in South Africa, losses occasioned by shot and shell 
and by the still more deadly effects of fever. 

The names of prominent war correspondents who have 
eapecially suffered, sach as Mr. Steevens of the Daily Mail* 
who died in lAdysmith from enteric fever, and Mr. Knight 
of the Monnvng Pott, who loat his right arm and nearly hia 
life at Modder Biver, will readily oocnr to the mind, bat 
SDofa a long list of casualties amongst them will come as a 
surprise to a great many people. Up to June 6, 1900,t 
Uiere wwe over forty victims who were reported as sick or 
dead, and there were others who struggled through their 
maladies "somehow," of which no mention was made, but 
npon whose oonstitDtions the effects of a long campaign have 
left indeKble marks, my own person bearing testimony to the 
truth of my statement. . 

The Daily BT^esa, in its issue of June 6, 1900, says, in 
living the appended list, that. 

It seems to have been the fate of half the correepoo dents to 
tall on the veld, to fall ill, or to fall into gaol. The DaHy Mail 
was particularly onliicky ; Reater's and the Times, on the other 
hand, phenomenally fortunate. The Expnaa correspondents have 
only had a few weeks of the war, bat one of them has been laid 
low by the deadfy enterio. 

* Ttit proprleton of tbe DaHy Mali bare given a peorion ot £S00 a year 
to Urn. StMTeu, thongli hex Bnanoial ptwition «u not one ot peoni^azy 



f Aa lu aa I have bean able to asovtaln, no deatha < 
wonnded caiaaltlee haTe ilnoe ooonmd. 



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142 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Mingled with their regrets at this sad price of success, press- 
men may feel a jost pride at the courage ajid enterprise of their 
oolleoguea. Oowards would not be shot, nor laggards taken 
prisoner. 

The victims were : — 

Mr. O. W. Steevens, Daily Mail, died of ent«ric during siege 
of lAdyamith. 

Mr, Alfred Ferrand, Morning Poet, killed ac Ladysmith. 

Mr. Albert Collett, Daily Mail, killed in action, Molteoo. 

Mr. Lunbie, Melbourae Age, killed at Rensbuig. 

Colonel Hoskier, SpAen, killed near Stonnberg. 

Mr. Bmeet Q. Farslow, Daily Chronic, shot dead by Lieu- 
tenant Murchiaon at Maf eking. Murderer, penal servitude for life. 

Mr. Mitchell, Standard, captured, escaped, took enteric fever, 
and died. 

Mr. W. SpooDer, Beuter'e, died of fever. 

Mr. Ohariea E. Hands, DaUy Mail, dangerously wounded, 
Maritaani (recovering by last news). 

Mr. A. O. Hales, Daily Noma, wounded and captured. 

Mr. Julian Ralph, Daily Mail, struck by shell fragment at 
Belmont and severely injured in accident. 

Mr, F. W. Walker, Daily Mail, wounded at Stormbeig. 

Captain Wright, Daily Mail, injured while despatch riding. 

Lord Delftwarr, Globe, wounded at Yryheid. 

Mr. F. J. Beid (son of Sir H. O. Reid), £eAo, seriously 
wounded at Kheis. 

Mr. B. F. Knight, Morning Pott, shot with sporting Mauser 
bullet at Belmont, right arm amputated. 

Mr. V^nston Spenoer Churchill, Morning Pott, captured at 
Ghieveley, afterwards escaped. 

Lord Cecil Manners, Morning Post, captured near Johannes- 
burg, and liberated. 

Mr. Halee, Sydney Morning Herald, captured. 

Mr. Ge(nge Lynch, Morning Herald and Echo, captured, 
released, in hospital wiUi enteric fever, now in England. 

Mr. M. H. Donohoe, DaUy Ghronide, captured, probably 
released yesterday. 

Mr. A. Graham, Central Nowe, missing since May 31, sup- 
posed captured, 



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PRESS CEXSOHS 143 

Mr. A. F. Hellawell, Rer. Adrian Hofmejr, lAdy Sarah 
Wikon, all DaUy Mail, captured. 

Lord Rosalyn, Daiiy Mail and Sphere, captured. 

Mr. Jameci Milne, Beuter, captured. 

Mr. John Stuart, Morning Poat, near); blind after siege of 
Le^Tsmith, recovered, now ill with dysentery. 

Mr. W. Maxwell, Standard, enteric fever during siege of 
Lad;siiiidi, recovered. 

Mr. Alfred Kinneor, Central Xews, enteric, invalided home. 

Mr. Job. 3. Dunn, Central Kews, twice captured, enteric, 



Mr. W. Martindale, Mr. W. S. Swallow, and Mr. Oharlea 
Bray, Central News, enteric, recovered. 

Mr. F. A, Stewart, Illuehtitad Lortd&n -Vews, down with 
dyseoteiy at Durban. 

Mr. W. T. Maud, Daily Grap&ie, laid up with enteric fever 
after Ladysmith, and invalided home. 

Mr. Bnllen, Daily TeUgrapA, invalided borne. 

Mr. H. W. Nevinaon, Daily Chronide, in hospital with fever 
now recovered. 

Mr. J. A. Cameron, Daily Chronxde, enteric; permanently 
invalided. 

Mr. Biayley Hodgetts, Sxprwe, invalided with enteric. 

Mr. Lester Ralph, Mr. H. Lyons, Mr. R. C. £. Nissen, and 
Mr. L. Oppenbeim, Daily Mail, invalided. 

The oonditions of modem warfare are such that the oorre- 
Bpondenta who wish to see for themselves the realities of 
war, and the consequences of long-range guns and smokeless 
powder, must advance well to the front line of battle, aocom- 
paoy patrols, and follow the army whithersoever it goes. 
They must live in campe or tramp along like any ordinaty 
soldier. There is no going to the top of a hill to watch at a 
Bftfo distance. They most be in the centre of things, not 
beyond the reach of bullets, shrapnel, and lyddite shells ; 
that is to say if they wish to get their information at the 
actual pcHnt of observation. 

At Magersfontein the correspondents were in the midst 



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14t THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tii the battle, taking cover as beet they could ancler the ant- 
hills, where they lay low for some twelve boors, in fact th» 
whole day in a burning Bun, withont food. 

In addition to the dangers and hardships of the fighting 
force in which the war correspondents at the front are 
obliged to participate, they have their troubles in connec- 
tion with the press censor, which are close and oontinnal. 
With the exercise of tact and good feeling on both sides, 
friction can be reduced to a minimum, though now and again 
small rnptnrea in their amicable relations most from time to 
time arise. 

The oorrespondente have their papers to serve, and they 
wish to pass mess^es through that the press censor, for 
military reasons, cannot sanction. I am convinced there is 
no position so difficult to fill on active service as that of press 
censor. He is between two fires. In censoring the war 
correspondents^ telegrams which they submit to him for 
tranBinisaion, he has to consider how far the information 
would be neefal to the enemy when telegraphed Inct: by 
Boer sympathisers in the course of a few days, and to what 
detrimental effect it could be employed against the British 
foroea 

Having arrived at a decision as to what should be elimi- 
nated, he has to mn with no nnsparing hand the well-known 
and thoroughly hated blue lines through the objectionable 
paragraphs, which not unfrequently includes the whole 
message. 

Then comes another question which ia not always settied 
in aooordanoe with what this or that oorrespoudent considers 
strict justice and impartiality — the precedence of telegrams 
on the wires. The offidal despatches to be sent are so 
numerous that the lines are often blocked for days, and it is 
impossible to get a press mesnage through. 

The first place has, of ooorse, to be accorded to the reports 



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PRESS CENSORS 145 

of tho Commftnder-m-chief to the Secretary of State for War ; 
and as the information they contain is, as far as possible, 
given to the poblic, it renders that of the correspondent, 
which he has heen at great troable and expense to obtain, of 
hardly any valne to the editor of his newspaper; simply 
becaose he has already publif^ed the same thing, officially 
supplied to him days before. 

The most oonrteoiu man, and the most popular man that 
ever breathed could not perform his duties as press censor, 
and retain that character. 

A friend of mine assured me that he had never been so 
abused and disliked as he had been during the period he had 
acted in that oapacity in the Transvaal. 

I think I may say, however, on behalf of the minority of the 
war correspondents that they feel no undue restriotionB were 
placed on their commuuicsidona ; those despatched by t«le- 
^^phic means were allowed to proceed by the wires as soon 
as possible, and as for their letters by post, they were not 
censored nor interfered with at all. Indeed, except where 
martial law prevailed they could not, as it is contrary to the 
law in Cape Colony to open letters. In some instances it 
would have been a decided advantage if some had been sub- 
jected to an official scrutiny, or had been revised and tem- 
pered before the acoounta were given to the public. I do 
not mean sufficient to injure the article, but enough to main- 
tain the dignity of the jonmal, and to prevent the irritations 
of tlie moment marring the reputation of ita representatives. 

Perfection cannot be found in any class ; and the ezperienoe 
of those who have been in a position to form an opinion is 
that war correspondents, taken as a whole, are not nearer 
the ideal standard than are press oensors. 

It always appears to me to be a waste of time to be dis- 
cussing perfection and what ought to be. They are both 
improbabilities, and in their entirety are impossible. 



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146 TH£ ANGLO-BOER WAB 

Men Mid women have alw»js bad their indindiut &nlts 
and failings ; and whetiier they are taken in groupe or per- 
sonally, they vaiy in d^^'ee if not in Mo. 

It iB with them and their blemiahea the gorsming 
anthoritieB have to deal, and that in time of war, promptly. 
Beforma of all sortB and kinds are advocated by thoee who, 
jndgii^ from their oontribationB to tiie oolonuu of the daily 
p rooa , know something of what they are taUdng abont, but 
there are others who apparency know nothing of thnr 
snbieots, nor have they a notion of the far-reaching oonse- 
qnenoeB Uiat would result from their iHt>pOBed mprovaaenit. 

What will be the statns of, and what facilitieB will be given 
to, war ocurespondente in fntnre campaigns, it is not easy to 
forecast, bat if the Commander-in-chief acts as his own 
speoial correspondent of the operations of the fbroea under 
his command, cne thing^is certain, that newspaper proprietora 
need hot go to the enormoas expense they have done in tlie 
past to famish their readers with tel^raphio informa- 
tion, wh«i tha same and more is supplied to them gratis 
from the War Offioe, and that at a mnoh earlier date than 
diey can reoeiva it from their representatives on the spot. 
Wbetiier yoang noblemwi, rich sportsmen, military men, or 
the ordinary type of pressmen are better qoalified for writing 
telegraphic sammaries or piotnTeaqne aooonnte of military 
operations or censoring the same, is a qoeation tiiat each 
person will answer according to his interest or preoonceived 



In coBseqaotoe of the range of the 15-potmder Geld 
artillery and the Lee-Metford and Manser rifles, which are 
the weapons chiefly employed in this ww, a battle occupies 
mch a vast extent of country tiiat no person can see more 
than a small part of what is going on ; and it is only the oom- 
Biandingoffiow of a diriaioQ, to whom all reports are brongbt, 
who can know the reanlt of the fighting, these being again 



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PRESS CENSOBS 1*7 

■ent to tiie CommuideMD-chief, who alone is in & position 
to judge, and he only appnmmfttely, the dcnngfs of the whole 
of the (irmy nnder his orders. 

In camp, wild atories of all Borta are related, bnt by 
d^;rees they asanme a vastly modified aspect as the 
oarraton compare notes with each o&w. When writing 
their record of the battles or inddente on paper, they are 
again tempered, and in the case of the telegraphic aooounta 
they go through yet another oooree of purification by the 
|a«88 eenaor. 

Bat for this mneh-abnsad ofiSdal, many extraordinary 
stories would be spread broadcast thnwghoat the length 
and breadth of the (uvilised world, bringing discredit on tiie 
army and the wh<4e British nation. 

Mr. Winsttm Churchill says, press oorreBpondente as a 
iriiole did not require censorship. Tlie great balk of them 
did thdr beet to do jostice to the army, and fonght with 
Uteir pens as soldiers do with their swords and rifles. Bat 
there are some black sheep in every flook. For men who 
seek notoriety by the violence of their statements, rather 
than by adherence to the trath, k is necessary that a press 
eensorship shonld exist. 

Besides, some conaderation is dne to the pnblio, especially 
that large section which has relatives fighting for the national 
canse. Their feelings shonld not be harrowed by morbid 
telegrams that report dear ones as killed or captured by the 
«aemy. 

Bnt for the press oensor the reputations of whole regiments 
woald have suffered, even more than they have done, from 
exa^erated statements, whilst individuals would have been 
mercilessly attacked, or, what is even worse, taken up and 
patted on the back for some action that had no tactical or 
atrategioal significance. Such newspaper praise and blame 
are ruinous to military discipline and efiScient^. 



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148 THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

The oi»T«epoiideno6 that hu taken place between Lord 
Stanl^i the chief press censor, and Mr, Bardett-CoattB, in 
the Timee, indispTitably prores the tmth of the foregoing 
statements, and all readers of the daily press can call to mind 
long descriptLons of events that occurred in a totally different 
order ijom that which the correBpondents would have the 
pnblic believe. Bnt the worst featnre in this connection is 
the onwillingneBs of the editors to publish contradiotiona to 
Uiem, They prefer individrnds or pnblic departments to 
remain nnder the false imputations rather than acknowledge 
that their oorrespondente were misinformed. 

The very first paragraph in Mr. Bnrdett-C!ontts* letter of 
December 10,'.1900, shows that my remark on page 144 as to 
the relatitnis between the press censor and war oorrespon- 
dente are not invariably the most amicable. 

The whole letter, which I append, is very instmctive from 
that point of view. 

To THZ EOITOB or THZ Timta. 

Sir, — I am in this poeition with regard to the last step in the 
caiapaign of personal hostility and BspersioQ which Lord Stanly 
has oanied on against me from, the first moment I landed in 
Cape Town, bat which I had no intention of dragging into a 
great public controvNsy until his evidenoe given before the Oom- 
mission appeared in the press. 

Immediately on the return of the OommiBmon to England I 
wrote to the president stating that I desired an opportunity of 
answering Lord Stanl^s evidenoe, either by being recalled before 
the ComnuBsion cr by putting in a statement in reply, to be 
printed with the evidenoe. The GommiaBionen decided that I 
shonld adopt the latter course. I was furnished with an official 
transcript of Lord Stanley's evidenoe. I sent in my reply a 
fortnight ago. I am not, I believe, at hberty to publish these 
documents before the report and evidence are issued by the 
Commission. 

I may say, however, that my reply contains a ftill and precise 
recital of all my dealings with the press censor, and exhibits 



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PRESS CENSORS 149 

frrat his eridmoe five misstatemeDts of fftct and Dine wrors of 
Muianon, all of vital importance to the oaae. 

I will now deal, as far as I Ban under the above limitations, 
with the particalar ehai^ oootained in Lord Stanley's letter of 
today. On April 7, the day of my arrival at Bloemfontein, 
where I had gone in order to join the expected advance and 
describe the treatment of the woonded in the field, I eaw licnd 
Stanley. He told me I must go back to Gape Town, and that Z 
flbonld not be permitted to go on with the troops. I protested 
against this, and orged that I should see Lord Roberts, Lord 
Stanley, as press oensco', being the mediom through whom 
ecviespondents approached the Field-Marshal. He said I could 
not see I^ird Roberts. (A second time when I made the same 
request at Bloemfontdn he gave the same answer ; I have reason 
to douht whether these requeste were ever oonveyed to Lord 
Boberts.) At length, after a heated discussion, Lord Stanley said 
he would consult Lord Boberts. Two days later, on the 9th, 
I saw Lord Stanley again, and he then hy Lord Roberts' tnders 
handed me my pass to stay and to accompany the troops. 

Between the two interviews I had seen some of the field hoe- 
lotals and found them in a very bad oondition, as rel&ted in my 
Article IX. in the TintM. On all sides there were promises of 
im[«ovement with a better railway service. I knew that the 
railway had only been opened a short time, that the difficulties 
of transport were great, and I did not think it fair to mention 
the hospitals then in an article I was writing to the Timta. 
(Article YIII.) 

Now, in the interview of the 9th, after I had received my 
pABS, I told luxcd Stanley that I bad seen the field hospitals, that 
tb^ were very bad, and that I did not intend to describe them 
iitea for the reasons given. Upim this perfectly fair and straight- 
forward statement Z heard that he had oonstructed a report that 
I had said I would give a had description of the ho^tals unless 
I was allowed to go on wit^ the troops. There was not a shadow 
t£ foundation for this construction being put on my statement 
then or at any other time. 

As a matter of fact, although' subsequently I saw things 
going from bad to worse, I waited until April 28, when the 
railway had been running for nearly six weeks, and the period 



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150 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

devoted to the " Kooumobtioa of iatty-&va days' neerve etorw " 
bod nearly expired, befwe I began to deeeribe the field hoBpitab. 
The deMriptkuu tA theee oontained in Article IX. (in which the 
dates of the 9th and 28th are preoiflely meDtioned in the setiBe I 
hare stated) were writteo before we left Bloemfontein for Krooa- 
Btod. The pDrtionaof the article dealing with the falee iinpresBxn 
created in England with regard to the condition of the aiek aad 
wonnded, whidi I oonsideired a pnblio danger, and which waa mj 
reason for paUishing the article in the form I did, were writtoD 
BtO^ieTown. 

At Kroonstad Lord Stanley told me that I oould go on with 
the txoope to the Taal and poaaibly brther. How, then, oould I, 
at Exoonatad, hare " threatened to speak ill of Uie hoepitals " if I 
"waa sent down from the front "i There ia anoth« important 
point. Lord Stanley had no idea whether I had already written 
about the bospitalg or not. Since the Interview ah«ady alluded 
to at Bloemfontein five weeks had ekpoed, during which oar 
reiations were, to say the least, strained. If he really believed 
that anything he ocnild do or say would influence by a bair's- 
breadUt my public deecription of the hoepitala, why did he assueoe 
that I had held my band during all tliat time? The fact is he had 
invented this theory of a threat from the first and had theraby 
OTeated a precedent impression in other people's minds. 

Witii regard to Hr. Maxwell, although I know him by name, 
I do not know him by sight, and I cannot remember at which of 
the interviews I had with Lord Stanley at Krooostad be was 
present. 

Lord Stanley told me at Kroonstad that there would pro* 
bably be no more fighting ; and being compelled to be in England 
by Jane 23 (about a month later), I decided to leave. He toU 
me I oould not stop at Bloemfontein. I relied that I must 
stop there a few days to close up a house I had been living in, 
and that I wanted to have another look at the hoepitals. He 
gave me tiiree d^ya there, and added that if I wanted mere time 
I had only to apply to Lord Wolvarton, thwi press oeasor at 
Bloemfontein, I did not avail myself of this extension. 

I regret the length at which I have had to reooont these 
{sots. I need not add how mneh more I regret the oompulsioB 
I am under to write on such a subjeot at all. From tiie first I 



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PRESS CENSORS 151 

ha.n endwvotired to keep this great controveny on the {iduw to 
wbicb its pnblic importanoe entitles it. These misevable peraoiuJi- 
ties uid KttrilnitioiiB of motiTO were not initi&ted by me, and I have 
left Bust of them, unanswered. This last is the most gratoitoos 
and obrioiisly absurd of them all. For what ia the propositioQ t 
That I, who in this matter would be oompelled to oocup; a pio- 
minent position before the pubLio, first oonoeived a project of 
threatening the press oensOT, a paUic <dBoial, for some pataonal 
ends of my own, that I not only made that threat to him but 
made it in the presence of another penon, and that I then 
proeeeded to carry it out by means whioh I know would entaQ 
the widest publicity and draw the most ■aaw.^iitig light on M 
the ciroumstanoee surrounding it. I make so farther oommsAt 
at preeeot. 

I am, Sir, your obedimt servant, 

W. BuaoRT-Coirm. 

Tb« only oomment I h&Te to make in regard to the chatgai 
brought Bgalnflt Lord Stanley is that in ench a campaign it 
was impossible that erery request made by correspondents and 
others could be brought onder the personal notioe of LOfd 
Boberte, and that head officials had to dispose of them on his 
behalf without their ever coining to his knowledge. Lord 
Stanley, in his offidsl capacity, was not always as taCtfnl 
and gradouB in the discharge of this duty as he might htm 
been. Civility costs nothing, and often avoids much nii- 
pleasantness and ill-feeling. 

I remember writing to Lady Roberts to ask her to bring 
some important fact to the notice of the E^Id-Marshal, but 
in a kind letter she said " that the cares and responsibilitiflB 
inseparable from his positdon in Bouth Africa were such that 
it was the duty of every one to abstain from adding to them." 
Oontiaoing, lAdy Roberts said : " The strain is telling on his 
health, which, I need scarcely say, it is most important shoold 
be kept in as Tigorona a condition as possible." 



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CHAPTER XIV 

AKMT FIELD POST OFFICE 

The Army Post Office has had as hard a time as any non- 
oombatant branch of the army. Those oonneoted with it in 
the field, and those employed in local poet offices, have had to 
£aoe experienoee tiiat hare pnt their powen of endoranoe and 
valour to the severeat testa. On more than one occasion acta 
of oonspionons bravery have been mentioned in despatches 
to which, however, I will again refer. 

Throngh the Army Post Office oommnnic&tiona are mainly 
maintained between the Commander-in-ohi^ and his several 
gmeials, as well as with hia bases of soppliea. 

Seeing the importance attached to the combined action of 
certain troops, or the prompt evacnation of places that are 
insofficiently garrisoned, to rspnlse or evade an anticipated 
attack, the necessity for an efficient postal system in the field 
is obvions. 

In aooordanoe with a precedent which dates back to the 
Crimean war, bat was not applied on an organised basis 
until the Egyptian campaign of 1882, a Post Office Corps was 
sent to Bonth Africa with the earliest transports that left 
these shores. 

The 24th Middlesex, or Post Office Rifle Tolonteers, were 
first raised in the year 1877, by Colonel dn Flat Taylor, and 
much encouraged by the late Mr. Henry Fawoett, the Post- 
master General from 1880 to 1884. 

From oontinoal enlistments, and the special training they 



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ARMY FIELD POST OFFICE 15S 

hA-n nnce nndeigone, the prraent effident Army Foot Office 
Corps now in Sontb AfrioB is the ontooma 

In this branch, as in all other sections of the army, how- 
erer, tiie oalomes have oome forward with valuable assistance. 
India originally intended to send an Army Post Office ; bat 
did not do 80 in the end. Canada, for instance, sent detach- 
mmta to look after the letters and parcels intended for their 
own men, who, however, have been employed for general 
postal dnties as their servioes were needed. Bat even with 
this help, and that given by the Cape Government Post Office 
Department, together with civil assiBtanoe of all hinds, the 
energiee of the stafE have been taxed beyond expresson. 
Hie strain has been bo severe that in the midet of it the 
health of the Postmaster General at Cape Town gave way, 
and an immediate oessaldon from his offidal dalaes was 
ordered by his medical attendant. 

At the commencement of hoetilitieB the General Post Office 
in St. Martin's-le-Grand made their arrangements on the 
basis of one Army Corps of abont 35,000 men, and the 
depletion tiiat has since gone on to provide a working staff 
for 250,000 men has had the natnral result of patting mnch 
extra duty on those remaining. Apart from those attached 
to the Army Post Office Corps, abont 2685 left the Post 
Office as reservists, militia, yeomanry, or as volunteers. 

Prom the Postmaster General's last report, I see that the 
total number of men withdrawn from the Post OfSce staff for 
service in Sonth Africa amounts to the large number of S400. 
But what affected the department most of all was tiie con- 
tinnal stream of resignations from ofiicials, who were anxioui 
to serve in irregular forces that were being formed all over 
the oountry, and in the colonies. Eyen the late Postinaster 
General himself, the Duke of Norfolk, resigned his appoint- 
ment in order to proceed to South Africa with the Sussex 
Yeomanry, in which he was a major. 



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1*4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

From these caoBes, and from the orerwhelming amount of 
work the war entailed, the path of the Marqaess of London* 
deny, who was appointed to saooeed the Dnke of Norfolk 
aa Postmaster Etoieral, was beset with no ordinary depart- 
mental diflioaltioB. It soon became apparent, from the 
crippled etate of the office, that all leave would have to 
be Btopped, and those on fnrlongh in Eorope recalled to 
daty. 

That the staff has had no light task to perfcvm may be 
gathered fK»n the following fignres. The weekly maila 
sorted and made ap into separate bags for the Army Post 
Office, seat tsom this country, sometimes contained over 
800,000 letters and nearly 150,000 newspaper packets. The 
number of parcels sent each week by post to the troops haa 
increased to a very remarkaUe extent as the war pn^reesed. 
On January SO, 1000, the number of parcels sent in a 
week's mail to the troops was 3745, by March 31 it 
had riaen to 10,783, and by May 12 to 10,347. The 
large amount of correspondence affords an int«restiiig com- 
parison with tiiat sent doripg the Crimean war. In 1854, 
when, of coarse, there was no parcel post, it was estimated 
that during a period of eight months the number of letters 
despatched to the seat of war was 362,000, as against 345,000 
sent home, whereas returns covering a similar period during 
the South African war show totals of 5,629,938 letters in the 
outward and 2,731,559 in the homeward direction. 

Up to the beginning of the new year, this great increase 
in oorreapondenoe has gone on. During the three months 
ending December 16, 1899, the number of parcels sent to 
Sontb Africa were 29,114, but during the corresponding 
period of this last year 1900, the number of despatches were 
over 65,000. The pressure at the General Poet Office in St. 
Martan's-le-Grand has continued throughout the whole period 
of hostilities, as comparatively few of the men who left it to 



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ABMT FIELD POST OFFICE 



POST HSl e^ijCO? 







A SIKB FOBTOABD FKOU LADI8IIITH. 




I JlL^ l6i.~f\ iA»~ 

POSTOABD, KBTEB8K SiDK. 




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156 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

ccatdnot the Army Post Office at the front have returned to 
their ordm&ry datiea. 

At ChriatmaB tame 1900-1901, no fewer than 1,500,000 
parcels were handled by the General Poat Office. As a 
distangnished peer in the Honee of Lorda Bays: "It is a 
golden and ideal wish that friends at home should send to 
the belored one at the front a box of ' dainties.' Bat my 
experience la that they seldom reach him." The good inten- 
tions of wires and sweethearts, howerer, that find expressioD 
in this way hare to be dealt with somehow ; and in justice to 
the Post Office it mast be admitted that the result of their 
endearoors has been marrellons, when one takes into oon- 
sideration the pgantio task the authorities of that depart- 
ment hare had to perform. 

In the Jnly issne of 1900 of a publication entitled St. 
Martin's4e-0r(md I read the following, written by i(r> 
Arthnr Ferrard : — 

Not long after the campaign opened news came that on aooount 
of the large area over which miUtary operation! were extending it 
had been necessary to establish, in addition to two base office§ in the 
Oape Colony and Natal, no lees than forty-three field post offices. 

A lai^ increase of force became imperative, with the Tesnlt 
that at the preeent time the staff consists of aa many as ten 
offioexs, and about 400 non-oommifisioned officers and men. This 
is not taking into aooount S26 Poet OfBoe tele^raphiatB and line- 
men, who are serving with the Boyal Engineers. The majority 
of these were selected from the Poa^ Office Eifle Volunteers. 

It is interesting to compare ^ese numbers with those we find 
m in«vioas oooasions when the Post Office has been represented 
in the field. At the time of the Crimea, to ensure prompt delivery 
of orarespondenoe at beadquarteisaDdaregulardeapatoh of return 
mails to this oountty, an experienced officer of the department was 
selected to proceed to Turkey as Postmaster of her Majesty's 
forces, and three assiBtant-poHtmastere, together with seven letter 
sorters, were afterwards despatched ftota England to aid him in 
his duties. When the expeditionary force was sent to Egypt in 



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ARMY FIELD POST OFFICE 157 

the sammer oS 1882, an Army Post Office Corps wu, tor the first 
time, regularly oi^anised for servioe abroad, aad on that occasion 
100 noQ-commiesioDed ofSoers of the Post Office Rifle Tolunteer 
Begimeiit were enlisted aa soldiers in the regular armj, and sent 
out under the ofaaige of two officers. 

In the matter of transport we find that at the time of the 
Ciimea measures were taken to supply eighteen horses and mules 
tea the ezclnsiTe use of the Post Office. I presome that in Egypt 
they availed themselves of the useful bat obnozionB camel, and 
itbat they do in Africa I do not exactly know. Perhaps Ur. 
Oreer, the Postmaster of the Northern District, who is in com- 
mand of the Army Poet Office, or one of the other officers who are 
so zealously aasiating him, will some day furnish the readers of this 
roagamne with some interesting particulars on the point ; but for 
the present we most suppose that it is Lord Kitchens who has 
again come to the rescue, and that the Army Post Office avajls 
iteelf to a lai^ extent, if not entirely, of the military transpcvt 
arrangnnentB. 

There are some people to whom the question of transport in 
time of war would present no difficulty, and who expect letters to 
be delivwed on the field of battle with the same regularity as on 
a breakfast table in London. Those people, of coarse, it is impos- 
sible for any poet office to satisfy ; but there are good grounds for 
thinking that, tstjeing things all round, the public in this country, 
as well as the troops in the field, have really appreciated the efEbrts 
made to render postal communication as efficient as poHsible. At 
both aids difficulties abound, many of which cannot be foreseen 
and can only be dealt with as they arise. 

Irregolaritiee, moreover, and delays in particular, are to a certain 
extent unavoidable when op««tions are being carried on ow bo 
vast an area by troope perpetually on the move. Bat it is pro- 
bable that many people who think their letters are a long time 
going to or coming from the seat of war are in reality ignorant of 
the time required for transit, and would blame the Poet Office 
because they do not receive a letter from the front before the 
soldier from whom they expect it has had time even to reaeh 
theOape. 

The war hae not only thrown a very heavy amount of work on 



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158 THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

the Gfenenl Post Offices in Londcoi, Cape Town, and Dnrban, 
but also in thoBe places where troops bare been or are sta- 
tioned np connti;. 

The coDBequences of certain operatione on the part of the 
enemy have likewise been severely felt, and necessitated the 
ordinary serrioes being diverted. The " holding np of trains," 
the entting of telegraph wires, and the captnre of nail carts 
and convoys, may help to explain to anzions inqnirerB in the 
daily press the fate of their letters and telegrams. 

After the war had been in progress a full year the telfr- 
grams to the Commander-in-chief had to go np by train, 
instead of being flashed along the wires. 

Perfaape the most aeiioQB loss throogh the direct action of 
the enemy occorred on Jane 7 at Roodwal, when 2000 mail 
bags which were in the charge of lAentenant Preece and 
seventeen men of the Foot Office Corps were captured and 
destroyed. 

These mails, which represented an aocnmnlation of several 
weeks for tie main body of Lord Roberts' army, had been 
poshed on from Bloemfontein to Boodwal Statitm, where the 
line was being repaired. Military stores of all kinds were lying 
abont in vast heaps, with a guard of 160 men to protect them. 
In the fight that eosned with de Wet and the 1200 men 
and five gnns, this small force held out gallantly, and the 
Post Office men defended the mail bags with great oonrage 
and pendstency, employing the greater part of them to make 
sangars. 

In the stm^le two privates were killed, and lieutenant 
Preece and the oninjued men were taken prisoners. Whilst 
in Johanneebnrg I read a graphic acconut of the whole 
affair, and die news occasioned great consternation amongst 
the troops stationed along the line to Pretoria and still farther 
north. 
It was not quite with pleasure thef heard of their letters, 



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ARMY FIELD POST OFFICE 159 

eontuning money and valuable encloBnres wann clothing, 
boxes of " daintdes," Ac., makiiig a huge bonfire on the veld, 
one that ooold be Been for milea aroand ! 

In the ordinaiy way a tmok-load of mail bags anive by 
tnin, and are " chooked " out on the open veld for a detach- 
ment of perhaps one Army Poat Office Corps man to deal 
with. The bags are opened, and Bome twenty fellows, more 
or less, Btand ronnd the heap ; sometimeB they keep their 
"hands off " nntil the " postman " gives them their letters, 
but Bometames they do not. 

It will thne be seen that an army field post office in the 
field oannot be managed qnite like a dvil poet office in a 
dty. 

Hie effects, however, of storms of rain and hail are even 
more detximental to the fate <^ letters than the movements of 
tnope <w the depredations of De Wet. A atorm of a oonple 
of honn will swamp everything, reduce everything to a 
palp. TentB and tarpaulins have no chance of withstanding 
its violence. One officer aasnred me that the hailstones 
were as big as goose eggs, and had riddled a oormgated iron 
shed I Admitting that he was imposing on my credulity 
there is no doubt that the hailstones are exceptionally large 
in South Africa, and owing to the speed at which they 
descend, they do more damage to property than can be 
readily imagined by those who have never been to the 
conntry. 

When Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox was carrying some 
important despatches to Lord Boberte from Cape Town to 
I^toria, he found in the person of the American Consol- 
General at Cape Town, who was a fellow passenger in the 
same train, the tmth of the old adage that a friend in need 
is a friend indeed. 

When the mail train was passing over the line at 1.30 A.M. 
at HoUbntein, a point sonth of Kroonstad, cm Angnstl, 1900, 



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160 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

it was filed npim by the enemy, end all the soldiers, thirty is 
nnmber, that were proceeding La it to Pretoria were taken 
prisoners and snbeeqnently released. Lord Algernon woold 
have shared their fate bat for the fact of his being in Colonel 
Stowe'a car, who, on hia own responsibility, desoribed him aa 
" my friend Mr. Gordon," to the bai^hers who came to iden- 
tify the American Consol-GeQeral, which sared him and his 
despatdieB. 

'With the exception of the engine and the carriage that 
Colonel Stowe oocapied, in which he, Lord Algernon, and 
the released soldiers proceeded on their journey, after a 
delay of twenty-foar hoars to repair tiie line, the rest of 
the train was bamt by the Boers. 

This was a friendly action that was greatly appreciated by 
liord Roberta, thongh it was bat one of many that oonld be 
recorded as evidence of tiie good auderstanding existing 
between the two great English-speaking nations. 

The British as prisoners of war in Pretoria have every 
reason to feel gratef al to Mr. Hay, the American consal, for 
all his good offices on their behalf in those dark days when 
reverses were of freqnent occarrenoe.* 

* When the Boer snthoiitiaa decdded to remore the prisonon from the 
Hodel School in Pretoria to the Wktarwoike k mother and two daaght«ra 
aied to take % walk in that dlreotioD, and, when near enough, the mother 
OontriTed to feel faint, whloh enabled the glrla to fan her, wliloh they did 
In anoh a manner as to oazrj the meesage to the prisonerB tfaoj wiahed to 
convey to them. 

When the condnot of thia tamllj waa made known to Lord Roberta he 
sent a note to the mother requesting the honoui to oall npou her. On 
tiie oooaaion at hi* Tlalt he ezpreaaed hla thanks for all she and her little 
daughters had done to mitigate the snfferinga of the priaoneta, and did 
the gra^oiiB and agreeable, as he knows so well how to do. 

I had intended going fnU; into the condition of the prisoners of war la 
Pretoria, and Into the sentiments that led to certain aotions on the part of 
eereral offloiala belonging to the now defnnot Datch Bepnblles, hot tho 
notes I had made and the Information I had ooUeoted have been in<«l«.i^ 
In the post, or hare been captured with other mail matter by De Wet 

Onp little Incident, hewerer, I wUl relate. The oIBcere of the Boyal 



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AimT FIELD POST OFFICE l6l 

In (xn^anotion witb the Boyal Bngineen, the Army Post 
Office ccopa hsve been pot throngh Bome wonderful work in 
repairing railway lines and telegraph wires during thiB 
campaign ; and however mach we may oarselves find fanlt 
with what has been done, and the way in which we have con- 
dncted the war, nothing but praise faas been heard from the 
intelligemt obserreTs of the great military Powers that have 
been attentively watdiing the operations on the spot or noting 
the organisation at the bases and in Londoo, for transporting 
and feeding the troops and keeping the public informed of 
the doings of the contending forces in this far-off land. 

In coneeqaence of the lessons the war in South Africa ha» 
tacght to the whole military world, modificatdons and exten- 
sions are constantly annonnced by this or that great Power 
who do not adopt the system of improvising as they go, 
but think out and prepare plans for every conceivable war in 
which they would possibly be eng^ed. Bnt then, they have 
compnlsory service, and know exactly what they can do, 
whilst we have a volnntaTy army, snbsiating on the transimt 
feeling of pnblic opinion. 

When the War Office recently called for a further detach- 
ment of forty non-commissioned officers and men from the 
24th Middlesex regiment to replace casualties, &c., in the 
corps in Sontii Africa, the Postmaster Qeneral, in taking 
leave of the men prior to their departure, remarked that tb& 
present detachment brought up the total to the large 
number of 788 of all ranks that the Post Office corps had 
supplied for service with the Boyal Engineers and Army 

Irtah Fiuill«n — who were confluod in tha Uodel Sobool — used to leun 
tfdingi of the war from aome little maideoa of tender age llring oppotlte, 
who h>d been t«aght flag-iign&UiDg. It wu Mruged that when Ospt^hi 
Borrows' bald head appeaiad kt the window the7 thonld stand a little 
back in the passage, and, with a white handkerchief on a whip-handle, 
signal theli maasagee. Their father was in the telegrapb-offltM, and. 
sometimea they h»d Important information to gin, 



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163 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Post Office ; and, after having referred in Bympathetic terms 
to the patriotic feelings which prompted them to join 
tiieir comrades on active service, said: I have received a 
letter from Lord Boberts, giving bis opinion on the work 
they have done, i.e., "I am glad to say that, considering 
the vast difficnlties this department has had to contend with, 
the arrangements were, on the whole, most satisfactory." 

The poaseseioa of such an over-sea empire as makes np 
Greater Britain, to garrison in times of peace and defend 
when attacked, imposes duties that are constantly chang^g, 
and the careful calculations that are made are in a few honrs 
all thrown ont by the " sndden " despatch of some pnnitave 
ezpedildon, which often entails a sort of " general post " in 
the movement of boops on the different stations. The pre- 
paration for war for a continental army is simplicity itself 
in comparison. 

Lnmediately the Repnblican forces began to invade the 
territories of Cape Colony and Natal, the dislocation of the 
postal service b^an. The first line of postal commnnication 
disturbed in Cape Colony was that between De Aar and 
Kimberley ; the railway line being damaged by the enemy 
beyond Belmont on the night of October 14, 1899. 

One intermption succeeded another so rapidly that at one 
time there were no fewer than 1 05 mail routes over which the 
conveyance of mul matter was entirely suspended. 

The stoppage of the Hoemead-Stormberg railway by the 
Boers serionsly handicapped the work of the Post Office. 
Previons to the ontbresk of hostilities, the quantity of mails 
passing over this portion of the line had been so great that 
it was necessary to run the travelling Post Office vans from 
Cape Town through to Qneenstown, instead of direct to 
Johaunesbntg, in order to save the labonr and loss of time 
involved in transferring the heavier eastern mails en route. 
As an illustration of the amount of mail matter that was 



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ARMY FIELD POST OFFICE l6S 

ordinarily carried over the Stormbei^ railway for which 
other outlets had to be found, the average niunber of bags 
shipped at East London went np from 30 to 3000 per month, 
Eindeavonra were made to augment the post-cart service, but 
withont snccese, for nobody would incur the expense involved 
in providing additional plant for the short period that it was 
then thought probable the war would last. 

Bnt for the transport department the troops oonld not 
have been served at all with their letters and papers in 
certain parts of the affected districts. Express riders kept 
np a limited commnnication with Kimberley, Mafeking, and 
Ladyranitb, bnt by degrees this had to be given np, as it was 
too dangerons to be maintained. 

General Baden Powell got his last message through by a 
native employed in the Army Post Office. The despatch was 
written on the thinnest paper, which was rolled up and 
inserted into the stem of his pipe, with orders to smoke if 
he was searched by the Boers, as that would allay all 
BuBpicaon, and he would be permitted to retain it. 

The work of the Post Office in Mafeking was carried on 
for months in a " dug-out," in Kimberley in splinter-roof 
shelters or down the diamond mines, and in Ladysmith the 
local Post Office staff had plenty of opportunities of diatin- 
jftdshing themselves as telegraphists, heliographists and 
specnal despatch riders. 

The great importance attached to the maaipQlation, repair- 
ing and destroying of telegraph wires and apparatus as 
demonstrated by this war, has induced the French Minister 
for War to give it as an army order that cavalry officers 
should go through a course of inatmction in these and 
kindred subjects, as, dnring hostilitieB, their missions often 
oblige them to make nse of tel^raphic and telephonic means 
of communication. The extreme value of tiie latter was 
proved at Kimberley. Lieut-Colonel Kekewioh sadd it was 



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l6* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

a " telephone Biege." His conning tower woa ft bewildNing- 
maize of telephone wires and tnbee, which connected him 
with camps, redonhta, "look-ont" places within the area 
of defenslTfl operations, thus enabling him to gire orders 
for any oonnter-move the action of the beeiegers rendered 
necessary. 

The strain on the General Post Office in Oape Town has 
been at breaking pant throughont the whole period of th6 
war. The departmenta snfbred tmrn the resnlts of the 
martial spirit of the people in the same way as at Bt. Martin's- 
le-Grand. 

Besignationa from the highest official to the lowest employ^ 
came in daily, in order to allow them to join irregular 
forms, and some were given leave of absence for the same 
object^ thongh they could ill be spared. 

The dejdetion of the staff omtanned to snoh an extent 
that an order from the general commanding the lines of 
commnnication, to ihe effect that only volonteera who oonid 
be spared from the post and tel^raph offices wcnld he 
aooepted for aotare service, alone saved the department from 
a oomidete breakdown. The imperative necessity for this 
step is proved by the fact that Imperial tel^rams, which 
nndw ordinary toronmstances did not exceed 1 000 a month, 
bonnded np to 35,000 for the same period in a few weeks. 
Hmm officers and men, therefore, who necessarily had to 
remain at their posts, had the satisfaction of knowing that 
th^ were rendering their coootry even a greater service 
than if they had been allowed to participate actively on the 
field of battle. Those that were employed in ooantiy post 
offices remained at their posts nntil the last moment with a 
It^alty that is deserving <rf all praise. 

^e postmaster of Jamestown was oan^t at his instrament 
whilst horriedly advising the next telegraphic station — 
Dordrecht — of the arrival- of the Boers ; in fact, he had got 



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ARMY FIELD POST OFFICE l65 

aa far AS " Bosrs h— — " intending to signal " Boers hsn," 
when he was dragged away from the inBtnuuent. Many 
instances conld be adduced to show the heroism of those in 
charge^ of local post and telegraph offices — how they tramped 
thiongh the oonntry for miles, when the vill^es were invaded 
by the enemy, carrying their stook of valnables, cash, stamps, 
money orders, postal orders, and, not the least important, 
the telegraph inAtmments, or at least such portions of them 
as to render the apparatus unworkable. 

Offidal docnments show it was not only the men who 
showed remarkable pluck and resource in the face of the 
enemy, bnt the postmistresses were also among the heroes 
of the war. 

By the kind permission <^ the Editor of St, Mariin'g-l^ 
^hand, I reproduce from the January namber of 1900 the 
personal narratives of two ladies mentioned in despatches. 
" Who looked down ^e rifle without dismay, 
British bom I true to the core ] " 

Hbs. Olubck's Naabativi. 

On the 18th November, 1899, a commando of Free State Boers 
under Oomm&ndaiit OUivier croased the Cape Oolouy frontier, 
oeenpiedthe bcvder town of Aliwal N<»th, and proclaimed as 
<hwDge Vne State tenitoiy the district of Aliwal in whioh the 
village of Iwly Orey is situated. Simultaneously a horde of local 
rebels who were in league with the invaders cat the telegraph wire 
between Hersohel and Aliwal Korth, on which Lady Qnj is an 
intermediate station. 

The object of arrangiug an outbreak of rebellion and an invasion 
of the distriot at this juncture waa to effect the capture of about 
sixty waggons and full spans of oxen which were then ejected at 
I«dy Grey, en route to join Owteral Gataore'a tauu^KHi oi^umn 
at Sterks^oom. Fortunately, however, I was enabled in my 
ofiioial capacity to obtain timely information as to their inten- 
tioDS, and as the result of prompt action being taken on a 
tilaynm which I despatched to Gape Town, the waggons were 



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166 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

stopped in transit and aent on to their destination by a more 
drcuitouB route. 

After a long period of disqaieting romoutfi the position was 
now clearly defined, so I despatched my assistant, Mr. H. Ludwig, 
to Barkly East, in charge of the local, Basutoland, and Herschel 
mails, the two latter having arrived that morning, in order that 
they should not fall into the hands of the enemy. My office 
cash and other valuables were also aent forward by the same 
opportunity, and I returned to my office to await developmenta. 

The following [day a few Vree State burghers, accompanied 
by a Dumber of local rebels, arrived from Ollivier's commando at 
Aliwal North (which, by the way, had been renamed * Olliviers- 
foutein), bringing with them a copy of Freeident Steyn's procla- 
mation ; and this they proceeded to post up on the post office 
notice board. Sly keys were then demanded, but I refused to 
give them up. By this time a large crowd of mixed humanity 
had congregated outside the office, and they appeared to enjoy 
seeing me in such an unpleasant predicament. I, however, 
removed the Free State proclamation, and substituted that issued 
by Sir Alfred Milner, warning her Majesty's subjects <A the 
obligation under which they were placed as subjects of the British 
Crown. The special references to allegiance I carefully underlined 
to attract the attention of the rebels, and to add a further zest to 
to it, " Rule Britannia " was written in large characters over the 
heading. 

The Boers subeequentiy left I^y Orey, and the whole of the 
local police, saving one solitary private, having retired on Hraschel, 
I utilised the services of the latter as a guard over the now 
precious Governor's proclamation, which was exhibited daily and 
removed at sunset. No attempts were made to " commandeer " 
it on the approved Boer principle. Lady Orey was comparatively 
quiet thereafter until Sunday, November 19, when a commando 
of Free State burghers appeared at the office and reiterated the 
demands of the local rebels fw the keys ; but I again refused to 
comply with the request. I then read aloud to the rebels (the 
leadws I was well acquainted with) a copy of a telegram from the 
Hon. W. F. Schreiner, the Prime Minister, which had been 
received at Herschel, warning all British subjects d their dafy ; 
and in re|dy to their pressing demands, I informed them that 



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ABMY FIELD POST OFFICE l67 

they were Britiali subjecte and that I refused to see them beoomft 
traitora. 

The following da; the looal magistrate was instructed to offer 
no resistance, and the keys of all the public offices were therefore 
handed over to the commando. Later Commandant Ollivier 
arrived with a large number of Free State Boets and hoisted the 
Free State flag. In a warlike speech, that worthy said that the 
bui^bers would not reat until their flag floated over Table 
Mountain, and afterwards the crowd sniig the " TolksUed," which, 
I may add, was ironically remarked to be their funeral hymn. A 
rebel upstart was ^pointed landdrostor magistrate under the new 
government, and I was handed a pass by him allowing me forty- 
eight hoars in which to qtiit the village. Three days later I left 
for Herschel, where I was most kindly received. Since my banish- 
ment I have had the satisfaction <rf seeing many of the rebels 
whom I have addressed as friends or spoken to threateningly, 
come to Herschel to deliver np arms, looking very crestfallen and 
apparently sadder and wiser men. I now look forward longingly 
to oar Union Jack, the emblem of justice, flying in peace through- 
out the whole of South Africa." 

The following extract from the report of the Postmaster 
General Bhows Mrs. Qlneck to be eqnal not only to a great 
occasion, bnt to ft prolonged demand on her resonroas and 
self-Bacii£ce : — 

The postmistress of Lady Orey has again proved her high 
value as a public servant by taking charge of both the Lady 
Grey and the Herschel post offices, while the poBtmaster of the 
latter place proceeded with the military forces to Barkly Bast, 
and reopened the telegraph office there. The postmistress tra- 
velled on horseback from her own station to Herschel and back 
daily, and bo temporarily served the requirements of both com- 
munities in regard to postal and telegraph matters. 

Miss Walton's Nakbativb. 
Early on the morning of March 13, 1900, about twenty Oape 
Colonial rebels entered and took possession of tha village of Yan 
Wyks Ylei, which is situated about forty-five milea north-west o 



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CHAPTER XV 

INTELLIQENOE DEPARTMENT 

To write a boot thst claims to deal with the ataS work of 
the war, and to omit all mention of the department that acta 
as the eyes and ears of the army wonld be a fatal error, bni 
to give any description of what the Intelligence officers have 
accomplished in this South African campaign in the direc- 
tion of supplying information to our generals and civil 
anthorities must be left to some one more competent to deal 
with this secret service than I am. 

Perhaps Lieatenant-Colonel Henderson, who is the official 
historian of the war, will give the public some information 
as to whether the cheers have been really intelligent, have 
put their eyes and ears to good use ; whether they make fint^ 
class detectives and are equaUy matched for worming out 
secrets with the slim Boer. 

The lateltigence Department is constantly held under 
severe criticism, and is charged with supinenesa and in- 
efficieni^. To what extent this is tme as regards the 
manner in which the department has performed its specific 
duties both before and during the war, and how far the 
higher authorities have profited by the knowledge of the 
facts that have been supplied. Colonel Henderson could tiux>w 
a light that would reveal many things that are carefnlly 
shronded from t^e public vision. 

In the early months of the war, he was serving in Natal 
with Lieutenant-Colonel A. G. Sandbach, who was head of 



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INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 171 

this department with Sir Redrers Bailer's force, bnt fever — 
the dread enemy — oat short Colonel Henderson's career, 
and prostrated him on a bed of Bickness for weeks in C&p» 
Town, where the Intelligence daties were controlled by Major 
Davies, Grenadier Ooards, who is now chief commifisioner 
of the police in Johannesberg, 

The methods by which the Intelligence Department 
acquires information and employs it are very varied, and for 
obvioiis reasons are kept profound secrets ; bat that they 
have been satisfactory, despatches of the Commander-in-chief 
and subsequent events have amply proved. The discovery 
of plots, sncb as those planned to assassinate Lord Eoberts 
and his staff in Pretoria and in Johannesburg, are evidences 
of the alertness of the Intelligence officers. The one that 
was planned to dispose of the military governor and his staff 
in the last mentioned place, bnt was luckily fonnd ont in 
time, was dae, "they say," to the solicitnde of a yonng 
lady, who was in the secret, for a " gentleman in khaki " who 
had made himself so agreeable as to have gained her afiEeo- 
tions ; and when he mentioned that he was going to the race- 
conrse to see the gymkhana, she be^^ so earnestly that he 
wonld not do so that he began to think there were senons 
reasons for sach bond Jide anxiety. What it was he was 
determined to ascertain, and said he wovid go nnless she told 
him why she so mnch desired he shonld not. 

At first he conld get nothing bnt evasive answers, bnt by 
diplomatic means, now gentle, now stem, the whole etory was 
told to him in socb a manner that it left no donbt as to the 
serioos danger the whole militaiy staff were in. 

Of oonrse the gymkhana did not take place, and the con- 
spirators were raided; a hnndred being canght the first 
night, and a similar nnmber the following one, and were 
condncted over the border. In their case it was : " Cherchea 
la f emme 1 " 



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178 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Even Intelligence officers make migtakee BometimeB. The 
'error tliat I have in my mind this moment is not one of 
■erioQH conaeqaence, thongh it waa more than diaagreeable 
to the iudindnal chiefly concerned. 

Owii^ to the oompoaition of a sentence in a letter which 
was capable of a double meaning, it nnfortnnately happened 
that the one that told against the writer of the letter was 
taken. He was sospected of being a Boer spy, and was sent 
JUI sach from Frere to Durban, thence to Cape Town, and on 
to Eingland. 

The gentleman, a British officer, was t^ms placed in a nu»t 
inndions position. He was pointed ont as a Boar spy on the 
boat and in the trains, and stared at until the blood mshed 
to his head, and not a few angry words were muttered 
«t the indignity to which he was sabjected. He tried to 
explain his case both at Dnrban and at Cape Town, but 
nothing conld be dona to remove the falsa imputation under 
which he laboured. He was passed on from one staff officer 
to another, and in dae coarse he arrived in London. 

He proceeded direct to the War Office, where he was 
received with great ooortesy ; and when he presented his 
papers, 'so clear were they that he was not only at once 
acquitted of every treacherous intention, but every repara- 
tion was made to atone for the error. Another and better 
■sppmntment was given to him, and he was returned to South 
Africa for duty by the next steamer. 

The Intelligeooe Department is constantly blamed for 
not having done things not its bnsinesa to do, and more 
often still it is sharply taken to task for neglecting to do 
what has already been done, though, for reasons easy to 
-conceive, the facts must not be made public to all the 
world. 

It is often declared that we were altogether in the dark as 
to the strength of the Boer armaments, their nature, and the 



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INTELU6B1TCE DEPARTMENT MS 

namber of men they could pnt into the field. The oontraiy 
of this IB the case. 

It has now been proved that exact and accurate infomia- 
tion as to the men and gans, and t^e amoant of ammunition 
of all Mods was correctly given, with the exception that 
the Intelligence Department had credited the late Datch 
BepnUicfl with poBseesing one Grenaot gun more than they 
had, and with having more Manser cartridges than was- 
absolately the case, enormona though the store accumulated 
has proved to be. 

What has not been sufficiently grasped has heen the skill 
with which these " poor ignorant Boer farmers " are capable 
of handling these modem weapons, the advantages they 
give for defensive operations, and the effects of long-range 
guns in such a clear atmosphere. Their mobility — that is 
being first at a given spot — was not calculated at all, or- 
the order of " Infantry preferred " would never have been 
issaed. 

As regards the outcry i^^unst the maps supplied to the 
generals in the field, it should be dearly nnderstood that 
the Intelligence Department is nnder no obligation to make 
surveys and prepare maps. 

There are some people, however, who are willing to 
acknowledge this fact, though they go off on an equally 
wrong tack in supposing that it is the businesa of the ' 
Director Greneral of Ordnance, because they are called 
" Ordnance Survey maps." As a matter of fact, he is not in 
any way responsible for them, nor has he anything to do- 
with them. 

The Ordnance Survey is a branch of the Board of Agri- 
coltnre, and is managed chiefly, if not entirely, by officers of 
tiie Koyal Engineers. 

I hare not been able to get at absolutely certun informa- 
tion as to how they came by their title of "Ordnance"' 



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174 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

mapB, but aa far as I can asoertain, it appears that at one 
time tke Survey Department was nnder the old Board o£ 
Ordnance. This Board was an Army Department that 
existed three centuries ago, and was abolished in 1855. It 
was presided over by a Master General, and its duties were 
" to supply " material for the army at the requisition of the 
Secretary of State for War, and to provide Engineers and 
artillery contdngents at the demand of the Commander-in- 
chief. The artillery and Engineers up to that time (1855) 
were known as "the Ordnance Corps," and were not nnder 
the actual Commander-in-chief's orders, but under the Master 
'General of Ordnance. 

Thus it came about that as the surveys were always 
carried out by Royal Engineers or Boyal Artillery officers, 
the maps took the name of the corps to which the officers 
belonged. 

The Ordnance Survey is, of course, only for the United 
Kingdom and Ireland. Thinking it better that I sbonld 
myself get as dear a conception on this much-debated ques- 
tion as possible, before I ventured to say anything abont the 
Intelligence Department's responsibility in this connection, I 
wrote to Sir Bichai-d Temple for an expression of bis opinion, 
which, as an ez-Govemor of a large Indian Province, and 
a member of Parliament for a long series of years, I felt what 
he said woiUd oertunly be practical and based on experience 
and common sense. Sir Bichard writes : 

Dbue Ladv Brioos, 

I quite share in the belief ^that our Intelligence Department has 
served us well throughout the South African war. They gave ua 
full information about everything that belonged to the Boers, 
with one exception, namely, the Continental European adven- 
turets, whose numbers could not possibly be foreseen. Many 
people in England have supposed that their information could 
not have been complete as to the great forces of the Boeie ; if 



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INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 175 

it had been, why were we not prepared to meet tbem ? Bat 
that is a queetioD not for the Intelligence Department at all. 
It is for the British nation to answer tliat, as I will presently 
explain. 

As to mape, &c., there is the strangeet misconception on the 
subject among many English people at home. Because maps 
exist in Europe it seems to be supposed that such things exist 
ererywhere, or that if they do not exist the English Government 
can and ought to make them. Well, the English have managed 
to make charts of every coast, or almost every coast in the world ; 
but when you come to make mape inland, that depends upon 
whether the country is enemies' oonntry or not. If, of course, 
the enemy has made mape for himself and published them, we 
can get hold of them; but if he has not, then he will not let 
ns make them, and we nmst do without them when we come to 
fight. 

Even in the Amerioan magazine article,* written by an English 
officer apparently, there are traces of this misapprehension. He 
flays at the outset that we went to war in the Crimea without 
topographical knowledge. But if the Russians had published 
mape we could have got at them ; if they had made such and 
not published them, then we could not make any use of tbem. 
The idea seems still to linger that we, the invaders, could some- 
how have made miqis, but of course we could not do that till we 
got possession of the countiy. Again, if I understand liitu rightly, 
the same writw seems to think that we might have done some 
tariangalation snrvey in Boer territoriee ; but certainly Steyn and 
£rag^ would obvionsly never have allowed this. Again, I have 
heard people say when the Qermans invaded France, in 1870, all 
the soldiers had maps. When the English invaded the Boer terri- 
tories why had they not got maps f But the oases are dissimilar. 
The Gramans bad French mape in the minutest particalars, and 
why % Because the maps were French ; the French authorities 
having pobUshed maps of every kind and sort. 

In the same way, if the French invaded Germany they would 
have German maps, because such things have been published md 
are in existence everywhere. 

If tiie n^ench invaded England they would have information of 
• The FoTMn, November 1900. 



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176 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

erery brook, Une, uid hedgerow ; and why f Because onr Ord- 
nuioe map has been pablished ereTywhere. 

The case is wholly different in Sooth Africa. Steyn's Qovwb- 
ment being more reopeotable, might have had sarv^, bnt I 
snppcMe that Kruger woold hare taken care not to have snoh 
tiiingB, except upon such lines as suited him ; or, if he had mad» 
surreys, he would have kept them to himself, lest one day tli» 
British should get hold of them. But it is said that, granting 
that the Boer terriboriee had no surveys or m^»s, yet the BritJah 
Qovemment in London oould have had such things made in Oape- 
Oolony and in Natal, these being British dominions. Well, that 
does not follow. If you oome to think of it, these colonial territoriee 
are administered, not by the British Government, bat by their 
reapeotive responsiUe governments. Certainly the Oape Oolony 
ought to have made such enrveys south of the Orange Biver ha^ 
it been wholly loyal, but was it so ? Would the Afrikander Bond 
party in Oi^ Parliament have sanctioned aooh surveys for fiutili' 
tating British military operationB \ For instance, would SohreLoer'a 
government have undertaken such a thing ? If they held \»A. 
the BtitiBh Oovenunent oould not have undertaken it without 
raiang oonstitutionsl trouble in the colony. In Natal the ca8» 
would have been easier, t<xt that colony was for the most part 
loyal, bnt then it was poor, and a good survey from say the Tugela 
to Laing's Nek would be more than it oould afibrd. If money 
had been asked for from our Parliament for this purposs there 
were plenty of men, inside and outside the House of Commons^ 
to object, and say that such a prooeeding was threatening and 
precipitating war. Nevertheless, they were somehow inajmginy 
to make such a survey in Natal, bnt it was stopped by the out- 
break of hoetalities. 

Herefore I say that those who reproach their own Government' 
for want of maps in this case cannot have thought out what th^ 
are saying. You were asking me M regards the Indian anrv^s, 
which do constitute a monument of British rule. I cannot pes. 
sibly sketch them in a letter, bnt if you look to my book, "India 
in 1S80," and refer to the Index, yon would see the various surveya 
indicated by pages, that is to say, Trigonomstrioal, p, 858, the 
Ibpographkal, Sfil, the Oadaetral, 218, 314, the Geological, 357^ 
the Haiioe, 879, the Arotueological, 351. Inasmuch as the results 



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INTELUGEKCE department 177 

of this mass of geogn^;^uoal mqniz; Ii&ve b«en largely pnbliahed 
•veiyvhere, the BusaiftDB, if erer they invade India, would have 
mape to their hearts' oODtent, whatever else they might or might 
not get. It does not follow that we should have amilar advan- 
tage if we invaded Oentral A^ia, for they may or may not have 
made maps eqnaUy good thera 

Lastly, I understand you to de&ie me to write briefly the 
safaetance of what I said in oonversation regarding unpr^taxed- 
neas. 

Undoubtedly at the outset of the South African war the 
British were utterly unj^r^pared, in my o[anion dangerously so ; 
but was the un{H«paredneBB a fault at all i and, if so, whose fault 
was it t 

Now, rightly or wrongly, we were intentionally end d^ber- 
ately unprepared, that is, we purposely refrained from preparing 
in order to avoid provoking war. There was extreme anxiety in 
the majtnity of Englishmen to keep the peace. It was thought, 
both inside and outside Farliament, that to make preparations 
would predpiiate a crisis which might otherwise be avoided. 
Fenonally I osed to think this was a mistake, and the result has 
abundantly proved that it was so. I was of oonrse in the 
minority. Still, I can see that the policy, though quite erroneous, 
was an intelligible one, and doubtless one dictated by the beet of 
motives ; still, if a nation chooses to accept such a policy as that 
they must face the oonsequenoes, and theee indeed proved to be 
grave enough. 

The Boers declared war upon us while we were nnprepared. 

Had they been ably or indeed competently oommanded, they 
mig^t on the one side have pushed on to Durban, and on the 
other side to Gape Town, raising all the Dutch district on their 
way. I dazeny in the end this would have only rendered their 
discomfiture the more complete, but in the meanwhile our repute 
in the world would have suffered grievously by such disasters 
until they were retrieved. 

Ton may have observed in the House of Oomnums Opposition 
speakers have reprcaohed the Qoverrmient for not making ori- 
ginally the very preparations which they themselves had helped 
to prevent the Oovermnent from making ; but that is only the 
way of party spirit. 



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178 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Agun, in England day by day,roproaohee were diraoted against 
the authOTitiee For thii great anpreporednan — the Oolooial Office, 
the War Office, the Oommander-iD-ohief b Department — as if they 
were to blame for not making prepaiataons wfaioh the nation did 
not wish. It was the nation itself and the nation alone that was 
to blame — if blame tbere was at all. 

For a free nation to commit an error and then to round on its 
serrante for the coDseqaoHws of each commiaBioDB Is bat too 
(KMnmon a pbe&omenoD. Still, pablio opinion comes round in the 
end, and so it will be in this case. 

In fine, look Ixu^ upon all tha things that have been eaid in 
England against our own Qovemmmt r^arding this war. They 
all relate to the initial unpreparednesB. Setting aside that one 
thing, then, I think that our sereral State departmentfi have done 
my well. - No State departments in any oountiy have snrpBfiaed 
them. And our system too — that can certainly be improved, as 
it always has been from time to time. To say that is the tritest 
saying that can be said, for it applies to erwy human arrange- 
ment. But if a tree is to be judged by its fmit, and a system by 
its reeolts, its practice and its performances, then I claim that 
oar system, since October 1889, up to datc^ has aooompliahed the 
greatest achievements in military administratioa yet seen in tlie 
annals <rf war. 

I am, with best wishes, 

Yours sincerely, 

RiCHABD TSMPia. 

A& to whether Sir Bichard Temple is right in his snpposi- 
tioDS in regard to Steyn's and Erager'e governments, and 
whether they woald facilitate aorveyB or otherwise, with a view 
to map making, or allow anch if prepared to fall into our 
hands, may be gathered from the following preface to the 
snoceeding translation of a pamphlet that was published in 
Grahamstown in the dark days o£ February, when the reports 
from the variouB places where battles had taken place were 
saoh as to cause grave aneasineBS, and resnlted in a flow of 
eathaaiaBm and martial spirit BQoh as has nev-er before been 
witnessed in British history. 



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INTELUGENCE DEPARTMENT 179 

It b the spirit and desires of the Boers — the official 'Bo&n 
I mean — ^that hare been grasped so tardily ; and as showing 
the sentiments to the British mle and people, I reprodoce 
statements that should be well known to all the subjects of 
King Edward VIL, and carefully read by all who take an 
interest in the merits sod demerits of the negotiations and 
predispomtions that have resnlted in the present Anglo-Boer 
war. 

If this book dealt with the canses of the war instead of 
with the staff work o£ the war, how mnch valoable material I 
ooold employ which I have hod relnctantly to lay aside as 
being extraneons to the subject. Mr. Chamberlain has been 
acoQsed of fomng on this war to gratify his personal ambi- 
tion, His critics act on the assnmptaon that he connived at 
the Jameson raid, and that Sir Alfred Milner is a firebrand, 
sent oat expressly to bring abont the war, so as to seize for 
the capitalists the Witwatersrand Gold Fields. The Colonial 
Secretary and the High Commissioner were charged with 
wanting war when they were pretending to seek peace. Bat 
t^e pemsal of this document, that was £rst published in 1882 
— shorUy after the soirender of the Transvaal to the Boers — 
will oonvince moat people that the reverse was the case, and 
that cor magnanimity was not regarded by the Boers in the 
way we intended it should have been. The spirit Ln which 
they regarded it was wholly wrong. 

The title of the origioal pamphlet is De Tranavaaidie Oorlog 
(the Transvaal War), and its contents have been faithfully re- 
produced excepting that a portion has been omitted to avoid 
repetition. It consists of a series of leading articles originally 
published in the De Patriot, then the most vigorous of Bond 
cffgans. It is believed the atatemeats wilt prove a revelation to 
British colonists, and to the British public at home, of the hatred, 
as tntter as it was ungrateful, which at that time was cherished 
by Afrikanders in this colony, as wall as in the Bepublics, which 



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180 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

has been ceaselessly fomented ever smce by the most ah&melesa 
misrepresentAtions. 

Here, too, tiie reader may view tho Afrikuider Bond at its 
very beginning, and nuirk the lines on whiob it wsfi projected, and 
wbich have been exactly followed out in its iU-omened earner. 
We see that it was designed to be a preparation for an Afrikander 
"natioD," a confederation totally independent of Great Britun. 
With this key all the moves of the Bond and of the Republics &11 
into their places — the enmity practised towards Enf;lish colonists, 
the diligent propaganda of the Dutch language, the undei^round 
war of imperial influence, the dogged refusal to make oonoeosionB 
to the TJitlanders, the aocumulation of war materia], the fostering 
of the manufacture of ezploeivee, the consoUdati<m of tfaa two 
Republics, the assumption of absolute independence and the 
declaration of war at the earliest moment it was thought safe. 

Fortunately the grand oonspiraoy has failed, but we earnestly 
desire that our countrymen should realise the danger from whicii 
South Africa has had a narrow escape ; there can be no better 
means to this end than the univeieal penual of the following 
pages. 

THE TRANSVAAX WAR, 1881. 

The moral pressure was too strong; England was forced to 
give back the stolen Transvaal If the IVansvaalers had indeed 
stayed quiet, as nearly all advised them to do, then England's 
injuabioe would have been successful ; she would have been con- 
firmed in her robbery, and would also easily have absorbed the 
Free State. Kow all her thieving is over, and probably she will 
never repeat it. Might has run its raoe against right and lost, 
and will never be able to resume the conflict on such favouraUe 
terms. And our faith in the righteous is all the stronger, that 
England will be yet more severely punished if she dares to begin 
again witii her policy of robbery and murder. 

England's power has been repeatedly beaten and humbled. 
The little respect the Afrikander had for British troops is utterly 
done away. And England has lesmt so much respect for ns 
Afrikanders that she will take care not to be so ready to mske 
war with us again. Think of it ; no Tr.nglin}i soldier has had the 
honour to set his foot on Transvaal ground. Those that were in 



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INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 181 

the ^^caosvaal aireody had to sit still in forts like mice in a trap, 
and those that were to go and relieve them got their sound beating 
in Natal territory. 

The Iransvaalers have now got what they wanted, and what they 
for four yeara vainly solicited from England, namely, the revoca- 
Hon of the aunezatioD, the giving back of their land, and the 
reettwadon of the South African Bepublic. 

The Vrw State diall now also remain a free State, and England 
most now keep ber elawe off from the Transvaal long enough for 
us Afrikanders to recover strength a little and pull things to 
right*. 

The Afrikanders have now a little time and opportunity to 
develop themselves as a people. We have all been fearing that 
the Jingoes would simply overwhelm us. 

The Transvaalers are now restored to credit in their own 
eyes and in the eyes of all the world. Now all Europe and 
America are alive to the rights of our affairs, and it will be 
damgorouB for England to go on with ber accustomed plundering. 

The Afrikanders, espedaUy the young onee, have now got an 
aversion to foreign languages and customs, and particularly to the 
English, and an ambition ia awakened within them for their own 
peojde and their own language. The Englishman has made him- 
aeil hated, huiguage and all. And this is well ; for the contrary 
evil had already made great progress. 

nie ^gl"** sovereignty over South Africa has now gone back 
at least half a century. Good ; we are heartily glad ot it. 

The Formation of (Aa Afrikander Bond. 
This is another matter we mnst now carry through, now or 
nevw. We have seen how neceesary it is that the Afrikanders 
should have a general union or body, so as to be able to work 
tc^;ether. This was never more neceesary than now. Even the 
VolkaUad, which formally was not favourable to such a Bond, 
and even now objects to its^ being empowered to watoh the 
press, finds the eetablishment of the Bond not only advisable 
but pressingly needful. It rrauarks : " All doubt as to the pres- 
sing necessity of taking thialmatter in hand vanishes now that 
we see that branches of the London South African Union are 
being formed at the Cape, so as to give powerful assistance to 



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182 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

the Engliah merohaDts. If there muHt be a conflict betwaen 
English and Dutch here, then let the Dutch take care that they 
are ready for it. 

The Frte State Xxpnu of April 7 laat (1S83) publishes the 
draft of Buoh a Bond, riniiU'' to what we have eeveral timea 
prapoaed in 7%e Patriot, but w<M-ked out more in detail by &om» 
friends at Eloemfontein. [Here foUowe the oonstitation]. Tbi 
object of the Afrikander Bond is the establishment of a South 
African nationality thtoagh the cultivation <tf a true love of this 
our fatherland. 

The Bond must grow up out of the heart of the people : the 
lulee can come on after. This is now our time to establish the 
Bond, while a national couBdousnees has beui awakened throogh 
the Transvaal war. And the Bond must be our preparation 
few the future confederation of all the States and Coloniea of 
South Africa. The English Government keeps talking of a oon- 
federation under the British flag. That will oevw be (daar 
kom niks van nie). We can assure them of that. We have 
often said it, there is just one hindrance to confederation, and 
that is the British flog. Let them take that away, and within a 
year the confederatdon under the free Afrikander flag would be 
established. 

But 80 l<mg as the English flag remains here the Afrikander 
Bond must be our confederation. And the British will after a 
while admit that Froude's advice is the best for them ; they must 
oe content with Simons Bay as a naval and military station on 
the road to India, and give over all the rest of South Africa to 
the Afrikanders. 

If an Englishman is willing to become an Afrikander, and 
acknowledge our land and people and language, than we will ac- 
knowledge him as our countryman and heartily su{^>art faim^ 
or one of any other nationality on the same terms. 

Tha Attti-BritiA Campaign. 
We must form trading sssociationB witii Europe and the United 
States of America. Iliere is now a good opportunity for this, aa 
thcore has recently been started a direct line of steamers between 
Germany, Holland, and Belgium and South Africa. And it is 
said there is tc be a separate line to run from Belgium and the 



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INTELUGENCE DEPARTMENT 16S 

O^w. Tberfl ia now bo much intarest in South Africa awakeoed 
in Europe, and such sympathy tdt for our Boer natdonality, that 
it will be easy to eatablish the desired trade ooimectunts. 

Ilie ^tiMtanlam JTondsMi&id (Journal of Trade) remarks :** The 
tabaie of England liea in India, and the future of Holland ia 
Sonth Africa. Whan our capitalists vigorously develop this 
trade, and, for example, form a syndicate to bay Delagoa Bay 
feom Fortuj^ol, then a railway from Cape Town to Bloemf ontdn, 
Fotchefstroom, Pretoria, Delagoa Bay will be a lucrative invset- 
mant. And when in course of time the Dutch language shall 
rauversally prevail in South Africa, this most extensive territory 
will become a North America for Holland and enable \u to 
^■^^^■F'w the Anglo-Saxon race." 

The Boer stores which we must establish must be Dutch or 
Afrihandn^ through and through, not any English. No English 
signboard, no English advertasemente in UngliBh uewspapeis, no 
Ungliah book-keepers; no, all Dutch or Afrikander. Just as 
Xnglish stores help to uphold English newspapers, English 
adkools, English social life in a town, so on the contrary our 
Boer stores must work to prevent the English element from 
prenrailing; and must uphold the Afrikander spirit in the place 
as against the Afrikander spirit. 

Yes, England is a Bildandyk ; the Dutch poet has rightly called 
her, "a gang of robbers," and those islanders live only hy 
plunder ; thdr ships plunder on every shore, th^ vultures fly 
over mountain and valley and light upcm every carcase; they 
gather and glean whatever they can ; therefore it is tb^f have 
■0 many colonies, and therefore they raked in the Transvaal. 
And now we must endeavour, instead of their being able to 
plunder more in our land, to out it off so that they shall have 
lees, and if poesSde nothing to p«y on in our land. And then 
we shall see if we are not quii^y rid of these vultures. 
Where there is no carcase there yon see no vultures. The 
trade is still under the British flag ; thus England cannot 
hinder as from starting suoh assocjations in the colony and in 
Natal, and in the Free State and Transvaal we are of course 
aUe to do BO. But the English rob us not only in thnr stcH«s 
font in their banks. We give an extract from the Amsterdam 
ffamdAUad of March 18, from which any one, and our Transvaal 



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184 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

frwnda above all, may see how an English bank dared to serve 
lu. "The only bank in the Transvaal was in Englinh hands. 
It had advanced money on the Seoooooeni war. Suddenly it 
demanded payment, and refused all further credit. That was 
the canae later on (says Mr. Moodie) about the empty State 
ehest and the few pence that the Queen's treasurer foond aa 
a balance of ready money." And how ate we to prevent such 
an evil ! Why, in the same manner as with the stores — by 
helping ourselves. 

Let OB start a National Bank, with branches in all towns and 
villages v& our land. 

Preparationa for War. 

To start manufactures of the muniticms of war is anothw 
lesson we must learn from the events of last year, particularly 
from the late wars in the Transvaal and Basntdand. And this of 
course especially conoeme the two Bepublios. 

For this two things are required : — 

(1) To make their own ammaaition, and 

(2) To be well supplied with cannon, and to provide a regiment 
of artilleiy to wcwfc them. To begin with the last. In thie way 
we may praise President Brand. We believe the fVee State is 
fairly weU provided with cannon, and with ammunition for 
ouinon. And he has also had for some time past yonng men 
drilled in the fort at Bloemfontein to work with the cannon. 
So that if the TingHali troops were coming over the Drakens- 
berg by Harrismith way, for example, they would not be the 
only ones to use field guns, but the Free Staters from the 
Bergabove would have kept them &r enough off with their 
cannon ; and if the Transvaal had had just acoaple of cannon on 
Laing's Nek, with a few clever gunners, there would have been 
still less chance for the English ever to have got over that way. 
Unfortunately, in the betrayal of the country, the cannon the 
Transvaal had also fell into the hands c^ the robbers, and were 
used against the Boers at Pretoria. But when once the IVans- 
vaal gets its independenoe back, the Government of the. Repnblio 
will have Isamt from the recent war a lesson as to what they 
Dnst do for the future. 

But the other point is of much more importance ; the Free 



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INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 185 

Stetee and the TraitBvual must make their own ammanitioti for 
themaelvee. Thia is the matter hy which the Eoglish have 
always harassed thetu. Think how Sir F. Wodehouse was ready 
to hand over the Boers to the iU-will of the Basutos, by stop- 
ping the supply of ammuniticai to the Free States. And we 
mast fully express our BStouishinent at President Brand and the 
Votksraad that they did not hare their eyes opened then, and 
begin at once to manufactiire gunpowder. And, again, in the 
IVansvaal war the one hope of the soldierB was that the Trans- 
vaalecs might ran out of ammunition. And Sprigg * lent him- 
self as a tool to stop the supply of ammunition from the colony to 
the Free State, so that the latter might not supply the Dtansvaal. 
Now, however, they have their eyes opened, and let them profit 
hj the leason. The TrauBvaalers are beginning to make all their 
own ammunition. At Heidelberg there are 4000 cartridges made 
dafy. And a few skilful Afrikanders have begun to make shells 
too. That is right ; so must we become a nation. When oppressed 
W6 grow strong. Let us have a little time and we will develop 
our nationality. 

And the Free State is also becoming vigilant. At least the 
Ea^reaM takes the matter up warmly. For in its issue of April 14 
it aaja : " Lest any one should think the proposal we made some 
time since to the Baad about establishing a gunpowder manofac- 
toiy was merely oat of ill-humour caused by the stopping of our 
supply from abroad, we retarn to the subject now. Sulphur, as 
is well known, is found in the country, and the evident proof 
thereof is the specimen exhiMted in the Bloemfontein Museum. 
All that is needed is to determine the quantity, and Qovem- 
ment will do well to instruct its officials to moke the necessary 
inquiries, for we are assured it is found in more than one 
place in the State. Saltpetre is found in many ports, and also the 
beet charcoal for gunpowder making, namely that from the willow 
wood, which is plentiful. With an outlay of say £5000 a factory 
can be started sufficient to provide for our needs, which is our 
eepeool aim at present, though afterwards it could be enlarged as 
may be desired. We cannot endure to be dependent, as we are 
now, on the pleasure of ill-mannered and lll-tempared rascals who 
in a foolish manner enter upon wild, eztisvagont enterprises from 
* Blr Oordou Sprigg, Prime HluMer of Cape Oolonj. 



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186 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

which th«7 have to retreat with ebame, and th«a cover it with 
rarioua lying statements against the Free State, en which they 
wish to lay tiie blame of their own folly. Sat can we Btand idly 
looking on while exam and ammunition are sold wholeeale to the 
natives round us, while in the future decdfiive moment iar Bonth 
Africa we shall find ourselves unarmed. And, again, who knows 
who may be Prime Minister in England, and then what aort of 
policy will rule the colony f We wish for peace, and are resolved 
to have it. We have do glory to win by war. But we may lose that 
which is precious, namely, auffidaDt preparation <^ sudi means at 
defence aa to make us independent of 4^e favour, friendship, or 
hostility of tlie enemy, thus we h<^ that one of the fruits of 
the Transvaal war will be that the BepuUics shall make Uteir 
own unmonition, that tiiey no Wig*"" sufiiEir IhiglaQd to make 
a profit by them, and that they will, mweover, every year set 
^fiart £1000, or rather allow to their Oovemment the amount <rf 
charges icx powder made on their account." 

No Land to he told to the Briiuh. 

And while we are now especially dealing with the Bc^blks, WS 
will accordingly ^ve the Boers their one pace of advice : titey 
must sell no land to Englishmen. 

We cepedally say this to our Transvaal brethren. In any 
national conflict it is to the advantage of us A&ikandua that we 
are the landowners. The great majority of the English are only 
Inrds (rf passage (trekvogels), that go away aa soon as they have 
eaten carrion enough, or there is no more carrion to be got. Dor 
Boers are really the nobility of South Africa. They think they 
are like the English farmers. Amongst the Wngliah the noble* 
are the landowners, and the " boera " an merely tenants — the 
staves in fact of the nobility. Here it is just the revene. The 
Boers are the landowners, and the i»t>ud little Englishmen are 
dependent on the Boers. They themselves are now begiooing to 
see it, and therefore will they tiy to get our ground into their 
poeeefiBion. Watch against that. Free Staters, TransvaalerB ; sell 
no land to the Jingoes, even though they offer to pay high prioea. 
Think, if once they got a finn footing (or landed property) then 
you would never get rid of them again. If you have ground to 
part with, that you do not need for your own ohildren, sell it to 



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INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 187 

an Afrikftuder from the oolony. Here there are too nuut; of us, 
And tbwe are plemt; who would go north if they out get Uad. 
Onoe more, this is a point of great importance, we stand upon our 
own ground. 

Wear againtl the EngUih Lamguagt. 

The English and AngUfied schodmasters, and still more eohoot- 
mistreasea, teach oar ohildien from early youth : — 

(a) That the English langoage is the finest and beet ; whereas 
it is only a miscellaneoas gibberish, without proper grammar or 
dictionary. 

(&) That ^Tiglinh history is the most interestdng and glorious ; 
whereas it is nothing mtnre than a concatenation of lies and mis- 
representations. 

(c) That they must give tho first place to English geography ; 
whereas all England is nothing but an island in the North Sea. 

(d) That they are educated as soon as they can gabble English ; 
whereas they simply make themselves ridiculous by it in the eyea 
<rf every judicious person. 

(e) That English books and periodicals are the finest aitd beet 
to read ; though really they are the greatest mass of nonsense 
(with few exceptions) that you can find aixywhere ; and finally, ia 
one w<urd — 

(/) That it is an honour for evei^ one to ape the n'^gli'^ in 
everything, and, in faot, to become English ; whereas it is the 
greatest shame and disgrace for any people to belie tbur own 
Qod-given nationality. 

The answer to the question of What is England fighting 
for? will be found in the foregoing extract, that is to Bay, 
if England is to continue to shape the destinies and mould 
the eivilieation of South Africa, and to maintain her position 
in the world. 

The despatchea will prove how conciliatory were the pro- 
poeals made by the Colonial Secretaiy, and bow extremely 
anxiooB the whole nation was for peace. And after the war 
had been in progress a year and a half, were ever such 
generooe tenm offered to a conqnered foe that had wilfully 



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188 THE ASGLO-BOER WAR 

brought oil a war which has resalted in the practical exter- 
mination or exile of the whole male population, to say 
nothing of the derastation of the ooontiy and the misery of 
the women and children of those that are left on the 
farms? 

By the extract will be seen the intolerable position in 
which British sabjects were placed, a condition which it 
was impossible to permit to continue, especially with eacdi 
ultimate aims in view ; and as Lord Roberts says, the mag- 
nanimity of 1881 baa resulted in the present inevitable war. 

That the present war was inevitable ia further proved hy a 
letter from Mr. Theophilus Schreiner, brother of the late Cape 
Prime Minister, if British influence was not to be altogether 
eliminated from South Ahioa, or at least restricted to Simons 
Bay and the right of seaway. 

To TSB Edftob or the Cape TimM. 

Bn, — As my attention has only just sow been drawn to 
the manifesto of Mr. Beits, State Secretary of the Transvaal, to 
die Orange Free State burghers as published in the CajM Atyua 
B^tember 1899. 

In this shameful and shameless document, Sir Alfred Milner, 
Mr, OhamberUin, the British Cabinet, the Qneen of England, 
»ad the British nation are declared to be murderers, robbers, 
breakers of treaties, and the responsibility for the present war 
between the Bepublics and England is sought to be laid on 
ttieir ahoolderB in a wealth of scurrilous and mendodoos state- 
ment. 

I feel compelled to write the following lines, not to discuss 
matters which have passed beyond the pale of ai^ument, but to 
throw a little personal histcoic lig^t on the question as to who ia 
responsible for the present war, which may serve to show that 
not England, nor England's Queen, nor England's Oovemmeot 
are the real originators of the some. 

I met Mr. Beitz, then a judge of the Orange Free State, in 
Bloemfontein, between seventeen and eighteen years ago, Bh<^y 
afttf the retrocession of the Transvaal, and wben he was bu^ 



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INTELUGEKCE DEPARTMENT 189 

eetablishing the Afrikander Bond. It must b« patent to every 
mie that, at that time at all events, England and its Qovenunent 
bad no intention of bOdng awaj the Independence of tbe Tiaas- 
▼aal, for she had just " magnanimooaly " granted the same ; 
no intention of making war on the Repnblics, for she had just 
made peace; no intention to eeiee the Band goldfields, for 
they were not discovered. At that time I met Mr. Beiti, 
and he did his best to get me to become a member of hia 
Afrikander Bond, bat after studying its constitution and pro- 
granune I refused to do so, whereupon the following ooUoqay in 
Buhetance took place, which has been indelibly imprinted on my 
mind ever since. 

Beitz. "Why do you refoee? Is the object of getting the 
peoi^ to take an interest in political matters not a good one % " 

Myself. " Yee, it is ; bat I seem to see plainly here, between 
the lines of this oonstitation, much more ultimately aimed at than 
that." 

BeitE. "What?" 

Hyself. " I see quite clearly that the ultimate object aimed 
at is the overthrow of the British power, and the expulsion of the 
British flsg from Sontii Africa." 

Bdts (with his pleasant, conscious smile, as of one whose 
secret thought and pnrpoee had been discovered, and who was not 
altogether displeased that such was tbe esse). " Well, what if it 
is 80?" 

Myself. " Yon do not suppoee, do you, that that flag is going 
to disappear from South Africa without a tremendous struggle 
and fight ? " 

B«it2 (with the same pleasant, self-satisfied, and yet semi- 
apologetic smile). " Well, I suppose not ; but what of that I " 

Myself. " Only this, that when that struggle takes place you 
and I will be on <q>posite sides, Mid what is more, tbe Ood that 
was on the side of the Kansvaal in the late war because it had 
right on its tdde wiQ be on the side of England, because He must 
view with abhorrence any plotting and scheming to overthrow 
her power and position in South Africa which have been ordained 
\q Him." 

Beits. " Well see I " 

Thus tbe conversation ended ; but during the seventeen years 



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CHAPTEB XVI 

THE NATAL BBIOADE 

Mdch 08 I tshonld like to write on the performances of the 
Naval Brigade and tiie part it took in the operations in 
South A&ica, I must leave this agreeable task to another, 
though I cannot bring myself to deny the gratifioataon it 
affords me to record the fact that, of the many things this 
war has brought to light, nothing has been more observable 
than the good feeling that baa existed between the soldiers 
and the eailore. From beginning to the end there has been 
a total absence of all jeslonsy. 

The long connectiott my late husband had with the 
Admiralty in Whitehall tendera the navy espeoially dear to 
me ; bat in a book that is devoted to non-oombatant staff 
work, I conld scarcely inclnde the servioes of the Naval 
Brigade in it, as they were entirely executive in character. 
To whatever force seotionB of naval gnns were attached, the 
officers and men were oared for and fed by the administrative 
staff of that commanding officer, thongh they had their own 
equipment provided by the Admiralty. 

In returning to England, after nearly a year in Sonth 
Africa, it was my good fortune to do so in the transport 88. 
Lake Srie, which on that voyage conveyed the men belong- 
ing to H.M.S. Monarch to the London Docks. 

The article I contributed to the Momivg Pott, which 
appeared in the issue of November 13, 1900, relative to it, I 
will here reprodnce. 



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THE NAVAL BRIGADE 19$ 

" The ezigencieB of the war and the reqniremeDta of the 
naval serrioe hare caused the Admiralty anthorities to 
arrange for the Naval Brigade, which has been on active 
aervioe for the past year, to return to England in three 
Beotums. The first to airive was the Powtrfutt crew, and 
to them and their gallant captain the nation accorded a 
welcome which proved that their bravery and snfEering in 
the defenoe of Ladysmith were highly valned. A la^ 
seotum of the British pnblic were evidently nnder the 
impreesioQ that the whole Naval Brigade was then with- 
drawn from active service in Sonth Africa. The return, 
however, of the Afonarck's men on the ZaAe Srie is oonolnaive 
proof to the oonta«ry. IVn- nearly a year the Naval Brigade 
has been on the march, ever ready for action when reqnired 
and always reliable in every emei^ency. The third diviaitm 
will return in the oonrse of a month or two cm board the 
Doris, the fiagship of the station, and on the Baroaaa, at the 
tennination of their oommissionsa 

" Bnt it is the second divisioa of the Brigade — that which 
came home l^ the Lake 3n« — that I am specially con- 
cerned with at this moment. It has, nnfortonately, not had 
the gratifioation of snch a homecoming as was accorded to 
the first section, because the Monarch, the ship to which the 
men chiefly belong, is not dne to leave her present station 
for at least two years. That part, therefore, of her crew 
which formed a section of the Naval Brigade were obliged 
to txaverse some six thousand milee of sea in a hired trans- 
port instead of on their own battleship. It is tiios that 
the Elder Dempster liner Lake Erie has the privilege of 
tnringing home the second contangent of naval heroes, as well 
as worthy representatives of almost every raiment and 
corps serving in Sonth Africa. 

Daring the progrees of the war many things have been 
bronght into [«(nninenoe that will have far-reaching import- 



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19* TBB ANGLO-BOER WAR 

txioi in the fntnn on British home and foreign policy, bat 
perhaps no feature of the oonfliot is more Batisfactwy than 
that which haa shown the good fellowship eziating among 
the Imperial and Colonial foroea and the Naval Serrioe. 
Tba Tetnm of the Naral Brigade proree that the Anglo-Boer 
war is orer,* though a large British force mnst Btill remain 
in the ooantry to snppress the gnerilla warfare over which 
GhristaaD De Wet is the presiding genius. 

" Giving praise to the navj for the help rendered to the 
army during this campaign detracts in no way from the 
sister service; for who can doubt that if the navy stood in 
need of similar aid in a stmggle on sea the army, if ponessed 
<rf Boperior weapons for a given purpose, wonld bring them 
forward as readily as the sailors produced their 4*7 inch naval 
gnns? Both servioea exist for the same object national 
defence — and are complementary one to the otlier. 

After the battle of Graepan, when Captain Prothero, of 
the Sorit, was severely wounded, the oommand of the brigade 
was given to Captain Beareroft, of the PMloTful, who held it 
until the middle of October, when Lord Boberts thanked him 
and all serving under him for their valoaUe services {nicnr 
to tfaeir final return to their ships. In his despatch of 
April 16 the Commander-in<cbief again referred to the 
pluck, endurance, and cheerfulness under most trying oircum- 
Btancee, of both the officers and men of the naval brigade. 

The high estimatioii in which they were held by the army 
may also be conveyed to the public in the words of Majors 
General Hart, addressed to Commander Grant, D.S.O. 

KauDKBgDosp, Ovtoier 1. 
To 0.0. Naval Brigade, — I sead yon a copy of a telegram 
recaved from headquarters, and in doing so desire to express my 
great regret that the requirements (^ her HajeB(?'B Serrioe 

* BinM tb« above mu written Are montha hkve gone bj end the war 
•tUldnigB<ai. 



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THE NAVAL BRIGADE 195 

oompd the nmoval of Tonnelf and the "Sa-yaX Brigade nnder 
your oommasd from my oolunm. Your wu serrioM in the 
force under my oomsund, both before and after the fonaatUm 
of this oolumn, have been in a high degree valaable, and the 
<IqN»tineDt of the Ifaval Brigade in your hands has appeared to 
me at all times admirable, and, bung well aasiBted by your subor- 
dinates, you have overcome serious campaigning difficulties with a 
pondergus gun which has deaarvedly beoome tiie terror of tlie 
enemy. I now wish yoo, your officers, and all hands of Idie Naval 
Brigide good-bye and OodHspeed.* 

That a uataI 4'7 inch gnn is a ponderooB thing to move 
about will be readily admitted by all wbo bare ever seen 
auch a weapon ; bnt it is only those who know Bomething of 
Soath Africa who can appreciate tbe diffionltiefl the Naval 
Brigade enoonntered in moving their gtuis timmgh drifts 
and np mountain sides. To move the great gnns abont <m 
^rly good roads two teams of oxen are required, bnt on 
ootsasionB even this large number has to be doubled. In 
sothe cases — one in p(»nt being the road into Barberton, 
where the gradient ia one in five — a naval gnn, to get it on at 
all, has to be diamounted and placed on a w^^n, with its 
cradle on another. These waggons have to be drawn by 
mzty-fonr oxen, and even then they have to be aeosted 
by all the saUors and marines that man the gun, together 
with the combined strength of the escort and a company 
of infautiy, every man with hia shoulder to the wheel. 
It speaks well for the mannfactnre of the naval gune, 
and for the care exercised by those in chai^ of them, 
that out of the five 4'7a and five 12-pounders sent to take 
part in the Anglo-Boer war no greater accident than the 
breaking away of one wheel can be recorded against them, 

■ Sir Bobftrt Harria, K.aB., K.O.H.O., was in saprame oonuund of hii 
H^MtT'i DaTal f<xoes as Oommandsr-in-olilef of the Oape of Good Hope 
and W«>t Coast of Africa atatton, and Lord Boborts, in his ds^atoh of 
ApiU 16, Axprasaoi his tbaaka and those of the arm; to Sir Bobert foi his 
cotdlal oo-<^)«iation and iievei-&lUiig aoppoit. 



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19$ THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and that in spite of the thoosand miles of difficult eonntry 
which they traveiBed. Even thia little nuBsdTentore was 
readily orenxone by the reeonrces of the " Handy Jack." A 
w^gon wheel was soon found and fitted to the axle, which 
enabled the gnn to eontinoe its joomey into Barberton. 
WiUun fort^-eight hours all was repaired, and the gon 
monnted and ready for action. 

That these ponderoiiB gnns can keep their plaoe in the line 
of march was proved to the great satdsfaction of General Hart 
when he made bis fenced march on Potchefsbuom and 
depended on the arrival in time of two 4*7 naval gnns onder 
Uie command of Commander Giant, of the Dorit. 

The ezoellent work done by these guns will in due ooorse 
be fully difiouBaed by ezperta and dedncfcbns drawn as to 
their effect on the war as a whole, but in the meantime it is 
well within the mark to say that the enemy stood in mortal 
terror of the " Cow gnns " as the Boers describe them 
owing to their long teams of oxen, consequent on thor 
snperior range, which reaolted, also, in a great saving <tf life 
among oar own troops. 

" During the voyage of the Lake Erie the oondnct of boA 
sailoia and soldiers was exemplary. One of the moet note- 
worthy inddente of the journey was the distribution of gifts 
which were sent for the Naval Brigade while on service, bnt 
which could not, owing to the difficulties of transport, be 
served out when the warm sooka and other arbioleB of oomf oit 
wonld have been very aooeptable. The tobacco would have 
been especially welcome. fDie fact, however, that the gifts 
came too late to be of practical service in the field detracted 
not at all from the appreciation of tiiem, though warm socks 
and woollen vests in the tropics did not seem very 
appropriate." 

Of the many instances of military enthusiasm in individuals 
that have ocnne under my personal notice in connection with 



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THE NAVAL BRIGADE 197 

this war, none has strnck me aa being more remarkable, more 
penereiing, or more tmly and honestly desiroaa of serving 
his oonntry than that of the Marqoess of Graham. 

On November 20 I wrote to him in r^^ard to a certain 
^nnunBtaooe that oocnrred when he was on active service 
with Commander Grant's section of naval gnns, and after 
having replied to my inqniries, Lord Graham oontinned : — 

I have been wondering bow I can poembly move the powers 
that be to get a oommiasion (hon. or otherwise) in the Boyal 
Ifaval Beeerve. This has been my life-long desire, but th^ have 
always refoaed it me, as they maintained that I could show no 
special daim. But surely two years' voluntary service with the 
navy, two yeais in the mercantile marine — to farther qualify — a 
master's certificate, and active service with the Naval Brigade 
ought to tell in my favour and ooustitnte a claim euffiment to 
entitle me to this honour. This seems especially so just now, 
when oommis8i<msare gmng right uid left in the army. I would 
do plenty <^ drill, and spare no pains to make myself as efficient 
as poemble. There is nothing I would not do to be in the navy. 

Such a letter is truly pathetic ! The moral inflnenoe of 
flnoh a man as Lord Graham would have f&r-reaohing conBe« 
qnatoes on all those with whom he came in oontaot. The 
extract has another valne : It shows that no nepotism pre- 
vails in the Admiralty. Ilie authorities there show no favour 
to the son of a dnk& But it is earnestly to be hoped that 
snch fervour and peraeveranoe will receive their own reward, 
and that at an early date. 



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CHAPTER XVil 

DKIAOOA BAY 

Iir a prvrknu dupter I entered into my oonneetimu with 
the PeninBDlkT and Oriental BteamBhip Manila, and explained 
mj dnties, Ac, on board, whilst she lay in Simons Bay, 
Except for the short period she was employed as deapatob 
boat between Beira and Delagoa Bay this transport has been 
nsed sinoe December 1899 as a priam ship for priscmen oi 
war, or to ocmvey them hither and tiiitha* m the antiioiitiea 
give US instmctions. In the latter months of the war, 
prisoners have been sent to Ladysmith, where, by the irony 
of &te, tiiey encamp, at leaat snoh of them as are exempt 
torn deportation to St. Helena or Ceylon. Ladysmith ia not 
the nioeet place in Sonth Africa to spend the sommer month% 
aa many who went thiongh the siege know well. 

When I was on board the Mamila gcnag to Beira, she 
landed at DeUgoa Bay sereial maimed man from tike l^ana* 
Taal, aa well as women and dtildren captured in Cronje'a 
laager, who were to proceed thence to tiieir homes according 
to the terms of the Qenera Award. 

Looking at those children of two years of age and nnder, 
one conld not help exclaiming : " Were those babies in the 
trenohea of a great battle? What a baptism of fire they 
most have had ! " The tiny wrist of one infant was scorched 
by the explosion of a shell I asked the women what they 
were d<ang in enoh a place, and why they had taken tbor 
batdes ? " We went to look after onr husbands, and to nurse 



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DELAGOA BAY 199 

tliftm when they were aiok," was the reply; and ibej added, 
" we ooald Qot leave the bhildren behind." 

These women, hoth in their persons and in their oabinB, 
failed to leave behind them a repntation for order aad 
cleanlineaB which is so oharacteristio of their Dntoh aistras 
in Holland, where sombbing, cleaning, and household neat- 
ness are ruling patnionB, taking precedence of all other virtues 
and vices. 

It is but fair to say, however, that the Boer women on 
board kept their children sufBciently clean and tidy to pass 
muster, but they felt it no disgrace to walk about that part 
of the deck assigned to them unwashed and with tHuar hair 
nnoombed all day. The bath-room near at hand they did 
not use ootil the captain one day made it compulsory. No 
great snipnse need be ezperienoed at this want of personal 
deanlinesa^ when mTnilAr toilet provision was made daily for 
6«neral Cronje, hia wife, and staff while they occupied the 
adminl's quarteis on the flagship in Simons Bay, but was 
never osed. After the departure of the occupants, in both 
instances, the need for a cleasiog day and for the free nae of 
Keating's powder was proved to demonstration. 

The men returning to the Transvaal had had enongh of 
war, poor things. They were hobbling back on crutches 
or otherwise disabled for life. In their pocksta they carried 
a declaration to the effect that they will never again take up 
arms against the British Government, which is the passport 
for their aafe conduct over the border. Had their feelings of 
patriotism for the late Transvaal Bepublic been ezoessive there 
could have been no difficulty in getting them to sign this 
affidavit, as their bodies were so much shattered and maimed 
by shot and exposure that through phyucal disalnlily alcma 
th^ oonld never again be usefully employed in any military 
oapaoty. 

Some of the men have been riddled through and thion^ 



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SOO THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

shot in focr or five different places; but they are in good 
spirit^ and gratefnl for the akilfnl treatment and atten- 
tion they reoeired &om the doctors and nnndng staff at 
Woodstock and Wynbei^ hoetntals, where they had been 
placed side by aide with oar own Holdiers who were wonnded 
in the sane battle. 

On the Toyage one bnrgher was especially oommnnicative.' 
He gave ^niTmJTig descriptionB of men and things in general, 
and of his wife who was wmting for him at home. He was 
a Scotsman by biith, and was very proad of his wife's deeomt ; 
her maiden name nndoabtedly ia an honoured one in England, 
and has been described in " Debrett " for generationfl. By 
tacit consent he was the chief spokesman of his party. He 
expressed in no meaaored langaage the gratitude of them 
all for the kindness they had received, and he was f nil of 
admiration of the BOntgen ray apparatus, whioh bad located 
the damage and saved his limbs from amputation. 

It was especially gratifying to me to hear this testimony, 
B8 it was only on the day previons to embarkation that I 
had seen the minister of the Datoh Keform Chnrch at 
Stellenbosch — a man fnll of anti-British prejudices, who, it 
may be safely affirmed, has done more to breed and foster bad 
feeling between the British and the Dntoh than any other 
man, or body of men, on South Afrifmn soil. Perhaps if be 
ooold have heard these woanded men, speaking ont of the 
foluesa of their hearts, testi^ing to the kindness they had 
Mverally experienced, he might have modified his opinion 
as to the treatment that prisoners of war receive at the hands 
of the British military anthoritaes and those who are directly 
responsible for their well-being. Were I not satisfied of the 
tmth (^ the old maxim, "That a man convinced agunst his 
will is of the same opinion still," I would forward for hii 
edification a copy of a testimonial given to me in English 
Hid in Dutch ezpresedve of their appreciation of tbe skill. 



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DELAGOA BAY ^01 

kntdnees, wA coiudderstion extended to them while in 
hospitftl as priBonera of war at the base at Oape Town, and 
signed by all who were on board the Manila. 

I am very pleased to possess this document, if only as 
hiatcoioal evidenoe and aa a sonrenir of this Btmggle for our 
mpremairf in Sonth Africa. I farther secnred pleasant 
reminders of these gratefol Boers in the form of " snap- 
■hota " with a camera. It was amnsing to see my tdttera 
struggle on to their crntohes to make some soggestion as to 
the handling of my apparatus and to rearrange themselvefl 
in pioturesqae attitudes so as best to catch the son ! They 
were quite aafaii at the business, as they had often gone 
tiirougfa the same performance in Cape Town. 

It had been stormy during the voyage round the coast, and 
when we made our way into the estuary — formed by the three 
rivers MatoUa, Tembe, and TTmbeloei — on the western shore 
of which is situated Loren^ Marques, the captain's face wore 
an expression that testified to the fact that the ship was* in 
troubled waters, where strong currents prevailed and where 
there were shoals and shifting sandbars that he had heard of 
but was negotiating for the first time. 

He said he felt a thrill of nervous excitement when the 
ship struck against something that caosed her to osdllato. 
He thought he was on a sandbank, and visions of a wreck 
and an inquiry rushed through his mind. His anxiety was 
soon relieved, however, when he observed that the sea, to the 
extent of half an acre, was dyed in blood. The ship had ron 
against a huge fish — probably a whale — and had out it in 
twain ; but she was still ploughing her way through the 
trough of the sea, and rolling a good deal in the effort 

Mach has been written in recent times about Delagoa Bay, 
its munificent harbour, its strategic importance, its valae as 
a naval station, ito obligations aa a neutral port, and the part 
it would play in the hands of the enemy. Every point has 



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SOS THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

been vmmiisnA and ably dealt with hj niHtaiy experts aad 
noogniBed anthoritiaB, but many indioataoiu showed that the 
Britiah positioii in the estunation of local trading finni wm 
not an enviable one on aooount o£ the natriotaona on goods 
imported and for tnuisit, whilst the Detagoa Bay line wm ia 
the hands of the enemy. Hose who issaed the ragnlationa, 
and those who saw that tiuir oonditions weie fulfilled, hsd 
need for a free hand, and they deserve the sympathy of ^ose 
in whose interest diey acted. 

The poutiona oooapted by Colonel Maohado, the Govemor- 
Qeneral, and Captain Frits Orowe, ILN., bis Britannifl 
Majesty's Consal-Gteneral, were diffionlt in the extreme ; and 
both of them had only reoently beoi aiqpunted to their 
reepeotive poets in Loren^ liUrqiies. Much depended on 
their oapaoity and tact SnsoeptibilitieB were easily irritated, 
and delicate qnestions <tf extreme importance came up daily 
by dooens for settlement. Delagoa Bay bristled wiUi dif- 
ficulties, and nothing bat a jadioons finnness kept ont 
foreign intwf erenoe. 

With the change of GoremorB-General and British Consals 
a new method of oondncting di|doniatio and oonsnlsr baaiiMSS 
was initiated, which resulted in things wwking man 
smoothly, and local opinions being more cautiously expressed 
and hostile actions considerably restricted. Fntnre cq>- 
tigencies may likewise have had something to do with ths 
improved demeanonr of the inhabitants of this Portogoase 
seaport town. 

The trade of Loren^ Marqaes is dependent almost entirely 
on the Transvaal, and oonseqaently since the war b^^an, and 
indeed before it atarted, the depression in bnsiBees greatly 
effected everybody, and, until the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay line 
was opened, it was eapedally felt by all British firms. 
As can readily be imagined, for the first nine months of 
actual hostilities, the feeling of the majority of the inbaU- 



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DELAGOA BAY «» 

teats laa liigh in Sairour of the Tnutsrul BepaUii^ 

pftrtiealarly oa at that tune Mr. Fott, the Transvaal Cwual, 
wai a gnat "Jack in ofBoe," thongh he has dnce foand 
himtelf on the lonng side, and had to haul down hia oonsolar 
Bag to tihe order o£ the FortngueBe Gorenunent, who 
objected to his irregnlaritieB as to oontrabrand of war. 

The visit of the Meditamaean eqaadnai to lisbon in 
December 1900 also prodooed a good effect The Portogaeae 
Minister of Marine in a speech said : — 

Weleome to our &Ili«i — that is the greeting of all Portogueea 
who know and oaa tppncaXe the great valoe of the visit of the 
powerful British fleet. Pwtogal and England are two aneatiaUf 
coltnual ooimtriee. 

Pointing then to the British fli^, hang on the walls, the 
Minister ^claimed : 

There is the British flag. Let ns salute it with respect and 
affection, as the Portuguese flag was saluted at £oomati Poort. 
These two salntes were the pablio affirmation of the allianoe 
between the two oountriee. In the name of the Portogueee navy, 
I drink to the British navy, tiie Channel squadnm, and to Admiral 
Sir Harry Bawam. 

And from the late Queen the Bong of Portugal received the 
following telegram ; — 

I am greatly touched by your kind telegram, I sinoerely thank 
yon, dear nephew, for it, as well as for the good wishes which yoa 
entertain for me and my people. It is, again, with the greatest 
pleasure that I recognise the ondial and friendly tmderstandiag 
between Pratogal and Bngland. 

VnnoBU. 

The ships of war of different nationalities gave a lively 
appeamnoe to Uie barbonr, and it is not difficult to imagine 
that diey all kept a sharp look-out on the doinga of each 
otiier. 

For the firat six months of the war the task of dealing with 



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fl04 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tlie refngeee wu most difScnlL They poured into Lorenzo 
Marqnes in hnndrads from moming till night ; they besieged 
the Consulate, and Captun Crowe was at times distiaoted by 
their claims. From first to last no fewer than a hnndred 
thonsand passed through this town. 

To bouse them temporarily was a matter of no small 
difficulty, whether they were rioh in gold or had not the 
wherewithal to lire throngh the day. 

To the west of Lorenpo Marqaea is the headland of Benben 
Points the residential part of the town. The finest position 
for view is that ocoajoed 1^ Cardoso's Hotel, where, even at 
aeren goineaa a day, a room was not in the month of May 1900 
to be obfauned. In the lower rooms, off the entrance ball, I 
saw three and four beds pat np in each. Smoking and all 
pnblio reoeptioa rooms were ntilised in this way, while the 
cost of living was eqaal to the charges at the Carlton Hotel in 
Fall Mall, where everything is of the very best 

Piior to May 13 all the refugees sent out <^ the Trana- 
vaal were provided, at the expense of the State, with a 
ticket to Delagoa Bay ; but on that date a new departnra 
was made, resulting, in some instances, in great inoonvenienoe 
to passengers, mostly women and ohildmn, and in their 
suffering grave indignities. They found that &ar tdckets 
were only available to Eoomati Poort, and it was with 
difficnlty that the officials at this border station were induced 
to allow them to proceed. Wben the first train arrived at 
Loren^ Marques their position was a tiying one, for they 
woold hare been incarcerated somewhere had not Mr. Luke, 
the British Vice-Consul, been on the spot to help them out 
of their dilemma. 

In all transactions with the Portuguese Gktvenuuent 
Captain Crowe has had the hearty oo-operation of the 
Govemor'Oeneral, Colonel Maohado, whose appointment for 
the seoond time gives universal satisfaction. He is the right 



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DELAGOA BAY a05 

mma for « diffionlt position ; be is genial, dear^wscled, and 

■elf •reliant ; an aUe ofBdal, holding an even balance with a 
finn hand. 

Sinoe the war began erenta have followed each other with 
snoli rapidity that it is impoesible to know and remember 
half that has oocnrred. The nnexpeoted has happened 
BO freqnently that now neither the BritiBh nor the Boers 
anticipate the natural oonseqaenoe of certain actions, nor 
tJie logical sequence of any pre-«rranged plans. 

The Boers could never have thoi^ht it possible that tiieir 
President would be a refugee, first in Delagoa Bay, and l^en 
remain in HoUand for months, leaviiig his old wife in 
Pretoria in the keeping of the rooineks. The empty 
sympathy of France, the refusal of the German Emperor to 
see Mr. Exuger and tiie failure of America to render sub- 
stantial aid, must hare caused much Intter disappointment. 

The interesting doooment transmitted to Lord Salisbnry 
by Conenl-General Crowe on September 18, which is the full 
text of the proolamatiou, bearing date September 10, 
granting leave of absence to Mr. Kmger to visit Europe, 
ran thus : — 

Whereas the sdvanced age of his honour, the State President, 
makes it fanpoaaible for hia Honour further to aooompany the oom- 
mandos ; and wheovas the executive oounoQ is conviooed that the 
highly-valued services of his Honour can still be usefully applied 
in the interest of land and feoifle, the executive council hweby 
detertniues to gnut his Honour leave <d aheenoe to Europe (or the 
period of sx months, in order still to advance our cause there, 
and Hr. W. S. Burger, Tioe-President, takes his place according 
to law. 

S. W, BuxaxB, ViM-Prtaidrnt. 
F. W. Bnrz, Stale Seor^ary, 

To prevent the ez-I^sident from escaping, H.M.S. Doris 
was sent to Delagoa Bay, bat this could not be done when 
he was merely visiting Europe on " leave of absence," and 



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M6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

mmeqaently ooonter orders were reoeired from the TanigD 
Office. 

Kmilu'ly the JJorit w» jost on the point of landing every 
arailable man at Lorenzo Marques to go up to Kwinati 
Port to prevent tke Boen trekking into Portngnese territory. 
All the men, folly equipped, were ready to take to the boats, 
the field gnna were already in, when — ^n^ative orders were . 
ismied. 

The Boria, whilst at Delagoa Bay, kept np oommnnioation 
with the other ships by means of the Marooni telegraphy 
— an invention that will play a great part in a naval 
war. 

In Lorenzo Marqnes everybody snapeoted everybody else, 
and was in tarn suspected by all the world. Bnt aa to the 
various ohatgee that were hurled about " nothing was proven," 
as the lawyers say. Tha greatest vigilanoe was exercised 
daring the first months of the war with respect to all con- 
traband of war, especially so far as British traders were 
concerned ; yet in spite of it, maoh that was nsefal to the 
enemy passed through Delagoa Bay into the TransvaaL 
Some people Bssert that even British firms were not too 
particular in Uieir inquiries as to the ultimate destination 
of their merchandise ; bnt all these inainnations now belong 
to ancient history. 

In Loren^ Marques there is but little social life. [Here 
are only 177 English residents there, the French coming next 
with 55, 80 for those who have to make their homes in this 
Portuguese colony there is no way of finding amusement 
outside their own home and work. 

As to the climate, it is not nearly so bad as is generally 
supposed, and much of the malaria is dne rather to want of 
sanitary arrangements than to natural or physical causes. 
The prevailing winds are cool, coming from the direction of 
the South Pole, which fans the temperature and reduces it to 



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DELAGOA BAY £07 

Q numtlily average of 79'4 deg. FaIit., and miniTpT'™ 
62*4 deg. for the year ending in October 1899. 

Whea I was in Delagoa Bay the weather was perfect, snch 
as occasionally oharacteriHes the montJi of May in England 
I was qnite Bony to say good-bye to " the finest barbonr in 
South Africa," not the finest only, bat the only perfectly 
Becnre one on the east coast of Africa north of Simons Bay ; 
a harbour which in onr hands would form a magnificent 
naval station, espeinally as there is- abundance of coal in the 
nedglibonrhood. Its strategical position is of the gresteat 
importance in the ronte to India, though the arbitration 
of Marshal Maomafaon gave the prize to Portugal in 1875. 
When Lord Camarron suooeedsd to office in 1874 be said : 
"I had reason to think that the offer of a moderate sum 
might lure parduwed that which a very large amount would 
not now compass ; nnfortunately the means were not forth- 
coming, the opportunity was lost, and in politics they do not 
often recnr." 

The parsimony of our Qoremment has too frequently been 
the cause <tf mistakes that a succeeding one, however generous, 
oould not rectify. This fuling in successive QovBmments 
biDu^t the navy to its dangerous condition before the 
passing of the Naval Defence Act. It has been th» same 
thing in r^;ard to the array. Any addition to its effi»eti.ve 
strength proposed by the Secretary of State is violently con- 
tested in the House of Commons by irresponsible members 
who have never studied the use for which the army is 
maintained at all. But when things go wrong they are ^e 
first to raise an outcry against those whose hands ^ey 
have tied, and vote for a lavish expenditure which their 
adaon, to a great extent, rendered necessary. 



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CHAPTER XVIII 

THE TEOOPS IN BXIRA 

THEaE waa ft tune, not bo long ago, when it wtmld hftve been 
no easy matter to hare found two peraons in ft large hall 
filled with a {aabumable and well-educated crowd of men and 
women that oonld haTe said were Beira was ; bnt now its 
position on the map ia well known hy ereiy Belf-respecting 
person in tiie Britieh Isles, and that it is a small town bnilt 
in a sandpit a few miles op the Pnngwe river ; also that it 
is the seaport town for Eastwn Bhodesia. 

Through Uie friendly feeling on the part of the Portognese 
Gorenuuent, who b^;an to see the element of danger that 
existed for their East African colonies, by having two powers 
folly armed Bepnblios for close neighboors, they allowed 
British troops to be landed on their shores in order to proceed 
to Rhodesia. 

Altliongh it is true that public interest in ererything con- 
nected with the war is not maintained at the straining point 
of intensi^, that it was in the spring of 1900, still "news 
from the front " is eagerly songht, and descriptions of places 
where our brothers have fonght or suffered from ferer ia read 
with enthnsiaam. 

For many reasons it was most difficult to obtain information 
as to military moremenb in Beixa, even so far as it concerned 
the Rhodesian force ; and, when obtained, it was still more 
difficult to transmit it. At times internal telegraphic oom- 
mnnication was very imtrastworthy. A message sent at 



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THE TROOPS JN BEIltA 209 

the time of atartiiig on a j'onmey, Ba,j to Salisbniy, not 
infreqaentl; arrived two days, or evBii a week later than the 
traveller for whose comfort it was intended to provide. It is 
only quite reoeotl; that the cost of a message of ten words 
was rednoed to 2s, So it will be readily admitted that the 
oha^es are sofficiently high to ensnre an early delivery. 

As Sir F, Csrringtcm'a force arrived in Beira, and extended 
itself into MashoitaUnd and Matabeleland, internal oonunnni- 
cation did not improve ; even after news came ae far as Beira 
the difficult of transmitting it further had still to be over- 
come. First, all oommnnications, both for the press and for 
private persona, had to pass a strict oensorship ; and, secondly 
there was no way <^ sending information oat of the coontry 
except once a week by the transport Formosa, which was need 
aa a despatch-boat between Beira and Delagoa Bay during the 
period telegraphic interooorse was ont off consequent on the 
siege of Mafeking. From Loren^ Marqnes a message coold 
proceed by the wires, though it often happened that it was 
detained there for three days, as the lines were unable to cope 
with the pressoie put on them. With the relief of M&feking, 
however, the restoratitm of telegraphic commnnioation 
through Bolawayo was established, and as soon as the 
military requirements eased off a little the general public 
shared in the benefits accruing. 

Beira, in the state which I saw it, is a place to be avoided, 
thongh, as I was assored, it had been greatly improved in the 
two (xe Uiree preceding years. Large soma of money are 
being expended in draining the swampy land in the town, 
and the atieets are going to be macadamised, which, when 
complete, will be great additions to health and comfort. If 
Bhodeaia is developed to the extent that is so confidently 
expected, then Beira will some day be a really important 
seaport town. 

I was told it was resided aa the Brixton of the East 



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SIO THE JNGLO-BOER WAR 

Coast of Africa, bat the "Qneen of the Sooth Coast of 
England " need not feel complimented at the comparifioa of 
her oharmB with this FortngueBe sandpit. Instead of stately 
mansions along a seawall of four miles in extent there is bnt 
one building — the market — that is not constmcted of corra- 
gated iron ; the others are like sheds, pnt up for temporary 
porposefl. 

The Fortnguese and natiTefl are veiy fond of light and 
bright ooUtois, and in some instances the roofs are painted in 
broad stripes in red and white, and bine and pink, which in 
effect is a decided improyement on the iron in its 
natoxal grey coloor. The most pictcresqae spot is the 
hospital, maintained by the Mozunbiqne Company, where 
the nurses are Franciscan nnns. Bat for them, and a 
ooaple oi Francifican fathers, reli^on in any form woald 
be entirely muepresented. The natives have no place 
of worship. I greatly doabt if they hold any religions 
tenets whatever. As for the T*!ng)iati residents, they hardly 
ever hear & chnrch serrioe read. The Ber. A. Boxbargb, 
from TJmtali, called tc^ther the few people in the Royal 
Hotel one day, and held a short semoe in the waiting-room. 
Afterwards he ezpresBed the hope that he might be sacceas- 
fal in his efforts in the near fntare in arranging for a service 
at least <moe in the month. 

Instead of gcnng to Beira, as so many do to Brighton, to 
enjc^ a sea-breese and seek improved health, people living 
in Bhodesia avoid it, knowing that the flat and swampy land 
behind it gives malaria and breeds mosqnitoes in millions, 
and the water inevitably brings aboat systematic dis- 
turbances that for pun and severity are never forgotten. 

Beira is situated abont fifteen miles op the Pangwe river, 
which, as far as Fontes Villa (forty miles), is wide and fairly 
deep — formerly the terminus for the railway and boat oom- 
mnsication for np-conntry traffic. 



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THE TROOPS IN BEIRA 211 

Now the line, ancli as it ia, oomee into Beirs itself, and 
never, it may be aaf ely aaserted, has Buch a toy railway trans- 
ported so many men, horses, stores, nmnitiona of war, and 
heavy railway stock in so short a time. I do not say that 
the transport has been well done from Beira to the varione 
points where 8b Frederiok Carrington has desired his troops 
to be stationed. Bat considenng the hopelessly inadequate 
nature of the railway and rolling stock, the resnlt is a proof 
of the anperhnman efforts that have been made to move up 
the force from Beira and Bamboo Creek to Marandellas, 
Bnlnwayo, and Mafeking. 

The Transput Department of the Admiralty has called 
forth the admiration of the whole world. Troops and moni- 
tions of war have been embarked from many ports in England, 
Australia, Canada, and from one port of Sooth Africa to 
another ; and it most be admitted that the overland trane- 
pfHTt has hardly been less efficient in resolts, especially when 
the obstacles to be overcome are borne in mind. Great as 
they nndoobtedly have been in Gape Colony and Natf^, the 
difficnltieB sink into insignificance when compared with those 
connected with the railway transport from Beira to Maran- 
dellas, the short distance of 320 miles. 

Mra of the Imperial force considered themselves fortunate 
if they were allowed to travel to Marandellas camp ia the 
mail train, as there is only one, each way, in the week. The 
arrival and departure of a train is qoite an event, therefore, 
in the life of the inhabitants of Beira. 

The last mail train to arrive, while I was there, had a very 
eventfol jonmey, espedally the last sixty miles from Bamboo 
Creek. The passengers who travelled by it will never forget 
the £oor nights and three days it took to traverse the distance 
of 340 miles from Salisbory. It originally started as two 
trains, with two engines. E% route three other trains were 
overtaken, and they were all coopled iogotiier, making a total 



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«1S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

of ninety-three cairugea and trucks, witli five eofj^eB inter- 
Hpened among them. 

The joamey was full of adventnres and hair-breadtlt 
eocapea, but with the exception of derailing once, and having 
several long delays, nothing wone than the lack of food 
and aooommodation had to be endnred nntil Bamboo Creek 
was reached, where the narrow two-foot gauge line begins. 
Between that station and Beira, on two occasionB the ascent of 
a gradient had to be recommenced six times, and a stop to be 
made after each effort to get np steam to make another dash 
for the top of the hill. Finally, the train had to be taken np 
in sectionB, and this was not done nntil a decidedly nervooa 
feeling had been produced on the passengers by the frequent 
crossing and recrossing of a temporary bridge over a ravine. 

In oonseqnenoe of oar military reqoirements, the railway 
staff and ei^ne-drivers were sadly overworked, and when they 
thought they wanted a rest they stopped the train and took it 
That occnrred half a dozen times on this particalar joomey, 
and cmoe in the bend of the line would have cansed a oollisioa 
nad not an advuidng train been brought to a standstill jnst in 
time. Bat the crowning adventure of the journey took place 
ten miles from Beira, when the nudl train came into collision 
with one in &ont, damaging and overturning the three last 
carriages and disabling its own leading engine. It took 
thirty-six hours to travel sixty-one miles, the passengers 
being without food for the last twenty-four, and having had 
very little for the whole journey. Finally, they reached 
Beira at midnight in the cattle tracks of the train with 
which they had come in collision, to find the hotels full. 
The weekly mail train has not often had such an adven- 
turous journey as this, though to derul four or five tames 
and be a day late are quite nsoal incidents. The military 
trains rarely reached Marandellae in less than fonr days, and 
brakes and a sufSoieney of lamps for both ends of the train. 



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THE TROOPS IN BEIBA ai« 

with other neceBsary safeguards, were conapicaoaB by their 
absoDoe, and it is wonderfal that no dire oataetrophe left its 
mark on the Imperial force that went to protect Bhodesian 
territory under General Sir Frederick Carrington. 

FreTioos to the arrival of the Imperial force in Beira, and 
with tile w&y through Bnlnwayo and Mafeking to the Cape 
open, the nnmber of the travelUiig pnblic did not exceed 
150 a month, and not nearly bo many u that in the hot 
season. 

When the railway aathoritieB were attacked on the sabject 
of the railway, they pleaded in ezcoBe that the ships bring- 
ing railway plant and rolling stock for the new line had been 
detained for weeks by the Imperial anthraitieB at Dnrban. 
Had they arrired in due coarse, the narrow-gauge railway 
would have given place to one of the same width as that 
which mns through Rhodeaiaa territory before the first 
transport had anchored in the Pongwe river. However 
that may be, there was a terrible delay in gettiog ap the 
troops to Marandellaa, and in oonseqaenoe horses have died 
and men have sickened while copinf; with snch onsnnnoont- 
able difScnltiefi. The troops that had to live in the camp 
at Beira had a terrible time, and at Bamboo Creek it was 
even worse. Both camps were pitched in the midst of 
swamps, bnt of the two the last-mentioned claimed the most 
victims in men and horses. 

When I visited the camp at Beira on May 31 I shall never 
fo^et the plight of discomfort which the troops and horses 
were in. There had been heavy rain two nights before, and 
the gronnd was consequently a greater swamp than nsoal. 
In No. 4 section were the Victorians, easily distinguished from 
the others l^ their soft green-coloured tents ; but in such a 
deplorable state of mud was the gromid that I could not make 
the call on Colonel Somerville I had proposed. 

The horeee in the paddocks were roaming about in twelve 



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tI4 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

inches of sticky mnd, and those that had laid down were 
enreloped in a thick ooatang of it. The sight these 4000 
animals presented can better be imagined than described. 
Mod, mud, everywhere, and nothing bnt mnd to drink. In 
Beira itself the roads are so sandy that personal locomotion 
is fatigning except on the ndes of the main thoroughfare, 
which have been asphalted. The only oonveyanoes for the 
streets are trolliee, pushed by nearly naked natives on narrow 
lines laid on the top of the sand ; and these are private, like 
victorias or hronghamB, for the use of which a tax of £1 lOi. 
a year has to be paid. Even the Governor and his family 
have nothing better to drive in. Looking on the surface of 
things, therefore, it seems curious that no drier place could 
have been selected on which to encamp the troops. There 
were so many insnper»ble difficulties to contend against that 
this one should have been avoided if it had been at all 
pofsible, which I believe it was not. 

The despatch of an Imperial force into Bhodesia was 
intended rather as a preventive measure than for active 
operations, and the idea prevuled that the exigencies of war 
were not likely to call for anything of a more martial character. 
If this forecast had tamed out to be correct, the object would 
have been attained ; but to those men who came from distant 
parts of the empire the work of quietly policing Bhodesia, 
Maahonaland, and Matabeleland would have been sadly lack- 
ing in excitement — an important factor in enabling the troops 
to support cheerfully the hardships of life in camp, in a bad 
climate, with a scanaty of water, and on active servioe 
rations. 

The Australian contingents, however, saw a little more of 
the sensational realities of war before they retnmed to their 
homes, though the Boers thoughtfolly provided it for them 
in the Transvaal and not in the territory of the Chartered 
Company. 



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THE TROOPS IN BEIRA Hi 

WlLen I arrived in Mafelripg and Zeernst, X was Hurpriaed 
to find my frieade, the Boshmen, had won the race and were 
there before me. Q«neral Sir Frederick Camngtoa had 
adviaed me to give np the idea of going vid Bnlawayo ; he 
waa decidedly of opinion that it would be far better to retora 
to Cape Town, and proceed by train to Mafeking vid 
I^berley, and to get away from Beira as Boon aa I possibly 
oonld. 

There is no plaoe I have ever visited where so little can 
be bonght ior money — where the standard of oomfort is so 
low, and the oost of Uving so ezoeesive. For instance, a ton 
of potatoes, dried up like mnmmiea, oosts at Beira £27 10«. 
In Rhodesia it woald be twice that figure. In England or 
Sydney the price is £S or £4. A saok of rice of 1121b. at 
Beira is £1 15s., and ap^nontry about £4. Other Khodesian 
prices were : a tin of condensed milk, 2(. Gd.; a small cabbofre, 
Is. 6d. i eggs &om 12s. to ISs. a dozen ; milk hardly por- 
ohaseable ; a small wax candle, Is. ; a reel of cotton, 6d. ; and 
so on with every neceeaary of life. These high prices are not 
merely the ontcrane of the war, bnt, in a slightly lesser 
degree, the normal cost of provisions in that part of Africa 
where the Bhodesian force was stationed. This is aooonnted 
for in a great measure by the railway tariff on goods — Is. a 
mile per ton ! In Beira, Saliebory, and Bnlawayo £1000 a 
year barely secures the same home comforts as can be 
aoqoired with £300 in En^and. 

I was greatly impressed with the price of things in Cape 
Colony, and with th^ high hotel charges ; bnt they are mode- 
rate and sufficiently good' compared with the minons cost 
and the awful places that are called hotels in this part of 
the world. 

This is a part of the contiuent where nothing is m ann f ao- 
tnied, nothing is cultivated, no farm prodnoe grown or stock 
bred, and where, consequently, everything has to \f» imported 



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Sl« THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

ioT nm, ezoept the water which falls from the olonds, and 
that is caught and treaBored for drinkiBg pnrpoees. When 
this soaroe of supply fails, the defitnency is made ap \(j 
sending boats to fetc^ water from the lobi river, which, 
though not good, is less poisonoas than that of the 
Pnngwe. 

Both men and animals in the oamp at Beira were for a 
time supplied with water from Twenty-three-mile Camp, bnt 
that Bonroe was soon ezfaansted, and the latest expedient was 
that transports ahonld be employed to distil BnfSdent for the 
use of the troops. 

The foresight of the Goremment provided ample stcses to 
provisicm tlie men and feed the animals, which, by degrees, 
were luided from the ships in the harbonr — a feat of no 
easy aooomplishment withoafc wharfs, with no {hbt, and wifch 
only a couple of lighters. 

A visit to Soothampton or Cape Town docks wonld soon 
grre an objeot leesm ae to the piles of stores of every descrip- 
tion that are required to follow an army into the field, bnt 
the most vivid imagination ooold hardly loctare the obstacles 
to be overcome in forwarding the tons of war materia to 
Bir F. Carrington on sneh a toy railway, t(^ther with heavy 
railway plant and minii^ machinery betonging to varions 
companies in Rhodesia. 

The immediate effect of the presence of Britash troops 
on the P<ntngnese ofBoials and inhabitants of Beira has 
nndonbtedly been prodnctive of good ; and, in s|Hte of 
trifling differences of opinion as to the landing of cattle, 
Costom Hoose formalities, harbonr refltrioti<xis, &o., a 
good and friendly nnderstanding was maintained throngh- 
ont. 

The Governor and Port Oiqitain are both good men for 
their respective poets, uid ue far above the common Portn- 
gnese official. By the ezeroiBe of tact and temper, both the 



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THE TROOPS IN BEIBA ill 

Oonml* and Captain Hunt of his Jlajesty'B ship Partridge 
Bmoothed sway all oansM of jrritatimL 

On distant BtatiooB navftl officers often find themselree in 
difficult sitaatlonB and are called opon to settle all sorts of 
dispotea and judge between the dispntanta. Their prof eseioiial 
training, which commenoea before they oao form habits of 
dqwndaooe on others, oompela them to aooept reeponaibilit; 
and to lely on tlteir own judgment. If by natural di^Kwitiini. 
they are unable to respond to the responsibilities that their 
serrice in the navy entails, then there is only one coarse to 
pursue. In our first line of defence there is no room for 
" stupid offioers." 

The posititw of the swiior nsival officer in Beira was one 
of great international responsibility ; and to look on hia 
Majesty's ship Partridge, tiaa sole outward and naiUe symbc^ 
of strength there to sapport him, oaosed the mind to pasa 
in review the power that lay behind this small gunboat. 
Captain Hunt was also the ohief trvasport officer and press 
censor, and was responnble for almost everything that oo^ 
onrred, even to convoying into the harbour transports whoaa 
captains had never navigated the Fnngwe river before. 

Tb» ships which bnmgbt the Australian contingents had not 
been provided with charts before they left for this channel, 
and consequently a man-of-war had to give them one on their 
arrival and to act as lightship. The absence of a lightship 
is a constant somrce of danger, as vessels are on the shoals 
before they perceive the low land on the horizon. 

If the transports took longer to do the voyage than was 
anticipated, his Majesty's ship Partridge had to toes about 
and await their arrival with as much patienoe as her offioers 
oonld muster. When the charts were handed to the masters 
■ The Biltlrii Oonaol at Bein, Hi. HoHarteia, mi ■wiUMiiiatea in U« 
oOoc^ in th« pna«BO« of fala wife, ahonlj attar I left, by ■ nttla man on 
board one of the BMTai Line reMeli that had bean oariTliig nslM fimn 
Xbn ligentluee for tlw OoTeininent. 



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818 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

of sliipfi it waa with the cantion that though they wen 
Admiialty ohartB they were from Fortngaeee sorreye, and 
not tmfltworthy. Hie bnoys often change their positions, 
and the channels Uieir ooone. 

It has given me onspeakable pleasare to meet in varions 
parts of this vast oontinent so many British subjects, all on 
one errand bent ; to see stalwart men, with hearts good and 
trne, from Aostralia, New Zealand, and Canada, pnlting 
t(^ther with those from England, Scotland, and Ireland. It 
{Hodnoee the feeling that blood is thicker than watM, and 
makes one feel prond to belong to snoh a nation. My 
greatest wish is to one day meet these friends again. 

Hers, in Beira, at Bamboo Creek, or wherever the 
Anstralian volonteers may be fomid, they respond to the 
demands made on them wiUi a willingness which does credit 
not only to themselves but to those who selected them to help 
the mother-oonntry in this great crins. 

And on all occasionB they uphold the best traditions of his 
Hqea^B re^lar army. This war, in its conseqauioee, has 
been the greatest blessing to the empire- 



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CHAPTER XIX 

KIMBBaiLBT— No. H GENERAL HOSPITAL 

OwiNO to the time I spent ia going to Beiia hy eea, the 
separation whilet there from all news o£ the outside world 
occaaioned l^ the intermpted telegraphic oommonioationa 
with Bnlawayo and Mafekdng, and again the dsya I Bpent 
retaining to Cape Town on board the transport, prevented 
my hearing of the adverse criticiBmH made in the Hodbo of 
Commons and elsewhere on the military arrangemeota for the 
BU^ and wonnded. 

Proceeding withoat a day's delay to Kimberley, I had had 
no opportnnity of informing myself on public ojunion in 
England on any sabjeot, and consequently my description of 
No. 11 Qeneral Hospital cannot be regarded as a oonnter- 
Uast! to the detractions made by Kr. Bnrdett-Coutts and 
others on the work and management of the Royal Army 
Medical Corps. 

The following appeared ia the Mormng Post of Angast 
17, 1900, jnst at the time there was anoh an agitation 
going on in r^ard to military hospitals in Bloemfontein, 
Wynberg, and in different parts of South Africa, but tor want 
of space the artiole in its entirety was not published. 
Many of the details connected with the sanitary arrangement 
were "ant out," notwithstanding their importance. For a 
camp to be sucoesafnl, especially a hospital camp, there is 
nothing so important or so difficult to arrange. 

There are evidences in all directions that a vast improve- 



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280 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

ment has taken place in the arrangements fw carrying on tlie 
war in South Afi^ca. With the experience gained daring the 
past eight months the organiBation of the varions depart- 
ments has become nearly perfect, while stores have been 
distriboted in enormons qnantitiee all along the lines of 
oommonication. When one sees stacks of every conceivable 
thing likely to be required by an army in the field a vagae 
idea can be formed as to what a huge imdertaking it Is to 
provide for and maintain 200,000 men at yarioos points, so as 
to be ready in case of sodden emergencdee. 

The knowledge of how the dck are treated is of the greatest 
imptntanoe to the general public after the ?nnning of battles, 
and it is satisfactory to know that even previous to the arrival 
of Bach fally and efficiently staffed hospitals as No. 11 at 
Kimberley tfae sick and woanded were better cared for than 
in any former war. Sach a perfect military establishment as 
the general hospital here I had never before visited, and well 
it deserves the high praise bestowed on it by the general 
commanding the lines of coDUnanication. Having had some 
experience in hospital management, I could judge it by 
comparison, and I knew where to look for shortoonunga that 
woald not oocar to the oninitiated. 

Everybody in England has heard of the good work done 
by the civil hospital tA Eimberley daring the siege, and how 
bravely all the ladies in the town came to the assistance of 
the permanent staff. By degrees the sick soldiers are being 
removed from varioas pnbUo boildiogs that have been nsed 
to aooommodate them to Ko. 1 1 General Hospital, which u 
mtaated abont a mile and a half from Simberley, on six 
acres of groand which have never before been camped on. 
Last week all the patients in the Drill Hall, the Bink, tiie 
Schools, the Christian Brothers' Home, and Nazareth Hoose 
were removed to the camp or sent to Cape Town. Most of 
tiie cases were enteric fever or dysentery, some being 



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KIMBERLEY—NO. 11 GENERAL HOSPITAL 321 

Horsed by the good Little SisterB of the Poor, chiefly the 
wounded broogbt from places near Kimberley, among them 
being Bereral priBoners of war. 

Hie eick who were fortumite enough to hare been sent to 
the Christian Brothers' Home and Nazareth Honse had the 
benefit of every care and comfort, and thanks to the Catholic 
community, headed by Bishop Coghlan, not a few luxuries 
and pleasares were added. At present only those in the 
nLaaonic temple and a few officers in the civil hospital remain 
in the town. 

The inhabitants, as represented by the medical officers <^ 
health, brought presanre to bear on the military aathoritieB 
to remove the sick ont of Kimberley as soon as they posEobly 
conld, which tii^ affirmed was the cause of the efudemic 
of enteric fever among the civil population. As a matter of 
fact the disease is endemic in the town, and the true cause of 
its greater severi^ this winter than in others is attributable 
to the privations suffered during the siege by the whole com- 
munity and to the defective character of the sanitary 
arrangements. 

No. 11 Gleneia] Boepitat refieots credit on all connected 
with it, and not a littie is dne to the Boya] Engineer officers 
and to the De Beers Company, who between them hare 
erected the huts, installed the electric li^^ta, and fitted np 
the camp with every convenience necessary to a self-con- 
taining hospital equipped for 1000 patients; it is also, I 
believe, the largest* in Sonth Africa. The patients are all 
accommodated in double canvas marqnees, and the hospital 
is divided into sections. A, B, C, D, and all the tents are 
larked with boards and numbered consecutively. There is 
a road fifty yards broad bisecting the camp, and a railwigr 
fading nms throogh the oentre of it at right angles to the road. 

* since writing the abova I flud a thonnnd beds la the nml aomber 
tor the mllltwr goienl hoqntela on Mrrloe In South Af rloe. 



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iSi THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

All the admlniBtratiTfl offices and storeB are sitiiated in the 
centre of the camp, and are oonstmcted of iron. The snigery 
and operating theatre, with an X-ray room, ooonpy one bnild- 
ii^. The theatre is lighted hj a large skylight as well as by 
side windows. The X-ray room, photographic, and dark 
rooms open ont of it. The provisions are stored in separate 
bnildingB, which are fitted with sliding windows for the 
iaBoing of sappliea to (n^erlies, thus obviating the necessity of 
allowing orderlies inside. 

There is an excellent kitchen in the centre of the hospital, 
with several laige ranges, also coppers for keeping a oonstaat 
snpply of hot water and several high-pressure circnlating 
boilers for the same porpoee fitted to the ranges. The snpidy 
of water by the Elimberley Water Company is unlimited, and 
it is filtered through sand filter bede. Before being oaed all 
drinking water is boiled. 

All sick convoys coming hy rul are shnnted into the siding 
and are transferred straight to the tents from tlie railway 
carriage, thus saving an enormous amount of b^nsport, 
delay, and snfi'ering. Convoys leaving the hospital for Cape 
Town are also entrained on the spot in specially arranged 
saloon carriages, with a kitchen car and everything neoeaaary 
to move the men in perfect comfort. Evan while I was 
visiting the hospital a train arrived with a hundred sick 
men, and I was not in the least aware of it, as everything is 
done so methodically and quietly. 

No. 11 Qeneral Hospital is a perfect town. Electric lij^tB 
are laid on in every marquee, each having two l&-candle in» 
candescent lamps, and the whole camp is well lighted by 
several powerf nl arc lights. For the supply of the electrid^, 
which is a great advantage, the authorities have to thank tJie 
De Beers Company, though all the plant belongs to the 
hospital. 

It may be of interest to mention that 1000 pints of milk 



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KIMBERLEY—NO. 11 GENERAL HOSPITAL »»S 

a da; are required for the Bererest caaee in hospital, and 
88 eoon as the men are well enongh they are given condensed 
milk in order to keep down ezpenditnre, as the cost of new 
milk ia sixpence a pint, and other things are proportaonately 
dear. Sach man has a bedside table, and is fully clothed 
in hospital clothing, and on learicg is carefnlly inspected, 
as well as his kit, and if hia tmiform and anderolothes 
are not sendceable they are replaced by new garments, and 
Tommy is sent ont again a new man. 

After two or three days in hospital l^e rick begin to im- 
prove. The change from l^e hardships of actnal war to 
clean sheets and good food soon b^ns to work wonders, and 
when the time for discharge arrives a little grumbling is 
heard in anticipation of the hankering after the flesh-pots of 
Egypt which they know is near at hand. In a military 
oamp where there are 1000 patients, the greater number 
soflering from enteric fever — contracted in the majority of 
oases through fatigue, exposure, privation, and short rations 
— there must needs be plenty of hard work for the medical 
staff and for all who execute their orders. To administer 
such an establishment efficiently requires much previous 
experience, and that is where to a great extent the civil 
doctors who have been taken on during this oriais have failed. 
To tiiOBe who are unaccustomed to the working of a large 
public department there is much that they do not under- 
stand. It is pnt down as red tape, and a desire is bred to 
oat through it, but the army as a whole is too big a machine 
to allow each section to manage its own afiairs entirely. 
There must be a strict keeping of accounts so as to make np 
the returns that a member of Pariiament might ask for ai^ 
day. Of course this entails a great deal of clerical work, 
which would be saved if each one could do as he liked, with- 
out making any statement on paper as to his proceedings. 
No. 11 Gleneral Sospital ia well provided with both medical 



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SS4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

meo and traioed nnnea. The prinoipal medkal offioer is 
IdeatenaDt-Golonel OX^IonneU, and the medical offioen in 
cbai^ of diviflione are Major H. Carr and Major S. HickBon. 
There is an army saperintendin^ OBter, Misa Stewart, twelve 
jtinior anaj medioal officers, thirteen civil nirgeons, and 
thirty norsiiig sisters, twenl^-three belonging to the Army 
Nursing Beaerve and seven engaged in the colony, besides 
nearly two hondred non-oommisBioned officers and men of the 
Boyal Army Medical Corps or trained by the St. John 
Ambnlance. All this peraonnel is aooommodated in tents 
qnite apart from the patients, esoept tihe sisters, who have 
epecial bnts built for their sleeping and mesnog aooommoda- 
tion. 

The oookmg for the sick in hospital is imder tiw direotiaa 
of a chtf brought ont from London for the espedid purpose, 
and he is aaasted by a lai^ staff of trained army oooks. 
For transport pnrposes Hken are tiiree ambulance waggons, 
two buck waggons, and a Cape cart (very old and riddled 
yrHh bollflte, which was taken from the Boers at Modder and 
has been given for t^e use of the sisters), and these are in 
eonstant ose between the town and the camp. 

It must not be supposed, however, that all this perfeetioQ 
in the o^anisaiion was anived at in a day or witiitat ma& 
hard work. It took considerable time to select a site, and 
when decided on the town anthoritieB made objeotions that 
occasioned further seartdi, and when, after variooa failores, 
the present one was finally Sxtd «n, there was great difficulty 
in erecting the hnte, as the ground was very rooky at a short 
distanoe from the sorfaoe. In the meanwhile temporary 
measures had to be adopted for both the siok and the staff, 
which eould hardly be described as th(»oi^Uy satisfactory. 

AH the general hospitahi sent ont by GknemmMit as part 
of die field foroe were established on these Unee, thoo^ 
the dcptaila varied with the local oonditioiu obtaining. 



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KIMBERLEY—NO. 11 GENERAL HOSPITAL 225 

Mftjor Sindair WeBticott of the B.A.M.C. establuihed or 
aasisted in the establishment of fimr : One at Entombi dnring 
the edege of Ladysnulh, and one in the tin town which was 
afterwards remored to Howick; the fonrth a stationary 
hospital at Harrismith, all of which have done e»9ellent 
work. 



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CHAPTER XX 

LIF£ AT B08H0F 

Onb of the TMolts of the present war has been educational 
in character. It haa indaoed thonsanda of people to Btad;' 
the map of the contiiient of Afrioa, and they are by this 
time thoroughly familiar with the names and geographical 
podtion of places which, insignificant in themselves, hare 
been the scenes of great battles that will henoeforth be 
regarded as important historical events in the chronides of 
the Britiah army. 

Since the First Division, nnder Lord Methoen's command, 
was stationed at Boshof it has become a well-known name in 
English homes, and mnch has been said and written since 
April 5, 1900, when the Connt de Vtllebois-Marenil, who was 
killed in action in its vicinity, was buried there, and a head- 
stone was raised to his memory. 

This is a copy of the official notification of his death sent 
by the burghers to the President :— 

A. McunmcK u Frxbidbst Srxnr, Kxoomsiab. 

HomnuB la Pkesidkiit, 

Ia trte triste nouvelle de la mort heroiqoe de notre chef le 
QsDHal de Tillebois nous k profondement dprouves, Notre b&t 
maintenant est de venger noe malhetireax oainarade& 

Lee chefs dee groupes AutrichienB, Allamands, et Fran^ais, 
reuniaen {xmseil de gnexre out AAoAh de soumettre k votre haute 
approbation le projet soiTantt 



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LIFE AT BOSHOF «g7 

1. lA legiOD EoToptoifl subaite sons le commandemaDt des chefs 
de gronpe agissuit de concert. 

2. XJn (dief sen nomme par election apris nne ou deux batailles 
ayant permia k tons de juger de see oapadtes mOitairea. 

3. Ohacnn de gnrapes contintiara & reoeroir lee Etraagers par 
gronp de nationalitee. Le chi&e present i, Brandfort eat d'envinm 
100 hommes approuvaat ce projet. xyapres les probabilites Q seia 
de 200 d'ici quatre k anq joura 

Agrnflftitt tons dans un but comtnTiD — '* Veuger des oamaradeB " 
— nons oeons esperer de tons no vaillant conooniB. 
Aa nom de tons Etchegoyen. 

The Coimt de Yilleboia-Marenil's grave is in that portion 
of the cemetery which ia deroted to British officers aod 
men ; indeed, the last resting-plaoee of two officers who 
were killed in action on tiie same day are on either side i^ 
the French general. 

Boshof is the chief town of a district of the same name abont 
the size of Wales, second only in importance in what is now 
officially described as the Orange River Colony, Aa towns 
go in Sooth Africa it is not at all a bad little place. The 
honees are very scattered and only one storey high, many 
being very dilapidated in appearance, and looking still more 
dwarfed by the broad streets, which are laid out at right 
angles. There are great capabilities for a fine city, bot un- 
less a mine or some other sonrce of wealth is discovered 
Boshof is hardly likely to realise the dream of tlie designer, 
who had oertainly very grandiose ideas of proportion, and 
profonnd faith in its fotm:« greatness. He scarcely contem- 
plated, however, that it would ever be a military ontpost in 
the occapation of the British, or that from the district an 
nltimatnm to the defenders and residents of Kimberley wonid 
ever be despatched demanding their snnender with all troops 
and fortificationB. I will give to my readers tiie text in the 
<»iginal and,for tiiosewho are onacq^oaintedwith the language, 
a translation. 



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8S8 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

OuPHAKTBTOimQII, 

District BosHOT, O.T.S. 
M&in Laager, Weetem Bivision Burgher Forces, 

Jfovamher 4, 1899. 
To their Honoon, the Oommander-in-Ohief of tlie Foroes, and the 
Magiatrates of Kimberle;. 

GBfTLUXir, 

"Whereas the Bepablics of the " Orange Free Btate " and the 
" South Af rioaa Bepublic " have been forced into hostilities by the 
action of her Britannic Majesty's Oovemment; 

Wher«afi it is neoeesaiy that I shall poasees the tcnni of Kim- 

Therefore I demand that yoor Honours shall immediately upon 
receipt (£ this oommunioation Bunrender to me unconditionally, sa 
officer Oommapding-in-ohief, the town oi Kimberley vith all its 
troope and fortifications. 

In case you shall decide not to accede to my demand, I do 
hereby request your Honoun to reniOTe all women and children 
from Bamberley, so that they may be oat of danger, and for this 
porpoee I give you from twelve o'clock noon, Saturday, Kovember 
4, 1899, till 6 A.IL, Monday, November 6, 1899. 

At the same time I wish to inform you that during this time I 
shall be prepared to receive all Afrikander fsmiUee who may 
desire to leave Eimberl^, and also to grant freedom and safety 
to all women and children of other nations who may leave the 
town. 

Should yon, however, fire upon my troops before the expiration 
of the stipulated time, I shall bold myself justified in employing 
all my available foroes in my defence. 

C. J. Wbbblb, 

Head Commandant, 
Weetem Division Burgher Forces, O.Y.8. 

W. BiLn, 

Adjutant to Head>Commdt. 

T%e oemetery at Boshof has done more to bring into notioe 
this militaiy outpost than anything else. It is not the neat 
graves of our own brave Boldiers, but one mound of earth in 



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BOER DEMAND FOR THE SURRENDER OF KIMBERLEY 



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„Coogle 



hWE AT BOSHOF 2S9 

the midst <^ them, not nearly bo tidj as tlie rest, with a plain 
white marble slab, that has prodooed conflicting opinions as 
to what is right and neceeaary for a brave general in com> 
mand to do for a fallen warrior who has been leading the 
enemy and fighting as a foreigner. It is a Tery unpretending 
monument to mark the spot where lias bnried a French 
ooont, who died fighting for fighting's sake. If the decrees 
of fate had been favourable to his wishes, he would have been 
directing his enei^es and expending his skill to forward the 
soooras of the British arms rather than in opposition to them, 
bnt as this oonld not be, he offered both to the Transvaal, 
and aooepted in exchange a liberal remnneration, despite the 
fact that his own pnvate income stood at the figoie of 
£15,000 a year. 

To leave Boshof wibhont visiting the kopjes where the 
Forngn contingent, made np of French, Germans, Poles, and 
odd men of other nationalities, under the command of the 
Ooont de Yillebois, had been defeated and captured, was not 
to be thonght of , so I invited the Hon. Florence Golbome, who 
waa sister in charge of the sick and woonded in the conrt- 
honse of Boahof and in another bniiding near it, to accom- 
pany me on this expedition, as she bad not bad the digbtest 
change from her wards ainoe she arrived two months before, 
nor indeed since Febmai^ ; for both at Modder lUver and 
Kimberley her energies and health were heavily taxed in 
narsing the sick. The commandant, ever oonrteons, and 
aaziona to place facilities in the way of all who desire faU 
aid, borrowed a Cape cart and told o£E an ofi&cer of the 
Imperial Yeomanry and a private who had been in the 
engagement to escort as to the scenes of the figbt known as 
Zwartskopjefontein, Twelfontein, and Driefontein, bnt some- 
how, in starting a little ahead of ns, they rode in another 
direction, andtheirservioeB uid knowledge were conseqaentiy 
loit as far as we were concerned. 



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S80 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

Onr oobmed driver had asBored the colonel that he knew 
the way, bob we soon foond that this statement was not 
quite correct We drove alwnt for miles in a cirole, not far 
from the kojq*es we wished to see, and were at last rewarded 
on arriving at a farmhouse called Kreepan, which afforded 
ns at the same time an opportunity of sampling the renowned 
hospitality of the Dutch. 

Plough the occupants could not speak a word of English, 
they offered ns milk to drink and fodder for the horoes. 
Tb» farmer and his wife volunteered to aooompany ns to a 
kopje near which some fighting had taken place, and in going 
to it a<T0B8 the veld we |ack np some trophies in Ute shape 
of cartridge cases and bullets. Not being able to noderetand 
the information that the good Dutchman and his wife were 
eodeavonring to convey to us, much of the interest of the 
gec^aphical position was lost, though we fully realised by 
the dead horses which we oould see from the top of the kopje 
that sad scenes had recently been enacted in the neig^bonr- 
£ood. The enemy had apparently been driven from Hat 
positdon to the next kopje, where the great fig^t <^ the rear- 
guard took place, which resulted in many of them being 
killed and wounded and the others utterly demoralised. On 
that occasion forty men were taken prisoners, and later onr 
soldiers went out to collect the enemy's dead, who had been 
left lying on t^e veld, and reverently buried them in one 
big grave in the Dutch part of the cemetery. 

When the 20,000 prisoners are bronght back there will be 
a rude awakening for some of the Dutch women. 

No mark of identification was found on any of the bodies 
left by the enemy on the field ; and ijnless they had been 
personally known to their comrades and the addresses of 
their homes known they could not have inf (nroed their families 
that they had been killed in battle near Boehof. 

Many of the women have been in ntter ignorance as to 



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UFE AT BOSHOF SSI 

the wliefeabonts of thedr men dnoe the begimuog of the war 
and believe the; are in their own commando or are prisoners. 

On our retnm to the farmbooBe we found delidoua hot 
coffee waiting for as, prepared hj the children, of whom there 
were four. Soth the farmer and hia wife pressed ua to stay 
the night, and were genoioel; disappointed at oar being 
anable to do bo, bat Miss Colbome could not leave her 
patients for so long a time, and I had arranged to retorn 
to Kimberley the following day. A drive over the veld in 
the dark, in a cold wind, with holes, atones, and dead horaes 
freqnently on the track, is not devoid of excitement, especially 
when the oart has no lampe I 

To reach Bosfaof from Kimberley a drive of thirty miles 
most be andeztaken, as t^re is no railway. With good 
horsM and a spring cart it is agreeable enongh, aa the air is 
very invigoratiiig, and not oold aa long aa the snn ahinee. 
The diatanoe can be oovered in four, five, or six hoars with 
no ODtspan, or a very short one. The koines and trenches 
oocnpied by the Boers when they besieged Kimberley for 
three montha and a day provide plenty of food for refieotion, 
especaally after having listened to the storiea of t^ aiege 
and the hairbreadth escapes from shot and shell which are 
related by those nnfortnnate people who were kept in their 
honsea or in the mines in a constant state of terror. The 
need fori the military diotam of " no lighta after dark " was 
very apparent when the electric lights of Kimberl^ were 
seen from the Boer positions, Tn»lriTig excellent marks for 
artillery fire. 

Boshof being onder martial law, a military pass was 
reqaired to enter the town, and it fell to the lot of only a 
favoured few to drive there in a Gape oart at the Qovem- 
ment^a ezpenae. If the military authorities decree that the 
jonmey ia to be made in an ox waggon, then, with a team of 
sixteen animals, it takes three daye to cover the diatanoe. At 



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m THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tlie end (^ that time one hu learnt firom actual ezperienoft 
what trekking means, the exact eignifioanoe of inff p'^""''n g 
and oatBpaniung and other ox-waggon terms of expression, 
which I hear is qnite the lateflt ttiiTig in shtng in Englaiai. 

When I went from Kimberley to Boehof I had neither a 
Oape oart nor an ox-waggon, bnt a Scotch cart drawn by six 
moles. The officers with whom I waa to travel were on Li- 
telligenoe bnaineBS, and were afterwarda gmng on to Faardfr* 
berg. They were of opinion that I shonld be gcang out ol 
Kimberley in too much style if I drove through the town in 
ttiat Tehide, espeoially as it was decorated to ita folleet 
oapadty with spades and pickaxes and snoh-like orduanoe 
stores for troops on distant ontposts. 

So, in order to escape from the gaae of the onrions, we drove 
in a leas oonspioaoos conveyance to the Bemonnt Camp, 
which is well ontside the town. I there realised what a 
Scotch cart was. We had hardly arranged ourselves in 
various graoef ol BttLtndes and got snder weigh when we met 
some fashionable friends from E^berley, retoming from 
an afternoon drive, and, having satisfied themselves by a 
steady stare whom we all were, seated in a cart in which the 
powest Dutchman would not be seen, proceeded to weave a 
Btoiy t^t would do credit to the most gossiping country 
town in the Britiah Isles. Indeed, the inhabitants of the 
Diamond dbj are in no way behind their friends in the old 
country in this particular. 

Trekking across the ooontry and sleeping out on the 
<^n veld are all very well as war experienoea, bnt audi 
Soath African novelties are rather trying to a constitation 
not hardened to the life. The nights are cold, and are sure 
to leave an unpleasant reminder, even though a good fire is 
kept burning the whole nig^t, and there is an miHiwitwl 
supply of hot coffee, frizzled saosages, and some one to make 
things comfortable and replace the rags which slip off during 



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UFE AT BOSHOF «S» 

the night, when the hard grotmd soggeBts to the Bleepy- 
aenaee a change of position. 

In spite of all these advantages, which do not fall to th» 
lot of the ordinary Tommy Atkins in war, I most confeas to a 
preference for a spring bed in a comfortable apartment, and 
for the easy motion of the G springs of a landan to the 
inevitable jolting of a Scotch cart on a read that has been 
ont np hj the transport of an army lA 10,000 men. My 
advice to all who do not know what a Scotch cart is — do not 
travel in one for thirty miles without a preliminary investi- 
gataon, and jnotest against a band of mnsic composed of 
jHOneer iDStmments snob as spades and pickaxes. 

On entering tbe town of Bosht^ as in all Dutch towns, 
the first thing to attract the attention ia the ohnrch. When 
viewed at some little distance, judging from its architeotnal 
style, and its prominent position in the centre of a hoge square, 
it might be taken for a Boman Catholic cathedral, such as are 
found in ont-of-the-way places on the Continent of Bnrope 
— ciides that have been left behind in the march of oentnries. 

But as the traveller approaches his opinion modifies. As 
compared with all the other bnildinge in the town of 
Boshof, the Dutoh church is an imposing stmoture, though 
in reality it is nothing more than a very decent dissenting 
ehapel. When I saw it for the first time cows and calves 
were gnsing within the rails, which, to my British notions, 
seemed very irreverent. Tbe grounds surrounding a sacred 
edifiee ought not to be turned into a meadow. Since then 
tbe church has been used to confine the fnisonera of war 
who had Huirendered and were again fonud in arms. 

ISiere are many incongruities conneoted with the Dutch 
diarohes in South Africa that come daily under observation, 
bat the one that struck me most in this particular place was 
die disr^^ard of tbe third oonunandment, espedally by the 
women and children. 



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SM THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

RnglJBhmen, as a mle, are veiy careful how tb^ indulge in 
emphatic Anglo-Saxon language before their womenfolk, and 
consequently it comes at first as a great shook to hear Dutch 
ladies and small children curse them as they pass in the 
etreeL In oompariBtm the men bear no ill-will, or ocmceal it 
admirably if th^ do. Tlifly nn^intaiw a friendly and respectful 
draaeaiioiir towards the colonei-comm&ndant, who, 1:^ his 
kindness and firmness gained their oanfidenoe and implanted 
a wholesome fear as to the folly of starting on a ooune of 
donble dealing. 

The colonel gives all rebels whoare in his district to under- 
stand that if they surrender their arms and return to their 
&rmB th^ will find in him a good and true friend, but if 
they attempt to run on crooked paths he will destroy their 
property and pnnieh them to the fullest extent He speaks 
earnestly to them, and they believe in him. 

It is certainly disappointing to find that after so many 
months large districts are again disturbed, and the work of 
pacification has in reality advanced so little— due (diiefiy 
to the irreconcilable attitude of the women and the pressure 
tiiey bring to bear on their male relatives. An instance of 
their desire to continue the conflict was forcibly brought to 
niy mind : A man returned to his farm during the hoars of 
darkness, and when his wife came to see who was knocking 
at the door, he said " Open it, darling, I am back from com- 
mando. It is no use fighting any more, as there is ti othing 
to be gained by it, and mnch to lose." When his wife heard 
this she refused to let him in, and said, " My husband must 
goand fight" So, finding his wife would not relent, therewas 
nothing for him to do bat to go back to his commando, 
which he did the same night withoat even having entered 
his home. 

Lord Methuen left Boshof with the Hrst Division (oonsisth 
ing of the 9th and 20th Brigades, under Hajor-Oenerala 



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LIFE AT BOSHOF 9$5 

Dongl&B and A. Paget) on May 14. His movements since 
tlifin have heem followed with interest at home. When 
Lord Methnen left Boshof Colonel A. H. Conrtenay, 4th 
Battalion Scottish Rifles, took over the command. The 
importance of the place from a military point of view may 
be realised from the fact that a lai^ mixedforoe of arfcilleiy, 
yeomanry, and iufontay was left to protect it, consisting of 
half the 4th Battalion Soottash Bifles, half the 3rd Battalion 
Sonth Wales Borderers (nnder Cdonel Healy), and detaoh- 
mwttB of the 1st Northumberland Fusiliers, 1st Loyal North 
Lancashire, 2nd Northamptonslure, Ist Bc^al Monster Fusi- 
liers, 1st King's Own Torkshire Light Infantry, and 3rd 
South Staffordshire regiment, half the 38th Battery of 
Sajal Field Artillery, half a Battery of Diamond Ilelds 
Artilleiy, and the 58th Company and details of the Imperial 
Yeomanry ; all these detachments representing the different 
units of the I^rst Division. The remunder of the 4th Scot- 
tish Bifles are with their Brigade (20th), and the remainder 
of the South Wales Borderers formed at this time the garrison 
at Hoopstad, abont sixty miles &om Boahof. 

The first week or ten days of Colonel Conrtenay's command 
was a decidedly anxions time, as it was well known that small 
bodies of the enemy were working ronnd, and it was reported 
that when Hie division left it was their intention to nnite and 
endearonr to cany the place. Every precantion was taken to 
guard against attack, and a few days after the division left a 
large body of Boers was reported abont seven miles ont, 
advancing towards the town. 

The alarm was sounded and all the troops were at their ' 
posts in the smartest maimer, ready to repolae the attack, 
bat mttoh to their regtet the enemy disappeared behind a 
kopje, and held a connoil of war. On the following day 150 
of the enemy came in to surrender their arms. 

All the men who have surrendered declare that tiiey are 



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us THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tkotaa^j sick of tlie war, eai tha weaponB, t 
and hones they bring to the commandant are all aerriceable 
and of the best pattern. A visit to the Intdligence Office, 
whffi» the gnns, ammnnition, bandoliers, iax, are in the cus- 
tody of Captain Boss, who is also district oommismoner, 
wonld eaiMj the most sceptic as to the gennineness of those 
who have aorrendered them, bat they have all been fnmidied 
with fresh ones sinoe then. 

Daijng the militaiy occupation of Boshof the sidmess 
amcng the troops was very severe; chieSy enterio and 
dyaentery cases. There have been as many as 600 man 
in hospital at one time, and during the hot weather there 
were very many deaths each day. Though the severity of 
the epidemic subsided when the winter set in, there were 
150 to be dealt with, and nearly every building in the town 
floated the Bed Gross. When I was there the oonrt-honsa, 
the schools, the little English chorch, and several private 
honaee were osed as hospitals or convalescent homes. 

As nsnal, the BisteiB and doctors on the spot were deserving 
of all praise for their akill and devotion to the sick and dying— 
tbe nnfortnnate viotimB of this war. Many of those stationed 
at Boshof have never seen a shot £red, which is a great trial 
to both offioers and men who love their profession. They 
know that credit and honourable mention go chiefly to their 
comrades in the fighting line, whose plaoea they wonld 
gladly fill, but the long lines of oommnnicationa most be 
protected. 

Thongh the doctors and nnrsing sisters have exerted them- 
sdves to the ntmost in the care of the sick, their efforts have 
not been as snooessfnl as they might have been had the 
Administrative Department been more energetic in forward- 
ing medical stores and other necessaries. The fact that 
Boahof is thirty miles from Kimberley, and ofT the railway 
line^ materially adds to the difficnlties of transport, bnt 



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UFE AT BOSHOF *8T 

hardly excuses nmning ont o£ each medical oomfoita M 
bisiidy aDd qninine. 

Ilie officers and men, doctors and sistors, all oomplun that 
parcels that have been smt to them from £nends in ISoglaad 
never come to hand. The non-reoeipt of the good things, 
the despatch of which they are iof ormed of by letter, is greatly 
deplored ; bat thanka to the pablic spirit and indefatigable 
energy of Mr. Hamilton Gatliff, the War OfGoe agent for the 
disfcribntaon of soldiers' letters and p&roels, most of them 
anived safety in the end, at even such ongetatable places as 
Boehof. 

Only thoee who have knowledge of oommerdal under- 
takings can form any oonoeption of the tons of goods of 
all descriptioDB, and in packages of all sisea, that await 
despatch at Shed No. 4, Sonth Arm Dock, Cape Town. When 
I was last there Major Cookbum, of the Qneen's Bays, was 
spending his sick leave from the West Coast coping with lius 
gigantic task, and at Eimberley I found Mr. Hamilton QatiifF 
carrying on his good woi^ with a method and seal worthy 
of all commendation, and certainly the result has been 
eminently sacoeesfnl. The task he undertook was a great 
one for a man to undertake at his own expense, and has been 
most helpful. 

The labour it involved was onerous and full of diiHcolties. 
Ever the same ; the one of transport being the chief obstacle. 
Obviously, to get tons of parcels to their destinations for a 
oonple of hundred thousand men scattered over thousands of 
miles and constantly on the move required trucks ; and the 
rolling stock of the railways was insufficient for purely 
military purposes. Thus it occurs that for weeks and 
months 600 tons of parcels, cases, and bales — presents from 
the British pablic to the officers and soldiers — were lying 
in Bloemfontein without protection from the weather because 
the military authorities could not^ grant a single truck 



by Co Ogle 



THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 



— not eren lulf ft trnelt — ^to convey Mr. 6atliff*9 goods wttth, 
where the regimentB for which the gifts were intended were 
aoBttered. Much of the contents of the parcels has been 



I have heard some hard things said abont the railway Htaff 
offioerB, bat Lord Kitchener is chief of the stafi^ and he 
rightly claimB precedeoce o£ everything for his own pnrposes. 
The presente Mr. Hamilton Gatliff was bo anxioos to have 
omveyed to the persons to whom they were addressed were 
not Inznries, bnt necessaries. Still, it ia the business of the 
staff to care for all the troops rather than for a faToored few, 
and so tracks were not available, except to transport those 
stores entmsted to the Ordnance Department and to the 
Army Service Corps. 

For months this state of things existed and was very hard, 
bnt was unavoidable, and Mr. Gatliff waa reaaonable enoi^h 
to Bee the trae state of affairs. Now everything sent to the 
troops at the front is promptly delivered. 



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CHAPTER XXI 

MAFBKma TO POTOHEPSTROOM 

C^ the three becdeged towns, Mafeking, lAdysmith, and 
Kimberley, Mafakdng preeented to m; mind far more out- 
ward signs of having been besieged than either of the 
other two. 

I was in WafaHng ahortly after the siege was raised, and I 
thought it looked deplorably knocked abont. Every house 
seemed the worBe for Boer artdllery fire. Tliere was scarcely 
a bnilding that had not been shelled ; some bopeleaaly 
wrecked. But it was the miles of trenches that ran through 
the streets, with dng-oats here and there that impressed me 
most 

No words coald have conveyed an idea of the actual 
state of a besieged town comparable to the one I obtained 
daring my short visit to Jhlafeking. Of one thing I am 
certain : However excellent a story may be that is foanded 
(Ml the personal experience of being besieged, and, no matter 
how admirably it may be garnished with hairbreadth escapes 
to the tone of shot and shell in constant touch with one's 
dwelling-place, I would not rolnntarilygo through it in order 
to seonxe myself the pleasure. I have met people from all 
three towns who have undergone this trying ordeal, who 
exdaim : " I am glad I stayed. I would not have missed the 
experience for worlds ! " This is easy enough to say now all 
danger is safely averted, but I fancy not a few have expressed 
iJiemselveB to the militaiy offioem in other terms when they 



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S40 THE Ah'GLO-BOER WAR 

saw Bhells bnrsting in the streetB and in their honaeH, and 
had nothing but horseflesh to eat, and not too mnch of that. 
I have a ration of bread that was served oat on Good Friday 
in Mafeking. It is in ahape like s Cross bnn, bnt it does not 
look veiy appetising 1 

The War Losses Compensation Commisnon has awarded 
£103,123 to Mafeking for damage done by ehall fire, which 
is a generous allowanoe ont of public funds, thoo^ mai^ 
individoals will find when it is divided that it is very 
inadeqnate to the losses th^ have sustained, and the 
anzielieB they have endured — dangers and losses I do not 
propose to recount, as they have been ably described \(j 
others. 

But stamps, the " Mafeking Besieged," were oooapying an 
important place in local ofdnum at this time. 

It Is not my desdre to enter into any o£ the oonsideratafHis 
which gaided the three brave defenders of Ladysmitli, 
Kimberl^, sod Mafeking, nor do I wish to criticise the means 
they respectively employed for holding the inhabitants of 
those towns together in the face of a common foe. fiat in 
conseqaenoe of friends at home and in different parts of 
South Africa constantly writing to me to obtain for them 
Transvaal, Free State, and aorcharged stamps, I ehoold like 
to express the opinion of a friend on the principle of British 
officers trading in rare stamps or aesiBting in enhancii^ the 
market prices paid for them — a practice that woald have fais 
reaching conseqoences if largely resorted to. 

In a small way I tried to comply with my correspondents' 
wishes in this matter, thoagh I often found myself not a 
little out of pocket by so doing. 

The stamps most desired were the " Mafeking Besieged/' 
which, by The Times of December 14, 1 see are the most 
valoable. Complete sete were sold recently at Mr. T. C. 
Stevens* rooms in King Street, for prices ranging from 



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MAPEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM 241 

nineteen to forty gaineas. The following extract may prove 
interesting in connection with this subject : 

Three complete sete (nineteen in all) of the Mafeking Besieged 
Stamps, iesaed by " BJ*.," £U Ss., £24, and £23 respectively. 

Set of 17 rare MafekiDg Besieged etamps, and another set of 15, 
£16 and £14 lis. respectively. 

Mafeking Besi^ed, 2(. on 1«. British Bechnanalaod, in mint 
state, and two others, the latter torn, £5 fi«., £4 it., and 
£2 17>. 6<j. respectively. 

Mafeking Besieged, 1«. on 6(2. ; Bechoanaland Protectorate, un- 
used, £3 10s. 

TtfiifBlriTig Besieged, 6<2. on Zd., Bechuanaland Protectorate 
*3. 

Mafeking Bemeged, la. on id., Oape, £2 5«. 

Two Baden-Powell, large heads, unused, and Mint state, 
and another, used on entire, £8, £2 \ia. 6(2., and £8 6s. 
respectively. 

Transvaal, T.B., in rabber type, issued in Rustenberg, vis., 
^d.. Id., id., ^d., Zd., 6(1., la., and 2a. %d., used, £5 6<. 

Orange lUver Oolony, rare \d. onar, aaroharged T.B, instead 
of T.R.I., used, £8 5«. 

Two Mafeking Besieged, 8(2. on Id, Bechuanaland Protectorate 
square t^pe, in Mint state, £8 8«. 

Baden-Powell Bicycle stamp, light shade ; and two others, dark 
shade, all in Mint condition, £1 10«. 

The gennine " Mafeking Besieged " stamps are obviooslj 
rei; rare, and ocmseqnently high prices are readily given for 
them. 

This provides a great temptation to prodnoe saA sell to the 
pnblio spnriona ones for the same money to supply this great 
demand. 

When for State reasons it is necessary suddenly to 
increase the rerenne, any department may legitimately be 
oalled npon to raise public funds and may go the length of 
creating a BotitiouB want to fill the ezciiequer, but when no 
■neh need exists then it is quite another thing. 



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242 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Was a special stamp more required at Mafeking than 
Ladysmitb aad Eimberley is a qneatdon that my correspon- 
dent can answer far better than I possibly conld. 

JOHANNKBBUBa, 

S»iA. 20, 1900. 
Dkab Codsin, 

So 70U want my vievs on the subject of the " Mafeking Be- 
si^ed " stamps. Was there any real neosBsity for them f Well, 
that depends on so many things, interests, and ways of viewing 
matters. Let me see, how many meges have we had during this 
war? There was the aiege of lAdysmith: some 10,000 troops 
were engaged in the defence of the town, and there was also a 
certain civil population in the place during the siege. The 
defences, I believe, were constructed on a radius of some three to 
four miles from the centre of the town, and therefore enclosed a 
tolerable area. Well, tlie good people of lAdysmith are as a&c- 
tionate as most others, and therefore daring the siege were ansous 
to commonicate with dear relatives outside the besieged area, yet 
Sir G. White did not consider it necessary to overprint his 
postage stamps "lAdysmith Besieged" to facilitate the postal 
communieatJMi between I^ulysmitb and the outside world, n<nr 
did he appear to think that thei« was any demand for a looaj 
postal service requiring the use of a special stamp with his own 
effigy thereon to ensure safe delivery within the area under his 
immediate control. Then there was the siege of Eimberley : the 
garrison oonmsted of some 5000 men, and, be it known, some 
65,000 civilians had also to undergo the rigours of a siege in 
this town. The inhabitants of Kimberley did wish to write to 
their loved ones outeide the town, and every facility was granted 
them which the circumstanoee would permit. The Poet Office 
authorities considered that a letter bearing an ordinary Gape 
stamp without any inscription " Kimberley Besieged " bore suffi- 
cient indication that the freightage fees on the same had been 
paid. Tlie area which Kekewich had to defend was by no means 
so compact as that undw White's care; the psrimeter of the 
defences of Kimberley alone was eight and a half miles, and 
bsyond Kimberley lay the township of Beaconsfield, and still further 
again, in fact some three and a half miles from Kimberley 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM 243 

Market Square, were our defences &t Wesselton Mine. I can 
tell fou aa a faob that there was a daily poetal service between 
Kimberley and its outlying suburbs; yet, will you betiers it, 
it was not found neceeeary to affix a picture of Kekewich'e head 
on these letters to ensure their safe delivery. Further, during the 
124 days of the siege not one complaint was made that a lettw 
bad gone astray in the post. Do you not think this eztraor- 
dinaiy when the absence faK>m the envelopes of the representa^ 
Uon of the features of Kimberley'a temporary ruler is considered t 
^niwe were other sieges at Wepener, Liodley, Ladybrand and 
many other towns, but I am foi^tting that the sieges at these 
places did not last sufficiently long for the besieged to discover what 
tiieir wants with regard to postal inter-communication were. 
What a pity this was, tea- is it not poasible that genuine sur- 
charged postage stamps may have been issued had the Boers 
hung on to the rims of these places for a few days longer i How 
the heart of the enthusiastic philatelist would have rejoiced at 
the thought of poasessing a veiy rare " Wepener Besieged " or a 
" Ladybrand Besieged " : and look also at the possibility of turning 
an honest penny which would have presented itself to the stamp 
dealers. But what is the good of moaning over what was not to 
be ! I will now deal with the most important siege of the war, 
that of Mafeking. I believe t^t the defenders of iUafeking 
numbered some 1000 men, and that the civilian population left 
in the town during the siege was less than 2000 souls. Many 
letters sent out of Mafeking during the period of October 1899 
to February 1900 passed through my hands in Eimbwley, bnt 
must I tell the honest truth ? As you will have it so, I must 
confess that these letters eithw had no stamps on them at all, or 
bore the ordinary Cape stamps without any inscription or sur- 
charge whatever, and as often they were not even defaced with 
the Mafeking postmark. I forwarded some by runner and 
others through the post, and no question was raised concerning 
the mmple nndefaced Cape stamps which adorned the envelopes. 
Still, for all I know, a necessity may have arisen to more loudly 
proclaim the fact that Mafeking was beai^ed, and that B, P. was 
the gallant defender of the little town. Concerning the neceesi- 
ties of a local post with a local stamp I can only say that unless 
Mafwk'Tig has expanded some many fold since I was there in 



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KM THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

Janoaiy 1896, 1 cannot oonoeive the neoeeaity for any ^eciftl 
arrangemeots to enable the reeidenta to oommunicate with ona 
anotbar. 

If my memory aarves me well, I should aay it does not require 
tea minutes to go from any one part of Mafeldng to any other 
part, 
'Stm, my dear ooasin, I have said all I have to say. 
Yours afiectionately, 

Olaub. 

It was my intention to go to Bulawayo from Mafeking, but 
the fates decided otherwise. Instead, I was hustled into a 
Cape cart with some ofiBoers of the Imperial Transport 
Service, and in a qnarter of an hour's time I was proceeding 
in the opposite directaon, and finally landed in Johannesbnig. 

Daring the long oross-oountry drive from MftfaVing to 
Fotche&troom, which covers a distance of 180 miles, I could 
never have imagined that I was travelling through the 
enemy's territ(»y, in which British troops were actually 
engaged in active hostilitiea, for the inhabitants were peaoe- 
folly pursuing their duly ooaupation, Burroimded by every 
nark of prosperity, certainly by those signs of creature com- 
forts that usually greet the eye when one enters a well-stocked 
farmyard in England. On such a joomey there were many 
oocaaionfl when the proverbial hospitality of the Dutch had to 
be put to a practical test. When there was no place of abode 
but a solitary farmhouse buried away in the veld we were 
compelled to seek from the ocoupants food and shelter for 
both man and beast for the night, and no instance of 
incavility or begrndgiog hoeintality could furly be quoted. 

With (me or two ezceptdons the Dutch women seemed 
only too pleased to do all in their power to promote our 
eomfcrt during the time we proposed staying under their 
roof, while the ohildren, as soon as they found there was 
nothing to fear, crowded round and made their fanny little 
remarks in Dutch, which, when translated, were very amnsing. 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM 245 

Perhaps the moat difScnlt artdcde of food to ohtain at this 
present time in the TraDsraal waa milk. To a stranger thia 
seems ver; odd, as ererywhere there are cows gnaang on the 
reld in gireat noinben, bnt the Boera do not arrange such 
matters on any me^iodioal system. They either hare milk 
in wasteful quantities or none at all. The usual prioe for it ia 
ozpence or ninepanoe a pint, and, consequently, when Bach a 
sam can be obtained, no batter is made in tlie country, and 
most of that which is consumed is imported from Europe or 
America. 

In this particular alone there is a splendid opening for 
energetic farmers, for there is plenty of land which might be 
easily cultivated. At fit«t their efforts would be handicapped 
by tiie difficulties of transport, bnt the projected railway from 
Hafeking to Pretoria ia certain to be commenced as soon as 
this war is orer, and other lines of railway will be undertaken 
in order to open up the country. 

From Mafebing to Malmani we followed the road taken by 
Dr. Jameson when he started on his famous raid. At 
Ottershoop — or Malmani — we stayed for the night, which was 
tiie first that I had ever spent in the Tranaraal. It was thers 
also tiiat some of Dr. Jameson's men lost their way and cnt 
the wrong wirea, which helped oonmderably to fmstrato the 
plans of their leader. 

A few years ago there was a large mining population at 
Ottershoop, attracted there by the Malmani goldfielda, but 
now, except for two or three headgears, there are few baces 
left of the activity which prevailed when the mines were in 
full swing. Confident hopes, however, are expressed that, 
after the war is over, and the safety of property and good 
government have been secured, work on this reef will be 
recommenced, and that the capital which haa been spent and 
is proposed to be raised to obtain the predona metal out of 
the bowels of the earth will return a liberal interest and 



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246 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

reward tliose who denre to derelop the district. As to the 
gold, it is nndonhtedly there, bnt much labour is required to- 
secnre it. 

When I arrived at Zeemst I was pleased to find several 
companies of the Australian contingents of Bushmen, whom 
I had met at Beira, proceeding thence to Marandellaa to 
join Sir Frederick Carrington. I also heard with great satis- 
faction that 2000 more were expected in a few days as. 
reinforcemoitB for picket dnty, which has to be carried out 
on an extensive scale in this part of the Transvaal, as it is so 
hilly, and consequently very favoorable to the Boer mode of 
warfare. All the Anstralians appeared to be in the best of 
health, and were delighted witii their change of locality. 
They had come from Rhodesia via, Bnlswayo and Mafeking, 
and seemed to he none the worse for their weeks of marching. 
There is a magnificent panoramic view from their camp,, 
which is neefol as a point of observation for the whole conntry. 

The road from Mafeking to Zeemst is very interesting, 
and Bhonld prove eapedally so to the travelling public who 
are ever on the look-ont for fresh places of historic interest. 
Ajb soon as the border is crossed the natnre of the country 
difiers entirely firom the fiat plains of Bechnanaland. After 
passing the trenches and strate^ positions occopied by both 
attackers and defenders of gallant little Hafeking, concerning 
which mnch has already been written, one soon begins to 
enjoy the beaatifiil views which characterise all moantainona 
districts in sub-tropical coantries. 

As for the village of Zeeroat, it is always described by Mr. 
Erager as the gem of the Transvaal, thongh he invariably 
denounced it as the most rebellions district nnder the Vierk- 
lenr, and had no faith in the loyalty of the borghers. When 
the hoar of trial came his field comets could have verified 
his worst anticipations, for the greater number preferred to 
fight for the Union Jack and British supremacy rather than 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM 347 

for the predominance of MesBTs. Kmger and Steyn in Sonth 
Africa. In fact, the devices resorted to by the inhabitants 
commandeered to serve outside Hafeking were aa cnrious as 
they were ingenious. Since I left the inhabitants have bad 
a very chequered life; the village has been taken and 
evacnated several times. 

For a time Zeemst was the beadqoarters of Lord Edward 
Cecil, who had gone to Mafeking to fetch his wife, and wad 
expected back on Saturday, Jntie 30. During the short time 
I was in Zeemst I stayed at the Marico Hotel, which, in a 
small way, for cleanliness and refinement, combined with 
good cooking, I have never known equalled either in South 
Africa or in Europe. In England I cannot call to mind a 
village inn that can be compared to it. It is not there, 
however, that Lord and Lady Edward Cecil took np their 
residence, btit at the Central Hotel, which was being pre- 
pared for their reception when I left 

The proprietor of the Marico Hotel is a German enbject 
and when the field comet of the district came to insist that 
he should proceed on commando without delay he declined, 
and said he owed allegiance to the Emperor William II. of 
Germany only. He wrote to inform his Consol in Pretoria 
of hia pomtion, and when the field comet came the next time 
he showed him the Consul's reply. However, in the end he 
promised to take sentry duty jnst in front of his own hotel, 
and every night he provided himself and hia companion with 
a mattress and warm blankets, as well as a basket of good 
things to eat and drink, while they kept watch comfortably 
in a sheltered spot. 

The drive from Zeemst over the moontainoos connti; to 
Bnstenbnrg was not lees beaatifnl than the first part of the 
jonmey, though there were fewer homesteads, and orange 
groves belonging to sach well-known men as De Wet and 
Botha to give point and interest to the district Shortly 



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848 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

after learing Zeernst I felt a little uneasy, for I saw awvnA 
Boer waggons drawn up among some trees in a hollow, bat 
we were soon asenred that it was a women's laager, the ococ- 
pants of which were seeking protection from the Eaffin, 
whom they greatly fear, as their men-folk were either on 
commando or were prisoners of war. 

Travelling throngh saoh a long tract of oonntry and coming 
directly into personal and doee relations with the people, I 
had better opportnnities of estimating their character than I 
oonld ever have had by going throngh by rail. The officen 
who accompanied me oonld speak Dutch flnently, and a few 
kindly words soon dispelled the alarm that was only too 
evident on our first appearance. 

Many of the prisoners of war that I oame in contact with 
while in charge of the sick on board the Manila (Transporb 
80) came from this district) thon^ more belonged to that <rf 
Potchefstroon, and in a few instances I oonld give reasBniing 
information to their wives and daughters as to their well- 
bmng, and the care taken of them while in onr hands. This, 
of course, soon set np very friendly relations, and the dread 
of the British and of all the terrible things that their field 
comets had told them abont when the British came, snoh m 
driving t^em ont of the oonntiy, taking their sons to Eng- 
land for soldiers, giving their prettiest daogfaters for wives 
and the others to the Kaffirs, &a., melted like snow in 



I mnet, however, give a description of our reception in 
another homestead, where I was not nearly so favonrably 
impressed. We went to ask for some milk for our morning 
meal. We were met at the threshold by a barly man, who 
informed na that be had been fightmg outside Mafeking, bnt 
that he had given np his arms. When we entered the honse 
it seemed full of women and children, and as it is a I>ntGh 
custom to shake hands with every member of the family, I 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM 2*9 

8*w I was in for a Bomewbat trying ordeal. At firab we were 
told there was no milk, and otherwise we were made to feel 
onr presenoe was not deeired. The mother began to tell a 
piteouB tale of the treatment to which she had been mb- 
jected, and the conduct of the Britiah troops who had visited 
her farm to get Bnppliea and transport waggons. 

Her stoiy was accompanied by indignant geeticnlatioiui, 
and when she said the soldiers had commandeered all her 
«to(^, leaving her and her family of twelve children without 
anything to exist on, she began to cry, and aesored ns that 
it was by the same show of distress she had induced the 
officers to give back a few sheep and other necessaries to 
save their lives. We listened to this story of British iniqaity 
for a long time, and then gave her a short description of what 
the burghers had done to our colonists when they invaded 
their tenitoiy — how they carried away everything they pos- 
sibly cotild, and utterly destroyed the rest As both officers 
oonid speak Dutoh fluently, and one was well known to her 
aa a Transvaal burgher, they were able to explain things to 
her in a manner that was quite a revelation. Even while 
the woman w^ speaking bags of meal filled t^e back room, 
which were plainly visible every time the door was opened, 
while outside the geese and turkeys, docks and fowls, guinea 
fowl, pea fowl, pigs, sheep, and cattle were all greeting the 
morning sun in varying notes according to their species thus 
actually belying th» story of our soldiers' misdoings. 

A drive from Mafeking to Knstenbnrg will make the 
traveller thoroughly acquainted with " drifts," which are so 
often heard of in connection with the passage of our troops. 

BuBtenbuig was, after the siege of Mafeking was raised, 
for sometime the headqnarters of Major-Genaral Baden 
Powell, and when I was there, Jnly 2, I saw him march out 
to Wolhoter's Kop with a force of from 1000 to 1200 men, 
leaving a garrison of only eighty New South Wales Bnshmen 



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250 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and a detadunent of BritiBli South African Polioe witli a 
12^-poimder and a Maxim gnu, under the command of 
Colonel Hore, to guard the town, make trenoheB, and fix the 
gone in position in case the place was attacked during hia 
absence, hunting parties of the enemy, which he knew were 
secreted in small commandos between RaBtenbnif; and 
Krngersdorp. 

Indeed, the vety day he left, within tweaty-six honn of his 
departure, General Baden Powell bad to send an nrgent 
message to Colonel Hore to evacuate and retire on Zeerast as 
soon as darkness set in, first destroying all Boer arms and 
ammnnition, of which there were some 2000 or 3000 rifles 
and many hundreds of thoaaand rounds of ammunition, which 
had been surrendered to our troops at farmhouses and 
broo^t in. This urgent message contained the further 
disquieting information that 2000 Boers with four guns and 
two pompoms were expected to arrive in B(iBt«abni^ at 
daylight on the following morning, July 4. Orders were 
received at 5.15 f.m., and by 8 p.h. Colonel Hore got the 
garrison away without being discovered, and that he did in 
spite of heavy rain and thunderstorms. 

By marching all night through the Magliesberg Pass across 
8elou8 river to Elands river, a distance of forty miles, with 
forty-three waggons, was covered in twenty-four hours — not 
a bad trek considering the nature of the country ! 

When the native population of Bustenbuig saw that the 
town had been left with such a small garrison a conuderable 
amount of ferment was observable, and it seemed to many that 
It was a direct interposition of the Almighty for their deliver- 
ance in response to their prayers that I had listened to in the 
Reformed Church on the preceding Sunday morning; the 
tenor of which was — Wait patiently for the coming of the 
Lord, who will shortly drive out yonr enemies &om amongst 
yon. At this service I noticed snch influential men aa MoS, 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM £51 

Piet Emger and otkers, who had surrendered and were 
priaoneTB on parole, and conBeqnently were permitted to go 
abont the town as they were difiposed. I hod a ehort con- 
versation with Piet Emger on the Sunday, bat, like all 
English people, I never donbted the veracity of bis Btatementa. 
On the next morning, however, in addition to the numerous 
knots of Boers that were oonvendng in a mysterious manner 
abont the town, I noticed that Mr. Piet himself was in quite 
another frame of mind and was in a state of bustle that 
looked fiuspiciouflly strange. 

When the garrison evacuated Kustenburg one of Mr. 
Weil's (Imperial I^ansport) agents was left behind, and at 
7 A.H, on Jnly 4 was awakened by Mr. Piet Kmger coming 
into bis room ! However, Mr. Piet allowed him to clear o£E 
after selling him a horse for £30 ! 

On the 6th Colonel Hore reo^ved another urgent messi^, 
this time from Major Hon. Hanbnry Tracy, asking for rein- 
forcements, as he was in Rnstenbnrg, and the Boers were 
oocapying the hills around the gaol. In response. Colonel 
Hore at once sent oS two squadrons of Kew South Wales 
Bnshznen, a "Wn-rini gxid a 12}-ponnder, under the command of 
lientenant-Colonel Airey and lieutenant-Colonel Holds^ 
worth. They travelled forty-eight mUes in twenty-fonr 
hours, reaching Bnstenbuig in time to aid Miyor Hanbttry 
Trace's men, who had bem fighting for hours and had 
succeeded in temporarUy driving off the Boers. 

The enwny were not slow to perceive how the British 
generals were careering abont large tracts of country with 
the most insignificant number of troops, and occasionally took 
advantage of their absence, though not nearly so frequently 
as they might hare done had they not feared the extra- 
ordinary bravery in the face of overwhelming numbers and 
superior artillery of those left in charge of important posts. 

When Colonel Hore was attacked on August 4 he had 



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ass THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

fiOO men, one 7-poandeT and one Maxitn. General De la 'Rey, 
tbe Boer commandant, had about 2500 men, with fonr gnns, 
three pompoms, and one Maxim. A report was cironlated 
that Colonel Hore had anrrendered, bat in Bpite of De la Bey'i 
invitation to do go, he held ont until Lord Kitchener with a 
force of about 8000 men came and released him. The defence 
of Elands riTer has been described as one of the finest per- 
formances of the campaign. Lord Kitchener gave the 
Cfolonials the bluest pruse for it, and was astonished at the 
great amonnt of defensire bnnowing work they had been 
able to do with the bayonet. Bnmonrs to tiie effect that the 
British had Bnrrenctered here, that generaU were killed there, 
and tiie troops were fleeing in all directions, were spread daily, 
and at times it was no easy matter to give no credence to the 
statements that were so emphatically asserted. 

In going from Bnstenbnrg to Potchefatroom there was 
nothing to indicate that the country was at war, and that 
the two opposing forces were chasing each other ronnd every 
kopje in the neighbourhood through which we were travel- 
ling. The only things that suggested war were the pickets at 
the foot and summit of every pass, and at the entrance into 
every hamlet. As the British army now in South Africa is 
scattered over hundreds of miles, one meets friends in the moet 
outHjf-the-way places, guarding thus bridge or that vill^e. 
Friends from Australia and Canada are encamped with others 
horn England and India; yet, in spite of our 250,000 men 
and more that have put shoulder to shoulder in this crisis, 
there are none too many. To tiiose who left the high road, 
however, it was very apparent that the whole district was in 
a very unsettled state, and we were informed of it. 

At three o'clock the next morning after our arrival in 
Fotchefstroom, instructions were issued by the o£Goer in 
command to all military men in the town to go at once to 
headquarters, ae 300 Boers were marching on the place, and 



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MAFEKING TO POTCHEFSTROOM S5S 

were only Sve milea diatant. When all the troops had beeo 
mustered, including {^ aoratch police force, the total was 
only aix officeiB and twenty-foor men, and these did not 
include one regnlar soldier 1 This state of affairs produced a 
feeling of great alarm, espeoia% among the Batch who had 
laid down their arms, taken the oath of aUe^fiance, and were 
in the employ of the British IJovemment. They fnlly 
realised the gravity of their podtion if the town were retaken, 
and knew aalj too well how they wonld be treated by their 
former friends in such a case. 

Ab time wore on, and the morning snn was getting ap, all 
idea of the nearer approach of the Boers vanished for the 
time being, as they nerer attack daring the day. The 
garrison, however, was before mid-day strengthened by the 
arrival of 700 mea belonging to the Welsh and Soots 
Fusiliers and two gana belonging to the 79th Battery from 
Elrngersdorp. 

The original sorrendar of the town of Potchefatroom was 
very coiions. Major Robertson had been sent with despatches, 
and came down the line on a trolley. When he arrived at 
the station he waa stopped by the station-master, who ques- 
tioned his proceeding, he being a BritiBh officer. The major 
at once aaid, " The coontry ia now in the handa of the British, 
and the nulway la so likewise. Year aervicea on this line are 
no longer required." In Fotchefstroom the magistrate heard 
of Major Bobertson's presence, and sent an order to ^'"1 to 
attend the Government offices. On hearing it the major 
ezpressed his aarprise that the Datch official did not come to 
see him, bat pnf; it down to ignorance. However, he went 
to tiie landdrost and told the same tale, which was ftdly 
credited, chiefly on accoant of the knowledge poBseseed that 
the Britiah were jast oatside, and to the fact that on the 
previoas erening, at a general meeting of the prindpal in- 
habitante, it was decided to sarrender the town without 



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»5* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

reservatioii. Nevertheless, the ancient capital of the TranB- 
Taal Bttrrendered at the demand of one man. 

Some towna in the Transvaal and Orange Birer Colony 
hare gone ibroagh the experience of being taken and evacu- 
ated and occapied t^;ain as often as twelve or fonrteen times, 
the operations varying considerably on each occasion accord- 
ing as the occupying and attacking forcee are relatively weak 
and strong — determined to fight or give op the contest. To 
be one day nnder British rale, then a return to the Boer 
ionna of government, and back again, is a very nnpleaaant 
prooeas to both the English and Dutch residents, as can 
weU be imagined. Some very interesting incidents have 
been related to me in this connection, and some very heart- 
rending ones. Families in Zeerust and Rostenbnrg have 
been particalarly unfortunate. 



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CHAPTEE XXn 

PUT OVER THE BORDER 

The Eev. J. T. Darragh, B.D. of Trinity College, Dublin, 
has been rector of Johanaeebnrg for the last thirteen years 
' — that is to aay, &om the time when tents and tin ehanties 
stood on sites which are now broad aad important thorough- 
fares, with public bnildings that might do credit to any town 
in Europe — stractores that would surprise not a few persons 
both at home and abroad aa to what can be accomplished in 
a decade by an energetic and enterprising people when a 
valuable source of wealth has been unexpectedly discorered. 
As a clei^yman of the Church of England Mr. Darragh has 
always taken his full share in public affairs as ia,T as these 
can be described as non-political. In all educational matters 
and charitable movements he has been well to the front. 

In a place like Johannesburg, where there is a large and 
influential British community living in the midst of a people 
differing in character at almost all points, and under a system 
of government entirely opposed to that which a Britisher 
likes, friction was sure to occur from time to time, if, indeed, 
it is not constantly present. The principal resident English 
clergyman must of necessity occupy a conspicuous position 
in such an environment Even in time of peace, to say 
nothing of a time of war, all that he says and does is kept 
xmder a strict anrveillanoe. To muntain friendly relations 
with the local governing powers requires the exercise of 
unlimited patience and infinite tact These virtues Mr. 



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«56 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Damtgh manifested in a marked degree, bat thongh he 
wae able to hold bis own daring six montba of the war 
he was, to bis great mortification, pat orer the border mx 
weeks before l^e entiy into Jobanneebnig of the British 
troops ander Lord Boberts. Most of the other clergy were 
thus treated at the beginning of hostilities, the Bishop of 
Pretoria not excsepted. 

Mr. Darragh attribates his better lack to the fact that 
daring his whole ministration in the Charch, and especially 
at St. Mary's, Johannesbnrg, be kept aloof from poUtios. 
having a perfect abhorrence of the political patBon. To 
abstain from participation in burning political qaeetioas in 
a place like Johannesbnrg reqaired a great deal of self- 
restraint. Mr. Darra^, howerer, never appeared on a poli- 
tical platform and never preached political aermoiiB daring 
the whole period of the agitation that marked the cooiBe 
of the years preceding the war. Bat the very name of the 
Chnroh of England was an ofiEence to the party in power, 
and aa to the prayers in the Prayer-book for the Qoeen they 
were a positive soaroe of irritation. The Charch of England 
woo, in short, thoroaghly disliked by the Boer Government, 
and in its ministry it was nfore hampered than any other 
religions body. Every other religioas organisation, inclnd- 
ing that of the Boman Catholics and the Jews, ooald get 
church sites, bat the Charch of England coald nob. The 
Dntch Beformed Church in partioalar enjoyed valaablA 
grants of land, one ont of several being alone worth £100,000, 
an ofier of £70,000 for only a part of this land being refused 
at a pablic aaotion. With the progress c^ the war, and espe- 
cially in the coarse of the months of April and May, the 
anti-British feeling intensified, till ultimately only fifty-fii^ 
British sabjecta remained in JohanneBhorg ont of a total of 
forty thonsond, which was the extent of the British popnla- 
tion prior to the exodns which resalted from the strained 



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PUT OVER THE BORDER «57 

reliktioiiB between the GoremmeDts ia London and in 
Fietoria. 

Six weeks before the entry of the Britiah troops Mr. 
Darragfa was, aa I have said, put over the border, the oanm 
of this being ascribed to his action respecting Field-oomet 
Lombard's behavionr to oolonred Britiah sabjeotB. This 
official's name will be remembered in connection with the 
abortiTe inqniry into his oondnot towards Cape ooloored 
people in Johannesburg previoos to the war. These people 
were ezoeptionall; loyal British snbjeota, and, in oonse- 
qnenoe, were very obnoxionB to the Kmgerite officials, who 
forced them to submit to all sorts of petty perseo&tiixiB. 
Nearby all their men and most of the women had been put 
over the border before the war b^;an. A certain number 
of the women, however, not being able for domestio reaaons 
to travel at that time, were left behind. Field-comet 
Lombard finding these women at his mercy began to com- 
mandeer them for nnpaid service in Dntoh families, and to 
actually beat with his own hands those who refnsed to go. 
As was right and natural, the poor women appeided to the 
T*!"g1i">' clergyman for protection. He took tiie matter up and 
represented the mrcumstances to the higher officials in such 
a manner that they had a stop pat to the field-comet's pro- 
ceedings, at least as far as British subjects were concerned. 
But revenge is sweet to the heut of the Boer, and if it is 
not always swift it is pretty sure to follow. The field-comet 
got the ear of a few influential Dutch residents and between 
them drew up a petition to the Gh}Temment, with the result 
that Mr. Darragh was prononnoed an " andesirable person,' 
and was put over the border on Easter Tuesday. Possibly, 
too, the efforts he made to befriend the prisoners of war in 
Pretoria tended to expedite his expulsion. 

Mr. Darragh is an Lishman, and what he says he means. 
He said on leaving : " I shall come back with the troops 



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£58 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

or be here to receiTe tliein on tlie Qoeen'B Urtlidfty." Cape 
Town IB a long way from JohannMborg if tbe route to 
be taken most be by Delagoa Bay. Bat a few thogaan d 
mile* am not aoooonted miuh in Africa. The fint thing to 
be d(«e was to visit the British consul in Loren^ Uarqnee, 
of wfaMe diplomatio merits I hare already made mention, and 
get him to find a British ship to convey our refugee to Cape 
Town. British ships of every stse and deaeription hare been 
familiar sights aronnd the oooet of Africa in reoent times, 
and an "iroiuide" was soon fonnd to Bonnnmodate Mr. 
Darragh. The High CommissioDer and the general of the 
lines oS. commnnicationB were equally ready to fnrther the 
rooter's wishes with all promptaess and ooortesy. Fennission 
was granted him to join the headquarters staff as acting 
chigJain, and away he started for Bloemf<aLtein, where he 
was delayed for four days waiting t^ first train to Kroonstad. 
Ytom tiiat place he made his way by a oonBtmction tnin 
to Booderal, thenoe by oz wa^on and mnle oonvoy to Elq> 
river, where onr hero oanght up Lord Boberts, me day out 
«rf Jfthannesbnrg. 

On that memoraUe Slst of May, when Lord Boberts entered 
Johannesbnig with his trinmphant army, crowds who had 
been longing fw that happy evMit were on the verandshs 
and other points of vantsge. Snddenly there was a great 
noise and mnoh cheering, and everybody, of course, taught 
the appearance of the Commander-in-chief had evoked these 
demonstrations. But in a few minutes a solitary figure on 
horseback appeared. It was Mr. Sarragh. He had been as 
good as his word. He was in Johannesburg to receive the 
troops, thouf^ the date unfortunately was not the Qaeen's 
birthday, bat a week later. Ha. had oome by a shorter route 
tiian the army, and wae in GovMnment Sqaaie two houn 
before Lord Boberts and his staff. Hie rector's nnezpeoted 
return astoninhed friends and foes, and the enthnsiaBtio 



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PUT OVER THE BORDER 259 

weloome he reonved folly ooimtarbBlanoed both the indignity 
of t'''! diBDUBSftl Bod the hardships hs had nndersoiM dnniiB 
btsjonmey of two thomand Bve hmtdred miles. Bat the 
greatest joy of all to Mr. Barragh was that on Whit Sunday 
he was able to officiate in his own ohnrcb to the remnant of 
his people. 

With the oocnpation of Johannesborg by the British, field- 
comet Lombard found the pofdidon of affairs changed, and 
it was not long before ha himself waa pnt over the border. 



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CHAPTER XXIII 

FORCED MARCHING 

For a otTilun to give a description of a great hiBtorioal march 
is oompatatiTeljaii easy task, bat to ezperienoe it aa a aoldier 
ia quite another matter. 

I will, however, do my best to help friends at home who 
know lees abont it than I do, to realise what forced marching 
really is, together with the inevitable hardships to be endured 
both by the well and strong, and by tiiose whose health has 
given out btion the desired object has been obtained. 

The officers and men of the regnlar army are more or less 
accnstomed to this form of military ezerdBe, as it is an 
important part of their training both in India and on home 
stations, and oonseqaently is far lees trying to them than it is 
to their militia battalions, and to those patriotic volunteer 
corps that have been got together from all parts of the 
empire to stand shoulder to shonlder with Tommy Atkins 
dnring this national crisis. 

AH those who take part with an army on active service 
must fare alike, whether they are " duke's son " or " cook's 
son," and especially is this the case on the march. 

Forced and long-distance marching has been a great feature 
in this war, attributable to the hoadreds of miles that separate 
Cape Town, Durban, Bast Lond(m, and Fort Elizabeth from 
Pretoria, to say nothing of the nature of the conntry and the 
mode of warfare of the enemy, which have occasioned long 
d^toura from the straight line. 



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FORCED MARCHING S6l 

An (Hrdmary day on the maicb haa to b^jin at 3 AJi., u 
tiie Older to start nsoally was at five. The cooks hare to be 
ap to prepare the milk and beef tea for the mck, the men of 
the Bt^al Army Medical Corps have to attend to them 
generally, and place them all in the ambulances ; the tenta 
have all to be struck, and waggons loaded before they can 
think of their own cofibe and biacuit, supposing there are any. 

On the march l^e Il,A.M.C. hare a very hard time, for 
when the brigade halts to rest for half an honr, they hare to 
exert thenisel^ to the ntmoet to attend to the siok dnring 
tlie interval, which is their only chance of giving them 
nourishment and making them as comfortable as oircnmstanoes 
will allow. Afisin, when the oolnmn halts for the nig^t tJie 
same exertions have to be made ; a soitable place fonnd to 
latcb their tents and the siok moved into them as rapidly as 
poesilde, to relieve their snfferings and aching frames a^^^ra- 
vated by the fatigues of the day's march. 

This process repeating itself every day, with an ever in- 
creasing nomber of patients; difficulties to be overcome, 
with fewer medical officers and their orderlies, for they too 
fall ill ; fewer and fewer medical txaaia^ and a steadily 
tli-miTiifthiTig ambolanoe aooommodaticnt ; marching every 
day for weeks and months ; sleeping oat in Hie open, often in 
bad weather — and in South Africa there ia an immense difiFer- 
ance at all tames in the year in the temperature of the day 
as compared with the night : a drop of forty or fifty degrees 
is not at all an extraordinary variation — this alone is 
responsible for much sicknesB amongst the troops, which is 
augmented by great fatigue, short rations, sameneas of diet, 
and bad water, resulting altogether in an overwhelming num- 
ber of cases of dysentry and enteric fever, stoaining beyond 
endnianoe the resources of Uie medical staff. 

I have on various oooaaionB made mention of the good work 
done by the B.A.M.G. and the civil officers assisting them* 



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not THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and, in ipiie lA all th» aapenuna that hav« baea made, they 
hav« wnked like Tiojana, and have been an bntre as 
Uoas. 

To Bay that the Army Medioid Department ia a good 
irMtiag TUM^iwa in mr time and has during this period tii 
•tram proved itaelf without Uame would be abaozd. la 
many important eseeBtiale the system ooold be vaatly 
amended, i.«., niae the age of entry, so aa to hare men 
qualified and of larger experienoe; bot t^ronghoat tbe 
campaign, all things oonsidend, it has done well; it ii 
oertainly not behind in tiie ontpat of woA of any other 
lum-oombatant bnmoh of tlie Bertiee. 

Tlie Boyal Ckunmission tliat has been sent GiA from 
England to investigate the charges brought against the 
oorps in their treatment of the sick and woonded and tiie 
proTisbn made for their comfort has doabtlees been thoroogh 
and impartial, though it ooold scarcely be natess cognisanoe 
was ti^tt of the anmeroas other interests inTdved. 

This oommiasion has in the opinion of some only " white< 
washed " the RA.M.C. It oerlainly has not Inou^t oat aa 
[wominently as they deeerre tiieir heroic self -sacrifice, both on 
tiie march and in hospital, in tiie amelioraticxi of the onavoid- 
able BofEering which the war has nnhappily oooasioned, and 
the measore of snooess that baa attended their effiwts in 
ocwibatiDg the almost insnrmonntable difficulties that beset 
them in the diaohaige of their very oneroos dutiee. There are, 
of ocMSta, instanoes that can be bronght forward the reverse 
of this; but mach is always heard of Bhortcomings and a 
oofresponding silence as to the good work done. 

A tborongh investigatioQ should be instituted into the 
ocmdoct of all thoae, of whatever rank and position in the 
army, whenever there is a grave doubt in the pnblio mind 
that a due n^ard of the welfare, life, and limb of the sons of 
the nation, who bo readily oome forward to fight her battles 



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FORCED MARCHING i6S 

ud uidiold lier hononr and prestage, has not been exercised. 
It is not onlj right towarda tlie people who send their sonB, 
bnfc is eminently aatufaotory to all ooncemed. 

If a misapprehenaion faaa grown np, it gives the oppor- 
tonity to clear it ; if this oannot be done, then the natiaa 
knows OB whom Ttat to rely, 

Hr. Bb John Brodrick gave proof of his determinatioB to 
aot in this manner almost immediately after faia aooession 
to office as Swa-etary of State for War. 

To give a description of a great nuunh from a divisional or 
brigade aspect most be left to more oompetent hands than 
mine. Even then, until the offioal retonu are sent in and 
compiled, it is an almost impossible task, on aceonnt of the 
difficulty <^ getting aocorate data as to the varying strength 
of the forces oomponng at different periods the advancing 



Tn like manner, a brief aooonnt at least shoidd be given of 
the fights and obstructions enconnterod, with their caanalties, 
to make a description of forced mardiing oome up to the 
ideal of a military critic. 

My poor efforts are not intended to satisfy snob a dais of 
readers. I only wish to interest those who, lite myself, desire 
to know something of oar soldiers, and how they have fared 
in thia distant land, without being too technical in matters 
that mnat be left to military experts. 

We can only judge by results. When they are good we 
are pleased; when they are not satisfaotory we |wefer waiting 
for an impartial inquiry before condemning those whom we 
fully believe have done their best in their respective cora- 
mandfl and positions of oonfidence in which they have been 
placed by those charged to act on behalf of the nation. 

It is a well-known fact that an ordinary individnal earn 
know bat little of the dispositionB of the troops in any given 
battle ; and as for the doings of other regiments bat the 



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«64 THE ANGLO-BOEB WAR 

partioalar one to which he is attached, he has absolately no 
knowledge. 

As an inatanoe of this I will repeat the stoiy told by the 
late Lord Albemarle of what ha saw of the Battle of Waterloo, 
as he told it to ray late hnsband'e first wife, whan they were 
all together one season at Hombnrg. 

The late earl was a courtly gentleman of the old achool, a 
type that has nearly died oat in this hurrying age. He 
began : " So, my dear Lady Bri^s, yon want to hear aboat 
the Battle id Waterloo. All that I know of what took place 
is that I was ordered witii my regiment to a certain sand 
fttt, and to stay Aero ontil we were wanted. We stopped 
in it all day. We heard all the sonnds of battle going on 
aronnd os, bnt saw nothing hat a few stray bnllets. Late 
in the afternoon we were ordered up, went through one 
or two marching evolntions, and then we were told we 
had won a great battle. Now, this is all / aaw of the 
Battle of Waterloo, and it is abont as mach as many others 
■aw who giye wonderful descripticms of the whole day's 
wort- 
Men on the march can each and all say more than that, 
because they all must tramp, tramp along ; and the oondi' 
tdons of marching prevailing in South Africa cannot be 
imagined by those who hare never crossed the silver streak 
and penetrated into the African oonianent. 

The O.LV.t are dear to the heart of Londoners, and how 
they epeat Easter Sunday in the year of grace 1900 out 
on the veld in the Orange Hirer Colony may be pleasant 
reading for those who have not heard from some dear one 
giving his own private account. 

We were told in church one Sunday by the chaplain 
that khaki has a demoralising infiuenoe in this particular, 
and he gave a large congr^ation of " absent-minded beggars " 
to onderstand that letters in Enghuid, or to whatever part of 



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FORCED MARCHING 865 

the em[ar« they severally belonged, were even more appre- 
ciated than mails thafc arrive from home. 

Well, OD faster Snnday these CJ.V.B were spending their 
time reading their letters and papers, three mails hanng 
come in aJl together. The weather did all that was pos- 
sible to destroy the pleasure which is inseparable from such 
an event All day tike rain came down in torrents, fairly 
washii^ tikem oat of their tents and making their clothes and 
papers wringing wet, and eveiytbing thorooghly uncomfort- 
able. In the midst of it they were told to prepare for 
marching on the morrow, and at two o'clock they started 
from Springfontein on what is now regarded as an historical 
march. 

The first part was to Bloemfontdn, where tiiey were 
equipped with their tents, and had a good number of 
waggons. Pitching tents at night after a march of fifteen 
to twenty miles is a duty to which oar civilian soldieiB 
greatly objected, they being dead-beat by the &tigneB of 
the day. Then agun, striking camp in early morning and 
rolling np and packing away the tents in the waggons was 
an extra laboor that they gladly dispensed with later on 
when they left their tents and heavy baggage at a place 
called Glen. 

The ta*o(^ marched oontinnously to Bloemfontein, and 
arrived there is seven days, a distance of eighty-^ight miles. 
Boads in South Africa have certain ptonts of difference that 
could not be imagined by those who are aocostomed to travel 
in the oountiy by road in England. 

To give an ides, whole companies were told o£E to drag 
waggons up the steep banks of the drifts, which are often 
thirty to fifty feet deep and at an angle of tJiirty to forty-five 
degrees at frequent intervals right across the road. To see 
these awful holee causes a feeling of grave naeaainess as to 
whether the opposite bank can be reached without an accident. 



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S66 THE ANGLOBOBR WAR 

Our Qity Imperial Volantdn* W6i« at thia tim« dispoied 
to regard with oonteHipt bnllj-beef and ration biBoaits, and 
draw very freely iip(« tbxai private stook of potted meats 
and other goodthinga; bntthe day was not Car distant wh«t 
titey oonld say, in the wrada of the nnnery dit^, " Oh ! how 
I wish I had the bread that onoe I threw away." Quarter 
ratums, or a hisonit a day on a long day's march, aocm pro- 
duced a longing for the "flesh-pots of Egypt" Weie it 
possible, some very valuable information could be obtained 
from statastics as to the men's weight before Btaiting on a 
long foroed march in a oaontiy like ^lie, and the difiereiuM 
in it at the end of it. 

It is indisputably neoessaiy that the greatest oare in 
weeding out the ailing should be ezerdsed before starting, as 
it is merely a question of the survival of the fittest. 

I oould cite several instanoea oi both officers and men that 
lost in weight from three to five stones in the Winburg march, 
that is to say, in four or five weeks. Tbeai tunics, that would 
barely meet when they left, hung about them like left-off 
^thes belmiging to men double their size. 

It is a fact that requires no observation of mine to show 
that hardships which can produce snoh results are a great 
strain on a man's constitution, and it is not surprising that 
when the advancing column arrives it hu been oonsiderably 
thinned, and there must be a good deal of work left about 
tor the good Samaritan to perfoim. 

TiaB study might be extended ad itifinitvm by including 
the brote force that have taken part in ike forced marching 
daring this campaign. 

Heart-rending tales might be related as to the sufCerings of 
our noblest animal, the horse, of which some of the most 
beautiful have been landed in South Airica since October 1899 ; 
of the invaluable mules that have come across the sea in 
thousands, and of the patient aas, to say nothing of the 



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FORCED MARCHING SffT 

hondredN of caeo that do w maoh of the OTBrland transport 
fee the field force. To follow the road taken by an adrancmg 
eoliunn and eee the poor brctes strewn dead on aU sides is 
anything bat a pleamng sight, and oannot fail to inB|Mi« a 
feeling oS. sympathy, and enable the obeerrer to appreciate at 
their true raloe all the horrors of war as experienoed by the 
onfortnn&tB animals. 

Up to the present over 200,000 horses and 50,000 males and 
oxen have been empl(^«d in this oampaign — a serionB 
charge to those concerned, especially in a ooontiy where, at 
certain seasons animal disease, both eqoine and bovine, is so 
life ; and this is felt to be so t^ oommanders of cavalry and 
by the veterinary staff. 

General French's brilliant and effective coups de guerre 
have necessarily been costly to the nation ; bat that they have 
move than repaid the expenditare is readily admitted, and 
its oorollaiy of hnman and animal snffering mast be 
accepted, thoDgh with the reservation that perhaps in a 
small degree some of it might have been preventible hj a 
redaction in the weights carried by the British soldier and 
the troop horse. Were the aocontrements bronght more 
within proportional limits to capacity a marvellooB economy 
mi^t conceivably have been effected. 

When oar dvilian soldiers, the C. I. V-S, arrived at Btoem- 
foDtein Uiey had the gratification of listening to a oompK' 
mentary speech from Lord Boberts, who was acoompanied 
by Lady and Miss Boberts, when he inspected the regiment. 

At Bloemfontein the forces were reconstracted, and the 
C. L y.s were attached to the 21st Brigade, commanded by 
Qeneral Bmce Hamilton, which at this time comprised, 
amongst other troops, the Cameron Highlanders, the Boyal 
Sassez and Derby r^ments, and theC. L V.a. There was a 
force of artillery and moanted infantry, bat I have not been 
able to ascertain their names and strength. 



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SM THE AHQLO-BOER WAR 

The aLY. Field Bstteiy oODButed of four guns tS. the 

Vicken-MBziia qoiok-fihng type, maimed by men from 
the Hon. Artillery Company. The battery proved iteelf very 
effective on maoy oooasions, tiie long range and rapidity of fin 
being a great factor of Boooefla. Theee guns, aa maimed by 
our citizen aoldiers, proved themselrea capable of a rate of fire 
of at least six aimed roonde per minate, under active Bervioe 
oonditions, np to a range of 6000 yards. Thia extraordinary 
ra|adity was obtained by the fact that there was no appre- 
ciable recoil, the shock of diaoharge being taken np by 
hydranlio boSers on the carriage, and to the fact that the 
detaohmmt serving the gnn carried ont their datiee in a kneel- 
ing position, with the gan layer sitting on the trail, mating 
the target exposed qnite fifty per cent, leas than with tiie 
Mrvioe type of gnn. 

After their arrival in Sooth Africa, t^ first engagement 
in which they came into action was under Colonel Brook- 
field, with whose force they formed an escort to a c<Hivoy of 
provisions for General Paget, who was locked up in Lindley, 

The first action in which the battery waa engaged waa at 
Liebensberg Drift, whrae they were opposed by De Wet's 
column. On this oocaaion De Wet sent a message throogh 
the ambolanoe to the effect that he wonld do everything in 
his power to prevent the entry of the convoy into Idndley. 
However, the next morning at daybreak the battery came 
into touch with the enemy, and in the space of one honr and 
a qnarter fired 240 roonda of ammunition. This was one of 
the oocasionB on which the rapidity of fire showed iteelf to 
itB fullest advantage, as the battery had to come into action 
under very heavy rifle fire. 

The next day the battery was opposed by three of De Wet's 
long-range Empp gans, bnt having in view the safety of the 
ocuTOy, it was deemed advisable to avoid an artillery dnel. 
Two gnos were sent with the advance gnard, the remaining 



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FORCED MARCHING sSj 

two being ordered to hold the drift at all costs. This ^ey 
did with the ud of one Msxim gun, holding a foroe of 4000 
Boen in check for the ipace of three or four hooiB. 

On the following day these two Utter gnna relieved the 
SSth Royal fWd Artillery m the fortaficationB at lindley, 
where they did some extremely pretty shooting at ranges over 
5000 yards. 

Two days later the whole of tiie forces at Lindley moved 
oat to act in oonjnnotion with Generals Clements and Hnnter 
in the combined movement which ended in the snrrender of 
Prinsloo. Daring this movement two gnns of the battery 
took part in the action at Barking Kop, the other two beii^ 
engaged simaltaneoosly at Pleisorifontein. In the former 
engagement, as the reader will donbtleea remember, the SSth 
Battery got into very serious difficoltieB, and, had it not been 
for the opportmie intervention of the Australian Mounted 
Infantry, and the two gnna of the G.LV. battery, things mig^t 
have been a great deal worse than they were. 

The next serioas engagement in which the battery took part 
was the storming of Bethlehem, under Generals Paget and 
Glementfi. It was after this fight that General Paget com- 
plimented the artillery of his force, remarking that it was 
in a great measnre due to the extreme aocurapy and rapidity 
of their fire that the oaeaaltiee in his brigade were so light. 

The hottest fight in which the battery was engaged was 
the attack on De Wet's rear guard at Bolfontein. This 
engagement was entirely an artillery duel, and the first point 
that the battery had as an objective was the extrication of 
Roberts' Horse. In attaining this they came under a very 
heavy fire from three long-range Krupp guns, which were 
in positioD on a hill some 3000 yards away, the G.I.Y. 
battery being in the plain absolutely without cover. The 
splendid training which the battery had undergone in their 
previoos engagements prepared them for this very trying 



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«7S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

manda, bnt one is mfSoieot to servo m;- present porpose. 
The perfomumoBS of oar infantiy are admired by the whole 
world, and oonld not have been es»lled by any Great Power 
in Europe. 

Li regard to this great historioal maroli, which in the 
opinion of military experts is oonndered equal to that of 
Kandahar, mnoh oomment is made as to the little reastanoe 
made by the Boers at Winbnrg, it being a mass of fortifi- 
cataoos, and 2000 men oottld have held it against an army 
corps. 

At Zand river the enemy made a stand. The colamn 
marohed oat of oamp at the early hoar of 3 A.1L, and crossed 
the river jnst as it was getting light. They had to wade 
throngh the water, which came ap to their knees, and on the 
other side were sabjected to a severe pom-pcna and tng-gon 
fire, bnt Inokily, then, none were hit. This form of attention, 
however, followed the force nntil they got into the open 
veld. Similar civilities to Brother Boer prodaoed the asaal 
effect when he can be coaxed out into the open, viz., fiying 
helter-skelter like sheep before steady, fair and square rifle 
fire or a bayon^ ohai^. 

The difficulties of transport and the real hardships of 
forced marching were now beginning to be felt. 

The troops had frequently nothing bat two biscnits a day, 
often not that; jost a handful of flour, then, later, only 
mealie meal, and nothing else, fresh meat excepted ; but in 
spite of all, the men kept up their spirits, pushed on with 
their march, and thought of home and England, and longed 
most of all for one real good p^ ! Presently bisouite and 
floar came to an end, which pat a very serious look <m afiairs, 
for fresh meat without bread soon nauseates ; but the want 
of gooi water was the greatest trial of all. Many of the men 
too were getting very footsore. Those who had started from 
Springfimteia had marohed 500 miles, bnt they stack to it 



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FORCED MARCHING 27S 

like faeioes. HarcMng an hour with a halt of ten minnteB 
Booa brings the goal in ever nearer view, but the men were 
getting very thin and fagged. 

Everybody has heard of the battle of Doom Kop, and how 
the troops were nearly caaght in the same trap that did 
for Dr. Jameson at the time of the raid. Everybody has also 
heard of the gallant charge made by the Qordon Highlanders 
on this occasion ; how the Camerons also distinguished them- 
selrea on that day, whidi was the last before the entry into 
Johannesburg, the chief and most important place in South 
Africa, and, as such, it is my intention, in fatnre chapters, 
to say something about its government under martial law. 

One of the most satisfactory and important resalts of this 
war is the proof given that citizen soldiers can take their 
place with regular troops, and, whilst together, are good 
comrades, can fight and march, and are in all respects amen- 
able to discipline. 

The C.I.V.S have fonnd war in South Africa a novel 
experience, and were hardly prepared for such a rough time ; 
but it is eminently satisfactory to know they do not regret 
volunteering, and would do so again should their services be 
required. There is no end to the numbers that would follow 
the flag. They would oome in myriads. 

Lord Albemarle, at a dinner given in St. Andrew^s Hall, 
Norwich, to old soldiers and sailors of Norfolk, on January 15, 
1901, alluding to his experiences with the C.I.T.8, said it 
had been a glory and pleasure to the men of the volunteer 
forces to be allowed to serve beside the regular forces of iha 
Crown, and he gave the regular soldier hearty thanks for 
the high example he had set them to follow. 



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CHAPTER XXIV 

ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNBSBURG 

It may be a little presamptnons of me to Tenture on anotlier 
deacriptioD of the Britdah ocoapataon of this town, when it 
has already been done in a manner I oonld not imitate, and 
to eq^ which lb quite impoeaible. Nevertheless, my efforts 
may reach a few readers that hare misaed the more elaborate 
acconnts, and a peep from within may not be ^tc^iether on- 
interestiag to the general pablic. The real object I have in 
view, however, is to bring before kind friends at home the 
work done by certain officers who have been left behind to 
carry on the admiuiBtratave dataea required under a r^me of 
martial law, in this Aladdin's aty — the keynote of the whole 
aitnation in Sonth Africa. 

In 1897, the last jubilee of onr late gracioas Qaeen, I 
brought before the pablic my late hosband's work on " Naval 
Admimstration." Then I prayed of my readers to be " to its 
merits very kind, and to its faolts a little blind." On that 
occaaiou I did not appeal to naval critics and the great British 
public, who are interested in car first line of defence, in vain. 
They were indulgent to me beyond the power of expression, 
and to-day I appeal for an extension of their consideration, 
which mnst also include the military section, as the subject 
in hand is the control of the Administrative Departments of 
an important town by army officers. 

The task I have taken on myself may be considered too 
large for a woman to handle, as the interests involved are 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 375 

very great, divided, roughly, into two daeaeB — general politics 
and commercial afiairs. When I wrote " Naval Adminietra- 
tion " I had the inestimable advantage of the experience o£ 
my late husband, who was well versed in Admiralty matters ; 
now I can no longer benefit by his tact and knowledge, 
therefore the faolts will be graver and the resnlts less atJda- 
factory. 

The local govenunent of this town under President Krager's 
mle has been the oaose of mnoh trouble, and upon its fntnre 
mana^^ement mnch will depend. 

Before an idea can be conveyed as to its internal state in 
time of war, its occupation by the invading army and the 
feeling anterior must be slightly entered upon. 

I am told on the most reliable authority that President 
Kmger and Bome members of his council had resolved from 
the first not to defend Johannesbuig, and on no acconnt was 
it or Pretoria to be bombarded. This statement is quite 
opposed to the reiterated sentiments expressed in the columns 
of the defunct Sand Fott, an organ of public opinion heavily 
subsidiBed by the governing powers. 

It is a fact that a certain eecfcion of the Dutch burghers 
wished no harm to oome to the mines nor to these two im- 
portant towns, with their beautiful new Government build- 
ings, as they were convinced in their own minds that in the 
end the British would oome to terms, and leave them with 
their independence absolutely free. 

This information was zealously kept from the public ; and 
doring the months before the arrival of the British troops 
the inhabitants, both British and Boer, were sorely tried by 
nncertainty and anxiety. The knowledge that holes had 
been bored ready for the dynamite to blow ap the " Robinsoa 
Mines " kept those in the town in daily terror of the frightful 
shock that must ensue from such an ezplosion, which was 
greatly intensified after their experience of the destruction 



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876 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

caused by the explosum of Begbie and Co.'s iron fonodry, 
works that had been oommandeered by the late GtoTenunent 
for the manafsotnre of high exploaivefl. Bot for this deplor- 
able tucidetU, which has left its mark on every house and 
bnilding in " the city sad snbtirban township," there wonld 
have been a far larger nomber of Britdsh Bnhjects in Johonnes- 
bn^ to welcome the troops on their entry after its formal 
HDrrender to Lord Boberts ; for, in addition to the disastrons 
effects to property, the three to four hundred remaining 
English people were pat forcibly over the border, as the canse 
of the explosion was attributed to them — done purposely to 
prevent the manufacture of more shells and ammunition to 
carry on the war against their people. 

When Lord Roberts and staff entered this town on May 31 , 
there were not more than fifty-sx men's passes ont for British 
snbjects, and very few had been able to hide themselves and 
BO remain without one. 

In peace times the number of British subjects in Johannes- 
bni^ is between 40,000 and 50,000. 

The few that remained were getting very depressed, longed 
for the day of thor release, and thooght Lord Boberts and 
his army were a very long time coming. Little did they 
im^[ine what strenaons efforts were being made by the head- 
quarter staff and every soldier on the march to make the 
advance as rapid as possible, and so relieve the town from its 
trying position. 

The first thing to cheer them was the distant sound of big 
cannon on tiie Monday previous. On the Tuesday hope gave 
place to sight, which was hailed with joy. It was but a straw 
to show which way the wind was blowing — a poor wounded 
soldier being taken by a kind-hearted old Dutchman to the 
Johannesburg Hospital. Later a huge dust-clond was seen 
encircling the south side of the town, and through it could 
be discerned an advancing army from ten to fifteen miles off 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 877 

— an impreBsive and exciting sight at all times, but to those 
who viewed it nnder the foregoing circamBtances, realising 
what it meant to them, none but those who witnessed it 
ooold give the faintest idea. 

With every boom of the big guns, and with every whizzing 
sonnd of the pom-pom, the hearts of the inhabitants best 
faster, making each individnal feel thoronghiy excited, though 
they had by long discipline learnt to maintaiB a calm de- 
meanour as to their feelings in the presence of their Dntch 
fellow citizens. 

With the exception of a few rifle-shots exchanged between 
some Aodferalian troops and stray Boers on the Boomfontein 
kopjes near the waterworks and the fort, there was no 
fighting or firing in Johannesburg itself, though there had 
been severe battles a few miles around. 

On Wednesday, the 30th, a party was sent from Lord 
Roberts to demand the surrender of the town. This party 
consisted of Major Davies (Qrenadier Qoards), Mr. DougUs 
Forster, Mr. Emerys Evans, the flag of trace being carried 
by trooper Gurtin, of Remington's Soonta. 

Hay 30, 1900, is a date that will ever be remembered in 
the annals of Johannesbui^. Those in the town will never 
forget it. The people awoke that morning to find Lord 
Roberts and 20,000 men encamped around the town. Any- 
thing more unexpected by friends and foes could hardly be 
imagined, and produced feelings of sad confusion in the 
heads of the latter, which can beet be described as " appal- 
ling." 

The Standard and Diggers' News of that morning was full 
of Boer victories and grandiloquent descriptionB of the way 
in which Lord Robert^ march had been checked at all 
points. Imagine therefore the surprise of the people to see 
the town invested by the forces that they supposed were 
miles away. 



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STk THE JXGLO-BOEK WAR 

ErMjbodj bad been anzknuly feniiig tfaa tiui*t(nril 
expkwnaf the Uowing op of the mineeand iMwaee filled 
with dyimiiite friiidi wh to grert I«rd Boberts' Mip^xmtii. 
Hi« noU maidi had npaet tiieir jdanK, and now it was too 
late. Hie Boen were this time thoroo^y out-genaraDed. 
and the weD-dUpoaed were glad v&. it ; others were galled 
to tha qnidc by tiie lying report a whii^ had misled them, 
and mi^t be wen flying wildly about, utterly bewildtted. 
Only one man seemed to hare kept his head and graqied the 
tme state of the (dtoation; it waa Dr. Krama, the eo mm a nd a nt 
of the tows, who, seeing the inevitable, propaied to bow with 
what graee he could to the logic of luuxl facta. He conld see 
it waa impoaoible to defend the town against such a force, 
and dedded to Barreader. Strategic consideratioD alono 
wonld have dictated aoch a course ; for it conld not have 
been done witii less than 15,000 to 20,000 men, and that 
wonld practically have finished the war, as there would then 
have been no men to carry it on elsewhere ; anyhow, Johannea- 
bnrg mnst have nltimately surrendered, forced to it by 
■tarvation — the oonrse of sabmiasion contemplated t^ Lrad 
Boberta in case of opposition. Dr. Kranse from the first 
adopted the proper plan, and received Major Davies and his 
party with ooortesy, and when summoned to the presence of 
the Commander-in-chief, begged of him to delay his entry 
into the town till the next day, so as to prevent nselesa 
bloodshed, which wonld have been inevitable if the entry had 
taken place on the Wednesday ; oa certainly there wonld 
have been street-to-street fighting and sniping from the 
honeea. 

Lord Boberta received the proposal with approval, and 
oonsented to wait ; thns seeming a mnch-needed day's rest 
for his troops after tJieir phenomenal march, thoagh many 
deem the course he porened as utterly wrong, as it gave the 
enemy time to clear oat of the place, and thns carry on a 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 879 

warfare tiiafc votild otherwiBe hare collapsttd at an earlier 
date throngb want of men to carry it on. 

As a matter of &ot Dr. Kraose iBBued a proclamation 
ordering all armed bm^herB to leave the town and regain 
their commandoes. Altogether aboat 4000 withdrew from 
Johannesbaig, vowing all aorta of vengeance on the 
" rooineks " and those who had taken the oath of neutrality — 
a difficulty that, at thia moment, greatly agitates the minds 
of tlLoee who rule. 

On that WednoBday night, Botha the commander-in- 
chief of the Boer army, passed through the town with a 
following of not more than 300 men; this small nnmber 
being attribatable to his pnblicly expressed determination to 
withdraw his personal in£nence from the bnrghers if the 
mines were destroyed. In the early hoars of the morning of 
the 31st Botha and his men went through the Bezeidenhont 
Talley, not three miles away from where Lord Boberts had a 
large force encamped. 

The mines were onoe more threatened ; Jadge Kock got a 
band <^ desperadoes together and made preparations for 
blowing up the " Bobinson " mine, one of the lai^eat and 
richest on the Band, and close to the town. 

Dr. ^iKiae was once more eqnal to the occasion, and with 
commendable promptttnde had thie fiery " Justice " pnt 
under arrest and sent bim under escort to Pretoria. During 
this day of grace an immense amount of looting was 
done, both from shops and Ctovemment provision stores. 
The precautions that were taken by owners to protect 
their stock from Boer depredations may be gathered from 
the fact that all the most valuable etuff was hidden away 
under floors, and for greater aeourity tons of mine 
d4bri$ or tailings was pnt on the top, and eveiy place 
of business was barricaded to its utmost capadty ; but no 
barricades could suffice to preserve the properties of 



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S80 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

British merch&Dts ag&imt Boer looting daring this 

The mcaniiig of May 31 broke fine and clear, bri^t snn- 
fihine smiled approral on the amrender of the town, and not 
a clond was seen on the skies to cast a shade on the haman 
beings that thronged the street* of the principal town of 
the TransraaL 

The rcmonr got abroad that Lord Roberts and his army 
would arrive about ten o'clock. In spite of the fact that 
thonsands had been pnt over the border during the pr^ 
ceding three months, and thousands had left the country 
earlier in the year, crowds, in gay holiday attire that is ao 
remarkable in onr colonial possessions, began to assemble aa 
early as nine o'clock in the Govenmient Sqnare, on verandahs 
and other points of vantage, from whence they conld catch 
the first glimpse of the conquering hero and his brilliant staff. 

It was a long wait until two o'clock, the actual honr when 
Lord Roberts appeared ; bat the crowd remained very good 
hamonred and congratulated each other on comii^ events, 
and npon others that had been so marvellonsly averted. 

At two o'clock there was a cheering, and all exclaimed, " He 
is coming " ; but to their surprise it was not the great general, 
bnt their beloved parish priest, the Bev. J. J. Darra^, that 
suddenly put in his appearance. He had been put over 
the border with the last batch of Englishmen, aa stated in the 
preceding chapter. His retom at this moment gave the 
people an excellent opportunity for relieving their feelings 
and at the same time of giving bim a welcome that he conld 
never have imagined, popular though he knows himself 
to be. 

The handful of British men, and the larger number of 
British women, who had risked the stay in the town during 
those terrible eight months held up their heads once more, and 
noticed with some amusement, mingled with a good deal of 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 281 

ficom, the smart volte /ace of the foreign population, who 
were all for the Boers yesterday, and were ready to cheer 
liord Boberts and the British army to the echo to-day. 

It was fnuny to ohserre how the namber of British subjects 
went ap by leaps and boonds. Crowds, who had been 
Baesian subjects, German snbjecte, Portngnese, or what not 
up to that day suddenly rememba-ed they had once npon a time 
sojourned in the salnbrions streete of Shoreditch or White- 
chapel and were as British as the beet. 

The waiting-woman of this room at Heath's Hotel, where 
I am writing these lines, is an example : for a time she hid 
herself, then she took service under a false name, but the joy 
her employers experienced at the reports of British reverses 
and full retreats was more than her heart could stand ; she 
was found out, her clothes were taken to the railway station, 
when she suddenly remembered her mother had been bom 
in Cadiz, and she determined to claim her maiden name and 
became a Spanish sobject. She deeired above all things to 
remain in Johannesburg to be Uiere when her husband 
arrived, who was fighting with the "Duke^of Edinburgh's 
Own," and had been for twelve years instructor to various 
volunteer corps in places like the Paarl and Wellington. 
He came out to South Africa with the Wiltshire regiment 
and foQghb in the Zulu war of 1879. 

Mixed with the rejoicing multitude various signs of danger 
were not wanting. Boere, sullen, truculent, and menacing 
caused a feeling of great anxiety to those who could see 
below the surface. 

The hoisting of a conquerer's flag mast always be a great 
event in the history of nations, and one that cannot fail to 
produce conflicting feelings in varying degrees in the breasts 
of the spectators. 

On this occasion one quite dramatic incident lighted up the 
hours of waiting. The Transvaal Qa^ had been hauled down 



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88S THE AyGLO-BOEB WAR 

£romthefl^Btaffuifronto£tbeCk>Temineiitbiiildii^. When 
Dr. Kranae went ont to meet Lord Boberts, a certain com- 
mandant, Van Aswegen, and one Gannon, a member of the 
Irish Brigade, with a nnmber of yoong Boers armed to the 
teeth, came into the sqcare and ran np the Transvaal fls^ 
again, and awore to defend it nntal death. Attorney J. J. 
BaaS began a fieiy speech, bnt the aged lAnddiost, Captain 
von Brandia, pnt an end to this dangeroos peiformanoej the 
young firebrands and their oommandant withdrew to rejoin 
their oommandoee onteide the town, Gannon and Baaff 
remained and, some time after the British occapaticai, wer» 
pat over the border. 

The Government buildings, in the centre of Govemment 
Sqoare, which was the chief scene of this historic day's 
proceedings, form an irregular square of a two-storeyed 
nondescript Dnimpressive style of architecture, and inside is 
a perfect rabbit warren of courts and offices, into which 
revenue to the amount of between two and three millions 
sterling need to be paid in annually to swell the coffers 
of the Kruger oligarchy (certainly little enough went to- 
wards sanitation and street paring) and to pay for the huge 
armamenia, which have indeed " staggered humanity," to 
adopt Leo Weinthal's swelling Hebraic translation of Mr. 
Eruger's unpretentious Dnteh phrase for '* astounding th» 
world." 

After fire weary hours of waiting to see the raising of thd 
t7nion Jack of Old England, at last the cry went up " Here 
they come," and Lord Bobert8,Bocompanied by Lord Kitchener 
and a brilliant sta£^ rode into the square. They were cheered 
on all sides, and when the Commander-in-chief diemonnted 
he was presented with a handsome sillc flag with a tiny harp 
worked in the comer, by Mrs. Murray, wife of Dr. Murray, 
in the name of the British residents. Lord Roberts graciously 
accepted the gift and promised that it should presently float 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 28S 

horn the flagstaff, bnt the one to be actually raised first wfts 
the one worked by Lady Roberts herself— the same that had 
done daty at other points of conqnest on the march through 
the Orange Biver Colony. 

Incidents with Bags were not wanting in connection with 
the entry of the troops. It wonld hardly be in strict accord- 
ance with the tmth to say that this Sag was the ^rsf Union 
Jack to float in Johannesbnrg after its occnpatioa. Mr. 
Murray Gnthrie, M.P., appropriated that honour to himself, 
when he got into the tower of the fire station and " jnmped " 
the TransTaal flag that was there and unfurled the Union 
Jack in its stead. 

All eyes were strained to get a good look at Lord Boberts 
as he entered the Government buildings to complete the - 
preliminaries of the surrender of Johannesbnrg with the late 
Groremment officials. He was looking in excellent health, in 
spite of the hardships of the march and of the whole weight 
of the responsibilities of the campaign. He seemed not 
more than fifty years of age. The youthful effect depended 
mainly on his eyes, which appeared to radiate a sapphire light. 
Seeing them, one wondered what they were like thirty years 
ago. They still possess an extraordinary fascination for the 
people which, combined with his promptitude, insight, and 
benovolence has rendered him the'most popular hero of the 
century. After signing the necessary documents. Lord 
Boberts rejconed his staff at the foot of the flagstaff, and 
amid breathless silence the Transvaal flag was lowered. 

As the Union Jack was ran to the tnasthead a deafening 
cheer sainted this symbol of freedom, the National Anthem 
was played by the band, and thousands of voices filled with 
emotion joined in the singing of the words. All heads were 
uncovered ; and when Lord Boberts called for three cheers 
for the Queen they were given with a will and a sincerit7 
only to be experienced by those who have been for 



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is* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

numthg deprived of the liberty of speaking of theit beloved 
Sovereign. 

Then commenced the march past of the troops, whioh was 
not over till after dark, and many had to bivonack in the 
main streets of the saburbs for the night — the body of men 
being so immense that they could not all pass through the 
town before nightfall. The men came along with a swing, 
and every face looked bright and cheery and ready for any- 
thing, exchanging cheers and badinage with the crowds. But 
their torn and stained nniforras told their own tale, and 
under the cinnunstances they were more honourable than the 
spick and span regimentals of reguJation parade ; the horses, 
too, looked in poor condition, which waa only natural after 
their hard work and privations. 

From the first the troops behaved well, and gained the 
hearts of many an old Boer man and woman. They say the 
" khakis " are " lekkere kerels " (good fellows) ; the march 
past and their subseqnent conduct produced an excellent 
effect. Bread was the luxury they chiefiy craved on arrival, 
though the townspeople thmet all sorts of good things into 
their bauds as they passed, perhaps with more kindness of 
heart than discretion, which resulted in a few cases of tipd- 
ness, and brought about the order " No liquor for the 
troops." 

A train-load of provisions for the troops arrived on the 
night of the occupation aai was greatly needed, as some of 
the men had had only a couple of biscuits during the pre- 
ceding twenty-fonr honrs. 

On June 1 the price of bread was Is. 6d. a loaf, about Is. 
a pound or more ; but our soldien readily paid any price for 
it, and for fresh vegetables likewise. 

After weeks on a forced march through a country that 
produces nothing beyond the simple food reqaired by a 
scattered population of poor farmers, finishing up with a 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 285 

long and trying day's work, even a great general and his 
st&£F, liowerer brilliant they may be, feel well-dieposed 
towards a good Inncb, on a dean tablecloth, in a first-class 
hotel; and Lord Bofoerte, Lord Kitchener, the Doke of 
Norfolk, the Dake of WeBtminBter, the Dake of Marlborongh, 
and all the other military grand seignenrs that composed 
the headqnarter staff were in their inclination no exceptions 
to these natural instincts. 

A good Innch for sixteen had been ordered for Lord 
Boberts and his staff in a private room half an honr before 
he entered Heath's Hotel, which, in spite of many difficnlties, 
soch as getting something to cook, somebody to cook, and 
somebody to serve, a fairly good meal was got together for 
them, thanks to the foresight and energy of Mr. Heath, as 
well as for a crowd of lesser shining lights that olamonred 
for food in the dining-room. 

It is needless to say when these famished officers saw the 
good viands spread out before them, and beheld the choice 
wines that had been nnearthed from some unknown hidden 
depths, rendered more secure by reason of the tons<^ rubbish 
that had been secretiiig it', they made small work of helping 
themselves (with the proprietor's sanction) and going to fetch 
whatever they fancied from the serring-room. 

Owing to there being no staff to work the hotel, all the 
servants having been put over the border, Lord Roberts 
was the only one to receive any personal attention, and that 
was given him by Mrs. Heath herself, which she regards as 
the greatest honour and privilege of her life. 

In the early morning the draks, &o., belonging to the 
mine police, who had been in pmsession of the lower part of 
the building for months, were turned out; and when the 
officers came at the usual hour for busness, they found their 
things outside, and the tables laid out in the beautiful dining- 
room, as if ready for a great banquet. 



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S86 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Up to the month of Angaet 1 900, 360 officers liave slept in 
this hotel, so the proptietor can claim to have done sozoething 
to change the dnll monotony of hard fighting and life on the 
veld of onr dear absent-minded beggars. 

Many carious incidents occurred daring the days before and 
after the occupation. I will reooant one or two in regard to 
Press correspondents. Mr. Bazton, of the StnUh Affieat\. 
Seview, an <dd resident of Johannesbarg, came into the toim 
with Mr. Battersby, of the Moming Post, the day before the 
troops, and, aa they stood at the door of the hotel talking to 
some of the officers of the mining police, the chief detective, 
Menton, arrested the correspondents, and, but for Mr. 
Brakban, a well-known gentleman, with whom they were 
octaally conversing at the time, their positaon woald have 
been a trifle nncomfortable, as he then and there stood 
sponsor for them aa prisoners on parole. 

Mr. HattoD, correspondent for tlie Times, to escape a umilar 
fate, entered the town dressed np as a Malay driver, bnt even 
in the garb he was reoc^niaed, thongh, lackily for him, by the 
owner of friendly eyes, who hastled him with all speed into 
Mrs. Heath's private sitting-room, entreating him to remain 
qoiet nntil Lord Roberts Eurived. 

At lanch, an American correspondent who, like tiie reet 
from the veld, came in very bangry, and finding the 
omelettes very good, asked for a small addition, and in a 
twinkling for a third ; bat when be came for tjie fourth 
Mas. Heath really had to refuse, as she wished to keep the 
last bit for Mr. Mnrray Chitfarie, who bad, either by his 
mamiers or his manly form and fine &ce, gained a warm place 
in her heart. Abont three weeka later, tliis same American 
oorrespoudent came again to Heath's Hotel, and inquired fear 
an "omelette," bat throa^ the impoasibilit^ of obtaining eggs 
and milk he conid not be gratified. " Never mind ; we shall be 
able to do yoa better on the whole this time than when yon 



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ENTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBURG 287 

«am« in with the troops," coneolingly replied Mrs. Heath, 
"l<Xt now we are in 'apple-pie order.'" "Apple pie, apple 
pie," oried this hangry penman, " I love apple pie." An 
apple pie was made for him for dinner, which he ate up all 
by himself. 

Heath's Hotel is a first-rate honse, and on one important 
puticalar I cannot do better than qnote the words of an 
officer in the Black Watch when he was paying his bill. Seeing 
Mn. Heath gmng npatairs he stopped to bid her adieu. In a 
tone of badinage she said, " Well, have we been robbing yon 
again? " "loan hardly call it robbing me, bnt, dear me, yon 
charge ; why, yon charge like the Gordon Highlanders." 

The troops that came in with Lord Roberta had to be on 
the march again early the next morning, at least all those 
that were able to conttnn^ on their way to Pretoria, the great 
objeottre of the entire war. But, alaa ! many of those brave 
fellows had to give np, being too sick with fever to march 
another step, finding what shelter they could on the verandahs 
and spots ont of the wind, antil the ready hands and willing 
hearts of the civilian doctors and nurses left in the town 
«onld be got together to organise something more in accordance 
with their needs, until the arrival of the proper military 
hoflpital ; bat more of all this anon. 

After the departure of the maia column, half of the 
15th Brigade, under the command of Major-Qeneral Wavell, 
were left to garrison the town, and do police duty in it. The 
troops in Johannesburg were : — 

Artillery : A Howitzer battery of four guns, commandeered 
by Major Balfour ; two pom-poms, lieatenant Hardwick. 

Cavah7 : Prince Alfred's Guards (Port Elizabeth), NesMt's 
Horse (served with General Wavell twenty years ^;o in the 
Tam-bookie rising and in the Basuto war of 1880), Comptou's 
Horse. 

Infantry : 2nd Cheshire, commanded by Colonel Cartels, 



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£88 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and stationed in the fort; lat Elast LancaBhires and the 
Ist NorUi Staffords, commanded respacdTel; hj lientenant- 
Colonel Wright and lientenant-Colonel Bradley ; all fnmiah- 
ing big police detachments for the town and environmenta ; 
the other battalions, as well as the Sonth Wales Borderers, 
being on the lines of commnnicationH." 

JohauneBbni^ fort was pat ap by the Dntch after the 
Jameson raid, as a menace to the Engliah reaidenta. It 
stands on the crest of Hospital Hill, and dominates the whole 
town, which lies stretched beneath it My military friends 
informed me that for all defensive purposes from an invading 
army it is of small valne except as a look-ont. It is in an 
ideal poeition. From the parapet there is an nnintermpted 
view of the whole country round, so that it would be 
impossible for the enemy to approach nnobserved. It also 
commands the level summit of the hills to the right and left, 
and a distance of a couple of miles of level groond at the back 
which lies between it and the hillside, and which abmptly 
breaks away into a valley nearly a thousand feet below. But 
they say a few shells from a siege gun or a naval 4*7 would 
aoon destroy it. 

There is a gaol inside the fort, bat is separated from it by 
a high wall When I was there I saw several prisoners that 
had been confined there by the Boer authoritaes. 

The secret and bomb-proof chambers, with their large store 
of guns and ammunition, interested me very much, and also 
showed me how mnoh warlike stores the Boers had left 
behind in this place. 

The 15th brigade assembled at Qreen Point, Cape Town, 
the banning of February, took part in the Sank march on 
Bloemfontein, bat was diverted to occupy Jacobsdale, the 

* The foro« •mploj'ed to guiiaon and polloe JoIwnnMbitrg varied 04hi- 
tlniwlly both as ragarda itrraigth and oompoiltlon aocordlng to tbo aotion 
of the aoemj in the nelghbaniliood ot farther aSeld eait ot eonth. 



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EUTRY OF TROOPS INTO JOHANNESBUIUS «89 

first Free State town taken by the KitislL troops, daring 
the operations connected with Cronje and his force at 
Paardeberg. Afterwards the brigade rejoined the division 
and continned the march to Koemfontein, remaining there 
bot a few dajs, as the divimon was sent to hold the Boeia in 
check aronnd Earrie siding nntil the final advance across the 
Vaal and into Johannesburg. 



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CHAPTER XXV 

THE MILITARY HOSPITAI^ IK J0HAKKE8BUBG 

The 15th Brigade Bearer Company arrived in Jofaaimesbarg 
with the troops on May 31, its strength being foriy-three 
non-commissioned officers and men. It was ordered to take 
over tbe^^nty of providing for such sick as came into the 
newly occnpied town. 

The information spread amongst the inhabitants that there 
were a great number of sick lying outside, and, as the Boer 
lines were open to Mr. Bension Aarons, who had rendered the 
Dntch great servioe with his complete system of ambnlanoe 
accommodation, he was permitted to pass into the British 
camp St Elandsfontein to offer his services and those of his 
staff to Lord Roberts, who gratefully accepted the same for 
his sadly overwrought mm ; and but for this welcome aid 
Major College, the officer in ohai^ of the 15th Brigade Bearer 
Company would have been completely overwhelmed in his 
efforts to carry out the General's orders. 

Ab can be readily imagined, tiie hospital accommodation in 
a young country like the Transvaal has not attained to the 
high level of European countries, nevertheless, had there not 
been a certain amount existing, and willing hearts and hands 
available to supplement it, the troops which had just arrived 
in the Witwaterstand district would have suffered veryseverely, 
and a far larger number would have succumbed or would have 
been permanently maimed than those that unhappily lost 
their lives, or had them saved by surgical operations. Eveiy- 



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MIUTABY HOSPITALS IN JOHANNESBURG 291 

bodjr in Soath Africa, as well aa in England, read with deep 
ooncem the charges hronght by Mr. Bnrdett-CoDtts against 
the War Office and the Boyal Army Medical Corps in regard 
to the management of the Bick and wounded both in hospital 
and in the field. 

The Tarioos remarks I make in connection with the sabject 
are not intended to condone the sad state of affairs described, 
bat to pcont ont the fact that the Commander-in-chief, the 
geiDenl oommondiag in Cape Town, and the snrgeon-general 
in chai^ of the Medical Department, and the officers nnder 
them appreciated the sitnation f ally, sad did all in their power, 
as far as their reeonrces went and a state of war permitted, 
to relieve it 

Every ship from England was boarded by the staff officers, 
and the one representing the Boyal Army Medical Corps 
directed every medical man and every lady fit for hospital 
nondng to proceed to Woodstock, where Colonel Supple at 
<HLoe posted them, many proceeding on the very day of their 
arrival in the Cape, np-conntry or to Natal, for dnty. At the 
time when the state of afiairs at Bloemfontein was cansing so 
mnoh anxiety, Sargeon-(}eneral Wilson and Surgeon-Colonel 
Snpi^e were straining every nerve to send medical aid to this 
f6ver<8trioken city. They even made it known to the local 
practitioners that their assistance was required nntil, at least, 
help could arrive from England, to meet this great and 
unexpected epidemic of sickness amongst the troops. Almost 
every man responded, nntil the capital of Cape Colony was 
{mtctically destitute of doctors. 

About this time the Welsh hospital arrived in Cape Town. 
All the men were at once despatched to Bloemfontein, but the 
norses attached to it were not permitted to proceed likewise. 
In answer to their entreaties I heard General Wilson say : 
"I have an order from the chief of the stafE that no 
ladies are allowed up country; and sad as the conditions 



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«93 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

of tbe sick are in Bloemfontein, I earmtA let 700 go at 
preaent." 

The Btrictttxes made by Dr. Treves and others on the ladies, 
«nch as " the plagae of women ! " " the women are a blot on 
the campaign," &c., were in a great degree reeponsiUe for 
this military dictum, and, natnraUy, the £nt to suffer were 
the sick. The fact tliat these striotnrea were miaoonfltaned 
is attributable to their sweeping nature — taking in all 
women, which did not in the least oonvey the sentiments 
Dr. Treves wished to express ; but there is no doabt that these 
unflattering remarks led to the lack of nnrses complained of 
by Mr. Burdett-Coutts, though they were not the only reasons 
why no ladies were to proceed op cottntry. Other weighty 
ones can be oonoeived which the diief of the staff bad in 
bis mind when issning this order, food and water amongst 
them ; and when there were no beds and blankets for the 
sick, how conld more be found for a couple of hundred women 
with the railway blocked with material for the fighting 
force? 

How conld women have taken that march which brought 
the troops to iTohannesburg in such a oollapsed condition ? 
Much snSering had to be endured on the oocasion which 
wonld have shocked the heart of any one unaconstomed to the 
sight of the inevitable consequences of war. 

lie Johannesburg civil hospital, which had been bpt open 
during hostilities, had, owing to the disinclination of the 
Boers to entering a hospital, never been half full until the 
" Begbie " explouon, but luckily most of the injured people 
had recovered suffidently to be dismissed to tb«r homra or to 
the French ambulance (of which I shall speak in another 
chapter) before the British troops arrived. 

This civil hospital was therefore the first to be utalised by 
the military. From May 31 to June S, Mr, Aarons' ambu- 
lances were kept terribly busy in bringing in the sick from 



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MIUTARY HOSPITALS IN JOHANNESBURG 89S 

ElaDdflfonteiii, Doomfostein, and all roimd. The mazuaam 
aooommodation of 800 beds was stretelied to receive 800 
patienta, whilst five other temporaiy hoBpitals were being 
fitted for another 700. 

Most of the medical and nnrsing staff of the JohaDnesbiu^ 
hospital — ^whioh is one of the best equipped ioBtitntions in 
Sonth Af lioa, and wonld compare favourably with any connty 
hospital in England as regards staff, buildings, and groonds 
— had been pnt over the border by the Boers, but when those 
that remained were informed that the hospital was needed 
for military requirements, all were ready, even the Dutch, to 
do their beat, and that with courtesy. 

Under the most favonrable circnmBtanceB it is very trying 
for sick people to be transported for miles in numbers together 
over a bad road, the jolting being not less injnriona to the 
wonnded than to the siok.' 

Mr. Aarons' ambnlanoes were the best I have ever seen. 
Each ambulance eontuna six Btretchers, three on each side, 
eadi suspended and on springs, thus allowing each sick man 
to lie at full length in transit ; the springs avoiding much 
of the jolting. 

Were it not that the Boyal Army Medical Corps have been 
held under such very severe criticism as to call for a commis- 
sion of inqoiry, I should not have gone so fnlly into the 
management of military hospitals and the care of the sick 
in war. The report of the Commissioners to Parliament 
and the conntry has now been presented, and, as far as 
the evidence they have taken was unprejudiced ; Btill, it 
was difficult for them to form an opinion on a state of 

* The •nhjaot of flold (Mubnluioe waggon* engkged tba bbiIoiu kttoutUm 
of the Hospitkl Inqnliy CommluloiieiB, with the rMolt that bettai airaoge- 
rnenta maj be made thaa tho«e nied by the 'Bajal Aim; Medical Coip* ; 
and It 1* MtlBfaotoi7 to know tliat the War Office autboiitiea wlU era long 
deriM a oonveT&noe that will redace Jolting to the lowoat mlwlinTimj ^id 
St tbe Hune tlnie be Hnicable and (troDg. 



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S94 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

aSairB that had passed away before tiiur arrival on the 
scenes. 

The 15th Brigade Bearer Company hod tramped along 
with the troops from Oraepan — a good 800 miles with the 
d^ows that had to be made— not the best of preliminaries 
for exertions snch as were required to comfortably locate 
15,000 nch in a town that had, nntil the day before, been 
tboronghly hostilfl. It is but natural that Cor a few days a 
great deal of snffering shonld have had to be endnred in snoh 
a nub, and for several nights nnmbers of invalids iiad to rest 
where they coald find shelter — on verandahs, in lobbies, out- 
buildings, anywhere and everywhere — with only such wraps 
as conld be found for them from the inhabitants, nurses, and 
doctors ; many having nothing at all to cover tbem. 

The hostile and distmstfnl feelings of the store-keepers in 
the newly occnpied town showed themselves the next day, 
when a visit was made to the various firms to porcbase beds, 
blankets, sheets, and other indispensable artides, which they 
declared had been all commandeered by the late authori- 
ties, and consequ^itly their stock was completely cleared 
out. 

A difficulty arose in regard to every article required for 
the troops. Between June 1 and 24, in addition to the 
existing Johannesburg hospital and the French ambulance, 
five other hos^dtals were equipped for the reception of the 
sick in this town. 



Th« Tfctorin Hotel 


. 200 beds 


The Jm.' School . 


• 100 „ 




■ 170 „ 


The Jewish Amboluioe . 


• 80 „ 



The nucleus of the medical staff for all these new estab- 
lishments were fnrmsfaed from the 15th Brigade Bearer 
Company, the offioers, non-oommisuoned offioers, and men 



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mUTARY HOSPITALS IN JOHANNESBVSG 895 

bemg divided op among them ; they being aasiBted by able 
civilian doctors, both local and those that had oome in with 
the troope, all working with a snstaioed energy for weeks 
that was extremely trying to the health of doctors, jmrses, 
and orderliea 

In the turmoil of a military occnpation no one ooold 
asfiertain where different corps and different staff offioras 
were, and conaeqaently the aaaal routine could not be 
followed. 

There ia a great deal heard of the red tape in the army, 
bnt in ordinary times much of it is indispensable. It would 
never do for a big machine like the army to have every one 
independent. Who would pay the bill ? Still, on oocasionB 
like this, what is to be done ? Food and medical oomforta 
had to be provided for the sick without delay. 

The few tradespeople that had kept open their shops ware 
afraid to part with their goods for fear they mif^t never 
be paid. One man was foond to sui^ly milk at 9d. a pint, 
but when he saw the official list of prices he got panio- 
stricken, and it was with the greatest difficnlty be was induced 
to oontiaae the supply. 

What the military medical anthorities would have done at 
this jnncture but for Mr. Aarons it is difficult to say. He 
allayed the fear of the merchants by gnarsnteeing the pay- 
mcmt of their aeooouts himself, and at one time the Govern* 
ment were indebted to him for the sum of £13,000, all the 
tradeepeople inmstang on ready money — an inconrenienoe 
occurring in connection with all head supplies. Had it not 
been for Mr. Aarons' knowledge of local aSUrs the military 
could never have unearthed the food-stnfib, &o., tiiat had 
been hidden away, often under concrete floors, and the 
hospitals must have waited for the transport of actual neoee- 
nties, perhaps for weeks, from the base, a thousand miles 
distant, if indeed not eight thoosand, £rom England. Lord 



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9&B THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

BobertB, bearing of mnob of this, expr«8Bes his thanks in the 
following letter :— 

Akk7 Hudquabxxu, 

JoEUkimsBUBa , 

Juna 2, 1900. 
Sib, — I un decdred "by the Field Marahal Commanding-in-cliief 
to tender yon his beet thanks for the nsaiataiica given by your 
oorps in moring oar sick and woiuided bom EUndsfontein to the 
hospital in Johumesbaig, and also for the sorios the ambulanos 
rendered to Private J. A. HcArty of the King's Own Sootttsh 
Bordnos, who was shot in the town on the evening of May SO. 

His Lordship much appreoistee the oourteey you have shown, 
and the witling asdstance you have given to the principal medical 
officer of the British forces. 

Believe me to be, 

Youra faithfully, 
(Signed) Nkvilli Ohambxelaut, 
Oolonel. 
Privaia SwntiM^. 
R Aarons, Esq. 

Civil aBBJHtanoe oame to the militaiy on all luuidB, and 
gnatly they needed it. The espeotol thanks of the aerrioe 
are dae to the resident medical officer of the Johanneeboig 
Hospital and the whole staff, and to Br. and Mis. Morray, 
who Bocoeeded in getting together a small band of devoted 
BnraeB to assist in the work the Boyal Army Medioat Corps 
bad before them. 

For three days and nights no one connected with the 
medioal staff ooold think of taking any rest The heavy 
dtttieB in the early days of the oocnpation defy description, 
and to their self-sacrificea many brave soldiers at present 
fighting in Soath Africa owe Hieir lives. 

Owing to the administrative defects oonseqnent in the 
under-estimating of the stiength of the enemy and the 
foreign aid they had to back them, there was a deplcnable 
loss of life, and more suffering in tiie fighting line and 



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mUTART HOSPITALS IN JOHANNESBURG iffT 

tpftFH'^'^g oolnnms thMi need have been had there been a 
more adequate medical staff, and possibly a more jadioial 
diafcnbQtion of that actually existing. 

It certainly is disappointing to those who hare given bo 
laviflhly their family and their fortaues to defeat the King's 
enranies to be told that their beloved ones have been 
neglected when ill, after weeks of fighting and marc h i n g ; 
and a thorongh investigation into the grave accnsationfi was 
most ri^t, and not only brought to light inatancee that 
might have been better managed, bnt set forth the hemic 
conduct of the Boyal Army Uedical Corps, thus bringing a 
pnUio reoognitioQ of tiieir work that otherwise wonld have 
been merely taken for granted. In this respect Mr. Bordett- 
Contts haa done good aervioe. 

The Boyal Army Medical Corps haa never been popular 
amongst the combatant ranks of the army, and the reason of 
it is not far to seek. The best medical Htadents do not 
gravitate towards the service. The age of entiy alone 
prevents the most promisiag from joining the Boyal Army 
Medical Corps, becaose they have no time to go throngh the 
varioos phases of their profession to become thoroughly 
efBcient. Ko period in a medical man's career is so beneficial 
to him as the few years he spends as a boose surgeon in 
large hospitals. The responsibility settles him and gives him 
confidence. Kow, all this has to be sacrificed if he is going 
to be a medical man in the army, as he must enter by a 
certain age. 

In regard to the cadets for the combatant ranks, just the 
reverse of this is observed. Only the best enter, as their 
entrance exanmiationa are severe and their profeeedonal 
education is oontanaally progressing. 

With an army doctor his professional knowledge is, from 
the lack of practice in peace time, always retrograding. The 
great majority of cases they are called upon to attend are 



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S98 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Bdoll ailments or climate fevers; the BeriooB cases bein^ 
generally sent to a civil hospital in the district in which the 
regimmt happens to be stationed. This lack of practical 
ezperimioe in both medicine and sni^^ety was not felt, how- 
ever, dming the present war, as oar most np-to-date Loudon 
physicians and snrgeons roltmteered for service in Sonth 
Africa, and the Sorgeon-General had, or oonld have had, 
as much assistance as he reqnired, which the Government 
giatefnlly accepted as eoon as the need for it became apparent. 
Many have commented on the bad feeling ezisting between 
the military and civil doctors, bat this has been exaggerated. 
With few irnggpificant ezceptiona they have made common 
oanae together and maintained an excellent comradeship. 

Of one thing I am certain : when civil help is bionght into 
a military hospital, the army doctors should take charge of 
the administration ; see to the returns, aooonnts, and those 
daties which it has taken them nearly their whole time in the 
service to learn ; the civil surgeons being charged only with 
the professional part of the work, and on no acoonnt shonld 
they be asked to perform snch militaiy duties as parading 
oonvaleeoenta to ohnrch or elsewhere. When this divisitm 
of dnty is mixed np chaos reigns. 

The civil sm^eons cannot deal with these complicated 
letnms, which are indispensable, and must be forthcoming 
when asked for by members in the House of Commons, who 
often consider they have done a great pnblic service by 
requesting them, though it frequently happens they never 
troable aboot them any further when <mce they have been 
placed on the table. 

On July 25 Na 6 General Hospital arrived in Johannes- 
burg, and on August 15 had taken over moat of the military 
patients from the various temporary hospitals in the town — 
two months and a half after the entry of the troops. 

It can be readily imagined ^at in this time the worst oases 



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mUTARY HOSPITALS IN JOHANNESBURG 299 

had been dealt with, the principal difiSonltieB enrmonnted, 
and that things were being conducted in as orderly and 
regolar a fashion as " scratch " arrangements wonld permit. 

It is also readily conceivable that the sick are better ofi in 
a properly established military hospital eqoipped with every 
appliance soienoe can surest to relieve soffenng hnmanity 
than thc^ oan^ be in hotels, schoolB, and chapels scattered 
abont a town. Neither can it be denied that the military 
Bhoold take over their own work as soon as they are in a 
position to cope with it ; bnt in doing ao it shoold be remem- 
bered that the civilians volonteered their servioes ont of sheer 
patriotism and great pity for the sick soldiers, and did their 
work well when the general hospital was miles away. In 
asking the cnviliana to resign their duties, which they were 
willing to do — though not withont a pang — a little grace and 
tact wonld not have been ont of place, and a veneer of 
gratitade would have obviated bad feeling, and established 
instead a good nndeistanding and a hearty co-operation. 

Want of tact is a fmitfnl source of false reports that 
spread in ever widening drcles, and may even caose Uie 
overthrow of a strong Government l^^distorbing public ctHifi- 
denoe. 



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CHAPTER XXVI 

THE FRENCH AMBULANCE, JOHANHESBUKG 

At a time when the maiugement of onr sok in hoflpital in 
South Afrioa was agitating the pablio mind in England more 
than any phase of the adminiBtration of tiiis war, it ia not only 
light, bat it is a great pleasare to direct attention to tlie help 
rendered in thia particular by tiie well-dispoeed Preuoh red- 
dents in this great ooemopolitan gold-producing town, and 
also to bear grateful testimony to the financial aanistanoe that 
has been sent to cony on the work by our neighbonrB on tiie 
other aide of the channel. 

All the continental press hare been more or less ansympa- 
thetic to the British nation in this honr of national distawBS, 
so a practical proof to the contrary will be gratifying to those 
on both aides of the dividing line that the great French 
nation, at least, is more friendly than her public press wonld 
bare us believe. 

At the beginning of October 1899, Madame Ia Comtesse 
de B6n6 de Ferridres informed the Superior of the Marist 
Brotbers of her intention to found in Johaonesbtug a French 
ambulance should war be declared between England and the 
South Airioan Kepublics, to help the general hospital of 
Johannesburg in the nursing of the sick, be they Boer or 
British. 

The Superior, a Frenohman, heartily concurred in the 
Conntess' philanthropic intentions ; discussed the ways and 
means to establish a French ambulance on a sound financial 



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FRENCH AMBULANCE, JOHANNESBURG SOI 

footing, 80 that itBOost would fall entirely on French finanooB. 
Ab most of the sdiolara had been remored from tta achool, 
or had at the termiuatdon of Uie nltimatnm been pat orer 
the border, the Mariat Brothers had certain olass-rooma 
which they offered to Madame de Ferridres for her hoBjAtal 



The Marist BrotlierB approached the Qoremment Com- 
mittee of War throngh the mediam of the French oonanl in 
Johannesbni^ on the snbjeot, and explained that they were 
able to assist them to the extent of equipping and maintain- 
ing ax wards, containing forty beds for ambnlance work, 
which was gratefnlly aooepted. 

The work of preparation then proceeded ; in the place of 
desk and chairs, copy books and maps, and snch instmotional 
means of torture, beds and charts, medicine bottles, and 
bandages, and surgical instraments that so greatly impress 
the sick with the immense clevemesB of those who nse 
them and instil a fear of consequences Hhalb needs no 
desoiption. 

Wlien all was in readiness an official visit of inspection was 
made to the French ambnlance. The party oooedsted of the 
EVench oonsnl, Mons. Colomies; Dr. Pierce, resident medical 
officer of the Johannesbnig Hospital ; the lady Buperitn-, 
Mother Addle ; the matron, and the rooms dedded on were 
regarded as eminently suited for the object in view, and were 
supplied witii every appliance likely to be needed, and an 
investigation showed there was no lack of medical comforto 
and hospital neoessaries. 

At an earlier period the oonsnl had cabled to Paris to the 
" Association des Dames Fran^aises " to ask for their oo-opera- 
tdou, and having received satisfactory asBaranoes to help to 
carry on the work, means came in rapidly. The committee 
consisted of : Mons. Colomies, French consnl ; Madame la 
Comtesae de Ferridrea ; Mons, Henri Duval, manager of the 



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S02 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

French Bank; BnAher Frederic, director o£ the Ibrist 
Brothers ; the Ber. Father Bandrey, 03I.L ; the Bev. 
Mother Felicity Omiere (saperior of Doomfonteiii Convent) ; 
the Her. Uother Addle, superior of the Sisters at the 
Jcdunneflbnig HoapitaL The Ih«iich ambnianoe was now 
un /aU aeeompli, some 600 cases of dmgs, provisioDa, and 
clothing were received from the "Aaaooiation des Dames 
Franpaises"; in addition to a large sum of money raised 
locally, a fnrther amonnt was collected by 1^ French bank 
of the South African Bepablic in Paris. 

Bat there was a great disappointment for the generons 
fonnderti of this philanthropic work. They were in Uie 
podtion of the man who had prepared a great feast and 
fonnd he had no gnesta. The Boers wotdd have nothing to 
do with hoBpitalB of any kind. They preferred being nursed 
by their " VTonmi " on their farms, so, until the British occu- 
pation of the town of Jobannesbnig, the beds in the French 
ambnlance remained practically withoat occupants nntil 
May 22, when a few cases — the result of the " Begbie " 
explosion— were brought in. Dr. Kanin attending to them, and 
later, after the occnpation, was assisted by Dr. Mangiamarchi, 
who remained attached until it was closed at the end of 
August 1900. 

After the arrival of the troops the beds were increased to 
fifty-tax, and were occupied by a cosmopolitan crowd, 
oonsiBting of English officers and nien, BoBsians, Italians, 
Germans, Austrians, Swiss, Portognese, Greeks, Dutch, 
Belgians, Boers, Afrikanders and Americans. 

When the " Begbie " Ironworks explosion took place most 
of tJie wounded were taken to the Johannesbuig HosfHtal, 
bat were removed again when the British came in, stmie to 
the IVench ambulance and some to the French Asylum for 
the Deaf and Dumb, so as to make room for the sick and 
wonnded belonging to the army of occnpatum. Thus it 



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FRENCH AMBULANCE, JOHANNESBURG SOS 

was Madame de Ferridres lud such a polyglot oommunity 
Tuder her charge. 

I have often Tuited the edck in the French ambnlance, 
and a more perfect establishment of its kind I have never 
Been. 

The last time I visited it there were six BiitiBh officers 
beneBting by the devoted care of Madame la Comtesse de 
Vembne, and the able French ladies she had to assist her ; 
and all the sick that have been treated in this hospital speak 
in the highest terms of praise of the skill of the doctors, and 
the care and attention they have received &oia the Nuns of 
the Doomfontein Convent. 

Two officers, one in the Boyal Engineers and one in the 
18th Hussars, recommended all their friends to " go sick "' 
and come to the French hospital to be looked after ! I had 
the satisfaction of seeing Captain Marray, Ist Ghirdons, who 
had left his post as Consnl-general at Warsaw to take special 
service with his regiment, leave Johannesbnrg for the Cape 
en route to resuming the dnties of the Consnlate. He baJ 
been severely wonnded l^ the explosion of a shell near him, 
which took him and the gronnd upon which he was standing 
and sent them into the air for a considerable distance. By 
this his spine was injured; and though I saw him lying fuU 
length in a railway carriage, he was quite cheerfol and spoke 
in the most eulogistic terms of all the kindness he had received 
at the French ambnlance, where he had been for the previoua 
three weeks. His words were : " I shall never forget it, 
more especially as it was so unexpected. Whoever would 
have thooght of finding in the centre of this vast continent, 
and in the most money-making town in the world for its size, 
a home-surrounding that transplants the fortunate inmates 
to all that was best, most refined, most courtly in Paris, in 
the days when the old noblesse flourished iu La Belle 
pe?" 



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so* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

The MariBt Brothers, in whose bnildings the ambnlanoe 
waa establiated, showed by ereiy meanH in their power their 
feelings of friendship and sympathy with Madame de Ferridres 
and with the tdok and wonnded. 

Brother Frederic organised evening entertainments for the 
amosement of the convalesoenta, which were given in a fine 
gymnasinm attached to Uie school ; and to show their appre* 
datioD, the French oonsnl,the general in command (Wavell), 
liMJor the Hon. lliomBB Cochrane (Provost-marshal) and a 
difitingnisbed company, botli Eoglish and Frendi, hononred 
them by being present* 

* Tbia Mwonnt was Iii«ertad In ibe oolomus of tha Momiitg Putt ol 
8«pt«mb«i 20, 1900, and wu mitten abont htwi wMka befon thkt date, but 
tbe ooTToboiation ot the facto are none the leu ■atla&otory beoanse the 
'■Scildiei"wboMnt thefoUowiDK letter to TkeTitneiwM nnawuethata 
daaoription ot the Franoh embiilanoe in Jobaoneebnig had appeared : 

Sib,— It U probablr nt* generallT known to tout Teaden other than 
thoae who have lived In Johanneabnig linoe tbe ooonpation on Haj SI, 
what invaloable aid was rendered br the French Hospital In evppleoientlng 
the work of the greatlj overtaxed miUtaij ho^ital ben for more than 
foni nontba tJtUr the tioopa marobed Into the town. It wma a time of 
gnat itreaa, ^rbm dvil boapltal and hotels were all QtUIsed, and were ereti 
then barely enffioimt to provide for tbe nnmbera of wounded aaddck who 
were brought In here from every part of the theatre of war. 

Daring this time the French Hoapital estabUtbed In the Muiet BrothKe* 
aohool more than held tto own in ceacelan devotion to ilok and wounded, 
Briton and Boer alike. 

Tbe hoapilal wai started bj aabMuiptions in Faria In September ISM, 
and even If Ita origin sprang from sympathy with the Boer oanae, as 
posaiblj may be the oaae, tbla sbcold not make ns blind to tbe benefits 
oonfemd on ns sinoe we OGoa[ded the town. 

The stafl of narsea— a ocsmopolitan one — waa drawn from the 0<mvent 
ot the Sacred Heart, the Dea ex mocAina being Mme. de Ferrikea, wife of 
K. le Oamt« de Ferriires, who 1* « reaident In the town. 

The whole ganiaon here will gladly taatlfy to the good work done by 
Kme. de Ferriiiea, and any of your readers who have bad, I m^ allMat 
■ay, the good fortmie to have been a patient in the French Hoapital wUI, I 
know, fnlly endorae my remarks as ngarda the self-saorifloe and gentle 
kindliness of Madame and her staff of nnnea. 

In aaUng yon to pnbllah thla letter in your oolomno, I am prompted by 
the feeling that It is only right oar ooontry at large shonld know how 
mnoh we are Indebted to France and Mme. de Feni&cea for the luvalnable 



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FRENCH AMBULANCE, JOHANNESBURG 305 

Tlie London Oazette of Febmaiy 15, 1901, contains the 
following : 

The King has been gndoosly pleased to confer the decoration 
of the Boyat Red Oroes upon Madame de FerriireB, Superin- 
tendent of the French H<»pital at Johanneeburg, in recognition 
of her exsTneea in QuTBing sick and woonded soldiers in South 
Africa. 

This is satisfactory eridence that the King is not lees 
likely to do the right thing and that which ia kind than 
was his beloved mother, whom we all moom. 

atd randwed to one troops daring this phase of tbe war ; and I would urge 
that, as ber Majesty the Qubsd Is alirajs the flint to Bimonra^ and praise 
all who help the aSioted, the name of Hodune should be sabmitted to her 
aa a most worth; recipient of the Vlatorlan Order, which woald be a 
gracefnl oompllmenC and, in mj faamble opinion, by no means too great a 
national recognition of her serrioes to oni siok and woanded aoldien. 

JohaDnesbug, November 27. A Soldibb. 



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CHAPTER XXVII 

THE MILTTART OOVERNOR OF JOHANN^BURG 

BEFOSEpJord Roberta left Jobannesboi^ to oontinne his 
maroh'^ Pretoria he appointed Colonel Colin Mackenaie, 
2nd Seaforth Highlandera, to be military gorernor of the 
district, giving him powen to administer jnotace and main- 
tain order under a system o£ martial law, which for the time 
being sospendB all other laws and regulations. 

Aa f ar as poasible, the British anthorities adopted bodily 
the laws of the ootintry ad itUeriTn, or, to soit exceptional 
difficnltiea, hare issned inrocIamationB which have the same 
effect as the laws, or are intended to have. 

Colonel Mackenzie, thoogh quite yoong and only the jnnior 
major in his regiment, has seen a great deal of active service 
and has ooeajned several important positions. 

He served in the Egyptian war, 1862 j was present at the 
battie of Tel-el-Kebir and seizure of Saez Canal and Cairo. 
Medal with clasp and Khedive's star. 

Served in Burmese expedition, 1886-1887 ; In transport as 
embarkation officer, Mandalay, and sabseqoently with mounted 
infantry. Medal with two clasps. 

Served as adjutant 2nd Seaforth Highlanders in Hi^aia 
expedition (Blai^ Mountain, N.W. Frontier, in 1 888> Chuip ; 
mentioned in despatches. 

Served in Hnnsa Nagar expedition (Gilgit, N.W. FVontier) 
in 1891-92 ; Commanded expedition on Colonel Dorand being 



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mUTARY GOVERNOR OF JOHANNESBURG 307 

wounded ; annexed stateB of Honza and Nagar. Mentioned 
in despatches. Clasp. Brevet of Major. 

Served as D.A.A.G. 2nd Brigade Waziriatan Field Force, 
1894-95, under Sir W. Penn Symons. Mentioned in des- 
patdieB. Clasp. 

Served with Ist Seaforth Highlanders in Nile expedition, 
1898 ; battle of Omdnrm&n. Two medals and clasp. 

Served in Sonth Africa, 1899-1900, as D.A.A.G. Western 
lines of communication ; D.A.A.G. headquarter staff intelli- 
gence ; director of intelligence, and military governor of 
Johanneabni^. 

Passed the StafE College. 

Perhaps the experience he gamed whilst Direotor of Jn- 
telligence during this war has best fitted him for his presenfc 
responsible position, which none but an able and tactfnl man 
conld fill so as to ^ve the satdsfaction he does to the vast 
and conflicting interests that honrly oome up for settle- 
ment. 

It is no easy matter to take np the reins of the different 
governing and controlling departments and see that the heads 
of the various ofGoes do not oome into conflict. It obviously 
requires a strong band to hold, and a steady head to direct so 
many interests and deal oat eveai-handed jostice to all dnring 
a period of active hoBtilities. A mere ennmerafeioit of these 
departments will give an idea of the weight of responmbility 
tJiat rests on the shoulders of the military governor of Johan- 
neebnrg. To the best of my knowledge, I give them in the 
order of their importance, and in sacceeding chapters will 
deal with each separately. Meanwhile I will merely enume- 
rate them : 

(1) The policing of the town. 

(2) The mining industry. 
(8) Native affairs, 

(4) The financial adviser's department. 



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308 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

(5) The mnnicipality. 

(6) Supplies. 

(7) Cnstomfl. 

(8) MurisgeB. 

(9) Relief. 

It is only neceesaiy to see & oopy of tlie Johannetbwrg 
Oazetie to appreciate the importanoe of tiiese various offices 
and form a conception of the work that has to be done 
daily by the militaiy gOTemor. With the exception of half 
a column, this, the only newspaper publiahed, is filled with 
proclamatioDB and Government notices. After those from 
Lord Boberts and Sir Alfred Milner come the military govei^ 
Dor's, bearing upon every ocmoeivable snbject, from going in 
and ont of doors to the price of food. Even now that there 
ia scarcely any trade done in the town, the restrictions of 
martial law are very trying to all those engaged in commer^ 
dal enterprise of any kind, bnt the friction is not aggravated 
by any high-handed, overbearing manner ; on the contrary, all 
receive that oonrtesy &om the officers in charge of the various 
departments which reduces the grievances of the inhabitants 
to the miniTiiTiiTi point. This is especially so in regard to 
the Imperial officers and those drawn from the colony, as com- 
pared with the two or three that are known locally and have 
private interests in the district. 

In the former case everybody is treated alike, all being 
equally unknown ; bnt when local men are at the head oS 
departments liiere is a feeling of jealousy and a suspicion 
that some applications are more favourably received than 
others, whether an equally even balance is maintained or not. 
As far as has been possible, Imperial officers, who have no 
ooonection whatever with South Africa, have been, most 
wisely, placed in chai^ of all important offices ; the only 
exception being Mr, Wybei^, mining commissioner, ap- 
pointed on account of his hi^ scientific attainments; Mr. 



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MIUTARY GOVERNOR OF JOHANNESBURG S09 

Hamilton, the Gnancial adviser; and Mr. Monypenny, in 
charge of civil Bnppliee. 

There has been a feeling in r^;ard to the war and the 
present administration of the country that the capitalists 
have exercised an nndne inflnence on the Imperial anthori- 
ties, and that they will do so in the fntnre. 

The appointments of those interested in the gold mines, 
or in some way connected with the capitalists, are referred 
to as indications of Imperial intentions, but It is a mis- 
taken notion. It was absolutely necessary for the military 
governor to have at first expert aid in the management 
of the several departments that are worked nnder a regime 
of martial law, nntil he had time to acquire the special 
knowledge necessary to grapple with the varions and con- 
flicting interests of such a oommnnity, all of which are 
very intricate and sensitive, and the conseqnences of one 
mistake might be franght with danger and most diffictdt to 
remedy. 

It is no secret that those appointed to Government de- 
partments from local fionrces are only intended to meet a 
temporary emergent^. 

A man in a responsible position, having the direction of 
public affuTB, whatever his own abilities may be, will not 
succeed aa an administrator if he is unable to snrroond him- 
self with competent aasistants to carry out hie intentions for ' 
good government with equity, sense, and discretion, all 
working harmoniously togel^r. 

The great test of time has not as yet left its mark on 
Colonel Mackensne's services aa military governor of Johannes- 
btirg, but BO far as it has gone he has done well, giving 
satisfaction to the mining, banking, and other important 
eectdons of this energetic town, that is shut out from the 
rest of the world, and fordbly kept in idleness. 



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CHAPTER XXVIII 

MILITART POLICING OF JOHAKNESBURG 

The first and most important etep after the entty of ihe 
troops into Johannesbiug on May 31 was the preeerration 
of order in the town and the protection of the sarroonding 
mines. WIi«n lite Kroger forcee left on the preceding 
erening, according to Ute arrangement made by Commandant 
Kraose, the native popnlatiou thooght their time had come, 
and as the British were in power, they could do as they liked, 
which ideas they had aoqnired through reports of proceedings 
from Exeter Hall and elsewhere. No words can describe the 
rioting, lootii^, drinking, and wrong-dcu^ that took plaoe in 
tills town on that night ! llie departii^ Boers determined 
to carry away everything they could from shops, stores, and 
private honaes ; fomitare, silks, and curtains not being 
spared. The Kaffirs, relieved from the restraint of their 
accnstomed check, did the same, with the addition of cattle 
stealing. 

When Lord Roberts had received the snrrender of the 
town, he appointed Major Davies, Grenadier Guards, to be 
chief commissioner of police. For the proper administration 
of jnatioa under martial law, the municipality of Johannes- 
burg was divided into six districts, and for the oatskirts a 
seventh was added, which latter embrace the small towns 
outside the municipal &rea to the south of the mines, and 
reaching as far as the KHp river, some thirteen milea distant. 
Each district is presided over by a district commusioner, who 



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MILITARY POLICING OF JOHANNESBURG 311 

has power to deal with ofienders, and pnnisli with fonrteen 
dayB' imprisonment with bard labour, infiict a] fine of £5, or 
order lashes to the number of fifteen. 

The purely civil caeee must, however, wait for their settle- 
ment until ciril conrta are SBtablished. 

The district commissioner is in all cases an officer (^ his 
Majesty's forces, who is responsible for the maintenance of 
law and order. When I left Johannesburg, in October 1900, 
they were for districts — 

No. 1. Captain Carey, Worcester re^ment. 

No. 2. Captain Copland, Leicestershire regiment. 

No. 3. Captain Marquis, South Wales Borderers. 

No. 4. Captain Canon, King's Shropshire Light Infantry. 

No. 5. Captain Lnard, Norfolk regiment. 

No. 6, Captain Peel-Yates, South Wales Borderers. 

No. 7. Major Hon. Thomas Cochrane, Argyll and Suther- 
land Highlanders. 

To administer justice, without fear or favour, is t^e most 
important pillar in a well-governed state, and in a oommunity 
like that which is nsoally to be fomtd in this cosmopolitan 
mining town, where most things anterior to the war conld 
be managed for money, it is beyond all question the corner- 
stone of success, and on it the Imperial Government must 
stand or &U. 

In r^ard to British officers in his Majesty's service, they 
are above snspicion, whatever other shortcomings may be 
accredited to them. They are not to be bribed or "got at," 
no matter how cnnningly and perseveringly they may be 
tempted to depart from the straight path of strict fairness. 
Fully 600 men of the 15th Brigade who were left in Johan- 
nesbni^ for garrison daty were employed in police work, 
being aided by the Railway Pioneer regiment and l^ details 
from other commands, as well as by a certain number 
of civilians. These latter, &om their local knowledge, are 



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312 THE ANGLOBOER fVAR 

able to render valtuible Msistance, as in many caseB they 
are also able to speak both English and Dnteh, and know 
something of Kaffir, BaBnto, and Zola. In this way the 
natives freqnently confide to them the particular apots in 
which arms or ammanition are concealed, or where Kaffir 
beer is being illicitly brewed ; bat for the datiea the force 
wae totally inadequate, as Bubseqnent erenta have proved. 
The dnties of a diitrict commiasioner are many and varied, 
and require the ezerdse of mach tact and good temper, as 
well as great firmness. 

The Datoh pride themselves npon their "slimness," and 
are experts in the art of suppressio veri. The Kaffirs do not 
appear to realise tiie necessity of going anywhere juar the 
truth when giving their evidence. If they are asked to 
repeat any statement they may have made in the conrse of 
examination, the second edition, as a role, differs in toto 
from the original. 

Then there are the PemvianB, not the inhabitants of Pern, 
bot the men of the Russian Jew type, who have gained the 
aovbriquet from a story current in Johannesburg which 
mns : A rich philanthropist of the Jewish persuasion taking 
pity npon the sad condition of the pauper Jews in Russia, 
framed s scheme to deport some of them to Peru, but these 
Bassian Jews, having thus got hold of the money for their 
journey, came to Johannesburg instead, and " here they are 
now." Whether this stoiy is true or not, it is a fact that 
this class of people form a strong element in the place, and 
are very troublesome to the district commissioners and their 
staff. These " Peruvians " arrive on the Bond, as a rule, 
penniless, aod not infrequently gain their livelihood l^ very 
qnestionsble means. They pander to the vices of all classes of 
the community, and are generally responsible for much illicit 
traffic in liquor and gold. They are adepts at every means 
of evading panishment ; they are ready to bribe right and 



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MILITARY POLICING OF JOHANNESBURG SIS 

left, and loud are tteir lam^itations that, under Britiah 
adminiBtration, thej are no longer able to avail tbemselves of 
this means of escaping the jnst rigour of the law. 

In a district commissioner'a conrt there ia ever^ opportanity 
for the study of character, and perhaps a description of a 
typical morning at one of these oonrte m^ht interest the 
reader in England. The district selected lies in one of the 
sabnrbs, in a fairly populous neigfabonrhood in the close 
vicinity of the mines. It is sitnated some three miles distant 
from the centre of the town. On arriving at the court-house 
s motley throng meets the eye. Here are gathered military 
police, natives of every race in South Africa, coolies from 
India, Chinese shopkeepers, children, and dogs. The court- 
hoose itself is an ordinary dwelling, bare of fnmitnre, except 
for the table behind which the commissioner site, and another 
for his clerk. It is Monday morning, and there is therefore 
a long list of cases for hearing. Sunday being a day of idle- 
■DOBS at the mines (which are not working at present more than 
just pumping to keep the water from rising), the particular 
spirit which represents the evil one to the Kaffir finds 
mischief in abundance. Cherehez la femme holds good also 
when traitslated into Kaffir. The chief source of wrong- 
doing arises from the brewing and drinking of Kaffir beer. 
The whole of the brewing and some of the drinking is 
carried on by the women — the rest by the men. The first 
case called had sudi an unexpected d6noueme7U, that it is 
perhaps worth relating. Annie (all black) is chained with 
brewing Kaffir beer, and supplying it to the natives — a 
second oEfence within a short period. Annie is escorted into 
court. She is very tall and upright, and is completely 
«nvaloped in a blanket, which conceals her mouth, and only 
leaves her eyes exposed to view, which look very brown and 
rather appealing as they shine from their well-polished orbits. 

The evidence is overwhelming — Annie has been at the 



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S14 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

game for aome monthB, and her hut has been the reeort of 
disorderly Kaffirs for some time. She had been bo artfal in 
her methods that preriooa laids by the police had failed to 
secure sufficient evidence of her guilt, and although tipsy 
KafBrs have been foimd on her premises, no beer was dis- 
covered. This time, however, the rsiderB had been saocessfnl 
and the torpua delicti, aa the brewing materials and the pro- 
dnota are called in legal parlance, are produced in court;. 
Yery uninviting the Kaffir beer IooIes, as it is seen in every 
variety of utensil. In appearance thia horrid stuff is like 
weak skilly, with malt floating thickly in the muddy liquid. 
It is a potent drink, and a Kaffir intoxicated npon it fre- 
quently becomes a dangerous animal ; the native popula- 
tion are very fond of it. It is thoroughly d^noralising, and 
its use cannot be too rigidly prohibited. The police captured 
in Annie's premises gallons of Kaffir beer, and a crowd of 
Kafllts, more or less intoxicated. Being called upon to give 
explanation, Annie mutters something beneath her breath, 
which was rendered farther inaudible by the blanket which 
she kept over her mouth. Finally she was requested to 
remove it a little, so that the commissioner might be able to 
hear her defence. This order she obeyed with every appear- 
ance of bashful modesty, and her words were then interpreted 
to mean that she hoped the officer would take the fact into 
consideration that she is a woman, and deal mercifully with 
her. But Annie's character is too bad ; a previons^abortive 
attempt at conviction tells against her, and she is remanded 
to a higher court, whose extended powen make it poseibte 
to inflict a sentence worthy of her crimes. It is not till after 
her arrival at the cells to await trial that sabsequent search 
reveals the fact that Annie is after all a man, and not a 
poor misled woman at all ! 

In the meanwhile, the victims of Annie's brewing Kaffir 
beer are marched into court. They number aboat fifty, and 



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MILITARY POLICING OF JOHANNESBURG S15 

are brought in in batches of eight at a time. A queer crowd 
they are to look at : some tall, with splendid physiqoe ; some 
short and etoot, but nearly all with beautiful teeth, whi(^ 
show up against tbeir dark Bkine, the exceptions being the 
representatives of a particular tribe who consider it an adorn- 
ment to have their two front teeth knocked out The finest 
men are the Zulus, with frank and cheerful faces, black as 
coal, and smiling in a depracdatory sort of manner, as if they 
knew they had been naughty, but had been so more from 
mischief than irom vice. Then there are the Basntos, with a 
more refined cast of features ; the Shangans, a race despised 
by other Kaffirs : the Hottentots and other nondescripts com- 
plete t^e tale. Some appear in court dressed quite nicely — 
these are mostly the kitchen boys from private bouses — some 
with rather ragged shirts and tronsers, and some without 
either one or the other. These latter are from the mining 
compounds, where native dress or the absence of it is per- 
mitted. In the towns some approach to European dress is 
obligatory. The {msoners being duly arranged in a row, the 
examination begins. The police first give evidence as to the 
arrest ; the first boy (they are all called boys, no matter how 
advanced their age) on the list is asked his name, and he rolls 
out something, which turns out to be his tribal name. This 
does not oorree^Kmd with the ohai^ sheet, and the interpreter 
tells him to give his " Christian " name, which is quite often 
" Sixpence" or " Fifteen," whilst " Cigar " or "Up-side-down" 
appear in the list, and are replied to quite as a matter of 
coarse. 

A strange lack of originality appears in the answers they 
give as to the reasons they were found " en cette gaJere." The 
most common excuse is that they went to see a brother, or to 
get medicine ; and these are repeated all down the row with 
bat slight variation. 

This class of cases being disposed of, &9 next to appear 



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Sl6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

are the Boer farmers — some tall and well bnilt, otlien short 
and shs^y. Two saoh lived in the same farmhouBe together, 
and were charged with the concealment of arms and ammii- 
nition. They showed no signs of courage and defiance, bat 
tomed white and trembled all over as a b^ containing over 
100 Manser cartridges was produced, dog np within fifteen 
feet of their front door; some of the cartridges bearing a 
mnrderons look, and some loaded with a soft-nosed expanding 
bnllet As prisoners of war they go off to the fort, and a 
farther search for arms is institated, which secret information 
says are still concealed on or abont their homestead. These 
cases will have to be again considered, and that in the light 
of Lord Roberts' rarioas proclamations and the attitude 
the British Government are going to adopt towards 
the Boer prisoners of war on the cessation of active 
hostilities. 

For the n^ case the conrt is cleared, and evidence is taken 
in private. A respectable middle-aged woman, whose hnsband 
is away fighting agunst ns, and a pretty little daughter of 
thirteen years have walked as many miles to give evidence 
to bring to jnstice two villainona-looking Kaffirs on a charge 
of the grossest ontrage. The mother is all shame, and admits 
to tile full extent the snSering and degradation she has 
endured. The little girl gives her evidence np to a certain 
point with minute and paixuitakiug accuracy, and then the 
little head drops forward till the big hat completely 
covers the tear-etained face, and not another word can be 
extracted. 

A military district commissioner ia, after all, an amateur, 
and it must require a good deal of case-hardening to get used 
to this sort of thing. 

With the next and last case he is more at home. A 
" Peruvian " is brought up by a fresh-oolonred Anglo-Saxon 
private soldier. The charge is one of cruelty to a horse and 



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MILITARY POUCING OF JOHANNESBURG 317 

attempting to bribe the police. The honie is inspected oat- 
eide and fonnd to suffer from a frightfully sore back. 
Evidence is then taken in regard to the bribe, when the 
prisoner i&teijects that he did not oEEer the soldier half a 
crown to let him go, but gave him half a crown to get some 
lotion to pnt on the horse's back. 

The more serious work of a district commissioner is inter- 
rupted by a string of applicants who wish for a pass to permit 
him or her to ride, drive, or bicycle beyond the mnnicipat 
limits of Johannesburg, or for residential permits that have 
been lost, or fresh ones for new comers. Then ladies come 
to complain that their Kaffir servants are lazy, and require 
fifteen minutes to say so, that the power of summarily punish- 
ing them with a sjambockis taken from their masters, but for 
which they would not be troubling the district commissioner. 
Another fifteen minutes is taken np explaining that there is 
a special court elsewhere established to deal with all cases 
between roaster and servant. 

Applications by dozens have to be considered before per- 
mission can be granted for the removal of fiimitnre, to 
purchase and keep a revolver, to sell a piano or drive a 
cab. 

Not a minute's respite for the poor district commissioner 
antil a cessation of the shuffling feet on the bare wooden floor 
of the passage outside tells him that work is over, whic^ is 
confirmed by a gnawing inside. A peep at his watch acquaints 
him with the fact tiiat he has been bard at work from 10 a.u. 
to 3 P.M. ; then he realises he has had no luncheon, and the 
dub is three miles away. The district commissioQers living 
in the town have much longer hours. 

Colonel Davies, the chief commissioner of police, has a most 
onerous and responsible task in regard to the effective policing 
of Johannesburg ; and were he itot assisted to the utmost by 
the district commissioners, and by the co-operation of Captain 



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318 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Bamett, of the North Staffordshire Tegiment, and by all who 
work with him and under him, the resolt wonid not be bo 
enuDently aatisfactory as is happily the case. Bnt he ia (me 
of those who do all things welL 

When the town was formally handed over by Commandant 
Kraose, certain of the special police who had control of 
rarions wards were kept in their posts until the military 
aathoritdes had time to organise a military police to saf egoard 
the town and mines. They were not sapeneded a day too 
BOon, for their conduct was far from loyal and nearly resulted 
in grave oonseqnenceB to tlie whole military staff. They 
connived at all sorts of devices to assist tfae enemy and were 
engaged in an extensive system of secret service; btit, in 
efHte of all the " slimsess " of the Boers, very little happens 
that is not known to Colonel Davies before it is too late to 
avert the mischief. There is nota person, there is not a house 
in his district that is not known, and if anything easpicioiiB 
is remarked, an investigator soon finds out all and takes steps 
accordingly. 

From a militery point of view the troops have a poor time. 
Police work is not ezcitdng to soldiera in South Africa on 
active service, especially to officers commanding when their 
troops are sent ont in oompaniea, and are for the time being 
nnder the orders of district commissioners. 

One section of the 15th Brigade (General Wsvell), however, 
may be r^arded as an exception. Compton's Horse are 
stationed on ontlying ivraa as piqnets, some seven to twelve 
miles around the town, where they perform the double dnty 
of acting as policemen in Buppreesing native outbreaks, 
destroying the ilHoit liqnor traffic, and in the prevention of 
cattle stealing, also performing the duty of military patrols 
to protect the town from any sadden advance by the Boers, 
with whom they have had more than one brash, lliis corps 
is one of the many patriotic endeavoare of individoal men in 



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MILITARY POLICING OF JOHANNESBURG 819 

the caoBe of Imperialifim, and was raised by Lord Alwyne 
Gompton, M.P., at the same time and nnder t^e same condi- 
tiona as the Imperial Yeomamy. Becmiting was commenced 
in Bedfordshire according to inatmctions from the War Office, 
there being no yeomanry corps for that county. Sofficient 
recraite, however, did oot come in, so the ranks were opened 
for any soitable candidate that might come forward for 
service in Soath Africa. The result of this was that there 
were 600 applications for 1 1 6 vacancies. The selection being 
wide, it was possible to make choice of good horsemen, good 
ehots, and of only young men who had seen the world and, 
consequent on their experience of other conditions of life, were 
well adapted for an irregolar force of mounted men, destined 
to ^ht such a craf^ enemy as the Boer in his own country, 
and beat him at his own game. If a history could be written 
of each individual man in Compton's Horse as they sailed 
from South Africa, some very interesting and remarkable 
information might be compiled, illustrative of the vicissitudra 
of life in all parts of the wcarld ; young and stalwart men from 
the backwoods of Australia and Canada, irom the tea planta- 
tions of India, the Boyal Navy, the Metropolitan police, the 
arttBt, the barrister, and the engineer — ^representatives of all 
-were found in Compton's ;HorBe ; even jockeys and trtuners 
from Newmarket are included, and ride in hot pursuit after 
De Wet whenever there is an inkling that he might be 
caught in the neighboorhood of their patrols. 

To capture an enemy so mobile as a Boer commando gene- 
rally is, a strong force, well mounted, is absolutely indispen- 
sable, and the hoises Lord Alwyne Compton provided for 
his corps will, for strength and endurance, bear comparison 
with aaj in South Africa. The majority are fresh young 
half-bred animals, measuring abont fifteen hands, and when 
the esgencies of war require sustained efforts both men 
«id horses realise what is demanded of them, and they 



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320 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

work tmtil they drop. The gallant cxirps is commancied 
by Lord Alwyne Compton, M.P., the other officers being- 
Hon. F. Stanley, Grenadier Goards ; Hon. Gavin Hamilton, 
Scots Gnards ; Capt. G. Dnndas, late 20th Hnssais, and Earl 
Cowley." 

* Since wHting the kbora moat of tbe officen uid zataj of tbe men 
kan retamad to Bn^atid. 



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CHAPTER XXIX 

MILITABY OFFIOBBS AS ABKINIBTKATORB OF 

JUSTICE 

Thb dnties that militor; otBsen are o&lldd upon to discharge 
in war times are often Yvrj extraordmaiy, and nnder a r^me 
of martial law soldiers of all lan^ freqaeiitly find themselTeB 
in charge of civil offices which have to be carried on somehow. 
Tonng sabaltems and captains are placed in positions that are 
generally filled hj men many years their senior ; bnt, in spite 
of that, the resnlt is that they need not be ashamed, thon^^ 
they have had no previous experience whatever of the respon- 
nbilitaee devolving npon them. 

In regard to the military offioeiB appointed to administer 
the law in Johannesburg this remark does not apply, becanse 
a jodioioas selection was made &om amongst those who had 
aoqaired previoos knowledge. 

At the date of the British occnpation of this town Uiere 
were 180 ontried prisoners in gaol ; abont 50 whites and 130 
nativee. 

A military tribunal bad at once to be constitated to deal 
with these cases and others that were hourly occurring. 
Wben established it consisted of Major O'Brien, two sub- 
alterns as asfiesBors, with Captain Fergoson as chief magiB> 
trate, having power to try and settle all except the most 
BeriouB cases. 

At first the prisoners were simply brought up with a slip 
of paper stating with what offence they were respeotively 



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S«2 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

ohai^ed; the eridence ogamst tliem being contained on 
affid&ntfl previonsly Bwom to l^ & joBtioe of the peace. 

It was, howeTer, found <m investigation tiiat the offences 
tamed oat to be eomething altogether different from 
what the priaoners were chsTged with on their slip of 
paper. 

When this loose method wbb represented to the legal 
adviser of the Ooveniment, he reoommended that a sepa- 
rate deportment should be constituted to prepare proper 
indictments against prisoners before they came to their 
trial before the military tribunal, or before the chief 
magistrate. 

Ordinary coarts-martial in times of peace give, to a 
certain extent, to military officers an insight in law pro- 
oedtire, bnt that is qnite a different thing from being 
Grown prosecutor, and all the paraphernalia of civil ooorte 
of law. 

At first Major (y&ien and the district oommissionerB had 
great difficnlties to contend with, and especially was this 
the case as regards those prisoners left at the fort by the 
prerioQS Government, aa no witnesses could be fonnd. 
Many departed before the Britash troops entraed, and 
many more were pnt over the border l^ order of the new 
anthorities. 

This state of things, however, was not alt(^;ether to the 
fonoy of the prisoners in gaol ; some fonrteen whites and 
thirty colonred fonnd themselves at the end of seven weeks 
still swuldng th^r trial. 

To prove that the military authorities exercised sound sense 
and discretion when making their appointments for the jndi- 
dal posts in Johannesboi^, I will mention that Major O'Brien, 
tiie president of the military tribonal, was a magistrate in 
India for two years ; Captain Victor Feiff^ison, South Wales 
Borderers, ohi^ magistrate, is a distingnished linguist, a 



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DISTRICT COMMISSIONERS SiS 

valoftble qoalifioation in Buch a coBmopolitan oommimity. 
The Ctown proaecntor, Lieatenant Batea, Volunteer oompany 
CheeluTe regimant, is in dvil life a fnllj qualified Bolioitor. 
The assistant Crown proaecntor, Lieotenant Moseley, of the 
O.I.y., is ft barrister ; and Captain Thomley, the Crown 
Bolioitcar, and the three indictment officers are all lawyers when 
pnrsning thdr ordinary aTooations. 

Tbe district commissioQers of police are also men who 
hare had some judicial experience ; so io this town, at least, 
criminal oSenoes are dealt with according to law; and in 
jostioe it might be stud that the daties of the bench are 
very satisfactorily performed 1^ oar soldieivjudges and 
advocates. 

The laws <^ tlie previons Government were chiefly the 
Boman-Dotoh laws, and are in themselves excellent, bat it 
was in the administration of them that so much was left 
to be desired. 

Under a military r^ime many oases come up for settle- 
ment that do not occur at all in times of peace, each as the 
oontrsvening of the varions military proclamations relating to 
paseee for riding, drinng, &o., in regard to all of which Lord 
Eotdtener has made far stricter regulations than those exist- 
ing when Lord Bobertswas oommuidep-in-chief of the forces 
in Sonth Africa; the surrender of arms, ammunition, the 
mannfaotnre of Kaffir beer, selling articles of food above 
sdiedule pricee, and ofibnoes of a similar nature, are all 
peculiar to a state of things existing in a period of war and 
under a r^fime of martial law. 

The difficulty of meting out justace to the various oSenders 
is much increased by the polyglot character of the criminal 
classes of this community, and a few hours in court show the 
advantages of linguistic attainments. Frenchmen, Germans, 
Italians, Bussians, Greeks, Dutchmen, Portuguese, Indians, 
Chinese, Malays, Zulus, Baautoe, and Kaffirs of varying 



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Sa* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

dialects follow eacli other in rapid saecesaion, either ae pri- 
eonen or as witneBsea, to Ba; nothing of the Engliah-gpeak- 
ing defaolterB o£ nninteUi^pble aooentB. Even foUy qualified 
interpreters to the Britiah army oonld not nnaided oope with 
BDoh a babel of tongnes withoot local ud, which after delay 
and mnoh vexation is forthcoming — eiA that not infrequently 
is found to make oonfosion mora confonnded, as the trans- 
lation given by the interpreters is more in aooordanoe with 
their idea of what was meant, or shonld have been said, 
than what was actually stated. 

As far as possible, the meaning of what the witnesses have 
to say is made out with more or less snocesa at the Indictment 
ofBce, thus facilitating considerably the work in conrt Yet, 
in spite of this, the hearing of eighteen to twenty oases aday 
is a tedions prooess, and makes military officers long to be on 
the veld with their regiments. 

There is no want of variety in these two oonrts of jostioe, 
for those who are called upon to answer for their mis- 
deeds not only differ from each other in creed, oolonr, and 
language, but the charges range in serionmess, from mnrder 
and high treason to the possession of a oonple of gallons of 
Kaffir beer, or from the theft of a herd of oxen to that of 
100 rounds of ammnnildon. 

Whether it is from the imperfect knowledge of the various 
lai^uages, or due to the utter inoapacily of Kaffirs to realise 
what truUi is, of one thing there is do doubt, that there are 
often surprises in ooort which show that the sentences have 
not been ^ven in strict aooordanoe with the otimee 



A further diffiool^ is experienced with the deteotives. 
From long habit, under Dutch administration, they up to a 
certain point assist the ends of justice, then for a considera- 
tion they throw in their influence in the opposite direction. 



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TRANSVAAL DETECTIVES 325 

They bring a case forward to a oertaiu stage, and then refnae 
to cany it to its final conclosion ; bnt as fast as these gentle- 
men's serrioeB can be dispensed with, they are pnt over tlie 
border, and their places filled by more tmstworthy detectors 
of wrong-doing. Before quitting this sabject entirely, I may 
mention that when they hare not had a case for some time, 
they set to work to make one, lest the authorities should 
regard them as wanting in zeal I 

The laws of the country that are most frequently violated 
are : the pass law for nativeB, the liquor law, and the gold 
law. As I have already said, the laws of the Transraal are 
in themselves excellent. 

Every native is provided with a travelling pass before 
leaving Ma own oonntry, and on coming to a public digging 
this is then exchanged for a district pass, with the number 
for the current year, giving likewise full particulars as to the 
name and tribe, chief, country, and appearance of the native. 
Natives must possess district passes, which are kept in the 
custody of the employers, the natives having a smaller one 
for otmstaot use. For being without a pass a native may be 
fined a maximnm fine of £5 — as an alternative or addition to 
tlie twenty-five lashee. 

As soon as a native finds employment his employer takes 
out a monthly pass for him, which shows who he is and how 
he is employed. 

If, however, he fails to find work in ax days, his district 
pass may be taken away, and another travelling pass given to 
him, that he may go and try his lack in another labour district 
or retnm to his home. It is an offence to use a paes 
belonging to another, or to lend a pass. Per contra, it is an 
offence to engage a native who has not a district pass, or 
whose pass has been registered for more than six days, and 
does not show that he has been doly discharged by his last 



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SS6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

flmployer within six days; or not being an emploTer to ongage 
natives for others, or act aa agent for iaaoing and ptomising 
pasBea to native labooren. 

Any emplt^er having in his servioe twenty or more uatiTM 
has to keep a register of them, and make a return monthly 
to the pass <^cer, showing any who have died, deserted, becoi 
diaoharged, or fresh ones engaged daring the month. Any 
employer having in his service leas than tvrenty natives 
is obliged to notify the pass official whenever he employa a 
native, and his residence and address whenever a native 
deserts his service. 

Non-compliance with these stipolationB lays honseholders 
and others open to a minimum fine of £5, or an alternative 
of three months' imprisonment. 

On the Band there are waiting-honses at the principal 
pass ofBces, where natives found without a pass are taken, 
and kept nntil they are claimed by their employers, or, 
if not claimed within six days, they are free to engage for 
other employment A register of employers, with the nmnber 
of natives they reqoire, is kept at the Pass Office for the 
purpose. 

Kr. Hugo, before the Mining Commission of Inqoiry, says, 
in regard to the pass law : " It is a good law, bnt badly carried 
ont." For, since it came into force, nntil the sitting of the 
oommission in 1897, the " Bobinson Company " bad over 
1600 boys desert from their servioe, and not a single one 
recaptured. 

In theoiy the penalties for the sale of strong drinks to 
natives are veiy severe — i.e., first oSenoe, maiimnm fine of 
£75, or impiisonment for a term of six months; second 
offence, mininintn fine of £200, or minimum imprisonment of 
one year; third ofibnoe, two years' imprisonment, and no 
option of a fine. 
At one time I gave credit to the Transvaal Government 



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THE UQUOB LAW SfHI 

for adminiatering the liqcor l&w with the efcricteat vigilanoe, 
to ohebk dnmkenneBB, bat, reading through the evidence 
before this conmuBBioB, and a fhrther study of the eabjeot, 
proved I had oome to a wrong oondoaion. A coneenBas at 
opinion by those who have had to deal with this sabjeot 
declares it was more defective in its administration than 
the pass law, because, nnfortnnately, its infringement in 
the past has been lacrative, no6 only to those who 
mannfactnre the beer and" spirits for nstdres, but also to 
the police, who so vastly increased their incomes by over* 
looking grave contraventions of this law. Mr. Brakhan 
io his evidence on this question says : " One of the greatest 
difficulties the mines experience along the line of reef is the 
illicit liquor traffic, whereby a large number of natives are 
incapacitated from work for a third of the week." Provided 
the provisions of the law were carried ont these mines wonld 
bave the services of the boys for fnll time, and the natdvee 
themselves wonld be all the better for the restrictions imposed 
on their taste for poisonous liqnor. 

IVom the foregoing it wiU be seen that this law is both 
stringent and workable, and the beet testimony in its 
favour is the fact that it has been taken over in its 
entirety and enforced by the military authoritieB under 
mjurtial law. 

Powers of administration are vested in a Liqnor Gommis- 
eion, nnder the militaiy governor. The commission conBists of 
Major MacphersoD (president), Captain Astell, Captain Bald- 
win, Mr. Brakhan, Mr. Pierce, and Lieutenant the Hon. 
Oavin Hamilton (secretary). These officers ut as often aa is 
necessary, to consider applications for licences, wholesale, 
retail, and beer-hall. 

mie revenue of the Liquor Commiasion is derived from 
tJie payments received from tbeae licences, which, on the 
following scale, are obnontdy too small : — 



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THE ANGLO-BOER fTAR 



Wlioleaale, per month 



. £15 



Betail, „ . . . . 10 

Beer-hall, „ . . .300 

Bniiard table 1 16 

£ach application for a licenoe being accompanied with £1. 

All moneya received and required for expenses are dealt 
with by the finanrinl adviser. 

Some 300 applicationa had been received, ovt of whidi 
sboat forty had been granted op to the end of September 1900. 
In granting lioenoes the oommiBsion has first to inqnire into 
the character of the phtce and the applicant^ and, that being 
aatisfftctory, to decide whether there is any necessi^ for a 
lioenoe in that particular locality. 

The question of stopping the illicit liqnor tiaflic in the 
district of Johannesbnig is one of the most important that 
will arise. 

Ilie liqnor laws of the South African Republic can haidly 
be improved on, and had they been honestly and sofficiently 
administered, the traffic in liqnor would have been in a veiy 
different condition to what it was before and during the war. 
Tlie lower class Jews are practically all illicit liquor dealers, 
and are veoy clever in dealing with the natives ; and it seems 
a pity that so many of them and suspicious foreignen of all 
BortB have under various pretexts been allowed to stay on in 
Johannesbnig ever since the British occupation.* 

Tba fearfol and wonderfal conceeedon for distilling strong 
drink, which is really raw spirit, I give below i» extenao ; it 
being the first time it has been published, and it may be 
regarded as one of the most extraordinary ever granted by a 
Gktvemment. 

* 81bm Lrad BobeiU' return to En(^d wH have baan deported, ■ 
fMtue of tiie wai that li now proTlding rnKteii*] for aoother Rojil Ooiu. 
"'— l<Wi What la the poaltlon and leaponiibllltj of the British Qotrnm- 
nMnt to OieM d^octed penona are qnaatlona that «ill prore moat diffionlt 



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A DEED OF CONCESSION 829 

£xtniot from the Chvenvment Qngette of the African 
Bepnblic of Jol^ 15, 1885 ;— 

DxED or OoNOESsioN (Moitopolt) 
Gnmted and usimd b^ the Soath African Bepnblic Govem- 
mmt to AJoiB Hugo NellmapinB, I!sq., from the district of 
K«toria, m conseqaence of and hj power of certain reeolationa 
pnood by the Honoonble YoUsraad of the SA. B«pnblio on 
October 4, 1881 (Artiole 52), Jane 21, 1888 (Artide 404), and 
JniM 17 (Artide 464). 

The Govemm^kt of the South African Bepnblic grants and 
aflBurflB to Alois Hogo NeUmapins, Esq., the sole and ezdnsiTe 
right for a period of thirty (30) years from the let day of Joly, 
1882, to the SOth day of Jnne, 1912, to make, distO, or mannfac- 
tore within the S. A. Bepoblio spiritaonB or intoxioatiiig liqoote 
from all kinds of oom, grain, potatoes, or other herb or produce 
growing in the ooontry, with the exoeption of grapes and fruits 
from Fruit trees. Alois Hugo NeUmapios shall sell or trade in 
the article mannfactnred by him to his own advantage or on his 
own behalf, with this prorision, that he will do so as wholesale 
dealer, and he will not sell withoat the (proper) licence any 
quantity smaller than a hc^sheod, or, as far as " liqueurs " are con- 
oemed, caaee (" Eisten ") all on the conditions hereafter stipulated, 
to wit : — 

That he pays to the Szohequer (or the ooontry financee) £1000 
(one thooBand poonds sterling) per annum, on the let of July each 
year and ereiy year. 

That the last payment shall be on July let of 1912, with which 
the thirty payments of £1000 annually shall be paid off. If the 
aforesaid stipulations and conditions be not complied with, the 
granted oonceesion, stated (described) l^ this present deed, shall 
be cancelled, lapsed, and revoked. The Qovenunent of theS. A. 
Bepnblic pledgee itself to and warrants that daring the period 
(term) of the oonceesicm, ijt., thirty years, as af<»^eeiud, Alois 
Hugo N ellmapitiB, Esq., shall not be liable or subject to any other 
or further taxes with regard to the herein-stated monopoly (or 
eonoeesion) for the nunufaotnring or making of spirituous liquora. 

Alcds Hugo Nellmapius, Esq., shall be personally reqtonsible 
and bound for the propw execution and compliance of the 



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330 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

coDditioQS, bat he retaina the right of taking partDen in this 



Thus dfoie &ud gr&nted at Pretoria OoTamment Office, Soath 
African Sepnblic, thia twenty-flecxtod day of June, 1885 (One 
thonaand eight hundred and eighty-five). 

(Signed) S. J. P. Ksuqxb, President of the State. 
„ W. Eduus Bok, Secretary of the State. 

„ D«; W. J. LsYDB, Attorney General. 

„ A. H. NsLLMiriDB. 

A Troe TranalatioD. 
(Sgned) Joes. J. 0. Letds, Sworn Translator. 

Extract from the OOTfimment Kotioe, dated 29/6/85 (^0. 132), 
pablished in Qovemment Gasette of the 8.A.R., dated 15/7/85. 

How, therefore, the Government of the South African 
B^mblic has, in consequence of and l^ power of YolksraBd 
Beeolntum dated 17/6/85 (Article 464), divided the aftnwaid 
moDoptrfy or oonoeeaion for the manufaotnring of spirits or intozi- 
cating liquors and of sugar, and has granted instead two Mparata 
concessions (monopolies), which are stated below, and which, after 
being issoed, shall be ceded to the aforesaid oompany The first 
Faotoriee in the S.A.R,, Limited," 
By order, 
(Signed) W. Bduud Box, Secretaiy of State. 

Oorarmnent OfDoo, FretoiU, 

/tHw 29, lags. 

A True l^wubtion. 
(Signed) Jobs. J. 0. Ixnis. 

The late Mr. Nellmapinfl made over the oonoesEdon to 
Messrs. Lewis & Marks, who have found it a veritable gold 
mine. The name of the distillery is the " Eerste Fabriek," 
or "First Manufactory," and is sitnated at Hatherley, a 
Btation on the Delagoa Bay line, abont ten miles from 
Pretoria. 

The connection between tlus pet concession of Mr. Kmger 
ftnd Uie illicit liquor trade may not at first be obvions ; bnt 
it most be borne in mind that do European would drink the 



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"CHAIN LIGHTNING" 381 

onide product of this distalleiy till it bad matored for eight 
or ten yoani, and that if large profits are to be made the raw 
and fiery spirit mnat be sold to somebody or other in the 
early years of its unripe potency. The only person who 
would bay this "chain lightning" was the Kafllr, but the 
Kaffir was forbidden by law to pnrohase liqnor of any aort. 
Henoe the illicit trade and the shekels handed in by the 
oonceasionairw. 

It is not for a moment to be imagined that the oonoea- 
sionaireB add direct to the Kaffir. That part of the bnsinesB 
was carried on by their Peruvian frieuds, who bonght whole- 
said from the distillery agencies, and before retailing it it was 
further rendered more poisonous by additions of vitriol, 
cayenne pepper, Sta. The reason why Mr. Kruger was con- 
stantly trying to have the prohibition law abolished will be 
more readily understood when it is remembered that the chief 
ccaice68i<Hiaire, Mr. R Mu-ks, was one of his most intimate 
frienda and advisers — one ever ready to give a helping hand 
to the ooaoh of State when a little financial help was needed 
to grease the wheels. 

Under a rigime of martial law, with all the mines at a 
standstill, there are very few cases of oontravention of the 
gold law to be dealt with by the military officers sitting in the 
seats of justice, though in times of peace it is a law that ought 
to be strictly enforced and somewhat amended, if this great 
gold mining industry is to be carried on with equity and upon 
a sound commercial basis, and be protected from unscmpu- 
lons buyers and illioit gold traders. There is no doubt that 
in the {tast t^e law was most inefficiently administered; 
attributable to a great extent to a defective detective system, 
and to the lax morale of almost all concerned. The tmth of 
these remarks is proved to demonstration by the ray few 
conviotiona, as compared to the large thefts of gold amalgam. 
What would South Afiioa be to the British nation, or what 



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S3S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

would any other natioa care for Soath Africa, were it not for 
the gold and precdoiifl etones that are to be fband deep down 
in tiie bowels of the earth all over thia vast Bob-oontinent ? 

The right of mining for and disposing of tdl precaoas 
metals and stones belonged to the State. 

Prospecting, digging, and mining work was carried oat on 
doMia or ICjnpaohten nnder the late Government. A tentli 
part of each farm thrown open for prospecting or mining 
was granted as a Mijopachten, the owner's portion of tiw 
groand thrown open by Government, whioh moat be held 
under a mining lease, which was issaed ivx periods of not 
leas than fire years ot for longer than twenty, 

By l^islation ex^bteata to the war it was enacted that the 
snrveyed claims thrown open as poblic diggings ahoiild be 
given out by lot to the public, on the day of throwing open 
to the pnblio. 

A onrions point of law may posaibly arise after the political 
aetUonent in connection with the claims on Government 
fanna. In the early part of 1899 these farms were duly 
proclaimed, and in April and May the pnblic drew their 
lottery nombera. The actaal allotment was for some reason 
or other postponed uitil October. Up to the date of doaing 
the lists it was estimated that the Government had oolleoted 
fnnn all aeotionB of the public something between ^0,000 
and j^30,000 in lottery fees. The pnblio that had drawn 
kitteiy nnmbers were awaiting the official drawing, bat in 
the meanwhile hostilities broke ont, and the pdnt of law 
arises as to what position the British Government will take 
np in regard to the existing gold law and their responsibilities 
to the public in regard to the circamstanoes narrated, and 
that in view of the terms of the pabliabed proclamations of 
the late Government. The taking ont of the lottery nombera 
was oharaoteristic of the cosmopditan natnre of this oom> 
tnnnity. Yanoas nationalities (British predominating) made 



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" BEWAARPLAATSEN" SSS 

np the listo, ancl the rich capitaliBts' namee appear side by edde 
with those <tf the humble clerk and artisan. At the time 
speculation ran high as to whether the drawings would take 
place in a bond fide manner, bat the outbreak of the war 
completely diverted public attention from the subject. 

Another point of law that will arise in oonnection with 
these goldfields, but one that will not have to be settled by 
military officers during a period of martial law, and therefore 
finds no place in this chapter, but is nevertheleBS one of far 
greater importance than the lottery question, is referred to 
below. 

In the early days of these goldfidds the mining companies 
were granted certain surface rights for erection of machinery, 
storage of tailings, and so on. At a later stage it was found 
that as the "deep IsTels" proved successful thooe sites 
became most valuable as miniTig ground. But to whom 
should the nnderground rights be given ? That became tiie 
vexed question. In 1897 the law provided that the under- 
ground rights to these grounds should be put up to sale l^ 
public aaotion, and that half the proceeds should go to the 
State and half to the owner of the farm ; hot in 1898 this 
jmmsion was eliminated altogether from the law. 

What tiie futnre destiny of these " Bewaarplaatsen " 
(literally storage sites) may be it is impossible at the present 
to say. llieir commercial value, however, is estimated at 
several millions sterling ! Some are of opinion they should 
be sold to defray the cost of the war. In the meanwhile it 
is oosting the oonntiy a million and a half a week, and tiie 
British public are bong taxed to pay Uie Inlll 



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CHAPTER XXX 

The oontrol of tlie mining indastiy in South Africa is a 
matter oi great responeibilit; and bristlefl with dliffionlties. 
It shonld be regarded in the light of a great pablio depart- 
ment, and the Seoietarf for Mines or the Mining Com- 
misaioner shonld find his place in the front rank of colonial 



At present the control of the Mining Department is rested 
in Mr. Wybei^h as commissioner of mines for Sonth Africa, 
irho is also the acting principal G^ovemment mining engineer. 
AaoBtant mining engineers, and inspectors of mines have 
also been appointed to other districts of the Transraal. 
FoemtiAy ererything connected with mining was managed 
by tiie Chamber of Mines, a committee of gentlemen with 
mnoh the same fanotions as the Chamber of Commerce in 
London or liverpooL 

Since the Britieh^occnpation nntil qnite reeentty ail the 
mines have stopped working ; and as the dnties of the Com- 
missioner and hU officers are chiefiy adminisbative, no revenne 
is being collected. 

In the past the local commissiDnerB had many dnties to 
perform besidee Uiose connected with the mines, each as 
chairmanship for the Sanitary Board, local administration of 
native affairs, &c, but these qpestions now fall under the 
jnrisdiction of officers set apart for the purpose, or they 



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MINING SS!t 

come aoder the administration to which they aererally 
belong. 

In the technical branch, or Mining Engineers' Department, 
the CommiasioneT is assieted by the Inspector of Mines, 
Captain Beachy Head, who is doing the work of fire inspectors 
in ordinaiy times, which of conrse woold be impossible if the 
mines were working. 

Eia piincspal daties are to see that the mining regnlations 
are carried ont, that the mines are kept in repur and qnite 
safe. 

The Mining Commiaaioner is the medium of commnnication 
between the mining indnstry and the Imperial Government, 
and has to snpervise sncb things as the coal supply for 
pnmping porpoeea, the provision of stores, food, and labour 
for the mines, and the granting of permits of any description 
for the mining area. 

The granting of permits under martial law is a great 
feature and one that has to be met at every turn. 

Those mines that were kept working during the Boer 
occupation of Johannesbni^, and those that were allowed to 
pomp right through tJie war, are practically ready to com- 
mence operations ae soon as the political state of the countiy 
and the labour market will allow ; whilst permits have been 
granted to unwater other mines, whose managers were put 
over the border, all of whom, and thousands of others, are 
beseeching Sir Alfred Milner to permit them to return to 
their usual avocations, offering their services for garrison or 
police duties so that they may return.* 

The wisdom of withholding this permission was very 
apparent to those entrusted with military operations and 

* Slnoe wrltliig ths above, to a limited extant their prajan bsTe been 
gnnted. Tlie mine* oie TeoommeDoliiK work gradnall; ; tlie mtaera ai* 
employed to protect the mining area, and aotlTit; and prosperity aT» 
reqtpeulng. 



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336 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

with the direction of civil affairs in the earlier Btagee of the 
war. 

It was with the greatest diffiotilty food and coals in mffidant 
qnantitieB conld be brought into the town to meet the 
reqnirementa of the military and the handful of dviliana Uiat 
were in it. 

As a proof of this I may mention that l^e proprietor of 
Heath's Hotel was, when I was utaying there, obliged to 
draw the officers' rations and allow for them on their ao 
oonnt, and this he certainly wonld not have done if tiie meat 
and other eatables had been obtainable for money. Ilieii, 
again, the qnestioD of ooalg was one of great difficulty. ^Ute 
Netherlands Railway Company having removed abont 8000 
tmcks and, roughly speaking, ISO locomotives to the n^h- 
boorhood of the Portuguese frontier, tmcks for the transport 
of coals for the use of tibe mines on the Band were very 
scarce, especially as the mUitory demands on the rolling 
stock were large and bad first claim. Since tJieae tmcks and 
engines have been released transport of every kind has been 
of far easier accomplishment. (See the despatch at the end 
of Uie volame.) 

The military director of railways did all in his power to 
meet the varioos claims that were made npon his resonrces, 
bat he could not make tmcka and engines, neither ooold he 
guarantee the safety of the coal mines. 

To exemplify of what magnitude the industry is cm these 
goldfields, 40,000 tons of cool a month will be required for 
pumping purposes alone to free the mines &om water, and 
thus place things once agun in a working condition. When 
the batteries are all at work, approximately 100,000 tons of 
coal per month will be needed east and west of Johannea- 
bnrg. 

Some few weeks ago twenty engineers representing the 
large firms and financial companies were permitted to pro- 



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ceed to this town to report on the state of the mines, &o., 
and when this was done to retom again to Cape Town. 
They were nnaoimons in their rerdiot that the dami^ done 
was snrpriaingly small, owing to the firmness of the rock of 
the wwkings and the precaations taken to prevent the deterio- 
ration of the machinery. 

The bnildings were also found in good condition owing, in 
no small degree, to the vigilance of the International mining 
police, which have been guarding the mines nntil recently. 

When more normal oonditionB obtain again, tJiat is when 
peace in South Africa is restored, and the workmen, white 
as well as native, are allowed to return to their labonra, no 
time will be lost in potting the batteries on the Witwaten- 
rand to work and swarming the mines with a busy hive of 
human beings numbering about 80,000 white msa and 
about 100,000 natives. 

What this means to the money market of the world can 
be easily ganged by the fact that the production of gold 
during the nine months January to Angost, prior to the war 
amounted to £12,485,082, produced by an average of 5672 
stamps and from 5,556,817 taaa of ore. 

With the return of peace, and ameliorated conditions for 
commercial enterprise under the British flag, a vast expan- 
sion is in store for the goldfields o£ the Witwatersand, and 
the general development of the whole country, both in mining 
and ^riculture. 

The conditions of mining, so far as they can be, are favour^ 
able in this part of Africa ; there is bat little water to 
contend with, the temperature even in the Deep Deep levels 
are quite normal, the hanging walla are firm and safe. C!oal 
to any amount is obtunable in the immediate nei^bourhood, 
and at moderate cost. 

llere ia no doubt that had it not been for the close prox? 
imity of the coal deposits to the gold depoute it would have 



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S8S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

bean impouible to have worked some of the mines, on 
Aooonnt of the ooet cxf fuel. The total coal supply for the 
Tfiining industries coming into Johanneebaig amounted to 
OTOT 100,000 tons per mwith, and practically the wholo of 
this oame from a district some twen^ to thirty miles to the 
east of the town. 

These mines are chiefly responsible for the output of ooal, 
and the deposits are so eztensire that at the same rate there 
is no fear of a cessation of their capabilities for the next half- 
centniy. 

The seoondand third, also the fourth row of deep level (4800 
feet) will be exploited, and the gold-bearing areas in the 
eastern and western exteneionB of the Band, where the reef 
has been proved to exist and to cany gold in paying qnanti- 
ties, and when, as yet, bat little work has been done, will be 
developed, and the ontpot of the yellow metal on this vaet 
goldfield will swell the total and make more capitalists, 
"niese adrontagefl, and the liberality and oonsiBtency with 
which natnre has deposited the gold among the pebbles 
forming tiie conglomerate, mnst necessarily tend to attract 
capital seeking investment. In addition to the prospective 
expansion of the mining industry itself there will be the 
indirect impetus g^ven to all kinds of industrial enterprises 
that are closely connected with gold-mining ; for instance, 
mechanical engineering, extension of bnilding operations on 
mining propertieB and for Tendenoes ; snpplies of lime for 
the extraction by the cyanide process ; afforestation ; import, 
export, and trade general^. Tliere ia no end to t^ possi- 
Ulities of development in South Africa. Each Buooee£ng 
year will bring more and more responsilnli^ for the British 
€lovenuuent. So mnch will this be the case that a seat in 
the Cabinet will have to be created for the Secretary of State 
for South A&ica, the same as eziata for India, if the adminis- 
tration of the country is to be carried on according to its 



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MINING 389 

needs and impartuice. There will then be plenty ot hard 
work left for local statesmen. 

Under the Secretary for Mines there will fall the adminis- 
tration of the lai^ namber of permanent offices connected 
with the leading induHtiy of the country. 

Oovmitmeat Mining £nffineer with his staff of asaietmUs, 
surveyors, and inupeetors. — The deparbnent of geological 
snrvey will have to be developed and receive a good share 
of the Goremmenf H attention, as not only the local geo- 
logical areas are imperfectly sorveyed and mapped oat, bnt 
the geological featnrea of the ooimtry as a whole leqnire to 
be scientifioally examined and reported upon. 

Hitherto almost all reliable geological reports have been 
made either at the instaoce of financial bodies m individnalB, 
tfxt the porpoee of investment, and could not be presnmed to 
be free from bias, aa they have been the outcome of the work 
<^ certain enthosiasta who have favourite theories to eipand, 
which deb«ct from the merits of the report as independent 
investagaldon. 

What is required ia free informaticHi etd quarvm as to the 
geologic^ character of the ooontry by iTwpfti^iifrl Gcvenmient 
soienlaBta. Some maintain l^t the reef mns right through 
the whole continent of Africa, though the vein is lost for a 
space, inclnding even the goldfielde of Bhodesia, which others 
again deny. 

Certain geologista of great repatation have given it as 
tjieir nnbiased opinion " that the wealtli of gold has bwdly 
been discovered yet, as the deeper the level the richer the 
on." As for Pretoria, it will rival even Kimberley in its 

AiamtmAa 

Doubtless there will be a considerable expansion of small 
townships outside Johannesbni^, sach as Knigersdorp, Boode- 
poort, Germiston, &e. In these mining towns and villages 
it 18 highly probable that under a more settled Government 



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MO THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

the miners and dtdzeiiB may be inolined to bring their wivee 
and funiliee from England and the oolooies and to make 
Soath Africa their permanent home. 

Ocon Panl wonld hare no interfering witli Pretoria in Uiia 
connection. He naed to say, "1 will have no Uitlanders 
here ; my hands are full enongh with thoee in Johanneshnrg." 
This leads np to the highly important qaestion of edncation. 

Before the outbreak of hoetilitieB a scheme was on foot to 
efltabliflh a system of BnbsidiBed schools along the Witwaters- 
rand for the benefit of the children of ths artisans and 
miners working on these goldfields. The mining oompaniea 
had promised to subscribe libenlly, and, in fact, a coancil of 
education actually existed, with a constitotion and fondaons 
similar to those of an English School Board. The obstacles 
in the past to the fulfilment of such a good object would be 
removed if the working man on the mines wonld settle down 
to a r^nlar domestic life. This wonld enable the new 
generation of miners to acquire the technical knowledge 
necessaiy and at the same time to learn the Kaffir langoage, 
withoat which t^ir value as superintendents of natdre 
labour is cX. oomparatiTely little aoconnt. As for thoee that 
hare been bom in the conntry they have hardly any practical 
experience in mining. 

One great want which is evident to all who hare been to 
this country, no less than in the Witwatersrand district, is 
that of good roads. Some time ago a m^n road was com- 
menced along the line of reef, and a number of indigent 
borghers were employed in its constmction. The completion 
of this necessary work will no doubt be undertaken by the 
new Qoremment at an early date after peace and order are 
restored. When I left Johannesburg, in October 1900, 400 
men, chiefiy burghers, were being employed on the " relief" 
road which leads to the municipal sewage farm ; the oon- 
strnction of further large dams and reservoirs will also is 



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MINING S4I 

time be a neoeasity to the distriot, where, althoogh the 
maiiTmiTn rainfall throaghoat the year is a good one, there 
oocnr long spells of dronght, extending over many months. 

In 1895 no rain fell for over nine months ; indeed, a good 
and r^pilar snpp'y of water is one of the most vital elements 
of existence, and the qoestion of irrigation on a laige scale 
will have to be oonmdered if there is to be a large permanent 
white population resident in Sooth Afiica. 



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CHAPTER XXXI 

KATIVE ATFAIBS 

The of&obT in ohu^ o£ native afiaira is Captain Baldwin, 
BJL It is only thoae wlio have some ezperienoe of the natire 
of Sonth A&ioa, hia importanoe in tlie labour market, and 
some knowledge of tii« bnming qneetiotu that isge in 
regard to him, who can form any idea of the difficulties and 
complications that beset this department. 

Hie oosdiiBion of peace will see the re-opening of the labonr 
qoestioD tbronghoat the coontry, bnt more especially on the 
Witwaterarand, when those mines which have continned 
pompiog thronghont the war will be, more or leas, ready to 
commence work at once. 

The question of the relations of the native laboorera 
towards their white masters will be one of the most difficnlt 
problems <tf the fntnie in this great African continent. 

As a subordinate race, mentally and morally inferior, the 
natives most of necessity bear the chief port of the Tn«nn*l 
labour of the country. But there is no doubt that they should 
benefit by the blesaingB of civilisation that follow the Union 
Jack ; that they should be protected in their work, receive the 
due reward of their labour, and be secure in thwr journey 
from and to their kraals. 

Since the opening up of the Witwatersrand the natives 
have migrated gradually towards the gold mines for the pur- 
pose of earning sufficient means to meet tiieir current expenses 
and to increase their stock of cattle. 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS S*S 

Previous to the ontbmk of hostilitieii tkeae goldfieldfl 
employed cloBe on 100,000 nstdres, azoloBiTe of the nomberB 
employed in domeBtiG Berrice in the town of Johanneibn^ 
and sonoonding distiiotB, and on the neighbonring ooal 
mines. 

After the deoUration of war in October 1899, the gi«at 
balk of the natives were, with great tact and care, deported 
from the ooonby withoat any disturbance, loss of life, or 
damage to property. During the progrees of hostdlitieB some 
10,000 to 15,000 renuuned to work those mines the Gorem- 
ment kept going, and to pump some others that were shat 
down, but they were perfectly orderly under the firm control 
of the Boer anthoritieB. Hose working on the mines had 
their pay reduced by Government proclamation to a TimTiifinm 
of ^1 a month ; nevertheleae, they continued working at the 
reduced scale, without resiatauce <nr any attempt at an indn*- 
trial strike. The Government endeavoured to enact a regu- 
lation ctnnpelling private householders to pay no more for 
native domestic servants than the sum of £1 a month ; but as 
this was an infringement on the liberty of the subject, the 
anthoritdes were forced to withdraw their proclamation. 

It must not be supposed, however, that although the 
natives continued to work on during the period of the war at 
their reduced wage they were satisfied. Far from it. On the 
day that the Field Marshal's forces entered Johannesburg, 
thousands of the natives along the district were excitedly 
i^famiRiiiTig amongst themselves the probabili^ of fairer treat- 
ment being meted oat to them, of higher rates of pay being 
given, and even in some instances it was confidently antici- 
pated that the British Government would redress all their 
grievances, and pay np all the arrears between their reduced 
wages and that they had been accustomed to receive prior to 
the war. Thoe, a native stable boy received £3 a month 
before the outbreak of hostilities. His pay on January 1 was 



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M4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

reduced to £1 s month ; he therefore flattered himself that the 
new aathorities would canae him to be paid £2 a month to 
May 31, i.e., £10 arrear pay, besidee an immediate increase of 
wRges. Fnrthensore, those amongst them of a bolder nature 
became exceedingly insolent and ofFensire to white reaidentB 
— s sort of rebonnd towards political eqnality. The natirae 
soon foDod out their mistake : and noder martial law, at all 
events, the British oonld be just as strict and firm in enforcing 
order and obedience to regulations as the former Truuraal 
Govemment had been. More than once they diacoreied that 
the military authorities dealt even more severely with the 
actual loafing and thieving class than the Boers had done. 
All " boys " found without a master or fixed employment are 
immediately taken to a central depdt, where they are fed and 
sheltered until work can be found for them — a wise and admi- 
rable sdieme ; one that answers well in practice. An official 
petty court, presided over by military officers, was established 
for the trial of all disputes existing between master and servant 
The existing pass law was maintained provisionaUy, to secure 
identification of the natives and to minimise deeertiou from 
service. Taken as a whole, it may be safely said that the 
military treatment in regard to natives from the time of the 
British ooonpation is regarded by the various sections of this 
cosmopolitan community as most wise and judicioiis, but the 
fear is in many quarters expressed that after the cessatbn of 
martial law, when the civil government will be renewed, that 
the errors of British authorities in dealing with the native 
population may be repeated. 

The separation in locations from the white people of the 
Kaffirs, which are again subdivided into quarters for the 
natives from India, is right and most neoeesaiy. It may 
seem harsh, and putting the natives on too low a level, to 
those who advocate equal rights for allj bnt it is the best 
way to keep the blood of the nation pure, which is the 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS 845 

primary oanae of onr BcocesB as a colonisiiig power. An \ 
abhorrence of intermarriage with a native should be assidii- I 
duly incnlcated in the mind of every British man and I 
woman. 

The department as at present oonstitnted has control of 
the 8tq>pl7 of native labour to the Imperial RaUway and 
other departments in the proclaimed districts in the neigh- 
bonrhood of tTohanneebiirg. The difficulties of competition, 
desertion, high pay, &o,, enoonntered by the mines in the 
past have all arisen from the inadequacy of the supply of 
labonr, and there appears to be a widespread feeling that it 
will be the dnty of futore Governments to remove these 
obstacles from the path of the directors of mines ; bnt how- 
ever benevolent the British Government may be, they can 
hardly deal with snch difficnltiee of commercial enterprise, 
nor allow any section of the people (white or black) to be 
ooeroed into a service, and on terms they are not disposed to 
accept voluntarily. There is nothing like competition and 
diffionlties to bring to light the sterling qualities of a com- 
munity. In the way of affording protection to the natives 
travelling to and from the mines, of seeing that contracts 
freely entered into are observed on both sides, of making 
arrangements with neighbonring States, and of faciliteting 
and encouraging immigration generally, there can be no 
donbt that it is the dn^ of the Government to assist the 
industry of the country to the best of ite ability, and then it 
is practically certain that by such means the supply itself 
will increase to a given point. Nevertheless, it must be 
remembered that the same causes will attract more capital to 
tlie oonntry, and that the investment of it will increase the 
demand for labour, so that on the whole it may be a moot 
question whether the increased supply will be more than 
sufficient to meet the increased demand, thus leaving the 
deficit much the same as it was before. 



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5«6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Tha best BtataBties araiUble pUos tbe natdre popolatioa 
MDth of the Zunbni «t 6,000,000 bouIb. If from tiiM 
number be dedscted the woineo end (duldmi, tAA men, 
ineoceenble tribes, domestic Berraote, and Ihoee who, from 
Tariona raaaona, do not denre or are not suited to mine woi^ 
it would still be a high estimate to plaoe tiie number of men 
•Tlilable tar work on the minee at 750,000, and it would be 
most diffioolt to aay what proportion of these natives haa 
been educated np to the indnstnal requirement, hot certainly 
it is not a large one. 

The edooation of the native is a jueOio vaxUa. It is one 
that has {Huzled Uie btaina of many able statesmen and 
generooB-hearted philanthropista. T^mk the native subjeots 
in his Majesty's domimons shonld reap the advantages of his 
beneficent rule is most right, and is a policy to whidi the 
Qoremment (whichever side is in power) is oomniitted. But 
dvilisatdon makes slow strides with the natiTd zaces in Sontli 
Afiioa. Th^ entirely differ from the natives of Indift. 
^nieir minds liave never come under the refining inflneiMie of 
high art, such as bear teatinumy to the Indian's intelligence ; 
specimena of whoee beautiful workmanship, in gold^ silver, 
ivory, wood, and stone, may be seen any day in our mnfleoDta 
all over the country. 

To lead the native gradually onwards to a higher deetiny 
and habits of civilisation is a ta^ worthy of the energy and 
purpose of thoughtful statesmen ; but it is well, oonsidenng 
there is no Hubstratom of cultivated intelligence to work 
npon, that the steps taken shoold be slow ; and any attempt 
to span the oenturies too quickly would be as devmd of good 
results as suddenly to rejdaoe the preeent members in the 
House of Commons by a Parliament of agricultural labourers 
and citisens of the east end of London. 

Tbe mental characterietics of the natives show a maii:ed 
difference as compared with those of the white man. As a 



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VATIVE AFFAIBS S47 

■nsge he msj at times oompare favoarably, from a mor^ 
point of view, with oertain deteriorated and defn^red types 
of white men ; he ia neverthalefe still a aavage. Ezperienoe 
has pTOred in the past that the best ednoat^ natires remain 
more or less trne to the sarage instinctB of their raoe when 
pnt to the test of temptation, jost tiie same as a tamed liim 
ortigw. 

The natiTe mind is in a state of transition. The natire, 
in his relations to the white people, is like a diild, without 
originality or power of oonoeption, posseesing, nerertheleBa, 
a dogged sense of independence and freedom of action — 
mental qnalitieB acquired by a long series of inflttenoea 
extending over many centuries, and oonseqnent on bung 
Babject to a purely military despotism ; as one may say, 
body and soul the slave of his chief. In war the native 
embodies to the full the militant idea of tribal rights and 
tribal waifare. It is only the presence of the regular Gk>vem- 
ment of the white peoples in South Africa that lias restrained 
the native tribes from internecine straggles. In their tribal 
life there aro great points of resembhuice to that of the 
ancient Hebrews: the same pabiarohal control inevaiUng. 
Especially is this observable amongst the Zulu tribes. 

The native is to a great extent a &talist. At the present 
stage of his development it seems an utter impossibility iia 
him to realise the idea of individual effort towards pn^ress, 
but it is abaolotely necessary for him to be so far educated 
t^t he knows how to earn his living and the obiigation he 
is noder to do so, and to respect amirada or any kind of 
agreements of service. But at present this is most repulsive 
to him. What he likes when his master displeases him or 
treats him badly is to walk off at a moment's notice. 8udi 
a method results in obvious disadvantages, and, if universal, 
wonld create endless distorbanoe and inconvenienoes. It 
not infrequently happens in this town of Johannesburg that 



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MS THE ANGLO-BOER WAH 

a lady proposes to ^re a diimer-party for nuih and audi an 
erening, but perhaps an hoar or two before the gneets 
are expected she finds her OaS. of natiTe fierTants has aU 
gone I 

Under an indostrial form of society thia shonld be impoesible* 
therefore it is essential that one of the first elements of the 
natire's edncation towards dvilisation should be to teach him 
to reject all contracts of aerrice in oonunon with other 
agreements which he is keen enoogh to abide by. 

To this end, howoTer, something more is reqnired than the 
loose methods hitherto in vogne of entering into verbal agre^ 
ments. Both employers and employed shonld obtain some 
means of preventing either side from arbitrarily breaking 
away from their nndertakingB, 

The native population being sach an all-important factor 
in this oonntiy, an able and experienced man should be 
appointed as Secretary for Native Affairs when the militaiy 
r^me gives place to civU administration. AU officials under 
him shonld be carefully selected from those who have intimate 
knowledge of the working of the native mind. In a large 
industrial district like the goldfields of the Witwatersrand, 
an (^cial should be appointed as " Protector of Native Im- 
migrants," in whom they would have absolute oonfidenoe. 
Such an offioial, if the right sort of man were secured, would 
be regarded by the bulk of the native labooring population — 
always more or less floating — as the substitnto, for the time 
being, for their own chief, which would, in a measure, main- 
tain the native in his customs, his laws, and in his beliefs, 
and keep him in subjection to the same idea of tribal authority 
in which he and his forefathers have been brought np. 
Where white people, kindly disposed, attempt to influence 
the native mind and mould it after their own, the result 
is often most disappointing. By virtue of ciroumstanoee, the 
militant habite ni the past, and the inseoority of human life 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS S*9 

that formeriy prevailed, the natiTeB are naturally extremely 
cantioos and saapicdoas in all their dealings with the white 
people and eren amongst themselves; otherwise one may 
say he is loyal and faithfal to aathority. It is seldom he 
is known to betray his tmst or break confidence. It was 
one of the greatest difficulties the late Oovemment had to 
contend with in connection with the illicit liqnor traffic that 
the natives would never divulge the names of the dealers 
tiiat snpplied them with those pemidoiiB drinks that so 
utterly demoralise them. 

Qenerally spiking, too, Uie natives are free &om petty 
jealoomes and small-minded reprisals. Nor are they revenge- 
ful by disposition ; but in some of tiie other hi^er qnalities 
tiiat make up the mvilised man they are podtavely defident. 
They have no sense of gratitude for kindness rendered them. 
They have in a mechanical way acquired in Uie towns the 
habit of repeating "thank you" for services rendered, but 
of gratitude in the ordinary sense they have none. In this 
respect they show their spirit of fatalism. The buiefits they 
receive from the benevolent and through the Church they 
aco^, and in regard to the donors they feel no gratitude, as 
it has nothii^ to do with them. If persons like to be good 
to them, that is their own afEair. 

They are (in a certain sense) fond of their children, but 
of the actual sentiment of love of their womankind, as under- 
stood by European races, they are nearly devmd. Except for 
a preference shown for certain damsels of their tribe, the 
young men do not cherish the tender emotion towards the 
weaker sex that European society has for centniies encouraged 
and cultivated. 

The natives are wonderfully close reasoners; their mind 
has a subtlety of its own, and the exceptions are rare when 
a person direct from Europe can thoroughly comprehend 
their sophistry in matters of dispute. They are bom st^ifaists, 



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350 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and no rlietorioian is more adept at using pantlogianu than 
is a native chief or head man. 

As a oiviliBing and commercial power tliis question of the 
natives is very important, and in Soath Africa it is focused 
chiefly in Johannesborg and its snrroanding districts. 

In the coune of a few yean, tmder the new conditions cS. 
security of contract and increased oonfidenoe resulting from 
British goremment, the number of nstiTes on the Band at 
any given time will not be less than 150,000. The averaga 
period of service is about six months, ao that the total namber 
(rf natives reqnired for a year wonld be 300,000. Now, if these 
figures are correct, it will be seen that a little less than one 
half of the total number of oativee available must pass 
annually through the Band to supply the demand. To all 
tboee who will give the sobject a moment's thought this will 
at onoe appear as impossible, and the real soluliMi of the 
labour market for the South African goldfields ia as f ar oS 
as ever. 

To 80,000 natives the sum of two and a half miUions ia 
annually paid in wages, occlusive of the board and lodg- 
ing which is found by the company employing them : an 
average scale far beyond anything paid in any other Tnining 
country in the world. The native's whole object in coming 
to the goldfields is to earn high wages, that he may return 
to hia hraal, often hundreds of mOes away, a rich man, and 
there purchase cftttle to enable him to barter for wives, who 
will do the work whilst he aits down, or hunt when he feels 
indined, or go on the warpath at the bidding of his chief. 

Thus, the Kaffir has just the same thought as the white 
man when he starts on his long and weary trudge <A a few 
hundred miles to the goldfield of which he baa heard 
glowing descriptions from the mining agent: that ia, go away 
for a few years, get rich, return home, marry, and live at eaae, 
and enjc^ bis hard-earned wealth. Bat this does not tend 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS 351 

to the Bnpply of the labour market, nor to the ideals of 
dnlisation. 

Is the oommiBirion of inquiry <ni the mining indnshy, the 
South African Bepnblic Bought the advioe of the most 
experienced men on the Witwatenrand as to how best to 
solve this great difBonlty, and their evidence is compiled and 
published for the fature gnidance of those who may have to 
deal with the natives, how best to attract them to tiie mines, 
and keep them when <mce in the district. 

Many snggeBtionB to increase the labonr supply have been 
made, snch ae tlie establishment of lance locations near the 
™i"i"g centres, the importation of coolies, Chinese, West 
Coast Africans, Abysainiaiis, &a ; but the disadvantages 
inherent in each and every scheme of this description have, 
np to the present, been strong enongh to prevent a serions 
attempt to carry them oat 

That the best methods of attracting the available snpply 
have been practised in the past appears donbtfni ; in fact, to 
an inexperienced observer it woold seem that every means 
had been employed to disoonrage the immigration of natives 
to the mining areas. 

A complicated and inefficiently administered pass law, 
indifferent compound management and food (as demonstrated 
by conttnnal ontbreaks of soorvy), fines, deductions from pay 
to cover the expense of importation, bad treatment by com- 
ponnd managers and individnal miners, robbery on the road 
home, and many other examples of cruelty and want of con- 
nderation, which when related in their hrools do not lose in 
the telling, nor encourage those who have never left borne 
to do BO to try their luck on these sud goldfields. That 
they do come is attributable to the high rate of pay promised 
l^ the labour agenta (but not always received at the day of 
reokcmisg by the nadves) ; to the pressure brought to bear by 
the chief at the instance of the agents, to exert his paternal 



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352 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

influence, and, perhspe to tiie knowledge that drink wag 
abundant and fiery. 

Those entrusted by the British Goremment to administer 
native affairs will no doubt hcKieBtly do all in their power to 
remove these and oUier abnaes as they appear, and aasiBt the 
great industry by efficient laws and equal justice, by vigilant 
inspectdon of oompooods; and the Government will hold 
itself responsible for the general good treatment of the 
natives, assist them on their way to the mines, and protect 
them when returning to their kraals. 

The following original letter signed by five Indian natives 
will show what unbounded faith the natives have in British 
justioe, and is an indisputable proof that the empire's great- 
ness rests on moral no less than material foundations. 

TranBvaal, South Africa, 
30/5/00. 
OEHsaAL Master to Tboofs. 

I have the Honour Respectfully to your sir, please. I am the 
Tcdian boys, the Queen Yictoria is bring me from Indian Cutta. 
I working to my bdly and I get my food in the Country, air, 
the Dutch people before 3 Months the Boer take mine % 
oxen and i horse, and yesterday the Dutch man take my 
i oxen, when the Englishman come jn the Tmnsyaal is make 
many trouble with me, and the hritish government is want the 
Indian thinks is can take all my thinks, and the English can take 
me to work, please the Queen Yictoria is it Indian people mother 
and fathers, your obidiently, 

(1) SuHKoasiKo. 

(2) SOOKBAH. 

(5) Oahoathebn. 
(4) sutahbub. 

(6) Obaihz. 
Elsburg Farm 

30/5/00. 

Tbe one great need on this Witwatersrand is to have 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS 353 

honourable, honest men to regolate and carry on public afiaire 
— men who woald scorn bribeiy, or be in any way open to 
corruption. What neither this Goremmeat nor any other can 
do, is to make men honest by lav, thoogh something may be 
done throngh fear of it. In many cases the men to be made 
honeet are not only tiie Kaffirs ; it ia they who hare sat in 
high places. 

One of the indocementa held ont to the natives to come to 
work on the mines was t^e facility for obtaining drink, but 
it must not be aasamed that any eocoiiragemeat was directly 
gives by the previoas Government to this end. On the con- 
trary, the anthoritiefl professed to ezerdse the strictest 
vigilance to check dronkenoess, and so prevent the demorali- 
saticn of the natives ; still, it was held ont as a promise to 
them by the agents, and a feeling of broken faith ia the 
result, though their efforts to obtain the " chain lightning " 
fluid have generally been only too sucoesBfuI, 

lliere are but few people who take exception to the poli^ 
of total prohibition of liquor to natives, and sonie rmtintAJT^ 
that an honest administration can absolutely prevent the sale 
of drink to them, thongh they deny the possibility that any 
future Government will be strong enough to compel the fulfil- 
ment of oontracte, and check desertion. 

With all due deference to the opinions of others, the 
enforcement of sobriety is the more difficult problem to solve ; 
on one hand there are 150,000 Kaffirs, a lai^ proportion of 
whom want drink, and a laige nnmber of white men, mean and 
otherwise, who, in view of the enormous profits to be made by 
the sale of illicit liquor, are determined to supply the demand; 
and when these two factors are token in conjunction with the 
fact that the native can never be persuaded to betray the 
man who sells the drink, the difficulties connected with this 
illicit trade are not easily overcome. There is bat one way 
to do it : prevent these two parties from coming together. 



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3^14 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Wliaterer salary the Government ean oSbrd to pay an 
official to aee that the law is carried ont, the illicit dealer can 
afToid to give him ten times as mach to wink at ite infraction ; 
and even the best police are human and will at times yield to 
the temptation money offers. 

Those who do not believe in the possibility of efEeotnal 
total prohiUtioD to the native popnlation advocate a pemuB- 
nve system. They would grant licences only to respectable 
dealers, who would be required to deposit a heavy security as 
a guarantee, botJi for the quantity and quality, also as to the 
method of serving it to their costomers. That ia to say, the 
quality woold have to be up to a certain standard, and the 
drink consumed on the premises. The advocates of this 
system admit that a certain number of natives vxnUd get 
dmnk, bnt under the law of total prohibition it is contended 
they would not only do so, bnt become mad with the poison 
they are supplied with : and inareamng the severi^ of the 
penalties for this illicit traffic does not suppress it, but merely 
tends to raise the price and lower the quality of the article 
sold. Another suggestion is : keep the law of prohibition in 
full force, but allow a ration of good wholesome liquor to be 
served out to the mining Kaffirs under Government regnla- 
tdons and supervision. The natives who come from the east 
coast are aocnstomed to liquor, and feel the loss of it consider- 
ably. Underground mining work at such deep levels is very 
ezhanstdng and disagreeable, and no one bnt a fanatae will 
deny that the working men wotild be all the better fcH- a 
certain amount of wholesome stimulant. When this principle is 
admitted the qnantitieB and times can be regulated aooording 
to their shifts, or if they prefer they could have the equivalent 
in money, much the same as sailors who have their ratitms <A 
mm. Under this arrangement liquor would be strictly for- 
Udden to the town Kaffirs, who are well fed and housed, and 
live under altogether healthier conditions. 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS 3iS 

There is another great question in regard to the native — 
hig wagee. His employers think them too high (did an 
emp]<^er ever exist who thought otherwise?). What the 
native thinks is not, so cleu, bnt a vhgae conception might be 
formed by redndi^ his wi^es until it was fonnd that niHie 
wonld oome to work on the mines for the amount ofiEered. 
Even at their high rate of pay the supply is always inade- 
qnate. 

A visitor to the Transvaal is at first impreseed with what 
appear to be hij^ rents, handsome Balaries, and extravagant 
rates of wages paid to artisans and labonrers of every descrip- 
tion ; bnt a little inrestigBtioQ shows that the whole basis of 
remuneration for labour comes down to the ooet of labour of 
the natives, and that again is regulated by the cost of living, 
which is higher than anywhere else in the world. 

If the native carried back all his earnings to his kraal he 
might then be able to buy cattle and wives, and live in com- 
parative idleness for the reet of hia life ; bnt he finds, like a 
good many white men, that there are a great many deductions 
to be made before he can realbe his dream of exalted Eafiii^ 
dom amongst bis own tribe, 

A native from Portuguese territory earns say £S a month 
on a mine, and also receives his food, bnt with its quality and 
lack (d variety he is diaaatisfied, and spends at least another 
£1 a month at eating-houses, and drink costs him bs. mor«, 
which leaves him £1 l&s., so tiiat at the end of six months he 
will have saved £10. From this, however, he most deduct 
£3 to cover the expenses his employer has been at to bring 
him to the mines. Then t^;ain, if these natives escape being 
robbed by the Boers, they probably have to disgorge on tiieir 
return to their own chiefs ; so in many cases they are in the 
same position as if they had never been to the goldfields at 
all. In many other directions th^ hare also to run the 
gauntlet before they can buy their cattle and secure their 



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856 THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

wirefl> espedaUj- u the price of the f onuer has greatly 
advanced amoe the oathreak of the rindeipest, and that regn- 
lateathe latter. 

In spite of the fact that two and a half milliona sterling are 
annoally spent on native labonr in this Witwatersrand diHtrict, 
yet it can haidly be stated that the nativea are getting rich too 
qnickly,as,whenhe enters the town, the native mnst be properly 
dressed, and many articles which were formerly loxnHeB are 
now neoesBaries ; showing that by degrees he is being raised 
from his original state of barbarity, and will leam to profit by 
the advantage of being a snl^ect of an enlightened monarch, 
and is progressing gradnally towards dvilisation. 

Another difficulty which is ever before the large empk^en 
of labonr is that of desertion ; and it is one that comes con- 
stantly before the administration of native affairs. The ori(^ 
of the trouble lies as mnoh with the contractor of native labonr 
or their agents as with the Kaffirs. 

An ^ent arranges with an employer for a thousand natives, 
and ^reea to pay them £2 10«. a month and food, in 
addition to paying all their expenses from their kraals, free 
drinks, Ac ; a bonns of £1 a head being given to the agent 
on delivery at Johannesbnrg. 

Under British mle snoh like corruption will oease, but the 
chief B will not only demand what th^ are need to obtain, but 
more, since the agent will have to be a more respectable and 
honest man, and the " presents " offered to the chief for 
" persoading " natives to come will be of less valae. It will 
be the dnty of the Government to see that whatever indnoe- 
ments are held ont to natives by employers are strictly 
adhered to, and all promisee folfilled. 

The only way to check desertion is to do away with its 
causes ; the most glaring of which are : (1) The misrepre- 
sentation by agents ; (2) The action of touts ; and by better 
management of the oomponnds. 



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NATIVE AFFAIRS SBl 

The great evil of desertioii, however, reqaiies no heroic 
remedies ; it can be dealt with by a properly conoeired aod 
honestly adminiBtered pass law; by the appointment of 
qualified officials in native districts and on the Tnain roDtes 
of entry into the conntiy. Hen the employers themselves 
have a great deal in their own hands. Withont their coo- 
nivanoe the toat would not exist, and, conseqnently, the 
natives wonld not be Inred away to other employers who 
promise them snperior advantages ; and, certainly, it is within 
their competence to see that the maaagers of the oompoands 
do titeir daty to the natives in their chat^ 



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CHAPTER XXXII 

JOHANNESBURG MUNICIPALITT 

During the period of martial law under the Boer aathoritaes 
the town of Jobannesbiir^ was eztremely quiet. 

MoBt of the English people had been pat over the border, 
and most of the Dntch were on oommando. 

Here and there in the streets one came across a bit of a 
boy with a rifle, lookiog like a country lont going ont for a 
day's shooting. He might occasionally ask a question in 
Datch, bnt as to the answer he did not appear to be par- 
ticularly interested. 

After the occupation by the Britiah martial law was found 
to have qnite another significanoe, though it was by no 
means as strictly enforced in Johannesbuig, until quite 
recently, as it was in Pretoria. 

The taking over or the modifying of the obligations of 
the late Oovemment in regard to the following proolamatioQ 
has agitated the minds of the few remaining reeddente and 
the refugees in the colony not a little, caused by the meet- 
ings that were called together to discnss the no-rent question. 
The apprehension got abroad that tenants of houses might 
after all be compelled to b^in the payment of their rents 
before the means of earning the wherewithal was possible. 
The fear of the edict being also retrospeotire also made them 
feel most anxions. It would hare spelt ruin to the majority 
of households who had been depending on the terms of the 
proclamation. 



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JOHANNESBURG MUNICIPALITY 

PSOCIAHATIOIT BT HIS HOKODB THE PEESIDBNT. 



Bb it hebebt uiDZ khowk that 

Since the proclamation of martial law (L w No, 20, 1898) and 
the stoppage in conaeqnenoe to a large extent, or wholly, of the 
earnings of the public in general, it has been found neoeesary to 
make certain provisions with regard to the collection of moneys 
for rent of dwellings, faamnees pdaoes, farms, or pensions thereof 
ondor contract of hire. 

So it is that I, Stefhanus Johaitnes Faulub Kbcoeb, Pred- 
dent of the South African Aepublic, with the advice and consent 
c£ the executive council, according to Article 966 of their Minutes 
dated October 24, 1899, do hereby proclaim and make known : — 

(1) From the date of the proclamation of martial law (Law 
ISo. 20, 1898) until the same is withdiawn, the owners or agents 
of dwellings, fanns, or portions thereof, will in no case have the 
right to demand rent moneys from their tenants, nor will the 
owners or their agents after martial law is repealed have any 
claim on the rent for the period during martial law. 

From these provisions will he excluded all who have rented 
boildings used as shops, or where any other bumness is carried 
on. For such buildings, however, only half the usual rental can 
be collected during the time martial law remains in force, and 
neither owners nor their agents will be allowed, when martial 
law is repealed, to demand more than htUf-rent for the period 
during the operation of the said law. 

Lessees c^ houses, or portions thereof, in which a spirit mer- 
chant's businees was carried on, and whose businees is at present 
dosed by order of the Government, aooordingto executive council 
resolotion, Article 907, dated October 2, 1899, will faU under the 
same provision as the lessees of dwelling houses aforementioned, 
as long as the last mentioned executive council resolution remains 
in force. 

(S) Private loan entered into by means of bonds on ground or 
other fixed property, shall not during the period aforementioned 
be liable to interest, and no recovery of interest can be made by 
the bondholder after repeal of martial law for such period. This 



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S60 THE ANGLO BOER WAR 

fltipulation shall tiaa ftppl; to loans gnntod uodar the omortis*- 
tianfund. 

QoB Satb Land ahd F10P12. 

Given nnder my hand &t Pretoria, on this the 25bh ia.y of 
Ocitober, 1899. 

(Signed) 8. J. P. KscraxR, 

State FneidMit. 
„ F. W. Run, 

State Secretary. 

It ia a well-kDown £ac( that the mnnicipol ^oremment of 
JohanneBbarg nnder the Boers was most oormpt.* If a 
bnrgher did not waat to pay hie rates and taxes he wrote to 
Mr. Kniger, and on snthorisatioa was given exempting the 
objector from liability, not only on that partionlar ooGaidon 
bat also for the fntore. Ont of tJie forty-^ve thousand 
inhabitants 'of Johannesbnig there were only a thonsand 
bnrghers who bad a property qoalifioation to vote. Yet one 
half of the man^ement of the town's afiairs was in their hands. 

It requires bnt a short residence in Johannesbnig to find 
oat that it b a heavily taxed place. It costs more to live 
here than anywhere in the world. Doable the income ia 
reqaired to provide a far lower standard of comfort than 
prevails in any other quarter. Had the Boeia been BQCcessfal 
and realised their aspiration for a United Datch Bep&blic for 
all South Africa it was their intention to make Johannesborg 
pay the ^50,000 promised to Mr. Steyn for his co-operation 
to secnre the closer anion of the two Bepablics, as well as the 
additional £1 00,000 to be given to him when the coneolidation 
had been accomplished. A farther indacement was that he 
shonld eveutnally become President in place of Mr. Krager, 
who woold in the nature of things retire, or depart this life. 
The Boer forecast, happily, has been falsified by the resolt. 

* Louia and ooDCMrioiu an dealt with In ■ wparate ohapter. The 
municipal aooonnta were ao managod aj to provide large anrns for the 
secrat serTiae, and in^nlaritle* appear under almoit ereiy head of 
oipendltnie. 



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JOHANNESBURG MUNICIPALITY 36l 

The upshot of the war has been most disastrous for Mr. Kmger 
and Mr. Steyn, as well as for the poor burghers, who were 
deceired by the grossest misrepresentations. Until time has 
proved how terribly the people were misguided much Iritteiv 
ness of feeling will remain, though, to speak from my own 
experience, I saw nothing of it when in their hons^. The 
first duty of the Goremment ie to place thoroughly honest and 
honourable men at the head of departments. 

In a letter which I have received from a burgher, who 
oanuot be described as satisfied with the turn of events, there 
oocors the following statement : "As a citizen I heartily 
endorse the golden opinions yon have formed of the tact and 
judgment of the Military Governor and the military officers 
under him — an opinion entertained by all civilians who have 
any business relations with the Imperial authorities." This 
is as it should be ; but it is obriously not easy for men who 
are military and not civil administrators to give satisfaction 
to all who have important interests in this hurrying mining 
town. The post of burgomaster is at present held by Major 
(^Meara, an officer in the Royal Engmeers graded as B-A. A,G. 
The major's valuable services as chief staff officer to Colonel 
Kekewidi daring the dege of Kimberley will be remembered. 
A brief acquaintance with him leaves the impression that the 
ruling thought of his life and actions is equity. Constantly 
one bears him ask whether a certain thing is right, or whether 
it ie the best that can be done in the circumstances. When 
military rule has to ^ve place to civil control it is earnestly 
to be hoped that such an officnal as Major O'Meara may be 
found to hold sway in this town, where heretofore anything 
oonld be managed by a bribe. 

On June 1, when the British occupied Johannesburg, the 
jurisdiction of the Town Council extended over only the twelve 
wards proper of the town. Outside the limits on the north 
and the east were the townships of Parktown, Berea, Yeoville, 



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sen THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Lorentzville, Belleme, Beitnun'a Town, and Troyeville, which 
managed their own municipal aEEaira. The work of the moni- 
dpality was, daring the Boer dispenaation, arranged under 
the following faeada; Secretary's Department, Town Treasarei^s 
Department, Lighting Department, Town Engineer's Depart- 
ment, Sanitary Department, Medical Officer of Health's De- 
partment, Fire Brigade, Traffic Department, Inspector of 
Locations' Department, and the Aasizer's Department. After 
the British occupation one of the first acts of the new Govern- 
ment was the inclnsion of the ontlying townships in the 
municipality, so as to put the whole inhabited area under the 
jurisdiction of the military officer detailed to take charge of 
mnnicipal affairs on the goldfields. The duties of the Town 
Treasurer's Department under the Boers were as follow : to 
ooUect aseesament and sanitary rates and keep a proper record 
thereof ; to collect licence fees and preserre proper registers ; 
to collect amounts, fines, dues, and sums acoming from other 
sources of revenue, and to properly account for the same ; 
and to conduct the finances of the Town Conncil and especially 
regulate the expenditure of the various departments. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the operations of the 
Treasurer's Department may be gathered &om an examination 
of the statement of income and expenditore pnbUshed by the 
late Town Conncil for the year 1898. In that year a revenue 
of £498,110 23. 8d. was collected from all soorceB, against a 
total expenditure of £419,527 lU Id. On December 31, 
I89S, the liabilities of the monicipality were £458,657 1 1s. 7d., 
and on the same date the assets were valued at £445,254 15«. 7(2. 
Naturally, the war adversely affected the finances of the town. 
Certain Kq>enditure had to be incurred in connectioQ mtii 
the street lighting, street scavenging, sanitaiy services, Ac., 
but at the same time there was a considerable loss of revenue. 
In consequence the town debt to the banks increased &om 
£108,521 13a. on October 1, 1899, to £126,120 ISs. 2d. on 



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JOHANNESBURG MUNICIPALITY 36S 

Jnne 1, 1900. On May 31 last the liabilities of the tnunici- 
pality amounted to £440,215 12$. 8if., while the assets were 
valued at £581,184 19s. M., bo that the financial position of 
the town is really soond. No licence is now granted to any 
trader nnless he first prodnoes a receipt that be has paid np 
all arrears of sanitary fees, chai^;e8 for gas and electricity, 
ice. The adoption of this measure was found necessary to 
protect the rerenne. 

Since the British oconpation a manicipal pound has been 
established, owing to the large number of stray ftniniftla 
wandering about in the streets, while the registration of 
Uoycles has been also taken in hand. The revenue derived 
from these sources has exceeded the expenditure incurred in 
connection with both measures. The municipality is com- 
pelled in the meantime to proceed in a hand-to-mouth fashion, 
but it is able to meet all its current liabilities. Between June 1 
and August 31 the various amounts paid into the Treasury 
totalled some £30,000, and a further sum of £10,000 was due 
from the Imperial Government for services actually performed. 
The street lightdng of a Urge town such as Johanuesbui^ 
ie s most important matter during a critical period, the 
qnestioa of cost has been laid aside, and despite the fact that 
only about one quiuter of the normal population is at present 
in the place the lamps are kept burning in the thoroughfares 
throughout the night. A matter which also required atten- 
tion was the system by wiiich stores needed by the several 
departments were obtained and issued. Ko ledger accounts 
appear to have been kept for some time past. The heads of 
departments purchased in bulk whatever was wanted. Now, 
however, all purchases are made under the authority of the 
bui^omaster, tenders being first obtained whenever possible. 
Issues have to be certified to by chiefs of departments, and 
a receipt va obtained from the person actually using the 

StOTM. 



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CHAPTER XXXIII 

THE FINANCIAL ADVISER IN JOHAKNESBTJRG 

At one time tbis office in Johftnnesborg was not filled to the 
entire satisfactioii of the civil population and even oansed the 
military element Bome annojrance. 

In the opinion of many, military men have a monopoly of 
imperionB stand-offishness, bnt not a few will agree with me 
that it is a Eailing occasionally fonnd in dvilians that from 
one OTcamBtance or another are placed in positionB of 
authority or attached to some Government office, and espe- 
cially is this observable if they have rapidly acquired great 
we&ltli in their walk in life. It has been my happy fate 
whilst in Sonth Africa and journeying in transports to and 
fro, covering altogether the great distance of 86,840 miles by 
sea, rul, road, and river, to have met with great coorteey and 
much vEilnable assistance, wit^ut which I could never have 
acoomplished the task set before me. 

Without seeking and obtaining that reliable informati«i 
which the public offices alone conld furnish, this work conld 
ooold never have been published. Though I would not, how- 
ever, be supposed to have received information or assistance 
that was not open to anybody else who might desire it, and 
take the trouble to obtain it. 

I, therefore, in common with the other officials at the head 
of administrative departments, visited Mr. Hamilton, who 
was then acting as financial adviser to the military govemw, 



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FINANCIAL ADVISER IN JOHANNESBURG 365 

witlL the object of obtaining a few facts in regard to the 
working of Ms office. 

By name I was no stranger to ^'"1 ; he was likewise folly 
awue of the natore of the work I was engaged apon, and 
also that other offices had made no undue difficnlties in the 
granting <^ my reqiieBta. 

I was received by Mr. Hamilton in the most unciril 
manner^ and the following statement, which wan sent to me 
a few days later, given nnder his own hand, shows the spirit 
of ridicule in which, as a perfect stranger, I was treated, and 
the caricatnre he made of his own office. It began : — 

Ibis is more or less an ornamental department, and is a popular 
one with the public, perhaps because they have comparatively 
little to do with it. It is nominally under the charge of Lieu- 
tenant Daniell, of the Seaforth Highlanders, A.D.O. to the 
military governor, under whose general saperrision and guidance 
the actual work is done by Monsieor Leopold Bourdaas. This 
gentleman's intercourse with the publio, sometimes under difficult 
drcnuBtanoes, is marked by that grace and nrbanity which are 
charaoterntio of bis nation. His appointment, which was made 
out of respect to the French resdents in Johannesburg, is another 
evidence of the tact and good feeling shown by the military 
goveroor in all his arrangementa. As I have said, the depart- 
ment has little to do except to assist the wives and children of 
burghers and others still at the front who have left bank balances 
behind them, and to arrange remittances for Hollanders, Greeks, 
Italians, and other deported persons. There is no £uancaal ques- 
tion or difficulty in Johanneeburg, the Government coffers being 
amply supplied from the revenue, including the specially large 
receipts of the liquor ocmuuission, under Major MacpheiBon, and 
of the criminal investigation department, under Captain Astell, 
from confiscated gold. 

There being but little financial business to advise upon, it 
follows that the position of adviser is a very nominal one, bat 
were it otherwise the governor is ^imimlf more than able to cope 
with any queetion which may &ri8e,vand it is more than likely 
that this appointment will follow that of legal adviser to the 



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866 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

military governor, whitA has quite recently bera abolished. l%e 
appoiDtment c^ fitmnrtnl adviser to the militaiy govemor rf 
Johannesburg is not to be confused with that of finapcial adriaer 
to the field marshal oommanding-in-chief in South Africa, whieh 
important position la held by Mr. Emrys Evans, late British 
vioe-consnl in Johaaneeburg. 

Neitlier tlie cleremeas nor the insolence of this document 
can be readily detected withont the explanation that MooBiear 
Ijeopold Boardais is the email boy that ran the lift up and 
down to the rarions fioors for the officers attached or Tifdting 
the boilding. The ironical remark in reference to the aide- 
de-camp is self evident. The obeerration ae to the bni^hers 
and their wives has no point but of aarcasm, and so on to the 
«nd of this literary production. With the exception cS Mr. 
Moneypenny, formerly the editor of the JohannetSmrg jStor,who 
was in charge of civil suppliea, and who also refused informa- 
tion in any form, on the groonds that he was " in the same 
line of bounees " as I was, I had no instance of want of 
courtesy from any staff-officer in any part of the vast area 
over which I had travelled. 

Afi I have already said, Colcmel Mackenzie avoided as far 
far as possible placing local men on his staff, bnt tlie 
vacancies, at first, were difficult to fill with none but militaiy 
men, and I believe I am correct in stating that neither of 
these gentlemen is at present employed. 

As a matter of fact, the financial adviser's office in a town 
like Johannesburg, and under the oircnmstances existing 
daring a period of active hoBtilities is a very important one, 
and can be made the cause of great irritatioD to both the 
civil and military sections of the public that hare business 
transactions to take them to it. Above all others it requires 
a double portion of the suavUer m modo to work it without 
friction. 

In accordance with a proclamation isaned restricting tbe 



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FINANCIAL ADVISER IN JOHANNESBURG 367 

cashing of cheques to £20 a week per person, which had 
further to be initialed by the financial adviseT before they 
were presented at the banks for cash, only two hours 
a day, three times a week, were allotted for the despatch 
of this business. I have often seen fort^ to fifty persons, 
from Government officials to humble individuals in civil 
life, waiting, cheque in hand, for the adviser to give 
them the cecesBary aathorisation, and then, at the end 
of it all, many were informed, with more clettmess 
than polish, that they must come again another day, 
as it was tlien too late for their cheques to receive 
attention. 

It is right and proper that restrictions should be enforced 
in regard to monetary transactions, and care ezerciBed over 
the arrangements made for change of hands ; but where 
this principle in admitted, and no eSbrt is made to contravene 
the conditions imposed l^ Qovemment on banking operations, 
tiien it is doe to all tiiat fadlitiea be afforded, and that with 
ordinary cdvility. 

Whm this is not done, disgust at a military Tigime that 
can tolerate it is the natural consequence and breeds ill' 
feeling, both in the civil and military circles comprising the 
community. 

With all business suspended, the revenue from the various 
soorcefl of income is almost nil, but such as there is has to be 
collected by the financial adviser, who is also responsible for 
disbaisementa on accoont of all charges against the State in 
connection witJi military reqoiremeute and civil administra- 
tion ; he farther ezerdses control over all banking accounts, 
whether between banks and private individoals, or those be- 
tween banks and public bodies — such aa the municipalify and 
the hospital boards. All cheques — be they for £10 or £1000 — 
mnst be presented to the financial adviser for his anthorisa- 
tocu before presentation at the banks on which they are 



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S68 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

drawn ; no transfer of fnnda can take place witliout the 
special Banctdon of this official. 

It will thus be seen that the finandal adviser is in very 
direct contact with the pnblia 

All bankers know this office too well ; both those who are 
permitted to carry on business nnder the terms of the pro- 
clamation, and those who, for one reason or another, have 
been interdicted. 

The financial adviser is in cliaifKe, practically, of all their 
acoonnts, and their books have to be taken to hie office 
daily to be inspected ; the object of all these precaatioos 
is to prevent too great a traffic in specie, and protect the 
interest of individuals and the nltimate welfare of the colony. 
The financial adviser to the Commander-in-chief, Mr. 
Emery Evans, is in the position of State treasurer, to whom 
Mr, Hamilton and all local financial advisers are snbordinate. 
So long as the army headquarters are in Johannesbu^ the 
public will have the benefit of the services of an official 
whose manners are more courteous, with a temperament more 
willing to oblige, and who can say "No" when necessary 
without abruptness. 



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CHAPTER XXXIV 

CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOAIffi 

Even in times of peace the officers o£ the BrildBh army have 
many dntieB to perform in the course of their military career 
oateide the specifio ones their (raining is intended to fit 
them for. 

Their years <^ service are spent in many climes, with 
diverse races aad ever-changing social conditions ; the same 
way as naval officers are obliged to take an important share 
of the reaponeibilities on distant and isolated stations in the 
civil concerns of the inhabitants. 

Dnring a period of war, when the entire admlnistntive 
aathoritieB are replaced in a day by a new set, and a r^ne 
of TTiaH-.iftl lav is to carry ob the municipal goremment of a 
town, the appointment of military officers to civil posts has 
to take place immediately. In common with all the other 
duties <^ civil adminiatration, the Marrif^ Office (for people 
wish to enter the bonds of holy matrimony even in war 
time), the Belief Office for the indigent popolation, and the 
Castom House, have to be taken over on the surrender or 
capture of a town. 

In Johannesburg, Major Cavaye, in his own person, was 
responsible for carrying on the work of these three offices ; 
and to say he was kept fairly bnsy wonld mildly represent 
the demands made on his time and energies. 

It will be generally supposed that those in connection 
with the Custom House were the most arduous, but in fact 

2a 



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S70 THE ASGLO-BOEB WAR 

tluB was not BO. Baring a period of war vei; f«w datiable 
goods, and in Bxaall qnantitdeB, are dealt wiUl, for obvions 
reaaona. Tet the nadena for an entirely new staff bad to be 
fonned, and the task of translating the bnsmess books and 
acooimta from Datch into T'ingiiiib had to be undertaken, so 
as to be ready for use when reqnired. 

In most conntries the Cnstoms dues provide the bulk of 
the revenne. From the last retnms — 1898 — ^the Transvaal 
revenue was £5,438,076, of which Cnstoms does provided 
£1,066,994, and the contribation from Johannesburg was 
no less than £479,127, and the mines as a whole paid over 
£800,000— no small part of the whole. 

Being an inland State, a transit duty of 3 per oent. was 
charged by the varions ooloniee on all goods except mining 
machineiy, which the Chamber of Commerce tried to remove, 
and which is needful to facilitate the development of the 
ooontry. A fntore effort may prove more SDooessfnl nnder 
the new order of things. Althoogfa the Saws and irregn- 
larities in the Customs laws and daties have been quite 
apparent to those who have had to administer them since 
the British oocnpation, Lord Roberts felt it best to adopt 
them en hloc for present nse, as witli the responsibilitiefl 
connected with the actual state of war, he oonid not see his 
way to nndertake extensive alterations in the civil depart- 
ments pre-existing. 

Under the Transvaal Government the Cnstoms were 
collected in two ways. One method was by collecting at the 
frontier and at the ultimate destinations of the goods. The 
other was the collection of dnes on goods coming viA Delagoa 
Bay, Katal, and Cape Colony, which was made by the railway 
oompaniea, who chained a oommisaion of 15 per cent, npon 
the money collected. As the Transvaal Government had 
gaaranteed to make np the income of the railway oompaniea 
to a certain sun, and as the fignre to be reached was higher 



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CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS S71 

than the commisaioii realised, the Government had to pay 
a deficit instead of receiving a revenne &om the rulway 
companies. 

The names on the books of the CoBtom Hoose officials in 
Jobanneabai^ were bo nnmerooB (about 180 were employed) 
that it really seemed to Major Cavaye and his sssistants that 
appointments were made rather with a view of providing 
salaries for worthy bm^hets than on account of the dntiae 
existing for them to perform. 

The qnestioD as to the beet mode of raising revenne and 
the extent to which the mines and other indnstriea oan bear 
taxation is being considered, as well as the fntore treatment 
of the Kmger conoessions ; the dynamite ooncesnon being 
the most important of all. The whole prosperity of the 
oonntiy depends on the mines. A hnndied and Qtby miUicniB 
of European capital have been snnk in this indnstry in the 
lYansvaal, and to work the mines 400,000 cases of djmamite 
were annually required. Dr. Farrelly, in his work "The 
Settlement after the War," says : — 

The monopolists purchase in Europe a 501b. case of dynamite 
At a cost of i9t., paying carriage from Europe to Johannesburg 
amonnting to 10a, at the utmost. Their charge is £8 to the 
mining oompanies. Even these figaree do not repreeent the whole 
of the poedble loss to the industry. The companies oaonot use 
other cocploeives which ooet lees and are more suitable for some 
descriptions ot mining ; they are deprived of the benefit of any 
new chemical inventions as they are compelled to buy from the 
monopdista whatever the monopolists choose to sell ; and as to 
the dynamito they purchase they have no goarantee that it is of 
good quality, as the mtMiopolists have no competition to fear. 

The holder oi this monopoly is Mr. h, Q. Vorstman. 

The oMmate fate of all the concessionaires will probably . 
depend on the report giving the resolt of the inquiries made 
by the commissioners sent to the Transvaal to investigate 



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S78 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

the ocmditions under which the conoeesions wero granted, and 
all the l^al paraphernalia sorronnding the oircaniBtances. 
The oommisaioneTB for the Transraal concessions are: the 
Hon. A. liTttelton, K.C. ; M. A. M. Ashmore, C.M.O. ; 
B. K. Loreday, barriateiwiit-law ; B. Holland, seoretuy. 

If the deciaions nltimately arrived at do not settle the 
qneetions, there will be a new road to fortune opened oat 
to men learned in the law, as points of differoioe in this 
or that conoession will be constantly ccnmng into the conita 
£or adjustment. H, on the other hand, the oontinnance or 
nnllification of different oonoesaionfl is really settled od 
tlLeir merits and on the benefits t^ey oonfer, or otherwise, 
on the general public, then there will be great heart- 
bnmings amongst some of (he holders of these Transvaal 



The policy of granting oonoeseionB or monopolies ig one 
which is opposed to all economics and is contrary to the 
practice of the civilised world. Mr. Kruger, however, found 
it was a good way to reward hia particolar friends for the 
fitiftnfrifcl assistance they had given him, which accounts for 
the number c^ valuable oonceesionB being in the hands of 
certain few individnals. 

The proceedings of the Transvaal ConoeBsionB Commission 
was opened hy a notice from the High Commissioner which 
ran thus: — 

Notice is hereby given, that every cooceesioQ granted by the 
Government of the late South African Republic will be oonaidered 
by her Majesty's Government on its merits, and her Majesty's 
Government reeervee the right to decline to Ttoogoae or to 
modify any concession which may appear, on ezaminatitm, not to 
have been within the power of the Government of the late South 
African Republic, having regard to any conventions or agree- 
mentsmade between her Majesty's Government and the Govern- 
ment ot the late South African Republic, or to have been granted 
without proper legal authority, or oontraiy to law or the condi* 



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CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS 378 

tStaa of which have not been dol; complied with, or which may 
aSbet prejudidaUy the intereete of the public. 

Bjr order <^ the High GominiamoDflr, 

F. FXBKT, 

Acting Imperial Seoretory. 

Govenunent House, Oape Town, 
S^atmiv S, 1900. 

The Chairman then read the following notioea given by I h« 
Commission, viz. : 

The oommiBmoners appointed to inquira into the oonoeesionfl 
granted by the Qovonunent of the late Sonth Ahicao Bepablia 
hereby give notice that th^ will, in the first inatanoe, mqiiira 
into the following oonoeMunui, vis. :— 

(1) Any Gonceasion conferring tiie sole and flzdaaive ri^t of 
manufacturing, importing, or dealing in any commodity in the 
TransvaaL , 

(2) Any oontraot made with tiie Qovemment of the late Sonth 
African Bepublic onder the scheme approved by tiie Volksraad 
resolution. No. 1871, of November 1896. 

(8) Any coDoeedon to the National Bank, or to any other hank 
or banking instdtutitm. 

(4) Any oonceesion or oontiract for the construction ac working 
of any railway or puUio tramway, or the public sa|^ly of water 
or light. 

The first Edtting of the oommisraon will be held on OotohOT 1, 
1900. Notice will subeeqoentfy be given <^ the place of its sitting. 
All peteons desiring to be heard should communicate with tiie 
oommiflsion before the above date. Communications must be ad- 
dressed to the Secretary, Transvaal Conceesions Commission, 
Library Buildings, Cape Town. 

Conoeedonairee should send to the secretary Btatemente of any 
evidence which they desire to give, and will be required to pro- 
duce the documents on which tfa^ rely, translated into English 
and notarially certified in triplicate. 

Notice of objections to any ocmceegionB ahould also be sent to 



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37* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR . 

the aecretaiy, t<^;ether with short statdmeuto of any evidence 
whioli it ifl desired to Bubmit. 
B7 ardor of the IVkosnal Oonoeeeions CommisBion, 
Bkbhaxd Hollahd, 

Secretaiy to the Oommiaoon. 
Gape Town, 
iS»plmnb9r 8, 1900. 

The CHurmui said : 

Under ordinst; drciunstaiioes the oommitoicii would have 
opened in Pretoria, but the commigdonera knowing that there 
were a ocHisidarable number of gentlemen down here interested 
in these oonoeniooa, and being aa deairona aa poesible to aocom- 
modate these who were able to attend oar aittingB in Cape Town, 
eepeciaUy seeing that the attendance of many of them at Fretoiia 
would have inTolved great inoonvemenoe, have aet aside three or 
four days in order that witneeaee of that character mij^t be 
aooommodated. The notioes which I have read show, graierally, 
the nature of the bnsineaa b^ore the commission. Bnt I tlunk 
it is weO to point out that in each case the burden is upon any 
party ntaiming the benefits of their conceesions^to show that the 
conoeeeionfi were within the power of the Oovemment of the late 
South African Republic to giant, having regard to oonventiona 
or agreements made between t^ late South African Republic and 
her Majesty's Oovemment. In the second place, it will be neoes- 
sai; for all those claiming oonoeeai<mfl to show that they were 
granted lawfully and with proper legal authority, and in the third 
place to show that the conditions <rf the oonoeaai<m8 have been 
duty complied with ; and lastly, to show that the interests of the 
puUic are not prejudicially affected by them. As a general rule, 
subject of comae to modifications, the holder of a concession and 
bis witnesses will, in the first instance, be examined. Objecbffs 
to a concession will then be invited to give their evidence. The 
proceedings are not in the nature of a Udgation between parties, 
but of an inquiry, the oondoct and regulation of which is under 
the control of the commissioners. Inasmuch, however, as the 
pecuniary interests of concessionairee are closely involved, the 
commissioners will permit them, if they so desire it, to be repre- 
sented by oonnsel, and ^TpilaT- permission has been granted to 



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CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS S75 

the Ohamber of Mines, wboeo ocmstitueiita are olosely affected by 
the inquiry. It ie desirable to repeat that any person who wishes 
to give evidence aa to any objections to a conceeaion indepen- 
dently of the Chamber of Mines, should send in a statement of 
Buch evidence to the oommissionere, who will then call and examine 
those p6rB(»is if their evidmoe, in the opinion of the Oomnus- 
aiono^, is material to the inquiiy. In genenl the prooednxe of 
the inquiry will be as follows : The oommisdoners will examine 
the witneesee, and counsel will, where necessaiy, further examine 
or croae-ezaminB tham ; and at the cloee of each case the com- 
missioners will intimate if they desire to hear oounsd on any 
point of law arising thereon. That in general will be the pro- 
cedure adopted, subject to the modifoations which the droom- 
ebutoes of each case will demand. 

The following conoesoioQS affect Johajmesbiu^ directly or 
indirectly; — 

Market Coneeetwa. — In the year 1887 a oonoesaion was 
planted to Mr. S. Papenfos to erect market buildings and 
condnct the morning market of this town. This conoeesion 
was Kabseqnently floated into a limited liability company, 
and buildings were erected on Market Square on a block 
of ground reprraenting about twelve stands, at a yearly 
gronnd rent of £750. The market company hare the sole 
ri^t to coadoct the sale of r^^tablee and all produce on 
the martet square. They are allowed 2^ per cent, on all sales, 
1 per cent, is paid to the town council, and the balance, 
Ijr per cant., goes to the company, which also has to provide 
for the services of the market auctioneers and other officials. 

The market buildings so erected are divided into the 
general market and sundry shops, which are let at very high 
rents, and the stalls which are used in the morning mazkefc 
are, after the bnsinesB is over, rented for the remainder of 
tite day to various persons. 

In the intereets of the public at large, surely the market 
should be administered by the municipality or tovm ooundL 



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S76 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

■ Tel^kone Poles. — A conoesaon is granted to an BdverlaBuig 
compaoy by the late Goremmeiit on terms th« detaila of 
wfaiob I oonld not ucertain. The late town council protested 
against this, and were informed that the execntive oonld not 
aee any reason for their objections. 

Tramway Ctmypany. — The right of rnnning horse tiwns 
was granted to the Tramway Concession Company on very 
low terms by the late Sontb African Republic Gorenunent. 
The supervision of this conoeasion was, as far as I can onder- 
stand, placed io the hands of the Government local nominee. 
The trains are in no way enbaerrient to the town conncil, 
with the esjeption of keeping town levels and main ways 
in order. The tramway company pays no lioenoee for 
drivers and vehiolee, no rent for the nse of streets, and 
the town conncil have no control over the cleanlineBS and 
Bafety of vehicles; their drivers wear no badges, nor are 
they subject to any examination as to their driving 
qnalificstiona, &o. 

Water Crnictssion — A conoesaion has been granted by the 
late South African Republic Government to the Johannesburg 
Waterworks Company to lay water-pipes throughout the 
town and suburbs, and they have, I believe, the monopoly of 
supplying water to the following private townships: Park- 
town, Berea, Yeoville, Bellevue, Bertrams Town, Lorentsville, 
IVoyeville, Fairview, City and Suburban Township, Maishalls 
Town, Jeppeetowu, Fordsbnrg, Doomfontein, New Doom- 
fontein, North Doomfontein, Belgravia, Hillbrow, and 
Houghton Estate, and should any other company be pro- 
moted or any other water sopply obtained, they would, 
owing to the present concession, only have the right to 
sopply Johannesbui^ proper and Ferreira Town with water, 
and it is very doabtfol if even the town oouncO have the 
right to supply water to any of the above-named sabnrbs. 
The monicipality have no ocmtrol orei the company, and 



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CVSTOWS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS 877 

oumofc prevent the supply of polluted and dangerous wkter 
to the public 

Ocu and MUdrie lAghUng. — Mr. Cowell, the oonsnltiDg 
engiQeer of the lighting Department, reports on this anbject 
as follows : — 

The gfts Goncesfiion was gianted in 1888 to MeaarB. Dawson and 
Hamilton of Pretoria. 

It was sold to the J<duumesbarg Oompany in 1889, and by 
tiiem to the Johanncaburg lighting Oompany in 1892. The 
eleotrio light conoession -wss granted in 1889 to MeSEDU Qoin, 
Holboom and Oonsens, and sold to the Jobaoneeburg Gas Com- 
pany. In 1893 it was sold to the Johannesburg Lighting 
Company. 

In 1895 both these concefisiozia were sold to the Johannesbrirg 
Sanitary Board for j£S2,500, for rights within its jurisdiction. 

The M*^™*"*'' Township Syndicate claimed to have a right in 
their township for electric lighting, which they tnuufwrod before 
the township was handed over to the town oonncil, I believe, 
to Mr. J. Fftterson and others. No actual use has, however, ap 
to the present been made of this, except to giant pemuBsion to 
oroes a street. 

The Mayfair township also claimed this ri^t, and I nnderetiuid 
it was daimed for Doomfontein. 

For the conoeetdon money paid the municipality ahoold have 
bad the sole right Ol laying or fixing pipes, mains, cables, wires, 
kCy in or over aU etxeMs, roada^ or other pubUo plaoes within 
the limits of the mnnicipiJity, for the purpose of supplying gas 
or electricity for lighting, heating, or motdve power. 

In several cases leave has been granted by the municipality to 
otiter parties to cross streets for the purpose of supplying elec- 
tricity from private souroee to other buildings. This was partly 
because the town oould not supply enough themaelvee, and partly 
because there were difficulties in the way of opposing such 
Explications ; it is not iMng clearly defined that the municipality 
actually possesses the sole right and proper titles to the street. 

BriekTodkLng Concession, — A concession has been granted hj 
the late South African Bepnblic Qoremment for the making 



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578 THE ASGLO-BOEB WAR 

of bridn in the brickfields, with the detaili of which I bare 
DOt made iHTBelf aoqnainted. The brickfields are snrronnded 
by inhabited hooaes, and the mannfactnre of bridks on this 
spot can easily degeneiate into a naiBanoe, over which the 
mnnicipality would have only a small controL A otMOOMHiaci 
has also been gnrated for making machine bricks. 

Carbide of Caldum. — ^A concession has been granted by the 
late South African Bepnblio Goremment for the manofacfcnre 
of this chemical. A &ctory has been estaUished in Johaones- 
bnig within the mnnicipal limits. 

Weighbridge. — A coacession was granted by the late Sonth 
African Bepnblio Goremment to certain parties for the sole 
right of raeoting weighlwidges in Jobanneaboi^. This oon- 
oeesion was purchased by the Mariret Buildings Company, 
■who are the present holders. 

Seweiragt. — A concession was granted to Messrs. Mendels- 
sohn and Bmce to constmct a general sewage system tat 
the town of Johanneabnrg, but owing to the action of 
the town oonncil and the preBsnre brought by the general 
public on the Transvaal QoTemment this oonoession was 
cancelled. 

Bottles. — A oonoeeaion was granted by the late South 
African Republic Government for the manufacture of bottles. 
No factory has up to date been established in Johannesbnig, 
though there is one in Pretoria. 

Jama. — A concession for the manufacture of jams and 
preserved fruits was granted to Mr. Solomon Qillingham l^ 
the late Sonth Afrioaa Bepnblio Government, No factor; 
has np to date been established in Johannesburg. Id tiiis 
respect likewise Pretoria is ahead. Messrs. Lewis and Marks 
have started one there. 

Brooms, Matches, and Soap. — Concesmoos have been granted 
by the late South African Bepublio Government for the 
manufacture of these artieles, which are protected by heavy 



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CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS 879 

import duties, and soap and matcli factories are established 
in Johanoeslmrg. 

Qmntono, — Owing to the local manof acture of qnisisana in 
the TnnsTBal a duty of 3«. per dozen has been placed on all 
imported aerated waters by the late Sonth African Bepablic 
Ghtremment. 

Iron. — A conoessiixi for the smelting of iron haa been 
granted in certain portions of the Stat« by the late Sonth 
A6ioan Itepablio GkiTemment. 

ffOTWTTWBeni Enirt^t. — A concession has been granted by 
the late Sonth African Bepnblic GFovemment to Mr. 
M. A. Zoocola for a Govemmeat entrepdt for the storing of 
all onclaimed and nnreleased goods received by the railway 
at Johanneebnrg. There is a similar entTepdt at Pretoria. 

Cemeat. — This local numnfactnre is protected by a very 
heavy dniy on the imported article. 

The famooe Nellmapins concession is given on page 329 in 
exterao in oonnectaon with the native labonr qnestion and 
drink prohibition. 

Tht report of the oommiasioners of the Transvaal conces- 
sions will exhaostively set forth all conditions that are detri- 
mental to the welfare of the general pnblic, and make 
Bi^gestions as to how they may be most advant^;eonBly dealt 
with by the governing anthorities. To illnstrate how irritating 
some of the concessionB are to bosiness people, I will mention 
the mirtp^ conoeBsion in Johannesburg. In its present form 
it presses nndoly on the private individual and on the mer- 
chant : all are compelled to ground their goods in this place, 
and for doing so have to pay a rental of \\d. per 100 lb. a 
day. Seeing that the goods have already paid 3 per cent, per 
100 IbL per month at the coast ports, this is a heavy extra 
choi^, and in the interest of the development of the country 
and those eng^ed in the import trade, it might with advan- 
tage be lightend. 



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S80 THE ANGLO-BOEB WAR 

The latest retains show a decrease of £1,718,606 in the 
Talne of general goods and prodoce imported into the Trans- 
raal as compared with the previoaa year, 1697, and a corre- 
■pooding decrease in the datiefl collected to tlie amoont of 
£230,815 4t. Qd. 

The receipts of GuBtoms for 1898 were £1,058,224 8f. lid., 
as against £1,289,037 13a. hd. for 1697. 

The reason of the decrease may be attribnted to the poli- 
tical situation and the apprehen&on of a war with Great 
Britain, which naturally led to the disinclination on the 
part of the merchants to replace their stock as it was sold 
out. 

Under the new rigime, when the country settles to peaceful 
pnrsnits it may be confidently expected that with amended 
laws and a strict impartiality in admiuiatering them the 
rereDue of the annexed territories will mount to "^^^I'^g 
heights : a reflex of the nntold wealth that has, as yet, been 
bat barefy scratched in this vast sub-continent. 

In connection with the Orange Free State and Transraal 
loans, the best advice will be supplied to the Qoremment by 
Sir David Barbour, who has been sent on a mission to these 
newly annexed territories, to ascertain all the facts snr- 
ronnding the claims pat forward and their guarantees as 
snpplied by the former Governments of these two colonies. 
The most important of these Qovemment loans are : 

Orange Free State Sic per Cent. Loan £200,000 (£100,000 
issued). — This loan of £1 00,000 was offered for pablio tender 
in Jane 1884, at a minimum price of par, and the whole 
amount was allotted at prices ranging from the miaimnm to 
105. The loan is secured on apreferential lien on the general 
levenne of the State and by the shares held l^ the Goverur 
ment, to the extent of £70,000, in the National Bank of the 
Orange Free State, limited. The London agent for the 
Ghivemment is the Standard Bank of South Africa. The 



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CUSTOMS, CONCESSIONS, AND LOANS 881 

IH-eaent oatstanding amonnt of the loan is now only £25,000, 
the balance having been paid off by annual drawings of £5000 
per tumnm, 

SoaiK African BepuUic (Transvaal) JFHve per Cent. Chvem- 
metU Loan. — ^Thia loan of £2,500,000 was iasned in July 
1892, \tj Messrs. N. M. Rothschild and Sons at the price of 
£90 per cent. The secnrity for the loan is the entire revenne 
of the Bepnblic derived from all sonrces. The redemption of 
the loan at par (£100 per cent.) was to have commenced in 
1903. 

Franao-Bdgian Con^nyofthe Noiikem Railway of the South 
African E^vblie. Fowper Cent. Guaranteed Bonds. — A first 
issue of £500,000 was made in January 1893 by the Railway 
Share Trust and Agency Company, limited, London, at 77 per 
cent., anda second issue of £1,000,000 at 93^ per cent, in 1894. 
Both principal and interest were guaranteed by the Republic, and 
the bonds bear the counter-signature of its Minister in Europe. 
The bonds were redeemable at £100 per cent, whenever the 
South African Republic thought fit. There were shares to 
the amount of 12,500,000 fraucs iseued, partly to the con- 
cessionaires of the railway, and the reminder privately. The 
question of the shares having the guarantee of the South 
African Republic is still sub jvdxce. The greater portion of 
these shares remains in the hands of the ori^nal allottees. 

Pretoria-Fietersburg Hailway Company, Lwvited Shares. — 
There are 50,000 shares of £10 each ; 30,000 were subscribed 
for by the Government of the South African Bepnblic, 500 
were issued to the concessionaires, and the remainder were 
subscribed in London. The interest was guaranteed by the 
Government of the South African Republic, and 4 per cent, 
interest was paid up to December 1898. The concession 
bears date November 1895. 

Faar per Cent. Dd>entwes.— £.350,000, all issued. These 
debentures were offered for sabscription by Messrs. Morton, 



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M2 THE ASGLO-BOER WAS 

Bms a C6. u to £250,000 «t 98 per onL in M^ IS97, mA 
M to £700,000 It 91 per cnt. by Man. J. Henry Scfavte 
A Co. in February 1899. The principal and intanak sen 
gnatanteed totlieholden by the Gomiunenfto< tfe Sana 
African BepnUic, and ead bond waa oonntengned fay tka 
leprcMutabra of the GovmuuBt ^w dtilnjiilann whs 
repayaUe at par by annaal dnwinga in fifty yean, «■»- 
™MK»"g in January 1695. 

The diridenda on all the loana ha¥B not been paid anee 
JnJy 1900 indnare. 

In regard to th« final aettlonient of all theqneatiana am- 
oeeted with mranoei, ocaiceaBidna, and loans, it is the geaenDy 
accepted opinkm liiat in taking over the l^anavaal and 
Orange IVee State, the Goranment at the nnie time 
has taken orer tbeir a aaet a , at least all those that bold 
absolute gnaranteea from the f txnier Goranmeota, of wfaiefc 
I am told there is no doabt in r^;ard to any of the abore 
iasties, with the exception of the ahare iBsiiee of tbe Korthon 
Railway of the late Sooth African Bepoblic 



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CHAPTER XXXV 

PBETOKIA AND THE IKISH HOSPITAL 

AlTEB wandermg and journeying over land and sea that 
covered not a few thousand miles, I arrived in Pretoria. 

Although Johanneebnrg is the oommerdal centre, eoA 
Potchefstroom, a small town sitoated on the Mooi river, is by 
oonstdtntioaal law the capital of the late Sonth African 
Bepnblic, Pretoria, as the seat of government, ia the place to 
which all eyes have tnmed, and to reach it many futile efforts 
were made. The militaiy dictum was enoogh to deter most 
people from making the attempt, thongh there were two 
ladies daring enongh to set all anthority at defiance, and 
np they came to this forbidden land in the hospital train 
disgnised as nnraes ! These " stowaways " were not fonnd ont 
witil it was too late to send them back ; and as those who 
ahonld have reported them decided that discretdon was the 
better part of valonr, they maintuned silenoe. 

Wlien these sham norsea were enjoying their luncheon in 
Heath's Hotel, they saw me from their " little comer " and 
felt an uneasy sensation lest I should recognise them, and in 
an nngoarded moment say something which would expose 
their tme position and lead the stafE officers seated near 
to investigate the " circomstances " of their pres^ioe. 

It was with a sigh of relief they saw me go oat of the 
dining room I7 another door at the opposite end &om where 
they were sitting, and once again they felt safe and resumed 
Quia lunch with improved appetites. 



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584 THE ANQLO-BOER WAR 

In this maimer thme two "good tdBters" paid a horriad 
riBit to Frrixnis and then returned to the oolonyin the same 
way as they came, and, I need hardly say, jubilant at the 
Boooess that had attended their daring performance. Others 
of the fair sex had before tried this game, bnt only saooeeded 
as far as getting to Bloemf ontein, and there had to go through 
the ordeal of appearing before the military governor, being 
by hia order sent by the next train back to the colony. 

Many descriptionB have been ^ven of Pretoria as it 
presents itself to the eye of a stranger. 

In going the thirty-seven miles to Pretoria from Johannes- 
bnrg the traveller is under the impression that he is constantly 
ascending to a higher altitude, bnt this is not really so, as the 
former town is abont a hnndred feet lower than the Golden 
City. 

Pretoria is beantifnlly sitnated in a lovely apland valley 
4500 feet above the level of the sea, and is snrronnded by the 
Witwatersbei^ hills, whilst Johannesbnrg is on a plain of the 
high veld, a place that was not thought of fifteen years aga 
The whole country round might then have been bought up 
for three or four thousand pounds. It has sprung np, like a 
magic creation in the wilderness, in response to the wave of 
a fairy's wand ; with wonderful shops, such as are to be 
seen in East Street, Brighton — fine streets and public 
buildings, with which this " Queen of Watering Places " has 
not wherewitli to compare. 

Pretoria, though quite young, can boast of a somewhat 
longer historical record. FromthetimetheBeatof government 
was transferred to it from Potehefstroom, in 1863, it has been 
a place of some importance, and the scene of several political 
movements. Now the British authorities have most wisely 
settled that its career is not to be out short in favour of 
Johannesburg as a seat of government. At the proclamation 
of King Edward the Seventh in Pretoria on bis accession to 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL 38iJ 

the throne he was made " supreme lord in and over the 
TranBTaal." 

Although it is most tme that Pretoria has not kept pace 
with Johanneebnrg, still the great prosperity arising from the 
disooreiy of gold and the coal industries has visihly affected 
it. 

With the extraordinary increase in public finances, which 
in 1870 stood at £30,000 per annum, and according to the 
laet return, in 1898, was no less than £5,4.38,000, it would 
have been odd in the extreme if the capital did not come in 
for some of the shares of the spoil. 

In the march of events and in the race for wealth and 
power, Pretoria certainly lost many of its charms and most of 
its characteristics as a Dutch town, without, as yet, benefiting 
by the exchange. At this moment it is an incongruous coo- 
ghmieration of the grand and simple. 

It strikes the beholder as an overgrown countiy village 
which has been to a continental metropolis to borrow fine 
buildings wherewith to bedeck itself. It seems as if the 
ambitions inhabitants had dumped down their fine purchases 
at the comers of the main square, placing the Dutch 
Beformed Church in the centre ; and then with folded bands 
and looks of interrogation seemed to say in accents fall of 
emotion and satisfaction to all beholders " Then I See what 
we can do 1 What do yon think of onr fine town P Have 
yoa better buildings than these to show ? " 

Some of their edifices are really very beautiful, and, 
naturally, everybody is full of admiration for them ; but 
somehow they seem strangely out of keeping with the swift 
running streams of clear water that fiow on eadi side of the 
streets, with hedges of rosea, lines of willows and sweet- 
scented violets that grow in profusion everywhere — the latter 
like daisies between the cobble stones in the countiy towns in 
England. 

2b 



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Sa6 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Kear this great Bqiure are handsome bnildings belonj^ng 
to large firms like Lewis and Marks, the Trangraal Loan and 
Mortgage Tnuta, the National Bank, the State Mint, and 
last, bat not least, the palatial bnildingB of the Baadaaal 
and the oew Law Courts, both of which aie in the aqnare 
iteelf. Indeed, the two last named are called " Pretoria's 
Architectoral Glory." They ate boUdingg that any Govern- 
ment might be proud to possees. 

The Raadzaal was erected from designs by Mr. Wierda, 
the Government architect, at a coet of £138,000. In orameo- 
tdoQ with it the following incident may be mentioned as 
illnstrative of the workings of the Boer mind. At the first 
qiiart«rly Ghnrch gathering for the Nachtmaal after the 
erection of the gold statne representing " Liberty " which 
snnnotrntB the entrance, the bnrghers with their familiee, 
who had come from long distances in the oonntr; in their 
waggons, were drawn up with their teams of oxen in the 
square. Many of them were seen to be looking at the 
top of the new boildings with great diisataafactioB. Soowl- 
ings and mntteringe with angry gestures denoted tlLeir hostile 
attitude. Bnt what was the trouble ? The Executive Council 
of the Volksraad and Mr. Kroger were soon informed of their 
grievance by petition. The burghers begged that the 
woman's figure on the top of the new Raadsaal mi^t be 
removed, for it could only be intended for Queen Victoria or 
the "Virgin Mary, and both were equally objectionable. 

The IJzecutive Cotmdl tried to explain to the petitioneTS 
that it was only a symbolical statue, and was neither in- 
tended to represent Queen Victoria nor the Virgin Mary ; 
it was but an imaginary figure of "Liberty." The 
burghers, howerer, shook their heads and would not believ& 
They remained fixed in their opinions, and, bat for the war, 
the beautiful statue of tiie sew Baadaaal wonld ere tlie 
have been removed from its elevated positicai. 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL 887 

AM the rank and fashion of Pretoria except the Presdent 
lived in noble mansiooi in the saborbs, a short diatance out 
of town, the principal being Sonnyaide, Heya Park, and 
AreacUa ; bat dniing the past year and a half the majori^ of 
the owners have not been "at home," dne to the action of 
either the Boer or British anthorities, who have seen fit to 
deport them to the border. 

In the meanwhile their comfortable dwellings have become 
the happy hnnting-groimd of, first, the Sntch veld comets, 
then the British staff officers, who have been quartered 
there in great nmnbera since Uie end of Roberts' march in 
Jane of 1900. 

These snmptnoos places of abode were a great relief after 
the tramp, tramp on the veld, and the ni^ts spent oat on 
the open dmring the preceding foar or five months. The 
piotnresqne hills snnoanding this Dntoh town were a pleasant 
change to the vast expanse of flat coontry they had left 
behind them. Beeidee, the troops were buoyed up with the 
thought that when th^ once reached Pretoria and made 
effective their occupation the war was over; but, alas! 
weeks run into months and the end of hostilities is not yet. 

During the period that I was in Pretoria, life was restricted 
hy the r^nlations imposed by martial law. A special permit 
was required for everything — to enter the city, to leave it, 
to take a house or let it, to drive, ride, or ride a bicycle, or to 
be out of the home after seven o'clock in the evening ; to cash 
a cheque over £20 a week, to bay or to sell anything ; in short, 
one felt that one had to go to the military governor to breathe. 
Lord Athlumney as provost marshal had enoagh to do to 
ngn these passes after the applicants had satisfied him as to 
their identity and fitness to receive them. 

In Pretoria, as nowhere else, one felt one lived under 
martJal law. If any of these dicta were ignored, " Tommy 
Atkins " had strict orders as to how to proceed. Any one 



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888 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

oftD^t without the neoessary pass soon found himself or hers^ 
nnder arrest, and token to the Court Hoase. Eren a general 
offiow had to prodnce his pass or go through this ordeaL 

A naval officer, who had just come from Barberton for 
snpplies, and who had not heard the password for the night, 
was BO detained, though he was in anifom], and had to prove 
his identity at the nearest charge office, which, Inckily, he had 
little trouble in doing, as he found a friend there to whom he 
was well known. But for this coincidence he might hare had 
to pass an uncomfortable night. 

In spite of all precantions, which were strictly thongh 
oonrteoQBly enforced, the lives of Lord Koberts and his staff 
were plotted against and actually attempted. 

Pretoria has always been a great centre of intrigue and 
political corruption, and it will take a long tune before it can 
claim a dean bill of health from this disease. 

One insensibly feels there is something underhand going 
on, A sense of suspicion pervades the air, which I have never 
notdced in any Dutch town except perhaps on the last day I 
was in Bnstenberg. 

This is doubtless attributable to the fact that Pretoria wu 
the centre of officialdom, and more closely associated with 
Mr. Kmger (or, as his family pronounce hia name, Creer) 
tiian anywhere else in the Transvaal. Another point in this 
connection which superinduces a feeling of doubt and sue- 
picdon, is the continued residence of Mrs. Kmger in Pretoria. 

I have heard many comments on the wisdom of allowing 
her to remain, as a channel of intelligence to the enemy, 
and of the extraordinary choice she has evinced in preferring 
to stay in the capital when it is in the occupation of the 
forces with which her husband and his bnrghers are in 
armed conflict. 

But, as she says, she is old, she is infirm, she baa never 
been in a train in her life, and she knows she is safe with tho 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL 389 

English, BO why shoold she wander over the ootmtay and 
endnre all the hu^Bhips of war ? 

Od one occasion wben travelling from JohanneBbnrg to 
Pretoria I foand tliat I could not proceed from Elandsfon- 
ton Junction by a train that would anire before eleven 
o'clock at night, and as I might have found myeelf in a 
cha^;e office for lack of the password, I thonght it prefeiftble 
to stay where I was and pass the night on the station than 
run Berioas risks of being in such a sitnation. 

I was more readily reconciled to my fate when I was told 
tihat Mrs. filoS, her sister, and her children, were likewise 
compelled to go throagh the ordeal of staying all ni^tattlio 
rulway station. 

Coortesy and good manDsrs are invariably considered as 
principal attnbates of a staff officer, but it is seldom th^ an 
so snbstantiaUy rewarded as th^ were on this parliealar 



Major Edwardes, the Bailway Staff Officer at the time at 
Elandsfontein JnnotioQ, extended the usual oivilities of a 
gentleman in such a position to Mrs. ElofT and her family ; 
he saw to their comfort as far as was possible to mitigate tlie 
tedinm of tlie eighteen hoora they were obliged to wait before 
snitable accommodation conld be placed at their disposal to 
convey them to Dnrban, thence to Loren^ Marqnes, to rejoin 
their husbands, ^ving tiiem the nse of his quarters for the 
night. 

It follows as a natural course that in this time I saw a 
good deal of Mrs. Eloff, who spoke Englisb perfectly. We 
encouraged her to give her opinions freely on all sorts of 
anbjeots affecting her grandfather, Preradent Eruger. 

On many points there was considerable divergenoe of 
views, but on the whole it was most satisfactoiy. Of one 
thing I was certain, she had no antipathy to British officem I 

After a long ailment, which lasted till the small hours t/t 



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$90 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

tlie monung, Bbe Bud to me, " We bIuU all have to lire togctiier 
and be ha{)py, ancl, now, the aooner tiie better; as &r as I 
am ooooemed, and aa far aa my infloenoe will reach, I will, 
and adnae all bnrghen to submit to the Brituh. J/Lj gnnd- 
mother b^ged of me not to leave Pretoria, where I and vtj 
small children were quite safe, bat, of oonrse, I had to j<nn 
my hnsband when he sent for ma 

" I will ^ve yon a letter that will enable yon to aee 117 
(dd grandmother ; she will be pleased to see yon and to hear 
that the Britasb officers are so kind to na. She will be 
espedally pleased to see fyon. as yon tell me yon saw my 
tuude. Fiat Ernger, at Bosbraibnig " ; and tonung to Majw 
Bdwardee she said, " And if yon will aooept this box aa a 
memento of me I shall be very happy." 

The present offered to this Kulway Staff Officer waa a 
beantifhl silver-chased Indian box, in wei^t of metal alon» 
worth from £10 to £12, and rendered still more valnable by 
tiie inscription, which, as far as I can remember, was to this 
effect:— 

FrtBented by the Ptazeee I. Daorobji, 
To his Hmumr S. F. J. Knigar, 

Frandant S.A. Bepnblic^ 
As a token of undying loyalty. 

On arrival at Pretoria I presented my letter of introdoction 
(after first Bnbmitting it for the approval of the Military 
Governor) to Mrs. Kmger, who received me with kinilaeBa 
And great gentleness. 

She waa natorally pleased to hear about her dLildren and 
grandchildmi, and her one chief desire seemed to be : *' Let 
than all know that things are well with me. Let my son, 
Het Kroger, in Ceylon, know that I am well, and that I 
shonld like to hear from him.^ 

From my own observation, however, the old lady looked 
far from well and more than her age. Li reply to my 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL 391 

inqairiflB as to her heelth, she said she BnSered from 
rhenmatiam and astlunB and longed for the war to cease. 

I left Mrs. Kmger pleased with my visit, and glad she 
had elected to stay in Pretoria under British protection 
rather than wuider about the veld enffering all l^e hardshipa 
of war, a war she had had no hand in bringing abont, for 
she has at all times kept herself aloof from politioB. 

I went to General Maxwell in regard to her wishes, and 
he told me that every consideration was extended to her, 
and, indeed, I had gathered as mach from Mrs. Kmger^ 
own words. 

Since the British oocnpation, until qaite recently, Pretoria 
was a great hospital base. There were two or three general 
bospitals of 1000 beds — the Welsh Hospital, the Lai^men 
Hospital, a branch of the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital — that 
I can remember, and there might have been others encamped 
around the town, of which I beard notihing, as well as the 
Lish Hospital in the Law Conrts. 

The British nation has ever led the way in all hospital 
work, and nothing has appealed more forcibly to its 
sentiments than the care of the sick and wounded who suffer 
from shot or shell or from the effects of the climate whilst 
fitting for their Qaeen and conntiy ; and I think I am 
right in saying that nothing has caused greater disappoint- 
ment tJian the asperedons cast on the Boyal Army Medical 
Corps by Mr. Bnrdett-Contts in his letters to The Timea. 

As the Irish, or Lord Iveagh's Hospital, stood in the most 
prominent part of Pretoria, and as Sir William Thompson, 
the medical officer in charge, and the Hon. Bnpert Gninness, 
Lord Ive^h's eldest son, were fellow travellers with me 
when I returned to South Africa, after leaving in South- 
ampton as Sister in charge of the sick and wounded in the S.8. 
JDunero, the convalescent officers and men of the Highland 
brigade which returned in her — some of those that suffered 



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39a THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

80 severely in the battle of M^^rsfonteiii' — ^I will give a 
short account of it and of their laboan. 

The Iriah Hospital, as all the wwld knows, was the ontoome 
of Hiberian enthusiasm and generosity, and was despatched 
on its mission perfectly organised ajid fnlly equipped with 
«very medical comfort mtd sdentific apparatus likely to be 
needed. At the commencement of the campaign the army 
medical authorities were indisposed to accept extraneous aid, 
beliering they could themselves deal with all the demands 
that were likely to be made on the resouroes of the 
department. The first months of the war soon proved they 
were wrong in their calcalationB, both as to the natnre of the 
war and its consequences on the health of the troops. 

The Portland Hospital was the first ezpresaion of private 
generosity and public benevolence to leave England for 
Sonth Africa as a self-contained and fhlly-eqnipped civil 
hospital. And during the six months it was in South Africa 
most excellent work it did. 

The example set by the Dnke of Portland has been followed 
both by private individuals and by sections of the general 
public, their names and designations readily occurring to t^e 
minda of the readers ; the War OSSoe then gladly accepting 
the aasietance offered, without which the tale of woe would 
have been most pitiable. 

During the months of February and March the junction 
of Naauwpoort was a huge military encampment, where 
there was a large number of sick, and it was to relieve 
this pressure that the Irish Hospital was first sent. At one 
time there were over a thousand sick at this station ; but it 
was not there that Sir William Thompson and his staff shone 
brightest. In fact they had hardly time to settle down 
before a section was sent to Preiska to join Lord Kitchener's 
force, which was operating in that district. After going 
tbrongh the expedition and rendering useful service the 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL sgS 

motiott retnmed to De Aar, and from thence proceeded to 
Bloemfonteiii, where tbe whole hospital re-UBembled and 
oommenoed work in eameet in that hotbed of fever, of 
iriiich eveiy peison in England has heard more tlian enough. 

Of the thousands that lay sick and dying in that city the 
Irish Hospital reoeived three hundred, and it is snperflooiu 
to say that all that skill and care cottid do for the nnfbitiinate 
Bofferers was ongradgingly lavished npon them. 

Altogether the Irish Hospital treated 2748 patienta and 
had a death-rate of 3-7. The enteric castas nombered 671, 
with a death-rate of 11*7. The ambolances carried 882 
patieota. These figures represent a great amonnt of hard 
work for the atafT; and though it is painful to think of the 
many brave young fellows who succumbed, a great many 
more were spared by the medical skill and applianoes that 
were unheard of in any other campaign. 

On May 1 1 the Irish Field Hospital once more packed up 
their tente, and with their waggons left Bloemftrntein to j<Hn 
Lord Boberts at Kroonatad, where it was attached to the 
11th Division, onder G«neral Pole-Carew. 

Marching has been one of the chief features of this war, 
and the Irish Hospitel had to go through the mill the same 
as any other section of the advancing army, bearing the 
hardships and paying its debt to the dread enemy, enterio 
fever. Out of a medical staff of five, two had to be left in 
hospital at Johannesbnig and Mr. Guinaess had to be carried 
for a considerable distance in an ambulance, suffering from a 
severe attack of jaundice. 

Ontmde Pretoria the hospital was fired npon by the enemy. 
About twenty shells fell close to it, bat only one man was 
wounded, just outside the operating-room. It takes a lot of 
firing sometimes to kill one man. 

Sir William Thompson assured me, however, that the 
hospital was not shelled out of maliciousness, but because it 



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SIM THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

WH in haoX of the naval gnna, that were making theouelveB 
felt in a most determined manner. 

After the sarnDder and oooopation of Pretoria, a oommiesion 
WM i^pmnted to oonsicler how beat to cope with tlie atokneaa 
amongat the troops, and how beat to Dtiliae the reeonioeB of 
the town and oompd the people to eell their wares. 

Sir William was given the Xaw Conrts to convert into a 
hospital, though Soi^eon-Colonel Stevenaon had desoibed it 
aa nnsnitable for the parpoee. 

This moat snmptnona erection, both iuaide and ont, waa 
quickly tamed into an asylum for the siok, who were lying 
ontaidethe town. 

The building being still aofiDisbed, there were no lifting 
azrangementa and anch-like internal fittings ; but with will- 
ing hearts, plenty of energy, and unrestricted resouroea this 
. vast |ale of stone was traneformed in four days into the 
Iriah Hospital and filled with patients. Irishmen have left 
a mark on this war, which proves the kind of stuff Ireland 
can prodnoe. The greatest number of medical men have 
been Irish. Look at oor generals from the Emerald Isle! 
Coont them I 

"Hiis Irish hospital bad eighty-three wards, all spacious, 
lif^t, and well ventilated, the ininoipal bearing the names 
at great generals or bmefactors. But the central hall, with 
its magnificent pillars and colonnades, was the one to make 
a nevei^to-be-foi^tten impression. Thia ward was called 
the Yiotoria Hall ; and gorgeous it was in its grandeor, the 
ooloor effects being produced by the stained glass oeiling, hj 
the blight red blankets on the beds, and by the oniform of 
the army nnrsing and civil sisters. 

To oloUte, wash, and feed a thousand sick persons who are 
gradually admitted into a well-equipped hospital in dai^ 
working order is no easy task; but to do the same, when 
all oome in together, bleeding, and in various stages cit 



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PRETORIA AND THE IRISH HOSPITAL 895 

oollapse, widi kitchens and batliroomB to be built, with 
light and water to be installed, utensilB, fnmitnre, food, 
and medicineB arriring in tons, and nnable to get hold of 
anything, herculean labours were required to reduce snch 
ohaoa into order, and give that attention to the eiok that was 
indiapenaably neoessary, a feat accomplished only by the 
indomitable enei^ of Sir William Thompson and those that 
worked with him and under him, the serricee rendered by 
the superintending Sister being beyond all praise. 

Look at the amount of work that had to be done to oonrert 
the magnificent building into a hospital ! 

It may strike the reader aa very strange that the Irish 
hospital anthorities could make a grand success of a bnilding 
that was refused by the principal army medical ofGoer. Bnfc 
it must be borne in mind that Sir William Thompson and 
Mr. Goinness had the control of funds that the army medical 
anthoritaes had not, nor would they have been justified in 
expending them if they had had them. FurUiermore, the 
conversion of this unfurnished erection would have entailed 
a delay that only lavish expenditure abridged. 

This is an instance of the advantage of having ample 
means ready to hand. 

The appearance of the Irish hospital in the Palais de 
Justice in Pretoria was worth paying for 1 

Government officials, however, are not justified in paying 
a heavy price for sppearanoe when the same resnlts can be 
secured for a lower price. The revenue of the State cannot 
be diiiposed of in the same lavish manner aa a wealthy noble- 
man maj do with his own property. 



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CHAPTER XXXVI 

AUXIIIABT AIDS TO THE FIELD FOBOB 

AuxiLUBT ud to tbe forces in Soath A&ica has taken every 
OODoeivable form from batteries of artUIery, sqaadrons of 
«araliy, regiments of infantry, hospitals, and hospital ships, 
to additional comforts and stores that wonld fill a book to 
merely enamente, to say nothing of the millions sterling that 
were subscribed by the generosity of the British pablic Bop- 
plementary to the extra taxes that had to be imposed. 

After equipping the fighting force with guns, ammnnitaon, 
and all the rest of the impedimenta for carrying on acdre hoa- 
tilitJAH, the next dnty is to care for the sick and woonded ; and 
in this ccmnectaon the anziliaiy aid that rendered the moat 
valuable assistance to the medical anthorities was the " Britiah 
Red Croaa Society." The chief cinnmisBioner and his aasa- 
tants had their offices in Parliament House in Cape Town, 
but as the work increased, even the spacaons premises that 
had been pat at his diapoaal became too small, and a large 
iron shed had to be constructed to receive the various stores 
that were landed daily in the docks from London and every 
part of the empire. When Parliament assembled the society 
had, of conrse, to vacate them altogether. 

Within this shed for many months a busy scene was pre- 
sented. Lady Furley, who was largely responsible for the 
receipt and issue, unpacking, sorting, and redirecting of 
clothing, food, hospital comforts, furniture, games, tobacco, 
literature, &c, in compliance with reqnisiticais from eveiy part 



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AUXILIARY AIDS TO THE FIELD FORCE SffT 

of tlie country where the troops might be stationed, had 
plenty to do, and found ample employment for her fellow 
lady-workera. Bonghly estimated, abont 9000 oases were 
thus treated. One day in the week, on the arrival of th» 
Engliah midl, a certain number of the ladies were spedally 
Bunmoned to deal with the 6000 London dailies and 
illnstrated papers that it had brought in for distribution 
amongst the troops. A stranger beholding this scene woold 
have imAg^ited that the ladies, British and Colonial — many of 
them being the wives and daughters of peers — were the ordi- 
nary Bortera and packers of mail ba^ employed b; the Qeneral 
Post Office, BO systematically and attentively did they apply 
themselves to their arduona duties. 

Another valuable branch of the work carried on 1^ th» 
ladies in this shed was the making and filling of kit-bags for 
soldiera who had either lost or vrom out the contents of those 
enpplied to them from the ordnance stores. These Ht-baga 
were neatly made of whit« canvas, and stamped with the 
words *' A gift from the Bed Cross and Good Hope Socie- 
ties " ; both having worked together so closely that it was 
difficult to distingniah between them, the Durban Women's 
Patriotic Leagae being likewise in active co-operation and 
weU to the front in the discharge of their useful mission. 

About 12,000 of these bags were made, and when filled 
contained one flannel shirt, a pyjama suit, a pair of eooks, 
handkerchief, a pair of slippers, soap, tooth-brush and a towel, 
a bmah and comb, and a sponge, and were, as opportunity 
afibrded, despatched to the hospital trains and hospital ships. 
Nothing supplied in the way of comforts was more appre- 
ciated by both officers and men, for the former were quite as 
destitute as the latter when carried off the battiefield. I have 
seen officers in a sorry plight in regard to their apparel, and 
but for the ladies at the base much greater discomfort would 
have been their fate during the past year. In supplementary 



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S9B THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

ud of all defloriptdonB, in addition to what I have stated, the 
Bed Cross Society spent not less than £1000 a week. 

Two excellent pieces of work were done by the Hon. George 
Feel, who was then acting as one of the Bed Cross commiB- 
sioners, when he ran a convoy of stores to the Eimberlqr 
hospitals, directly after the raining of the sie^ of that town ; 
and by Dr. Chepmell at Ladyemitb, when, notwitiutanding 
many obstacles, he managed to ocmTey by bollock carts a 
much needed supply of comforts to the hoejutal of that nn- 
hsppy place immediately after its relief. 

If Mr. Bordett-Contts had really had the amelioration of 
the sick in Bloemfontein (and elsewhere) so much at hearty 
why did he not mentiim the deplorable state in which he 
found tliem to the Chief Commissioner of the British Bed 
GroBB Sodety, who was there at the time ? Mr. Bordett-Contts 
knew the society had a large depdt of etoiea and hospital 
oomfortfl at Bloemfontein in charge of Colonel Byerson, the 
asaiBtant oonunissioner, and that Sir John Farley had plenty 
of fnndB at his disposal with power to pnrchaae anytiiing 
required by the eiok that was obtainable. But no application 
was made for snoh assistance except by those in charge of 
hospitals, which was met as far as possible by the represen- 
tatires of the society, who then and there did their attermost 
to ease the tdtnation. Undoabtedly the strain at this time 
was very great. Almost all tlie railway ta-ocks from the base 
(a distance of 750 miles) were indispensably neoeesary for 
actoal military pnrposea, and only one or two in each week 
oonld be spared for hospital necessaries. 

As a loyal supporter of the Qovemment, and as represent- 
ing the TOters in the coDstitaency of Westminster, Mr. 
Bnrdett-Coutts had no right to make trouble for the puty he 
went to Parliament to support, until at least he had tried by 
private remonstranoe with Sqi^eon-Qeneral Wilson, priacapal 
medical officer of the field force, and the Commander-in-chief. 



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AUXIUARY AIDS TO THE FIELD FORCE 399 

Sach a ooane would have been more patriotic, would have 
ennoed a troer iosfcinQt of practical sympathy and loyalty to 
his friendg, though it would not hare brought notoriety in its 
train. But great are the nsee of advertiaement ! 

The answer to this is, of coane, no bmiefioial result would 
hare aoorued from such repreaentationB. 

Now, I am in a position to prove that they would. I know 
of an instance where, as far as the sick were oonoemed, the 
plan answered far better than the one adopted by Mr. 
Bnrdett-Contts of writing to the papers in the first instance 
on such eridenoe as he could scrape together. Withont 
mentioning names and places, I will state the facts. An 
honest snpporter of the Government, thoagb not in Parlia- 
ment — a position carrying a certain amount of obligation — 
was dissatisfied with certain arrangements made for the sick. 
Several complaints had been sent by those in local charge, 
but no notice was taken. The state of afiairs grew worse. 
The sick were not being attended to aa they ought, and those 
locally responsible for their condition were over^wrought 
beyond all powers of endurance. Telegrams were sent for 
increased aid, but officials at the head of Goreroment depart- 
ments are so accustomed to hear the cry of wolf, wolf, when 
there is no wolf, that when there is real danger and trouble 
it is hard to make them believe it. At last a statement of 
the case was mat to the most influential person then in the 
looalitrr, begging that pressure might be brought to bear to 
relieve a condition that was bringing discredit on the re- 
sponsible authorities. The appeal was not in vain. Within 
a few days, help efiSdlent and adequate was sent &om head- 
quarters, which at once altered the whole situation. The 
prime mover in the a^tation sent a notioe to the press 
that all arrangements for the sick were being conducted in a 
satisfactory manner, thereby greatly allaying public appre- 
hension, which had begun to take form, and also gave moeh 



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400 THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

moFftl support to those who were, with uDweuying energioB, 
osnying on their gigantic task. The doonmeDtB in regard to 
the above oircnmHtances were, later, sent to the Colonial 
Sedetary as a private oommnnication, as one of the workers, 
* firieod of his own, had died in oonseqnenoe of over-enrtion. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that in Mr. Bnrdett- 
Oootts' case, only his notorie^ resulted, whilst in the other 
the i^tator aooceeded in seonring prompt and efficient 
alienation for the siok without inflaming public opinion at 
home! 

I believe I am well within the mark when I sa; that Mr. 
Bordett-Ccntte caused more real distresa than the action of 
the enemy. 

Admitting that through hie action an improvement in the 
Boyal Army Medical C!orps will result that woald not othep- 
wise hare taken place — an sssamption tiiat some will deny — 
the intmte mmtal agony that he inflicted on the relatitma and 
friends of all serving at the front as to the fate of their dear 
ones, sappoaing they shoold fall stck or be wonnded, is a high 
price to pay for it. It has been the reason of many mothers, 
wives, and sisters going to Sonth Africa. 

I have been asked handreds of times whether the charges 
of the gross neglect were fairly accorate. My answer has 
always been : Mr. Bardett-Ooatts oonld not make a false 
statement, bat the way things are described gives &lse 
imjoesaioas. 

A person may call a doctor " an apothecary " ; a trained 
nurae, " a common woman who has to work for her bread " ; 
a clergyman, " a fool of a parson," and so on. 

There is no donbt that there was much diatress amongst 
the troc^ in Bloemfontein, some of which was preventible. 
There wonld have been handreds of lives spared had the 
time been shortened anterior to the surrender of Cteneral 
Crcmje. 



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JUXIUARY AIDS TO THE FIELD FORCE 401 

Then and there the seeds of l^e disease were sown amongst 
the troops of both the attacking and defending forces. 

I am perfectly satisfied all that wae posdble, onder the 
dronmHtances, was done by the medical officers ; and, as for 
Sisters, the following few lines written by Major Edwardee, 
who was very ill in Bloemfontein at the worst period, 
expresses the sentifflents of hondredfl of his fellow snfEerers : 
WLen war makes havoc in the land, 
And dead men strew the ground ; 
When roof -trees blaze on every hand, 

And famine stalks around ; 
When o'er their dead grey heads are bowed. 

And possiou runs apace, 
One gleam of sunshine breaks the cloud — 
The nursing sister's face I 

Angels of mercy 1 Sisters dear, 

Who steal from death his dait ; 
Whose task it is to heal and cheer, 

Yours is that better part t 

There ie yet one more aspect of the case — the nnhappi- 
nees c&need throogh these refleotaons to those who have 
worked night and day to relieve the sufferings of the sick 
and wonnded soldiers. 

Had the aspersions been made by those who had been 
nnder medical treatment in hospital or in camp there wonld 
have been a touch of ingratitude, but, thank God, this has 
been spared to those who have sacrifioed their health and 
fortune, and tiiat with a laviahnesa that knew no bounds. 

Words fail me I Language cannot convey an adequate 
description of all that has been done for the troops in thia 
ctmnection, though, of course, there are a few instances of 
hardship that could be recorded. 



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CHAPTER XXXVII 

"PRINCESS OHiOSTIAN" HOSPITAL TRAIN 

HoBPiTJLL trainB in war havfl been used on the Ocmtinent for 
some years, bnt it is tbe first time in En^isli history that 
they have taken any part in oar military orgamsation, and 
it is also the first tame that the Admiralty hare had to 
provide a oonsid^rable ntimber of specially eqnipped vessels 
for conveying the stok from point to point as an integral 
part of their transport system. 

The Germans in 1870-71 improvised hosjdtal trains out of 
loggage vans, which they fitted ap more or less satiafactorily 
to meet thur reqoirements. France, Anstria, Bossia, and 
Italy have also trains somewhat similar in character; bat 
those belonging to France and Aastria are the most 
completei 

With our large hospitals and philanthropic institntiona 
thickly spread over the land, it has never been considered 
neoeasary to oonstraot snoh a train for oae at home,* thoogh 
it is a little mrpriaing that in India, where fighting is almost 

* Tblt Im not M now, I loam tbat iriuB tbe troops began to retom 
lavaUded btua South AMok in tbo Mriy dafi of 1900, tbo HaiqaMi of 
lAtudowne, u B9ontU7 of Stiia for Wai, gare inabvotloDS for Bva rallw^ 
ambnlanOB oanlagH to bo ooDilxnoted for tba aola hm of mUitafj inTaUda 
In Qnai Britain, lo oonvej them from tho porta of dabaikaUon to the boa- 
pltal : thaa« an kept at Netlej whan not In tua. Eaoh canlage «rIQ 
aocommodate about twantj-fifo patUnti, tmlTo of them In a Ijliig-down 
pO«tiii«. Iha train began to nin in April, and therefore was not the remit 
of the anggeatlou of tbe Hoipttala Oommluton InqQii7, aa atated in tba 



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"PRINCESS CHRISTIAN" HOSPITAL TRAIN 403 

always going on, a hospital train faaa cot been adopted aa 
the result of experience and necessity. 

At the beginning of the present campaign the officiala 
belonging to the Cape and Natal Govammest railways 
extemporised hospital trains from their limited aapply of 
rolling stock, and very good resnlta rewarded their efforts. 
Iron frames were nsed for this pnrpose, each to carry three 
fltretohers, and when the interior of a railway carriage had 
been cleared they were placed inside and the patients were 
'Conveyed to the base in comparative ease, though differing 
considerably in degree from that which th^ experienced who 
travelled over the same conntry in the " Princess Christian^ 
hospital train. 

Onr Boyal family has ever been in the vanguard in all 
good and charitable works, and no members more so than 
our late beloved Qaeen, her Mtyesty Queen Alexandra, and 
Princess Christian. The perstmal interest these Bqyal ladie* 
have taken in the arrangements for the sick is evidenced in 
a lihonsand different ways, bnt in none mxfn than in the 
hospital ship and train that respectively bear their names. 

In r^iard to the British Bed Cross Society, in which the 
Princess Christian has shown snch special and devotod 
interest, it was but natural that when the diffionlty of trans- 
ferring the sick and wounded from the scene of action to 
Uie base increased during the dark days at the beginning 
of the war, some idea would be evolved to mitigate the 
-sofferings that snch long joameys over single lines of rail 
entaU; nunraoos stoppings, shantings, and diaagrementa 
-of every description bong inevitable. It was very apparent 
that a train intended exclusively for invalids shonld be a 
com|dete unit — independent and self-snpportiag ; in fine, a 
hosjntal on wheels. Many schemes were proposed to carry 
out this idea, bnt on investigation with a view to adoption 
they proved, for varioos causes, impracticable. 



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404 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

The centrftl B«d GrosB committee voted a enm of money 
for the purpose, and on October 18, 1899. the contract was 
signed by Sir John Farley, on behalf of the society, and by 
Hr. Fieldhoase for the Military Equipment Company, who 
bound thenuelvea to boild and equip the train that was 
finally agreed upon by February 13, 1900, 

At first it was intended that this train, which was to be 
called the Princess Christian Hospital Train, should be 
composed of ten carriages, but owing to the steep gradients 
and narrow gauge, it was fouid absolutely necessary to limit 
the number to seven. At this time the whole heart of the 
nation was in South Africa, and every subject of the Ein^ 
eagerly did all in his power to forward the Imperial cause, 
whidi was by no means confined to those men who were 
under arms. 

Bat for the hearty co-operation of the managing director 
and his oolleagues, even to the humblest mechanic in the 
employ of the Birmingham Bailway Carriage and Waggon 
Company, this train could not have been delivered wiUiin 
ten weeks — two weeks sooner than the contract time. 

Under ordinary circumstances such a train would have 
required ei^t months to complete ; but as every day was of 
imp(^tance its component parte were all pnt in hand at the 
same time. The different sections, when completed, were 
packed in cases, placed in transports, and sent to South 
Africa. 

The train was pnt together at the carriage works at 
Durban, and its first errand of mercy was to Ladysmith 
immediately the siege was raised. 

To supplement the money voted by the Bed Gross Society 
the borough of Windsor contributed £6100, to which the 
Princess Christian added £650 — the balance of the fund 
invested in her Boyal HighnesE^s name after the Soudan 
campaign. 



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"PRINCESS CHRISTIAN" HOSPITAL TRAIN 405 

Many descriptionB were given of this famous train when 
in coarse of ooturtmction, bnt that does not deter me from 
adding yet another to them. In the firet place, the 
whole train is painted white. Each of the seven bogie 
*' corridor " carriages is 36 feet long and 8 feet wide, the 
passage throngh being continaons. The first carriage is 
divided into three compartments — for linen and other stores, 
for two invalid offioere, and for two nnrses respectively. The 
second carriage is also divided into three compartments, 
namely, for two medical officers, a dining-room, and snrgery. 
Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 are eacdi oonstmcted to carry eighteen 
individnala and four hospital orderlies. It is here that 
the greatest difScalty was experienced, owing to the line 
being of narrow gauge, and the space being oonseqnently so 
very limited. The beds have been necessarily placed in 
three tiers; and any person accDstomed to the lifting and 
moving of individnala can onderstond how difficnlt it is to 
place a helpless patient eideways on a bed closed on all sidra 
bnt one, from a gangway 2 ft. 6 in. in width, in which 
there is only room for one bearer at the head of the stretdier 
and one at the foot. 

This difficulty has been overcome by an arrangement of 
pnlleys in the roof which enables each bed with a patient on 
it to be raised to the proper level by one man, whilst the 
hands of the two bearers are thus left free to goide and fix 
it in poeitioD. Each carrii^ is provided with a stove, a 
lavatory, and a closet, and necessary storing lockers. No. 7 
contains the kitchen and pantry, including berths for two 
cooks and a compartment between for the gnard. 

There are perfect hygienic appliances for cooking, several 
large cisterns containing cold water storage, two large filters, 
refrigerator, and, in fact, everything necessary for ninety- 
seven persons, even if they have to live on the train for two 
or three weeks. Every sqnare inch baa been ntalised, and 



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406 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

beaiclea the fitted cnpboards and drawers for linen, clothing, 
sargical and medical stores, cntlery, glass, crockery, pro- 
visions, he., two lockers have been placed in the roof of each 
carriage for Unen, &c The whole train la light and aiiy, 
and the enamelled white iron work and fittings, and the 
bright draperies produce a very cheerful effect. As the 
train may hare to be loaded with its hnman freight in places 
remote from buildings and exposed to son, rain, and dost, 
an awning has been provided suspended to hooks over the 
carriage doors and supported by telescopic iron posts. 
Under this shelter invalids can be transferred from stretchers 
to the beds they will occnpy in the train. 

In the central panel on each side of every carriage is a 
conspicuoQS red cross on white ground, encircled with the 
words " Princess Christian Hospital Train," in royal bine and 
gold. In sockets at the head of the train are two flags, 
the Union Jack and the Bed CroM, in accordance with 
Article VII, of the Convention of Geneva. 

Between Haich 20, 1900, and March SI, 1901, this train 
made 94 journeys — going from Cape Town to Pretoria, or 
from Pretoria to Durban, or from Pretoria to Delagoa Bay — 
the whole distance travelled being 34,930 miles ; the num- 
bers of sick and wounded conveyed between these points 
being 266 officers, 15 sisters, 6162 non-commisaionad officers 
and men, out of which there have been only three deaths.* 

Sir John B^irley, at a later period of the campaign, was 
authorised by the military authorities to form another 
hospital train, out of any carnages he could obtain. This 

* Vm oanlagea txaaHy Bliiilli.r In conatmotiaa &re b^g prepared tor 
the Nsnl uid UiUtur Exhibition at the Crfital Palace. The oardages 
naed onlj for Kdmtnlatrattve purposea will not be on view. This tntin is 
inre to baa moot Interestii^ eihibittotbehimclTedBof thocsaadiotvlBlton 
who go to this tamoiu and bttantlfnl building, aa it will enabls them to aae 
for tbemeelTee the airangementa made for travelling Id South Africa for 
" dear Tommy " when ha is sick and Id pain. 



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"PRINCESS CHRISTIAN" HOSPITAL TRAIN 407 

he did ^t "East London, wUcb is 1000 miles by rul from 
0^)6 Town, the whole expense being borne by the British 
Bed Cross Society, This train was composed of one very 
fine kitchen and dining car, which he commandeered from 
the Orange Free State jnst after its conqnest by the Britaah 
troops, and six other bc^e oarriagea of Tarioas types, 
which were rapidly ocmverted into serviceable ombnlance 
ynggans, and the trun was put tinder the medical charge of 
Dr. Stewart This was a great addition to the means of 
hospital transport, and its first jonmey was to Pretoria, and 
thenoe to Cape Town, a mn of about 1500 miles. I have 
thus mentioned the three principal means of transput con- 
tributed by the British Red Cross Society, and I think had 
this body done nothing more it would have amply jnstified its 
ezisteDCe. 

I am firmly convinced that amongst the many hard- 
worked individuals connected with this unhappy war no one 
has given of their time and attention more freely and 
earnestly than H.B.n. Prinoras Christian. Her work in 
connection with the army niUBing service reserve has made 
great demands on both and has also required great tact in 
the selection of the nnmeroos applicants ; and in regard to 
their fitness she has personally dealt with every one. 
Altc^ther over 600 nurses have been eniy>lled and 
despatched to Sonth Africa and, a large number of others 
are <m the list ready to proceed thence in case of emergency 
or to replace those unfit for further duty. 

In going through " The Princess Christian " trun on one 
occasion when all the patients were settled for the jonmey 
to Durban, I s^d to a sergeant-major who bad been wounded, 
*' Ton all seem very comfortable here." " And so we are, 
ma'am," was the reply. " I have been on many campaigns, 
but I have never known so mnch done for the troops before. 
Why, this sleeping suit is fit for a doke. Feel how soft it is. 



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408 THE ANGLO-BOEB WAR 

and what a pretty colour ! It is made of rtnff more fit for 
my wife at iiome than for a rongh soldier like me. Since I 
was washed and had it put on, I feel like a new man." 

Forther along along the train I made a similar obserrfr- 
tion to a private soldier who in a sullen tone replied : 
" Yes ma'am, it is good enongh for me." 

As a matter of fact, all on this train are treated exactly 
alike, and the difference in the answers of these two men 
arose rather from their mode of expressioii sad natural dis- 
posititm than from lack of appreciation or diaaatufsotion on 
the part of the latter. 

If noble dakes are more giren to attiring their persons 
during their steeping honrs in pyjamas softer in teztare and 
more artistic in colour than other men, then the simile c^ 
the sergeant-major was certainly a good one. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII 

THE HOSPlTAi SHIP THE PRINCESS OP WALES 

I HAVX heard a naval critic of indisputable authority say 
quite recently : " I am horrified and amazed to find tlie 
ntter absence of organisation for war there is in naval 
matters oat here. If we went to war snddenly, we should 
be worse off than the army in many particnlars, and our 
preventible loases would be too shocking, all through want 
of common sense and forethought." This being the private 
opinion of one holding an important command, I am not at 
liberty to give his name, bat if on trial onr first line of 
defence shoald fail ns to the extent implied, great iudignar 
tion would be felt by the natitm agtunst the Admiralty and 
the Qovemment. 

The same excuses could not be advanced for the naval 
service that are to a certain degree valid where the army 
has proved wanting; dne, however, rather to insofficdency 
than inefficiency. 

The navy is the pride of the nation, and since the needs 
of the service were pat before the people of this land l^ 
nav&l officers and critics daring the administration of Lord 
George Hamilton at the Admiralty, no money has been 
spared to make it adequate in both men and material for 
protecting the shores of Great and Greater Britain and her 
world-wide commerce. To what extent it is still deficient 
and would fail in the hour of need, I am not prepared to 
diBCUBB just now. That there are many directions in which 



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410 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

impiorements might be made is an nndonbtod fact, and v» 
have it on the aothority of Admiral Sir John Hopkina, when 
he, in bis interesting lecture at the United Serrica Institn- 
taon on December 12, 1900, introdnced for discnssion snch a 
long list of Talnable snggeetiona that any one of them wonld 
hare proved enough for many an afternoon if the refbrms 
proposed were to be beaten into a practical shape and fit for 
adoption by the Admiralty anthorities. 

When ber Majesty Qneen Alexandra, as Princess of WaleSr 
was tointng over in her mind the especial way she wonld 
prefer to mark her interest in the war in South AMca, is it 
at all surprising to find that from the battlefields in Natal 
and the kopjes in Cape Colony she should direct her thonghta 
to the navy — the serrice in which her only surriTing son ia 
an officer — or that the outcome should be a hospital ship? 

From the time the decielon was arrived at to the paying 
<^ of the vessel at the termination of her charter, 
her Majesty has taken the greatest interest in all that 
appertained to the eqaipment and fittings ; personally in- 
ipeding the vessel, and providing it with every requisite 
for effidently carrying out the mission undertaken in her 
name. 

The selection of this ship by the Bed Cross committee 
for the parpose has been the subject of many adverse 
oriticismB. But there were many reasons why this 
selection should have proved satisfactory. The ship was 
a yachting cruiser and had exceptionally good kitohen 
aocommodation oouveniently situated. The space between 
decks was lofty and well lighted — two important considera- 
tions in connection with wards on board ship. All the wards 
could be made to communicate with the quarters of the 
nurses and medical officers and all essential accessories, 
without the necessity of going on deck. The fittings were 
specially designed to enable wards being completely evacuated 



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HOSPITAL SHIP "PRINCESS OF WALES" 41 1 

when necessary by placing the patients on deck in the open 
air, under the awning, without removing them from their 
oots ; and to this, no doabt, must be attributed the excellent 
medical and Burgical resnlta — cx>nfiiderations which do not 
occur to the mind of those who are so ready to criticise 
unfavourably. Another point in favour of the selection of 
this vessel was that the ward accommodation possible, in 
oonseqnence of the internal construction, was very much 
greater than that which could be obtained in proportioa to 
tonnage in other hmipital ehipB — a fact which made the 
veesel more economical in connection with time charters. 
Thus the Spartan and Trt^an, with a tonnage of 3400 to 3600 
tons, had only seventy cots available for sick and wounded, 
while the PHncesa of Wales, with a tonnage of 3178, had as 
many as 184. This may also be compared with the accom- 
modation on the lai^r hospital ships; the Oreana, for 
example, had about the same number of cots as the Princess 
of Wales, with a tonnage of 4803, or over 1600 tons more. 
When one considers that the Government was probably 
paying 20s. a ton per month for hire of that vessel, some 
£2000 monthly was being pud to carry the same nuuber as 
the Princess of Wales. 

The two breakadown that delayed her in English waters 
on her two first voy^es were attributed in the newspapers to 
various causes wide of the true one. Who conld have fore- 
seen that the man in charge of the boilers would be so 
neglectful of his duty ae to allow the evaporation to oontinn& 
ontil they were so nearly emptied of water aa to cause 
ezplofflon, or that the same things conld have occurred twicCr 
and both at the time of starting ? I am hardly within the 
mark to say explosion, for, thanks to the «ccellence of the 
boilers, the accidents did not amount to as much as that. 

The first accident occurred in Tilbury Docks before the 
ship sailed, and the canee was attributed to the muddy water 



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*1S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

of the river having dsposited mud at the top of one of the 
boilers, which caused it to get overheated at one point This 
waa at once detected by the bnlging of the boiler, and ontil 
the defect was made good the ship was pnt out of charter. 

The second accident oocarred just aa the ship was aboot to 
Bail from Southampton, and was the consequence of the 
«yaporation having continned so long that the water was too 
low in the boiler, with a reanlt similar to the former accident. 
The boilers were otherwise in excellent condition and com- 
paratively new, and bnt for this fact Uie consequences would 
bare been the bursting instead of the bulging of the btnlers 
in qaestion, with the inevitable loss of life. 

The Admiralty were blamed for having selected this vessel, 
though they had nothing whatever to do with it. Bnt it is 
tiie fate of public departnents to be held responsible for many 
things that do not come under their jurisdiction at all. 

The Red Gross hospital ship, the Princess of WaUs, has, 
in spite of these eontrdemps, done excellent work, and given 
great satisfaction. In respect to the treatment of the cases 
her record is second to none. Out of the 723 patients treated 
on board only one died, or out c^ the 523 conveyed to 
England 0*19 per cent., which, considering the severity of the 
cases, is simply marvellous. 

In consequence of the ship having been arranged for only 
"cot-cases," the proportion of severely wounded and danger- 
ously ill patients admitted was equal to if not greater than on 
other hospital ships — a fact that tells greatly in favour of 
the medical staff when estimating the percentage of cases 
treated and the mortality on board. Most of the ships 
specially fitted as hospital ships had accommodation for a 
large proportion of convalescents on the troop decks, whioh, of 
course, adds to the total ; and when these facts are borne in 
mind the hospital ship Princess of Wales compares favour- 
Ably with any for actual work accomplished. 



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HOSPITAL SHIP "PRINCESS OF WALES" 41S 

In looking over tbe names o£ the officers composing the 
ship's company, it is gratifying to observe that oat of the 
four whose dnties are to navigate, three have the prond 
distinction of belonf^ng to the HoTal Naval Beserve, and ont 
of a crew of seventeen no fewer than sixteen are also in the 
same service. 

As the qaestion of naval reaerves is one of supreme im- 
portance to the nation, and to the shipping community in 
partacolar, it would be interesting to know whether any other 
ship chartered by Government ooold show siicb a percentage 
of naval reserve men on board. To those who may feel die- 
posed to act on this suggestion, at least as far as hospital 
ships are concerned — and it is well to encourage amiable 
rivalry proved by statLsts of comparative excellence — I will 
give the names of those vessels that were used aa hospital 
ships to facilitate their search. 

GoVBKNIIBin! HOSFFTAL SHIPS. 

Spartan. Dunera. Trojan. Oncma. 

SimUa. lAemore Caitle. Nvibia. Avoca. 

Other ships besides these were nsed for the same purpose- 
for varying periods, and also as prison ships until the military 
coold make other arrangements for prisoners of war and the 
sic^ amongst them. 

This war being one for the land forces, the navy was not at 
first expected to do more than transpcnt the troops to South 
Africa, bat as drcumstances arose in which the army 
required help, the navy did all that was possible to respond 
to Uls call, not only with ships, but with men and guns. 
When the sick in Durban could not be accommodated in 
the hospitals ashore the " handy Jack " rigged up a ship 
ia twenty-four hours to receive the overflow. 

The war has done much to educate the mind in diverse 
ways, but in none more than in the management of military 



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414 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

hoepitalB. There are many ladies and gentlemea wfao last 
year were in blissful ignorance of ereiTthiog connected witli 
the aooonimodation and reqniremeats of eick persons, but who 
conld now set to work to get the fnuds, eqnip, and snper- 
intend a military hospital whether for service at the base, to 
take part with the advancing force, or to be a floating 
establishment on the briny ocean. So rapid has been Uie 
progress made that they oonld give many valuable points to the 
Medical Director-General and his staff at the War Office, who 
have been at the work since they left their medical schools in 
the dim distance — before the parents of these young people 
were in their teens, indeed, I might say before their grand- 
moUiera were bom I But for those who have not had sach 
speoal advantages, and whose edncation has conaeqaently 
been less rapid, I will mention a few of the maltitndinons 
Arrangements that had to be oomfdeted before the iVtn«ea> of 
Waits oonld proceed to Sonth Africa. 

After the ship had been inspected for the committee, and 
favonrably reported upon by the £amonB Newcastle ship- 
boilders, Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., the work 
-of conversion had to begin, and hospital fittings replace those 
previously existing. The ship's crew was settled by the 
-company, bat the medical and nursing staff had to be selaoted, 
not an easy task by any means. The appointments being 
eagerly sought, the applicants were numerons, and were very 
importunate in their solicitations. 

All who have acquaintance with the army are fully aware 
that Queen's Begolations and General Orders r^^late almost 
everything, and in the opinion of some people far too much. 
Still, without them the responsible officers troold be unable to 
execnte their instructions, for reasons that are obvious. Hy 
•own personal experience is that when dvilians are placed in 
military positions involving administrative duties, chaos 
reigns. Beqneste are preferred that are difficult to refuse 



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HOSPITAL SHIP "PRINCESS OF WALES" 415 

vitbont the support <^ these regalationB, Even the Com- 
maoder-m-ohief feels the need of them when he refers all 
awkward qneetions to t^e chief of the staff for settlement. 
EreiTthing connected with genwal arrangements is tabulated 
for the guidance of those concerned by the rarions offices to 
which they appertmn, and it is chiefly attribntable to ignorance 
or wilful disregard of these regalationB that tronble ariaea. 
However efficient mviliana may be in their own particnlar 
TTi^ier, they cannot maintain discipline amongst a lot of 
soldiers in a military establishnieiit withont an t^oer accos- 
tomed to " Tommy " and his ways at the head of it. In this 
«riiiiB Lord Lansdowne haa called the best civil aid to help 
the military officers, bnt it was a pity their dnties were not 
more dearly defined. 

It Ja not my intention to give lists of all the wonderfol 
things that are indispensable in the equipment of a hospital 
ship, though I hare no donbt a lai^ nomber of doctors, 
nurses, and others might find them interesting and fall of 
Tsloable information. Those really desiroas of obtaining them, 
however, might get a oopy of the arrangements made on board 
the Bed Cross faoapital ship Prmcess of Wales, from tiie 
printers, Hiippa and Connor. 

In a ship where only severe casee of aickneaa were to be 
received, special attention had to bo ^ven to the water anpply, 
the ventilation, the sanitary arrangements and disinfectants ; 
for warming and cooling the wards according to the varying 
latitudes, and for the cleansing of foul linen, which on a long 
voyage is a matter of great importance. The want of this 
accommodation on ships where epidemics of fever have onez- 
.peotedly appeared has occasioned great anxiety. 

Lastly, whsa arrangements are made by the Admiralty for^ 
coaling at Teneriffe, St. Vincent, and other coaling-stations, 
-special precaations have to be taken in regard to the manner 
■of pUdng the fael on board ; and the effect that want of care 



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416 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

miglit b&ve on the woands, &c., at the patients under treat- 
ment are easily conoeirable. 

No description of this ship would be complete tlLat omitted 
the operating room equipment, viz. : — 

1 Operating table. 

1 Electric grid for boiling water. 

1 Oomplete Bet BAntgen rays apparatus.* 

1 Table and cupboard for instruments and sorgical material, 

1 Operating-room sink. 

8 Disinfecting solution bottles and imgatora, 

1 Portable electric light. 

1 Fixed cluster light. 

1 fVesh-woter tap with Berkefeld sterilising bougie. 

1 Bchimmelhusch sterilisBr. 

A list of games presented by her Majesty Qaeen Alexandra 
^Ten below shows the ralne she attaches to recreation and 
amusement, which were in addition to the piano, an organ, 
and an excellent library. 

I Oase compendium of gomea. 

1 Case backgammon and draught boards, oheas boards and men. 

1 Oase dominoes, solitaire and cribboge boards. 

1 Oase playing cards. 

Victoria Leeds ganke. 

Gordon and Kitchener game. 

Oape to Oairo gome. 

Halma. 

Bainbow race. 

Her Majesty also placed on board a lai^ quantity of 
tobacco, pipes, and cigarettes, which were distributed to the 
patients as the doctors considered expedient. 

This list of Red Cross medical comforts contribated 
by Messrs. Brand and Co. is a specimen of a firm's 
benevolence. 

* FreBent«d by Ua Grace th« Duke of Newoutle. 



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HOSPITAL SHIP "PRINCESS OF WALES' *1T 



EsBeoce of beef . 






batUw 


48 


„ mutton 




„ 


6 


„ chicken 




„ 


12 


veal . . 




„ 


6 


Oonceotrated beef tea 




J]b. tmB 


12 


Aiaorted invalid aoupe 






86 


Extractum camu 




lo.. bottta 


12 


» 






im. „ 


6 


Ueat juice 








6 


Beef tea jell^ . 








9 


Beef broth 






8Ib.tiii» 


1 


Beef peptones . 








8 


Turae soup . 






ilb. tm> 


6 



A large stock cf wines, spirits, and mineral waters wa> 
oontaiboted by> several firms and private individuals, bnt 
their names are too namerons to mention. 

'Witbont disparaging the fitted oaaea of every sort and 
kind supplied to the field foroes, nothing, in my opinion, 
oonld snrpass in completeness, both as regards ntility and 
economy of apace, the Savory and Moore medicine ohesta that 
are in use on transports, in base and field hospitals, and may 
be fbnnd in the equipment of almost every independent 
nnifc on active service. They contain everything that oonld 
possibly be required, from pins to complete sets of snrgioal 
instruments ; everything the best of its kind. In this 
ctmnection I must also direct special attention to those more 
portable oases of compressed drugs and sni^cal reqaintes 
prepared by Messrs. Burroughs and Wellcome. In varying 
siiea, from £1 to £100, they were foond as part of the equip- 
ment of almost every person who had a notion of how to take 
care of his health. 

In ocmneotion with hospital ships as auxiliary aids to the 
Government, the Maine will readily be remembered. 

As every one knows, she was the American expression of 
2d 



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418 THE AKGLO-BOER WAR 

Bympftthy to Englssd in her lionr tS. trial It was oafciiml 
that a strong and independent oS-ehoot Bhontd come to the 
snpport of the old oonnlzj, which many of oar American 
oonBiua still call "home"; and for me to say that the 
offering waa replete, the most perfectly eqaipped hospital 
ship aSoat, vonld be not only soperflnonB, but almost an 
inanit It goes withont saying when the Americana do any- 
thing it IB Booond to none. 

Mnoh good work was volnntarily accomplished for oon- 
Talesomta by the owners of private yachts, of whose names, 
however, only three or foar oocar at this moment to my 
memory, i.t,. Sir Samnel Soott, in Durban harbonr; Mr. 
Bnlloogh, Miss Bibby, and Mr. Cooper, in Table Bay, tut 
other points on the ooast ; and in the discharge of their 
self-imposed dnties no expense was spared. 

In ]xbf>d tainipaAgist hospital gKipa hare figured brf<n« in the 
general organisatifm for the sick and wounded. 

Thus the China war, the Abyssinian war, the Egyptian 
wars of 1882 and 1885 and both Aabanti expeditions, as 
well as the expedition to Benui have had each one or more 
hospital ships assigned to the base of operations. The beat 
of these, no doobt, were those fitted ont for the later campaigns, 
anch aa the Malacca for the Benin expedition, and the 
Coromavdd for the Ashanti expedition of 1895. 

Bnt the Convention of Geneva does not inolnde the nen- 
trality of hospital thips in a naval war, though the principle 
was accepted by the Peace Conference at the Hagne. The 
Bobject has been considered at nearly all conferences of the 
Bed Cross Societies, which are held every five years. The 
great difficolties of nentralising ships flying the Bed Cross 
flage are apparent Belligerents object to saoh ships going 
into a blockaded port, and natnrally they would not be 
permitted to come ont again ; then, again, they would not 
be likely to be allowed to coal. The sospicions would be too 



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HOSPITAL SHIP " PRINCESS OF WALES" «9 

fltroog that the hospital ship was acting the spy. The 
difiScnlties are great, bat perhaps they may be oTeroome to 
the advantage of sick and wounded sailors at some not far 
distant date. There have been examples of yachto taking 
off inralids from ships of war after naval engagements, bat 
this has been done at their owners' risk and periL 

If my naral expert is correct in his opinion as to the shock- 
ing losses we shoald have if we suddenly became engaged in a 
naval war, as stated in the opening sentenoes of this chapter, 
then this becomes a very serions question, especially after 
onr recent experience lq Sonth Africa. A naval war wonld 
'Cerbunly result in greater sacrifices of life and treasure than 
any that have marked the progress of military campaigna in 
any part of the world. 

Whether the organisation of the navy for war is np to the 
standard of efficiency that wonld enable it to respond to the 
note of war and danger is a matter that onght to be 
thoronghly investigated. During this war there is no 
qaestion that the navy in its transport department has more 
than muntuned its wonted reputation. This fact not even 
the naval critic referred to would deny, nor would he 
refuse those responsible for its management this meed of 
praise, though he ia quite right in urging the necessity for 
an adequate na^, thoroughly organised end prepared for 
war, however suddenly it may be sprang on the nation. But 
in the hands of Earl Selbome and his present naval advisers 
the best interests of the naval service are safe. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX 

THB SBBVIOE BArTBBY O? THE FIRST yORTH 
UMBSBLAyD TOLinrrEBB ABTILLBBT, 
KNOWN AS THE ELSWICK BATTBRY 

If selecting those inatanoea of the patiiotism of individiul» 
whidi fbnnd expressions in gifts to the nation of oomplete 
military tmits u aoxiliaiy aids to the field force, it is bat 
natural, being a woman, that I should take first thoso 
emanating from my own aex, espedaUy seeing what a 
violent storm of adverse oriticiBm blew upon women and 
their doings in conneoti^m with this war, the resnlt of 
which temporarily damaged, and threatened to destroy 
altogether thwr sphere oi influence. With time and in- 
creased knowledge of facts, however, a complete diange 
has ocHne over public opinion, and fh)m sweeping assertiona 
in one direction the wind has veered round, so that it now 
blows nearly as fiercely from the opposite pmnt of th» 
compass. Women are meant to be helpful to men; to 
encourage and cheer them in their work, but not to be abused 
for dcnng it ; nor ought they to be lifted out of that poaitionr 
for is it not in that their true strength lies and by which tb^ 
rule the world ? 

Lady Manx's gift of a battery of six Elawick guns to 
Lord Boberts was gratefully accepted on behalf of the 
Oovemment, though the privil^e of utdng it was sent to 
the battery direct. It was a most generous and opportnne 
ofRsrii^, and proved itself a valnable addition to the fighling^ 
force at the dispoution of the Commander-in-chief. 



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THE ELSWICK BATTERY Ml 

The batteiy was sent oat by the Ist Northnmberlaud 
Volnateer Artilleiy, and the men are nearly all workmen 
employed in the Elswiok factory — where the gnne were 
made — and conaeqcently tkey feel they bave a sort of 
proprietary right in them and are penonally reaponsible 
for their correct behaviour. When I saw the battery in 
Maitland Gamp in May, both men and horses were in 
excellent condition, and since that date nntil the present 
time the reports that are receired are of tlie best. 

These guns are described as tweWe-ponndera, twelve owt., 
monnted on a field carriage. It is the first attempt that baa 
been made to introduce them into the field artillery, though 
they are in constant use in the navy. When E^S. Powerful 
was lying in Simons Bay for a short time before she left for 
England, I saw a similar gon on board that had rendered 
great service in the defence of I^dyamith by locatii^ at 
long ranges the Boer poeitionB, and frequently oompelliog 
them to evacuate. 

These Elswick guns are constructed entirely of steel and 
designed for great rapidity of fire, and are provided wiUi 
two natures of projectiles, shrapnel and common shell. 

With a full charge these gons have a range of 8000 yards, 
3000 farther than the service fifteen-pounder Boyal Horse 
Artilleiy weapon. When firing shrapnell shell a reduced 
charge is generally need. The mechanism of this formidable 
piece of artillery was explained to me by the major in command, 
and seemed simple enough to work. Great precautions are 
adopted to lessen the effect of the recoil and to prolong the 
life of the gun itself. It appears that up to 400 yards half- 
ohai^es are nsed, whioh, of course, strain the guns far lees 
than full ones, though they have to be employed when this 
range is exceeded. By a simple though ingenious arrangement 
they may be fired by either the percussion fuse or electricity. 
For mancBuvring these guns a team of eight horses for each 



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43S THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

a indispensable, toA on bad roads tliis number is not nearij 
enoagb. 

The oflSoers of the Elswick battery were: Major Harvey 
Soott^ Captain Morris, adjutant, R.H.A. ; Captain Wedgwood, 
Lient. Bell, Lient Macartney, lieat. Johnson, Lieat. Wilson, 
Sorgeon-Captoin Walford, Vet.-Lieiit. Dotobin. 

On April 3, 1900, the BUwick battery saUed from Albert 
Dookt in s^ Devon for Cape Ibwn, arriving at Table Bay on 
Saturday, April 28, where they disembarked and proceeded 
to MaiHand Camp, a few miles outside Capetown. 'Ousj 
remained there from May 2 until May 23, leaving on that 
day for Bloemfontein, about a week's journey by tndn in 
war time, when no nigbt travelling is done, and long delays 
oooasioiied by the line being damaged by the enemy. On 
arrival at Bloemfontein, they were in time to take part in 
the annexation ceremony of the Orange Biver Colony, the 
salute being fired by the two guns of the Nav^ Brigade and 
the six guna of the Elswick battery. After being in Bloem- 
fontein a few days, the right and left sections, with fonr 
guns, were sent to Springfontein, and the centre section, 
with two guns, to Bethulie, and from there on to Smithfield, 
where they remained until June 17. On Monday, June 18, 
Lord Kitchener gave orders for the battery to march to 
Doomsproit. On Jnly 11 the battery arrived at Pretoria, 
The centre seoticai arrived first, and was immediately sent 
oat to Uie rescne of the linoolns. Afterwards Generals 
Bobrats and BuUer come roond the camp, and the ESswick 
battery was pcnnted ont by Lord Boberts, who said, " That 
is my battery." On Jnly 13 the battery was with Hickmonn's 
flying column — ^its first action aa a united battery — in the 
direction of Wonderboom, towards Onderspmit. On Jnly 16 
the battery was attached to General Sir Ian HamUtoo's 
brigade, and was engaged in forcing the Boers bock from 
kopjes north and north-west. Hamilton's colnmn advanced 



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THE ELSWICK BATTERY 42S 

toWateiral, aad on Jnlj 17 proceeded to Hamarskraal, con- 
tmoing the march on July 18 and 19 along the oonntiy north 
of Delagoa Bay BMlway. On July 30 the gane reached 
DeWegenDrifL 

On the 21et, abont two milen from camp, the enemy's 
gnna oonld be seen firing in the battery's direction &t least 
seveD thoDsuid yards away. After a reply of a dozen or so 
shell from the Elswioh guns they ceased firing at the convoy 
they were escorting. On Jaly 22 marching recommencdd 
to Bnst&ntein. On Joly 28 two gans, right section, were 
ordered oat from Pretoria to recover the body of a man who 
had been shot in the valley. The Boers meanwhile were only 
five miles away in the hills and firing at the party. The 
gnns were brought into action ; the third shell dropped over 
their position at 7800 yards range, and they oeased firing. 

Jnly 25. The battery concentrated at Balmoral and was 
greatly adnured. 

From Balmoral the battery was recalled to take part in 
the relief of Bastenhnrg, and on the road, on Angnst 1 and 
2, tamed Boers oat of Zilikats Nek, dririag thetn across 
the Crocodile river and pressed on to Boatenbarg ; the centre 
section being left on Angost 5 at Commando Kek on the 
same river to gnard the bridge with Colonel Hickm&n'a 
brigade tmtil return of others from Bnstenbai^. Angost 8 
the right and left aeotiona reamed from Bnstenbnrg, and on 
the 10th the three sections (i.e., the whole battery) marched 
to Baltfontein, then to Thomdal, and on to Earlfbntein, 
Zandfont^, Tlakfontein and Boodckloof, where Oltphants 
Nek was forced, the battery being in action all day. Tho 
next day, Angast 11, the centre section was in action alone, 
firing ibrty-five ronnda, after which this section proceeded 
nortii throagh Hebron and Zontpans to Warm Baths, and 
thence back to Pretoria, arriving on the 28th. 

After being provided with 123 remounts on the Slst a 



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•M4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

freah Btort wu made towards Middelbnrg with Hamilton's 
^vision, the battery paasiiig Brookhnnt Sprait for the 
third time on September 2, amTing at Belfast on September 
8, which place was left agun on the 11th, reaching Macha- 
dodorp the same afternoon, encamping at Helvetia, then on 
toWaterral-Onder, Nootigedacht, and (Jodwan, where the left 
section remained. The right section was ordered to Daiveli 
Kantoor and the centre section to Nelaprait, where it arnTed 
on September 18. 

On the 24th the centre BOotacm left for Pretoria, aniring 
on September 26. On the 27th it left again for BDBteabnrg, 
where it arrived on October 1, remaining until October 19. 
On October 17 the right and left sections, after an exciting 
train jonmey of six days' duration, arrived again at Pretoria 
horn. Koomati Poort, to which town they had marched (a 
distULoe of over 300 miles) in twenty-seven days. On 
October 18 the left section was ordered soath to Edenbnrg. 
On October 29 the right section arrived at PotchefBtroom, 
from Frederickstad, where it had been to the relief of General 
Barton, who was snrroimded hy De Wet On the 3lBt the 
centre section was at Magato Neb. On November 8 the ri^t 
section was stationed near Elaadsfontein Junction, and the 
left section at Rheooster Station in the Free Btate. On 
November 22 the centre section was at Bnetenbug, attached 
to Q battery Boyal Horse Artillery (of Sannah's Post fame), 
and proceeded on the 28rd oorth-weat to Hartebeestefontein, 
where it was engaged on Novnnber 30.* 

On December 1 and S it was in action soath <^ 
Oliphant's Nek. On December 5 it was at Erondal, 
near BoBtenbarg. On December 12 the right eeotion en- 
camped between Klerksdorp and Tigerfontein, where it had 
been for ten days. On December 23 the centre section was 
in action with Colonel Conningham^s brigade at Leenwpoort 
and camped near Oliphant's Nek, ocmtinning its march on 
■ Sm podtlou of KUU on page 427. 



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THE ELSWICK BATTERY 4AS 

the 24th for Wotrerdand, near JohanneBbnig, which was 
reached at 10 r.M^ where it spent a qaiet ChriBtnus day. 
Oq Deoember 27 orders were reoeired to proceed to Fotohef- 
stroom, which was reached in four days, the right Bectaon 
being encamped a few miles away, having marched from 
Vlakfontein to Wolverheind on December 24. 

Ou December 26, the left seotioa was at Edenbnrg (aootli 
of Bloemfontein) doing garrison duty. On Janaary 17 the 
centre section was at Johannesburg. 

It will be seen Irom the abore that for some time past the 
battery has been divided into three independent sections 
acting under the orders of separate generals, and oontanoaUy 
on the march. Also, there appears to hare been very great 
oompetitlon amongst the generals to aecare a section of the 
battery, as long range gnns are indispensable to the saoceos 
of dtMT operstionB. I have pnrposely given this detailed 
aoooont of the movements to and fro of the battwy in order 
to convey an idea to the □oQ-profesaiooal mind of the way 
the troops have had to traverse and retrace their steps; but 
even this does not carry oat my intention, as I am nnable to 
give the distances between the variona points mentioned. 

The following is an extract from a letter from Captain Wedg- 
wood, giving an aoooont of the action of November 30, 1900, 
near Hartebeestefoatein, by General Broadwood's oaraliy 
brigade. I reproduce it as it ia ^ical of a great many and 
AS showing what voltmteers can do. 

29/11/1900. — Dd&rey reported fourteen miles south of Twee river 
(where we camped) with 1000 man and five small 
gnna and little ammaoitioa. Vtaob marched at 
dawn, 5 kM^ as mider : — 
Advance guard, 2 squadrons 10th Hassan. 
Main body : 1 aquadnm „ 

1 pom-pom, Oaptain Dramis, 

2 sections Q battery, B.H^. 
1 section Elswick. 

12th I^noers. 



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THE ANGLOBOER WAR 

2 squadrons 8th Hossotb. 

(ftbout three milea long) baggage, 
unbulanos aupplj paity (males 
uid bullocks), two oompaniw Ax- 
gf leuad SatherlMid HighUndwB. 
Beu guard. 1 aquadron 8th Hussais. 

2 companies Argyle and Sutherland 

Highlanders. 
1 section Q battery, KH^ 
Orosaad to SelouB river and turned sonth b; west. 
6,16, halted at A till B prononnoed clear. 
7^, pom-pom and then l«uliiig section Q engaged 
to left and right, to aMut eavalry ; tacvea. ftxo» 
halted ; range 3000 Tarda. 
7.44, moved on up steep biU to (8.45). 
9.15, EUnriiik section ordered to knoll (position 1). 
drnvoy had vanished in a valley of High Ridge. 

10 A.lf., moved on, halte^.and joined main bodyat D. 
10.SO, Elswic^ trotted on am bad hill to posititMi 

two and opened fire at 460O on Kaffir kraal 
reported held by Boers. 

11 A.M., moved on, and leaving seotion Q en the 
right trotted on to position 3 down hHI, seaihg 
Boers galloping off up opposite ridge ; came into 
action with pom-pom on right ; cavalry advance 
stopped fire about 11,45. 

12 (noon), took up position 4 and diallad oonroy 
retreating south-west up hill, out of range, say 
8500 yards. Boers had vanished over hills before 
we got up. Q in actkm (m oar left and also 
reversing against High Bidge to east, from 
which we were bein^ sniped. Horses having 
been tweDty>two hours without water and moving 
at a great pace, we camped on the stream at S p Ji. 

Total casualtieH on our side, one. 

Burnt six farms and many wheat staoks; omnman- 
deered 18,000 bundles of oat-hay. Oiaaug very 
good; travelling about sixteen miles, three at a 
trot. 



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THE ELSWICK BATTERY 



48T 



The acoomp&Q^iag map of ronte and positions is alao 
O^itain Wedgwood's, which he has kindly allowed me to nae. 

In the fntnre, when considering the armament of the 
Royal Artillery, in the light of the recent experience gained 
in South Africa, it is more than probable that the anthoritieB 




will fnnuBh each brigade with a few of the heaviest gtina ot 
the longest range. 

For the supply of gons and monntinga to both the army 
and the navy, the firm of Elswick does credit to the British 
nation. By its honourable transactions it has reached its 
present respected and important commercial position, and 
proves the tntth of the old proverb " Honesty is the best 
policy," a line of condact that should be followed by all 
Govenunent contractors, whether they supply gone or boots 
for the troops, especially during a period of active hostilitieB. 

The two examples I have taken of artillwy on active 



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-4S8 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

aerrioe are widelj different in their natanB, thongh botb an 
automatic gons ; the one kind being so light and portable 
that I conid move them, and the other bo heairy that a team 
of eight horses is reqaiied to bring them into action, and 
that onder Uie most faronrable conditions, 

Othw machine guns, between these two and larger, hare 
4>een nsed in this Soath African campaign. In all no leas 
than eighteen natnres of British ordnance, each requiring 
their own particular kind of ammunition, hare taken part in 
the war ; all having had to be transported over enoimona 
distanoee, and ready for action at any moment. 

Those who know least about the war and the peculiar 
difilcultiea that each sectiou of the army has had to encounter 
are the most ready to condemn the conduct of it, and critiQise 
the War OflSce and the officers and men that are daily pei^ 
forming prodi^es in overcoming the obstacles that beset 
them on all hands and of every description. 

f^rst it is the staff and regimental officers that are 
stigmatised as " stupid," then it is the artillery that is found 
fault with ; field artillery guns are denounced as useless and 
small arms the same. Nothing escapes, even the Australian 
volunteers hare been described as " carpet soldiers.* When 
so much has been said in detraction, and at a time when 
&ult is found with everything that is being done by the 
War Office, it is quite refreshing to hear die kind words of 
the Dnke of Cambridge, who from long experience can claim 
to know something of what he is talking about. 

In the course of an address delivered to tJie 3rd hGddlesez 
Volunteer Artillery he expressed his Batds&ddon at hearing 
how admirably its members had carried out their military 
•dntjes during the past year. He said he had often heard 
the volunteers called fanoiftd soldiers, bat the part they had 
played in the Sonth Afirican campaign had exploded that 
idea. 



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THE ELS WICK BATTERY 489 

The military spirit which had been developed during the post 
year wu quite extraordinary. Thoogh this was & oommwcial 
oooQtiy, it had, perhape, stronger military inetinots than many of 
the military oonntrieB in other parts of the world. It had 
afi(>rded a wonderful sight during the post year. The military 
Spirit ot the oountry and of the colonies had been developed 
in a manner which is almoet onaooonntable, and to one lik& 
myself, who had been at the head of the army {<x bo many years, 
and who ootdd not now expect to remain mnch longer amongst 
them, the spectsole which had been afibrded was particularly 
grati^ring. Officers and soldiers had shown what they (x>uld do ; 
they had done their duty in a manner which was most creditable 
to themselves and moet honourable to their conntry. 

Ixffd Roberts, fresh from the battlefields and speaking 
firom penonal aoqnaintanoe with the volnnteers on active 
service, has nothing bnt praise for them, and during the 
whole time he commanded the foroea in Socth Africa he 
marked his appreciation by having representatives of different 
Tolonteer corps on his personal stofE. 

WliMi leaving Gape Town he said : 

The guiding hand of Omnipotence would tning good oat 
of what to our finite understanding was the moat unfortunate 
war of 1881, tor that war could not have brought the &r- 
reaahing effectB that this war had caused. That war could not 
have consolidated the whole British empire firmly together as 
this war had done, because it would have heaa fought by r^iolar 
troops alone, whereas the present war hod been brought to what, 
he hoped, was a satisfactory conclusion by the militia, yeomanry, 
and volunteers of Great Britain, and by thoae admirable and 
wcrkmuilike contingente of South Africa, Oonado, Austr^ia, 
Kew Zealand, India, and Ceylon, all fighting as brothers in arms 
fm- the dear old flag of the mother-country in the service of their 
empren-queen. 

In this respect he held a unique position as field-manhal (d the 
united Governments, because he was the first who' had had the 
honour to command on Imperial army formed of r^resentativee 
from aU parts of the Queen's domiruons, bound bj one oonmuu 



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4S0 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

object, namely, to uphold the honour and pmtiga of the notfaat^ 
«ountt7. He ma oonnnoed that this unanimoiu and sponteDeooa 
oatborst of patriotiBia wm not an ephemeral thiiig,and that evecjr 
member throughoot the oiTilued world would note that Wngl^nH^ 
jflolated from tiiem, so Ear as tnatiea and allianoeawenooooemed, 
had only to giro the signal and men forthwith flocked tnaa all 
paita of the world to aid the moUieroonntiy. 'Stntx had a mother 
Bwre reason to be proud of her sons than EngUod to-day. 80 
tbey stood, and, please Ood, would continue to stand, a united 
world-wide dominion, bound togethw by indisaidubU tits, and 
«Ter leady to carry out the destiny of their race. God had 
btou^t them oat of what, in tiie dark days of Deowuber, ap- 
peared to tbemto be the Valley of the Shadow of Death. They 
mold now look back on days ttf tribulation with deep giaitade for 
the merey vooohssfed to the Queen's tnxqn. 

Though it has sadly to be admitted that Lord Roberts was 
a UtUa premature in thinking the war was over, and that we 
had nothing farther to do but rejoice and look back with 
satisfaction on the days of tribulation safely past ; there is 
no doubt that our late beloved Queen fully appredated the 
flaorifioes made by the troops, and took advantage of every 
opportonity of showing her appreciation of them. 

In spite of failing health and advancing age, she con- 
stantly vMt«d the sick and wounded ae they arrived in 
Netley Hospital. She sorrowed with the bereaved, and 
honoured thoee who had returned &om the seat of war hy 
personally receiving them in aadienoe. 

Could any one snggest a way in which a sovereign oould 
show love and gratitude that has not been found by Qneen 
Victoria for her fighting sons, no matter from which comer 
oC the empire they oame; regulars or volunteers P 



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CHAPTEE XL 

SIR CHARLES BOSS' COLT-GTJH BATTERY 

In leaving MuUvid Camp I met s friend then serving in 
Sir Charles Bosa* batteiy and when I told him I had just been 
inBtrocted in the myeteries of heavy artillery, Dothiog would 
satisfy him but that I should hare another lefison at Boee- 
bank Oamp in artilleiy firearms more mobile in their 
character. 

I was told that General Sir F. Forestder Walker would hold 
an inspection of the batteiy early on the following morning, 
prior to its departure for Bloemfontein, which was to take 
place on the Friday, May 4 — a coming event that was 
occasioning great enthasiasm amongst the men who ate all 
old Boldiers of the Royal Horse Artillery or have served 
in cavalry ref^ments. Accordingly I went with my Mend 
to hia oamp, where the battery has been stationed &a five 
weeks— since its arrival in Cape Town. 

In order to understand the inspection and get an intelli- 
gent idea on a sabject of such vital importance to BQCOeas 
in warfare as automatic guns, I thoronghly went into every 
detail. It ia often taken for granted that such and kindred 
BnbjectB are qnite beyond the ken of womenfolk, and so, 
indeed, they would be if some hind brother did not ooca- 
monally take the trouble to enlighten their minds and expand 
their nndo'standing, and in this respect I have been more 
fortunate than worda can ezpreas. 

On the present occasion I was not less so than nsoal. I 



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4$S THE AKGLO-BOEB WAR 

bad the beiufit of the expert aid of Sergeant-Majw I^ddon, 
whom Sir Charles Bon r^^mrdi with grest bvoor, md I Kioa 
fonnd that I could not h&ve been placed in the ohai^ of * 
more inteHigeat or painstaking itubrnctor. 

No GoYemmeut has ever been snppoited by prirate mnnifi- 
oenoe to soch an extent before, and it greatly apjR«ciated 
Sir Chariee Boob' generou gift, which left ffngi^^nd with 
Lord Loeb'i contingent, bnt m arrival in Cape Town became 
a separate unit, self-containing and sdf-snpporting — a new 
experiment in modem warfare. 

Lord Athlamney waa the military <^oer in charge of the 
battery, and it ooold not have been ia the hands of a better 
man. Ke waa formerly in the Coldstoeam Guards is a 
m»joT of the Kent Artillery Militia, and daring l^e Dctngola 
expedition of 1896 was serving with Lrad Kitchener, when 
he was mentioned in despatches. 

Sir Charles Boss, though he ha« no record of military 
serrioe, ia a typical Englishman, or, as I should say, Soots- 
man; and when I saw him in the camp he waa working 
like a blaoksmitit at his gnn-carriages to have them ready ftv 
departure. Sir Charles ia a rich man and can afibrd to be 
generona. He has broad acres in Scotland, sqnare miles in 
China, mining interests and electric works in British 
Colombia ; and from the wealth that these poeiMBBionB realise, 
the nation, and the individaal Tommy Atkins whom he has 
bronght with him reap the benefit 

Sir Charles has always been a great sportsman. When he 
went to Moizenberg, a small bathing-place near Simons 
Town, where he took hia battery for gunnery practioe, he 
ahot away the flag &om the floating target, which had been 
riddled at 2000 yards ; the men likewise doing especially 
well in battery firing in support with rifles. 

He entire complement of this battery was 5 gons— Coif s 
antomatic '303 ; 4 officers, 1 aeigeant-major, 2 sergeants, 5 



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SIR CHARLES ROSS COLTGUN BATTERY 4SS 

corponls, taii 48 men ; 12 Cape boye, 60 Argentine horses, 
36 mnlsB, and 6 carts for ammunition and transport. When in 
action there are three men on each gnn in the filing line, two 
men in the rear with reserve ammunition, and the remainder 
with supplies and stores. These, as all machine-gtmB — naval 
inclnded — were painted hhald colonr, and are indiscernible 
on the veld at 1000 yards. The Colt gnn can be bronght 
into action as fast as a eqoadron of cavaliy and retire with 
eqnal celerity. They fire 450 rounds a minnte, and are 
worked by gas caosed by the ezplosioD of the cartridge 
passing throngh the valve at S^ inches from the mnzzle ; the 
swinging lever in the rear Cannes the extraction of the empty 
case ; the insertion of a fresh cartridge from the belt, which 
holds 250, recorks the gnn. The firing is done by pTeeaing 
the tri^^er. 

At a certain epoch of the campaign all additions to the 
artillery and cavalry were direct national benefits, whether 
they were heavy gons, like the Elswick battery, or the 
Colt gnns, which are very ample in constmction ; eo light 
are the carriages that even I could dn^ one and the laisson 
across the camp ; and when the gnn had been taken from its 
moonting and placed on my shoulder, I fonnd that nnder 
stress of circumstances I could have carried it a short 
distance. The exact weight of it is 42 lb. 

In one mr two places during this oampa^, however, it has 
been foand that the " Dundonald carriage " has proved too 
light to be drawn at a gallop over rongh conntry, and Sir 
Charles Ross came to the same conclasion after various 
experiments. In order to rectify this defect he had a steel 
frame added, which he found greatly steadied it, and on the 
day of inspection he was thoroughly satisfied with the gnn- 
oarriages, which moved with ease over the worst country 
obtainable roand Cape Town, maintaining their poedtionB, 
and proving themselves eqnal to all emeigendes. They were 

2e 



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4S* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

timed in a nine yarda interr^ at a gillop, and in erery wxy 
they went thron^li th« oraal inspecticni pands with a 
precision that left nothing to be desired. The men in Sir 
Charlee Boee' battery were easily distingnishable from the 
mnltitude of other " gentlemen in khaki " that still aboond 
in South Africa, by the atrip of tartan of the clan of 
which he is the bead, and the Prince of Wale^ plnmea over 
the word " Bo«," together with the ina^nia of the ohm, two 
juniper branches tied in a knot. 

The first day these gnna were bronght into act!<m was <m 
May 28, at the fight at Boksbnr^, when thesy drore the 
Boers from that ooal-mining district, tiirongh Oermistcm into 
Johannesbarg, where the gnna were employed to protect the 
Band gold mines. 

On June 4 they were in action ontaide Pretoria, |m>lon^ 
ing Uie line along the ridge to the left of the big naval gnns. 
Then came three days^ fighting at Diamond Hill, after which 
fonr of the guns were employed in an armoured trun, 
whilst the other two were told off for patrol dnty ronnd 
Pretoria. 

On Jnne 4 one gnn alone fired S200 ronnds, and it ia 
satisfactory to note that daring the whole campaign no serioas 
case of jamming occurred. 

The e^rit de corps ia so strong in the Britash army that 
every officer and man is conrinoed that his gnn, hia nuit, or 
corps ia tlie best, and the only really satisfactory one in the 
service, and aeea in it incomparable advantages. The 
tmth of this statement is proved every day in the oolnmns of 
the daily press. When an attack is made on any arm of ti)e 
service oolamns are written in jnstification of ita excellence. 
This is a great reason why it is better to have a civilian 
as Secretary of State for War than a military man, who 
naturally leans to hia own particolar branch of the service 
instead of seeing, with impartiality, the army as a whole. 



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SIR CHARLES flO&S* COLT-GUN BATTERY 435 

In coDcladiog this chapter on Colt antomatio qnick-firing 
gDDB, it may be of interest to recall that althongh these gnns 
were most effectively used by the United States army in the 
Spanish-American war, their use in the Boer war is the first 
occaaion on which they have been employed by the British 
aathorities. In addition to Sii' Charles Boss' battoiy other 
units were sent to the front by the various battalions of 
yeomanry, also under Major W. H. Bdwardes, who worked 
them with General Clements' colnnm, and snbseqnently with 
General French's cavalry division, and by Lientenant Ward 
in Natal, who was attached to Lord Dondonald's forces with 
General Bnller. In all about sixty of these guns are or have 
been in action during the present war. 



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CHAPTER XLI 

THE MOUKTED TOLUNTBBB AIDS TO THE 
FIELD FORCE 

No womui can dispnte witli Lady Menx the hononr o£ having- 
otmtribiited a battery of artillery for actire serrice in Sonth 
Africa, nor can one corns forward with the clum, ' ' Bat I hare- 
given a eqnadron of cavalry." No woman haa been fonnd 
with snffioient courage to interfere with the men on horse- 
back ; thong^ I woold not venture to predict that in another 
national crisia — ^which we all trnat will not arise for genera- 
tions — that one of the gentler ses will not be forthcoming 
with anfficient temerity even for this, if indeed a whole oorpa 
of AmaaonB might not arise to vie with mouited men on 
the field of battle itself. General Boiler wonld then have no 
need to say, " I aapposa oar officers will learn the valne of 
scooting some day." That good day will have dawned ! 

In tiie meanwhile it is to be hoped that after our recent 
experiences the military establishments will be so increased 
oat of the Imperial Ezoheqaer, and their organisation be 
80 perfected that they can easily be converted from a peace 
to a war footing. In future the nation (i^,, the members of 
the Honee of Commons) most see that iia defences are not so 
insofficient as to admit of the necessity for private individuals 
coming to the rescue with batteries of artillery, squadrons of 
cavalry, and military hospitals to make up deficienciefi in the 
hoar of danger. 

With an ever expanding em[«re, iooreaaing responsibilitiesi 



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THE MOUNTED VOLUNTEER AIDS 487 

and the progreea made by rival nationa in commerce and 
military stoength, our defences both eea and land require to 
be kept under constant anpervision and onremittiDgly ang- 
mented. No Goremment conid exist that refused to place 
the arm; and navy on the footing desired by the representa- 
tives of the conatitaenoieB. 

Many hard things have been heard about the War Office, 
bnt what would the Dnke of Wellington have eaid if he had 
been told that the oonntry wonld be aUe at the end of the 
centnry to despatch to South Africa from this coontry, in 
addition to 175,000 regular aoldiw^ a fiutiier force of 40,000 
Tolnnteers of various descriptions fktm the United Kngdom, 
thirty regiments of militia, and put in the field 40,000 
oolonial volnnteers drawn from the affected districts, and 
coming trom Canada and Australia to fight shonldw to 
shoulder with the regular troopa in a cause in which the 
Canadians and Aostralians were not directly involved ? 

What would his astonishment be if he could see the volos- 
teer squadrons of oavalry bearing distinolave names that have 
been raised in a few weeks for active service, to say notiiing 
of the thousands of yeomanry that have flocked around the 
royal standard! How gladly be would have modified his 
opinion in n^;ard to the utilitn^ of nntrained troopa if he conld 
have read of the deeds of bravery, the marehing powers, and 
steadiness in the face of the enemy displayed by the City 
Imperial Volunteers! 

In his celebrated letter he says : — 

"We hear a great deal about the spirit of the pec^le of Eng- 
land, for which no man entertains a higher respect than I do. But 
uno^[aiuaed, ondisoipUned, without systematic subordinatioii ee- 
teblished and well understood, this spirit opposed to the £re of 
musketry and cannon, and to the sabrce and bayonete cS discip- 
lined troops, would only expose those animated by such spirit to 
ccmfnsion and distraction. 

Let any man make theattempt to turn to some use this spirit 



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4SS THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

in can of partial local diaturtMnce, the want of prariooa wjit»- 
matic or^n«ti(xi and Babordinatum will piOTont him from orai 
^■nitmiin n ifaHng with more than his own moii&I servante and 
dopendantB, and while mobs may be in movement thioa^ Hm 
ooontiy, the most powerful will find tltat he can Bcarody move 
tram bit own door. 

W« are so Mxnutomed to see the police ooDtrol local dia- 
torbaDces that there is no apfottamtiy of \aA;pDg to what 
extent the great dnke wootd be right in the opinion he 
expressed in 1847. In this respect in theee early days of the 
twentieth centnry there is plenty of evidence to prove that 
on such oocaoons soldiers are not nearly so sucoessfnl as 
civil policemen and that there is plenty to show that ondiB- 
ciplined troops can be opposed without fear of oonf nsion to 
the fiercest artillery sod rifle firing from an enemy as 
thoroDfi^y truned and discipUaed as the Boers have proved 
themselves to be. For have they not taught us, and all the 
great military Powen, valuable lessons in the finer arts of 
war P We are told by an eminent authority that for their 
own purposes the Boers in South Africa are the best tnuned 
and disciplined troops in the world. They have given ample 
proof of their extraordinary mobility, their ingennity in 
moving heavy ordnance to and from distant parts of the 
OODUtry and to the summit of positions thought to be quite 
inaccessible. When a distinguished general was infwmed, in 
the beginning of the war, that they had saoh and soch gone 
of position, he replied " But what good are they ? They 
require stationary platforms." He soon found out what 
good they were, and that the Boers mode readily enough 
stationary platforms jnst when and where they required 
them, with the concrete they carried about with the guns. 
They have taught us how to dig trenches, bow to take 
scientific advantage of cover, and how to bring down the 
transport of an army to the smallest limits. Even Zx>id 



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THE MOUNTED VOLUNTEER AIDS 439 

Elitohener, who is oonBidered heartless in the way he cata 
down ba^fage, has gained a point or two more in Sooth 
Africa in connection with field transport. 

A letter was forwarded by a Times correspondent whioh 
was fonnd in a deserted house at Otterehoop, and was written 
by a Boer to his brother and dated September 1, 1899. The 
following extract from it whioh appeared in the Tima of 
December 6, 1900, shows that the boi^hers fully anticipated 
war and were to a man quite prepared to fight. 

We are going to have a. blcx)dy war and can expect the same 
every day, nay, every hoar, as sure as I am writing this. We 
moBt be brave and faithful to our country. The English Oovem- 
niBnt will not declare war because they say we are a subordinate 
State. The troops will cross our borders at a certain hour to 
occupy onr country, and, of course, as soon as they oroes they 
will be fixed on. Our country will be bathed in blood and tears, 
our bravest men will fall in battle, but we wiU gain the victories ; 
our cause is just and righteous, and besides, according to statistics, 
an advancing army of 50,000 is eqaal to 17,000 on the defenave. 
Well, O.V.S. and Transvaal can have 81,000 men in the field in 
eight days, then we will be twice as strong as the 50,000. Their 
artillery will not do so much barm ; we fight guerilla fashion. 
Our artillery will play havoc with the 25,000 or S0,000 voet- 
gangers. We are all mounted. We have the advantage of select- 
ing our own battlefields. They say England can send more than 
60,000 ; tb^ most prove this first. But onr Bepublican armies 
will also be reinforced from the discontoited populations ttom 
Natal and the Colony. I think we have a good chanoe of wound- 
ing England for life. I think the first shot will be fired dose to 
your office in Marico district, sixteen miles north of Mafeking. 
You people must be on your guard. I expect the tel^raph wires 
will be cut thronghont the State at a given hour. Our Oovem- 
ment expects it. 

As will be seen, they calculated the force England oonld 
send against them fairly accnrately, not counting the militia 
and Tolnnteers. 



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440 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

That tliia wm the opinion entertained generally by tbe 
bnrghera in the Transvul utd the Free State I have ereiy 
TMSon to beliere, as the oonTersatitnu I had with the 
piiaonen of war on the Manila fnlly oonfirmed the aenti- 
mentfl in the foregoing letter. Many belonging to Zeemaft, 
BnBteDbni^, and Potchef stroom showed that th^ anticipated 
nothing else for months and were confident of emoceBs. 

To hare left oat of their calculations tiie rolonteerH was a 
great error in jadgment, thoogh a TOiy natnral one. For, as 
Mr, Brodrick said in the Honse of Commona, no one except 
an official would have been willing to believe that the War 
Office oonld or should be in a position to find sncb a ftHToe 
to laud in Sonth Africa. This is a anrprtsa to onrselves ; we 
have astotushed all fbragn nations, and the result is that the 
late Presidents of the Sonth African Bepnblics have di^ 
oovered their error when it is too late to rectify it. The valne 
of nndisciplined troops has now been proved beyond dispate, 
both for the attacking and defending force. 

Lord Dandonald — the great leader of irregnlar cavalry and 
moanted infantry, of whose snocees in Natal all have heard — 
was aaked to give hia opinion of the men that formed the 
regiments of his brigade. He said : " They were of all 
classes and professions ; men with whom yon oonld go any- 
where and do anything." But in this connection it most be 
remembered that Ijord Dnndonald is not a self-opinionated 
man, and was not above asking for advice, or Ustening to the 
snggestiona of any one, whatever bis position in the forae, 
and, not only did he listen, but acted on the snggestions if, 
after dne consideration, he thongbt they were better than 
his own ideas bad been. * 

That he correctly soms up the attribntes of the men com- 
posing his brigade there is no doubt, and his opinion may 
also include the volunteers in Brabant's Horse, Tliomey- 
eroff 8 and Bethnne's Mounted Infantry, the contingents of 



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THE MOUNTED VOLUNTEER AIDS 441 

monnted Bnehmen from Anstralia, and the RanoherB from 
C&nada; the list may be extended to the corps known by 
the names of offioers in the British regular army, i.e., 
Roberts' Horse, Kitcbener's Horse, Comptoa's Hone, Poet's 
Hwse, and the newly formed Prinoa of Wales' Horse; 
also those bearing the namea of distingniflhed civilians, snch 
as Btratbcona's Horse and Loch's Horse. All are men that 
will do anything or go anywhere — ^men who volnnteered for 
active service and have stood the test which {nvves them to 
be good and nsefnl soldiers of the King. 

I make special mention of Strathcona's Horse in the next 
chapter, bnt should like to give another instance of the kind 
of work dime by these volanteers, and for my pnrpose have 
selected the corps bearing the name of Lord Loch. 

I am folly aware that I might hare chosen one that has 
seen more severe %hting and has gone throngh more 
^wriences of a thrilling natare ; bnt, though the books on 
the war have been as plentifiil as blackberries in autumn, 
the more permanent ones are still to be written, and the 
best material most be left for the great historians who will 
do justice to subjects that I, with others, cmly venture to 
tooch upon. 

Loch's Hoise is a colonial corps, which was raised by the 
late Lord Loch and Mr. Oeorge Fanar in England, at Uie 
headquarters of the 1st Surrey Bifles in Camberwell. They 
numbered about 220 in all, and from the commencement of 
the campaign have been commanded by Captain Brown, late 
Boyal Irish Bifies, who had previously seen service both in 
Egypt and Bhodesia. Major Ho<^son, late Lincoln regi- 
meat, was the seoond in command, bat he has since been 
appointed resident magistrate of Boksbnrg. When the corps 
left England in Febmary 1901 it was united to Sir Charles 
Boss' battery, bnt was formed into a separate contingent 
when it reached Cape Town. After a short delay at Bose- 



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44a THE ANGW-BOER WAR 

bank Cunp it wm eent np ootmtiy, and they saw their first 
fighting at Karee siding, tliey were then brigaded with 
Lamsden'B Hone and the 8th Homited: Infantry, nnder 
Colonel Boes. Commanded b; him, they were in the action 
at Hontnek, where Lnmaden's Horse were vety Beverely cat 
np. Two days later, in Ix>rd Boberte' great march, they 
aasiflted in the oaptnre of Brandfort, and were first into Uia 
Boer laager. Alter varioaB small afiaira they took part in 
^e battle of Zand river, where they gained great praise 
from General Hntton for their coolness nnder an extremely 
hot shell-fire. 

Looh's Horse were among the first to enter Kroostad, and 
a fortnight later were actually tht first of Boberts' army to 
croes the Vasl, and were in time to save the bridge and the 
cool mines at Vereeaiging from complete deatmction. 

Three days later, after some severe fighting roand Elands- 
fontein Jonctioo, they captured the important town of 
Boksbni^. This may be regarded as their great feat during 
the war, for by the time the corps reached the town, so 
exhausted had the bones become that only four officers, one 
sergeant and twelve men were left. These, however, rode 
straight into and through the town, driviag out over two 
houdred Boera and captoriug three guns, and taking over 
sixty prisoners. After holding Bokeburg for three weeks 
Loch's Horse and the Boyal Canadians occupied Springs, 
thirteen miles to the east. This place was infested with 
Been, and the hairbreadth escapee of the patrols would be 
too numerous to mention. 

Later the corps moved down to the Free State to help in 
the chase of De Wet, and to guard the railway line at Taai- 
boBch Spruit ; it is their proud boast that their section ia the 
only part of the line which, up to the date of writing, has 
not been damaged by the enemy, though they had been in 
charge of it for at leaat four months. All arrangements 



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THE MOUNTED VOLUNTEER AIDS **3 

were made for me to drire to Taaibosch &otD Johannesbarg, 
bnt the state of the coontiy was bo anaettlecL that I had to 
give up the idea. 

On ft most regrettable occasiciii, when Lient. W. A. S. 
Williams, Adjutant of the 8th Moanted Infantry, was killed, 
and Colonel Boss was dangeronsly woanded, Sergeant Fioton, 
of Lord Lo^l's Horse, gallantly charged up to the wall of a 
kraal behind which an unknown number of Boers were hidden, 
and shot three with his rerolrer, wherenpon the others threw 
down their rifles and anrrendered. For this gallant action 
Sergeant Picton has been recommended for the medal for 
distingaifihed service in the field. On several occamons both 
oflicers and men have been mentioned in despatches and 
several of the troopers have received commiseionB in the 
regular army. One that occurs to my mind is Se^[fiant- 
Major Adam, who volnnteered from the militia to this corps, 
and had a commission given him in the First King's Dragoon 
Guards and retnmed to England in November in conse- 
quence, bnt left again with his regiment in January for a 
further period of active foreign service. 

Snoh ore the men that have been gathered together nnder 
the banner of irregular corps to serve in South Africa. They 
are the pioneers of England's greatness. Some people coll 
them " the black sheep of the family " — the maumiis atjets 
that go away, anywhere, because they cannot pass their 
examinations, or have got into some trouble at college. Bad 
boys at school often make good citizens ; when they are thrown 
on their own resources they generally fall on their feet. The 
rough life they find in distant colonies to which they are 
banished by indignant parents, or to which they have been 
attracted by a spirit of odventnre, soon hardens their oon- 
stitntions and renders them physically fit for anything. 
Their edncation likewise gives them a leading position in all 
local afCairs. 



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44* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

They are Uie first to lead the way to places where miasion- 
aries afterwards come and settle, trade and development 
following as a natural consequence. 

They are the men of whom ^England has reason to be 
pKKid; the colonieers of distant parts, and of the earth. 
When there ia a cry for help they come in their thoDsaodi 
to defend what they have helped to make — Greater Britain. 



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CHAPTER XLII 

STBATHOONA'S HORSE 

It would be imposEdble for me in the oompasH of the present 
volnme to make detailed references to all patriotic knpolBee 
which have found an outlet in every conceiTable direction. 
In selecting two batteries and two corps of moonted men I 
have merely done so as illustrationa. 

The opportune contribntion to the Imperial forces made 
by Lord Strathcona and Mount Boyal oomprised three 
squadrons of men, aa fine and as well mounted as any tiiat 
have landed in Table Bay or Durban ednoe the war b^an. 
The greater part of the 500 men have come a distance of 
12,000 miles to stand shoulder to shoulder witli the other 
Bona of the empire that have gathered tc^ether on the sandy 
plains and uplands of South Africa to punish a people that 
have wantonly invaded onr territory and insulted our Queen 
and country. 

It is very marvellous to observe how rapidly men and 
animals bear violent changes in climatic conditions ! When 
I saw " Strathoona's Horse," tiie men had been three months 
previously sleeping out in the open at night in the neigh- 
bourhood of Elondyke, with the thermometer 40° below 
■ero ; when they arrived in South Africa the temperature in 
their tente at Green Point waa 100° Fahr. I 

So eager were these hardy men from the Wild West to 
serve their Queen and uphold our national honour, that Colonel 
Steele had no sooner received his orders to recruit for the 



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446 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

force than they were execnted — the whole oomplemeDt iot 
his commuid being raised in fire days, and that in % distance 
from point to point of 5000 miles. Bot three short weeks 
wwe employed in completing all the arnragementB, from the 
date of the first order to recrait, to that when all were 
embarked at Halifax on board the Monterey, which veffiol 
accomplished the voyage in twen^-two days — a distance (A 
7000 miles. It took bat a oonple of hoars to' embark t^e 
men and horses at Halifax and half a day at Cape Town to 
disembark them and to take up their ground at Qreen Fdnt 
oamp. 

This is as " smart " a piece of work aa onr Amencas 
consins could hare pot throagh, and even they ooold hardly 
have sarpaased it. The average English mind does not 
oeoally associate great celerity with efficiency and attention 
to details, bnt as far as the outfit and equipment of Lord 
Strathcona's contingent was concerned this general role does 
not apply. With ample means, and willing hands, Colonel 
Steele soon organised his command into sqaadnms, appointed 
his officers, and divided trhe work ; the most importuit 
oonditdoQB of enrolment being that all had to be good horse- 
men, good shots, of robust constitation, and onmarried; 
minimom height 5 feet 6 inches, and 36 inches chest measore- 
ment; not to be nnder twenty-two nor over forty yeus of 
age. 

Men that are accnsttoned to spend their lives on extensive 
cattle ranches in Canada generally comply with these reqoire- 
ments, becaase the nature of their calling imperatively 
demands that they should be good horsemen and good shots. 
The ontdoOT life titey lead stimulates and invigorates their 
pbyuque, and as for being married, most of them wait until 
they have had enough of life in the Wild West before they 
" seek the comfort of a wife." 

The advantages of having as large a number of horsemen 



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STRATHCONAS HORSE 447 

aa possible of tbe particalar type of Lord Strathoon&'s Horee 
are obvious, when the great mobility of the Boers is borne 
in mind. The contingents that come from Canada and 
Anatrtdia are well able to give a good account of themaelrea 
and command respect from the enemy in their own mode of 
warfare ; and when their own faithful steeda are ezbanated 
from hard work and short rations they have learned the knack, 
as well as the Boers, of lassoing wild horses. By the kind 
permission of Colonel Steele I saw how the trick was done. 
He ordered two of his men to monnt good horses, and 
selected two others of the fastest, and set tfaem free to 
career aronnd the oamp ; away they went over rongh atones 
between the tents, and into the lines, bnt were soon canght 
by their pursuers, who swung a coiled rope with a loop at 
the end, which the animal tightened around its neck, that so 
secured it that forther escape was imposaible. This little 
exhilntion afforded amusement and isstraction to those in 
camp, and an opportunity for the three batteries of artillery, 
the 6th Boyal Warwicka, the details of Guards, of Army 
Service Corps men, and for the 2000 Boer prisoners to judge 
of the horsemanship of our frienda from Canada. A short 
time ago another contingent of Canadians were able to 
capture in this manner some of tbe horses that had broken 
away and were enjoying their liberty, and defying their 
riders, Boyal Horse Artillerymen, on the veld. 

When a practical and osefal gift is offered at a oritacal 
moment, and happens to be just the thing meet wanted, it is 
sure to be appreciated by the recnpient ; and this is tbe posi- 
tion of the Government in regard t^o Lord Strathcona's gene- 
rous contribution to the Imperial forces. 

To prove their worthineaa, every ofiSoer and man in the 
sqaadron gave of their best to aeoond the High Oommis- 
Bicmer's effort in this matter, as well as to support their posi- 
tion as repreaentativea of " loyal Canada." 



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448 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Oreeti Fnnt Camp is much preferred to MaitJand Cusp hy 

the troopa of all arms. It certainly bu man; adTantagOB 
tiiat are apparent to the mdinaiy naittv. It iB nearer to 
Cape Town, eaaer to prorinon, dose to the tramway, and 
has two beantJinl views of which the tfja msrer tirM : Triile 
Bay, with the ahipa in dock, and a large fieet of magnificent 
ireaaelB tliat are anchmed in the roadstead or passing in and 
oat of it ; pictoieaqne suling Teasels, or stately oonatmdaiMkB 
in iron and steel. The second view. Table Moontain, is not 
lees pleasing to those who take a delight in monntainooB 
scenery in a fine climate, and varied in its oolooiings by 
g^orions snnsets. Sir Frands Drake described it as a " lorely 
mcantain, the most stately thing in the circomferenoe of the 
earth." It is not that it is bo high, being only 3582 feet, bat 
risng almost perpendicularly ont of the bine waters of the 
Atlantic, there is a grandeur about it that is very impres- 
sive. Clear brilliant eunshine, not too hot, dtaracteriaes 
most days, which are ashered in by a sonrise that is only 
second to the snnaet ; and aa for the nights, they are r^arded 
as perfect by astronomers, and are greatly appreciated by 
those that hnnt in couples and seek the Sonthem Cross in 
the Milky Way! 

Strathcona's Horse in camp gave no false notion of what 
they wonld be worth in the field. On one of these lovely 
evenings, indeed on the very one that Colonel Steele gave me 
the lassoing exhibition, a staff officer took him apart, and 
after-eventa told me he came with instructions to proceed 
with tiie men nnder his command on a secret mission to inter- 
cept the enemy, which, by the orders, were supposed to be 
somewhere on native territory. 

All the preparations for departure were made in a clond 
cS profound secresy. In the shortest time the officers 
and men were on board two transports, and to the sorprise 
of those on the a.s. Ghxcago they found they w«re to be 



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STRATHCONA'S HORSE 449 

esoorted by the Doris flagship on the station and two 
ganboats. 

Oar Canadian friends never felt Utenuelree so important 
in their lires, and many firm resolves were formed to give « 
good account of themselves, and dlBcfaatf^ with Bnccess what- 
ever duties their secret mission might impose on them. 

Half the regiment was sent to Dnrban, and half to Kosi 
Bay in Tongaland, but when the latter reached their desU- 
nation they foand the slim and wily Boer had leamt their 
secret, and bad made their arrangements to receive them 
ashore! 

To effect a landing in Eosi Bay in ordinary times is no 
easy matter, and baa to be accomplished by the means of 
ropes thrown across ; but to do so in the face of an enemy was 
imposnble, so the mission failed. 

If it were posable for our men, those in command, to occa< 
Eoonally tell lie», and have said unhesitatingly that Strath- 
oona's Horse " were going to Beira or some other place," their 
departure would have attracted no particular notice, but so 
mncb secresy gave a seat to the Bnding out whither they were 
bound. 

Under these drcumstances the flagship and gunboats pro- 
ceeded to Belagoa Bay, and the half of Strathcona's Horse 
which they had been escorting returned to Durban, and there 
entrained for Bond's Drift (on the Tugela), and marched to 
a place a few miles north of Eshowe, where orders awaited 
them to march bach again to Durban. 

So, with their 700 pack mnles and 1100 bhistis, in charge 
of Captain Chestney, 1 7th Bengal Lancers, they began the 
130 miles march, which they aocompIuBhed in three days, a 
feat that has not been equalled, with pack transport, during 
this war, which is saying a good deal, when beaten " records " 
in marching have bem of constant occurrence. 

On July 1 Strathcona's Horse first came under fire at 
2f 



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450 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

GreylingBtadt, and frun that time to the first week in 
AugaBt marching and fighting with General Glery'B IKvision 
were the events that divenified the daya. On the 7th of 
that month the chief part Strathcona's HorBe had to play in 
this great drama was given to them when they were attached 
to the 3rd Mounted Brigade going north from Faardekop, 
with General Sir Bedvers Boiler, on perhaps the moet 
difficult march of the campaign, though not the longest^ 
which is an honour that belongs to the Winherg column. 

To hare been included amon^t the 18,000 fighting men 
on a march over country where in plaoes there are no roads, 
over Buch vast plains that the transport waggons could 
travel for miles twenty abreast, and at other pointe through 
drifts that were sometimes at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
and up mountain sides, on a track so narrow that there 
was hardly room for one, with a deep ravine on one hand 
or 2000 feet and more and a solid rock on the other, rising 
perpendioalarly to a height that wae impossible to estimate, 
if actual knowledge of the foot had not told them it was 
3000 feet to the top ; the transport for the seven weeks for 
men and uiimals was, under the latter circumstances, tiien 
drawn out to a length of twenty miles. 

In this marching column there were naval 47 guns, and 
at times the gradients were so steep— one in five — that with 
eighty oxen they could not be moved without being dis- 
mounted, the gan and cradle then going on in separate 
wt^lgons. These guns were called "cow guns," and were 
invaluable for finding out the country. 

Stratboona's Horse took part in the capture of Ermito^ 
Carolina, Machadodorp, Lydenburg, Pilgrims Best, and went 
to Spitz Kop, the most formidable rise on the Manchbe^ 
range. 

A resolution has been passed by the Canadian Government, 
that when tJie Imperial Government no longer require tiie 



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STRATHCONA'S HORSE 4.51 

eerrices of Strathcona's Horse,* on their retam to Canada 
they are not to be disbanded, bat maintained as a permanent 
force for serrice in tbe conntry, this being a gracefal tribnte 
to Lord Strathcoaa and a living symbcd of gratitude for all 
the benefits he has conferred on the Dominion and on the 
motbeivcotmtry is her hoar of need, 

I have heard many men remark, who lay claim to a snperior 
knowledge of men and things, that no volanteers from the 
Colonies, or indeed from England, will again be forthcoming 
as volanteers; and I sincerely trust onr policy in foreign 
afiairs will nerer be so vacillating and onr preparation so 
weak as to lore onr opponents into a belief that liberties can 
be taken with impunity ; bnt if ever we are obliged to resort 
to war to maintain onr rights and honour, then it will be 
seen that onr brothers in the Colonies will volunteer, and in 
increased numbers, to the support of the old country. 

The stories of the war that will be told to the generatums 
yet nnbom will fire the ambition and fructify the natural 
spirit of adventnre of all tme-bom Britons. Nothing will 
be said of the hardships endnred or abont being " fed np." 
The discomforts will be forgotten within a month of their 
coming home, and is another month they would be as ready 
as ever to be " oS to the wars again." Indeed, before the 
ink has had time to diy on this page, the appeal made by 
Lord E[itchener to Australia for more moonted men has been 
responded to with enthnsiaam, and a contingent is already 
on the sea making for South Africa. 

* BiDO« writing the abova the Canadiaiu havB all returned froiQ Sooth 
AMoa and have safely sniTsd in the Dominion, " Stnthcona's Horse " 
being «a tar piiTUeged as to remain in London tor a week en route, 
LoDdoners gMng them no lokewsnn reception. 



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CHAPTER XLIII 

REFOKH OF THB WAR OFFICE 

In the forgoing pages I have endeavoiired to ehow what 
extraordinary diffioolties the noD-oombataQt departmente of 
the army have had to enooimter in the diachai^ of iheu 
dotieB dnring this great Anglo-Boer war. 

I presome it will appear clear to the minds of the tDajority 
of the readers, even from my inadequate aooonntB, that 
herculean effortg were made by the staff officers, and those 
emplc^ed under them, of the varioos departments to meet 
the reqoirements such a lai^ military force has occasioned, 
and that the chief impresBion will be that the army has been 
more remarkable for its inaofBcient^ titan its ineffioieney to 
perform the task set before it. 

At first all the War Office arrangements and oalcolations 
were made on the basts of an army corps of aboat 85,000 
men ; and to hastily raise, train, equip, transport, and keep 
mobile the fange army of 250,000 men that hare been landed 
from all parts of the empire on tiia shores of Soath Africa, 
strained the organisation of every office to almost breaking 
point. Bat to coanteract this inadequate preparation, mi- 
failing loyalty and heroic devotion to dnty on the part of 
one and all has made it p(»sible, without any serious break- 
down in any of the several branches connected with supplies 
and transport 

Colonel Sir Howard Vincent says : — 

There are some people who blame the Govenunent for insuffi- 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE *58 

dent pTeparatioii for a war th^ Wftnted to avoid, the^ hoped to 
avoid. These are the veiy pereoos who eaid at the end of last 
September they coold see no reason for militai? prepamtioDfi. 
Sow they say we should have ptmotuated deepatehes with exny 
corps. It is indeed marvelloaa that we have sent 220,000 troops^ 
and all their amiB, ammunition, and stores in British ships — 
300 in number, with a burden of a million tons, over 6000 miles 
by sea, between twenty and thirty days on the ocean, and three 
hundred leagues by land, with only two or three mishaps. Such 
a work reflects the greatest credit upon the War Deportmmt, 
upon the Admiralty, upon the Mercantile Marine, upon the 
heads of the railways. Where is the Power which oould accom- 
plish, which could attempt such an undertaking % 

That we, a noD-military Power, have been able to ruse 
BDch an army for active foreign eervice, came as a great 
aarprise even to ourselves, and tiiat we were able to do bo 
without impairing the upkeep of onr military establishmeuts 
in India and elsewhere, and at the same time be able to get 
together another 80,000 men to fumisli a military display 
sucli as that which took place on Saturday, February 2, 1901, 
when the body of our late beloved Queen Victoria, " the 
Good ^d Gtreat " was carried through London to her last 
resting-place, or when King Edward Til. went in full state 
to open his first Parliament twelve days later. 

Since my return from South Africa, what to my mind haa 
been the most remarkable result of the war is the readiness 
of everybody to find fault, and that on the merest rumour, 
with those charged with its conduct. Statements that have 
scarcely a shade of tml^ are made in the House of Com- 
mons on the unseemly behaviour of the troops. Cbargee are 
preferred ^;ainst the departments that the elighteat 
investigation would prove to be unfounded, and there 
is a general rush to the public press to suggest improve- 
ments in the army and to reform the War Office — some, 
of course, bearing the stamp of good sound common sense, 
whilst others are not only truly Indicroos, bat make 



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45« THE ASGLO-BOER WAR 

the editors of the papers that publish them appear very 
ignorant. 

To gire an instance or two, a newspaper that has a large 
cdrcnlation amongst the maasea speaks of the plagae as 
having broken out amongst the troops in Soath AMca and 
that typhoid fever, disgniaed under the name of enteric, is 
claiming its hundreds weekly. As typhoid and enteric are 
synonymous terms, and as the Boyal Army Medical Corps 
are obliged to use the official nomenclature of diseaaefi, it is 
obvious there is no question of disguise ; but those who 
ondertake the duty of educating the people shonld sorely 
master tboee technical terms that vary in civil and military 
practice. 

A journal that has great power and influence amongst the 
upper classes also gives circulation to statements that are 
inaccorate. I read in one issue that there were no hospitals 
for horses in Soath Africa, when there were four (see page 
8). Also that in consequeDce of the report of the Commis- 
sioners on the Hospitals Inquiry Comnusaion, an ambolance 
train of five carriages was constructed to convey military 
invalids to England. 

As a matter of fact, this train was ordered in the early 
part of the war and b^an its errand of mercy in April, 
which was some weeks before the Commission was thought 
of (see page 402). 

In spite of all that can be brought agiunst the army in 
South Africa, and all that has been said in disparagement of 
the War Office authorities, there is no doubt bat for the 
steady increase that has been made to the fighting efficiency 
of the army, and the nomerons improvements that have been 
initiated during the administratioB of the Marquess of Lans- 
downe, the late Secretary of State for War, there would have 
bad to be a very difterent tale written than is now happily 
the case. 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE 455 

Another Majnba woald hare bad to be related in onr 
national histoiy. He has left behind him an unpreoedented 
record of progress in all that concerns the welfare of Uie 
army and has seen it tested aa no military force has ever 
been before. 

Almost every departmental office hae nndergone some 
change which has enabled it to carry on more efficiently its 
f anctions to the army as a whole. 

Army officers are not one whit less conservative than naval 
officers, and view with suspicion any innovation afEectin^ 
their particular branch of the service ; and as this is the 
general feeling both in the combatant and non-combatant 
ranks, the reformer most be a brave man to mn in opposi- 
tion to snch a stream of prejudices. If he sncceeds in dis- 
turbing them, he mnst, moreover, be prepared to lose all his 
friends. 

It is with the service itself that the chief difficulties lie in 
the way of reform ; and the higher np the lista the officers 
are, the worse it is to convince them that changes are from 
time to time necessary. 

Was there ever so much dissatisfaction caused as when 
Mr. Childers brought in his territorial measnre ? The army 
veterinary sargeons were no better pleased with him when 
he annoanoed that in fntore th^ woald be formed into a 
separate department, and be employed anywhere as required, 
instead of being attached to cavalry regiments or batteries 
as heretofore. It was the same thing with the army surgeons, 
and more recently, two or three years ago, the Army Service 
Corps was reconstracted on the present basis ; and to the 
great credit of those responsible, it has during the war 
more than justified the most sangnine expectations. 

I have often pnt the question whether the work entrusted 
to these several departments could have been satisfactorily 
performed under the old system. The reply has always been 



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456 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

most emphatic, and to tlda effect, ^oagh we oertainly 
greatly preferred being permanently attacBed to raiments, 
there is no donbt tliat the demands made during this war 
conld not have been met at all under the old Bystem. 

In a Tolnnteer army, sweeping reforms cannot be bronglit 
in, for the last state would be worse than the first ; and in a 
oonntry where the army establishments are voted year hy 
year, the best intentioned and most zealons War Minister 
can only handle the men and stores the nation places at his 
disposal. 

The prominence rightly given to the navy since 1884 and 
the oonsmisns of opinion in the press, and elsewhere, that it 
was of paramount importance to make it invincible against 
any combination led to the idea that a small army was soffi- 
cient to meet the needs that the empire woold be likely to 
demand of it, and ooQBeqnently it has been difGcnlt to make 
its wants known and obtain for them the consideration in 
Parliament that might otherwise have been readily accorded 
to it. 

Yet, in spite of mnch opposition from the Legislataie, 
many additions have been made to the nnmbers of the 
regular army since 1895, and improvements in t^ ways can 
be recorded. 

The following are the chief measures which have taken 
place Binoe that date to improve the condition of the private 
soldier : 

(a) Onmt of messing allowaooe of M. a, da; (1898), partly 

count^bakooed by abolition of deferred pay. 

Net cost £800,000 a year. 

(h) Small improvements in clothing, better flannel for shirts 

(1897); eztia boots and trousers, and grant of oanvos shoes 

(1899). 

Cost, about £60,000 a year. 

(c) Improvement in barracks. Many of the old barracks are 

very iucoDvenient, and some are insanitaty. By the Military 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE 467 

Works Acts, 1897 and 1899, e. sum of £8,769,000 is appropriated 
for bnUdmg new barracks. 

(<2) Elasticity in the conditions of service. Enlistment for a 
three jreais* term of service with the colouts was introduced for 
infantry of the line in 1898. 

MUitary Training. — The most important measures were as 
follows ^^ 

(a) The Muueuvres Act, 1897, fir^ made it possible to arrange 
for manaeavree on a lai^ scale at a reasonable cost, by giving 
powers of compulsory une of land, and by providing for a Man- 
<euvree Commission with power to arbitrate. 

{b) The Military Works Acts, 1897 and 1899, {ovvided 
£1,189,000 for the acquisition of rifle and srtillery ranges and 
mantBuvriog grounds. This includes the purchase of Salisbury 
Plain, the only piece of War Department land in England, 
except Aldershot, where large bodies of troops of the three 
arms can be trained together. Some thirty-three rifle ranges — 
tw^ity-BLz at home and seven abroad — are being constructed out 
<tf the funds raised under these Acts. 

For artillery practice the War Office has just purchased 18,000 
acres on the Kelwcnifa Mountains, in Ireland, where a military 
camp is to be formed and barracks erected. 

Bifle ranges for the volunteers will have to form an impcortant 
item in future Army Estimates ; money spent on rifles and ammu- 
nition is wasted unless training ground is also available. 

Armt and Equipmsnl. — (a) The horse artill^y was re^armed 
with a lighter gun, and the field artillery guns were altered to 
throw a heavier shell (fourteen pounder instead of twelve and 
a half-pounder) in 1895 and 1896. 

(5) All the gun-carriages of the horse and field artilleiy were 
fitted with the spade-brake, thus securing a quicker rate of fire, 
in 1899 ; and an extra supply of waggons and ammunition was 
provided. New field guns of an improved pattern are now being 
made. 

(c) It has now been decided to( spend a large sum in accumu- 
lating a reserve of arms and equipment. 

VolwUeerB. — A special .payment of half the annual capitation 
grants ()'.«., about £250,000) was made to the volunteers in 1896 ; 
they were aimed with the magasine rifle in 1896-98 ; a scheme 



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458 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

for providing them vith n^fimental transpoTt was partially 
carried out in 1899 and is now being completed ; £750,000 is 
taken in the Estimatea 1900-1901 for re-arming their artillery 
with modern weapons; and some £140,000 has been assigned 
for the purpose of assisting them in the aoquisitian of rifle ranges. 

5. Fortifieation*. — A scbwue for the partial re-aimament td 
ftxtressee at home and aloxxtd was approved in 1897 ; between 
1696 and 1899 nearl; £800,000 was spent in r^laoing modorn 
weapons toT obsolete ones. In 1899 a scheme for bringing up 
to date the whole armament was worked out and approved, at 
the estimated cost of £2,770,500, and the guns are being made 
as fast as possible. 

The additions to the regular establishments were : 



7,4»0 


in 


1897. 4,878' 


6,955 


" 


1898. £7,543 
Total 56,306. 



In these figures are included seventy-one batteries of horse and 
field artillery, and twenty-one battalions of British and four 
coloured infantry. 

Conourreotly with these improvements in the army, the 
WftT Office had to carry on large military operations in 
India, Egypt, and in Sontb Africa, and in consequence of 
the experience guned in each of these campaigns, ameliorv 
tioDB in the organisation of the army hare oontinnolly taken 
place ; and though there is still much left to be done, it is 
neTorthelesB in a very different condition to what it was when 
Lord Lansdowne Brst became Secretary of State for War. 
If every man had his due, he would at this moment be 
regarded as the most snooessfal War Minister that ever held 
office in Pall Mall } and when a true and impartial record of 
his administration comes to be written he will rank amongst 
the greatest statesmen of onr day. 

There are, of conrse, a thousand ways from the point of 
view of an outsider in which the method of conducting thfr 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE *59 

business of the War Office conld be amended, and there are 
ooontless others that conld be named by those who come into 
frequent contact with the routine work of variona depart- 
ments, who could testify to the great annoyance cansed by 
the delays which occnr before any matter can be finally 
settled. Bnt as long as an army exists to defend and protect 
the vital interests of this empire, which vary with every 
sncceeding year, additions, re-organisation, and innovations 
most constantly and inevitably take place. 

Mr. Brodrick, the present Secretary of State for War, in 
deference to public opinion, has appointed a committee, com- 
posed for the main part of well-known business men, to 
report on the internal busineBs of the office, and to consider 
the system of contract and audit, the further decentralisation 
of the work, and the more expeditions discharge of the duties 
of the several departments. 

The members of the committee are : — 

Mr. Clinton Dawkins, of MoBHrs. J. S. Moi^;an and Co., 
late Finance Minister in India (chairman) ; 

Mr. Beckett, M.P., of Messrs. Beckett and Co., Leeds; 

Mr. W. Mather, M.P., of Messrs. Mather and Piatt, Salford; 

Sir Charles Welby, O.B., M.P. ; 

Colonel Sir George Clarke, K.C.M.G., Superintendent 
'Rcfyai Carriage Department, Woolwich ; 

Mr. George Qibb, General Manager North-Eastem Bail way ; 

Colonel H. S. G. Miles, M.y.O., Commandant of the 
Staff College, recently Chief Staff Officer to the Natal Field 
Force; 

Mr. H. J. Gibson of the War Office, secretary. 

The following are the terms of reference : — 

(a) The report of the Oommittee on Deoentralisation of War 
Office business, 1898. 

(&) The report of the House of Oommons Committee on War 
Office contracts, 1900. 



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460 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

(c) The dntft report of the Departmental Oommittea on. War 
Office eetablishmenta, 1893-99 ; and, subject to the geuend dis- 
tribution of reeponaibility l&id down b; the Order in Coaadl 
of March 7, 1899, requests the committee to consider — 

(1) Whether the present method oF conducting the adminis- 
tratiTe and financial business of the War Office, and its distri- 
bution as between the dvil and military departments, is satis- 
factoi7. 

(2) Whether the detaOed financial audit as otHiducted in the 
War Office is required by the public interest ; and whether the 
existing financial checks on the War Office hinder the efficient 
transaotion of its busineeB. 

(S) Whether the office of the director of contracts should deal 
with all the business now transacted there, or whethw the 
making of contracts could be in whjle or part transferred to 
the militaiy distoicts, or to the military departments of the War 
Offioe. 

(4) WheUier (with or without a transfer of staff) any of the 
administratiTe and financial business now transacted in the Wsr 
Offioe oould be delegated to the military districts. 

(5) Whether any change in the numbers, status, and pay of the 
clerical staff is deeiiable. 

(6) Whether military officers and military clerks should be 
substituted in any degree for the present tnined civilian staff; 
and to report any other amendments tA [vooedare in connection 
with the aforementioned eabjeots which would bring the work 
of the War Offioe more into harmony with that of huge buainesa 
undertakings. 

This committee lield their first meeting on January 8, bat 
after the best opinion has been taken uid the most eminent 
business men have had their say, they are not as likely to 
know where the shoe pinches, however minnto their iovesti- 
gabions, as those officials who have metaphorically to 
wear that shoe and bear with the pain its smallneBs 



The reform of the War Office mnst come from within, and 
not from without — carried through by an official, a 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE 46l 

permanent ofiicial, who knows where to look for the weak 
spots, in the same way as was done at the Adtniialty in 
1870. 

The officers of the army have been so often told that the 
system at the War Office is snch a thoroughly rotten one 
that, conaerratiTe though they be, they are qaite prepared 
for any change; and the general public has also been 
educated up to the same idea, with the resolt that now 
ererybody is clamoaring for reform. 

Even what is admitted in one breath as excellent, and has 
borne the severe teat of the war in an admirable manner, 
most nevertheless in the next be reformed. 

I have freqnently heard all officials at the War Office 
described as " deadheads," and that there should be a clean 
sweep of the lot. 

The extraordinary wave of patriotism that swept over the 
country has done more to popalarise the army than any 
inducement in the way of inoreased pay or improvements in 
the condition of the private soldier oould have effected, and 
so in the same manner tiiis spirit of reform that is now 
consuming newspaper writers will have the effect of saving 
Mr. Brodrick from the unpopularity that fell to the lot of 
Mr. Childera when he brought in his measures for the 
reorganisation and consolidation of the departmental c^ces 
of the Admiralty ; measurea which have resulted in snch 
nnqaalified success that the Admiralty is now in the enviable 
positaon of being the best conducted public department in 
his Majesty's vast dominionfl — not even is it second to the 
Post Office, tiie administration of which is the pride of the 
nation and the admiration of all forei^ers who hare any 
dealings with it 

It is an indispntable fact, proved by the light of events, 
that in time of war the organisation of the army has answered 
well, certainly exceeded the most sanguine expectations. As 



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462 THE AKGLO-BOER WAR 

to the BtreQgtIi of the army, it ia what the nation wills it 
shall be. If the people say it is to cost fifty millionB a year, 
what Minister or Cabinet conld go against their strongly 
expreaaed deaireB? 

The War Office can only suggest what the militaiy 
foFces of the country shonld be. It cannot create a Ing 
army. At this moment it ia generally sapposed that tlie 
Honae of Commons never refuses money for either &6 
army or the navy, bnt this is scarcely according to strict 
truth. Serions additaona to the estimates lead to moch 
adverse criticism from certain members, who do not in the 
least consider whether the proposed expeaditnre is tor 
indispensable requirements or not. 

Now that the whole nation is determined on having 
an adeqnate army and navy sufficient for the needs of 
the empire for both offenuve and defensive purposes, 
thoroughly organised and well trained, it would be a great 
disaster if the opportunity were allowed to pass away without 
advant^e being taken of it. The BuggeetionB proposed fay 
Mr. St. John Brodrick to Parliament are generally admitted 
to be on the right lines, viz., the extending and perfecting 
of the present systom which is the defect the war has 
demonstrated. 

Lord Roberts, in his oapacity as Gommander-in'-Chief, 
has done the right thing to prevent the recurrence of 
public apathy, of which already signs are not wanting, 
when he gave the order that uniform shonld be worn by 
those whilst on dnty in Government offices,* and, by degrees, 
it is to be hoped that mnfti will become less and leas the 
wear for military men. Certainly it shonld never be seen 
when they are employed in their official capacity. 

* AIm I tbU mQCh-needed r«foim cannot be enforoed bec&iue of tha 
exlra ooat it entail* in TUiaiu wmys, one being nllwa; faraa for offioeta' 
NTvintl. The order, for the present, la therefore cancelled. 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE 46$ 

There is yet another way, but not so eaay of accompliBh- 
ment, in which mnch could be done to reform the War 
Office, and woald tend more to the despatch of bnuneas 
than could resnlt <from any enggestion that a railway or 
company director conld propose. 

Sympathy, greater aympathy, between the TariouB depart- 
ments is sorely needed, so that when the reqnirements of 
one branch are brought before another for adjoBtment 
they may be understood and granted, instead of, as at 
present, through want of personal contact, b^g regarded as 
excessive, if not absolately nnnecessary. 

It is in consequence of this feeling being so general that 
delays occur, and means are devised to avoid doing altogether 
the thing desired. 

Ignorance, indifference, and jealousy are not, however, 
wholly responsible for this disregard of the needs of otlier 
offices and corps. Mnch of it is traceable to the impossibility 
of meeting tiieir demands, however anxions to do so a head 
of a department m^ht be, which is due to the absence of all 
control of &nance. Everything connected with money is 
centred at head-quarters, and the officials there are exceed- 
ingly hard to approach. Any request presented to them is 
received with a cold douche, a reception nobody cares to risk 
more frequently than is unavoidable. Why, for instanoe, 
should not colonels of regiments have the power to indent 
upon the local bases for the things they require as is 
permitted to captains of ships ? 

If the war has taught anything, it has shown that the 
majority of officers are gentlemen, who can foe trusted to 
serve the Btate in money transactiouB both honourably and 
economically. Officers in responsible positions have more 
than once had to nse the credit of the Government to 
obtain necessaries when they were not attainable accord- 
ing to regnlations. But it is not at all within the 



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464 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

■cope of tliia bodt to advise on th« rtXorm of tlie W«r 
Office. 

llioee wKo wish to know a little of what should be done in 
that line coold not employ their time more profitably than by 

attentirely pemsing the twelve sensible artdclee that appeared 
in the Pall Mall CfmetU, by a military oorrespond«it, which 
dealt with ibe qoestionfl oonnected with it. The series c(Hn- 
menced on November 7, 1900, and ooaclnded on Jaanary 27, 
1901. 

As to the merits of the conflict which has roealted in such 
an ontponring of blood and treasnie, I will quote the opinicm 
of one who has carefnlly studied all the offitaal docnments, 
and in a lectnre delivered in Ontario, Canada, on February 6, 
1900, Mr. William Bobins points ont The tnUh abtnU the 
Trannaal.* 

Thia pamphlet is really a sommary of the negotiations that 
preceded the famous nltimatam, with oopioos extracts from 
ih» report of the Bloemfontein Conference. Its contents 
ihonld be stadied by every British sabject, and carefully read 
by all those who assist in forming public opinion in Europe 
and in the United States. 

The lecturer in this address gives equal prominence to 
despatches sent by Mr. Chamberlain, Sir Alfred Milner, and 
Mr. Kmger, and from them the reader can form his own 
ojnnion as to their tone and temper. 

TTiw opening words to the Canadians were : — 

The merits of this conflict are very geneially miaDnderstood 
by both foreignera and our own people. Gonsideriii^ the im- 
pottance of the inue to the world at lai^, misconception in 
either quarter is regrettable ; but in view of its special and 
enormous significance to otuselvee it is in the highest degree 
desirable that we should know the truth. In a task which per- 
haps DO living man can now measure it would be deplorable 

• HinuD Walker & Boat, 13, Trluit; Sqnsn, Tomr HUl, London. 



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REFORM OF THE WAR OFFICE 4«5 

and it might indeed prove a calamity, if we Britons are not of 
one mind u to the righteonsnees of our cause. Tbe South 
African situation is in iteelf surrounded by many grave imcer- 
taintiee. Ko one can yet tell tbe extent of the Boor reaouroes ; 
it is unknown how far the disloyalty <£ tbe Dutch population of 
Cape C(Aony and Natal (far ontaumbering those tJ British ex- 
traction) may go ; there is the ever present danger from the native 
tribes, who are thousands to hundreds <^ all the white races 
oomldned. When we remember farther that besides the muni- 
tious of war even the food for men and horses has to be trans- 
ported at least seven to eight thousand mOes, and often more, 
it most be seen that our difficulties are sufficieatly formidable. 
Should there be added to these European intervention (at present 
apparently unlikely), or should England become involved in a 
struggle elsewhere, any balf-heartedness towards this contest would 
en<»mouely weaken the Qovemment, of whatever party, and 
might lead to the acceptance of terms which the nation would 
afterward bitterly r^ret Moreover, if we have our quarrel just, 
it is due to those in Iiondon who carry the anxieties of the 
situation, and to those brave fellows who are gallantly refvesect- 
ing US in the field, that a united people should he at their backs, 
promptly providing the money without which no war can be 
earned on to the best advantage, and cheerfully enduring such 
sacrifices as may be necessary to the complete suooqsh of the 
British arms. 

I have friends, good, loyal subjects, whose minds are disquieted 
about this matter. They fear that our rulers have not acted 
wisely ; that they have made too much of a rather small diSer- 
enoe with the Transvaal. Some there are who even befieve the 
tale of oar enemies, that the greatest and richest empire on the 
globe has picked a quarrel with a small community of peaceable 
farmers who asked only to be left in quiet possession of their 
few square miles <A land. Small wonder if honest men who 
entertain such misgivings are ill at ease ; lees wander that those 
not of our nation who have such impressions take us to task 
on tbe street, in pnblic meetings, and through the Press. But 
never in our history was there less warrant for any of these 
things. Only a knowledge of the truth is needed to satisfy our 
own ocmsciences, to reassure our questioning friends, and to 



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4/66 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

oonfota those enanues of Kp^mwI vriio revile ha: nnder aO 

dicoButHKiea. To nw it seems dear that we have nrelj 
gone to war with equal jnatifioBtian, and eactaiuly never with 



I fed it is impoeaible for me to write a oantsnoe iiiat would 
add to the Tstae of this opiiiion, f<Miaed aa it is on a oantdl 
reeeazcli of official docnmentii, and with it I bring Uiis TolDnie 
toan end. 



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APPENDIX 

A DESPATCH 

FBOM EABL BOBEBTS, K.O., O.O.B., TO THE BIGHT 

HONOURABLE THE SEOBETABY OF STATE 

FOB WAR, WAB OPFIOE, LONDON, 8.W. 

handfoi, Aprii S, 1901. 

Li oontuiiiation of my despatofa No. 9, dated Johumeabnrg, 
Norember 16, 1900, 1 have the honoor to bring to your notice 
the exoeUent work done during the campaign up to November 29, 
1900, by tba varioas departments of the army which have ooa- 
tributed BO mnoh to the euooeas of the opentiong in the field. 

In my fonner despatohes I have teatified to the admiraUe 
bearing and devotion oi all ranks, and their cheerful endurance of 
the many privations and hardships of the war, and it is now my 
pleaaant duty to teing forward the names of some of thoee who 
have in their eevecal capacitiee, whether oivil or military, most 
prominently distinguished themselves, or whose services have 
oome under my personal observation. 

In a later dec^ntch I propose to deal with otScers and other 
ranks of the r^olar foroee whose names have been brought for- 
ward by general officers under whom they have served, and with 
all ranks of Militia, Imperial Teonuniy, Volunteers, Indian and 
Oivil Lists, and I trust that the inevitable delay in publishing 
their names will not affect the date of the promotions or rewards 
that his Majesty's Oovemment may be pleased to confer upon 
any of them. 

uswa or omnmsuuxaai. 

Tba Qrganisation and wOTking of the lisee of commnnioatioa. 



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468 THE JXGLO-BOER WAR 

exdnive of Natal, haw Iwn antrnatad to lieatanant-OaHral 
mr r. Foratier-Walkar. K.C.B., CJLQ. The diffieabiH vqr 
beat be nfipnaaiiei hj a rafentm to tba foOowing facto : (a) The 
lines of nilwaj to be goarded aggregated 2017 mileB in leagtii. 
(ft) Up to October 24, 1900, there bad been da^atched to tbe 
front over the militair ejstaiiB a total of 7920 officen, 193,656 
nun, 148,948 animals, 411 gnna, 3012 Tehv^aa, and 360,028 tone 
of fltona and sni^ea. (c) Two expeditiona had ben wiarle 
against rebel foroea in the districts lying to the n«th-«reat of 
Gape Cdmy. (d) Local defence for tbe whi^ of the inportuit 
jdaces in Gape Colony had been n^anised, and town goards and 
disbrict mounted corps formed. The sbove ctdjr ze^eevita a 
fraction of the daties Uiat have come und^ the omtetil td the 
O.O.C. lines of oommonicatioD, and tiiat all has beeo so soocees- 
foDy accomplished is doe to IJentenant-GwKoal Sir V. Fis »il i<s 
Walker and his able assistants, especially Oobnd J. K, TnO^, 
C.U.G., and Major H. dn Osne, R.A. 



The ardoons woA ttf disembarking the tzoofo, sapfdies, storea, 
remount and mnles, end embarking tbe okany thonsands of sid, 
woonded, and discharged men, reflects Uie greatest credit upaa 
OxptMn Sir £. Chichester, C.M.O., RN., and the staff at eadi of 
the four ports. Cape Town, Port Elinbeth, East Lmidon, and 
Dorbso. 

The magnitade of the task can be realised from tlte fdknring 
fignree, compiled for the period from the oonunenoonetd of the 
war ap to October 31, 1900 : 





mraiKTKn. 1 


Ma. 




CkpeTovn . 
Fort EJiiibetti 
EastliOQilon. 
Dnrbui 


81,519 
8,276 
8,902 

81,4S6 


849 
42 

seo 

8,148 


69,i:! 


3,884 



„Coogle 





DUXHBABnD. 


MSH. 


ihhuk. 


OapeToim . 
Port Buabeth 
En( London 
Durhin 

loU . . 


187,976 
25,896 
28,184 
69,969 


(2,941 
46,004 
86,800 
48,882 


261,974 


179,577 



ODTKBinailT BAILWATa. 

Mj tbftnkB ue eepeoi&lly due to Mr. 0. B. Elliot, Mr. T. R. 
Kice, and the staff of the Oftpe OoTernment Bailway, as alao to 
Mr. D. Hunter and the staff of the Katol GovemineDt Bailway. 
It is not too much to aay that the eooceesfnl cartying out of the 
eoonnouB railway transport operations is mainly due to the vexj 
wiUing aid afforded by these gentlemen and their hard-worked 
estaUishments. 



THE DIKKrrOR Or KULWAYS D^iXnORT. 

The difficult and arduous work performed by this department 
reflects the greatest credit upon all conoerced. The Orange River 
Oolony and Truisvaal Railways, embracinga length of 1130 miles, 
under the title of the " Imperial Military Railways," were taken 
over hy this department as the country was occupied by her 
Majesty's foroes, and on September SO, 1900, a staff of I7,S7i 
officers and men was employed by it. From the outbreak of 
hoetilitieB ap to August 81, 1900, these isilways had carried 
177,000 paasengen, 86,000 animals, and 520,000 tons of goods. 
All temporary rqnirs in the Cape Oolony, Transvaal, and Orange 
River CMony were carried ont, with a few exceptions, by the 
Military Railway Staff. Up to October 81, 1900, these tern- 
porary repairs included the restoration of 75 bridges, 94 cnlverta, 
and 87 miles of line. A detail of the general advance from 
Bloemfontein to Johanneeborg, a distance of 265 miles, will give 
some Idea of Uie expedition with which repairs were effected. 
Uba period daring which the advance was being made was from 



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470 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

May 3 to Jim« II, 1900, in which space of time the foUowii^ 
tempomiy rapaira were executed : 

27 bridgee, 
41 culverts, 
10 miles of Hds, 

indading sereu deriataons, vKtying ia lengtli from 200 yards to 
two milee. 

From Jane 6 to Kofrember 15, 1900, the Impwial Military 
BailwayB were laon or lees seriously damaged by the enwny on 
1 16 oocasionB, bat all satdi damsgee were promptly repaired, and 
did not materially afiect the working of the railways, except that 
the ranning of trains after dark had to be suspended. During 
the same period fully 60 pw cent, of damaged bridges and calveits 
were permanently or semi-penuaaentty repaired. 



It having been found that the allotment of transport to onits 
in accordance with the " War BBtabliehmentB, 1898," was not 
suitable for a large force, I, on my arrival in South Africa in 
January 1900, decided that the transport serviee must be 



The result of this reorganisation, under Major-General &r 
William Nicholson, has been most suoceesful, and has fully 
justified my expectations. I append a detailed report tm the 
subject. 



To do justice to the excellent work done by the Army Service 
Corps daring the war, and to give lengthy details of the magni- 
tude of the task assigned to this department, are beyond the limits 
of a paragraph in a despatch. It is, however, estimated that 
sinoe the war began and up to October 30, 1900, the approximate 
number of rationa issued to the army operating from the Gape 
Colony, nwth of the Orange Biver, has been : 



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APPENDIX 





Nambarodtatioiw. 




SoUien ind Diitivas 


45,000,000 
80,000,000 


90,000 
100,000 






Noinber. 


Baqd^aaO,. 


Soldisra and nativee 
AnimaJa 


179,000 
98,000 


SSStoni. 
465 „' 



It must be remembered th&t in the early days tX tlia occnpotion 
of Bloemfonteia, the &Ter8ge nombw ctf traina which oooU be 
sent from the south over the sin^ line of nulwa; «m 7-6 daify ; 
and that this line of railway coiiTejed not only supplies, bnt also 
stores, equipment, ammnniti<m, remounts, tioope, Ac. Again, the 
supply of the army aftw leaving Bloemfontein was a matter of 
very grave anxiety, and it was only by the devotion and leal of 
the Army Service Oorpe officers that the sappliee were brought 
from the railhead to the troops in sufficient time to supply their 
daily wants. As an instance of the difficulties alluded to, a halt 
at Smaldeel was made imperative to allow the railway to bring 
the anppliee sufficiently near to enable the transport to convey 
them to the troops. Another instance was the march from 
TaaiboBch to Johannesburg, when, as the railway had not been 
sufficiently repaired to admit of the required amount of supplies 
being brought to the front, we had to depend on such supplies as 
could be locally obtained. Though after the occnpation of Pre- 
toria Uie supply question never became acute, and later on tbe 
opening of the Natal and Delagoa Bay Aailways increased onr 
available sources, yet the difficulties to be overoome have been 
many j not the least of them being the fact that to meet all onr 
xaqTarements, and until the rolling-stock at Barberton and Komati 
Poort was captured, we were dspendent upon 95 <dd engines to 
work the whcde of the Onnge Biver Oolony and l^«nsvaal rail- 



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47« THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

m.j Bysteaa, whilst in peace time the late R«pnbUca foond that 
260 OTginw were nnrmrnTj tor their daOy obo. In the above I 
have only referred to the work done in sapplyin^ the troops 
bued on the Oape Colony. The Nfttel army has reaeon also to be 
entirely satisfied with the mannw in whidi it has heea sapiilied, 
and the oocasiMis have been tare when any paction of this army 
have had anything bnt fall rations, l^ese servioes reflect ^>e 
greatest credit on Oolond W. Biohardson, O.R, and Coloaet 
X. W. D. Ward, O.B., Direct(»s of Supplies, and the Army 
Sernoe Oorps serring under them. 



The duties performed by the army telegraphs nnder Lieatoiant- 
Odone) B. Hij^nsley, B.E., thronghoot the war have my eotiie 
approbation. No portion of the army has had more w<m^ or 
greater responaibility than this branch. With a ptnomttl of 
26 offioer« and 1221 operators, linesmen, itc (of whom 4 officers 
and 163 N.O.O.a and men have died or been invalided), nearly 
2^ miUions of meeeages have been dealt with during the past 
thirteen months, some of them oontaiaing as many as 4000 wturds. 
The telegraph lystems taken ovea:, repaired, and maintained exceed 
8800 miles in length, with over 9000 miles of wire. In additim, 
969 miles ol air line have been erected and 1145 miles of caUe 
laid. Great cavdit is also due for the quick way repairs to the 
lines, so frequently interrupted by the Boers, have been carried 
out. This is a most dangerous service, as there is always a ohanoe 
that the enemy may be lying in wait near the l»«ak, but thwe 
has been throughout the most unhesitating promptitude in its 
pertorm&noe. The young officers in charge of cable oarts have 
also (rften had perilous work to perform when winding back their 
wire, alone w with a very small escort. 

•UBIUUHI TILKUPBa 

The working of the submarine telegraphs was most aatisfootocy, 
and the liberality of the companies in giving qieeisl rates for 
soldiers was much appreciated by ibe army. 



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muTuiy rosTAi. SEancx. 
Tlie magDitudfl of tlie task set the militiuy postal fiervice may 
be appreciated when it is realised that the army mails from 
England have exceeded in balk the whole of the moils arriving for 
the inhabitants of Gape Colonj and Katal, and oontained eaoh 
w«d[ little idiort of 750,000 letters, newspapers, and parcels for 
the troops. No little credit is therefore due to the department 
nndw Majw Treble in the first few months, and for the greater 
port of the time under lieutenant-Colonel J. Qreer, Director of 
MiUtaiy Postal Services, for the way in which it has endeavonred 
to oope with the vast quantity of correspondence, bearing in mind 
the iooeasant manner in which the troops have been moved about 
tlie ooontry, the transport difficulties which had to be encountered, 
tike want of postal experience in the bulk of the personnel of the 
cotps, and the inadequacy of the establishments laid down for the 
several organisations. 

BOTAL AKUY HEDICAI. COSPS. 

Under Surgeon-General Wilson this department has laboured 
indeffttigably both in the field and in the hospitals. Some cases 
have been brought to my notice in which officers have proved 
unequal to the exceptional stniin thrown upon them by the 
sudden expansion of hospitals, and in the earlier stages of the war 
the necessity of more ample preparations to meet disease were not 
quite fully apprehended. These cases have been fully reported on 
by the fioyal Commission, and will no doubt receive the attention 
of his Majesty's Government. I am not, however, lees oonacioos 
of the unremitting services of the great majority of the officers d 
the Boyal Army Medical Corps. There are many insbancee, in- 
deed, recorded of great gallantry having been displayed by the 
officers in carrying on their work d men^ under heavy fire, and 
in the face of exceptional difficulties their duty has been 
ably performed. My thanks are also due to the dietinguished 
consulting surgeons who have come out to this country, and by 
their advioe and ezperienoe materially aided the Boyal Army 
Medical Corps, The services rendered by Sir William MacCormao, 
Mr. O. H. Uakins, Mr. F. Treves, the late Sir W. Stokes, Mr. 
WatscMi Cheyne, Mr. Q. Cheatle, Mr. Kendal Franks, Mr. John 



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474 THE AtfGLO-BOEB WAR 

Ohiene, and Sir 'Hiomafi FiUgerald were of modcukble mine. 
The abnomud deinatid npon tbe R.A.1C.G. neeeantaied the em- 
pkipneat of a Urge number of civil snrgeoos, aod to these gentle- 
men tbe umy owee a debt of gratitude. The hmvy Bbsin <m the 
Army Mwdiail D^wrtment waa further much reliered bj th* 
patriotic effotto of the eewal oaninitteee and individoalB «iw 
raieed, equipped, and sent out complete hospitals. None but Uiose 
oa tbe spot caa realise bow much the Irish Hoqxtal, under Sir 
Sir W. ^lompson, the Teomani; Hospital and Beam Oompanj, 
ODder:— 

Mr. A. D. Fripp, M.T.O., M.B., M.8. ; 

Mr. A. B. J. Douglas, M.B..0.8. ; 

Mr. A. A. Soott-Skirving, M.B.0.8. ; 

Mr. T. H. Opensbaw, F.ROJB. ; 

The Ijuigman Hospital, under Ur. K T. A. OXUla^tui^ 
F.B.CJB.I. ; 

The Welsh Hospital, onder FrofMSor T. JonM, M.B^ F.R.OJB. 
(dead) ; Frof^ur A. W. HughM (dead) ; 

The Piinoees Obristian Hospital, under Mr. J. P. Bush, 
M.R.G.S. 

The Edinbm^ Hosjatal, aoder Mr. D. 'Wallace, M.B. ; 

The Bcottish National Hospital, under Mr. H. E. Olaike, 
H.R.O.8.B. ; 

The Van Alen Hospital, under M. B. Osbom, F.B.O.8., 
and the Portland Hospital, under Mr. A. Bowlby, F.H.Oi(., 
oontributed to the oomfoit and well-being of the akA aitd 
wounded. 

I might here mention the invaluable assiBtanoe rendered to Uie 
siok and wounded by tboee private persons, membras <rf the 
British Bed Ones Sodety, who, headed by Her Boyal HighneeB 
Frinoeee Chriatian, raised, organised, and equipped hospital taains. 
As a result of their patriotic exertions, two oomplste trains were 
oonatructed, one being built at Birmingham, and the other made 
up at Best London. Eight other hoepital trains were organised 
by the medical authoritiee in South Africa, uid also rendered 
exeaUent service. It may give some idea of the work frtudi was 
aoocmipliahed by these trains if I append a statement showing the 
distance they covered and the number of patients t^isy 
owrried: — 



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(tU>B UMK K&ILWAT. 





JonllMTB. 


MOta. 


FUlanti. 


Second Tnii . 


136 


67,000 


6,066 


Third „ 


64 


62,000 


6,288 


loiirth „ 


24 


TTuJmown. 


2,668 


Kfth 


26 


28,200 


8,118 


Sizlih 


81 


Unknown. 


2,694 


S«a>tb „ 


92 


. 


6,296 



MAUI. LIHX K&ILWAT. 





JonneTa. 


Pktfaoti. 


FirstTrain . 
Sooond „ . 
Third , . 


146 

166 

9 


12,148 

12,789 

772 



HOSPtTAI. BBI7B. 

The army in South Africa oweB r great deal to the hoqotal 
ships, tmd to the etaET of medical officers and nnraee who attended 
the sick and wounded, transferred to them from the baee 
hospitals. 

The Spartan, TVofan, and Prinodst of Walta were used to 
convey iuTalids to Cape Town from other colonial ports. The 
Litmon Catlle, Dunara, Oreana, Avoca, ^u&ia, and Simla, were 
originallj hired transporta, and were fitted out at Durban and 
employed in establishing a fortnightly STstem of hospital ships for 
the conveyance of invalids to BngUnd. 

The Prinvxm of Waltt and the Maine were fitted out and main- 
tained lij the splendid generosity of private individuals, the 
ionax0c hy the Oentral British Bed Cross Oommittee for H,]t.H. 
the Princess of Wales, and the latter hy a oommittee of American 
ladies. 

Hy grateful *ih*nVa, m well as those of the army in South 
Africa, are due to the individuals oonoamed, as well M to tixas 
owners of private yachta who pUced tfiem at the disposal of the 
oA and wounded cffioen and men. 



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«76 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

TbetoUowiDgtaUswiUbeof interost: — 





Vbm 




ill 


1 


Maawof sup. 


ptqiud. 


Br whom. 


? 1 

r 








>S 


1 


Sf«rta. . . 




UnitmaaOo 


I 


108 


Tr<^ . 


„ 


„ 


1 


S6 


frinmiifWiim 


OQ-Tjme 


■WWtworth'B 


8 


528 


Mmu . 


ThamM 


/Atlantio 
\Tni8ptOo. 


2 


886 


LufrnmOylit. 


Coi-bui 




S 


889 


Amm 


„ 




4 


1,181 


ilxura . 


„ 


Adinintlt7 


2 


589 


Onano . . 


„ 


Tnupt I^t. 


8 


M8 


SvlAx . 


„ 




2 


M8 


Simla . . 


" 




S 


816 



V.J thankB are doe to Kbem Boliadur Dtuuijibho;, a Fuaee 
gsntlemao, long reeidciiit in the Ptinjab, who presented tongiu far 
smbolanoe pvirpoms. These tongas were horsed and Full; eqoipped 
vith driven and all neaewaiy gear. They proved most uaefaL 

BtTBUao BIBTXB5. 

I find it difficult within the limitB of a short pangnph to give 
eccpreseion to the deep feeling of gratitude with whioh the Noning 
Bigterhood has inspired all ranks serving in South Afiioa. TiiB 
devotion, skiU, courage and endurance disjJayed equally 1^ the 
Aimy Noning Service and by kindred organisations from the 
ooloniee, have excited my admimtion, and jolly justified the 
opinion I have held for years as to the necessity and economy to 
the service of an ample nursing service for our army. Some of 
the ntuTCS who have been the most helpful have been lent to the 
Army Noraing Reserve by the great hospitals in tiie United 
Kingdom. 



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I propose, in a lat«r despatch, to bring to yoor notioe the namea 
of Bome of th« moat deaerring. 

AXlfY OHAflAISB DSFAKTMBHT. 

I giatefnUy flcknovledge the services rendered hj this depart- 
ment, onder Bev, E. H. Goodwin. The devotion to duty of the 
several chaplains, oivil as well oa arm;, throughoat the campaign, 
especially daring the siege of ladyemith and in the hospitals, has 
been frequently brought to my notice. 

AHHT OKDITAIKn DSPABTMBNT. 

This department has had an immense amount of work during 
the campaign, and under the capable direction of Ckdonel R. 
Noel Clarke has carried it out in a very satis&ctory maimer. 
The militaiy operations covered a vast area, and ooij two single 
lines of railway ware available, and these were so congested with 
troope, horses, and material of all sorts, that to get stores to the 
&ont in good time was always a matter of uncertainty. 

That tiiej were able to cope with these diffiooltiee and keep the 
army supplied with all the various stores that are dealt with by 
the department, reflects great credit not only on Colonel Clarke, 
but on the officers, warrant officers, non-conmussioDed (^oers, and 
men under him. 

The following brief statement, showing the duties which the 
Ordnance Department have had to carry out, will give Stane idea 
of the work devolving on this department : — 

(1) Receiving stores from England at four different bases. 

(2) Fcarwarding the stores along the lines oi commonioatiim to 

thirteen ordnance depots. 

(5) Issuing the stcrres to the troops as required. 

(1) F(»eseeing the needs and providing fcr the replenishment of 
stores by demands from home, and by local porchases in 
South Africa, which up to July 1900 amounted in value 
to over £1,000,000. 

(6) Establishing local workshops for the repair of arms, vehi- 

cles, harness, camp equipment, &c. 

The personnel of the department consisted of seventy offioers, 
96S warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men, and 7Sfi 



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478 THE AifGLO-BOEB WAR 

oiviliaii mboHinfttn, '^ ftddition to a luga number of iiativ« 
laboiirara. 

The following are a few of the stores that pasaad through the 
Ordnnnoe Department. 

Ordnance : 6 apere batteries of field srtDleiy, 2 spare batteries 
of hfune artillery. 

AmmunitioD : 1,031,000 rounds of artillery ammunition of 
seven different calibres, from 6 in. to 12 pr., 122,00O,0OU rounds of 
rifle and machine-gun ammunition. 

Stores : 50,000 tents and marquees, 865,000 blankets, 385,000 
mterproof sheets, 40,000 sets aaddleiy, 4,500 sets izansport fasr- 
ness, 275,000 sets picketing gear, 140,000 horse ruga, 2,000,000 
purs hone and mule shoes. 

Olothing; 716,014 khaki frocks, 625,902 pairs khaki troossra, 
897,076 pairs boots, 827,500 shirts, 1,647,200 pairs socks. 



Hie w(rt thrawn on this department has been out of all preee- 
deot with that which it has ever been called on to perform in 
previeas campaigns. And it has been earned out under dream- 
stanoM of great difficulty by Colonel W. B, Wade and his assistants 
to my entire satisfaction. At the commencement of the campaign 
there were only three field paymasters. There are now nine ; and 
irtienss the monthly accounts in September 1899 only showed a 
total of £42,404 16«. lei., they had reat^ied in September 1900 a 
total of £2,750,350 Ua. %d. 

Baob an expansion of buBiness required an equal increase in 
peraonnal, which was not always forthooming, the result being a 
amsidwable increase of work on those who w«i« preeent. 

ABltT TITKBINABT SKPABTUNT. 

Hub department, under Teterinaiy-Ookmel I. Matthews, has 
pnformed good woi^ The peace establishment being too small 
for the requirements of a large war, aeoessitated the employmoat 
of 123 wvW veterinary surgeons, whc^ however, soonadapted them- 
selves to the conditions of active serriae, and did much good work. 
Qrcftt assistance was afforded by the ezceUently-organised field 
veterinary hoepitels bo kindly lent by the Oovemment of India. 
l^uae hospitals leave nothing to be desired as regards supplies and 



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APPENDIX 479 

equipment, and the persoiiDel of Native N.O. oSoan, shoeing 
Biniths, and trained attendanto rendered most valuable service. 
There haa been a notable immumty from oouta^oos and ordinaiy 
diseases, except glanders, of which there have been five hundred 
oaaes, all (d which the department wae fortunately able to quickly 
suppnes. There haa also been an exoeptional freedcan from horse 
tdcknesB ; under 200 deaths out of more than 210,000 horses and 
mules. 

EIHODITT VBPiSnaST. 

The calls made upon the Remount Deparlanent, under Hajor W, 
BirkbedE, Ist Dragoon Guards, and H.8.H. Gaptain Prince Francis 
of Teak, K.O.B.,D.B,0., have been quite abnormal. Not only has 
tlie wastage of horsefleeh by cavalry and artillery been b^ond all 
expectation, but from the beginning of the war up to October SI 
1900, the department has been called upon to handle a vast 
number (60,611) of mules for transport purposes, and 67,880 cobs 
for mounted infantry. The number of cavalry and artillery horsee 
that have passed through the Bemount Department during the 
same period amounts to: cavab?, 21,252; artillery, 9S85. The 
organisation, on such a scale, may be said to have been eztempo- 
riaed during the war, and the way in which all ranks have done 
their utmost to cope with diffionldes and profit by the experience 
gained in the earlier parte ol the campaign is certainly dessrving 
oS credit. The penonnel sent by the Government of India proved 
of much value. 

SIQAALLntQ. 

Tbo work done by the mgnallera, under the experienced guid- 
ance of Major T. E, O'Leary, B.I.F., during the campaign haa 
been very arduons, and has frequently been carried out at great 
personal risks. The young offload and the N.O.O.s and men 
employed have risen to ibeai responsibilities, and have in almost 
every instance acquitted themselves to my entire satisfaction. 
The eetabliahmenta for the difi'erent units have been found to be 
too small, and the absence of signallers with the militia and Bqyal 
Artillery has necessitated men being attached from other branches 
from which they could ill be spared. The electric seandt-Iight 
used for signalling purposes in connection with the reliel opera- 
tions of Ladysmith and Kimberley was of great service, and was 
provided by the naval authorities. 



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«80 THE ASGLO-BOER WAR 

'Hub dapatLli would ba ioconplato w«« I to onit to i t Mt iop 
the bcttefit I bftve deriTsd btm ths rnituHug e^iport md wiaa 
co uiM Bh of Sir AIb«d liOoa-. I an cnlj mj bora thiit I Iwm 
Mt it « hi^ [nvilsge to mvk in don eoBunanicktaoa vith cxh 
iriwn ooange nerar Altered, faowenr gnve the lunimiwlMKliiii 
mi^it be whidi atir ro un dad bim, and who, notwitbabutding the 
ftboorbingaresof bisf^oe, seamed alwajs aUe to find tine for a 
belpfnl mange or for Uie tMstfnl aolntion oS « difinlt qmrtian. 

H; gratefnl tbutka ere elao dne to tbe QovenMr of NmtaL 
Daring tbe eeriier pert cf the nempeign I ma preeticelly cnt off 
bam oommnnicetion witb Sir W. Hdr-Hntcbinaon, bat I bnv« 
nnee kerned bow throogbont tbet poiod of anxiet7 end peril Iw 
end hia Miniatera did all tbet nun oonld do to belp tbe tnope et 
the front, and to keep ap tbe sfnritB of tbe inhabttente itf tlw 
Dolonj. Sir W. Hdf-Hntcbinaon endeaToored in eray waj to 
meet the varioos reqniremente of the army, and I am ^ad of thje 
<^portnnifr|r of mjing how mnch I ^ipieaatsd tbe a Bai ati n ee be 



Kr Godfrey Lagden has mj oordial thanks for tbe valneble 
aaaistanoe be has rendered, and tor tbe firm attitude be di^ilajed 
under voy toying drcamstanoes ; tor the complete omtzol he has 
nuuntained over tbe nativee of Basntolaod, for tbe aeeorate aad 
valoaUeinteliigeooe collected by bis agents, and for tbe [aiwiwiMi 
of R very luge nombw cX Basnto pcmiea for the ose of the 
mounted inhntry. 

Bear-Adminl Sir R. H. Harris, K.O.B., K.C.M.O., has, sioee 
tiie outbreak of tbe war, been in saprame oommand of H.1C. 
naval forces in SonUi Africen watars. I aoL glad of this oppor- 
tunity ol uniiueiiiiig to bim my thanks and those of the army for 
tbe oradial oo-<^ration and never-tailing auppwt which he has 
extended to me ever since my airival at Cape Town in Janiury 
1900. 

G«iasl Lnd Kitdiener of Khartoum, O.O.B., K.G.M.G., R£^ 
has, as my Chief ti the StafE^ rendered me onffciling ud very 
loyal eopptHi, and I am greetly indebted to him tew tbe valuAble 
HaBJafamoe he at all times affivded me. 

He has held a difficult position, and he baa diadiarged its 
duties with conspicaoos ability. I loft the command of tbe 
army in South Africa to my Ute Chief of the Stsff with tbe 



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APPENDIX 481 

atmoet ooufidenoe that he would do all that man could do to 
bring the present phase of the war to a speedy conclusion. 

Major-Oeneml W. F. Kelly hae served first as my D.A.G. and 
then as A.G., duties for which he is emiaentl; fitted, and in 
carrying out which he has proved himaalf & most efficient staff 
officer. 

Oolonel E. Wood, O.B., B.E., aa my O.B.B., has giren me 
every satisfaction. 

Oolonel (temporary Major-General) Sir William Nitdwlson, 
K.O.B., has already been mentioned by me for good services as 
Director of Transport, but I should like to reoord here the aacist- 
aooe he has always been ready to give me in any other matters 
iriiich from time to time I have had occasion to refer to him. 
Hia marked ability and ripe expeorience in all administrative work 
have been of very great value to the army in South Africa. 

0(donel laQHamiKon, 03., D.8.O., has already been r€^>eatedfy 
mstttitmed for his services in Natal and in the siege of Ladysmith. 
In ICaich 1900 he joined me in the Oiaoge Biver Oolony, and 
■ince then has at different times been in command of a mounted 
infantry division, a division of iofantiy, and large mixed forces 
of all arms. I have long had occasion to recognise the exceptional 
militaiy qualifications of this officer, and the high expectations 
which I had formed of his capacity for command have been 
amply justified. 

Lieutenant-Oolonel H. Y. Oowan, B.A., military secretary, 
has ocmtinued to give the closest attention to his work, which has 
been of the most oonfidMitial and often very arduous nature. In 
the performance of these duties he has given me complete satis- 
faction. I am much indebted to him for bis aUe assistance. 

Lord Stanley (late Lieuteoumt Qrenadler Quards), Hon. Oolonel 
2nd Y.B. Loyal North lAneashire, has for the last five suKiths 
been my private secretary, in which position, owing to his 
thorough knowledge of men and affitirs, he has rendwed me 
valuable assistance. 

Captain A. 0. U. Waterfidd, I.B.C, my assistant military 
secretary, b a young officer <£ considerable promise, and did good 
work on many occasions in the field. 

Oolonel H. B. Yiaootmt Downe, O.I.B., went 'out as my A.D.O., 
and was afterwards selected to aocompaoy the military attache 

2h 



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483 THE AKGLO-BOER WAR 

of foreign Powers, in which positioD his taict ajid judgment 
proved of much v&lne. 

Captain the Em-1 of Kerry, IJontMiuit Lord Settringtan, 
Lieatenaut Lord Herbst Scott, all of the Irish Onmids, mnA 
Lientenuit H. Wake, King's VMpl Rifies, mj udee-d»«amp, 
CcMunander the Honourable S. J. Forteecne, mj navnl A.D.0^ 
Rod Lieutenant W. H. Cowan, BJ4., A.D.C. to Lottl Kitchoier, 
and afterwuda my n&ral A.D.G., carried oat their reqxKisiUe 
dntiea to my «ntire satisfaction. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Byron, Boyal Austoalian Artilleiy, Major 
Denieon, Boyal Canadian Begiment, Captain Watermeyer, Oq»e 
Town HighIand«B, and limtenant Seddcn, Bongfatidws, New 
Zealand contingent, my colonial aidee-de-campf and the Doke 
of Weatmineter, extra A.D.C., all perfcvmed their various dutaea 
loyaQy and well. 

Major T. Laing, who raiaed and commanded my bod^oatd, and 
whose recent death I deeply deplore, showed himself an officer of 
great merit, and I am much indebted to him and to Oqitain 
W. U. Sherston, commanding tJie 48th Company Imperial 
Yeomanry (Army Head-quarters' Escort), and to Captains C. H. 
Gough and A. O. Maxwell, I.8.C,, camp oommandants, toe their 
excellent arrangements. 

Major W. B. Edwards, LM.B., took over the medical charge of 
Head-quartwa Staff in March 1900, and parformed fais duties most 
satisfactorily. 

Lieutenant and Quartermaster J, Bowers, A.S,C., my confi- 
dential clerk throughout the campaign, proved iiimsalf an able and 
moat reliable officer. 

Xdentenant - Colonel Sir H. Kawlinson, Bart, Coldstream 
Ouards, A.A.O., is a very promising offioer. By his im&ing 
energy, and his readioeee and quiokneaa in all emergenciea, also 
by his good eye for ooontry and tc^Mgraphical knowledge, he 
has proved himself to be possessed of oimaiderable scddieriy 
qualities. 

Major C. Hume, B.A., took over the duties of D.M.I, wlioi 
Major Colin Mackensie was appointed Military Governor 61 
Jobanneebni^. He has worked hard, and has carried out all his 
duties in a thnroughly oonsoentious manner. 

Major R. M. Poore, 7th Hnauis, has, as Provoet *r»«i»«i. 



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APPENDIX 483 

carried out his somewhat thankless dutiea with commendable 
«Dergy and Bocoees. 

Oaptain H. H. Wilson, the Bifla Brigade, D.AA.O., is an 
c^Scer of considerable ability. He has worked on the Head' 
quarters Staff since August with energy and soccees, and done 
moch good work. 

Brevet-Maj(nrH.H. Prince Christiaa Tictor, G.O.B., O.C.Y.O. — 
The much-to-be-regretted death of his Highness occurred before 
I had forwarded the recommendation for reward, which he so 
well deserved. His steriing qualities as a soldier, hie unfailing 
courtesy and attentuHi to his duties, had endeared him to all with 
whom he came in contact, and his early death is a real loss to the 

Captain and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Q. F.Qorringe, D.S.O., 
R.K, AlajorH. I. W. Hamilton, D.S.O., Boyal West Surrey Regi- 
ment, and Major J. K. Wateon, D.S.O., King's Boyal Bifle Corps, 
who served on Lord Kitchenei's staff, have done much bard and 
good work throughout the campaign. 

General the Bight Hon. Sir Reivers BuUer, G.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
Y.C., held the chief command in South Africa until my arrival in 
the early part of January 1900 \ from that time onwards he was 
in command of the Natal Field Foroe, and carried out the difficult 
operations terminating in the relief of Ladyamith. Subsequent to 
that evanthis troops formed part of the main army, which had for 
its object the occupation of the Transvaal up to Kom&ti Foort. 

LieutenantGeneral Sir G. S. White, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., G.O.I.E., 
G.C.V.O., V.C, was mainly responsiUe for saving the colony of 
Katol from bmag completely ovei^mn by the enemy. His gallant 
defenoe of lAdysmith, and the prowess of his troops at Talana, 
Elandalaagte, and Waggon Hill, will live in the annals of history. 
I greatly regret that iU-heelth prevented Sir George White from 
taking a conspicuons part in Ae latter stages of the campaign. 

lieutenant-Genraal Lord Methnen, K.C.T.O., C.B., C.M.O., 
has been in command of a division since the first despatch of troops 
from England in October 1899. The manner in which he has 
kept his command at all times ready and complete for service, the 
rapidity <£ his movements, oombined with his untiring eaergy and 
conspicuous oouioge, have largely contributed to the present 
comparative quiet on the western border of the Transvaal. 



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4S4 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Hftjor-OMienl 0. Tucker, C.B., hu klmys worirod under 107 
immediate cMmmand. He is k good fighting soldier, and has 
afforded me able iiimi'iiImihii on n&nj difficolt occasiopB. 

Hajor-Oenwal Sir A. Honter, K.O.B., D^.O., is an ofBeer 
pow oB B o d of great aoldierly qualities and oousidentble sxperienoe 
in war. He came out to South Africa as Chief of the Staff to Sir 
fiedvers Buller, bat, owing to the force of dicuniBtanoee, he 
aerred dnring the aie^ of lAdysmith as Ofairf 8ta£f Offioer to Sir 
George White. He, with his dinnra, came nndra- my direct 
oommand in April 1900, nnee witen he has performed valuable 
■errioe in oonneotaon wiUi the anangemente for the r^ief <rf 
Mafefcing and the capture of Oeneral Prineloo. 

Hajor-Oen«^ Sir Leslie Bundle, E.C.B., C.M.Q., D.S.O., has 
oommauded a division in South Africa since last April. He and 
his troops have had a very ttying time, and have acquitted titem- 
BBlvee of their ttek in a most creditable manner. 

Hajor-Oeneral T. Kelly-Kenny, C.R, as General Offioer L. (J C, 
Orange River Colony, and prerionsly as G.O.C. that Colony, has 
invariably shown sound common seitse and military instinct t£ a 
high order through many tryiog and anxions hours. I am much 
indebted to Hajor-Oeneral Kelly-Kenny for the good serrioe he 
has performed. 

Major-Genenl G. T. Pretyman, O.B., has been Military 
Governor of Bloanfontein since last March, a difficult poet, in 
which he has carried oat his duties to my mitire satisfaction. 

Major-Gencral G. Buton, C.B., has been in command at the 
6th brigade, firat in Natal and afterwards in the Orange River 
Colony and Transvaal. He is a careful and thoughtful leader. 

Major-Oeneral J. D. P. Trench, as G.O.C. the cavalry, has on 
every occasion rendered me invaluable servioe. He never 
makes difficultieB, and is a man of exceptional nerve. His tanly 
soldierlike qnalities are only equalled by his sound judgment^ hia 
unerring instinct, and his perfect loyalty. His services have been 
of incalculable valne to the Empire as well as to myself. 

Major-General B. Pole-Carew, C.B., commanded a brigade 
under lieutenant-General Lord Metiiow to that officer's entire 
satisfaction. In Afttil 1900 he was givm the oMOmand <£ a 
division, witJi which he did good serrice at the battle of Diamond 
Hill and sabssqnent advance to Ki»nati Foort. 



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APPENDIX 485 

M&jor-a«iMi!ttl R. S. S. Baden-PoweU, as the gallaat defandw 
of Mftf airing, is already well known. Since the relief of that town 
b» has held a oraamand in the field, and I selected him for the 
responsible position of Iiupeotor-Oeneral of Police, in which his 
undoubted organising powers will have ample scope for good and 
useful work. 

Colonel W. H. Mackinnon commanded the whole of theC.I.T. 
troops. la this position, hitherto unprecedented in the annals 
of our military history, he displayed taot, judgment, and resource, 
and I am much obliged to him for the manner in which ha carried 
out his duties. 

CMonel O. E. Knox was for many months in command of the 
13th Brigade, in which he did auoh excellent service that I have 
on several ooca^ons lately given him the oommand of mixed 
columns. In evety case he has fully justified his previous reputa- 
tion as a gallant soldier, a soand strategist, and a good tactician. 

Oolonel B. T. H. Button, C.B., A.D.O., has commanded the 
1st Brigade Mounted Infantry, in which capacity his unbconded 
energy and soldierly qualities, and his thorough knowledge of 
H.I. duties, have on several occasions been of great service. 

Oolonel H. H. Settle, C.B., D.S.O., was for soma time Inapeotor- 
Oenaral of Lines of Communication, Capo Colony, where he did 
good work. Latterly he has, on several occasions, commanded 
oolumns in the disturbed districts of the Western Transvaal and 
Orange River Colony, and has always carried out his duties to my 
complete satisfaction. 

Colonel G. H. TVfarshaU has been C.B.A. to the Army in South 
Africa. In this position he has had an immense amount of 
responsible work to perform, and has done it with praiseworthy 
diligence and sHU, having on able and untiring assistant in the 
person of Lieutenant-Colonel Sdatw, his A.A.O. 

Colonel Arthur Paget, 1st Soots Guards, was sent from Bloem- 
fontein in April 1 900 to oommand the 20th Brigade at Kimberley, 
and served with it in the west and east of the Orange River 
Colony. Afterwards he was given oommand of a mixed force, with 
which, in the northern theatre of war, he has shown energy, 
decisioo, and intelligence in his auocassf ul efforts to pacify a very 
turbulent district. 

Odonet K. Clements, D.S.O.. A.D.O., commanded the 12th 



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*8(i THE ANGLO'BOER WAR 

Brigade, with which he took up the work of Oeuer&l French at 
Colesberg when th&t officer was moved forward to the relief oE 
Kimberley. Since then he has rendered good service both in the 
Orange Biver Colonj and in the Western Transvaal. 

Colonel E. W. D. Ward, C.R, was of immense value to Sr 
George White during the ai^e of LadysDiith. After the rdief dt 
^bat town he joined Army Head-quarters, and from that time was 
Diiecttu- of Supplies to the Field Army. His readineea and 
reeource, his imperturbable good temper, his power of ra-gauiaation 
and thorough knowledge of his duties, deserve the thanks v& all 
ranks in the army. 

Colonel Wnrd is an officer who stands quite by himEelf as a 
departmental officer of genius and character. 

C<donel C. W. Douglas, A.D.C., came oat originally as A.A.G. 
to Sir Redvers Buller, and shortly afterwards succeeded Colonel 
Pole-Garew in command of the 9th Brigade, which be has held 
ever since. In this position he has rendered Lord Afethuen evary 
supp(nt and assistance, and has earned my tJianks for his continue 
ous and useful work on the western border of the Transvaal. 

Colonel W. G. Knox, C.B., served with credit throughout the 
cdege of Ladysmith. He has since then commanded a brigade in 
the Orange Biver Colony, and has carried out his duties in a 
eoldier-like and efficient manner. 

Colonel J. G. Maxwell, D.S.O., commanded the 14th Brigade 
in the general advance ft<au Bloemfontein to Pretoria. After the 
capture of that city he was appointed to the post of military 
governor, a position in which his businesslike methods and sound 
common !<enee proved most valuable, and helped bim to overcome 
many diflicultiea with credit and success. 

Colonel Hector Macdonald, C.B., D.8.O., A.D.C., has com- 
manded the Highland Brigade since the lamentable death of 
Major-General Wanchope. He has shown resolution and energy 
in carrying' out the somewhat thankless task which has fallen to 
the lot of his ccmmand, of pacifying the Orange River Colony and 
protecting i\& communicationB. 

Colonel R. G. Broadwood has commanded the 2nd Cavalry 
Brigade throughout the operations. He has had a great deal of 
hard and responsible work, under which his health give way—but 
with hiii soldierly instinct he returned to South Africa as soon as 



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APPENDIX *87 

he recovered, and vill, I feel oonfident, prove himself the gallant 
oavaby leader I believe him to be. 

Colonel H. L. Smith-Donien, B.S.O., has done extremely well 
with the 19th Erigade. He has shown ^u^ptional aptitude for 
oammand in the field, being sound in jadgment, quick to see and 
act, and full of resource. He is, moreoTer, a good organiser, and 
possesses in a marked d^ree Uie confidence of those in his 
command. 

Colonel T. E. Stephenson, Essex Regiment, is possessed of 
excellent soldierly qualities. He haa commanded the 1 8th Brigade 
throughout, and with it has borne an honourable part in the 
campaign. 

Colonel Lord Cheaham, Imperial Yeomanry, as one of the prime 
moTSFs for the employment of yeomaniy in the field, and more 
particularly as one of the gmetnl officers oommanding tbe 
yeomanry with distincticm and dash, I owe hiTn a debt of gratitude 
difGcult to express, bat none the less deeply felt 

Colonel Brabant, C.M.G., has been in chief command of the 
Colonial troops from the Cape Colony, which, amongst other dis- 
tinguished actions, furnished the contingent which, under Iiieu- 
tenant-Colonel Dalgetty, so gallantly defended Wepener. Colonel 
Btahant is a fine leader of men; he represents the true Imperial 
feeling in the Cape, and, aided by his fellow colonists, has furnished 
an object leascm in Itqralty and devotion to the Crown. 

Colonel Dartnetl, as O.O.C. Natal Golonists, has maintained the 
best traditions of H.H. r^ular forces, to which he formerly 
belonged. His name stands very high in the estimation of the 
colonists of Natal, and he posseeees the greatest influence over 
the natives. His advice was of much assistance in the eaj-lieet 
actions of the war, afterwards during the siege of lodysmith, 
and finally in tbe general advance through the Biggarsberg to 
Icing's Nek, when Natal was cleared of the enemies of the 
Queen. 

Colonel O. G. Cunningham, D.8.O., has been in command of a 
brigade in the Bnstenbe^ district for some mouths. He has 
acquitted himself well and to my satisfaction. I consider him a 
promising commander. 

Colonel B. T. Mahoa has, on several occasions, displayed soldier- 



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488 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

like qmlHieB lAen in ftMsnund of noimted traopa, tspoaaJHf 
wfaeo in conunand of the flying cxdumn for the reliaf of Mafekmg. 
He has a. quick and good eye for country. 

Colonel H. ChoImoDdeley did azeellent sernee as ooouaand«r of 
the C.I.V. Mounted Infuttiy. He prored himwlf on mairr 
ocGuiMia tlumiaghlj well qnaMed f<v tbia raqransiUfl poet, and 
has earned the w anuwi commendationB, both for himaelf and hia 
men, from all the G.O.C.§ with whom he has served. 

Oolonel St. O. Heniy, Korthomberiand Fumlien, has repeatedly 
shown to advantage as a leader of men, and as oommanding 
oKsm <A the 4th Corps fA Mounted Inbntry he has done exeeUent 

Lieutenant-Oolonel M. F. Rimington, 6th Dragoon Ooaida, 
rendered very exoepdonal aerrice with a specially-raised corps of 
acouts. He had an intumate knowledge of the whole <£ the 
Orange River Colony, and no hardship was too severe, or peril too 
serious, to deter him from pushing hie reoannaueaDcee i»r to the 
front or 6ank8 di the force to whi<:ii he was attached. 

Lieutenant'Colonel H. Flnmer, York and lAncashire Begimen^ 
was Bent out on special service to Rhodesia in June 1899, ainoa 
which time ha hss been ooostantly in the field. He raised and 
organised a corps of irregulars, and moved on Mafeking, and 
acted in conjunction with Colonel M»-Knn in the relief of tiiat 
town. He has since been actively engaged in the Transvaal, and 
has omaistently done good work, not only as a aiddier, but as an 
administeatcff of a high order. 

Lientmant-Oolonel J. Spens, 2nd Shropshire Light In&ntiy, 
has on several occasions cranmaoded a brigade in the field. He is 
reported on as never raising difficulties, and always carrying out 
his orders with good sense and great determination. 

Lientenant-Ccdonel E. A. Alderson, West Kent Regiment, 
commanded the 1st GarpB of Mounted Infontry firnn the b^in- 
ning of the war. He evinced such special aptitude for this nust 
important wcvk that I entrusted him with a brigade of Motmted 
Infantry, which I have every confidence he will ocanmand with 
Burcass. 

Lieutenant- Oolonel T. D. Filcher, BedfoHshire Raiment, hafi^ 
whilst in command of the 3rd Mounted Infantry, shown remark- 
able merit as a leader. Although a young twicer, he is full dt 



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APPENDIX 489 

n§aurce, capable of devising an exceQeat aoheme, and reeolote 
€iiough to put it into exacutum. 

lieutenant-CtolaDel H. L. Dawson, I.8.C., is an ofGcer posseeaing 
oonsideiable e^wiance of cavalry work in the field. He in iihe 
first instaooe commanded Roberts's Horse, and afterwards com- 
manded the fith Corps <tf Mocnted Infantry with credit during a 
period in which it was continually engaged with the enemy. 

Captftin H. de Liele, D.S.O., Durham Light Infantry, has com- 
manded the 2nd Oorpe of Uounted Infantry throu^out the 
opwations. He is one of the best of the many deserving junior 
officers which this war has brought into prominence. He poeaeeses 
in a very marked degree the qn^ties <rf resolution, quickness, and 
daring, which are so neceaaaiy to the sncoessful leading of mounted 
men. 

Major W. Boss, Durham Light Infantry, has always played a 
distinguished part in command of the 8th Corps of Mounted 
Infantry. I much regret the loss of his services, which I trust 
may only be tempcotuy, from a severe wound which he received 
whilst vety gallantly commanding his men in an important and 
successful action. 

Brevet- Lieutentant-Colonel Le Gallais, whose death I deejdy 
regret, served during the war in command of a mounted ocvpe, 
and also as chief staff officer to the Mounted In^ntry DiviBi<m. 
In both these capacities he rendered brilliant service, and gave 
evety promise of rising to the highest rank as a cavalry leader. 

Major N. L^ge, DjS.O., 20th Hussars, commanded the 6th 
Corps of Mounted Infantry throughout the operations. He, at 
all times and in aU places, did most excellent service. He was a 
capable, painstaking and gallant leader. I deeply regret the early 
death of this most promising officer. 

Major A. W. Thorneycroft, Royal Scots Fusiliers, in command 
of a rc^ment of Mounted Infantry, has already been brought to 
notice by Sir Bedvere Buller. Since coming under my imme4liat6 
command he has gained my confidence as a most gallant and 
capable leader. 

Brevet-Majco' £. G. T. Bainbridge, the Bu2s, has commanded 
the 7th Corps of Mounted Infantry throughout the operatdous. 
He is a veiy promising young officer, who knows how to handle 
mounted men with judgment and dash. 



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490 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

Major Colin Mackenzie, Seaforth Highlanders, is a veiy pro- 
mising officer. He was appointed Military Governor of Johan- 
nesbnrg aa soon ua that city was occupied. Since tliat time many 
difficult problems have been brought before him for solution. In 
dealing with these he has displayed great judgment and force of 
chaiacter, and has thereby rendered valuable swioe. 

Major 0. J. Younghusband, I.S.C, comuuukled the Sid bat- 
talion of Imperial Yeomanry under Lord Methoen throoghoat 
the operatJoDs, during which his battalion suffered 109 casualties 
out <^ a strengtit of 500 men. Major Younghusband is an t&oec 
of wide experience and great ability, and Lord Methuen speaks in 
the highest t«rms <A his capacity as a commander. 

Captain J. Bearcroft commanded the Boyal Naval Brigade until 
the men finally rejoined their ships in October. I have already 
referred in my despatch of March 31 to the valuable servioeB 
rendered by him and his men, and I am glad to be able now once 
mcMre to bear witneea to the pluck, endurance, and cheerfolnees 
which have been exhibited by all our sailors under most unusuai 
and trying circumstanoes. 

XEPOBT ON THE PISLD TRANaPORT VS SOUTH ATBICa. 

Id describing the transport arrangements during the South 
African campaign it will be convenient first to explain, in general 
terms, the War Office system of transport under which the troops 
were equipped when they first landed in the country ; and, 
secondly, to ahow what modifications in that system were rendered 
neoessaiy by the strength of the force employed and the develop- 
ment of the military situation. 

According to the regulations, as laid down in " War Establish- 
meote, ISddt," each unit of a field force is given a c^iain amount 
(rf transport, calculated on the strength of the unit in men and 
horses, to cany the authorised weight of baggage, and from one 
to two days' supplies of food and forage. This transport is in 
regimental charge, and is supposed to remain attached to the unit 
80 long as the latter is employed in the field. There are also 
supply columns for each brigade, iot divisional troops, and for 
oorpe troops, carrying one day's supplies of food and forage ; and 
a supply park for each army corps, calculated to carry three days' 



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APPENDIX 491 

supines of food and forage for the troops compoang the army 
corps. The regimental transport is in charge of regimental 
transport officers selected btim the several unite, and th^ supply 
Golumns and parks are in chu^ of Army Service Corps officers. 
At the beginning of the war in South Africa it was decided that 
the regimental transport should consist of vehicles drawn by 
mules, and that ox wa^^ns hired locally shoold be provided for 
the supply columns and parks. Under ordinary conditions mule 
waggons can march some twenty miles a day at the rate of three 
miles an hour, and ox waggons not more than sixteen miles a day 
at the rate of two miles an hour. Thus the transport problem 
was complicated by the different paces and length of marahee of 
^e draught aniTnala employed. Owing, however, to the delay 
that would have occurred in purchasing and shipping the 
enormous number of mulee which would have been required 
had oxen not been utilised, the use ctf two sorte <^ transport was 
unavoidable; and the War Office system might have worked 
satisfactorily had the force been of the strength originally con- 
templated, and had each unit in that force been continuously 
engaged in active operations. But with a much larger force, a 
considerable portion of which had neceesarUy to be employed as 
garrisons for towns, in holding important strategical positions, or 
in guarding bridges and railways, the equipment of each unit with 
the same amount of regimental transport gave some of the troops 
more mule waggons than they wanted, thus lessening the mobility 
of the b^oops actually operating against the enemy. Again, it ia 
obvious that a column might be wanted to carry out a rapid 
movement at such a distance from its hose of supply l^t its 
equipment with nothing but mule tiaosport would be obligatory. 
In such a case the War Office system would fail, unless a sufficient 
reserve of spare mule transport were immediately available, ot 
unless other units were deprived, for the time being, of their 
regimental transport, which, as previously mentioned, they were 
supposed to retain throughout the campaign, Difficoltiee would 
also arise in regard to the organisaticKi and supervision cS the 
augmented mule transport of the column, regimental transport 
officers not being transferable from their respective corps for 
general transport duty. 

On my arrival at Oape Town in January 1900, one of the first 



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4tfS THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

things whiiifa engaged my mttentioii was tfa« state (f th« tnnqMvt 
serrun, as I brought to notice in my Denpatch, No. 1, dated 
February 6, 1900. Mobility ia one of the most impwtant faoton 
in military operations, and mobility depends not only upon a 
sufficient amoant of transport b^ng forthcoming, bat apon ita 
being ao organised that it can be employed in tiie most eflectrra 
manner. I very early recognised that onlen taming iiiovem«ntB 
conld be undertaken at a considerable distance from the ntihray, 
or my base tzansfnred by a flank m&rdi from one ruhmj to 
another, the Boers wotild obtain the enormous advantags of 
knowing beforehand my exact line of ndvance, and by destroyii^ 
bridges and oonstmcting entrendied podtions would be aUe 
indefinitely to delay the offensive action from which akme a 
successfol issue was to be expected. Consequent on tbe revesKa 
in December 1899, laige reinf<aoements were being despatclted 
from England, and as these landed t^^ were at moe ported np 
to the front with whaterer transprai conld be collected at tbe 
baee. £arly in the year tbe supply of transport conld barely ke^ 
pace with the requirements of tbe fresh troops, and die resoh was 
that hardly any of the units, except those sent out at the beginning 
of the war, bad been uniformly equipped with tnnsport on the 
War Office scale. Ox transport had ocGaa><Xially been sufastitDted 
for mule, and in some oases the proportion trf waggons was exces- 
sive, and in others deficient. These, however, were oompantivdy 
trivial matteiv. Of much more smons impwtanoe was the fact 
that no attempt had been made to introduce a oomprehensiTe 
scheme of transport organieati<m which would enable a force to 
operate in such portions of the enemy's territory as were not 
traversed by railways. The first thing to be done was to ascertain 
definitely what transport each unit possessed, and what additional 
mule and ox transport could be got ready by the beginning erf 
February. Secondly, after providing for the obhgatory require- 
ments of the troopB remaining on the defensive, it was necewaiy to 
collect all available transport at comvenient points, and to divids 
it into manageable unite undw reeponsible officers, ao that it 
might be in readiness to accompany the troops detailed for offen- 
sive action. On receipt of the returns showing the transpcnt in 
possession of each corps, the points of oonoentratitm were selected, 
and commandinj;; ofEcers were directed to hand over their regi- 



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APPENDIX 49s 

nental tnosport to dflpartm^ital charge, except sooh VE^iicles m 
unmumtion and water carts, ambulances, and the waggons 
oartTing the technical equipment and stores of the Rt^al Artillery 
and Royal Engineers. The mole transport so withdrawn wss 
ftHined into mule transport companies under departmental trans- 
port cffioers. The latter, on the scale of two per company, wen 
obtained partly from the Army Servioe Corps and partly from the 
list of special servioe officers, especially those who had acquired 
some knowledge of transport duties in India or Egypt. Eadi 
company consisted of forty-nine mole waggcsts, with one 
Scotch cart and one water cart, this proportion being sufficient to 
atxty the baggage and two days' supplies of food and forage for 
an infantry brigade of four battalions, or a cavalry brigade of 
titree regiments. The companies were provided with a suitable 
BubcNrdinate establishment of Europeans and natives, and being 
Mlf-cmitained and independent could be distributed in accordance 
with the reqairements of the military situation, and the duties 
devolving on the several columns into which the field army was 
from time to time divided. Detailed tables of equijanent, baggage, 
and supplies were drawn up and circulated for the guidance of 
gMtcral and commanding officers. The oz transport was similarly 
organised into companies cA 100 waggons each, officered mainly by 
the Army Servioe Oorpa. 

The administration of the transport servioe thus created was at 
first entrusted to the director of supplies at head-quarters, but it 
was soon apparent that tbe officer in question had quite enough 
to do in attending to his own duties, and shortly after the mardi 
from the Modder River to Bloemfontein had begun, I found it 
advisable to appoint a separate director of tranapcat. For this 
poet I selected my military Becretaiy, Uaj(w-<!}eneral Sir W. G. 
Nioholscm, who had assisted Lord Eitobener at O^jie Town in 
elaborating the scheme of reorganisation, and whose previous war 
experience rendered him ^miliar with the departmental transport 
system. Major-Oeneial Nicholson had under him at army head- 
quarters two aaststant adjutant-geoerals for transport, namely, 
Ookmel Bunbnry, Army Bervioe Oorps, and Majco: Furse, Rt^al 
Artillery, and he carried on his duties in direct communication 
with the director of transport, chief ordnance officer, and 
director of remounts at the base, besides being in constant 



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49* THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

personal commutiication with the director of supplies at the 
front. Being chief transport officer on tite head-quarters staff^ 
he dealt direct in r^ard to all transport queetionB with ganeral 
ofBoers commanding brigades, divisions, and columns. As tlie 
army advanced into the Orange £iver Colony and Transvaal, 
deputy directors of transport and other staff (^oers wece 
appointed to supervise transport arrangements at Bloemfontein, 
KrooQstad, Kimberley, and other important military c^iizes; 
these officers reporting to, and receiving orders from, the director 
at head-quarters. In additiixt to the transport officers cf the 
mule companies attached to troops in the field, senior transprat 
offioeis were posted to the staff of general officers commanding, 
being made reeponmble to the latto*, as well as to the director of 
transport, for the care of the Miimals and general efficiency of 
the taranspcwt und^ their chatge. It was their business to Iwing 
all irregularities and deficienoiee to notice, and to instst on vaAj 
the prescribed amount of baggage being loaded on the waggona. 

It may be asked how the reorganisation of the transport service, 
admitting its desirability in other respects, facilitated the plan of 
operations for the relief of Kimberley and occupation of Bloem- 
fontein. It did so in this way. There was only a limited amoont 
of transport available at the b^pnning of February 1900, and by 
withdrawing the greater part of the regimental mule waggcoia 
from the units left to guard the nnthem frontier di Cape Colony 
and the line of conunuoieation up to the Modder, sufficient oLule 
transport could be collected to equip three infantry divi^ns and 
three cavalry brigades, together with the artillery, engineer, 
mounted infantry, and medical units attached to the force. Had 
the troops which remained on the defensive been allowed to 
keep their regimental transport on the War Office scale, at least 
another month muat have elapsed before an advance could have 
been made, and during this period Eimberleymust also inevitably 
have fallen into the enemy's hands. In shtnt, the departmental 
Kystem which I introduced in January 1900 poeseeses an elas- 
ticity and adaptability to the changing conditi<ms of field service 
on a large scale which the regimental system la^s. It may indeed 
be contended that ti^nsport a-riiiiialH &nd establishment in rc^- 
mental charge are likely to be better cared for than the transport 
temporarily attached to units under the departmental system. 



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APPENDIX 495 

oommaDdiDg officers being specially intereeted in the comfort of 
their men and the mobility of thrar oorpe. Thie, no doubt, ista^e 
to a oertain extent ; but, <m the other hand, selected transport 
officers, with {n^oos experienoe of the management of males and 
oontnd of European and native BubonJinatee, are better acquainted 
with thedr dutdee than ordinary regimental officers ; and as t^eir 
advancement depends on their efficieni^, they may be expected to 
exert themselves to the utmoet to main tain the transport under 
their charge in a serviceable condition . The regimental transport 
officer, however lealons, is an amateur, and the departmental 
transport officer a professional. Moreovw, in South Africa every 
endeavour has been made to keep the mule tiansport companies 
with the brigades and dividons to which they were originally 
allotted, and by Has means general and commanding officers have 
been led to realise that, while the reqtoneibility for the proper care 
and feeding <^ the an i main rests primarily with the transport 
ofSoers, it is their duty to co-operate with the latter to the fullest 
possible extent. 

After withdrawing all the available mule transport from corps 
which wmre not included in the force that was being concentrated 
for the relief of Kimberley and subsequent march to Bloemfontein, 
barely sufficient was forthcoming to carry the baggage and two 
days' supplies of food and forage on the prescribed scale. I was 
therefore reluctantly oUiged to reduce the normal proportion of 
ambulances and mole wagons allowed for medical units. In the 
case of bearer companies only two ambulances instead of ten, and 
one mule waggtm instead of two, were taken ; and in the case of 
field hoe|utals only two mule waggons instead of four. Ifthemardi 
had be^i longer, and if the fcvoe had been isolated from the day it 
left its advanced base on the Modder, this reduotiou might have 
Mosed conmderable hardship, but communication was kept up with 
the Modder camp throughout the halt at Faardeberg,a subsidiary 
base bong also established at Kimberley. The sick and wounded 
could tlieref ore be oc«iveyed in convoys of empty ox waggons to the 
hospitals at the Madder and Kimberley until the force marched 
from Poplar Orove to Bloemfontein. And here it may be men- 
tioned that the ox waggtm compares not unfavourably with the 
regulation ambulance as a conveyance icr the sick and wounded. 
It moves more slowly, and the vehicle being heavier and longer. 



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496 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

uid its wheels bigger, it jottBleea when gtMngorer badiowiBorthe 
open Tddt. 

When Cronje's oommando wm brought to & stand at Paanile- 
berg, I tiiooght it adviaable to strengthen tiie force b^ bringing 
np the Brigade of Ouanls from the Modder, and some diffioolty 
wu Fonnd in equipping it with Inuisport, most of the mole waggons 
previously attached to it having been aboorbed in the nawlj 
formed tiBOspcnt companies. Lieateaant-Qenenil Lord Methnen, 
however, from whose division the Brigade of Guards was with- 
drawn, oontrived to collect about half the autiioriaed proporticKi, 
the defideocy being made good by oz-wagp>n« abandoned by the 
Boen during their retreat from Hagnefontein. 

As regards ox Iransport, tlie foroe moving from the Hodder 
Biver to Bloemfontein requirod 47& waggons to cany tea da^' 
flupplies ol food and forage, and 125 waggons for reserve anunn- 
tiitioiL This number was provided, but unfortunately 160 loaded 
■npi^y waggons were captured by the enemy early in the man& 
at De Kiel's Drift, Strenuous efforte were made during the halt 
at Paardebarg to remedy this serious loss, fresh wa^^ottf being 
obtained from Kimberley, and captured waggons being utilised. 
For some days the biscuit and grocery ration had to be redooed, 
the ration of fresh meat being increased ; but on the wh<de the 
troops were aufi&dently well fed, and on entering Bloemfontwn the 
direetor of supplies had in hand grocwiee for aght days, and 
biscuit and bread-staff for five days. The provision of a full 
ration of grain for the oavahy, artillery, kdA mounted infanby 
home, and for the transport mules, pneented greater di£Goulti«s. 
Until the waggons captured at De Kiel's Drift bad been replaced, 
the force was living almost from hand to mouth, besidea whioh the 
mounted corps wore spread over such a wide area that it was no 
easy matter for their mule waggons to go in daily to the supply 
dep6t and take out the rvquisite <iaaiitity of grain. To isliere 
l^e strain Trtiioh was experienced on this occasion, and to ensure 
the mobility of the oavalry, hone artillery, >md mounted infantry, 
it was resolved on arrival at Bloemfontein to increase the propor- 
tion c/t mule transport with these unitB,so as to oacry four instead 
of two days' supplies of food and forage. 

During the march frcan tha Hodder Biver to £laemf<mteia, 
and especially during the eaify part of it, watflrwasBoaroeaodth* 



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APPENDIX m 

gmni^ poor. HtiU, the oasoaldefl among thA tmtsiwfe 'nftnrtlt 

were not ezonaiva On starting tibe total number of mnleB was 
11,862 ; 10,566 molee reached Bloemfontein, the loss being 796, 
' or 7 pw cent. Ibe total number tA oxen on leaving the Modder 
wu 9788 ; 2880 oxen with 180 waggona wen oiqitored at De 
Kiel's Drift, leaving a baknoe of 6906 ; 184 freeh waggons with 
£680 oxen wco^e obtained m roufa, raising the beJanoe of oxen to 
9588; and on reaohing Koemfontein the number anllable was 
8966 ; the oasaattiM being 620, ta about 6} par oent. 

nie opentions above referred to lasted from February 11 to 
Mmy Ji IS, During thi« period siz additionfil mule oompanieahad 
been organised in Cbpe Oolony, a consideraUe number of <s- 
waggons had bean collected south of the Orange Biver, aaocnul- 
hand unle-waggons of local manufacture had beenpnmhMed b; 
tlte lAast wdnance offioer, and an amj^ suj^y of males kbA 
faanees had arrived at Oape Town. 3^ troops which nunhed 
fann the Modder to Bloemfontein numbered about 84,000 men. 
Theadvanoe northward took plaee <m Hay 8, by whitdk date 18,000 
additional tioops, including Militia and Imperial Yeomanry, had 
been moved up across the frontier of Oape Oolony. The trans- 
port requirements, coupled with the necessity fOT making good tin 
deficiencies in the tiuisport of the uuts which had marched from 
the Hodder, inclusive of the bearer companies and fl^ hospitals, 
imposed a severe strain on the tnuispmt departanent. niisstnin 
was intensified by the congestion tX. laflwsy traffic north of the 
Oiuige Biver, which prevented any faoilitiea bom being afibrded 
for tailing up mules, waggons, or harness, and other tran^ort 
stores, beyond Nomd'a Pont or Bethulie until a few days previous 
to the advmnce. Tba iatot detailed for the march northward oon- 
msted of three and a half infantry divisimB, four cavalry farigadei^ 
and a division of mounted infantry, with forty-two horse aitiliecy 
guns, mz^ fidd guns, ten naval and siege guns, and the usual 
loDporfcion of engineers and medical units. Owing, however, to 
the disturbed state of the country, the troops left behind in the 
Orange Biver Oolony had also to be fuUy equipped with traiu^Knt. 
To cany tbe authorised amount tA baggage, two days' supidiea of 
food and forage for the infantry, and four days' sapfdies for the 
mounted ocnrps, as well as to equip the ambuLmces, and the ted» 
nical vehicles bulonging to the artHleiy and engineers, over 22,000 



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408 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

mokl, whk » oom^Hxidiag namlNr of wiggona, «rw« rqqwad. 
BwidM this, S&OO ox wafgon^ with 40,000 oan, had to be yn. 
vided far the ■mwanittoo Mtd rappl^ oolnBuw, to Mny tiis 
leWMWuiiiiiiMiiHiiwiiiMl enniBimwif iw»wi ilnjnTiiwiiiTHiwiniliiw 
Daring tin hah at ]UoHaf«ntnii iteipB had abo to be takan to 
—^MoMiaa Lord Kethoea'B dinaon, irinoh had ba«i dnttdad af 
Boat 4rf its Bale tnn^nrt when I mored fnta the ICoddar Bivar 
•ariy in Fafamary ; to eqnip with mnle aad oz toaoqiavt ffir A. 
Honter'a dinciaii, vhioh had been tmufured from Natal to 
Kimberiay; to [sovide fifty mnle waggoM for tibe flTUig colonui 
aluiit was baiiig nrganinml for the leluf «f Hafekiiig; ^id to 
K&flaeb the azty-aemi nole waggona whieh mre aaptared bj tha 
Bo«« at Saana's Poet Ti> aati^ tbe above dcnanda bme^ 
WOO aolM and 4000 oxmi mse needed, as well as n^go^ 
kamMi, aod eetabliahmont. Ihe task of sappljing each a lai^ 
aaovnt of additioaal trauqiait vithm six weaka was oat an May 
ona^ but it waa anooearfolly aooomidiabed, and lAcn I left Bloen- 
ftwtein Ul reqnuemeots had been met, exoept as regaids ^>o mule 
Ifauui for two oat of the foor days' aa^iliflsto aoootopaaj Aa 
oamlry division. Hiese, howevw, were ready a few days aftw- 
vaids, and joioed the cavalry diriaon at KtooDstad. 

During iha mardi from Moemfontaiii to Pretoria (hare waa 
litUa to ceoord afiaeting the tnospoirt, szo^ that the moha 
anfbvad kes than mi^t have beeoezpeoted fr(»a the long laarekaa 
and oM. uig^tB, the oaaoaltiaa among them not ezooediag 7 pv 
•wt. TbaosiaHiaBinaldamoredriioBtooonatitatian than the 
mola^ and if he doea not get snttoient tinw for giaaing and rttA, 
ar b egpoaod to severe oold aft« a trying iiianth, he almaet inva- 
riably Boooamba. ^ke narmiltiicn, thsnforc, ware baavier aaaong 
the ozan, amonnting to aboat 4600 a montib, that is, dightly over 
11 peroant. 

While the advance to Pretoria was taking plaoe, faweh mde 
ttx^aniea were beUig organised at Bloamfontem, and additioDai «K 
wa^oDfl were being oidleated akng the lines of oommonieation. 
These ware poshed up to the b«nt by road, and served to itiplaoa 
naaonltiea and to eqnip the oolnmns whiob ware f (oiaed later on at 
Kroonstad for the poraoit of De Wet After the MtoUiahment 
«f army head-quarters at Pretoria no vary large d^^nrndu wom 
made on^etransport dqiartment, bat it waa neoeesary to provide 



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APPENDIX 499 

fortfaeeqoipmemtttf SirF. Oarringtoii's f<M«e at Maf eking, to keep 
thv oxiBfting tnnsport in »a «fflisaDt state, and oontmually to 
reanange ita distribnticxi in aooordanoe with the duties assigned 
to the seTsnl columns into whiob the faroe was now divided. In 
S e ptembe r 1900, an adruwe was made aloog the Delagoa Baj 
Baitway, and Komati Foort wss oooapied. Early the next month, 
aa BO farther opetatdone on a laz^ soale seemed likely to take 
[daoe^ BJid as the departmental cvganisatlon had by this time ^t 
into thoron^ working order, I deeii)ed to rednce the transport 
staff at head-qoarteni. fiir W. O. Nicholson aooordingty returned 
to India, being replaced as directs, first by Oolonel Bunboiy, 
Army Serrioe Oorps, and altarwaxda by Lieutenant-Oolonel Wit^- 
ham, Indian Staff Ootps. Major Parse, also, the aasistant-adjo- 
tant-geoeral for maie transport, revwted to doty at the War 
OfSce. 

Prom tiie foregoing brief narrative it will be seen that the 
departaoental system which was intradaeed on my arrival in Soatb 
Afriea fnUUed my ezpeotations. It proved capable of rapid 
expansion onder dnmrastanoee of exceptional difficulty ; the re- 
dlstaibutitm of transport units was cdboted withoat causing incon- 
venience or hardship to the troops, and the small percentage of 
oam&ltiefl among the males showed that the animals were at least 
as'weU cared for by d^Mrtmental officers as by regimental offices 
nnder the War Offioa astern. And here it may be stated that 
whUe I was in chief ocsnmand in South Africa, no mishaps 
oooorred, nor had any military operation to be postponed or aban- 
doned, owing to the transport being inadequate or ineffiotent. 
This satisftustoiy result must waaiy be ascribed to the excellent 
mrk done by Uajor-Oeneral Sir William Kicholson and his staff, 
and the capable officers in charge <rf mule and ox transport com- 
panies— woA which was the more creditaMe inasmuch as traos- 
pcart duty in tlie field does not usually eairy with it the same 
dMuwee of disti&otioD as emplt^ment in the fighting line or on tiie 
genenl staff 

In this Booount of the teaasport amogaments in Sonth Afriea, 
Mfermee has only been made to Ae force based <m Oape Colony. 
Hie Hstlal force, nnder the innnediate esmmaiid of Sir Bedvera 
Buller, was equipped with ox tmnpcni, except soeh vehiclee as 
watra<-eart8, small-arm ammunition-cavts, ambulances, and the 



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wo THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

like, which wore drswn by moles. HixnaYVt, in the Nfttal f<nce, 
the War Offioe ayHtom was adhered to, the transport for regi- 
mental baggage and sappUee being letaised in mgimental diaz^. 
A aomewhat higher scale of baggage was allowed, tents being 
oaxried for the troops, as well as a moderate amount of ,'Bnpplemen- 
tary stores for sale in regimental oofiee-ehops. When, howerer,* 
portion of Sir Bedvers Boiler's ifxva, oonsisting of one infantzy 
division and two oavsliy brigades, took part in the advanoe to 
Komati Poort, additional mole transport was bronght np from 
Natal to cany the baggage on a rednoed scale, and two dayv 
sapplies for these troops. The system adopted in the Natal forae 
was no doubt suited to its reqniiemants, but the conditions were 
eo different from those eziating in the much larger ftvoe whidi was 
based on Qwf« Oolony, that what was feasible and appn^iate in 
the ime case would have been impraotioaUe in the other. 

It may be of interest to ofiGBr a few remaiks (m the descriptkm 
of transport employed in the war. The ox waggons and oxen were 
obtained locaUy through contraotors, a team of sixteen oxen and 
two native drivers being allotted to each waggon. He toad for a 
waggon was 6000 lb. The oxen were, as a mle, fine mim*!*, and 
very tractable. The curious thing about them was that they 
would pull together, however Isi^ the team might be. With 
iieavy guns as many as twenty qians (£ oxen were employed, and 
when they ware on the move the trek cluun was always tant. 
This duuncteristio is probably due to heradity, t<a in India, where 
oxen are commonly used for draught purposes, and where more 
than two spans are never attached to a native boIlodE-oart, bat 
little advantage is gained by employing more than four spans at 
the outside to draw a gun at otiwr heavy load. The Eaffin are 
unrivaled in their management of oxen, and exbiaordinarily pro- 
ficient in the use of the long whip, by means of which th^ gmde 
«nd urge on their teams. Doring the greater part tA tike year 
the oxen only need a suffiment daUy interval for grating and rest 
to keep in good condition, provided that they are not driven too 
fast and that the marches are of moderate length. In the depth 
of winter tiie animals require hay and Indian oom to supplement 
the withered grass of the veldt, and are all tJie better for being 
covered at night with horse-blankets, or witii blanketa lined witfa 
felt, oalled in India " jhool&" At my request the Oovemmeat of 



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APPENDIX Ml 

India supplied a eoneidenble number of jliot^ and tbcse were 
fbimd to be of great Berrioe in keeping the oxen waim during th& 
bitterly ocAd nights of July and Aognst on the bigh veldt. Being 
bnilt in the ooimtary of bard and seascmed wood of indigwnoaa 
growth, the ox waggons tasted well aod seldom needed repair. 

The mule tran^ort consisted of what are called in South Africa 
bock-waggons, oanying a load of 8500 lb., and drawn by ten 
males each, with two native drivers. The War Office supplied as 
many mules as were asked for, and though many of the animals 
were untrained, they readily adapted themselves to draught, 
Beudea receiving a sufficient grain ration, mules require careful 
and regular watering and gracing, and difficult was ezperi«iGed 
in, getting the native drivers to attend to their duties in this 
respect. It was so much easier to tether the moles together in 
groups of five than to knee-haHer them singly, that continual 
vigilanoe^ad to be ezerdsed to prevent the former praotioe fnun 
being adopted. When tethered together the strongest animal 
drags the rest about, so that they can neither drink nor graze, 
and consequently they rapidly fall off in condition. Being acous- 
tomed to drive oxen, the EaSlra are apt to use the long whip too 
freely in driving mole teams, and so much was this the ease that 
it was found necessary to prohibit the use of the long whip with 
mule toansport, the driven being provided instead with short 
hunting whip& 

The mnlee employed in the campaign have been imported from 
Vorth and South America, Spain and Italy. A few also were 
supplied tram India, and as many as could be obtained were pur- 
diased locally. Token all round, no otnuplaint could be made of 
the quality of the animals. The best were the Cbpe mules, these 
being thoroughly acclimatised, hardy, short-legged, and compactly 
built. Next to tiiem came the moles from the Punjab. Big 
mules are a mistake for ordinary field transport, as they require 
aa much care and as large a grain ration as horses. 

As regards the bud-waggons, those purchased locally were 
found to be much more serviceable than those manufactured in 
England, technically described " Bristol pattern waggons." As 
in the case of the ox wag g ons, the former were built of hard, 
well-seasoned wood grown in South Africa. Hule waggons 
not being in constant use at home, there was no stock in hand. 



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508 THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 

and they had to be put together huniodly, the wood need in tbedr 
ocMifitrDotion warping and ahTinVing in the diy oUnuite <^ the 
T^dt. The wheels, eepecudly of the ^Cngliah waggons, gave « 
great deal of troable^ reqiiiruig firaqnant re-tiiing and other repaira. 
Six buck- waggons were imported for trial from the United Btatea, 
and tlieae proved to be eaperior to any other pattern of eith^ 
Ck^e or English manufacture. The wheels ware of hiokoty, the 
bodies of black walnut, and the metal wwk of eteeL They were 
built by Meesrs. Btude, Baker, and Co., who have a great waggon 
manutaotory at South Bend, Indiana. The superiority of ttieae 
vehidce waa doabtleaa dne to the fact that mule waggons aro 
largely used in America for the carriage of goods as well as for 
military transport. The manufaotorers hare therefore learnt by 
practioal experience what is the best type of waggon, and what the 
most auiteble materials to employ,in building it. It may be added 
thatthe wagons in question cost considerably less than the Bristol 
pattern waggmuu 

The mule hamna supplied frcnn England, tiunigh perhaps a 
little too elaborate, was of excellent quality, and mooh moie 
durable than what was obtainable on the spot. 

An account of the transport in South Africa would be incom- 
plete without a reference to the steam tractoon-engineeand trucks 
which were sent out in chai^ of Lieutenant-Colonel lempler, 
7tii battalion Sing's Boyal Bifle Corps. These were first landed 
in Natal and afterwards transhipped to Cape Town, where soma 
were employed for carrying stores from the dock^ the remaindor 
being utilised at Eimberley, Bloemfontein, J<Akaanesbuig and 
Pretoria. At these centres, where coal and water were readily 
obtainable, the engines proved a valuable adjunct to animal 
draught ; but owing to the absence of fuel ^lej could not be uaed 
am the line of march, or to haul supplies to bodies of tnops en- 
camped nuxv than twenty miles from a coal d^ifit. Ymn a 
militaiy point of view the defect of steam traction li« not onfy 
in tlie impossibility of working it unless coal >Jid water are avail- 
able at each halting-place, but in the weight of the fuel and water 
which each engine has to drag along, thus expending much of its 
txaotive force. This defect would be greatly lessened if an effi- 
cient oil motor could be substituted for the steam motor, as in 
that case no water would be wanted, while the coal Would be 



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APPENDIX SOS 

nplaoed by k moro p(»i:able and ooooantakted deeeription ol 
foal 

bk ooiudanon it may be obaervedtlmt, althoagh in Bomeraqnofefl 
tlie wganisation and main t anMyw of an flfficdeiit transport sorvioe 
in Sontli Af rioa -waa not an easy matter, ths abondanoe of good 
grasng in abnost every district of the Orange Biver Colony and 
TiaDBvaal during the greater part of the year me an advantage 
wbii^ hardly any other ooonlzy would have afibrded. The ox 
bansport was pnctioaUy eelf-sai^xHrting, and no forage ezoept a 
moderate grain ration, sometuoea procmable looaOy, had to be 
provided for the mules. In the thinly populated and ondviliaad 
regituis in which the Britiah amy generally fi^ts it ia not infire- 
qoentiy as diffienlt to feed the transport ^T^i^^lff as the trotqn 
themselves. In South Africa this dilGoulty was rodnoed to a 

miniTinnin. 

BoBSSTs, F.-H. 



Priaud br Baliant¥m^ Biuiioa «• C*. 



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NATAL ADMINISTEATIONS. 

B7 ^ JOHH Bbioos. Edited bj Ladj Bbioos. 

The offidftl pofiitioii of the late Sir John BriggB gave him 
ezoeptiona] opportonities (or obeerring the working of the 
deportment, and his keen interest in the naval defences of the 
cmmtry Imd to his record of his ezperienoes an impoitsnoe 
both poHliaal and historical whioh is not a little enbancsd 1^ the 
•atartaining eharaoter of his peraanal reminiBoenees. 

The Timta, in a leading article, Bays : 
The late Sir John Briggs, in his very interesldng reminis- 
oenoee, . . . roundly declares that no moment ever was 
opportune to grant money for the Kavy previonB to the adminis- 
tration of Lord George Hamilton. 

The Daily Nno» says : 
The late Sir John Brigge was intimately aoqnainted wttb the 
aearets of the Admiralty Board Boom; and if anybody was famili^T- 
with the needs of the Navy it was he. . . , 'Set modest preface 
appeals qnUe nnnecessarily to the indnlgeooe of the naval 
profearioD and general pablio. 

Tlie Morning Pott. 

Hen at length we have the truth about the Navy in dear 

and nnambigaous language, and upon the highest authority. It 



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i PRESS OPmiONS ON 

ig a phiD imnmidted tale, aarjing in ereiy tins tiw ooDrictioa 
of its author*! ainoarity . . . and ooDtaina in tbx briafnt qiace k 
aummai; of what it needed, ^le book oaonot be too widdy 
rad. 

The JDaOi/ Tibgrapk aays: 

"Nanl AdminiBtntknui,'' 1627 to 189S, ia a book that ahoold 
be studied l^ erecy Ti!nglii>>ii«aji who takee an interest in the 
British Kavy. In the <^imon of the autiuM:— and no offioal 
erer bad a better opportonity of forming a ooEraot jodgment — 
Lord George Hamilton has been a great, suooeeefol, and most 
fortunate naval administrator. 

The Sailj/ Chnmala. 

Piquant personal anecdotes of various and nameroos pnblio 
pervnufjea abound in the book. 

The SUmdard. 

Tbo Uta Sir John Brigs' long Bervims a* the Adwralty as* 
w«U known, and ^s oinmastanoe inveata Us poathUBBoas woik 
witii mere than pMug interest. The book WM dedjoatad Co Xa^f 
Briggs, who haa now edited it with judgmmt and akilL 

The SfMrnar mij%: 

Among the many volumes which have lately been written oa 
the subject of the Navy, none is more modest and otme more 
sinoare , . . and oertainly few are musn valuable. 

The Sattttdoj/ Jintmp says: 

Sir John Bng^ wotk ia a very valaabU oontributaon ta tin 
histtsy of Admiralty Admininfaation. H» p^wn h»ve bMu aUjr 
edited 1^ his widow, who has no need to apokigiM for any tbatt- 
oomings. She has done her woi^ with ekiU and diaorettoa. 

The Army and JTrnvy GamUi. 
Tba bo(A has high interest for reoent naval biabwy and'ta imj 



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NAFAL ADMINISTRATIONS » 

The Naoal aitd Military B&nrd. 

Tium are many interesting stKwies in the late Sir John Briggs' 
book, which has already been reviewed in then odnmiu. Hia 
HBS quite a imiqoe interest. 



It is a volome <£ extraordinary interest and wiU be mloomed 
l^thepnblia. 

The Daiiy MaS. 

Among the beet fraits of this year most be counted the work 
of Sir John Biif^ on "Ifavsl Administration." Mnch of the 
credit tat the existeDoe of this comprehensiTe review dt the 
pditioal side of naval qaestions is doe to the author's wifoi whom 
portrait accompanies that ctf her husbuid on the title-page. 

The LUarary World. 

It is a long time sinoe such an honest, thorough, and fearieeely 
ootepohen eritadsm of onr Navy has appeared. ... Sir John 
Briggs writes thronghont with authority. 

Hie Ohaerotf. 

Wb look apoQ this work as the most important of the 
numerous books on the British Kavy that have af^ieand doing 
the last tew years. Hr. Idird-Olowes, Mr. H. W. 'Wilson, Mr. 
Spenoer WSldnacm, and Hr. Amold-TOTBter's books, however 
earnest and clever they be, have this ^^T^Tll^Tnnt4lg^1 tint their 
aathore stand in the position of outside oritios. Sir John Briggs 
was an aoolyte^ whose life-long servioe had been paved within the 
pentration of the temfde itself. , . . The book is a Jodimoos 
admiztore of statesman-like aiguments and droll aneodotes of 
peppery sea lords, iriiioh is safe to make it genuinely and widely 
popnkt. 

The Svnday Timm says: 

Bo(^ on the technical and strategic side ol naval mattm havo 
bem nther numerous of late, but we know of no work that lete 
more trne light into the actual working of the complex and not 



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4 PRESS OPINIOm ON 

wiwtiyB perfectly flfguiaed nuHdunsiy by wliicli the detenoe^ nsy, 
the Toiy eziatenoe of onr nation ia regul&ted. 

The SeotuHtm. 

Under a cover ineoribad " NavaJ AdmiuBtntioiis " one looks 
for nnthing mora exciting or »™naiTiff tium dry detailB of 
Admiralty management. The plMsura ie equal to the sorpriae 
OQ fiadbig a 'lUb v«jn of racy reminiaoenoea and homocoua 



BinHmghain PiM. 

Thon^ thia ia a volnma of vray grave pnrpoae, it ia aa full of 
amnong matter that the moat frivoloualy minded may tnni ita 
pageaand find something to wrinkle the face with smilea. Tba 
book ia at oooe inatrootiTe and very amnaing. 

The BriHA Rmmo. 

Thia book is pwhapa Uie moet TmlnaUe <^ recent contribotiona 
to the naval eobjeets and deaervea to find a place in evecy Ubraiy 
in the Empire. 

St. Jamti't Stidgtt, 

Sir John pays a well-merited compliment to his wife for her 
preparation of his MBS. and painataking editotahip, iriiidt we 
believe an napouilde for mnoh of tba vahie of a work thak its 
anther did not live to aee given to the world. 

Sir OsAKLV DiLKM in the ^ Jama^t Budfftt. 

Ko one has ever presented a more powerful fdctore of the on* 
tmthfulneas which baa prevailed with regard to the oervioes in 
the information placed before the Honae of Oommona and the 
couutay. 

Asimu. Olosk in the Mormng Pott. 

Ijet me advise Mr. Oarrett to stndy Sir John Brigg^ book. H» 
had greater experience than any landaman living. 

Patt Maa OamU. 
Bir John and Lady Brigga have supplied a great wank The 



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NAVAL ADMINISTRATIONS 5 

work is a most valuable oontaibation to the reoant hietory oi our 
Navy. The editing of the papers has been aooomplished with 
great care and with a snrprising giaap of a teohnioal eabject l:^ 
hit wife. 

The IriA if ma says: 

Iliis noUe work has been edited with great care aod snooees by 
lAdy Briggs. 

JPovy L«agtu Jtmntal. 

This is a valuable and intureeting picture of Uie tntamal 
working of the Admiialtyby'oQe, who, from his ofBdal position, 
was able to know most of what passed at WhitehaD. . , . The 
editing haa been carefully done hy Lady Biiggs. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNU LIBRAKY 
BERKELEY 

Retnni to dcfk from which borrowed. 
This book if DUE on Ihe last date stamped below. 



RECD LD 

t21ul'62RR 
RECD LD 

"eceivBD 



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