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Reputed to be by da Udine.Note how the lead lines.instead of marring the 
ensemble, are mostly lost in the design; also how artistically the border i: 
broken to avoid monotony of parallel lines. 


By Charles Hitchcock Sherrill 
With Thirty -three Illustrations 













DO you love a glowing sunset ? Of course 
you do and why ? Is it not because 
the charm that reaches out to you from 
its mass of colour is shot through with 
light ? That same charm, produced by the same 
blending of light with colour, lies imprisoned in 
windows of stained glass, and best in those which 
have come down to us from the Middle 
Ages, mellowed by the centuries through which 
their rich beauty has been preserved. If you will 
come with us to see the old windows of Italy 
we will take you up and down the land, and 
to most of the famous cities of that historical 
peninsula. You shall visit impregnable hill-towns, 
great cities built upon the plain, Venice, Queen 
of the Adriatic, and Rome, the Immortal. We 
shall often wander from the beaten track, indeed 
we shall deliberately seek to withdraw ourselves 
as much as we may into the far-away Middle 
Ages, hoping thus to obtain a living sense of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

the time and the surroundings of the men who 
made these wonderful windows. We shall con- 
sort with statesmen, monks, warriors, jurists, 
despots, diplomats, artists all sorts and conditions 
of mediaeval manhood. The Italy that we shall 
see will not be the Italy of most tourists, for our 
vision of it will be softened and warmed by the 
many hues of its glorious glass. 


December ist, 1912 

VI 11 




ITINERARY ..... . . 35 

ROME -38 



Assist .,... 57 

CORTONA ... . 6 3 

AREZZO .... -7* 



VAL D'EMA . Io6 

PRATO .... - IJI 

LUCCA ... II6 

PISA .... -.; I2 5 

SIENA. . . . ! 33 

BOLOGNA . . H 2 

VENICE ... J 5 

MILAN . J 57 




WINDOW OF 1560, CARTOSA IN THE VAL D'EMA . Frontispiece 

Reputed to be by da Udine. Note how the lead lines, instead of marring 
the ensemble are mostly lost in the design, also how artistically the border 
is broken to avoid monotony of parallel lines. 



Designed bytPaolo Uccello. One of a series of seven below the dome of 
Florence Cathedral. Note the absence of stone spokes or rose traceries 
usual in Northern Europe. The Italians showed peculiar skill in adjusting 
their groups to a circular space. (Seepage 86.) 


The quaint drawing of the figures bears striking testimony to how much the 
mosaic period of glass owed to the designers of mosaic. 


The obscure position of the window in the left back-ground, almost hidden 
behind the high altar, perhaps explains why these masterpieces of William 
of Marcillat escaped the general destruction of Rome's glass in 1527. (See 
page 39-) 


This rose window is one of the few in Italy glazed as in Northern Europe, 
and therefore not given over to one unbroken circular service of glass as is 
usual in Italy. The rich colours of the fagade's gold-grounded mosaics 
above, vie in delicacy of detail with the army of sculptured figures below. 


brown alabaster. 


The glass in this huge embrasure has been so much restored as to lose most 
of its value. It is, however, typical of earty isth century window construc- 
tion, and also shows the undecorated condition in which Italian exteriors 
were often left. 


On the ceiling are the famous frescoes attributed to Giotto. The long series 
of low chapels are glazed in early m osaic medallions two of these windows 
appear in the back-ground. 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 



About the walls, high above the rows of fresco scenes, is the best series 
of mosaic period windows in Italy. Furthermore, this is one of the rare 
instances of a satisfactory combination of stained glass windows and frescoed 


Built by the Shoemakers' Guild. Type of structure not unusual in Italy, 
and similar to the Pazzi Chapel, Florence, and the Madonna delle Carceri, 
Piato. In the deeply recessed occhio is a fine window of William de 
Marcillat, especially valuable for its contemporary portraits of notables. 


Bare walls are not uncommon in Florentine churches. The glass in the 
distance will be seen nearer at hand in the next picture. 


The splendidly warm tones of the glass are worthy of Ghirlandajo's frescoes 
that surround it. Note the altar, a chef cFceuvre in Florentine blending of 
coloured marbles. 


This T-shaped church is peculiarly well lighted, and boasts of a wealth of 
stained glass, mostly of Florence's best period, the isth century. 


This sanctuary of the ancient trade guilds is lighted in a manner all its own. 
The three lower panels have scenes in late mosaic style, while the graceful 
traceries above are glazed equally elaborately. {See page 97.) 


So rare is secular stained glass that this series of 15 windows so conveniently 
stationed above the book-shelves as to be easily examined, is among the most 
" important glass in Florence. 


Rising above the trees, defended by walls built in 1521 by Michael Angelo, 
and overlooking Florence, this ancient sanctuary is encrusted within and 
without with coloured marbles and gay mosaics. 


Note the strength of the pattern decoration done in different coloured marbles 
and mosaics, also the pictured marble pavement. The alabaster windows are 
ranged round the semicircular apse seen in the upper of the two floors into 
which the eastern end of the church is divided. 


Secluded upon its eminence, this monastic establishment preserves intact an 
example of a highly important factor in the life of the long departed Middle 


Note the graceful outdoor pulpit affixed to the corner of the facade. Around 
the pulpit's front dance Donatello's chorus of Cherubs. It is from this pulpit 
that the Girdle of the Virgin is occasionally displayed to the populace. 


List of Illustrations 



In the back-ground appears the splendid stained glass that softens the light 
for Fillipo Lippi's famous frescoes. The Zebra markings done in black and 
white marbles are popular in Italy. 


The courses of columns flung across the fagade are very typical of Lucca. 
Here was enacted the splendid triumph described on page 120. 


The old glass here is all concentrated in the apse seen in the background. 
There are no stronger or richer tones to be found in Italy. 

PIAZZA DEL DUOMO, PISA . . . . . . .126 

The Baptistery (on the left), the low Campo Santo and the Leaning Tower 
contain no stained glass, but the Duomo's western, which faces us, 
and the side windows of the nave are glazed in a most interesting manner. 


Looking east along the nave. The aisles of this nave are lighted each side 
by a row of the richest " story windows " in Italy. 

CATHEDRAL OF SIENA ........ 134 

The black and white courses of marble give way when the facade is reached 
to the gay lines of mosaics and richly chiselled carvings. At the right are 
seen the walls originally built to enclose a larger edifice, which more 
ambitious plan was later discarded. 


In the back-ground is the finest occhio of the mosaic period in Italy. Its nine 
compartments (see page 137) can be clearly distinguished. Note the richly 
pictured pavement, the cornice of papal heads, etc.' 


This chapel is known to have been glazed by the great St. James of Ulm. 
This picture reveals the graceful use of Gothic canopies brought by him from 
the north, but cannot convey the rich colouring learned during his long 
sojourn in Italy. 

SAN PETRONIO, BOLOGNA ..... . . . I4 g 

A chapel glazed by Lorenzo Costa, the great colourist of Bologna. Note 
that his canopies are Renaissance, and also the small occhio above, one of 
the many so pleasing in this city. 


This typical early mosaic shows clearly that stained glass in its early stages 
found well-equipped designers among the mosaic makers, who transferred to 
windows the Byzantine outlines already so familiar in their mosaics. 


The enormous size of these embrasures, as well as the graceful lines of their 
stone traceries, is clearly seen. Note the Gothic transom thrown across the 
middle of these windows to balance their great height. 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 


As profoundly brown within as it is glittcringly white without. Note that 
the window surfaces are broken up into little scenes, also the extreme loftiness 
of the clerestory lights. 


This view from the cloister gives only a limit of the elaboration of detail 
which characterizes this splendid monument of Lombard architecture, and 
gives a foretaste of the richness of ornament to be seen inside. 


An apotheosis of decoration. In the middle back-ground appears one of the 
many isth century windows which contribute so greatly to the richness of 
the ensemble. 





A' THOUGH our tour will not take us out- 
side the Italian peninsula it is an open 
question whether it will be confined 
to one country. And why not, say 
you ? because we purpose, so far as possible, to 
transport ourselves back into a time when each city 
of Italy was a separate fatherland, when to the 
Florentine the German was no more of a foreigner 
than the Roman, when the Pisan fought the 
Florentine with the same patriotism and fervour 
that he fought the Turk. Even to this day many 
are the traces that survive of these almost national 
differences between city and city. Consider how 
unlike they are one to another, especially in their 
sites ; what could differ more widely^ than high- 
perched towns like Perugia and Orvieto, remote 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

each upon its rocky eminence, and Lucca and Pisa 
on their flat plains nestling for protection, the 
former within her earthworks and the latter her 
machicolated walls. Compare Florence comfortably 
ensconced within encircling hills, with Arezzo and 
Assisi straggling up steep slopes. What two 
countries in the world can show such a contrast 
as exists between Venice in its lagoons and 
Rome on her seven hills ? Let us sally forth, 
therefore, not with a mind to visit happily united 
and strongly patriotic Italy, but on a tour among 
many strangely differing Italian fatherlands. Let 
us abandon the century in which we live, and 
journey back into the times when artistic creation 
of unparalleled brilliance, and life of keenest 
vitality were at fever pitch. Although stained 
glass, the main incentive for our wanderings, is a 
beauty whose chief characteristic is calm splendour, 
nevertheless that same calm splendour came into 
being in turbulent times. Perhaps its very beauty 
is due to the fact that in those ringing days the 
blood of all ran high, and urged to utmost en- 
deavour the artist as well as the warrior and 

Many of those who decide to join us in our 



stained glass pilgrimage will prefer to travel by rail 
between the cities which they select as centres. 
These pilgrims will be glad to learn that motors 
can be hired in every town of any importance, and 
at reasonable rates. To those who elect to desert 
the railway in favour of the high-road, we have to 
say that, on the whole, Italian roads are good. The 
marked exceptions are in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the larger cities, where repairs seem never 
able to keep up with the ravages of heavy market 
carts. But this is true of the environs of cities 
everywhere, except those of London, whose bliss- 
fully smooth exits are beloved of all motorists. In 
Italy you will not encounter the straight "routes 
nationales " of France, disdainful of grade in their 
devotion to "the shortest line between two given 
points." Neither will you find the frequent wind- 
ings which in England incline one to surmise that 
the roads must be put up in papers o'nights, else 
the dampness of the climate would take out their 
superabundance of curl. Speaking broadly, the 
Italian roads are neither so good as the English 
(which, by the way, are constantly improving), nor 
so bad as the French ones are rapidly becoming. 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

In the author's books of French and English 
glass ("Stained Glass Tours in France," "Stained 
Glass Tours in England "), one or more tours were 
marked out for each epoch, but in Italy we will not 
attempt that. The examples are not sufficiently 
numerous, so we have only the geographical con- 
venience of the pilgrim to consult. He will be led 
from Rome on the south up through all the varied 
beauties of the hill towns of Umbria, the cities of 
Tuscany and the Lombard plain, as far north as 
Venice and Milan. He will see the best of Italy, 
which means that his memory will be stored with 
a series of artistic memories, which will rejoice him 
long after his glass hunting days in Italy have come 
to an end. 

Let us point out that they who go glass hunting 
do not have to depend on fine weather. Indeed, 
we may honestly claim that ours is a rainy day 
sport ! Glass is best seen when clouds obscure the 
sun, for it is then that you get an even light all 
round a church, and do not run the risk of having 
some good window spoiled for you by a blaze of 
light coming through it, making its colours look 
thin and paltry. So a fig for the weather ! and off 
we start. 



A brief but comprehensive comment upon 
Italian glass can be made in two sentences : first, 
that it began later and finished earlier than in most 
European countries ; and second, that it never 
yielded itself to the craze for the stiff conventions 
and light-admitting possibilities of the so-called 
c< canopy glass " which throughout the rest of 
Europe ran to such an extreme, and was so long 
popular. What is meant by canopy glass will be 
presently explained in as untechnical a manner as 
possible. It is the purpose of this book to persuade 
its readers to see and therefore to enjoy the beauty 
of stained glass, and not to oppress them with the 
technique of its construction. 

The earliest sort of stained glass which we shall 
observe is of a kind known all over Europe, and 
generally called "mosaic," because the Mosaic ^ 
designs are similar to those used in all glass - 
early mosaics, and because it too was constructed 
by putting together small fragments of coloured 
glass. It is only fair to make special mention of 
these early windows because our craft was really an 
offshoot from mosaic making ; instead of affixing to 
the wall a mosaic picture the new craft purposed so 
placing it in a window embrasure that the light 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

could shine through it, and thereby double the 
value of the colour. We cannot lay too much 
stress upon this last idea. After all possible has 
been said about the design of a window, its success, 
in the last analysis, depends almost exclusively on 
its colour value. Nor must it be forgotten that 
this is the only one of the arts from which we 
receive not only the enjoyment which colour can 
afford, but also the added pleasure of light stream- 
ing through it. Together, they yield a glowing 
harmony, each glorifying the other. 

In the early days of stained glass there also 
existed a contemporary practice of filling an em- 
Alabaster brasure with some such translucent sub- 
windows. stance as a i a b a ster. Of this other form 
of glazing we shall see several examples during 
our travels, and shall learn to love the mysterious 
shifting of soft tints, so especially delightful at 
San Miniato and Orvieto. 

Let us put ourselves in the place of a very early 
stained iglass maker. Granted that the mosaicist 
provided him with the design for his picture to be 



composed of bits of coloured glass, how was he 
going to support in his window frame something 
which had hitherto been fastened to the wall ? 
Some device must be invented to bind these bits 
of glass together. In some cases a form of stucco 
was used, but to hold the panes securely the stucco 
lines had to be too wide, so the glazier hit upon 
using strips of lead with long slender channels cut 
in each side. These could be wound around 
between the bits of glass as demanded by the design, 
and the edges of the glass would fit into the slits 
on each side of the lead. The lead lines did not 
injure the picture, but on the contrary, assisted the 
drawing by providing the outlines, etc. The leaden 
strips were easy to handle, held the glass securely, 
and so helped in the design that they were more or 
less lost to view in the picture. Nothing could 
have been better. The finished product was lifted 
from the flat board on which the bits of glass had 
been assembled and leaded together ; it was fastened 
into the window embrasure, and there was the 
early stained glass window ! In its primitive charm 
it yielded a beauty which many believe was never 
afterwards surpassed, even during the epoch of the 
utmost refinement of the craft. Fortunately, it was 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

not necessary specially to educate window designers, 
for so wide- spread was the art of mosaic 


became and therefore so numerous were the artists 

glaziers. . . 

engaged in its manufacture that by borrow- 
ing designers of them, stained glass was in its 
very beginnings as fully equipped as was Minerva 
when she sprang from the forehead of Jove. This 
explains why in even the earliest windows the art 
seems well advanced and far from crude. Because 
designers already existed in plenty, eager to lend 
their gifts to this new beauty, stained glass spread 
rapidly. The art of mosaic making came into 
Italy and Europe from the east, and its early 
designs naturally are of the rigid Byzantine type. 
This same eastern influence evidences itself in all 
the early windows, and affords proof if proof be 
necessary that the master of mosaic welcomed this 
additional field for the expression of his artistic 

It is the custom not only to call this early type 
mosaic, but also to speak of its windows as " mosaic 
medallions " ; a glance at them makes 
m^aliToV' obvious the reason for this name. Their 
glass. general effect is that of a series of medal- 

lion-like enclosures breaking up the whole surface 



into little framed scenes, and thus preventing what 
might otherwise be a monotonous array of diminu- 
tive persons. In Italy, the shapes of the medallion 
frames are more varied and fantastic than the sedate 
circles, ovals, and squares, so customary in France 
and England. The diminutive denizens of these 
medallion frames are generally depicted in such 
quaint detail as to repay close examination. They 
reveal that the artist was painstaking, and did not 
spare time or trouble in completing his picture, 
for the winding in and about of his slender leaden 
strips was very laborious. As is frequently the 
case in art, this very labour had its reward, for 
it is undeniable that the greater the care shown by 
the glazier in drawing his figures with lead lines, 
the more effective the completed picture. The 
later the glass the less was the attention paid to this 
fact. In most late Renaissance windows the lead 
lines were allowed to run about at random, thus 
becoming a blemish instead of being lost in the 
beauty to which they should have contributed. 

It is clear that the larger the pieces of glass used 
in composing the picture the less of this Mosaic style 
laborious lead winding would be required, a band ed. 
and for this reason the glazier gradually developed 

1 1 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

away from the use of small glass morsels, learned 
by him from the mosaicist. This abandonment of 
the mosaic patterns opened the field to other 
designers who were not schooled in the limita- 
tions of those designs, but knew better than the 
mosaicists how to paint in broad colours. The 
Italian painters were quick to avail themselves of 
this new medium of expression, and from this time 
on Italy can boast that her greatest artists helped 
to advance our craft by preparing for the glazier 
his designs, or, as they were generally called, 
"cartoons." Far oftener in Italy than elsewhere 
did the leading painters thus lend their genius 
to stained glass, while in the northern countries the 
glazier tended to monopolise his craft by designing 
as well as constructing his windows. Nor is it at 
all surprising that the Italian painters succeeded as 
Italian glass designers, for they possessed, per- 
versatihty. ^aps to a greater extent than any men of 
any other time, a versatility which knew no bounds. 
They peculiarly exemplified Huneker's definition 
" versatility is seldom given its real name, which 
is protracted labour." None of them seemed 
satisfied to be a specialist, but strove for equal 
honours in painting, sculpture, architecture, and 



every other manifestation of artistic talent. In 
Florence many of the splendid windows of the 
cathedral owe their beauty to men who had also 
attained distinction in other arts, like Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, Donatello, etc. In our travels, we shall 
encounter Michael Angelo as a designer of windows 
as well as a painter, architect, warrior, and sculptor. 
Lorenzo Ghiberti was not content to be one of 
the architects of the Florentine Duomo, but also 
contributed much of her stained glass, and had 
already won immortal fame at eighteen with his 
bronze doors of the Baptistery opposite. When 
Leonardo da Vinci was seeking to enter the service 
of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, he wrote 
a letter in which he urged his case on the ground 
that he was not only a painter and sculptor but 
also an architect and a military, as well as a 
hydraulic, engineer ! we also know that he won 
wide praise for his success in organizing state 
pageants, and drew what is probably the earliest 
plan for an aeroplane. 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

So much for the period known as "mosaic 
medallion." It began later in Italy than in the 
north, but it also lasted longer. We shall first 
see it at Assist, dating from the end of the I3th 
century, nearly two hundred years later than it is 
to be found in France and England, and when, in 
these two countries, its vogue was waning. On the 
other hand, in Italy the mosaic medallions persisted 
until the third quarter of the I4th century, for the 
windows at the Lower Church of Assisi and in the 
Cathedrals at Orvieto and Siena date from about 
1370. This is much later than they continued in 
France and England, where they had long given 
place to the craze for canopy windows. 

This brings us to the next step in the deve- 
lopment of windows and at the same time to the 

Cano y" P artm g f ^ e Wa 7 s between Italian glass 
windows. an( j t h at O f a jj otner European countries. 

In the north, the so-called canopy window had 
begun a sway which was to last nearly two 
centuries, but not so in Italy. A canopy window 
is one in which a coloured figure or group appears 
installed within a more or less elaborate shrine or 
niche, which latter is always (out of Italy) glazed 
in lightly tinted panes showing little or no colour. 



It may be laid down as a general rule that the 
Italian never really accepted the light-tinted, con- 
ventional canopy of the north. But it is also true 
that about his figures he often placed a bit of 
architectural detail, though with him this archi- 
tecture was as rich in colour as the garments of 
his saint. Thus in Italy, the canopy is part of 
the picture, and does not degenerate into a mere 
frame as it did in the north. Now there Problem of 
was a reason for this difference, to under- >"inmttion. 
stand which let us first consider what happened 
in northern Europe. The early mosaic windows 
required in their construction such a multiplicity of 
lead lines, and their glass was of such deep hues, 
that together they greatly diminished the light of 
the interiors. In some places, as at Amiens and 
Chartres, the monks deliberately knocked out 
enough of the coloured glass to admit sufficient 
light to enable them to read the music of the 
Mass. This need for light was brought home to 
the glazier, and he solved the problem in an 
ingenious manner. Even on the earliest windows 
there sometimes appeared small yellow tabernacles 
enclosing the figures, and he began his campaign 
for more illumination by enlarging the space allotted 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

to these tabernacles which he glazed in delicate 
tints. Although this expedient proved successful, 
he carried his success to an extreme. Lucky chance 
aided him, for early in the I4th century it was 
accidentally discovered that if a solution of silver 
were dropped or smeared on white glass and then 
exposed to the fire it produced a permanent golden 
stain on the surface. This greatly facilitated the 
construction of canopies about the figures, because 
it was no longer necessary to lead together bits 
of yellow glass to represent architecture, for yellow 
could be stained on white panes wherever desired. 
To such an extreme was this style carried that in 
some French windows fully four-fifths of the whole 
surface is given over to canopy framing and only 
one-fifth left to the saint, located in the midst of 
all this shimmering magnificence. In the cloudy 
northern lands this freer admission of light was 
expedient and valuable, but in sunny Italy it was 
not necessary. No demands were made upon the 
Few light- I ta K an glazier for more light, and perhaps 

c^JpSln for this reason > if for no other > he never 
Italy - went canopy mad. A few of these light- 

admitting sentry boxes are to be seen in Italy, but 
only a few, and they are confined to the closing 



years of the I4th century. In northern Europe 
the simulated architecture of these shrine-like 
enclosures was of course Gothic during the Gothic 
period, but changed to Classical when the Renais- 
sance won over the architect to the re-contemplation 
and copying of early Greek and Latin edifices. It 
is only fair to admit on behalf of the northerner 
that not being blessed with the constant Italian 
sunshine, he needed this light-admitting device so 
that his interiors should not be too much obscured 
by the coloured windows. When, in 1632, Henry 
Sherfield, the Recorder of Salisbury, destroyed the 
Creation window in St. Edmund's Church, he 
alleged as his reason for so doing that it was " very 
darksome whereby such as sit near the same cannot 
read in their books." It is satisfactory to record 
that he was imprisoned, fined ^500, and made to 
apologise to the Bishop of Salisbury ! Before leaving 
this subject of church illumination, we may remark 
that during the mosaic period there was a marked 
difference between the French preference for 
coloured glass and the more frequent use in cloudy 
England of uncoloured pattern windows called 
"grisaille." Italian churches demanded less light 
than French ones, but England needed even more 

17 c 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

light than France, and therefore the English glazier 
intelligently or intuitively (who shall say which ?) 
inclined as much to grisaille as did the Italian to 
rich colour. 

There is another convincing explanation for the 

rich hues of the Italian canopies' architecture. To 

eyes accustomed to the dull grey stone 

T> 1 1 O r 

Rich colour 

of Italian of northern cathedrals there comes as a 

canopies. . 

surprise the kaleidoscope of coloured 
marbles to be seen throughout Italy, and especially 
in Florence, Orvieto, and Siena ; what is more 
natural than that the glazier should reproduce their 
warm tones in the edifices depicted on his windows ? 
But whatever be the reason, the result is undeniably 
delightful. Certain examples in Bologna, Lucca, 
and Florence must be seen to enable one to realize 
the deep, rich brilliancy of the canopy as developed 
under Italian skies by men quick to grasp the 
possibilities of the medium in which they were 
working. We will remember therefore that the 
Gothic canopy of yellow and grey appeared but 
briefly in Italy, and was then squeezed in between 
a late lingering survival of the mosaic medallion, 
and an early appearance of a long-persisting classical 
canopy done, not in yellow stain, but in rich 



pot-metal colour. So justly successful in popular 
esteem was this strong-toned canopy that it lasted 
all through the I5th century, and practically con- 
cluded the course of the Italian spirit in glass. 

We say " Italian spirit," for the last period 
of glass making in the peninsula was but a 
brief revival at the beginning of the l6thcentury 
1 6th century effected by the trans- s lass - 
planted Frenchman, William de Marcillat and 
his school, and thus received its impetus rather 
from without than from within. Although he 
learned his rich colouring in Italy, his style was 
undoubtedly French. It must, however, be 
admitted that nothing so fine in Renaissance glass 
is to be seen out of Italy as William's windows 
at Arezzo. Now let us consider this ultimate 
stage of the evolution of our art, when the 
glazier frankly becomes secondary to the painter, 
which development in Italy took place during 
the first years of the i6th century. His em- 
brasures have gradually become wider, and are 
now filled with broad pictures made up of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

larger pieces of glass than were formerly used. 
Perspective begins to appear and at once enhances 
the general effect. Nor does the artist now 
hesitate to paint his picture on these larger pieces, 
rather than have it made up for him of different 
bits of glass already coloured and assembled in 
accordance with his designs. This painting, or 
rather enamelling, was effected by disposing 
colour on white glass which when fired retained 
the tones and tints thus lent it. Sometimes this 
method proved unfortunate ; at Bologna we shall 
see some windows whose effect has been seriously 
damaged by the peeling off of portions of the 
enamelled colour. 

This reference to the changed method of 
colouring that came into vogue in Italy with 
Colouring t ^ ie arr ival of tne r 6th century will 
methods. p erna ps excuse a modest infraction of 
our rule to avoid technicalities. Let us explain 
in a few words the successive manners by which 
the glazier imparted colour to his glass. In the 
earliest days dye was put into the pot in which 



the liquid glass was being made, and the product 
was called "pot-metal" glass; it was pot _ metal 
obviously coloured all through its mass. colour " 
The surface of the windows were not as yet 
obscured by paint, and it is to this fact that 
they owe their delightful brilliancy. The use 
of a little pigment was permitted to delineate 
the faces, and sometimes to mark the folds of 
garments, etc. Another reason for the brilliancy 
of pot-metal windows is the uneven diffusion of 
the colouring matter throughout each piece of 
glass so treated. This made impossible the dull 
even tone which so often mars modern work. 
The early glazier was keenly alive to the value 
of this unevenness of tint, and availed himself of 
it both in his shading and to strengthen his 
masses. One of the great charms of Italian glass 
is that it clung to the use of pot-metal colour- 
ing much longer than was the fashion elsewhere 
in Europe. There was thus prolonged in it the 
life of the rich, deep tone, undimmed by surface 
daubing, which, although it assisted the designer, 
robbed the glazier of his richest effects. Several coats 
Before leaving pot-metal colouring it is of colour - 
interesting to note a device by means of which 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

the glazier learned to enrich his palette. Sup- 
pose he wanted a warm purple, he first dipped 
his blow-pipe into red pot-metal fluid, and next 
into blue. When the bubble was blown, cut, 
and flattened out, the glass would prove to be 
blue on one side and red on the other, but held 
up to the light, the combination would yield the 
desired purple. In the same manner blue and 
yellow gave a fine green, red and yellow a deep 
orange, etc. To such an extent was this re- 
dipping carried that in France there are to be 
seen examples with as many as five different 
layers. This, of course, was still within the 
province of pot-metal colouring. Now for some- 
Yellow thing new. We have already mentioned 
stain. t | iat j n the ear ] v part: Q f t j ie I4th 

century it was accidentally discovered that if 
oxide of silver were dropped on glass it would, 
when fired, give a rich, gold tint called "stain." 
This at once sprang into great favour, and was 
useful for tinting the hair of angels, decorating 
garments, etc., and particularly assisted the 
development of the canopy. It was a great 
convenience to be able to stain any desired 
portion of the piece of glass instead of having 



laboriously to lead in some yellow glass at that 
particular point. We shall observe this yellow 
stain much used in Italian borders. The honour 
of discovering this stain is claimed for many 
glaziers, and although the Italians stoutly insisted 
that its discoverer was St. James of Ulm, so long 
a resident at Bologna, it is undoubtedly true 
that it was in use fully a century before he was 
born. No matter who deserves the glory of 
this useful discovery, it had a marked effect on 
the development of the craft, because it made 
easy many of its details. Even art is some- 
times guilty of proceeding in the line of least 
resistance ! 

The last manner of colouring glass was that 
of enamelling the surface, to which process we 
have already referred. When this was 


carefully done, it undoubtedly produced colour on 

n- r S lass< 

pleasing effects, but unfortunately it was 
too often employed carelessly ; so much so that 
frequently one has cause to regret that enamelling 
ever came into vogue at all. 

To recapitulate, the story of how glass was 
coloured begins with pot-metal dyes, and goes 
on to the re-dipping of the same, then to the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

painting on the surface of pot-metal glass, and 
closes with enamelling of the surface. Fortu- 
nately for Italy the earliest and best method 
persisted long and died hard. 

Purposely, we have not, up to this point, 
attempted to divide Italian glass into periods or 
Division epochs. This division into periods is 

into periods. Qne whkh must be effected yery differ _ 

ently in the different countries of Europe, for glass 
not only developed by diverging paths, but also at 
different moments in the lives of the nations. In 
England, it is usual to subdivide it under the head- 
ings generally employed for English architecture, 
viz. : Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, 
and lastly Renaissance or i6th century. German 
glass derived its epochs from the differing styles of 
the design Romanesque, Geometric, Interpene- 
trated, and Renaissance (i6th century). In France, 
it happens that the epochs are so nearly co- exten- 
sive with the centuries that it is more convenient to 
call their examples I2th, I3th, I4th, I5th, and i6th 
century windows. In Italy also we shall be able to 



employ the same subdivision by centuries, but it will 
only be necessary to provide for three epochs, 
naming them respectively after the i4th, 1 5th, and 
1 6th centuries. We must be careful to Comparison 
notice that in Italy the two periods called b y countries - 
1 4th century and I5th century, show a very 
different product from the same subdivisions in 
France. Italian glass began later than French, 
ripened much faster, and finished earlier. The 
Italian I4th century glass will be found to be 
almost exclusively of the mosaic medallion type, 
similar to that which flourished in France up to 
about the middle of the i3th century. This com- 
parison at once shows how much later was the 
Italian than the French development of the craft. 
Italian I5th century glass is quite different from 
anything produced at any time in France. Instead 
of the light-tinted canopy windows that, in France, 
flourished throughout both the I4th and ifth 
centuries, we have in Italy, during the I5th cen- 
tury, a vigorous and long-continued old age of 
rich pot- metal glass, sometimes employed in storied 
windows of many figures, but chiefly in single 
figure subjects whose architectural background, 
although frequently in the form of a Renaissance 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

canopy, is always composed of such deep tones as 
to be part of the picture itself instead of merely a 
frame thereof. We shall find this Renaissance archi- 
tecture firmly established in Italy early in the I5th 
century, although it did not reach France until the 
1 6th. We must not forget that the 


began in Renaissance originated in Italy and thence 
spread into Europe, being carried into 
France by the art trophies taken thither by the 
soldiers of Louis XII and Francis I. This means 
that a window which in France would be unhesita- 
tingly dated i6th century, because of its Classical 
or Renaissance design, would in an Italian church 
undoubtedly be of the 15th Century. So rapid 
was this development in Italy that the change from 
Gothic to Renaissance was effected much more 
quickly than further north, while for some time 
they existed side by side. In the predella below 
one of Benozzo Gozzoli's pictures in the Vatican 
Gallery, one scene shows a Gothic interior, and 
another a purely Classical one. By the end of the 
1 5th century, Italian glass had shot its bolt. 
Indeed, when Pope Julius II wished to glaze 
the windows of the Vatican and certain Roman 
churches, he had to send to France for glaziers. 



The genius of William de Marcillat, one of those 
who came in obedience to the papal summons, 
caused the ashes of Italian glass-making to glow, 
but even he could not rekindle it into the glorious 
fire of the previous century. William and his 
school may be described as the splendid sunset of 
Italian glazing. 

So runs the tale of Italian glass a late begin- 
ning and prolonged existence of mosaic glass, a brief 
appearance but never a vogue of yellow Gothic 
canopies, followed by a long and happy reign of 
the Classical canopy, done in such rich pot-metal 
colours as to incorporate it in the picture instead 
of isolating it as a frame. Then seemingly comes 
the end of all things in glass, when lo ! William de 
Marcillat and his men snatch up the fallen torch, 
but, although it burns brightly in their hands, it 
is soon extinguished. 

And now to consider where we shall see the 
windows of the three great Italian periods. Mosaic 
medallion glass begins at Assisi during the closing 
years of the I3th century and is best studied at 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

that place. It lasted until the third quarter of 
Where- tne I 4 t ^ 1 century, and its concluding 

Italian glories (of about 1370) are to be seen 
not only at Assisi but also at Orvieto 
and Siena. At that time, by way of conclud- 
ing the 1 4th century, there appeared a few 
examples of canopy windows done in the manner 
of northern Europe, but so few are they that 
they do not deserve to be dignified by giving 
their name to an epoch. These intrusions of a 
northern style are exemplified in the nave of the 
Duomo at Florence, in San Petronio at Bologna, 
and at the Certosa in the Val d'Ema. The 
1 5th century produced windows of two varieties, 
those which told stories, and those of the pot- 
metal canopies. The Storied Windows are to be 
seen chiefly at Milan and Pisa, although there are 
also examples in Florence, Venice, etc. The pot- 
metal canopy can best be studied in Florence, 
Bologna and Lucca. Lastly, we come to the i6th 
century windows, the work of William de Marcillat 
and his school ; these begin with him, and end 
with the work of his favourite pupil, Pastorino, 
whose masterpiece is in the cathedral at Siena. 
These i6th century windows are best at Arezzo, 



but can also be enjoyed in Rome, Perugia, Siena, 
and Milan. 

Now for a word about some unique and purely 
Italian manifestations of our craft. We have already 
mentioned one of them when we told how 


the Italian preferred to make his canopies of Italian 

rich with pot-metal tones instead of obse- 
quiously adopting the pale, light-admitting canopies 
of his northern neighbours. This produced at once 
a marked contrast between northern and southern 
windows, as all who have seen them will testify. 

Even more special is his acceptance and treat- 
ment of round embrasures. In the north we saw 
and admired the development of the rose window 
and the wheel window, and could not fail to observe 
that in them the architect and the glazier always 
worked hand in hand, the former providing the 
traceries or spokes, and the latter filling the open 
spaces between them. In Italy the glazier had the 
round aperture all to himself. He seemed actually 
to prefer it left a simple bull's eye, so that he might 
fill it with one great picture. In Italian it is 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

commonly called an "occhio" or "eye." Sometimes, 
as in the cathedral at Florence, the architect has 
provided the stone spokes so usual in the north, 
but has set them so far out from the surface 
of the glass that they are not noticeable from 
the interior. Thus they help to decorate the ex- 
terior of the building without intruding upon the 
surface of the glass picture viewed from within. 
In Florence alone there are thirteen of these 
splendid blossoms of Italian glazing. They are 
generally to be found high up in the western front 
of churches. There are also a number of instances, 
notably at Bologna, of small bull's eye windows used 
to light chapels, etc. The Italian occhio is a charming 
manifestation, unfortunately rare in other countries, 
and yet from the standpoint of both the architect 
and the glazier so simple and graceful that one 
comes to wonder that it was not adopted elsewhere. 
Another method of admitting the light while 
keeping out the weather was that of using trans- 
lucent slabs of different hued alabaster. This was 
fairly common in Italy, but is almost never seen 
elsewhere. The peculiar charm of these windows 
is due to the way in which their colour shifts and 
changes with the varying light. 



Designed by Paolo Uccello. One of a series of seven below the dome of Florence 
Cathedral. Note the absence of stone spokes or rose traceries usual in northern 
Europe. The Italians showed peculiar skill in adjusting their groups to a circular 
space. (Seepage 86) 


Italian glass is fortunate in the simplicity that 
generally characterizes its designs. It rejoices in a 
" happy emptiness " to borrow a felicitous phrase 
anent Giotto from Bernard Berenson, deft with his 
English as any of his beloved painters with their 
brushes. Simple also are the shapes of Italian 
embrasures, but this time simplicity does not evoke 
our approval, for we cannot help thinking with 
wistful longing of the elaborate stone traceries and 
pleasing groups of lancets so familiar to us in 
northern Europe. 

After seeing many Italian windows it suddenly 
strikes the observer that almost none of them bear 
the images of their donors, a regular "practice else- 
where in Europe, which in France during the 
1 6th century became almost obnoxious, so con- 
spicuous were the kneeling figures of the generous 
individuals. Indeed, in some instances, as at Brou 
or at Montmorency, it is difficult to conclude which 
is the more important, the donor or the religious 
subject of the window ! No explanation is offered 
for this modesty on the part of the patrons of 
Italian glass. All we have to do is to record the 
fact, and that too with a sigh of relief. 

Another peculiarity of the craft in Italy is the 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

almost entire absence of that type of uncoloured 
but patterned windows so common elsewhere, and 
generally called "grisaille." There is a little of 
this to be seen in the upper church at Assisi, but 
that is about all. The reason for this absence of 
grisaille is not far to seek the problem of sufficient 
illumination never plagued the glazier of sunny 
Italy, and as he had no need for the light-admitting 
grisaille, he left it to his brothers in the cloudy 
northlands, and went happily on revelling in his 
gorgeous pot-metal dyes. 

In view of the high standard reached by Italian 
glass, and its undoubted popularity, it seems in- 

Destruction explicable at first blush, that there is not 
of glass. more of it to be seen to . dav> The first 

explanation that occurs to one is that great quantities 
must have fallen victim to the stress of war and 
time. Ample encouragement is found for this 
theory when we read of the ravages of artillery 
salvos at Bologna, or of the seizure of the lead 
from Roman windows to manufacture bullets, or of 
the varied onslaughts suffered at Assisi from such 



widely differing destructive agencies as earthquakes 
and stone-throwing neighbours. But a further in- 
vestigation of how much harm was thus actually 
done reveals that, although the destruction at Rome 
was undoubtedly wholesale, both at Bologna and 
Assisi, thanks to a system of constant repairing, we 
have been deprived of only a surprisingly small pro- 
portion of the original total. No, in the matter of 
destroyed windows, Italy has suffered far less than 
the rest of Europe. War has seemed reverently 
to avoid the fragile beauty of her windows, and she 
has never been afflicted with those periods of 
boorish indifference to, or ignorance of matters 
artistic, which from time to time did such irre- 
parable damage north of the Alps. The real reason 
for the comparative paucity of stained glass in Italy 
is the greater interest there displayed in painting 
church interiors in fresco. Coloured glass, by 
reducing the amount of light, tended to obscure 
the sacred stories pictured on the walls, and as 
Italy is par excellence the home of fresco painting, 
stained glass was never so widely used there as in 
countries where the walls were decorated less with 
colour than with sculpture. 

If any of our readers care to go more deeply 
33 D 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

into the technicalities of window construction, we 
would recommend Lewis Day's "Windows of 
Stained Glass," as the best book in English, and 
"Vitraux," by Olivier Merson, as the best in 
French. We trust that the reader has survived our 
brief lecture upon the subject, and we faithfully 
promise to abstain from technicalities in the remain- 
ing pages of this book. 



SETTING forth from Rome we shall first 
proceed northerly over the rolling cam- 
pagna and into the hills 140 kilometres 
to Orvieto, and from thence branch off in a 
north-easterly direction, 160 kilometres to Perugia. 
This lofty town should be made the centre from 
which to visit Assisi, 46 kilometres to the east, 
because the latter place does not possess a first- 
class hostelry. From Perugia we start north-west 
up the Umbrian plain, stopping after 1 20 kilometres 
at steep Cortona, then going on in a more northerly 
direction 54 kilometres to Arezzo. If we are in 
a leisurely mood an agreeable side trip may be 
taken from Cortona by visiting Monte San Savino, 
25 kilometres to the west, then 7 kilometres south 
to Lucignano, and lastly back 20 kilometres to 
Cortona. Siecina may also be visited, lying about 
10 kilometres north-west from Arezzo. From 
Arezzo we drop down into the valley of the Arno, 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

and follow the curve of this river 87 kilometres 
north-west to Florence. This city will be our 
headquarters for visiting San Miniato (one of its 
suburbs), the Certosa in the Val d'Ema, 5 kilo- 
metres distant, and Prato, 19 kilometres to the 
north-west. Leaving Florence we sweep off to 
the west 77 kilometres to Lucca, then down 22 
kilometres to Pisa, and next 100 kilometres to 
Siena, lying south-east. From Siena one can go 
85 kilometres south to Grosetto, but this trip 
is only mentioned and not advised. Siena lies 
67 kilometres south of Florence and to go from 
Siena to Bologna (170 kilometres) we must pass 
through Florence on the way. This fact may 
influence some automobilists to retain Florence as 
a headquarters for visiting Lucca, Pisa, and Siena. 
If this be done it is possible to see the glass of 
Lucca and Pisa in one day, although it will make 
a round trip of 182 kilometres, and one's view of 
both Lucca and Pisa will perforce be unfortunately 
curtailed. Siena is 67 kilometres from Florence, 
and from Florence on to Bologna is 103 kilometres. 
After visiting Bologna one can either go north-east, 
165 kilometres to Venice and thence west 214 
kilometres to Milan, or Milan can be visited first 



and Venice reserved for the last. From Milan the 
Certosa of Pavia is distant 30 kilometres south, and 
Saronno, 25 kilometres to the north-west. 

At the back of this book will be found an index 
of towns showing the epochs of their windows. 



f "^HE most impressive and inspiring 
spectacle that has come down to us 
M out of history is the Roman Forum. 

In it there stood the Golden Milestone 
from which were measured distances upon all the 
roads that led from this central point out to the 
boundaries of the Empire, which is but another 
way of saying to the confines of the then known 
world. Since " all roads lead to Rome," there is 
no more obvious point at which to give tryst to 
our stained glass pilgrims, and it is in Rome there- 
fore that we will await the assembling of our 
company. They will be sworn to see, and thus 
brought to love the glass we shall show them, but 
at the same time all shall be free, nay, encouraged, 
to drink deep draughts of those other artistic 
delights which this fascinating land of Italy offers 
to those who wander through it. The shimmering 
beauty of our windows shall be as a string of pearls 



for each traveller, but he may, at his pleasure, hang 
upon it as pendants such other jewelled memories 
as his fancy seizes during our travels. Certain it is 
that at the end of our journey his memory will be 
festooned with the pearls that we have promised a 
series of never-to-be-forgotten glimpses into the 
beauty of blended colour and sunlight that stained 
glass, and nothing else can give him. 

Roman history reeks with " war and rumours 
of war," but no group of its students has been so 
despoiled of its special prey as that which loves old 
glass. Once there were many splendid windows 
throughout this ancient city, but when it was 
besieged in 1527 and the munitions of war ran 
low, the stained glass contained so much lead 
vitally precious for the manufacture of bullets that 
utility outweighed beauty, and the windows were 
broken up. Before we consider the few remains 
yet to be seen of its ancient windows, let us, as is 
but fitting and proper in so historical a city, turn 
our attention to the history of our craft, for nowhere 
else will the records tell so continuous or so 
interesting a story of its development. We know 
that the early designers of glass were borrowed 
from the parent art of mosaic. From its earliest 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

chapels up to its architectural apotheosis, St. Peter's, 
Rome possesses an unbroken exhibit of the develop- 
ment of mosaic, whose designs show a steady march 
forward from the crude early Christian symbolism 
until they finally blossom out into the imperishable 
reproduction at St. Peter's of the genius of Raphael 
and a score of Italy's greatest painters. From this 
very art of mosaic there branched forth at an early 
date the decoration of window spaces in colour. 
All that was needed to emulate the success of the 
mosaicist was to do for a window what the mosaicist 
had done for his wall adorn it with a picture made 
up of bits of parti-coloured glass. It was Emperor 
Constantine that brought this craft to Rome from 
Constantinople, where it had long been practised 
in Santa Sofia and other churches. From his time 
down all the ages the records of Rome show that 
the coloured glazing of windows was understood, 
and was steadily developing as an art. In the 
catacombs there have been found fragments of 
painted glass showing the Good Shepherd and other 
symbols so dear to the primitive Christians. Several 
early Christian writers speak of stained glass pictures 
as not uncommon at the end of the 5th century. 
When the capital of the Empire was transferred to 



The quaint drawing of the figures bears striking testimony to how much the mosaic 
period of glass owed to the designers of mosaic. 


Byzantium, art languished in Italy, and the great 
church of Santa Sofia became the world's magnet for 
artists, and the glories of its glass have been told 
by many writers. Then came the fall of the 
Empire and the inrush of the barbarians. Under 
Leo III, at the beginning of the 9th century, the 
art of the glazier greatly advanced. In the middle 
of that century we read that Benedict III decorated 
with coloured glass the apse of the <{ church across 
the Tiber." 

An important step was taken when, in 1058, 
Abbot Desiderio summoned glaziers from Con- 
stantinople to decorate (among others) the church 
of Monte Cassino. It would seem, however, that 
no roots were struck in Italian soil by these 
Byzantines. We read that they remained in that 
neighbourhood, but neither they nor their craft 
ventured to branch out. Now came the moment 
when the painting of walls in fresco seized upon 
the popular imagination, and so engrossed it 
that we hear of no revival of stained glass until 
the latter part of the I3th century, when it shows 
itself in the Upper Church at Assisi. Italian 
architecture had meanwhile been taking a step 
very favourable to the craft, in that the Cistercians 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

brought Gothic to that country in the first 
quarter of the I3th century, and we know the 
favouring influence that Gothic everywhere exerted 
on behalf of stained glass. All of the Italian glass 
earlier than that to be seen at Assisi is lost to us. 
It is at Rome that we must study its history, and 
yet strangely enough, Rome is the city which has 
lost the most glass, and the one in which its 
absence is most to be lamented. Storehouse as it 
is of the world's art, it is for us singularly painful 
that the necessities of war should have been so 
peculiarly blasting to the art in which we are 
interested. We have a right to protest against 
this evil fortune, for we know that all France and all 
Italy have been fought over time and time again, 
and yet elsewhere than in Rome the destruction of 
war has proved miraculously indulgent to stained 
glass, notwithstanding that it is the most fragile of 
art products. In Rome alone this grace was denied. 
It was just before the calamitous year of 1527, 
when war's necessities requisitioned the lead in 
Rome's windows, that these very windows had 
reached their crowning glory, for it was in the 
first years of the i6th century that the monk, 
William de Marcillat, whom we shall learn to 



revere at Arezzo, carried his art to a perfection in 
Rome that it never reached elsewhere. Bramante 
was authorized by Pope Julius II to send to 
France for the most skilful glass artists obtainable 
in order to awake the traditions of an art then 
utterly dead in Italy. In obedience to this august 
summons there came a certain master, Claude, and 
in his train came William. Hardly had Claude 
arrived in Rome when he fell a victim to over- 
indulgence at a banquet, and William stood alone 
at the open door of opportunity. Alas, to-day we 
must be content with reading of his splendid 
triumphs at Rome, and it is to Arezzo that we 
must go to judge what his Roman glass must have 
been. The glory of these Roman windows was 
short-lived, for they went the way of all the others 
during the siege of 1527 two years before 
William's death. Thus perished in the preparation 
for war what had hitherto survived war's fiercest 
outburst. Two examples alone of his Roman work 
survive, and their preservation is probably due to 
their obscure position behind the high altar in 
Santa Maria del Popolo. These charming windows 
are wide and low, and from the centre of each a 
semi-circle arises accommodating the insignia of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

that great patron of art, Julius II. Each is divided 
into six scenes from biblical history, arranged in two 
tiers. Although these remains are not extensive 
they show the artist at his best, not only in the 
adjustment of his scenes, but also in the masterly 
combination of strong colours with deliciously soft 
greens and neutral tints. His small landscapes, 
whether depicted in the open or shown through 
doorways, are so alluring as to make you feel 
inclined to defer your studies and walk abroad in 

In the chapel of the Caetani family at Santa 
Pudenziana is another window worth seeing, if only 
to show that the Italian glazier continued to be 
painstaking at a time when his French contem- 
porary, to avoid the labour demanded by careful 
leading, was turning more and more to the easier 
method of painting his glass. The subject is 
Christ crucified, against a background of colourless 
panes surrounded by a rich yellow stain border. At 
the foot of the cross the housetops of distant 
Jerusalem are carefully delineated in lead lines. In 
France they would have been painted only, as one 
sees in the 1 6th century landscapes at Conches and 
elsewhere. The same trouble is taken with the 



The obscure position of the window in the left back-ground, almost hidden behind 
the high altar, perhaps explains why these masterpieces of William of Marcillat escaped 
the general destruction of Rome's glass in 1527. 


small cherubs who hold lighted tapers at each side, 
and also with the blue garland at the top very 
agreeable and equally significant. 

When we wrench ourselves from the fascination 
that Rome has and always has had for all the world, 
it will be but the memory of the history of glass 
and few reminiscences of windows that we can take 
with us ; but after all, is not history the most 
potent spell that Rome exerts ? If you doubt it, 
stand for a while looking down on the mutely 
eloquent ruins of the Forum, and there will come 
pouring in a flood of memories from every point of 
geography and every episode of history, returning 
as in duty bound to the Golden Milestone from 
which their distances have all been measured. For 
the writer, Rome has always seemed the seated 
figure of an aged man about whose knees climb 
children of to-day, their prattlings in no wise 
disturbing his absent-minded musings upon the 
destinies of nation after nation which have passed 
before his eyes. The Moses of Michael Angelo 
is the type of man we mean, but the Moses is an 
incomplete expression of our thought in that his 
brawny knees support no symbols that link antiquity 
with the happy, careless life of the Rome of to-day. 



RISING sheer on every side from the valleys 
below is the imposing bulk of a huge 
rock, and on its top securely rests the 
ancient city of Orvieto. In modern 
times access has been made easy by a funicular 
railway, which, with seven minutes of monotonous 
cogging, carries one comfortably to the top. Not 
so easy or expeditious was the ascent when His 
Holiness, Clement VII, disguised as a gardener 
to escape from his enemies in Rome (ninety miles 
away to the south), had to prod his mule up the 
long steep zig-zag by which the roadway accom- 
plishes the weary climb. The walls of the town, 
built to the very edge of the straight-faced rock, 
seem so high above us in the air and so secure in 
their remoteness as to have really been unnecessary 
to the safety of those who dwelt within them. The 
views from these walls are extensive and delightful, 
even more so than from any of the other Italian 
hill cities. Once back, however, from the outlook 


This rose window is one of the few in Italy glazed as in Northern Europe, and 
therefore not given over to one unbroken circular surface of glass as is usual in Italy. The 
rich colours of the fagade's gold-grounded mosaics above, vie in delicacy of detail with 
the army of sculptured figures below. 


afforded by these walls, and the distance above and 
away from the world is forgotten. One is trans- 
ferred into an Italian city not unlike many of its 
sisters, and entirely devoid of that sense of aloof- 
ness which a peep downward from its walls is sure 
to give. The name " Orvieto," corrupted as it is 
from the Latin urbs vetus (the ancient city), carries 
in itself the tale of its antiquity. Indeed, the 
obvious security of this unusual eminence of tawny 
tufa must have commended it from the earliest 
times to those who needed security first, and " the 
pursuit of happiness " afterwards. Here there was 
built a great cathedral in memory of the miracle 
of Bolsena, when a doubting priest was convinced 
by the bleeding of the Communion Wafer of the 
doctrine of transubstantiation. A rarely beautiful 
cathedral it is too, with a beauty that changes with 
the hour of the day. Under the brilliant noonday 
sun the magnificent western facade fairly sparkles 
in the glories of its rich mosaics. When the twi- 
light time comes on it brings with it into the old 
marbles a delicious honey brown. The shadows 
it then lends to the web of sculptured Bible legends 
that hang like lace across the lower reaches of the 
facade, endow them with a life that they lack 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

during the brighter hours of the day. Nor has 
the interior less to invite our notice, our admira- 
tion, and our study. From the right transept we 
enter a chapel whose frescoes were begun by Fra 
Angelico and finished by the masterpieces of 
Signorelli. No one who has seen these latter will 
ever forget the haunting face of the Anti- Christ 
preaching his false doctrine under the whispered 
prompting at his ear of the embodiment of evil 
thought a horrible and persistent memory, one 
which has preached its silent sermon to worshippers 
in this chapel for over five hundred years. 

About us in the church proper is spread a two- 
fold reward for our visit two-fold, because not 
only have we in the nave a glorious series of ala- 
baster windows, but in the square-ended apse there 
is stained glass in the two fine rosaces, and a lofty 
eastern embrasure of the mosaic period that can vie 
with the many splendid examples of its form to be 
seen in England. In addition to these there is a 
handsome wheel window high up in the western 
front, which, for Italy, is unusual in having the 
spaces between the spokes glazed as in northern 
Europe, instead of having the glass set well back 
from the stone-work of the wheel so as to give an 


unbroken round surface for a picture. Perhaps the 
reason for the different treatment here is that no 
picture is attempted, its place being taken by a 
kaleidoscopic pattern in low blues and soft greens. 
The rosaces pierced in the northern and southern 
choir walls are also unusual, seven round openings 
filled with busts being preferred to the usual large 
bull's eye devoted to one picture. The explanation 
for this divergence from the expected may be 
that because these high-placed rosaces cannot be 
seen from a great distance, but only from across 
the width of the choir, this broken-up treatment 
of the embrasure serves better than would a large 
picture. Be that as it may, the result is pleasing, 
and that is what most concerns you and me. 

Not only does the great east window appeal to 
us by reason of its wealth of mosaic medallions 
(alas ! too rare in Italy), but also and chiefly because 
of its great beauty. Its four tall lancets contain 
forty-four small mosaic pictures, the medallion 
border which encloses each being of the same 
design, somewhat resembling the top of a billiard 
table with pockets at the ends and in the middle 
of the long sides. The deft interweaving of 
the strap-like borders of these medallions repays 

49 E 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

attention, and is so reminiscent of some in the 
lower church at Assisi, and of the great east window 
at Siena, that we are not surprised to learn that the 
same glaziers worked at all three places. Each of 
the four lancets has a rich narrow border, and 
above are singularly graceful tracery lights, finally 
tapering to a point at the top. Much clear blue 
is used throughout the composition, even serving 
as a background to fifteen of the small scenes, but 
monotony of tone is avoided and warmth imparted 
by ten other backgrounds being red, and ten more 
red with gold fleur-de-lis. This red is even now 
deep and rich, but it is still too early to find the 
correspondingly deep blue so generally used after 
the opening of the ifth century. One notices the 
absence of green, what little there is being light 
in tint. Whenever an interior scene is depicted 
the architecture is only suggested. In the same 
spirit of suggestion a single diminutive tree serves 
to locate other scenes out-of-doors. 

But we must resist the temptation to devote 
all our time and appreciation even to so effective 
an example of the mosaic period as the great 
east window. Returning to the nave we shall 
find spread out before us a magnificent row of 



twenty-four embrasures filled with alabaster, a sub- 
stance of which such delightful use was made in 
Italy. Nor is it, as one might fear, a monotonous 
beauty, for in no two localities shall we find it 
of the same colour. Here it is a mellow yellowish 
or orange brown, sufficiently fluctuating in its 
shading as to lend a sense of movement to the 
colouring. The windows are mostly to be found 
in the small bowed recesses which line the sides 
of the nave, sometimes two lancets together, some- 
times singly. They are also placed above the 
two small side portals, and over the three entrances 
that pierce the west front, the central one being a 
particularly graceful interlacing of eight divisions 
ending in a point at the top. We may remark 
in passing that it is a pity that they filled in the 
upper parts of the nave lights with modern glass. 

I wonder what it is that causes one to linger 
so long over alabaster windows, lacking as they 
do the story and the variety of tints to be seen 
in stained glass. Is it the change constantly pro- 
duced in them by shifting light which excites our 
curiosity and delays our departure ? Strange as 
it may seem in the telling, the more the afternoon 
sun fails the richer seems to glow the light in 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

and through the alabaster. The writer will never 
forget a certain afternoon in April when he watched 
the twilight deepen in Orvieto Cathedral, and saw 
the light slowly diminish until all architectural 
detail and all sound seemed to fade away, and to 
leave behind them only the faint glow and harmony 
of the windows. 


FROM that perch far aloft the little square 
before the Prefecture, what a wide sweep 
the eye covers, far beyond and far below ! 
The green slopes drop away and still 
drop away until they are lost in the spacious 
plain across which we spy a grey patch upon the 
distant Apennines Assisi ! The eye wandering 
on happens upon a slender ribbon of silver, the 
beginnings of the Tiber "Father Tiber, to 
whom all Romans pray." Below us on every side 
lies undulating greenness, rising every now and 
again into the small knob-like hillocks so often 
seen in the backgrounds of Perugino, the great 
painter who took his name from the apex of 
the landscape he knew and loved so well. The 
steepness of the incline which one has to mount to 
reach this lofty city is continued and sweeping rather 
than abrupt as at Orvieto, or irregular as at Siena. 
But Perugia is loftier, and more remote from its 
surrounding landscape, than any of the other hill 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

towns. Of Perugino, it must be said that those 
wishing to know him well must not rest content 
with his easel pictures hung in so many galleries, 
nor even with his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, 
where his personality is subordinated to a general 
scheme of decoration ; one must mount up to 
his eyrie-like city and see what he has done to 
make the charming, nest-like hall of its Chamber of 
Commerce unique among mercantile council rooms. 
The ceiling and walls of this modest-sized chamber 
are covered with frescoes of such excellence as to 
prove that here his genius and his local pride worked 
hand in hand. The studied calm of Perugino's 
pictures becomes all the more striking when one 
learns of the riotous scenes amidst which the painter 
lived and worked, for Perugia has the bloodiest 
history of the bloody Italian Middle Ages. The 
Baglioni family were not content to drive out all 
rival nobles from the city, but they must needs fall 
upon each other in a manner so blood-thirsty and so 
callously planned as to exceed even the ruthless 
traditions of the local nobility. Fortunately for 
those interested in the gentle sport of murder, the 
Baglioni was such a numerous family as to pro- 
vide in themselves ample material for indulging in 



The glass in this huge embrasure has been so much restored as to lose most of 
its value. It is, however, typical of early isth century window construction, and 
also shows the undecorated condition in which Italian exteriors were often left. 


extended fratricide. In the midst of all this tumult 
and blood spilling, Perugino calmly continued to 
paint his peaceful scenes, and with him studied 
the great Raphael, who later on shows us that 
he was not forgetful of his early environment by 
introducing into his frescoes of the Vatican Stanza 
Astorre Baglioni, the most beautiful and perhaps 
the most foully murdered of that murderous 
race. He appears as Heliodorus being chased 
from the Temple by angels. In passing, it may be 
permitted to the author, "doglike to bay the 
moon," the scale of drawing used for Helio- 
dorus is strangely out of harmony with that of his 

In the Duomo at Perugia, just on the right 
a s you enter, is a window of 1565, showing, 
against a background of classical architecture, St. 
Bernardino preaching to the people, but alas ! the 
gaily robed figures seem more interested in looking 
at the tourist than at the great preacher. Their 
inattention to the sermon in no way suggests the 
historic scene which took place in the picturesque 
square outside, when, from the small pulpit project- 
ing from the church wall, he so wrought upon the 
populace that men and women stripped off their 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

jewels and in a spasm of remorse and reform filled 
basket after basket with discarded finery. The 
window is far too solemnly beautiful to recall that 
dramatic scene. The Duomo was deprived of a 
great work by the hand of William de Marcillat, for 
he died a few days after signing the contract to glaze 
the huge round window in the west wall. 

In the church of St. Dominic the eastern 
embrasure is unusually large, 20*80 meters by 7-40 
meters. Its six lancets have their twenty-four panels 
each filled with a saint in canopy, but alas ! they are 
of modern restoration and design. Along the lowest 
tier are four good groups of figures preserved from 
the original glazing of 1411, the small people being 
well drawn, and reminiscent of similar scenes at 
Milan and Pisa. 

The one fine window at the Duomo, and 
St. Dominic's over-restored reminder of former 
glory would hardly have taken us to Perugia 
had it not been necessary to come here in order 
to visit Assisi, that treasure house of early glass. 
The delightfully picturesque site and the quaint 
streets of "bloody Perugia" go far, however, to 
console us for its poverty of windows. 


AT no time in the world's history has the 
human race been so human as during 
the Middle Ages perhaps almost too 
human in some manifestations of their 
dark history, but if the passions of man had freer 
play then than now, so too had the softer sentiments. 
The hearts of men spoke as much more frankly 
then, as did their wills and brains. On this gentler 
side of the picture, over against the Man with 
the Sword, there stands out no more sympathetic 
figure than the monk Francis of Assisi, St. Francis, 
whose followers in the i8th century numbered 
150,000 with 9000 monastic establishments in 
which to perpetuate the vows of chastity, poverty, 
and obedience which he laid down and exemplified 
throughout a life of good works. The anecdotes 
of him that have come down to us reveal a human 
being of astounding and masterful simplicity. With 
the same unconscious dignity and the same Chris- 
tian zeal, he pronounced his arguments before a 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Mahomedan Sultan, or spoke his simple sermons 
to the birds and fishes. His strength, and a force- 
ful strength it was ! was his convincing gentleness. 
He was no Savonarola to thunder against the evil 
life led by many of the clergy, but nevertheless he 
accomplished greater reforms by the example of 
a life which in itself was so potent a reproach to 
the erring. In our modern days of reason and 
advanced civilization it is difficult for us to realize 
the constant difficulties which confronted this monk 
in his attempt to accomplish what we know he did 
in the stress of the turbulent life going on all about 
him. To feel his personality and to understand 
the force which he and his life wielded during the 
Middle Ages, one must go to Assisi. The place 
is eloquent of him, and still possesses the atmos- 
phere of religious mysticism that, although it existed 
side by side with the constant clash of arms, yet 
in no wise yielded place. 

The town straggles up a hillside so steep that 
one wonders that the church of San Francesco 
remains anchored to its site. Above we have a 
well-lighted, airy edifice, while beneath its pavement 
the slope of the hill permits an understructure, 
on three sides of which a series of short windows 



temper the gloom of the constant twilight lying 
about the tomb of the gentle Francis. Both in the 
lofty lancets of the upper church and the short 
embrasures of the lower one is to be found a wealth 
of stained glass of the mosaic medallion type. So 
rare is the product of this period in Italy that this 
is the only place where enough examples exist to 
enable one satisfactorily to compare and study the 
school. In the lower church we can inspect them 
at close range and, at our ease, puzzle out the 
story of the little scenes told in morsels of glass 
laboriously leaded together. A painstaking craft 
was that of the early glazier ! Here there are 
surprises in store for those who have studied the 
mosaic medallions of France and England, and 
grown accustomed to the circles, squares, etc., there 
so customary. At Assisi the designer of the 
medallion shapes ran riot, and his diminutive people 
are enclosed in frames of every imaginable shape. 
The 1 3th century medallions in the upper church 
are more after the fashion of those which we have 
seen in the north, but down below every effort 
would seem to have been made to get away from 
the conventional circles, etc. For example, in the 
most easterly chapel on the north side the frame 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

is provided by a ribbon of many convolutions 
wound about the tiny figure ; in the chapel of 
St. Martin the glazier has daringly superimposed 
each saint upon two circles, one above the other, 
and yet has given us a successful result. Indeed, 
" successful " is just the word we need to describe 
this long series, except perhaps in one particular 
because of the enforced limitations of space, one can- 
not get far enough away from the windows to obtain 
that jewelled glow produced by the breaking up 
and refraction of the sun's rays by the myriad bits 
of glass a glow which we have learned to know 
and love in France. We miss the splendid glitter 
yielded by the transept rose windows of Notre 
Dame in Paris, and in its stead have something 
that more resembles the close-at-hand beauty seen 
in the Sainte Chapelle. So dimly lighted is this 
crypt-like lower church at Assisi that it is only 
when the sun gets low in the west that its slanting 
rays enable one to make out the beautiful allegorical 
frescoes painted by Giotto on the vaulting above 
the altar more than six hundred years ago. 

In sharp contrast to this scene of dim, solemn 
beauty is the brilliantly lighted upper church to 
which we ascend by a flight of steps rising from 



About the walls, high above the rows of fresco scenes, is the best series of mosaic 
period windows in Italy. Furthermore, this is one of the rare instances of a satis- 
factory combination of stained glass windows and frescoed walls. 


the Sacristy. Here, above the frescoes that run 
all around the walls, is a series of tall lancets 
containing medallion work as well as contemporary 
panels of geometric decoration, and besides, certain 
tall personages of such great size that the glazier 
composed each face of a number of pieces. One 
sees these tall figures stationed about the clerestories 
of Chartres, Rheims, and other northern cathedrals. 
Here, however, we note a difference the large 
figures are nearest us, while above their heads are 
disposed small groups in medallions : one would 
prefer that the more easily seen personages should 
have been placed the furthest from us, and that the 
small scenes, the details of which are so difficult 
to distinguish, had been brought nearer our eyes. 
Most of this early glass in the upper church dates 
from the end of the i3th century, and there are 
many indications to show that Cimabue had a hand 
in their designing. One side of the nave has glass 
of the early I4th century, and among it can be 
easily recognized some figures in I5th century 
canopies. These latter were brought from the 
cathedrals of Perugia and Foligno. Pursuing our 
study of the glass chronologically we will return 
from the upper to the lower church, and find there 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

no glass earlier than the i4th century. Fortunately, 
however, for its general effect, it is almost all of 
that period. It will be well to devote particular 
attention to the chapel of St. Catherine, because the 
three artists that worked upon it, Bonino di Assisi 
and Angioletto and Pietro di Gubbio, also took 
part in the glazing of the cathedrals at Siena and 

The story of the glass as told by the archives 
of the church increases our surprise that its fragile 
beauty should have survived the many vicissitudes 
at the mercy of which it has existed for centuries. 
Not only has it resisted earthquakes and conflagra- 
tions, but also certain playful tendencies of the 
citizens, such as, for instance, are revealed by an 
edict of the Commune of Assisi in 1330, for- 
bidding the shooting of arrows or the throwing 
of stones at the church of St. Francis, under a 
penalty of the payment of five lire as damages ! 




who devote their stay in Italy to 
the study of its art alone are unjustly 
narrow, for that fair land has much to 
say to the practical side of modern life. 
Perhaps some of those ill-balanced students would 
be surprised nay, even grieved to hear that there 
is as much to learn for an energetic American 
chamber of commerce in the activities and triumphs 
of Italian mediaeval trade guilds, as there is for the 
most enthusiastic admirer of ancient pictures, which, 
parenthetically, he frequently does not understand ! 
Just at present there happens to be a world-wide 
movement to secure foreign trade through organized 
effort by mercantile associations, and time spent 
on studying the successful efforts along these same 
lines by Italian merchants of the Middle Ages will 
be well spent. The French system of co-ordinate 
effort by chambers of commerce and government 
is thus far the best modern plan, but even it 
cannot surpass the admirably organized guilds of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Florence and her sister cities during the I4th 
and 1 5th centuries. It is carefully thought-out 
organization which wins results, and in this the 
early Italians are not yet equalled. Nor were these 
guilds useful alone for the commercial purpose for 
which they were primarily constituted. Savonarola 
was not the only man astute enough to realize this 
fact. Investigation will reveal that they provided 
the foundation on which were erected the early 
Republics. One is moved to query in passing 
if the failure of the first French attempts at a 
republic were not due to a lack of a basis of 
just such organizations of already tested efficiency. 
These guilds were to be found in all the important 
Italian cities, and the stronger and better their 
organization the more powerful the municipal 
government based thereon. These bodies of 
workers can be traced far back into the history of 
the country. An early Roman inscription at Pisa 
records that a son of a soldier of the loth Praetorian 
Cohort bequeathed 4000 sesterces to "the most 
ancient and worthy guild of shipwrights." That 
the deceased was canny as well as generous appears 
from the clause ordaining that if the shipwrights 
failed to make the required annual sacrifices at 


his grave, they must deliver the money to the 
carpenters who were then to undertake the 
memorial services. During the second century 
we find a guild controlling the amount and price 
of timber to be floated down the Arno destined for 
Rome. The history of the Florentine wool guilds 
and their kindred bodies is the history of the early 
commercial importance and growth in power of that 
great city. We finally see her associated trades 
under the superintendence of the silk makers 
building the Church of Or San Michele and 
decorating its walls with their patron saints. What 
an inspiring sight it must have been when, upon 
the Saint's day of some particular trade, a solemn 
procession of all its members in brave array marched 
behind their banners to give thanks in Or San 
Michele to the patron saint who watched over their 

It is, however, to Cortona that we must go to 
find a church whose construction is actually owed 
to a company of merchants. We read that in a 
suburb of the town called Calcinaio, a certain 
picture of the Virgin began to work so many 
marvels that the guild of shoemakers, owning a 
tract of land there, was fired with such pious zeal 

65 F 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

as to donate its land, and begin thereon the con- 
struction of a church to house the sacred painting. 
Not only was the work carried through to a 
triumphant conclusion, but it was actually finished 
in thirty years (1484-1516) which almost breaks 
the record for mediaeval church construction a 
businesslike feat by business men ! 

Now let us for the moment resist the tempta- 
tion to delve further into the fascinating lore of the 
Italian guilds, and resuming our r61e of sight-seeing 
tourists, set out for this sanctuary of the worthy 

As one proceeds from Perugia northward up 
the Umbrian Plain, whether by the railway, restricted 
to its steel line (and to some extent by time tables !) 
or by the individualistic rambling of a motor car, 
the most striking feature of the landscape will be 
Lake Trasimene, studded with islands, its waters 
now beautiful in their calm, now lashed into 
boisterous waves by the winds that have free access 
from every side. The bed of this lake is now 
being made to yield up the treasures buried 
beneath its waves during the old Etruscan and 
Roman times, and many a museum boasts of a 
share in these recovered trophies. It was on the 



very road we are travelling, near the northern end 
of the lake, that Hannibal indulged himself in one 
of those practical hints on military strategy which 
he occasionally inflicted upon the Romans. This 
time he laid particular stress on the need for scout- 
ing, and the disadvantage frequently resulting from 
doing as the enemy would have you do. The 
Roman General Flaminius held Arezzo, thinking 
that Hannibal on his march from the valley of the 
Arno southward to Rome would surely not leave 
such a strongly garrisoned post behind him. But 
Hannibal, preferring to choose his own battlefield, 
marched by Arezzo, entirely ignoring the Romans. 
Now nobody likes to be ignored, and Flaminius set 
out hotfoot after him, so intent on catching the 
Carthaginians that he forgot to notice until too late, 
that he had hurried into an ambush, Hannibal 
blocking the road with the main body of his army, 
while his lighter troops occupied the small hills on 
both sides of the road and cut ofF the rear. The 
Roman army was annihilated, and Flaminius died 
with his men. 

As we proceed on our northerly journey, 
accompanied at a respectful distance on either side 
by the flanking line of hills, the next striking object 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

in the landscape is a rounded height that rises 
steeply on our right, crowned with fortresslike 
Cortona. This place should be endeared to our 
memory as having long been the home of William 
de Marcillat. Of him there was for a long time 
but little known, and that little narrated by the 
agreeable but inaccurate Vasari, the most misleading 
of gossips. Recently, however, William's journal 
and account-book have been discovered stored away 
in the State Archives at Florence among the papers 
of the Abbey of Camaldoli. They enlighten us 
completely as to where he worked, for whom, and 
also as to the pupils whom he encouraged by his 
genius. The two masterpieces of his which used 
to adorn the cathedral at Cortona have disappeared, 
one to dwell in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
in London, and the other to cross the Atlantic and 
bury itself in seclusion somewhere in America. We 
shall be consoled, however, if half-way up the road 
which climbs to Cortona we stop in the suburb 
called Calcinaio. In its church there are three fine 
examples of this master, one being a handsome 
bull's eye window, while the other two are of the 
usual rectangular shape. The occhio in the facade 
represents our Mother of Mercy receiving under 



the protection of her mantle (supported by two 
angels) the Christian people of the world. Among 
these kneeling figures are Pope Leo X, Emperor 
Maximilian I, and Cardinal Francesco Soderini. 
In one transept is the strong figure of St. Paul, 
and opposite, St. Sebastian. The latter is accredited 
to William, but it is probably the work of one of 
his pupils. Notice how gracefully the figures are 
poised ; to secure this grace the artist did not 
hesitate to allow St. Paul's arm to encroach upon 
the border, as does also the head of the cherub 
peeping down from above. William treated such 
conventions as borders, etc., with respect but not 
with humility. For centuries it was supposed that 
William de Marcillat was but the Italian way of 
recording that he came from Marseilles, but now 
we know that his father's name appears in the 
records of La Chatre, France, as de Marcillat also. 
The life of this little man with the broad head, and 
the narrow, eager face, reads like an old romance. 
Born near Bourges in France, his youth was devoted 
to the quiet pursuit of his art studies. Hardly had 
he arrived at man's estate before he became involved 
in a quarrel which resulted in the loss of a life, and 
William fled to Nevers and sought security by 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

taking monastic vows. Both at Bourges and Nevers 
he doubtless benefited by observing their fine 
windows. His budding talent as a glass painter 
became so well known that when Pope Julius II 
summoned the French master, Claude, to Rome, 
he took William with him as an assistant. Soon 
after reaching Rome, Claude died and left William 
to carry on the work alone. His gifted nature 
proved so receptive to the burst of artistic creation 
by which Michael Angelo, Raphael, and many 
another were then glorifying Rome that William 
became the greatest glass painter of the i6th 
century. He was a gorgeous colourist ; but his 
most noteworthy contribution to the craft in Italy 
was the introduction of perspective, in the use of 
which he was a master. Instead of employing 
architectural detail as part of the decoration of his 
design (as had theretofore been customary) he 
relegated it to its proper duty of assisting his space 
composition, and the placing of his figures. Vasari 
comments on the skill he displayed in so lending 
the brighter colours to his important figures, and 
leaving only the duller ones for the less important, 
as if to indicate, by this very tone discrimination, 
the degrees of interest deserved by the different 



parts of the picture. This comment touches a 
wide and undeveloped field, which deserves further 
exploration than it has hitherto received. It has 
alluring possibilities of new and telling effects in 
stained glass. William left behind him a series of 
masterpieces surpassing anything produced by his 
contemporaries in either the land of his birth and 
youth, or in that of his adoption and his prime. 
We will see more of his work in Arezzo. 

Cortona provides a centre from which to visit 
sundry isolated examples of William's genius. 
There is a fine occhio glazed by him at Monte San 
Savino, 25 kilometres to the west, and 7 kilometres 
south thereof, in the church of Pieve Vecchio at 
Lucignano, there are also interesting proofs of his 
skill. Lucignano lies 20 kilometres west of Cortona. 
While these are not of sufficient importance to 
delay all of our company, there may be some who, 
won by the charm of this Umbrian country, will 
welcome these hints as an excuse for lingering 
longer in it. 


lofty Umbrian plain sweeps north- 
ward between its flanking lines of hills, 
and at its northern end on a tilted 
rocky uplift is stationed Arezzo, look- 
ing for all the world like a slowly rising, half roused 
guardian lion. Beyond again to the north this 
plateau falls rapidly away, its waters gradually in- 
creasing the mountain streams until they together 
form the river Arno, whose course but briefly 
checked by the weirs at Florence, turns westward 
and finally bids us adieu at Pisa just before it 
disappears into the Mediterranean. Stationed thus, 
between the Umbrian plain and all that part of 
Tuscany known as the Val d'Arno, Arezzo has 
attained a greater importance than its population 
would seem to warrant. Its railway station lies in 
that lower part of the city which is on the plain, 
and above it the streets sweep upward until, when 
the height is reached on which is built the cathedral, 
we find ourselves afforded a delightful prospect over 



the smiling country below. If you are fortunate 
enough to enjoy this view in the springtime, do 
not fail to notice the strange green produced on 
the plain below by the combination of the foliage 
of the frequent olive-trees against the new grass. 
Remember this colour when you enter the cathedral 
and it may help you to understand whence come 
the soft greens that you will see in its windows. 
Unusual too is the structure of the church, no 
windows at all on its northern side ; but turn about 
and look to the south, and ample amends will be 
made to you. Along the wall of the aisle on that 
side is ranged a series of five large embrasures, and 
nowhere in the world will you find more splendid 
examples of 1 6th century glazing than here delight 
your eyes "splendid" is the only word one can 
use to describe them, for notwithstanding the per- 
fection of the drawing, the skill of the space com- 
position, and the complete realization of everything 
to be made out of glass, it is after all the daring 
splendour of the colouring that amazes and capti- 
vates. Here, William de Marcillat is at his best. 
In the usual 1 6th century fashion, he uses Classical 
architecture as a background for his figures and 
also to aid in disposing them throughout the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

composition. But what edifices he builds ! not at 
all the usual type so well known in the popular 
Renaissance windows of the north. Here, columns 
of green malachite, of red porphyry, and of poly- 
chrome marble vie in brightness with parti-coloured 
pavements of rich hues. Frequently we notice in 
this radiant architecture as well as in the brave 
attire of his richly-clad personages the subtle soft 
greens peculiar to him, and of which we have 
already spoken. Nor is the brightness nor the 
combination of his tones and tints the only proof 
of his skill, for where in glass is there to be found 
a better drawing of the nude than Lazarus rising 
from the tomb ? Neither does he hesitate which 
part of his palette to use what could be more 
daring or more successful than the salmon pink 
clouds above the Baptism of Christ ! Magnificent 
as are these great pictures, in no way inferior is 
the admirable Descent of the Holy Ghost up in 
the large bull's eye of the west front. As if to 
complete the proof of his versatility he turned from 
these large effects to the adroit glazing of the small 
lancet in the east wall just north of the apse. Here 
a skilfully unconventional use of architectural detail 
balances the two carefully drawn figures. Up in 



the clerestory along the south side are five large 
bull's eyes, of which the two most westerly are 
glazed in colour, but obviously of the I5th century 
a rather stiff adaption of four upright figures to 
each round embrasure. One would suspect that 
we have here the intervention of a foreign hand, 
for the Italians were never at fault in adjusting 
their pictures to a circular frame. Upon the vaults 
of the ceiling above are a further proof of William's 
versatility, for here is spread out a series of excellent 
frescoes, upon which he was engaged at the time 
of his death. 

Nor did William confine his efforts to the 
cathedral alone, for at the churches of San Fran- 
cesco and the Annunziata he left behind him enough 
to have called us to Arezzo even had there been 
no cathedral. At San Francesco a large occhio in 
the west front gave him an ample opportunity to 
display his skill as designer and colourist in the 
portrayal of St. Francis of Assisi and his monks 
before Pope Honorius III. Here again we see the 
warm-tinted marbles against the background of blue 
sky. What could be finer than the manner in 
which the simple, pale garb of the kneeling St. 
Francis and his followers in the centre is contrasted 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

with the gorgeous company of the Pope and his 
attendant Cardinals ? 

At the Annunziata, our admiration is not con- 
fined to one window. A small occhio on the right 
as we enter has a pleasing scene of the espousal 
of the Virgin, the calm group in the centre con- 
trasting with the vigorous action of the disappointed 
suitors at the sides breaking their wands. Along 
the sides of the nave are a number of rectangular 
windows showing coloured figures on a field of 
white lozenges, surrounded by yellow stain borders. 
There are other satisfactory windows of the usual 
type in the transepts. William's most important 
effort is high up in the semi-circular apse, while below 
it are three windows showing conventional saints 
in Renaissance canopies. This large round window 
of his displays in its lower part his usual dexterity 
in setting forth an agreeable landscape peopled with 
well-drawn coloured figures. Above, in a strongly 
accentuated oval enclosure, is the Virgin, and very 
ingenious is the way in which he has made her the 
focus of his picture, both by splashes of red and 
other colour devices. William reveals himself at 
Arezzo as a colourist, a draughtsman, and a deft 
manipulator of the possibilities of stained glass 


such as the craft never produced in any other 

Before leaving Arezzo one should visit the 
ancient church of the Pieve. The promise held 
out by the gallery-on-gallery of columns which 
adorn its facade is borne out by the interesting 
early architecture within, but the special purpose 
of our visit will be to note in the south wall a 
small deeply-set round embrasure, whose seven 
circular apertures are filled with translucent light 
grey alabaster. It is from such quaint beginnings 
that there developed the craft which adorned the 
cathedral with the splendid triumphs of William de 

North-west of Arezzo, across the Arno, and 
about 10 kilometres away, is the town of Siecina, 
lying close by Capolana. There is but little glass 
here, but there is enough to afford some leisurely 
pilgrim an excuse for another day in Umbria. 



WHATEVER be the purpose of one's in- 
vestigation of the centuries when our 
glass was made, sooner or later there 
is sure to be encountered traces of the 
warm appreciation then enjoyed by the profession 
of the diplomat. Nowhere in the whole peninsula 
can this fact more appropriately give us pause than 
in Florence, for in the annals of mediaeval Italian 
diplomacy no State attained a higher rank than she. 
How widely this fact was recognized and utilized 
is strikingly evidenced by the astonishment of Pope 
Boniface VIII on remarking that all the ambas- 
sadors sent to represent the Christian Powers at 
the Jubilee of 1300 were Florentines. No diplomat 
of the old school bore so famous a name as that 
of her subtle and unscrupulous citizen, Machiavelli, 
indeed so typical of it was he that an illustrative 
adjective has been derived from his name. Much 
as we may to-day object to his point of view, there 
is no gainsaying his pre-eminence among his 



contemporaries, nor doubt of the diplomatic suc- 
cesses gained for Florence through his teachings. 
Fortunately, the world is coming to know that 
greater and more permanent results are obtainable 
from what John Hay, when Secretary of State, 
called the diplomacy of the Golden Rule" What- 
soever ye would that men should do to you, do ye 
even so to them.'* But, in its day, it is undeniable 
that the Machiavellian system proved effective 
against others of similar kind, and it will be of 
interest to us, as students of those times, to see 
what were the ends it most sought to serve. In 
what cause did Florentine diplomacy win its 
triumphs ? Many of us will be surprised to learn 
that it was along the lines of what has been recently 
named "dollar diplomacy," that is, by striving 
to assist abroad the commercial interests of the 
State. No sooner had the merchant guilds estab- 
lished their industries on a firm basis at home than 
Florentine diplomacy sprang to their assistance, and 
bent all its energies to secure them an outlet abroad. 
" Dollar diplomacy " was well understood and suc- 
cessfully practised in Florence centuries before that 
phrase was coined in America. Just glance through 
the pages of Florentine history and what do you 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

find ? Isn't it clear that the reason for the per- 
sistent policy of the Medicis in assisting Milan 
against the Venetians is found in the former's 
willingness to keep open the northern mountain 
passes so that the Florentine merchants could push 
their trade in northern Europe, while Venice, on 
the contrary, was for stifling Florentine exporters 
by closing those avenues of commerce ? Again, 
when the goldsmiths of Florence had succeeded in 
producing a coin of marked excellence, did not 
Florentine diplomacy materially assist to popularize 
abroad this florin, as it was called ? a coin destined 
to gain such wide currency that the employment 
of its name has persisted to this day. If space 
allowed, instances might be multiplied of the canny 
Florentine merchant relying on the diplomatic assist- 
ance of his State to gain and hold for him trade 
advantages, whose use none knew better than him- 
self. The long struggle to seize and hold Pisa 
was actuated by the desire to provide Florentine 
merchants with an easy outlet to the Mediter- 
ranean, and a participation in the profitable carrying 
trade of that sea. It was but seldom that Florence 
could find much interest in a war that did not in 
some way assist her trade, for the aim of her 



diplomacy, peaceful or warlike, was commerce 
rather than conquest. Not territory but trade, 
and only territory when it furthered trade. Judging 
from its results, the "florin diplomacy" of the 
Middle Ages was as successful as the most active 
"dollar diplomacy" of to-day. Nor did Florence 
think it needful to employ specially trained diplo- 
mats, for so general was her recognition of the 
utility of diplomacy, that she seemed to breed 
diplomats in every street. No, when Florence 
found herself confronted with a task needing diplo- 
matic solution, she selected the man deemed suit- 
able to that piece of work. For example, when 
it was the moment to fling down the gauntlet to 
the neighbouring city of San Gemignano, Dante, 
the imperious-minded and intolerant poet, was 
chosen to bear the Florentine message of defiance. 
When, however, an occasion arose requiring con- 
ciliatory measures, they selected as their envoy 
the fair-spoken and smooth-tongued Machiavelli 
or Guicciardini. 

Is it not easy to imagine for oneself the diplo- 
matic policies of the Signoria being discussed by 
the keen-witted citizens, either on the shop- 
bordered pathway that leads across the Ponte 

81 G 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Vecchio, or in the airy shade of the Loggia dei 
Lanzi, or on cool days when the tramontana 
blew, in the sheltered sunny spaces about the 
Duomo, or in that dignified square before the 
Palazzo Vecchio ! A growing and a busy city is 
Florence, and yet among the hurrying throng are 
faces of the old types among whom the old-world 
setting of the streets helps us to picture certain 
of her ancient worthies. See ! down that narrow, 
dark lane, stalks some stern-featured Dante, a 
poetic survival of the old Florence that existed 
before the new city burst into that broader life 
which was symbolized by the surging skywards 
of the wondrous dome of Brunelleschi and of Santa 
Croce and Santa Maria Novella, the rival establish- 
ments of the Dominicans and the Franciscans. Dante 
and the men of his time were truculently satisfied 
with the Florence of their day, and pointed with 
complacence to the sturdy Baptistery lined with 
range on range of rich mosaics, and to that union 
of fairy grace and colour with trim strength, the 
bell tower that alone would have immortalized 
Giotto. All these Florentines, be they of the 
older conservative group, or of their successors 
who looked forward with wider horizon, each and 



Bare walls are not uncommon in Florentine churches. The glass in the distance 
will be seen nearer at hand in the next picture. 


several possessed that eager confidence which was 
the hall-mark of Florentine patriotism. Whatever 
there was to be done would of course, said they, 
be accomplished, and the only useful thought was 
that expended on how to do it ! Men could 
always be found, and easily, too. Had not a 
Cimabue come forward to break the chains of 
Byzantine formalism that were felt to be fettering 
art, and, when further progress was needed, had 
he not discovered a shepherd's lad named Giotto, 
drawing sheep in a lifelike manner, theretofore 
unknown ! When the Baptistery had to be 
adorned with finer bronze doors than any rival 
city could show, did not there appear a youth of 
eighteen, Lorenzo Ghiberti, of such mature genius 
as to defeat many distinguished competitors ! With 
a constant recurrence of such miracles of artistic 
productivity, would any doubt of the city's power 
to produce men for every emergency be aught else 
but sheer disloyalty to the lily-broidered banner ! 

There are so many angles and points of view 
from which one may regard the life and people 
of this fascinating town, that the Florence of 
one reader may be quite different from the one 
upon which another loves to muse. And some 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

of these vignettes will show a modern aspect 
for example, the Florence of Browning, for she 
is peculiarly haunted with memories of him. Go 
to the square in front of the Innocenti, and there 
astride his bronze horse is the Duke forever 
regarding the window where so long, to watch 
him passing, sat the disconsolate inamorata of 
"The Statue and the Bust." The "Ring and 
the Book " is about you everywhere, for although 
it ends in Rome, it begins here with the purchase 
of "the Book" in the square of San Lorenzo. 
Across from the Pitti Palace Browning and his 
gifted wife lived for many years, and there she 
wrote " Casa Guidi Windows " and other poems. 

There are many who believe that the history 
of great individuals provides the most trustworthy 
exposition of the life of their times. Certainly, 
the lives of the great Florentines would seem 
peculiarly to justify this belief. So strongly are 
they stamped with the cachet of their city that 
even the briefest study of their careers inevitably 
weaves us back into the history of the town. 
Always is this true, from the most ambitiously 
grasping of the Medicis to that meek soul, Fra 
Angelico, declining the Pope's offer of the Bishop's 


mitre from the broad genius of Michael Angelo 
to the narrow outlook of Machiavelli from 
Cimabue, the pioneer, through Giotto the natural, 
to the most finished exponent of Florentine art. 
Ever and always these master minds will be found 
indelibly marked with the characteristics of their 
strenuous commonwealth, and you can no more 
understand them apart from it than you can 
imagine ivy standing aloof from its supporting 

But enough ! we must resist the fascination 
of Florence in general, and betake ourselves to 
her windows. Not only has she a gratifying 
quantity of ancient stained glass, but it is mostly 
of the best Italian period, the I5th century, and, 
furthermore, unsurpassed of its kind. It is chiefly 
to be seen in the Duomo, the two large churches 
of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce, the smaller 
sanctuary of Or San Michele, and the Laurentian 
Library. Across the Arno, in Santo Spirito, there 
is also a fine round window or occhio, attributed 
to Perugino. It represents the " Descent of the 
Holy Ghost," and is the only example in Italy 
of brusquely horizontal grouping in an occhio, 
with no attempt to adjust the picture to the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

circular space. The border which encloses it is 
of the richest Renaissance colouring and detail. 
Fine as is this window, it is but one of thirteen 
splendid occhi of which the city can rightly boast. 
The Duomo alone contains ten of these peculiarly 
Italian windows, three in the western facade, and 
seven ranged around below Brunelleschi's dome. 
The eighth embrasure in the dome, the one to 
the west, is glazed in white, the better to light 
the altar, standing below and to the east of it. 
Each one of these seven deserves a special account, 
so delightful are they in design and colour, but 
we must content ourselves with saying that they 
set forth admirably drawn scenes from the life of 
the Saviour. The borders deserve particular notice 
for their wealth of decoration, especially the one 
to the east, composed of angel's heads each sur- 
rounded by a halo. The drawings for this series 
of seven were provided by Lorenzo Ghiberti, 
Donatello, Paolo Uccello, and Perugino. Ghiberti 
also drew the cartoons for the splendid round 
lights that pierce the west front, one huge one 
high up in the middle, flanked by two of more 
modest size, lower down and just above the side 
portals. These smaller ones both evidence the 



customary Italian skill in adjusting the figures to 
a circular embrasure, the golden backs of the seats 
lending the required breadth to the grouping. 
The great central occhio is a really splendid effect 
in glass, showing the " Assumption of the Virgin " 
in a blaze of colour and amidst a swirl of angels' 
wings that is altogether admirable. 

Most foreigners who visit the Duomo will go 
away without discovering the trick that the archi- 
tects have played upon them in the matter of 
the nave windows. From the inside there seem 
to be four tall lancets on each side, but outside 
there are six in both the north and the south 
wall. How is it done ! Return to the interior, 
look more carefully, and you will find that the 
westerly pair on each side are filled with mosaic 
instead of glass, and that those to the east of 
them have either become so begrimed (or else 
had their opacity lessened by paint !) as not, by 
their superior translucence, to betray the trick. 
The explanation is that the wall plans of the 
nave were changed before their construction was 
finished, and this device was employed to avoid 
the appearance within of too many lancets in the 
western half of the structure. The easterly pair 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

of lights on each side are more interesting than 
beautiful. They date from the closing years of 
the I4th century (1394-6), and are among the 
few examples in Italy of the canopy style so 
common north of the Alps. Each lancet has six 
saints, each in his own elaborate niche, two on 
a tier, a border separating them perpendicularly 
instead of, as usual, only running around outside 
next the stonework. We have just explained why 
they are so opaque, and this very loss of trans- 
lucence has robbed them of almost all the beauty 
they ever had. Thus are they justly punished for 
their connivance in the trick upon the unsuspect- 
ing stranger ! 

And now for a treat such as even ancient stained 
glass cannot often offer. Come with us beneath 
the dome, and look out into the apse or into either 
of the transepts. Alike in dimensions, they are 
glazed in absolutely the same manner. Above and 
below run a series of ample lights filled with 
stately figures richly robed, and of colour so deep 
and warm that it is almost pulsating. When 
gazing on them one recalls Huneker's admirable 
translation of Huysman's word picture : "the 
bugle cry of red, the limpid confidence of white, 



the repeated hallelujah of yellow, the virginal glory 
of blue, all the quivering crucible of glass." No- 
where are there tones so mellow, so harmonious. 
Nor is there here any jarring contrast from light 
panes used for canopies architecture is shown, but 
of such radiant hues as to aid the strength of the 
picture instead of being merely a contrasting frame. 
Five windows above, and the same number below, 
a total of ten for each transept and for the apse, 
in all a magnificent series of thirty. Certain of the 
north transept lights have white glass in their 
upper halves, but they are so placed that you do 
not see them as you look north from below the 
dome. The scheme of the designs is the same 
throughout ; above, a large single figure, and in 
the lower lights a pair of them, not, as usual, each 
rigidly stationed in his own half, but turning 
slightly toward one another, and rather nearer the 
centre than the sides very graceful and agreeable. 
The writer prefers the ensemble of the south 
transept, but that is entirely a matter of taste. 
See them for yourself, and make your own decision. 
This glorious glazing was done during the absolute 
high tide of the art, 1432-43. It is known that 
a German was fetched from Lubeck to take part 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

in the work, but be that as it may, the result is 
clearly Italian, and not German. There is so 
much in it to admire, that it seems invidious to 
call attention to any detail, but we cannot turn 
away without giving special praise to the pains 
spent upon enriching the brocade of the costumes, 
and also the glorious Italian rendering of the 
canopies. The warm tones given the stones is a 
truthful echo of the wondrous rosy hues of the 
cathedral's exterior. 

It is quite a change from the spacious, bare 
interior of the Duomo, to the monastic hive of 
buildings at Santa Maria Novella or at Santa Croce, 
where a church is but the centre of a colony of 
chapels, cloisters, and minor edifices. The open space 
before Santa Maria Novella has at either end a small 
obelisk, mute reminders of the days when they 
were the turning goals for the annual chariot races. 
It is clear that here truly the race was not to the 
swift, but rather to dexterous horsemanship ! The 
popularity of these exciting contests caused them 
to outlive many another ancient custom. Lady 
Dorothy Nevill, in her delightful memoirs, speaks 
of having witnessed them in her youth. The 
oldest glass in this church is that which fills the 



large occhio of the west front. Its division into 
three concentric circles is certainly an older treat- 
ment than that of any other occhio in Florence. 
Around the central picture is a series of smaller 
figures in eight groups, while outside of these runs 
a wide conventional border in the florid Italian 
manner. Monotony of general tone is avoided by 
the predominance of yellows in the lower half, 
yielding to browns above. The exterior iron bars 
are arranged in an unusual fashion and are worth 
observing. The chief glory of the interior is the 
spacious chapel behind the altar, where the glazing 
of the three ample lancets is in every way worthy 
to accompany the charming frescoes of Ghirlandajo 
on the walls about them. These windows date 
from the historic year 1492, not difficult for an 
American to remember. They were installed two 
years after the frescoes were finished. Notice the 
appetizing borders of fruits mixed with flowers. 
We see here many Florentine features, viz. deep 
blue backgrounds, coloured marbles, use of a soft 
green, importance of borders, etc. The saints 
which fill the two side lancets are replaced in the 
larger central one by three groups one above the 
other, increasing in their proportions as they 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

descend. The red apples in the small tree at the 
top look as edible as the fruit in the borders. 
Notice the rich barrel vaulting with its gold bosses 
in the central picture. The artist frequently em- 
ploys an unusual and effective wine colour in the 
garments of his figures. So important is the glaz- 
ing of this chapel, that it overshadows the fine 
window by Filippo Lippi in the adjoining chapel to 
the south. This is later workmanship (1502) and 
shows too much surface painting. Dark green is 
employed instead of the light shade usual in 
Tuscany, and the general effect is so much heavier 
than that of the central chapel, that it yields a better 
effect when seen from the nave than from nearer at 
hand. The chapel which closes the end of the north 
transept has an earlier window than those just 
described. The canopies here are much simpler 
and enclose two figures, one above the other. The 
richness of the red robe of the upper one is very 
pleasing. There should also be noticed three win- 
dows in the chapels at the north-east. They show 
similar treatment throughout, a border of deep 
yellow stain enclosing Renaissance arabesques, with 
a coat of arms in the centre of each. In the west 
wall of a small room to the south-west of the south 



The splendidly warm tones of the glass are worthy of Ghirlandajo's frescoes that 
surround it. Note the altar, a chef tt'ceuvre in Florentine blending of coloured 


transept are two circular embrasures filled with 
roundels whose size increases as they go out from 
the centre ; this is unusual in Italy. Cloistered 
courts and quadrangles lie all about this church, 
differing in plan and importance, and one is glori- 
fied by possessing the so-called Spanish Chapel, 
whose frescoes have aroused the enthusiasm of a 
long line of critics. But that has to do with 
another side of Florence the Artistic, so let us 
be off to Santa Croce. 

Here we shall again find a group of monastic 
buildings clustered about a church. Entering the 
cloistered quadrangle to the right, there will be 
observed opening off its furthest side the Pazzi 
Chapel, a pure example of a style of building not 
uncommon in Italy. Upon a short armed Greek 
cross is superimposed a small dome. The decora- 
tion of the interior is confined to grey and a dull 
blue, harmonizing agreeably with a number of della 
Robbia medallions. Over the altar is a rectangular 
window by Baldovinetti, the peculiar drawing of the 
woolly white beard disclosing the author at a glance. 
In the small circular opening above is a bust, and 
again we see the Baldovinetti beard. Although the 
richness of the glass is in striking contrast to the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

low tones of the chapel, a concession is made by a 
liberal use of light, almost opalescent, blue in various 
parts of the design. 

Entering the large T-shaped church, we at once 
realize that an ample display of glass awaits our 
investigation. The writer prefers the large occhio 
in the western front to any other in Italy. Per- 
haps it is not the finest, but his reason for pre- 
ferring it is similar to that of people who prefer 
early tapestries to the most perfect Gobelins. The 
Gobelins are copies of oil paintings, while the 
cartoons of their forerunners were obviously made 
for tapestries alone, and therefore show a know- 
ledge both of the possibilities and the limitations 
of weaving, which the Gobelins often disregarded. 
This window shows the Descent from the Cross, 
and whoever drew the cartoon for it thoroughly 
understood how to make the most of glazing in 
colour. The disposal of the figures over the 
entire surface is admirable. Nothing could be 
neater than the adjustment of the trees below, or of 
the flying angels above. As was to be expected, the 
background is blue and there is a liberal use of 
soft greens in the rest of the picture. Unless I am 
much mistaken you will pay several visits to this 



This T-shaped church is peculiarly well lighted, and boasts of a wealth of stained 
glass, mostly of Florence's best period, the isth century. 


occhio before you leave Florence. Down each side 
of the nave are tall lancets, most of them glazed in 
colour, generally showing single figures in canopies 
which, with two exceptions, are Gothic. There are 
two tiers of these enshrined saints, and two on each 
tier. The tones are of the usual I5th century 
richness, but the restorer has frequently let his 
zeal run away with his reverence for the antique. 
This is particularly true of the northern lancets, and 
also of the three tall double ones which light the 
shallow chapel back of the high altar. One has only 
to stand off at a distance to detect the thin-toned 
new panes among the richer and deeper old ones. 
Above and to the right and left of the chapel aper- 
ture, two tall narrow lancets pierce the wall, and 
these still preserve their old glazing a triple tier 
of canopied figures, with a medallion at the very top. 
They are placed so high as to rob them of much of 
their value, and this prepares us to appreciate the 
facility for close inspection afforded by the window 
of the chapel closing the end of the south transept. 
The pattern of the border, a winding vine with 
yellow and green leaves on a blue and red ground, 
shows this to be early work, as does also the 
elementary character of the Gothic canopies ; the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

1 5th century could not have progressed very far 
when this glazing was done. 

Perhaps the most interesting window in the 
whole church is the unique one in the west 
wall of the chapel at the end of the north 
transept. It looks like mid- 1 4th century, and 
is unlike any window the writer has ever seen, 
especially its border. This border is made up 
of a series of squares bearing heraldic figures, 
yellow lions on blue, or long-tailed red birds on 
blue, or green ones on red, etc. The frequent 
use of white lines in the border forms part of 
the white note so often struck in this window. 
Golden fleurs de lis on blue abound, appropriate to 
the seated figure of Louis IX of France, who, by 
the way, was an ardent patron of stained glass, as is 
attested by his erection of the Sainte Chapelle in 
Paris. The only suggestion of a canopy is the 
pointed arch made by a white line above the figures. 
Another of the many unique features are the small 
angels which recline upon the sloping sides of these 
pointed arches. They sometimes appear in early 
Italian paintings, but not on glass. Altogether, 
this window is as charming as it is unusual. 

Quite different from the spacious interiors we 


have just been frequenting is the small church of 
Or San Michele, erected by the guilds of Florence 
under the special superintendence of the silk 
merchants, and adorned outside by a series of 
handsomely niched statues of their patron saints. 
Surprised indeed are we to learn that above the 
church is a large storehouse built to hold corn, but 
this is not the only novel feature of this quaint 
sanctuary. The altar is not in the middle but is 
placed to the north so as to balance the gorgeous 
tabernacle of Orcagna stationed to the south. So 
too the window embrasures are peculiar in shape, 
and abbreviated. The glass is more archaic in design 
than that which we have been examining, and it 
does not take long to notice that the four most 
easterly windows are earlier than the six to the west 
of them. The easterly ones tend as strongly to 
reds and blues as the others do to yellows and 
greens. On all sides is a multitude of small people 
grouped in engaging scenes, and nowhere any sign 
of restraint from conventional canopies. The ray- 
like slits in the traceries are differently treated 
in one place we have small angels arranged like 
herrings in a barrel, while in another the extended 
wings of cherubs fill these narrow radiating apertures. 

97 H 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Parts of six of the windows have purposely been 
left white, but the older four to the east are 
entirely glazed in colour. Or San Michele affords 
a delightful proof that during their struggle for 
commercial supremacy the Florentine guilds raised 
their artistic standard rather than neglected it. 

Thus far we have visited only religious edifices, 
but now we shall see glass of a secular type, some- 
thing far rarer. In the long series of rectangular 
windows in the Laurentian Library there exists one 
of the many monuments to the Medici family, to 
whose patronage of art we moderns owe so much. 
And such a series, all similar, fifteen on one side 
and twelve on the other ! The entire surface of 
each is given over to arabesques, griffins, etc., out- 
lined in grey and soft browns, the general effect 
being mellowed by a judicious use of low pinks 
and blues. Of course the six balls of the Medici 
arms are given due prominence, and on many of 
the windows appear dates, 1558, 1567, 1568. 
Some critics have maintained that the dating of 
some of them subsequent to the death of da Udine 
proves that he could not have been the designer, 
general belief to the contrary notwithstanding. 
May it not be respectfully submitted to these 


This sanctuary of the ancient trade guilds is lighted in a manner all its own. The 
three lower panels have scenes in late mosaic style, while the graceful traceries above are 
glazed equally elaborately. (See page 97) 


gentlemen that as da Udine was alive when the 
earliest dated window was made, the later dates 
may refer to their glazing and installation, and not 
to the original cartoons ? It would seem that these 
critics could make out a stronger case if they would 
confine themselves to pointing out how inferior this 
glass is to da Udine's work at the Certosa in the 
Val d'Ema near Florence. There he used the leads 
to assist in providing the outlines, but here they are 
allowed to break up the surface into squares. Nor 
is the drawing here anything like so delicate as that 
which charms us at the Certosa. But even in the 
light of this honest criticism it cannot be denied 
that the Laurentian glass produces a satisfactory 
effect. Wherever it has been necessary to fill in 
with new panes, the old spirit has been carefully 
maintained, even to the employment of the amusing 
little turtles whose progression is being assisted by 
sails hoisted on their backs. It is much to be 
regretted that so little of ancient domestic glass has 
survived till our time. It fared far worse than that 
installed in churches, and more's the pity. 

Such is a brief survey of Florentine windows. 
Because of its wealth in this regard, Florence 
deserves to rank with York, Rouen, Troyes, and 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Nuremberg, and it will be difficult to make our 
reader resume his pilgrim's staff after once he has 
tarried on the banks of the Arno. But bestir ye, 
gentle sirs, there be other sights to see ! Store 
your memories with delightful visions of windows 
seen, and fare ye forth, bent on further acquisitions. 
All pilgrims from across the Atlantic, whether 
Americanized Anglo-Saxons of the north or Ameri- 
canized Latins of South America, should reverently 
repair to the small church of Ognissanti, for there 
lie entombed the mortal remains of that bold 
Florentine navigator Amerigo Vespucci, to whom 
our hemisphere of liberty owes its name. Would 
that we might bring as much honour to our re- 
spective fatherlands as did our illustrious namegiver 
to Florence ! 



OVER against the City of Florence, across 
the Arno and outside the walls, 
rises the height called San Miniato. 
Demurely quiet as it now appears, 
and peaceful as is the prospect of the ancient city 
below, it was not always thus. In 1521 the 
versatile Michael Angelo became for it, first an 
engineer, and later a warrior, for he fortified and 
defended it against the Imperial troops during 
their long siege of Florence. The two very 
different approaches to it are equally attractive, 
whether one elects to drive up the flower- bordered 
zigzag that mounts from the river through the 
steep park to the open space at the top, or whether 
in more leisurely fashion we go out from the 
Porta Romana and follow the longer road slowly 
sloping up through the trees, and enjoying from 
time to time charming vistas off to the left. When 
the open space at the brow of the hill is reached, 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

one is rewarded by the amazing view of Florence 
lying below us, and across to the hills about 
Fiesole on the other side. Far off to the right 
are the lofty Apennines, and if it chances to be 
the time of the spring showers, we shall see the 
mountains crowned with late snow, for a rain at 
San Miniato will mean snow on the northern 
hills. What a prospect lies before us, and but 
little changed since there looked down upon it 
Michael Angelo or Ghiberti or Benvenuto Cellini, 
or any other of the great Florentines who lived 
after that burst of building that thrust into the 
air Brunelleschi's cathedral dome, Santa Croce, and 
Santa Maria Novella. Over yonder on those 
heights of far Fiesole are the very gardens to 
which Boccaccio's gay and heartless company 
withdrew from the plague-stricken town below 
them, and listened and laughed the awful hours 
away. They still smile at us across the valley of 
the Arno, but this memory puts a grimness in 
the smile. 

San Miniato holds for us lovers of windows 
two edifices, both churches, entirely unlike each 
other. The first to be reached on our upward 
way is San Salvatore, sometimes called San 


San Miniato 

Francesco al Monte. Along the sides of the 
nave are modest chapels above whose altars is 
a series of small rectangular windows of interest. 
Over the doorway in the south side is a pleasant 
bit of glazing, whose donor is disclosed by the 
appearance of the Peruzzi arms, the pears with 
the leafy stems. We will already have noticed 
those arms in Santa Croce, so enriched by the 
benefactions of that family. 

Continuing upward we arrive at the old fortifi- 
cations of Michael Angelo, and passing through 
two gates reach the summit and come out upon 
a small paved space before the Church of San 
Miniato al Monte. Its facade is encrusted with 
white and black marble, and enlivened with 
mosaics. The pavement upon which we stand is 
also of coloured marble, and within the church this 
pavement shows many quaint arabesques and figures 
worked out in sharply contrasted black and white. 
The eastern end of the interior is divided into 
lower and upper portions, not unusual among early 
churches. The upper half is richly adorned in 
marble and frescoes, and embellished with con- 
ventional Cosmato mosaic. It terminates at the 
east in a semi-circular apse, and nothing could 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

be more delightful than the manner in which 
this apse is lighted. Through its wall of white, 
grey, and black marble are pierced five ample 
rectangular embrasures, filled with slabs of trans- 
lucent alabaster. The thickness of this substance 
is such that although it readily admits the light 
when the sun's rays are falling directly upon it, 
it almost entirely excludes them when the angle 
becomes too acute. Therefore the fact that these 
windows are stationed in a semi-circle results in 
no two of them being lighted to the same extent 
at the same time. Elsewhere in Italy the colour 
of the alabaster used in windows is fairly even 
in tone, but here it is strongly mottled, the effect 
being almost that of rich pink nuggets in a field 
of 'grey. It is fascinating to sit here and watch 
these great translucent slabs slowly shift in tone 
as the light upon them varies. One of them 
will be brilliantly lighted, while the one farthest 
from it will have faded into an opaque grey. 
You cannot watch them long without noticing a 
feature which may have been studied or may be 
but the fruit of lucky chance. The grey of the 
slabs, which for the moment are opaque, blends 
exactly with the grey marble of the apse, while 



Note the strength of the pattern decoration done in different coloured marbles and 
mosaics, also the pictured marble pavement. The alabaster windows are ranged round 
the semicircular apse seen in the upper of the two flooi s into which the eastern end of 
the chuch is divided. 

San Miniato 

in the more translucent windows the light has, by 
contrast, made some denser parts of the alabaster 
as black as the black marbles about it. Thus, 
be the alabaster grey or black, there is always a 
marble to match it, and so it swings through its 
harmony of translucence, accompanied by a double 
bass of grey and black. It is impossible to 
describe in written words the soft mellow glow 
yielded by the San Miniato alabaster to be 
understood it should not only be seen, but must 
be watched. We will be content, however, with 
your promise to go there for, once before it, you 
will surely fall victim to the alabaster's ever varying 



NO pilgrimage into the Middle Ages 
such as ours is (or should be !) can 
in any wise be complete if it omits 
a close-at-hand view and understand- 
ing of monastic life so important a factor in 
mediseval times. Not only was it a school in which 
many statesmen were trained, but the seclusion of 
its cloisters especially favoured the study of the 
sciences and the arts, something difficult or im- 
possible in the turbulent world outside. The 
monastic calm in which Fra Angelico painted his 
heavenly figures helps to explain how he obtained 
results so far beyond his contemporaries outside 
the monastery gate. Having laid down this pre- 
mise let us set forth from Florence bound for the 
smiling valley of the Ema, only three miles away. 
In the midst of this valley rises a square eminence, 
capped with an establishment of Carthusian monks, 
and here we may to-day observe the life and 

1 06 

Val d'Ema 

environment which during the I4th and 
centuries must have provided such a striking 
contrast to the restless struggles punctuated with 
open strife, which characterized the everyday life 
of nearby Florence. 

We enter through the courtyard where the 
lay brothers lived, and pass on through the small 
church, the centre of the community's life. At 
the further end of this group of buildings lies 
the largest of the four cloistered quadrangles. It 
is surrounded by apartments devoted to the brothers 
of the highest monastic grade. For each monk 
there is a bedroom, a study, etc., and also his 
diminutive garden, a few paces in length. Within 
this large quadrangle flowers and bushes spring 
from the green grass beneath which sleep the 
departed Carthusians in their unmarked graves. In 
the centre is the ancient well, its great depth 
ensuring a constant supply of water. We see the 
Refectory in which the community partook of its 
frugal meals of vegetables and fish, while one of 
them read aloud from the lives of the saints. 
Nor was the life of this monkish colony in any 
wise an idle one, for each man had his occupation, 
were it the hewing of wood, or the painting of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

sacred pictures. Below on either side stretches the 
quiet landscape of tilled fields rolling down to the 
stream that wanders quietly through the valley. 
Here is the "peace that passeth understanding," 
and the leisure for undisturbed service. 

Two epochs of glass are represented here, and 
each by delightful examples. Leaving the church 
by the south portal bent on visiting the exquisitely 
carved tombs of the Acciaiolis below, we come upon 
a lofty lancet on our left, glazed in the pot-metal 
canopy manner, brilliant, satisfying. Each of the 
six panels contains its own enshrined saint, and 
very skilful is the way in which the colours of their 
robes are combined and all thrown out by the blue 
backgrounds within the niches. The amount of 
brassy yellow used in depicting architecture, the 
frequent use of leaves in the rich border, etc., 
incline one to suspect the assistance of a northern 
glazier. On the other hand, the participation of 
local talent is to be assumed from the frequent 
employment of a certain new-grass green, very light, 
soft and fine, common throughout this district. 
Not only does it appear in the garments, but also 
in the architecture, in the book which St. Lawrence 
holds, in the martyr's palms, etc. This same green 

1 08 

Val d'Ema 

is used to-day for window blinds all over Tuscany, 
so its popularity would seem to have been an 
enduring one ! It is worth while examining the 
details of this glass, so carefully have they been 
worked out. For example, note the pains the 
glazier took with the two white-bearded heads. 
His success in contrasting the brown faces with 
the hoary beards must have given him as much 
satisfaction as it does us. 

The cloister walk alongside the northern church 
wall is enclosed from the weather by eight windows, 
two of which, however, were left unfinished by the 
artist who achieved such a charming result in the 
remaining six. They are accredited to da Udine, 
who died before his task was completed. Con- 
sidered as windows to be observed close at hand, 
and therefore subjected to unusually critical scrutiny, 
they are almost unequalled. We have already seen 
some of the same type in the Laurentian Library at 
Florence, but of nothing like so choice a quality. 
Three designs are used for the six embrasures, they 
being treated in pairs. In the centre of each is a 
small picture of the late enamelled variety, very 
low in tint and daintily drawn. The rest of the 
surface is given over to arabesques enclosed within 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

grey and stain borders. The whole is relieved 
with sundry small cupids, and judicious touches of 
soft blue or mulberry. Most of the outlining is 
done in greyish brown. The borders are so deftly 
interrupted now and again as to offset the danger 
of too many parallel lines. The most westerly pair 
bear the date 1560. The only windows of this 
agreeable domestic type which surpass these are 
the famous and much-travelled Cupid and Pysche 
series at Chantilly. There are fewer pleasanter 
excursions than that to the Certosa of the Val 
d'Ema, and, for specialists like ourselves, it is not 
often that we can so conveniently examine such 
excellent examples of two contrasting schools of 
stained glass. 



SOMETIMES a stranger will observe in the 
streets of a town some manifestation of 
its life which lingers in his memory as 
peculiarly symbolic of the local history. 
Perhaps we shall not be too fanciful if the history 
of quiet, monotonous Prato is thus represented to 
us of the busy outer world by her women, young 
and old, sitting in their doorways or walking about 
plaiting straw into the braids which are later to be 
wound into hats, baskets, etc. The wisps of straw 
seem ever starting off at a tangent from the con- 
straint of the braids, but always the rapid fingers 
weave them back into that monotonous regularity 
which characterizes alike the braids of straw and the 
life of peaceful Prato. In one of its quiet streets 
a turning brings you upon a shrine painted by 
Filippo Lippi in his best manner. Its only pro- 
tection from the molestation of weather or man is 
a flimsy panel, and yet there it has remained secure 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

for centuries, a relic of a buried past which has 
calmly persisted, protected perhaps by its very 
insecurity. Nor is this the only strange expression 
of mediaevalism that has here lingered until our 
day a mediaevalism as difficult to explain from our 
modern view point as it would be for Eric the Red 
to understand an aeroplane. For instance, what 
would to-day be said of a painter's audacity if he 
should follow the example of Filippo Lippi when, 
in his famous frescoes at the cathedral, he shows 
us the face and figure of the nun that he won away 
from her holy vows, and who was the mother of his 
son Filippino Lippi. She there appears both as 
Salome and Herodias, and yet there seems to have 
been no objection by the church authorities to this 
selection of lineaments by the great artist ! Truly, 
" The times change and we change with them." 
Before we set foot inside the cathedral, we are 
already feeling its charm by reason of the graceful 
circular pulpit on its outer corner about whose front 
dances the delightful chorus of Donatello's cherubs. 
Attractive too are della Robbia's figures of majolica 
set high in the western facade. The importance 
of this sacred structure is due to its possessing the 
girdle of the Virgin, closely guarded and greatly 



honoured, and once every year exhibited to the 
people from the little pulpit outside. It furnishes 
the subject of the large eastern window which 
lights the chapel behind the altar containing Filippo 
Lippi's frescoes. The upper part of the embrasure 
is given over to an elaborate picture of the Virgin 
holding her girdle, surrounded by angels flying 
above the tree-tops. The space below is divided 
into nine equal compartments, each containing a 
saint in canopy ; unfortunately the heads of most 
of them have been renewed. The whole is sur- 
rounded by a rich border of red strap work set 
with golden lilies. Here there appears the same 
brocading of garments that is to be seen at the 
Duomo in Florence, some of the patterns being 
almost identical. Instead, however, of the blue 
effect so common in Florence, this window leans 
markedly to green, but always the soft, low-toned 
Tuscan green. It shows in the Virgin's girdle, and 
is repeated in the tree-tops, robes of the saints, bases 
of some of the canopies, etc. The date locally 
assigned to this work is 1436, and many indications 
confirm this. 

The Church of Madonna delle Carceri also 
merits a visit ; it is of the not unusual type of 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

blunt Latin cross surmounted by a cupola. Old 
stained glass fills three ample rectangular embrasures 
stationed high up, one on the north, another on the 
west, and the third on the south. The Visitation 
scene on the north contains too much conventional 
architecture, and is chiefly interesting for the 
excellent blue of one of the figures, and the 
unusually deep purple of the other. The west 
window, showing the Annunciation, also has too 
much architecture, but here it is more ingeniously 
employed, the colonnade running up from left to 
right serving to centre attention upon the Virgin, 
seated under a dainty classical pavilion. Far more 
pleasing is the Birth of Christ, on the south. This 
is really delightful as well designed and coloured 
as any window in Tuscany. Here there is nothing 
stiflf, only a simple picture. The dark blue back- 
ground serves to throw out in strong relief the 
Holy Family and kneeling angels, while the whole 
colour scheme is brightened by the yellow of the 
thatched roof and of Joseph's garment, both on the 
left side. Above all shines the Star of Bethlehem. 
It is a picture to store away in one's memory. 

Come back with us to Florence toward sunset. 
The hills on our left sometimes surge forward 



In the background appears the splendid stained glass that softens the light for 
Fillipo Lippi's famous frescoes. The Zebra markings done in black and white marbles- 
are popular in Italy. 


until they are threateningly close upon us, and 
again they silently withdraw in a strong receding 
sweep, only to lunge forward again. All the while 
the slowly dying sun is languidly shifting its tints 
upon them from gay to grave heather purple to 
dull blue, to blue-grey, to grey, then sinking 
into twilight, cheered by the twinkle of out-popping 


PICTURE to yourself a range of mountains 
running north-east and south-west, and 
climbing up their slopes, or perched aloft 
among them, many a picturesque village 
or sturdy stronghold. At the foot of these hills 
stretches off to the south a long plain ; upon this 
plain at a point where other hills so encroach from 
the south as to make of it a valley, lies Lucca. 
Lucca, so often fought for, and conquered, and 
bought, and sold poor distracted, desirable Lucca ! 
Around about it are thrown high grass-grown 
ramparts, now altered from frowning battlements 
into smiling promenades where, as one takes the 
air, he can gaze upon the city compacted within, 
or else out across the narrowing plain to the hills, 
or down the level valley that leads through them 
to Pisa 22 kilometres to the south-west. Many 
times up and down that valley road to Pisa have 
marched and counter-marched bodies of armed 



men, more frequently to the discomfort and dismay 
of Lucca than of her stronger neighbour. 

Unfortunate as she generally contrived to be, 
Lucca enjoyed a short period of glory, for out of 
the kaleidoscopic hurly-burly of petty strife which 
constantly plagued the peninsula there emerged her 
one great leader, Castruccio Castracane, during the 
fifteen years of whose rule Lucca ruffled it with the 
best of them. These despots of the Italian cities 
were the logical outcome of the prevalent custom of 
hiring professional soldiers to do the fighting while 
the honest burghers confined themselves to safer 
and on the whole more remunerative duties. But 
this trade of the mercenary paid better and better, 
and it is noteworthy that while in the middle of 
the 1 4th century most of these gentry were from 
beyond the Alps, by the end of that century they 
were nearly all Italian. An interesting manifestation 
of favouring home industries ! Most of these 
successful Condottieri enjoyed great local distinc- 
tion, some became good rulers, few were very 
nice. Their code of law was simple and easily 
learned "let him take that hath the power, and 
let him hold that can." No picture of Italy in the 
Middle Ages is complete unless you paint in 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

sundry of these ruffians, and that, too, well in the 
foreground. They constituted a force seldom less 
powerful than the Church, frequently more so. 
Many were of engaging personality, although some- 
what vague on morality, and not squeamish in 
matters of decency. Looks and personal charm 
entered into it too ; Hewlett sapiently remarks, 
" the Tuscans always suffered handsome tyrants 
gladly." Generally these local over-lords contented 
themselves with maintaining the mastery of one city, 
although raiding others from time to time by way 
of indulging their lust of fighting. They were a 
cold-blooded lot, and cut throats for much the same 
reason that children cut capers to avoid ennui, 
and to pass the time ! It would seem as if they 
studied the laws of morality and decency so as 
to provide themselves with rules to break just 
for the sheer joy of what Terence Mulvaney 
called "putting your fut through ivry livin* 
wan av the Tin Commandmints between Revelly 
and Lights Out." Some were really great men, 
and founded dynasties of long duration like the 
Medici of Florence and the Visconti and the 
Sforzas of Milan. Many were of the type that 
lived by the sword and died by the sword and 



left no trace behind them. Such an one, alas ! for 
Lucca's hope of lasting prominence, was Castruccio 
Castracane, a hero who rode out of obscurity 
(escaped from a prison, say some !), seized sundry 
cities and over three hundred walled towns, over- 
came the powerful Florentines no less than three 
times, and surged up to the very walls of Genoa, 
and all to what purpose? He died in 1328, all 
Tuscany at his mercy, and the very next year the 
Emperor sold his chief city, Lucca, to the highest 
bidder ! But while Castruccio lived he was a match 
for the best of them. Villani says he was "limber 
and tall, and of a great appearance," and Hewlett 
calls him " a bareheaded fighter who never could 
get enough of it, and hero of innumerable legends." 
The greatest triumph of his life, the humbling of 
Florence, had its culminating scene in Lucca's 
cathedral church of San Martino, whither we are 
bound for a sight of the glorious windows of the 
apse. The Florentines had been enraged and stirred 
to special activity by Castruccio's capture of their 
neighbour, Pistoja, thereby enfolding them on the 
north and west and cutting them off from the sea 
and most of their friends. An army must be raised, 
and that, too, of the best, for this man must be 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

humbled, and the peril of which he was the 
embodiment avoided. Money was expended freely, 
and mercenaries poured in from allies near and 
far, many of the knights coming from France and 
Burgundy. A force of 20,000 men, equipped at 
all points and especially strong in cavalry, set 
out under command of Raymond of Cardona, to 
chastise Castruccio and his Lucchesi. With the 
soldiers went the famous Martinella, the great bell 
of Florence, which never failed to accompany a 
Florentine army. The campaign was a short one 
a fortnight sufficed to show Castruccio's superiority 
both in strategy and honest hard fighting. The 
victory was overwhelming, and the spoils of war 
such as never before had Lucca enjoyed. The 
entry into the city of the conquering army took 
place on St. Martin's day, and to the great 
church dedicated to that Saint marched Castruccio . 
and his victors. Before them went, to the joy of 
the victors, the famous Martinella, mounted on its 
great car, and dragged by oxen draped with the 
once proud but now humbled lilies of Florence, 
while after it walked the prisoners, headed by 
General Raymond of Cardona, in his hand a lighted 
candle to be placed on the altar of the cathedral. 

1 20 


No wonder the worthy folk of Lucca nearly went 
wild with delighted pride, and cheered and cheered 
until lungs gave out, and a speechless ecstasy per- 
force supervened. Think on that most glorious day 
of Lucca as you stand before San Martino's ornate 
facade. It was seldom that any city enjoyed such 
a soul-satisfying triumph. 

The Cathedral of Saint Martin has its apse 
entirely glazed in the best style of the pot-metal 
canopy period. The architecture upon it is of the 
classical school, but is as rich in its colouring as 
any other part of the picture. The central em- 
brasure is wider than its two companions, but all 
three have the usual upper and lower tier of figures. 
What is far from usual, however, is the brilliance 
of the hues and the many decorative details, such as 
the cherubs holding back the draperies, etc. The 
frequent red lines throughout the groining of the 
arches are effective as well as characteristic. In the 
central window the Annunciation scene at the top 
is a fine one. The manner in which the two figures 
below stand apart and are slightly turned toward 
each other is reminiscent of the transept and apse 
in the Duomo at Florence. The green, here so 
lavishly and effectively used, is, however, far richer 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

than any to be observed in Florence, and has much 
to do with the artistic strength of the ensemble. 
Observe these windows carefully, for there is no 
richer colouring in Italian glass. 

Across the small square in front of the cathedral 
lies the Baptistery of St. John, and off its northern 
transept is a large chapel containing the ancient 
baptismal font. In the east wall of this chapel is a 
great round window of uncoloured panes within a 
wide, r rich border, and in the centre is placed a 
commanding figure of John the Baptist of almost 
life size. The contrast between the flesh tints and 
the red cloak thrown about him is excellent. 
Contrary to the usual Italian custom, it bears a date, 

San Paolino has six of its windows glazed in 
excellent old glass, three in the west front, one at 
the end of each transept, and one in the apse behind 
the altar. This last named shows San Paolino 
against a light tinted architectural background- 
about the only instance in Lucca of a failure to use 
rich pot-metal glass in depicting stone work. The 
embrasure above contains modern work. The back- 
grounds of all these San Paolino pictures are of 
warm blue. The appearance of brilliant red ribs in 



The old glass here is all concentrated in the apse seen in the hackground. There 
are no stronger or richer tones to be found in Italy. 


the groining of the canopies makes one surmise that 
they were by the same hand as those at the Cathedral. 
The coloured borders are good, but not so strikingly 
rich as the Cathedral ones. An unusually dark 
purple robe strikes one's attention in the central 
window of the west front, as does also a strong red 
in the garments of the figures in the lights on each 
side ; the palm branches in their hands indicate that 
we are looking at martyrs. 

A visit to Lucca leaves us with the vivid 
impression of warm pot-metal colour combined 
most effectively into a fine series of glass pictures. 
The writer is not surprised that it became rather a 
habit during the Middle Ages to capture Lucca. 
He would very much like to have been present on 
one of those occasions if only to have participated in 
the loot to the extent of the three large windows of 
the Cathedral ! In those days the transporting from 
place to place of stained glass windows was not at 
all unusual. The chapel of a certain English 
country residence called The Vyne, near Basing- 
stoke, is adorned with splendid French glass, Lord 
Sandys' share of the booty (so runs the legend) when 
the English took Boulogne, and brought home by 
him thereafter to gladden his eyes in his beautiful 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

Hampshire home. His example is one which 
deserves to be followed ! It would have been 
singularly satisfactory to have in like manner, 
" personally conducted " the removal of these three 
masterpieces from Lucca. 



UPON the plain near where the Arno 
finishes its long and winding journey 
to the sea, sits Pisa, encircled by the 
old machicolated walls, so long her 
boast, and traversed by the now slow-moving river, 
no longer needing the restraint of weirs as at 
Florence, and sedately forgetful of its youthful 
splashings adown the hilly valleys below Arezzo. 
The heart of Pisa is the open space where are 
stationed her four splendid trophies of ancient 
magnificence, the Cathedral, the Baptistery, the 
Leaning Tower, and the Campo Santo. Other 
cities may and can rival any one of these four 
glories, but such a wondrous group is certainly 
nowhere else to be seen, each by its position 
respecting the dignity of its neighbours as nobly 
as it safeguards its own beauty. Whether seen at 
hot noonday, or in the weird moonlight no matter 
the hour or the season these four lovely sisters of 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

mediaeval architecture seize a place in one's memory 
from which nothing to be elsewhere seen can dis- 
place them. Here the builders have foresworn the 
temptations of coloured marbles, and have re- 
mained constant to white some black indeed to 
afford the needed contrast, but stately white marble 
is the dominant note of the picture that one carries 
away from Pisa. White marble on a carpet of 
green grass a carpet so often spread for architec- 
ture in England, but almost never seen in Italy. 
In one respect Pisa joins the group of cities headed 
by Bourges, in that the blossoming power of the 
whole town seems to have been concentrated at one 
point. There is little of interest to be seen in 
the city besides its marvellous group about the 
Cathedral. But was there ever more variety shown 
by four structures : the low Campo Santo, the 
sturdy, solemn dome of the Baptistery, the splen- 
didly adorned Cathedral, and lastly, the daring 
slant of the gallery- on-galleried Leaning Tower, 
seemingly defying those sedate rules of architec- 
tural poise which have made its more serious neigh- 
bours so charming. 

Nowadays Pisa is not a place in which one 
lingers long, and it is somewhat of a surprise to 






22 ^ 


learn that Shelley said, " our roots never struck so 
deeply as at Pisa.*' It is difficult to realize the 
former maritime importance of this quiet little 
city now removed seven miles from the Medi- 
terranean by the gradual rising of the coast, instead 
of lying as formerly only two miles from the 
harbour of Porto Pisano, which sent forth victorious 
fleets from the time of the 2nd Punic war until 
Pisa's decline in the I4th century. This once 
famous harbour has been so completely obliterated 
by silt and sand that its exact site is no longer 
known. Another erasure which time has here 
effected is that of the forest of towers that must 
once have made the city such a striking spectacle, 
and which is so quaintly depicted on ancient coins 
and medals. Of course it was not unusual for an 
early Italian town to contain many towers, for thus 
were constructed the houses of the nobles. To- 
day this architectural custom is best exemplified at 
San Gemignano, but nowhere could there be found 
a total that in any way approached the 16,000 
towers with which the ancient chronicles credited 
Pisa. No wonder one of them describes her appear- 
ance as that of a sheaf of wheat, bound together by 
the girdle of walls ! That they were lofty may be 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

deduced from the municipal regulation limiting 
their height to ninety-five feet. Their bristling 
array, soaring aloft above the meaner edifices, must 
have made the streets of Pisa seem much as do 
to-day the down-town thoroughfares of New York 
City, running like canons between the thirty- and 
forty-story " skyscrapers " on either side. 

For those who are interested in the study of 
columns, there is here collected a rich store for their 
delectation. The conquering Pisan, whether his 
victories were won in Spain or Africa or the Holy 
Land or the Islands of the Mediterranean, never 
failed to bring home sundry columns as part of his 
booty. There are over 450 of them, of every 
clime, colour, and shape, in the Duomo alone, 
while many more are scattered through the other 
churches, and the better sort of houses. As show- 
ing the esteem in which columns were held by the 
citizens, it is interesting to relate that a pair made of 
red porphyry were presented by them to Florence 
for protecting the women, children, and old men, 
the only population left in Pisa when she undertook 
a crusade to drive the Moslems out of Sardinia. 
The Florentines camped two miles outside the city, 
over against the threatening Luccans, and so jealous 



were they of the security of the defenceless Pisan 
women, that no Florentine soldier was allowed to 
enter the gates under pain of death. It was only 
once necessary to enforce this penalty ! This very 
pair of columns may to-day be seen fastened to 
either side of the doorway of the Baptistery at 
Florence, mute reminders of both civic honour and 
civic gratitude. 

There have been a long series of conquerors of 
the Mediterranean, and the more one studies them, 
the more similar do they become. But of the 
Pisan maritime supremacy during the nth and 
1 2th centuries there is one outstanding feature that 
elevates it above the others, viz. : the insistance by 
the Pisans that they set up their own law courts 
wherever they gained a foothold. Sometimes they 
obtained this right by diplomacy, as in the case of 
their courts in the Moslem cities of Cairo and 
Alexandria. Sometimes they gained it by gallant 
fighting, as witness the many grants of this privi- 
lege won by them in the Holy Land while battling 
for the Cross. Their splendid valour during the 
Crusades cannot be gainsaid, even if one doubts 
their boast that a Pisan was first over the walls at the 
taking of Jerusalem. In view of their traditional 

129 K 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

respect for law and the dignity of the courts, 
it is not surprising that when in 1135 they took 
Amain* their most cherished trophy and the one to 
which the citizens paid the greatest honours, was 
a copy of the Pandects of Justinian ! The jurists 
of Pisa codified the maritime laws on more than one 
occasion ; the one effected in 1075 was approved 
by both Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV. 
Of their " Consolato del Mare " or written code of 
maritime law, Hallam says, "it has defined the 
mutual rights of neutral and belligerent vessels, and 
thus laid the basis of the positive law of nations 
in its most important and disputed cases." It is 
obvious that in the midst of such a people there 
must have existed a sound school of law, and so it 
was and so it is, for the University of Pisa and its 
law school is still, after many centuries of honoured 
and useful existence, recognized as among the best 
in Italy. A creditable figure was the sturdy Pisan 
of the city's Golden Age, carrying his sword and his 
law court to every shore of the Mediterranean 
Sea, then the equivalent of the Seven Seas of 

But it is time for us pilgrims to remember 
the purpose of our visit, so let us make our 





way to the Cathedral. There is but little of the 
old glass left in the unique series of grouped 
lancets that pierce the west front, a grouping 
seen nowhere else four together, then, as the 
eye descends, three together, two, then single 
lancets. Along the lower side of the nave aisles 
there is a treat awaiting us, fourteen rectangular 
windows, seven on each side, all but three filled 
with one scene above and another below, no 
attempt at canopies nothing but the telling of 
stories, always so engrossing to every age. Here 
is delightfully preserved the traditions of the rich 
warm pot-metal colour which so endears Italian 
glass to the student. Deeply toned windows of 
many hues, little paint, and as many figures as you 
like, regardless of the additional labour required 
to lead them in. Colour and story, aesthetic sense 
and love of tale-telling, all are gratified. In these 
windows there seems to have been perpetuated 
the story-telling genius which in other countries 
stopped abruptly at the close of the mosaic medal- 
lions. Elsewhere than in Italy the glazier of 
the 1 4th and I5th centuries turned his attention 
to figures in canopy, but at Pisa, fortunately for 
us, he refused to be bound down by the prim 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

conventionalities of the canopy, and he also con- 
tinued to delight us with the rich hues of pot- 
metal glass instead of the thinner colours used 
by his contemporaries of the north. As we look 
upon this entertaining array of Biblical stories we 
are not surprised to learn that Pisan glaziers were 
summoned to work at Florence and elsewhere. 
Not only did l the Florentines envy the maritime 
glory of the Pisans, but they also appreciated, 
and were glad to employ the artistic ability which 
the early Pisan successes caused to spring up and 
flourish in that city near the sea. 




OW strange it would seem if one were 
to read that it had been decided to 
hold horse races in Gramercy Park, 
New York, or in the Palace des Vosges, 
Paris, or in Trafalgar Square, London. " Impos- 
sible I " you would exclaim " there isn't room 
enough, the track would be too small ! " And yet 
that is just what happens on the second of July and 
the sixteenth day of August of each year, in the 
small cup-like open space lying before the Palazzo 
Pubblico in Siena. Yes indeed, and thrilling 
races too, the jockeys cracking their whips, the 
horses galloping madly around the small track, 
and every inch of available space below or in the 
windows, or on the housetops packed literally 
packed with a shouting, delirious multitude of 
onlookers ! It may not be a fair test of the 
horses' speed, but it certainly is of horsemanship, 
and furthermore it vastly pleases all concerned, so 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

what more can one ask ? Lastly, and also of 
great importance, it preserves an ancient custom, 
and that is worth much in these iconoclastic times. 
Therefore, oh i Siena, long live the annual rejoicing 
which the running of the Palio brings to your 
ancient municipality ! 

What a city of differing beauties have we 
here ! Of scenic beauty, if one looks down upon 
the rolling valleys below from the top of the 
Palazzo Pubblico, or back upon the charming city 
from the rampart promenades of the Lissa fortress. 
Of theatrical beauty, if one peeps down some 
narrow street upon the semi-circular Piazza del 
Campo, backed by the Palazzo Pubblico while 
far aloft shoots the Mangia, one of the world's 
most graceful towers. Especially is this beauty 
theatrical, if seen in the glamour lent by moon- 
light, although delightful enough without that 
added charm. And when we wander up the 
narrow, winding streets and come out upon the 
space about the cathedral itself, do we not find 
yet another, and a very special beauty ? that of 
judicious elaboration of detail in decoration. No 
church in Christendom can boast of such pains- 
taking treatment of every square foot of surface 


; s 


1 ^ 



b/D u 


within, or on its western facade without. Different 
indeed are the varied beauties of this ancient 
city, but all unite to exert their special fascina- 
tions upon the stranger. In this same spirit 
of contrast Siena differs from her sister hill-cities 
not so sweepingly lofty as Perugia, nor so 
steeply remote as Orvieto. She seems desirous 
to mask her elevation, for the ascent is at most 
points gradual, and there is a decided uplift in 
the country round about. Then, too, the rail- 
road succeeds in mounting to Siena, although it 
has to employ a switchback to do so, but it does 
not even attempt that feat at Cortona, or Orvieto, 
or Perugia, or Assisi. If, to enjoy the view, you 
have mounted to the top of the Palazzo Pub- 
blico, do not fail to visit its sumptuous halls, 
frescoed by Sodoma, Simone Martini, Lorenzetti, 
and many another master of the Sienese school. 
But the great blossom of the city's architectural 
wealth must be sought at the cathedral. Most 
of the open space about it proves, on inspection, 
to have been intended for the interior of the huge 
edifice originally projected. Around half the open 
square we still see the inside walls of the first- 
planned structure, their courses of white and 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

black marble harmonizing with the exterior of 
the completed church. Fortunately, this over- 
ambitious plan was never carried into effect, for 
the church as we see it to-day, although smaller 
in size, has obviously benefited by the concentra- 
tion of ornament. The west front is a riot of 
coloured marbles and Gothic sculpture, while at 
the eastern end the slope of ground permitted 
the construction of an under-church, used as a 
Baptistery, itself boasting of a graceful facade. 

It is doubtful if there is anywhere another 
church possessing such a bewildering array of 
different sorts of decoration as that which bursts 
upon us when we enter the interior. Wherever 
we look something has been sculptured or painted 
or built the forest of black and white columns 
with their finely chiselled capitals, the delicately 
sculptured tombs, the rich frescoes of Pinturicchio, 
the army of little figures upon the imposing marble 
pulpit, the choir stalls gleaming in the sombre 
beauty of their old wood, the pavement intricately 
pictured in black and white marbles, while from 
the cornice far above looks down a long row of 
benignant papal countenances. So on we go 
through many a quaint and alluring detail, until 



we reach our glass, displayed in two circular em- 
brasures, both of noble proportions, one at the 
western end, and the other at the eastern. The 
latter is the earlier, and is of the mosaic period. 
None of its contemporaries can boast of such careful 
and well-balanced treatment as is shown in the nine 
compartments into which its surface is subdivided 
by the stout iron saddle bars, so-called because of 
the duty they discharge in supporting so great a 
weight of glass and lead. Certain details (such 
as the wavy outline of the medallions enclosing 
four of the figures) are so reminiscent of some 
at Orvieto and in the lower church at Assisi, 
that one is inclined to call the window a contem- 
porary of those others : this would place it just 
after the middle of the I4th century. We know 
from the records that Bonino and Angioletto di 
Gubbio worked upon the windows at all three of 
these places, which tends to confirm the dating 

The general effect of the eastern occhio is the 
usual clear blue of its period, but warmed up by 
judicious use of many colours. Note the unusual 
treatment of the gay borders, each of the nine sub- 
divisions being different, and yet harmonizing so 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

completely that these differences are not at first 
observed. The three large panels running down 
the middle contain scenes, each made up of a 
number of figures. Below is the death of the 
Virgin, in the centre her ascension, and above is 
her coronation. Notice the lilac used for the death 
bed in the lowest picture, and also the grouping. 
In the central panel there is a fine toss to the 
angels* wings, and in them an adroit combination 
of lilac, red, and other contrasting tints. In the 
coronation scene, the broad golden bench serves 
to centralize one's attention upon the two person- 
ages seated thereon, while about it are grouped 
angels of various hues. Some of the halos are red 
and some yellow, as is also the case in the lowest 
scene this shows the work to be early. Very 
skilful is the handling of the nearly triangular spaces 
at what may be called the four corners of the 
window. An Evangelist is seated in the taller 
portion of each, while the rapidly decreasing re- 
mainder of each space is deftly fitted with his 
appropriate symbol the lion for St. Mark, etc. 
On both sides of the central panel are two saints, 
each within a medallion, whose wavy border recalls 
those at Assisi and Orvieto. No more interesting 



In the background is the finest occhio of the mosaic period in Italy. Its nine 
compartments (see page. 137) can be clearly distinguished. Note the richly pictured 
pavement, the cornice of papal heads, etc. 


or more beautiful chef-d'oeuvre of the Italian mosaic 
type exists. 

Altogether different is the fine occhio at the 
western end, designed in 1 549 by Raphael's scholar, 
Perino del Vaga. It was executed by Pastorino, 
the versatile pupil of William de Marcillat, whose 
skill in glazing was equalled by his remarkable 
medals and coins, as well as his coloured portraits 
in wax and stucco. Unfortunately, Pastorino's pro- 
bity was not so well developed as his artistic nature, 
for we read that having been paid for the window, 
he tried to decamp without finishing it, causing the 
citizens the painful necessity of locking him up in 
order to ensure the continuance of his residence 
among them and the completion of his task. In 
this window we see the full-blown Renaissance with 
its classical colonnades, garlands, cherubs, etc., all 
complete. It depicts the Last Supper, but in 
perhaps too conventional and ornate a fashion. 
There is certainly too much architectural back- 
ground, notwithstanding an attempt to relieve it 
by abundant strands of flowers, festoons of bright 
ribbons, and gay cherubs disporting themselves in 
most unexpected places. The border is noteworthy 
for its simplicity merely a plain moulding run 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

around inside the embrasure. The window is un- 
deniably fine, but it suffers by comparison with its 
older sister at the other end of the church. 

Before going out, let us pass from the left side 
of the nave into the famous Piccolomini Library, 
which is entirely frescoed by Pinturicchio in his 
most brilliant manner a memorial erected by Pope 
Pius III to his kinsman, Pius II. Its two tall 
windows are each surcharged with a large blason 
of the family, their golden crescents on a blue 
cross being surrounded by an ample green wreath 
reminiscent of those which hang in our windows 
at Christmas time. These wreaths are frequently 
used in Italy to frame coats of arms. 

The small church of Fontegiusta has a special 
claim upon the attention of the American traveller, 
for over its entrance are suspended some weapons 
presented by Christopher Columbus, together with 
the large bone of a whale, the latter perhaps assist- 
ing the arms to testify to his having conquered the 
Atlantic as well as its western shore. Between 
these interesting trophies is a small round window, 
of good glazing and noticeably fine drawing. 
Standing upon a red and gold pavement are the 
Virgin and Child between St. Catherine of Siena 



and St. Dominic. A railing done in the Classical 
manner gracefully divides the background, and 
assists the rich blue above it to throw out the 
figures in bold relief. 

Siena, perched on her three connecting hills, 
is not an easy city to leave, for in addition to her 
many picturesque attractions there are few places in 
Italy where one can so easily make a comparative 
study of the entire course of mediaeval art. 

Eighty-five kilometres south of Siena lies 
Grosseto, near the sea, and in its principal church 
is an interesting I5th century window. This is a 
long trip to make for one window, and it is only 
mentioned in case the traveller is purposing to tarry 
so long in Siena that he will have plenty of time 
at his disposal to visit all the points of interest in 
the neighbourhood. 



f~ "^HOSE two agreeable adjectives, "old- 
fashioned " and " mysterious," are 
M somehow pleasantly blended when one 

thinks of an arcaded street. To these 
picturesque charms there should be added the 
practical recommendation of protection from both 
sun and rain. Thus to combine beauty and utility 
must satisfy even the most exacting Ruskin of us 
all. And to enjoy this combination we must repair 
to Bologna, which, more than any other city in the 
world, is the "Arcady of Arcades." Nor are her 
arcades in any way monotonous, for each house- 
holder has pleased his own fancy in constructing 
that portion of the covered sidewalk running below 
his dwelling, and so you wander, semi-subterra- 
neously, through all parts of the city, careless alike 
of rain or sunstroke, happy in the protection and 
quaint beauty of these sheltered ways. Just how 
Bologna strikes the passing aeroplanist it is still too 
early to enquire. All he can see is the driveway of 



the streets, and his first passage over the city must 
give him the impression that its citizens are all too 
opulent or too haughty to travel on foot, since he 
sees only vehicles or cavaliers. But the time is at 
hand to adjust our point of view so as to include 
that of the voyager by aeroplanes, and Baedeker 
must soon add bird's-eye views to his treasury of 
impressions at second hand. Perhaps we shall soon 
read in his pages, " Thanks to the arcaded streets of 
Bologna which obscure foot passengers from the view 
of passing aeroplanes, the city is readily recognized 
by travellers in those vehicles. Care should be taken 
to avoid striking any of the towers of this town, 
two of which are leaning ones, and are very useful 
as a landmark for those planing down from a 
distance." Bologna peculiarly deserves this refe- 
rence to the newest manifestation of applied science, 
for in that field she has always been most pro- 
gressive. It was here that Marconi, a gifted son 
of her ancient university, made the first practical 
demonstration of that crowning wonder of the 
1 9th century, wireless telegraphy. This feat re- 
vives the memory of a similar one by Galvani, 
who here discovered galvanism in 1789. It was 
in her university that took place that dramatic 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

scene, the first scientific dissection of the human 

To reach Bologna the traveller from Florence 
has spent several hours in climbing and tunnelling 
the mountain wall by which the Apennines shut off 
Tuscany from the fertile flatness of Lombardy. 
The very monotony of the plain on which the city 
stands makes one all the more receptive of the 
many picturesque attractions within it. 

The stained glass of Bologna proves entirely 
adequate to the promise of interest which the aspect 
of the city holds out to the arriving pilgrim. This 
standard is a high one, for in addition to the laby- 
rinth of arcades, and the leaning towers swaying 
across each other, there are the high-perched 
column-borne tombs at the street corners, the theat- 
rically impressive public square set about with great 
buildings from the storied past, etc. San Petronio, 
the largest ecclesiastical edifice in the city, is the 
richest in stained glass, but many of its windows 
were destroyed, and that too in an unusual fashion. 
It was here that Charles V was crowned Emperor 
by Pope Clement VII, and during the public rejoic- 
ings which followed this momentous event, the 
discharge of artillery salutes played havoc with the 



This chapel is known to have been glazed by the great St. James of Ulm. This 
picture reveals the graceful use of Gothic canopies brought by him from the north, 
but cannot convey the rich colouring learned during his long sojourn in Italy. 


cathedral's glass. We are but poorly consoled for 
this loss by the knowledge that none could more 
deeply have regretted it than the Emperor himself, 
so enthusiastic a patron was he of this art. For this 
disaster to glass which marked the beginning of his 
reign, ample amends were made by him in grants 
of special privileges to many glaziers, and in en- 
couragement of the craft by large commissions for 
windows of both religious and secular buildings. 
Notwithstanding the smashing just described, ten of 
the twenty-two chapels retain their original glazing. 
The church as it stands to-day is but part of the 
original and over-ambitious design, and consists of 
one long nave flanked by eleven shallow chapels on 
each side. There is here afforded an excellent 
opportunity for comparative study of different 
periods and methods of glazing, all however fitted 
to the same sized embrasures, but ranging from 
the strongest pot-metal colouring to the saddest 
example of peeled enamel. The third chapel on 
the right as you enter is known to have been done 
by St. James of Ulm. The worthy James died in 
Bologna in 1491, over eighty years of age, and so 
saintly had been his life, and so numerous were the 
miracles performed at his tomb that he was 

145 L 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

canonized. The festival of this saint fell upon the 
second Sunday of October, and was for many years 
religiously observed by the company of glassmakers 
in Paris. His charming window, made about 1466, 
shows a delightful Italian adaption of the northern 
canopy type. It reveals careful attention to detail, 
while his years spent in Italy show themselves in 
the richness of every part of the shrines. Note 
how the intricate Gothic pinnacles that top the 
small structures are thrown out against the deep 
blue. One is at a loss whether to bestow greater 
admiration upon the glowing mosaic borders, or his 
use of such soft tints as mulberry or sage green. 
It is doubtful if the northern style can show a finer 
canopy window, and yet you have only to cross the 
nave to the fourth chapel from the west to see how 
incomparably richer is the Renaissance architecture 
of the Italian, Cossa, lavish in his use of pot-metal 
blues, greens, and purples. His simulated stone 
work is as deep in warm colour as his figures. The 
fifth chapel on the left side was glazed by Lorenzo 
Costa, but unfortunately he painted the glass too 
much, unwilling seemingly to rely upon the colour- 
ing introduced during its manufacture. It affords 
a striking argument against painting the surface. 



His yellow inclines to brownish orange, and it may 
be said generally that his effects are thick, rather 
than beautifully clear like Cossa's. The eighth chapel 
on the right boasts no less a designer than Michael 
Angelo, but alas ! it was executed by a man who 
relied upon enamelled colour. This has resulted 
disastrously, for in more than one place the enamel 
has peeled off and left glaring white patches in 
the picture. Even this cannot spoil the design ; 
see how naturally one of the figures in the lower 
tier is glancing at the flying cherubs above. 
If only the glazier had proved worthy of the 
design ! 

All these windows are of four lancets of two 
tiers of shrined figures each, except the third 
chapel on the left, where there are three tiers. 
All have handsome bold tracery lights above, 
whose central feature is always a small bull's-eye 
aperture, the glazing of which repays inspection. 
Two at least are known to have been designed by the 
great Francia ; their simplicity and low tints make 
them easy to select. Note them well, for thus you 
will be able to recognize the same skilful hand in 
the chapel of the Poltroni in San Martino, and in two 
small bull's eyes on the right side of the Church of 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

the Misericordia. These last named have been 
locally accredited to St. James of Ulm (in the same 
generous manner in which good German glass is 
frequently assigned to Albrecht Diirer), but none of 
our company will hesitate to render unto Francia 
the things that are Francia's. His slender borders 
are carefully drawn, particularly the one in San 
Martino where the pine cones of the Poltroni arms 
are repeated, but without too much accent upon 
them. Francia seems to have preferred to paint his 
figures in low blue and white, with stronger blue 
and some green in the background. 

A famous bull's eye of the larger type is to be 
seen in the west front of San Giovanni in Monte. 
It is by Cossa, the artist who glazed the fourth 
chapel on the left in San Petronio. The seven 
lamps of St. John's vision are seen ranged across 
the sky, while the Saint himself (in yellow, red, 
and green) is seated in a brown mountainous land- 
scape, scattered over which are small green trees, 
and here and there a tiny village of bright red. 
The gay border of typical Italian arabesques 
contains so much of the same blue as that used 
in the picture as to make the ensemble a very blue 
one. It is as interesting as you can well imagine, 



A chapel glazed by Lorenzo Costa, the great colourist of Bologna. Note that _his 
canopies are Renaissance, and also the small occhio above, one of the many so pleasing 
in this city. 


but undeniably coarser in design and colour than 
we have a right to expect of its period. 

One of the most unusual sights of this ancient 
town is a huddle of seven churches of different 
ages, one opening into the other, called St. 
Stephen's. They come straggling down the ladder 
of time from the 4th to the iyth century. We shall 
be chiefly interested in the one dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Paul, for there in the east wall, as 
well as over the apse, are slender lancets filled with 
translucent pink alabaster. What a long road it is 
from these slender lights to the triumphs of Cossa 
and St. James in San Petronio ! 



EVERYONE of us possesses a private 
picture gallery called " Memory." Some 
of its rooms are kept swept and garnished, 
and are often entered to enjoy anew 
scenes long ago visited. In others of the rooms 
the pictures are sadly faded ; perhaps there are 
certain doors of which the keys have been 
lost ! Whoever has seen Venice will agree that 
its place in the memory gallery is a bright and 
glowing corner, and one to which we frequently 
resort. The glories of this amphibious queen of 
the Adriatic have been so often painted, sung, and 
written, and from so many angles and points of 
view, that whoever, at this late day, ventures to 
write of her should be called upon in advance to 
justify his temerity. As a guarantee, therefore, of 
our good faith, let us promptly plead our excuse, 
which shall be, that for stained glass enthusiasts 
Venice is of distinct interest because she was the 
factory from whence came most of the material 



for the windows throughout Italy. Furthermore, 
as the beginnings of this craft owe much to Byzan- 
tine art, it is but proper that we visit the city which 
was the portal through which that art entered the 
peninsula. The morsels of glass which compose 
the wealth of mosaic of which Venice rightly boasts 
have for centuries been manufactured on the islands 
of the lagoon. It was from Byzantium that Venice 
learned this art, and it is both to the designers of 
mosaic, and the Venetian glass blowers that Italian 
windows owed their beginnings and their early 
impetus. Such is our excuse for asking you to 
visit, or re-visit, Venice ; an excuse is surely all 
that you require, for no argument has ever been 
necessary to turn a pilgrim's footsteps towards the 
"city of gondolas," the echoes of whose music 
along the Grand Canal o'nights linger so long in 
our ears. Is Venice more glorious in the glow of 
the sunlight, or in the mystery of the moonlight 
who shall say ? But will we agree, no matter what 
he says ? 

Nothing is easier than to conjure up visions 
of ancient argosies richly laden from the Levant, 
pushing in from the Adriatic, and dropping anchor 
off that rosy masterpiece of architecture known as 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

the Doge's Palace. Nor is it difficult to picture 
to oneself the sumptuously adorned barges of the 
Republic sweeping out to sea to solemnize the 
wedding of the Doge with the Adriatic, thus 
officially symbolizing to all the world Venice's 
proud assumption of controlling the gateway to 
the opulent East. But it will not be easy for the 
reader to believe that this same Venice was once 
filled with the filthy smoke of glass furnaces, and 
yet this will be as true a picture as the others, for 
toward the end of the I3th century the success of 
the Venetian glass blowers was such that their 
furnaces abounded in every quarter of the city. So 
numerous did they become that the city fathers 
decided that they were injurious to the public 
health, and banished them beyond the limits of 
the municipality. They sought refuge on the 
Island of Murano and certain others near by, so 
that Venice abated the smoke nuisance without 
losing control of this profitable trade. Viewed 
from a purely modern standpoint this action of 
the Great Council seems difficult to understand. 
Suppose, for example, it were to-day suggested 
that all cigar makers be banished from Havana, 
or all steel plants from Pittsburgh, or all factories 



from Birmingham, such steps, however beneficial 
to the public health of those cities would, we fear, 
prove very disastrous to the private health of their 
advocates. One is moved to wonder whether any 
artistic motives entered into this official solicitude 
for the public health. May it not have been that 
certain of the city fathers received warnings, either 
by bad dreams or otherwise, of Birminghams and 
Pittsburghs yet unborn ! We have just observed 
that care was taken that in banishing the furnaces 
the pockets of the citizens should not lose the 
profits of their smoky chimneys. Nor was this 
the only occasion upon which this same " eye for 
the main chance " characterized the action of the 
city authorities. From the records of Assisi, 
Florence, Arezzo, and elsewhere, we learn that not 
only did the Venetians purvey glass for the windows 
of other cities, but that the Venetian glaziers were 
so much in demand that it became the custom for 
groups of them to travel from place to place, and 
assemble their glass into windows after the designs 
of local artists. These bands of artisans so grew 
in number that the Venetian Council established 
for them stringent regulations, not only requiring 
them to obtain permission to undertake contracts, 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

but even, as in one instance at Assisi, forbidding 
more work than that for which 100 lire would be a 
proper compensation. In order to guard the city 
against the loss of its profitable monopoly these 
itinerant workmen were prohibited from setting 
up glass furnaces in any other city. The more 
one reads the history of Venice and learns such 
details as these, the easier is it to understand the 
commercial importance which its merchants ac- 
quired. So far from fearing monopolies, every 
nerve was then being strained to build them up 
and hold them fast. 

We may as well promptly admit that there is 
but little stained glass now to be seen in Venice. 
Indeed, there remains none of importance except 
what was once the splendid window at the Church 
of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which unfortunately was 
allowed to fall into bad condition. It consists of 
one large subject spread across four lights, a 
treatment unusual in Italy. It is interesting to 
observe the manner in which the artist worked up 
his blues, passing from pale tints in the water to 
a deeper tone in the sky, and deeper yet in the 
hills. The drawing of the subject is more un- 
restrained than one would expect from its date, 



This typical early mosaic shows clearly that stained glass in its early stages found 
the mosaic makers, who transferred to windows the 

well-equipped designers among 
Byzantine outlines already so fa 

miliar in their mosaics. 


which is 1473. By way of eking out this one 
window we would recommend a visit to Torcello, 
an island in the lagoon. Its cathedral contains 
some early embrasures filled with slabs of trans- 
lucent alabaster. No one realizes more than the 
writer how difficult it is when one has reached 
Venice and surrendered to its charm, to leave it 
even for so short a trip as that to the neighbouring 
islands of Torcello and Murano. It should be 
attempted, however, for, although they are not so 
magnificent as their sumptuous sister, they have 
the merit of preserving their ancient appearance 
almost intact. The archives in many Italian 
churches tell of agents being sent to fetch Murano 
glass for their glaziers. Several early references 
are made in the Assisi records to such purchases, 
nor was this trade confined to any one epoch, for it 
persisted for many centuries. Even as late as 1525, 
William de Marcillat sent his pupil, Maso Porro, 
to buy Murano glass for use in the great windows 
at Arezzo. 

Although the primary purpose of our tour is 
the study of glass, it can in no wise be considered 
an infidelity to that purpose if we recommend that 
the mosaics at Venice be carefully observed. They 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

were designed by men who provided the drawings 
for the early windows, and it is because of them 
that the first period is named for their mosaic 
medallions. Therefore the inspection of the 
Venetian mosaics will be of distinct service in 
enabling us to come to an understanding and 
appreciation of the designs of the early glass of 
Assisi, Orvieto, and Siena. 



ONCE upon a time near a small town 
lying south of Bologna a sturdy 
peasant lad interrupted his daily task 
of hewing wood in the forest to regale 
himself with a sight of one of the many troops of 
mercenaries which were then overrunning Italy. 
Bravely were they armed, and excellently mounted, 
for whether their pay was peacefully drawn from 
towns employing their services, or forcefully 
wrenched from the treasury of captured cities, 
come it did and in abundance. No wonder the 
boy was interested, for the current tales of the 
adventures of these condottieri were enough to 
captivate boyish fancy. It happened that they 
noticed this strongly built lad leaning upon his 
axe. Recruits of his physique were always useful, 
so the leader beckoned to him to approach, and 
invited him to join the troop. His unusual reply 
has come down in history, " I will throw my axe 
into the branches of that oak and if it stays there 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

I will go with you." The axe stayed where it was 
flung, and there joined them the boy afterwards 
famous as the founder of the House of Sforza, 
a family that for over three hundred years governed 
the duchy of Milan, and exercised potent influence 
beyond the boundary of the fertile plains of Lom- 
bardy. He was both a thrifty and an industrious 
soul, was this same Francesco. Some time after 
the death of our friend Castruccio Castracane (with 
whom we marched into the cathedral at Lucca), 
Francesco went that way on a business trip, politely 
termed a military campaign. So business-like was 
he that after he had been paid by Paolo Guinigi, 
ruler of Lucca, for driving off the besieging 
Florentines, he accepted 50,000 ducats from the 
said Florentines to take himself promptly out of 
Tuscany, which he did, but not before pocketing 
another 12,000 ducats from the Luccans for driving 
out the same Guinigi on whose business Francesco 
had originally left home. Once, when Galeazzo 
wanted to make a formal entry into Milan on a 
Saturday, Francesco wrote him to change his plan 
" for on that day the ladies will be washing their 
hair, and the troops have their work to do/' 
Pleasure was never allowed to interfere with 



business, when Francesco had his say. The history 
of the city's growth in strength and importance, 
as well as that of the building of its principal 
monuments is wrapped up in the history of the 
Sforzas. Of all the families of despots which, 
during the Middle Ages, governed the cities of 
Italy, the Sforzas of Milan and the Medicis of 
Florence stand out pre-eminent not only for their 
strong rule but also for the benefits which resulted 
therefrom to their people. 

Foreigners generally remember Milan as the 
city which lies about the cathedral of Milan ! The 
broad, busy thoroughfares of this modernized 
metropolis, the fine large shops, and the omni- 
present tram-cars all combine to obscure from us 
its storied past. Its commercial importance is but 
natural, stationed as it is, "the middle city" (for 
that is the story of its name) between the lands 
north of the mountains and the oft-embattled cities 
of the Italian peninsula to the south. Its bustling, 
successful present contrives to crowd out memories 
of the time when Emperor Constantine selected it 
as the capital of the western half of his Empire. 
But what if all this modernity does so thrust itself 
forward as to push the ancient city into an obscure 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

background ! that same submerged antiquity has 
its revenge in so stamping our memory with the 
image of the vast cathedral as to efface all other 
local impressions. And what a cathedral ! the 
like of it exists nowhere else. Here stands frozen 
into stone the centuries-long struggle between the 
builders who wished it to speak in northern Gothic, 
and they who favoured the Latin basilica a huge 
structure that displays both the much-desired height 
of the north, and the roomy breadth of the southern 
architect. Nor is the contrast between these two 
characteristics any more marked than that between 
the spacious reddish brown interior and the exterior 
of glittering white, with its upward discharge of 
volley on volley of sculptured pinnacles. Whim- 
sically appropriate to this thought is it that this 
army of two thousand carved figures was added 
during the Napoleonic era. Many as are the 
criticisms that may be directed at this adaptation 
by southerners of northern Gothic, it is impossible 
to deny that the result is impressive. Effective it 
always is brilliant in its glitter under the noonday 
sun, or ghostly in the mysterious pallor it assumes 
as the twilight is closing into night. Moonlight 
puts life into the myriad figures that people its 

1 60 


The enormous size of these embrasures, as well as the graceful lines of their stone 
traceries, is clearly seen. Note the Gothic transom thrown across the middle of these- 
windows to balance their great height. 


roof, and changes it to a fairyland of silent folk 
mutely recalling the past so completely stifled 
during the day by the modern city on every side. 

We have spoken of the reddish brown tone of 
the interior, and of this effect let us remark that 
it is as helpful to the great array of stained glass 
as are the coloured windows to it. Each helps the 
other to produce as harmonious a bower of light 
as one can anywhere see. Strangely enough, there 
is none of the usual jarring contrasts between the 
1 6th century windows and their neighbours of the 
1 5th century. The same warm colour scheme 
sweeps round the church from one side to the 
other, even where, as in the apse, it is obvious 
that modern glass has been used to eke out whole 
sections of the huge embrasures, the old patterns 
and colours having been followed in an unusually 
reverent manner. The result is an harmonious 
whole a well-attuned chant in melodious tone and 
tint that echoes all about us. You will see finer 
individual windows in many another church, but it 
is rare to come upon such a gratifying sense of 
undisturbed continuity of colour scheme, and that 
too in such amazing quantity. Indeed, the pro- 
portions of the edifice are so ample that an ordinary 

161 M 

A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

amount of stained glass would have been lost in it. 
Even the side aisles are lofty enough to have been 
the naves of most cathedrals, while so broad is the 
space upon which we enter that we are at first 
deceived as to the unusual height and breadth of 
of the embrasures. Large as these are, they are 
exceeded by the lavish proportions of the huge 
windows that stand at the east behind the high 
altar. Of these latter, each has twelve lancets 
crossed by a graceful Gothic transom. The whole 
expanse of each window is broken up into a series 
of small scenes one above the other eleven in 
some lancets and ten in others, depending on where 
the transom happens to cross. These transoms are 
used to assist the effect of most of the windows 
in the church, and general also is this system of 
glazing in small scenes. These little groups are 
almost exclusively used on the south side of the 
nave, but opposite, on the north side, some of the 
pictures are carried right across the embrasure, 
regardless of the interruption of the mullions 
dividing it into separate lancets. In order to gain 
more light at the western end of the nave, close 
by where one enters, only the lower half of the 
three most westerly windows on each side are glazed 



in colour, the upper halves being given over to 
uncoloured panes. All these nave embrasures have 
the Gothic transom running across them that we 
noticed in the apse. The transepts are as elabo- 
rately and appropriately glazed as the other parts 
of the church. We commence to realize the great 
height of the interior when we look up at the 
clerestory lights, and notice that they are so 
distant that we are unable to distinguish their 
designs and must needs be content with their 
satisfying colour. 

Upon the long series of lancets that compass 
us about on all sides there is set forth such a 
bewildering array of Bible stories that it seems 
almost invidious to the others to attempt to de- 
scribe any one. Certain pictures representing 
mediaeval shipping strike the eye at once, and their 
examination makes clear that ocean navigation has 
progressed more rapidly than the art of making 
beautiful windows ! The use of deep reds and 
blues in the nave impresses one, as indeed does the 
general note of warm and rich tones throughout. 
The 1 6th century glass here conspicuously lacks 
the customary light tints of that period, and this 
explains why it harmonizes so well with the deeper 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

tones of its [5th century neighbours. One would 
almost conclude that the 1 6th century glaziers were 
purposely warned to refrain from the excessive use 
of yellow stain and grey in which they so delighted. 
We should also note the instances where the 
designers declined to allow the structure of the 
window to interfere with their artistic expression. 
Generally they permitted the mullions and iron 
bars to restrict them to small pictures, and in that 
event to frame them, but sometimes they absolutely 
disregarded these architectural intrusions, and spread 
their story right across an embrasure regardless of 
where the stone or iron lines might cross it. How- 
ever, it is clear to us moderns that these men of 
the Middle Ages thoroughly understood the medium 
in which they worked, for their effects possess both 
charm and excellence. 

The Certosa of Pavia, 30 kilometres away to 
the south, is not the only excursion which lures us 
out into the country that lies about Milan. Saronna 
is distant only 25 kilometres to the north-west, 
and in its pilgrimage church, precious for the 
masterpiece of Luini, and Gaudenzio's delightful 
choir of angels, is an interesting I5th century 
window. While it must be admitted that the 


As profoundly brown within as it is glitteringly white without. Note that-the window 
surfaces are broken up into little scenes, also the extreme loftiness of the clerestory lights. 


glass alone is not of sufficient importance to lure 
us so far afield, nevertheless, taken in combination 
with the admirable frescoes which adorn the walls 
about it, reason enough is given for a day out-of- 
doors in level Lombardy. 




are few men who are not more 
interesting than their monuments, and 
this is unquestionably true in the case ot 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan 
from 1385 to 1402, great as the compliment will 
seem to those who have visited his chief monument, 
the Certosa of Pavia, located five miles from Pavia on 
the road to Milan. An odd-shaped, shrewd head is 
his, as it appears painted on the wall of the semi- 
circular apse of the south transept, where, on his 
knees, he is offering a model of the Certosa to 
the Virgin. And the promise of his head is borne 
out by the story of his life. Boldly strong when 
force was needed, and yet at other times as 
stealthily guileful as any man could be who, like 
he, lacked physical courage in an age when it 
was almost the only common virtue. A very 
chameleon of statecraft, and yet withal a man who 
read and pondered much, as befitted the revival 
of learning, which was then becoming so potent 


Certosa di Pavia 

a factor in Italian development. One must not 
let the clash of arms which, during the Middle 
Ages, so constantly echoed up and down the 
peninsula, distract us from observing that at 
the same time men were busy bringing to light 
the hitherto neglected literary and artistic treasures 
of the Greeks and Romans, or that Plato, Homer, 
Virgil, and Aristotle were now being for the first 
time printed, and eagerly read. Most significant 
is it that men like Boccaccio were studying Greek 
after having reached man's estate, so that they 
might participate in the literary feast newly spread 
from the store of the long- neglected ancients. 
Gian Galeazzo was among the first to join in this 
revival of learning, thus evidencing one of the 
many traits that stamp him a leader of his time. 
Nor can he be charged, as can most of his con- 
temporaries, with being possessed of the vices, as 
well as the virtues, of the Renaissance, for he 
was temperate and of a clean life. But how did 
he win his dukedom ? for inheritance was not 
then a sure tenure. It happened in this wise. 
Upon his father's death his uncle and cousins 
decided to join in the division of the great herit- 
age, and as our hero found himself too weak to 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

resist, he made a virtue of that weakness, and a 
fruitful virtue it proved. He retired to Pavia, 
his modest share of the patrimony, and left his 
uncle to lord it in Milan and the other cities of 
the duchy. Gian encouraged the generally pre- 
vailing idea of his weakness, and let it be under- 
stood that he was leaning towards religious fanat- 
icism. Meanwhile he quietly assembled a strong 
bodyguard of German mercenaries, foreigners who 
had no ties in Italy other than their allegiance to 
him, their paymaster. When the seeming security 
of his kinsman's position had had time to ripen 
into over-confidence, Gian announced his intention 
one day in 1385 of going on a pilgrimage to 
Varese. As his route passed near Milan his uncle 
and the rest of his usurping kin rode out to 
greet him. When he had them surrounded by 
his guards, he gave an order in German, the trap 
was sprung they were all prisoners ! He rode 
on to Milan, readjusted the status quo by quite 
simply poisoning his uncle that night, and relieved 
the other members of his family of any further 
inconvenience from their estates. It was as com- 
plete as it was simple. His attention to the 
duties of government is a lesson to such modern 


Certosa di Pavia 

officials as wish to carry out the pledges of the 
platform upon which they were elected. Symonds 
says, " His love of order was so precise that he 
may be said to have applied the method of a 
banker's office to the conduct of a State. It was 
he who invented Bureaucracy by creating a special 
class of paid clerks and secretaries of departments. 
Their duty consisted in committing to books and 
ledgers the minutest items of his private expendi- 
ture and the outgoings of his public purse ; in 
noting the details of the several taxes, so as to 
be able to present a survey of the whole State 
revenue." Chiefly is he known to posterity as 
the builder of the Certosa, or Carthusian monas- 
tery, near Pavia. This must not be taken to mean 
that his successors did not add to his work, for 
the Certosa is a history in stone of the entire 
range of the Renaissance in Lombardy. But his 
is the credit for having created and endowed this 
beautiful group of edifices, and it stands as a 
monument to one of the really great statesmen 
of the Middle Ages. So elaborate is the structure 
in every part, without and within, that there are 
some who claim that it is over-adorned, but not 
so we. However true it may be that one should 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

not paint a lily, let us insist that it is impossible 
to over- decorate anything built of stone, for every 
judicious stroke of the chisel tends to lighten the 
appearance of the weighty material, and lightness out 
of strength is architectural beauty. But even those 
who, like Des Brosses, writing in 1739, ^ n( ^ tne 
facade " a magnificent muddle of every imaginable 
ornament distributed without selection and with- 
out taste," are bound to admit with him that the 
interior " strikes one on entering by its magnifi- 
cence, fine proportions, its vaulting one of the 
most satisfying things I have ever seen in my 
life." Were we to attempt to refer to its many 
fascinating features we would become lost in the 
maze of detail. The greater part of the stained 
glass is of the latter half of the I5th century. 
The finest of the windows are by Cristoforo de 
Mottis and Stefano da Pandino. The former's 
best effort is in the old sacristy, representing St. 
Bernard and the demon, and thus dated, "opus 
Christofori de Motis 1477,*' while in the chapel 
of San Siro the window depicting the Archangel 
Michael bears the legend, " Antonius de Pan- 
dinus me facit." Mottis is also known to have 
been the glazier of the San Gregorio Magno 


Certosa di Pavia 

window in the transept, which bears many small 
buckets, the badge of Duke Galeazzo Maria 
Sforza, showing that it could not have been later 
than 1476. Another of his windows is that of 
the Annunciation in the first chapel on the right. 
Both Mottis and Pandino came to the Certosa 
after having proved their skill in the cathedral 
at Milan, where other members of Pandino's 
family had glazed as well as he. Mottis's brother 
Jacopo was also engaged upon the stained glass 
at the Certosa, from 1485 to 1491. The problem 
of sufficient illumination has been handled just 
behind Gian's tomb in a pleasantly frank way 
the coloured panes are stopped about a third of 
the way from the top, and white glass used 
above, reminding one of a custom dear to the 

There are many memories lingering about 
Pavia. Our own Columbus studied at its Uni- 
versity about 1477, and there too was educated 
Lanfranc, later Bishop of far-away Canterbury. 
But the most outstanding episode of all is of 
course the famous battle of Pavia, where the 
royal invader Francis the First was defeated and 
taken prisoner. Tradition tells us that on the 


A Stained Glass Tour in Italy 

evening of his capture he was taken into the 
Certosa just as the monks in the choir were 

" Coagulatum est, sicut lac cor meum, 
Ego vero Icgem tuam meditatus sum," 

and that the unfortunate joined his voice with 
theirs when they came to 

" Bonum mihi quia humiliasti me 
Ut discam justifications tuas." 



IF, gentle reader, the author has found favour in 
your sight, please evidence that gratifying state of 
mind by advising him (at the address below the 
Foreword) of any Italian glass, not herein reported, 
which you may discover in your rambles. 



Arezzo . . . I5th, i6th . . 72 

Assisi . . . 1 3th, I4th, I5th . 57 

Bologna . . . I5th, i6th . .142 

Cortona . . . i6th ... 63 

Florence . . . I4th, I5th, i6th . 78 

Grosseto . . . I5th . . . 141 

Lucca .... 1 5th . . .116 

Lucignano . . . i6th . . . 71 

Milan .... I5th, i6th . -15? 

Monte San Savino . i6th . . 71 

Orvieto . . . I4th, i5th . . 46 

Pavia (Certosa of ) . I5th . . .166 

Perugia . * . I5th, i6th . . 53 

Pisa . . . . 1 5th . . .125 

Prato . . . . 1 5th . . .in 

Rome . . . . 1 6th . . 38 

San Miniato . . I5th . . . 101 

Saronno . . . ifth . . .164 

Siecina . . . i6th . . . 77 

Siena . . .- . I4th, I5th, i6th . 133 

Vald'Ema . .' . 15*, i6th . .106 

Venice . . . I5th . . .150 










7*. 6d. net. 

ritten, and in a style which shows 
tion of the art he describes." 

11 has written a book which shows 
icdiaeval glass, but proves also his 
evolution and its changing style. 
' is a popular guide to the best 
ows remaining in this country." 

irrill is additionally happy in the 
illustrates his study by snatches of 
Dt only a study in art criticism, but 

; which should accompany every 

,ries he maps out for the reader 

arranged, and apart from its un- 

re of very practical value as a guide- 

vlr. Sherrill's enthusiastic apprecia- 
n considerable technical knowledge 
he best existing examples." 

guide-book, as well as a valuable 

very pleasant book, which should 
glass and for itself.'' 

This volume deserves unstinted 




With Sixteen Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 7*. 6d. net. 

MORNING POST. " It is well written, and in a style which shows 
that the author really feels the attraction of the art he describes." 

SPECTATOR. "Mr. C. H. Sherrill has written a book which shows 
him to be not only a true lover of mediaeval glass, but proves also his 
enlightened comprehension of its evolution and its changing style. 
* Stained Glass Tours in England ' is a popular guide to the best 
examples among the many fine windows remaining in this country." 

DAILY TELEGRAPH. "Mr. Sherrill is additionally happy in the 
grace and ingenuity with which he illustrates his study by snatches of 
history and gleams of anecdote. Not only a study in art criticism, but 
a panorama of the national life." 

DAILY GRAPHIC. " A volume which should accompany every 
archaeologically-minded person," 

STUDIO. "The various itineraries he maps out for the reader 
strike one as being extremely well arranged, and apart from its un- 
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book. 1 ' 

BIRMINGHAM DAILY POST. " Mr. Sherrill's enthusiastic apprecia- 
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and a very wide acquaintance with the best existing examples." 

WORLD. " A most acceptable guide-book, as well as a valuable 
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QUEEN." Altogether this is a very pleasant book, which should 
make many friends both for stained glass and for itself.'' 

WESTERN MORNING NEWS. "This volume deserves unstinted 




With Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 6;. net. 

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.-" It is a book for the sightseer. A 
book that lures him on to some appreciation of the glories of old glass." 

WESTMINSTER GAZETTE. "Useful and interesting. Mr. Sherrill 
gives just enough information to enable the lay reader to understand 
the difficulties with which the artist in coloured glass had to contend. 
Moreover he has the eloquence of a true enthusiast, and is able to 
communicate to others his own delight." 

PALL MALL GAZETTE. "Exceedingly useful. A work showing 
much industry, enthusiasm, and good taste. It is a really valuable 
supplementary volume to one's Murray or Baedeker. The author has 
excellent taste. r 

THE GLOBE. "An excellent handbook which shows very con- 
siderable knowledge of the subject." 

really looked, and looked lovingly at the windows he describes. His 
knowledge is evidently adequate, and he rearranges it in a form which 
he who automobiles may read." 

GUARDIAN. *' Mr. Sherrill is good company, an enthusiast, and 
well informed in his subject." 

MORNING POST. "Mr. Sherrill does feel very sincerely the beauty 
of stained glass, and is able to communicate his feeling in writing. He 
pilots us on a pleasant cruise amongst some of the greatest of the 
French examples of the style." 

ATHENAEUM. ft It is well conceived and original, and shows him 
to have the eye of an artist and cultivation.' 1 


Those who possess old letters, documents, corre- 
spondence, MSS., scraps of autobiography, and 
also miniatures and portraits, relating to persons 
and matters historical, literary, political and social, 
should communicate with Mr. John Lane, The 
Bodley Head. Vigo Street, London, W., who will 
at all times be pleased to give his advice and 
assistance, either as to their preservation or 

Mr. Lane also undertakes the planning and 
printing of family papers, histories and pedigrees. 


An Illustrated Series of Monographs dealing with 

Contemporary Musical Life, and including 

Representatives of all Branches of the Art. 

Crown 8vo. Cloth. Price 2/6 net. 








Edited by J. T. GREIN. 
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MELVILLE. Author of " William Makepeace Thackeray." With 
two Photogravures and numerous other Illustrations. 2 vols. 
Demy 8vo. 323. net. 


of "Coke of Norfolk," and "Annals of a Yorkshire House." 
With a Colour Plate, 3 in Photogravure, and 27 other 
Illustrations. 2 vols. Demy 8vo. 323. net. 

*** Extracts might be multiplied indefinitely, but we have given enough to 
show the richness of the mine. We have nothing but praise for the editor's 
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manners and the lover of lively anecdote." Standard. 


lated from the original French by Mrs. WILLIAM HENRY ARTHUR. 
Edited, Revised, and with Annotations (including an account of 
Lucy Walter) by GEORGE DAVID GILBERT. With Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 2 is. net. 

*** When the Comte de Gramont went back to France and Mr. Pepys 
decided that to save his eyesight it was essential that he should suspend his 
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in Colour by DONALD MAXWELL. Demy 8vo. 2 is. net. 

%* The Empire of Austria with its strangely diversified population of many 
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%* Tnis is a fascinating book on a fascinating subject. It is written by a 
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GROSSMITH. With 32 full-page Illustrations. Demy 8ro. 
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*** Justly famous as a comedian of unique gifts, Mr. Weedon Grossmith is 
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" The House in St. Martin Street," " Juniper Hall," etc. With 
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%* This book deals with the Court life of Fanny Burney covering the years 
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by the pen of Fanny Bnrney. When the court was at St. James's the Keeper of 
the Robes had opportunities of visiting her own family in St. Martin Street, and 
also of meeting at the house of her friend Mrs. Ord "eveiything delectable in the 
blue way." Thither Horace Walpole would come in all haste from Strawberry 
Hill for the sole pleasure of spending an evening in her society. After such a 
meeting Fanny writes " he was in high spirits, polite, ingenious, entertaining, 
quaint and original." A striking account of the King's illness in the winter of 
1788-9 is given, followed by the widespread rejoicings for his recovery ; when 
London was ablaze with illuminations that extended for many miles around, and 
when "even the humblest dwelling exhibited its rush-light." The author and the 
illustrator of this work have visited the various places, where King George and 

8ueen Charlotte stayed when accompanied by Fanny Burney. Among these are 
xford, Cheltenham, Worcester, Weymouth and Dorchester; where sketches 
have been made, or old prints discovered, illustrative of those towns in the late 
i8th century savours of Georgian days. There the national flag may still be seen 
as it appeared before the union. 


Illustrated. Demy 8vo. 145. net. 



By PADRE Luis COLOMA, S.J., of the Real Academia Espariola. 
Translated by LADY MORETON. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
1 6s. net. 

%* " A new type of book, half novel and half history," as it is very aptly 
called in a discourse delivered on the occasion of Padre Coioma's election to the 
Academia de Espana, the story of the heroic son of Charles V. is retold by one of 
Spain's greatest living writers with a vividness and charm all his own. The 
childhood ofjeromin, afterwards Don John of Austria reads like a mysterious 
romance. His meteoric career is traced through the remaining chapters of the 
book ; first as the attractive youth ; the cynosure of all eyes that were bright and 
gay at the court of Philip II., which Padre Coloma maintains was less austere 
than is usually supposed ; then as conqueror of the Moors, culminating as the 
"man from God" who saved Europe from the terrible peril of a Turkish 
dominion ; triumphs in Tunis ; glimpses of life in the luxury loving Italy of the 
day ; then the sad story of the war in the Netherlands, when our hero, victim 
of an infamous conspiracy, is left to die of a broken heart ; his end hastened by 
lever, and, maybe, by the "broth of Doctor Ramirez.' Perhaps more fully than 
ever before is laid bare the intrigue which led to the cruel death of the secretary, 
Escovedo, including the dramatic interview between Philip II. and Antonio 
Perez, in the lumber room of the Escorial. A minute account of the celebrated 
auto da fe in Valladolid cannot fail to arrest attention, nor will the details of 
several of the imposing ceremonies of Old Spain be less welcome than those of 
more intimate festivities in the Madrid of the sixteenth century, or of everyday 
life in a Spanish castle. 

*** "This book has all the fascination of a vigorous rotnan it clef . . . the 
translation is vigorous and idiomatic."^//-. Owen Edwards in Morning Post. 


LIFE. By Mrs. ALEC TWEEDIE. With Nineteen Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. i6s. net. Third Edition. 

*% It is a novel idea for an author to give her reasons for taking up her pen 
as a journalist and writer of books. This Mrs. Alec Tweedie has done in 
"Thirteen Years of a Busy Woman's Life." She tells a dramatic story of youthful 
happiness, health, wealth, and then contrasts that life with the thirteen years of 
hard work that followed the loss of her husband, her lather, and her income in 
quick succession in a few weeks. Mrs. Alec Tweedie's books of travel and 
biography are well-known, and have been through many editions, even to shilling 
copies for the bookstalls. This is hardly an autobiography, the author is too 
young for that, but it gives romantic, and tragic peeps into the life of a woman 
reared in luxury, who suddenly found herself obliged to live on a tiny income 
with two small children, or work and work hard to retain something of her old 
life and interests. It is a remarkable story with many personal sketches of some 
of the best-known men and women of the day. 

*% " One of the gayest and sanest surveys of English society we have read 
for years." Pall Mall Ga*ette. 

# % "A pleasant laugh from cover to cover." Daily Chronicle, 


Demy 8vo. izs. 6d, net. 

*** The author of this book of essays on the intercourse between England 
and France in the seventeenth century has gathered much curious and little- 
known information. How did the travellers proceed from London to Paris? Did 
the Frenchmen who came over to England learn, and did they ever venture 
to write English? An almost unqualified admiration for everything French then 
prevailed : French tailors, milliners, cooks, even fortune-tellers, as well as writers 
and actresses reigned supreme. How far did gallomunia affect the relations 
between the two countries ? Among the foreigners who settled in England none 
exercised such varied influence as the Hugenots; students of Shakespeare and 
Milton can no longer ignore the Hugenot friends of the two poets, historians of 
the Commonwealth must take into account the "Nouvelles ordinaires de 
Londres.'' the French gazette, issued on the Puritan side, by some enterprising 
refugee. Is it then possible to determine how deeply the refugees impressed 
English thought ? Such are the main questions to which the book affords an 
answer. With its numerous hitherto unpublished documents and illustrations, 
drawn from contemporary sources, it cannot fail to interest those to whom a most 



W. H. JAMES WEALE, with the co-operation of MAURICE 
BROCKWELL. With numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
I2S. 6d. net. 

**- The large book on "Hubert and John Van Eyck" which Mr. Weale 
published in 1908 through Mr. John Lane was instantly recognised by the 
reviewers and critics as an achievement of quite exceptional importance. It is 
novy felt that the time has come for a revised and slightly abridged edition of that 
which was issued four years ago at 5 55. net. The text has been compressed in 
some places and extended in others, while certain emendations have been made, 
and after due reflection, the plan ot the book has been materially recast. This 
renders it of greater assistance to the student. 

The large amount of research work and methodical preparation of a revised 
text obliged Mr. Weale, through failing health and eyesight, to avail himself of 
the services of Mr. Brockwell, and Mr. Weale gives it as his opinion in the new 
Foreword that he doubts whether he could have found a more able collaborator 
than Mr. Brockwell to edit this volume. 

"The Van Eycks and their Art," so far from being a mere reprint at a popular 
price of ' Hubert and John Van Eyck," contains several new features, notable 
among which are the inclusion of an Appendix giving details of all the sales at 
public auction in any country from 1662 to 1912 of pictures reputed to be by the 
Van Eycks. An entirely new and ample Index has been compiled, while the 
bibliography, which extends over many pages, and the various component parts 
of the book have been brought abreast of the most recent criticism. Detailed 
arguments are given for the first time of a picture attributed to one of the brothers 
Van Eyck in a private collection in Russia. 

In conclusion it must be pointed out that Mr. Weale has, with characteristic 
care, read through the proofs and passed the whole book for press. 

The use of a smaller format and of thinner paper renders the present edition 
easier to handle as a book of reference. 


The Life of Thomas Coke, First Earl of Leicester and of 
Holkham. By A. M. W. STIRLING. New Edition, revised, 
with some additions. With 19 Illustrations. In one volume. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 


TURQUAN. Author of "The Love Affairs of Napoleon," 
"The Wife of General Bonaparte." Illustrated. Demy 8vo. 
I2S. 6d. net. 

**# "The Empress Josephine" continues and completes the graphically 
drawn life story begun in " The Wife of General Bonaparte " by the same author, 
takes us through the brilliant period of the Empire, shows us the gradual 
development and the execution of the Emperor's plan to divorce his middle-aged 
wife, paints in vivid colours the picture of Josephine's existence after her divorce, 
tells us how she, although now nothing but his friend, still met him occasionally 
and corresponded frequently with him, and how she passed her time in the midst 
of her minature court. This work enables us to realise the very genuine 
affection which Napoleon possessed for his first wife, an affection which lasted 
till death closed her eyes in her lonely hermitage at La Malmaison, and until he 
went to expiate at Saint Helena his rashness m braving all Europe. Compar- 
atively little is known of the period covering Josephines life after her divorce, 

and yet M. Turquari has found much to tell us that is very interesting; for the 
ex-Empress in her two retreats, Navarre and La Malmaison, was visited by many 
celebrated people, and after the Emperor's downfall was so ill-judged as to 

welcome and fete several of the vanquished hero's late friends, now his declared 
enemies. The story of her last illness and death forms one of the most interesting 
chapters in this most complete work upon fhe first Empress of the French. 


A. M. BROADLEY. With an Introductory Essay on Pictorial Satire 
as a Factor in Napoleonic History, by J. HOLLAND ROSE, Litt. D. 
(Cantab.). With 24 full-page Illustrations in Colour and upwards 
of 200 in Black and White from rare and unique originals. 
2 Vols. Demy 8vo. 4.25. net. 

Also an Edition de Luxe. 10 guineas net. 


MANY. By F. LORAINE PETRE. Author of "Napoleon's 
Campaign in Poland," "Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia/' etc. 
With 17 Maps and Plans. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

*** In the author's two first histories of Napoleon's campaigns (1806 and 1807) 
the Emperor is at his greatest as a soldier. The third (1809) showed the 
commencement of the decay of his genius. Now, in 1813, he has seriously declined. 
The military judgment of Napoleon, the general, is constantly fettered by the 
pride and obstinacy of Napoleon, the Emperor. The military principles which 

guidedhi ----'-- _.,.,.--._- ^ 

or mere j 

army; he 

known in his earlier campaigns. Yet frequently, as at Bautsen and Dresden, his 
genius shines with all its old brilliance. 

The campaign of 1813 exhibits the breakdown of his over-centralised system 
of command, wnich left him without subordinates capable of exercising semi- 
independent command over portions of armies which had now grown to dimensions 
approaching those of our own day. 

The autumn campaign is a notable example of the system of interior lines, as 
opposed to that of strategical envelopment. It marks, too, the real downfall of 
Napoleon's power, for, after the fearful destruction of 1813, the desperate struggle 
of 1814, glorious though it was, could never have any real probability of success. 


PARIS. By JOHN JOSEPH CONWAY, M.A. With 32 Full-page 
Illustrations. With an Introduction by Mrs. JOHN LANE. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

*% Franklin, Jefferson, Munroe, Tom Paine, La Fayette, Paul Jones, etc., 
etc., the most striking figures of a heroic age, working out in the City of Light 
the great questions for which they stood, are dealt with here. Longfellow the 
poet of the domestic affections ; matchless Margaret Fuller who wrote so well of 
women in the nineteenth century ; Whistler master of American artists ; Saint- 
Gaudens chief of American sculptors ; Rumford, most picturesque of scientific 
knight-errants and several others get a chapter each for their lives and 
achievements in Paris. A new and absorbing interest is opened up to visitors. 
Their trip to Versailles becomes more pleasurable when they realise what 
Franklyn did at that brilliant court. The Place de la Bastille becomes a sacred 
place to Americans realizing that the principles of the young republic brought 
about the destruction of the vilest old dungeon in the world. The Seine becomes 
silvery to the American conjuring up that bright summer morning when Robert 
Fulton started from the Place de la Concorde in the first steam boat. The Louvre 
takes on a new attraction from the knowledge that it houses the busts of 
Washington and Franklyn and La Fayette by Houdon. The Luxembourg becomes 
a greater temple of art to him who knows that it holds Whistler's famous portrait 
of his mother. Even the weather-beaten bookstalls by the banks of the Seine 
become beautiful because Hawthorne and his son loitered among them on sunny 
days sixty years ago. The book has a strong literary flavour. Its history is 
enlivened wtth anecdote. It is profusely illustrated. 


WHISTLER : The Artist. By THOMAS R. WAY. Author of 
" The Lithographs of J. M. Whistler," etc. With numerous 
Illustrations. Demy 410. los. 6d. net. 

%* This volume contains about forty illustrations, including an unpublished 
etching drawn by Whistler and bitten in by Sir Frank Short, A.K.A., an original 
lithograph sketch, seven lithographs in colour drawn by the Author upon brown 
paper, and many in black and white. The remainder are facsimiles by photo- 
lithography. In most cases the originals are drawings and sketches by Whistler 
which have never been published before, and are closely connected with the 
matter of the book. The text deals with the Author's memories of nearly twenty 
year's close association with Whistler, and he endeavours to treat only with the 
man as an artist, and perhaps, especially as a lithographer. 

*Also an EDITION DE LUXE on hand-made paper, with the etching 
printed from the original plate. Limited to 50 copies. 

"This is Out of Print with the Publisher. 


CIETY : A Record of a Hundred Years' Work in the Cause of 
Music. Compiled by MYLES BIRKET FOSTER, F.R.A.M., etc. 
With 1 6 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

%*As the Philharmonic Society, whose Centenary is now being celebrated, is 
and has ever been connected, during its long existence, with the history of 
musical composition and production, not only in this country, but upon the 
Continent, and as every great name in Europe and America in the last hundred 
years (within the realm of high-class music), has been associated with it, this 
volume will, it is believed, prove to be an unique work, not only as a book of 
reference, but also as a record of the deepest interest to all lovers of good 

volume will, it is believed, prove to be an unique work, not only as a book of 
reference, but also as a record of the deepest interest to all lovers of good 
music. It is divided into ten Decades, with a small narrative account of the 
principal happenings in each, to which are added the full programmes of every 
concert, and tables showing, at a glance, the number and nationality of the per- 
formers and composers, with other particulars ol interest. The book is made ol 
additional value by means of rare illustrations of MS. works specially composed 
for the Society, and of letters from Wagner, Berlioz, Brahms, Liszt, etc., etc., 
written to the Directors and, by their permission, reproduced for the first time. 


Author of " The Magic of Spain." Demy 8vo. 75. 6d. net. 

*% The guide-books give full details of the marvellous convents, gorgeous 
palaces, and solemn temples of Portugal, and no attempt is here made to write 
complete descriptions of them, the very name of some of them being omitted. 
But the guide-books too often treat Portugal as a continuation, almost as a province 
of Spain. It is hoped that this little book may give some idea of the individual 
character of the country, of the quaintnesses of its cities, and of peasant life in 
its remoter districts. While the utterly opposed character* of the two peoples 
must probably render the divorce between Spain and Portugal eternal, and reduce 
hopes of union to the idle dreams of politicians. Portugal in itself contains an 
infinite variety. Each of the eight provinces (more especially those of the 
aletntejanos, tninhotos and beiroes) preserves many peculiarities of language, 
customs, and dress ; and each will, in return for hardships endured, give to the 
traveller many a day of delight and interest. 


Demy 8vo. ys. 6d. net. 

*** " From the author of 'Tales of Old Japan' his readers always hope for 
more about Japan, and in this volume they will find it. The earlier papers, 
however, are not to be passed over." Times. 

*% " Lo-d Redesdale's present volume consists of scholarly essays on a 
variety ol subjects of historic, literary and artistic appeal." Standard. 

% "The author of the classic 'Tales of Old Japan' is assured of welcome, 
and the more so when he returns to the field in which his literary reputation was 
made. Charm is never absent from his pages." Daily Chronicle. 


Crown 8vo. 6s. net. 

*% This book is absolutely true and vital. Within its pages passes the 
myriorama of prison life. And within its pages may be found revelations of the 
divine and the undivine ; of strange humility and stranger arrogance ; of free 
men brutalized and caged men humanized; of big and little tragedies; of love, 
cunning, hate, despair, hope. There is humour, too though sometimes the jest is 
made ironic by its sequel. And there is romance the romance of the real ; not the 
romance of Kipling's 9.15, but the romance of No. 19,093, and of all the other 
numbers that made up the arithmetical hell of San Quentin prison. 

Few novels could so absorb interest. It is human utterly. That is the reason. 
Not only is the very atmosphere of the prison preserved, from the colossal sense 
of encagement and defencelessness, to the smaller jealousies, exultations and 
disappointments ; not only is there a succession of characters emerging into the 
clearest individuality and genuineness, each with its distinctive contribution 
and separate value ; but beyond the details and through all the contrasted 
variety, there is the spell of complete drama the drama of life. Here is the 
underworld in continuous moving pictures, with the overworld watching. True, 
the stage is a prison; but is not all the world a stage ? 

It is a book that should exercise a profound influence on the lives of the 
caged, and on the whole attitude of society toward the problems of poverty and 



MRS. WARRENNE BLAKE. Author of " Memoirs of a Vanished 
Generation, 1813-1855." With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 
other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. i6s. net. 

%*The Irish Beauty is the Hon. Mrs. Calvert, daughter of Viscount Pery, 
Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and wife of Nicholson Calvert, M.P., of 
Hunsdon. Born in 1767, Mrs. Calvert lived to the age of ninety-two, and there 
are many people still living who remember her. In the delightful journals, now 
for the first time published, exciting events are described. 


from the German by JOHN LEES. With an Introduction by 
LORD REDESDALE. Demy 8vo. 2 vols. 253. net. Second 

%* A man who can write such a really beautiful and solemn appreciation of 
true Christianity, of true acceptance of Christ's teachings and personality, as 
Mr. Chamberlain has done. . . . represents an influence to be reckoned with 
and seriously to be taken into account.' Theodore Roosevelt in the Outlook, New 

*** ' It is a masterpiece of really scientific history. It does not make con- 
fusion, it clears it away. He is a great generalizer of thought, as distinguished 
from the crowd of mere specialists. It is certain to stir up thought. Whoever 
has not read it will be rather out of it in political and sociological discussions for 
some time to come." George Bernard Shaw in Fabian News. 

*** "This is unquestionably one of the rare books that really matter. His 
judgments of men and things are deeply and indisputably sincere and are based 
on immense reading . . . But even many well-informed people . . . will be 
grateful to Lord Redesdale for the biographical details which he gives them in the 
valuable and illuminating introduction contributed by him to this English 
translation." Times. 


COMMONS from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, with 
a Topographical Account of Westminster at Various Epochs, 
Brief Notes on Sittings of Parliament and a Retrospect of 
the principal Constitutional Changes during Seven Centuries. By 
ARTHUR IRWIN DASENT, Author of "The Life and Letters of JOHN 
DELANE," "The History of St. James's Square," etc., etc. With 
numerous Portraits, including two in Photogravure and one in 
Colour. Demy 8vo. 2 is. net. 


RIES. By HUGH CHILDERS With numerous Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

%* This volume deals with some famous trials, occurring between the years 
1650 and 1850, All of them possess some exceptional interest, or introduce 
historical personages in a fascinating style, peculiarly likely to attract attention. 

The book is written for the general reading public, though in many respects 
it should be of value to lawyers, who will be especially interested in the trials of 
the great William Penn and Elizabeth Canning. The latter case is one of the 
most enthralling interest. 

Twenty-two years later the same kind of excitement was aroused over 
Elizabeth Chudleigh, alias Duchess of Kingston, who attracted more attention in 
1776 than the war of American independence. 

Then the history of the fluent Dr. Dodd, a curiously pathetic one, is related, 
and the inconsistencies of his character very clearly brought out; perhaps now he 
may have a little more sympathy than he has usually received. Several im- 
portant letters of his appear here for the first time in print. 

Among other important trials discussed we find the libel action against 
Disraeli and the story of the Lyons Mail. Our knowledge of the latter is chiefly 
gathered from the London stage, but there is in it a far greater historical interest 
than would be suspected by those who have only seen the much altered story 
enacted before them. 



Illustrations from her own Photographs. Crown 8vo. 55. net. 

*** Hitherto all books on the old gardens of Italy have been large, costly, and 
incomplete, and designed for the library rather than for the traveller. Mrs. 
Aubrey Le Blond, during the course of a series of visits to all parts oi Italy, has 
compiled a volume that garden lovers can carry with them, enabling them to 
decide which gardens are worth visiting, where they are situated, how they may 
be reached, if special permission to see them is required, and how this may be 
obtained. Though the book is practical and technical, the artistic element is 
supplied by the illustrations, one at least of which is given for each of the 71 
gardens described. Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond was the illustrator of the monumental 
work by H. Inigo Triggs on "The Art of Garden Design in Italy," and has since 
taken three special journeys to that country to collect material for her " The Old 
Gardens of Italy." 

The illustrations have been beautifully reproduced by a new process which 
enables them to be printed on a rough light paper, instead of the highly glazed 
and weighty paper necessitated by half-tone blocks. Thus not only are the 
illustrations delightful to look at, but the book is a pleasure to handle instead of 
a dead weight. 


YUKON. By E. STEWART. With 30 Illustrations and a Map. 
Crown 8vo. 55. net. 

*** Mr. Stewart was former Inspector of Forestry to the Government of 
Canada, and the experience he thus gained, supplemented by a really remarkable 
journey, will prove of great value to those who are interested in the commercial 
growth of Canada. The latter portion of his book deals with the various peoples, 
animals, industries, etc., of the Dominion ; while the story of the journey he 
accomplished provides excellent reading in Part I. Some of the difficulties he 
encountered appeared insurmountable, and a description of his perilous voyage 
in a native canoe with Indians is quite haunting. There are many interesting 
illustrations of the places of which he writes. 


DAY. By JESSIE WALLACE HUGHAN. With an Introduction 
by JOHN SPARGO. Crown 8vo. 53. net. 

*** All who are interested in the multitudinous political problems brought 
about by the changing conditions of the present day should read this book, 
irrespective of personal bias. The applications of Socialism throughout the 
world are so many and varied that the book is of peculiar importance to 
English Socialists. 


RIFLEMAN " Crown 8vo. 53. net. 

*#* This book is a reply to Mr. Norman Angell's well-known work, "The 
Great Illusion" and also an enquiry into the present economic state of Europe. 
The author, examining the phenomenon of the high food-prices at present ruling 
. in all great civilized states, proves by statistics that these are caused by a 
relative decline in the production of food-stuffs as compared with the increase in 
general commerce ana the production oi manufactured-articles, and that con- 
sequently there has ensued a rise in the exchange-values of manufactured- articles, 
which with our system of society can have no other effect than of producing high 
food-prices and low wages. The author proves, moreover, that this is no tem- 
porary fluctuation of prices, but the inevitable outcome of an economic movement, 
which whilst seen at its fullest development during the last few years has been 
slowly germinating for the last quarter-century. Therefore, food-prices must 
continue to rise whilst wages must continue to fall. 


By Rev. S. BARING-GOULD. With numerous Illustrations (includ- 
ing several in Colour) reproduced from unique originals. Demy 
8vo. I os. 6d. net. 


DAVIDSON. With 32 Illustrations from Photographs and a Map. 
Crown 8vo. Second Edition. $s. net. 

*** Whilst many English books have appeared on the Lande Tirol, few have 
given more than a chapter on the fascinating Dolomite Land, and it is in the hope 
of helping other travellers to explore the mountain land with less trouble and 
inconvenience than fell to her lot that the author has penned these attractive 
pages. The object of this book is not to inform the traveller how to scale the 
apparently inaccessible peaks of the Dolomites, but rather how to find the roads, 
and thread the valleys, which lead him to the recesses of this most lovely part of 
the world's face, and Miss Davidson conveys just the knowledge which is wanted 
for this purpose ; especially will her map be appreciated by those who wish to 
make their own plans for a tour, as it shows at a glance the geography of the 


ARKWRIGHT. Crown 8vo. 33. 6d. net. 

*** This is a remarkably written book brilliant and vital. Mr. Arkwright 
illumines a number of subjects with jewelled flashes of word harmony and chisels 
them all with the keen edge of his wit. Art, Letters, and Religion of different 
appeals move before the reader in vari-coloured array, like the dazzling phan- 
tasmagoria of some Eastern dream. 

CHANGING RUSSIA. A Tramp along the Black 

Sea Shore and in the Urals. By STEPHEN GRAHAM. Author of 
"Undiscovered Russia," "A Vagabond in the Caucasus," etc. 
With Illustrations and a Map. Demy 8vo. 73. 6d. net. 

*** I* 1 " Changing Russia," Mr. Stephen Graham describes a journey from 
Rostof-on-the-Don to Batum and a summer spent on the Ural Mountains. The 

author has traversed all the region which is to be developed by the new railway 
It is a tramping diary with notes and reflections. 
The book deals more with the commercial lile of Russia than with that f the 

peasantry, and there are chapters on the Russia of the hour, the Russian town, 
life among the gold miners of the Urals, the bourgeois, Russian journalism, the 
intelligentsia, the election of the fourth Duma. An account is given of Russia at 
the seaside, and each of the watering places of the Black Sea shore is 
described in detail. 



Demy 8vo. IDS 6d. net. 

*** No Biography dealing as a whole with the life-work of the celebrated 
Robert Fulton has appeared of late years, in spite of the fact that the introduction 
of steam navigation on a commercial scale, which was his greatest achievement 
has recently celebrated its centenary. 

The author has been instrumental in bringing to light a mass of documentary 
matter relative to Fulton, aud has thus been able to present the facts about him in 
an entirely new light . The interesting but little known episode of his career as 
an artist is for the first time fully dealt wfth. His sfay in France and his 
experiments under the Directory and the Empire with the submarine and with 
the steamboat are elucidated with the aid of documents preserved in the Archives 
Nationales at Paris. His subsequent withdrawal from France and his 
employment by the British Cabinet to destroy the Boulogne flotilla that Napoleon 
had prepared in 1804 to invade England are gone into fully. The latter part of his 
career in the United States, spent in the introduction of steam navigation and in 
the construction of the first steam-propelled warship, is of the greatest interest. 
With the lapse of time facts assume naturally their true perspective. Fulton, 
instead of being represented, according to the English point of view, as a 
charlatan and even as a traitor, or from the Americans as a universal genius, is 
cleared from these charges, and his pretensions critically examined, with the 
result that he appears as a cosmopolitan, an earnest student, a painstaking 
experimenter and an enterprising engineer. 

It is believed that practically nothing of moment in Fulton's career has been 
omitted. The illustrations, which are numerous, are drawn in nearly every case 
from the original sources. It may confidently be expected, therefore, that this 
book will take its place as the authoritative biography which everyone interested 
in the subjects enumerated above will require to possess. 



DAME DE THERMIDOR (A Queen of Shreds and Patches.) 
From the last days of the French Revolution, until her death as 
Princess Chimay in 1885. By L. GASTINE. Translated from 
the French by J. LEWIS May. With a Photogravure Frontispiece 
and 1 6 other Illustrations Demy 8vo. 1 2s. 6d. net. 

%* There is no one in the history oi the French Revolution who has been 
more eagerly canonised than Madame Tall. en ; yet according to M. Gastine, there 
is no one in that history who merited canonisation so little. He has therefore set 
himself the task of dissipating the mass of legend and sentiment that has 
gathered round the memory of "Z,o Belle Tallien" and of presenting her to our 
eyes as she really was. The result of his labour is a volume, which combines the 
scrupulous exactness of conscientious research with the richness and glamour of 
a romance. In the place of the beautiful heroic but purely imaginary figure of 
popular tradition, we behold a woman, dowered indeed with incomparable loveli- 
ness, but utterly unmoral, devoid alike of heart and soul, who readily and 
repeatedly prostituted her personal charms for the advancement of her selfish 
and ignoble aims. Though Madame Tallien is the central figure of the book, the 
reader is introduced to many other personages who played famous or infamous 
roles in the contemporary social or political arena, and the volume, which is 
enriched by a number of interesting portraits, throws a new and valuable light on 
this stormy and perennially fascinating period of French history. 

MINIATURES : A Series of Reproductions in 

Photogravure of Ninety-Six Miniatures of Distinguished Personages, 
including Queen Alexandra, the Queen of Norway, the Princess 
Royal, and the Princess Victoria. Painted by CHARLES TURRELL. 
(Folio.) The Edition is limited to One Hundred Copies for sale 
in England and America, and Twenty-Five Copies for Presentation, 
Review, and the Museums. Each will be Numbered and Signed 
by the Artist. I 5 guineas net. 


By his Valet FRA^OIS. Translated from the French by MAURICE 
REYNOLD. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 


JOSEPH TURQUAN. Author of " The Love Affairs of Napoleon," 
etc. Translated from the French by Miss VIOLETTE MONTAGU. 
With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 other Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

** Although much has been written concerning the Empress Josephine, we 
know comparatively little about the veuve Beauharnais and the ciloyenne 
Bonaparte, whose inconsiderate conduct during her husband's absence caused 
him so much anguish. We are so accustomed to consider Josephine as the 
innocent victim of a cold and calculating tyrant who allowed nothing, neither 
human lives nor natural affections, to stand in the way of his all-conquering will, 
that this volume will come to us rather as a surprise. Modern historians are 
over-fond of blaming Napoleon for having divorced the companion of his early 
years ; but after having read the above work, the reader will be constrained to 
admire General Bonaparte's forbearance and will wonder how he ever came to 
allow her to play the Queen at the Tuileries. 


By J. T. STUDLEY. With a Portrait and 32 other Illustrations, 
principally from Photographs by the Author. Demy 8vo. 
I2s. 6d. net. 

%* " Not for a long time have we read such straightforward, entertaining 
accounts of wild sport and adventure." Manchester Guardian. 

*** "His adventures have the whole world for their theatre. There is a 
great deal of curious information and vivid narrative that will appeal to every- 
body." Standard. 


By VIOLETTK M. MONTAGU. Author of "The Scottish College in 
Paris," etc. With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 other 
Illustrations and Three Plans. Demy 8vo. i zs. 6d. net. 

*y* Amory the many queens of France, queens by right of marriage with the 
reigning sovereign, queens of beauty or of intrigue, the name of Sophie Dawes, 
the daughter of humble fisherfolk in the Isle of Wight, better known as "the 
notorious Mine, de Feucheres,'* "The Queen of Chantilly" and "The Montespan 
de Saint Leu " in the land which she chose as a suitable sphere in which to 
exercise her talents for money-making and tor getting on in the world, stand 
forth as a proof of what a woman's will can accomplish when that will is ac- 
companied with an uncommon share of intelligence. 


SAVOY. 1523-1574. A Biography with Photogravure Frontis- 
piece and 1 6 other Illustrations and Facsimile Reproductions 
of Hitherto Unpublished Letters. Demy 8vo. 1 25. 6d. net. 

%* A time when the Italians are celebrating the Jubilee of the Italian 
Kingd ' *--- 

ngdoin is perhaps no unfitting moment in which to glance back over the annals 
of that royal House of Savoy which has rendered Italian unity possible. Margaret 
of France may without exaggeration be counted among the builders of modern 
Italy. She married Emanuel Philibert, the founder of Savoyard greatness ; and 
from the day of her marriage until the day of her death she laboured to advance 
the interests of her adopted land. 


TIMES. 1630-1676. By HUGH STOKES. With a Photogravure 
Frontispiece and 1 6 other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 1 25. 6d. net. 

VThe name of Marie Marguerite d'Aubray, Marquise de Brinvilliers, is 
famous in the annals ot crime, but the true history of her career is little known. 
A woman of birth and rank, she was also a remorseless poisoner, and her trial 
was one of the most sensational episodes of the early reign of Louis XIV. The 
author was attracted to this curious subject by Charles le Brun's realistic sketch 
of the unhappy Marquise as she appeared on her way to execution. This chej 
(fofuvre of misery and agony forms the frontispiece to the volume, and strikes a 
fitting keynote to an absorbing story of human passion and wrong-doing. 


1735-1821. By EUGENE WELVERT. Translated from the French 
by LILIAN O'NEILL With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 1 6 
other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

%* The Duchesso de Narbonne-Lara was Lady-in- Waiting to Madame 
Adelaide, the eldest daughter of Louis XV. Around the stately figure of this 
Princess are gathered the most remarkable characters ot the days of the Old 
Regime, the Revolution and the first Empire. The great charm ot the work is 
that it takes us over HO much and varied ground. Here, in the gay crowd of 
ladies and courtiers, in the rustle of flowery silken paniers, in the clatter of high- 
heeled shoes, move the figures of Louis IX V., Louis XVI., Du Barri and Marie- 
Antoinette. We catch picturesque glimpses of the great wits, diplomatists and 
soldiers of the time, until, finally we encounter Napoleon Bonaparte. 


the Papers of a Macaroni and his kindred. By A. M. W. STIRLING, 
author of "Coke of Norfolk and his Friends." With 33 
Illustrations, including 3 in Colour and 3 in Photogravure. 
Demy 8vo. 2 vols. 325. net. 



DAME DE THERMIDOR (A Queen of Shreds and Patches.) 
From the last days of the French Revolution, until her death as 
Princess Chimay in 1885. By L. GASTINE. Translated from 
the French by J. LEWIS May. With a Photogravure Frontispiece 
and 1 6 other Illustrations Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

%* There is no one in the history of the French Revolution who has been 
more eagerly canonised than Madame Tallien ; yet according to M. Gastine, there 
is no one in that history who merited canonisation so little. He has therefore set 
himself the task of dissipating the mass of legend and sentiment that has 
gathered round the memory of "La Belle Tallien" and of presenting her to our 
eyes as she really was. The result of his labour is a volume, which combines the 
scrupulous exactness of conscientious research with the richness and glamour of 
a romance. In the place of the beautiful heroic but purely imaginary figure of 
popular tradition, we behold a woman, dowered indeed witn incomparable loveli- 
ness, but utterly unmoral, devoid alike of heart and soul, who readily and 
repeatedly prostituted her personal charms for the advancement of her selfish 
and ignoble aims. Though Madame Tallien is the central figure of the book, the 
reader is introduced to many other personages who played famous or infamous 
roles in the contemporary social or political arena, and the volume, which is 
enriched by a number of interesting portraits, throws a new and valuable light on 
this stormy and perennially fascinating period of French history. 

MINIATURES : A Series of Reproductions in 

Photogravure of Ninety-Six Miniatures of Distinguished Personages, 
including Queen Alexandra, the Queen of Norway, the Princess 
Royal, and the Princess Victoria. Painted by CHARLES TURRELL. 
(Folio.) The Edition is limited to One Hundred Copies for sale 
in England and America, and Twenty-Five Copies for Presentation, 
Review, and the Museums. Each will be Numbered and Signed 
by the Artist. 1 5 guineas net. 


By his Valet FRA^OIS. Translated from the French by MAURICE 
REYNOLD. Demy 8vo. izs. 6d. net. 


JOSEPH TURQUAN. Author of " The Love Affairs of Napoleon," 
etc. Translated from the French by Miss VIOLETTE MONTAGU. 
With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 other Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

%* Although much has been written concerning the Empress Josephine, we 
know comparatively little about the veuve Beauharnais and the ciloyennc 
Bonaparte, whose inconsiderate conduct during her husband's absence caused 
him so much anguish. We are so accustomed to consider Josephine as the 
innocent victim of a cold and calculating tyrant who allowed nothing, neither 
human lives nor natural affections, to stand in the way of his all-conquering will, 
that this volume will come to us rather as a surprise. Modern historians are 
over-fond of blaming Napoleon for having divorced the companion of his early 
years ; but after having read the above work, the reader will be constrained to 
admire General Bonaparte's forbearance and will wonder how he ever came to 
allow her to play the Queen at the Tuileries. 


By J. T. STUDLEY. With a Portrait and 32 other Illustrations, 
principally from Photographs by the Author. Demy 8vo. 
izs. 6d. net. 

%* "Not for a long time have we read such straightforward, entertaining 
accounts of wild sport and adventure." Manchester Guardian. 

** "His adventures have the whole world for their theatre. There is a 
great deal of curious information and vivid narrative that will appeal to every- 
body." Standard. 


By VIOLETTE M. MONTAGU. Author of "The Scottish College in 
Paris," etc. With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 other 
Illustrations and Three Plans. Demy 8vo. i zs. 6d. net. 

*V* Among the many queens of France, queens by right of marriage with the 
reigning sovereign, queens of beauty or of intrigue, the name of Sophie Dawes, 
the daughter of humble fisherfolk in the Isle of Wight, better known as "the 
notorious Mme. de Feucheres," "The Queen of Chantilly" and "The Montespan 
de Saint Leu " in the land which she chose as a suitable sphere in which to 
exercise her talents for money-making and lor getting on in the world, stand 
lorth as a proof of what a woman's will can accomplish when that will is ac- 
companied with an uncommon share of intelligence. 


SAVOY. 1523-1574. A Biography with Photogravure Frontis- 
piece and 1 6 other Illustrations and Facsimile Reproductions 
of Hitherto Unpublished Letters. Demy 8vo. 1 25. 6d. net. 

%* A time when the Italians are celebrating the Jubilee of the Italian 
Kingdom is perhaps no unfitting moment in which to glance back over the annals 
of that royal House of Savoy which has rendered Italian unity possible. Margaret 
of France may without exaggeration be counted among the builders of modern 
Italy. She married Emanuel Philibert, the founder of Savoyard greatness ; and 
from the day of her marriage until the day of her death she laboured to advance 
the interests of her adopted land. 


TIMES. 1630-1676. By HUGH STOKES. With a Photogravure 
Frontispiece and 1 6 other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 1 25. 6d. net. 

%*The name of Marie Marguerite d'Aubray, Marquise de Brinvilliers, is 
famous in the annals ot crime, but the true history of her career is little known. 
A woman of birth and rank, she was also a remorseless poisoner, and her trial 
was one of the most sensational episodes of the early reign of Louis XIV. The 
author was attracted to this curious subject by Charles le Brun's realistic sketch 
of the unhappy Marquise as she appeared on her way to execution. This chef 
cfoeuvre of misery and agony forms the frontispiece to the volume, and strikes a 
fitting keynote to an absorbing story of human passion and wrong-doing. 


1735-1821. By EUGENE WELVERT. Translated from the French 
by LILIAN O'NEILL With a Piiotogravure Frontispiece and 16 
other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 

*4i* The Duchesse de Narbonne-Lara was Lady-in-Waiting to Madame 
Adelaide, the eldest daughter of Louis XV. Around the stately figure of this 
Princess are gathered the most remarkable characters ot the days of the Old 
Regime, the Revolution and the first Empire. The great charm of the work is 
that it takes us over so much and varied ground. Here, in the gay crowd ol 
ladies and courtiers, in the rustle of flowery silken paniers, in the clatter of high- 
heeled shoes, move the figures of Louis jXV., Louis XVI., Du Barri and Marie- 
Antoinette. We catch picturesque glimpses of the great wits, diplomatists and 
soldiers of the time, until, finally we encounter Napoleon Bonaparte. 


the Papers of a Macaroni and his kindred. By A. M. W. STIRLING, 
author of "Coke of Norfolk and his Friends." With 33 
Illustrations, including 3 in Colour and 3 in Photogravure. 
Demy 8vo. 2 vols. 325. net. 


HIS FRIENDS. By S. M. ELLIS. With upwards of 50 
Illustrations, 4 in Photogravure. 2 rols. Demy 8vo. 325. net. 


A Biography compiled from hitherto Unknown and Unpublished 
Documents. By ALBERT ESPITALIER. Translated from the French 
by ]. LEWIS MAY. With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 
other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 


Confidences of a Collector of Ceramics and Antiques throughout 
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, 
Switzerland, and Turkey. From the year 1869 to 1885. Edited 
by MONTAGUE GUEST, with Annotations by EGAN MEW. With 
upwards of 100 Illustrations, including 8 in colour and 2 in 
Photogravure. Royal 8vo. 2 volumes. 42$. net. 


HARE. With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 1 6 other Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. net. 


Record of a Norfolk Family compiled from Unpublished Letters 
and Note Books, 1787-1843. Edited by M. EYRE MATCHAM. 
With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 other illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. i6s. net. 

** This interesting contribution to Nelson literature is drawn from the 
journals and correspondence of the Rev. Edmund Nelson, Rector of Burnham 
Thorpe and his youngest daughter, the father and sister of Lord Nelson. The 
Rector was evidently a man of broad views and sympathies, for we find him 
maintaining friendly relations with his son and daughter : in-law after their 
separation. What is even more strange, he felt perfectly at liberty to go direct 
from the house of Mrs. Horatio Nelson in Norfolk to that pi Sir William and 
Lady Hamilton in London, where his son was staying. This book shows how 
completely and without any reserve the family received Lady Hamilton. 

By CONSTANCE HILL. Author of " Jane Austen : Her Homes 
and Her Friends," " Juniper Hall," "The House in St. Martin's 
Street," etc. With numerous Illustrations by ELLEN G. HILL 
and Reproductions of Contemporary Portraits, etc. Demy 8ro, 
2 is. net. 

CESAR FRANCK : A Study. Translated from the 
French of Vincent d'Indy, with an Introduction by ROSA NEW- 
MARCH. Demy 8vo. ys. 6d. net.