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IN this volume the writer endeavors to present a 
synoptical review of the various systems employed in 
Europe and America in treating stammering. In the 
main, the systems described will be those contem- 
poraneously employed ; but inasmuch as many of the 
old and obsolescent systems are periodically re- 
quickened, and vaunted before the world as new and 
infallible discoveries, it will be necessary to describe 
briefly a few methods that one would willingly account 

It would be a little impractical and often somewhat 
uncomplaisant to take up the systems of various 
"stammering-schools" as entities, and discuss and 
comment on the collection of unit expedients and 
exercises of which each system is composed. The 
more practical procedure will be to describe the units 


without necessary reference to the systems in which 
they occur. 1 This will eliminate useless and endless 
repetition, and obviate propinquities of print that 
might often suggest personal criticism. An individual 
system is usually an arbitrary and adventitious thing : 
it is commonly a collection of exercises and resources 
whose assemblage is due to the chance associations of 
the person plying it ; or it is a collection of exercises 
and expedients designed to remedy conditions that 
the person regards as the cause of the evil he is en- 
deavoring to combat. But in either case the coales- 
cence of different measures in a system is usually with- 
out great significance. 

In presenting theories and opinions and describing 
various "remedial" measures, the writer will where 
feasible quote from works on stammering in order to 
avoid any possible suggestion of misinterpretation. 
Owing to the nature of the commentary, the source 
of the passages will in many cases not be given. All 
works, however, from which passages are excerpted are 
to be found in the Bibliography. 2 The writers quoted 
will not always be contemporaneous, but the passages 
cited will have reference to theories and expedients at 
present accredited or countenanced in the therapy of 

1 For illustration, a number of complete systems are given in the 
latter part of the book. 
1 Appended to Vol. II. 


Stammering is commonly viewed as a physiological 
defect, and its cause thought to lie in some anomaly 
of respiration, vocalization, or articulation. For this 
reason, most systems of treatment consist of exercises 
and expedients that are presumed to give one control 
of the refractory organs or to regulate in some way 
the aberrant function concerned. In other systems 
which are in the minority this analytical procedure 
is not observed; but speech is regarded as a unitary 
function, and its defects treated by some more or less 
arbitrary method. It is evident that the systems of 
these two classes have little in common, and that the 
measures to be discussed will conform to no absolute 
classification. The procedure in the succeeding 
chapters will therefore be largely one of convenience. 

We begin with a discussion of the various exercises, 
etc. that are designed to remedy defects of respiration. 



NUMEROUS persons engaged in treating speech- 
defects hold the view that the primary cause of stam- 
mering is faulty respiration: 

"Respiratory disturbances are found in all stammerers." 1 

"There is scarcely a stammerer who knows how to breathe 
correctly." 2 

"This difficulty is always accompanied by a disturbance or 
vicious application of the rhythm of respiration during speech." 3 

"The muscles of respiration are almost as much at fault in 
stammering as the organs of sound and articulation." 4 

The respiratory disturbances are often attributed to 
weak nerves or muscular spasms; and the disturb- 
ances in breathing are frequently regarded as the 
direct cause of the "failure of the voice ": 

"But the immediate cause, and the nature of the defect itself, 
is a spasm in the organs of speech. 

1 Gutzmann, "Sprachheilkunde," 26. ed., p. 407. 

2 Prospectus of a professional elocutionist. 

3 Chervin, "Du bgaiement et de son traitement," p. 4. 
*Findley, "Stammering," The Voice, Vol. VII, p. 54. 



"It is a muscular spasm, originating in a nervous weakness. 
The muscular spasm affects the breathing, the breathing affects 
the speech, for without breath there is no speech." 1 

"Voice is breath converted into tone by the vibrations of 
the vocal ligaments or cords in the larynx; and it is in the 
incoordination of the breathing muscles with those of the 
vibrating element, delaying the production of tone, that the 
primary cause of stammering lies. . . . 

"Faults of breathing are the primary cause of stammering; 
the laryngeal faults being secondary." 2 

"If the antagonistic action of both these groups of muscles 
is in equilibrium, a cessation of expiration takes place. This 
is the case with the stutterer where the diaphragm sometimes 
falls into a state of spasmodic contraction which cannot be over- 
come by the abdominal muscles." 8 

"If the bellows of an organ can, for instance, by blowing too 
weak a stream of air, be the cause of the instrument not pro- 
ducing sound, in no less degree can the lungs be the cause of 
the speech-apparatus remaining toneless. They likewise can 
blow so weakly that the vocal cords will not vibrate, conse- 
quently will not make voice." 4 

"The stammerer constricts the throat because the vocal 
organs, situated at the top of the windpipe, do not receive a 
strong enough current of breath from below from the lungs ; 

1 Shuldham, "Stammering and its Rational Treatment," p. 31. 

2 Behnke, "On Stammering, Cleft-Palate Speech, Lisping," pp. 
38, 41- 

1 Guttmann, " Gymnastics of the Voice for Song and Speech ; also 
a Method for the Cure of Stuttering and Stammering," p. 159. 
"Kreutzer's Method," The Voice, Vol. Ill, p. 175. 


and this upward current is wanting simply because the lungs 
are not sufficiently compressed or squeezed." 1 

"Now, what are the causes? They are, first, defective, 
partial, irregular breathing ; second,weak nerves, which produce 
the abnormal respiration. As soon as these causes are re- 
moved, their effect, which is stuttering, must disappear." * 

Persons engaged in treating stammering usually 
endeavor to combat respiratory disturbances with 
breathing-exercises, which have for their object the 
strengthening of the respiratory muscles and the 
establishment of conscious control of the expiratory 

Coen says of his system of treatment : 3 

"In my method for the cure of stuttering I remove the partial 
defective and irregular breathing by respiratory gymnastics. 
I then proceed with vocal reading and talking exercises. The 
respiratory gymnastics are as follows: I have the stutterer, 
with bare chest, assume a position against the wall, as has 
already been described, and while in this position breathe 
slowly and deeply. Before taking these breathing exercises, 
the organs of speech should assume the position of producing 
"ch" (as in the German ich}. This is accomplished by bring- 
ing the back of the tongue up to the soft palate, leaving only a 
small passageway for the air. After the stutterer has been 
sufficiently exercised and can readily pronounce this cA-position, 
he draws the air in slowly and deeply, until the lungs are fully 

1 John Howard, "The Cure of Stammering," The Voice, Vol. I, 
p. 114. 

1 Coen, "Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 204. 
3 "Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. VII, pp. 8 f. 


inflated. If this is rightly done the inspiration will be audible. 
As the pupil inhales, I press my flat hand against the diaphragm, 
at first gently, and gradually increasing the force. After the 
inspiration, the stutterer holds the air in his lungs. In order to 
do this with all possible exactness, I direct him to knit power- 
fully the chest and abdominal muscles, and to press the lips 
firmly together. At first, the inspiration is 5 to 10 seconds 
long, but after a while it increases to 20, 30 and 60 seconds, ac- 
cording to the age, strength, bodily development and degree of 
stuttering of the pupil. I am very careful that the retention of 
the ah" should be done with the utmost exactness, for even if 
only a small portion should escape, either through the mouth or 
nose, the object, which is the strengthening of the respiratory 
organs, will not be attained, or only imperfectly. After the 
retention of the air, the stutterer exhales ; at one time, suddenly 
and with full force, in one blast ; at another time, slowly in a 
long, protracted stream. This slow expiration, which in the 
beginning can only last 5 to 8 seconds, increases, according to 
the strengthening of the lungs, until 25 to 30 seconds can be 
used in the exercise. 

"After the three breathing acts, which I designate as a respi- 
ratory unit, are ended, I direct that the stutterer shall rest a 
minute or so. These exercises are continued until the pupil is 
somewhat fatigued, which should be carefully watched, inas- 
much as injury would result if the lung gymnastics were con- 
tinued. In general, the stutterer can practice 15 to 25 minutes 
without fatigue. These respiratory gymnastics should be gone 
through daily, preferably in the forenoon, and should be contin- 
ued during the whole treatment, which usually lasts from 8 to 
12 weeks." 

Breathing-exercises are usually arranged systemati- 
cally. The exercises involve various combinations of 


inspiratory and expiratory movements and periods 
during which the breath is held with or without 
closure of the glottis. 

The preliminary instructions which vary with the 
different systems are usually somewhat as follows : 

Do not practise on an empty stomach or directly after eat- 
ing a heavy meal. Remove all tight clothing before taking the 
exercises. Practise in the open air or before an open window. 
While exercising, stand erect, and hold the head erect, but not 
too far back. Clasp the hands behind the back, as high as 
possible. Lower them, if necessary, when inhaling. Inhale 
through the nose. (Many instructors, however, direct their 
pupils to inhale through the mouth.) 

The following exercises may be regarded as typical of 
the average system in which breathing-exercises form 
a prominent feature : 

1. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds, fully inflating the 

Exhale through a period of 2 seconds, fully deflating the 

2. Inhale similarly through a period of 4 seconds. 
Exhale similarly through a period of 4 seconds. 

3. Inhale similarly through a period of 6 seconds. 
Exhale similarly through a period of 6 seconds. 

4. Inhale similarly through a period of 8 seconds. 

Exhale similarly through a period of 8 seconds. Etc., etc. 

The time is of course increased in these exercises 
till the maximum period is reached in which the pupil 
can inhale and exhale with a reasonable degree of 


comfort. The stammerer is enjoined to inhale and 
exhale smoothly, so that in any particular exercise 
equal quantities of breath are inspired or expired 
during equal periods of time. 
Variations of the above exercises are as follows: 

5. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 10 seconds. 

6. Inhale through a period of 10 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 2 seconds. 

7. Inhale through a period of 5 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 1 5 seconds. 

8. Inhale through a period of 1 5 seconds. 

Exhale through a period of 5 seconds. Etc., etc. 

9. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds. 
Hold the breath for 2 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 2 seconds. 

10. Inhale through a period of 4 seconds. 
Hold the breath for 4 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 4 seconds. 

11. Inhale through a period of 6 seconds* 
Hold the breath for 6 seconds. 

Exhale through a period of 6 seconds. Etc., etc. 

12. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds. 
Hold the breath for 4 seconds. 
Exhale through a period of 8 seconds. 

13. Inhale through a period of 12 seconds. 
Hold the breath for 2 seconds. 

Exhale through a period of 6 seconds. Etc., etc. 

14. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 4 seconds, 
alternately inhaling for one second and holding the breath for 
one second. 

Exhale discontinuously through a period of 4 seconds, 


alternately exhaling for one second and holding the breath for 
one second. 

15. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds, 
alternately inhaling for one second and holding the breath for 
one second. 

Exhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds, 
alternately exhaling for one second and holding the breath for 
one second. Etc., etc. 

16. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds, 
alternately inhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for 
2 seconds. 

Exhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds, 
alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath 
for 2 seconds. 

17. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 8 seconds, 
alternately inhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath 
for 2 seconds. 

Exhale discontinuously through a period of 8 seconds, al- 
ternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for 
2 seconds. Etc., etc. 

18. Inhale continuously through a period of 4 seconds. 
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 10 seconds, 

alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for 
2 seconds. 

19. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 12 seconds, 
alternately inhaling for 4 seconds and holding the breath for 
4 seconds. 

Exhale through one second, completely deflating the lungs. 

20. Inhale continuously through a period of 4 seconds. 
Hold the breath for 4 seconds. 

Exhale discontinuously through a period of 10 seconds, 
alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for 
2 seconds. Etc., etc. 


It is evident that countless combinations similar to 
the above can be devised. In many schools these 
exercises are taught from charts in which the direc- 
tions are conveyed by symbols. Inspiration and 
expiration are represented by vertical and horizontal 
lines, or by dots and dashes, squares and circles, etc. 
Periods during which the breath is held are usually 
indicated by parentheses, figures in the parentheses 
indicating the length of the pauses. 

In the following charts (pp. 12 and 13), which are 
quite typical, inspiration and expiration are indicated 
by arrows pointing in the direction in which the breath 
moves in the trachea. The downward-pointing arrow 
thus indicates inspiration, and the upward-pointing 
arrow expiration. The figures above or below the 
arrows indicate the number of seconds through which 
inspiration or expiration occurs. The figures in paren- 
theses between the arrows indicate the number of 
seconds for which the breath is held. When no fig- 
ure occurs between two arrows pointing in the same 
direction, the pause between the two inhalations or 
exhalations is considered to be momentary. 

Manifestly the directions can be conveyed much 
more effectively through these charts than through 
oral or written instructions. In many schools charts 
are used exclusively, and are employed literally in 

When pupils are instructed in classes, the time is 


V V V A A A 

V V V A A A 

V V V A A A 

- V A V A 

V " V " A "A. 

V V * A A 

V " V " A " A 

V A V A. 




2 / \ 2 /\ 2 /\2 /\ 2 /\ 2. 



V V VA - A A 
V V V ( "A A A 

V A V-A V A 

V A V<"A V A 


either measured by a metronome, or is given by an 
instructor, who leads the class with a baton or beats 
time with the hand. In some institutions charts are 
dispensed with, and the instructor leads the class with 
a baton and gives directions orally or by gestures. 
When the pupils practise alone, they usually take 
the time from a metronome or count mentally. 

In many institutions the various sets of breathing- 
muscles the chest muscles, intercostal muscles, 
dorsal muscles, etc. are exercised separately. The 
following exercises are quite commonly prescribed : 

Upper Chest Breathing. 1 Place the hands upon the chest, 
with the tips of the fingers on the clavicles. Inhale slowly, 
filling the upper part of the thorax so that the expansion can 
be distinctly felt beneath the hands. Inhibit movements of 
the shoulders, and as far as possible movements of the muscles 
controlling the lower part of the thorax. Exhale slowly when 
the upper chest has been fully expanded. Practise the various 
simple respiratory exercises, using upper chest breathing. 

Costal Breathing^ Place the hands upon the lower ribs, 
with the ringers pointing forward and the thumbs back. In- 
hale slowly, expanding the lower thorax laterally so that the 
movement can be felt beneath the hands. Suppress upper 
chest breathing as far as possible. Exhale slowly after inhala- 
tion is complete. Practise the simple exercises, employing 
costal breathing. 

Exercise the costal muscles unilaterally, effecting the move- 
ment first on the left side and then on the right. 

1 Also designated clavicular breathing, collar-bone breathing, shoulder 
breathing, etc. 

* Also designated lateral breathing, side breathing, rib breathing, etc. 


Dorsal Breathing. Place the backs of the hands on the 
dorsal muscles well below the shoulder-blades. Inhale slowly, 
expanding the thorax beneath the hands and suppressing 
expansion in other parts of the thorax as far as possible. Ex- 
hale slowly. Practise dorsal breathing with the simple exer- 
cises. Exercise the dorsal muscles unilaterally. 

Diaphragmatic and Abdominal Breathing. 1 Place the 
hands on the abdomen, with the thumbs on the lowest ribs. 
Inhale slowly, expanding the lower part of the thorax by con- 
tracting the diaphragm. Restrict the movement as far as 
possible to the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles. When 
inhalation is complete, exhale slowly by contracting the ab- 
dominal muscles and relaxing the diaphragm. Practise this 
form of breathing with the various simple exercises. 

Full Breathing. Inhale slowly, expanding the entire thorax. 
Exhale slowly. Practise the simple exercises, bringing all the 
respiratory muscles into play. 

The following procedure is often prescribed for 
giving one consciousness of the diaphragm: 

"Lie down on the back, the head somewhat elevated; put 
the lungs into the 'state of readiness'; for the better recog- 
nition of the matter lay the hand on the abdomen, and now, 
without allowing the. upper portion of the chest to sink, emit the 
air slowly from the lungs, and it will be perceived by the slowly 
falling hand that the abdomen shrinks ; that is to say, the dia- 
phragm relaxes from the contraction by which it pushed the 
abdomen outward; and thus, pressing on the lungs, drives 
the air in them up and out. 

"Inhale air again immediately and the hand will rise; that 
is to say, the abdomen will be pushed out, as before. This is the 

1 Also designated waist breathing, etc. 


result of the action of the diaphragm ; and by continued prac- 
tice, interrupted by the necessary pauses, the consciousness of 
directing the diaphragm at will, will slowly be attained; 
for, although the diaphragm is an involuntary muscle, yet it 
can be ... partially controlled by our will. 

"Now practise the exercise in an erect position; and, while 
singing a tone, it will soon be perceived that (without action 
of the abdominal muscles) the sounding expiration brings about 
but a faint result. Now let the abdominal muscles assist; 
contract them slowly, that is to say, press the abdomen inward 
while exhaling (and this can be done only by means of the ab- 
dominal muscles) ; exert a counter-pressure with the diaphragm 
which slowly subsides in proportion to the degree of pressure 
of the abdominal muscles, and it will be found that the ef- 
fect is much stronger." 

The following exercises are also frequently recom- 
mended for strengthening the diaphragm and estab- 
lishing consciousness of diaphragmatic action : 

1. Dilate the lower part of the thorax by contracting the 
diaphragm. Hold the breath, and by relaxing the diaphragm 
and contracting the abdominal muscles, force the breath to the 
upper part of the thorax. Now contract the diaphragm once 
more and bring the breath to the lower part of the thorax. 
Continue these alternate movements as long as the breath can 
be comfortably retained. 

2. Lie upon the back, and place several heavy books on the 
abdomen. Practise diaphragmatic breathing, taking care 
that the books are raised as far as possible with each inspira- 
tion. Practise reading aloud, making the breathing diaphrag- 
matic and attending carefully to the muscular action. 

3. Place several heavy books on the chest and one compara- 
tively light one on the abdomen. Now read aloud or recite, 


and breathe meanwhile with the least muscular effort in 
other words, breathe in the lower part of the thorax in order 
that the pile of books may not be lifted with each inspiration. 

4. Practise "waist-breathing" while wearing a light elastic 
belt. Etc., etc. 

Different institutions of course employ different 
combinations of breathing-exercises and in many 
cases the different exercises or modes of breathing 
receive local names. Thus we hear of "puff and 
pause " and "puff and breathe " ; and of "effusive," 
"expulsive," and "explosive" expiration; "aspirate" 
and "silent" expiration, etc. In a few schools, use is 
made of the spirometer, special breathing-exercises 
of course being employed. When a spirometer forms 
part of the equipment, great emphasis is usually laid 
on "lung capacity." 

In many institutions, again, breathing-exercises are 
practised in conection with dumb-bell exercises. 
This is particularly the case in the United States of 
America. These exercises may, however, have origi- 
nated hi England, for Charles Kingsley recommended 
them nearly half a century ago. In a letter to a 
friend he says : * 

"Take a pair of very light dumb-bells and exercise your 
chest with them, taking care to inspire deeply when you raise 
them over your head, and when (consequently) the ribs are 
raised, and the lungs expanded. Do this slowly and quietly, 

'"Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life" 
(edited by his wife), Vol. II, p. 260. 


and I think you will find, though it will not cure you, yet it will 
relieve and literally comfort your breathing enough to give you 
confidence in my hints." 

The directions given by Kingsley are virtually a 
description of a popular exercise practised daily in 
a number of American institutions. 

Another respiratory exercise that one finds in many 
English, French, and German stammering-schools is 
reading in a whisper. As a simple breathing-exercise it 
is recommended by Bell in his " Principles of Speech " :* 

"A very useful exercise for strengthening the respiration 
consists in reading in a strong, loud WHISPER. This will be 
found laborious at first, but practice will make it more easy. 
It should not, however, be long continued, on account of the 
giddiness which it is apt to produce." 

Bell also recommends the folio wing mode of practice : 2 

"A useful exercise for the regulation of the breath may be 
obtained in counting. Thus, to acquire facility of silent res- 
piration, count slowly and distinctly, with a free inhalation 
by mouth and nostrils before each number; carefully sub- 
duing the least tendency to audibility or suction in the act of 
inspiration, and heaving the chest naturally, without any up- 
ward action of the shoulders, or other bodily movement. 

"To gain power in retaining the breath and prolonging the 
expiration, count five, six, ten, twenty, fifty, or any greater 
practicable series of numbers, with each breath; and continue 
the exercise for several minutes, without allowing the chest 
to fall, or pausing longer than is necessary to inhale before each 
group of numbers." 

1 "Principles of Speech," $th ed., p. 9. * Loc. cit., p. 241. 


The foregoing is a cursory review of the respiratory 
exercises commonly employed in institutions for the 
treatment of stammering. Besides these exercises 
there are often recommended expedients and practices 
relative to various modes of breathing during actual 
speech. These measures will be considered later. 
At this point it will be well to discuss the efficacy of 
the exercises already reviewed. 

It may be stated unqualifiedly that breathing-ex- 
ercises furnish an excellent instrument for elocution- 
ists in treating physical stammering; but if the 
writer's theory of causality is correct, there is little 
more that can be said in their favor. A competent 
instructor, by using breathing-exercises and other 
elocutionary measures, can often eliminate physical 
stammering in a surprisingly short period; but the 
primary cause of stammering the amnesia re- 
mains unaffected. If the pupil has unreserved con- 
fidence in the system employed, he is temporarily 
absolved from fear, bewilderment, and inhibitive 
auto-suggestion ; and, for a time at least, stammering 
is reduced to its pure form. But, since the primary 
cause of the speech-defect persists, confidence is rap- 
idly lost, and the secondary causes return. It is evi- 
dent that respiratory and similar exercises can in the 
end effect little more than the removal of stam- 
mering that is of a purely physical nature. 

The extreme elaboration of breathing-exercises 


must be ascribed to commercial competition rather 
than to any advantage or peculiar potency that com- 
plex exercises may possess. The practice of holding 
the breath during these exercises is valueless unless 
the glottis remains open, for no muscular activity is 
required to inhibit respiration when the outlet for the 
breath is obstructed. The practice of holding the 
breath for any considerable length of time is injurious. 
The employment of exercises for the individual sets 
of breathing-muscles is undoubtedly to be recom- 
mended. The use of mechanical restrictions to free 
muscular action during respiration has little to com- 
mend or condemn it. Lifting weights placed on the 
abdomen and stretching elastic belts undoubtedly 
strengthens the diaphragm, but a strong diaphragm 
is not necessarily a diaphragm under complete control. 
It is futile, of course, to endeavor to combat throat- 
contraction and "tonic spasms" of the articulative 
organs by increasing the strength of the expiratory 
current. As regards the use of the spirometer, 
it is certain that no case of physical stammering has 
ever been cured with this instrument that could not 
have been cured without it. The practice of working 
for lung capacity is an inanity, for lung capacity bears 
no necessary relation to respiratory control. Breath- 
ing-exercises practised in conjunction with dumb-bell 
exercises are probably less effective than breathing- 
exercises practised without them. They have the 


advantages, however, that they break the monotony 
for the pupil and can be dubbed " scientific." Read- 
ing in a loud whisper undoubtedly calls for increased 
muscular activity, and probably has some value as a 
respiratory exercise. The counting business is prob- 
ably less valuable. 

We shall now examine the common expedients rela- 
tive to respiration that are considered to be efficacious 
when applied during actual speech. 

The most commonly recommended measure is, of 
course, careful observance of the initial inhalation. 
This measure was recommended by Avicenna, the 
Arabian physician, a thousand years ago ; and it has 
been recommended by thousands of persons since. 
Kingsley advocates repeated inspiration : l 

"Before beginning to read, take two or three long full breaths. 
And also (and this is an excellent rule) before you begin to 
speak to any one, especially if you are nervous, take two or 
three breaths and then open your mouth and speak. You 
will find the nervousness go, and the words come out, as by 
miracle. Remember Balaam's ass could not speak, till his 
'mouth was opened.' 

"At each full stop, you should stop, and take a long breath ; 
at a colon, a less full, at a semicolon, less, at a comma, less still. 
But keep sacredly to the habit of breathing at every stop," 

The advice to take breath before beginning to 

'"Charles Kingsley: his Letters and Memories of his Life," 
Vol. II, p. 261. 


speak is fitting when the stammerer evinces a tendency 
to speak on an empty lung, as do most subjects 
when physical stammering is much in evidence. But 
the procedure will eliminate only one of the features 
of physical stammering, and it is by no means the 
panacea that it is usually represented to be. 

The stammerer is often advised to take breath before 
every difficult word to stop short, inhale, and pro- 
ceed. An English teacher of stammerers makes 
reference to the expedient as follows : 

"Now, I have found patients stumbling over this couplet 
'many a time and oft,' and I have always stopped them in 
their reading and asked them to make the Ka sound detached 
from all other sounds or contexts, and they have generally 
managed to give it without serious trouble or difficulty; but 
when they have gone back to Longfellow's lines, it has been a kind 
of valley of rocks, a Diablerets to them, and they have stumbled 
about in the most hopeless fashion, until I succeeded in making 
them take breath immediately before the occurrence of the Ka 
sounds. Like singers, who just before a musical peroration 
which winds up with some high and long-sustained note, take 
a full inspiration, so my stammering patients put them- 
selves, as it were, into musical form, to insure elocutionary 

The expedient of inhaling before difficult words is 
employed by many elocutionists. It is, however, en- 
tirely unnatural and has nothing to recommend it, 
except that it may, like any other measure, alleviate 
stammering for a time by revoking secondary causes 


(fear, multiple thought, etc.) through the power of 

A two- thousand year old " remedy " for stammering 1 
consists in economizing breath during speech. This 
particular remedy starts a new career at rather regular 
intervals. The method of exhalation is described by 
one writer as follows : 

"In the act of speaking and reading, the patient must take 
care to control thoroughly the outward passage of the breath, 
and to let it escape as slowly as possible. The expiration should 
be thoroughly economized; none of it should be wasted by 
letting any escape before the act of speech begins. It should 
not be allowed to come out in jerks or gasps, but its passage 
should be easy, steady, and gradual ; for it cannot be too firmly 
borne in mind that it is on the extension, combined with the 
regularity of expiration, that the intensity, the duration, and 
the steadiness of all vocal vibrations depend ; and Senor Gar- 
cia's test of practising the voice with a lighted candle held be- 
fore the mouth may be applied here. If the flame be extin- 
guished, or even wavers much, the patient may take it as a 
sign that he is expending too much air." 

But the other side of the argument is also repre- 
sented : 

"The main thing to be attended to, and which, in fact, is 
the groundwork of the whole system of cure, is to expire the 
breath strongly each time when attempting to speak, the 
lungs being previously filled to the utmost ; or, in other words, 
to reverse the habit of stuttering, which is that of trying to 
speak without expiring any air." 

1 Apparently first recommended by Celsus. 


And thus another writer : 

"Let him [the stammerer] hold a lighted candle in front of 
him as if he intended to blow it out ; then endeavor to speak 
slowly, at the same time blowing the words out with sufficient 
force to extinguish the light, and if he continues to do this 
about once a day, say at bedtime, and at all times when he 
makes an effort to speak to 'blow' his words out slowly, he will 
find it beneficial to his speech. I know of people who have 
cured themselves in this way, and who show no signs of stam- 

In support of strong exhalation the words of Kings- 
ley are sometimes cited that "there has been at least 
one frightful stammerer ere now who spoke perfectly 
plainly as long as he was in the saddle." The fact is 
also adduced that Satyrus required Demosthenes to 
declaim while walking uphill. Neither argument is 
very convincing. 

Apparently the forceful expiration is intended to 
offset throat-contraction and the various "spasms"; 
and presumably the restrained expiration is intended 
to counteract the habit of exhausting the breath 
immediately before or during speech. It seems 
reasonable for one to believe that either of these 
expedients might prove valuable in particular cases 
for removing specific faults of utterance; but it 
seems equally reasonable to believe that these ex- 
pedients, 1 if applied indiscriminately, would be more 
likely to engender faults than to remove them. 


Neither measure, of course, can in the least allevi- 
ate pure stammering. 

Another "remedy" for stammering is the practice 
of contracting the abdominal muscles and relaxing 
the diaphragm at every syllable. One English writer 
describes this particular procedure as follows : 

"In order to ascertain the degree of inefficiency in the man- 
agement of breath in a stammerer, I place him on a couch, flat 
on his back, comfortably raising his head on a pillow, and then 
give him some diaphragmatic drill. As soon as he has acquired 
sufficient control over the diaphragm, I direct him to say the 
alphabet, taking a very short inspiration before each letter 
by contracting the diaphragm, and then attacking the letter 
by relaxing the diaphragm. I control these movements by 
holding my hand on his abdomen, and he now, to the amaze- 
ment of friends who may have accompanied him, pronounces 
every letter as quietly and as easily as they could do them- 

This expedient is still in vogue in a few stammering- 
schools in Europe and America. Only recently the 
writer heard of its being recommended by a Philadel- 
phia physician. The "remedy," however, is worse 
than ineffectual; it is pernicious. It cures neither 
pure stammering nor physical stammering ; it merely 
establishes a vicious form of utterance. 

Another alleged remedy for stammering is diaphrag- 
matic breathing. This is the great cathoh'con of 
present-day stammering-schools in which elocutionary 
methods are employed. In practically every stam- 


mering-school in America the pupil begins by re- 
forming his habits of breathing if he has formerly 
employed the upper chest to any extent in respiration. 
In Europe the enthusiasm for this method is not quite 
so great, but where diaphragmatic breathing is em- 
ployed, it is usually represented as an infallible remedy. 
The whole business is, however, a fiasco. The facts in 
the matter are that diaphragmatic and costal breath- 
ing are exceedingly valuable to the average elocutionist 
or public speaker ; but that diaphragmatic breathing 
is no cure for physical stammering or amnesia. Lower 
thorax breathing may be preferable to upper thorax 
breathing ; but if this is the case, when pne has ac- 
quired lower thorax breathing he has simply acquired 
the preferable method that is all. Stammering is 
not breathing in the upper part of the thorax, as 
many elocutionists seem to suppose. 

The last two expedients relative to respiration that 
we have to consider are inhaling exclusively through 
the nose or exclusively through the mouth. Both 
methods have ardent advocates. The writer of an 
English pamphlet says: 

"I meet stammerers in all sorts of ways and places. One 
instance of an accidental meeting may be worth mentioning, 
as the stammerer is, I hope, on a fair way to complete cure. I 
had to leave some things at a Left Luggage Office, and the 
young official who took charge of them was a bad stammerer, 
so I assured him that I was much worse once, and left him 
with the advice: 'Always shut your mouth before you begin 


to speak, so that the breath can be taken in through the nose.' 
I have taken every opportunity I could to give him a few hints 
since I first met him, and his success, and the opinion of others 
that the system I propose is the correct one, have induced me 
to try in a few short chapters to help those whose lives are 
troubled by inability to produce words either with distinctness 
or certainty." 

In opposition to this procedure a German author 

"Normal quiet breathing, and breathing during speech, are 
two different things : the former takes place through the nose; 
the latter through the mouth." 

An English writer advises : 

"Above all, never catch in the breath through the mouth, 
when speaking, reading, or singing; but always through the 
nostrils. The same rule applies to walking and all athletic 

And so it goes. 

The writer has in mind an American school where 
the pupils are admonished always to breathe through 
the nose; an English school where the pupils are 
taught to inhale through the wide open mouth; 1 and 
a German school where the pupils are directed to 
open the mouth to about the breadth of a straw. 

The whole question of inhaling through the mouth 

1 The pupil inhales through the mouth till conscious of a feeling 
of coldness in the glottis; he then begins to speak from the "open 


or nose has, however, little bearing on the subject of 
stammering. Breathing through the nose when one 
is silent is a hygienic measure; breathing through 
the mouth during speech is a matter of convenience. 
Neither mode of breathing will cause or cure stammer- 
ing. The subject scarcely merits discussion in the 
present connection. 



SPEECH is frequently said to consist of the three 
elements respiration, vocalization, and articulation. 
But vocalization is merely the production of "un- 
colored" sound; hence we have vowel-coloration to 
account for. It is evident that there are four elements 
in speech rather than three. In this chapter, however, 
we shall, as a matter of convenience, treat vocalization 
and vowel-production conjointly, making at different 
points whatever distinctions may be necessary. 

It has already been observed (Vol. I, pp. 181 ff.) 
that one of the commonest views in regard to stam- 
mering is that the disturbance is caused by a failure 
of the voice. 

"To the question, what is stuttering? I have only the 
answer : Stuttering is a refusal of the voice." * 

"The term 'stammering' is properly applied to that form 
of impediment of speech which manifests itself by a stemming 
back of the sound or a hesitation in the appearance of the 
voice." 2 

l "Kreutzer's Method," The Voice, Vol. Ill, p. 175. 

Ashmann, "Stammering and Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. Ill, 
p. 138. The author proceeds to define stuttering as "an impulsive, 
irregular breaking forth of the voice." 



"Concerning the essential factor in stammering I would 
express myself as follows : Stammering consists in a temporary 
ineptitude in the management of the voice which ineptitude 
may be conditioned by various influences. There is inability 
to impart to the vocal cords the proper degree of tension for 
the production of voice and then to expel the breath through 
the glottis in a stream sufficient to set the cords in vibration." * 

"Both impediments (stammering and stuttering) are fre- 
quently found in the same person, and both are due to the 
same cause inability to vocalize." 2 

It has already been remarked (Vol. II, p. 4) that 
failure of the voice is often ascribed to a failure of the 
expiratory current. Failure of voice is also ascribed 
to spasm of the vocal cords (Arnott, Miiller, Schul- 
thess, and others), and occasionally to general throat- 
contraction. Concerning the latter cause one writer 
remarks : 3 

"If we begin to speak at any point above the diaphragm, 
the speech suffers according to the location, the amount of 
misplaced energy and the temperament of the speaker. If all 
the energy is centred at any such point, there can be no speech, 
because it is only force in the breathing-muscles that can drive 
the breath against the vocal cords ; and as the breath, whether 
vocalized or not, must pass through the glottis, it is plain that 
if the muscles at the glottis tie up the passage, the speech is 
hindered in the degree of the force of the contraction. 

1 Wyneken, "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," p. 15. 

1 Behnke, "On Stammering, Cleft-Palate Speech, Lisping," p. 10. 

Thorpe, "Speech-Hesitation," pp. 30, 75. 


"This is the distinguishing symptom in speech-hesitation. 
It is one cause of spasm of the glottis. If the contraction stops 
at the glottis, only the vowels are hindered ; but if it extends, 
as it usually does, to the lips and the tongue, the consonants 
also are affected. . . . 

"Speech-hesitation has but one cause, which is misplaced 

Two general methods are followed in combating 
defective production of the voice. One method is to 
train the pupil in various exercises with a view to 
establishing voluntary control of the vocal organs; 
the other is to practise the pupil in some special mode 
of utterance with the object of counteracting the sup- 
posed cause of stammering during actual speech. 
We shall consider first the exercises that are cur- 
rently employed. 

A popular exercise for infixing consciousness of the 
movements of the entire larynx is as follows : 

Pronounce in a monotone the vowels e, a, ah, aw, 5, do. 
Pronounce these vowels in the reverse order. Pronounce e, 
do, e, 55, e, do; ah, aw, ah, aw, ah, aw; e, do, e, 55, e, do, etc. 
Note the gradual descent of the larynx in the vowel-series 
from I to do. Note the ascent of the larynx when the vowels 
are pronounced in the reverse order. Note the extreme move- 
ment in e-do, and the relatively slight movement in ah-aw. 

An exercise frequently prescribed for establishing 
consciousness of the vocal cords is the practice of the 
"direct attack" (glottis-stroke, coup de la glotte, etc.) 


and "indirect attack" of the voice (glide of the glottis, 
etc.). Guttmann describes these two methods of 
vocalization in the following words : 1 

"In the 'direct attack' the vocal cords come into contact 
throughout their entire length, from the front backward, so 
that the lower part of the larynx is completely separated from 
the upper, and the approach of the vocal cords is rapid and 
decided ; at the same time the vocal cords become shortened, 
and must, therefore, with the immediately following into- 
nation, alter their degree of tension, their shape, length, and 
thickness, according to the sound which is to be produced, 
and must separate somewhat. A tone thus produced will be 
marked and separated from other tones. 

"In the 'indirect attack,' on the contrary, the glottis is not 
completely closed by the approach of the vocal cords. Here 
their length, tension, shape, etc., are at once such as are re- 
quired for the production of the desired tone, and, consequently, 
the vibrations begin immediately after the approach of the 
vocal cords without any change in their length or tension, as 
is necessary in the 'direct attack.'" 

The practice of the glottis-stroke is described by 
another writer as follows : 2 

"Assume standing position with active chest; take full 
breath, and whisper forcibly the word 'who' three times. Re- 
peat the same. Now whisper 'who' twice, and speak it aloud 
the third tune ; then whisper ' who ' once, and speak it aloud 
the second and third tune; then speak 'who' aloud three 
times. Now speak 'who' twice, and the third time say 'oo' 

1 " Gymnastics of the Voice," 3d ed., pp. 60 f . 

1 Fobes, "Handbook of Elocution Simplified," pp. 24 f. 


as those letters sound in the word woo; then say 'who' once, 
and ' oo ' the second and third time ; then say ' oo ' three times. 
You should make both the whisper and vocal sound very short 
and sudden, without any feeling of contraction or effort in the 
throat or mouth. It should seem to you as if the sound came 
from the lips ; and, while you are energetic in the exercise, it 
must be done with perfect ease. You have thus proceeded, 
from an easy, forcible whisper, to an easy, forcible sound, and 
have thus obtained what is called the 'Glottis Stroke.' After 
diligent practice on the above exercise, use any of the short 
vowels, speaking each vowel three times very shortly, as you 
did the vowel-sound oo." 

The direct attack is also practised by inhaling, 
holding the breath for an instant, then abruptly 
producing voice. This procedure is followed with the 
different vowels. Another method is to prolong a 
vowel and interrupt it a number of times by occluding 
the glottis. A series of staccato vowels of course re- 
sults. The indirect attack is practised by prefixing 
an "inaudible" h to the various vowels; by com- 
mencing vowels in a whisper and finishing them with 
voice ; etc. Different methods of practising the direct 
and indirect attack obtain in different institutions, but 
the methods above described will exemplify the general 

Another exercise for establishing consciousness of 
the vocal cords consists in drawing or emitting a long 
breath and interrupting it repeatedly by closing the 
glottis. A variant of this exercise consists in inhaling 


and exhaling in short breaths, and occluding the 
glottis at the end of each inhalation and exhalation. 
In these exercises the "click of the glottis" can be 
heard as the vocal cords separate after complete con- 
tact. It is to this particular feature, and to the 
feeling of glottal action, that the pupil is admonished 
to attend. 

An exercise that is sometimes prescribed for strength- 
ening the laryngeal muscles and making them "more 
pliable and subservient to the will" is practising the 
different vowels in octaves. The stammerer begins 
by singing the vowels in the lowest possible pitch. 
He produces them a number of times in this manner, 
and then practises them in a pitch an octave higher. 
Later the pitch is raised again, and finally the stam- 
merer sings the vowels in the highest pitch that he 
can comfortably produce. As the work progresses, the 
exercises become more complex, and the pupil is re- 
quired to jump rapidly from one pitch to another, to 
change the vowels as he alters the pitch, and so on. 
The instructor usually indicates the pitch required by 
striking the appropriate notes on a piano. 

"The pupil should, in addition, make the following exercise: 
utter the whole sentence in the manner of the chromatic scale ; 
that is, begin with a high tone and descend a half tone with 
each syllable ; and having reached the end of the sentence, 
repeat it in like manner but with each syllable ascending a 
half tone." 


Exercises in high, low, and middle pitch are recom- 
mended by an English teacher of stammerers. The 
exercises prescribed are as follows: 1 

"L. 'So he vanished.' This line to be whispered. 

"H. 'Hell-hound, by thee my child's devoured.' Full voice. 

"H. 'For I'm to be Queen of the May, mother, I'm to be 

Queen of the May.' Light voice. 
"H. 'Ruin seize thee, ruthless king.' Full voice. 
"L. 'And the grave is not its goal.' Full voice. 
" M. "That does my wits belabor.' Ordinary voice. 
"H. 'He's gone.' Whisper. 

"M. 'No longer, Deary, Duck, and Love.' Ordinary voice. 
"H. 'Charge, Chester, charge; on, Stanley, on.' Full voice. 
"M. 'Down fell a fine horse-chestnut in its prickly shell.' 

Ordinary voice. 
"L. "The other shape, if shape it might be called, that 

shape had none distinguishable in member, joint, or 

limb.' Full voice. 

"M. 'I thank you.' Ordinary voice. 
" M. 'The pen is mightier than the sword.' Full voice. 
"L. 'We buried him darkly at dead of night.' Full voice. 
"M. 'Now wasn't that a pity ?' Ordinary voice. 
"M. 'Entreat me not to leave thee.' Ordinary voice. 
"H. 'I sprang to the stirrup.' Full voice. 
"L. 'All into the valley of death rode the six hundred.' 

Full voice. 

"M. 'In my soul, I loathe all affection.' Ordinary voice. 
"H. "The wind was high.' Whisper. 
"M. 'To Giles he went and put the case with circumspect 

invention. Thou fool, cried Giles, I'll make it clear 

to thy dull comprehension.' Ordinary voice. 

1 H, M, and L indicate high, middle, and low pitch. 


" L. 'Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.' Full voice. 
"H. 'You must wake and call me early, call me early, 

mother dear.' Light voice. 

"M. 'No weasels e'er were thinner.' Ordinary voice. 
"H. 'And shall he die, and unavenged? Arise, ye Goths, 
and glut your ire.' Full voice." 

Inflection-exercises are also frequently resorted to for 
strengthening the muscles of the larynx, etc. The ris- 
ing, falling, and circumflex inflections are practised on 
various isolated vowels and words, and are practised 
in different passages in which the appropriate inflec- 
tion is indicated by diacritical marks. The directions 
for such exercises are typically as follows : 

Practise the rising inflection on the word No (No?), using the 
word as though putting a question with the utmost surprise. 
Finish the word in the highest possible pitch. 

Practise the falling inflection on the word No (No I), using 
the word as though answering a question with the utmost em- 
phasis. Start with the highest possible pitch, and end with 
the lowest possible pitch. 

Similarly practise the words I, you, they, now, well, etc., 
first with rising and then with falling inflection. 

Similarly practise the various vowels with rising and fall- 
ing inflection. 

Practise the vowels with rising-circumflex inflection, begin- 
ning each vowel in the highest possible pitch, descending to 
the lowest, then rising again to the highest. 

Practise the vowels with falling-circumflex inflection, begin- 
' ning each vowel in the lowest pitch, rising to the highest, and 
descending again to the lowest. 


Practise monosyllabic words with rising-circumflex and fall- 
ing-circumflex inflection. 

Practise short interrogative sentences, exaggerating the 
rising inflection " Are you really sure? " 

Practise short affirmative sentences, exaggerating the falling 
inflection "I am sure." 

Practise the rising-circumflex inflection in short sentences 
indicative of doubt and irony "Hath a dog money?" 

And so forth. 

Inflection-exercises are frequently practised from 
charts, rising and falling inflections being indicated by 
various arbitrary symbols. Occasionally inflection- 
exercises are combined with respiratory exercises, etc. 
In the following representative chart (p. 38), rising 
inflection is indicated by a line ascending from left to 
right (/), an d falling inflection by a line descending 
from left to right ( \ ) . Inclined lines in juxtapo- 
sition indicate rising-circumflex or falling-circumflex 
inflection. Horizontal lines indicate monotonic voice. 
The vowels to be practised are given with the inflec- 
tion-marks. Inspiration occurs as convenient. 

Similar exercises are prescribed for all the long and 
short vowels and the diphthongs. 

The following sentences for the practice of inflection 
are prescribed by an English teacher of stammerers : 

"John sold a horse. 1 

"John sold a cow and a horse. 

'The inflection-marks indicate rising and falling inflection by their 
inclination, as described above. 




A A 


S 4 4 ^ 

"John sold a bull, a cow, a calf, and a horse. 
"John sold a pig, a bull, a cow, a calf, and a horse. 
"John sold a sheep, a lamb, a pig, a bull, a cow, a calf, and 
a horse. 

v ^ 

"John sold a cow, not a horse. 

fc % X 4 

"John sold a bull, a cow, and a calf, not a horse. 

"The horse belongs to John. 

"The cow and the horse belong to John. 

"The sheep, the lamb, the pig, the bull, the cow, the calf, 

and the horse belong to John. 
"You promise Denmark assistance? you command the 

channel fleet ? 

^^ s*** 

"Oh ! it was you promised and never fulfilled ! it was you 
who wanted to command the channel fleet, was it ? " 

Another exercise sometimes resorted to for strength- 
ening the larynx is shouting, or declaiming in a loud 
voice. Occasionally the vocal exercises are practised 
systematically in a voice as loud as the pupil can 
comfortably produce. These measures are, however, 
not very commonly employed. 

The exercises above described have for their osten- 
sible purpose the strengthening of the laryngeal 
muscles and the establishment of conscious control of 
muscular action. Innumerable vocal exercises are 
practised in different stammering-schools for which, 
as a rule, no very definite purpose is assigned; 
they may be used indifferently for exercising the 
larynx or for furnishing systematic practice on the 
vowels. The exercises about to be described are 


decidedly of this indefinite type ; but they are found 
in most institutions for the treatment of stammering, 
and must therefore be recorded. 

We quote first the following general directions for vo- 
cal exercises, which are taken from two different sources: 

"These [vocal gymnastics] are joined to the respiratory 
gymnastics. As soon as the stutterer becomes somewhaf 
fatigued by the lung gymnastics, and after he has rested a 
few minutes, he proceeds to the vocal exercises. These are 
also to be taken in the same bodily position as the respiratory 
gymnastics. After a long, deep inspiration the stutterer forms 
the vowels with a full chest-voice, prolonging the sound as 
much as he can without special effort. This so-called vocal- 
ization should be executed with the greatest exactness, observ- 
ing the following rules : 

"Begin the vowel immediately after the inspiration, and 
prolong it as long as the air lasts. During the vocalization the 
strength of the tone should remain the same ; it should not be 
begun strong and then grow weaker. Care must also be taken 
that the voice does not tremble, and that there is no cessation 
of sound, while the pitch of tone should be the natural one of 
the individual. The tone or vowel should not be screamed out, 
as this would produce hoarseness and fatigue, and would cause 
the stutterer to form the habit of an unnatural way of talking. In 
the beginning of these exercises the prolongation of the vowel is 
usually from 10 to 15 seconds, but, with increased respiratory 
power, the stutterer is able to prolong it 20 to 30 seconds with- 
out fatigue. All of the vowels are to be practised in a similar 

" The vocal gymnastics should be interrupted by short rests, 
and should be continued daily throughout the entire course. In 
order to avoid fatigue, it is recommended to take a middle 


pitch tone, and retain it during the whole time of practice. 
After Such exercises, in the beginning of the treatment, the stut- 
terer is dismissed with the direction to keep quiet, and not to 
take severe bodily exercise or to forcibly use his vocal organs." 

From the second source we have the following : 

"Breathe in as before (through the nose and filling the waist), 
separate the teeth well and whisper out the following vowels, 
each three times: (A-E-I-O-OO-AH). Use about five to ten 
seconds in taking the air into the lungs and about the same 
time in whispering out the letter. Now breathe in as before 
(slowly through the nose), and as the air goes out sound these 
same vowels out aloud, each one three or more times. Make 
the outgoing sounds at least ten seconds in length if you 
can. Later you can sit at the piano or organ and sound 
them out in various keys (or pitches of the voice) although 
the lower tones are the best for you. Keep the mouth well 
open in doing this. This is the reason you should stand 
before a mirror until you are sure that you are doing it well. 

"Next, breathe hi with a little shorter breath and speak 
these same six sounds (A-E-I-O-OO-AH) all together in one 
outgoing breath, with widely separated teeth and all the 
sounds connected together in a talking manner, very much as if 
you were counting one-two-three-four-five-six without stopping 
and at a moderate rate of speed. Do this several times and 
many times a day, whenever you have an opportunity." 

Vocal exercises are usually systematized so that 
every vowel is produced with every mode of utterance 
that the system embraces. The drill-books of some 
institutions contain more than a hundred pages 
of vocal and similar exercises. It is evident that all 
the different vocal drills of the different institutions 


cannot be given here in detail. The writer appends 
merely a few selected exercises from miscellaneous 
sources to illustrate the general features involved. 
The other exercises are little more than variants. 
Herewith the miscellany : 

Inhale : enounce the vowel a in a whisper, prolonging it as 
long as possible. 

Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel e. 

Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel I. 

Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel o. 

Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel u. 

Inhale : enounce the vowels a, e, I, o, u, in one breath. 

Practise the vowels a, e, i, 5, u, in different orders and 
combinations. 1 

Practise the vowels with voice, producing them with natural 
pitch and intensity, and prolonging them as long as possible. 

Practise the vowels with natural pitch and maximum in- 

Practise the vowels with natural pitch and minimum in- 

Practise the vowels in natural pitch, and increase the inten- 
sity of the voice (with each vowel or series) from minimum to 

Practise the vowels in natural pitch, beginning in a whisper, 
then vocalizing with minimum intensity and increasing to 
maximum intensity. 

Practise the vowels in natural pitch, and decrease the 
intensity from maximum to minimum. 

Practise the vowels in natural pitch, beginning with maxi- 

1 The vowels a, e, I, o, u are replaced in some institutions by the 
series e, a, ah, aw, o, do; or the series a, e, I, 6, do, ah', or by Pit- 
man's long and short vowels (Vol. I., p. 193). 


mum intensity, decreasing to minimum, and finally ending in 
a whisper. 

Practise passing in natural pitch from minimum to maxi- 
mum intensity, and again to minimum, on the same vowel with 
but one inspiration. 

Practise passing in natural pitch from maximum to mini- 
mum intensity, and again to maximum, on the same vowel with 
but one inspiration. 

Practise the vowels in natural pitch, varying the intensity 
repeatedly from normal to maximum. 

Practise the vowels in different pitches with different 
degrees of intensity. 

Practise the vowels, varying the pitch from vowel to vowel : 
in other words, sing the vowels. 

Practise the vowels with various modes of inflection. 

Practise the different vocal exercises with direct and indirect 

Practise stopping the voice by suddenly closing the glottis. 

Practise stopping the voice by suddenly opening the glottis ; 
i.e. change suddenly from voice to whisper. 

Practise intermitting the voice by repeatedly closing the 

Practise intermitting the voice by repeatedly opening the 
glottis ; i.e. drop repeatedly from voice to whisper. 

Practise vocal exercises while marching, uttering one 
vowel to a step. 

Practise vocal exercises in connection with dumb-bell ex- 

Practise vocal exercises and dumb-bell exercises in connec- 
tion with marching. Etc., etc. 

In some institutions a number of these exercises have 
been endowed with special names. Thus we hear of 
"expulsion and explosion," "expulsive and explosive 


stress," of "tremor," "swell and stop," and of such 
practices as " swelling " and " dilating " sound, etc. 

Vocal exercises are often taught from charts. They 
may then become exceedingly complex. We repro- 
duce below, for illustration, four charts taken from 
four different sources, with the symbols in each 
case transformed to those of a common system. 
The inspiration sign is that already employed (V). 
A dotted line indicates whispered utterance, a solid 
line continuous voice. Pauses are momentary unless 
the length of the pause is indicated in seconds by 
figures in parentheses. 




1 Vowels are frequently placed at the extreme left of a line to 
show that vocalization begins immediately upon exhalation. The 
refinement is here disregarded. 


V A V V A A 

V (3) A V V (3) A (3) A 
y a y a a 

y a a a a a 

V_5__V_e_ e 
y e e e e 
y a e 

a e a e 

V a fa) e 

y( 3 ) a e a e a 

y a e i o u 

v a e i o u (-,} a. o i 

V a u( t ) a_ 

a e i o u i o e 



V_ _ h _ 

V _ h _ (l )_ ha 

y h ha h ha h ha h ha 

y ha 

y ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha 

V ^a ( 3 ) a 

y ha a ha a ha a ha a 

V * 

y a a a a a a cl 1 

y a a a a a 4 

1 In the last line but one, the intensity of the voice increases with 
the size of the type. The vowels in the last line are given staccato. 

CHART 4 1 

V V V A A A (4) V V (4) V (4) A ~ ( 4 ) A 
(6)V V V (6) A 


V (6) V (6) V (6) A (6) A (6) A V V (6) V (4) V 

A (4) A (6) ^ ( 4 ) V (6) V V (6) A (4) A (4) A ^ 

V (4) (4) - (4) A V 

444 222 


2-22 2222 

V (4) V (6) V (6) ^ (6) 5? (6) 2 A 


V (6) V (4) V (6) A (6) 2^ (6) A aw (6) ah A 

2 24 

These drill-charts may be rendered more complex 
by various additional "refinements" and "improve- 
ments." Some are complicated by musical notes, 

1 In this chart, the figures below the horizontal lines indicate the 
number of seconds for which the vowels are to be prolonged. 


inflection-signs, intensity-signs, etc. ; and others by 
interpolated remarks directing the pupil to repeat 
certain parts of the exercise, and to breathe at partic- 
ular points in a particular manner. At one point 
the exercise may require chest breathing, at another 
costal breathing, and so on. As in the respiratory 
exercises, the time is measured by a metronome, or is 
given by an instructor leading the class with a baton. 

At this point it may be well for us to consider the 
virtues of these exercises. 

It may be said of vocal exercises in general that 
most of them are useful as ordinary elocutionary 
measures; and that the majority of them would be 
beneficial to the stammerer in some respects. But 
the exercises are usually of benefit for their psycho- 
logical effect rather than for their elocutionary value. 
The exercises exert a favorable influence through 
suggestion when the stammerer has confidence in their 
therapeutic power ; and for a time, at least, they may 
remove such secondary causes as fear, bewilderment, 
and inhibitive auto-suggestion. It seems probable 
that the vocal exercises, when practised several hours 
a day, may intensify the stammerer's auditory ima- 
gery, and thus exert a beneficial influence on speech. 
But if an intensification of the imagery occurs, it is 
temporary ; and the improvement in speech is usually 
lost when the exercises are discontinued. Probably 
some of the vocal exercises influence the kinaesthetic 


imagery. Vocal exercises in general (or more properly, 
perhaps, a knowledge of the vocal processes) may tend 
in some degree to counteract physical stammering. 

As for the individual exercises themselves, it is 
evident that any form of practice producing gross 
movements of the larynx might lead to the establish- 
ment of a particular form of kinaesthetic imagery. 
It is questionable, though, whether a marked in- 
tensity of just this particular form of imagery would 
be of any great benefit to the stammerer. The 
acoustic impressions associated with these vocal 
exercises might, of course, lead to a temporary in- 
tensification of the acoustic images. Practice of 
the direct and indirect attack might strengthen the 
motor images of delicate laryngeal movements, and 
in this manner prove beneficial. The practice of the 
indirect attack might prove useful in cases where 
physical stammering takes the form of a vigorous 
closure of the glottis. On the other hand, the prac- 
tice of the glottis-stroke would probably intensify 
physical stammering in such instances. The vari- 
ous exercises for producing the "click of the glottis" 
should influence the motor images, and could of 
course be applied with advantage in particular cases. 

- The exercises involving change of pitch probably 
influence the acoustic imagery beneficially; thus 
they might effect a temporary improvement in speech. 

- The inflection-exercises may of course affect both 


the kinaesthetic and auditory imagery in some de- 
gree. The practice of shouting or declaiming in a 
loud voice would be quite likely to influence the 
acoustic images. Most of the general vocal exercises 
probably have little virtue other than their ability 
to intensify the auditory imagery for a period, and 
to exert a temporary " moral " influence. The whis- 
pered exercises may be dismissed as "fillers" -like- 
wise the dumb-bell exercises, marching exercises, etc. 
The various highly elaborated exercises are merely 

So much for the exercises intended to cure stam- 
mering by rendering the vocal organs pliable and 
subordinate to the will. 

We shall consider now the various related measures 
that are supposed to obviate stammering when applied 
during actual speech. 

An expedient that has been popular for more than 
hah* a century is that of talking in a low-pitched voice. 
This expedient is quite prevalent in Europe, but is 
encountered only occasionally in America. The 
argument usually advanced in support of the meas- 
ure is that a low-pitched voice requires relaxation 
and separation of the vocal cords, and that while 
the vocal cords are relaxed and separated, "throat- 
constriction" and "spasms" are less likely to super- 
vene. The additional plea is sometimes adduced 


that a relaxed condition of the cords makes neces- 
sary a stronger expiratory stream, and that the 
stronger expiratory stream prevents spastic occlusion 
of the glottis. 

All of which arguments would have been more or 
less sound if it had first been shown that spasmodic 
closure of the glottis was the cause of stammering. 
Lowering the pitch, like any other subterfuge, may be 
effective for a time if the stammerer has confidence 
in the procedure. And, like any other subterfuge, 
it may, as a novelty, hold the stammerer's attention 
during speech, and thus tend to eliminate bewilder- 
ment consequent upon the search for synonyms. 
Like any other unnatural subterfuge, then, it may 
effect an ephemeral mitigation of stammering. 

A somewhat similar measure is that of beginning 
the sentence hi an unusually quiet voice. This seems 
to be strictly a German innovation. The purpose 
of the procedure is apparently to preclude the unnat- 
ural effort that usually accompanies physical stam- 
mering. This seems, however, to be a rather indi- 
rect means of obtaining an estimable end. There is, 
moreover, always the danger that the first few words 
of the sentence will be lost to the hearer. 

A shift that is sometimes recommended as an 
antidote for stammering is speaking in a whisper. 
The stammerer is advised to speak habitually in a 
whisper, to speak difficult words hi a whisper, to 


speak those sentences in a whisper in which difficult 
words occur, and so on. The theory is that, since 
the vocal cords are not closely approximated during 
whispered utterance, there must be less danger of 
the glottis undergoing spastic closure. The argu- 
ment, of course, is just as sound as the premises. 
It is true that stammering is often temporarily 
alleviated by recourse to whispering, just as it may 
be temporarily alleviated by any other unnatural 
measure that inspires confidence. The expedient 
operates by inhibiting secondary causes. But whis- 
pering is not usually efficacious, and it is seldom effi- 
cacious for any considerable period ; hence, even if 
the measure were practicable, it would have to be 
condemned on purely empirical grounds. 

Another specific for stammering is speaking in a 
monotone. One argument in support of the procedure 
is that by avoiding rising inflection the stammerer 
avoids a close approximation of the vocal cords, and 
thus reduces the risk of sudden closure of the glottis. 
Another argument is that inflection itself is difficult 
for the stammerer owing to his "deficient control" of 
the vocal cords. 1 In many institutions the pupils 
are required to drawl their words monotonously for 

1 One authority on elocution says: "These inflections are ex- 
tremely difficult to many. In the case of stammerers, they are 
sometimes the only stumbling-blocks in their way, as is proved by 
the absence of stammering in singing." 


several weeks at the beginning of the course of train- 
ing. Occasionally the practice and application of 
the drawl is the entire system of a stammering-school. 

- There is practically nothing that can be said in 
favor of the expedient. 

In contrast to the above measure we have one that 
consists in using the entire range of the voice ("giv- 
ing the voice full play," etc.). Inflection is here the 
remedy for the defect instead of the cause of it. In 
reality, of course, it is neither. 

A measure often advocated to counteract closure 
of the glottis and failure of the voice is maintaining 
vocalization throughout the sentence. The idea is 
that the stammerer's difficulty lies in starting voice, 
and that with the voice once started he has only to 
"keep it going" hi order to avoid stammering. Ac- 
cordingly the stammerer is admonished to "Keep 
on the voice," to "Keep the voice pouring," to 
"Maintain continuity of sound," etc. 

As a matter of fact, vocalization is interrupted at 
every surd consonant, and "continuity of voice" is 
a myth. Nevertheless, the endeavor to maintain 
continuity seems to be extremely salutary, and the 
measure in question is one of the most efficacious to 
be found among elocutionary resources. 1 The ex- 
planation for this fact is undoubtedly that continuity 
of speech involves continuity of thought; and that 
1 The measure is nearly a century old. 


continuity of verbal thought necessarily excludes 
multiple thought one of the most potent of the 
secondary causes of stammering. We have, in addi- 
tion, the usual explanation that a measure ex- 
pected to be efficacious will, for a time, eliminate fear 
and inhibitive suggestion. In some institutions 
the pupils are taught to maintain continuity of voice 
in a manner that does not involve continuity of verbal 
thought, and in such instances the virtue of the ex- 
pedient is lost. The pupil is instructed to introduce 
a protracted 8 into the sentence if he should antici- 
pate trouble with a particular word and in this 
way to preserve continuity of voice while preparing 
to attack the difficulty. But, when this procedure is 
permitted, a search for synonyms frequently ensues, 
and stammering results or the I becomes the principal 
feature of the sentence. 

Arnott's expedient for beginning sound was to 
prefix a short e (as in berry] to the first word of the 
sentence ( the sentence being spoken in this 
manner). The function of the introductory vowel 
was to open the glottis and initiate voice, which was 
then maintained in "continuity." This device, with 
its numerous variations, has become quite prominent 
hi the "therapy" of stammering. A more recent 
version of the formula requires the prefirion of the 
short e to every word in a sentence, or to every word 
beginning with a consonant. Occasionally its pre- 


fixion is recommended only for those words that 
afford the stammerer difficulty. Another adaptation 
requires the stammerer to interpolate indefinite vowels 
between double and triple consonants (se-teed, se-te- 
reet, etc.) . With this recommendation the possibilities 
are nearly exhausted. Needless to say, the device in 
question is pernicious if applied in any manner. 

A variant of the above measure, designed likewise 
to open the glottis and initiate voice, consists in pre- 
fixing the sound of the letter n to the initial word or to 
difficult words in a sentence (N-one swallow does 
not make n-spring, n-nor yet one fine n-day; etc.). 
This ruse is already three-quarters of a century old. 
A more recent invention supplants n by m, the n 
having apparently been found ineffectual. The 
w-prefix is (or was for a while) a feature of a "psycho- 
logical " system that was recently introduced from Ger- 
many into England. These n- and w-prefixes are 
undoubtedly even more malignant than the "indefi- 
nite 8." 

Another expedient for opening the glottis consists 
in prefixing an aspirate (usually represented as 
"inaudible") to the first word or to difficult words 
in a sentence. It is evident that this measure is 
practically the "indirect attack." The observance 
of the indirect attack undoubtedly precludes certain 
vicious forms of physical stammering ; but it can, of 
course, have no effect upon the amnesia. 


The direct attack (under such sobriquets as "voice- 
accumulation," "shock of the glottis," etc.) is at times 
advocated as a sort of general remedy for stammering. 
It is usually a general aggravant at least of the 
physical manifestations of the defect. 

Two diabolical strategems are occasionally recom- 
mended to the stammerer for opening the trouble- 
some glottis. One consists in inhaling before every 
word in the sentence, and the other consists in throw- 
ing back the head with every word that occasions diffi- 
culty. Comment on these measures is unnecessary. 



NUMEROUS investigators of abnormal speech have 
come to the conclusion that stammering is wholly or 
partially induced by misuse or lack of control of the 
articulative organs : 

"The neglect of muscular activity which is displayed by the 
majority of speakers and singers, the laziness with which they 
open their mouths and use the lips and tongue is one cause of 
stammering, and the obstacle which prevents the words of 
singers, preachers, and public speakers being heard dis- 
tinctly. . . . 

"Some stammer with an empty lung, some with a full one. 
Some cannot regulate the action of the lips through weakness 
of the facial muscles, while others are unable to govern the 
motions of the tongue." 1 

"In all forms and varieties of the disorder the essential 
condition present is spasm of a greater or lesser degree ; which 
necessarily implies deranged nerve-function. . . . 

"The spasm may occur at the various stop- points of the 
vocal tube; if at the lips, labial dyslalia is produced; 
when at the point of the tongue, the dental sounds are affected ; 
if at the back of the tongue, guttural dyslalia results ; and 

1 Helmore, " Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers," pp. 40, 58. 


(rarely) at the larynx, when the glottis being affected, phona- 
tion itself becomes impeded. 

"By the continuance of any of these forms of spasm, a spas- 
modic habit is acquired, which becoming more or less auto- 
matic in course of time, passes more and more from under the 
control of the will, and eventually produces confirmed dyslalia ; 
perhaps by the vicious automatism of some nerve-centre not 
yet located, which may preside over the coordination of the 
movements of speech alone." l 

"The most frequent cause of stammering is the imperfect 
education or training of the organs of articulation, and a 
deficiency in that sympathetic association which ought to sub- 
sist between the articulating and vocal organs." z 

" Far more serious than any of the elementary defects hitherto 
noticed are those affections of speech which create an impedi- 
ment to utterance. These are known by the names of stutter- 
ing, stammering, spasmodic hesitation, etc. Their common 
characteristic is involuntary action of the organs, which are 
not obedient to the will. In stuttering, the articulating organs 
the lips and tongue rebound again and again before the 
sequent vowel can find egress." 8 

"If the contraction stops at the glottis, only the vowels 
are hindered ; but if it extends, as it usually does, to the lips 
and the tongue, the consonants also are affected." * 

"The seat of the former affection, stammering, is chiefly 
at the larynx, or the back part of the mouth ; the latter, stutter- 

1 Potter, "Speech and its Defects," pp. 76-77. 
1 Bishop, " On Articulate Sounds ; and on the Causes and Cure of 
Impediments of Speech," p. 67. 

1 Alexander Melville Bell, "The Faults of Speech," sth ed., p. 9- 
'Thorpe, "Speech-Hesitation," p. 30. 


ing, which is a defective mode of expressing sounds, is situated 
more anteriorly." 1 

When the cause of stammering is considered to be 
misuse or lack of control of the articulative organs, 
the corrective training usually consists of exercises 
for strengthening the speech-muscles and rendering 
them subservient to the will, and of practice in artic- 
ulating the various refractory consonants. We shall 
examine first the exercises intended to produce mus- 
cular control and development. 

Labial exercises are considered to be important. 
Says one writer on the subject: 

"I spoke of gaining flexibility of the lips; this is more im- 
portant than at first sight is apparent. I say, then, let the 
stammerer or stutterer endeavor to gain full control over the lip 
muscles; let him train them to flexibility combined with 
strength, for they are potent engines hi the whole machinery 
of speech. When I speak of training of the lips, I use no ex- 
aggeration of speech, for lips are, after all, muscles, and almost 
as capable of development as the biceps of a rowing man, and 
they are infinitely more sensitive than the most splendid biceps 
which led a crew to victory on the silver Thames." 

We give below, a number of labial exercises, which 
are taken from various sources: 

Pronounce the vowels e, a, ah, aw, d, dd. Pronounce the 
series alternately rapidly and slowly. 

'Abbotts, "Stammering, Stuttering and Other Speech Affec- 
tions," p. 22. 


Pronounce e-do-e-oo-e-oo, etc., exaggerating the lateral 
retraction and the protrusion of the lips. 

Moisten the lips. Protrude the lower lip slightly, and draw 
it over the upper lip. Now withdraw the lower lip to its normal 
position; protrude the upper lip and draw it over the lower 
one. Let these movements alternate both rapidly and slowly. 
Keep the lips continually in contact. 

Practise reading different passages without movement of 
the lower jaw. Keep the teeth continually in contact and 
exaggerate the labial speech-movements. 

"Attempt to move them [the lips] singly; for instance, 
draw the under lip downward without allowing the upper lip 
to move, and vice versa. Produce a tone, hold it a while, and 
make the same movements of the lips. He who has mastered 
the muscles of the lips singly, can let them rest when they are 
not to act." 

"i. Open the mouth wide, giving it its fullest extent lon- 

" 2. Do the same, extending it laterally. 

" 3. From one position to the other. 

" 4. Half open the mouth, as in No. i. 

" 5. Half open the mouth, as in No. 2. 

" 6. Pout the lips, making a somewhat large orifice. 

" 7. Do the same with a small orifice. 

" 8. Close the lips, and let them remain closed without pres- 

" 9. Open and close them thus. 

" 10. Close them with pressure. 

"n. Open and close them thus. 

" 12. Do the same as No. 10, with the cheeks puffed out. 

" 13. Open and close them thus. 

" 14. Blow through the lips. 

" 15. Blow through the lips with the cheeks puffed out. 


" 16. Blow through the pouted lips. 

"17. From exercise i to 6 and 7. 

" 18. From exercises 6 and 7 to i. 

" 19. From exercise 2 to 6 and 7. 

" 20. From exercises 6 and 7 to 2. 

"21. With the teeth apart draw up the lower lip between 

" 22. Do the same with the upper lip. 

" 23. The same, drawing in both lips." 

Exercises similar to the following are sometimes 
recommended for the lower jaw : 

"i. Drop the jaw. 

"2. Protrude it. 

" 3. Draw it back. 

" 4. Move it to the right. 

" 5. Move it to the left. 

" 6. Go from one to the other of the above exercises." 

"Sing and hold a tone, moving the lower jaw (without any 
pressure upon the larynx) horizontally to right and left, and 
then describe a slightly circling movement. The object of 
this is to free the muscles used in chewing." 

Lingual exercises are also popular in a number of 
stammering-schools. We quote the following typical 
exercises from Guttmann's "Gymnastics of the 
Voice," 1 a manual that has been widely followed by 
"speech specialists." 

1 " Gymnastics of the Voice for Song and Speech ; also a Method 
for the Cure of Stuttering and Stammering," 3d ed., pp. 83 ff. 



"Open the mouth wide, but not too wide (this is meant for 
all exercises) ; let the tongue rest quietly without any pres- 
sure flat on the bottom of the oral cavity, the point touching 
but not pressing the front teeth ; breathe lightly in and out 
through the mouth (four, six times), not allowing the tongue to 
move in the very least. 


"Protrude the tongue as far as possible without any pressure 
and independent of the muscles of the larynx; keep it out 
four seconds, then draw it back as far as possible. Keep it 
back four seconds without closing the mouth. Begin slowly 
(six times), growing faster by degrees (ten, fifteen times in 
succession). Protrude the tongue during expiration, draw it 
back during a deep inspiration through the mouth, the nostrils 
held closed by thumb and fore finger. 


"Open the mouth wide, move the tip of the pointed tongue 
to the corners of the mouth alternately to the right and left 
(six times), having the direct intention to strike the corners (for 
purposeless work is only a mechanical action and will not lead 
to success) ; then growing faster by degrees (ten, fifteen times 
in succession). Do not hold the breath during this exercise, 
but breathe quietly and regularly through the mouth. 


"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply- 
pointed tongue the middle of the upper and of the lower lip 
alternately; begin slowly, with the direct intention of letting 
only the outermost tip, not the entire front part of the tongue, 


touch the middle of the lips (six times), then growing faster 
(ten, fifteen times). 


"Open the mouth wide, place the tip of the pointed tongue 
into one corner of the mouth, proceed with sharply-pointed 
tongue in dotting fashion along the upper lip to the other cor- 
ner ; then on the under lip to the starting point ; repeat the 
same movement backward to the starting point. 


"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the very 
sharply-pointed tongue the roots of the upper middle incisors, 
as if to make a dot there, and then, touching the palate in 
such dotting fashion with the tip of the tongue, proceed back 
as far as possible; then go forward again, always breathing 
through the mouth (inspiration while the tongue goes back, 
expiration while it goes forward, six times), both ways. 


"Touch, in the same manner, the bottom of the oral cavity, 
backward and forward. 


"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply- 
pointed tongue the middle of the upper lip, then of the 
lower lip, and, without pausing, the right and left corners 
of the mouth (ten, twelve times), slowly at first, growing 
faster by degrees, alternating thus: upper middle, lower 
middle, right corner, left corner, upper middle, lower mid- 
dle, left corner, right corner, always with the sharply-pointed 



"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply- 
pointed tongue the middle of the right side of the upper lip, 
then that of the left side of the upper lip; first slowly (six 
times), then faster (six tunes), without any movement of the 
lower jaw. 


"Repeat the same exercise with the lower lip, without 
movement of the lower jaw. 


" Combine these two exercises in the following manner : 
Begin at the upper right side, proceed to the lower left, 
thence to the upper left and then to the lower right, so 
that this figure M would be produced; at first slowly (six 
times), then faster (six times). 


"Open the mouth wide ; proceed with the tip of the sharply- 
pointed tongue from the right to the left, brushing the upper 
lip and passing along the lower lip back to the right with- 
out interruption (six times), slowly; then (six times), growing 
faster by degrees; repeat from the left to the right in the 
same manner. 


"Repeat the same exercise along the inner side of the lips. 
During this exercise touch the lips sharply with the tip of 
the tongue. Do not open the mouth too wide here. 


"Repeat the same exercise along the outer side of the lips. 
"Let it be borne in mind that the purpose of these exercises 


is to sharpen the tongue, and that they must be faithfully 


"Protrude the root of the lowered tongue without allowing 
its tip to pass beyond the front teeth (ten, twelve times). 


"Sing a tone (ah), holding it as long as possible, without 
allowing it to lose its clear character, and at the same time 
try to make a circling movement with the tip of the tongue ; 
and later, when this exercise has been fully mastered, try to 
make a horizontal movement with the tip of the tongue from 
one side of the mouth to the other, first slowly and then grad- 
ually increasing in rapidity." 

The following exercises are culled from sundry 
sources : 

Protrude the tongue, and with the point describe a number 
of circles. Reverse the direction of the movement. 

Repeat this exercise with the tip of the tongue in the plane 
of the lips. 

Repeat the exercise with the point of the tongue retracted 
as far as possible. 

Place the point of the tongue at the base of the upper 
incisors ; carry the point back to the soft palate, and if possible 
to the uvula, keeping the tongue continually in contact with 
the roof of the mouth. Carry the tongue forward to the teeth ; 
back to the uvula ; and so on. 

Protrude the tongue as far as possible; raise it till it is in 
contact with the upper lip ; lower it till it is in contact with the 
under lip. Alternate these movements. 

Thrust the tongue into the vestibule between the upper 


teeth and upper lip ; into the vestibule between the lower teeth 
and lower lip. Alternate these movements. 

Groove the tongue by raising the lateral edges. Flatten the 
tongue ; groove it ; flatten it ; and so on. 

Groove the tongue. While the tongue is in this position, 
raise the point so that it forms a wall continuous with sides of 
the tongue ; lower the point of the tongue to its former posi- 
tion ; raise it ; lower it ; and so on. 

Protrude the tongue; compress it laterally; flatten it; 
compress it ; etc. 

Depress the back of the tongue as far as possible ; raise the 
back of the tongue till it is in contact with the posterior part 
of the hard palate ; depress it ; raise it ; etc. 

Groove the tongue ; twist the whole tongue to the right, so 
that the groove is lateral ; twist to the left ; etc. 

Repeat la-la-la-la ; na-na-na-na ; etc. 

Trill the lingual r. 

Many of these tongue-exercises are quite difficult ; 
consequently the pupil is sometimes advised to assist 
himself at first, where practicable, with a spatula. 
He is often recommended to practise the exercises 
for a time before a mirror. 

Exercises for the velum, or soft palate, are now 
and then encountered. The following exercises, from 
three different sources, are typical : 

Prefix a continuous m to words beginning with the con- 
sonant b; e.g. m-Bristol, m-Boston. Note the sudden rise of 
the velum with the change from m to b. Practise the m-b 
combination on such words as timber, amber, ember, etc. 

Prefix n to words beginning with d ; e.g. n-Dover, n-Derby. 


Note the rise of the velum with the change from n to d. Prac- 
tise the n-d combination on such words as hinder, winder, 
sunder, etc. 

Prefix b (without actually disploding this consonant) to 
words beginning with m ; e.g. b-Mannheim, b-Maine. Note the 
lowering of the velum with the change from b to m. Practise 
the b-m combination on such words as submerge, submarine, etc. 

Prefix d (without actually disploding the consonant) to 
words beginning with n; e.g. d-Norfolk, d-Newport. Note the 
lowering of the velum with the change from d to n. Practise 
the d-n combination on such words as sadness, boldness, etc. 

Endeavor to raise and lower the velum consciously. 

Vocalize the vowel ah. Nasalize it by lowering the velum ; 
raise and lower the velum alternately. Similarly with other 

Open the mouth. Inhale and exhale quietly through the 
mouth with the velum raised. With the mouth still open, 
lower the velum and inhale and exhale through the nose. 

Most of these different exercises for the articulative 
organs are doubtless of value as ordinary elocutionary 
measures. The jaw-exercises, however, are probably 
dispensable, and the soft palate exercises valuable 
only when there is a tendency to nasality. These 
two groups of exercises are certainly not germane to 
the treatment of stammering. Labial exercises do 
not mitigate stammering by facilitating articulation. 
It is possible for them to enhance the severity of 
physical stammering by increasing the strength of 
the labial muscles. It seems not improbable, however, 
that the employment of these exercises might intensify 


the kinaesthetic images of labial movements, and thus 
lead indirectly to greater definiteness of the motor 
images of the lip-movements associated with the pro- 
duction of vowels. If this should occur, the exercises 
might prove beneficial if employed purposefully 
and with discretion. The practice of reading with 
closed jaws would be likely to inculcate a pernicious 
habit ; hence, should certainly be tabooed. The 
tongue-exercises might prove valuable in improving 
one's consciousness of lingual movements and in inten- 
sifying the kinaesthetic imagery. They should prove 
valuable to the stammerer that is endeavoring to 
supplement his auditory images of vowels by kinaes- 
thetic images of the movements by which the vowels 
are produced. As the lingual exercises are employed 
at present to facilitate the production of "refractory 
consonants" -they are certainly useless. 

We come now to the various exercises in articula- 
tion represented occasionally as furnishing drill 
for the articulative organs, but usually as affording 
"practice" in the formation of consonants. 

We give below, a number of articulatory exercises, 
all of which are in use in different stammering-schools : 

Prefix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting 
c and x) to each of the vowels, a, e, I, o, u. 1 Thus : 

1 For other vowel-series employed, see footnote on p. 42. 


1 ba-be-bl-bo-ba 

Postfix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting 
c, h, w, x, and y) to each of the vowels a, e, i, o, u. Thus : 











1 Inspiration is supposed to occur at the beginning of each line. 


aq-eq-iq-oq-uq * 






Prefix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting 
c and x) to each of the syllables of the preceding exercise. 
Thus for the first consonant, b : 

















(Repeat the exercise, replacing 6 by each of the other con- 
sonants in turn.) 

Repeat the exercise, prefixing instead of the simple con- 
sonants the following consonantal combinations: 

"Bl. . . .as in blade Fr. . . .as in fright 
Br bride Fy few 

1 In these exercises q of course takes the sound of kw. 


Bw buoy 

By beauty 

PI place 

Pr price 

Py pure 

Dr draw 

Dzh jew 

Dw dwell 

Dy due 

Tr try 

Tsh chain 

Tw twelve 

Ty tune 

Gl glad 

Gr great 

Gw guelph 

Gy gewgaw 

Kl climb 

Kr crime 

Kw quite 

Ky cure 

My muse 

Ny new 

Fi flight 

Vy view 

Thr three 

Thw thwart 

Thy thews 

SI sleep 

Sm smile 

Sn snarl 

Sf sphere 

Sp spy 

St sty 

Sk sky 

Sw sway 

Sy sue 

Shr shrink 

Spl spleen 

Spr spring 

Spy spume 

Str straw 

Sty stew 

Ski sclerotic 

Skr screw 

Skw squint 

Sky skewer' 

Practise the following series of physiological consonants 
(giving the consonants their sounds, not their names) : 





1 A dash indicates a brief pause. 
















Practise the following combinations of consonants, giving 
the consonants their sounds not their names : 

"p-t t-p p-t-p t-p-t p-t-t-p t-p-p-t 

p-k k-p p-k-p k-p-k p-k-k-p k-p-p-k 

t-k k-t t-k-t k-t-k t-k-k-t k-t-t-k 

p-t-k p-k-t t-p-k t-k-p k-p-t k-t-p 

p-f f-p p-f-p f-p-f p-f-f-p f-p-p-f 

f-wh wh-f f-wh-f wh-f-wh f-wh-wh-f wh-f-f-wh 

p-f-wh p-wh-f f-p-wh f-wh-p wh-p-f wh-f-p 

f-th th-f f-th-f th-f-th f-th-th-f th-f-f-th 

f-th-wh f-wh-th th-f-wh th-wh-f wh-f-th wh-th-f 

th-s s-th th-s-th s-th-s th-s-s-th s-th-th-s 

th-sh sh-th th-sh-th sh-th-sh th-sh-sh-th sh-th-th-sh 

s-sh sh-s s-sh-s sh-s-sh s-sh-sh-s sh-s-s-sh 

th-s-sh th-sh-s s-th-sh s-sh-th sh-s-th sh-th-s 

b-d d-l\ b-d-b d-b-d b-d-d-b d-b-b-d 

b-g g-b b-g-b g-b-g b-g-g-b g-b-b-g 

d-g g-d d-g-d g-d-g d-g-g-d g-d-d-g 


b-d-g b-g-d d-b-g d-g-b g-b-d g-d-b 

b-v v-b b-v-b v-b-v b-v-v-b v-b-b-v 

b-w w-b b-w-b w-b-w b-w-w-b w-b-b-w 

b-v-w b-w-v v-b-w v-w-b w-b-v w-v-b 

v-w w-v v-w-v w-v-w v-w-w-v w-v-v-w 

v-m m-v v-m-v m-v-m v-m-m-v m-v-v-m 

w-m m-w w-m-w m-w-m w-m-m-w m-w-w-m 

v-w-m v-m-w w-v-m w-m-v m-v-w m-w-v 

v-th th-v v-th-v th-v-th v-th-th-v th-v-v-th 

th-z z-th th-z-th z-th-z th-z-z-th z-th-th-z 

v-th-z v-z-th th-z-v th-v-z z-v-th z-th-v 

th-1 1-th th-l-th 1-th-l th-1-l-th 1-th-th-l 

v-th-1 v-l-th th-v-1 th-l-v 1-v-th 1-th-v 

th-zh zh-th th-zh-th zh-th-zh th-zh-zh-th zh-th-th-zh 

z-zh zh-z z-zh-z zh-z-zh z-zh-zh-z zh-z-z-zh 

z-th-zh z-zh-th th-z-zh th-zh-z zh-z-th zh-th-z 

z-r r-z z-r-z r-z-r z-r-r-z r-z-z-r 

r-1 1-r r-l-r 1-r-l r-l-l-r 1-r-r-l 

r-n n-r r-n-r n-r-n r-n-n-r n-r-r-n 

n-1 1-n n-l-n 1-n-l n-l-l-n 1-n-n-l 

r-l-n r-n-l 1-r-n 1-n-r n-r-1 n-l-r 

n-m m-n n-m-n m-n-m n-m-m-n m-n-n-m 

n-ng ng-n n-ng-n ng-n-ng n-ng-ng-n ng-n-n-ng 

m-ng ng-m m-ng-m ng-m-ng m-ng-ng-m ng-m-m-ng 

n-m-ng n-ng-m m-n-ng m-ng-n ng-n-m ng-m-n 

y-zh zh-y y-zh-y zh-y-zh y-zh-zh-y zh-y-y-zh 

y-w w-y y-w-y w-y-w y-w-w-y w-y-y-w" 

Repeat the above combinations with a vowel subjoined to 
each of the articulative elements ; thus : 

pata tapa patapa tapata patatapa tapapata 
paka kapa pakapa kapaka pakakapa kapapaka 
taka kata takata kataka takakata katataka 



pataka pakata tapaka takapa kapata katapa 
pafa fapa pafapa fapafa pafafapa fapapafa, etc. 

Repeat the combinations with a vowel prefixed to each of the 
articulative elements, thus : 

apat atap apatap atapat apatatap atapapat 
apak akap apakap akapak apakakap akapapak 
atak akat atakat akatak atakakat akatatak 
apatak apakat atapak atakap akapat akatap 
apaf afap apafap afapaf apafafap afapapaf, etc. 

Practice the following consonants and combinations with the 
vowel a (ah). Take breath at the beginning of each line. 1 

"ha 2 

a b 

a ba 


ha d 


a da 


ha f 

a f 

a fa 


ha p 

a p 

a pa 




ha t 

a t 

a ta 


ha g 

a g 

a ga 


ha k 

a k 

a ka 


ha sh 

a sh 

a sha 


ha s 

a s 

a sa 


ha st 

a st 

a sta 



ha 1 

a 1 

a la 


a bla 


a gla 


a kla 


a fla 


a shla 


ha m 

a m 

a ma 




a sha 


ha n 

a n 

a na 


a shna 


ha r 

a r 

a bra 


a tra 


a shra 


ha w 

a w 

a wa 


a qua 


ha z 

a z 

a za 


a zwa' 

1 The author of the exercise recommends practice before a mirror. 
1 The horizontal line here indicates prolongation of the vowel. 


Practise the above consonants with all the different vowels 
and diphthongs. 

Practise the following consonantal combinations; likewise 
all other possible combinations, which need not necessarily 
occur in words. "A gymnastic of the organs is the object 
here in view." 

"b, d, hb, hbd, f, p, bf, ph, hip, t, ft, g, gd, k, kt, pi, tk, bdg, 
ptk, sh, fsh, shp, s, ts, shps, st, hst, ks, bst, j, 1, bl, dl, hi, gl, 
gls, Ish, shl, pi, kl, klg, glsh, m, hm, mb, mt, fm, km, 1m, 
shhn, shms, flm, n, bn, dn, hn, fn, pn, tn, kn, gn, shn, sb, 
sd, hs, sm, r, br, tr, shnr, shmr, w, qu, shwr, z, x." 

Practise the following combinations of consonants and 
vowels. Inhale at the beginning of each line, and hold the 
breath for a moment before vocalizing. 

" ah-bah-ah-pah. 






















"Repeat 'ta' over and over, hundreds of times." 

"The same way, repeat 'tdln, tdln, tdln ! "' 

"Making syllables of these with the vowels, in order, 
repeat those syllables over and over, as in the following 
tables : 

Table i Table 2 

ta-te-ti-to-tu ta-da-la-na 

da-de-di-do-du te-de-le-ne 

la-le-li-lo-lu ti-di-li-ni 

na-ne-ni-no-nu to-do-lo-no 

tu-du-lu-nu " 

"Next, place 'ta' before the letters of the alphabet, and 
repeat them, over and over, as 'ta-a, ta-b, ta-c, ta-d, ta-e, ta-f,' 

"Place 'ta' before each word, going over whole pages in a 
reader suited to the student's advancement." 

Repeat the last two exercises, saying " ya " instead of " ta," 
and "pressing the tongue hard to place." 

We give on the following pages a few charts typical 
of those generally used with articulatory exercises. 
The charts are from four different sources. The 
symbols have been converted to conform to those 
previously employed. 

Exercises of this kind are practically numberless. 




6be Ibi 6b5 

















































































































y be be be be 


y bi bi bi bi 


y bo bo bo bO 


y bu bu bu bll 


Vd) a a a 


Vd) pa pa pa 


V a o u 


V pa po pu 


1 The intensity of the voice increases with the size of the type. 

CHART 4 1 


/mah mahN 


Vme ma mah maw \ / 
T 2 2 2 V 

mo moo ma nil 



be ba bah baw bo boo bl 



V nioy "boy poy V my bay pay V my by ; py / \ 

1 See pp. n, 37, and 47 for explanation of symbols. 

P I " 

po poo pi 


One French institution alone boasts more than 
three hundred of these articulatory and vocal 
drills. The examples given will suffice, however, 
to illustrate the general nature of the articula- 
tion-practice usually prescribed. There are, of 
course, such inventions as articulatory exercises 
combined with dumb-bell drill and marching; but 
any further exercises that might be described would, 
on the whole, be little more than variants of those 
already given. 

And what is it all good for ? 

More than half a century ago Klencke expressed 
himself on the matter as follows : * 

"Inasmuch as nearly every stutterer has certain consonants 
which give him more trouble than others for example, d, 
t> n > b> P) m t 1> ia the beginning of my practice, prepared 
special exercises of the difficult consonantal combinations, 
such as da, de, di, do, du, etc. ; taught him how to use tongue 
and lips, and kept him at this drill until he was able not only to 
form the consonants physically correct, but also in their proper 
relation and in the most varied combinations. Such a course 
I deemed indispensable, because I saw how many a stutterer 
did not fulfil the conditions necessary to the production of a 
consonant in connection with a vowel. He would, for example, 
run out the tongue when attempting to articulate d or n, or 
squeeze the lips tightly together in p or b. However, I have 
dispensed with this practice (which is given in detail in my 

1 " Heilung des Stotterns." Translation taken from The Voice, 
Vol. I, p. 121. 


former book) altogether, for I have learned that it is not alone 
a waste of time, but also useless." 1 

The theory that stammering is due to difficulty 
in producing consonants is practically defunct; but 
the articulatory exercises still continue. These exer- 
cises have, however, absolutely no merit to justify 
their existence. There is only one instance in which 
they could be prescribed with any semblance of 
justification; and that is, in cases where there has 
occurred a distortion of the verbal imagery. But 
even in such cases the mechanical practice of articu- 
lation is dispensable. 

There are on the market a few stratagems for 
circumventing particular consonants and consonantal 

The initial w, it is advised, should be pronounced 
as oo. The word waif becomes oo-aif; will becomes 
oo-ill; twine becomes too-ine; swoon becomes soo-oon; 

The initial y masquerades as ee. You becomes ee-oo ; 
yard becomes ee-ard; and yawn becomes ee-awn. 

Initial r, when regenerated, becomes er. Rats are 
er-ats, and rot is er-ot. 

Q, of course, must be thought of as kw. Forth- 
with the difficulty vanishes. 

1 After discarding articulation-exercises Klencke directed his at- 
tention to the production of voice. 


Regarding bl, cl, si, spl, sm, sn, sp, spr, and similar 
combinations, we are told that "when these are diffi- 
cult to stammerers, it is only because they look so." 
Separate the consonants, and trouble is annihilated. 

Concerning these expedients the following may be 
said : W, y, and q require the same positions as 00, 
ee, and kw ; therefore it is a little inconsistent of the 
speech-mechanicians to propose the "substitution." 
If the endeavor to substitute ever proves beneficial, 
it does so by focussing the attention of the speaker 
on the verbal imagery. In replacing r by er one is 
merely resorting to Arnott's trick (p. 54), but making 
its application specific rather than general. The 
suggestion that the stammerer disjoin double and 
triple consonants is manifestly an inanity. All of 
these methods induce unnatural speech or unnatural 
verbal thought, and therefore would be open to 
reprobation even though they should prove tem- 
porarily effective. 

The antidote usually recommended for difficulty in 
articulation is a knowledge of ' the physiology of the 
speech-organs and the mechanical action by which 
the various consonants are produced. The following 
citations, from three different authors, present the 
point of view : 

"Again we repeat, but in other words, the nature of the 
Stammerer's undertaking. He has to take his speech to pieces, 


as a watchmaker does a watch, and examine all the cogs, and 
pins, and pivots, of its mechanism; then, having discovered 
and corrected the defects of the separate parts of the machine, 
he must proceed carefully to replace them, one by one, in natural 
order, adjusting each to easy action before he passes to the 
next! Such precisely is the curative process; it is not a te- 
dious one, for the elements of speech are few and definite in 
number, but though it were irksome, perseverance would 
sooner or later bring it to an end ! And the Stammerer will 
then not only have his speech machine in order, and free from 
obstructions and irregularities, but under superior control, 
from his intimate acquaintance with its structure and modes of 

And thus the second author: 

"A person who has acquired the habit of stammering has to 
begin again, like a little child, from the point from which he 
strayed. Unlike a child, however, instead of learning by imi- 
tation or intuition, he has to be told exactly how and where to 
place the tongue and lips." 

The third author writes in dialogue : 

"'Let me see your mouth; sit down and open it, please. 
(He [the patient] does so.) Well, it is an excellent mouth. 
Put out your tongue. (He does so.) An excellent tongue ; 
neither too large nor too small. You've lost a tooth or two ; 
but you've plenty left, and all the front ones regular and in 
place. Move your jaws well; they work easily enough, no 
need of oiling the hinges, eh ? (He laughs.) Move your lips, 
opening and closing them with a noise. (He does so, making 
the sound of the letter p.} Well, that's all right, and yet I 
dare say you fancy you can't say "puff" because it begins with 


a p. Why, it is preposterous. There's no more reason, phys- 
ically, why you should hesitate on a word beginning with p or 
any other letter than I should ; it is all fancy.' 

"He smiles a melancholy smile, and shakes his head sadly. 

'"How long have you had this fancy ? Now don't be in a 
hurry to speak, but recollect first, and then answer.' 

"A pause of a few seconds ; after a gasp or two, he at length 
blurts out with an explosion of sound : 

"'Nine years.' 

"'Nine years, eh? Now do you know the reason why you 
don't say the word nine clearly at once, without boggle or hesi- 
tation ? Not why you can't say it, mind, but why you don't? 
(He shakes his head.) Well, I'll tell you, and prove to you 
that you can say nine, or any 'other word beginning with n, 
as well and as easily as I or any other man living, if you set 
about it rightly. Now, then: shut your teeth close together, 
opening your lips at the same tune. (He does so.) Now 
put your tongue against the roof of your mouth, just above your 
upper teeth, and keeping teeth closed, and lips open, and tongue 
in that position. Utter any other sound but that of n if you 

"He does so, and tries to utter a sound, and produces, of 
necessity, a repetition of the sub-tonic n, n, n. 

'"Very well ! Now you see that it is not that you cannot 
utter n, but that if you take the right means for the utterance of 
the sound of the letter you cannot say anything else.' 
" He opens his mouth and tries to say 'No.' 

"'Ha!' I say, 'you cannot say "no" with a mouth wide 
open ; you can't begin to say it, because the sound of n in no 
requires closed teeth, or nearly so. Go back to your former 
closed teeth and open lips and say no, at once, and without 

"A pause, and he does so, and laughs with satisfaction. 


" ' Ha ! there ! You see you can say no as easily as I do, 
and you fancied it was a dreadful stumbling-block. My 
dear fellow, you have no defect at all ; you only fancy you 
have. You try to attain the utterance of a certain sound by 
an utterly false and contrary process to the one required to 
produce it. You might as well attempt to smoke with your 
mouth wide open; you have first to close your lips to draw 
the cigar.' 

"Thus, I take him in turn through every elementary sound 
in the language tonic, sub-tonic, atonic, as Dr. Rush has 
classed them showing him the organic process necessary for 
the utterance of each, and forcing him to observe it hi practice, 
and thus proving to him, by his own success that, under the 
required conditions, he could utter no other sound than the sound 

Instruction in the mechanical processes by which 
the various elemental sounds are produced is usually 
preceded by some description of the anatomy of the 
speech-organs. The physical structure of the organs 
is often taught from anatomical models. The ex- 
position on the physiology of speech is generally 
about as follows : 

Inspiration is effected through the expansion of the chest. 
Since "Nature abhors a vacuum," air enters the lungs, which 
then fill the cavity that would otherwise have resulted. Expira- 
tion is effected through contraction of the chest, the contraction 
resulting in expulsion of the breath. As the breath passes 
through the larynx, or voice-box (a conspicuous part of which 
is seen as the "Adam's apple"), it sets into vibration the vocal 
cords, a pair of elastic membranous folds within the larynx, 
and thereby initiates voice. The raising or lowering of the pitch 


of the voice is brought about by an increase or decrease in the 
tension of the vocal cords, this increase or decrease in tension 
being effected through muscular action. The voice is given the 
characteristic quality of different vowels through changes in 
shape of the buccal cavity, these changes being effected by 
alterations in the position of the lips and alterations ha the shape 
and position of the tongue. The consonants are formed by 
different obstructions presented to the vocalized or non-vocal- 
ized expiratory current. 1 

This elucidation of the general physiological pro- 
cesses of speech is followed by detailed instruction 
concerning the manner in which the individual con- 
sonants are produced. The stammerer then pro- 
duces them himself, and afterward practises them for 
months or years, as the case may be, with the dif- 
ferent articulatory exercises. Needless to say, he is 
counselled to form the consonants at all times accord- 
ing to directions. 

The directions are typically as follows : 

To produce the consonant p, press the lips firmly together, 
raise the velum in order to separate the nasal cavity from the 
pharynx, and compress the air in the buccal cavity by the action 
of the respiratory muscles ; now separate the lips (by the action 
of the labial muscles and the downward movement of the lower 
jaw), and the consonant is formed by the emission of the breath 
under pressure. 

To form b, proceed as above, but vocalize the breath a 
moment before disploding the consonant. 

1 A detailed exposition on the physiology of speech can, of course, 
be found in almost any good book on phonetics or elocution. 


To form the consonant m, press the lips together, lower the 
soft palate slightly in order to connect the pharynx with the 
nares (but do not lower the velum sufficiently to bring it hi 
contact with the tongue) ; then vocalize the breath (which will 
find egress through the nares), and finally displode the con- 
sonant by separating the lips. 

To produce wh (as in what), protrude the lips slightly, and 
round them to diminish the size of the labial orifice ; raise the 
velum, and emit the breath rather forcefully through the mouth 
so that a fricative sound is produced at the lips : complete the 
articulation by sharply separating and retracting the lips. 

To produce w, proceed as for wh, but vocalize the effluent 

To produce the consonant /, bring the lower lip against the 
upper incisors, and slightly raise the upper lip ; raise the velum, 
and exhale the breath with sufficient force to occasion a frica- 
tive sound at the lips : complete the articulation by lowering 
the jaw and sharply separating the lip from the upper teeth. 

To form v, proceed as for /, but vocalize the outgoing current. 

To form /, apply the entire edge of the tongue to the roof 
of the mouth ; raise the velum, and compress the air in the 
pharynx and cavity of the mouth above the tongue ; articulate 
the consonant by abruptly separating the tongue from the 

To produce d, proceed similarly, but vocalize the breath a 
moment before articulating the consonant. 

To produce n, place the entire edge of the tongue against 
the palate as for I or d ; lower the velum slightly (but not to 
the back of the tongue), and vocalize the breath, which will 
pass through the nares : articulate the consonant by sharply 
withdrawing the tongue from the palate. 

To form s, appose the tongue to the roof of the mouth with 
the lateral portions well in contact, but with the middle of the 


tongue slightly grooved ; raise the velum, and emit the breath 
with sufficient force to produce a sibilation at the forward part 
of the tongue : finish the articulation by lowering the jaw and 
withdrawing the tongue from the palate. 

To form z, proceed as for s, but vocalize the breath. 

To produce sh, proceed as for s, but retract the point of the 
tongue slightly, enlarge the concavity of the tongue, and 
slightly arch its posterior portion. 

To produce zh, vocalize sh. 

To form ch (as in church) combine / with sh. 

To form j, compound d and zh. 

To produce th (as in thigh) place the tip of the tongue in 
contact with the edge of the upper incisors; raise the velum, 
and exhale with sufficient force to induce a fricative sound as 
the breath passes over the lateral edges of the fore part of the 
tongue: complete the articulation by depressing the lower 
jaw and separating the tongue from the teeth. 

To produce TH (as in thy) proceed as above, but vocalize 
the breath. 

To form the consonant /, place the tip of the tongue in con- 
tact with the palatal arch ; raise the velum ; emit and vocalize 
the breath, which will pass over the lateral edges of the posterior 
part of the tongue : complete the consonant by separating the 
tongue from the palate. 

To produce r, upturn slightly the tip of the tongue, and place 
the lateral edges of the tongue lightly in contact with the 
palate ; raise the velum ; emit and vocalize the breath, which 
will vibrate the tip of the tongue : finish the articulation 
by lowering the jaw and withdrawing the tongue from the 

To form y, raise the body of the tongue till its lateral edges 
are in contact with the palate and bicuspid teeth; raise the 
velum ; emit and vocalize the breath, which will pass through 


the constricted space above the tongue : to complete the artic- 
ulation lower the jaw and bring the tongue sharply away 
from the palate. 

To produce k, apply the posterior part of the tongue to the 
roof of the mouth ; raise the velum, and compress the air in the 
pharynx : articulate the consonant by sharply withdrawing the 
tongue from the palate. 

To produce g, proceed as for k, but vocalize the breath just 
before disploding the consonant. 

To produce the consonant h, emit the breath with sufficient 
force to produce an aspirate sound in the glottis. 1 

In some institutions much ado is made of this 
study of the consonants. Further, the consonants 
are usually carefully and scientifically classified as 
closed and continuous; hard and soft; subtonic and 
atonic; labial, lingual, and guttural; weal, semi- 
weal and mute; etc. according to the particular 
fancy or prejudice of, or particular book in the pos- 
session of, the particular "professor" in charge of 
the institution. 

And what is the value of this analysis of the con- 
sonants ? 


The analysis is usually faulty, for even phoneti- 
cists are by no means agreed among themselves as 
to the manner in which some of the speech-elements 
are produced. The principiations given above, though 

1 All of these directions are, of course, for initial consonants. 
Initial c has the value of 5 or k. Q is equivalent to kw. 


in accord with the theories of a number of able phone- 
ticians, are open to all kinds of criticism. The surd 
th, for instance, is sometimes formed with the tip of 
the tongue not in contact with incisor teeth, and the 
breath then passes over the tip of the tongue as well 
as over the anterior lateral edges. The aspirate 
sound of h, when this consonant is followed by long 
e or u (as in heat and huge), is usually formed in the 
forward part of the mouth as well as in the glottis. 
G when followed by / (as in glass) is sometimes formed 
with the lateral edges of the tongue. T when fol- 
lowed by / (as hi little) is always formed with the 
lateral edges of the tongue. T when followed by n 
(in such words as mutton) is formed with the soft 
palate; etc., etc. But even if the analysis of the 
consonants were correct, a knowledge of the forma- 
tive processes would be useless, for the stammerer's 
difficulty lies with the vowels. 

A knowledge of the minor anatomy of the speech- 
organs is likewise valueless. It is not an asset for 
the stammerer to know that the levator labii superioris 
al&que nasi assists in raising the upper lip. A general 
knowledge of the physiology of speech may deter 
the stammerer from endeavoring to speak with 
occluded glottis and deflated lungs; but a detailed 
knowledge is likely to divert his attention from his 
verbal imagery to the organs on which this imagery 
should act. 


In some institutions the pupils are given instruc- 
tion (usually cursory, and unfortunately frequently 
inaccurate) concerning the physiological production 
of the vowels. This feature of instruction is rarely 
met with; but it is one of importance, and must 
therefore be included in the present review. 

We give below, the lingual and labial conforma- 
tions corresponding to the different vowels as these 
conformations are usually taught by Instructors of the 
deaf : l 

Ah as in far: The tongue lies flat and inactive in the bottom 
of the mouth ; or the whole tongue may be slightly but evenly 
depressed. The corners of the mouth are slightly retracted. 
The velum is raised, separating the pharynx from the nares 
(this is the case with all English vowels).* 

as in not: The tongue occupies the same position as for 
ah. The lips are slightly rounded. 

Aw as in awl, maid, etc. : Position of the tongue as above. 
The lips are still more rounded, and the labial orifice much 

U as in but: The body of the tongue is slightly higher than 
in the position occupied for ah; the back of the tongue may be 
slightly raised. The mouth is well open ; there is no rounding of 
the lips. 

E as in her: The fore part of the tongue rises slightly from 

1 The elevation of the larynx is determined largely by the position 
of the tongue, and hence need not be considered in the present 

1 For French and Portuguese "nasal" vowels the velum is lowered, 
and the vocal stream divides, finding egress through the nares as well 
as through the mouth. 


the position occupied for &. The lips are often somewhat 

OO as in mood: The back of the tongue is raised almost to 
the soft palate. The lips are rounded and protruded, the labial 
orifice being extremely small. 

OO as in hook: The back of the tongue is lowered slightly 
from the position for do. The labial orifice is slightly larger. 

A as in an: The fore part of the tongue is in its lowest posi- 
tion ; the back is high. The mouth is well open, and there is 
no rounding of the lips. 

as in met: The fore part of the tongue is raised slightly 
from the position occupied for & (the lower jaw rising with the 
tongue). There is no rounding of the lips; on the contrary, 
the corners of the mouth are often slightly retracted. 

/ as in bit: The front of the tongue is raised from its position 
for t, and is very near the hard palate ; the lateral edges of the 
tongue may be in contact with the upper bicuspids. The lower 
jaw, of course, rises with the tongue. The corners of the mouth 
are slightly retracted. 

E as in feel: The fore part of the tongue is almost in contact 
with the hard palate (the lateral edges of the tongue may 
actually touch the palate). The corners of the mouth are 

as in so: The back of the tongue is high, the fore part low. 
The lips are somewhat rounded when vocalization begins. 
As the vowel is enunciated, the labial orifice is reduced to the 
position occupied for do. The vowel o is a diphthong, 
with the first element a monophthong ^intermediate between 
H and aw and with the second element do. Like all diph- 
thongs, the vowel is a glide from one monophthong to another, 
rather than a sequence of two pure monophthongal elements. 

7 as in might: This vowel is a diphthong composed of the 
elements ah and e. 


A as in may: A diphthong composed of the elements & and e. 
Oi as in oil: A diphthong composed of the elements aw and e. 
Ow as in now: A diphthong composed of the elements ah 
and do. 

U as in due: A diphthong composed of the elements e and do. 

These vowel-positions are not in accord with 
those given by all authorities. This must neces- 
sarily be the case, since authorities differ somewhat 
among themselves. Their differences of opinion, 
however, are not significant. Where one phonetician 
gives the "low back" position for a certain vowel, 
another may give "mid back." Usually either posi- 
tion will give the vowel with considerable purity. 
There can be no absolute scale of lingual positions, 
for these differ somewhat in individuals with the 
height and shape of the palate. And further, there 
is no absolute standard of vowel-qualities: these 
differ in different localities, and with different persons 
in the same locality. 

"The solution of the difficulty seems to be that suggested 
by Ellis, namely, that, 'what we call our vowels are not indi- 
viduals, scarcely species, but rather genera, existing roughly in 
the speaker's intention, but at present mainly artifically con- 
stituted by the habits of writing and reading.'" * 

The value of instruction in vowel-formation de- 
pends, of course, upon the nature of the instruction 
and the manner in which it is given. 

1 Alexander Graham Bell, "Mechanism of Speech," pp. 128-129. 


The instruction is sometimes of such a nature 
as to be practically worthless regardless of the 
manner. There is, for example, a stammering- 
school that uses Helmore's analysis of the vowels, 
in which the shape of the labial orifice alone is 
considered. 1 Instruction of such a nature is virtu- 
ally wasted. 

Then with regard to the manner : It is certain that 
the most accurate instruction is worthless when it 
results merely in the student's acquiring so much 
abstract information. It does not benefit the stam- 
merer to know that e is formed with the fore part of 
the tongue high in the mouth, if he is not able to 
visualize or mentally feel the appropriate position or 
action in his verbal imagery. The abstract knowl- 
edge may be interesting, but it does not counter- 
balance the amnesia. 

In a few institutions the pupils are required to 
practise the different consonants and vowels before 
a mirror. This procedure is usually recommended 
for giving the pupil a better "knowledge" of the 
action of the speech-organs. Actual visualizing of 
the movements is rarely recommended to stammerers 
even by teachers of the deaf and dumb. We be- 
lieve, however, that if the stammerer could accu- 
rately visualize the movements necessary to produce 

1 See Helmore, "Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers." 


the words he wishes to utter, stammering from audi- 
tory amnesia would not occur. These visual im- 
ages are no doubt very difficult to acquire. The 
problem on hand is not a simple one ; but it merits 
thorough investigation. 



VERBAL exercises occur in such bewildering mul- 
tiplicity that it seems almost idle to attempt to 
correlate them. Almost every institution employing 
respiratory, vocal, and articulatory "gymnastics" 
has its own particular set of graduated word- and 
speech-exercises that require an application of the 
principles enjoined, and afford practice in so-called 
"natural" speech. In addition to these exercises 
there are many that introduce special and sup- 
posedly beneficial modes of utterance. These latter 
exercises may or may not be associated with the 
respiratory, vocal, and articulatory training already 
mentioned. It will probably be well to examine 
first those exercises that do not necessarily introduce 
new modes of utterance, i.e. the exercises that form 
a natural sequel to the various forms of vocal and 
articulatory practice already considered ; and to ex- 
amine afterward the various special modes of enun- 
ciation and the special exercises on which these 
modes of enunciation are practised. 

The first group of exercises represents the work of 
no one particular institution ; it is a composite group 







m a 

m a n 




t a p 

t a p 

t a p 

t &_ p 

t & 


consisting of exercises from a large number of stam- 


One of the simplest word-exercises consists in 
"physiological spelling" or "word synthesis." This 
exercise is sometimes cautiously employed in making 
the transition from ar.ticulatory exercises to mono- 
syllabic reading. The exercise consists in dismember- 
ing words usually monosyllables into their com- 
ponent physiological consonants and vowels, and 
pronouncing these elements with a distinct pause 
between them. The pauses are gradually lessened, 
and finally omitted when the word of course 
stands complete. The exercises may be diagrammed 
as on the preceding page. 1 

The next exercise to be considered is one that 
affords practice on simple words introducing dif- 
ferent combinations of consonants and vowels. 

The exercise is prescribed for various purposes 
for affording practice on difficult consonants, prac- 
tice in maintaining continuity of voice, practice in 
respiration, or just practice. The following charts 
will illustrate the procedure : 2 

1 Symbols as in the vocal and articulatory exercises. Dotted lines 
appear beneath surd consonants, since these cannot be vocalized. 
The length of the pauses between the speech-elements is proportional 
to the spaces between the lines. 

1 Symbols as formerly employed. 




V bade 



V beam 



V byway 



V both 



V bugle 




sale saneness sane 




saneness sane i 




seemly seat 




seemly seat 




sightly size 




sightly size 




solar sewn 




solar sewn 




suitable suet 




suitable suet 

1 The solid line representing voice should by rights be dotted at the 
surd consonants. This refinement is commonly disregarded. 


For more advanced work, an English teacher of 
stammerers prescribes practice on words with vari- 
ously placed primary accents. His general instruc- 
tions for practice are as follows : 

"i. Let every letter as well as every syllable be distinctly 
heard. . . . 

"2. Tease out the word tease it out. 

"3. Let the voice run evenly along the words. 

"The object is not only that of clear articulation, but also 
that of teaching the voice to play with the word. Whitefield, 
so it is said, could so play with the word Mesopotamia that he 
could bring tears to the eyes." 


" Jfosticatory occessariness criminatory customarily 

di/atoriness disciplinary laboratory /ocArymatory 
necessarily peremptorily />o/ysyllable sedentariness 
spiritualize wwdulatory. 

"i. Accentuate the above on the first syllable. 
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out." 


"Abstemiousness au/Aoritative anathematize con- 
/ederacy contemporary conciliatory corroborative 

discriminative exc/amatory e/oculatory ef/eminacy 
ewwnciative ex/raordinary e/wcidatory hereditary 

incendiary irre/ragable immeasurably. 

" i. Accentuate the above on the second syllable. 
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out." 



"Algebraical ammontacal antipa/Aertcal aristo- 
crorical catechetical consanguinity characteris/ical 
ceremonious contiguity democrc/ical extemporaneous 
epigrammarical enthusiastical encyclopedia elec/ricity 
eccen/ricity extra-parochial geographical genealogy 

genealogical heterogeneous hemis/>/frical hydro^Aobia 

incongruity miscel/oneous malleaWity metaphysical 

mythological pertinacity penitentiary plenipotentiary 
pusillanimity philosophical physio/ogical physiognomy 

phraseo/ogy simultaneous systematical super- 
fluity ultramontanish unaccountable unconstitutional 

undervaluation uniformity universalism univewo/ity 


"i. Accentuate the above words on the last syllable but 

" 2. Tease out the word tease it out. " 


"Assassination antipesti/ential academician con- 
catenation circumnavigation circumferential con- 
tradistinction deterioration exaggeration experimental 

epigramma/ic epicurean hierog/y/>Aic interlineation 

inauguration inefficacious pronunciation ratiocina- 
tion recitation supererogation. 

" i. Accentuate the above on the last syllable but one. 

" 2. Tease out the word tease it out. 

"N. B. Stammerers will have no difficulty with any of 
the above words, if they are careful to keep the eye on the syl- 
lable in italics." 

Word-exercises are of course succeeded by read- 
ing- and speech-exercises. We shall first consider 


reading-exercises ; though reading and speaking usu- 
ally alternate in actual practice, both groups of 
exercises being arranged in progressive series. 


Reading usually begins with simple sentences, 
which are generally of a hortatory nature. In class- 
practice the pupils frequently read the sentence first 
in unison, and then by turns. In some institutions 
the pupils read in concert for several days or weeks 
before they begin to read individually. We give 
below, a number of " sentences for reading" from the 
repertoires of an English and an American stammer- 
ing-school : 

"Every one is the architect of his own fortune." 

"Heaven never helps the men who will not act." 

"Too low they build who build beneath the stars." 

"I am sure, care's an enemy to life." 

"The cautious seldom err." 

"Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day." 

"Every one is the son of his own works." 

"In this world a man must either be anvil or hammer." 

"He who has lost confidence can lose nothing more." 

"Courage in danger is half the battle." 

"Doubt indulged soon becomes doubt realized." 

"Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm." 

"Wisely, and slow; they stumble, that run fast." 

"He only is a well-made man who has a good determination." 

Etc., etc. 


These simple sentences are usually followed by 
" selected paragraphs." In these paragraphs, respira- 
tion points are frequently indicated by symbols. We 
give below, a reading-exercise that is employed in a 
German institution: 


" V An emperor of China was once informed of the death of a 
horse V that he had intrusted to the special care of one of 
his servants. V The emperor had the unfortunate man called 
to him, V but was so enraged that he attempted to slay him 
with his own hand. V ' Ruler of the world,' cried a mandarin, 
as he warded off the blow, V ' Ruler of the world, would you 
have this man die uninformed of the enormity of his crime ? ' 
V 'Inform him,' said the emperor, still violently enraged. 
V ' Wretched man,' said the mandarin to the servant, V ' your 
offence is that a horse has died after being placed hi your 
special care by our emperor. V That is a great crime. 
V You have so angered our emperor that he nearly slew you 
with his own hand. V That is even a worse crime. 
V And it will be your fault that later our emperor will lose 
the love of his subjects V and bis good name with other 
nations V when they learn that he has ordered a man to be 
killed for the sake of a horse. V Do you realize what a criminal 
you are ? ' 

" ' V Release him' ; said the emperor, 'I forgive him.'" 

Dialogue-reading is also employed : 

First Pupil: " What say'st thou, noble heart?" 

Second Pupil: "What will I do, think'st thou?" 

First Pupil: "Why, go to bed and sleep." 

Second Pupil: "I will incontinently drown myself." Etc.,etc. 


After ordinary reading-practice, a few teachers 
prescribe work on sentences involving difficult verbal 
collocations. The following sentences of this kind are 

typical : 


"A figure regal /ike, with solemn march, 
Goes slow and stately by ; whils/ they, distill'd 
Almos/ to jelly -with the act o//ear, 
Stand dumb, and speak not to him. 

"0 ! studied deceit ! (not study) 

"A sad dangler, (not angler). 

"A languid dame, (not aim). 

"His crime moved me, (not cry). 

"To obtain neither, (not either). 

"He could pain nobody, (not pay). 

"Goodness centres hi the heart, (not enters). 

"Luxurious soil, (not oil). 

"He will prate to anybody, (not pray). 

"M&ke clean our hearts within us, (not lean). 

"In bulk as Auge as whom the fables name of monstrous size, 
(not eyes). 

" Can the Ethiopian change his skin, (not kin), or the leopard 
his spots ? (not pots). 

"Whose beard descending swept his aged ftreast, (not beer). 

"A constant smirk on the face, and whiffling activity of the 
body, are strong indications of /utility, (not utility)." 


"Yet the lark's sArill fi/e may come. 

"And the floors shall be full of wheat, and the fats shall over- 
flow with wine and oil. 

"Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears 
of every one that heareth it shall tingle. 


"What though each spark, of earth-born rapture fly ! 

"In septennial parliaments, your representatives have sLe 

years for offence, and but one for atonement. 
"Can the husbandman look forward with assured confidence 

to the expected increase of his fields ? 
" Now on the leafless yew it plays. 
"Long has it hung from the cold yew's spray. 
"Oft by tha/ yew on the blasted field 
"Examples prevail when precepts /ail. 
"Frequen/ good company. 
"Pu/ the cut pumpkin in a pipkin. 
"Then pealed the notes omnipoten/ to charm, 

And the loud tocsin tolled their last alarm. 
"My little ones kissed me a thousand times o'er. 
"In praising sparing be, and fclame most sparingly. 
"Malice seldom wants a mask to aim at. 
"We must not Wame/ortune for our faults. 
"We must look to time past to improre trhat is to come." 


"Chaste stars, (not tars). 
"Cold ground, (not coal). 
"IrisA yews, (not shoes). 

"Yet half I see the panting spirit sigh, (not spirit's eye). 
"Oh ! the torment of an ever-meddling memory, (not a never- 
"Art thou afeard to be the same in thine own act and 

valour, as thou art in desire ? (not thy known.) 
"A warm tear gushed, the wintry air 
Congealed it as it flowed away ; 
All night it lay an ice-drop there, (not a nice drop) 
At morn it glittered in the ray. 

Give the cat stale bread.' "The cat's tail, mamma ?' 'Si- 
lence, child 1 "' 



One of the simplest speech-exercises consists in 
counting. We give below, an exercise that forms a 
conspicuous feature in the "curriculum" of an Eng- 
lish stammering-school : 


"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty. 

" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty- two thousand, two hundred and twenty-one. 

" Two hundred and twenty-two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-two. 

" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-three. 

"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-four. 

"Two hundred and twenty-two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-five. 

" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-six. 

" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-seven. 

"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-eight. 

"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and 
twenty- two thousand, two hundred and twenty-nine." l 

1 From this point the exercise continues: "Three hundred and 
thirty-three million, three hundred and thirty-three thousand, three 
hundred and thirty." After " thirty-nine" is reached, the exercise 
proceeds: "Four hundred and forty-four million," etc. 


Another exercise consists in learning passages and 
reciting them memoriter. Says one writer : 

"As soon as possible, read aloud, and recite pieces committed 
to memory, first in private, next before sensible intimate friends, 
and at length you will be able to do so in school, college, or in 
public company." 

A German teacher of stammerers requires his 
pupils to learn and recite prose passages, and later 
to paraphrase them. Reading-matter is also para- 
phrased in this way. 

Another German instructor requires his pupils to 
complete sentences of which he gives the introduc- 
tory words. The cues are typically as follows : 

" My favorite authors are 

" My favorite book " 

" The chief characters in the book 

" My general impressions of the book 

" The longest journey I ever undertook " 

" My pleasantest recollections of the journey are " 

" My favorite pastime is 

" Its advantages are 

" My interest in it began 

" I read in the newspaper this morning that " 

" This afternoon I shall - 
Etc., etc. 

Asking and answering questions is another popular 
form of practice. The pupils interrogate and reply 
to one another, or reply to formal questions put by 
the instructor. Formal questions are often pro- 


pounded relative to the subject-matter in the reading- 
exercises. The following typical questions relate to 
the exercise given on page 103 : 

" What offence had the emperor's servant committed ? " 

" Who interceded on the servant's behalf ? " 

" What is a mandarin ? " 

" Approximately, what words did the mandarin employ in 
addressing the emperor ? " 

" What was the emperor's response? " 

" With what words, approximately, did the mandarin address 
the servant ? " 

" To whom, however, was he really speaking ? " 

" What effect did the words haveon the emperor ? " Etc., etc. 

Brief replies are usually prohibited : 

"The answer must not be a short one consisting of one 
word only, but must contain the whole question ; for example, 
if I ask, ' How are you to-day ? ' the answer must not be, ' Well ' ; 
but, 'lam well to-day, thank you.'. . . As a matter of course 
in these answers the slightest stoppage of speech must not be 
permitted, but in case there is, the sentence must be repeated 
until it is produced fluently." 

Denning words is another popular exercise : 

" 'What is a house?' 'A building that serves man as 
a dwelling.' 

" 'What is a rose? ' 'The rose is a flower noted for its 
beauty and scent; it is called the queen of the flowers.'" 

A Belgian teacher employs questions that require 
the accentuation of different words in the reply. For 
example : 


" ' What color is milk ? ' ' Milk is white: 
" ' What is white ? ' ' Milk is white.' 
"'Name five objects that are generally white.' 'Milk, 
rice, the lily, the swan, and plaster are white.' " 

In more advanced work the pupils relate anecdotes, 
make short speeches, describe travels, and so on. 

An Austrian teacher recommends that advanced 
pupils be frequently interrupted by questions and 
requests to repeat and that they be thus tested 
by any artificial difficulties the teacher is able to 

In most institutions the students are required to 
associate and converse with strangers to a consider- 
able extent during the latter part of the training. 
This intercourse sometimes goes by the name of 
" stranger-practice." 

So much for the various unembellished exercises. 
It will be understood, of course, that the curriculum 
of no one institution embraces all of the verbal exer- 
cises described. Some systems embrace a majority 
of them, and others but a few; the number and 
nature of the exercises employed being determined 
by the theories of the person employing the sys- 
tem. Concerning the value of the exercises little 
need be said. There is no inherent virtue in the 
exercises themselves : benefit can be derived only 
from the principles enjoined. These principles have 
already been discussed. Let us assume, however, 


that the measures applied are among the more 
rational ones preliminary inspiration, indirect 
attack, "continuity" of voice, etc. and then pass 
the exercises rapidly in review. Physiological spell- 
ing can be dismissed as so much nonsense. Word- 
exercises combined with breathing, whispering, and 
vocal exercises might be pardonable if anything could 
be said in favor of them. Practising words with 
differently placed accents seems to be an objectless 
procedure. The exercise aims at nothing in particu- 
lar, and doubtless accomplishes it. The reading of 
ordinary matter probably furnishes as sensible an 
exercise as one finds in the average stammering-school. 
The procedure is practical, whereas most of the exer- 
cises just considered are fetishistic. Dialogue-reading 
is probably beneficial; certainly it would furnish a 
test of the pupil's fluency. The reading of difficult 
combinations of words would furnish excellent train- 
ing for elocutionists, but it is difficult to see how the 
practice can be of any benefit to stammerers as stam- 
merers. Counting affords the student opportunity 
for applying rational principles. It is, however, an 
irksome business, and since it has practically no 
advantage over other simple speech-exercises, there 
is little to commend it. Reciting memoriter, para- 
phrasing, completing sentences, propounding and 
answering questions, relating anecdotes, etc., are of 
course all useful and practical exercises. The prac- 


tice of creating artificial difficulties for the student by 
interrupting him, requesting him to repeat, and so 
on, is certainly a sensible procedure. Usually the 
student does not encounter such difficulties till the 
course of training is complete, and with these diffi- 
culties he is wont to encounter the customary relapse. 
Intercourse with strangers should certainly occur 
during, rather than after, the course of speech-train- 
ing. "Stranger-practice" is undoubtedly a valuable 
feature in any curriculum. 

The usual generalizations can be applied to most 
of the verbal exercises. They probably intensify the 
pupil's acoustic imagery to some extent while he is 
practising them for several hours a day. Further, 
the pupil's confidence in the exercises temporarily 
absolves him from fear, bewilderment, and inhibitive 

We come now to the consideration of special modes 
of utterance intended to mitigate or obviate stammer- 
ing, and to the exercises on which these modes of 
utterance are practised. 

We shall consider first the expedient of omitting 
or reducing initial consonants. More than a hun- 
dred years ago Erasmus Darwin observed : that 
stammering generally took the form of a "broken 
association" between the initial consonant and the 

1 "Zoonomia : or the Laws of Organic Life," London, 1800. 


succeeding vowel. He therefore suggested that the 
stammerer omit the initial consonant in difficult 
words and come to the vowel immediately. The 
word London would thus be 'Ondon, and Birmingham, 
Birmingham. Darwin further recommended that the 
stammerer practise difficult words in this manner, and 
finally intercalate the consonants, giving them the 
lightest possible articulation. 1 

This principle of Darwin's has been incorporated 
in nearly every system for treating stammering that 
has been introduced in the last hundred years. (In 
many cases the system has been incorporated in the 
principle.) In most modern stammering-schools the 
pupils practise light articulation in formal exercises. 
The nature of the exercises employed is obvious 
enough. We give below, a few typical charts, which 
are self-explanatory : 


V ay 




V day 




V day 




1 Darwin also recommended preceding the word by an aspirate ; 
us he probably introduced the indirect attack into the therapy of 




Twice one are two 














































y Twice eleven are twenty-two 

y Twice twelve are twenty-tour 


In many institutions light articulation is enjoined 
not merely for initial consonants, but for all consonants 
that occur in a word. 1 The pupils practise light 
articulation in general reading, or in formal exercises 
in which directions are taken from charts. The 
following practice-chart is typical : 


beattude bnary bowsprt beautful 
daily dealing diary donation dutiful 
failing feelingly frightful foment future 
g aiiy greedy grimy grotesque gewgaw 

hatefUl heinOUs highCr hOpelCss hUgeiy 

jaded jejune jibing jOviai jewei 

keepsake kindliness kOWtOW kUklUs 
lamely leaky lifelike lOathfUl lUgUbrlOUs 
mainland mCCknCss mightily mOm6nt mUsicRl 
namesake nCgOtiatOr ninetieth nOmadlc nuisance 

painful peacefully piety potentiality pusillanimous 

quakCr quCCrCr quiet quOtatlOn quOOk 
radiance rCasOnablCnCss rldCr rOdCnt rUmlnate 
salience seasonable sightly sOciai suitable 
tastefUl tCdioUs tiresOmenCss tOkCn tUnefUl 

variegated veniai vicarious vociferous viewless 

wakefUlnCss wCCkiy widening wOCfUl wOOCr 

1 In an English institution, weak articulation is prescribed for all 
except final consonants, these being given a sort of compensatory 


e&tt yte yOkCl yUle 
zany zCnith zyiOnlte zOdiac zCUs 

In an English institution the students practise 
"vowel-reading" for several weeks before intercalating 
consonants. In a German institution the students 
read the vowels and (physiological) consonants 
separately for a considerable period; then finally 
combine the two, giving the consonants an extremely 
light articulation. These reading-exercises may be 
diagrammed as follows : 


A Ti'a' 'ui' o' 'ie'i' i' 'e ea' a' 'i'a' o' 'e 'u'e' a' 'e'i' 
o' 'e 'ea', 'i' 'a'io' o' a' 'i' 'o 'au' a' i'u'. 'e 'ow 'i'ea'e' 
o' Vi' a' Vo'a'io' a' 'e 'o' VeW i' 'e'o'y, a' i' i' 'o' V 
o'e'i' i' 'e 'i' ; 'ou 'ay 'a' 'a'a 'o o'e' 'e 'i'e', 'ee' 'o o'e' 'e 
'ee', 'o'e' o' 'u'u' 'o' 'e V, 'a'o'eu' 'o' 'e 'ai', 'u' 'o 'e'ei' 
o'e'e' 'e 'ea' 'u' a 'ue 'ie', 'o 'o' 'ou 'ay i'a' 'ie', 'oy,' 
'ea', 'o', 'u'i'io', 'ou'e', a' 'a'oe'e' 'ie' u'o' 'e 'ea' 'o o'e' 
i', i' a 'i' o' 'i'i' 'i' o' 'o'e'io'. 


- pr-nc-p-1 fr~t -f fr~ndsh-p -s th s- -nd d-s- 
ch-rg- -f th- f-ln-ss -nd sw-11-ngs -f th- h~rt, wh-ch 
p-ss-ns -f -11 k-nds d- c~s- -nd -nd-c-. W- kn~ 

1 Absolute continuity of sound is usually maintained during vowel- 


d-s~s-s -f st-pp-ngs -nd s-ff-c-t ns -r- th- m-st d-ng-r- 
s -n th- b-d-, -nd -t -s n-t m-ch -th-rw- s- -n th- 
m-nd; y~ m~ t-k- s-zr- t- -p-n th- 1-v-r, st~l t- 
-p-n th- spl~n, fl-w-rs -f s-lph-r f-r th- 1-ngs, c-st-r~m 
f-r th- br n, b-t n- r-c~pt -p-n-th th- h rt b-t - tr~ 
fr~nd, t- wh-m y~ m~ -mp-rt gr~fs, j~s, f~rs, 
h-p-s, s-sp-c ns, c ns-ls, -nd wh-ts v-r 1 th -p-n 
th- h rt t- -ppr-ss -t, -n - k-nd -f c-v-1 shr-ft -r c-nf-s- 


"A principal fruit Of friendship is the CEse End discharge 
Of thC fUlnCss End swCllings Of the heart, which pEssiOns Of 
ail kinds dO cEUse and indUce. WC knOW disCasCs Of stOp- 
pings and sllffOcadOns are thC mOst dangCrOUs in th6 
and it is nOt milch Otherwise In thC mind J yOU may take 
tO OpCn thC livCr, stCCI tO OpCn the splCCn, flOwCrs Of slll- 
phllr fOr the lllngs, castOr6llm fOr thC brain, bUt nO rCcCipt 

Openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may impart 

griefs, jOys, fears, hOpes, sllspiciOns, cOUnsCls, and whatsO- 
CvCr lieth UpOn thC hCErt tO OpprCss it, in a kind Of civil 
shrift Or cOnfCssiOn." 

Many persons engaged in treating stammering 
recommend not only that the consonants be reduced, 
but also that the vowels be prolonged. The following 
paragraph on the subject is by an English writer : 

"It is a well-known fact that most stammerers can sing 
without any difficulty. This is because in singing there is a 


continuous flow of vocal tone; the vowels predominate, while 
the consonants are but very lightly touched in passing. The 
opposite of this takes place in speech. The vowels are passed 
over quickly, and the consonants, which are only checks, clicks, 
and explosive noises, predominate. The moral of this is ob- 
vious. Let the stammerer exaggerate his vowels at the expense 
of his consonants, and a good many stumbling-blocks will thereby 
be removed from his path." 

And this by an American writer : 

"In essaying longer phrases the stammerer should keep in 
mind and practise this rubbing or friction of tone and breath 
through the throat, this half -groaning sound, and try to carry 
it through the whole sentence without interruption, thinking 
persistently of the unbroken stream of outpouring breath. 

"Of course, many of the consonants will momentarily check 
this steady flow. Such, for instance, are k, p, t, or b, d, g ; but 
these he must slight and disregard as far as possible, thinking, not 
of the consonant, but of the vowel which follows it. Let him 
literally drawl the vowels, running them together as much as 
possible. He may, with advantage, even omit the consonants 
and simply drawl the vowels in one unbroken stream of groan- 
ing tone. Then let him add the consonants as lightly touched 
as possible, so lightly that they will be almost or quite unin- 
telligible, gradually making them more distinct as he finds that 
the idea of steady drawling will not be interfered with." 

Vowel-elongation is practised from charts in several 
German institutions. The transcription given on the 
following page presents a typical exercise. 

In a prominent German stammering-school, the 
pupils make their initial attempt at reading from 






OW 11 

tUW nshl 












mL nnC 





















charts of this description. The elementary charts 
present sentences and phrases in which the words 
commence with vowels; the more advanced charts 
introduce initial consonants. On the opposite page 
appear transcriptions of two typical exercises. 

The next two exercises furnish illustrations of the 
advanced work of another German institution : 1 


"Dri ve the na il a ri ght, bo ys, 
Hi t i t o n the hea d ; 
1 Quoted from The Voice, Vol. V, pp. 4-5. 


V * 


a a 

V 1 

V o 

ti a 1 a 

V o 


V aw 

a a a u ti i 


V a 

V * 

6 e I a S e 

y a 


n O ffC r 1 s a ccC ptC <j 

V 5 

a 6 

V I*O~~ 

s a nd cO ns 

v a 

a 6 I 


v a 

ma n O f ml ght 

V g 

la a e I e a 

y pC rsl stC nee a nd pC rsC vC ra nee 

y a e a e a 

W ma nnC n m3, ke thC ma n 

y aw u e_ S e Q 

thC bO Id 


Stri ke wi th a 11 you r mi ght, bo ys, 
Whi le the i ro n i s re d. 

"Whe n you 've wo rk to do , bo ys, 

Do i t wi th a wi 11 ; 
The y who rea ch the to p, bo ys, 
Fi rst mu st cli mb the hi 11. 

"Sta ndi ng a t the foo t, bo ys, 

Ga zi ng a t the sky , 
Ho w ca n you ge t u p, bo ys, 
I f you ne ve r try ? 

"Thou gh you stu mble o ft, bo ys, 

Ne ve r be do wnca st; 
Try , a nd try a gai n, bo ys, 
You '11 su ccee d a t la st. 

"The following should be read in a similar manner: 


"Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston in 1706, when a boy laid 
down certain rules of conduct which he always followed. He 
made up his mind to be temperate, orderly, frugal, and indus- 
trious. When ten years old he cut wicks for candles, minded 
the shop, and ran errands for his father, who was a tallow- 
chandler. He did not, however, neglect his books, for he tells 
us, 'I do not remember when I could not read.' Though no 
boy ever worked harder, he was fond of manly sports, and was 
an expert swimmer. Not liking the tallow-chandlery business, 
his father apprenticed him to a printer. This was precisely the 
kind of work which suited Franklin. When hardly eighteen 
years old, he was sent to England to buy printing material, 
and to improve himself in his trade. As a printer in Lon- 


don, a very young man, entirely his own master, with no 
friends to control him, surrounded by temptations, those rules 
which he had fixed upon early in life were of singular benefit 
to him. Returning to America in 1726, in time he opened 
a modest printing-house in Philadelphia. Industry, honesty, 
and good work made him successful. He became member of 
the Assembly, postmaster, and during the Revolution, while 
in France, induced that country to espouse our cause. If 
to-day the world has to thank Americans for making electricity 
their servant, Benjamin Franklin first discovered its most 
marked qualities. With a kite he brought down the spark 
from heaven to earth, and held it under control. Franklin 
died, honored by all his countrymen, in 1790. 

"When a lad, hungry and tired, he landed in Philadelphia 
with a dollar in his pocket, he bought some bread, and marched 
through the streets munching his crust. He happened to 
see a young lady, a Miss Read, at the door of her father's 
house. He made up his mind then and there that he would 
marry her ; and so in time he did." * 

1 Slow speaking is advocated by most teachers of stammerers. 
This "slow speaking" usually involves lengthening the vowels and 
protracting the ordinary pauses. 

Kingsley's oft-quoted advice is " Read and speak SLOW." 

Another English writer declares that 

"The stammerer, if he wish to be cured, must, on all occasions, 
speak slowly and deliberately, dwelling on the vowels, so as to give time 
for forming the laryngeal sounds." 

A third English writer pens the following : 

" I earnestly advise all persons with impediments of speech, whether 
confirmed stammerers and stutterers, or only just beginning to hesi- 
tate, to be very slow and deliberate in reading and speaking, especially 
at first. Among the large numbers of patients whom I have had 
under my care for the removal of all kinds of impediments and diffi- 
culties in articulation, I have met with but very few who did not 


A modern tendency in German stammering-schools 
is to require advanced pupils to prolong only the 
initial vowel of a sentence. The succeeding vowels 
are sometimes slightly lengthened, but they are not 
drawled and wailed to such an extent as formerly. 
The following in reference to the expedient : 

"The stammerer has his greatest difficulty in speech when 
he begins: the trouble occurs at the beginning of sentences. 
It is at this point that his fear and his dread of stammering 
rob him of his confidence; he stammers far less in finishing 
the sentence. It is therefore necessary to furnish the stammerer 
with some expedient that will tide him over his supposed diffi- 
culties at this particular point. The expedient is this: he 
must accustom himself to lengthening the initial vowel as much 
as possible. He must no longer say 'Right is always right,' 
but 'Ri ght is always right.' This method is thoroughly 
reliable, and the hearer will not find it in any way conspicuous 
or displeasing." 

Exercises practically identical with the following 
are employed in three of the leading German stam- 
mering-schools : 

habitually speak with painful rapidity, and at times almost breathless 
haste, until they are suddenly stopped in mid career of their impetuous 
speech by the impediment suddenly coming on. By a spasmodic 
effort, eventually they recover their power of articulation, and rattle 
on with their hurried words until they are once more arrested in the 
same way, in the very midst of a word, perhaps ; and so they go on to 
the pain and distress of themselves and those whom they are address- 

In an English stammering-school slow speaking is carried to the 
point where the pupils utter only one word on a breath at the begin- 
ning of treatment. 



V u 


V co 








V E3- 







J u 







V n 




V que 










V woe 









king is the man who can. 

-11 may do what has by man been done. 

-o climb steep hills requires slow pace at first. 

race by vigor, not by vaunts, is won. 

who follows two hares is sure to catch neither. 

dignity of truth is lost with much protesting. 
n are but children of a larger growth. 

nguages are the pedigree of nations. 

man is a hero to his valet. 

r loan oft loses both itself and friend, 
-vil events from evil causes spring. 

heeds not experience, trust him not. 

-11 nature is but art. 

: may keep counsel, if two be away. 

must needs go whom the devil doth drive. 

goeth a borrowing, goeth a sorrowing. 

Whe re the stream runneth smoothest, the water is 


Whe re law ends, tyranny begins. 

He 11 is paved with good intentions. 

I n lapidary inscriptions a man is not upon oath. 

I 1 matters not how a man dies, but how he lives. 

A slight variant of the practice of protracting the 
vowels must be mentioned. In some institutions the 
pupils are required to intensify the vowels rather 
than to lengthen them. In a few schools both 
practices are combined. The consonants are reduced 
or given normal force, according to the ideas of 
the teacher. The following are typical exercises : 



o a o r y 

1 In this exercise the volume of sound is supposed to increase with the 
distance between the lines. 

CHART 2 1 

"SQns; b0catl se I h^ve purchased nQ 6 st 3, te 
nQr wa bQrn tQ fay, J h^ve !Qng cQnsidfcred 
()f sQme gQO d iGg&lG 8 1 b^qu^^th yQU > L nd 

o f yQU ( h 6 re th y a re ) a 

n 6 w cOet 1 N W ' yQU L fe tQ U nd 6 rst cl nd ' 

th^t thgse cQ3 ts h a, ve tw O V l rt ll6 s cQntQflned Jn 

thgm; Q ne t, th^t with gQO d W 6cl r i n g> th 6y 

live: thg Q th O r i s > ^fl* 1 ^By w i u 8 r O w i n th 6 

prQpO rt iO n w i th yQU r b O d i6 s > i6 n g th 6 n - 

nd widening Q f thgmsglves, sQ a s 1 b 6 

In criticism of these various expedients and exercises 
it may be said that the practice of lightly articulating 
the initial consonant is one of the most salutary 
ever introduced into the therapy of stammering. 
Physical stammering and light articulation are practi- 

1 In this exercise the volume of sound is supposed to be proportional 
to the size of the type. 


cally incompatible; and one almost of necessity 
excludes the other. Pure stammering, however, 
cannot be directly affected by light articulation. 
The expedient of omitting the initial consonant cannot 
be regarded as practicable, for the omission renders 
speech unintelligible. Even the practice of reducing 
the consonant is not without its dangers, for the 
stammerer is frequently subjected to the embarrass- 
ment of being asked to repeat. The various exercises 
in light articulation probably have some slight 
value ; but, like most exercises, they are undoubtedly 
overrated. The value of light articulation lies in 
its application, and not hi the fact that it may be 
practised for several hours a day under the tutelage 
of a highly paid instructor. A general diminution 
of the strength of the consonants seems scarcely 
necessary in cases where the stammerer experiences no 
difficulty in the middle of words. Vowel-reading 
and similar exercises probably lead to an ephemeral 
intensification of the auditory imagery, and thus for 
a brief period may appear to be efficacious. The 
preliminary reading of the physiological consonants 
is probably of no benefit to the amnesic stammerer. 
The trick of elongating the vowels cannot be taken 
very seriously. It has some slight efficacy, since 
it focusses the speaker's attention on the auditory 
element. In resorting to the expedient, however, the 
subject merely exchanges his position as an intelli- 


gent stammerer for that of an apparent lunatic. On 
the whole, the novelty of the change is not sufficient 
recompense for the bother involved. The various 
exercises involving prolongation of the vowels prob- 
ably effect a transient intensification of the acoustic 
imagery. The practice of prolonging the initial 
vowel of a sentence may prove of some slight value by 
focussing attention on the auditory element ; but with 
most persons the unnatural character of the pro- 
cedure would condemn it. The practice of intensi- 
fying the vowels (with or without reduction of the 
consonants) leads to little more than loud talking. 
The loud talking per se cannot be regarded as remedial ; 
yet probably some benefit is derived from the atten- 
tion necessarily given to the auditory imagery. The 
exercises doubtless affect the imagery in the customary 

The expedients just described are "discovered" 
and marketed (with various auxiliaries) at frequent 
and regular intervals. A German writer recently 
made them the subject of a rather grandiloquent little 
pamphlet. This brochure of less than a hundred 
pages retails at thirty marks. We give about ten 
pfennigs' worth in the following paragraphs. 

This from the preface and introduction : 

"I am positive that my book can do only good. Yes, I 
am sufficiently immodest to say: 'I have rendered humanity 
a great service by fathoming the nature of stammering. Till 


now, absolutely no one has been safe from stammering; for 
no one knew why he spoke normally ' . . . 

"After surmounting inconceivable difficulties I have pene- 
trated the matter in such a way that nothing can refute the 
conclusions I have arrived at. ... 

"I am not a learned man, I am not highly accomplished and 
scientific ; hence I am not going to write a learned book : but 
I shall relate and explain in what way and manner I succeeded 
in discovering the causes of my own frightful infirmity. Further, 
I shall record my observations on the manifestations of this 
disease, and finally I shall tell how I contrived with great 
energy and with the exertion of the whole strength of my body 
and soul to discover the way and means to cure my own infirm- 
ity, and hence also the infirmity of others. . . . 

"My work (or my struggle, I might say) aims at an ideal. 
I am not conducting propaganda for a lucrative undertaking. 
The sole object that I have in view is to banish stammering 
from the world (Stottern aus der Welt zu schafen), and to 
place my experience at the service of those unfortunate ones 
whose anguish and suffering I know and appreciate full well, 
since I myself have tasted all the pain and bitterness that falls 
to a stammerer's lot. 

"Banish stammering from the world! 
"Is this possible? 

"It sounds like mockery when I say, 'I am in the fortunate 
position, as the result of experiences in my own person, as well 
as with my three children, two girls and a boy, of being 
able to answer the above question in the affirmative.' 

"It was these terrible experiences that drove me to seek and 
inquire how the pain of this awful disease might be removed ; 
and, thank God, I have found the means and the way of 
exterminating the malady with its roots. 

"As my life's work I have undertaken to abolish stammering 


from the world; and I have positive hope of accomplishing 
my task." 

The following concerns the cause and cure of the 
defect : 

"I explain to my pupils clearly and forcefully, by the fol- 
lowing example, how it is that the sound of the voice is the chief 
thing, while letters are only secondary. I ask them the ques- 
tion : 'What do we need first of all in order to make a pound- 
cake?' The correct answer always comes, 'The dough.' 

"'And what else do we need in order to bake the dough?' 
'A cake-mould,' is the usual answer. 

"That is right: this gives the cake its mould or form 
whether round or polygonal, high or low, and so on. 

'"Now what does a cake consist of?' To this question 
most of them answer, 'Of dough and its form.' And then I 
answer them sharply and abruptly, so that they are quite 
startled, and become confused at their position (for then they 
mark the circumstance, and the example impresses them more 

'"No, in order to bake a cake I need simply and solely the 
dough ! 

'"For if I should put the dough into the oven without a 
cake-mould, I should still have a cake though certainly not a 
cake that would be pleasing to the eye. But if I put the cake- 
mould alone in the oven, what have I ? Nothing ! ' The pupils 
now become more interested and curious ; they watch each word 
as it falls from my lips, and they note the words carefully. 

"The important thing is not that a stammerer is treated, 
but how he is treated. 

"I continue my explanation to the pupils as follows: 

" ' The most important thing when one is baking a cake is 
the dough; that, one must have. We use the cake-mould 


simply to give the cake its particular form.' After I have let 
the stammerers wonder a moment, I explain the analogy and 
continue: 'As with the cake, so with human speech; for 
speech also consists of two things dough, which is sound or 
voice, and the mould, corresponding to the letters. 

" ' Speech is made audible only through sound ; but it may 
be heard if the sound or voice is produced only softly, or is 
even whispered. Now again only the voice is the speech; 
letters are made audible only through sound : without sound 
they cannot be produced, they are merely the mould for the dough. 

" ' But where is the sound, the voice, the audible word, to 
be produced ? In the throat ! Not with the lips ! ' etc. If a 
pupil should wish to inquire, 'How, or with what organs, is 
the voice, or the sound, produced,' I should answer him, 
'You do not need to know that in order to be cured of your 
impediment.' " 

Concerning his discoveries, the author writes : 

" Till now I had thought in a wrong and harmful manner ; 
I had thought of letters consonants and vowels that is, 
of mouth-positions, which cannot be spoken without voice. 
Now I must think in a proper and healthful manner ; I must 
entirely disregard letters, and must attend to the voice, as I 
do in singing, so that the voice may not go out. . . . 

"Speech is sound. Stammering is unconsciously endeavor- 
ing to speak without voice or sound. The stammerer speaks 
wrongly because in his fear he thinks wrongly and therefore 
misuses his speech-organs. 

" He must not think of letters ; he must think only of voice." 

"We have had many laws of speech, but they have availed 
nothing, for there is only one law to follow, namely : ' Produce 
sound voluntarily; but letters, consonants as well as vowels, 
involuntarily.' " 


"The stammerer speaks without voice. Voice or sound is 
the first requisite for speech. The stammerer who fears 
and stumbles over consonants must always be accustomed 
to forming the vowels in a strong, resonant voice. He must 
perform vocal exercises, but never exercises on consonants." 

Our author's discoveries are, then, that stammering 
is due to a failure of the voice ; and that the voice 
goes out because the stammerer neglects to think 
about it. The remedies that he invents are 
thinking about the voice and vocalizing strongly. 
(He also invents continuity of sound, and saying e 
or m at the beginning of sentences.) 

These same vocal secrets may be purchased in a 
hundred other markets. We quote this particular 
"dull catalogue of common things" since it is rather 
typical of these modern books of revelations. 

The next measure that we have to consider is force- 
ful articulation, recommended usually as a cure for 
stuttering (repetitive stammering), but occasionally 
as a remedy for stammering in any of its phases. 

One writer advises the stammerer to 

" Adopt a strong, energetic manner of reading, and not go 
along lazily and listlessly, as is too often the case." 

Another writer avers that 

"A case of simple Stuttering would need little more for its 
removal than the cultivation of a firm articulation and dearly 
sonorous voice." 


A third teacher recommends his pupils to practise 
forceful articulation with the following alliterative 
sentences : 


"Balmy breezes bore my bark beneath balconies and bridges, 
by balustrades and barges, where boys bowed becomingly to 
beauties ; but Bill the boatman bumped the boat against 
the breastwork of the breakwater. 

" i. Take in a long, deep breath. 

" 2. Say as much as possible without breathing again. 

"3. Practice it till the whole can be said two or three times 
in one breath. 

"4- Hit the b's hard. 

"N.B. These directions will apply to the exercises which 


" Call clearly Colonel Campbell commanding a close com- 
pany of Canadians to conceal the cannons, combustibles 
commodities curiously cut in a cave, covered with cactus 
and cucumbers, and cry ' Come, come, come.' 


" Do, Daddy, do, dance drolly and delightfully down the 
drawing-room with dear, dry, old, David Dandy. 


" Fie, Fanny, fie! forfeited figs, freely forfeited, for feeble 
folks, should in fine fingers find first for forty-five feeble folks 
a full fill. 



" Gaily gathered the gleaners the glossy golden grain and 
garnered it gladly in Granny's great granary in Godfrey's 
green grassy glen. 


" Hie, hie, Henry, for it is not the hunting that hurts the 
heavy horse's heels, but the hammer, hammer, hammer, on 
the hard high hills. 


" John, just join Jane and jam the japanned chest of jewels 
which the jumping jilting Jack has judged Jockey James to 
have stolen behind the joists. 


" Little lazy limping Lily Lane let a little lame lamb lie loose 
on the lovely lawn. 


" Marlborough managed in a most magnificent manner to 
mar by military manoeuvres the mischievous machinations of a 
marvellous multitude of malicious mounted Mamelukes, mer- 
curially and malevolently menacing his merry, merry men. 


" Norman Noel named Nanny Nannely the nicest niece 
known to ninety-nine nephews. 


" Poor, pitiable Peter Piper ploddingly picked a peck of 
piercing pepper-corn; now, if poor, pitiable Peter Piper plod- 
dingly picked a peck of piercing pepper-corn, where is the 
peck of piercing pepper-corn which Peter Piper picked ? 



" Quash quarrels quickly; quell quietly unqueenly queries, 
and giving no quarter to questions quickly quenching our 
queenly queen's quiet. 


" Ruefully, roughly, rending ragged raiment, round the rug- 
ged rocks the ragged rascals rapidly ran their truly rural races. 


" The squat, square, squinting sweep spluttered and squalled 
in the surging deep. The squire swam swiftly, and splash! 
The squinting sweep saved without a crash. 


" When a twister, twisting, would twist him a twist, for 
twisting his twist three twists he will twist, but if one of the 
twists untwist from the twist, the twister, untwisting, untwists 
the twist. 


" The thought that sticks to me thoroughly through thick 
and thin is that that that that that young lady has just 
parsed is a pronoun. 


" Violins and violoncellos vigorously vamped with very 
versatile voices vociferating various strains very vehemently 
vexes Valentine's violent valet. 


"The zealot Zephaniah Zadkiel rode a zebra zigzag up 
Zeboim." l 

1 Alliterations are often employed for the practice of "difficult 
consonants." The expedient of practising "difficult consonants" 
and difficult words has already been discussed (Volume I, pp. 345 f.). 


It need scarcely be said that little benefit would 
accrue to the stammerer from deliberately according 
to the consonants a forceful articulation. The 
average subject articulates far too forcibly as it is, 
and hi most cases the practice would tend merely to 
enhance physical stammering. In some instances the 
procedure might lead to the conversion of "stutter- 
ing" (repetitive stammering) into compressive stam- 
mering ; but here we should have retrogression rather 
than advancement. The gist of the matter is that 
forcible articulation can in no way mitigate pure 
stammering ; while it can greatly aggravate physical 
stammering. There is therefore no argument for it, 
but a cogent argument against it. 

A somewhat general maxim frequently commended 
to the stammerer is, "Take care of the consonants, and 
the vowels will take care of themselves." We quote 
the two following passages introducing the precept : 

" Very few people take the trouble to find out how the con- 
sonants are made by the vocal apparatus. The whole cry is 
vowels, vowels, vowels. If you will take care of the conso- 
nants, the vowels will take care of themselves. You must speak 
with vowels, but so many disregard the consonants and think 
they are of no moment." 

And thus the second passage : 

" Read and speak SLOW; and take care of the consonants, and 
the vowels will take care of themselves " (Kingsley). 


On the opposite side of the question we have the 
following : 

" Were a golden rule for the stammerer to be formulated, it 
would doubtless be : ' Take care of the vowels, and the con- 
sonants will take care of themselves.' " 

This last passage unquestionably contains the more 
rational suggestion; but neither the maxim "Take 
care of the consonants" nor "Take care of the 
vowels" is very significant, inasmuch as both are 
amorphous generalities. 

Kingsley, however, amplifies his advice, "Take 
care of the consonants," and since he is followed 
by many modern "speech specialists," it will be well 
to cite him in the matter : 

" And how to take care of the consonants ? By taking care 
of the tongue and lips. 

" Now, if you will watch any one who speaks beautifully 
you will see that the tongue lies quite quiet, on a level with the 
lower front teeth, and never flies up in the mouth. You will 
see also that they use their lips a great deal; and form the 
consonants with them. But you will see, also, that they keep 
the upper lip down and still, so that the upper front teeth are 
hardly seen at all ; while they move the under lip a great deal, 
making it play upon the upper." l 

An American writer finds the remedy for stammer- 
ing in a free action of both upper and lower lip : 

1 " Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol. II, 
p. 261. 


" When the lips are pulled back for every word or syllable in 
a long word, and pushed out, in a short time the tongue comes 
back and goes forward, and the diaphragm and the breath work 
in harmony. The mind and those muscles and movements will 
become coordinated, confidence gained, nervousness and spas- 
modic action of the muscles governed and corrected." 

And here we have the other side of the question: 

" The lips should move only vertically in articulation ; any 
lateral or horizontal motion is a blemish as well as an inter- 
ference with the expressive power of the lips. Every modifica- 
tion of a vowel sound may be perfectly made within the mouth, 
aided by the mere diminution or enlargement of the labial 
aperture. But this does not require any looseness or projec- 
tion, far less circular pursing of the lips." 

Another writer recommends keeping the lips well 
separated : 

" He [the stammerer] must separate his lips or teeth at the 
very instant they touch ; and their resting place must be at 
some distance apart." 

To which another writer responds : 

" Let the patient effectually conquer the bad habit which 
prevails so largely among those who stutter or stammer (I 
really think my own experience warrants me in saying in ninety- 
nine out of every hundred stammerers) of keeping the lips apart 
and the mouth open. Nothing can be worse in every way than 
this bad habit, either as regards the power of clear articulation 
and fluent speech, the proper condition of the lungs, or the 
vacant expression which it gives the countenance. I always 
tell all stammering pupils frankly, if I see they have this vile 
habit, that I can do very little, if anything, toward removing 


their various impediments until they have thoroughly conquered 
it, and acquired the habit of always keeping the lips firmly 
but easily pressed together; except, of course, when reading 
or speaking." 

The expedients of starting to speak from the "open 
position" and using a free action of the jaw are fre- 
quently recommended as antidotes for stammering. 

Thus an American "speech specialist" : 

" Never forget that the other half of the stammerer's trouble 
comes from closing his mouth when it should be open. 

" The mouth should always be open at beginnings. . . . 

"Act on the principle that all lip-sounds are produced as 
the lips go apart, not while they are in contact. 

" The chief mistake is to begin with the lips together, whereas 
all beginnings should be made with the mouth open." 

One of the principal remedies of an English institu- 
tion consists hi starting from the open position and 
wagging the jaw freely. The argument is that the 
word nag is a corruption of wag, and that a nagging 
woman wags her jaw excessively. The stammerer 
should therefore wag his jaw to acquire similar 
fluency in speech. 

And this in condemnation of the measure : 

" Then, in the matter of advising stammerers to open their 
mouths wide so as to allow speech to flow freely out of them, 
this, in my judgment, is another decided error. As a rule, 
this opening of the mouth wide is the very thing stammerers 
are only too much in the habit of doing, and in my opinion is 
the very thing we should prevent them from doing. It is 


when the mouth is wide open that the muscles of voice-pro- 
duction are mostly thrown into spasm. Your great orator 
and your great actor does not require to open his mouth wide 
to be distinctly heard, nor to prevent any possible spasms from 
visiting his utterance; why, then, should a stammerer act in 
direct defiance of the teachings of a Gladstone, a Salvini, or a 
Bright? The more carefully a stammerer follows the example 
of the best speakers, the more easy will be his path to a success- 
ful cure." 

Most of these injunctions and teachings are irrele- 
vant. The average stammerer would be hindered 
rather than helped by paying meticulous attention 
to the action of lips and jaw. Undoubtedly un- 
impeded labial action is preferable to labial inactivity, 
and a free movement of the jaw is preferable to man- 
dibular paralysis ; but here we are miles away from 
the cause of stammering. There seems to be no par- 
ticular reason why the stammerer should invariably 
open the mouth before speaking ; this procedure will 
certainly not eliminate speech-disturbances. It is 
impracticable for the speaker to open the mouth 
widely at every vowel : with such vowels as do and e 
the wide position is entirely unnatural. Undoubtedly 
the mouth should be closed when not in action. And 
when this is said, there is little more to say. The 
emphasis given to the subject is unwarranted. 

An American "speech specialist" stands sponsor 
for a "method of attack" for difficult words that 


consists of three expedients that we have already 
considered. Explosive consonants are to be given 
light articulation. In stammering on such conso- 
nants as t, d, ch, 

"It can be seen . . . that the tongue is wedged tightly 
into position behind the upper teeth and is forcibly held in that 
position. The opposite hi position naturally would suggest 
relaxation with little muscular effort of the organs. In other 
words, lake the position as lightly as possible" 

As for the continuous consonants : 

" It will be found upon trial with many of the continuous 
sounds that it is difficult to continue then- initial sound with the 
mouth open, and thus this method of simply opening the mouth 
after having formed the sound will serve, in many cases, as a 
means of overcoming the difficulty." 

And respecting the vowels : 

" Since vowel stammering is manifested by the contraction 
[closure ?] of the glottis, cannot the reader see that it is always 
well to attack the vowel by lowering the voice [pitch?], thus 
separating the vocal cords and making the glottis as little 
liable to contraction as possible ? " 

Explosive consonants are practised in passages 
similar to the following, in which italicized consonants 
are lightly articulated : 

" There exists in this cAec-fcered world of ours, 
As art of the heri-/age lot-ted to man. 
The thistle of woe and the flowers 


Of hope, that bud and iloom with fra-grance rare, 
And cheer life's path where'er they can," etc., etc. 

In the next exercise the stammerer practises opening 
the mouth. To direct him, the continuous consonants 
are printed in italics : 

" ' Fo-/unteers wanted! Who's first, I say, to an-swer the Na- 
tion's call 

To de-/end the /-/ag on /o-reign seas with sword and can-won 

To c-rush with wight a foe-man c-ruel and a-venge our noble 

To f-ree a people long enslaved, and rend their bonds in 
t-wain ? ' 

Thus spake an oi-fi-cer of the Guard, his id-sage firm and 

His quiet mien and steady eye bespoke him t-me and b-rave." 

In the following exercise the pupil lowers the pitch 
at the italicized vowels : 

" ' The boneless tongue, so small and weak, 
Can crush and kill,' declared the Greek. 

" ' The tongue destroys a greater horde,' 
The Turk asserts, ' than does the sword.' 

" The Persian proverb wisely saith ; 
' A lengthy tongue an early death.' " 

These three exercises may be combined in which 
case diacritics are employed to show the pupil just 
which measure to resort to. An oblique line descend- 
ing from left to right (\) prescribes light articulation. 


A line inclined in the other direction (X) enjoins wide 
opening of the mouth. A small circle above a letter 
directs lowering of the pitch. A combination of 
these marks betokens the simultaneous application of 
two or three expedients. Herewith a typical exercise : 

O' ' ' V V Off O ' O 

" Is there no secret place on the face of the earth, 

' i f \ O f t s \ o ^ 

Where charity dwelleth, where virtue hath birth ? 

\ f Q f f O ^ f i o 

Where bosoms in mercy and kindness shall heave, 
And the poor and the wretched shall ' ask and receive ' ? 

O ' / V OO ' O ' ' > 

Is there no place on earth where a knock from the poor 

O' V ox ox\ox t x 

Will bring a kind angel to open the door ? 

O / ' O' O' ' O ' O ' X 

Ah! search the wide world wherever you can, 

/ O/OX x f f f f f / 

There is no open door for the moneyless man! 

\ / OO'O r / e x / r 

" Go, look in your hall, where the chandelier's light 

V oo'0'V N 'x 'of 

Drives off with its splendor the darkness of night, 

f / O O''O/XO/ 

Where the rich hanging velvet in shadowy fold, 

'Of V f r x O'O V t OX 

Sweeps gracefully down with its trimmings of gold, 

O ' f f O / ' x OO / f 

And the mirrors of silver take up and renew, 

O ' X / x / O/ x O / 

In long lighted vistas the wildering view 
Go there in your patches, and find if you can, 
A welcoming smile for the moneyless man ! " 


A few European schools have similar eclectic 
"methods" for the "attack" of difficult words, and 
one or two employ diacritics in connection with verbal 
exercises. There is little, however, that can be said 
in favor of a procedure that requires the pupil to 
dodge about from one expedient to another. It is 
possible that the endeavor to select and execute the 
prescribed manoeuvre for each particular consonant 
may for a time engage the pupil's attention to a 
sufficient extent to exclude multiple thought. On the 
other hand, it is equally possible and probable that 
the attempt to apply the system will itself induce 
bewilderment. With these two possibilities in mind, 
one can hardly accord the measure an enthusiastic 
indorsement. The signal feature with these eclectic 
"methods" is that the various expedients from which 
the pupil makes his selection can in most cases be 
applied simultaneously. There is no reason, for 
instance, why the stammerer should not at all times 
articulate lightly, use a free movement of the jaw, 
and employ a reasonably low pitch. Furthermore, 
the arguments that apply for a particular expedient 
with a particular group of consonants usually apply 
for the same expedient with any other group of 
consonants. Unfortunately these systems are in- 
troduced with no clear explanation of their raison 
d'etre; hence one is rather puzzled to know what 
it is all about. 


As a means of avoiding difficult initial consonants 
the stammerer is sometimes recommended to run 
his words together, or to subjoin initial consonants 
to the words preceding. 

The following paragraph on the subject is by the 
principal of an Irish stammering-school : 

" You know, perhaps, that a man's stammering does not 
effect [affect] his singing at all, try it if you are not sure. Well, 
of course you see, that if you could say your words, as you sing 
them, your stammering would vanish. What then is the differ- 
ence hi the way you produce your words in singing, and in 
speaking? In speaking, you pronounce the words separately, 
you say one word, and then make a short pause before beginning 
the next. In singing you do not separate each word so en- 
tirely ; there is no break in the sound between the words, you 
try to make the pause as short as possible, and to begin one 
word, immediately you have finished the preceding one. . . . 
You must try then to imitate this singing method in your or- 
dinary speech." 

A German writer, after recommending prolongation 
of the initial vowel of a sentence, continues : 

" But the stammerer will not always succeed in connecting 
the succeeding sounds of the sentence easily and without a 
falter, for he is accustomed to regarding the initial sound of 
each word as a fresh beginning whereas we speak the whole 
phrase that occurs between pauses as though it were a single 
word. Therefore one must accustom the stammerer to regard- 
ing the initial sound of each word as the final sound of the word 
preceding, for it is a notorious fact that final sounds never 
occasion difficulty." 


A third writer recommends transposition of the 
initial consonants, and prescribes reading-exercises 
in which these consonants have actually been sub- 
joined to the words preceding. The following exer- 
cise is typical : 


The distant Trojans never injur'd me. 1 
Thed istantTr ojansn ever injur'dm e. 

In youth and beauty wisdom is but rare. 
Iny outh andb eautyw isdom isb utr are. 

For too much rest itself becomes a pain. 
Fort oom uchr est itselfb ecomes ap ain. 

Praise undeserv'd is scandal in disguise. 
Praise undeserv'd issc andal ind isguise. 

Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow. akesth em an, andw ant of itth ef ellow. 

Bare the mean heart that lurks behind a star. 
Bareth em eanh eartth atl urksb ehind ast ar. 

Who dares think one thing, and another tell, 
My heart detests him as the gates of hell. 
Whod aresth ink oneth ing, and anothert ell, 
Myh eartd etestsh im asth eg ates ofh ell. 

1 The sentences printed in the ordinary manner are not intended to 
be read. They are given for reference in case the transcribed sen- 
tences should not be intelligible. 


The following is the form of a popular German 

exercise : l 


E ven the worthy Homer sometimes nods. 

No thing is stronger than custom. 

Toi 1 does not come to help the idle. 

Pra ctice in time becomes second nature. 

E ven a single hair casts its shadow. 

Po werful indeed is the empire of habit. 

Loo k for a tough wedge for a tough log. 

I 1 is better to learn late than never. 

Su cces-sful and fortunate crime is called virtue. 

Fi re is the test of gold ; a dversity, of strong men. 

I 1 will not out of the flesh that is bred in the bone. 

Whe n all candles be out, all cats be gray. 

Fea r may force a man to cast beyond the moon. 

It is evident that the practice of uniting the words 
of a sentence into one protracted polysyllable is 
practically identical with that of preserving continuity 
of sound. It has the same argument in its favor 
that it must needs involve continuity of verbal 

1 Initial consonants are to be "regarded" as the final consonants of 
the words preceding. When two similar consonants come together, 
only one is to be pronounced. 


thought. In normal speech, however, one does not 
"pronounce the words separately" any more than he 
pronounces the individual syllables of a word sepa- 
rately ; hence it is evident that no benefit is derived 
from eliminating "dividing pauses." The procedure 
of deliberately transposing initial consonants has little 
to recommend it. When one is concerned with trans- 
position rather than with continuity, he neglects the 
essential feature. Often transposition occurs and 
continuity is lost. Speech then becomes unintelli- 
gible even if physical stammering does not supervene. 

Another remedy for stammering is proposed in pho- 
netic syllabication, a measure practically the antithesis 
of that just described. Each syllable within a word 
must commence with a consonant whenever this is 
physically possible : 

" Spoken syllables are not the same as written syllables. 
The latter are divisions to the eye, to show the etymology of 
words; the former are divisions to the ear, and are governed 
solely by the sound. Every syllable even in the quickest 
utterance should, have a SEPARATE IMPULSE OF 
VOICE. But practically a large proportion of impulses are 
lost through vocal mismanagement. 

"The elements which make up syllables are vowels and con- 
sonants. Vowels require an OPEN CHANNEL in the mouth ; 
and consonants require a more or less complete CLOSURE of 
some parts of the mouth. Now, herein lies the grand prin- 
ciple of syllabic articulation. The direction of organic action 
ought in all cases to be FROM CLOSE TO OPEN ; that is, 


from consonant to vowel ; whereas the prevailing habit among 
faulty speakers is to make the action from open to close ; that 
is, from vowel to consonant. The effect is, that vowels, in- 
stead of having a free channel through the mouth, directly from 
the throat, are, as it were, squeezed between consonants, cut 
short, and often altogether lost. 

"The principle of oral action from close to open cannot 
be too clearly apprehended. Its practical application dictates 
that any vowel between consonants should be collocated phoneti- 
cally with the consonant which precedes, and not with that 
which follows it ; and conversely, that any consonant between 
vowels should be collocated with the vowel which follows, and 
not with the vowel which precedes it. Thus : 






"When double consonants are written the same principle 
applies : only one of the consonants is sounded, and therefore 
only one is recognized in phonetic syllabication. Thus: 

ha-(p)py i-(r)ri-tate 

fe-(l)low a-(t)ten-dance 

si-0)ly di-(f)fi-cul-ty 

ho-(r)ror e-(r)ro-ne-ous 

cu-(n)ning a-(l)le-go-ri-cal. . . . 

"In the syllabication of words the division may sometimes 
be, indifferently, either etymologic or phonetic, as in the words 

baker, eating, striking, owner, ruler. 
"These words, divided etymologically, yield the syllables 

bak-er, eat-ing, strik-ing, own-er, rul-er 


but divided phonetically, they yield the syllables 

ba-ker, ea-ting, stri-king, ow-ner, ru-ler. . . . 
" The faulty action of the mouth in moving from open 
to dose positions is strikingly illustrated in Stuttering and 
Stammering. The voice, in these cases, is choked in the throat, 
or emitted in discontinuous jerks, and the mouth is CONSO- 
NANT-CLOGGED. In my long experience with defects of this 
kind, the true principle of oral action has invariably worked 
like a charm. In many instances the impediment has wholly 
disappeared after the first lesson. Only the nervous dread of 
habitual difficulty can prevent immediate relief when once 
the stutterer has practically learned the simple law of phonetic 
syllabication : to articulate from close to open positions." l 

The mode of enunciation here recommended un- 
doubtedly conduces to comprehensibility of speech, 
and should be observed at least by public speakers. 
It is by no means patent, however, in what manner 
stammering is to be affected by the procedure en- 
joined. Stammering usually occurs at the initial 
syllable ; whereas phonetic syllabication begins at the 
second syllable. If the measure in question ever 
mitigates stammering, it undoubtedly does so by 
inspiring confidence, eliminating multiple thought, 
and focussing attention on the verbal imagery. Na- 
turally one would expect any benefit derived to be 
purely temporary. 

1 This writer does not suggest, of course, that a word commenc- 
ing with a vowel should have prefixed to it the final consonant of 
the word preceding. Phonetic syllabication is to be applied to 
the syllables within a word. 


Occasionally the stammerer is counselled to cir- 
cumvent "troublesome initial consonants" by de- 
taching them from the body of the word. He is ad- 
vised to make a distinct pause between the consonant 
and the succeeding vowel, and later to reduce the 
pause till it becomes " imperceptible " (or is actually 
eliminated). Reading-practice is of course pre- 


1 1 ooked t o th e w eather s ide, and th e s um- 
mer h ad d eparted. Th e s ea w as r ocking, and 
sh aken w ith g athering wr ath. Upon its s urface 
s at m ighty m ists, wh ich gr ouped th emselves 
into arches and 1 ong c athedral aisles. D own one of 
th ese, w ith t he f iery p ace of a qu arrel fr om 
a cr oss-b ow, r an a fr igate r ight athwart our 
c ourse. " Are th ey m ad ? " s ome v oice ex- 
claimed fr om our d eck. " D o th ey w oo th eir 
r uin ? " B ut in a m oment, as sh e w as cl ose up- 
on us, s ome impulse of a h eady c urrent or 1 ocal 
v ortex g ave a wh eeling b ias t o h er c ourse, 
and off sh e f orged w ithout a sh ock. As sh e r an 
p ast us, h igh aloft amongst th e shr ouds st ood 
th e 1 ady of th e p innace. Th e d eeps opened 
ahead in m alice t o r eceive h er, t owering s urges 
of f oam r an after h er, th e b illows w ere f ierce 
t o c atch h er. 


B-ut f-ar away sh-e w-as b-orne into d-esert sp-aces of 
th-e s-ea: wh-ilst st-ill b-y s-ight I f-ollowed h-er, as sh-e 


r-an b-efore th-e h-owling g-ale, ch-ased b-y angry s-ea-b-irds 
and b-y m-addening b-illows ; st-ill I s-aw h-er, as at th-e m-o- 
ment w-hen sh-e r-an p-ast us, st-anding amongst th-e shr-ouds, 
w-ith h-er wh-ite dr-aperies str-eaming be-fore th-e w-ind. 
Th-ere sh-e st-ood, w-ith h-air d-ishevelled, one h-and cl-utched 
amongst th-e t-ackling r-ising, s-inking, fl-uttering, tr-embling, 
pr-aying ; th-ere f-or 1-eagues I s-aw h-er as sh-e st-ood, r-aising 
at intervals one h-and t-o h-eaven, amidst th-e f-iery cr-ests 
of th-e p-ursuing w-aves and th-e r-aving of th-e st-orm; 
until at 1-ast, upon a s-ound fr-om afar of m-alicious 1-aughter 
and m-ockery, all w-as h-idden f-or ever in dr-iving sh-owers ; 
and afterwards, b-ut wh-en I kn-ow n-ot, n-or h-ow. 

This practice of dividing the initial consonant from 
the vowel is a sort of natural corollary to the belief that 
the stammerer's difficulty lies with the consonant, and 
that he can as may be readily demonstrated al- 
ways produce the consonant when it is detached. 

But the theory neglects the fact that the speaker 
may be unable to append the vowel when the con- 
sonant has been produced and certainly it avails 
the stammerer little to enunciate the initial consonant 
several seconds before the remainder of the word is 
forthcoming. The particular measure in question, 
however, is seldom recommended by reputable teach- 
ers of stammerers ; it is rather the stock-in-trade of 
occasional charlatans. 

An interesting variation of the foregoing expedient 
is the subject of the following paragraph : 


"No stammerers, I believe, hesitate in making vowel sounds, 
or in speaking syllables commencing with vowels. For instance, 
they can always say a, all, eke, ire, our, etc. But in attempting 
to get out such words as ball, gaul, maul, leak, seek, speak, fire, 
flour, power, growl, etc., they succeed only in giving a sound 
which they know better than I can describe. Now, let a stam- 
merer try the word speak. If he thought any one was expecting 
something from him whom he was anxious to please, he would 
give a sound something like esp, and balk. Let him stop right 
there and say eke. He may now try them again in their order, 
uttering them as two distinct syllables, and he has esp-eek; 
make it shorter and it becomes sp-eek. Let him now try the 
word commencement; pronounce it in this way : Kuh-um-muh- 
ence-muh-ent ; potatoes, puh-o-tuh-a-tuh-oes ; Pepper, puh-ep- 
puh-er. The same method can be applied to any word with 
similar results. With a little practice the stammerer will be 
able to speak the two parts of a divided syllable so quickly 
that a hearer will hardly perceive the division. It will be seen 
that in this method a lesser evil is incurred to eradicate a greater, 
after which the former can certainly be overcome." 

We leave the comment to the reader. 

Another expedient that is occasionally recommended 
consists in interpolating a more or less " inaudible " h be- 
tween the initial consonant and the following vowel 

C-halm on th-he 1-histening ear of n-hight 

C-home Heaven's m-helodious str-hains, 

Wh-here w-hild J-hudea str-hetches f-har 

Her s-hilver-mantled pl-hains 
and so on. 

The object of the aspirate is probably to open the 
glottis, which it would doubtless do if physical stam- 


mering should effect its closure. But opening the 
glottis is not curing stammering ; and if it were, this 
end could be obtained by more natural means. 

The next measure that we have to consider is 
"syllabic speaking," a device already a century old, 
but one that flourishes despite its antiquity. The 
term "syllabic speaking" is generic rather than 
specific: it implies several modes of utterance in 
which the syllabical construction of words is given 
unwonted emphasis. In some systems of syllabica- 
tion the students dismember their words into syllables 
by distinct pauses, and often by regular syllabic inspi- 
rations. In other systems the long and short syllables 
of words are given approximately equal duration, and 
the dividing pauses may or may not be observed. 

The various modes of syllabic speaking may be 
prescribed merely as forms of practice, or may be 
enjoined as antidotal measures to be observed during 
conversation. One teacher of stammerers writes as 
follows in reference to syllabic reading as an exercise : 

"I employ the following means : According to the degree of 
the malady and the culture of the stutterer, I select a reading- 
exercise from any prose work. The stutterer takes the posi- 
tion already described, and breathes in deeply and long. Then 
he reads the sentences loudly and slowly, syllable by syllable. 
At first, the sentences should be short, consisting of three or 
four words, as, 'Anton loves his brother,' 'John is a good 
scholar,' etc. . . . 


"As we have observed, reading in this way usually proceeds 
without stuttering; yet, should any difficulty be found, the 
syllable or word must be repeated until the whole sentence can 
be spoken fluently and perfectly. The words which form the 
sentence should be read syllabically, as 'An-ton-loves-his- 
broth-er.' In doing this, the stutterer should take care not to 
read, or subsequently talk, in a mechanical, musical measure, 
as has been recommended by former speech-physicians. For, 
besides being only a temporary advantage and afterward be- 
coming wholly useless, it is a new defect of speech acquired 
as a poor exhange for his stuttering. Reading should be 
done deliberately and carefully, but not in a monotonous 
manner. In this respect my method is to be preferred, for 
in all of its parts it rests upon natural laws. This reading 
should continue, as a rule, for half an hour, in which time 
from 20 to 30 sentences are practised. On the next day the 
sentences 'should be longer, say from 5 to 6 words in length, 
and this number increased daily until sentences of 20 to 30 
words are practised and spoken syllable by syllable, during 
one exhalation, with careful observance of the rules already 

Another instructor prescribes syllabication of allit- 
erative sentences. We give below, a few of the exer- 
cises, together with the prefatory instructions : 

"Fill your lungs constantly. 


"Monotone (the words being pronounced in syllables, with 
a break between each). 

"Note. If the stammerer will 'drop the jaw' at the first 
syllable of each word in exercise 'A' he will find his difficulty 
gone ! 


"Al- though An-nie As- ton al-ways an-swered 
as as-tute-ly as any-one all Al-fred Arm- 
strong's af-fa-bility ap-peared ab-so-lute-ly af-fec- 


"Bl-ow bl-ow bit-ter bi-ting boi-sterous bl-iz- 
zard. Be-ware boys be-ing bold be-yond 
bounds brings bound-less bur-dens by bad 


" Call clear-ly Char-lie Cam(p)-bell call cant- 
ing com-i-cal Cissie Count-ing coins con-tain- 
ing Com-mon-wealth car-i-ca-tures. 

" Gai-ly girls gai-ly ga-ther great gra-pes 
grow-ing green. Good-by gran-ny give God-frey 
Grec-ian go-Id gog-gles gross-ly gro-tesque. 


" Note. Take a short swift breath before each of these words. 

"Hunt-ing on hard high hills hurts horses' 

hoofs. Hil-da Hicks hurl-ed hun-dreds of huge 

hops at Henry. 


"Ireney is ill. In In-dia it is in-tol-er-able 

in the in-ter-ior. In-dia-rub-ber idiots in II- 
fra-combe in-duce im-pi-ous im-pos-tors to in- 
dulge in in-famous im-i-ta-tions ! 


"Poor pit-i-able Pe-ter Pi-per plod-ding-ly 
pick-ed pecks of pierc-ing pep-per corn. Pen- 
nies prove power-ful prop-er-ty. 


"Quash quar-rels quick-ly. Quell quiet-ly un- 
queen-ly queries. Quest-ions quot-ed quiet-ly quell 

quix-otic Quake-rs. 


" Round rug-ged rocks rag-ged ras-cals ra-pid-ly 

ran rural races. Robert's rich red roses 
rare-ly re-ap-pear-ed. 


" Vex-ed vet-erans very vigor-ous-ly vin-di-cated 

vill-a-gers. Ven-ture-some villains vain-glorious-ly 
visit-ed vines. Val-u-able voices vary vastly. 


"Will-ie Wil-son was work-ing when Wat-son 

went whist-ling west-ward watch-ing wick-ed 
water-rats wand-er weari-ly with-in the white 

"Note. 'Dwell' on w's, making a sound like the wind. 


" Yes-ter-day you yourself yell-ed. Yes yon-der 

yok-el yearns to yacht. 

"Zulus zealously rode zebras zig-zag to - 


A German teacher of stammerers has devised prac- 
tice-charts for syllabic reading, in which symbols for 
respiration, vocalization, etc., are employed. He at- 
taches considerable importance to the symbols : 

"These signs, though far from having or pretending to have 
the significance of notes, are, nevertheless, of the utmost im- 
portance to the student, for they show him the exact place 
where he must produce the voice, the sounding-consonant, the 
voiceless consonant (which is capable of prolongation), the 
explosive consonant ; and, to a certain extent, they even show 
him the duration of all these. These signs arouse in the student 
the feeling for correct breathing for production of sound and 
correct speech, syllabically as well as rhetorically. 

"The practice of ... a piece of poetry or of prose must 
be carried on in one tone (that is, on one pitch) , the one which 
the student can produce without the slightest exertion." 1 

Transcriptions of the exercises employed are given 
on pages 159 and i6o. 2 

There are, of course, numerous auxiliaries to the 
syllabic exercises. In some institutions the pupils 
practise while marching, pronouncing one syllable to 
a step, syllabicate words while performing dumb- 
bell exercises, and so on. In most schools where 
syllabication is employed as an exercise, the pupils 
progress from syllabic reading to the normal reading 
of poetry and prose. But in some stammering-schools 

1 The above passage is taken from an English translation. 

* Symbols as formerly employed. The dotted line beneath a con- 
sonant of course denotes its surdal quality. A short vertical line 
beneath a vowel specifies direct attack. 




03 . j 

o : ** 

aj . aj 


O : M 

o : H 






& =J 

t^ : 


: o : 

> > 



o : 





en : 





. ._,. 


. 1 




. 6 














> > > > a 



- 42 






w H| 

CO ^ 



M -S= 
CO ^ : -f 

*^ **"!>. "^^ 


O > 




o -^ 




P*J {> 




















. & 




































, IH 




















4> E 

5 a 

2 i 


\O 4) 


H **" 







' -5 

















" 3 


S M 





C 3~ 








rj-J U-, 

>< ^4) 

*"^ta ^^fc ^^fc ^^k HH i~i . ^^ 


^ ^~ 

i-M : ^ 


S * 




l-l 4> 



S .2 


5 - 








11 2 




(3 3 






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1 8 













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C/3 >> 







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syllabic reading and speaking is not an exercise, but 
the whole remedial system ; and the pupil is discharged 
from the institution with this mode of utterance as 
an amulet to ward off his impediment. 

Syllabic speaking is an utterly purposeless pro- 
cedure. It is a bow at a venture: no clear expla- 
nation has ever been made of the purpose it is 
intended to accomplish. As an exercise it is a vagary ; 
as a mode of enunciation it is an objectless and futile 
travesty on human speech. 

We have now to consider rhythmic speaking, a 
popular form of syllabic utterance. With rhythmic 
enunciation the syllables are given uniform length, 
and speech is accorded rhythm more or less imitative 
of musical or poetic measure. Speech is monotonous 
and drawling, rather than staccato as is usually the 
case with "syllabic speaking." Rhythmic speech is 
frequently recommended as a mode of utterance to 
be observed as a preventive of stammering ; syllabic 
speaking is employed chiefly as an exercise. 

The following paragraphs are by Colombat, who 
was among the first to employ rhythm in the therapy 
of stammering : l 

1 Passages excerpted from Dr. Flies' " Orthophonie " (pp. 53 ff.), 
an abstract of Colombat's "Du bgaiement et de tous les autres 
vices de la parole" (Paris, 1830) and his " M6moire sur la physio- 
logie et therapeutique du blgaiement, faisant suite au traite 
d'orthophonie " (Paris, 1836). 


"It has always been observed that stammering ceases as 
though by magic when the person afflicted sings or recites words 
to musical or poetic measure. But no one has sought to 
explain this phenomenon; though an explanation is of the 
highest importance for the treatment of an infirmity that 
occurs so often, and which one usually regards as, with few 
exceptions, beyond the aid of curative art. 

"Two causes, one the result of the other, are accountable 
for the stammerer's fluency in singing. The first is that, since 
he is compelled to accord to his utterance a musical and poetic 
rhythm, the movements of the organs concerned in phonation 
must needs occur with greater accuracy and regularity. The 
second is that, since the stammerer must constantly have the 
idea of measure, this accessory idea offsets the relative prepon- 
derance of the main idea giving rise to the conversation ; and, 
further, that this accessory thought modifies the cerebral ex- 
citation, whence it follows that the neural irradiation pro- 
ceeds more slowly and in a more orderly manner, thus falling 
more into harmony with the contraction of the speech-muscles. 
Rhythm is capable of regulating not only the irregular move- 
ments of the speech-organs ; but it exerts a salutary influence 
on all the other organs of the human body. The following 
observations, selected from a considerable number, demon- 
strate this fact : 

"M. is the son of a prefect and a nephew of an old minis- 
ter of the interior ; was a student at the polytechnics! school, 
but is now in military service. With this gentleman the pecu- 
liarities of speech and the convulsive movements that affected 
him, disappeared as though by magic during the time that he 
was practising the various exercises of the vocal organs that we 
prescribed for his impediment. The same thing occurred when 
he played the piano or heard another person playing a musical 
instrument. In 1833 we treated a young woman, Mile. 


Coutance, who lived at 16 Rue des Bernardins, Paris. Not 
only did this young woman stammer, but in addition she was 
subject to involuntary movements of the limbs when standing 
or walking. The rythmic speech to which she resorted in 
order to cure her stammering, had the most beneficial influence 
on these involuntary movements ; and they completely dis- 
appeared together with the infirmity regarding which she came 
to consult us. These two cases seem to prove that one should 
employ music, or rather rhythm, as a curative agent in certain 
nervous diseases such as Saint Vitus's dance, for instance. 

"A medical friend of ours has assured us that he knew a 
young woman that limped despite the absence of any observ- 
able organic defect, but that her infirmity was not in evidence 
when she danced or walked in step with another person. 

"Music, says Plato (that paragon of accuracy), was not 
accorded to man by the immortal gods merely to delight and titil- 
late the senses, but also to quiet the disorders of the soul and 
the irregular movements that a body full of imperfections 
must suffer. 

" Every one knows the power of the drum with its uniform 
rhythm how it allays tiredness and helps the soldiers to 
march on in order. And every one knows that a young and 
weak person may dance through a whole night without fatigue 
owing to the rhythm of the music. And lastly, the instinct 
that compels us to take steps of uniform length, and trip along 
with regular rather than irregular movements, and the regular 
interruptions of the pulse and of respiration, and a host of other 
phenomena furnish sufficient proof that rhythm is a need aris- 
ing from the first laws of animal economy, and that we can make 
all our movenTents equal, regular, and perfect with the aid of 
this universal principle. 

"The Romans knew the influence of rhythm upon speech, 
for one reads in the Encyclopedic m&lhodique, par Framery el 


Ginguent that it was customary in Rome for those that spoke 
with difficulty to allow themselves to be accompanied by a 
musical instrument when making a public address, and that in 
speaking, they then followed the musician. Gracchus never 
spoke in public without having a slave beside him playing lightly 
on a flageolet. 

"Declaiming in verse greatly modifies stammering. The 
stammerer is compelled to observe a certain poetic rhythm, 
and to identify himself with the character he is portraying : 
he is successively Caesar and Britannicus, then Tancred and 
Othello. The attention that he must constantly apply to place 
himself in the position of his hero becomes an accessory idea; 
which, I repeat, together with the main idea, so modifies and 
reduces the nervous influence that precedes the latter, that this 
influence comes more into harmony with the muscular con- 
tractions of the speech-organs. 

"After what I have already said, the reader will of course 
infer that the basis of my curative system is rhythmic speech. 

"And in truth, one of the principal means that I employ 
in combating stammering is rhythm, this perfect regulator of 
all our movements. . . . One must take care to speak the 
syllables metrically, beating time with the foot or pressing the 
thumb and forefinger together at every syllable, 1 or after the 
second, third, or the fourth and sixth syllables as one may 
wish. One can beat time according to y, f, f, |, or f 
measure. The stammerer must rely especially upon this 
metrical regulation of the syllables, and must give his chief 
attention to it." 

1 Variants of this device employed by modern "speech specialists" 
are : nodding the head, flexing the index-finger, waving the arm, 
moving the hand in a circle or in the form of a horizontal 8 ( oo) and 
executing consentaneous finger-movements, beating time with a 
baton, etc. 


(Three of Colombat's " orthophonic " exercises are 
given on the following pages.) 

Colombat also practised his pupils on articulatory 
exercises and alliterative sentences. Most of this 
work was performed to the measured beats of a met- 
ronome or "muthonome," as Colombat preferred 
to call his instrument. 

Rhythmic utterance has been the basis of perhaps 
30 to 40 per cent of the various systems introduced 
since the time of Colombat. Rhythm was employed or 
recommended by Cull, Klencke, Katenkamp, Gutt- 
mann, Rosenthal, Lehwess, Kreutzer, Giinther, Shuld- 
ham, and a dozen other of the older teacher sand writers. 

The following typical indorsements of rhythmic 
speech are from three different sources : 

"We chant over a line of the multiplication table, dividing 
the sentences into metrical feet, and marking the accented 
syllables with a gesture as if beating time ; then again in a 
natural manner, but distinctly marking the rhythm, accent 
and emphasis. In a few minutes he [the pupil] repeats the 
whole table without hesitation. We select a stanza of poetry, 
or a passage in prose resembling poetry in the rhythm and melody 
of its style ; divide it into metrical feet, and first chant it, read 
it in concert, with a marked expression of the rhythm, accent 
and emphasis, and a free, natural expression of the sentiment. 
He now readily reads it by himself." 

And thus another writer : 

"By the way, this charming poem of 'Nuremberg' is most 
suitable reading for stammerers, as the rhythm in it is so well 



which consists in beating time after every 6th syllable. The rhythm 
corresponds to f time in miisic." 





J J 






for poetry. Metre corresponding to \ time." 




for prose. Metre corresponding to \ time." 





marked, or, at any rate, is capable of being well marked, and 
those are just the pieces which should be given to patients who 
suffer from defects of speech. A good plan of insisting on the 
rhythm being well marked, is to time the reading with the ordi- 
nary metronome used by musicians. Eighty-four is a good 
time for such a piece as Hood's 'Lay of the Laborer,' and for 
his 'Eugene Aram.' This would be a 3-time in music. I 
should not advise the use of the metronome in teaching elocu- 
tion, as it would tend to make a reader monotonous, but the 
stammerer requires extra stimulus to regulate and render 
rhythmical his mode of speech. 

"Eighty-four is a good time for stammerers to begin reading 
poetry by, and then by degrees they can advance to 104 or 
112. When a stammerer can read poetry with comfort and 
evenness, then let him be promoted to the dignified difficulties 
of prose, and in his prose readings let him not forget the lessons 
taught him by the metronome, though in reading prose this 
judicious little tick-tack would be out of place entirely." l 

The following is by a German writer : 

"When a stutterer comes to me for treatment, I explain in a 
few words the nature of stuttering, and follow with respiratory 
gymnastics, giving the reasons why the breath should be man- 
aged in this and not in any other way. My next effort is to 
teach him how to speak. All the pupils then open a child's 
book (Schultz and Steinmann, part 3) to a story which is easy 
to understand and remember. This is read in concert, the 
measure being indicated by Maelzel's metronome, which is 
usually set at 108, that is, it beats 108 times in a minute. 
In severe cases I may begin with 60 beats. To every beat a 

1 With poetry, the rhythm to be followed is often indicated by 
accent-marks placed above the syllables. 


syllable is read. The pupil takes breath beforehand and reads 
to the next pause, where he inhales again. Should the pause, 
however, come after a few words the inhalation is omitted, for 
every overfilling of the lungs excites unduly. On the other 
hand, if the air is consumed before a pause is reached, the pupil 
stops and takes in breath, quietly and not hastily, and before 
he feels distressed for air. Every syllable is accompanied with 
a downward beat of the hand. Very severe stutterers, in the 
first weeks, are allowed to speak only by the metronome, which 
they must always carry with them, or they must give the beat 
audibly on some convenient object, as a table, desk, etc. From 
the first day of treatment the pupil must observe the prescribed 
measure, and inhale at every punctuation. Whoever fails to 
observe the measure, does not beat with his hand, speaks too 
rapidly, neglects to inhale at the right time, or stutters after 
he once has control of his speech, keeps account of his various 
shortcomings by tying knots in a string, and these are noted 
every day. 

"This measured talking, as just described, is of great im- 
portance. It not only causes the organs to act synchronously 
and more powerfully, but it has another effect, which cannot 
be too highly valued, viz. : it divides the stutterer's attention 
directing his thoughts elsewhere and not permitting him to con- 
centrate his whole mind upon his impediment, as he is accus- 
tomed to do. The effect of diverting the mind from an over- 
powering idea is shown by Dr. Schrank, who alludes in his 
book to the means used in Southern Germany to stop hic- 
coughing. The sufferer thinks intently of a handsome, spotted 
cow, and pictures her to himself clearly and minutely. What 
happens ? In many instances the hiccoughing is gone ! Like- 
wise measured talking serves as an escape-channel for the 
anxiety a stutterer usually feels when he wishes to speak. 
Even if his excitement be great, measured talking, though 


used in speaking only five or ten words, has a quieting 
effect." 1 

Colombat's " orthophonic " system is still practi- 
cally intact in a number of American and European 
institutions. The system is particularly rampant 
in the United States of America, where it is virtually 
the entire " method " of three of the largest stam- 
mering schools. The "metrical " speech of the "or- 
thophonic " method is implied in the names of 
several American and English "systems" or "speech 
institutions." Colombat's "muthonome" has ticked 
its way almost the round of a century. In an 
American institution it is now a "Word Regulator" ; 
in an English school it is again a metronome : but 
with its various aliases and guises it still rattles on. 

It may be of interest to note that rhythm, as a 
remedy for stammering, did not originate even with 
Colombat; though the latter was undoubtedly the 
first to put the complete system into print. Colombat 
was in many respects a type of the modern "speech 
specialist," and he purloined most of his "inventions" 
from other investigators. According to Chervin : 2 

"Colombat appropriated Rullier's theory of the cause of 
stammering. He borrowed from Serre d'Alais his classification 
of stammering and his isochrone, which he christened mutho- 

1 Quoted from an English translation. 

1 " B6gaiement et autres maladies fonctionnelles de la parole," 
3d ed., p. 100. 


nome; he took from Cormack [McCormac ?] the best feature 
of his system the initial inspiration." 

Should one prefer to regard Colombat as the victim 
of a series of unfortunate coincidences, he must never- 
theless admit that his "discoveries" were anticipated. 

Rhythm was employed by Thelwall as early as 
1 80 1, which was long before Colombat entered the 
field. Thelwall says of his system : l 

"From one simple and original principle (whose existence 
and operation, I trust, are sufficiently demonstrated by the 
series of experiments regularly exhibited) I trace the fundamen- 
tal and physical distinctions of heavy and light syllables ; and 
from the unavoidable alternations of these (or of pauses of the 
voice during the actions by which they should be produced) I 
demonstrate the formation of those simple cadences of com- 
mon and triple measure, out of which arise all the beauties of 
rhythmus, and all the facilities of fluent and harmonious ut- 
terance. From an injudicious application of undisciplined vo- 
lition to this physical action, I endeavour to account for all 
the gradations of harsh, ungraceful, and interruptive delivery ; 
and from inconsiderate attempts to violate this primary law, 
all the customary impediments of speech." 

"Yet I could not but observe and feel, how much the prin- 
ciple of physiological rhythmus, and the conformity of the 
volition with its dictates, mitigated the labour of pectoral 
exertion, and contributed to a healthful and agreeable action 
of the lungs." 2 

"The vindication and illustration of the rhythmus of 

1 " A Letter to Henry Cline, Esq. on Imperfect Development of 
the Faculties," etc. (London, 1810), p. 189. * Loc. cit., p. 10. 


Milton, is, in a critical point of view, the favorite object of 
my system." l 

"All impediments are best surmounted (even in what relates 
to the primary requisites of facility and inteUigibleness) by 
aiming at the highest graces of rhetorical emphasis and har- 
monic inflection." 2 

"In my own particular practice, I have derived considerable 
assistance from an application of the principles of musical 
inflection and proportion." 3 

Thus we see that Thelwall employed rhythm more 
than a century ago. But even Thelwall was antici- 
pated, for Caelius Aurelianus 4 recommended a form 
of rhythm 5 a quarter of a century before Thelwall 
treated his first case of stammering. 

This historical review may seem irrelevant, but we 
cite the facts to show how utterly baseless (and base) 
are the pretensions of a number of modern "speech 
specialists" to have invented the rhythmic "systems" 
that they ply. 

And what of the efficacy of rhythm ? 

It must be admitted that with slow, drawling, 
rhythmic speech, stammering diminishes or disappears 
in a majority of cases. Therefore, if the stammerer 
will carry a metronome and carefully wind the in- 
strument before speaking, and, whilst speaking, 

1 Loc. tit., p. 159. * Loc. cit., p. 227. Loc. cit., p. 231. 
4 De morbis acutis et chronicis libri octo. Job. C. Amman recen- 
suit emaculavit. Arastelaedami 1775. 
The rhythm of declamatory speech. 


watchfully follow its rhythmic beats, he may secure 
some degree of fluency. This success may also be 
achieved if he will beat time with a baton or with his 
hand, or will kick the wall at every syllable. Such 
is the potency of the system. But when the stam- 
merer ceases to apply these royal remedies, he will 
almost certainly stammer as before. 

Wyneken, who attended the old Katenkamp In- 
stitute (a school in many respects superior to a num- 
ber of modern American stammering-schools) writes 
thus of his experiences : l 

"Now comes the most difficult task for the stammerer 
resorting to rhythmical speech. He must pronounce every 
sentence as a polysyllabic word. He must speak slowly, and 
must accord all syllables a like duration. Where one would 
punctuate, he must carefully inhale. 

"When the pupil has observed metrical speech for several 
weeks in the institute, and has become thoroughly accustomed 
to it, he is permitted if no difficulties have occurred to 
come gradually into contact with strangers. He is sent on 
errands (this usually furnishes a difficult task for the stam- 
merer), and is at various times addressed suddenly and un- 
expectedly. If he successfully withstands these tests after 
he has employed rhythmic speech for several months, he is 
discharged as cured. 

"This is the formal procedure if progress has been con- 
tinual and uninterrupted; but unfortunately this seldom oc- 
curs. Only a very few fortunate ones find themselves per- 
manently rid of their stammering. The majority immediately 

1 "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," pp. 24 ff. 


relapse, and for some time the impediment is often worse than 
it was originally. . . . 

"This relapse comes sooner or later. Usually it occurs 
while the student is still at the institution ; sometimes it hap- 
pens while he is packing his things to depart; occasionally it 
supervenes after he has returned to his former occupation and 
environment. It is very seldom that the relapse does not 
occur at all. And now it is indeed a difficult task for the 
stammerer to reconquer doubt. I remained at the insti- 
tution in question continuously for two and a half years, but 
in this entire time I never spoke as fluently again as at the end 
of the first six weeks. 1 

"One of the chief reasons for the relapse lies in the employ- 
ment of rhythmical speech, which mode of utterance it is 
really exceedingly difficult to follow. It was never difficult for 
me to observe silence. I know many pupils that fulfilled the 
requirements in this regard to the very letter ; but I know only 
one that observed rhythmical speech afterwards in life. . . . 
To silence one can accustom himself, but to rhythmical speech, 

However, the stammerer readily habituates him- 
self to the rhythmic bodily movements that are fre- 
quently prescribed for the "regulation" of metrical 
speech. Denhardt records an incident that may well 
be cited in this connection: 2 

"Count K. underwent as a boy a course of treatment with 
Professor Lewis, of Berlin. The professor's system was 
rhythmic speech, and the pupil had to accustom himself to 
regulating speech by the prescribed rhythmic movement of 

1 These first six weeks were observed as a period of silence. 
* "Das Stottern eine Psychose," p. 45. 


the foot. As this expedient soon lost its potency, he hit upon 
the device of intensifying the movements by walking forward 
two or three steps, and then executing as many steps backward. 
While performing this manoeuvre he would strengthen the 
rhythm by planting the regulating foot with unusual firmness; 
and all this, of course, he had to do with as little display as 
possible. When these elaborate preliminaries progressed to 
the first or second stamp of the foot, he could begin to enun- 

The writer has seen a number of stammerers 
that had been taught to beat time with the hand. 
The ultimate accomplishment of many of these 
subjects consisted in threshing the air while they 

The time-beating artifice is not so much a cure as 
an additional disease. In his "Autobiography of 
a Stutterer," Edgar S. Werner (who was editor of 
The Voice, a defunct journal published for stammerers) 
thus arraigns the method : l 

"The nearest I came to a treatment, up to 'this time, was a 
call upon an itinerant stutter-doctor, who showed the charlatan 
too plainly for my parents to be deceived. His 'method' was 
beating time at every syllable. This is not the place to consider 
this time-beating business, which was practised in France fifty 
years ago, was then taken up in Germany and in England, and 
only last year, I believe, was revealed ( ?) to Americans by Dio 
Lewis, who assured the afflicted that it was a sure remedy. 
It is nothing of the kind. Many stutterers would be made 
worse the more they practised it." 

1 The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 125. 


On such a subject, the opinion of so ingenuous and 
well-informed a writer as Werner is practically final. 

There is little indeed that can be said in favor of 
any form of rhythmic speech. Its introduction was, 
and its application always has been, purely empirical. 
The one poor, impotent, ex post facto argument that 
has been used to defend it, is that observance of rhythm 
divides the stammerer's attention. But it has never 
been shown that " division" of attention was a thing 
to be desired. And were it desirable, how long would 
the expedient effect the "division" ? Rhythmic 
speaking would soon become a habit, and would re- 
quire no more attention than speaking in an arrhyth- 
mic manner. The argument, even if it were valid, 
would make the expedient effectual only as a tem- 
porary measure. Probably the real explanation of 
the fact that slow, rhythmic speech possesses some 
slight efficacy, is that this mode of enunciation places 
a physical emphasis on the vowel, and therefore nec- 
essarily a mental emphasis on the auditory image. 
But this argument is itself a warning: it presages 
the eventual predicament of the stammerer a 
mental condition in which his verbal imagery is 
rhythmical and hideously distorted. 

Gesticulation is another expedient occasionally 
recommended for "dividing the stammerer's atten- 
tion," "withdrawing his attention from his impedi- 
ment," and so on. The various gestures are some- 


times called "opposing movements," and it is asserted 
of them that they oppose or "counterbalance the 
spasmodic tendency to stammer." 

This gesticulatory measure is probably a century 
old, for it was recommended by as early a writer as 
Serre d'Alais. 1 This investigator advised the stam- 
merer to execute downward movements of the arms 
at difficult syllables. Violette 2 advised the stam- 
merer to gesticulate before speaking. More recent 
writers have recommended gesticulation at every 
accented word in a sentence. 

A few of the specific gestures prescribed by teachers 
of stammerers are : nodding the head, throwing the 
head back with a jerk, snapping the fingers, pulling 
at a coat button, pressing the thumb against the chin 
or larynx, waving the hand, raising a handkerchief 
to the mouth, tapping with the foot, grasping and 
releasing the back of a chair, winking the eyes, 
fumbling a rolled newspaper, etc. 

"'Prof.' Grady's secret is that the human mind contains 
at the same time one thought and a half, and in the short space 
of two hours he teaches the stutterer to banish this half thought, 
which, according to St. Grady, is the sole cause of the defect. 
The means used to accomplish this end are jingling the watch- 
chain, striking the hips, and other similar 'natural and grace- 
ful movements.'"* 

1 "M6morial des hdpitaux du midi," 1829. 

2 "Etudes sur la parole et ses de"fauts," Paris, 1862. 
'Potter, "Speech and its Defects," p. 93. 


Many years ago Dr. Graves recommended an 
empirical measure, which is, unfortunately, encoun- 
tered even at the present day. Respecting the ex- 
pedient he says : l 

"I have recently discovered a method by which the most 
inveterate stutterer may be enabled to obtain utterance for his 
words with tolerable fluency. It is simply by compelling him 
to direct his attention to some object, so as to remove it from 
the effort he makes to speak. Thus, I direct him to hold a rule 
or a bit of stick in his right hand, and with it to strike the fore- 
finger of the left, in regular time with the words [apparently not 
the syllables] he is uttering ; the eye must be fixed, and all the 
attention directed to the finger he is striking, and the time 
must be strictly kept. This method I have tried in several 
instances with complete success, and Dr. Neligan informs me 
that, since I first mentioned it to him, he has found it com- 
pletely effectual in numerous cases. Although, of course, when 
thus employed, this plan can only be regarded as a means of 
affording temporary relief, I have no doubt, that if it were per- 
severingly followed out with young persons who stammer, both 
in reading and speaking, it would cure them permanently of 
the unpleasant affection." 

The employment of gestures and minor bodily 
movements is usually prescribed as a means of divert- 
ing the stammerer's attention from his impediment. 
But one writer, Dr. Findley, has recommended gestic- 
ulation for another purpose. The following citation 
presents his theory : 2 

'"Clinical Lectures," edited by Dr. Neligan; London, 1848. 
Quoted by Hunt, "Stammering and Stuttering," 7th ed., p. 159. 
"Stammering," The Voice, Vol. VII, pp. 73-74. 


"We can breathe with the ribs or with the diaphragm ; with 
the former on the principle of the bellows; with the latter on 
the principle of the piston. In the former case in inspiration, 
the ribs, by their appropriate muscles, are rolled upward and 
outward, enlarging the circumference of the chest; in eapira- 
tion they return to their former position, partly by their own 
elasticity and in part drawn down by the abdominal muscles. 
In the latter case, we may breathe with the diaphragm alone ; 
the muscle which separates the cavity of the chest from that of 
the abdomen is attached to the cartilaginous extremity of the 
ribs, and, when relaxed, is forced, by the action of the abdom- 
inal muscles high up into the cavity of the chest. When it 
contracts, it draws straight across the bottom of the chest, 
forming a vacuum in the lower part of the chest, into which the 
air rushes; again relaxing, the abdominal muscles force it up 
into the chest, driving the air before it. In ordinary breathing 
we combine these methods. 

" In making sound, we expel the air from the lungs upon a 
different principle; the diaphragm, instead of relaxing as in 
breathing, contracts, and, by diminishing the circumference of 
the chest, expels the air as completely from the lungs as in the 
other method ; in the one, the diaphragm in expiration is pas- 
sive, in the other it is active. Both in breathing and in mak- 
ing sound, we inspire by contracting the diaphragm, thus caus- 
ing a vacuum in the bottom of the chest ; but we expire upon 
a different principle. In ordinary breathing the diaphragm 
relaxes, and the abdominal muscles force it up into the chest, 
driving the air before it. In making sounds, it continues to 
contract, and expels the air by diminishing the circumference 
of the chest. This action of the diaphragm is the normal mode 
of making sound ; it is not necessary to the production of sound, 
but is necessary to full, clear, far-reaching sound. Many 
persons talk habitually with the diaphragm relaxed, but the 


voice is comparatively feeble and unsteady, and the effort is 
very exhausting. When calm and unexcited, I can talk with 
the diaphragm relaxed, but the voice cannot be heard half so 
far, nor kept up half so long, and in hurried conversation the 
tongue will be tripping continually. When the vital energy is 
feeble, this muscle is slow to change from the action of breath- 
ing to the action of sound, and acts feebly ; and, in passing over 
the consonantal sounds, relaxes, and, when it relaxes, the vocal 
cords unkey, and the muscles of articulation and breathing play 
spasmodically. . . . 

"More than fifty years of my life had passed before my atten- 
tion was turned to these two principles : the different action 
of the diaphragm, in breathing and in making sound, and the 
fact that by gesture we can compel the diaphragm to take on 
the same mode of action that is necessary for effective speech. 
Until then my social intercourse was always liable to great em- 
barrassment ; and, on great emergencies, I have been subjected 
to severe mortification by trivial circumstances, such as the loss 
of a night's rest, an indigestible meal, or some trifling embar- 
rassment. Since I have made this discovery, it never obtrudes 
itself upon my domestic circle, and gives me very little trouble 
anywhere or under any circumstances. Reading aloud, while 
reclining on a lounge, with my hand resting on the stomach, I 
was surprised at finding the air was expelled from the lungs, in 
a way different from anything I had ever thought or heard of, 
viz., by the contraction instead of the relaxation of the dia- 
phragm. This surprise was increased by finding that this 
mode of breathing was closely connected with the difficulty of 
utterance, and that whenever I made an ineffectual effort to 
pronounce a word the air was escaping as in ordinary breathing. 
When in good health I could control the action of the diaphragm 
by volition. This, however, did not aid me much in talking; 
and it was not until my attention was attracted to the fact, that 


by gesture we compel this muscle to act in the way that is nec- 
essary for producing perfect sound, that I could control the 
difficulty so as to converse tolerably under all circumstances." l 

Dr. Findley's theory concerning the action of the 
diaphragm is at variance with the commonly ac- 
cepted view. The theory in itself seems a little 
inconsistent. If, during expiration, the diaphragm 
is performing its secondary contraction (i.e. is dimin- 
ishing its diameter), then it cannot arch itself till 
inspiration occurs. But during inspiration Dr. Find- 
ley has the primary contraction going on 2 (i.e. the 
diaphragm is flattening), and the arching movement 
is in no way accounted for. But in any case, the 
precise connection between gesticulation and dia- 
phragmatic action is somewhat obscure. And if the 
connection were more patent, it would still be neces- 
sary to demonstrate a causal relation between speech- 
disturbances and indiscipline of the diaphragm. 
Thus the evidence in support of gesture is not very 

The older argument, that gesture diverts the 
speaker's attention from his impediment, may have 
some weight. But this would scarcely make gesture 

1 A third argument in favor of gesture is presented by Rouma 
("La parole et les troubles de la parole," pp. 106 ff.), who holds that 
cerebral activity overflows from the arm-centres to the speech-centres. 

2 " Both in breathing and in making sound, we inspire by contract- 
ing the diaphragm." 


a universal and unfailing remedy for stammering. 
Gesture, per se, however, has nothing to con- 
demn it. 

Concerning the various automatisms fumbling 
buttons, jingling watch-chains, and so on it is in- 
teresting to note that the average teacher of stam- 
merers endeavors to suppress them rather than foster 

"If the pupil has a tendency to rock his foot or twiddle his 
fingers, I try to arouse his sense of manhood and self-mastery 
to the cessation of such actions." 

The cultivation of automatisms is certainly futile. 
The same arguments are made for them as for ges- 
ture, and (assuming the arguments to be conceded) 
gesture is unquestionably to be preferred. But while 
it is futile to foster automatisms, it does not neces- 
sarily follow that there is justification for their de- 
liberate repression. Automatisms in mature persons 
are usually indicative of a nervous condition, but 
this condition is not removed by enlisting brute-will 
to inhibit symptomatic reactions. 

We shall consider now an expedient of some his- 
torical interest. This is the so-called "Leigh method," 
which was a canard nearly a century ago. The method 
consists in keeping the point of the tongue in contact 
with, or near, the palate during speech. 

The exact origin of the method is a little obscure. - 


Mrs. Leigh, an Englishwoman, was governess to the 
daughter of Dr. Yates, of Albany, New York. The 
doctor's daughter stammered, and Mrs. Leigh applied 
her notorious "method" to combat the impediment. 
One version has it that Dr. Yates invented the method, 
and imparted it to Mrs. Leigh in the interests of his 
daughter; and that he subsequently appointed the 
governess as the head of a stammering-school. The 
other version has it that Mrs. Leigh herself con- 
tributed the method, and that Dr. Yates assumed 
credit for its invention. According to the latter ver- 
sion, Dr. Yates had no connection with Mrs. Leigh's 
The former version is upheld by Dr. Warren : 

" The inventor of Mrs. Leigh's system, Dr. Christopher C. 
Yates, of New York, a medical gentleman of high talents and 
very strong natural powers, had a daughter afflicted with 
stammering. After attentive observation and a long study of 
her case, he succeeded in hitting upon a method which effected 
a cure. This method he imparted to the young lady's in- 
structress, Mrs. Leigh, an Englishwoman, in order that it might 
be pursued during school-hours. 

"The inventor soon determined to extend its benefits to 
others. Finding Mrs. Leigh enter into the scheme with 
zeal and ability, he placed her at the head of the institution; 
and, fearful of the reproach of empiricism, he chose that it 
should pass under her name." l 

1 "Remarks on Stammering," American Journal of Medical Science, 
Boston, 1837. Quoted by The Voice, Vol. IV, p. 96. 


The version of Bansmann l and Zitterland is that 
the deceased husband of Mrs. Leigh had been a stam- 
merer, and that through this circumstance Mrs. 
Leigh had come by her knowledge of the remedy 
she employed. At any rate, the "Leigh method" 
seems to have been identical with that plied by Bros- 
ter in England, and invented by him (according to his 
own version) shortly after the year 1800. Relative to 
this matter the following paragraph by Dr. Julius 
is of interest : 

"It will be known to some of our readers that Mr. Broster, 
now of London, and formerly of Liverpool and earlier of Edin- 
burgh, has for some years conducted a very successful stammer- 
ing-school. His method, concerning which the pupils are 
bound to secrecy, probably consists in some trick to be applied 
during speech. Either the method is successful in a few days 
(as is usually the case) or it fails altogether. Mr. Broster 
is said to have learned the method from a poor man in Edin- 
burgh. This method has been transplanted from Liverpool 
to New York."' 

Neither Mrs. Leigh nor Dr. Yates has left a writ- 
ten record of the system they employed; hence 
only indirect accounts of the method are available. 
The secret of the system was, however, bought by 

1 See Otto, " Das Geheimniss Stotternde und Stammelnde zu 
Heflen," Halle, 1832. 

* Magazin der ausl&nd. Lileratur der gcsammten Heilkunde von 
Gerson und Julius, Vol. XV, p. 93. Quoted by Hasse, "Das Stot- 
tern," Berlin, 1846. 


M. Malebouche, of Paris. Later, through the interven- 
tion of Mr. Cox-Barnet, American consul at Paris, 
M. Malebouche purchased his release from his pledge 
of secrecy. He thereupon communicated the method 
to the Academic des Sciences (1827), and had the sys- 
tem described by M. Magendie in the latter's article 
"Begaiement," in the Dictionnaire de Medecine et de 
Chirurgie. Later Malebouche himself published an 
article on the subject in the Dictionnaire de la Con- 
versation et de la Lecture, and finally wrote his " Precis 
sur les Causes du Begaiement et sur les Moyen de le 

All of this may seem irrelevant, but we are dealing 
again with a method that has numerous modern 
inventors, and that threatens (in America at least) 
to come once more into prominence. 

Concerning the Leigh theory, Malebouche says : * 

"The observations giving rise to the method were as fol- 
lows : Persons that speak fluently have the tongue constantly 
applied to the palatine arch; stammerers, on the contrary, 
have the tongue continually in the lower part of the mouth. 
The stammerer must therefore execute two movements in order 
to articulate one to raise the tongue and close the outlet for 
the elementary sound, and the other to modify this sound. 
Herein the stammerer resembles a flutist that neglects to place 
his fingers on the stops while playing his instrument the modi- 
fying movements do not correspond to those necessary for 
the production of the elementary sounds. These facts have 

1 "Pr6cis sur les causes du b6gaiement," pp. 10 f. 


given rise to a system of exercises to train the stammerer to 
keep the tongue always in the region of the palate." 

Haase gives the following summary of the Leigh 
method and theory : l 

"Madam Leigh observed that with stammerers the tongue 
lies deep in the mouth when the speech-defect is in evidence; 
whereas with normal-speaking persons the point of the tongue 
remains in contact with the hard palate. She therefore con- 
cluded that the speech-defect would disappear if the stammerer 
persistently raised the point of the tongue and pressed it 
against the palate. She required those afflicted to move the 
point of the tongue upward and backward, and to thrust the 
tongue rapidly from this rearward position far out of the 
mouth, then immediately to withdraw it. These movements 
were performed six or a dozen times, and the exercise was 
repeated at frequent intervals till the required dexterity was 
obtained. The fraenum was pulled and manipulated while 
the tongue was held in an elevated position. Mrs. Leigh 
further directed that the tongue should at all times be kept 
in contact with the front part of the hard palate or the 
upper gums. This rule was to be observed even when the 
pupil was not conversing. At night a roll of wet linen was 
kept under the tongue to prevent it from sinking to its low posi- 

Frau Hagemann and a number of other European 
teachers employed the Leigh method. We quote 
Frau Hagemann: 2 

^'DasStottern," p. 84. 

*"Die Untriigliche Heilung des Stotter- und Stammel-Uebels," 
pp. 12 f. and pp. 1 6 f. 


"Investigation has revealed the fact that the stammerer's 
tongue is usually (and especially when he is not engaged in 
speech) far removed from the position it occupies with normal- 
speaking persons: the tongue lies in the lower part of the 
mouth, in the lower jaw, in fact. The result is that the tongue- 
ligaments (Zungenb&nder) l gradually become relaxed, so that 
the tongue often fails to perform its function. . . . 

"The remedy in its entire simplicity but splendid efficacy 
is this : Always to keep the point of the tongue directed toward 
the upper part of the mouth and in contact with the palate; 
and during silence to keep the whole tongue to the palate with 
the point in contact with the upper incisors, or better still, in 
contact with their roots. The point of the tongue must never 
leave this position. 2 To explain better the normal position of 
the tongue, one might say that it occupies the position required 
for swallowing saliva." 

The foregoing paragraphs should make plain the 
nature of the expedient. 

The procedure has been somewhat modified by 
different teachers. According to Colombat : 8 

" Malebouche modified the American method by requiring 
the stammerer to apply the entire upper surface of the tongue to 

1 Probably meaning Zungenband (fraenuni). 

1 If the point of the tongue were not to leave the palate, the speaker 
would be unable to pronounce the linguals. The author is apparently 
striving for emphasis. The version of Malebouche, Haase, and most 
other writers is that the stammerer must keep the tongue to the palate 
"in imitation of the normal speaker." The tongue must start from 
the palate, and manoeuvre in the upper part of the mouth. 

"Orthophonie, oder Physiologic und Therapie des Stotterns," 
p. 51- 


the palate instead of merely the tip, as advised by Mrs. 

Colombat's recommendation was that at the begin- 
ning of treatment the pupil should pronounce difficult 
words with the under surface of the tongue applied 
to the soft palate a short distance in front of the 
uvula. A few modern teachers recommend the use 
of the under surface of the tongue (though in a 
more anterior position) for the lingual consonants. 

After noting these modifications it will be interest- 
ing to observe that a few investigators have recom- 
mended a low or central, rather than a high, position 
of the tongue : 

"Now, I know (though I have not seen it) that your tongue 
flies about in your mouth. It did in mine: it always does, 
because it is trying to do the work which the lips should do. 
So get into the habit of determinately keeping it down. You 
will find it easy enough after a while. But at first, when you 
speak and read, always be sure that you can feel your lower 
teeth against the tip of your tongue." l 

A second writer agrees: 

"The tongue, that unruly member, which flies about so 
wildly in the mouths of stammerers, must be kept in control, 
and, as Canon Kingsley justly remarks, must be kept low down 
in the mouth, touching the front teeth ; but yet, when we wish 
to join any of the consonants, except the true labials, it must 
perforce be called into requisition." 

1 "Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol. 
II, p. 261. 


A third writer disagrees: 

"The tongue should never, in speech, be protruded between 
the teeth ; it should never touch the lower teeth ; it should never 
be pointed downwards to the bed of the jaw ; it should never 
be thrust up in the palatal arch, as in the act of sucking ; nor 
should the point of the tongue in any action deviate from the 
centre of the mouth." 

Here the stammerer has quite a choice of expedients. 
However, he would doubtless do well to ignore them 
all, and pay no particular attention to lingual position. 

It is remarkable that such an expedient as the 
"Leigh method" should ever have received serious 
consideration. The method is a procedure without 
a purpose. Dr. Miiller justly characterized it (shortly 
after it was introduced) as "a blind groping in the 
dark, in which neither teacher nor pupil knows what 
he is about." x The whole thing is so utterly aim- 
less that one cannot even undertake a systematic 
criticism. Malebouche, who seems to have paid more 
attention to labial action than lingual position, 
himself admits that any number of people (une 
infinite de personnes) carry the tongue in a low posi- 
tion, but do not stammer. 2 He further states that 
with stammerers "this difficulty in carrying the 
tongue to the palate does not exist : they can carry 
the tongue there whenever they will." 3 

1 "Handbuch der Physiologic," Vol. II, p. 243. 

1 "Pr6cis sur les causes du bSgaiement," p. n. * Loc. cit., p. 15. 


The facts seem to be that a "low tongue" is no 
commoner among stammerers than among normal- 
speaking persons. Under these circumstances it is 
difficult to understand what the recommended pro- 
cedure was intended to accomplish. The few cures 
effected and there are always cures, however bad the 
method must have been largely due to the removal 
of fear and inhibitive auto-suggestion. 1 Further, most 
teachers that employed the method made use of vari- 
ous accessory measures that were decidedly rational, 
and these measures undoubtedly benefited the stam- 
merer. The tongue-exercises may have established 
clearer kinaesthetic images of lingual movements, 
and may thus have facilitated vowel-production. 
The attention paid to respiration would, of course, 
combat certain vicious forms of physical stammering ; 
and "continuity of sound" (thought) which even 
Mrs. Leigh seems to have enjoined would exert 
its usual beneficial influence. These measures would 
account for what few cures were effected, and 
thus explain the brief popularity that the system 

1 Thus Frau Hagemann in 1845 : "Sometimes the cure is instanta- 
neous, for the difficulty is largely one of suggestion (Einbildung), and 
when the stammerer finds himself at once free from his impediment, 
he becomes convinced that what was formerly regarded as an organic 
defect or an inexplicable affliction was nothing more than a bad 
habit." ("Die Untrligliche Heilung des Stotter- und Stammel- 
Uebels," p. 20.) 


Little need be said of the modification of the "Leigh 
method." What has been said of the method itself 
can also be applied to its variants. 

The practice of keeping the tongue in a low or 
central position has not been recommended as a pan- 
acea for stammering, but rather as a mode of com- 
portment; hence further comment regarding these 
measures may be omitted. 

The Broster -Leigh- Yates - Malebouche-Hagemann 
method persists despite its antiquity and futility 
in bobbing up as somebody's original and infallible 
discovery. The method is employed by an American 
stutter-doctor as "The one cure for stammerers 
entirely new perfectly sure : the only scientific, natu- 
ral, perfect, permanent remedy for stammering, stut- 
tering, lisping, tongue-tied talk, and all impediments 
of perfect speech." 

"Matchless comfort [exclaims the "doctor"], that we in- 
telligently and conscientiously rest in the assurance, born of 
ample experience and the actual handling of all phases of 
speech defects, that no case is beyond the reach of our skill, 
which we do sacredly esteem a gift from God for earth's af- 
flicted ones. How great the privilege and how sweet the re- 
ward" . . . et cetera, et cetera. 

The "doctor" has recently written a book on the 
system. By way of recreation we may as well re- 
view it. The book is printed in head-line type, and 


sells for ten dollars. In a circular the author tells 
about it : 

"The Secrets of the method of Curing Stammering 

and other Speech Defects, told at last. . . . 

"The ONLY SYSTEM that removes THE CAUSE and 
really CURES, now perfected, and given out in this Book that 
puts a big NOTCH in the First Quarter of this Century of 

"This Book actually carries EIGHT DISTINCT DISCOV- 
ERIES, wrought into a System that is at once Scientific and 
Practical; for FORTY YEARS, TRIED-OUT in every par- 
ticular. Here are its discoveries: The Regulating Principle 
of Right Speech: the ONE CAUSE of ALL SPEECH DE- 
FECTS ; how to remove the CAUSE and give perfect speech; 
a New and Improved System of Phonetics ; how to give speech 
to Paralyzed Tongues; how to change the Tone and Quality 
of the Voice from Guttural or Palatal or Nasal, to silvery 
sweetness; how to alter the Brogue of any Foreigner to pure 

English ; how to use the Method in teaching the Deaf- 

and-Dumb to talk. 

"All these discoveries are woven into a Web of Beauty in 
this Book on the True Philosophy of Speech. It is a Text- 
book, a Drill book, a Self-teaching System and a Sovereign 
Remedy for all the defects of speech it explains, all in one. 

"With this Book, Mothers can stop the FIRST BEGIN- 
NINGS of all kinds of speech troubles and CORRECT ANY 
UGLY SPEECH HABIT that may be contracted by their 
children. Knowing the CAUSE and CURE as plainly re- 
vealed and expounded in this Home Instructor, mothers can 
all thought." 


The author continues : 

"When this book goes forth, its secrets are no longer his. 
When the First Edition is sold, he will count himself paid for 
his property, so far as Dollars go, and henceforth he will help 
any who buy the Book to qualify as Teachers of the System. 
There's room for Thousands and there are Millions of money 
in it." 

Let the reader note the full significance of this last 
paragraph, and picture to himself the unlimited man- 
baiting in which these new slot-machine stutter- 
doctors would indulge. 

But to the book! On the title-page we read : 


Among other persons, the book is dedicated 

" To Mothers, who, in a serious sense of their responsibili- 
ties, would love to qualify themselves to prevent and cure, in 
their own dear children, any defect of speech that may in- 
trude itself among them, to hinder their education and keep 
them back in life. With this book in the Home, Mothers will 
be able to ' nip in the bud ' every rising impediment ready 
with club in hand to kill the little snakes before they grow to 
be big 'rattlers.' " 

The Method can be applied to all classes of defects 
and infirmities to stammering, lisping, " tongue-tied 
talking," " baby-talking," paralyzed tongues, hare-lip 


and cleft-palate speech, dumbness, and the "brogue 
of foreigners." All for ten dollars ! 
And the great secret principle is this : 

" i. Right speech is the result of the coordination of two 
distinct, but related movements the vocal movement and 
the organ movement. 

"2. The Tongue is the special Agent or Instrument of this 
essential coordination. 

"3. The Tongue is qualified to act in this essential capacity 
by being rightly located, carried always in the roof of the mouth, 
the end resting on the upper gum-ridges, which should always 
be thought of as the TALK-PLACE for the Tongue. 

" 4. The Tongue being thus rightly located, secures this 
coordinate movement of the other organs and the voice, by 
taking the Initiative in speech, which it does by moving off 
from its place of rest and carriage, on the Upper Gums. 

" 5. This start for speech made by the Tongue, by this 
movement from its place of rest and carriage, signals to all the 
senses and instincts that control both the organs and the voice, 
when to move for speech. 

" 6. It is hi this way that the other organs of speech 
and the voice are moved to follow the lead of the Tongue, 
all harmonizing in perfect speech. 

"7. The Tongue is thus seen to be the main organ of speech, 
the one that rules, but the throne from which it rules is the right, 
natural high location, before described. 

" 8. And thus it develops that the Regulating Principle in 
Right Speech is this : The Tongue makes the start for speech by 
moving off from its high place of carriage on the Upper Gums. 
This indicates the time of the utterance. The Tongue, in this 
manner, ringing the bell or sounding the gong, as it were, calls the 
organs and voice into play, and all blend into easy, graceful utter- 


" 9. It follows, also, that if the Tongue by any means for- 
sakes this right high carriage-place, and habitually beds in 
the bottom of the mouth, it is, thereby, disqualified for leader- 
ship, being in the wrong place to take the initiative in speech; 
and there is consequent confusion and a lack of that coordina- 
tion of organs and voice that is exhibited and illustrated in 
perfect speech. 

" 10. And, therefore' it is clear to demonstration, that a 
dislocated Tongue, a tongue carried low instead of high, in the 
bottom of the mouth instead of in its roof-story, is the ONE 
CAUSE of all speech-defects. Yes, of them all. . . . 

" But whatever the phase or degree of the impediment, the 
essential feature of the remedy, for one and all, is, To get the 
tongue up out of the bottom of the mouth. Other things may 
be needed to tone and sweeten and train the voice, but the one 
essential requirement for the correction of all classes of imped- 
iments is To locate the tongue aright, and to educate it to 
right use from that right location. And this is but to restore 
Nature. Every right born human begins life with his tongue 
up, sucked up into the roof of the mouth. And, therefore, 
stammerers and all other defective talkers have simply lapsed 
from Nature. The first thing to be done, therefore, and the 
main thing, is to take them back to Nature." 

This principle " enables careful stammerers, that are not of 
the ' Helpless class,' to avoid stammering, almost from the 
first lesson certainly as soon as they can perfectly say the 
letters of the Alphabet, End-tongue, that is, as the tongue 
begins its movement from its place on the gums. This is 
something great." 

" Carrying the tongue up is nature. It is what every good 
talker does. It is what every natural-born child comes into 
the world doing, in pure instinct. It is philosophy. It is science. 
It is sense. . 


" All the stammerers that have ever made good talkers, 
from old Demosthenes, who put pebbles under his tongue, 
to the bright Western Horse-woman that cured herself by 
clucking to her saddle-horse and popping her tongue loose 
from the palate of her mouth, after sucking it up all took 
the same route you are travelling, consciously or unconsciously, 
purposely or accidentally. THERE IS NO OTHER WAY." 

The following exercises help to keep the tongue at 
the Talk-place : 

" i. Suck the Tongue up holding the End to its place on 
the Upper Gums, suck the whole of it up against the palate. 

"2. Suck it up, as before, and Pop it loose, repeatedly. 

"3. Suck it up, and then close the mouth, keeping the Tongue 
in place. 

" 4. The Act of Swallowing Hits the Tongue to place, pre- 

"5. Placing the Tongue aright, open and close the mouth, 
without moving the Tongue from place. 

" 6. Practice the Horse-Cluck, sucking the Tongue up and 
Clucking out at the side of the Tongue, as you would cluck to 
a horse. 

"7. Establish the habit of Sleeping with the Tongue Up, 
lying on the Right Side and Keeping the Mouth Shut. If 
necessary, tie a Knotted towel about the waist, Knots at the 
back ; and a bandage under the chin and over the top of the 

" 8. Constancy of Attention to the Carriage of the Tongue 
is Indispensable. Count the Bottom of the Mouth Forbidden 
Ground for the Tongue. 

" 9. Adopt as the Motto for the Tongue : UP, ALL UP, 


Other interesting diversions are "End- tongue Word- 
ing" and "Side-tongue Wording." In "End-tongue 
Wording" you say "ta" before lots of words. In 
"Side- tongue Wording " you say "ya" instead: 

" Say ' ya, ya, ya,' repeatedly, pressing the Tongue hard to 

" Put ' ya ' before the letters of the Alphabet, holding the 
' ya ' before sounding the letter, to allow time for pressing the 
Tongue to place. 

" Read whole pages in a reader suited to the advancement of 
the student, placing ' ya ' before each word, holding the ' ya ' 
as before. 

" Next, Side-tongue Word, page after page, holding the 
Tongue in the ya-place, but not saying ' ya.' " 

As an advanced exercise the student may place " the 
best of all Double Syllables, which is 'ya-ta' before 
each word ; sounding the word quickly after 'ya-ta.' " 

" Any careful person could cure himself simply by repeating 
' ya-ta ' ; for it requires the essential double-action of the tongue. 

" Read whole pages fluently along, Side-Tongue, without any 
prefix; slowly at first, and, then, faster and faster. Avoid 
all effort. See how easy. Here is where we reach Natural 
Fluency. . . . 

" End-tongue utterance is nature. . . . 

" Side-tongue utterance is nature. All good talkers not 
only use their tongues like bell-clappers tapping on the gums 
in the ta-touch, but they carry them in speech spread out from 
side-to-side, in touch on both sides with the upper side jaw 
teeth, in what has been described as the ya-carriage. . . . The 
ya-carriage makes the ta-tap easy." 


The Method, as already stated, cures other ills 
besides stammering. As regards lisping and " tongue- 
tied talking " : 

" These have been classed with stammering, because, while 
illustrating different degrees of lowness as to tongue-carriage, 
the remedy is the same get the tongue up and use it from up 
instead of from down." 

Baby-talking " indicates that the tongue was heavily down 
in the earlier years of childhood, so that sounds could not be 
successfully imitated, in the usual way that children learn to 
talk. Hence, some one or more of the elemental sounds were 
never said. . . . 

" The Tongue must be restored to its right Carriage-place 
hi the roof of the mouth, the end resting on the upper gums. . . . 

" The other essential is Right Phonetical Instruction and 

Any difficulty with sibilants is removed if one 
keeps the tongue from "punching" the front of 
the mouth. 

" Cleft-palate always, and Harelip, not infrequently, causes 
broken speech. In the case of the former, the tongue will not 
rest in the chasm or opening above, and, hence, drops from its 
right high carriage to the bottom of the mouth." 

It is desirable to have "rents and leaks" closed by 
a silver-palate or through a surgical operation, 

" But none of these devices are absolutely necessary to the 

perfection of speech. With the fissure uncovered, more and 

longer work will be needed to attain the same results ; but the 

- Method compasses the difficulties presented by the 


open palate and confers perfect speech, despite the disadvan- 

The patient may obtain "sweet, silvery, musical speech, 
one of the supreme accomplishments and distinctions of the 
method embalmed in these pages." 

And now the method is ready for another errand of 
mercy. Paralyzed tongues lie prostrate in the bed 
of the mouth. 

" This must be received as an impressive confirmation of 

the ground-theory of Philosophy, namely, that the 

dislocation of the tongue from the top to the bottom of the 
mouth, is the direct CAUSE of all defects of speech." 

The cure is easy. The paralytic just puts the 
tongue up, using his "hidden powers." If this fails, 
he wears a Dental Plug to raise the tongue. He then 
reads by day and continues to wear the plug by night. 
After some time, if the plug has not been swallowed, 
and thus by great good fortune the patient is still 
available, the instrument is removed. The tongue 
may then " take the hint, so to speak, and finding its 
right place and use, will get back to the old feeling 
of 'being back home' and, if so, natural muscular 
energy and natural suction may be relied on, jointly, 
to do the rest." 

And though all this fail, we need not despair. The 
problem admits of solution: 

" Substituting the upper teeth for the upper gums, and the 
body of the tongue for the end of it, the upper teeth can be drawn 


backward and inward, and down on the tongue, as it lies pros- 
trate on the bed of the mouth, the tongue rolling up somewhat 
by prizing against the front teeth, and in this manner the 
essential contact between the tongue and upper jaw can be 

The author admits that speech thus obtained is 
"nothing to look at." But the motto of the Method 
is "Something for all that are afflicted in speech," and 
" the Method glorifies itself in conferring speech upon 
paralyzed tongues." 

Foreigners with "brogue-blemished" and "dialect- 
marred" speech, and native Americans that "flare 
the controlling vowel sounds" must carry the tongue 
a "little above normal height," and must be taken 
through a course of phonetics. Foreigners thus 
acquire "Linguistic Naturalization," and thence may 
aspire to "places of prominence in business or in 
religious and social life." Renegade Americans ap- 
parently receive absolution and remission of sins. 

In regard to deaf-mutes 

" It has been commonly supposed that the want of hearing 
is the sole cause of their speechlessness. But this cannot be 
true." The deaf-and-dumb carry a low tongue, and " causa- 
tively considered, this shares with deafness the blame for 
dumbness." These unfortunate persons must also carry a high 
tongue and study phonetics. Tongue-speech will then be ac- 
quired. " This will not come with the next breath, to be sure, 
but it will be realized in ' the happy time- to-come,' near or far, 
nearer or farther, according to several things." 


Our author devotes a chapter to inveighing against 
"false and fakish" and "mongrel" methods. He de- 
plores the fact that "just anybody will do for a 'Pro- 
fessor' or 'Principal.'" His judgment is that "Brass, 
more than brains, qualifies," in which opinion the 
reader will doubtless concur. He says that so-called 
"Cures for Stammering" are tricks and devices for 
"deceiving the incredulous "( !), and holds that they 
should not be classed with the Only Method. "All 
other methods," he declares, "are but schemes of 

And now the peroration : 

" It is the Author's fond hope and confident belief, that in 
this Manual he has but laid well and deep the solid foundation 
for a structure of imposing magnificence, in the coming years, 
after others shall have contributed their thought and labor and 
skill, to a Department of popular and polite education, that, 
hitherto, has been shamefully, if not, exclusively, in the hands, 
and under the tutelage, of quacklets and charlatans. 

" The revelations that go out with the issuance of this 
novel Monograph will set men to thinking in right lines, about 
the Physiology and Psychology and Pathology and Practical 
Execution of Speech. The thousand and one guesses as to the 
CAUSE of stammering and other imperfections of speech will 
give way to the ONE CAUSE of all, as it has been proven and 
given out in the foregoing pages. 

" Spurious methods have had their day. 

" This Book dates the birth of a New Science and a New Art, 
and bequeaths to the Schools and Colleges and Universities of 
our Country, first, and of the whole World, in the near future, 
a New and Needed Department of Education. 


" Moreover, unpretentious as it may appear, this Book is 
destined to draw the eyes of the world to a New Field for the 
exploits of Statesmanship and the exercise and gratification of 
Christian Beneficence." 

Our author is undoubtedly ingenuous, for he tells 
us that he " humbly and honestly craves to yield his 
life in an unselfish ministry to God and his fellow men." 
We can proceed, then, to a commentary on the views 
he expresses. In the first place, it is evident that 
the "doctor" is selling us nothing new. He is dis- 
pensing the Broster-Leigh-Etc. "method" without 
modification. He does not explain how the par- 
ticular artifice is to inhibit stammering. When he 
speaks of causes he usually resorts to allegory. The 
tongue must "rule" from its "throne" in the "roof- 
story"; otherwise it is "disqualified for leadership." 
It must "ring the bell" or "sound the gong" to call 
the "organs and voice into play." 

One hardly knows how to regard this kind of argu- 
ment; and when he remembers that the book pro- 
fesses to be scientific, he is almost led to conclude that 
his intelligence has been impugned. The tongue 
"rings the bell" and calls the " voice into play." But 
what of sonant consonants, in which the voice pre- 
cedes articulation? The matter is difficult to com- 
prehend. The author himself is befogged at times, 
and resorts to the plea that "every science has its 
mystery," and that his Science is no exception. 


At times he is even discouraging. He mentions a 
"Helpless Class," which seems to be a sort of skeleton 
in the closet. He says, too, in reference to the cure, 
that "it is vulgar and contemptible, to be asking, 
'How much time will it take?" But elsewhere he 
tells us that to effect a cure the Method takes "hours 
. . . days, weeks, months or years, according to the 
degree of responsiveness of the organs and the degree 
of attention given to it." Year si Now we are com- 
ing to it. The number of years is undoubtedly 
directly dependent upon the pupil's longevity. 

We need scarcely comment upon the efficacy of the 
"high carriage" and the "ta-tap" as remedies for 
hare-lip and dumbness. Here we may be dealing 
with a joker. And perhaps the whole thing is nothing 
but ajeu d' esprit, a culminating hoax in celebration of 
the centenary of the Leigh method. But if we fail 
to see the point, we may at least feel relieved when the 
author admits that he has "embalmed" the Method 
in his pages. 

We turn now from one of the poorest expedients ever 
introduced into the therapy of stammering to one that 
is undoubtedly among the best. This measure, which 
is effective chiefly as a preventive of physical stam- 
mering, is physical relaxation and suppression of 
physical effort. This particular remedy is em- 
bodied in practically every system of treatment that 
possesses merit. 


Physical relaxation has long been employed in the 
therapy of stammering. Thus Hofmann, who wrote 
in 1840 : 1 

"The patient must use no muscular effort in the throat, 
tongue, or lips. Further, he must avoid working other parts 
of the body, such as the arms, feet, etc. All of this simply 
aggravates the trouble, while it seldom affords even temporary 
relief. Its tendency is to check immediately the respiratory 
and vocal stream. The utmost relaxation of the body must 
prevail during speech, for effort necessarily impairs the atten- 
tion, which both in speaking and reading should be directed 
to the voice. Effort, therefore, confuses the senses, induces 
hurry, and brings speech into execution before thought is 
prepared : in this way it occasions stammering." 

Relaxation is employed in a majority of present- 
day stammering-schools. The oft-repeated injunction 
is, " Use no effort," " Devitalize the muscles of speech," 
"Relax the muscles of the throat," "Sigh the word 
out," "Talk with indifference," etc. 

In a few institutions relaxation-exercises are em- 
ployed. They are typically as follows : 


Sit or recline in a comfortable chair. 

1. Relax the muscles of the body. 

2. Contract the muscles of the arms : keep them contracted 
for several seconds. Relax them for an equal period. Con- 
tract them ; relax them ; etc. 

1 "Theoritisch-praktische Anweisung zur Radical-Heilung Stot- 
ternder," pp. 25 f. 


3. Contract and relax the muscles of the right arm in the 
manner described in the former exercise. 

4. Similarly with the left arm. 

5. Contract and relax the muscles of both legs. 

6. Of the right leg. 

7. Of the left leg. 

8. As far as possible, contract all the muscles of the body. 
Relax them ; contract them. Rest with the muscles relaxed 
for several minutes. Rest in this manner at frequent intervals 
during the exercises. 

9. Relax the muscles of the neck and allow the head to 
sink upon the chest. Raise the head and strongly contract 
the muscles of the neck. Gradually relax the muscles and 
allow the head to sink. Etc., etc. 

10. Relax the muscles of the neck and allow the head to 
sink to the right. Raise the head and allow it to sink to the 
left. Etc., etc. 

11. Raise the head with the least expenditure of energy. 
Repeat the vowels and perform simple vocal exercises. Use 
the least possible effort. 

12. Repeat the alphabet, speaking in a listless and non- 
chalant manner. 

Etc., etc. 

These exercises doubtless have merit ; but the real 
value of relaxation lies in applicability to speech, and 
its ability, when applied during speech, to eliminate 
physical stammering. 

Dr. L. Sandow has developed the principle of 
relaxation as a system in itself. 1 His ideas are so 
original and interesting that they well repay con- 

1 " Mechanik des Stotterns." 


sideration. His theory is that the young child 
vocalizes and articulates only when stimulated by 
feelings of ease and physical comfort (Behagen). 
This physical comfort and relaxation must be culti- 
vated by the stammerer, since it is the condition 
naturally favorable to speech, and is moreover favor- 
able to the recovery of injured speech-nerves and the 
presumably injured motor speech-centre of the brain. 
The following excerpts express Dr. Sandow's ideas. 
They are taken from his excellent little work, "Me- 
chanik des Stotterns." 

"In his cosy little bed the child feels extreme physical com- 
fort. Under these conditions his attention is confined to the 
world of feeling; and when the physical well-being reaches 
its highest point, the nerves and muscles rendered excitable 
by inheritance from preceding generations produce re- 
sponsive movements in an unconscious and almost reflex man- 
ner. The child produces a speech-sound, an abu, for instance ; 
and this he probably utters a second and a third time. After 
a while the child turns his attention to the pleasing sound; 
that is, his attention turns from the world of feeling to the 
world of hearing. When the sound has fallen upon his ears, 
his attention is again attracted by the warmth of his bed to the 
world of feeling. Once more the sound is produced ; once more 
the child listens, and so on. If the child is reminded of the 
sound at some later time, it is not necessary for the physical 
comfort to reach its former intensity. The pleasing thought 
of the sound enhances the child's comfort to the necessary 
point ; and when this is reached, the sound is produced 
spontaneously. In this manner the auditory word-centre is 
brought into relation with the nerves that effect the speech- 


movements; i.e. with the motor word-centre. As with the 
child, so with the adult. It is not at all necessary to suppose 
that sound finds any other path to the speech-organs than that 
opened to it by the physical well-being. With the adult, pleas- 
ure and mood stand in the same definite relation to interest in 
speech as they do with the child. When we feel contented and 
at ease, we start chattering at the least occasion. But if we 
feel depressed, even a real interest in a subject will elicit noth- 
ing but a few scanty monosyllables. 1 . . . 

"An unbroken stream of words seems to depend simply 
and solely upon the existence of the corresponding thought 
and a sufficiently strong feeling of physical ease. When 
the well-being is great enough, we have only to think the 
train of thought, and the motor apparatus reproduces it 
automatically almost before we are fully aware of what has 
taken place." 2 

Our author then goes on to explain the manner in 
which fear and physical discomfort (Unbehagen) 
come to replace physical ease (Behagen) in the 
stammerer. This is the direct effect of the stam- 
merer's inability to speak. Dr. Sandow supposes 
that the speech-disturbances are due to injury to the 
speech-nerves and to impairment of the motor speech- 
centre of the brain. He supposes that these condi- 
tions are aggravated by the stammering, and that 
the stammering thus prevents reparation of the phy- 
sical injury. Concerning the remedy for these con- 
ditions, he says: 

1 "Mechanik des Stotterns," pp. 17-18. 

2 Loc. tit., p. 19. 


"Away with the dangerous speech-exercises! The one 
proper treatment for over-excitable nerves is rest; and this 
rest should alternate with gentle, natural, and unforced move- 
ments, since these movements further the organic reparative 
changes. If possible, the patient should enjoy a great deal of 
sleep, quiet, restful sleep, undisturbed by dreams. We 
recommend a short sleep before the midday meal as highly 
beneficial; but if it is not possible for the patient to indulge 
in sleep at this time, he should at least follow Hallervorden's 
excellent precept : l ' Rest seems to me to possess an excel- 
lent therapeutic value in cases of exhaustion. Therefore I 
have for some years prescribed rest for neurasthenic patients. 
I advise the patient to lie practically flat upon his back for five 
or ten minutes since this position affords the most relief 
to the muscular system and to rest both body and mind as 
far as possible. I advise him to repeat this from five to twelve 
tunes during the day. The few patients that have followed 
my advice have always thanked me for it, but probably only 
one in ten has conscientiously fulfilled my instructions.' On 
no account should one shorten the night's sleep by rising early 
or retiring late. 

"Every stammerer should treat himself or if too young, 
should be treated as a patient suffering from neurasthe- 
nia. . . . With every movement that he makes, he should bear 
this fact in mind. He should execute each movement with the 
greatest possible relaxation and ease, observing, too, absolute 
nonchalance and indifference. On the one hand, this physical 
well-being is the enemy of fear, and its consorts, the various 
asthenic emotions; and on the other hand, it must from its 
very nature obviate every strong impulse or innervation. 
But not any kind of slowness (in moving arms and legs) is 

1 "Arbeit und Wille, ein Kapital klinischer Psychologic," Vol. I, 
p. 40. 


implied. There are different kinds of slowness. One person 
goes slowly because some one in front of him blocks the way. 
Another goes slowly because he is too relaxed and too much at 
ease to care about going faster. This second kind of slowness, 
slowness induced by physical relaxation and well-being, must 
become the second nature of the patient. (Slowly, and with 
absolute repose, he raises his hand to lift his hat. Quietly, 
and with restful movements, he continues his walk, etc.) 
And why is this restfulness and relaxation so essential ? Be- 
cause slowness and ease of movements, especially of move- 
ments of the right extremities, permits only weak innervations 
to reach the motor nerves of the brain and especially of the 
left hemisphere of the brain, hi which the speech-centre lies. 
As a consequence it permits the gradual recovery of the in- 
jured nerves. These slow movements, since they entail only 
the weakest innervations, prevent all irradiation upon the 
contiguous speech-nerves. One can, of course, move the 
limbs as much as he pleases, but each movement especially 
of the right arm and leg must be slowly and restfully exe- 
cuted. Ultimately the speech-organs become influenced by this 
mode of activity, which itself becomes more and more habitual. 
"The speech-nerves themselves must be guarded from all 
excessive impulse. One should speak only in the most noncha- 
lant tone, and endeavor, whilst speaking, to maintain the highest 
degree of well-being [Vottbehagen, Urbehagen] and relaxation. 
Let the stammerer preserve his physical and mental ease, and 
have no scruples about separating words and phrases that are 
ordinarily connected. Let him adopt the manner of a speaker 
that pronounces his words as they occur to him with utter 
disregard for rhetorical effect. The recital or the question then 
assumes the character of the involuntary, the unstudied, the 
abrupt. The ease and well-being of the moment alone de- 
termines the pauses, the lengthening of the vowels, the inflec- 


tion, etc. This restful manner of speech has a powerful 
effect upon the hearer. It is far more effective than the 
stringing out of long and wordy sentences. Let the reader 
try it, and he will soon discover this unforced and restful 
tone for himself. 

"The stammerer need have no fear of carrying this repose and 
relaxation to excess. The hearer will certainly not find the 
manner displeasing. And even if this were not the case, the 
stammerer has to consider himself, and not the hearer. Every 
speaker has his idiosyncrasies, so why should the patient not 
have his ? especially as his happens to be the most natural 
in the world. The patient always has the right (and no reason- 
ing person will gainsay it) to consider himself in the first place, 
and also himself in the second, third, and fourth ; and last of 
all to consider the hearer just a little. The stammerer should 
make the most abundant use of this privilege. And let me once 
more emphasize the fact that this restful and unhurried speech 
always strikes the hearer pleasantly." 1 

And when the stammerer experiences fear or antici- 
pates difficulty, 

"Let him concentrate his whole thought simply and solely 
upon the task of living that moment with the greatest possible 
repose and well-being. Let him relax the muscles of the arms, 
and as far as possible the muscles of the legs and other parts 
of the body, meanwhile permitting the resultant feeling of 
comfort to come well to the fore in consciousness. Let the 
stammerer if he finds it agreeable slowly raise his hand and 
stroke it across his face. Let him yawn while performing the 
act, and then draw a few slow and deep breaths to intensify 
his feeling of restfulness and indifference. When this feeling 

1 Loc cit., pp. 135-138. 


has acquired sufficient intensity, the first few words will flow 
from the lips of their own accord. At this point the speaker 
allows a restful pause to supervene, paying no regard to the ex- 
pectant looks of his hearer. 'I consider first my repose and 
well-being. Other things must accommodate themselves to the 
circumstances. And what I have to say is utterly worthless 
and insignificant compared with my effort to preserve my phys- 
ical and mental repose.' With thoughts of this kind, and with 
slow, restful movements, and deep breaths, and occasional 
yawnings, the stammerer strives only to bring the feeling of 
comfort again to its former pitch. This reached, a second word 
and perhaps a third flows spontaneously from the lips. 
And thus the stammerer proceeds till the sentence is com- 

There are many reasons why a procedure of this 
kind should inhibit stammering. The stammerer 
that can successfully employ this expedient has estab- 
lished a degree of independence that should render 
him no more liable to the impediment in the presence 
of other people than in the privacy of his own room. 
It is doubtful, though, whether the average stam- 
merer could carry the measure to the extreme that 
Dr. Sandow recommends. Fortunately this relaxa- 
tion and composure is beneficial if attained in any 
degree. It is a direct counteractive of physical 
stammering and the corporeal changes that give 
rise to fear. It is evident, too, that this physical 
and mental repose must prevent excessive affluxion 

1 Loc. cit., p. 145. 


of blood to the brain, and that it thus probably tends 
indirectly to preclude amnesia. 

There can be no doubt that relaxation diminishes 
the inertia of the motor speech-mechanism, and that 
the mechanism is then capable of being actuated by a 
stimulus weaker than would otherwise be necessary. 
When the body-muscles are generally contracted 
and this condition commonly prevails with the 
stammerer the motor cells of the cortex must be 
continuously discharging into the efferent nerves. 
It seems that the inertia of the contiguous motor 
ce^ls those actuating the speech-organs is then 
increased, and speech rendered more difficult in 
consequence. On the other hand, when the muscles 
of the body are generally relaxed, there is apparently 
a diminution in the inertia of the cells actuating the 
accessory muscles. The result, as already stated, is 
that the oral articulative mechanism is capable of 
being actuated by a weaker stimulus; i.e. by a 
weaker auditory or kinaesthetic verbal image. Re- 
laxation would thus preclude stammering in many 
instances when muscular tension would make it 

As already remarked, Dr. Sandow's expedient is 
merely the development of a feature embodied in 
practically every commendable system for the treat- 
ment of stammering. Of the efficacy of the expedient 
there can be no doubt. It counteracts physical 


stammering, fear, and to some extent multiple thought. 
Dr. Sandow's theory concerning damaged speech- 
nerves and damaged motor cells is almost certainly 
erroneous likewise his theory of their gradual 
recovery as a result of the procedure advocated. His 
conception of the functions performed by the various 
centres is somewhat indeterminate ; the kinaesthetic 
verbal centre is frequently lost in the shuffle. Dr. 
Sandow's "Mechanik des Stotterns" is, however, a 
splendid work, and it is highly recommended to the 

And now a few miscellaneous expedients : 

There is a " professor" that marauds around 
America telling his victims (after the necessary cash- 
transaction) to grunt before they speak. Stammer- 
ing occurs according to the professor only on the 
"sounding consonants"; therefore if the stammerer 
will breathe and grunt before he articulates, no diffi- 
culty can arise. 

A German expedient, which was recently intro- 
duced into England, consists in accentuating the 
"sense-bearers," or principal words in a sentence 
(since these alone occasion difficulty!). "Tell me the 
truth." Accentuate " tell " and " truth " and raise the 
pitch on these words. "Follow a wave of sound." 

The employment of synonyms and circumlocu- 
tions is recommended by some teachers of stammerers. 
If asked your name, you say, "It is spelled ," and 


proceed to spell it. Instead of saying, "No, thank 
you," if some one offers you the mustard, you smile 
and say, "Another time." It would be less de- 
moralizing to eat the mustard. 

Another device consists in interpolating words and 
using "starters." "Er-no" ; "Why, yes," and so on. 
This defect is known as Embololalia or Enibolophrasia. 

Other remedies are : clenching the fists at difficult 
words, squeezing the larynx with the ringers, pinch- 
ing oneself, whistling before difficult words, imitating 
another person's voice, refraining from speaking, etc. 



MECHANICAL aids are occasionally employed even 
at the present day in the treatment of stammering. 
A prominent Russian institution boasts an "ortho- 
paedic therapeutic speech-apparatus" that "facili- 
tates the mechanical action of speech" and "renders 
stammering impossible." 

In America we find a sponsor for the electric battery 
and coil. The electric apparatus is attached to a 
belt and worn next to the body. The wearer 
presses a button and receives a monitory shock 
when he feels inclined to stammer. 

In current works we read of knotted towels and 
head-bandages to be worn at night to keep the tongue 
in its "high position"; and of paper-knives, silver 
hooks, pencils, and knitting-needles to correct faulty 
articulation. And occasionally we read that the 
stammerer may cure himself, like Demosthenes, by 
speaking with a mouth full of gravel. 1 

As a substitute for gravel, one may use gutta- 
percha balls: 

1 Demosthenes probably never stammered ; his defect seems to 
have been lallation. 



"To make the balls, take a piece of gutta-percha and put 
it in boiling water till it is quite soft. Break a piece off large 
enough to make a good-sized ball the larger the better [ ! ]. 
Wipe it dry ; roll it between the palms of the hands till it be 
perfectly round. Put it in cold water to cool ; it will otherwise 
flatten by its own weight; make another in the same way. 
Make two smaller balls four in all. 

"To use the balls, put one of the smaller ones in the mouth 
between the teeth and the gums ; put the other small one in 
on the other side ; put the larger balls in front of the smaller 
ones. Speak with the balls in the mouth. 

"The object is to handicap the speaker and make him strive 
after power. It does not render speaking impossible, but much 
more difficult. The practice is preferable to the use of corks 
between the teeth." 

The use of cork between the teeth was recom- 
mended by Charles Kingsley. In a letter to Miss 

, he says : * 

"If you find it difficult to speak with your mouth open (and 
it will very likely give you pain in the ear at first, but only at 

first), get a bit of cork, cut it about so thick ( ), and put 

it between your back teeth, and speak so. ... 

"You must practise reading out loud to yourself, opening 
your mouth at the vowels as wide as you can, and perhaps 
keeping the cork in at first, till you have made a habit of it." 

Kingsley is still cited at times as authority for this 
Devices for relieving expiratory pressure are some- 

1 "Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol. 
II, pp. 260-261. 


times encountered. "Bates' Appliances" may be 
cited as examples, though probably none of these 
particular instruments have been foisted upon the 
public within the last twenty years. "Bates' Ap- 
pliances" were invented a little more than fifty years 
ago by an American, and at the time, of course, were 
infallible in curing stammering. The following re- 
port describing the implements is by "The Com- 
mittee on Science and the Arts" of the Franklin 
Institute : 


"The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the 
Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promo- 
tion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom were referred for examina- 
tion, 'Instruments for the Cure of Stammering,' invented by 
Mr. Robert Bates, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania REPORT : 

"That much discrepancy of opinion has prevailed as to the 
cause and consequent treatment of stammering. Many of the 
earlier writers have attributed all the varieties of this form of 
defective speech to some organic affection of the vocal appara- 
tus, or malformation of the parts that compose the mouth and 
fauces ; as, for example, hypertrophy of the tongue, a low posi- 
tion of that organ in the mouth, enlargement of the tonsils, 
uvula, etc. The treatment, based upon these erroneous and 
limited views as to the cause, was necessarily as various as it 
was unsuccessful. Thus rollers were placed under the tongue, 
to obviate its fancied depression (Madame Leigh's treatment) ; 
the tonsils and uvula were excised, deep gashes made in the 
tongue to lessen its size, etc. Others, again, traced the defect 
to a want of nervous power in the tongue, occasioned by paral- 


ysis of the ninth nerve, and attempted to overcome it by the 
use of stimulating masticatories, electricity, etc. 

"In all these instances it is obvious that a special was mis- 
taken for a general cause. 

"A more accurate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology 
of the organs of phonation led to an improvement on the above 
restricted conjectures. . . . 

"Mr. Bates, by an independent course of investigation and 
observation upon himself and others laboring under stammering, 
has arrived at the same conclusion concerning the difficulty to 
overcome, as is entertained by the modern physiological school. 

"The instruments invented by him are all based upon the 
same principle, and, in the opinion of the committee, are more 
efficient in obviating the vocal defect in question than any other 
contrivance or method with which they are acquainted. As 
the spastic difficulty obviously accompanies different sets of 
letters in different persons, Mr. Bates has invented three va- 
rieties of instruments, as applicable to all the forms of stammer- 
ing ; all have the same object in view, however the main- 
tenance of an uninterrupted current of sonorous breath. 

"His instruments are as follow: 

"i. A narrow, flattened tube of silver, seven-eighths of an 
inch in length, very light, thin and smooth. The diameter of 
the calibre of the tube, measured from the inner edge of one 
side to the inner edge of the other, is three-eighths of an inch ; 
while the depth, measured from the anterior inner edge to the 
posterior, is one-sixteenth of an inch. This is applied to the 
roof of the mouth, in the median line, in such a manner that the 
anterior end is lodged just behind the teeth ; while the posterior 
opens into the mouth, looking upward and backward toward the 
fauces. In this position it is maintained by a delicate piece 
of wire or thin slip of india rubber fastened to one end of the 
tube, the other passing between the incisor teeth of the upper 


jaw. This tube is intended to overcome the difficulty in the 
pronunciation of the linguo-palatal letters, which are formed 
by the application of the tongue to the palate. This it accom- 
plishes by preserving a continuous current of air, thereby 
preventing spasm, allowing the letter in fault to be properly 
elicited, and thus restoring the self-confidence of the sufferer. 

"2. For the explosive consonants, the labials, dento-labials, 
etc., the contrivance consists of a hollow, bi-convex disk, from 
one end of which projects a silver tube, which, passing out 
between the lips, keeps up the communication between the at- 
mosphere and the oral cavity. The current of air from the 
glottis enters by means of a small hole at one side of the disk, 
and escapes through the silver tube. Finding the saliva was 
apt to accumulate in the disk, and thus obstruct the entrance 
and exit of air, the inventor has recently substituted for this 
lateral opening a small tube, passing from the upper edge of 
the disk, and bent at an acute angle upon itself. 

"3. For the accurate elimination of the guttural sounds, Mr. 
Bates has contrived a belt, made of patent or glazed leather, or 
any other strong material, and lined with morocco. This belt 
is concealed in an ordinary stock or cravat, and in this manner 
secured around the neck. In the middle, and on the anterior 
surface of this belt, is fitted a metallic plate, through which 
passes a regulating screw. On the inner side of the belt, and 
just opposite the plate, is a metallic spring, covered with kid 
or any other soft material, and firmly sewed by both ends to 
the strap. When this apparatus is adjusted about the neck, 
the regulating screw, resting upon the spring, causes the latter 
to be forced inward, so as to press more or less strongly upon the 
thyroid cartilage, thus relaxing the rima-glottidis by approxi- 
mating the thyroid to the arytenoid cartilages. In this man- 
ner, the exit of air is provided for, and the spasmodic action of 
the muscles that close the glottis is overcome. The pressure 


upon the larynx can be increased or diminished, as may be 

" From the above description it will be seen that the efficiency 
of these instruments is entirely dependent upon the unob- 
structed channel which they preserve for the egress of the vi- 
brating column of breath from the larynx, through the mouth 
into the open air. Muscular spasm is necessarily removed, 
and the self-confidence of the stammerer restored undoubt- 
edly the great desideratum in this affection. When the patient 
is fully convinced that he can really enunciate the opposing 
letters as distinctly as his friends, he rapidly overcomes the 
disease, by the judicious and effective exertions which renewed 
confidence begets. 

" An advantage of some importance possessed by this appara- 
tus is, that it can be worn without attracting notice, two of the 
pieces the tube for the palatal and the belt for the guttural 
sounds being entirely concealed ; while the tube which 
projects externally from the silver disk may be disguised by 
slipping over it the barrel of a quill, cut like a tooth-pick. 
Moreover, each of the pieces can be most easily and expedi- 
tiously applied, as occasion may require. . . . 

"By order of the Committee, 


This collection of machinery was sent to the stam- 
merer on payment of fifteen dollars. If he retained it 
in his possession for a longer period than four months, 
he was required to pay another fifteen dollars ; but he 
then became the lawful owner of the equipment. 

Instruments similar to "Bates' Appliances" may 
still at times be encountered. 

1 Quoted from The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 141. 


Itard's tongue-fork, Colombat's "refoule langue," 
and Wutzer's " glosso-mochlion " are fortunately ex- 
tinct. But even now an occasional troglodyte will 
recommend a tongue-raising apparatus reminiscent 
of these contrivances. 

Till a few years ago a German "speech specialist" 
was selling "tongue-nerve powders" at sixteen for 
six marks. These powders were employed to "re- 
vitalize and strengthen the weakened tongue-nerves." 
Medicaments for curing stammering now belong, 
however, almost exclusively to the past. 

Galvanic, faradic, and static electrical treatments 
were once popular in the therapy of stammering. 
They have now been almost universally discarded. 

Various gymnastic exercises are used in many 
stammering-schools. Ling's Swedish exercises are 
particularly popular. 1 

Little need be said concerning mechanical and 
physical aids in the treatment of stammering. Such 
devices can be of benefit only while they inhibit fear, 

1 Here is one argument for gymnastics : 

"The usual cause, however, is an easily excited brain, and stam- 
merers are frequently persons of very acute sensibility and intelligence. 
But in the case of such sensitive brains, thought is apt to radiate so 
quickly as to defeat the capacity of the nerves to convey it. Hence 
frequently arises the habit of stammering. 

"Taking this hypothesis as my starting point, I argued that by 
developing other parts of the body, and thus diverting the brain- 
impulses to other areas of the system, as well as by toning up the 
nerves and circulation generally, by means of scientific physical 


etc., which will not be for long. Electrical treat- 
ments and gymnastic exercises are certainly not 
directed at the cause of abnormal utterance. 

At this point it may be opportune to say a word 
concerning surgical operations, which are, of course, 
intended to remove mechanical obstructions to speech. 
The operating craze began in 1841, but, like many of 
its victims, it was shortly blessed with death. Unfor- 
tunately a few of its illegitimate offspring survive. 
The parent operation consisted in slicing a transverse 
wedge from the base of the tongue. The edges of 
the gap were then brought and sewed together; 
and the tongue was in the much-wished-for "high 
position." The filial operations consist in remov- 
ing adenoids, tonsils, elongated uvulas, and other 
accessible material. An English teacher of stam- 
merers (apparently with no medical knowledge) finds 
seventy-nine stammerers in a hundred afflicted with 
various "obstructions." These obstructions, it is 
true, are not represented as causes of stammering, 

culture, I should produce a more harmonious balance of brain and 
body, to the lasting benefit of the sufferer." 

Oh, how scientific 1 

And here we have convincing proof that physical exercises are 
injurious : 

"Besides the other remedies, she practised gymnastic exercises, 
and consequently lost her voice altogether, because gymnastics in- 
creased the peripheral strength." 

And so it goes. 


but as aggravants to be excised prior to elocutionary 

No intelligent person would contend, of course, 
that genuine obstructions to respiration should not 
be removed. But such obstructions seldom stand 
in causal relation to stammering; and when 79 per 
cent of a teacher's prospective pupils require surgical 
treatment, one would at least conjecture that the 
standards applied are in need of adjustment. 



IN reviewing psychological methods of treating 
stammering, we shall consider first the various minor 
and miscellaneous expedients that occupy accessorial 
positions in the conventional "elocutionary" systems. 
Afterward, we shall examine the more conspicuous 
measures that are frequently employed as systems in 

A century-old accessory that still remains popular 
is the period of silence at the beginning of treatment. 
The most familiar argument in support of the silence- 
period is that it permits a disintegration of the old 
"habit" while a new one is being formed. 1 Other 
arguments are that silence affords rest to "over- 
wrought nerves," that it has a beneficial psycho- 
logical effect, and so on. It is somewhat difficult to 
say whether or not the silence-period is really salu- 
tary; for when this period terminates, the pupil 
usually resorts to unnatural speech sing-songing, 

'"Silence" usually means refraining from conversation. The 
pupils commonly practise exercises during this period. 



time-beating, drawling, etc. He then speaks more 
fluently; but by sing-songing, etc., he might have 
spoken just as fluently from the first. The initial 
silence-period is usually considered by teachers and 
pupils alike to be highly beneficial ; but their con- 
clusions cannot be regarded as apodictic, since they 
take no cognizance of many of the factors involved. 

Subsequent periods of silence are often prescribed 
by teachers of stammerers when pupils are meeting 
with unusual difficulty. 

A psychological exercise that is now and then 
recommended is the practice of internal speech. The 
student confines his thought as far as possible to 
verbal imagery, thinking his words in a direct and 
orderly manner. This measure might be beneficial 
to the stammerer that thinks generally in visual 
images, or that finds himself subject to multiple 
thought during speech. On the other hand, it would 
be of no benefit to the stammerer that invariably 
thinks his words in orderly consecution. 

The following "golden rule" is often commended 
to the stammerer: "Never begin a sentence till you 
know how it is to conclude." This expedient of 
thinking out the sentence has already been discussed. 1 
It may be efficacious when no lalophobia exists (with 
children, for instance) ; but in other cases it may 
enhance the stammerer's fear. Here the proof of 
' Vol. I, P . 342- 


the pudding will be the presence or absence of 

The contrary procedure consists in speaking one's 
words as they rise in the mind, and uttering them 
rapidly to prevent the intrusion of "foreign ideas." 1 
In reading for practice, one covers the succeeding 
words in order that they may not divert attention. 
All of which seems Eke a roundabout and undesirable 
method of obtaining a desirable end. 

The stammerer is sometimes advised to visualize 
his words in print or script. This expedient has 
already been discussed. 2 

The antipodal procedure consists in "darkening 
the mental eye " for the purpose of excluding " letters." 
It is difficult to criticize the procedure, for no specific 
instructions are given for accomplishing the feat, 
and each stammerer is left to discover his own means 
of affixing an eye-flap to his organ of psychic vision. 

Associated with the process of "darkening the 
mental eye" is that of acquiring "phlegmatics." 

"All of your force and energy, exerted hitherto in the wrong 
direction, must be devoted to acquiring that which is essential, 
viz.: phlegmatics [" exaggerated calmness"]. . . . This we 
bring about by placing ourselves in the state of a tired, sluggish, 
or feeble individual." 

1 This expedient seems to have been introduced by Moses Mendels- 

2 Vol. I, pp. 350 ff. Concerning visualization of oral movements, 
see Vol. I, pp. 362 ff., and Vol. II, pp. 94 ff. 


This is Dr. Sandow's expedient, already discussed. 

The stammerer is often advised to assume a "posi- 
tive" attitude and to speak in a loud, confident 
voice. The suggestion is in line with James's theory 
that one may ultimately feel an emotion by con- 
tinually affecting it. But perhaps a quiet and con- 
fident voice would be no less efficacious than vocifer- 
ous utterance. 

Most "speech specialists" make much of imbuing 
the stammerer with enthusiasm. "In the lexicon of 
youth, which fate reserves for a bright manhood, 
there is no such word as ' fail.' " But in this hulla- 
baloo one is merely taking advantage of a printer's 
error. Enthusiasm in the student is desirable enough, 
but it is a mighty poor substitute for competency in 
the instructor. 

Most teachers of stammerers approve the simple 
life. "Early to bed and early to rise," "Coffee 
is a poison and tobacco a narcotic," and so on. But 
in these matters the stammerer will, of course, be 
guided by his temperament and individual experi- 
ence. The advice to avoid extreme fatigue is pretty 
generally pertinent, for when mentally or physically 
tired most stammerers experience an exacerbation of 
the impediment. 

Then there are the inevitable bizarreries among 
the accessories employed in treating stammering. 
An American teacher eulogizes a specific mental atti- 


tude for repelling or diverting (we are not sure which) 
"impingements from a lower plane." 

Another teacher recommends abstinence from ani- 
mal food, combined with soul-training and mental 
gymnastics. The mental gymnastics suggested are 
politeness, fasting, and prayer. 

A third teacher seems to be recommending some- 
thing in the following paragraphs : 

"There is a supreme moment, the leading up to which is as 
quick as thought. It is the catching of this supreme moment 
that constitutes control. The moment thought becomes 
complete feeling is that in which complete thought may be 
expressed. This moment is that in which inspiration being 
complete upon the plane of the thought, the expiration is led 
off upon the same plane by the Intent. There is no miscarriage. 
However apprehensive the speaker may have been up to this 
point, the moment he feels this unity, he is henceforth strong. 

"The stutterer should seek for, and duly recognize, this subtle 
something that speaks of the task performed, before the thought 
is attempted in expression. At a distance from him, out in the 
outer atmosphere, he will be sensible of having projected a force 
that not only will act as a fitting medium for unclogged utter- 
ance, but which will insure him against attacks of fear, or acci- 
dents from without, that might otherwise impede the trans- 
mission of his thought, by turning his mind from an established 

So much, then, for the psychological accessories. 

We shall now examine the major psychological 
measures employed in the treatment of stammering. 


The first expedient that we have to consider is 
auto-suggestion, which forms the basis of several 
"therapeutic" systems. We give as typical, the in- 
structions of an English stammering-school that 
employs auto-suggestion and elocutionary expedients 
as coordinate measures : 

"Without a liberal measure of Auto Suggestion all my 
advice will be largely thrown away. Auto Suggestion is your 
own voice speaking to your own inner self. You must realize 
how important it is that you should give yourself the right 
auto-suggestions ; think of them and act on them. 

"The effect of Auto Suggestion is based on the fact that any 
achievement is brought about in the first place by an idea for- 
mulated in the mind, and the more firmly this takes root the more 
rapid and permanent will be the accomplishment. 

"When applying auto-suggestion you must not forget that 
it is vital to bring into play the whole force of your will. If it 
is to act as an inspiration and develop its full power it must be 
done with intentness and fixity of purpose. And you must be 
convinced of the truth of the suggestion proceeding from your 
will, it is bound to work with direct force on your imagination. 

"A suggestion in order to grow wants time, and any impetu- 
ousness is liable to drive it away again. It is therefore funda- 
mentally wrong to suggest too much or too often. A few 
suggestions well and correctly used keep on working on their 
own account. That is why it is always advisable to divert your 
thoughts immediately after the suggestions have been made. 
The wording of the suggestions is immaterial, the sense being the 
essential thing. However, it is imperative to become entirely 
absorbed in the sense of the suggestions, thinking or speaking 
slowly, calmly, and with firmness. 


" Always use the present tense. 

"The daily practice should be as follows : 

'Auto Suggestions given in the morning immediately after 
waking up, and at night immediately before falling to sleep. 

"Once in your thoughts. 

" I am indifferent in every way and do not lose my self-control. 

"My speaking is quite normal. I have no difficulties what- 
ever. When I have to speak I go down [lower the pitch] and 
always form very easy volume of sound. 

" Twice in whispering voice. 

"I am always calm and indifferent. My speaking is quite 
fluent. I always form easy volume of descending sound, 
avoiding any pressure. 

"Four times aloud. The Same as above. 

"It is further necessary to sketch out certain situations 
in which you previously experienced special difficulties, with the 
view of your speaking now with entire freedom. 

"After having sketched out the situations and your actions 
minutely, you have to give the final suggestions either in a whis- 
pering voice or aloud. The wording in which you clothe the 
suggestions has to be adapted for the special purpose. How- 
ever, it is vital to use in addition such suggestions as the follow- 
ing. It is nonsense to think I have any difficulty in speaking 
(in a shop or at the telephone). On the contrary it gives me 
pleasure to go into shops, etc., and to speak with easy volume 
of descending sound. 

"It is of great importance at the same time never to sketch 
out more than one or at most two such situations of life. 
Further you must not practise one situation to-day and another 
to-morrow, but you must concentrate your mind for some time 
(two or more weeks) on the same situation in order to impress it 
so intensely that the suggestion can be turned into action. 

"After you have finished the sketch which should not take 


more than five minutes, your thoughts should be diverted imme- 

"The desired result, provided that you practise intensely, 
is bound to come, as it is based on the natural working of your 
subconscious mind (mind behind the principal mind)." 

Much of the procedure here advocated appeals to 
one as being fetishistic. "Once in your thoughts 
. . . Twice in whispering voice . . . Four times 
aloud." Well, why ? If auto-suggestion ever proves 
effective, it is undoubtedly due to the fact that 
during suggestion, sthenic emotions are associated 
with the ideas of the action or situation depicted. 
The emotions may then recur when the action or 
situation comes to be realized. The whispering for- 
mula is certainly foreign to the matter. The subcon- 
scious mind here invoked is, of course, supposititious. 

For persons with certain types of minds this 
auto-suggestive procedure might prove beneficial. 
However, the writer has witnessed its application in a 
number of cases, and in these it has yielded "nega- 
tive results." 

Counter auto-suggestion (suggestions of "I can 
and will" etc.) are often recommended by "speech 
specialists" for combating immediate difficulties. 
This subject has been discussed in the preceding vol- 
ume (pp. 339-340). 

Hypnotism is frequently employed in treating stam- 
mering. The patient is brought into a drowsy (or 


occasionally a somnambulic) condition by suggestions 
of sleep, by passes, by being required to fixate an ob- 
ject, etc. He is then given suggestions of his con- 
fidence and ability to speak. If somnambulic, he 
may be required to converse with, or read to, the 
person conducting the treatment. 

A German teacher that places great reliance upon 
hypnotism writes thus of its efficacy : 

"The treatment of stammering by means of hypnotic sug- 
gestion commends itself as an exclusively psychological method; 
and as such it offers essential advantages. First, sleep exerts 
so beneficial an influence on the nervous and excitable nature of 
the stammerer, and so counteracts his characteristic disquietude, 
haste, and fear, that speech-disturbances almost invariably 
vanish during hypnosis. And further, the influences em- 
ployed to combat the thought of stammering are usually ac- 
cepted without criticism in the deeper stages of sleep ; and the 
auto-suggestive nature of the difficulty the stammerer's 
belief in his inability to talk is removed more rapidly than 
would be the case with any other form of treatment. We 
have already noted what labor and pains the so-called 'en- 
vironal stammerer' l occasions the teacher when other systems 
are employed. With such patients, hypnotic suggestion af- 
fords the only effective treatment ; and, moreover, the work is 
greatly simplified for both pupil and teacher. The latter need 
no longer follow each step of the pupil, for the factors and sit- 
uations that the pupil fears can be attacked by suggestion." * 

l "Situaiions-slotterer" one that speaks fluently in the institu- 
tion and with friends, but stammers in certain difficult situations. 
1 From the prospectus of a German stammering-school. 


Numerous cures are reported by persons that have 
employed the hypnotic method. Wetterstrand, for 
instance, reports fifteen cures in forty-five cases. 1 
But, of these fifteen patients, thirteen were children 
from five to twelve years of age ; so, after all, the per- 
formance was not remarkable and Wetterstrand 
admits ignorance as to whether or not many of his 
cures were permanent. 

On the whole, the treatment of stammering by 
hypnotic suggestion has not been successful. Most 
writers on general hypnotism report a fair percentage 
of cures but this with a small number of cases. 
The hypnotist, however, usually knows nothing about 
stammering ; hence his criterion of cure may be faulty, 
and his figures consequently unreliable. 2 

It is interesting to note what Gutzmann has to 
say concerning the hypnotic treatment of stammering. 3 

"The whole hypnotic treatment of stammering has been a 
fiasco. Forel, a champion of hypnotic therapy, has himself 
plainly avowed the fact ; and success has been achieved only 
when hypnotic treatment has been employed in conjunction with 
a system of gymnastic and physiological training. No reason- 
able physician doubts that a stammerer may be brought into a 

1 Wetterstrand, " Hypnotism and its Application to Practical Medi- 
cine," pp. 36 ff. 

2 The writer has in mind a physician that subjected a patient to the 
test of repeating after him some of his difficult words. He was de- 
lighted to find that the patient spoke with fluency ; and was practi- 
cally ready to pronounce the case a cure. 

Hermann Gutzmann, " Sprachheilkunde," ad ed., p. 394. 


tranquil mood by hypnotic suggestion, and that the stammerer 
will speak relatively well under these conditions; but he may 
with good reason question the fact that this tranquil mood will 
continue. Thus we see hypnotic treatment treatment 
intended merely to remove the stammerer's fear prove abor- 
tive though continued for years." 

Hypnotic treatment, even though it were poten- 
tially efficacious, would almost surely fail because of 
the extremely general nature of the suggestions. Yet 
if both patient and physician possessed an intelligent 
comprehension of the malady, and the patient could 
himself diagnose the case; then it seems not at all 
improbable that specific suggestions might be given 
that would prove effective. 

In a few European stammering-schools, suggestions 
are given to the pupil "in the waking state." This 
form of treatment, its votaries are ardent to emphasize, 
is not hypnotism. But hypnosis itself does not neces- 
sarily involve unconsciousness or sleep. The com- 
mendation of " Wac/rsuggestionen " is commonly a 
quibble intended to circumvent popular ignorance 
and prejudice regarding hypnotism. 

Psychoanalysis has recently been employed in 
the treatment of stammering by persons holding the 
view that the disturbance is a fear-neurosis or 
an "obsession" (Angstneurose, Angsthysterie, Wahn- 
vorstellung, etc.). The purpose of the analysis is 
to ascertain the cause of the obsessing fear, which 


is usually taken to be an emotion or desire that has 
at some time been voluntarily "repressed" (ver- 
drangt) from the conscious into the (hypothetical) 
subconscious mind. It is somewhat difficult to give 
a concise summary of the psychoanalytic theories, 
for these theories are vaporous even in the minds of 
their propounders, and writers that have treated 
the subject have given us little more than immethodi- 
cal discussions with arguments based largely on anal- 
ogy,. We will, however, attempt a resume, quoting 
psychoanalyists where feasible in order to avoid any 
possible misinterpretation. 

First, the distinction between psychoanalysis and 
hypnotic suggestion : 

"I notice that this method is often mistaken for the hyp- 
notic suggestive treatment. I notice this by the fact that quite 
frequently colleagues whose confidant I am not by any means, 
send patients to me, refractory patients of course, with the 
request that I should hynotize them. Now, for eight years I 
have not practised hypnotism (individual cases excluded) as 
a therapeutic aim, and hence I used to return the patients with 
the advice that he who relies on hypnosis should do it himself. 
In truth, the greatest possible contrast exists between the sug- 
gestive and the analytic technique, that contrast which the 
great Leonardo da Vinci has expressed for the arts in the for- 
mulae per via di porre and per via di levare. Said Leonardo, ' The 
art of painting works per via di porre, that is to say, places 
little heaps of paint where they have not been before on the 
uncolored canvas; sculpturing, on the other hand, goes per 
via di levare, that is to say, it takes away from the stone as 


much as covers the surface of the statue therein contained.' 
Quite similarly, gentlemen, the suggestive technique acts per 
via di porre, it does not concern itself about the origin, force, 
and significance of the morbid symptoms, but puts on some- 
thing, to wit, the suggestion which it expects will be strong 
enough to prevent the pathogenic idea from expression. On the 
other hand the analytic therapy does not wish to put on any- 
thing, or introduce anything new, but to take away, and 
extract, and for this purpose it concerns itself with the genesis 
of the morbid symptoms, and the psychic connection of the 
pathogenic idea, the removal of which is its aim." * 

Concerning the genesis of the morbid symptoms, 
Freud says : 

"Almost all the symptoms originated ... as remnants, as 
precipitates, if you like, of affectively-toned experiences, 
which for that reason we later called 'psychic traumata.' 
The nature of the symptoms became clear through their rela- 
tion to the scene which caused them. They were, to use the 
technical term, 'determined' (determiniert) by the scene whose 
memory traces they embodied, and so could no longer be 
described as arbitrary or enigmatical functions of the 
neurosis. . . .* 

"We are forced to the conclusion that the patient fell ill 
because the emotion developed in the pathogenic situation was 
prevented from escaping normally, and the essence of the sick- 
ness lies in the fact that these 'imprisoned' (dingeklemmt) 

x " Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses," 
Freud (translated by Brill), pp. 177-178. 

1 Freud in "Lectures and Addresses delivered before the Depart- 
ments of Psychology and Pedagogy in Celebration of the Twentieth 
Anniversary of the Opening of Clark University," p. 5. 


emotions undergo a series of abnormal changes. In part 
they are preserved as a lasting charge and as a source of con- 
stant disturbance in psychical life; in part they undergo a 
change into unusual bodily innervations and inhibitions, which 
present themselves as the physical symptoms of the case. We 
have coined the name 'hysterical conversion' for the latter 
process." l 

When there is little or no "conversion," the symp- 
toms are directly related to the cause : 

"To take the most commonplace example: a painful emo- 
tion occurs while one is eating, but is repressed; this results 
in nausea and vomiting, which may then continue for months 
as an hysterical disturbance. A girl is watching with painful 
anxiety by the sick-bed. She falls into a dreamy and absent- 
minded state, and in this condition experiences a terrifying 
hallucination, while her right arm, which is hanging over the 
back of the chair, 'falls asleep.' There results a paralysis of 
this arm, with contracture and anaesthesia. She wishes to 
pray, but finds no words. Finally she succeeds in uttering a 
child's prayer in English. When later there develops a severe 
and highly complicated hysteria, she speaks, writes, and under- 
stands only English, while for a year and a half her mother- 
tongue remains untelligible to her. A mother is watching by 
a sick child that has at last gone to sleep. The mother con- 
centrates the entire force of her will upon the task of remaining 
quiet, so that the child may not be disturbed. But, as the direct 
result of this effort, she produces a clicking sound with the 
tongue ('hysterical counter- will'). This happens again on 
another occasion when she wishes to remain perfectly still. 
This leads to a tic, manifesting itself through several years as 

1 Freud, loc. cit., p. 8. 


a clicking of the tongue with every excitement. A highly 
intelligent man is assisting the surgeons in stretching his 
brother's ankylosed hip. The patient is anaesthetized, and as 
the joint yields with a cracking sound, the man feels severe 
pain in his own hip, which symptom then continues for nearly 
a year; etc." 1 

But usually there is complete "hysterical conver- 
sion," and the morbid symptoms bear no overt rela- 
tion to the emotion or thought "repressed." (Hence, 
of course, the need for psychoanalysis.) 

"If the original emotion has discharged itself not in the nor- 
mal, but in an 'abnormal reflex,' then it is the latter reflex that 
is induced by recollection of the incident. The excitation pro- 
duced by the affectively-colored recollection is 'converted' 
into a corporeal phenomenon. 

"If this abnormal reflex has become habitual through fre- 
quent repetition; then, it seems, the efficacy of the exciting 
recollection may be exhausted to the point where the emotion 
is reduced to a minimum or altogether disappears. The 
'hysterical conversion' is then complete. The mental repre- 
sentation (Vorstellung), having lost its psychic effect, is now 
overlooked by the individual; or its appearance in memory is 
at once forgotten, as is the case with images that are not af- 
fectively colored." * 

As examples of "abnormal reflexes" Breuer cites 
one's pacing the floor instead of groaning when he is 
suffering from toothache; and one's grasping the 
arms or back of a dentist's chair instead of screaming 

1 Breuer and Freud, "Studien Uber Hysteric," pp. 2-3. 

* Breuer, in Breuer and Freud's "Studien Uber Hysteric," p. 180. 


and repelling the dentist. As an example of "con- 
version" he cites the fact that the recollection of 
an unavenged wrong may give rise to invective 

These "hysterical symptoms" are "determined" 
by the nature of the "psychic traumata." And the 
"psychic trauma," according to Freud, is a "re- 
pressed" wish: 

"What were those forces, and what were the conditions of 
this repression, in which we were now able to recognize the 
pathogenic mechanism of hysteria? A comparative study 
of the pathogenic situations, which the cathartic [or psycho- 
analytic] treatment has made possible, allows us to answer this 
question. In all those experiences, it had happened that a 
wish had been aroused, which was in sharp opposition to the 
other desires of the individual, and was not capable of being 
reconciled with the ethical, aesthetic and personal pretensions 
of the patient's personality. There had been a short conflict, 
and the end of this inner struggle was the repression of the idea 
which presented itself to consciousness as the bearer of this 
irreconcilable wish. This was, then, repressed from con- 
sciousness and forgotten. The incompatibility of the idea in 
question with the 'ego' of the patient was the motive of the re- 
pression, the ethical and other pretensions of the individual 
were the repressing forces. The presence of the incompatible 
wish, or the duration of the conflict, had given rise to a high 
degree of mental pain ; this pain was avoided by the repression. 
This latter process is evidently in such a case a device for the 
protection of the personality." l 

1 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at 
Clark University," p. 13. 


The repressed wish, according to Freud, is invari- 
ably of a sexual nature : * 

"Psychoanalytic investigations trace back the symptoms 
of disease with really surprising regularity to impressions from 
the sexual life, show us that the pathogenic wishes are of the na- 
ture of erotic impulse-components (Triebkomponente) , and neces- 
sitate the assumption that to disturbances of the erotic sphere 
must be ascribed the greatest significance among the etiologi- 
cal factors of the disease. This holds of both sexes. . . . 

"The conduct of the patients does not make it any easier 
to convince one's self of the correctness of the view which I have 
expressed. Instead of willingly giving us information concern- 
ing their sexual life, they try to conceal it by every means in their 
power. Men generally are not candid in sexual matters. They 
do not show their sexuality freely, but they wear a thick over- 
coat a fabric of lies to conceal it, as though it were bad 
weather in the world of sex. And they are not wrong ; sun and 
wind are not favorable in our civilized society to any demon- 
stration of sex life. In truth no one can freely disclose his erotic 
life to his neighbor. But when your patients see that in your 
treatment they may disregard the conventional restraints, they 
lay aside this veil of lies, and then only are you in a position to 
formulate a judgment on the question in dispute. Unfortu- 
nately physicians are not favored above the rest of the children 
of men in their personal relationship to the questions of the 
sex life. Many of them are under the ban of that mixture of 
prudery and lasciviousness which determines the behavior of 
most Kulturmenschen in affairs of sex. . . . 

"It is true that in another series of cases psychoanalysis at 
first traces the symptoms back not to the sexual, but to banal 
traumatic experiences. But the distinction loses its significance 

1 Loc. cii., pp. 26 f. 


through other circumstances. The work of analysis which is 
necessary for the thorough explanation and complete cure of a 
case of sickness does not stop in any case with the experience 
of the time of onset of the disease, but in every case it goes back 
to the adolescence and the early childhood of the patient. Here 
only do we hit upon the impressions and circumstances which 
determine the later sickness. Only the childhood experiences 
can give the explanation for the sensitivity to later traumata 
and only when these memory traces, which almost always are 
forgotten, are discovered and made conscious, is the power 
developed to banish the symptoms. We arrive here at the same 
conclusion as in the investigation of dreams that it is the 
incompatible, repressed wishes of childhood which lend their 
power to the creation of symptoms. Without these the reac- 
tions upon later traumata discharge normally. But we must 
consider these mighty wishes of childhood very generally as 
sexual in nature." 

As Freud himself expresses the matter, "the theory 
culminates in the sentence : In a normal vita sexualis 
no neurosis is possible." * 

According to the theory, the repressed wish ex- 
presses itself in surrogates (by a process of "conver- 
sion ") ; and thus leads to the anomalous symptoms 
observed : 

"We come to the conclusion, from working with hysterical 
patients and other neurotics, that they have not fully succeeded 
in repressing the idea to which the incompatible wish is at- 
tached. They have, indeed, driven it out of consciousness and 

'"Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses," 
p. 188. 


out of memory, and apparently saved themselves a great 
amount of psychic pain, but in the unconscious the suppressed 
wish still exists, only waiting for its chance to become active, and 
finally succeeds in sending into . consciousness, instead of the 
repressed idea, a disguised and unrecognizable surrogate- 
creation (Ersalzungsbild), to which the same painful sensations 
associate themselves that the patient thought he was rid of 
through his repression. This surrogate of the repressed idea 
the symptom is secure against further attacks from the 
defences of the ego, and instead of a short conflict there orig- 
inates now a permanent suffering." 1 

As to the relation between the symptoms and the 
"psychic trauma," Freud says : 2 

"We can observe in the symptom, besides the tokens of its 
disguise, a remnant of traceable similarity with the originally 
repressed idea ; the way in which the surrogate is built up can 
be discovered during the psychoanalytic treatment of the 
patient, and for his cure the symptom must be traced back over 
the same route to the repressed idea." 

In endeavoring to trace the relationship between 
the symptoms and the "psychic trauma" the 
psychoanalyst may resort to several expedients hyp- 
notism, an analysis of the patient's dreams, observance 
of his incoordinations (Fehlhandlungen) , and an explo- 
ration of his "subconscious mind" (das Unbewusste) by 
the methods of controlled and free association. 

1 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at 
Clark University," pp. 15-16. 
1 Loc. cit., p. 16. 


With the hypnotic method, the physician brings 
the patient into a state of hypnosis and obtains from 
him an account of his troubles ; he then endeavors to 
trace back the process of "conversion." This method 
was the one first employed in psychoanalysis, but it 
has now been pretty generally discarded. 

In analyzing the patient's dreams, the physician 
interprets them as symbolic fulfilments of repressed 
wishes : 

"If you will undertake to consider the dreams of young 
children from the age of a year and a half on, you will find them 
quite simple and easy to interpret. The young child always 
dreams of the fulfilment of wishes which were aroused in him the 
day before and were not satisfied. You need no art of interpre- 
tation to discover this simple solution, you only need to inquire 
into the experiences of the child on the day before (the ' dream 
day'). Now it would certainly be a most satisfactory solution 
of the dream-riddle, if the dreams of adults too, were the same 
as those of children, fulfilments of wishes which had been 
aroused in them during the dream day. This is actually the 
fact; the difficulties which stand in the way of this solution 
can be removed step by step by a thorough analysis of the 

"There is, first of all, the most weighty objection, that the 
dreams of adults generally have an incomprehensible content, 
which shows wish-fulfilment least of anything. The answer 
is this : these dreams have undergone a process of disguise, the 
psychic content which underlies them was originally meant for 
quite different verbal expression. You must differentiate be- 
tween the manifest dream-content, which we remember in the 
morning only confusedly, and with difficulty clothe in words 


which seem arbitrary, and the latent dream-thoughts, whose 
presence in the unconscious we must assume. This distortion 
of the dream (Traumentstettung) is the same process which has 
been revealed to you in the investigations of the creations 
(symptoms) of hysterical subjects ; it points to the fact that the 
same opposition of psychic forces has its share in the creation of 
dreams as in the creation of symptoms. 

"The manifest dream-content is the disguised surrogate 
for the unconscious dream thoughts, and this disguising is the 
work of the defensive forces of the ego, of the resistances. 
These prevent the repressed wishes from entering conscious- 
ness during the waking life, and even in the relaxation of sleep 
they are still strong enough to force them to hide themselves 
by a sort of masquerading. The dreamer, then, knows just as 
little the sense of his dream as the hysterical knows the relation 
and significance of his symptoms. That there are latent dream- 
thoughts and that between them and the manifest dream-con- 
tent there exists the relation just described of this you may 
convince yourselves by the analysis of dreams, a procedure the 
technique of which is exactly that of psychoanalysis. You must 
abstract entirely from the apparent connection of the elements 
in the manifest dream and seek for the irruptive ideas which arise 
through free association, according to the psychoanalytic laws, 
from each separate dream element. From this material the 
latent thoughts may be discovered, exactly as one divines the 
concealed complexes of the patient from the fancies connected 
with his symptoms and memories. From the latent dream 
thoughts which you will find in this way, you will see at once 
how thoroughly justified one is in interpreting the dreams of 
adults by the same rubrics as those of children. What is now 
substituted for the manifest dream-content is the real sense of 
the dream, is always clearly comprehensible, associated with 
the impressions of the day before, and appears as the fulfilling 


of an unsatisfied wish. The manifest dream, which we re- 
member after waking, may then be described as a disguised 
fulfilment l of repressed wishes." * 

In observing the patient's " Fehlhandlungen " 
his bungling acts, and his errors in reading, writing, 
speaking, etc. the psychoanalyst again looks for 
hidden meanings : 

"These little things, the bungling of acts, like the sympto- 
matic and chance acts (Symptom- und Zufattshandlungen) are 
not so entirely without meaning as is generally supposed by a 
sort of tacit agreement. They have a meaning, generally easy 
and sure to interpret from the situation in which they occur, and 
it can be demonstrated that they either express impulses and 
purposes which are repressed, hidden if possible from the con- 

1 To the present writer it would seem a thousand times more 
reasonable to ascribe dreams to the idio-activity of brain-cells that 
have recently subserved powerful impressions, or ideas accompanied 
by emotion. If the dream were to start with such ideas as a nucleus, 
it would, if continued, lead by association (a process of "impartial 
redintegration") to things more irrelevant. With this state of affairs, 
the nucleus would, of course, occasionally be a wish. 

It is interesting to note the following paragraph by Breuer : 
"In the days immediately following a railway accident, for in- 
stance, one re-lives the scene in his waking hours and during sleep, 
and experiences again the painful shock and emotion. This continues 
till at last, after the period of 'psychic maturation' (Charcot) or in- 
cubation, conversion to a somatic phenomenon is effected." ("Stu- 
dien iiber Hysteric," p. 186.) 

But what repressed wish is symbolized when one re-lives such an 
event in his dreams? 

2 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at 
Clark University," pp. 21-22. 


sciousness of the individual, or that they spring from exactly 
the same sort of repressed wishes and complexes which we have 
learned to know already as the creators of symptoms and 
dreams." * 

In employing "controlled association," the psycho- 
analyst reads the patient a number of "stimulus- 
words." For each stimulus-word the patient gives 
the "reaction-word" (or words) first aroused in his 
mind by association. Example : 


"head foot 

green blouse 

water clear 

to sing children 

dead do not like 

long short 

ship forth 

to pay bills 

window room 

friendly children 

table chair 

to ask all kinds 

cold warm " 

From the relations between the stimulus- and 
reaction-words the psychoanalyst endeavors to fathom 
the patient's "repressed wishes" and sift the refuse 
of his "subconscious mind." 

For "free association" the procedure is as follows: 
1 Freud, loc. cit., p. 24. 


"The patient lies on his back on a lounge, the physician 
sitting behind the patient's head at the head of the lounge. 
In this way the patient remains free from all external influences 
and impressions. The object is to avoid all muscular exertion 
and distraction, thus allowing thorough concentration of atten- 
tion on the patient's own psychic activities. The patient is 
then asked to give a detailed account of his troubles, after hav- 
ing been told before to repeat everything that occurs to his 
mind, even such thoughts as may cause him embarrassment or 
mortification. On listening to such a history one invariably 
notices many memory gaps, both in reference to time and 
causal relations. These the patient is urged to fill in by concen- 
tration of attention on the subject in question, and by repeating 
all the unintentional thoughts originating in this connection. 
This is the so-called method of 'free association!' The pa- 
tient is required to relate all his thoughts in the order of their 
sequence even if they seem irrelevant to him. He must do 
away with all critique and remain perfectly passive. It is in 
this way that we fathom the original meaning of the symptom. 
But as the thoughts which originate in this manner are of a 
disagreeable and painful nature they are pushed back with the 
greatest resistance. This is further enhanced by the fact that 
the hysterical symptom is the symbolic expression of the reali- 
zation of a repressed wish, and serves as a gratification for the 
patient. He strives very hard, unconsciously of course, to 
retain the symptom, as it is the only thing left to him from his 
former unattainable conscious wishes and strivings. The 
object of the psychoanalytic treatment is to overcome all these 
resistances, and to reconduct to the patient's consciousness the 
thoughts underlying the symptoms." 1 

1 Brill, in the translator's preface to Freud's "Selected Papers 
on Hysteria and Other Psychoneuroses." 


In analyzing the material obtained, the physician 
interprets its symbolic nature. The procedure is 
most readily exemplified in the psychoanalyst's 
interpretation of dreams. The dream of a Rou- 
manian priest is thus recorded and interpreted by 
Stekel: 1 

"I tried to lease a residence from a certain Frau Konig. 
The residence was not to be had ; but it was promised to me for 
a later date. This occurred in my native town, and not in the 
town where I live at present." 

According to Stekel, engaging the residence refers 
to establishing a liaison. "Frau Konig" is a com- 
posite representation of four women, one of them 
the patient's mother. The reference to the patient's 
native town implies incestuous desires or propen- 

The following dream (of the wife of a " Wachmann") 
is recorded by Freud : 2 

"Then some one broke into the house, and she called appre- 
hensively to a policeman. But the policeman went with two 
pilgrims into a church. Many steps led up to the church, 
and behind the building there was a hill, and above, a thick 
forest. The policeman had a brown beard, and he was wearing 
a helmet, a gorget, and a mantle. The two travelling students, 
who went peacefully with the policeman, were wearing sack- 
like aprons around the loins. In front of the church a path led 
up to the hill. On both sides this path was overgrown with 

1 "NervSse Angstzustande und ihre Behandlung," p. 176. 
1 "Traumdeutung," 3d ed., p. 217. 


grass and brambles ; these grew thicker in the ascent, and on 
top of the hill formed a veritable forest." 

According to Freud's interpretation, the various 
objects of the dream symbolize different parts of the 
male and female genitalia. 

The psychoanalyst finds somewhat analogous ren- 
derings for practically all the material obtained. 

The therapeutic process consists, then, in tracing 
the putative connection between the morbid symp- 
toms and the "psychic trauma"; or, as the psycho- 
analyst sometimes puts it, in restoring the contents 
of the "subconscious mind" to consciousness. The 
therapy consists, further, in talking the matter over. 1 
This supposedly affords the patient an opportunity 
for liberating the "imprisoned emotions" through 
normal channels, thus neutralizing the process of 
"conversion." Freud goes so far as to say that 
the treatment has no curative effect if the patient 
does not experience emotion when reproducing 
the "traumatic scene." The "pathogenic wish" is 
"directed to a higher goal," is rejected by the better 
faculties, or is brought into reconcilement with the 
patient's conscience. Then, if the patient is going 
to get well, he does so. 

As a semi-scientific novelty, psychoanalysis has 
been employed in treating stammering. The results 

1 One of Breuer's patients has facetiously designated the treat- 
ment "the talking cure" or "chimney sweeping." 


in most cases seem to have been "negative." Dr. 
Laubi admits that "psychoanalysis is no panacea 
for stammering," l and he naively suggests that sim- 
pler means, such as change of diet or environment, are 
to be preferred. Probably these latter means would 
be just as effective. 

The main objection to the psychoanalytic theories 
is that they are based on a superlatively superficial 
psychology. The existence and activity of the sub- 
conscious mind are taken as postulates ; 2 and the 

1 Medizinisch-padagogische Monatsschrift filr die gesamte Sprach- 
heUkunde, Vol. XXI, p. 118. 

1 The following performance of the subconscious mind is recorded 
by Freud ("Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens," 3d ed., p. 126) : 

"In a letter to a friend I informed him that I had finished 
correcting the 'Traumdeutung,' and would make no further changes 
'even if the work should contain 2467 mistakes.' I tried at once to 
explain this particular number; and I embodied the analysis in 
a postcript to the letter. It will be well to cite the words that I 
wrote at the time as I caught myself in the act. 

"'Already a contribution to the "Psychopathologie des Alltags- 
lebens." You find in this letter the number 2467 as a jocund and ar- 
bitrary estimate of the number of mistakes I am to find in the Dream- 
book. It means, of course, any large number, but this is the particular 
number that appeared. Now, there is nothing arbitrary and unde- 
termined in the psychic life ; and you will rightly suppose that the 
subconscious mind determined the number to which the conscious 
mind gave expression. Now, I had just been reading in the paper 
that a certain General E. M. had retired with the rank of Master of 
the Ordnance. You must know that this man interests me. When I 
was serving in the army as a medical leve, the colonel, as he was then, 
came to the ward. He said to the doctor, "You must have me 
well in a week, for I have an important commission to fulfil for 


symbolic business is strained to the point where 
psychoanalysis is unequivocally stultified. 1 By a free 
use of symbolism one could, with a little ingenuity, 
interpret the material of any case to suit the circum- 

the Kaiser." I then resolved to follow his career, and now you see 
that to-day (1899) his military career is finished : he is a Master of 
the Ordnance, and has retired. I wished to calculate the number of 
years his promotion had covered. I suppose that I had seen him in 
the hospital in 1882 ; thus this period would be 17 years. I discussed 
this matter with my wife, and she remarked, "Then you should now 
be in retirement, too." I protested, "May the Lord forbid." After 
this conversation I seated myself at the table to write to you. But 
the former train of thought continued, and justly so I had reckoned 
wrongly. I have a point to establish this in my memory. I cele- 
brated my majority (my 24th birthday) under military arrest as 
the result of having taken French leave. That was in 1880, or 19 
years ago. There you have the number 24 in 2467. Now take my 
age, 43, add 24 to it, and you have the number 67 ! ' ' 

But one could, of course, explain any number from any set of cir- 
cumstances if he allows the "subconscious mind" full liberty to per- 
form calculations. To-day is Tuesday, September 3, 1912. As my 
subconscious mind thinks "Tuesday, the third," it naturally observes 
that there are 7 letters in the word Tuesday. It multiplies 7 by 3, 
obtaining 21 ; it then adds 3 to 21 and gets the result 24. Con- 
tinuing its investigations, my subconscious mind divides 3 into 24, 
and obtains 8. Squaring 8, it has 64; and adding 3, it derives 67. 
Simple enough ! 

But probably the most natural series of figures for one to redinte- 
grate is 1-2-3-4 or 2-4-6-8. The most natural deviations from the 
latter series are 2-4-6-7 or 2-4-6-9. In the case in question we have 
the former number, and perhaps the subconscious mind was not in- 
volved after all. This seems the more likely since the existence of 
the subconscious mind has never been demonstrated. 

1 In order to interpret material the psychoanalyst is even pre- 
pared for the "bisexual significance of a symptom." 


stances of any other. Moreover, with symbolism 
there is usually an infinity of possible interpretations, 
and no one but the psychoanalyst knows that his 
particular interpretation is correct. Furthermore, 
the wish and the repression are gratuitously adduced ; 
and must be sustained when reason affirms the exist- 
ence of neither. 1 

It is probable that the prevalence of "sexual trau- 
mata" has not been overestimated by the psycho- 
analysts, for Homo sapiens is but an animal with 
an assortment of somewhat undependable inhibi- 
tions. But psychoanalysts admit that "sexual trau- 
mata" are no more common among their patients 
than among persons free from neuroses ; hence it is 
evident that even if their theories are correct, but half 
of the story has as yet been told. 

Psychoanalysis, when it proves effectual, most 
probably works through suggestion. The objection 
to this theory is that some of the earliest patients 
were benefited in a "pre-suggestive" period. The 
objection to this objection is that hysterical and 
neurotic patients are often highly suggestible; and 
that when these early (female) patients submitted 
themselves to psychic treatment and willingly bared 

1 Why, for instance, should sexual symbolism be employed to inter- 
pret the respectable dreams of an intelligent and healthy-minded 
person that has normal sexual appetences of which he is totally 
unashamed and which he does not endeavor to "repress"? 


their sexual "secrets," they must have had inordinate 
confidence in the physician, and undoubtedly ex- 
pected to be benefited. 

But such arguments are futile, for Freud finds in 
those that oppose his theories "the same impairment 
of intelligence produced by emotivity" that he is 
accustomed to finding in his patients. 1 

1 "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at Clark 
University," p. 25. 



"STAMMERING-SCHOOLS" are of two general kinds 
the institutions and the correspondence schools. 1 
The principals of institutions contend, of course, 
that treatment by correspondence is impossible; 
and correspondence teachers maintain in their turn 
that the advocates of personal treatment are dis- 
ingenuous seekers after fees. It will be interesting 
(though perhaps scarcely profitable) to hear a few 
words on both sides of the argument : 

"It is impossible to give written or printed instructions for 
the cure of stammering and stuttering, for every case has its 
peculiar symptom and a physiognomy of its own." 

"Can stammering be cured at home? . . . We are inclined 
to believe that the reply has generally been in the negative by 
those schools whom resident pupils support by the payment of 
large fees and many weeks' board bill ; but this is only natural 
and is but a weakness of human nature, and while we have every 
sympathy and good feeling for the gentlemen, in charge of the 
various schools of this nature, yet we cannot help but feel that 
they are biassed in their judgment." 

"It would give me great pleasure and satisfaction if I could 
cure stammering by written instructions, but it cannot be done. 

1 Institutions are usually residential ; but occasionally pupils 
merely visit the school during the instruction period. 



So many contingencies are involved. Want of personal knowl- 
edge of a case, the temperament, the surroundings, the char- 
acter, and of the many circumstances attendant thereon, offer 
insurmountable difficulties." 

" Correspondence classes . . . have recently been formed. 
Results guaranteed." 

"Many persons have written to me to inquire if I could give 
them printed or written instructions that would serve the same 
purpose as then- presence at my school, to which question I 
have invariably answered, No." 

"It was formerly a prevalent idea that the Cure of Stammer- 
ing, without personal instruction, was an impossible undertak- 
ing. Theoretical writers gave it as their opinion, and practical 
instructors as the result of their experience. . . . 

"It is now unnecessary to prove that the cure without per- 
sonal instruction is theoretically possible, since the result is 

annually attained by The System in numerous instances 

without difficulty, and any method that will not stand this 
test must be incomplete or erroneous." 

"The method of cure cannot be imparted through corre- 
spondence ; cannot be written down so as to be of any advan- 
tage to an uninstructed person." 

"I cordially invite sufferers from this distressing condition 
to allow me to prescribe for them individual courses of my 
treatment, which can be successfully carried out at home, 
occupying but a few minutes of the day, and interfering with 
no business, domestic or social engagement." 

It is scarcely necessary for us to discuss the merits 
(or demerits) of correspondence schools. These 
schools impart nothing that is not accessible in works 


on elocution or stammering. The "correspondence 
pupil" merely pays a higher price for his information 
and gets it in instalments. 

Nevertheless, the proprietors of the institutions 
are not always disinterested hi their arguments against 
correspondence treatment. The instructor that writes 
of temperament, surroundings, character, and con- 
tingencies, finds that stammering is attempting to 
speak hi an impossible way. He says there is only 
one way to speak ; and when you pay, he shows you. 

Another "specialist" has overcome a good many 
dilemmas. In his advertising literature he says : 

"There are no fewer than twenty or more entirely different 
and distinct types of stammering and stuttering, and there is 
no set plan or code of rules or exercises that will apply to all 
cases alike." 

"Each case," says the same specialist, "must receive indi- 
vidual care and instruction." l 

Since writing all this, the "specialist" has de- 
vised a Home Course that costs forty dollars ; and 
on some points he has changed his opinion. 

But all this discussion is rather idle. Corre- 
spondence schools are few and sporadic. They prob- 
ably do very little good and very little harm; and 
they need not be taken seriously. 

Residential and similar institutions have existed 

1 His pupils, however, are taught en masse, and the one remedy 
for their twenty types of stammering is beating time. 


for more than a hundred years; and it is with these 
stammering-schools that we are concerned (and it is 
these, of course, that we have had in mind in previous 

The systems of these institutions, as already stated, 
consist of assemblages of expedients and exercises 
such as we have discussed. It would be impossible, 
of course, to describe each of these systems in detail ; 
hence the writer gives the salient measures of a 
representative system for each of a number of dif- 
ferent countries : 

i. A Representative English System 

Inhale through the mouth. 

When coldness is felt in the glottis, let the breath return. 

Start speaking from the open position. 

Wag the jaw freely. 

Articulate lightly, but give final consonants compensatory 


Maintain continuity of sound. 
Speak slowly. 
Avoid effort sigh the word out. 


Moaning vowels. 

Saying bd-be-bi-bo-bii, etc. 

Vowel-reading with gradual interpolation of consonants. 

Reading in a whisper. 


Speaking before a mirror. 

Relating anecdotes. Etc., etc. 


2. A Representative American System 

Inhale through the nose, breathing diaphragmatically. 

Start from the closed position. 

Give light articulation to closed consonants. 

Open the mouth widely for continuous consonants. 

Lower the pitch for vowels. 

Beat time with the hand, and utter one syllable to a beat. 

Speak slowly. 

Eschew tea, coffee, and tobacco. 

Be positive : "You've got to be It." 

Exercises: l 

Ling's Swedish gymnastic exercises. 
Respiratory exercises, with and without dumb-bell drill. 
Vocal exercises, with and without dumb-bell drill. 
Rhythmic speaking while marching, performing dumb-bell 

exercises, etc. 
Asking and answering questions ; telling stories ; talking from 

platform ; etc. always with rhythmic speech. 
" Stranger-practice." 

3. A Representative Canadian System 

Inhale before speaking. 

Drop the jaw ; keep the muscles of the throat and jaw tense. 

Prefix the vowel ah to the initial word in order to open the 

Think sound. 
Produce sound promptly. 
Speak in a low pitch. 
Maintain continuity of sound. 
Articulate lightly ; omit the more difficult consonants. 

1 A period of silence is observed at the beginning of treatment. 



Practising the "fundamental vowel" ah. 
Reading ; relating anecdotes ; etc., etc. 

4. A Representative French System 

Speak with assurance : never doubt your powers. 

Take a deep initial inspiration, employing "costal-abdom- 
inal" breathing. 

Forthwith let the breath return, and start speaking. 

Avoid an abrupt beginning. 

Prolong the initial syllable. 

Articulate lightly. 

Avoid all effort in speech. 

Do not speak in a guttural, sepulchral, or smothered voice : 
make the vowels sonorous. 

Exaggerate lip-movements and watch the labial positions. 

Join the syllables together, using the ordinary rhythm of 

Avoid jerky speech, abrupt inspirations, escape of unvocal- 
ized breath, speaking on the inspiratory current, fast and 
slow talking, etc. 

Practise often before a mirror. 

Avoid arguments, anger, excess of pleasure, late hours, 
abuse of tobacco and spirits, etc. 


Gymnastic exercises, and walking with avoidance of 


Vowel exercises. 
Consonant exercises. 
Reading ; reciting ; relating anecdotes ; etc. 


5. A Representative Belgian System 

Open the mouth wide. 
Inhale through the mouth. 
Produce sound immediately. 

Study the physiological production of the different conson- 
ants and vowels. 


Breathing-exercises, with respiration occurring through the 

Breathing-exercises, with respiration occurring through the 


Vocal and articulatory exercises. 
Exercises for developing precision of thought (reciting; 

reading ; replying to questions, etc.). 
Memory-culture learning and reciting passages by heart, 


6. A Representative German System 

Speak slowly and quietly (and think in a quiet and orderly 

Speak in a moderately loud voice. 

Be sure of what you are going to say, and know how you 
are going to say it. 

Do not attempt to say everything at once ; but speak syl- 
lable by syllable, word by word, and thought by thought. 

Inhale deeply (through the mouth) before speaking; do 
not raise the shoulders. 

Speak in a rather low pitch. 

Begin quietly, and prolong the initial vowel. 

Regard the initial consonant of one word as the final con- 
sonant of the word preceding. 

Regard the sentence as a single word, and run the syllables 


Never direct the expiratory pressure upon the consonant, 

but always upon the vowel. 
Take the vowel-position promptly. 
Do not waste the breath before speaking; but commence 

Speak with plenty of breath, and speak in a low voice. 1 


Gymnastic exercises. 
Respiratory exercises. 
Vocal exercises. 
Articulatory exercises. 
Speaking before a mirror. 

Reading; reciting; completing sentences; replying to 
questions ; relating anecdotes ; reading dialogue ; etc. 

7. A Representative Danish System 

Speak slowly as slowly as possible at the beginning of 

Avoid flurry and excitement. 

Listen quietly when addressed ; reflect, then reply quietly 
and with composure. 

Prolong the vowel of the initial syllable. 

Respire strongly; regard the mouth as merely an air pas- 

Repress useless movements of the head, shoulders, feet, etc. 

Do not lay stress upon the consonant; do not separate it 
from the vowel. 

Begin the vowel gently without effort. 

Open the mouth before speaking. 

1 A "low voice" and a "moderately loud voice " seem incompatible. 
The rules given above are, however, quoted or abbreviated from 
printed instructions. 


Inhale through the mouth (but breathe through the nose 

when silent). 
Know that you know how to speak when you observe the 

given rules. 

Articulate clearly, but exaggerate movements of the mouth. 
Know what you are going to say and how you are going to 

say it. 

Avoid excitement and emotion. Always be calm. 
Be especially careful if with stammerers or persons that 

speak rapidly. 
Be able to look any man in the eye. 


Breathing-exercises; vocal exercises; reading; mirror-prac- 
tice ; etc. 

8. A Representative Russian System 

Observe the initial inspiration. 

Employ indirect attack. 

Prefix short e () to difficult words. 

Articulate consonants lightly. 

Lengthen the vowels, making them clear and loud. 

Employ a free movement of the articulative organs. 

Study the physiological production of the speech-elements. 

Exercises: 1 

Respiratory exercises. 

Vocal exercises. 

Articulatory exercises. 


Speaking in a whisper. 

Speaking rhythmically and gesticulating. 

1 A period of silence is observed at the beginning of treatment. 


Speaking in a monotone. 

Speaking in low pitch. 

Speaking naturally from memory, extemporaneously, etc. 

Practising before a mirror. 

Practising internal speech, etc., etc. 

g. A Representative Austrian System 

Inhale slowly and deeply. 

Control the breath in its outward passage. 

Speak immediately on beginning to exhale ; avoid waste of 

breath both before and during speech. 
Speak the initial syllable with extreme care. 
Speak slowly, but loudly and clearly. 
Speak with moderate vigor. 


Ling's Swedish gymnastic exercises. 
Respiratory exercises with and without a spirometer. 
Vocal exercises. 
Articulatory exercises. 
Reading syllabically and naturally. 
Answering questions. 
Reading and paraphrasing stories. 

Accommodating oneself to interruptions, requests to repeat, 

The reader will naturally inquire : What are the 
possibilities of achieving a cure with these different 
systems? It would be more to the point, perhaps, 
to speak of impossibilities ; but we will continue. 
The writer recently wrote to the principal of an Amer- 
ican stammering-school to ascertain, if possible, the 


percentage of cures that this particular "specialist" 
effected. In reply he received a rambling letter and 
a collection of circus-bills describing the activities 
of the institution. As this was rather indefinite, 
the writer made another attempt, asking the specific 
questions : 

"Does the proportion of complete and permanent cures 
exceed ten per cent ? 

"In cases where pupils have tried the methods of other insti- 
tutions, does the proportion exceed five per cent ? 

"Would you state specifically what percentage of cures you 
achieve ? " 

The reply was as follows : 

"Dear Sir: 

" I am in receipt of your letter of Dec. 2oth. Replying thereto 
will say that any case of stammering or stuttering regardless 
of the cause or severity of the case can be entirely and perma- 
nently cured by my methods of instructions, that is, where the 
individual who is under our instructions possesses the ordinary 
amount of intelligence. It is necessary, of course, for the 
pupil to do his part. 

" Very truly yours, 

The principal of this particular school guarantees 
to cure stammering. His reply was therefore in- 

The writer continued his investigations, and at the 

1 The remedy employed in this school is rhythmic speech. 


cost of considerable labor managed to communicate 
with a hundred ex-pupils of two other stammering- 
schools one an American and the other an English 
institution, and both of them schools that guaran- 
tee to cure stammering. 1 Among these one hundred 
ex-pupils, five pronounced themselves cured. Of these 
five students, two have, to the writer's knowledge, 
since relapsed. One of the remaining three the 
writer met recently in New York, and this cured 
stammerer was beating time and speaking at the rate 
of approximately one word a minute. Of the remain- 
ing two, one was a school-teacher before he attended 
the institution. Thus we have apparently two per- 
manent cures hi one hundred cases, with one of the 
cures to be heavily discounted. 

This percentage is not in any way exceptional. 
The principal of one of the foremost Swiss institutions 
has recently abandoned his work because he was 
unable to cure more than four or five per cent of his 

Temporary "cures," or apparent cures, are easy 
enough to accomplish. Dr. Coe'n reported 54 cures 
in 128 cases. (Of the remaining patients, 52 were 
improved, and 22 not benefited.) Dr. Klencke, with 
148 patients, admits failure in only 10 instances. 
But the "cured" patients referred to in these re- 
ports are merely pupils pronounced cured at the time 

1 The majority of the correspondents attended the American school. 


they leave the institution. These pupils almost in- 
variably relapse when the vocal exercises, etc. (which 
probably intensify the auditory imagery), are prac- 
tised less frequently or discontinued. The relapse 
is usually ascribed by the principals of these schools 
to "carelessness." But the writer could name four 
principals that have themselves relapsed; thus it 
might be better to find another argument. 

The facts are that these various speech-institutions 
usually treat nothing but physical stammering. By 
removing this excrescence they often effect a spec- 
tacular improvement ; but they seldom accomplish a 
cure. In this connection the words of Kingsley are 
significant : 

"You can cure yourself, or all but cure yourself 1 in three 
months ... if you will think over, and practise, what follows." J 

The "all but" is significant; and Kingsley ad- 
vises his correspondent to "keep up reading aloud, for 
months to come, or even for years." 

Bell advises the stammerer to "work on hopefully, 
even though, for a time, he should seem to be 'hoping 
against hope.'" 3 

Wyneken, the reader will remember, spent two and 

1 Italics not in the original. 

1 " Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol. 
II, p. 260. 

1 Alexander Melville Bell, "Principles of Speech," $th ed., p. 240. 


a half years at the Katenkamp Institute, and was still 
not cured of his impediment. 1 

The writer has an acquaintance that has taken 
eight courses at an English stammering-school. He 
still seems good for eight or a dozen more. 

Dr. Findley records the cogent fact that he has 
given " an average of at least three hours a day for 
forty years," to an unsuccessful attempt to rid him- 
self of his impediment. 2 

It is evident that there is something lacking in 
the systems. The systems are deficient in that they 
attack merely the physical manifestations of what is 
in reality a psychical defect. The following para- 
graph presents the popular point of view : 

" Causes of Stammering : There are five principal active 
causes. First, not opening the glottis so as to produce sound ; 
second, not allowing the lower jaw to have free play; third, 
pressing the lips tightly together ; fourth, pressing the teeth 
too tightly against the lips ; and fifth (most difficult to get 
rid of), pressing the tongue tightly against the teeth or gums. " J 

Small wonder that men with such ideas on the 
nature of the malady almost invariably fail in their 
efforts to effect a cure. Such men know nothing 
about the defect. For them, everything is "stam- 

1 "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," p. 26. 

2 The Voice, Vol. VII, p. 53. 

3 And men that write this kind of nonsense usually profess to treat 
the cause of stammering. (" We treat the Cause, and not the Habit " ; 
"I treat the cause, and not the symptoms" ; etc.) 


mering," - the subject's inability to speak, his 
physical effort in making the attempt, his bewilder- 
ment and fear, his emotive respiratory disturbances, 
and a dozen other secondary causes and symptoms. 
And this "stammering" they assail as a unitary 
speech-defect. Failure is naturally inevitable. 1 

It does not necessarily follow, of course, from the 
nature of past experience, that stammering is usually 
an incurable defect; but it does follow that the 
remedial systems commonly employed are grossly 

The reader may now inquire : How is it that most 
of the "world's greatest" "speech specialists" guaran- 
tee to cure stammering? 

The answer is, of course, that they do not. When 
the man in the picture points his finger at you and 
says, "I guarantee to cure stammering," he is lying. 
What "speech specialists" represent as a guarantee 
to cure is merely a promise to refund the fees in case 
of failure : 

" I hereby agree to return at any time all tuition fees paid 
by you, should my treatment fail to cure you of your impedi- 
ment of speech; provided that you have in all particulars 
strictly followed my instructions." * 

1 It is so inevitable that many "specialists" reveal practically 
their entire systems in "free trial lessons" intended to attract prospec- 
tive pupils to their respective institutions. 

7 Form of an English guarantee. 


But most of these " iron-clad " guarantees will not 
bear inspection. The following is the reply of an 
American " speech-specialist " to a prospective pupil 
that had requested a copy of the much-vaunted " legal 
guarantee : " 

"I am in receipt of your letter this morning, answering which 
I wish to say my guarantee is a written receipt for the money 
paid me for tuition." 

A copy of the receipt could not be obtained. 
Another American "specialist" thus responds to a 
similar request : 

"I am in receipt of your letter of March 4th and replying 
thereto will say that our Guarantee Certificates are not for 
distribution. I wish to emphasize the fact, though, that the 
Certificate will be issued to you the minute you enroll in this 
institute as a pupil." 

"Enroll as a pupil" ! This means, of course, 
"pay the necessary fee." The student first parts 
with his money, and then receives what is virtually a 
written statement that he has been deluded. 

These guarantees are of the flimsiest character, 1 

1<C I guarantee to cure any case of stammering or stuttering I 
accept for treatment, and am willing to refund every cent paid as 
tuition if I do not fulfil my agreement to the very letter, by not im- 
parting such instructions, which, if followed, will effect a cure." 

" Mr. guarantees that the system, duly carried out un- 
der his guidance, affords the means of overcoming impediments of 


and they invariably contain the proviso that the 
student must "in all particulars strictly follow the in- 
structions." " Following the instructions " may mean 
anything whatever. It may mean beating time, sing- 
songing or drawling one's words, carrying and speaking 
to the beats of a metronome, and in general comport- 
ing oneself in a preeminently asinine manner. The 
instructions may require the pupil to talk "on rule" 
or "with the method" for a year or more after he 
leaves the institution, and they may even require 
him not to stammer. When the student follows the 
instructions to the best of his ability and fails to obtain 
relief for his impediment, he will almost invariably 
find, if he requests a refundment of his money, that 
the "iron-clad" guarantee is worthless. In the first 
place, the guarantee is usually not issued to the stu- 
dent unless he makes a point of asking for it at the 
time that he "enrolls." In the second place, if it is "is- 
sued," it is kept in the possession of the principal till 
the student is discharged as "cured." In the third 
place, if the guarantee is ever delivered to the student, 
he will find that it contains a clause releasing the 
principal in case of non-permanency of the "cure." 
It might be interesting to note, too, in the fourth 
place, that if the student inquires into the matter, he 
will find that he has signed away his rights in his 
original " Application Blank." Signing this iniquitous 
instrument is part of the formal enrolment. Usually 


the trusting student appends his signature to the inno- 
cent-looking "Application" without question. If he 
stops to examine the " blank," he will often find it an 
involved and highly technical document, and may 
eventually sign it with no clear idea of what it is all 
about. And if he clearly comprehends it, he may 
think it guileless enough while he is ignorant of what 
is to follow. 

In his "Application" the student undertakes to 
remain at the institution till the principal deems it 
expedient for him to depart. But this never happens 
till the pupil has signed another statement declaring 
himself satisfied with the treatment he has received. 
If he does not sign the statement, he must board at 
the institution for life or leave in contravention of 
instructions. Usually the student signs the statement 
of satisfaction in order to receive his formal discharge 
and his written instructions for "continuation prac- 
tice," which practice ostensibly insures the comple- 
tion and permanency of the cure. 

Figuratively, the student is bound hand and foot 
from the moment he signs his "Application." He is 
at once "put on silence" and is unable to protest, 
though he find himself at every turn the victim of de- 
ception. He is often required to make daily or weekly 
reports, and if he records difficulty in speech, he may 
be harassed with periods of silence and additional 
exercises till he finally falls into line. If at any point 


in the course he should take exception to irregularities, 
he is expeditiously gagged with another "silence 
period." If he fails to observe silence, he is expelled 
as unruly. 1 He has practically no alternative but to 
submit to the imposture and hope that the burlesque 
treatment will prove effective. The average student 
avoids friction and ultimately signs the statement of 
satisfaction (for there is no alternative ; and he has, 
moreoever, usually improved). He then continues to 
perform the prescribed exercises, and finds months 
after leaving the institution that he has been hope- 
lessly defrauded. At this juncture he can secure a 
refundment of the fees only with the greatest diffi- 
culty. The "iron-clad" guarantee is worthless, and 
he can obtain redress only by resort to litigation. 

A few years ago the writer followed a case in which 
an ex-pupil of an American institution undertook 
to enforce a return of the fees paid for a guaranteed 
cure of his impediment. 

A formal application for refundment educed the 
following reply from the "specialist" : 

"Dear Sir: 

"Answering your letter received this morning my contract 
with you was fulfilled when you left my institution. I owe 
you nothing. Your signature of entire satisfaction together 

1 All of the foregoing remarks do not apply to all institutions that 
"guarantee" to cure stammering. The writer is merely citing the 
typical case. 


with the clause contained in the contract [the "Application"] 
signed by you referring to my non-liability in case of recurrence 
of difficulty, covers the ground perfectly. . . . 

" Very truly yours, 

"Covers the ground perfectly" ! It is evident 
that the principal feels justifiable pride in the efficiency 
of his technique. It is evident, too, that the fees 
will not be readily forthcoming. The following is 
the more emphatic reply of the principal to a more 
emphatic letter from the student : 

"Dear Sir: 

" Answering your letter of June 2oth received this morn- 
ing, I desire to say if you are having any difficulty in your talk- 
ing it is due to your own neglect and carelessness and to the 
non-fulfilment of requirement [beating time]. 

" Concerning any difficulty you may have experienced after 
leaving the school, there is printed across the face of the appli- 
cation [note the word !] you signed when you entered my in- 
stitution, a clause setting forth my non-liability referring to 
the permanency of the cure. 

"Your daily report upon our record shows you reported no 
difficulty whatever from the 3oth of August until the i3th of 
October, the date of your leaving, at which time you expressed 
yourself in the presence of witnesses, both verbally and in writ- 
ing, as perfectly satisfied. Your signature appears attached to 
the following : 

"'The terms and conditions of my Application and Agree- 
ment, Form No. 3307, having been fulfilled by , I here- 


with desire to express myself as perfectly satisfied with the 

result of my treatment at the School. 

" (Signed) 

"I am willing to have you take any action in the matter that 
you may choose and am ready for you in more ways than one. 

"Yours for perfect speech, 

Here we have a veiled threat of personal violence. 
The student, however, was not to be deterred ; and 
in reference to the technique he responded that, since 
the "Guarantee" was invalid, he would prosecute 
the principal for obtaining money by false pretenses. 
The reply to this letter emanated from the "Law 
Offices of- -": 

"Dear Sir: 

"Your letter of the agth ult. to Mr. has been handed 

to me for reply. I have examined the papers in this matter 
and from your written acknowledgement of satisfaction as 

to the fulfilment of Mr. 's agreement, your daily report 

showing no difficulty for a long time previous to the leav- 
ing of his Institute, from examining the conditions of your 

signed contract [the "Application Blank"] releasing Mr. 

from liability in case of non-permanency of your cure and from 
other testimony that he has laid before me, I have advised him 
to tell you to proceed in any manner that you see fit. 

"I have also had laid before me a letter written by you where- 
in you formally notify Mr. that you will prosecute him 
for obtaining 'this money' by false pretenses, if said money is 
not duly refunded. You may not be familiar with our statutes, 
and you must have been ill advised in writing such a letter. It 


is only fair to call your attention to a provision in our law, Sec- 
tion 11488, 3d volume of Compiled Laws of Michigan, wherein, 
if any person shall by printed communication maliciously 
threaten to accuse another of any crime or offence with intent 
to compel the person so threatened to do or refrain from doing 
any act against his will, that the same is punishable by impris- 
onment. . 

" Attorney for 

Now we have a browbeating lawyer threatening 
imprisonment, and an irate "principal" threaten- 
ing personal violence. Verily the technique is highly 
developed. But in the instance we are discussing, 
the student was unimpressed by this kind of balder- 
dash, and he shortly arrived upon the scene to initiate 
proceedings. But the technique was exhausted, and 
the student left in a few hours with every cent of 
his fees refunded. 

(And this principal the benign soul is, if we 
may believe him, devoting his life to the service of 
others. And he guarantees to cure any case of stam- 
mering or stuttering that he accepts for treatment.) 

So much for "legal guarantees." 

The instance cited above (with everything but the 
refundment of the money) gives the typical experience 
of countless stammerers from numerous stammering- 
schools. Small wonder that there exist, besides these 
schools, Ex-Pupils' Leagues for combating their 


And now one may well inquire : How is it that 
" speech specialists" are able to produce cogent and 
convincing testimonials ? The answer to this ques- 
tion must be somewhat protracted. 

In the first place, most schools display a collection 
of testimonials from non-stammerers people that 
are absolutely ignorant of the subject on which they 
write, and know virtually nothing of the institutions 
they indorse. 

The writer has never known of a worthless institu- 
tion that was not recommended by a body of bishops, 
colonels, mayors, postmasters, doctors, and men that 
are usually credited with intelligence. The clergy 
are inveterate recommenders : it seems to be a 
singularly painful thing for a minister of religion to 
refuse a recommendation to a well-disposed professor 
that has recounted the great good he is able to accom- 

In America, recommendations from mayors, ex- 
mayors, and merchants are often obtained through 
"Commercial Associations," " Boosters' Clubs," and 
organizations for mutual support among rotten con- 
cerns that cannot exist on merit. Newspaper puffs 
in the local press (when not paid for) are usually in- 
serted in the interests of "a greater Mudville." 

Thus we have numerous persons with the recom- 
mending habit indorsing institutions that they know 
nothing about. 


It is a signal fact that Alexander Melville Bell has 
written a glowing testimonial for a stammering- 
school whose method he condemns as the resort of 
charlatans. 1 No one would doubt the good faith of 
the distinguished phoneticist; but it is evident that 
if he could be deceived as to the methods and merits 
of an institution, the opinion of the average uninitiated 
person must be absolutely worthless. 

The non-stammerer, even if he makes the most 
careful inquiries, is usually misled by the amelioration 
of stammering under the various systems of training. 
The amelioration, however, is nothing more than the 
temporary disappearance of physical stammering; 
and it does not constitute even the beginning of a 
radical cure. But the untrained mind is impressed 
by the overt and the spectacular; and in the case 
of stammering it is affected by things foreign to 
its illations. 

But even trained observers are often deceived where 
stammering is concerned. It is interesting to note 
that the worthless "Bates' Appliances" were awarded 
the First Premium and the Scott Legacy Premium 
by the Franklin Institute. These same trinkets 

1 The school indorsed employs the time-beating method, concern- 
ing which Bell says ("Faults of Speech," 5th ed., p. 12): "The 
stammerer's difficulty is : where to turn for effective assistance. 
Certainly not . . . to any whose 'system' involves drawling, singing, 
sniffling, whistling, stamping, beating time all of which expedients 
have constituted the 'curative' means of various charlatans." 


were also awarded numerous medals and diplo- 
mas at fairs and exhibitions. Colombat, for his 
ridiculous and pirated methods, was accorded the 
Monthyon prize by the French Academy. Medals 
and diplomas for worthless systems of "curing" 
stammering are almost as numerous as the worthless 
systems themselves. To the average person these 
guerdons would betoken indubitable merit in the 
method of treatment; but to one cognizant of the 
facts they usually imply nothing more than com- 
mercial enterprise in the recipient. 

And now we can consider testimonials from stam- 
merers themselves. 

At the outset we may reject all testimonials that 
do not attest a positive cure, or that record fluency 
in speech "when the instructions are strictly fol- 
lowed." - 

"It gives me great pleasure to testify to the excellence of 
your System for the Cure of Stammering. I have derived great 
benefit from the course of instruction which I have received 
from you. In my estimation the worst stammerer may be 
cured, provided your rules are strictly adhered to." 

"I feel quite sure that if the pupil will only carry out your 
simple rules, he will soon get cured. 

"The system could not possibly be easier." 

"My daughter practises the exercises with much profit. I 
hope very soon to see her perfectly cured." 

" I am still getting on famously." 

in a 


"I find that the reading under your conditions, and pro- 
vided I take plenty of time and lengthen out each word, gives 
me no difficulty." 

"In answer to your inquiry will say that I am entirely satis- 
fied with the result of treatment, and shall be glad to speak a 
good word for you at any time. I shall continue to practise 
the exercises for some time as I wish to become a fluent talker." 

I am pleased to say that your instructions have helped me 
marked degree, and by following your rules carefully, I am 
sure my success will be permanent." 

"It is with pleasure and gratitude I make this statement in 

behalf of the thoroughness and efficiency of Mr. 's system 

of treatment. He has the most intellectual system ever known, 
having experience of his treatment. I heartily recommend Mr. 
to those who are in need of such instruction." 

"Having personally attended your school I am in a position 
to speak. If your instructions are closely followed there is no 
question of a cure for the worst case of stammering." 

"I am much pleased with the results of my treatment at your 
Institution, and am satisfied that any one who follows the in- 
structions given by you will succeed in overcoming their diffi- 
culty of stammering." 

"I feel no hesitancy whatever in saying that the School 

is the best Institute for the cure of stammering and stuttering 
in the world." 

" In my opinion no stammerer can make a mistake by attend- 
ing the Institute." 

" I have been getting on very well in class, and am reading 
there every day." 


"Have derived great benefit from the course of treatment 
received while attending your school." 

" Since I came home I have been talking splendidly, having 
had good opportunities, and putting myself to the test. 

"If a person will follow your instructions it will be impossible 
to stammer." 
Etc., etc. 

The "greatly benefited" testimonials usually mean 
that the student is just leaving the institution and 
has overcome physical stammering. But a week later 
he may be ready to repudiate his indorsement and 
denounce the principal as a quack. The writer has 
known of several instances in which these were the 
exact circumstances. The fact that a stammerer has 
been temporarily benefited, and was for a short time 
satisfied with the treatment, implies very little. 

The "if instructions are followed " testimonials are 
certainly interesting documents ; and one wonders 
how such vile encomiums come to be indited. The 
facts are, of course, that the principals of stammering- 
schools periodically solicit recommendations from 
their former pupils ; and that these ambiguous testi- 
monials are given because of the principal's impor- 
tunity, or are furnished in return "for value re- 

"I gave Mr. the testimonial he published because of 

a promise by him to send me a book which he said would 
assist me in perfecting my cure." 


The following is the promise of a German stutter- 
doctor that sells his victims an expensive book on the 
"cure" of stammering : 

"After you have written me your opinion of my book I will 
send you some information and practical advice that will greatly 
hasten the removal of your impediment." 

The promise is made in a circular letter sent to 
purchasers of the book shortly after the work has come 
into their possession. The circular directly suggests 
that the correspondents mention what progress they 
have made and state the fact if they have accom- 
plished a cure. 

An American author of a trashy and expensive 
book pays cold cash for testimonials : 

"Whenever you can write me thus : 'Your book is the thing 
I needed. I can apply its simple, natural principle, and it is 
a home cure in deed and in truth to me,' you can get $5.00 as a 
promised premium." 

The author supplies the very words and pays his 
correspondent five dollars to copy them. The same 
gentleman pays "ten dollars in gold" for testimonials 
of cure. 

These facts may account for some of the ambiguous 
testimonials that are published. Perhaps few stam- 
merers are tempted by offers of money "in gold," 
but no doubt many would be seduced by promises 
of help in matters pertaining to their impediment. 


And now we have to consider testimonials that 
categorically certify a cure. Among these testi- 
monials we may immediately reject all that are 
written directly after the pupil leaves the institution. 
At this time the pupil's imagery may be good, his 
confidence high, and his physical stammering nil. He 
is then ready to testify that he is completely cured, and 
that Professor Cheetem's stammering-school is the best 
in the world. But his cure may be brief, his world may 
be small, and his testimonial may be worthless. 

Among testimonials written later, there is also a 
class to be discounted. Many ex-pupils that "have 
not stammered for a year " may be beating time in the 
hope of ultimately attaining fluency. How large a 
proportion of "cured" stammerers still "follow in- 
structions" it is quite impossible to say, but most of 
the "cures" that the writer has encountered have 
been distinctly peculiar. On the same subject, dif- 
ferent people have different conceptions. 

And now we come to cures that are unmistakably 
genuine. Some of these are to be found in every 
institution. This circumstance is not surprising when 
one regards the fact that there are approximately three 
times as many stammering children as stammering 
adults. Late in childhood or during adolescence many 
stammerers gradually lose the impediment. This 
may occur either inside or outside of a stammering- 
school ; but when it occurs within the institution, the 


principal gets the credit. The "professor" would in- 
deed be an unlucky mortal if none of his pupils should 
be undergoing this fortunate transition. And lastly, 
most stammering-schools do effect an exiguous pro- 
portion of cures. But when one reflects that some 
institutions have treated thousands of cases, he will 
not be unduly impressed if two dozen pupils should 
testify to their permanent relief. (And he will par- 
don the fact if these few pupils should be staunch 
supporters of an unconscionable charlatan.) 

And while the "professor" is waiting for these tes- 
timonials, he can treat cases "in strict confidence." 1 
Or if he is more resourceful, he can buy his testi- 
monials from a dumb man or a professional recom- 
mender; or he may save part of the money, and 
spend the rest on paper, pen, and ink. 

So much for testimonials. 

Some "speech specialists" impress "prospectives" 
by their seeming erudition. They contrive to read 
papers before medical societies, associations of elocu- 

1 An English specialist treats neurasthenia, constipation, liver 
trouble, skin disorders, obesity, stammering, etc., for five and a 
half guineas. He gives testimonials concerning some ailments, but 
treats stammerers confidentially. 

In reply to a request for references to former pupils, he writes : 
"I have received your letter dated the isth ult. ... I cannot, 
however, accede to your request because I think you will understand 
as I undertake to treat all cases in strict confidence I cannot send you 
the address of any of my patients." 


tionists, etc., and make these facts of great avail in 
their proclamations. But the facts imply no indorse- 
ment of the "professor" or his system; the "pro- 
fessor," indeed, may be virtually annihilated when 
his paper comes under discussion. 

Many ignorant quacks have their names on the 
title-pages of ponderous (but worthless) volumes 
on the subject of stammering. A large proportion 
of these works are, of course, written by literary 
"ghosts." The writer has in mind a "specialist" 
that has written books on stammering comprising 
together over a thousand pages. This gentleman 
cannot spell the word "off." -The less illiterate 
"specialists" frequently plagiarize or paraphrase 
from recognized authors. One conversant with the 
literature on stammering is constantly meeting old 
friends in unexpected places. The writer recently 
read a newly published and seemingly respectable 
English work on stammering in which numerous 
pages and paragraphs could be identified as literal 
translations from the German. 

The writings of the " specialists " usually contain a 
revelation of ignorance. Naturally, the ignorance is 
most in evidence when the authors attempt a dis- 
play of knowledge. One writer tells us that - 

" In mental operations we evolve thought, which causes a 
slight elevation of temperature, a rearrangement of the brain cells 
involved and necessarily an expenditure of energy." 


The same author informs us that the jellyfish is 
the lowest form of animal life. He also supplies the 
information that the false vocal cords are devoid of 

Another interesting writer conveys the information 

"A man cannot open and shut the glottis, as he does his 
mouth, by a voluntary effort." 

Another ignoramus says : 

"You do not find stammerers amongst savage and negro 
races. Another curious fact feminine stammerers far ex- 
ceed masculine ones." 

This writer also declares that stammering is a 
"nervous functional distemper" similar to biting the 

Numerous writers enter the ethnological field and 
tell us that among the Chinese, stammering does not 
exist. But these "specialists" are always most 
interesting when they confine themselves to their 
major subject and tell us how they discovered "in- 
tercostal breathing," or how they vocalize "square 
inches of breath" by controlling the "a/reture 1 of 
the glottis." The reader can then discern with what 
type of person he is dealing. He will not be surprised 
at a "professor's" deficiency in knowledge, for the 

1 One of the "World's Greatest" always talks of the "a/>reture " ; 
the word "aperture" does not occur in his vocabulary. 


qualification for a world's greatest "speech specialist " 
is not merely colossal arrogance, but likewise colossal 

Most "speech specialists" are obscurantists, and 
they are naturally jealous of their secret methods. 
The stammerer that enters an institution or takes a cor- 
respondence course must usually sign an undertaking 
not to divulge the "method" l or engage in the busi- 
ness of treating stammering. 

The principal of a German institution requires the 
pupil's signature to the following document: 

"I promise not to divulge 's Method, and especially 

not to divulge it to other teachers of stammerers. 1 I under- 
take to pay a forfeit of five hundred marks if I should violate 
this agreement." 

As a preliminary to enrolling in an English corre- 
spondence school, the pupil must agree to keep mum 
about the booklet that is lent him. The principal 
requires him to undertake in writing 

"Not to disclose any part of its contents to any person, 
and not to make, or allow to be made, a copy or note of any 
part; nor to give instruction, advice, or information of any 

1 Most of these secret methods have been frequently described in 
the literature on stammering. The writer hopes and believes that 
few of them have been omitted from these pages. 

1 It is not an uncommon practice for the "specialists" to send 
bogus pupils from one institution to another to investigate rival 


kind to any one in future on stammering or defects in speech ; 
but when it is desired that friends should be made acquainted 
with the system (which is in some cases advantageous), this 
can be done by obtaining Mr. 's previous consent, pro- 
vided such friends are not themselves affected in speech." 1 

Such preposterous impudence! 

For forty dollars the stammerer may lease from an 
American "specialist" a "Home-Course of Instruc- 
tion," the equipment for which includes a tin talking 
machine. The following contract specifies the terms 
on which the student borrows the paraphernalia : 

"Desirous of being cured of my impediment of speech, I 
herewith make application for a Home-Course of In- 
struction for the cure of Stammering and Stuttering as indicated 
on the Order Blank hereto attached. If this, my application, 
is accepted and the course furnished to me, I agree (to the best 
of my ability) to faithfully carry out the instructions as directed. 

"I agree, as a part of the consideration for the course, that 

the 1 8 Records, and the Guide, shall be used solely 

for the treatment of my own impediment of speech, or in 
case I have no such impediment of speech, then such Records 

and Guide, above mentioned, will be used by only ONE 

person to be designated and selected by me; that the said 

Records and Guide are leased to me for and during my 

life time, or for and during the life tune of the person I may 
designate and select to use the same, and I, myself will not, 

1 The pupil must further pledge himself not to take the booklet 
out of the United Kingdom without the principal's written consent. 
He must undertake to pay a second fee ; but this, says the principal, 
"is, of course, not for the improvement or cure, but for the advice 
and information at commencement in the same way as the first fee." 


and the person that may be designated and selected, shall not 
sell, barter, offer for sale, loan, give away, rent, reproduce, 
copy, transfer or place in the hands of other parties any of 

the 1 8 - Records or Guide that are supplied to me 

with the course of instruction, and that the same will be used 
in the treatment or for the benefit of only ONE case of stam- 
mering or stuttering. I further agree to forfeit all my right 
and title to possession of the same upon any violation of the 
terms of this agreement, in which event right of possession 

thereto shall revert to , Principal and Founder of the 

School of Stammerers, , U.S.A. 

"Further, I agree as a part of the consideration of the 

Home-Course being furnished to me, I will not, neither by 
myself nor otherwise, teach nor cause to be taught, nor reveal 
to others any of the methods suggested or taught in the 
Home-Course, or printed in books of instruction for the cure 

of stammering, published or sold by . I promise and 

agree not to teach any method for the cure of stammering or 
stuttering, and also not to become a partner nor in any way in- 
terested nor concerned directly or indirectly in the treatment 
of stammering or stuttering with any person or persons whom- 
soever, within the limits of the United States, Canada or Great 
Britain, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Australia, 
excepting in the territory of Alaska or State of Florida, U.S.A." 

Students of the "association method" in psychology 
may be interested to learn of one of the "specialist's" 
favorite speech-exercises : 

"Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold! 
Bright and yellow, hard and cold, 
Molten, graven, hammered, and rolled ; 
Heavy to get, and light to hold ; 


Hoarded, bartered, bought and sold, 
Stolen, borrowed, squandered, doled ; 
Spurned by the young, but hugged by the old 
To the very verge of the graveyard mould ; 
Price of many a crime untold ; 
Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!" 

Some of these "speech specialists" would be inter- 
esting subjects for the Freud people ; though we fear 
the morbidity of their minds is seldom "verdrangt." 

Here is another interesting train of associations : 

"I am happy to say that the great majority of my pupils, 
taken from such varied classes, have afforded me much edi- 
fication by the virtues of honor, diligence, perseverance, and 
gratitude which they have evinced, but even the College of 
the 12 Apostles was not exempt from incredulity and treason, 
and I have, in a few instances, met with the same return. Pupils 
who had given a solemn pledge not to disclose the contents of 
the Manual have endeavored to establish themselves as teachers, 
until compelled to desist and destroy their prospectuses by the 
prospect of legal proceedings." 

In this train of associations the psychoanalysts 
would no doubt find a repressed idea interrupting an 
unctuous outpouring of the spirit. 

But it would be well to leave association and psycho- 
analysis, and come to non-speculative facts. The facts 
are that most of these contracts are jokers. Their 
primary function is generally to serve as a basis for 
blackguarding and intimidating students that might 
disclose the method to some unfortunate stammerer 


that has not yielded the fee. But most secret methods 
have for nearly a century been public knowledge ; and 
secrecy concerning matters of public knowledge can- 
not be enforced. Any clause prohibiting the pupil 
from subsequently treating stammering in the United 
States of America, the British Isles, Australia, and the 
moon, is also farcical. Any man that can cure stam- 
mering will find himself at liberty to do so anywhere 
at any time, and need not be deterred by contracts 
with rapacious "specialists." 

It will be evident to the reader that treating stam- 
mering is with most "speech specialists" an organized 
business. As a business it will not always sustain 
investigation of its methods ; but, for this reason, it 
is profitable to investigate. 

Most "speech specialists" reply to the stammerer's 
initial inquiry by sending him a poorly disguised 
form-letter, in which the "specialist" figuratively 
weeps upon the stammerer's bosom. He portrays the 
terrible affliction under which the stammerer is lan- 
guishing, and pleads with him to restore his self- 
respect and flee a stammerer's grave. Briefly, 
he "rubs it in." 

The following letter is a typical "leader": 

"Dear Sir: 

" Mr. who was formerly the manager of our Phil- 
adelphia branch and who is now removing to California, has 


sent us your recent letter referring to treatment for 

stammering, and if you will write us concerning your trouble, 
at the same time including your replies to the questions asked 
in the enclosed Application Blank we will write you fully just 
what you may expect from the unsurpassed methods which 
we advise. 

^ Among the many calamities incidental to the human frame 
there are few so distressing to the sufferer and so annoying to 
his friends as confirmed stuttering. Not only is the whole 
physical frame distorted but the anguish of the mind is so severe 
in some cases that its healthy action is frequently impaired. 
Those persons who have only occasionally met with cases of 
defective utterance in general society, can have but a faint idea 
of the agony of its victims, unless they have witnessed its effects 
in the domestic circle, or in subjects in whose welfare they have 
felt interested. It is, indeed, a melancholy spectacle to see a 
youth, born to a good position, of refined intellect, possessing 
extensive information, seemingly destined to adorn society, 
and yet, though so highly cultivated, unable to give oral ex- 
pression to his thoughts, without inflicting pain on those who 
listen to him, or subjecting himself to ridicule ; for, while the 
deaf-mute is pitied, the stammerer is generally laughed at. 

"But not only is the victim of defective utterance debarred 
from the pleasures of social intercourse, he must also give up all 
hope of professional success at the bar, the pulpit, the senate, 
and business in general, and must strike out for himself some 
new path for which perhaps, neither his talents nor inclination 
fit him. There can be no doubt that defective speech throws 
all the enchantments of youth and beauty into the shade and 
must eventually blight happiness. 

" Very truly yours, 


Accompanying the form-letter is usually a bundle of 
literature describing the institution and lauding the 
principal. The printed matter usually contains pic- 
tures of the enormous classes attending the institution. 
These pictures are commonly fakes; and the legion- 
ary body constituting the class consists in part of the 
principal's family, the office and teaching "staff," 
the servants, and anybody's friends that are accommo- 
dating enough to sit for the picture. Frequently the 
photograph is taken as a "souvenir" of some oc- 
casion that has attracted a number of previously 
invited visitors. 

But the essential part of all this literature is a ques- 
tion-blank, from the replies to which the "specialist" 
undertakes to give a scientific diagnosis of the case. 
The questions usually disclose a keenly scientific mind. 
Have you any children ? Do you use tobacco ? 
Your disposition? What are the names and ad- 
dresses of other persons whom you know to stammer ? 
The principal also inquires about one's occupation 
and a number of things that might lead one to sup- 
pose he was attempting a diagnosis of the bank ac- 

The following is an interesting diagnosis by the 
principal of an America stammering-school : 

"Your trouble in the beginning was largely physical; but 
owing probably to the nervous strain and continued fear, it 
has gradually developed and taken on certain phases of the 


mental form. Allowed to continue, this particular type of 
stammering becomes chronic as years go by, after a while ter- 
minating in an aggravated type of the difficulty." 

Here we have a prognosis thrown in. The trouble 
will get worse unless the patient undergoes treatment. 
The facts become more disconcerting when one notes 
that the diagnosis is given in a form-letter, and that 
these alarming cases must therefore be exceedingly 
common. There is hope, however, if the stammerer 
is quick to seize the opportunity; for in the form- 
letter the principal says, "I am satisfied from the 
description furnished by you, that your case will 
yield readily to my treatment, and am positive I can 
cure you." 

Most American "speech specialists" offer "pros- 
pectives" "flat rates" for an unlimited course of 
tuition. Charges for board and lodging during the 
unlimited course are naturally extra. The tuition- 
rates are usually "special." 

"The plan of reduced rate for tuition herein provided for 
will give to you, and to a limited number of others, an oppor- 
tunity to be cured of stammering, at a price very much less 
than the amount I have ordinarily charged. Regularly my 
price for tuition has been from One Hundred to Two Hundred 
Dollars and upwards according to the severity of the difficulty, 
the average pupil having paid me about One Hundred and 
Fifty Dollars for treatment. I am willing, however, if you will 
enter within four weeks from the date of this letter, to accept 
you for treatment for One Hundred and Forty Dollars, which 


will entitle you to my GUARANTEE OF AN ABSOLUTE 

The following offer by a Canadian principal is also 
very lenient : 

"Regarding the cost of tuition, the fee varies from $100.00 
to $500.00 according to the severity of the case. Owing to 
the nature of your trouble, we will accept you for tuition for 

Usually the fees are rapidly reduced if the stam- 
merer does not capitulate. The one hundred and 
forty dollar fee, mentioned above, ultimately shrinks 
to fifty-five : 

"Regarding terms for tuition my special Fall and Winter 
Term announcement (a copy of which I enclose) is self explana- 
tory. You will notice I am making a reduced rate to pupils 
who enter on or before Dec. 3oth. My regular price for tui- 
tion has been from One Hundred to Two Hundred Dollars 
according to the severity of the difficulty, in fact the average 
pupil has paid me about One Hundred and Twenty-five Dollars. 

"For the reason explained in the enclosed printed circular 
I have decided for a short time to reduce my rate, thus giving 
many who would otherwise be unable to come an opportunity 
to get cured of their difficulty. / am willing to accept you for 
treatment for Fifty-five Dollars on condition that you enter on 
or before Dec. joth, and feel sure that it will pay me to do 
this as when you return home cured, I am satisfied that 
others from your locality who may stammer, learning of 
your success and cure will gladly come to my institution for 


This special offer (for the purpose of placing a cure 
in every locality) was addressed to a stammerer in 
New York, where the "specialist" had guaranteed 
hundreds of cures already. But who would dis- 
parage the virtue of perseverance? 

The "prospective" can usually get a reduction on 
the quoted rates by giving his fellow-stammerers the 
Judas-kiss. He has merely to send in the names and 
addresses of a number of possible victims, and the 
"specialist" at once makes a concession. The fol- 
lowing is from the literature of an "auto-suggestive 
'correspondence stammering-school " : 

"The price of the course is ten dollars, but at present we 
wish to increase our correspondence list and will therefore 
make you a special offer. Send us five dollars with the names 
and addresses of twenty persons who stammer and you will be 
admitted as a regular student any time within the next two 

Name-gathering contests are frequently held by 
"enterprising" American institutions. One institu- 
tion offers the following trophies: 

" First Prize. A complete course of treatment at the 

Institute for Stammerers will be given ABSOLUTELY 

FREE OF CHARGE to the person who sends the largest num- 
ber of names, with correct addresses, of persons afflicted with 
stammering or stuttering. 

" Second Prize. A complete course of treatment at the 

School for Stammerers will be given for Twenty-five 

Dollars to the person sending the second largest number of 


names, with correct addresses, of persons afflicted with stam- 
mering or stuttering. 

" Third Prize. A complete course of treatment at the 
Institute for Stammerers will be given for Fifty Dol- 
lars to the person who sends the third largest number of 
names, with correct addresses, of persons who stammer or 

" Other Prizes. Persons who enter in the contest, but fail 
to win one of the first three prizes, will receive credit for any 
number of names they may send, and will be rewarded by a 
reduction on their tuition fee." 

A rival institution, holding a similar competition, 
decrees the following : 

" Rules and Regulations Governing the Contest. 

" i. Persons wishing to enter this contest may, if they wish, 
secure the assistance of their friends by sending them our Name 
Sheets, with a request that they write upon them the names of 
persons whom they know to be afflicted with stammering, and 
forward direct to us. Each name sheet must be carefully and 
properly signed with the name and correct address of the person 
who wishes to receive credit for it. 

" 2. If more than one person furnishes us with the same 
name, credit will be given only to the person whose letter reaches 
us first. 

" 3. Letters pertaining to the competition will be opened 
by us in regular succession as received, and credit at once given 
to the sender. 

"4. Any name sent which has been previously furnished us, 
will not be counted to the credit of the sender. 

" 5. Credit will not be given for names of persons who stam- 
mer who are under six years of age or over sixty. 


"6. Provided two or more persons tie by sending us an equal 
number of names, they will be immediately notified and the 
competition extended to them for an additional month, when the 
prize will be awarded to the one who has sent us the largest 

"7. Should there appear in any list the name of one person 
who does not stammer, the person who would otherwise receive 
credit for the list, will thereby be debarred from winning a 

The principal is evidently paying only for sterling 
"prospectives." But in other things he is duly con- 
siderate. He tells you to " Print if you cannot write 
plainly;" and, in case you are ashamed of yourself, 
he says: "I promise not to mention your name to 
any of the parties whose names you may send me 
and will not in any manner make known to anybody 
the source of the information." 

Another of our "specialists" gives a free course to 
any one that can find five inmates for his institution. 
If the procurer is not a stammerer, he receives a 
reward of one hundred dollars. 1 

English stutter-doctors run the business on rather 
different lines. They usually charge for the length 
of time they can hold the pupil; and their fees are 
customarily in the respectable and professional guinea. 

1 A few American "specialists," after quoting the minimum rate, 
offer to find "part-time employment " for a limited number of pupils 
in order that they may defray living expenses while attending the 
institution. The "specialist's " fee, however, is inexorable. 


A guinea a lesson is a very satisfying and rather 
popular fee. Most of the fraternity extort from five 
to ten guineas a week for tuition and board. How- 
ever, there is usually a minimum charge ; and the 
British stammerer is lucky if the gentleman that 
undertakes to relieve him of his impediment relieves 
him of no more than forty or fifty guineas at the finish. 
The charges are exorbitant; but these frock-coated 
frauds operate chiefly among the "superior classes." 
Of recent years a few cheaper schools have come into 
existence. They are apparently no worse than the 
"superior" institutions. 

Among continental stammering-schools, one finds 
the extremes of the English and the American type, 
and all types intermediate. 

When the stammerer pays his tuition-fee, he 
usually knows nothing whatever of the method the 
"specialist" employs. Not only does the average 
"specialist" bind his pupils to secrecy concerning the 
details of his method, but he even refuses to disclose 
the general nature of his system to bona-fide inquirers. 
An English "specialist" is categorical on this point. 
He answers a prospective pupil as follows : 

" Replying to your letter of the 24th inst. I should not think 
of telling you the nature of my system, until you had placed 
yourself under my treatment." * 

1 In this instance, placing oneself under treatment means paying 
forty guineas for four weeks' tuition and board. 


Usually the principal's reply is evasive. He will 
aver that he has the only natural and scientific method ; 
he will insist that he treats the cause and not the 
symptoms; he will declare that his system is estab- 
lished on an educational basis, or that it is founded on 
physiological, psychological, ethnological, cosmologi- 
cal, and other natural laws. 

Or, as often as not, the great "speech specialist" 
will lie: 

" The aim of the instruction of the School is to 

teach pupils to speak as others speak, without undue effort, 
in a manner that is natural." 

The method of this school is time-beating, and the 
student never employs natural speech during the 
entire course of speech-training. 1 Many "special- 
ists" write books or prospectuses condemning un- 
natural methods, and resort to the vilest expedients 
in practice. The stammerer is thus misled by their 
literature, and deceived or thwarted in any inquiries 
in which he may engage. 

The average "speech specialist," instead of offering 
the stammerer a definite and describable system, will 
proffer him a great discovery : 

" I at last, when almost ready to give up in despair, originated 
a method by which I quickly accomplished that which money 

1 The word "aim " in the quoted sentence might be used in defence. 
But, none the less, the sentence is framed to conceal, rather than re- 
veal, the truth. 


and years of time had failed to secure for me, a perfect and per- 
manent cure. ... I found that I had involved (!) a method 
which would cure other unfortunate sufferers, who were being 
dragged back by some invisible monster, whose claws sank 
deeper day by day, and caused much sorrow, pain and unhap- 
piness." 1 

And thus another cries Eureka: 

" In the remarkably short period of ten days I found that I 
had not only succeeded in entirely eradicating every vestige 
of my former difficulty, but had also evolved a method of cure 
that must sooner or later crown with new hope the sorrowful 
lives of many disheartened stammerers." 2 

And yet another vision of light : 

" Walking through one of our lovely Worcestershire lanes, 
and, as was my custom, talking aloud to myself and carefully 
watching every trip of the tongue, I suddenly became conscious 
of one action in speech which is imperative before freedom of 
utterance can be obtained. . . . When I returned home, I 
talked to my people, I read to them, I recited poetry ; indeed, 
I scarcely knew what I did, I was so overjoyed. I was like a 
child with a new toy, and I felt like a new being." * 

It is these various secrets and discoveries that the 
stammerer is asked to buy. Rarely indeed can he 
ascertain anything definite concerning the system. 

Another inducement frequently offered to stam- 

1 The discovery : rhythmic speech and the "word-measurer." 
J The discovery : time-beating. 

* The discovery : initial inspiration through the mouth, and control 
of the breath. See "Representative English System" (p. 258). 


merers is the fact that the secret or system has been 
patented or copyrighted. Here we are concerned with 
lies or paragrams. A system for curing stammering 
cannot be patented. At best the principal can secure 
a patent on some mechanical contrivance that he may 
employ; but the contrivance is not the system. A 
system for curing stammering cannot be copyrighted. 
A pamphlet named "The Dodger System" can; and 
here we have the quibble. But a copyright on a 
pamphlet merely gives the author the exclusive right 
to produce it; and no one would be fool enough to 
envy him the privilege. The copyright does not 
imply official sanction of the system; though no 
doubt it is the contrary impression that copyright 
talk is intended to convey. 

Most "speech specialists" proclaim themselves the 
greatest in the universe. In this connection it may 
be pertinent to recall the story of the four Birmingham 
tailors that had rival establishments on Blank Street. 
One day one of the tailors stole a march on the rest 
by displaying a sign that proclaimed him the best 
tailor in Birmingham. The second soon hung out a 
sign that declared him the best tailor in England. 
The third, not to be outdone, proclaimed himself the 
greatest tailor in the world. The fourth then by a 
modest sign avouched himself the best tailor in Blank 
Street. 'Tis said that three of these men openly 


The "specialists," it should be noted, are always 
vociferous in denouncing quacks. They abhor those 
nasty people, and appeal to God to exterminate the 
charlatans. But while the "specialist" is praying 
for the charlatan's extermination, it would be well 
for the stammerer to be careful. 

In this connection we excerpt a paragraph from 
"The Great American Fraud" : 1 

" Here are a few of the more conspicuous and unmistakable 
indications of quackery among the specialists : The advertising 
doctor who, having a ' cure ' to sell, is ' editorially endorsed ' 
by any publication, particularly in the religious field, is a quack. 
The doctor who advertises secret powers, or newly discovered 
scientific methods, or vaunts a special ' system ' or ' method,' 
is a quack. The doctor who offers to sell, at a price, a cure for 
any ailment is a quack, and if he professes a ' special interest ' 
in your case and promises reduced rates, he's throwing in a little 
extra lying for good measure. Finally, the form-letter is a 
sure sign. You can tell it because it begins ' Dear Friend,' 
or ' Dear Mr. So-and-So,' or ' My Dear Correspondent,' and 
contains promises that will fit any case. If, however, you are 
determined to give a trial to one of these ' specialists,' suggest 
these terms : that, since he promises to cure you, you will 
deposit to his account the full price of the treatment, to be paid 

1 "The Great American Fraud," p. in. This treatise (by Samuel 
Hopkins Adams) deals with the nostrum evil and with quacks and 
quackery in general. Copies can be obtained from The American 
Medical Association, 535 Dearborn Avenue, Chicago. Paper-covered 
copies are supplied at ten cents, and cloth-covered copies at twenty- 
five cents, both post-free. 


him as soon as you are cured, or substantially benefited, and 
not before. Then and there negotiations will cease. The 
promising quack will never stand behind his promises. . . . 
This is the final test of quackery which none of the ilk can 
abide." 1 

The stammerer would do well to avoid as incompe- 
tent or disingenuous the man that offers a "home- 
course" or correspondence treatment. He would do 
well to avoid the man with the "Application Blank," 
and likewise the guarantors, the scientific " diagnosers," 
and the discoverers. He would do well to avoid men 
that write on blighted lives, and men that warn stam- 
merers of future terrors. He would do well to avoid 
men that are too ardent in discussing their own al- 
truism and the brotherhood of the human race ; men 
that are by their own confession the last word in 
speech-specialism; and men that cure all diseases. 
He would likewise do well to avoid men with "copy- 
righted methods," and men with systems that grow 
cheaper week by week ; and lastly to avoid men and 
methods that will not stand the fullest investigation. 
This "Great Secret " guarded by " speech specialists " 
is the fact that the stammerer is being "buncoed." 

1 Some years ago the writer saw this test applied to a tramp 
stutter-healer. The Professor guaranteed to cure stammering almost 
instantaneously for twenty-five dollars. The prospective pupil 
suggested that he would give a written undertaking to pay a thousand 
dollars if the cure were effected, but nothing if the Professor's system 
failed. The Professor responded that those were not his methods of 
doing business. 


When all these men are eliminated, there will be 
decidedly fewer persons treating stammering. Those 
remaining will be of two classes: the good-hearted 
and well-meaning souls that know nothing about the 
malady, and the ingenuous and more intelligent 
students of stammering as a deep and intricate 
psychological problem. Men of the latter class are 
almost exclusively physicians, and the best of 
them are undoubtedly found in the German Empire. 
- Probably the stammerer would learn little from 
these men that is not accessible in reputable mono- 
graphs ; but he might benefit from personal contact 
with good teachers and from association with other 

Much success has been achieved by a few stammer- 
ing-schools established especially for young children. 
We have already emphasized the fact that during 
childhood, when the secondary causes have not yet 
supervened, stammering usually yields readily to 
rational treatment. But it is not by any means nec- 
essary, and perhaps by no means desirable, that a 
young child be incarcerated in an institution. An 
intelligent mother can usually accomplish all that is 
possible for a stammering child if, instead of supinely 
waiting for him to "outgrow" the difficulty, she will 
undertake to combat the impediment. 

In the first place, the child must himself be induced 


to strive for fluency in speech. He must be offered a 
substantial and much-coveted reward for ultimate 
victory ; and must then be helped at every stage of 
the contest. He must be checked quietly and gently 
each time that he stammers. He must be made to 
wait and reflect upon the words he is about to use 
and to utter these words slowly and with composure. 
If he then speaks fluently, he should be commended 
and encouraged, and should be made to repeat the 
words in order that he may gain assurance. 

The child should be made to feel that, though it is 
not reprehensible to stammer, it is nevertheless highly 
commendable to speak with fluency. He should never 
be laughed at, scolded, or punished for his impedi- 
ment ; for, with such treatment, fear soon associates 
itself with speech. He should never be mimicked ; 
and for this reason and a hundred others, should be 
kept from school till the impediment has been elimi- 

If much amnesia appears to be present, the child 
should be told to think, during speech, how his words 
are going to sound. If physical stammering is in 
evidence, he should be taught to inhale before speak- 
ing and to speak at all times without effort. 

The child should be required, by way of practice, 
to learn and recite simple rhymes. He should be 
told little stories, and should be made to repeat each 
sentence slowly and carefully after the parent. Later, 


when progress has been attained, he should be re- 
quired to relate these stories by himself. 

If mothers would adopt these simple measures, 
we should in a few decades hear little more of 


Abacus : An instrument used in counting ; often consisting of a 
framework with colored balls strung on wires. 

Aberrant: Abnormal. 

Ablation: Removal; cutting out. 

Abortion : Figuratively, an undeveloped object. 

Abortive: Fruitless; imperfect; undeveloped. 

Absolute : Supreme ; all-powerful. Perfect ; complete. 

Absolution : Forgiveness ; pardon ; removal of penalties. 

Absolve : To free ; liberate. 

Abstract thought: Thought that regards relations between 
things; thought not primarily concerned with material 

Abstraction : Inattention ; absence of mind. 

Acceleration : A quickening in motion. 

Accentuation : The marking of the accented syllables in a word; 
the act of emphasizing. 

Accessorial : Same as accessory. 

Accessory: (adjective) Contributing; additional; holding a sec- 
ondary position. 

Accessory : (noun) An accessory object. 

1 Words that have been denned when introduced in the body of the 
book are, with a few exceptions, not included in the glossary. Such 
words should be sought in the index. The definitions given are not 
intended to be lexicographically exhaustive and accurate; they are 
framed merely to give practical assistance where occasion may re- 
quire. The definitions are written for both English and American 



Accessory muscles : The smaller muscles of the body producing 
delicate movements. 

Acclimated : Accustomed to a climate. 

Accredited : Authorized ; allowed ; received with reputation. 

Accrue : To arise ; proceed ; come ; be added. 

Achoppement syllabique : The accidental interchanging of con- 
sonants or syllables. 

Acoustic : Relating to sound or hearing. 

Acquisition : The act of acquiring ; the thing acquired. 

Actuate : To put into action ; move ; incite. 

Acumen: Intelligence; sagacity. 

Adduce : To bring forward ; offer ; present ; cite. 

Adenoids : An abnormal growth at the back of the nose. 

Adjacent: Near; adjoining; bordering. 

Adjunct: Help; aid; addition; accessory. 

Adjunctive: Joining; connecting. 

Adolescence: Youth. 

Advent: Approach; arrival. 

Adventitious: Accidental; casual. 

Esthetic : Pertaining to good taste, etc. 

Affect : To act upon ; concern ; touch. To imitate. 

Affection: Feeling; emotion. A disease; a disturbance. 

Afflux: Flow. 

Affluxion: Flow. 

Agglomeration: Mass; cluster; collection. 

Aggravant : Anything that aggravates or makes worse. 

Aggravate : To make worse. 

Air-column : The breath exhaled under pressure. 

Alias : A false name. 

Allegory: A figure of speech with comparisons implied ; a parable. 

Alleviate : To lessen ; relieve. 

Alliteration: A phrase or sentence having many of the words 
commencing with the same letter. 


Alliterative : Relating to an alliteration. 

Amelioration : Improvement ; a making or becoming better. 

Amnesia : Inability to arouse the memory images. 

Amnesic : Afflicted with amnesia ; caused by amnesia. 

Amorphous : Without form ; shapeless ; indefinite. 

Amplify : To extend ; enlarge. 

Amulet: A charm; an object worn as a remedy, or for protection 
against evil. 

Anaemia : Deficiency of blood. 

Anaesthesia : A loss of the sense of touch. 

Anaesthetic : Not sensible to touch. 

Anaesthetize: To render unconscious by administering chloro- 
form, etc. ; to render insensible to pain or touch. 

Analgesic : Not sensible to pain. 

Analogous : Bearing analogy or resemblance. 

Analogy : Similarity ; likeness ; parallel. 

Anatomical : Relating to anatomy or bodily structure. 

Aneurism of the aorta : A form of tumor in the principal artery 
leaving the heart. 

Ankylosed: Grown together (said of joints). 

Annihilate : To reduce to nothing ; destroy. 

Anomalous : Irregular ; not conforming to custom or rule. 

Anomaly : Irregularity ; deviation from rule. 

Antecedent : Going before ; preceding. 

Anterior : Before ; in front of. Happening before ; preceding 
in tune. 

Anthropology : The science or study of man. 

Antidotal : Relating to an antidote. 

Antidote : Anything tending to prevent or counteract. 

Antipathy: Dislike ; hatred; aversion. 

Antipodal: Opposite. 

Antithesis : An opposite ; a contrast. 

Apathy : Lack of feeling ; indifference. 


Aperture : An opening ; a gap. 

Aphasia: Disturbances of speech, perception, memory, etc., 

produced by abnormal conditions in the brain. 
Apodictic : Indisputable ; above all contradiction. 
Apoplectic : Relating to apoplexy. 
Apoplexy: The symptoms induced by rupture of a blood-vessel 

(usually in the brain). 
Append : To add ; attach ; annex. 

Appetence : An instinct ; a natural tendency or propensity. 
Appose : To apply. 

Apposite: Fit; suitable; appropriate. 
Approximate : To approach ; come near ; resemble. 
A priori : Inherent ; innate ; natural. 
Arbitrary : Not fixed ; left to judgment or chance. 
Arraign : To call in question for fault ; to accuse formally ; to 


Anythmic : Not rythmic. 
Articular : Relating to the joints. 
Articulation : The pronouncing of consonants ; the pronouncing 

of the elements of speech. 
Articulo-moteur : A person whose verbal thought is of the motor 

Arytenoid cartilages : A pair of small cartilages in the larynx or 


Asinine: Ass-like; stupid; silly. 
Asphyxia: Suffocation. 

Aspirate : A breath-sound ; the letter h or a similar breath- 

Assiduous: Diligent; attentive; careful. 
Associational : Relating to association (of ideas). 
Asthenic : Weakening ; depriving one of strength or control. 
Atavism : The unnatural recurrence of a trait that was present 

in distant ancestors ; a trait thus recurring. 


Atonic : Without vocal sound or voice ; surd. 

Atrophy : A wasting away ; degeneration. 

Attendant: Accompanying. 

Attest : To bear witness ; certify. 

Audible : Capable of being heard. 

Audition: Hearing. 

Audito-kinsesthetic : See footnote i, vol. i, p. 174. 

Audito-moteur : One whose verbal imagery is both auditory and 


Auditor : A hearer ; a listener. 
Auditory : Relating to hearing. 
Auditory-motor : Both auditory and motor. 
Augment : To increase. 

Aural : Relating to the ear ; relating to hearing. 
Automatism : Automatic action. An involuntary or automatic 

Automaton: An object that moves automatically and without 

Autopsy: A post-mortem examination; inspection of a body 

after death. 

Auto-suggestion : Self -hypnotism. 

Auxiliary : An aid ; an accessory ; something employed to assist. 
Aversion: Dislike; disgust. 
Avouch : To declare ; affirm ; acknowledge ; confess. 

Balderdash: Nonsense. 
Banal: Commonplace ; trivial. 
Baton : A staff used by the conductor of an orchestra. 
Belladonna : A drug ; a medicine. 

Biceps : The large muscle in the forepart of the upper arm. 
Bi-convex : Convex on both sides ; bulging on both sides. 
Bicuspids : The fourth and fifth teeth counting from the middle 
of the jaw. 


Bilateral : On both sides ; two-sided. 

Binary : Double ; consisting of two parts. 

Biological: Relating to biology, the science or study of life 

and living objects. 

Bisexual : Being of both sexes ; two-sexed. 
Bizarre: Odd; peculiar. 
Bizarrerie: Oddity; freak. 
Boggle : To make a bungle of ; perform awkwardly ; hesitate ; 


Bona-fide : In good faith ; without deceit ; genuine. 
Brazier : A pan for holding live coals. 
Brochure : A pamphlet. 
Bromide of potassium : A drug ; a medicine. 
Buccal cavity : The cavity of the mouth. 
Burlesque: Ridiculous. 

Cachexia : General bad health ; poorness of nutrition. 

Cadence: Modulation; accent; inflection. 

Cafe chantant: A concert-hall or concert-garden where light 

refreshments are served. 
Calibre : Bore ; internal diameter. 
Canard : A hoax ; a farce. 
Capitulate : To surrender. 
Cardiac bruit : Abnormal heart sounds. 
Cardinal: Chief; principal. 

Cartilaginous : Of the nature of cartilage ; gristle-like. 
Casual : Accidental ; occurring by chance. 
Cataclysm : A sudden and overwhelming change ; a catastrophe. 
Catalepsy : Loss of motion and sensation ; loss of consciousness ; 

a trance. 

Cataplexy : Complete paralysis ; utter prostration. 
Categorical: Positive; absolute. 
Catholicon : A cure-all ; a panacea. 


Causal : Relating to a cause or causes. 

Causality : The relation between cause and effect. 

Causative : Relating to cause. 

Cent : A halfpenny. 

Centenary: The hundredth anniversary. 

Central nervous system : The brain and spinal cord. 

Cerebral : Relating to the cerebrum. 

Chafe : To fret ; to become excited or heated. 

Chagrin : Vexation ; disappointment mingled with shame. 

Chaos: Confusion; disorder. 

Characteristic : A trait ; a feature. 

Characterize : To describe ; distinguish ; designate ; mark. 

Charlatan : A quack ; an imposter. 

Chorea: St. Vitus's dance; a disease accompanied by irregular 

and involuntary movement of the limbs. 
Chromatic : Relating to color. Consisting of a succession of 

Circular letter : A letter mailed in the same form to a number of 

Circumflex inflection : An inflection involving both rise and fall 

of pitch. 
Circumlocution : A roundabout phrase ; a phrase expressing an 

idea indirectly. 

Circumspect: Cautious; prudent. 

Circumvent : To gain advantage over ; get the better of ; out- 
wit. To pass around in a circle. 

Citation : A passage cited or quoted ; the act of citing or quoting. 
Clangor: Clank; clang. 
Clavicle : The collar bone. 
Clonus : An irregular spasm. 
Cluttering : Confused speech in which the words are not properly 

Coalesce : To unite ; blend ; fuse ; grow or come together. 


Coerce : To compel ; constrain ; force. 

Coexist : To exist at the same time. 

Cogent: Forceful; convincing; compelling. 

Cognate: Allied; related. 

Cognizance : Knowledge ; observation ; notice. 

Cognizant : Having knowledge of ; knowing. 

Coherent : Logically connected ; sensible ; clear. 

Collateral: Secondary; subordinate; auxiliary; attendant. 

Colleague: Companion; partner; associate. 

Collocate : To set or place together. 

Collocation: Grouping; arrangement. 

Coloration : The state of being colored ; color. 

Colossal: Immense; enormous. 

Commensurate: Equal; proportional. 

Commentary : A comment ; a systematic discussion. 

Commissural fibres : Fibres connecting the opposite hemispheres 

of the brain. 

Compensatory : Compensating. 
Complementary colors: Pairs of colors that produce white or 

gray when blended. 

Complex : A complicated group or system. 
Component: Forming a part of a thing ; composing; constituting. 
Comport : To behave ; to conduct. 
Composite : Compounded ; made up of distinct parts. 
Compressive : Characterized by muscular pressure. 
Concatenate : To link together ; unite in a series. 
Concavity : Depression ; hollowness. 
Concomitant: Accompanying; attending. 
Concrete: Individual; particular; real; material. 
Concrete thought : Thought concerning real or concrete objects. 
Concur : To agree ; assent. 
Concurrently: Together; unitedly. 
Conduce : To help or tend to bring about as a result. 


Conformation: Form; shape; position. 

Conformity: The act of conforming; agreement; correspon- 
dence; harmony. 

Congential : Existing at birth. 

Congeries: Collection; group; assemblage. 

Congestion : Excessive accumulation of blood in an organ. 

Conjoin : To join ; unite. 

Conjoined: Joined; associated; combined. 

Conjoint: United; connected; associated. 

Connate : Existing at birth ; congenital. 

Consecution : Succession ; consecutive order. 

Consentaneous : Simultaneous ; occurring at the same time. 

Consonantal : Relating to a consonant or consonants. 

Consort: Companion; partner; associate. 

Constrained : Held back ; repressed ; embarrassed. 

Constrict : To contract ; cause to shrink. 

Consummate: (adjective) Complete; perfect. 

Consummate : (verb) To complete ; to perfect. 

Contemporaneous: Existing at the same time; existing at the 
present time. 

Conterminous: Contiguous; bordering upon; touching at the 

Contiguity: Nearness; proximity; contact. 

Contiguous: Adjacent; meeting; touching. 

Contingency : Possibility of happening ; an unpredictable event. 

Contour: Outline. 

Contracture : A permanent contraction of muscles. 

Contradistinction : Distinction by unlike or opposite qualities. 

Contravention: Defiance; violation. 

Contretemps : An unexpected accident. 

Convalescent: Relating to convalescence or the recovery of 
health after sickness. 

Conversableness : A disposition to converse ; talkativeness. 


Conversant : Intimately acquainted ; knowing and understanding. 

Convolution : A fold ; twist ; coil. 

Convulsions: A disturbance accompanied by violent agitation 

of the limbs and body ; fits. 
Convulsive: Relating to convulsions; marked by intermittent 

muscular contractions. 
Coo'perate : To work or act together. 
Coordinate : (adjective) Having equal importance. 
Coordinate : (verb} To harmonize ; adjust for proper action. 
Corollary: A consequent truth; a truth following obviously 

from another truth already demonstrated. 
Corporeal: Bodily. 

Correlate : (noun) Counterpart ; corresponding part. 
Correlate: (verb} To compare; arrange; connect; determine 

the relations between. 
Correlation: Relationship; connection. 
Cortical : Relating to the cortex or gray matter of the brain. 
Cosmological : Relating to cosmology, the science of the universe. 
Costal-abdominal : Involving the ribs and abdominal muscles. 
Counterpart : A copy ; duplicate ; corresponding part. 
Cranium : The skull. 

Crescent moon : The increasing or new moon. 
Criterion: Standard; measure; test. 
Critique: Criticism. 
Culminate : To attain the highest point or degree ; to reach a 

final effect. 

Cumulative : Accumulating ; increasing by addition. 
Cunei : Plural of cuneus, one of the convolutions of the brain. 
Current : Belonging to the present time ; in present progress or 


Curriculum : A course of study. 
Cursory: Hasty; slight; superficial. 
Cutaneous : Relating to the skin. 


Data : Facts ; premises ; given conditions. 

Debilitate : To weaken ; enfeeble. 

Declaim: Recite. 

Declamatory: Relating to declaimed speech or a declamation; 

relating to a recitation. 
Decussation : A crossing. 

Definition : Clearness of outline ; clearness of detail. 
Deflate : To remove the air from. 
Defunct: Dead. 
Degenerate : To undergo morbid changes ; deteriorate ; become 

of a lower type. 

Deglutition : The act or power of swallowing. 
Deleterious: Injurious; harmful; unwholesome. 
Delimited: Limited; bounded; confined. 
Demarcation: Separation. 
Demented: Insane. 
Demerit : The opposite of merit ; that which deserves blame or 

Demonstrative : Pointing out ; indicating. Given to strong 

exhibition of feeling. 
Denominate : To name ; call. 
Dento-labial : A consonant requiring both teeth and lips for its 


Depredator : A plunderer ; destroyer. 
Deprivation : Loss ; the state of being deprived of. 
Derivative : A word formed from another word. 
Desideratum : That which is desirable or desired. 
Designate : To point out ; indicate ; name. 
Destitute : Without ; unprovided with. 
Desultory: Rambling; loose; unmethodical. 
Detriment: Injury; disadvantage. 
Dexterity: Skill; expertness. 
Dextrality: Right-handedness. 



Diabetes : A disease. 

Diablerets : A mountain. 

Diacritic : A diacritical mark. 

Diacritical: Distinguishing; distinctive. 

Diagnose : To identify (a disease) ; to ascertain the nature of 

(a disease). 

Dialectical : Relating to a dialect. 
Diaphragm: The dome-shaped muscle separating the chest 

cavity from the abdominal cavity. 
Differentiate: To discriminate between; mark the differences 

between; subdivide. 
Diffuse : To spread ; expand ; extend. 
Dilation: Expansion; enlargement. 
Dilemma : A perplexing position. 
Diphthong : A vowel made up of two different sounds. 
Directive: Directing. 
Directory: Directing. 
Disavow : To deny. 

Discrepancy: Disagreement; difference. 
Discrete: Separate; distinct. 
Discriminate : To detect a difference or a distinction ; to make 

a difference or distinction. 

Disingenuous : Not ingenuous ; not open, frank, and honest. 
Disintegrate : To fall to pieces ; crumble ; break up. 
Disjoin : To separate. 
Dismember : To divide ; break into parts. 
Disparate: Different; dissimilar; unlike; separate. 
Displode : To explode ; articulate. 
Disposition : Arrangement ; order ; the manner in which things 

are placed. 

Disproportion : Inequality ; lack of proportion. 
Dissolution : A breaking up ; a going to pieces ; retrogression ; 

degeneration ; the process opposite to evolution. 


Distance-receptor: A sense that gives one knowledge of things at 
a distance of things not actually touching the body. 

Distend : To stretch ; swell ; enlarge. 

Diversity: Difference; dissimilarity; variation. 

Divine : To ascertain ; find out ; guess. 

Doggerel : Having a loose, irregular measure. 

Dollar : Four shilling and twopence. 

Dorsal : Relating to the back ; posterior ; behind. 

Draughts: Checkers. 

Draughtsman : One that draws plans or designs. 

Dual : Double ; consisting of two. 

Dubiety: Doubt. 

Dynamogenesis : The origin or production of nervous energy. 

Dynamometer: An instrument used for testing the strength of 
the hand-grasp. 

Dyslalia : Difficulty in speech ; stammering. 

Dyspepsia : Indigestion ; chronic indigestion. 

Ebullition : A state of agitation. 

Eclectic : Selective ; picking out ; taking here and there ; made 

from what is selected from different systems. 
Ecstacy: Rapture; enthusiasm; overpowering emotion; the 

state of being beside oneself. 
Educe : To call forth ; draw out. 
Efface : To blot out ; wipe out. 
Effect: To cause; bring about; accomplish. 
Effluent : Outgoing ; flowing out. 
Effusive : Gushing ; pouring forth. 
Ego : The self ; the subjective or mental self. 
Egregious : Remarkable ; extreme. 
Ein Billet zum ersten Rang : A ticket for the first circle. 
Bin Parkett-billet : A ticket for the parquet; a ticket for the 

orchestra-stalls or the pit. 


Elemental : Simple ; not compound or complex ; of the nature of 

an element. 

ihfcve: Apprentice; student. 
Elicit : To call forth ; bring out. 
Eliminate : To remove ; expel. 
Elocution: The art of correct utterance or delivery of words; 

training in correct utterance, etc. 
Elongate : To lengthen ; extend. 
Elucidate : To make clear ; explain ; illustrate. 
Emanate : To come from ; issue ; proceed. 
Embryonal : Relating to embryology, the science of development. 
Emotive : Relating to emotion ; expressing emotion. 
Emotivity : Emotion ; capacity for emotion. 
Empirical: Relating to experience and observation rather than 

to scientific knowledge ; used and applied without science ; 

relating to quackery. 

Empiricism : Empirical practice ; quackery. 
Encomium : An expression of praise ; a commendation. 
Encroach : To make inroad upon ; trespass upon. 
Encumbrance: Burden; hindrance; load. 
End-organs : Sense-organs. 
Endow : To enrich or furnish with. 
Enervate : To render feeble ; weaken. 
Engender : To produce ; cause ; bring forth. 
Enhance : To increase ; advance ; intensify. 
Enigmatical : Obscure ; puzzling ; relating to a riddle. 
Enjoin : To order ; direct ; admonish ; prescribe. 
En masse : In mass ; as a body ; all together. 
Enounce : To pronounce ; enunciate. 
Enregister : To register ; record. 
Entail: To involve; impose; necessitate; bring about as a 

Entity : A thing existing individually. 


Enunciate : To pronounce ; utter ; articulate. 

Envelop : To surround ; enclose. 

Environal : Affected by environment or surroundings. 

Ephemeral: Short-lived; brief. 

Epilepsy: A nervous disturbance accompanied by loss of con- 
sciousness, convulsions, foaming at the mouth, etc. 

Epiphenomenon : An added phenomenon ; something occurring 
afterwards ; something purely secondary. 

Epistaxis: Nose-bleed. 

Equable: Uniform; regular; even. 

Equilibrium: Balance. 

Equivalent: Counterpart; representative. 

Erasure : Something erased or scratched out. 

Erotic : Relating to love ; relating to sexual desire. 

Erroneous : Marked by error ; incorrect. 

Erudition: Learning; scholarship. 

Eschew: Avoid; shun. 

Et cetera : Etc. ; and so forth. 

Ethical : Relating to ethics, morals, or behavior. 

Ether-waves : Waves in the ether, a substance supposed to fill 
all space. 

Ethnological : Relating to ethnology, the science of the natural 
races and families of men. 

Etiological: Relating to etiology, the science of the causes of 

Etymology : The history of a word ; the science that deals with 
the history of words. 

Eureka: Literally, " I have found (it)." 

Evanescent: Vanish; fleeting; disappearing. 

Evocation : An evoking ; a summoning ; a calling forth. 

Evoke : To call forth ; summon. 

Exacerbation : A growing or making worse. 

Excerpt : (noun) A passage quoted ; an extract. 


Excerpt : (verb) To pick out ; take out ; quote ; cite. 

Excise : To cut out. 

Exclamatory : Containing or expressing exclamation. 

Excrescence : An unnatural outgrowth or addition. 

Execrable: Detestable; hateful. 

Exemplify : To show or illustrate by example. 

Exhale : To breathe out. 

Exhaustive : Extremely thorough ; complete. 

Exhort : To urge ; advise ; incite. 

Exigency : Urgency ; pressing necessity. 

Exiguous: Small; minute. 

Expedient: (adjective) Advisable; suitable under the circum- 

Expedient: (noun) A means employed to accomplish an end; 
a device ; a shift ; a resource. 

Expeditious: Quick; speedy. 

Expiratory : Relating to expiration, the act of breathing out. 

Expletive : A profane interjection ; an oath. 

Exposition: Discussion; explanation. 

Ex post facto: Introduced afterward; occurring after the 

Expunge : To blot out ; wipe out ; efface. 

Extemporaneous: Composed offhand or on the spur of the 

Extirpate : To cut out ; excise ; destroy. 

Extraneous: Foreign; external; having no real relation to a 


f : And the page following. 

ff : And the pages following. 

Facetious : Humorous ; witty. 

Facial : Relating to the face. 

Facilitate : To make easy or less difficult. 


Factitious: Created by art rather than nature; artificial. 

Fallacious: False; misleading; deceptive. 

False vocal cords : A pair of membranous folds above the true 

vocal cords. 
Faradic: Relating to an induced current, a current that is 

regularly and frequently interrupted. 
Faradisation : Treatment with a faradic current. 
Farcical : Of the nature of a farce. 
Fear-neurosis : A nervous disturbance marked by fear. 
Febrile : Relating to a fever. 
Fetishistic: Superstitious. 
Fiasco : A conspicuous failure ; a farce. 
Fiat : Literally, " let it be done " ; the decision to act 
Fidelity : Faithfulness ; adherence to truth or fact. 
Filament : A fibre ; a thread. 

Filial : Issuing from as offspring ; relating to a son or daughter. 
Fixate : To focus with the eyes ; look at intently. 
Flageolet : A musical instrument somewhat resembling a flute. 
Flex : To bend. 

Flexibility : The quality of being flexible or pliable. 
Fluctuate : To waver ; pass back and forth. 
Foci : Plural of focus. 

Focus : A point of concentration ; central point. 
Formative : Giving form ; relating to formation. 
Formulate : To give form to ; to put or state in exact form. 
Fraenum : The small band or ligament beneath the tongue. 
Fraternity: A brotherhood ; an organized body. 
Freebooter : One that roams hi search of plunder ; a robber. 
French leave : Secret departure or absence. 
Fricative : Marked by friction of the breath. 
Frugal: Sparing; saving. 
Fugacious: Fleeting; vanishing; disappearing. 
Fugitive : Readily escaping ; fleeting. 


Functional : Relating to function or action. 
Fundamental : Principal ; most important. 
Futile: Useless; idle; unavailing; vain. 

Galvanic current : The continuous current from a battery. 
Gamboge : A yellow pigment ; a yellow coloring substance. 
Genera : Plural of genus. 
Generic : Relating to a genus ; embracing a large class ; general ; 

Genesis: Origin. 

Genitalia : The genitals ; the sex-organs. 
Genus : A group ; a larger group than a species. Variety ; 

kind ; sort. 

Germane : Related ; closely connected ; appropriate. 
Gist : The main point ; the essence of the matter. 
Glosso-mochlion : Tongue-lever. 
Glottal : Relating to the glottis. 
Glottis: The opening between the vocal cords; this opening 

together with the cords. 
Gold brick : A worthless object represented as of great value and 

sold for a large sum of money. 
Gorget : A piece of armor for defending the throat and neck ; a 

kind of breastplate. 

Grandiloquent : Pompous ; bombastic ; lofty in speech. 
Graphic: Written; drawn. 
Gratuitous : Not warranted by the circumstances ; not justified ; 

made or done without sufficient cause or reason. 
Gross: Large; extensive. 
Guinea : An English coin of the value of twenty-one shillings, or 

slightly more than five dollars. 
Gustative : Relating to the sense of taste. 
Guttural : A consonant or sound produced in the throat. 
Gyrus: Convolution; fold. 


Habitant: Inhabitant. 

Habituate : To accustom. 

Haemorrhage: Bleeding; an escape of blood from its natural 

Hallucination : An abnormal condition in which mental images 

are mistaken for sensations. 
Hallucinatory : Relating to an hallucination. 
Harmonic : Relating to musical or other harmony. 
Hashish : A drug. 

Hegemony: Position of supreme command; leadership; au- 

Hemiplegia : Paralysis on one side of the body. 
Hemisphere : A half -sphere. 
Hereditable : Capable of being inherited. 
Heterodox : Not orthodox ; contrary to a standard or opinion. 
Hiatus : A gap ; an opening. 
Hieroglyph : A drawing used as a symbol. 
Homonym: A word having the same sound as another but a 

different meaning. 
Homo sapiens : Man. 
Horizontal : Level ; parallel to the horizon. 
Hors de combat : Out of the combat ; disabled. 
Hortatory : Giving exhortation or encouragement. 
Hydrophobia : Dread of water ; the disease produced by the bite 

of an animal affected with rabies. 

Hygienic : Relating to health ; promoting health ; sanitary. 
Hypercemia : Congestion ; excess of blood in a part. 
Hypertrophy : Overgrowth of an organ ; overdevelopment. 
Hypochrondria : Unnatural anxiety concerning the health; a 

state of mental depression ; low spirits. 
Hypothesis : Supposition ; assumption ; theory. 
Hysteria: A nervous disease in which the patient lacks normal 

self-control and may be the victim of imaginary afflictions. 


Idio-activity : Self-induced activity ; self -caused activity. 

Idiosyncracy : A personal peculiarity ; an individual trait. 

Illation: Conclusion; deduction; inference. 

Illiterate: Ignorant; unlettered. 

Illumination : Brightness ; a lighting up. 

Illusion : A false perception ; a misinterpretation of impressions. 

Imbue : To cause to imbibe ; to infuse ; to fill. 

Impair : To lessen in value ; weaken ; enfeeble. 

Impel : To urge or drive forward. 

Impend : To threaten ; to be close at hand or just about to occur. 

Impetuous : Hasty ; rushing forward ; violent. 

Impinge : To strike or dash against ; collide. 

Import: Meaning; sense. 

Importunity : Urgent request ; continual asking. 

Impotent : Lacking power ; disabled ; weak. 

Improvise : To produce or compose on the spur of the moment. 

Impugn : To attack by words or arguments ; to insinuate against. 

Impulsion : Impulse ; the act of impelling or driving. 

Imputable: That may be imputed to or charged against ; charge- 
able; attributable. 

Inanity : Anything inane or foolish. 

Inapt : Not apt or appropriate. 

Inaudible : Not audible or capable of being heard. 

Inauspicious : Boding ill ; furnishing an unfavorable omen. 

Incarcerate : To shut up ; confine ; imprison. 

Inception: Beginning; commencement. 

Incestuous: Relating to incest or sexual intercourse between 
persons so nearly related that marriage between them 
would be unlawful. 

Inchoate : Rudimentary ; incomplete ; begun but not finished. 

Incipient: Beginning; commencing; incomplete. 

Incisors : The four middle teeth of either jaw. 

Incite : To move to action ; cause to act ; stimulate. 


Incompatible : Contrary ; not able to exist together. 
Incomprehensible: Not capable of being comprehended or 


Incontinently : Without restraint. 

Incontrovertible : Indisputable ; too certain to admit of dispute. 
Incoordinate : Lacking coordination or adjustment. 
Incorporate : To include ; embody ; unite. 
Inculcate : To impress ; implant ; teach ; enforce. 
Incumbent : Resting upon one as a duty or obligation. 
Indelible : Incapable of being blotted out. 
Indeterminate : Indefinite ; uncertain ; not precise. 
Index-finger : The forefinger ; the pointing finger. 
Indiscipline : Want of discipline ; deficiency of control. 
Indiscriminate: Without distinction; confused; not making 


Indite : To compose ; write ; commit to written words. 
Indolent: Lazy; sluggish. 
Indubitable: Undoubted; unquestionable. 
Induce : To cause ; bring on ; produce. 
Ineptitude : Lack of skill. 

Inertia : Resistance ; indisposition to move ; inertness. 
Inexorable: Unyielding; immovable; relentless. 
Inexplicable : Not capable of being explained. 
Inflection: The raising or lowering of the pitch of the voice; 

modulation of the voice. 
Ingenuous: Open; frank; honest; sincere. 
Inhale : To breathe in ; to draw air into the lungs. 
Inhere : To be fixed in ; to be an inseparable part of. 
Inheritable : Capable of being inherited. 
Inhibit : To restrain ; hinder ; check ; repress ; hold back. 
Inimical: Harmful; hostile; unfriendly. 
Iniquitous: Wicked. 
Initial : First ; placed at the beginning ; opening ; incipient. 


Initiate : To originate ; bring about ; start ; begin ; institute. 

Initiative : A first step ; beginning ; start ; lead. 

Injunction: Command; order; precept; exhortation. 

Innate: Inborn; natural; inbred. 

Innervate : To give the nervous stimulus or impulse to. 

Innovation : A change in custom ; something newly introduced. 

Inordinate: Excessive; immoderate; undue. 

Inscrutable : Obscure ; mysterious ; not capable of being under- 

Insentient : Without feeling. 

Inspire : To inhale ; to breathe in. 

Instigate : To incite ; provoke ; originate ; stimulate to action. 

Insuperable : Insurmountable ; incapable of being overcome. 

Intangible: Vague; dim; incapable of being grasped or touched. 

Integral : Complete as an entity ; entire ; whole ; necessary to 
make a whole. 

Integrity : Wholeness ; entireness ; unbroken state. Honesty ; 

Intensify : To make stronger or more intense. 

Intensity : Strength ; the state of being strong or intense. 

Interblend : To blend together ; intermingle. 

Intercalate : To insert ; interpolate. 

Intercostal : Between the ribs. 

Interjection: An exclamation; a word suddenly uttered to ex- 
press emotion. 

Interlocutor : A questioner. 

Interminable: Endless. 

Intermit : To interrupt ; suspend ; cause to cease for a time. 

Interpolate : To insert. 

Interrogate : To question. 

Intimidate : To make afraid ; cause to become frightened. 

Intractable : Obstinate ; ungovernable ; not responding to treat- 


Intrinsic: Real; true; inherent; inward; genuine. 

Introspect : To look within the mind ; to examine the workings 

of the mind. 
Intuitive : Perceived by the mind immediately and without any 

process of reasoning. 

Invective : Abusive ; railing ; expressing censure or reproach. 
Inveigh : To exclaim or rail against ; to censure. 
Inversion : A reversing ; a placing in opposite order. 
Invert : To reverse ; place upside down ; place in opposite order. 
Invest : To endow ; clothe ; dress. 
Inveterate : Confirmed in a habit or practice. 
Invoke : To call into activity ; summon ; conjure ; appeal to. 
Involuntary : Independent of will or choice. 
Involvement : The state of being involved or implicated. 
Iodide of potassium : A drug ; a medicine. 
Ipecacuanha : A drug ; a medicine. 
Irate: Wrathful; angry. 

Irradiate : To spread like rays from a center ; to diffuse. 
Irrelevant : Foreign to the subject ; not bearing on the matter 

under consideration ; inapplicable. 
Irruptive : Invading ; rushing in or upon. 
Italicize : To print in italics or slanting type. 
Itinerant : Wandering ; passing or travelling about a country. 

Jeu d'esprit : A play of wit or fancy ; a joke. 
Jocund: Sportive; gay; merry. 
Juncture : A point of time. 

Kaleidoscopic : Resembling the figures of a kaleidoscope ; chang- 
ing in color and form. 

Kinaesthetic : Motor ; relating to muscular movement. 

Knee-jerk : The involuntary jerk or kick that results from a blow 
delivered immediately below the knee-cap. 

Kulturmenschen : Civilized people. 


Labial : Relating to the lips. 

Laboratory : A building or room in which scientific work is con- 
ducted and experiments are performed. 

Laceration : A tearing. 

Lacuna : A gap ; space ; vacancy. 

Lallation : Lalling (especially tailing on the letter r). 

Lalling: Inability to articulate dearly; an infantile form of 

Lalophobia : Speech-fear ; the fear of talking. 

Laminate : Made up of layers or thin plates. 

Languish : To fade ; wither ; become spiritless. 

Lapidary : Inscribed upon stone ; inscribed upon tombstones. 

Laryngeal : Relating to the larynx. 

Larynx : The upper part of the windpipe containing the organs 
of voice. 

Lasciviousness : Lustfulness ; indulgence in animal desires. 

Laud : To praise ; extol. 

Leash : A line ; a thong ; a cord ; a line by which an animal is 
held in check. 

Legible : That may be read ; distinct ; easily deciphered. 

Legionary : Relating to a legion ; containing a great number. 

Lesion : A hurt ; a wound ; an injury ; a changed condition due 
to disease. 

Lethargic: Sluggish; dull; heavy. 

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi : One of the facial muscles. 

Lexicon: Dictionary. 

Lexicographical: Relating to a dictionary or the writing of a 

Liaison : An intrigue ; sexual intimacy. 

Lingual : Relating to the tongue. 

Linguistic : Relating to language. 

Linguo-palatal : Requiring both tongue and palate for articulation. 

Liquor arsenicalis : A medicine. 



Litigation : The process of carrying on a suit in a court of law. 
Localize : To be local ; to make local ; to assign a definite posi- 
tion to ; to refer to a particular location or area. 
Loc. cit. : Loco citato (in the place or work cited). 
Longevity : Length or duration of life. 
Longitudinal: Lengthwise. 
Lucrative: Profitable; gainful. 

Malaise: Uneasiness; discomfort; indisposition. 
Malevolent : Unfavorable ; unpropitious ; bringing calamity. 
Malformed : Abnormally formed ; ill-shaped. 
Malignant: Harmful; malicious. 
Mandarin : A Chinese official. 
Mandibular : Relating to the lower jaw. 
Manifold : Many ; numerous ; of different kinds. 
Manipulate : To handle ; to work or operate with the hands. 
Manoeuvre : A movement ; a change in position or arrangement. 
Manual : A handbook. 

Manual alphabet : Hand-language ; the deaf and dumb alphabet. 
Mark : A German coin of the value of about twenty-four cents. 

A German coin of the value of about a shilling. 
Masquerade: To go in disguise; to cover up or conceal as 

with a mask. 
Masticatory: A substance chewed in order to increase the flow 

of saliva. 

Maturation : The process of maturing or ripening. 
Maxim : A rule ; principle ; saying. 
Mechanician: A mechanic; a machinist; one versed in the 

principles of mechanics. 
Median : Middle ; relating to the middle ; situated or placed in 

the middle ; mesial (which see). 
Mediate : (adjective') Indirect ; not immediate. 
Mediate : (verb) To bring about as an agent ; effect ; accomplish. 


Medicament : A medicine ; a healing application. 

Memoriter : By heart ; from memory. 

Meninges: The coverings of the brain (and spinal cord). 

Mesial: Middle; relating to an imaginary plane dividing the 
body into two equal halves. 

Meticulous : Over-cautious ; attending to minute detail. 

Metrical : Pertaining to meter ; of the nature of verse ; meas- 
ured; rhythmical. 

Metronome: An instrument giving audible beats and used for 
marking exact time in music. 

Mimetic : Imitative ; involving mimicry. 

Minaret : A tower. 

Mitigate : To lessen ; moderate ; abate ; make better. 

Mnemonic : Assisting the memory. 

Mogilalia : A difficulty of utterance. 

Monitory: Warning. 

Monograph : A treatise on a single subject. 

Monophthong : A vowel consisting of only one element. 

Monosyllable : A word consisting of a single syllable. 

Monotonic : In a monotone ; in one pitch. 

Motility : Power of motion ; ability to move. 

Motor : Relating to motion or movement ; relating to muscular 

Motorial : Same as motor. 

Multifarious : Having great diversity and variety. 

Multiform : Having many forms ; diverse. 

Multiple: Having many parts and relations; consisting of a 
large number ; manifold. 

Multiplicity: The condition of being manifold or numerous; a 
great number. 

Multitudinous : Numerous ; consisting of a multitude. 

Municipality: Township; city. 

Musculature : The muscular system ; the muscles. 


Mutation : Change ; alteration ; the process of changing. 
Mute consonant : A surd or voiceless consonant. 
Mutism: Dumbness. 
Myelin : The white covering of a nerve-fibre. 

Naive: Not reflecting; uncritical; artless; frank; simple; 

Nares : The cavity of the nose ; the nostrils. 

Nasal : Relating to the nose. 

Nascent : Coming into being ; beginning to exist ; undeveloped. 

Natural selection : Selection by the elimination of the unfit and 
the survival of the fit. 

Necropsy: Post-mortem examination; examination of a body 
after death; autopsy. 

Negative : A plate from which photographs are printed. 

Negligible: Unimportant; that may be disregarded; not 
materially affecting results. 

Nephritis : Inflammation of the kidneys. 

Neural : Relating to the nervous system ; relating to nerves. 

Neurasthenia : An exhausted condition with disturbances of the 
nervous system ; nervous weakness ; nervous prostration. 

Neuroses : Plural of neurosis. 

Neurosis : A nervous derangement ; a functional nervous disease. 

Neurotic : Relating to neurosis ; subject to neuroses ; nervous. 

Nonchalant: Indifferent; unconcerned; cool. 

Non-speculative: Not speculative; without theory or con- 

Norm : The normal type ; standard. 

Notation: A system of signs or symbols ; the symbols themselves. 

Nucha : The nape or back part of the neck. 

Nuclei : Plural of nucleus. 

Nucleus: Kernel; centre; core. 

Nugatory: Insignificant; trifling; vain. 


Obfuscate : To obscure ; darken ; cloud ; render dim. 
Objective: Outward; external; external to the mind; direct- 
ing the mind to external things without reference to 

personal sensations and experiences. 
Oblique: Slanting; sloping. 
Obliterate : To blot out ; erase ; efface. 
Oblivion: The state of having passed out of memory; loss of 


Obscurantist : One that opposes the diffusion of knowledge. 
Obscuration : The state of being obscured or darkened ; the act 

of obscuring. 
Obsession : A haunting idea ; the state of being haunted by an 


Obsolescent : Becoming obsolete ; going out of use. 
Obsolete: Gone out of use; discarded; antiquated. 
Obtain : To prevail ; exist. 
Obtrude : To thrust in or upon ; to intrude. 
Obtrusion : The act of obtruding. 
Obviate : To encounter or meet ; to clear away or provide for ; 

to remove. 

Occlude : To shut up ; to close. 
Occlusion : A shutting up ; a closing ; an occluding. 
Octave : A sound eight tones higher or lower than another. 
Olfactory : Relating to the sense of smell. 
Omniscient : Knowing all things ; unlimited in knowledge. 
Ontogenetic : Relating to the development of the individual as 

opposed to that of the race. 

Optical : Relating to vision or sight ; relating to the eyes. 
Optic disk : The point where the optic nerve enters the retina of 

the eye ; the blind spot. 
Oral : Relating to the mouth. 
Orang-outang : One of the higher apes. 
Orchestral : Relating to an orchestra. 


Organic: Relating to bodily organs; physical or bodily rather 
than functional or mental; relating to an organism or 
living object. 

Organism : A living object ; an animal or plant. 

Orifice : An opening ; an opening into a cavity ; an aperture. 

Orthographically: According to the rules of spelling. 

Orthopaedic: Relating to orthopaedia, the correction of deform- 

Orthophonic: Literally, relating to right sound or to a correct 
system of sound-production. 

Ostensible: Seeming; appearing; professed; pretended. 

Outre: Odd; peculiar; extravagant. 

Overt: Clear; manifest. 

Oxygenation: The act of oxygenating or causing to combine 
with oxygen, one of the gases of the air. 

Palatal : Relating to the palate or roof of the mouth. 

Palatine : Same as palatal. 

Palpitation: A beating ; a too rapid beating. 

Panacea : A cure-all ; a remedy for all diseases. 

Pantomime: Dumb-show ; sign language ; a series of actions and 

gestures intended to convey ideas. 
Parabola : A geometrical figure produced by cutting a cone with 

a plane parallel to one of its sides ; a curved line. 
Paradox: A thing seemingly false yet true ; a puzzling fact. 
Paragon : A model of excellence ; a pattern. 
Paragram : A play upon words ; a quibble. 
Paramount: Superior to all others; chief; supreme; most 


Paraphernalia : Miscellaneous articles ; a collection of objects ; 
UK an equipment. 
Paraphrase : To express in different words ; change the wording 



Pare: Peel. 

Parenthesis: An explanation inserted in a sentence. The fol- 
lowing curved lines ( ). 

Paresis : A mild form of paralysis. 

Paretic : Relating to paresis ; partially paralyzed. 

Parity: Equality; like state or degree; analogy; close resem- 

Paroxysm: Fit; convulsion; spasm. 

Patent: Clear; plain; manifest. 

Pathogenic : Giving origin to disease ; causing illness. 

Pathological : Relating to disease. 

Pathologist: One versed or skilled in pathology, the science of 

Patter-song : A comic song in which the words are uttered with 
extreme rapidity. 

Paucity : Fewness ; smallness in number. 

Pectoral : Relating to the chest. 

Pemmican : A food used by explorers. 

Percussion: The act of striking; the shock produced by a 

Perforce : Necessarily ; by all means. 

Peripheral : External ; at the surface of the body. 

Peripherie : Same as peripheral. 

Periphrasis : A roundabout expression ; a circumlocution. 

Periphrases : Plural of periphrasis. 

Pernicious: Hurtful; vicious; injurious. 

Peroration : The concluding part of an oration. 

Per se : By itself ; in and of itself. 

Perspicuity: Clearness; plainness. 

Pertinent : Fitting ; proper ; suitable ; not foreign to the matter. 

Perversion: The act of perverting, corrupting, or distorting; 
the state of being thus perverted ; impairment ; injury ; 


Pfennig : A German coin of the value of about a quarter of a cent. 
A German coin of the value of about half a farthing. 

Pharynx : The extreme back of the throat ; the cavity behind the 

Phenomenon: Happening; appearance; a fact presented to 

Phobia : An abnormal fear ; a persistent dread. 

Phonation: Vocalization; the production of vocal sound or 

Phonetic : Relating to phonetics. 

Phonetician : One skilled or versed in phonetics. 

Phoneticist : Same as phonetician. 

Phonetics: The science of sounds, especially those of human 

Ph onophobia : The fear of sound ; the fear of speaking. 

Photogram: A photographic record of a physiological experi- 
ment ; a photograph. 

Phthisis : Tuberculosis of the lungs ; consumption of the lungs. 

Phylogenetic : Relating to the evolution of the race. 

Physical: Relating to material things as opposed to mental; 
relating to the body ; material ; bodily. 

Physiognomy : A combination of features ; appearance ; coun- 
tenance ; face. 

Physiology : The science of bodily functions ; the study of the 
normal workings of the body. 

Pictorial : Relating to pictures. 

Piecemeal: By pieces; in fragments; by little and little in 

Pigmentary: Marked by the presence of pigment or coloring 

Pitch : The highness or lowness of a tone ; the acuteness or grave- 
ness of a note ; the relative acuteness or height of a sound. 

Placid: Calm; serene; unruffled; undisturbed. 


Plagiarize : To steal the writings of another. 

Plastic : Capable of being shaped or moulded ; capable of being 

changed or modified. 
Plenary: Complete; full; entire. 
Plethora : A fulness of the blood-vessels ; an overfulness of the 

Plethysmograph : An instrument used for detecting changes in 

the size of an arm or leg. 
Plurality: The state of being plural; a number more than 

Pneumograph: An instrument used for recording respiratory 


Polyglot: Containing many languages; speaking many lan- 

Polysyllable : A word of several syllables. 
Polytechnical : Embracing or teaching many arts and sciences. 
Pomum adami : The Adam's apple. 
Ponderous: Heavy. 
Portray: To picture; represent. 
Posterior : Behind ; toward the rear or back. 
Postfix: To add to the end. 
Post-hypnotic suggestion : A suggestion intended to take effect 

after the subject has passed out of the hypnotic state. 
Postulate : Something assumed ; something taken for granted. 
Potassium bromide : A drug ; a medicine. 
Potency: Power; strength; efficacy. 
Potent: Powerful; forceful; influential. 
Potential : Existing in possibility ; possible. 
Precedence : The act or right of preceding ; priority in rank. 
Precept: A teaching; a maxim; a prescribed rule of conduct 

or action. 

Precipitates: Dregs. 
Preclude : To prevent ; hinder ; exclude ; shut out. 



Predispose : To make liable or susceptible to. 

Predominate : To be chief in importance, quantity, or degree. 

Preeminent : First in rank ; supreme ; extreme ; superlative. 

Prefactory : Introductory ; relating to a preface. 

Prefix : To fix or put before. 

Premise: (noun) A position or fact laid down as the basis or 
ground of an argument. 

Premise : (verb) To set forth or lay down beforehand ; assume ; 

Preoccupation : Absence of thought ; inattention. 

Preponderant : Outweighing ; in excess. 

Preposterous: Strikingly or utterly ridiculous or absurd; op- 
posed to nature, reason, or common sense. 

Prerequisite : Something necessary to the end proposed ; some- 
thing required for the end in view; that on which some 
later thing or condition depends. 

Presage : To forebode ; foreshow ; foretell ; predict. 

Primordial : Existing from the beginning ; original ; primitive. 

Principiation : Analysis. 

Privation : Loss ; lack ; the state of being deprived. 

Prodigious: Great; huge; extraordinary. 

Profile : A side view of the head or face ; an outline of this side 

Prognosis: A prediction or forecast concerning the course of 
a disease. 

Projection-fibres : Fibres that leave the cerebrum. 

Prolific: Fruitful; productive; fertile. 

Promiscuous: Mingled; confused; jumbled; indiscriminate; 
brought together without order. 

Promulgate : To make known ; announce ; publish ; proclaim. 

Propaganda : The means or system employed to advance a cause. 

Propension: Tendency; inclination; bent; proneness; pro- 


Propensity : Same as propension. 

Prophylactic : Preventive ; defending from disease. 

Propinquity: Nearness; closeness; proximity. 

Propitious : Favorable ; attended by favorable circumstances or 


Propound : To offer ; present ; propose. 
Prospective : Being still in the future or in expectation. 
Prostrate : Lying helpless ; lying weak and exhausted. 
Protoplasm : The li ving matter of which animals and plants are 

largely composed and from which they are developed. 
Protract : To lengthen ; draw out ; prolong. 
Protrusion : The act of protruding or thrusting forward. 
Provincialism: A peculiarity of speech or mode of enunciation 

found in the provinces or country districts. 
Proviso: Provision; restriction; stipulation. 
Provocative : That which provokes, excites, or causes an action 

or result. 

Proximate: Nearest; direct; immediate; last. 
Proximity: Nearness; closeness; the state of being near or 

next in place or time or in some other relation. 
Prudery : An undue and sometimes insincere display of modesty 

and delicacy ; excessive niceness. 
Pseudo : (in compound words) False. 
Psychic : Mental ; psychological ; relating to the mind. 
Psychical : Same as psychic. 
Psychosis : A mental disturbance or disorder. 
Purloin: To take or carry away for oneself; take by theft; 

Putative : Supposed ; reported ; reputed to be. 

Quasi : (in compound words) Appearing as,- if ; as it were ; in a 

manner ; in a sense or to a certain degree. 
Questionnaire : A list of questions. 


Racial : Relating to a race or tribe. 

Raison d'etre : A reason for being ; a reason or an excuse for 


Ramification : A branch ; the act of branching. 
Rampant : Unrestrained ; unbridled ; unchecked ; exceeding all 

Random-spontaneous: Spontaneous in origin and random in 


Rational: Reasonable; sensible; judicious. 
Rationale : An explanation of reasons or principles ; the reasons 

or principles themselves. 

Recalcitrant : Refractory ; resisting ; refusing to submit. 
Recession : The act of receding or withdrawing ; a withdrawal ; 

a flowing away. 
Recessive characteristic : A characteristic or trait that may be 

latent or hidden in one generation but (under the proper 

conditions) active in the next. 
Recondite: Hidden; obscure. 

Redintegrate : Recall to memory ; arouse by association. 
Refoule langue : A tongue-ram ; a tongue-compressor. 
Reflex act or movement: An act performed involuntarily in 

response to a stimulus. 

Refractory: Unmanageable; unruly; unyielding; obstinate. 
Refutation : The act or process of refuting or disproving. 
Remedial : Relating to a remedy ; intended as a remedy ; acting 

as a remedy. 

Reminiscent : Recalling the past ; dwelling upon the past. 
Remission : Discharge from penalty ; pardon ; forgiveness. 
Renal calculi : " Kidney gravel " ; a disease in which gravel-like 

bodies are present in the kidneys. 
Renegade: Unfaithful; false; deserting; apostate. 
Reparation: The act or process of repairing; restoration to 




Reparative : Relating to reparation. 

Repetitive : Involving repetition ; repeating. 

Replete: Full; abounding. 

Repudiate: To refuse to acknowledge; to disclaim ; disavow ; 

Requicken : To bring to life again ; revive. 

Requisite: Necessary; required; needful; essential. 

Requisition: Request; summons; demand; the act of re- 

Residential: Relating to a residence or home; fitted for resi- 

Respiration: Breathing; the act of inhaling and exhal- 

Retina : The inner coat of the eyeball, formed of an expansion 
of the optic nerve. 

Retract : To draw back ; withdraw. 

Retrogression : A going backwards ; degeneration. 

Reverberate : To return ; send back ; echo ; reflect. 

Revert : To return ; fall back ; to return to or toward an origi- 
nal or ancestral type. 

Revoke: Annul; cancel; repeal; recall; abolish. 

Rhetorically: In a rhetorical or an oratorical manner; with 
correct composition and delivery. 

Rhythm : Regularity of movement ; measured movement ; the 
regular recurrence of accent or impulse ; the " swing " in 
a particular movement or execution. 

Rhythmical : Marked by rhythm ; regular hi movement or ac- 
cent ; keeping time. 

Rhythmus : Same as rhythm. 

Rima-glottidis : The glottis ; the aperture of the glottis. 

Rubrics : Formal instructions ; directions or rules. 

Rudimental : Undeveloped ; elementary ; rudimentary. 

Rudimentary : Undeveloped ; not fully developed ; imperfect. 


Salutary: Helpful; wholesome; advantageous; useful. 
Sang-froid : Coolness ; indifference ; freedom from emotion. 
Schematic : Diagrammatic ; relating to a scheme, diagram, or 


Script : Handwriting ; print hi imitation of handwriting. 
Scriptory : Written ; expressed in writing. 
Scrutinize : To observe closely ; examine carefully. 
Scrutiny : Careful observation or examination. 
Secondary-automatic : Performed unconsciously from habit. 
Semi-vocal : A voiced consonant. 
Sense-organ : An organ such as the eye or ear, for instance 

that gives sensation when stimulated. 
Sensory : Conveying or giving rise to sensation. 
Sentient : Feeling ; capable of feeling. 
Septennial : Lasting or continuing for seven years. 
Sepulchral: Relating to a sepulchre or tomb; hence deep, 

grave, hollow hi tone. 
Sequence: Order; succession. 
Sequent: Following; succeeding. 
Sexuelle aetiologie: Sexual aetiology; sexual causality; the 

theory of sexual causes. 

Sibilation : The act of sibilating or hissing ; a hissing sound. 
Simulant : One that simulates or mimics. 
Simulate : To feign ; imitate ; counterfeit ; mimic. 
Simultaneous : Occurring at the same time. 
Sobriquet : A nickname. 

Soft palate: The soft part of the roof of the mouth; the pos- 
terior part of the roof of the mouth. 
Somaesthetic : Relating to general bodily sensations; relating 

to " feeling." 

Somatic : Relating to the body ; bodily ; corporeal. 
Somnambulic : In a hypnotic state that state hi which one is 

conscious, but readily obedient to the hypnotist. 


Sonant : Voiced ; accompanied by voice or vibration of the vocal 


Sonority : Sound ; sonorous quality. 

Sonorous : Clear-sounding ; resonant ; loud and full-sounding. 
Sovereign: Superior in efficacy; most potent; supreme; ex- 
Spasm: The sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or 

muscles ; a convulsion ; cramp. 
Spasmodic : In the manner of a spasm ; convulsive ; sudden ; 


Spastic : Relating to spasm ; spasmodic. 
Spatial : Relating to space. 
Spatula : A flat or spoon-shaped instrument used for depressing 

the tongue. 

Species : A group ; a sub-group. Variety ; kind ; sort. 
Specific : (adjective) Precise ; exact ; definite. Relating to a 

species or sub-group. 
Specific: (noun) A remedy; a medicine specially adapted to 

cure or prevent a particular disease. 
Specific gravity: Density; weight with relation to volume or 

Spectral: Relating to the spectrum, the band of color into 

which white light may be decomposed. 
Speech-mechanician : See mechanician. 
Spirometer: An instrument used for testing lung-capacity and 

for exercising the respiratory muscles. 
Splanchnic : Relating to the viscera or internal organs. 
Spontaneous: Acting without external influence; arising from 

internal causes. 
Sporadic: Scattered; occurring singly; occurring here and 

Staccato: Abrupt; sharply emphasized; short and sharp; 

distinct; detached. 


Stanza: A number of lines or verses regularly adjusted to one 

Static electricity: Electricity produced by friction or other 
mechanical means, and employed in charges rather than 

Stenographic : Written in shorthand. 

Stethoscope: An instrument employed by physicians in listen- 
ing to respiratory sounds ; heart sounds, etc. 

Sthenic: Giving power; stimulating; having power to inspire 
or animate. 

Stimulant : That which stimulates. 

Stimulate : Impel ; incite ; prompt ; rouse to activity. To 
increase physiological action; to produce a quick but 
temporary increase in vital activity. 

Stimuli : Plural of stimulus. 

Stimulus: That which stimulates or excites, especially that 
which stimulates a sense-organ. 

Stramonium : A drug ; a medicine. 

Strangulatory : Marked by strangling and suffocation. 

Stress: Emphasis; accent. 

Stultify : To make foolish ; to cause to appear absurdly incon- 

Subcentre : A centre within a centre ; a small centre. 

Subcortical : Beneath the cortex of the brain. 

Subjective : Mental ; internal ; in the self ; belonging to the self. 

Subjoin : To add ; attach ; affix ; annex. 

Subordinate : (adjective) Having a lower position in a scale ; 
inferior ; secondary ; minor. 

Subordinate : (verb) To make subordinate. 

Subserve : To serve ; administer to. 

Subservient: Subserving; acting as an instrument or agent; 
adapted to promote some end or purpose. Obedient ; 


Subsist : To be ; exist ; inhere. 

Subterfuge : A shift ; a dodge ; a trick ; an evasion. 

Subtile: Subtle; fine; delicate. 

Sub-tonic : A sonant or vocalized consonant. 

Subvert : To overthrow ; extinguish ; destroy. 

Summation : The act of forming a sum or total ; accumulation. 

Supererogatory : Superfluous ; unnecessary ; uncalled for. 

Superficial : On or relating to the surface ; not deep ; not pene- 
trating; shallow. 

Superfluous : Uncalled for ; unnecessary ; more than sufficient. 

Supernatural : Beyond the laws of nature ; miraculous ; mys- 

Superpose : To lay upon or over ; to make coincide. 

Supersede : To set aside ; to render unnecessary ; make 

Superstructure: Structure; building; edifice. 

Supervene : To take place ; happen ; follow. 

Supine: Without interest or care; negligent; indolent; in- 

Supplement: To add something to; complete by additions; 
provide for what is lacking in. 

Surcharge : To overcharge ; overload ; overburden. 

Surd : Without voice ; without vibration of the vocal cords. 

Surdal : Same as surd. 

Surrogate : A substitute ; deputy ; delegate. 

Sustain : To maintain ; support ; uphold ; withstand. 

Syllabic: Relating to syllables; consisting of or emphasizing 

Syllabicate : To separate or form into syllables. 

Symmetrical : Regular ; similar in shape. 

Sympathetic : Reflex ; corresponding ; relating to coordination. 

Symptomatology : The science of the symptoms of disease. 

Synchronous : Happening at the same time ; simultaneous. 


Synonym: A word having the same meaning as another; a 

Synoptical : Affording a general view of a subject ; of the nature 
of a synopsis. 

Synthesis: The putting of two or more things together; con- 
struction; composition. 

Taboo : To shut out ; exclude ; discountenance. 

Tacit : Silent ; not uttered in words ; implied, but not expressed. 

Taciturn: Silent; mute; uncommunicative. 

Tactual : Relating to the sense of touch. 

Tallow-chandler : One that makes or sells tallow-candles. 

Tangible : Real ; definite ; clear ; evident ; apprehensible by the 

Technique : The mechanical and practical details of an art. 

Telepathic : Relating to " telepathy " or ." thought-transfer- 

Temporal : Relating to time. 

Tendinous : Relating to a tendon. 

Tension: The state of being stretched or strained; a making 

Tenuity: Thinness; rareness; rarity. 

Thaumaturgic : Magical. 

Therapeutic: Relating to therapeutics or the art of healing; 
curative ; alleviative. 

Therapy : Therapeutics ; the art of curing ; that part of medi- 
cine that deals with the discovery and application of 

Thermal : Relating to heat or warmth ; relating to the perception 
of warmth and cold. 

Thesis : A theory ; theme ; proposition. 

Thorax : The cavity of the chest. 

Thyroid cartilage : The cartilage seen as the Adam's apple. 


Thryoid gland : A gland in the neck. 

Tic: An involuntary convulsive movement, especially of the 
muscles of the face. 

Timbre : Tone-color ; sound-quality ; the inherent character of 
a sound (by which, for instance, a human voice is dis- 
tinguished from a violin). 

Titilate : To tickle ; excite pleasurably. 

Titulary : Relating to a title. 

Tom-tom : A drum used hi India and other Oriental countries. 

Tonic : A vowel or diphthong. 

Tonic spasm : A spasm in which a muscle remains in continued 

Torpid: Sluggish; numb; dull; dormant; inert; indolent; 

Toxic : Relating to poison ; due to poison ; poisonous. 

Trachea : The windpipe. 

Transcend : To rise above ; surmount ; surpass ; excel ; over- 

Transcribe : To write in another form. 

Transcription : The act of transcribing ; anything transcribed. 

Transfix: To pierce through, as with a pointed weapon; to 

Transient: Temporary; fleeting; brief. 

Transition : Change ; a passing from one state or condition to 

Transitory: Temporary; brief; short-lived. 

Transmute : To change ; transform. 

Transposition : A changing of relative position ; a transposing. 

Transverse: Running from one side of the body to the other; 
crosswise ; lying across. 

Trauma : An injury ; a wound. 

Traumata : Plural of trauma. 

Traumatic : Relating to a trauma. 


Travesty: A burlesque; a grotesque imitation ; the act of making 

a travesty or burlesque of. 

Tremor : An involuntary trembling ; a quivering or shaking. 
Tremulous: Trembling; quivering. 
Troglodyte : A cave-dweller. 

Tumor : A swelling ; a morbid growth or enlargement. 
Tutelage: Guardianship; protection; tutorship; instruction. 

Unanimous : Being of one mind ; agreeing in opinion. 

Uncomplaisant : Discourteous; disagreeable. 

Unctuous : Fervid ; devotional ; emotional ; nauseously bland. 

Unembellished : Not embellished ; not adorned or decorated. 

Unequivocal: Definite; precise; decided; without ambiguity. 

Unilateral : Occurring on or related to one side only ; one-sided. 

Uninitiated: Not initiated; not instructed in the secrets and 

Unison : A joining together ; a keeping together with ; a keep- 
ing in time with. 

Unit character : A character or trait that is inherited and trans- 
mitted as a unit. 

Unitary : Single ; of the nature of a unit. 

Unlocalized : Not localized ; not capable of being referred to any 
definite site or position. 

Unmitigated : Not mitigated or lightened in effect ; having full 

Unmotived : Without motive ; not conditioned by motives. 

Uraemic : Relating to uraemia, an abnormal condition in which 
the constituents of urine are present in the blood. 

Utilitarian : Relating to utility ; practical. 

Uvula: The small, fleshy body hanging from the soft palate 
above the root of the tongue. 

Uvular : Relating to the uvula ; requiring the action of the uvula 
for articulation. 


Vacillate: To waver; to move one way and another ; to fluctuate. 
Vacuum : An empty space ; a space from which the air has been 


Vagary : A freak ; whim ; caprice. 
Validity: The state of being valid, sound, or capable of being 

defended and justified. 
Vaporous : Of the nature of vapor ; cloudy ; indistinct ; vain ; 


Variant : A thing different only in form ; a variation. 
Vascular : Relating to vessels ; relating to blood-vessels. 
Vaso-motor centre: A nerve-centre controlling the contraction 

and dilatation of the blood-vessels. 
Vaudeville : A music-hall ; a music-hall entertainment. 
Vaunt : To make a vain display of ; exhibit proudly ; boast or 

brag about. 
Velum : The soft palate ; the posterior part of the roof of the 


Ventral : Relating to the belly ; on the front of the body. 
Venture (At a venture) : At hazard ; at random ; without seeing 

the end or mark. 
VerdrSngt: Repressed. 
Vermilion : Scarlet ; brilliantly red. 
Vertical : In an upright position ; upright ; plumb. 
Vesication : The formation of blisters. 

Vestibule : A small chamber ; a space ; a cavity ; an opening. 
Vestigial: Rudimentary; undeveloped; meagre. 
Vicarious: Acting for another; substituted in the place of 

another; deputed; delegated. 
Vicissitude : A change ; a mutation ; a passing from one state 

or condition to another. 
Vindicate : To defend ; justify ; maintain. 
Virtuoso : One skilled hi a particular art ; a master in technique ; 

an adept. 


Visceral : Relating to the viscera or internal organs. 

Vita sexualis : Sexual life. 

Visualize : To see mentally ; to picture in visual imagery. 

Vocal : Relating to the voice ; having voice ; involving produc- 
tion of voice by the vibration of the vocal cords. 

Vocal cords : A pair of membranous folds in the larynx, which 
produce voice by vibrating. 

Vocalize : To produce voice ; to vibrate the vocal cords ; to 
utter with voice and not merely with breath. 

Vociferous : Noisy ; loud ; clamorous ; making a loud outcry. 

Vogue : Fashion ; mode ; usage ; practice. 

Voluntary : Proceeding from the will ; subject to the will ; 
spontaneous; designed; intended. 

Vulnerable: Liable to injury; liable to attack; assailable; 
capable of being wounded. 

Wachmann: Watchman; policeman. 

Wachsuggestionen : Suggestions given in the waking state. 

Wane : To diminish ; decrease ; decline ; fail. 


ABBOTTS (W.). Stammering, Stuttering, and Other Speech 

Affectations. London, 1894. 
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ATIUS. Tetrabiblium. De ancyloglossis et qui vix loqui 

possunt. II Sermo quart., caput XXIV. 
AMMAN (C. J.). Surdus loquens, etc. Amst, 1692. 

Dissertatio de loquela, etc. Amst., 1700. 
ANDRES (E. A.). Zaikanie i ego lechenie. Prakticheskoe 

rukovodstvo dlja voditelei vospitatelei i dlja samov- 

buchenlja. St. Petersburg, 1887. 
ANGERMANN (F.). Das Stottern, sein Wesen und seine 

Heilung. Berlin, 1853. 

1 The majority of the works given in this bibliography deal exclu- 
sively with stammering, though there have also been included a 
number of works of special interest that deal with stammering only 
incidentally. With a few exceptions references have not been given 
to articles appearing in periodicals. Approximately 400 such refer- 
ences may be found in the " Index-catalogue of the Library of the 
Surgeon-general's Office" (of the United States Army), to which 
source of information the reader interested in the matter is referred. 
For information concerning recently published articles in the principal 
American and foreign medical journals the reader is referred to the 
" Guide to Current Medical Literature," which is issued twice yearly 
by the American Medical Association, Chicago. 

The inclusion of a work in this bibliography is not intended as an 
indorsement of the work in question. None of the works in languages 
other than French, German, and English have been used in the prep- 
aration of the present monograph. 



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Abdominal breathing, II. 15 
Abdominal muscles, contracting the 

during speech, II. 25 
"Abnormal reflexes," II. 239 
Absolute musical memory, I. 100 
Abstract thought, I. 21 
Accent-marks with poetry, II. 160 
Accents, word-exercises with vari- 
ously placed, II. 100, no 
Accentuation of different words in a 

sentence, II. 109 
Achoppement syllabique, I. 58 
Acquired kinaesthetic stammering, 

denned, I. 258 

Actors, etc., as stammerers, I. 318 
Adams, Samuel Hopkins, II. 303 
Adenoids, II. 223 
Affection, denned, I. 17 
Affective memory, I. 321 
Afferent nerves and fibres, I. 65 
Agoraphobia, II. 298 
Agraphia, I. 113 
Agreements with "specialists," II. 

287 [See also application blanks.] 
Alexia, I. 113 

musical, I. 155 

Alliterations, practising, I. 345 
Alliterative sentences 
for practice of forceful articulation, 

II. 133 

for syllabic speaking, II. 156 
Alphabet, physiological, I. 292 
American system, a representative, 

II. 259 


auditory, as the primary cause of 
stammering, I. 187 

denned, I. 106 

musical, I. 36, 152, 202 

verbal, denned, I. 20 

visual, I. 108 

visual verbal, I. 113 
Amnesia verbalis, denned, I. 20 
Amusia, 1. 151 

case of Emil Scaria, I. 201 
Anaemia, cerebral, I. 226 
Analysis of consonants, II. 86 

commentary on, II, 89 
Analysis of vowels, II. 91 

commentary on, II. 93 
Anatomy of the speech-organs, n. 


Anecdotes, relating, II. 109, no 
Angular gyrus, injury to the, I. 113 
Aphasia, I. Ch. VI. 

and ability to read aloud, I. 170 

and ability to repeat, I. 166 

and ability to sing, I. 156 

and interjectional speech, I. 174 

and stammering, resemblance be- 
tween, I. 207, 226 

articulatory kinaesthetic, I. 122 

associational, I. 147 

auditory, I. 136 

case of bearing resemblance to 
stammering, I. 213 

case of the author, 1. 130 

caused by emotion, I. 163 

1 When a subject coven several pages reference is made only to the 
page on which the subject begins. 




Aphasia, I. Ch. VI. 

causes of, I. 179 

defined, I. 107 

expression of oral speech in, I. 

interpretation of speech in, 1. 143 

motor, I. 122 

optic, I. 148 

relation between auditory and 
motor, I. 143 

retention of verbal imagery in, I. 

transitory, I. 161 
Aphemia, I. 118 

stammering not a form of, I. 228 
Apoplexy, cerebral, I. 226 

Bates', II. 218 

mechanical, II. Ch. VI. 
Application blanks, II. 271 
Apraxia, I. 146 
Arms, movements of the to prevent 

stammering, II. 178 
Arnott's expedient, II. 54 
Articulation, II. Ch. IV. 

as the seat of the stammerer's 
difficulty, II. 57 

expedients relative to various 
modes of, II. 81 

forceful, II. 132, 136 

light, II. in, 126 
Articulation-exercises, II. 68, 80 

charts for, II. 77 

for developing the speech-organs, 

H. 59, 67 
Articulatory-kinaesthetic aphasia, I. 


Articulo-moteur, the, I. 42, 52, 103 
Asking and answering questions, II. 

107, no 

Aspirate prefix, II. 55 

as a cause of stammering, I. 272 

controlled, II. 247 

emotional, I. 320 

free, II. 247 

nature of, I. 9 
Association fibres, I. 65 

injury to the, 1. 147 
Associational aphasia, I. 147 

stammering not a form of, I. 231 
Assumption of function by the unin- 
jured hemisphere in aphasia, I. 

Atavisms, I. 209 
Atrophy, cerebral, I. 68 
Attention, "division" of, II. 177 
Audile, the, I. 27 

Audito-moteur, the, 1. 42, 52, 100, 103 
Auditory amnesia as the primary 

cause of stammering, I. 187 
Auditory and motor aphasia, rela- 
tion between, I. 143 
Auditory aphasia, I. 136 
Auditory imagery, I. 5 

influence of sounds on, I. 347 

possibility of goading the into 
activity, I. 346 

probably deficient in the stam- 
merer, I. 248 

strengthening the, I. 354, 359 

vulnerability of, I. 231 
Auditory motor verbal imagery, I. 52 
Auditory verbal centre, injury to the, 

I. 136 

Auditory verbal imagery, I. 45 
Aurelianus and rhythm, II. 173 
Austrian system, a representative, II. 


Automatic acts, I. 92 
Automatisms, II. 183 
Auto-suggestion, I. Ch. IX. 

as a major system, II. 230 

counter, I. 339 ; II. 232 

counteracting, I. 338 

direct effects of, I. 314 

Balls, gutta-percha, II. 216 

Bastian, I. 34 

Bates' appliances, II. 218 




use of while speaking, II. 174 
use of with breathing-exercises, II. 


use of with vocal exercises, II. 48 
Battery, electric, II. 216 
Beating time, II. 164, 173 
Belgian system, a representative, II. 


Bewilderment in stammering, I. 
Ch. VIII. [See also confusion, 
multiple thought, etc.] 
Bizarreries, II. 228 
Blind, concepts of the, I. 23, 25, 80 
Blindfold chess-playing, I. 28 
Blood-supply to the brain, I. 221, 310 
Books by literary ghosts, II. 285 
Brain, the, I. Ch. IV. 
blood-supply to during emotion, 

etc., I. 221, 310 
convolutions of, I. 62 
fibres of, I. 62 
fissures of, I. 61 
lobes of, I. 52 
Brain-centres, I. 67 
impairment of, I. Ch. VI. 
lowered excitability of, I. 163 

economizing the II. 23 
forceful expiration of the, II. 23 
holding the in respiratory exer- 
cises, II. 20 

Breathing [See also respiration, in- 
halation, etc.] 
diaphragmatic, II. 25 
expedients relative to various 

modes of, II. 21 
through the mouth, II. 26 
through the nose, II. 26 
Breathing-exercises, II. 6 
commentary on, II. IQ 
Breathing-muscles, exercises for the, 

II. 14, 20 

Bridgman, Laura, I. 25 
Broca's convolution, I. 74 

injury to, I. 122 
Broster, II. 185 
Broster method [See Leigh method.] 

Caelius Aurelianusand rhythm, n. 173 
Canadian system, a representative, 

n. 259 

Catalepsy, mental, I. 309 
Cause of stammering 

inducing, I. 208 

Denhardt's theory, I. 292 

failure of voice theory, I. 181, 292, 
II. 29 

primary, I. 187 
Causes of aphasia, 1. 179 
Cerebellum, I. 61 
Cerebral anaemia, I. 226 
Cerebral apoplexy, I. 226 
Cerebral congestion, I. 225, 310 
Cerebral hyperaemia, I. 225, 311 
Cerebral localization, I. 67 
Cerebrum, I. 61 
Charcot, I. 76 
Charlatans, II. 303 
Charts [See respiration-charts, inflec- 
tion-charts, etc.] 
Chess-playing, blindfold, I. 28 

appearance of stammering in, I. 

274, 34 

the most favorable period for treat- 
ing stammering, I. 364 


stammering-schools for, II. 305 
treating stammering in, II. 305 

Chromaesthesia, I. 38, 351 

Chromatic scale, II. 34 

Clavicular breathing, II. 14 

Clenching the fists, II. 215 

Click of the glottis, II. 34 

Closed jaws, reading with, n. 60, 68 

Cluttering, I. 287, 289 

Coffee, II. 228 

Cognition, denned, I. 17 

Coil, electric, II. 216 

3 8o 


Collar-bone breathing, II. 14 

method, II. 161, 173 

modification of the Leigh method, 

n. 189 

refoule langue, II. 222 
Color in verbal imagery, I. 351 
Color-audition, I. 38 
Color-blindness, I. 210 
Combinations, difficult, II. 104 
Competitions, II. 296 
Completing sentences, II. 107, no 
Concept, the, I. 16 
Conception, I. 16, 76 
Concert, stammerer's fluency when 

speaking in, I. 200 

Confusion in stammering, I. Ch. 
VIII. [See also bewilderment, 
muHiple thought, etc.] 
Congestion, cerebral, I. 225,^310 
Conservation of energy, law of, I. 93 

classification of, II. 89 

detached from body of word, II. 


forcible articulation of, II. 132, 136 
initial, retained in synonyms, I. 

not the seat of the stammerer's 

difficulty, I. 183 
omitted or reduced, EC. in, 126 
physiological production of, II. 

separated by an "inaudible" h, II. 

stammering on continuous and 

explosive, I. 261 
taking care of the, etc., II. 136 
Constructive imagination, I. 9 
Contests, name-gathering, II. 296 
Continuity of voice, II. 53 
Continuous consonants "attacked" 

by opening the mouth, II. 141 
Contracts with "specialists," II. 287 
[See also application blanks.] 

Controlled association, II. 247 
"Conversion," hysterical, II. 238 
Convolutions of the brain, I. 62 
"Copyrighted methods," II. 302 
Cork between the teeth, II. 217 
Corollaries, I. Ch. X. 
Corpus callosum, I. 66 
Correspondence schools, II. 255 
Cortex, defined, I. 61 
Costal breathing, II. 14 
Counter auto-suggestion, I. 339, II. 


Counting, II. 106, no 
Coup de la glotte, II. 31 
Courses for stammering children, 

municipal, I. 365 
Crossing of fibres, I. 66 
Cuneus, injury to the, I. 112 
Cures, percentage of, II. 265 
Cures, temporary, II. 266 

Danish system, a representative, II. 


"Darkening the mental eye," II. 227 
Deaf, the orally taught 

no stammering among, I. 234 

speech of, I. 103, 140 
Deaf-blind, concepts of, I. 23, 25, 81 
Deaf-mutes, I. 19, 23, 46, 95 
Declaiming in a loud voice, II. 39, 50 
Decussation of fibres, I. 66 
Defining words as an exercise, II. 108 
Demosthenes, II. 24, 216 
Denhardt's theory of the cause of 

stammering, I. 292 
Dextrality, I. 71 
Diabetes and emotion, I. 330 
Diacritics, II. 142 

Diagnoses by "specialists," II. 293 
Dialogue-reading, II. 103, no 
Diaphragm, the, 

exercises for, II. 15 

Findley's theory of the action of, 

II. 179 
Diaphragmatic breathing, II. 15, 25 


Difficult combinations, II. 104, no 
Difficulties, artificial, presented to 

the pupil, II, 109, in 
Diplomas, medals, etc., II. 279 
Direct attack, II. 31, 49, 56 
"Discoveries" offered to stammerers, 

n. 300 

Disease, effect of on the emotions, I. 

Distortion of verbal imagery, I. 269 

correcting, I. 342 

Distortion of the vowels in stam- 
mering, I. 190 

Dividing pauses, eliminating, II. 148 
Division of attention, II. 177 
Dorsal breathing, II. 15 
Double articulations, II. 104 
Drawling, II. 52 
as fulfilments of repressed wishes, 

II. 244, 249 
imagery of, I. 37 
Drugs, effect of on the emotions, I. 


with breathing exercises, II. 17, 


with syllabic speaking, II. 158 
with vocal exercises, II. 43, 50 
Dynamogenesis, law of, I. 18, 89 
Dyspepsia and emotion, I. 332 

Ear-mindedness, I. Ch. II. 
Echolalia, I. 167 
Eclectic methods, II. 144 
Economizing breath, II. 23 
Efferent nerves and fibres, I. 65 
Effort, suppression of physical, II. 


Electric battery, II. 216 
Electric coil, II. 216 
Electrical treatments (galvanic, fa- 

radic, and static), II. 222 
Embololalia, II. 215 
Embolophrasia, II. 215 

Emotion [See also /ear] 
and cerebral blood-supply, I. 221, 


and diabetes, I. 330 
and disease, I. 330 
and drugs, I. 329 
and dyspepsia, I. 332 
and phthisis, I. 330 
as a cause of aphasia, I. 163 
influence of the thyroid gland on, I. 


influenced by the physical condi- 
tion, I. 337 
instinctive, I. 322 
James-Lange theory of, I. 324 
nature of, I. 324 
sthenic, II. 232 
Emotional association, I. 320 
Empty lung, speaking on, II. 22 
"End-tongue wording," II. 198 
English system, a representative, II. 

Enthusiasm, imbuing the pupil with, 

II. 228 

Environal stammerers, II. 233 
E-prefix, II. 54 
Erythrophobia, I. 297 
Exacerbation of physical stammer- 
ing, I. 266 

Exercises [See breathing-exercises, 
vocal exercises, articulation-exer- 
cises, etc.J 

Expiration, forceful, II. 23 
Explosive consonants "attacked" by 

light articulation, II. 141 
Expression of oral speech in aphasia, 

I. MS 

Ex-pupils' leagues, II. 276 
External suggestion, I. 314 
Eye-mindedness, I. Ch. II. 

Failure of voice, causes ascribed for, 

Failure of voice theory, I. 181, 292, 

II. 29 


Familiar phrases, utterance of in 

aphasia, I. 141 

Faradic electrical treatments, II. 222 
Fatigue, II. 228 
Fear, I. Ch. DC. [See also emotion.] 

cerebral blood-supply during, I. 

counteracting, I. 335 

direct effects of, I. 309 

nature of, I. 324 
Fear-neurosis, stammering as a, I. 

292, II. 235 

Feeling-element in speech, I. 59 

for courses, II. 294 

refundment of, II. 273 
Fehlhandlungen, II. 246 
Female stammerers, I. 211 
Fevers, I. 274 
Fiat, the, I. 94 

association, I. 65 

of the brain, I. 62 
Findley's, Dr. 

attempt at cure, II. 268 

use of gesture, II. 179 
Fissures of the cerebrum, I. 61 
"Following the instructions," II. 271 
Forceful articulation, II. 132, 136 
Forceful expiration, II. 23 
"Foreign ideas," excluding, II. 227 
Foreign languages, mastering, I. 99 
Framing sentences, II. 226 
"Fraud, the Great American," II. 303 
Free action of jaw, II. 139, 140 
Free association, II. 247 
French system, a representative, II. 


Full breathing, II. 15 
Fumbling buttons, etc. II. 183 

Gallaudet, Dr. I. 234 
Gallon, I. 29 

Galvanic electrical treatments, II. 

Genius, I. 12 

Geniuses among stammerers, I. 278 

German pamphlet, method of, IL 

German system, a representative, II. 


as a remedy for stammering, II. 

to control action of diaphragm, II. 


Ghosts, literary, II. 285 
Glide of the glottis, II. 32 
Glosso-mochlion, Wutzer's, II. 222 
Glottis-stroke, II. 31 
Goitre, 1. 330 
Graves, Dr., II. 179 
Graves' disease, I. 331 
"Great American Fraud, the," II. 


Grunt, initial, II. 214 
"Guarantees" to cure stammering, 

II. 269 

Gustatory images, I. 7 
Gutta-percha balls, II. 216 
Gymnastic exercises, II. 222 
"Gymnastics, mental," II. 229 

H ("inaudible") after initial con- 
sonants, II. 153 

Hagemann, Frau, II. 187 

Hagemann method [See Leigh 

Hallucination, I. 5, 79 

Head, throwing back the, II. 56 

Helen Keller, I. 48, 94 

Hemianopsia, I. 74, 112 

Hemiplegia, I. 119, 122 

Heredity and stammering, I. 256 

High position of tongue, II. 183 

Holding the breath in respiratory 
exercises, II. 9, 20 

Home treatment [See correspond- 
ence schools} 

Homonymous hemianopsia, 1. 74, 112 



Homonyms and stammering, I. 315 
fl'-prefix, n. 55 

Hyperasmia, cerebral, I. 225, 311 
Hypnotism, I. 338, II. 232 
"Hysterical conversion," II. 238 
"Hysterical symptoms," II. 240 

Idea, the, I. g 

Ignorance of "specialists," II. 285 

Illusions, I. 1 6, 78 

Imagery [See also auditory imagery, 

verbal imagery, etc.] 
and voluntary speech, relation 

between, I. 86 

comprehending fugitive, I. 255 
correcting distortion of, I. 342 
differences in, in the sexes, I. 36, 


in men of science, I. 36 
individual differences in, I. Ch. II. 
intensifying the, I. 177, 354 
nature of, I. 3 

obfuscated by physical stammer- 
ing, I. 264 
of dreams, I. 37 
relation of to sense-perception, I. 

variability of in the same person, 

I. 253 

and muscular movements, I. 86 
as speech-cues, I. 94 
Imitating voices, etc., II. 101 
Imitation as a cause of stammering, 

I. 271 
Impairment of brain-centres, I. 

Ch. VI. 
Impingements from a lower plane, 

n. 229 

"Inaudible" h after initial conso- 
nants, II. 153 
Incodrdinations, II. 246 
Indifferent, the, I. 27 
Indirect attack, II. 32, 49, 55 
Infectious fevers, I. 274 


as a cause of stammering, n. 52 
as a remedy for stammering, II. 53 
Inflection-chart, II. 38 
Inflection-exercises, II. 36, 49 
Inhalation, initial, II. 21 
Inhaling before difficult words, II. 

Inhibition of thought, etc., I. 284, 

316, 317 

Initial consonant 
detached from body of word, II. 


omitted or reduced, II. in, 126 
separated by an "inaudible" h, II. 

subjoined to word preceding, II. 


Initial e, II. 54 
Initial inhalation, II. 21 
Initial vowels, prolonging, II. 122, 


Injury to the brain-centres, I. Ch. VI. 
Innervation, I. 86 
Instinctive emotions, I. 322 
"Instructions, following the," II. 

Intellectual activity and cerebral 

blood-supply, I. 221 
Intelligence of the average stam- 
merer, I. 276 
Intensifying the mental imagery, I. 


Intensifying vowels, II. 124, 128 
Interjectional speech 
in aphasic patient, I. 174 
in stammerers, I. 213 
Internal speech, practice of, II. 226 
Interpretation of speech in aphasia, 

I- 143 

Interrupting pupils, II. 109, in 
Irritability, property of, I. 18 
Ischxmia, I. 226 
Isochrone, II. 171 
Itard's tongue-fork, II. 222 



James-Lange theory of emotion, I. 


Jargon-aphasia, I. 52, 145 

exercises for the, II. 61, 67 
free action of the, II. 139, 140 
Jaws, reading with closed, II. 60, 


Johnson, Dr. Samuel, I. 120 
Judgment, I. 17 

Katenkamp Institute, II. 174 

Keller, Helen, I. 48, 94 

Kinaesthetic and visual training the 
desideratum in treating stam- 
mering, I. 362 

Kinaesthetic image, the, I. 7 

Kinaesthetic verbal centre, injury to 
the, I. 122 

Kinaesthetic verbal imagery, I. 46 

Klaustrophobia, I. 298 

Klithrophobia, I. 298 

Labial exercises, II. 59, 67 

Lalling, I. 181 

Lalophobia, I. 291, 320 

Lange's theory of emotion, I. 324 

Language, defined, I. 40 


exercises for the, II. 31, 34, 49 

squeezing the, II. 215 
Lateral breathing, II. 14 
Laura Bridgman, I. 25 
Lay, Wilfred, I. 32 
Leagues, ex-pupils', II. 276 
Leigh method, II. 183 
Leigh method current, II. 192 
Leigh, Mrs., II. 184 
Light articulation, II, in, 126 
Ling's Swedish exercises, II. 222 
Lingual exercises, II. 61, 68, 197 

free action of, II. 137, 140 . 

kept closed, II. 138, 140 

kept separated, II. 138, 140 

vertical movement of, II. 138, 

and tongue, watching during 

speech, II. 137, 140 
Lip-exercises, II. 59, 67 
Lip-reading, I. 41 
Listening, sympathetic movements 

while, I. 54 

Literary ghosts, II. 285 
Lobes of the cerebrum, I. 62 
Localization, cerebral, I. 67 
"Long count, the," II. 106 
"Low tongue" in stammerers, II. 

Lower plane, impingements from a, 

II. 229 
Lowered excitability of brain-centres, 

I. 163 

Low-pitched voice, speaking in a, II. 

Loud voice, speaking in a, II. 228 

Malebouche, II. 186 

Malebouche modification of the 
Leigh method, II. 188 


aphasia commoner in, I. 210 
greater variability of, I. 210 
stammering commoner in, I. 210 


with syllabic speaking, II. 158 
with vocal exercises, II. 43, 50 

Mechanical appliances, etc., II. 
Ch. VI. 

Medals, diplomas, etc., II. 279 

Medical societies, etc., papers before, 

II. 284 

Memory, affective, I. 321 
Memory-centres, I. 71 
Memory-image, I. 4 
Men of science, imagery in, I. 36 
Mental confusion in stammering, I. 

Ch. VIII. 
"Mental eye, darkening the," II. 




"Mental gymnastics," II. 229 
Mental images, I. 3 [See also im- 
ages, imagery, auditory imagery, 

Mental types, I. Ch. II. 
"Method of attack," II. 140 
Methods, secrecy concerning, II. 


Metric speech, II. 161, 173 

carrying a, II. 170, 173 

Colombat's, II. 165 

for reading, II. 169 

in America, II. 171 

in England, II. 171 

with breathing-exercises, II. 14 

with vocal exercises, II. 48 
Mimetic performances, I. 101 
Mind, the subconscious, II. 232 
"Mind reading," I. 88 
Mind-blindness, defined, I. 107 
Mind-deafness, denned, I. 107 
Mirror-practice, II. 94 
Mispronunciation of vowels in stam- 
mering, I. 190 
Mnemonic devices, I. 38 
Modes of enunciation, II. Ch. V. 
Monotone, speaking in a, II. 52 
Moon, phases of and stammering, I. 


Mosso, I. 221 
Moteur, the, I. 27 
Motile, the, I. 27 
Motor aphasia, I. 122 

and auditory aphasia, relation be- 
tween, I. 143 

stammering not a form of, I. 230 
Motor circle, I. 267 
Motor current insentient, I. 90 
Motor image, the, I. 7 
Motor nerves and fibres, I. 65 
Motor speech-centre, injury to the, I. 


Mouth, breathing through the, II. 


cause of, I. 86 

random-spontaneous, I. 89 

slow and unforced, II. 209 
M -prefix, etc., I. 349, II. 55 
Multiple thought, I. 281 [See also 
bewilderment, confusion, etc.] 

repressing, I. 340 

Municipalities and courses for stam- 
mering children, I. 365 
Muscles [See breathing-muscles, etc.] 
Muscle-reading, I. 88 
Musical alexia, I. 155 
Musical amnesia, I. 36, 152, 202 
Musical ear 

lack of, I. 202 

probably deficient in the stam- 
merer, I. 249 

Musical expression, I. 152, 232 
Musical memory, absolute, 1. 100 
Musical memory-centre, injury to 

the, I. 151 

Musical recognition, I. 152, 232 

as isochrone, II. 171 

Colombat's, II. 165 

in aphasia, I. 119 

in stammering, I. 209 
Myelin sheaths, I. 69 

Name-gathering contests, II. 296 
Negative image, the, I. 4 
Neuroglia, I. 65 
Neurone, the, I. 65 
Nose, breathing through the, II. 26 
Note-blindness, I. 152 
/V-prefix, II. 55 
Number-forms, I. 38, 113 

Object-blindness, I. 108 
Obscurantists, "speech specialists" 

as, II. 287 

Obsession, stammering as an, II. 235 
Obsessions, I. 297 


Octaves, practising the vowels in, II. 
34, 49 

Olfactory images, I. 7 

Onomatopoeia, I. 22 

Open position, starting from the, II. 
139, 14 

Open-mouth test, Strieker's, I. 57 

Operating craze, II. 223 

Operations, surgical, II. 223 

"Opposing movements," II. 178 

Optic aphasia, I. 148 

Optic nerves, I. 66 

Orang-outang, the, I. 69 

Orthopaedic therapeutic speech-ap- 
paratus, II. 216 

Orthophonic system of Colombat, II. 

Papers before medical societies, etc., 

II. 284 

Paragraphia, I. 114 
Paraphasia, I. 137, 145 
Paraphrasing as an exercise, II. 107, 


Paroxysms of stammering, I. 263 
Passive stammering, I. 209, 344 
"Patented methods," II. 302 
Percentage of cures, II. 265 
Percept, the, I. 14 
Perception, I. 14, 76 
Performing animals, I. n 
"Phlegmatics," II. 227 
Phobias, I. 297 

Phonetic syllabication, II. 148 
Phonetics, study of, II. 82 
Phonophobia, I. 291 
Phthisis and emotion, I. 330 
Physical condition, influence of on 

the emotions, I. 337 
Physical defects of speech-organs 

absent in stammerers, I. 206 
Physical stammering 

counteracting, I. 343 

denned, I. 258 

discussed, I. 263 

may obfuscate verbal imagery, I. 


self-exacerbation of, I. 266 
Physiological alphabet, I. 292 
Physiological consonants, practice 

of, II. 115, 127 
Physiological defect, stammering 

commonly regarded as a, II. 3 
Physiological production of con- 
sonants, II. 86 
Physiological production of vowels, 


Physiological spelling, II. 98, no 
Physiology of speech 
outlined, II. 85 
study of, II. 82 
Pictures of classes, II. 293 
practising vowels with varying, II. 

34, 49 

precedes vowel-coloration, I. 232 
Pitman's classification of vowels, 

I. 193 

Plethysmograph, I. 222 
Pneumographic records, I. 313 
"Positive attitude," assuming a, II. 


Primary image, the, I. 4 
Primary visual centre, injury to the, 

I. 112 
Principals of stammering schools 

suffering relapse, I. 361, II. 267 
Productive imagination, I. 9 
Prolonging initial vowels, II. 122, 


Prolonging vowels, II. 116, 127 
Proust-Lichtheim test, I. 119 
Pseudo-hallucination, I. s 
Pseudo-spasms, I. 266 
Psychic traumata, II. 240 
Psychoanalysis, II. 235 
Psychological methods, I. 339, II. 

Ch. VII. 

Psychology, defined, I. i 
Psychosis, stammering as a, I. 292 



Pure stammering 
defined, I. 257 

possibilities of correcting, I. 346 
subdivisions of, I. 258 

Q as kw, II. 81 
Quacks, II. 303 
Question-blank, II. 293 
Questionnaire, I. 239 

author's answers to, I. 243 
Questions, asking and answering, II. 

107, no 
Quiet voice, beginning sentence in a, 

R as er, II. 81 
Random-spontaneous movements, I. 

Range of the voice, using the full, II. 

Rapid utterance to exclude "foreign 

ideas," II. 227 
Reaction-word, II. 247 
Reading aloud 

in aphasic patients, I. 170 

in stammerers, I. 212, 284 
Reading-exercises, II. 102, no 

advanced, II. 104 
Reasoning, I. 17 

as an exercise, II. 107, no 

in stammerers, II. 284 
Recurring utterances, I. 145 
Reflex acts, I. 92 
"Reflexes, abnormal," II. 239 
Refoule langue, Colombat's, II. 222 
Refundment of fees, II. 273 

usual, II. 267 

principals of stammering-schools 

suffering, II. 267 
Relation between motor and audi- 

tory aphasia, I. 143 
Relaxation, II. 204 

Dr. L. Sandow's system of, II. 206 

Relaxation-exercises, II. 205 
Remote image, defined, I. 87 

in aphasic patients, I. 166 

in stammerers, I. 196 
"Repression," II. 236 
Reproductive imagination, I. 9 
Resident image, denned, I. 86 
Respiration [See also breathing, in- 
halation, etc.] 

expedients relative to, II. 21 

stammering and faulty, II. 4 
Respiration-charts, II. 12, 13 
Respiratory disturbances in stam- 
mering, I. 313 
Respiratory exercises, II. 6 
Respiratory muscles 

exercises for the, II. 14, 20 

strengthening the, II. 6 
Retention of the verbal images in 

aphasia, I. 144 
Retinae, the, I. 66 
Rhythm, I. 345, II. 161, 173 

employed by Caelius Aurelianus, 
II. 173 

employed by Thelwall, II. 172 
Rhythmic speaking, II. 161 
Rhythmical bodily movements, ha- 

bituation to, II. 175 
Rhythmus, II. 172 
Rib-breathing, II. 14 
Right-handedness, I. 71 
Running words together, II. 145 
Russian system, a representative, II. 

Sandow, Dr. L., II. 206 
Satyrus, II. 24 
Secondary image, the, I. 4 
Secondary-automatic acts, I. 92 
Secrecy concerning methods, II. 299 
"Selected paragraphs," II. 103 
Sensation, defined, I. 2 
"Sense-bearers," emphasizing the, 
II. 214 

3 88 


Senses, the, I. 2 

Sensory nerves and fibres, I. 65 


completing, II. 107, no 

framing, II. 226 
Sexes, differences of imagery in the, 

I. 211 

"Sexual traumata," II. 241, 253 

Shock of the glottis, II. 56 

Short vowels and stammering, I. 


Shoulder breathing, II. 14 

Shouting, II. 30, 50 

Side breathing, II. 14 

"Side-tongue wording," II. 198 

Silence period, the, II. 225 

Simple life, the, II. 228 


in aphasic patients, I. 156 
in stammerers, I. 184, 202 

Situations-stotterer, II. 233 

Slow speaking, II. 121 

Soft palate, exercises for the, II. 66, 

Solitude, stammerer's fluency in, I. 
217, 220 

"Soul- training," II. 229 

Sound, producing consciously (Ger- 
man method), II. 128 

Sounds, influence of on auditory 
imagery, I. 347 

"Spasms," I. 263 

"Specialists," ignorance of, II. 285 


internal, practice of, II. 226 
physiology of outlined, II. 85 

"Speech specialists," II. Ch. VIII. 
"world's greatest," II. 302 

Speech-centres, I. 72 

Speech-cues, I. 94 

Speech-doubters, I. 291 

Speeches, making, II. 109, no 

Speech-exercises, II. 106 

Speech-organs normal in the stam- 
merer, I. 206 

Spirometer, II. 17, 20 
Squeezing the larynx, II. 215 
Stammeln, I. 181 
Stammerers, environal, II. 233 
Stammering [See also pure stam- 
mering, physical stammering, 

bewilderment, etc.] 
absent in the orally taught deaf, I. 

acquired kinaesthetic, denned, I. 

and ability to read with fluency, I. 

212, 284 

and ability to repeat, I. 196 
and ability to sing, I. 184, 202 
and ability to speak in unison 

with others, I. 200 
and ability to speak when alone, 

I. 220 
and aphasia, resemblance between, 

I. 207, 226 

and defective articulation, II. 57 
and distortion of verbal imagery, 

I. 269 

and distortion of vowels, I. 100 
and failure of voice, I. 292, II. 29 
and heredity, I. 256 
and interjectional speech, I. 213 
and mutism, I. 209 
and respiratory disturbances, I. 

313, II- 4 
and singing, I. 184 
and vowel-coloration, I. 187 
and whispering, I. 185 
and word-deafness, I. 235 
appearance of in childhood, I. 274, 


as a fear-neurosis, I. 292 
as a psychosis, I. 292 
case of aphasia resembling, I. 213 
caused by association, I. 272 
caused by auditory amnesia, I. 187 
caused by imitation, I. 271 
commonly regarded as a physiologi- 
cal defect, II. 3 



defined, I. 181 

Denhardt's theory of the cause of, 

I. 292 

difficulty is with vowels in, I. 183 
failure of voice theory in, I. 181 
geniuses afflicted with, I. 278 
intelligence normal in cases of, I. 

more frequent on short vowels, I. 


must be attacked during child- 
hood, I. 364 

not a form of aphemia, I. 228 
not a form of associational aphasia, 

I. 231 

not a form of motor aphasia, I. 230 
on explosive consonants, I. 261 
only on particular vowels, I. 192 
passive, I. 209 
physical, denned, I. 258 
physical, discussed, I. 263 
primary cause of, I. 187 
probably accompanied by deficient 

auditory imagery, I. 248 
pure, denned, I. 257 
pure, subdivisions of, I. 258 
transitory, I- 208 
Stammering-schools, II. Ch. VIII. 

for children, II. 305 
" Starters," II. 215 
Static electrical treatments, II. 222 
Sthenic emotions, II. 232 
Stimuli, summation of, I. 170, 172 
Stimulus-word, II. 247 
Stranger-practice, II. 100, in 
Strengthening the mental imagery, I. 


Strieker's "open mouth test," I. 57 
Stuttering, defined, 1. 181 
Subconscious mind, the, II. 232 
Subjoining initial consonants to words 

preceding, II. 145 
Suggestion, external, I. 314 
Suggestions given in the waking 
state, II. 235 

Summation of stimuli, I. 170, 172 
Surgical operations, II. 223 
Surrogates, II. 242 
Swedish exercise, Ling's, II. 222 
Syllabic speaking, II. 154 

alliterative exercises for, II. 156 
Syllabication, phonetic, II. 148 
Sympathetic movements while listen- 
ing, I. 54 

"Symptoms, hysterical," II. 240 
Synaesthesia, I. 38 

bewilderment due to use of, I. 
Ch. VIII. 

retention of initial consonant in, 

I. 196 

use of recommended, II. 214 

Tactile, the, I. 27 

Tactual images, I. 6 

"Take care of the consonants," etc., 

n. 136 

"Take care of the vowels," etc., II. 


Temporary aphasia, 1. 161 
Temporary cures, II. 266 
Temporary stammering, I. 208 
Testimonials, II. 277 
Thelwall, II. 172 
Thermal images, I. 6 

inhibition of, I. 284 

multiple, I. 281 

nature of, I. 18 

too rapid production of verbal, I. 


Throat-contraction, II. 30 
Throwing back the head, II. 56 
Thyroid gland and emotion, I. 330 
Time-beating, I. 345, II. 164, 173 
Tobacco, II. 228 
Tone-deafness, I. 152 

and lips, watching during speech. 

II. 137, 140 




applied to palate, II. 183 [See 

also Leigh method.] 
carried low with stammerers, II. 

1 86 
high position of recommended, II. 

183 [See also Leigh method.] 
low position of recommended, II. 

middle position of recommended, 

II. 100 

operations on, II. 223 
under surface applied near uvula, 

II. 180 
under surface applied to palate, II. 


Tongue-exercises, II. 61, 68, 197 
Tongue-fork, Itard's, II. 222 
Tongue-nerve powders, II. 222 
Tonsils, II. 223 
Training the mental imagery, I. 177, 


Transference of function 
in aphasia, I. 176 
in stammering, I. 347 
Transitory aphasia, I. 161 
Transitory stammering, I. 208 
Transposing initial consonant, II. 


psychic, II. 240 
sexual, II. 241, 253 

Unfamiliar words recognized as diffi- 
cult, I. 243 

Unison, stammerer's fluency when 
speaking in, I. 200 

Upper chest breathing, II. 14 

Uvulas, elongated, II. 223 

Vacillation of the will, I. 316 

of imagery in the same person, 1. 253 

of the male sex, I. 210 
Velum, exercises for the, II. 66, 67 

Verbal amnesia, defined, I. 20 [See 

also amnesia, aphasia, etc.] 
Verbal exercises, II. Ch. V. 
Verbal image, the, I. Ch. III. 

a complex, I. 81 
Verbal imagery [See also imagery, 

auditory imagery, etc.] 
auditory element in, I. 45 
auditory motor, I. 52 
distortion of, I. 258, 269 
kinaesthetic element in, I. 45 
"Visible speech" symbols, I. 363 
Visile, the, I. 27 
Visual amnesia, I. 108 
Visual and kinaesthetic training the 
desideratum in treating stam- 
mering, I. 362 
Visual centre (primary), injury to 

the, I. 112 

Visual image, the, I. 4 
Visual memory-centre, injury to the, 

I. 108 

Visual verbal amnesia, I. 113 
Visualizing colored vowels, etc., I. 

Visualizing speech-movements, I. 

351, II. 94 
Vocal cords, exercises for establishing 

consciousness of, II. 31, 49 
Vocal exercises, II. 40, 50 
charts for, II. 44 
commentary on, II. 48 
for training the speech-organs, II. 

3i, 49 
Vocalization and vowel-production, 

II. Ch. III. 

Voice, continuity of, II. 53 
Voice-accumulation, II. 56 
Volition, I. 17 
Voluntary speech, I. 86 

"attacked" by lowering the pitch, 

II. 141 

coloration of and stammering, I. 
187, 193 



difficulty with particular, I. 192 
intensifying the, II. 124, 128 
interpolating indefinite, II. 55 
mispronunciation of in stam- 
mering, I. 100 

physiological production of, II. 91 
Pitman's classification of, I. 193 
prolonging, II. 116, 127 
prolonging initial, II. 122, 128 
short and long, I. 204 
short, more difficult for stam- 
merers, I. 193, 204 
taking care of the, etc., II. 137 
the seat of the stammerer's diffi- 
culty, I. 183 
and stammering, I. 187, 193, 204 
the last term in evolution, I. 232 
Vowel-reading, II. 115, 127 

W as oo, II. 81 
Wachsuggestionen, II. 235 
Waist breathing, II. 15 
Waking state, suggestions during the, 

II. 235 

Wave of sound, following a, II. 214 
Weather and stammering, I. 301 
Wetterstrand, II. 234 

Whisper, speaking in a, II. 51 

as a respiratory exercise, II. 18 

in stammerers, I. 185 
Whistling, II. 215 
Will, the, I. 1 8 
"Willing game," the, I. 88 
Wish, the "repressed," II. 240 
"Word regulator," II. 171 
Word synthesis, II. 98, no 
Word-blindness, I. 113 

subcortical, I. 115 
Word-deafness in the stammerer, I. 

Word-exercises, II. 98, no 

charts for, II. 99 

defining, II. 108 

run together, II. 145 
Wutzer's glosso-mochlion, II. 222 
Wyllie, I. 79 

Wyneken's experience at the Katen- 
kamp Institute, II. 174 

Y as ee, II. 81 

Yates, Dr., II. 184 

Yates method [See Leigh method.] 




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iC'P 1UN 9 - 

5 TdiH 



3 1970 00586 0447 


A 001316909 9