STAMMERING AND COGNATE
DEFECTS OF SPEECH
AND COGNATE DEFECTS
C. S. BLUEMEL
CONTEMPORANEOUS SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING:
THEIR POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS
G. E. STECHERT AND COMPANY
LONDON LEIPZIG PARIS
9 X 3
BY C. S. BLUEMEL.
All rights reservtd.
J. B. Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION ... 29
VERBAL EXERCISES, MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. . 96
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC 216
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 225
STAMMERING-SCHOOLS" AND "SPEECH SPECIALISTS" . 255
OF TREATING STAMMER-
ING: THEIR POSSIBILITIES
IN this volume the writer endeavors to present a
synoptical review of the various systems employed in
Europe and America in treating stammering. In the
main, the systems described will be those contem-
poraneously employed ; but inasmuch as many of the
old and obsolescent systems are periodically re-
quickened, and vaunted before the world as new and
infallible discoveries, it will be necessary to describe
briefly a few methods that one would willingly account
It would be a little impractical and often somewhat
uncomplaisant to take up the systems of various
"stammering-schools" as entities, and discuss and
comment on the collection of unit expedients and
exercises of which each system is composed. The
more practical procedure will be to describe the units
2 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
without necessary reference to the systems in which
they occur. 1 This will eliminate useless and endless
repetition, and obviate propinquities of print that
might often suggest personal criticism. An individual
system is usually an arbitrary and adventitious thing :
it is commonly a collection of exercises and resources
whose assemblage is due to the chance associations of
the person plying it ; or it is a collection of exercises
and expedients designed to remedy conditions that
the person regards as the cause of the evil he is en-
deavoring to combat. But in either case the coales-
cence of different measures in a system is usually with-
out great significance.
In presenting theories and opinions and describing
various "remedial" measures, the writer will where
feasible quote from works on stammering in order to
avoid any possible suggestion of misinterpretation.
Owing to the nature of the commentary, the source
of the passages will in many cases not be given. All
works, however, from which passages are excerpted are
to be found in the Bibliography. 2 The writers quoted
will not always be contemporaneous, but the passages
cited will have reference to theories and expedients at
present accredited or countenanced in the therapy of
1 For illustration, a number of complete systems are given in the
latter part of the book.
1 Appended to Vol. II.
Stammering is commonly viewed as a physiological
defect, and its cause thought to lie in some anomaly
of respiration, vocalization, or articulation. For this
reason, most systems of treatment consist of exercises
and expedients that are presumed to give one control
of the refractory organs or to regulate in some way
the aberrant function concerned. In other systems
which are in the minority this analytical procedure
is not observed; but speech is regarded as a unitary
function, and its defects treated by some more or less
arbitrary method. It is evident that the systems of
these two classes have little in common, and that the
measures to be discussed will conform to no absolute
classification. The procedure in the succeeding
chapters will therefore be largely one of convenience.
We begin with a discussion of the various exercises,
etc. that are designed to remedy defects of respiration.
NUMEROUS persons engaged in treating speech-
defects hold the view that the primary cause of stam-
mering is faulty respiration:
"Respiratory disturbances are found in all stammerers." 1
"There is scarcely a stammerer who knows how to breathe
"This difficulty is always accompanied by a disturbance or
vicious application of the rhythm of respiration during speech." 3
"The muscles of respiration are almost as much at fault in
stammering as the organs of sound and articulation." 4
The respiratory disturbances are often attributed to
weak nerves or muscular spasms; and the disturb-
ances in breathing are frequently regarded as the
direct cause of the "failure of the voice ":
"But the immediate cause, and the nature of the defect itself,
is a spasm in the organs of speech.
1 Gutzmann, "Sprachheilkunde," 26. ed., p. 407.
2 Prospectus of a professional elocutionist.
3 Chervin, "Du bgaiement et de son traitement," p. 4.
*Findley, "Stammering," The Voice, Vol. VII, p. 54.
"It is a muscular spasm, originating in a nervous weakness.
The muscular spasm affects the breathing, the breathing affects
the speech, for without breath there is no speech." 1
"Voice is breath converted into tone by the vibrations of
the vocal ligaments or cords in the larynx; and it is in the
incoordination of the breathing muscles with those of the
vibrating element, delaying the production of tone, that the
primary cause of stammering lies. . . .
"Faults of breathing are the primary cause of stammering;
the laryngeal faults being secondary." 2
"If the antagonistic action of both these groups of muscles
is in equilibrium, a cessation of expiration takes place. This
is the case with the stutterer where the diaphragm sometimes
falls into a state of spasmodic contraction which cannot be over-
come by the abdominal muscles." 8
"If the bellows of an organ can, for instance, by blowing too
weak a stream of air, be the cause of the instrument not pro-
ducing sound, in no less degree can the lungs be the cause of
the speech-apparatus remaining toneless. They likewise can
blow so weakly that the vocal cords will not vibrate, conse-
quently will not make voice." 4
"The stammerer constricts the throat because the vocal
organs, situated at the top of the windpipe, do not receive a
strong enough current of breath from below from the lungs ;
1 Shuldham, "Stammering and its Rational Treatment," p. 31.
2 Behnke, "On Stammering, Cleft-Palate Speech, Lisping," pp.
1 Guttmann, " Gymnastics of the Voice for Song and Speech ; also
a Method for the Cure of Stuttering and Stammering," p. 159.
"Kreutzer's Method," The Voice, Vol. Ill, p. 175.
6 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
and this upward current is wanting simply because the lungs
are not sufficiently compressed or squeezed." 1
"Now, what are the causes? They are, first, defective,
partial, irregular breathing ; second,weak nerves, which produce
the abnormal respiration. As soon as these causes are re-
moved, their effect, which is stuttering, must disappear." *
Persons engaged in treating stammering usually
endeavor to combat respiratory disturbances with
breathing-exercises, which have for their object the
strengthening of the respiratory muscles and the
establishment of conscious control of the expiratory
Coen says of his system of treatment : 3
"In my method for the cure of stuttering I remove the partial
defective and irregular breathing by respiratory gymnastics.
I then proceed with vocal reading and talking exercises. The
respiratory gymnastics are as follows: I have the stutterer,
with bare chest, assume a position against the wall, as has
already been described, and while in this position breathe
slowly and deeply. Before taking these breathing exercises,
the organs of speech should assume the position of producing
"ch" (as in the German ich}. This is accomplished by bring-
ing the back of the tongue up to the soft palate, leaving only a
small passageway for the air. After the stutterer has been
sufficiently exercised and can readily pronounce this cA-position,
he draws the air in slowly and deeply, until the lungs are fully
1 John Howard, "The Cure of Stammering," The Voice, Vol. I,
1 Coen, "Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 204.
3 "Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. VII, pp. 8 f.
inflated. If this is rightly done the inspiration will be audible.
As the pupil inhales, I press my flat hand against the diaphragm,
at first gently, and gradually increasing the force. After the
inspiration, the stutterer holds the air in his lungs. In order to
do this with all possible exactness, I direct him to knit power-
fully the chest and abdominal muscles, and to press the lips
firmly together. At first, the inspiration is 5 to 10 seconds
long, but after a while it increases to 20, 30 and 60 seconds, ac-
cording to the age, strength, bodily development and degree of
stuttering of the pupil. I am very careful that the retention of
the ah" should be done with the utmost exactness, for even if
only a small portion should escape, either through the mouth or
nose, the object, which is the strengthening of the respiratory
organs, will not be attained, or only imperfectly. After the
retention of the air, the stutterer exhales ; at one time, suddenly
and with full force, in one blast ; at another time, slowly in a
long, protracted stream. This slow expiration, which in the
beginning can only last 5 to 8 seconds, increases, according to
the strengthening of the lungs, until 25 to 30 seconds can be
used in the exercise.
"After the three breathing acts, which I designate as a respi-
ratory unit, are ended, I direct that the stutterer shall rest a
minute or so. These exercises are continued until the pupil is
somewhat fatigued, which should be carefully watched, inas-
much as injury would result if the lung gymnastics were con-
tinued. In general, the stutterer can practice 15 to 25 minutes
without fatigue. These respiratory gymnastics should be gone
through daily, preferably in the forenoon, and should be contin-
ued during the whole treatment, which usually lasts from 8 to
Breathing-exercises are usually arranged systemati-
cally. The exercises involve various combinations of
8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
inspiratory and expiratory movements and periods
during which the breath is held with or without
closure of the glottis.
The preliminary instructions which vary with the
different systems are usually somewhat as follows :
Do not practise on an empty stomach or directly after eat-
ing a heavy meal. Remove all tight clothing before taking the
exercises. Practise in the open air or before an open window.
While exercising, stand erect, and hold the head erect, but not
too far back. Clasp the hands behind the back, as high as
possible. Lower them, if necessary, when inhaling. Inhale
through the nose. (Many instructors, however, direct their
pupils to inhale through the mouth.)
The following exercises may be regarded as typical of
the average system in which breathing-exercises form
a prominent feature :
1. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds, fully inflating the
Exhale through a period of 2 seconds, fully deflating the
2. Inhale similarly through a period of 4 seconds.
Exhale similarly through a period of 4 seconds.
3. Inhale similarly through a period of 6 seconds.
Exhale similarly through a period of 6 seconds.
4. Inhale similarly through a period of 8 seconds.
Exhale similarly through a period of 8 seconds. Etc., etc.
The time is of course increased in these exercises
till the maximum period is reached in which the pupil
can inhale and exhale with a reasonable degree of
comfort. The stammerer is enjoined to inhale and
exhale smoothly, so that in any particular exercise
equal quantities of breath are inspired or expired
during equal periods of time.
Variations of the above exercises are as follows:
5. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 10 seconds.
6. Inhale through a period of 10 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 2 seconds.
7. Inhale through a period of 5 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 1 5 seconds.
8. Inhale through a period of 1 5 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 5 seconds. Etc., etc.
9. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds.
Hold the breath for 2 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 2 seconds.
10. Inhale through a period of 4 seconds.
Hold the breath for 4 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 4 seconds.
11. Inhale through a period of 6 seconds*
Hold the breath for 6 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 6 seconds. Etc., etc.
12. Inhale through a period of 2 seconds.
Hold the breath for 4 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 8 seconds.
13. Inhale through a period of 12 seconds.
Hold the breath for 2 seconds.
Exhale through a period of 6 seconds. Etc., etc.
14. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 4 seconds,
alternately inhaling for one second and holding the breath for
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 4 seconds,
10 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
alternately exhaling for one second and holding the breath for
15. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds,
alternately inhaling for one second and holding the breath for
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds,
alternately exhaling for one second and holding the breath for
one second. Etc., etc.
16. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds,
alternately inhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 6 seconds,
alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath
for 2 seconds.
17. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 8 seconds,
alternately inhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath
for 2 seconds.
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 8 seconds, al-
ternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for
2 seconds. Etc., etc.
18. Inhale continuously through a period of 4 seconds.
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 10 seconds,
alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for
19. Inhale discontinuously through a period of 12 seconds,
alternately inhaling for 4 seconds and holding the breath for
Exhale through one second, completely deflating the lungs.
20. Inhale continuously through a period of 4 seconds.
Hold the breath for 4 seconds.
Exhale discontinuously through a period of 10 seconds,
alternately exhaling for 2 seconds and holding the breath for
2 seconds. Etc., etc.
It is evident that countless combinations similar to
the above can be devised. In many schools these
exercises are taught from charts in which the direc-
tions are conveyed by symbols. Inspiration and
expiration are represented by vertical and horizontal
lines, or by dots and dashes, squares and circles, etc.
Periods during which the breath is held are usually
indicated by parentheses, figures in the parentheses
indicating the length of the pauses.
In the following charts (pp. 12 and 13), which are
quite typical, inspiration and expiration are indicated
by arrows pointing in the direction in which the breath
moves in the trachea. The downward-pointing arrow
thus indicates inspiration, and the upward-pointing
arrow expiration. The figures above or below the
arrows indicate the number of seconds through which
inspiration or expiration occurs. The figures in paren-
theses between the arrows indicate the number of
seconds for which the breath is held. When no fig-
ure occurs between two arrows pointing in the same
direction, the pause between the two inhalations or
exhalations is considered to be momentary.
Manifestly the directions can be conveyed much
more effectively through these charts than through
oral or written instructions. In many schools charts
are used exclusively, and are employed literally in
When pupils are instructed in classes, the time is
12 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
V V V A A A
V V V A A A
V V V A A A
- V A V A
V " V " A "A.
V V * A A
V " V " A " A
V A V A.
2 / \ 2 /\ 2 /\2 /\ 2 /\ 2.
V V VA - A A
V V V ( "A A A
V A V-A V A
V A V<"A V A
14 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
either measured by a metronome, or is given by an
instructor, who leads the class with a baton or beats
time with the hand. In some institutions charts are
dispensed with, and the instructor leads the class with
a baton and gives directions orally or by gestures.
When the pupils practise alone, they usually take
the time from a metronome or count mentally.
In many institutions the various sets of breathing-
muscles the chest muscles, intercostal muscles,
dorsal muscles, etc. are exercised separately. The
following exercises are quite commonly prescribed :
Upper Chest Breathing. 1 Place the hands upon the chest,
with the tips of the fingers on the clavicles. Inhale slowly,
filling the upper part of the thorax so that the expansion can
be distinctly felt beneath the hands. Inhibit movements of
the shoulders, and as far as possible movements of the muscles
controlling the lower part of the thorax. Exhale slowly when
the upper chest has been fully expanded. Practise the various
simple respiratory exercises, using upper chest breathing.
Costal Breathing^ Place the hands upon the lower ribs,
with the ringers pointing forward and the thumbs back. In-
hale slowly, expanding the lower thorax laterally so that the
movement can be felt beneath the hands. Suppress upper
chest breathing as far as possible. Exhale slowly after inhala-
tion is complete. Practise the simple exercises, employing
Exercise the costal muscles unilaterally, effecting the move-
ment first on the left side and then on the right.
1 Also designated clavicular breathing, collar-bone breathing, shoulder
* Also designated lateral breathing, side breathing, rib breathing, etc.
Dorsal Breathing. Place the backs of the hands on the
dorsal muscles well below the shoulder-blades. Inhale slowly,
expanding the thorax beneath the hands and suppressing
expansion in other parts of the thorax as far as possible. Ex-
hale slowly. Practise dorsal breathing with the simple exer-
cises. Exercise the dorsal muscles unilaterally.
Diaphragmatic and Abdominal Breathing. 1 Place the
hands on the abdomen, with the thumbs on the lowest ribs.
Inhale slowly, expanding the lower part of the thorax by con-
tracting the diaphragm. Restrict the movement as far as
possible to the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles. When
inhalation is complete, exhale slowly by contracting the ab-
dominal muscles and relaxing the diaphragm. Practise this
form of breathing with the various simple exercises.
Full Breathing. Inhale slowly, expanding the entire thorax.
Exhale slowly. Practise the simple exercises, bringing all the
respiratory muscles into play.
The following procedure is often prescribed for
giving one consciousness of the diaphragm:
"Lie down on the back, the head somewhat elevated; put
the lungs into the 'state of readiness'; for the better recog-
nition of the matter lay the hand on the abdomen, and now,
without allowing the. upper portion of the chest to sink, emit the
air slowly from the lungs, and it will be perceived by the slowly
falling hand that the abdomen shrinks ; that is to say, the dia-
phragm relaxes from the contraction by which it pushed the
abdomen outward; and thus, pressing on the lungs, drives
the air in them up and out.
"Inhale air again immediately and the hand will rise; that
is to say, the abdomen will be pushed out, as before. This is the
1 Also designated waist breathing, etc.
16 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
result of the action of the diaphragm ; and by continued prac-
tice, interrupted by the necessary pauses, the consciousness of
directing the diaphragm at will, will slowly be attained;
for, although the diaphragm is an involuntary muscle, yet it
can be ... partially controlled by our will.
"Now practise the exercise in an erect position; and, while
singing a tone, it will soon be perceived that (without action
of the abdominal muscles) the sounding expiration brings about
but a faint result. Now let the abdominal muscles assist;
contract them slowly, that is to say, press the abdomen inward
while exhaling (and this can be done only by means of the ab-
dominal muscles) ; exert a counter-pressure with the diaphragm
which slowly subsides in proportion to the degree of pressure
of the abdominal muscles, and it will be found that the ef-
fect is much stronger."
The following exercises are also frequently recom-
mended for strengthening the diaphragm and estab-
lishing consciousness of diaphragmatic action :
1. Dilate the lower part of the thorax by contracting the
diaphragm. Hold the breath, and by relaxing the diaphragm
and contracting the abdominal muscles, force the breath to the
upper part of the thorax. Now contract the diaphragm once
more and bring the breath to the lower part of the thorax.
Continue these alternate movements as long as the breath can
be comfortably retained.
2. Lie upon the back, and place several heavy books on the
abdomen. Practise diaphragmatic breathing, taking care
that the books are raised as far as possible with each inspira-
tion. Practise reading aloud, making the breathing diaphrag-
matic and attending carefully to the muscular action.
3. Place several heavy books on the chest and one compara-
tively light one on the abdomen. Now read aloud or recite,
and breathe meanwhile with the least muscular effort in
other words, breathe in the lower part of the thorax in order
that the pile of books may not be lifted with each inspiration.
4. Practise "waist-breathing" while wearing a light elastic
belt. Etc., etc.
Different institutions of course employ different
combinations of breathing-exercises and in many
cases the different exercises or modes of breathing
receive local names. Thus we hear of "puff and
pause " and "puff and breathe " ; and of "effusive,"
"expulsive," and "explosive" expiration; "aspirate"
and "silent" expiration, etc. In a few schools, use is
made of the spirometer, special breathing-exercises
of course being employed. When a spirometer forms
part of the equipment, great emphasis is usually laid
on "lung capacity."
In many institutions, again, breathing-exercises are
practised in conection with dumb-bell exercises.
This is particularly the case in the United States of
America. These exercises may, however, have origi-
nated hi England, for Charles Kingsley recommended
them nearly half a century ago. In a letter to a
friend he says : *
"Take a pair of very light dumb-bells and exercise your
chest with them, taking care to inspire deeply when you raise
them over your head, and when (consequently) the ribs are
raised, and the lungs expanded. Do this slowly and quietly,
'"Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life"
(edited by his wife), Vol. II, p. 260.
i8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
and I think you will find, though it will not cure you, yet it will
relieve and literally comfort your breathing enough to give you
confidence in my hints."
The directions given by Kingsley are virtually a
description of a popular exercise practised daily in
a number of American institutions.
Another respiratory exercise that one finds in many
English, French, and German stammering-schools is
reading in a whisper. As a simple breathing-exercise it
is recommended by Bell in his " Principles of Speech " :*
"A very useful exercise for strengthening the respiration
consists in reading in a strong, loud WHISPER. This will be
found laborious at first, but practice will make it more easy.
It should not, however, be long continued, on account of the
giddiness which it is apt to produce."
Bell also recommends the folio wing mode of practice : 2
"A useful exercise for the regulation of the breath may be
obtained in counting. Thus, to acquire facility of silent res-
piration, count slowly and distinctly, with a free inhalation
by mouth and nostrils before each number; carefully sub-
duing the least tendency to audibility or suction in the act of
inspiration, and heaving the chest naturally, without any up-
ward action of the shoulders, or other bodily movement.
"To gain power in retaining the breath and prolonging the
expiration, count five, six, ten, twenty, fifty, or any greater
practicable series of numbers, with each breath; and continue
the exercise for several minutes, without allowing the chest
to fall, or pausing longer than is necessary to inhale before each
group of numbers."
1 "Principles of Speech," $th ed., p. 9. * Loc. cit., p. 241.
The foregoing is a cursory review of the respiratory
exercises commonly employed in institutions for the
treatment of stammering. Besides these exercises
there are often recommended expedients and practices
relative to various modes of breathing during actual
speech. These measures will be considered later.
At this point it will be well to discuss the efficacy of
the exercises already reviewed.
It may be stated unqualifiedly that breathing-ex-
ercises furnish an excellent instrument for elocution-
ists in treating physical stammering; but if the
writer's theory of causality is correct, there is little
more that can be said in their favor. A competent
instructor, by using breathing-exercises and other
elocutionary measures, can often eliminate physical
stammering in a surprisingly short period; but the
primary cause of stammering the amnesia re-
mains unaffected. If the pupil has unreserved con-
fidence in the system employed, he is temporarily
absolved from fear, bewilderment, and inhibitive
auto-suggestion ; and, for a time at least, stammering
is reduced to its pure form. But, since the primary
cause of the speech-defect persists, confidence is rap-
idly lost, and the secondary causes return. It is evi-
dent that respiratory and similar exercises can in the
end effect little more than the removal of stam-
mering that is of a purely physical nature.
The extreme elaboration of breathing-exercises
20 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
must be ascribed to commercial competition rather
than to any advantage or peculiar potency that com-
plex exercises may possess. The practice of holding
the breath during these exercises is valueless unless
the glottis remains open, for no muscular activity is
required to inhibit respiration when the outlet for the
breath is obstructed. The practice of holding the
breath for any considerable length of time is injurious.
The employment of exercises for the individual sets
of breathing-muscles is undoubtedly to be recom-
mended. The use of mechanical restrictions to free
muscular action during respiration has little to com-
mend or condemn it. Lifting weights placed on the
abdomen and stretching elastic belts undoubtedly
strengthens the diaphragm, but a strong diaphragm
is not necessarily a diaphragm under complete control.
It is futile, of course, to endeavor to combat throat-
contraction and "tonic spasms" of the articulative
organs by increasing the strength of the expiratory
current. As regards the use of the spirometer,
it is certain that no case of physical stammering has
ever been cured with this instrument that could not
have been cured without it. The practice of working
for lung capacity is an inanity, for lung capacity bears
no necessary relation to respiratory control. Breath-
ing-exercises practised in conjunction with dumb-bell
exercises are probably less effective than breathing-
exercises practised without them. They have the
advantages, however, that they break the monotony
for the pupil and can be dubbed " scientific." Read-
ing in a loud whisper undoubtedly calls for increased
muscular activity, and probably has some value as a
respiratory exercise. The counting business is prob-
ably less valuable.
We shall now examine the common expedients rela-
tive to respiration that are considered to be efficacious
when applied during actual speech.
The most commonly recommended measure is, of
course, careful observance of the initial inhalation.
This measure was recommended by Avicenna, the
Arabian physician, a thousand years ago ; and it has
been recommended by thousands of persons since.
Kingsley advocates repeated inspiration : l
"Before beginning to read, take two or three long full breaths.
And also (and this is an excellent rule) before you begin to
speak to any one, especially if you are nervous, take two or
three breaths and then open your mouth and speak. You
will find the nervousness go, and the words come out, as by
miracle. Remember Balaam's ass could not speak, till his
'mouth was opened.'
"At each full stop, you should stop, and take a long breath ;
at a colon, a less full, at a semicolon, less, at a comma, less still.
But keep sacredly to the habit of breathing at every stop,"
The advice to take breath before beginning to
'"Charles Kingsley: his Letters and Memories of his Life,"
Vol. II, p. 261.
22 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
speak is fitting when the stammerer evinces a tendency
to speak on an empty lung, as do most subjects
when physical stammering is much in evidence. But
the procedure will eliminate only one of the features
of physical stammering, and it is by no means the
panacea that it is usually represented to be.
The stammerer is often advised to take breath before
every difficult word to stop short, inhale, and pro-
ceed. An English teacher of stammerers makes
reference to the expedient as follows :
"Now, I have found patients stumbling over this couplet
'many a time and oft,' and I have always stopped them in
their reading and asked them to make the Ka sound detached
from all other sounds or contexts, and they have generally
managed to give it without serious trouble or difficulty; but
when they have gone back to Longfellow's lines, it has been a kind
of valley of rocks, a Diablerets to them, and they have stumbled
about in the most hopeless fashion, until I succeeded in making
them take breath immediately before the occurrence of the Ka
sounds. Like singers, who just before a musical peroration
which winds up with some high and long-sustained note, take
a full inspiration, so my stammering patients put them-
selves, as it were, into musical form, to insure elocutionary
The expedient of inhaling before difficult words is
employed by many elocutionists. It is, however, en-
tirely unnatural and has nothing to recommend it,
except that it may, like any other measure, alleviate
stammering for a time by revoking secondary causes
(fear, multiple thought, etc.) through the power of
A two- thousand year old " remedy " for stammering 1
consists in economizing breath during speech. This
particular remedy starts a new career at rather regular
intervals. The method of exhalation is described by
one writer as follows :
"In the act of speaking and reading, the patient must take
care to control thoroughly the outward passage of the breath,
and to let it escape as slowly as possible. The expiration should
be thoroughly economized; none of it should be wasted by
letting any escape before the act of speech begins. It should
not be allowed to come out in jerks or gasps, but its passage
should be easy, steady, and gradual ; for it cannot be too firmly
borne in mind that it is on the extension, combined with the
regularity of expiration, that the intensity, the duration, and
the steadiness of all vocal vibrations depend ; and Senor Gar-
cia's test of practising the voice with a lighted candle held be-
fore the mouth may be applied here. If the flame be extin-
guished, or even wavers much, the patient may take it as a
sign that he is expending too much air."
But the other side of the argument is also repre-
"The main thing to be attended to, and which, in fact, is
the groundwork of the whole system of cure, is to expire the
breath strongly each time when attempting to speak, the
lungs being previously filled to the utmost ; or, in other words,
to reverse the habit of stuttering, which is that of trying to
speak without expiring any air."
1 Apparently first recommended by Celsus.
24 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
And thus another writer :
"Let him [the stammerer] hold a lighted candle in front of
him as if he intended to blow it out ; then endeavor to speak
slowly, at the same time blowing the words out with sufficient
force to extinguish the light, and if he continues to do this
about once a day, say at bedtime, and at all times when he
makes an effort to speak to 'blow' his words out slowly, he will
find it beneficial to his speech. I know of people who have
cured themselves in this way, and who show no signs of stam-
In support of strong exhalation the words of Kings-
ley are sometimes cited that "there has been at least
one frightful stammerer ere now who spoke perfectly
plainly as long as he was in the saddle." The fact is
also adduced that Satyrus required Demosthenes to
declaim while walking uphill. Neither argument is
Apparently the forceful expiration is intended to
offset throat-contraction and the various "spasms";
and presumably the restrained expiration is intended
to counteract the habit of exhausting the breath
immediately before or during speech. It seems
reasonable for one to believe that either of these
expedients might prove valuable in particular cases
for removing specific faults of utterance; but it
seems equally reasonable to believe that these ex-
pedients, 1 if applied indiscriminately, would be more
likely to engender faults than to remove them.
Neither measure, of course, can in the least allevi-
ate pure stammering.
Another "remedy" for stammering is the practice
of contracting the abdominal muscles and relaxing
the diaphragm at every syllable. One English writer
describes this particular procedure as follows :
"In order to ascertain the degree of inefficiency in the man-
agement of breath in a stammerer, I place him on a couch, flat
on his back, comfortably raising his head on a pillow, and then
give him some diaphragmatic drill. As soon as he has acquired
sufficient control over the diaphragm, I direct him to say the
alphabet, taking a very short inspiration before each letter
by contracting the diaphragm, and then attacking the letter
by relaxing the diaphragm. I control these movements by
holding my hand on his abdomen, and he now, to the amaze-
ment of friends who may have accompanied him, pronounces
every letter as quietly and as easily as they could do them-
This expedient is still in vogue in a few stammering-
schools in Europe and America. Only recently the
writer heard of its being recommended by a Philadel-
phia physician. The "remedy," however, is worse
than ineffectual; it is pernicious. It cures neither
pure stammering nor physical stammering ; it merely
establishes a vicious form of utterance.
Another alleged remedy for stammering is diaphrag-
matic breathing. This is the great cathoh'con of
present-day stammering-schools in which elocutionary
methods are employed. In practically every stam-
26 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
mering-school in America the pupil begins by re-
forming his habits of breathing if he has formerly
employed the upper chest to any extent in respiration.
In Europe the enthusiasm for this method is not quite
so great, but where diaphragmatic breathing is em-
ployed, it is usually represented as an infallible remedy.
The whole business is, however, a fiasco. The facts in
the matter are that diaphragmatic and costal breath-
ing are exceedingly valuable to the average elocutionist
or public speaker ; but that diaphragmatic breathing
is no cure for physical stammering or amnesia. Lower
thorax breathing may be preferable to upper thorax
breathing ; but if this is the case, when pne has ac-
quired lower thorax breathing he has simply acquired
the preferable method that is all. Stammering is
not breathing in the upper part of the thorax, as
many elocutionists seem to suppose.
The last two expedients relative to respiration that
we have to consider are inhaling exclusively through
the nose or exclusively through the mouth. Both
methods have ardent advocates. The writer of an
English pamphlet says:
"I meet stammerers in all sorts of ways and places. One
instance of an accidental meeting may be worth mentioning,
as the stammerer is, I hope, on a fair way to complete cure. I
had to leave some things at a Left Luggage Office, and the
young official who took charge of them was a bad stammerer,
so I assured him that I was much worse once, and left him
with the advice: 'Always shut your mouth before you begin
to speak, so that the breath can be taken in through the nose.'
I have taken every opportunity I could to give him a few hints
since I first met him, and his success, and the opinion of others
that the system I propose is the correct one, have induced me
to try in a few short chapters to help those whose lives are
troubled by inability to produce words either with distinctness
In opposition to this procedure a German author
"Normal quiet breathing, and breathing during speech, are
two different things : the former takes place through the nose;
the latter through the mouth."
An English writer advises :
"Above all, never catch in the breath through the mouth,
when speaking, reading, or singing; but always through the
nostrils. The same rule applies to walking and all athletic
And so it goes.
The writer has in mind an American school where
the pupils are admonished always to breathe through
the nose; an English school where the pupils are
taught to inhale through the wide open mouth; 1 and
a German school where the pupils are directed to
open the mouth to about the breadth of a straw.
The whole question of inhaling through the mouth
1 The pupil inhales through the mouth till conscious of a feeling
of coldness in the glottis; he then begins to speak from the "open
28 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
or nose has, however, little bearing on the subject of
stammering. Breathing through the nose when one
is silent is a hygienic measure; breathing through
the mouth during speech is a matter of convenience.
Neither mode of breathing will cause or cure stammer-
ing. The subject scarcely merits discussion in the
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION
SPEECH is frequently said to consist of the three
elements respiration, vocalization, and articulation.
But vocalization is merely the production of "un-
colored" sound; hence we have vowel-coloration to
account for. It is evident that there are four elements
in speech rather than three. In this chapter, however,
we shall, as a matter of convenience, treat vocalization
and vowel-production conjointly, making at different
points whatever distinctions may be necessary.
It has already been observed (Vol. I, pp. 181 ff.)
that one of the commonest views in regard to stam-
mering is that the disturbance is caused by a failure
of the voice.
"To the question, what is stuttering? I have only the
answer : Stuttering is a refusal of the voice." *
"The term 'stammering' is properly applied to that form
of impediment of speech which manifests itself by a stemming
back of the sound or a hesitation in the appearance of the
l "Kreutzer's Method," The Voice, Vol. Ill, p. 175.
Ashmann, "Stammering and Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. Ill,
p. 138. The author proceeds to define stuttering as "an impulsive,
irregular breaking forth of the voice."
30 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"Concerning the essential factor in stammering I would
express myself as follows : Stammering consists in a temporary
ineptitude in the management of the voice which ineptitude
may be conditioned by various influences. There is inability
to impart to the vocal cords the proper degree of tension for
the production of voice and then to expel the breath through
the glottis in a stream sufficient to set the cords in vibration." *
"Both impediments (stammering and stuttering) are fre-
quently found in the same person, and both are due to the
same cause inability to vocalize." 2
It has already been remarked (Vol. II, p. 4) that
failure of the voice is often ascribed to a failure of the
expiratory current. Failure of voice is also ascribed
to spasm of the vocal cords (Arnott, Miiller, Schul-
thess, and others), and occasionally to general throat-
contraction. Concerning the latter cause one writer
remarks : 3
"If we begin to speak at any point above the diaphragm,
the speech suffers according to the location, the amount of
misplaced energy and the temperament of the speaker. If all
the energy is centred at any such point, there can be no speech,
because it is only force in the breathing-muscles that can drive
the breath against the vocal cords ; and as the breath, whether
vocalized or not, must pass through the glottis, it is plain that
if the muscles at the glottis tie up the passage, the speech is
hindered in the degree of the force of the contraction.
1 Wyneken, "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," p. 15.
1 Behnke, "On Stammering, Cleft-Palate Speech, Lisping," p. 10.
Thorpe, "Speech-Hesitation," pp. 30, 75.
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 31
"This is the distinguishing symptom in speech-hesitation.
It is one cause of spasm of the glottis. If the contraction stops
at the glottis, only the vowels are hindered ; but if it extends,
as it usually does, to the lips and the tongue, the consonants
also are affected. . . .
"Speech-hesitation has but one cause, which is misplaced
Two general methods are followed in combating
defective production of the voice. One method is to
train the pupil in various exercises with a view to
establishing voluntary control of the vocal organs;
the other is to practise the pupil in some special mode
of utterance with the object of counteracting the sup-
posed cause of stammering during actual speech.
We shall consider first the exercises that are cur-
A popular exercise for infixing consciousness of the
movements of the entire larynx is as follows :
Pronounce in a monotone the vowels e, a, ah, aw, 5, do.
Pronounce these vowels in the reverse order. Pronounce e,
do, e, 55, e, do; ah, aw, ah, aw, ah, aw; e, do, e, 55, e, do, etc.
Note the gradual descent of the larynx in the vowel-series
from I to do. Note the ascent of the larynx when the vowels
are pronounced in the reverse order. Note the extreme move-
ment in e-do, and the relatively slight movement in ah-aw.
An exercise frequently prescribed for establishing
consciousness of the vocal cords is the practice of the
"direct attack" (glottis-stroke, coup de la glotte, etc.)
32 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
and "indirect attack" of the voice (glide of the glottis,
etc.). Guttmann describes these two methods of
vocalization in the following words : 1
"In the 'direct attack' the vocal cords come into contact
throughout their entire length, from the front backward, so
that the lower part of the larynx is completely separated from
the upper, and the approach of the vocal cords is rapid and
decided ; at the same time the vocal cords become shortened,
and must, therefore, with the immediately following into-
nation, alter their degree of tension, their shape, length, and
thickness, according to the sound which is to be produced,
and must separate somewhat. A tone thus produced will be
marked and separated from other tones.
"In the 'indirect attack,' on the contrary, the glottis is not
completely closed by the approach of the vocal cords. Here
their length, tension, shape, etc., are at once such as are re-
quired for the production of the desired tone, and, consequently,
the vibrations begin immediately after the approach of the
vocal cords without any change in their length or tension, as
is necessary in the 'direct attack.'"
The practice of the glottis-stroke is described by
another writer as follows : 2
"Assume standing position with active chest; take full
breath, and whisper forcibly the word 'who' three times. Re-
peat the same. Now whisper 'who' twice, and speak it aloud
the third tune ; then whisper ' who ' once, and speak it aloud
the second and third tune; then speak 'who' aloud three
times. Now speak 'who' twice, and the third time say 'oo'
1 " Gymnastics of the Voice," 3d ed., pp. 60 f .
1 Fobes, "Handbook of Elocution Simplified," pp. 24 f.
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 33
as those letters sound in the word woo; then say 'who' once,
and ' oo ' the second and third time ; then say ' oo ' three times.
You should make both the whisper and vocal sound very short
and sudden, without any feeling of contraction or effort in the
throat or mouth. It should seem to you as if the sound came
from the lips ; and, while you are energetic in the exercise, it
must be done with perfect ease. You have thus proceeded,
from an easy, forcible whisper, to an easy, forcible sound, and
have thus obtained what is called the 'Glottis Stroke.' After
diligent practice on the above exercise, use any of the short
vowels, speaking each vowel three times very shortly, as you
did the vowel-sound oo."
The direct attack is also practised by inhaling,
holding the breath for an instant, then abruptly
producing voice. This procedure is followed with the
different vowels. Another method is to prolong a
vowel and interrupt it a number of times by occluding
the glottis. A series of staccato vowels of course re-
sults. The indirect attack is practised by prefixing
an "inaudible" h to the various vowels; by com-
mencing vowels in a whisper and finishing them with
voice ; etc. Different methods of practising the direct
and indirect attack obtain in different institutions, but
the methods above described will exemplify the general
Another exercise for establishing consciousness of
the vocal cords consists in drawing or emitting a long
breath and interrupting it repeatedly by closing the
glottis. A variant of this exercise consists in inhaling
34 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
and exhaling in short breaths, and occluding the
glottis at the end of each inhalation and exhalation.
In these exercises the "click of the glottis" can be
heard as the vocal cords separate after complete con-
tact. It is to this particular feature, and to the
feeling of glottal action, that the pupil is admonished
An exercise that is sometimes prescribed for strength-
ening the laryngeal muscles and making them "more
pliable and subservient to the will" is practising the
different vowels in octaves. The stammerer begins
by singing the vowels in the lowest possible pitch.
He produces them a number of times in this manner,
and then practises them in a pitch an octave higher.
Later the pitch is raised again, and finally the stam-
merer sings the vowels in the highest pitch that he
can comfortably produce. As the work progresses, the
exercises become more complex, and the pupil is re-
quired to jump rapidly from one pitch to another, to
change the vowels as he alters the pitch, and so on.
The instructor usually indicates the pitch required by
striking the appropriate notes on a piano.
"The pupil should, in addition, make the following exercise:
utter the whole sentence in the manner of the chromatic scale ;
that is, begin with a high tone and descend a half tone with
each syllable ; and having reached the end of the sentence,
repeat it in like manner but with each syllable ascending a
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 35
Exercises in high, low, and middle pitch are recom-
mended by an English teacher of stammerers. The
exercises prescribed are as follows: 1
"L. 'So he vanished.' This line to be whispered.
"H. 'Hell-hound, by thee my child's devoured.' Full voice.
"H. 'For I'm to be Queen of the May, mother, I'm to be
Queen of the May.' Light voice.
"H. 'Ruin seize thee, ruthless king.' Full voice.
"L. 'And the grave is not its goal.' Full voice.
" M. "That does my wits belabor.' Ordinary voice.
"H. 'He's gone.' Whisper.
"M. 'No longer, Deary, Duck, and Love.' Ordinary voice.
"H. 'Charge, Chester, charge; on, Stanley, on.' Full voice.
"M. 'Down fell a fine horse-chestnut in its prickly shell.'
"L. "The other shape, if shape it might be called, that
shape had none distinguishable in member, joint, or
limb.' Full voice.
"M. 'I thank you.' Ordinary voice.
" M. 'The pen is mightier than the sword.' Full voice.
"L. 'We buried him darkly at dead of night.' Full voice.
"M. 'Now wasn't that a pity ?' Ordinary voice.
"M. 'Entreat me not to leave thee.' Ordinary voice.
"H. 'I sprang to the stirrup.' Full voice.
"L. 'All into the valley of death rode the six hundred.'
"M. 'In my soul, I loathe all affection.' Ordinary voice.
"H. "The wind was high.' Whisper.
"M. 'To Giles he went and put the case with circumspect
invention. Thou fool, cried Giles, I'll make it clear
to thy dull comprehension.' Ordinary voice.
1 H, M, and L indicate high, middle, and low pitch.
36 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
" L. 'Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.' Full voice.
"H. 'You must wake and call me early, call me early,
mother dear.' Light voice.
"M. 'No weasels e'er were thinner.' Ordinary voice.
"H. 'And shall he die, and unavenged? Arise, ye Goths,
and glut your ire.' Full voice."
Inflection-exercises are also frequently resorted to for
strengthening the muscles of the larynx, etc. The ris-
ing, falling, and circumflex inflections are practised on
various isolated vowels and words, and are practised
in different passages in which the appropriate inflec-
tion is indicated by diacritical marks. The directions
for such exercises are typically as follows :
Practise the rising inflection on the word No (No?), using the
word as though putting a question with the utmost surprise.
Finish the word in the highest possible pitch.
Practise the falling inflection on the word No (No I), using
the word as though answering a question with the utmost em-
phasis. Start with the highest possible pitch, and end with
the lowest possible pitch.
Similarly practise the words I, you, they, now, well, etc.,
first with rising and then with falling inflection.
Similarly practise the various vowels with rising and fall-
Practise the vowels with rising-circumflex inflection, begin-
ning each vowel in the highest possible pitch, descending to
the lowest, then rising again to the highest.
Practise the vowels with falling-circumflex inflection, begin-
' ning each vowel in the lowest pitch, rising to the highest, and
descending again to the lowest.
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 37
Practise monosyllabic words with rising-circumflex and fall-
Practise short interrogative sentences, exaggerating the
rising inflection " Are you really sure? "
Practise short affirmative sentences, exaggerating the falling
inflection "I am sure."
Practise the rising-circumflex inflection in short sentences
indicative of doubt and irony "Hath a dog money?"
And so forth.
Inflection-exercises are frequently practised from
charts, rising and falling inflections being indicated by
various arbitrary symbols. Occasionally inflection-
exercises are combined with respiratory exercises, etc.
In the following representative chart (p. 38), rising
inflection is indicated by a line ascending from left to
right (/), an d falling inflection by a line descending
from left to right ( \ ) . Inclined lines in juxtapo-
sition indicate rising-circumflex or falling-circumflex
inflection. Horizontal lines indicate monotonic voice.
The vowels to be practised are given with the inflec-
tion-marks. Inspiration occurs as convenient.
Similar exercises are prescribed for all the long and
short vowels and the diphthongs.
The following sentences for the practice of inflection
are prescribed by an English teacher of stammerers :
"John sold a horse. 1
"John sold a cow and a horse.
'The inflection-marks indicate rising and falling inflection by their
inclination, as described above.
38 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 39
S 4 4 ^
"John sold a bull, a cow, a calf, and a horse.
"John sold a pig, a bull, a cow, a calf, and a horse.
"John sold a sheep, a lamb, a pig, a bull, a cow, a calf, and
"John sold a cow, not a horse.
fc % X 4
"John sold a bull, a cow, and a calf, not a horse.
"The horse belongs to John.
"The cow and the horse belong to John.
"The sheep, the lamb, the pig, the bull, the cow, the calf,
and the horse belong to John.
"You promise Denmark assistance? you command the
channel fleet ?
"Oh ! it was you promised and never fulfilled ! it was you
who wanted to command the channel fleet, was it ? "
Another exercise sometimes resorted to for strength-
ening the larynx is shouting, or declaiming in a loud
voice. Occasionally the vocal exercises are practised
systematically in a voice as loud as the pupil can
comfortably produce. These measures are, however,
not very commonly employed.
The exercises above described have for their osten-
sible purpose the strengthening of the laryngeal
muscles and the establishment of conscious control of
muscular action. Innumerable vocal exercises are
practised in different stammering-schools for which,
as a rule, no very definite purpose is assigned;
they may be used indifferently for exercising the
larynx or for furnishing systematic practice on the
vowels. The exercises about to be described are
40 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
decidedly of this indefinite type ; but they are found
in most institutions for the treatment of stammering,
and must therefore be recorded.
We quote first the following general directions for vo-
cal exercises, which are taken from two different sources:
"These [vocal gymnastics] are joined to the respiratory
gymnastics. As soon as the stutterer becomes somewhaf
fatigued by the lung gymnastics, and after he has rested a
few minutes, he proceeds to the vocal exercises. These are
also to be taken in the same bodily position as the respiratory
gymnastics. After a long, deep inspiration the stutterer forms
the vowels with a full chest-voice, prolonging the sound as
much as he can without special effort. This so-called vocal-
ization should be executed with the greatest exactness, observ-
ing the following rules :
"Begin the vowel immediately after the inspiration, and
prolong it as long as the air lasts. During the vocalization the
strength of the tone should remain the same ; it should not be
begun strong and then grow weaker. Care must also be taken
that the voice does not tremble, and that there is no cessation
of sound, while the pitch of tone should be the natural one of
the individual. The tone or vowel should not be screamed out,
as this would produce hoarseness and fatigue, and would cause
the stutterer to form the habit of an unnatural way of talking. In
the beginning of these exercises the prolongation of the vowel is
usually from 10 to 15 seconds, but, with increased respiratory
power, the stutterer is able to prolong it 20 to 30 seconds with-
out fatigue. All of the vowels are to be practised in a similar
" The vocal gymnastics should be interrupted by short rests,
and should be continued daily throughout the entire course. In
order to avoid fatigue, it is recommended to take a middle
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 41
pitch tone, and retain it during the whole time of practice.
After Such exercises, in the beginning of the treatment, the stut-
terer is dismissed with the direction to keep quiet, and not to
take severe bodily exercise or to forcibly use his vocal organs."
From the second source we have the following :
"Breathe in as before (through the nose and filling the waist),
separate the teeth well and whisper out the following vowels,
each three times: (A-E-I-O-OO-AH). Use about five to ten
seconds in taking the air into the lungs and about the same
time in whispering out the letter. Now breathe in as before
(slowly through the nose), and as the air goes out sound these
same vowels out aloud, each one three or more times. Make
the outgoing sounds at least ten seconds in length if you
can. Later you can sit at the piano or organ and sound
them out in various keys (or pitches of the voice) although
the lower tones are the best for you. Keep the mouth well
open in doing this. This is the reason you should stand
before a mirror until you are sure that you are doing it well.
"Next, breathe hi with a little shorter breath and speak
these same six sounds (A-E-I-O-OO-AH) all together in one
outgoing breath, with widely separated teeth and all the
sounds connected together in a talking manner, very much as if
you were counting one-two-three-four-five-six without stopping
and at a moderate rate of speed. Do this several times and
many times a day, whenever you have an opportunity."
Vocal exercises are usually systematized so that
every vowel is produced with every mode of utterance
that the system embraces. The drill-books of some
institutions contain more than a hundred pages
of vocal and similar exercises. It is evident that all
the different vocal drills of the different institutions
42 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
cannot be given here in detail. The writer appends
merely a few selected exercises from miscellaneous
sources to illustrate the general features involved.
The other exercises are little more than variants.
Herewith the miscellany :
Inhale : enounce the vowel a in a whisper, prolonging it as
long as possible.
Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel e.
Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel I.
Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel o.
Inhale : enounce similarly the vowel u.
Inhale : enounce the vowels a, e, I, o, u, in one breath.
Practise the vowels a, e, i, 5, u, in different orders and
Practise the vowels with voice, producing them with natural
pitch and intensity, and prolonging them as long as possible.
Practise the vowels with natural pitch and maximum in-
Practise the vowels with natural pitch and minimum in-
Practise the vowels in natural pitch, and increase the inten-
sity of the voice (with each vowel or series) from minimum to
Practise the vowels in natural pitch, beginning in a whisper,
then vocalizing with minimum intensity and increasing to
Practise the vowels in natural pitch, and decrease the
intensity from maximum to minimum.
Practise the vowels in natural pitch, beginning with maxi-
1 The vowels a, e, I, o, u are replaced in some institutions by the
series e, a, ah, aw, o, do; or the series a, e, I, 6, do, ah', or by Pit-
man's long and short vowels (Vol. I., p. 193).
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 43
mum intensity, decreasing to minimum, and finally ending in
Practise passing in natural pitch from minimum to maxi-
mum intensity, and again to minimum, on the same vowel with
but one inspiration.
Practise passing in natural pitch from maximum to mini-
mum intensity, and again to maximum, on the same vowel with
but one inspiration.
Practise the vowels in natural pitch, varying the intensity
repeatedly from normal to maximum.
Practise the vowels in different pitches with different
degrees of intensity.
Practise the vowels, varying the pitch from vowel to vowel :
in other words, sing the vowels.
Practise the vowels with various modes of inflection.
Practise the different vocal exercises with direct and indirect
Practise stopping the voice by suddenly closing the glottis.
Practise stopping the voice by suddenly opening the glottis ;
i.e. change suddenly from voice to whisper.
Practise intermitting the voice by repeatedly closing the
Practise intermitting the voice by repeatedly opening the
glottis ; i.e. drop repeatedly from voice to whisper.
Practise vocal exercises while marching, uttering one
vowel to a step.
Practise vocal exercises in connection with dumb-bell ex-
Practise vocal exercises and dumb-bell exercises in connec-
tion with marching. Etc., etc.
In some institutions a number of these exercises have
been endowed with special names. Thus we hear of
"expulsion and explosion," "expulsive and explosive
44 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
stress," of "tremor," "swell and stop," and of such
practices as " swelling " and " dilating " sound, etc.
Vocal exercises are often taught from charts. They
may then become exceedingly complex. We repro-
duce below, for illustration, four charts taken from
four different sources, with the symbols in each
case transformed to those of a common system.
The inspiration sign is that already employed (V).
A dotted line indicates whispered utterance, a solid
line continuous voice. Pauses are momentary unless
the length of the pause is indicated in seconds by
figures in parentheses.
1 Vowels are frequently placed at the extreme left of a line to
show that vocalization begins immediately upon exhalation. The
refinement is here disregarded.
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 45
V A V V A A
V (3) A V V (3) A (3) A
y a y a a
y a a a a a
y e e e e
y a e
a e a e
V a fa) e
y( 3 ) a e a e a
y a e i o u
v a e i o u (-,} a. o i
V a u( t ) a_
a e i o u i o e
46 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
V_ _ h _
V _ h _ (l )_ ha
y h ha h ha h ha h ha
y ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha
V ^a ( 3 ) a
y ha a ha a ha a ha a
y a a a a a a cl 1
y a a a a a 4
1 In the last line but one, the intensity of the voice increases with
the size of the type. The vowels in the last line are given staccato.
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 47
CHART 4 1
V V V A A A (4) V V (4) V (4) A ~ ( 4 ) A
(6)V V V (6) A
V (6) V (6) V (6) A (6) A (6) A V V (6) V (4) V
A (4) A (6) ^ ( 4 ) V (6) V V (6) A (4) A (4) A ^
V (4) (4) - (4) A V
V (4) V (6) V (6) ^ (6) 5? (6) 2 A
V (6) V (4) V (6) A (6) 2^ (6) A aw (6) ah A
These drill-charts may be rendered more complex
by various additional "refinements" and "improve-
ments." Some are complicated by musical notes,
1 In this chart, the figures below the horizontal lines indicate the
number of seconds for which the vowels are to be prolonged.
48 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
inflection-signs, intensity-signs, etc. ; and others by
interpolated remarks directing the pupil to repeat
certain parts of the exercise, and to breathe at partic-
ular points in a particular manner. At one point
the exercise may require chest breathing, at another
costal breathing, and so on. As in the respiratory
exercises, the time is measured by a metronome, or is
given by an instructor leading the class with a baton.
At this point it may be well for us to consider the
virtues of these exercises.
It may be said of vocal exercises in general that
most of them are useful as ordinary elocutionary
measures; and that the majority of them would be
beneficial to the stammerer in some respects. But
the exercises are usually of benefit for their psycho-
logical effect rather than for their elocutionary value.
The exercises exert a favorable influence through
suggestion when the stammerer has confidence in their
therapeutic power ; and for a time, at least, they may
remove such secondary causes as fear, bewilderment,
and inhibitive auto-suggestion. It seems probable
that the vocal exercises, when practised several hours
a day, may intensify the stammerer's auditory ima-
gery, and thus exert a beneficial influence on speech.
But if an intensification of the imagery occurs, it is
temporary ; and the improvement in speech is usually
lost when the exercises are discontinued. Probably
some of the vocal exercises influence the kinaesthetic
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 49
imagery. Vocal exercises in general (or more properly,
perhaps, a knowledge of the vocal processes) may tend
in some degree to counteract physical stammering.
As for the individual exercises themselves, it is
evident that any form of practice producing gross
movements of the larynx might lead to the establish-
ment of a particular form of kinaesthetic imagery.
It is questionable, though, whether a marked in-
tensity of just this particular form of imagery would
be of any great benefit to the stammerer. The
acoustic impressions associated with these vocal
exercises might, of course, lead to a temporary in-
tensification of the acoustic images. Practice of
the direct and indirect attack might strengthen the
motor images of delicate laryngeal movements, and
in this manner prove beneficial. The practice of the
indirect attack might prove useful in cases where
physical stammering takes the form of a vigorous
closure of the glottis. On the other hand, the prac-
tice of the glottis-stroke would probably intensify
physical stammering in such instances. The vari-
ous exercises for producing the "click of the glottis"
should influence the motor images, and could of
course be applied with advantage in particular cases.
- The exercises involving change of pitch probably
influence the acoustic imagery beneficially; thus
they might effect a temporary improvement in speech.
- The inflection-exercises may of course affect both
50 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the kinaesthetic and auditory imagery in some de-
gree. The practice of shouting or declaiming in a
loud voice would be quite likely to influence the
acoustic images. Most of the general vocal exercises
probably have little virtue other than their ability
to intensify the auditory imagery for a period, and
to exert a temporary " moral " influence. The whis-
pered exercises may be dismissed as "fillers" -like-
wise the dumb-bell exercises, marching exercises, etc.
The various highly elaborated exercises are merely
So much for the exercises intended to cure stam-
mering by rendering the vocal organs pliable and
subordinate to the will.
We shall consider now the various related measures
that are supposed to obviate stammering when applied
during actual speech.
An expedient that has been popular for more than
hah* a century is that of talking in a low-pitched voice.
This expedient is quite prevalent in Europe, but is
encountered only occasionally in America. The
argument usually advanced in support of the meas-
ure is that a low-pitched voice requires relaxation
and separation of the vocal cords, and that while
the vocal cords are relaxed and separated, "throat-
constriction" and "spasms" are less likely to super-
vene. The additional plea is sometimes adduced
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 51
that a relaxed condition of the cords makes neces-
sary a stronger expiratory stream, and that the
stronger expiratory stream prevents spastic occlusion
of the glottis.
All of which arguments would have been more or
less sound if it had first been shown that spasmodic
closure of the glottis was the cause of stammering.
Lowering the pitch, like any other subterfuge, may be
effective for a time if the stammerer has confidence
in the procedure. And, like any other subterfuge,
it may, as a novelty, hold the stammerer's attention
during speech, and thus tend to eliminate bewilder-
ment consequent upon the search for synonyms.
Like any other unnatural subterfuge, then, it may
effect an ephemeral mitigation of stammering.
A somewhat similar measure is that of beginning
the sentence hi an unusually quiet voice. This seems
to be strictly a German innovation. The purpose
of the procedure is apparently to preclude the unnat-
ural effort that usually accompanies physical stam-
mering. This seems, however, to be a rather indi-
rect means of obtaining an estimable end. There is,
moreover, always the danger that the first few words
of the sentence will be lost to the hearer.
A shift that is sometimes recommended as an
antidote for stammering is speaking in a whisper.
The stammerer is advised to speak habitually in a
whisper, to speak difficult words hi a whisper, to
52 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
speak those sentences in a whisper in which difficult
words occur, and so on. The theory is that, since
the vocal cords are not closely approximated during
whispered utterance, there must be less danger of
the glottis undergoing spastic closure. The argu-
ment, of course, is just as sound as the premises.
It is true that stammering is often temporarily
alleviated by recourse to whispering, just as it may
be temporarily alleviated by any other unnatural
measure that inspires confidence. The expedient
operates by inhibiting secondary causes. But whis-
pering is not usually efficacious, and it is seldom effi-
cacious for any considerable period ; hence, even if
the measure were practicable, it would have to be
condemned on purely empirical grounds.
Another specific for stammering is speaking in a
monotone. One argument in support of the procedure
is that by avoiding rising inflection the stammerer
avoids a close approximation of the vocal cords, and
thus reduces the risk of sudden closure of the glottis.
Another argument is that inflection itself is difficult
for the stammerer owing to his "deficient control" of
the vocal cords. 1 In many institutions the pupils
are required to drawl their words monotonously for
1 One authority on elocution says: "These inflections are ex-
tremely difficult to many. In the case of stammerers, they are
sometimes the only stumbling-blocks in their way, as is proved by
the absence of stammering in singing."
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 53
several weeks at the beginning of the course of train-
ing. Occasionally the practice and application of
the drawl is the entire system of a stammering-school.
- There is practically nothing that can be said in
favor of the expedient.
In contrast to the above measure we have one that
consists in using the entire range of the voice ("giv-
ing the voice full play," etc.). Inflection is here the
remedy for the defect instead of the cause of it. In
reality, of course, it is neither.
A measure often advocated to counteract closure
of the glottis and failure of the voice is maintaining
vocalization throughout the sentence. The idea is
that the stammerer's difficulty lies in starting voice,
and that with the voice once started he has only to
"keep it going" hi order to avoid stammering. Ac-
cordingly the stammerer is admonished to "Keep
on the voice," to "Keep the voice pouring," to
"Maintain continuity of sound," etc.
As a matter of fact, vocalization is interrupted at
every surd consonant, and "continuity of voice" is
a myth. Nevertheless, the endeavor to maintain
continuity seems to be extremely salutary, and the
measure in question is one of the most efficacious to
be found among elocutionary resources. 1 The ex-
planation for this fact is undoubtedly that continuity
of speech involves continuity of thought; and that
1 The measure is nearly a century old.
54 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
continuity of verbal thought necessarily excludes
multiple thought one of the most potent of the
secondary causes of stammering. We have, in addi-
tion, the usual explanation that a measure ex-
pected to be efficacious will, for a time, eliminate fear
and inhibitive suggestion. In some institutions
the pupils are taught to maintain continuity of voice
in a manner that does not involve continuity of verbal
thought, and in such instances the virtue of the ex-
pedient is lost. The pupil is instructed to introduce
a protracted 8 into the sentence if he should antici-
pate trouble with a particular word and in this
way to preserve continuity of voice while preparing
to attack the difficulty. But, when this procedure is
permitted, a search for synonyms frequently ensues,
and stammering results or the I becomes the principal
feature of the sentence.
Arnott's expedient for beginning sound was to
prefix a short e (as in berry] to the first word of the
sentence ( the sentence being spoken in this
manner). The function of the introductory vowel
was to open the glottis and initiate voice, which was
then maintained in "continuity." This device, with
its numerous variations, has become quite prominent
hi the "therapy" of stammering. A more recent
version of the formula requires the prefirion of the
short e to every word in a sentence, or to every word
beginning with a consonant. Occasionally its pre-
VOCALIZATION AND VOWEL-PRODUCTION 55
fixion is recommended only for those words that
afford the stammerer difficulty. Another adaptation
requires the stammerer to interpolate indefinite vowels
between double and triple consonants (se-teed, se-te-
reet, etc.) . With this recommendation the possibilities
are nearly exhausted. Needless to say, the device in
question is pernicious if applied in any manner.
A variant of the above measure, designed likewise
to open the glottis and initiate voice, consists in pre-
fixing the sound of the letter n to the initial word or to
difficult words in a sentence (N-one swallow does
not make n-spring, n-nor yet one fine n-day; etc.).
This ruse is already three-quarters of a century old.
A more recent invention supplants n by m, the n
having apparently been found ineffectual. The
w-prefix is (or was for a while) a feature of a "psycho-
logical " system that was recently introduced from Ger-
many into England. These n- and w-prefixes are
undoubtedly even more malignant than the "indefi-
Another expedient for opening the glottis consists
in prefixing an aspirate (usually represented as
"inaudible") to the first word or to difficult words
in a sentence. It is evident that this measure is
practically the "indirect attack." The observance
of the indirect attack undoubtedly precludes certain
vicious forms of physical stammering ; but it can, of
course, have no effect upon the amnesia.
56 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The direct attack (under such sobriquets as "voice-
accumulation," "shock of the glottis," etc.) is at times
advocated as a sort of general remedy for stammering.
It is usually a general aggravant at least of the
physical manifestations of the defect.
Two diabolical strategems are occasionally recom-
mended to the stammerer for opening the trouble-
some glottis. One consists in inhaling before every
word in the sentence, and the other consists in throw-
ing back the head with every word that occasions diffi-
culty. Comment on these measures is unnecessary.
NUMEROUS investigators of abnormal speech have
come to the conclusion that stammering is wholly or
partially induced by misuse or lack of control of the
articulative organs :
"The neglect of muscular activity which is displayed by the
majority of speakers and singers, the laziness with which they
open their mouths and use the lips and tongue is one cause of
stammering, and the obstacle which prevents the words of
singers, preachers, and public speakers being heard dis-
tinctly. . . .
"Some stammer with an empty lung, some with a full one.
Some cannot regulate the action of the lips through weakness
of the facial muscles, while others are unable to govern the
motions of the tongue." 1
"In all forms and varieties of the disorder the essential
condition present is spasm of a greater or lesser degree ; which
necessarily implies deranged nerve-function. . . .
"The spasm may occur at the various stop- points of the
vocal tube; if at the lips, labial dyslalia is produced;
when at the point of the tongue, the dental sounds are affected ;
if at the back of the tongue, guttural dyslalia results ; and
1 Helmore, " Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers," pp. 40, 58.
58 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
(rarely) at the larynx, when the glottis being affected, phona-
tion itself becomes impeded.
"By the continuance of any of these forms of spasm, a spas-
modic habit is acquired, which becoming more or less auto-
matic in course of time, passes more and more from under the
control of the will, and eventually produces confirmed dyslalia ;
perhaps by the vicious automatism of some nerve-centre not
yet located, which may preside over the coordination of the
movements of speech alone." l
"The most frequent cause of stammering is the imperfect
education or training of the organs of articulation, and a
deficiency in that sympathetic association which ought to sub-
sist between the articulating and vocal organs." z
" Far more serious than any of the elementary defects hitherto
noticed are those affections of speech which create an impedi-
ment to utterance. These are known by the names of stutter-
ing, stammering, spasmodic hesitation, etc. Their common
characteristic is involuntary action of the organs, which are
not obedient to the will. In stuttering, the articulating organs
the lips and tongue rebound again and again before the
sequent vowel can find egress." 8
"If the contraction stops at the glottis, only the vowels
are hindered ; but if it extends, as it usually does, to the lips
and the tongue, the consonants also are affected." *
"The seat of the former affection, stammering, is chiefly
at the larynx, or the back part of the mouth ; the latter, stutter-
1 Potter, "Speech and its Defects," pp. 76-77.
1 Bishop, " On Articulate Sounds ; and on the Causes and Cure of
Impediments of Speech," p. 67.
1 Alexander Melville Bell, "The Faults of Speech," sth ed., p. 9-
'Thorpe, "Speech-Hesitation," p. 30.
ing, which is a defective mode of expressing sounds, is situated
more anteriorly." 1
When the cause of stammering is considered to be
misuse or lack of control of the articulative organs,
the corrective training usually consists of exercises
for strengthening the speech-muscles and rendering
them subservient to the will, and of practice in artic-
ulating the various refractory consonants. We shall
examine first the exercises intended to produce mus-
cular control and development.
Labial exercises are considered to be important.
Says one writer on the subject:
"I spoke of gaining flexibility of the lips; this is more im-
portant than at first sight is apparent. I say, then, let the
stammerer or stutterer endeavor to gain full control over the lip
muscles; let him train them to flexibility combined with
strength, for they are potent engines hi the whole machinery
of speech. When I speak of training of the lips, I use no ex-
aggeration of speech, for lips are, after all, muscles, and almost
as capable of development as the biceps of a rowing man, and
they are infinitely more sensitive than the most splendid biceps
which led a crew to victory on the silver Thames."
We give below, a number of labial exercises, which
are taken from various sources:
Pronounce the vowels e, a, ah, aw, d, dd. Pronounce the
series alternately rapidly and slowly.
'Abbotts, "Stammering, Stuttering and Other Speech Affec-
tions," p. 22.
60 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Pronounce e-do-e-oo-e-oo, etc., exaggerating the lateral
retraction and the protrusion of the lips.
Moisten the lips. Protrude the lower lip slightly, and draw
it over the upper lip. Now withdraw the lower lip to its normal
position; protrude the upper lip and draw it over the lower
one. Let these movements alternate both rapidly and slowly.
Keep the lips continually in contact.
Practise reading different passages without movement of
the lower jaw. Keep the teeth continually in contact and
exaggerate the labial speech-movements.
"Attempt to move them [the lips] singly; for instance,
draw the under lip downward without allowing the upper lip
to move, and vice versa. Produce a tone, hold it a while, and
make the same movements of the lips. He who has mastered
the muscles of the lips singly, can let them rest when they are
not to act."
"i. Open the mouth wide, giving it its fullest extent lon-
" 2. Do the same, extending it laterally.
" 3. From one position to the other.
" 4. Half open the mouth, as in No. i.
" 5. Half open the mouth, as in No. 2.
" 6. Pout the lips, making a somewhat large orifice.
" 7. Do the same with a small orifice.
" 8. Close the lips, and let them remain closed without pres-
" 9. Open and close them thus.
" 10. Close them with pressure.
"n. Open and close them thus.
" 12. Do the same as No. 10, with the cheeks puffed out.
" 13. Open and close them thus.
" 14. Blow through the lips.
" 15. Blow through the lips with the cheeks puffed out.
" 16. Blow through the pouted lips.
"17. From exercise i to 6 and 7.
" 18. From exercises 6 and 7 to i.
" 19. From exercise 2 to 6 and 7.
" 20. From exercises 6 and 7 to 2.
"21. With the teeth apart draw up the lower lip between
" 22. Do the same with the upper lip.
" 23. The same, drawing in both lips."
Exercises similar to the following are sometimes
recommended for the lower jaw :
"i. Drop the jaw.
"2. Protrude it.
" 3. Draw it back.
" 4. Move it to the right.
" 5. Move it to the left.
" 6. Go from one to the other of the above exercises."
"Sing and hold a tone, moving the lower jaw (without any
pressure upon the larynx) horizontally to right and left, and
then describe a slightly circling movement. The object of
this is to free the muscles used in chewing."
Lingual exercises are also popular in a number of
stammering-schools. We quote the following typical
exercises from Guttmann's "Gymnastics of the
Voice," 1 a manual that has been widely followed by
1 " Gymnastics of the Voice for Song and Speech ; also a Method
for the Cure of Stuttering and Stammering," 3d ed., pp. 83 ff.
62 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
" EXERCISE I
"Open the mouth wide, but not too wide (this is meant for
all exercises) ; let the tongue rest quietly without any pres-
sure flat on the bottom of the oral cavity, the point touching
but not pressing the front teeth ; breathe lightly in and out
through the mouth (four, six times), not allowing the tongue to
move in the very least.
"Protrude the tongue as far as possible without any pressure
and independent of the muscles of the larynx; keep it out
four seconds, then draw it back as far as possible. Keep it
back four seconds without closing the mouth. Begin slowly
(six times), growing faster by degrees (ten, fifteen times in
succession). Protrude the tongue during expiration, draw it
back during a deep inspiration through the mouth, the nostrils
held closed by thumb and fore finger.
"Open the mouth wide, move the tip of the pointed tongue
to the corners of the mouth alternately to the right and left
(six times), having the direct intention to strike the corners (for
purposeless work is only a mechanical action and will not lead
to success) ; then growing faster by degrees (ten, fifteen times
in succession). Do not hold the breath during this exercise,
but breathe quietly and regularly through the mouth.
"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply-
pointed tongue the middle of the upper and of the lower lip
alternately; begin slowly, with the direct intention of letting
only the outermost tip, not the entire front part of the tongue,
touch the middle of the lips (six times), then growing faster
(ten, fifteen times).
"Open the mouth wide, place the tip of the pointed tongue
into one corner of the mouth, proceed with sharply-pointed
tongue in dotting fashion along the upper lip to the other cor-
ner ; then on the under lip to the starting point ; repeat the
same movement backward to the starting point.
"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the very
sharply-pointed tongue the roots of the upper middle incisors,
as if to make a dot there, and then, touching the palate in
such dotting fashion with the tip of the tongue, proceed back
as far as possible; then go forward again, always breathing
through the mouth (inspiration while the tongue goes back,
expiration while it goes forward, six times), both ways.
"Touch, in the same manner, the bottom of the oral cavity,
backward and forward.
"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply-
pointed tongue the middle of the upper lip, then of the
lower lip, and, without pausing, the right and left corners
of the mouth (ten, twelve times), slowly at first, growing
faster by degrees, alternating thus: upper middle, lower
middle, right corner, left corner, upper middle, lower mid-
dle, left corner, right corner, always with the sharply-pointed
64 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"Open the mouth wide, touch with the tip of the sharply-
pointed tongue the middle of the right side of the upper lip,
then that of the left side of the upper lip; first slowly (six
times), then faster (six tunes), without any movement of the
"Repeat the same exercise with the lower lip, without
movement of the lower jaw.
" Combine these two exercises in the following manner :
Begin at the upper right side, proceed to the lower left,
thence to the upper left and then to the lower right, so
that this figure M would be produced; at first slowly (six
times), then faster (six times).
"Open the mouth wide ; proceed with the tip of the sharply-
pointed tongue from the right to the left, brushing the upper
lip and passing along the lower lip back to the right with-
out interruption (six times), slowly; then (six times), growing
faster by degrees; repeat from the left to the right in the
"Repeat the same exercise along the inner side of the lips.
During this exercise touch the lips sharply with the tip of
the tongue. Do not open the mouth too wide here.
"Repeat the same exercise along the outer side of the lips.
"Let it be borne in mind that the purpose of these exercises
is to sharpen the tongue, and that they must be faithfully
"Protrude the root of the lowered tongue without allowing
its tip to pass beyond the front teeth (ten, twelve times).
"Sing a tone (ah), holding it as long as possible, without
allowing it to lose its clear character, and at the same time
try to make a circling movement with the tip of the tongue ;
and later, when this exercise has been fully mastered, try to
make a horizontal movement with the tip of the tongue from
one side of the mouth to the other, first slowly and then grad-
ually increasing in rapidity."
The following exercises are culled from sundry
Protrude the tongue, and with the point describe a number
of circles. Reverse the direction of the movement.
Repeat this exercise with the tip of the tongue in the plane
of the lips.
Repeat the exercise with the point of the tongue retracted
as far as possible.
Place the point of the tongue at the base of the upper
incisors ; carry the point back to the soft palate, and if possible
to the uvula, keeping the tongue continually in contact with
the roof of the mouth. Carry the tongue forward to the teeth ;
back to the uvula ; and so on.
Protrude the tongue as far as possible; raise it till it is in
contact with the upper lip ; lower it till it is in contact with the
under lip. Alternate these movements.
Thrust the tongue into the vestibule between the upper
66 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
teeth and upper lip ; into the vestibule between the lower teeth
and lower lip. Alternate these movements.
Groove the tongue by raising the lateral edges. Flatten the
tongue ; groove it ; flatten it ; and so on.
Groove the tongue. While the tongue is in this position,
raise the point so that it forms a wall continuous with sides of
the tongue ; lower the point of the tongue to its former posi-
tion ; raise it ; lower it ; and so on.
Protrude the tongue; compress it laterally; flatten it;
compress it ; etc.
Depress the back of the tongue as far as possible ; raise the
back of the tongue till it is in contact with the posterior part
of the hard palate ; depress it ; raise it ; etc.
Groove the tongue ; twist the whole tongue to the right, so
that the groove is lateral ; twist to the left ; etc.
Repeat la-la-la-la ; na-na-na-na ; etc.
Trill the lingual r.
Many of these tongue-exercises are quite difficult ;
consequently the pupil is sometimes advised to assist
himself at first, where practicable, with a spatula.
He is often recommended to practise the exercises
for a time before a mirror.
Exercises for the velum, or soft palate, are now
and then encountered. The following exercises, from
three different sources, are typical :
Prefix a continuous m to words beginning with the con-
sonant b; e.g. m-Bristol, m-Boston. Note the sudden rise of
the velum with the change from m to b. Practise the m-b
combination on such words as timber, amber, ember, etc.
Prefix n to words beginning with d ; e.g. n-Dover, n-Derby.
Note the rise of the velum with the change from n to d. Prac-
tise the n-d combination on such words as hinder, winder,
Prefix b (without actually disploding this consonant) to
words beginning with m ; e.g. b-Mannheim, b-Maine. Note the
lowering of the velum with the change from b to m. Practise
the b-m combination on such words as submerge, submarine, etc.
Prefix d (without actually disploding the consonant) to
words beginning with n; e.g. d-Norfolk, d-Newport. Note the
lowering of the velum with the change from d to n. Practise
the d-n combination on such words as sadness, boldness, etc.
Endeavor to raise and lower the velum consciously.
Vocalize the vowel ah. Nasalize it by lowering the velum ;
raise and lower the velum alternately. Similarly with other
Open the mouth. Inhale and exhale quietly through the
mouth with the velum raised. With the mouth still open,
lower the velum and inhale and exhale through the nose.
Most of these different exercises for the articulative
organs are doubtless of value as ordinary elocutionary
measures. The jaw-exercises, however, are probably
dispensable, and the soft palate exercises valuable
only when there is a tendency to nasality. These
two groups of exercises are certainly not germane to
the treatment of stammering. Labial exercises do
not mitigate stammering by facilitating articulation.
It is possible for them to enhance the severity of
physical stammering by increasing the strength of
the labial muscles. It seems not improbable, however,
that the employment of these exercises might intensify
68 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the kinaesthetic images of labial movements, and thus
lead indirectly to greater definiteness of the motor
images of the lip-movements associated with the pro-
duction of vowels. If this should occur, the exercises
might prove beneficial if employed purposefully
and with discretion. The practice of reading with
closed jaws would be likely to inculcate a pernicious
habit ; hence, should certainly be tabooed. The
tongue-exercises might prove valuable in improving
one's consciousness of lingual movements and in inten-
sifying the kinaesthetic imagery. They should prove
valuable to the stammerer that is endeavoring to
supplement his auditory images of vowels by kinaes-
thetic images of the movements by which the vowels
are produced. As the lingual exercises are employed
at present to facilitate the production of "refractory
consonants" -they are certainly useless.
We come now to the various exercises in articula-
tion represented occasionally as furnishing drill
for the articulative organs, but usually as affording
"practice" in the formation of consonants.
We give below, a number of articulatory exercises,
all of which are in use in different stammering-schools :
Prefix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting
c and x) to each of the vowels, a, e, I, o, u. 1 Thus :
1 For other vowel-series employed, see footnote on p. 42.
Postfix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting
c, h, w, x, and y) to each of the vowels a, e, i, o, u. Thus :
1 Inspiration is supposed to occur at the beginning of each line.
yo SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Prefix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting
c and x) to each of the syllables of the preceding exercise.
Thus for the first consonant, b :
(Repeat the exercise, replacing 6 by each of the other con-
sonants in turn.)
Repeat the exercise, prefixing instead of the simple con-
sonants the following consonantal combinations:
"Bl. . . .as in blade Fr. . . .as in fright
Br bride Fy few
1 In these exercises q of course takes the sound of kw.
Practise the following series of physiological consonants
(giving the consonants their sounds, not their names) :
1 A dash indicates a brief pause.
72 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Practise the following combinations of consonants, giving
the consonants their sounds not their names :
"p-t t-p p-t-p t-p-t p-t-t-p t-p-p-t
p-k k-p p-k-p k-p-k p-k-k-p k-p-p-k
t-k k-t t-k-t k-t-k t-k-k-t k-t-t-k
p-t-k p-k-t t-p-k t-k-p k-p-t k-t-p
p-f f-p p-f-p f-p-f p-f-f-p f-p-p-f
f-wh wh-f f-wh-f wh-f-wh f-wh-wh-f wh-f-f-wh
p-f-wh p-wh-f f-p-wh f-wh-p wh-p-f wh-f-p
f-th th-f f-th-f th-f-th f-th-th-f th-f-f-th
f-th-wh f-wh-th th-f-wh th-wh-f wh-f-th wh-th-f
th-s s-th th-s-th s-th-s th-s-s-th s-th-th-s
th-sh sh-th th-sh-th sh-th-sh th-sh-sh-th sh-th-th-sh
s-sh sh-s s-sh-s sh-s-sh s-sh-sh-s sh-s-s-sh
th-s-sh th-sh-s s-th-sh s-sh-th sh-s-th sh-th-s
b-d d-l\ b-d-b d-b-d b-d-d-b d-b-b-d
b-g g-b b-g-b g-b-g b-g-g-b g-b-b-g
d-g g-d d-g-d g-d-g d-g-g-d g-d-d-g
b-d-g b-g-d d-b-g d-g-b g-b-d g-d-b
b-v v-b b-v-b v-b-v b-v-v-b v-b-b-v
b-w w-b b-w-b w-b-w b-w-w-b w-b-b-w
b-v-w b-w-v v-b-w v-w-b w-b-v w-v-b
v-w w-v v-w-v w-v-w v-w-w-v w-v-v-w
v-m m-v v-m-v m-v-m v-m-m-v m-v-v-m
w-m m-w w-m-w m-w-m w-m-m-w m-w-w-m
v-w-m v-m-w w-v-m w-m-v m-v-w m-w-v
v-th th-v v-th-v th-v-th v-th-th-v th-v-v-th
th-z z-th th-z-th z-th-z th-z-z-th z-th-th-z
v-th-z v-z-th th-z-v th-v-z z-v-th z-th-v
th-1 1-th th-l-th 1-th-l th-1-l-th 1-th-th-l
v-th-1 v-l-th th-v-1 th-l-v 1-v-th 1-th-v
th-zh zh-th th-zh-th zh-th-zh th-zh-zh-th zh-th-th-zh
z-zh zh-z z-zh-z zh-z-zh z-zh-zh-z zh-z-z-zh
z-th-zh z-zh-th th-z-zh th-zh-z zh-z-th zh-th-z
z-r r-z z-r-z r-z-r z-r-r-z r-z-z-r
r-1 1-r r-l-r 1-r-l r-l-l-r 1-r-r-l
r-n n-r r-n-r n-r-n r-n-n-r n-r-r-n
n-1 1-n n-l-n 1-n-l n-l-l-n 1-n-n-l
r-l-n r-n-l 1-r-n 1-n-r n-r-1 n-l-r
n-m m-n n-m-n m-n-m n-m-m-n m-n-n-m
n-ng ng-n n-ng-n ng-n-ng n-ng-ng-n ng-n-n-ng
m-ng ng-m m-ng-m ng-m-ng m-ng-ng-m ng-m-m-ng
n-m-ng n-ng-m m-n-ng m-ng-n ng-n-m ng-m-n
y-zh zh-y y-zh-y zh-y-zh y-zh-zh-y zh-y-y-zh
y-w w-y y-w-y w-y-w y-w-w-y w-y-y-w"
Repeat the above combinations with a vowel subjoined to
each of the articulative elements ; thus :
pata tapa patapa tapata patatapa tapapata
paka kapa pakapa kapaka pakakapa kapapaka
taka kata takata kataka takakata katataka
SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
pataka pakata tapaka takapa kapata katapa
pafa fapa pafapa fapafa pafafapa fapapafa, etc.
Repeat the combinations with a vowel prefixed to each of the
articulative elements, thus :
apat atap apatap atapat apatatap atapapat
apak akap apakap akapak apakakap akapapak
atak akat atakat akatak atakakat akatatak
apatak apakat atapak atakap akapat akatap
apaf afap apafap afapaf apafafap afapapaf, etc.
Practice the following consonants and combinations with the
vowel a (ah). Take breath at the beginning of each line. 1
1 The author of the exercise recommends practice before a mirror.
1 The horizontal line here indicates prolongation of the vowel.
Practise the above consonants with all the different vowels
Practise the following consonantal combinations; likewise
all other possible combinations, which need not necessarily
occur in words. "A gymnastic of the organs is the object
here in view."
"b, d, hb, hbd, f, p, bf, ph, hip, t, ft, g, gd, k, kt, pi, tk, bdg,
ptk, sh, fsh, shp, s, ts, shps, st, hst, ks, bst, j, 1, bl, dl, hi, gl,
gls, Ish, shl, pi, kl, klg, glsh, m, hm, mb, mt, fm, km, 1m,
shhn, shms, flm, n, bn, dn, hn, fn, pn, tn, kn, gn, shn, sb,
sd, hs, sm, r, br, tr, shnr, shmr, w, qu, shwr, z, x."
Practise the following combinations of consonants and
vowels. Inhale at the beginning of each line, and hold the
breath for a moment before vocalizing.
76 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"Repeat 'ta' over and over, hundreds of times."
"The same way, repeat 'tdln, tdln, tdln ! "'
"Making syllables of these with the vowels, in order,
repeat those syllables over and over, as in the following
Table i Table 2
"Next, place 'ta' before the letters of the alphabet, and
repeat them, over and over, as 'ta-a, ta-b, ta-c, ta-d, ta-e, ta-f,'
"Place 'ta' before each word, going over whole pages in a
reader suited to the student's advancement."
Repeat the last two exercises, saying " ya " instead of " ta,"
and "pressing the tongue hard to place."
We give on the following pages a few charts typical
of those generally used with articulatory exercises.
The charts are from four different sources. The
symbols have been converted to conform to those
Exercises of this kind are practically numberless.
6be Ibi 6b5
78 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
y be be be be
y bi bi bi bi
y bo bo bo bO
y bu bu bu bll
Vd) a a a
Vd) pa pa pa
V a o u
V pa po pu
1 The intensity of the voice increases with the size of the type.
CHART 4 1
Vme ma mah maw \ /
T 2 2 2 V
mo moo ma nil
be ba bah baw bo boo bl
V nioy "boy poy V my bay pay V my by ; py / \
1 See pp. n, 37, and 47 for explanation of symbols.
P I "
po poo pi
8o SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
One French institution alone boasts more than
three hundred of these articulatory and vocal
drills. The examples given will suffice, however,
to illustrate the general nature of the articula-
tion-practice usually prescribed. There are, of
course, such inventions as articulatory exercises
combined with dumb-bell drill and marching; but
any further exercises that might be described would,
on the whole, be little more than variants of those
And what is it all good for ?
More than half a century ago Klencke expressed
himself on the matter as follows : *
"Inasmuch as nearly every stutterer has certain consonants
which give him more trouble than others for example, d,
t> n > b> P) m t 1> ia the beginning of my practice, prepared
special exercises of the difficult consonantal combinations,
such as da, de, di, do, du, etc. ; taught him how to use tongue
and lips, and kept him at this drill until he was able not only to
form the consonants physically correct, but also in their proper
relation and in the most varied combinations. Such a course
I deemed indispensable, because I saw how many a stutterer
did not fulfil the conditions necessary to the production of a
consonant in connection with a vowel. He would, for example,
run out the tongue when attempting to articulate d or n, or
squeeze the lips tightly together in p or b. However, I have
dispensed with this practice (which is given in detail in my
1 " Heilung des Stotterns." Translation taken from The Voice,
Vol. I, p. 121.
former book) altogether, for I have learned that it is not alone
a waste of time, but also useless." 1
The theory that stammering is due to difficulty
in producing consonants is practically defunct; but
the articulatory exercises still continue. These exer-
cises have, however, absolutely no merit to justify
their existence. There is only one instance in which
they could be prescribed with any semblance of
justification; and that is, in cases where there has
occurred a distortion of the verbal imagery. But
even in such cases the mechanical practice of articu-
lation is dispensable.
There are on the market a few stratagems for
circumventing particular consonants and consonantal
The initial w, it is advised, should be pronounced
as oo. The word waif becomes oo-aif; will becomes
oo-ill; twine becomes too-ine; swoon becomes soo-oon;
The initial y masquerades as ee. You becomes ee-oo ;
yard becomes ee-ard; and yawn becomes ee-awn.
Initial r, when regenerated, becomes er. Rats are
er-ats, and rot is er-ot.
Q, of course, must be thought of as kw. Forth-
with the difficulty vanishes.
1 After discarding articulation-exercises Klencke directed his at-
tention to the production of voice.
82 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Regarding bl, cl, si, spl, sm, sn, sp, spr, and similar
combinations, we are told that "when these are diffi-
cult to stammerers, it is only because they look so."
Separate the consonants, and trouble is annihilated.
Concerning these expedients the following may be
said : W, y, and q require the same positions as 00,
ee, and kw ; therefore it is a little inconsistent of the
speech-mechanicians to propose the "substitution."
If the endeavor to substitute ever proves beneficial,
it does so by focussing the attention of the speaker
on the verbal imagery. In replacing r by er one is
merely resorting to Arnott's trick (p. 54), but making
its application specific rather than general. The
suggestion that the stammerer disjoin double and
triple consonants is manifestly an inanity. All of
these methods induce unnatural speech or unnatural
verbal thought, and therefore would be open to
reprobation even though they should prove tem-
The antidote usually recommended for difficulty in
articulation is a knowledge of ' the physiology of the
speech-organs and the mechanical action by which
the various consonants are produced. The following
citations, from three different authors, present the
point of view :
"Again we repeat, but in other words, the nature of the
Stammerer's undertaking. He has to take his speech to pieces,
as a watchmaker does a watch, and examine all the cogs, and
pins, and pivots, of its mechanism; then, having discovered
and corrected the defects of the separate parts of the machine,
he must proceed carefully to replace them, one by one, in natural
order, adjusting each to easy action before he passes to the
next! Such precisely is the curative process; it is not a te-
dious one, for the elements of speech are few and definite in
number, but though it were irksome, perseverance would
sooner or later bring it to an end ! And the Stammerer will
then not only have his speech machine in order, and free from
obstructions and irregularities, but under superior control,
from his intimate acquaintance with its structure and modes of
And thus the second author:
"A person who has acquired the habit of stammering has to
begin again, like a little child, from the point from which he
strayed. Unlike a child, however, instead of learning by imi-
tation or intuition, he has to be told exactly how and where to
place the tongue and lips."
The third author writes in dialogue :
"'Let me see your mouth; sit down and open it, please.
(He [the patient] does so.) Well, it is an excellent mouth.
Put out your tongue. (He does so.) An excellent tongue ;
neither too large nor too small. You've lost a tooth or two ;
but you've plenty left, and all the front ones regular and in
place. Move your jaws well; they work easily enough, no
need of oiling the hinges, eh ? (He laughs.) Move your lips,
opening and closing them with a noise. (He does so, making
the sound of the letter p.} Well, that's all right, and yet I
dare say you fancy you can't say "puff" because it begins with
84 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
a p. Why, it is preposterous. There's no more reason, phys-
ically, why you should hesitate on a word beginning with p or
any other letter than I should ; it is all fancy.'
"He smiles a melancholy smile, and shakes his head sadly.
'"How long have you had this fancy ? Now don't be in a
hurry to speak, but recollect first, and then answer.'
"A pause of a few seconds ; after a gasp or two, he at length
blurts out with an explosion of sound :
"'Nine years, eh? Now do you know the reason why you
don't say the word nine clearly at once, without boggle or hesi-
tation ? Not why you can't say it, mind, but why you don't?
(He shakes his head.) Well, I'll tell you, and prove to you
that you can say nine, or any 'other word beginning with n,
as well and as easily as I or any other man living, if you set
about it rightly. Now, then: shut your teeth close together,
opening your lips at the same tune. (He does so.) Now
put your tongue against the roof of your mouth, just above your
upper teeth, and keeping teeth closed, and lips open, and tongue
in that position. Utter any other sound but that of n if you
"He does so, and tries to utter a sound, and produces, of
necessity, a repetition of the sub-tonic n, n, n.
'"Very well ! Now you see that it is not that you cannot
utter n, but that if you take the right means for the utterance of
the sound of the letter you cannot say anything else.'
" He opens his mouth and tries to say 'No.'
"'Ha!' I say, 'you cannot say "no" with a mouth wide
open ; you can't begin to say it, because the sound of n in no
requires closed teeth, or nearly so. Go back to your former
closed teeth and open lips and say no, at once, and without
"A pause, and he does so, and laughs with satisfaction.
" ' Ha ! there ! You see you can say no as easily as I do,
and you fancied it was a dreadful stumbling-block. My
dear fellow, you have no defect at all ; you only fancy you
have. You try to attain the utterance of a certain sound by
an utterly false and contrary process to the one required to
produce it. You might as well attempt to smoke with your
mouth wide open; you have first to close your lips to draw
"Thus, I take him in turn through every elementary sound
in the language tonic, sub-tonic, atonic, as Dr. Rush has
classed them showing him the organic process necessary for
the utterance of each, and forcing him to observe it hi practice,
and thus proving to him, by his own success that, under the
required conditions, he could utter no other sound than the sound
Instruction in the mechanical processes by which
the various elemental sounds are produced is usually
preceded by some description of the anatomy of the
speech-organs. The physical structure of the organs
is often taught from anatomical models. The ex-
position on the physiology of speech is generally
about as follows :
Inspiration is effected through the expansion of the chest.
Since "Nature abhors a vacuum," air enters the lungs, which
then fill the cavity that would otherwise have resulted. Expira-
tion is effected through contraction of the chest, the contraction
resulting in expulsion of the breath. As the breath passes
through the larynx, or voice-box (a conspicuous part of which
is seen as the "Adam's apple"), it sets into vibration the vocal
cords, a pair of elastic membranous folds within the larynx,
and thereby initiates voice. The raising or lowering of the pitch
86 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
of the voice is brought about by an increase or decrease in the
tension of the vocal cords, this increase or decrease in tension
being effected through muscular action. The voice is given the
characteristic quality of different vowels through changes in
shape of the buccal cavity, these changes being effected by
alterations in the position of the lips and alterations ha the shape
and position of the tongue. The consonants are formed by
different obstructions presented to the vocalized or non-vocal-
ized expiratory current. 1
This elucidation of the general physiological pro-
cesses of speech is followed by detailed instruction
concerning the manner in which the individual con-
sonants are produced. The stammerer then pro-
duces them himself, and afterward practises them for
months or years, as the case may be, with the dif-
ferent articulatory exercises. Needless to say, he is
counselled to form the consonants at all times accord-
ing to directions.
The directions are typically as follows :
To produce the consonant p, press the lips firmly together,
raise the velum in order to separate the nasal cavity from the
pharynx, and compress the air in the buccal cavity by the action
of the respiratory muscles ; now separate the lips (by the action
of the labial muscles and the downward movement of the lower
jaw), and the consonant is formed by the emission of the breath
To form b, proceed as above, but vocalize the breath a
moment before disploding the consonant.
1 A detailed exposition on the physiology of speech can, of course,
be found in almost any good book on phonetics or elocution.
To form the consonant m, press the lips together, lower the
soft palate slightly in order to connect the pharynx with the
nares (but do not lower the velum sufficiently to bring it hi
contact with the tongue) ; then vocalize the breath (which will
find egress through the nares), and finally displode the con-
sonant by separating the lips.
To produce wh (as in what), protrude the lips slightly, and
round them to diminish the size of the labial orifice ; raise the
velum, and emit the breath rather forcefully through the mouth
so that a fricative sound is produced at the lips : complete the
articulation by sharply separating and retracting the lips.
To produce w, proceed as for wh, but vocalize the effluent
To produce the consonant /, bring the lower lip against the
upper incisors, and slightly raise the upper lip ; raise the velum,
and exhale the breath with sufficient force to occasion a frica-
tive sound at the lips : complete the articulation by lowering
the jaw and sharply separating the lip from the upper teeth.
To form v, proceed as for /, but vocalize the outgoing current.
To form /, apply the entire edge of the tongue to the roof
of the mouth ; raise the velum, and compress the air in the
pharynx and cavity of the mouth above the tongue ; articulate
the consonant by abruptly separating the tongue from the
To produce d, proceed similarly, but vocalize the breath a
moment before articulating the consonant.
To produce n, place the entire edge of the tongue against
the palate as for I or d ; lower the velum slightly (but not to
the back of the tongue), and vocalize the breath, which will
pass through the nares : articulate the consonant by sharply
withdrawing the tongue from the palate.
To form s, appose the tongue to the roof of the mouth with
the lateral portions well in contact, but with the middle of the
88 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
tongue slightly grooved ; raise the velum, and emit the breath
with sufficient force to produce a sibilation at the forward part
of the tongue : finish the articulation by lowering the jaw and
withdrawing the tongue from the palate.
To form z, proceed as for s, but vocalize the breath.
To produce sh, proceed as for s, but retract the point of the
tongue slightly, enlarge the concavity of the tongue, and
slightly arch its posterior portion.
To produce zh, vocalize sh.
To form ch (as in church) combine / with sh.
To form j, compound d and zh.
To produce th (as in thigh) place the tip of the tongue in
contact with the edge of the upper incisors; raise the velum,
and exhale with sufficient force to induce a fricative sound as
the breath passes over the lateral edges of the fore part of the
tongue: complete the articulation by depressing the lower
jaw and separating the tongue from the teeth.
To produce TH (as in thy) proceed as above, but vocalize
To form the consonant /, place the tip of the tongue in con-
tact with the palatal arch ; raise the velum ; emit and vocalize
the breath, which will pass over the lateral edges of the posterior
part of the tongue : complete the consonant by separating the
tongue from the palate.
To produce r, upturn slightly the tip of the tongue, and place
the lateral edges of the tongue lightly in contact with the
palate ; raise the velum ; emit and vocalize the breath, which
will vibrate the tip of the tongue : finish the articulation
by lowering the jaw and withdrawing the tongue from the
To form y, raise the body of the tongue till its lateral edges
are in contact with the palate and bicuspid teeth; raise the
velum ; emit and vocalize the breath, which will pass through
the constricted space above the tongue : to complete the artic-
ulation lower the jaw and bring the tongue sharply away
from the palate.
To produce k, apply the posterior part of the tongue to the
roof of the mouth ; raise the velum, and compress the air in the
pharynx : articulate the consonant by sharply withdrawing the
tongue from the palate.
To produce g, proceed as for k, but vocalize the breath just
before disploding the consonant.
To produce the consonant h, emit the breath with sufficient
force to produce an aspirate sound in the glottis. 1
In some institutions much ado is made of this
study of the consonants. Further, the consonants
are usually carefully and scientifically classified as
closed and continuous; hard and soft; subtonic and
atonic; labial, lingual, and guttural; weal, semi-
weal and mute; etc. according to the particular
fancy or prejudice of, or particular book in the pos-
session of, the particular "professor" in charge of
And what is the value of this analysis of the con-
The analysis is usually faulty, for even phoneti-
cists are by no means agreed among themselves as
to the manner in which some of the speech-elements
are produced. The principiations given above, though
1 All of these directions are, of course, for initial consonants.
Initial c has the value of 5 or k. Q is equivalent to kw.
90 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
in accord with the theories of a number of able phone-
ticians, are open to all kinds of criticism. The surd
th, for instance, is sometimes formed with the tip of
the tongue not in contact with incisor teeth, and the
breath then passes over the tip of the tongue as well
as over the anterior lateral edges. The aspirate
sound of h, when this consonant is followed by long
e or u (as in heat and huge), is usually formed in the
forward part of the mouth as well as in the glottis.
G when followed by / (as in glass) is sometimes formed
with the lateral edges of the tongue. T when fol-
lowed by / (as hi little) is always formed with the
lateral edges of the tongue. T when followed by n
(in such words as mutton) is formed with the soft
palate; etc., etc. But even if the analysis of the
consonants were correct, a knowledge of the forma-
tive processes would be useless, for the stammerer's
difficulty lies with the vowels.
A knowledge of the minor anatomy of the speech-
organs is likewise valueless. It is not an asset for
the stammerer to know that the levator labii superioris
al&que nasi assists in raising the upper lip. A general
knowledge of the physiology of speech may deter
the stammerer from endeavoring to speak with
occluded glottis and deflated lungs; but a detailed
knowledge is likely to divert his attention from his
verbal imagery to the organs on which this imagery
In some institutions the pupils are given instruc-
tion (usually cursory, and unfortunately frequently
inaccurate) concerning the physiological production
of the vowels. This feature of instruction is rarely
met with; but it is one of importance, and must
therefore be included in the present review.
We give below, the lingual and labial conforma-
tions corresponding to the different vowels as these
conformations are usually taught by Instructors of the
deaf : l
Ah as in far: The tongue lies flat and inactive in the bottom
of the mouth ; or the whole tongue may be slightly but evenly
depressed. The corners of the mouth are slightly retracted.
The velum is raised, separating the pharynx from the nares
(this is the case with all English vowels).*
as in not: The tongue occupies the same position as for
ah. The lips are slightly rounded.
Aw as in awl, maid, etc. : Position of the tongue as above.
The lips are still more rounded, and the labial orifice much
U as in but: The body of the tongue is slightly higher than
in the position occupied for ah; the back of the tongue may be
slightly raised. The mouth is well open ; there is no rounding of
E as in her: The fore part of the tongue rises slightly from
1 The elevation of the larynx is determined largely by the position
of the tongue, and hence need not be considered in the present
1 For French and Portuguese "nasal" vowels the velum is lowered,
and the vocal stream divides, finding egress through the nares as well
as through the mouth.
92 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the position occupied for &. The lips are often somewhat
OO as in mood: The back of the tongue is raised almost to
the soft palate. The lips are rounded and protruded, the labial
orifice being extremely small.
OO as in hook: The back of the tongue is lowered slightly
from the position for do. The labial orifice is slightly larger.
A as in an: The fore part of the tongue is in its lowest posi-
tion ; the back is high. The mouth is well open, and there is
no rounding of the lips.
as in met: The fore part of the tongue is raised slightly
from the position occupied for & (the lower jaw rising with the
tongue). There is no rounding of the lips; on the contrary,
the corners of the mouth are often slightly retracted.
/ as in bit: The front of the tongue is raised from its position
for t, and is very near the hard palate ; the lateral edges of the
tongue may be in contact with the upper bicuspids. The lower
jaw, of course, rises with the tongue. The corners of the mouth
are slightly retracted.
E as in feel: The fore part of the tongue is almost in contact
with the hard palate (the lateral edges of the tongue may
actually touch the palate). The corners of the mouth are
as in so: The back of the tongue is high, the fore part low.
The lips are somewhat rounded when vocalization begins.
As the vowel is enunciated, the labial orifice is reduced to the
position occupied for do. The vowel o is a diphthong,
with the first element a monophthong ^intermediate between
H and aw and with the second element do. Like all diph-
thongs, the vowel is a glide from one monophthong to another,
rather than a sequence of two pure monophthongal elements.
7 as in might: This vowel is a diphthong composed of the
elements ah and e.
A as in may: A diphthong composed of the elements & and e.
Oi as in oil: A diphthong composed of the elements aw and e.
Ow as in now: A diphthong composed of the elements ah
U as in due: A diphthong composed of the elements e and do.
These vowel-positions are not in accord with
those given by all authorities. This must neces-
sarily be the case, since authorities differ somewhat
among themselves. Their differences of opinion,
however, are not significant. Where one phonetician
gives the "low back" position for a certain vowel,
another may give "mid back." Usually either posi-
tion will give the vowel with considerable purity.
There can be no absolute scale of lingual positions,
for these differ somewhat in individuals with the
height and shape of the palate. And further, there
is no absolute standard of vowel-qualities: these
differ in different localities, and with different persons
in the same locality.
"The solution of the difficulty seems to be that suggested
by Ellis, namely, that, 'what we call our vowels are not indi-
viduals, scarcely species, but rather genera, existing roughly in
the speaker's intention, but at present mainly artifically con-
stituted by the habits of writing and reading.'" *
The value of instruction in vowel-formation de-
pends, of course, upon the nature of the instruction
and the manner in which it is given.
1 Alexander Graham Bell, "Mechanism of Speech," pp. 128-129.
94 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The instruction is sometimes of such a nature
as to be practically worthless regardless of the
manner. There is, for example, a stammering-
school that uses Helmore's analysis of the vowels,
in which the shape of the labial orifice alone is
considered. 1 Instruction of such a nature is virtu-
Then with regard to the manner : It is certain that
the most accurate instruction is worthless when it
results merely in the student's acquiring so much
abstract information. It does not benefit the stam-
merer to know that e is formed with the fore part of
the tongue high in the mouth, if he is not able to
visualize or mentally feel the appropriate position or
action in his verbal imagery. The abstract knowl-
edge may be interesting, but it does not counter-
balance the amnesia.
In a few institutions the pupils are required to
practise the different consonants and vowels before
a mirror. This procedure is usually recommended
for giving the pupil a better "knowledge" of the
action of the speech-organs. Actual visualizing of
the movements is rarely recommended to stammerers
even by teachers of the deaf and dumb. We be-
lieve, however, that if the stammerer could accu-
rately visualize the movements necessary to produce
1 See Helmore, "Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers."
the words he wishes to utter, stammering from audi-
tory amnesia would not occur. These visual im-
ages are no doubt very difficult to acquire. The
problem on hand is not a simple one ; but it merits
VERBAL EXERCISES, MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC.
VERBAL exercises occur in such bewildering mul-
tiplicity that it seems almost idle to attempt to
correlate them. Almost every institution employing
respiratory, vocal, and articulatory "gymnastics"
has its own particular set of graduated word- and
speech-exercises that require an application of the
principles enjoined, and afford practice in so-called
"natural" speech. In addition to these exercises
there are many that introduce special and sup-
posedly beneficial modes of utterance. These latter
exercises may or may not be associated with the
respiratory, vocal, and articulatory training already
mentioned. It will probably be well to examine
first those exercises that do not necessarily introduce
new modes of utterance, i.e. the exercises that form
a natural sequel to the various forms of vocal and
articulatory practice already considered ; and to ex-
amine afterward the various special modes of enun-
ciation and the special exercises on which these
modes of enunciation are practised.
The first group of exercises represents the work of
no one particular institution ; it is a composite group
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 97
DIAGRAMS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL SPELLING
m a n
t a p
t a p
t a p
t &_ p
98 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
consisting of exercises from a large number of stam-
One of the simplest word-exercises consists in
"physiological spelling" or "word synthesis." This
exercise is sometimes cautiously employed in making
the transition from ar.ticulatory exercises to mono-
syllabic reading. The exercise consists in dismember-
ing words usually monosyllables into their com-
ponent physiological consonants and vowels, and
pronouncing these elements with a distinct pause
between them. The pauses are gradually lessened,
and finally omitted when the word of course
stands complete. The exercises may be diagrammed
as on the preceding page. 1
The next exercise to be considered is one that
affords practice on simple words introducing dif-
ferent combinations of consonants and vowels.
The exercise is prescribed for various purposes
for affording practice on difficult consonants, prac-
tice in maintaining continuity of voice, practice in
respiration, or just practice. The following charts
will illustrate the procedure : 2
1 Symbols as in the vocal and articulatory exercises. Dotted lines
appear beneath surd consonants, since these cannot be vocalized.
The length of the pauses between the speech-elements is proportional
to the spaces between the lines.
1 Symbols as formerly employed.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 99
sale saneness sane
saneness sane i
1 The solid line representing voice should by rights be dotted at the
surd consonants. This refinement is commonly disregarded.
TOO SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
For more advanced work, an English teacher of
stammerers prescribes practice on words with vari-
ously placed primary accents. His general instruc-
tions for practice are as follows :
"i. Let every letter as well as every syllable be distinctly
heard. . . .
"2. Tease out the word tease it out.
"3. Let the voice run evenly along the words.
"The object is not only that of clear articulation, but also
that of teaching the voice to play with the word. Whitefield,
so it is said, could so play with the word Mesopotamia that he
could bring tears to the eyes."
" Jfosticatory occessariness criminatory customarily
di/atoriness disciplinary laboratory /ocArymatory
necessarily peremptorily />o/ysyllable sedentariness
"i. Accentuate the above on the first syllable.
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out."
"Abstemiousness au/Aoritative anathematize con-
/ederacy contemporary conciliatory corroborative
discriminative exc/amatory e/oculatory ef/eminacy
ewwnciative ex/raordinary e/wcidatory hereditary
incendiary irre/ragable immeasurably.
" i. Accentuate the above on the second syllable.
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 101
"Algebraical ammontacal antipa/Aertcal aristo-
crorical catechetical consanguinity characteris/ical
ceremonious contiguity democrc/ical extemporaneous
epigrammarical enthusiastical encyclopedia elec/ricity
eccen/ricity extra-parochial geographical genealogy
genealogical heterogeneous hemis/>/frical hydro^Aobia
incongruity miscel/oneous malleaWity metaphysical
mythological pertinacity penitentiary plenipotentiary
pusillanimity philosophical physio/ogical physiognomy
phraseo/ogy simultaneous systematical super-
fluity ultramontanish unaccountable unconstitutional
undervaluation uniformity universalism univewo/ity
"i. Accentuate the above words on the last syllable but
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out. "
"Assassination antipesti/ential academician con-
catenation circumnavigation circumferential con-
tradistinction deterioration exaggeration experimental
epigramma/ic epicurean hierog/y/>Aic interlineation
inauguration inefficacious pronunciation ratiocina-
tion recitation supererogation.
" i. Accentuate the above on the last syllable but one.
" 2. Tease out the word tease it out.
"N. B. Stammerers will have no difficulty with any of
the above words, if they are careful to keep the eye on the syl-
lable in italics."
Word-exercises are of course succeeded by read-
ing- and speech-exercises. We shall first consider
102 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
reading-exercises ; though reading and speaking usu-
ally alternate in actual practice, both groups of
exercises being arranged in progressive series.
Reading usually begins with simple sentences,
which are generally of a hortatory nature. In class-
practice the pupils frequently read the sentence first
in unison, and then by turns. In some institutions
the pupils read in concert for several days or weeks
before they begin to read individually. We give
below, a number of " sentences for reading" from the
repertoires of an English and an American stammer-
"Every one is the architect of his own fortune."
"Heaven never helps the men who will not act."
"Too low they build who build beneath the stars."
"I am sure, care's an enemy to life."
"The cautious seldom err."
"Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day."
"Every one is the son of his own works."
"In this world a man must either be anvil or hammer."
"He who has lost confidence can lose nothing more."
"Courage in danger is half the battle."
"Doubt indulged soon becomes doubt realized."
"Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm."
"Wisely, and slow; they stumble, that run fast."
"He only is a well-made man who has a good determination."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 103
These simple sentences are usually followed by
" selected paragraphs." In these paragraphs, respira-
tion points are frequently indicated by symbols. We
give below, a reading-exercise that is employed in a
" V TIMELY WISDOM
" V An emperor of China was once informed of the death of a
horse V that he had intrusted to the special care of one of
his servants. V The emperor had the unfortunate man called
to him, V but was so enraged that he attempted to slay him
with his own hand. V ' Ruler of the world,' cried a mandarin,
as he warded off the blow, V ' Ruler of the world, would you
have this man die uninformed of the enormity of his crime ? '
V 'Inform him,' said the emperor, still violently enraged.
V ' Wretched man,' said the mandarin to the servant, V ' your
offence is that a horse has died after being placed hi your
special care by our emperor. V That is a great crime.
V You have so angered our emperor that he nearly slew you
with his own hand. V That is even a worse crime.
V And it will be your fault that later our emperor will lose
the love of his subjects V and bis good name with other
nations V when they learn that he has ordered a man to be
killed for the sake of a horse. V Do you realize what a criminal
you are ? '
" ' V Release him' ; said the emperor, 'I forgive him.'"
Dialogue-reading is also employed :
First Pupil: " What say'st thou, noble heart?"
Second Pupil: "What will I do, think'st thou?"
First Pupil: "Why, go to bed and sleep."
Second Pupil: "I will incontinently drown myself." Etc.,etc.
104 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
After ordinary reading-practice, a few teachers
prescribe work on sentences involving difficult verbal
collocations. The following sentences of this kind are
"A figure regal /ike, with solemn march,
Goes slow and stately by ; whils/ they, distill'd
Almos/ to jelly -with the act o//ear,
Stand dumb, and speak not to him.
"0 ! studied deceit ! (not study)
"A sad dangler, (not angler).
"A languid dame, (not aim).
"His crime moved me, (not cry).
"To obtain neither, (not either).
"He could pain nobody, (not pay).
"Goodness centres hi the heart, (not enters).
"Luxurious soil, (not oil).
"He will prate to anybody, (not pray).
"M&ke clean our hearts within us, (not lean).
"In bulk as Auge as whom the fables name of monstrous size,
" Can the Ethiopian change his skin, (not kin), or the leopard
his spots ? (not pots).
"Whose beard descending swept his aged ftreast, (not beer).
"A constant smirk on the face, and whiffling activity of the
body, are strong indications of /utility, (not utility)."
"Yet the lark's sArill fi/e may come.
"And the floors shall be full of wheat, and the fats shall over-
flow with wine and oil.
"Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears
of every one that heareth it shall tingle.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 105
"What though each spark, of earth-born rapture fly !
"In septennial parliaments, your representatives have sLe
years for offence, and but one for atonement.
"Can the husbandman look forward with assured confidence
to the expected increase of his fields ?
" Now on the leafless yew it plays.
"Long has it hung from the cold yew's spray.
"Oft by tha/ yew on the blasted field
"Examples prevail when precepts /ail.
"Frequen/ good company.
"Pu/ the cut pumpkin in a pipkin.
"Then pealed the notes omnipoten/ to charm,
And the loud tocsin tolled their last alarm.
"My little ones kissed me a thousand times o'er.
"In praising sparing be, and fclame most sparingly.
"Malice seldom wants a mask to aim at.
"We must not Wame/ortune for our faults.
"We must look to time past to improre trhat is to come."
"Chaste stars, (not tars).
"Cold ground, (not coal).
"IrisA yews, (not shoes).
"Yet half I see the panting spirit sigh, (not spirit's eye).
"Oh ! the torment of an ever-meddling memory, (not a never-
"Art thou afeard to be the same in thine own act and
valour, as thou art in desire ? (not thy known.)
"A warm tear gushed, the wintry air
Congealed it as it flowed away ;
All night it lay an ice-drop there, (not a nice drop)
At morn it glittered in the ray.
Give the cat stale bread.' "The cat's tail, mamma ?' 'Si-
lence, child 1 "'
io6 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
One of the simplest speech-exercises consists in
counting. We give below, an exercise that forms a
conspicuous feature in the "curriculum" of an Eng-
lish stammering-school :
"THE 'LONG COUNT'
"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty.
" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty- two thousand, two hundred and twenty-one.
" Two hundred and twenty-two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-two.
" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-three.
"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-four.
"Two hundred and twenty-two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-five.
" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-six.
" Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-seven.
"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-eight.
"Two hundred and twenty- two million, two hundred and
twenty- two thousand, two hundred and twenty-nine." l
1 From this point the exercise continues: "Three hundred and
thirty-three million, three hundred and thirty-three thousand, three
hundred and thirty." After " thirty-nine" is reached, the exercise
proceeds: "Four hundred and forty-four million," etc.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 107
Another exercise consists in learning passages and
reciting them memoriter. Says one writer :
"As soon as possible, read aloud, and recite pieces committed
to memory, first in private, next before sensible intimate friends,
and at length you will be able to do so in school, college, or in
A German teacher of stammerers requires his
pupils to learn and recite prose passages, and later
to paraphrase them. Reading-matter is also para-
phrased in this way.
Another German instructor requires his pupils to
complete sentences of which he gives the introduc-
tory words. The cues are typically as follows :
" My favorite authors are
" My favorite book "
" The chief characters in the book
" My general impressions of the book
" The longest journey I ever undertook "
" My pleasantest recollections of the journey are "
" My favorite pastime is
" Its advantages are
" My interest in it began
" I read in the newspaper this morning that "
" This afternoon I shall -
Asking and answering questions is another popular
form of practice. The pupils interrogate and reply
to one another, or reply to formal questions put by
the instructor. Formal questions are often pro-
io8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
pounded relative to the subject-matter in the reading-
exercises. The following typical questions relate to
the exercise given on page 103 :
" What offence had the emperor's servant committed ? "
" Who interceded on the servant's behalf ? "
" What is a mandarin ? "
" Approximately, what words did the mandarin employ in
addressing the emperor ? "
" What was the emperor's response? "
" With what words, approximately, did the mandarin address
the servant ? "
" To whom, however, was he really speaking ? "
" What effect did the words haveon the emperor ? " Etc., etc.
Brief replies are usually prohibited :
"The answer must not be a short one consisting of one
word only, but must contain the whole question ; for example,
if I ask, ' How are you to-day ? ' the answer must not be, ' Well ' ;
but, 'lam well to-day, thank you.'. . . As a matter of course
in these answers the slightest stoppage of speech must not be
permitted, but in case there is, the sentence must be repeated
until it is produced fluently."
Denning words is another popular exercise :
" 'What is a house?' 'A building that serves man as
" 'What is a rose? ' 'The rose is a flower noted for its
beauty and scent; it is called the queen of the flowers.'"
A Belgian teacher employs questions that require
the accentuation of different words in the reply. For
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 109
" ' What color is milk ? ' ' Milk is white:
" ' What is white ? ' ' Milk is white.'
"'Name five objects that are generally white.' 'Milk,
rice, the lily, the swan, and plaster are white.' "
In more advanced work the pupils relate anecdotes,
make short speeches, describe travels, and so on.
An Austrian teacher recommends that advanced
pupils be frequently interrupted by questions and
requests to repeat and that they be thus tested
by any artificial difficulties the teacher is able to
In most institutions the students are required to
associate and converse with strangers to a consider-
able extent during the latter part of the training.
This intercourse sometimes goes by the name of
So much for the various unembellished exercises.
It will be understood, of course, that the curriculum
of no one institution embraces all of the verbal exer-
cises described. Some systems embrace a majority
of them, and others but a few; the number and
nature of the exercises employed being determined
by the theories of the person employing the sys-
tem. Concerning the value of the exercises little
need be said. There is no inherent virtue in the
exercises themselves : benefit can be derived only
from the principles enjoined. These principles have
already been discussed. Let us assume, however,
no SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
that the measures applied are among the more
rational ones preliminary inspiration, indirect
attack, "continuity" of voice, etc. and then pass
the exercises rapidly in review. Physiological spell-
ing can be dismissed as so much nonsense. Word-
exercises combined with breathing, whispering, and
vocal exercises might be pardonable if anything could
be said in favor of them. Practising words with
differently placed accents seems to be an objectless
procedure. The exercise aims at nothing in particu-
lar, and doubtless accomplishes it. The reading of
ordinary matter probably furnishes as sensible an
exercise as one finds in the average stammering-school.
The procedure is practical, whereas most of the exer-
cises just considered are fetishistic. Dialogue-reading
is probably beneficial; certainly it would furnish a
test of the pupil's fluency. The reading of difficult
combinations of words would furnish excellent train-
ing for elocutionists, but it is difficult to see how the
practice can be of any benefit to stammerers as stam-
merers. Counting affords the student opportunity
for applying rational principles. It is, however, an
irksome business, and since it has practically no
advantage over other simple speech-exercises, there
is little to commend it. Reciting memoriter, para-
phrasing, completing sentences, propounding and
answering questions, relating anecdotes, etc., are of
course all useful and practical exercises. The prac-
"MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. Ill
tice of creating artificial difficulties for the student by
interrupting him, requesting him to repeat, and so
on, is certainly a sensible procedure. Usually the
student does not encounter such difficulties till the
course of training is complete, and with these diffi-
culties he is wont to encounter the customary relapse.
Intercourse with strangers should certainly occur
during, rather than after, the course of speech-train-
ing. "Stranger-practice" is undoubtedly a valuable
feature in any curriculum.
The usual generalizations can be applied to most
of the verbal exercises. They probably intensify the
pupil's acoustic imagery to some extent while he is
practising them for several hours a day. Further,
the pupil's confidence in the exercises temporarily
absolves him from fear, bewilderment, and inhibitive
We come now to the consideration of special modes
of utterance intended to mitigate or obviate stammer-
ing, and to the exercises on which these modes of
utterance are practised.
We shall consider first the expedient of omitting
or reducing initial consonants. More than a hun-
dred years ago Erasmus Darwin observed : that
stammering generally took the form of a "broken
association" between the initial consonant and the
1 "Zoonomia : or the Laws of Organic Life," London, 1800.
112 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
succeeding vowel. He therefore suggested that the
stammerer omit the initial consonant in difficult
words and come to the vowel immediately. The
word London would thus be 'Ondon, and Birmingham,
Birmingham. Darwin further recommended that the
stammerer practise difficult words in this manner, and
finally intercalate the consonants, giving them the
lightest possible articulation. 1
This principle of Darwin's has been incorporated
in nearly every system for treating stammering that
has been introduced in the last hundred years. (In
many cases the system has been incorporated in the
principle.) In most modern stammering-schools the
pupils practise light articulation in formal exercises.
The nature of the exercises employed is obvious
enough. We give below, a few typical charts, which
are self-explanatory :
1 Darwin also recommended preceding the word by an aspirate ;
us he probably introduced the indirect attack into the therapy of
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 113
Twice one are two
y Twice eleven are twenty-two
y Twice twelve are twenty-tour
H4 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
In many institutions light articulation is enjoined
not merely for initial consonants, but for all consonants
that occur in a word. 1 The pupils practise light
articulation in general reading, or in formal exercises
in which directions are taken from charts. The
following practice-chart is typical :
beattude bnary bowsprt beautful
daily dealing diary donation dutiful
failing feelingly frightful foment future
g aiiy greedy grimy grotesque gewgaw
hatefUl heinOUs highCr hOpelCss hUgeiy
jaded jejune jibing jOviai jewei
keepsake kindliness kOWtOW kUklUs
lamely leaky lifelike lOathfUl lUgUbrlOUs
mainland mCCknCss mightily mOm6nt mUsicRl
namesake nCgOtiatOr ninetieth nOmadlc nuisance
painful peacefully piety potentiality pusillanimous
quakCr quCCrCr quiet quOtatlOn quOOk
radiance rCasOnablCnCss rldCr rOdCnt rUmlnate
salience seasonable sightly sOciai suitable
tastefUl tCdioUs tiresOmenCss tOkCn tUnefUl
variegated veniai vicarious vociferous viewless
wakefUlnCss wCCkiy widening wOCfUl wOOCr
1 In an English institution, weak articulation is prescribed for all
except final consonants, these being given a sort of compensatory
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 115
e&tt yte yOkCl yUle
zany zCnith zyiOnlte zOdiac zCUs
In an English institution the students practise
"vowel-reading" for several weeks before intercalating
consonants. In a German institution the students
read the vowels and (physiological) consonants
separately for a considerable period; then finally
combine the two, giving the consonants an extremely
light articulation. These reading-exercises may be
diagrammed as follows :
DIAGRAM i 1
A Ti'a' 'ui' o' 'ie'i' i' 'e ea' a' 'i'a' o' 'e 'u'e' a' 'e'i'
o' 'e 'ea', 'i' 'a'io' o' a' 'i' 'o 'au' a' i'u'. 'e 'ow 'i'ea'e'
o' Vi' a' Vo'a'io' a' 'e 'o' VeW i' 'e'o'y, a' i' i' 'o' V
o'e'i' i' 'e 'i' ; 'ou 'ay 'a' 'a'a 'o o'e' 'e 'i'e', 'ee' 'o o'e' 'e
'ee', 'o'e' o' 'u'u' 'o' 'e V, 'a'o'eu' 'o' 'e 'ai', 'u' 'o 'e'ei'
o'e'e' 'e 'ea' 'u' a 'ue 'ie', 'o 'o' 'ou 'ay i'a' 'ie', 'oy,'
'ea', 'o', 'u'i'io', 'ou'e', a' 'a'oe'e' 'ie' u'o' 'e 'ea' 'o o'e'
i', i' a 'i' o' 'i'i' 'i' o' 'o'e'io'.
- pr-nc-p-1 fr~t -f fr~ndsh-p -s th s- -nd d-s-
ch-rg- -f th- f-ln-ss -nd sw-11-ngs -f th- h~rt, wh-ch
p-ss-ns -f -11 k-nds d- c~s- -nd -nd-c-. W- kn~
1 Absolute continuity of sound is usually maintained during vowel-
Ii6 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
d-s~s-s -f st-pp-ngs -nd s-ff-c-t ns -r- th- m-st d-ng-r-
s -n th- b-d-, -nd -t -s n-t m-ch -th-rw- s- -n th-
m-nd; y~ m~ t-k- s-zr- t- -p-n th- 1-v-r, st~l t-
-p-n th- spl~n, fl-w-rs -f s-lph-r f-r th- 1-ngs, c-st-r~m
f-r th- br n, b-t n- r-c~pt -p-n-th th- h rt b-t - tr~
fr~nd, t- wh-m y~ m~ -mp-rt gr~fs, j~s, f~rs,
h-p-s, s-sp-c ns, c ns-ls, -nd wh-ts v-r 1 th -p-n
th- h rt t- -ppr-ss -t, -n - k-nd -f c-v-1 shr-ft -r c-nf-s-
"A principal fruit Of friendship is the CEse End discharge
Of thC fUlnCss End swCllings Of the heart, which pEssiOns Of
ail kinds dO cEUse and indUce. WC knOW disCasCs Of stOp-
pings and sllffOcadOns are thC mOst dangCrOUs in th6
and it is nOt milch Otherwise In thC mind J yOU may take
tO OpCn thC livCr, stCCI tO OpCn the splCCn, flOwCrs Of slll-
phllr fOr the lllngs, castOr6llm fOr thC brain, bUt nO rCcCipt
Openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may impart
griefs, jOys, fears, hOpes, sllspiciOns, cOUnsCls, and whatsO-
CvCr lieth UpOn thC hCErt tO OpprCss it, in a kind Of civil
shrift Or cOnfCssiOn."
Many persons engaged in treating stammering
recommend not only that the consonants be reduced,
but also that the vowels be prolonged. The following
paragraph on the subject is by an English writer :
"It is a well-known fact that most stammerers can sing
without any difficulty. This is because in singing there is a
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 117
continuous flow of vocal tone; the vowels predominate, while
the consonants are but very lightly touched in passing. The
opposite of this takes place in speech. The vowels are passed
over quickly, and the consonants, which are only checks, clicks,
and explosive noises, predominate. The moral of this is ob-
vious. Let the stammerer exaggerate his vowels at the expense
of his consonants, and a good many stumbling-blocks will thereby
be removed from his path."
And this by an American writer :
"In essaying longer phrases the stammerer should keep in
mind and practise this rubbing or friction of tone and breath
through the throat, this half -groaning sound, and try to carry
it through the whole sentence without interruption, thinking
persistently of the unbroken stream of outpouring breath.
"Of course, many of the consonants will momentarily check
this steady flow. Such, for instance, are k, p, t, or b, d, g ; but
these he must slight and disregard as far as possible, thinking, not
of the consonant, but of the vowel which follows it. Let him
literally drawl the vowels, running them together as much as
possible. He may, with advantage, even omit the consonants
and simply drawl the vowels in one unbroken stream of groan-
ing tone. Then let him add the consonants as lightly touched
as possible, so lightly that they will be almost or quite unin-
telligible, gradually making them more distinct as he finds that
the idea of steady drawling will not be interfered with."
Vowel-elongation is practised from charts in several
German institutions. The transcription given on the
following page presents a typical exercise.
In a prominent German stammering-school, the
pupils make their initial attempt at reading from
n8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
charts of this description. The elementary charts
present sentences and phrases in which the words
commence with vowels; the more advanced charts
introduce initial consonants. On the opposite page
appear transcriptions of two typical exercises.
The next two exercises furnish illustrations of the
advanced work of another German institution : 1
"Dri ve the na il a ri ght, bo ys,
Hi t i t o n the hea d ;
1 Quoted from The Voice, Vol. V, pp. 4-5.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 119
ti a 1 a
a a a u ti i
6 e I a S e
n O ffC r 1 s a ccC ptC <j
s a nd cO ns
a 6 I
ma n O f ml ght
la a e I e a
y pC rsl stC nee a nd pC rsC vC ra nee
y a e a e a
W ma nnC n m3, ke thC ma n
y aw u e_ S e Q
thC bO Id
120 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Stri ke wi th a 11 you r mi ght, bo ys,
Whi le the i ro n i s re d.
"Whe n you 've wo rk to do , bo ys,
Do i t wi th a wi 11 ;
The y who rea ch the to p, bo ys,
Fi rst mu st cli mb the hi 11.
"Sta ndi ng a t the foo t, bo ys,
Ga zi ng a t the sky ,
Ho w ca n you ge t u p, bo ys,
I f you ne ve r try ?
"Thou gh you stu mble o ft, bo ys,
Ne ve r be do wnca st;
Try , a nd try a gai n, bo ys,
You '11 su ccee d a t la st.
"The following should be read in a similar manner:
"Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston in 1706, when a boy laid
down certain rules of conduct which he always followed. He
made up his mind to be temperate, orderly, frugal, and indus-
trious. When ten years old he cut wicks for candles, minded
the shop, and ran errands for his father, who was a tallow-
chandler. He did not, however, neglect his books, for he tells
us, 'I do not remember when I could not read.' Though no
boy ever worked harder, he was fond of manly sports, and was
an expert swimmer. Not liking the tallow-chandlery business,
his father apprenticed him to a printer. This was precisely the
kind of work which suited Franklin. When hardly eighteen
years old, he was sent to England to buy printing material,
and to improve himself in his trade. As a printer in Lon-
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 121
don, a very young man, entirely his own master, with no
friends to control him, surrounded by temptations, those rules
which he had fixed upon early in life were of singular benefit
to him. Returning to America in 1726, in time he opened
a modest printing-house in Philadelphia. Industry, honesty,
and good work made him successful. He became member of
the Assembly, postmaster, and during the Revolution, while
in France, induced that country to espouse our cause. If
to-day the world has to thank Americans for making electricity
their servant, Benjamin Franklin first discovered its most
marked qualities. With a kite he brought down the spark
from heaven to earth, and held it under control. Franklin
died, honored by all his countrymen, in 1790.
"When a lad, hungry and tired, he landed in Philadelphia
with a dollar in his pocket, he bought some bread, and marched
through the streets munching his crust. He happened to
see a young lady, a Miss Read, at the door of her father's
house. He made up his mind then and there that he would
marry her ; and so in time he did." *
1 Slow speaking is advocated by most teachers of stammerers.
This "slow speaking" usually involves lengthening the vowels and
protracting the ordinary pauses.
Kingsley's oft-quoted advice is " Read and speak SLOW."
Another English writer declares that
"The stammerer, if he wish to be cured, must, on all occasions,
speak slowly and deliberately, dwelling on the vowels, so as to give time
for forming the laryngeal sounds."
A third English writer pens the following :
" I earnestly advise all persons with impediments of speech, whether
confirmed stammerers and stutterers, or only just beginning to hesi-
tate, to be very slow and deliberate in reading and speaking, especially
at first. Among the large numbers of patients whom I have had
under my care for the removal of all kinds of impediments and diffi-
culties in articulation, I have met with but very few who did not
122 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
A modern tendency in German stammering-schools
is to require advanced pupils to prolong only the
initial vowel of a sentence. The succeeding vowels
are sometimes slightly lengthened, but they are not
drawled and wailed to such an extent as formerly.
The following in reference to the expedient :
"The stammerer has his greatest difficulty in speech when
he begins: the trouble occurs at the beginning of sentences.
It is at this point that his fear and his dread of stammering
rob him of his confidence; he stammers far less in finishing
the sentence. It is therefore necessary to furnish the stammerer
with some expedient that will tide him over his supposed diffi-
culties at this particular point. The expedient is this: he
must accustom himself to lengthening the initial vowel as much
as possible. He must no longer say 'Right is always right,'
but 'Ri ght is always right.' This method is thoroughly
reliable, and the hearer will not find it in any way conspicuous
Exercises practically identical with the following
are employed in three of the leading German stam-
habitually speak with painful rapidity, and at times almost breathless
haste, until they are suddenly stopped in mid career of their impetuous
speech by the impediment suddenly coming on. By a spasmodic
effort, eventually they recover their power of articulation, and rattle
on with their hurried words until they are once more arrested in the
same way, in the very midst of a word, perhaps ; and so they go on to
the pain and distress of themselves and those whom they are address-
In an English stammering-school slow speaking is carried to the
point where the pupils utter only one word on a breath at the begin-
ning of treatment.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 123
124 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
king is the man who can.
-11 may do what has by man been done.
-o climb steep hills requires slow pace at first.
race by vigor, not by vaunts, is won.
who follows two hares is sure to catch neither.
dignity of truth is lost with much protesting.
n are but children of a larger growth.
nguages are the pedigree of nations.
man is a hero to his valet.
r loan oft loses both itself and friend,
-vil events from evil causes spring.
heeds not experience, trust him not.
-11 nature is but art.
: may keep counsel, if two be away.
must needs go whom the devil doth drive.
goeth a borrowing, goeth a sorrowing.
Whe re the stream runneth smoothest, the water is
Whe re law ends, tyranny begins.
He 11 is paved with good intentions.
I n lapidary inscriptions a man is not upon oath.
I 1 matters not how a man dies, but how he lives.
A slight variant of the practice of protracting the
vowels must be mentioned. In some institutions the
pupils are required to intensify the vowels rather
than to lengthen them. In a few schools both
practices are combined. The consonants are reduced
or given normal force, according to the ideas of
the teacher. The following are typical exercises :
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 125
CHART I 1
o a o r y
1 In this exercise the volume of sound is supposed to increase with the
distance between the lines.
126 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
CHART 2 1
"SQns; b0catl se I h^ve purchased nQ 6 st 3, te
nQr wa bQrn tQ fay, J h^ve !Qng cQnsidfcred
()f sQme gQO d iGg&lG 8 1 b^qu^^th yQU > L nd
o f yQU ( h 6 re th y a re ) a
n 6 w cOet 1 N W ' yQU L fe tQ U nd 6 rst cl nd '
th^t thgse cQ3 ts h a, ve tw O V l rt ll6 s cQntQflned Jn
thgm; Q ne t, th^t with gQO d W 6cl r i n g> th 6y
live: thg Q th O r i s > ^fl* 1 ^By w i u 8 r O w i n th 6
prQpO rt iO n w i th yQU r b O d i6 s > i6 n g th 6 n -
nd widening Q f thgmsglves, sQ a s 1 b 6
In criticism of these various expedients and exercises
it may be said that the practice of lightly articulating
the initial consonant is one of the most salutary
ever introduced into the therapy of stammering.
Physical stammering and light articulation are practi-
1 In this exercise the volume of sound is supposed to be proportional
to the size of the type.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 127
cally incompatible; and one almost of necessity
excludes the other. Pure stammering, however,
cannot be directly affected by light articulation.
The expedient of omitting the initial consonant cannot
be regarded as practicable, for the omission renders
speech unintelligible. Even the practice of reducing
the consonant is not without its dangers, for the
stammerer is frequently subjected to the embarrass-
ment of being asked to repeat. The various exercises
in light articulation probably have some slight
value ; but, like most exercises, they are undoubtedly
overrated. The value of light articulation lies in
its application, and not hi the fact that it may be
practised for several hours a day under the tutelage
of a highly paid instructor. A general diminution
of the strength of the consonants seems scarcely
necessary in cases where the stammerer experiences no
difficulty in the middle of words. Vowel-reading
and similar exercises probably lead to an ephemeral
intensification of the auditory imagery, and thus for
a brief period may appear to be efficacious. The
preliminary reading of the physiological consonants
is probably of no benefit to the amnesic stammerer.
The trick of elongating the vowels cannot be taken
very seriously. It has some slight efficacy, since
it focusses the speaker's attention on the auditory
element. In resorting to the expedient, however, the
subject merely exchanges his position as an intelli-
128 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
gent stammerer for that of an apparent lunatic. On
the whole, the novelty of the change is not sufficient
recompense for the bother involved. The various
exercises involving prolongation of the vowels prob-
ably effect a transient intensification of the acoustic
imagery. The practice of prolonging the initial
vowel of a sentence may prove of some slight value by
focussing attention on the auditory element ; but with
most persons the unnatural character of the pro-
cedure would condemn it. The practice of intensi-
fying the vowels (with or without reduction of the
consonants) leads to little more than loud talking.
The loud talking per se cannot be regarded as remedial ;
yet probably some benefit is derived from the atten-
tion necessarily given to the auditory imagery. The
exercises doubtless affect the imagery in the customary
The expedients just described are "discovered"
and marketed (with various auxiliaries) at frequent
and regular intervals. A German writer recently
made them the subject of a rather grandiloquent little
pamphlet. This brochure of less than a hundred
pages retails at thirty marks. We give about ten
pfennigs' worth in the following paragraphs.
This from the preface and introduction :
"I am positive that my book can do only good. Yes, I
am sufficiently immodest to say: 'I have rendered humanity
a great service by fathoming the nature of stammering. Till
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 129
now, absolutely no one has been safe from stammering; for
no one knew why he spoke normally ' . . .
"After surmounting inconceivable difficulties I have pene-
trated the matter in such a way that nothing can refute the
conclusions I have arrived at. ...
"I am not a learned man, I am not highly accomplished and
scientific ; hence I am not going to write a learned book : but
I shall relate and explain in what way and manner I succeeded
in discovering the causes of my own frightful infirmity. Further,
I shall record my observations on the manifestations of this
disease, and finally I shall tell how I contrived with great
energy and with the exertion of the whole strength of my body
and soul to discover the way and means to cure my own infirm-
ity, and hence also the infirmity of others. . . .
"My work (or my struggle, I might say) aims at an ideal.
I am not conducting propaganda for a lucrative undertaking.
The sole object that I have in view is to banish stammering
from the world (Stottern aus der Welt zu schafen), and to
place my experience at the service of those unfortunate ones
whose anguish and suffering I know and appreciate full well,
since I myself have tasted all the pain and bitterness that falls
to a stammerer's lot.
"Banish stammering from the world!
"Is this possible?
"It sounds like mockery when I say, 'I am in the fortunate
position, as the result of experiences in my own person, as well
as with my three children, two girls and a boy, of being
able to answer the above question in the affirmative.'
"It was these terrible experiences that drove me to seek and
inquire how the pain of this awful disease might be removed ;
and, thank God, I have found the means and the way of
exterminating the malady with its roots.
"As my life's work I have undertaken to abolish stammering
130 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
from the world; and I have positive hope of accomplishing
The following concerns the cause and cure of the
"I explain to my pupils clearly and forcefully, by the fol-
lowing example, how it is that the sound of the voice is the chief
thing, while letters are only secondary. I ask them the ques-
tion : 'What do we need first of all in order to make a pound-
cake?' The correct answer always comes, 'The dough.'
"'And what else do we need in order to bake the dough?'
'A cake-mould,' is the usual answer.
"That is right: this gives the cake its mould or form
whether round or polygonal, high or low, and so on.
'"Now what does a cake consist of?' To this question
most of them answer, 'Of dough and its form.' And then I
answer them sharply and abruptly, so that they are quite
startled, and become confused at their position (for then they
mark the circumstance, and the example impresses them more
'"No, in order to bake a cake I need simply and solely the
'"For if I should put the dough into the oven without a
cake-mould, I should still have a cake though certainly not a
cake that would be pleasing to the eye. But if I put the cake-
mould alone in the oven, what have I ? Nothing ! ' The pupils
now become more interested and curious ; they watch each word
as it falls from my lips, and they note the words carefully.
"The important thing is not that a stammerer is treated,
but how he is treated.
"I continue my explanation to the pupils as follows:
" ' The most important thing when one is baking a cake is
the dough; that, one must have. We use the cake-mould
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 131
simply to give the cake its particular form.' After I have let
the stammerers wonder a moment, I explain the analogy and
continue: 'As with the cake, so with human speech; for
speech also consists of two things dough, which is sound or
voice, and the mould, corresponding to the letters.
" ' Speech is made audible only through sound ; but it may
be heard if the sound or voice is produced only softly, or is
even whispered. Now again only the voice is the speech;
letters are made audible only through sound : without sound
they cannot be produced, they are merely the mould for the dough.
" ' But where is the sound, the voice, the audible word, to
be produced ? In the throat ! Not with the lips ! ' etc. If a
pupil should wish to inquire, 'How, or with what organs, is
the voice, or the sound, produced,' I should answer him,
'You do not need to know that in order to be cured of your
Concerning his discoveries, the author writes :
" Till now I had thought in a wrong and harmful manner ;
I had thought of letters consonants and vowels that is,
of mouth-positions, which cannot be spoken without voice.
Now I must think in a proper and healthful manner ; I must
entirely disregard letters, and must attend to the voice, as I
do in singing, so that the voice may not go out. . . .
"Speech is sound. Stammering is unconsciously endeavor-
ing to speak without voice or sound. The stammerer speaks
wrongly because in his fear he thinks wrongly and therefore
misuses his speech-organs.
" He must not think of letters ; he must think only of voice."
"We have had many laws of speech, but they have availed
nothing, for there is only one law to follow, namely : ' Produce
sound voluntarily; but letters, consonants as well as vowels,
132 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"The stammerer speaks without voice. Voice or sound is
the first requisite for speech. The stammerer who fears
and stumbles over consonants must always be accustomed
to forming the vowels in a strong, resonant voice. He must
perform vocal exercises, but never exercises on consonants."
Our author's discoveries are, then, that stammering
is due to a failure of the voice ; and that the voice
goes out because the stammerer neglects to think
about it. The remedies that he invents are
thinking about the voice and vocalizing strongly.
(He also invents continuity of sound, and saying e
or m at the beginning of sentences.)
These same vocal secrets may be purchased in a
hundred other markets. We quote this particular
"dull catalogue of common things" since it is rather
typical of these modern books of revelations.
The next measure that we have to consider is force-
ful articulation, recommended usually as a cure for
stuttering (repetitive stammering), but occasionally
as a remedy for stammering in any of its phases.
One writer advises the stammerer to
" Adopt a strong, energetic manner of reading, and not go
along lazily and listlessly, as is too often the case."
Another writer avers that
"A case of simple Stuttering would need little more for its
removal than the cultivation of a firm articulation and dearly
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 133
A third teacher recommends his pupils to practise
forceful articulation with the following alliterative
"Balmy breezes bore my bark beneath balconies and bridges,
by balustrades and barges, where boys bowed becomingly to
beauties ; but Bill the boatman bumped the boat against
the breastwork of the breakwater.
" i. Take in a long, deep breath.
" 2. Say as much as possible without breathing again.
"3. Practice it till the whole can be said two or three times
in one breath.
"4- Hit the b's hard.
"N.B. These directions will apply to the exercises which
" EXERCISE II
" Call clearly Colonel Campbell commanding a close com-
pany of Canadians to conceal the cannons, combustibles
commodities curiously cut in a cave, covered with cactus
and cucumbers, and cry ' Come, come, come.'
" EXERCISE III
" Do, Daddy, do, dance drolly and delightfully down the
drawing-room with dear, dry, old, David Dandy.
" Fie, Fanny, fie! forfeited figs, freely forfeited, for feeble
folks, should in fine fingers find first for forty-five feeble folks
a full fill.
134 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
" Gaily gathered the gleaners the glossy golden grain and
garnered it gladly in Granny's great granary in Godfrey's
green grassy glen.
" Hie, hie, Henry, for it is not the hunting that hurts the
heavy horse's heels, but the hammer, hammer, hammer, on
the hard high hills.
" John, just join Jane and jam the japanned chest of jewels
which the jumping jilting Jack has judged Jockey James to
have stolen behind the joists.
" Little lazy limping Lily Lane let a little lame lamb lie loose
on the lovely lawn.
" Marlborough managed in a most magnificent manner to
mar by military manoeuvres the mischievous machinations of a
marvellous multitude of malicious mounted Mamelukes, mer-
curially and malevolently menacing his merry, merry men.
" EXERCISE X
" Norman Noel named Nanny Nannely the nicest niece
known to ninety-nine nephews.
" EXERCISE XI
" Poor, pitiable Peter Piper ploddingly picked a peck of
piercing pepper-corn; now, if poor, pitiable Peter Piper plod-
dingly picked a peck of piercing pepper-corn, where is the
peck of piercing pepper-corn which Peter Piper picked ?
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 135
" Quash quarrels quickly; quell quietly unqueenly queries,
and giving no quarter to questions quickly quenching our
queenly queen's quiet.
" Ruefully, roughly, rending ragged raiment, round the rug-
ged rocks the ragged rascals rapidly ran their truly rural races.
" The squat, square, squinting sweep spluttered and squalled
in the surging deep. The squire swam swiftly, and splash!
The squinting sweep saved without a crash.
" When a twister, twisting, would twist him a twist, for
twisting his twist three twists he will twist, but if one of the
twists untwist from the twist, the twister, untwisting, untwists
" The thought that sticks to me thoroughly through thick
and thin is that that that that that young lady has just
parsed is a pronoun.
" Violins and violoncellos vigorously vamped with very
versatile voices vociferating various strains very vehemently
vexes Valentine's violent valet.
"The zealot Zephaniah Zadkiel rode a zebra zigzag up
1 Alliterations are often employed for the practice of "difficult
consonants." The expedient of practising "difficult consonants"
and difficult words has already been discussed (Volume I, pp. 345 f.).
136 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
It need scarcely be said that little benefit would
accrue to the stammerer from deliberately according
to the consonants a forceful articulation. The
average subject articulates far too forcibly as it is,
and hi most cases the practice would tend merely to
enhance physical stammering. In some instances the
procedure might lead to the conversion of "stutter-
ing" (repetitive stammering) into compressive stam-
mering ; but here we should have retrogression rather
than advancement. The gist of the matter is that
forcible articulation can in no way mitigate pure
stammering ; while it can greatly aggravate physical
stammering. There is therefore no argument for it,
but a cogent argument against it.
A somewhat general maxim frequently commended
to the stammerer is, "Take care of the consonants, and
the vowels will take care of themselves." We quote
the two following passages introducing the precept :
" Very few people take the trouble to find out how the con-
sonants are made by the vocal apparatus. The whole cry is
vowels, vowels, vowels. If you will take care of the conso-
nants, the vowels will take care of themselves. You must speak
with vowels, but so many disregard the consonants and think
they are of no moment."
And thus the second passage :
" Read and speak SLOW; and take care of the consonants, and
the vowels will take care of themselves " (Kingsley).
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 137
On the opposite side of the question we have the
" Were a golden rule for the stammerer to be formulated, it
would doubtless be : ' Take care of the vowels, and the con-
sonants will take care of themselves.' "
This last passage unquestionably contains the more
rational suggestion; but neither the maxim "Take
care of the consonants" nor "Take care of the
vowels" is very significant, inasmuch as both are
Kingsley, however, amplifies his advice, "Take
care of the consonants," and since he is followed
by many modern "speech specialists," it will be well
to cite him in the matter :
" And how to take care of the consonants ? By taking care
of the tongue and lips.
" Now, if you will watch any one who speaks beautifully
you will see that the tongue lies quite quiet, on a level with the
lower front teeth, and never flies up in the mouth. You will
see also that they use their lips a great deal; and form the
consonants with them. But you will see, also, that they keep
the upper lip down and still, so that the upper front teeth are
hardly seen at all ; while they move the under lip a great deal,
making it play upon the upper." l
An American writer finds the remedy for stammer-
ing in a free action of both upper and lower lip :
1 " Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol. II,
138 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
" When the lips are pulled back for every word or syllable in
a long word, and pushed out, in a short time the tongue comes
back and goes forward, and the diaphragm and the breath work
in harmony. The mind and those muscles and movements will
become coordinated, confidence gained, nervousness and spas-
modic action of the muscles governed and corrected."
And here we have the other side of the question:
" The lips should move only vertically in articulation ; any
lateral or horizontal motion is a blemish as well as an inter-
ference with the expressive power of the lips. Every modifica-
tion of a vowel sound may be perfectly made within the mouth,
aided by the mere diminution or enlargement of the labial
aperture. But this does not require any looseness or projec-
tion, far less circular pursing of the lips."
Another writer recommends keeping the lips well
" He [the stammerer] must separate his lips or teeth at the
very instant they touch ; and their resting place must be at
some distance apart."
To which another writer responds :
" Let the patient effectually conquer the bad habit which
prevails so largely among those who stutter or stammer (I
really think my own experience warrants me in saying in ninety-
nine out of every hundred stammerers) of keeping the lips apart
and the mouth open. Nothing can be worse in every way than
this bad habit, either as regards the power of clear articulation
and fluent speech, the proper condition of the lungs, or the
vacant expression which it gives the countenance. I always
tell all stammering pupils frankly, if I see they have this vile
habit, that I can do very little, if anything, toward removing
'MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 139
their various impediments until they have thoroughly conquered
it, and acquired the habit of always keeping the lips firmly
but easily pressed together; except, of course, when reading
The expedients of starting to speak from the "open
position" and using a free action of the jaw are fre-
quently recommended as antidotes for stammering.
Thus an American "speech specialist" :
" Never forget that the other half of the stammerer's trouble
comes from closing his mouth when it should be open.
" The mouth should always be open at beginnings. . . .
"Act on the principle that all lip-sounds are produced as
the lips go apart, not while they are in contact.
" The chief mistake is to begin with the lips together, whereas
all beginnings should be made with the mouth open."
One of the principal remedies of an English institu-
tion consists hi starting from the open position and
wagging the jaw freely. The argument is that the
word nag is a corruption of wag, and that a nagging
woman wags her jaw excessively. The stammerer
should therefore wag his jaw to acquire similar
fluency in speech.
And this in condemnation of the measure :
" Then, in the matter of advising stammerers to open their
mouths wide so as to allow speech to flow freely out of them,
this, in my judgment, is another decided error. As a rule,
this opening of the mouth wide is the very thing stammerers
are only too much in the habit of doing, and in my opinion is
the very thing we should prevent them from doing. It is
140 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
when the mouth is wide open that the muscles of voice-pro-
duction are mostly thrown into spasm. Your great orator
and your great actor does not require to open his mouth wide
to be distinctly heard, nor to prevent any possible spasms from
visiting his utterance; why, then, should a stammerer act in
direct defiance of the teachings of a Gladstone, a Salvini, or a
Bright? The more carefully a stammerer follows the example
of the best speakers, the more easy will be his path to a success-
Most of these injunctions and teachings are irrele-
vant. The average stammerer would be hindered
rather than helped by paying meticulous attention
to the action of lips and jaw. Undoubtedly un-
impeded labial action is preferable to labial inactivity,
and a free movement of the jaw is preferable to man-
dibular paralysis ; but here we are miles away from
the cause of stammering. There seems to be no par-
ticular reason why the stammerer should invariably
open the mouth before speaking ; this procedure will
certainly not eliminate speech-disturbances. It is
impracticable for the speaker to open the mouth
widely at every vowel : with such vowels as do and e
the wide position is entirely unnatural. Undoubtedly
the mouth should be closed when not in action. And
when this is said, there is little more to say. The
emphasis given to the subject is unwarranted.
An American "speech specialist" stands sponsor
for a "method of attack" for difficult words that
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 141
consists of three expedients that we have already
considered. Explosive consonants are to be given
light articulation. In stammering on such conso-
nants as t, d, ch,
"It can be seen . . . that the tongue is wedged tightly
into position behind the upper teeth and is forcibly held in that
position. The opposite hi position naturally would suggest
relaxation with little muscular effort of the organs. In other
words, lake the position as lightly as possible"
As for the continuous consonants :
" It will be found upon trial with many of the continuous
sounds that it is difficult to continue then- initial sound with the
mouth open, and thus this method of simply opening the mouth
after having formed the sound will serve, in many cases, as a
means of overcoming the difficulty."
And respecting the vowels :
" Since vowel stammering is manifested by the contraction
[closure ?] of the glottis, cannot the reader see that it is always
well to attack the vowel by lowering the voice [pitch?], thus
separating the vocal cords and making the glottis as little
liable to contraction as possible ? "
Explosive consonants are practised in passages
similar to the following, in which italicized consonants
are lightly articulated :
" There exists in this cAec-fcered world of ours,
As art of the heri-/age lot-ted to man.
The thistle of woe and the flowers
142 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Of hope, that bud and iloom with fra-grance rare,
And cheer life's path where'er they can," etc., etc.
In the next exercise the stammerer practises opening
the mouth. To direct him, the continuous consonants
are printed in italics :
" ' Fo-/unteers wanted! Who's first, I say, to an-swer the Na-
To de-/end the /-/ag on /o-reign seas with sword and can-won
To c-rush with wight a foe-man c-ruel and a-venge our noble
To f-ree a people long enslaved, and rend their bonds in
t-wain ? '
Thus spake an oi-fi-cer of the Guard, his id-sage firm and
His quiet mien and steady eye bespoke him t-me and b-rave."
In the following exercise the pupil lowers the pitch
at the italicized vowels :
" ' The boneless tongue, so small and weak,
Can crush and kill,' declared the Greek.
" ' The tongue destroys a greater horde,'
The Turk asserts, ' than does the sword.'
" The Persian proverb wisely saith ;
' A lengthy tongue an early death.' "
These three exercises may be combined in which
case diacritics are employed to show the pupil just
which measure to resort to. An oblique line descend-
ing from left to right (\) prescribes light articulation.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 143
A line inclined in the other direction (X) enjoins wide
opening of the mouth. A small circle above a letter
directs lowering of the pitch. A combination of
these marks betokens the simultaneous application of
two or three expedients. Herewith a typical exercise :
O' ' ' V V Off O ' O
" Is there no secret place on the face of the earth,
' i f \ O f t s \ o ^
Where charity dwelleth, where virtue hath birth ?
\ f Q f f O ^ f i o
Where bosoms in mercy and kindness shall heave,
And the poor and the wretched shall ' ask and receive ' ?
O ' / V OO ' O ' ' >
Is there no place on earth where a knock from the poor
O' V ox ox\ox t x
Will bring a kind angel to open the door ?
O / ' O' O' ' O ' O ' X
Ah! search the wide world wherever you can,
/ O/OX x f f f f f /
There is no open door for the moneyless man!
\ / OO'O r / e x / r
" Go, look in your hall, where the chandelier's light
V oo'0'V N 'x 'of
Drives off with its splendor the darkness of night,
f / O O''O/XO/
Where the rich hanging velvet in shadowy fold,
'Of V f r x O'O V t OX
Sweeps gracefully down with its trimmings of gold,
O ' f f O / ' x OO / f
And the mirrors of silver take up and renew,
O ' X / x / O/ x O /
In long lighted vistas the wildering view
Go there in your patches, and find if you can,
A welcoming smile for the moneyless man ! "
144 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
A few European schools have similar eclectic
"methods" for the "attack" of difficult words, and
one or two employ diacritics in connection with verbal
exercises. There is little, however, that can be said
in favor of a procedure that requires the pupil to
dodge about from one expedient to another. It is
possible that the endeavor to select and execute the
prescribed manoeuvre for each particular consonant
may for a time engage the pupil's attention to a
sufficient extent to exclude multiple thought. On the
other hand, it is equally possible and probable that
the attempt to apply the system will itself induce
bewilderment. With these two possibilities in mind,
one can hardly accord the measure an enthusiastic
indorsement. The signal feature with these eclectic
"methods" is that the various expedients from which
the pupil makes his selection can in most cases be
applied simultaneously. There is no reason, for
instance, why the stammerer should not at all times
articulate lightly, use a free movement of the jaw,
and employ a reasonably low pitch. Furthermore,
the arguments that apply for a particular expedient
with a particular group of consonants usually apply
for the same expedient with any other group of
consonants. Unfortunately these systems are in-
troduced with no clear explanation of their raison
d'etre; hence one is rather puzzled to know what
it is all about.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 145
As a means of avoiding difficult initial consonants
the stammerer is sometimes recommended to run
his words together, or to subjoin initial consonants
to the words preceding.
The following paragraph on the subject is by the
principal of an Irish stammering-school :
" You know, perhaps, that a man's stammering does not
effect [affect] his singing at all, try it if you are not sure. Well,
of course you see, that if you could say your words, as you sing
them, your stammering would vanish. What then is the differ-
ence hi the way you produce your words in singing, and in
speaking? In speaking, you pronounce the words separately,
you say one word, and then make a short pause before beginning
the next. In singing you do not separate each word so en-
tirely ; there is no break in the sound between the words, you
try to make the pause as short as possible, and to begin one
word, immediately you have finished the preceding one. . . .
You must try then to imitate this singing method in your or-
A German writer, after recommending prolongation
of the initial vowel of a sentence, continues :
" But the stammerer will not always succeed in connecting
the succeeding sounds of the sentence easily and without a
falter, for he is accustomed to regarding the initial sound of
each word as a fresh beginning whereas we speak the whole
phrase that occurs between pauses as though it were a single
word. Therefore one must accustom the stammerer to regard-
ing the initial sound of each word as the final sound of the word
preceding, for it is a notorious fact that final sounds never
146 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
A third writer recommends transposition of the
initial consonants, and prescribes reading-exercises
in which these consonants have actually been sub-
joined to the words preceding. The following exer-
cise is typical :
The distant Trojans never injur'd me. 1
Thed istantTr ojansn ever injur'dm e.
In youth and beauty wisdom is but rare.
Iny outh andb eautyw isdom isb utr are.
For too much rest itself becomes a pain.
Fort oom uchr est itselfb ecomes ap ain.
Praise undeserv'd is scandal in disguise.
Praise undeserv'd issc andal ind isguise.
Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow.
Wort.hm akesth em an, andw ant of itth ef ellow.
Bare the mean heart that lurks behind a star.
Bareth em eanh eartth atl urksb ehind ast ar.
Who dares think one thing, and another tell,
My heart detests him as the gates of hell.
Whod aresth ink oneth ing, and anothert ell,
Myh eartd etestsh im asth eg ates ofh ell.
1 The sentences printed in the ordinary manner are not intended to
be read. They are given for reference in case the transcribed sen-
tences should not be intelligible.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 147
The following is the form of a popular German
exercise : l
E ven the worthy Homer sometimes nods.
No thing is stronger than custom.
Toi 1 does not come to help the idle.
Pra ctice in time becomes second nature.
E ven a single hair casts its shadow.
Po werful indeed is the empire of habit.
Loo k for a tough wedge for a tough log.
I 1 is better to learn late than never.
Su cces-sful and fortunate crime is called virtue.
Fi re is the test of gold ; a dversity, of strong men.
I 1 will not out of the flesh that is bred in the bone.
Whe n all candles be out, all cats be gray.
Fea r may force a man to cast beyond the moon.
It is evident that the practice of uniting the words
of a sentence into one protracted polysyllable is
practically identical with that of preserving continuity
of sound. It has the same argument in its favor
that it must needs involve continuity of verbal
1 Initial consonants are to be "regarded" as the final consonants of
the words preceding. When two similar consonants come together,
only one is to be pronounced.
148 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
thought. In normal speech, however, one does not
"pronounce the words separately" any more than he
pronounces the individual syllables of a word sepa-
rately ; hence it is evident that no benefit is derived
from eliminating "dividing pauses." The procedure
of deliberately transposing initial consonants has little
to recommend it. When one is concerned with trans-
position rather than with continuity, he neglects the
essential feature. Often transposition occurs and
continuity is lost. Speech then becomes unintelli-
gible even if physical stammering does not supervene.
Another remedy for stammering is proposed in pho-
netic syllabication, a measure practically the antithesis
of that just described. Each syllable within a word
must commence with a consonant whenever this is
physically possible :
" Spoken syllables are not the same as written syllables.
The latter are divisions to the eye, to show the etymology of
words; the former are divisions to the ear, and are governed
solely by the sound. Every syllable even in the quickest
utterance should, have a SEPARATE IMPULSE OF
VOICE. But practically a large proportion of impulses are
lost through vocal mismanagement.
"The elements which make up syllables are vowels and con-
sonants. Vowels require an OPEN CHANNEL in the mouth ;
and consonants require a more or less complete CLOSURE of
some parts of the mouth. Now, herein lies the grand prin-
ciple of syllabic articulation. The direction of organic action
ought in all cases to be FROM CLOSE TO OPEN ; that is,
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 149
from consonant to vowel ; whereas the prevailing habit among
faulty speakers is to make the action from open to close ; that
is, from vowel to consonant. The effect is, that vowels, in-
stead of having a free channel through the mouth, directly from
the throat, are, as it were, squeezed between consonants, cut
short, and often altogether lost.
"The principle of oral action from close to open cannot
be too clearly apprehended. Its practical application dictates
that any vowel between consonants should be collocated phoneti-
cally with the consonant which precedes, and not with that
which follows it ; and conversely, that any consonant between
vowels should be collocated with the vowel which follows, and
not with the vowel which precedes it. Thus :
"When double consonants are written the same principle
applies : only one of the consonants is sounded, and therefore
only one is recognized in phonetic syllabication. Thus:
cu-(n)ning a-(l)le-go-ri-cal. . . .
"In the syllabication of words the division may sometimes
be, indifferently, either etymologic or phonetic, as in the words
baker, eating, striking, owner, ruler.
"These words, divided etymologically, yield the syllables
bak-er, eat-ing, strik-ing, own-er, rul-er
150 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
but divided phonetically, they yield the syllables
ba-ker, ea-ting, stri-king, ow-ner, ru-ler. . . .
" The faulty action of the mouth in moving from open
to dose positions is strikingly illustrated in Stuttering and
Stammering. The voice, in these cases, is choked in the throat,
or emitted in discontinuous jerks, and the mouth is CONSO-
NANT-CLOGGED. In my long experience with defects of this
kind, the true principle of oral action has invariably worked
like a charm. In many instances the impediment has wholly
disappeared after the first lesson. Only the nervous dread of
habitual difficulty can prevent immediate relief when once
the stutterer has practically learned the simple law of phonetic
syllabication : to articulate from close to open positions." l
The mode of enunciation here recommended un-
doubtedly conduces to comprehensibility of speech,
and should be observed at least by public speakers.
It is by no means patent, however, in what manner
stammering is to be affected by the procedure en-
joined. Stammering usually occurs at the initial
syllable ; whereas phonetic syllabication begins at the
second syllable. If the measure in question ever
mitigates stammering, it undoubtedly does so by
inspiring confidence, eliminating multiple thought,
and focussing attention on the verbal imagery. Na-
turally one would expect any benefit derived to be
1 This writer does not suggest, of course, that a word commenc-
ing with a vowel should have prefixed to it the final consonant of
the word preceding. Phonetic syllabication is to be applied to
the syllables within a word.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 151
Occasionally the stammerer is counselled to cir-
cumvent "troublesome initial consonants" by de-
taching them from the body of the word. He is ad-
vised to make a distinct pause between the consonant
and the succeeding vowel, and later to reduce the
pause till it becomes " imperceptible " (or is actually
eliminated). Reading-practice is of course pre-
1 1 ooked t o th e w eather s ide, and th e s um-
mer h ad d eparted. Th e s ea w as r ocking, and
sh aken w ith g athering wr ath. Upon its s urface
s at m ighty m ists, wh ich gr ouped th emselves
into arches and 1 ong c athedral aisles. D own one of
th ese, w ith t he f iery p ace of a qu arrel fr om
a cr oss-b ow, r an a fr igate r ight athwart our
c ourse. " Are th ey m ad ? " s ome v oice ex-
claimed fr om our d eck. " D o th ey w oo th eir
r uin ? " B ut in a m oment, as sh e w as cl ose up-
on us, s ome impulse of a h eady c urrent or 1 ocal
v ortex g ave a wh eeling b ias t o h er c ourse,
and off sh e f orged w ithout a sh ock. As sh e r an
p ast us, h igh aloft amongst th e shr ouds st ood
th e 1 ady of th e p innace. Th e d eeps opened
ahead in m alice t o r eceive h er, t owering s urges
of f oam r an after h er, th e b illows w ere f ierce
t o c atch h er.
B-ut f-ar away sh-e w-as b-orne into d-esert sp-aces of
th-e s-ea: wh-ilst st-ill b-y s-ight I f-ollowed h-er, as sh-e
152 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
r-an b-efore th-e h-owling g-ale, ch-ased b-y angry s-ea-b-irds
and b-y m-addening b-illows ; st-ill I s-aw h-er, as at th-e m-o-
ment w-hen sh-e r-an p-ast us, st-anding amongst th-e shr-ouds,
w-ith h-er wh-ite dr-aperies str-eaming be-fore th-e w-ind.
Th-ere sh-e st-ood, w-ith h-air d-ishevelled, one h-and cl-utched
amongst th-e t-ackling r-ising, s-inking, fl-uttering, tr-embling,
pr-aying ; th-ere f-or 1-eagues I s-aw h-er as sh-e st-ood, r-aising
at intervals one h-and t-o h-eaven, amidst th-e f-iery cr-ests
of th-e p-ursuing w-aves and th-e r-aving of th-e st-orm;
until at 1-ast, upon a s-ound fr-om afar of m-alicious 1-aughter
and m-ockery, all w-as h-idden f-or ever in dr-iving sh-owers ;
and afterwards, b-ut wh-en I kn-ow n-ot, n-or h-ow.
This practice of dividing the initial consonant from
the vowel is a sort of natural corollary to the belief that
the stammerer's difficulty lies with the consonant, and
that he can as may be readily demonstrated al-
ways produce the consonant when it is detached.
But the theory neglects the fact that the speaker
may be unable to append the vowel when the con-
sonant has been produced and certainly it avails
the stammerer little to enunciate the initial consonant
several seconds before the remainder of the word is
forthcoming. The particular measure in question,
however, is seldom recommended by reputable teach-
ers of stammerers ; it is rather the stock-in-trade of
An interesting variation of the foregoing expedient
is the subject of the following paragraph :
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 153
"No stammerers, I believe, hesitate in making vowel sounds,
or in speaking syllables commencing with vowels. For instance,
they can always say a, all, eke, ire, our, etc. But in attempting
to get out such words as ball, gaul, maul, leak, seek, speak, fire,
flour, power, growl, etc., they succeed only in giving a sound
which they know better than I can describe. Now, let a stam-
merer try the word speak. If he thought any one was expecting
something from him whom he was anxious to please, he would
give a sound something like esp, and balk. Let him stop right
there and say eke. He may now try them again in their order,
uttering them as two distinct syllables, and he has esp-eek;
make it shorter and it becomes sp-eek. Let him now try the
word commencement; pronounce it in this way : Kuh-um-muh-
ence-muh-ent ; potatoes, puh-o-tuh-a-tuh-oes ; Pepper, puh-ep-
puh-er. The same method can be applied to any word with
similar results. With a little practice the stammerer will be
able to speak the two parts of a divided syllable so quickly
that a hearer will hardly perceive the division. It will be seen
that in this method a lesser evil is incurred to eradicate a greater,
after which the former can certainly be overcome."
We leave the comment to the reader.
Another expedient that is occasionally recommended
consists in interpolating a more or less " inaudible " h be-
tween the initial consonant and the following vowel
C-halm on th-he 1-histening ear of n-hight
C-home Heaven's m-helodious str-hains,
Wh-here w-hild J-hudea str-hetches f-har
Her s-hilver-mantled pl-hains
and so on.
The object of the aspirate is probably to open the
glottis, which it would doubtless do if physical stam-
154 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
mering should effect its closure. But opening the
glottis is not curing stammering ; and if it were, this
end could be obtained by more natural means.
The next measure that we have to consider is
"syllabic speaking," a device already a century old,
but one that flourishes despite its antiquity. The
term "syllabic speaking" is generic rather than
specific: it implies several modes of utterance in
which the syllabical construction of words is given
unwonted emphasis. In some systems of syllabica-
tion the students dismember their words into syllables
by distinct pauses, and often by regular syllabic inspi-
rations. In other systems the long and short syllables
of words are given approximately equal duration, and
the dividing pauses may or may not be observed.
The various modes of syllabic speaking may be
prescribed merely as forms of practice, or may be
enjoined as antidotal measures to be observed during
conversation. One teacher of stammerers writes as
follows in reference to syllabic reading as an exercise :
"I employ the following means : According to the degree of
the malady and the culture of the stutterer, I select a reading-
exercise from any prose work. The stutterer takes the posi-
tion already described, and breathes in deeply and long. Then
he reads the sentences loudly and slowly, syllable by syllable.
At first, the sentences should be short, consisting of three or
four words, as, 'Anton loves his brother,' 'John is a good
scholar,' etc. . . .
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 155
"As we have observed, reading in this way usually proceeds
without stuttering; yet, should any difficulty be found, the
syllable or word must be repeated until the whole sentence can
be spoken fluently and perfectly. The words which form the
sentence should be read syllabically, as 'An-ton-loves-his-
broth-er.' In doing this, the stutterer should take care not to
read, or subsequently talk, in a mechanical, musical measure,
as has been recommended by former speech-physicians. For,
besides being only a temporary advantage and afterward be-
coming wholly useless, it is a new defect of speech acquired
as a poor exhange for his stuttering. Reading should be
done deliberately and carefully, but not in a monotonous
manner. In this respect my method is to be preferred, for
in all of its parts it rests upon natural laws. This reading
should continue, as a rule, for half an hour, in which time
from 20 to 30 sentences are practised. On the next day the
sentences 'should be longer, say from 5 to 6 words in length,
and this number increased daily until sentences of 20 to 30
words are practised and spoken syllable by syllable, during
one exhalation, with careful observance of the rules already
Another instructor prescribes syllabication of allit-
erative sentences. We give below, a few of the exer-
cises, together with the prefatory instructions :
"Fill your lungs constantly.
" Go SLOWLY.
"Monotone (the words being pronounced in syllables, with
a break between each).
"Note. If the stammerer will 'drop the jaw' at the first
syllable of each word in exercise 'A' he will find his difficulty
156 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"Al- though An-nie As- ton al-ways an-swered
as as-tute-ly as any-one all Al-fred Arm-
strong's af-fa-bility ap-peared ab-so-lute-ly af-fec-
"Bl-ow bl-ow bit-ter bi-ting boi-sterous bl-iz-
zard. Be-ware boys be-ing bold be-yond
bounds brings bound-less bur-dens by bad
" Call clear-ly Char-lie Cam(p)-bell call cant-
ing com-i-cal Cissie Count-ing coins con-tain-
ing Com-mon-wealth car-i-ca-tures.
" Gai-ly girls gai-ly ga-ther great gra-pes
grow-ing green. Good-by gran-ny give God-frey
Grec-ian go-Id gog-gles gross-ly gro-tesque.
" Note. Take a short swift breath before each of these words.
"Hunt-ing on hard high hills hurts horses'
hoofs. Hil-da Hicks hurl-ed hun-dreds of huge
hops at Henry.
"Ireney is ill. In In-dia it is in-tol-er-able
in the in-ter-ior. In-dia-rub-ber idiots in II-
fra-combe in-duce im-pi-ous im-pos-tors to in-
dulge in in-famous im-i-ta-tions !
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 157
"Poor pit-i-able Pe-ter Pi-per plod-ding-ly
pick-ed pecks of pierc-ing pep-per corn. Pen-
nies prove power-ful prop-er-ty.
"Quash quar-rels quick-ly. Quell quiet-ly un-
queen-ly queries. Quest-ions quot-ed quiet-ly quell
" Round rug-ged rocks rag-ged ras-cals ra-pid-ly
ran rural races. Robert's rich red roses
" Vex-ed vet-erans very vigor-ous-ly vin-di-cated
vill-a-gers. Ven-ture-some villains vain-glorious-ly
visit-ed vines. Val-u-able voices vary vastly.
"Will-ie Wil-son was work-ing when Wat-son
went whist-ling west-ward watch-ing wick-ed
water-rats wand-er weari-ly with-in the white
"Note. 'Dwell' on w's, making a sound like the wind.
" Yes-ter-day you yourself yell-ed. Yes yon-der
yok-el yearns to yacht.
"Zulus zealously rode zebras zig-zag to -
158 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
A German teacher of stammerers has devised prac-
tice-charts for syllabic reading, in which symbols for
respiration, vocalization, etc., are employed. He at-
taches considerable importance to the symbols :
"These signs, though far from having or pretending to have
the significance of notes, are, nevertheless, of the utmost im-
portance to the student, for they show him the exact place
where he must produce the voice, the sounding-consonant, the
voiceless consonant (which is capable of prolongation), the
explosive consonant ; and, to a certain extent, they even show
him the duration of all these. These signs arouse in the student
the feeling for correct breathing for production of sound and
correct speech, syllabically as well as rhetorically.
"The practice of ... a piece of poetry or of prose must
be carried on in one tone (that is, on one pitch) , the one which
the student can produce without the slightest exertion." 1
Transcriptions of the exercises employed are given
on pages 159 and i6o. 2
There are, of course, numerous auxiliaries to the
syllabic exercises. In some institutions the pupils
practise while marching, pronouncing one syllable to
a step, syllabicate words while performing dumb-
bell exercises, and so on. In most schools where
syllabication is employed as an exercise, the pupils
progress from syllabic reading to the normal reading
of poetry and prose. But in some stammering-schools
1 The above passage is taken from an English translation.
* Symbols as formerly employed. The dotted line beneath a con-
sonant of course denotes its surdal quality. A short vertical line
beneath a vowel specifies direct attack.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC.
03 . j
o : **
aj . aj
O : M
o : H
: o :
> > > > a
CO ^ : -f
*^ **"!>. "^^
160 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
*"^ta ^^fc ^^fc ^^k HH i~i . ^^
i-M : ^
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 161
syllabic reading and speaking is not an exercise, but
the whole remedial system ; and the pupil is discharged
from the institution with this mode of utterance as
an amulet to ward off his impediment.
Syllabic speaking is an utterly purposeless pro-
cedure. It is a bow at a venture: no clear expla-
nation has ever been made of the purpose it is
intended to accomplish. As an exercise it is a vagary ;
as a mode of enunciation it is an objectless and futile
travesty on human speech.
We have now to consider rhythmic speaking, a
popular form of syllabic utterance. With rhythmic
enunciation the syllables are given uniform length,
and speech is accorded rhythm more or less imitative
of musical or poetic measure. Speech is monotonous
and drawling, rather than staccato as is usually the
case with "syllabic speaking." Rhythmic speech is
frequently recommended as a mode of utterance to
be observed as a preventive of stammering ; syllabic
speaking is employed chiefly as an exercise.
The following paragraphs are by Colombat, who
was among the first to employ rhythm in the therapy
of stammering : l
1 Passages excerpted from Dr. Flies' " Orthophonie " (pp. 53 ff.),
an abstract of Colombat's "Du bgaiement et de tous les autres
vices de la parole" (Paris, 1830) and his " M6moire sur la physio-
logie et therapeutique du blgaiement, faisant suite au traite
d'orthophonie " (Paris, 1836).
162 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"It has always been observed that stammering ceases as
though by magic when the person afflicted sings or recites words
to musical or poetic measure. But no one has sought to
explain this phenomenon; though an explanation is of the
highest importance for the treatment of an infirmity that
occurs so often, and which one usually regards as, with few
exceptions, beyond the aid of curative art.
"Two causes, one the result of the other, are accountable
for the stammerer's fluency in singing. The first is that, since
he is compelled to accord to his utterance a musical and poetic
rhythm, the movements of the organs concerned in phonation
must needs occur with greater accuracy and regularity. The
second is that, since the stammerer must constantly have the
idea of measure, this accessory idea offsets the relative prepon-
derance of the main idea giving rise to the conversation ; and,
further, that this accessory thought modifies the cerebral ex-
citation, whence it follows that the neural irradiation pro-
ceeds more slowly and in a more orderly manner, thus falling
more into harmony with the contraction of the speech-muscles.
Rhythm is capable of regulating not only the irregular move-
ments of the speech-organs ; but it exerts a salutary influence
on all the other organs of the human body. The following
observations, selected from a considerable number, demon-
strate this fact :
"M. is the son of a prefect and a nephew of an old minis-
ter of the interior ; was a student at the polytechnics! school,
but is now in military service. With this gentleman the pecu-
liarities of speech and the convulsive movements that affected
him, disappeared as though by magic during the time that he
was practising the various exercises of the vocal organs that we
prescribed for his impediment. The same thing occurred when
he played the piano or heard another person playing a musical
instrument. In 1833 we treated a young woman, Mile.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 163
Coutance, who lived at 16 Rue des Bernardins, Paris. Not
only did this young woman stammer, but in addition she was
subject to involuntary movements of the limbs when standing
or walking. The rythmic speech to which she resorted in
order to cure her stammering, had the most beneficial influence
on these involuntary movements ; and they completely dis-
appeared together with the infirmity regarding which she came
to consult us. These two cases seem to prove that one should
employ music, or rather rhythm, as a curative agent in certain
nervous diseases such as Saint Vitus's dance, for instance.
"A medical friend of ours has assured us that he knew a
young woman that limped despite the absence of any observ-
able organic defect, but that her infirmity was not in evidence
when she danced or walked in step with another person.
"Music, says Plato (that paragon of accuracy), was not
accorded to man by the immortal gods merely to delight and titil-
late the senses, but also to quiet the disorders of the soul and
the irregular movements that a body full of imperfections
" Every one knows the power of the drum with its uniform
rhythm how it allays tiredness and helps the soldiers to
march on in order. And every one knows that a young and
weak person may dance through a whole night without fatigue
owing to the rhythm of the music. And lastly, the instinct
that compels us to take steps of uniform length, and trip along
with regular rather than irregular movements, and the regular
interruptions of the pulse and of respiration, and a host of other
phenomena furnish sufficient proof that rhythm is a need aris-
ing from the first laws of animal economy, and that we can make
all our movenTents equal, regular, and perfect with the aid of
this universal principle.
"The Romans knew the influence of rhythm upon speech,
for one reads in the Encyclopedic m&lhodique, par Framery el
164 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Ginguent that it was customary in Rome for those that spoke
with difficulty to allow themselves to be accompanied by a
musical instrument when making a public address, and that in
speaking, they then followed the musician. Gracchus never
spoke in public without having a slave beside him playing lightly
on a flageolet.
"Declaiming in verse greatly modifies stammering. The
stammerer is compelled to observe a certain poetic rhythm,
and to identify himself with the character he is portraying :
he is successively Caesar and Britannicus, then Tancred and
Othello. The attention that he must constantly apply to place
himself in the position of his hero becomes an accessory idea;
which, I repeat, together with the main idea, so modifies and
reduces the nervous influence that precedes the latter, that this
influence comes more into harmony with the muscular con-
tractions of the speech-organs.
"After what I have already said, the reader will of course
infer that the basis of my curative system is rhythmic speech.
"And in truth, one of the principal means that I employ
in combating stammering is rhythm, this perfect regulator of
all our movements. . . . One must take care to speak the
syllables metrically, beating time with the foot or pressing the
thumb and forefinger together at every syllable, 1 or after the
second, third, or the fourth and sixth syllables as one may
wish. One can beat time according to y, f, f, |, or f
measure. The stammerer must rely especially upon this
metrical regulation of the syllables, and must give his chief
attention to it."
1 Variants of this device employed by modern "speech specialists"
are : nodding the head, flexing the index-finger, waving the arm,
moving the hand in a circle or in the form of a horizontal 8 ( oo) and
executing consentaneous finger-movements, beating time with a
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 165
(Three of Colombat's " orthophonic " exercises are
given on the following pages.)
Colombat also practised his pupils on articulatory
exercises and alliterative sentences. Most of this
work was performed to the measured beats of a met-
ronome or "muthonome," as Colombat preferred
to call his instrument.
Rhythmic utterance has been the basis of perhaps
30 to 40 per cent of the various systems introduced
since the time of Colombat. Rhythm was employed or
recommended by Cull, Klencke, Katenkamp, Gutt-
mann, Rosenthal, Lehwess, Kreutzer, Giinther, Shuld-
ham, and a dozen other of the older teacher sand writers.
The following typical indorsements of rhythmic
speech are from three different sources :
"We chant over a line of the multiplication table, dividing
the sentences into metrical feet, and marking the accented
syllables with a gesture as if beating time ; then again in a
natural manner, but distinctly marking the rhythm, accent
and emphasis. In a few minutes he [the pupil] repeats the
whole table without hesitation. We select a stanza of poetry,
or a passage in prose resembling poetry in the rhythm and melody
of its style ; divide it into metrical feet, and first chant it, read
it in concert, with a marked expression of the rhythm, accent
and emphasis, and a free, natural expression of the sentiment.
He now readily reads it by himself."
And thus another writer :
"By the way, this charming poem of 'Nuremberg' is most
suitable reading for stammerers, as the rhythm in it is so well
166 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
which consists in beating time after every 6th syllable. The rhythm
corresponds to f time in miisic."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 167
for poetry. Metre corresponding to \ time."
i68 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
for prose. Metre corresponding to \ time."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 169
marked, or, at any rate, is capable of being well marked, and
those are just the pieces which should be given to patients who
suffer from defects of speech. A good plan of insisting on the
rhythm being well marked, is to time the reading with the ordi-
nary metronome used by musicians. Eighty-four is a good
time for such a piece as Hood's 'Lay of the Laborer,' and for
his 'Eugene Aram.' This would be a 3-time in music. I
should not advise the use of the metronome in teaching elocu-
tion, as it would tend to make a reader monotonous, but the
stammerer requires extra stimulus to regulate and render
rhythmical his mode of speech.
"Eighty-four is a good time for stammerers to begin reading
poetry by, and then by degrees they can advance to 104 or
112. When a stammerer can read poetry with comfort and
evenness, then let him be promoted to the dignified difficulties
of prose, and in his prose readings let him not forget the lessons
taught him by the metronome, though in reading prose this
judicious little tick-tack would be out of place entirely." l
The following is by a German writer :
"When a stutterer comes to me for treatment, I explain in a
few words the nature of stuttering, and follow with respiratory
gymnastics, giving the reasons why the breath should be man-
aged in this and not in any other way. My next effort is to
teach him how to speak. All the pupils then open a child's
book (Schultz and Steinmann, part 3) to a story which is easy
to understand and remember. This is read in concert, the
measure being indicated by Maelzel's metronome, which is
usually set at 108, that is, it beats 108 times in a minute.
In severe cases I may begin with 60 beats. To every beat a
1 With poetry, the rhythm to be followed is often indicated by
accent-marks placed above the syllables.
SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
syllable is read. The pupil takes breath beforehand and reads
to the next pause, where he inhales again. Should the pause,
however, come after a few words the inhalation is omitted, for
every overfilling of the lungs excites unduly. On the other
hand, if the air is consumed before a pause is reached, the pupil
stops and takes in breath, quietly and not hastily, and before
he feels distressed for air. Every syllable is accompanied with
a downward beat of the hand. Very severe stutterers, in the
first weeks, are allowed to speak only by the metronome, which
they must always carry with them, or they must give the beat
audibly on some convenient object, as a table, desk, etc. From
the first day of treatment the pupil must observe the prescribed
measure, and inhale at every punctuation. Whoever fails to
observe the measure, does not beat with his hand, speaks too
rapidly, neglects to inhale at the right time, or stutters after
he once has control of his speech, keeps account of his various
shortcomings by tying knots in a string, and these are noted
"This measured talking, as just described, is of great im-
portance. It not only causes the organs to act synchronously
and more powerfully, but it has another effect, which cannot
be too highly valued, viz. : it divides the stutterer's attention
directing his thoughts elsewhere and not permitting him to con-
centrate his whole mind upon his impediment, as he is accus-
tomed to do. The effect of diverting the mind from an over-
powering idea is shown by Dr. Schrank, who alludes in his
book to the means used in Southern Germany to stop hic-
coughing. The sufferer thinks intently of a handsome, spotted
cow, and pictures her to himself clearly and minutely. What
happens ? In many instances the hiccoughing is gone ! Like-
wise measured talking serves as an escape-channel for the
anxiety a stutterer usually feels when he wishes to speak.
Even if his excitement be great, measured talking, though
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 171
used in speaking only five or ten words, has a quieting
Colombat's " orthophonic " system is still practi-
cally intact in a number of American and European
institutions. The system is particularly rampant
in the United States of America, where it is virtually
the entire " method " of three of the largest stam-
mering schools. The "metrical " speech of the "or-
thophonic " method is implied in the names of
several American and English "systems" or "speech
institutions." Colombat's "muthonome" has ticked
its way almost the round of a century. In an
American institution it is now a "Word Regulator" ;
in an English school it is again a metronome : but
with its various aliases and guises it still rattles on.
It may be of interest to note that rhythm, as a
remedy for stammering, did not originate even with
Colombat; though the latter was undoubtedly the
first to put the complete system into print. Colombat
was in many respects a type of the modern "speech
specialist," and he purloined most of his "inventions"
from other investigators. According to Chervin : 2
"Colombat appropriated Rullier's theory of the cause of
stammering. He borrowed from Serre d'Alais his classification
of stammering and his isochrone, which he christened mutho-
1 Quoted from an English translation.
1 " B6gaiement et autres maladies fonctionnelles de la parole,"
3d ed., p. 100.
172 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
nome; he took from Cormack [McCormac ?] the best feature
of his system the initial inspiration."
Should one prefer to regard Colombat as the victim
of a series of unfortunate coincidences, he must never-
theless admit that his "discoveries" were anticipated.
Rhythm was employed by Thelwall as early as
1 80 1, which was long before Colombat entered the
field. Thelwall says of his system : l
"From one simple and original principle (whose existence
and operation, I trust, are sufficiently demonstrated by the
series of experiments regularly exhibited) I trace the fundamen-
tal and physical distinctions of heavy and light syllables ; and
from the unavoidable alternations of these (or of pauses of the
voice during the actions by which they should be produced) I
demonstrate the formation of those simple cadences of com-
mon and triple measure, out of which arise all the beauties of
rhythmus, and all the facilities of fluent and harmonious ut-
terance. From an injudicious application of undisciplined vo-
lition to this physical action, I endeavour to account for all
the gradations of harsh, ungraceful, and interruptive delivery ;
and from inconsiderate attempts to violate this primary law,
all the customary impediments of speech."
"Yet I could not but observe and feel, how much the prin-
ciple of physiological rhythmus, and the conformity of the
volition with its dictates, mitigated the labour of pectoral
exertion, and contributed to a healthful and agreeable action
of the lungs." 2
"The vindication and illustration of the rhythmus of
1 " A Letter to Henry Cline, Esq. on Imperfect Development of
the Faculties," etc. (London, 1810), p. 189. * Loc. cit., p. 10.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 173
Milton, is, in a critical point of view, the favorite object of
my system." l
"All impediments are best surmounted (even in what relates
to the primary requisites of facility and inteUigibleness) by
aiming at the highest graces of rhetorical emphasis and har-
monic inflection." 2
"In my own particular practice, I have derived considerable
assistance from an application of the principles of musical
inflection and proportion." 3
Thus we see that Thelwall employed rhythm more
than a century ago. But even Thelwall was antici-
pated, for Caelius Aurelianus 4 recommended a form
of rhythm 5 a quarter of a century before Thelwall
treated his first case of stammering.
This historical review may seem irrelevant, but we
cite the facts to show how utterly baseless (and base)
are the pretensions of a number of modern "speech
specialists" to have invented the rhythmic "systems"
that they ply.
And what of the efficacy of rhythm ?
It must be admitted that with slow, drawling,
rhythmic speech, stammering diminishes or disappears
in a majority of cases. Therefore, if the stammerer
will carry a metronome and carefully wind the in-
strument before speaking, and, whilst speaking,
1 Loc. tit., p. 159. * Loc. cit., p. 227. Loc. cit., p. 231.
4 De morbis acutis et chronicis libri octo. Job. C. Amman recen-
suit emaculavit. Arastelaedami 1775.
The rhythm of declamatory speech.
174 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
watchfully follow its rhythmic beats, he may secure
some degree of fluency. This success may also be
achieved if he will beat time with a baton or with his
hand, or will kick the wall at every syllable. Such
is the potency of the system. But when the stam-
merer ceases to apply these royal remedies, he will
almost certainly stammer as before.
Wyneken, who attended the old Katenkamp In-
stitute (a school in many respects superior to a num-
ber of modern American stammering-schools) writes
thus of his experiences : l
"Now comes the most difficult task for the stammerer
resorting to rhythmical speech. He must pronounce every
sentence as a polysyllabic word. He must speak slowly, and
must accord all syllables a like duration. Where one would
punctuate, he must carefully inhale.
"When the pupil has observed metrical speech for several
weeks in the institute, and has become thoroughly accustomed
to it, he is permitted if no difficulties have occurred to
come gradually into contact with strangers. He is sent on
errands (this usually furnishes a difficult task for the stam-
merer), and is at various times addressed suddenly and un-
expectedly. If he successfully withstands these tests after
he has employed rhythmic speech for several months, he is
discharged as cured.
"This is the formal procedure if progress has been con-
tinual and uninterrupted; but unfortunately this seldom oc-
curs. Only a very few fortunate ones find themselves per-
manently rid of their stammering. The majority immediately
1 "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," pp. 24 ff.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 175
relapse, and for some time the impediment is often worse than
it was originally. . . .
"This relapse comes sooner or later. Usually it occurs
while the student is still at the institution ; sometimes it hap-
pens while he is packing his things to depart; occasionally it
supervenes after he has returned to his former occupation and
environment. It is very seldom that the relapse does not
occur at all. And now it is indeed a difficult task for the
stammerer to reconquer doubt. I remained at the insti-
tution in question continuously for two and a half years, but
in this entire time I never spoke as fluently again as at the end
of the first six weeks. 1
"One of the chief reasons for the relapse lies in the employ-
ment of rhythmical speech, which mode of utterance it is
really exceedingly difficult to follow. It was never difficult for
me to observe silence. I know many pupils that fulfilled the
requirements in this regard to the very letter ; but I know only
one that observed rhythmical speech afterwards in life. . . .
To silence one can accustom himself, but to rhythmical speech,
However, the stammerer readily habituates him-
self to the rhythmic bodily movements that are fre-
quently prescribed for the "regulation" of metrical
speech. Denhardt records an incident that may well
be cited in this connection: 2
"Count K. underwent as a boy a course of treatment with
Professor Lewis, of Berlin. The professor's system was
rhythmic speech, and the pupil had to accustom himself to
regulating speech by the prescribed rhythmic movement of
1 These first six weeks were observed as a period of silence.
* "Das Stottern eine Psychose," p. 45.
176 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the foot. As this expedient soon lost its potency, he hit upon
the device of intensifying the movements by walking forward
two or three steps, and then executing as many steps backward.
While performing this manoeuvre he would strengthen the
rhythm by planting the regulating foot with unusual firmness;
and all this, of course, he had to do with as little display as
possible. When these elaborate preliminaries progressed to
the first or second stamp of the foot, he could begin to enun-
The writer has seen a number of stammerers
that had been taught to beat time with the hand.
The ultimate accomplishment of many of these
subjects consisted in threshing the air while they
The time-beating artifice is not so much a cure as
an additional disease. In his "Autobiography of
a Stutterer," Edgar S. Werner (who was editor of
The Voice, a defunct journal published for stammerers)
thus arraigns the method : l
"The nearest I came to a treatment, up to 'this time, was a
call upon an itinerant stutter-doctor, who showed the charlatan
too plainly for my parents to be deceived. His 'method' was
beating time at every syllable. This is not the place to consider
this time-beating business, which was practised in France fifty
years ago, was then taken up in Germany and in England, and
only last year, I believe, was revealed ( ?) to Americans by Dio
Lewis, who assured the afflicted that it was a sure remedy.
It is nothing of the kind. Many stutterers would be made
worse the more they practised it."
1 The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 125.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 177
On such a subject, the opinion of so ingenuous and
well-informed a writer as Werner is practically final.
There is little indeed that can be said in favor of
any form of rhythmic speech. Its introduction was,
and its application always has been, purely empirical.
The one poor, impotent, ex post facto argument that
has been used to defend it, is that observance of rhythm
divides the stammerer's attention. But it has never
been shown that " division" of attention was a thing
to be desired. And were it desirable, how long would
the expedient effect the "division" ? Rhythmic
speaking would soon become a habit, and would re-
quire no more attention than speaking in an arrhyth-
mic manner. The argument, even if it were valid,
would make the expedient effectual only as a tem-
porary measure. Probably the real explanation of
the fact that slow, rhythmic speech possesses some
slight efficacy, is that this mode of enunciation places
a physical emphasis on the vowel, and therefore nec-
essarily a mental emphasis on the auditory image.
But this argument is itself a warning: it presages
the eventual predicament of the stammerer a
mental condition in which his verbal imagery is
rhythmical and hideously distorted.
Gesticulation is another expedient occasionally
recommended for "dividing the stammerer's atten-
tion," "withdrawing his attention from his impedi-
ment," and so on. The various gestures are some-
178 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
times called "opposing movements," and it is asserted
of them that they oppose or "counterbalance the
spasmodic tendency to stammer."
This gesticulatory measure is probably a century
old, for it was recommended by as early a writer as
Serre d'Alais. 1 This investigator advised the stam-
merer to execute downward movements of the arms
at difficult syllables. Violette 2 advised the stam-
merer to gesticulate before speaking. More recent
writers have recommended gesticulation at every
accented word in a sentence.
A few of the specific gestures prescribed by teachers
of stammerers are : nodding the head, throwing the
head back with a jerk, snapping the fingers, pulling
at a coat button, pressing the thumb against the chin
or larynx, waving the hand, raising a handkerchief
to the mouth, tapping with the foot, grasping and
releasing the back of a chair, winking the eyes,
fumbling a rolled newspaper, etc.
"'Prof.' Grady's secret is that the human mind contains
at the same time one thought and a half, and in the short space
of two hours he teaches the stutterer to banish this half thought,
which, according to St. Grady, is the sole cause of the defect.
The means used to accomplish this end are jingling the watch-
chain, striking the hips, and other similar 'natural and grace-
1 "M6morial des hdpitaux du midi," 1829.
2 "Etudes sur la parole et ses de"fauts," Paris, 1862.
'Potter, "Speech and its Defects," p. 93.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 179
Many years ago Dr. Graves recommended an
empirical measure, which is, unfortunately, encoun-
tered even at the present day. Respecting the ex-
pedient he says : l
"I have recently discovered a method by which the most
inveterate stutterer may be enabled to obtain utterance for his
words with tolerable fluency. It is simply by compelling him
to direct his attention to some object, so as to remove it from
the effort he makes to speak. Thus, I direct him to hold a rule
or a bit of stick in his right hand, and with it to strike the fore-
finger of the left, in regular time with the words [apparently not
the syllables] he is uttering ; the eye must be fixed, and all the
attention directed to the finger he is striking, and the time
must be strictly kept. This method I have tried in several
instances with complete success, and Dr. Neligan informs me
that, since I first mentioned it to him, he has found it com-
pletely effectual in numerous cases. Although, of course, when
thus employed, this plan can only be regarded as a means of
affording temporary relief, I have no doubt, that if it were per-
severingly followed out with young persons who stammer, both
in reading and speaking, it would cure them permanently of
the unpleasant affection."
The employment of gestures and minor bodily
movements is usually prescribed as a means of divert-
ing the stammerer's attention from his impediment.
But one writer, Dr. Findley, has recommended gestic-
ulation for another purpose. The following citation
presents his theory : 2
'"Clinical Lectures," edited by Dr. Neligan; London, 1848.
Quoted by Hunt, "Stammering and Stuttering," 7th ed., p. 159.
"Stammering," The Voice, Vol. VII, pp. 73-74.
i8o SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"We can breathe with the ribs or with the diaphragm ; with
the former on the principle of the bellows; with the latter on
the principle of the piston. In the former case in inspiration,
the ribs, by their appropriate muscles, are rolled upward and
outward, enlarging the circumference of the chest; in eapira-
tion they return to their former position, partly by their own
elasticity and in part drawn down by the abdominal muscles.
In the latter case, we may breathe with the diaphragm alone ;
the muscle which separates the cavity of the chest from that of
the abdomen is attached to the cartilaginous extremity of the
ribs, and, when relaxed, is forced, by the action of the abdom-
inal muscles high up into the cavity of the chest. When it
contracts, it draws straight across the bottom of the chest,
forming a vacuum in the lower part of the chest, into which the
air rushes; again relaxing, the abdominal muscles force it up
into the chest, driving the air before it. In ordinary breathing
we combine these methods.
" In making sound, we expel the air from the lungs upon a
different principle; the diaphragm, instead of relaxing as in
breathing, contracts, and, by diminishing the circumference of
the chest, expels the air as completely from the lungs as in the
other method ; in the one, the diaphragm in expiration is pas-
sive, in the other it is active. Both in breathing and in mak-
ing sound, we inspire by contracting the diaphragm, thus caus-
ing a vacuum in the bottom of the chest ; but we expire upon
a different principle. In ordinary breathing the diaphragm
relaxes, and the abdominal muscles force it up into the chest,
driving the air before it. In making sounds, it continues to
contract, and expels the air by diminishing the circumference
of the chest. This action of the diaphragm is the normal mode
of making sound ; it is not necessary to the production of sound,
but is necessary to full, clear, far-reaching sound. Many
persons talk habitually with the diaphragm relaxed, but the
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 181
voice is comparatively feeble and unsteady, and the effort is
very exhausting. When calm and unexcited, I can talk with
the diaphragm relaxed, but the voice cannot be heard half so
far, nor kept up half so long, and in hurried conversation the
tongue will be tripping continually. When the vital energy is
feeble, this muscle is slow to change from the action of breath-
ing to the action of sound, and acts feebly ; and, in passing over
the consonantal sounds, relaxes, and, when it relaxes, the vocal
cords unkey, and the muscles of articulation and breathing play
spasmodically. . . .
"More than fifty years of my life had passed before my atten-
tion was turned to these two principles : the different action
of the diaphragm, in breathing and in making sound, and the
fact that by gesture we can compel the diaphragm to take on
the same mode of action that is necessary for effective speech.
Until then my social intercourse was always liable to great em-
barrassment ; and, on great emergencies, I have been subjected
to severe mortification by trivial circumstances, such as the loss
of a night's rest, an indigestible meal, or some trifling embar-
rassment. Since I have made this discovery, it never obtrudes
itself upon my domestic circle, and gives me very little trouble
anywhere or under any circumstances. Reading aloud, while
reclining on a lounge, with my hand resting on the stomach, I
was surprised at finding the air was expelled from the lungs, in
a way different from anything I had ever thought or heard of,
viz., by the contraction instead of the relaxation of the dia-
phragm. This surprise was increased by finding that this
mode of breathing was closely connected with the difficulty of
utterance, and that whenever I made an ineffectual effort to
pronounce a word the air was escaping as in ordinary breathing.
When in good health I could control the action of the diaphragm
by volition. This, however, did not aid me much in talking;
and it was not until my attention was attracted to the fact, that
182 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
by gesture we compel this muscle to act in the way that is nec-
essary for producing perfect sound, that I could control the
difficulty so as to converse tolerably under all circumstances." l
Dr. Findley's theory concerning the action of the
diaphragm is at variance with the commonly ac-
cepted view. The theory in itself seems a little
inconsistent. If, during expiration, the diaphragm
is performing its secondary contraction (i.e. is dimin-
ishing its diameter), then it cannot arch itself till
inspiration occurs. But during inspiration Dr. Find-
ley has the primary contraction going on 2 (i.e. the
diaphragm is flattening), and the arching movement
is in no way accounted for. But in any case, the
precise connection between gesticulation and dia-
phragmatic action is somewhat obscure. And if the
connection were more patent, it would still be neces-
sary to demonstrate a causal relation between speech-
disturbances and indiscipline of the diaphragm.
Thus the evidence in support of gesture is not very
The older argument, that gesture diverts the
speaker's attention from his impediment, may have
some weight. But this would scarcely make gesture
1 A third argument in favor of gesture is presented by Rouma
("La parole et les troubles de la parole," pp. 106 ff.), who holds that
cerebral activity overflows from the arm-centres to the speech-centres.
2 " Both in breathing and in making sound, we inspire by contract-
ing the diaphragm."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 183
a universal and unfailing remedy for stammering.
Gesture, per se, however, has nothing to con-
Concerning the various automatisms fumbling
buttons, jingling watch-chains, and so on it is in-
teresting to note that the average teacher of stam-
merers endeavors to suppress them rather than foster
"If the pupil has a tendency to rock his foot or twiddle his
fingers, I try to arouse his sense of manhood and self-mastery
to the cessation of such actions."
The cultivation of automatisms is certainly futile.
The same arguments are made for them as for ges-
ture, and (assuming the arguments to be conceded)
gesture is unquestionably to be preferred. But while
it is futile to foster automatisms, it does not neces-
sarily follow that there is justification for their de-
liberate repression. Automatisms in mature persons
are usually indicative of a nervous condition, but
this condition is not removed by enlisting brute-will
to inhibit symptomatic reactions.
We shall consider now an expedient of some his-
torical interest. This is the so-called "Leigh method,"
which was a canard nearly a century ago. The method
consists in keeping the point of the tongue in contact
with, or near, the palate during speech.
The exact origin of the method is a little obscure. -
184 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Mrs. Leigh, an Englishwoman, was governess to the
daughter of Dr. Yates, of Albany, New York. The
doctor's daughter stammered, and Mrs. Leigh applied
her notorious "method" to combat the impediment.
One version has it that Dr. Yates invented the method,
and imparted it to Mrs. Leigh in the interests of his
daughter; and that he subsequently appointed the
governess as the head of a stammering-school. The
other version has it that Mrs. Leigh herself con-
tributed the method, and that Dr. Yates assumed
credit for its invention. According to the latter ver-
sion, Dr. Yates had no connection with Mrs. Leigh's
The former version is upheld by Dr. Warren :
" The inventor of Mrs. Leigh's system, Dr. Christopher C.
Yates, of New York, a medical gentleman of high talents and
very strong natural powers, had a daughter afflicted with
stammering. After attentive observation and a long study of
her case, he succeeded in hitting upon a method which effected
a cure. This method he imparted to the young lady's in-
structress, Mrs. Leigh, an Englishwoman, in order that it might
be pursued during school-hours.
"The inventor soon determined to extend its benefits to
others. Finding Mrs. Leigh enter into the scheme with
zeal and ability, he placed her at the head of the institution;
and, fearful of the reproach of empiricism, he chose that it
should pass under her name." l
1 "Remarks on Stammering," American Journal of Medical Science,
Boston, 1837. Quoted by The Voice, Vol. IV, p. 96.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 185
The version of Bansmann l and Zitterland is that
the deceased husband of Mrs. Leigh had been a stam-
merer, and that through this circumstance Mrs.
Leigh had come by her knowledge of the remedy
she employed. At any rate, the "Leigh method"
seems to have been identical with that plied by Bros-
ter in England, and invented by him (according to his
own version) shortly after the year 1800. Relative to
this matter the following paragraph by Dr. Julius
is of interest :
"It will be known to some of our readers that Mr. Broster,
now of London, and formerly of Liverpool and earlier of Edin-
burgh, has for some years conducted a very successful stammer-
ing-school. His method, concerning which the pupils are
bound to secrecy, probably consists in some trick to be applied
during speech. Either the method is successful in a few days
(as is usually the case) or it fails altogether. Mr. Broster
is said to have learned the method from a poor man in Edin-
burgh. This method has been transplanted from Liverpool
to New York."'
Neither Mrs. Leigh nor Dr. Yates has left a writ-
ten record of the system they employed; hence
only indirect accounts of the method are available.
The secret of the system was, however, bought by
1 See Otto, " Das Geheimniss Stotternde und Stammelnde zu
Heflen," Halle, 1832.
* Magazin der ausl&nd. Lileratur der gcsammten Heilkunde von
Gerson und Julius, Vol. XV, p. 93. Quoted by Hasse, "Das Stot-
tern," Berlin, 1846.
1 86 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
M. Malebouche, of Paris. Later, through the interven-
tion of Mr. Cox-Barnet, American consul at Paris,
M. Malebouche purchased his release from his pledge
of secrecy. He thereupon communicated the method
to the Academic des Sciences (1827), and had the sys-
tem described by M. Magendie in the latter's article
"Begaiement," in the Dictionnaire de Medecine et de
Chirurgie. Later Malebouche himself published an
article on the subject in the Dictionnaire de la Con-
versation et de la Lecture, and finally wrote his " Precis
sur les Causes du Begaiement et sur les Moyen de le
All of this may seem irrelevant, but we are dealing
again with a method that has numerous modern
inventors, and that threatens (in America at least)
to come once more into prominence.
Concerning the Leigh theory, Malebouche says : *
"The observations giving rise to the method were as fol-
lows : Persons that speak fluently have the tongue constantly
applied to the palatine arch; stammerers, on the contrary,
have the tongue continually in the lower part of the mouth.
The stammerer must therefore execute two movements in order
to articulate one to raise the tongue and close the outlet for
the elementary sound, and the other to modify this sound.
Herein the stammerer resembles a flutist that neglects to place
his fingers on the stops while playing his instrument the modi-
fying movements do not correspond to those necessary for
the production of the elementary sounds. These facts have
1 "Pr6cis sur les causes du b6gaiement," pp. 10 f.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 187
given rise to a system of exercises to train the stammerer to
keep the tongue always in the region of the palate."
Haase gives the following summary of the Leigh
method and theory : l
"Madam Leigh observed that with stammerers the tongue
lies deep in the mouth when the speech-defect is in evidence;
whereas with normal-speaking persons the point of the tongue
remains in contact with the hard palate. She therefore con-
cluded that the speech-defect would disappear if the stammerer
persistently raised the point of the tongue and pressed it
against the palate. She required those afflicted to move the
point of the tongue upward and backward, and to thrust the
tongue rapidly from this rearward position far out of the
mouth, then immediately to withdraw it. These movements
were performed six or a dozen times, and the exercise was
repeated at frequent intervals till the required dexterity was
obtained. The fraenum was pulled and manipulated while
the tongue was held in an elevated position. Mrs. Leigh
further directed that the tongue should at all times be kept
in contact with the front part of the hard palate or the
upper gums. This rule was to be observed even when the
pupil was not conversing. At night a roll of wet linen was
kept under the tongue to prevent it from sinking to its low posi-
Frau Hagemann and a number of other European
teachers employed the Leigh method. We quote
Frau Hagemann: 2
^'DasStottern," p. 84.
*"Die Untriigliche Heilung des Stotter- und Stammel-Uebels,"
pp. 12 f. and pp. 1 6 f.
i88 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"Investigation has revealed the fact that the stammerer's
tongue is usually (and especially when he is not engaged in
speech) far removed from the position it occupies with normal-
speaking persons: the tongue lies in the lower part of the
mouth, in the lower jaw, in fact. The result is that the tongue-
ligaments (Zungenb&nder) l gradually become relaxed, so that
the tongue often fails to perform its function. . . .
"The remedy in its entire simplicity but splendid efficacy
is this : Always to keep the point of the tongue directed toward
the upper part of the mouth and in contact with the palate;
and during silence to keep the whole tongue to the palate with
the point in contact with the upper incisors, or better still, in
contact with their roots. The point of the tongue must never
leave this position. 2 To explain better the normal position of
the tongue, one might say that it occupies the position required
for swallowing saliva."
The foregoing paragraphs should make plain the
nature of the expedient.
The procedure has been somewhat modified by
different teachers. According to Colombat : 8
" Malebouche modified the American method by requiring
the stammerer to apply the entire upper surface of the tongue to
1 Probably meaning Zungenband (fraenuni).
1 If the point of the tongue were not to leave the palate, the speaker
would be unable to pronounce the linguals. The author is apparently
striving for emphasis. The version of Malebouche, Haase, and most
other writers is that the stammerer must keep the tongue to the palate
"in imitation of the normal speaker." The tongue must start from
the palate, and manoeuvre in the upper part of the mouth.
"Orthophonie, oder Physiologic und Therapie des Stotterns,"
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 189
the palate instead of merely the tip, as advised by Mrs.
Colombat's recommendation was that at the begin-
ning of treatment the pupil should pronounce difficult
words with the under surface of the tongue applied
to the soft palate a short distance in front of the
uvula. A few modern teachers recommend the use
of the under surface of the tongue (though in a
more anterior position) for the lingual consonants.
After noting these modifications it will be interest-
ing to observe that a few investigators have recom-
mended a low or central, rather than a high, position
of the tongue :
"Now, I know (though I have not seen it) that your tongue
flies about in your mouth. It did in mine: it always does,
because it is trying to do the work which the lips should do.
So get into the habit of determinately keeping it down. You
will find it easy enough after a while. But at first, when you
speak and read, always be sure that you can feel your lower
teeth against the tip of your tongue." l
A second writer agrees:
"The tongue, that unruly member, which flies about so
wildly in the mouths of stammerers, must be kept in control,
and, as Canon Kingsley justly remarks, must be kept low down
in the mouth, touching the front teeth ; but yet, when we wish
to join any of the consonants, except the true labials, it must
perforce be called into requisition."
1 "Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol.
II, p. 261.
190 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
A third writer disagrees:
"The tongue should never, in speech, be protruded between
the teeth ; it should never touch the lower teeth ; it should never
be pointed downwards to the bed of the jaw ; it should never
be thrust up in the palatal arch, as in the act of sucking ; nor
should the point of the tongue in any action deviate from the
centre of the mouth."
Here the stammerer has quite a choice of expedients.
However, he would doubtless do well to ignore them
all, and pay no particular attention to lingual position.
It is remarkable that such an expedient as the
"Leigh method" should ever have received serious
consideration. The method is a procedure without
a purpose. Dr. Miiller justly characterized it (shortly
after it was introduced) as "a blind groping in the
dark, in which neither teacher nor pupil knows what
he is about." x The whole thing is so utterly aim-
less that one cannot even undertake a systematic
criticism. Malebouche, who seems to have paid more
attention to labial action than lingual position,
himself admits that any number of people (une
infinite de personnes) carry the tongue in a low posi-
tion, but do not stammer. 2 He further states that
with stammerers "this difficulty in carrying the
tongue to the palate does not exist : they can carry
the tongue there whenever they will." 3
1 "Handbuch der Physiologic," Vol. II, p. 243.
1 "Pr6cis sur les causes du bSgaiement," p. n. * Loc. cit., p. 15.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 191
The facts seem to be that a "low tongue" is no
commoner among stammerers than among normal-
speaking persons. Under these circumstances it is
difficult to understand what the recommended pro-
cedure was intended to accomplish. The few cures
effected and there are always cures, however bad the
method must have been largely due to the removal
of fear and inhibitive auto-suggestion. 1 Further, most
teachers that employed the method made use of vari-
ous accessory measures that were decidedly rational,
and these measures undoubtedly benefited the stam-
merer. The tongue-exercises may have established
clearer kinaesthetic images of lingual movements,
and may thus have facilitated vowel-production.
The attention paid to respiration would, of course,
combat certain vicious forms of physical stammering ;
and "continuity of sound" (thought) which even
Mrs. Leigh seems to have enjoined would exert
its usual beneficial influence. These measures would
account for what few cures were effected, and
thus explain the brief popularity that the system
1 Thus Frau Hagemann in 1845 : "Sometimes the cure is instanta-
neous, for the difficulty is largely one of suggestion (Einbildung), and
when the stammerer finds himself at once free from his impediment,
he becomes convinced that what was formerly regarded as an organic
defect or an inexplicable affliction was nothing more than a bad
habit." ("Die Untrligliche Heilung des Stotter- und Stammel-
Uebels," p. 20.)
192 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Little need be said of the modification of the "Leigh
method." What has been said of the method itself
can also be applied to its variants.
The practice of keeping the tongue in a low or
central position has not been recommended as a pan-
acea for stammering, but rather as a mode of com-
portment; hence further comment regarding these
measures may be omitted.
The Broster -Leigh- Yates - Malebouche-Hagemann
method persists despite its antiquity and futility
in bobbing up as somebody's original and infallible
discovery. The method is employed by an American
stutter-doctor as "The one cure for stammerers
entirely new perfectly sure : the only scientific, natu-
ral, perfect, permanent remedy for stammering, stut-
tering, lisping, tongue-tied talk, and all impediments
of perfect speech."
"Matchless comfort [exclaims the "doctor"], that we in-
telligently and conscientiously rest in the assurance, born of
ample experience and the actual handling of all phases of
speech defects, that no case is beyond the reach of our skill,
which we do sacredly esteem a gift from God for earth's af-
flicted ones. How great the privilege and how sweet the re-
ward" . . . et cetera, et cetera.
The "doctor" has recently written a book on the
system. By way of recreation we may as well re-
view it. The book is printed in head-line type, and
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 193
sells for ten dollars. In a circular the author tells
about it :
"The Secrets of the method of Curing Stammering
and other Speech Defects, told at last. . . .
"The ONLY SYSTEM that removes THE CAUSE and
really CURES, now perfected, and given out in this Book that
puts a big NOTCH in the First Quarter of this Century of
"This Book actually carries EIGHT DISTINCT DISCOV-
ERIES, wrought into a System that is at once Scientific and
Practical; for FORTY YEARS, TRIED-OUT in every par-
ticular. Here are its discoveries: The Regulating Principle
of Right Speech: the ONE CAUSE of ALL SPEECH DE-
FECTS ; how to remove the CAUSE and give perfect speech;
a New and Improved System of Phonetics ; how to give speech
to Paralyzed Tongues; how to change the Tone and Quality
of the Voice from Guttural or Palatal or Nasal, to silvery
sweetness; how to alter the Brogue of any Foreigner to pure
English ; how to use the Method in teaching the Deaf-
and-Dumb to talk.
"All these discoveries are woven into a Web of Beauty in
this Book on the True Philosophy of Speech. It is a Text-
book, a Drill book, a Self-teaching System and a Sovereign
Remedy for all the defects of speech it explains, all in one.
"With this Book, Mothers can stop the FIRST BEGIN-
NINGS of all kinds of speech troubles and CORRECT ANY
UGLY SPEECH HABIT that may be contracted by their
children. Knowing the CAUSE and CURE as plainly re-
vealed and expounded in this Home Instructor, mothers can
be COMFORTABLY SURE of NEVER HAVING STAM-
MERING CHILDREN or CHILDREN AFFLICTED IN
SPEECH IN ANY WAY WHATEVER. Blessing beyond
194 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The author continues :
"When this book goes forth, its secrets are no longer his.
When the First Edition is sold, he will count himself paid for
his property, so far as Dollars go, and henceforth he will help
any who buy the Book to qualify as Teachers of the System.
There's room for Thousands and there are Millions of money
Let the reader note the full significance of this last
paragraph, and picture to himself the unlimited man-
baiting in which these new slot-machine stutter-
doctors would indulge.
But to the book! On the title-page we read :
"THE METHOD AND MATTER IN THIS BOOK NOT
FOUND IN ANY OTHER BOOK. EVERY PAGE, PAR-
AGRAPH AND PRINCIPLE ENTIRELY NEW."
Among other persons, the book is dedicated
" To Mothers, who, in a serious sense of their responsibili-
ties, would love to qualify themselves to prevent and cure, in
their own dear children, any defect of speech that may in-
trude itself among them, to hinder their education and keep
them back in life. With this book in the Home, Mothers will
be able to ' nip in the bud ' every rising impediment ready
with club in hand to kill the little snakes before they grow to
be big 'rattlers.' "
The Method can be applied to all classes of defects
and infirmities to stammering, lisping, " tongue-tied
talking," " baby-talking," paralyzed tongues, hare-lip
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 195
and cleft-palate speech, dumbness, and the "brogue
of foreigners." All for ten dollars !
And the great secret principle is this :
" i. Right speech is the result of the coordination of two
distinct, but related movements the vocal movement and
the organ movement.
"2. The Tongue is the special Agent or Instrument of this
"3. The Tongue is qualified to act in this essential capacity
by being rightly located, carried always in the roof of the mouth,
the end resting on the upper gum-ridges, which should always
be thought of as the TALK-PLACE for the Tongue.
" 4. The Tongue being thus rightly located, secures this
coordinate movement of the other organs and the voice, by
taking the Initiative in speech, which it does by moving off
from its place of rest and carriage, on the Upper Gums.
" 5. This start for speech made by the Tongue, by this
movement from its place of rest and carriage, signals to all the
senses and instincts that control both the organs and the voice,
when to move for speech.
" 6. It is hi this way that the other organs of speech
and the voice are moved to follow the lead of the Tongue,
all harmonizing in perfect speech.
"7. The Tongue is thus seen to be the main organ of speech,
the one that rules, but the throne from which it rules is the right,
natural high location, before described.
" 8. And thus it develops that the Regulating Principle in
Right Speech is this : The Tongue makes the start for speech by
moving off from its high place of carriage on the Upper Gums.
This indicates the time of the utterance. The Tongue, in this
manner, ringing the bell or sounding the gong, as it were, calls the
organs and voice into play, and all blend into easy, graceful utter-
196 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
" 9. It follows, also, that if the Tongue by any means for-
sakes this right high carriage-place, and habitually beds in
the bottom of the mouth, it is, thereby, disqualified for leader-
ship, being in the wrong place to take the initiative in speech;
and there is consequent confusion and a lack of that coordina-
tion of organs and voice that is exhibited and illustrated in
" 10. And, therefore' it is clear to demonstration, that a
dislocated Tongue, a tongue carried low instead of high, in the
bottom of the mouth instead of in its roof-story, is the ONE
CAUSE of all speech-defects. Yes, of them all. . . .
" But whatever the phase or degree of the impediment, the
essential feature of the remedy, for one and all, is, To get the
tongue up out of the bottom of the mouth. Other things may
be needed to tone and sweeten and train the voice, but the one
essential requirement for the correction of all classes of imped-
iments is To locate the tongue aright, and to educate it to
right use from that right location. And this is but to restore
Nature. Every right born human begins life with his tongue
up, sucked up into the roof of the mouth. And, therefore,
stammerers and all other defective talkers have simply lapsed
from Nature. The first thing to be done, therefore, and the
main thing, is to take them back to Nature."
This principle " enables careful stammerers, that are not of
the ' Helpless class,' to avoid stammering, almost from the
first lesson certainly as soon as they can perfectly say the
letters of the Alphabet, End-tongue, that is, as the tongue
begins its movement from its place on the gums. This is
" Carrying the tongue up is nature. It is what every good
talker does. It is what every natural-born child comes into
the world doing, in pure instinct. It is philosophy. It is science.
It is sense. .
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 197
" All the stammerers that have ever made good talkers,
from old Demosthenes, who put pebbles under his tongue,
to the bright Western Horse-woman that cured herself by
clucking to her saddle-horse and popping her tongue loose
from the palate of her mouth, after sucking it up all took
the same route you are travelling, consciously or unconsciously,
purposely or accidentally. THERE IS NO OTHER WAY."
The following exercises help to keep the tongue at
the Talk-place :
" i. Suck the Tongue up holding the End to its place on
the Upper Gums, suck the whole of it up against the palate.
"2. Suck it up, as before, and Pop it loose, repeatedly.
"3. Suck it up, and then close the mouth, keeping the Tongue
" 4. The Act of Swallowing Hits the Tongue to place, pre-
"5. Placing the Tongue aright, open and close the mouth,
without moving the Tongue from place.
" 6. Practice the Horse-Cluck, sucking the Tongue up and
Clucking out at the side of the Tongue, as you would cluck to
"7. Establish the habit of Sleeping with the Tongue Up,
lying on the Right Side and Keeping the Mouth Shut. If
necessary, tie a Knotted towel about the waist, Knots at the
back ; and a bandage under the chin and over the top of the
" 8. Constancy of Attention to the Carriage of the Tongue
is Indispensable. Count the Bottom of the Mouth Forbidden
Ground for the Tongue.
" 9. Adopt as the Motto for the Tongue : UP, ALL UP,
ALWAYS UP, and EASY UP."
198 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Other interesting diversions are "End- tongue Word-
ing" and "Side-tongue Wording." In "End-tongue
Wording" you say "ta" before lots of words. In
"Side- tongue Wording " you say "ya" instead:
" Say ' ya, ya, ya,' repeatedly, pressing the Tongue hard to
" Put ' ya ' before the letters of the Alphabet, holding the
' ya ' before sounding the letter, to allow time for pressing the
Tongue to place.
" Read whole pages in a reader suited to the advancement of
the student, placing ' ya ' before each word, holding the ' ya '
" Next, Side-tongue Word, page after page, holding the
Tongue in the ya-place, but not saying ' ya.' "
As an advanced exercise the student may place " the
best of all Double Syllables, which is 'ya-ta' before
each word ; sounding the word quickly after 'ya-ta.' "
" Any careful person could cure himself simply by repeating
' ya-ta ' ; for it requires the essential double-action of the tongue.
" Read whole pages fluently along, Side-Tongue, without any
prefix; slowly at first, and, then, faster and faster. Avoid
all effort. See how easy. Here is where we reach Natural
Fluency. . . .
" End-tongue utterance is nature. . . .
" Side-tongue utterance is nature. All good talkers not
only use their tongues like bell-clappers tapping on the gums
in the ta-touch, but they carry them in speech spread out from
side-to-side, in touch on both sides with the upper side jaw
teeth, in what has been described as the ya-carriage. . . . The
ya-carriage makes the ta-tap easy."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 199
The Method, as already stated, cures other ills
besides stammering. As regards lisping and " tongue-
tied talking " :
" These have been classed with stammering, because, while
illustrating different degrees of lowness as to tongue-carriage,
the remedy is the same get the tongue up and use it from up
instead of from down."
Baby-talking " indicates that the tongue was heavily down
in the earlier years of childhood, so that sounds could not be
successfully imitated, in the usual way that children learn to
talk. Hence, some one or more of the elemental sounds were
never said. . . .
" The Tongue must be restored to its right Carriage-place
hi the roof of the mouth, the end resting on the upper gums. . . .
" The other essential is Right Phonetical Instruction and
Any difficulty with sibilants is removed if one
keeps the tongue from "punching" the front of
" Cleft-palate always, and Harelip, not infrequently, causes
broken speech. In the case of the former, the tongue will not
rest in the chasm or opening above, and, hence, drops from its
right high carriage to the bottom of the mouth."
It is desirable to have "rents and leaks" closed by
a silver-palate or through a surgical operation,
" But none of these devices are absolutely necessary to the
perfection of speech. With the fissure uncovered, more and
longer work will be needed to attain the same results ; but the
- Method compasses the difficulties presented by the
200 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
open palate and confers perfect speech, despite the disadvan-
The patient may obtain "sweet, silvery, musical speech,
one of the supreme accomplishments and distinctions of the
method embalmed in these pages."
And now the method is ready for another errand of
mercy. Paralyzed tongues lie prostrate in the bed
of the mouth.
" This must be received as an impressive confirmation of
the ground-theory of Philosophy, namely, that the
dislocation of the tongue from the top to the bottom of the
mouth, is the direct CAUSE of all defects of speech."
The cure is easy. The paralytic just puts the
tongue up, using his "hidden powers." If this fails,
he wears a Dental Plug to raise the tongue. He then
reads by day and continues to wear the plug by night.
After some time, if the plug has not been swallowed,
and thus by great good fortune the patient is still
available, the instrument is removed. The tongue
may then " take the hint, so to speak, and finding its
right place and use, will get back to the old feeling
of 'being back home' and, if so, natural muscular
energy and natural suction may be relied on, jointly,
to do the rest."
And though all this fail, we need not despair. The
problem admits of solution:
" Substituting the upper teeth for the upper gums, and the
body of the tongue for the end of it, the upper teeth can be drawn
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 201
backward and inward, and down on the tongue, as it lies pros-
trate on the bed of the mouth, the tongue rolling up somewhat
by prizing against the front teeth, and in this manner the
essential contact between the tongue and upper jaw can be
The author admits that speech thus obtained is
"nothing to look at." But the motto of the Method
is "Something for all that are afflicted in speech," and
" the Method glorifies itself in conferring speech upon
Foreigners with "brogue-blemished" and "dialect-
marred" speech, and native Americans that "flare
the controlling vowel sounds" must carry the tongue
a "little above normal height," and must be taken
through a course of phonetics. Foreigners thus
acquire "Linguistic Naturalization," and thence may
aspire to "places of prominence in business or in
religious and social life." Renegade Americans ap-
parently receive absolution and remission of sins.
In regard to deaf-mutes
" It has been commonly supposed that the want of hearing
is the sole cause of their speechlessness. But this cannot be
true." The deaf-and-dumb carry a low tongue, and " causa-
tively considered, this shares with deafness the blame for
dumbness." These unfortunate persons must also carry a high
tongue and study phonetics. Tongue-speech will then be ac-
quired. " This will not come with the next breath, to be sure,
but it will be realized in ' the happy time- to-come,' near or far,
nearer or farther, according to several things."
202 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Our author devotes a chapter to inveighing against
"false and fakish" and "mongrel" methods. He de-
plores the fact that "just anybody will do for a 'Pro-
fessor' or 'Principal.'" His judgment is that "Brass,
more than brains, qualifies," in which opinion the
reader will doubtless concur. He says that so-called
"Cures for Stammering" are tricks and devices for
"deceiving the incredulous "( !), and holds that they
should not be classed with the Only Method. "All
other methods," he declares, "are but schemes of
And now the peroration :
" It is the Author's fond hope and confident belief, that in
this Manual he has but laid well and deep the solid foundation
for a structure of imposing magnificence, in the coming years,
after others shall have contributed their thought and labor and
skill, to a Department of popular and polite education, that,
hitherto, has been shamefully, if not, exclusively, in the hands,
and under the tutelage, of quacklets and charlatans.
" The revelations that go out with the issuance of this
novel Monograph will set men to thinking in right lines, about
the Physiology and Psychology and Pathology and Practical
Execution of Speech. The thousand and one guesses as to the
CAUSE of stammering and other imperfections of speech will
give way to the ONE CAUSE of all, as it has been proven and
given out in the foregoing pages.
" Spurious methods have had their day.
" This Book dates the birth of a New Science and a New Art,
and bequeaths to the Schools and Colleges and Universities of
our Country, first, and of the whole World, in the near future,
a New and Needed Department of Education.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 203
" Moreover, unpretentious as it may appear, this Book is
destined to draw the eyes of the world to a New Field for the
exploits of Statesmanship and the exercise and gratification of
Our author is undoubtedly ingenuous, for he tells
us that he " humbly and honestly craves to yield his
life in an unselfish ministry to God and his fellow men."
We can proceed, then, to a commentary on the views
he expresses. In the first place, it is evident that
the "doctor" is selling us nothing new. He is dis-
pensing the Broster-Leigh-Etc. "method" without
modification. He does not explain how the par-
ticular artifice is to inhibit stammering. When he
speaks of causes he usually resorts to allegory. The
tongue must "rule" from its "throne" in the "roof-
story"; otherwise it is "disqualified for leadership."
It must "ring the bell" or "sound the gong" to call
the "organs and voice into play."
One hardly knows how to regard this kind of argu-
ment; and when he remembers that the book pro-
fesses to be scientific, he is almost led to conclude that
his intelligence has been impugned. The tongue
"rings the bell" and calls the " voice into play." But
what of sonant consonants, in which the voice pre-
cedes articulation? The matter is difficult to com-
prehend. The author himself is befogged at times,
and resorts to the plea that "every science has its
mystery," and that his Science is no exception.
204 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
At times he is even discouraging. He mentions a
"Helpless Class," which seems to be a sort of skeleton
in the closet. He says, too, in reference to the cure,
that "it is vulgar and contemptible, to be asking,
'How much time will it take?" But elsewhere he
tells us that to effect a cure the Method takes "hours
. . . days, weeks, months or years, according to the
degree of responsiveness of the organs and the degree
of attention given to it." Year si Now we are com-
ing to it. The number of years is undoubtedly
directly dependent upon the pupil's longevity.
We need scarcely comment upon the efficacy of the
"high carriage" and the "ta-tap" as remedies for
hare-lip and dumbness. Here we may be dealing
with a joker. And perhaps the whole thing is nothing
but ajeu d' esprit, a culminating hoax in celebration of
the centenary of the Leigh method. But if we fail
to see the point, we may at least feel relieved when the
author admits that he has "embalmed" the Method
in his pages.
We turn now from one of the poorest expedients ever
introduced into the therapy of stammering to one that
is undoubtedly among the best. This measure, which
is effective chiefly as a preventive of physical stam-
mering, is physical relaxation and suppression of
physical effort. This particular remedy is em-
bodied in practically every system of treatment that
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 205
Physical relaxation has long been employed in the
therapy of stammering. Thus Hofmann, who wrote
in 1840 : 1
"The patient must use no muscular effort in the throat,
tongue, or lips. Further, he must avoid working other parts
of the body, such as the arms, feet, etc. All of this simply
aggravates the trouble, while it seldom affords even temporary
relief. Its tendency is to check immediately the respiratory
and vocal stream. The utmost relaxation of the body must
prevail during speech, for effort necessarily impairs the atten-
tion, which both in speaking and reading should be directed
to the voice. Effort, therefore, confuses the senses, induces
hurry, and brings speech into execution before thought is
prepared : in this way it occasions stammering."
Relaxation is employed in a majority of present-
day stammering-schools. The oft-repeated injunction
is, " Use no effort," " Devitalize the muscles of speech,"
"Relax the muscles of the throat," "Sigh the word
out," "Talk with indifference," etc.
In a few institutions relaxation-exercises are em-
ployed. They are typically as follows :
Sit or recline in a comfortable chair.
1. Relax the muscles of the body.
2. Contract the muscles of the arms : keep them contracted
for several seconds. Relax them for an equal period. Con-
tract them ; relax them ; etc.
1 "Theoritisch-praktische Anweisung zur Radical-Heilung Stot-
ternder," pp. 25 f.
206 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
3. Contract and relax the muscles of the right arm in the
manner described in the former exercise.
4. Similarly with the left arm.
5. Contract and relax the muscles of both legs.
6. Of the right leg.
7. Of the left leg.
8. As far as possible, contract all the muscles of the body.
Relax them ; contract them. Rest with the muscles relaxed
for several minutes. Rest in this manner at frequent intervals
during the exercises.
9. Relax the muscles of the neck and allow the head to
sink upon the chest. Raise the head and strongly contract
the muscles of the neck. Gradually relax the muscles and
allow the head to sink. Etc., etc.
10. Relax the muscles of the neck and allow the head to
sink to the right. Raise the head and allow it to sink to the
left. Etc., etc.
11. Raise the head with the least expenditure of energy.
Repeat the vowels and perform simple vocal exercises. Use
the least possible effort.
12. Repeat the alphabet, speaking in a listless and non-
These exercises doubtless have merit ; but the real
value of relaxation lies in applicability to speech, and
its ability, when applied during speech, to eliminate
Dr. L. Sandow has developed the principle of
relaxation as a system in itself. 1 His ideas are so
original and interesting that they well repay con-
1 " Mechanik des Stotterns."
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 207
sideration. His theory is that the young child
vocalizes and articulates only when stimulated by
feelings of ease and physical comfort (Behagen).
This physical comfort and relaxation must be culti-
vated by the stammerer, since it is the condition
naturally favorable to speech, and is moreover favor-
able to the recovery of injured speech-nerves and the
presumably injured motor speech-centre of the brain.
The following excerpts express Dr. Sandow's ideas.
They are taken from his excellent little work, "Me-
chanik des Stotterns."
"In his cosy little bed the child feels extreme physical com-
fort. Under these conditions his attention is confined to the
world of feeling; and when the physical well-being reaches
its highest point, the nerves and muscles rendered excitable
by inheritance from preceding generations produce re-
sponsive movements in an unconscious and almost reflex man-
ner. The child produces a speech-sound, an abu, for instance ;
and this he probably utters a second and a third time. After
a while the child turns his attention to the pleasing sound;
that is, his attention turns from the world of feeling to the
world of hearing. When the sound has fallen upon his ears,
his attention is again attracted by the warmth of his bed to the
world of feeling. Once more the sound is produced ; once more
the child listens, and so on. If the child is reminded of the
sound at some later time, it is not necessary for the physical
comfort to reach its former intensity. The pleasing thought
of the sound enhances the child's comfort to the necessary
point ; and when this is reached, the sound is produced
spontaneously. In this manner the auditory word-centre is
brought into relation with the nerves that effect the speech-
208 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
movements; i.e. with the motor word-centre. As with the
child, so with the adult. It is not at all necessary to suppose
that sound finds any other path to the speech-organs than that
opened to it by the physical well-being. With the adult, pleas-
ure and mood stand in the same definite relation to interest in
speech as they do with the child. When we feel contented and
at ease, we start chattering at the least occasion. But if we
feel depressed, even a real interest in a subject will elicit noth-
ing but a few scanty monosyllables. 1 . . .
"An unbroken stream of words seems to depend simply
and solely upon the existence of the corresponding thought
and a sufficiently strong feeling of physical ease. When
the well-being is great enough, we have only to think the
train of thought, and the motor apparatus reproduces it
automatically almost before we are fully aware of what has
taken place." 2
Our author then goes on to explain the manner in
which fear and physical discomfort (Unbehagen)
come to replace physical ease (Behagen) in the
stammerer. This is the direct effect of the stam-
merer's inability to speak. Dr. Sandow supposes
that the speech-disturbances are due to injury to the
speech-nerves and to impairment of the motor speech-
centre of the brain. He supposes that these condi-
tions are aggravated by the stammering, and that
the stammering thus prevents reparation of the phy-
sical injury. Concerning the remedy for these con-
ditions, he says:
1 "Mechanik des Stotterns," pp. 17-18.
2 Loc. tit., p. 19.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 209
"Away with the dangerous speech-exercises! The one
proper treatment for over-excitable nerves is rest; and this
rest should alternate with gentle, natural, and unforced move-
ments, since these movements further the organic reparative
changes. If possible, the patient should enjoy a great deal of
sleep, quiet, restful sleep, undisturbed by dreams. We
recommend a short sleep before the midday meal as highly
beneficial; but if it is not possible for the patient to indulge
in sleep at this time, he should at least follow Hallervorden's
excellent precept : l ' Rest seems to me to possess an excel-
lent therapeutic value in cases of exhaustion. Therefore I
have for some years prescribed rest for neurasthenic patients.
I advise the patient to lie practically flat upon his back for five
or ten minutes since this position affords the most relief
to the muscular system and to rest both body and mind as
far as possible. I advise him to repeat this from five to twelve
tunes during the day. The few patients that have followed
my advice have always thanked me for it, but probably only
one in ten has conscientiously fulfilled my instructions.' On
no account should one shorten the night's sleep by rising early
or retiring late.
"Every stammerer should treat himself or if too young,
should be treated as a patient suffering from neurasthe-
nia. . . . With every movement that he makes, he should bear
this fact in mind. He should execute each movement with the
greatest possible relaxation and ease, observing, too, absolute
nonchalance and indifference. On the one hand, this physical
well-being is the enemy of fear, and its consorts, the various
asthenic emotions; and on the other hand, it must from its
very nature obviate every strong impulse or innervation.
But not any kind of slowness (in moving arms and legs) is
1 "Arbeit und Wille, ein Kapital klinischer Psychologic," Vol. I,
210 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
implied. There are different kinds of slowness. One person
goes slowly because some one in front of him blocks the way.
Another goes slowly because he is too relaxed and too much at
ease to care about going faster. This second kind of slowness,
slowness induced by physical relaxation and well-being, must
become the second nature of the patient. (Slowly, and with
absolute repose, he raises his hand to lift his hat. Quietly,
and with restful movements, he continues his walk, etc.)
And why is this restfulness and relaxation so essential ? Be-
cause slowness and ease of movements, especially of move-
ments of the right extremities, permits only weak innervations
to reach the motor nerves of the brain and especially of the
left hemisphere of the brain, hi which the speech-centre lies.
As a consequence it permits the gradual recovery of the in-
jured nerves. These slow movements, since they entail only
the weakest innervations, prevent all irradiation upon the
contiguous speech-nerves. One can, of course, move the
limbs as much as he pleases, but each movement especially
of the right arm and leg must be slowly and restfully exe-
cuted. Ultimately the speech-organs become influenced by this
mode of activity, which itself becomes more and more habitual.
"The speech-nerves themselves must be guarded from all
excessive impulse. One should speak only in the most noncha-
lant tone, and endeavor, whilst speaking, to maintain the highest
degree of well-being [Vottbehagen, Urbehagen] and relaxation.
Let the stammerer preserve his physical and mental ease, and
have no scruples about separating words and phrases that are
ordinarily connected. Let him adopt the manner of a speaker
that pronounces his words as they occur to him with utter
disregard for rhetorical effect. The recital or the question then
assumes the character of the involuntary, the unstudied, the
abrupt. The ease and well-being of the moment alone de-
termines the pauses, the lengthening of the vowels, the inflec-
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 211
tion, etc. This restful manner of speech has a powerful
effect upon the hearer. It is far more effective than the
stringing out of long and wordy sentences. Let the reader
try it, and he will soon discover this unforced and restful
tone for himself.
"The stammerer need have no fear of carrying this repose and
relaxation to excess. The hearer will certainly not find the
manner displeasing. And even if this were not the case, the
stammerer has to consider himself, and not the hearer. Every
speaker has his idiosyncrasies, so why should the patient not
have his ? especially as his happens to be the most natural
in the world. The patient always has the right (and no reason-
ing person will gainsay it) to consider himself in the first place,
and also himself in the second, third, and fourth ; and last of
all to consider the hearer just a little. The stammerer should
make the most abundant use of this privilege. And let me once
more emphasize the fact that this restful and unhurried speech
always strikes the hearer pleasantly." 1
And when the stammerer experiences fear or antici-
"Let him concentrate his whole thought simply and solely
upon the task of living that moment with the greatest possible
repose and well-being. Let him relax the muscles of the arms,
and as far as possible the muscles of the legs and other parts
of the body, meanwhile permitting the resultant feeling of
comfort to come well to the fore in consciousness. Let the
stammerer if he finds it agreeable slowly raise his hand and
stroke it across his face. Let him yawn while performing the
act, and then draw a few slow and deep breaths to intensify
his feeling of restfulness and indifference. When this feeling
1 Loc cit., pp. 135-138.
212 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
has acquired sufficient intensity, the first few words will flow
from the lips of their own accord. At this point the speaker
allows a restful pause to supervene, paying no regard to the ex-
pectant looks of his hearer. 'I consider first my repose and
well-being. Other things must accommodate themselves to the
circumstances. And what I have to say is utterly worthless
and insignificant compared with my effort to preserve my phys-
ical and mental repose.' With thoughts of this kind, and with
slow, restful movements, and deep breaths, and occasional
yawnings, the stammerer strives only to bring the feeling of
comfort again to its former pitch. This reached, a second word
and perhaps a third flows spontaneously from the lips.
And thus the stammerer proceeds till the sentence is com-
There are many reasons why a procedure of this
kind should inhibit stammering. The stammerer
that can successfully employ this expedient has estab-
lished a degree of independence that should render
him no more liable to the impediment in the presence
of other people than in the privacy of his own room.
It is doubtful, though, whether the average stam-
merer could carry the measure to the extreme that
Dr. Sandow recommends. Fortunately this relaxa-
tion and composure is beneficial if attained in any
degree. It is a direct counteractive of physical
stammering and the corporeal changes that give
rise to fear. It is evident, too, that this physical
and mental repose must prevent excessive affluxion
1 Loc. cit., p. 145.
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 213
of blood to the brain, and that it thus probably tends
indirectly to preclude amnesia.
There can be no doubt that relaxation diminishes
the inertia of the motor speech-mechanism, and that
the mechanism is then capable of being actuated by a
stimulus weaker than would otherwise be necessary.
When the body-muscles are generally contracted
and this condition commonly prevails with the
stammerer the motor cells of the cortex must be
continuously discharging into the efferent nerves.
It seems that the inertia of the contiguous motor
ce^ls those actuating the speech-organs is then
increased, and speech rendered more difficult in
consequence. On the other hand, when the muscles
of the body are generally relaxed, there is apparently
a diminution in the inertia of the cells actuating the
accessory muscles. The result, as already stated, is
that the oral articulative mechanism is capable of
being actuated by a weaker stimulus; i.e. by a
weaker auditory or kinaesthetic verbal image. Re-
laxation would thus preclude stammering in many
instances when muscular tension would make it
As already remarked, Dr. Sandow's expedient is
merely the development of a feature embodied in
practically every commendable system for the treat-
ment of stammering. Of the efficacy of the expedient
there can be no doubt. It counteracts physical
214 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
stammering, fear, and to some extent multiple thought.
Dr. Sandow's theory concerning damaged speech-
nerves and damaged motor cells is almost certainly
erroneous likewise his theory of their gradual
recovery as a result of the procedure advocated. His
conception of the functions performed by the various
centres is somewhat indeterminate ; the kinaesthetic
verbal centre is frequently lost in the shuffle. Dr.
Sandow's "Mechanik des Stotterns" is, however, a
splendid work, and it is highly recommended to the
And now a few miscellaneous expedients :
There is a " professor" that marauds around
America telling his victims (after the necessary cash-
transaction) to grunt before they speak. Stammer-
ing occurs according to the professor only on the
"sounding consonants"; therefore if the stammerer
will breathe and grunt before he articulates, no diffi-
culty can arise.
A German expedient, which was recently intro-
duced into England, consists in accentuating the
"sense-bearers," or principal words in a sentence
(since these alone occasion difficulty!). "Tell me the
truth." Accentuate " tell " and " truth " and raise the
pitch on these words. "Follow a wave of sound."
The employment of synonyms and circumlocu-
tions is recommended by some teachers of stammerers.
If asked your name, you say, "It is spelled ," and
MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 215
proceed to spell it. Instead of saying, "No, thank
you," if some one offers you the mustard, you smile
and say, "Another time." It would be less de-
moralizing to eat the mustard.
Another device consists in interpolating words and
using "starters." "Er-no" ; "Why, yes," and so on.
This defect is known as Embololalia or Enibolophrasia.
Other remedies are : clenching the fists at difficult
words, squeezing the larynx with the ringers, pinch-
ing oneself, whistling before difficult words, imitating
another person's voice, refraining from speaking, etc.
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC.
MECHANICAL aids are occasionally employed even
at the present day in the treatment of stammering.
A prominent Russian institution boasts an "ortho-
paedic therapeutic speech-apparatus" that "facili-
tates the mechanical action of speech" and "renders
In America we find a sponsor for the electric battery
and coil. The electric apparatus is attached to a
belt and worn next to the body. The wearer
presses a button and receives a monitory shock
when he feels inclined to stammer.
In current works we read of knotted towels and
head-bandages to be worn at night to keep the tongue
in its "high position"; and of paper-knives, silver
hooks, pencils, and knitting-needles to correct faulty
articulation. And occasionally we read that the
stammerer may cure himself, like Demosthenes, by
speaking with a mouth full of gravel. 1
As a substitute for gravel, one may use gutta-
1 Demosthenes probably never stammered ; his defect seems to
have been lallation.
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 217
"To make the balls, take a piece of gutta-percha and put
it in boiling water till it is quite soft. Break a piece off large
enough to make a good-sized ball the larger the better [ ! ].
Wipe it dry ; roll it between the palms of the hands till it be
perfectly round. Put it in cold water to cool ; it will otherwise
flatten by its own weight; make another in the same way.
Make two smaller balls four in all.
"To use the balls, put one of the smaller ones in the mouth
between the teeth and the gums ; put the other small one in
on the other side ; put the larger balls in front of the smaller
ones. Speak with the balls in the mouth.
"The object is to handicap the speaker and make him strive
after power. It does not render speaking impossible, but much
more difficult. The practice is preferable to the use of corks
between the teeth."
The use of cork between the teeth was recom-
mended by Charles Kingsley. In a letter to Miss
, he says : *
"If you find it difficult to speak with your mouth open (and
it will very likely give you pain in the ear at first, but only at
first), get a bit of cork, cut it about so thick ( ), and put
it between your back teeth, and speak so. ...
"You must practise reading out loud to yourself, opening
your mouth at the vowels as wide as you can, and perhaps
keeping the cork in at first, till you have made a habit of it."
Kingsley is still cited at times as authority for this
Devices for relieving expiratory pressure are some-
1 "Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol.
II, pp. 260-261.
2i8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
times encountered. "Bates' Appliances" may be
cited as examples, though probably none of these
particular instruments have been foisted upon the
public within the last twenty years. "Bates' Ap-
pliances" were invented a little more than fifty years
ago by an American, and at the time, of course, were
infallible in curing stammering. The following re-
port describing the implements is by "The Com-
mittee on Science and the Arts" of the Franklin
"REPORT ON INSTRUMENTS FOR THE CURE OP STAMMERING
"The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the
Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promo-
tion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom were referred for examina-
tion, 'Instruments for the Cure of Stammering,' invented by
Mr. Robert Bates, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania REPORT :
"That much discrepancy of opinion has prevailed as to the
cause and consequent treatment of stammering. Many of the
earlier writers have attributed all the varieties of this form of
defective speech to some organic affection of the vocal appara-
tus, or malformation of the parts that compose the mouth and
fauces ; as, for example, hypertrophy of the tongue, a low posi-
tion of that organ in the mouth, enlargement of the tonsils,
uvula, etc. The treatment, based upon these erroneous and
limited views as to the cause, was necessarily as various as it
was unsuccessful. Thus rollers were placed under the tongue,
to obviate its fancied depression (Madame Leigh's treatment) ;
the tonsils and uvula were excised, deep gashes made in the
tongue to lessen its size, etc. Others, again, traced the defect
to a want of nervous power in the tongue, occasioned by paral-
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 219
ysis of the ninth nerve, and attempted to overcome it by the
use of stimulating masticatories, electricity, etc.
"In all these instances it is obvious that a special was mis-
taken for a general cause.
"A more accurate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology
of the organs of phonation led to an improvement on the above
restricted conjectures. . . .
"Mr. Bates, by an independent course of investigation and
observation upon himself and others laboring under stammering,
has arrived at the same conclusion concerning the difficulty to
overcome, as is entertained by the modern physiological school.
"The instruments invented by him are all based upon the
same principle, and, in the opinion of the committee, are more
efficient in obviating the vocal defect in question than any other
contrivance or method with which they are acquainted. As
the spastic difficulty obviously accompanies different sets of
letters in different persons, Mr. Bates has invented three va-
rieties of instruments, as applicable to all the forms of stammer-
ing ; all have the same object in view, however the main-
tenance of an uninterrupted current of sonorous breath.
"His instruments are as follow:
"i. A narrow, flattened tube of silver, seven-eighths of an
inch in length, very light, thin and smooth. The diameter of
the calibre of the tube, measured from the inner edge of one
side to the inner edge of the other, is three-eighths of an inch ;
while the depth, measured from the anterior inner edge to the
posterior, is one-sixteenth of an inch. This is applied to the
roof of the mouth, in the median line, in such a manner that the
anterior end is lodged just behind the teeth ; while the posterior
opens into the mouth, looking upward and backward toward the
fauces. In this position it is maintained by a delicate piece
of wire or thin slip of india rubber fastened to one end of the
tube, the other passing between the incisor teeth of the upper
220 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
jaw. This tube is intended to overcome the difficulty in the
pronunciation of the linguo-palatal letters, which are formed
by the application of the tongue to the palate. This it accom-
plishes by preserving a continuous current of air, thereby
preventing spasm, allowing the letter in fault to be properly
elicited, and thus restoring the self-confidence of the sufferer.
"2. For the explosive consonants, the labials, dento-labials,
etc., the contrivance consists of a hollow, bi-convex disk, from
one end of which projects a silver tube, which, passing out
between the lips, keeps up the communication between the at-
mosphere and the oral cavity. The current of air from the
glottis enters by means of a small hole at one side of the disk,
and escapes through the silver tube. Finding the saliva was
apt to accumulate in the disk, and thus obstruct the entrance
and exit of air, the inventor has recently substituted for this
lateral opening a small tube, passing from the upper edge of
the disk, and bent at an acute angle upon itself.
"3. For the accurate elimination of the guttural sounds, Mr.
Bates has contrived a belt, made of patent or glazed leather, or
any other strong material, and lined with morocco. This belt
is concealed in an ordinary stock or cravat, and in this manner
secured around the neck. In the middle, and on the anterior
surface of this belt, is fitted a metallic plate, through which
passes a regulating screw. On the inner side of the belt, and
just opposite the plate, is a metallic spring, covered with kid
or any other soft material, and firmly sewed by both ends to
the strap. When this apparatus is adjusted about the neck,
the regulating screw, resting upon the spring, causes the latter
to be forced inward, so as to press more or less strongly upon the
thyroid cartilage, thus relaxing the rima-glottidis by approxi-
mating the thyroid to the arytenoid cartilages. In this man-
ner, the exit of air is provided for, and the spasmodic action of
the muscles that close the glottis is overcome. The pressure
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 221
upon the larynx can be increased or diminished, as may be
" From the above description it will be seen that the efficiency
of these instruments is entirely dependent upon the unob-
structed channel which they preserve for the egress of the vi-
brating column of breath from the larynx, through the mouth
into the open air. Muscular spasm is necessarily removed,
and the self-confidence of the stammerer restored undoubt-
edly the great desideratum in this affection. When the patient
is fully convinced that he can really enunciate the opposing
letters as distinctly as his friends, he rapidly overcomes the
disease, by the judicious and effective exertions which renewed
" An advantage of some importance possessed by this appara-
tus is, that it can be worn without attracting notice, two of the
pieces the tube for the palatal and the belt for the guttural
sounds being entirely concealed ; while the tube which
projects externally from the silver disk may be disguised by
slipping over it the barrel of a quill, cut like a tooth-pick.
Moreover, each of the pieces can be most easily and expedi-
tiously applied, as occasion may require. . . .
"By order of the Committee,
"WILLIAM HAMILTON, Actuary."
This collection of machinery was sent to the stam-
merer on payment of fifteen dollars. If he retained it
in his possession for a longer period than four months,
he was required to pay another fifteen dollars ; but he
then became the lawful owner of the equipment.
Instruments similar to "Bates' Appliances" may
still at times be encountered.
1 Quoted from The Voice, Vol. VI, p. 141.
222 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Itard's tongue-fork, Colombat's "refoule langue,"
and Wutzer's " glosso-mochlion " are fortunately ex-
tinct. But even now an occasional troglodyte will
recommend a tongue-raising apparatus reminiscent
of these contrivances.
Till a few years ago a German "speech specialist"
was selling "tongue-nerve powders" at sixteen for
six marks. These powders were employed to "re-
vitalize and strengthen the weakened tongue-nerves."
Medicaments for curing stammering now belong,
however, almost exclusively to the past.
Galvanic, faradic, and static electrical treatments
were once popular in the therapy of stammering.
They have now been almost universally discarded.
Various gymnastic exercises are used in many
stammering-schools. Ling's Swedish exercises are
particularly popular. 1
Little need be said concerning mechanical and
physical aids in the treatment of stammering. Such
devices can be of benefit only while they inhibit fear,
1 Here is one argument for gymnastics :
"The usual cause, however, is an easily excited brain, and stam-
merers are frequently persons of very acute sensibility and intelligence.
But in the case of such sensitive brains, thought is apt to radiate so
quickly as to defeat the capacity of the nerves to convey it. Hence
frequently arises the habit of stammering.
"Taking this hypothesis as my starting point, I argued that by
developing other parts of the body, and thus diverting the brain-
impulses to other areas of the system, as well as by toning up the
nerves and circulation generally, by means of scientific physical
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 223
etc., which will not be for long. Electrical treat-
ments and gymnastic exercises are certainly not
directed at the cause of abnormal utterance.
At this point it may be opportune to say a word
concerning surgical operations, which are, of course,
intended to remove mechanical obstructions to speech.
The operating craze began in 1841, but, like many of
its victims, it was shortly blessed with death. Unfor-
tunately a few of its illegitimate offspring survive.
The parent operation consisted in slicing a transverse
wedge from the base of the tongue. The edges of
the gap were then brought and sewed together;
and the tongue was in the much-wished-for "high
position." The filial operations consist in remov-
ing adenoids, tonsils, elongated uvulas, and other
accessible material. An English teacher of stam-
merers (apparently with no medical knowledge) finds
seventy-nine stammerers in a hundred afflicted with
various "obstructions." These obstructions, it is
true, are not represented as causes of stammering,
culture, I should produce a more harmonious balance of brain and
body, to the lasting benefit of the sufferer."
Oh, how scientific 1
And here we have convincing proof that physical exercises are
"Besides the other remedies, she practised gymnastic exercises,
and consequently lost her voice altogether, because gymnastics in-
creased the peripheral strength."
And so it goes.
224 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
but as aggravants to be excised prior to elocutionary
No intelligent person would contend, of course,
that genuine obstructions to respiration should not
be removed. But such obstructions seldom stand
in causal relation to stammering; and when 79 per
cent of a teacher's prospective pupils require surgical
treatment, one would at least conjecture that the
standards applied are in need of adjustment.
IN reviewing psychological methods of treating
stammering, we shall consider first the various minor
and miscellaneous expedients that occupy accessorial
positions in the conventional "elocutionary" systems.
Afterward, we shall examine the more conspicuous
measures that are frequently employed as systems in
A century-old accessory that still remains popular
is the period of silence at the beginning of treatment.
The most familiar argument in support of the silence-
period is that it permits a disintegration of the old
"habit" while a new one is being formed. 1 Other
arguments are that silence affords rest to "over-
wrought nerves," that it has a beneficial psycho-
logical effect, and so on. It is somewhat difficult to
say whether or not the silence-period is really salu-
tary; for when this period terminates, the pupil
usually resorts to unnatural speech sing-songing,
'"Silence" usually means refraining from conversation. The
pupils commonly practise exercises during this period.
226 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
time-beating, drawling, etc. He then speaks more
fluently; but by sing-songing, etc., he might have
spoken just as fluently from the first. The initial
silence-period is usually considered by teachers and
pupils alike to be highly beneficial ; but their con-
clusions cannot be regarded as apodictic, since they
take no cognizance of many of the factors involved.
Subsequent periods of silence are often prescribed
by teachers of stammerers when pupils are meeting
with unusual difficulty.
A psychological exercise that is now and then
recommended is the practice of internal speech. The
student confines his thought as far as possible to
verbal imagery, thinking his words in a direct and
orderly manner. This measure might be beneficial
to the stammerer that thinks generally in visual
images, or that finds himself subject to multiple
thought during speech. On the other hand, it would
be of no benefit to the stammerer that invariably
thinks his words in orderly consecution.
The following "golden rule" is often commended
to the stammerer: "Never begin a sentence till you
know how it is to conclude." This expedient of
thinking out the sentence has already been discussed. 1
It may be efficacious when no lalophobia exists (with
children, for instance) ; but in other cases it may
enhance the stammerer's fear. Here the proof of
' Vol. I, P . 342-
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 227
the pudding will be the presence or absence of
The contrary procedure consists in speaking one's
words as they rise in the mind, and uttering them
rapidly to prevent the intrusion of "foreign ideas." 1
In reading for practice, one covers the succeeding
words in order that they may not divert attention.
All of which seems Eke a roundabout and undesirable
method of obtaining a desirable end.
The stammerer is sometimes advised to visualize
his words in print or script. This expedient has
already been discussed. 2
The antipodal procedure consists in "darkening
the mental eye " for the purpose of excluding " letters."
It is difficult to criticize the procedure, for no specific
instructions are given for accomplishing the feat,
and each stammerer is left to discover his own means
of affixing an eye-flap to his organ of psychic vision.
Associated with the process of "darkening the
mental eye" is that of acquiring "phlegmatics."
"All of your force and energy, exerted hitherto in the wrong
direction, must be devoted to acquiring that which is essential,
viz.: phlegmatics [" exaggerated calmness"]. . . . This we
bring about by placing ourselves in the state of a tired, sluggish,
or feeble individual."
1 This expedient seems to have been introduced by Moses Mendels-
2 Vol. I, pp. 350 ff. Concerning visualization of oral movements,
see Vol. I, pp. 362 ff., and Vol. II, pp. 94 ff.
228 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
This is Dr. Sandow's expedient, already discussed.
The stammerer is often advised to assume a "posi-
tive" attitude and to speak in a loud, confident
voice. The suggestion is in line with James's theory
that one may ultimately feel an emotion by con-
tinually affecting it. But perhaps a quiet and con-
fident voice would be no less efficacious than vocifer-
Most "speech specialists" make much of imbuing
the stammerer with enthusiasm. "In the lexicon of
youth, which fate reserves for a bright manhood,
there is no such word as ' fail.' " But in this hulla-
baloo one is merely taking advantage of a printer's
error. Enthusiasm in the student is desirable enough,
but it is a mighty poor substitute for competency in
Most teachers of stammerers approve the simple
life. "Early to bed and early to rise," "Coffee
is a poison and tobacco a narcotic," and so on. But
in these matters the stammerer will, of course, be
guided by his temperament and individual experi-
ence. The advice to avoid extreme fatigue is pretty
generally pertinent, for when mentally or physically
tired most stammerers experience an exacerbation of
Then there are the inevitable bizarreries among
the accessories employed in treating stammering.
An American teacher eulogizes a specific mental atti-
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 229
tude for repelling or diverting (we are not sure which)
"impingements from a lower plane."
Another teacher recommends abstinence from ani-
mal food, combined with soul-training and mental
gymnastics. The mental gymnastics suggested are
politeness, fasting, and prayer.
A third teacher seems to be recommending some-
thing in the following paragraphs :
"There is a supreme moment, the leading up to which is as
quick as thought. It is the catching of this supreme moment
that constitutes control. The moment thought becomes
complete feeling is that in which complete thought may be
expressed. This moment is that in which inspiration being
complete upon the plane of the thought, the expiration is led
off upon the same plane by the Intent. There is no miscarriage.
However apprehensive the speaker may have been up to this
point, the moment he feels this unity, he is henceforth strong.
"The stutterer should seek for, and duly recognize, this subtle
something that speaks of the task performed, before the thought
is attempted in expression. At a distance from him, out in the
outer atmosphere, he will be sensible of having projected a force
that not only will act as a fitting medium for unclogged utter-
ance, but which will insure him against attacks of fear, or acci-
dents from without, that might otherwise impede the trans-
mission of his thought, by turning his mind from an established
So much, then, for the psychological accessories.
We shall now examine the major psychological
measures employed in the treatment of stammering.
230 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The first expedient that we have to consider is
auto-suggestion, which forms the basis of several
"therapeutic" systems. We give as typical, the in-
structions of an English stammering-school that
employs auto-suggestion and elocutionary expedients
as coordinate measures :
"Without a liberal measure of Auto Suggestion all my
advice will be largely thrown away. Auto Suggestion is your
own voice speaking to your own inner self. You must realize
how important it is that you should give yourself the right
auto-suggestions ; think of them and act on them.
"The effect of Auto Suggestion is based on the fact that any
achievement is brought about in the first place by an idea for-
mulated in the mind, and the more firmly this takes root the more
rapid and permanent will be the accomplishment.
"When applying auto-suggestion you must not forget that
it is vital to bring into play the whole force of your will. If it
is to act as an inspiration and develop its full power it must be
done with intentness and fixity of purpose. And you must be
convinced of the truth of the suggestion proceeding from your
will, it is bound to work with direct force on your imagination.
"A suggestion in order to grow wants time, and any impetu-
ousness is liable to drive it away again. It is therefore funda-
mentally wrong to suggest too much or too often. A few
suggestions well and correctly used keep on working on their
own account. That is why it is always advisable to divert your
thoughts immediately after the suggestions have been made.
The wording of the suggestions is immaterial, the sense being the
essential thing. However, it is imperative to become entirely
absorbed in the sense of the suggestions, thinking or speaking
slowly, calmly, and with firmness.
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 231
" Always use the present tense.
"The daily practice should be as follows :
'Auto Suggestions given in the morning immediately after
waking up, and at night immediately before falling to sleep.
"Once in your thoughts.
" I am indifferent in every way and do not lose my self-control.
"My speaking is quite normal. I have no difficulties what-
ever. When I have to speak I go down [lower the pitch] and
always form very easy volume of sound.
" Twice in whispering voice.
"I am always calm and indifferent. My speaking is quite
fluent. I always form easy volume of descending sound,
avoiding any pressure.
"Four times aloud. The Same as above.
"It is further necessary to sketch out certain situations
in which you previously experienced special difficulties, with the
view of your speaking now with entire freedom.
"After having sketched out the situations and your actions
minutely, you have to give the final suggestions either in a whis-
pering voice or aloud. The wording in which you clothe the
suggestions has to be adapted for the special purpose. How-
ever, it is vital to use in addition such suggestions as the follow-
ing. It is nonsense to think I have any difficulty in speaking
(in a shop or at the telephone). On the contrary it gives me
pleasure to go into shops, etc., and to speak with easy volume
of descending sound.
"It is of great importance at the same time never to sketch
out more than one or at most two such situations of life.
Further you must not practise one situation to-day and another
to-morrow, but you must concentrate your mind for some time
(two or more weeks) on the same situation in order to impress it
so intensely that the suggestion can be turned into action.
"After you have finished the sketch which should not take
232 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
more than five minutes, your thoughts should be diverted imme-
"The desired result, provided that you practise intensely,
is bound to come, as it is based on the natural working of your
subconscious mind (mind behind the principal mind)."
Much of the procedure here advocated appeals to
one as being fetishistic. "Once in your thoughts
. . . Twice in whispering voice . . . Four times
aloud." Well, why ? If auto-suggestion ever proves
effective, it is undoubtedly due to the fact that
during suggestion, sthenic emotions are associated
with the ideas of the action or situation depicted.
The emotions may then recur when the action or
situation comes to be realized. The whispering for-
mula is certainly foreign to the matter. The subcon-
scious mind here invoked is, of course, supposititious.
For persons with certain types of minds this
auto-suggestive procedure might prove beneficial.
However, the writer has witnessed its application in a
number of cases, and in these it has yielded "nega-
Counter auto-suggestion (suggestions of "I can
and will" etc.) are often recommended by "speech
specialists" for combating immediate difficulties.
This subject has been discussed in the preceding vol-
ume (pp. 339-340).
Hypnotism is frequently employed in treating stam-
mering. The patient is brought into a drowsy (or
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 233
occasionally a somnambulic) condition by suggestions
of sleep, by passes, by being required to fixate an ob-
ject, etc. He is then given suggestions of his con-
fidence and ability to speak. If somnambulic, he
may be required to converse with, or read to, the
person conducting the treatment.
A German teacher that places great reliance upon
hypnotism writes thus of its efficacy :
"The treatment of stammering by means of hypnotic sug-
gestion commends itself as an exclusively psychological method;
and as such it offers essential advantages. First, sleep exerts
so beneficial an influence on the nervous and excitable nature of
the stammerer, and so counteracts his characteristic disquietude,
haste, and fear, that speech-disturbances almost invariably
vanish during hypnosis. And further, the influences em-
ployed to combat the thought of stammering are usually ac-
cepted without criticism in the deeper stages of sleep ; and the
auto-suggestive nature of the difficulty the stammerer's
belief in his inability to talk is removed more rapidly than
would be the case with any other form of treatment. We
have already noted what labor and pains the so-called 'en-
vironal stammerer' l occasions the teacher when other systems
are employed. With such patients, hypnotic suggestion af-
fords the only effective treatment ; and, moreover, the work is
greatly simplified for both pupil and teacher. The latter need
no longer follow each step of the pupil, for the factors and sit-
uations that the pupil fears can be attacked by suggestion." *
l "Situaiions-slotterer" one that speaks fluently in the institu-
tion and with friends, but stammers in certain difficult situations.
1 From the prospectus of a German stammering-school.
234 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Numerous cures are reported by persons that have
employed the hypnotic method. Wetterstrand, for
instance, reports fifteen cures in forty-five cases. 1
But, of these fifteen patients, thirteen were children
from five to twelve years of age ; so, after all, the per-
formance was not remarkable and Wetterstrand
admits ignorance as to whether or not many of his
cures were permanent.
On the whole, the treatment of stammering by
hypnotic suggestion has not been successful. Most
writers on general hypnotism report a fair percentage
of cures but this with a small number of cases.
The hypnotist, however, usually knows nothing about
stammering ; hence his criterion of cure may be faulty,
and his figures consequently unreliable. 2
It is interesting to note what Gutzmann has to
say concerning the hypnotic treatment of stammering. 3
"The whole hypnotic treatment of stammering has been a
fiasco. Forel, a champion of hypnotic therapy, has himself
plainly avowed the fact ; and success has been achieved only
when hypnotic treatment has been employed in conjunction with
a system of gymnastic and physiological training. No reason-
able physician doubts that a stammerer may be brought into a
1 Wetterstrand, " Hypnotism and its Application to Practical Medi-
cine," pp. 36 ff.
2 The writer has in mind a physician that subjected a patient to the
test of repeating after him some of his difficult words. He was de-
lighted to find that the patient spoke with fluency ; and was practi-
cally ready to pronounce the case a cure.
Hermann Gutzmann, " Sprachheilkunde," ad ed., p. 394.
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 235
tranquil mood by hypnotic suggestion, and that the stammerer
will speak relatively well under these conditions; but he may
with good reason question the fact that this tranquil mood will
continue. Thus we see hypnotic treatment treatment
intended merely to remove the stammerer's fear prove abor-
tive though continued for years."
Hypnotic treatment, even though it were poten-
tially efficacious, would almost surely fail because of
the extremely general nature of the suggestions. Yet
if both patient and physician possessed an intelligent
comprehension of the malady, and the patient could
himself diagnose the case; then it seems not at all
improbable that specific suggestions might be given
that would prove effective.
In a few European stammering-schools, suggestions
are given to the pupil "in the waking state." This
form of treatment, its votaries are ardent to emphasize,
is not hypnotism. But hypnosis itself does not neces-
sarily involve unconsciousness or sleep. The com-
mendation of " Wac/rsuggestionen " is commonly a
quibble intended to circumvent popular ignorance
and prejudice regarding hypnotism.
Psychoanalysis has recently been employed in
the treatment of stammering by persons holding the
view that the disturbance is a fear-neurosis or
an "obsession" (Angstneurose, Angsthysterie, Wahn-
vorstellung, etc.). The purpose of the analysis is
to ascertain the cause of the obsessing fear, which
236 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
is usually taken to be an emotion or desire that has
at some time been voluntarily "repressed" (ver-
drangt) from the conscious into the (hypothetical)
subconscious mind. It is somewhat difficult to give
a concise summary of the psychoanalytic theories,
for these theories are vaporous even in the minds of
their propounders, and writers that have treated
the subject have given us little more than immethodi-
cal discussions with arguments based largely on anal-
ogy,. We will, however, attempt a resume, quoting
psychoanalyists where feasible in order to avoid any
First, the distinction between psychoanalysis and
hypnotic suggestion :
"I notice that this method is often mistaken for the hyp-
notic suggestive treatment. I notice this by the fact that quite
frequently colleagues whose confidant I am not by any means,
send patients to me, refractory patients of course, with the
request that I should hynotize them. Now, for eight years I
have not practised hypnotism (individual cases excluded) as
a therapeutic aim, and hence I used to return the patients with
the advice that he who relies on hypnosis should do it himself.
In truth, the greatest possible contrast exists between the sug-
gestive and the analytic technique, that contrast which the
great Leonardo da Vinci has expressed for the arts in the for-
mulae per via di porre and per via di levare. Said Leonardo, ' The
art of painting works per via di porre, that is to say, places
little heaps of paint where they have not been before on the
uncolored canvas; sculpturing, on the other hand, goes per
via di levare, that is to say, it takes away from the stone as
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 237
much as covers the surface of the statue therein contained.'
Quite similarly, gentlemen, the suggestive technique acts per
via di porre, it does not concern itself about the origin, force,
and significance of the morbid symptoms, but puts on some-
thing, to wit, the suggestion which it expects will be strong
enough to prevent the pathogenic idea from expression. On the
other hand the analytic therapy does not wish to put on any-
thing, or introduce anything new, but to take away, and
extract, and for this purpose it concerns itself with the genesis
of the morbid symptoms, and the psychic connection of the
pathogenic idea, the removal of which is its aim." *
Concerning the genesis of the morbid symptoms,
Freud says :
"Almost all the symptoms originated ... as remnants, as
precipitates, if you like, of affectively-toned experiences,
which for that reason we later called 'psychic traumata.'
The nature of the symptoms became clear through their rela-
tion to the scene which caused them. They were, to use the
technical term, 'determined' (determiniert) by the scene whose
memory traces they embodied, and so could no longer be
described as arbitrary or enigmatical functions of the
neurosis. . . .*
"We are forced to the conclusion that the patient fell ill
because the emotion developed in the pathogenic situation was
prevented from escaping normally, and the essence of the sick-
ness lies in the fact that these 'imprisoned' (dingeklemmt)
x " Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses,"
Freud (translated by Brill), pp. 177-178.
1 Freud in "Lectures and Addresses delivered before the Depart-
ments of Psychology and Pedagogy in Celebration of the Twentieth
Anniversary of the Opening of Clark University," p. 5.
238 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
emotions undergo a series of abnormal changes. In part
they are preserved as a lasting charge and as a source of con-
stant disturbance in psychical life; in part they undergo a
change into unusual bodily innervations and inhibitions, which
present themselves as the physical symptoms of the case. We
have coined the name 'hysterical conversion' for the latter
When there is little or no "conversion," the symp-
toms are directly related to the cause :
"To take the most commonplace example: a painful emo-
tion occurs while one is eating, but is repressed; this results
in nausea and vomiting, which may then continue for months
as an hysterical disturbance. A girl is watching with painful
anxiety by the sick-bed. She falls into a dreamy and absent-
minded state, and in this condition experiences a terrifying
hallucination, while her right arm, which is hanging over the
back of the chair, 'falls asleep.' There results a paralysis of
this arm, with contracture and anaesthesia. She wishes to
pray, but finds no words. Finally she succeeds in uttering a
child's prayer in English. When later there develops a severe
and highly complicated hysteria, she speaks, writes, and under-
stands only English, while for a year and a half her mother-
tongue remains untelligible to her. A mother is watching by
a sick child that has at last gone to sleep. The mother con-
centrates the entire force of her will upon the task of remaining
quiet, so that the child may not be disturbed. But, as the direct
result of this effort, she produces a clicking sound with the
tongue ('hysterical counter- will'). This happens again on
another occasion when she wishes to remain perfectly still.
This leads to a tic, manifesting itself through several years as
1 Freud, loc. cit., p. 8.
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 239
a clicking of the tongue with every excitement. A highly
intelligent man is assisting the surgeons in stretching his
brother's ankylosed hip. The patient is anaesthetized, and as
the joint yields with a cracking sound, the man feels severe
pain in his own hip, which symptom then continues for nearly
a year; etc." 1
But usually there is complete "hysterical conver-
sion," and the morbid symptoms bear no overt rela-
tion to the emotion or thought "repressed." (Hence,
of course, the need for psychoanalysis.)
"If the original emotion has discharged itself not in the nor-
mal, but in an 'abnormal reflex,' then it is the latter reflex that
is induced by recollection of the incident. The excitation pro-
duced by the affectively-colored recollection is 'converted'
into a corporeal phenomenon.
"If this abnormal reflex has become habitual through fre-
quent repetition; then, it seems, the efficacy of the exciting
recollection may be exhausted to the point where the emotion
is reduced to a minimum or altogether disappears. The
'hysterical conversion' is then complete. The mental repre-
sentation (Vorstellung), having lost its psychic effect, is now
overlooked by the individual; or its appearance in memory is
at once forgotten, as is the case with images that are not af-
fectively colored." *
As examples of "abnormal reflexes" Breuer cites
one's pacing the floor instead of groaning when he is
suffering from toothache; and one's grasping the
arms or back of a dentist's chair instead of screaming
1 Breuer and Freud, "Studien Uber Hysteric," pp. 2-3.
* Breuer, in Breuer and Freud's "Studien Uber Hysteric," p. 180.
240 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
and repelling the dentist. As an example of "con-
version" he cites the fact that the recollection of
an unavenged wrong may give rise to invective
These "hysterical symptoms" are "determined"
by the nature of the "psychic traumata." And the
"psychic trauma," according to Freud, is a "re-
"What were those forces, and what were the conditions of
this repression, in which we were now able to recognize the
pathogenic mechanism of hysteria? A comparative study
of the pathogenic situations, which the cathartic [or psycho-
analytic] treatment has made possible, allows us to answer this
question. In all those experiences, it had happened that a
wish had been aroused, which was in sharp opposition to the
other desires of the individual, and was not capable of being
reconciled with the ethical, aesthetic and personal pretensions
of the patient's personality. There had been a short conflict,
and the end of this inner struggle was the repression of the idea
which presented itself to consciousness as the bearer of this
irreconcilable wish. This was, then, repressed from con-
sciousness and forgotten. The incompatibility of the idea in
question with the 'ego' of the patient was the motive of the re-
pression, the ethical and other pretensions of the individual
were the repressing forces. The presence of the incompatible
wish, or the duration of the conflict, had given rise to a high
degree of mental pain ; this pain was avoided by the repression.
This latter process is evidently in such a case a device for the
protection of the personality." l
1 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at
Clark University," p. 13.
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 241
The repressed wish, according to Freud, is invari-
ably of a sexual nature : *
"Psychoanalytic investigations trace back the symptoms
of disease with really surprising regularity to impressions from
the sexual life, show us that the pathogenic wishes are of the na-
ture of erotic impulse-components (Triebkomponente) , and neces-
sitate the assumption that to disturbances of the erotic sphere
must be ascribed the greatest significance among the etiologi-
cal factors of the disease. This holds of both sexes. . . .
"The conduct of the patients does not make it any easier
to convince one's self of the correctness of the view which I have
expressed. Instead of willingly giving us information concern-
ing their sexual life, they try to conceal it by every means in their
power. Men generally are not candid in sexual matters. They
do not show their sexuality freely, but they wear a thick over-
coat a fabric of lies to conceal it, as though it were bad
weather in the world of sex. And they are not wrong ; sun and
wind are not favorable in our civilized society to any demon-
stration of sex life. In truth no one can freely disclose his erotic
life to his neighbor. But when your patients see that in your
treatment they may disregard the conventional restraints, they
lay aside this veil of lies, and then only are you in a position to
formulate a judgment on the question in dispute. Unfortu-
nately physicians are not favored above the rest of the children
of men in their personal relationship to the questions of the
sex life. Many of them are under the ban of that mixture of
prudery and lasciviousness which determines the behavior of
most Kulturmenschen in affairs of sex. . . .
"It is true that in another series of cases psychoanalysis at
first traces the symptoms back not to the sexual, but to banal
traumatic experiences. But the distinction loses its significance
1 Loc. cii., pp. 26 f.
242 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
through other circumstances. The work of analysis which is
necessary for the thorough explanation and complete cure of a
case of sickness does not stop in any case with the experience
of the time of onset of the disease, but in every case it goes back
to the adolescence and the early childhood of the patient. Here
only do we hit upon the impressions and circumstances which
determine the later sickness. Only the childhood experiences
can give the explanation for the sensitivity to later traumata
and only when these memory traces, which almost always are
forgotten, are discovered and made conscious, is the power
developed to banish the symptoms. We arrive here at the same
conclusion as in the investigation of dreams that it is the
incompatible, repressed wishes of childhood which lend their
power to the creation of symptoms. Without these the reac-
tions upon later traumata discharge normally. But we must
consider these mighty wishes of childhood very generally as
sexual in nature."
As Freud himself expresses the matter, "the theory
culminates in the sentence : In a normal vita sexualis
no neurosis is possible." *
According to the theory, the repressed wish ex-
presses itself in surrogates (by a process of "conver-
sion ") ; and thus leads to the anomalous symptoms
"We come to the conclusion, from working with hysterical
patients and other neurotics, that they have not fully succeeded
in repressing the idea to which the incompatible wish is at-
tached. They have, indeed, driven it out of consciousness and
'"Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses,"
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 243
out of memory, and apparently saved themselves a great
amount of psychic pain, but in the unconscious the suppressed
wish still exists, only waiting for its chance to become active, and
finally succeeds in sending into . consciousness, instead of the
repressed idea, a disguised and unrecognizable surrogate-
creation (Ersalzungsbild), to which the same painful sensations
associate themselves that the patient thought he was rid of
through his repression. This surrogate of the repressed idea
the symptom is secure against further attacks from the
defences of the ego, and instead of a short conflict there orig-
inates now a permanent suffering." 1
As to the relation between the symptoms and the
"psychic trauma," Freud says : 2
"We can observe in the symptom, besides the tokens of its
disguise, a remnant of traceable similarity with the originally
repressed idea ; the way in which the surrogate is built up can
be discovered during the psychoanalytic treatment of the
patient, and for his cure the symptom must be traced back over
the same route to the repressed idea."
In endeavoring to trace the relationship between
the symptoms and the "psychic trauma" the
psychoanalyst may resort to several expedients hyp-
notism, an analysis of the patient's dreams, observance
of his incoordinations (Fehlhandlungen) , and an explo-
ration of his "subconscious mind" (das Unbewusste) by
the methods of controlled and free association.
1 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at
Clark University," pp. 15-16.
1 Loc. cit., p. 16.
244 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
With the hypnotic method, the physician brings
the patient into a state of hypnosis and obtains from
him an account of his troubles ; he then endeavors to
trace back the process of "conversion." This method
was the one first employed in psychoanalysis, but it
has now been pretty generally discarded.
In analyzing the patient's dreams, the physician
interprets them as symbolic fulfilments of repressed
"If you will undertake to consider the dreams of young
children from the age of a year and a half on, you will find them
quite simple and easy to interpret. The young child always
dreams of the fulfilment of wishes which were aroused in him the
day before and were not satisfied. You need no art of interpre-
tation to discover this simple solution, you only need to inquire
into the experiences of the child on the day before (the ' dream
day'). Now it would certainly be a most satisfactory solution
of the dream-riddle, if the dreams of adults too, were the same
as those of children, fulfilments of wishes which had been
aroused in them during the dream day. This is actually the
fact; the difficulties which stand in the way of this solution
can be removed step by step by a thorough analysis of the
"There is, first of all, the most weighty objection, that the
dreams of adults generally have an incomprehensible content,
which shows wish-fulfilment least of anything. The answer
is this : these dreams have undergone a process of disguise, the
psychic content which underlies them was originally meant for
quite different verbal expression. You must differentiate be-
tween the manifest dream-content, which we remember in the
morning only confusedly, and with difficulty clothe in words
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 245
which seem arbitrary, and the latent dream-thoughts, whose
presence in the unconscious we must assume. This distortion
of the dream (Traumentstettung) is the same process which has
been revealed to you in the investigations of the creations
(symptoms) of hysterical subjects ; it points to the fact that the
same opposition of psychic forces has its share in the creation of
dreams as in the creation of symptoms.
"The manifest dream-content is the disguised surrogate
for the unconscious dream thoughts, and this disguising is the
work of the defensive forces of the ego, of the resistances.
These prevent the repressed wishes from entering conscious-
ness during the waking life, and even in the relaxation of sleep
they are still strong enough to force them to hide themselves
by a sort of masquerading. The dreamer, then, knows just as
little the sense of his dream as the hysterical knows the relation
and significance of his symptoms. That there are latent dream-
thoughts and that between them and the manifest dream-con-
tent there exists the relation just described of this you may
convince yourselves by the analysis of dreams, a procedure the
technique of which is exactly that of psychoanalysis. You must
abstract entirely from the apparent connection of the elements
in the manifest dream and seek for the irruptive ideas which arise
through free association, according to the psychoanalytic laws,
from each separate dream element. From this material the
latent thoughts may be discovered, exactly as one divines the
concealed complexes of the patient from the fancies connected
with his symptoms and memories. From the latent dream
thoughts which you will find in this way, you will see at once
how thoroughly justified one is in interpreting the dreams of
adults by the same rubrics as those of children. What is now
substituted for the manifest dream-content is the real sense of
the dream, is always clearly comprehensible, associated with
the impressions of the day before, and appears as the fulfilling
246 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
of an unsatisfied wish. The manifest dream, which we re-
member after waking, may then be described as a disguised
fulfilment l of repressed wishes." *
In observing the patient's " Fehlhandlungen "
his bungling acts, and his errors in reading, writing,
speaking, etc. the psychoanalyst again looks for
hidden meanings :
"These little things, the bungling of acts, like the sympto-
matic and chance acts (Symptom- und Zufattshandlungen) are
not so entirely without meaning as is generally supposed by a
sort of tacit agreement. They have a meaning, generally easy
and sure to interpret from the situation in which they occur, and
it can be demonstrated that they either express impulses and
purposes which are repressed, hidden if possible from the con-
1 To the present writer it would seem a thousand times more
reasonable to ascribe dreams to the idio-activity of brain-cells that
have recently subserved powerful impressions, or ideas accompanied
by emotion. If the dream were to start with such ideas as a nucleus,
it would, if continued, lead by association (a process of "impartial
redintegration") to things more irrelevant. With this state of affairs,
the nucleus would, of course, occasionally be a wish.
It is interesting to note the following paragraph by Breuer :
"In the days immediately following a railway accident, for in-
stance, one re-lives the scene in his waking hours and during sleep,
and experiences again the painful shock and emotion. This continues
till at last, after the period of 'psychic maturation' (Charcot) or in-
cubation, conversion to a somatic phenomenon is effected." ("Stu-
dien iiber Hysteric," p. 186.)
But what repressed wish is symbolized when one re-lives such an
event in his dreams?
2 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at
Clark University," pp. 21-22.
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 247
sciousness of the individual, or that they spring from exactly
the same sort of repressed wishes and complexes which we have
learned to know already as the creators of symptoms and
In employing "controlled association," the psycho-
analyst reads the patient a number of "stimulus-
words." For each stimulus-word the patient gives
the "reaction-word" (or words) first aroused in his
mind by association. Example :
to sing children
dead do not like
to pay bills
to ask all kinds
cold warm "
From the relations between the stimulus- and
reaction-words the psychoanalyst endeavors to fathom
the patient's "repressed wishes" and sift the refuse
of his "subconscious mind."
For "free association" the procedure is as follows:
1 Freud, loc. cit., p. 24.
248 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"The patient lies on his back on a lounge, the physician
sitting behind the patient's head at the head of the lounge.
In this way the patient remains free from all external influences
and impressions. The object is to avoid all muscular exertion
and distraction, thus allowing thorough concentration of atten-
tion on the patient's own psychic activities. The patient is
then asked to give a detailed account of his troubles, after hav-
ing been told before to repeat everything that occurs to his
mind, even such thoughts as may cause him embarrassment or
mortification. On listening to such a history one invariably
notices many memory gaps, both in reference to time and
causal relations. These the patient is urged to fill in by concen-
tration of attention on the subject in question, and by repeating
all the unintentional thoughts originating in this connection.
This is the so-called method of 'free association!' The pa-
tient is required to relate all his thoughts in the order of their
sequence even if they seem irrelevant to him. He must do
away with all critique and remain perfectly passive. It is in
this way that we fathom the original meaning of the symptom.
But as the thoughts which originate in this manner are of a
disagreeable and painful nature they are pushed back with the
greatest resistance. This is further enhanced by the fact that
the hysterical symptom is the symbolic expression of the reali-
zation of a repressed wish, and serves as a gratification for the
patient. He strives very hard, unconsciously of course, to
retain the symptom, as it is the only thing left to him from his
former unattainable conscious wishes and strivings. The
object of the psychoanalytic treatment is to overcome all these
resistances, and to reconduct to the patient's consciousness the
thoughts underlying the symptoms." 1
1 Brill, in the translator's preface to Freud's "Selected Papers
on Hysteria and Other Psychoneuroses."
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 249
In analyzing the material obtained, the physician
interprets its symbolic nature. The procedure is
most readily exemplified in the psychoanalyst's
interpretation of dreams. The dream of a Rou-
manian priest is thus recorded and interpreted by
"I tried to lease a residence from a certain Frau Konig.
The residence was not to be had ; but it was promised to me for
a later date. This occurred in my native town, and not in the
town where I live at present."
According to Stekel, engaging the residence refers
to establishing a liaison. "Frau Konig" is a com-
posite representation of four women, one of them
the patient's mother. The reference to the patient's
native town implies incestuous desires or propen-
The following dream (of the wife of a " Wachmann")
is recorded by Freud : 2
"Then some one broke into the house, and she called appre-
hensively to a policeman. But the policeman went with two
pilgrims into a church. Many steps led up to the church,
and behind the building there was a hill, and above, a thick
forest. The policeman had a brown beard, and he was wearing
a helmet, a gorget, and a mantle. The two travelling students,
who went peacefully with the policeman, were wearing sack-
like aprons around the loins. In front of the church a path led
up to the hill. On both sides this path was overgrown with
1 "NervSse Angstzustande und ihre Behandlung," p. 176.
1 "Traumdeutung," 3d ed., p. 217.
250 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
grass and brambles ; these grew thicker in the ascent, and on
top of the hill formed a veritable forest."
According to Freud's interpretation, the various
objects of the dream symbolize different parts of the
male and female genitalia.
The psychoanalyst finds somewhat analogous ren-
derings for practically all the material obtained.
The therapeutic process consists, then, in tracing
the putative connection between the morbid symp-
toms and the "psychic trauma"; or, as the psycho-
analyst sometimes puts it, in restoring the contents
of the "subconscious mind" to consciousness. The
therapy consists, further, in talking the matter over. 1
This supposedly affords the patient an opportunity
for liberating the "imprisoned emotions" through
normal channels, thus neutralizing the process of
"conversion." Freud goes so far as to say that
the treatment has no curative effect if the patient
does not experience emotion when reproducing
the "traumatic scene." The "pathogenic wish" is
"directed to a higher goal," is rejected by the better
faculties, or is brought into reconcilement with the
patient's conscience. Then, if the patient is going
to get well, he does so.
As a semi-scientific novelty, psychoanalysis has
been employed in treating stammering. The results
1 One of Breuer's patients has facetiously designated the treat-
ment "the talking cure" or "chimney sweeping."
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 251
in most cases seem to have been "negative." Dr.
Laubi admits that "psychoanalysis is no panacea
for stammering," l and he naively suggests that sim-
pler means, such as change of diet or environment, are
to be preferred. Probably these latter means would
be just as effective.
The main objection to the psychoanalytic theories
is that they are based on a superlatively superficial
psychology. The existence and activity of the sub-
conscious mind are taken as postulates ; 2 and the
1 Medizinisch-padagogische Monatsschrift filr die gesamte Sprach-
heUkunde, Vol. XXI, p. 118.
1 The following performance of the subconscious mind is recorded
by Freud ("Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens," 3d ed., p. 126) :
"In a letter to a friend I informed him that I had finished
correcting the 'Traumdeutung,' and would make no further changes
'even if the work should contain 2467 mistakes.' I tried at once to
explain this particular number; and I embodied the analysis in
a postcript to the letter. It will be well to cite the words that I
wrote at the time as I caught myself in the act.
"'Already a contribution to the "Psychopathologie des Alltags-
lebens." You find in this letter the number 2467 as a jocund and ar-
bitrary estimate of the number of mistakes I am to find in the Dream-
book. It means, of course, any large number, but this is the particular
number that appeared. Now, there is nothing arbitrary and unde-
termined in the psychic life ; and you will rightly suppose that the
subconscious mind determined the number to which the conscious
mind gave expression. Now, I had just been reading in the paper
that a certain General E. M. had retired with the rank of Master of
the Ordnance. You must know that this man interests me. When I
was serving in the army as a medical leve, the colonel, as he was then,
came to the ward. He said to the doctor, "You must have me
well in a week, for I have an important commission to fulfil for
252 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
symbolic business is strained to the point where
psychoanalysis is unequivocally stultified. 1 By a free
use of symbolism one could, with a little ingenuity,
interpret the material of any case to suit the circum-
the Kaiser." I then resolved to follow his career, and now you see
that to-day (1899) his military career is finished : he is a Master of
the Ordnance, and has retired. I wished to calculate the number of
years his promotion had covered. I suppose that I had seen him in
the hospital in 1882 ; thus this period would be 17 years. I discussed
this matter with my wife, and she remarked, "Then you should now
be in retirement, too." I protested, "May the Lord forbid." After
this conversation I seated myself at the table to write to you. But
the former train of thought continued, and justly so I had reckoned
wrongly. I have a point to establish this in my memory. I cele-
brated my majority (my 24th birthday) under military arrest as
the result of having taken French leave. That was in 1880, or 19
years ago. There you have the number 24 in 2467. Now take my
age, 43, add 24 to it, and you have the number 67 ! ' '
But one could, of course, explain any number from any set of cir-
cumstances if he allows the "subconscious mind" full liberty to per-
form calculations. To-day is Tuesday, September 3, 1912. As my
subconscious mind thinks "Tuesday, the third," it naturally observes
that there are 7 letters in the word Tuesday. It multiplies 7 by 3,
obtaining 21 ; it then adds 3 to 21 and gets the result 24. Con-
tinuing its investigations, my subconscious mind divides 3 into 24,
and obtains 8. Squaring 8, it has 64; and adding 3, it derives 67.
Simple enough !
But probably the most natural series of figures for one to redinte-
grate is 1-2-3-4 or 2-4-6-8. The most natural deviations from the
latter series are 2-4-6-7 or 2-4-6-9. In the case in question we have
the former number, and perhaps the subconscious mind was not in-
volved after all. This seems the more likely since the existence of
the subconscious mind has never been demonstrated.
1 In order to interpret material the psychoanalyst is even pre-
pared for the "bisexual significance of a symptom."
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 253
stances of any other. Moreover, with symbolism
there is usually an infinity of possible interpretations,
and no one but the psychoanalyst knows that his
particular interpretation is correct. Furthermore,
the wish and the repression are gratuitously adduced ;
and must be sustained when reason affirms the exist-
ence of neither. 1
It is probable that the prevalence of "sexual trau-
mata" has not been overestimated by the psycho-
analysts, for Homo sapiens is but an animal with
an assortment of somewhat undependable inhibi-
tions. But psychoanalysts admit that "sexual trau-
mata" are no more common among their patients
than among persons free from neuroses ; hence it is
evident that even if their theories are correct, but half
of the story has as yet been told.
Psychoanalysis, when it proves effectual, most
probably works through suggestion. The objection
to this theory is that some of the earliest patients
were benefited in a "pre-suggestive" period. The
objection to this objection is that hysterical and
neurotic patients are often highly suggestible; and
that when these early (female) patients submitted
themselves to psychic treatment and willingly bared
1 Why, for instance, should sexual symbolism be employed to inter-
pret the respectable dreams of an intelligent and healthy-minded
person that has normal sexual appetences of which he is totally
unashamed and which he does not endeavor to "repress"?
254 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
their sexual "secrets," they must have had inordinate
confidence in the physician, and undoubtedly ex-
pected to be benefited.
But such arguments are futile, for Freud finds in
those that oppose his theories "the same impairment
of intelligence produced by emotivity" that he is
accustomed to finding in his patients. 1
1 "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at Clark
University," p. 25.
"STAMMERING-SCHOOLS" AND "SPEECH SPECIAL-
"STAMMERING-SCHOOLS" are of two general kinds
the institutions and the correspondence schools. 1
The principals of institutions contend, of course,
that treatment by correspondence is impossible;
and correspondence teachers maintain in their turn
that the advocates of personal treatment are dis-
ingenuous seekers after fees. It will be interesting
(though perhaps scarcely profitable) to hear a few
words on both sides of the argument :
"It is impossible to give written or printed instructions for
the cure of stammering and stuttering, for every case has its
peculiar symptom and a physiognomy of its own."
"Can stammering be cured at home? . . . We are inclined
to believe that the reply has generally been in the negative by
those schools whom resident pupils support by the payment of
large fees and many weeks' board bill ; but this is only natural
and is but a weakness of human nature, and while we have every
sympathy and good feeling for the gentlemen, in charge of the
various schools of this nature, yet we cannot help but feel that
they are biassed in their judgment."
"It would give me great pleasure and satisfaction if I could
cure stammering by written instructions, but it cannot be done.
1 Institutions are usually residential ; but occasionally pupils
merely visit the school during the instruction period.
256 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
So many contingencies are involved. Want of personal knowl-
edge of a case, the temperament, the surroundings, the char-
acter, and of the many circumstances attendant thereon, offer
" Correspondence classes . . . have recently been formed.
"Many persons have written to me to inquire if I could give
them printed or written instructions that would serve the same
purpose as then- presence at my school, to which question I
have invariably answered, No."
"It was formerly a prevalent idea that the Cure of Stammer-
ing, without personal instruction, was an impossible undertak-
ing. Theoretical writers gave it as their opinion, and practical
instructors as the result of their experience. . . .
"It is now unnecessary to prove that the cure without per-
sonal instruction is theoretically possible, since the result is
annually attained by The System in numerous instances
without difficulty, and any method that will not stand this
test must be incomplete or erroneous."
"The method of cure cannot be imparted through corre-
spondence ; cannot be written down so as to be of any advan-
tage to an uninstructed person."
"I cordially invite sufferers from this distressing condition
to allow me to prescribe for them individual courses of my
treatment, which can be successfully carried out at home,
occupying but a few minutes of the day, and interfering with
no business, domestic or social engagement."
It is scarcely necessary for us to discuss the merits
(or demerits) of correspondence schools. These
schools impart nothing that is not accessible in works
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 257
on elocution or stammering. The "correspondence
pupil" merely pays a higher price for his information
and gets it in instalments.
Nevertheless, the proprietors of the institutions
are not always disinterested hi their arguments against
correspondence treatment. The instructor that writes
of temperament, surroundings, character, and con-
tingencies, finds that stammering is attempting to
speak hi an impossible way. He says there is only
one way to speak ; and when you pay, he shows you.
Another "specialist" has overcome a good many
dilemmas. In his advertising literature he says :
"There are no fewer than twenty or more entirely different
and distinct types of stammering and stuttering, and there is
no set plan or code of rules or exercises that will apply to all
"Each case," says the same specialist, "must receive indi-
vidual care and instruction." l
Since writing all this, the "specialist" has de-
vised a Home Course that costs forty dollars ; and
on some points he has changed his opinion.
But all this discussion is rather idle. Corre-
spondence schools are few and sporadic. They prob-
ably do very little good and very little harm; and
they need not be taken seriously.
Residential and similar institutions have existed
1 His pupils, however, are taught en masse, and the one remedy
for their twenty types of stammering is beating time.
258 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
for more than a hundred years; and it is with these
stammering-schools that we are concerned (and it is
these, of course, that we have had in mind in previous
The systems of these institutions, as already stated,
consist of assemblages of expedients and exercises
such as we have discussed. It would be impossible,
of course, to describe each of these systems in detail ;
hence the writer gives the salient measures of a
representative system for each of a number of dif-
ferent countries :
i. A Representative English System
Inhale through the mouth.
When coldness is felt in the glottis, let the breath return.
Start speaking from the open position.
Wag the jaw freely.
Articulate lightly, but give final consonants compensatory
Maintain continuity of sound.
Avoid effort sigh the word out.
Saying bd-be-bi-bo-bii, etc.
Vowel-reading with gradual interpolation of consonants.
Reading in a whisper.
Speaking before a mirror.
Relating anecdotes. Etc., etc.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 259
2. A Representative American System
Inhale through the nose, breathing diaphragmatically.
Start from the closed position.
Give light articulation to closed consonants.
Open the mouth widely for continuous consonants.
Lower the pitch for vowels.
Beat time with the hand, and utter one syllable to a beat.
Eschew tea, coffee, and tobacco.
Be positive : "You've got to be It."
Ling's Swedish gymnastic exercises.
Respiratory exercises, with and without dumb-bell drill.
Vocal exercises, with and without dumb-bell drill.
Rhythmic speaking while marching, performing dumb-bell
Asking and answering questions ; telling stories ; talking from
platform ; etc. always with rhythmic speech.
3. A Representative Canadian System
Inhale before speaking.
Drop the jaw ; keep the muscles of the throat and jaw tense.
Prefix the vowel ah to the initial word in order to open the
Produce sound promptly.
Speak in a low pitch.
Maintain continuity of sound.
Articulate lightly ; omit the more difficult consonants.
1 A period of silence is observed at the beginning of treatment.
260 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Practising the "fundamental vowel" ah.
Reading ; relating anecdotes ; etc., etc.
4. A Representative French System
Speak with assurance : never doubt your powers.
Take a deep initial inspiration, employing "costal-abdom-
Forthwith let the breath return, and start speaking.
Avoid an abrupt beginning.
Prolong the initial syllable.
Avoid all effort in speech.
Do not speak in a guttural, sepulchral, or smothered voice :
make the vowels sonorous.
Exaggerate lip-movements and watch the labial positions.
Join the syllables together, using the ordinary rhythm of
Avoid jerky speech, abrupt inspirations, escape of unvocal-
ized breath, speaking on the inspiratory current, fast and
slow talking, etc.
Practise often before a mirror.
Avoid arguments, anger, excess of pleasure, late hours,
abuse of tobacco and spirits, etc.
Gymnastic exercises, and walking with avoidance of
Reading ; reciting ; relating anecdotes ; etc.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 261
5. A Representative Belgian System
Open the mouth wide.
Inhale through the mouth.
Produce sound immediately.
Study the physiological production of the different conson-
ants and vowels.
Breathing-exercises, with respiration occurring through the
Breathing-exercises, with respiration occurring through the
Vocal and articulatory exercises.
Exercises for developing precision of thought (reciting;
reading ; replying to questions, etc.).
Memory-culture learning and reciting passages by heart,
6. A Representative German System
Speak slowly and quietly (and think in a quiet and orderly
Speak in a moderately loud voice.
Be sure of what you are going to say, and know how you
are going to say it.
Do not attempt to say everything at once ; but speak syl-
lable by syllable, word by word, and thought by thought.
Inhale deeply (through the mouth) before speaking; do
not raise the shoulders.
Speak in a rather low pitch.
Begin quietly, and prolong the initial vowel.
Regard the initial consonant of one word as the final con-
sonant of the word preceding.
Regard the sentence as a single word, and run the syllables
262 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Never direct the expiratory pressure upon the consonant,
but always upon the vowel.
Take the vowel-position promptly.
Do not waste the breath before speaking; but commence
Speak with plenty of breath, and speak in a low voice. 1
Speaking before a mirror.
Reading; reciting; completing sentences; replying to
questions ; relating anecdotes ; reading dialogue ; etc.
7. A Representative Danish System
Speak slowly as slowly as possible at the beginning of
Avoid flurry and excitement.
Listen quietly when addressed ; reflect, then reply quietly
and with composure.
Prolong the vowel of the initial syllable.
Respire strongly; regard the mouth as merely an air pas-
Repress useless movements of the head, shoulders, feet, etc.
Do not lay stress upon the consonant; do not separate it
from the vowel.
Begin the vowel gently without effort.
Open the mouth before speaking.
1 A "low voice" and a "moderately loud voice " seem incompatible.
The rules given above are, however, quoted or abbreviated from
"STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 263
Inhale through the mouth (but breathe through the nose
Know that you know how to speak when you observe the
Articulate clearly, but exaggerate movements of the mouth.
Know what you are going to say and how you are going to
Avoid excitement and emotion. Always be calm.
Be especially careful if with stammerers or persons that
Be able to look any man in the eye.
Breathing-exercises; vocal exercises; reading; mirror-prac-
tice ; etc.
8. A Representative Russian System
Observe the initial inspiration.
Employ indirect attack.
Prefix short e () to difficult words.
Articulate consonants lightly.
Lengthen the vowels, making them clear and loud.
Employ a free movement of the articulative organs.
Study the physiological production of the speech-elements.
Speaking in a whisper.
Speaking rhythmically and gesticulating.
1 A period of silence is observed at the beginning of treatment.
264 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Speaking in a monotone.
Speaking in low pitch.
Speaking naturally from memory, extemporaneously, etc.
Practising before a mirror.
Practising internal speech, etc., etc.
g. A Representative Austrian System
Inhale slowly and deeply.
Control the breath in its outward passage.
Speak immediately on beginning to exhale ; avoid waste of
breath both before and during speech.
Speak the initial syllable with extreme care.
Speak slowly, but loudly and clearly.
Speak with moderate vigor.
Ling's Swedish gymnastic exercises.
Respiratory exercises with and without a spirometer.
Reading syllabically and naturally.
Reading and paraphrasing stories.
Accommodating oneself to interruptions, requests to repeat,
The reader will naturally inquire : What are the
possibilities of achieving a cure with these different
systems? It would be more to the point, perhaps,
to speak of impossibilities ; but we will continue.
The writer recently wrote to the principal of an Amer-
ican stammering-school to ascertain, if possible, the
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 265
percentage of cures that this particular "specialist"
effected. In reply he received a rambling letter and
a collection of circus-bills describing the activities
of the institution. As this was rather indefinite,
the writer made another attempt, asking the specific
"Does the proportion of complete and permanent cures
exceed ten per cent ?
"In cases where pupils have tried the methods of other insti-
tutions, does the proportion exceed five per cent ?
"Would you state specifically what percentage of cures you
achieve ? "
The reply was as follows :
" I am in receipt of your letter of Dec. 2oth. Replying thereto
will say that any case of stammering or stuttering regardless
of the cause or severity of the case can be entirely and perma-
nently cured by my methods of instructions, that is, where the
individual who is under our instructions possesses the ordinary
amount of intelligence. It is necessary, of course, for the
pupil to do his part.
" Very truly yours,
The principal of this particular school guarantees
to cure stammering. His reply was therefore in-
The writer continued his investigations, and at the
1 The remedy employed in this school is rhythmic speech.
266 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
cost of considerable labor managed to communicate
with a hundred ex-pupils of two other stammering-
schools one an American and the other an English
institution, and both of them schools that guaran-
tee to cure stammering. 1 Among these one hundred
ex-pupils, five pronounced themselves cured. Of these
five students, two have, to the writer's knowledge,
since relapsed. One of the remaining three the
writer met recently in New York, and this cured
stammerer was beating time and speaking at the rate
of approximately one word a minute. Of the remain-
ing two, one was a school-teacher before he attended
the institution. Thus we have apparently two per-
manent cures hi one hundred cases, with one of the
cures to be heavily discounted.
This percentage is not in any way exceptional.
The principal of one of the foremost Swiss institutions
has recently abandoned his work because he was
unable to cure more than four or five per cent of his
Temporary "cures," or apparent cures, are easy
enough to accomplish. Dr. Coe'n reported 54 cures
in 128 cases. (Of the remaining patients, 52 were
improved, and 22 not benefited.) Dr. Klencke, with
148 patients, admits failure in only 10 instances.
But the "cured" patients referred to in these re-
ports are merely pupils pronounced cured at the time
1 The majority of the correspondents attended the American school.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 267
they leave the institution. These pupils almost in-
variably relapse when the vocal exercises, etc. (which
probably intensify the auditory imagery), are prac-
tised less frequently or discontinued. The relapse
is usually ascribed by the principals of these schools
to "carelessness." But the writer could name four
principals that have themselves relapsed; thus it
might be better to find another argument.
The facts are that these various speech-institutions
usually treat nothing but physical stammering. By
removing this excrescence they often effect a spec-
tacular improvement ; but they seldom accomplish a
cure. In this connection the words of Kingsley are
"You can cure yourself, or all but cure yourself 1 in three
months ... if you will think over, and practise, what follows." J
The "all but" is significant; and Kingsley ad-
vises his correspondent to "keep up reading aloud, for
months to come, or even for years."
Bell advises the stammerer to "work on hopefully,
even though, for a time, he should seem to be 'hoping
against hope.'" 3
Wyneken, the reader will remember, spent two and
1 Italics not in the original.
1 " Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories of his Life," Vol.
II, p. 260.
1 Alexander Melville Bell, "Principles of Speech," $th ed., p. 240.
268 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
a half years at the Katenkamp Institute, and was still
not cured of his impediment. 1
The writer has an acquaintance that has taken
eight courses at an English stammering-school. He
still seems good for eight or a dozen more.
Dr. Findley records the cogent fact that he has
given " an average of at least three hours a day for
forty years," to an unsuccessful attempt to rid him-
self of his impediment. 2
It is evident that there is something lacking in
the systems. The systems are deficient in that they
attack merely the physical manifestations of what is
in reality a psychical defect. The following para-
graph presents the popular point of view :
" Causes of Stammering : There are five principal active
causes. First, not opening the glottis so as to produce sound ;
second, not allowing the lower jaw to have free play; third,
pressing the lips tightly together ; fourth, pressing the teeth
too tightly against the lips ; and fifth (most difficult to get
rid of), pressing the tongue tightly against the teeth or gums. " J
Small wonder that men with such ideas on the
nature of the malady almost invariably fail in their
efforts to effect a cure. Such men know nothing
about the defect. For them, everything is "stam-
1 "Ueber das Stottern und dessen Heilung," p. 26.
2 The Voice, Vol. VII, p. 53.
3 And men that write this kind of nonsense usually profess to treat
the cause of stammering. (" We treat the Cause, and not the Habit " ;
"I treat the cause, and not the symptoms" ; etc.)
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 269
mering," - the subject's inability to speak, his
physical effort in making the attempt, his bewilder-
ment and fear, his emotive respiratory disturbances,
and a dozen other secondary causes and symptoms.
And this "stammering" they assail as a unitary
speech-defect. Failure is naturally inevitable. 1
It does not necessarily follow, of course, from the
nature of past experience, that stammering is usually
an incurable defect; but it does follow that the
remedial systems commonly employed are grossly
The reader may now inquire : How is it that most
of the "world's greatest" "speech specialists" guaran-
tee to cure stammering?
The answer is, of course, that they do not. When
the man in the picture points his finger at you and
says, "I guarantee to cure stammering," he is lying.
What "speech specialists" represent as a guarantee
to cure is merely a promise to refund the fees in case
of failure :
" I hereby agree to return at any time all tuition fees paid
by you, should my treatment fail to cure you of your impedi-
ment of speech; provided that you have in all particulars
strictly followed my instructions." *
1 It is so inevitable that many "specialists" reveal practically
their entire systems in "free trial lessons" intended to attract prospec-
tive pupils to their respective institutions.
7 Form of an English guarantee.
270 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
But most of these " iron-clad " guarantees will not
bear inspection. The following is the reply of an
American " speech-specialist " to a prospective pupil
that had requested a copy of the much-vaunted " legal
guarantee : "
"I am in receipt of your letter this morning, answering which
I wish to say my guarantee is a written receipt for the money
paid me for tuition."
A copy of the receipt could not be obtained.
Another American "specialist" thus responds to a
similar request :
"I am in receipt of your letter of March 4th and replying
thereto will say that our Guarantee Certificates are not for
distribution. I wish to emphasize the fact, though, that the
Certificate will be issued to you the minute you enroll in this
institute as a pupil."
"Enroll as a pupil" ! This means, of course,
"pay the necessary fee." The student first parts
with his money, and then receives what is virtually a
written statement that he has been deluded.
These guarantees are of the flimsiest character, 1
1<C I guarantee to cure any case of stammering or stuttering I
accept for treatment, and am willing to refund every cent paid as
tuition if I do not fulfil my agreement to the very letter, by not im-
parting such instructions, which, if followed, will effect a cure."
" Mr. guarantees that the system, duly carried out un-
der his guidance, affords the means of overcoming impediments of
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 271
and they invariably contain the proviso that the
student must "in all particulars strictly follow the in-
structions." " Following the instructions " may mean
anything whatever. It may mean beating time, sing-
songing or drawling one's words, carrying and speaking
to the beats of a metronome, and in general comport-
ing oneself in a preeminently asinine manner. The
instructions may require the pupil to talk "on rule"
or "with the method" for a year or more after he
leaves the institution, and they may even require
him not to stammer. When the student follows the
instructions to the best of his ability and fails to obtain
relief for his impediment, he will almost invariably
find, if he requests a refundment of his money, that
the "iron-clad" guarantee is worthless. In the first
place, the guarantee is usually not issued to the stu-
dent unless he makes a point of asking for it at the
time that he "enrolls." In the second place, if it is "is-
sued," it is kept in the possession of the principal till
the student is discharged as "cured." In the third
place, if the guarantee is ever delivered to the student,
he will find that it contains a clause releasing the
principal in case of non-permanency of the "cure."
It might be interesting to note, too, in the fourth
place, that if the student inquires into the matter, he
will find that he has signed away his rights in his
original " Application Blank." Signing this iniquitous
instrument is part of the formal enrolment. Usually
272 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the trusting student appends his signature to the inno-
cent-looking "Application" without question. If he
stops to examine the " blank," he will often find it an
involved and highly technical document, and may
eventually sign it with no clear idea of what it is all
about. And if he clearly comprehends it, he may
think it guileless enough while he is ignorant of what
is to follow.
In his "Application" the student undertakes to
remain at the institution till the principal deems it
expedient for him to depart. But this never happens
till the pupil has signed another statement declaring
himself satisfied with the treatment he has received.
If he does not sign the statement, he must board at
the institution for life or leave in contravention of
instructions. Usually the student signs the statement
of satisfaction in order to receive his formal discharge
and his written instructions for "continuation prac-
tice," which practice ostensibly insures the comple-
tion and permanency of the cure.
Figuratively, the student is bound hand and foot
from the moment he signs his "Application." He is
at once "put on silence" and is unable to protest,
though he find himself at every turn the victim of de-
ception. He is often required to make daily or weekly
reports, and if he records difficulty in speech, he may
be harassed with periods of silence and additional
exercises till he finally falls into line. If at any point
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 273
in the course he should take exception to irregularities,
he is expeditiously gagged with another "silence
period." If he fails to observe silence, he is expelled
as unruly. 1 He has practically no alternative but to
submit to the imposture and hope that the burlesque
treatment will prove effective. The average student
avoids friction and ultimately signs the statement of
satisfaction (for there is no alternative ; and he has,
moreoever, usually improved). He then continues to
perform the prescribed exercises, and finds months
after leaving the institution that he has been hope-
lessly defrauded. At this juncture he can secure a
refundment of the fees only with the greatest diffi-
culty. The "iron-clad" guarantee is worthless, and
he can obtain redress only by resort to litigation.
A few years ago the writer followed a case in which
an ex-pupil of an American institution undertook
to enforce a return of the fees paid for a guaranteed
cure of his impediment.
A formal application for refundment educed the
following reply from the "specialist" :
"Answering your letter received this morning my contract
with you was fulfilled when you left my institution. I owe
you nothing. Your signature of entire satisfaction together
1 All of the foregoing remarks do not apply to all institutions that
"guarantee" to cure stammering. The writer is merely citing the
274 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
with the clause contained in the contract [the "Application"]
signed by you referring to my non-liability in case of recurrence
of difficulty, covers the ground perfectly. . . .
" Very truly yours,
"Covers the ground perfectly" ! It is evident
that the principal feels justifiable pride in the efficiency
of his technique. It is evident, too, that the fees
will not be readily forthcoming. The following is
the more emphatic reply of the principal to a more
emphatic letter from the student :
" Answering your letter of June 2oth received this morn-
ing, I desire to say if you are having any difficulty in your talk-
ing it is due to your own neglect and carelessness and to the
non-fulfilment of requirement [beating time].
" Concerning any difficulty you may have experienced after
leaving the school, there is printed across the face of the appli-
cation [note the word !] you signed when you entered my in-
stitution, a clause setting forth my non-liability referring to
the permanency of the cure.
"Your daily report upon our record shows you reported no
difficulty whatever from the 3oth of August until the i3th of
October, the date of your leaving, at which time you expressed
yourself in the presence of witnesses, both verbally and in writ-
ing, as perfectly satisfied. Your signature appears attached to
the following :
"'The terms and conditions of my Application and Agree-
ment, Form No. 3307, having been fulfilled by , I here-
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 275
with desire to express myself as perfectly satisfied with the
result of my treatment at the School.
"I am willing to have you take any action in the matter that
you may choose and am ready for you in more ways than one.
"Yours for perfect speech,
Here we have a veiled threat of personal violence.
The student, however, was not to be deterred ; and
in reference to the technique he responded that, since
the "Guarantee" was invalid, he would prosecute
the principal for obtaining money by false pretenses.
The reply to this letter emanated from the "Law
Offices of- -":
"Your letter of the agth ult. to Mr. has been handed
to me for reply. I have examined the papers in this matter
and from your written acknowledgement of satisfaction as
to the fulfilment of Mr. 's agreement, your daily report
showing no difficulty for a long time previous to the leav-
ing of his Institute, from examining the conditions of your
signed contract [the "Application Blank"] releasing Mr.
from liability in case of non-permanency of your cure and from
other testimony that he has laid before me, I have advised him
to tell you to proceed in any manner that you see fit.
"I have also had laid before me a letter written by you where-
in you formally notify Mr. that you will prosecute him
for obtaining 'this money' by false pretenses, if said money is
not duly refunded. You may not be familiar with our statutes,
and you must have been ill advised in writing such a letter. It
276 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
is only fair to call your attention to a provision in our law, Sec-
tion 11488, 3d volume of Compiled Laws of Michigan, wherein,
if any person shall by printed communication maliciously
threaten to accuse another of any crime or offence with intent
to compel the person so threatened to do or refrain from doing
any act against his will, that the same is punishable by impris-
" Attorney for
Now we have a browbeating lawyer threatening
imprisonment, and an irate "principal" threaten-
ing personal violence. Verily the technique is highly
developed. But in the instance we are discussing,
the student was unimpressed by this kind of balder-
dash, and he shortly arrived upon the scene to initiate
proceedings. But the technique was exhausted, and
the student left in a few hours with every cent of
his fees refunded.
(And this principal the benign soul is, if we
may believe him, devoting his life to the service of
others. And he guarantees to cure any case of stam-
mering or stuttering that he accepts for treatment.)
So much for "legal guarantees."
The instance cited above (with everything but the
refundment of the money) gives the typical experience
of countless stammerers from numerous stammering-
schools. Small wonder that there exist, besides these
schools, Ex-Pupils' Leagues for combating their
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 277
And now one may well inquire : How is it that
" speech specialists" are able to produce cogent and
convincing testimonials ? The answer to this ques-
tion must be somewhat protracted.
In the first place, most schools display a collection
of testimonials from non-stammerers people that
are absolutely ignorant of the subject on which they
write, and know virtually nothing of the institutions
The writer has never known of a worthless institu-
tion that was not recommended by a body of bishops,
colonels, mayors, postmasters, doctors, and men that
are usually credited with intelligence. The clergy
are inveterate recommenders : it seems to be a
singularly painful thing for a minister of religion to
refuse a recommendation to a well-disposed professor
that has recounted the great good he is able to accom-
In America, recommendations from mayors, ex-
mayors, and merchants are often obtained through
"Commercial Associations," " Boosters' Clubs," and
organizations for mutual support among rotten con-
cerns that cannot exist on merit. Newspaper puffs
in the local press (when not paid for) are usually in-
serted in the interests of "a greater Mudville."
Thus we have numerous persons with the recom-
mending habit indorsing institutions that they know
278 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
It is a signal fact that Alexander Melville Bell has
written a glowing testimonial for a stammering-
school whose method he condemns as the resort of
charlatans. 1 No one would doubt the good faith of
the distinguished phoneticist; but it is evident that
if he could be deceived as to the methods and merits
of an institution, the opinion of the average uninitiated
person must be absolutely worthless.
The non-stammerer, even if he makes the most
careful inquiries, is usually misled by the amelioration
of stammering under the various systems of training.
The amelioration, however, is nothing more than the
temporary disappearance of physical stammering;
and it does not constitute even the beginning of a
radical cure. But the untrained mind is impressed
by the overt and the spectacular; and in the case
of stammering it is affected by things foreign to
But even trained observers are often deceived where
stammering is concerned. It is interesting to note
that the worthless "Bates' Appliances" were awarded
the First Premium and the Scott Legacy Premium
by the Franklin Institute. These same trinkets
1 The school indorsed employs the time-beating method, concern-
ing which Bell says ("Faults of Speech," 5th ed., p. 12): "The
stammerer's difficulty is : where to turn for effective assistance.
Certainly not . . . to any whose 'system' involves drawling, singing,
sniffling, whistling, stamping, beating time all of which expedients
have constituted the 'curative' means of various charlatans."
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 279
were also awarded numerous medals and diplo-
mas at fairs and exhibitions. Colombat, for his
ridiculous and pirated methods, was accorded the
Monthyon prize by the French Academy. Medals
and diplomas for worthless systems of "curing"
stammering are almost as numerous as the worthless
systems themselves. To the average person these
guerdons would betoken indubitable merit in the
method of treatment; but to one cognizant of the
facts they usually imply nothing more than com-
mercial enterprise in the recipient.
And now we can consider testimonials from stam-
At the outset we may reject all testimonials that
do not attest a positive cure, or that record fluency
in speech "when the instructions are strictly fol-
"It gives me great pleasure to testify to the excellence of
your System for the Cure of Stammering. I have derived great
benefit from the course of instruction which I have received
from you. In my estimation the worst stammerer may be
cured, provided your rules are strictly adhered to."
"I feel quite sure that if the pupil will only carry out your
simple rules, he will soon get cured.
"The system could not possibly be easier."
"My daughter practises the exercises with much profit. I
hope very soon to see her perfectly cured."
" I am still getting on famously."
280 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"I find that the reading under your conditions, and pro-
vided I take plenty of time and lengthen out each word, gives
me no difficulty."
"In answer to your inquiry will say that I am entirely satis-
fied with the result of treatment, and shall be glad to speak a
good word for you at any time. I shall continue to practise
the exercises for some time as I wish to become a fluent talker."
I am pleased to say that your instructions have helped me
marked degree, and by following your rules carefully, I am
sure my success will be permanent."
"It is with pleasure and gratitude I make this statement in
behalf of the thoroughness and efficiency of Mr. 's system
of treatment. He has the most intellectual system ever known,
having experience of his treatment. I heartily recommend Mr.
to those who are in need of such instruction."
"Having personally attended your school I am in a position
to speak. If your instructions are closely followed there is no
question of a cure for the worst case of stammering."
"I am much pleased with the results of my treatment at your
Institution, and am satisfied that any one who follows the in-
structions given by you will succeed in overcoming their diffi-
culty of stammering."
"I feel no hesitancy whatever in saying that the School
is the best Institute for the cure of stammering and stuttering
in the world."
" In my opinion no stammerer can make a mistake by attend-
ing the Institute."
" I have been getting on very well in class, and am reading
there every day."
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 281
"Have derived great benefit from the course of treatment
received while attending your school."
" Since I came home I have been talking splendidly, having
had good opportunities, and putting myself to the test.
"If a person will follow your instructions it will be impossible
The "greatly benefited" testimonials usually mean
that the student is just leaving the institution and
has overcome physical stammering. But a week later
he may be ready to repudiate his indorsement and
denounce the principal as a quack. The writer has
known of several instances in which these were the
exact circumstances. The fact that a stammerer has
been temporarily benefited, and was for a short time
satisfied with the treatment, implies very little.
The "if instructions are followed " testimonials are
certainly interesting documents ; and one wonders
how such vile encomiums come to be indited. The
facts are, of course, that the principals of stammering-
schools periodically solicit recommendations from
their former pupils ; and that these ambiguous testi-
monials are given because of the principal's impor-
tunity, or are furnished in return "for value re-
"I gave Mr. the testimonial he published because of
a promise by him to send me a book which he said would
assist me in perfecting my cure."
282 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The following is the promise of a German stutter-
doctor that sells his victims an expensive book on the
"cure" of stammering :
"After you have written me your opinion of my book I will
send you some information and practical advice that will greatly
hasten the removal of your impediment."
The promise is made in a circular letter sent to
purchasers of the book shortly after the work has come
into their possession. The circular directly suggests
that the correspondents mention what progress they
have made and state the fact if they have accom-
plished a cure.
An American author of a trashy and expensive
book pays cold cash for testimonials :
"Whenever you can write me thus : 'Your book is the thing
I needed. I can apply its simple, natural principle, and it is
a home cure in deed and in truth to me,' you can get $5.00 as a
The author supplies the very words and pays his
correspondent five dollars to copy them. The same
gentleman pays "ten dollars in gold" for testimonials
These facts may account for some of the ambiguous
testimonials that are published. Perhaps few stam-
merers are tempted by offers of money "in gold,"
but no doubt many would be seduced by promises
of help in matters pertaining to their impediment.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 283
And now we have to consider testimonials that
categorically certify a cure. Among these testi-
monials we may immediately reject all that are
written directly after the pupil leaves the institution.
At this time the pupil's imagery may be good, his
confidence high, and his physical stammering nil. He
is then ready to testify that he is completely cured, and
that Professor Cheetem's stammering-school is the best
in the world. But his cure may be brief, his world may
be small, and his testimonial may be worthless.
Among testimonials written later, there is also a
class to be discounted. Many ex-pupils that "have
not stammered for a year " may be beating time in the
hope of ultimately attaining fluency. How large a
proportion of "cured" stammerers still "follow in-
structions" it is quite impossible to say, but most of
the "cures" that the writer has encountered have
been distinctly peculiar. On the same subject, dif-
ferent people have different conceptions.
And now we come to cures that are unmistakably
genuine. Some of these are to be found in every
institution. This circumstance is not surprising when
one regards the fact that there are approximately three
times as many stammering children as stammering
adults. Late in childhood or during adolescence many
stammerers gradually lose the impediment. This
may occur either inside or outside of a stammering-
school ; but when it occurs within the institution, the
284 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
principal gets the credit. The "professor" would in-
deed be an unlucky mortal if none of his pupils should
be undergoing this fortunate transition. And lastly,
most stammering-schools do effect an exiguous pro-
portion of cures. But when one reflects that some
institutions have treated thousands of cases, he will
not be unduly impressed if two dozen pupils should
testify to their permanent relief. (And he will par-
don the fact if these few pupils should be staunch
supporters of an unconscionable charlatan.)
And while the "professor" is waiting for these tes-
timonials, he can treat cases "in strict confidence." 1
Or if he is more resourceful, he can buy his testi-
monials from a dumb man or a professional recom-
mender; or he may save part of the money, and
spend the rest on paper, pen, and ink.
So much for testimonials.
Some "speech specialists" impress "prospectives"
by their seeming erudition. They contrive to read
papers before medical societies, associations of elocu-
1 An English specialist treats neurasthenia, constipation, liver
trouble, skin disorders, obesity, stammering, etc., for five and a
half guineas. He gives testimonials concerning some ailments, but
treats stammerers confidentially.
In reply to a request for references to former pupils, he writes :
"I have received your letter dated the isth ult. ... I cannot,
however, accede to your request because I think you will understand
as I undertake to treat all cases in strict confidence I cannot send you
the address of any of my patients."
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 285
tionists, etc., and make these facts of great avail in
their proclamations. But the facts imply no indorse-
ment of the "professor" or his system; the "pro-
fessor," indeed, may be virtually annihilated when
his paper comes under discussion.
Many ignorant quacks have their names on the
title-pages of ponderous (but worthless) volumes
on the subject of stammering. A large proportion
of these works are, of course, written by literary
"ghosts." The writer has in mind a "specialist"
that has written books on stammering comprising
together over a thousand pages. This gentleman
cannot spell the word "off." -The less illiterate
"specialists" frequently plagiarize or paraphrase
from recognized authors. One conversant with the
literature on stammering is constantly meeting old
friends in unexpected places. The writer recently
read a newly published and seemingly respectable
English work on stammering in which numerous
pages and paragraphs could be identified as literal
translations from the German.
The writings of the " specialists " usually contain a
revelation of ignorance. Naturally, the ignorance is
most in evidence when the authors attempt a dis-
play of knowledge. One writer tells us that -
" In mental operations we evolve thought, which causes a
slight elevation of temperature, a rearrangement of the brain cells
involved and necessarily an expenditure of energy."
286 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The same author informs us that the jellyfish is
the lowest form of animal life. He also supplies the
information that the false vocal cords are devoid of
Another interesting writer conveys the information
"A man cannot open and shut the glottis, as he does his
mouth, by a voluntary effort."
Another ignoramus says :
"You do not find stammerers amongst savage and negro
races. Another curious fact feminine stammerers far ex-
ceed masculine ones."
This writer also declares that stammering is a
"nervous functional distemper" similar to biting the
Numerous writers enter the ethnological field and
tell us that among the Chinese, stammering does not
exist. But these "specialists" are always most
interesting when they confine themselves to their
major subject and tell us how they discovered "in-
tercostal breathing," or how they vocalize "square
inches of breath" by controlling the "a/reture 1 of
the glottis." The reader can then discern with what
type of person he is dealing. He will not be surprised
at a "professor's" deficiency in knowledge, for the
1 One of the "World's Greatest" always talks of the "a/>reture " ;
the word "aperture" does not occur in his vocabulary.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 287
qualification for a world's greatest "speech specialist "
is not merely colossal arrogance, but likewise colossal
Most "speech specialists" are obscurantists, and
they are naturally jealous of their secret methods.
The stammerer that enters an institution or takes a cor-
respondence course must usually sign an undertaking
not to divulge the "method" l or engage in the busi-
ness of treating stammering.
The principal of a German institution requires the
pupil's signature to the following document:
"I promise not to divulge 's Method, and especially
not to divulge it to other teachers of stammerers. 1 I under-
take to pay a forfeit of five hundred marks if I should violate
As a preliminary to enrolling in an English corre-
spondence school, the pupil must agree to keep mum
about the booklet that is lent him. The principal
requires him to undertake in writing
"Not to disclose any part of its contents to any person,
and not to make, or allow to be made, a copy or note of any
part; nor to give instruction, advice, or information of any
1 Most of these secret methods have been frequently described in
the literature on stammering. The writer hopes and believes that
few of them have been omitted from these pages.
1 It is not an uncommon practice for the "specialists" to send
bogus pupils from one institution to another to investigate rival
288 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
kind to any one in future on stammering or defects in speech ;
but when it is desired that friends should be made acquainted
with the system (which is in some cases advantageous), this
can be done by obtaining Mr. 's previous consent, pro-
vided such friends are not themselves affected in speech." 1
Such preposterous impudence!
For forty dollars the stammerer may lease from an
American "specialist" a "Home-Course of Instruc-
tion," the equipment for which includes a tin talking
machine. The following contract specifies the terms
on which the student borrows the paraphernalia :
"Desirous of being cured of my impediment of speech, I
herewith make application for a Home-Course of In-
struction for the cure of Stammering and Stuttering as indicated
on the Order Blank hereto attached. If this, my application,
is accepted and the course furnished to me, I agree (to the best
of my ability) to faithfully carry out the instructions as directed.
"I agree, as a part of the consideration for the course, that
the 1 8 Records, and the Guide, shall be used solely
for the treatment of my own impediment of speech, or in
case I have no such impediment of speech, then such Records
and Guide, above mentioned, will be used by only ONE
person to be designated and selected by me; that the said
Records and Guide are leased to me for and during my
life time, or for and during the life tune of the person I may
designate and select to use the same, and I, myself will not,
1 The pupil must further pledge himself not to take the booklet
out of the United Kingdom without the principal's written consent.
He must undertake to pay a second fee ; but this, says the principal,
"is, of course, not for the improvement or cure, but for the advice
and information at commencement in the same way as the first fee."
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 289
and the person that may be designated and selected, shall not
sell, barter, offer for sale, loan, give away, rent, reproduce,
copy, transfer or place in the hands of other parties any of
the 1 8 - Records or Guide that are supplied to me
with the course of instruction, and that the same will be used
in the treatment or for the benefit of only ONE case of stam-
mering or stuttering. I further agree to forfeit all my right
and title to possession of the same upon any violation of the
terms of this agreement, in which event right of possession
thereto shall revert to , Principal and Founder of the
School of Stammerers, , U.S.A.
"Further, I agree as a part of the consideration of the
Home-Course being furnished to me, I will not, neither by
myself nor otherwise, teach nor cause to be taught, nor reveal
to others any of the methods suggested or taught in the
Home-Course, or printed in books of instruction for the cure
of stammering, published or sold by . I promise and
agree not to teach any method for the cure of stammering or
stuttering, and also not to become a partner nor in any way in-
terested nor concerned directly or indirectly in the treatment
of stammering or stuttering with any person or persons whom-
soever, within the limits of the United States, Canada or Great
Britain, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Australia,
excepting in the territory of Alaska or State of Florida, U.S.A."
Students of the "association method" in psychology
may be interested to learn of one of the "specialist's"
favorite speech-exercises :
"Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!
Bright and yellow, hard and cold,
Molten, graven, hammered, and rolled ;
Heavy to get, and light to hold ;
2QO SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Hoarded, bartered, bought and sold,
Stolen, borrowed, squandered, doled ;
Spurned by the young, but hugged by the old
To the very verge of the graveyard mould ;
Price of many a crime untold ;
Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!"
Some of these "speech specialists" would be inter-
esting subjects for the Freud people ; though we fear
the morbidity of their minds is seldom "verdrangt."
Here is another interesting train of associations :
"I am happy to say that the great majority of my pupils,
taken from such varied classes, have afforded me much edi-
fication by the virtues of honor, diligence, perseverance, and
gratitude which they have evinced, but even the College of
the 12 Apostles was not exempt from incredulity and treason,
and I have, in a few instances, met with the same return. Pupils
who had given a solemn pledge not to disclose the contents of
the Manual have endeavored to establish themselves as teachers,
until compelled to desist and destroy their prospectuses by the
prospect of legal proceedings."
In this train of associations the psychoanalysts
would no doubt find a repressed idea interrupting an
unctuous outpouring of the spirit.
But it would be well to leave association and psycho-
analysis, and come to non-speculative facts. The facts
are that most of these contracts are jokers. Their
primary function is generally to serve as a basis for
blackguarding and intimidating students that might
disclose the method to some unfortunate stammerer
that has not yielded the fee. But most secret methods
have for nearly a century been public knowledge ; and
secrecy concerning matters of public knowledge can-
not be enforced. Any clause prohibiting the pupil
from subsequently treating stammering in the United
States of America, the British Isles, Australia, and the
moon, is also farcical. Any man that can cure stam-
mering will find himself at liberty to do so anywhere
at any time, and need not be deterred by contracts
with rapacious "specialists."
It will be evident to the reader that treating stam-
mering is with most "speech specialists" an organized
business. As a business it will not always sustain
investigation of its methods ; but, for this reason, it
is profitable to investigate.
Most "speech specialists" reply to the stammerer's
initial inquiry by sending him a poorly disguised
form-letter, in which the "specialist" figuratively
weeps upon the stammerer's bosom. He portrays the
terrible affliction under which the stammerer is lan-
guishing, and pleads with him to restore his self-
respect and flee a stammerer's grave. Briefly,
he "rubs it in."
The following letter is a typical "leader":
" Mr. who was formerly the manager of our Phil-
adelphia branch and who is now removing to California, has
292 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
sent us your recent letter referring to treatment for
stammering, and if you will write us concerning your trouble,
at the same time including your replies to the questions asked
in the enclosed Application Blank we will write you fully just
what you may expect from the unsurpassed methods which
^ Among the many calamities incidental to the human frame
there are few so distressing to the sufferer and so annoying to
his friends as confirmed stuttering. Not only is the whole
physical frame distorted but the anguish of the mind is so severe
in some cases that its healthy action is frequently impaired.
Those persons who have only occasionally met with cases of
defective utterance in general society, can have but a faint idea
of the agony of its victims, unless they have witnessed its effects
in the domestic circle, or in subjects in whose welfare they have
felt interested. It is, indeed, a melancholy spectacle to see a
youth, born to a good position, of refined intellect, possessing
extensive information, seemingly destined to adorn society,
and yet, though so highly cultivated, unable to give oral ex-
pression to his thoughts, without inflicting pain on those who
listen to him, or subjecting himself to ridicule ; for, while the
deaf-mute is pitied, the stammerer is generally laughed at.
"But not only is the victim of defective utterance debarred
from the pleasures of social intercourse, he must also give up all
hope of professional success at the bar, the pulpit, the senate,
and business in general, and must strike out for himself some
new path for which perhaps, neither his talents nor inclination
fit him. There can be no doubt that defective speech throws
all the enchantments of youth and beauty into the shade and
must eventually blight happiness.
" Very truly yours,
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 293
Accompanying the form-letter is usually a bundle of
literature describing the institution and lauding the
principal. The printed matter usually contains pic-
tures of the enormous classes attending the institution.
These pictures are commonly fakes; and the legion-
ary body constituting the class consists in part of the
principal's family, the office and teaching "staff,"
the servants, and anybody's friends that are accommo-
dating enough to sit for the picture. Frequently the
photograph is taken as a "souvenir" of some oc-
casion that has attracted a number of previously
But the essential part of all this literature is a ques-
tion-blank, from the replies to which the "specialist"
undertakes to give a scientific diagnosis of the case.
The questions usually disclose a keenly scientific mind.
Have you any children ? Do you use tobacco ?
Your disposition? What are the names and ad-
dresses of other persons whom you know to stammer ?
The principal also inquires about one's occupation
and a number of things that might lead one to sup-
pose he was attempting a diagnosis of the bank ac-
The following is an interesting diagnosis by the
principal of an America stammering-school :
"Your trouble in the beginning was largely physical; but
owing probably to the nervous strain and continued fear, it
has gradually developed and taken on certain phases of the
294 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
mental form. Allowed to continue, this particular type of
stammering becomes chronic as years go by, after a while ter-
minating in an aggravated type of the difficulty."
Here we have a prognosis thrown in. The trouble
will get worse unless the patient undergoes treatment.
The facts become more disconcerting when one notes
that the diagnosis is given in a form-letter, and that
these alarming cases must therefore be exceedingly
common. There is hope, however, if the stammerer
is quick to seize the opportunity; for in the form-
letter the principal says, "I am satisfied from the
description furnished by you, that your case will
yield readily to my treatment, and am positive I can
Most American "speech specialists" offer "pros-
pectives" "flat rates" for an unlimited course of
tuition. Charges for board and lodging during the
unlimited course are naturally extra. The tuition-
rates are usually "special."
"The plan of reduced rate for tuition herein provided for
will give to you, and to a limited number of others, an oppor-
tunity to be cured of stammering, at a price very much less
than the amount I have ordinarily charged. Regularly my
price for tuition has been from One Hundred to Two Hundred
Dollars and upwards according to the severity of the difficulty,
the average pupil having paid me about One Hundred and
Fifty Dollars for treatment. I am willing, however, if you will
enter within four weeks from the date of this letter, to accept
you for treatment for One Hundred and Forty Dollars, which
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 295
will entitle you to my GUARANTEE OF AN ABSOLUTE
The following offer by a Canadian principal is also
very lenient :
"Regarding the cost of tuition, the fee varies from $100.00
to $500.00 according to the severity of the case. Owing to
the nature of your trouble, we will accept you for tuition for
Usually the fees are rapidly reduced if the stam-
merer does not capitulate. The one hundred and
forty dollar fee, mentioned above, ultimately shrinks
to fifty-five :
"Regarding terms for tuition my special Fall and Winter
Term announcement (a copy of which I enclose) is self explana-
tory. You will notice I am making a reduced rate to pupils
who enter on or before Dec. 3oth. My regular price for tui-
tion has been from One Hundred to Two Hundred Dollars
according to the severity of the difficulty, in fact the average
pupil has paid me about One Hundred and Twenty-five Dollars.
"For the reason explained in the enclosed printed circular
I have decided for a short time to reduce my rate, thus giving
many who would otherwise be unable to come an opportunity
to get cured of their difficulty. / am willing to accept you for
treatment for Fifty-five Dollars on condition that you enter on
or before Dec. joth, and feel sure that it will pay me to do
this as when you return home cured, I am satisfied that
others from your locality who may stammer, learning of
your success and cure will gladly come to my institution for
296 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
This special offer (for the purpose of placing a cure
in every locality) was addressed to a stammerer in
New York, where the "specialist" had guaranteed
hundreds of cures already. But who would dis-
parage the virtue of perseverance?
The "prospective" can usually get a reduction on
the quoted rates by giving his fellow-stammerers the
Judas-kiss. He has merely to send in the names and
addresses of a number of possible victims, and the
"specialist" at once makes a concession. The fol-
lowing is from the literature of an "auto-suggestive
'correspondence stammering-school " :
"The price of the course is ten dollars, but at present we
wish to increase our correspondence list and will therefore
make you a special offer. Send us five dollars with the names
and addresses of twenty persons who stammer and you will be
admitted as a regular student any time within the next two
Name-gathering contests are frequently held by
"enterprising" American institutions. One institu-
tion offers the following trophies:
" First Prize. A complete course of treatment at the
Institute for Stammerers will be given ABSOLUTELY
FREE OF CHARGE to the person who sends the largest num-
ber of names, with correct addresses, of persons afflicted with
stammering or stuttering.
" Second Prize. A complete course of treatment at the
School for Stammerers will be given for Twenty-five
Dollars to the person sending the second largest number of
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 297
names, with correct addresses, of persons afflicted with stam-
mering or stuttering.
" Third Prize. A complete course of treatment at the
Institute for Stammerers will be given for Fifty Dol-
lars to the person who sends the third largest number of
names, with correct addresses, of persons who stammer or
" Other Prizes. Persons who enter in the contest, but fail
to win one of the first three prizes, will receive credit for any
number of names they may send, and will be rewarded by a
reduction on their tuition fee."
A rival institution, holding a similar competition,
decrees the following :
" Rules and Regulations Governing the Contest.
" i. Persons wishing to enter this contest may, if they wish,
secure the assistance of their friends by sending them our Name
Sheets, with a request that they write upon them the names of
persons whom they know to be afflicted with stammering, and
forward direct to us. Each name sheet must be carefully and
properly signed with the name and correct address of the person
who wishes to receive credit for it.
" 2. If more than one person furnishes us with the same
name, credit will be given only to the person whose letter reaches
" 3. Letters pertaining to the competition will be opened
by us in regular succession as received, and credit at once given
to the sender.
"4. Any name sent which has been previously furnished us,
will not be counted to the credit of the sender.
" 5. Credit will not be given for names of persons who stam-
mer who are under six years of age or over sixty.
298 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
"6. Provided two or more persons tie by sending us an equal
number of names, they will be immediately notified and the
competition extended to them for an additional month, when the
prize will be awarded to the one who has sent us the largest
"7. Should there appear in any list the name of one person
who does not stammer, the person who would otherwise receive
credit for the list, will thereby be debarred from winning a
The principal is evidently paying only for sterling
"prospectives." But in other things he is duly con-
siderate. He tells you to " Print if you cannot write
plainly;" and, in case you are ashamed of yourself,
he says: "I promise not to mention your name to
any of the parties whose names you may send me
and will not in any manner make known to anybody
the source of the information."
Another of our "specialists" gives a free course to
any one that can find five inmates for his institution.
If the procurer is not a stammerer, he receives a
reward of one hundred dollars. 1
English stutter-doctors run the business on rather
different lines. They usually charge for the length
of time they can hold the pupil; and their fees are
customarily in the respectable and professional guinea.
1 A few American "specialists," after quoting the minimum rate,
offer to find "part-time employment " for a limited number of pupils
in order that they may defray living expenses while attending the
institution. The "specialist's " fee, however, is inexorable.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 299
A guinea a lesson is a very satisfying and rather
popular fee. Most of the fraternity extort from five
to ten guineas a week for tuition and board. How-
ever, there is usually a minimum charge ; and the
British stammerer is lucky if the gentleman that
undertakes to relieve him of his impediment relieves
him of no more than forty or fifty guineas at the finish.
The charges are exorbitant; but these frock-coated
frauds operate chiefly among the "superior classes."
Of recent years a few cheaper schools have come into
existence. They are apparently no worse than the
Among continental stammering-schools, one finds
the extremes of the English and the American type,
and all types intermediate.
When the stammerer pays his tuition-fee, he
usually knows nothing whatever of the method the
"specialist" employs. Not only does the average
"specialist" bind his pupils to secrecy concerning the
details of his method, but he even refuses to disclose
the general nature of his system to bona-fide inquirers.
An English "specialist" is categorical on this point.
He answers a prospective pupil as follows :
" Replying to your letter of the 24th inst. I should not think
of telling you the nature of my system, until you had placed
yourself under my treatment." *
1 In this instance, placing oneself under treatment means paying
forty guineas for four weeks' tuition and board.
300 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
Usually the principal's reply is evasive. He will
aver that he has the only natural and scientific method ;
he will insist that he treats the cause and not the
symptoms; he will declare that his system is estab-
lished on an educational basis, or that it is founded on
physiological, psychological, ethnological, cosmologi-
cal, and other natural laws.
Or, as often as not, the great "speech specialist"
" The aim of the instruction of the School is to
teach pupils to speak as others speak, without undue effort,
in a manner that is natural."
The method of this school is time-beating, and the
student never employs natural speech during the
entire course of speech-training. 1 Many "special-
ists" write books or prospectuses condemning un-
natural methods, and resort to the vilest expedients
in practice. The stammerer is thus misled by their
literature, and deceived or thwarted in any inquiries
in which he may engage.
The average "speech specialist," instead of offering
the stammerer a definite and describable system, will
proffer him a great discovery :
" I at last, when almost ready to give up in despair, originated
a method by which I quickly accomplished that which money
1 The word "aim " in the quoted sentence might be used in defence.
But, none the less, the sentence is framed to conceal, rather than re-
veal, the truth.
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 301
and years of time had failed to secure for me, a perfect and per-
manent cure. ... I found that I had involved (!) a method
which would cure other unfortunate sufferers, who were being
dragged back by some invisible monster, whose claws sank
deeper day by day, and caused much sorrow, pain and unhap-
And thus another cries Eureka:
" In the remarkably short period of ten days I found that I
had not only succeeded in entirely eradicating every vestige
of my former difficulty, but had also evolved a method of cure
that must sooner or later crown with new hope the sorrowful
lives of many disheartened stammerers." 2
And yet another vision of light :
" Walking through one of our lovely Worcestershire lanes,
and, as was my custom, talking aloud to myself and carefully
watching every trip of the tongue, I suddenly became conscious
of one action in speech which is imperative before freedom of
utterance can be obtained. . . . When I returned home, I
talked to my people, I read to them, I recited poetry ; indeed,
I scarcely knew what I did, I was so overjoyed. I was like a
child with a new toy, and I felt like a new being." *
It is these various secrets and discoveries that the
stammerer is asked to buy. Rarely indeed can he
ascertain anything definite concerning the system.
Another inducement frequently offered to stam-
1 The discovery : rhythmic speech and the "word-measurer."
J The discovery : time-beating.
* The discovery : initial inspiration through the mouth, and control
of the breath. See "Representative English System" (p. 258).
302 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
merers is the fact that the secret or system has been
patented or copyrighted. Here we are concerned with
lies or paragrams. A system for curing stammering
cannot be patented. At best the principal can secure
a patent on some mechanical contrivance that he may
employ; but the contrivance is not the system. A
system for curing stammering cannot be copyrighted.
A pamphlet named "The Dodger System" can; and
here we have the quibble. But a copyright on a
pamphlet merely gives the author the exclusive right
to produce it; and no one would be fool enough to
envy him the privilege. The copyright does not
imply official sanction of the system; though no
doubt it is the contrary impression that copyright
talk is intended to convey.
Most "speech specialists" proclaim themselves the
greatest in the universe. In this connection it may
be pertinent to recall the story of the four Birmingham
tailors that had rival establishments on Blank Street.
One day one of the tailors stole a march on the rest
by displaying a sign that proclaimed him the best
tailor in Birmingham. The second soon hung out a
sign that declared him the best tailor in England.
The third, not to be outdone, proclaimed himself the
greatest tailor in the world. The fourth then by a
modest sign avouched himself the best tailor in Blank
Street. 'Tis said that three of these men openly
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 303
The "specialists," it should be noted, are always
vociferous in denouncing quacks. They abhor those
nasty people, and appeal to God to exterminate the
charlatans. But while the "specialist" is praying
for the charlatan's extermination, it would be well
for the stammerer to be careful.
In this connection we excerpt a paragraph from
"The Great American Fraud" : 1
" Here are a few of the more conspicuous and unmistakable
indications of quackery among the specialists : The advertising
doctor who, having a ' cure ' to sell, is ' editorially endorsed '
by any publication, particularly in the religious field, is a quack.
The doctor who advertises secret powers, or newly discovered
scientific methods, or vaunts a special ' system ' or ' method,'
is a quack. The doctor who offers to sell, at a price, a cure for
any ailment is a quack, and if he professes a ' special interest '
in your case and promises reduced rates, he's throwing in a little
extra lying for good measure. Finally, the form-letter is a
sure sign. You can tell it because it begins ' Dear Friend,'
or ' Dear Mr. So-and-So,' or ' My Dear Correspondent,' and
contains promises that will fit any case. If, however, you are
determined to give a trial to one of these ' specialists,' suggest
these terms : that, since he promises to cure you, you will
deposit to his account the full price of the treatment, to be paid
1 "The Great American Fraud," p. in. This treatise (by Samuel
Hopkins Adams) deals with the nostrum evil and with quacks and
quackery in general. Copies can be obtained from The American
Medical Association, 535 Dearborn Avenue, Chicago. Paper-covered
copies are supplied at ten cents, and cloth-covered copies at twenty-
five cents, both post-free.
304 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
him as soon as you are cured, or substantially benefited, and
not before. Then and there negotiations will cease. The
promising quack will never stand behind his promises. . . .
This is the final test of quackery which none of the ilk can
The stammerer would do well to avoid as incompe-
tent or disingenuous the man that offers a "home-
course" or correspondence treatment. He would do
well to avoid the man with the "Application Blank,"
and likewise the guarantors, the scientific " diagnosers,"
and the discoverers. He would do well to avoid men
that write on blighted lives, and men that warn stam-
merers of future terrors. He would do well to avoid
men that are too ardent in discussing their own al-
truism and the brotherhood of the human race ; men
that are by their own confession the last word in
speech-specialism; and men that cure all diseases.
He would likewise do well to avoid men with "copy-
righted methods," and men with systems that grow
cheaper week by week ; and lastly to avoid men and
methods that will not stand the fullest investigation.
This "Great Secret " guarded by " speech specialists "
is the fact that the stammerer is being "buncoed."
1 Some years ago the writer saw this test applied to a tramp
stutter-healer. The Professor guaranteed to cure stammering almost
instantaneously for twenty-five dollars. The prospective pupil
suggested that he would give a written undertaking to pay a thousand
dollars if the cure were effected, but nothing if the Professor's system
failed. The Professor responded that those were not his methods of
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 305
When all these men are eliminated, there will be
decidedly fewer persons treating stammering. Those
remaining will be of two classes: the good-hearted
and well-meaning souls that know nothing about the
malady, and the ingenuous and more intelligent
students of stammering as a deep and intricate
psychological problem. Men of the latter class are
almost exclusively physicians, and the best of
them are undoubtedly found in the German Empire.
- Probably the stammerer would learn little from
these men that is not accessible in reputable mono-
graphs ; but he might benefit from personal contact
with good teachers and from association with other
Much success has been achieved by a few stammer-
ing-schools established especially for young children.
We have already emphasized the fact that during
childhood, when the secondary causes have not yet
supervened, stammering usually yields readily to
rational treatment. But it is not by any means nec-
essary, and perhaps by no means desirable, that a
young child be incarcerated in an institution. An
intelligent mother can usually accomplish all that is
possible for a stammering child if, instead of supinely
waiting for him to "outgrow" the difficulty, she will
undertake to combat the impediment.
In the first place, the child must himself be induced
306 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
to strive for fluency in speech. He must be offered a
substantial and much-coveted reward for ultimate
victory ; and must then be helped at every stage of
the contest. He must be checked quietly and gently
each time that he stammers. He must be made to
wait and reflect upon the words he is about to use
and to utter these words slowly and with composure.
If he then speaks fluently, he should be commended
and encouraged, and should be made to repeat the
words in order that he may gain assurance.
The child should be made to feel that, though it is
not reprehensible to stammer, it is nevertheless highly
commendable to speak with fluency. He should never
be laughed at, scolded, or punished for his impedi-
ment ; for, with such treatment, fear soon associates
itself with speech. He should never be mimicked ;
and for this reason and a hundred others, should be
kept from school till the impediment has been elimi-
If much amnesia appears to be present, the child
should be told to think, during speech, how his words
are going to sound. If physical stammering is in
evidence, he should be taught to inhale before speak-
ing and to speak at all times without effort.
The child should be required, by way of practice,
to learn and recite simple rhymes. He should be
told little stories, and should be made to repeat each
sentence slowly and carefully after the parent. Later,
" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 37
when progress has been attained, he should be re-
quired to relate these stories by himself.
If mothers would adopt these simple measures,
we should in a few decades hear little more of
Abacus : An instrument used in counting ; often consisting of a
framework with colored balls strung on wires.
Ablation: Removal; cutting out.
Abortion : Figuratively, an undeveloped object.
Abortive: Fruitless; imperfect; undeveloped.
Absolute : Supreme ; all-powerful. Perfect ; complete.
Absolution : Forgiveness ; pardon ; removal of penalties.
Absolve : To free ; liberate.
Abstract thought: Thought that regards relations between
things; thought not primarily concerned with material
Abstraction : Inattention ; absence of mind.
Acceleration : A quickening in motion.
Accentuation : The marking of the accented syllables in a word;
the act of emphasizing.
Accessorial : Same as accessory.
Accessory: (adjective) Contributing; additional; holding a sec-
Accessory : (noun) An accessory object.
1 Words that have been denned when introduced in the body of the
book are, with a few exceptions, not included in the glossary. Such
words should be sought in the index. The definitions given are not
intended to be lexicographically exhaustive and accurate; they are
framed merely to give practical assistance where occasion may re-
quire. The definitions are written for both English and American
Accessory muscles : The smaller muscles of the body producing
Acclimated : Accustomed to a climate.
Accredited : Authorized ; allowed ; received with reputation.
Accrue : To arise ; proceed ; come ; be added.
Achoppement syllabique : The accidental interchanging of con-
sonants or syllables.
Acoustic : Relating to sound or hearing.
Acquisition : The act of acquiring ; the thing acquired.
Actuate : To put into action ; move ; incite.
Acumen: Intelligence; sagacity.
Adduce : To bring forward ; offer ; present ; cite.
Adenoids : An abnormal growth at the back of the nose.
Adjacent: Near; adjoining; bordering.
Adjunct: Help; aid; addition; accessory.
Adjunctive: Joining; connecting.
Advent: Approach; arrival.
Adventitious: Accidental; casual.
Esthetic : Pertaining to good taste, etc.
Affect : To act upon ; concern ; touch. To imitate.
Affection: Feeling; emotion. A disease; a disturbance.
Agglomeration: Mass; cluster; collection.
Aggravant : Anything that aggravates or makes worse.
Aggravate : To make worse.
Air-column : The breath exhaled under pressure.
Alias : A false name.
Allegory: A figure of speech with comparisons implied ; a parable.
Alleviate : To lessen ; relieve.
Alliteration: A phrase or sentence having many of the words
commencing with the same letter.
Alliterative : Relating to an alliteration.
Amelioration : Improvement ; a making or becoming better.
Amnesia : Inability to arouse the memory images.
Amnesic : Afflicted with amnesia ; caused by amnesia.
Amorphous : Without form ; shapeless ; indefinite.
Amplify : To extend ; enlarge.
Amulet: A charm; an object worn as a remedy, or for protection
Anaemia : Deficiency of blood.
Anaesthesia : A loss of the sense of touch.
Anaesthetic : Not sensible to touch.
Anaesthetize: To render unconscious by administering chloro-
form, etc. ; to render insensible to pain or touch.
Analgesic : Not sensible to pain.
Analogous : Bearing analogy or resemblance.
Analogy : Similarity ; likeness ; parallel.
Anatomical : Relating to anatomy or bodily structure.
Aneurism of the aorta : A form of tumor in the principal artery
leaving the heart.
Ankylosed: Grown together (said of joints).
Annihilate : To reduce to nothing ; destroy.
Anomalous : Irregular ; not conforming to custom or rule.
Anomaly : Irregularity ; deviation from rule.
Antecedent : Going before ; preceding.
Anterior : Before ; in front of. Happening before ; preceding
Anthropology : The science or study of man.
Antidotal : Relating to an antidote.
Antidote : Anything tending to prevent or counteract.
Antipathy: Dislike ; hatred; aversion.
Antithesis : An opposite ; a contrast.
Apathy : Lack of feeling ; indifference.
Aperture : An opening ; a gap.
Aphasia: Disturbances of speech, perception, memory, etc.,
produced by abnormal conditions in the brain.
Apodictic : Indisputable ; above all contradiction.
Apoplectic : Relating to apoplexy.
Apoplexy: The symptoms induced by rupture of a blood-vessel
(usually in the brain).
Append : To add ; attach ; annex.
Appetence : An instinct ; a natural tendency or propensity.
Appose : To apply.
Apposite: Fit; suitable; appropriate.
Approximate : To approach ; come near ; resemble.
A priori : Inherent ; innate ; natural.
Arbitrary : Not fixed ; left to judgment or chance.
Arraign : To call in question for fault ; to accuse formally ; to
Anythmic : Not rythmic.
Articular : Relating to the joints.
Articulation : The pronouncing of consonants ; the pronouncing
of the elements of speech.
Articulo-moteur : A person whose verbal thought is of the motor
Arytenoid cartilages : A pair of small cartilages in the larynx or
Asinine: Ass-like; stupid; silly.
Aspirate : A breath-sound ; the letter h or a similar breath-
Assiduous: Diligent; attentive; careful.
Associational : Relating to association (of ideas).
Asthenic : Weakening ; depriving one of strength or control.
Atavism : The unnatural recurrence of a trait that was present
in distant ancestors ; a trait thus recurring.
Atonic : Without vocal sound or voice ; surd.
Atrophy : A wasting away ; degeneration.
Attest : To bear witness ; certify.
Audible : Capable of being heard.
Audito-kinsesthetic : See footnote i, vol. i, p. 174.
Audito-moteur : One whose verbal imagery is both auditory and
Auditor : A hearer ; a listener.
Auditory : Relating to hearing.
Auditory-motor : Both auditory and motor.
Augment : To increase.
Aural : Relating to the ear ; relating to hearing.
Automatism : Automatic action. An involuntary or automatic
Automaton: An object that moves automatically and without
Autopsy: A post-mortem examination; inspection of a body
Auto-suggestion : Self -hypnotism.
Auxiliary : An aid ; an accessory ; something employed to assist.
Aversion: Dislike; disgust.
Avouch : To declare ; affirm ; acknowledge ; confess.
Banal: Commonplace ; trivial.
Baton : A staff used by the conductor of an orchestra.
Belladonna : A drug ; a medicine.
Biceps : The large muscle in the forepart of the upper arm.
Bi-convex : Convex on both sides ; bulging on both sides.
Bicuspids : The fourth and fifth teeth counting from the middle
of the jaw.
3 I4 GLOSSARY
Bilateral : On both sides ; two-sided.
Binary : Double ; consisting of two parts.
Biological: Relating to biology, the science or study of life
and living objects.
Bisexual : Being of both sexes ; two-sexed.
Bizarre: Odd; peculiar.
Bizarrerie: Oddity; freak.
Boggle : To make a bungle of ; perform awkwardly ; hesitate ;
Bona-fide : In good faith ; without deceit ; genuine.
Brazier : A pan for holding live coals.
Brochure : A pamphlet.
Bromide of potassium : A drug ; a medicine.
Buccal cavity : The cavity of the mouth.
Cachexia : General bad health ; poorness of nutrition.
Cadence: Modulation; accent; inflection.
Cafe chantant: A concert-hall or concert-garden where light
refreshments are served.
Calibre : Bore ; internal diameter.
Canard : A hoax ; a farce.
Capitulate : To surrender.
Cardiac bruit : Abnormal heart sounds.
Cardinal: Chief; principal.
Cartilaginous : Of the nature of cartilage ; gristle-like.
Casual : Accidental ; occurring by chance.
Cataclysm : A sudden and overwhelming change ; a catastrophe.
Catalepsy : Loss of motion and sensation ; loss of consciousness ;
Cataplexy : Complete paralysis ; utter prostration.
Categorical: Positive; absolute.
Catholicon : A cure-all ; a panacea.
Causal : Relating to a cause or causes.
Causality : The relation between cause and effect.
Causative : Relating to cause.
Cent : A halfpenny.
Centenary: The hundredth anniversary.
Central nervous system : The brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral : Relating to the cerebrum.
Chafe : To fret ; to become excited or heated.
Chagrin : Vexation ; disappointment mingled with shame.
Chaos: Confusion; disorder.
Characteristic : A trait ; a feature.
Characterize : To describe ; distinguish ; designate ; mark.
Charlatan : A quack ; an imposter.
Chorea: St. Vitus's dance; a disease accompanied by irregular
and involuntary movement of the limbs.
Chromatic : Relating to color. Consisting of a succession of
Circular letter : A letter mailed in the same form to a number of
Circumflex inflection : An inflection involving both rise and fall
Circumlocution : A roundabout phrase ; a phrase expressing an
Circumspect: Cautious; prudent.
Circumvent : To gain advantage over ; get the better of ; out-
wit. To pass around in a circle.
Citation : A passage cited or quoted ; the act of citing or quoting.
Clangor: Clank; clang.
Clavicle : The collar bone.
Clonus : An irregular spasm.
Cluttering : Confused speech in which the words are not properly
Coalesce : To unite ; blend ; fuse ; grow or come together.
Coerce : To compel ; constrain ; force.
Coexist : To exist at the same time.
Cogent: Forceful; convincing; compelling.
Cognate: Allied; related.
Cognizance : Knowledge ; observation ; notice.
Cognizant : Having knowledge of ; knowing.
Coherent : Logically connected ; sensible ; clear.
Collateral: Secondary; subordinate; auxiliary; attendant.
Colleague: Companion; partner; associate.
Collocate : To set or place together.
Collocation: Grouping; arrangement.
Coloration : The state of being colored ; color.
Colossal: Immense; enormous.
Commensurate: Equal; proportional.
Commentary : A comment ; a systematic discussion.
Commissural fibres : Fibres connecting the opposite hemispheres
of the brain.
Compensatory : Compensating.
Complementary colors: Pairs of colors that produce white or
gray when blended.
Complex : A complicated group or system.
Component: Forming a part of a thing ; composing; constituting.
Comport : To behave ; to conduct.
Composite : Compounded ; made up of distinct parts.
Compressive : Characterized by muscular pressure.
Concatenate : To link together ; unite in a series.
Concavity : Depression ; hollowness.
Concomitant: Accompanying; attending.
Concrete: Individual; particular; real; material.
Concrete thought : Thought concerning real or concrete objects.
Concur : To agree ; assent.
Concurrently: Together; unitedly.
Conduce : To help or tend to bring about as a result.
Conformation: Form; shape; position.
Conformity: The act of conforming; agreement; correspon-
Congential : Existing at birth.
Congeries: Collection; group; assemblage.
Congestion : Excessive accumulation of blood in an organ.
Conjoin : To join ; unite.
Conjoined: Joined; associated; combined.
Conjoint: United; connected; associated.
Connate : Existing at birth ; congenital.
Consecution : Succession ; consecutive order.
Consentaneous : Simultaneous ; occurring at the same time.
Consonantal : Relating to a consonant or consonants.
Consort: Companion; partner; associate.
Constrained : Held back ; repressed ; embarrassed.
Constrict : To contract ; cause to shrink.
Consummate: (adjective) Complete; perfect.
Consummate : (verb) To complete ; to perfect.
Contemporaneous: Existing at the same time; existing at the
Conterminous: Contiguous; bordering upon; touching at the
Contiguity: Nearness; proximity; contact.
Contiguous: Adjacent; meeting; touching.
Contingency : Possibility of happening ; an unpredictable event.
Contracture : A permanent contraction of muscles.
Contradistinction : Distinction by unlike or opposite qualities.
Contravention: Defiance; violation.
Contretemps : An unexpected accident.
Convalescent: Relating to convalescence or the recovery of
health after sickness.
Conversableness : A disposition to converse ; talkativeness.
Conversant : Intimately acquainted ; knowing and understanding.
Convolution : A fold ; twist ; coil.
Convulsions: A disturbance accompanied by violent agitation
of the limbs and body ; fits.
Convulsive: Relating to convulsions; marked by intermittent
Coo'perate : To work or act together.
Coordinate : (adjective) Having equal importance.
Coordinate : (verb} To harmonize ; adjust for proper action.
Corollary: A consequent truth; a truth following obviously
from another truth already demonstrated.
Correlate : (noun) Counterpart ; corresponding part.
Correlate: (verb} To compare; arrange; connect; determine
the relations between.
Correlation: Relationship; connection.
Cortical : Relating to the cortex or gray matter of the brain.
Cosmological : Relating to cosmology, the science of the universe.
Costal-abdominal : Involving the ribs and abdominal muscles.
Counterpart : A copy ; duplicate ; corresponding part.
Cranium : The skull.
Crescent moon : The increasing or new moon.
Criterion: Standard; measure; test.
Culminate : To attain the highest point or degree ; to reach a
Cumulative : Accumulating ; increasing by addition.
Cunei : Plural of cuneus, one of the convolutions of the brain.
Current : Belonging to the present time ; in present progress or
Curriculum : A course of study.
Cursory: Hasty; slight; superficial.
Cutaneous : Relating to the skin.
Data : Facts ; premises ; given conditions.
Debilitate : To weaken ; enfeeble.
Declamatory: Relating to declaimed speech or a declamation;
relating to a recitation.
Decussation : A crossing.
Definition : Clearness of outline ; clearness of detail.
Deflate : To remove the air from.
Degenerate : To undergo morbid changes ; deteriorate ; become
of a lower type.
Deglutition : The act or power of swallowing.
Deleterious: Injurious; harmful; unwholesome.
Delimited: Limited; bounded; confined.
Demerit : The opposite of merit ; that which deserves blame or
Demonstrative : Pointing out ; indicating. Given to strong
exhibition of feeling.
Denominate : To name ; call.
Dento-labial : A consonant requiring both teeth and lips for its
Depredator : A plunderer ; destroyer.
Deprivation : Loss ; the state of being deprived of.
Derivative : A word formed from another word.
Desideratum : That which is desirable or desired.
Designate : To point out ; indicate ; name.
Destitute : Without ; unprovided with.
Desultory: Rambling; loose; unmethodical.
Detriment: Injury; disadvantage.
Dexterity: Skill; expertness.
Diabetes : A disease.
Diablerets : A mountain.
Diacritic : A diacritical mark.
Diacritical: Distinguishing; distinctive.
Diagnose : To identify (a disease) ; to ascertain the nature of
Dialectical : Relating to a dialect.
Diaphragm: The dome-shaped muscle separating the chest
cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Differentiate: To discriminate between; mark the differences
Diffuse : To spread ; expand ; extend.
Dilation: Expansion; enlargement.
Dilemma : A perplexing position.
Diphthong : A vowel made up of two different sounds.
Disavow : To deny.
Discrepancy: Disagreement; difference.
Discrete: Separate; distinct.
Discriminate : To detect a difference or a distinction ; to make
a difference or distinction.
Disingenuous : Not ingenuous ; not open, frank, and honest.
Disintegrate : To fall to pieces ; crumble ; break up.
Disjoin : To separate.
Dismember : To divide ; break into parts.
Disparate: Different; dissimilar; unlike; separate.
Displode : To explode ; articulate.
Disposition : Arrangement ; order ; the manner in which things
Disproportion : Inequality ; lack of proportion.
Dissolution : A breaking up ; a going to pieces ; retrogression ;
degeneration ; the process opposite to evolution.
Distance-receptor: A sense that gives one knowledge of things at
a distance of things not actually touching the body.
Distend : To stretch ; swell ; enlarge.
Diversity: Difference; dissimilarity; variation.
Divine : To ascertain ; find out ; guess.
Doggerel : Having a loose, irregular measure.
Dollar : Four shilling and twopence.
Dorsal : Relating to the back ; posterior ; behind.
Draughtsman : One that draws plans or designs.
Dual : Double ; consisting of two.
Dynamogenesis : The origin or production of nervous energy.
Dynamometer: An instrument used for testing the strength of
Dyslalia : Difficulty in speech ; stammering.
Dyspepsia : Indigestion ; chronic indigestion.
Ebullition : A state of agitation.
Eclectic : Selective ; picking out ; taking here and there ; made
from what is selected from different systems.
Ecstacy: Rapture; enthusiasm; overpowering emotion; the
state of being beside oneself.
Educe : To call forth ; draw out.
Efface : To blot out ; wipe out.
Effect: To cause; bring about; accomplish.
Effluent : Outgoing ; flowing out.
Effusive : Gushing ; pouring forth.
Ego : The self ; the subjective or mental self.
Egregious : Remarkable ; extreme.
Ein Billet zum ersten Rang : A ticket for the first circle.
Bin Parkett-billet : A ticket for the parquet; a ticket for the
orchestra-stalls or the pit.
Elemental : Simple ; not compound or complex ; of the nature of
ihfcve: Apprentice; student.
Elicit : To call forth ; bring out.
Eliminate : To remove ; expel.
Elocution: The art of correct utterance or delivery of words;
training in correct utterance, etc.
Elongate : To lengthen ; extend.
Elucidate : To make clear ; explain ; illustrate.
Emanate : To come from ; issue ; proceed.
Embryonal : Relating to embryology, the science of development.
Emotive : Relating to emotion ; expressing emotion.
Emotivity : Emotion ; capacity for emotion.
Empirical: Relating to experience and observation rather than
to scientific knowledge ; used and applied without science ;
relating to quackery.
Empiricism : Empirical practice ; quackery.
Encomium : An expression of praise ; a commendation.
Encroach : To make inroad upon ; trespass upon.
Encumbrance: Burden; hindrance; load.
End-organs : Sense-organs.
Endow : To enrich or furnish with.
Enervate : To render feeble ; weaken.
Engender : To produce ; cause ; bring forth.
Enhance : To increase ; advance ; intensify.
Enigmatical : Obscure ; puzzling ; relating to a riddle.
Enjoin : To order ; direct ; admonish ; prescribe.
En masse : In mass ; as a body ; all together.
Enounce : To pronounce ; enunciate.
Enregister : To register ; record.
Entail: To involve; impose; necessitate; bring about as a
Entity : A thing existing individually.
Enunciate : To pronounce ; utter ; articulate.
Envelop : To surround ; enclose.
Environal : Affected by environment or surroundings.
Ephemeral: Short-lived; brief.
Epilepsy: A nervous disturbance accompanied by loss of con-
sciousness, convulsions, foaming at the mouth, etc.
Epiphenomenon : An added phenomenon ; something occurring
afterwards ; something purely secondary.
Equable: Uniform; regular; even.
Equivalent: Counterpart; representative.
Erasure : Something erased or scratched out.
Erotic : Relating to love ; relating to sexual desire.
Erroneous : Marked by error ; incorrect.
Erudition: Learning; scholarship.
Eschew: Avoid; shun.
Et cetera : Etc. ; and so forth.
Ethical : Relating to ethics, morals, or behavior.
Ether-waves : Waves in the ether, a substance supposed to fill
Ethnological : Relating to ethnology, the science of the natural
races and families of men.
Etiological: Relating to etiology, the science of the causes of
Etymology : The history of a word ; the science that deals with
the history of words.
Eureka: Literally, " I have found (it)."
Evanescent: Vanish; fleeting; disappearing.
Evocation : An evoking ; a summoning ; a calling forth.
Evoke : To call forth ; summon.
Exacerbation : A growing or making worse.
Excerpt : (noun) A passage quoted ; an extract.
Excerpt : (verb) To pick out ; take out ; quote ; cite.
Excise : To cut out.
Exclamatory : Containing or expressing exclamation.
Excrescence : An unnatural outgrowth or addition.
Execrable: Detestable; hateful.
Exemplify : To show or illustrate by example.
Exhale : To breathe out.
Exhaustive : Extremely thorough ; complete.
Exhort : To urge ; advise ; incite.
Exigency : Urgency ; pressing necessity.
Exiguous: Small; minute.
Expedient: (adjective) Advisable; suitable under the circum-
Expedient: (noun) A means employed to accomplish an end;
a device ; a shift ; a resource.
Expeditious: Quick; speedy.
Expiratory : Relating to expiration, the act of breathing out.
Expletive : A profane interjection ; an oath.
Exposition: Discussion; explanation.
Ex post facto: Introduced afterward; occurring after the
Expunge : To blot out ; wipe out ; efface.
Extemporaneous: Composed offhand or on the spur of the
Extirpate : To cut out ; excise ; destroy.
Extraneous: Foreign; external; having no real relation to a
f : And the page following.
ff : And the pages following.
Facetious : Humorous ; witty.
Facial : Relating to the face.
Facilitate : To make easy or less difficult.
Factitious: Created by art rather than nature; artificial.
Fallacious: False; misleading; deceptive.
False vocal cords : A pair of membranous folds above the true
Faradic: Relating to an induced current, a current that is
regularly and frequently interrupted.
Faradisation : Treatment with a faradic current.
Farcical : Of the nature of a farce.
Fear-neurosis : A nervous disturbance marked by fear.
Febrile : Relating to a fever.
Fiasco : A conspicuous failure ; a farce.
Fiat : Literally, " let it be done " ; the decision to act
Fidelity : Faithfulness ; adherence to truth or fact.
Filament : A fibre ; a thread.
Filial : Issuing from as offspring ; relating to a son or daughter.
Fixate : To focus with the eyes ; look at intently.
Flageolet : A musical instrument somewhat resembling a flute.
Flex : To bend.
Flexibility : The quality of being flexible or pliable.
Fluctuate : To waver ; pass back and forth.
Foci : Plural of focus.
Focus : A point of concentration ; central point.
Formative : Giving form ; relating to formation.
Formulate : To give form to ; to put or state in exact form.
Fraenum : The small band or ligament beneath the tongue.
Fraternity: A brotherhood ; an organized body.
Freebooter : One that roams hi search of plunder ; a robber.
French leave : Secret departure or absence.
Fricative : Marked by friction of the breath.
Frugal: Sparing; saving.
Fugacious: Fleeting; vanishing; disappearing.
Fugitive : Readily escaping ; fleeting.
Functional : Relating to function or action.
Fundamental : Principal ; most important.
Futile: Useless; idle; unavailing; vain.
Galvanic current : The continuous current from a battery.
Gamboge : A yellow pigment ; a yellow coloring substance.
Genera : Plural of genus.
Generic : Relating to a genus ; embracing a large class ; general ;
Genitalia : The genitals ; the sex-organs.
Genus : A group ; a larger group than a species. Variety ;
kind ; sort.
Germane : Related ; closely connected ; appropriate.
Gist : The main point ; the essence of the matter.
Glosso-mochlion : Tongue-lever.
Glottal : Relating to the glottis.
Glottis: The opening between the vocal cords; this opening
together with the cords.
Gold brick : A worthless object represented as of great value and
sold for a large sum of money.
Gorget : A piece of armor for defending the throat and neck ; a
kind of breastplate.
Grandiloquent : Pompous ; bombastic ; lofty in speech.
Graphic: Written; drawn.
Gratuitous : Not warranted by the circumstances ; not justified ;
made or done without sufficient cause or reason.
Gross: Large; extensive.
Guinea : An English coin of the value of twenty-one shillings, or
slightly more than five dollars.
Gustative : Relating to the sense of taste.
Guttural : A consonant or sound produced in the throat.
Gyrus: Convolution; fold.
Habituate : To accustom.
Haemorrhage: Bleeding; an escape of blood from its natural
Hallucination : An abnormal condition in which mental images
are mistaken for sensations.
Hallucinatory : Relating to an hallucination.
Harmonic : Relating to musical or other harmony.
Hashish : A drug.
Hegemony: Position of supreme command; leadership; au-
Hemiplegia : Paralysis on one side of the body.
Hemisphere : A half -sphere.
Hereditable : Capable of being inherited.
Heterodox : Not orthodox ; contrary to a standard or opinion.
Hiatus : A gap ; an opening.
Hieroglyph : A drawing used as a symbol.
Homonym: A word having the same sound as another but a
Homo sapiens : Man.
Horizontal : Level ; parallel to the horizon.
Hors de combat : Out of the combat ; disabled.
Hortatory : Giving exhortation or encouragement.
Hydrophobia : Dread of water ; the disease produced by the bite
of an animal affected with rabies.
Hygienic : Relating to health ; promoting health ; sanitary.
Hypercemia : Congestion ; excess of blood in a part.
Hypertrophy : Overgrowth of an organ ; overdevelopment.
Hypochrondria : Unnatural anxiety concerning the health; a
state of mental depression ; low spirits.
Hypothesis : Supposition ; assumption ; theory.
Hysteria: A nervous disease in which the patient lacks normal
self-control and may be the victim of imaginary afflictions.
Idio-activity : Self-induced activity ; self -caused activity.
Idiosyncracy : A personal peculiarity ; an individual trait.
Illation: Conclusion; deduction; inference.
Illiterate: Ignorant; unlettered.
Illumination : Brightness ; a lighting up.
Illusion : A false perception ; a misinterpretation of impressions.
Imbue : To cause to imbibe ; to infuse ; to fill.
Impair : To lessen in value ; weaken ; enfeeble.
Impel : To urge or drive forward.
Impend : To threaten ; to be close at hand or just about to occur.
Impetuous : Hasty ; rushing forward ; violent.
Impinge : To strike or dash against ; collide.
Import: Meaning; sense.
Importunity : Urgent request ; continual asking.
Impotent : Lacking power ; disabled ; weak.
Improvise : To produce or compose on the spur of the moment.
Impugn : To attack by words or arguments ; to insinuate against.
Impulsion : Impulse ; the act of impelling or driving.
Imputable: That may be imputed to or charged against ; charge-
Inanity : Anything inane or foolish.
Inapt : Not apt or appropriate.
Inaudible : Not audible or capable of being heard.
Inauspicious : Boding ill ; furnishing an unfavorable omen.
Incarcerate : To shut up ; confine ; imprison.
Inception: Beginning; commencement.
Incestuous: Relating to incest or sexual intercourse between
persons so nearly related that marriage between them
would be unlawful.
Inchoate : Rudimentary ; incomplete ; begun but not finished.
Incipient: Beginning; commencing; incomplete.
Incisors : The four middle teeth of either jaw.
Incite : To move to action ; cause to act ; stimulate.
Incompatible : Contrary ; not able to exist together.
Incomprehensible: Not capable of being comprehended or
Incontinently : Without restraint.
Incontrovertible : Indisputable ; too certain to admit of dispute.
Incoordinate : Lacking coordination or adjustment.
Incorporate : To include ; embody ; unite.
Inculcate : To impress ; implant ; teach ; enforce.
Incumbent : Resting upon one as a duty or obligation.
Indelible : Incapable of being blotted out.
Indeterminate : Indefinite ; uncertain ; not precise.
Index-finger : The forefinger ; the pointing finger.
Indiscipline : Want of discipline ; deficiency of control.
Indiscriminate: Without distinction; confused; not making
Indite : To compose ; write ; commit to written words.
Indolent: Lazy; sluggish.
Indubitable: Undoubted; unquestionable.
Induce : To cause ; bring on ; produce.
Ineptitude : Lack of skill.
Inertia : Resistance ; indisposition to move ; inertness.
Inexorable: Unyielding; immovable; relentless.
Inexplicable : Not capable of being explained.
Inflection: The raising or lowering of the pitch of the voice;
modulation of the voice.
Ingenuous: Open; frank; honest; sincere.
Inhale : To breathe in ; to draw air into the lungs.
Inhere : To be fixed in ; to be an inseparable part of.
Inheritable : Capable of being inherited.
Inhibit : To restrain ; hinder ; check ; repress ; hold back.
Inimical: Harmful; hostile; unfriendly.
Initial : First ; placed at the beginning ; opening ; incipient.
Initiate : To originate ; bring about ; start ; begin ; institute.
Initiative : A first step ; beginning ; start ; lead.
Injunction: Command; order; precept; exhortation.
Innate: Inborn; natural; inbred.
Innervate : To give the nervous stimulus or impulse to.
Innovation : A change in custom ; something newly introduced.
Inordinate: Excessive; immoderate; undue.
Inscrutable : Obscure ; mysterious ; not capable of being under-
Insentient : Without feeling.
Inspire : To inhale ; to breathe in.
Instigate : To incite ; provoke ; originate ; stimulate to action.
Insuperable : Insurmountable ; incapable of being overcome.
Intangible: Vague; dim; incapable of being grasped or touched.
Integral : Complete as an entity ; entire ; whole ; necessary to
make a whole.
Integrity : Wholeness ; entireness ; unbroken state. Honesty ;
Intensify : To make stronger or more intense.
Intensity : Strength ; the state of being strong or intense.
Interblend : To blend together ; intermingle.
Intercalate : To insert ; interpolate.
Intercostal : Between the ribs.
Interjection: An exclamation; a word suddenly uttered to ex-
Interlocutor : A questioner.
Intermit : To interrupt ; suspend ; cause to cease for a time.
Interpolate : To insert.
Interrogate : To question.
Intimidate : To make afraid ; cause to become frightened.
Intractable : Obstinate ; ungovernable ; not responding to treat-
Intrinsic: Real; true; inherent; inward; genuine.
Introspect : To look within the mind ; to examine the workings
of the mind.
Intuitive : Perceived by the mind immediately and without any
process of reasoning.
Invective : Abusive ; railing ; expressing censure or reproach.
Inveigh : To exclaim or rail against ; to censure.
Inversion : A reversing ; a placing in opposite order.
Invert : To reverse ; place upside down ; place in opposite order.
Invest : To endow ; clothe ; dress.
Inveterate : Confirmed in a habit or practice.
Invoke : To call into activity ; summon ; conjure ; appeal to.
Involuntary : Independent of will or choice.
Involvement : The state of being involved or implicated.
Iodide of potassium : A drug ; a medicine.
Ipecacuanha : A drug ; a medicine.
Irate: Wrathful; angry.
Irradiate : To spread like rays from a center ; to diffuse.
Irrelevant : Foreign to the subject ; not bearing on the matter
under consideration ; inapplicable.
Irruptive : Invading ; rushing in or upon.
Italicize : To print in italics or slanting type.
Itinerant : Wandering ; passing or travelling about a country.
Jeu d'esprit : A play of wit or fancy ; a joke.
Jocund: Sportive; gay; merry.
Juncture : A point of time.
Kaleidoscopic : Resembling the figures of a kaleidoscope ; chang-
ing in color and form.
Kinaesthetic : Motor ; relating to muscular movement.
Knee-jerk : The involuntary jerk or kick that results from a blow
delivered immediately below the knee-cap.
Kulturmenschen : Civilized people.
Labial : Relating to the lips.
Laboratory : A building or room in which scientific work is con-
ducted and experiments are performed.
Laceration : A tearing.
Lacuna : A gap ; space ; vacancy.
Lallation : Lalling (especially tailing on the letter r).
Lalling: Inability to articulate dearly; an infantile form of
Lalophobia : Speech-fear ; the fear of talking.
Laminate : Made up of layers or thin plates.
Languish : To fade ; wither ; become spiritless.
Lapidary : Inscribed upon stone ; inscribed upon tombstones.
Laryngeal : Relating to the larynx.
Larynx : The upper part of the windpipe containing the organs
Lasciviousness : Lustfulness ; indulgence in animal desires.
Laud : To praise ; extol.
Leash : A line ; a thong ; a cord ; a line by which an animal is
held in check.
Legible : That may be read ; distinct ; easily deciphered.
Legionary : Relating to a legion ; containing a great number.
Lesion : A hurt ; a wound ; an injury ; a changed condition due
Lethargic: Sluggish; dull; heavy.
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi : One of the facial muscles.
Lexicographical: Relating to a dictionary or the writing of a
Liaison : An intrigue ; sexual intimacy.
Lingual : Relating to the tongue.
Linguistic : Relating to language.
Linguo-palatal : Requiring both tongue and palate for articulation.
Liquor arsenicalis : A medicine.
Litigation : The process of carrying on a suit in a court of law.
Localize : To be local ; to make local ; to assign a definite posi-
tion to ; to refer to a particular location or area.
Loc. cit. : Loco citato (in the place or work cited).
Longevity : Length or duration of life.
Lucrative: Profitable; gainful.
Malaise: Uneasiness; discomfort; indisposition.
Malevolent : Unfavorable ; unpropitious ; bringing calamity.
Malformed : Abnormally formed ; ill-shaped.
Malignant: Harmful; malicious.
Mandarin : A Chinese official.
Mandibular : Relating to the lower jaw.
Manifold : Many ; numerous ; of different kinds.
Manipulate : To handle ; to work or operate with the hands.
Manoeuvre : A movement ; a change in position or arrangement.
Manual : A handbook.
Manual alphabet : Hand-language ; the deaf and dumb alphabet.
Mark : A German coin of the value of about twenty-four cents.
A German coin of the value of about a shilling.
Masquerade: To go in disguise; to cover up or conceal as
with a mask.
Masticatory: A substance chewed in order to increase the flow
Maturation : The process of maturing or ripening.
Maxim : A rule ; principle ; saying.
Mechanician: A mechanic; a machinist; one versed in the
principles of mechanics.
Median : Middle ; relating to the middle ; situated or placed in
the middle ; mesial (which see).
Mediate : (adjective') Indirect ; not immediate.
Mediate : (verb) To bring about as an agent ; effect ; accomplish.
Medicament : A medicine ; a healing application.
Memoriter : By heart ; from memory.
Meninges: The coverings of the brain (and spinal cord).
Mesial: Middle; relating to an imaginary plane dividing the
body into two equal halves.
Meticulous : Over-cautious ; attending to minute detail.
Metrical : Pertaining to meter ; of the nature of verse ; meas-
Metronome: An instrument giving audible beats and used for
marking exact time in music.
Mimetic : Imitative ; involving mimicry.
Minaret : A tower.
Mitigate : To lessen ; moderate ; abate ; make better.
Mnemonic : Assisting the memory.
Mogilalia : A difficulty of utterance.
Monograph : A treatise on a single subject.
Monophthong : A vowel consisting of only one element.
Monosyllable : A word consisting of a single syllable.
Monotonic : In a monotone ; in one pitch.
Motility : Power of motion ; ability to move.
Motor : Relating to motion or movement ; relating to muscular
Motorial : Same as motor.
Multifarious : Having great diversity and variety.
Multiform : Having many forms ; diverse.
Multiple: Having many parts and relations; consisting of a
large number ; manifold.
Multiplicity: The condition of being manifold or numerous; a
Multitudinous : Numerous ; consisting of a multitude.
Municipality: Township; city.
Musculature : The muscular system ; the muscles.
Mutation : Change ; alteration ; the process of changing.
Mute consonant : A surd or voiceless consonant.
Myelin : The white covering of a nerve-fibre.
Naive: Not reflecting; uncritical; artless; frank; simple;
Nares : The cavity of the nose ; the nostrils.
Nasal : Relating to the nose.
Nascent : Coming into being ; beginning to exist ; undeveloped.
Natural selection : Selection by the elimination of the unfit and
the survival of the fit.
Necropsy: Post-mortem examination; examination of a body
after death; autopsy.
Negative : A plate from which photographs are printed.
Negligible: Unimportant; that may be disregarded; not
materially affecting results.
Nephritis : Inflammation of the kidneys.
Neural : Relating to the nervous system ; relating to nerves.
Neurasthenia : An exhausted condition with disturbances of the
nervous system ; nervous weakness ; nervous prostration.
Neuroses : Plural of neurosis.
Neurosis : A nervous derangement ; a functional nervous disease.
Neurotic : Relating to neurosis ; subject to neuroses ; nervous.
Nonchalant: Indifferent; unconcerned; cool.
Non-speculative: Not speculative; without theory or con-
Norm : The normal type ; standard.
Notation: A system of signs or symbols ; the symbols themselves.
Nucha : The nape or back part of the neck.
Nuclei : Plural of nucleus.
Nucleus: Kernel; centre; core.
Nugatory: Insignificant; trifling; vain.
Obfuscate : To obscure ; darken ; cloud ; render dim.
Objective: Outward; external; external to the mind; direct-
ing the mind to external things without reference to
personal sensations and experiences.
Oblique: Slanting; sloping.
Obliterate : To blot out ; erase ; efface.
Oblivion: The state of having passed out of memory; loss of
Obscurantist : One that opposes the diffusion of knowledge.
Obscuration : The state of being obscured or darkened ; the act
Obsession : A haunting idea ; the state of being haunted by an
Obsolescent : Becoming obsolete ; going out of use.
Obsolete: Gone out of use; discarded; antiquated.
Obtain : To prevail ; exist.
Obtrude : To thrust in or upon ; to intrude.
Obtrusion : The act of obtruding.
Obviate : To encounter or meet ; to clear away or provide for ;
Occlude : To shut up ; to close.
Occlusion : A shutting up ; a closing ; an occluding.
Octave : A sound eight tones higher or lower than another.
Olfactory : Relating to the sense of smell.
Omniscient : Knowing all things ; unlimited in knowledge.
Ontogenetic : Relating to the development of the individual as
opposed to that of the race.
Optical : Relating to vision or sight ; relating to the eyes.
Optic disk : The point where the optic nerve enters the retina of
the eye ; the blind spot.
Oral : Relating to the mouth.
Orang-outang : One of the higher apes.
Orchestral : Relating to an orchestra.
Organic: Relating to bodily organs; physical or bodily rather
than functional or mental; relating to an organism or
Organism : A living object ; an animal or plant.
Orifice : An opening ; an opening into a cavity ; an aperture.
Orthographically: According to the rules of spelling.
Orthopaedic: Relating to orthopaedia, the correction of deform-
Orthophonic: Literally, relating to right sound or to a correct
system of sound-production.
Ostensible: Seeming; appearing; professed; pretended.
Outre: Odd; peculiar; extravagant.
Overt: Clear; manifest.
Oxygenation: The act of oxygenating or causing to combine
with oxygen, one of the gases of the air.
Palatal : Relating to the palate or roof of the mouth.
Palatine : Same as palatal.
Palpitation: A beating ; a too rapid beating.
Panacea : A cure-all ; a remedy for all diseases.
Pantomime: Dumb-show ; sign language ; a series of actions and
gestures intended to convey ideas.
Parabola : A geometrical figure produced by cutting a cone with
a plane parallel to one of its sides ; a curved line.
Paradox: A thing seemingly false yet true ; a puzzling fact.
Paragon : A model of excellence ; a pattern.
Paragram : A play upon words ; a quibble.
Paramount: Superior to all others; chief; supreme; most
Paraphernalia : Miscellaneous articles ; a collection of objects ;
UK an equipment.
Paraphrase : To express in different words ; change the wording
Parenthesis: An explanation inserted in a sentence. The fol-
lowing curved lines ( ).
Paresis : A mild form of paralysis.
Paretic : Relating to paresis ; partially paralyzed.
Parity: Equality; like state or degree; analogy; close resem-
Paroxysm: Fit; convulsion; spasm.
Patent: Clear; plain; manifest.
Pathogenic : Giving origin to disease ; causing illness.
Pathological : Relating to disease.
Pathologist: One versed or skilled in pathology, the science of
Patter-song : A comic song in which the words are uttered with
Paucity : Fewness ; smallness in number.
Pectoral : Relating to the chest.
Pemmican : A food used by explorers.
Percussion: The act of striking; the shock produced by a
Perforce : Necessarily ; by all means.
Peripheral : External ; at the surface of the body.
Peripherie : Same as peripheral.
Periphrasis : A roundabout expression ; a circumlocution.
Periphrases : Plural of periphrasis.
Pernicious: Hurtful; vicious; injurious.
Peroration : The concluding part of an oration.
Per se : By itself ; in and of itself.
Perspicuity: Clearness; plainness.
Pertinent : Fitting ; proper ; suitable ; not foreign to the matter.
Perversion: The act of perverting, corrupting, or distorting;
the state of being thus perverted ; impairment ; injury ;
Pfennig : A German coin of the value of about a quarter of a cent.
A German coin of the value of about half a farthing.
Pharynx : The extreme back of the throat ; the cavity behind the
Phenomenon: Happening; appearance; a fact presented to
Phobia : An abnormal fear ; a persistent dread.
Phonation: Vocalization; the production of vocal sound or
Phonetic : Relating to phonetics.
Phonetician : One skilled or versed in phonetics.
Phoneticist : Same as phonetician.
Phonetics: The science of sounds, especially those of human
Ph onophobia : The fear of sound ; the fear of speaking.
Photogram: A photographic record of a physiological experi-
ment ; a photograph.
Phthisis : Tuberculosis of the lungs ; consumption of the lungs.
Phylogenetic : Relating to the evolution of the race.
Physical: Relating to material things as opposed to mental;
relating to the body ; material ; bodily.
Physiognomy : A combination of features ; appearance ; coun-
tenance ; face.
Physiology : The science of bodily functions ; the study of the
normal workings of the body.
Pictorial : Relating to pictures.
Piecemeal: By pieces; in fragments; by little and little in
Pigmentary: Marked by the presence of pigment or coloring
Pitch : The highness or lowness of a tone ; the acuteness or grave-
ness of a note ; the relative acuteness or height of a sound.
Placid: Calm; serene; unruffled; undisturbed.
Plagiarize : To steal the writings of another.
Plastic : Capable of being shaped or moulded ; capable of being
changed or modified.
Plenary: Complete; full; entire.
Plethora : A fulness of the blood-vessels ; an overfulness of the
Plethysmograph : An instrument used for detecting changes in
the size of an arm or leg.
Plurality: The state of being plural; a number more than
Pneumograph: An instrument used for recording respiratory
Polyglot: Containing many languages; speaking many lan-
Polysyllable : A word of several syllables.
Polytechnical : Embracing or teaching many arts and sciences.
Pomum adami : The Adam's apple.
Portray: To picture; represent.
Posterior : Behind ; toward the rear or back.
Postfix: To add to the end.
Post-hypnotic suggestion : A suggestion intended to take effect
after the subject has passed out of the hypnotic state.
Postulate : Something assumed ; something taken for granted.
Potassium bromide : A drug ; a medicine.
Potency: Power; strength; efficacy.
Potent: Powerful; forceful; influential.
Potential : Existing in possibility ; possible.
Precedence : The act or right of preceding ; priority in rank.
Precept: A teaching; a maxim; a prescribed rule of conduct
Preclude : To prevent ; hinder ; exclude ; shut out.
Predispose : To make liable or susceptible to.
Predominate : To be chief in importance, quantity, or degree.
Preeminent : First in rank ; supreme ; extreme ; superlative.
Prefactory : Introductory ; relating to a preface.
Prefix : To fix or put before.
Premise: (noun) A position or fact laid down as the basis or
ground of an argument.
Premise : (verb) To set forth or lay down beforehand ; assume ;
Preoccupation : Absence of thought ; inattention.
Preponderant : Outweighing ; in excess.
Preposterous: Strikingly or utterly ridiculous or absurd; op-
posed to nature, reason, or common sense.
Prerequisite : Something necessary to the end proposed ; some-
thing required for the end in view; that on which some
later thing or condition depends.
Presage : To forebode ; foreshow ; foretell ; predict.
Primordial : Existing from the beginning ; original ; primitive.
Principiation : Analysis.
Privation : Loss ; lack ; the state of being deprived.
Prodigious: Great; huge; extraordinary.
Profile : A side view of the head or face ; an outline of this side
Prognosis: A prediction or forecast concerning the course of
Projection-fibres : Fibres that leave the cerebrum.
Prolific: Fruitful; productive; fertile.
Promiscuous: Mingled; confused; jumbled; indiscriminate;
brought together without order.
Promulgate : To make known ; announce ; publish ; proclaim.
Propaganda : The means or system employed to advance a cause.
Propension: Tendency; inclination; bent; proneness; pro-
Propensity : Same as propension.
Prophylactic : Preventive ; defending from disease.
Propinquity: Nearness; closeness; proximity.
Propitious : Favorable ; attended by favorable circumstances or
Propound : To offer ; present ; propose.
Prospective : Being still in the future or in expectation.
Prostrate : Lying helpless ; lying weak and exhausted.
Protoplasm : The li ving matter of which animals and plants are
largely composed and from which they are developed.
Protract : To lengthen ; draw out ; prolong.
Protrusion : The act of protruding or thrusting forward.
Provincialism: A peculiarity of speech or mode of enunciation
found in the provinces or country districts.
Proviso: Provision; restriction; stipulation.
Provocative : That which provokes, excites, or causes an action
Proximate: Nearest; direct; immediate; last.
Proximity: Nearness; closeness; the state of being near or
next in place or time or in some other relation.
Prudery : An undue and sometimes insincere display of modesty
and delicacy ; excessive niceness.
Pseudo : (in compound words) False.
Psychic : Mental ; psychological ; relating to the mind.
Psychical : Same as psychic.
Psychosis : A mental disturbance or disorder.
Purloin: To take or carry away for oneself; take by theft;
Putative : Supposed ; reported ; reputed to be.
Quasi : (in compound words) Appearing as,- if ; as it were ; in a
manner ; in a sense or to a certain degree.
Questionnaire : A list of questions.
Racial : Relating to a race or tribe.
Raison d'etre : A reason for being ; a reason or an excuse for
Ramification : A branch ; the act of branching.
Rampant : Unrestrained ; unbridled ; unchecked ; exceeding all
Random-spontaneous: Spontaneous in origin and random in
Rational: Reasonable; sensible; judicious.
Rationale : An explanation of reasons or principles ; the reasons
or principles themselves.
Recalcitrant : Refractory ; resisting ; refusing to submit.
Recession : The act of receding or withdrawing ; a withdrawal ;
a flowing away.
Recessive characteristic : A characteristic or trait that may be
latent or hidden in one generation but (under the proper
conditions) active in the next.
Recondite: Hidden; obscure.
Redintegrate : Recall to memory ; arouse by association.
Refoule langue : A tongue-ram ; a tongue-compressor.
Reflex act or movement: An act performed involuntarily in
response to a stimulus.
Refractory: Unmanageable; unruly; unyielding; obstinate.
Refutation : The act or process of refuting or disproving.
Remedial : Relating to a remedy ; intended as a remedy ; acting
as a remedy.
Reminiscent : Recalling the past ; dwelling upon the past.
Remission : Discharge from penalty ; pardon ; forgiveness.
Renal calculi : " Kidney gravel " ; a disease in which gravel-like
bodies are present in the kidneys.
Renegade: Unfaithful; false; deserting; apostate.
Reparation: The act or process of repairing; restoration to
Reparative : Relating to reparation.
Repetitive : Involving repetition ; repeating.
Replete: Full; abounding.
Repudiate: To refuse to acknowledge; to disclaim ; disavow ;
Requicken : To bring to life again ; revive.
Requisite: Necessary; required; needful; essential.
Requisition: Request; summons; demand; the act of re-
Residential: Relating to a residence or home; fitted for resi-
Respiration: Breathing; the act of inhaling and exhal-
Retina : The inner coat of the eyeball, formed of an expansion
of the optic nerve.
Retract : To draw back ; withdraw.
Retrogression : A going backwards ; degeneration.
Reverberate : To return ; send back ; echo ; reflect.
Revert : To return ; fall back ; to return to or toward an origi-
nal or ancestral type.
Revoke: Annul; cancel; repeal; recall; abolish.
Rhetorically: In a rhetorical or an oratorical manner; with
correct composition and delivery.
Rhythm : Regularity of movement ; measured movement ; the
regular recurrence of accent or impulse ; the " swing " in
a particular movement or execution.
Rhythmical : Marked by rhythm ; regular hi movement or ac-
cent ; keeping time.
Rhythmus : Same as rhythm.
Rima-glottidis : The glottis ; the aperture of the glottis.
Rubrics : Formal instructions ; directions or rules.
Rudimental : Undeveloped ; elementary ; rudimentary.
Rudimentary : Undeveloped ; not fully developed ; imperfect.
Salutary: Helpful; wholesome; advantageous; useful.
Sang-froid : Coolness ; indifference ; freedom from emotion.
Schematic : Diagrammatic ; relating to a scheme, diagram, or
Script : Handwriting ; print hi imitation of handwriting.
Scriptory : Written ; expressed in writing.
Scrutinize : To observe closely ; examine carefully.
Scrutiny : Careful observation or examination.
Secondary-automatic : Performed unconsciously from habit.
Semi-vocal : A voiced consonant.
Sense-organ : An organ such as the eye or ear, for instance
that gives sensation when stimulated.
Sensory : Conveying or giving rise to sensation.
Sentient : Feeling ; capable of feeling.
Septennial : Lasting or continuing for seven years.
Sepulchral: Relating to a sepulchre or tomb; hence deep,
grave, hollow hi tone.
Sequence: Order; succession.
Sequent: Following; succeeding.
Sexuelle aetiologie: Sexual aetiology; sexual causality; the
theory of sexual causes.
Sibilation : The act of sibilating or hissing ; a hissing sound.
Simulant : One that simulates or mimics.
Simulate : To feign ; imitate ; counterfeit ; mimic.
Simultaneous : Occurring at the same time.
Sobriquet : A nickname.
Soft palate: The soft part of the roof of the mouth; the pos-
terior part of the roof of the mouth.
Somaesthetic : Relating to general bodily sensations; relating
to " feeling."
Somatic : Relating to the body ; bodily ; corporeal.
Somnambulic : In a hypnotic state that state hi which one is
conscious, but readily obedient to the hypnotist.
Sonant : Voiced ; accompanied by voice or vibration of the vocal
Sonority : Sound ; sonorous quality.
Sonorous : Clear-sounding ; resonant ; loud and full-sounding.
Sovereign: Superior in efficacy; most potent; supreme; ex-
Spasm: The sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or
muscles ; a convulsion ; cramp.
Spasmodic : In the manner of a spasm ; convulsive ; sudden ;
Spastic : Relating to spasm ; spasmodic.
Spatial : Relating to space.
Spatula : A flat or spoon-shaped instrument used for depressing
Species : A group ; a sub-group. Variety ; kind ; sort.
Specific : (adjective) Precise ; exact ; definite. Relating to a
species or sub-group.
Specific: (noun) A remedy; a medicine specially adapted to
cure or prevent a particular disease.
Specific gravity: Density; weight with relation to volume or
Spectral: Relating to the spectrum, the band of color into
which white light may be decomposed.
Speech-mechanician : See mechanician.
Spirometer: An instrument used for testing lung-capacity and
for exercising the respiratory muscles.
Splanchnic : Relating to the viscera or internal organs.
Spontaneous: Acting without external influence; arising from
Sporadic: Scattered; occurring singly; occurring here and
Staccato: Abrupt; sharply emphasized; short and sharp;
Stanza: A number of lines or verses regularly adjusted to one
Static electricity: Electricity produced by friction or other
mechanical means, and employed in charges rather than
Stenographic : Written in shorthand.
Stethoscope: An instrument employed by physicians in listen-
ing to respiratory sounds ; heart sounds, etc.
Sthenic: Giving power; stimulating; having power to inspire
Stimulant : That which stimulates.
Stimulate : Impel ; incite ; prompt ; rouse to activity. To
increase physiological action; to produce a quick but
temporary increase in vital activity.
Stimuli : Plural of stimulus.
Stimulus: That which stimulates or excites, especially that
which stimulates a sense-organ.
Stramonium : A drug ; a medicine.
Strangulatory : Marked by strangling and suffocation.
Stress: Emphasis; accent.
Stultify : To make foolish ; to cause to appear absurdly incon-
Subcentre : A centre within a centre ; a small centre.
Subcortical : Beneath the cortex of the brain.
Subjective : Mental ; internal ; in the self ; belonging to the self.
Subjoin : To add ; attach ; affix ; annex.
Subordinate : (adjective) Having a lower position in a scale ;
inferior ; secondary ; minor.
Subordinate : (verb) To make subordinate.
Subserve : To serve ; administer to.
Subservient: Subserving; acting as an instrument or agent;
adapted to promote some end or purpose. Obedient ;
Subsist : To be ; exist ; inhere.
Subterfuge : A shift ; a dodge ; a trick ; an evasion.
Subtile: Subtle; fine; delicate.
Sub-tonic : A sonant or vocalized consonant.
Subvert : To overthrow ; extinguish ; destroy.
Summation : The act of forming a sum or total ; accumulation.
Supererogatory : Superfluous ; unnecessary ; uncalled for.
Superficial : On or relating to the surface ; not deep ; not pene-
Superfluous : Uncalled for ; unnecessary ; more than sufficient.
Supernatural : Beyond the laws of nature ; miraculous ; mys-
Superpose : To lay upon or over ; to make coincide.
Supersede : To set aside ; to render unnecessary ; make
Superstructure: Structure; building; edifice.
Supervene : To take place ; happen ; follow.
Supine: Without interest or care; negligent; indolent; in-
Supplement: To add something to; complete by additions;
provide for what is lacking in.
Surcharge : To overcharge ; overload ; overburden.
Surd : Without voice ; without vibration of the vocal cords.
Surdal : Same as surd.
Surrogate : A substitute ; deputy ; delegate.
Sustain : To maintain ; support ; uphold ; withstand.
Syllabic: Relating to syllables; consisting of or emphasizing
Syllabicate : To separate or form into syllables.
Symmetrical : Regular ; similar in shape.
Sympathetic : Reflex ; corresponding ; relating to coordination.
Symptomatology : The science of the symptoms of disease.
Synchronous : Happening at the same time ; simultaneous.
Synonym: A word having the same meaning as another; a
Synoptical : Affording a general view of a subject ; of the nature
of a synopsis.
Synthesis: The putting of two or more things together; con-
Taboo : To shut out ; exclude ; discountenance.
Tacit : Silent ; not uttered in words ; implied, but not expressed.
Taciturn: Silent; mute; uncommunicative.
Tactual : Relating to the sense of touch.
Tallow-chandler : One that makes or sells tallow-candles.
Tangible : Real ; definite ; clear ; evident ; apprehensible by the
Technique : The mechanical and practical details of an art.
Telepathic : Relating to " telepathy " or ." thought-transfer-
Temporal : Relating to time.
Tendinous : Relating to a tendon.
Tension: The state of being stretched or strained; a making
Tenuity: Thinness; rareness; rarity.
Thaumaturgic : Magical.
Therapeutic: Relating to therapeutics or the art of healing;
curative ; alleviative.
Therapy : Therapeutics ; the art of curing ; that part of medi-
cine that deals with the discovery and application of
Thermal : Relating to heat or warmth ; relating to the perception
of warmth and cold.
Thesis : A theory ; theme ; proposition.
Thorax : The cavity of the chest.
Thyroid cartilage : The cartilage seen as the Adam's apple.
Thryoid gland : A gland in the neck.
Tic: An involuntary convulsive movement, especially of the
muscles of the face.
Timbre : Tone-color ; sound-quality ; the inherent character of
a sound (by which, for instance, a human voice is dis-
tinguished from a violin).
Titilate : To tickle ; excite pleasurably.
Titulary : Relating to a title.
Tom-tom : A drum used hi India and other Oriental countries.
Tonic : A vowel or diphthong.
Tonic spasm : A spasm in which a muscle remains in continued
Torpid: Sluggish; numb; dull; dormant; inert; indolent;
Toxic : Relating to poison ; due to poison ; poisonous.
Trachea : The windpipe.
Transcend : To rise above ; surmount ; surpass ; excel ; over-
Transcribe : To write in another form.
Transcription : The act of transcribing ; anything transcribed.
Transfix: To pierce through, as with a pointed weapon; to
Transient: Temporary; fleeting; brief.
Transition : Change ; a passing from one state or condition to
Transitory: Temporary; brief; short-lived.
Transmute : To change ; transform.
Transposition : A changing of relative position ; a transposing.
Transverse: Running from one side of the body to the other;
crosswise ; lying across.
Trauma : An injury ; a wound.
Traumata : Plural of trauma.
Traumatic : Relating to a trauma.
Travesty: A burlesque; a grotesque imitation ; the act of making
a travesty or burlesque of.
Tremor : An involuntary trembling ; a quivering or shaking.
Tremulous: Trembling; quivering.
Troglodyte : A cave-dweller.
Tumor : A swelling ; a morbid growth or enlargement.
Tutelage: Guardianship; protection; tutorship; instruction.
Unanimous : Being of one mind ; agreeing in opinion.
Uncomplaisant : Discourteous; disagreeable.
Unctuous : Fervid ; devotional ; emotional ; nauseously bland.
Unembellished : Not embellished ; not adorned or decorated.
Unequivocal: Definite; precise; decided; without ambiguity.
Unilateral : Occurring on or related to one side only ; one-sided.
Uninitiated: Not initiated; not instructed in the secrets and
Unison : A joining together ; a keeping together with ; a keep-
ing in time with.
Unit character : A character or trait that is inherited and trans-
mitted as a unit.
Unitary : Single ; of the nature of a unit.
Unlocalized : Not localized ; not capable of being referred to any
definite site or position.
Unmitigated : Not mitigated or lightened in effect ; having full
Unmotived : Without motive ; not conditioned by motives.
Uraemic : Relating to uraemia, an abnormal condition in which
the constituents of urine are present in the blood.
Utilitarian : Relating to utility ; practical.
Uvula: The small, fleshy body hanging from the soft palate
above the root of the tongue.
Uvular : Relating to the uvula ; requiring the action of the uvula
Vacillate: To waver; to move one way and another ; to fluctuate.
Vacuum : An empty space ; a space from which the air has been
Vagary : A freak ; whim ; caprice.
Validity: The state of being valid, sound, or capable of being
defended and justified.
Vaporous : Of the nature of vapor ; cloudy ; indistinct ; vain ;
Variant : A thing different only in form ; a variation.
Vascular : Relating to vessels ; relating to blood-vessels.
Vaso-motor centre: A nerve-centre controlling the contraction
and dilatation of the blood-vessels.
Vaudeville : A music-hall ; a music-hall entertainment.
Vaunt : To make a vain display of ; exhibit proudly ; boast or
Velum : The soft palate ; the posterior part of the roof of the
Ventral : Relating to the belly ; on the front of the body.
Venture (At a venture) : At hazard ; at random ; without seeing
the end or mark.
Vermilion : Scarlet ; brilliantly red.
Vertical : In an upright position ; upright ; plumb.
Vesication : The formation of blisters.
Vestibule : A small chamber ; a space ; a cavity ; an opening.
Vestigial: Rudimentary; undeveloped; meagre.
Vicarious: Acting for another; substituted in the place of
another; deputed; delegated.
Vicissitude : A change ; a mutation ; a passing from one state
or condition to another.
Vindicate : To defend ; justify ; maintain.
Virtuoso : One skilled hi a particular art ; a master in technique ;
Visceral : Relating to the viscera or internal organs.
Vita sexualis : Sexual life.
Visualize : To see mentally ; to picture in visual imagery.
Vocal : Relating to the voice ; having voice ; involving produc-
tion of voice by the vibration of the vocal cords.
Vocal cords : A pair of membranous folds in the larynx, which
produce voice by vibrating.
Vocalize : To produce voice ; to vibrate the vocal cords ; to
utter with voice and not merely with breath.
Vociferous : Noisy ; loud ; clamorous ; making a loud outcry.
Vogue : Fashion ; mode ; usage ; practice.
Voluntary : Proceeding from the will ; subject to the will ;
spontaneous; designed; intended.
Vulnerable: Liable to injury; liable to attack; assailable;
capable of being wounded.
Wachmann: Watchman; policeman.
Wachsuggestionen : Suggestions given in the waking state.
Wane : To diminish ; decrease ; decline ; fail.
ABBOTTS (W.). Stammering, Stuttering, and Other Speech
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1 The majority of the works given in this bibliography deal exclu-
sively with stammering, though there have also been included a
number of works of special interest that deal with stammering only
incidentally. With a few exceptions references have not been given
to articles appearing in periodicals. Approximately 400 such refer-
ences may be found in the " Index-catalogue of the Library of the
Surgeon-general's Office" (of the United States Army), to which
source of information the reader interested in the matter is referred.
For information concerning recently published articles in the principal
American and foreign medical journals the reader is referred to the
" Guide to Current Medical Literature," which is issued twice yearly
by the American Medical Association, Chicago.
The inclusion of a work in this bibliography is not intended as an
indorsement of the work in question. None of the works in languages
other than French, German, and English have been used in the prep-
aration of the present monograph.
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ZITTERLAND. Bericht liber den zu Aachen beobachteten
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Methode, das Stammeln zu heilen. Aachen, 1828.
Abdominal breathing, II. 15
Abdominal muscles, contracting the
during speech, II. 25
"Abnormal reflexes," II. 239
Absolute musical memory, I. 100
Abstract thought, I. 21
Accent-marks with poetry, II. 160
Accents, word-exercises with vari-
ously placed, II. 100, no
Accentuation of different words in a
sentence, II. 109
Achoppement syllabique, I. 58
Acquired kinaesthetic stammering,
denned, I. 258
Actors, etc., as stammerers, I. 318
Adams, Samuel Hopkins, II. 303
Adenoids, II. 223
Affection, denned, I. 17
Affective memory, I. 321
Afferent nerves and fibres, I. 65
Agoraphobia, II. 298
Agraphia, I. 113
Agreements with "specialists," II.
287 [See also application blanks.]
Alexia, I. 113
musical, I. 155
Alliterations, practising, I. 345
for practice of forceful articulation,
for syllabic speaking, II. 156
Alphabet, physiological, I. 292
American system, a representative,
auditory, as the primary cause of
stammering, I. 187
denned, I. 106
musical, I. 36, 152, 202
verbal, denned, I. 20
visual, I. 108
visual verbal, I. 113
Amnesia verbalis, denned, I. 20
Amusia, 1. 151
case of Emil Scaria, I. 201
Anaemia, cerebral, I. 226
Analysis of consonants, II. 86
commentary on, II, 89
Analysis of vowels, II. 91
commentary on, II. 93
Anatomy of the speech-organs, n.
Anecdotes, relating, II. 109, no
Angular gyrus, injury to the, I. 113
Aphasia, I. Ch. VI.
and ability to read aloud, I. 170
and ability to repeat, I. 166
and ability to sing, I. 156
and interjectional speech, I. 174
and stammering, resemblance be-
tween, I. 207, 226
articulatory kinaesthetic, I. 122
associational, I. 147
auditory, I. 136
case of bearing resemblance to
stammering, I. 213
case of the author, 1. 130
caused by emotion, I. 163
1 When a subject coven several pages reference is made only to the
page on which the subject begins.
Aphasia, I. Ch. VI.
causes of, I. 179
defined, I. 107
expression of oral speech in, I.
interpretation of speech in, 1. 143
motor, I. 122
optic, I. 148
relation between auditory and
motor, I. 143
retention of verbal imagery in, I.
transitory, I. 161
Aphemia, I. 118
stammering not a form of, I. 228
Apoplexy, cerebral, I. 226
Bates', II. 218
mechanical, II. Ch. VI.
Application blanks, II. 271
Apraxia, I. 146
Arms, movements of the to prevent
stammering, II. 178
Arnott's expedient, II. 54
Articulation, II. Ch. IV.
as the seat of the stammerer's
difficulty, II. 57
expedients relative to various
modes of, II. 81
forceful, II. 132, 136
light, II. in, 126
Articulation-exercises, II. 68, 80
charts for, II. 77
for developing the speech-organs,
H. 59, 67
Articulatory-kinaesthetic aphasia, I.
Articulo-moteur, the, I. 42, 52, 103
Asking and answering questions, II.
Aspirate prefix, II. 55
as a cause of stammering, I. 272
controlled, II. 247
emotional, I. 320
free, II. 247
nature of, I. 9
Association fibres, I. 65
injury to the, 1. 147
Associational aphasia, I. 147
stammering not a form of, I. 231
Assumption of function by the unin-
jured hemisphere in aphasia, I.
Atavisms, I. 209
Atrophy, cerebral, I. 68
Attention, "division" of, II. 177
Audile, the, I. 27
Audito-moteur, the, 1. 42, 52, 100, 103
Auditory amnesia as the primary
cause of stammering, I. 187
Auditory and motor aphasia, rela-
tion between, I. 143
Auditory aphasia, I. 136
Auditory imagery, I. 5
influence of sounds on, I. 347
possibility of goading the into
activity, I. 346
probably deficient in the stam-
merer, I. 248
strengthening the, I. 354, 359
vulnerability of, I. 231
Auditory motor verbal imagery, I. 52
Auditory verbal centre, injury to the,
Auditory verbal imagery, I. 45
Aurelianus and rhythm, II. 173
Austrian system, a representative, II.
Automatic acts, I. 92
Automatisms, II. 183
Auto-suggestion, I. Ch. IX.
as a major system, II. 230
counter, I. 339 ; II. 232
counteracting, I. 338
direct effects of, I. 314
Balls, gutta-percha, II. 216
Bastian, I. 34
Bates' appliances, II. 218
use of while speaking, II. 174
use of with breathing-exercises, II.
use of with vocal exercises, II. 48
Battery, electric, II. 216
Beating time, II. 164, 173
Belgian system, a representative, II.
Bewilderment in stammering, I.
Ch. VIII. [See also confusion,
multiple thought, etc.]
Bizarreries, II. 228
Blind, concepts of the, I. 23, 25, 80
Blindfold chess-playing, I. 28
Blood-supply to the brain, I. 221, 310
Books by literary ghosts, II. 285
Brain, the, I. Ch. IV.
blood-supply to during emotion,
etc., I. 221, 310
convolutions of, I. 62
fibres of, I. 62
fissures of, I. 61
lobes of, I. 52
Brain-centres, I. 67
impairment of, I. Ch. VI.
lowered excitability of, I. 163
economizing the II. 23
forceful expiration of the, II. 23
holding the in respiratory exer-
cises, II. 20
Breathing [See also respiration, in-
diaphragmatic, II. 25
expedients relative to various
modes of, II. 21
through the mouth, II. 26
through the nose, II. 26
Breathing-exercises, II. 6
commentary on, II. IQ
Breathing-muscles, exercises for the,
II. 14, 20
Bridgman, Laura, I. 25
Broca's convolution, I. 74
injury to, I. 122
Broster, II. 185
Broster method [See Leigh method.]
Caelius Aurelianusand rhythm, n. 173
Canadian system, a representative,
Catalepsy, mental, I. 309
Cause of stammering
inducing, I. 208
Denhardt's theory, I. 292
failure of voice theory, I. 181, 292,
primary, I. 187
Causes of aphasia, 1. 179
Cerebellum, I. 61
Cerebral anaemia, I. 226
Cerebral apoplexy, I. 226
Cerebral congestion, I. 225, 310
Cerebral hyperaemia, I. 225, 311
Cerebral localization, I. 67
Cerebrum, I. 61
Charcot, I. 76
Charlatans, II. 303
Charts [See respiration-charts, inflec-
Chess-playing, blindfold, I. 28
appearance of stammering in, I.
the most favorable period for treat-
ing stammering, I. 364
stammering-schools for, II. 305
treating stammering in, II. 305
Chromaesthesia, I. 38, 351
Chromatic scale, II. 34
Clavicular breathing, II. 14
Clenching the fists, II. 215
Click of the glottis, II. 34
Closed jaws, reading with, n. 60, 68
Cluttering, I. 287, 289
Coffee, II. 228
Cognition, denned, I. 17
Coil, electric, II. 216
Collar-bone breathing, II. 14
method, II. 161, 173
modification of the Leigh method,
refoule langue, II. 222
Color in verbal imagery, I. 351
Color-audition, I. 38
Color-blindness, I. 210
Combinations, difficult, II. 104
Competitions, II. 296
Completing sentences, II. 107, no
Concept, the, I. 16
Conception, I. 16, 76
Concert, stammerer's fluency when
speaking in, I. 200
Confusion in stammering, I. Ch.
VIII. [See also bewilderment,
muHiple thought, etc.]
Congestion, cerebral, I. 225,^310
Conservation of energy, law of, I. 93
classification of, II. 89
detached from body of word, II.
forcible articulation of, II. 132, 136
initial, retained in synonyms, I.
not the seat of the stammerer's
difficulty, I. 183
omitted or reduced, EC. in, 126
physiological production of, II.
separated by an "inaudible" h, II.
stammering on continuous and
explosive, I. 261
taking care of the, etc., II. 136
Constructive imagination, I. 9
Contests, name-gathering, II. 296
Continuity of voice, II. 53
Continuous consonants "attacked"
by opening the mouth, II. 141
Contracts with "specialists," II. 287
[See also application blanks.]
Controlled association, II. 247
"Conversion," hysterical, II. 238
Convolutions of the brain, I. 62
"Copyrighted methods," II. 302
Cork between the teeth, II. 217
Corollaries, I. Ch. X.
Corpus callosum, I. 66
Correspondence schools, II. 255
Cortex, defined, I. 61
Costal breathing, II. 14
Counter auto-suggestion, I. 339, II.
Counting, II. 106, no
Coup de la glotte, II. 31
Courses for stammering children,
municipal, I. 365
Crossing of fibres, I. 66
Cuneus, injury to the, I. 112
Cures, percentage of, II. 265
Cures, temporary, II. 266
Danish system, a representative, II.
"Darkening the mental eye," II. 227
Deaf, the orally taught
no stammering among, I. 234
speech of, I. 103, 140
Deaf-blind, concepts of, I. 23, 25, 81
Deaf-mutes, I. 19, 23, 46, 95
Declaiming in a loud voice, II. 39, 50
Decussation of fibres, I. 66
Defining words as an exercise, II. 108
Demosthenes, II. 24, 216
Denhardt's theory of the cause of
stammering, I. 292
Dextrality, I. 71
Diabetes and emotion, I. 330
Diacritics, II. 142
Diagnoses by "specialists," II. 293
Dialogue-reading, II. 103, no
exercises for, II. 15
Findley's theory of the action of,
Diaphragmatic breathing, II. 15, 25
Difficult combinations, II. 104, no
Difficulties, artificial, presented to
the pupil, II, 109, in
Diplomas, medals, etc., II. 279
Direct attack, II. 31, 49, 56
"Discoveries" offered to stammerers,
Disease, effect of on the emotions, I.
Distortion of verbal imagery, I. 269
correcting, I. 342
Distortion of the vowels in stam-
mering, I. 190
Dividing pauses, eliminating, II. 148
Division of attention, II. 177
Dorsal breathing, II. 15
Double articulations, II. 104
Drawling, II. 52
as fulfilments of repressed wishes,
II. 244, 249
imagery of, I. 37
Drugs, effect of on the emotions, I.
with breathing exercises, II. 17,
with syllabic speaking, II. 158
with vocal exercises, II. 43, 50
Dynamogenesis, law of, I. 18, 89
Dyspepsia and emotion, I. 332
Ear-mindedness, I. Ch. II.
Echolalia, I. 167
Eclectic methods, II. 144
Economizing breath, II. 23
Efferent nerves and fibres, I. 65
Effort, suppression of physical, II.
Electric battery, II. 216
Electric coil, II. 216
Electrical treatments (galvanic, fa-
radic, and static), II. 222
Embololalia, II. 215
Embolophrasia, II. 215
Emotion [See also /ear]
and cerebral blood-supply, I. 221,
and diabetes, I. 330
and disease, I. 330
and drugs, I. 329
and dyspepsia, I. 332
and phthisis, I. 330
as a cause of aphasia, I. 163
influence of the thyroid gland on, I.
influenced by the physical condi-
tion, I. 337
instinctive, I. 322
James-Lange theory of, I. 324
nature of, I. 324
sthenic, II. 232
Emotional association, I. 320
Empty lung, speaking on, II. 22
"End-tongue wording," II. 198
English system, a representative, II.
Enthusiasm, imbuing the pupil with,
Environal stammerers, II. 233
E-prefix, II. 54
Erythrophobia, I. 297
Exacerbation of physical stammer-
ing, I. 266
Exercises [See breathing-exercises,
vocal exercises, articulation-exer-
Expiration, forceful, II. 23
Explosive consonants "attacked" by
light articulation, II. 141
Expression of oral speech in aphasia,
Ex-pupils' leagues, II. 276
External suggestion, I. 314
Eye-mindedness, I. Ch. II.
Failure of voice, causes ascribed for,
Failure of voice theory, I. 181, 292,
Familiar phrases, utterance of in
aphasia, I. 141
Faradic electrical treatments, II. 222
Fatigue, II. 228
Fear, I. Ch. DC. [See also emotion.]
cerebral blood-supply during, I.
counteracting, I. 335
direct effects of, I. 309
nature of, I. 324
Fear-neurosis, stammering as a, I.
292, II. 235
Feeling-element in speech, I. 59
for courses, II. 294
refundment of, II. 273
Fehlhandlungen, II. 246
Female stammerers, I. 211
Fevers, I. 274
Fiat, the, I. 94
association, I. 65
of the brain, I. 62
attempt at cure, II. 268
use of gesture, II. 179
Fissures of the cerebrum, I. 61
"Following the instructions," II. 271
Forceful articulation, II. 132, 136
Forceful expiration, II. 23
"Foreign ideas," excluding, II. 227
Foreign languages, mastering, I. 99
Framing sentences, II. 226
"Fraud, the Great American," II. 303
Free action of jaw, II. 139, 140
Free association, II. 247
French system, a representative, II.
Full breathing, II. 15
Fumbling buttons, etc. II. 183
Gallaudet, Dr. I. 234
Gallon, I. 29
Galvanic electrical treatments, II.
Genius, I. 12
Geniuses among stammerers, I. 278
German pamphlet, method of, IL
German system, a representative, II.
as a remedy for stammering, II.
to control action of diaphragm, II.
Ghosts, literary, II. 285
Glide of the glottis, II. 32
Glosso-mochlion, Wutzer's, II. 222
Glottis-stroke, II. 31
Goitre, 1. 330
Graves, Dr., II. 179
Graves' disease, I. 331
"Great American Fraud, the," II.
Grunt, initial, II. 214
"Guarantees" to cure stammering,
Gustatory images, I. 7
Gutta-percha balls, II. 216
Gymnastic exercises, II. 222
"Gymnastics, mental," II. 229
H ("inaudible") after initial con-
sonants, II. 153
Hagemann, Frau, II. 187
Hagemann method [See Leigh
Hallucination, I. 5, 79
Head, throwing back the, II. 56
Helen Keller, I. 48, 94
Hemianopsia, I. 74, 112
Hemiplegia, I. 119, 122
Heredity and stammering, I. 256
High position of tongue, II. 183
Holding the breath in respiratory
exercises, II. 9, 20
Home treatment [See correspond-
Homonymous hemianopsia, 1. 74, 112
Homonyms and stammering, I. 315
fl'-prefix, n. 55
Hyperasmia, cerebral, I. 225, 311
Hypnotism, I. 338, II. 232
"Hysterical conversion," II. 238
"Hysterical symptoms," II. 240
Idea, the, I. g
Ignorance of "specialists," II. 285
Illusions, I. 1 6, 78
Imagery [See also auditory imagery,
verbal imagery, etc.]
and voluntary speech, relation
between, I. 86
comprehending fugitive, I. 255
correcting distortion of, I. 342
differences in, in the sexes, I. 36,
in men of science, I. 36
individual differences in, I. Ch. II.
intensifying the, I. 177, 354
nature of, I. 3
obfuscated by physical stammer-
ing, I. 264
of dreams, I. 37
relation of to sense-perception, I.
variability of in the same person,
and muscular movements, I. 86
as speech-cues, I. 94
Imitating voices, etc., II. 101
Imitation as a cause of stammering,
Impairment of brain-centres, I.
Impingements from a lower plane,
"Inaudible" h after initial conso-
nants, II. 153
Incodrdinations, II. 246
Indifferent, the, I. 27
Indirect attack, II. 32, 49, 55
Infectious fevers, I. 274
as a cause of stammering, n. 52
as a remedy for stammering, II. 53
Inflection-chart, II. 38
Inflection-exercises, II. 36, 49
Inhalation, initial, II. 21
Inhaling before difficult words, II.
Inhibition of thought, etc., I. 284,
detached from body of word, II.
omitted or reduced, II. in, 126
separated by an "inaudible" h, II.
subjoined to word preceding, II.
Initial e, II. 54
Initial inhalation, II. 21
Initial vowels, prolonging, II. 122,
Injury to the brain-centres, I. Ch. VI.
Innervation, I. 86
Instinctive emotions, I. 322
"Instructions, following the," II.
Intellectual activity and cerebral
blood-supply, I. 221
Intelligence of the average stam-
merer, I. 276
Intensifying the mental imagery, I.
Intensifying vowels, II. 124, 128
in aphasic patient, I. 174
in stammerers, I. 213
Internal speech, practice of, II. 226
Interpretation of speech in aphasia,
Interrupting pupils, II. 109, in
Irritability, property of, I. 18
Ischxmia, I. 226
Isochrone, II. 171
Itard's tongue-fork, II. 222
James-Lange theory of emotion, I.
Jargon-aphasia, I. 52, 145
exercises for the, II. 61, 67
free action of the, II. 139, 140
Jaws, reading with closed, II. 60,
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, I. 120
Judgment, I. 17
Katenkamp Institute, II. 174
Keller, Helen, I. 48, 94
Kinaesthetic and visual training the
desideratum in treating stam-
mering, I. 362
Kinaesthetic image, the, I. 7
Kinaesthetic verbal centre, injury to
the, I. 122
Kinaesthetic verbal imagery, I. 46
Klaustrophobia, I. 298
Klithrophobia, I. 298
Labial exercises, II. 59, 67
Lalling, I. 181
Lalophobia, I. 291, 320
Lange's theory of emotion, I. 324
Language, defined, I. 40
exercises for the, II. 31, 34, 49
squeezing the, II. 215
Lateral breathing, II. 14
Laura Bridgman, I. 25
Lay, Wilfred, I. 32
Leagues, ex-pupils', II. 276
Leigh method, II. 183
Leigh method current, II. 192
Leigh, Mrs., II. 184
Light articulation, II, in, 126
Ling's Swedish exercises, II. 222
Lingual exercises, II. 61, 68, 197
free action of, II. 137, 140 .
kept closed, II. 138, 140
kept separated, II. 138, 140
vertical movement of, II. 138,
and tongue, watching during
speech, II. 137, 140
Lip-exercises, II. 59, 67
Lip-reading, I. 41
Listening, sympathetic movements
while, I. 54
Literary ghosts, II. 285
Lobes of the cerebrum, I. 62
Localization, cerebral, I. 67
"Long count, the," II. 106
"Low tongue" in stammerers, II.
Lower plane, impingements from a,
Lowered excitability of brain-centres,
Low-pitched voice, speaking in a, II.
Loud voice, speaking in a, II. 228
Malebouche, II. 186
Malebouche modification of the
Leigh method, II. 188
aphasia commoner in, I. 210
greater variability of, I. 210
stammering commoner in, I. 210
with syllabic speaking, II. 158
with vocal exercises, II. 43, 50
Mechanical appliances, etc., II.
Medals, diplomas, etc., II. 279
Medical societies, etc., papers before,
Memory, affective, I. 321
Memory-centres, I. 71
Memory-image, I. 4
Men of science, imagery in, I. 36
Mental confusion in stammering, I.
"Mental eye, darkening the," II.
"Mental gymnastics," II. 229
Mental images, I. 3 [See also im-
ages, imagery, auditory imagery,
Mental types, I. Ch. II.
"Method of attack," II. 140
Methods, secrecy concerning, II.
Metric speech, II. 161, 173
carrying a, II. 170, 173
Colombat's, II. 165
for reading, II. 169
in America, II. 171
in England, II. 171
with breathing-exercises, II. 14
with vocal exercises, II. 48
Mimetic performances, I. 101
Mind, the subconscious, II. 232
"Mind reading," I. 88
Mind-blindness, defined, I. 107
Mind-deafness, denned, I. 107
Mirror-practice, II. 94
Mispronunciation of vowels in stam-
mering, I. 190
Mnemonic devices, I. 38
Modes of enunciation, II. Ch. V.
Monotone, speaking in a, II. 52
Moon, phases of and stammering, I.
Mosso, I. 221
Moteur, the, I. 27
Motile, the, I. 27
Motor aphasia, I. 122
and auditory aphasia, relation be-
tween, I. 143
stammering not a form of, I. 230
Motor circle, I. 267
Motor current insentient, I. 90
Motor image, the, I. 7
Motor nerves and fibres, I. 65
Motor speech-centre, injury to the, I.
Mouth, breathing through the, II.
cause of, I. 86
random-spontaneous, I. 89
slow and unforced, II. 209
M -prefix, etc., I. 349, II. 55
Multiple thought, I. 281 [See also
bewilderment, confusion, etc.]
repressing, I. 340
Municipalities and courses for stam-
mering children, I. 365
Muscles [See breathing-muscles, etc.]
Muscle-reading, I. 88
Musical alexia, I. 155
Musical amnesia, I. 36, 152, 202
lack of, I. 202
probably deficient in the stam-
merer, I. 249
Musical expression, I. 152, 232
Musical memory, absolute, 1. 100
Musical memory-centre, injury to
the, I. 151
Musical recognition, I. 152, 232
as isochrone, II. 171
Colombat's, II. 165
in aphasia, I. 119
in stammering, I. 209
Myelin sheaths, I. 69
Name-gathering contests, II. 296
Negative image, the, I. 4
Neuroglia, I. 65
Neurone, the, I. 65
Nose, breathing through the, II. 26
Note-blindness, I. 152
/V-prefix, II. 55
Number-forms, I. 38, 113
Object-blindness, I. 108
Obscurantists, "speech specialists"
as, II. 287
Obsession, stammering as an, II. 235
Obsessions, I. 297
Octaves, practising the vowels in, II.
Olfactory images, I. 7
Onomatopoeia, I. 22
Open position, starting from the, II.
Open-mouth test, Strieker's, I. 57
Operating craze, II. 223
Operations, surgical, II. 223
"Opposing movements," II. 178
Optic aphasia, I. 148
Optic nerves, I. 66
Orang-outang, the, I. 69
Orthopaedic therapeutic speech-ap-
paratus, II. 216
Orthophonic system of Colombat, II.
Papers before medical societies, etc.,
Paragraphia, I. 114
Paraphasia, I. 137, 145
Paraphrasing as an exercise, II. 107,
Paroxysms of stammering, I. 263
Passive stammering, I. 209, 344
"Patented methods," II. 302
Percentage of cures, II. 265
Percept, the, I. 14
Perception, I. 14, 76
Performing animals, I. n
"Phlegmatics," II. 227
Phobias, I. 297
Phonetic syllabication, II. 148
Phonetics, study of, II. 82
Phonophobia, I. 291
Phthisis and emotion, I. 330
Physical condition, influence of on
the emotions, I. 337
Physical defects of speech-organs
absent in stammerers, I. 206
counteracting, I. 343
denned, I. 258
discussed, I. 263
may obfuscate verbal imagery, I.
self-exacerbation of, I. 266
Physiological alphabet, I. 292
Physiological consonants, practice
of, II. 115, 127
Physiological defect, stammering
commonly regarded as a, II. 3
Physiological production of con-
sonants, II. 86
Physiological production of vowels,
Physiological spelling, II. 98, no
Physiology of speech
outlined, II. 85
study of, II. 82
Pictures of classes, II. 293
practising vowels with varying, II.
precedes vowel-coloration, I. 232
Pitman's classification of vowels,
Plethysmograph, I. 222
Pneumographic records, I. 313
"Positive attitude," assuming a, II.
Primary image, the, I. 4
Primary visual centre, injury to the,
Principals of stammering schools
suffering relapse, I. 361, II. 267
Productive imagination, I. 9
Prolonging initial vowels, II. 122,
Prolonging vowels, II. 116, 127
Proust-Lichtheim test, I. 119
Pseudo-hallucination, I. s
Pseudo-spasms, I. 266
Psychic traumata, II. 240
Psychoanalysis, II. 235
Psychological methods, I. 339, II.
Psychology, defined, I. i
Psychosis, stammering as a, I. 292
defined, I. 257
possibilities of correcting, I. 346
subdivisions of, I. 258
Q as kw, II. 81
Quacks, II. 303
Question-blank, II. 293
Questionnaire, I. 239
author's answers to, I. 243
Questions, asking and answering, II.
Quiet voice, beginning sentence in a,
R as er, II. 81
Random-spontaneous movements, I.
Range of the voice, using the full, II.
Rapid utterance to exclude "foreign
ideas," II. 227
Reaction-word, II. 247
in aphasic patients, I. 170
in stammerers, I. 212, 284
Reading-exercises, II. 102, no
advanced, II. 104
Reasoning, I. 17
as an exercise, II. 107, no
in stammerers, II. 284
Recurring utterances, I. 145
Reflex acts, I. 92
"Reflexes, abnormal," II. 239
Refoule langue, Colombat's, II. 222
Refundment of fees, II. 273
usual, II. 267
principals of stammering-schools
suffering, II. 267
Relation between motor and audi-
tory aphasia, I. 143
Relaxation, II. 204
Dr. L. Sandow's system of, II. 206
Relaxation-exercises, II. 205
Remote image, defined, I. 87
in aphasic patients, I. 166
in stammerers, I. 196
"Repression," II. 236
Reproductive imagination, I. 9
Resident image, denned, I. 86
Respiration [See also breathing, in-
expedients relative to, II. 21
stammering and faulty, II. 4
Respiration-charts, II. 12, 13
Respiratory disturbances in stam-
mering, I. 313
Respiratory exercises, II. 6
exercises for the, II. 14, 20
strengthening the, II. 6
Retention of the verbal images in
aphasia, I. 144
Retinae, the, I. 66
Rhythm, I. 345, II. 161, 173
employed by Caelius Aurelianus,
employed by Thelwall, II. 172
Rhythmic speaking, II. 161
Rhythmical bodily movements, ha-
bituation to, II. 175
Rhythmus, II. 172
Rib-breathing, II. 14
Right-handedness, I. 71
Running words together, II. 145
Russian system, a representative, II.
Sandow, Dr. L., II. 206
Satyrus, II. 24
Secondary image, the, I. 4
Secondary-automatic acts, I. 92
Secrecy concerning methods, II. 299
"Selected paragraphs," II. 103
Sensation, defined, I. 2
"Sense-bearers," emphasizing the,
Senses, the, I. 2
Sensory nerves and fibres, I. 65
completing, II. 107, no
framing, II. 226
Sexes, differences of imagery in the,
"Sexual traumata," II. 241, 253
Shock of the glottis, II. 56
Short vowels and stammering, I.
Shoulder breathing, II. 14
Shouting, II. 30, 50
Side breathing, II. 14
"Side-tongue wording," II. 198
Silence period, the, II. 225
Simple life, the, II. 228
in aphasic patients, I. 156
in stammerers, I. 184, 202
Situations-stotterer, II. 233
Slow speaking, II. 121
Soft palate, exercises for the, II. 66,
Solitude, stammerer's fluency in, I.
"Soul- training," II. 229
Sound, producing consciously (Ger-
man method), II. 128
Sounds, influence of on auditory
imagery, I. 347
"Spasms," I. 263
"Specialists," ignorance of, II. 285
internal, practice of, II. 226
physiology of outlined, II. 85
"Speech specialists," II. Ch. VIII.
"world's greatest," II. 302
Speech-centres, I. 72
Speech-cues, I. 94
Speech-doubters, I. 291
Speeches, making, II. 109, no
Speech-exercises, II. 106
Speech-organs normal in the stam-
merer, I. 206
Spirometer, II. 17, 20
Squeezing the larynx, II. 215
Stammeln, I. 181
Stammerers, environal, II. 233
Stammering [See also pure stam-
mering, physical stammering,
absent in the orally taught deaf, I.
acquired kinaesthetic, denned, I.
and ability to read with fluency, I.
and ability to repeat, I. 196
and ability to sing, I. 184, 202
and ability to speak in unison
with others, I. 200
and ability to speak when alone,
and aphasia, resemblance between,
I. 207, 226
and defective articulation, II. 57
and distortion of verbal imagery,
and distortion of vowels, I. 100
and failure of voice, I. 292, II. 29
and heredity, I. 256
and interjectional speech, I. 213
and mutism, I. 209
and respiratory disturbances, I.
313, II- 4
and singing, I. 184
and vowel-coloration, I. 187
and whispering, I. 185
and word-deafness, I. 235
appearance of in childhood, I. 274,
as a fear-neurosis, I. 292
as a psychosis, I. 292
case of aphasia resembling, I. 213
caused by association, I. 272
caused by auditory amnesia, I. 187
caused by imitation, I. 271
commonly regarded as a physiologi-
cal defect, II. 3
defined, I. 181
Denhardt's theory of the cause of,
difficulty is with vowels in, I. 183
failure of voice theory in, I. 181
geniuses afflicted with, I. 278
intelligence normal in cases of, I.
more frequent on short vowels, I.
must be attacked during child-
hood, I. 364
not a form of aphemia, I. 228
not a form of associational aphasia,
not a form of motor aphasia, I. 230
on explosive consonants, I. 261
only on particular vowels, I. 192
passive, I. 209
physical, denned, I. 258
physical, discussed, I. 263
primary cause of, I. 187
probably accompanied by deficient
auditory imagery, I. 248
pure, denned, I. 257
pure, subdivisions of, I. 258
transitory, I- 208
Stammering-schools, II. Ch. VIII.
for children, II. 305
" Starters," II. 215
Static electrical treatments, II. 222
Sthenic emotions, II. 232
Stimuli, summation of, I. 170, 172
Stimulus-word, II. 247
Stranger-practice, II. 100, in
Strengthening the mental imagery, I.
Strieker's "open mouth test," I. 57
Stuttering, defined, 1. 181
Subconscious mind, the, II. 232
Subjoining initial consonants to words
preceding, II. 145
Suggestion, external, I. 314
Suggestions given in the waking
state, II. 235
Summation of stimuli, I. 170, 172
Surgical operations, II. 223
Surrogates, II. 242
Swedish exercise, Ling's, II. 222
Syllabic speaking, II. 154
alliterative exercises for, II. 156
Syllabication, phonetic, II. 148
Sympathetic movements while listen-
ing, I. 54
"Symptoms, hysterical," II. 240
Synaesthesia, I. 38
bewilderment due to use of, I.
retention of initial consonant in,
use of recommended, II. 214
Tactile, the, I. 27
Tactual images, I. 6
"Take care of the consonants," etc.,
"Take care of the vowels," etc., II.
Temporary aphasia, 1. 161
Temporary cures, II. 266
Temporary stammering, I. 208
Testimonials, II. 277
Thelwall, II. 172
Thermal images, I. 6
inhibition of, I. 284
multiple, I. 281
nature of, I. 18
too rapid production of verbal, I.
Throat-contraction, II. 30
Throwing back the head, II. 56
Thyroid gland and emotion, I. 330
Time-beating, I. 345, II. 164, 173
Tobacco, II. 228
Tone-deafness, I. 152
and lips, watching during speech.
II. 137, 140
applied to palate, II. 183 [See
also Leigh method.]
carried low with stammerers, II.
high position of recommended, II.
183 [See also Leigh method.]
low position of recommended, II.
middle position of recommended,
operations on, II. 223
under surface applied near uvula,
under surface applied to palate, II.
Tongue-exercises, II. 61, 68, 197
Tongue-fork, Itard's, II. 222
Tongue-nerve powders, II. 222
Tonsils, II. 223
Training the mental imagery, I. 177,
Transference of function
in aphasia, I. 176
in stammering, I. 347
Transitory aphasia, I. 161
Transitory stammering, I. 208
Transposing initial consonant, II.
psychic, II. 240
sexual, II. 241, 253
Unfamiliar words recognized as diffi-
cult, I. 243
Unison, stammerer's fluency when
speaking in, I. 200
Upper chest breathing, II. 14
Uvulas, elongated, II. 223
Vacillation of the will, I. 316
of imagery in the same person, 1. 253
of the male sex, I. 210
Velum, exercises for the, II. 66, 67
Verbal amnesia, defined, I. 20 [See
also amnesia, aphasia, etc.]
Verbal exercises, II. Ch. V.
Verbal image, the, I. Ch. III.
a complex, I. 81
Verbal imagery [See also imagery,
auditory imagery, etc.]
auditory element in, I. 45
auditory motor, I. 52
distortion of, I. 258, 269
kinaesthetic element in, I. 45
"Visible speech" symbols, I. 363
Visile, the, I. 27
Visual amnesia, I. 108
Visual and kinaesthetic training the
desideratum in treating stam-
mering, I. 362
Visual centre (primary), injury to
the, I. 112
Visual image, the, I. 4
Visual memory-centre, injury to the,
Visual verbal amnesia, I. 113
Visualizing colored vowels, etc., I.
Visualizing speech-movements, I.
351, II. 94
Vocal cords, exercises for establishing
consciousness of, II. 31, 49
Vocal exercises, II. 40, 50
charts for, II. 44
commentary on, II. 48
for training the speech-organs, II.
Vocalization and vowel-production,
II. Ch. III.
Voice, continuity of, II. 53
Voice-accumulation, II. 56
Volition, I. 17
Voluntary speech, I. 86
"attacked" by lowering the pitch,
coloration of and stammering, I.
difficulty with particular, I. 192
intensifying the, II. 124, 128
interpolating indefinite, II. 55
mispronunciation of in stam-
mering, I. 100
physiological production of, II. 91
Pitman's classification of, I. 193
prolonging, II. 116, 127
prolonging initial, II. 122, 128
short and long, I. 204
short, more difficult for stam-
merers, I. 193, 204
taking care of the, etc., II. 137
the seat of the stammerer's diffi-
culty, I. 183
and stammering, I. 187, 193, 204
the last term in evolution, I. 232
Vowel-reading, II. 115, 127
W as oo, II. 81
Wachsuggestionen, II. 235
Waist breathing, II. 15
Waking state, suggestions during the,
Wave of sound, following a, II. 214
Weather and stammering, I. 301
Wetterstrand, II. 234
Whisper, speaking in a, II. 51
as a respiratory exercise, II. 18
in stammerers, I. 185
Whistling, II. 215
Will, the, I. 1 8
"Willing game," the, I. 88
Wish, the "repressed," II. 240
"Word regulator," II. 171
Word synthesis, II. 98, no
Word-blindness, I. 113
subcortical, I. 115
Word-deafness in the stammerer, I.
Word-exercises, II. 98, no
charts for, II. 99
defining, II. 108
run together, II. 145
Wutzer's glosso-mochlion, II. 222
Wyllie, I. 79
Wyneken's experience at the Katen-
kamp Institute, II. 174
Y as ee, II. 81
Yates, Dr., II. 184
Yates method [See Leigh method.]
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