By Bertram W. H. Poole
"Stamps of the German Empire"
HANDBOOK NUMBER 6
BERTRAM W. H. POOLE
The Stamps of the Cook Islands, Stamp Collector's
Guide, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Hong Kong,
Sierra Leone, Etc.
HANDBOOK No. 6
In beginning this series of articles
little is required in the way of an intro-
ductory note for the title is lucid
enough. I may, however, point out that
these articles are written solely for the
guidance of the general collector, in
which category, of course, all our boy
readers are included. While all im-
portant philatelic facts will be recorded
but little attention will be paid to minor
varieties. Special stress will be laid on
a study of the various designs and all
necessary explanations will be given so
that the lists of varieties appearing in
the catalogues will be plain to the most
inexperienced collector. In the "refer-
ence list," which will conclude each
chapter, only > s.ucji s. f arfif>s; Hifl >e in-
cluded as may; ie,'con&tfJdrekt ;"e,ssntial"
and, as such,' coming 'within 'the scope
of the.'phJlaJtetist'lcoUeetijig on ^ene^l
lines. .V. .' I.* I V: ' *: ; ! ; " :
The' subject 'will be divided into "the
four main sections under which the
stamps are usually classified, viz : (a)
the separate issues for the German
States; (b) the issues for Germany
proper; (c) German stamps overprinted
for use in the foreign post-offices; and
(d) the stamps for the German
STAMPS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE.
By BERTRAM W. H. POOL?.
The grand-duchy of Baden is a com-
paratively small territory, having an
area of 5,821 square miles and a popu-
lation of about two millions. It is
bordered by the Rhine on the south and
west, Wurtemberg on the east, and
Bavaria on the north. Until the early
part of the 19th century it played an in-
significant part in European politics, but
when Austria and Prussia were at war
it sided with Austria. The results were
disastrous, for when the tide of battle
turned in favor of Prussia it found it-
self burdened with a huge war indem-
nity. It was forced to remodel its army
on Prussian lines and join the North
German Confederation. In the Franco-
German war its troops fought on the
German side, and in due time it be-
came a part of the new German Em-
pire. The grand-duchy has three votes
in the Federal Council, and elects four-
teen deputies to the Imperial Diet. The
existing grand-duchy of Baden is a
continuation and development of the
ancient duchy of Swabia or Alemannia,
principally through the two dynasties of
the margreaves of Baden-Baden and
Baden-Durlach. In 1803 the ruling mar-
greave of the united (1772) dynasties
was made an elector of the empire, and
in 1806 he proclaimed himself a sov-
ereign grand-duke. The town of Baden
is world famous for its mineral waters
and baths. Though the healing virtues
of the waters were known to the Romans
(Aquae Aureliae) it only came into re-
pute as a health resort about a century
ago. It has a population of less than
20,000, but it is estimated that its an-
nual visitors amount to at least four
times that number.
In tracing the philatelic history of
Baden in the "Adhesive Postage Stamps
of Europe" the late Mr. W. A. S.
Westoby wrote :
The postal administration of the
Grand Duchy of Baden was formerly
in the hands of the house of Thurn
and Taxis ; but the wars of the French
Revolution, followed by those of the
First Empire, so dislocated the service
that Baden, in common with some of
the other German States, withdrew
from the Thurn and Taxis monopoly,
and established an independent postal
administration. Since December 31st,
1871, the separate administration of
Baden has ceased to exist, and the
Post Office is now under the control
of the general postal administration
of the German Empire.
So long as it continued to issue post-
age stamps of its own the currency of
Baden was the florin, equal to about 40c,
divided into 60 kreuzer.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
On April 6th, 1850, the governments
of Austria and Prussia established a
Postal Convention for the interchange
of correspondence at fixed rates and
other German States were invited to
join the Union. Among other things
the Articles of this Convention stipu-
lated that, as a rule, correspondence
should be prepaid and that such pre-
payment should be effected by means of
postage stamps as soon as practicable.
Baden at once agreed to join the Union
but as the sanction of the Legislative
Assembly was necessary before the
grand-duchy could officially become a
member matters were delayed until the
meeting of that body in the autumn of
1850. The Legislative Assembly gave
its consent and also sanctioned the issue
of postage stamps. In the meantime
enquiries had been made regarding the
safest and most economical method of
manufacturing stamps so that directly
legal enactment was given to the recom-
mendation to join the Union, the
authorities were in a position to pro-
ceed with the manufacture of suitable
labels. It was decided to issue four
values Ikr, 3kr, 6kr, and 9kr and Mr.
C. Naumann, of Frankfort, was com-
missioned to engrave the dies while the
paper was obtained from a local paper-
maker. It was decided that the most
economical method would be to print
all values in black but use paper of a
different color for each. Mr. Westoby
states that "the ,die & s were engraved on
copper ui ^relief,- antt ^oheisied of two
parts: thk numeral of J value; was in the
centr^ on,a circular ground, the pattern
of \wjiifrirJ varfcit 1h; each value; while
the rectangular, frame: was tfyi same for
all the values."
At the top we find "Baden" in German
capitals; at the bottom is "Freimarke",
meaning "Free stamp"; at the left is
"Deutsch: Oestr : Postverein", signify-
ing "German Austrian Postal Union";
and at the right is "Vertrag v. 6 April,
1850", meaning "Convention of April
6th, 1850". The latter date, as already
explained, refers to that on which the
Postal Union was established.
The dies for the four values were
completed by Naumann on Dec. 20th,
1850, and 100 electrotypes were taken
from each of them, except of the Ikr
of which only fifty electros were cast.
It was decided to print the Ikr in
sheets of 45, in five rows of nine, and
the other values in sheets of 90, in ten
rows of nine. The extra cliches were
kept in reserve in case any of the others
should become damaged or worn and
have to be replaced. The paper was
machine-made, wove, and differed in
color for each value. The paper for
the Ikr was buff; that for the 3kr was
orange; that for the 6kr bluish green;
and that for the 9kr was rose-red
showing a faint tinge of violet. The
stamps were imperforate.
The stamps were printed by the
University printer, Mr. Hasper, of
Carlsruhe, ordinary black printers' ink
being employed. By the end of Febru-
ary, 1851, a supply considered sufficient
to last a year was ready but for some
reason or other the stamps were not
placed in issue until May 1st. The de-
mand for stamps being much greater
than had been anticipated the first sup-
ply was exhausted in less than three
months and a further supply had to be
printed. This second impression was
ready in August and the paper used
for the 3kr and 6kr differed in tint
from that originally used. The color
of that for the 3kr was yellow and that
for the 6kr yellow-green. The plates
differed also, the reserve cliches being
added, so that the Ikr was printed in
sheets of fifty and the other values in
sheets of one hundred. The additional
electrotypes were so added that the
horizontal rows contained ten instead
of nine specimens.
A well authenticated error of the 9kr
is known this being printed on the
bluish green paper of the 6kr. It is
an exceedingly rare stamp and it is pre-
sumed that only one sheet was printed.
Reprints of the Ikr, 3kr, and 6kr
were made in 1867 and, except to an
expert, these are very difficult to dis-
tinguish from originals. The shades
differ slightly, the paper for the Ikr
and 3kr is thicker and the gum is white
and smooth instead of being brown and
crackly like the gum on the originals.
Care should, therefore, be exercised in
the purchase of unused specimens.
c crence List.
May 1st, 1851. Black on colored paper.
1. Ikr on buff, Scott's No. 1.
2. 3kr on orange-yellow, Scott's Nos. 2 & 2a.
3. 6kr on green, Scott's Nos. 3 & 3a.
4. 9kr on lilac-rose, Scott's No. 4.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
Another printing of the stamps of the
numeral type took place in 1853. The
color of the Ikr not being considered
satisfactory it was decided to print this
value on plain white paper. At the
same time, to reduce the cost of pro-
duction, fifty additional cliches were
made so that this value could be printed
in sheets of 100 like the others of the
series. In this printing, also, the 3kr
and 6kr exchanged colors though for
what reason is not clear unless there
was some idea that these values might
be confused with the similar denomi-
nations for the kingdom of Wurtem-
berg. No public notice of the change
of colors was given but the information
was conveyed to the post-offices in a
general order dated June 3rd, 1853, as
You are hereby informed of a new
impression of the postage stamps
which will be sent you in a few days
from the Grand Ducal General Post-
office, in which the colours are
changed, for the 6kr yellow, for the
3kr green, and white for the Ikr. All
the Postoffices are informed of these
changes, in order to render mistakes
impossible. The new stamps are
not to be sold to the public till the
stock of the old ones is entirely
From this notice it is plain that the
new stamps could not have been issued
prior to June 3rd, 1853 and as a matter
of fact none of the values were used
until 1854. The Ikr was issued in Jan-
uary of that year while the other
values were placed on sale in the fol-
Later printings were made in 1854,
1855, and 1857 the colors remaining the
same. Before the printing of 1857
took place complaint was made of the
difficulty experienced in gumming the
3kr value. The manufacturers attrib-
uted this difficulty to the color of the
paper and recommended paper of a new
tint be used, blue being the color sug-
gested. As, however, a large quantity
of the green paper remained in stock
and the paper maker would only take
this back as "waste" it was decided to
use this up before making any change.
In 1858 another printing was made
and the suggested change of color then
took place. No notice of this change
of paper to either public or officials has
been found but from a study of dated
specimens it seems proved that the blue
3kr was issued in December, 1858.
All four varieties were reprinted in
1867 and, like the reprints of the 1851
issue made at the same time, their de-
tection is a difficult matter only possible
to one who has made a special study
of the stamps. The paper of the Ikr
and 3kr is thicker than that used for
the originals, the shades of all four
are slightly different, and the gum is
white and smooth.
5. Ikr black, Scott's No. 6.
6. 3kr black on green, Scott's No. 7.
7. 3kr black on blue, Scott's No. 9.
8. 6kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 8.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
After the last printing of the numeral
stamps, which took place in 1859, the
electrotypes had become so worn that
it was evident new sets would have to
be made for all values before further
printing could take place. The neigh-
bouring kingdom of Wurtemberg had
adopted a new design showing the
Arms of the State and as other
countries were contemplating the
adoption of more elaborate designs it
is hardly surprising that the Baden
Government was also considering the
advisability of replacing its plain nu-
meral stamps with something more
striking. As new plates were required
anyway the time was opportune for a
change. In an excellent article appear-
ing in the Philatelic Record for 1894
The Postal Administration sent in
its report to the Government of the
Grand Duchy on 21st June, 1859, set-
ting forth the necessity of having
fresh plates provided for printing
the stamps, as those in use were worn
out, and that the question had arisen
whether the design should not be
changed; that the present design was
antiquated; that the printing on col-
ored paper was not clear, nor were
the stamps safe from imitation; that
it would be better that the stamps
should be printed on white paper in
colors according to their values, and,
as was then done elsewhere, the
country should be denoted by the
head of its Sovereign or its Arms ;
and that in order to render the
stamps perfect, secure from imitation,
and their separation readier, they
should be perforated as in England
The report was approved by the Min-
istry and on June 29th, 1859 the Postal
administration was authorised to obtain
the necessary dies for the new issue;
to purchase white paper for printing
the stamps; "to furnish the outer edges
of the stamps with perforation, so as
to facilitate their separation," and not
to print any more stamps in the old
designs but to use up all existing
From motives of economy it was de-
cided to join with Wurtemberg in the
purchase of a perforating machine.
This was obtained from Vienna at a
cost of 1200 florins ($480.00) and set up
at Carlsruhe for the joint use of both
Immediate steps were taken to pro-
cure suitable dies for the new issue
and a specification detailing what was
required was sent to two engravers
Ludwig Kurz, of Frankfort, and Fried-
erich Eckard, of Carlsruhe. According
to this specification the design was to
be a square of 7 l /2 Baden lines, or 23^2
mm., there was to be one original die
on steel or copper for each value, and
from each of these 110 electrotypes
were to be made "of the thickness of
a Baden copper kreutzer" and mounted
on metal. It was stipulated that proofs
should be sent and that the engraving
should be corrected if required. The
engravers were desired to specify the
price at which they would undertake
the work. With each specification a
carefully executed drawing of the pro-
posed design in Indian ink was en-
closed. Quoting from the article in the
Philatelic Record again we read:
The engraver Eckard declined to
undertake the order under the con-
ditions,' but on the 15th July, Ludwig
Kurz, of Frankfort, offered to under-
take the work at the price of 10
florins for each die, and 48kr for
each of the 110 electro-casts of each
value. The cost of the whole would
therefore be 392 florins ($156.80)'.
The order was given to Kurz on 24th
August, 1859, and in October follow-
ing he sent in a proof of the 3kr
stamp. Some alterations were ordered
to be made, and on 8th November
he was informed that he might pro-
ceed with the other original dies.
On the 23rd November he sent proofs
of the 1, 3, 6, and 9kr, and he then
proceeded with the electro-casts,
which he delivered by the 23rd Decem-
ber 111 of each value, except that
of the 3kr, of which he delivered 110.
Kurz states that he engraved the
original dies on copper in relief with
the aid of aquafortis and that the draw-
ing from which he worked was fur-
nished by Herr Klimsch, of Frankfort.
The design shows the Arms of Baden
with supporters within a square frame
on a horizontally lined ground. In the
upper border "BADEN" is shown; in
the lower "KREUZER" preceded by a
numeral appears ; at the left reading
upwards is "FREIMARKE" (Free
stamp) ; and at the right reading down-
wards is "POSTVEREIN" (Postal
Union). All the inscriptions are in un-
colored Egyptian capitals on a solid
ground, and the angles are filled with
rosaces. The plates consisted of 100
electrotypes arranged in ten horizontal
rows of ten, the extra cliches being
held in reserve in case any of the others
became worn or damaged.
In February, 1860, the printer, Has-
per, was asked to submit color trials of
the various denominations. This order
he complied with and, as they were not
approved, he submitted further ones
later on. On March 22nd, he was in-
formed that the following colors had
been chosen: "For the Ikr, good Eng-
lish black printer's ink; for the 3kr,
Berlin blue; for the 6kr, dark chrome
yellow; and for the 9kr, light Munich
cochineal lake. He was directed to
make special efforts to keep the tints
in the various printings quite uniform
an order to which he paid no particu-
lar attention. Plain white wove paper
was used for this issue and, the question
of gumming being under consideration,
half of the first supply was gummed
with an Austrian adhesive matter made
of bone-glue, and the other half was
gummed with the mucilage used in Sax-
ony a mixture of Syriac gum and
glycerine. The latter was found the
most satisfactory and it was used for
all subsequent supplies. The perforat-
ing machine gave a gauge of 13 l / 2 and
was so constructed that an entire sheet
of 100 stamps could be perforated at
The Ikr and 3kr were the first values
to be printed and these appear to have
been in use as early as June 1860,
though the catalogues give the date of
issue as 1861. As there were large
stocks of the old 6kr and 9kr numeral
stamps, which it was decided to use up,
the corresponding values of the Arms
type were not in use until fairly late
in 1861 while they were not in general
circulation throughout the grand-duchy
until the following year. There were
several printings of all values resulting
in several strikingly different shades for
the 3kr and 6kr. Of the former a print-
ing in Prussian blue is distinctly rare
In 1862 the perforating machine was
overhauled and fitted with a new set
of punches which gave a gauge of 10
in place of the previous IS 1 /^. The ex-
act date at which this took place is not
known but it was sometime between
March and June. Supplies of all stamps
printed in June or later are, therefore,
In March 1861 the Prussian Postal
Administration addressed a circular to
the various States forming the German
Austrian Postal Union proposing that
uniform colors should be adopted for
stamps of the same or corresponding
values. This applied only to the stamps
in use for the three rates of postage
equivalent to 1, 2, and 3sgr, and so far
as Baden was concerned this affected
all but the Ikr. The colors decided on
were rose for the 3kr, blue for the 6kr,
and brown for the 9kr. Baden agreed
to the proposition which came into ef-
fect just prior to the alteration of the
gauge of the perforating machine.
About this period, too, some modifica-
tion of the design was under discussion.
Following the many changes round
about this date in strict chronological
order is likely to result in confusion
and it will, therefore, be simpler to
deal, first of all, with the changes as
they affected the stamps of the type
with lined background. None of the
3kr stamps in the new rose color were
printed in this type for reasons we shall
detail later on. Although supplies of
the 6kr and 9kr in the new colors of
blue and brown respectively were or-
dered in December 1861, none appear
to have been delivered until the sum-
mer of 1862. Notwithstanding this
fact an official notification of the change
of colors was made to postmasters on
Jan. 29th, 1862, and this has thus
(though erroniously) been frequently
stated as the date of issue. As a matter
of fact the 6kr could not have been
used earlier than August, 1862, while
the 9kr does not appear to have been
in general circulation until the follow-
1860-63. No Watermark. Perf. 13% or 10.
9. Ikr black, Scott's No. 10 or 15.
10. 3kr blue, Scott's No. 11 or No. 12.
11. 6kr orange, Scott's No. 13 or 13a.
12. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 16.
13. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 14.
14. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 17 or 17a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
After the printing of the 3kr stamps
in June 1861 it was found that, although
little more than 60,000 sheets had been
supplied from first to last, the cliches
had become too badly worn to be of
further use. As a new set was neces-
sary advantage was taken of this fact
to ascertain whether a modification of
the design would not improve the ap-
pearance of the stamps. Kurz was sup-
plied with two of the cliches to see
what he could do and from one of these
he removed every alternate line of the
background and from the other he
erased the lines entirely so that the
Arms stood out on a plain rectangle.
The latter was considered such an im-
provement that the original dies of all
four values were returned to Kurz for
attention. The renovated dies were
ready for use early in August 1861 but
as only the 3kr was immediately neces-
sary Hasper was instructed to prepare
110 cliches for the new plate for this
denomination. A first printing of the
3kr in the new type was ordered late
in 1861 and a first delivery of 2000
sheets was made in March 1862. These
stamps arrived at the period when the
overhauling of the perforating machine
had been decided on but there was such
urgent need for 3kr stamps that this
supply was perforated before the new
punches were fitted. We thus find the
3kr of this issue perforated 13^ as
well as 10 like the other values. With
the 13 1 /2 gauge the stamp is quite a
rarity unused and fairly scarce used.
We have already referred to the fact
that the dies for the Ikr, 6kr and 9kr
had the background removed in 1861
but it was not until the close of the year
1863 that Hasper found it necessary to
construct plates from the altered dies.
He now made 110 cliches of each value
.to be ready for the printing of 1864
though none of the new 6kr were de-
livered until April of that year while
the Ikr and 9kr were not supplied un-
til June. On the 17th of June, 1864,
a circular was sent to the various post-
offices stating that the new postage
stamps of 6 and 9 kreuzer, with plain
background, would be supplied from the
General Post Store in the next quarter,
and the Ikr stamps of similar design
in the following quarter. From this
order it is evident the 6kr and 9kr could
not have been in use prior to July or
the Ikr until October 1864. Other print-
ings took place later on and as the
printer apparently made no special en-
deavor to keep the colors of the print-
ing inks uniform quite a wide range of
shades may be found in all except the
Ikr denomination. Of these the rarest
is the 6kr in a Prussian blue like that
of the similar tint found in connection
with the 3kr of the preceding issue.
The 3kr is known imperforate while
the 9kr in the bistre shade has been
found printed on both sides.
We now retrace our steps a little to
1861 when the alteration of design and
change of colors was under discussion.
In the same year a desire was expressed
for stamps of a higher value than 9kr,
the first step being taken by the Cham-
ber of Commerce of Mannheim, who
proposed to the Baden Ministry of
Commerce that 18kr and 30kr stamps
should be created. Although the use of
the then current 12kr and 18kr en-
velopes had been very restricted the
Ministry decided to introduce 18kr and
30kr labels and Kurz was commissioned
to supply the necessary dies for these
values. The dies, which were in the
design with plain background, were de-
livered on October, 28th, 1861, and Has-
per at once proceeded to make the
cliches for the printing plates. The
colors decided on were green for the
18kr and cinnabar-red for the 30kr.
After a small number of sheets of the
higher value had been printed Hasper
reported that "the cinnabar-red was not
fit for printing from galvano-plastic
plates, as the quicksilver acted injuri-
ously on the copper." He was conse-
quently ordered to print this value in
orange for the future. Whether the
stamps in cinnabar-red were placed in
use or not is not certain. Westoby
lists it as haying been issued and if
his statement is correct the stamps in
this color must be of extreme rarity.
Other printings were made from time
to time though neither of the values
seems to have been in very great de-
mand. The total quantity of 18kr printed
was 315,200 and of these 151,012 were de-
stroyed in July, 1870 as the new postal
rates made the value absolutely useless.
The total supply of the 30kr stamps
numbered 430,400 and though compara-
tively few were used, and the stamp
is rare in this condition, it is common
enough unused as the remainders were
sold to a dealer some years later.
1862-64. No Watermark. Perf. 13 y 2 (3kr
only) or 10.
15. Ikr black, Scott's No. 19.
16. 3kr rose Scott's Nos. 18, 20, or 20a.
17. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 21 or 22.
18. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 23 or 23a.
19. 18kr green, Scott's No. 24.
20. 30kr orange, Scott's No. 25.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
At the end of 1867 the North German
Postal Confederation, which was then
formed, established a new scale of rates
to take effect from January 1st, 1868.
The rate on letters weighing under *4 oz.
was fixed at 3kr and that on heavier
letters up to l / 2 oz. at 7kr. The latter
rate also applied to letters sent to
Switzerland, Belgium, and North
America by way of Prussia, and later
on it was extended to other foreign
countries. The necessity of creating a
new stamp of 7kr was at once apparent.
The Baden Post Office in recommend-
ing the issue of this new value at the
same time suggested the withdrawal of
the 18kr value and reported that there
was sufficient stock on hand of the 6kr,
9kr, and 30kr to last for years. The
stock of the 18kr was, therefore, with-
drawn and destroyed as we have already
stated. It was decided to issue a 7kr
stamp as recommended and Maier an
engraver of Carlsruhe was entrusted
with the task of preparing the die. As
the inscription "POSTVEREIN," on
the right-hand side of the frame, no
longer applied, the word "FREI-
MARKE" was subsituted. It will be
noted that the inscriptions are in thicker
type than before (especially as regards
"BADEN") and the value at foot is
contracted to "KR". The work is al-
together much inferior to that of Kurz.
At the same time it was decided to
alter the designs of the Ikr and 3kr to
correspond with the new 7kr. It would
appear that Maier only engraved one
matrix, with the numerals of value
omitted, and from this the three sec-
ondary dies required were constructed.
Although the new rates were effective
as and from January 1st, 1868, the 7kr
stamps were not ready for issue until
October and the modified Ikr and 3kr
were issued about the same time. An
official notice, dated September 1868,
was circulated to the post-masters inti-
mating them of the change of design,
A printing of three sorts of stamps
from a new die will be ready this year.
These are the stamps of 1 and 3 kreu-
zer, and a new value of 7 kreuzer.
The design is the same as before, ex-
cept that the word FREIMARKE is
repeated in the right side of the frame,
in place of POSTVEREIN as here-
tofore. The value is indicated by a
numeral, and the letters KR.
The colours of the new issue are
1 kreuzer green, 3 kreuzer red, as
before, and the 7 kreuzer blue, but
of a darker tone than the present 6
kreuzer stamp. The delivery of the
new 1 kreuzer stamp to the Post-
offices has. already begun, and that of
the 3 kreuzer will follow as soon as
the old stamps in the chief depots
have been exhausted. The delivery of
thej kreuzer stamps will follow at the
beginning of the next quarter, and, un-
less otherwise ordered, in the quan-
tities necessary for each of the Grand
There were further printings of these
stamps in the years 1869, 1870, and 1871.
On December 31st of the latter year
the Postal Administration of Baden
ceased to exist as a separate institution,
and on January 1st, 1872, its stamps
were superseded by those of the German
1868. No watermark. Perf. 10.
21. Ikr green, Scott's No. 26.
L'L'. : % ,kr rose, Scott's No. 27.
23. Tkr blue, Scott's No. 28.
THE LAND POST STAMPS.
In 1850 a rural post was established
in Baden, its chief object being to oper-
ate a messenger service connecting rural
villages which had no post-offices of
their own with the nearest State Post-
office. It had an organisation of its
own, distinct from the State Post, but
to which, nevertheless, it was an ad-
junct. In the year 1862 a Grand Ducal
decree was issued, under the date of
26th September, authorising improve-
ments in connection with this rural post
and Ikr, 3kr, and 12kr stamps were or-
dered to be prepared for its use. These
stamps are of similar design showing
large numerals in the centre with
"LAXD-POST" above and "PORTO-
MARKE" below. An ornamental bor-
der completed this very unpretentious
design. All were printed in black on
yellow wove paper and perforated 10.
The inscription "Porto-marke" indi-
cates they were postage due stamps but
they were not postage due stamps in
the ordinary meaning of the term.
These labels were used solely in con-
nection with the rural post and in ad-
dition to being used to collect deficient
postage, they were used to collect the
delivery charge on parcels, and for va-
rious purposes such as the collection and
conveyance of money. At this period the
Post-office collected taxes and, in some
instances, debts due to tradesmen. For
this service it charged a commission
fixed at the rate of Ikr per florin and
this commission was denoted by means
of these rural post stamps. The stamps
were not sold to the public but were
used only by officers of the rural post.
The stamps are scarce used, especially
the 12kr but they are common enough
unused owing to the fact that in 1873
Julius Goldner, of Hamburg, purchased
the remainders consisting of 322,800 of
the Ikr, 455,400 of the 3kr and 160,000
of the 12kr.
No watermark. Perf 10.
Ikr black on yellow, Scott's No. 29.
25. 3kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 30.
26. 12kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 31.
Bavaria, or Bayern, is a kingdom of
the German Empire, consisting of two
detached portions the smaller being
west of the Rhine, between Alsace-
Lorraine, Rhineland and Hesse-Darm-
stadt; and the larger east of the Rhine,
between, Bohemia, Austria, Switzerland,
Wurtemberg, and Baden. It has an
area of 29,286 square miles and a popu-
lation well in excess of six millions, the
majority of whom are Roman Catholics.
Bavaria forms a hereditary constitu-
tional monarchy, the legislative power
being invested in the king and two leg-
islative chambers. The kingdom has
six votes in the federal council and
sends forty-eight members to the Im-
Baiern, or Boiaria, land of the Bpii,
overrun by Rome of the early empire,
was divided into three provinces
Rhaetia, Vindelicia, and Noricum. On
the breakup of the Roman power, the
country, occupied by the Teutonic tribe
of Baguwarians (Bavarians) at the
close of the 5th century, was ruled
by dukes, first elective, then hereditary.
After a struggle of two . hundred
years, Bavaria, absorbed by the
Franks, was ruled by Charlemagne, who
left his descendants as margraves (788-
900) to hold the marches against Hun
The title of duke was restored (920)
for services rendered to the empire, and
Bavaria helped the Emperor Otto I. to
defeat the Huns at Augsburg. In the
middle ages there were constant quar-
rels between duke and emperor; and
the towns, which were either imperial
or free (Augsburg, Nuremberg), eccle-
siastical (Bamburg), or ruled by princes
(Baireuth), rose into importance
through the transit of Italian trade
northwards, and again declined owing
to the development of sea-borne com-
merce. During the same period the
boundaries of Bavaria underwent con-
In 1180 Frederick Barbarossa con-
ferred the duchy on Otto, Count of
Wittelsbach, founder of the present
Royal house. Maximilian I. (1598-
1623) was made elector, and received
the northern half of Bavaria, owing to
Tilly's victory over the elector Palatine.
The French defeat of Blenheim (1704)
was shared by Bavaria, but after the
treaty of Utrecht (1713) the elector
was re-instated in his dominions. There-
after Bavaria oscillated between the
French and German alliance, being in-
vaded (1796) by Moreau, who occu-
pied Munich; siding with Napoleon I.,
who created Maximilian Joseph I. a
king (1805-6) ; and, subsequently, se-
cured in her new dignity by the allies,
helping to overthrow her benefactor
(1813). In 1866 Bavaria sided with
Austria in the Austro-Prussian war,
and had to pay the penalty of its choice
in the shape of an indemnity and the
cession of territory to Prussia.
In 1886 the throne of Bavaria passed
to Otto Wilhelm Luitpold who, how-
ever, owing to mental incapacity has
never taken any active part in the gov-
ernment of his kingdom. His uncle,
Prince Leopold, was appointed Regent
and was virtually ruler until the time
of his death a few months ago at the
advanced age of 90 years.
Although Bavaria became a member
of the German Empire in 1870, she re-
tained certain independent privileges,
amongst them being the sole control of
her postal system. Bavaria is the only
German State to still issue its own dis-
tinctive postage stamps for Wurtem-
berg, which for a long period also is-
sued its own stamps, relinquished the
privilege on April 1st, 1902.
Bavaria was the first of the German
States to adopt adhesive postage stamps,
its pioneer labels appearing in 1849.
From that date until 1876 the currency
of the kingdom was the florin of 60
kreuzer worth about 40c in United
States money. In 1876 the Imperial
currency of pfennige and marks was
THE FIRST ISSUE.
An ordinance of King Maximilian,
dated June 5th, 1849, authorised the
issue of postage stamps and fixed the
rates of postage. Local letters and
printed matter were carried for 1
kreuzer, subject to certain limitations
of weight; the rate on ordinary single
letters (weighing not more than 1 loth
or %oz.) was fixed at 6kr for distances
up to 12 German miles; while 6 kreuzer
was the charge for carrying single let-
ters for longer distances. Postage
stamps of these values were, therefore,
prepared and, according to an elaborate
"code of instructions" dated October
25th, 1849, these were to be placed on
sale on November 1st following. The
only items we need reproduce are those
concerning the prepayment of letters
1. From the 1st November next
the prepayment of matter sent
by post in the interior of Ba-
varia must be effected exclusive-
ly by stamps, which the Postal
Administration is entitled to sell
according to Art. VII of the
Royal Ordinance of June 5th; and
for the correspondence, the marking
of the postage on the seal-side of the
letter, prescribed up till now, must
2. The stamps intended for the
prepayment bear the figures of the
single rates, according to the new
tariff for the interior of Bavaria, of
1 kreuzer in black, of 3 kreuzer in
blue, and of 6 kreuzer in brown-red
colors. Each stamp of the last two
kinds carries in itself a red silk
thread running from top to bottom,
as evidence of its genuineness.
The design, common to all three
values, shows a double lined numeral,
ornamented with arabesques, within a
square frame. In the top border is
"BAYERN" (Bavaria), in. the bottom
one is "FRANCO" (Free), at the right
is "KREUZER", and at the left the
value in words "EIN", "DREI", or
"SECHS". In the small squares in the
angles the value is denoted in figures on
a checkered ground. The large central
numeral on the Ikr is on a ground of
mazework which occupies the whole of
the interior square. In the case of the
3kr and 6kr the numerals are on a circu-
lar ground of solid color, this circle be-
ing flattened where it meets the inner
lines of the border, thus causing the
type generally known as "broken circle."
The spandrels, or spaces in the angles,
are filled with arabesque ornamentation.
The designs were drawn by Mr. P.
Haseney, and the dies were engraved
on steel by Mr. F. J. Seitz, of Munich.
The printing plates were constructed of
separate blocks or cliches struck from
the original dies and clamped together
in a printer's chase. For the plate of
the Ikr the casts were taken in ordinary
type-metal there being ninety of these
in all, arranged in ten horizontal rows
of nine. The printing plates for the
3kr and 6kr also consisted of ninety
impressions but these were arranged in
two panes of 45 each (nine rows of
five) placed side by side. The cliches
for these values were struck in brass
at the Mint and these impressions were
soldered on to bars of iron in rows of
five. The stamps were printed by Mr.
J. G. Weiss, of Munich.
The Ikr was printed on ordinary
white wove paper, but for the other two
denominations a special greyish-white
paper was employed, in the fabric of
which red threads were introduced.
This paper, known as "Dickenson"
paper from the name of its inventor,
had the threads arranged at intervals
of 20 mm. so that one thread appeared
in each stamp. According to a writer
in the Philatelic Record for March,
The threads were introduced into
the paper lengthways of the continu-
ous roll, and not inserted between
t\vo laminae of the pulp, but were
pressed into the pulp as it reached
the "couching rollers," which, aided
by the suction boxes, remove the
greater part of the remaining water,
and turn the sheet of pulp into one
of paper. It was evidently intended
that the thread should be especially
visible on the back of the stamp, and
impressions which shew it on the
front are frequently classified sepa-
rately by philatelists as being ex-
ceptions to the rule, and constituting
varieties, due only, however, to the
printer having taken the impression
on the wrong side of the paper.
The plate of the Ikr soon showed
signs of wear owing to the comparative
softness of the type-metal of which it
was composed. Consequently, about
September, 1850, a new plate was made
for this value the cliches of which were
made of brass similar to those employed
for the 3kr and 6kr. The new plate had
Jthe ninety stamps arranged in two panes
of forty-five each. Only 2000 sheets
were printed from this new plate when
it was decided to alter the color and
also to adopt a design conforming to
that of the other denominations. These
later impressions of the Ikr taken from
the brass plate can be distinguished by
the greater sharpness and clearness of
the design. The color is also a more
intense black than that used for the
The Ikr is known with silk thread in
the paper. This variety is a proof or
essay but that it is of considerable
rarity may be judged from the fact that
Gibbons prices it at $30. The Ikr is
recorded as existing in a tete-beche
pair but whether this is a true tete-
beche, caused by the inversion of one
of the cliches on the plate, or due to
two impressions (one upside down in
relation to the other) being printed on
the same sheet of paper, I cannot say.
The 6kr stamp of this issue is an ex-
ceedingly rare variety unused. The 3kr
may be found in a number of distinctive
shades of which the deeper tints are
much the rarer.
There are no reprints of these stamps.
i BAYERN I
1 FRANCO 1
1 Nov. 1849. No watermark. The 3kr and
6kr have a silk thread in the paper.
1. Ikr black, Scott's No. 1, or No. la.
2. 3kr blue, Scott's No. 2, No. 2a, or No.
3. 6kr brown, Scott's No. 4.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
In April, 1850 Bavaria joined the
German-Austrian Postal Union and as
the rate on single letters between the
states belonging to the convention had
been fixed at 9 kreuzer, arrangements
had to be made to issue a label of this
denomination. Its approaching issue
was announced by a Post-office notice,
dated 25th June, 1850, and it was ac-
tually placed in use on July 1st, 1850.
The design of this new 9kr is very
similar to that of the 3kr and 6kr of
1849 with one important exception
the circle containing the large central
numeral is a perfect sphere and not
flattened where it touches the frame
The die was probably engraved by
Seitz and the plate was constructed by
the ordinary electrotype process. It
consisted of two panes placed side by
side. Each pane was composed of 45
casts arranged in nine rows of five,
with vertical and horizontal lines be-
tween them, and a single line around
the whole. The plate was backed with
type metal so as to render it quite solid.
The color chosen was yellow green but
a printing was made in a pale blue
green a shade that is of considerable
rarity unused. The stamps were im-
perforate and printed on the paper with
An official notice, dated October 1st,
1850, announced that the color of the
1 kreuzer stamp would be changed from
black to rose. But not only was the
color changed but the design was
altered to conform with that of the
other denominations. It was similar to
that of the 9kr; the circle being com-
plete and not intercepted by the inner
lines of the inscribed border. The
plate was made by the same process,
the sheets consisted of ninety stamps
in two panes as in the case of the 9kr,
and the same silk-thread paper was
A new plate was also constructed for
the 6kr, this likewise having the circu-
lar ground complete. At what date
this was brought into use is uncertain
but probably some time in 1851.
On July 19th, 1854, a Government
notice was issued intimating that a
stamp of higher value than 9kr would
be issued for the general convenience
of the public, and on August 1st fol-
lowing, an 18kr stamp made its ap-
pearance. In design, method of manu-
facture, etc., this value corresponds to
those already described.
A postal convention between Bavaria
and France came into operation on
July 1st, 1858, it being mutually agreed
that the postage on a letter not exceed-
ing 10 grammes in weight should be
12kr. A new stamp representing this
rate was placed on sale in Bavaria on
the day the new convention came into
force, the design corresponding to
that of the other values then current.
The 3kr underwent no change either
of design or color so this denomination
does not exist with completed circle.
As it was in use from 1849 until 1862
it may be found in a wide range of
1850-58. A silk thread in the paper. Imperf.
4. Ikr rose, Scott's No. 5.
5. 6kr brown, Scott's No. 3.
6. 9kr green, Scott's No. 6, or No. 6a.
7. 12kr red, Scott's No. 7.
8. 18kr yellow, Scott's No. 8.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
An official notice, dated July 6th,
1862, announced that on October 1st
following, various changes would be
made in the colors of the different
The 3 kreuzer, taken as equivalent
to 5 Austrian neugroschen or 1 sil-
bergroschen, will for the future be
printed in rose instead of blue.
The 6 kreuzer, equivalent to 10
Austrian neugroschen or 2 silber-
groschen, will be printed in blue in-
stead of brown.
The 9 kreuzer, equivalent to 15
Austrian neugroschen or 3 silber-
groschen, will be printed in light
brown instead of green.
The colors of the remaining values
will be altered from the same date as
The 1 kreuzer, from rose to yellow.
The 12 kreuzer, from red to green.
The 18 kreuzer, from yellow to
The change in the colors of the 3, 6,
and 9 kreuzer was made so that these
denominations would correspond to
those of the other signatories to the
German-Austrian postal union and this,
of course, necessitated the changes in
the other values to prevent confusion.
The exact dates of issue of the new
varieties is not known. All we know
is that the stamps in the new colors
were placed on sale as the stocks in
the former tints became exhausted.
The stamps were printed from the
same plates as before and in most of
them considerable variation of shade
may be found. The 6kr in ultramarine
is a rare shade worth looking for.
This completes the history of the
"numeral" stamps of Bavaria but be-
fore dealing with the later issues it will
be as well to refer to certain varieties,
printed in black on colored paper, so
that there may be no misunderstanding
as to their status should any of our
readers come across them. We can best
do this by reprinting the following para-
graph from the Philatelic Record:
It was the custom in Bavaria to
make up the stamps for the supply of
the post-offices into packets of fifty
sheets, and these were placed in cov-
ers of various colored paper, on which
a copy of the stamp, with the number
of sheets and stamps in the packet,
was printed in black. No order for
this is found among the official docu-
ments relating to the earlier issues,
but the system continued in use till
the close of the numeral issues.
During the period which commenced
subsequently to the issue of the 1
kreuzer, type II, down to October,
1862, the color of the paper for the
1 kreuzer was gray, that for the 3
kreuzer was blue, that for the 6
kreuzer was brown, that for the 9
kreuzer was green, that for the 12
kreuzer was red, and that for the
18 kreuzer was yellow. The stamps
impressed on the covers had no postal
value whatever, and were simply
printed on the covers as an indication
of the particular value of the stamps
contained in them.
1862. A silk thread in the paper.
9. Ikr yellow, Scott's No. 9.
10. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 10.
11. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 11.
1 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 12.
13. 12kr green, Scott's No. 13.
14. 18kr red, Scott's No. 14, or No. 14a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
The adoption of a new design for the
stamps of Bavaria evidently involved
much serious consideration for, though
the idea was mooted in the early part of
1865 and proofs were actually existent
twelve months later, it was not until
January 1st, 1867, that the stamps were
really issued. The approaching change
was 'announced by means of a Govern-
ment Notice dated December 14th, 1866,
the salient provisions of which were as
With the Royal approval a new is-
sue of postage stamps has been pre-
pared, which will be issued according
to the consumption of the stock of
the existing values.
The new stamps are, like the
former, printed in color on white
paper traversed by a red silk thread,
and bear the Royal Arms of Bavaria,
with the two supporters in white re-
lief on a colored ground, and with
the numeral of value in each angle.
The stamps will, like the former, be
issued for the values of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12,
and 18 kreuzer.
The colors of the stamps of 3, 6,
9, and 18 kreuzer are, as in the former
issue, carmine-red, blue, light brown,
and vermilion-red; the stamps of the
1 kreuzer are green in place of yel-
low, and those of 12 kreuzer violet
in place of green.
The delivery of the new stamps to
the post-offices will be in sheets of
60 pieces, and in larger quantities in
packets of 50 sheets.
The design consists of the Arms of
Bavaria surmounted by a Royal crown
with lions as supporters. Under the
Arms is scroll ornamentation with
"KREUZER" in small capitals below;
while above is the name "BAYERN."
The preceding details are on a back-
ground of solid color and of somewhat
eccentric shape. In the angles are num-
erals in white on solid colored discs
to denote the various values, while the
spandrels are filled with ornamental
scrolls. In referring to the change of
design the Stamp Collectors' Maga-
zine, made the following interesting
comments on stamp designs in general :
The substitution of an elegant de-
sign like this for the existing prosaic
figure, is matter for congratulation.
That a stamp may be ornamental as
well as useful, is a proposition which
most postal administrations now show
their acquiescence in. Economic rea-
sons are, we fear, too much in favor
of armorial bearings as a device for
stamps; but for our part, while ac-
knowledging the excellence of the
change from figures to arms, we must
confess we should prefer to see the
features of foreign sovereigns on a
larger number of stamps than at
present bear them. The objection to
the employment of our own Queen's
effigy on her colonial stamps, that
the frequent repetition is monotonous
and tiresome, would not hold good in
respect to continental monarchs, over
whose dominions the sun sets in the
ordinary course of nature.
The original or matrix die was en-
graved on steel by Peter Reiss, a medal
coiner employed at the Royal Mint. The
secondary dies, on which the numerals
of value were engraved, and the brass
blocks which formed the printing plates
were also struck at the Mint.
The plates were constructed by a pro-
cess similar to that employed for the
numeral series. Each plate consisted
of sixty brass cliches arranged in two
panes of thirty each (6 rows of 5)
placed side by side. A space about the
width of a stamp separated the panes.
The design was embossed in slight re-
lief on a colored ground the series be-
ing a particularly attractive one. The
paper was similar to that used for the
preceding issues, having silk threads em-
bedded in its substance in such a man-
ner that one thread was apportioned
to each vertical row of stamps. It is
probable that the use of this paper pre-
vented the adoption of perforation
which, at that period, was in general
There is a well-known minor variety
of the Ikr in which the numeral in the
upper right hand corner has a distinct
colored stroke across the centre.
On January 1st 1868, a new postal
arrangement was made with the North
German Confederation, Wurtemburg,
and Baden involving a postal rate of
7kr. Later this rate was extended to
include the agreements with Denmark
and Belgium and the natural outcome
was the issue of a 7 kreuzer stamp.
The issue of this new value was an-
nounced in a Government decree dated
August 30th, 1868, and at the same time
it was decreed that the color of the
6kr would be changed to brown so as
to avoid confusion with the 7kr. These
new varieties were placed on sale on
October 1st and a month later the 9kr
was withdrawn from use and the 6kr
in the old color of blue was demonetised.
The new 7kr value was similar in de-
sign, impression, and paper to the other
denominations of the series.
All values of this issue are said to
exist on laid paper and as such are re-
corded in Scott's catalogue. M. Moens,
in a note in his catalogue observed
that "the paper is found with fine lines
resembling laid paper." It seems quite
certain that J:he variety is not a true
laid paper but is merely due to some
slight imperfection in manufacture.
The "laid" and "wove" varieties may
be found on the same sheet and the
former is generally considered of such
minor importance as to be hardly
worthy the attention of even an ex-
treme specialist. It would, therefore,
appear that the "laid" paper varieties
are hardly worthy of catalogue rank.
Most of the stamps of this issue pro-
vide considerable variation in shade.
1867-68. Embossed. Silk thread in paper.
15. Ikr green, Scott's No. 15 or 15a.
16. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 16.
17. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 17.
18. 6kr bistre, Scott's No. 21.
19. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 22.
20. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 18.
21. 12kr mauve, Scott's No. 19.
22. 18kr red, Scott's No. 20.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
Although, as we have previously ob-
served, Bavaria was the first of the Ger-
man States to issue postage stamps it
was the last to make use of any provi-
sion for their easy separation. This was
apparently due to the fact that the silk-
thread paper was considered such an ex-
cellent safeguard against counterfeiting
that the authorities were loth to give
it up. At last, however, the obvious
convenience of perforation made its
adoption indispensable and the silk-
thread paper was replaced by a new
watermarked paper. A Government No-
tice dated June 12th, 1870, stated that
a new issue of postage stamps of the
values of 1, 3, 6, 7, 12, and 18 kreuzer
would be made and issued as soon as
existing stocks of the old series were
exhausted. It was stated that the paper
would no longer contain the red silk
threads and that the stamps would have
the edges indented, but no mention was
made of the watermark. The stamps
were ready for issue on July 1st, and
were placed on sale just as quickly as
the corresponding values of the im-
perforate series were sold out. The
same plates were used, and the same
colors were retained, the differences be-
ing confined to the watermark and per-
foration. The watermark consisted of
a number of crossed lines forming a dia-
mond pattern generally known as
"lozenges." There are two varieties of
this watermark in one of which the
diamonds or lozenges are 17 mm. wide,
while in the other they are narrower
and only measure 14 mm. in width.
Gibbons catalogues both varieties in
full applying much higher prices to the
variety with narrower lozenges. Both,
however, occurred on the same sheet
so that the philatelic importance of the
differences is not particularly great. The
paper was intended to be horizontally
laid but on the majority of specimens
it is exceedingly difficult to find any
trace of the laid lines, though they are
generally quite plain on the margins of
the sheets. This appears to be due to
the fact that the intersecting lines form-
ing the lattice watermark were so much
heavier than the "laid" lines on the
dandy roll that they received most of
the pressure and, consequently, while
they were deeply indented into the paper
the horizontal lines of wire to which
they were stitched made no impression
at all. The paper is, therefore, best de-
scribed as wove.
As the same"" plates were used as for
the 1867-68 series it follows that the
stamps were printed in sheets of sixty
divided into two panes of thirty each.
The perforating machine was so con-
structed that an entire pane of thirty
stamps was perforated at one opera-
tion, the gauge being 11^2.
In 1872 certain revisions were made
in the postal tariff a Post-office Notice
dated November 30th, stating that for
the future the rate on single letters to
France, Great Britain, Norway, Portu-
gal, Spain, Constantinople, and the
United States via Bremen or Hamburg,
would be 9 kreuzer ; and that the rate
to Italy, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, Alex-
andria, and the United States via
Cologne, would be 10 kreuzer. As these
rates could not be made up by existing
values except by the use of two stamps
it was announced that labels of these
denominations would be issued. At the
same time it was stated that owing to
the limited use for the 12 kreuzer stamp
no more of this value would be printed.
On December 31st the provisions of this
Notice came into effect the 12kr being
withdrawn and the new 9 and 10 kreuzer
stamps being placed on sale. Of these
the 9kr was printed in pale brown and
the lOkr in yellow. The plates were of
similar size to those of the other de-
nominations and the paper and perfora-
tion were also similar.
Late in 1876 Bavaria, in common with
many of the other German States, de-
cided to make a clean sweep of its ob-
solete postage stamps, envelopes, etc.
According to an article in the Monthly
Journal the lot was placed on sale in
October, 1876, and in addition to a list
of the quantities of the different varie-
ties a lengthy note was added of which
the following is a summary :
All these articles, which were with-
drawn from use on January 1st, 1876,
have been stamped with an oblitera-
tion dated June 30th of that year; no
reprints will be made; offers may be
submitted for the whole stock, for the
whole of one or more kinds, or for
fixed quantities of different kinds
separately. Offers must be sent in
by January 1st, 1867, after which the
Government will announce its deci-
sion. Preference will be given to the
Xo account will be taken of tenders
submitted by firms or individuals who
have no domicile in Germany or Aus-
tria-Hungary, unless they are vouched
for by some firm domiciled in Bavaria,
and of sufficiently high standing.
The entire lot was purchased by Mr.
G. Zedmeyer, of Nuremberg, though
the price paid was not made public.
The lot included the following remain-
ders of the issue we are now discuss-
9kr pale brown,
2.-,. Gkr bistre, Scott's No. 25.
2>. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 26.
27. 9kr pale brown, Scott's No. 27.
28. lOkr yellow, Scott's No. 28.
29. 12kr mauve, Scott's No. 29.
:;o. 18kr red, Scott's No. 30.
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
On August 5th, 1874, a new stamp of
1 mark was issued, the value being ex-
pressed in Imperial currency. This de-
nomination was specially intended for
the prepayment of the rate on large
parcels and packages within the Union
of the German States. The die was en-
graved on steel by Herr P. Reiss, medal
coiner to the mint, and the stamps were
printed at the Mint of Munich. The
design shows the Royal Arms, with sup-
porters, surmounted by a crown and
resting on a scroll pattern base. Above
the crown is "BAYERN" in a curve,
and under the base "MARK" in large
capitals, the whole being embossed on a
ground of solid color. In each of the
four corners the value is expressed
by a large "1" embossed in white on a
disc of horizontal lines.
The plate was constructed in the
same way as those for the other values
but consisted of fifty stamps arranged in
five horizontal rows of ten. The same
watermarked paper was used but as
the stamps were of extra large size
(measuring 25 mm. by 21 mm.) the im-
pression fell very irregularly over the
watermark, the paper, of course, being
originally intended for stamps of much
The stamp was at first issued imper-
forate as the only perforating machine
available was not adapted for use on
such large stamps. A new machine was
ordered capable of perforating an entire
sheet of fifty stamps at a time and on
April 1st, 1875, the perforated stamps
made their appearance. The gauge is
similar to that of the lower values, viz.
1870-72. Embossed. Wmk. crossed lines. 1874-75.
Perf. Iiy 2 .
23. Ikr green, Scott's No. 23.
LM. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 24.
Embossed. Wmk. crossed
31. 1 mark mauve, Imperf., Scott's No. 31.
32. 1 mark mauve, Perf. 11^, Scott's No.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
Towards the close of the year 1875
a change was made in the watermark
of the paper, the crossed lines being
superseded by a uniform pattern of un-
dulating lines (placed horizontally) set
8^2 mm. apart. The paper was hori-
zontally laid but as the watermark made
such a heavy impression the laid lines
of the paper are frequently impossible
to detect. The same paper was used
for the envelopes and wrappers which
up to that time had been printed on
plain paper. The same plates were used
as for printing issue five and the colors
and perforation also correspond to that
series. The 1, 3, 7, 10, and 18 kreuzer
values were printed on this paper and
were placed on sale some time in No-
vember, 1875. They had but a short
life, for on January 1st, 1876, they were
withdrawn and replaced by a new series
with values in Imperial currency.
Among the remainders sold in 1876
the following quantities of the stamps
of the issue under notice were included:
Ikr green, 942,000
3kr rose, 1,470,000
7kr blue, 321,000
lOkr yellow, 120,000
18kr red, 99,000
Wmk. undulating horizontal
Perf. \\y z .
Ikr green, Scott's No. 33.
3kr rose, Scott's No. 34.
7kr blue, Scott's No. 35.
lOkr yellow, Scott's No. 3G.
37. 18kr red, Scott's No. 37.
THE EIGHTH ISSUE.
Until the close of the year 1875 all
the stamps issued in Bavaria, with the
single exception of the 1 mark value
issued in 1874, had the values expressed
in South German currency but, with the
idea of creating greater uniformity, the
Imperial currency of marks and pfennige
was introduced on January 1st, 1876.
This, of course, necessitated the issue of
new stamps and particulars of the new
series were announced in a Post-office
Notice dated December 9th, 1875. We
take the following summary of its con-
tents from the Philatelic Record:
"The stamps will be issued:
Value of 3 pfennige in light green.
5 dark green.
10 ' carmine red.
50 ' vermilion red.
1 mark in violet.
2 marks in orange yellow.
The new stamps, like that of 1 mark,
will be embossed with the Royal Arms
in oval shields, with the supporters
and crown, and the name BAYERN
above the crown in white on a colored
ground. The value of the stamps will
be expressed in figures in relief in the
four angles, and the denomination
PFENNIG or MARK in relief under
The postage stamps with value in
pfennig are of the same size as those
of the former issue in kreuzer, and
will be delivered to the Post-offices in
sheets of 60. Those of 2 marks are
of the same size as those of 1 mark,
and will be delivered in sheets of 50."
The original dies for the new series
were engraved on steel by Herr P.
Reiss at the Mint of Munich and the de-
sign of the lower values, as will be un-
derstood from the above description, is
very similar to that of the 1 mark of
1874 but on a smaller scale. The die
for the 2 marks was a subsidiary one
made by taking an impression from the
1 mark and altering the corner numerals.
The plates were of similar size to those
of the preceding issue and they were
constructed in a similar manner.
The paper was watermarked with the
undulating lines placed %y 2 mm. apart
as in the case of the stamps of 1875 and,
while it was apparently intended to be
laid, the "laid" lines are very faint or
fail to show at all. This, as already ex-
plained, was due to the greater pressure
exerted on the pulp by the watermarked
lines sewn on the dandy-roll. There was
such a large supply of the 1 mark stamps
on hand that it was not until 1879 it was
necessary to print this value on the paper
watermarked with wavy lines.
In consequence of the similarity of
color of the 3pf and 5pf it was decided
to change the latter and on December
4th, 1878, a Post-office Notice was pub-
lished announcing the issue of the 5
pfennige stamp in violet and at the same
time it was stated that the color of the 50
pfennige would be changed from ver-
milion to dark brown. The new stamps
were ready on January 1st following and
they were sold as the stocks of the old
colors were used up.
The same perforating machines one
for the pfennig and one for the mark
values were used as before, both
gauging ll l / 2 .
The 1 mark stamp of this series is an
extremely rare variety unused, though
in used condition it is comparatively
51. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 51.
52. 25pf bistre-brown, Scott's No. 52.
53. 50pf brown, Scott's No. 53.
54. 1 mark mauve, Scott's No. 54.
.">. 2 mark orange, Scott's No. 55.
1875-79. Wmk. undulating horizontal lines.
38. 3pf green, Scott's No. 38.
39. 5pf dark green, Seott's No. 39.
4i>. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 46.
41. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 40.
42. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 41.
4::. 25pf yellow brown, Scott's No. 42.
44. fiOpf vermilion, Scott's No. 43.
4.".. ;"JOpf brown, Scott's No. 47.
46. 1 mark mauve, Scott's No. 44.
47. 2 mark orange, Scott's No. 45.
THE NINTH ISSUE.
Some time during the latter part of
the year 1881, the contract for supply-
ing the paper for postage stamps, which
had up to then been held by the Pasing
Mill, was awarded to the Munich-
Dachau Paper Manufacturing Company
a concern equipped with more modern
machinery and able to turn out a better
grade of paper. At the time of this
change it was also decided to alter the
style of watermark. A new dandy-roll
was ordered from England and this
made a watermark of zig-zag lines run-
ning in a vertical direction down the
stamps, the lines being spaced about 7 l / 2
mm. apart. This paper was white wove
and the improved appearance of the
stamps showed it was of better quality
than that previously used. No altera-
tion was made in the colors of the va-
rious denominations and the perfora-
tion remained the same as before. The
first stamps on the new paper were
ready for issue about November, 1881,
and they were placed on sale as the
stocks of the old varieties became ex-
hausted. It is probable that all except
the 2 marks were in use before the end
of the vear. The 2 marks did not ap-
pear until 1891.
1881-91. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close
together. Perf. 11 y 2 .
48. 3pf green, Scott's No. 48. '
49. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 40.
50. lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 50.
THE TENTH ISSUE,
Although the Imperial currency was
issued in 1876 the pfennige values con-
tinued to be printed in the small sheets
of 60 and these did not altogether fit
in with a decimal currency. It was de-
cided, therefore, to alter the size of the
sheets and in January 1888 some of the
values made their appearance in sheets
of 100 and before long all the pfennige
stamps had appeared thus. The stamps
were divided into two panes of fifty
(five rows of ten) placed one above the
other. An interval about the height of
a stamp was left between the panes and
across this space two thick horizontal
lines were printed. The plates being of
a new size the paper had to be cut ac-
cordingly and, to avoid unnecessary
waste, it was found best to cut the
paper so that on the printed stamps the
watermarked wavy lines run in a hori-
zontal instead of perpendicular direc-
tion. Naturally this change in the size
of the sheets made the perforating ma-
chine, which had been constructed to
perforate a pane of thirty stamps at a
time, of no use and a new one had to be
ordered. This one was also on the har-
row principle and perforated an entire
pane of fifty stamps at one operation
but the punches were smaller and placed
closer together so that the gauge is
14^ in place of the 11^ found in con-
nection with previous issues. No alter-
ation in the size of the sheets of the
mark values was made so that the water-
mark on these is vertical.
An official notice issued by the Post
Office authorities under date December
23rd, 1889, foreshadowed several changes
of color. It was stated that the 3pf would
be issued in brown, the 5pf in green, the
25pf in orange and the 50pf in red-
brown. The result of these changes
was to make a more marked distinc-
tion between the colors chosen for the
various denominations and it also gave
the 5pf its proper Postal Union tint.
These new varieties were placed on sale
as the stocks of the old ones were used
up. Their actual date of issue is in-
definite but all four were probably on
sale by March, 1890.
Early in 1900, the set was enriched by
the addition of four new values 2pf,
30pf, 4Qpf, and 80pf. They were prob-
ably placed on sale on January 1st. In
design, watermark, perforation, and
size of sheets they correspond exactly
to the values previously described.
About this period it was noticed that
paper of a whiter appearance was be-
ing used but these are listed as separ-
ate varieties in Gibbons' catalogue, the
distinction is one of comparatively little
importance. Most of the values of this
series provide a pleasing array of shades.
1888-1900. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close
together. Perf. U%.
2pf grey, Scott's No. 66.
3pf green, Scott's No. 56.
3pf brown, Scott's No. 62.
5pf mauve, Scott's No. 57.
5pf green, Scott's No. 63.
lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 58.
20pf blue, Scott's No. 59.
25pf bistre-brown, Scott's No. 60.
25pf orange, Scott's No. 64.
30pf olive green, Scott's No. 67.
40pf yellow, Scott's No. 68.
50pf brown, Scott's No. 61.
50pf marone, Scott's No. 65.
80pf mauve, Scott's No. 69.
1903. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to-
gether. Perf. Iiy 2 .
72. 5pf green, Scott's No. 72.
THE ELEVENTH ISSUE.
The necessity for stamps of a higher
facial value than 2 marks resulted in
the issue of 3 and 5 mark stamps on
April 1st, 1900. These are exactly simi-
lar in design to the 1 and 2 mark values
and it is evident that the dies were
secondary ones, struck from the matrix
of the 1 mark, with the appropriate num-
erals inserted in the angles. These
stamps were also printed in sheets of
fifty and the same perforating machine
gauging 11 y 2 was used. The watermark,
also, is perpendicular as in the case of
the earlier mark stamps.
1900. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to-
gether. Perf 11^.
70. 3 marks, olive-brown, Scott's No. 70.
71. 5 marks pale green, Scott's No. 71.
THE TWELFTH ISSUE.
Early in March, 1903, the 5 pfennige
stamp appeared with the watermark
vertical instead of horizontal. This is
the only one of the small size stamps
with the perforation gauging 14^ to ap-
pear with the watermark in this position.
THE THIRTEENTH ISSUE.
In December, 1910, the four mark
values appeared with the watermarked
zig-zag lines horizontal instead of verti-
cal. For what reason the change was
made meaning, of course, that the paper
was cut in a different way, is not
known but there seems to have been
only one printing for in the following
year the portrait stamps made their ap-
pearance. According to the Illustriertes
Priefmarken Journal the quantities
printed were as follows : 1 mark, 400,-
000 ; 2 marks, 300,000 ; 3 marks, 200,000 ;
and 5 marks, 100,000.
1910. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines, close to-
gether. Perf. 11 */*.
73. 1 mark, mauve, Scott's No. 73.
74. 2 marks, orange, Scott's No. 74.
75. 3 marks, olive-brown, Scott's No. 75.
76. 5 marks, pale green, Scott's No. 76.
THE FOURTEENTH ISSUE.
On March 12th, 1911, Prince Leopold
Regent of the kingdom of Bavaria, cele-
brated his ninetieth birthday, and the
event was marked by the issue of a new
series of stamps bearing his portrait.
The change was something in the nature
of a revolution considering the Arms
type had been in use for a period of no
less than forty-four years. The Prince
was born at Wurzburg on March 12th,
1821, and his life and career were bound
up with the historic episodes of modern
Europe. Professionally Prince Leopold
was a soldier but when his nephew,
King Otto, succeeded to the throne in
1886 he was appointed Regent owing to
the mental deficiency of the ruler.
Prince Leopold was regarded with the
greatest affection by the people and his
birthday was observed throughout Ba-
varia with the heartiest enthusiasm.
The special stamps issued to mark the
event show two designs. That for the
pfennig denominations shows a profile
bareheaded portrait, looking to left, on
a solid rectangular background. In the
upper left corner of this rectangle
figures of value are shown and in the
top right angle are the letters "Pf".
Above, on a narrow tablet of color, is
the date "12 MARZ 1911", and at the
base is the name "BAYERN" in
colored capitals. The stamps vary in
size, the lower values being smaller than
those of a higher facial value. The
mark stamps are of extra large size and
show a portrait of the aged Regent look-
ing to right. In this instance he is
shown wearing a hat. On each side of
the portrait are ornate columns, resting
on corner rectangles of solid color, that
on the left bearing the numeral of value,
and the one on the right a letter "M".
In the centre, at the top, is the date
"r.)ll". The portraits are strongly
drawn and are the work of the cele-
brated German artist, Prof. Fritz von
Kaulbachs. The stamps are printed by
a process of photo-lithography. They
were on sale some few weeks before the
actual birthday celebration and after the
31st March all previous issues were
The stamps were printed on the paper
watermarked with close zig-zag lines
which has been in use since 1881. On
the values from 3pf to 25pf inclusive,
the lines are horizontal while on all
others they are vertical. In what size
sheets these stamps were printed we do
not know (possibly 100 for the pfennig
and 50 for the mark values) but it seems
probable that a new perforating machine
was brought into use. As we have al-
ready shown the 14 l / 2 and 11^ machines
used from 1888 and 1881 respectively
were of the harrow kind and could,
therefore, only be used for stamps and
sheets of the size for which they were
constructed. The values from 3 to 25pf
are of the same size as the lower values
of the preceding issue and it is evident
the 14 l / 2 harrow machine was used for
these; the 30pf to 80pf stamps are of
the same size as the mark stamps of the
Arms design and doubtless the old 11^2
harrow machine was utilised for these ;
but the mark stamps were too large for
either of the existing perforating ma-
chines and a new one, possibly a single
line machine was used. We are not
quite positive on the point as we have
only single stamps to refer to but a
single-line machine was certainly used
for the next issue in which the stamps
are of the same large size.
A 60pf value in the same design as
the others was added to the series in
October, 1911, Bavaria, in accordance
with its usual policy following Ger-
many's lead in the issue of new values.
The 5pf and^ lOpf values are known in
tete-beche pairs these being from sheets
printed for binding in book form. The
same values may also be found with ad-
vertisements attached, these also being
from sheets intended for binding into
stamp booklets. Most of the values
exist in several pronounced shades.
Prince Leopold died in the closing
weeks of 1912 and was succeeded as Re-
gent by his son, Prince Ludwig. So far
this change has had no effect on Ba-
varia's postal issues though it is
rumoured that a new series is in prepa-
Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines.
3pf brown on drab, Scott's No. 77.
5pf green on green, Scott's No. 78.
lOpf carmine on buff, Scott's No. 79.
20pf blue on blue, Scott's No. 80.
25pf chocolate on buff, Scott's No. 81.
vertical zig-zag lines. Perf. 11 l /^.
30pf orange on buff, Scott's No. 82.
40pf olive on buff, Scott's No. 83.
50pf marone on drab, Scott's No. 84.
GOpf deep green on buff.
80pf violet on drab, Scott's No. 85.
1m brown on drab, Scott's No. 86.
2m green on green, Scott's No. 87.
3m crimson on buff, Scott's No. 88.
5m deep blue on buff, Scott's No. 89.
10m orange on yellow, Scott's No. 90.
20m chocolate on yellow, Scott's No. 91.
THE FIFTEENTH ISSUE.
In June, 1911, two stamps were issued
for use in the kingdom of Bavaria com-
memorative of the twenty-fifth anni-
versary of the Regency of Prince Leo-
pold. The portrait is somewhat simi-
lar to that of the pfennig values of the
birthday set this being enclosed by a
large wreath held on each side by cupids.
The dates "1886-1911" are shown on the
wreath and in the lower angles are the
figures "5" or "10" to denote the value.
The name "BAYERN" is shown on a
straight tablet between the figures. Each
value is printed in three colors and they
are somewhat extraordinary productions.
The background is black, the ribbons
binding the wreath are yellow, and the
rest of the design is green for the opf
and red for the lOpf. They have a
crude cheap-looking appearance that is
all the more marked on comparison
with the delicate workmanship charac-
terising the contemporary birthday
The stamps are said to have been in
use only a limited time. They were
printed on unwatermarked paper and
perf. lI l / 2 . These two labels conclude
Bavaria's philatelic history to date.
June, 1911, No. wmk. Perf
93. 5pf green, yellow and black, Scott's
94. lOpf carmine, yellow and black, Scott's
THE POSTAGE DUE STAMPS.
The first postage due stamps for
Bavaria were set up from ordinary
printer's type; the next issue was
printed from plates made by the stereo-
type process from "dies" set from type;
and since 1876 stamps of the Arms type,
printed in grey or greenish-grey, have
been overprinted for this purpose. All
are distinguished by the peculiar in-
scription "Vom Empfanger Zahlbar",
meaning "To be paid by the recipient",
which is quite different from that found
on the postage due stamps of any other
country. The first "set" consisted of
but one value 3 kreuzer and the issue
of this was announced by means of an
Official Notice dated September 22nd,
1862. This decree is of considerable
interest, as it explains in detail the
method of using the stamps, so we ap-
pend a translation supplied to Gibbons
Stamp Weekly by Dr. Erich Stenger:
Re the introduction of Postage Due
stamps for Unf ranked Local Cor-
IN THE NAME OF His MAJESTY
THE KING OF BAVARIA!
On the 1st October of the current
year the present system of marking
by hand the amount of duty to be
paid by the addressee on unfranked
local correspondence will cease, and
instead special Tax tokens (Postage
Due stamps) will come into use,
which must be affixed to the letter and
which alone give a right to demand a
tax on delivery.
1. All letters to be considered as
local correspondence which either:
(a) are to be delivered in the town
of the distributing office itself, or in
the Rural post district belonging
(b) are dispatched from a place
in the Rural post district to the post
town itself, or to another place in
the said Rural post district.
2. The stamps to be used for such
unfranked correspondence, instead of
marking the amount in writing, bear
the value 3kr (the single duty for de-
livery in the Local or Rural post dis-
trict), printed in black, on white
paper, with a red silk thread running
through it sideways.
For correspondence which exceeds
the weight payable by a single Tax
Stamp, as many Postage Due stamps
must be used to make up the amount
which pays for that weight according
to the tariff.
3. In the case of letters posted in
the post town the Postage Due stamps
shall be affixed by the distributing of-
ficer, in the case of letters handed to
the postman in the Rural post district
for delivery, by the postman; in all
cases on the side bearing the address,
after the manner of postage stamps.
Omission to use the stamps not only
gives every recipient of local corre-
spondence the right to refuse the de-
mand for payment, but will also be
followed by commensurate penal pro-
ceedings against the distributing offi-
cer or postman concerned.
4. The Postage Due stamps will be
issued to the post offices from the
Royal District Treasury in sheets of
ninety stamps, and the same regula-
tions hold good for their issue and
use as in the case of postage stamps.
5. For other unpaid correspond-
ence which, not being part of the local
deliveries, has to be dispatched from
the distributing office to another post
office, the method of marking the
amount of tax by hand remains
MUNICH, September 22nd, 1862.
DER K. VERKEHRS ANSTALTEN.
It will thus be seen from the forego-
ing notice that the stamps were purely
for local use and this system has re-
mained practically unaltered to the
present day. The stamps were printed
in black on white paper, and were is-
sued imperforate. The design is sim-
ple in the extreme. In the centre is a
large numeral "3" and in the rectangu-
lar frame around this we find "Bayer.
Posttaxe" (Bavarian Post Tax), at the
top; "Vom Empfanger Zahlbar", at the
bottom; and "3 kreuzer" reading up-
wards at the left, and downwards at
the right. All the inscriptions are in
Gothic lettering. As we have already
stated the design was set up from or-
dinary printer's type, the sheet consist-
ing of ninety stamps arranged in two
panes of forty-five each (five horizontal
rows of nine), placed one above the
other. A space equal to about half the
height of a stamp divides the panes and
between the vertical rows lengths of
printers' rule are inserted. The paper
was the silk-thread variety used for the
contemporary postage stamps but in
these labels it is horizontal instead of
vertical as in the postal issues. This is
due to the different arrangement of the
stamps the vertical rows of the Postage
Dues occupying about the same area as
the horizontal rows of the ordinary
Naturally, as the plate for this 3kr
stamp was set from type minor varie-
ties abound. The only one of particular
importance occurs on the fourth stamp
of the second row of the upper pane.
On this the final "r" of "Empfanger" is
omitted. This, as the catalogue quota-
tions indicate, is an exceedingly scarce
variety. Those of our readers who
wish to study this issue more deeply
cannot do better than refer to the ex-
cellent article in Gibbons Stamp Weekly
(Vol. XI, pages 492 and 588) by Dr.
We have already shown that the
use of the silk thread paper was dis-
continued, so far as the postage stamps
were concerned, about July, 1870, and
in its stead paper watermarked with
crossed diagonal lines was used. At
the same time perforation was intro-
duced. This change affected the Post-
age Due stamps in the following year
a Royal Proclamation, dated March 30th,
1871, announcing that new Ikr and 3kr
Postage Due stamps would be issued
and that they would be printed in black
on watermarked paper and be per-
forated like the contemporary postage
stamps. Like the stamps of the Arms
type they were printed in sheets of six-
ty divided into two panes of thirty each
(five rows of six) placed side by side.
It is evident one original die (probably
set up from type) served for both
values. The design is similar to that
of the first 3kr but with "Bayer" ab-
breviated to "Bayr" and with larger
lettering. The shape of the large num-
eral "3", too, is quite different from that
of the type-set variety. The matrix
die, consisting of frame only, formed
the foundation for the two necessary
subsiduary dies in which the large nu-
merals were inserted. From these suffi-
cient casts were taken in type-metal to
compose the printing plates. The same
perforating machine was used as was
employed to perforate the postage
stamps. The use of the 3kr value has
already been explained. The Ikr value
was introduced to denote the sum to
be paid by the recipient of certain offi-
cial letters which had not been prepaid.
While most official correspondence was
carried free certain official local cor-
respondence was subject to postage but
at a reduced fee, and it was for the
collection of deficient postage on the
latter that the Ikr stamp was necessary.
The change to the Imperial currency
of pfennige and marks in 1876 led to
the issue of new Postage Due labels.
In the Post-pfnce Notice of December,
1875, referring to the new postage
stamps the issue of new 3pf, 5pf, and
lOpf, Dues is also recorded. The lOpf
took the place of the 3kr and was for
use on unfranked private letters, while
the 3pf and 5pf were intended to indi-
cate the amount payable on unfranked
dutiable official correspondence. The
new stamps were formed by printing
the ordinary postage stamps in ^grey
and then overprinting them "Vom
Empfanger Zahlbar" in two lines in
red. They were, of course, like the
contemporary postage stamps printed
on the paper watermarked with zig-zag
lines set horizontally and wide apart.
In 1883 all three values appeared on
the paper watermarked with vertical
zig-zag lines close together, which had
been introduced for the ordinary
stamps about two years before. The
lOpf provides three errors in the over-
print viz. "Empfang", "Empfanper",
In 1889, again following the lead of
the postage stamps, we find the Postage
Due labels perforated 14 V and water-
marked horizontal zig-zag lines placed
close together. These, as a reference
to the history of the contemporary
.postage stamps will show, were printed
in sheets of 100. The 3pf of this series
is known with overprint inverted. In
July, 1895, it was reported that a 2pf
stamp was to be added to the set but
this was not actually issued until some
months later. The fear that this value
would not be ready in time led to the
issue of Bavaria's only provisional.
On September 4th a small quantity of
the 3pf value was surcharged in red
with a "2" in each corner. As this
variety is of some rarity its use must
have been very limited. Since 1895
Bavaria has issued nothing new in the
way of Postage Due stamps.
1862. Type-set. Silkthread in paper. Imperf.
95. 3kr black, Scott's No. 101.
1871. Typographed. Wmk. crossed lines.
Perl: Iiy 2 .
96. Ikr black, Scott's No. 102.
97. 3kr black, Scott's No. 103.
1876. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines wide
apart. Perf. 11^.
98. 3pf grey, Scott's No. 104.
99. 5pf grey, Scott's- No. 105.
100. lOpf grey, Scott's No. 106.
1883. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to-
gether. Perf. \\y z .
101. 3pf grey, Scott's No. 107.
102. 5pf "rey, Scott's No. 108.
103. lOpf grey, Scott's No. 109.
1888-95. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close
together. Perf. 14^.
104. "2" in red on 2pf grey, Scott's No. 114.
105 2pf grey, Scott's No. 110.
106 3pf grey, Scott's No. 111.
107 5pf grey, Scott's No. 112.
108 lOpf grey, Scott's No. 113.
RAILWAY OFFICIAL STAMPS.
The only official stamps issued by
the Kingdom of Bavaria is an unpre-
tentious set issued in 1908 for the use
of the Railway Department (Eisen-
bahn). This consisted of the con-
temporary 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 pfennig
postage stamps overprinted with a large
capital "E". The overprint is in green
on the lOpf and 50pf, and in red on the
other three values.
1908. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close
together. Perf. 14^.
109. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 201.
110. Tpf green, Scott's No. 202.
111. lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 203.
112. 2(>pf ultramarine, Scott's No. 204.
113. 50pf marone, Scott's No. 205.
RETURN LETTER STAMPS.
We cannot conclude this short history
of the postage stamps issued by the
Kingdom of Bavaria without making
some mention of the so-called Return
Letter stamps. These labels used to be
catalogued, are illustrated in some of
the older printed albums, and are fre-
quently found in collections and, conse-
quently, are often a source of mystifi-
cation to the tyro. These stamps are
not postage stamps in any sense of the
term but are labels which only relate
to the internal economy of the post-
office. We grant, however, that they
are at least as collectible as "officially
sealed" or the numbered labels used in
connection with registered letters in
many countries nowadays.
When letters were unable to be de-
livered they were sent to the chief
office of the postal district. In 1865
there were six of these offices;
viz. Augsburg, Bamberg, Miinchen
(Munich), Niirnberg, Speyer, and
Wiirzburg. The letters were opened to
discover the name of the sender and
then returned, these return letter labels
being used as seals to close the missives
with. The labels were all printed in
black on white paper and show the
Royal Arms within an oval inscribed
"COMMISSION FUR RETOUR-
BRIEFE" (Returned Letter Depart-
ment) and the name of the district
chief office. This oval was enclosed in
an upright rectangular frame with or-
namented spandrels. The labels were
printed by lithography in sheets of 84
and those for each office differ slightly
from the others, while for all, except
Bamberg, there were two or three
printings showing slight differences of
design. In the case of the labels for
Niirnberg two types exist on the same
Hiicf brief e
In 1869 Regensberg (Ratisbon) was
added to the list of head district offices
and was furnished with a label reading
"Retourbrief ( Kgl. Oberpostamt Re-
gensberg)" in three lines within a
single-lined oblong. This label was set
up from ordinary printer's type. These
labels, with various inscriptions, grad-
ually superseded the lithographed ones.
Most, if not all, were printed in sheets
of thirty and being set by hand there
are as many varieties as there are
stamps on the sheet. Little care was
exercised in their production and not
only may lettering of different sizes and
fonts be found on different stamps but
such glaring inaccuracies as "Rotour-
brief" for "Retourbrief", and "Oher-
postamt" for "Oberpostamt" are by no
In the early sixties one of the favorite
conundrums of the philatelic journals
of the period was "Where is JJerge-
dorf?" What little information was to
be found in gazeteers and similar works
of reference was of such a conflicting
nature that, but for the tangible evi-
dence of the postage stamps, one might
be pardoned for doubting its existence !
Even nowadays the student will find
little of note regarding Bergedorf in any
of the standard works of reference and
it is evident that its fame is due entirely
to its postage stamps. And though the
stamps themselves comprise but one
modest issue, which was in use for the
short period of six years, Bergedorf has
managed to attract plenty of notice.
Not only have several admirable articles
appeared in the philatelic press from
time to time, but the legitimacy of some
of its varieties have on more than one
occasion been the cause of heated argu-
ment. The most recent work on the
subject is from the pen of Dr. Georges
Brunei, an excellent translation of
which will be found in volumes X and
XI of the Postage Stamp.
Though early writers on the subject
could find only conflicting statements re-
garding the actual whereabouts of this
small territory a writer in the Stamp
Collectors' Magazine for March, 1863,
gives an historical survey of such inter-
est that we take the liberty of reproduc-
ing his notes in full.
"In 1387, the Semiramis of the North,
wearing already the crowns of Den-
mark and Norway, received that of
Sweden. Albert, the deposed and im-
prisoned king, was recognized only by
the island of Gottland and the city of
Holmia, the then capital. John of Meck-
lenberg, his father-in-law, was besieged
in that city; and the magistrates of
Rostock and Wismar issued an edict, al-
lowing all pirates and predatory
brigands, who should attack and capture
any sea or land convoy appertaining to
the queen's party, free access to their
ports, and ready means for disposal of
plunder. The numerous predatory bands
of that lawless period, glad of any ex-
cuse for exercising their profession,
plundered the villages, and under the
pretext of revictualling (ravitailler}
Holmia, called themselves Vitalicns, or
"After this war ceased, the Vitaliens,
satisfied with their lucrative calling,
were by no means inclined to resign
it; and the people of Rostock and Wis-
mar, who had made peace with the
queen, finding it impossible to lay the
fiend they had raised, unified with Ham-
burg and the other Hanseatic towns,
in occasional crusades against their for-
mer allies. This desultory hostility con-
tinued some years ; and, in 1410, Ham-
burg, Lubeck, and Bremen obtained an
undertaking from the Counts of Olden-
burg, who doubtless had private reasons
satisfactory to themselves in the shape
of tribute-money for their patronage
to withdraw the protection hitherto af-
forded the Vitaliens. These latter were
by no means disposed to succumb, and
allied themselves with other brigands,
then known under the designation of
choenapans and filibusters.
"As the cave of Adullam, ages be-
fore, afforded refuge to everyone that
was distressed, or in debt, or discon-
tented, so, among other strongholds of
the period under notice, did the castle of
Bergedorf, which now makes its appear-
ance on the scene. This was peculiarly
adapted to the romantic purposes of a
robber's den ; possessing a subterranean
passage leading from its vaults, with an
outlet at a considerable distance in the
forest. Thence the marauders issuing,
set upon and plundered travelling mer-
chants and others; and, if not satisfied
with the booty obtained from their per-
sons, blindfolded, and bore them off to
the dungeons of Bergedorf, till they
could procure ransom from their friends.
They were supposed to be privately pro-
tected by Duke Henry of Saxony under
whose jurisdiction their retreat then was
for reasons, most probably pretty
weighty, best known to himself; as he
never exerted his influence to quell the
nuisance, notwithstanding repeated peti-
tions were addressed him by the authori-
ties of the surrounding cities.
"At length the Burgomasters of Ham-
burg and Lubeck, with two thousand
foot, and eight hundred horse, and a
crowd of volunteer citizens, made a reg-
gular attack on the town of Bergedorf;
which, yielding after a brief resistance,
was pillaged and burnt. The brigands,
however, retreated to the castle, which
was strong enough to withstand for
some days the arquebuses and cannons of
that time. On the fifth day the be-
siegers collected and fired a quantity of
combustibles the stifling smoke of which,
compelling the defenders to retire from
the walls and windows, enabled them to
make an escalade, and the garrison sur-
rendered on condition of being allowed
to depart with whole skins. In 1430 it
was agreed that the Duke of Saxony
should abandon forever, to the towns of
Lubeck and Hamburg, the castle of Ber-
gedorf, with its appanages; and for more
than four hundred years has it remained
under the joint protection of those
cities, each claiming the alternate nomi-
nation of a bailiff, or governor of sena-
torial rank at first appointed for four,
afterwards for six years and supply-
ing an equal number of soldiers to gar-
rison the castle."
Hamburg purchased the exclusive own-
ership of Bergedorf on August 8th, 1867,
the price paid being 200,000 thalers
about $150,000 in United States cur-
The midget territory of Bergedorf
has an area of about 50 square miles
and is situated to the south-east of
Hamburg. Its boundaries are the rivers
Elbe and Bille and the tributaries of the
former cut it up into several detached
portions. The chief town, Bergedorf, has
about 10,000 inhabitants while the par-
ish of Geestacht, adjoining, and the vil-
lages of Neuengramm, Altengramm,
Kirchwarder, and Kurslach muster be-
tween them about another 10,000. The
villages are known as the Vierlande
(four lands) from the fact that each is
on an islet. The soil is fertile and mar-
ket gardening forms the chief industry.
Hamburg forms the principal market
for the produce.
According to some writers the postal
history of Bergedorf dates from 1837
when, it is said, a Prussian post-office
was established. Though the veracity of
this statement has been questioned
there seems no doubt that a post-office
under the joint administration of Lu-
beck and Hamburg was established in
1847. The two larger cities joined the
German-Austrian Postal Union in Jan-
uary, 1852, but no immediate provision
was made for the issue of postage
stamps as stipulated in one of the regu-
lations of the Union. In fact it was not
until January 1st, 1859, that Hamburg
and Lubeck issued stamps and shortly
after these labels appeared letters posted
in the Bergedorf district were required
to be prepaid with Hamburg stamps. Be-
fore long Bergedorf began to agitate for
stamps of its own and though the Post-
master, Herr Paalzow, did his best by
both writing to and interviewing the
higher officials his efforts were not im-
mediately successful. Herr Paalzow's
most interesting effort took the form of
a lengthy document, dated July 25th,
1859, in which he made definite pro-
posals for certain values, to be executed
in a certain way, with estimate of costs.
We make a short extract from this docu-
In accordance with the tariff of lo-
cal postal rates, five denominations of
stamps would be necessary for Berge-
dorf, of the following values:
(a) */ 2 schilling
(b) 1 schilling
(c) \y 2 schilling
(d) 3 schilling
(e) 4 schilling
The cost of manufacture by Ch.
Fuchs, of Hamburg, including printing,
paper, and gumming, for lithographed
stamps, like those introduced at Lu-
beck, with the arms of the two towns,
would amount :
For (a) to 3sch per thousand
For (b) to 4sch per thousand
For (c) to 4^sch per thousand
For (d) to 5sch per thousand
For (e) to 7^sch per thousand
In addition the stone which would
belong to us, once and for all, 20
thalers cost price.
Herr Fuchs agrees, in the final
manufacture of the stamps, to submit
to any supervision and to be respon-
sible for all damage which might hap-
pen through the fault or neglect of his
firm or his employees. With regard to
the sale of stamps, it could eventually
be decided that this could be done dur-
ing office hours at all the post-offices.
on payment of their face value, but
that the selling of postage stamps
should be absolutely forbidden, in the
whole territory of the two free towns,
to all private persons.
With regard to their use, I would
suggest that articles sent by mail can
be prepaid by means of postage stamps
but that for articles addressed to places
within the Royal Danish domains, now
as before, only the Royal Danish
stamps may be used.
Herr Paalzow also submitted an en-
graving of a design he considered' suit-
able. This showed the joint Arms of
Lubeck and Hamburg on a central circle
with "SCHILLINGE" above, "BERGE-
DORF POSTMARKE" below. "LH
PA" in the lower angles, and large num-
erals in the upper corners. Though this
design was not adopted when it was
eventually decided to issue stamps there
is no doubt it formed the inspiration for
the chosen drawing. The essay was ap-
parently printed in vertical strips of five
in black on paper of various colors.
In the quotation from Herr Paal-
zow's document mention is made of a
Danish Post-office. When this was es-
tablished is uncertain but it was in ac-
tive operation long before Bergedorf was
supplied with its own stamps and also
continued in business for some time
afterwards. This office dealt with all
correspondence addressed to Denmark,
Luxemberg, Oldenburg and Schleswig-
Holstein, the stamps used being those of
Two years passed and then in June,
1861, a convention was held to discuss the
matter, the outcome being that Berge-
dorf was allowed to issue its own stomps.
Whether the designs prepared by Herr
Ch. Fuchs were shown at this conven-
tion or not is a doubtful point but at
any rate his designs were adopted and
in October the general public were noti-
fied of the forthcoming issue of stamps
by means of the following:
NOTICE To THE PUBLIC.
From the 1st November of the pres-
ent year (1861) all letters posted at
the post offices of this town, to be sent
to Geestacht, to the office of despatch
of the district to Vierland, as well as
to Bill, to Oschenwerder, Spadenlemd,
and Moorwerder, can be prepaid,
either by making payment in cash, or
by means of postage stamps. The
postage stamps, for the said period,
will include the following values:
J^sch currency on blue paper, printed
Isch currency on white paper, printed
IJ^sch currency on yellow paper,
printed in black.
3sch currency on red paper, printed in
4sch currency on buff paper, printed
Each postage stamp bears in the
centre the postal arms of Lubeck and
Hamburg linked together on a wavy
ground. The arms are surrounded by
a band above which in the upper cor-
ners are the letters L H, and in the
lower ones the letters P A. In addi-
tion, there is in the upper frame of the
stamps the word Bergedorf; in the
lower frame, the word Postmarke ; the
value in figures is in the four corners,
and in words at the two sides. The
back is covered with the necessary gum
for placing them upon the letters.
Bergedorf, the 17th October, 1861.
The Director of Posts,
( Signed ) PAALZOW,
Director of Imperial Posts, for-
merly Postmaster of the Lubeck-
Hamburg Office at Bergedorf.
The letters "L H P A" shown in the
spandrels stand for "Lubeck Hamburg
Post Ansaalt (Post Office)." The cur-
rency was the same as that of Hamburg
and Lubeck, being in schillinge and Ham-
burg marks, 16sch being equivalent to
a mark of the value of 25c United States
currency. The stamps are the most pe-
culiar ever issued in one respect they
gradually increase in size according to
the facial values, the lowest denomina-
tion measuring 15^x15^ .mm. and the
highest one 21^x21 mm.
The stamps were produced by litho-
graphy by Herr Christian Fuchs of
Hamburg. One type for each of the
five values was drawn on the same lith-
ographic stone and from these the
transfers necessary to make the print-
ing stones were taken. On this "die
stone", if we may so call it, the IJ^sch
is inscribed "SCHILLINGE" though,
as we shall show later, this value was
never issued with the value spelled with
a final "E." On the same stone an es-
say for a 4sch stamp is shown. This
has the usual combined Lubeck-Ham-
burg Arms in the centre and "L H P
A" in the spandrels. The name "BER-
GEDORF," however, is placed just be-
low the Arms and the border is in-
scribed "SCHILLING" on all four
sides. Numerals "4" occupy the cor-
ners and the whole design is much more
delicate than the issued one. This es-
say was prepared about 1866 when the
authorities proposed to change the de-
sign of the 4sch as it was believed this
denomination had been forged in Ham-
burg. The change of design, however,
was abandoned owing to the war which
broke out at this time between Prussia
and Austria. Proofs from this "die
stone" are known in at least eight dif-
In the official document relating to
the issue of the stamps, previously
quoted, no mention will be found of the
y 2 schilling in black on pale lilac paper,
and the 3 schillinge in black on rose
colored paper. These two varieties are
of a considerable degree of rarity, as a
reference to any catalogue quotations
will prove, and much controversy has
raged as to their status. Writing with
regard to them many years ago Mr.
Duerst stated: "The genuineness of
these two stamps is open to doubt.
These colors were not given in the offi-
cial decree promulgating the issue of
the stamps, and were only described
and catalogued after the cessation of
the Bergedorf post."
On the other hand M. Moens was a
strenuous believer in the legitimacy of
these varieties and as evidence that
they were issued published a letter he
had received from the Director of Posts
March 29th, 1878.
Mv dear Friend,
There has been published no official
information on the subject of the is-
sue, rather by way of trial, of the old
Y 2 schilling and 3 schillinge stamps,
with which we were concerned a little
time ago, because it was immediately
realised that the colours would have
to be changed, these colours being
difficult to recognize by artificial
The pourparlers and discussions on
this point were never exchanged di-
rectly between the Bergedorf authori-
ties and myself, and were mostly car-
ried on verbally, which shows that
there can be no documents on this
With kind regards,
From this letter one would infer that
the stamps were in use for some days
at any rate though no cancelled copies
are known or have ever been heard of.
Evidently M. Mocns misconstrued the
meaning of Herr Paalzow's letter for
an unbiased study of both sides of the
question shows the improbability of any
varieties other than those mentioned in
the official notice having been used.
The final quietus as to the right of
these varieties to be considered issued
stamps was given by Herr Paalzow's
son in an interesting article which ap-
peared in 1898 in the Virginia Phila-
telist. Herr Paalzow, Jr., states most
emphatically that the J^sch black on
lilac and 3sch black on rose were not is-
sued. He explains their existence as
follows : a sheet of each value was
printed and submitted for approval to
the administration. The colors of the
1, ~\. l /2, and 4sch were approved and
those of the l / 2 and 3sch were rejected.
The printer was then ordered to print
the ^sch in black on blue paper, and
the 3sch in blue on rose paper. Herr
Paalzow asserts that his father's letter,
written in German, did not convey the
meaning construed by M. Moens that
they were issued in a postal sense, but
rather that they had been made as
proofs or experiments.
These "stamps" are therefore only es-
says though we are perfectly willing to
concede they are rare essays and real-
ly have no right in a catalogue of is-
sued postage stamps.
On January 1st, 1901, all the docu-
ments bearing on the dual ownership of
Bergedorf by Lubeck and Hamburg and
lying in the archives at Lubeck were
transferred to Hamburg. While sort-
ing the various papers a block of twelve
of each of these essays was found with
the documents relating to the issue of
postage stamps. Beyond, however, prov-
ing that they were officially prepared
a fact that has never been disputed the
discovery of these stamps threw no fur-
ther light on their status.
THE l / 2 SCHILLING.
The y 2 schilling has the value in-
scribed as "EIN HALBER" in the left
border and, as we have already stated,
measures 15J4 mm. square. This value
was printed in black on blue paper and
it is the only one in which any color
variation is noticeable. The paper chosen
was of a pale blue tint but during the
process of printing this paper ran out of
stock and the additional supply obtained
was of a much deeper tint.
This value was printed in sheets of
200 divided into two panes of 100 each
and arranged in rather a curious man-
ner. From the design on the original
"die stone" the workman took twelve
transfers which he arranged in a block
in two vertical rows of six each. This
block was then transferred to the litho-
graphic stone sixteen times and the eight
additional impressions required to com-
plete the sheet of 200 were added to the
base as shown in the annexed diagram:
rH co o r- cirH
rH CO O .t~ C5 r- I rH CO O t Oi r- It
It would hardly be possible to identify
each of the twelve varieties composing
the transfer block though numbers 1, 2,
3 and 10 may be distinguished by small
Much has been made of the so-called
secret marks of the stamps of Bergedorf.
They are really guide dots made by the
lithographer to assist him in the correct
drawing of his designs. But though ac-
cidental varieties, inasmuch as they were
not intended to form a part of the origi-
nal designs, they are of considerable
importance to philatelists for they are
a valuable test in distinguishing the
original stamps from the "reprints."
The mark for the ^sch consists of a
small dot in the linked circle under the
second E of BERGEDORF. Dr. Brunei
states that there is also a small line,
shaped like a harpoon, between the wing
and leg of the eagle, and that on most
copies the link opposite the A of HAL-
BER is cut by a small line.
The total number printed was 200,000
(a thousand sheets) and of these about
161,000 were sold during the time they
were current. The stamps became obso-
lete on January 1st, 1868, and a few
months later the remainders were of-
fered for sale. These were purchased
by M. Moens for the sum of one thou-
sand francs ($200) and among the lot
were approximately 39,000 of the
ment of the sheet was, therefore, as
THE 1 SCHILLING.
The value on the 1 schilling was de-
noted by the word "EIN" in the left
border, and as this word was rather
short the spaces on each side were filled
with small ornaments. The design
measures exactly 16 mm. square. This
value was printed in black on white pa-
per in sheets of 200. A block of ten
transfers was taken from the original
die, and arranged in two vertical rows
of five. As the corner numerals in the
original drawing were considered too
thick and clumsy they were removed
before making the transfers. The work-
man then had to draw in the whole of
the forty numerals by hand so that small
differences may be found. From this
block of transfers the lithographic stone
was made, the block being transferred
twentv times. The stamps were ar-
ranged in two panes of one hundred
each placed one above the other and
separated by a space of about 2 mm.
For some reason best known to himself
the workman inverted all the stamps in
the lower pane so that each sheet pro-
vides ten tete beche pairs. The arrange-
9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10
OT 6 01 6 01 6 01 6 01 6
2 I 2 I
Ot 6 01 6
8 I 8 I
9 Q 9 S
8 t 8
T 2 T
01 6 01 6
t 8 * 8
There are three secret marks for this
value; a dot on the small circle below
the second E of BERGEDORF, another
below the I of EIN, and another above
the first L of SCHILLING. A further
peculiarity of this value is the fact that
the first two letters of POSTMARKE
are always joined. Of the ten impressions
forming the transfer block numbers 1,
2, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 can be identified by
Altogether 90,000 of the Isch were
printed. Of these 64,000 were sold
during the period of their currency,
leaving a balance of 26,000 in the re-
mainders sold to M. Moens.
THE \y 2 SCHILLING.
The value on this stamp was denoted
by the inscription "EIN u. EIN
HALB." in the left border, the design
measuring 17^4 mm. square. In the
original design the l^sch is inscribed
"SCHILLINGE" and though it seems
certain that a stone was prepared from
this and a number of sheets printed
these stamps were never issued and can
only be considered as essays. The
spelling was objected to and the litho-
grapher had to make a new stone. Dr.
Brunei says "At one time he thought
of re-drawing the whole stamp, but he
soon gave up that idea and contented
himself with making up a fresh setting,
the final E being simply erased." This
can, however, hardly have been the case
or there would have been a space be-
tween the G and the end of the tablet.
As a matter of fact the word is proper-
ly centered in the border and it is evi-
dent an impression was taken from the
original die, the offending word erased,
and SCHILLING drawn in its place.
From this secondary "die" the block of
transfers used in making the printing
stone was laid down. Writing some
years ago on the subject Mr. Duerst
stated "The first issue contained all
with the error SCHILLINGS, and
gradually this was altered to SCHIL-
LING by entirely erasing the word and
inserting SCHILLING. As a conse-
quence blocks with both ways of spell-
ing can be found as well as whole
sheets without the error SCHIL-
LINGE." This is manifestly inaccu-
rate, for had the alteration been
effected in this manner all sorts of
varieties in the lettering of SCHIL-
LING would exist.
A block of twelve transfers, ar-
ranged in two vertical rows of six each,
was used in making the lithographic
stone. The sheets consisted of 200
stamps in two panes of 100, placed one
above the other, and this necessitated
an even more curious arrangement than
we have already referred to in the case
of the y 2 sch. The block of twelve was
transferred eight times for each pane
and the additional four stamps were
added to the ends of the middle rows.
The arrangement of each pane was,
therefore, as follows :
9 10 9 10
2 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12
9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10
11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12
The additional stamps were all in-
verted in relation to the others so we
find eight tete-beche pairs in each sheet.
The secret marks consist of a dot in
the link under the second E of BERGE-
DORF, and another in the link over the
first L of SCHILLING. Of the twelve
impressions forming the transfer block
only No. 7 seems to provide a mark by
means of which it can be identified.
Of this denomination 100,000 were
printed and as only 32,000 were sold
while the issue was in use the re-
mainders handed over to M. Moens
consisted of no less than 68,000.
THE 3 SCHILLINGS.
The 3 schilling, inscribed "DRIE,"
was printed in blue on rose colored
paper, the design measuring 19J4 by
19% mm. This value was printed in
sheets of 160 in sixteen rows of ten. A
block of ten transfers was made from
the original design these being arranged
in two horizontal rows of five each,
This block was, therefore, transferred
sixteen times to complete the stone,
there being two vertical rows of these
blocks. The upper block of eight trans-
fers (80 stamps) was divided from the
lower one by a space of about 4 mm.
so the sheets are really in two panes
placed one above the other.
The secret marks consist of a dot in
the link above the second L of
SCHILLINGS, a small dot on the out-
er frame under the same letter, an
oblique line projecting from the top
frame above the second E of BERGE-
DORF, and a dot on the frame line
under the M of POSTMARKE.
Altogether 80,000 of these stamps
were printed of which about 37,000 were
sold during the period of their cur-
rency and the balance of 43,000 was in-
cluded in the parcel of remainders pur-
chased by M. Moens.
THE 4 SCHILLINGE.
The value on the 4sch was expressed
by the word "VIER," the design
measuring 21^ by 21 mm. These
stamps were printed in black on brown
paper in sheets of eighty arranged in
ten rows of eight. The transfer block
used in making the lithographic stone
consisted of eight impressions in two
horizontal rows of four each These
were arranged in the sheet as follows:
There was a space of 5 mm. between
the fifth and sixth rows dividing the
stamps into two panes of forty each
As this division comes in the center of
the two middle blocks of transfers it is
possible that in these two rows the
group was broken and the two rows
placed horizontally so that the types
This, however, could only be proved
by finding a mark of identification on
one or more of the impressions in the
group of transfers.
The secret marks for this value con-
sist of a projection of the vertical line
on the left of the P of POSTMARKS
through the lower frame, and an irreg-
ularity in the wavy lines of the back-
ground above and to the left of the
tower. One of these lines does not
continue downwards like the others, but
turns back close to the tower thus
showing a break.
Altogether 80,000 of the 4sch stamps
were printed, 30,000 being sold while the
issue was current and the balance of
50,000 going to M. Moens with the rest
of the remainders.
Although there were considerably
more of the l^sch in the remainders
than 3sch or 4sch yet the two latter
values are priced a little less in the
Owing to the number of remainders
genuine originals are still obtainable
in unused condition at quite low prices.
Used, however, the stamps are all very
1861. Lithographed. Imperf.
1 ^sch black on blue, Scott's No. 3 or 3a.
2. Isch black on white, Scott's No. 4.
3. l l / 2 black on ydlow, Scott's No. 5.
4. 3sch blue on rose, Scott s No. b.
5. 4sch black on brown, Scott s No. 7.
In detailing the various values we
have given the total quantities printed
and an important point to bear in mind
is that all these were printed at the
same time, that is, there was only one
printing of each value. This was due
to the fact that only one lithographic
stone was purchased and as soon as
the supply of one value was printed
the stone was cleaned and the impres-
sions for another denomination were
transferred. It will thus be under-
stood that reprints do not exist, the so-
called "reprints" being nothing better
than imitations printed from new stones
though the original "dies" were cer-
tainly used. Of the many imitations
made only two were made by the Ber-
gedorf authorities themselves. In May
1867 M. Moens sent an order for twelve
sheets of each of the ^sch and 3sch
values in the colors of the rare essays.
As the group of transfers used in laying
down the original stone was non-exist-
ent fresh ones had to be made The
i^sch was transferred in blocks oi
eight and the 3sch in blocks of sixteen.
The sheets were of the same size as the
originals so that the total supply of
these imitations was 2,400 of the ^scn
and 1,920 of the 3sch. The impression
of the ^sch is less sharp than that of
the originals and the cross stroke of the
H of SCHILLING is either very in-
distinct or missing altogether. The
imitations of the 3sch may be at once
distinguished by the presence of two
small dots on the center of the b ol
POSTMARKS, dots which do not
show in the genuine labels.
When M. Moens purchased the re-
mainders the "die stone" also became
his property and he caused new stones
to be made from these from which he
made printings on four different occa-
sions. Although these are usually des-
ignated as reprints they are nothing
better than unofficial imitations for, as
we have already shown, the original
stones were not available. It appears
that Moens had disposed of the entire
stock of remainders by 1872 and as the
demand was still good he decided to
make imitations. Further supplies were
made in 1874, 1887, and 1888. We
think it hardly necessary to follow L>r.
Brunei's extensive survey of the man-
ner in which the stones were made up
for the various printings; specialists
who are interested should refer to the
article in the "Postage Stamp" men-
tioned in our introductory notes. It
will suffice for our purpose to point
out the little peculiarities by which these
imitations can be told from the genuine
stamps. To start with the 1^2 schilling
was never imitated for, as the original
design on the "die stone" bore the spell-
ing "SCHILLINGE" all the imita-
tions show the same "error." Speak-
ing generally the impressions of all
values are less sharp than those of the
originals and the shades of the papers
are not the same.
The first imitations of the ^sch,
made in 1872, measure 15 by 15^ mm.
The H of SCHILLING is always minus
the cross bar and one (sometimes
both) of the A's in the inscription are
also without the cross stroke. In the
second supply, made in 1887, the labels
measure 15J/2 mm. square. None of
the letters A have bars and the bar on
the H is either missing or very indis-
In the first edition of the Isch (1872)
the numerals in the corners are quite
different from those on the originals
and generally have erifs at foot. They
measure 16 mm. square like the origi-
nals. In the second imitation (1887)
the numerals are all much too thick
being 1 mm. wide instead of the ^ mm.
of the originals. The size of the label
is 16J/2 by 1634 mm. and none of the
letters A are provided with a cross
bar. In the third supply (1888) the cor-
ner numerals are thin but this imita-
tion can " be at once identified by the
background which has almost entirely
The first imitation of the 3sch (1872)
measures 19% by 19^ mm. and can be
at once distinguished by the absence of
shading on the head of the eagle. The
second issue (1887) can be identified by
the same characteristic and the size of
the labels is also different the measure-
ments being 19% by 20 mm. The up-
per part of the shield is solid and the
lines of the background are hardly
visible. The third issue (1888) may
also be distinguished from the originals
by the worn background and the ab-
sence of shading on the eagle's head.
The first imitation of the 4sch, made
in 1872, can be told by the presence of
a short line slanting upwards in the
circle opposite the I of VIER. The
wavy lines of the background, too, are
regular by the top of the tower and the
labels measure 21 by 20% mm. A sec-
ond supply was printed in 1874 these
being distinguished by a vertical line
on the head of the eagle and numerous
breaks in the wavy lines of the back-
ground. In the third supply, made in
1887, the oblique line by the I of VIER
again appears. The letters of BERGE-
DORF are very irregular and the back-
ground is very rough. These imitations
measure 21% by 21 y 2 mm.
Moens also possessed the original
obliterating stamp so that he was able
to oblige with "used" imitations if de-
sired. In 1895 this obliterator together
with the "die stone" was sold to the
Berlin Post Office Museum so that
fear of any further imitations is ob-
A number of counterfeits have also
been made from time to time some of
these dating from so long ago as 1864.
A comparison of any doubtful speci-
mens with the "secret marks" of the
originals and the foregoing description
of the imitations should enable any
collector to decide for himself what
The town of Bremen owes its origin
to a bishopric founded in 788 by Charle-
magne. Tiring of the episcopal yoke it
joined the Hanseatic league in the thir-
teenth century, this league being a con-
federation of German towns founded
for mutual protection and for the pro-
motion of commercial advantages.
Bremen seems to have been a somewhat
troublesome member of the league for
it was several times expelled and read-
mitted. By the sixteenth century it
was in a highly prosperous condition
and despite numerous vicissitudes since
it has retained its prosperity. Bremen
is situated at the mouth of the Weser
and embraces within its boundaries two
other towns Bremerhaven and Vege-
sack. Its modern commercial prosperi-
ty dates from the founding of Bremer-
haven in 1830, this port being only sec-
ond to Hamburg. It is one of the ship-
owning ports of Germany and has a
mercantile fleet of over 600 vessels
(with a tonnage in excess of 700,000)
including the fleet of the North Ger-
man Lloyd, whose headquarters are
here. Its most striking edifice is the
cathedral, dating from the llth century,
and the town hall is also an imposing
structure. It has many important in-
dustries and at the present time its
population numbers about 170,000.
The town of Bremen is the capital of
the free state of that name, a state hav-
ing an area of 99 square miles and a popu-
lation of about 230,000. It sends one
representative to the Imperial Diet and
has one vote in the Imperial Council.
The state forms a democratic republic
governed by a senate of sixteen elected
members (the excutive) presided over
by two burgomasters elected for four
years, and an assembly of 150 citizens
(the legislative). In 1810 it was an-
nexed by France, but three years later
recovered its independence and joined
the Germanic Confederation, subsequent-
ly the North German Confederation, and
finally was merged in the German
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
The philatelic history of Bremen is
short and uneventful. Its few stamps
have, seemingly, never been so exten-
sively written of as, for instance, those
of Bergedorf though they are full of in-
terest and much still remains to be dis-
covered regarding the make-up of the
sheets, the dates of issue of the many
pronounced shades, etc. Though the
second in importance of the three Han-
seatic towns of Hamburg, Bremen, and
Lubeck, Bremen was the first to employ
postage stamps. Its first stamp was
issued on April 10th, 1855 and was pure-
ly for local use. In 1856 a 5gr stamp
was issued for use on letters to Ham-
burg; in 1860 a 7gr stamp appeared this
being intended for prepayment of the
rate to Lubeck and Mecklenburg-
Schwerin; and in the following year a
5sgr value was issued for prepayment of
the ship-rate on letters to England.
Shortly afterwards a lOgr label made
its appearance, this being to prepay the
single letter rate to Holland. This
value was rouletted and in the follow-
ing year new supplies of the denomina-
tions already referred to were also
issued in this condition instead of im-
perf. as previously. In 1863 a reduction
in the local rate made a 2gr stamp
necessary and while no new values ap-
peared all were issued in 1867 perfo-
rated. On January 1st, 1868, Bremen
joined the North German Confedera-
tion and its special stamps were retired
in favor of the set for general use with-
in the Confederation. It will be noted
from foregoing notes that all the stamps
of Bremen were issued for local use or
for some special purpose. What we
may term outside correspondence was
forwarded through post-offices estab-
lished in the town by Hanover, Prussia,
and Thurn and Taxis, the stamps of
those offices being used.
The different currencies in use in
Germany at that date must have caused
considerable confusion, and that of Bre-
men appears to have been distinct from
all the others. Though the reichsthaler,
or < thaler, was the standard coin over
part of Northern Germany, it was split
up into 72 grote in Bremen, and into 24
gutegroschen of 12 pfennige each in
Brunswick and Hanover. Eleven grote
was considered equivalent to 5 silber-
groschen of Prussia so that the stamp of
lowest denomination, the 2 grote, was
worth a little less than 1 silbergroschen.
The reichsthaler was worth about 78c at
that period so that 1 grote was equiva-
lent to a fraction over Ic.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
The first stamp was issued on April
10th, 1855, its facial value being 3 grote
and it was intended for franking letters
within the town, including Bremerhaven
and Vegesack. The stamps were litho-
graphed in Bremen, the design showing
the Arms (a key) on a shield sur-
mounted by a crown, with "STADT
POST AMT." (town post administra-
tion) above, and "BREMEN" below. On
each side of the shield is a large numeral
"3", in shaded figures within an oval,
richly ornamented with scroll work, and
in each of the angles is a small un-
colored "3" on a solid colored ground.
The key is emblematic of the indepen-
dence of the once free city for as Mr.
Overy Taylor wrote in the Stamp Col-
lector's Magazine (vol. IX p. 164) : "The
Bremen burgesses kept the key of their
own door, instead of giving it into the
custody of some neighbouring potentate,
and knew how to maintain their inde-
pendence long after other equally im-
portant towns had succumbed."
The stamps were printed in black on
dull greyish-blue paper of moderate
thickness, gummed with a white gum
thinly applied. The paper is laid and
the laid lines may be found running
both horizontally or vertically, the lat-
ter being a little the rarer unused and
much rarer used.
This 3 grote stamp was, as we have
already stated, produced by lithography.
Three drawings were made of the de-
sign each differing in small particulars
from the others. These three types ap-
pear side by side repeated throughout
the sheet, which consisted of twelve hori-
zontal rows of six stamps each as fol-
The face value of an entire sheet was,
therefore, exactly three reichsthalers.
There are a number of small differences
distinguishing the three types but the
following should suffice to identify them :
Type I. The central loop of the orna-
ment below "BREMEN" has a single
line drawn vertically through it.
Type II. Two vertical lines are
drawn through the loop.
Type III. Three vertical lines now
appear and the loop is open instead of
closed as in the other two types.
All three types are found with and
without a broken line under the inscrip-
tion "STADT POST AMT." These
stamps, in common with all others issued
subsequently in Bremen, were manufac-
tured by the Hunkel Lithographic Com-
pany, of Bremen.
1855. Lithographed. Laid paper. Imperf.
1. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 1.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
The next stamp to appear was the 5
grote, which was created to prepay the
single letter rate to Hamburg. This
value was issued on April 4th, 1856, and
was also lithographed. The single let-
ter weight at that time was one loth
or ounce so that the charge (over 5c)
seems high for sending a letter to such
a nearby city; and all the more so when
it is considered that the Thurn and
Taxis office only charged 3 grote for
carrying a letter from Bremen to
Munich over six times the distance.
The design shows the Arms on a
shield in the centre surmounted by a
crown, with "France Marke" (frank
stamp) on a scroll above and the value
"fiinf Grote" on a scroll below. On each
side of the shield is a numeral "5" in an
oval frame, with scroll ornaments. The
whole is on a rectangular ground of zig-
zag lines running horizontally, the rec-
tangle having indented angles in which
are small ornaments. There were two
drawings of the design, differing in
small particulars, and the transfers were
applied to the lithographic stone in pairs.
The size of the sheet is, however, a mat-
ter regarding which we can find no in-
formation. The two types may be most
readily distinguished by the disposition
of the zig-zag lines of the background.
In type I the lines immediately to the
left of the word "fiinf" are V shaped,
and there are eleven zig-zags at the bot-
tom of the design with about half of
another at each end. In type II the
lines to the left of "fiinf" slope down-
wards and there are exactly 11^4 zig-
zags at the foot of the design. There
are thin vertical and horizontal dividing
lines between all the stamps on a sheet
an4 in each corner, outside the design,
in a line with the middle of the three
projections, is a small dot.
Both types exist with the second word
of the upper inscription reading "Mar-
ken" but these varieties, prepared in er-
ror, were never issued. They are quite
common for a large quantity was in-
cluded with the remainders sold in 1868.
1856. Lithographed. Imperf.
2. ogr black on rose, Scott's No. 2.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
It was not until July 10th, 1860, that
another value was issued. This was the
7 grote issued for defraying the rate
of postage to Lubeck and Mecklenburg-
Schwerin. Correspondence in this di-
rection could not have been very large
for the 7gr used is a very scarce variety.
The design is very similar to that of the
5gr with the value at base expressed as
"Sieben Grote." There is but one type
of this value and, like the 5gr, there are
dividing lines between the stamps on
the sheet. A small mark, evidently
quite accidental in origin though it was
at one time dignified by the term "secret-
dot," appears on all the genuine stamps.
This is a small colored dot which ap-
pears just below the center of the up-
right stroke of the "k" of "Marke."
I860. Lithographed. Imperf.
3. 7gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 3.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
On December 13th, 1861, a stamp of
5sgr was issued to prepay the ship rate
to Great Britain. In design, color, and
workmanship this is certainly the best
of all the Bremen issues. In the center
is the usual key (but without the crown)
on an oval of solid color with a richly
ornamented border. The rectangular
frame, which is also very ornate, con-
tains the name "BREMEN" at the top,
and the value "5 Sgr" at the base be-
tween small circles containing the
Roman number "V". There is only one
type of this stamp. Why the value was
expressed as 5 silbergroschen instead of
11 grote it is difficult to say. The sil-
bergroschen was not a Bremen coin
but the term may have been used because
this was the Prussian and Hanoverian
rate to England. This value is found in
several distinct shades of green and, un-
used, is commonest on thick paper.
1861. Lithographed. Imperf.
4. 5sgr green, Scott's Nos. 4 or 4a.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
On the same day that the 5sgr stamp
was issued a 10 grote stamp was placed
in circulation for prepayment of the
single letter rate to the Netherlands.
This stamp was lithographed in black on
white wove paper, the design showing
the "key" on a vertically lined oval with-
in a double framing, the inner one resem-
bling engine turned work, and the outer
one, containing the inscriptions, being
composed of lines crossing each other
diagonally, the frame making an irregu-
larly shaped oval. The inscriptions con-
sist of "BREMEN" in the upper part
and "ZEHN GROTE" in the lower.
In each of the four angles are the
numerals "10" on small flat ovals of
solid color. It is interesting to note
that in all genuine specimens there is an
error of engraving in the upper left
corner, the lines of the ground of the
outer frame extending over the exterior
white lines of the frame. It is curious
that this stamp is not known imperfor-
ate, though issued on the same day as
the 5sgr, but was rouletted in the style
known as perces en scie, which made
incisions something like the teeth of a
saw in shape, gauging 16. There was
only one type for this value and the
stamps had dividing lines between them
on the sheet.
1861. Lithographed. Perces en scie 16.
5. lOgr black, Scott's No. 7.
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
In 1862 the 3gr, 5gr and 5sgr were issued
with the perces en scie roulettes but the
7gr, for which there was only a small
demand, is not known in that condition.
The 3gr, like the imperf. variety is
found on laid paper while the other two
values are on wove paper. The same
types of the 3gr and 5gr exist for
the original stones were used.
1862. Lithographed. Wove or laid (3gr)
paper. Perces en scie 16.
6. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 9.
7. ogr black on rose, Scott's No. 6.
S. 5sgr green, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
On April 29th, 1863, a new value, 2
grote, was issued this being for the
single letter rate between Bremen and
Vegesack. The design shows the
usual '"key" in the centre within a
pearled oval which in turn is sur-
rounded by a broad engine-turned
oval band. This band is inscribed
"BREMEN" at top and "ZWEI
GROTE" at foot. The large oval is
enclosed by a rectangular frame
inscribed "STADT" at left, "POST" at
top, and "AMT" at right. In each of
the corners the numeral "2" is shown
on a small shield and the spandrels are
filled with ornamentation. This value
was lithographed in orange varying a
good deal in shade and, like the 10
grote, was never issued in imperforate
1863. Lithographed. Wove paper. Perces en
t>. 2gr orange, Scott's No. 5 or No. 5a.
THE EIGHTH ISSUE.
The two grote was the last stamp to
be issued and no further changes were
made until 1867 when all six values
were placed in circulation perforated 13,
the perforation evidently being the work
of a single lined machine. The 3gr is
on laid paper as before, all the others
being on wove. The dividing lines were
removed from the stone of the 7gr and
though the lines remained on the other
values they did not always print dis-
tinctly. Most of the values of this set
are considerably rarer used than unused
for not only did they have a very short
life, but, as we shall show later, a
number of remainders came on the mar-
ket in 1868.
1867. Lithographed. Wove or laid (3gr)
paper. Perf. 13.
10. 2gr orange, Scott's No. 11 or lla.
11. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 10.
12. 5gr black on rose, Scott's No. 12.
13. 7gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 13.
14. lOgr black, Scott's No. 14.
15. 5sgr green, Scott's No. 15 or No. 15a.
At the end of 1867 the post-office of
Bremen ceased to exist as a separate
administration, and from January 1st
1868 formed part of the North German
Confederation. The remaining stamps
in stock, comprising a large quantity of
the perforated stamps, some of the 5gr
and 5sgr imperforate, and a few lOgr
rouletted were subsequently sold. The
only item I can trace bearing on the
disposal of the remainders is a para-
fraph in the Monthly Journal for
une, 1903, viz:
About the same date (December,
1868) Mr. Van Rinsum, of Amster-
dam, passing through Bremen, pur-
chased the whole stock of stamps
there, for cash down, at the high price
of 5 thalers ! At least that is what
I have been told. We may suppose
that this was not such a bad bargain
for Mr. Van Rinsum.
Before concluding this short sketch of
the postal issues of Bremen mention
should be made of two labels which
sometimes turn up in old collections and
are apt to prove puzzling to the tyro.
One of these is a 1 grote stamp bearing
a large figure "1" in the middle sur-
rounded by rays and bearing a small
circle in its center on which is the usual
Bremen "key." Surmounting this is the
word "Umsatzsteuer." This is simply a
fiscal stamp and, of course, has no place
in a collection of postage stamps.
The other variety is circular in shape
and has scalloped edges. The design
consists of three concentric circles with
the Arms in the centre surrounded by
the inscription "STADT POST AMT
BREMEN." It is printed in black on
blue or pink paper. Though at one
time considered an official postage stamp
its postal use has never been proved and
a writer in the "Stamp Collector's Maga-
zine" (vol. IV, p. 173) stated that "the
only official documents I find them on
are Bremen 'letter bills/ and even then
they are not upon the covers, but upon
the 'bills' themselves. What their use
is I cannot say."
Brunswick, or Braunschweig to give
it its Teutonic name, is a sovereign
duchy of the German Empire situated
between Hanover, Saxony, and West-
phalia. It has an area of 1424 square
miles and a population a little in excess
of half a million. The duchy has two
votes in the Imperial Council and sends
three representatives to the Imperial
Diet. Originally Brunswick formed a
part of the duchy of Saxony, but in
1235 the independent duchy of Bruns-
wick was created. Subsequently, along
with Hanover, Luneburg, Celle and
other territories, it was transferred and
reconveyed several times as the various
Brunswick dynasties were founded and
died out. The duchy suffered severely
during the Seven Years War. It was
occupied by the French in 1806, an-
nexed to the kingdom of Westphalia in
the following year, and restored to its
duke in 1813. The direct Guelf line
became extinct in 1884, on the death
of the childless Duke William, and since
1885 the duchy has been governed by
The town of Brunswick, capital of
the duchy, is of ancient origin, its cath-
edral, for instance, dating from 1172.
Here is found the tomb of Henry the
Lion, Duke of Saxony, whose de-
scendants created the independent duchy.
The currency was the same as that
of Hanover being the reichsthaler,
worth about 78c, divided into 24 gute-
groschen of 12 pfennige, or the thaler,
worth about 72c, divided into 30 silber-
groschen of 10 pfennige.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
While its neighbours. Hanover and
Prussia, issued stamps in 1850, Bruns-
wick did not follow suit until January
1st, 1852, when a series of three values
was issued. All three values are of
similar design, the centerpiece showing
the horse of Brunswick galloping to the
left, with a ducal coronet above, the
whole being on a transverse oval with
ground of vertical lines. On each side
are small upright uncolored ovals con-
taining the numerals of value, and above
and below are scrolls the upper one
containing the name, "BRAUN-
SCHWEIG," and the lower one the
value, "EIN (ZWEI or DRIE) SILB.
GR." The whole is enclosed within
a double-lined rectangular frame, one
line being thick and the other thin.
The stamps were designed and en-
graved by Herr K. Petersen, and
printed bv Herr J. H. Meyer, in Bruns-
wick. That separate dies were en-
graved for each of the three values is
proved by slight differences in the de-
signs, especially noticeable in the num-
ber and arrangement of the stones be-
low the horse. They were printed on
a fairly thick white wove paper and
the gum used was either reddish-brown
or white with a brownish tinge similar
to that used for the stamps of Hanover.
They were issued imperforate. Accord-
ing to Mr. Ehrenbach (London Phi-
latelist vol. Ill, p. 162) the stamps were
printed in sheets of 120 arranged in
twelve horizontal rows of ten each, the
stamps being about 2 mm. apart. Mr.
Westoby states that the plates were com-
posed of type-metal casts, which may
account for the existence of the three
"types" of the Isgr differentiated by
Mr. Ehrenbach as follows :
Type I. With no dots on the figures
Type II. With a dot on the figure
Type III. With a dot on the figure at
Mr. Ehrenbach further states that
there is an error of lettering in type I
with the word "SILBG" reading "SIL.
3." The stamps were only in use about
fourteen months and unused specimens,
with original gum, are among the rarest
of German stamps. Indeed, many au-
thorities consider the Isgr unused as
the rarest European stamp.
When the stamps were first placed
on sale considerable interest was evinced
in their issue by the public. It is said
that a huge crowd awaited the opening
of the chief post-office in the town of
Brunswick. At first only strips of ten
stamps were sold to purchasers but this
order was rescinded in 1853. Unfor-
tunately no official documents are
known to exist having any bearing on
the history of these stamps as one of
the Postmasters-General, who had a
terrible aversion to the accumulation
of papers and records, had ordered
everything to be burned.
1852. Typographed. Imperf.
1. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 1.
2. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 2.
3. 3sgr vermilion. Scott's No. 3.
shade as there were several printings
during the period the stamps were cur-
1853. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf.
4. ISPT black on orange, Scott's Nos. 4 or 5.
5. 2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 6.
6. 3sgr black on rose, Scott's No. 7.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
Two low values were added to the
series on March 1st, 1856, 3 pfennig^
54ggr, and4pfennig=%ggr. The former
had "54" in the ovals at the sides and
"DRIE PFENNIG" in the scroll below ;
while the latter had "%" in the ovals
and was inscribed "VIER SILBR. GR."
These stamps were also printed on the
watermarked paper the %sgr being on
brown, and the %sgr on white.
1856. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf.
7. l Aggr (3pf) black on brown, Scott's No. 8.
8. Xggr (4pf) black, Scott's No. 9.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
On March 1st, 1853, the stamps ap-
peared printed in black on colored paper,
the Isgr being on yellow, the 2sgr on
blue, and the 3sgr on rose. The stamps
of the first issue were not called in or
demonetised and this fact probably ac-
counts for the scarcity of unused speci-
mens. The paper employed for the sec-
ond issue was hand-made, of coarse
texture, and was watermarked. The
watermark consisted of a posthorn,
turned to the left, within a rectangular
frame though occasionally, owing to the
paper being inserted wrong way into
the printing press, the device may be
found turned to the right. Every post-
horn of the 120 contained in a sheet
differs in size and shape from the others
the "bits" for the dandy-roll having
been made by hand. Mr. Meyer was
again entrusted with the printing of the
stamps, under the control of the ad-
ministration, and Mr. Westoby tells us
he used an ordinary printing press for
the purpose. The paper varies in
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
The 54ggr was only in use for eleven
months (the total quantity printed being
271,040) when it was replaced by a new
stamp of unusual design. This was a
large stamp, 24 mm. square, capable of
being divided into four, each of the
divisions representing 3 pfennig, and
the entire stamp being equivalent to 1
gutegroschen. The central portion of
the stamp was divided into four squares
each containing a transverse oval in-
scribed "54" surmounted by a crown
with "Gutegr." below. Above the up-
per quarters and below the lower ones
is "Postmarke," and at the side of
each square is "3 Pfennige" in italic
type. The whole is enclosed by a thick
single-lined frame. This, it is inter-
esting to note, is the only Brunswick
stamp failing to show the galloping
horse. The stamps were printed in
black on brown watermarked paper but
as the paper was intended for stamps
of smaller size the posthorns appear
very irregularly. The stamps were
printed in sheets of 100 in ten rows
A large quantity of this value was
printed in brown on white paper in 1866
but for some reason or other they were
never issued. The variety is quite com-
mon, however, for the entire lot was
sold with the remainders in 1868, when
the post-office of Brunswick was ab-
sorbed by that of the North German
1857. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf.
0. 4/4ggr black on brown, Scott's No. 10.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
The 3sgr resumed its original color
of rose on white paper in September,
1862, though, as the watermarked paper
was used, it cannot be confused with
the rare stamp of 1852.
On January 1st, 1863, another value
was added to the series by the issue of
a stamp of ^sgr, printed in black _on
green watermarked paper. The design
is similar to that of the other values
but the value in numerals on the small
ovals at the sides is in uncolored figures
on a ground of solid color. The value
in words on the lower scroll is expressed
as "FUNF PFENNIG."
1862-63. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf.
10. J^sgr black on green, Scott's No. 11.
sgr rose, Scott's No. 12.
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
Up to 1864 none of the stamps had
been issued other than imperforate ; but
in July of that year the Isgr was changed
in color, being printed in yellow on
white paper, and the opportunity was
taken of experimenting with a roulette.
The rouletting was done in line and
had a gauge of 12. Whether the cuts
were made by a rouletting wheel or on
the printing press with ordinary notched
rule does not appear to be known. The
roulette is always very indistinct owing
to the thickness of the paper. It was
not particularly satisfactory and in the
following month other stamps appeared
with the rouletted cuts arranged in a
series of short curves giving a scallop
effect to the edges of severed stamps.
This is the style known as perces en arc
and it had a gauge of 16^2 to 17^2. This
rouletting, Mr. Westoby tells us, was
done by the printer, Meyer, in the press
by means of thin brass printer's rule.
The %ggr black on white, J^sgr black
on green, Isgr black on yellow, Isgr
yellow on white, 2sgr black on blue, and
3sgr rose on white were all issued with
this roulette, some of them being ex-
tremely rare. The ^2 sgr black on green,
Isgr black on yellow, and 3sgr rose on
white are also known rouletted in line
but there seems considerable doubt as
to whether these varieties were issued
officially. The ^sgr is also known perf.
12 but this is known to be an unofficial
production. To a note regarding this
Mr. Westoby adds "nor is there any
doubt that some rouletted specimens
have been manufactured by the purvey-
ors of varieties."
In the list below we only include those
varieties regarding which there are no
doubts as to their official origin.
1864. Wmk. Posthorn. Rouletted 12.
12. Isgr yellow, Scott's No. 19.
Perces en arc 16*4 to 1754.
i^ggr black, Scott's No. 13.
J^sgr black on green, Scott's No. 14. _
Isgr black on yellow, Scott's No. 15.
Isgr yellow, Scott's No. 17.
2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 16.
3sgr rose, Scott's No. 18.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
In October, 1865, stamps of a new de-
sign were introduced. The colors were
also changed so as to make them more
in conformity with those adopted by
the Thurn and Taxis post-office and the
German States. The dies, which were
engraved on steel at Berlin, were com-
mon to adhesives and a series of enve-
lopes. The design consists of the usual
galloping horse surmounted by a ducal
crown, this being in white on an oval
of solid color. Around this is an oval
band on which the name "BRAUN-
SCHWEIG" appears at the top and
"GROSCHEN" at the base on an en-
gine-turned ground. In the center of
the band at each side of the horse is a
disc for the numerals of value. Four
values were issued, %gr, Igr, 2gr and
Sgr all being embossed in color on
plain white wove machine made paper.
They were rouletted perces en arc like
the set they superseded. The stamps
were printed in sheets of 100 arranged
in ten rows of ten.
Mr. Westoby gives an excellent ac-
count of the method employed in the
manufacture of these stamps and other
embossed stamps of a similar nature is-
sued about the same time for Lubeck,
Prussia, and Oldenburg viz :
The matrix dies were, with scarcely
any exception, engraved by Schilling,
the engraver to the Irrlperial Printing
Works. The central design alone was
first engraved on a block of steel in
intaglio, from which a mechanical
workman made a punch in steel; and
if four values were required, he, with
the aid of the punch, sank the central
design on four steel dies, on which
the engraver subsequently added the
border and the proper inscriptions.
Were envelopes alone wanted, the pro-
cess was complete; but when adhesive
stamps were required a further process
was necessary, as plates had to be
constructed. The embossed adhesive
stamps were generally printed in
sheets of 100 or 150, arranged in
rows of ten. Fifty rectangular im-
pressions in lead of the size of the
stamp were struck from each die in a
fly-press, and these were clamped to-
gether in a chase in five rows of ten.
From each of these, two or three
electrotypes were made, which formed
the printing plate of 100 or 150 stamps.
The vertical and horizontal rows were
numbered consecutively in each mar-
gin in movable type figures, and the
plate was ready for printing. The
process appears complicated, but it
was not a very expensive one where
the stamps were not required in large
Proofs of the new stamps were dis-
tributed in January, 1865, and it was
stated they would be ready for issue
on April 1st, but, as we have already
stated, they did not actually appear until
There are several shades of all ex-
cept the lowest value, and all are known
imperforate. These were never issued
but are from sheets which were found
among the remainders.
No wmk. Perces en arc
16^ to 17%.
H&r black, Scott's No. 20.
Igr rose, Scott's No. 21.
2gr blue, Scott's No. 22.
3gr bistre, Scott's No. 23.
At the end of 1867 the postal adminis-
tration of Brunswick was merged in
that of the North German Confederation
and ceased to exist as an independent
establishment after December 31st, 1867.
The remainders of the 1865 issue were
sold in 1868. They were not offered in
one lot but could be purchased by the
100 sheets at about 2 thalers by anyone
interested. As a matter of fact most of
them were purchased by one man, a Ger-
man dealer, and that there must have
been a large stock of some values is ob-
vious from the low prices at which they
are priced in present day catalogues.
Hamburg, a seaport town in Ger-
many, is the capital of the independent
state of the same name and the most
important seaport on the continent of
Europe. It is situated on the right
bank of the river Elbe, 75 miles above
its outflow into the North Sea, and it
is 178 miles by rail from Berlin.
On the site now occupied by this im-
portant city there were but a few
scattered fishermen's cottages before the
time of Charlemagne. Then a few
merchants settled in the vicinity and by
808 the place had attained sufficient im-
portance for Charlemagne to erect a
fortified castle to protect his subjects
from the depredations of the Normans
and Danes. This castle, or "burg,"
took its name from the neighbouring
forest of Hamme, and the original
spelling of Hammeburg was, later, cor-
rupted to Hamburg. About the middle
of the ninth century the town, under
Archbishop Ansgar, became the dis-
seminator of Christianity throughout
northern Europe. After frequent pil-
lages and burnings from Northmen,
Danes, and Slavs the town began to be
frequented as a trade centre and by
the end of the twelfth century it was
not only prosperous but, though under
the domination of the Duke of Hoi-
stein, practically independent. Towards
the middle of the thirteenth century
Hamburg was united to Bremen (to
which the archiepiscopal see was trans-
ferred in 1223) and Lubeck in the
formation of the Hanseatic league.
This league or Hansa (from the old
Teutonic word Aan.fitt=partnership)
was an association of trading towns
which had considerable political power
until the sixteenth century. Most of
the important seaports from London to
Novgorod, in Russia, belonged to the
league and their ships carried one com-
mon flag that of the Hansa. In 1619
the Bank of Hamburg was founded and
this imparted an enormous impulse to
its commercial importance, and about
the same time a number of English
merchant adventurers and numerous
Jews expelled from Spain and Portu-
gal settled in the town. In the early
years of the nineteenth century it ex-
perienced hard times being occupied by
the Danes in 1801 and by the French in
1806. The latter, under Devout, treated
the inhabitants very harshly and also
seized the treasure of the Bank amount-
ing to about seven million marks. A
return to its old prosperity began with
the fall of Napoleon and even the de-
structive fire of 1842, which burned
nearly half the town, failed to have
any serious drawback on its progress.
In consequence of this disastrous fire
Hamburg is a very modern town in
appearance and most of its important
public buildings and institutions date
only from 1842. Among the more note-
worthy of these are the churches of
St. Michael, St. Peter, and St. Nicholas,
the town hall, marine office or See-
u'arte, the museums of fine art, arts
and crafts, botany, and natural history,
the commercial and municipal libraries
(the latter of considerable value), the
hygenic institute, and a fine hospital.
Hamburg occupies a distinguished
place in the history of German litera-
ture and drama, having been the home
of Lessing, Heine, Hageborn, Klop-
stock, Voss, Reimarus, Claudius, and
During the last century its popula-
tion has increased tenfold. from
106,983 in 1811 to over a million at the
present time it is thus the second
largest city in the German Empire.
During the second half of the nine-
teenth century Hamburg's trade de-
veloped in an extraordinary manner,
this increasing from about a hundred
and fifty million dollars in 1851 to over
twelve hundred million dollars in 1904.
But this only represented its sea trade
and in addition its rail and river borne
trade with the interior of Germany in-
creased to a proportionate extent dur-
ing the same period. As further
evidence of its prosperity we find that
while in 1871 it owned 448 seagoing
vessels with an aggregate tonnage of
214,280, in 1904 the port possessed 1009
seagoing vessels with a total tonnage of
1,256,640. It is the headquarters of the
famous Hamburg-American line which
owns one of the finest fleets of pas-
senger steamships in the world.
The greater part of the harbour con-
stitutes a free port, which was con-
structed in 1883-8 at an approximate
cost of thirty-five million dollars. Its
total area is 2570 acres, of which 1750
acres are land surface. The port is
one of the chief points of embarkation
for emigrants from the middle and east
of Europe, the greater number of which
proceed to the United States.
The industry of Hamburg is a. long
way inferior to its commerce, yet the
town possesses large tobacco, chemical,
india-rubber, and furniture factories,
engineering works, shipbuilding yards,
printing offices, breweries, distilleries,
The State of Hamburg has an area of
160 square miles and a population just
about equalling that of its capital, i. e.
900,000. Over ninety per cent, of its in-
habitants are Evangelical Protestants.
The State retains its ancient independ-
ence, the legislative power being vested
in a Senate of eighteen members and a
House of Burgesses numbering 160
members. The executive power is almost
entirely in the hands of the Senate.
The State has one vote in the Federal
Council of the Empire and sends three
members to the Imperial Diet.
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
Of the three Free and Hanseatic
towns Bremen was the first to issue
postage stamps, its first labels being on
sale in 1855, and it was not until Janu-
ary 1st, 1859, that Hamburg and Lubeck
joined the ranks of stamp issuing towns
and states. The stamps of Hamburg
had a somewhat restricted use, being
only used on local letters for the city
and its suburbs, and for franking cor-
respondence to the neighbouring states
and to the Netherlands, while they were
also available on "ship-letters" sent to
Great Britain. This seeming reluctance
to issue postage stamps, considering the
commercial importance of the port, was
probably due to the fact that Thurn and
Taxis, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden and
Norway, Hanover and Mecklenburg, all
had offices in the city and it was through
these that the general continental letters
were forwarded. The Thurn and Taxis
office seems to have had the major por-
tion of the postal trade and practically
all foreign letters went through this
agency. The first set of stamps con-
sisted of seven values ^, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7
and 9 schilling and in 1864 these were
augmented by the addition of 1*4 and
2^sch stamps, all of these being im-
perforate. In September, 1864, several
of the values appeared perforated and
by April of the following year all had
been issued in this condition. In Feb-
ruary, 1865, the color of the 7sch was
changed from orange to lilac, pre-
sumably to prevent confusion with the
9sch. In 1866 a l^sch stamp was
issued, and at the same time the design
of the IJ^sch label was altered. The
North German Confederation came into
being on January 1st, 1868, and Ham-
burg, having joined this, ceased to issue
its own distinctive stamps.
The currency was in marks and
schillings, a Hamburg mark, equal to
about 28c, being divided into 16 schil-
ling, and this continued until the unifi-
cation of German currency in 1875 i. e.,
seven years after Hamburg's stamps had
For a proper appreciation of these
stamps a knowledge of the postal tariffs
obtaining at the time of their use is
necessary, and in this connection the
following extract from Mr. R. R.
Thiele's excellent article, "The Why and
Wherefore of Various Stamps," which
appeared in the Philatelic Record for
July, 1906, is particularly interesting:
The l / 2 schilling stamp was intended
to cover the rate on printed matter
per lot (= ounce) to Ritzebuttel (a
suburb of Hamburg), to Bremen, Lu-
beck, and the Grand Duchy of Olden-
burg. The 1 schilling was the letter
rate on local letters and to Bergedorf,
also the rate on printed matter to
Heligoland, to the Netherlands, and
to Great Britain. The 2 schilling was
for the single letter rate to the out-
lying towns on Hamburg territory, to
the Vierlande, to Ritzebuttel and Lu-
beck. The 3 schilling was intended
for single letters to Bremen and the
larger part of Oldenburg, while the
4 schilling covered the letter rate to
Heligoland and to certain towns in
Oldenburg. The 7 schilling, orange,
was for letters to the larger part of
the Netherlands, and after July 1st,
1859, to Great Britain and Ireland.
The 9 schilling at first served the
letter rate to Great Britain and Ire-
land; after the reduction to 7sch it
served in combinations for various
The Danish war brought the issue
of a new value. The Danish post
office at Hamburg had always handled
the correspondence to Schleswig-
Hplstein. When the war broke out,
this office was cut off from the mother
country and the Hamburg authorities
took charge of it. The Danish rate
to Schleswig-Holstein was 4 skilling ;
for a few days after February 21st,
1864, the date of taking possession,
the office continued to use the Danish
stamps of that value. But new stamps
of the value of 1% schilling courant,
the equivalent of 4 skilling Danish,
were ordered immediately and issued
for the first time on February 29th.
This value, then, served for the letter
rate to Schleswig-Holstein and to
Denmark. Denmark immediately re-
taliated by raising the letter rate from
Denmark to Hamburg to 8 skilling ;
Hamburg followed suit by issuing the
2 l / 2 schilling, green, on April 2nd,
1864, to serve the letter rate to Den-
mark, 2 l / 2 schilling courant equaling 8
rigsbankskilling ; the rate to Schles-
wig-Holstein remained at 1^4 schilling,
but the rate to Altona was lowered to
l / 2 schilling on September 7th, 1864,
and the l /2 schilling also served on
printed matter to the Duchies from
March 1st, 1865. On January 1st,
1865, the rate on letters within the
city of Hamburg was reduced to l /2
schilling, so that the l / 2 schilling in its
perforated state is comparatively com-
mon. This is also the reason why the
North German Confederation after-
wards issued a special stamp of the
value of l /2 schilling for Hamburg.
The l /2 schilling rate was extended to
the adjacent territory on March 1st,
1866, and to Bergedorf and the Vier-
lande on June 15th, 1866.
From January 1st, 1865, all the
stamps of Hamburg served a large
variety of foreign rates, as on that
date an arrangement went into effect
whereby all letters within Hamburg,
no matter for what office they were
intended, were collected from all let-
ter-boxes by the municipal post office
and then turned over to the foreign
offices. All such letters dropped into
the boxes would be prepaid either by
the respective foreign stamps or by
Hamburg stamps: in the latter case
the postoffices made settlement with
each other on the basis of the for-
eign rates. The municipal post office
in some cases made a little profit
here, as its stamps did not always
correspond to the foreign rates, and in
such cases the next higher stamp had
to be used. For instance, the 1
silbergroschen rate to the German-
Austrian Postal Union corresponded
to 1 1/3 schilling courant; as there
was no such stamp, 1^ schilling's
worth of stamps had to be affixed.
The 2 silbergroschen rate answered to
22/3 schilling courant; for this a 3
schilling stamp had to be used, the
municipal post office pocketing the
difference. The 4 schilling stamp, of
course, exactly corresponded to the 3
About this time some changes in
rates took place. The money-order
system was introduced on March 1st,
1866, and the 2 schilling stamp was
thereafter also used for money orders
to Schleswig-Holstein up to 62 mark
courant. From May 14th, 1866, the
same stamp was permitted to be used
for the registration fee for Hamburg
and territory, which theretofore was
paid in cash; for July 1st, 1866, the
letter rate to Heligoland was lowered
to 2 schilling. The 3 schilling stamp
. . . was used from July 1st, 186G,
for the registration fee to Heligoland
and from November 1st, 1866, for the
registration fee to the Netherlands.
On November 1st, 1866, the letter rate
to the entire Netherlands was reduced
to 4 schilling.
The letter rate to Lubeck was re-
duced to 1^ schilling on October 1st,
1865, and the printed matter rate to
the Netherlands to the same on July
1st, 1865 ; hence a stamp of that value
became desirable, and was issued on
April 1st, 1866.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
The first postage stamps for Hamburg
were placed on sale on January 1st, 1859,
the set consisting of seven different val-
ues. The design, which is the same for
all denominations, consisted of the Arms
of Hamburg, partially covered by large
open numerals denoting the value, as a
centerpiece. The Arms are composed
of a castle with three towers, the cen-
tral one being surmounted by a dome
and the others by battlements. Above
the middle tower is a cross, while large
stars are shown above the side turrets.
On a ribbon scroll at the top is "HAM-
BURG," and on a similar scroll at the
base is "POSTMARKE," i. e. "post
stamp." On the left, reading upwards,
the value is shown in words, and on the
right "Schilling" appears. As the in-
scriptions on the left hand side varied in
length, according to the value which had
to be expressed, small ornaments were
introduced to fill the vacant spaces be-
fore and after the shorter words.
There was a separate die for each
value, and these were engraved by a
gentleman rejoicing in the euphonious
name of Johann Friedrich Rex Ziesen-
ist. He may also have been responsible
for the design but regarding this there
appears to be no record. From each die
ninety-six casts were taken in ordinary
type metal, and these, arranged in
twelve horizontal rows of eight, formed
the printing plates. There was a space
of 3^2 mm. between the vertical rows
and of 1^ mm. between the horizontal
rows. A line of printer's rule was
inserted between each of the vertical
rows, and as these were the same height
as the cliches they show at the sides of
the stamps. Each horizontal row was
numbered in the margin at each end, and
at the top of each sheet the inscription
"Hamburgische Postmarken" were
shown. The plates were made and the
stamps printed by Th. G. Meissner,
printer to the State of Hamburg.
Whether by accident or design we
cannot say but on all stamps engraved
by Ziesenist there are so-called "secret
marks." As these are of considerable
value in distinguishing originals from
the many forgeries that exist, we give a
list of these as follows:
Y-2. schilling. There is a small dash in
the space between the base of the right
hand tower and the line above "Schil-
i schilling. The serif at the foot of
the "T" of "POSTMARKE" ends with
a dot at the left hand side.
<? schilling. There is a tiny dot under
the first "1" of "Schilling," and, in clear-
ly printed specimens, a small dash above
the "ng" of the same word.
j schilling. There is a dot on the left
side of the "H" of "HAMBURG" near
the top of the letter, and, in most cases,
another dot is shown under the "r" of
4 schilling. There is a dot between
the letters "Sc" of "Schilling"
/ schilling. There is a dot in the
space at the right of the Arms opposite
the top of the "S" of "Schilling."
9 schilling. There is a tiny dot after
the "P" of "POSTMARKE" level with
the bottom of that letter.
In an article by M. Georges Brunei,
translated in the Postage Stamp, Vol.
VIII, numerous other little peculiarities
are detailed but as most of these only
show on certain stamps they evidently
did not appear on the original die but
were caused in making the type-metal
The stamps were all printed on white
wove paper, each sheet being water-
marked with twelve horizontal undula-
ting lines (each undulation being about
15 mm. deep) bounded by a single line
frame. It was intended that these lines
should correspond with the twelve rows
of stamps, but owing to some sheets not
being carefully "fed" into the printing
press an outside row was occasionally
printed on the plain portion of the paper,
and these stamps were thus entirely
without watermark. Other varieties,
caused by irregular feeding of the paper,
show vertical line watermark.
The stamps of this issue were not
perforated, and they were gummed with
a brown gum which gives some speci-
mens the appearance of having been
printed on toned paper. The remainders
of these stamps were all without gum,
the issued stamps, with the original
brown gum, being at least twice as
scarce as the remainders. With the
solitary exception of the 7sch the
stamps are all rarer used than unused.
Fairly distinct shades of the 4, 7, and
9sch may be found but the others differ
hardly at all.
1st, 1859. Watermarked
^sch black, Scott's No. 1.
Isch brown, Scott's No. 2.
2sch red, Scott's No. 5.
3sch blue, Scott's No. 9.
4sch green, Scott's No. 10.
7sch orange, Scott's No. 11.
9sch yellow, Scott's No. 32.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
In 1864, Hamburg occupied the Dan-
ish post-office in that city, owing to the
war between Prussia and Austria and
Denmark, as explained in our introduc-
tory notes, and a stamp of l^sch was
wanted immediately. This was issued
on February 29th but while it was being
prepared the ^sch was bisected and
the halves used in making up the l^sch
rate. Though no decree seems to have
been issued authorising this bisection
the authorities appear to have permitted
it and undoubtedly bona-fide "splits"-
used on original covers are known. A
month after the issue of the
label the retaliatory tactics pursued by
Hamburg and Denmark resulted in the
issue of a 2^sch stamp. Both of these
values were produced by lithography,
presumably owing to the fact that they
were wanted in a hurry.
The central design on the 1% sch is
very similar to that of the series of 1859
but with a netted background. The
name "HAMBURG" is arched at the
top. "POSTMARKS" is on a straight
label which extends right across the
foot of the stamp and the value is
shown in words on the side tablets.
In each of the upper angles an uncol-
ored* Maltese cross is shown on a
ground of solid color.
There was a space of 3 mm. between
the stamps of both the vertical and
horizontal rows, and lines were ruled in
these in both directions corresponding
with the vertical lines appearing in the
preceding series. There were no fig-
ures at the ends of the horizontal rows
and no marginal inscription was shown
at the top of the sheet. According to
the late Mr. W. A. S. Westoby "it
would seem that later on in the same
year another transfer was made, as the
stamps are found closer together on the
sheet, being Z l / 2 mm. apart, vertically
and horizontally, with lines between and
numerals opposite each vertical and
horizontal row." Impressions from this
second plate, we are told, may be recog-
nised by their indistinct and blurred
appearance and the fact that the color
is always a deep red-lilac.
Basing his remarks on the wonderful
study of these stamps made by Mr.
Vicenz in 1907, M. Brunei takes us much
deeper into the subject. We learn that
the stamps were printed in sheets of 192
stamps arranged in two panes of ninety-
six each, placed side by side. In mak-
ing up the lithographic stone the litho-
grapher took twelve transfers from his
original drawing making a block of
three horizontal rows of four. This
block was then re-transferred to the
stone sixteen times. Each of the twelve
stamps in the transfer block differs in
minute particulars from the others giv-
ing twelve types and these were ar-
ranged on the stone as follows :
9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12
Those of our readers who wish to
study the peculiarities distinguishing
the types should refer to M. Brunei's
article in the Postage Stamp.
Mr. Westoby's supposition that there
was a second stone was amply proved
by Mr. Vicenz. This was also com-
posed of sixteen transfers of a block of
twelve but, as the original transfer
block had been destroyed, a new one
had to be made, consequently the types
differ from those of the first stone.
The design of the 2 l / 2 schilling was
similar as regards the centerpiece, but
all the inscriptions were on straight tab-
lets, and in the corners were Maltese
crosses enclosed in small squares. The
stamps were arranged about 2 l / 2 mm.
apart, both vertically and horizontally,
and they show dividing lines as in the
l^sch. There were numerals opposite
the ends of each vertical and horizontal
M. Brunei tells us that there were
also two stones for this value, each be-
ing composed of two panes of 96 stamps
and each of these stones, like the l^sch
being composed of transfers of twelve
types, all differing in small particulars.
Those of our readers interested cannot
do better than study M. Brunei's article
already referred to.
Both values were printed on white
wove paper watermarked with undulat-
ing lines as shown in the typographed
stamps. They were issued imperforate
and with gum of a much paler tinge
than that employed for the preceding
The stamps were lithographed by the
firm of C. Adler, of Hamburg and the
designs were apparently drawn by one
of the employees of the firm. Mr. R.
R. Thiele tells us that "the original
stone is still in existence, on which the
drawing of the Insert may be seen in
close proximity to the letterhead of a
wholesale liquor dealer." (Philatelic
Record, Vol. XXXI, page 118.) The
lJ4 scn may be found in numerous
shades ranging from deep red-lilac to
grey. There was also a small printing
in blue. The 2^sch on the other hand,
hardly varies in tint at all.
1864. Lithographed. Wmk. undulating lines.
8. 114 sch red-lilac, Scott's No. 3 or ?,a.
9. I%sch grey, Scott's No. 4.
10. 1% sch blue, Scott's No. 5.
11. 2^ sch green, Scott's No. 7.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
Between September, 1864, and April,
1865, all the values included in the
two series already described appeared
perforated 13^, the perforation being
done by single line or guillotine ma-
In February, 1865, the color of the
7sch was changed from yellow to
mauve, probably to prevent confusion
with the 9sch. Wherever fresh print-
ings were made the stamps were manu-
factured by the same processes as be-
fore, i. e., lithography for the l%sch
and 2Hsch values, and typography for
the other denominations. The same
plates and stones were used and the
typographed stamps were printed by
Meissner and the lithographed ones by
Adler as before.
All values were printed on the paper
watermarked with undulating lines, and,
as in the previous issues, specimens
from the outer rows of the sheets are
occasionally found without watermark.
The ^sch, Isch and 2sch hardly vary
in shade at all, but most of the other
values exist in quite an array of tints.
The 3sch in the ultramarine shade
and the 7sch in mauve are both known
imperforate but it seems highly improb-
able that either was ever issued for use
in this state. The J^sch, 3sch, and 7sch
values are known imperforate vertically
and the 9sch may be found imperforate
1864-5. Wmk. Undulating lines. Perf. 13^.
12. ^sch black, Scott's No. 13.
(a) Imperf. vertically.
13. Isch brown, Scott's No. 14.
14. l^sch mauve, Scott's No. 15, 15a or
15. 2sch red, Scott's No. 16.
16. 2^sch green, Scott's No. 17 or 17a.
17. 3sch blue, Scott's No. 18 or 19.
(b) Imperf. vertically.
la 4sch green, Scott's No. 20.
19. 7sch orange, Scott's No. 21.
(a) Imperf. vertically.
20. 7sch mauve, Scott's No. 22.
21. 9sch yellow, Scott's No. 23.
(a) Imperf. horizontally.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
Although the letter rate to Lubeck
was reduced to l^sch on October 1st,
1865, and the printed matter rate to the
Netherlands was fixed at the same fig-
ure on July 1st, 1865, it was not until
April, 1866, that the postal authorities
troubled to issue a stamp of this value.
In this month a series of envelopes
with embossed stamps of the values of
l / 2 , 1%, l l / 2 , 2, 3, 4 and 7sch was issued,
these being manufactured in Berlin by
the Prussian State Printing Office. The
die for the l^sch envelope stamp was
made use of in the construction of a
plate for printing the adhesive stamp
of corresponding value. The plate con-
sisted of one hundred impressions ar-
ranged in ten horizontal rows of ten,
and the stamps were embossed in color
on plain white wove paper. These
stamps were rouletted 10 instead of be-
The central portion of the design is
very similar to that of the stamps of
the preceding issues, and shows the
numerals and Arms on a ground of
solid color within an octagonal frame.
Around this the usual inscriptions are
placed in the same order as before, and
these are separated at the corners by
six-rayed stars or asterisks, each having
an uncplored circle in the centre. The
whole is enclosed in a double-lined oc-
In the following June the litho-
graphed IJ^sch stamp was superseded
by an embossed label of similar value.
This was also manufactured by the
Prussian State Printing Office and, as in
the case of the l^sch the plate was
constructed from the die for the l^sch
envelope stamp. The plate was of simi-
lar size containing one hundred impres-
sions in ten rows of ten. The design
is very similar to that of the l^sch the
inscriptions being on an octagonal bor-
der separated by stars; but the stamp
was converted into a complete rectangle
by adding a number of diagonal
parallel lines to each of the four corners.
This stamp was likewise embossed
in color on white wove unwatermarked
paper and rouletted 10.
Mr. Brunei points out that the genu-
ine stamps exhibit the following pecul-
(a). The figures "1" are formed of
ernbossed cross-hatching which runs
diagonally from top to bottom and
from right to left.
(b). In the 1J4 schilling, under the
"1," the second line (forming the
background of stonework of the tow-
ers; is broken.
(c). In the \ l / 2 schilling the first
and second "i" of the indication of
value (at left) are joined to the bot-
tom of the following "n" (more visi-
ble in the case of the first than of the
second), likewise the letters of the
last word "halb."
(d). The "K" of "POSTMARKS"
has the base smaller than the upper
These values show practically no
variation of shade.
1866. Embossed. No wmk. Rouletted 10.
22. l^sch mauve, Scott's No. 25 or 25a.
23. l^sch rose, Scott's No. 26.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
In June, 1867, one more change took
place in the stamps of Hamburg before
the special issues were finally sup-
pressed in favor of the general issue
for the North German Confederation.
A further supply of 2^sch stamps was
required, and as these could not be sat-
isfactorily produced from Mr. Adler's
lithographic stone, typography was re-
sorted to and the old type of 1859 was
These stamps were manufactured by
Th. G. Meissner, of Hamburg and it is
probable the die was engraved by J. F.
R. Ziesenist, who was responsible for
the other dies of the same type. The
"secret mark" on this value corresponds
with that found on the 2sch of the 1859
series that is, there is a small colored
dot under the first "1" of "Schilling."
The stamps were printed on the paper
watermarked with undulating lines, and
they were perforated by the 13*/2 ma-
chine. There are a number of distinct
shades, and the variety is known im-
perforate and also imperforate horizon-
Compared with the other typographed
stamps this value was produced in a
very inferior manner, this being due,
probably, to the fact that it had to be
manufactured in somewhat of a hurry.
1867. Typographed. Wmk. Undulating lines.
1M. 2^sch green. Scott's No. 24.
(b) Imperf. horizontally.
THE UNOFFICIAL REPRINTS.
In 1868, shortly after the stamps
were replaced by the issue for the North
German Confederation, the remainders
were offered for sale and found a pur-
chaser in the late Mr. J. Goldner, a
well-known stamp dealer of Hamburg.
How many stamps were included in this
lot is a matter regarding which no in-
formation has been published that we
know of. It would appear that these
remainders were all specially printed
for sale if we can place any reliance on
a statement that when the stamps were
demonetised "only one sheet of the 154
and 2*/ 2 schilling remained over, some
imperforate sheets of the second issue
of the 1^4 schilling, and some defective
sheets." If this were the case then the
fact that the remainders had no gum
is easily accounted for.
Having very few of the lithographed
V/4 and 2^sch Mr. Goldner ap-
proached the lithographer, Mr. C.
Adler, and finding the original draw-
ings were available commissioned him
to make new stones of these values.
Though the design was the same as the
originals the stones were laid down in
a different fashion. For the lJ4sch a
block of sixteen transfers was made (in
four rows of four) and this was re-
transferred to the stone six times mak-
ing sheets of 96 stamps. 1 These types
all show little peculiarities differing
from the issued stamps, these being de-
tailed in full in Mr. Brunei's article in
the "Postage Stamp," already alluded
to. The "plate" for the 2^sch also
consisted of 96 stamps but in this in-
stance the transfers were applied in
blocks of four.
These reprints appear to have been
made in 1872. At first unwatermarked
paper was used and then a quantity of
the original watermarked paper being
discovered this was used. These "re-
iprints" are known imperforate, perf.
ll l /2, and perf. 13^. Those on unwater-
marked paper or perf. 11^ can easily
be distinguished for there were no
originals of this sort; and those on
watermarked paper, perf. 13^, may be
told by the roughness of the perfora-
tions compared with the originals.
Though the official perforating ma-
chines were used the pins had become
worn causing the "rough" effect.
About the same period reprints, or
rather imitations, of the 1J4 and l^sch
stamps of 1866 were made. These were
printed on white wove unwatermarked
paper and are found rouletted 8J^ as
well as the 10 of the originals. The
"reprint" of the l%sch is from a re-
touched die and it differs from the
originals in having the small circles in
the center of the four rosettes, which
separate the inscriptions, filled in with
color. There is also no line in the up-
per part of the "g" of "Schilling." The
l^sch was reprinted from the envelope
die, and has a longer line in the upper
part of the "g" of "Schilling," while the
corner stars also have solid centers.
The paper is thicker and the color of
the impression does not show through
as in the case of the originals. Both
"reprints" exist with forged postmarks.
The few reprints, as we have already
pointed out, were made privately some
years after the stamps had become obso-
lete, and these should present no diffi-
culties to the collector. Forgeries of
most of the values are very common,
but as most of these are very roughly
executed they should hardly deceive the
collector exercising ordinary care.
As the majority of Hamburg stamps
are rarer used than unused, genuine
stamps with counterfeit postmarks are
by no means uncommon. A very usual
form of cancellation consists of a circle
containing the name of the town and
the date, and readers should take note
of the fact that such marks with a star
or floret before and after the name
"HAMBURG" are undoubtedly bad.
Equally common is a postmark com-
posed of four parallel lines, either thick
or thin, 20 mm. long and about 5mm.
apart. The forgeries of this usually
have the lines too short, more than
four, irregularly spaced, or thickened at
the ends. There is also a cancellation
composed of four wavy lines, but the
use of this seems to have been confined
to the first issue only, and it is rarely
Hanover, or Hannover, as our Teu-
tonic friends spell it, was formerly a
kingdom of Northern Germany, but
since 1866 it has formed a province- of
Prussia. It stretches eastwards from
the Netherlands to the Elbe, and from
the North Sea southwards to Hesse-
Nassau, and includes the former duchy
of East Friesland, the Liineburg Heath
(55 miles long), part of the Harz Moun-
tains, and outliers of the' Weser Moun-
tains. Its total area is 14,833 square
miles and it has a population well in ex-
cess of two and a half millions. Ex-
cept in the South, where the Harz
Mountains attain a height of 3037 feet,
the surface belongs to the great North
German plain, with immense stretches
of moor and heath. Large areas of the
moorlands have been drained and re-
claimed within recent years. Hanover
is watered by the Elbe, Weser, Ems and
their tributaries, and the soil near the
rivers is very fertile. One sixth of the
total area is covered with forest.
The people of the north-eastern and
central provinces are mostly Saxons;
those on the coast are of Friscian origin ;
those on the west of the Ems, Dutch;
and those in the southern provinces,
Thuringians and Franconians. Platt-
Deutsch, or Low German, is commonly
spoken in the rural districts, but High
German is the language of the educated
classes, and is spoken with -more purity
than in any other part of the Empire.
Cattle are bred and grazed on the
marshes next the North Sea. Ironware
and steel goods, textiles, sugar, machin-
ery, gutta-percha and india-rubber,
chemicals, scientific instruments, beer
and spirits, are the more important pro-
ducts of Hanover's manufacturing in-
dustry, while Geeseemunde is one of the
most important fishing ports in Ger-
many. Coal, iron, zinc, lead, copper and
salt are mined in the Harz Mountains.
The second elector of Hanover became
George I of England in 1714, and from
that date until 1837 the Hanoverian
electors sat on the English throne.
When Queen Victoria ascended the
throne Hanover passed to her uncle
the Duke of Cumberland. On his death
(November 18th, 1851) his son, the
blind George V, succeeded to the king-
dom, and he, siding with Austria in
1866, took up arms against Prussia, was
defeated, driven from his throne, 'and
Hanover was annexed to Prussia.
The capital of the province bears the
same name, Hanover, and is situated on
a sub-tributary of the Weser, 78 miles
south-east of Bremen, and 158 miles
west of Berlin. It consists of the old
town, with narrow streets and mediaeval
houses, and the handsome modern town
which lies on the north, east, and south-
east of the older portion. During the
last quarter of the nineteenth century
the town grew at an enormous rate, and
at the present time its population ex-
ceeds a quarter of a million. The old
town possesses several fourteenth, fif-
teenth, and seventeenth century build-
ings, such as the former royal palace,
the town hall (1439), the chancellery of
justice, and the house of Leibnitz, now
converted into an industrial art museum.
Intermingled with these are a number
of quite new structures (1876 to 1911),
such as the magnificent railway station;
the royal library (containing 200,000
volumes and 4,000 MSS) ; the royal
playhouse, one of the largest theatres
in Germany; the museum, with natural
history and art collections; the Kestner
Museum, with antiquities and 120,000 en-
gravings ; the post office; and 'the
Reichsbank. Hanover has a famous
polytechnic, housed in the Welf (Guelph)
Castle, and attended by over 1,500 stu-
dents. Close by is the Heddenhausen
Castle (1698) the favorite residence of
Kings George I, II, and V, whose beau-
tiful grounds are open to the public.
The Duke of Celle chose Hanover for
his residence in 1636, and it has re-
mained the capital city from that date.
Hanover is the headquarters of the
10th German Army Corps, and is an
important centre of the North German
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
The philatelic history of Hanover
dates from 1850 the .year before the
death of King Ernest (Duke of Cum-
berland) when a single stamp bearing
the face value of one gutengroschen was
issued. In 1851 Hanover joined the
German-Austrian Postal Union, and a
series of stamps was issued on July 21st
of that year for defraying the rates of
postage within the Union. In 1856
colored papers were dispensed with and
the stamps were overprinted with a
colored network instead. In 1859 the
stamps with values expressed in frac-
tions of a thaler were superseded by a
new series bearing the portrait of King
George V. and with values denoted in
groschen. Until 1864 all the stamps
were imperforate, but in that year five
values were issued with a roulette (per-
ccs en arc) gauging 16, and in 1866, on
the annexation of Hanover by Prussia,
the whole of the stamps, with the ex-
ception of a few sheets, were burned.
The currency was the thaler, divided
at first into twenty-four gutengroschen
of twelve pfennig each, and. after 1858.
into thirty groschen of ten pfennig each.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
The first issue consisted of a single
stamp, bearing the facial value of one
gutengroschen, which was placed on
sale on December 1st, 1850. The design
shows a large open numeral "1", in-
scribed "GUTEXGR.", in a shield with
an arabesque ground. This is sur-
mounted by the Anglo-Hanoverian arms
on a rather minute scale. According to
an article in the Philatelic Record, these
arms are, with a slight difference, the
same as those borne by George III and
succeeding British sovereigns of the
Hanoverian House, from 1801 until
William IV's death in 1837. These arms
are, quarterly : one and four, England ;
two, Scotland; three, Ireland; with, on
an escutcheon of pretence, Brunswick,
Luneberg, and Westphalia, and over all,
(in the centre), the golden crown of
Charlemagne, the mark of the dignity of
arch-treasurer of the Holy Roman Em-
pire, which belonged to the house of
Brunswick. The supporters are the lion
and unicorn, and beneath is the motto
"SUSCIPERE ET FINIRE," meaning
"To undertake and to finish." There is
a scroll at the foot, with the ends run-
ning up by the sides of the shield, on
which is "HANNOVER" at the top,
"FRANCO" at the left, "EIN. GGR."
at the right, and numerals in each of
the lower angles. The period after
"EIN" was evidently inserted in error,
for it is quite unnecessary and is not re-
peated on any of the other values is-
sued in succeeding years.
The die was engraved by Herr
Fickenscher, a Hanoverian engraver,
and the plate was made and the stamps
printed by hand presses at the type
foundry and printing works of Senator
Culemann, in Hanover. The form con-
sisted of 120 casts, taken in type-metal
from the original die, which were ar-
ranged in twelve horizontal rows of ten.
As is usual with stamps manufactured
by this process, there are plenty of
minor varieties, consisting chiefly of
breaks and flaws in the frame and other
lines, and defective letters. The letter-
ing of the motto, in particular, is full
of defects, and a perfect inscription is
the exception rather than otherwise.
The stamp was printed in black on
colored paper, manufactured by Osna-
bruck, which was watermarked with
rectangles of about the same size as the
stamps. Like all the other stamps is-
sued prior to 1864, this Iggr was im-
A peculiarity of this and other Han-
overian stamps is the red gum which
was used until about 1864. In the "Ad-
tiesive Postage Stamps of Europe" the
late Mr. W. A. S. Westoby made the
following comments regarding this
colored gum: "What was the real rea-
son for employing colored gum does not
appear, but tradition says it was useful
in the cases of stamps becoming de-
tached from letters, as the red stain
showed that the letters had been
stamped, and had lost the stamps during
transit. This explanation seems rather
lame, for even if it were of any use
when there was only one stamp, it
could be of none where there were sev-
eral." However, the fact that the gum
was colored is of considerable impor-
tance to stamp collectors, for it forms
the best test in distinguishing originals
To a certain extent this stamp was ex-
perimental, for it could not be used on
foreign correspondence, but prepaid the
single letter rate within the kingdom it-
self, and also to Bremen, Hamburg,
Bremerhaven, Ritzebiittel, and Vegesack
in each of which towns the Hanoverian
authorities maintained a post office.
At this period the thaler was worth
about 78c so the facial value of this
stamp in United States currency was
December, 1850. Wmk. a Rectangle. Imperf.
1. Iggr black on grey blue, Scott's No. 1.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
Presumably the experiment of issuing
postage stamps soon proved quite sat-
isfactory, for in 1851 Hanover joined
the German-Austrian Postal Union, and
on July 21st, three new stamps were is-
sued with values expressed in fractions
of a thaler. The stamps were all of
similar design, closely resembling that
of the Iggr but having the groundwork
of the shield in solid color. The l/30th
was inscribed "EIN SGR." (i. e. Isgr)
in that portion of the scroll by the right-
hand side of the shield, and the l/15th
and l/10th were inscribed "ZWEI
SGR." and "DREI SGR." respectively,
while at the bases the numerals "1", "2",
or "3" appeared, to correspond with
It appears that all the states com-
prised in the German-Austrian Postal
Union at first tacitly and then formally
agreed to use similar colors for stamps
of similar values (an arrangement after-
wards adopted by the Universal Postal
Union for certain values) so red, blue,
and orange were the colors selected for
the 1/30, 1/15 and 1/10 thaler stamps.
The rates within the Union for which
these particular values were required
were as follows : r
Up to 10 German miles, Isgr (l/30th).
Over 10 and under 20 German miles
Over 20 German miles 3sgr (l/10th).
As blue was the color chosen for the
l/15th the color of the paper for the
Iggr was changed to grey-green.
The dies for the three new values
were engraved by Herr Fickenscher,
while the plates were made and the
stamps printed at Senator Culemann's
works as was the case with the first
stamp issued. Though we can trace no
positive information on the point it is
extremely probable that the plates were
uniform in size and were composed of
120 type metal casts clamped together in
twelve horizontal rows of ten. There
are numerous minor varieties in all
three values caused by slight imperfec-
tions in making the casts. These con-
sist of flaws, broken lines, and defective
letters and they are so numerous that
it would probably be far from an im-
possibility for an enthusiastic specialist
to plate these stamps.
All three values were printed in black
on hand-made colored wove paper which
was watermarked with a device consist-
ing of two branches of oak, crossed at
the stems, and curving upwards in the
form of an oval. The watermark was
so arranged that one complete device
was apportioned to each stamp. The
papers vary but little in shade with the
exception of that for the l/30th which
was changed in color from salmon to
crimson in 1855. Some philatelists con-
sider the order of these papers should
be reversed and that the crimson was
the earlier shade; but judging from used
dated copies, there seems to be no
ground for this supposition.
The Iggr in its new shade was also
printed on the paper watermarked with
oak leaves though the same plate was
used as before.
1851. Wmk. crossed branches of oak. Imperf.
2. Iggr black on grey-green, Scott's No. 2
3. l/30th black on salmon, Scott's No. 4.
4. l/30th black on crimson, Scott's No. 3.
5. l/15th black on blue, Scott's No. 5.
6. l/10th black on yellow, Scott's No. 6 or
THE THIRD ISSUE.
On April 15th, 1853, a new stamp bear-
ing the facial value of 3 pfennig was
issued for use on newspapers and other
printed matter. The design consists of
an upright vertically lined oval contain-
ing a large numeral "3" with "PFEX-
NIGET curved below, "HANNOVER" in
a straight line above, and a crown at
the top. Above the upper part of the
oval is a cartouche with scroll ends
inscribed "EIN DRITTEL SILBER-
GROSCHEN," i. e. ^sgr, or less than
Ic in United States currency. The whole
is enclosed within a single lined rec-
pattern is horizontal. At first a fairly
close mesh was used, but this was not
considered satisfactory as it gave the
stamps a blurred or blotchy appearance.
Although all values were overprinted
with this fine mesh only the l/10th was
actually placed in use. The other
values are, therefore, simply essays or
This stamp was also engraved by
Herr Fickenscher. and typographed at
Senator Culemann's establishment. Al-
though produced by the same process as
that employed for the preceding issues,
this value does not provide many minor
varieties. The only ones we have no-
ticed consist of small colored dots or
lines in one or other of the angles.
This value was printed on white wove
paper watermarked in a similar manner
to that of the 1851 series. The gum is
red and this variety is always imper-
1853. Wmk. crossed branches of oak.
7. opf pale rose, Scott's No. 7.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
Many objections were raised to the
use of colored papers for the Hanover-
ian stamps, and in 1855 it was decided
to try the experiment of printing the
stamps on white paper that had prev-
iously been covered with a colored net-
work of fine lines. This was done by
means of stereotype plates, the network
covering the whole of the sheets and hav-
ing an ornamental border on the margins.
The network was so arranged that the
stamps prepared for use and never is-
sued. The l/10th with the fine mesh is
said to have been placed on sale late in
1855 and the other values with the
larger network were issued on January
1st, 1856. The color of the network
corresponded with the color of the paper
which had been used previously for the
several values. The 3pf was printed in
rose as before, and in this case the mesh
was black or grey. The l/10th with the
larger network was issued directly, the
supply with small mesh was exhausted
and, unused, this is perhaps the rarest
individual Hanoverian variety.
The stamps were all printed on un-
watermarked paper. They were imper-
forate and had red gum like the preced-
1855-56. No watermark. Imperf.
(a) Fine network.
8. l/10th black with orange network,
Scott's No. 15 or l"a.
(b) Coarse network.
9. 3pf rose with black network, Scott s
No. 8 or 9.
10. Iggr black with green network, Scott s
11. l/30th black with rose network, Scott s
12. l/15th black with blue network, Scott's
13. l/10th black with orange network,
Scott's No. 13 or 13a.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
The currency was revised on October
1st, 1858, the thaler, which had previous-
ly been divided into 24 gutengroschen of
12 pfennig each, being now composed
of 30 silbergroschen of 10 pfennig each.
At the same time the 1 gutengroschen
was withdrawn from circulation and the
rate of postage for inland single letters
was altered to 1 groschen.
A few months later, February 15th,
1859, to be exact, a series of stamps
with values conforming to the new cur-
rency appeared in place of those with
values expressed in fractions of a thaler.
The new stamps were of the values
of 1, 2, and 3 groschen and the design
shows a profile portrait of King George
V, with head to left, on a ground of
solid color enclosed in a circle of pearls.
Above the medallion is the value "1 (2
or 3) GROSCHEN" and below is
"HANNOVER." The whole is enclosed
within a rectangular frame, the ground
between the portrait and frame being
composed of fine vertical lines. There
are tiny ornaments in each of the
across the pearled circle below and to
the left of the "O" of "Groschen."
At the same time the 3pf, in the de-
sign already described, was issued with-
out the colored network. This stamp,
and also the Igr and 2gr, may be found
in a number of different shades.
On March 1st, 1861, a 10 groschen
stamp was added to the set. This bore
a similar portrait of the King but the
numerals of value are much larger than
those of the previously issued stamps of
similar type. This denomination was
only on sale at the chief post-offices and
was intended for use on heavy packages
and registered letters. Judging by its
present rarity its use must .have been
On November 10th, 1861, the color of
the 3gr was changed from yellow to
brown, in order to make the color of
this value conform to that which had
been adopted by the other members of
the German-Austrian Postal Union for
this particular denomination.
All the stamps of this series were
printed on plain white wove, unwater-
marked, paper and they were issued im-
perforate. The gum, which up to this
time had been red, was changed to
rose, varying considerably in depth of
1859-61. Rose gum. No wmk. Imperf.
14. 3pf rose, Scott's No. 16.
15. Igr rose, Scott's Nos. 10, 19a, or 19b.
16. 2gr blue, Scott's No. 20 or 21.
17. 3gr yellow, Scott's No. 22 or 22a.
18. ?>gr brown, Scott's No. 23.
19. lOgr olive-green, Scott's No. 24.
One original die served for all three
values so far as the portrait was con-
cerned this being engraved by Herr
Brehmer, engraver to the Mint, from a
photograph ; while the plates were made
and stamps printed at Senator Cule-
mann's printing works. The plates,
like those for the stamps of the preced-
ing issues, were composed of 120 type-
metal casts arranged in twelve horizon-
tal rows of ten. The head was the same
for all three values, as we have already
pointed out, but the frames for the
three necessary subsiduary dies were
separately engraved, as may easily be
proved if the lettering of the inscrip-
tions is carefully examined. It is in-
teresting to note that in the case of the
1 groschen all the pearls of the circle
are quite distinct ; in the 2gr several
of those at top of the circle run into
one another, and there is always a large
colored dot between the letters "SC"
of "GROSCHEN"; while in the 3gr
there is always a small colored line
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
A new stamp having the facial value
of y 2 groschen was issued on April 1st,
1860. The design of this is quite dif-
ferent from that of any of the other
values and consists of a posthorn sur-
mounted by a crown, with "HAN-
NOVER" in thick block capitals at the
top, and " l / 2 Groschen" at the base. The
whole is enclosed within a rectangular
frame with indented corners, outside
each of which is a small colored dot.
The die was, presumably, engraved
by Herr Brehmer, and the stamps were
printed typographically by Senator
Culemann. As is so frequently the case
with electrotyped stamps, this value
shows many small defects in the shape
of broken lines and letters, and the ap-
pearance of tiny dots in various parts
of the design.
This stamp was printed on white,
wove, umvatermarked paper, and was is-
sued with rose gum, imperforate. A
later printing appeared with white gum.
I860. No wmk. Imperf.
20. ^gr rose gum, Scott's No. 18a.
21. l / 2 gr white gum, Scott's No. 18.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
On December 1st, 1863, the color of
the 3pf stamp was altered in color from
rose to green, and at the same time the
inscription on the scroll was changed
from "EIN DRITTEL SILBERGRO-
SCHEN" to "DREI ZEHNTEL SIL-
BERGROSCHEN." The former, mean-
ing ^sgr, was hardly the correct equiv-
alent of 3 pfennig, as expressed in the
centre of the stamp, while the modified
inscription, meaning three-tenths sgr,
was exactly right.
Apparently the original die was al-
tered by Herr Brehmer, and the stamps
were printed by Senator Culemann as
The paper was white wove and un-
watermarked, the gum was of a rose
color, and the stamp was issued imper-
1863. Rose gum. No wmk. Imperf.
--. 3pf green, Scott's No. 17.
THE EIGHTH ISSUE.
In 1864 perforation was introduced,
the system adopted being a form of
roulette known as perces en arc. The
cuts were curved and close together,
and gauged 16. The stamps so treated
were the 3pf of the seventh issue, and
l / 2 gr of the sixth issue and the 1, 2 and
Sgr of the fifth issue. The lOgr had up
to this date been in so little demand
that none of them were rouletted.
The stamps were the same as before
in all other respects, but before the end
of 1864 the color of the gum was
changed to yellowish or white and so
continued until .late in 1866, when, Han-
over having been absorbed by Prussia
as explained in our introductory notes,
the stamps were no longer available
for postal purposes. The 2gr with rose
gum is not known rouletted.
1864. No. wmk. Rose on white gum. Perces
en arc. 16.
23. 3pf green, Scott's No. 25 or 25a.
24. Y 2 gr black, Scott's No. 26 or 26a.
25. Igr rose, Scott's No. 27 or 27a.
26. 2gr blue, Scott's No. 28.
27. Sgr brown, Scott's No. 29 or 29a.
The Iggr of 1850 was reprinted in
1864 but as the reprints are on unwater-
marked greyish paper they should be
The l/10th of 1851 was reprinted in
1889 but this can also be distinguished
with ease as the paper was unwater-
marked and the gum white.
All five values of the 1855-56 issue
were reprinted in 1864 and here the best
test is the gum, which is yellowish
white. The network on the reprints
only extends over blocks of four stamps.
The l/10th was again reprinted in 1889
on similar paper and with white gum.
On this reprint the network was applied
stamp by stamp. The 3pf of 1889 was
reprinted in 1889 though this is not a
true reprint but rather an "official imi-
tation." A new plate was made from
a retouched die in which the ribbon
ends of the scroll point downwards in-
stead of outwards. The 3gr of the
same issue was reprinted in 1891 in both
colors but these reprints can be at once
identified by the white gum. The /^gr
was reprinted in 1883, the paper being
yellowish and the gum white. The only
value of the rouletted series to be re-
printed was the 3gr but as the gauge
is 13 1 /2. instead of 16 it is not likely to
The free city of Lubeck, the smallest
of the three Hanseatic towns, is situated
on the Trave about ten miles from its
mouth. The town, then known as
Lubeca, was probably founded as early
as 1060 and, though small, it was rich
and consequently excited the cupidity of
some of its larger neighbours. In 1138
it was entirely devastated by the Rugians
but was rebuilt in 1143 by Adolf II,
Count of Holstein. It was ceded to the
dukes of Saxony in 1158 and under
Henry the Lion it attained considerable
prosperity. Duke Henry gave it a civil
and commercial code (the law of Lu-
beck) which, later, formed the basis of
the law of all the Hanseatic towns.
Lubeck was captured by the Danes in
1201 and on their expulsion in 1226 it
was made a free and imperial city, and
it became the leader of the Hanseatic
league formed in 1241. It was then at
the height of its prosperity but the dis-
solution of the Hansa dealt it a blow
from which it has never recovered. The
last Assembly of the Hansa met in Lu-
beck in 1669 and thence forth it de-
clined in importance. It was annexed
by France in 1810 and became the capi-
tal of the Department of Les Benches
de 1'Elbe, but it regained its liberty in
1813 after the battle of Leipzig. In
August 1866, it joined the North Ger-
man Confederation, and in 1870 became
one of the states of the new Empire.
It has a population of over 90,000.
Lubeck, like many other Continental
towns, presents a curious mixture of an-
cient and modern architecture. Opposite
the railway station, on the main
approach to the city, is the famous Hol-
stenthor, a 15th centruy brick-built gate-
way, which was renovated in 1870. Of
its numerous churches the Marienkirche
founded in 1170, contains valuable
works of art. Its dome, enlarged dur-
ing the 13th century, has an altar paint-
ing by Hans Memling. Another ancient
edifice is the town hall (1250) which is
built of black glazed bricks in the style
of the Renaissance oeriod.
Lubeck has achieved some little re-
turn to its former prosperity since it
joined the Customs Union in 1868. The
principal shipping trade is with Den-
mark, Sweden, Russia, and Finland,
chiefly in chemicals, machinery, linen
goods, preserved food, and cigars.
Lubeck is the capital of the small
state of the same name, which has an
area of 115 square miles and a popula-
tion of a little over 100,000. The coun-
try is fertile and well wooded and pro-
duces rye, wheat, barley, oats, hay, po-
tatoes, and large quantities of fruit. By
its constitution, revised in 1875, the state
is governed by a senate composed of 14
life members, and a council of 120 citi-
zens. Lubeck is represented in the Reichs-
tag by one delegate.
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
Lubeck issued its first postage stamps
on January 1st, 1859, at the same time as
Hamburg, and the currency was also
the same, viz., the Hamburg mark of
16 schilling equal to about 28c in United
The first set consisted of five values
all of similar design which were printed
on watermarked paper. Two years
later the ^sch and Isch were issued
on unwatermarked paper and in 1863 an
entirely new design was introduced. On
April 1st, 1864, a l^sch stamp was is-
sued and a reduction in one of the post-
al rates in 1865 resulted in the issue of
a l^sch stamp. In 1867 the color of
the Isch value was slightly changed and
this completed the separate postal exist-
ence of Lubeck for, having joined the
North German Confederation, the
stamps of that Confederation were used
on and after January 1st, 1868.
The status of these stamps was similar
to those of Hamburg, save that none
of the values singly were able to frank
a letter beyond the confines of Germany.
In the "Why and Wherefore of Various
Stamps," published in the Philatelic
Record in 1906, Mr. R. R. Thiele gives
some interesting and valuable informa-
tion regarding the postal rates, etc.,
which we cannot do better than repro-
duce in his own words :
The first issue did not make its ap-
pearance until 1859. At that time Lue-
beck had three post offices : that of
the city itself, one of Thurn and
Taxis, and one of Denmark. The
two latter had been using stamps for
several years and the force of public
opinion finally prevailed upon the
postal authorities of the Free City to
issue stamps also. The values of the
first issue were selected for the rates
most in use. The one-half schilling
stamp representd the rate on city let-
ters for local delivery, and also on lo-
cal printed matter. The one schilling
stamp was intended for the other city
(there is only one, Travemuende)
and villages within the territory of the
Free City, as well as those post-offices
in the neighbouring Duchy of Meck-
lenburg-Schwerin which lay within
three German miles of Luebeck. Two
schillings was the rate to Hamburg
and Bergedorf, hence the stamp of
this value. To most of the post-offices
within the two Duchies of Mecklen-
burg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Stre-
litz the single letter rate was two and
one-half schillings, and hence a stamp
of this value was found necessary.
Finally the four schilling stamp repre-
sented the single rate on letters des-
tined to points in the territory of the
German-Austria postal union more
than twenty German miles from Lue-
beck (about ninety statute miles).
The rate to certain offices in Mecklen-
burg-Schwerin was one and one-half
schilling and that to other offices be-
tween ten and twenty German miles
distant was three schillings, but for
some reason stamps of these values
were not issued.
In 1862 or 1863 the postal authori-
ties received word from London that
the stamps of Luebeck had been coun-
terfeited there. This was, perhaps,
not very difficult, considering their
lithographic production. At all events
the authorities decided to discontinue
their lithographed stamps and to make
use of steel engraving in the future.
They, therefore, ordered the next set,
that of 1863, from the Royal Prussian
Printing Establishment at Berlin. It
is related that the price of the die and
plates nearly gave the Luebeckers a
fit, but that the expense, to their great
joy, was soon counter balanced by the
orders of the stamp collectors of the
time, who bought large numbers of
the pretty labels. The values repre-
sent the same rates as before.
In 1864 the war with Denmark broke
out and the Duchies of Schleswig and
Holstein were occupied by the Feder-
al troops. Correspondence for these
two Duchies from Luebeck had for-
merly been handled by the Danish
office at Luebeck, but this office was
now closed because of the war and the
city post office took charge of all mail
for the duchies. The Danish rate had
been four skillings, equivalent to one
and one-fourth schillings in Luebeck
currency ; hence the department- is-
sued a new stamp of the latter value.
As it had to be provided in a hurry
it was not engraved and printed in
Berlin like the set then current, but
was lithographed by Rahtgens at Lue-
beck. In 1866 the rate was raised to
one and one-half schilling and the one
and one-fourth schilling stamp was
As above mentioned the rate to
Hamburg and Bergedorf was two
schillings. In 1865 this rate was low-
ered to one and one-half schillings
and a stamp of this value was issued.
It was again printed at Berlin, but it
was not ready on the date when the
reduced rate went into effect and the
official notice, with charming simplicity,
points out that the postage might,
nevertheless, be made up by means of
the one schilling and the half schill-
THE FIRST ISSUE.
Lubeck issued its first series of ad-
hesive postage stamps on January 1st,
1859, the values being ^, 1, 2, 2,y 2 and
4 schilling. Their use was entirely op-
tional but when used the public were
requested to affix them to the left upper
corner of the face of the letter and this
continued to be the recognised mode of
affixing the stamps until 1864. Official
proof of this is found in the stamped
envelopes those issued in 1863 shew
the stamp in the upper left hand corner,
while those issued in 1864 have the label
in the right upper angle.
The design is the same for all five
values and shows the Arms of Lubeck
on a field d'or (represented heraldically
by a dotted ground) within three
scrolls arranged in the form of an in-
verted horseshoe. The lower of these
scrolls contains the word "POST-
MARKE," the one at left contains the
value in words, and that on the right
is inscribed with the word "SCHILL-
ING." In a straight line at the top is
"LUBECK" while in each of the
angles the value is shown in white
figures on a ground of solid color. The
spaces between the corners are linked
up by ornamental lines and the whole
is enclosed within a single line rectangu-
Who was responsible for the design
does not seem to be known but the
stamps were manufactured by H. G.
Rahtgens, a printer engaged in business
in Lubeck. The method employed was
lithography and minute differences in the
designs for each value show that a
special die or drawing was made for
each. From the original design in each
case one hundred transfers were taken
and arranged on the lithographic stone
in ten horizontal rows of ten.
In making up the stone for the 2
schilling two transfers of the 2J^sch
were accidentally inserted in the bottom
row. The mistake was discovered be-
fore any of the stamps were printed and
to remedy it the lithographer removed
the numerals "2%" from each of the
four corners of the offending labels and
drew in the correct figures "2." He,
however, omitted to alter the inscription
showing the value in words so that
these two stamps, printed in the cor-
rect color for the 2sch and showing the
correct value "2" in the corners are,
nevertheless, wrongly inscribed 2^sch
as shown by the lettering "ZWEI EIN
HALB." The errors occurred on the
sixth and seventh stamps of the lower
As a safeguard against forgery the
designer of these stamps introduced se-
cret dots into his work. The center of
the small ornament at the foot of the
design consists of a short horizontal
line on all the ^sch stamps a tiny dot
appears above this line; on the Isch the
dot is below the line; on the 2sch there
are two dots below the line, one at each
end; on the 2^sch there are two dots
below and one above, in the center;
while on the 4sch there are four
dots below the line. In the case of
the 2sch error the dots are as in the
2^2sch. In addition to these dots there
are numerous small peculiarities distinc-
tive to each value. In an article, trans-
lated in the Postage Stamp, M. Georges
Brunei gives a lengthy list of these little
marks but for all practical purposes
the following tests, described in The
Philatelist so long ago as 1871 are
J^sch. Eagle's right beak does not
go against the wing. The bird does
not touch the label in any place.
There is no period after SCHILLING.
The lines by which the figures are
divided are very fine, and the figures
themselves are small.
Isch. Eagle very much like the one
on the y 2 sch but the right hand end
is more flattened and, consequently,
shapeless. EIN is in letters of the
same size as those used in the words
2sch. Eagle's left beak touches the
wing, and the right one nearly so;
there are no dots between the heads
and wings. Over the U is a diaeresis
of very small solid dots.
2^sch. Eagle's left claw is at some
little distance from the inscribed ri-
band. No period after any of the
words. All the fractional figures are
very small, and the strokes dividing
them very indistinct. The topmost of
the three dashes under the upright
stroke upon the left hand is merely a
4sch. The third segment of the
eagle's right wing touches the riband.
There are either four or five dots (but
only three are clearly formed) in the
hollow between the beak and the
wing, and those not together, but dis-
persed. P of POSTMARKE almost
touches the fold of the band.
The paper upon which these stamps
were printed was not specially requisi-
tioned but was obtained from Matz, a
stationer in the town, who had on hand
a stock of thin fancy paper water-
marked throughout with small flowers
of myosotis. It was paper really in-
tended to be made up into boxes of
fancy note-paper. The stamps were is-
sued imperforate and the sheets were
gummed with yellowish gum according
as they were required for use. M.
Brunei states that the stamps were dis-
tributed to the postmasters ungummed
and these latter aflfixed the gum before
selling them to the public. Such a pro-
ceeding appears highly improbable for
the postmasters would not be likely to
have facilities at hand for gumming
sheets of stamps. The statement has no
foundation in fact but there seems little
doubt that Rahtgens only gummed the
sheets as they were required. Indeed,
in an article in the Philatelic Record
translated from the German we read
"I learned from a member of the Raht-
gens firm that they had not delivered
all the stamps at one time, and gummed.
On the contrary they were in the habit
of remitting small quantities to the
authorities, as the stamps became
needed, and they only kept in stock a
small number of sheets gummed in ad-
vance." This accounts for the fact that
the remainders of these stamps were
Although the sheets were only
gummed as required it would appear
that the whole of the stamps originally
ordered were printed at the same time
the total supply printed being
400 sheets = 40,000 stamps.
Isch 200 sheets = 20,000 stamps.
2sch 1366 sheets = 138,600 stamps.
SJ^sch 500 sheets = 50,000 stamps.
4sch 1499 sheets 149,900 stamps.
As there were two errors in each of
the sheets of the 2sch the total number
of normal stamps was 135,820 while
there were 2,772 errors.
Variations in shade are not very
prominent though the green of the 4sch
differs a little.
1859. Wmk. Myosotis Flowers. Imperf.
1. ^sch slate lilac, Scott's No. 1.
2. Isch orange, Scott's No. 2.
::. L'sch brown, Scott's No. 3.
(a) Variety lettered ZWEI EIN HALB.
4. 2'^sch rose, Scott's No. 4.
ii. 4sch green, Scott's No. 5 or No. 5a-.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
The quantites printed of the */ 2 and
Isch would appear to be ridiculously
small but they lasted nearly two years.
A further printing was made in 1861
consisting of 1100 sheets (110,000
stamps; of the ^sch and 499 sheets
(49,900 stamps) of the Isch. As no
more of the fancy paper watermarked
with myosotis flowers was available or-
dinary umvatermarked white wove
paper was used. The same stones were
used and with the exception of the
paper the stamps are exactly like those
of the preceding issue. These two va-
rieties are said to have been issued in
1861. No wmk. Imperf.
6. ^sch dull lilac, Scott's No. 6.
7. Isch orange, Scott's No. 7.
Both these starhps are very much
rarer used than unused and about twice
as rare with gum as without.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
In consequence, it is said, of the
stamps being extensively counterfeited
it was decided to issue a new series
and the order for these was placed with
the Royal Prussian Printing Establish-
ment at Berlin. As it was determined
of the series they replaced the design
being alike for all five. In the center
are the Arms of Lubeck on an upright
oval of solid ground, around which is
an engine-turned band inscribed "LUE-
BECK" in its upper portion and
"SCHILLING" at the base, while the
numerals denoting the values are shown
on uncolored discs at the sides. The
stamps were embossed in color on plain
white wove paper in sheets of 100 (10
rows of 10) and, as in the case of most
other embossed stamps produced at this
establishment, the rows were numbered
in the margins. The stamps were rou-
letted 11^ in line.
These new stamps were first placed
on sale on July 1st, 1863, when the
preceding set ceased to be issued,
though their use was permitted until the
end of the year as a convenience to the
general public. The quantities printed
were as follows :
^sch 1,200 sheets = 120,000 stamps.
Isch 800 sheets = 80,000 stamps.
2sch 1,200 sheets = 120,000 stamps.
2^sch 500 sheets = 50,000 stamps.
4sch 800 sheets = 80,000 stamps.
This parcel was dispatched from Ber-
lin in June, 1863, and no more of the 2,
2^, and 4sch were printed. A further
supply of 240 sheets of the ^sch (24,000
stamps) was printed in October, 1865,
and a second supply of the 1 schilling,
consisting of 200 sheets (20,000 stamps)
was printed in May, 1867. This latter
differs from the others in having a
gauge of ten for the roulette. The color
was also different from the Isch issued
in 1863, the shade being orange instead
of the previous orange-vermilion.
1863-67. Embossed. No wmk. Rouletted 11%.
8. J^sch green, Scott's No. 8.
9. Isch orange-vermilion, Scott's No. 9.
10. Isch orange, Roul. 10, Scott's No. 9a.
11. 2sch rose, Scott's No. 10.
12. 2j4sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 11.
13. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 12.
to issue a series of envelopes as well as
adhesives the same dies were utilised for
both, and these were engraved by Schill-
ing. The values are the same as those
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
Until 1864 Denmark had maintained
a post-office in Lubeck but when, owing
to the war, the duchies of Schleswig,
Holstein, and Lauenberg were detached
from Denmark this office was aban-
doned. Mail for the duchies was then
handled by the city Post the rate on
single letters being fixed at IJ^sch. As
there was no stamp of that value or a
^sch by means of which the rate might
be made up in conjunction with a Isch
stamp had to be issued and as
the demand for this- was somewhat ur-
gent it was decided to produce it locally
by lithography rather than wait for a
supply from Berlin. H. G. Rahtgens,
who produced the first series, was en-
trusted with the manufacture of this
l^sch label. The design is a palpable
copy of the embossed stamps and shows
the Arms of Lubeck on a dotted ground
within an upright oval band inscribed in
a similar manner to the stamps of the
1863 series. The stamps were litho-
graphed in sheets of 100 and there were
two printings. The first of .these took
place in March, 1864, when 525 sheets
(52,500 stamps) were printed and the
second was made in November of the
same year when 517 sheets, or 51,700
stamps were prepared. They were is-
sued imperforate and a number of dif-
ferent shades may be found.
1864. No wmk. Imperf.
1(4. I'^sch brown, Scott's No. 14.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
On October 1st, 1865, the postage be-
tween Lubeck and Travemund on the
one side, and Hamburg, Bergedorf and
Geestacht on the other was reduced to
\ l /2 schilling, and a stamp to provide for
the new rate was ordered from Berlin
together with an envelope of similar
value. The first supply of 202 sheets
(20,200 stamps) was sent in November,
1865. and a second supply of 200 sheets
(20,000 stamps) was despatched in May,
1867, these being printed in a brighter
tint. The design is similar to that of
1863 except that the inscribed band is
octagonal instead of oval while the rec-
tangular form is obtained by the filling
of the angles with engine-turning.
These were rouletted 11^ in line like
the emission of 1863.
This was the last special stamp issued
by the Lubeck administration (though
there was a later printing of the Isch
as we have already shown) before its
absorption by the North German Con-
federation on January 1st, 1868.
1867. Embossed. No wmk. Roul. 11 J A.
15. IJ^sch mauve, Scott's No 13.
At the time the Lubeck Post-office
went out of business as a distinctive
stamp issuing establishment quite a con-
siderable number of stamps remained on
hand and these were sold in December,
1868, to M. Ch. Pelletreau, of Paris, for
about $450.00. The lot comprised the
1859. y 2 sch 72,500 stamps.
Isch 29,500 stamps,
2sch 79,500 stamps.
4sch 107,500 stamps.
1863. l / 2 sch 23,968 stamps.
Isch 7,228 stamps.
2sch 50,828 stamps.
4sch 17,851 stamps.
1864. l*4sch 30,652 stamps.
1865. l^sch 97,071 stamps.
Those of the first issue were all with-
out gum and the two lowest values were
the varieties on unwatermarked paper.
Of the 2sch, 1590 were the errors in-
scribed "Zwei ein HALB."
In 1871 Herr Kirchner, a soldier who
had been wounded in the Franco-Ger-
man war, obtained the permission of
the authorities to make reprints of all
the stamps of Lubeck excepting the
lJ4sch of 1864 for which, apparently,
no die had been made, or; if made, had
been lost. These reprints were made
for Herr Kirchner by H. G. Rahtgens
who charged the modest sum of $7.50
for the work. Of the 1859 issue 250
of each value were reprinted with an
additional 250 of the Isch on thick
paper. As the original stones were not
available new ones had to be made and
these were small ones of 25 impressions
in five rows of five. These varieties
are, therefore, not true reprints but imi-
tations made with official sanction. The
paper is thin (with the exception of the
extra lot of Isch already referred to)
and unwatermarked, the gum smooth
and evenly applied, instead of thick and
yellowish as in the originals, and the
colors are also different. As these re-
prints are far rarer than the original
stamps they are not likely to worry the
At the same time reprints of the 1863
issue were made and also of the l^sch
of 1865. There were only 250 of these
likewise, but as they were neither em-
bossed nor rouletted, and printed in
colors widely differing from the origi-
nals their identification should be a
simple matter. These are, of course, as
rare as the reprints of the 1859 set.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin is a grand-
duchy of the German Empire lying
south of the Baltic Sea. The surface is
generally flat but diversified by the
Baltic ridge of the North German plain.
Its area, including that of its sister
duchy, Mecklenburg- Strelitz, is 6,266
square miles and the combined popula-
tion of both is not far in excess of 800,-
000. Agriculture, the most important
industry in the duchy, has reached a
high state of development. Sugar and
starch factories, breweries and distil-
leries, and the making of machinery and
bricks are the other industries of mo-
ment. Salt and gypsium are extracted.
The capitol of Mecklenburg-Schwerin is
Schwerin. The town of next importance
is Rostock at which a well-known uni-
versity is established. The population
of the towns and land-owning classes
are of lower Saxon descent, while the
rural population are mostly of Slav de-
scent. The current language is Platt-
Deutsch or Low German. The duchy
dates from 1710, while the title of grand
duke dates from 1815. During the time
its postage stamps were in use the reign-
ing Grand Duke was Frederick Francis
II. Alecklenburg-Schwerin has two
votes in the Imperial Federal Council
and sends six members to the Imperial
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
The grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-
Schwerin did not issue its first postage
stamps until July 1st, 1856, though it ap-
pears to have joined the German-Aus-
trian Postal Union some years previous-
ly and to have been desirous of issuing
stamps. Its currency, however, seems
to have been a stumbling block for be-
ing in thalers and schillinge some diffi-
culty was experienced in arriving at
equivalents acceptable to the other mem-
bers of the Union. The thaler, equal to
about ?2c in United States currency, was
divided into 48 schillinge, while the
thaler of the Postal Union (also worth
about 72c) was equal to 30 North Ger-
man silber-groschen. After some dis-
cussion it was agreed that 1 silbergro-
schen should be represented by 1^4
schillinge, 2 silbergroschen by 3^4 schit-
linge, and 3 silbergroschen by 5 schil-
The letter rates within the boundaries
of the duchy were 1 schilling up to three
German miles, 1 schilling 6 pfennige (or
\ l / 2 schilling) from three to six miles,
and 3 schillinge for distances over six
miles. The rate on printed matter
weighing under 1 loth was l / 2 schilling,
regardless of distance, and for heavier
packages the rate was one-fourth that
charged for letters. The rates for let-
ters sent to other countries within the
Postal Union were 1 schilling for dis-
tances up to 10 miles, 3*4 schilling for
distances of 10 to 20 miles, and 5 schil-
ling for distances over 20 miles. These
rates would have necessitated quite a
number of different denominations but
the difficulty was surmounted by the in-
genious expedient of issuing a divisible
1 schilling stamp (so constructed that it
could be cut up into four parts of Y
schilling each) and 3 and 5 schillinge
values. In 1864 the 4/4 schilling stamp
was issued rouletted and almost immedi-
ately after it was changed somewhat in
design. At the same time the color of
the 5sch was changed from blue to
bistre. In September, 1865, the 3sch ap-
In 1863 the postal rates were revised
as regards inland letters the new sched-
ule being 1 schilling for distances up to
five miles, 2 schilling from five to ten
miles, and 3 schilling above ten miles.
For printed matter distance was disre-
garded and the rates were fixed by
weight at y 2 schilling up to 1 loth, 1
schilling from 1 to 4 loth, and 2 schilling
from 4 loth to eight ounces. It will'
thus be seen that there was considerable
necessity for a 2 schilling stamp but a
label of this value was not issued until
October, 1866. In the following year it
underwent a change of color and on
January 1st, 1868, the separate series of
stamps for Mecklenburg- Schwerin was
dispensed with on the formation of the
North German Confederation.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
The first stamps, as we have already
stated, were issued on July 1st, 1856.
They were printed at the Prussian State
Printing Office, in Berlin, on white wove
paper and were issued imperforate. The
design of the 1 schilling consisted of
four small stamps of Y\ schilling each
in two rows of two, the combined four
being about 21 mm. square. The design
on each of these four quarters shows a
bull's head (or that of a buffalo accord-
ing to some writers) the Arms of Meck-
lenburg, on a dotted ground, heraldically
representing a field d'or. This was en-
closed by a square frame inscribed
"SCHILLING" at the base and "MECK-
LENB. SCHWERIN FRIEMARKE"
on the other three sides, the numerals
of value being in the angles. The 3 and
5 schillinge are alike in design and
show a bull's head on a dotted ground
within a shield, surmounted by a grand
ducal coronet on an uncolored ground.
Around this centerpiece is a square
frame being inscriptions similar to those
on the lowest denomination except that
the word at base is "SCHILLINGE."
The numerals in the angles are, of
course, "3" and "5" respectively.
The sheets consisted of 120 stamps
arranged in twelve rows of ten. Ac-
cording to the late Mr. W. A. S. Westo-
by "the 480 electrotypes for the J4 schil-
ling were arranged in groups of four in
two rows of two, 1}4 mm. distance from
each other, and 1^4 mm. between each
group." Other writers state that the
small electrotypes were placed an equal
distance apart horizontally and vertical-
ly so that each was virtually a separate
54 schilling stamp. The electrotypes for
the 3 and 5 schillinge values were spaced
about 2 mm. apart. The rows were
numbered in the margins at each side
from 1 to 12 respectively. Three de-
liveries of these stamps were made by
the Prussian State Printing Office viz. :
Date. Sheets. Value. Stamps
June 9, 1856. 6,300 4/4sch 756,000
June 9, 1856. 1,800 3sch 216,000
June 9, 1856. 600 5sch 72,000
Nov. 26, 1856. 200 3sch 24,000
Dec. 16, 1856. 1,650 3sch 198,000
It will be noted that the total supply
of the 5sch consisted of only 72,000
stamps so that it is rather surprising its
catalogue value is not higher. The only
denomination that varies in shade is the
2sch which is found in yellow and
1856. Typographed. Imperf.
1. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 1.
2. 3sch yellow, Scott's No. 2 or No. 2a.
3. osch blue, Scott's No. 3.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
On June 12th, 1864, a supply of 500
sheets (60,000 stamps) of the 4/4sch
stamp was ordered from Berlin and de-
livered early in July. The printers took
it upon themselves to roulette the stamps
in this supply and as the innovation was
approved by the Mecklenburg authorities
all further supplies of stamps were is-
sued with roulette separation. This
rouletting necessitated a new arrange-
ment of the little electrotypes. The
groups of four were arranged with a
space of 3mm. between them, which al-
lowed of a rouletting in line between
each group. The paper on which this
supply of stamps was printed was of a
different texture from that used in 1856,
having a smoother surface and being
softer with a more pronounced mesh.
Notwithstanding the fact that there were
nearly as many of these stamps printed
as of the 5sch blue this is the rarest of
all Mecklenburg stamps as a glance at
the catalogue will show.
July, 1864. Typographed. Rouletted
4. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 4.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
A notice issued by the Post Office un-
der date September 30th, 1864, informed
the public that as soon as the stock of
5sch blue was exhausted a new issue
would be made printed in brown, and
that the dotted ground in the 4/4 schil-
ling stamps had been suppressed. The
actual date of issue of these two new
varieties does not seem to be known for,
though the official circular referred to
above is dated Sept. 30th, a delivery of
the osch bistre was made on July 15th,
1864, while the first lot of the 4/4sch was
delivered on August 10th. These stamps
were printed in sheets of 100 in ten
rows of ten instead of 120 as formerly.
The dates and quantities of the different
supplies were as follows :
Date. Sheets. Value. Stamps
July 15, 1864. 100 5sch 10,000
Aug. 10, 1864. 4,000 4/4sch 400,000
March 20, 1865. 150 5sch 15,000
Oct. 20, 1865. 150 5sch 15,000
Jan. 9, 1866. 5,000 4/4sch 500,000
Jan. 26, 1867. 60 5sch 6,000
Feb. 23, 1867. 2,000 4/4sch 200,000
June 11, 1867. 100 5sch 10,000
Aug. 24, 1867. 1,200 4/4sch 120,000
It will thus be seen that altogether
1.. "jo, ooo 4/4sch stamps were printed and
56,000 of the 5sch.
The 5sch is known on a distinctly
thick paper and as this is little rarer than
the normal variety it would seem that
more than one of the supplies mentioned
above were on this paper. Both values
may be found in quite a number of
shades. The specialist can sub-divide
the ordinary paper into two varieties
one having a close texture like that used
in 1856 and the other having a coarse
web like that used for the issue of the
rouletted 4/4sch original type, made in
1864. Typographed. Rouletted 11%.
.">. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 5.
*;. Hsch bistre, Scott's No. 6 or No. 6a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
In September, 1865, the 3 schillinge ap-
peared rouletted ll 1 /? like the other
values. The original plate of 1856 was
used so that the stamps have smaller
margins than those of the 5sch of the
last issue which were printed in sheets
of 100. A supply consisting of 800
sheets, or 96,000 stamps was delivered
on August 16th. There was little room
for the roulette lines, the size of the
completed stamps being 23mm. square.
When a new supply was required in 1867
the plate was reconstructed so that it
contained 100 stamps like that of the
4/4sch and 5sch. These were so spaced
that the stamps now measure a trifle
more than 24 mm. square. Two print-
ings, each of 20,000 stamps, were made
and these were delivered on July llth
and August 24th, 1867, respectively.
1865. Typographed. Rouletted 11%.
7. 3sch yellow, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
Although, as we have shown in our
introductory notes, there was consider-
able need for a 2 schillinge stamp the
first supply of this value was not issued
until October, 1866. In design it is simi-
lar to the 3sch and 5sch but with, of
course, the numerals "2" in the angles.
The plate consisted of the 100 electro-
types then usual and the first supply con-
sisted of 500 sheets, or 50,000 stamps.
These were printed in purple and the
supply lasted until September, 1867,
when another batch of 200 sheets (20,000
stamps) was ready for issue. This sec-
ond lot provides two shades grey-lilac
and bluish lilac. One of the electrotypes
was slightly damaged, the ball of the "2"
in the upper right hand corner being
knocked off providing a minor variety.
1866-67. Typographed. Rouletted 11%.
8. 2sch lilac, Scott's No. 7 or 7a.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin having joined
the North German Confederation its
special stamps were superseded on Janu-
ary 1st, 1868, by the general issue for the
Confederation. Late in the same year
or early in 1869 the remainders were
purchased from the Post Office by Mr.
G. Schnelle, of Schwerin. These con-
sisted of the following:
2sch lilac, 15,000 stamps
3sch yellow, 18,800 stamps
5sch bistre, 3,000 stamps
4/4sch red, '36,500 stamps
The price paid for the lot was $75.00
and the purchaser offered them whole-
sale at the following rates :
Isch (4/4) red, $2.40 per 100.
2sch lilac, $2.40 per 100.
3sch yellow, $2.40 per 100.
From another list of the same period
we take the following retail prices which
are interesting compared with those now
1856, 4/4sch red, imperf., unused 12c.
3856, 4/4sch red, imperf., used 4c.
1856, 4/4sch red, rouletted, unused 50c.
1856, 4/4sch red, rouletted, used 50c.
1856, 3sch yellow, imperf. 2c.
1856, 5sch blue, used, 12c.
1864, 4/4sch red, 2c.
1864, 5sch brown, 6c.
There are no reprints of any of the
The grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-
Strelitz adjoins that of Mecklenburg
Schwerin. Its industries, people, and
geographical formation are similar to
that of its sister duchy, while its capital
is Neu-Strelitz. It has but one vote in
the Imperial Federal Council and sends
only one member to the Imperial Diet.
The existing duchy dates from 1701,
the title of grand-duke being acquired
in 1815. At the time its postage stamps
were issued its ruler was the Grand
Duke Frederick William, then a child
four years of age.
the confines of the duchy was charged
at the rate of % silbergroschen per loth,
while for other places within the Ger-
man-Austrian Postal Union the rate
was Yz silbergroschen. The computa-
tion of the postal charges must have
been difficult at times for some of the
rates were expressed in schillinge and
some in silbergroschen and, as we have
shown in the case of Mecklenburg-
Schwerin, the two currencies were
somewhat difficult to reconcile. The
stamps had but a short life for on Jan-
uary 1st, 1868, they were superseded by
the general issue for the North German
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
Until October, 1864, the postal affairs
of the tiny Grand-duchy of Mecklen-
burg-Strelitz were managed by the
Thurn and Taxis administration. It
then, if somewhat tardy in making up
its mind to do so, decided to issue
stamps of its own and the order for these
was given to the Prussian State Print-
ing Office at Berlin. The currency was a
mixed one, as both that of the thaler
of its sister grand-duchy divided into
48 schillinge was in use, and that in
which it was divided into 30 silber-
groschen. A series of six different
stamps was issued five of these having
the values denoted in silbergroschen
while the other had its value expressed
as 1 schilling. The latter was intended
for local letters only while the other
denominations took the place of the
similar values which had been used
under the Thurn and Taxis adminis-
The rates of postage on single letters
were as follows: Up to 10 miles, 1
silbergroschen ; From 10 to 20 miles, 2
silbergroschen ; Over 20 miles, 3 silber-
groschen. Local, or "drop", letters were
1 schilling, the registration fee was 2
schilling, and special delivery cost 3
silbergroschen. Printed matter within
The stamps were first issued on Octo-
ber 1st, 1864, and of the six values com-
prised in the set three were of one de-
sign and three of another. The central
design on the Y sgr, Ys sgr and 1 schil-
ling consists of a rectangle of solid
color on which the Arms of Mecklen-
burg, a bull's head on a shield sur-
mounted by a grand-ducal coronet, are
embossed in white. On the frame the
inscriptions are shown in colored let-
ters on an engine turned ground, while
in each of the four corners the numer-
als of value are shown in white on
square blocks of solid color. The in-
scriptions are "MECKLENB." on the
left, "STRELITZ" on- the right, "EIN
VIERTEL" or "EIN DTITTEL" on
the top for the J^sgr and Hsgr respec-
tively, and "SILB. GR." at the bottom
for these two values. On the 1 schilling
the top frame shows "EIN" and the
bottom one "SCHILLING". On the
other three values the centre is similar
but is on a solid oval ground. The
frame around this is octagonal in shape
with inscriptions on an engine turned
ground. These are "MECKLENB.
STRELITZ" at the top and the value in
words at the bottom. In the centre, at
each side, numerals of value are shown
on small uncolored ovals.
The stamps were all embossed in color
on plain white wove unwatermarkcd
paper at the Prussian State Printing
Office. They were printed in sheets of
100, ten rows of ten, with the side mar-
gins numbered 1 to 10 corresponding
with the horizontal rows. All were
rouletted ll l / 2 .
How many were printed or how many
different printings took place we have
been unable to discover but the totals
were roughly as follows :
%sgr and ^sgr about 60,000 of each.
1 schilling at least 20,000.
Isgr and 3 sgr about 100,000 of each.
2sgr about 50,000.
All values except the 1 schilling and
3sgr exist in fairly pronounced shades.
Of the l /4 silbergroschen 100 sheets
(10,000 stamps) were printed in orange-
yellow. This was the first supply and
those printed subsequently were in
Oct. 1st, 1864. Embossed. Rouletted 11^.
1. J^sgr orange, Scott's No. 1 or No. la.
2. V$sgr green, Scott's No. 2.
.",. Isch violet, Scott's No. 3.
4. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 4.
5. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 5.
6. 3sgr bistre, Scott's No. 6.
The grand-duchy having joined the
North German Confederation, a notice
dated December 17th, 1867, announced
that on and after January 1st, 1868, the
stamps of the Confederation would be
substituted for those of Mecklenburg-
Strelitz. The remainders were sold in
1868 to a merchant in Neu-Strelitz but
no details appear to have been published
regarding the numbers in the lot or the
price paid for them. All the stamps
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are consider-
ably rarer used than unused and speci-
mens with forged cancellations are,
therefore, by no means uncommon.
None of the stamps of this grand-
duchy have ever been reprinted.
Oldenburg is a sovereign grand-duchy
of the German Empire consisting of
three divisions. The first and largest of
these is the grand-duchy proper which
adjoins the North Sea and has an area
of 2,075 square miles. The second part
consists of the principality of Lubeck,
which is situated north of the state of the
same name, with an area of 210 square
miles. The third and smallest portion is
known as the principality of Birkenfeld.
This is situated on the River Saar in the
south of the Rhine Provinces and has an
area of 194 square miles. The total pop-
ulation of the three portions is a little
over 400,000. The grand-duchy proper
consists of marsh and geest (high heath
and moor) land. The breeding of horses,
cattle, and sheep and the keeping of bees,
are considerable industries. Brickmak-
ing, cork and turf cutting, brewing and
distilling, and tobacco manufacture are
also carried on. Lubeck possesses more
pleasing features than the grand-duchy
and is blessed with fruitful soil. Birken-
feld is covered with forests to the extent
of 40% of its surface. Here the cutting
of gems (agates) and manufacture of
imitation jewelery are thriving industries.
The grand-duchy has one vote in the Im-
perial Federal Council and sends three
representatives to the Imperial Diet. Its
capital, having a population of about 30,-
000, bears the same name and is chiefly
famous for its grand-ducal palace.
The house of Oldenburg is one of con-
siderable antiquity and traces its descent
direct from the famous Saxon leader,
Witikind, who successfully resisted the
doughty Charlemagne more than eleven
hundred years ago. Though Witikind
eventually submitted it was on highly
favorable terms and he took the title of
Duke of Saxony. Two of his descend-
ants became the heroes of the nursery
tales of Germany. One was Count Otto,
to whom a fairy is said to have presented
the silver-gilt horn still exhibted in the
museum of Copenhagen, and known as
the "Horn of Oldenburg." It is this horn
which figures on the stamps of Denmark.
Count Frederic, another off-shoot,
bravely proved the innocence of a
maligned father by undergoing the ordeal
of single combat with a fierce lion, which
he slew in the presence of the assembled
diet of Gostar, presided over by the
Emperor, Henry IV. From this young
hero's heirs springs the ducal house of
Oldenburg and his prowess is fittingly
commemorated by the inclusion of a lion
rampant on the ducal coat-of-anns.
Christian, the Warlike, his great-grand-
son, built a castle near the ancient city of
Oldenburg in 1180 and -thereafter took
for his title Count of Oldenburg. In
1570, Anthony, the reigning Count, willed
a transfer of his dominions to the king
of Denmark and the Dukes of Schleswig-
Holstein, in the case of the extinction of
his male posterity.
In 1667 the country actually fell into
the possession of Denmark, then repre-
sented by the house of Holstein Gottorp,
the elder branch of the Oldenburg family.
On the accession of that branch to the
Russian throne Denmark received Old-
enburg in exchange for the Schleswig-
Holstein family possessions. The grand-
duke Paul of Russia, in whom the Old-
enburg states were invested, solemnly
assigned them, according to convention,
to his cousin Frederic Augustus, repre-
sentative of the younger branch of Got-
torp and at that time bishop of Lubeck.
The emperor of Germany confirmed this
settlement (1777), and raised the terri-
tory to the rank of a duchy. In 1803 the
bishopric of Lubeck was added to the
duchy and, after the fall of Napoleon in
1815, the principality of Birkenfeld was
amalgamated therewith. In 1829 the .ter-
ritory was made a grand-duchy.
ITS POSTAL HISTORY.
The postal service of Oldenburg was
originally in the hands of the Counts of
Thurn and Taxis, but when it was an-
nexed to the French crown in 1811 that
service was put an end to. When the
duchy was restored by the Congress of
Vienna in 1815, after the fall of Napo-
leon, it provided a postal administration
of its own. In 1851 it joined the Ger-
man-Austrian Postal Union and, as one
of the rules of the Union required the
adoption of postage stamps by the con-
tracting states, Oldenburg immediately
made preparation for the issue of suit-
able labels. The postal rates required
three values 1, 2, and 3 silbergroschen
respectively, and these were somewhat
difficult to express owing to the fact that
the currency, like that of Bremen, con-
sisted of a thaler of 72 grote, each of
which was divided into 5 schwaren. In
the other countries belonging to this
Postal Union the thaler was divided into
30 silbergroschen. It was decided to ex-
press the values in fractions of a thaler,
1 silbergroschen (1/30 thaler) being
equal to 2 2/5 grote; 2 silbergroschen
(1/15 thaler) being equal to 4 4/5 grote;
and 3 silbergroschen (1/10 thaler) be-
ing equal to 7 1/5 grote. These three
stamps were first placed on sale on Janu-
ary 5th, 1852. The 1 silbergroschen
stamp was for letters weighing up to 1
loth (ounce) sent not more than 10 Ger-
man miles within the confines of the
grand-duchy; the 2 silbergroschen was
for letters sent more than 10 miles ; and
the 3 silbergroschen value was for heavi-
er letters and also for those sent to
points outside Oldenburg. The 1 silber-
groschen was also used for the registra-
tion fee and, from 1858, represented the
single letter rate to any place within the
In 1855 a new value, 1/3 silbergroschen
or 4 schwaren, was issued for use on
packages of printed matter up to one
ounce in weight.
In 1857 the coinage was altered to con-
form with that of the other members of
the Postal Union, the thaler now being
divided into 30 groschen of 12 schwaren
each. A new set of four values appeared
in 1859 showing values in groschen. The
next change took place in 1861 when it
was decided to dispense with colored
papers and have colored impressions on
white paper. At the same time two new
values were added to the set a J / 2 gr for
the reduced local or "drop" letter rate,
and Vtgr to assist in making up the frac-
tional rates on letters to foreign coun-
tries. This value was dropped in Feb-
ruary of the following year as its use
was rather restricted and where the frac-
tional rates necessitated it the next high-
er value, l / 2 gr had to be used. The adop-
tion of uniform colors for equivalent
values among the various members of
the Union necessitated another issue in
1862 and this remained in use until Jan-
uary 1st, 1868, when Oldenburg joined
the North German Confederation.
In 1853 Prussia acquired about a quar-
ter of a square mile of the territory of
Oldenburg at the mouth of the river
Jade for a naval port, now called Wil-
helmshafen, for a consideration of $375,-
000, but it was stipulated that Prussian
stamps should only be used on letters
forwarded by sea. Prussian official cor-
respondence was forwarded free but all
other mail matter passing over the post-
al routes of the grand-duchy had to be
franked with Oldenburg stamps. It is im-
portant to remember that the Oldenburg
stamps were only used in the grand-
duchy proper and not in the principalities
of Lubeck and Birkenfeld.
By an agreement, dated August 17th,
1845, and by a Customs Convention dated
January 16th, 1864, the postal service of
Lubeck was transferred to Denmark,
which then possessed sovereign powers
in the neighbouring Duchy of Holstein.
The postal revenue went to Denmark and
Danish stamps were used there until
1864. Then the stamps of Schleswig-
Holstein were used, and from 1866 those
Prussia also had charge of the postal
administration of Birkenfeld, by the
terms of a convention dated April 4th,
1837. Prussian stamps were used and
Oldenburg received the sum of $450 an-
nually as compensation for the loss of
THE FIRST ISSUE.
On December 5th, 1851, Oldenburg
joined the German- Austrian Postal Un-
ion and, as one of the rules of the Union
stipulated that postage stamps should be
introduced as "quickly as possible," the
Government at once made arrangements
for the issue of suitable stamps. The old
established firm of lithographic printers,
Gerhard Stalling of Oldenburg, were ap-
proached and they submitted a drawing
for the proposed stamps together with
an estimate for the cost of production.
The drawing met with the approval of
the Government and it was returned to
Stalling with an order to manufacture
the stamps. This order was notified to
the Postal Administration by the Govern-
ment on December 29th, 1851, and on the
day previous to this an official decree was
published for a translation of which I am
indebted to Mr. G. B. Duerst's article
in the Mnnthlv Journal for December,
OLDENBURG, December 28, 1851.
On account of the introduction of
postage stamps, and in consequence of
the notice of the 16th inst. referring to
the German-Austrian Postal Conven-
tion, the following is herewith pub-
Art. i. The value is stated on the
postage stamps, on a shield underneath
the coat of arms of Oldenburg-Del-
menhorst, surmounted by a crown, in
fractions of a thaler, and on a scroll on
the right-hand side of the shield in
silbergroschen, and on the left-hand
side in grote. Underneath the shield
is the word "Oldenburg." also in a
The stamps of 1/30 thaler=2 2/5gr
Isgr are blue.
The stamps of 1/15 thaler=4 4/5gr
=2sgr are red.
The stamps of 1/10 thaler=7 l/5gr
3sgr are yellow.
Art. 2. Only letters can be franked
with postage stamps; letters with de-
clared value, packets to be paid for on
delivery, samples and wrappers (news-
papers?) are excepted.
Art. 3. The correct amount for the
prepayment of the postage according
to the tabulated tariffs must be affixed
in postage stamps on the address side
of the letter in the upper left-hand cor-
ner; this can be done by moistening
the adhesive matter which is found on
the back of the stamps, and pressing
them on the letters. If the stamps
have dropped off the letters are con-
sidered as not franked.
Art. 4. On letters which have not
been franked sufficiently by the senders
the underpaid amount will be marked
and collected from the addressee. If
the sender has affixed more stamps
than required by the tariff he will have
to bear the loss.
Art. 5. Letters franked with stamps
can be posted like unfranked letters
in letter boxes ; registered letters must
be handed in over the counter.
Art. 6. Refers to imitators and
forgers of postage stamps.
Art. 7. Postage stamps can be
bought at all post offices from the 5th
of January, 1852.
At the same time as the foregoing doc-
ument was distributed a "letfter of instruc-
tions" was sent to the various postmas-
ters and for the translation of the fol-
lowing interesting items I am again in-
debted to Mr. Duerst.
If sufficient postage has not been
affixed in stamps, the despatching post
office must mark the deficiency on the
address side of the letter and debit the
receiving office, which must collect the
amount from the addressee.
All letters must be postmarked with
name dies as before. If a stamp be
recognized as forged, the letter must
be sent to the head office. Each stamp
must be cancelled separately. The
number of the cancellation die must be
completely imprinted on the stamp it-
self. Each office has a die, consisting
of four concentric circles, containing a
number in the centre. Each office will
receive a different number as per the
The despatching office will be lined
five times the amount of any not suffi-
ciently obliterated stamp.
The "dies" referred to above are the
The same design served for all three
values and this has a strong resemblance
to that adopted for the first issue of
Hanover. Writing in the Stamp Collec-
tor's Magazine in 1874 with regard to
these stamps Mr. Overy Taylor said,
"The early issues of Oldenburg are re-
markable for their neatness and finish.
They have the same kind of artistic
primness as their Hanoverian contem-
poraries. There is the same combina-
tion, at any rate in the first series, of
the useful numeral of value with the
decorative coat of arms ; and there is
the same peculiarity noticeable in them
as in many of the other old German
stamps they are rigidly rectangular.
Whatever vagaries of ornamentation
may be allowed in the centre of the
German stamps of the ante-Prussian
days, their exterior border is always
composed of a neatly ruled double-lined
rectangle. Other stamps might take
oval, octagonal, hexagonal, or sinuous
edged frames, the German engravers
stuck fast to their four-sided ideal; and
it must be admitted that their produc-
tions are not lacking in a certain grave
and well-balanced appropriateness. The
first Oldenburg type is an example in
point. The arms are very carefully
and clearly drawn, though on a small
scale ; the shield, containing the value
is fancifully designed ; and the scroll,
which frames it on three sides, falls in
graceful folds; whilst the subordinate
foliate ornaments and shading relieve
and harmonise with the prominent fea-
It should be noted that the arms on
the mantle and coronet above are the
ducal and not the grand-ducal ones.
The design for each value was en-
graved separately so that there are many
differences apart from those of the facial
values. The engravings were made on
stone and from these transfers were
taken on specially prepared paper and
laid down on the printing stone in ten
rows of ten. An exact description of
the process followed is given in a letter
dated January 24th, 1859, which was
sent by the Oldenburg postoffice to the
Postal Administration of Luxemburg in
reply to the latter's enquiry as to the
method and cost of manufacturing post-
age stamps. Mr. Duerst translates the
important part -of this letter as follows :
One drawing of the stamp is made
with a diamond point and a steel
needle on a hard, well-polished, blue
lithographed stone, and as many copies
are taken on prepared Chinese paper
as there are to be stamps on the plate
(in this case 100). These are then
fixed in straight lines on paper, (in
this instance in ten rows of ten), and
transferred in this form to another
stone. After these transfers have
been retouched the plate is ready for
There are three generally recognized
varieties of type of the 1/30 and 1/15
thaler values and though Scott's cata-
logue does not differentiate between
them it is as well to know how to
identify them as some are rarer than
The three varieties of the 1/30 thaler
may be distinguished as follows :
Type I. The ornament in the lower
part of the shield joins the left stroke
of the H of THALER.
Type II. The ornament does not
touch the H but is 1 mm. distant from
Type III. The ornament is rounded
and still farther away from the letter H.
The accompanying illustrations should
clearly demonstrate the differences.
Types I and III are about equal in value
while type II is three times as rare as
The distinguishing marks of the three
types of the 1/15 thaler are as.follows:
Type I. The letter H of THALER is
well above the indentation of the shield.
Type II. The letter H almost touches
the indentation of the shield.
Type III. This is similar to type IT
but the bottom portion of the mantle
(below the arms) is fully shaded.
In this value type I is a little com-
moner than the other two. Of these
three varieties of each value the late
Mr. W. A. S. Westoby stated that the
first two in each case represented diff-
erent drawings on the matrix stone and
that the third "may be only a retouch."
Capt. P. Ohrt, whose writings formed
the ground for Mr. Duerst's translation,
states positively that there were only
two separate drawings of each, the sec-
ond one being made owing to a fear that
the original one might be worn out with
constant use. While he mentions the
third type of each his theory of how they
were caused is too vague to be of any
value. How many stones were made
for each value does not appear to be
known. In fact, taking it as a whole,
the published information regarding this
issue is far from satisfactory and these
three stamps form a fine field for origi-
nal research for a collector, with the
time, means, and patience to accumulate
the necessary material and study it
properly. The late Mr. Robert Ehren-
bach stated that being lithographed, each
stamp on a sheet differed slightly from
the others though, owing to superior
workmanship, he admitted that the dif-
ferences in the case of the 1/10 thaler
were very minute.
Quite an extensive range of shades can
be found in all three values.
1852. Lithographed. Imperforate.
1. 1/30 thaler black on blue, Scott's No. 1.
2. 1/15 thaler black on rose, Scott No. 2.
3. 1/10 thaler black on yellow, Scott's No. 3.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
In February 1855, a new value was
added to the set for the prepayment of
the rate on newspapers and other printed
matter. This is very similar in design
to the other denominations but has the
value " l / 3 SILB. GR." on the shield
and "4 SCHW." on the scrolls at each
side. Up to this time all printed matter
enclosed in wrappers had to be prepaid
in money and as the number of these
packages had grown to a considerable
total the time taken in weighing them
and accepting the proper fee in money
often proved a serious embarrassment
to the postal employes. In December,
1854, therefore, the Administration or-
dered Stalling to prepare a stamp of
the required value and at the same time
the following official notice was pub-
It was decreed in the official notifi-
cation of December 28, 1851, that pack-
ets in wrappers could not be prepaid
by means of stamps. As it has been
found in the meantime that it is de-
sirable that such packets be prepaid
by stamps, the Postal Administration
has ordered such stamps to be made,
presuming that the Government will
sanction this order.
The value, 4 schwaren, is contained
on a shield below the coat of arms of
by a crown, and on the right and left-
hand sides in scrolls, underneath
the shield is the word "OLDEN-
The stamps are on green, the im-
pression in black color. Concerning the
introduction of this stamp, a notice
will have to be published in the Offi-
cial Gazette, which the Government is
requested to order.
In acceding to this request the Govern-
ment published the following decree un-
der date, January 30, 1855 :
Referring to the official notification
of 28 December, 1851, concerning post-
age stamps, and in alteration of Arti-
cle 2 of the same, it is hereby notified
that packets in wrappers can also be
prepaid by stamps, from the 1st of
February, in the same manner and
under the same conditions as letters.
The stamps are of green color, with
black impression, and are of the value
of 4 schwaren.
The stamps can be bought from the
date named at all post offices.
The value schwaren was abbreviated
to "schw" on the stamps. The schwaren
was a small copper coin, peculiar to
Oldenburg, worth only about J^c in
United States currency.
The stamps were lithographed in the
same manner as the others and printed
in sheets of 100 in ten rows of ten.
There do not appear to be any minor
varieties of importance while the color
of the paper hardly varies at all. It
would appear that the total number is-
sued was not large while, judging from
the present catalogue price of used spec-
imens, the use of this value was some-
1855. Lithographed. Imperf.
4. l/3sgr (4schw) black on green Scott's
THE THIRD ISSUE.
On January 24th, 1857, Oldenburg con-
cluded a monetary convention with other
German States according to which only
the thaler of" 30 groschen was to be
legal currency, and the old thaler of 72
grote was abolished. As the stamps then
current did not agree with the new coin-
age so far as some of the inscriptions
were concerned it was decided to issue
a new series. Matters were, however,
taken very leisurely and it was not un-
til eighteen months later that the new
.stamps were placed on sale. Of such
little consequence was the change con-
sidered by the Postal Administration,
notwithstanding that the design chosen
was a very different one from that of
1852, that no official notification of any
sort appears to have been published.
The new stamps were, apparently, dis-
tributed to the postmasters without com-
ment and were placed on sale at each
post office just as soon as supplies of the
old stamps were exhausted. As no offi-
cial date of issue was stipulated we have
to rely on dated obliterated specimens
and from these it would seem that the
stamps were probably placed on sale in
July or August, 1859.
The design is similar for all four
values and consists of the grand-ducal
coat of arms, surmounted by a ducal
crown, on a plain oval ground, with
"OLDENBURG" on a scroll above it,
and the value in words on a similar
scroll below. On each side of the cen-
terpiece are small ovals containing the
numerals of value, while the spaces
above and below these are filled with
The stamps were designed and litho-
graphed at the works of Gerhard Stall-
ing, and as in the case of the previously
current stamps, a separate engraving on
stone was made for each value. They
were printed in sheets of 100 in ten
rows of ten, in black on colored papers.
Naturally, as the stamps were produced
by lithography minor varieties exist but
the only one of prominence occurs on
the 3 groschen. On one stamp on the
stone the D of OLDENBURG was so
malformed as to more nearly resemble
The T /3 groschen seems to have been
but little used and it is by far the rarest
of the series. Tn the 1 and 2 groschen
fairly pronounced shades may be found.
1859. Lithographed. Imperf.
5. l/3gr black on green, Scott's No. 5.
6. Igr black on blue, Scott's No, 6.
7. 2gr black on rose, Scott's No. 7.
8. 3gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 8.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
A Post-office circular, dated December
15th, 1860, announced that on January
1st, 1861, coincident with an issue of
stamped envelopes, a new issue of adhe-
sive stamps would be made, printed in
color on white paper, the values being
1 A, l /z, l /2, 1, 2, and 3 groschen. The de-
signs for the 1/3, 1, 2, and 3 groschen
were the same as those for the preced-
ing issue and it is evident the same
original dies were used. Possibly, too,
for the earlier printings the same stones
were used. The two new values are a
little different in design. The ducal
coronet is larger, nearly as large as the
coat of arms ; and these are on a ground
of solid color. The ends of the scrolls
containing the inscriptions above and
below the centre are prolonged down-
wards or upwards and these extensions
fill the spaces occupied by the arabesques
on the other values. How many print-
ings were made is not known but most
of the values fall into two divisions
which may be described as hazy and
clear prints, respectively. The former
were evidently the earlier printings, the
result of lack of knowledge on the part
of the lithographers as to how to deal
with colored inks. As they became
more expert their work improved result-
ing in the clear prints. Quite a number
of varieties are found in the lettering
and in the frames of the l /3gr and 3gr
values from which it would appear that
new stones were laid down and for
these a number of defective transfers
were used. Of these varieties the most
prominent are "OLDEIBURG," which is
found on both values, and "Dritto" and
"Drittd," found on the ^gr. An inter-
esting minor variety of the Igr is known
with a pointed numeral at the right hand
side. This seems of considerable rarity.
The Y-2. groschen value was necessitated
by a reduction in the rates for local let-
ters which had previously required a
Igr stamp. The ^4gr was for no par-
ticular rate but was used in conjunction
with other values when the postal
charges, as was frequently the case, re-
sulted in such fractional charges as Y$
or Y$. It is the rarest value of the set
in used condition.
All values exist in a number of shades
the }/3gr and Igr in narticular furnishing
a number of distinctive tints. Errors of
the Igr and 3gr are known printed on
both sides. The former was first dis-
covered in 1894 while the latter was not
known until some years later,
1861. Lithographed. Imperf.
9. 54 gr orange, Scott's No. 9.
10. l/3gr green, Scott's No. 10 or No. 11.
11. i/ 2 gr brown, Scott's No. 12 or 12a,
1L'. Igr blue, Scott's No. 13.
13. 2gr red, Scott's No. 14.
14. 3gr yellow, Scott's No. 15.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
On March 9th, 1861, the Prussian
Postal Administration addressed the
following circular to the various signa-
tories to the German-Austrian Postal
Experience has shown that the dif-
ferences in the colors of the stamps
and stamped envelopes used by the
various states in the postal convention
make the ascertaining whether the
correct postage has been paid very
difficult. It is, therefore, desirable
that the stamps and stamped envelopes
of 1, 2 and 3sgr and their equivalents
should have the same colors. In
order to attain this the General Post
Office has the honor to recommend
the following propositions :
I. The said stamps to be printed in
the colors shown by the enclosed en-
1 silbergroschen=3 kreuzer (Rhine
States) =5 new kreuzer=l>2 schilling
(Mecklenburg) =2 schilling (Hamburg
and Lubeck)=3 grote (Bremen) =12^
centimes (Luxemburg), in red.
2sgr=6kr (Rhine States) =10 n. kr.
=3sch (Mckl.)=3sch (Hbg. and
Lbk.)=5grt (Brem.)=25c (Lux.) in
3sgr=9kr (Rhine States) =15 n. kr.
=5sch (Mckl.)=4sch (Hbg. and
Lbk.)=7grt (Brem.)=37^c"in dark
II. The same colors, according to
the values, should be applied to the
III. To facilitate the operation of
obliteration all stamps should be
affixed in the upper right-hand corner.
IV. Proposed alterations, to come
into force as soon as a new issue is
The General Post Office requests an
answer to these propositions.
BERLIN, March 9, 1861.
General Post Office of the Kingdom of
Nearly all the administrations as-
sented to these proposals and in con-
formity to these suggestions Oldenburg
issued a new series in 1862. As the issue of
1861 had hardly given satisfaction, Stal-
ling was asked if he could not print the
new stamps by some other process than
lithography. It was suggested that the
stamps be engraved but Stalling refused
to undertake the work, owing to lack of
the necessary facilities.
A requisition was, therefore, sent to
the Prussian State Printing Works, ask-
ing if they would undertake to supply
the new stamps. The printing works
replied that they were prepared to exe-
cute the order at a cost of about $37.50
for the necessary dies and plates for
each denomination in addition to the
cost of printing.
The Postal Administration of Olden-
burg agreed to the price and it was de-
cided the same design should be used
for all five values (the %gr was
dropped from this series as being no
longer necessary). The design shows
the arms of the Grand-duchy sur-
mounted by a ducal coronet, embossed
on an oval ground of solid color. This
is enclosed within an oval band on
which, on an engine turned ground, is
the name "OLDENBURG" at top, and
the value in words at the base, while
on small discs at the sides the numerals
of value are displayed. There was no
exterior rectangular frame. The arms
were engraved on steel by Herr Schil-
ling ; from this die Weitmann, a mechani-
cian, made a punch with the aid of
which he sunk five dies of the Arms,
around which oval bands were engine-
turned and engraved by schilling. From
these completed dies, Mr. Westoby tells
us, "fifty lead moulds were taken, and
these were clamped together in five
rows of ten. From this block of fifty-
two electrotypes were taken, making,
when combined, the printing plates of
100 stamps. The rows were numbered
at the top, bottom and sides, as was the
practice with almost all the stamps em-
bossed at Berlin." The stamps were
printed on plain white paper and were
rouletted in line. At first the roulettes
gauged 11^ but in 1867 a new machine
gauging 10 was used. Five printings
were made in all, the dates of delivery
of these being June 26th, 1862, October
31st, 1863, September 30th, 1864, De-
cember 21st, 1865, and January llth,
1867. The total quantities printed were :
l / 3 groschen,
]/ 2 groschen,
The 1 groschen of this series is oc-
casionally found bisected and the halves
used as l / ? groschen but such use was
never officially authorized,
Shades of all values may be found.
These stamps were withdrawn from use
on January 1st, 1868, when Oldenburg
joined the North German Confederation.
1862. Embossed. Rouletted 10 or 11 J^.
15. l/3gr green, Scott's Nos. 16, 21 or 21a.
16. ^zgr orange, Scott's Nos. 17, 22 or 22a.
17. ]gr rose, Scott's No. 18 or 23.
18. 2gr blue, Scott's Nos. 19, 24 or 24a.
19. 3gr bistre, Scott's No. 20 or 25.
There have been no reprints of any
of the Oldenburg stamps. The stones
for the lithographed issues were always
kept carefully under lock and key when
not in use, and were defaced when new
issues were made. The plates for the
embossed issue were defaced at Berlin
on February 18th, 1868, and the original
dies were handed over to the Imperial
The YA, groschen, as we have stated
already, was discontinued, as there was
very little use for it. The post-offices
were ordered to return their stocks to
headquarters and of the 35,000 or there-
abouts so returned small lots were sold
to various dealers from time to time at
face value and on December 21st, 1863,
the balance, amounting to 4790, were
When the Oldenburg stamps were
superseded there remained on hand
about 46,000 of the ^Jgr, 45,000 of the
, l /2gr, 59,000 of the Igr, 63,000 of the 2gr,
and 36,000 of the 3gr. These were pur-
chased from the Government in 1868
by Mr. Carl Dinklage of Oldenburg for
$300. Mr. Dinklage sold comparatively
few of these until 1875 when Mr. Berrig,
of Hanover, paid him $750 for the stock.
Prussia is a kingdom of the German
Empire stretching from Russia in the
east to Holland in the west, and from
the Baltic Sea in the north to Bohemia
and Lorraine in the south. It has an
area of 134,622 square miles and a popu-
lation of about forty millions. While
it is essentially an agricultural country
its mines are of considerable importance
and its manufacturing industries are
very extensive. It is also important
educationally for within its borders are
no less than eleven famous universities.
Prussia is a constitutional and heredita-
ry monarchy. The king alone exercises
the executive ; the legislative power he
shares with the two houses of parlia-
ment the House of Magnates and the
Chamber of Deputies. The former num-
bers 310 members, and the latter 433
who are elected indirectly by the people.
Prussia, in common with most other
Furopean states and kingdoms, has had
an eventful history which can be traced
back through many centuries. The for-
;une of war had added to and taken
from its dominions until in the
eighteenth century it suffered so many
reverses that it became an easy prey to
French domination. Until 1813, reduced
to a shadow of its former self, it suf-
fered numerous indignities at the hands
of the French which have never been
forgotten. In 1813, however, with the
defeat and imprisonment of Napoleon,
it commenced a new era of prosperity
which has continued and expanded to
the present day. By the Congress of
Vienna much of its old territory was
restored and many new provinces were
added. From this date the people were
imbued with a new spirit of nationality
and began to dream of a United German
Empire. The first step towards German
unity was taken when Prussia unite .1
several north German State* in a cus-
toms union, or Zollverein, which was
shortly afterwards joined by nearly all
Germany. By taking the lead in this
matter the influence of Prussia was
greatly increased. Frederick William
IV (1840-61), during whose reign post-
age stamps were first issued, made Ber-
lin a centre of learning and natura r
science ; but he refused to grant Viis
subjects a constitution, and heM ex-
travagant views regarding royalty. The
revolutionary movements in 1848, how-
ever, caused him to modify his convic-
tions. A national assembly was sum-
moned to meet at Berlin on May 22nd.
1848, and the king prepared a new con-
stitution. Simultaneously war broke out
with Denmark over the Schleswig-
Holstein question ; and Frederick Wil-
liam in 1849 tried to unite the German
states under the leadership of Prussia.
This attempt to seize the foremost place
in Germany was at once resisted by
Austria, and for a time civil war seemed
imminent. The year after his accession
William I (1861-88) appointed Bismark
his prime minister and minister of for-
eign affairs. The joint attack of Prussia
and Austria on Denmark in 1864, and
the conquest of the duchies of Schleswig
and Holstein, only served to accentu-
ate the hostility of the courts of Berlin
and Vienna, and in 1866 the question of
the leadership of Germany was fought
out. Ever since the days of Frederick
the Great that question had awaited so-
lution, and it was settled by the victory
of the Prussians at Sadowa or Konig-
gratz on July 3rd, 1866. All the states
north of the Main formed the North
German Confederation under the leader-
ship of Prussia. But it required a for-
eign war to complete German unity. In
1870 the Franco-Prussian war broke out,
France 1-eing alarmed at the growth of
Prussia. The south German states re-
mained true to King William; France
was invaded and after the battle of
Sedan Napoleon surrendered. The war
brought out a strong feeling among the
German states for a closer union, and on
January 18th, 1871, at Versailles, King
William was solemnly proclaimed Ger-
man Emperor. The tendency in Ger-
many since 1870 has been to make
Prussia more powerful and it has taken
a leading part in colonial expansion, and
in the establishment of a powerful navy.
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
Although Austria had taken the lead
in introducing postage stamps into its
postal service, and Bavaria was the
first of the German states to issue
stamps, Prussia was not far behind, and
by the energy of its postal administra-
tion rapidly took the lead in postal mat-
ters throughout Germany. By a decree
of King Frederick William IV, dated
December 21st, 1849, new regulations
for the postal service were introduced
under which the rates for single letters
(i. e. those weighing less than 1 loth or
Y 2 oz.) were fixed as follows:
Up to 10 German miles, 1 silbergroschen.
From 10 to 20 German miles, 2 silber-
Above 20 German miles, 3 silbergroschen.
Heavier letters were charged accord-
ing to weight ; the registration fee was
fixed at 2 silbergroschen, and a com-
mission of J^sgr was charged on packets
and money orders. It was also an-
nounced that stamps would be prepared
but it was not until October 30th, 1850,
that a circular from the Minister of
Trade and Works fixed the issue of the
stamps to the public to take place on
November 15th, 1850. At that time the
currency consisted of the thaler (equal
to about 72c) divided into thirty silber-
groschen, each of which in turn con-
sisted of twelve pfennige. The first set
consisted of four values 6pf, 1, 2 and
3sgr. The 6pf stamp 'was largely used
in payment for the charge for delivering
letters. This charge was fixed at ^sgr
(6pf) where there was a post office and
Isgr for other places. When letters
were called for no delivery charge was
made. Shortly after the issue of these
stamps the German-Austrian Postal
Union was formed for the interchange
of correspondence between Austria and
various German states. It was chiefly
due to Prussia that this Union was made
possible this being the first of many
progressive steps taken by the kingdom
in the interests of increased postal effi-
ciency. On May 1st, 1856, a 4pf stamp
was issued for the prepayment of matter
sent under wrapper. In 1857 the silber-
groschen values were printed by typog-
raphy instead of line-engraving, the mo-
tive for the change being that of
economy. In 1858, the first design was
reverted to and unwatermarked paper
was introduced; in 1861, following the
accession of King William I, a new
series bearing the Prussian coat-of-arms
appeared ; and in 1866 two high values
were introduced for use on heavy
packets. In 1867 a set of five values in
kreuzer currency was issued, these be-
ing for use in the states served by the
Thurn and Taxis administration, the
management of which Prussia had taken
over from July 1st, 1867. On the forma-
tion of the North German Confederation
on Jan. 1st, 1868, Prussia ceased to
issue its individual stamps.
THE FIRST ISSUE,
The first set of Prussian stamps, as
announced in the Official Circular of
October 30th, 1850, were issued on No-
vember 15th of that year. The set con-
sisted of four different values 6pf, 1, 2,
and 3 silbergroschen by means of
which the various postal rates then
availing could be easily made up. All
four stamps are similar in design and
show a nrofile portrait of King William
IV, with head to right, on a ground of
lines cross-hatched horizontally and ver-
tically. The portrait is enclosed within
a rectangular frame inscribed "FREI-
MARKE" at the top and with the value
in words at the bottom. The side
borders are filled with oak-leaf orna-
mentation, there are small crosses in the
upper angles, and in the lower corners
are the numerals of value. The design
and necessary dies were the work of
Eduard Eichens, a Berlin engraver. It
appears that two designs were submitted
and that the one chosen was modified
to some extent before the dies were
engraved. I cannot do better than quote
from Mr. Ralph Wedmore's interesting
article in the Stamp Lover for May,
1910, on this point, viz:
"He (Eduard Eichens) made two
silver point drawings. One showed a
bust of the King, almost full face, on
a shaded background, with a single-
lined rectangular frame, with the in-
scription at foot 1 SGR. KPGA (1
Silbergroschen, Konigl. Preuss. Gen-
eral Post Amt), and the figure 1
in a triangle in each of the upper
corners. The other showed a bust of
the King in profile to the right, on a
black ground, in a double-lined frame,
with the inscriptions K POST A at
the top, EIN SILB GR. at the foot
and the figure 1 in each of the lower
corners. These two drawings may be
seen at the Post Office Museum in
Berlin by anyone -who visits that city.
This second design was substantially
approved of, and Eichens thereupon
engraved it upon steel, but with the
word POSTMARKE at the top and
no indication of value at foot.
"I have not seen the die, which is in
the Postal Museum in Berlin, but it
seems highly probable that this origi-
nal die was used for making the
stanips issued in 1850. In Captain
Ohrt's book on the stamps of Prussia
the suggestion is made that an entirely
new die, bearing only the head of the
King and the lined background, was
engraved and used for making the 6pf,
1, 2, and 3sgr stamps. Enlargements
of these four stamps and of the 4pf of
1856 show very great similarity, the
only notable point of difference being
that on the 4pf stamp the features of
the King are sharper, which makes
the face look smaller. A comparison
of the stamps themselves will show
that the lines of shading on the 4pf
stamp, although much finer, are practi-
cally identical in form and position
with those on the other values. The
4pf stamp has a softer appearance, due
to the fine dots between the lines of
shading, which themselves are for the
most part broken into dots. Another
marked point of difference is that on
the 4pf stamp the oak leaves are neat-
ly drawn, whereas on the other values
they are merely indicated by dashes.
"Failing positive proof to the con-
trary I suggest that the following
method was employed. Impressions
from the original die were taken on
soft steel rollers, and the fine dots be-
tween the lines of shading partially
removed. The roller was then hard-
ened, and a rather faint impression
taken on four soft steel blocks, one
for each of the required values. The
word POSTMARKE at the top was
then carefully erased, and FREI-
MARKE engraved in its place. The
border, with oak leaves, and the lines
of shading, were then engraved on
each of the four dies, following the
faintly impressed lines of the roller
impression but with bolder effect. The
top of the head and forehead are out-
lined, whereas on the original die this
was not the case, as may be seen by
reference to a 4pf stamp. The figures
and words of value were then added.
The foregoing theory seems all the
more probable since there are slight
differences in the. lines of the hair and
the shading lines on the face in each
of the values 6pf, 1, 2, and 3sgr. The
differences are not of such a nature as
to suggest that each stamp was inde-
pendently engraved, but are such as
would arise when strengthening ex-
isting lines on a die.
"Whether my theory be correct, or
Captain Ohrt's statement be the true
one, it is certain that dies were made
from an original die for each of the
four values in question, and that the
frame with oak leaves and the in-
scription at top (and, of course, the
values at foot) were separately en-
graved on each of these secondary
dies, as may be proved by small differ-
ences, which are common to all stamps
of each value."
The plates, made of steel, each con-
tained 150 impressions arranged in
fifteen horizontal rows of ten each. The
vertical rows were then numbered 1 to
10 in the top margin, and the horizontal
rows were similarly numbered 1 to 15
in the left hand margin, while in the
centre of the right hand margin the
number of the plate was engraved thus,
"Platte No. 15". Whether more than
one plate for each value was used is not
known but plates now housed in the
Berlin Postal Museum, are numbered
as follows :
6 pfennig, No. 7.
1 silbergroschen, No. 14
2 silbergroschen, No. 12
3 silbergroschen, No. 10
These numbers probably belong to a
series referring to the plates made by
Eichens, or the firm with which he
worked. The only other number we
know of is plate No. 13, which was, used
for the 1 silbergroschen.
The paper was hand made, water-
marked with branches of laurel forming
a wreath, and it was manufactured by
Ebart Brothers of Berlin. The group
of 150 watermarks was enclosed within
a single-line frame broken on the four
sides for the following watermarked in-
scription : "FREIMARKEX DER
KOENIGL. PREUSS POST" (Post-
age Stamps of the Royal Prussian Post).
The impression was on white paper
for the 6 pfennige and on colored pa-
per for the other denominations. There
are fairly well marked shades of the 6pf
and 3sgr values, but the other differ
hardly at all.
Mr. Wedmore tells us "the stamps
were printed in hand presses, the print-
ing plates being warmed and the paper
damped. The sheets of stamps printed
from warmed plates were ready for
gumming 24 hours later, without tmder-
going any special drying process. The
gum consisted of two parts arabic, y\
parts dextrine, and l / part animal glue.
with the addition of a small quantity of
white lead, and was applied by hand
with a soft wide brush. The sheets
were laid between boards, which had
narrow strips of wood at either end to
keep each layer apart until they were
dry, and then placed between warmed
millboards and put in a press for several
hours to flatten them."
As the State Printing Office did not
exist until January 1st, 1853, the early
supplies of these stamps were printed
under contract by a Berlin copper-plate
printer whose name seems to be un-
The State Printing Office soon be-
came a very important establishment and
in subsequent years printed stamps for
many of the German States as well as
those of Prussia itself. In many cases,
too, the emissions of Prussia served as
a guide and pattern as to color and
value for the issues of many of its
neighbours. To quote from a short ar-
ticle in the Stamp Collectors' Magazine
from the pen of Mr. Overy Taylor, "in
matters postal Berlin was the capital of
Germany long before she assumed that
position politically, and it is to the
credit of the Prussian administration
that for a long period it vindicated its
right to direct the postal service of the
Confederation by the intelligence with
which it seized on improvements and
led the way in every useful innovation."
1850. Wmk. Laurel wreath. Imperf.
1. 6pf vermilion, Scott's No. 2 or 2a.
2. Isgr black on rose, Scott's No. 3.
3. 2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 4.
4. 3sgr black on yellow, Scott's No. 5 or 5a.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
A Ministerial order of April llth,
1856, reduced the tariff on printed
matter, etc., sent under open wrapper to
4 pfennige and on May 1st a stamp of
this denomination was placed on sale.
The design is similar to that of the
values of 1850 and it is evident the same
original die was employed for the por-
trait. Mr. Wedmore tells us:
"The dies and printing plates were
produced in the same manner as be-
fore, the original die of the head of
King Frederick William IV. with the
word POSTMARKE being used.
Roller transfers were made on a steel
die, and the word POSTMARKE
erased and FREIMARKE inserted in
the upper label. In the Museum at
Berlin this steel die may be seen bear-
ing four impressions from the original
die. On three of them the word
POSTMARKE is partially erased, and
the fourth is completed and was used
for making the plates for this value.
The figures and words denoting the
value were engraved, most probably,
by Schilling, who had been employed
by the State since 1851 to engrave the
dies of the envelope stamps. A com-
parison with the y 2 groschen value
shews considerable variation in the
size of the lettering, which tends to
prove that this was not the work of
Eichens. It will also be observed that
on this stamp the value is given as
VIER PFENNIA r GE and not PFEN-
NIGE as on the 6pf stamps."
There were at least two plates for
this value and though these were num-
bered in the right hand margin, the
words "PLATTE No." and the numbers
for the horizontal and vertical rows
were not engraved on the plates. The
color varies from a dark moss green to
a pale yellow green. Paper water-
marked with laurel wreaths was used
for this value and the stamps were is-
sued imperforate like the series of 1850.
1856. Wmk. Laurel wreath. Imperf.
5. 4pf green, Scott's No. 1.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
The Government evidently found the
steel-plate process too costly and in 1856
it was decided to change the mode of
manufacture. At the same time it was
decided to dispense with colored papers
for the silbergroschen values and print
the impressions in color instead. The
public were informed of the impending
change by means of an Official Notice
published in December, 1856, viz :
No. 203. CHANGE OF STAMPS.
The stamps of 1, 2, and 3sgr, which
have hitherto been printed on colored
papers, will in future be printed on
white paper. The design of the stamp
will appear, therefore, instead of in
black as hitherto, in rose-red for the
Isgr, in blue for the 2sgr, and in yel-
low for the 3sgr.
The Post Offices are hereby in-
formed of this alteration, and notified
that the issue of such stamps will be-
gin with next year, and that the 1, 2,
and 3sgr stamps printed in black on
colored paper will remain current until
the present stocks of same are entirely
GENERAL POST OFFICE,
BERLIN, December 23rd, 1856.
From the wording of this notice it
has been assumed that the stamps were
issued on January 1st, 1857, but no
specimens dated earlier than June ap-
pear to have been found. The design
is very similar to that of the first issue
and it is evident there was no official
intention of changing the type. The
portrait of the King was engraved on
wood by Schilling, the background be-
ing solid instead of lined as before.
The frame resembles the former issue
and has similar inscriptions. The ex-
pression on the king's portrait differs
considerably from that of the 1850 type,
the sleepy appearance of the first having
given place to a nervous dilletante ex-
pression in the second. The oak leaves
at the sides are more clearly defined and
there is a colon instead of a period
after "SILBERGR:", this being, of
course, the correct abbreviation for
From the original boxwood die en-
graved by Schilling three subsidiary dies
were struck and, the necessary details
of value being added to these, 150 elec-
trotypes of each were made and clamped
together in fifteen horizontal rows of
ten each to form the printing plates.
The rows were numbered vertically and
horizontally in the margins on all four
sides but whether the plates bore dis-
tinctive numbers or not is unknown.
The 3sgr plate was ready first and trial
impressions were made in rose, blue, and
yellow. As these sheets were gummed
it was for a time presumed the rose and
blue stamps were errors of color but we
now know they were only proofs.
The stamps were printed on plain
white wove paper and, as a safeguard
against forgery in the absence of water-
mark, this received a colorless network
impression from a preparation of car-
bonate of lead before printing. This
network can be made visible by washing
the stamps with a solution of hydric
sulphide, or more permanently and with
less danger of discoloring the paper by
the fumes of sulpheretted hydrogen
which Mr. Wedmore describes as "a
very evil smelling compound." The gum
is whiter than that previously used, but
coarser and much more inclined to
A die for the 4pf in this type was pre-
pared and proofs in green are known
but this value was never issued.
1857. No watermark. Imperf.
6. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 6.
7. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 7 or No. 7a.
8. 3sgr yellow, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
In 1858 the design of the 1, 2, and 3
silbergroschen values was modified, and
the new stamps began to appear in Sep-
tember, being placed on sale as the
stocks of the former issue became ex-
hausted in the various post offices. A 4
pfennige value of similar type was issued
in 1859. The modification consisted in
the alteration of the background, which
was cross-hatched horizontally and ver-
tically in a similar manner to the line-
engraved stamps of the first issue. Why
the change was made is somewhat of a
mystery unless the authorities presumed
that the cancellation hardly showed with
sufficient distinctness against the solid
background of the preceding series.
Little is known as to the method of
manufacture of these stamps but Mr.
Wedmore tells us that "a comparison
with the stamps of the last issue shows
that an impression was taken from the
same wood-block, the background then
lined, and the denomination of values,
both figures and words, separately en-
graved for each value of the series. The
shape of the letters and figures differs
slightly from those of the previous issue."
All four values were printed typo-
graphically from electrotyped plates
composed of 150 impressions in fifteen
horizontal rows of ten. The rows were
numbered on the margins as in the case
of the 1857 issue. They were printed
on unwatermarked paper, on which the
invisible network had been previously
printed. There are several fairly pro-
nounced shades of all denominations.
In .iay, 1860, a new printing of the 6
pfennige value was made from the
original plate or plates of 1850. As
these are on unwatermarked paper, how-
ever, thev cannot be confused with the
series of 1850. The paper for these
stamps was also previously printed with
the colorless network. Pale and deep
shades of this value may be found.
1858-60. No watermark. Imperf.
9. 4pf green, Scott's No. 9.
10. 6pf vermilion, Scott's No. 10.
11. Ispr rose, Scott's No. 11.
12. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 12 or No. 12a.
13. 3sgr yellow, Scott's No. 13 or No. 13a.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
King Frederick William IV died on
January 2nd, 1861 and was succeeded by
the Emperor William I who early de-
cided his portrait should not figure on
the postage stamps by publishing a cab-
inet order under date of February 17th,
1861, decreeing that for the new series
of stamps the Prussian coat-of-arms
should be used. Economy may have had
something to do with his decision for
the new types were common to both ad-
hesives and envelopes. The issue con-
sisted of the same values as those pre-
viously in use and there were two types
one for the pfennige values and the
other for the silbergroschen denomina-
tions. The design consists of a small
oval of solid color containing a Prussian
eagle, with outspread wings, having on
its breast a small shield on which the
letters "F. R." (for Frederick Rex) are
inscribed. The frames for the 4 and
6pf are octagonal while those for the
other values are oval. All are inscribed
"PREUSSEN" at top and with the value
in words below. The method of manu-
facture differs from that of the pre-
ceding issues and we cannot do better
than quote from Mr. Wedmore's article
Schilling engraved the eagle, and the
single lined oval immediately sur-
rounding it, on a small block of steel.
This was then hardened and an im-
pression taken, which latter was then
impressed on two steel dies. Schilling
then engraved on one of them the de-
sign of the pfennige values and on the
other the design of the silbergroschen
values, but with no figures or lettering.
These dies were then hardened and im-
pressions taken on soft steel dies. On
these Schilling engraved the word
PREUSSEN and the denomination of
value. Two such dies were engraved
for 5 and 6 silbergroschen but no
stamps of these values were issued.
From the above mentioned dies 50
impressions of each value (except the
five and six sgr.) were taken on small
pieces of lead measuring about 23x20
mm., and these then arranged in five
horizontal rows of ten, each value sep-
arately. From these, three electrotype
plates of each value were taken, and
the three plates placed together to form
one plate for printing. The rows were
numbered on all four sides as in the
previous issue, and some of the plates,
perhaps all, were lettered instead of
being numbered as in the issue of 1850.
At the top and bottom of each plate
a "needle point" was provided, which
was printed in color on the margin of
the sheet. Its use will be seen in due
The printing in color and the "em-
bossing" of the central design was
done in one process, in fact the central
design was not, properly speaking, em-
bossed, but slightly impressed in the
paper, which was damped before being
put to press to make the operation
easier. The sheets of stamps were
first gummed and then rouletted. For
the gumming the best gum arabic
mixed with glycerine was used.
The rouletting was done in hand
printing presses in the following man-
ner. A frame containing vertical rows
of sharp steel strips connected by
small horizontal strips, all with their
edges filed at regular intervals, was
placed on the press. The frame was
provided with a hinged lid or cover.
On this cover at top and bottom were
two needles, and the sheet of stamps
was placed on this cover, the needles
piercing the sheet at the colored
"needle points" already mentioned,
thus ensuring that the sheet was accu-
rately placed over the steel rouletting
lines. The cover was then lowered
and the hand lever applied thus press-
ing the sheet on to the rouletting
lines. Only one sheet was rouletted
at a time, and 1000 were rouletted in
the "working day" of those "good old
days," which consisted of ten hours.
The rouletting apparatus was supplied
by one Sutler, a machine maker of
An official Circular, dated September
19th, 1861, was issued to the post-offices
notifying them of the impending new
issue and instructions were given that the
new stamps were not to be sold until the
stocks of the old issue were entirely
exhausted. Though the stamps were
available for use from October 1st, 1861,
none are known with an earlier date
The colors chosen for the respective
denominations followed those of the pre-
ceding set fairly closely with the excep-
tions of the 3sgr. This was printed in
yellow brown to conform with the "color
scheme" adopted by the German-Aus-
trian Postal Union.
A Post-office Circular of March 6th,
1865, announced that a stamp of 3
pfennige in violet would be added to the
series and this appeared on April 1st
following, the design being like that of
the other pfennige values. This stamp
was intended for use on printed matter
sent to Norway.
All six values may be found in vary-
ing shades and all are known imperfo-
rate. These latter are proofs, though
postmarked specimens exist.
1861-65. No. Wmk. Rouletted 11^.
14. 3pf violet, Scott's No. 14 or No. 14a.
15. 4pf green, Scott's No. 15 or No. 15a.
16. 6pf orange, Scott's No. 16 or No. 16a.
17. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 17.
18. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 18 or No. 19.
19. 3sgr yellow brown, Scott's No. 20 or
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
The parcel post division of the Prus-
sian Post-office dealt with parcels,
money orders, and insured letters and,
prior to 1866, oayments in connection
with these were made in cash. With a
view to saving the immense amount of
labor entailed by booking all these small
cash items it was decided to issue
stamps of the values of 10 and 30sgr
and, according to an official notice of
November 24th, 1866, these were not to
be sold to the public but were to be
affixed to the parcels, etc. by the postal
clerks. These stamps were of different
types and also quite distinct in design
from all other Prussian stamps. The
designs were drawn by Schilling and he
engraved the original dies on copper.
These dies may now be seen in the
Berlin Postal Museum. The design for
the 10 silbergroschen shows large open
numerals in the centre of a transverse
oval band inscribed "PREUSSEN" in
the upper portion and "SILB. GR." in
the lower, the intervening spaces being
filled with fourteen small Prussian
eagles. The oval rests on a rectangular
background which has no exterior
frame. The ground work, consists of a
repetition of the words "ZEHN SIL-
BERGROSCHEN" in very small type.
There are thirty-two rows of lettering
in all and the inscription is shown three
times in each row. In the large numer-
al "1" the word "POSTMARKS" is
shown in small type and the same word
appears twice in the large "O." The
design for the 30 silbergroschen shows
open numerals within a transverse ob-
long rectangular frame similarly in-
scribed to the lOsgr. In this value there
are 10J^ Prussian eagles on each side
of the frame between the inscriptions.
The background shows the words
"DREISSIG SILBERGROSCHEN" re-
peated twice in each of twenty horizon-
tal rows, while the "POSTMARKS" is
engraved in each of the large numerals
as in the case of the lOsgr. Mr. Wed-
more describes the manner in which
these two stamps were manufactured as
The design was engraved in positive
form ; that is to say, an impression
from the die would show the stamp
reversed. From the die electrotypes
were taken and arranged in ten hori-
zontal rows of ten each. The rows
were numbered in the margin on all
four sides. The stamps were then
printed on a special transparent paper
(not goldbeater's skin), one side of
which was painted over with a solu-
tion of collodium and gelatine be-
fore the printing. The stamps were
printed on the side thus treated, and
the gum was then applied on the same
side. From the foregoing description
it will be seen that the printed side of
the paper was affixed to the parcel,
but the paper being transparent and
the stamp being positively engraved,
the design was visible in its proper
form on what we may call the obverse
side. The stamps were rouletted in
the same manner as before described,
but, on a new frame which made 10
roulettes in 20 centimetres. The
unique method of production was the
invention of a German-American, who
had sold the patent to the Prussian
Government some few years before
these stamps were issued.
Although Prussia joined the North
German Confederation on January 1st,
1868, and in common with other mem-
bers of the Union ceased to issue its
own distinctive stamps there was such
a large stock of these 10 and 30 gros-
chen stamps on hand that the Confed-
eration continued to use them until the
end of February, 1869.
numbered at the ends of the horizontal
and vertical rows.
J66. No Wmk. Rouletted 10.
20. lOsgr rose, Scott's No. 21.
21. SOsgr blue, Scott's No. 22.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
Prussia, having purchased the remain-
ing rights of the Princes of Thurn &
Taxis for the sum of three million
thaler (about $2,250,000), from July 1st,
1867, was obliged to provide a series of
stamps in kreutzer currency until fur-
ther arrangements could be made.
These stamps were also used in that
part of Bavaria which was ceded to
Prussia by the treaty of August 22nd,
1866, at the close of the war. Five
values were issued in all 1, 2, 3, 6 and
9kr. One kreuzer was equal to 3 3/7
pfennige, and the letter rates were fixed
at 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer as being the near-
est equivalents to 1, 2 and 3 silbergros-
chen. The two lower values were used
for printed matter, samples and post-
The design is the same for all and
consists of a Prussian eagle within a
hexagonal frame intercepted at the
sides by a large block for the numerals
of value, which form part of the solid
background on which the eagle is em-
bossed. At the top is "PREUSSEN"
on an engine-turned background, and at
the base is "KREUZER" on a similar
For the central design of the Prus-
sian eagle the same die was used as for
the stamps of 1861-65, while the en-
graving of the rest of the design for the
respective values was the work of
Schilling. The stamps were printed in
sheets of 100, in ten rows of ten, and
rouletted 16. All four margins were
No Wmk. Rouletted 16.
22. Ikr green, Scott's No. 23.
23. 2kr orange, Scott's No. 24.
- 24. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 25.
25. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 26.
26. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 27.
The use of Prussian stamps ceased on
December 31st, 1867 for, on the follow-
ing day, the stamps of the North Ger-
man Confederation came into use.
There were considerable remainders of
the issues of 1861-67 and towards the
end of 1868 attempts were made to dis-
pose of these. The late M. Moens was
offered the lot comprising no less than
a quarter of a million sheets of the
issues of 1861-67 besides a large number
of envelopes and a big stock of the ob-
solete stamps of Schleswig Holstein.
The minimum price was to be the cost
of manufacture which, in the case of
the stamps, was 2 l / 2 thalers per 100
sheets. The value of the entire lot was
estimated at 3,000 thalers and as no
purchaser could be found at that figure
the numbers were reduced, a portion of
the stock being sold to a papermaker
for the purpose of being reduced to
pulp. The remainder were carefully
tabulated and consisted, so far as the
Prussian stamps were concerned, of the
1850 6pf 270 copies.
Isgr 19 copies.
2sgr 13 copies.
3sgr 38 copies.
1856 4pf 85 copies.
4pf21 copies (unwatermarked
1857 6pf 80 copies.
Isgr 10 copies.
2sgr 6 copies.
3sgr 30 copies.
1858 4pf 88 copies.
Isgr 79 copies.
2sgr 64 copies.
3sgr 61 copies.
1861 4pf, 6pf, 1, 2, 3sgr, 30,000 of
1865 3pf 30,000.
1867 1, 2, 3, 6, 9kr, 30,000 of each.
The 10 and 30sgr, as we have already
shown, were not offered for sale, these
being used up as stamps of the Confed-
eration itself. This lot together with
about 10,000 envelopes, and over 270,000
stamps of Schleswig Holstein were sold
to the late Mr. Julius Goldner, of Ham-
burg, for 1,000 thalers (about $750).
The comparatively small quantities of
the 1850-58 issues were immediately ac-
quired by M. Moens and it was not long
before the balance of the stock was en-
In 1864 requests were made to the
Prussian postal authorities by several
European governments for specimens of
all stamps that had been issued. As there
were no more supplies of the first is-
sue at the Head Post Office (the few
included in the remainders were found
in some of the smaller offices at a
later date, presumably) the five values
were reprinted in complete sheets from
the original plates. Regarding these re-
prints Mr. Wedmore tells us:
The reprints of the 1, 2 and 3sgr
values were made on unwatermarked
paper, and can therefore easily be
distinguished from the originals. The
colors of the papers are almost iden-
tical with those employed for the is-
The reprints of the 4pf stamps were
also on unwatermarked paper. Two
shades are known a pale yellow-
green and a dark blue-green. The
latter is by many supposed to be a
color trial of the year 1856, but the
gumming, and above all the paper,
resemble so closely that used for the
yellow-green printing and the 1864
reprint of the 6pf stamp, that it
seems more probable that the blue-
green shade was printed in 1864 owing
to the yellow-green being of poor ap-
The reprint of the 6pf stamp is on
similar paper to the foregoing, and
can be distinguished from the 1860
printing of that stamp on unwater-
marked paper by the absence of the
colorless network. There is also a
difference in the shade, but I am not
expert enough in color definitions to
Small quantities of these reprints
were supplied to private persons and
to dealers at face value, and some
copies qf the 1 and 2sgr are known
The total quantity printed of each
value was very small, and these 1864 re-
prints are now quite scarce.
In 1873 a number of reprints were
made for Julius Goldner, of Hamburg,
who paid a certain sum to the govern-
ment for the benefit of the soldiers
wounded in the Franco-Prussian war.
The quantities of these were as follows :
4pf 500 sheets of 150 stamps = 75,000
6pf 500 sheets of 150 stamps = 75,000
Isgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000
2sgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000
3sgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000
Mr. Wedmore gives interesting de-
tails of these reprints as follows :
These reprints are all on water-
marked paper which was made in the
same moulds as that used for the
original stamps, and the two lower
values resemble very closely the genu-
ine stamps. The paper is thicker and
coarser than the originals, and the
gum is thick, smooth, and "glassy" in
appearance. The printing is generally
smudgy, and the green of the 4pf
stamp has a fresh, bright appearance.
The 6pf is of a more orange shade of
vermilion than is found in the origi-
The paper on which the silbergro-
schen values were printed is similar in
texture to that employed for the lower
values, and the gum is also the same.
The color of the paper employed for
the Isgr is a pale wine-red. The
plates were badly cleaned during the
printing, and the stamps, consequent-
ly, have a dirty appearance.
The same remarks apply to the 2
and 3sgr values, except as to the color
of the papers. That used for the 2sgr
value has changed color, so that the
stamps now usually appear to be
printed on a very pale blue paper
sprinkled with dark blue spots, which
shew either on the face or the back of
the stamp. In the case of the 3sgr
reprints, which were originally on yel-
low paper, the color has now mostly
changed to a pale grey, sometimes
with yellow or pinkish spots, owing to
some chemical action.
The whole of the printing was de-
livered to Julius Goldner, no supply
being retained by the postal author-
ities, so that the Postal Museum offi-
cials had to purchase, in 1890, some
complete sheets for the collection.
The reprints were printed from the
original plates, bearing the following
numbers: 6pf (No. 7); Isgr (No.
14) ; 2sgr (No. 6) ; 3sgr (No. 3) ; and
4pf (No. 1). The two first named
plates are in the Berlin Postal
Museum, the others are no longer in
In addition to the reprints of the
1850-56 stamps described above so-
called reprints of the 1857 issue were
made in 1864 but these are nothing bet-
ter than official imitations. The original
electrotyped plates employed in printing
the originals had long since been de-
stroyed as also had the dies from which
the electrotypes had been struck. It
was necessary, therefore, to make en-
tirely new dies. These were made from
a wood-block which now reposes in the
Berlin Postal Museum with other in-
teresting relics of the Prussian post.
Though an attempt was made to copy
the original design as closely as possible
there are many differences by which the
imitations can be easily recognised.
The most prominent of these is a period
in place of a colon after the word
"SILBERGR." The "G" of the same
word has no crossbar and the "F" of
"FREIMARKE" has a projecting line
at the top left side.
The 3sgr is in a yellow tint very simi-
lar to that of the originals but the Isgr
and 2sgr are in shades unlike any found
in the genuine stamps. The former is
bright crimson and the latter a laven-
der-blue. The paper is white-wove and
thin and the gum is thin, smooth and
white like that of the reprints of the
same period. These official imitations
were printed from plates specially con-
structed and afterwards destroyed so
that when an additional supply was re-
quired in 1873 they were printed direct
from the wood-block, and the three sub-
sidiary dies taken from the wood-block.
Mr. Wedmore tells us that these were
printed "on strips of paper measuring
about 2J4 by 6^ inches. On each strip
were printed the Isgr, 3sgr, 2sgr and
woodblock (without value) in the order
named, and impressions were taken in
carmine red, deep blue, brownish yel-
low and black. These are ungummed."
Forgeries of the first three issues are
fairly plentiful but all I have seen are
so crude that they would hardly deceive
the veriest tyro. Mr. Wedmore states
that forgeries of the lOsgr and 30sgr
are also known though I have never
come across these. They are said to
be a little dangerous though the eagles
and lettering are very badly drawn com-
pared with the originals. The paper
is very different being thin and white
instead of tough and yellowish as in
the genuine stamps.
Saxony is a kingdom of Germany, be-
ing fifth in area and third in population
among the states of the empire. It is
surrounded by Bohemia, Silesia, Prus-
sian Saxony, and the minor Saxon
States, and has a total area of 5,787
square miles. The population grows
fast and had nearly quadrupled in the
period 1815-1900. At the present time
it has nearly reached the five million
mark and is the most densely peopled
country in Europe. The River Elbe di-
vides the kingdom into two almost equal
parts, both hilly and both well watered.
The predominating geographical feat-
ure of the western half is the Erzgebirge
(2,500 feet) separating it from Bo-
hemia; of the eastern half, offsets of the
Riesengebirge, and the sandstone forma-
tion, above Dresden, known as the
Saxon Switzerland. Agriculture is
highly developed though most of the
farms are small. Saxony's chief inter-
ests are, however, manufacturing and
mining. Coal, iron, cobalt, tin, copper,
lead and silver are all found, the latter
having been mined at Freiberg since
the 12th century.
The people are in part of Slav de-
scent, but Germanised. Amongst them
are between 50,000 and 60,000 Wends
(pure Slavs). Education stands at a
high level, the university at Leipzig, for
instance, being one of the most import-
ant educational centres of the empire.
The capital is Dresden, while the three
largest towns are Dresden, Leipzig and
Chemnitz. Saxony is a constitutional,
hereditary monarchy, with a parlia-
ment of two chambers. It sends four
members to the Imperial Council and
twenty-three representatives to the
The name of Saxony formerly des-
ignated a very large tract in north
Germany, extending from the Weser to
the frontiers of Poland. At the peace
of 1495 the Emperor Maximilian I, di-
vided Germany into two circles, of
which the extensive tract of country
hitherto called Saxony formed three,
viz : Westphalia, Lower Saxony and
Upper Saxony. The last of these com-
prised the electorates of Braddenburg
and Saxony, the duchy of Pomerania,
and several small principalities. The king-
dom of Saxony was formed out of the
electorate of the same name. The
duchy of Saxony, to which the elec-
torial dignity and the office of hereditary
marshall of the empire were attached,
was, however, no part of the ancient
German duchy of that name (which was
composed of Lauenberg and a tract on
the other side of the Elbe), but a
Wend or Vandal province, which Al-
bert the Bear, margrave of Salzwedel,
of the house of Ascania, had conquered
and left to his son Bernhard. This
Bernhard received from the Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa the dignity of Duke
of Saxony, to which were attached a part
of Engern and Westphalia, extending
from the Weser, which separated it
from Eastphalia, westward to the Rhine.
But Bernhard not being powerful
enough to maintain his rights, most of
the Saxon allodial proprietors became
immediate estates of the empire by
which the duchy was dissolved, and
its name transferred to the country in-
herited by Bernhard from his father,
to which from that time the ducal dig-
nity was attached. The house of As-
cania becoming extinct on the death of
Albert III (1422), the Emperor Sigis-
mund invested Frederick the Warlike,
margarve of Meissen, with the electoral
title and the duchy of Saxony. He was
succeeded in the electoral dominions by
his son, Frederick the Mild, who reigned
from 1428 to 1464. On his death his
dominions were divided between his two
sons, Albert and Ernest, who were the
founders of the Albertine and Ernes-
tine lines, the former of which still
reigns in the kingdom of Saxony, and
the latter is divided into four branches
of Saxe - Altenburg, Coburg - Gotha,
Meiningen and Weimar. ,
In the war with France (1793)
Saxony furnished only a small contin-
gent and took no decided part; but in
1806 the elector sent all his troops to
support the kin of Prussia. The ruin
of the Prussian power at the battle of
Jena enabled Napoleon to gain the
Saxons to his cause. Prussian Poland
was added to the dominions of Saxony
under the title of the grand-duchy of
Warsaw, and the title of elector was
changed to that of king. After the
overthrow of Napoleon at Leipzig
(1813), the king was for a time a pris-
oner in the hands of the allies, and the
Congress of Vienna deprived him of
more than half his dominions, or a ter-
ritory of 7,880 square miles, which was
handed over to Prussia. Saxony took
the side of Austria in the Seven
Weeks' War (1866) shared in the de-
feat of Sadowa and was compelled to
join the North German Confederation.
In 1871 Saxony became a member of
the new German empire.
ITS PHILATELIC HISTORY.
The German-Austrian Postal Union
was formed on April 6th, 1850, and as
Saxony at once decided 1 to join it was
necessary to take measures for pro-
viding postage stamps. The kingdom
of Bavaria had issued stamps in the
previous year and the Government of
Saxony therefore applied to that king-
dom for information. In response to
this appeal the Bavarians sent copies of
all their acts and decrees relating to
the issue of stamps, together with spec-
imens of the postage stamps which had
been issued. As the question of de-
ciding upon an entire issue required
some deliberation, it was determined
to make a start by providing a stamp
of small value for prepaying the rate
of postage on journals and printed mat-
ter. This stamp was the now famous
3 pfennige red 1 the design of which, it
will be noticed, is a palpable copy of the
1 kreuzer Bavaria. On June 22d, 1850,
a notice appeared stating that from
July 1st following, articles under wrap-
per destined for any place within the
circuit of the royal post of Saxony or
for Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, the
Mecklenburgs, Anhalt - Schwarzburg,
Waldeck, or Hamburg, must be pre-
paid with stamps of three pfennige for
every loth (about Y?. oz.) in weight, and
that the post-office had prepared such
stamps, the sale of which would com-
mence on June 29th, though they were
not to be used until July 1st. For the
definite issue of August 1st, 1851,. more
elaborate designs were selected. Vari-
ous methods of production were con-
sidered and numerous essays were sub-
mitted by J. B. Hirschfeld, who printed
the 3pf red. Hirschfeld could, appar-
ently, only produce stamps by the typo-
graphic process and while this was con-
sidered suitable enough for the lowest
value, used for printed matter, it was
hardly considered good enough for the
higher denominations. Consequently
Hirschfeld 1 only obtained the contract
for printing the 3 pfennig stamps, in a
design showing the Arms of the king-
dom, while the contract for manufactur-
ing the higher values was awarded to
C. C. Meinhold & Sons, of Dresden, a
firm well-known for the production of
engravings by the glyphographic pro-
cess. There were four values in aJJ^
l / 2 , 1, 2, and 3 neugroschen showing a
profile portrait of Frederic Augustus
II. King Frederic died on August 9,
1854, and was succeeded by his brother
John. Steps were at once taken to pro-
vide new stamps and though these were
ready by the end of the year they were
not issued until June 1st, 1855. The
numismatic rule of setting the profile of
a reigning sovereign the reverse way to
that in which it was placed on the coins
etc., of his predecessor was followed.
With the exception of the portrait the
design was altered as little as possible;
the values were the same and the same
colors were used. No change was made
in the 3pf value, as it bore the coat-of-
arms, and this denomination continued
to be printed by Hirschfeld. It was
found desirable to have higher values
than 3ngr for use on letters sent beyond
the confines of the German-Austrian
postal union and on April 24th, 1856, 5
and lOngr stamps were issued. In de-
sign these were similar to the lower
values but they were printed in color
on white paper instead of in black on
colored papers as was the case with all
previously issued neugroschen stamps.
In March, 1861, the head of the Prus-
sian Post-office called attention to the
confusion that was created by so many
states of the German-Austrian Postal
Union using stamps of corresponding
values in different colors, and suggested
that all stamps of similar value, whether
expressed in schilling, grote, groschen,
or kreuzer, should be printed in the
same color, and that the same rule
should be applied to the stamped en-
velopes, which should have the stamp
in the right upper angle, and the ad-
hesivcs placed in the same position; and
he advised new issues to be made to
carry out these suggestions. These pro-
posals met with general approval, and
Saxony immediately prepared for a new
issue. Various firms were invited to
submit designs, but only four did so and
the contract was eventually awarded to
Giesecke and Devrient, of Leipzig. The
new stamps had the arms of Saxony in
colorless embossing in the centre, and
they are certainly inferior in appearance
to their predecessors. With this issue
perforation w r as introduced for the first
time. The values were the same as be-
fore except that the 10 neugroschen was
dropped. The demand for this value
was found to be exceedingly small and
at the time the new series appeared,
July 1st, 1863, quite a large proportion
of the original supply of the lOngr of
1856 still remained on hand. Saxony,
as we have already shown, was com-
pelled to join the North German Con-
federation and on the appearance of the
Confederation stamps on January 1st,
1868, its separate stamps were sup-
The currency of Saxony was the thal-
er, worth about 72c, which was divided
into 30 neugroschen. One neugroschen
was equivalent in value to a silbergros-
chen, but was divided into ten instead
of twelve pfennige.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
Among all the stamps issued by the
various German States none is more
popular than the first stamp issued in
Saxony the 3 pfennige red. It is not
a very handsome stamp, or even one of
original design, but it is merely a some-
what crude copy of the Ikr stamp issued
by Bavaria in 1849, as we have already
pointed out. This particular stamp
seems always to have been in demand
from the earliest days of stamp collect-
ing, the real reason of its popularity be-
ing that it was one of the most difficult
stamps to obtain as well as one of the
first used in the German Empire. This
stamo was produced in a hurry and did
not receive the careful consideration ac-
corded to the other postage stamps is-
sued by Saxony in the following year.
The reason for its hurried manufacture
lies in the fact that it was intended for
use on newspapers and printed matter
which, under the newly formed postal
Convention between Austria and vari-
ous German States, had to be prepaid.
If not prepaid, the packages were
charged full letter rate. Not only had
these packages to be prepaid but the
Saxon Government insisted that stamps
must be used and payment in cash was
not allowed. The design consists of a
large open "3" covered with a maze-
work pattern on a ground composed of
fragments of wavy lines within a frame
18 1 / 2 mm. square. The frame is about
3% mm. wide and is inscribed
"SACHSEN" at top, "FRANCO" at
base, "DREI" at left, and "PFEN-
NIGE" at right. In each of the angles
is a small ornament with a star-like
The stamps were manufactured at the
printing establishment of J. B. Hirsch-
feld, a printer and lithographer of
Leipzig. The original die was en-
graved in relief on metal and from this
moulds were taken in plaster, or some
similar material, from which Arnold,
the stereotyper in Hirschfeld's works,
took casts in type-metal. The stamps
are not all of equal size the variations
being due to unequal shrinkage of the
plaster moulds in drying, It is also
probable, as Mr. Westoby points out,
that Arnold, to save time, used some
of his to produce moulds for others.
It is probable only twenty moulds
were made for the stamps were
printed in sheets of twenty in four
horizontal rows of five. It has been
suggested that there was another plate
used for some of the later printings but
no satisfactory proof of this has been
produced. Lines of printer's rule were
placed between the casts and in re-
ferring to these Mr. Westoby says they
ran "vertically down the sheet unin-
terruptedly; but the horizontal lines
were broken and did not touch the
vertical lines." Unless, however, a
second plate was used, or a resetting
of the casts made, this statement must
be inaccurate for in a superb mint
block of four illustrated in a German
paper some little time ago the hori-
zontal lines are distinctly continuous
and it is the vertical ones which are
broken. The stamps were printed on
ordinary white wove paper and they
are, of course, not perforated. The
gum is of a distinctly yellow hue.
The first lot of stamps consisting of
120,000 (6,000 sheets) was delivered by
the end of June and the public's ap-
preciation of them may be gauged from
the fact that only 19,000 remained by
the 20th of August. Two days later
another supply of 60,000 was delivered.
Both these lots were ordered orally but
after that it was decreed that future
orders must be made in writing from
the office of the Main Postal Treasury.
Six further lots were ordered and de-
livered as follows :
Stamps or Sheets
October 8th, 1850, 40,000 2,000
November 4th, 1850, 60,000 3,000
December 19th, 1850, 60,000 3,000
February 22nd, 1851, 40,000 2,000
April 3rd, 1851, 80,000 4,000
June 17th, 1851, 40,000 2,000
Altogether, therefore, 500,000 of
these stamps were printed and delivered.
One sheet of twenty stamps was sent
to the Finance Ministry at Dresden as
a sample, 463,058 stamps were sold, and
the remaining 36,922 were burnt on De-
cember 10th, 1851. In the early nineties
the sheet sent to the Treasury was ap-
parently cut up and the stamps sold
singly at a dollar or so apiece.
That this stamp was only intended as
a temporary issue is shown by a remark
contained in the official notification of
June 22nd, 1850, viz: "This form is,
however, only provisional, and will be
altered when postage stamps for cor-
respondence (letters) are introduced."
This stamp was replaced bv the 3pf
green label, in the Arms type, on Au-
gust 1st, 1851, and it was then decreed
that no more of the red stamps were to
be sold at the post-offices. At the same
time the public were informed they
could use any of the red stamps they
possessed but that under no circum-
stances would they be exchanged for
the new green ones. Writing in the
Monthly Journal for December, 1900,
Mr. G. B. Duerst says: "This is the
reason why the 3 pfennig, red, is so rare
with the lozenge obliteration, which
was onlv introduced in March, 1852.
The usual postmark is the name and
date stamp, but the earliest obliteration
was in pen and ink."
The stamp exists in a number of
shades, doubtless owing to the many
printings, but according to the catalogue
quotations there is little to choose be-
tween them in point of rarity. .
The stamp is rare and its scarcity is
accounted for by the fact that the vast
majority of the 463,058 stamps sold were
used on newspaper packages and were
destroyed in the removal of the wrapper.
Unused this stamp has always been
considered scarcer than used but owing
to the larger demand for used speci-
mens of recent years there is now little
to choose between used and unused so
far as market value is concerned. We
believe the largest block known in mint
condition, with original gum, is a block
of four from the right lower corner of
a sheet. An entire sheet is, or was, in
existence, however. This was de-
scribed in the Monthly Journal in 1896
as follows: "Mr. Castle secured, for a
sum of about $1500.00, an unsevered and
unused sheet of 20 Saxony 3pf red.
This is believed to be the only sheet
known, and is the one formerly in the
Friedl Museum of Vienna. Mr. Friedl
got it from a Castle in Saxony, where
it was found pasted on a fire-screen and
varnished over! Naturally it is not in
the most brilliant condition, but it is a
unique piece, and well worth the price
This 3pf stamp is one that has con-
sistently shown an appreciation in
value and of recent years it has
jumped upwards in price at an astonish-
ing rate. In 1864 it was worth about
35c in used condition; in 1884 it was
quoted 75c; in 1894 its value had in-
creased to $22, in 1908 it stood at $37;
while at the present time Scott has it
quoted at a modest $70, Gibbons at $120,
while fine copies have approached the
$150 mark at auction abroad. There is
a suspicion in some quarters that some
one is attempting a corner in this stamp
a not impossible proceeding in view of
the limited number available and
should such a "corner" be successful
there is no knowing to what price this
variety may yet be forced.
Few stamps have been so extensively
counterfeited as this 3 pfennige, one
writer alone admitting the possession of
no less than twenty-rive different coun-
terfeits. Mr. Westoby mentions several
points which should be of value in de-
tecting counterfeits, viz. :
In the ornament in the corners,
which is in the shape of a quatrefoil,
the interior design is in the shape of
a four-rayed star, or rather a round
uncolored centre to a St. Andrew's
Cross. In the left upper corner orna-
ment there is a curved line opposite
to each extremity of the cross. This
curved line is wanting opposite the
left upper extremity of the cross in all
the other corner ornaments, and also
opposite the upper right extremity of
the cross in the right upper orna-
ment, and this right extremity is long,
while the left one is very short, as
also is the upper right one in the
right lower ornament. In the in-
scriptions the S and A in SACHSEN
almost join, as also do the R and E
in DRIE. There is a break in the
inner line of the frame opposite the
I of DRIE. These are the principal
tests given by Messrs. Collin and Cai-
man, and in their catalogue enlarged
engravings are given of the corner or-
naments. In the genuine stamps there
is a full stop after FRANCO which,
curiously enough, is absent in most
of the imitations."
July 1st, 1850. No wmk. Imperf.
1. 3pf red, Scott's Nos. 1 or la.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
Whilst the first Saxon stamp had
been designed and issued without much
care or fuss, many and deep were the
deliberations before the permanent is-
sue was decided upon. Various methods
of production were examined and con-
sidered; wood engraving was objected
to, and line engraving was considered
too expensive. Numerous essays were
submitted by Hirschfeld and others and
those of Hirschfeld met with approval.
Before, however, he received the order
the firm of C. C. Meinhold and Sons, of
Dresden, a firm well known for the
production of engravings by the gly-
phographic process, made a proposal
which was accepted by the authorities.
Hirschfeld's design for the neu-groschen
values was, therefore, handed to the
Meinholds and the only order Hirsch-
feld received was that for printing the
3 pfennige stamps. The 3pf value was
again intended for printed matter but
it now represented the rate within the
entire German-Austrian Postal Union
this was the main reason for the
change of design for this denomination.
The l / 2 neugroschen was intended for
local letters; the Ingr for letters sent
less than 10 miles within the Postal
Union; the 2ngr for letters between 10
and 20 miles; and the 3ngr for letters
beyond 20 miles.
The design for the 3 pfennige shows
the Arms of Saxony on a shield sur-
mounted by a crown within an oval of
solid color. On a scroll at top is
"SACHSEN" and on a similar scroll at
base is "Drie Pfennige." Numerals of
value, within small circles, are shown
at the sides and the spaces are filled
with scroll ornamentation. The whole
is enclosed within a narrow rectangular
frame. This stamp was printed in
sheets of 120, the plate being composed
of casts taken in type-metal from the
original die. The stamps were placed
so closely together that specimens with
good margins are very difficult to obtain.
The neugroschen values are all alike in
design and show a profile portrait of
King Frederic Augustus II, with head
to right, on a solid colored ground with-
in an oval. The inscriptions are similar
to those of the 3pf except that the lower
one is "Neu-Grosch.", separated by the
numeral of value. Numerals are also
placed at the sides and all four values
were printed in sheets of 120. The
early supplies of all values were de-
livered by the printers in strips of ten
for some reason or other. Usually the
sheets were sub-divided horizontally, but
in some cases the strips were cut verti-
The 3 pfennige exists in two distinct
shades blue or dark green and yellow
green. The colors of the papers for the
various neu-groschen values also show
some variation and in dealing with this
matter I cannot do better than quote
from an excellent article in the Phila-
telic Journal of Great Britain, written
by Mr. D. C. Gray in December, 1908 :
The l / 2 neu-groschen may be found
on paper varying from almost white
to bluish grey, the bluish shades being
the scarcer. The paper of the 1 neu-
groschen is sometimes deep and
sometimes quite pale rose ; that of
the 3 neu-groschen varies from very
deep to quite pale yellow; while the
2 neu-groschen appears printed on
pale blue and very dark blue paper.
Some of the shades of the l /2, 1, and 3
neu-groschen may be due to fading,
although, considering the large num-
bers of printings which took place a
variation in the colour of the papers
used is not surprising. The change
of the 2 neu-groschen from pale to
very dark blue, however, was cer-
tainly not accidental, but was due to
definite instructions given to the
printers by the postal authorities in
The reason for this order was that
a postmaster had complained to the
head office that if the 2 neu-groschen
stamps (printed in pale blue) were
much exposed to the light they faded
into approximately the color of the
l /2 neu-groschen. By the adoption of
the dark blue paper any mistakes
arising from such a cause were
entirely obviated. These stamps were
all put on sale on 29th July, and
were to frank letters from 1st Au-
gust, 1851. The quantities printed
of each value of this set were as
3 pfennige, 12,500,000; l /2 neu-
groschen, 5,100,000; 1 neu-groschen,
5,700,000; 2 neu-groschen, light blue,
700,000; 2 neu-groschen dark blue,
1,500,000; and 3 neu-groschen,
2,350,000. There were twenty-four
printings of the 3 pfennige; seventeen
of the y* and 1 neu-groschen, and
sixteen of the 2 and 3 neu-groschen.
By far the rarest stamp of Saxony is,
pf course, the y* neu-groschen printed
in error on the pale blue paper of the
2 neu-groschen. The existence of this
error seems to have been quite unknown
until Dr. Kloss published his "History
of the Stamps of the Kingdom of
Saxony" in 1883 or 1884. According to
Dr. Kloss "On August 22nd, 1851, the
Post-office at Leipzig informed the G.
P. O. at Dresden, that they had found
a quantity of stamps among the 2ngr
blue which had, instead of '2 Neu-
groschen,' the inscription '^ neu-
groschen' although printed in the correct
color of the 2ngr stamps, viz., blue. On
referring to the printers' statement it
was found that only 120 stamps were
printed in this color by mistake, 63 of
these were sold over the counter before
the mistake was found out, the remain-
ing 57 were returned to the G. P. O.
at Dresden." There is little doubt that
the 63 stamps which were sold to the
public, were sold as 2ngr stamps, whose
color they bore, and they were used as
It appears the Post-office sold the er-
rors singly and in strips of ten and
when they discovered the mistake the
purchasers were written to and asked
to return the stamps as any letters
franked with them might possibly be
treated as unpaid by other offices.
When Dr. Kloss made his notes public
the hunt for the errors began and some
of the firms written to by the Leipzig
post-office in 1851 were hunted out.
This resulted in the discovery of one
of the letters written by the Post-office
with an unused strip of ten of the er-
rors pinned to it. Due to the forget-
fulness of a clerk this letter was never
returned to the postal authorities ! Herr
Blauhuth, of Leipzig, secured this strip,
and for ten years these were the only
copies known. The owner first sold a
pair, inlcuding the one spoiled by the
pin-holes, for $37.50, while his last copy
realised $300. The 57 errors which
were returned to Dresden should have
been destroyed but, in 1891, 24 of the
stamps were found in an envelope
pinned to an old document relating to
the former postal accounts in the De-
partment of Finance, Dresden. What be-
came of the other 33 is a mystery which
will probably never be solved most
likely they were destroyed as was
originally intended. These errors were
included in a set of so-called "essays"
put on the market by the Saxon Gov-
ernment at 75c each. The history of
the error had been forgotten by the
officials but not by collectors and con-
sequently the sets sold like the proverbial
hot cakes. Most of these 24 errors
were single copies but in the lot was
one strip of five and one block of four,
the latter eventually passing into the
famous Mann collection. But though
this error is one of the great rarities
unused it is even scarcer used. There
is a pair in the Tapling collection, an-
other pair in a German collection, and
a few single copies are known.
1851. No. wmk. Imperf.
2. 3 pfennige green, Scott's Nos. 2 or 2a.
3. y 2 neu-groschen, black on grey, Scott's
4. 1 neu-groschen, black on rose, Scott's
5. 2 neu-groschen, black on blue, Scott's
Nos. 6 or 7.
6. 3 neu-groschen, black on yellow, Scott's
THE THIRD ISSUE.
The death of King Frederic Augustus
II on August 9th, 1854, and accession
of his brother John, made a change in
the portrait stamps necessary. As the 3
pfennige value bore the Arms of the
kingdom it was not deemed necessary
to make any change in these and they
continued to be printed by Hirschfeld.
The other values of l /2, 1, 2 and 3 neu-
groschen were manufactured by Mein-
hold and Sons. Little alteration was
made in the framework but in the centre
the portrait of King John superseded
that of his predecessor. The profile is
shown to the left instead of to the right
as on the 1851 stamps. The new stamps
were all ready by the end of 1854 but
they were not placed on sale until about
August, 1855. The stamps were printed
in black on colored papers as before,
but a change was made in tne size of the
plates which now consisted of 100 in-
stead of 120 subjects. In 1856, 5 and 10
neu-groschen stamps were added to the
set as it was found desirable to have
some higher values for use on letters
sent beyond the confines of the German-
Austrian Postal Union. These two
stamps were printed in color on white
paper like the 3pf denomination. More
than one plate was used for some of the
values and some of these show varia-
tions in the size and shape of the
numerals in the small ovals at the sides.
These differences are particularly notice-
able in the l /2 and 1 neu-groschen. How
many plates were used altogether is not
known but when Messrs. Meinhold and
Sons lost the printing contract in 1863
they sent to the Dresden Post-office the
original dies of the six values, together
with four reliefs and five printing plates
of the ^ngr, two reliefs and five print-
ing plates of the Ingr, two reliefs and
three printing plates of each of the
2ngr and 5ngr, and one relief and two
printing plates of the lOngr. The
plates of the 3ngr do not appear to
have been sent at that time and no offi-
cial record of their receipt at a later
date has been found.
Shades are numerous and again I
cannot do better than quote Mr. Gray
on this subject, viz :
All the stamps of this set vary con-
siderably in shade, as is only to be
expected in the case of a long-lived
series. The following are the prin-
cipal variations :
neu-groschen, black on pearl grey,
grey, lilac grey, jet-black
1 neu-gr, deep rose, rose, pale rose.
2 " blue, deep blue, greenish
3 neu-gr, deep yellow, yellow, pale
5 pale red, russet brown,
red brown, vermilion.
10 blue, deep blue.
Some of the shades of the l / 2 neu-
groschen are much scarcer than others ;
the greenish blue shade of the 2 neu-
groschen is scarce used, though com-
mon unused, and the russet brown 5
neu-groschen is very scarce. Appar-
ently this color was used by mistake,
and though some of the stamps
printed in this shade were issued, the
printer was compelled to supply others
instead, printed in the proper color,
and the balance of the russet-brown
stamps were destroyed by the postal
authorities. (There were 100,000 of
these errors, of which 62,200 were
sold according to Mr. Westoby though,
as will be seen below, Mr. Gray puts
the number at 4,000 more).
The 5 neu-groschen is found on
thick and on thin paper and is also
known double printed (an uncata-
logued variety). For the first print-
ing of the 10 neu-groschen stamps
thinner paper was used than for the
two later printings. The quantities
printed of these stamps were as fol-
l / 2 neu-groschen, 17,705,000
5 ' (vermilion
and pale red ) , 200,000
5 ' russet brown, 66,200
5 (red brown), 823,800
There were twenty-four printings of
the l / 2 , 1, 2 and 3 neu-groschen stamps,
one of the russet brown 5 neu-
groschen and three of the 10 neu-
groschen. The number of printings
of the other shades of the 5 neu-
groschen seems not to be ascertain-
1855-56. No wmk. Imperf.
7. J^ngr black on gray, Scott's No. 9.
8. Ingr black on rose, Scott's No. 10.
9. 2ngr black on blue, Scott's Nos. 11 or
10. 3ngr black on yellow, Scott's No. 12.
11. 5ngr red, Scott's Nos.13, 13a, 13b, 13c.
12. lOngr blue, Scott's Nos. 14 or 14a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
In March, 1861, the Prussian postal
administration drew the attention of the
other members of the German-Austrian
Postal Union to the confusion which
existed owing to the lack of uniformity
in the colors adopted for stamps of
corresponding values in the various
States. It was suggested that all stamps
of similar value, whether that value
was expressed in schilling, grote,
groschen or kreuzer, should be printed
in the same color. These proposals met
with general approval, as we have al-
ready shown in considering the stamps
of other States, and Saxony began
preparations for a new issue. It had
been decided to change the color of the
3ngr and 5ngr stamps to black on brown
and black on yellow respectively, when
the appearance of the new Prussian
stamps caused Saxony to reconsider its
plans. The new Prussian stamps, con-
forming to the new color scheme, were
all printed in color on white paper and
the Saxon postal authorities, upon in-
vestigating the matter, decided to adopt
the same principle and retire the colored
papers in favor of stamps printed in
color on white. Designs for the new
series were invited from engravers but
only four firms competed Hirschfeld,
Meinhold and Sons, and Blockman and
Son, of Dresden, and Giesecke and
Devrient of Leipzig. The contract was
awarded to the last named firm and the
taille-douce process was abandoned for
the cheaper method of typography. The
design consisted of the Arms of Saxony
in colorless embossing within an up-
right oval engine-turned band with a
scalloped outer edge. On the upper
part of the band the name "SACHSEN"
is shown, on the lower portion is the
denomination and in the sides and be-
low the Arms are oval discs containing
the numerals of value. These are in
color on a plain ground at the sides
and in white on a ground of solid color
below the Arms. The 3 pfennige and
l / 2 neu-groschen values differ from the
others in being enclosed within a rec-
tangular frame in which the numerals of
value are again shown in each of the
The advent of the new issue was
notified by a circular issued from Leip-
zig on June 19th, 1863, and the stamps
were placed on sale on July 1st follow-
ing. The denominations were the same
as before except that the 10 neu-
groschen was omitted, owing to the
small use made of that value. The-
stamps were printed in sheets of 100
and perforation was introduced for the
first time, the gauge being 13. There
are pronounced shades of all values
and though Scott gives but two for each
denomination (three for the 5ngr).
Gibbons lists two for the 3 pfennige,
three each for the l /z t 1, 2, and 3 neu-
groschen, and five for the 5 neu-
groschen. Specialists extend the list
still further, especially in the case of the
two lowest values.
In 1867 complaints were made of the
varying colors of the 5 neu-groschen,
and the contractors printed some in a
reddish lilac shade in which there
would be fewer variations. These
stamps were objected to, however, as
resembling the Ingr too closely and they
were not put on sale. Finally a grey-
ish shade of lilac was adopted. Mr. D.
C. Gray tells us that the quantities
printed and number of printings were as
follows : "There were fifteen printings
of the 5 neu-groschen, sixteen of the 2
neu-groschen, and seventeen of each of
the remaining values. The quantities
printed of these stamps were as fol-
lows : 3 pfennige, 10,850,000 ; l / 2 neu-
groschen, 17,100,000; 1 neu-groschen,
15,175,000; 2 neu-groschen, 4,870,000; 3
neu-groschen, 5,870,000; 5 neu-groschen,
950,000; 5 neu-groschen (grey, and grey-
lilac shades), 250,000."
The 1 neu-groschen is known im-
perforate vertically, and the 3pf, l /2, 1
and 2 neu-groschen are known entirely
The post office of Saxony was included
in the post office system of the
North German Confederation on Jan-
uary 1st, 1868, and the distinctive stamps
were consequently withdrawn.
1863. Arms in centre embossed. Perf. 13.
13. 3pf green, Scott's Nos. 15 or 15a.
14. y 2 ngr orange, Scott's Nos. 16 or 16a.
15. Ingr rose, Scott's Nos. 17 or 17a.
16. 2ngr blue, Scott's Nos. 18 or 18a.
17. Sngr brown, Scott's Nos. 19 or 19a.
18. 5ngr violet or grey-blue, Scott's Nos. 20,
20a or 21.
At the time Saxony joined the North
German Confederation there were large
remainders of some of the values of
the 1863 issues and smaller lots of all
values of 1856 and the 3pf of 1851.
The Government made no attempt to
dispose of these in one parcel, as was
done by other German States, but of-
fered the earlier issues at so much per
stamp and the 1863 issue at a few marks
per 500 stamps. No information seems
to have been published as to the num-
bers available but as late as 1890 all
but the lOngr were obtainable at very
low figures, though the lOngr was
quoted at 15 marks. In 1899 the prices
were advanced and the stamps were
then offered as follows :
3pf of 1851, 15 marks
Ingrof 1856, 1 "
2ngrof 1856, 2
Sngrof 1856, 3 "
Sngrof 1856, 10
None of the ^ and 10 neu-groschen
were then available and the only value
of the 1863 series offered was the l / 2 ngr
which was quoted at 6 marks per 500
Of all the stamps issiled by what we
now call the German States none are
more complicated than those issued by
the dual duchies of Schleswig and Hoi-
stein and yet, on the other hand, none
delineate the chequered history of a
troublous period more clearly. The
catalogues generally divide the stamps
into three groups the issues for Schles-
wig and Holstein, issues for Schleswig
only, and issues for Holstein only. But
though this rough and ready classifica-
tion has some advantages it is far from
being accurate and a collection of the
stamps arranged by catalogue obviously
fails to show the proper sequence of
Although the stamps themselves are
simple and straightforward in the main
it is fortunate that they have been ex-
tensively written up so that it is now
possible to examine them from a his-
torical point of view. While most of
the articles available for reference have
appeared in German periodicals an ex-
cellent one from the pen of Mr. G. B.
Duerst will be found in the Philatelic
Journal of Great Britain for 1898 and
from this I have drawn largely for much
of the following information. Much
valuable material has also been gleaned
from an exhaustive study of the two
first stamps, written by the veteran
Mons. L. Hanciau. and which appeared
in the MoiitJiIy Journal in the later
months of 1906.
The former duchies of Schleswig and
Holstein, united with Lauenburg, now
form a province of Prussia, just south
of Denmark. The total area of the pro-
vince is 7,273 square miles and it has a
population of about one and a half mil-
lions, most of the inhabitants being of
Low German stock.
At the dawn of history the duchies
were inhabited by the Cimri, who were
succeeded by the Angles, Jutes and
Friscians; but the greater part of the
Angles crossed over to England and
their place was taken by the Danes.
Then for a period of more than a thou-
sand years Schleswig-Holstein, and
Lauenburg, which politically belonged to
them, were a continual bone of conten-
tion between Denmark and Germany.
They were continually changing hands,
now belonging to Denmark with the
King of that country as their Duke, then
being ruled by a German prince, or
sometimes independent. To give even
a brief resume of all the happenings dur-
ing this lengthy period of unrest would
pccupv far too much space but I think
it will be interesting to record the most
important events as outlined by Mr.
Duerst, viz. :
The first church built on Danish
ground was erected at Schleswig in
850, the country evidently then be-
longing to Denmark. In 934, however
it was ceded to Germany, and Henry
I established it as a separate depend-
ency under the name of "Danish
Mark." The Emperor, Conrad II,
gave the country back to Denmark in
1025. The Wendish tribes revolted
and founded in 1066 a mighty empire
under Kroko. This empire comprised
Mecklenburg, Holstein, Schleswig,
Lauenburg, Storman and Dithmar-
schen. The Emperor, Lothair, ap-
pointed, about the year 1230 or 1231,
Duke Adolphus of Schauenburg, Duke
of Holstein, whereas Schleswig was
left with Denmark, and Lauenburg
was given to Henry of Badewide. In
1459, Adolphus VHI, Duke of Schles-
wig and Holstein, died and his uncle,
King Christian I of Denmark, (the
first ruler of the Oldenburg line), was
elected Duke of Schleswig and Hol-
stein on the 5th of March, 1470, One
of the principal clauses in the act of
succession was "that these two coun-
tries should be undivided forever"
(ewich tosammende ungedeelt). About
the year 1500, however, King John
divided the countries again, and his
brother, Frederic, received Tondern,
Hadersleben, Tyle, Steinburg, Trittow,
Oldenburg, Plon and Kiel, whereas
King John retained Flensburg, Son-
derburg, Norburg, Hanrove, Rends-
burg, Haseldorf, Apenrade and Sege-
berg, t. e. the northern portion. By
the treaty of Roeskilde, in February,
1865, Schleswig and Holstein were de-
clared to be independent of Denmark.
This treaty, however, was never car-
ried out, and the two duchies were
sometimes united with Denmark, and
sometimes independent, and under the
rule of their own dukes. In 1720
England and France confirmed the
conquest of Schleswig by the Danes,
while Holstein was considered as be-
longing to the German Empire under
the sovereignty of their own dukes.
At the end of the Napoleonic troubles
both duchies were left with Denmark,
although it had been decided' that only
Schleswig should belong to Denmark.
On the southern gate of Rendsburg
there is to be found the inscription
"Eidora Romani Terminus Imperii"
meaning that the river Eider is to be
the frontier of the Roman Empre, and
the decision of dividing the two
duchies was based on it. In 1846, the
question arose whether Schleswig and
'Holstein should belong to Denmark
or not, and when the Danish Con-
gress petitioned the King to proclaim
that Denmark, Schleswig, Holstein
and Lauenburg should be one united
monarchy, the German population of
the three latter provinces appealed to
the German people and expressed the
wish to be free from Denmark, and to
become independent duchies affiliated
with Germany. An insurrection broke
out in 1848, but was subdued by the
Danes in 1851, and it was not until
1864 that the German Congress asked
Prussia and Austria to interfere. The
consequence of this step was the war of
1864, which ended by Denmark ceding
Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to
the victors. These, however, could
not agree altogether, sometimes the
two duchies were governed by both,
sometimes Schleswig by Prussia, and
Holstein by Austria. The war of
1866 between Austria and Prussia left
the three duchies with Prussia.
The currency in Schleswig and Hol-
stein was the mark courant, of Ham-
burg, which was divided into 16 schil-
linge and had a value of about 28c. In
Lauenburg the currency was that of
Mecklenburg, in which 48 schillinge
were the equivalent of a thaler of three
marks, or 72c in United States money.
The Danish money was also used, in
which 96 skilling were equal to a rigs-
bankdkler, worth about 54c. Four skil-
ling Danish were, therefore, equivalent
to 1^4 schillinge of Schleswig-Holstein
and l l / 2 schillinge of Lauenburg.
The first stamps issued by the duchies
were those of the Provisional Govern-
ment which appeared in 1850 and the last
series appeared in 1866. Although,
therefore, the philatelic history occupies
the comparatively short period of six-
teen years so many were the changes of
government, as related in the foregoing
historical sketch, that the stamps should
really be considered in eight separate
periods as follows :
A. Schleswig-Holstein. (Provisional
Government ; seat of government at-
Rendsburg) Nov. 15th, 1850-Feb.
B. Schleswig-Holstein. (Danish Gov-
ernment). Feb. 1st, 1851-March 1st,
C. Schleswig. (Governed by Commis-
sioners appointed by Prussia and
Austria; seat of government at
Flensburg). Feb. 20th, 1864-Janu-
ary 24th, 1865.
D. Holstein. (Governed by Commis-
sioners appointed by Prussia and
Austria ; seat of government at
Kiel). March 1st, 1864- Jan. 24th,
E. Schleswig and Holstein. (Governed
by Prussia and 1 Austria combined;
seat of government at Flensburg).
Jan. 24th, 1865-October 31st, 1865.
F. Schleswig, (Governed by Prussia)
Nov. 1st, 1865-Nov. 1st, 1866.
G. Holstein. (Governed by Austria).
Nov. 1st, 1865-Nov. 1st, 1866.
H. Schleswig and Holstein united with
Prussia. Nov. 1st, 1866.
Period A. Provisional Government of
In 1848, the duchies of Schleswig and
Holstein revolted from the rule of Den-
mark and it was only after a struggle
lasting for three years that Frederic VII
was able to quell the insurrection. In
spite of the constant warfare the revo-
lutionary government, the seat of which
was established successively at Rends-
burg, Schleswig, and Kiel, found time
to consider the issuing of postage
stamps. In 1849, the Director of Posts
was sent to Germany and Belgium to
study postal matters in those countries
and find out how a postal system could
be best ad&pted to fit the needs of
Schleswig-Holstein. The information he
obtained was of a sufficiently satisfac-
tory nature to induce the Department
of Finance to propose a law for the in-
troduction of postage stamps. This
scheme was unanimously accepted by
the National Assembly o'n March 26th,
1850 and on April 3rd; following, a law
was passed in which the chief provisions
were as follows :
Article 1. The Department of Fi-
nance is authorised to have manufac-
tured stamps or "Postschillinge," by
the affixing of which upon letters the
latter may be franked, in accordance
with the directions laid down in the
tariff of postal charges. These stamps
are to bear the Arms of Schleswig-
Article 2. Whoever shall
(1) With fraudulent intent manu-
facture ."Postschillinge" or forge them,
and employ the forged "Postschil-
linge" for the franking of letters, or
cause it to be done by others;
(2) In collusion with the author of
the fraud, or with his assistance em-
ploy, or cause to be employed by
others, such "Postschillinge" for the
franking of letters, shall be punished
with imprisonment with hard labor,
not exceeding five years.
Whoever shall knowingly employ,
or cause to be employed by others,
for the franking of letters, imitations
or falsifications of the "Postschillinge"
without collusion with the author of
the fraud or his aid, will incur a pen-
alty of imprisonment with hard labor
for one year.
The above law made no mention of
the actual values or the colors of the
stamps it was proposed to issue but in
the Postal Gazette for November 9th,
1850, the public were informed of the
forthcoming issue as follows :
Xotice of the introduction of the
Stamps for franking letters styled
In execution of the law relating to
the introduction of stamps for the
franking of letters, etc., dated April
2nd, 1850, Art. 1, the following in-
structions are brought to the knowl-
edge of the general public and or-
dained for the compliance of the postal
(1) From the 15th November of
this year there will be placed on sale
at the postoffices stamps for the frank-
ing of letters "Postschillinge." These
stamps will bear the Arms of Schles-
wig-Holstem, the inscription POST-
SCHILLI^ T G, and. on a white ground,
the letters S and H, and numerals de-
noting the values represented by
stamps in schilling of the currency of
The franking stamps of the value of
1 schilling are blue
2 schilling are red
and are pierced lengthwise by a
blue silk thread, and are provided with
gum on the reverse side, for the pur-
pose of attaching them.
(2) Only letters (not the packets
and envelopes which belong to the
transport post) may be franked by
means of stamps. The franking is ef-
fected by affixing as many "Post-
schillinge" as amount to the charge
under the tariff on the address side
of the letter, in the left upper corner,
by means of moistening the gum which
will be found on the back of the
stamps. Letters franked in this way
may be deposited in the letter boxes,
as may also unfranked letters; regis-
tered letters should in future, as here-
tofore, be handed in at the Postoffice
window. In order to rend'er the post-
al tariff more accessible to all, the lists
of charges are posted' up at the side
of the window and of the letter boxes,
and copies are also for sale at all
post-offices at 1. schilling.
(3) In the case of letters which
have not been sufficiently franked by
senders, the stamps which are affixed
to them will not be taken into con-
sideration, bi;t the total charge must
then be paid by the receivers. If
more than the required charge accord-
ing to the tariff, is paid by the stamps
affixed, the sender will suffer the loss.
When a stamp has been used once it
loses its value.
(4) None but the postal officials
and the persons duly authorised by
the higher postal authorities may sell
the franking stamps.
On the same day a further official no-
tice was published for the instruction of
postal officials and this is by no means
uninteresting. Article 1 states that the
stamps are printed "80 upon a quarto
sheet" and that the post-offices must
never be without a stock of stamps suf-
ficient to last for fifteen days. It is also
expressly stipulated that each office is
responsible for the amount of stamps in
its possession. Article 3 states that the
post-offices must take care that the let-
ters are sufficienty franked, see that the
stamps are genuine and have not been
used before. After this careful exami-
nation the officials were instructed to
obliterate the stamps (the word schwar-
zen, "blacken," is used). Article 4 re-
lates to the providing of each office with
a distinctive numbered cancelling stamp.
These numbers ran from 1 to 42.
The set, as will be seen from the forego-
ing official documents, consisted of but two
denominations 1 and 2 schilling. Both
are alike in design and show the Arms
of the duchies of Schleswig and Hoi-
stein together in a shield, impressed in
plain relief, within an oval which covers
the body of a double headed eagle with
wings outspread. The eagle is in color
and rests upon a horizontally lined
ground within a rectangular frame. In
the upper corners are small uncolored
ovals containing the letters "S" and "H"
respectively (these of course being the
initial letters of the names of the two
duchies), while corresponding ovals in
the lower angles contain the numerals of
value. Above the central oval is
"POST" and below is "SCHILLING"
these inscriptions extending over the
eagle and being in large uncolored capi-
tals. The Arms of Schleswig described
in the orthodox heraldic manner are
"Or, two lions passant, or Beopardy,
azure," while those of Holstein are
"Gules, a triangular escutcheon argent,
coupe gules, supported at each side by
three half leaves of holly argent, and
accompanied by three Passion nails of
the same, placed at even distances so
that their points appear to pierce the
angles of the escutcheon."
The dies were engraved on steel by
M. Claudius, of Altona, and the stamps
were printed at the works of Messrs. H.
W. Kobner and L. Kuhl, of that city, in
color on white wove paper, the Arms
in the centre being in relief.
The stamps were printed in sheets of
eighty, in ten rows of eight, upon "Dick-
enson" paper with a blue thread running
vertically through each stamp. Owing
to imperfect feeding of the paper in the
printing press the silk thread does not
always appear in the centre of the stamps
as was intended, but may frequently be
found at one of the sides. This paper
was obtained from the same manufac-
turers that supplied similar paper for the
A variety of the 2sch is recorded with
a dot after the numeral "2" in the right
lower corner but what its position was
in the sheet I am unable to say. A die
and plate for a 3 schilling stamp was
also preoared but this was never used.
The dies were finished by M. Claudius
and the blocks necessary for the print-
ing plates were ready by October 20th,
1850. As a precaution against counter-
feiting somewhat elaborate methods
were used in manufacturing these
stamps and on this point I cannot do
better than quote from the excellent de-
scription provided by M. Rosenkranz
The stamps were separated from
one another by a space of 1 mm., and
were produced by three successive
The sheet first received an impres-
sion from a plate of 80 cliches of an
underprint, of an Eagle in light blue
or light red according to the value.
This Eagle was engraved on steel, and
from the original die two lots of
eighty cliches were prepared and ar-
ranged together in the form in which
the stamps would appear on the sheets,
thus making up two plates, one for
the blue stamps and one for the red,
or 160 cliches in all.
The second die contained the de-
sign of the stamp, and as the same
Eagle appears again upon this, the
Eagle was transferred to a steel die
in such a way that the impression
from the second plate should fit ac-
curately upon that of the first. This
die was etched, and upon it were en-
graved the lines of the background
and the inscriptions 'POST' and
'SCHILLING,' while the four small
ovals in the corners were left blank.
Then 160 cliches were produced from
this steel die and were made up into
plates of eighty, and finally there were
engraved upon each cliche the letters
'S' and 'H' in the upper ovals and the
figures '!' or '2' in the lower. There
are thus eighty different types of each
of the tzvo values. These additions
were made by means of punches,
which impressed the outlines of the let-
ters and figures into the comparative-
ly soft metal of the cliches, and the
surrounding parts of the ovals were
then cut away, for the differences are
recognizable but exceedingly minute.
I have never seen an entire sheet, but
I have examined some fairly large
blocks of stamps which enable me to
affirm that this engraving was not
done upon a few cliches made from
the original die, and then the remain-
ing cliches produced by reduplicating
these matrices, but that the engraving
was done separately upon each of the
* * * *
Although excellent " register was
kept in the printing, close examination
shows that here and there the colour
of the first printing appears at one
side or the other of the central oval.
The third printing produced the em-
bossed Arms in the oval in the center.
The Coat of Arms was* engraved in
relief on a slightly convex steel die,
and from this eighty brass cliches
were struck, which were burnished
and then arranged in a plate for the
embossing. The steel die in relief
was made somewhat convex as other-
wise the central design would not im-
press itself sufficiently clearly in the
brass cliches. All the stamps, both 1
and 2 schilling, were embossed with
the same plate. The Arms are not
always set exactly in the middle of
the oval ; at times they are too much
to the right or left. Even in the
case of unsevered copies the position
of the Arms within the oval is not
always the same ; it must therefore
be supposed that when the brass
cliches were soldered together, suf-
ficient care was not taken in their
The printers were under contract to
furnish two millions of stamps in all
and these were supplied in four con-
signments as follows :
Nov. 1, 185080,000 Isch, 40,000 2sch
Nov. 25. 185020,000 Isch, 20,000 2sch
Dec. 24, 1850100,000 Isch, 100,000 2sch
Feb. 14, 18511,100,000 Isch, 540,000 2sch
Altogether, therefore, 1,300,000 of the
1 schilling blue were printed and
700,000 of the 2 schilling rose. The cost
of the dies, matrices, and other materials
required was 1,000 marks (about $290),
while the charge for printing, pressing,
gumming and packing was lOsch per
1,000 which amounted to 1,250 marks or
Although so many stamps were
printed, a comparatively small number
were sold and of these not all seem to
have been used. According to the offi-
cial records stamps to a total face value
of 1,599 marks 2 schilling were sold
and 8,701 letters were franked with
the stamps. This accounts for the
greater rarity of these stamps in used
Nov. 15th, 1851. Silk thread paper. Imperf.
1. Isch blue, Scott's No. 1 or la.
2. 2sch rose, Scott's No. 2 or 2a.
of l/10sch would be necessary, before
these could be issued the insurrection
was suppressed by the Danes. The Pro-
visional Government was dissolved on
February 1st, 1851, and a law was passed
on April 18th following according to
which Danish postage stamps were to be
used in the duchies. The revolutionary
stamps were, however, permitted to be
used until the end of August when the
large remainders were sent to Copen-
hagen, together with the dies, plates and
all postal documents. No special stamps
were used during this period of Danish
Period B Danish Government.
Although the Provisional Government
passed a law amending the postal rates
under which new stamps of the value
Period C Schleswig; Governed by Com-
missioners appointed by Aus-
tria and Prussia.
Schleswig and Holstein being re-
garded as belonging to the German Con-
federation, the Congress of Frankfurt
in 1863 authorised Austria and Prussia
as the two principal German powers to
force Denmark to evacuate the two
duchies. Denmark refused to be co-
erced and the war of 1864 resulted.
Denmark was badly defeated and
the two duchies thus fell into the hands
of the victors. The allied forces
of Austria and Prussia occupied Flens-
burg on February 7th, 1864, and no
time was lost in superseding the Danish
postage stamps. A notice was published
from Flensburg on March 14th, 1864, an-
nouncing the issue of a 4sch stamp for
Schleswig, viz :
To replace the postage stamps in-
scribed in the Danish language hither-
to employed in the Duchy of Schles-
wis:, new postage stamps with the in-
scription "HERZOGTHUM SCHLES-
WIG" (Duchy of Schleswig) will be
put into circulation. The post offices
in the Duchy of Schleswig will at
first sell only stamps of the value of
4 schillinge printed in rose on white
Shortly afterwards this notice was
followed by another announcing the is-
sue of the l^sch stamps on the follow-
ing April 1st. The reason for the issue
of the two stamps is that the first of
them was in Danish currency, and was
objected to on that account. The new
one in Hamburg currency was at once
ordered to take its place ; but not being
ready in time the 4sch stamp was is-
sued and continued in use for only six-
teen days. This value is consequently
much the scarcer used.
Both stamps were manufactured at
the State Printing Works in Berlin, and
are similar to each other in design.
Tin's shows the numerals of value in
large figures on an upright oval ground
of solid color. This is enclosed within
an engine turned oval band inscribed
"HERZOGTH. SCHLESWIG" at top,
and "SCHILLINGE" (for the 4sch) or
"SCHILLING" (for the l^sch) at the
base. The stamps were embossed in
color on white wove paper and were
printed in sheets of 100 arranged in ten
rows of ten.
For some unexplained reason Gibbons'
catalogue gives 1865 as the date of issue
of these two stamps.
1864. No wmk. Rouletted 11%.
3. 4sch carmine, Scott's No. 13.
4. IJ^sch green, Scott's No. 9.
Period D Holstein; Governed by Com-
missioners appointed by Prus-
sia and Austria.
On February 18th, 1864, the following
notice was issued from Kiel by the
joint Commissioners of Austria and
Prussia relating to the issue of new
From the first of the following
month new stamps can be obtained at
all post offices in the Duchies of Hol-
stein and Lauenburg. These new
stamps will be printed like those in
use at present in blue, and of the
value of 1^4sch courant or 4sch Dan-
From the same date Danish stamps
cannot be used any longer for the
franking of letters in both Duchies.
All post offices are hereby instructed
to forward to headquarters at the be-
ginning of next month all such stamps
they may have in stock.
All persons having such stamps in
their possession and wishing to ex-
change same for new stamps, must ap-
ply to the post offices before the first
of next month.
The design of the new stamps ob-
viously owes its inspiration to the 1853
design for Denmark. In the center is
a circular uncolored space containing the
value "VA SCHILLING CRT." in
three lines. This is enclosed within a
square frame having posthorns in each
of the four corners. In the frame are
the letters "HRZGL" at the left;
"POST" at the top; and "FRM" at the
right. This is an abbreviation for "Her-
zogliche Post Freimarke" meaning "Du-
cal Postage Stamp." At the bottom of
the frame is "4 S. R. M." i. e. "4 Skil-
ling Reichs Miinze" (4 skilling Reichs
Mark or Danish currency). The span-
drels are filled with wavy lines.
The stamps were lithographed by
Kobner and Co., of Altona, in sheets of
100 in ten rows of ten. Before printing,
the paper was covered with an under-
print of wavy lines, of a grayish color,
in metallic oxide which only becomes
visible by chemical action. The fumes
of sulpheretted hydrogen will cause the
under-print to show. In the upper mar-
gin the inscription "HERZOGLICHE
POST FREIMARKEN" appears in
the wavy lines and in the central portion
of each stamp a capital "P" was also
left clear of the under-print. There are
three types of this stamp, printed from
different stones, which appeared in the
order in which they are described, viz :
Type I. The wavy lines in the span-
drels are close together ; the lettering
is small and there are periods after the
letters at the sides; and "SCHILLING"
is in large type.
Type II. The wavy lines in the span-
drels are coarser and farther apart ; the
lettering is larger and there are periods
after the letters at the sides; and the
word "SCHILLING" is in small type.
Type III. The wavy lines in the
spandrels are similar to those of Type
II ; the lettering is still larger and thick-
er and there are no periods after the
letters at the sides ; and "SCHILLING"
has no dots above the two letters "I."
The stamps were printed on white
wove paper and they were issued in im-
perforate condition, though both types
I and III are known rouletted. As the
rouletting was, however, entirely unoffi-
cial the philatelic interest of these vari-
eties is slight.
March 1864. Imperforate.
5. Ij^sch blue (three types), Scott's Nos,
15, 16, or 17.
Early in April, 1864, another official
notice was issued from Kiel to the ef-
fect that, as the duchies of Holstein and
Lauenburg formed a territory of the
German-Austrian Postal Union, the
stamps would have to be altered and in-
stead of being inscribed with an equiva-
lent value in Danish currency they
would have the value denoted according
to the currency of Lauenburg. To give
a little more time to get rid of the stock
in hand of the former issue, the stamps
of the new issue were not placed in
circulation until about the end of May,
The design is somewhat similar to
that of the preceding issue, but the num-
erals of value in the center are much
larger and double-lined. Also, instead
of being confined within a circle the
value is in a square frame with "SCHIL-
LING CRT." in an upturned curve be-
low and with small ornaments in each
of the angles. In the right hand side
of the frame the lettering, indicating
Freimarken, now consists of "F R M R
K," thus balancing the five letters on the
opposite side. At the base the inscrip-
tion reads "lJ/ S L M" (Schilling
Lauenburg Miinze), that is "schilling
of Lauenburg currency." The under-
(dated March 31st, 1865) stated their
further use would not be permitted.
May 1864. Lithographed, Rouletted 8.
blue, Scott's No. 18.
print, consisting of a pattern of diagonal
lines, is in pink and, as in the previous
stamps, the letter "P" shows in the
centre of each stamp clear of the under-
print. The stamps, like the former is-
sue, were lithographed in sheets of 100
by Kobner and Co., of Altona. They
are rouletted in line about 8. In pay-
ment of postage to foreign countries
this stamp is considered the equivalent
of 1 silbergroschen, although the sil-
bergroschen was really worth 1^ schil-
The local rate at Altona and Kiel was
y$ schilling and as no stamp of this
value was provided for the use of the
public an official edict was published on
November 22nd, 1864, permitting the
]^sch stamp to be cut into halves, diag-
onally, and each portion then served for
the prepayment of the local rate. These
bi-sected stamps are, therefore, quite
legitimate provisionals. They were al-
lowed to be used for a period of about
four months until an official notice
Period E Schleswig and Holstein:
Governed by Prussia and
In the year 1865, prior to the Conven-
tion of Gastein, stamps were issued un-
der the authority of Austria and Prus-
sia for the whole territory comprised
in the duchies. One of the chief rea-
sons for this step was that of finance,
considerable economy being effected by
having one instead of two postal ad-
ministrations. At ' the same time the
head office was removed to Flensburg,
this place being considered the most
The first stamp to appear bore the
facial value of l /& schilling. This stamp,
like those previously issued for Schles-
wig, was manufactured at the State
Printing Works, in Berlin. The design
is similar to the Schleswig stamps of
1864 but with the upper inscription al-
tered to "SCHLESWIG HOLSTEIN;'
and the lower one to "SCHILLING."
The stamps were printed in sheets of
100, in ten rows of ten, upon white
wove paper, and were rouletted in line
about IV/2. This value was intended
for local letters and superseded the
split stamps which had been allowed to
be used previously. It was issued on
February 22nd, 1865.
On June 1st, following, another value
of similar design but of the value of
1^4 schilling was issued.
The IJ^sch, not being the exact equiv-
alent of 1 silbergroschen, a decree was
published on August 5th, 1865, author-
izing the issue of l^sch stamps the
exact value of a silbergroschen. It was
stated, at the same time, that for the
future this value must be "affixed to all
letters addresed to places within the
German-Austrian Postal Union. This
stamp differs a little from the two pre-
ceding values for the whole of the value
is now denoted in the center, viz : \ l /z
SCHILLING (=lsgr). This occupies
three lines and in the lower part of
the inscribed band a star takes the place
of the word "SCHILLING."
On the 30th of June, 1865, the duchies
concluded a convention with Denmark
fixing the rate on single letters to that
country at 2 schilling. This led to the
issue of another stamp, similar in de-
sign to the ^asch, but with a large
numeral "2." in the center.
In September, 1865, another addition
to the set was made a 4sch stamp being
issued as representing the 3 silbergrps-
chen rate within the German Austrian
Postal Union. This is similar in de-
sign to the l^sch and shows the value
in schilling and its equivalent in silber-
groschen in the central oval.
1865. No. wmk. Rouletted Iiy 2 .
7. J^sch carmine, Scott's No. 3.
8. IJ-^sch green, Scott's No. 4.
9. l^sch lilac, Scott's No. 5.
10. 2sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 6.
11. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 7.
Period F Schleswig Governed by
Shortly after the issue of the 4sch
of the last series disagreements arose
between Prussia and Austria. These
were patched uo and resulted in the
Convention of Gastein by the terms of
which Schleswig was awarded to Prus-
sia, while Austria received Holstein and
Lauenburg. The natural result was
that separate series for the two duchies
were again required. It was also in-
tended to issue special stamps for
Lauenburg but this fell through as
Prussia purchased this territory from
Austria for $1,411,250 and amalgamated
it with Schleswig.
The new stamps for Schleswig were
issued on November 1st, 1865, the de-
nominations being exactly the same as
those previously in use. The designs
were similar to those of the Schleswig-
Holstein issue of 1865 but with the up-
per inscription altered to "HERZOGTH.
These stamps, like those of the pre-
ceding series, were manufactured at the
State Printing Works in Berlin. They
were printed in sheets of 100 on white
wove paper, and were rouletted 1154.
The l^sch varies considerably in
color being found in numerous shades
of lilac, mauve and purple, and also in
an almost pure grey.
Nov. 1st, 1865. Rouletted 11^.
12. i^sch green, Scott's No. 8.
13. l^sch lilac, Scott's No. 10 or lOa.
14. l^sch rose, Scott's No. 11.
15. 2sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 12.
16. 4sch greybrgwn, Scott's No. 14,
Period G Holstein: Governed by Aus-
Co-incident with the issue of separate
stamps for Schleswig a separate series
was also issued for Holstein. An offi-
cial notice, dated from Kiel, October
5th, 1865, informed the public that the
series heretofore in common use in both
duchies would be replaced by a new
series on November 1st following and
that thereafter only the new stamps
would be accepted for postal service
within the Duchy of Holstein.
The values in the new set corre-
sponded with those previously in use
and were also similar to those in the
series provided for Schleswig. The
five values fall into two types: the l / 2 ,
\ l /4 and 2sch being of one design and
the l l /3 and 4sch of another.
In the first of these the numerals of
values are shown in the center on an
oval of solid color while the inscrip-
tions on the surrounding frame are in
white letters on a colored ground.
These inscriptions are "HERZOGTH.
HOLSTETN" in the upper part, and
"SCHILLING" in the lower, small stars
separating them from each other.
The design for the 1^ and 4sch is
exactly like that employed in the previ-
ous series for the combined use of the
duchies, the value in the center having
its equivalent value shown in silber-
The dies were engraved by M. Claud-
ius and the stamps were printed in
sheets of 100 by Messrs. Kobner & Co.
of Altona. They were printed on white
wove paper and were rouletted 8. The
stamps were embossed but the relief is
very poor and much inferior to the
stamps of similar type printed by the
State Printing Works, Berlin.
Nov. 1st, 1865. Rouletted 8.
17. '/2sch pale green, Scott's No. 19.
18. l^sch pale mauve, Scott's No. 20,
19. l^sch carmine, Scott's No. 23.
20. 2sch pale blue, Scott's No. 21.
21. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 25,
The design of the stamps with in-
scriptions in white on color did not
meet with the approval of the ^author-
ities though they accepted them. When,
however, new supplies of the 1J4 and 2
schilling were required in March and
August, 1866, respectively, the opportun-
ity was taken of changing the design.
In this second issue, therefore, the in-
scriptions are in color on an engine
turned band. These values were not em-
bossed, though, like the similar values
of the first issue, they were printed by
Messrs. Kobner and Co. The stamps
were printed in sheets of 100 on white
wove paper and though normally roul-
letted 8 both values may be found rou-
1866. Typographed. Rouletted 8.
22. l l / 4 sch mauve, Scott's No. 22.
2::. 2sch blue, Scott's No. 24.
Period H. Schleswig and Holstein
United with Prussia.
The division of the duchies between
Austria and Prussia did not entirely
allay the difficulties between the two
and after a time strained relations en-
sued and ultimately war resulted. The
war was of short duration and by the
Treaty of Prague, of August 23rd, 1866,
Prussia had control of both duchies.
Xo special stamps were issued, how-
ever. For a time each duchy used its
own special stamps as described above,
and then, on November 5th, 1866, a
circular was issued from the postal de-
partment notifying that the stamps of
both duchies could be used indiscrimi-
nately. The remaining stocks of the
joint issue for the two duchies (as de-
scribed under Period E) were also put
into circulation again. When formal in-
corporation with Prussia was completed
on December 24th, 1866, the stamps of
that State were likewise available for
use anywhere within the duchies so
that from that time, until the stamps of
the North German Confederation were
issued on January 1st, 1868, the inhabi-
tants of Schleswig and Holstein had
ample choice as to the kind of stamps
they might use.
When the special stamps were super-
seded by the general issue for the North
German Confederation a small stock of
most values of the series for Schles-
wig and Holstein as well as of the issue
for the combined use of both duchies
remained and these were later acquired
by M. Moens. The quantities of the
several varieties were as follows:
Schleswig, 1864 Issue.
\ schilling 173.
4 schilling 21,000.
Schleswig-Holstein, 1865 Issue.
1 A, 1%, V/3, 2 and 4 schilling, 20,000 of
Schlesivig, 1865 Issue.
20,000 2sch, 20,000
Ij4sch, 20,000 4sch, 20,000
Holstein, 1865 Issue.
^sch, 1,000 I 2sch, 13,000
l^sch, none 4sch, 20,000
The kingdom of Wurtemberg lies be-
tween Baden and Bavaria and touches
Switzerland (Lake of Constance) on
the south. It entirely surrounds Hohen-
zollern, in which state, as well as in
Baden, it owns several enclaves. Its
total area is 7529 square miles and it
has a population of about three millions.
It is drained for the most part by the
Neckar and its tributaries, while the
Danube crosses the country towards the
south. The most striking geographical
feature is the Swabian Alb, the most
characteristic portion of the South Ger-
man Jura. The Black Forest borders
the kingdom on the west. On the whole
the surface lies high (3000 to 1500 feet),
the greater part belonging to one or
other of the German plateau systems;
but there are many valleys, all of great
fertility. Agriculture is the principal
industry; wine and fruit are produced
in large quantity; and market gardening
is actively pursued at Stuttgart, Ulm,
Heilbronn and elsewhere. Iron and
salt are mined and there are numerous
mineral springs scattered over the whole
kingdom. There is a good deal of man-
ufacturing industry of a varied char-
acter, the more important branches pro-
ducing iron, gold, and silver goods,
cutlery, fire-arms, machinery, scientific
and musical instruments, chemicals,
prints and books, confectionery and beer.
The capitol of the kingdom is Stuttgart.
The bulk of the people (69 per cent.)
are Protestants ; the Roman Catholics,
who have a bishop at Rottenburg,
amount to 30 per cent., and there are
about 12,000 Jews. The state university
is at Tubingen, and there is a polytech-
nical high school at Stuttgart. Educa-
tion stands at an exceptionally high gen-
eral level, even for Germany; there is
not a single individual in the kingdom
over ten years of age who is unable to
read and write. Wurtemberg has four
votes in the Federal Council, and re-
turns seventeen deputies to the Imperial
Diet. The Wurtemberg troops consti-
tute the 13th Army Corps of the German
Army, having a total strength of about
24,000. The king is a hereditary consti-
tutional sovereign and he is assisted by
two houses of parliament. The national
receipts and expenditures balance at
about $17,500,000 per annum, while the
national debt, nearly all incurred for
railways, stands at about $110,000,000.
The territory now called Wurtemberg,
then occupied by the Suevi, was con-
quered by the Romans in the first cen-
tury, A. D. In the third century it was
settled by the Germanic Alemanni and
they, in turn were subdued by the
Franks. In the 9th century it was in-
corporated in the duchy of Swabia, Ul-
rich (1241-65) being the first count. In
1495 the reigning count was made a
duke of the empire. Duke Frederick II,
(1797-1816) on going over to the French
was rewarded with 850 square miles of
new territory and an addition of 125,000
subjects, as well as the dignity of Elec-
tor (1802). In Napoleon's war against
Austria (1805) he sided with the French,
and his troops fought with them down
to 1813 ; in return for which he acquired
the kingly title and an increase of terri-
tory which more than doubled the num-
ber of his subjects. Throwing in her
lot with Austria in 1866, Wurtemberg
was beaten at Konniggratz and Tauber-
bischofsheim, and her king (Charles,
1864-91) was compelled to purchase
peace from Prussia at the cost of an
indemnity of $4,000,000.
ITS POSTAL HISTORY.
From an early period the postal service
of Wurtemberg was, with some inter-
ruptions, in the hands of the princely
House of Thurn and Taxis, but by an
agreement dated March 22nd, 1851, the
Government of Wurtemberg liberated
itself by purchasing the postal privileges
from July 1st of that year for the sum
of 1,300,000 florins (about $525,000). It
then proceeded to form its own adminis-
tration and to join the German-Austrian
Postal Union, established by the conven-
tion of April 6th, 1850. As one of the
provisions of this convention required
the adoption of postage stamps, prepara-
tions were immediately made for pro-
viding them, and by a notice of October
7th, 1851, the public were informed that
stamps of 1, 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer would
be on sale at the various post offices on
the 12th of that month, and that their
use would commence from the 15th of
the same month. In design these stamps
are very similar to those of Baden, is-
sued a few months earlier. All values
were printed in black on colored papers,
the design, common to all, mainly fea-
turing large numerals to denote the re-
spective denominations. In December,
1856, the numeral design was suppressed
in favor of a new one showing the
Arms of the kingdom. The values were
the same as before with an 18kr stamp
in addition, and all were printed in color
on white paper, the paper containing
orange colored silk threads like the
"Dickinson" paper employed in Great
Britain. In June, 1858, the stamps be-
gan to appear on plain white wove paper,
without silk threads, while about No-
vember, 1859, perforation was^ intro-
duced. The next change, occurring in
February, 1861, was a somewhat minor
one affecting the paper which was much
thinner than before. In 1862, the 1, 3, 6
and 9 kreuzer were issued with a per-
foration gauging 10 instead of 13^ as
before, while in 1863-64 all denomina-
tions appeared in new colors conform-
ing to the color scheme adopted by the
German-Austrian Postal Union. In 1865
the 1, 3 and 6kr were issued with roulette
instead of perforation, the 9kr followed
in 1867 and the 18kr in 1868 and in the
latter year a new value, 7kr, also
rouletted, was added to the series. In
1868 the Government decided to abandon
the typographic embossing process as it
was foui.'d too expensive, especially in
the case of the lower denominations.
Ordinary typographic printing was
adopted and with the new process a new
design was introduced. In this the main
theme was a large numeral in the cen-
ter, to denote the value, surrounded by
suitable inscriptions and ornamentation.
A post office notice, dated November
27th, 1868, stated that from January 1st,
1869, the new 1, 3 and 7kr stamps would
be issued according as the stocks of the
former issues were exhausted. On May
3rd, 1869, another value of 14kr was
added to the series ; on December 1st,
1872, a 2kr stamp was issued ; and on
January 15th, 1873, another stamp of the
value of 9 kreuzer appeared. About the
same time a 70 kreuzer stamp of the
type of 1856 was issued, the object of
which was to prepay heavy letters.
Towards the end of 1874 the system of
rouletting the stamps ceased, a new per-
forating machine, with a gauge of 11
by 11 y 2 , having been purchased. The
only stamps of the 1869-73 series per-
forated by this machine were those of
the 1 kreuzer, which was issued in No-
vember, 1874, as before it was necessary
to print any of the other denominations
the design was altered.
In 1874 it was decided to change the
currency, which up to then was that of
the florin of 60 kreuzer, to the Imperial
currency of marks and pfennige, and
January 1st, 1875, was decided on as the
date upon which the change should take
effect. A Post-office Notice dated De-
cember 23rd, 1874, announced that a
stamp of 20 pfennige of a new design
would be issued on the following Jan-
uary 1st to ' take the place of the 7
kreuzer, as soon as the stock of that
value in the various post offices was ex-
hausted. Prominent numerals are again
the chief feature of the design but in
place of "WURTTEMBERG," the in-
scription is "K.WURTT.POST". On
May 28th, 1875, a further notice from
the post office announced the discontin-
uance of the kreuzer series from the 1st
of July following and the issue of a
new series with values in pfennige. The
new stamps were 3, 5, 10, 25 and 50
pfennige and 2 marks, the latter taking
the place of the 70kr stamp. The 50pf
as originally issued was printed in grey
but by virtue of an agreement made
with the Imperial Post Office at Berlin,
its color was changed to grey-green in
February, 1878. In November, 1881, a 5
mark stamp was added to the series, this
being similar in design to the rest of the
set except that the central portion was
uncolored and the numeral of value was
printed in this space in black by a second
operation. On January 1st, 1883, a
similar change in the color of the num-
eral was extended to the 2 mark stamp.
Early in 1890 the colors of the 3, 5, 25
and 50pf stamps were changed and in
1893 a further addition was made to the
series by the issue of a 2 pfennige stamp.
In 1900 two new values 30 and 40 pfen-
nige respectively were issued, these be-
ing like the mark denominations with
the numerals in black on a plain ground.
On April 1st, 1902, the kingdom of Wur-
temberg ceased the issue of its own
separate stamps, those for the German
Empire superseding them.
In addition to its stamps for ordinary
use, Wurtemberg has issued Municipal
Service and Official stamps, both these
special series still continuing in use.
The Municipal Service stamps were first
issued in July, 1875, there being two de-
nominations, 5 and 10 pfennige. The
first of these was for use on the official
correspondence of municipalities, irre-
spective of weight, and the lOpf was
for use on money orders and parcels.
In 1880 the color of the 5pf was changed
from mauve to green. In 1897 a change
in the postal rates led to the issue of a
3pf stamp and in 1900 other regulations
led to the issue of 2 and 25 pfennige
values. In 1906 all five values were
overprinted with the dates "1806-1906,"
surmounted by a crown in commemora-
tion of the centenary of Wurtemberg's
being raised to a Kingdom. In 1906-7 all
five values were printed on paper water-
marked with a design of crosses and
circles and at the same time 20 and 50
pfennige values were added to the set.
Until April 1st, 1881, the correspond-
ence of the ministerial offices was con-
veyed free of charge, but on the sup-
pression of this privilege a series of
stamps of special design was issued for
use on official correspondence. The
values at first issued were 3, 5, 10, 20, 25
and 50 pfennige, but in 1882 a 1 mark
stamp was added. In 1890 the colors of
the 3, 5 and 25pf and 1 mark were changed
to conform with those of the regular
series. The color of the 50pf was also
changed shortly afterwards and in 1900
a 2pf stamp was added to the set. In
1903, 30 and 40 pfennige stamps were
issued in colors corresponding to those
of the ordinary stamps of 1900, while in
1906 all denominations were overprinted
in a similar manner to the Municipal
Service stamps. During 1906-7 all de-
nominations appeared on the new paper
watermarked with circles and crosses.
THE FIRST ISSUE.
The Government of Wurtemberg ob-
tained control of its own postal service
in 1851 when, as I have already shown
in my preceding notes, it was purchased
from the Prince of Thurn and Taxis.
The first series of stamps consisting of
1, 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer values were placed
on sale to the public on the 12th Octo-
ber, 1851, though their use for postal
purposes did not commence until three
days later. In April, 1852, a new de-
nomination 18 kreuzer was added to
the set and as the design is similar to
that of the lower values, all can best be
treated as one set. To quote the late
Mr. W. A. S. Westoby: "The resem-
blance between the stamps of the first
series of Wurtemberg and those of the
first series of Baden is so remarkable as
to leave no doubt that the Government
of Wurtemberg availed itself of the re-
sults of the investigations made by that
of Baden previously to the issue of the
first series for this latter State, on May
1st, 1851. The dies were similarly con-
structed, the inscriptions were similar,
mutatis mutandis, and the stamps were
printed on colored paper. The matrix
die was composite, the numeral of value
in the center being within a frame, al-
most square, of 9^ mm. placed angle
upwards within a frame measuring ex-
ternally 22^ by 22 mm. and internally
15^2 by 15 mm. and carrying the follow-
ing inscriptions on tablets : In the upper
one, running the whole width, was
'Wurttemberg,' and on a similar tablet at
the foot was 'Freimarke/ with an orna-
ment at each end resembling a vine
branch with the two bunches of grapes,
the lower one of which was incomplete.
On the tablet on the left side was'Deutsch-
Oestr. Postverein,' and on another on
the right side 'Vertrag v. 6 April 1850.
These were set up in movable type, the
upper and lower ones in ordinary Ger-
man lower case characters with capital
initials, and those on the sides in diamond
type, as in those of Baden. The spaces
between the rectangle carrying the num-
eral of value and the inner line of the
frame were filled in with arabesque or-
The design is similar for all values
with the exception of the central portion
carrying the numerals. In the case of
the 1 and 6 kreuzer the background is
composed of lines running parallel to
the sides of the rectangle making a de-
sign of small squares; in the 3 kreuzer,
the ground consists of small ovals; in
the 9 kreuzer the ground is composed
of small circles resembling lace work;
while on the 18 kreuzer the background
is formed of horizontal lines.
The dies were engraved at the Mint
in Stuttgart, where the electrotypes com-
posing the printing plates were also
made. The printing was done under the
direction of the post office, in typo-
graphic presses, the sheets consisting of
sixty stamps arranged in ten rows of six.
All denominations were printed in black
on colored papers. The paper was ob-
tained locally and while it is always wove,
it varies considerably in thickness and
most values provide numerous shades.
The stamps were all issued imperforate.
Mr. Westoby tells us that, "It may be
noted that occasionally one or both of
the full stops are wanting after the 'v'
or the '6' in the inscription in the right
tablet of the 3 kreuzer, and there is a
difference in the position of the stop
after the word 'Postverein' in the left
tablet. The first of these is probably
due to imperfections in the moulds from
which the electrotypes were made, while
the second points to the making of new
Mr. Robert Ehrenbach, writing in the
London Philatelist for August, 1893,
points out that differences in the posi-
tion of the period after "Postverein"
may be found in all values except the
18kr. There are three types in all. In
Type I the period is between the second
and third points of the zigzag lines of
the border; in type II it is exactly over
the second point; and in type III it is
exactly above the third point. All three
types are found on the 3 kreuzer, types
I and II are found in the 1, 6 and 9
kreuzer, while the ISkr is known only
with the first type. Whether the varie-
ties are found side by side on the same
sheet or are the distinguishing points
of separate plates we are not told.
20 ii r H r m b erg.
1. Ikr black on buff, Scott's No. 1.
L'. :;kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 2 or 3.
:;. t;kr black on green, Scott's No. 4 or 4a.
4. !>kr black on rose, Scott's No. f> or fia.
.".. iskr black on lilac, Scott's No. 6.
THE SECOND ISSUE.
Although it is obvious that the design
of Wurtemberg's first stamps was in-
spired by the numeral series for Baden,
it was not long befoie more original
ideas prevailed and an entirely new
series of stamps was issued. The new
design shows the Arms of the kingdom,
with supporters and motto, embossed
in colorless relief on a ground work
of color covered with white horizontal
loops. This is contained within a rec-
tangular frame, measuring 22^ mm.
square, which is inscribed "FREI-
MARKE" at the top and with the value
on each of the other three sides. The
inscriptions are all in Roman capitals
and the design is completed by the ad-
dition of small six-rayed stars in each
of the angles. An excellent description of
the Arms design appeared in Gibbons'
Stamp Weekly for September 5th, 1908,
which I cannot do better than repro-
In 1817, King William of Wur-
temberg simplified the Arms of the
kingdom, the proper arms of the royal
house having become too complicated
through additions at various times.
The arms now consist of an oval
shield divided into two parts or fields,
surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves,
in gold, surmounted by a gold helmet
bearing a royal crown.
The two fields are:
On the right, for Wurtemberg, three
stag's antlers, in black, placed one
upon the other, on a golden field; the
upper antlers having each four points,
the lower one but three. These are
the original arms of the counts of
Wurtemberg, and have reference to
their office of Hereditary Grand
On the left, for Swabia, three blaJc
lions, one above the other, also on a
golden field; the lions have their
tongues hanging out of their mouths,
and their right paws are raised. These
are the three lions of Hohenstauffen,
and were only added to the arms of
Wurtemberg in 1806 by King Fred-
erick, in memory of the famous fam-
ily of Hohenstauffen, which, in for-
mer times occupied the country which
now forms Wurtemberg.
The supporters of the shield are,
on the right, a black lion bearing a
golden crown; and on the left, a
golden stag. The proper colors for
the ribbon bearing the motto are
purple with a black reverse, and the
motto itself, in gold letters, reads
"Furchtloss und treie," i. e. "Fearless
The design is the same for all de-
nominations, varying only in the desig-
nation of value. The dies were en-
graved and the electrotypes made at the
Mint in Stuttgart. The printing form
for each value consisted of sixty elec-
trotypes, arranged in ten rows of six,
which were separated as a rule by a
space of only Y^ mm.
The paper varies considerably in thick-
ness and that at first employed con-
tains orange colored silk threads similar
to the "Dickinson" paper, found in con-
nection with some of the early British
stamps. These silk threads were so
placed that they traversed the stamps in
a horizontal direction, one thread being
apportioned to each horizontal row of
stamps. This paper was apparently ob-
tained from Bavaria.
The values in this new series corre-
sponded exactly to those previously in
use, the set being issued on Sept. 22nd,
1857, according to Mr. Westoby, Mr.
Ehrenbach, and other writers on the
subject. In the Monthly Journal some
few years ago a copy of the 9kr was
reported with cancellation dated Dec.
30th, 1856, and on the strength of this
Gibbons' catalogue assigns the date De-
cember, 1856, to the whole series. This
seems particularly slender evidence on
which to antedate the whole issue by
some nine months for the cancellation
might easily have been an error for
1857. We should like to hear of other
early dated specimens before accepting
1856 as the correct date of issue.
Most of the stamps of this set vary
in shade but these variations are not
very striking being, as a rule, confined
to pale and deep tints.
Sept., 1857 (?). Silk thread paper. Imperf.
6. Ikr brown, Scott's No. 7, 8 or 8a.
7. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 9 or 9a.
8. 6kr green, Scott's No. 10 or lOa.
9. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 11 or lla.
10. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 12 or 12a.
THE THIRD ISSUE.
If we accept the date of September,
1857, as correct for the second issue the
use of the silk-thread paper lasted but
a very short time for in June, 1858,
the stamps began to appear on white-
wove machine made paper, without
threads. This paper is usually fairly
thick but, like that of the preceding is-
sue, it varies in texture. The sheets
contained sixty stamps as before but the
electrotypes were re-arranged so that
the spaces between them varied from
\ l / 2 mm. to 1^4 mm.
An interesting variety of the Ikr of
this issue is described in the Monthly
Journal for September, 1904, viz :
"Mr. Giwelb has shown our publishers
a copy of the 1 kreuzer with a clear im-
pression on the back reading the right
way. Probably a sheet that was defec-
tive in some part of the impression was
passed through the press again, for the
sake of economy, but it is not the silk
thread paper. The specimen is post-
marked Stuttgart, 1 Jun 1867."
The stamps of this issue are almost
exactly like the corresponding stamps on
the silk thread paper and variations in
shade are of little consequence with the
exception of the Ikr. This value exists
in two very striking shades of brown
one being yellowish and the other al-
most a black-brown.
1858. Without silk threads. Imperf.
11. Ikr brown, Scott's No. 13 or 14.
12. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 15 or 15a.
13. 6kr green, Scott's No. 16 or 16a.
14. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 17 or 17a.
15. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 18 or 18a.
tion machine was ordered from Vienna
on the joint account of the postal ad-
ministrations of Baden and Wurtemberg
and this was set up at Carlsruhe. This
machine was of the harrow type and
was capable of perforating an entire
sheet of 100 stamps at one operation,
its gauge being 13^. Although the
machine was primarily intended for use
on sheets of 100 stamps those of
Wurtemberg remained the same as be-
fore, i. e. sixty impressions in ten rows
of six. Some of the perforated values
began to be circulated in November,
1859. The paper, color, and arrange-
ment of the cliches remained as before.
1859-60. Thick paper. Perf. 13 Y 2 .
16. Ikr brown.Scott's No. 19.
17. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 20 or 20a.
18. 6kr green, Scott's No. 21.
19. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 22.
THE FIFTH ISSUE.
The next change, though it affected
all the values, was a somewhat minor
one. It was found that the paper was
a little too thick for easy working in
the perforating machine and, beginning
with February, 1861, a much thinner
paper was employed. The Ic of this
series exists in a number of distinct
shades ranging from a palish brown to
an almost black-brown. The 3kr and
18kr differ in tint a little, while the 9kr
is found in two colors. The original
shade was rose, similar to that of the
preceding issues, but early in 1862 the
color was changed to a dull purple or
Imperforate specimens are known of
all values but it is considered doubtful
that any were ever issued for use in
this condition though postally used
specimens are known. Mr. Westoby
ascribes the existence of these imperfo-
rate varieties to "the difficulty attendant
on two administrations using the same
Thin paper. Perf 13^.
Ikr brown, Scott's No. 23 or 24.
21. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 25 or 25a.
22. 6kr green, Scott's No. 26.
23. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 27.
24. 9kr purple. Scott's No. 28.
25. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 29 or 29a.
THE FOURTH ISSUE.
In describing the stamps of Baden I
mentioned that in July, 1859, a perfora-
THE SIXTH ISSUE.
During the second quarter of 1862, it
became necessary to overhaul the perfo-
rating machine and it was provided with
a new set of punches having a gauge of
ten, instead of Y6 l / 2 as before. Stamps
with the new perforation began to ap-
pear about June, 1862, and all except
the 18kr were issued by the end -of the
year. The 18kr in blue does not exist
with the 10 perforation, as plenty of the
13^2 perforation remained in stock and
by the time more were required, the
color was changed. The 9kr is known
in carmine as well as the more usual
purple. These were probably due to one
or more imperforate sheets of the pre-
ceding issue, having been found and
perforated after the gauge of the ma-
chine had been changed.
ere nee List.
Type as before but perf. 10.
Ikr brown, Scott's Xu. :;.
L'7. Mkr yellow, Scott's No. Ml or Mia
kr green, Scott's Xo. Ml.'.
LI i. !kr purple, Scott's No. 33.
THE SEVENTH ISSUE.
The German-Austrian Postal Union
had adopted a regulation under which
all the members of the Union agreed to
use the same colors for their 3, 6 and
9 kreuzer stamps. An order of the
Minister of Finance of Wurtemberg,
dated September 12th, 1862, directed,
therefore, that to conform with this
regulation the stamps would for the
future be printed in green for the 1
kreuzer, in rose for the 3 kreuzer, in
blue for the 6 kreuzer, in brown for the
9 kreuzer, and in orange for the 18
kreuzer. The issue in the altered colors
was to have taken place on October 1st,
1862, but as there were large stocks of all
values in the old colors still on hand, it
was decided to use these up first. Con-
sequently, the new varieties appeared at
various times as follows : the 1 kreuzer
in February, 1863, the 3 and 9 kreuzer
in June, 1863; and the 6 and 18 kreuzer
in June, 1864. The paper and perfora-
tion were as before. All values except
the 18kr exist in a number of different
shades. Mr. Ehrenbach mentions a
minor variety of the 3 kreuzer which is
probably worth looking for, viz : has
a prominent flaw in the upper right
corner a large red spot on a ground
of white instead of the usual white star
on a colored ground.
1863-64. New Colors. Perf. 10.
30. Ikr green, Scott's Xo. M4. M4a or M.".
Ml. Mkr rose, Scott's Xo. MO or MOa.
ML'. Ckr blue, Scott's No. 37 or 37a.
MM. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 38, 39 or M9a.
M4. ISkr orange, Scott's No. 4O.
THE EIGHTH ISSUE.
With the increasing use of postage
stamps the Wurtemberg Government
found considerable inconvenience and
delay was occasioned by having to send
them to Carlsruhe to be perforated and
this inconvenience became so great in
time that the administration at Stuttgart
ordered a machine from Berlin for
rouletting the stamps in line, similar to
the Prussian stamps of 1861. This
machine was set up in August, 1865,
and the first stamps rouletted by it were
delivered in October following though
it was not until June, 1866, that the issue
of the 1, 3, and 6 kreuzer was made;
and these were followed by the 9 kreuzer
in March, 1867; and by the 18 kreuzer
in February, 1868. The electrotypes all
appear to have been re-set and the dis-
tance between the stamps is now 2 mm.
On November 23rd, 1867, an agree-
ment was made with the North German
Confederation by which the 2 silber-
groschen rate was raised from 6 to 7
kreuzer. The Wurtemberg public were
informed of this change by means of a
post-office notice dated April 2nd, 1868,
and at the same time it was stated that
6, 9, and 18 kreuzer values would cease
to be manufactured though they would
continue available for postage purposes
till the stocks were exhausted. The
color chosen for the new value was
blue though it was of a darker color
than that used for the superseded 6kr
1865-68. Types as before. Rouletted 10.
35. Ikr green. Scott's No. 41.
36. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 42 or 42a.
37. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 48.
38. 7kr deep blue, Scott's No. 44 or 44a.
39. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 45, 45a or 45b.
40. ISkr orange, Scott's No. 46.
THE NINTH ISSUE.
The typographic embossing method of
production was found to be very ex-
pensive, especially in the case of the low
denominations, and in 1868 the Govern-
ment decided to abandon it in favor of
ordinary typographic printing. That a
considerable saving would be effected by
the new method is conclusively shown
from the statement that while it cost 1
kreuzer to produce 22 stamps by the
embossed process 46 stamps could be
produced for the same sum by the plain
typographic process. On November 27th,
1868, a Post-office circular was published
giving notice that from January 1st,
1869, stamps of a new design of 1, 3,
and 7 kreuzer would be issued accord-
ing as the stocks of the former series
were exhausted. The actual date of is-
sue of these values is not known. On
May 3rd, 1869, another value of 14
kreuzer was issued in the same design,
and on December 2nd, 1872, a 2 kreuzer
value was added to the set. Early in
1873 the rate for single letters sent to
England, France, or the United States
by way of Bremen or Hamburg was
fixed at 9 kreuzer and on January 15th
a stamp of "this value was issued corre-
sponding in design to the other denomi-
nations then current.
The design is the same for all six
values and shows large uncolored
shaded numerals in the centre on a
ground of crossed lines, within an up-
right oval with a band of oak leaves
around the edge. Around this is an
oval band of horizontal lines inscribed
"POST" at the left, "FREI" at the top,
and "MARKE" on the right, while there
is a small posthorn at the bottom. The
various inscriptions are separated by
small ornamental scrolls. Surrounding
this is another inscribed oval band con-
taining, on an uncolored ground, the
name "WURTTEMBERG" at the top
and the value in words at the base, the
two inscriptions being separated by
small crowns. In the spandrels are
small shields containing three lions in
the upper left and lower right corners
and stag's horns on the others.
The die was engraved at Stuttgart, as
in the case of the previous issues, the
stamps being printed in sheets of sixty,
in ten rows of six, on plain white wove
paper. The printing was heavy, conse-
quently the design is generally found
deeply indented in the paper. The
stamps were rouletted with the machine
used for the preceding series.
1869-73. Rouletted 10.
41. Ikr green, Scott's No. 47 or 47a.
42. 2kr orange, Scott's No. 48 or 48a.
48. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 49.
44. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 50.
45. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 51 or 51a.
46. 14kr orange, Scott's No. 52 or 52a.
THE TENTH ISSUE.
On January 1st, 1873, a stamp bearing
the fiscal value of 70 kreuzer and in
the Arms type of 1857 made its appear-
ance. The object of this high denomi-
nation, as shown by a post office notice
of December 24th, 1872, was to prepay
heavy letters. Its use was confined to
the three chief post-offices of the king-
dom situated at Stuttgart, Ulm, and
Heilbron, and the stamp was not per-
mitted to be sold to the public. Any
letters requiring these high value stamps
could be posted at other offices, when
they were forwarded under official cover
to one of the three above named offices,
and then franked with the 70kr stamps.
The design of this value is exactly
similar to that of the series of 1857,
except that there is an exterior border
fopied of small dots. The stamps were
printed in sheets of six, two horizontal
rows of three, on white wove paper and
were not perforated. In the top margin
is an inscription in black referring to
the price of each stamp and the total
value of each sheet, viz :
6. St. Postfreimarken zu 70kr.=F1.1.10.
Ztisammen im Werthe von 7 Fl.=4 Thl.
Two plates were used for printing
these stamps differing chiefly in the ar-
rangement of the dotted border. Whether
both plates were used concurrently or
at separate times does not appear to be
known for certain, though probably the
former was the case if Mr. Ehrenbach's
statement that postmarks of the same
dates are found on stamps from both
plates. Mr. Ehrenbach gives the best
description of the differences between
the two plates, viz :
(1) The dark shade (believed by
most people to be the first plate).
The dimensions of the little black
dotted frame running round the
stamps is 79^2 mm. horizontally, and
53 vertically. They are only divided
from each other by a single line of
little black dots. The stamps are 3^4
mm. apart from one another. In the
inscription over the top row there is
no stop after the word "Mk.", and
the two little lines (denoting equal to)
between 70kr, 1F1, 10, etc., are only
Y$ mm. wide.
(2) The light shade. The Arms
in the stamps are more embossed, the
stamps show a somewhat clearer im-
pression. The dimensions of the
outer border are 77 mm. by 52 mm.
The stamps are likewise printed 3^4
mm. apart, but two dotted lines (M to
1 mm. apart) divided the stamps in-
stead of one only. In the black in-
scription on the top there is a stop
after "MK.", and the lines (equal to)
are 1^2 mm. wide.
1873. Embossed. Imperf.
47. 70kr violet, Scott's No. 53 or 53a.
THE ELEVENTH ISSUE.
Towards the end of 1874 the perfo-
rating by rouletting ceased as the Gov-
ernment purchased a new perforating
machine having a gauge of \l l / 2 by 11.
The only value of the kreuzer series
perforated by this machine was the Ikr
which was issued in November, 1874.
Before it was necessary to print further
supplies of any of the other values the
design was changed and though speci-
mens are known with this perforation
they are fraudulent productions.
1874. Perf. 11^x11.
48. Ikr green, Scott's No. 54.
THE TWELFTH ISSUE.
In 1874 it was decided to change the
currency, which up to that time had
consisted of the florin of 60 kreuzer,
similar to that of the other States of
south Germany, to the Imperial cur-
rency of marks and pfennige, and Jan-
uary 1st, 1875, was fixed as the date for
the change. A notice, dated December
23rd, 1874, was issued by the Post-office,
stating that a stamp of 20 pfennige of a
new design would be issued on that day
to take the place of that of the 7 kreuzer,
just as soon as the stocks of the latter
value held in the various post-offices
The design shows uncolored numerals
on a circular ground of lines crossing
each other diagonally, above which, on
a curved scroll is "K. WURTT. POST",
while on a similar scroll below, the
value is shown in words. On the left
is a shield containing three stag's horns
and on the right are three lions in a
similar shield. The whole is enclosed
by an ornamental rectangular frame
measuring 21 by lS l / 2 mm.
The die was engraved and the print-
ing plates were constructed at the Mint
in Stuttgart and the printing was done
under the direction of the Post-office as
in the case of the preceding issues. As
the new currency was a decimal one a
change in the size of the plates was
made and the stamps were printed in
sheets of 100 arranged in ten rows of
ten. They were perforated bv the new
machine gauging 11^ by 11.
On May 28th, 1875, the Post-office is-
sued another notice announcing that
from July 1st next the former series
of stamps in kreuzer would be entirely
superseded by a new series with values
in pfennige. These, it was stated, would
be on sale at the various post offices on
June 15th. and that after August 15th
the stamps with values in kreuzer would
cease to be, valid , for , postal use. 'The
new denon)inatldns' co-as4stetT i pf y 3,*5,'10,
15, 25, and, 53 ^flfannige/ a^at stfrjlftr
type to the 20pf already described. J At*
the same time the color of this latter
value, which had hitherto been printed
in blue, was changed to ultramarine.
About the same time a 2 marks stamp
of similar type was issued in place of
the 70 kreuzer. Its sale was prohibited
to the public and its use was at first
confined to the offices of Stuttgart, Ulm,
and Heilbronn, though later it was ex-
tended to almost every post office in the
kingdom. Notwithstanding this pro-
hibition the stamp was frequently sold
to the public, as appears from a post-
office circular of August 18th, 1879, and
in November of that year the stamp
was printed in vermilion on orange
colored paper, and on the back "un-
verkauflich" (not to be sold) was printed
The 50pf was at first printed in grey
but in February, 1878, consequent on
an agreement made with the Imperial
Post-office at Berlin, its color was
changed to grey-green.
All values exist in a number of more
or less striking shades and specialists
will also find that most of them exist
with yellow and white gum, the latter
representing the later printings.
49. 3pf green, Scott's No. 55 or 55a.
50. 5pf violet, Scott's No. 56.
51. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 57.
52. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 58a.
53. 20pf ultramarine, Scott's No. 58.
54. 25pf brown, Scott's No. 59.
55. 50pf grey, Scott's No. 60.
56. 50pf grey-green, Scott's No. 61.
57. 2mk orange, Scott's No. 62.
58. 2mk vermilion on orange, Scott's No.
THE THIRTEENTH ISSUE.
On November 1st, 1881, a 5 mark
stamp was issued and though this was
chiefly intended for telegraphic purposes
it was also available for postal use.
The design was similar to that of the
preceding series except that the central
circular portion was uncolored, and the
numeral of value was printed on it in
black by a second operation. This value
was reported with central numeral in-
verted some years ago and though the
error is listed in Scott's^- catalogue I
cannot -fthcT that its px?$tehcf was ever
auttienj jcAted: , "
On' January 1st, 1883, the 2 mark
stamp was also issued with value in
black on an uncolored ground. The
value is known in two distinct shades
and is also known imperforate, a sheet
having been accidentally issued in this
1881-83. Perf. 11^x11.
59. 2 marks orange and black, Scott's No.
64 or 64a.
60. 5 marks blue and black, Scott's No. 65.
THE FOURTEENTH ISSUE.
Early in the year 1890 the colors of
the 3, 5, 25, and 50 pfennige values were
changed to conform with those of the
corresponding denominations of Ger-
many, while in 1893 a new value, 2
pfennige, was issued. The design and
perforation remained exactly as before.
The 5pf is said to exist imperforate.
61. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 66.
62. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 67.
63. 5pf green, Scott's No. 68 or 68a.
64. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 69 or 69a.
65. 50pf red-brown, Scott's No. 70 or 70a.
THE FIFTEENTH ISSUE.
In 1900 the set was enriched by the
addition of 30 and 40pf values. The
design was exactly like that of the other
values of the series, but, like the mark
denominations, the numerals of value
were printed at a second operation in
black on a plain ground. These were
the last stamps issued by Wurtemberg
for general use for in 1902 its postal
system was united with that of the Im-
perial government. A paragraph in
Alfred Smith's Monthly Circular re-
ferred to the matter as follows :
An agreement has been concluded
between the Imperial Postal Adminis-
tration and that of Wurtemberg by
which the postal systems are to be
united for a definite period of four
years from April 1st, 1902, after
which it will be subject to a notice of
one year on either side. On the date
mentioned the separate issues of each
country will give place to a uni-
fied series inscribed "DEUTSCHES
1900. Perf. 11^x11.
66. 30pf orange and black, Scott's No. 71.
67. 40pf rose and black, Scott's No. 72.
MUNICIPAL SERVICE STAMPS.
With the exception of a few stamps
issued by Bavaria in 1908 for the use
of Railway Officials Wurtemberg is the
only German State that has issued a
regular series of official stamps. These
fall into two classes those for general
use and those for the use of municipali-
ties. The latter class, known as Mu-
nicipal Service stamps, was first issued
on July 1st, 1875, for use on the official
correspondence of municipalities within
the kingdom of Wurtemberg. The rate
of postage was fixed at 5 pfennige ir-
respective of the weight of the letters.
A stamp of this value printed in mauve
like the ordinary 5pf stamp then cur-
rent was issued in a special design.
In the centre is a diamond of solid color
on which a large "5" surrounded by
"POST-FREI-MARKE PFENNIG" is
shown. Around this is a lozenge shaped
band inscribed "PORTO PFLIGHTIGE
DIENST SACHE" meaning "Service
matter liable to postage." In each of
the four angles are small oval shields
showing three stag's horns on their left
and three lions on their right hand
sides. The design is completed by a
thick frame line. These stamps, like
those for ordinary use, were printed in
sheets of 100, the dies and plates being
manufactured at the Mint in Stuttgart
and the printing taking place under the
supervision of the Post-office. Imperfo-
rate specimens are known of this 5pf
stamp. A lOpf stamp of similar design
was issued about the same time for use
on parcels and money orders.
In 1890 the color of the 5pf was
changed to green to conform with the
change of color in the corresponding
value of the ordinary set. Several dis-
tinct shades of this variety may be
On January 10th, 1897, a new value
of 3 pfennige in brown was issued and
in 1900 a 2pf in grey and a 25pf in
orange appeared. The design of all
three was similar to that of the first 5pf.
In 1906 all five denominations were
overprinted with a crown above the
dates "1806-1906" in commemoration of
the centenary of Wurtemberg's being
raised to the dignity of a Kingdom.
In 1906 some of the values began to
appear on paper watermarked with a
multiple device of crosses and circles
and by the following year all values
had appeared on this new paper and
two new values 20 and 50 pfennige
were also issued. The stamps on this
watermarked paper were printed by the
German Imperial Printing Office, at
Berlin, and apparently the plates for
the two new values were also made in
Berlin. These stamps are still in use
for the agreement between the Imperial
Administration and that of Wurtem-
berg regarding the unified series of
stamps affected those for public use
1875-1900. Perf. 11^x11.
66. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 218.
67. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 215.
68. opf mauve, Scott's No. 201.
69. 5pf green, Scott's No. 216 or 217.
70. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 202.
71. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 220.
1806 - 1906
1906. Overprinted in black. Perf.
72. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 224.
73. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 226.
74. opf green, Scott's No. 228.
75. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 229.
7>. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 233.
1906-7. Wmk. Crosses and circles. Perf.
77. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 238.
78. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 239.
70. 5pf green, Scott's No. 240.
80. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 241.
81. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 253.
82. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 242.
83. 50pf lake, Scott's No. 254.
Until April 1st, 1881, the correspond-
ence of the ministerial offices was con-
veyed free of postage, but at that time
the privilege was taken away and a
series of special stamps was issued for
use on all official correspondence. M.
Moens described their issue as follows:
Official stamps for franking cor-
respondence connected with the busi-
ness of the State, churches, schools,
and public benevolent institutions were
issued, in part, on the first of April
last, in terms of a decree, dated 26th
March, 1881, of the Ministry of
Churches and Schools. Article 3 of
this Decree sets forth that "Delivery
of these stamps shall be made against
printed acknowledgments of their re-
ceipt upon forms to be furnished by
the post-office department. At the
end of every month the post-office
authorities shall prepare a statement
of number of receipts in their pos-
session for stamps issued, and shall
submit it to our Department for ex-
amination and payment."
The values at 'first issued were 3, 5,
10, and 20 pfennige and these were fol-
lowed on April 18th by 25 and 50
pfennige. The colors correspond to
those of similar denomination of the
ordinary series then current. The de-
sign, which is the same for all, shows
uncolored labels on all four sides and a
fifth one crossing the centre of the
stamps obliquely from the left lower to
the right upper corner. The labels at
the sides are inscribed "K. WURTT."
at the left, "*POST*" at the top,
"PFENNIG" at the right, and the value
in words at the bottom. The diagonal
label contains the words "AMTLICHER
VERKEHR" meaning "Official Busi-
ness." On each side of the central
label are escutcheons, containing the
.numerals of value, resting on an orna-
In 1882 a new value of 1 mark printed
in yellow was added to the series.
In 1890 the colors of the 3, 5, and
25pf were altered to conform with those
of the ordinary stamps and at the same
time the color of the 1 mark was
changed to violet. Shortly afterwards
the color of the 5pf was also altered
and in 1900 a 2pf stamp was added to
In 1903 30 and 40 pfennige stamps
were issued and these, like the ones for
ordinary use were printed at two opera-
tions with the value in each case in
In 1906 all ten values were overprinted
in a similar manner to the Municipal
Service stamps in commemoration of the
hundredth anniversary of Wurtemberg's
existence as a kingdom, and in 1906-7
all denominations were issued on the
watermarked paper used for the Mu-
nicipal Service stamps of the same date.
These latter were printed in Berlin by
the German Imperial Printing Office and
they are still in use.
1881-82. Perf. 11^x11.
84. 3pf green, Scott's No. 203.
85. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 204.
86. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 205.
87. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 206.
88. 25pf brown, Scott's No. 207'.
89. 50pf grey-green, Scott's No. 208.
90. Imk yellow, Scott's No. 209.
91. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 219.
92. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 210.
93. 5pf green, Scott's No. 211.
94. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 212.
95. SOpf orange and black, Scott's No. 221.
96. 40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 222.
97. SOpf red-brown, Scott's No. 213.
98. Imk violet, Scott's No. 214.
Overprinted in black. Perf.
2pf grey, Scott's No. 224.
3pf brown, Scott's No. 225.
5pf green, Scott's No. 227.
lOpf rose, Scott's No. 230.
20pf blue. Scott's No. 231.
25pf oran?e, Scott's No. 232.
SOpf orange and black, Scott's No. 234.
40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 235.
50pf red-brown, Scott's No. 236.
Imk violet, Scott's No. 237.
Wmk. Crosses and circles. Perf.
2pf grey, Scott's No. 243.
3pf brown, Scott's No. 244.
5pf green. Scott's No. 245.
lOpf rose, Scott's No. 246.
20pf blue, Scott's No. 247.
25pf orange, Scott's No. 248.
30pf orange and black, Scott's No. 249.
40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 250.
50pf red -brown, Scott's No. 251.
Imk violet, Scott's No. 252.
Few stamps have been more reprinted
than the first three issues of Wurtem-
berg, and few Governments have shown
greater docility in supplying enterprising
dealers and collectors, to order, with
supplies of the stamps in every abnor-
mal color that could be desired by the
most morbid imagination. The so-
called reprints of the first issue are, in
fact, nothing better than official counter-
feits. None of the printing plates were
in existence when these imitations were
made in 1864, nor were the dies, except
the central portions and the frames
without the inscriptions. These latter
were, therefore, set up again, and small
plates constructed consisting of six or
twelve electrotypes. In the imitations
the letters of "Wurttemberg" and
"Freimarke" are smaller than in the
originals, the letter "W" is 1 l / 2 mm.
from the left side-line of the label in-
stead of 1 mm. as in the genuine, and
the lower bunch of grapes in each of the
two ornaments in the lower tablet are
complete whereas in the originals they
are not complete. These "reprints"
should hardly confuse the most inexperi-
enced collector. Mr. Westoby tells us
that "In 1865 a further printing was
made on paper of various thicknesses,
and of all the colors of the rainbow.
The printing seems to have been special-
ly confined to the 1 kreuzer, though the
other values are recorded as . existing.
The reprinting was made on the condi-
tion that the reprints should not be used
In 1864 all the values of the Arms
series were reprinted and some of these
are apt to prove rather confusing.
None of the original "Dickinson" paper
with orange thread used for the stamps
of 1857 remained in stock and though a
supply of silk-thread paper was obtained
from the Bavarian Administration the
color of the thread was different, being
red. The 6kr is known with yellow
thread and various values in fancy
colors are reported as existing with
green silk thread. The color of the
thread, therefore, is sufficient test in
detecting whether the specimen is an
original or a reprint. The detection of
the reprints on paper without silk thread
is a more difficult matter for the colors
of the originals were very closely copied
and there is no appreciable difference
in the paper. The original plates of
1857 did not exist, however, so that the
plates employed for the rouletted stamps
current at the time the reprints were
manufactured were evidently used. On
these the stamps were much more wide-
ly spaced than in the originals, the dis-
tance between the stamps measuring
about 2 mm. instead of Y^ mm. as in the
genuine. In the case of pairs, there-
fore, the reprints are at once distin-
guishable and specimens with unduly
large margins may also be condemned
None of the later issues were re-
The following interesting letter is
My dear Mr. Poole :
Surely no reader of MEKEEI/S WEEK-
LY has enjoyed more than I, your ex-
cellent article on the stamps of Berge-
dorf; and as I feel sure that the article
will be reprinted in pamphlet form for
easy reference, will you allow me to
furnish a few corrections, which I trust
you will accept in the spirit in which
they are made, viz. : in the interest of
Philately, whose ardent followers we
both are. It is true, I was a mere boy
at the time the stamps of Bergedorf
were issued, still as the P. O. was on
the ground floor of the house my father
occupied with his family, I was in and
out of the office whenever out of school,
helping in a boyish way and very much
interested in everything that went on
there, and even in those days I was a
stamp collector. In fact when my father
went to Hamburg to see Mr. Fuchs to
confer about stamps for Bergedorf, he
took with him my collection (stamps
pasted flat in a copy book no printed
albums then) to discuss designs and
colors. I remember distinctly telling
him to beware of such stamps as the
then current ikr Austria, which under
artificial light could hardly be distin-
I pass over your description of how
Bergedorf became finally the property
of Lubeck and Hamburg jointly, for to
go into a description like I find in a
Chronicle of Bergedorf, issued there in
1894 and a copy of which is before me,
would be taking too much time and
space, and I will come at once to the
postal history as I find it recorded
there and of part of which I have per-
The Counts of Thurn and Taxis, who
held the postal privilege in Germany
for centuries, tried to open a P. O.
there in 1788, but it was discontinued
almost at once, as it had been estab-
lished without the consent of the Senates
of Lubeck and Hamburg. In 1838 a
Prussian P. O. was established there
with my father as postmaster, he being
sent there by the Prussian Minister of
Posts, which lasted until March 31st,
1847 ; Prussia having notified the au-
thorities that it desired to terminate its
contract. The completion of the railway
from Hamburg to Berlin doing away
with the necessity to convey as hereto-
fore the mails by postchaise. On April
1st, 1847, the P. O. was opened under
the auspices of the Government of the
two cities L. and H., and remained in
that way until December 31st, 1867,
when in its place, it became a part of the
North German Postal Confederation and
finally, in 1870, part of the Imperial Ger-
I have not with me the article written
by me in the Virginia Philiatelist, but
think I explained in it how Bergedorf
was governed by a delegation of the
Senates of both Lubeck and Hamburg,
called in Bergedorf the "Visitation" to
whom, in the week which they spent
each summer in Bergedorf, all matters
were referred to for adjustment, consti-
tuting as it were a court of last resort,
so the report you mentioned as being
made in 1859 was to them and nothing
further was done that year, than to
order the preparation of stamps for se-
lection and one sheet of each value was
struck off. In 1860 the visitation did
nothing further about the adoption of
stamps for Bergedorf, but when they
were there again during the summer
of 1861, it was ordered that stamps
should be issued, but the colors of the
half and the three shilling did not please
them and they were ordered to be
printed in the colors as described in
the order of October, 17th, 1861.
In urging the issuing of stamps and
to show how they would appear when
on letters, there were cut from each of
the five sheets printed, a block of six
and each block pasted on a large sheet
of blank paper, and I think the original
block of six of the half shilling is now
in the Postal Museum in Berlin. Those
found in Lubeck's archives are evidently
a similar set probably furnished by my
father to the Lubeck delegates in 1860,
and I have no doubt if Hamburg's ar-
chives were searched, a like find would
be made there. The time from mid-
summer 1861 to November 1st, 1861, was
necessary to have the stamps printed,
for I am sure that up to that time only
one sheet of each denomination had
been furnished to my father by Mr.
Fuchs in Hamburg, who had the con-
tract to lithograph the stamps.
You judge from the wording of the
last paragraph in the report of 1859,
that there must have been a Danish P.
O. in Bergedorf, but there never was.
Danish stamps of the value of four skil-
lings (Scott's 7 and 9) had been sold
at the Bergedorf P. O. for a number of
years for the reason that Denmark,
recognizing the usefulness of having
mail matter prepaid by stamps, made
a difference in the rates of prepaid by
stamps and prepaid in cash or unpaid let-
ters, for while a letter from Bergedorf
to the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein
and Lanenburg (not Luxemburg as
you have it, and Oldenburg must also
be a mistake as that never belonged to
Denmark) then under Danish Dominion
as well as Denmark proper, when pre-
paid by stamps cost only 1% schilling
currency, if prepaid in money or sent
unpaid cost two schillings. The stamps
were furnished by the Royal Danish P.
O. in Hamburg.
I see that you have the signature of
my father misplaced under the decree of
October 17th, 1861. Nothing should be
after the (signed) Paalzow. There was
no Imperial Post in existence at that
time so he could not well have been a
Director of Post. It belongs, however,
under the letter to Mr. Moens, March
29, 1873, for then he was Director of
Imp. Post and former Postmaster of the
L. H. office in Bergedorf.
Another misprint is in naming the
Vierlande. You enumerate, Neuen-
gramm, Altengramm which should both
be spelled without r, viz. : Neuengamm,
Then you speak about the issuance of
stamps in Lubeck and Hamburg, Janu-
ary 1st, 1859, and continue that, "shortly
after these labels appeared letters posted
in the Bergedorf district were required
to be prepaid with Hamburg stamps."
This is incorrect, for while it is a fact
that a very few Hamburg stamps have
been used in Bergedorf at that time,
their use was never officially sanctioned
and there was no requirement for even
prepayment of any correspondence.
Having explained how all matters con-
cerning Bergedorf were settled by the
"Visitation" throws light upon the last
paragraph of my father's letter to Mr.
Moens. As your translation reads:
"The pourparlers and discussions were
never exchanged directly between the
Bergedorf authorities and myself, and
were mostly carried on verbally, which
shows that there can be no documents
on this subject." To make it clear
there should be added after exchanged
"in writing" and after myself instead of
"and" should be "but," for it is a fact
that all conferences on the subject of
issuing stamps were only held during
the time the "Visitation" was in Berge-
Your mention of the fact that the
obliterating stamp was also acquired by
Mr. Moens leads me to add one little
piece of information, which may be of
use to some one who has Bergedorf
stamps cancelled in the following man-
ner and which perhaps have been thrown
aside as counterfeit or as bearing a
false cancellation. The obliterating
stamp was made of brass and was a
perfect square having five straight, equi-
distant lines on it, so that an ordinary
cancellation would have been something
I know that in a number of instances I
have seen the clerks and have done so
often myself, use the cancelling stamp
twice, the second time reversed so that
the postage stamp was cancelled not by
straight lines, but by small squares.
This explains such cancellation and
should give a stamp so obliterated a
good philatelic standing. Again assur-
ing you that all the foregoing has not
been written in a censorious spirit, but
with the sincere desire to throw as much
light as possible upon the subject treated
and to bury forever the claim of the
essays of the half schilling black on vio-
let and the three schilling black on rose
as legitimate postage stamps, for they
were never issued as such.
Very sincerely yours,
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
Return to desk from which borrowed.
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.
JAN 6 1948
NOV 1 J956
AN 5 1957
THE UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA UBRARY