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Full text of "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists"

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.- n r : i> ! t « f Y O f 

i? -^^ A// • '' '-^ ' • ? • / » . 



I . • V . .!« I 


i / 





IfACMILLAN & CO., Limitbo 











lUiistrated with Colored Plates^ Four Thousand Engraxnngs in the Teod^ 

and Ninety-six Full-page Cuts 


VOL. V— P-R 

PAGES 2423-3041. FIGS. 2694-3515 




The righU of reproduction and of tranelation are etrioUy reaereed 




Copyright, 1916 

• 4 

Set Up and Electrotyped. Published October 4, 1916 

jpHmtnt pieaiMnt PreM 

J. Horace McFarland Ck)icPAKT 
Harrisburq, Pennbtlvania 


LXXXI. Ray Peach (in color). Frontispiece Facing pa«e 

LXXXII. Peony, Baroness Schroeder . . . . . . . . 2431 

LXXXIII. An avenue of palms in southern Florida. — Oreodoza regia .... 2446 

LXXXIV. A plantation of papaya in the Hawaiian Islands ..... 2462 

LXXXV. Good pods of the garden pea, variety Peter Pan ..... 2491 

LXXXVI. The common garden geranium, a form of Pelargonium .... 2527 

LXXXVII. A branch of Pereskia dcideaia, one of the leaf-bearing cacti. (From a photo- 
graph by H. K. Sloat) 2547 

LXXXVIII. Picea canadensis (or P. aJba). — ^A golden variety ..... 2616 

LXXXIX. Planting. — Rhododendrons in a landscape composition (in color) 2659 

XC. Bavay or Reine Claude (Reine Claude de Bavay), one of the Green Gage 

plimis of American orchards ........ 2716 

XCI. Harvest scene in the potato country ....... 2767 

XCII. A plant of Primida obconica ........ 2800 

XCni. Prunus semdata var. sachalinensis. — ^Thc form Fugenzo .... 2832 

XCIV. The bloom of Pyrus pvlcherrima (P. floribunda) 2869 

XCV. Radish, in several varieties (in color) ....... 2898 

XCVI. Rhododendron well placed. — One of the Rhododendron catawbiense varieties . 2935 

XCVII. A rock-garden ........... 2969 

XCVIII. Romneya Coviteri, the Matilija poppy, one of the most showy of California 

flowers ............ 2978 

XCIX. Rose. — ^White, Bride; pink, Bridesmaid (in color) ..... 3000 

C. Rose, American Beauty ......... 3018 


\j.^ ,.\. 


PACuIkA (native Guiana name) BombaeAeex A 
group of tropical Amencan treea of vanable size some 
of niuch are known to be deciduous all with stnking 
ahow\ flowers and exceptionally lai^e fruits 

Calyx almost tubulose mostly short, truncate 
stamiiuU column long divided at the top into 5 short 
branches each of which in its turn ends more or less 
r^utarly in 3 bundles of about 15 stamens with 
unequal slender fllaments caps dehiscent rounded 
depressed to elongate-oblona; 5-ceUed each cell con 
taming several seeds coated in fleshy tissue Alhed 
genera are Bambax and Adansonia the 
list one differs in ha\ lhk tl ''x -^ seeds 
unbedded in the uooUj mside limnK 

the cape (whence their i 
cotton trees) the Utter 
(the Afncan baobab) in 
its 5-lobed calys In 
Bombax the amnge- 
nwnt of the stampnn is 
distinct and their n 
ber much greater —Over 
30 species of Pnchira 
have been hstefl of 
which at least 3 belong 
to Bombax 4 are •n-no- 
nyms anrl among 
the remainder se v 
eral are Ukely to 
be dropped on one 

other Botanicully 
■peaking onlv 7 
■peciea are well 
known aU of 
which may be dis- 
tributed into 3 
mam groups The 
fit. may reach 13 
10 long with a 
■pread of 9 m 
mcertam species 
the petals are nar 
row and grace- 
fully recurved in 
»me cases ob- 
crvate and some- 
what stiff in 
otbere The color 
Tuies from a nch 
pink to white or 

e brownish yel 
, distinct shades occurring in every species. The 
digitate foliage also contributes to give the trees their 

Cliar appearance. As to distribution, P. aqvaliea is 
d all over Trop. Amer., 3 species are restricted 
to Cent. Ainer., 2 to the W. Indies, and the others are 
lUtivEs of S. Amer. They arc easily cult, under glass 
Md prop, either by seeds or cuttings, but, on account 
01 their large size, most .species are hardly desirable 
tor conservatories. One species, P. insigna, has edible 
•wis, alike in size and flavor to the chestnut and on 
wmch account it is sometimes cult, in Venezuela and 
■wne of the Lesser W. Indies. The seeds of P. macro- 
w™ Bie sometimes used as a cacao substitute; it is 
WobBb\y the xiloxochiU of the Aztecs, being still called 
Iqr that name (jelinjoche) in Nicoya (Costa Rica). 

A Caps globoie-depraied t f tts diam greater than 
lis length {Bra/Aycarpx } 

inBlgniB baviniy {Caroiinea princfvs Linn f ) A 
Bmalltrec Ivs W foholate thelfcs glabrous subsessde 
oblong 8-''4 in long fls 7 in long erect calyx cup- 
like short and broad petals obovate long-cuneate 
crimson or dork purple covered without with a thick 
brownish down staminol tube short the stamens not 
reaching the end of the corolla eajis about 5 in long 
■^ ' ' - ' ■' . w Indies also in 

faps oiaU^ouTukd its dtam 
more than tcdf the lengA 
( l/esocorp* ) 

B Calyx covered vnih Utrge 
cTaleT-4tke glaruU fl« 

Pittier A small 
tree Ivs 7 folio- 
late Ifts bnefly 
petiolulate o b 
ovate 4J4-9 in 
long mmut«ly to- 
mentose beneath 
fl about 7 m 
long calyx stipi 
tate truncate 
pubescent within 
and irregularly 
covered with large 
glands without 
petals lacimate 
pinkish yellowish 
pubescent with 
out staminallube 
short pubescent 
the stamens much 



petals caps 10 
in long by 8 m 
diam Costa Rica 
Bn Calyx smooth 
or unth only a 
fexB glandt at 
the base fis 
Schlecht (P Jos 
tvdiia, Decne P 
longifhlia, Hort.). Fig. 2694. A small or medium-sized 
tree: Ivs. 5-7-foliolate; Ifts. subsessile or briefly petiolu- 
late, oblong or obovate, 2)^8 in. long, glabrous: fls. up 
to 9 in. longj calyx atipitate, cujdike, smooth or nearly so; 
petals lacimate or linear, brownish to greenish pubescent 
without, pink to white or pale yellow within; staminal 
tube glabrous, the stamens about as loiy; as the petals: 
caps, ovoid, 9 in. long by 8 in. diam. Cent. Amer., 
from Mex. to Costa Rica. B.M. 4595. G.C. III. 54: 
325. J.F. 2il09, no. 

villdsuls, Pittier. A tree reaching 90 ft.: Ivs. 5-7- 
foliolate; Ifta. petiolulate, obovate or elliptic-lanceolate, 
2-7 in. long, villous beneath: fl. up to 10 in. long; calvx 
funnel-shaped, truncate, ferruginose-pubescent outside; 
petals laciniate, pubescent on both faces, pinkish 



within, nuty colored without; rtamipal tube long, 
pubescent, the stamens shorter than the petals: caps, 
ovtud, 7 ia. long by 5 in. diam. Panama. 

AAA. Capt. ovale-dongaUd, Ua diam. less itum half the 
length. {Dolichoearpx.) 
B. Pk. hardly over 4 *"■ lonff' 
p^chra. Planch. & lind. A small tree: Its. 7-folio- 
late; Ifts. briefly petiolulate, cuncate-oblong or lanceo- 
late, glabrous: n. about i in. long: calyx cup-like, 
tomentose-pubescent outside; petals linear-oblong, 
greenish pink within, tjimentose and brownish without; 
ataminal tube short, the Btaroens hardly as long as the 
petals: caps, not known. Ocafia Mta., Colombia. 

Bpecifisa, Triana & Planch. A tree about ISO ft. 
hiRA: Ivs. 7-fo!iolate; Ifts. briefly petiolulate, cuneal«- 
oblong, glabrous, 4-S in. lone: fl. about 10 in. long; 
calyx cuplike, brownish pubescent without; _pet&[s 
oblong, long-attenuated, yellowish white inside, 
minutely tomentellose outside; stamina! tube long, 
pubescent without, the whil« stamens nearly as long 
as the petals: caps, not known. Colombia. 

aquitica, Aubl. (P. ffrandifldra, Tussac). A small 
tree: IvH. 5-7 (9) -foliolate; Ifts. subsessile, obovate to 
elliptic-lanceolate, glabrous, 4-12 in. long: fls. 8^-14 
in. long; calyx tubulose-truncate, often warty at the 
base: petals laciniate, more or less deeply pinkish or 
purplish; staminal tube long, the red or scarlet fila- 
ments about as long as the petals: caps. 7-15 in. loiu, 
3-5 in. diam. Trop. Amer., including W. Indies. G.C. 
III. 40:308. — P. aauatiea varies considerably according 
to the nature of the soil in which it grows and to ite 
environment, and it is not unlikely that most so-called 
Bpeciea described in horticultural reviews should bo 
considered as simple varieties of the same. This species 
is the best known in the genus and its area of distribu- 
tion is very extensivej its cult, in hothouses has been 
often attempted and it has lately been intro. in Fla. 
under the name of P. intignis. P. stenoptlata, in Gt. 
9:302, is probably a cult, foim of P. aqualica. 

p. dOa, W>lp., Ii evidently s Bombai. B.M. 4G0S. GeneJiJIy 

Ur^ herS™.'— P. minor, Henul., known to us only by ■ poorly 
BuouUd puts in B. M. 1412, may be ■ variety of P. uiufttiu. 

PACHfSTIHA (said to be derived from Greek, 
padiyt, thick, and eHgma; alluding to the slightly 
thickened stigma). SpeUed also PocAysItma and Poc^V- 

ttm. Puhfuttiu PrlDclal. 


atigma. Cdaetr&cex. Ornamental woody plants some- 
times grown for their everereen foliage. 

Low evei^reen shrubs: oranchlets somewhat quad- 
rangular, vemicoae: Ivs. opposite, small, serrulate or 
entire, short-petioled, with minute deciduous stipules: 
fls. perfect, small, in few-fld. axillary cymes; calyx- 
lobes, petBls and stamens 4' ovary 2-celli^, often only 
1 cell aeveloping into a small, oblong, l-«eeded caps. — 
Two species in the mountains of N. Amer.; allied to 

These are low trailing or spreading shrubs with small 
evei^reen foliage and inconspicuous reddish flowers 
followed by small dull-colored capsules. They are 
hardy with slight protection in the Arnold Arboretum, 
Boston, and are handsome dwarf evergreens for rock- 
eries or rocky slopes; P. Canhvi forms a dense carpet 
and may be used as a border plant for evergreen shrub- 
beries. They seem to grow in any well-drained soil. 
Propagation is by seeds or by layers; also by cuttings of 
halAripened wood under glass, and P. Caniiyi also by 

mymnltes, Raf. (Afyjtnda myrlifdlia. Nutt. Ored- 

Ehila myrtifdlia, Nutt-). Spreading shrub, to 2 ft.: Its. 
roadly elliptic to oblong-obovate, slifhtly revolute at 
the margin and serrulate or almost entire, y^-i in. long: 
fls. short-etalked, reddish: fr. about J^in. long. May- 
July. Brit. Col. to Calif, and N. M ex .—Resembles the 
small-Ivd. form of Evonymus raditant, but of more 
rigid and stiff growth. 

Cinbyi, Gray. Dwarf shrub with trailing and root- 
ing branches^ scarcely exceeding 1 ft.: Ivs. narrow- 
oblong, occasionally oDovate, revolute and usually ser- 
rulate above the middle, ^-^in. long: fl.-etalks fili- 
form, lomrer than half the If.; fls. reddish. April, May. 
Mts. of Va. — This is somewhat similar in habit and 
foliage to Ei'onj/tmu nanus, but less vigorous and of 
more even and regular growtb. Sometimes called rat- 
atripper. Alfred Rebder. 

PACHTCfiREUS (Greek, thick and cereua). CaetActx. 
Usually trees, more or less branched, with very definite 
woody trunks. 

Flowers appearing during the day, with rather short 
tubes; petals short; stamens included; ovary and tube 
of fl. covered with small bracts beiu^ng wool, hairs, and 
bristles in their axils: fr. large, burlike; seeds large 
and black.— The genus consists ol 10 species segregated 
from CereuB. Confined to the drier parts of Mex. 
Cult, as for Cereus and related groups; see Sxicmlenla. 
This genus is closely related to Lanaireocereus, one 
(rf the several s^p«gates of Cereus; C. quereiarenna, 
Web., is Lemaireocereut 
gueretaretisis, Brit. 4 Rose, 
rather than a Pachycereus 
(seepage 1836, Vol. IV). 

chiysomillus, Brit. & Rose 
( PUocireug ehrysomdllug, 
Lem.). Tree-like, with erect 
branches, reaching a height 
of 30 ft. : ribs in cult, plants 
13: at«olcs with long hairs; 
radial spines 11-13, the 
upper }^m. long, the lower 
twice as long; centrals 4, 
still longer; all the spines 
amber-yellow, becoming 
brown: cephciliuro terminal 
or sometimes unilateral, a 
foot long, woolly and setose. 
Mex.— The bdications are 
that the plant in cult, under 
the above name is a true 
Cephalocercus and not the 
PUocereus ehryiomaUua of 


Colfimiu-TnUid, Brit. & Rose (Piloc^reut Colimna- 
TriyAtti, Saha-bjiAi). Trajan's Column. Treelike, 
Attaining a height of 50 ft. and a diam. of over 2 ft., 
Btnple below: areola large, elliptic; radial spines 10-12, 
the upper very short, the lower loneest, nearly an inch 
long; centrals 2, the upper an inch lon^, the lower 4-5 
in.: fla. about 2 in. long, scarcely projecting from the 
tmilatcral wool^ and bristly cephaliiun. Men. R.H. 
1890, p. 129.— The specific name refers to tlie famous 
lYajan's Column. 

nurginlltus, Brit, d^ Rose (Cireia ntargindius, DC. 
C. ffemm^iUj Zucc.). Simple or branching at apex, 2-3 
in, diam., with 5-6 obtuse ribs, which are woolly their 
whole leoKth: Hjiinea ahort-oonical, rigid, 7-9, all nearly 
alike: fls.Dn>wmsh purple, about lH>n- long: fr. globu- 

pCcten-aboilginum, Brit. & Rose {Ch-eut pMen- 
aborCot'num, Engebn.). This species is sometimes cult, 
but does not do well imder glass. The large burry frs. 
used by the Sonoran Indians for hair-brushes are some- 
times seen in museiunB and curio stores. 

Pilnglei, Brit. & Rose (Ctreut PrlnqlH, Wats.), 
fig. 2695. One of the cordon cereuses of N. Mex. Not 
SO tall as Carneaia gigardea, ribs, fewer, and fls. scattered. 
Not in cult. G.F. 2:65 (adapted in Fig. 2695). 

J. N. Rom. 

PACHYPHtXUM (Greek, thick plant). Cnusu- 
lAeex. Succulents, likely to be founiJ in the under-gla« 
. collections of amateurs, and out-of-doors far South. 
See page 870, Volume II. 

Caulescent, more or less branched, with very thick 
Ivs. which are often terete: fls. solitary or in secund 
racemes; calyx deeply lobed, the lobes shorter than 
the corolla, and appressed to it; corolla 5-7-parted 
and not at alt 5-aDgled; petals erect below, spreading 
above; stamens 10, the 5 alternating with the petals 
free from the corolla, the other 5 borne on the petals 
each uBuallv with a pair of appendages at the base; 
scales broad: cantels 5, erect, free to tlie base.^About 
7 species from Mex. Pachyphytum is usually included 
in Cotyledon but some recent American botanists keep 
the genus distinct. P. unijldnim, Rose, is a stout spe- 
cies usually woody below with green hardly glaucous 
terete Ivs., appendaged stamens and acute calyx- 
lobes, said to be cult, in shady courtyards at San Luis 
Potoei, Mex. P. braeUbrum, Klotiscn (EehevMa brae- 
Ubta, Lindl. di Paxt.). This species has oblanccolate to 
spatulale thickiah IvB. and a curved, finally erect, 
secund raceme which is 12-18-fld.: its calyx is deeply 

npanulale with unequal lobes and a bright red 

olla. Mex. B.M.49ai. 

PACHTPdOIUH (Greek, thick fool, alluding to the 
roots). Apoq/nAcex. About 15 remarkable succulent 
shrubs and trees of Madagascar, S. Afr. and Trop. 
Afr., a very few of which are mentioned in horticulture 
hterature. They are grown with succulents, and prop. 
by cuttines. Fre(|uently the trunk is much swollen: 
Ivs, simple, in spirals; stipules represented by rigid 
spines; or, according to Stapf, the Ivs. suppressed with 
tne exception of a terminal rosette, and the spinous 
stipules crowded more or less irregularly on the swollen 
branches: cymes terminal, with few or many sessile or 
peduncled pink, white or yellow fls.; sepals 5; corolla 
salver-shaped, constricted at base, or funnelform to 
campanulate, 5-lobed; anthers conniving into a cone, 
with appendages longer or shorter than the pollen- 
bearing part, the structure complex. P. Gedyi, Cost. 
& Bois. Tree, 30 ft. or more, with succulent cactus- 
like spiny trunk, branching at summit: Ivs. in terminal 
tufta, long and narrow. Madagascar. R.H. 1907, p. 
490. P. nama^num, Welw. St. 5-6 ft. high and 
&-15 in. diam., fleshv, tapering upwud, tubercled and 
qjiny : Ivs. obovate-oblong to oolong, crowded in a little 

m, DC. 



erown at the top of the trunk: fls. reddish tiniced 
yellow and green. 8. Afr. G.C. III. 46:371, showr-- 
the strange plants in the wild. P. micadirUtim, T 
Tuberous at oase, 1-2 ft. high, producing several so 
what branched sts., bearing Ivs. scattered on long 
shoots: Ivs. oblong-linear or linear, 1<^ in. long, pubes- 
cent above; stipules spiny: fls. 1 in. or more across, the 
oblong lobes white and purple 8 Afr L H B. 

PACHTRHlznS (Greek tktek, and root) Lega- 
mindsx. Climbing herbs beanng la^e tuberous roola 
often 6 to 8 feet long and weighmg fifty to seventy 
pounds, which are 
used for food and 

nately 3-foliolate 
lft& stipellate 
lobed, 3-4 m 
wide: racemes 
with swollen 
Dodee and fasc 
cled pedicels 
bracts and bract- 
lets setaceous 
caducous; calyx 2 
lipped, limb ai" 
loi^ as the tube 
upper lip emarp 
nate, lower fp 
deeply 3-lobed 
corolla much ex 
serted, petals sub- 
equal, keel obtuse; 
stamens diadel- 
phous ;anthers uni- 
form; ovary sub- 
sessile, many- 
ovuled; style long, circinate at the apex, bearded down 
the inner side below the very oblique stigma: pod lan^ 
linear, turgid, deeply depressed between the seeOB. 
— A ^nus of 3 or 4 species distributed throu^iout the 
tropics of both hemispheres. Blanco, Flora dcFilipinas, 
describes and figures Uie roots as turnip-shaped. When 
young, the roots are palatable. 

A. l(ftt. entire. 

etdsus, Urban (DMichos erbaw, Linn. D. bulbdaut, 
Linn. P. byibdsua, Kurz. P. angiilMug, Rich. Caedra 
erbea, Kuntic). Yam Bean. Root tuberous: st. twin- 
ing, shrubby, hirsute, becoming glabrate with age: Ivs. 
pinnately 3-foliat«, often long-pi 
toid or ovate-lanceolate, short; 
pedioelled, broadly cuneate at base, deeply or shallow^ 
lobed in the upper half; lateral Ifts. oblioue, short- 
pedicelled, stipels subulate: racemes 6-12 in. long, long- 
peduncled, base often branching^ branches ascend- 
ing; calyx Kin., as long as the pedicel; corolla reddish, 
1 in. or more lon^ : pod 6-9 in. long, }^%ia. broad, 
8-12-Beeded, straight glabrescent. Tropics of both 
hemispheres. H.L 19:1842.— Eaten both raw and 

tuberbsus, Spreng. Jicaua. Root tuberous, much 
larger than the above: st. twining, 10-20 ft. long: Ivs. 
entire or obscurely sinuate: racemes densely fid.: pod 
8-12 in. long, Ji-fiin. broad. Trop. Amer. H.I. 
10:1843. — Young poos superior to many cult, beans 
in the absence of fibrous strings about the sutures of 
the pods; seeds said to be poisonous. Perhaps only a 
cult, form of the above species. The root is said to be 
a great favorite with travelers, as it quenches thirst 
and is nutritious. They are cut in uiin sbces and 
sprinkled with sugar. Two forms are recognised in 
Mex.. one called agua, with a watery juice, and one 
called leche, with a milky juice. It is said that th^ 


can not be diatinguiaheii except by tasting the root. 
To have good I'oo^ the bloeaoma and seed-pods must 
be kept pinched oft, for if they axe allowed to mature 
the roota are not good. The roote mature in about 5 
months and may be allowed to remain in the groimd 
loDK^r, as they become sweeter as the cold season 

2097. Pwhmndnp 

palmatllobus, Denth. & Hook. {D&lichos palmatUaha, 
Moc. & Seeai). Fig. 2696. St. twining, glabrous or 
pubescent: Ivs. pubea:»nt, often long-petioled, pinnatelv 
3-foliolate, terminal 1ft. broadlv ovate, deeply 3-lobed, 
with lateral lobes often somewhat 3-lobed, lateral Ifts. 
leas deeply 2-4-lobed, lobes ovale, mucronate: fls. 

Surplish, in long-peduncled racemes. Trop. Amer. — 
lot 80 eommon, root snaller and leas cult, than the 
preceding. P. l. Ricker. 

PACHTSAnDRA (Greek, thick stamen). Baxicex. 
Perennial herbs or aubshrut^ of aome value as ground- 
cover in shade for their more or less evergreen leaves. 

Sterna prostrate or ascending, 6-12 in. high, from 
rootstocks, scaly below: Iva. alternate, usually coarsely 
toothed, evergreen or deciduous, 3-nervea: spikes 
staminate above, with a few pistillate fls. at the base of 
each; ataminate fls. with 4 sepals and attunena and a 
nidunentary piatil; sepals variable in the pistillate fls.; 

rtais none; pistil 3-celled, 2 ovules in each cell, the 
atylea spreading, filaments thick, exerted, conspicu- 
ous, usually white: seeds smooth. — Two species known: 
of low and dense growth, with very early fls, attractive 
to bees, and masses of bright green Ivs. Easily prop. 
by division in ordinary soils. Gpod for rockeries. 

In the vicinity of Boston, P. procumbeTis la decidu- 
ous, and is desirable only from tne feature of ita curi- 
ous flowers borne so extremely early in the spring. The 
foliage is of a dingy color and deciduous, whereas P. 
ierminalis is a true evei^reen with thick, glossv foliage 
forming a dense mat, making a very desirable low- 
growing cover-plant, auct^eding admirably either in 
full sun or partial shade. The variety uariegata is a 
very choice cover plant for ornamental effects. (J. 
Woodward Manning. J 


prociimbena, Michx. Mocntain Sfurqe, Fig. 2697. 
One foot high or less: Ivs. ovate to obovate, 2—1 in. 
long: spikes of while or purplish fls. from the base of 
the ata. March-May. W. Va. to Fla. B.M. 1964. 
L.B.C. 10:910. B.R. 33. G.C. 111. 55:335. 

terminAUs, Sieb. & Zucc. Smaller: Ivs, obovata* 
cuneale: the small spikes of whitish fls. terminal. May. 
Japan, Var, variegftta, Hort., with white variegated 
ivs., is in the trade. 

p. cmioaa, Hook-^SaTcococca prunifonnia, Liadl. 

PACHtsnUA: Pachilima. 

PACHtSTOHA {Greek, meaning thvJc mmdh, refer- 
ring to the thick lip). OrchidAceie.. Terrestrial orchids 
with leafless scapes from underground nodose rhizomes: 
pseudobulbs producing 1-2 Ivs,: sepals and petals 
similar, the lateral sepals occaaionally forming a chin, 
all upright; labellum 3-li>bed, forming a sack with the 
base of the column; anthers bent over; poUinia 8, 
lying in pairs and bound into 4 by elastic threads. 
About 10 species, chiefly E, Indian and Malayan, but 
1 from Trop, Afr. P. ThomsoniAna. Reichb. f. {Ancit^ 
ttochMiis Thomaonidnus, Rolfe), is the most commonly 
cult, species. It has lai^ fls. with white sepals and 
petab, and the lip has green erect side lobes thickly 
dark purple-apotted and a narrow reciu-ved midloba 
which is white nearly covered with deep purple lines. 
Trop. Afr. B.M.6471. J.H. III. 51:147. G.C. II. 
12:582 (note), 624 625; 18:501. Gt. 30:1061.— A 
warmhouse plant. P. Thmnaoniana is now referred to 
Anciatrochilua by Rolfe. Anciatrochilus hoa 2 apeciea 
and is readily diatinguiahed from Pachystoma by the 
poUinia being united to a single atipitate appendage 
as well as by the remarkable lip and spreading segma. 

PACHTSTR6mA (Greek for thidc layer). Euphor- 
biicex. The one species, P. ilic^dlia, Muell. Arg^ is a 
shrub or tree of S. Brazil rarely cult, and chiefly in 
botanical gardens; the oily seed has been used in medi- 

imbricate; stamens 3; styles 3, undivided; ovules 1 ia 
each cell of the ovary. ReLatea to Manihot. 

J. B. S, Norton. 
PACKAGES for horticultural produce. The choice 
of a package and the method of packing horticultural 
products are very important considerations to every 
grower who is interested in establishiag a reputation 
for hia goods. The commercial value of well-grown 
produce of choice varieties may be greatly lessened or 
utterly destroyed if the attempt is made to market 
it in poor uninvitina packages, or if it is poorly 
packed. Inferior produce or poor varieties are some- 
times sold for prices above their real value when 
packed in an extra attractive way. 

ZOM. A iDod peck d( applH In ■ boi-tiaj. 


Tlte choice of a marketing package for horticultural 
products is baaed largely on cuBtoma. These customa 
nave developed gntdually along with the growth of the 
indust^ in any special region, and when suitable and 
valuable th^ peraiat and oecome firmly fixed for the 



custom of the 
special market to : 
special way. 

The illustrations accompanying this article (I^Irb. 
2698-2718) show some of the diverse forms of packages 
for fruits and vegetables now in use in North America. 
The methods of packing cuUfloners are discussed in 
the article devol«d to that subject, pages 922-925. 
Volume II. The separate fruits may also be consulted 
under their alphabetic entries. 

Appleg (Figs. 2698-2704, to show the classes only;. 

Since the beginnings of commercial apple orcharding, 
the barrel has been regarded as the stuidard package 
for the holding and sbippmg of apples. The size used 
has varied at different Umes and in different sections. 
The size now 
specific by the 
United States 
Government as 
standard for 
apples is, when 
measured with- 
out distention of 
its parts: Length 
of stave, 28J^ 
inches; diameter 
of head, 17ii 
inches; distance 
between heads. 

26 : 

20M. WaO-packed ind not puksd denert applsi 

crop in that section. However, the supplji of the 
raw material and the poasibiUty of securing large 
quantities of it at a low price arc unportsnt considera- 
tions besides custom. Examples of the custom of 
adopting a special package in a certain region might be 
cited, as barrels for apples in the eastern states, ooxes 
in the western states. Peaches are generally packed in 
flat boxes in the western orchards, and eacn fruit is 
wrapped in paper; the same varieties of peaches are 
marlceted from the southern stat«B in six-basket car- 
riers and the fruits are not wrapped, while from Michi- 
gan the same variety may be shipped in bushel baskets 
ftnd from New York orchards in the Delaware type of 
basket. In general, it would not be advisable to pack 
any crop in a way that would widely violate the general 

cumference _ _ 

bulge, 64 inches 
outside measure* 
ment; represent- 
ing as nearly 

aible 7,0i 

Barrels for 



many years, and 
promise to re- 
main so tor the 
reason that they 
are cheap, easily 
secured m most 
regions, can be 2 

readily handled 
and easily and quickly packed, and the trade has 
become thoroughly accustomed to them. 

The bushel box has been the standard package tor 
apples in the western United States since apple-produo- 
tion has been of commercial importance in those regions. 
The box is occasionally used by growers in the east- 
em apple rcgiuna. Formerly its use was always asso- 
ciated with fancy grade hich-quality fruit. Western 
fruits shipped to eastern markets were of this class and 
alwajfs came in boxes. Some eastern growers thought 
that if even ordinary grades and quahty of fruit were 
packed in bushel boxes, the attractive prices that were 
secured for western frutt could be secured upon the 
reputation of the package. The delusion was not long- 
As compared with the barrel, the box is a more 
attractive pack^, more easily nandled, shipped and 
stored. It is easier to sell from in a store or on a fruit- 
stand, and when the apples are closely sized, the exact 
number in every package is known, and tney are of 


uniform siie, and tliia is of value to dealers and restau- 

Boxes cost about one-third as much as barrels, and 
they hold about one-third as much, but more time ia 
required properly to pack three boxes with apples than 
to pack one oairel iux)perly. The Government stand- 


ard bushel box for ^ples is 18 by ll}4 by 10}^ inches, 
inside measurement. There are varioua stylea, those 
used in the western states being made with solid ends, 
and two pieces each for the top and bottom, and one 
piece for the sides. In the East, where the box is used, 
panel ends instead of solid pieces are used; otherwise 
the same as the weatem style. 

Apples are usually nacked into barrels in the orchard, 
but sometimes may oe carried to a packiiig-house oa 
Bhed. A common way is to 
empty them from the picking- 
bag or -basket upon a packin^- 
or sortiuK-table. From this 
pile, the facers" are selected. 
These are fruits of a uniform 
sice and should be of such a 
color as will honestly represent 
the average of the crop. The 
facers are then laid by hand 
in the then bottom, but later 
top, of the barrel. Sometimes 
two layers are placed in by 
hand. The barrel is then filled 
by emptying the apples from a 
basket that can be lowered into 

the barrel, or emptied from the apron attached to the 
lower end of the table. The barrel should be frequently 
"racked," i.e., ^ven several short, quick, vigorous 
shakes, to settle the fruit and cause one to roll or shp 
over the other and thus become firmly lodged. When 
the barrel is well filled, a layer of apples is placed by 
hand on top. This Deration is known as "tailing," and 
the cover is pressed mto place and held there by driv- 
■ing the hoops down toward the larger part of theDarrel, 
and sometimes by nailing. 
Appliances or machines to mze the fruits are used 
when apples are packed 
in bushel boxes, and 
with the recent enacts 
ment of laws in several 
states requiring that 
the ■ ' 

3704. A ttnad ilddi«- 
ukat, lor apiilaa, t—n 
ind othn tnw-f ndlB. 


offered for sale every season. (Figs. 2700-2703.) These 
machines are shown not necessarily for recommenda- 
tion but to illustrate some of the types. 

Grading is the operation of selecting the fruits that 
are similar in appearance and value. No machine can 
do this; it must be done by hand. 
Grades are variable, depending 
upon the general crop of the season, { 
the ideals of the packer, and the 
govermnental reqmrements. Usu- 
ally there is a "Fancy," "Grade A," 
and "Grade B/' or, it is frequently 
designated as "Fancy, *' '*^toT,riowi ■* 
and "Choice." 

The art of properly packing the 
graded and sizea apples in the 
bushel box requires skill and prac- 
tice. There are well-known stan- 
dardized ways of doing this work. Details of this oper^ 
tion may be found in Cornell Bulletin No, 298. 

Apples are also packed in one-bushel hampers, a 
commonly used package for summer varieties in the 
Atlantic Coast states, and also in peck and one-half- 
bushel market baskets (Fig. 2699), and peck crates. 

It is always necessar}^ to exercise the greatest core 
in the picking of the fruit and in handling it from the 
tree. A good lined 
picking - basket, with 
swing handle, is shown 
in Fig. 2704. 

Citrous fruiU. 

Citrous fruits ore . 
cut from the trees with 
shears. Care always 
should be taken to 
make a smooth close 
cut, as any injury to 
the skin or a long stem 
that may puncture a 
fruit that it comes in 
contact with may lead 
to serious decay. The 
picked fruit is placed 
m a bog, or sack, or bas- 
ket, and, when filled, 

"picking-, "field-," or 
"lug-" box. It is then hauled to the packing-house, 
where it is graded b^ skilled workmen and then care- 
fully sized. The different sizes are packed into staa- 
dard-size boxes. The orange box, which is made of 
wood and is 12 by 12 by 26 inches outside measurement, 
with apartition in the center, may hold from 40 to 400 
fruits, but the common sizes are 96, 1 12, 120, 150, 176, 
and 200. 

Lemons are very carefully graded and sized by hand. 
A lemon box has outside measurements of H by 14^.^ 
by 27 inches and holds from 180 to ,540 fruits, but the 
most common and valuable sizes are 300 and 360 fruits. 

Pomelos, commonly called grapefruit, are handled ii 

when packed in barrels. 
This sizing may be 
done by the eye and 
hand or with the aid 
of a sizing-board, but 
for rapid work a 
machine is necessary. 
There are a great many 
kinds, and new styles 
ore manufactured and 

a similar way and packed 
as is used for oranges. 

In a few cases, half- 
boxes of all these fruits are 
packed. All citrous fruits 
are wrapped in tissue 

In Fig. 2705 is shown 
an int^sting native bas- 
ket or hamper in the 
Philippines. (Wester.) 

Cherries are hand- 
picked from the tree with 

e kind of package 


the whole Btems adbering to the fruit, or the Bt«inB are 
cut with sbeacBj nxtXy, when the fruit ia to be caimed 
soon after ]»eking, it is pulled from the etem. In this 
case it is carried to the canning pleuit in boxes which 
are lined with newspapers. 
As the fruit is picked, 
it is placed in bssKets or 
pails and carried to the 
, packing-station, where it 
IS weighed or meamired, 
f^aded and packed. The 
packages may be Climax 
baskets, ten - pound flat 
boxes, or sixteen -quart 
crates. The fine vaneties 
of sweet cherries, especi- 
ally from the western 
ZTW. Poitabls hiBCHl crate states, are often packed 
in the ten-pound box. The 
bottom layer is carefully placed in by hand and 
enough fruit to make a firm tight pack distributed over 
the bottom layer, and the cover pressed on. 

Grapes are cut from the vines with special grape 
shears. Fine varieties for fancy market are handled 
with care, so as not to rub off the bloom. They may 
be packed in the shipping package in the field, but are 
usually carried to the packing-house in traya. Some 
growers prefer to hold them in the packing-house for a 

oay or twn tn nllnv IhtA nt^mia trt '^ujilf " n 



o allow the stems to wilt," as they c 

chines, similar to apiiles, or sized by hand. They 
may be packed for shipment into fiat twenty-pound 
wooden boxes, and each fruit wrapped in paper. This 
is the general custom in the western states. In the 
eastern states the stovepipe or Delaware bosket {Fig. 
2706), holding mxteen quarts, is used. There may m 
a slat cover or netting cover, 
and a light crate that will hola 
three of these baskets is some- 
times used. 

The six-basket Georgia carrier 
is a standard peach pack^ 
(Flff. 2707). It requires specif 
skill to pack fruit into these 
baskets properly and rapidly. 
The half-Dusnel and bushel bas- 
kets are also well recogni 
peach packages. A rouna stick ' 
placed in the center of 
package to support the co.__ 
msures a mlnitnuni amount of bruised fruit. 


Plums are shipped in a. great variety of packages. 
Fancy grades are wrapped in paper and packed in two- 
quart baskets and four of these are held in a fiat wooden 
box or crate that weighs about twenty pounds. Large 
fruit varieties are wrapped in paper and packed in flat 
twenty-pound boxes the same as peaches. Climax 
baskets, holding from fire to twenty pounds are used, 
also hou-busheland bushel baskets. Small-fruit varie- 
ties, like the Dawson, may be shipped in sixteen-quart 

SmaH-fruiU (Figs. 2708, 2709). 

The berry-like fruits, as blackberry, currant, dew- 
berry, gooseberry, loganberry, raspberry, and straw- 
berry, are almost umversally packed in the wxteen- 
quart crale. In the past, these fruits, especially the 
strawberry, have been marketed in a great variety 
of packages, but in recent years the sixteen-quart crate 

then be more easily handled. The packing is usually 
performed on a table or bench, and fromflie picking- 
box or tray into the shipping package. 

The most common packwe is a five-, eight- or ten- 
pound Climax basket with a soUd wooden cover. 
Grapes intended for wine are marketed in peck or htdf- 
bushel baskets, and in New York flat trays are com- 
monly used. 


Pears were formerly packed in a small barrel or k^ 
holding about five pecks, and more recently pear bar- 
rels were commonly used. These held about a peck less 
than the standard apple barrel. The packages now used 
are the standard barrel and the bu^el b^, Ute same 
as the apple. When the box is used, each fruit is 
wrapped m paper. 


nneapples are packed in orates that hold two doiea 
fruits, and each one is wrapped in paper. 

Peaches are picked into 
baskets of various types, 
the on&4ialf bushel swing- 
handle type being the 
most common, and are 
carried to the packing- 
house. In some regions 
the fruits are run over 
mechanical eiiing m»- 

has rapidly become the standard and widely recognized 

This package is also commonly used for the small- 
fruit plums, especially Damsons, and for cherries, 
both sweet and sour. 

The quart boxes are often taken into the field and 
"picked into," and then carried to the packing-station 
and placed in the case ; or the fruit pickers use a special 
pickmg-basket or -box, and this is delivered to the 
packing-station and the quart boxes filled there, where 


the fruit may be graded and the work of the pickers 

CraDbcrries are picked from the vines by Hpecial 
machines or by hand, and packed in barrels. Occa- 
donidly twenty-pound wooden cases are uaed. 

VegeUMes (Figs. 2710-2718). 

Packages used for the shipment of vegetables are 
not so evenly standardized as those used for fruits. 
Custom, however, seeme to be of about the same 
im^rtance, for similar vegetables grown in different 
legionB are pocked in different ways. 

Asparagus ia cut and tied in bunches of various sizes. 
In a few sections the loose stalks are packed in small 
boxes or crates, but the usual form is a "bunch," and 
these bunches are packed in any huidy~sized box. 

Hamper boskets holding from twenty-eight quarta 
to one and one-Fourth bushels are commonly used for 
packing beans, com, cucumbers, lettuce, peas, radishes, 
spinach, sweet potatoes; but a variety of packages ia 
used for some of these products and for most of them 
ventilated barrels are used. 

Beete are packed in crates, the same as cabbage. 

Brussels sprouts are shipped in quart boxes like small- 
fruits, and these are placed in cases holding thirty- 
two, forty-eight or sixty quarts, the forty-eight-quart 
size being the most common. 

Field-grown cauhflower is packed in ventilated bar- 
reb; the greenhouse product is packed in small flat 
boxes or trays that will hold six beads (Fie. 2714). 

Packagesiorsluppingcelery are of many kinds. Each 
producing district has its own packages. A common one 
IS a slat crate that varies from 6 by 8 by 24 inches to 
10 by ''8 by 24 inches The plants after being trimmed 
are packed upright in these crates wh ch may or maj 
not be Imed with paper W th a fancy product each 
bunch 19 wrapped n paper A t ght flat box holdmg 
twenty four or more bunches la frequently used for 
express sh pments 

Cucumbers are packed in baskets (F g 2715), hamp- 
ers, flat boxes, and barreb Lettuce is packed m barrels 


is wrapped in paper. Special retail packages for celeiy 
and sweet com are shown in Figs. 2717 and 27IS. 

Onions are shipped in bags holding two bushels, in 
slat crat«8 holding one bushel, in half-barrel hampers, 
and various other types of packages, and also in bulk. 

two dozen heads of No. 1 or two and one-half dozen 
heads o( No. 2. 

Muskmelons are packed in CUmax baskets, flat 
boxes (Fig. 2716), and crates. Bometimee each melon 

Potatoes are commonly shipped loose in a box-car. 
In cold weather, the car must be lined with paper and a 
heater in each car keeps them warm enough to prevent 
freezing In some sections, the practice is to use bags 
holdmg about two bushels. Barrels are frequently 
used Ventilated barrels are commonly used tor sweet 
potatoes Special baking potatoes from some regions 
are wrapped in paper and packed in bushel boxes. 
Squash is usually packed in ventilated barrels. Sweet 
potatoes from New Jersey are packed in hamper 
baskets those grown in Virginia, in barrels. 

Tomatoes are paekeo in flat boxes. Climax 
baskets, six-basket Georgia peach-carriers, 
and hamper baskets. They may or may not 
be wrapped in paper. For local markets, a 
great assortment of packages are used, but 
the peck and half-bushel market basket is 
the most common. jj. j. EnsTACE. 

P£D&RIA (Latin, pxdor, bad smell, refer- 
ring to P. fmtida). RubiAcex. Tropical 
shrubby twiners. 

Slender twining plants, fetid when bruised, 
with terete flexuous branches: Ivs. oppsite, 
rarely in whorls of 3, pctioled: fls. small. 
mostly reddish or whitish, in axillary and 
t«rm!nal dichotomous or trichotomously 
branching panicled cymes, with or without 
bractlets; corolla tubular or funnel-shaped; 
throat glabrous or villous; lobes 4-5, valvate, 
with crisped margins, often 3-Iobed at apex: 
fr. a small berry. Distinguished from allied 
genera by the 2-locular ovary and 2 capillary 
twisted stigmas. — Sf>ecies about 25, India, 
Burma, Malay Archipelago, China, Mada- 
gascar, Mex. to Brazil. They are little known 
m cult., the following being a warmhouse 
climber. It is sometimes known as Chinese 

fdMido, Linn. Glabrous or nearly so: Ivs. long- 
petiolcd, ovate or lanceolate, base acute, rounded or 
cordate: fls. pink, the cyme branches opposite; fr. 
broadly elliptic, much compressed: pyrenes black, with 
a broad pale wing, separatii^ from a filiform car- 
pophore. India, Malaya. — Oliver writes that it is 

LZXXU. Peony, Baronalt Scbroedar. 


"usually ^wn as a stove and greenhause clirober, but 
it is hardier than is generally supposed. It is rather an 
Attractive-looking but not free-blooming vine. The 
leaves, or any part of the plant, when bruised emit a 
most ofTenrnve odor. Cuttings should be put in any 
time after tbe growths are matured." 



r. Buket-packsd Ml«fT, for hsmi 

PfDERdTA (from pxderoa, a name applied by the 
ancienta to a species of Acanthus). ScropbulanAcex. 
Hardy perennial herbs suitable for garden use: low, 
manj-«temmed, puberulent or pilose, with opposite 
serrate or cut Ivs. and dense terminal spikes: fls. short- 
pedicelled, solitary in the axils of smatl brarts; calyx 
S-parted, the segnw. narrow; corolla witb a cylindrical 
tuDe and a Rub-2-lobed limb, the lobes erect or erect- 
spr^ding; stamens 2, affixed to the tube: caps, acute, 
turgid. About 5 species, Eu. and the Orient in the 
moimtaina. By some (»nsidered a section of Veronica. 
liie following species, which though perennial are 
usually treated as annuals, require a dry situation and 
li^t sandy Kiil. Prop, t^ seed. P. Agina, Linn. Plant 
puberuloufl, 6-12 in. high: Ivs. all acute, the lower 
ovat«, middle ones 13^ in. long, almost 1 in. broad, the 
upper longer and narrower-lanceolate, cut-serrate: fla. 
yellow, in ihort compact spikes; corolla nearly J^in. 
long with erect segjns. May. Eu. P. BonarAta, Linn. 
Plant pikwe, 4-6 in. high: lower Ivs, orbiculate; upper 
Ivs. ovate or lanceolate, serrate or cut: fls. blue, in 
compact globose or oblong spikes which are 1-lW in. 
long; corolla !^in. long with somewhat spreading 
segms. May. Eu. 

PiBdlflA (after the mythical physician Paeon). 
AoRuneuIdoec. Peont. Finey. Paont. Specially 
attractive sod important flower-garden perenniab, 
priied for tjie showy spring and earl^ summer bloom. 

Heifoaeeoue or woody: roots thickened to form 
upright TOOtatocks: Ivs. large, alternate, pinnately com- 
pound or dissected, mostly temate: fls. terminal and 
rocntly solitary, but sometimes several, a very few 
species yellow, but mostly led, purple or white; sepals 5, 

carpels 2-5 on a fleshy disk, becoming dehiscent; fol- 
liclea bearing the indurated more or less conspicuous 
Bty\e; seeds large, fleshy. — Species about 25, Bu. and 
Ana, and one small-fld, species (P. Bnmmii) in Calif. 
and northward. Peoniee are among the doien common- 
est and best hardy herbaceous perennials. By varia- 
tion and hybridiaation, the garden forms are now very 
many. A botanical monograph by E. Hutb, is in 

Engler's JahrbQcher, Vol. 14 (1891). An account by 
Baker, from which much of the recent botanical char- 
acterization is drawn, appears in G.C. II. 21 pp. 732, 
77S, 828, and Vol. 22, p. 9 (1884). See alsoR. Lynch, 
Joum. Roy. Hort. Soc. 12:428 (1890). According to 
Peter Barr, every species mentioned in Index Kewensis 
had been intro. to cult, in Eu. except P. obovata, a native 
of Manchuria; this species, once intro, but long ago 
lost, has very recently been brought again into horti- 
cultural notice. 

It is customaiy to divide the genus into two groups, 
one including the herbaceous species and the other 
(chiefly P. su^rulieoaa or P. MoiJart) comprising the 
woody kinds. This division is not invariable as the 
plants ^w under cultivation, and to the horticulturist 
who wishes to distinguish the stem-species it is con- 
fusing. It may be better from the modem gardener's 
point of view to make the primary divisions on color 
of the flowers, into the red-white species and the yellow 
species. The yellow-flowered species have played a 
small part in the evolution of the cultivated forms, 
although P. lutea is now beginning to contribute a 
strain, and other yellow species are very promising. 
The species are difficult to distinguish, even in unmodi- 
fied forms, and the garden forms are very puzzling ta 
a systematic botanist. The confusion is increased by 
the use of Latin names for many of the garden varieties. 
No two syslematisla could be expected to agree on the 
limits and nomenclature of species. The following 
descriptive account is a compromise arrangement of 
the species. 

As with most important genera of a considerable 
number of members, only a few species are in general 
cultivation and the others are known mostly only to 
amateurs and collectors. From the cultural point of 
view, there arc two grovips of peoniea, — the shrubby 
or "tree" peonies, and the herbaceous peonies. The 
former are the product of P. suffruLicosa, although the 
woody section has been extended lately by the addition 
of P. DeUwatfi and P. lutea. The Moutans are low 
shrubs, branching near the ground and bearing many 
large (lowers in shades of red and running to white and 
even yellowish. This group is now much eclipsed by 
the popularity of the herbaceous kinds, which bloom 

each year on shoots that arise from the c 
plant dying completely to the ground on the approach 
of winter. These garden forms are probably the issue of 
different species, as P. officinalis of Europe and P. 
aUnflara of Siberia and the far East, The set derived 
most directly from the former species arc mostly earlier- 
flowering than those from P. albifiora. The botanical 
parentage of the horticultural herbaceous peonies needs 



to be worked out from living raateritd combined vith & 
study of the hiertoiical development. It it commonly 
widerstood, however, that the present race of herba- 
ceous peonies is mostly the prog^y of P. albifiora, but 
many are from P. oj^'nolu. The importance of the 
ebrubby or tree peonies is not now ^st, at least not 
m thifl country. 
The species, r. 
»iiffniiteoaa was 
^jtr^ ^ formerly prised 

^.^Ci^^^KEQ^^^^I^I^^^^ for its buehy habit 
>"r'^i«*i u ■ i«F I j..i4ne?3Fj-^^ anj ^je range of 
jl'*^ flowers both sin- 
gle and double. 
iTie varieties of 
this species were 

propagated by 
grafting them on 
the fl^y roots 
tuT the herbaceous 
species. Non- 
bloommg shoots 

ciona, and the 
union is made in late Bummer, the tuber and its don 
then being handled through the winter in a frame, to 
be ready for planting out in the spring. A yellow- 
floweied shrub-peony is lately offered by Lemoine 
(La Lorraine) aa a cross between P. Iviea and P. 
tuSrvlicosa. Thisbloomed firatin 1904; it wasawarded 
a priie in Paris in 1909. The flowers are soft sulfur- 
yellow with a salmon tinge when opening, becoming 
lighter when fully open. 

The herbaceous peony has come into great promi- 
nence in recent yeai^. In this country, the merits of the 
plant have been rccoimizcd by the organisation, in 
1903, of the American Peony Society. This Society has 
now begun the pubhcation of bulletms. It early under- 
took the study of varieties in a systematic way, coopera- 
ting in an extensive t«st at Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York. The test-grounds and the studies corollary 
to the work, under the leadership of the late Professor 
John Craig, have yielded four publications: "Peony 
Check-List," by Coit, 1907; "The Peony," by Coit, 
Bulletin No. 259, Cornell Agricultural Experiment 
Station, 1908, in which is given an historical account 
of the peony, description erf the species, and bibUog- 
raphy, as wellas cultural advice; "Classification of the 
Peony" [varieties), by Batchelor, Bulletins Nos. 278 
and306. 1910andl911. The reasons for the popularity 
of the modem race of herbaceous peonies is given by 
Coit to be the ease with which they are grown, hardi- 
ness, permanence in the garden when once established, 
lai^ size and wide range in color and form of the very 
showy flowers, fragrance of many of the varieties, 
freedom from disease and insects, usefulness both for 
cul^flowers and for landscape effects. As to season of 
the Btem-t>'pea, he writes that it is begun, at Ithaca, 
"about the middle of May by P. teriuifdia, and carried 
along by the well-known old double red peony (P. 
officinalis vex. rubra). Then come the tree peonies (P. 
Mouian [P. auffrulicota]) and, before they are gone, 
the earlier varieties of the Chinese peonies (P. i^in- 
fiora). Somewhere near July 14, the blooming season 
closea with the latest varieties of the albiflora group." 

The garden herbaceous peonies. (Wm. A, Peterson.) 
Herbaceous peonies (Flga. 2719-2722) are among 
the moat hardy, showy, and easily grown of all ganlen 
flowers. They stand the severe cold aa far north as 
Duluth without any ground covering. In the southern 
states their growing season is so extended that they 
do not develop as fine blooms. 

In delicacy of tint and fragrance, the peony more 
nearly approaches the rose than any other flower. The 


old-fashioned early red "piny," cultivated since the 
time of Pliny, is sull a favorite in our gardens. Nearly 
all of the many hundred named varieties grown at pres- 
ent have been obtained by crossing the various forma 
of P. albifiora. Of the great host of double varietiea, 
nearly dl have Ijeen developed since 1850. The single- 
flowering aorte are not so popular as the doubles. They 
do not seem to keep so loi^ when cut, and fade more 
rapidly when on the plant. 
Propagation oj herbaceous peonies. 

The easiest and most satisfactory method of F^op^ 
gation is by division of the large, thick roots. The 
roots may be lifted and dividea any time from the 
middle of August until the stalks appear again in the 
spring. The oest time, however, is in early autumn, 
when the cut surfaces soon callus over and new root- 
lets form before the frost sets in. Choose a large stool, 
cut oS the leaves and separate into as many divisions 
as can be made with an eye to each tuber. In digging, 
care should be taken that all of the tubers are dug up, 
for if not they may remain dormant a season and then 
produceashoot.givinKriBe to the many stray plants fre- 
quently found in old beds. Tubers divided without an 
eye should also be planted, as they often act in a similar 
way and make a showing al>ove ground in two yean' 
time. Peonies, like most tuberous plants, when dor- 
mant stand considerable exposure and can be shipped 
long distances with safety. 

Grafting is resorted to in herbaceous peonies when 
new and rare varieties are to be rapidly increased. An 
eye of the desired sort is inserted into the tuber of 
some strong-growing variety, from which all the pre- 

be placed in frames for the winter tuod transplanted the 
next year into nursery rows. 

Propagating by seed is somewhat tedious, and is 
employed onfy for increasing distinct species and for 
obtaining new varieties. The seeds should be gathered 
as soon as ripe and kept damp until sown in November. 
A mulch the first season will keep the ground moist and 
prevent weeds from growing. Usu^ly two years are 
reouired for the seed to germinate and three more 
before a well-developed bloom can be expected. 
Soils and culture. 

Peonies grow in all kinds of soil, but do best in a 
deep, rich, rather moist loam. A clay subsoil, if well 
dramed, is very beneficial when blooms are desired, but 

hghter soil if grown for 



paring the oed. 
trench the soil 
thoroughly 2 or 

working in a great 
quantity of well- 
rooted cow-ma- 
nure, aa the planta 
are groBB feeiicrs. 
The ground should 
be kept well tilled, 
and anannual top- 
dressing put above 
the plants in 
November; this 
should be forked into the earth the next sprine. They 
should have a liberal supply of water at all times, 
and especially while in bloGm. Llciuid manure, when 
applied in the gron-ing season and at a time when the 
ground is dry, gives good returns, both in the growth 
of the plant and size of Uie bloom. 

The eyes should be set 2 inches below the surface. In 
transplanting, it is a good plan to remove all the old 


earth so aa to start with fresh unimpoTerished soil next 
to the roots. The flowers produced on small divided 
plants are likely to be imperfect, but when thoroughly 
established a. plant will continue to bloom if undis- 
turbed for upward of twenty years. During the period 
of blooming an inconspicuoua wire support is desirable, 
as a heavy rain often beats down the flowers. 

The host of ancient and modem varieties available, 
ran^tt from purest white to deepest crimson, in such 
a diversity of form and size, afford great opportunity 
for the making of extensive color schemes. Peonies do 
f^ly well in partial shade, which prolongs and intensi- 
fies the color of the bloom, and therefore m^ be used 
to advantage to brighten up somber nooks. The period 
of blooming for herbaceous peonies ranges from the 
middle of May through June. They grow 1 to 4 feet 
high and are therefore suitable for planting in front of 
shrubbery', alon^ driveways, and are especially pleaa- 
ine when entermg into a distant vista. The richly 
colored shoots, which find their way up throush the 
soil in the early spring, have considerable vahie for 
Striking effect. When planted in a border with fall- 
blooming perennials, such as phlox and funkia, their 
rich glossy foUage is very effective. The old flowers 
should be cut off, so that no unnecessary seed follicles 
will be formed, and thereby exhaust the plant It is 
important to remove the faded foliage on all peomes 
in November bo that it may not mterfere with the 
next year's shoots. 

Because peony buds admit of bemg shipped lon^ dis- 
tances without water, and amve m good condition, 
they are now used very extensively on Decoration Dt^ 
and for June weddings. When cut in tight buds and 
eloaely wrapped in paraffin paper some vanetiea can be 
held m cold atora^ for over a month and then open 
up very satisfactordy. 

For forcing, lift the plants m September and place 
in a coldframe where they will be accessible when the 
time for forcing arrives. When brought under glass, a 
uniform temperature of 55° to 60° should be main- 
tained. By feeding well with hquid manure strong 
blooms can be produced m eight weeks A two yearr 
rest is necessary before the pluita are forced again To 
secure extra-fine blooms on double-flowermg vaneties 
remove the lateral buds as soon as formed When the 
first lateral bud is retained instead of the terminal one 
a later period of blooming is secured 



Pdluii, 19. 

■Iba-plma, 15. 


etalior. IB. 


f«tiv«. S. 18. 

nrimrw, B. 


roM<™pcrti», S. 

uietina, IS. 

bybrida, 13. 

nibto-pfenii. S. 

Builini. 6. 


Satiiti. IS. 

BaiUri IS. 

intermedJB. 14. 

UxHfa, 16. 


■uSruticon. fi. 

Broiviiii, 4. 

luta. 1. 

aUiJamiai^ 4. 

Mlokoewitachii. S 

, timuitqS., 13. 

Mouion, S. 

lAiwiMii, 8. 

obovaU, e. 

offirin.lL., 15. 

miUcyi. 8. 

A. FU. yeiime or orange. 

I. Ifttea, Franch. (P. DOavftyi var. iiifea, Finet A 

Gagnep.). St. woody, short, the plant glabrous: Iva. 

temateiy parted, conaceous, strongly nerved, glaucous 

beneatii, the segms. obovate-oblong and cut or more 

a. (A. C. Beal.) 

Amoi^ the peonv diseases the most prevalent and 
destructive is the Dotrytis bl^ht which attacks the 
Steins, buds, and leaves. Early m the sprmg the young 
stems are attacked at the surface of the ground. The 
tissue turns black, and later the steins wilt and fall 
over. Sometimes this trouble is seen as late as the fol- 
lowing season. The use of green manure appears to 
favor the attacks of the disease, and only well-rotted 
manure or mineral fertilizers should lie emplov^. 
lAter. the young flower-buds are attacked, and these 
turn black and dry up. This is the so-called "bud- 
blast." When the buds are not attacked until they are 
well developed, they turn brown and fail to open. The 
petals are then found to be a dark brown rotten mass, 
and this is known as the "bud-rot." In very wet sea- 
sons, as high as 80 to 90 per cent of the buds may be 
thus affected. Even the flowers may be discolored by 
spots resulting from this fungus. The leaves are 
usually the last t« be attacked, and the symptoms are 
large irregular spots which become brown and dry. 

WTiile control methods have not been devised against 
this and other peony diseases, it is probable that sani- 
tary measures will prove to be most practicable. The 
prompt and thorough removal of the wilted stems and 
rotted buds, together with the complete destruction 
by fire of all leaves and steins in the fall, will tend to 
Maoen the extent of diseases the following year. For an 

or less lobed above the middle: fls. 2-4 in. across, termi- 
nal, golden yellow; outer sepals leaflike and long, the 
inner ones orbicular and yellonish green; petals El-lO, 
orbicular, concave, the outer ones irregulajly crenale; 
filaments short, the golden yellow anthers long-linear: 
carpels 3, turgid, glabrous, the style short and recurved. 
Chma. B.M. 7788. Gn. 61, p. 287 (note); 76, p. 41fl. 
F.S.R. 1:230. R.H. 1906:14. 

Var. sup£rba, Lemoine. Seedlinfc from P. lulea, with 
larger fls. (3-4 in. across) and with carmine base to 
petals when the plant attains age: Ivs. bronze-red 
during development, but becoming deep green. G.C. 
III. 44: suppl. July 18 (1908). 

2. MlokosewftEchii, Lomak. Herbaceous perennial, 
the sts. stout and glabrous: Ivs. 2-tcmate, the Ifta. or 
segms. broad-oblong or nearly elliptic, short^pointed 
or acuminate, 3-4 in. long, dark bluish green above and 
short^pubeacent, pale glaucous beneath, the nerves 
and margins red: ns. 4-5 in. across, yellow, on glabrous 
reddish pedicels 4 in. long; sepals unlike, one of them 
oblong-lanceolate and constricted above the base and 
the oUter nearly orbicular; petak about 8, roundish. 



concave; atamens very numerous, the filaments twice 
aalon^as aothera: carpels 3, oblong, whitish tomentoee. 
the stigmas subsessile and purple. Caucasus; discoverea 
by Mlokosewitsch and only recently intro.; said to be 
the moflt handsome of the yellaw-fld. species. B.M. 
8173. G.C. 111.44, Buppl. July 26 (1908). R.H. 1911, 
pp. 432, 433. 

3. WittmiiuiUliia, Stev. Herbaceous pereimial, 2-3 
ft., green, glabrous and smooth: Ivs. 4-8 in. long, 2-ter- 
nat«; Ifts. variable, usually ovate to ovateHwr<&,le and 
the lateral ones often oblique at base, glabrous above, 
rather glaucous and lax-hairy beneath: Ss. 4 in. across, 
solitary, pale or whitish, yellow or greenish; sepals irreg- 
ular, green, concave; petals about 7, broad-elliptio- 
obovate, membranaceous, conrave; stamens with 
orange-yellow anthers and slender red filaments: carpels 
2 or 3, oblong-ovoid, glabrous, the stigmas recurved. 
Caucasus region. B.M. 6615. B.R.32:9. R.H. 1906, pp. 
348,349. G. 27:135.— The firstintro.of the yellow peo- 
nies, although not strongly yellow; intro. to gardens of 

Royal Hort. Society (England) in 1842. Light and not 

pronounccdin color, andopparently not of great promise. 

AA. Fh. while, in ahadex of red or purple {exceptions 

soirulimes in No. 11). 

B. PetaU scarcely longer than the eepalt. 

4. Brilwnii, Douglas (P. calxfOmi^M, Torr. & Gray), 
liow and somewhat fleshy, about 1 ft. : Ivs. glaucous or 
pale, lobes obovate to nearly linear: fls. duH brownish 
red; petals 5 or 6, thickiah, little if any longer than the 
concave sepals; outer Hcpals often leaflike and com- 
pound; fl.-sts. reclining or recurved; disk many-lobed: 
lolliclcs 4-5, nearly straight, glabrous, the fr. finally 
resting on the ground from the bending over of the st.; 
seeds oblong. Early spring or summer. Calif, to Wash, 
and northward, and in Nev. and Utah. B.R. 25:30. 

BB. Petalt math exceeding Ike aeptds. 

c Diik expanded and involnng or envelopiT^g the earpdt: 

planlt woody. 

5. snffniticABa, Andr. (P. Moutdn, Sims. P. arbbrea, 
Donn). Tree Peont. St. 3-6 ft. or even higher much 
branched, distinctly shrubby: Ivs. glabrous; Ifts. more 
often entire at the baae of the plant than above: fls. 


large, various in color, as rose, red, to white: foIHclea 
numerous, very haiiy, rather small. May, June. N. W. 
China. — Long cult, m the Orient, where varieties are 
numbered by the hundreds. The following varietal 
names have been transferred from combination with P. 
Moiilan, now making new combinations: Var. rftbio- 
plina, Bailey. Rose-coiored, almost single. Var. rSaeo- 
tnp£rba, Bailey, tls. much more doubled. Gn. 31:76 
(as Heine Elizabeth). F.S. U: 1395. 1396 (as Triomphe 
de Grand). Var. vitUlta, Bailey, tla. single white, rose 
and flesh-color, striped, fragrant, F.S. 7:747. Var. papa- 
vericea, Bailey. Petals thm and poppy-like, whit«, with 
redatoenteroffl. B.M. 2175. L.B.G. 6:547. Gn. 38: 
370j 52:325, and pp. 324, 325. Var. Binksii, Bailey. 
Fla. much doubled, rose-colored, and Urge. B.M. 11&4. 
Var. H&mei, Bailey. Fla. semi-double, whitish or blush 
with darker center. B.R. 379. Var. rteea, Bailey. FIs. 
bright rose-colored, fragrant, more or less double. 
L.SC. 11:1036. 

6. Delavilyi, Franch. Woody or subahrubby, branch- 
ing, glabrous, 3 ft., more or less stoloniferous; Ivs. 
temate, somewhat glaucous beneath, 1 ft. long; segms. 
lanceolate or ovatc-Ianccolate, 2-4 in. long, cuneate, 
decurrent and confluent at base: fls. small (about 2 in. 
across), dark purple or velvety crimson; petals sub- 
orbicular, 5-9, remarkable for their firm substance; 

Wils., has more finely divided Ivs., the Ifts. being nar- 
row-lanceolate. G.C. III. 53:403 (as P. Delavayi).—la 
Ireland P. Delavayi is said to be cut to the ground 
sometimes by the winter but it throws up new shoota 
in spring. Somewhat like P. lulea except in color of fla. 
OC. Disk fttUe if at all expanded and not enveUiping bate 
of carpels: planls herhaeeoua. 
D. Blooms several on one it. 

7. VritchU, Lynch. Herbaceous, 2 ft., with 6 or 7 
IvB. on St.: Ivs. shining, light green, with many (about 
16) very acute lance-oblong segms. which are about 
J-iin. broad; petiole of lowest If. about 4-8 in. long: fls. 
several on toe at. rather than solitary, nearly 4 in. 
across, often nodding and sometimes becomii^ flat, 
purplish crimson. W. China. G.C. HI. 46:2. Gn. 73, 
p. 639. R.H. 1914, pp. 196, 197 .—A recently described 
species; a compact, attractive plant. 

DD. Blooms nu>sily solitary or single on each sf. (poittnf 

exception in No. 8 and others under cull.). 

K. l^ts. aU entire, sometimes confluent at base. 

8. albiflfira, P^las (P. edMU, Sahsb.). Fig. 2722. 
Root of fusiform parts or tubers: st. 2-3 ft., often 
branching and bearing from 2-5 fla.; lower Ivs. biter- 
nate; parts petiolulate or the lateral ones sessile, the 
Ifts. (secondary Ifts.) 3-4 in. long, oblong, lanceolate or 
elliptic, veining red: peduncle long, often with a large 
entire or lobed bract; outer sepals large, Icaflike; petals 
large, various in color, usually white or pink, 8 or more; 
stamens golden yellow: folUcles 3-5, ovoid, recurved- 
spreading, withspiralor reflcxedstigmas. June. Siberia, 
China, Japan. B.M. 1756. F.S.8:812. Gn. 30: 688 (var. 
Adrian); 50, p. 170; 51:448. J.H. III. 58:493. Gt.7: 
362 (forma). A.G. 23:643; 25:203. 

Var. ReevesiAna, Loud. (P. Rcivesii, Hort.). A 
double form, with deep red petals. P.M. 1 : 197. 

Var. sinensis, Steud. (P. ckininns, Vilm.). A tall 
Chinese variety, with large, double, crimson fla. One 
of the commonest forms in gardens. B.M. 1768. 

Var. festiva, Planch. Fls. double, white, with a few 
marks of carmine in the center. F.S. 8:790-91. 

Var. WhItleyi, Hort. (not var. Whitteui, Anders., 
which has double pinkish fls.). Fls. single, large, white. 
Gn. 36:8; 63, p. 352. 

9. obovftta, Maxim. (P. oreof/iton, S. Moore). Root 
e of elongated cylindrical tubers: st. 2 ft. high: 


lower Its. twice temate Ifta membranaccoiia broadly 
ovate or obowte more or less pubescent especiallv 
beneath, the central one stalked fls not fragrant 4-5 
in. across, white according to G C 111 57 290 (usually 
described as red purple) petals about 6 obovate con 
cave, very obtuse, sepals white or pale rose carpels 
recurved, the seeds blue-black and Deny like June 
Siberia, N. China, Japan 

10. corilcea, Boiaa Alhed to P aUnfiora glabrous 
the at. nearly simple and reddish Iva conaceous 
daucous beneath the lower ones biteraate Ifts very 
broad: fls. bright cnmson carpels 2-3 defleitod gla 
brous; seeds dark purple June Spain N Afr 

11. corillina, Retz Tall from carrot-form roots 
lower IvH. biteraate or rarely tnternate Ifts ovate or 
obovate, glabrous, or pubescent beneath fls purple 
or rarely whitish or even yellowi^ carpels about S 
spreading or recurved densely tomentose when young 
but glabrous at ma- 
turity; seeds round "■ 
reddish to daric blue 
and becoming black 
April, May. S. Eu 

12. Camfaesseddsu 
Willk. Like P. cor 
allijia but that 
species has glaucous- 
neen never purple 
Ivs. and hairy car 
peb: herbaceous per 
ennial, about 13^ ft 
simple, erect and gla- 
brous: Ivs. tematcl' 
pinnatiaect, witj 
ovate - lanceolate or 
oblong acute entire 
glabrous segma. that 
are deep green above 
and purple beneath: 
fls. deep roac-pink, 
solitary, erect, 3J^ 
in. across, the petals 
5-10, broadly obovate 
and crenulate; sta- 
mens many, with pui^ 
pie filaments and yellow anthers: carpels 5-7, erect, 
elabrous and shining, purple. Balearic Isls., Corsica. 
B.M. 8161. 

EE. Lfls. more or Jesa lobed. 
F. Lug. and si. glabrous throughout, 

13. tenuifAlia, Linn. Fig. 272.1. Root or rhizome 
creeping, tuberous: st. 1-lH ft. high, 1-fld., densely 
leafy up to the fl. : Ivs. temate, glabrous, cut into numer- 
ous segms. often less than 1 Ime broad: fl. erect; pet- 
als dark crimson, elhptic-cuneate, 1-1)4 in. long; an- 
thers shorter than the filaments; stigma red, spirally 
recurved: follicles 2-3, about H^- long. June. Cau- 
casus region. B.M. 926. A.G. 17:658. Var. flfire- 
idSno, Hort. (Fig. 2723). Fls. double crimson. F.S. 
4:306. Var. hfbrido, Uort. FIs.of a rich crimson color: 
Ivs. very pretty. 

14. an6nula, I.inn. Root tuberous: st.2-3 ft., 1-fld., 
glabrous: Ivs. bitemate, glabrous beneath, cut into 
numerous, confluent lanceolate long-acute segms.: fl. 
bright crimson, veiy large; outer sepals often produced 
into compouna leafy points; petals obovate to oblong: 
follicles 3-5, ovoid, arcuate, tomentose or glabrous. 
June, July. Eu. and Asia. B.M. 1751. Gn. 67, p. 375. 

Var. insfgnis. Lynch. The variety most cult.: st. 
1)^2 fl. hi^: Ivs. about 10, the lower ones very large, 
gradually reducing te the fl.: carpels with red pubes- 

2723. P 

litMiuUoUL (XK> 

P.EONIA 2435 

15 officinalis, Linn. (P./iiZfrida, Sabbe). Fig. 2724. 

St stout 2-3 ft. high, 1-headed: Ivs. dark above, pale 
beneath the lowest more divided than the others, hav- 
ing 15-20 oblong-lanceolate Itts., 1 in. or more broad: 
outer sepals Icaflike; petals dark crimson, lH-2 in. 
broad obovate; stigmas crimson, recurved: follicles 
2-3 becommg 1 in. long. May, June. Eu. One of the 
old forms in gardens. B.M. 1784, Gn. 53, p. 233.— By 
some combmed with P. peregrina. 

\ ar ilbo-plini, Hort. Fls. double, white tinged 
with red Gn. 19:14. Garden forms are given trade 
names as anemonxjibra, crimson, globulai- fls., with a 
mass of twisted crimson stamens, edged with yellow. 
AG 17 663 Gn.31:512; bldnda, pale pink; iobdta, 
Ivs distinctly lobed: fls. cerise-salmon, a very unusual 
color Gn 79, p. 351 ; rdseo, rich deep rose; Sdbini, rich 
deep cnmson petals and yellow stamens. L.B.C. 
_ Var. fesUva, Tausch. 

, / Pis. whit«, with red 

centers. Native of Eu. 
rr. Lv>. and st. pubet- 
cent, at least in the 
upper part. 
16. peregrina. Mill. 
Ste. about 1J^2 ft. 
high: Ivs. 5-6 on a st., 
deep green and gla- 
brous above, pale green 
and pilose beneath: 
otherwise the Ivs. and 
fls. are much like those 
o( P. officinalis. Eu.— 
Two garden forms with 
double fls. are: amar- 
anthiscent epkirie.a, 
and puichirrtTna pf Jno, 
the latter dinering 
from the fonner in the 
purple shade of crim- 
son fis. This species- 
name is used by Huth 
to cover a number of 
: regarded as tenable 


the forms that by others 

17. paradlSza, G. Andere. Plant one of thedwarfest: 
Ivs. in a dense tuft ; Ifts. 3-lobcd and incised : fls. ^ 
red: carpels pressed closelv ti^ether. S. Eu.- 
from P. peregrina by smaller ovate and more glai 
Ivs., Iftfi. more divided and crowded. Var. fimbrilta, 
Hort. Double purple fls,, with projecting purple 
stamens; very pretty, but not much cult, in Amer. The 
species is sometimes referred to P. pereifrina, 

18. arietina, 0. Anders. St. 2-3 ft. high, hairy toward 
the lop: Ivs. 5-6 on a st., rather glaucous and pubes- 
cent beneath; segms. oblong te oblong-lanceolate, 
strongly confluent, decurrent: fls, always solitary, dark 
red. Targe; follicles 3-4, densely tomentese, ovoid, 
spreading widely, becoming 1 in. long, strongly arched; 
stigma recurved. 8. Eu. B.R, 819 (as P. cretica).— 
There are a number of horticultural varieties, under 
vernacular names. Andersonii, bright rose; aAxteri, 
crimson; crJlico, blush-pink. The species is by some 
combined with P. peregritia. 

19. decAn, G. Anders. Tubers oblong: sts. 2-3 ft. 
high: Ivs. horizontal, diminishing to the top; Ifta.oblonE- 
obtuse; fls, rather small, deep purple; petals few, small, 
narrow, peduncle long: follicles hairy, large, spreadbg 
from the base when mature. S. Eu, Var. Uba, Hort., 
has satiny white lis., slightly tinted pink, Gn, 72, 

. Ln. deeply lobed: fls. 




Var. eUitior, G. Anders. Lvs. broadly oblong: fls. rich 
crimson, very large: receptacle with few processes, and 
a connection between the carpels at their base of similar 
surface and appearance to that of the carpels. 

p. BrdUrit Boiaa. A Reut. (P. corallina var. Broteri, Uuth). Fb. 
nd« vaiying to white: carpela densely white-tomentoae: allied to 
P. officinalis i^d P. corallina in lvs. and habit. — P. cdraiea, Sieber. 
Much like P. ooriacea. — P. Bmddii, WalL Closely related to and 
•oroetimes remrded as a synonym of P. anoniala. B.M. 5719. 
Gn. 45:70. — P. hwmUitt Rets. (P. peregrina var. humilis, Uuth). 
Rather low: fls. bright red: carpels gUbrous or very nearly sa 
B.M. 1422. — P, microcdrpa, Boiss. A Reut. Allied to thepreceding 
and refored to it by Hutn, but dwarfer. Var. Jonathan Gribson is a 
garden form, with very downy lvs. — P. mdUu, G. Anders. Loi«% 
about 1 ft., wi^ 1 fl. to the st.: lvs. dull green above, glaucous and 
pubescent beneath, with many oblong-lanceolate segms.: fls. deep 
red and subsessile: carpels 2-3, pilose, erect-curveo. A doubtful 
speeies allied to P. anomala. L.B.C. 13:1263. — P. pitbena, Sims. 
Allied to P. officinalis probably: lvs. hairy below, margins red. — 
P. RiUaii, Biv. (P. corallina var. Russii, Huth). Allied to P. cor- 
allina, but with the lvs. decidedly hauy below. — P. teanliflAra, 
Sims. Nearly related to P. mollis; very low: fls. subsessile, white. 
~P. tritemdta, Pallas (P. corallina var. Pallasii. Huth). Differs 
from P. corallina in its rounded lvs., green nt., and rose or whitish 
fls. RM. 1441 (P. daurica). j^ q DaVIS. 

PAINTBD CUP: CaatiUeja. L. H. B.f 

PAINTBD LBAF: Euphorbia heterophylla. 


PALAQUtUM: laonandra. 

PALAtTA (after Anton Palau v Verdera, professor of 
botany at Madrid the latter half of the ei^teenth cen- 
tury). Also written Palava, under which name it 
appears in lists. Malvdcese. Flower-garden herbs. 

Aimual or perennial, tomentose or somewhat gla- 
brous: lvs. usually lobed, dissected or sinuate: bracUets 
0: fls. purple or purplisn, axillary, ]3eduncled, solitary: 
calyx 5-cut; stamens in a column which is much divided 
at the top; ovary manv-celled; style stigmatose at the 
apex: carpels crowded, without order. — Species 9 in 
1908, as accepted by Ulbrich in Bugler's Jahrb. 42; 
Peru and Chile. 

diss^cta, Benth. {P.flexubsa^ Mast.). Slender annual, 
branched from roots: sts. &-12 in. Ions, ascending, 
flexuous above: If .-stalks 1-2 in. long; blades 1-2 in. 
long and broad, triangular in outline, pinnatifid, the 
segms. lobed; lobes obtuse: fls. many, well separated 
from the foUage, about 1 in. across, lilac with whitish 
center, the stamens rose-purple and arranged in 5 
longitudinal series; styles 25-30. Peru. B.M. 5768. 
H.F. II. 12:43. L. H. B. 

PALAVA: Palaua. 

PALISdTA (named in honor of A. M. F. J. Palisot de 
Beauvois, 1752-1820, French administrator, traveler 
and botanist). Commelindceae. Perennial herbs, some- 
times grown as pot or tub specimens under glass, as in 
palm houses, for the fohage. 

Stem or caudex either long or very short, simple or 
nearly so, with the lvs. crowded at the top or base: lvs. 
long, parallel-veined, hairy when young and the mar- 
gins with reddish or grayish hairs: fls. mostly white or 
purplish or rose, in many small cymes which are 
arranged in a dense or elongated panicle on mostly 
1 peduncle that is terminal or essentially so; sepals and 

rtals 3, the latter obovate; stamens 3, perfect, and 2 or 
bearded staminodes; ovary 3-celled, with 1-seyeral 
ovules in each: fr. a colored fleshy or succulent inde- 
hiscent berry.— Species about 15, inTrop. Afr. Little 
known in cult, outside of collections. The lvs. are often 
banded or striped, and the colored hairs make them 
conspicuous. For cult., see Commelina, p. 835. 

P. AWeriiit Gontil. Sub-caulescent:, much like P. Elisabeths, 
but Ivi. not varieinted and petioles without marginal hairs, also 
•tronger-growinic: lvs. very dark green, grajrish hairy beneath, 
to 3 ft. long and 4-10 in. wide, long-attcnuate to petiole, the latter 
widely channeled. Habitat not given. — P. Bdrteri, Hook. f. Sts. 
1-6 in. long, with lvs. near the base (i. e., practically radical), the 
young parts shaggy hairy: lvs. to 2 ft. long by about 4 in. wide, 
obovate-lanoedate, i^ruptly contracted into a tip 1 in. long, at 


imperfectly known, has oblong-obovate lvs. about 1 ft. long, with 
a broad band in center of greenish yellow, the margins brown-hairy 
and fleshy petiole with broad purplish band. Upper Guinea. — P, 
BUaabettm, Qentil (P. Pynaertu var. Elisabeths, Hort.). Caules- 
cent: lvs. long-acuminate, obovate-lanoeolate, marked with greenish 
yellow variegation along the median line, 2-3 ft. long and 4-10 in. 
wide, long-attenuated to petiole, the latter thidc and several inches 
long, broadly canaliculate with rufescent hairs on the margin. 
HabiUt not given. G.C. III. 48:423. Gt. 64, p. 49.— P. Pynairtii, 
Wildem. The plant in cult, seems to be the variegated4vd. form 
and which is probably the same as P. Elisabeths, idthou^ the 
latter is said to dififer m general form of growth and to havelonger 
lvs. and with widely channeled petiole. Trop. Afr. R.B. 35:376 
(as foL var.). — P. SchwHnfurthii, Clarke. St. 3-7 in. long and Hin- 
oiam., with 2 or 3 lvs. at the nodes: lvs. to 2 ft. or somewhat more 
and 8 in. broad, elliptic, short-acuminate at either end. densely 
hairy on margin but more or less i^labrate otherwise: inn. 4-7 in. 
long, cylindric and very dense, contaming several hundred fls. Trop. 


ipuc, tne margii 
fls. white, in a loose panicle often 2 in. wide ana 10 in. long; ovary 
|iabrous: berry ^in. or more diam., blue. Upper and Lower 
Guinea. The Diohorimndra thsrsiana. Hort. (G.C. III. 28:302. 

R.B. 28:133), is probably this plant. It is described as a "plant 
of striking habit, and bold ascending foliage:" from Hort. Linden. 

L. 11. B. 

PALltfRUS (ancient Greek name). Rhamndcex, 
Ornamental woody plants sometimes grown for their 
attractive foliage and curiously shaped fruits. 

Trees or shrubs: stipules usually changed into spines: 
lvs. alternate, 3-nerved, entire or serrate: fls. small, per- 
fect, in axillary or sometimes terminal cymes; petals 
5, 2^1obed; stamens 5: fr. woody. 3-celled, depressed 
subglobose, with a broad orbicular horizontal wing; 
cells l-^eded. — Six species from S. £u. to Tonkin, 
China, and Japan. 

These are spiny trees or shrubs sometimes procum- 
bent with two-ranked ^nerally ovate medium-sized 
leaves and small greenish yellow flowers in axillary 
/dusters followed by orbicular broadlv winged, curiously 
shaped fruits resembling a head with a broaa-brimm^ 
hat. The one species cultivated in this country is 
not reliably hardy north of Washington, D. C; in Mas- 
sachusetts it is killed every winter almost to the 
sround even with protection, and the young shoots 
flower but bear no fruit. It is not very ornamental, 
but the dark green foliage is pretty and the curious 
fruits are interesting. It thrives in any well-drained 
soil and prefers a sunmr and warm position. Propaga^ 
tion is by seeds stratified or sown m autumn and by 
layers or root-cuttings. 

Spina-Chifsti, Mill. (P. austrdlis. Gaerhi. P. acuUd- 
tu8f Lam. Zlzyphus PaHUruSf Willd. Rhdmnua PaU- 
iirvsy Linn.). Jerusalem Thorn. Christ's Thorn. 
Spreading, spiny shrub or small tree to 20 ft., sometimes 

g recumbent: branches brown: 1 of the 2 spines at the 
ase of the petioles straight, the other hooked and 
recurved: lvs. rather slender-petioled, ovate, usually 
unequal at the rounded base, obtuse, minutely ser- 
nilate, glabrous, dark green above, pale or srayish 
beneath, Ji-1 J-^ in. long: fls. in axillary short^peduncled 
cymes: fr. brownish yellow, about Ji-1 in. across, 
glabrous. June, July. S. £u. to Himalayas and N. 
China. B.M. 1893; 2535 (as P. virgaiv^.) G.C. III. 
50:377. — ^This plant is supposed to have furnished 
the crown of thorns which was placed on the head of 
Christ before his crucifixion; others think Zizyphus 
SmnorChristi to be the shrub the crown was made of. 
Tnese two shrubs resemble each other closely, but the 
branches are whitish and the frs. berry-like in Zizy- 
phus; the shape of the spines is exactly the same in both 

p. onentHia, Hemsl. Tree, to 30 ft.: sometimes unarmed: lvs. 
2-4 in. long, glabrous: fr. 1-1 H in- across, glabrous, purplish. 
China. This but recently intro. species is perhaps the moat oma^ 
mental of the genus; it has not proved hardy at the Arnold Arbor- 
etum. — P. ramoHsnmua, Poir. (P. Aubletia, Rcem. A Schult.). 
Shrub similar to P. SpinarChristi. but with both spines straight, 
with larger lvs. pub^oent beneath, and smaller tomentuse frs. 
with narrow wing. China, Japan. ALFRED RehDBR. 


PALHi PeiIdis are amongat the most strikiiiK planto 
in tropical floras. The tall mostly straight unbranched 
tnmlcB BunaouDt«d by a spreading canopy of huge pin- 
lutte or digitat« leaves diatinguish them from nearly all 
other forma of vegetation. They are widely spread in 
wann regions, bein^ most abundant in America and 
Aata and few in Africa. They are particularly conapic- 
uous in the Pacific Islands. Although the palms are 
such bold and interesting plants, the species tire imper- 
fectly understood. This is due to the great difficulty 
of malting herbarium specimens, to the fact that the 
greater number of botanists are residents of re^ons in 
irtiich palms do not grow,' and to the difFerencca of 
i^union as to the relative importance of the various 
botanical character. Many of the palms have been 
uuDed firvt from cultivated specimens, and often before 
the flowen and fruits are known. When the specimens 
finally come to fruity the names are usually shifted, 
caiMJng much confusion. The proper generic position 
of a palm may be unknown for several years after it 
becomes popular in the horticultural trade. Consider 
tbe changes in nomenclature which have occurred in 
palms that have been referred to the genera Areca and 

Hie species of palms are not very numerous as 
compared with orchids, composites and grasses. They 
potjably do not greatly exceed 1,200, as at present 
known, although more than that number have been 
described, fientham & Hooker accept 132 genera, and 
Dnide, in E^ngler & PTantl's "Pflanzenfamilien," 
accept 128 genera. Moat of the genera are Email, and 
many of them are monotypic. The larseat genera are 
Cabinua, with about 2O0 species, all Old Worid, mostly 
Asianj Geonoma, with about 100 Bpccies, all American; 
Bactns, about IDD, .\merican; Cbamsdorea, with 
about 00, all American; Licual^ with 30, rangiiig from 
eastern Asia to Australia; Desmoncus, about 25, 
American; Cocos, 30, all confined to America but the 
coconut, which is now cosmopoUtan; Pinanga, with 
about 25 specieti, of the oriental tropics ; Areca, nearly 
two dozen, oriental. Many of the species, particularly 
tn the small genera, are restricted to very small geo' 
grapbical regions, often to one island or to a group of 

..1..J. T^- _„i ^ ■ J , , .-Bgetafion 




_, utnil ilaw; t, IsnfUiwlia (action 

at caipal; /, tooiic fralc, with lamaliu of MarUs cupel at apai; g, 
Hcdoa el ksnel, ihowinc antiia imd iwidsj A, lectlDn of Had 
■loea Uh of n^u. 

in geolo^esl epochs. — Perhaps the most complete 
account rf the botany of certain groufw of palms is by 
O. fieccori in such works as; "The species of Calamus, ' 
"Le Palme Araerioane della tribu della Corypheffi," 
"Notes on Philippine Palms," and many smaller 
papeis. O. F. Cook has also written extenaively of 
die American tpeciee. 

General ^lOTacterUHea. 

The members of this family ore essentially tropical 
in habitat, are highlv ornamental in appearance, and 
many of them also of very great economic value, their 
fruita, stems and leaves not only entering largely into 
the manufactured products of both Europe and America 

1716. Flowen uid fruit of Thrinu Vsndkndluc — a, top fut 
of flowetinc bnocblet; b, flowHi t, (ndtiiic perianth, lean from 
■bon, (roiD which the fiuit hu baen takso; d, tmlt; i, loafi- 
tndlnal lectian of toed, thiooch ambiTa. 

but also providing both food and shelter for thousands 
of the inhabitants of tropical countries. One notable 
characteristic of palms in general is their unbranched 
stems, the eicepUons to this rule being very few and 
mostly limited to the members of one genus, HyphEeue, 
of which the doum palm of £kypt, H. thdxaai, is tlie 
best ej(ample. While these unbranched stems form a 
prominent feature in connection with this order of 
plants, yet great variations are found in size and habit, 
some of them towering up like a slender marble shaft 
to a height of more than 100 feet and then terminating 
in a crown of majfDificent plume-like leaves, while others 
may reach a height of only 3 to 4 feet when ful^ 
developed, and some species are permanently stemless. 
In some examples the stems are so long and lender that 
a scandcnt habit is the result; these rope-like stems of 
the rattan palms in particular are described as wandei^ 
ing through the tops of some of the great trees of the 
Idolayan Peninsula to a length of several hundred feet, 
— reported as long as 1,700 feet, but report unreliable. 

The folit^ of the palms is of two chief kinds, the 
fan-veined leaves, in which the venation radiates from 
a common center, and the feather-veined^ in which the 
veins run out from the sides of a long sudrib, the leaf 
being frequently divided into long narrow segments. 
Of tfie first group, the common Ian palm, LivUUma 
ehinenns, is a good example, while the date palm, PkeB- 
ntr daetylifrra, and also the coconut, Cocos nucijcra, 
are common examples of the feather -veined class. 
There are also minor characteristics of foliage tiiat 
mark many of the genera, some having pinnate leaves 
with erose tips, a few havme bipinnate leaves (aa Car- 
yola ttrerw), others with flabellate leaves having eroae 
segments, and many with the segments of the leavefl 
bifid or split at the tips. 

The flowers of palms in general are not specially 
attractive either in siie or coloring, many ot them being 
greenish while or yellow, and some orange or red; hut 
these flowers are produced in prodigious quantities by 
some of the species, perhaps the most prolific in this 
respect being the talipot palm {Corypha umbracidifera), 
which throws up a branching inflorescence to a height 
of 30 feet above the foli^e, such an inflorescence 

having been estimated to include fully 60,000,000 
flowers! This, of course, appUes only ti 

The seeds of palms are also found in many si 

a, appUes only to wild specimens. 

2438 PALM 

nut, Lodoicea maldwioa, which will Bometimee weigh 
forty iXHindii each biuI require Bever&l yeaia to reach 

An a rule, the mcmbera of uny iingle genua of palms 
arc found in one Iwmiapherc, cither the eoBtem or 
western as the case may be, probably the greater num- 

n and frnlli of Aeoloituphe WrlfhUi. — d, put el 
chlal; b, iiiiaiwwd flower; c, flow full opta; d, 

muii (, kunal of (rulti /. uod u ihown on the nplul M»i t, 

UofthwlM MCtlOB thnn^ embiTD. 

to this system of hcmisiihcric Jistributian in the <._ .. 
of the coconut, this plant being bo very widely diatrib- 
utod throui^out the tropical world that its origpnal 
habitat is atill in doubt. On the other hand, some spe- 
cies arc luiown to be very local in their natural atate, 
in proof of which the howcaa may be cited; this genua 
has been found only within the circmnacribed area of 
Lord Howe's Island, which, from a comparative point 
of view, may be termed merely a fragment of land 
(probably of volcanic oripn), a mero dot on the broad 
boBom of the South Pacific. 

Kew palms are found within the limits of the United 
States BB nattvca, the moat common being the well- 
known palmetto, Sabal Paimetlc, a member of the fan- 
Icavcd section, to which many of the American palma 
belong. Hut wliilc tlic species of ]>alms native m the 
United States are liniiteil In numbers, yet there is at 
least one unique species in the group m the form of 
Piu-udophanix Sargrntii, a monot^tuc palm, that ia 
known to exist in a wild state only on certain of the 
Florida Keys, and in limitnl nunibcra even there, and 
recently in Cuba and Hanto Domingo. 

Europe is even Icxh favorcil as to native palms, there 
being but one spccieii known there in that condition, 
Charrufrnpa huniUia, also a fan-leaved species and com- 

ratively hardy, being capable of enduring moderate 


The pabn tree of the Bible is doubtless the date pahn, 
Phanix daciuli/ira, which is found in lar^e numbeta 
throughout Syria to this day; and in fact the small 
Krt>ve of dat«s within eaa>' reach of the Syrian house- 
holder forms one of his most valuable assets, for it 
provi<les fixx) not only for his family, but frequently 
for his horscH or camela also. 

The act of |>nMlucing floweiv dnea not necessarily ter- 
minate the life of a iiolm, though in some inatancea 
mich an effw^ may be produce*! by this cause; but a 
singular habit has nrcn not«d in rcgtkrd to the flowering 
of the filth-tail jiolm, Caryola urens, whirh when it 
reuchcM maturity brinns t« throw out a flower-spike 
from the top of the Mtem. this being followed by suecea- 
MVt- Eipikvs of tkiwcni. and ultimate bunches of secda 
fnnn the top of the jJant downward, the flower-spikes 
■ ■' '■■'■'--■- ^j,^ when this pro- 

imtil the vitality of the plant haa been exhausted, death 

There are also a number of apeciea of pahna that 
develop a soboliferous habit, throwing up a nimiber of 
afaoots from the base of the plant, SJtapis flabeUiJor- 
tnis, sometimes known as the ground rattan, beins a 
good example of this class, among which the widely 
erown and elegant Chryualidoearptit bitetcent is also 
found, together with the geonomas, some of the phcenix 
and various other genera. Many of the palms are 
unisexual, but then; are also many others in which both 
male and female flowers are produced on the same 
spadix, in aome examples the malca being (grouped 
together uear the ends of the branches of the mflores- 
cence and the females nearer to the main stem, while 
in others a female is placed between two males, thua 
arranging the flowers in threes. 

Cross-pollination of polnis by artificial means has 

->->■- ' 1' .;,.j .1, — '-~-o few culti- 

, Tor such an 
s highly prob- 
o accidentally 
effected among wild plants, for in large lots of seed- 
hngs intermediate forms are frequently seen, thin 
peculiarity having been noted among howea seedlings 
where forms intermediate between H. Belmoreana and 
H. FoTiteriaiui are found, and sometimes seedlings 
that seem to combine the characteristics of H. Belmo- 
Teana and those of its near relative Hedysctpe Canter- 
huryana. Similar variations from a given type have 
also been noted among the phtcnix, several so-called 
species being most likely merely varieties. 

Many palms arc armed with stout thorns or prickles, 
not. only the st«ms but also the leaves and even the 
fruits in some species being thus guarded, these prickles 
being usually very hard and tough. In some cases, 
notsljly Acanthorhiza acuieala, me prickles around 
the at«m are often branched, and are decidedly unpleas- 
ant to come in contact with. In the case of Desmoncua, 
this being the western representative of the rattan 
palms, the tip of the midrib of the leaf Is continued in 
the form of a hooked spine, and helps to support the 
plant In its scandent career. The sharp spines of cer- 
tain palms ore used tor poisoned arrows by some of 
the South American tribes, these arrows being pro- 
jected through a blow-pipe formed from a section of 
the iioUow stem of another palm. Among the speciea of 
Ph(Enix, it is ofl«n found that several of the leaflets 
nearest to the base of the leaf are developed as spines, 
these thorny leaflets becoming stiff and hard, and capa- 
ble of making a very sore wound. 

The very great economical value of many of the palma 
can only lie touched upon within the limita of the pres- 
ent article, the 
uses to which 
not only the 
fruita but also 
the stems and 
leaves are put 
by the natives 
of many tropi- 
cal countries 
being enough 
of tnemaelvcs 
to fill volumes. 
One prominent 
example of this 
great utility is 
the Palmyra 
palm, of which 
a Hindoo poet 

2T2B. Plowort ud fniit of Coo 
MInfiuDO. — o, part of Jlowerinc bruicUel; b, 
flower from wtalcb onrr hai bwt ramoved. 

apiH'aring at the joinia of the ston). and whe 
cuH of Howering has pn>ve«.<ded down to the 



the cooonut palm, the fruita of which are imported hy 
hundreds of tons every year, and in addition to provid- 
ing a vahiable food, either freeh or in a desiccated con- 
dititm, also produce that very valuable fiber from which 
COfdage, matting and a great variety of goods are 
manuiactuied; also the Phcenir family, which 
duces the dates of commerce in apparently i" 
Bupply, and the date sugar of Bengal, this being con- 
triouted by Phoenix tybieatrU, while the stems of date 
palms are often usecf in house-building in the East. 
Another \fxy valuable palm produat ia found in palm 
oil, this being largely derived from the fruits of Elxia 
ftdneetisis, the oil being expressed from the ripe fruits 
m much the same manner that olive oil is manufac- 
tured. The rattan of commerce is chiefly composed of 
the flexible Btema of various calami, the plentiful sup- 
ply of this material being sufficiently attested by toe 
sreat variety of articles manufactured therefrom. 
Various pahns have been mentioned under the name of 
"wine palm," but it seema likely that some species of 
Raphia ore most used for liquors, some portions of these 
pauns ^vin^ a larg^ amount of sap when tapped, and 
as the juice is rich in sugar, the sap aoon fennente and 
may become strongly 
alcoholic. The best 
sago is produced from 
the pith of Metroiry- 
lon or Sagus, the 
trees being cut down 
and split into seg- 
ments for the removal 
of the pith, the latter 
being then prepared 
in a rough granulated 
form for export. Sago 
is also procured from 
Caryota and some 
other genera, but the 
product is not equal 
to that of Metroxy- 
lon. The so-called 
whale - bone brooms 
frequently used in 
stables and for etreet- 
cleaning are mostly 
made from Piasaaba 
(or Pta^ba) fiber, 
this being gathered 
from around the base 
of plants of attalcas, 
mostly A. funifcra. 
The attaJeaa also produce large seeds or nuts, those of A . 
funifera being known as coquilla-nuts, and very largely 
usea for ornamental purpcees, being very hard and capa- 
ble of receiving a fine polish. Many small articles are 
manufactured from vegetable ivory, this being secured 
from the nuta of Phylelephas macrocarpa, a singular palm 
from South America, bearing a lar^ fruit in which are 
contained from six'to nine of the ivory-nuts, the plant 
itself having a short and sometimes creeping stem from 
which proceeds a noble head of pinnate fronds that are 
frequently 15 to 20 feet in length. The seeda of .Areco 
Catechu, after preparation with lime and the leaves of 
the peppei^plant, become the betel-nut of the East 
Indies, so much used by the natives of that portion of 
the world as a mild stmiulant. The cabbage palm of 
the West Indies is Oreodoxa oleracea, the smooth and 
straight stems of which are frequently 80 to 100 feet 
high, and the removal of the "cabbage," so-called, 
means the destruction of such a tree, for the portion 
eaten is composed of the central bud in which the 
young leaves are compactly gathered together. 

Botanieal ttruetun. 

2729. nowon uid frvit of Copa^ 
Bkla CuftluU.— a, mmmit of flowei^ 
ioi brmnch; b, lioclo flower; c, 
flower la loncltBdliial MCtion; d, 
Imlti t, lead, from the npbal ridei 
/• ii»d, M» Tiew; i. Had in Uni(l- 

PALM 2439 

their bases, remain for some time, formiitg a shaggy 
capital to tiie column; this is well marked m the large 
or cabbage palmetto of the South. The palma are 
mostly trees, and sometimes rise to the height of 
nearly 200 feet, but some are climbing and others are 
low ahruba. Scune pslms are only a foot or two tall at 


i Hsmlthiinai compact*. — a, put of 
. . . iwen In (stha^; d, t, author*, bom 
uthcs famn Innar lida; g, flowat with a ' 
Itbwiie aaeHoB of ora 
wiaa aection of aead, ahowiiic ombijo. 

maturity, as Malortiea. In some species the stems are 
prickly. Usually they make very straight comely boles, 
but a few species produce branches above. 

The inflorescence of palms usually arises underneath 
or in the crown, from the axils of the leaves. The clus- 
ters are really spadices, although often branched, and 
are covered in the bud by a dry spathe composed of one 
or several leaves or parts. The remains of these spathes 
are well shown in ^g. 2538 (page 2298). In the upper 
cluster on the left, the sijathc is arching over the fruits. 
The blossoms are relatively small, and usually dull 
colored and not showy, but in some species the spadix 
is scarlet or yellow and often very gracefully branched. 
The spathes are sometimes immense woody coverings, 
like troughs or bowls. 

The flowers of palms are not greatly differentiated or 
speciaUzed. The essential structure may be understood 
by comparing the details in Figs. 2725 to 2731, which 
are adapted from Beccari'a account of palme indigenous 
to Cuba in Pomona 
College Journal of 
Economic Botany, 
February, 1913. Of 

laj, and they may 
be either hermaph- 

or diccciouB. Often 
the whole flower is 
nearly woody, even 
the perianth-parts 
being hard and 
scarcely resembling 
petala. In most 
species there " "" 

anth- parts: 

distinct imbricated 
sepals inclosing 
three distinct or 
1 1 y united 

Me -'' 

lications > 

2731 Flowan of Copankia ilabraa- 
cena — a, nunmlt of flowerlru brtmch; 
b, top Tiaw of opaD flower; c, flowat, 
■Ida view; d, Bowar in leocthwia* 



tain species of Thrinax where tbe perianth ia reduced 
■nd deformed, and of Nenga where the sepala arc longer 
than the petals. There are nearly always six stamens, 
both in the piatitlate and staminate flowers, and except 
in certain species of Oreodoxa (Roystooea) they aie 
elvKya included. They are often in two Beriea, one 

aiposite the sepals, Uie other opposite the petals, 
ways free, anJ nearly always inserted on the short 
perianth-tube. The anthers ase linear, oblong or arrow- 
shaped, two-celled, the pollen usually ellipsoid or nearly 
round, vciy rarely minutely spiny. The ovary is free, 
ovoid or oblong or globose, and often found in a rudi- 
mentary form even in staminate flowers, but some- 
times lackina in the latter. There are mostly three cells, 
but four and even up to seven cells are known in rare 
cases. The ovule in each cell is solitary and almost 
always erect. 

Great variety characterizes palm fruits. Some are 
dry and hard almost stone-like fruits, others are fleshy 

nut. In other species the seed is free, but often it ad- 
heres to the imier coat of the fruit; it nearly always 
contains a copious albumen. 
The individual flowers and fruits of palms are borne 

in one group of genera the spadix being either simple c 
imperfectly branched, if compound then paniculate, 
Buch as is found in Geonoma, Euterpe, and allied 
genera; and in others the spadii is always pinnately 
branched, the ultimate branches distichous if greater 
ramification is present. 
HorticuituriU importance, and cuUtire. 

Palms have been favorite greenhouse subjects fnon 
the period of the first development of the glass plont- 
house. The stereotyped form of conservatory is a 
broad or nearly square structure, with narrow benches 
around the sides over the heating-pipes and a palm-bed 
in the center. In these conservatories a variety of 
palms will succeed, requiring neither a very hi^ t«m- 
. perature nor much direct BunUght, (Fig. 2732.) In fact, 
pahna usually succeed best imder shaded roofs. The 


palms are most satisfactory in their young state, before 
the trunks become very prominent, and before the 
crowns reach the ^ass. The larger number in houses 
have pinnate or piimatisect leaves, and these species 
are usually the more graceful in habit, althou^ the 
fan palms are also much prited. Small palms are now 
in great demand for room and table decoration, and a 
few species are grown in enormous quantities for this 
trade. They are sold when small. Tney usually perish 
before they are large enough to be cumbersome. ^Jnong 
the most popular of these palms are ChrystUidooarpui 
luteaeeng, Howea Belmoreana and H. FortUriana, Cocos 
WeddeUiana, LivUUma chirienga, and possibly one or 
two species of Phcenix. 

Some palms endure considerable frost without injuty . 
Of such are the sabals and the palmettoes of the soutn- 
em states. The saw palmetto {Serenoa gerrulala) and 
the blue palmetto (Rhapidophj/Uum Hyalriz) occur as 
far north as South Carolina. In Asia, Narmorhope 
occurs naturally as far north as 34° and grows in the 
mountains of Afghanistan where snow falls, and in 
Europe. Chamasrops (the only palm indigenous to 
Europe) reaches 44 . 

The genera chiefly known to horticulturists are the 

Tribb Arecea. Lvi. pinnatitect, the tflt. free or joined 

so as to form a plaited limb, the sidee in vemalion 

Teduplicaie: fig. monadous or diaciout: seeds 

umbUieate, vntk ventrai raphe and dorsal embryo. 

Areca, Pinanga, Kentia, Hydriastele, Kentiopsis, 

Hedyscepe, Nenga, Archontopbccnix, Rhopalostylia, 

Dictyosperma. Ptychosperma, Cyrtostachys, Drymo- 

phlceus, CypnophfEnix, Clinostigma, Cyphosperma, 

Euterpe, Acanthophunix, Oreodoxa, Acrlsta, Bacularia, 

Linospadix, Howea, Ceroxylon, Verschaffeltia, Dypsia, 

Chanuedorea, Hyophorbe, Roscheria, Geonoma, CaJyp- 

trogyne, Bentinckia, Walhchia, Did)Tnospcrma, Arenga, 

Caryota, Phytelephas, Paeudophcenix, (Enocarpus. 

Tribb Phcbnice*. Lvs. pinnaHaect, segms. acuminate 
and TnUh induplicate sides in iiemaiion: spadieea 
interfoliitr, the spalke solitary: fls. dwvwus: carpd* 
3, only 1 maturing, the stigma terminal; seed 
strongly sentraJly auieale, the embryo luuatty dorsal. 

Tbibe Cobtpebjb. Los. fan^haped, viedg^shaped or 

orbicular, pUxiled, more or Use evt, the lobes with 

induplieale sides: spadiees inierfoliar, the spalhei 

many: Jls. usually perfect; ovary entire or 3-Uited 

or sometimes the 1-3 earp^ distinct, the oinile erect; 

pericarp mually smooth; seeds urilh ventrai raphe 

and smaU hilum. 

Corypha, Sabal, Washingtonia, Cham^rops, Rha- 

pidophyllum, Acanthorhiza, Brahea, Erythea, Priteh- 

aidia, Licuala, Liviatona, Trachy carpus, Rhapis, 

Thrinax, Nannorhops, Serenoa, Copemicia, Tey»- 

mannia, Trithrinax, Coccothrinax. 

Tribe LEPinocARTE*;. Lvs. pinruiliseet or fan-shaded, 
the segms. with redujAicate sides in vernation: 
tpadiccs terminal or axiUary, the spathes 

r lest 

cole, appreaaed sa^s; seed wilh dorsal raphe and 
ventral embryo. 
Calamus, Ceratolobus, Raphia. 

Tbibe Borassb.*:. Lvs. orbicular, the aegms, fan- 
shaped OTui the sides induplicate: apadices inter- 
foliar, theapathea many aTui sheathing: fis. diacious, 
tile male minute and sunk in cavities on the spadiz, 
the female very large, ovary entire, S-lacuUd, We 
oiTufc ascending: fr. variout. 
BonuEus, Lodoiceo, I^tania, Hyphane. 




Tbibe CocoiNEiE. Lv8. pinnotUect. the Jfis. with 
reduplicaU sides: spadices interfoliarf unisexiud or 
androgynous, the spathes 2 or mare: inferior fls. often 
in 3*8, the middle one female; ovary l-T-loculed: fr. 
large, drupe4ike, l-l-locvled, the stigma terminal, 
the endocarp or shell hard and woody and provided 
with 3-7 pores. 

Bactris, Astrocaryum, Acrooomia, Martinezia. Elsis, 
Diplothemium, Cocos, Maximiliana, Scheelea, Attalea, 
Junea, Desmoncus. 

There is very little accessible mon- 
o^^phic literature on the p^dms. Mar- 
tius' ''Historia Naturalis Palmamm," 
Munich, three volumes, 1823 to 1850, is 
a standard work. Kerchove de Denter- 
ghem's "Les Palmiers," Paris, 1878^ is 
an important work. A popular runmng 
account of palms and the various kinds, 
by William Watson, will be foimd in the _ ^7^: ^ 
foUowingplacesin Gardeners' Chronicle: ?.!™^,5^.J!' 

ITS, 748; 1885 (volume 23), pages 338, 

410, 439; 1885 (volume 24), pages 362, 
394, 586, 748; 1886 (volume 25), pages 
75, 139, 557; 1886 (volume 26) pages 
491, 652; 1887 (volume 2, series 3) 
pages 156, 304; 1891 (volume 9), pages 
234, 298, 671; 1893 (volume 13), pages 
260, 332. 

Palm-culture, for decorative purposes 
in the United States, has made its 
greatest progress within the past 
twenty -five years, and now seems to 
be a well-established business, with the 
prospect of a steady increase as the 
adaptability of these plants becomes 
better imderstood. A great area of 
glass is now in use for palm-culture 
alone^ the middle states being the cen- 
ter of this industry, though large num- 
bers are also grown in a few southern 
states; and owing to a favorable cli- 
mate and gradually improving business 
methods, it seems probable that Ameri- 
can growers will soon be able to com- 
pete with their more experienced 
brethren of Europe in this class of 

The species most used in commercial 
horticulture in the United States are 
contained in a very short list, the 
greater quantity being confined to five 
species, namely, Lmstona chinensis, 
Howea Belmoreana, Howea Forsteriana, 
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, and Cocos 
WeddeUiana, while less (quantities of 
Caryota wrens, several species of Phoenix, 
P. canariensis being very largely 
planted outdoors in the South and on 
portions of the Pacific coast. Seaforthia 
elegans and some others of tne Ptycho- 
sperma group, and some few livistonas 
cover the extent of the catalogue for 
many growers. 

Of these, the seeds are imported in 
most cases, and on the quality of these 
seeds the success of tne grower de- 
pends, so far as getting up a stock is 
concerned. Most of these species germi- 
nate readily in a warm greenhouse, 
providing the seeds are fresh, the slow- 
est of the common commercial palms 
being the howeas. In small quantities 

27M. GanniiM- these seeds are usually sown in about 
tloB o< LMstonu 6-inch pots, the pots being well drained 

and nearly filled with light soil, then the seeds sown 
thickly and covered with ^ inch of soil, watered 
thordUghly and placed where they may receive the 
benefit of some bottom heat; and at no time should 
they be allowed to become very dry. The period 
required for germination varies greatly with different 
species, Ldvistona chinerisis germinating in two or three 
weeks if fresh, and being ready for potting in about 
two months, while seeds of some of the attaleas have 
been known to remain in the earth for fully three years 
before starting. 

The seedling of many species are very much alike, 
the seed-leaf m many instances being a long narrow 
simple leaflet, this description often applying equally 
to tne seedlings of both fan-leaved ana pinnate-leaved 
species; and from this fact it is somewhat difficult to 
recognize a species while in the juvenile form. Figs. 
2733--2736 show stages in the germination of common 
palms. Special cultural notes for particular species of 
palms will be found throughout the Cyclopedia, but 
at this time a few general remarks regarding treatment 
of palms as a whole may be 
admissible. It has already 
been noted that palms in 
general are tropical in 
nature, and while there are 
a number of species that 
are found at considerable 
elevations, where the ni^ts 
are, decidedly cool, yet m a 
young state the same species 
may make more progress 
in a night temperatiure of 
60** F.; and with this in 
view, a minimum tempera- 
ture during the winter of 
66** to 60° is safest for jroung 
and growing palms, while an 
advance of 15® to 20° during 
the day will not hurt them. 

An abundance of water 
is required, for many palms 
grow on the banks of rivers 
or in swampy ground; and 
even those found on high 
and rocky ground send their 
roots down to such a depth 
as to find a hberal water- 

Rotted sod is the basis 
for the best soil for palms, 
and a fair pro[K)rtion of 
stable manure is a safe 
fertilizer, such a soil being 
mixed with various propor- 
tions of peat or sand, to 
make it lighter and more 
open for some delicate 

Insects are frequently troublesome if allowed to gain 
headway, various scsue insects doing the greatest 
damage, while red-spiders and thrips may oecome 
estdblisned unless forcible sycin^g is persisted in. 
The most successful practice reqmres close observation 
on the part of the grower, and the prompt removal of 
all insects. Many other pests are also known and in the 
report of the Missouri Botanical Garden for 1898, 
Trelease gives an account of many of these. Busch in a 
report on investigation of diseases of the coconut palm 
in United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 
of Entomology II. 38, 1902, gives an accoimt of a disease 
that threatened the coconut industry in Trop. America. 

Summer care of palms. 

Some shading throughout the summer is best, the 
foliage grown under glass being more tender than that 

2735. Genninatioii of Cocos 

lutunUly pr^Klunnr] (niUloon, Iliipottinf! Hbould bedone 
duriiiK t^M; RfnitiK HmI munmcr mnntho, preferably, 
UiCTK lieinK o>mjmriitiv<:ly little riMt-aGtiim oti the 
part (rf nuMt iiiilnw ImtwRm November 1 anil March t- 
fjivR only mfxiKniln-KiMil Nhifbi, that in, lue pot« only 
] or 2 itiRhcn lu^r, anil alwayH run the soil firmly. 

ViimntM BMiNirially muHt untlcistaml tho mmuiier 
trpAtmont of ilitnonttivn imlnu, Tho uinial weather of 
injflimnimer, which innliiiiRn not only hish temperature, 
but aljNi fainy hifth humiility, ia a help for the grower of 
palniK. f'lr mjih raimlitlon* do much to promote the 
irowth of the Ntock, provided that watering, syringiiiKi 
and |>niiNir atttm- 
tifin to vontilatirm 
bn Kivm. A litth) 
vontilation nt 
niicht, in aildition 
to fairly liberal 
airinR durinit the 
day, tMido U> prtt- 
vont on ovnr- 
acmimuJation of 
moiaturo un tlio 
folioRn, and olw) 
haa an influence 
t^twanl thii tiro- 
vnntiiiii of fimKciid 
growthn on or 

MKiut thn platitH, for in hoiwM ho Dontinudly 
warm and moJHt an m tho avi^raKu piUm-hou 
thiim iM much onnoiiriMcr.niunt for funxuH 
ttui woodwork of thtt txmchra and about tho 

A Hprinklinfl of fllokeil lime under tho 
beiiRhiM In alwi a holp Ui tho atmoii]ihorc and 
dinramra^'H nnoilH t^> wimo (^Kt^^nt, Ihp latter 
)Mint N^mH wimntiinnH very troublcaomn, 
iwiweially <m thi^ y<nin|t ip^wtliH of kontios. 
Two of the wotKt jMTiiHbi for UiP reproduc- 
tion (if HTole iTUwtM art' in t.h« months of Muy 
and S<'ptt<TnlH>r, ainl if tlii«o pcata can bo 
ki^it down at tlww ihtiimIh, thcro will bo 
imieh him trouble in Iho n-innjiider of tho 

Thoitii who KKiw piJmi" in tjuontitv have 
'o dt'iM^nd niKiu dijw luul itpniymg witli vuri- 
..- . .:-..i„.. /-.... .1., (^j ^J^^^ 1, 1^ 

give tho til... ._ 

, ^. ..i> ofTnrtlud by thoHc who 

rany tmly » fi-w diiRi'iu> i>f phItuh in ntock, but 
in ritlHTPaapnuHit of the work of thiachoroc- 
Ifr w likoly t^i 1m> it..n.' in thy 
nunintT monlhs, when thi-iv inuy 
l>p a little nioro time di-vi)tiil to 
mieh work than cnii Ih' HpiLTvd 
in l)u' bimitT wowxih nf Hprinfc 
and fall. Thin tint pmbably 
antiunld for n>int> i>f tin' inwct 
tribtihktionH to whiih tin' KmwTr 
in i>x|Mwod, tw 111- is «'lili>ni !iMi' 
to lind tinu' to lii;lil iiis.-.(s »r 
Ihi' time of the sprinii 

m dijw 

l>y thix 11 

V ctJou 

i- the danger in * 

KenlioK oiul nmw are undnuhteilly the polnui for 
Uh- million at thin utage of tiw floriotti art in .America. 
aiHl IIh' neeetvilieti of lhna> admirable plnntu ore well 
un<len>liNyl. Se»forthi«i> anil pt>-e)u)c<|ieTma!i were 
rather uumv ivmnnm lo the trade fifteen to twenty 
yi>ani n«i< than they an' mw, and weiv uim) far deeoi«- 
tiw w»irk iH'fotv the kentian ab^irbed «i much atten- 
titin. Inniead of umiik m'aforlhioii for deeoratinic per- 
MMta oiv addinit them to (he outdtxir garden in thum 
pauia iif tite South wheiv lutlma add so fcreatly lu thtt 
pMUtanent efleel in the ouhluor iJanting. 


The common Phanix oananenti* and other atronc- 
srowing merobeis cS that subfamily are also frequent^ 
in demand for outdoor uk, while the dwarf date, 
Phanix HotMenii, continues to be in demand for houae 
decoraticm, under which condition it is eminently satis- 
factory; it has found further usefulneae even in small 
sixes, m being used to some extent for the centeis c^ 
fem-pans. Liuntlona ToluTidifoiia is one of the most 
cbanning of dwarf palms, but is easily spoiled by inaecta, 
requiring constant vigilance on that account, while a 
comparatively high temperature and moist atmosphere 
are also essential to its welfare. y; h Taitjs 

L. H. B. 


Pahna in Calif omia. 

Palms grown in the open 
in California gardens do not 
exceed about twenty-six 
genera, and numbering about 
eighty species. Inthisaccount 
may be found the speciea 
growing in the gardens of 
Los Angeles and vicinity, and 
throughout southern Cali- 
fornia in limited numbers 
from San Diego to Santa 
Barbara. Occasional plants of species not mentioned aifl 
found in some old gardens, but are not so plentiful as 
to be considered in it ncneral list of the hord^ palms. A 
complete list of palmi< pnwn somewhere in southern 
California is given by Franceschi as follows: Archonto- 
phtcnix, 2 species; Iledyscepe, 1; Rhopalostylis, 2; 
ClinosUgma, 1; Bociilaria, 1; Howea, 2; Chanucdorea, 
10; GauBsia, I; Phamix. 10: Sabal, 10; Washingtonia, 
3; Chammrops, 1; Hhaudophyllum, 1; Serenoa, 2; 
Brahca, 3; Erythca, 4| Pritchardia, 2; Livistona, 6; 
Trochycorpus, 2; Rhapis, 2; Thrinax, 2; Trithrinax, 2; 
Copcmicini, 1; Acrocomia, 1; Cocos, 10; Jubiea, 1. 

In enumerating the prevailing garden palms, the^ 
are placed as to their importance, or rather as to their 
numerical strength in Cnlifomia. The native fan-palms, 
the waflhingtonios, natives of San Bernardino and San 
DicRO cQunties, have been most extensively planted, 
and may be found everywhere, serving, in some 
instances, a variety of purposes. (Fig. 2737.) In grow- 
ing this palni, water is of the first importance. When 
planted along a street, those adjoining vacant lots often 
remain nearly at a stiindstill, except in case of aa- 
unusually wet winter, while those along the cultivated 
lots or lawns grow faster than any other palm. When 
one in its native habitat blows over by the force of the 
desert winds, the hole left by the roots and stump 
invariably tills with water. Washingtonias are hardy 
000 miles north of La-< .-Angeles. It may be well to state 
that hantincss in [lolnis is principally a question of size, 
the larger ones passing through the most severe winter 
unhormetl, while thi? itaail ones may perish. So, also, 

larjy the case with the so-called kentias and rhapis. A 
certain howea (or Krtilia Forshriana) is protected only 
by a large owrhanging branch of a s>Tamore. which is 
of course leaflet in cold weather, ^'et it has reached a 
heiRht of 12 feet, with a diameter at base of 12 inches, 
and it has ne^"er been injured by frost, yet water 
hydrants 10 feet aw^y have been froien so hard as to 
bur^t them. In Los .Angeles is a kenlia 15 feet high, 
growing on the north aide of a house, protected from 
sun alone, being 20 feet from the building, where for 
several winters the pound nearby has froien to the 
depth of 1 inch. This is in the bottom-lands, the coldest 
part of the city. 

Phmix daeij/liffTa, although itot so ornamental as 
othera of the genus, was extotavely planted in eariy 


days and is one of the hardiest of palms (Fig. 2738). 
Tbe most popular palm for the maaaea, who look for 
grace and beauty combined with cheapness, is Phanix 
eanarieiuu. More of these are planted at preeent 
than <rf any other three species. In Los Angeles and 



four species of sabals seem to thrive and seed well in 
this section, thouf^ S. Palmetto and S. Bladtbumianmn 
KTOw much faster than the others. Bhapidophyllum 
Hyitrix is perfectly hardy, but on accomit of its dwarf 
habit is not so extensively planted as its merits deserve. 
Rhapis fiabeUifoTmia and R. hanilU need protection 
from sun alone, though there is a rhapis growing for 
ten yeai? without protection from either sun or urost, 
and m the coldest section of Loa Angelea, but its color is 
not all that could be desired. Chan^dorcas are planted 
only where they can be protected from both frost and 
sun, though they thrive better under such circum- 
Btancea than they do under glass. In such situations 
they arc just the plant for the purpose, as they do not 
pow away from the protecting tree as do sun- and light- 
loving p^ms, but remain erect, Brahea dulcia may 
occasionally be seen, but grows too slowly to be popu- 
lar. One of the grandest and hardiest pauns, one that 
deserves for many reaaona to be mote eictensivel^ 
planted, is Juitsea speclabilii. There are a few speci- 
mens 20 feet in height with a bole 4 feet in diameter. 

Lts( of Caiifomia palms. (Wright.) 

The following list of palms for southern California 
has been compiled from many years of observation by 
J. Harrison Wright, While not entirely complete as 
regards the newest and untried introductions, it covera 
all the hardier species and it is made with special 
reference to the effects of the severe frosts of January, 

I. Hardt Pauis, 


Withstand a n 
with little or no injury, 
Chuoierops huiiulis (in 

vicinity they may be counted by tens of thousands. 
IJLe these two for hardine^ is P. redinala; and all may 
be seen growing north of San Francisco some 200 miles. 
All the genus is hardy in southern California. Tracfty- 
corpiu extxlsTu and Charrueropi kumiliB, the latter vary- 
ing greatly in appearance, will grow as far north as any 
palms and are popular everywhere. The farmer in 
thirty yeaiB will grow to the height of 25 feet, while the 
latter will make 8 to 10 feet of trunk in the same time. 
JyivUlona auilralis and L. chinensU are both popular, 
though not hardy outside the southern part of tne state, 
and the latter must be shaded from noonday sun. 
Erythea armata and E. edtdU (often known as braheas) 
grow around San Francisco Bay luxuriantly. The 
dwarf sections of Cocoa, represented chiefly by the one 
known in the trade as Cocos auslralU, is hardy even 
farther north than the erytheas, and are by far the most 
ornamental palms to be found in that section. Other 
cocGH in Bouthem Caiifomia are C. fiexuoaa, C. plumoaa, 
C. coronata, C. Romaruoffiana, and many others. Any 
coooe will grow here in protected places except C. Wed- 
ddUana. Palms of the Cocos fiezuota-plumoaa-Romajt' 
toffiana type are the most graceful grown, and at present 
very extensively planted in the southern citrous belt, 
■ometimes for street or sidewalk trees. It is also one 
of tbe fastest growers, and will reach 20 feet in fifteen 
yearn, with ordinary care. ATchojUophamix AUx- 
andrx and A . Cunnittghamii, the most elegant of our 
palms after tbe Cocoa plumosa type, are not quite so 
Wdy but will thrive from Santa Barbara southward, in 
warm locations. Tbe same exposures, with shade dur- 
ing the hottest part of the day, will do for Hedyaeepe 
Canitrburymui and Houxa Fortteriana and H. Btlr 
surama; also RhopaiottylU Baweri and R. tapitbi. The 

Cocoa »rnp«lri>. 
Cdcoh crioApAtha. 
Cocoa a«uau (at H 
Cocoa Gftertnon. 
Cocw Yiuy. 

£fVtbM ediiLia. 
Jiuina apectfthilifl. 

"■ U d»cty[i[er». 

temperature of 18° 1 

Phdmii rEclin»l«. " 

Serenos aerrulnti 

WuhiDgtDDik robuatB. 

2718. Date palnu ■ Old TdwB, Bl 



Tbe following require protection from sun in the 
interior voUeyn: 

Liviitoru muitrKlia. BhspidophyUuin Hntrix. 

Livintona cluTiBTin. Rhspii OabeUifoniiii. 

FluBnii Kmbdanii. Rh^it bumilu. 

The above are rather ftenerally found and to them 
may be added the Tollowing, equally hardy but 
not yet in general cultivation: 

Bnbea nlcuu. Coma amtrsUi (true). 

Bnba I^mo. C«« DmtiL 

CoooA AreduvAlatuUL 

Above are tall-growing Cocob of the plumoea type 
but hardy. 
Coo« odonttL NumorhopA RitchiKru. 

Coon pulposiu Trmnhf c&rpua cBBpiCoaiu 

ErytheA Bruhdflcei. Tritfanau brasiLieDBU. 

Eiytha difUiit. Trithiiiui ounpnuia. 

All the above con be erown wherever oranges are 
planted, and in addition Qke following are at home on 
the hill section of Loe Angeles, in the frost-free foot- 
hills and sheltered coastal valleys like Santa Barbara 
and the Montecito. 


CoooB botxyopboTL 
Coooe plumoak. 
Coon MuiB-iUfdim. 
Cooo* RomuuomuiL 



BomL . . „ 

moie than 150 are surviving. The state itself . 

in palms for a re^on lying wholly outside the tropics, 
there being not less than fifteen native and one natural- 
iied species, the latter the common coconut, found 
within its borders. A few of these, such as Sabal 


will generally throw out rootsinto the pot, after which 

it may be severed and the whole removed. 

The entire state is subject to "northers" durioK 
which the wind blows from the northwest, and cold 
weather and frost may occur in any part of the state. 
A large part of the palms which can be 'grown in 
Florida are tropical and if their seeds when in the ground 
are subjected to such a degree of cold they are almost 
sure to perish. If one is propagating any considerable 
number of palms, it wUI pay to have a frame covered 
with a sash or sashes. This can be sunk in the ground if 
neccKory; the seeds should be planted in good soil, 
and during cold nights the whole may be heavily 
covered with fertilizer sacks. It should have a southern 
exposure and be well protected from the wind. In the 
southern part of the state such a pit, if covered earlv 
and thoroughly on cold nights, will generally answer all 
purposes, but if one could have a small glass house with 

PtycfaOBpemiK ' 

tiDweft i> omcnuu. RhopAlatyba Bauen. 

The following have been recently mtroduced but 
are not thorouf^y tested: 

CennyLi>n uidioolum. Liviatoiu decjp ena. 

Copcroicia aiutnlu. Sabal Urcsaoa. 

Juania auatralia. Babal Eiul 

[Juinia au8(riUu, Drude. represent ng a monotypio 
genus in the Island Juan Fernandez (and for the &st 
word of which it is named), is an unarmed palm with 

Einnatiaect teiminal Ivs. alhed to Ceroxylon If -s^ms 
ingandnarrow, acuminate, whitish beneath thick^ud 
on the mar^ns: fr. globular, size of a cherry 1 

Ernest Bradnton 

Hardy palms in Flonda. 

-Rhapli flabalUlonnia. 

. . o of the dates, Jufcia speciabilis and Washing- 

tonia should be fairly haniy, csTWcially along the 
coastal region, throughout most of the northern part of 
the state. 

Most of the palms which do well in this state suc- 
ceed on ordinarv pine land, but their growth would be 
improved if a liberal amount of muck or leaf-mold was 
incorporated with the soil, and a heavy mulch is always 
benencial. Of course in poor soils a good fertilizer is 
necessaiy and it is an excellent plan to appiv one rich 
in potash in the fall in order to harden up tnc growth 
for winter. 

Nearly all the palms must be propagated from seed; 
only a few are cespitose, such as cnrysalidocarpus, 
Thapis, most of the phcenix and chamsdoress, and these 
can often be propagated from suckers. When these 
are thrown out above the ground it is best to make an 
incision at their bases and set a flower-pot underneath, 
mounding up with earth around the sucker, when it 

a bench along one side it would be bett«r. The space 
in front and below it could be closed up and under the 
shelf a small kerosene stove or lamp could be kept going 
during cold nights. This would furnish bottom neat for 
the seeds planted on the bench and thus insure their 

Fairly good-sized palms ore best for planting in the 
open ground, say from 4- or 5-inch pots. Water weU 
and muleh, then shelter by setting palmetto leaves 
around the plant so as to shade it. In case of danger of 
frost, mound up around the stem to above the growing 
point with dry soil and if the leaves are frozen the plant 
will not be seriously injm^. 

The following notes ore drawn from experience in 
the cultivation of these palms in central and southern 

itrraohe Wriohtii erown in 
min^nd of Florida. It la 

■a. and A . TnUi ii 

mil. The two sptcin. A. Cwninnltamii and A. 
ch are «uch lavorite. In the North, are ainoiw the 
norida, and wiU, without doubt, becomm favonta 
ird ol the atate. They luweed well in ahade or aun- 
DT hammock land, and are fairly rapid srowm. the 
•mewhat (he atronser plant. 




Artax piandiformia is a superb, rapid-growing palm which groira 
well in pine land; A. triandra is an elegant species, which should 
probably be grown in the shade, and the same may be said of A, 
Aliceat, Ail are tropical. 

Arenga aacehari/era is a noble palm and does well in pine land. 

AUaUa. Prefers rich soil and if well grown makes magnificent 
m>ecimens. A. Cohune succeeds well in southern Florida, and also A, 

BaetrU. None of the species thrives in southern Florida. 

Caryota. Several species are cultivated in lower Florida. Some- 
times the specimens do weU; at other times they fail. When in 
bloom they are among the most striking of palms. The ends of the 
leaflets are subject to a blight which decidedly injures the growth 
oi many specimens. 

Chanuedorea. Lovely, often cespitoee palms with reed-like stems. 
They are probably all tender, and do well in southern Florida m 
sheltered, more or less shaded places. 

ChanuFTop: All of these do well in southern Florida and would 
doubtless prove hardy throughout a large part of the state. They 
are slow growers, especially until th^ attain to considerable size. 
C. humilis thrives best on high dry soils. The flowers, resembling a 
flat yellow fringe from a distance, appear in March, and exhale a 
very strong, aromatic perfume. Ail produce numerous suckers 
which shotHd not be removed. Planted in small groups 10 to 15 
feet apart, they soon form very beautiful 8i>ecimen8 which look best 
in the foreground of magnolias or other taller palms. Each plant 
should receive a mulch of stable manure in March or April, and 
some good commercial fertilisers during the rainy season. 

Chrytalidocarptu ItUeaeen* is a well-known palm in the North, 
and in southern Florida it forms large clumps 20 or 25 feet high. 

Coccothrinax jucunda and C. Garberi are elegant, low-growing 
palms from the extreme southern part of Florida and are as easily 
grown as the species of Thrinax. 

Cocoa. All species of Cocos do well in southern Florida except C. 
tnaiffnia and (f. Weddelliana. The common coconut, C. nuci/era, 
save that it sometimes is injured by frost, does as well as in many 
I>arts of the tropics and it is ^own more than all other palms put 
together. It ripens nuts and is becoming naturalized in Dade and 
Monroe counties. C. plumoaa and the species of its section are beau- 
tiful, rapid growers and all the australis section succeed admirably. 
The various si>ecies are sometimes attacked by what is apparently a 
fungous dis«ise appearing as brown streaks in the yoimg leaves. 
The only remedy is to puUthe leaves apart and cut out the injured 
young 1^ back as near the growing bud as possible. This may have 
to be repeated once or twice. This same disease attacks the royal 
palms, which may be treated in the same way. All the species do 
well on high pine land, if well fertilized and watered during long dry 
Rtells. The tall-growing, slender-stemmed species like C. jHumoaa, C. 
Juzuoaa, C. RomamoMana and C. coronata are hardy as far north 
as central Florida. The species and varieties of the australis group — 
C. auatralia, C. erioavatha, C. Datil, C. Gaertneri, C. Yatay — are 
better adapted to hign pine land than most palms. They soon form 
beautiful specimens, flower regularly when only a few years old, and 
bear Isj'ge bunches of edible fruit, sometimes as large as a big cherry 
or small plum. The fertilisers to be tiscd for these palms should be 
equally nch in ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash. This should 
be applied in the months of December, January, and February. All 
the old dry leaves, spathes and fruit-stems should be removed at 
the end of September. 

Copemicia. A fine group of fan-leaved palms which is abun- 
dantly developed in Cuba. 

CorypKa. None of the species seems to thrive in Florida. 

Datmonoropa. Tender, and easily killed during cold speUs in 
lower Florida. 

Dietyoaperma. Two species are grown in southern Florida, D. 
rubra and D. alba. Both are fine palms and when established are 
strong growers and soon make bola and beautiful specimens. They 
are hardier than some of the tropical species. 

Elatia, the oil-palm of tropical Africa, is grown to some extent ia 
lower Florida and it has produced perfect seeds. It seems to be a 
rank feeder and if planted in pine land should be well fertilized. 

Brythea edulia and E. armata should be hardy throughout the 
southern half of Florida. 

Gauaaia princepa grows abundantly on limestone cliffs in the 
mountains of Cuba, and promises to do well also in southern 

Geonoma. Species of this genus are doing moderately well in 
southern Florida planted in a shaded situation in the ed]ge of the 

Hedyaeepe Canterhuryana is doing excellently in southern Florida 
and should be hardy tfciroughout the greater part of the state. 

Howea. These palms do not seem to do well in Florida, although 
they should be hardy over the southern half of the state. 

HydriaateU Wendlandiana is a handsome, rapid-growing palm 
which promises well when planted in partial shade in fairly good 
pine land. As it is a native of Queensland it b, no doubt, tender. 

Hyophcrbe amaricaulia and H. Verachaffeltii are striking^ly orna- 
mental, richly colored palms which are doing fairly well in lower 
Florida. Both have bottle-shaped caudices. 

Hypkatne Schatan has been introduced into southern Florida 
and does well in pine land, although very tender. It has massive 
leaves with spiny-edged petioles. 

Jvbata. The species grow very slowly. J. apedabilia should be 
hardy throughout Florida. 

Latania. The latanias are among our noblest and most beautiful 
fMJms; L. Loddioeaii is very robust and L. Commeraonii, although 

not so strong a f^rowcr, is very fine. They will grow in salty soil 
and stand salt air well, but are tender. 

Lieuala. Tropical palms from the Orient which do not do well 
in southern Florida. L. grandia and one or two others have suc- 
ceeded for a short time, but soon die. 

lAviatona. Most of the species do well in southern Florida. L. 
chinenaia and L. auatrcUia will probably prove hardy as far north as 
latitude 27*^. They require rich moist soil. L. rotundifolia,»L, 
cdiiaaimaj L. Hoogendorpii, L. aubgloboaa and L. Jenkinaiana are 
fine tropical species. 

Martinezia oaryotafolia is cultivated in southern Florida and 
seems to do beet in a sheltered and partly shaded situation. 

Nipa, This grows successfully in brackish marshes in southern 
Floricm, althou^ often destroyed by land crabs. 

Oreodoxa. The species of this genus are unsurpassed for majesty 
and grace by anytning in the vegetable kingdom. The common 
royal palm, O. regia, grows in the greatest abundance almost every- 
where throughout the island of Cuba and is universally respected 
and loved by the natives. It is generally a rather slender tree, 
rarely over 70 feet high and, as a rule, has a swelling somewhere 
along the stem. O. F. Cook considers that the species growing in 
the extreme lower end of this state is distinct and has named it 
RoyaUmea floridana. It grows to a height of 100 feet or more, the 
stem is not often swollen and the se€»as are smaller than those of 
Cuban trees. Both flourish on rich or moist soil over the lower 
third of the state. O. Borinquena is a stouter species which will 
probably do well where the Cuban species will, while O. oleracea is 
a lofty growing species that is much tenderer. They generally do 
not succeed well on pine land but will do fairly well if abundantly 
mulched and treated with muck, especially if they are irrigated. 

Phemix. All species and varieties of the date palm p-ow exceed- 
ingly weU in Florida, and all the smaller kinds growing in tufts fruit 
abundantly, as do also the hybrids between P. dactylifera and P. 
aylveatria. They flourish eaually well on pine, hammock or swamp 
land, even in brackish marshes. P. dadulifera, P. canarienaia and P. 
aylveatria are hardy in northern Florida. Hybrids between these 
three arc numerous. The tufted kinds like P. reclinata, P. palii' 
doaa. P. farinifera and their varieties form magnificent specimens of 
medium size when well cared for. P. humilia and P. RoebeUnii grow 
best in rich moist somewhat shaded soil. For the large-growing 
species like P. canarienaia and P. aylveatria, and for all the large- 
growing palmettos (sabals) it is necessary to make fecial prCT)ara- 
tions before setting them out on high pine land. Dig a hole 6 feet 
deep and 6 feet wide. Old tin cans, bones, rotten oak wood should 
be placed at the bottom, then stable manure mixed with clay should 
follow. The upper 2 feet of the hole should be filled in ^-ith sur- 
face soil mixed with well-rotted manure. Three- or 4-foot speci- 
mens should be set out in such places. They will grow very fast 
and will form beautiful specimens within a few years. On low moist 
soils and in hammock woods, such preparations are not so neces- 
sary. But wherever planted, all palms need two good applications of 
fertilizer each year. A good plan is to mulch the putnts in April 
and May with stable manure. This should be dug in around the 
plants in October, and a good application of commercial fertilizer 
rich in potash should follow immediately. Potash serves to harden 
the plants and makes them more resistant to cold. 

Phytelephaa macrooarpa succeeds well in southern Florida. 

Pritchardia. A few species of magnificent fan-leaved palms from 
the South Seas, all of which are excessively tender in Florida. They 
can be grown in the more tropical parts of the state in sheltered 
places but are liable to have their leaves disfigured by frost. 

Paeudophctnix Sargentii has been found rather abundantly on 
Elliott's Key, one of the northernmost of the lower chain. It is 
cultivated somewhat in southern Florida and when young is rather 
attractive but when old it has exceedingly dark foliage and is rather 
stiff and formal. 

Ptyehoaperma Macarihuri is an elegant tufted palm which suc- 
ceeds finely in southern Florida. It should have partial shade and 
shelter and if well fertilized it soon becomes a most attractive object. 

Rhapidophyllum. This beautiful little palm b a native of north- 
em and central Florida where it grows on low shaded ground. The 
low stems are covered with a very thick spongy mass of a peat-like 
substance. It is easily removed and thrives in any soil, even on 
high pine land. It does not need much water or fertilizer. 

Rhapia. Slender, tufted, low-Browing palms which are hardy 
in Florida and require moist soil and a t<hady place. R. humilia is 
the most elegant species, growing in dense clumps about 7 feet high. 
R. fiabelliformia is more inclined to spread. 

Roacheria. Young plants of R. melanochaetea do well in southern 
Florida, in sheltered situations. 

Sabal. In pood rich moist soil all the sabals grow well and soon 
form fine specimens. Such soils need no special care before planting, 
but good applications of fertilizers are necessary, if fine-looking and 
thrifty specimens are desired. All do well, however, on high dry 
pine land soils if well watered and fertilized. If not well taken care 
of they are exceedingly slow growers. S. Blackburnianum has 
immense leaves, while those of the somewhat glaucous-colored 
S. mauritixforme are scarcely of less size. S. mexicanum resembles 
the native S. Palmetto. There arc a number of distinct varieties, 
such as S. havanenaia and S. princepa. The species which do not 
form a trunk, hke iS'. Adansonii, arc only desirable for large palm 

Serenoa. Common on high pine lands as well as in rich ham- 
mocks. It groiK's in dense clumps and when given an opportunity 
to grow makes a very ornamental plant. 

Stevenaonia grandifoUa is a magnificent palm but seems to be 
excessively tender in Florida. Perhaps it would succeed with pro- 
tection until it attained considerable size. 




Thrinaz. The qseciee of thia fine genus do remarkably well in all 
kinds of situations and soils. They are all tropical and the beauty of 
the leaves is destroyed by froet. T. Wendlatuiiana, T. fioridana, T. 
mierocarpa and T. keyensia are natives of the extreme southern end 
of the state and are all fine. T. barbadensis and T. Morrisii are 
elegant species, the latter being dwarf. The magnificent leaves of 
T. aUiMtma are liable to be injured by winds if planted in an exposed 

Trachycarpiu. These palms do not seem to thrive well in Flor- 
ida, although a few specimens of T. exeelsus in the central part of 
the state are doing well. 

Vmchaffdtia also does not thrive in Florida. 

Wailichia oaryotoidea thrives in shady positions in southern 

Washinotonia. Three distinct species are grown in Florida. W. 

robusta is one of our finest palms, growing rapidly and vigorously 

«nt fo . " 

ree or so rapid a grc 
as W. robuata but it is doing well. W. Sonorae promises well here. 

in pine land and it is used to some extentfor planting along streets 
) na roads. W. fili/era is not so handsome a tree or so rapid a grower 

Everywhere in Florida where the soil is moist, the washingtonias 
grow to perfection. They will not thrive on high diy ground. They 
will occasionaUy require good applications of fertiluters. 

Chas, T. Simpson. 
H. Nehrling. 

PALM£R£LLA (Dr. Edward Palmer, American 
botanical collector, discoverer of the original species). 
Campanuldcex, A genus of two or three species, with 
small blue fls. like those of a lobelia. The genus differs 
from Lobelia in the adnation of the stamens, as well as in 
the entire or closed corolla-tube, at least its upper part, 
but which soon splits from the base upward for a gooa 
distance^ and before withering the lower part of the 
corolla IS much dispK)sed to separate into five claws 
(liberating also the lower part of the filaments); fila- 
ments adnate to the corolla-tube to near the throat and 
then monadelphousand adnate on one side or the other, 
or free: nectary an imperfect tubular cavity in the 
throat of the corolla. — Herbs of S. Calif, and Mex., 
very little known horticulturally. 

d^bilis, Gray. Slender glabrous branching perennial 
herb, 2 ft. high, very leafy: Ivs. alternate, linear-lanceo- 
late, entire, sessile, 2-3 m. long; floral ones gradually 
reduced to bracts: raceme lax. few-fld.; corollar-tuhJe 
whitish, 9 lines long, lobes light blue, 2 of them smaller 
than the others, the larger ones 3-4 lines long. S. Calif, 
and Low. Calif. Var. serr&ta, Gray, was offered in 1881 
but it is probably not in cult.: infl. and corolla-tube 
somewhat puberulent: Ivs. (except the upper ones) 
sharp-serrate, the lowest spatulate and obovate. S. 
Calif. L. H. B. 


ArchorUophcmix Alexandrae. Assai P., Euterpe edvlis. 
Betel-nut P., Areca Cale^hu. Blue P., Erythea armata. 
Blue Palmetto, Rhapidophyllum. Botirbon P., Latania. 
Broom P., Attalca funifera and Thrinax argentca. 
Cabbage P., Euterpe oleracea. Club P., Cordyline. 
Coconut P., Cocos Jiudfera; Double Coconut or Sea 
Coconut P., Lodoicea. Coquito P., Jubwa speclabilis, 
Corojo P., Acrocomia sdcrocarpa. Ctirly P., Howea 
Belmoreana. Date P., Phcenix daclylifera. European P., 
Cham-aerops humilis. Fan P., any species with fan- 
shaped, rather than pinnate Ivs. Fern P., Cycas. 
Fish-tail P., Caryota wrens. Flat P., Hovoea Forsteriana, 
Guadeloupe P., Erythea edulis. Gru-gni P., Astro" 
caryum vulgar e and Acrocomia sderocarpa. Hemp P^ 
Chamaerops excelsa. Ivory-nut P., Phyidephas macros 
carpa. Needle P., Wiapidophyllum. Nikau P., 
Rhopalostylis. Nipa P., Nipa. Norfolk Island P., 
Rhopalostylis Baueri. Oil P., Elaeis guineensis; also 
Cocos biUyraceay etc. Palmetto P., Sabaly Serenoa. 
Panama-hat P.j,Carludovica palmcUa. Para P., Euterpe 
edulis. Raffia P., Raphia. Royal P., Oreodoxa regia. 
Sago P., various species of MetroxyUm and Cycas, 
Savanah P., Sabal mauritiaeformis. Saw P., or Palmetto, 
Serenoa. Talipot P., Corypha umbraculifera. Thatch 
P., Sahal Blackbumiana; Howea Forsteriana. Toddy P., 
Caryota wrens. Umbrella P., Hedyscepe Canlerhuryana. 
Walking-stick P., Bacularia monostachya. Wax P., 

Ceroxylon. Wine P. of E. Indies, Caryota urenSf 
Phasnix sylvestris and Borassus flabeiliformis; of New 
Granada, Cocos butyracea. 

PALUMBINA (said to be from palumbeSf wood- 
pigeon; from a supposed resemblance of the fls.). Orchi- 
ddcex. A monotypic genus greatly resembling Oncid- 
ium, with which it was formerly united. It differs 
principally in having the lateral sepals entirely united, 
lorming a single sesm. resembling the dorsal sepal 
in shape and size, the labellum scarcely larger than 
the petals and resembling them in shape. 

c&ndida, Reichb. f. The only species is a small plant 
with narrow, compressed pseudobulbs, each with a 
single slender If., 6-12 in. long: fls. few, smsdl, white, in a 
slender raceme: sepab, petab and labellum oblong, 
acute, differing but little in size and shape. Guatemala. 
B.M.5546. G.C. 1865:793; 11.20:233 (as Oncidium 
candidum). — May be easily grown in a temperate 
house. Blooms in summer, the fls. lasting a long time. 

Heinrich Hasselbring. 

PAIOtlRUS (from the Singhalese name Pamburu), 
RutAceae^ tribe Citreae. Small trees distantly related to 
Citrus but bearing f rs. filled with gum : young branches 
often an^ed; older ones rounded, spines solitary or 
paired in the axils of the Ivs. : Ivs. simple, thick, gray- 
green: fls. 4r-5-parted (usually 4) with 8-10 stamens; 
pistil supported on a subcylindric disk. — Only one 
species is known. 

missidnis. Swingle (Limdnia missidniSf Wall, ex 
Wight. AtaldrUia missidnis j Oliver). Lvs. simple, 
elliptic-oblong, short-petioled, showing veins only 
very obscurely, wrinkling at the margins on drying: 
fls. in axillary racemes, shorter than the lvs.; filaments 
slender, anthers linear-oblong, disk long and slender; 
ovary 4-5-ceUed, with 2 ovules in each cell: fr. 1 in. 
diam., filled with a mucilaginous fluid. 111. Wight, 
lU. Ind. Bot. V. 3, pi. 33. Swingle, Joum. Wash. 
Acad. 6:336. — ^This tree occurs in India and Ceylon in 
sandy soil near the seacoast. It should be tested as a 
stock for Citrus. The wood is light-colored, but when 
variegated is used for furniture. 

Walter T. Swingle. 

PAMPAS-GRASS (Cortaderia argerUea. which see. 
Vol. II, p. 856.). A showy tall perennial subtropical 
grass grown for its whitish fluffy plumes of inflores- 
cence; native in Argentina and southern Brazil. 

The growing of pampas plumes for profit in Califor- 
nia has been undertaken for over forty years. Pampas- 
gass was introduced into the United States about 1848. 
I the northern states it is frequently planted on the 
lawn in summer, and upon the approach of cold weather 
transferred in a tub to a cellar for winter protection. 
In California, a hill will sometimes attain a height of 
20 feet, a diameter as great, and a weight of 2,000 
pounds. Such plants would be very inconvenient for 
our northern friends to handle in the cellar. 

Plants are easily produced from seed, but as the sex 
and variety are very uncertain, stock is usually 
increased by dividing the female plants, the plumes of 
which are much more beautiful than those of the male. 
The growing of pampas-grass in North America on a 
commercial scale dates from 1874. when the xiifference 
in sex was discovered. In 1872 tne writer sowed seed 
which in two years gave several hundred plume-bearing 
plants. Even then the variations in color and fineness 
were very marked. In 1874, it was found that by pulling 
the immature plumes from the sheaths and exposmg them 
to the hot sun, the male plumes would hang neavily like 
oats, while the female plumes would become fluffv, and 
light and airy. In November, 1874, samples of the female 
plumes were sent to Peter Henderson & Co.. New York. 
Three hundred were ordered at once, and tne following 
day instructions were received to double the order and 
send by express. This was the first lot of good plumes 

UZXin. An aTBDue of palmi in (ontbern Florida. — Oreodou tegia. 


* ♦ 


ever sent east from California, and waa the beginning 
of the present pampas indiutry. The writer's planta- 
tion was increased each year until 1889, when it com- 
prised about 5,000 hills. There were a number of other 
extfneivc plantations in the neighborhood of Santa 
Barbara. The crop of 1889 was estimated at 1,000,000 
plumes. The demand has been good, but the prices have 
never been so high as at the beginning of the industry. 
The first prices were S200 for 1,000 plumes. The de- 
crease in price was iip-adual until 1886, when sales were 
slow at S30 for l,(xiO plumes. Some of the grawera did 
not harvest their crops that year, and destroyed their 
plants. In the fall of^ 1887 plumes were in demand at 
$40 the 1,000, and in 18S8 they were scarce at S50 and 
$60 the 1,000. The following spring there was an 
increase in acreage. Since tlien the industry has hod 
its ups and downs, and the price has ruled low for sev- 
eral years, the present prices being $9 to $10 for first- 
class, and $6 to $6 for second size. 

Pampas-grass should be put on the best valley land, 
and set 10 by 16 feet apart. Before planting, the ground 
should be deeply plowed and put in Rrat-cl^ condition. 
In selecting stock, divide only female plants that pro- 
duce the finest white plumes. Young hills produce the 
best plants. From old hills the best ^ants are obtained 
around the outside, those in the center of the stool 
being mostly worthless unless planted in large clumps. 
Some plumes will be produced the first year after plant- 
ing. They will not be first-class, but are worth saving. 
The second year, if well grown, they should produce 80 
to 150 plumes to the hill. Not all plantations will yield 



ich. The third and fourth years there will not be 
much change in the yield. As a plant gets older the 
plumes are larger but the yield is less. After 8 to 10 
years a quantity of dead matter will have accumulated, 
and the hills should be trimmed or burned. 

The appearance of the plumes is a signal for great 
activity among those who have large fields. The grass 
should be 80 trimmed early in September, before the 

?lumeB appear, that each hill will be easy of access, 
oung plants ripen their plumes two or three weeks 
earlier than old ones, and some varieties are earlier 
tbon otbers. It requires exercise of judgment to pick 
the plumes at the proper time. They are generally 
ready when they are exposed from the husk a few inches 
and have a fluny look. It is well to try a few at this 
Stage, and if they cure well at the stem end when dry 
they are all right, but if they do not become flufTy 
at the stem end they have been picked too young. If 
the plume looks dark and seedy at the top when cured, 
it was too old when picked. &)me varieties, especially 
those producing ver)' long plumes, should be atlowea 
to remain somewhat longer on the plant than those of 
the short^plumed varieties. By trying a few of each 
variety, the time of ripening can soon be ascertained. 
Some varieties are pulled from the husk in the field; 
others have to be hauled to husking benches, where 
the husk or sheath is removed. Some planters husk 
them like com; others use a knife set in such a way as 
to split the husk without injuring the plume. When the 
husk has been split, a quick jerk or strike on the table 
will extract the plume. The plumes are then taken to 
the drying ground and evenly spread in long rows. This 
ground should be made smooth and free from any trash 
that is liable to adhere to the plumes. Clean stubble 
ground is the best. The plumes are left on the ground 
three days and tv.-o nights to cure, and are turned and 
shaken once each day. They are next packed away as 
broadly and smoothly as possible on shelves in a dry 
building, where they should lie ten days or two weeks, 
orimtiTthe stems are thoroughly dried, at which time 
thty are ready for market. They are packed in two 
grades: the first class, having plumes 26 inches long 
and over, clear of stem (sometunes as long as 45 inches) , 
is nacked in cases that hold three-quarters of a ton 
■Dd contain 3.000 plumes; second-class stock is packed 

in cases of the same size, the plumes being 17 to 26 
inches long clear of stem, and 6,000 in each caae. If 
^ppinp by express, the writer uses bales of about 
2,000 plumes, covered with canvas or burlap and some 
hght strips of wood at the comers. If the plumes are 
packed smoothly and evenly they will withstand heavy 
pressure. Careful all-rounti cultivation is neceesory to 
produce good plumes. 

The best market at present is London, the next Ham- 
burg. Berlin, Denmark, New York and Philadelphia 
take a few. Pampas plumes are colored in London. In 
America the pure white plumes give the best satis- 
faction. Joseph Sexton. 

PANAX (old Greek name, meaning aU htatiag or a 
panacea). AraliAcex. A genus of seven or eight species 
of hardy perennials none of which is of cultural import- 
ance except P. quinquefolium, Linn ., the Ginscno, 
which see (Vol. III). They have aromatic roots, dip- 
tatcly compound leaves and greenish white flowere in 
a terminal umbel. They are all natives of the North 
Temperate Zone, mostly in Asia and North American. 
For an account of the tender plants heretofore included 
in this genus, see Polyscias, 

The genus as now defined is distinguished by the 
thickish roots or tubers from which arise erect simple 
short sts. bearing 1 
whorl of 3 digi&te 
Ivs. which have 3 
or 5 Ifts.: umbels 
terminal and soli- 
tary, simple, bear- 
ing small white or 
greenish polyga- 
mous fls. ; calyx ob- 
scurely 5 -toothed; 
petals 5, spreading; 
stamens 5, alter- 
nating with petals; 
styles 2 or 3 :Ir. a 2- 
or 3 -seeded little 
drupe. Two species 
are native in the 
eastern U. S. and 
Canada. P. ouin- 
guefdlium, Linn. 
{Gineeng quinque- 
fdlivm, Wood. 
Ardlia gnirwuefdlia, 
Decne. & Planch.). 
GiNBENO, growing in rich woods Que. to Minn, and 
south to Ala.: about 1 ft. high from a more or less branch- 
ing thick root: Ifts. usual& 5, stalked, the basal pair 
much smaller than the others, all ovate or obovate, 
dentate, acuminate: peduncle an inch or two long, 
bearing a 6-20-fld. umbel; styles usually 2; tr. bright 
red. P. trifolium, Linli. {Gitixeng Irifblium, Wood. 
Ardlia trifdlia, Decne. & Planch.), Ground -Nut 
(Fig. 2740), native in moist mostly low or flat woods, 
Nova Scotia to Iowa and Ga. : delicate little plant about 
6 in. high, with a deep globular blackish tuber or root 
about Hin. diam. : Ifts. mostly 3, sessile, oval to oblance- 
olate, obtuse, serrate: peduncles an inch or two long, 
bearing a few whitish often moncecious tis.; styles 
usually 3: fr. 3-angled or 2-6idcd, yellowish. An attrac- 
■'''■' ' ' suitable fo 

L. H. B. 

PANCRATinM (Greek, aU-powerftit; referring to sup- 
posed medicinal value), AmaTyUiddcex. Attractive 
summer- and winter-flowering bulbs, bloomed inside or 
some of them grown outside in mild climates with 

many superposed ovules in each cell rather than {as in 

I. Puui tiUoliiim. 



Hymenocallis) 2 basal collateral ovulee. Bulb tuni- 
caled: Ivb. linear to larat«, mostly appearing with the 

flfl., the latter in an umbel terminating an erect eoiid 
mostly Btout ecape or peduncle and wlute or (creeniah; 
perianth funnel-ehaped, with a long tube, the eegma. 
equal, short and spreading or ascendiof;; etamens 

lityya* of thrM 

At tht Tifht, tba aliOTt periuiUi-tubc sod inull gtuniiial cup of 

P. iOt/rieum^ At the J«ft, tba rdfttively ahort tub« uid Iftrce cup of 

P. nunfiffiun. At ths top, the long tuba tod (null cup ol P. tere- 

cundum, to which P. (ar«u«um ia very elfnelr allied. (Fism B.M. 


to 65° or 70" and at day, with sun, from 80° to 85°. 
Keep well up to the glass so their growth will be as 
fltorkv UK possible. In their growing season, thev will 
large quantities of water, and they anould 
become entirely dry at the roots. Give plenty of 
png in bright weather, and ventilate so as to keep 
temperature right. When they ahow flower, they may 
be given a drier and more auy houae. For a winter 
temperature, 50° to 55° will be high enough, with 
about 10° increase with sunshine. — Pancratiums can be 
increased by offsets and seed. The offsets may be 
separated from the parent plant and placed' rather 
close in pans in a light mixture of equal parts of leaf- 
mold, peat, and sand, given good drainage. When 
they have made a few roots, they may be potted up 
into fflnall pots and ^wn on. When sowing seed, pre- 
pare some pans by giving plenty of drainage and fiUing 
with a mixture of leaf-mold, peat, and sand, screening 
some of it fine for the top. Sprinkle the seed all over 
the surface and cover with the fine mixture, preaa 
firmly and give ordinary stove temperature. Main- 
tain an even moisture with these pans. When they 
start to come up, place well up to the glass. When 
large enough, pnck out into other pans or flats, using a 
heavier compost. Pot off when larger and grow without 
rest through the winter. In the spring they will require 
5- or 6-incn pots. Their management from this on will 
be that already mentioned. Give Ught fumigations 
often in order to keep down aphids and thrips. Scale 
and mealy-bug, wbicn aft«n get into the axils of the 
leaves, can be removed by the use of a soft brush. 
(J. JVM. Farrell.) 

A. Perianih-tube S-€ in. Umn. 
B. Seffms. more than 2 in. long. 
tortu&sum. Herb. Bulb globose, 2 in. or less diam., 
with long cylindrical neck: Ivs. 6-12, linear, spirally 
twisted, 1 ft. or leas long, with the fls., the latter 2-4 
in an umbel: perianth-tube 5-S in. long, the segins. 
linear and ascending, greenish ; staminal cup over 1 in. 
longj distinctly toothed between the short free tips of 
the filaments. Autumn and winter, Arabia and Elgypt. 

cratiuma and hymenocallis, sometimes called 
lilies or spirit-liiies, form a beautiful group of dulbs, 
hardy or tender, some blooming in winter, others in 
summer, and all characterized by the beautiful floral 
structure known as a staminal cup. This cup is white 
e of petals. It is fringed or toothed 

BB. Sefftna. IJi in. long. 
verecilndum, Ait. Fig. 2741. Bulb globose, 2 in. 
diam., with long cylindrical neck; Ivs. 6-10, sword- 
shaped, appearing with the fls.r peduncle compressed, 
the Medit ^ ^^- '""E/ ^- ^~^i white, with greenish tube, fragrant; 
- - ' tube 3-1 in. long; segins. linear; staminal cup or corona 
1 in. or less long, bifid between the free filaments. 
India. B.R. 413. 

usually lon^, slender, and gracefully i 

The species of pancratium, coming as they do from 
Africa, southern Asia, and southern Europe, in most 
cases need a high temperature while in growth and a 
period of rest after flowering. The "rest" is secured by 
tracing them in a house where there is plenty of ventila- 
tion and a coiiler temperature. Gradually withhold 
water, giving only just sufhcient to keep in a life-like 
state. The bulbs should be kept in this semi-diy state 
through the winter. After the middle of Januarj', they 
may be repotted or have a top-dressing. For a compost, 
use a good strong loamy soil four parts, well-decayed 
cow-manure one part. When the roola get well through 
this compost, Uquid manure will be useful once a wet^. 
Those bulbs that do not need reiwtting may have some 
of the old compost n^moved, but care must be taken 
not to injure any of the roots. They may now be placed 
in a house with a night temperature of 60°. As growth 
progresses, the temperature may be increased at night 

AA. PeriaiUh-lube IS in. Umg. 
B. Slamirud cup small, 3-4 fines long. 

ill^cum, Linn. Fig. 2741. Bulb verv large: Ivs. 
6-6. strap-shaped, glaucous, 13^2 in. wide, appearing 
with the fls.: scape 1 ft. or more long; fls. white, 6-12 
in a centripetal umbel; periantli-tube 1 in. long, green; 
segms. IH in- long; staminal cup with lonp narrow, 
2-cut teeth; tree portion of filaments 6-9 lines long: 
seeds not compressed. Summer. Corsica, Sardinia, 
MalU, S. Italy. B.M. 718. Gn. 48, p. 246.— Hardiest, 
commonest and perhaps the best. 

BB. Staminal cup large, 1 in. Umg. 

maritimiun, Linn. Figa. 2741 and 1936, Vol. III. 
Bulb globose, 2-3 in. diam. and with a neck: Ivs. 5-fi, 
linear, glaucous, persistent, becoming 2-2!/^ ft. long: 
fls. white, verj- fragrant, 5-10 in an umbel on a com- 
pressed scape or peduncle; perianth-tube 2-3 in. long; 
scgms. linear, lyi in. long, ascending; staminal cup 
very prominent, the teeth short, triangular and regular; 
free part of filaments 3 lines long. Sx>ain to Syria. 
B.R. IGl. 

p. AmdnfKj, Ker^Hymeuocallie Amaaon (see Buppl. list. p. 
Ifl27).— P. omAnum, Andr.—H. ovuta.— P. miolUnuM. Ker— B. 
cklathitia. — P. earib^m, linn.^H. caribaa. — P. oonmAriMm, La 





—p. frtoram, Saliib.— H. cmla, bat P. 
ib««. — P. ^MitsninH, Hart, pramiikbly 
*, Hirritii, Hart., is pnmmabiy H. Har- 

...__, ^..^— H. ova'ta.— P. roMlun. Ker-^ 
«, UBK.— H. uodulftW. 


L, H. B.t 

PAHDilTtrs (Latiniied form of a Malayati name). 
Pandan&cex. Screw-Pine. Tropical Dbnta often 
attaining the size of trees, and remarkable for their 
etdlt-like aerial roota, and the perfect spiral arrange- 
ment of their long sword-shaped leaves. They are 
planted in tropicaT and aubtropical regions, and are 
also grown as pot and tub specimenB for greenhouse, 
resideDce, veranda and lawn decoration, where their 
BtifF clustered foliage gives them a formal decorative 

The family Pandanacete comprises 3 genera 
(Warburg, in Engler's Das Pflanzenreich, IV:9 
gift. 3j 1900): Sararanga, with 2 species, in the 
S. Sea Isls. and Phihppines; Freycinetia, 
than 100 species, from Ceylon to Phihppin 
Austral., New Zeal., and Hawaii; Pandan 
with probably 250 species now described, . 
Trop. Afr., India, Austral., islands of the Indian (Icean 
and the Pacific. Pandanus comprises small trce;« i>r 
Bhruba, erect or rarely prostrate, usually forked, the 
trunk annular, often producing aerial roots: Ivs. linear 
and acute, commonly sharp-dentate or prickly on mar- 
gin and midrib, the base usually vaginate but not 
petioled : fla. dicccious, in axillary or terminal spadices, 
the male spadices branched, the female always Urminal 
and racemose or solitary, the leafy spodix-bracts usually 
colored; perianth none; stamens many in male flsl, 
the filaments free or connate; staminodes in female Qs. 
small or none, the ovary free or joined to those of 
adjacent fla.; ovule solitary and erect: fr. a sjmcarpium 
of free or connate angular woody or fleshy drupes, some- 
times large (1 ft. long) and cone-like. — The screw- 
pines are characteristic plants in many tropical regions, 
with long ringed trunks, bracing roots, and crowns of 
dracena-like foliage. The Ivs, of some species are used 
in manufacture of bagging and in other ways, and of 
some kinds the frs. are eaten. Some of them have very 
fr^^ant fls., and of others the frs, or other parts are 
fetid. Two species are important in cult., P. VeMiii 
and P. ulilU, the former variegated, the latter not. 

decoration. They are especially suited for fern-pans 
and table-decoration. They are grown to a very large 
extent by wholesale flonste and palm specialists. 

Every^ conservatory haa them, and occasionally P. 
vtUis is grown to a considerable ^e and height for the 
Bake of a perfect specimen of the spiral habit of growth 
on a large scale. (See Fig. 2743.) Some of the species 
have red- or purple-tinted Ivs., but these appear not 
to have become popular. In the tropics, P. vlUit ia 
as valuable to the natives as many poliiiH. -~?iie frs. 
are edible, and the roots furnish fiber for ropes, baskets, 
mats and hats, as do abo the Ivs. which are used in 

ttaa iiitnl chancier. . 

mulling paper and nets. The numbers of species in 
commeroial cult, are very few, although many names 
occur in horticultural hterature. Without fls. and frs., 
it is difficult to know what species are actually in cult.. 
or how accurate may be the popular descriptions ana 
dlustrations. For the same reason it is impcnsible to 
construct an accurate botanical key tliat will be of 
practical uae to the gardener. Some of the good garden 
kinds are unplaced Dotanically, particularly the varie- 
gated or stnped-lvd. kinds, which are sterile or the 
fructification insufficiently studied. 

Pandonuses ore among the beat decorative plants 

2742. PuuUaiu 

semi-aquatica in victoria tanks. Asa , ^ 

in mucn heat and with plenty of water. From the 
latter part of January on^ these plants become active 
in growth. It is at this tune that one must make the 
atmoaphcre of the house more congenial in the way of 
supplying abundance of atmospheric moisture. To 
SUfwly this condition, damp down the benches, paths 
and under the benches two or three times a day in 
bright weather. Before they have made too much head- 
way any necessary repotting should be done, such as 
renewing with new compost or shifting into lai^r pots. 
A good compost to use is fibrous loam four parts, well- 
decayed manure and leaf-mold one part each, with 
enough sand added to give it a porous texture. See 
that the pots have plenty of drainage and pot firm 
enough te get the new compost well around the roots. 
' •■ • ■ the day " ■ ^, 

^ late 

spring and summer they will need a night temperature of 
70° with a rise of 10° to 15° in bri^t weather. During 
summer when the sun is powerful, they will need a 
little shade, but only enough to hold them in good 
color as they like plenty of diffused sunlight at this 

In February and o 

sun more powerfv , 

the roots, with frequent sjTingings. The tcmperi 

may be increased from 00 to 65° at night, and in 



period. In autumn, winter and spring, they like plenty 
of sunshine. When autumn comes, do less watering 
and Byringing, as root-actioD is becoming legs active. 
To keep them in good hefilth, it is very unportant to 
use great care in watering them in the winter months, 
as any unskilful or careless watering will surelv cause 
ruin. Also give ventilation strict attention at all times. 
— Most of the species of pandanus can be increased 
from aucker^tbat are more or less produced from the 
main stem. These may be taken on and a few of the 
bottom leaves removed, and placed singl;^ in small pots, 
using a mixture of loam, peat^ and sand in equal parU, 
Plunge in a warm propagatmg-bed where they may 
have a brisk bottom beat. The best time to increase 
this stock is after January. Some species are grown 
from seed. Seeds may be sown whenever they can be 
secured fresh, which is usually in the spring. Sow the 
Beed in pans in a mixture of loam, pest, and sand in 
equal parts. Cover and press firmly. Keep moist, but 
not in a soaked condition. It will aid the germination 
to soak the seed twenty-four hours in tepid water. Give 
plenty of heat and keep shaded and they will germinate 
without much trouble. When large enough, pot off 
and keep on shifting and grow under the above cul- 
ttu^ directions and they wul form good stocky plants. 
{J. J. M. FarreU). 

Baptbtii, 3. horridat, 12. pjvmms. 10. 

Candtlabiym, 2, and 

isri«aiu. 13. 
CAarniMOnu, 6. 

Dougliuii. S. 

ttOMilorma. & 
Fonlai, 7. 

foKntua. 12. 
■runiiufoliuB. 10, 

odBraliaimiu, 6. 

utilLi, 8. 
VandermRsdui, 15* 


A. Foliage xtriped or 

1. VeHchii, Hort. Fi| 

than in the common 

spiny-toothed, dark gre 

broad bands of white o 

marked wilk white or yeUow. 
-.2742. LvB. 2 ft. long, broader 
P. vtilU, somewhat recurved, 
;n in the center, mai^ned with 
r silvery white, the apex long- 


acuminate. Polynesia; intro. by Veitch in 1868. A.F. 
4:570. F. 1871, p. 177. Gn. 2, p. 501. G. 9:176; 
23:565. G.L.26:177. Gn.W. 23, suppl. May 12. G.W. 
2, p. 389: 5, p. 391; 11, p. 241; 12, p. 414.— Perhaps a 
form of P. UxloHua. 

2. variegAtuH, Miq. St. branched, emitting roots: 
Ivs. narrow'lanceolate, very narrowly attenuate or 
even filiform above, pale green, striped or variegated 
with white or pale green or the younger ones all white, 
the prickles or spines whitish and purplish. PojyneBia. 
— Probably plants cult, as P. javaniau and P. Can- 
delabrum var. variegalui belong here. 

3. Biptistii, Hort. A leafy short-stemnied plant: 
IvB. narrow, nearly 1 in. wide, curved, unarmed, long- 
acuminate, longitudinally lined or striped with whitish 
or yellowish. S. Seas, probably in New Britain Isla. 
R.H. 1913, p. 141. G.W. 14, p. 422. Gn.W. 9:581.— 
Said to be a rapid grower. 

4. SAnderi, Hort. Habit tufted, the st. being short: 
lv8. 30 in. long, n-ith minute marginal spines, not unlike 
those of P. Veitchii but of denser habit, and differing 
much in the variegation, which in this case is golden 
yellow, and in place of being confined to the margin, or 
nearly so, it is distributed in narrow bands of yellow and 
axeea in alternation throughout the length of its If. 
Timor, Malay Archipelago. G.C. III. 23:249. R.H. 
1898, p.230. G.21:606. Gn.W.25:123. G.W. 11, 
p. 242. R.B. 24, p. 180. G.M. 41:686. A.G. 19:456: 
22:189. A.F.16:8S7. F.E. 13:111.— Said to bearapid 

AA. Foliage green, or at katt not variegated or Griped. 

B. Spinet on (f. -margins relaiively sTnall or short (iom«- 

tiiiKa wanting). 

5. padflcus, Hort. Lvs. broad and dark green, shi- 
ning, abruptly narrowed to a tail-like apex, the margins 
with small fine spines. Pacific Isls. G.W. 11, p. 243; 
15^ p. 597. — Apparently not placed botanically, but 
said to be distinct and a very useful plant. 

6. tect{lrius,Soland.(P.odoratJsnmus,Linn.f. P.odor- 
itus.Sniiah. P.odorifer.O.Kuntie). Height 20 and more 
ft., much branched, the trunk commonly flexuose and 
supported by agrial roots: lvs. light green, 3-5 ft. long, 
linear-lanceolate, abruptly produced into a long point, 
glaucous| spines short, white. S. Asia, islands of Indian 
and Pacific oceans, Austral., Philippines. G.C. III. 
17:14; 32:194, 195. — A scent which is much esteemed 
in Java is said to be obtained from the male fls. A 
variable species to which many names belong, as P, 
javdnicus, Hort., P. spirdlix, R. Br., P. Blancdi, Kunth, 
P. Uucacdnthug, Hort., and P. Bdryi, P. Chamiisbnit, 
P. Douglaaii, P. Linruri, P. LowHn, P. MimUni. P. 
Rhekdii. P. Rumphii, Gaud. Var. lAvia, Warb. 
(P. Ixiis, Kunth. P. mosckdius, Miq.), has somewhat 
glaucous and unarmed lvs. G ft. or more long, with a 
very long-acuminate apex. Var. Samik, Warb. (P. 
Samdk, Hassk.), has narrow subulate-acuminate lvs., 
with margins and keel bearing slender whitish spines. 
P. lectori-u» is common in the Philippines near the seit 
and along tidal streams, and horticultural varieties are 
cult, in Manila. 

^7. Fdrsteri, Moore and Muell. {P. Fosteriinus, Hort. 
P. Modrei. F. Mueli,). Habit of P. Uclorius: tall, to 30 
ft., branched at top, with aerial roots: lvs. to 3 ft. 
long and 2 in. or more nide, short-appressed-spinuloae. 
L6^ Howe's Isl. 

Flp , 

ar, where it is native: branching: lvs. i 
COU8, erect, l-2!i ft. long, 3 in. wide, spines red. I.H. 
7:265. B.M.5014 (as P. CandeioiTum). R.H. 1866: 
270. A.F. 4:571. F.E. 15:592. G.W. 15, p. 597.— 
Cult, in tropics; lvs. used in making of bags, bMlceta, 


mats, and other articles. Juvenile specimens with 
curving Ivs. 1 J^ ft. or less long, may be Imown aa P. 
tleganti»simu» or by other names. 

9. hoterocirpua, Balf. t. (P. omdtut, Bull). Branch- 
ing tree, to 20 ft., with slender trunk, very numerous 
roots and spreading branches: Irs. lanceolate-acuminate, 
dilated and clasping at the base, erect-spreading, 
leatheiy, strict, greenish, often somewhat glaucous at 
the base, rather flat marpa covered with small red. 



slightly incurved spines; lower midrib furnished from 
the middle with distant spines of the same character. 
Msscarene IsJs. I.H. 19:S7. 

10. p^gmAuB, Thouar?. Low spreading shrub, not 
over 2 ft. high in the center, but sending out from the 
base numerous horizontal, rooting, annulated branches: 
IvB. about 1-1 VS ft. long, spirally arranged in 3's, linear- 
subulate, with a claaping base; marginB and keels 

^ihuged with small fuscous apiDcs. Madagaacar. B.M. 
4736.^ — Said sometimes to be cult, aa P. graminif<Aiua. 

11. gramlnifftlius, Kurz. Lvb. 12-18 in. long by 3-4 
lines wide, glaucous beneath: mardnal and cannal 
spines minute, straight, Burina, and the true species 
perhaps not cult.: see No. 10. P. graminiSoliue of the 
trade has never been carefully distinguished from P. 
pygnuFUi, and, according to Nicholson the garden plant 
under this name is a species of Frcycinetia. F.R. 2:3SS, 
where Taplin says it has a tufted much-branched habit, 
dark green Ivs. about }^in. wide, not so stiff as most 
species; spines short, whitish. Gn.W. 20:446. G.W. 
11, p. 245. 

12. fnrdtus, Roxbg. (P. hdrridue, Blume, P. 
tpittifrvelua, Demist. P. urophiUue, Hance). Tree, 
attaming 30-40 ft., branched, with serial roots at base: 
Ivs very long, attaining 6-9 ft., about 3 in. wide^ some- 
what glaucous beneath, the margins and keel with dis- 
tantly thick spines; apex long-acuminate. India. R.H. 
1879:290; 1881, pp. 174, 175. 

13. caricAsua. Kun. Low, cespitose: Ivs. 5^ ft. by 
about 2 in., glaucous beneath; margins and dorsal 

BB. SpiTiea disofp'eeably long. 

14. reflizuB, C. Koch. Tree, about 15 ft., branched, 
the trunk 3-6 It. tall: lys. reflexed, acute, 5-6 ft. long, 
daric green, ahining; spines long, whitish, those on the 
midrib of the lower aide reversed. E. African Isls. 
F.R. 2:387. G.W. 11, p. 245. 

15. VaadermfteschU, Balf. f. Tree, to ^ ft., much 
branched: Ivs. stiff, suberect, 2}^-3 (\. long, lJf-2 in. 
broad, very glaucous; margins red and thickened; spines 
strong, red; midrib red, prominent, spiny. Mauntius. 
G.C. 111. 18:237. 

p. anarvUif^iiu, Roibi. Plant smiiU uid difluK, lupporUd \lj 
mSriol TooU: [vl linear, BDmswhAt 3-n«rved, th« ap«i pfun^khat 
dllalsd, little Bpioose-HTTsts. Probably Mulsyui. C.L.^ 

a.W. tl, p. 243.— />. BulAu'i, Wildem. ' "— ' 

with ihsTp cluw-lilio pricB™ on mari^^ „ — 

buutlful deoontiva plant. Conco.— P. CaaiUUbrum. BeauT. 
C>Hii».>BB[iii Tub. Chandbucb Tres. Tree. attaiaioB 30 ft., 
the lovec braDcha horiiontal and upper erect: Ivi. 3 ft. by 2 in., 
" ' and glaucom, etronaly toothed; Bpines brown. Tfop. 
r«.. .._j__ .[. ,. „ --v-_No^ advertiaed m 

« reported ic 

1, and with ntout surv3 
" - -lophyllua.— P. 

.... .. _. -_^.^ antroraely t-.. 

■tiinea. Philippiaea. — -P. niluixu, 

KenopheUvt, Kun, Shnib, 6-8 ft., i , ,.., 

ft. or more Ions. 1 in. wide, Hhioing. the mu-sin and keel remotely 

BJe. minuloBMerTate. Java, G.*, 11. p. 342,— P, IFamnidfiM, 
art. Lva. narrow, itrap-ihaped, renurved, dark olive-KTeen. with 
irregular awl^ahaped t««t]i. lubitat unrecorded- j TT B t 

PAMUdREA (Pandora Greek mythological namej. 
Bignoni^cex. Ornamental woody vines grown for tlieir 
beautiful flowers and also for their hancbome foliage. 

Evergreen shrubs, climbing without tendrils or roots: 
lva, opposite, odd-pmnate; Irte. entire or serrate: fls. in 
axillary or terminal few- or many-fld. panicles; calyx 
small, campanulate, 5-toothed; corolla funnelform- 
campanulate, with imbricate lofares; stamens included, 
with spreading superposed anther-cells; disk thick, 
ring-like; ovary linear, the seeds in many scries: pod 
oblong, with thick not keeled valves; seeds broadly 
elliptic, winged, — F^ve species from Austral, to Malay- 
Archipelago and in S. Afr. Formerly usually included 

The paniioreaa are vigorous-growing vines or lianas 
with handsome evergreen fohage and beautiful white or 
pink rather large flowers. Thev can be grown outdoors 
only in the southern states and in California and stand 
few degrees of frost ; in the North they are sometimes a 
cultivated in the greenhouse. They require rich soil 
and sunny position. Propagation is by seeds and by 
greenwood cuttings under glass. See also Bifpionia for 

The wonga-wonga vine, P. aiisiralis, is rather diffi- 
cult to grow on hi^ pine-land, as it needs a soil rich in 
humus. In rich soil, however, and liberally fertilized, 

smaff, and not showy. However, the species is worth 
cultivating for foliage alone. It must be well taken care 
of and weH watered during the dry spring months or it 
will dwindle away in a very short time. 

P. Riaisaliana, from Natal and Caflraria, demands a 
very rich soil and a heavy mulch of stable manure. Its 
leaves easily drop from the woody branches after a 
cold night, and 6 or 7° of frost kill the plant down to 
the ground. For this reason the vine should be banked 
with dry sand every fall and if killed down to the bank- 
ing it must be cut ofl immediately or the entire plant 
wiU be lost. Plants raised from sQed received under 
the name of Tecoma Rieasoliana, from Italy, are much 
hardier and more floriferous than those obtained from 
seed unported from South Africa, but the flowers of 
both are exactly alike. In order to flower profusely, 



this species must be planted in the Cull sun. It usually 
requires a few years before it starts into a vigorous 
lp«wtfa, and it rarely flowere before its fifth year or 
before it has attained considerable size. In Florida, 
P. Ricoioliana should be planted on tall stumps, or 
on arbors and sheds by itself, never mingled with other 
qieciea. (U. Nehrhng.) 

A. FU. vjhite: (fit. 3-9. 

austrftlis, Spach {Bignbnia Panddras, Sims. Tieoma 

uilriluTn- ' 

\VoNOA-WoNaA ViNB. EvergTeen 

. I — tj _:-.»^k^. If*.. 9 n ..iK-.i:_ 

aw/rdii , . , ,, 

hi^-climbing shrub: Ivs. odd-pinnate; Ifts. 3-0, ellipti 
ovate to ovBt«-tanceolate, acuminate but blunt 
pointed, entire or sometimes 
eoarsely crenate. shining aliovL, j 

glabrous, 1-2J^ m. long: punjcli's f 

many-fld.; corolla funnrlfunii- 
catnpanulate, with 5-lohcd 
spreading limb, yelloVsh white, 
lotted violet in the throat, ^in. 
long: fr. oblong, pointed, 2-3 in. 
long. Spring. Austral. 
B.M. 865. Gn. 27, p. 
94. Var. r6sea, Hort. 
Fls. light rose-colored. 
— "Young plants and 
particulany seedlings 
have the Ivs. very 
finely cut, nearly of 
the appearance of a . 
fern and are in this * 
stage sometimes known 
as Tecoma fdmfolium 
or Campsidium filici- 
foliwn; when getting 
older they change en- 
tirely. ' '— Franceschi . 

jasndnoldes, Schu- 
mann iTfcoma jiumi- 
tuddM, Lindl. Bianinia 

SmiTuAdeg, Hor 

TBALIA. Evergreen 
climbing ahrub : Ivs. 
odd-pinnate: Itts. 5-9, 
almost sesailG, ovate to lanceo- 
late, acuminate, but bluntly 
pointed, entire, ^abroua, 1-2 in. 
long: panicles rather fow-fld.; 
corolla funnelform-campanulate, 
the large spreading 5-l»>bed limb 
with crenate lobes, white, some- 
times suffused with pink, usually 
rosy pink in the throat, lJi-2 
in. long; calyx small, .^-lobed. 
Aug.-Oct. B.R. 2002, B. M. 
400*. P.M. 6:199. R.ll. 1S'J5, 
p. 109. Var. Alba, Hon., haa 
larger white fls. 

AA. Fk. pink: IfU. 1-11. 
mcasolUna, Baill. (Tieoma 
Maekfnii, W. Wats. Tfcoma 
RiouoliAna, Tanfani). Evi^rgreen climbina; shrub; IvB. 
odd-pinna(«; Ifts. 7-11, short^talked, elliptic-ovate, 
acute or acuminate, serrate, dark green above, pale 
beneath, glabrous, about 1 in, Iour: fls. in loose, 
terminal panicles; corolla funnelform-campanulate, 
with spreading 5-lobcd limb, liRht pink, atnped red, 

Slabrous inside an<l outside, 2 in. long; calyx 5-toothed: 
:. linear, terete, 10-12 in. long. S. Afr. G.W. 2:343, 
346. J.H.S. 39. p. 12. fig. 15. 

Brfcei, Reh<l. (Ttcoma Brpcei. N. E. Br. Ticoma 
Re^me Sdtue, Franceschi), Evergreen climbing shrub: 


der-pedicelled; calyx glandular; corolla funnelform- 
campanulate, abruptly contracted at the base, light 
pink, netted with crimson, yellow in throat, tube IJi 
m. long, haiiy inside, limb spreading, about 2 in. across. 
Oct.-March. Rhodesia. G.C. 111.39:344. 

AiiFBED Rehdgb. 

PABICmJlRIA: aii/aria. 

PAmCDH (old Latin name of Italian millet, Sebiria 
ilalita). Gramlnea!. Annual or perennial grasses with 
usually flat blades and paniculate inflorescence. 

Spikelets with 1 terminal perfect floret and below 
this a second floret which may be staminate, neutral or 
reduced to the sterile lemma; fertile lemma charac- 
terized bv being of a much firmer texture. — An immense 
genus u( staeaeB scattered over the world, especially in 
the tropica. Several hundred species have been 
described, while conservative authorities place the 
number iit about 300. Their importance as forage 
grasses is very insipiificant when the number of species 
IS taken into consideration. This is largely from the 
tact tliat (he species, as a rule, are not greganous, and to 
the fact that they are not well represented in the mead- 
ows anil prairies of temperate and northern regions. 
Guinea-grass and para-grass are, however, important 
forage graaaes of the warmer regions. 
A. PlatU annwU. 
capjlliie, Linn. Oij> Witch^^rabs. A 
common native annual gross and weed, has 
been recommended for cult, on account of 
its ornamental purple panicle, which is 
ample and loose, the spikcleta being borne 
on slender hair-like pedicels. R.H. 1890, p. 
525; 1896, p. 572. Dept. Agric, Div. Agrost. 
Bull. 17:54. 

miliAceum, Linn. True Millet. Brooh- 
CORN Mm .FT Hog Millet. A tall annual 
(3-4 ft.), with soft Ivs., grown for fodder, 
but not in common use in this country: 
spikelets large, in a rather compact droop- 
ing panicle. Dept. Agric, Div. Agroat., 
BSI. 20:37.— Cult, from prehistoric times. 
Grown somewhat extensively in China and 
Japan, and S. E. Russia. Native country 
unknowTi, but probably E. Indies. More fully dia- 
cu3se4:l in Dept. Agric, Farmers' Bull. No. 101. What 
is usunllv grown in the U. S. under the name of millet 
is Seiariii italica and its varieties, 

teilmum, Buckl. Colorado-Grass. Texas Millet. 
Commonly decumbent at base and rooting at the lower 
joints: rvJma stout, 2-6 ft.; foliage softly haiiy: panicle 
narrow, the large, pointed, hairy spikelets somewhat 
crowded : seed cross- wrinkled. Dept. Agric, Div. 
Agrost., Bull. 7:50. — The common name refers to the 
t>>!oraiio River of Texas where the species is native. 
Sparingly cult, in the Bouthem states. 
AA. Plant perenniai. 
B. BUukt Umg and narrow, net plieate. 
Tirgitum, Linn. Fig. 2746. An upright grass mth 
stiff culms, 2-6 ft. high, and with stout scaly rootstocks: 
spikelets in loose, compound panicles, usually more or 
less purplish, aharp-pomted; first glume half as long as 
spikelets, .'i-7-nerved, second glume and sterile lemma 
of about equal length, 5-7-nerved. Native throughout 
U. S. except in the extreme W. R.H. 1890jp. 525;^1896, 

ial used for omamentjil purposes, 
«ii |Tiiniitn , Jacq. GuiNEA-GRAiis. Four to 8 ft., or 
sometimes taller, forming dense tufts: culms robust: 
nodes hairy : sheaths more or less hirsute ; blades 20-30 
in. long: panicle 1-2 ft. long, the long stiff branches 
arrang^ in whorls; spikelets short-pcdicellcd, smooth, 



—Cult, for forage in the Gulf States. 

barbindde, Trin. (P. mdlU of authon, not Swarti). 
PARi-GRAsa. Strongly stoloniferous, as much as 20 ft. 
long;: pulms decumbent, rooting at the joints, 6-10 ft. 
hif^, robust: Hheaths more or lea hairy, the blades 
■Diooth, (V-20 in. long: panicles S-15 in. long, consist- 
ing of numerous ascending racemes with rather crowded 
splkelets. — Intro, from Br&zil. P. numidiAnum, Lam., 
is a closely related species of the £. Indies, sometimes 
confused with true para-gross. 
BB. Blades an inch or more broad, pli- 
caU: panicle narroir, the rpikeUie 
iTiUrsperaed with brvitUt. 

Bolcitam, Aubl. A tall perennial, 
4-6 ft., native of Trap. Amer.: ivs. 
lai]^, 1 in. or more broad, somewhat 
hairy, conspicuously pUcate: panicle 
narrow, about 1 ft. long, with many 
ascending branches, bearing short- 
pedicelled spikelets throughout their 
length, and also scattered bristles; 
Bpikelets pointed; lower glume half, 
second glume two-thirds the length of 
the sterUe lemma and fertile floret, all 
strongly nerved. — This and the next 

E'es belong to the section Ptycho- 
um, which is better referred to 
pklmif&Uum, Willd. (P. pltaUum of 
Authors, not Lam.). Paiai-Grass. Fig. 
2747. Resembles the preceding, but 
Its. broader and nearly smootL, the 
panicle larger and more bristly; spike- 
lets similar. G. 3:101. On. 12, p. 517; 
31,p.487;37,p.245, R.H. 1862, j), 290. 
— A variegated form is figured m F.S. 
17:1743-44 under the name P. folii* 
nxveo-vtitatU. Cult, in the S. for orna- 
ment. Native of £. Indies. Woolson, of 
Passaic, N. J., says it grows 4-6 ft. high 
in the hardy border and makes a fine, 
trtately f^ss; useful for winter bou- 
quets. This grass is known in the trade 
as P. ■plicai-u.m or less commonly as P. 
excuTTcng, but the real P. plicatitm, 
I^m,, through an allied species, is a 
smaller, narrower-lvd. plant of no pa> 
ticular beauty and unknown in cult. The 
true P. excvrrenx—P. -plicalum. Lam. 

P. abHan^nnm of liita ii spparpntly 
" — ■ -n Rupp*llii.— P. CnH.flifUi— Et"--— 

— P. /niintrUJaum. 

■ Echinochlofc— P. 

PAITlSEA (Greek, enHrely like, refer- 
ring to the fact that the labellum is 
like the otberfloral ports). OrchiMcex. 
Epiphytic herbs, densely cespitose: 
0(^8 and petals somewhat similar, narrow, free; label- 
lum narrow, with along sigmoid-fiexuoua claw; column 
slender, broad-winged above; poUinia 4, almost with- 
out appendages. — About 4 species in the Himalayas 
and Affiam. P. tricalldaa, Rolfe, having pale trans- 
lucent yellowish green fls. ; with 3 yellow calli on the 
disk tipped with brown, has been grown in botanic gar- 
dens. Assam. 

PAnSY. A favorite garden perennial, commonly 
grown as an annual; prised for the beauty and indi- 
%-iduality of its flowers. The pansy is everywhere a 
familiar flower. There is much character in it. The 
flower is often likened to a face. It appeals to personal 
feeling. In fact, the word pansy is only a corruption of 

the French pensee, meaning tbought. The old folk- 
name, heartsease, is also associated with the familiar 
place which tjie plant has occupied; it signifies remem- 
brance. The pansy is one of the oldest of garden 
flowers. Parkinson mentions it as a flower-garden 
subject in 1629. When critical study began to be given 
to ttie kinds of plants, the pansy was bo distinct from 
wild species that its specific indentity could not be 
determined with precision, and, in fact, this is the case 
to the present day. It is generally considered, however, 
that it has descended from Viola tricolor (see Viola), 
a small perennial violet native to the cooler parts of 
Europe. In ita nearly normal or un- 
improved forms, Viola trioAoT is now 
grown in gardens. (Fig. 2748.) It is a 
most interesting plant, because hand- 
some-flowered and variable. The flow- 
ers of this violet usually have three 
colors or shades, mostly blue, whitish 
and yellow, but in the diScrent varie- 
ties one of the colors strongly predomi- 
nates. A form with very small and 
inconspicuous flowers (var. ancntii) 
has run wild in many porta of the 

Pansies are perennial, but they are 
grown practically as winter or spring 
onnuals. Commercial growers sow 
the seeds in fall, and sell great quonti- 
ties of the seedling plants licfore win- 
ter sets in. These plants are flowered 
in frames or cold greenhouses, or 
they are planted in the open for 
spring bkxim. Plants are also started 
indoors . in late winter for spring 
bloom. Pansies delight in cool, moist 
weather; hence the American sum- 
mer is not to their liking, and the^ 
often perish. A new stock of plants la 
started every year. 

The modem improved pansiesrun in 
strains or famihea rather than in dcfi- 
nil« varieties. These strains are main- 
tained at a high grade by the best 
cultivation and the closest attention to 
selection. The seed of the best strains 
is necessarily expensive, tor it repre- 
sents much huroan care. The stock 
usually runs down quickly in other 
hands. It should be renewed from 
the seed-breeder each year if the beat 
results are to be maintained. These 
fancy and hiKh-bred strains require 
extra care in the growing. Most of the 
best strains are of European origin. 
Thev are usually known by the name 
of the breeder. The chief points of 
merit in the high-bred oonay arc siic of 
flower, brilliancy of coloring, arrange- 
ment of colors. The flowers may be 
self-colored (of only one color) or parti- 
colored. The porti-colorcd flowers are of three general 
types; two banner petals and three central petals of 
cuBerent colors; petals alt marjpncd with lighter color; 
petals all striped. There are all grades of intermediate 
differences. The colors which are now found in pansies 
are pure white, purple-black, pure yellow, different 
shades of blue, purple, violet, red-purple. Pansy flowers 
are now grown 3 inches across. (Fig. 2749.) 

With the above account may be compared Gerard's 
description of pansies in 1587. He picturea the heortA- 
ease or ViiAa tricolor with small violct-like flowers, the 
petals standing apart from each other. The "uprigjit 
heartsease," or Violn aaturgene tricoloFj ia represented 
as a stouter and more erect plant, with rounder but 
scarcely larger flowem. These are described as fallows: 



"The Hearts-ease or Panaie hath many round leaves at 
the firat conuninB up; afterward they Ktow somewhat 
longer, aletghtty cut about the edges, tnuUng or creeping 
upon the ground: the stalks are weske and t«nder, 
meteupon grow flouree in form & figure like the Vio- 
let, and for the most 
J. ^ part of the same big- 

■* ) nease, of three aundiy 

colours, whereof it 
tooke the Bymame 
Truxitor, that ia to 
say. purple, yellow, 
ana white or blew ; by 
leaaou of the beauty 
and braverie of whidn 
ooloure they are very 
i^easing to the eye, 
^J tor smel they have 
tittle or none at all. 
The seed is contained 
in little knaps of the 
bif^ease of a Tare, 
.r_,.i>. which come forth 
^,""'* after the floures be 
fallCT, and do open 
of tbemselree when the seed is ripe. The root is noth- 
ing else but as it were a bundle of threddy atrinra. 

"The upright Panaie bringeth forth long leaves 
deeply cut in the edges, aharp-pointed, of a Ueake or 
pale green colour, set upon slender upright stalks, 
cornered, jointed, or kneed a foot high or higher; 
whereupon grow very faire floures of three colours, 
via., of purple, blew, and yellow, in shape like the com- 
mon Hearts-case, but greater and fairer: which colours 
are so excellently and orderly placed, tnat they bring 
great delight to the beholders, thou^ they have httje 
or no smell at all: for oftentimes it hapneth that the 
uppermost floures are differing from those that grow 
upon the middle of the plant, and those vary from the 
lowermost, as Nature list to dally with things of such 
beauty." L. H. B. 

Cultivation of paoMes. 

There are few plants more popular than the pans^- 
Every year the demand for the plants is greater. Tins 
flower nas been cultivated for so long tf^t its source 
is a matter of uncertainty. As seen at the present day, 
it is an artificial production, difiering considerably from 
any known wild plant. 

Panaies were probably first improved from the orip- 
nal type in Great Britain, where the cool and moist 
climate is well adapted to their cultivation, and new 
varieties gradually appeared with larger flowers, of 
varied colors. For many yeaia, England and Scotland 
bore the reputation of growing the best pansies. About 
forty ycaiB ago, three French specialists, Bugnot of St. 
Brieuc, and Gassier and Trimardeau of Paris, made 
immense strides in developing the pansy, and their 
productiona were a revelation to the horticultural 
world. Such sizes and colors were previously thou(jht 
impossible. Trimordeaji developed a new race with 
inunense flowers and very haray constitution. His 
strain, crossed with those of Gassier and Bugnot, 
has given a pansy which is superseding the older Eng- 
lish varieties. At the present day, Germany and France 
lead in introducing new varieties. 

It is customary at the present day to make a 
careful selection of seedlings for new varieties, also 
to propagate by the meana of cuttings. The spec- 
ciahsts are devoting much time to the improvement 
of the various types and strains. The flowers are being 
steadily improved in all points by which panaies are 
judaed, — size, color, substance and form. Nearly all 
of the beautiful colors are to be found among the 
giant types, and the care that is being taken in the 


selection of colors makes it reasonably sure that, when 
the choicest aeed is obtained, a large percentage of the 
plants will come true to color. The season of oloason>- 
mg has been eKl«nded, the new early-flowering strains 
blooming five or six weeks earlier in tne spring than the 
old varieties. 

There are many beautiful varieties of pansies and it 
is difficult to make a aelection^ but the most popular 
for both amateur and commercial growers are the giant 
flowers of the Trimardeau type, the Gassier superb 
strain of blotohed panaies, and the Bugnots. One of 
the newer atrains is the "Masterpiece, a very large 
flower with curled or ruffled petaia, which are so un- 
dulated and curled that many of its blossoms ^pear 
to be double. The new upi^ht giant five-blotched 
pansy called the "Princess" by Ernest Benary is entirely 
distinct from all other pansy strains in its great com- 
pactness, its upright growth and its hardiness. Two 
other types which should be mentioned are the "Orchid 
Flowered," whose delicat* orchid colors do not exist in 
any other strain^ and the "New Early Flowering 
Giant" pansy, which blossoms in early March. 

It is conceded by European pansy specialists who 
have visited the United States that the American 
pansy seed planted on the American soil, will produce 
larger and finer flowers than the foreif^-grown seed of 
the same strain planted on the same soil. 

Pansies degenerato very quickly; therefore it is very 
important to procure fiesh seea every year from a 

The four characteristics of the pansy required by the 
four leading pansy-growing people are as follows: 

Germany: Color, substance, form, size. 

Great Britain: Form, color, substance, aise. 

Prance: Substance, aize. color, form. 

America: Size, color, substance, form. 

The success of growing a crop of panaies depends 
larcely on having good fr^ seed and on how the seed- 
bed is treated the first six to twelve days; for if p 
seed becomes dry aftor once sprouting, it ie 
if kept too close, it will damp-off. 

A coldframe is a good place in which to sow the 
seeds if the boards are not full of fungus; or a box 9 

□r if pansy 
dead; and 

(Nsuly >4 utuisl ■»] 



inches to & foot hieb might be made on fresh ground 
that is a little s&ndy and was well manured for a pre- 
vioua crop; dig and make the soil fine and water it weU 
before sowing the aeeda. Sow in drills 3 inches apart 
and -fi inch deep. One ounce of seed will sow about 
300W 350 feet of drill, or 90 foet if sown broadcast. 
CoT^ the seed ^ inch deep with fresh sand or sandy 
aoil, pat down or roll well and give a light wateriDg. The 
surface should be dusted witli sulfur or grape dust to 
keep the dampiog-off fungua from starting. Cover with 
boards, leaving space for ventilation; or they can be 
covered with moss, hay, or straw, being sure to remove 
the covering as soon as the seed is sprouted. Pansy seed 
will not sprout well if kept above 75°. After sprout- 
ing and until they have the second leaves, it is a good 
plan to cover them with the thinnest muslin, tacked 
on frames. Sashes may be used if well shaded and well 

To secure the best results, paosy seed should be 
town from July 10 to August 25. If plants for cut^ 
flowers are wanted, sow the seed the first part of JiJy. 
The best plants for wintering over in the field for 
spring sales are from seeds sown from July 10 to 20 in 
tne northeastern states. Five or six weeks after 
sowing the seeds, the plants are usually large enough 
to be transplanted in the field, in good rich ground. 
The soil can hardly be made too rich, and should be 
in raised beds so the water will not stand on them in 
the winter. Plant 7 or 8 inches apart each way. If 
a coldframe is used, from 50 to 250 plants can be set 
under a 3- by O-foot sash. If pansy plants are trans- 
planted the first time into the place where they are 
wanted to grow, they will have lar^r flowers; for every 
time the roots of a pansy are disturbed, the flowers 
will be smaller. Just enough mulch should be apjilied 
to hide the plants from view after the ground is frozen. 
This mulch is taken o9 as soon as the frost is out of 
theground in the spring. 

There arc from 25,000 to 28,000 seeds in one ounce 
of pansy seed. Growers usually allow one ounce of seed 
for 4,000 plants. With good fresh seed and great care, 
7,000 to 8,000 planU should be obtained from one 
ounce of seed. For commercial purposes, pansy seed 
should be planted in July aod August, but at this time 
of the year, it is too hot for the seeds to grow well. 
Seeds planted in the fall or early spring will give 
double the number of plants and require less 

beds or bCTches in the greenhouses. They will need 
about the same temperature as for violets, 40° to 45° 
at n^t, and 60° in the daytime in bright weather. 

P&nsiea are now being grown very extensively for 
cut-flowers in this country. 

If wanted for exhibition purposes, keep the pansy 
plants in a low temperature till Januaiy; some freez- 
mg, even, will benefit them. Start them slowly into 
growth at a temperature between 30° to 40° at night, 
as a higher temperature will diminish the size of the 
flowers. A weak solution of guano or hen-manure once 
every two weeks will help them wonderfully. During 
growth and bloom, maintain a rather tow, even tem- 
perature, without actual freezing, carefully avoiding 
extremes in temperature. 

In favored locaUties pausies designed for early spring 
bloom receive no glass protection during winter, the 
plants from the August sowing being transplanted in 
the fall from the seed-bed directly into their permanent 
quarters. Good pansies can be grown out-of-doors with- 
out glass protection as far north as Nova Scotia. Gen- 
erally, however, it is much better to winter pansies in 
a coldframe, especially the finer strains. I'ansics in 
bloom should be partially shaded from the hot midday 
Bun, tuirticularly the fancy-colored strains, the petals of 
whicn are more delicate in texture. 

CsARLEs Frost, t 



PApAVER (old Latin name, from the Greek, of 
dubious derivation). PapaiierAcex. Poppv. Well- 
known flower-garden plants, of brilliant but short-lived 

Herbs or rarely subshrubs, annual, biennial and 
perennial, with milkv juice, bristly or smooth and often 
glaucous: Ivs. usually lobed or dissected in a pinnate 
way: peduncles long, single-fld., the bud usually nod- 
ding: fis. red, violet, yellow and white; sepals 2; 
petals usually 1; stamens numerous: ovary and caps- 
globose, obovate or top-shaped, dehiscing under the 
vertex by transverse pores between the placenta;, the 
openings very 
small and valve- 
like; this vertex 
or flattened some- 
times conical top 
cap represents 



radiate st gmas 
placentiB 4 20 
project ng ntothe 

L th 

Med t region and 
the •irmea an 
Pers an region and 
somewhat east 
ward w th ont, n 
the southern heim 
sphere Fedde ac 
cepted 99 spec es 
in 1909 m En 
glcr's Das Pflan 
zenre ch hft 40 
(iy:104) together 
with many botam 
cal vaneties and 
hybrids. Two or 
three species are 
indigenous in W. 
N. Amer. Opium 
is made from the 
milky juice of P. 

s from shall< 
cuts made in the 
young capsules. 
The seeds have no 
narcotic proper- 
ties and are sold 
for bird food under 


le of "i 

seed." They also 
produce a valu- 
able oil. 

Poppies rank among the most popular flowers in 
cultivation. From their astonishing range of color, and 
from the formidable list of names given below, one 
might suppose their botany to be very complicated. 
It IS, however, easy to understand, although the varia* 
tion in some of the species is very great. There are 
only four species commonly cultivated and these are all 
remarkably distinct. They are (1) the opium poppy. 
(2) the com poppy, (3) the Iceland poppy, and (4) 
the oriental poppy. 

1. The opium poppy, P. aomnifcnan, is one of the 
commonest and the most variable. It is annual, of 
tall stately habit, and recognized at once by the glau- 
cous hue of its foliage. The flowers arc the largest of 
any of the annual sjiecies, but unfortunately they are 
useless as cut-flowers because they drop their petals 
so quickly. 

2. The com poppy of Europe. P. Rhaas, is also an 
annual, but a dwarfer plant, with green hairy finely 




out foliage and smaller flowers. It is brilliant in the 
fields of Europe, and it has run wild in this country. 
The Shirley poppies are the best strain of this species; 
in gardens the flowers last longer than the common P. 
RtwBos and the plants are neater when out of bloom. 

3. The Iceland poppy, P. nudicauLey is the glory of 
the arctic regions. It ranges over an immense territory 
and varies remarkably both in the wild and the garden. 
Orange, red, and white are the chief colors, besides 
shades of yellow, but the flowers never attain the 
brilliant scarlet of the com poppv. Although the 
Iceland poppy is perennial, it is short-lived, and is 
commonly treated as an annual or as a short-lived per- 
ennial. It is known for the satiny texture and crimpled 
chaiacter of its petids. The flowers are excellent for 
cutting, especially if the youn^ flowers are chosen and 
cut in the early morning, a prmciple which applies to 
many flowers often supposed to oe useless for home 

4. The oriental poppy, P. orientale, is a longer-lived 
perennisd, and altnough it has the largest flowers of 
any species in the genus it has nothing like the fame 
of the opium poppy. However, it has the double advan- 
tage of being easily propagated by either seed or 
division, and it has a consiaerable range of color, which 
is said to be largely due to crosses with P. hractcalum. 
The latter differs in having large bracts below the flower. 

The other species of poppy are for the fancier. The 
alpine poppy, P. cdjnnumy was considered by Linnaeus 
to be a distinct species from the Iceland poppy. How- 
ever, gradations occur bet\\'een the typical form of P. 
nudicaulc of the arctic regions and the poppy found in 
the Alps. The former has a yellow flower, while the 
common alpine poppy is white. The alpine poppy is by 
some regaraed as an extreme form of P. nudicatue^ chai> 
acterized by a dw^arfer habit and more finely divided 
foliage. For horticultural purposes P. nudicaule and P. 
alpinum should be considered to be distinct species, as 
many botanists indeed consider them to be. The Ice- 
land poppy C4m be easily g^o^^•n in the border, while the 
alpine poppy demands rock-garden treatment. The 
former does best in a moderately rich and light loam, 
while the latter does better in a rather poor soil. Both 
need full exposure to the sun, and P. alpinum probably 
needs better drainage. See No. 20, p. 2459. 

The Shirlev poppies are now the prevailing forms of 
P. Rhtcoit. The following historv of the remarkable 
race is given by the Rev. W. Wilks in "The Garden," 
67, page 3So: **In 1880 I noticed in a wastx; comer of 
my garden abutting on the fields a patch of the com- 
mon wild field poppy (Papairr Rhocas)^ one solitai^' 
flower of which had a vor\' narrow edge of white. This 
one flower I marked and saved the seed of it alone. 
Next year, out of perhaps two hundred plants I had 
four or five on which all the flowers were e<iged. The 
best of these were marked and the seed saved, and so 
for several years, the flowers all the while getting a 
lar^r infusion of white to tone down the red until they 
am\'ed at quite pale pink and one plant absolutely pure 
whito. I then set myself to change the black central 
portions of the flowers from black to yellow or white, 
and having at last fixetl a strain with petals varj-ing in 
color from the brightest scarlet to pure white, with all 
shades of pink between and all varieties of flakes and 
edged flowers also, but all having yellow or white 
stamens, anthers and pollen, and a white base.'* . . . 
Mr. Wilks then distributed it freely to all. ''My ideal," 
he continues, "is to get a yellow r. Rhoras, and I have 
already obtained many distinct shades of salmon. The 
Shirley poppies ha\'e thus been obtained simply by 
selection and elimination. . . . Let it be noticed that 
true Shirley poppies (1) are single, (2) alwa>'s have a 
white basewitn (3) \*ellow or white stamens, anthers 
and pollen, (4) never Yksve the smallest particle of black 
about them. Double poppies and poppies with black 
centers may be greatly admired by some, but they 

are not Shirley poppies. It is rather interesting to 
reflect that the gardens of the- whole world — rich man's 
and poor man's alike — are today furnished with pop- 
pies which are the direct descendants of one single 
capsule of seed raised in the garden of the Shirky 
Vicarage so lately as AujB^ust, 1880." 

Hybrids between different species of Papaver are 
described in the monographs, but they do not appear to 
have given leading forms for cultivation. Hybrids 
have been produced between the annual and perennial 
species. Between the different garden varieties, cross- 
ing probably goes on continuouffy, and new strains are 
constantly arising. 

For garden purposes most poppies are to be treated 
as annuals for b^t results, with the exception of P. 
orientale and P. hracte<itum, which the gardener thinks 
of as one group. The oriental poppy is. m fact, the only 
common long-lived perennial poppy. The Iceland poppy 
may live for several years, but after the third year it 
usually degenerates. It blooms the first year from seed 
and the best results are usually secured the second year. 
The cultivation of poppies is very simple, except of 
course in the case of alpine species, for which special 
conditions must be provided. Seeds usually germinate 
readily, but as the young plants of the annual kinds do 
not transplant well^ the seeds should be sown where the 
plants are to remain. In the Shirley and similar pop- 
pies, the plants may be thinned to stand 4 to 6 inches 
apart. For especially large and fine blooms, the plants 
should be given at least twice more room. A succession 
in sowings will provide a greatly extended season of 
bloom; removing the seed-pods will also extend the 
blooming-time. Open warm soil in a sunny exposure is 
preferred for poppies. 


aculeatum, 1. 
albiflonim, 19. 
album, 10, 19, 20. 
alpinum, 19. 
arpziariimi, 3. 
atlanticimi, 14. 
aurantiacum, 19, 20. 
bractcatum, 17. 
caIif(Hiucum, 2. 
eardinaU^ 10. 
caucasicum, 7, 8. 
coocineum, 20. 
eom,mutatum, 5. 
croceimi, 20. 
dubiimi, 4. 
fimbriatum, 10. 
flavifl(»iun, 19. 
flavum, 19. 
floribundum, 8. 
OOTxepinum, 1. 
glaucimi, 12. 

srandiflorum, 16. 

Eeenlandxcunit 20. 
ookcri, 5. 
Aomfffum, 1. 
hybridum, 16. 
immaculatum, 16. 
iaponicimi, 6. 
Isvigatum, 4. 
luteum, 19, 20. 
MurteUii, 10. 
nanum, 16. 
nigrum, 10. 
nudicaule, 20. 
officinale, 10. 
olympieum, 13. 
opiiferutn, 10. 
orientale, 16, 17. 

gronirjlorum, 10. 
arkmanii, 16. 
pavoninum. 6. 
papontttm, 6. 

perricum, 9. 
piloBum, 13. 
plenum, 16. 
puniceum, 20. 
pyrenaicum, 18. 
ranunculiflonun, & 
RhGBaa, 5. 
roeeum, 19. 

nibnun, 19. 
nipifragum, 14, 15. 
semi-plenum, 16w 
aetiiEcrum, 11. 
Sintenisii, 16. 
eomniferum, 10, 11, 

splendens, 16r 
striatum, 20. 
Bulphureum, 20. 
umbrosum, &. 

A. Plant prickly: caps, glabrous. 

1. acole&tum, Thunb. (P. gariipinuniy Bureh. P. 
h&rridum, DC.). Annual, 1-4 ft. high, the st. nearly 
simple: st. branched, densely covered with spreading, 
rigid, unequal bristles: Ivs. green, sinuately pinnatifid, 
the laciniations spine-tipped: fls. scarcely 2 m. across; 
pettds scarlet-orange, unspotted: caps, glabrous, 
oblong-obovate. S. Air., Austral. B.M. 3623. — The 
only poppy known to inhabit the southern hemisphere. 
Aninial in'S. Afr., but said to be biennial in northern 
botanic gardens. 

AA. Plant pilose or sctulosc (not prickly) ^ sometimes 

B. Species usttally annual or biennial (Nos. 1-12), 

C. Herbage setulosc (or perhaps glabrous in \o. 2 and in 
forms of So. 4) green or glaucous: foliage cdways 
incised or pinnatifid, the st.-lrs. not clasping, 

D. •S^ elongated and leafy. 

E. Caps, usually glabrous. 

F. Shape of caps, dub-shaped to top-shaped. 

2. califdmicum, Grav. Annual, spmely pilose-pubes- 
cent to glabrous, 1-2 h. high: Ivs. pinnately parted or 


divided into toothed or 3-Iobed or entire Begma.: Be. 
2 in. aoroaa; petals brick-red, with a srecn spot at the 
base bordered with roae-red: cam. between club- fflud 
top^hsped, flat on top, the disk d-ll-nerved. Santa 
UountaJnfl and aouthward in Calif.: also Mt. 
Tamalpaia (near Buk Fran- 

FF. Shape of capjr. moatly 

nbofoie or obhno- 
3. arenArium, Bieb. Annual, 
12-20 in. high, from a perpen- 
dicular root, erect, sparingly 
beset with bristleB which are 
8prea<ling on the st. and 
apprenscd on the foUage: 
Irs. twice putnatisect 
into minute linear or 
linear-oblong eefjne. : bud 



each petal; filaments not 
dilated: cape. obovat« to 
oblong or top-shaped, with 
a convex lUak; stlgmatic 

ra>-B 7-9. Sand" -' '- 

CaucaauB and 

4. dfibinm, Linn, 
usually robust an 
hirsute, 1-2 ft. _^. 
branched, few-6d.: Ivs. glaucescent, _ . 

Spresaod setuloae or often nearly Klabrous above, 
i lower ones pittuatifid or nearly so witli the 
segius. piiinal«ly cut and lobes ovate or roundish 
or sometimea much narrower; st.-lvs. usually pin- 
natifid with narrow acute lobes: peduncle long; fls. paJc 
rose, vermilion or aelcloni white, mostly darker in 
center; petals suborbicular, nearly 1 in. long; anthers 
violet and filaments red; caps, glabrous, obovat»- 
oblong or oblong-clavate. Eu,, N. Afr.; run wild in 
paitB of N. Amer. Very variable, and probably httle 
known in gardens. Var. Uevigllum, Elk. (P. Ixeigi- 
lum, Bieb.). Glabrous or with a few small bristles: fls. 
purple, usually spotted; petals small, obovale; caps. 
narrowly tsp-«haped or club-shaped ; stigniatic rays 
8-10. Medit. to extratropical Himalaya.— -It is doubt- 
ful whether the plant sold under this name ' 
in G.C. III. 5:21 it is shown with large, 
overlapping petals. 

FFF. Shape of caps, ghbote. 

5. Bh<^s, Linn. Corn Poppy. Fig. 2750. Hispid 
annual, or rarely Rlabrescent. erect ano branclung, 1 to 
■bouts ft,:lvB. eoareelv toothed (rarely nearlyentire) to 
oiTiiij r. ,iii;.|[-i, I [|i,\ : ]*(als orbicular or nearly ao, 

from 25-30 botanical varieties and subvarieties being 
recognized; and the cultural variations are numberless. 
In cult, every shade known to the opium poppy has 
been reproduced in the com poppy, but the fls. are 
always smaller. In the wild it vanes greatly, the foliage 
once or twice pinnately parted, the brisUes many or 
few, appressed or spreading, Ihc fla. spotted or not. Up 
to 1886 the French poppies were considered the best 
Strain. Since then the slrain or race known as Shirley 
poppies has surpaased all others. This strain was 
developed by the Rev. W. Wilks, secretary ot the Royal 
Horticultural Society. (See p. 2456.) Var. ranuncuU- 
fl&rum, Hort., is a strain with double fls. in various 
colors, self and variegated, with the petals entire, 
rounded and somewhat reflexed. Var. japOnicum, 
Hort., is a strain intro. ulwut 1893 from Japanese 
gardens, and s.iid to have smaller and fuller fls. than 
ordinary and of more varied filiadea. They are called 
Japanese or Japanese pompons. Rhoeas was the name 
used by the ancient Greeks and Itomaus for the com 
Viir. umhrOsiun, Mott. (P. umbrittum, Hort.), has 

Eetals of a darker red than Ihe t^cal P. Rhaa», and 
lackish spots. It was iiilro, by Vilmorin about 1891, 
and was considered a marked gain in productiveness. 
The habit is dwarf, compact, much branched. Soott 
after a double form was ihstributcd. Mottet considers 
it a form of P. Rhiras, but some botanists consider it a, 
form of P. eommMtalum, a species apparently not other- 
wise in garden cult. P. umbrosum was found growing 
wild in Altica. 

Var. Hoftkeri, W. Miller (P. Hoikeri, Baker). A pua- 
sllng plant found in gardens of India, and 
of untmown parentage. It is nearest to 
P. RAiEcs, and "diftcra in its great siie. 
r it forme a bushy herb 4 ft. high and 
„jward, and in the great number of 
the atigmatic rays, whidi are 12-20, i. e., 
nearly double those of P. Rhtea»; the fls., 
caps, and seeds also are much la^er 
and the stigraft broader in proportion." 
The fls. attain 3,1^ in. diam., and vary 
from pale rose to bright crimson, with a 
nhite or black spot at the base. B.M. 
6729. Gn. 29, p. 139. G.C. II. 25:9.— 
Said to revert o<v 
camonally to P. 

The flower-i 
den forms of 
Rhteas give remark- 
able color effects. 
Probably no plant 
BO quickly and 
cheaply satisflea 
one's love of color. 


* orp. 

cr(, cjnn;ib:(r-red, bloonj, which 

marginate, ismOHtlyJuly 

"— — ~~— in the N., is rather short but it may 
be considerably extended by buccch- 
aional sowings and b^not allowing the 
plants to seed. B^n to sow as early 



as the land can be put in condition. Cover lightly, or 
the germination may be unBatisfactory. Thin to 6-12 in. 
apart. Self-sown gocds give earlier-blooming plonta. 
BE. Caps, more or less seiviose. 
6. pavoslnuio, Fisch. &. Mey. {P. patidnium, 
Stacnegl.). Peacock Poppy. Annual, more or less 
branched, 1 ft. or leas high, hiepid- 
■ pilose: Ivs. pinnatcly parted, the 
diviEioiig oblong-linear and inciaed- 
toothed, pilose: bud ovoid, nod- 
ding fla. about 1 in. across; petals 
scarlet, dark-spotted: caps, mi- 
nute, ovale; stipnatic rays 4-7. 
Sandv places of Turkestan and 
Afghanistan, G.C. II. 26:329.— 
Botinicaily it is very distinct Iw 
reason of 2 short horn-like appencl- 
ag/M one on each sepal near the 
on the back. 


7 caucfsicum, Bieb. Biennial, 
more or loss »eto8c, glaucous, 1-2 
tt.. the root fusiform, erect, pani- 
culately branched: Ivs. glaucous, 
sparsely setulose or the petiole 
densely so, lanceolate in outline, 
pinnately parted, the Bcgms. pin- 
na! fad an 1 lobCB ovate-oblong : 
buds o ate calyx glabroue or 
sparM U setose petals somewhat 
in I airs roundish pale scarlet and 
the claw uwally yellowish: caps. 
oblong glabrous stigmatic rays 
3-^ Caucaais BM 1675 (brick- 
red not spotted) 

S flonbljndlun, Desf (P. cou- 
d c vir flonhundumi Elk.). 
Olauc u b eanial yellowiah, his- 
p d the segms. of Ivs. 
ne rly entire or dentate: 
Bs vermihon the sta- 
mens ochroleucus, hand- 
<M ma caps mostly ob- 
longiglabrous Caucasus 
region B.R. 134. 

Lindl Biennial, 
setose-hispid, 1-2 
ft paniculately 
branched, st. 
pvnunidate: Ivs. 
glaucous oblong- 
lanceolate in out- 
line pinnately 
parted theeerans. 
obking lanccdate 
and entire or den- 
tate: buda ob- 
long: calyx setose; 
petals overlapping 
at the margin, deep red or brick-red, green-epotten at 
baae; caps, lai^ and broad, densely hispid; stiginalje 
ra^ 5-6. Persia. B.R. I.'j70 (petals brick-red, with or 
without a white spot at the base). — This has been, and 
may still be, confused in the trade with P. cauaiau:um. 
CC. Herbage mos&y glabmus (nr i-ery sparijigly eftulose), 
glaiuxnts, the. tlAi-*, damping and nearly entire or 


kind: tvs. oblong, unequally toothed at the base; st.-lvs. 
cordate at the base, smuate-repand to dentate-serrate, 
very glaucous, clasping: fl.-bud ovoid-oblong, somewhat 
obtuse at apex, glabrous; petals orbicutate, entire, 
undulate or cut, from white through pink and red to 
purple, but not yellow or blue: caps, globose, glabrous, 
with a flat 8-12-lobed disk. Greece, Orient. On. 9, p. 
197; 59, p. 127. Gt. 40, p. 609; 44, p. S93. R.H. 1893, 
p. 349. S.H. 2:272. G. 3:125 (as var. nigram).— 
Sparingly run wild in N. Amer. Very variable in color 
01 sec^, characters of caps., and form and color of 
petals. Var. ilbum, DC. {P. oMcinAk, Gmel.), has fla. 
and seeds white: caps, ovate-globose. 

Among the double horticultural forms of P. sotirn^- 
erum are two main strains or types, the camation-fld, 
and the peony-fld. (the latter /'. proniiflirum, Hort.). 
The former has fringed petals; the latter not. Both 
include a wide range of color, and even a yellow form 
has been advertised, but this form is of doubtful 
authenticity. P, Mureiltii is another strain of double 
fringed kinds, of which Mikado is a favorite. P. fi/nr 
bridtum is another trade name for double fringed varie- 
ties. P. cardinAle is the French name of another strait) 
of double fringed fla. Chinese poppies are a double-fid. 
race intro. from Chinese gardens early in 1890, and 
coniprising dwarfer strains than previously known. 
R.H. 1893, p. 349. An exceptionally interesting mon- 
strosity has occurred in which there are no petala, and 
the stamens are supposed to be transformed into pistils 
which actually ripen seed. It was figured as long ago as 
1851 in F.S. 6, p. 242, and agun in R.H. 1893, p. 349. 
It seems to be no longer advertised, but it was con- 
sidered to be constant. 

Among the single varieties, Dancbrog is one of the 
most striking and popular. The white spots at the base 
of the petals form a cross. This variety is also known as 
Danish Cross, Danish Flag and Victorian Cross. Of the 
pure white kinds, Flag of Truce and The Bride are 
favorites. Mephisto is scarlet, spotted black. About 
a dosen other varieties are advertised by name. 

11. sett^erum. DC. (P. somMfeTum var. aeSgerum, 
Elk.). Differs from P. somnijerum in having deeply 
incised Ivs. and 7-8 Btigmar-lobes, the petals violet, the 
plant more setulose in parts: stigma-lobes 7-8. — P. 
tetigerwn is apparently no longer advertised, but accord- 
ing to Nicholson numerous fine strains have originated 
from it. It is usually considered a hairy form of P. 
tomniferwn. It is a violet-fld. plant native to the Medit. 

12. daftcnm, Boiss. & Hausskn. (P. »omn\Jentm 
var. ^ ileum, 0. Kuntze). Tulip Poppy, ^nual 
(sometimes perennial?), glaucous and glabrous except a 
few small, appressed bristles along the peduncles, 
branched at the base: st.-lvs. broadly cordate at the 
base, pinnately lobcd or parted: the lobes triangular. 
dentate; the teeth obtuse, callous, muticous: bud 
ovoid, somewhat attenuate at top; petals large, scar- 
let, spotted at the base: caps, ovate, stalked; stigmatic 
rays about 12. Syria to Persia. Gt. 40, p. 608, repeated 
in G.C. III. 10:527, R.B. 20, p. 58, S.H. 2:467 and V. 
15:37. R.H. 1892, p. 463; 1893, p. 360.— The plant 
sold under this name reminds one immediately of a 
tulip because of the color and texture of the fla., but 
especially because of its cuplike shape. The 2 mner 
petals are smaller, erect, and make a loose cup. The 
plants grow about 12-lS in. high and produce 50-60 

BB. Species perennial. 
C. Sts. ehngaled, more or Use Irafij: caps, glabrous. 
D. Branching dichotomous ur corymhone. 
E. FU. 

4-6 in. across, much larger than those of any annual branched: Ivs. covered with velvety, appressed haira; 


st.-lvB. clasping, broadly oblong, lobed &nd serrate; 
radical Ivs. oblong, long-petioled; fls. 2 in. serosa, brick- 
red and showy, coryrnbose-racemoBe; petals roundish, 
repand: capa. glabroua, oblong-club-Bhaped ; stigmatic 
rava 6-7. Rocky alpine heights of Mt. Olympus in 
Bithynia. B.M. 4749. Gt. 1:322. Gn. 41, p. 277; 42, 
p. 586. 

EE. FU. solUary, or in £'t or 5'«. 

14. atlinticuin, Ball (P. rupijragum var. addnlicwn, 
Ball). Perennial: hoary and everywhere covered with 
copious spreading haua except the glabrous cape,: 
height 1-2 ft., from a thick woody root, the sts. scape- 
like: Ivs. oblanccolate, coarsely and irregularly crenate- 
Berrate or pinnatifid, the segma. entire or crenate-ser- 
rate; st.-lvs. stnaller and BCasile: bud broadly ovale, 
hispid, nodding: fls. 2-3 in. across; petals orange-red or 
ecarlet; Morocco, 
6,000-7,000 ft. B.M. 7107. 

13. rnplfragum, Boiss. & Reut. Perennial, cespitoae 
and many atenmied: Ivs. mostly radical, oblong-lanceo- 
late in outline, pinnatisect with rounded einusee, the 
segma. irregularly oblong or lanceolate and dentate or 
nearly entire, glabrous or pilose on the nerves, but the 
Bcape-like sts. sparsely hispid; at.-ivs. smaller and nar- 
fower: bud broadly ovoid, glabrous, nodding: fla. 5-6 
in. diam., pale red: caps, oblong-clavate, glabrous, the 
disk 8-rayed. Spain. Gt. 2, p. 66. 

16. orientUa, linn. Oriental Poppt. Figs. 2752, 
3753. Plantsgrow3-4ft.high, perennial, stiff-hairv, and 
bear fls. sometimes 6 in. or more across: Iva, hispia, pin- 
nately parted; lobes oblong-lanceolate, the upper lobes 
coarsely serrate and the lower incise-dentate: petals 
sometimes 6, obavat«, narrowed below, scarlet with 
blackish base: caps, obovate, with a 6at aisk; stigmatic 
raya 13-15. Mwiit. region to Persia. B.M. 57. Gn. 
24, p. 459; 42:584. Gn, M. 5:16. V. 12:33.— A popu- 
lar perennial, n«w in many forms. The petals ore 
origmally apparently scarlet with a black spot. It was 
not until late in the SO's of the past century that this 
species made a decided break in color. A considerable 
class of hybrids with P. bracUaium has arisen which 
extends the color range through several shades of red to 
orange, salmon, and pale pink. Some are unspotted, 
some are adapted to cutting, and doubling has made 
some progress. Among the Latin names of varieties 
belonging to this class are grandifldrum, hfbridum, 
immMulAtum, ninum, splfndens, P&rkmanii, plSnum. 
■emi-pUnum, and Sintenlsii. Several have received 
common or personal names. Possibly some of these 
names belong rather with P. hraeUatum. — Oriental 
poppies are better divided after blooming, in late July. 
or Aug., when they are dormant; but the roots shoulii 
not be disturbed if the best bloom is expected the fol- 
lowing season. They alwavs grow in the autumn, and 
these divided plants woula start away and make good 
growth. If divided in spring, they would not recover 
■" •■"■" *o bloom. Any extra-good variety : ^" 



more brilliant in late spring or early l 

oriental poppy, with ita large fla., silken petals and 
flaming colors, althou^ its season of bloom is short. 
17. bracteituin, Lindl. (P. orientdle var. hraiieiUum, 
Ledeb.). Differs from the preceding in having large 
leafy bracts below the fl.: perenmol, erect, setose: 
radical Ivs. pinnate-parted, the upper ones incised, 
aegms. lanceolate or oblong: petals sometimes 6, obovate 
attenuate to base, blood-red and not spotted or the 
claw dark violet: stigmatic disk 16-18-radiate. Medit. 
repon to Persia.,658. G.C. 1860:647.— A variety 
with petab more or less united into one was mentioned 
in 18&-5 in F.S. 15, p. 186. 

CC. 5t». twry short, so thai the plard is pracUeaUy acauU»- 

cenl, the fls. solitary on scapes. 
D. Scapes very short, usvally not exceeding 4 in. but some- 
time tvrUe that height. 

18. pyreniicum. Kcm. Low and cespitose perennial, 
nearly stemless: Ivs. green, all radical and petiolate, 
appressed pilose or setose (sometimes nearly glabrous), 
pmnately parted, the segms. ovate, ovate-lanceolate, 
entire, or seldom pinnatifid ; scapes 1 or several, usually 
2-4 in. high in the wild but sometimes twice that 
height, the bud ovoid, pilose, nodding: fl. yellow t*) 
orange; petals round-obovate, more or less eroae, nearly 
1 in. or leas long: caps, oblong or obovoid, strongly 
ribbed. Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines. 

19. alplnum, Linn. Alpine Poppt. Low and cesp- 
tose perennial, nearly stemless: Iva. glaucous, all radi- 
cal and petiolate, glabrous or nearly so, 2-3-pinnately 
parted, the ultimate segms. linear or lineor^acceolate: 

2T5S PapiTSr orioatil* Ih* most papnlu psminli] poppT 

scapea single or several the bud ovo d or round-obovoid 
usually pilose, nodding; fls. white, fragrant; petab 
round-obovate, erose, nearly 1 in. long or lesa: caps, 
oblong to obovate, strongly ribbed. Alps, Apennines. — 
The followine garden vanetiea have been offered as of 
this species, but some of them are probably P. pye- 
naicum: albifl&rum, ilbum, aunmtiacum, flavifl&rum, 
flAvum, r&seum and r&brum. P. lideam, Hort., belongs 
here, but P. Ivleum of the botanists is the Welsh poppy, 
Meconopais cambrica. 

on. Scapes longer, particylarly in cvlt. 
20. nudicaiUe, Linn. Icblanb Poppt. Fig. 2754. 
Mostly a ycllow-fld. arctic perennial, more robust than 
the two preceding, cespitose, nearly stemlesa: Ivs. all 
radical and petiolate, somewhat glaucous, glabrous or 
hairy, pinnatifid, the aegms. oblong and entire or lobed t 
scapes single or several, usually 1 ft. hiRh, the bud 
ovoid or nearly globose, pilose, usually nodding; fla. 1-2 
in. diam., sweet-scented; petals obovate and sinuate, 
white with yellow base or yellow with greenish base, 
the 2 inner ones smaller: caps, oblong or obovate-glo- 

p. HMrAAii, Hort.-P. ScUatiuiun 

botanical tomifl. In America a torm c 

is found as far south bb S. Colo. Gn. 26:380; 24, p. 
342; 28, p. 58: 42, p. 584; 79, p. 42. G. 6:321; 7:66. 
V. 13:297. B.M. 1633; 3035, and R.H. 1890:60 
(P. croceum). F. S. 10:1017 (as var. croceum). The 
following varieties are in the trade: ilbum, anrantl- 
■cum. coccfneum, erdcemn, stiifttum, and Bulphdreum. 
Double forms in the vanous colors arc advertised. 
Older names which are likely to appear are vara. Ifiteum, 
punfceum, and rfibro-auruillacum. B.M. 2344. The 
name "nudicaule" refers to the lackof Ivs. on the scape, 
which diBtinguishes this and the alpine poppy from 
the common corn poppy of £u. A. greetudndieum, 
Hort., ia possibly a catalogue name for P. nudieatiU. 
The Iceland poppy is a favorite for spring bloom. 
It is a hardy perennial, but blooms the first year 
from seed. It has neat evergreen foliage on the ground. 

hetCTcvhyllK.— i>. fTMbiiuu. Hcit. 
ncribad as t pmrticvlmtly lood poppy 

■ '-■ "i. on ilsiulir ■TMcfu) Ma. 

— ■ ■ hybrid hHPMC 

Bi hybrid. 

2754. Icalasd pappy, Papci 


The colors have been much varied in the cult. 
aorta, ao that the gardener has choices in pur« white, 
bright yellows, orangG, and orange-scarlet. If the seed' 
pods are continuously removed, the plant will bloom 
throughout most of the summer. The fls. are very useful 
for cutting. 

. . _:hiiuia»iiiii, Fedda. PrafaaUy ■ 
rupifrumm and ■ loccua allied to P. 
tea cutt. M P. Hcldr^ehU: fla. briok-TMl; 

urdflu hybrid \n . 

laMritium, and wbioh hu b«ea cu 

petals »uborbicul»r-oboyBt«, to 1 . . 

WiLBEUi Mnjxs. 
L. H. B.t 
PAPiTA (Fig. 2755). The papaya (CarUa Papaya) is 

a well-known e£ble fruit which nas spread from ita orig- 
inal home in America throughout the tropical world, and 
is a favorite fruit in many regions. In Hawaii it is said 
to rank next to the banana in popularity; in nearly all 

fiarts of tropical America it is one of Uie commonest 
ruits, while eai\y in the seventeenth century it became 
known in the Orient and is now grown in India, Ceylon, 
the Malay Archipelago, and many other redons, as 
well as in tropical Afnca and Australia. The name 
papaya is considered a corruption of the Carib ababai, 
which in one form or another has been carried around 
the world; papaia, papeya and papia are some of the 
various adaptations which arc in use. The English 
name papaw (or pawpaw) is probably derived from the 
same source, and is widely used; in the United States it 
has the diaadvantage of confusing this fruit «ith 
Asimina triloba, whicE is well known m the central and 
southeastern states under the same name. The Por- 
tuguese name, current in Brazil, is mam£o (the tree 
mamoeiro) , a word probably referring to the mammiform 
apex of the fruit; in the French colonies it is called 
papaye (the plant papayer); in German colonies p^>ai a 
and papajabaum, or melouenbaum. Several other 
names are used in tropical America, notably fruta de 
bomba in Cuba, lechosa in Porto Rico, melon tapote in 
parts of Mexico, and tree melon in English-speaking 

The papaya — a giant herbaceous plant rather than 
B tree — grows to a neight of 25 or 30 feet, and is often 
likened to a palm in general appearance, though there 
io, of course, no botanical relationship. The trunk is 
commonlv unbranched, bearing toward its apex large 
eoft de^ly-lobed leaves sometunes 2 feet across, upon 
stiff hollow petioles 2 feet or more in length. The wood 
is fleshy, the bark smooth, grayish brown, marked by 
prominent leaf -scars. 

The plant is normally dicecious, and produccfl it« 
flowers m the uppermost leaf-axils, the staminate ones 
sessile on pendent racemes 3 feet or more in length, the 
pistillate ones subscssile and usually soUtary or in few- 
flowered corymbs. The ataminate flowers are funnel- 
shaped, about an inch long, whitish, the corolla five- 
lobed, with ten stamens in the throat; the pistillate 
flowers are considerably larger, with five flediy petals 
connal« tov^^ the base, a large cylindrical or globose 
superior ovary, and five sessile fan-shaped stigmas. 

Beside the typical diopcioua form, in which male and 
female flowers are confined to separate plants, it is not 
unusual to fatd various other distributions of the sexes; 
these have been studied in Hawaii by Hlioiins and Holt, 
who describe (Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Bulletin No. 32) anumber of different forms, such as the 
occurrence of staminate flowers with more or less rudi- 
mentary stigmas and ovaries which sometimes give 
rise to small fruits; a hermaphrodite foim. which regu- 
larly produces perfect flowers and good fruits; and 
vanous other combinations of si amin ate, pistillate and 
hermaphrodite flowers on the same and different plants. 
It will thus be seen that the distribution of the aexes in 
the papaya is very irregular; it has been report«d by 
Borne authorities, mdecd, that severe pruning or injury 
to the tree sometimes results in a change of sex, but 
this has been observed only on staminate trees of the 
dicecious type. 

Aside fcom these variations in the distribution of the 


sexes, there ore marked differences in the size, shape 
and quality of the fruits produced by different seedlingB 
of the typical dicecious form, and the papayas of cer- 
tain iwions in the tropica are uniformly superior to 
those of other regions. In Bahia, Brazil, there a 

type called "mom&o da India" which produces fruits 18 
inches long, cylindrical in form, and of excellent flavor. 
With the recent discovery of a method of grafting the 
papava, which is fully described under Carica (page 663; 
cf. alsoCirc. No. 119. Bur. PI. Ind., U. S, Dept. Agric. 
1913). the propagation of superior seedlings has been 
made possible. In addition, much can be done to im- 
prove the quality of the fruit through the selection of 
seed, but the number of males which arise is usually much 
greater than is necessary to furnish pollen for the female 
trees. Through vegetative propagation, it is possible W 
eliminate all unnecesBary males and propagate only a 
sufficient number to furnish the required poQcn — not 

The fruit is commonly spherical or cylindrical in 
form, round or obscurwy five-angled in transverse 
section, from 3 up to 20 or more inches in length, some- 
times weigjiing twenty pounds or over. £i general 
character it strongly resembles a melon ; the skin is thin, 
smooth on the exterior, oranee-yellow to deep orange 
in color, while the flesh, which is concoloroua with the 
akin, is from 1 to 2 indies thick, and incloses a iaiw 
sometimes five-angled cavity, to the walls of which 
are attached the numerous round wrinkled and black- 
ish seeds, the size of small peas, inclosed by a thia 
gelatinous aril. 

The flavor is rather sweety with a slight musky twang 
which is sometimes objectionable to the novice, and 
which varies greatly in amount; the best types are of a 
bland agreeable taste which is almost sure to be 
relished, and which makes the papaya one of the most 

gjpular breakfast fruits in many tropical countries. In 
raiil the flavor is thought to be improved if the fruit 
b hgfatly scored when taken from the tree, and then 
allowed to stand for a day so that the milky juice may 
nm out. While most commonly used, perhaps, as a 
breakfast fruit, like the muskmelon in northern coun- 
tries, the papaya can be prepared in numerous ways. 
In Braiil it is served as a dessert, sliced, with the addi- 
tion of a httle sugar and whipped cream. As a salad, 
in combination with lettuce, it is excellent. As a crystal- 
lised fruit it is good, but it has not very much charac- 
ter. When green it is sometimes boiled and served as a 
vegetable, much as summer squash is in the North. It 
can also be made into pickles, preserves, jeUies, pies, 
and sherbets. When used aa a breakfast fruit it is cut 
in halves longitudinally, and after the seeds are 
removed, served with the addition of lemon juice, salt 
and pepper, or sugar, according to taste. 

In the tropics, papayas are m season during a large 
part of the year, and the yield is enormous, sii^e trees 
bearing in tne course of their lifetime a hundred or more 
of their immense fruits. In Florida the season extends 
from December to June, with occasional fruits ripening 
at other times. While considered a rather difficult 
fruit to ship, especially when fully ripe, papayas have 
been sent from Hawaii to San Francisco and marketed 
in the cities of the Pacific coast. According to Higgins 
and Holt, the best method of shipment is to wrap the 


has become an article of 

Aside from 

, it has very recently been utihzed for the clari- 
fication of beer. Its digestive action has long been 
recognized in the tropics, as evidenced by the common 
practice of the natives, who rub the juice over meat to 
make it tender, 
or wrap a fowl 
in papaya leaves 
and let it stand 
overnight before 
cooking it. 

The papaya 
succeeds tiest in 
regions with a 

and rich loamy 
but weU-drained 
soil. In south 
Florida it ap- 
pears to prefer 
the richer ham- 

those of pine- 
lands, but may 
be very success- 
fully grown on 
the latter with 
proper fertiliz- 
ing. On the 
Florida Keys, 
the plant baa be- 
come thoroughly 2TS5.Pfull0«I*w«- 
naturalized, and 
springs up wher- 
ever a clearmg is made^ the seeds being scattered by 
birds and other agencies. It withstands but little 
frost, although it is occasionally possible to fruit it 
toward the northern part of the state when a mild 
winter allows it to reach its second summer without 
injury. In California, the papaya has never been 
very successful, probably because the nights are 
too cool to mature the fruit perfectly. It has been 
noticed in the tropics that fruit ripened in cool weather 
is poor and somewhat sc^uash-like in flavor. The best 
locations in southern California are the protected foot- 
hill regions, where the ground is sloping and the soil 
well .drained, and where the heat during the summer 
months is more intense than on the seacoast. An old 
tree at Hollywood, Los Anaeles, bore fruit for several 
years, but finally succumbeo to the cold rains of winter, 
which often cause the plants to rot off at the base, 
especially if the drainage is the least bit defective. 

In Hawaii the papaya is said to succeed on almost 
any soil, provided it is well drained. As soon as the 
plants are well started they like plenty of moisture, and 
rank feeders. ()n the shallow soils of south Florida, 

ori»nic nitrogen should be abundantly supplied. 
The papaya is easily grown from seed, b' ' 
Florida should be planted as early as possible, — 

bly in January ,^rn order to have the plants in fruit by 
the following winter. If seeds are washed and dried 
after removal from the fruit, and stored in glass bottles, 
they will retain their viability for several years. A 
hght sandy loam is a good medium for germination, 
and the seeds should be sown rather thickly about Ji 

CTates, They should be picked when they show the 
Gnit signs of 'ripeness. Refrigeration during the voyage 
is important. 

Tbe fruit of the papayEL as well as all other parts of 
the plant, contains a milky juice in which an active 
principle known aa papain is present. This enzyme, 
which was first separated by Peckholt, greatly resem- 
bles aoimal pepsin in its digestive action, and m recent 

For a permanent orehard, the plants should be set not 
less than 10 feet apart. The papaya is short-lived, and 
will not usually remain in profitable bearing more than 
two to four years. That it is of extremely simple culture 
is proved by the ease with which it becomes naturalized 
in tropical regions, and (he thriftiness of the wild plants. 




Two pests have become sufficiently troublesome in 
south fiorida to require attention, one of which, the 
papaya fruit-fly {Toxoirypana curvicauda)^ threatened 
at one time to become serious (Cf . Joum. Agr. Research, 
ii. 447-453, Knab & Yothers). This insect occurs in 
several parts of tropical America; the female inserts 
her eg^ into the immature papaya by means of a long 
ovipositor, and the larvse first feed in the central seed- 
mass, ^but later work into the flesh of the fruit, fre- 
quently rendering it unfit for human consumption. 
The only means of control which have been suggested 
are the destruction of wild plants and infested fruits, 
and the production of varieties of the papaya with venr 
thick flesh, so that the female will be unable to reach 
the seed cavity with her ovipositor; — the young larvse 
are imable to hve in the flesh. A fungous disease, known 
as papaya leaf-spot {Pucdniopsis caricx) frequently 
attacks the foliage during the winter season, forming 
small black masses on the under surfaces of the leaves. 
It is not very destructive, and easily controlled by 
spraying with bordeaux mixture. y. W. Popenob. 

PAP£dA (Malayan name). RutdLceXf tribe Citrex. 
Under this name Hasskarl in 1842 created a new genus 
to include a form closely related to if not identical with 
Citrus HvstriXj DC. A number of species of Citrus 
closely related to C. Hystrix have been reported from 
the Indo-MaLayan and western Polynesian regions. As 
these species are for the most part only imperfectly 
described, it is doubtful whether they are valid species 
or forms of one polymorphic species. This group of 
forms mav constitute a subgenus under Citrus, dis- 
tinguished by having very large broad- winged petioles 
sometimes equaling or even exceeding in area the 
lamina, small fls. with free stamens, rough frs. with 
sour and acrid pulp composed of very short pulp- 
vesicles, containing oil in the center. Ciims (Paphda) 
HystriXy DC., probably includes Paphda Riimphii, 
Hassk. The forms of this subgenus are sometimes used 
in the Philippines as stocks on which to graft the com- 
monly cult, species of Citrus. The frs. are not edible 
but are used by the natives of the Malayan and Poly- 
nesian islands in lieu of soap for washing the hair. 

Walter T. Swingle. 

PAPER PLANT: Cyperus Papyrus and Papyrus anliqaorum. 

PAPHINIA (Paphos, city of Cyprus, sacred to Veniis). 
Orchiddces^ A rare and pretty genus of orchids, having 
the habit of small lycastes. 

Flowers curiously shaped, borne on pendent scapes 
which are mostly 2-fld. ; sepals and petals similar, spread- 
ing; mentum obsolete, labellum uppermost in the fl. 
They may be easily grown with lycastes, and should be 
planted in fibrous peat and moss. During the growing 
period they require a liberal supply of water. 

cristilta, Lindl. {Lvcdste cristdtaj Nichols.). Pseudo- 
bulbs ovate, 1-3-lvd.: Ivs. lanceolate, 4-6 in. long: 
scapes pendent, 1-2-fld.; sepals and petals lanceolate, 
acuminate, spreading, the latter a uttle smaller; all 
streaked above and transversely banded below with 
deep crimson or chocolate-brown markings on a whitish 
ground; labellum much smaller, chocolat«-purple; the 
2 lateral lobes oblong, pointed, half spreading, separated 
from the middle lobe by a deep constriction; middle 
lobe triangular-rhomboid, with an erect crest and 
clavate glands on the disk, and bordered in front by a 
fringe of clavate hairs. June-Aug. Trinidad. B.M. 
4836. B.R. 1811 (as MaxiUaria cristata). Gn. 78, p. 33. 

rugdsa, Reichb. f . Pseudobulbs small, rounded : Ivs. 
small, linear, acuminate: fls. waxy, creamy white, cov- 
ered with red spots, which run together in blotches. 

grandifldra, Rodrig. (P. grdndis, Reichb. f.). Fls. 
chocolate-brown, striated on the lower half of the sepals 
and petals with greenish yellow and cream-color, mar- 

gins cream; labellum dark purple at the base, with an 
oblong, cream-colored midole lobe, and a pair of small 
lobes on each side. Brazil. G.C. ill. 14:561. — ^A curi- 
ious orchid. 

P, LatrrencidnaoBLycaate L*wrenciaiiA(?). 


PAPHIOP^DILnM (from Paphos, PapHnia see, 
and Latin for sandal), Orchiddcex, Terrestrial or epi- 
phytic orchids grown in a warm greenhouse; comprises 
the glasshouse cypripediums. 

Rhizome somewhat creeping: Ivs. coriaceous, keeled 
below, sulcate above, conduphcate in vernation, green 
or tesselated: fls. showy; sepals 3, the dorsal erect, 
showy^ the lateral united; petals spreading or pendu- 
lous; hp saccate, the margin of the orifice not iimexed; 
column short; ovary l-ceUed, with parietal placents. — 
About 50 species m Trop. Asia, Malay Archipela^, 
PhiUppines. Differ from Qjrpripedium chiefly in having 
the Ivs. conduphcate in the bud instead of convolute 
and in having a deciduous perigonium instead of wither- 
ing and persistent. Cf. Pfitzer, Pflanzenreich, hft. 12. 

Ctdtivation of paphiopedilvma, (Alfred J. Loveless.) 

Paphiopedilums generally are of easy culture, and 
may be ^wn in one house by devoting the cool end 
to P. inaigne and its hybrids, and the selenipedium 
group. The plants should never be allowed to oecome 
ory. as they are making active growth most of the time. 
Lignt spraying should be frequent in bright weather, 
and an appUcation of very weak liquid manure occit- 
sionally will be found of great assistance in keeping the 
plants healthy. Ventilation regulated according to 
external conditions is essential at all times to maintain 
atmospheric action. 

Dunne the winter months the thermometer should 
register from 55" to 60** F. by night, and about 65** F. 
by day, with sun heat a few degrees higher doing no 
harm. On the approach of spring the temperature 
should be slightly advanced to prepare the pumts for 
summer heat, and accordin^y decreased on the 
approach of fall. A light shading will be necessaiy at 
all times, to prevent excessive heat and sunburn, with 
heavier shadmg toward midsummer by the addition 
of bamboo shades, these to be removed in autunm, and 
dispensed with during the wmter. 

The greater part of the species grow best in pots, in a 
compost composed of two parts peat-fiber, one part 
turfy loam, one part chopped hvmg spha^pnim^ one- 
third of the pot room being devoted to clean drainage. 
The compost should be pressed in rather firmly around 
the roots, finishing off about ^ inch below the rim of the 
pot. A sharp lookout should be kept for thrip, and clean 
pots, with frequent sponging of tne foliage, is essential 
to the good health of the plants. P. insigne and kindred 
species should have one part chopped sod added to the 
above mixture (see note on culture in Veitch's "Orchid 
Manual" 2:34). P. viUosum and P. Exid sometimes 
suffer imder pot culture from fimgi, which attack the 
base of the plant in sultry summer weather. Basket 
culture will obviate this, as it allows a better circula- 
tion of air through the compost. P. Lotoei, P. PorwAti, 
P. vhilippinense and allied species, toother with SderU- 
peaium caudatum, are truly epiphytic and preferably 
should be grown in baskets. By this method the roots 
are better preserved and less Hable to decay during 
the winter season. 

The concolor section requires a warm moist location 
with free access to the air. The species should be grown 
in rather small pots, with at least half the space devoted 
to drainage of broken charcoal or other free material. 
The potting compost should consist of ecial parts 
chopped sod, peat-fiber and living sphap- lime- 
stone is often recommended as essential m alture 
of this section, but. the conditions being e< A gives 
no beneficial results (Orchid Review 4:45; Veitch's 
Manual 2:19, 20). 

LXXXIV. A plantation of papaya in tbe Bawillan Itlaoda. 




The deciduous tropical species require similar treat- 
ment to the evergprcen kinds. They have a long dormant 
period during wmch they should be rested in a tempera- 
ture of 50° F., with sutiicient water to keep the com- 
post moist until growth starts, when they must be 
returned to their proper department and enjoy a liberal 
supply of water untu after the flowering season, when 
thev must be ripened off and the water supply gradually 

The hard3r species (true cypripediums) do better 
planted out in the open ground or in rockeries, where 
th^' should be so situated as to have good drainage 
and shade. The soil must be free and porous and con- 
sist of three parts chopped turf and eaual parts of peat 
and sphagnum. They require a liberal supply of water 
and frequent syringing over the foliage while growing, 
but the supply should be gradually reduced after the 
flowering period until only enough water is given to 
keep the soil moist. During the winter the plants should 
be protected with leaves or pine boughs. Cypripe^ 
dium reginae and C. pubescens grow well under pot cul- 
ture. A 7- to 10-incn pot will hold eight or a dozen 
crowns, which should oe planted 2 inches below the 
surface. Two inches of drainage are sufficient. The 
Dots should be filled with soil (fiiroly pressed in) to 
J^ inch below the rim. After a thorough watering they 
should be stored in a coldframe and protected with 
leaves and boughs. About the middle of February they 
may be removed to a coolhouse, where they shoiild 
remain for a week, and then be placed in the cool end of 
the cypripediiun nouse. where they should be watered 
glaringly until growtn-action starts. These plants 
make strong growths under this treatment, and the 
flowers are a decided improvement over those produced 
outside. See Cypripediumsoid Phragmopedilum. 

All paphiopeoilums are propagated bv division, but 
many oeautiful hybrids have been added to the list, 
since the raising from seed has been better understood. 

Abbottinnnm, 42. 
•croaepalum, 10. 
albens, 19. 
albo-margiiuttum, 18, 

mlboviride, 23. 
album, 1, 4. 
Amenanum, 19. 
anioenum, 19,36. 
amp^Mihiin, 2. 
ADophthalmum, 26. 
^iculatum, 19. 
Ap|>letoniannm, 25. 
Argus, 39. 
Araoldianum, 19. 
atratum, 18. 
atropurpureum, 42. 
atrorubrum, 42. 
aureum, 18, 19. 
OMficiiium, 42. 
barbatum, 28. 38, 39, 

bdlatulum, 1. 
biflorum. 1, 39, 40, 42. 
Boddsrtu, 39. 
Boxalliit 18. 
Brccveaianum, 19. 
Brownii, 19. 
bnicRiae, 19. 
BuUenianum, 25, 26. 
omileaoeiis, 28, 40. 
eallotum, 41. 
canarienae, 18. 
Camueitianum, 8, 10. 

Chantinii, 19. 
CharlcBwoithii, 21. 
chlorophyUum, 3. 
Choteto, 1. 
eiliolare, 37. 
dtrinom, 19. 
coloratum. 42. 
Cobonianum. 19. 
eoocfaiflorum, 21. 
eoneolor. 2, 3. 
wrragatam, 19. 
Covperianum, 19. 


Craohaws, 21. 
Cronii, 40. 
cruciforme, 12. 
Cuhincianuin, 19. 
cwpreum, 30. 
Curtisii, 36. 
Dayanum, 34. 
DemidoJIii, 38. 
Deametianum, 21. 
Dormanianum, 19. 
Dowminianum, 19. 
Druryi, 22. 
Duvivierianum, 21. 
eftregiuni, 1. 
£lliottianuin, 5. 
Blmireanum, 37. 
Elmettianum, 34. 
Emettii, 19. 
expansum, 42. 
exul, 20. 

Eyermannianum, 19. 
Eyermannii, 19. 
Fairieanum, 24. 
Fontennami, 19. 
fuBcatum, 19. 
giganteum, 1, 18, 27, 

39, 40, 41, 42. 
Gilrooreanum, 10. 
glanduliferum, 6, 7. 
glaucophyllum, 16. 
Godefro^, 2. 
Gortonii, 18. 
gradle. 19. 40. 
grande, 1, 42. 
grandiflorum, 1, 23, 

37, 39. 40. 
Gravwianuin, 19. 
Grenieri, 42. 

Sittatum, 19. 
allianum, 19. 
Haynaldianum, 13. 
hemi'XarUhinum, 2. 
Henderaonii, 40. 
hinutaaaimuin, 17. 
Hookene, 26. 27. 28. 
Horunanianum, 19. 
Hurrdlianum, 19. 
Hyeanum, 42. 

iUustre, 19, 40. 
inaigne, 19, 20. 
Javamcum, 32, 33. 
xCimbaUianum, 7, 19, 

lavifftUum, 8 
La^^ertD, 19. 
Laingii, 2. 
Lawrendanum, 42. 
leodiense, 23. 
leucochilum, 2. 
Lindenii, 18, 38, 39, 

Uneatum, 1. 
longipetalum, 3. 
longisepalum, 19. 
Lowei, 12, 27. 
Lowii, 1. 
Ludaziii, 19. 
Lutchwvoheanum, 19. 
luteo-album, 19. 
luteo-pwpureum, 1. 
ItUeum, 28. 
Macfarlanei, 19. 
magnificum, 21, 23, 

37 42. 
majtiB, 1, 28, 33, 40. 
MandeviUeanum, 19. 
Mantinii, 39. 
niarfpnatum, 21. 
Mans, 2. 
marmoralum, 42. 
Masteraianuni, 31. 
Maulei, 19. 
maximum, 19, 37. 
Measuresianum, 18, 

Mercatellianum. 23. 
minus, 33. 
Miteauanum. 37. 
Moensii. 18. 39. 42. 
montanum, 19. 
Mooreanum, 19. 
Morrenianumt 39. 
moaaicum, 40. 
multicolor, 39. 
nanum, 23, 40. 
n€<hguin0en$t, 5. 

nigreeoena, 23. 
nigricans, 39. 
nigritum, 40. 
nigro-maoulatum, 39. 
nigrum, 39, 40, 42. 
NuBonii, 19. 
niveum, 4. 
nobiU, 40. 
O'Brienii, 40. 
oculatura, 2J. 
orbum, 40. 
pallidum, 36. 
pardinum, 2J. 
Parishii, 11. 
Petri, 34. 
phUippinense, 8. 
pictum, 40, 42. 
PUeherianum, 39, 42. 
plat3rt«nium, 5, 8, 10. 
pleioleucum, 42. 
plumoaum, 40. 
porphyreum, 40. 
Poyntsianum, 25. 
prsBstans, 6. 7. 
puloherrimum, 40. 


punctati8Bimum,4, 19. 
punctatum, 4. 
purpuraaceru, 42. 
puipuratum, 35, 39, 

purpureumt 40. 
Retiuieri, 3, 4. 
reticulatum, 4. 
Roebbeleniif 8. 
roaeum, 1, 4, 42. 
Roesianum; 41. 
Rothschildianum, 5. 
rubeaoens. 23. 
Sandene, 19, 41. 
Sanderianum, 9. 19. 
Schmidtianum, 41. 
Seegeri, 35. 
ainicum, 35. 
Smithut, 2. 
Smithianum, 34. 
spectabile. 29, 34. 
Spicerianum, 23. 
aplendena. 34. 37. 
aplendidum, 37. 
stenosemum, 42. 

Stonei, 10. 
atritUum, 2. 
Studbyanum, 19. 
BublflDve, 41. 
Bulphurinum, 3. 
Buperbiena, 19, 28, 30, 

Buperbum, 1, 2, 30, 

33, 34, 39, 40. 42. 
aylhetenae, 19. 
Ugrinumt 39. 
tonkinenae, 3. 
tonaum, 30. 
unicolor, 21. 
Veitchianum, 38. 
venuatum. 29. 
Victoria-Mariff, 14. 
villoeum, 18. 
virdiflorum, 41. 
virena, 32. 
tireacenaj 42. 
viridifolium, 2. 
Volontcanum, 27. 
Warneri, 40. 


A. Petals broadly elliptic or almost orbicu- 
lar. Section I. Species 1-4. 
AA. Petals elongated, 

B. Pouch of lip not eared: Ivs. green, 

strap-shaped. Section II. Species 5-10. 

BB. Pouch of lip eared: Ivs. various. 

Section III. Species 11-42. 

Section I. 
A. Fls, beUrshaped. 

B. Lip shorter than the petals 1. bellatalttm 

BB. Lip as long as the petals 2. GodefroyA 

AA. Fls, spreading, 

B. Scape shorter than hs 3. eoneolor 

BB. Scape longer than Ivs 4. iii?eam 

1. belULtulum, Pfitz. {Cypriphdium belldixdum. 
Reichb. f.). Lvs. oblong-elliptic, up to 10 in. long and 
3H in. broad, the upper surface deep green mottled 
with paler green, the lower surface dull purple: scape 
shorter than lvs., 1-fld., purple, pubescent; fls. pale 
yellow or white, spotted with brown-purple; dorsal 
sepal orbicular, concave, ciliolate; petals broadly oval: 
lip with fewer and smaller spots than the sepals ana 
petals. Summer. Shan States, China. G.C. III. 
21:321. J.H. III. 30:513; 43:49. A.F. 6:557; 13:77, 
622; 14:675. Gng. 7:129. G. 34:399. G.M. 55:593. 
O. 1912, p. 19. L. 4:149. CO. 9. Var. Album, Rolfe. 
FLs. white, the lvs. not colored beneath. C.0. 9a. Var. 
Chdtekee, Hort. The larger fls. with larger spots. L. 
665. Var. egrdgium, Hort. Sepal short, 3-lobed, the 
spots li^t purple. Var. luteo-msrpiireum, Pfitz. Fls. 
pale yellow, purple-spotted. Other minor varieties are: 
iijibrumy giganthim^ grdnde, grandifldrumf linedtum, 
L&mi, mdjuSf rdseumj supMmm, 

2. G6defroy8e, Pfitz. (Cyprivhdium Gddefroyx, Rolfe. 
C. cdncolar QddefroyXy Hemsl.). Lvs. up to 6 in. long 
and 1 }i in. wide, deep green, marbled and spotted 
with paler green on the upper surface, the lower sur- 
face spotted with brown-purple: scape shorter than 
lvs., pubescent, green, purple-spotted, 1- or 2-fld.; fls. 
white or pale yellow, lightly pubescent, spotted ma- 
genta; dorsal sepal nearly orbicular; petals oblong- 
elliptic, deflexed; lip with the spots very small. Sum- 
mer. Cochin-China. B.M. 6876. G.W. 14, p. 367. 
G.Z. 31:169. Gn. 25, p. 396. G.C. II. 23:49. Var. 
L&ingii, Pfitz. Fls. smaller, white with purple dots. 
Var. leucochilum, Pfitz. Fls. white, the sepals and 
petals purple-spotted. Var. MUris, Pfitz. Fls. large, 
the white petals with black-purple spots. Other minor 
varieties are: amplidlum, hemi-xanih\num, Smiihise, 
stridlumy supirbunif viridifdlium. 

3. c6ncolor, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium cdncolar^ Batem.). 
Lvs. up to 6 in. long and IH ii^* wide, oblong-oval, deep 



green mottled above with Erttyish green, below spotted 
with deep crimBon: scape iaiort«r than Ivs., I-or2^d.; 
&a. pale yellow, dotted with purple: sepals and petals 
ciliola<£; dorsal sepal nearly orbicular; petals broadly 
oblong-elliptic, deuexed; hp small, nearly cylindric, 
somewhat laterally compre^ed. Autumn, Moulmein. 
B.M.5513. G.C. 1865:626; II. 19:19;11I.9:501. I.H. 
12:444. F.S.22:2321. G.Z. 30:97. Var. chlorophyUum, 
Pfits. Lv8. concolored, not mottled: fla. with numeroufl 
dota. Vor. longipCtalum, Pfiti. Petals obovate, narrower 
than and ^most twice as long as sepals. Var. RequiSii, 
Pfiti. Lai^r, with eepala violet-spotted externally, 
Var. Bdlpliiulniiini Pfitz. Fls. sulfur-colored: Ivs. green. 
Var. tonldiitoBe, Pfitz. (C. Umkinitue, Godefr.). Se- 
pals and petals larger. L. 77. 

4. nlveum, P6tz. (Cyvrinidium niveum, Keichb. f.). 
Lvs. up to S in. long and lyi in. broad, dull dark green 
above, spotted gray-green, lurid purple beneath: scape 
equaling or longer than lvs., 1- or 2-fld,; fls. white; 
sepals and petals cilioUte; dorsal sepal orbicular, con- 
cave, reddish purple on the back' purple-dotted in 
front toward the base; petals broadly oblong or nearly 
orbicular, a little deflexed; lip shorter than sepals and 
petals. Spring. Loncavi and Tambilan Isls. B.M. 
5922. G.Z. 19:17. J.H. III. 45:559. Var. ilbum, Pfitz. 
Fls. pure white. Var. punct&tum, Pfitz. Base of petals 
densely violet^otted. Var. reticuUtum, P&ti. Petals 
purple-reticulated at the apex, the nerves purple- 
nmtted. Other minor varieties are: puTUiatlssimwn, 
Requiiri, rdseum. 

Section II. 
A, iSepoZi aith rimpU nerea, no rron- 

B. Length of pelaU fiat, cUiale 5. Rothschlld- 

BB. Length of petaU tanited. the margini [Ummn 

Jifiih ?iair-bearino imrb. 
c. Length of pelaU 6 in. or Un. 
D. Staminodium poinied in front. 

E. Point a lone fxol: 6. gUndulifenua 

EK. Point ihort 7. ptastan* 

DD. Staminodiam notched in front... 8. philippinenae 

CC. Length of petaU oier I ft 9. SuulMUDtUII 

AA. Sei)aU iBith the nimea vnited by slender 

cron-nervet, htnce reticulated 10. Stooei 

5. Roflischadiinum, Pfitz. (CypripMium EothKhildi- 
dnum, Beichb. f. C. neo-guineinse, lind.). Fig. 2756. 
LvB. up to 2 ft. long and 3 in. wide, glossy green: scape 
erect, a little exceeding the lvs., violet, minutely 
pubescent, the bract yellowish green^ ciliate, lined 
with black-purple; fls. about 5 in. m long diam.; 
dorsal sepal ovate, acute, ciliolate, about lo-nerved, 
yellow, lined with black-purple; petals about 5 in. long, 
twice larger than sepals, linear, 7-nerved, undulate, pale 
green, purple-spotted; hp about as long as sepals. 

lateral somewhat compressed, dull purple, the apex 
yellow. Winter. Borneo and Sumatra. R. 2:61. B.M. 
7102. V.O. 4:45. G.F. 6:14.^. .4.0.21:91. G.C. III. 

27:137. Gt. 61, pp. 486, 487. 60:3. R.B. 24:221. 
Var. ElUottianum, Pfitz. {Cyprividium EUioUiAnum, 
O'Brien). Fls. ivory-white, red-uned; petals shorter; 
staminodium acutely 2-toatfacd at apex. Phihppines. 
L. 4:186. J.H. III. 32:55. A.F. 6:557; 7:855. Var. 
pUtytiboium, Hort. Sepals and petals longer and 
broader than in the type. L. 623. 

6. glandulfferum, Pfitz. {Cypriphdium glandullferum, 
Blume. C. prolans, Veitch, not Reichb. f.). Lvs. 
strap-shaped, up to 8 in. long and nearly 1 in. wide: 
scape dull purple, 1-fld., scarcely exceeding lvs., or 
several-fld. and exceeding the !vs.; fls. green and rose; 
dorsal sepal narrowly ovate, acute, about 13-nerved, 
nearly IJ^ in. long; petals about 2)4 in. long, dcflexed, 
lanceolate and long-attenuate from o, rhomboid base, 
twisted, the undulate margins with hair-bearing warts; 
Up about equaling the petals, the broad claw about half 
the length of lip, the basal lobes very narrow, involute, 


the sac very short and confined to apex of lip. Sum- 

. New&ui 

litch, ni 

C. glandullferu:,, .u.~.., ^^^ ^.u^^,. ^.n. =v.»i^ 
shaped, up to 1 ft. long and 2^ in. wide: sc^ie about 
equaling lvs., black-purple, pubescent, eeveral-fld.; 
dorsal sepal oblong, acute, about 15-nerved, whitish, 
purple-lined, yellowish on back, about 2 in. lon^; 
petals yellow, about 5 in. long, twisted, cuneBt«-eUiptic 
and long-attenuate from a narrow base, the undulate 
margins with hair-bearing warts; Up a Uttle longer than 
the sepals, shining, yellow suiTusea red^ the sac later- 
ally comprised conic. Aug. New Gumea. L. 3 : 102. 
I.H. 34:26. Var. Khnballilnum, Hort. {Cypnpidiwn 
prJBStam var. KimboJiiAiium, Hort.). Lines on the 
sepals broader; petals broader at base, densely red- 
lined, the warts larger; lip white, roee-euffused. New 
Guinea. L. 249. 

8. philiiipinfiiise, Pfitz. (Cypripidium philippiniitte, 
Reichb. f. C. Ixvigitjim, Batem.). Lvs. oblong-ligu- 

late, up tJ) 1 ft. long, glos^: scape up to IH ft. tall, 
3-5-fld.; fls. 3 in. largest diam.; donol sepal broadly 
ovate, acute, whitish, striped purple-brown; petals ' 

linear, twisted, 5-6 in. long, ciUate, with smoU hair- 
bearing basal warts, yellowish at base, passing into 
dull purple, the apex pale green; Up buff-yellow, Uned 
faintly with brown. April and May. Phihppines. B.M. 
6508. G.C. 1865:914. F.M. 298. B.H. 1867:8. F.a 
17:1760,1761. G.F.3:309. Var. pUtjrtffenium, Desb. 
Petals a little longer and twice broader than in type. 
Var. Cannsrtiinum, Pfitz. {Cypripidium CaTtnxr- 
UAnum, Linil. C. RoebbeUnii var. CannserHAnum, 
Pucci). Lateral sepals not united as in type. 

9. Sanderiinum, Pfitz. {Cypriphdium Sandeninum, 
Reichb. f.). Lvs. up to I ft. long: scape barely as l<Mig 
as lvs., purple, pubescent, several-fld.; fls. about 4 in. 
largest iliam.; dorsal sepals broadly lanceolate, concave, 
acute, ciliolate, paio ycllowinh green with broad brown 
lines, pubescent on back; petals linear, twisted, 1^ ft. 
long or more, ciliate at the broader base, pale yellow 
margined with brown-purple at base, above this spotted 
with brown-purple, the remainder, the greater part, 
dull purple barred or spatted here and there with pale 




yellow; lip brown-purple above, pale yellow beneath. 
Feb.-May. Malay Archipelago. G.C. III. 19:329. 
Gt.43, p. 520. R. 1:3. 

10. StdneL Pfitz. (Cypriphdium Stdnei, Hook.). Lvs. 
up to 1 ^ ft. long: scape up to 2 ft. tall, greenish purple, 
pubescent, 3-5-fld.; fls. about 4 in. greatest diam.; 
dorsal sepal cordate, acuminate, white, with usually 
2 or 3 dark crimson streaks: petals 5-6 in. long, linear, 
twisted, sparsely ciliate at base, the lower two-thirds 
pale tawny yellow, crimson-spotted, the remainder 
crimson; hp dull rose, veined and reticulated with 
crimson, the narrow infolded lobes whitish; stamino- 
dium fringed except in front. Autumn. Borneo. B.M. 
5349. I.H. 10:355. F.S. 17:1792, 1793. L. 6:281. Var. 
acrosdrndum, Reichb. f. Dorsal sepal narrower than in 
^rpe, the lateral sepals free. Var. CamuertilUium, Hort. 
Dorsal sepal white; petals longer than in the tsrpe, 
creamy white with a central line of chocolate spots. 
Var. platytteium, Reichb. f. Fls. larger, the petals 
much broader, white, spotted with yelk>w and purple, 
the apex carmine. G.C. 1867:1118. F.M. 1880:414. 

Section III. 
▲. Scape aeveral'/ld. 

B. Fls, all appearing at same time: 
Iva. nearly erect. 
c. Petals with hairy warts, narrow, 

pendent, much twisted 11. Parishii 

cc. Petals without toarts, dilated at 

apex, divaricate. 

D. Staminodium cordate, with a 

tooth in the sinus; apex of 

petals 4 times broader than 

lower half 12. Lowei 

DD. Staminodium oval, 2-lohed; 
petals hyt little broader at 

apex 13. Haynaldi- 

BB. Fls. appearing in succession: lvs. [aniun 

c. Lvs. green, more or less netted. 

D. Pouch long and narrow 14. Victoria- 


DD. Pouch short and broad 15. Chamber- 


cc. Lvs. glaucous, not netted 16. glaucophvl- 

AA. Scape 1-, very rarely £-, fid. [lum 

B. Lvs. not netted or reticulated: sepals 
always netted. 
c. Staminodium not lunate. 

D. The staminodium with 3 pro- 
tuberances 17. hirstttis- 

DD. The staminodium with 1 pro- [simiuii 

s. Margins of Haminodium flat; 
petals fiat or but slightly 
undukUe on margins. 
r Petals dilated; stamino- 
dium cbcordate. 
Q. Ovary white - villous; 
petals much dilated, 
the upper part almost 

orbicular 18. viUoBum 

oo. Chary purple hairy. 

B. Staminodium pilose 
I. Dorsal sepal much 
larger than lower 

sepals 19. insigne 

II. Dorsal sepal about 
as long as lower 

sepals 20. ezu! 

HH. Staminodium gla- 
brous 21. Charles- 

FF. Petals elliptic; stamina- [worthii 

dium cordate 22. Dnsryi 

KK. Margin, the posterior, of 
staminodium retolute; pet- 
als strongly undulate on 

margin 23. Spicerianum 

cc. Staminodium, lunate 24. Fairieanttm 

Lvs. netted or reticulated. 

c. Petals manifestly dilated above. [anum 

D. Staminodium umbonate 25. Apjkletoiii- 

DD. Staminodium not umbonate. 
B. Lvs. pale beneath, shorter 
than scape. 
F. Sepals not reticulated. 
G. Petals, the upper mar- 
gin with warts; stam- 
inodium nearly rhom- 
boid 26. BuUenianum 

OG. Petals without warts. ... 27. Volonteanum 
FF. Sepals manifestly reticu- 
lated 28. Hookera 

BE. Lvs. violet-marbled beneath, 

about as long (u scape 29. yenustum 

cc. Petals not or but little dilated above. 
D. Margin of Totals naked or cili- 
ate, but vnthout spots or xoarts. 
E. Sepal-nerves numerous, 
F. Front of lunate stamino- 
dium £-lobed. 
G. Petals wUh upper mar- 
gin naked 30. tonsum 

GG. Petals ciliate on both 
H. Dorsal sepal obtuse.. .31. Mastersi- 
HH. Dorsal sepal acute or [anum 
I. Sinus of stamino- 
dium not 3- 
toothed; dorsal 
sepal ovate, acu/«.32. virens 
n. Sinus of stamino- 
dium 3-toothe d; 
dorsal sepal near- 
ly orbicular, long- 
acuminate 33. javanicttiii 

FF. Front of staminodium not 

B-lobed, nearly orbicular. 34. Dayanum 

BE. Sepal-nerves few, distant 35. piirporatiim 

DD. Margin of petals with spots or 
warts bearing tufts of hairs. 
E. Petals somewhat falcate or 
deflexed, their upper sur- 
face marked with numerous 
spots or warts. 
F. Margin of petals with 
numerous approximate 
warts or spots. 
G. Lip longer than the 
petals, obliquely de- 
scending 36. Curtitii 

OG. Lip equaling or shorter 

Chan the pdals, directly 

descending. > 

H. Claw of the lip less 

than half as long as 

the sac 37. ciliolare 

HH. Claw of the lip half as 

long as the sac 38. superbiens 

FF. Margin of petals with few 

large warts 39. Argus 

BE. Petals sigmoid, or curved in 
two directions, their upper 
surface spotless or with 
few spots. 
F. Upper margin of petals 
only with warts. 
G. Lower sepal elliptic- 
ovate, obtuse; lobes of 
lip with small warts. . .40. barbatum 
GG. Lower sepal narrowly 
ovate, acute; lobes of 

lip with large warts 41. callosum 

FF. Upper and lower margins 

of petals with warts 42. Lawren- 


11. P&rishii, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium Pdrishii, Reichb. 
f.). Lvs. oblong-ligulate, up to 16 in. long and 2^ u^* 
wide, bright green: scape 4-8-fld.. pale green, downy; 
fls. about 3 in. across; dorsal sepal oblong-elliptic, pale 
yellow, green-veined, the upper part bent forward, the 
basal lateral margins revolute; petals twisted, linear, 
4-6 in. long, pendulous, the basal part green, with few 
blackish dots, the upper half blackish purple, pale- 
margined; hp deep green, often stained brown-purple; 





staminodium pale yellow, CTeen-mottled, obovate- 
oblong. Autumn. Moulmein. B.M.5791. Gt. 47, p.25. 
I.H. 22:214. 

12. Ldwei, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium L&weiy Lindl.)- Lvs. 
ligulate, up to 15 in. long: scape much exceeding lvs., 
nodding, 3-6-fld.; fls. 3-4 in. cliam.; dorsal sepal oval, 
acute, yellowish green, veined with purplish brown at 
base, pubescent at the back; petals spatulate, twisted, 
about 3 in. long, deflexed, the basal part yellow, black- 
spotted, the upper part violet-purple; hp brown, paler 
beneath; stammodium obcordate, the border with 
purple hairs, a small erect hairy horn at the base. 
April and May. Borneo. F.S. 4:375. A.F. 11:1349. 
R.H. 1857, p. 402; 1883, p. 352; 1885, p. 473. Var. 
crucif6rme. Hall. {Cypripbdium crucifdrme. Zoll. & 
Morr.). More slender, with narrower paler lvs. which 
are often obscurely marbled. W. Java. 

13. Haynaldiftnum, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium Haynaldir 
dnuniy Reichb. f.). Lvs. up to 16 m. long and 2 in. 
broad: scape much exceeding lvs., long-hairy, 4r-6-fld.; 
fls. 4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal oval, obtuse, whit- 
ish tinted with rose above, the lower half with revolute 
margins pale yellowish green, with large brown spots: 
petals spatulate-linear, 3-4 in. long, twisted ana 
recurved above, cihate, yellowish green below with 
large brown spots, the upper talf pale dull purple; lip 
pale green, tinged with dull purple; staminodiimi 
oblong, 2-lobed in front. Jan.-May. Phihppine Isls. 
B.M. 6296. 

14. Victdria-Mlbiae, Rolfe (Cypripbdium Vicidrior 
Mdrise. Rolfc). Lvs. broadly linear-oblong, paler 
beneath: scape several-fld., mucn exceeding lvs., brown, 
pubescent; fls. about 4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal 
nearly orbicular, concave, the margin reflexed, white- 
ciliate: petals about \]/i in. long, spreading, linear- 
lanceolate, twisted, white-ciliate, green, red-margined; 
lip about as long as petals, purple, green-margined; 
staminodium rhomboid-ovate. Sumatra. B.M. 7573. 

15. ChamberiainiJInum, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium Cham- 
berlainidnumy O'Brien). Lvs. up to 1 ft. long and IJ^ 
in. wide, narrowly white-margined: scape much exceed- 
ing lvs., several-fld., ^ayish brown, densely pilose, 
nodding; fls. about 4 m. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal 
almost orbicular, emarginate, the basal margin reflexed, 
white-ciUate, green, suffused with brown at base, the 
curved nerves brown: petals about 1}^ in. long, linear, 
spreading, twisted, long-ciliate, green, marked with 
small purple spots in lines along the nerves; Up about 
as long as sepals, pale green, with many violet dots. 
Sumatra. B.M. 7578. R.H. 1892, pp. 104, 105. G.F. 
5:413. Gn.W. 8:641. G.W.6, p. 471. R.B. 26:253. 

16. glaucoph^llum, J. J. Smith. Lvs. glaucous, 
broadly strap-shaped: scape many-fld.; dorsal sepal 
orbicular-ovate; petals linear, twisted, ciliate, red- 
dotted; lip large, violet; staminodium large, ovate, 
black-violet. Java. B.M. 8084. 

17. hirsutfssimtmi, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium hirsutis- 
simum, Lindl.). Lvs. narrowly strap-shaped, up to 6 
in. long and J^in. wide, indistinctly marbled: scape 
shorter than the lvs., black-purple, hirsute. 1-fld.; ns. 
4-5 in. greatest diam. ; dorsal sepal nearly orbicular, the 
base and central part marked with blackish purple, 
often confluent dots, the remainder green; petals about 
3 in. long, broadly spatulate, spreading, somewhat 
twisted, the margin undulate, the base marked with 
deep purple on a green ground and studded with many 
black hairs, the upper bright violet-purple; lip dull 
green, purple-stained and with minute blackish warts; 
staminodium almost square, with 3 protuberances and 
2 white eyes. March-May. Assam. B.M. 4990. J.H. 
III. 52:513. R.H. 1859, pp. 182, 183. I.H. 4, p. 67 
(note). F.S. 14:1430. 

18. villdsum, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium vUldsumy Lindl.). 
Lvs. up to 18 in. long and 1)^ in. broad, grass-green, 

with the lower surface paler and purple-spotted toward 
the base: scape nearly as long as lvs., 1-fld., hairy; fls. 
5-6 in. greatest diam., glossy, the sepals and petals 
cihate; dorsal sepal broa^y oval, green, the base and 
center marked with brown-purple, the margin with a 
narrow white band, the basal margins revolute; petals 
about 3 in. long, strongly dilated above, yellow-brown, 
undulate^ purple-hairy at the base, the midvein brown- 
purple; hp brownish yellow, the broad infolded lobes 
tawny yellow; staminodium tawny yeUow, oblong- 
cordate. Jan., Feb. Moulmein. I.H. 4:126. A.F. 
6:555. Gn. 65, p. 435. Var. Bfixallii, Veitch (Cypri- 
pbdium BdxaUiij Reichb. f. P. Bdxalliij Pfit2.). Dorsal 
sepal narrower at base, the central part marked with 
numerous, often confluent, black spots, the marginal 
band broader. Moulmein. I.H. 26:345. G.W. 5, p. 
545. Gng. 15:306. Other varieties are: var &lbo-mai^ 
ginHtum, Pfitz., the white margin of dorsal sepal broader; 
var. atrHtum, Pfitz. (also known as var. Bdxauii cUrdtum). 
has the dorsal sepal strongly marked with black spots and 
the white border broad, the petals yellow-brown above, 
spotted below, and yellow-margined (R. II. 1:8); var. 
aiireum, Pfitz. , dorsal sepal lemon-yellow, strongly black- 
spotted, the petals above red-lined; var. canari^nse, 
Pfitz., ns. witn a general yellow tinge; var. gigantdum. 
Pfitz.. in color much like var. aureum^ the petals and 
dorsal sepals larger; var. G6rtonii, Pfitz.. dorsal sepal 
with a narrow purple band, bright emerald, the petals 
pale rose-purple narrowly bordered with greenish black; 
var. Lfndenii, Pfitz., fls. larger and more brilliant; var. 
MeasuresilUium. Pfitz., in color resembling var. airatum, 
the dorsal sepal yellowish green with a purple base, 
the hp pale cream: var. Modnsii, Pfitz., dorsal sepal 
black for two-thirds its height, then ohve-green bor- 
dered with pale cream, the petals reticulated, the stam- 
inodium large, the protuberance amethyst. 

19. insfgne, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium insignet Wall.). 
Lvs. linear, up to 1 ft. long and ^in. broad, pale green: 
scape usually shorter than lvs., 1-, rarely 2-fld., densely 
purple-pubescent; fls. 4-5 in. greatest diam., glossy; 
dorsal sepal broadly oval, with margins somewhat 
revolute, the base and central portion apple-green, 
marked with numerous brown-purple spots along the 
green veins, the upper part white; petals linear-oblong, 
spreading, undulate, pale yellow-green veined brown- 
purple; hp yellowish green, brown-shaded; stamino- 
dium nearly quadrate, pubescent, the tubercle orange- 
yellow. Winter. Nepal to Assam. B.M. 3412. G.C. 
111.18:763. A.F. 7:633. F.E. 9:327. Gng. 1:243. 
A.G. 16:73; 19:825. J.H. 111.42:47. C.L.A. 11:43. Gn. 
65, p. 101 ; 72, p. 40. — Extremely variable in coloration, 
the following being some of the prominent varie- 
ties. Var. &lbens, Pfitz. Fls. soft greenish yellow^ witii 
the dorsal sepal pure white in upper half. Var. &lbo- 
marginAtum, Pfitz. Fls. yellowish; dorsal sepal white- 
bordered on entire margin, the hght-colored spots only 
on the green portion. Nepal. Var. Amesilbium, Pfitz. 
Fls. rather large, not spotted, resembhng those of var. 
Maulei; dorsal sepal with a broad white margin, the 
green part suffused with brown. Var. amdbnum, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal olive-green, marked with large brown spots, 
and widely bordered with white, with violet spots in 
the lower part of the border; petals olive-green, suffused 
with brown; hp clear maroon-brown. Khasia. Var. 
apicul^tum, Hort. Var. AmoldiUnum, Pfitz. Fls. larger 
than in var. Maulei; dorsal sepal greenish yellew, 
broadly white-margined, the spots confined to the green 
part. G.F. 7:425. A.F. 6:115. Var. aiireum, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal yellow below; petals and hp clear yellow- 
brown. Var. Breevesiilntmi, Hort. Dorsal sepal oblong, 
the lower two-thirds yellowish green, with brown dots m 
regular lines, the remainder white; petals reddish brown. 
Var. Brdwnii, Pfitz. Fls. large, pale green; dorsal sepal 
strongly marked with large pustules, each with a white 
dent at the apex: petals spotted. A.F. 7:65. Var. 
brug^nse, Hort. Var. ChJintinii, Pfitz. One of the best 


Tmrieties; doTsal aepal large, olive-green below heavily 
spotted with brown, the upper part only white with a 
few larsE mauve spota; lip mahogany, polished, Nepal. 
R.H. 1878:130. G. 25:60. Var. citrtnum, Pfiti. Fls. 
clear citron-yellow, except dorsal sepal, which is clear 
gieen at base, bordered with white and some clear 
mauve spots. Var. comiKfttum, Pfitz. Lip comisated. 
Var. ColaoniJUmm, Pfiti. Fl. large, with a broad dor- 
sal sepal. Var. Cowperiinum. Fls. greenish yellow: 
dorsal sepal Uke that of var. aibo-jnars/inalum, spotted 
at base; petals larger; lip laree. Var. CuhingUnum, 
Pfitt. Fls. large, clear green; dorsal sepal broad, the 
Upper part white, with numerous clear violet spots. 
Var. Domuniinuffi, Hort. Var. Dorothy. Fls. yellow, 
in form like those of var. CAanftnii. Var. Dowminilnum, 
Hort. Var. Smestii, Pfitz. In form and color resem- 
bling var. Sanderr, but the spots on dorsal sepal r 
distinctly defined. V'ar. Eyeimannii, Hart. 
Resembles var, Sanders; fls. i]i.Mr|in-c\ii>)L 
yellow, the dorsal sepal iiiih ;i f.w 
mdistinct small spots, the 
white. Var, EyemianniilDuin = 
monnit. Var. FSrstermanii, Plii/. 1> 
sepal with abroad white bonier; ;j 
distinctly brown-veined. 
Nepal. Var. fusdtum, 
Pfiti. R.B. 20:25. Var. 
GItmor«anum, Pfitz. V\a. 
large, resembling those of 
var. Cliantinii; dorsal sepal 
very broad, bordered 
white, with large brown 
spots in the center and 
smaller ones toward the 
border. Var. gridte, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal narrow, yel- 
lowish green, irregularly 
brown-spotted, white bor- 
der broad. Var. Gravesi- 
Isam, Pfitz. Fla. on a long 
peduncle; dorsal sepal 
broad wlute border and nu 
brown spots arranged in regular 
Hnea. Var. guttHtum, Hort. H.U. 
1851:201. Var. H.iiia«vm. Pfitz. 
Sepals longer and broader than 
UBuaL Var. Harofleld Hall, Hort, 
A fine variety, with large fls. ; dorsal 
sepal large and round, with a hroad 
wbit« margin and large bright 
brown spots. Var. Horsnumiitnmn, 
Pfiti, Dorsal sepal cuneate-obliirig, 
with the entire upper portion 
white. Var. HnncIBinnm, Hon, 
Doraal sepal greenish yellow the 
basal hall suHused with reddish 
brown, the apex white, Var. illlistTe, Pfitz. Fls, yel- 
lowish, the sepals and petals spotted. Var. KimbalU- 
Innm, Pfiti. Sepal more than 3 times longer than 
broad, flat, yellowish green, the spots r unnin g in lines 
into the wnite border: petals strongly veined. Khasia. 
Var. UcWB, Hort. Dorsal sepal with a dark brown 
center, BUghtl^ suffused at edges with greenish yellow, 
with 4 or S pmk marks, the whole margined with pure 
white. Var. Laura Kimball, Hort. Fb. resembling those 
o( var. Sanderx, but of a chamois-yellow, with a few 
brown hairs at the base of the petals. Var. longiBfi- 
palnm, Pfitz. Doraal sepal ven' long and narrow, 
appearing narrower on account of its reflexed margins, 
jMle green sUghtly tinted and veined brown at base, 
rootless, with a small white apex, Var. LBcianii, Pfitz, 
Fls. bright yellow, tinted green, dorsal sepal clear green 
at base, with only 2 or 3 large dots of bronzy yellow, 
white border very broad. Var. Ifiteo-ilbum, Hort, 
Upper two-thirds of dorsal sepal pure white, remainder 
yeUowiab gneo with few spotA. Var. LutchwychA- 


innm, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal narrower basal maivinB 
wavy, the upper white passing into pale yellow, 
spots hardly visible. Var. Hacf&rlanei, Pfitz. Fls. clear 

yellow; dorsal sepal with a broad white border, but 
without the usual pustules. Var, Handevilleiiium, 
Pfitz, Resembles var. aUm^marffinatum: petals with 
numerous spots in regular lines. Var, HaUei, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal with the white predominant, extendbg to 
the baae on either side of the green center, the upper 

of a golden yellow, with a brownish tinge due to the 
large spots; petals yellow, striated with bro«'n-red. 
Var. Mooreinum, Pfitz. Fls, pale yellow, petals pale 
greenish yellow; dorsal sepal broad-ovate, with a broad 
white margin; central spots largest, smaller toward the 
margin; petals brown-veined. Nepal, Var, HEsomi, 
Pfitz, Lip smalt, round. Var. punctatfasimum, Hort. 
Doraal sepal entirely covered with brown spots except 
a narrow white margin. Var. Sinderte, Pfitz. Fig. 
2757. Lvs, and scape paler dorsal sepal primrose-yel- 
low with a few minute reddish brown dots, the upper 
part white; petals yellow; lip waxy yellow, Gng. 7:196. 
A.G. 21:326. Gt. 5G:1559. Var. SanderiAnum, Pfitz. 
Fls. yellowish green, reticulated with darker green 
nerves, the dorsal sepal with a broad white border. 
Var. Studbylnum, llort. Var, supfirbiens, Hort, Var. 
sylhetfinse, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal with large dark spots 
somewhat confluent in lines along the middle. 

20. exfil, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium exiH, O'Brien). Lva, 
up to 8 in, long and nearly 1 in. broad, narrowly strap- 
shaped, lightly marbled, very narrowly white-mareined : 
scape longer than ivs., green, purple-hairy, 1-fld.; fls. 
about 3 in. greatest diam.; doraal sepal broadly ovate, 
obtuse, reticulate-veined, yellowish green with a white 
margin, brown-spotted; petals longer than the sepals, 
oblong, a Uttle dilated toward the apex, ciliate, yellow 
Bparsely spotted and hned with brown; lip marked like 
petals. Siam. CO. pi. 13. B.M, 7510, 

21. ChirleEworthii, Pfitz. {CypripMium Chdrlea- 
worthii, Rolfe). Lvs. spotted, up to 10 in. long and 1 
in, broad: scape 1-fld., about as long as lvs., purple- 

rtted, pubescent; fls. about 3 in. greatest diam.; 
sal sepal broadly ovate, large, about 2|^ in. Ions, 
obtuse, nearly flat, white, mottled and suffused wita 
pale carmine or purple-rose; petals horizontally apread- 
mg, a Uttle shorter than sepal, oblong, obtuse, long- 
hairy at base on inner surface^ sparsely ciliate, yel- 
lowish green, striated or reticulated with brown. 
Autumn. Bengal. B.M. 7416. R.B, 20:241. On. 47:252. 
A,F. 13:430. J.H. HI. 45:469. 0,R. 1 :335, L. 10:443. 
A.G, 25:561.— Variable, The following varieties are 
known: Var. coachiB&rmn, Pfilz, Dorsal sepal con- 
cave, Var. Crashawee, Pfitz. (Cypriptdium Crdshawse, 
O'Brien) Has the fleshy lvs. glaucous beneath, the fls. 
larger. Var. DesmetLbium, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal with 
the rose-veined white center surrounded by a bond of 
rose-magenta, and with a white border, Var. Duvivie- 
riinum, Pfitz, Dorsal sepal orbicular, nearly 3 in. 
diam,, pure white at the base, the radiating nerves of a 
rose-lilac, the mahogany petals tessellated with amber, 
the staminodium wbite with a chrome-ycUow umbo. 
Var. masniflcum, Pfitz, Fls. very lai^ and brilliantly 
colored. Var. marginituin, Pfitz. Doreal sepal is white 
with the base and border rose. Var. unfcolor, Pfitz. Lip 
the same color oa sepals and petals. 

22. Driryi, Pfitz. (Cj/priptdium Dritrii, Bedd,). Lva. 
ligulate, up to 8 in. long and 1^ in. wide, lightly mar- 
bled: scape longer than lva.. purple-hairy, 1-fld,; fls, 
about 3 in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal about IH in. 
long, rhombic-ovate, obtuse, nearly flat, glandular-black- 
hairy on the back, white-ciliate, yellowish green ot 
dtron-color, marked black-purple in center; petals 


falcate, pubescent on back, the face manifest]^ hairy at 
base, golden yellow, purple-lined down middle and 
brown-blotted at the base; lip about as long as petals, 
yellow. May, June. Travancore. I. H. 24:265. A.F. 
6:555. F.M. 1880:425. L. 6. 0. 1914, p. 139. 

23. SpicerUnum, Pfitz. (Ci/pripidium SpicerHnum, 
Reichb. f). Lva. up to 1 ft. long, and 2 in. broad, 
broadly linear-lanceolate, pale beneath: scape about as 
long aa Ivs., dabruus, black-purple, 1-fld.; na. ^lout 3 
in. greatest aiam.; dorsal sepd transversely elliptic 
when spread out, about 1 }.^ in. long, deeply sulcate, the 
mai^ns strongly retroflexed, giving the se^ '' 

appearance of a spathe, 

D-purple band 

with red; petals a little longer than sepal, spreading, 
deflexedj somewhat falcate, oblong, strongly unilulato 
at margin, pilose at base on inner surface, green, dotted 
and auSueed with brown; lip longer than sepal, the claw 
ooeen, the pouch violet, pale^reen-margmed. Oct.- 
Dec. Assam. B.M. 6490. I.H. 30:473. Gn. 48, p. 
304. A.G. 11:159. A.F. 3:226. Gng. 1:242. F.E. 
9:329. G.W. 14, p. 73. J.H. III. 44:27.— Quite variable. 
Among otbers, are the following varieties :Var. albovlTide, 
Pfitz. Differs in absence of median color of the dorsal 
sepal. Var. grindifl&runi, Hort, Fls. larger than usual. 
Var. leodi^ase, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal for upper three- 
fourths pure white, with tender green at base, the petals 
green at the very undulate margins, with the center 
brownish green, tiie Up bronzy green. Var. magulflcum, 
Pfiti. Lower sepal pure white. Var. Mercatelliinum, 
Pfiti, Fls. yellowish white marked with purple, green 
absent. Var. nftnum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal without green 
basal spot. Var. uigrfsceiu, Pfitz. Fls. smaller, lip 
blackish brown. Var. rubtscens, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal 
pure white on back, strongly tinted with violets 
ted on face and marked down the center with a 

24. Ffdrieiiium, Pfitz. [CypripMium FairieAnvm, 
Lindl.). Lvs. up to 6 in. long and 1 in. broad, strap- 
shaped, light greci^ paler beneath: scape much exceed- 
ing lvs,. green, hairy, 1-fld.; fls. about 3 in. greatest 
diam.; dorsal sepal nearly orbicular, about 1 J^ in. long, 
the basal margin somewhat refiexed and undulate, 
reticulated at the recurved apex, ciliate, pubescent on 
back, greenish white, striated and reticulated with 
violet; petals lanceolate, undulate on the cihate mar- 
pn, green, striated with violet; lip a little shorter than 
the sepal, white at base, green at apex. Autumn. 
Bhotan. G.C. III. 38:168. J.H. 111. 51:321. Gn.M. 
3:63. B.M.5024. F.8. 12:1244. O. 1915, p. 15. 

25. AppletoniAnum, Rolfe (CypripidiuTn AppUhni- 
Anvm, Cower. C, BulleniAnvm ApvUUmidnum, Rolfe). 
Lvs. ligulate, indistinctly tessellated: scape much 
exceeding lvs., slender, velulinous, 1-fld.; fls. about 4 in. 
neatest diam.; dorsal sepal ovate, shortly acuminate, 
the man^ at apex involute, the basal margin revolute, 
yellowish green, brown-striated; petals half longer than 

Jiai, horizontally spreading, somewhat rhombio- 
at«d above, glabrous, the margins at base undulate, 
the upper margin usually with a few warts, the lower 
part green, purple-dotted, the upper part rose; lip 
green marked with purple. Siam. O.R, 4:17, CO. 
22. Var. Poyntziinum, Pfiti. iCypriptdium Poyrd- 
ndnum, O'Brien). Petals pale green, the apex lilacj 
lip whitish, rose at base, purple-epott«d within. Siam. 


diam.; dorsal sepal ovate, acuminate, the basal margins 


hturless violet-brown warts, olive-^;reen at base, roae- 
violet above; lip green, marked with greenish brown, 
longer than sepals but shorter than ))e^l8, the inflexed 
lobes with warts, March and April. Borneo. - Var. 
■nophthilmum, Reichb f. Petals not spotted; lip 
green. Var. oculfttum, Reichb. f. Claw of the lip 
ochre-color, brown-spotted; lip red-brown, bordered 
with green. 

27. Volonteiaum, Pfitz. (Cjipripidium Volmitednum, 
Sand, C. Hodkerx VoUmteAnam, Rolfe. P. Hodktrx 
VoUmteAnum Kerch.}. Fig. 2758. Lvs. up to 8 in. 
long, 2 in. broad, obscurely tessellated above, paler 
beneath: scape much exceeomg lvs., 1-fld.. pale brown 
with white hairs; fls. about 4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal 
sepal ovat«. long-acuminate, ciliate, the basal margins 
reflexed, yellowish green; petals nearly twice as long as 
sepals, deflexed, the narrow base undulate, spatulale 
and somewhat falcate, long-acuminate at apex, minutely 
toothed, at the base long-ciliate and barbed, green, 
rose at apex, upper margin with black spots; lip pale 
green, suffused rose, June, July. Borneo. Var, gicMi- 
tium, Pfitz. A robust form. Var. Ldwei, Pfitz. Datker. 
rip'edium Habkers. Reichb. 
ort,). Lvs, up to 6 in. long, 
and 2 in. wide, dark green, tes- 
sellated: scape 1-fld., much ex- 
ceeding lva., purple, pilose; fls. 
about 4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal 
sepal ovate, acuminate, pubes- 
cent on back, ciliate. yellowish 
white, markEid centrally with 
green; petals depressed, spatu- 
Jate, cihale, the undulate basal 
part green with blackish spots, 
the mar^n purple, the apex 
puiple; hp p^e green, suSuiaed 
with rose, the infolded lobea yel- 
lowish brown, purple-spotted. 
May and June, Borneo. B.M. 
6362. F,S. ]5:1565.— The fol- 
lowing varieties are known ;cami- 
liscen», liiUum, mdjtu, Meaturv- 
siAnum, and supirbieTis, 

29. venlUtum, Pfitz. (Cypnpi- 
dium venustum, Wall.). Lvs. up 
,„„...™.— .^ y^,„ ** 6 in. long and 1>^ in. wide, 
above dark green blotched with 
pale grayish green, beneath strongly violet-mottled: 
scape about ss long as tvs., I-fld., purple, pubescent; 
fls. about 3 in. ^atest diam.; dorsal sepal broadly 
ovate, acute, white, veined green; petals somewhat 
spatulate, spreading, ciliate, lon^r than sepals, barbed 
at base, the basal part green with blackish warts, the 
upper portion brownish dull purple; lip pale yellowish 
green, rose-tinged, reticulated with green, the infolded 
lobeayellow. Jan.-March. N.India. B.M, 2129, B,R. 
788, Var. MeasuresiAnum, Piiti. Fls. white and green, 
without the brown or red tinge. Var. pardlnum, Pfitz. 
{CypripHiiun pardlnum, Reichb. f. P. pordlnum, 
Pfiti.). Warts extending over whole upper surface of 
the petals which are yellow, suffused with copper-color; 
inflexed lobes of lip with large conic warts. F.M. 61. 
Var. spect&bile, Pfitz, Seape shorter than in the type, 
the petals strongly colored with mahoRany at the apex, 
the middle area brownish, irregxUorly black-spotted, the 
lip large, bronzy green, reticulated with clear gteen. 

30. Utnsum, Pfitz, (Cypripidium Wnsiim, Reichb. f,). 
Lvs, up to 8 in, long and 2 in, wide, ti?9scllated, usually 
beneath toward the base with purple: scape longer than 
lvs., 1-fld., reddish brown, shortly pilose; fls, 4-.5 in. 
greatest diam., shining; dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 
acute, ciliolate, white, green-veined, or the alternate 
shorter veins sometimes purplish; petals somewhat 
spatulate, pale green, sometimes stained with dull 
purple, green-veined, marked with a few black spots; 




Up dull green, tinged crimson and brown, the infolded 
lobes broad, warty. Autumn. Mountains of Sumatra. 
C.O. Gypripedium 6. The following varieties are 
known: cupreum; aupirhiens, with the dorsal sepal 
white at the extremity marked with clear brown; and 

31. Mastersiftnum, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium Master^ 
tiAnum, Reichb. f.). Lvs. up to 10 in. long and 2 in. 
broad, deep green, tessellated: scape longer than lvs., 
1-fld., brown-purple-long-hirsute; ns. 3-4 in. greatest 
diam.; dorsal sepal ne^rlv orbicular, ciliolate. bright 
green, the border yellowish white, green-veinea; petals 
horizontal, ciliate, obtuse, brownish red, the base paler 
with numerous blackish purple small warts on the upper 
margin and mid vein; lip pale reddish brown, the 
infolded lobes spotted dull purple on a greenish brown 

rund. Spring. Amboina. G.C. III. 15:593; 25:274. 
M. 7629. O. 1910, p. 88. 

32. virens, Pfitz. (Cypripkdium vircrw, Reichb. f. C. 
javdnicum tHlrcns, Veitch. P. javdnicum i^rensy Kerch.). 
Lv8. up to 6 in. long and 2 m. wide, obscurely tessel- 
lated above: scape somewhat exceeding lvs., brown, 
diortly pilose, 1-nd.; fls. 3-4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal 
sepal ovate, acute, ciliolate, the margin rcflexed at base, 
about IH ill* long, pale ^%en, striated darker green; 
petals divaricately spreadmg, longer than dorsal sepal, 
obtuse, green at base with scattered small, black wsai;s, 
the apex pale purple; Up about as long as sepal, green 
suffused with rose, the inflexed lobes with numerous 
contiguous small warts. N. Borneo. 

33. jav&nicum, Pfitz. {Cypripedium javdnicum, 
Reinw.). Lvs. up to 7 in. long and 2 in. wide, distinctly 
tessellated above, pale green beneath: scape longer than 
lvs., pubescent, 1-nd.; fls. 3-4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal 
sepal nearlv orbicular, long-acuminate, ciliolate, margin 
renexed below, pale green, striated darker greeny petals 
somewhat deflexed and falcate, oblong, obtuse, cdiolate, 
green, the inner siu^aoe with brown small warts; lip 
green, the inflexed lobes minutely warty. Java. F.». 
7:703. Var. mijuSyDu Buyss. Fls. larger and greener. 
Var. minuSy Pfitz. Fls. smaller. Var. sup^rbum, Hort. 

34. Dayftnum, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium Daydnum^ Reichb. 
f. C spectdbUe Daydnum, Lindl. C. supirbiens Day- 
dnuniy Reichb. f.). Lvs. up to 7 in. long and 2 in. wide, 
distinctly tessellated: scape much longer than lvs., 

Surple, pilose, 1-fld.; fls. 4-6 in. greatest diam.; 
orsal sepal broadly ovate, acuminate, ciholate, white, 
^een-vemed; petals ligulate, somewhat deflexed, long- 
ciliate with black hairs, greenish brown at base, rose- 
purple above; Up brownish purple, green-veinea, the 
mfolded lobes with numerous small purple warts. May, 
June. Borneo. F.S. 15:1527. Var. Emestianum, Pfitz. 
Petals crimson-veined at base, the apex white and 
ciliate with purple hairs. Var. P^tri, Pfitz. (Cypri- 
vhdium Pitri, Reichb. f.). Dorsal sepal long-triangu- 
lar acute, the petals somewhat broadened above, the lip 
more conical. Var. Smithillnum, Pfitz. Var. spl^ndens, 
Pfitz. I^ls. more brilliant in color. Var. sup^rbum, 
Pfitz., has the petals maroon in the center, lined with 
green, the Up maroon veined with greenish brown. 

35. porpurAtumy Pfitz. (Cypriphdium 'purpurdtum. 
lindl. P. slnicumy Hance). Lvs. up to 5 m. long ana 
IH in. wide, distinctly tessellated, paler beneath: 
scape longer than lvs., 1-fld., purple, nirsute; fls. 3-3 H 
in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal nearly orbicular, 
abruptly acute, folded at the middle, the basal margins 
revolute, white with a greenish central stain, purple- 
veined, ciliolate; petals spreading, undulate, narrowly 
eUiptic, somewhat falcate, ciUate with mixed longer 
ana shorter hairs, purplish crimson, with purple or 
green veins, numerous small blackish warts at base; Up 
Brownish purple, deeper veined and reticulated, in- 
folded purple looes with numerous warts. Autumn. 
Hong-Konff. B.M.4901. F.S. 11:1158. C.O. Cvpripe- 
dium 12. vars. KimbaUidnum and Sehgeri are known. 

36. Cdrtisii, Pfitz. (Cypripbdium Curiisii, Reichb. f.). 
Lvs. up to 8 in. long, tesseUated above: scape longer 
than lvs., 1-fld., pub^cent; fls. 3-4 in. diam., the segms. 
ciUolate; dorsal sepal broadly ovate, acuminate, grass- 
green, white-margined, the numerous green veins purple 
toward the base; petals ligulate, deflexed, the tips 
recurved, the margin with black hairs and warts, psue 
purple, white along the midvein, uniformly purple- 
spotted, green-veined; Up helmet-shaped, brownish 
purple, the infolded narrow purple lobes with darker 
warts. May, June. Sumatra. A.F. 6:557. Gng. 1:41. 
L. 3: 140. Var. amdbnum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal brown at 
base with a broad white margin; petals green toward 
apex. Var. p&Uidum, Pfitz. FLs. more delicately 
colored; petals almost white at apex, stron^y dotted 
with clear purple; Up pale greenish, Ughtly tinted pale 

37. ciUol&re, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium cilioldre, Reichb. 
f.). Lvs. obtuse, oblong-eUiptic, 6-8 in. lone, tessellated: 
scape longer than lvs., 1-fld., hirsute, black-brown; fls. 
4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal broadly ovate, acumi- 
nate, ciUolate, white, purple at the base, green-veined, 
or the lateral veins sometimes purple; petals deflexed. 
recurved, ciliate with long black hairs, green towara 
base with numerous blackish warts, psde purple at 
apex: Up manifest, helmet-shaped, dull brownish 
purple, the pale yeUow-green infolded lobes with purple 
waits. April- July. Malay Archipelago and rhiUp- 

2ines. LH. 31:530. G.C. III. 21:348. Var. Miteau- 
aum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal nearly triangular, red- 
dish crimson at base and strongly black-nervea, the 
border white, Ughtly tinted rose : petals crimson at base, 
dotted with blackish brown. L. 3 : 146. Other varie- 
ties are: Elmirednumj grandifldrum, magnificum, mdjcir 
mum, splindenSf and spl&ndidum. 

38. sup^rbiens, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium sup^bienSy 
Reichb. f. C. barhdtum var. Veitchiiy Linn. C barbdtum 
var. supirbienSf Morr. C. Veilchidnumj Hort.). Lvs. 
up to 8 m. long and 214 ii^- broad, oblon^-elUptic, tessel- 
lated: scape longer than lvs., brown, white-pQose, 1-fld.: 
fls. about 4 in. greatest diam., the segms. cdiate; dorsal 
sepal broadly ovate, acute, white, green-striped; petals 
deflexed, Ugulate, white, green-veined, with numerous 
blackish warts, the marginal ones larger; lip somewhat 
helmet-shaped, brownish purple, pale green below, 
the infolded lobes crimson and warty. May-July. 
Malay Peninsula. I.H. 12:429. F.S. 19:1996. A.F. 
7:707. R.H. 1871,p. 596. J.H. IIL 50:3. F.W. 1872: 
33. — ^Vars. D6midoffii and Lindenii are known. 

39. Argus, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium Argus^ Reichb. f. C. 
harbdtum var. Argus, Hort. C. Pitcheridnum, Manda). 
Lvs. acute, up to 8 in. long and l}4^' wide, tessellated: 
scap)e longer than lvs.. brown-hairy, 1- or rarely 2-fld.; 
fls. 2}^-3 m. greatest oiam.; dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 
acute, ciUolate, w^^> ^^^ ^a^ rarely spotted blackish 
piilrple, green-veined, or the longer veins sometimes 
purple; pet^s undulate, ligulate, deflexed, acute, ciUate, 
white, tne veins pale green, the upper third pale purple, 
the inner surface with blackish warts; lip duU brownish 
purple, pale greenish brown beneath, the narrow 
infolded lobes pale purple, deeper spotted. March, 
April. Luzon. B.M. 6175. F.M. 1876:220. B.H. 
32:241. R.2:83. C.O. 5. A.F. 3:179. Var. Boddfibrtii, 
Pfitz. Petals narrower and more strongly deflexed. 
Var. Lfndenii, Pfitz. Colors brighter; dorsal sepal 
larger. Var. Modnsii, Pfitz. (Cypriphdium Moensidnum, 
Hort.). Dorsal sepal very large, pointed, white, green- 
Uned; petals broader, white, green-lined, strongly 
spotted with blackish crimson, the spots confluent in 
transverse masses; Up greenish yeUow below, maroon 
above. L. 3:129. Var. nigricans, Pfitz. Spots con- 
gested and confluent. Var. nigro-macuUttum, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal white, lightly tintea rose, dotted reddish 
brown at base; petals green at base, strongly black- 
spotted ; Up maroon above, oUve below. Var. sup^rbum. 


PfitE. Dorsal se|>al round, lightly acumimtte, white, 
BtroDgly veined with shimDE green, the border here and 
there spotted with reddish purple; petals white at 
base, pflen-lined, and almost entirely black-spotted ; 
hp reticulated. Other varieties known are: bifliirum,, 
gigantkum, graTtdifldrum, Mantinii, Morreniinwn, tnuZli- 
a^, nigrum, purpurMum, and liffrinum, 

40, barbfttiun, Pfitz. (Cypripidium barbAtum, lindl. 
C. parpurAtum, Wight). Lvs. acute, up to 6 in. long, 
tessellated: scape tonfcer than lvs., black-purple, pub^ 
cent, 1- or rarely 
2-fld.; fls. 2M-3in. 
greatest diaiD.; dor- 
sal sepal nearlv 
orbicular, pointea, 
folded at the mid- 
less purple-etained, 
green at base, the 
veins prominent, 
deep purple, the cen- 
tral green at base; 
petals spreading, 
somewhat deflexea, 
oblong -hnear, dil- 
ate, the upper mar- 


nth ; 

blackish v 

btid. (See lupplemealaiy lut.) (XH) 

3, tbe 

green, the apex 
purple; lip helmet- 
shaped, deep brown- 
ish purple^ paler 
below, the mfolded 
purple lobes deeper- 
spotted. June, July. 
Malay Peninsula. 
B. M. 4234. B.R. 
27,p.53(desc.). F. 
8.3:190. B.H.33:7. 
V. 0. 4:12. Var. 
bifldrum, Pfiti. 
Scape 2-fld. Var. 
Gimilfscens. Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal white 
and green in about 
equal proportions, 
,; petals olive-green, 
with a few block dots; hp 

the nerves dork green an;: 

whitish rose at the apex , ^ 

maroon. Var. CrSssii, Pfitz, (Cypripidium Crdsstt. 
Hort. C. barbAtum var. WameriAnum, Warn.). Dorsal 
sepal large, nearly round, the upper half pure white, 
the center green, striped deep maroon and tinted rose- 
purple between the nerves; petals strongly reflexed, 
rose-violet toward the apex which terminates with a 
white spot; hp clear maroon. B.H. 15:227. Var. 
gruidifldrum, PfitE. Dorsal sepal very large, the 
apex pure white, lined and veined with rose-purple at 
base; petals olive-green above, black-spotted, rose- 
magenta below toward the apex; lip large, deep purple- 
maroon. Var. HSnderaonii, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal has a 
broad white border, the center shaded with violet, and 
the base lined with tender green; petals undulate, 
rellexed, the upper surface olive-green, the lower sur- 
face light rose heavily shaded green, the extremity with 
a white point; lip deep maroon. Var. illfiatre, Pfitz. 
Dorsal sepal round, acuminate, white, green-lmcd at 
base, banded with blackish purple, and broadly white- 
bonlcred; i^etals brownish green above, rose-salmon, 
below; lip vciy large, blackish brown. Var, mijus, 
Pfitz. Resembles var. frandiflorum, but is more robust 
and has larger fls. of richer color. Var. ntnnm, pgtz. 
Dorsal sepal small, only about 1 in. long; petals some- 
what falcate, about IK in. long, with 2-4 worts. Var. 
nigrltum, Pfitz. {Cyprip'cdium nigrMum, Rcichb. f.). 
Dorsal sepal oblong, acute; petals narrower. Perhaps 

^natural hybrid. Borneo. Var. n^nun- Pfiti. Dorgal 
jepal verv ta^;e, oval, strongly lined witn deep crimson 
and shaded violet^purple, the center greenish whit«. 

the border broad white; petals bronzy black above; 
lip blackish brown. A.F. 36:1184. Gng. 20:34. Var. 
O'Brienii, Pfiti. Dorsal sepal small, less than 1 in. long; 
petals falcate, with 6-S warts. Var. drbum. Pfitz. 
(Cffpripkdium drbum, Reichb. t.). Fls. paler tnan in 
the type. Var. porph^reum, PfiU. Doiaid sepal very 
broad, round, reticulated, reddish violet on a white 
ground, the border pure white; petals olive-green 
above, rose-violet below; lip very large, blackish brown. 
Var. pulchtrrimum, Pfitz. Perhape a natural hybrid 
between P. Hookerx and P. hirgutwimwn. Var. 
su^rbum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal orbicular, very flat, 
Btnped with very deep crimson and black-veined; 
petals reddish wine-color above, and olive-brown below 
with a central block bond. Var. Wimeri, Pfiti. Dorsal 
sepal very broad, nearly orbicular, white, strongly lined 
with dark green, stained with red-magenta, with a 
broad white border; petals shining dark green above; 
lip deep maroon. Other varieties known are: ptjTanihjTn, 
grddie, mosAicum, ndbUe, pfdum, piujndsum, purpiireum. 

41. callftsum, Pfitz. (Cypripidium caUAsum, Reichb. 
f.). Lvs. acute, up to 10 in. long; tessellated: scape 
longer than lvs., brownish purple, 1-, or sometimes 
a-fld.; fls. 4 in. greatest diam.; dorsal sepal broadly 
ovate, cordate, white, veins green at base, deep purple 
above, alternately longer ana shorter; petals spreading, 
ligulate, pole green, tinted pale rose at apex, with 4 or 5 
b^kish warte on upper margin; lip nelmet-ehaped, 
brownish purple, the infolded lobes purple-spotted. 
Feb., March. Siam, R.H. 1888:252. L. 2:73. CO. 
Cypripcdium 7. Var. gi^antftum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal 
brmd, white, shaded with emerald-green lined with 
deep green. Var. Rosaiftnnm, Pfitz. Petals longer, 
narrower, and strongly falcate. Var. Sindene, Pfitz. 
Fls. white, the dorsal sepal green-veined. CO. Cypri- 
pedium 15a. Var. ScImudtiinuDi, Pfitz. (Cupripidivm 
Sehmidtiinum, Kranzl.). Petals at base demnreo; lobes 
of the lip inflexed, thickened, subacute at apex; stam- 
inodium less angled, nearly orbicular. Var. anblAvet 
Pfitz. Petals without warts or hairs on the surface. 
Var. viridifldnun, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal and petals green- 
ish white, veined with deep gray. 

42. Lawrenceinum, Pfitz. (C]/pripidium Laitnnet- 
dnuni. Reichb. f,}. Lvs. up to 10 m. long, 2^ in. broad, 
tessellated: scape longer than tvs., brownish purple, 
pubescent, 1-, or rarely 2-fld.; fls. 4-5 in. greatest diam.; 
dorsal sepal nearly orbicular, white, the veins alter- 
nately longer and shorter, deep purple, the central 
ones usually green at base; petals spreading, ciliate, 
ligulate, green, the tips purple, each margin with 5-10 
blackish worts; lip dull purple, brown-tinged above. 


I beneath.' April-Jufy. W32, "Hi"." 30:478. 
'^:2372. G.C. III. 21:291. G.Z. 24, p. 1. J.H. 

111.51:51; 63:515. Var. Abbottlinnm, __ 

large, the dorsal sepal with veins deep crimson. Var. 
atropu^ttreum, Ilort. Same as following. Var. atrorft- 
brum, Pfitz. Fls, richly colored, especially the dorsal 
sepal. Var. bifldnun, Pfitz. Scape 2-fld., the lower fl. is 
normal, while the dorsal sepal of the upper fl. is reflexed. 
Var. coloritum. Pfitz. Dorsal sepal subacute, inter- 
nervcs pale violet, warts of the petals numerous. Var. 
axpinsum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal much larger than in 
the type; petals larger. Var. Greni^ Pfitz. Dorsal 
sepal very brood, round, emerald-green at base, with 
numerous deep blackish purple veins above, the ground- 
color white, shaded rosy magenta, the border white; 
petals emerald-green above, greenish white beneath, 

Dorsal sepal white, green-veined; peUds horizontal, 
very long, white, green-dotted; up olive. G.C III. 
21:37. Var. magnfflcum, Pfitz. Dorsal sepal deep 



at base, with a broad iduto border, lined with ™n»iithum.— P. CnOuu—P. SpicarknunixP. Anpm.— P. Oiw- 

' ■ -- - -■■' " ~- " -inualum.— P. OouUnum pnaidum— 

pMrfinum.— P, ODindnum Toutjid- 

--~r. r ». ^ . ^,.,^—F- Lairr«afleuiiun X p. Dfufyi,— 

P. Daii^in— P. bwbmtumxP. villMum.— i*. QDadnanidnum— P. 
ChsmberlaiDiuum X P. ^Mriimum.— P. Dibdin—P. Boullljx 
P. Argus.— P. diUclvm—P. BouUiixP. hirsutiwiniuni.— P. d(»- 
BPl<ir-~P. veniutmaxP. Huruianiiin.~P. i>(ma(idiiui>i— P. id- 
•itnaxP. HuTuknum, — P. Doncatlcridnum—F. hinutiuimum X 
P. oallMum.— P. fimi— P. vcnimtumxP. StoMi,— P. Druno- 
Hadttrm—P. Druryi X P, Hookene.— P. Dudicti of SuHurland—P, 
RothBchildiumm X P. Youdslbdudi. — -P. e^ordirum^P- inuene x 
P. nitEOg. J.H. HI. 53:58a.— P. Edillm—P. beLUtulum x P. 
Chu-IeawoRhii.- P. Bitmannianum—P. BaulLU X P. HuTisuDum. 
—P. attdra—P. Harrisi.nuinxP. iosiine.- P. mfitldtntt—P. 

Kraen at base, with a broad iduto border, lined with 
bUckiflh purple at center. Var. Hoinsil, Pfits. Donal 
■epal_ broad, atrongly lined with blackiah purple and 
eannine, the border pure white; petals Bea-green; lip 
browniati maroon with a white terminal spot. Var. 
, Pfiti. Dorsal sepal white above, the 

'. Hoo 

lirt). (XM) 

Hjbrid. (See nipplemauUiy 

G.M. 49:S5,— 
^XF, Mom. •: 
1.—P. AUdor- 

P. Codieffiaau 

d'.H. 53;l»t. J.H. Ilf. 58:229.— P.~ fir^ni. 
P. taunua. — P. BuiAaniinitm—P. DniTvixr. npii«nuiuia.- 
(vlteMwn— P. bubitumxP. Lowii.- P. caligire—P. venua 
XP. Duiuiuia.~P. cdOo-ltalhichitdiinum—P, csllwum 
RMliKfailifiuuni.— P. ColvpH— P. BoulLiixP. Spicerianun 
P. C<liiJkai->>— p. TtUonunxP. mipabitia.^P. Camuiidnun' 
tI.«.Ui._,mxP. HpieerUnum.- P. Ct™— P. Spiwrimnum 
au—P. eM*ih%tr—P. LqwiixP, burtatum.- P. i 

^P. HMTMbnum X P. piirpuratuD 

ullii : 

>. LeeiDum. 

Q.M. 47:255.— P. BurvalfP. L«»r 

P. »ur™mi™»i— P. burbiitum X P. Stonei. G.Z. 24, p. 241.- p. 
Burvloehtu—P. cilioUnxP. hinutinimum.— P. Erdyn Am«->P. 
CilVDBO Onkwimd X P. I^maain vnnteum. — P. Bweinor— .p. 
uuni.— P. Fawn Qutn—P. Curtiiii 

IniHH—P. philippiDeoH X p. dlioliirB.— P, 

pie Mmulei.— 

— P. Fiicleri—P. CBllommxP. Ratluchildianuin.- P. Friuri—P. 

bub&tiunxP. hinutinimum.- P. Pnu Ida Brandt— P. ! 

Youummum.— P. Galalea—P. r ' ' - • ■ 

P. OabUta m4;iu— P. HarriaaDi. 

P. Gamt A. Hobart—P. Lalbs 

P. (^udidnuiii— P. Curtiaii X P. 

P. HoolienexP. purpuTBuin.— , 

hinutinimum.- P. Oiooi—P. 

—P. GodwifidniiiB— P, BoiiUiL X 

inaigne. J.H. HI. «...,. 

~ ■ O.M. 43 - 

-P. jrdnds 

— P. ^AHndnuiA 

green vuafl diort. Var. stenfisemnm, Pfita. Doraal 
■epal much narrower than in type, elliptic. Other 
TSiietiea known are: cmrieulum, giganthitn, grdnde, 
Undtnii, Tnannordium, nigrum, pUtum, PitcheriAnum, 
purpttTdteetta, rdaeum, supJrbum, viriacms, 

Tlie taOowing liit conUini aorae of the hybrids. Many othen 
•n ■rows by lucierB but oumot ba mentioned here. FV oiU- 
lona of hybiida. aee G.C. III. 17:109. A.G. 16:118, mnd the 
"HlTdud Stud-book," by Rolte A Hunt. P. Adt—P. LAwrence- 
•nninxP. inaicne HmulM.— P. Aemt—P. nitenaxP. Bessie K. 
AdMUA—P, maigoexP. L*e»nuni. — P. Adjsus 
e aandensxP. Leeuium Proapero. G.C. III. 
■ ■ ■ ~ " ■ "■ ■ XP. Loeanun 

A&tri Tmffaul—P. Huriaiuiuii ^ 

■aanQlaKH— P. LMuumxP. SchleaiiiEeriBnun 

-^. AUibiadtt iujttHm,m—P. Leeanun ' 

Cnrtc — P. Jtndci— P. inaisnBxP. bii 

P. bwfastum CmaiixP. ^cerianuc 

P. dliolamxP. philippiflBnAe.— -P. Aiicv— «r. ^pjcenanuni 

StoDCL— P. AUanOnum— P. SpicerianumxP. Curtiaii.— P. Ah 

—P. baitAtum X P. I^wreneesnuio. — P. Alton^P. inaijnie 

DruiyL — ^P. diwindum— P. inHins X P. venuatum. — P.Amttid. 

—P. TiUoautn X P. veaualum. — P. ApVafile— P. Lawrcnceuiu 

iniTeum.— P. apicuWum— P. bsrbalumxP. Boiallii.- 
■MUiir— P. bellBtulumXP. auperciliare. G. 31:165.— P. Art. 


I.— P. Btdnde—P. I^WTsncunumxP. 

jae.'"'G!?" HI. 37:77.— P. GrdwtS— P.' 

niDi.— P. GraBdnum— P. DniryixP. ciliolare.— P. 
JfarrViidnun— P. bubatumxF.villosum, F.3. 22; 
, — — . — „ Hommdnam DoilAini 

Z^T^S). R.B^22,"pll48. A.F. 

—P. Dsulhieri. — P. Hamtidnam iinBuum— r, objuhhiu, 
fioxallii.— P. /farrindnum PilcAiridnum.- P. //omndnum n 
bun— P. barbatumxP. villosum.— P. HnrMndnum— P.Loeam 
P. atoneL— P. HephxMliu—P. barbi ' " ' 

P. GodefroyiBXp. inaigne. G.C.I 

Gode(roy» X P. insigne.— P. Hdbtmii—P. 

m.—P. Mini 
—P. HinkU 

xP. barbatum.— / 

n— P. Spies 

_ P. Curtuii.- 

lantln—P. HarrisianumxP, venustum.— 
lexP. Rothachildiuium.— P. fno— P. Hav- 
hamii. — P, inltrmidiam—P. hybridum. — P. 
mxP. Argus.— P. Jama OarfiM—P. reg^ 
lama K. Palk—P. Chambulaimanuni X P. 
■-.Spiceridnun— P. lutncens.- P. jatdniea- 
ibienaxP. virena.- P. yaispA Oonol— P. 

entii. A.F. 7:707. 
.lloaum X P. Fair' - 

—P. Rottj 

P. Dajranum.— P. h 

Krithna^P. ioaipie X P. tonsu 
P. Ld/ariadti — P. barbnluin 
inaigne ChantiniL— P. Lnicf^ryA 
—P. LathamiAnm 

-p. Lt',J'.i.m=P. 

Hayoaldianum X P. philipiJiTipnsc. 
A.a. 23:387.- P. Zt.;i.ii.iiji — P. 

LcadRun (Fii 2760)= 

L«dnum barfirrdHn-r. 

insisDe X P. Spi> 
8:765. J.H. III. 81:i:l- 

LsadrHim luI^SKOs. — P. '^ - 
dnusi UaMmaiAnum^P- 

P. tetdnum f>iin'« 
«na.— P. LtBlnu: 
putchtllum.— l 

Lwdnum Bupirfru 

ruaed by Veitch.- 
P. Uagd imvnU 

X P - ' Bvaaiuiun 

Ifiobs. Hybrid. (See 



—p. Lobtn«via—P. Boiallii .„.___ .. 

niun— P. ejiLMxiiinunixP. la— P. Lord Derbi/—P. RothKhild- 
UDumxP. luperbieiu.— P. liadum—V. LooiixP. viUaguni.— P. 
Oridam—F. Uwranwiuium X P. yUloBum.— P. liavlum purpireum. 
~P. iiUttant—P. SpiceriuiuDixP. JBVftnicuni.— P. iultam—P. 
Fliriemum X P. Spicrrisnum. O.C. III. 4fl:402.— P. LiwiidnuiB 
—p. SpiceHuumxP. Brlligpnun.— P. Mar/drlana^P. raUoaiuuX 
P. BpUKrUnunL — P. macrApteriAm'-P. l>«rii X P. BuperbitnB.^P. 
tfdAb'x— P. Lawnaceuum X P. RothKUldiuum.— P. Mdneoldii. 
—P. marmarophiUam—P. HookinexP. barbntuITl.— P. Mnrihal- 
!.■■ „ . ., .__ _p_ siatcrtrlidnuin—P. Leek- 

LaeatgraiiA- ChurlcaworUiil.— 

—P. aookerm x 

— P. 

numxP. 8l _, , 

O.Z. 28.11. 287.— P. HinM— P. Arlhurisniim XP. Spiwriwiuin.— P. 

Mill. Uadilint Gai/U—F. UsyuumxP. uudsDC CluuitialL— P. 

"-- "-' ". LBwrenceanumxP. tDnaum,— .Wm*. Copp*— P. 
. . SpicerUnum.— P. MiiriMniir^P. ™p*xbL™»xP. 
I.H.M;5. G.C.III.*l:6a. J.K. 111. SOiiS.— P. Mir- 
ChamberliinLMumxP.Leeanum. G.M.47;103.— P. tfr«. 
-P. superbifMXP. villosum.— P.__tf ri. ,0. D. Omr—P. 

oncolorxP. insL^De,- 
Otbomei—P. Harriau 
dnum— P. aupcrbieiu 
P. Diiyiuiuin.— P. P... 
•onlixiin^P. Boialliix 

insicne. — P. Fetopt^P^ 
^cerunuDi X P. >upn-1 
vupcrbum X P. 8p]cerii 

nuh'Aniin— P. Lawr 

— P. Lowii 


Hum X P. torut 

Raituii'-P. uuutne tiandFriuiun 

_._ _.lBo-flr(xaUii— P. EothBchildiimuin..- 

KathKliiiiMno-Laarrneedauin—P. Rothirhitdinnum x P. 

*num.— P. Rahti-JtildiAno-miptrbima-^P. Roth»hiMi>- 

ipFrbioiii.— P. Ri>tKul\itdiini)-t6ruun~P. RolhirhiUlU- 

—P. RounUidtium— P. viUoBum X! 

■illwam.— p. Samtri oireum.— P. -SOJ 
X P. villnaum— P. .SaUiVri nienmiafuJdii 
P. SaUitri iJaliiptUUum.—r " 

lanaleyeoftc X . . — ^-^ — - 
ac. ill. ■2T.75.—P. Sandi 
SappJu^P. barbatuDi X P. 
nuraXP. Spi<«i»nim..-P 
■igne.— P. SfAroMiTjT— P. 
— —P. SemBtmrn-P. " 

LawrcDCMnuni.— P. TAdu-^P. 

TAiJauiiiiniHO'—P. ll«m«iaiiumj 

.»UD» Maulri.— P. Thimit- 

eum. — P. nAmf Dnii— P. invgne x 
BlAmbiTtii'-pTetrdiag.—P. filyvt 

—P. Umio-Sdndaa 

—P. Ctuinbetlsiiiiu 


'- purport 

inune Baodor. — P. 

-P. lYiifvdniiiii— P. su- 

if. 22: 169.— P. TraTUraal 

rum^^rHtdiug. G.M.47:7M. — P. TVn'iui— P. iniipir X P. niCFat. 
—P. rurp(— P. barbitumxP. Arriu.— P. T. B". flond— P. hitm- 
tunmunixP. Bwuianum.— P. T/inJaWlidnun— P. innjinexP. 
Uwreacainum.— P. Van HnUfltnum— P. bvbitum X P. tQIcwud. 
~P. Vemlnum— P. AigiuxP. viUuum.— P. VaiOArium—P. 
barfatum X P. Fairiauium, — P. ffoUertulnum — P. Kurii- 
iuuinxP. villdsuni.— P. ihK/^IiI^k— P. LeuaumxP. Pollettia- 
num. Gn-W, 22:69.— P, Wioonidnum— P. AehburtoPB X P. HwTa- 
iuiuin.— P. ICiUuin UeKinlrt.—P. WiUiamiidnum—P. Harriii- 
BiiuiaxP. icnuetum.— P. »'.nn(diiuiiw-P. DniryixP. vaiomin.— 
P. ff. «. Ltc—P. HothichildiuiumxP. luperbiec- ■•'""' 

Lant—P. Bomlliix" '—' — " " ' ' 

XP. luperbii 
87, G.CIII, ... 
— Other Duan mAy be expected m 

Geobqb V. Nase. 
PAPPUS (ao ancient najne, coming through the 
Greek, and from which comes indirectly the word 
■paper). Cyperdcetc. A group of aquatic or subaquatio 
very ornamental plants, now conaidered to repreaent 
one polymorphous species ; by modem author* tfiey are 
plac«d in the genus Cyperus (which see, page 941, 
Volume II). 

. . Counffidnum— P. Dhilippinfiaa 

— p. yDUnoidnuiR nip^rfrtim— prsoediu. Q. 28: 
19.— P. Znmpa— P. hinutimmi '^ 


i^e Maolei.— P. Oltno— P. toruumxP. 

P.OrpSanaw— P.birbstumxP.Draiyi.— p! 

p"hooWb.— P, pdl^i*— P, Spicerisnum X 

, ..—D I — J^Ti Diyumin. — P. po- 

707,— P. Pffio*-P. 

. _ . .'iinum 1 _. 

—P. PlriSxhlinim—P. bubatiUD 

—P. apiMhinum X P. "eniM- 

, „_.i__....j; — p. Prf. 

I— P. phil- 
'. Fiines- 

isoa.— P. 

Rof hschi IdUmun 

" " —.36:391. 

P. Mau- 

— P. SaUliri pic- 
loniMK-aP. Aptsiia 
—P. Son.imiliio-Cilrti.ii. 
«. J.H. III. 54:251,— P. 

n"m=-p" bTmIiU >S?^ 
P. rammlhum. Gq.W. T: 
G.Z. 22. J 

183.— P.S.i«Bmimm4jM— precedinn. tfnB, 11:1340. 18:370. A.Pl 
3fi:H».— P. SfUWam pwpktfn'»"=»nie.— P. StrnrriAnum—P. 
HBmnuumxP. SpinrUnuTn.— P. ShiUidnum^P. GwcriBniun 
XP. Hotbzcbildiuiuni. Gn.W. in;57. — P. luiinCntr— P. Appl«- 
tODiuiunixP. folloeurn.- P. tibynllntr—P. BoiulliixP. inscne. 
—P. Sirtrrtfdnum— P. DnysnumxP. iiuiinie.- P- Spietn- 
_, n Q_^ — : » .: _j.^ .i.pcTr.Kdre=F, b«- 

niirrKiini— r. DUDaium X I', niveum. i>n. .1. p. SB. J.H. til. 
64:179.— P. T. B. //ain™>H— P. DruryixP. BuprrbiMU,- P. 
IhihIUIuiii— P. birbaluin X P. conrolor. A.F. 7:70f.— P. ItmcI- 
JiUum porpAin-miK— preirding. — P._(fM|fIU(uinrt6rn«— P. bBrbatum 


—p. («t»-CMrfc««ir(*ti"«-P. t 

woody rhizome, reaching 10-15 ft. in hoight in favor- 
able reRions, the tall xts. Bolitarj' or very few from each 
toot and varying from nearly terete to acutely S-an- 
gled : Ivs. all railical (only sheatha produced on the 
flowering culm), long and sedge-lilce: umbel compound 
on the top of the high culm, the primary rajrs many 
and l>-20 in. long, droopit^; spikelets 1 x IM ■»'. ^ta 




many spreading spikelets; wings of rachilla lanceolate, 
3rellow, falling early with the glumes; stamens 3, the 
anthers joined by a crested connective: nut or fr. ellip- 
soidal, 3-comered, gray. Var. antiqudrumj Clarke (P. 
anHqudnmif WiUd. P. mossambic^nsiay Pari. Cyphru8 
PappruSf Linn., in part), has spikelets more or less 
deciduous above the 2 lowest or empty 
glumes, the wings of the rachilla obtuse and 
tardily falling, the connective not crested. 
This variety occurs in Trop. and N. Afr. 
and in Palestine. 

The papyrus is popular about lar^e tanks 
or aquana in greenhouses, and is often 
bedded out about ponds in summer. Far 
South it may stand in the open. It is 
much used in California for adornment of 
lawns, doing well even with a moderate 
supply of water. The fluffy heads make 
attractive house decoration. The papyri of 
the ancient £g3rptians were made of strips 
taken from the culm or stem, from base to 
apex, between the cortex and the core, 
being laid side by side and beaten ana 
pressed together to form a continuous surface. 

The paper-reed is known best to horticulture as a 
tender decorative plant, almost solely as an aquatic. 
It stands by itself, unequaled and unrivaled as such. 
It has tall dark sreen stems 10 or more feet high, 
depending on mode of culture, surmounted with an 
umbel of threadlike leaves or filaments, subdivided, 
and forming a most graceful and ornamental object. 
It is at home on the margin of a natiu-al pond, or it 
may be planted in a tub or box of rich soil and placed 
in the artificial pond, but should be only slightly sub- 
merged. The plant should not be subjected to a spray 
from a fountam jet, as the weight of water will Send 
and break the stems. They may also be planted in 
groups similar to cannas, but should receive copious 
supplies of water, otherwise thev will be dwarf and 
stunted. Propagation is effected by seed. Sow and 
treat seedlings similar to Cyperus dUemifoliuSy the com- 
mon umbrella plant. Sow m early autumn or spring; 
seedUngs will make good plants the same season. 
Winter the medium-sized plants in a cool greenhouse 
with all light and air ]x>ssible, else the plants become 
drawn and weak and crippled with aphis. Large plants 
may be divided in spring. (William Tricker.) 

L. H. B. 

PARACHUTE FLOWER: Ceropei/ia Sandenonii. 

PARADISEA (said to be from Paradise, of which this 
plant is supposed to be a fit inhabitant). Often written 
raraduia. Lilidcex, St. Bruno's Lily. Hardy herba- 
ceous perennial^ a single species, with small white 
flowers, native m the ^renees, Apennines, Alps, and 

St. Bruno's lily and St. Bernard's lily are advertised 
in catalogues of hardy herbaceous plants as Anther- 
ieum LUicLstrum and Antkericum Liliagoy but the former 
should be called Paradisea Ldliastrum; the latter is 
St. Bernard's lily. Both have white fls., borne in 
early summer on scapes a foot or more high. The fls. of 
both are tipped green outside. The Ivs. are linear, all 
radical, ana a foot or so long. Both plants are natives 
of Cent. Eu., and by their popular names recall the life- 
saving monks of the Alps. It is no wonder, then, that 
they are often confused, although they belong to differ- 
ent subtribes. The PaiadLsea has larger fls., which are 
funnel-shaped rather than rotate, but the funda- 
mental differences upon which Paradisea is made a 
separate genus lie in the stamens. In Paradisea (accord- 
ing to Btentham & Hooker) the anthers are attached 
at the middle of the back and are versatile; in Antheri- 
cum the anthers are attached at their base and are 
erect; moreover, the stamens of Paradisea are hypogy- 
Dous; of Anthericum, perigynous. Following are some 

of the other 'differences as given by Baker in Joum. 
linn. Soc. 15:286, 287, 301 (1877): 

LUi&stnun, Bertol. (Anthiricum Lilidsirum^ Unn. 
Czdckia Lilidatrumf Andrz.). has 6-8 Ivs.: scape 12-24 
in. high; raceme 2-10-fld.; bracts lanceolate; perianth 
1&-21 lines long; style 15-18 lines long; ovary and caps. 

2763. PAramigyiui monopfaylUu ( X H) 

oblong. — ArUhericum LdliagOf Linn., has 12-20 Ivs.: 
scape 6-15 in. high; raceme (sometimes panicled) 10-20- 
fld. ; bracts linear; perianth 6-9 lines long; style 5-6 lines 
long; ovary and caps, globose. Some of the above char- 
acters may not hold for cult, plants. 

Var. mijor, Hort., is much larger and a better form 
than the type, growing 2-3 ft. high and bearing more 
and larger fis. (Jn. 9 : 12 (as Anthencum Liliaatrum var.) 
has fls. 2 in. long and 2>^ in. across. Var. giganihim^ 
Hort., is probably the same. P. Liliaatrum and its vari- 
eties are plants of secondary importance in the hardy 
border; they are of simjjle cult.; prop, by division, or by 
seeds sown as soon as ripe. Wilhelm Miller. 

L. H. B.t 

PARADISE FLOWER: StrelUtia Regirue. 

PARAMIGTNA (from the Greek to mix mitk). 
RutdcesBf tribe Citrex. Evergreen climbing shrubs native 
to India and distantly related to the orange, but having 
fruits filled with gum. 

Leaves alternate, unifoliolate, articulated with the 
long petiole; spines recurved: fls. solitary or in clusters 
in flie axils of the Ivs., large, white, 4-5-merous with 
8-10 free stamens; ovary 3-5-celled with 1-2 ovules in 
each cell: fr. globose or elliptical, gummy^ with a lemon- 
like peel. — Several species are known. The following is 
being tested as a stock by the U. S. Dcpt. of Agric. 

monoph^Ua, Wight. Fig. 2763. An evergreen climb- 
ing shrub related to Citrus: Ivs. simple, alternate; 
spmes recurved: fis. large, white, 4-5-merous, with 
free stamens: the young Ivs. are pendent, the twigs, 
spines, petioles and leaves arc all more or less hairy. 
Talbot, For. Fl. Bombay, p. 200, fig. 122. Wight, 111. 
Ind. Bot., pi. 42. 

Several other species occur in the Indo-Malayan re«on: two 
have recently been described from the Philippines: F. tongi- 
pedunculdtOf Merrill, a scandent shrub, closely related to P. mono- 
phylla, from which it differs in its longer peduncles and several 
other characters; P. mindanafnns, Merrill, a nearly glabrous 
scandent shrub, with shining Ivs. and glabrous fr., usually curved. 

Walter T. Swingle. 

PARA-NUT: BertholUtia. 

PARASITE. A parasitic plant or animal is one 
which fastens itself upon another Uving thing, pene- 
trating the tissues of the host or organism attacked, 
thus usually deriving some or aJl of its nutriment there- 
from. Parasitic plants are numerous, but the larger 
part of them are to be found among tne fungi and tne 
bacteria. These two classes of organisms are the chief 
causes of plant diseases, — such as rusts, smuts, mil- 
dews, and blights. It is with such parasites as these 
that plant pathology is primarily concerned, and path- 




ologists estimate that in the United States alone the 
annual losses to crops from parasitic fund and bacteria 
amount to not less than $600^000,000. Parasitic fungi 
commonly grow within the tissues of the host plant, 
reaching the surface only when forming certain types 
of spores, or propagative bodies. Parasites invariably 
cause some disturbance of the normal development of 
the tissues. Notwithstanding this fact, it can be said 
that there are beneficial parasites, such as the bacteria 

{>roducing the nodules, or tubercles, on the roots of 
egumes; and these nodules are important because of 
the fixation therein of atmospheric nitrogen, which 
ultimately becomes a source of nitrogen supply for the 
legume host. 

There are also parasites among flowering plants. 
Of these, two principal classes may be noted: (l) those 
green in color, or chlorophyl-containing, such as the 
mistletoe and the bastard toad-flax: and (2) those 
practicallv devoid of chlorophyl, such as the dodder 
and the broom-rape. The members of the first clasff 
are commonly supposed to be active photosynthetically, 
that is, they are able to manufacture their own car- 
bonaceous food-supply from carbon dioxide and water, 
while members of the second class must receive all or 
nearly all similar foods through the host plant. Plants 
living upon dead organic suMtance are termed sapro- 
phytes (which see). There are all gradations between 
Sarasites and saproph>rtes, especially among the fungi, 
ome are parasitic during their more active vegetative 
g^wth, and then continue their development saprophy- 
ucedly. Again, there are many fungi which, while 
generally parasitic, may be ^own in the laboratorv 
upon a variety of culture media, or cooked plant proa- 
ucts. Finally, there are those which ordmarily live 
saprophytically in the soil, but under certain condi- 
tions are able to induce disease epidemics. 


PARATRdPIA (Greek, timwd away, probably with 
reference to the twining habit). Araiiicese. Twining 
trees or shrubs similar to Alalia, with compound Ivs.: 
jnfl. paniculate or racemose. The genus is now included 
in Schefllera by most authorities. P. Steltzneridna, 
Barb.-Rodr. The plant intro. into Calif, under this 
name grows up to 24 ft. high, evergreen: If. palmately 
6-foliate; Ifts. leathery, oblong, short deltoid acumi- 
nate, petioles articulate at the petiole. 

PARDAlTTHnS: Belamcanda. 

PARIETARIA (from parieiariuSy belonging to walls, 
referring to its habitat). Urticdcex, Annual or peren- 
nial herbs widely scattered in the temperate zones, 
scarce in the tropics. Fls. polygamous, cymose or 
glomerate at the axils; perianth of the hermaphrodite 
and male fls. deeply 4-lobcd, rarely 3-1oIxk1; lobes val- 
vate; of the female fl. distinctly tubulous at the base, 
lobes shorter; stamens 4, rarely 3; ovary free within the 
perianth; stigma penicillat<;, short or linear: achene 
included in the persistent perianth. Ten or more 
species. P. arbdrea, Ait., an erect shrub, with Ivs. 
perfectly white underneath, has been offered in trade- 
lists. This belongs in the genus Gcsnouinia, differing 
from Parietaria in being small trees with the involucre 
subtending 3-fld. glomerate -panicled branches: fls. 
monoecious, the central pistillate, with the achene 
included in the tube of the involucre. Gesnouinia con- 
tains 2 species belonging to the Canary Isls. 

PARIS (the berry of the plant is compared to the 
apple of discord, while the four leaves surrounding it 
are likened to Paris and the three envious goddesses, 
Juno, Minerva, and Venus. Others think the name is 
derived from par^ equal, referring to the agreement in 
number between leaves and floral parts, and this is 
probably the correct derivation). Lilidcese. Herb-Paris. 
Love-Applb. Hardy small herbs. 

Differs from Trillium in having its floral parts in 4'8 
instead of 3's. There are about 6 species altogether, 
and in some of them the floral parts are in higher num- 
bers than four. They resemble trilliums in being small 
hardy rhizomatous ^ants, foimd in moimtainous coun- 
tries of the North Temperate Zone, and even in the 
arctic regions; also they have a single whorl of Ivs. at 
the top of the scape and a single fl., but in Paris the 
outer perianth-segms. are more herbaceous and calvx- 
like, while the inner ones are much narrower and ten 
showy, being mere strips of petal, or even entirdy 

quadrifdlia, Linn. Herb-Paris. Trub-Love. Foub- 
LEAVED Grass. Height 9-12 in. : Ivs. all cauline, netted- 
veined (exceptional among monocotyledons) : peduncle 
rising 1-2 in. above Ivs. : perianth-segms. yellowish greeny 
the 4 inner ones rather more yellow: berry bluish black, 
llie dominant European type, scattered over Eu. and 
Siberia from the Arctic Circle to the Medit., in woods 
and shady places, but usually local. Gn. 31, p. 165. — 
Fls. in spring or early summer. Rarely the Ivs. and floral 
parts are in 5's. Wilhelm Miller. 

PARITIUM: Hibiacua datua and H. tiliaceua. 
PARK: Landscape Gardening, page 1801. 

PAREIA (named after Mungo Park, bom in 1771). 
Leffumindsse, Tall unarmed trees: Ivs. evenly bipin- 
nate; Ifts. very numerous, small: fls. in dense, lons- 
peduncled, obovoid heads; calyx tubular, shortly 
5-<;left; corolla tubular, somewhat cleft; stamens 10; 
ovary stidked: pod large, flat, strap-fihapcd, coriace- 
ous. — About 10 species, tropics of both nemispheres. 
P. iimoridna. Merr. Cupang. A very large tree, up 
to 115 ft. high^ with vase-shaped, wide-spreading 
crown: Ivs. femlike, with very small Ifts.: fls. small, 
white and yellow, in dense pear-shaped panicles: pods 
pendulous, flattened^ black, 18 in. long. Timor and 
Philippines. Intro, m U. S. by Dept. of Agric. and 
offerea for distribution. 

PAREINSdNU (John Parkinson, 1567-1629, Lon- 
don apothecary, author of the deli^tful "Paradisus 
Terrestris" and "Theatrum Botamcum"). Legumi' 
nbax. Tropical trees or shrubs, with a thin smooth 
bark and armed with simple or tnree-forked spines. 

Leaves alternate or fascicled, bipinnate, with 1-4 
pairs of pinnse; the common petiole short, often obsolete 
or spinescent; stipules minute or none: fls. yellow or 
whitish, on slender pedicels in short, loose axillarv or 
terminal racemes; calyx 5-parted, produced at base 
and jointed \i\yon the pedicel; petals 5, clawed, the 
upper one ^^ithin and broader than the rest, somewhat 
cordate^ the claw pubescent and nectariferous on the 
inner side; stamens 10, free, the upper one gibbous 
outside; ovar>' several-ovuled, shortly stipitate: pod 
compressed, leather>', 2-valvc*d, linear to linear-oblong, 
more or less twisted, tapering at both ends; seeds 
compressed, albuminous, with a crusty bro^^Ti testa. — 
Five species. The dominant type, both in the wild and 
in cult., is P. acideataf the Jerusalem thorn, which is 
probably a native of Amer., but is naturalized or cult, 
m all tropical countries. One species is S. African, one 
is S. American, and the remainder belong to the region 
between Texas and S. Calif. P. aculeata is a thorny 
evergreen tree w^ith feather>' drooping branches and 
handsome yellow fls. ; it is admirable for hedges, thrives 
in the driest places and can endure some cold. It has 
been cult, in European conservatories, being usually 
raised from import^ seeds, but it is of difficult cult. 
P. Torreyanaj though generally destitute of Ivs., is 
known in N. Mex. as "palo verde,'' from the brijght 
green color of the brancnes. It stands drought even 
better than P. acideaia. These plants belong to the 
same tribe with such fine northern trees as Gleditsia 




and Gymnodadus and such southern kinds as CsBsal- 
pinia, Poinciana, and Colvillea. They are little known 

▲. I/te. numerous; rachis flat, long, 

acoleitay Linn. Jerusalem Thorn. Small glabrous 
tree, up to 10 ft. tidl, the slender zigsag branches often 
poidulous: Ivs. 8-16 in. long, with spiny petioles }^l 
m. long; Ifts. numerous, very small, distant, linear to 
linear-oblanoeolate, }^y4 in. long, inequilateral, on slen- 
der petioles; rachis winged, i^l}^ it. long: racemes 
slender, axillary, 3-6 in. long; fls. fragrant, pendulous; 
calyx glabrous, tube very short, lobes oblong, reflexed, 
exoeecOng the tube; petals yellow, ^^ in. long, blades 
suborbicular or oval, longer than the claws; stamens 
and ovary pubescent: pods narrow, 2-4 in. long, con- 
stricted between the seeds; seeds oblong. Probably 
Trop. Amer. S.S. 3:131. 

AA. Lfts, few; rachis terete. 

Torreyina, Wats. Small tree, 18-25 ft. tall, with 
light green, smooth bark: young branches and Ivs. 
sparingly pubescent: Ifts. 2 or 3 pairs, oblong, obtuse, 
narrowed toward the scarcely obliaue base, glaucous, 
about ^in. long: racemes terminal with rather long 
pedicels, jointed near the middle, but joint not evident 
until in fr. ; petals bright yellow, a prominent gland on 
the upper one: pod acute, more or less constricted 
between the very thick ventral suture. Valley of the 
Colo, and eastward through W. Texas. — Usually naked 
in the S.W. as the Ivs. are early deciduous. 

P. L. RiCKER. 

PARM£NTI£RA (named after Ant. Aug. Parmen- 
tier, who intro. potato-cult, into France). Bignonidcese. 
Shrubs or small trees with spirally placed fls. in 
3's: fls. from the old wood on rather lon^ p^uncles, 
almost regular; calyx spathc-like, splittmg up one 
side; corolla campanulate-funnelform, little crooked, 
limb 8ul>2-labiatc, posterior 2-parted, anterior 3-parted, 
lobes all broadly spreading; stamens 4, scarcelv 
exserted; ovary sessile, 2--loculate, many-seeded.: 
fr. elongate-cylindrical or oblong: Ivs. alternate or 
subopposite, 3--foliate or some simple, common petiole 
often Droad. Species 2, from Mcx. and Panama. P. 
ceriferti Seem., from Panama, called '^palo de vela,'' 
or candle-tree, from its long cylindrical frs. which are 
smooth and white like candles, has been offeied in the 

PARNASSIA (after Mt. Parnassus). Saxifraadceae, 
Grass of Parnassus. Low-growing moisture-loving 
hardy perennial herbs of tufted habit, sometimes 
transfeired to gardens. 

Glabrous, from short rootstocks, mostly with scape- 
like sts.: Ivs. simple and entire, mostly radical (or 
basal) and petiolate, 1 on the st. sessUe and mostlv 
small: fls. usually 1, white or yellow; calyx 5-parted; 
petals 5^ withering, but deciduous; fertile stamens 5, 
altematmg with the petals; staminodia present or 
represented by glands: ovary 1-celled; style very short 
or none; stigmas usually 4; ovules many: caps. 1-cellcd, 
with 4 placenUe projecting within, 4-valved (some- 
times 3-valved). — In wet or moist places in temperate 
and subarctic reidons in the northern hemisphere, 
about 25 species. They are suitable for shady positions 
along the water's edge, and are prop, by seeds or divis- 
ion. They commonlv grow about 6 in. high, but attain 
2 ft. They bloom tTom June to Sept.; the petals are 
conspicuously veined with green lines. The plant which 
Diosoorides called ''grass en Parnassus" is P, valustris, 
the only species common in Eu. This is perhaps the 
best one for cult., but they are all much alike in horti- 
cultural value. Pamassias prefer a peaty soil, but such 
is not necessary. The species are usuaUy tenacious of 
life and are good perennials. The N. Carolinian species 
are handy ^f^ 

A. Petals not clawed. 

B. Rudimentary stamens 9-20 at the hose of each petal. 

c. Scape-lf. more or less clasping. 

paiiistris, Linn. Grass of Parnassus. Rootstock 
short and erect: Ivs. ovate, usually cordate at the base; 
scape-lf . ovate or cordate, at or below the middle of st. : 
fls. ^i-l in. across; rudimentary stamens 9-15 scales 
at the base of eadi petal. Eu., Asia., N. Amer., south 
to Mich, and Wyo. Gn. 41, p. 500; 78, p. 450. G.L. 
26:365. A.G. 13:696. 

cc. Scape-lf. not clasping. 

califdmica, Greene (P. poliistris var. califdmica. 
Gray). Height 1-2 ft.: Ivs. ovate or ovate-oblong, 
cuneate at base, 1-2 in. long; scape-lf. very small, and 
borne above the middle: fls. IM ii^- across; rudimentary 
stamens about 20 at the base of each petal. Calif. 

BB. Rudimentary stamens S-6 at the base of each petal. 

caroliniiUia, Michx. Rootstock erect, very short: 
height 8-16 in.: Ivs. ovate, broadly oval or orbicular, 
more or less cordate at the base; scape-lf. borne below 
the middle: fls. fi-l^ in. across; rudimentaiy stamens 
usually 3 in each set. Swamps and low meadows, New 
Bruns. to Man., south to Va. B.M. 1459. 

AA. Petals clawed. 
B. Rudimentary stamens usually Sat the base of each petal. 

asarifdUa, Vent. Rootstock erect, short and thick: 
hei^t 10-16 in.: Ivs. orbicular, kidney-shaped at the 
base, often 2-3 in. wide; scape-lf. clasping, borne at 
about the middle: petals entire. Wet places in high 
mountains of Va. and N. C. B.B. 2:184. 

BE. Rudimentary stamens 5-9 at the base of each petal. 

fimbriAta, Kdnig. Rootstock ascending, short: 
height 1 ft. or less: Ivs. kidney-shaped to cordate-ovate; 
scape-lf. cordate, more or less clasping, at or above the 
middle: petals frmged below the middOfe. Colo, to Calif, 
and north in Alberta and to Alaska. 

p. nttUeola, Wall. The largest and coaraeet of all the spedet, 
and lacks the delicate beauty and white petals of P. palustns: Ivs. 
elliptic-ovate; scape-lf. borne below the middle: petals shorter than 
in the other kinds as compared with calyx-lobes; rudimentary fila- 
ments 3. not topped by anthers. Himalayas. B.M. 6609. 

WiLHELM Miller. 
L. H. B.t 

PAROCHfirUS (Greek, beside, and ditch or canal). 
Lequmindsse. A half-hardy perennial trailer, with 
foliage like the shamrock, but with each of the 3 Ifts. 
marked at the base with a handsome brown crescent: 
the pea-shaped fls. have a cobalt-blue standard ana 
pink wings. It is desirable for hanging-baskets, pots 
and rockeries, and is said to bloom the year round. 
Parochetus is a genus of one species. It is allied to the 
clovers, sweet clover, medick, and rest-harrow, and 
differs from them in having a more acute keel, a 2- 
valved pod, and the Ifts. not stalked. It is a native of 
Trop. Asia and £. Afr., ascending the Himalavas from 
4,00(>-13,000 ft. If seeds could be secured from the 
smeatest altitude the plants might be hardy in the N. 
This plant was formerly offerea by A. Blanc, of Phila- 
delphia, under the name of shamrock-pea, or blue 
oxtOis. It has recently been distributed by the U. S. 
Dept. of Agric. in an effort to give this attractive plant 
a place in American horticulture. 

commdnis, Hamilt. Shamrock-Pea. Blue Oxaus. 
Height 2-3 in.: rhizome thread-like, wide-creeping: 
petiole 2 in. long; Ifts. obovatc, emarginate, glabrous 
or sli^tl>r pubescent: peduncles 1-2-fla.; fls. yir%\ii. 
across, axillary: pod straight, glabrous, linear, ^-1 in. 
long. F.S. 15:1575. p. l. RicKER.f 

PARONf CHIA (old Greek name used by Dioscorides, 
meaning whitlow-wort, or a cure for whitlow, a disease 
of the nngers or toes). CaryophyUdcese; by some sep- 



anted in lUecebriuxJt, Wbttxow-Wort. Annual and 
perennial little herbs, without ahowy flowers, adaptable 
to rock-gardens and borders. 

Plant tufted, low, with minute clustered fls. and 
Bilvery stipules; erect or diffuse, often dichotomously 
branching; Ivs. opposite, broad or narrow, entire, the 
margins flat or very rarely recurved ; stipules prominent, 
Bcanous, shining: fls. minute, without petals, axillary 
or rarely in terminal cymes, usually hidden amons tlie 
Stipules; sepals 5, awned; stamens 5; stominodia 5 
(sometimes wanting), bristle-like or reduced to teeth; 
style 2-c!eft: tr. an urticle inclosed in the calyx. — Species 
about 50, largely in the Medit. region, but widely dis- 
tributed; several are native in the U. S. A very few are 
cult, in the hardy border. The two European species 
here given do not appear in the leading catalogues, 
domestic or fore^, but P. serpyllifidia is siud to be 
much used for CEupet-bedding abroad. P. argenUa 
furnishes the Algerian tea. Allied to Hemiaria, which 
see for generic differences. The species described below 
' are perennials. They are of simple cult.; prop, by seed 
and division. 

A. Lvs. narrow, linear or awl-«haped. 

•igyrficonia, Nutt. {Anyehia argyrdeoma, Michx.). 
Erect or ascending perennial, 3-8 in. high, maldnK 
broad tufts or mats, clothed with silvery appresaed 
scale-like halts: lvs. Unear; stipules silvery white, scari- 
ous, entire, usually shorter than the lvs.: lis. in forking 
cymes; bracts larxe, silvery, membranous; staminodia 
minute. Rocky places. Maine and N. H. to Ga. and 
Tenn. — -Also called silver chickweed, silverhcad, and 
silver whitlow-wort. The northern form is sometimes 
separated as var. olbimontina, Fern., diScrina from 
the tvpe (which occurs from Va, south) in having 
branches mostiv florifcrous rather than most of them 
storile, lvs. glaorate and witli involute mar^ns, and 
colyx-awns subulate and glabrescent. — P. argyroeoTna 
is not difficult of cult, and is prized for rockeries, its 
silvery tufted appearance lendmg a distinct charm to 
the collection for tliis purpose. Prop, by seeds and 

diduStoma, Nutt. Woody at the base, glabrous or 
nearly so. tufted, 4-14 in. tall: stipules entire, often 
5-0 Imes long, tapering into a slender awn: fls. in fork- 
ing cymes; awTis of the calyx-aegtns. divergent; stam- 
inodia of minute bristles. Dry soil, Md. and N. C. to 
Ark. and Texas. 

AA. LvB. rather broad, obovate or nearly so. 

arg&itea, Lam. Prostrate diffuse [terennial, with 
loi^bronches: lvs. ovate to oblong or lanceolate, acute: 
fls. lateral and terminal, dense, intermixed with lvs.; 
bracts ovate, acute, much longer than the fl.; calyx- 
lobes semi-scarious, hooded, mucronate on the back 
near the apex. Common in dry places, Medit. region. — 
Foliage neariy glabrous. 

serpyllifdlia, DC. Prostrate creeping perennial: Ivs. 
obovate, flat, rather fleshy; fls. terminal; calyx-lobefl 
blunt. Arid parts of S. and E. Eu. — Foliage ciliate at 
the margin. A disputed plant. Probably a form of P. 
capitata. Lam. Wilhelm Millek. 

L. H. B.t 

PASOSftLA. ByBomeiutdiiutcidDrSalai. p. 060. 

PARRdTIA (after F. W. Parrot, a German natural- 
ist and traveler, afterward professor of medicine at 
Dorpat; 1792-1S41). Uamamelidilcf^. Ornamental 
woody plants grown chiefly for their handsome foliage 
and also for their early appearing flowers. 

Deciduousshrubs or small trees: lvs. alternate, short- 
petiolcd, cienate, with large caducous stipules: fls. 
small, in dense heads surrounded by an involucre of 
several bracts; petals wanting; ealyx 5-7-Iobed, embra- 
cing the pubescent ovaiy about half; stamens 5-15; 
styles 2: caps. 2-celled, with 2 beaks, dehiscent between 


the beaks, with 1 obbng shining seed in each cell. — 

Two species in Persia and the Himalayas. 

The parrotias are spreading shrubs or small trees with 
medium-sized orbicular to obovate-oblong leaves, small 
flowers in dense heads appearing before the leaves, 
and with fruit similar to those of the witch-hasel. The 
Persian species is hardy as far north as Maasachusetts. 
Its chief beauty consists in the brilliant autumnal tints 
of the foliage, which changes to golden yellow, orange, 
and scarlet and remains a long time on the brancoKS. 
The early appearing flowers with the purple pendulous 
stamens, are also attractive. The Himalayan species is 
more tender and its foliage turns only to pale yellow, 
but the flowers ore somewhat more ^owy from their 
rather large white bracts. The parrotiaH grow in any 
well-drained soil and like a sheltered position. The 
wood is very close-grained, hard and stroog, and there- 
fore P. persica bears the name, "ironwood. The tou^ 
pUable branches of the Himalayan species are exten- 
sively used for bosket-work and are aiao twisted into 

tion is by seeds and layers and also by greenwood 
cutting under glass. 
pirsica, C. A. Mey. Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft., 

die, dark green above, pubescent beneath when young, 
3-4 in. long: bracts of fl.-heads covered with darkorown 
tomentum; stamens 5-7. pendulous, with linear-oblong, 
purple anthers: fr. witn recurved beaks. N. Penda. 
B.M. 6744. 

Tacquemontiina, Decne (FoUiergiUa irwduerdta, 
Falc. ParrotiipaU tnvolucrdia, Schneid.). Spreading 
shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: lvs. orbicular, crenately 
toothed, stellate-pubescent on both sides, 2-4 in. long: 
heads many-fld., with spreading white bracts sprinkled 
with a purplish scurf on the back; stamens about 15, 
erect, with yellow, oval-oblong anthers. Himalayas. 
B.M. 7S01. Alfred Rehdeb. 

PARSCyrS BUI: CHamluu. 
PAfiSOT<S nATHER: Afin^DpAvUuiH. 

PAmtTA (Capt. W. E. Parry, ArcUc explorer). 
Crudferx. Four or 5 N. American and a few Asiatic 
low perennial herbs, with thick caudices, scape-like 
peduncles, narrow lvs. and mostly racemose rose- 
colored or purplish showy fls.; sepals oblong and erect, 
the lateral ones gibbous at base; petals broad, clawed: 
pod brood and flat, mostly elliptic, with orbicular seeds. 
The parryaa are alpine or boreal often arctic plants, 
and some of them will no doubt prove useful for the 
alpine garden. So far they are practically unknown in 
American gai- 
,y5jr^ dens. The most 

h ff j£&- j>i<5t>w. likely species to 

be used in rock- 

^iening is P. 
Enziesu, Greene 
tietix, Benth. ft 
Hook.). It has a 
leafy scape 3-8 
in. high, with a 
raceme of many 

fls., the petals nearly ]/^a\. long and bright purple: lvs. 

spatulate or oblanceolate, entire, densely tomentosc. N. 

Cahf., north te the I>ower Columbia River, l^ jj g_ 

PARSLEY (Pefroseliniim horlente, which see). Fig. 
2764. A leaf vegetable, used for garnishing and 

While indispensable in the markct^arden^ paisley is 
not usually found in the home-gardens in this country. 

2TM. Cnil-l«Ted puilar. 


Tfae addition of a bit of parsley foliage, finely chopp«l, 
heightens the flavor of soupei, fiah, and the like. The 
principal use of this vegetable, however, is for comish- 
mg meatB and fiah and other diahea, and for wis pur- 
pose it seems to be the vegetable par excellence, equally 
deairabte in the home as on the hotel table. 

A very few plants of parsley will eutlice for the home- 
evden, and any sixit of good soil will do for starting 
Utem from seed. Sow as early in spring as practicable, 
other in an early hotbed or coldframe, or in open 
ground. Fusley seed germinates somewhat slowlv, 
and the plants are feeble at first. In open ground, early 
sowing aids the plants to get ahead of the weeds. In 
larger patches the rows should be a foot apart, and 
wed sown rather thinly in shallow drills. Thin the 
plants to stand 4 to 8 incJics apart, and cultivate 
same as carrots. Gather the leaves as needed. For 
use in winter and early spring, start plants in open 
ground in early fall, and on the approach of cold weather 
Kt them in a comer of the greenhouse bench, or in a 
box or keg filled with rich loam placed in a light kitchen 
or cellar window. Old roots, ii still vigorous, may be 
lifted in autumn and treated the same as seedling. 
Fataley will stand considerable frost. Although biemual 
or perenuial, a new stock should be started every year. 
The plants usually bear better if the leaves arc removed 
ft few at a time rather than to have the entire crown cut 
«t once. 

When the plant is a year old (sooner or later), it 
throws up seed-etallis, and produces seed in abundance, 
even under glass protection. By keeping the seed-stalks 
closely cut out, the season of leaf-yield may be pro- 
loruKd for a time. Seed is easily gathered and cleaned. 

The varietal differences lie chiefly in the foliage, 
which in some sorts is rather coarse, as in the Plain or 
Common, or more finely divided, as in the Curled, 
Double Curled, Moss Ciuled, and Fem-Ieaved. 

T. Greineo. 
L. H. B.t 

PARSniP iPastinaea aoHea, which see). Fig. 2765. 
A favorite vegetable, cultivated for its ediUe root, 
irtuch is used mostly m winter and spring. 

The average home-gardener thinks much of quick 
results. The drawback to par^p-growing, in his esti- 
mation, is the length of time the crop requires for its 
development. When seed is sown, in early spring, the 
harvest seems a long way off. To offset this lusadvanta^, 
however, parsnips become available as green material 
when other things fresh from the garden are very scarce 
or entirely absent, that is, in open spells in winter, and 
in the very early days of spring. A crop of good straight 
roots may not be so easily produced as a crop of smooth 
carrots, but when once grown it does not burden one 
with much responsibility in regard to storage or keep- 
ing, which is an important point in its favor. The roots 
may be left in the ground where they grew or stored in 
tnosB or sand in the cellar. The winter freeiing in the 
ground does not injure them; in fact, some t^wera 



that time. If dug ii 

rooto. Straight deep roots must have a deep soil. Pre- 
pare it the same as for beets or carrots, or for any other 
garden crop. The seed should be strictly fresh, as it 
soon loses its vitality. Seeds germinate rather slowly 
and therefore the ground should be clear of roots and 

garden seed-drill, J^ to 1 inch deep, in rows 15 to 20 
mches apart in the garden, and somewhat farther in 
field cultuie, in the place where the plants are to stand. 

Be prompt in thinning the young seedlings to 6 to 12 
inches apart in the row; at the same time pull up or cut 

out nJl weeds. The free use of the hand wheel-noe will 
keep the patch clean until the entire surface of the 
ground is covered with fohage, thus preventing further 
growth of weeds. Tillage aa^ then cease. 
Seed is easily grown. 

Plant the roots ii 



any good soil, and 
gather the seed-heads in 
summer when most of the 
seeds in them are mature. 
Dry them on sheets, and 
then thrash or strip. 

The varieties of parsnip , 
are tew in number. For f 
shallow, stonv or other- 
wise unfavoraole soils the 
beat varieties are the 
Round or Early Short 
Round; for better soils 
the Half-Long, Student, 
or Hollow Crown; and for 
deep clean soils the Long 
Smooth. T. GnEiNUR. 
L. H. Ii.t 

PARS6nSIA (after 
John Parsons, a Scotdt 
naturalist). Apoq^iicex. 
Twining shrubs with op- 
posite IvB. : calyx 5-parted, 
glandularor naked, or with 
5 scales; corolla salver- 
shaped, tube short; lobes 
overlapping to the right; 
stamens inserted in the 
tube, filaments ofl«n twisted, anthers conniving over and 
adhering to the stigmu, cells spurred and empty below; 
disk of 5 lobes or scalea; ovary 2-celled, cells many- 
ovuled.^About 20 species in Trap. Asia, Austral., and 
New Zeal. The genus as here defined is that of Robert 
Brown; some recent authors have revived the older 
genus of the some name of Patrick Browne, making it 
supplant the usual species of Cuphea (p. 913). P. 
PAddiaonii, R. T. Baker, is reported as under cult. 
It is a woody climber with glabrous sts., attaining a 
height of about 15 ft., and with stalked obovate- 
lanceolatc Ivs. This species produces tubers the sise 
of beet-root, which are used as food by colonists as well 
as natives of New S. Wales. R.H. 1901:322 (note). 

PARTHSNITJH (ancient name transferred to this 
plant). CompdsiUe. About a dozen perennial or annual, 
mostly cancscent or pubescent, rather coarse herbs or 
shrubs of the western hemisphere, only rarely taken to 
gardens and apparently not domesticated. The heads 
are only inconspicuously rayed and not specially showy, 
the ray-Borets about 5. P. inUgrijHium, Linn,, the 
AuEHicAN Feverfew, or Prairie Dock, has been 
otlered as an ornamental hardy herbaceous perennial, 
but the plant is desirable only for foliage effects; and 
the fls. arc not attractive. It is pictured in B.B. 3:411 
and described in American manuals; it grows on dry 
soils from Minn, to Ga.; stout, to 4 ft., from a tuberous 
rootstock: Ivs. ovate or ovate-oblong: heads many in a 
densecorymb, the rays whitish. The so-called "guayule 
rubber" of Mex., P. oTgentAtum, Gray, the difficulty of 
growing which has caused much discussion, is reported 
as being under cult, in Mexico City by M. Colvino. 
It is unknown in horticulture. 

PARTHENOCf SSnS (Greek, varOienoa, virdn, and 
Wmos, ivy; translation of its French name). Syn. 
Quindrta, Psidera. VtUcez. Woody vines planted 
chiefly for their handsome foliage. 



DeciduouB or rarely everfp'eea Bhrube climbing by 
meoDB of tendrils with adhesive tipa, rarely these tips 
not developed: bark with lenticele; pith white: Ivs. 
alternate, digitate or 3-lobed, long-petioted: fls. in 
peduDcled compound cymes opposite to the Ivs., often 
crowded at the end of the branches and forming pani- 
cles, perfect, rarely polygamous; calyx minute, petals 
5, rarely 4, spreading; stamens 5 or 4; style short and 
thick; a distinct disk wanting; ovary 2-celled, each 
cell with 2 ovules: fr. a 1-4-eeeded berry. — About 10 
species in N. Amer., Mex., E. Asia, and Himalayas. 
Formerly usually clawed with Arapelopstfl, which see for 
the differentiating characters between the allied genera. 

These are high-climbing vines with handsome three- 
to seveo-foliolate or three-Iobed leaves assuming beauti- 
ful tints in autumn and with small greenish flowers in 
cymes orpanictes followed by bluish black or black 
berries. Tney are particularly valuable as they cling 
firmly to walls and trees by means of adhesive tips ol 
the tendrils without any other support. P.manQuejolia, 
P. vitaaa, and P. trieuapidaia are hardy North, while 
the other species are more or less lender; P. HenTyana 
mav be ^wn in the greenhouse for its beautiful foliage. 
In huimd and good soil all species grow vigorously and 
soon cover lar^e spaces. Propagation is by seeds or by 
hardwood cuttings or by layers, but P. tricugpidaia and 
its varietiefl are usually grown from greenwood cuttings. 

A. Lvt. B-ioUdUiie. 
B. Ymitig brancAJefs terete: bit. green. 

P. dumeldmm, Rehd. P, lacinial/ij Small], Usually low 
and rambling over bushes, occasionally climbing high 
into trees, glabrous: tendrils with 3-5 twining branches 
only exceptionally ending in adhesive disks : the /oung 
growth green: Ifts. oval or elliptic to oblong, acuminate, 
usually cuneate at the base, dark green and lustrous 
above, lightergreenand usually lustrous below, coarsely 
serrate, ^abroua, 2-5 in. long: <^'mes dichotomous on 
peduncles I!^-3 in. long, opposite the Ivs.: fr. bluish 
black, about M'n- thick, usually slightly bloomy, with 
3-4 seeds. June, July; fr. July, Aug. £. Canada and 



New England to Assiniboia and from Mich, south to 
Texas and Colo. B.M. 2443. S.T.S. 1:S9. Var. Udn- 
ilta, Rehd. (P. qainqaejilia var. lociniila. Planch.). 
Lfta. smaller, narrower, more deeply and incisely ser- 
rate, usually yellowish green. Wyo. to New Mex. Var. 
macrophflla, Rehd. (AmpclSpsU macroph^lla, Hort. A. 

Eiirupufolia var. lalijdlia, Dipp. A. Rdylei, Uort.). 
Fts. elliptic, large, dark green, sometimes 8 in. long 
and 5 in. broad. Garden form. Var, dllbia, RehdT 
(P. kiTgiila, Graebn.). Young bronchleta and Ivs., at 
least on the veins beneath, more or less hairy.- — This 
species is somewhat hardier than the followmg, but 
does not cling to walls; it may be used for covering 


1 darker green and mora 

quinqueftllia, Planch. {VUis quinauefblia, Lam. 
Ampddpsia quinqu^blia, Michx. A. heaeriixa, DC. A. 
tiirfinidno, Hort.). Vibckji a Creeper. Fig. 2766. High- 
climbing : tendrils with 5-8 branches ending in adhesive 
tips: the young growth purplish lifts, elliptic to obovate- 
oblong, acuminate, usually cuneate at the base, coarsely 
and often crenately serrate, dull green above, glaucescent 
beneath: cvmes crowded into terminal panicles: fr. 
bluish black, slightly bloomy, about ]^in. thick, with 
usually 2 or 3 seeds. July, Aug. : fr, in Sept., Oct. New 
England south to Fla. and Mex., west to Ohio, Ul., and 
Mo. Em.2'.535. S.T.S. 1:88. Var. murdnim, Rehd. 
(P. quinqvefbiia var. lalifblia, Rehd. P. rodicantiMtmo, 
Graebn. Ampeldpsie murdlis, Hort. A. Todieantiteima, 
Schelle). Tendrils with shorter and more numerous, 
usually 8-12 branches: Ifts. generally broader, the outer 
ones usually broadly ovate and rounaed at the base. This 
is a more southern form and somewhat tenderer. Var. 
inhior, Rehd., is similar to the preceding variety, but lft«. 
smaller and broader, oval to orbicular-ovate, rounded at 
the base, on slender stalks about }^in.long. Var. hinttta, 
Planch. (P. hirsula, Small. Ampeldpns hiraiiia, Don. 
A. Grahbneri, BoUe. A. pubSscens, Schlecht. A. quin- 

Sie/dlia var. radicantisgimaj Rebd. A. radkanlUtima, 
ort.). Young branchlets, mfl. and the Ivs. soft-pubea- 
cent, at least beneath, usually bright red while young, 
otherwise Uke the type. Gt. 48: 1462. Var. Saint-Pafclfl, 
Rehd. (P. SairU-Paidii, Graebn. Ampddpsi* Stnnt- 
PaiUii, Hort.) . Young branchlets and Ivs. beneath pubes- 
cent: Ifts. oblongK)bovate, cuneate at the base, shortr 
stalked or nearly sessile, sharply serrate with usually 
spreading leeth: panicles elongated: tendrils with 8-12 
branches: aerial rootlets often present. Iowa and 111. to 
Mo. and Texas. R.H. 1907, p. 567. Var. Bnewltiiaiinii, 
Rehd. (P. Sngelmannii, Graebn. AmpeUpaia En^el- 
mannii, Hort.), does not differ much from the typicol 
form except in its generallv smaller foliage. — The speciea 
is a very valuable climber of vigorous ^owth with 
the foliage changing to bright scarlet in fall; the vari- 
eties kirgula, Saint-Paulii, and muroruffl, are particu* 
larly adapted for covering walls; they cling firmly and 
form a dense, close covering like P. Iricutpidaia, but 
grow more quickly and more straight upward than 
Uiat species. 

BB. Young branehlel» quadrang\Jar: Int. viuaSy toilk 
while marking* above aiid pvrplith beimo. 

Henrylna, Diels & Gilg (VUis Henrydna, Hemsl. 
Ampeldpsia Henrydna, Hort.). Climbing to 20 ft. or 
more: tendrils with 5-7 slender branches with adhesive 
tips.: Ifts. 5, stalked, elhptic-ovate to cuneate-obovate, 
acuminate, toothed usually only above the middle, 
slabrous or hairy on the midrib beneath, 13^2!^ in. 
umg, bright scarlet when unfolding, changmg finally to 
dull reddish green, with silvery markings along the 
veins above, purple or purplish beneath: fls. in narrow 
panicles, 3-6 in. loni: fr, dark blue, usually 3-seeded, 
Cent. China. G.C.III. 37:309;39:354. Gn.69,p.341. 
M.D.G. 1908:259. R.H. 1907, p. 211. R.H.B. 32:213. 
— This is a very handsome but tender species; the 
coloring of the Ivs. is more beautiful when grown in the 
greenhouse or outdoors in a partly shaded place; in 
the full sun the Ivs. lose finally the white markings and 
the purple color. 

AA. Lvs. parily S-iobed and partly S-folialate. 

tricuspidftta. Flanch, {VUU tTxcSmtaTit, Miq. Amp^ 
I6psis tricugpidAla. Isieb. & Zucc. A. Veitchii var. rtMtIa, 
Hort. A. HAggii, Hort. A. iriednslan*, Hort. A. 
japdnica, Hort.). Japankbb Ivt, Boston Ivy. Fia. 
2767. High-climbing: tendrils short, much-branehea, 
with adhesive tips: Ivs. slender-stalked, cordate, either 
simple and 3-lobed with acuminate serrate lobes, to 
10 m. long, or 3-foliolate; Ifte. ovat«, sessile, serrate, 


■timing and glabroua on both aides or pubenilous on 
the veins beneath: cymes moetlv on short brauchlets, 
udllaiy or terminal, narrow ana somewhat, elongated: 
fr. bluish bUck, bloomy. June, July; fr. in Sept., Oct. 
Japan, Cent. China. B.M. 8287. G.C. II. 14:664. 
A.G. 15:W. B.H. 27:244. R.H. 1877, p. 176. Gn 
1:373; 4:353. R.B. 1877:11. Var. Veltdiii, Rehd. (J 
VeUehii, Graebn. Vitit Veiidiii, Hort. AmpeldpsU 
VeUehii, Hort,). Lvs. Bmaller, crenately serrate, pur- 
ine while young; Ifte. with only 1-3 coarse teeth on each 
side, the mend ones inside without teeth. Apparently 
only a juvenile form which mav psss later into the type. 
Var. poipttrea, Hort. (Am-pddpsU Veitckii var. pur- 
■pkrea or atrojmrpiirea, Hort.). Lvs. dark purple, not 
changing to green. Var. Uwii, Rehd. (AmpeWpais 
Lbmi, Hort. Tlti» incdnatane var. Linni, Hort.). Lvs. 
small. Ji-1 H in. long, mostly entire or 3-Ioholate, often 
broader than long, inciaelv dentate or almost palmatelv 
lobed with veiy unequal teeth, apple-green, purpliaa 
when young, changing to deep red m autumn. Gn. 71, 
p. 516. JJH. in. 56:335. R.H.B. 33:388. A.F. 30: 
1238. M.D.G. 1908:261. Var. aurita, Hort. Lva. 
marbled with golden yellow and green, — This species 
is a hardy and very useful climber, clinging firmly and 
covering walls densely; the glossy foliage stands dust 
and smoke well, and turns to a brilliant orange and 
scarlet in fall. Probably the favorite of all hardy vines 
in cities. The varieties VfitiMi and Lowii are much 
slenderer and smaller and are very effective as basket 
plwts (M.D.G. 1892:8). 

~ na.Relid- A.quiiiqijefoliiLVHr.hi>pta- 



fulvouB-tomentose when young, at maturity glabroua 
and pale green above, rusty tomentose breath and 
finally glabrous and bluish white: fr. peduncled; acom 
ovoici or ovate, */i-\]4 in. long, embraced only at the 
base t^ the shallow cup coated with 
linearFpresdingMales. R. Ore, to Calif. 
H.S, 8:438, G.F. 5:523.— One of the 
most beautiful oaks of the Pacific 
states. The bark is exceedingly rich in 
tannin and is used for tanning leather. 
The only representative of the genus 

uAuAlIy 7,obloTi9-obav& 

Lte, the lAtCTbl ODn round«l or subcDidAte at the b^ae, 

Hinukyu. Vsr. n<M/Mu°'%'i^le^"(Vlcii^ T^ri(o"^,'L^vclll«^ 
Vuiiat). li\M. ■mmller >ad hrosdtr, puralah while young; cymoi 
uulliT. W. China.— P. IcCMrnu, Relid. Am«l to P. quinquefolia. 
T(iiilril>with&-Sileaderbniicha; Ivg, obovitf or elliptio, cousely 
■enmte, bright yeUowuh freen on both sidea, 2-i in. lunA, glabroiu 
or hmiir on Iht vrim bergw; fla. in liirae terminal puniclea. Cent. 
duu.— P, Thimtonii, Pluch, iVitis Tubrif olia. Laws. P. He nryuia 
nr. ^uMcena. Diela A Gili- AmpeLopaig Tbomoonii. Hort.), Tes- 
drila with ^-A <liik-bf«riiig bruiah«: Ifu. 5. aJeoder-BtalLed, elliptic 

omt on the vrina b«D?ath, bliiiih green, IH~3 la. loos: fla. in (uchot- 
omoua eyma I ^t-3 in. bro«l, qppoaite tho Iv».: ft. bUct. Hima- 
Ikyu, Cent. Chink Gn. 63, p. 303. J,H.S. 28. p. 21e, 6t. 1S4.— A 
very luDdHHne aJender vine; lohafe purpliah while voimE, and pur- 
pl^ndiDfklL Tender, 

PASARIA (the vernacular name of one of the species 
in Java). Fofdcex. Ornamental trees grown for their 
handsome foliage. 

Eve^Sreen: winter-buds with few foUaceoua aealee: 
lvs. short-petioled, entire or dentate: stami&ate fls. 
in upright catkins, with a rudimentary ovary; stamens 
usually 12. much longer than the 4-6-lobed calyx; 
pistillate ns, solitary or 3-5, on separate catkins or at 
the base of the staminate catkins; ovary 3-celled, with 
3 cylindric styles stigmatic only at the apex: fr. a 1- 
seeded nut, surrounded at the base or wholly inclosed 
by the cup, its scales distinct and imbricate or connate 
into concentric rings. — About 100 species in S. E. Ama, 
one in Calif. Closely related to l^uercus, from which it 
is easily distinguished by the upnght staminate catkins 
and the cylindric styles stigmatic only at the apei. — 
The pasanias can c>e grown in warmer temperate 
regions only and are little known in cult. Their treats 
ment artd propagation is the same as that of the ever- 
gteea species of oak. 

dansifltea, Oerst. (Qufrciu dmtifibra. Hook, &. Aro.). 
Tanbaxx Oak. Evermeen tree, to 70, occasionally to 
100 ft., with spreading branches forming a dense, broad, 
ronnd-iopped head: lvs. oblong-obovate or obloi^, 
Mute, raniatAly dentate, with short acute callous t«eu. 

u tiicii*|iid*t*. ( X iQ 

P. crfrrwn, Oerat, (Quercua cornea. Lour.). Evergreen tree: Ivt 
oblong, acuToinete, gubroua and green beoeatb, 2-4 in, long^ Ira, 
in ahoii bpiIeh; eup broadly turbinate with amall momioent ecala 
embrai^ing the hemisphericiU flat-topped nut. S. China. li.I. 
2T:206S. The nut in edible. Young pUnts have proved hardy at 
Waahington, D, C.—F. euipiddta, Oeret. (Queteua cuepidsta, 
Thunb. CaetanDpaia cuspidala. Schottky). Evergreen tree, to m 
ft., with Blender branches: lva. ovate to oblong, acuminate, cnn 
nstely aerrate toward the apei or entire, glabrous at length, 1H-3M 

Z'. l^Sf' aC° III. 12^2^.' S?f''''i:M. "vwy'dealrabie^ 

P. alibra, Ocral 

' ■ (Quera 

1, Hort. 

my white margin. G.C. II. 

glabra, Thunb.). Evergreei. . 

, entire, glabrDua, light green beneat 

— 3.— . 


III. 16:377. R.H. 1RS8, p, 
UoUtiun, Oeiat. (Quercua tJ 

. Q.C.II. M:T8fii 

>e beneath, 3-5 li 

PASCAlU: Wedriia. 

PAsPALUH (Greek, piUTialas, an ancient n 
millet). Graminex. Spikelets 1-fid., piano 
mostly rounded, subsessile and overlappmg in 2 rows 
on one side of a narrow or winged axis forming slen- 
der racemes. About 150 species m the warmer parts of 
both hemispheres, but more abundant in Amer., form- 
ing an important part of the pampas and campos of 
S. Amer. P. dilatAttan, Poir,. of Argentina, a coarse 
species 3-5 ft. high, is sparingly cult, as a forage grass 
in the Gulf states and has become naturahzed liirough- 
out the S. P. com-prissum, Nees, Carpet-Grass, a 
native, 6 in. to 2 ft, high, with creeping sts. and rather 
broad lvs. makes a good lawn graas in the Gulf region; 
it is less di£Gcult to eradicate than Bermuda-grass. P. 
dlttichum, Linn. Extensively creeping rather wiry 
perennial, the erect fl.-culms 6-12 in., bearing a fuiir of 

Slender perennial with few to several spikes, the silvery 
spikelcts arranged on a broad ribbon-like axis, banded 
with drab and orange. S. Amer, Cult, in Eu, under the 
name P. elegam; worthy of intro. a. S. Hitchcock, 

PASSERINA (Latin, sparrow, from the Buppoaed 
resemblance of the seed to the head of a Bparrow; or 
possibly niter one of the Paaserinia, two Italian liota- 

hermaphrodite, in axillair, branched Bpikea; perianth- 
tube ovoid, with 4 spreading lobes often about as long 
as the tube; stamens S; ovary subsessilc, glabrous, 
l-«Jled. — About 5 species from S, Afr. P. fdifArmia, 
I .inn BranchcH puberulcnt: Ivs. aceroBe-linear, 3- 
cornered, rather acute: spikes terminal, many-fld.; 
fla. rosei calyx-lobes oval or oblong. S. Afr. 

PASSIFL6RA (i. e., -passion flower). Including 
Disimma and Tacsdnia. PassifiorAce^. Passion- 
Floweh. Highly interesting herbs, shrubs, or trees, 
most of the cultivated kinds climbing by means of 
tendrils, with flowers of odd structure; some of them 
produce edible fruits. 

Mostly vines, but some species erect: Ivs, alternate, 
rarely opposite, the petiole usually gland-bearing, the 
blade entire, digitately lobed Or parted, stipules some- 
times present; tendrils (sometimes wanting) lateral, 
simple; fls. solitary or racemose, mostly axillary, on 
articulated and often 3-bracled peduncles, mostly 
hennophrodite, with colors in yellow, green, blue and 
red, often lan^e and showj-; cal^ with short tube {also 
with long tube when Tacsonia is included), the lobes or 
petals 4 or .5 and narrow, often colored inside, bearing 
on the throat a simple double or triple showy fringe or 
crown;petaLi4or5 (sometimeawanting,or3), attached 
on the calyx-throat; stamens 4 or 5, the filaments 
joined into a tube in which is the gynophore or stalk of 
the ovary, the anthers linear-oblong and versatile; 
ovaiy oblong or nearly globular, with 3 styles and 3 
many-ovulcd parietal placenta;: fr. large or small, 
I berry-like, many-seeded, oblong or globular; seeds flat, 
mostly ovate, with a fleshy aril. — Species probably 
250-^00. By some, the genus Tacsonia is separated 
from Passiflora, but it 
is here combined; it 
differs in having an 
elongated rather than 
very short caJyx-tube 
or hypanthium; An- 
dean species. Sec 

With the exccpUon 
of a few Malayan, 
Chinese and Australian 
species, the true pa;^- 
noras arc natives of 
tropical America, some 
of them in the sub- 
tropical and warm tem- 
perate parts. Many of 
them arc cultivated as 
curiosities, and some of 
them for the beauty of 
their flowers and for 
their fcistooningfoliage. 
The fruit is of many 
kinds, in most cases not 
edible. The ovarj- 

supported on a lo ., ,,>,a, 

stalk, which is inclosed 

in or usually united with the tube formed by the union 
of the buses of the filaments. The structure of the fruit 
is well shown in Fig. 27riK; the remains of the floral 
envelopes have broken from the attachment on the torus 
and rest on the f niit . A dozen pas.silloraH occur in the 
United States, and one of them, P. Ivtea, grows naturally 
as far north as southern Pennsylvania and Illinois. From 
Virginia south, the Maypop, P. incarnata, is a very 
common plant in fields and waste |>laces. Both these 
species are herbaceous perennials. 

^ ZT68. Fruit of Haypop.— Pauiflan 


In cultivation, the passiJioraa have been considerably 
hybridized, and they arc also confused with Tacsonia. 
In 1871 Masters enumerated 184 species (Trans. I .inn , 
Soc. 27), but many species have been discovered since 
that time. Most of the passion-flowers are yellow or 
n«cn in color of envelopes, but there are fine reds in 
P. Tocemosa, P. Raddiana,P. coccinea, P. alaia,P.vitifolia, 
and others. The species known lo gardeners are few, 
altboi^ch many kinds are or have Mxn in cultivation 
by fanciers and in collections. They usually require 
much rafter room in greenhouses. According to G. W. 
Oliver, P. casnJea and Constance Elliott are both hardy 
at Washington. Not many of the tender ^lecies and 
hybrids are grown to any great extent in this country. 
P. alata and /*. quadrangularU are desirable climbers tor 
a roomy worm greenhouse. P. (niadrangtdarit var. 
vari^gata seems to fiower quite as freely as the green- 
leaved one, Posaifloros aro propagated from cuttinm 
of the half-ripened growth, with bottom heat. P. 
raeejnota and P. Loudonii are a trifle difficult to root 
from cuttings; the i^wths should be as ripe as possible 
for this purpose, hccp the under surface of the leaves 
flat on the sand while rooting. The native P. ineamata 
grows very freely at Washington, becoming more or leas 
of a weed and hard to eradicate. 

The pecuhar charm of these plants lies in the odd 
flowers, the parts of which were fancied by the early 
Spanish and Italian travelers to represent the imple- 
ments of the crucifixion (whence both the technical and 
popular names). I«gend and superstition have attached 
to these plants from the first. The ten colored parts of 
the floral envelope were thought to represent the ten 
apostles present at the crucifixion, Peter and Judas 
being absent. Inside the corolla is a showy crown or 
corona of colored filaments or fringes, taken to repre- 
sent the crown of thorns, or by some thought to be 
emblematic of the halo. The stamens are five, to some 
suggestive of the five wounds, by others thotight to be 
emblematic of the hammers which were used to drive 
the three nails, the latter being represented by tie 
three styles with capitate stigmas. The long axillary 
coiling tendrils represent the cords or the scourges. The 
digitate leavessuggcst the handsof the persecutors. The 
following sketch of the paBsion-flower legend is from 
Folkard's "Plant Lore, Legends and Lyncs," and the 
illustration (Fig. 2Tt>0) is also produced from that book: 
"The passion-flower (.Pamnjlora cterxdea) is a wild flower 
of the South American forests, and it is said that the 
Spaniards, when they first saw the lovely bloom ot 
this plant, as it hung in rich festoons from tne branches 
of the forest treeit, regarded the magnificent blossom aa 
a token that the Indians should be converted to Chris- 
tianity, a.s they saw in its several parts the emblems of 
the passion of our Lord. In the year 1610, Jacomo 
Bosio, the author of on exhaustive treatise on the Cross 
of Calvary, was busily engaged on this work when there 
arrived in Rome an Augustinian friar, named Emman- 
uel dc Villegas, a Mexican by birth. He brought with 
him, and showed to Bosio, the drawing of a flower so 
'stupcnduously marvelous,' that he hesitated making 
any mention of it in his book. However, some other 
drawings and descriptions were sent to him by inhabi- 
tants of New Spain, and certain Mexican Jesuits, 
sojourning at Rome, oonfinned all the astonishing 
reports of this floral marvel; moreover, some Domini- 
cans at Bologna engraved and published a drawing of it, 
accompaniea by poems and descriptive essays. Bosk) 
therefore conceived it (o be his duty to present the 
Flos Pasgionis to the world as the most wondrous 
example of the Croce trinnfanie discovered in forest or 
field. The flower represents, he tells us, not so directly 
the Cross of our Lord, as the past mysteries of tl» 
Passion. It is a native of the Indies, of Peru, and of 
New Spain, where the Spaniards call it 'the Flower of 
the Five Wounds.' and it had clearly been designed by 
the great Creator that it might, in due time, asaist in 




the conversion of the heathen among whom it nrows. 
Alluding to the bell-like shap^e assumed by the flower 
during the ^pneater part of its existence (i.e., whilst 
it is expandmg and fading) ^ Bosio remarks: 'And it 
may weU be that, in His inmute wisdom, it pleased Him 
to create it thus shut up and protected, as though to 
indicate that the wonderful mvsteries of the Cross and 
of His Passion were to remain hidden from the heathen 
people of those countries until the time preordained by 
His Hic^est Majesty.' The figure given to the Passion- 
flower in Bosio's work shows the crown of thorns twisted 
and plaited, the three nails, and the colunm of the flag- 
ellation just as they appear on ecclesiastical banners, 
etc. 'The upper petals, writes Bosio in his description, 
'are tawny m Peru, but in New Spain they are white, 
tinged with rose. The filaments above resemble a 
blood-coloured fringe, as though suggesting the scourge 
with which our blessed Lord was tormented. The col- 
umn rises in the middle. The nails are above it; the 
crown of thorns encircles the column; and close in the 
center of the flower from which the column rises is a 
portion of a yellow colour, about the size of a reale, in 
which are five spots or stains of the hue of blood, evi- 
dently setting forth the five wounds received by our 
Lord on the Cross. The colour of the column, the crown, 
and the nails is a clear ^reen. The crown itself is sur- 
rounded by a kind of veil, or very fine hair, of a violet 
colour, the filaments of which number seventy-two. 
answering to the number of thorns with which, accora- 
ing to tradition, our Lord's crown was set; and the 
leaves of the plant, abundant and beautiful, are shaped 
like the head of a lance or pike, referring, no doubt, to 
that which pierced the side of our Saviorj whilst tney 
are marked beneath with round spots, signifying the 
thirty pieces of silver.' " 

Passifloras as gardener's ornamental plants. 
(J. J. M. Farrell.) 

These plants constitute a large family or group of 
evergreen climbers. They will show to best advantage 
when they can be planted out permanently in a warm 
conservatory and where they can have comparatively 
large space to climb. They may also be grown in pots 
when the conditions do not permit other methods of 

Passifloras may be propagated either by cuttings or 
seeds. They may be rooted from young growth t^en 
any time from the middle of January until April. These 
cuttings are placed in a warm propagating-bed, and 
kept shaded and moist, and in a short time they will 
root; they are also inserted in small pots in a mixture 
of loam, peat^ and sand, in equal parts, and plunged in 
the propagating-bed. When rooted, the cuttings are 
potted off, using a compost of loam four parts, leaf- 
mold two parts, well-rotted cow-manure one part, and 
which should contain enough sand to keep it porous. 
Keep shaded imtil they become well cstabusheo, when 
they may be given a place well up to the glass in full 
sun. The passifloras are also readily raised from seed 
sown in spring, and the plants potted off as soon as big 

The plants will stand a night temperature of 65® to 
70'': this can be increased until it reaches 80** to 85** for 
a day temperature with sun. Give ventilation daily, 
takins into account the state of the weather; while 
they like plenty of heat, they will not do well in a 
stagnant atmosphere; therefore, give air on all favor- 
able occasions. Every morning in bright weather, give 
them a good syringing, as this is a great aid in keeping 
them in vigor and supplying the desired atmospheric 
moisture, but this does not mean a very humid atmos- 
phere. By pinching, the plants are made to produce 
several growths. These plants can be shifted until 
they are in 10- or 12-inch pots. The growth may be 
trained on pillars or along rafters of the conservatory. 

When planted out in about 8 or 10 inches of soil, passi- 
floras will cover a very large space, but sometimes to 
such an extent as to obscure the whole glass. The best 
place is on a back wall in some house where they may 
ramble at will. Keep well aryringed until they show 
flower, when syringing should be discontinued imtil 

2769. Old conception of the passion-flower. 
From Folkard's "Plant Lore," and there taken from Zahn. 

they are through blooming. After the plants have 
covered the position allotted to them, all that is required 
is the regulation of the young growth, so as to keep 
them from becoming entangled. In winter they may be 
cut back and the exhausted soil replaced by good rich 
compost. They will not need a high temperature, doing 
well in 55** to 60** at night. When they start off into 
growth again, keep raising the temperature imtil it has 
reached uie figures already stated. They mav now be 
given manure water regularly and throughout the 
growing season. Keep down thrip, red-spider, and 
mealy-bug by S3nringing and sponging. 

The edible-fruited passifloras. (F. W. Popenoe.) 

The principal species of Passiflora that are cultivated 
for their frmts in tropical and subtropical regions are 
P. qwadrangvlarUy the granadilla, gr^adilla real of 
Costa Rica, barbaidine of the French colonies, pasion- 
aria of Cuba, maracujd melfio of Brazil; P. edidis^ also 
c^ed granadilla, as well as passion-fruit; and P. 
laurifoliaj the water-lemon of the British West Lidies, 
pomme-liane of the French colonies. While P. quad^ 
rangularis is a common garden plant in tropical 
America, it is not so extensively grown in any region as 
is P. edulis in Australia. In the United States these 

eiecics can be grown only in the warmest regions; in 
alifomia P. edidis is the only one that is success- 
fully cultivated in the open, the other two species being 
much more susceptible to frost; in south Florida all 
three can be grown, although the tropical species are 
sometimes injured by frost. 



The true Kranadilla {P. quadranffuiarie) is a strong 
rapid-fTOwin^ climber, frequently planted for oma- 
ment in tropical rcgioiis and allowM to cover arbors 
and pergolaa- Its orownisb yellow ovoid fruits are 
sometimes S inches in length, and within the thin 
brittle pericaip is a large number of small flattened 
seeds Burrounded by gelatinous pulp and subacid juice. 
When green, they are sometimes boiled and used as a 
veRetable; when ripe, the acidulous pulp is refreshing, 
and is used to prepare cooling drinks, or is eaten with a 
spoon directly from the fruit. 

The psesion-fruit (P. edvlia) is conuderably smaller 
than the Eranadilla^ rarely larger than a hen's egg, and 
dull purple when npe. Its pulp is slightly more acid 
than that of the granadilla, but of very pleasant flavor, 
and highly esteemed in Queensland and New South 
Wales, where the plant is cultivated commercially. It 
is used for flavonng sherbets, for confectionery, for 
icing cakes, for "trifles," — a ilinh composed of sponge 
cake, fruits, cream, and whit« of egg, — for jams, and 
for other table purposes. The pulp is also eaten directly 
from the fruit, after adding a little su^, or is used to 
prepare a refreshing drink, oy beating it up in a glass of 
ice-water and adding a pinch of bicarbonate (u soda. 
The plants are grown on trellises about 6 feet high; at 
the top of tie trellis is nailed a crosapiece 18 inches long, 
from the ends of which are run two wires, the long 
branches being allowed to hang down over these to the 
ground. The rows are placed 15 feet apart, with the 
vines IS feet apart in the row. The young plants must 
be protected m regions subject to frost: they hepa 
beanng the second year, Bometimes producing a Um 

Z7T0 Gr«iud 111 Pudflan qminnfiiluU. {XH-M) 

fruits the firat season, and continue in profitable pro- 
duction (our to six years, when they must be renewed. 
By proper pruning, two crops a year can be secured, in 
regions not subject to frost. The most suitable soil 
seems to be sandy loam, although other soils will grow 
the plant successfully. Manure should be supplied 
liberally. In Australia, the profits of passion-frmt cul- 
ture are reported to run from $100 to $300 an acre 
annually. Because of the short life of tlie vines, they 
are oft«n planted as a catcb-crop in young orchards 


which have not yet come into bearing. like P. qnoA- 
Tanipdaru, this species is often grown as an ornamental 

Slant, and makes an excellent and rapid-growing cover 
)r fences and trellises. 

The passifloros are easilv propagated by seeds or 
cuttings, the latter methoa being pi«fereble in most. 
cases. Seeds should be removed from the fruit, dried 
in a shady place, and planted in flats of light soil. They 
do not germinate ven' quickly, but the young plants 
are easily raised, and may be set out in the open 
pound when six months to a year old. Cuttings should 
be taken from fairly well-matm«d shoots, and should be 
about 6 inches in length. They are easily rooted in 
sand, no bottom heat oeing required. Cuttings of P. 
edidia will often fruit in pots at the age of one to two 
years, and form very interesting greenhouse plants. 
While this species usually fruits prolifically, P. quoA- 
ranffularu sometimes requires hand-pollination when 
grown outside its native habitat. 

kdmopod*. 2 

^rldnnl'. £0. 

1. Passifixira proper, tuith short kypanlhiu 
tube {species l-£4). 

A. Corona rrilh sharp folds, and crinkled at the edge. 
H. Fh. apetahwi, usually reiih no bract*. 
I. gricifls, Jacq. Slender annual: st. terete, 
-f ■ glabrous: Ivs. rather small, broadly 

-^^k rfi deltoid-ovate, very ahallowly and 

TK '^v., blimtly 3-lobed: fla. solitary, i»le 

pi W green or whitish, considerably su> 

p- "" passed by the Ivs., the calyx-lobea 

oblong or lanceolate, the filiform 
raya of the corona in a single tow and equal, the 
inner corcna a lacerated membrane: seeds with 
6 elevated ridges. Braiil. B.R. 870.— Fl. about 
1 'n ac ta Easily grown either indoors or in the 
open as a garden annual. 

DD F! petal ftrotu, wUh large bracts. 

2 adeii6poda Moc & Sesai. Lvs. glabrous, cordat^ 
3-ncr\ed ani 5-lobed the lobes ovate-aeuminate ana 
somewhat serrate bracts cut-serrate. Mex. to 8. 
Amor — Once ad ertised in the U. S. 

3 Hfihmi Mi t Tall, glabrous climber, with veiy 
slender t rot pcidulous branches: lvs. ovat^ peltate 
at basp t I 3-nerved and each of the side nervM 
end ng n Ih but the If.-maigin otherwise entire 
but beannk, te red glands: stipules kidney-shaped, 
dentate, purplish, nearly or quite 1 in. across: fl.-bractA 

2, entire: fl. about 3 in. across, solitary, whitish and 
pale green, the corona shorter than the envelopes, the 
outer filaments being orange-yellow, about ^m. long. 
Mex. B.M.7a52. S.M. lSmA30(BsDisemmaHahnii). 
G.C. II. 12:504. 

fiBB. Fts. vritk small or minute petals and alao snuJl or 
minute brocia, 
C. Lvs. aftloTtg-ovate. 
4. trifudtta, Lem. Lvs. 3-lobed to one-third or one- 
half their depth, the margins entire, with an irregular 


reddish purple band &long each of the 3 midribB: 
fls. yellowiaj), fragrant, small. Braul. I.H. 15:644. 
GSi. 13 : 96.— Interesting for its onuunental foliAge. 

cc. Let. broadfT Ihan long. 
Lino. Wiu) Yellow Pass 
f cnsuiiuu ucrb, 5-10 ft. tall or long, glabiuue ur vcr; 
nearly bo: Itb. broBder than long, shsUowIy and bhintly 
34obed, cordate at base, the petiole glandless 
Bb. solitary or in pairs, about ^in. across, green- 
ish yellow: fr. a globular berry about ^in 
diam., smooth, purple at maturity. Pa. south 
and west, in tnickets and more or less damp 
[daces. B.R. 79. — It has been offered by dealers 
m native plants. 

6. macDllfaiiL Mast. Notable for its spotted 
(w variegated fobage: branches slender and wiry 
puberuloua: Ivs. ehort-e talked, roundish cordate 
3-nerved, with 3 shallow lobes at the truncate 
apex, green and yellow-blotched above, purphah 
aikd glandular beneath: fls. in pairs, cream 
colored, nearly 1 in. acroaa, tile peduncles with 3 
remote minute bracts; calyx cup-shaped, with . 
acumintcte recurred lobes; petals shorter than 
calyx-lobes or sepals; crown pUcated and with 
hatchet-flhaped processes. Veneiuela. G.C. ill 
32:Buppl. Nov. 8. 

AA. Conma not erinleled or folded on the edge 

pfoin or Ttearlj/ to. 

B. BraeU grown together. 

7. llcnUris, Jusa, (P. Linoei, Heer). Woody 
below, tall, branchy: Ivs. large, cordate, o^ate- 
* — '" "either lobed nor toothed: fls. boL- 

CC, Tvbt offl. very ahort, thick orfiahy ir. 
n. St». and branehet ttrongly i-angted or enea wtn^; 

11. qiwdrangullrls, Linn. Gi<anaiiii.[.a. Fig. 2770. 
Tall stning climber glabrous: Ivs. ovate or roimd-ovate, 

S.Calif, described Hs oval, larger and more oblong 
than that of P.etfuJu, withanard shell and buff- 
brown in color. Trop. Amer. B.M. 2967. — Young foli- 
age has metallic hues. 

BB. Bradefree. 
C. Ttibe ojfi. enidenl and cylindrUal, svxUen at the bate. 

8. racemAsa, Brat. (P. ■princept, Hort. P. amdhilis, 
Hort., in port). Lvs. fdabrous, usually truncate at 
bue, mostly deeply 3-lobed, the margins entire; fls, 4 
in. or more across, the narrow petals deep red and wide- 
spreading, the shorty upright crown purplish; calvx 
keeled on the lower side; fla. solitary, but the peduncles 
usually 2 from an axil, becomiiig racemose on the ends 
of the shoots: bracts 3: fr. described in cult, as cylindri- 
cal-ovate, greenish yellow at maturity. Brazil. B.M. 
2001. B.R.285. L.B.C.1:84. Gn. 39:168. G.L.24:222. 
— A fine old species and a parent of various garden 
hybrids. One of the best of the red-fid. pasaifloras. 
Summer and fall. 

9. RaddUUia, DC. (P. kermeAna, Link & Otto). 
Rather slender climber, glabrous: Ivs. shallow-cordate, 
3-lobed and sparingly dentate, purplish beneath: fla. 
solitary, with very narrow distinct sepals and petals of 
a bright crimson-red, which are wide-spreading at first 
but mially turning almost straiRht back; crown black- 
purple, upright, with smaller wnitiah filaments inside. 
Summer and fall. Brazil. B.M. 3503. B.R. 1633. G. 
1:453. F.W. 1874:161.— An old and well-known spe- 
cies; said to prop, from cuttings of old well-formed 
wood. P. Lofidoui, Hort., is considered to be a hybrid 
of this and P. Tocemota. 

10. Wationilna, Mast. Sts. wiry, purplish, with 
leafy dentate stipules: Ivs. shallow-cordate, rather 
broader than long, 3-lobed to the middle, with a few 
teeth: peduncles 1-fld.; fls. about 3 in. across, the sepals 
linear and sbaded with violet: petals also very narrow, 
hlac; crown of many rown of filaments, violet witi bars 
of white below the middle, the inner and shorter set 

cordate at base mu 

cronate entuu the 
pel ole with 2 or 3 
pairs of glands St p- 
Ics large fl large 

mteresung, iraz 
with ovate sepali 
petals (the former 
white within and the latter rediiisli), the ci 
composed of 5 senes of white-and-purple parti- 
colored filaments, of which the outermost exceed the 
floral envelopes: fr. oblong, 5-9 in. long, yellowish 
green, pulpy and edible. Trop. Amer. B.R. 14. R.H. 
1898,p.669. Gn.51,p,313; 59, pp. 4, 7. G.33:16J.— 
Widely grown in the tropics, and variable, both as a 
vine and for its edible fis. Frequent in collections of 
economic plants in the N. It is a good climber for ' 
covering a greenhouse roof. Best results are secured if 
the temperature does not fall below 50°. The fr. ripens 
in summer. The fls. usually need to be hand-pollinated 
if fr. is wanted on house-grown plants. Var. variegftta, 
Hort. (P. varieg^a, Hort. P. aMeiibi}6lia, Hort.), has 
foliage blotched with yellow. 

12. aUto, Dry. St. winged; lvs. glabrous, oval to 
ovate, somewhat cordate at base, the margin often 
undulate but otherwise entire, the petiole witn 2 purs 
of glands: fl. 3-4 in. across, very fragrant, the interior of 
the sepals and petals carmine; corona nearly or quite as 
long as the envelopes, the numerous filaments parti- 
colored with red, purple, and white: fr. yellow, ovoid- 
pointed, about 5 in. long, very fragrant and one of the 
most edible. S. Amer. B.M. 66. G.C. IIJ. 15:19; 
22:449-51; 43:187. R.B. 20, p. 104 (see R.H. 1902, 
pp. 287-9, for taxonomic discussion). — An excellent old 
species, ripening its fr. in midsummer. It is very vari- 
able, and is perhaps one form of a polymorphous spe- 
cies including the granaditla. P. phanicea, Lindl. 
(B.R. 1603), P. bragatana, Desf., P. oriformU, Roem., 
P. latifolia, DC., P. mavniiana, Thouara, and P. 
matcarentia, Presl., are all considered to be forms of 
this species. P. Lawsonilna, Hort., not Mast., is a 
hybrid of P. alata and P. racemosa: lvs. oblong-oval, 
somewhat peltate, entire: fla, 3-4 in. across, brownish 
inside, the corona with filaments in several series. 

13. Decaisneftna, Hort., is perhaps a hybrid of P. 
quadranguiarU and P, aiala; fls, bright carmine inside, 
about 4 in. across; corona as long as or longer than the 

2484 ' 


envelopes, the more or less tortuous filaments banded 
with deep blue and white: Ivb. bearing about 6 glands. 
R.H. 1855:281; 1902:288 (aa P. Decaisneana and P. 
quadrangtdaria var. Dfeaimeana, where a botanical 
and historical discussion by Andr^ may be found). F.S. 

DD. Sis. and branclwg lerele, or at Uiut not m'njretf. 
E. Lva. not lobed. 

11. amibilis, Hook. St. slender and terete: Ivb. 
ovate, very sharp-pointed, entire, rather thin, the 
petiole with about 2 pairs of glands; fl. eohtatv, about 
3 in across the eepab and petals alike and briftht brick- 
red within corona or white filaments in 4 series, the 2 
inner series being shorii Brazil BM 4400. Gn. 
66 272 

16 laurifUU, Linn (P txmfitlia Juss). Jamaica 
HoNEYBicELE Water Lemok St teret«, plant 
glabrous Iva oval to oval-oblong thickiah entire, with 

a short sharp point; petiole with 2 Rlands at apex: fl. 
about 23^ in. across, white, with red spots or blotches; 
corona somewhat exceeding the petals or at least about 
equaling them, in '-i series, violet with white bands: fr. 
about 3 in. long, yellow, spotted with white, edible, 
according to Lindley. but the plant cult, under this 
name in 8. Calif, said t« have frs. not yellow spotted 
white, but much like those of the plant there known as P. 
Ivufaria(BeeNo.7).TTOp. Amer. B.R. 13. B.M.4958. 

16. coccbiea, Aubl. (P. vdiiHna, 
Wallis). Ulabrous; Iva. ovate anil 
petioles with 2-:j pairs of glands: fi. scarlet; corona 
orange: fr. puhiy, wlible. S. Amcr. G. 28:512. H.F. II. 
6:6. — A free-flowering M|iecics, of gof^i constitution. 

EK. Lr». S^T-lolKd. 
p. Blomunnt bright rtd. 

17. vitif61», IIBK. (P. eanguliKa. Smith. TacsAnia 
Bttchdnanii, Lem.). St. shrubby, climbing, terete: Ivb. 
cordati^ovate in outline, deeply :i-lobea or divided 


and the divisionB coarsely toothed, strong-veined, ubu> 
ally pubescent beneath: fl. 4-6 in. across, nearly flat, 
the hnear-oblong sepals and petals bright scarlet, tite 
sepals with a spine at the tip; aut«r corona filaments 
red, the inner ones white, all of them upright or ^read- 
ing and much shorter than the envelopes. Bradl. 
B.M.7936. F.M. 1878:317. G.C. III. 8:213; 43:187. 
G.Z. 28:145. F.W. 1868:289.— An old ^lecies, but 
not common in cult. Said not to be free-flowering. A 
very brilliant species. 

FK. Bloswnia white, greenish, purpUth, or varioiaiy 
tiTited, but not red, 
G. Rayg of corona (or the oiiter ones) about as lortg at 
the floral envelopes: lf.-margins atrongli/ terrale 
(except aomelimes in No. 20). 

IS. incamfttB, Linn. Wild Pasbion-Flower. Mat- 
pop. Fig. 27C8. Tall-chmbing strong perennial vine, 
glabrous or nearly so, becoming 20-30 ft. long: Ivs. 
3-lobed to about half their depth, broadly cordate- 
ovate in outline, acrratc, the petiole bearing 2 glands 
near the top:fl. axillary and solitary, about 2 in. across, 
white, with a light purple corona band at its center: fr. 
oblong, about 2 in. long, with 3 sutures, yellow w^en 
ripe, edible. Dry places, Va., south and west. B.M. 
3697. Mn. 9:17.— A weedv nlant, but offered by 
dealers in native plants. With protection, the roots 

8 far north as Baltimore, and 
rong herbaceous vines make a fine cover for 
arbors and verandas. Easily grown from seeds. 

19. edfilis, Sims. Fig. 2771. More woody and 

the strons 

stronger: Ivs. large, deeply 3-!obed and serrate; fl. white, 
often tinted with purple, the rays nearly as long as the 
envelopes, white for the upper half but purple at the 

base: Ir. globular^blong, thickly purple-dotted when 
ripe, the rind hard. Brazil. B.M. 1989. R.H. 18.57, 
p. 224; 1883, p. 489. Gn. 50:414; 62, p. 259. G.C. 
111.23:101. A.G. 13:120.— Runs into several forms. 

1 tropical countries. 

20. 1 

the lateral lobes diverging, the margins remotely 

f;landular-toothed, glaucous beneath: stipules very 
[11^ and If. -like, cordate, 2 in. long; fls. 3 in. across, 
pnle or pearly violet, the corona of numerous fil^imcnts, 
the outermost of which are nearly as long as the petals 
and arc deep violet at the base, vellowish in the middle 
and curly at the top. Britiah Guiana. G.C. IIL 22:393 
(desc.).— First described in 1897. 
oo. Rayi distinctly shorter than enrelopes: If.-marffint 
nearly or quite entire, 

21. ilbk, IJsk & otto (P. alom^ria, Planch.). St. 
terete: stipules ver>' large and If.-like: Ivs. broad- 
ovate and somewhat cordate, rather shallowly 3-lobed, 
glaucou-s beneath, the margins entire; peduncles exceed- 
ing the Ivs., 1-fld.; fl. little more than 2 in. across, 
clear white: fr. obovoid, the size of an egg, green at 
first, but becoming yellowish. Men. to S. Amer. G.C, 
11.19:693. R.H. 1883, p. 201; 1884:36. G.W. 14, 
p. 151. 

22. adenophflla. Most. By somr thought to be 
probably identical with P. oHto; Ivs. glabrous, cordate 
at base. 3-lobcil nearly to middle, glandular in the 
sinus, the lobes oblong and apiculate; petiole with 
scasile glands: fls. white, the peduncle equaling or 
exceeding Iho petiole; sepals bennng a subulate apffend- 

- a[Mtx on the back; petok shorter than sepals 

. Me> 

23. TJoUceo, Veil. I'all, glabrous, with drooping 
branches: Ivs. straight at banc and somewhat peltate, 
with 3 long, narrow lobes, of which the side ones stand 
at nearly right angles to the central one, the margins 


entire or intb a few t«etb in the bottom of the einua, the 
onder surface slightly glaucous: fl. about 3 in. acroGS, 
the petals and sepals lilac-pink inside (sepals ending in 
a long qnir), the numerous filaments of the corona 

irtute-Upped and barred with violet and white. Brazil. 
B.M. 6097. R.H. 1885:468. G.W. 14, p. 151. 

24. uerftlea, Linn. Fig. 2772. Slender, but a strong 
pDwer, glabrous and somewhat glaucous: Iva. divided 
nearly to the petiole into 5 lanceolate or lanoe^Uiptic 
entire sharp-pointed segms. of which the 2 lower ones 
are sometimes again lobed: fl. 3-4 in. acro^, slighlty 
fragrant, greenish white, the sepals tipjKd with a shuft 
point, the rays of the corona in 2 series, blue at the 
tip, white in the middle and purple at the baw, the 
styles U^t purple. Braiil. B.M. 28. Gn. 31, p. 42!; 
a4. p. 114; 46, p. 369. G. 3:6U. J.H. 111. 47:57.— 
The commonest of passion'flowers in Amerii 
houses, and now represented by several 
named forms and hybrids. It can be grown 
in the open in the S. and in CaliT. as far 
north as San Francisco. Var. gnmdlflOra, 
Hort., isonly a somewhat lanser-fld, form, 
ConatatiM Elliott (P. cxHJea var, dlba), 
is a white-fld. fragrant form. G.C. III. 
43:186. Gn. 31:420. There are hybrids 
with P. Raddiana. P. raeevwsa. P. alata, 
and others. P. aerulea grows readily from 

U. TacaoNiA, the hypanthium or calyx-lube 

Umg {J^n. long arid uguaUymvxk more). 

A. Fl*. orange or rosy orange. 

25. Pirritc, Bailey {Taaimia PArri- 
Ui, Mast.}. Lvs. deeply 3-lobed, glabrous 
above, pilose beneath, lobes narrow and 
entire; stipules entire, Bubulat«>acuminate: 


fl. with a long and slender tube, glabrous, swollen at 
the base; sepus winged and with points, rosy-orange i 
petals oblonK and flat, shorlfr than the sepals, orange; 
corona double, the outer row of tooth-like projections. 
Colombia. G.C. 11. 17:225. I.H. 35:41.— Named for 
Senor Parra ("better known as Farrita"}, through 
whom it was intro. 

AA. f is. aearlel or rotc-eolored. 

B. Bracts beneath the fl. not united. 

c. Lvs. simple or noi M>ed. 

26. insIgDis, Hook. (Tacsinia inslgniii. Mast.), 
Pilose: lvs. ovate-lanceolate, subcordate, dentate, 
rugose or blistered above and red-downy beneath, the 
stipules dissected: fl. about 6 in. across, violet, rose or 
crimson: tube cyUndrical, swollen at the base, downy; 
sepals about twice longer than the tube, lance-oblong, 
spurred at the end; petals similar in shape, obtuse; 
corona of one series of short threads, blue and white. 
Probably Peruvian. G.C. 1873:1113. F.S. 20:2083, 
2084. B.M.6069. 

cc. Lvs. 3-lobed or divided. 
n. Foliage glabrous at malurii]/. 

27. Van VOliomii, Triana & Planch. {Taesdnia Van 
Vdhemii, Hook.). Fig. 2773. Sts. slender and sUghtly 

Iiubescent: lvs, cordate-ovate in outline, deeply 3- 
obed, the lobes lone-lanceolate-acuminate, serrate: fls. 
5-7 in. across, bright red with short green calyx-tube 
that has a swollen base, the acute calyX'lobea green 
eirtemally; corona an inconspicuous toothed rim. 
Colombia. B.M. 5571. G.C. 1866:171. 0.2.9:144.— 
Less showy than some others, but a well-known species. 

28. Jimesonil, Bailey {Taesdnia JAm£sonii,iABBt.). 
Lvs, Buborbicular, S-tobed, glabrous: 11. large, bright 
rose or coral-red, with a cylindrical tube 4 in. long: (r. 
said to be green at maturity, oval. Peru. 

DD. Foliage doumy beneath at maiuriiy. 

29. exonitinsis, Hort. (hybrid of P. Van Volxemii 
and P. moUiisima). Kg. 2774. Lvs. downy, cordate, 
ovatc-oblong, divided nearly to base into 3 lanceolate, 
serrate se)?ns.:fls. 4^5 in. across; sepals brick-red out- ' 
side, brilliant rose-pink within; throat violet; tube 
white inside, 2)^ in. long. Resembles P, Van Vidiemii 
in having peduncles as long as lvs., linear stipules, free 
downy bracts, filamentous corona near base of tube 

gfr*. Puii&on (Tictonia) «uai«iul>. <XH) 


and violet color of throat. Resembles P. ToMUrima i 
having downy Ivs., long flower-tube, color of fl. an 
aiiBtate BepaJa. 

BB, Brads beneath the fl. more or Um united. 
c. Lf.-lahea ahori, obtuee or ruarlj/ so. 

30, manidta, Pers. (P. imea, Hort. Taadnia r. 
cdfa, Jusa.)- Red Passion-Vine. Fig. 2775. St. nearly 
terete, finely pale-pubescent; Ivs, coriaceous, 3-lobe<i 
to about the middle, finely gerrate, the lobes broad- 
oblong, pale beneatn; stipules ovate, 1 in. across, 
notched, clasping: fls. solitary on slender axillary pedun- 
cles, brilliant scarlet, 4 in. across; periantb-tube 3-^- 
long, inflated and 10-ribbed at base; outer corona of 
many short blue filaments, some of which surround the 
column; inner corona of an inflexed membrane: fr. 
eu-shaped or almost globular, yellow-green, the skin 
tfTck: seeds many in a thin pulp. Colombia, Ecuador, 
and Peru. B.M. 6129. G.F. 7:265 (from which Fig. 
2775 is reduced). R.H. 1903:356.— This plant seems to 
be grown with difficulty in greenhouses, but it is at 
home in the open in S. Calif., climbing into the tops of 
trees and blooming profusely, making a brilHant dis- 
play. It grows with great vigor and rapidity, renewing 
itself freely from seeds. 

cc. I4--iobee ItynQ-acttte, 

31. mixta, Linn, f. {Taeabnia ndxla, Jusa. T. eri- 
drtiha, Benth.). Glabrous or somewhat jiubescent: Ivb. 
orbicular-ovate, thick, 3-lobed to the middle, the lobes 
long-acute and serrate: fl. 3-i in. across, rose-pink, the 
oblong sepals not equaling the green scarcely saccate 
tube; corona a short multiple rim or disk. Andes. — It 
is reported that the P. mixta that has been grown in 
Calit. is P. ntoUimmo. 

32. mollfBBims, Bailey ( 7acsdnu) moQtmmo, HBK.). 
Pubescent: Ivs. cordate-ovate in outline, very pubes- 
cent beneath, the lobes extending nearly to the base of 
the blade and ovate-lanceolate in shape and serrate, the 
Stipules laciniate: fi. about 3 in. across, roae-color, the 
green tube exceeding the sepals and swollen at the base; 
corona a short rim. Andes. B.M. 4187. B.R. 32:11. 
F.S. 2:78. G. 28:17.— P. Ivbifidra, offered about 20 
years ago in Calif, (and now apparently lost) is said 
not to differ much from P. TnoUUHma, 

33, Smythiina, Hort. Seedling of P. ntoUUsima or 
hybrid with it, with very brilliant orange-scarlet or 
rosy-crimson fla. G.C. Ill, 12:705. Gn.W. 8:149. 

p. aUlotitriilra (P. Pfordtii. Hort.) is s hybrid from h«I of P. 
bIbU by pollen of P. csnilcm: Ivi. much like th»e of P. ■lata, 
3-Jobed: fu- fraRraat, beautiful ^Kpsla wbite; pel&lspiDlE; corGn&of 
3 Kri«, Ihe outer Glnmeau being white M tip, bluc-purrile is the 
middle, and hWli-pumIr at Ihc bue. B.R. S4g. R.H. 1^47:121.^ 
P. dibo-niem. Hort. Said to be a hybrid of F. alata and P. Kaddjana: 
' - ■ , ■ - 1 « . white above and blackish purple 

, Hort.="P, quadraiuculariBXP. 

_ . raaed by Mr, Allard of the Botanic 

Garden, CanibridgQ. England: Iva. uiually with 3 broad loba; 
frr^flowerinH ; petals while ihaded pink ; corona deep eobalt-blue. — 
P. omMnua, Hvmsl. Po»ibly a bybrid of P, laurifoiia and P. 
Dialifonnia: tl>. more than double the liio of, P. laurifoiia <6 in. 

. XUardii 

[11.31:171.—/'. r. 
racemoaa. but inB. i 


one-fourth the length *Dd with « amtll middle lobe, n«iiah. with a folded 00 *^- 

II. 12:40.— P. nnnohiriiu. UndL Branch) .. 

ovale. 3-lobed, ■"■'y"' entire: fla. aolltary. Z )i in. ac 
corona ■hort, laldedrWllowiah. AuMral. G.C. 18a5:7: 
Mil.— P. coUmfntit, Mut. k RoM. * " ' 

•cribed in IBM. but oult, for aevnl yo 

heriwceoua •pedca, with ihalkrw-lobed obtuia djentieulate Iva. and 

II _.l;.:.i.i..i 1 — la 1 pn^ padunelo. Proniisiu ai an 

I, Matt, Lra. ofalons,' voy broad, 
" " " i with mall lobe 

. £euado(. O.C 

tr elimber.' 

atipulca linmr, NicarauguB. B.M. 7S2Z. G.C. 
' u, Hort. Hybrid: hue toUase of P. 
gvneral shape more like P. Raddiana: 
no, souut 4 in, uiam., luDO less than Hin. lonfi; sepBlA deeply 
keeled, reddiah violet or prune-colored: petala about lenirth ol 
•epals, dark blood-red: outer eorona violet Hpotled while, the 
Elamenta or threads half the li-nglh of (he petaU: inner i^omna 
■horter, violet, each thread enlariKd at top. G. 2I>:4U.^— /•. Bft- 
Mill. Hon. Sepals fl(»h-eolorcd;prial> moo; eorona blue, Thounht 
to be a hybrid of Freneb orimn, having been received in Enitlaiid 
about iMr.—P.BowfiaptTira. Hort.rhybrid of P. alata and P. 

Ba. of tbe former with the kandaome foliage of the latter:" blooma 
freely when youu- "- — '-— - ■- ■^~^^- _.jj:.v _; .u. 

<1 the'nraiilian P. Raddiana! The fls. are larser Ibap 

' Bufluaed with blue, which, thi^h perhan not so briiht 

^ ..B it ifl in the parent, ia a lovely color." — P. auerp- 

. Of the P. quadraniultiris group: it. i-angled. atroug- 

" ' " urple: fr. ai large aa a 

Iraail.— P. malifirmit. 

..jed ae eylindrieal: Iva, 

Z-lclandular: Q. fraarant. 




lH>arted. W. Indies. B.M.4565. J.F.2:llA.— P. mnnatUHptila, 
Ca\'. (Tacsoni* pmnatistipuU, Jusb.). Resembles T. moUiesims, 
but the bracts are free; stipules pinnatiscct: fls. rose-colored. Chile. 
B.M. 4062. B.R. 1536.— P. punetdla, Linn. Herbaceous climber, 
minutdy puberulous: Ivs. nearly semi-circular or almost lunate, 
shallowly 3-lobed, the middle lobe much smaller, variegated on 
both sunaoes with purple: fls. in pairs, pale yellow, about 1 H in* 
across; sepals ovate-oblong, obtuse, nearly f'^in. long; petals 
similar but much shorter; corona in 3 rows, jrellow, the filaments 
of the outer row with vic^et heads. 8. Amer. B.M. 8101. — P. 
quadriglandtiUm, Rodschied. Fls. solitary, 4-5 in. diam., rose-color 
with a darker shade in the center: corona with an outer nng of dark 
red filaments: inner filaments tubular and paler; sepals and petals 
much alike, very long and narrow, acuminatc^omted. Habitat 
imknown. G. 28:575. — P. 9erratifdlia^ Linn. Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, 
acute, serrulate, pubescent beneath; oetiole 4-glandular: fls. pur- 
ple; corona pale purple and bluish, ^lez. B.M. 051. H.U. 2, p. 71. 
— P. Muherdaa, Lmn. Glabresoent, with corky bark: lvs. roundish 
or ovate, 3-lobed, the lobes ovate to obloni^ to lanceolate, the peti- 
ole 2-glandular above the middle: fls. greenish yellow, without pet- 
als: corona short: berry ovoid, smalL w. Indies, Veneiuela, etc — 
P. triloba, Ruix A Pav. Lvs. large, cordate-ovate, 3-lobed or en- 
tire: fl. 3 in. across, with violet reflczod sepab and petals, and a 
long cuplike corona, with filaments banded white and purple. 
Peru- I.H. 36:83. — P. Weberidna, Andr4. Glandular-hairy: lvs. 
lar^, 3-lobed, the margin usually toothed: fl. solitary, 2 in. across, 
white, the corona banded with white: fr. setose, purple. Argentina. 
R.H. 1887:324. L H B 

PASTINACA (name from the Latin pasiusj food). 
Umbelliferx. About a dozen species of tall herbs native 
to £u. and Asia, by Bentham & Hooker united with 
the genus Peucedanum^ but by Englcr & Prantl and 
others kept distinct. It is distinguish^ from Hcraclcum 
and Peucedanum by technical cnaracters of the fr. Fls. 
yellow, small, in compound ntdce<i umbels; calyx-teeth 
obsolete. Pastinaca is kno^-n to horticulturists in the 
parsnip (which see), P. scUivaf Linn. It is a native of 
Eu., but is now grown in cool-temperate countries for 
its large edible root. In deep moist soil and a cool cli- 
mate, the roots become 18-20 in. long and 4 in. or more 
in diam. at the crown. It was cult, before the Christian 
era. It has run wild from gardens, often becoming a 
bad weed in neglected fields and on roadsides. P. 
saiira is a robust biennial, sending up a grooved st. 
(which becomes hollow) 3-5 ft. : lvs. oad-pinnate, with 
Z-4 pairs of sessile ovate or oblong sharp-toothed and 
notched Ifts. the terminal 1ft. 3-loTOd: fr. ("seed") thin 
and flat, retaining its vitalitv only a year or two. When 
run wild, it loses its thick root, and sometimes it 
becomes annual. L H. B. 

PATERSdNIA (named for William Paterson, an 
English traveler). Iriddcex. Perennial herbs with 
short creeping rhizomes and rigid Uncar lvs. grouped in 
a distichous basal rosette: (lerianth-tube elongated; 
outer segms. obovate-cuneate, spreading; inner mmute, 
erect: ovary clavate, 3-celled; ovules many, super- 
posed; seeds angled by pressure. — About 19 species, all 
natives of Austral. P. occidentlUis, R. Br. (P. 
tapphinnOf Lindl.). Sts. very short: lvs. rigid, longest 
often over 1 ft.: scapes longer or shorter than lvs., 
dilated and striate under the spike; outer bracts 1^ 
in. lon^ or more, prominently or rather obscurely 
keeled, mner bracte membranaceous, sometimes pubes- 
cent on the keel: fls. usually numerous: perianth-tubo 
more or less villous; outer segms. often tiuly 1 in. long, 
broad and very obtuse, rich blue; inner segms. minute. 
ovate or lanceolate; style articulate near the base oi 
the anthers. H.U. 1, p. 324. 

PATRfNIA (E. L. Patrin, 1742-1814, French traveler 
in Siberia). Valeriandcex. Yellow- or white-flowered 
valerian-like hardy herbaceous perennials, a foot or so 
high, blooming in early summer; resemble Valeriana 
and Fedia. 

Glabrous or loosely villous herbs: lvs. once or twice 
pinnatifid or pinnatisect, the radical ones rarely entire: 
cymes corymbose-panicled; bracts narrow, free, but 
sometimes appen(laged with a large 2-nerved and 
nett4^-vcinea bracteole which is appressed to the fr.: 
calyx with a small erect or spreading somewhat dentate 
limb; corolla-tube very snort; lobes 5, spreading; 


stamens usually 4; style nearly entire at apex: sterile 
locules of the fr. nearly as large or larger than the fertile 
ones. — About 15 species in extratropical Asia; little 
planted. They are of easy cult, in damp or shady 
places; bloom May to July. They are grown either in 
Dorders or in rockwork. Prop, by division of the roots 
and also by seeds. 

scabiossfdlia, Fisch. St. glabrous: radical lvs. ovate 
or oblong, incised-scrrate and l>Tate; cauline lvs. pin- 
natifid, the lobes lanceolate-linear, acute, terminal one 
longest: fls. yellow; corymb loosely subpaniculate: fr. 
3-comered. Dahuria. L.B.C. 14:1340. 

villdsa, Juss. Coarse, 2-3 ft.: radical lvs. villous, 
petiolate, auricled; cauline lvs. sessile, dentate: corymb 
panicled, bearing white fls. Japan. 

triloba, Miq. (P. palmdtaf Maxim.). Sts. erect, red- 
disli, 8-16 in., simple below, pubescent at nodes and 
also on peduncles: lvs. cordate in outline, deeplv 
palmatcly 3-5-lobed or the uppermost little if any lobed, 
margins coarsely toothed: fls. golden yellow, fragrant, 
in 3-oranched cymes; corolla tubular, about }^in. long. 
Japan. B.M. 8328. G.C. IIL 46:244: same cut in III. 
52:55. — Useful in rock-garden work. The lvs. are 
mostly at the base of the plant, the fl.-sts. rising about 
4 in. above them; fl.-clusters 3-4 in. across. 

gibbdsa, Maxim. Differs from P. triloba in smaller 
fls., rather larger not cordate lvs. and st. not leafy: 
about 9 in. high: lvs. mostly radical and crowded, long- 
petioled, suborbicular, the upper ones round-ovate to 
ovate, acuminate, the base truncate or perhaps sub- 
cordate, pinnately lobed, the lobes incised-serrate: fls. 
Sellow, the corolla distinctly gibbous at base; clusters 
at: lvs. more or less blistered. Japan. 

P. intermidiaf Roem. & Schult. (P. rupestria, Bunge. Fedia 
rupestru, Uort.). 1-1 H ft.: lvs. pinnatifid, the segms. lanceolate 
with large terminal lobe: fls. yellow, fragrant, in May and June. 
Siberia. B.M. 714 (as V. sibirica). — P. nbirica^ Juss. (Valeriana 
sibirica, Linn.). 1 ft., moet of the lvs. radical, the cauline ones pin- 
nate with entire segms., the radical long-epatulate, serrate, strong- 
toothed or entire (even on same plant): fls. yellow, fragrant* 
Siberia. B.M. 2326 (as V. ruthenica). L H B 

PAULLlNIA (probably after Simon Paulli, IGOS- 
1680, professor of anatom5^ surgery, and botany at 
Copenhagen). Sapinddcex. One species is a greenhouse 
climber, which may also be grown as an upright fern- 
like pot-plant. 

Twining shrubs: lvs. alternate, stipulate, compound, 
1-3-temate or pinnate, or decompound; petiole often 
winged; Ifts. usually dentate, dotted or minutely lined: 
racemes axillary, usually with 2 tendrils; fls. whitish or 
p^e, small; sepsis 5, the 2 upper larger, connate; petals 
4, but there is a fifth abortive one, two of the petals 
smaller and bearing a scale below the apex; stamens 8; 
ovary 3-celled, bearing a 3-parted style. Trop. Amer.. 
and sparingly in Afr. ; species about 140. Distmguished 
from allied genera, as Cardio.spermum, by the septicidal 
fr., which is often pear-shaped. P. thcdictrifolia is a 
handsome stove foliage plant, with much divided lvs. 
somewhat resembling a rue, maidenhair, or davallia. 
The fls. are inconspicuous, pinkish and borne in au- 
tumn. Forty to fifty years ago, when the interest in 
foliage plants was at its height, this plant w^as widely 
distnbutcd. It used to be trained to a trellis for exhi- 
bition or grown on the pillars and rafters of hothouses. 
It is now a rare but choice plant for clothing the tops 
of unsightly tubs in which palms are growing. It is 
also excellent for large vases and sttmds the sun well. 
The young lvs. have a pretty bronze tint unless they 
are shaded too much. The plant is prop, by cuttings 
of young shoots taken in early spring. If the tops are 

E inched, the young plants will oranch out and make 
andsome specimens in 4- or 5- in. pots. 

tfaalictrifdlia, Juss. Lvs. 4-10 in. long, triangular in 
outline, 3-tematoly-pinnate; pinmc in 6-8 pairs; pin- 
nules 4-8 pairs, 4-^ lines long: fls. inconspicuous, pink- 


iah. BruU. B.M. 5879. Gn. 51, p. 160. F. 1873, p. 
124. J.H. 111.46:99. G. 7:153; 19:650. G.M. 46:397. 
Var. argfintea, Uort., has foliage suffused silvery gray. 
L.H. B. 

PAULdWnU (after Anna Faulowna, princess of the 
Netherlands). Scro-pkuiandtxie. OTnamentaJ trees, 
ETOwn for tbeir beautiful flowers in showy panicles ana 
tor their large handsome foliage. 

Deciduoua, rarely half -evergreen: IvB. oppoute, IcoiK' 
petioled, entire or sometimes 3-Iobed or coars^ 
toothed, without stipules: &s. in terminal panicles; 
calyx campanulate, S-lobed; corolla with long slightly 
curved tube, and raireading oblique 5-lobed umb; 
stamens 4: fr. a 2-ceIled cape., locmicidally dehiscent, 
with numerous small winged aeeds. — About 8 species in 
China; in Japan only cult. 

The paulownias are medium-mzed or f^ly large trees 
with stout spreading branches, laj^ long-petioled 
leaves similar to those of catalpa, and violet or nearly 
white \aigf: flowers resembling those of the foxglove or 
gloxinia in shape, appearing in terminal panicles before 
or with the leaves and followed by ovoid pods remain- 
ing on the tree and conspicuous during the wijiter. P. 
tomentota is fairly hardy in sheltered positions as far 

north as Massachusetts, but the flowei^buds 


Korea have proved hardier at the Arnold Arboretum 
than the commonly cultivated Japanese plant, also 
the var. lanaia from Central China seems to be some- 
what hardier. As an ornamental foliage plant It may be 
grown as far north as Montreal, where it is killed to the 
ground every winter, but throws up from the root vigor- 
ous shoots attaining 10 to 14 feet, with leaves over 1 
foot and occasionally even 2 feet long. If used as a 
foliage plant and cut back to the ground every spring, 
the young shoots should be removed, except one or 
very few on each plant; during the first years of this 
treatment they will grow more vigorous every year, but 
afterward they will decrease in siie, weakened by the 
continuous cutting back; they should then be replaced 
by strong voung plants. Where the flower-buds which 
are forraea the previous year are not killed by frost, 
the paulownia is one of the most conspicuous flowering 
trees in spring, and in summer the foliage, although it is 
of somewhat dull color, attracts attention by the siae 
of the leaves. In temperate climates it is sometimes 
used as an avenue tree. It thrives best in a hght deep 


loam, and in a Bhelt«red position. The other species 
are still little known in cultivation and are probably 
tenderer; they are great favorites with the Chinese and 
much planted in central and southern China. Propa- 
gation is by seeds sown in sprine or by root-cuttinn, 
and by greenwood cuttingB under glass; it mav be 

Ewn also from leaf-cuttmga; the young unfolding 
res when about 1 inch long are cut off close to the 
stems and inserted in sand under a hand-glass in the 

Paidoumia UmKntoio, in southern Califomia reaches a 
height of 40 feet in twenty-five years, with a spread 
nearly as great. When in full 1^ it makes a dense 
shade. It starts to bloom before the leaves come and 
all is over before the tree is in full leaf. For this reason 
it is not a favorite. The jacaranda is a prettier blue, 
more floriferous, lasts three times as long^ the blooms 
continuing until the tree is in full leaf. It is out of leaf 
not more than half as long as is paulownia and in mild 
winters holds much of its fohage throughout, being 
properly an evergreen. It makes as dense shade as 
the paulownia, has a prettier leaf and is more desir- 
able in every way. The growth of the two trees is 
about the same at the end of a quarter century. The 
habit of the paulownia in retaimng dry seed-pods on 
dead limbs 3 or 4 feet long is very unpleasing, and 
necessitates a thorough cleaning each year to the tip 
end of the uppermost branch — often a hard task to 
accomplish. (Ernest Braunten.) 

tomentasa, Steud. (P. impmidie, Sieb. & Zucc.). 
Fig. 2776. Tree, to 40 ft., with stout spreading branches 
forming a round or ovate head : Ivs. rather long-petioled, 
broadly cordate-ovate, entire or sometimes 3-lobed, 
acuminate, pubescent above, tomentose beneath, 5-8 
in. long or on vigorous shoots even larger: panicles to 
10 in. long; fls. frsgrant, pale violet, l'/i-2 in. long; 
pedicels and calyx densely rusty tomentose; caljrx- 
lobes short, rounded: caps, woody, broadly ovoid, 

glinted, 1 in, or somewhat longer. April, May. Cent. 
hina, cult, in Japan. 8.Z.1:10, B.M. 4666, P.M. 
10:7. Gn. 34, p. 79; 54, p. 476; 60, p. 130. G.C. III. 
48:277; 61:430, 431. S.I.F. 1:85. H.U. 4, p, 1<I2. 
R.H. 1907, p.378. G, 3.^:769. Mn, 7, p, 171.— It laeome- 
times escaped from cult, in the southem states. Var. 
pilllda, Schneid. (P. imperidlU vor. pdUida, Dode). 
Fls. paJe or whitish violet: Ivs. dull green above. Var. 
UnAto, Schneid. (P. imperiAlw var. latiila, Dode). 
Lvs. more denselj^ yellowish tomentose beneath: calyx 
more tomentose with longer acutish lobes. Cent. China. 
P. Dudoiiii. DodE. Tt«, to eo ft.: IvL oblonf-OTkU, with 
open nam Ht tbr baic, tomeDtase briow, to 1 ft. Ions: fla. About 3 
in. lou, paJt lAvendpr-purpIe, not ipottM ; cmlyi with acut« tomen- 
tooB Idbea imd ilkbraiu orsUbrcKFtit tube; <M>ralli ntharcndually 
URDWcd tomrd the bue. Ceol. and B. W. China.— /■. F^rntnl, 
Frwicb, Tr»o. to BO ft.: br»achlet» iwu»lly pilc«: !■ 

or gUndular mbove, BliAhtly pubraoent bcDotth, entirp or with fow 
cou««l«M)i: Bt. hveDd«r or whiti^, 2Min. lon^: calyx tomfoiaa 

_ _ _. to 10 in, loofl: flo. ta4 itj. lone, whitB, 

>patt«d purple inaidc; CAlyi 1 in. long, ^abrous outeide vxcept tlw 
Bcutiih Iob«: ctnolla nthtr inuluklly nsmnml tomrd th« bur, 
B. E. ChinL— P. aUjUCrii. Pampuini ± Bonat. SmsU tne: Its. 
densely brown-woolly, narrow, dwply cordate, 3-fi in. long: fla, ia 
l«fy panirlH. aky-biuc; calyx dcnafly tomentoac, witb oblooc 
obtuaiih lobo. Cent. duns. —P. lAiirnrUai. Rehd. Tree, to 20 ft.: 
branchleta and petioles pilow: Ive. ovate, uaually trunate at tb« 
base, sparioaly pubcacent, often irr«gidariy and remotely toothedt 
4-e in. lont: fla. with the In. lavender, 1 'A in. loni. in ^lilw-tika 

Bbout Win, long. Cent, uid S. E. China, ^^j, RsHnBtt. 

PAV£TTA (Malabar name of P. tndica). Rvbiietx. 
Tropical shrubs and small trees closely allied to the 
brilliant ixoras but less showy, not often seen but 
deserving of attention; flowers white or greenish. 

Leaves opposite or temate, simple, sometimes parti- 
colored, stipules present and joined at base: fls, in 
mostly terminal bracted corymbs; calyx top-shaped or 
bell-shaped, the limb mostly with 4 or 6 persistent or 
deciduous lobes; corolla usually salver«haped, with ft 




cylindrical or funnel-shaped commonly slender tube, 
the throat mostly bearded or pubescent, the limb pre- 
vailingly 5-parted (rarely 4-parted) into oval or oblong 
contorted lobes; stamens 4 or sometimes 5, affixed at 
the mouth of the corolla; style conspicuously exserted, 
the stigma entire or 2-toothed: fr. a pesrshaped some- 
what fleshy 2-pyrenous berry. — One hundred or more 
niedes in the tropical and subtropical parts of the Old 
World, to the Philippines, with recent numerous exten- 
sions in Trop. Afr. Only a few of the species are in 
cult., and these are known as warmhouse or warm 
temperate plants. 

The pavettas are fine tropical stove evergreens and 
should be more grown. P. borbonica can be propagated 
from half-ripened wood, leaving an eye and a leaf 
attached. These cuttings may be put into 2-inch pots, 
using a mixtiu^ of fibry peat and sand in equal parts. 
These pots may be plunged in a propagating-bcd that 
has a bottom heat of 80** to 85**. Cover with glass so as 
to keep a humid atmosphere. It will take some little 
time before they make roots. Keep shaded and moist 
until this takes place. When roots are seen in the pots, 
gradually give more air imtil they are exposed to the 
full atmosphere of the house. They may also be propa- 
gated by being cut down well to maJce them throw manv 
voung soft cuttings that can be rooted with a brisk 
bottom heat. P. caffra will root freely from cuttings 
of young growth, placed where they have plenty of 
bottom heat. The pots may be plunged in the propsr 
gating-bed up to the rims. Keep shad^, moist and close 
for about a month. The best season for the increase of 
tiiis class of plants is January to March. — ^The general 
culture for P, borbonica is to keep increasing the 
shifts until they are in 7- or 8-inch pots, using a compost 
of fibrous loam three parts, fibrouspeat two parts, and 
well-decayed manure one part. Give each pot good 
drainage. In the spring and summer provide a ni^t 
temperature of 70**, with 10** to 15** more by day with 
sun. Supply water when they show dryness of the 
ball. Keep well syringed. They will need some shade in 
the summer to keep the foliage perfect. In midwinter 
the temperature for night may be lowered to about 60**. 
P. caffra, which is a free bloomer, will need different 
culture. It should be kept growing by shifting as the 
plants may require, until they are in 6- or 7-inch pots or 
larser. For summer culture, treat the same as for P. 
borbonica only they will not need so much heat, 60** to 
65** being suflicient, with 10** more during the day. They 
will stand pinching to make them bushy. The tempera- 
ture in the winter should be from 50** to 55**. The fol- 
lowing spring give more pot room and grow on the same 
as before. Give liquid manure at intervals in the grow- 
ing season and by autumn thev will show bloom. By 
^ving root room, with liquid /ceding and by heading 
m annually, they will bloom for years. Scale and mealy- 
bug thrive on pavettas, and the plants must be care- 
fully watched. (J. J. M. Farrell.) 

A. Foliage variegated. 

borbdnicty Hort. A foliage plant with unknown fls., 
referred arbitrarily to this genus: Ivs. about 9 in. long, 
oblong-acuminate, rounded at the base, with a salmon- 
red midrib, mottled with light green on a dark green 
ground. Bourbon Isl. Lowe 5. 

AA. Foliage not variegated, 
B. Calyx4eelh setaceous and much longer than the tybe, 

dUErt, Linn. f. (Izdra cdffra, Poir. P. corymbdsaf 
Houtt.). Shrub with whitish branches, to 6 ft., the 
branches terete and glabrous: Ivs. almost sessile, obo- 
vate, glabrous (or in var. ptibiscens, Sond., branches 
and iv8. pubescent), the margins slightly recurved, to 2 
in. long J stipules broad and cuspidate: fls. white, the 
tube yiin. long, in densely fld. corymbs; calsrx-teeth 
Hin. long: fr. black and shining. S. Afr. B.M. 3580. 
Gn.60, p. 414. J.F.3:2W. 

natal6nsis, Sond. Shrub, ^abrous, with yoimg 
branches compressed: Ivs. petioled, lance-acuminate, 
attenuate at base, shining, 3-4 in. long; stipules cus- 
pidate-acuminate: fls. white, in a loose corymb. Natal. 

BB. Calyx-teeth short-triangtdar, shorter than the tube, or 
sometimes practically wanting. 

fndica, Linn. A variable small tree or bush, common 
in India, extending to China and Austral.: glabrous, 
pubescent or tomentose: Ivs. from elliptic to obovate or 
oblanceolate or even orbicular, at the apex from obtuse 
to caudate: fls. slender-st^ed, white, fragrant, the 
corolla-tube J^J^in. long: infl. corymb-like, terminal 
and sessile. B.R. 198, which is var. polydnthOf Hook, 
f., with densely crowded pubescent fls. The species 
has many synonyms. L. H. B. 

PXVIA: ^aculua. 

PAVdNIA (J. Pavon, joint author of Ruiz and 
Pavon's "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis"; died 1844). 
Mahdcesp. Herbs or shrubs, one or two of which are 
sometimes grown imder glass as pot subjects, for the 
showy bloom. 

Tropical plants, tomentose, hispid or glabrescent: 
Ivs. often angled or lobed: fls. of various colors, pedim- 
cled or crowded at the tips of the branches: bractlets 
5 to many, distinct or more or less connate and resem- 
bling a cal3rx, usually not colored: calyx 5-cut or 5- 
toothed: petals spreading or convolute-connivent; 
stamina! column truncate b«low the apex or 5-dentate; 
ovary 5-loculed, 1-ovuled : ripe carpels surroimding the 
axis and separating from it, rounded or truncate at top, 
sometimes winged, indehiscent or imperfectly dehis- 
cent, prickly or awned. — Species about 100, Cent. Amer. 
to Argentina; also in Trop. Afr. and Asia, to Austral, 
and the Pacific. The genus is more or less confused 
with Goethea, but that genus, as usually defined, differs 
in its larger and more showy fl. -bracts and in the 
smooth carpels. The plants in cult, derive much of 
their interest from the showy bracts, although Pavonia 
is usually characterized as having bracts less conspicu- 
ous than those of Goethea. 

multifldra. St. Hil. (P. Wloti, Morr. Gohthea muUir 
flbra. Nichols.). Robust, with a stout usually simple 
St. : ivs. alternate, 6-10 in. long, narrowly oblong- or 
obovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, serrate or dentic- 
ulate: fls. in a short terminal corymb; bractlets beneath 
the fl. numerous, narrow-linear, whorled, red-hairy, 
curving, in length about equaling the rolled-together 
purple corolla (which is 1-1 K in. long); calyx-segms. 
much shorter than the bractlets; column of stamens 2^ 
in. long and prominently exserted. Brazil. B.M. 6398. 
P.M. 1877:276. — ^What is known as P. intermedia by 
gardeners is apparently not P. intermedia^ St. EUl. ; it is 
said to be derived from P. mvUiflora. There are forms of 
P. iniermediay Hort., known as var. rbsea^ var. flori- 
hUnda, and var. kerme^na. This ^oup of plants is 
readily grown from cuttings taken in spring or early 
summer, and good blooming plants in 5-in. pots may 
be had by winter. They grow naturally to about one 
St., and should not be pinched back. They make 
attractive pot subjects witn the terminal clusters of fls. 
marked by the long-protruding staminal column with 
hanging bluish anthers, the narrow rolled corolla and 
the slender conspicuous bracts. 

splnifex, Willd. Shrub, to 20 ft., from S. Amer., the 
St. slender, branches few and virgate: Ivs. ovate, cor- 
date, crenate sometimes angled, pubescent on both 
surfaces: fls. large, yellow, not fragrant, the corolla 
open; petals obovate; calyx-lobes lanceolate: bracteoles 
5 or more, linear, hairy on margin: caps, with 3 spines. 
B.R. 339. 

prem6rsa, Cav. Shrub with rodlike branches, 
from S. Afr. : Ivs. broad-ovate or fan-shaped, truncate, 
obtusely dentate, canescent beneath, with petiole ana 



' setaceous stipulBB:fls. bright yellow and dark-ccDtered, 

single on axillary pedicels exceedine the Ivb., with 
12-14 linear involucral bracts: fr. of downy carpels. — 
This and P. rpinifex are reported in Calif. 

P. Matoyina, Morr. (Coetba Mmkoyum, Hook.). Ln. 
elliptic. »hort-stAJk«d, with lATgc iitipulfa: fla. in terminBl elufftn, 

fijided by larse oord»(«-ovi 

nnprr/iVrru. GarFlce IGoethu Hmper- 

L. H. B. 

PEA. As known to horticulturist a, the pea is the 
seeds and plant of Pi»u7n aalivum and its many fomis, 
one of the Lcguminoaie, grown for its pdible soeda and 
sometimes for the edible pods. (Figs. 2777-2783-) 

The garden pea is native to Europe, but haa l>een 
cultivated from before the Chriatian era tor the rich 
seeds. The field or stock pea differs little from the gar- 
den pea except in its violet rather thun white flowera 
and Its small gray seeds. There arc many varieties and 
several well-marked races of garden peas. Whilst 
peas arc grown mostly for their seeds, there is a race in 
which the thick soft green pods, with the inclosed 
seeds, are cal«n. The common or shelhng peas may be 
separated into two classes on the character of the seed 
itself, — those with smooth seeds and those with wrink- 
led Bccda. The latter are the richer, hut they arc more 
likely to decay in wet cold ground, and therefore are 
not so well adapted to very early planting. Peas may 
also be classified as climbing, half-dwarf or showing a 
tendency to climb and domg liest when support is 
provided, and dwarf or those not requiring support. 
Again, the varieties may !« elassifieil as to season.^ 
early, second-early, and late. Vilmorin's classification 
(Les Plantcs Potag^res) is as follows: 

A. The pea round (smooth). 

B. Plant dim hill I-. 

c. ScBd whif- 

cc. Send (crcon. 

BB. Plant half-dwarf. 

c. Seed white. 

BBS. Plant dwarf. ' 
c. Seed whil«. 
cc. Seed RrecD. 
AA. The pea wrinkled (diviuons as above). 


Left to themselves, the varieties of peas aoon Iom 
their characteristics through variation. They are much 
influenced by soil and otner local conditions. There- 
fore, many of the varieties are only minor strains of 
some leading type, and are not distinct enough to be 
recognised by printed descriptions. 

Gsrden or gr«»n peas. 

Peas ore one of the earliest garden vegetables to 
reach edible maturity. The date at which a mesa of 
fCreen peaa could be j^thered used to be regarded as an 
indication of a man's horticultural ability. In modem 
times, green peas grown far away to the South come 
to northern mnrkets while the ground is still froten 
and are eagerly purchased only to result in disappoint- 
ment and a lonpng for the old-time Quality. Such dis- 
appointment is inei-itable, for even with refrigerator cars, 
express trains, and modem skilful handling, green peas 
grown hundreds of miles away cannot come to our 
tables for many horns, often not for days, after they 
have been gathered, and with an inevitable loss of tnc 

and make a slow but healthy and vigorous growth il 
lower temi>erature8 than most garden vegetables. The 
young plants will even endure some frost with lit^ 
injury, but the blossoms and young pods will be 
injured or killed by a frost which did not seem materially 
to check the growth of the plant. For this reason it u 
generally laixt satisfactory to delay planting until 
there is little probability of a frost after the plants ooum 

The cultural requirements are simple, but a thorou^ 
preparation of the soil before planting is desirable, and 
the use of green and fresh manure should be avoided. 
The best depth of planting varies with the season and 
character oi the soil, and early plantings on clay land 
should be covered only 1 to 2 inchea deep, while later 
plantings on sandy land do best in drills 6 or 8 inches 
deep to be gradually filled as the seedlings grow. Gen- 
erally anything more than surface tillage will do a 
growing pea crop more harm than good; but any crust 
formed after rams, particularly while the plants are 

Of the better garden 

good seeds are in an ounce, and a half-pint should 
plant 50 to 80 feet of row and furnish a sufficiency of 
pods for a small family for the week or ten days in 
which they would bo in prime condition. For a con- 
tinued supply one must depend upon repeated plantings. 

Most of the 
best garden varie- 
ties can be well 
grown without 
trellising, but the 
sorts growing ovpr 
2 feet high will 
do better if sup- 

Krted. Nothing 
tter for this 
purpose is known 
than brush from 
the woods, but 
this is not always 
available and a 
good substitute is ^. 
the wire pea trellis ' 
offered oy most 
dealers in horti- 
cultural supplies, 
or a home-maae 
one made by 
strin)^ stretched 2 
to 4 inches apart 
on alternate sides 

2TT8. Oatdao p«a, Champloa of Xo^ut. 



a evident that green peas occupy too much graimd 
to be a practical crop for a city lot or small town gar- 
den, ana generally the town dweller can be moet satis- 
factorily supplied from a nearby market-garden; and the 

the beet of crops for a gardener with ^ 

tomers. The beet cultural methods for field plantings 
do not differ materially from thoee given for the Harden. 
No plantinif ifl so likciy to give a satisfactory yidd both 
as to quantity and quality as on an old clover sod on a 
nell-drained clay loam, which ahould be well plowed 
in the fall or early winter and the surface worked into 

that the rowB are 12 to 36 inches apart, accordii^ to 
the variety, with occaaional rows left blank for con- 
'n gathering. 

aunny weather, the vines are cut eithn- after five in 
the ^teraoon or before nine in the morning, hauled to 
the factory and from the wuon go direct to a specially 
constructed threshing-machine or "viner," whida 
separates the peas and delivers them on a moving 
inclined belt, which throws out any _y 

bits of vines or pods. They are 
then washed and graded, and go to 
the processer. So promptly is this 
work done that it is known of peas 
being in the cans and bein^ cooked 
before the wagon on which they 
were brought iTom the field could 
start for home. Usually peas put 
up by a well -managed cannery 
oome to the table in more palata- 
ble condition than so-called fresh 
peas which were gathered t«n to 
. twenty-four hours before and 
shipped from 10 to several hun- 
dred miles to market. 

Canners who are particular as to 
the labeling of their output often ^. 
separate it into different grades, *^ 
determined by the variety and size 
of peas and labeled somewhat as Z780. Pm, Nott 

rm. Garden pm, Ron BxceUai. (XH) 

Picking should be done after sundown or in early 
morning before nine o'clock and care be taken not to 
bulk the pods, as they are liable to heat and spoil. 

Peat for canning. 
There is no modem industry in which there has been 

greater improvement within the past ten or more 
yeaiB, both as to methods and the auality of the prod- 
uct, than in the canning of vegetaoles. This is espe- 
cially noticeable in canned peas. First there has been a 
great betterment as to the varietal quality of.the stock 
used. For canning, particularly when modem methods 
of harvesting and processing are used, it is important 
not only that the green peas be sweet and palatable. 
but that the largest possible proportion of the pods shall 
be in prime edible condition at the same time, and 
canners are influenced by these qualities in selecting 
varieties for their plantings, and in the cultural methods 
followed. The development of each planting is closely 
watched by an expert, who directs that it be cut and 
delivered at the tactorj- on the day when he judges it 
will be in the best condition, the time for individual 
crops bemg sometimes modified by the capacity of the 
farmer to deliver and the factory to handle it. Not 
infrequently certain crops are left to ripen and be hai^ 
vested as grain because of such conditions. In hot and 



Small, wrinkled seed. 

Large, amcxith seed, 
Large wrinkled seed, 

16/84 18/M 20/M Hun of crop 

18/64 20/64 22/64 Run of crop 

20/64 22/64 24/64 Run of crop 

20/64 24/64 26/64 Run of crop 

Varieliet and seed. 

Few vegetables have developed greater varietal dif- 
ferences affecting their horticultural or culinary value 
than garden peas. As to vines, there are sorts from 6 
inches to 6 feet in hei^t and those which very rarely 
form more than a smgle stem, while others are so 
branched that they often are wider than tall; some 
mature their crop very early and all at once, others 
not until the vines are fully grown or continuing through 
a long season; pods which are so broad and long that 
the incloeed peas never fill them, others in which the . 
growing peas very often split the pod open; peas which 
are green, yellow or white, smooth and hard; others 
which are wrinkled, distorted and comparatively soft, 
even whwi fullj; mature. Very con- 
spicuous variations of little practi- 
cal importance are sometimes 
correlated with invisible qualities 
whidi are of great importance. 

When grown for seed, peas of 
the garden varieties yield a com- 
paratively small fold of increase, 
seldom over 10 or 12 and often only 
2 or 3, so that it is more difficult 
than with most v^etables always 
to secure full supplies of certam 
sorts, and seedsmen's stocks are 
constantly changing, not only as to 
character but name. Tlie foUowing 
are now very popular varie 
Extra-early smooth-seeded — Alaska 
or Prolific Eirtra Early; early 
wrinkled seeded — -Thomas Lairton, 
GraduB, Suiprise; dwarf Excelsior, 
either the Notts or the Buttons; ^ 
midseason — Advancer, A d m i 
Senator: late— Champion of Lue- 
land, Strategem. However, one 2TS1. Pm. Prida ol 
should confer with the seedsmen tiMMvket. (XM> 



as to the most &Tailable Btodt best suited for the 
particular needs. 

Sugar or edible-podded peas. 

These ore & eloBg little known in this countTy, but 
are largely grown in Europe. Th^ are characterized 
by lai^ mare or lesa fleshy and often distorted pods, 
wnich are cooked when in the same stage of maturity 
and in the same wav as string beans. Varieties hare 
been developed in which the pods are as white, tender, 
and wax-like as those of the best varietiee of wax- 
podded beans. 

Field peas. 

Thereareanumber of kinds of field peas in which the 
vines are very vigorous, hardy, and productive and the 
peas generally Hmall, hanj, and becoming tough, dry, 
and unpalatable as they npen. In one variety of this 
claaa known as French Canner, the very young and 
small peas are sweet and tender, and in this stage are 
put up by French cannera under the name of "petit 
poiae. The larger-seeded Marrowfat peas were form- 
erly commonly used by cannera, and lai^ quantities 
- 3 atill packed. If this is done while the peas ate 

Split peas. 

Laree quantities of field peas, mostly of the smaller- 
seeded kinds, are used for split peas, the preparation of 
which consists in cleaning and eroding, kiln-drying, 
Eplitting, and screening out the hulls and chips from the 
full half peas. This is all done by special machines, 
mostly of American mvention. The annual consump- 
tion of split peas in the United States is about 50,000 
barrels, of which, before the European war, 75 per cent 
came from abroad. w. W. Tract. 


iry !'.» L'ftan/Au« uampun. uouj P-, Pi 
[. Scoifr P., PtomUa. Sweet P., Laikyrx 

PEACH. The tree and fruit of Pnmtu Pereioa (or 
Pernai vulgaris), widely cultivated in the United States 
and parts of Canada for home use and market. 

In the northern prairie states and on the plains, 
and in the colder parts of the mountain regions of the 
West, the peach is little grown or is even altogether 
absent: yet the range of adaptability is constantly 
extending as the local conditions and requirements 
become better laiown. There is less dependence on 


"fruit-belts" than formerly, in which some special 
favor of climate or location was supposed to exist. 
Some parts of New England are well adapted to com- 
mercial peach-culture. Parts of Canada bordering the 
Great Lakes, and regions in Nova Scotia, are prcmi- 
nent peach districts. Varieties of special adaptability 
to climate and useful also for particular purposes have 
arisen in recent years; and the requirements of the 
peach are now better understood than formerly. The 
range of its cultivation will probably be considerably 
brradened in years to come. 

The discussion of the peach is here comprised in 
four articles: 

Ths culture at the peuh (M. A. Blake) 2492 

Peech-culture in the South (J. H. EUla) 2SO0 

Pwch-crowins in CalifonuB (Oeorge C. Soediail . 2503 
Froteetini peach trees in cold climBtei (VI. Pad- 

dockj 2504 

The culture of the peub. 

Tike marked feature in the development of the peach 
industry in the United States since about 1900 has 
been the extension of the areas of commercial peach- 
production because of the introduction of hardier 
varieties such as Carman, the discovery of materials 
and methods that make certain the control of peach- 
scab and brown-rot, and the organization of faat-ireight 
and refrigerator-car service that permits of successful 
long-distance shijiment of this penshabie fruit. 

The introduction of the San Josd scale was the cause 
of the destruction of hundreds of thousands of peach 
trees throughout the country from about 1900 to 1907, 
the period of greatest damage varving to some extent 
m each district. The growers who persisted in the 
busmeas were those who had the capital, ener^, and 
persistence to take up the new problem of spraying, and 
tliese men may appropriately be termed the pioneers 
of the modem peach business. 

The necessity of spraying to control the scale also 
focused the attention of the growers upon all other 
factors of peach-production except marketing, which 
for the time presented few difKcuities because of the 
great reduction in the number of bearing trees and the 
ability of the local markets to absorb much of the crop 

Peach-scab and brown-rot caused serious damage 
to the crop annually in central and southern peach 
districts until the self-boiled lime-sulfur summer spray 
was proved to be a successful remedy. 

The development of large commercial areas at long 
distances from market has resulted in better grading 
and packing. Ilie Geor^a six-basket earner has 
heootne the popular shippmg package from southern 
New Jersey to Georgia, Alabama, and Texas. ( Fig. 2707.) 

Innumerable changes and improvements in the 
ptiwing and handling of the crop nave occurred within 
Qie last ten years. 

The United States Census reports show many inter- 
esting facts in connection with the extent and develop- 
ment of the peach industry. A few trees are found in 
every state in the Union. According to the Census of 
1910 only three states, Wyoming, North Dakota, and 
Montana, have less than 5,000 trees. Five other states, 
Minnesota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Maine, and 
Vermont, have lesa than 10,000 trees. The most signifi- 
cant fact, however, is that twenty-six states reported a 
total of more than 1,000,000 bearing trees each, which 
definitely shows the extended area over which this crop 
is produced to some commercial degree. The Census 
for 1910 shows Georgia to lead in the total number of 
b«uing trees with 10,609,119; Texas is second with 
9,737,827; and California is third with 7,829,011 trees. 
On the basis of total number of trees, however, Texas 
leads with 12,606,640; California is second with 12,238,- 
573, and Georgia is third with 12,140,486. 


The Census reports also indicate the general trend 
of the industry in no uncertain way. In 1890, five 
states led prominently in the total number of bearing 
trees, as follows: Maryland, 6,113,287; Kansas, 4,876,- 
311; Delaware, 4,521,623; Texas, 4,486,901; and New 
Jersey, 4,413,568. The greatest peach district in the 

27S4. Peu^to pvch.^-Pniniu pU^carp4. 

country at that time was comprised by the states of 
Matylond, Delaware, and New Jersey, with a total 
of more than 16.000,000 trees. 

The three leading states in 1900 were, Michigan with 
8,101,415 trees, Georgia with 7^668,639 trees, and 
California with 7,472,393 trees. The states of Mary- 
land, Delftwarej and New Jersey, which ge<wraphically 
comprise one diatiict, reported a total of a little more 
than 9,000,000 trees, the San Josg scale and other factors 
having reduced the total about 6,000,000 trees. Yet as 
a peach district, this atill held its place as having the 
greatest total number of trees. 

The Census of 1910, however, shows that this num- 
ber was greatly reduc^ during the period from 1899 
to 1909, having less than 
4,000.000 bearing trees. 
This great reduction and 
loss was due largely to the 
introduction of the scale. 
Michigan reports a loss dur- 
ing this period of more than 
5,000,000 trees, and Ohio 
more than 3,000,000. The 
following states made fnina 

during this period: New ., 

Hampehire, Vermont, Illi- 
nois, Idaho, Missouri, Nebraska, South Carolina, 
Geoi^ia, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas. Louisiana, 
Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Waanington, and 
California. Summarised to a few words_, the Census 
indicates that while the Middle- Atlantic and Great 
Lakes districts were suSering severe destruction of 


put the San JosS scale played in the development of 
these latter districts, and whether such development 
could have maintained itself in some cases without the 
good markets and high prices occasioned by the wide- 
spread destruction oitrees in the East. 

The Census of 1910 is of particular value in showing 
the recent trend of the industry, because the number 
of trees in bearing and those not in bearing were tabu- 
lated Beparately, 

The western states, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and 
Washington are increasing their plantmgs. The young 
trees not in bearing in Maasachusetta, Michigan, and 
New Jersey were greatly in excess of those producing 
fruit in 1909. West Virginia baa also been planting 
peaches extensively in recent years. 

The extensive planting of peachea in the eastern 
and Middle Atlantic states, following the earlier de> 
struction by yellows, was only just beginning in 1900, 
when the last Census was taken. Since that time, mil- 
lions of trees have been planted and have come into 
bearing. As a result, the marketing factor became 
the most important peach problem in 1915. Southern 
districts can no longer expect the prices of former 
^ars in the great eastern markets, the Middle West 
IB growing quantities of peaches and so also are the 
states along the Great Lakes. The problem at the 

PEACH 2493 

beginning of 1916 is where and how can the crops from 
these tre^ be marketed profitably. 

In any broad discussion of the peach regions of 
North America, the Ontario district of Canada should 
not be overlooked. Situated south of the western end 
of Lake Ontario, climatic conditions are so modified 
that such yeltow-flesfaed varieties of peaches as St. 
John, Fitzgerald, Elberta, and Niagara can be grown 
succ^sfully in large (quantities. 

The northern limits of peach-production extend 
from the southeastern shore of Lake Ontario along the 
southern shore of Lake Erie and the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan as far north as the Grand Traverse on 
the 44th parallel. This area is often termed the "Great 
Lakes Belt." Beginning in southwestern and central 
Massachusetts, another commereial peach area extends 
across Connecticut, Long Island, uie Hudson Biver 
Valley, New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
and Maryland. The Coastal Plain areas in New Jersey, 
Delaware, and along the eastern shore of Maryland are 
favorable to peach-production, and the fruit is grown 
to within a few miles of the seaboard. FarUier soutJi. 
the Coastal Plains area is unfavorable to successful 
commercial production and the industry is transferred 
to the Piedmont area across Virginia, North Carolina, 
and southward to the Gulf districts in Alabama and 
Texas. Florida has too warm a climate to suit the 
common standard varieties of peach and has developed 
a special type from the South China race. 
The central or Mississippi Valley district extends 
from Texas across Okla- 
homa and Arkansas, Mis- 
souri and Kansas to Iowa, 
Illinois and Indiana, practi- 
cally connecting witii the 
Great Lakes area. The 
Pacific Coast Belt includes 
California, and areas in 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, 
Oregon, and Washington, 
aacta. (xil) There are manv aress in 

these so - called " peach- 
belts" that are not favorable to peach-production, but 
they indicate the general grouping of the industry. 

Varieliea and lypei. 

All of the common forms of the peach belong to the 
species Prunus Persica, but are sometimes grouped 
under the name Amygdidua Persica. The flat or Peen- 
to peach is P. plalyearpa. The United States Depart- 
ment of Atriculture, through its Bureau of Foreign 
Plant and Seed Introduction, has secured a form of 
peach from China known as A . Davidiana which is used 
there as a stock for certain cherries. It is said to be vety 
hardy and may prove of value in breeding work, or as a 
stock for the p^h. Its fruit is not attractive enough 
for use as it is now developed. Several other forma 




or types h&ve been collected in China by Fnnk N. 
Meyer, of the Department of Agriculture, and sent to 
the United States for propagation and study. See the 
uticle Prunus. 

TTie common types of peaches have been grouped 
into certain races. Onderdonk (Kept. Conunr. Agric, 

27n. Cnwford paach. (XH) 

1887) and also Price have placed North American 
peaches in five ^upa: (1) The Peen-to or flat 
peach race, compnaing the variety known as Peen-to 
(Fig. 2784), anci also the AnRel, and Waldo; {2) the 
South China race, with oval long-pointed fruit with 
deep Buture near the base, represented by the Honey 
(Fig. 2786); (3) the Spanish or Indian race, with very 
late yellow firm often streaked fruit, represented 
by various southern varieties, as the Cabler (Kg. 2786), 
Columbia, Galveston, Lulu, Texas, and Victoria; (4) 
the North China race, with large mostly cling or 
Kmi-cling fruit and very laree flat leaves, represented 
by the Greensboro, Waddell, and Carman; (5} the 
Persian race, ineluding the common varieties of the 
mid-country and the North, as Crawford (Fig. 2787), 
Mountain Rose, and the like. The so-called North 
China and Persian types of peaches are now very much 
mixed in commerical varieties. 

We have been conUnt to say that Elberta (Fig. 
2788) is of the North China type, when it is plainly 
miied with the Persian, and when studied carefully ita 
charaeteiB resemble the Persian type even more than 
they do the North China. Two types of peach blos- 
soms are commonly recofjniied (as shown in Fig. 2790), 
yet there are three distmct types, the lai«e bloom, 
tj7>ical of Greensboro and Waddell and 9ie North 
Cnma type, the medium bloom of such varieties as 
Elberta and Belle, and the small bloom of Early and 
Late Crawfordj and others. The botanical significance 
of these types is not well understood. 

A double-fiowered peach (Fig. 2789) is sometimes 
cultivated as an ornamental, as well as a purple-leaved 
form. A form of the cultivated peach growing wild 
near Pekin, large-flowered, is shown in Fig. 2791. 

The peach is universally propagated by means of 
the pita or seeds. A few are sometimes secured by 
budding upon plum or even cherry stocks, but this 
dwarfs the tree and makes it susceptible to various 
stock troubles. 

So-called natural seedling pita or seeds gathered in 
Tennessee and North Carolina are said to be the best 
for propa^tion work. Such seeds arc conaidered to 
be more viable and to.produce hardier stock than pita 
from cultivated varietiea. Considerable quantities 
of so-called "seedling" seeds have undoubtedly been 
secured from canning factories and represent commer- 
cial varietiea, although one can readily detect the dif- 
ference between them. It has not been definitely 
shown that wild seedling pita will produce a atock that 
is any more hardy than that which might be secured 
from the pits of some of our hardier cultivated varie- 


ties. Seeds or pit« for propE^ation are treated in two 
ways. Where severe freezing weather occurs they are 
commonly planted in the autumn in nursery rows 
from 4 to 6 feet apart. The pits are scattered a few 
inches apart in the rows and covered to a depth of 
about 2 inches. In less severe climates, the pits are 
stratified very shallow in autumn, are dug up in the 
roring and the kernels separated from tiie soil and 
snellH, and plant«d in nursery rows. By this method, 
anj' pit or seed which is not cracked open by the 
action of the frost may be broken by the use of a 
hammer. Pits not affected by the frost usually fail 
to grow the first season, but may do so the second 

The pits should be planted in good soil and be 
given careful cultivation so that the seedlings will be at 
least 24 to 30 inches high by the latter part of August 
of the first season, and in condition for budding. The 
buds are inserted the latter part of August or early in 
September, and simply become united with the seedling 
stock without making any growth. Early the following 
spring the seedlings are cut oack just above the inserted 
buds, and all shoots developing from buds of the stock 
itself are kept rubbed off. In this way the desired bud 
develops into a vigorous well-branched shoot or tree 
which should be from 3 to 6 feet high at the close of 
the season's growth, and is ready for sale that fall or 
the following spring. So-called "June buds" are 
secured by budding vigorous seedlings in June and 
selling the resulting trees in the fall or the spring fol- 
lowing. Such trees are smaller and are seldom equal 
to one-year-old trees except possibly for planting in 
the South. In Fig. 2792, at the left, is a well-branched 
one-yeaiH)ld nursery tree; at the right a slender tree 
of the same age and height, and in the center a June 

The question as to whether trees should be pnipa- 
gated north of the region in which they are grown is a 
common one. Evidence has shown that it makes little 
difference as to the latitude in which the trees are raised 
if they are well grown and are free from injurious 

insects and diseases, 
to purchase ti 

The ideal climate for the peach is one in which the 
winter extremes do not go much lower than zero at 
any time, and no warm periods of many days' duration 
occur in winter. The absence of late spring frosts and 
presence of bright sun during the ripening period are 
also important essentials. Extremes of either warmth 
"" ""iJ ■- winter are almost equally detrimental. 

ir cold II 


The peach will succeed upon a wide range of soil- 
types, but prefers a aandy loam. It will also develop 
exceptionally well upon gravelly or atony lotuns, if 
deep and well drained. Heavy poorly drained soils 
should be avoided. It also thrives on aauds. 

SiU and tlevation. 

Tlie type of peach-growing buaineaB one expeote to 
engage in has much to do with the kind of location 
and site that should be chosen. 

A successful local market business may be established 
even upon disconnected areas and at some disadvan- 
tage. But eirtensive peach plantings tor supplying 0i8 
wholesale markets should be planted upon uniformly 
favorable areas near good stupping-pointa and where 
plenty of labor is available. Locations should be 
Bought where peaches can be grown and placed on the 
market cheaply because of lar^ annual yields and low 
cost of production and marketmg. 

The' elevation above sea-level at which peaches are 
planted in any region is a most important matter. It 
IB not sufficient that the orchard be on land that is 
higher than ita immediate surroundings. In some 
localities an elevation of 150 to 200 feet is sufficient to 
secure good yields, while in others one must seek alti- 
tudes of 800 to 900 feet, or even more, for successful 
crops. The site of the orchard should also be readily 
accessible, so that fertilizers, spray materials, and 
packages can be delivered cheaply and so that the crop 
may be picked, packed, and shipped economically. 
Uneven luid broken up by gullies or wet areas is to be 
■voided, aa well as hilly areas that are difficult to reach 
by team and expensive to manage. 

The particular exposure is not important in a rela- 
tively flat country. In hilly or mountainous sections, 
it may become so. Severely exposed situations should 
be avoided, as well as warm poclceted areas. Some pro- 
tection from severe prevailing winds is most desirable 
and does not increase the danger of too early blooming 
if good air-drainage prevails. 
E^abluhing the orchard. 

A well-defined plan should be drawn up before plant- 
ing is b^un. The peach is a relatively short-lived tree 
and packing-houses and permanent buildings should 
be located in con- 
nection with road- 
'• ways and planting 
BO as to result m 
the most economi- 
cal procedure of the 

PEACH 2495 

lite selection of varieties must be made previous to 
the planting of the orchard. Specific recommendations 
for each district cannot be given in a brief article, but 
some general statements as to the variety question 
follow. Yellow-fleshed peaches are prefeired by most 

markets. Such varieties as Moimtain Rose, Reeves, 
Stump, Oldmixon, and the Crawfords are falling 
behind in popularity except in a few localities. Better 
varieties are needed commercially. Carman and Belle 
(ot Georaia) are rapidly gaining in commercial impor- 
tance. New varieties, such as the J. H. Hale, are 
demanding recognition. Elberta is still the most popu- 
hir single variety. It is the most widely successful 
commercial variety of any of our tree-fruits. In mak- 
ing a choice of commercial varieties for any section, a 
few hardy sorts that are known to do well in the 
locality are the safest to plant. One should also have 
enough trees of each variety for economical growing 
and marketing. 

Vigorous one-year-old ti>ees that will caliper %to^ 
inch and are from 3 to 5 feet in height, as illustrated at 
the left in Fig. 2792, are an ideal size to plant. They 
should be free from yellows or little-peach or rosette, 
root^^, scale, peach-borers, or other injurious peach 

ZTM. Bloom of Iiti»- 
Df doablfl-flowored flowBrad ud mull-floivw 
i. (XJfl oi«<IpM<Ji«. (XM> 

FaJl planting is successful with well-ripened trees in 
localities in which the winter weather is not severe and 
where soils are sandy and well drained. In northern 
districts, fall planting is leffi likely to be successful. In 
spring plantine, the land should be prepared and the 
trees set as early as soil conditions permit. 

The trees should be set about 20 feet apart each way 
under average conditions. In some localities 18 feet 
is sufficient distance, while in others 25 feet is not too 

Vegetable crops, such as peas, beans, tomatoes, and 
potatoes, may be grown between the rows of young 
peach trees for the first and second seasons, after which 
the practice is of doubtful economy. 

The apple is sometimes grown successfully under the 
aod-mulch system, but attempts to manage the peach 
in the same way have commonly resulted in failure. 
The soil of the orchard should be plowed or disced into 

i fine mellow condition i 

till^e shoiud then be maintained until about mid- 
seBBon by frequent barravring. The time when culture 
should cease varies with the locality and the variety. 

3702. Dlflaroat lonut of pHch tree* for p'**'^"f 

It is seldom possible to cultivate later than ten days or 
two weeks previous to the ripeninE of the fruit, as the 
branches become bent down with the crop. Early vari- 
eties should commonly receive one or more cultiva- 
tions after the crop has been picked, ia the South, 
tillage is often stopped in bearing orchards in late 
June, while in the North it is continued until lat« 
July. In dry seasons, late varieties require additional 
culture to reach good sise. A large proportion of 
vegetable matter in the soil is on important (actor in 
the production of large (niit, especially in dry seasons. 
Cover-crops should be grown wherever possible. 


number of flower -buds. The extent and time of 

or fertilizers is a feature of orchard practice that 
directly concerns rate of growth. 

Trees in full bearing should make an annual growth of 
at least 12 to 18 inches at the tips of leading branches 

SmoBt peach regions to maintam a maximum produc- ' 
)n. Fruit-growers should apply fertilisers to secure a 
KTowth according to their soil type and its conditions. 
If such a growUi is obtainable without fertiliser, its 
application may prove detrimental, while if the soil is 
thm and poor, heavy fertiliiii^ will be required for 
good results. 

Under the average conditions, the equivalent of 
100 pounds nitrate of soda, 150 pounds muriate of 
potash, and 400 pounds acid phosphate will not be 
found to be excessive, and additional nitrate will be 
needed in many cases. In districts where the winters 
are severe, however, nitr<^^ous fertilisers must be 
applied sparingly. 


lar habit of development except to thin out the branches 

somewhat as illuBtrated in Fig. 271)4 as contrasted 
with Fig. 2793. Figs. 2795 and 2706 show other exam- 
plea of this treatment. The other is to practise annual 
cutting back of the branches as well as Uiiiming out, to 

Sroduce a strong compact and yet well-spread tree, as 
luBtrated in Fig. 2797. The first method may result 
in the somewhat earlier production of fruit, as much 

Cning tends to delay fruiting. lYees whose Oiain 
Dchea are not cut back annually are more likely to 
suffer from breakage not only in seasons of heavy 
crops, but also during ice-etorms in winter. On each 
tree, also, the vigorous fruiUbearing parts tend to 
extend farther away from the main trunk each year. 
Fig. 2793 illustrates the habit of growth assumed by an 
unjOTuned tree. 

The peach produces its fruit-buds upon the one- 
year-old wood-growth. On vigorous twigs the buds 
commonly occur in groups of three, as illustrated in 
Figs. 2798, 2799, the two outer buds being flower-buds 
and the center bud a leaf-bud. Sometimes all three 
biids are fiower-buds and sometimes only one. Single 
flower-buds may frequently occur also. 

Many fads in pruning prevail, which have no eco- 
nomic bearing upon the amount and quality of the crop. 
Tlie height to which the trees should De cut back when 
planted varies with different growers, but from 18 to 
24 inches is a good average. Some prefer the extreme 
of 6 inches, but such low trees often make borer- 
removal dimcult. 

At the end of the first season's growth, the real 

Eruning of the tree begins. At that time the main 
ranches of the tree should be chosen. The best three 
or four weli-placed branches should be chosen to form 
the framework for the future top of the tree as illus- 
trated in Figs. 2800 2801. These should be distributed 
upon the trunk and not issue from the same point, 
although on different sides, as in Fig. 2802. In some 
cases a tree may have developed only a single irregu- 
lar shoot and this will then require severe cutting back 
to encourage branching at the desired height. Fig- 
2803 shows a good two-year-old tree, low-headed. 

When several side branches occupy much the same 
space or cross one another, a choice of one should be 
made and the remainder pruned off. The amount of 
cutting-back to be practised at the close of the first 
season upon the main branches selected for the perma- 
nent framework of the tree depends on the form of 
the tree. If it is compact, vigorous, and of the desired 
form, the cutting back of each tip to the first good 
side branch is all that is necessary. Should one main 
branch be irregular m growth more severe pruning 

Severe cutting- 
back, save in the 
case of poorly 
formed trees, 
only delays 
fruiting and m- 
creases the ex- 

the nec( 



pruning may be 
prevented tw the 
rubbing off of 
any shoots that 
tend to develop 
as suckers low 
down upon the 
trunk, or in the 
center of the 
tree where they 
are not wanted. 

iod the pinchinK back of the tipe of any brancliea that 
.__d to aevelop in an irregular manner. The removal 
of shoots should be done before they are more than 

tend t< 

inch or two in length. The pinching back of irregular 
shootB ehould be accomplished in June or early July 
before they are more than IS or 20 inches in length. 
The removal of much growth and foliage in the summer 
mi^' cause a severe check to the tree. 

The annual dormant-season pruning beginning with 
the second year should be somewhat as follows: The 
main branches will develop numerous side branches 
and the strongest and best placed of these should be 
retained. A well-formed tree is not only agreeable to 
look upon, but furthermore the maximum production 
of good fruit is secured only when the ereat«st possible 
amount of vigorous fruit-bearing surface ia propn'ly 
exposed to light. The annua! cutting back of the leading 
branches to the first good side branch will result in 
well-spread vigorous trees. The cutting of a branch to 
an "outside bud," however, does not change the direc- 
tion of growth of that branch to anywhere near the 
same degree. The cutting back of the branches causes 
a thickening of the top, and some thinning out of 
shoots and Branches is necessary, otherwise the fruit 
will lack color. 

A central leader is avoided in the pruning of peach 
trees, and any shoots which tend to shut out the light 
from the center of the tree should be kept pruned back 
and not allowed to become more than fruiting twigs. 
The general form of the tree should be about complet* 
at the close of the third or fourth summer after plant- 
ing, and the annual pruning will largely consist of the 
removal of any broken branches and the cutting back 
of the annual growth on each branch about one-third 
or one-half, accordii^ to the variety and the amount or 
length of growth. Pruning is often the most economi- 
cal method of thinning, and this point should not be 

After peach trees have fruited for several years, 
they commonly require a severe cutting back to i«duce 
the size of the top and to secure more vigorous wood. 
Such a cutting back should be practised whenever the 
fruit-buds ore destroyed in winter. All branches may 
be cut back into wood-growth formed the two or three 
previous seasons. It is never advisable to saw the main 
branches back to mere stubs a foot or more in length 
except upon young trees that are to be top-worked. 
Thinning the fruit. 

Thinning is now a regular feature of good orchard- 
management. Small fruit sells for low prices at all 
times and in seasons 
of heavy crop-pro- 
duction can hardly 
be disposed of at 
any price. When 
trees are allowed to 
mature as much 
fruit as will set in 
a favorable season, 
much breakage of 
branches is the 
usual result. The 
small green fruits 
should be thinned 
as soon as the so- 
called "drop" or the 

times this fails to 
lake place and then 
the fruit should be 

it is about the SIM of 
»M. n* lotwkx wHk bruubM an B, shelled hickotv- 
nmond. (Compin Fu. 3793.) nut. Thinning the 

fruits to not less than 6 inches apart will not reduce 
the yield of the tree, and 8 inches apart is not too much 
to secure extra-large fruit, especially upon such sorts 
as Woddell Crosby Mountain Roee ana Stump whi h 

Crosby I 

tend to be small to medium i 
conditi na 
Harvetl 7ig the frvii 

379S Psich (r aU wsd to tik* tb it aatord im. 

necessary number of packages should be purchased, 
the packing-house put m order, and arrangements made 
for the needed number of teams, trucks, pickers, 
packers, and other labor. 

When the fruit is ready to pick, the work should be 
organized with one man in constant charge in the 
orchard. He should direct the pickers aniT see that 
each one picks all the fruit that is mature enough at 
any one tmie and yet does not take off that which ia 
too green. An efficient pickmg-crew ia necessary in 
order to secure good results at the packinj-houae. 

White-fleshed peaches change from a licht green to 
a cream-white ground- or under-color as ffiey mature. 
So-called yellow-fleshed varieties change from a yellow- 
ish green to various shades of yellow or orange as they 
ripen. Pickers should be instructed to determine the 
maturity of a fruit by its color, and be corrected if they 
attempt to test it by pressure with the fingers. Good 
pickers will harvest from sixty to one hundred sixteen- 
quart baskets a day from well-pruned trees. 

The fruit is not uncommonly picked directly into the 
package in which it is sold, but this practice is rapidly 
pasing in favor of a distinct picking-basket. The most 
common type in use is a round flat-bottomed wooden ■ 
stave basket of sixteen quarU capacity. 

A low-wheeled wagon is best adapted for hauling 
the fruit from the orchard to the packing-house. 
Packing the fruit for market. 

Some sort of a packing-house is necessary when any 
considerable amount of fruit is handled. A shelter 
against rain is imperative to prevent the woiping of 
wooden packages. Rapid work in packing can best be 
Ol^anized in a building with a wooden or cement floor 
and where stencils and tools can be kept in order. A 
long uid relatively narrow packing-house with large 
doora upon either side is likely to prove the most eco- 
nomical for the handling of the fruit. 

Packages, tables, and box- or crate-presses should be 
arranged in a way to promote rapid and efficient work. 
No distinct grades of peaches, unfortunately, have 
become recognized in any broad way. Persons em- 
ployed as packers should be chosen for their hones^ 
and interest in the business as well as for their rapidi^ 
in filling fij/a packages. 

37M. The Tiw-fona. or M-called 

2498 PEACH 

The common commerciaJ packages now in uae axo 
the Bixteen-qiiart Jersey or Delaware basket and its 
modifications, the Georgia six-basket canier, the Michi- 
gan bushel and half-bushel, the Climax basket (Fig. 
2804} and the weateni or 
Califoniia box. 

Packages often arrive 
on the market in bad 
condition because the^ 
have not been suffi- 
ciently well-filled at the 
orchaid. The fruit must 
be packed tightly enough 
so that it cannot move 
in the package during 

Simple m^hanical 
graders have been used 
for BOme time in some of 
the peach regions, but 
have never been entirely Batiafactory. The new types 
of graders are still in the experimental stage. Bee Fach- 
agea, page 2428, for description of t3'pes of Iruitrg^radera. 

All the lai^ cities in the United States and Canada, 
in addition to the local towns, consume targe quantities 
of peachea. A grower who is situated near a large 
local market can allow his fruit to become wetl-ripenra 
and haul it by wa^on or truck without requiring other 
transportation facilities. Much of the crop must go to 
market by rail, however, and if in transit more ttun a 
few houft, some refrigeration is necessary. Refrigerator 
cars are unployed for this. The large so-called "Fruit- 
Growers Express" or "Dispatch Cars" will hold five 
and one-half tons of ice and are capable of earrying 448 
Georgia carriers in four tiers, or 5S3 cratca in five tiers. 
All crat«s, boxes, or baskets should be so arranged 
when placed in refrigerator cars as to allow of a See 
circulation of air. 

Frecooling of peaches previous to shipment is 
practised to some extent, but is not yet common. One 
who en^ges in peach-production upon a lar^ scale 
cannot depend upon local markets to take his entire 
crop at a profit and must be prepared to ship to the 
wholesale markets. The ideal shipment is the car- 
load. To ship at least a carload of fruit constantly, 
one needs to have from about 1,000 to 1,200 trees of 
each variety in full bearing. 

The most serious insect enemies of the peach are 
the borer, San Jos^ scale, and curculio. A few years 

ago the scale was considered the most troublesome of 
the three, but the borer is now the most difficult to 
control. The mature insect is wasp-like in appearance, 
the mole shining steel-blue in color with an orange- 


yellow band about the abdomen, while the female is of 
a deeper and duller color. The eggs are laid on the 
trunk near the ground from June to as late as Septem- 
ber, or possibly October. The "grubs" haf^h and work 
their way under the bark and there teed upon the 
inner bark for about twelve months, when a case is 
formed of the "sawdust" and other materials, in which 
the pupa stage is passed. One or two borer larva may 
completely prdle a nursery tree, while several may 
accomplish similar damage on a young tree in the 
orchard. In any case the infested tree is greatly weak- 
ened. The presence of borers is easily detected by tie 
mass of gum and "chewings" at the base of the tree. 

A great variety of materials has been tested aa 
coatings to prevent the entrance of borers, but none 
has proved to be entirely Buccessful. The 
expansion of the bark because of growth 
causes numerous cracks in the coatmg of 
most materials that are applied and the 
borers gain entrance. A soft grade of 
aaphaltum applied to the trunk for a few 

wash, and other materials may have some 
value as repellante, but are not very efficient. 

The common practice is to remove the 
soil to a depth of 6 to 8 inches about the 
trunks of the trees in early spring and to 
kill the borers by means of a knite and a 
short piece of wire. Some growers examine 
their trees in autumn, but there is danger 
of winter injury unless the soil is put back 
before severe winter weather occurs. 

The San Jos£ scale is now easily con- 
trolled by a thorough dormant-season spray- 
ing of lime-sulfur diluted to a specific gravity 
of 1.03 to 1.04. 

The plum-curcuho is a small snout beetle 
about i4 i^ch in length with four irregular 
humps upon the wing-covers. It is dork 
mottled f^y in color with black markings. ztm. 
The principal damage caused by this insect Fniit-bmU 
is during seasons of light cropa or upon trees ^Sj.^jJ^ 
just coming into bearing wnen the loss of ^J^^" 
a proportion of the green fruits reduces twaaa. 
the crop. In seasons of heavy crops, the 
loss of a proportion of the green fruit may not prove 
te be of economic importance. The beetle appears 
in the orchard about blooming time and feeds on 
the foliage until the calyces are shed from the fruits, 
when e^-laying begins. If the egg hatches, the larva 
makes its way to the center of the peach and feeds 
upon the developing germ, causing the fruit to 
fall from the tree later. The mature oeetle may also 
do conaideraiile feeding upon the outside of the peach 
while it is still small, causing irregular blemishes that 
may markedly effect the commercial value of the fruit. 
The curculio is most troublesome when the orchard ia 
surrounded by eraaalands and hedgerows of weeds and 
native trees. When much of the area is under cultiva- 
tion and good orchard practice prevails, the damage is 
greatly reduced. A spraying of arsenate of lead just after 
the petals fdl, and again just aa the calyces ore shedding 
from the fruits, will destroy many of the curculio. It is 
b^t to combine the lead with the self-boiled lime-sulfur 
to secure a better distribution of the lead and prevent 
any burning of foliage by an inferior product. 

The bark-beetle is a small black insect not more 
than 14 inch in length that attacks the bark upon 
weakened trees, causing gum to exude in spots upon the 
trunk and branches. Fortunately, the insect usually 
causes little or no damage te vigorous healthy trees and 
its presence indicates that some other factor is really to 
blune, although it is sometimes reported on healthy 
trees. The black peach aphis is occasionally trouble- 
some upon light soils, but good culture and a vigorous 

growth commonly prarents any serious check to the 

Various beetles and grasshoppers may cause some 
damage at times by feeding upon the peach, mich 
injuries being most common in orefaards in which grass 
or needs are allowed to grow freely. 

The peach is subject to the attacks of a considerable 
number of diseases. The most dif&cult to combat are 
yeUowa, little-peach, and roaette. The causes of these 
diseases are still unknown. Some suggest the presence 
of a fungus, others an organism too small to be detected 
'by the ordmary microscope, and there is also the possi- 
bilitv of enzymes. 

' The advanced stages of yellows are indicated by a 
prematuring of the miit from a few days to at least 
two weeks in advance of the normal season. Such fruit 
is commonly red-apotted and blotched in its coloring 
and may be insipid or bitter in flavor. ASected trees 
may also develop sickly wiry twig-growths on the 
tnmks and branches. 

Little-peach is indicated by a characteristic drooping 
of the foliage and by the fact that the fruit is smalla 
and matureslater than the fruit on healthy trees. 

Roaette occurs only in southern districts and ia 
TeadJy diatinguiahed b)[ the tufts of leaf-development. 
This disease is fatal within twelve months in many 

, It is not known whether these diseases are entirely dis- 
tinct or not, but they have been eo regarded. Yellows and 
littte-peach attack all varieties in about the same pro- 
pOTtion. Infection does not appear to take place through 
the soil, flowers, or seed. These diseases can readily be 
transmitted to healthy trees or stocks, however, by bud- 
ding. Buds taken from the apparently healthy parts of 
diseased trees have invariably reproduced the diaeases. 

The recognition of eariy ata^ges of yellows and little- 
peach have shown that these diseases are too frequently 
distributed in nursery stock. It ia now known that a 
tree may be infected with either of these diseases for 
three or four years without showing any prominent 
symptoma. When good growing conditions are pro- 
vided, the true atate of affairs may be masked for a 
time, but a check to growth will result in the prompt 
appearance of the advanced stages of disease. 

Many cases of ao-called "cures" of yellows have been 
annoimced, but all have been without sound baslB. Too 
often trees affected with borers, winter injury and other 
troubles are considered to be affected with yellows. 
Diseased trees should be destroyed as soon as detected. 
When such trees are left in an orchard, the disease 

S reads to surrounding trees until all are affected. If 
. diseased treea were destroyed annually in any dis- 
trict and no diseased nursery trees were introduced, the 
annual loss could readily be kept as low as 1 per cent, 
without much doubt. YeUowa attacks Japanese plums 
as well as peaches, and this should not be overlooked 
in control work. 

Peach leaf-curl, brown-rot, peach-scab and mildew 
aie fungous disesdes of the peach which cause much 
damage annually. The leaf-curl attacks the foliage in 
early sprina just as the leaf-buds open, and the leaves 
become curled, thickened, and distorted. The tips of 
flhoots may also become affected and the disease is 
occasionally seen upon the fruit in a fan-shaped di»- 
colored area. The affected leaves finally turn brown, 
and fall from the trees in early summer. In severe 
attacks, the trees are almost completely defoliatod, 
greatly reducing their vigor and causing them to lose 
most of the fruit which may have set. This disease 
is readily controlled by a spraying with lime-sulfur, as 
directed for the scale, before the leaf-buds begin to 
make growth. After the leaf-buds begin to expand, 
however, the spraying may not prove effective. Recent 
experiments have bo^ tried with apparent success in 

PEACH 24d9 

New York of fall spraying for leaf-curl, as late as the 
first part of December. 

Brown-rot was formerly one of the dreads of the 
peach-grower. Thousands of baskets of fruit fre- 
quently rotted on the trees just at harvest time. Not 
until the value and safety of self-boiled lime-euUur 
summer spray was demonstrated by Scott were the 
peach-growers supplied with an effective remedy for 
the disease. This affliction may not only cause a rapid 
decay of the fruit at ripening time, but it sometimes 
attacks the blossoms and causes their death. The 
affected blooms are distinguished from frost injuries 
from the fact that they clmg to the twigs and gum 
commonly ooses out from the canker formed upon the 
twig at the base of the bloom. The small ^reen fruits 
may also decay at all stages, and the twigs may be 
killed outright from numerous cankers upon the bark. 
Such varieties as Triumph and Connecticut frequently 
begin to rot before they ripen, and the entire crop may 
be lost even when well sprayed. Such sorts should 
never be planted. Varieties as susceptible as Champion 
are not very satisfactory shipping varieties. A tnor- 
ough system of summer spraying, as outlined under 
"spraying" (page 2500), should control brown-rot. 

Peach-scab is a fungous disease which appears upon 
the fruits in the form of small black dots. In severa 
cases these dots may be so numerous as t« form a 
sooty blotch. The skin of the fruit may then crack, 
offering an excellent opportunity for orown-rot to 
b^^ its destruction. Peach-scab is most serious from 
central New Jersey south to Georgia. Upon hilly areas, 
north of central New Jersey, it is rather uncommon 

and it seldom requires any attention. The disease occurs 
only upon the upper surface and ends of the peach as 
it grows on the branch. It makes its appearance in 
the form of very minute black spots or dots from about 
the middle to the last of June upon early varieties in 
New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland. Farther south 
it occurs correspondingly earlier. It may be readily 
controlled by thorough summer spraying with the sell- 
boiled lime-sulfur. 

Peach-mildew moat frequently occurs alotw^ the 
northern limits of peach-production near the Great 
I^kes, and in the Northwest. This is probably because 
of the wider extremes of temperature during the 
diff . 

Mildew appears in the form of a white powdery sub- 
stance upon the leaves and fruit. It may do consider- 
able damage to nursery stock in some cases. Sprayings 

The peach is subject to the attacks of 
disBBBe and insect enemies, and thorou^ eprayias is 
required for suocess in moet casM. "^e peach foU- 
agB is vety senntive to caustic Bprays, however, and 


vhen the winter temperatures are not particularly 
severe. Altenuite warm and cold periods may also 
resuit in bud-killing. Varieties such as Reeves, Earlv 

Crawford, and Mountain Roee suffer more from bua- 
killing than Greensboro, Carman, or Croaby. Vigorous 
trees that ripen tieir wood-growth early are best able 

successful in resisting the effects of a variable winter. 

Twig-ldliing is a more severe foim of injury than bud- 
killing, and following such injury the trees should be 
well cut back before growth begins. 

Collar injury is caused bv the action of the weather 
upon the bark of the trimk just at or below the sur- 
face of the ground. In mild cases, the inner bark 
becomes yellow in color and very spongy. The tree 
is checked in growth and the fruit forced to an unusually 
large size. The lenticels ot dots are large and the flavor 
of the fruit is often astringent, due to a large propor- 
tion of tannin. In more severe cases of injui^, the trees 
suddenly die in midsummer with the Hhriveled fruit 
clinging to the twi^. Bark-beetles often attack trees 
cheated by winter mju^ and the death of the trees ia 
often entirely attributed to their attacks. The Elberta 
tipj>eaT8 to be more susceptible to this form of winter 
mjury than such varieties as Greensboro or Carman. 
The soil should be firmly mounded up for about a foot 
against the trui^ of peach trees just before freezing 
weather each fail to prevent such winter injury. 

pnuwd, oat ol tbao liMdtd bi 

great damace may be done from ignorance. Copper 
eproys, euco as bordeaux^ are dangerous to use 


foliage in humid clmi&tes. S^ Job6 scale and 

jtI can be controlled by a winter Bprayinn of 

lime-sulfur. Peach-scab and brown-rot can oe held in 
check by several sprayings of the aelf-boiled lime- 
sulfur Bununer spray. 

When San Job6 scale, leaf-curl, peach-Bcab, brown- 
rot and curculio appear to an^ considerable extent, 
the following spraying schedule is suggested; 

1. For scale and 1^-curl, apply concentrated lime- 
miUur diluted to a specific gravity of 1 .03 to 1 .04 before 
the leaf-buds start to m^e growth in early sprinE. 

2. Just after the petals fall, apply self-boiled lime- 
■ulfur of an 8-S-50 formula and arsenate of lead at 
the rate of three pounds of paste, or one and one- 
half pounds of powdered lead to each fifty gallons 
of spray. 

3. Repeat this when the calyces are shedding from 
the fruits or when the latter are about the size of 
green peas. 

4. Apply self-boiled lime-sulfur without the addition 
of arsenate of lead three weeks after the third spraying. 

5. App^ aelf-boiled lime-sulfur again three weeks 
lata' to all varieties ripening later than Carman. 

6. In wet seasons and especially for varieties as late 
as Fox, Salway, or Bilyeu, an additional spraying may 
prove profitable. 

No spraying should be done within less than three 
weeks of the npe stage, or the fruit may have a white- 
washed appearance. 

Where tne plum-curculio causes little or no damage, 
the second spraying may be omitted, and where peach- 
scab and brown-rot are uncommon, the fourth, fifth, 
and sixth sprayings may be omitted. 
Winter (ryuriet. 

The moet that can be done is to cut away the bark that 
has separated from the sap-wood and to paint the latter 
to prevent decay. 
Peach trees not infrequently suffer injury to the 

s^wood of the branches and twigs, and the trees may 
fau to grow vigorously the following spring. Such trees 
should be given liberal fertiliidng and be kept well 

grow vigorously the following spi 

J be given liberal fertiliaing ani_ _. .... 

cultivated to promote a good growth, m. A. Blake. 

Peach-culture in the South. 

Atlantic States, the old "Spanish Biood" or "Tinsley" 
peach, is spoken of as one of the choice fruits of tjie 
earth. From time to time all the improved varieties 
were scattered through the South by the more progres- 
sive horticulturists and nuraerymen and these and 
their seedlings were abundant on nearly every planta- 
tion. The South being strictly on agricultural country, 
there was little chance for commercial peach-culture 
until along between 1870 and 1875, when the introduc- 
tion of a number of new extra-early varieties of the 
Alexander type, seedlings of Hale and Rivers, gave such 
bright showy peaches the latter part of May and early 
June that attempts were made to market them at a 
profit in our noruiem cities. 

A lack of quick through railway-express service 
caused them to be three and four days on the way; and 
usually to be delivered in poor condition. Occasional 
lots, arriving in fair to good condition and selling at . 
S12 to $20 B Dushel, convinced a few of the shippers that 
the extra-early peaches of the South were appreciated 
at the North, and persistent efforts were continued to 
get them to market in sound condition. Every con- 
ceivable style of shipping package was used, — paper- 
wrapped fruit placed between layers of cotton, excelsior, 
paper, and the like, and sent by express or steamer, — 
and all brought about the same returns, "Arrived i' 

bad order." Only occasional Iota paid a profit. Finally, 
heavy refri^rator boxes that would hold about six bush- 
Is of fruit m packages, and a sufficient quantity of ic^ 

section is made. Poorly formed buds often die even with strong castor wheels under them so they c 


be trundled in and out of freii^t care, were utilized to 
bring peaches north by Savannah and Charleston 
BteomeiBi and by re-icing on the ateameiB. much of the 
early fruit came through in good order and sold at such 
satisfoctoiy pricefi as to encourage the sending of the 
large midsummer peaches to market in tlte same way, 
and the planting of moderat»«ited orchards and the 
further experimenting with seedling and varieties 
best suited to long shipments. 

The perfection of the refrigerator car for fruit trans- 
portation, improved machinery for the cheap manufac- 
ture of ice, tne consolidation of various small railway 
lines into great through routes of transportation, and 
a full appreciation by their managers of the importance 
td a successful peacn industry, and last but not least, 
the originating of the Elberta peach by Mr. Rumph, 
were the final factors in rapidlv developing the great 
commercial peach industry m Georgia, and its smaller 
counterparts in South CaroUna, Alabama, Mississippi, 
and the more recent rush of overplanting in Texas, 
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and soutiicm Missouri. 

The year 1889 saw the first brge peach crop success- 
fully harvest^ and marketed. Profits were large, and 
being rcDorted in the press many times greator than 
they really were^ stimulated much planting by those 
entirely imfamilior with fruit-culture, and with no 
special love for it except the monev that might be 
made out of it. Cheap lands and ttie abundance of 
p>od low-priced labor were encouragements to exten- 
sive plantmgB. In nearly every state of the South, land 
in vast tracts suitable lor peach-culture could be bad 
at S3 to $10 an acre, and lalx)r from sun to sun at 40 
to 60 cents a day; while in 1915 these lands are selling 
at $25 to $100 an acre, with a possible average of $40, 
and labor costs SI a day or more, while the added 
expense of three or more epraymgs each year has helped 
to double the cost of peach-production in the South. 

Along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, varying from 100 
to 200 miles inland, most of the land fxting low and flat, 
early blooming, followed by spring frost, makes the 
peach industry too uncertain to be profitable. The hill 
lands in western sections of Atlantic Coast stales, and 
northern sections of the Gulf Stales, is really the peach 
country of the South, where extended lists of varie- 
ties are grown, covering a season of fully two months; 
while the souttiwestem states, planting almoet entirely 
of one variety, have a season of less than two weel^ 
in many orchards. Fort Valley and Marshall ville, the 
great peach centers of Georgia, though on tablelands 
about 200 miles from both ocean and Gulf, and at an 
elevation of a little over 500 feet, are not in what might 
■trictly be called the hill countr^, being just below the 
southern edge of it. In this section of Georgia, most of 
the peach orehards have been planted on old cotton- 
land, much of which has been in cultivation a century or 
more, and while the surface-soil is worn and poor, down 
deep in the red clay soil underlying the 6 or 8 inches of 
sandy gray loam of the surface, there must be a vast 
amount of fertility from the way peach trees |atiw 
when once started and a reasonable amount of culture 
ia given. 

In the early days most of the orchardiste, who were 
cotton-planters as well, planted second- and third- 
daas yearling trees, or else small June-budded trees 
»ny time from October to March, opening furrows for 
the trees and eross-checkins the rows 18 to 22 feet 
apart, later plowing this lana and planting it in cotton, 
continuing it for three and often four vears. Two to 
four hundred pounds of low-grade fertilizer is applied 
in drills for the cotton and usually very thorough cul- 
ture given; trees are allowed to grow at will, their 
culture being incidental to the cotton crop. In such 
orchards very little if any pruning was ever attempted. 
After the trees become so urjce as to drive out the cot- 
ton, one plowing is given m winter, then anything 
from fairly good culture to none at all the remainder' 



of each season. Such a system resulted in many "scrub 
orchards," that were not very profitable after six or 

In the recent and more highly developed peach 
orobardingof this section of the South, better prepara- 
tion is given the land at the start, dynamiting <m the 
holes for planting being largely practised. There is a 
more careful selection of trees, far more liberal fertilis- 
ing, planting at greater distances, seldom less than 20 
by 20 feet, better culture, less and less of intercropping, 
except of cowpcas and other cover-crops, and somewhat 
more of systematic pruning, though as yet this art is 
not fullv enough practised to show best results. Many 
of the land-booming orchards^ planted between 1890 
and 1900, proved financial failures and are either no 
longer in existence or else have been absorbed into other 
and better propositions. There are leas and less of the 
cotton farmer orchardists and more peach specialists, 
as time and experience have shown tne business to be 
unprofitable, except under best business conditions. 
The writer's plantations, which ten j'ears ago aggre- 
gated some 265,000 trees, have now been reduced toTess 
than 100,000 trees, as only by planting at greater dis- 
tances and giving a lees number of trees better core and 
attention, can any profit be assured. 

All land is plowed deep, and sometimes subsoiled 
before planting. Young orchards ore given frequent 
and thorough tillage up to midseason, when two or 
three rows of cowpeas are drilled in at least 4 feet away 
from the rows of trees; these and the trees arc culti- 
vated frequently, until the peas have taken almost full 
possession of the ground, and it is time for both the land 
and trees to have a rest from cultivation. In the fall 
when peas are ripe, enough are gathered for next year's 
seed, after which nogs or mules may be turned in to 
pasture for a time. Tue stubble furnishes a fine winter 
cover, and is turned down at first plowing in February 
or Mareh, when summer culture begins, and at proper 
time the orchiurd is again seeded to cowpeas, across the 
former direction of the rows. Three years of this usually 
builds up a perfect orchard without the aid of any 
other fertilizers, except possibly a very little about the 
trees at time of piantmg to give them a start. 

Low-headed trees are the rule, the trunks seldom 
branching over 18 inches up, and often 8 inches to 

a foot from the ground. As a rule, the close cutting 
back at time of planting, and a general shortening-m 
of the leading branches Kir the first two or three years, 
is about all the pruning given, even in the best orchards. 
A good plan is to shorten-in every year much of the 
past season's growth, and from the central head often 
cut back two or three seasons' growth; but under no 
I are any of the good side shoots cut out 




that force themselves on all 'the main stems when the 
top is properly headed back. These little side branches 
have dven several full crops of fruit, when without 
them there has been failure. 

Soil and climate favor the ver^ brightest of color on 
all peaches in the South; qualities of the soil and the 
long, hot summer sim give a richness and sweetness of 
flavor superior to any other section of America, though 
the same varieties are not so juicy or luscious as when 
grown farther North. 

The orchards in connection with cotton plantations 
run all the way from 10 to 100 acres in extent, while the 
' 'straight-out peach farm" seldom has as few as 50 acres 
in fniit, more of them having from 100 to 200 acres, 
while orchards all the way from 300 to nearly 1,000 
acres in extent are no uncommon sight. The Georgia 
peach industry turns out 5,000 to 7,000 carloads of 
peaches in seven or eight weeks of a busy picking season, 
even though the 18,000,000 trees estimated to have been 
in that state ten years ago have now been reduced to 
less than 8,000,000. 

Growth usually ceases early in August, and the trees 
shed their leaves the last of September, a month or six 
weeks before any frosts occur. Should the fall be 
warm and wet, some fruit-buds will be forced into 
bloom, while the greater number will remain dormant 
until late January or early February, when spring 
growth commences. The season of full bloom is usually 
about the first week in March, though it varies all the 
way from February 15 to March 25, and no matter 
whether early or late, the entire blooming season of most 
varieties covers a period of nearly three weeks. While 
spring frosts are the greatest menace to southern peach- 
culture, this long blooming period often gives a chance 
for a setting of fruit between the various frosts, or sSter 
the last one, from some belated buds. Even with these 
varying chances of escaping between frosts, about one 
year in three frost destroys the peach crop m some one 
or more of the great centers of peach-proauction in the 

Two other serious troubles hamper the southern 
peach cultivator — curculio and momlia or brown-rot. 
Curculios are very abundant; beginning early in ApriL 
they keep up their destructive work until the end of 
the fruitmg season. In recent years in the summer 
spraying for monilia, the addition of arsenate of lead 
has controlled the ravages of curculio so well that now 
they are far less destructive than before. The early 
sprmg months at the South are inclined to be pleasant 

and veiy dry, and uie sum- 
mer rams, which are fre- 
ouent ana abundant when 
tney do come, often do not 
set in until the latter part 
of July or early August, 
near the end of the p^ich- 
shipping season. Often, 
however, they begin in June, 
and continue for two or 
three weeks, and in the case 
of the season of 1900 it 
rained for six weeks through 
the main part of the peach 
harvest. Hot sun between 
showers and the genend 
mu^ness of a warm climate 
rapidly breed the monilia 
fungus, and brown-rot is the 
most serious trouble the 
southern peach-fE^wcr has 
to contend with, though with proper spraying it may 
be held almost entirely in check, and except for the 
extra expense is not now to be feared as in the earlier 
days of southern peach-culture. In the ten years from 
1895 to 1905, probably more than 50 per cent of 
peaches grown in Georgia rotted on the trees, or else 

2802. A bad form of top. 

reached market in specky condition as the results of 
monilia fungus. 

The first great crop of Georgia peaches that made a 
strong impress on all northern markets was in 1889, 
when the Elberta variety by its large size, great beauty, 
and fine keeping qualities showed up so strongly for 
the first time as to outclass all other varieties. Urcat 
profits were made and, being reported as even neater, 
there was a mad rush to plant Elberta, and Elberta 
only. This was kept up until 1896-7 before it came to 
be realized that there could be too much of even a good 
thing. The rushing of a great volume of fruit, no matter 
how choice, into the markets in two or three weeks, 
before they had been "toned up" to at least a liberal 
supply of good fruit, was a business mistake. To 
remedy this there has been a hunt after a good early 
variety to precede the Elberta, as well as later ones to 
follow it. So thatj while prior to 1896 more than 75 per 
cent of the plantmgs were of Elberta, since that time 
not more than 15 to 20 per cent of Elberta have been 

J)lanted. There is a better balance of varieties, and a 
onger and more profitable season of marketing has been 
assured. Many early and mid-early varieties growii^ 
ten or fifteen years ago have mostly been abandoned, 
Greensboro, Carman, Hiley and Belle (of Georgia) being 
varieties most largely grown to precede Elberta. 
Growers are now be^dnning to abandon the Greensboro 
and plant excessivdy of other extra-early varieties, 
notably Uneeda, Arp (Arp Beauty or Queen of Dixie), 
and Early Rose. These varieties having sold at extremely 
high prices in recent years, there now appears as great a 
tendency to plant extra-early ripening peaches as there 
was for the Elberta in the earlier days. 

When loading in cars, the crates are placed side by 
side about 2}4 inches apart across the car, taking 
seven crates. Then two strips of inch-square stuff, just 
long enough to reach across tne car, are put on top of the 
crates at each end and are lightly nailed dowii. Tier 
upon tier is built up in this way, either five or six crates 
bijg^, unto the car is full. Spacing of the crates and 
the slatting provides space for cold air around each and 
every crate. In dry seasons, when fruit is free from rot- 
germs, cars as now constructed can with safety be 
K)adea five crates high, but in wet seasons, with rot 
prevalent, they arrive in market in much better condi- 
tion when losided only four high. Besides the ori^nal 
icing, which requires four to six tons to a car, a re-icing 
after loading takes one to three tons, depending upon 
how long the car is loading. A car will hold 448 to 525 
crates, according to the size of the car and whether 
loaded four or five crates high. Handled along best 
modem lines, with careful inspection from start to fin- 
ish, it costs for the six-basket Georgia carrier, from 30 
to 35 cents to take peaches ripe from the tree and place 
them in the car. 

Some peaches of the Crawford type are grown all 
through the South, but they do not succeed ^ well as 
most others of the Persian strain, and none of the 
Persians does so well in the far South as the North 
China strains, to which Carman, Hiley, Early Rose, 
Belle, and Elberta belong. The South China peaches, 
to which the Peen-to, Honey, and Angel belong, suc- 
ceed best in Florida and close along the Gulf Coast. 
While their bitter-sweet flavor is appreciated by some, 
they are not ji^nerally profitable for market. 

In preparation for marketing the fruit crop, many of 
the large orchards have railroad side-tracks running 
to their packing-houses in the orchard; refrigerator 
cars are brought South, and every available bit of side- 
track for 300 or 400 miles about is filled with these 
cars. At leading centers, refrigerator-car people have 
constructed great ice-storage-houses, with every con- 
venience for quickly icing and re-icing cars. Agents 
of these refrigerator-car companies, by frequently driv- 
in^ about among the orchards and keeping in touch 
with the managers, plan to have enough cars iced and 


cooled ofF so as to be ready for each day's demand, and 
by [dacing an order with tbe railroad agent the n^t 
before, the orchardist may have one or a dozen refrigera- 
tor cars delivered on his side-track in the mormng. 
For smaller sluppers, who cannot load in carlota, the 
railroads keep at sJl times in season refri^rator cars 
on siding at each station in the peach district, into 
which any number of shippers mav load; more often 
there will be a number of such cars loading at the same 
time, so that a shipper may* have a choice as to which 
market he will consign his fruit. Except in the height 
of the season, these ears are often two and sometimes 
three days in loading, and the continued opening of the 
car to put in small lots of fruit prevents perfect rdrigcra- 
tion; consequently fruit from small shippers more often 
goes to market in bad order than from the larger 
orchards, where a car can be quickly loaded and at once 
closed up, not to be opened until ready for sale in some 
northern market. In the Hale orchards, a car is often 
loaded in an hour, and very little of tbe fruit is ever so 
long aa two hours passing from the tree thro<^ tbe 
assorting- and packmg-houses to the car. 

In some of the smaller orchards, fruit is packed in 
crates or baskets under the trees, and then hauled 



and a number of eicperiments have been made with 
Canada field peas, fenugreek, and vetoh. To grow a 
cover-crop succ^sfully, it is necessary to have water 
in the fall, and as water from the canals is not obtain- 
' able, it must be secured by pumping. Barnyard manure, 
when it is to be had, is given the preference by growers. 
This is becoming very scarce, however, and eventually 
conunercial fertUu^n will come into general use. 

ed as packing-houses; more often special frulfr-housee 

e used, their size depending u """ ' '" 

of the orchards, while in style a 

!, their size depending upon the requirements 

depends upon the intelligence of the orchardists and 
desire to handle the fruit rapidly in best possible man- 
ner. The picking-basket most generally used is a shal- 
low, round basket, with a drop handie, and holding 
■bout a half-bushel. With ^ood refrigerator cars and 
prompt railroad service, frmt is now allowed to come 
to fim maturity on tbe tree, and is picked just before 
it bepns to soften. 

Since the orgaiUEation of the Georpa Fruit Exchange, 
some eight or ten years ago, about 75 per cent of the 
peach-growers of Georgia, Alabama, and South Caro- 
lina have, through thi^ cooperation, been enabled to 
secure a wider distribution and a more uniform market- 
price for their products, and their business is on a more 
secure foundation than in any other section of tbe 
8«iH»- J. H. H*U!. 

Peach-growing in California. 

The peach is a fruit of wide commercial importance 
in California. The great peach-growing sections are 

Erincipally in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, 
ut orchards are found and are profitable not only in 
the mountains up to an altitude of 3,000 feet, but also 
in the coast sections. The most important districts are 
the first named. For size, flavor, color, and shipping 
qualities, the peaches grown in this state have a nationfd 

The tree thrives not only on the sandy, loamy soils 
which are adapted to irrigation and are well drained, 
but also on the heavier red and black soils, which are 
more or less mixed with gravel and are found both is 
the foothill and coast regions of California. On account 
of the arid climate, there being no rainfall from May 
until October, it goes without saying that to produce 
high-class peaches for either shipping, canning, or dry- 
ing, irrigation is ven' essential. The theory that was 
formerly advanced that irrigated fruit would not keep,- 
has not been borne out in practice, and to attempt to 
grow peaches without irrigation, particularly in the 
great valleys, would now be considered the height of 

No systematic plan has been followed in fertiUzing 
orchards^ although growers are reaUzing that to grow 
good fnut and to maintain an orchard up to the very 
highest standard, the appLcation of fertiTuers is essen- 
tiaL Considerable interest is now taken in cover-crops, 

Feach trees are transplanted in California when they 
are one year old from the bud. except in years when 
Stock is scarce and trees sell at high prices, when many 
growers purchase June buds, which transplant readilv, 
providing care is taken to allow them to mature fully 
m the nursery before digging. 

Nothing will bring a peactt tree to a premature end 
more quickly than not to prune. Trees when trans- 
planted to the orchard should be pruned both root and 
top. The root-pruning should be the shortening-in of 
all the roots at lea.'^t one-third and the removalof all 
bruised and lacerat«d roots. 

After the trees are set, they should have the top cut 
off to within 20 inches of the ground, even it the tree be 
6 feet or more in height. In most cases, the failure of 
trees to grow may be attributed to the orchardist's 
failure to observe this simple rule. It is very necessary 
to settle the soil around the tree, either by irrigating 
(running the water in furrows), or by tanking (using 
not less than fifteen gallons of water to a tree). 

The winter following the planting in the orchard, the 
branches forming the head should be confined to not 
more than five at the very outside, and four is better. 
These should be cut back at least two-thirds and all 
laterals removed. 

This pruning will not only cause the trees to grow 
stocky, but it will probably also serve the purpi»e of 
making the framework branches very sturdy. The tree 
will respond by making an immense growth and in the 
second winter the shortening-in of this growth will 
again have t« be very severe, and thinning will have 
to be practised. The point to be considered in this 
case again is to give the tree not only tbe goblet form, 
but to perfect i^ for this pruning increases its vigor 

and makes it capable of producing heavy cropa which 
are well protected from any injury by the sun, due to 
its wealth of foliage. From the third year, two or three 
laterals are allow^l to grow on each of the frameworks, 
and their growth is again ahortened-in severely. In ' 
the fourth year, the pruning need Dot be bo severe, and 
a reasonable crop of fruit may be expected. Pruning in 
after yeani should be followed out regularly each season 
if good crops are to be secured and tne longevity of the 
tree maintained. 

It is a mistake to ^ont peach trees too close together. 
In farmer years it was costomary to plant 20 by ^ feet, 
but DOW trees are planted 24 by 24 feet, as better results 
have been secured at this distance. 

Thinning must be practised when the crop ia heavy, 
for, if not followed carefully, the fruit will lack size, ana 
no matter for what purpose it is used it will go into 
an inferior grade and at prices which would he veiy 
unsatisfactory to the grower. The peaches should 
never be closer than 4 inches apart. If the ground 
underneath the tree has the appearance of being 
covered with a green carpet from the effect of the 
thinning, it is evidence that the woric has been well 

When shipped fresh, peaches are wrapped in soft 
pE^er and packed in tvrenty-pound boxes. The numb^ 

2WH. PMCh-packinc. Tli« Clinux buket. 

of peaches shipped out of California ia about 2,200 car- 
loads annually. For local consumption in the larger 
cities, the peaches are shipped in open lug boxes, hoTd- 
ingatxiut forty pounds. 

The free-stone peaches are the only ones dried, as a 
rule. These are first halved, the pits are removed, and 
the fruit is placed in traye. The drying takes plaice in 
the sun altogether. Before drying, the peacnes are 
exposed to the fumes of sulfur for not less than four 
hours, Tliis not only kills any insect life but gives 
the peaches a much more appetizing appearance. The 
very heavy tonnage of dried peaches, averaging 30,000 
tons annually, would be utterly impossible to handle 
unless the same could be dried by exposure to the sun's 
rays. It requires from six to seven pounds of fresh 
peaches to make one pound of the dried product. 
Many pcrson-s object to the fuzzy skins on tne dried 
fruit and in recent yeara peeledpeaches have been in 
the markets in a limited way. The method of peeling 
has t>een to expose the halved peaches to the sulfur 
fumes for several hours. This loosens the skins and 
they peel off readily. This handhng of the fruit is 
expensive, however, and with the difficulty of securing 
labor, it has not been practicable except on a small 
scale. This method has been very much improved, 
however, and the peaches after being halved are now 
dipi)ed in a hot lye bath for fifty seconds, using about 
one pound to ten gallons of water. The peacnes are 
then given a bath m cold water, not only to remove 


every vestige of lye, but to cause the skins to slough off. 
Peadies treated in this way sell at twice the price of the 
unpeeled peaches and the entire character of the fruit 
is changed. Outside of the Ive bath, which is the 
only additional treatment the fruit receives, the pro- 
cess is the same as is followed when the peaches are not 

The canning of peachea is another important branch 

(tf the industry, the output from California t>cing in the 
neighborhood of M.OOO tons annually. This work is 
conducted exclusively by commercial concerns having 
every modem appliance to handle the fruit expeditiously 
and turn out uniform grades. Outside of tJie halving 
of the peaches, which work is done by women, the 
work is accomplished entirely with machinery. Sani- 
tary cans are used as containers and a limited quan- 
tity of the fruit is placed in glass jars. The commer- 
cialiEing of the industry has created a demand for well- 
defined standards. To illustrate this, the only peaches 
which are regarded as the leaders by the canning trade 
are the clinccs; and in the list of varieties, tbe Tuskena, 
Orange, and PhiUips, ail of which are yellow, are in the 
heaviest demand. Peaches that have no red at the pit 
are preferred for canning, as the syrup never becomes 
discolored. The important place which the canning 
industry occupies in the peacn business will be sure to 
bring about improvements in varieties to meet the 
id for peachea with smaller pits, finer-grained and 

Imperial, SneedTElberta, and Salway are recognized 
as standards; for diying, Elberta, Foster, Late Craw- 
ford, Lovell, Muir, Susquehanna, and Wheatland; for 
canning, Tuscan, Runyon, and Seller (Orange) Clings, 
McDevitt and Phillip and Levy (or Henrietta). 

Fortunately, the California peach orchards have 
never been threatened with insect pests or diseases that 
cannot be controlled. The (irown root-borer is trouble- 
Bome, in some sections, but it ^hh always been under 
control, liie San Jo84 scale is no longer regarded as a 
very serious pest, tor it is held in check by predaceous 
insects and by spraying with lime-sulfur washes. Leaf- 
cud in some years gives considerable trouble, but if the 
trees are given a thorough spraying with bordeaux, it is 
easily controlled. 

The average life of a peach orchard is twenty years, 
but there are many profitable orchards mudt older 
than this, when they Mve received good care. 

A failure of a peach crop has never been known in 
California, and although in some years the crop has 
been curtailed by late spring frosts, growers have never 
practised smudging to any extent, 

George C. Roedisq. 

Protecting peach trees in cold climates. 

Numerous ways of protecting peach trees from the 
effects of trying winter weather have been devised. 
Such plans include the placing of a protective covering 
about the trunk and branches of the tree. Cornstalks, 
straw, hay, evergreen boughs, and similar materials 
may be used for this purpose. Some persons have tried 
the plan of laying the tree on the pound in an effort to 
make the work of covering easier as well as more 

Peach trees may be laid on one side with compara- 
tive ease and without much injury, providing the pro- 
cess is begun when the trees are small. The rool-system 
is manipulated at this time in such a way that roost 
of it extends in two opposite directions. This ia accom- 
plished by cutting the roots, beginning when the trees 
are small, preferably the first winter after planting and 
thus accustoming them to the operation from (he 
beginning. If this plan is Followed from the start, a 


little vork with the spftde will suffice to lay a tree down. 
ODce on its side, tlie branches should be gathereii 
toijether with twine and the covering put in place and 
weighted down. 

An interesting method of laying a tree down without 
disturbing its roots was devised a number of years ago. 
This is accomplished by bending the newly planted 
tree over to the ground, where it is fastened. The side 
branches are cut off at first as fast as they appear, thus 
inducing a long straight growth. After the prostrate 
stem has attained a length of 10 to 12 feet, an upright 
top is allowed to develop. At the approach of winter, 
the top of a tree trained in this manner can be pushed 
over easily, as the long prostrate trunk serves aa a 
lever or pivot. The long exposed trunk will need to 
be protected at all times from the effects of the sun. 
This is easiest done by using an inverted trough made 
of light boards. 

The process of laying trees down under irrigated 
conditions is somewhat simplified, as the ground can be 
made very soft by the use of water. Here, again, the 
work should be begun the 5rst winter after planting. 
The ground about tne j^Dung tree is first saturated witn 
water from the irrigation ditch. The trees are then 
pushed over in the direction that offers the least resist- 
ance. After the branches have been drawn together 
with cord, they are covered first with burlap, then with 
a light coating of earth. As the trees become more 
mature, a basin about 4 feet in diameter is made in the 
earth about the trunks before the water is turned in. 

The niceiit of judgment must be used in removing the 
covering in the spring, tu^ a Utttc too much warmth or a 
slight exposure lo cold may mean the loss of the year's 
work. At the first sign of swelling buds in the spring, 
the earth covering must be lightened during the middfe 
of the day and replaced for the night. As growing 
weather comes on, still more of the covering is removed 
and a certain amount put back each night until the 
tree is raised for the summer. The danger of damage by 
cold continues until the fruits have attained considera- 
ble size, consequently the work of uncovering in the 
middle of the day and of covering for the night eirtenda 
through a comparatively long period. 

After the danger of damage by frost is paoaed^ the 
CTOund is again irrigated and the trees are raised. 
Trees so handled are unable to support themselves in 
an upright nosition, cons»quently tney are supported 
at an angle by props. It is estimated iJiat the entire 
labor of laying a tree down, covering and of raising 
again in the spring, can be done at a cost of 50 cents a 
ti^e- W. Paddock. 

PEAKUT (Aradiis hypoqxa). Popularly the pea- 
nut, as the name indicates, is called a nut, but it more 
^operly falls into the class of grain or forage crape. 
. The fruit or "nut" is realiy a pod, comparable with a 
bean-pod or pea-pod. The plant is related to b^ns 
and peas. Tne seeds (comparable with bean seeds) 
furnish excellent food for man as well as for his beasts 
and fowls, and the cured tops make an excellent bay 
or forage. The peanut is usually not classed with hor- 
ticultural crops; for a fuller account, see Vol. il, "Cy- 
clopedia of American Agriculture." 

Commercially, the peanut is not grown north of the 
latitude of Washington, D. C, but on the sandy and 
loamy soils to the south and west of the above-named 

this territory the plant can l» used with profit as _ 
forage for hogs, altnough only a portion of the pods eet 
will come to maturity. As a garden plant, the peanut 
can be grown as far north as central New York, but 
only a few pods will actually mature seeds, except in 



nute are most desirable because the tope can be more 
easily harvested for forage, the rows may t>e closer 
together and the distance between the plants in the 
row may be less than with the vining types. The culti- 
vation aa well as the harvesting (digging) is easier. The 
bunch type of nuts, such as the Spanish and Valencia, 
may be planted in rows 30 to 36 inches apart, with the 
aeeda scattered 6 to 10 inches apart along the row. The 
large-seeded thick-shelled nuts require to be shelled 
before planting in order to insure satisfactory germina- 
tion, but the smaller thin-shelled sorts may be planted 
whole and a good stand secured. The planting season, 
as well aa the field care of peanuts, is practically the 
same as for com. They ore tender to Irost and grow 
best during warm weather. The vines will be killed by 
the first frosts, but when desired for forage should ho 
harvested in advance of that date. As the pods or nuts 
are borne beneath the surface of the soil, the crop is 
harvested by lifting or plowing out the whole plant, 
separating it from the earth and curing the plant ana 
pods together by stacking them in tall narrow stacks 
built up around a slender stake about 6 feet high, at the 
bottom of which cleats 3 feet long have been nailed in 
such a way as to keep the plants off the ground. The 
stacks are so built as to cause the vines to protect the 
nuts. The roots with the nuts attached are placed next 
to the stake, with the tops out. This method permits 
tie nuts to be cured slowly and without discoloration or 
Staining that would result were the nuts exposed to 
the weather. The plant is a most interesting one, both 
horticulturally and bolowcally, and is at the same 
time an important economic crop as well as a garden 
novelty. L. C. Comett. 

PEAR. A popular fruit and tree of the genua Pynia, 
long cultivated and much modified. 

The cultivated pear, as known in North America, is 
derived from two distinct sources, the European Pyrua 
communis and the Oriental Pyrua serolina. Pears of the 
European stock have been grown in North America 
from the earliest settle- 
mentof thecountry. They 
thrive particularly well in 
the New England states 
and New York, aad west 
to the Great Lakes, and 
again on the Pacific slope. 
In the great interior basin, 
pear-culture always has 
Deen ptecarioua, due pri- 
marily to the great liabil- 
ity of the trees to bfight. 
In the southern states, 
the climate is too hot for 
the best development of 
the tree and the best quaJity of the fruit. In the north 
prairie States, the winter climate is so severe that the 
pear tree will not grow. Forms of pears are shown in 
Figs. 2806 and 2807, as reprinting the common species. 
time before the middle of the preceding c 

(PfiBi commiuiii). IXM 

ir Chini 

a bunch n 

ir trailing nuts. The bunch 

appears, erroneously, identifie 
fliHcnstx), Fig. 2808, was introduced into the euaivra 
states, although it attracted little attention. It soon 
hybridized with the common pear, and a race of mon- 
grel varieties was the result. Of these hybrids, only 
two have gained groat commercial prominence. These 
are LeConte and Kiefter {Figs. 2809, 2810, 2811). 
The LeConte, which appearea about the middle of 
last century and which is the first of the American 
hybrids, so far as we know, was found to be well 
adapted to the southern stat^ and its general intro- 
duction there after the close of the Civil War was the 
beginning of commercial pear-eulture in the South. 
It was first supposed ta be blight-proof, but. in later 
years, orchards have been nearly decimatea by the 

2506 FEAR 

blight, with the result that the LcConte ia gradually 
lesseninn in importaaee ard its place ia being taken by 
the Kieffer although the latter is by no means blight- 
free. The Kieffer pear originated with Peter KieSer, of 
Roxbcrough, Philadelphia, an Alsatian gardener, who 
died in 1890. He grew the Chinese sand pear or Sha 

Z800. Butlatt pBU. TIw fiTtifann oc "peu-fbaptd" form at fmlt. (X>fl 

Lea and sold the seedlings aa ornamental trees, far this 
species ia of very distinct and handsome growth and the 
fruit is ornamental and fraj^rant. Alongside the sand 
pears were Bartletts. Amongst one of the batdies of 

to be superior to the sand pear, and it was introduced 
as the Kieffer. It fruited in 1873. The Kieffer pear is 
now very popular in many parts of the country because 
of its great vigor, healthiness, productiveness, and the 
keeping qualities of the fruit. In point of quaJity, the 
fruit is distinctly inferior, but it meets the aemanos of 
the market and is an excellent fruit for canning. 

Pynta serotina itself bears a very hard pear which is 
inedible in the raw Htate, but it is excellent when used 
as quinces are. It is fragrant and ornamental. The 
tree ia a most vigorous and clean grower. The plant is 
well worth growing a.'i an ornamental. It is uied for 
stock for ordinary pilars, particularly in the southern 
states. For an historical and horticultural account of 
the oriental pears and their hybrids, see Bulletin No 
332, Cornell Experiment Stjition, by Cox (under direc- 
tion of the late John Craig). 

In the cold prairie countries and other parts of the 
eold north, Russian pears have giuiied some headway 
in recent years. The«e are hardy types of Pynis com- 
munia. The fruit is usually of low quality, but the 
trees are considerably hardier than the ordinary pear 

Pear-eulture is the one American fruit industry which 
seems to show little expansion. Pears are not a popu- 
lar dessert fruit in this country, and the product is 
largely used in cannina:. This is a great pity, and a loss 
to the people. The cultivation of the Kieffer on a large 
scale has probably bred a generation of people who are 
little aware that uie pear is a fruit that may be good to 
eat out of hand; and the commercial and cultural 
difficulties are (greater than with other fruits. 

The pear thrives on a variety of soils, but it succeeda 
best on those that are rather hard clay. On sandy and 
loamy lands it Wnda to be short-lived. This is perhaps 
due, in part, to the fact that trees grow rapidly on such 
lands, and are, thervfore, more liable to the attacks of 
blight. It is now generally accciited that trees which are 
making a strong anil soft growth ore more susceptible to 
bl^t than those which grow rather alow and firm, 


although all trees are liable to attack. Some varieties 
are more nearly immune than otheta. Caution must be 
exercised, therefore, in the tilling of the pear orchard. 
Whilst pears profit by the best tilla^, a& apples and 
potatoes do, it is easy to carry the tilling and fertilizing 
so far as to produce too v^rous growth and thereby 
invite the blight, and this disease is the one great menace 
to ] war-culture. Therefore the most careful pear- 
grmvera use sparingly of stable manure and of nitrog- 
enous cover-crops. They prefer to supply fertility by 
iii'.'iins of concentrated tertiliiers whicli are not ve(y 
riili in nitrogen. If, however, the trees are not making 
a »' rong ^uT steady growth, it is as necessary to apply 
nilf'.igenous fertilizers to the pear tree as to any other. 
Ill the interior country, peaiB ore likely to suffer from 
aiin-jcald, and therefore the tops are started verj' low, 
usu^illy not more than 2 or 3 feet from the ground. 
Stiindard pears (those not grown as dwarfs) are pruned 
miirh as are apple trees, except not so se\-erely. Heavy 
jiruning may open the top and invite sun-srald, and it 
alijo tends to make too strong and sappy gronih. After 
tlic top of the pear tree is well formed and established, 
it \& customary to do little pruning, only keeping the 
top fairly free and open. 

The pear bears mostly on spurs which con- 
tinue to branch and to bear for a number of 
years, and in pruning it is important that these 

Surs be not removM unless it is desired to thin 
e fruit. The flowers are borne in umbel-like 
cymes (Fi^. 2805), but in most k-nds only one 
fruit sets m a cluster. Pear trees are usually 
planted much closer than apple trees. The customary 
distance ia 18 to 20 feet. Fig. 2812 shows an average 
east^American pear orchard. Fig. 2813 is a picking 

Many of the varieties of pears are infertile with them- 
selves: they need the pollen of other varieties to cause 
them to set fruit freely. Probably any variety will 
fertilize any other variety in case the two bloom simul- 
taneously. Such varieties oa Kieffer and Bartlett ore 
usually classed as self-eterife kinds, but the dep«e of 
sterility varies in different places and with different 
conditions. The safest plan in the setting of a pear 
orchard is to plant not more than two rows of one 
variety together, and to alternate with one or two rows 
of another variety. 

Good varieties of pears are numerous. The one most 
important variety is the Bartlett (Fig. 2806), which woa 
early introducetf into the United States from Europe, 

Z8D7. The flobulu or apfle-ihsped tonn of rniil.— Idaho pur. 

where it is known as the Bonchrt'iien, At present, the 
Kieffer probably holds second place. In the eastern 
states, the Seckel (Fig. 2S14) is a prominent variety, 
and is the standard of quality. Other prominent varie- 
ties are Anjou (Fig. 2815), Claireeau, Hardy, Howell, 
Sheldon, and Diel. The list might be almost indefinitely 
extended. In the Gulf region, the oriental hybrids 



, eighteenth 

_ sntury. Aa late as 1880, the tree presented the appear- 
ance Hhown in Fig. 2816, which appeared (in larger fdte) 
in the Gardener's Monthly. In 1908, all that remained 
was a dead and decayed etump (Fig. 2817). 

The season of the maturity of pears nma from mid- 
Biunmcr, when it ia introduced by Summer Doyenne 
and (Manning) Elizabeth, to late winter, when it is 
closed with such late winter varieties aa Nehs (Winter 
Nelis), Malines, and others. The winter pears are rela- 
tively little known in the eastern Btates. Ah a rule, 
they come into bearing late or are not very prolific; but 
thwe is no reason why they should not be better 
known. Winter pears are kept as are winter apples, 
althoi^ somewhat greater care is necessary. Thenr 
should be stored in a uniformly cool temperature. If 
allowed to hang too long on the tree, they become 
over-ripe, and then if p&ced in an ordinarily warm 
cellar, they do not keep more than one or two months. 

Unlike most other fruits, all pears arc greatly 
improved in quality if they are ripened indoors. Th^ 
should be picked as soon as they have reached their 
full sise and have begun to color, but before they have 
become soft, and be placed in a dry and rather cool 
room. If the wind is allowed to blow over them, they 
are likely to shrivel. If kept too warm, they ripen too 

auickly and soon rot. The beat quality is secured when 
ley are picked about two weeks in advance of their 
normal ripening. 

Fears are marketed much as are apples, although the 
barrel is little used for the dessert varieties. For eicport 
as well as for a good home trade, the following sentences 
by Georee T. Powell are useful: "The fruit should be 
gatherea when it has reached its most perfect develop- 
ment, but not allowed to come to its full maturity or 
approximate ripenine. This is the right cond tion of 
fruit when it is to be shipped without refngerat on 
With refri^ration, a little fuller maturity maj be 
allowed. Each specimen should be wrapped m paper. 
A layer of excelsior should be placed on the bottom of 
the box, which is marked to be opened; over this place 
a sheet of paper. Pack the pears in single layers, 
covering each with paper and excelsior until the box is 
filled, nailing cover securely under considerable pres- 
sure. Boxes should hold thirty-six large pears, and 
sixty of medium size, |Fig, 2818.| This is a refinement 

Dwarf pears. 

When worked on the nuincc root, the pear is easily 
grown OS a dwarf. The Iree stocks— those grown nor- 
mally' on pear roots — are known in this country as 
standards. The dwarf pear comes into bearing earlier. 
and, since the trees are small, the fruit can be thinned 
and the trees sprayed, and the fruit therefore should be 
of the highest quality. Dwarf pear trees require more 
cate than the ordinary standards, however, and they 
should not be planted unless the cultivator understancu 
this fact and is willing to give the attention that they 
need. Although the trees are by nature dwarf, since 
they are worked on a Bmallcr-growing species, they 
nevertheless tend to become half standard if left to 
themselves. Therefore they must be very severely 
beaded-in every year. A dwarf pear tree should never 
reach a greater height than 12 feet. To keep it down to 
this stature, from one-half to two-thirds of the aimual 
growth ia removed late each winter. The trees are 
often planted as close together as 10 feet each way, but 
this is too close. With the ordinary broad-top pruning, 
which nearly all American growerB give, 1 rod apart 
each way is not too great. A good dwarf pear tree is 
one in which the union with the quince stock is very 

close to the ground. When the tree is planted, this 
union should De 4 to 6 inches below the surface after 
tjie ground has settled. This deep planting prevents 
the breaking of the union and places the quince beyond 
the reach of borers. If planted deeper than this, the 
pear cion may throw out roots of its own; in fact, it 
sometimes does this if planted only 6 inches deep. This 
rooting of the stock is no particular disadvantage, 
although the tree thereafter tends to grow Stronger and 
greater pruning is necessary. An expert grower can 
pick out the trees which are rooted From the pear stock 
by their more vigorous growth: if he deairea to check 
this redundant growth he may cut off the pear roots. 
It is the common opinion that dwarf pear trees are 

unfilled areas, but a dwarf pear orchard on ^ood 

well-drained ground, which is well-tilled and given 
regular pruning, will last a lifetime. Many varieties of 
pears do well when grafted on the quince root, but the 
one that is oftenest grown aa a dwarf Is the Angouleme 
(Duchesae d'AngouIeme). (Fig. 2320.) This ia a large 
pear of irregular shape which sells well because of its 
sice, but it is of indifferent quality and may not be good 
enough for a special or personal market. Other varie- 
ties popular for dwarfs are Louise Bonne, Anjou, Clair- 
geau, Eliiabethj and, to a leas extent, Bartlett and 
Seckel. Even KiefFer is sometimes dwarfed with satis- 
factory results. The growing of dwarf pears is a special 
practice; in general it is not commercially profitable. 

Writing on dwarf peais from a long experience in 
New York, L. T. Yeomans says: "The soil best adapted 
to dwarf pears ia a rich loam, with a subsoil that 
requires thorough underdraining — a tile drain within 
£ feet of every tree in the orchard would be thorough 
draining. The soil should be good strong com or potato 
ground, and kept in such condition of fertility from year 
to year, for which purpose good well-composted bam- 
vard manure has no equal, but may be supplemented 
by other fertilizers — as ground bone and potash. Small 
crops, as beans and potatoes, may be grown between 
the trees the first few vcars after planting, but never 
should they be aliowea in the least to interfere with 
thorough tulage, or to rob the trees of proper and desir*- 

2S08 PEAR 

ble DouriBluneiit. Thegrowtbof the tree ie of far greater 
value than any form crope which can be grown between 
the trees. The soil should be thoroughly cultivated at 
least every ten to fifteen days during the growing season 
till about August IS to September 1. It Bhould cease 
in time that the wood may fully ripen. Suitable culti- 
vation can hardly be given with any crop on the ground, 
except, possibly, when sufficient space is left without a 
crop next to the trees. 

"The trees should be planted in rows 15 feet each w^, 
or in rows 20 feet apart each way, with one tree in the 
center of each square. As the trees become older, the 
entire ground anould be oven up to frequent culti- 
vation; and under no conditions should a dwatf pear 
orchard be seeded to graas, unless to clover for the 
purpose of plowing it under for fertilization. 

"Dwarf pears require thorough annual pruning, which 
may be done at any convenient time after the falling of 
the foliage and before the buds become in the least 
swollen in the spring; but, where the cold is severe, it is 
better not to prune till about the first to middle of 
March. This pruning should begin with the first year, 
and be continued annually during the life of the tree, 
cutting back all of the growth to within four to ei^t 
buds, and thinning out all surplus branches which will 
not be wanted for Umbs to the tree, so that at maturity 
the tree shall be open-headed, with opportunity for 
plenty of air and sunshine all through the tree, without 
which superior quality of fruit cannot be grown. The 
lower limbs should be within 20 to 24 inches of the 
ground. Trees when tweni.y to fifty years old should 
not be more than 12 to 14 feet hi^, and the diameter of 
the branches about 12 to 16 feet. [See Fig. 2821.1 It 
is a very erroneous impression that a dwarf pear orchard 
under proper conditions is short-lived. There ore in the 
United Stat«s orchards in vigorous condition, and now 
producing annual crops, that are from thirty to fifty 
yean oldT 

"Some ef the advantages of dwarf over standard peara 
are: more trees can be planted to the acre, they com- 
mence bearing much jMunger, the fruit is not so liable 
to be blown off by early winds before maturity, it is 
much more quickly and easi^ gathered than from high 

Z809. L«C<iDla pBU. (XH) 

trees, the fruit is larger and of better quality than that 
on standards. All varieties do not succeed equally well 
as dwarfs, because they do not all form an equally per- 
fect imion with the quince. Angoulemeis the leading and 
most profitable vancty now grown aa dwarf, although 
many others succeed well." 

Pears in the prairie region. ' 

On the northern plains, the culture of pears follows 
the general lines of pear-growing in the Atlantic states, 
but there are some radical points of difference. Accord- 
ing to C. L. Watrous, "The difficulties of pear-growing in 
the upper Mississippi Valley are many and grievous. 
Above the 40th parallel and west of the Great Lakes, 
nearly all efforts have been failures. The best suo 

near watercourses, with light-colored cTay soils and 
northerly exposures. Pear trees are not planted to the 
bottom or to the lop, but in belts midway around the 
slopes. Plums may be used lower down and cherries 
above. The ground should be already set in clover or 
blue-grass. Small circles are spaded out for the trees. 
These are cultivated with the hoe and widened with 
the growth of the tree. Small trees branched very low 
are best. The trees may be cut back the second year 
to within a few inches of the ground. Only a very 
moderate annual growth is desirable. Use no manure 
until the tree has borne several crops of fruit, and then 
only with extreme care. Rich black soils, plenty of 
manure, and clean culture are deadly to pear trees in 
this reoon. The critical period is that of the first fruit 
crop. The deadly enemy is blight, which is sure to 
appear then. The successful pear-grower must not 
neglect his orchard a single day during the season of 
blight, but watch for the enemy and cut out and bum 
every bUghted twig as soon as seen. Sultry damp 
weather m June is most critical. Such vaneties as 
Warner, Longworth, Vermont (Beauty), Koonce, and 
Kieffer are said to succeed farther north and resist 
blight better than a^ others. Under slightly mure 
favorable conditions, Claiiveau, Howell, Seckel, Tyson, 
Washington, and Flemish (Beautj') may be used. The 
hardiest and blight-iesistant vaneties may be grown, 
and when in bearing a branch or two grafted with a 
more delicate sort with success." 

InaeeU and diseates. 

The insect enemies of the pear are numerous, but, 
with two or three exceptions, are not very serious. The 
tree is attacked by borers, although to a leas extent than 
peaches and apples. These ore kept in check by digging 
them out once or twice a year as on other frmt stocks. 
The fruit is attacked to some extent by the codlin- 
moth, but the arsenical sprays keep this insect in check. 
Of late years the psytla, attacking the growinK parts, 
has been very damaging in parts of the East, although 
it is irr^iular in its outbreaks. It can be controlled by 
thorough work with a spray in winter and also when the 
bloBsom-buds are expanding, at the former time by the 
use of "Black Leaf 40" tobacco preparation or kerosene 
emulsion and similar compounds, and at the latter 
period by lime-sulfur. If the rough bark is removed in 
winter and burned, very many of the pests will be 
destroyed. In some parts of the East the fruit is 
attacked by the pear midge, a minute fiy whose mag- 
gots work m the very young fruit. Thorough cultiva- 
tion will check this serious pest, but its complete con- 
trol often involves the destruction of all the young fruit 
on the infested trees; the appUcation of kainit to the 
Boil in the second half of June (1,000 to 2,000 pounds 
to the acre on sandy soils in New Jersey) is said to kill 
the insect after it leaves the fruit to undergo its trans- 
formations. Repeated shallow tillage in early summer 
is a good protection. 

The foliage and fruit of the pear are attacked by para- 
sitic fungi, which cause the leaves to drop and the fruit 
to become scabby. These diseases are readily held in 
check by spraying with bordeaux mixture or lime-sul- 
fur. More than flfty years ago the White Doyenne pear 
was the most popular variety for growing on the quince 
root, but because of the peur scab it passed away. It 
was supposed that the disease was due to uncongenial 
climate. Since the advent of the sprays, however, it has 
been found that the White Doyenne can be grown as 
well as ever. Flemish (Flemish Beauty) is also an 
example in point. Years ago it was one of the most 

Eopufar standard varieties, but of late years it has been 
ttlc grown because of the cracking of the fruit. 
Pear-blight or fire-blight is the most serious dLseaae 
of pear trees. It is an American disease. It is caused 
by a microbe which enters through the growing points 


(flowere and tipe of shoots) and thrives in soft or "auo- 
culeat" parts. Gradually the micnxirKMuam works 
down the stems, killina the tissues and causing the 
leaves to die. In the leaf-blight, which is a distinct 
disease, the leaves are more or less spotted and they 
fall; in the pear-blight, the leaves turn black and hang 
on the tree. The &re-blight also attacks ^ple trees, 

2810. Tlia Kisffi 

particularly in the Plains region. It is probably aborigi- 
nal on hawthorns and related plants. Tiiere is no 
perfect preventive of the disease. Some varieties seem 
to be relatively immune, as, for example, the Angouleme. 
It is now generally believed that trees are more sub- 
ject to the disease when they are making excessive 
growth; therefore it is advised that tillage and the 
application of stimulating manures be moderate. As 
80on as the disease appears, cut out the affected parts, 
severing them some mches below the lowest pomt of 
visible attack. Do not allow blight«d branches to 
remain on the tree over winter. Disinfect the wounds or 
stubs and the implements with bichloride of mercury or 
other antiseptic. Destroy hedgerows and thickets in 
which are otlier trees on which the blight is carried, as 
hawthorns, quinces, and diseased apple and pear trees. 
It is probable that there is a connection with insects in 
the spread of pear-bhghL 

There are no recent American books on the pear. 
Two books have been written on this fruit: Thos. 
W. Fields' "Pear Culture," New York, 1858; P. T. 
Qumn'a "Pear Culture for Profit," New York, I86S, 
new edition, 1883. There are bulletins from the United 
StaUs Department of Agriculture and some of the state 
experiment stations. Many yeajs ago the writer secured 
from the venerable T. T. Lyon (Vol. Ill, page 1586), an 
article, for publication, on the pear. This was pub- 
lished in the "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture." 
The Editor is glad again to place this article alongside 
the others in order to contrast the viewpoints oltwo 
generations. Mr. Lyon's article, which is excellent and 
cautious and characterized by beauty of style, is of the 
type that we no longer see. The person who is familiar 
with present-day points of view will discover that it 
lays the emphasis on formal presentation, propagation, 
pruning, varieties, whereas little or no attention is 
given to systems of tillage, pollination, spraying, and 
commercjjj methods. The methods in pear-culture, 
and the varieties, have probably changed less in the 
last fifteen to twenty-five years than those of any other 
standard fruit; ua a whole, pear-culture is not extending 
to an^ marked degree; and the article that follows is 
atill timely. L, H B 

Tho pear and Us cultivation. 

So far as cultivators generally are concerned, this 
fruit b leas important thim its near relative, the apple, 
for the reason that, while the two b^in to ripen at 
nearlj^ the same season, there are few, if any, desirable 
varieties of pears in season later than December (if we 
except a few austere ones, suitable only for culinaiy 
J -ee), while apples are abundant for four or five 

3 longer. Moreover, during its entire season, tbs 
pear h supplemented by the mass of luscious, though 
pcnshjble, summer and autumn fruits. The liability of 
\ery many usually excellent varieties to be rendered 
in 1 ff rent in quaUty by unfavorable seasons, neglect or 
unsmtable soil, is also a serious detriment to the general 
pnpul irity of this fruit. The liability to the loss of the 
trees bv blight, bwond question detracts greatly 
from tne value of the pear, especially for com- 
mercial purposes; while it also exerts a dis- 
couraging inBuence upon amateur planting. To 
the careful and discriminating amateur, as well 
as to the man of wealth, with a fondness fcr 
fniitKiulture whether in person or by proxy, 
^^ this fruit of l«n assumes a prominence over any, 
^~ if not all, others. 

Extent of euUieaHon. 

Doubtless, for reasons heretofore stated, pear 
trees are but spanngly planted by most per- 
sons. The fruit sent to Eoarket oomes laigelv 
from the plantations of specialists who, witn 
soils adapted to the purpose and the necessary knowl- 
edge of varieties, have undertaken the business as a 
commercial enterprise. In the climates of the seaboanl, 
and, to & considerable extent, in the region of tha 
Great Lakes, the pear is exceptionally successful; while 
away from the influence of large bodies of water, and 
especially in the prairie regions of the Mississippi 
Valley, iKiti unsuitableness of climate or soil, or both 
combined, the trees are liable to be either killed or 
seriously injured in winter, and hence are short-Uved 
and unprafitable. 

Perhaps in no other important particular does the 
climate of eastern and central North America differ 
more widely from that of the pear^owing regions of 
Europe than in its liability to sudden and extreme 
variations of temperature. Owing to this climatic 
pecularitv, aspect becomes an important consideration 
m the selection of a location for a plantation of pear 
trees. As a means of avoiding the full influence of 
exposure to the rays of the sun, during the severer 
pajonrsma of summer heat, while the trees are in 
actual growth, and also to 
mitigate the liabihty to alter- 
nate freezing and tiiawing in 
winter, a northerly or north- 
easterly slope is to be pre- 
ferred ; which, however, should 
be so gradual as not seriously 
to interfere with the convem- 
ence of cultivation. As we 
approach the northern limit 
w practicable pear-culture, 
however, a modification of 
t^ rule of selection may be 
found desirable, aince, with 
the shorter growing season, a 
warmer exposure may prove 
necessary as a means of 
hastening maturity. 

^°^- 2811. SwSloB ol the KieB»r 

While the pear tree will pa", to «how iti ortio»rj 
yield more or less satisfao- tono in tiu Horih. 

tory results in a variety of soils, it is found to succeed 
most perfectly in a strong loam, of moderate depth, 
overtyme a porous subsoil. Soils which are liable to be 
wet during any considerable portion of the growins 
season are unfit for this purpose, unlees deeply and 
thoroushly underdrained; while even then tliey are 
quite Hable not to prove fully satisfactory. A few 

be avoided. 

The liability of the pear tree, in this climate, lo the 
attacks of bli^t is thought to be increased by excessive 
growth. It la, therefore, desirable that the annual 
growth be completed, and ripened at as early a date 
as practicable; and the more so since the liability to 
blight apparently exists only while growth is in actual 
progress. Stable and other nitrogenous manures 
should, for this reason, be applied in moderate quan- 
tities, m autunm, after the habihty to excite renewed 
growth shall be past. Potash, lime, and phosphorus, 
which enter more or less largely into the composition 
of both tree and fruit, and whi(m rarely exist in excess 
in the soil, may be profitably appUed in either autumn 
or spring. Salt may also be profitably applied to the 
comparatively dry soils recommended for the pear, but 
with care not to apply in excess. One or even two 
quarts may be safely applied to each tree, before the 
commencement of growth in the spring, if well dis- 
tributed upon the surface over a space of at least 6 
or S feet in diameter, and left to be carried gradually 
into the soil by dew and rain. It is believed to possess 
little, if any, manurial value; but to act rather as a 
conservator of moisture, and probably also as a repel- 
lent of insects. Coarse mulch may be placed about the 
trees, covering the soil as far out as tnc roots extend, 
for the purpose of keeping the earth cool, and also to 
check evaporation from the soil;but this should not be 
done as a substitute for cultivation; and the soil 
beneath the mulch should be kept well pulverized. 

(a) By seedlings: Seeds, when to be planted tor 
the origination of new varieties, should be selected from 
well-grown and fully matured fruits, of such varietiea 
as possess in a high degree the qualities sought to be 
reproduced or improved, since a variety in which a 
characteristic is strongly developed and persistently 
manifested is the more likely to transmit such peculi- 
arity to its offspring. Seeds resulting from known or 
artificial cross-fertilization, and therefore of known 
and selected parentage on both sides, ofTer increased 
probabiLty of valuable reiflilts. Seeds intended for the 
origination of new varieties should be planted very 
thinly in strong, rich, deeply prepared soil, in a single 
row, and covered with not more than an inch of earth, 
so that the young plants shall have ample space for 


purposes should be collected from varietiea in which 
the seeds are plump and well developed, as well as 
from healthy, vigorous trees. American nurserymen 
obtain pear seeds mostly from Europe. Seeds intended 
for nursery slocks are usually planted in broad, shallow 
drills. In our American climate the foUage and unri- 
pened wood of seedling pears is very liable to be attacked 
during midsummer by leaf-blight or 
mildew, which prematurely arrests 
their growth. For this reason Euro- 

Eean stocks are generally preferred 
y nurserymen. This attaclt of mildew 
may often be partially or wholly 
avoided by planting in virgin sod 
remote from other cultivated grounds. 
Pear seedlings form a very long tap- 
root during uieir first year, with few, 
■i, if any, side-roots. For this reason they 
are taken up preferably in autumn, 
and the tap-roots shortened to 6 or 8 
.>, ... ^^ -■ inches, when they may be replanted 
in nursery rows, and earthed up, or 
otherwise protected from heaving, or 
other injury during winter; or, preferably, they may 
be heeled-in, in a frost>-proof cellar, and planted in 
spring, to be budded during the ensuing summer or 
left to become more fully established for budding a 
year later. 

Seedlings intended for fruiting are usually trans- 
planted in rows, about S feet apart each way, with the 
expectation that many will be found worthless, and 
either removed or destroyed. Seedling pears usually 
require to be fruited several years before their charac- 
teristics become fully developed. This generally recog- 
nized fact may be taken as a warning that the occa- 
sional effort to hasten the puberty of a seedling by 
fruiting a cion from it upon a bearing tree of different 
variety cannot be tniatea to indicate the ultimate char- 
acter of the fruit of the yet incipient variety, since it 
is impossible to foresee to what extent such transfer 
may interfere with the occult formative processes 
through which its ultimate quahties would have been 

(&) By budding: Seedlings of one or two years' 
growth, mtended for stondafd trees, are usually planted 
from 6 to 10 inches apart in the nuiBery row; tor the 
reason that space, as well as cultivation, must be econo- 
mized to correspond with prices, although it is impos- 
sible to grow trees of good form and properly branched 
of the size and age demanded by most planters when 
thus closely planted. Trees thus closely planted should 



be removed, or at least thinned, after having made one 
year's growth from the bud; while trees intended to bo 
grown two or more years in the nursery row, and proj^ 
erly branched, should be given twice or even three times 
the space mentioned. 

intended for the growing of stocks for nureery and August if they continue in a growing c 

aw, HIT wuLcu fvaeuji _. . 

and should the malady prove troublesome the budding 
muflt be done as soon aa properly matured buda can be 
obtained. Such stocks as, for any cause, were left 
unbudded at budding time, together with any in which 
buda ahall have failed, may be grafted the foUowiog 
spring; but this, as well as any and all grafting of the 
pear, must be done very early, before the earliest move- 
ment of the sap in spring. In the spring, as soon as the 
■welling of the buds indicates that the germs are ahve, 
the Btocks are cut back to force them into growth. 
Often to inaute the formation of straight, upright, sym- 
metrical trees, careful nurserjTnen leave 3 or 4 inchre of 
the stock above the insertion of the bud, to which the 
young shoots may be tied, if it shall fail otherwise to 
tftke an upright direction. Shoots may also be thus tied 
to prevent their being blown out, or otherwise injured 
by the wind. These stubs should be cut back to the 
bud when no longer needed for the nurposes indicated. 
Such sprouts as spring from the stock in consequence of 
the cutting back must be removed from time to time to 
encourage the growth of the bud. This should be dona 
while they are yet tender and succulent and can. there- 
fore, be taken off without the use of a knife. This pro- 
ceas must be repeated as they reappear, unless it is 
rendered unnecessary by the failure or loss of the bud. 

Beyond that described under the head of budding, 
little pruning is required during the first season, except 
to pinch in such side shoots as threaten to rob the one 
intended to become the trunk of the future tree. Early 
in the spring of the second year, all lateral shoots must 
be wholly cut away, and since the pear lends atron^y 
to renew its growth from the terminal buds of the 
previous year, the shoot intended to become the trunk 
of the future tree must be cut down to the point at 
which the top is to commence, when the branches to 
form the head will start from the buds nearest the top. 
The uppermost shoot must, if needful, be confined m 
an upri^t position to constitute the continuation of 
the trunk. 

The habits of growth of varieties differ so widely 
that no inflexible rule can be laid down to determine 
the height at which the top of a pear tree should be 
commenced, unless it be that the heads of the more 
spreading varieties should be started higher than those 
of a more upright habit. The preferences of the 
larger number of [lurcho-scrs have begotten smong nur- 
Ber^inen the practice of forming the heads of all varie- 
ties at a height of 3 or 4 feet. This height is open to the 
objection that, while not seriously faulty in the case of 
such spreading varieties aa Onondaga, Osband (Sum- 
mer), or FlemLsh (Beauty), it is es-wntially unsuited to 

the preferences of the average of their customer, fa 
to adapt itself to the needs of the more intelligent and 
considerate orchardist, and to those of even smaller 
planters, who regard the health and productiveness of 
their trees as of higher importance than the possibly 
increased convenience of cultivation. 

A proper system of primary branches, upon which to 
grow a i)ermanent head, should be provided from the 
growth of the second season. Probably the most satis- 
factory provision for this purpose consists of a central 
shoot, with from three to five laterals diverging from 
the trunk at its base. A head should, in no coae, be 

rwn upon two shoots, forming a crotch, since this will 
very Uable to split and thus ruin the tree. A few 
varieties, of which Rostiezer is a notable example, have 
the habit of producing but few branchy and aiso of 
making successive annual growths, mainly from the 
terminal buds of the previous year, thus forming a too 

open or straggling head. Such tendency is best over- 
come by cutting back the branches in spring, the effect 
being to increase their number, though at the expense 
of vigor. 

After the primary branches have been developed, and 
the growth of the third j-ear is in progress, compara- 
tively little pruning will be found necessary beyond the 
occasional cutting away of a straggling or crossing 
branch, although there is a class of varieties, of whicE 
Summer Doyenne and Winter N'elis are types, whid^ 
especially when growing vigorously, incline to twiat ana 

straggle so awkwardly that the branches must fre- 
quently be tied in position to insure the formation of a 

satisfactory head. 

Prior to the third or fourth year, all pruning must 
necessarily have for its object the direction and encour- 
agement of wood-growth, for which purpose it is moat 
effective when performed in late winter or early spring, 
while the trees are yet dormant. 

The fact should not be forgotten that pruning, in pro- 
portion to its extent or severity, may be a tax upon the 
vigor and health of the tree, and, therefore, to be prac- 
tised as sparingly as possible. Such necessity may be 
to a, oonsitlerable extent avoided if the orchardist, with 
a well-defined ideal in mind of a tree such as he desires . 
to produce, will, during the growini season, pass fre- 
quently through his plantation and pinch out, while 
yet small and succulent, all growths not needed for his 
purpose, at the same time "slopping" such of the 
reserved ones as may be too far outgrowing their 
fellows. With the efficient performance of this proccM 
while the framework of the top is being developed, very 
httlc pruning will remain to be done on the arrival of 
spring, while nearly the entire growth, which would 
otherwise have been pruned away in spring, vi]\ have 
been employed in developing the reserved branches. 

While the cutting away of an occasional small branch 
may be done at almost any time, large branches should 
be removed only in case of actual necessity, and at a 

Criod early enough to permit the thorough drying and 
rdening of the cut surface prior to the movement of 
the sap in sprine, as a means of preventing bleeding 
and consequent decay. 

Summer pruning tends to check rather than encour- 
age wood-growth, and since it acts to a greater or less 
extent OS an obstruction to the circulation, it also tends, 



as does the permanent bending of the brancbea and the 
hardening of the tissues, to nasten the fonnation of 
fruit-buds and the production of fruit. 

The pear may be successfully grafted upon the white 
thorn, the mountain-aab, and the apple, and such grafte 
have occasionally proved more or lesa productive for a 
time, but in such cases the union between atock and 
don is generally, if not always, imperfect; and such 
uncongenial combinations are therefore usually shorb- 
lived. The quince is the only disimilar stock upon 
which the pear is extensively grown. Quince stocks for 
this purpose are largely imported from France. The 
Angers quince is generally preferred for this purpose. 
Thtae stocks ai« usually pl^t«d in nursery rows at the 
age of two years, to be budded during the following 
summer, in the same manner as pear stocks. When 
intended for dwarf trees, nurserymen usually cut them 
back after one year's growth from the bud to the near^ 
onifann hei^t of 18 inches, althot^ with the more 


wuiutpenn. (XM) 

Uprightrgrowing varieties it is by many deemed prefer- 
able to branch them even 6 or 8 inches lower. Aside 
from the height at which they should be branched, the 
pnmii^ and management should be identical with that 
prescribed for standards, with the important exception 
that when planted out for fruiting the junction between 
the quince and the pear should be 3 or 4 inches below the 
surface to encourage the fonnation of roots from the 
pear. Trees thus planted will l«gin to bear while yet 
growing solely from the quince stock, and will continue 
to produce fruit after rooting from the pear, thus 
affording the early fruiting of the dwarf, as well as the 
permanency of the standard. 

Not more than a specimen or two should be permitted 
to grow upon a dwarf the first and second years after 
plantji^. Such trees, if left to fruit freely, will almost 
certainly be ruined from overbearing before they are 
fully established. Many varieties nhen grown as dwarfs 
can never be safely allowed to mature more than a small 
portion of the frmt which they will naturally set. 

While several varieties arc found to be especially suo- 
ceasful when grown upon the quince, most othera prove 
only moderately so, requiring careful and expert man- 
agement to insure satisfactory results. A few others, 

of which Bosc may be named as a prominent case, are 
obstinately unsuccessful upon the quince, and even 
when double-worked upon a dwarf of a congenial 
variet;^ their success appears to be by no means 

Dwarf trees trained as hereinbefore specified are 
commonly known as half-standards. Oth^ and more 
elaborate forms are known as pyramids, cordons. 
and the like, descriptions of which are not deemea 

Choice of frees. 

Aside from the selection of the location for an orchard, 
the first important particular is the selection of the 
trees, leaviqi the choice of varieties for subsequent con- 
mderation. Trees of one year's growth from the bud are 
to be preferred for the followmg reasons; (1) Fewer 
roots need be injured or lost in the process at lifting 
and roplantiug, for which reason the tree may be 
expected the more promptly to recover from the shock 
of removal. (2) The single season's growth may be cut 
back and the topcommenced to suit the preferences of 
the planter. (3) The top will present little or no obstacle 
lo the force of the wind until the roots shall have gained 
Buch hold upon the soil that there will remain httic 
liability to displacement from this cause. (4) The risk 
of failure {rom removal is greatly diminished, while the 
more prompt recovery ana increased rale of growth of 
the trees in the more open orchard rows may be expected 
to compensate fully for one or two years more of 
growth in crowded nureery rows, (5) Something will 
also be saved in the cost of the trees and in the expense 
of transportation, as well as in the labor of planting. 

If older or high-branched trees are not objected to, it 
will usualW be found that they are but imperfectly 
branched from having been grown in crowded rows. 

Preparation of the soil. 

When the late John A. Warder was asked how large 
the holes should be dug for plantii^ orchard trees, 
be replied, "Of the full size of theorehard;" and it may 
alao be remarked that when the ground for an orchard 
has been well tilled and fertilized to a depth at least 
equal to that at which trees are to be planted, there is 
no longer occasion for holes larger than shall be necessary 
to receive the roots in their proper position. If the auli- 
Boil be not freely pervious to wal«r, the ground must be 
deeply and thoroughly underdraincd, and in no case 
should the hole in which a tree is to be planted be sunk 
into a subsoil so impervious as to retain water beneath 
or about its roots. If such retentive subsoil occurs too 
near the surface and is not considered suitable to be 
mixed with the surface soil, it should be thoroughly dis- 
integrated to the requisite depth by means of a subsoil 
plow or other equivalent device. In all nearly level 
retentive soils, it will be found advantageous to "back- 
furrow" a land along the line of each row in the direc- 
tion of the surface drainage, so that when the trees 
have been planted the drainage will be away from 

LayiTig out, stakiiig, aiid ■pUtnling. 

The most economical mode of Ia3ring out and plant- 
ing an orchard, so far as space is concerned, is doubtlcHS 
that commonly, but erroneously, designated as quin- 
cunx, and more correctly as hexagonal; but whether 
planted thus, or in rectangles, the work may be most 
rapidly and accurately done by planting a stoke where 
each tree is to stand, and using what is knonn as a 
planting-board, consisting of a strip of board 6 or 7 feet 
long, with a hole for a slake near each end, and a notch 
or slot intermediate and in line between them to receive 
the stake, and to support the tree while the earth is 
being carefully filled m, under, among, and above its 

"The following are good general rules to be observed 

1 the diggLog, handling, preparing, and planting of 

1. In Higging trees, aim to f 
main fibroua roots as possible. 

2. Expose the roots as little as posaible to the drying 
influence of sim and wind. 

3. Prepare the roots for planting by cutting away 
the bruised and broken portions. 

4. If the roots have been essentially 8hort«ned in 
lifling, cut away the superfluous branches and also cut 
back such as ore to remain till a proper balance of root 
and top is secured. 

6. In heavy retentive soil, plant the tree very little 
if any deeper than it stood in the nursery, and, in addi- 
tion, raise a slight mound about the trunk to avoid the 
occurrence of standing water at that point. 

6. In strong but dry soil, a tree may be planted an 
inch or two deeper than it stood in the nursery. 

7. In light sand, with dry subsoil, a tree aliould be 
planted 3 or even 4 inches deeper than it stood in the 

8. Dig the hole in which a tree is to be planted 
deep enough to receive 2 or 3 inches of fine soil, before 
putting the tree in place, making it large enou^ to 
allow the roots to be spread out in their natural position. 

9. See that good, friable suriace soil is well filled in 
beneath, among, and over the roots. 

10. Should the soil be dry, with no immediate pros- 
pect of rain, it will be well, after nearly fillii^ the hole 
with earth, to apply a pail of water, and, after it shall 
have settled aw^, to fill up the hole with earth and 
tramp it down nrmly. Stcddng will rarely be found 
necessary, except, possibly, in the case of troea old 
enoudi to have been already branched, but such stake 
mustl>e watched and the tree protected against injury 
by rubbing against it. 

Svbaequent cutlivation. 

{a) Newly planted treeer Ground occupied by 3'oung 
trees must be kept well cultivated during the spring and 

after planting, in cam of hot dry weather during tlie 
growing season, mulclk may be applied to check evM>> 

' ■■ - .-I J *_ I r* *i u..* :* .L...TJ 

many of the oration from ttie soil and to keep it oool, but it should 
not be permitted to take Uie ^aoe of cultivation. 

2Sie. The Seek! 

early summer. If hoed crops 

titles of manure will be n^uuim, uui. m i!iuii;r vubc, 
cultivation should cease as early as tne be^miing of 
August in order to hasten the ripening of the ^ung 
wood. This process should be continued dunng at 
least five or six years, aft^r which green crops may be 
grown and plowed under as a means, in part, of main- 
taining the fortilitv of the soil. 

(6) Mulching: Especially during the first few years 

(c) Manuring: As stirted previously, manuree s) 
be applied sparingly but r^;ularly, |»eferably ir 
autumn, and 
should be plowed 
under, or other- 
wise mixed with 
the soil at that 
time iM" in the 
eariy spring, as 

moting early 
CTowth and the 
uiorough ripen- 
ing of the wood 
in advance of 
severe cold. 

lliorough ma- 2817. Stnmp at tlia Sackal pmt tne. I90S. 

turing of the 

wood riiould also be asasted, as already said, by ceasing 

cultivation the early part of August. 

Gathenng and ripening thefmU. 

All selected pears, frtiether intended for the market 
or for use at home, should be carefully hand-picked. 

(a) Gathering summer and autumn pears: With ver^ 
few exceptions all pears acquire a higher quohty if 
gathered before they are fully ripe. The generally 
accepted rule is to gather the crop when on occasionally 
full-grown wormy specimen is npe, or when there is a 
perceptible change m the color of the maturer spect- 
mena, or when the stem parts readily from the branch 
if the fruit is slightly lifted. 

(b) Ripening summer and winter pears: When gath- 
ered, ttie fruit should be placed in a cool room devoted 
to the purpose, and spread upon shelves, or in lock of a 
suitable room they may be placed in shallow boxes or 
drawers, where in due time they will acquire their full 
color and flavor. Since this fruit parts with moisture 
quite freely, it, and especially the later ripening varie- 
ties, should be protectwi from a drvin^ atmosphere, par- 
ticularly from drafts of air, whicn will cause the fruit 
to shrivel and become tough and leathery. It is also 
true of at least veiy many varieties that even if blown 
off or gathered when but two-thirds grown, the fruit if 
put away as already described will usually acquire a 
satisfactory quality. Fruits thus gathered and npened 
are found to have lees tendency to decay rapioly at 
the core. 

(c) Gathering and ripening of winter dessert pears: 
ThJeae should rem^n upon the tree as long as prei^ti- 
cabb without danger from frost. When gathered, thev 
should be placed in a cool frost-proof room, and it will 
be well abo to wrap each sei>arately in soft paper. 
Some varieties are found to ripen perfectly without 
further attention, but the quality ^f most kinds will be 
much improved if th^ are Drought into a temperature 
of 60° or 70° a fortnight before their usual season of 

(d) Winter cooking pears: These should be gathered 
and put away in close packages in a cool, frost-proof 
room, in the same manner as russet apples, like which 
they will shrivel, and become tough and leathery if 
left exposed to the air. They may lonain in this con- 
dition until needed for use. 

Packing and marketing. 

In America, pears are generally packed for market 
directly from the tree, without awaiting the process of 
ripening. Barrels ore largely used as pockaaes, although 
this frmt is freouently put up in half-barrels and some- 
timee in bushel, peck, and even in half-peck baskets. 

American grawBrn rarely ripca their fruit before mar- 
keting it. This, if done &t all, is more generally accom- 
plished by the dealer, doubtless with decided profit, 
since in the larger cities fully $50 have been known to be 
paid for a single barrel of selected fruit, and yet the 
same fruit ripened and offered in quantities to suit cus- 
tomers has been sold at two or three times the originaJ 
cost. The marketing of imripened pears is obviously 
unprofitable ao f ar as the producer is concerned. 

In Europe, the choicest fruits are carefully selected 
and house-ripened. When approaching their beet con- 
dition the fruits are separately wrapped in soft p^>er, 
and are then put up m packages of perhaps one or 
two dotens, and sent so as to appear upon the market 
when in the beet possible »indition. Such fruits com- 
mand prices quite in excess of what they would have 
lealiied had they been olTered in an immature condition. 


Since the popular and desirable varieties of peara 
may be found fully described in standard pomological 
works, such descriptions here are not deemed necessary. 
Among the very numerous varieties of pears described 
in such works there are doubtless many possessing high 
quahty and other valuable charaetenstics, which, lor 
some unexplained reason, have failed to attract the 
Attention of growers. 

Since varieties vary in their season of ripening willi 
change of latitude, and often, to some extent, with 
change of location, even in the same latitude, the desig- 
nation of such season becomes a matter of more or less 
difiiculty. In the following lists the season given will be 
approximately that between parallels ^ and 43 <^ 
north latitude. 

(a) Amateur pears: It is as true of the pear as of 
most other species of fruits that very many varieties 
are of small size, unattractive appearance, or of such 
delicate texture when ripe as to disquahfy them for the 
market, although they may possess, in an eminent 
de^ee, the peculiar characteristics which tender them 
desirable, and to persons of cultivated taste, indis- 
pensable for the supply of the family. Such ore termed 
amateur pears. 

The following is a list of a few of the mos{ popular of 
these, arranged approximately in the order of maturity: 

ga-',: ::::■:: 


'^^: ■ 



(Bell«)Rio™tivo '.'.'.'. 

.IM.'. Not. 

*t:. nrlr: m, middk 

(b) Culinary pears: Very few dessert pears are found 
to be satisfactory for culinary uses, since they too gen- 
erally lose at least a portion of their flavor and aroma 
in the process of cooking. There are, however, several 
varieties of high, austere character which prove adapted 
to this purpose, amoi^ which are the following: 


Nunc 8b— on. R«in&rk«. 

ViAT ..Not. Jan Orovioiully gDod 

(BlEck) Wonotcr Nov. Feb. [naowib for deanat. 

CatiUu Nov. Mircb. 

Pound E>«. Feb. 

(c) Maricet peara: The markets demand varieties of 
attractive appearance, of at least medium size and of 
fine texture. To the ^wer, productiveness and vi^or 
of tree are also of pmnary unportonce If poesessmg 

the foregoing characteristics, a variety may prove at 
least temporarily popular, even thoi^ of compara- 
tively low quah^. The following varieties, some of 
whicb may also be found m the amateur list, are aJl 
more or leas popular as market fruibi 


,e. Aiat. b. Sept 

.EiceUent, but ■ Iw 


.e. A«i. m. 8ept 

lagfy beautiful. 


■™*^L?let' .".'.' 

L«CoDte ... 



.Grown only cm qui 


Rdaiire (i<wira6te7ie8« of dwarfs. 

There arc a few varieties, among which Louise Bonne 
and Angoulemc may be especially mentioned, which on 
free (pear) stocks are either tardy bearers or require . 
to be fruited several years before developing I heir 
ultimate qualities, but which succeed iinusiiully well 
Upon the quince. These, especially the Angoulemc, arc 
valued as market varieties when grown as dwarfs. 

Angouleme; and perhaps some other viirieties as 
dwarfs, occasionally l)loom so profusely as apparently 
to prove unable to develop the fruit, which in conse- 
quence proves abortive. The natural and obvious rem- 
edy in such case is disbudtling, or ite equivalent, cut- 
ting back the fruit-bearing shoots before growth is 
commenced , 

The fact that very many varieties are not perma- 
nently successful when ^wn upon the quince is 
doubtless partially, if not in many cases even wholly. 


due to their incieaaed tendency to early uid enc«dve 
productiveneaa when grown upon that stock, which, 
owing to the very common unwillingnees of tlie grower 
to remove the excess of fruit, is aUowed to consume the 
materia] needed for wood-growth, and thus to oocaeion 
exhaustion before the tree has gained a tltorough hold 
upon the soil. 

If, with uny variety capable of forming a satiafactoiy 
union with the quince, and with the tree planted in the 
manner heretofore described, the entire crop of bloom 
or incipient fruit of the first one, two, or even three 
years (dependent upon the vigor of the tree) were 
removed, and if subsequent crops were carefully and 
thoroughly thinned, it is at least highly pn^able that 
permanent health and longevity would prove nearly or 
quite as general with dwarfs as with standards, thus 
pennitting the more extensive growth of the pear in 
greater variety in small or amateur plantations and in 
limited grounds than is practicable with the use of 
standards. f. t. Lton. 

The peu in the South. 

"Die following table from the Thirteenth Census 
ahowa the status of the pear industry in thirteen 
southern states, 1910 (crop data 1909): 

Q. , Niunbs- Productiaa 

B*'**- ol trea. Id biuhdi. 

AkbuoB, H2,300 100,0*1 

Arkuuu 221.TM 37,M7 

Florid* 110,700 98.223 

OeoTciB 202,982 l«B,ee7 

Kentucky 337.35S 2SI,53a 

LouBiuiB 57 630 3.^,564 

MiHHippi 118.i.3e 1D1.23S 

North Corolina 243,357 84,019 

Oklahonu 23S 21 

South Cuoliiia 106,251 66,880 

TenncBH 233,407 B3,557 

TeiM 558,478 110.967 

^%Biau «7,177 74,486 

Total 2,849,191 l,Ia2,GS7 

Hinni^kout the irbole South the average production 
of pears to the tree is less than one-half bushel. Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky have many pear trees in comparison 
with the other southern states, but should hardly be 
considered with the remainder of the South,'as their 
pears are produced mainly on the northern borders of 
the states. Texas, on account of its area, has more pear 
trees than any other southern state; and El Faao 
County, the most western county^ produces over 
22,000 Dushels. Conditions existing m this region are 
not at all comparable with the other pear sections in 
the South. 

It can hardly be said that pears are well adapted to 
southern conditions, although in certain sections, 
particularly in the mountains, it is possible to produoe 
fruits of iiood quality ; but on account of the bli^t the 
industry has never attained importance. At one time, 
the late P. J. Berckmans, of Augusta, Georgia, had 600 
difiercut pears under t«st in his nuisery, 500 of them 
being named varieties. Berckmans says that of Uie 
600, those of anv worth in the South would not exceed 
twelve in number, and that the great commercial 
varieties were the LeConte, Garber, and Kieffer, 
(Jthough Bulletin No. 12G of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry shows seventy-seven varieties of pears that 
have on^nated in the thirteen southern states. 

The history of the southern pear industry begins 
with the introduction of the LeConte into Thomasville, 
Georgia, in the early seventies of the last century by 
L. L. Vamodoe. The original cutting carried into 
Thomas County came from Liberty Coun^, Georna. 
This pear was planted extensively around Thomasville, 
being taken from there into nortnem Florida, southern 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The 
propagation was mainly by cuttings, and in the early 



days of the industry SI apiece was often pud for trees. 
At one time it was conservatively stated that there 
were at least 200,000 trees in Thomas County. Great 
prices were received for the product, the growers in 
those d^ netting from $3 to $7 a barrel. There are 
reports from H. H. Sanford, one of the early growers 
oi this fruit, of LeConte trees producinK thirty ouahela 
or more. The nowmg of this pear, like many other 
horticultural industnes in the South, was along exfen- 
sive rather than intensive lines. The ^wers thought 
that they did not need to till or to ferOliie their liuds 
and that they could plant these wonderful trees snd 
reap a harvest of dollars, and for a time it seemed as if 
this were so; then the blight wpeared. The "die- 
back," as it was originally called, b^aiL and between 
1890 and 189fi the industry was m a fair way te suc- 
cumb. No systematic efforts were made to combat 
this disease, except by introduction of the Kieffer, 
which was considered at that time resistant, snd which 
was lately planted in the pear sections of the South. 

Because of the blight and lack of core, with no 
systematixed methods of marketing, the pear industry 
ot the southern states fell to a low ebb. For the past 
several years no commercial orchards have been set, 
and a great number of the trees that were planted la 
this early period are either dead or cut down; therefore 
the production of the hybrid pears in the South is not 
only at a standstill, but is at this time declining. 

The management of these orchards, evenwhile the 
industry was at its heigh1~ was very crude. It is 
reported on good authori^ that 05 per cent of the pear 
plantings in the southern pear sections were most seri- 
ously neglected. Some orchards were cropped, to ths 
detiunent of the land; others so badly negleeted that 
young pine trees contended with the pears for sj 

and fertilising received a serious set-back when the 
blight appeared, as these plantings seemed to be more 
susceptiole to this disease. In time a balance was 


2119 Box ol fiDCT paan Mch bult wiapptd 1b pivar 

reached, and it is now considered good practice to run 
the orchards in sod and eve^ third year to nve a light 
plowing, the application of ^rtiliiets being determined 
by the growth of the tree. Spraying was little piactised 
in the older orehards. The growers who are still pro- 
ducing pears now find the use of a spray-pump advisa- 
ble. Harvesting during the height of the pear industry 
in south Geoma was aptly described by the Thomas- 
ville "Times Enterprise:" "The annual slaughter of 
the LeConte pears has commenced. The trees ore full 
of little gamins, picking a few, flailing some and shaking 
(rfF the remainder. All-^ood, bad, and bruised— are 
dumped into barrels ana rushed to market." It is 
UDfortunately true that many of these fruits were 
gathered in this way. There were growers who hand- 



number. There is tut iimtance on lecord of a gentle- 
man having sold three hundred and odd dollan worth 
of peora from a small orchard, on whidt he had expended 
S5 since the last harvest. Moat of the peara were 
shipped in barrels, though some were shipped in bulk. 
The distribution is still poor, and for the pEtet few yean 

2110. AniDoltma pMT lbs 

the profits from the remaining trees have not been 
BufGcient to warrant further planting. 

At present, the South aa a whole cannot be consid- 
ered aa a pear-producing section. There are still quite 
a number of pear trees around the homes. These are 
rapidly disappearing, due to the blight and the lack of 
care. The old orMards alon^ the Atlantic and the 
Gulf ore rapidh' dying with bh^t. The hybrid peara, 
LeContc, Kiefler, and Garber, do remarkably well in 
this part of the country; but the pear industry will 
never thrive as it did once until there is a systematic 
fight made uiwn the blight. Besides this disease, the 
peara are subject to bitt«r-rot, brown-rot and crown- 
gall, as well as the codlin-moth and the San Jos6 scale; 
but of course these insects and diseases can be easily 
Oontrolled by spraying. 

In the catalogue of fruits appended to the Pro- 
ceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Annual Session of the 
Georgia State Horticultural Society is to be found this 
remark concerning pears: "Owing to the prevalence of 
the pear blij^bt, the commercial production of pears is 
an uncertam and hazardous industry. Until it is 
demonstrated that pear-blight can be successfully 
controlled, it is useless to recommend the planting of 
pears in commercial quantities. So far as is known, 
the Kieffer pear is the most resistant to the pear-blight 
of the commercial varieties." This report of the Gieorgia 
State Horticultural Society can be taken as a general 
recommendation for practically all of the South, except 
for particularly isolated and special places. 

T. H. HcHatton. 

The pear in California. 

Viaitora at the old California missions during the 
early part of the last century noted many thrifty seed- 
ling pear trees in the mission Kardens. Many of these 
trees survived the neglect which came upon the mission 
properties after their secularization, and were in thrifty 
growth and bearint; at the time of the American occu- 
pation. The first pears sold in San Francisco and in 
the mines in 1849-1850 were gathered from the old 
mission trees, and some of these old trees grafted over 
gave the first California product of the European and 
American varieties of more than half a century ago. 
From this beginning the growth of pears increased until 
the commercial product of 1914 included the following; 
2,725 carloada sent overland to eastern and foreign 
markets (about the same as for the five ^eara preced- 
ing); 2,000,000 pounda dried peais shipped to the 
same destination (a decreasing product because of the 
increasing demand for shipping fresh and canning); 


805,740 casesof canned pears, mostly Bartletts — a prod- 
uct which is rapidly increasing. There are ^>out 
2,000,000 pear trees in California orchards. The decade 
1905-1915 was a sensational period in California pear- 
growing because of the appearance of the pear-blight 
about 1902. It made such rapid progress that in 1904 
practically all the pear trees in one district were 
seriously attacked and lately destroyed. Control 
measures were provided by state appropriation in 
1905 and continued several years, and it waa demon- 
atrated that the disease can be held in check and profita- 
bility of trees continued by cutting out all bhghted 
porta from twig to root— disinfecting between cuts all 
tools used in the work. This demonstration, coupled 
with an apparent lessening of the virulence of the 
disease restored confidence among growers and resulted 
m largely ncreased new planting in 1911-1915. 

It la a moat interesting fact that a single variety 
fumiahea a very great part, perhaps even as much as 
four fifths of the pear products of the state, and that is 
the Bartlett. Whatever it may lack in hi^ quality is 
more than compensated for by its commercial ser- 
viceability. It ia handsome and of good size, endures 
long carnage, cans well and dries well, and is of auffici- 
ently good quality to please consumers: in fact the 
CalSomia-grown Bartlett is said to be better than the 
same variety grown in the Atlantic states and in the 
west of Europe. This ia not. however, the chief reason 
why the Bartlett so largely preponderates in Cali- 
fornia. The ruling condition ia found in the fact that 
owing to the marked differences in localities not widely 
distant and yet differing in elevation, in exposure to 
coast influences and away from them, and other local 
causes, the Bartlett has a veiy long ripening season, 
and valley, coast, and moimtam Bartletts foUow each 
other through nearly three months and thus make suc- 
cession of different varieties during this period unneces- 
sary. There is, however, at present a greater disposition 
than hwetofore to extend the season by growing other 
varietiea, but they are selected for resemblance to the 
Bartlett type. Clapp Favorite is sold as an "Early 
Bartlett," and a Wmter Bartlett, an Oregon seedling, 
has been planted to carry the same style of pear as late 
as possible. Still some progress is being made in extend- 
ing the California list of popular pears and some of 
local and of distant origin will probably achieve 
prominence, especlaily in the shipments to distant 

California pears are grown on pear-aeedling roots 
(eroecially of the Japanese pear because of less liability 
to bhght m the root), very little recourae being had to 
rooted cuttings or to dwarfing stocks. A dwarf pear 
tree is tdmost a curiosity. The heavier loams and even 
clays are sometimes planted nith pear trees, not because 
they are best for pears but because other fniila do 

fruits. Still the chief product of peorn is from the beet 
loams C^ifornia affords, and the profits from the tree 
wuTuit the use of such land. Pear trees are regulaily 
IwuDed to a low vase form, but seldom opened in the 
eenter, the interior being used for bearins wood, and 
foliage enouKh retained {>artiaUy to abade the fruiL 
The fruit is tEiimied to favor aise and to reliere the tree 
from overbearbs. Iiri^tion ia employed in some parts 
of the state. The vaneties chiefly grown are the fol- 
lowing: Bartlett, Winter Nelia, Saster, Cornice, Glout 
Horceau, Hardy P. Barry (a CaJifomia seedhng), 
Seckel, Lawsoti (Comet), Winter Bartlett Wilder 

PEAR. AIUf«tn P.. P<r*M gnUiuima. Ancado P^ Ptrtn 
frolun'ind. Bilum P., Momordica Clmrantia. Oulk P . Cntma 
Hnurufrd. Prickly P., Opuniia. 

PEAT is a kind of soil formed by the partial dc ca\ of 
plants in the swamps of the temperate lone It is a 
■tandard potting material in greenhouse work fur <ir- 
tain classes of plants, as ferns, orchids, heaths rhodo- 
deodrODB, and other ericaceous plant*, woodj plants 
fnm Australia and the Cape of CSood Hope, and many 
other choice and diiRcult aubjecta. Amencan gatdcr - ~ 
Otonplain that they are handicapped in grow- 
ing such plants ciecause Amencan peat is 
poorer than European, the lack of fiber 
bemg chiefly deplored, but it is probable 
that just as good peat ia to be found in thu 

The peat-bo^ of Endand are often 5 or 
6 feet deep, and some of the Irish ones are ^f 
said to be as deep as 40 feet. They have 
been forming ever since the glacial period, \ i 
but are now on the decline, owing largeU \ ^ 
to natural causes. Peat-bo^ consist of the 
ronaina of many kinds of aquatic and marsh 
phmts, but chiefly sphagnum (which see) 
Thia moss grows upward and deca3^ parti- 
ally beloWj complete decay being prevented 
by the antiseptic organic acids formed in the 
prooess. Near the top the peat is brown, fibrous, light 
and porous: lower down it tends to be black, hell,^'^', 
dense and without visible indication of its vegetable 
origin. The ash varies from 1 or 2 per cent in newly 
formed peat to 10, 20, or even 30 per cent in the older 
peat. Peat iacommoidy used for fuel by the Irish peas- 
antry, but almost never in America, where other and 
better fuel is plentiful. In greenhouse work peat is 
valued more for its porous moisture-holding propolies 
than for its plants-food. If dried, it may be used as an 
absorbent for liquid manure, "not ao much for its inher- 
ent value," says Roberts (in his "Fertility of the Land"), 
"as for conserving the nitrogen in the manure, and for 
improving the condition of the stables." For this rea- 
son the half-decayed peat ia extensively used in Europe, 
under the name of moss litter, as a bedding in stablee, 
and Iat«r of course applied to the land. 

The transformation of peat^bo^ into arable land is 
rarely a pressing problem in Amenca. It is usually too 
costly for a new country. The notion, however, ia very 
common that peat lands are extraordinarily rich in 
plant>-food. Nevertheless, according to Roberta, swamp 
muck and peat are not richer in plantr-food than the 
good soils, with the exception of the nitrogen in the 
peat, which, however, is far less available than it is in 
gooa soils. (American peat contains about .67 per 
cent nitrogen, .21 per cent phosphoric add, and .13 per 
cent potash.) Peat lands differ from good arable soil 
in being cold, sour, and too wet. To reclaim them, one 
must drain off the superfluous water and ap^ lime 

fredv to deatroy the harmful organic adds. Sometimea 
aana or clay mav be added to unprove the texture of 
such aoilB. It ttuma time to reclaim peat lands. Thor- 
oughly decayed peat intermingled with wet soils is 
muck. See the article on UudUaTid-Oardening, VoL 
IV, page 2072. WinnBUf Millhb. 

PECAN, Carya Paean, En^ and Graeb. (Carya 
oSM^imRu, Nutt. Hieona Pecan, Biit.). Plate IiXXV, 
Vol. IV. Of the nut-trew native to North America, the 
peoan unquestionably ranks first in economic impor- 
tance. This is true ooth because of the quantity and 
value of the wild crop and because of its cultural 
promise The acoeptabuity of the quality of the kernel 
and the relative tWnees of shell and ease of cracking 
m contrast with the other hickories and the native 
wtdnuts, have smce an early day continued to win 
favor among consumers, so that the wild crop of 
Louisiana and Texas long ago assumed commovial 
importance and for at least Uurty years has, in the 

latter state, been systematically harvested and distrib- 
uted in carload ahipments to northern marlieta. 

The relatively wide climatic range of the species and 
the extent of variation in form, siie, and quality of nut 
have stimulated ^ort to develop methods of nursery 
loopagation in widely separated locaUtiee. This bu 
neulted in a larger and more widely scattered develop- 
ment of commercial nursery propagation of the pecan 
than of any other nut-tree. 

Under favorable conditions of growth, the pecan tree 
attains very large size, trunk diameters of ^ lo 6 feet 
being not mfrequent, with heights ranging from 100 
to 175 feet and tops spreading 60 to 70 feet. Some of the 
largest treee reported were in the Wabash Valley, near 
the northern limit of natural distribution. AtreebavinE 
a ^fith of 18 feet 3 inches breast high from the grouncT 
with an estimated hei^t of 130 feet and a spread of 
125 feet, is recorded oy Reed in Ascension Pariah, 
Louisiana. One having adrth of 16 feet 6 inches with 
an estimated height of 160 feet and sprrad of 100 feet, 
ia recorded in Nacliitochee Pari^ Louisiana. A still 
laiver tree near Webbos FaU& Oklahoma, has the 
following dimenaionB: Girth 23 feet 9 inches at 3 feet 
from ground; estimated height 180 feet. 



The pecan is one of the hickoriea which comprise 
an American group of great interest. The trees are 
monoDcious; that is, the mole and female (staminate 
and pistillate) are Beparate on the same plant. (Fig. 
2822; adapted from Bulletin No. 251, Bureau of Plant 
InduBtry.) 1^ staminate or pollen-bearing flowers are 
in slender hanging catkins, and the pistillate or fruit- 
bearing flowers are in small erect or stiff clustera (Fig. 
823, page 676). Several of the staminate or mEde 
flowers are shown separately at a, Fig. 2822, and one 
of the pistillate or female flowers at b. 

Nalural and cuUitrtd range. 

The species is native in river-bottoms and lowlands 
of the Mississippi River and its tributaries as far north 
as Davenport, Iowa; Covington, Kentucky; Terre 
Haute, Indiana; and the vicinity of Kansas City, 
Missouri. It is also found throughout most of the 
river-valleys of Texas and the adjacent parts of Mex- 
ico. It docs not appear to have been found native at 
any point in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. 
It thus occurred wild in considerable regions of Texas, 

Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkan.>uis, 
Missouri, Kansas, Tenneanee, Kentucky, Indiana, and 
Illinois, and Bmoll areas in southeastern Nebraska and 
southeastern Iowa. The species was scatteringly 
introduced throughout the southeastern states from 
Florida northward to Virginia at an early date, so that 
trees of considerable age are found at many points in 
them. The earliest efforts at commercial planting 
appear to have l)cen made in Iiouisiana, Mississippi, 
and Texas, but some of the greatest activity in this 
direction in recent years has been outside of the native 
habitat, in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina, and 
considerable plantings have been made also in North 
Carolina, Virginia, Klaryland, and some on the Pacific 
Coast in California and Oregon. 
Commercial importance. 

As on article of commerce, the pecan did not receive 
much recognition untilafter the Civil War; but, increas- 
ingly large shipments of wild nuts moved northward 
from Loviisiana and Texas from 1870 to 1890 at prices 
which encouraged fanners and ranchers to harvest 
them systematically, though not to engage in orchard 
planting. Early in the nineties, as the result of the 
marketing in New Orleans of the product of a few 


individual trees yielding nuts of large size and thin 

shells, demand developed for such nuts at much higher 
prices, frequently bringing 40 to 75 cents and in some 
cases as high as 81.50 to $2.50 a pound- This stimu- 
lated interest in the planting of seedling orchards grown 
from the nuts of these higp-priced varieties, with the 
result that many thousands of such trees, mostly dating 
to the decade 1890-1899, are now found in the Guff 
and South Atlantic states. While these seedling 
orchards contain many productive trees yielding nuts 
of desirable qualiU-, few of them have proved profitable, 
largely because ot'^the wide variation m precocity, pro- 
ductiveness, and disease-resistance of the trees, and in 
the size, cracking quality, and other features of the 
nuts, so that a large part of the present production 
still consists of wild nuts. Reed estimated in 1912 
("The Pecan," Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin No. 
251) that the annual wild crop of pecans in Texas dur- 
ing the preceding six or eight years had varied from 
3,645,000 to 17,820,000 pounds, the crop of that stalA 
being considered approximately three-fifths of the 
entire product. The census of 1910 reported the crop 
of 1909 as 9,890,769 pounds, valued at *971,596. 

While no accurate statistics regarding later produc- 
tion are available, the product of tne orchards of named 
varieties planted prior to 1905 is now gradually coming 
to market, and may be expected to appear in rapidly 
increasing quantity in the future, to offset the gradually 
declining production of wild nuts resulting from the 
destruction of trees as the fertile river-bottom laods on 
which they stand have been brought under cultivation 
in farm crops. 

The gradual development of power nut-cracking 
machinery, mainly accomplishea since 1900, has 
resulted in a greatly increased demand for pecan meats 
from confectioners, which promises to keep pace with 
production (or many years to come. These devices 

ClimtUic and soil Tequiremerdt. 

Much confusion of thought with regard to the 
climatic range of the pecan nas resulted From failure 
to reci^nize the difference in cold endurance of wild 
trees of the species in different parts of its native ran^. 
Rather early in the period of pecan exploitation, which 
began about 1885-1890, nuts and young trees of the 
large varieties conspicuous in the exhibits and adver- 
tising matter of that time were planted at many points 
in the northern states. These rather promptly suc- 
cumbed to the winter temperatures of the North, very 
'ng north of the Potomac, Ohio, and Mia- 

of their nuts have been found in the Bur\'iving wild 
groves of the Ohio and Wabash valley bottoms in 
Kidiana, Illinois, and Kentucky, which give promise 
of enduring the winters considerably farther north, and 
which are now in process of experimental introduction. 
On suitable soils it now appears probable that among 
these varieties of northern origin may be found sorts 
fairiv well adapted to most of the eastern United States. 

Tnough practically restricted in its native distribu- 
tion to the low-lying moist sandy loams of the river* 
and creck-bottoma, gradually accumulated exiwrience 
has demonstrated the suitability under cultivation of 
a wide range of soils. The essentials arc good depth 
and fertility, adequate drainage, and freedom from 
drou^t. Shallow soils underlaid with hnrdpao or 
other impervious strata and loose droughty sands are 
unsuitable, as are mucks and peats. Occasional over- 
flow, as experienced on creek- and river-bottom lands, 
is beneficial, but the pecan is about as. sensitive to a 
water-logged soil condition as most orchard trees. 

While the orchards thus far planted arc too young 
to determime with accuracy, the area of profitable com- 

mercitJ planting will, from present indicationB, be 
south of Pennsylvania and Iowa with some probability 
of success under irrigation in the Southwest and ia the 
great valley of California. 
pTopagatUm and top-workinn. 

Few of the earlier efforts to perpetuate trees beorioK 
superior nuts by budding and paltin^ were auccesaful, 
the methods commonly practised with fruit-trees in 
the Gulf States not provmg effective with the pecan. 
Because of this, most of the plantings prior to 1900 were 
of seedling trees grown from selected parents, even 
where orchards as Large aa 500 acres were involved. 

Occasion&llv skilful propagators succeeded in secur- 
ing fair stands with crown-, trunk- and top-grafting, 
however, and some by annular-, patch- and chip- 
budding, BO that by 1895 there wen 

ZB24 Top-buddad peauL PoDi jtiia alter tha opanitloo. 

budded and grafted trees of several choice vonetiee 
KTOvnng in Louisiana Mississippi and Texas and a 
lew nurwnc^ offermg such trees for sale 

The earhest successful grafting was by Antome a 
slave gardener on Oak Alley Plantation St James 
Parish Louisiana who under the instruction of hia 
owner the late Telesphore J Roman m 1846 or 1847 
succeeded ui trunk grafting sixteen trees of the variety 
later named the Centennial (Fig. 2823). Somewhat 
later he propagated 1 10 more trees of the same variety, 
so that 126 grafted trees of this variety were growing 
on that plantation at the end of the Civil War. About 
1877, the late Emil Boiirgcois, of Central, Iiouisiana, 
successfully top-grafted the variety now known aa the 
Van Deman upon his llapidan Plantation in the same 
parish, while in 1882 the Home and Frotscher, as well 
as Centennial, were propagated by Wm. Nelson in 
the nursery of the late Richard Frotscher at New 
Orleans from the original trees in St. James and Iberia 
parishes. In ISiiO, the variety now known aa Stuart 

tree of that sort on the Castancra place near by. 

Successful to[>-Working of wild trees was accomplished 
by E. E. Risien, of San Saba, Texas, about 1889. He 
transformed a num- 
ber of such trees 
by cutting bock 
heavily in late win- 
ter with a cross-cut 
saw, practically be- 
heading trees of 
diameters up to 12 
to 15 inches at 
points 20 to 30 feet 
from the ground. 
An abundant 
ntnvth of strong 
snoots was aecui«d 
by hacking the bark 
of the trunk for 
some distance down 
from the stubs. A 
Bi^cient number of 
the best of these 
shoots wero budded 
in July by the 
annular method 
quickly to develop 
a symmetrical top. 
The San Saba va- 
riety was chiefly 
used, the original 
tree of this stand- "^ ■""■ ■"■ 
ing on Risien's place *• "™.' 
(^g.2824). ^ l^i/'t 

AJthou^ most ^th'rtrim 
early efforts failed, 
as propagators have acquired experience ii 

agation most of the methods of budding and ^ „ 

practised on IJie apple and pear have been found to 
succeed, so that at the present time practically all 
except shield-budding are more or less practised. The 
methods most commonly used by nurserymen aro ordi- 
nary clefts and whip-grafting, and annular-, patch-, and 

While there bos been 
much discussion of other 
stocks for the pecan and 
considerable individual 
experimentation with 
mockernut {Corya alba), 
pignut [Carya glabra), 
and water-hickory (Carya 
aguaiica) , commercial nur- 
sei? propagation is practi- 
cally aU upon pecan 
sto^. Nuts from trees 
of vigorous growth, yield- 
ing well-filled kernels, are 
prefeired for seed and 
should be from a region at 
least as for north as that 
where trees are to be 
planted to insure stocks 
of Bufiicient cold-endur- 
anoe. Nuts for seed should 
not be permitted to dry out 
before planting in fall, or. 
if spring-planted, should 
be Btratmed in moist sand 
soon after harvest. Soil 

rich, deep, 

well drained, as tlie con- nock ud eioa ia poiithn ud 

trol of growth during the mdr loi wianiiic. 

2B2a. Whip-tnitdsg. Eailj 

mrwrv shniild he ••"P**"'''* opeiaUoa: a ud b, 
lureciv snouiQ oe ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^ 

fP^ '"able, and .^ck uld don pioparlr cut; c. 

high sta 

itiug : 

„!< state of cultivation with which cloda, gtones, or 
continued wetness eerioualy interiere. Nurseiy rows 
should be 6 to 6 feet apart, with nuts planted 8 to 12 
inches apart in the row, 2 to 3 inches deep. 

When stocks exceed % inch in diameter at the point 
of grafting, cleft-grofUiig is preferred. If done above 
ground, the grafted stub 
should be securely bound 
with raflia or waxed cord 
to avoid splitting, and 
then thoroughly waxed 
and wrapped witli waxed 
cloth to exclude air and 
moisture. (Fig. 2825.) 
Ciona should be entirely 
dormant and have aU 
exposed cut ends waxed 
to reduce evaporation. 
All grafting in place is 
beet done shortly in 
advance of the pushing 
of buds on the stock. 
When stocks are under 
^ inch in diameter at 
the crown, ordinary 
whip^rafting in place is 
Goosiaerably practised, 
selecting cions as near 
the size of the stock as 
practicable and tying 
, securely with rafiia or 

tt triiwi 6. imtiopM mtlbod ol and ^27.) Bench-graft- 
tTtaj;«r,oii(imr'.iniwthloUQii- mg, though possible, is 
it • nKccfsfol luioa. nrely practised with the 

On account of the length of season during which 
these methods may be practised, annular- and patch- 
budding have b^n widely adopted bv pec«n-propa- 
gatora, and special tools for cutting tne "rin^ and 
"patches" have come into general use in the southern 
states (Figs. 2828 and 2829), though expert operators 
succeed well with the ordinary buddinf^knife. These 
methods may be used at any time during the growing 
season when the bark of both stock and cion "slip" 
well and the bark and buds of the new growth on tne 
cion trees are sufficiently mature to endure the neces- 
sary manipulation. The essentials are good "slipping" 
condition of both slock and cion, close fitting of "rinRs" 
or "patches," secure tying with raffia or other suitable 
tnatorial, careful attention to removal of ties . 


place without waxing. As this method requires only the 
ordinary budding-knife and is equally applicable to 
walnut, persimmon, and other species rather difficult 
to propagate, it is growing in favor, especially in 
Louisiana and Texas. (Fig. 2831.) 

With all methods of budding and grafting, both in 
nursery and orchard, careful attention to the tying up 
of the young buds during the first growing season is 
required. Their soft and luxuriant growth renders 
them peculiarly subject to destruction by storms, the 
only effective protection against which is secure tying 
to slock, stubs, or stakes. 

iinl heading back of stock as erowth proceeds to avoid 
"drowning out" the bud, ana after growth begins the 

erotcction of it against splitting oft or breaking down 
y wind and storms, by tying up to stubs or stakes. 
{Fig. 2830.) 

One of the simplcBt and most effective methods is 
that long used by E. W. Kirkpatrick, of McKinney, 
Texas, commonly known as "chip-budding." This may 
be practised pnor to and durmg the early growing 
season. Dormant ciona are used. It consists essentially 
of the removal of a "chip" from the Btock and its 
replacement by a bud-bearing chip of approximately 
identical size from the cion, which is securely tied in 

The large number of seedling trees in orchards and 
gardens yielding nuts of indifferent quaUty is arousing 
much interest m top-working. Thb can be done by 
all methods described, but all top-budding or grafting 
should be as low in the tree as practicable to prevent 
the head from becoming "leggy and "prongy. 

budding and grafting the 
pecan are described by Uhorles L. Edwards, of Texas. 
The budding method is shown in Fig. 1686^ page 1367, 


Vol, III. Tne crown-graft or crown-bud is shown ii_ 
Pig. 2832 and is described as follows: "Buds from wood 
that has partially lost its vitality, or has been injured 
by sap starting before it is cut or after it is cut in early 
spring, may often be saved by this method when all 
others fail. But the work must be carefully done and 
instructions strictly observed, for if the bud is lost, the 
remaining stock is badly disfigured. The stock is cut 
off bodily at the desired 

1, the 
and part of the 
I of bark pared away. 
Tlien the wrapper is put 

only the cut made for 
the insertion of the bud, 
but the top of stump 
also. The wrapper 
should cover not only 
the stump, but should 
be long enough at the 
top to pass over and f,o 


caught by the string f 
used for tying on the '■■ 
bud. The waxed cloth 
covering the top of the 
stump should be pressed 
doflni firmly before tying, 
and if the top of the 
stump is H inch across 
or more, there should be 
two thicknesses of cloth 
put over it and lirmly 
prtssed down. On large 

stumps, two buda may iW)»e1; /, grawth Irom Iha bud 

chances of a 'take .' It 
both buds live, one 
of the shoots may be 


removed Ister. In working over-grown nurserv eeed- 
lings and stout wilding^, this has been founo to be 
on excellent plan. With good workmanship and favor- 
able weather conditione, excellent savin ge may be 
bad, and the bud sboota make a beautuul upright 
growth, with the slightest crook at the point of 
union. And, oddly enough, they (px>w straight with- 
out stakes to support them, even m a windy countty. 
BudB put on in March and April on nursery stocks 
easily make a salable tree with 4 to feet of bud-growth 
the same season in Texas. In summer work, the modi- 
fied shield-bud may be peeled from the cion, but it is 
well to cut them to beveled edges on the ddce (D, Fig. 
2832) before removing from the cion. The bark of the 
stock lita down over them more snugly when so treated 
and they seem to live better. But the lower ends should 
always oe so trimmed as to remove the fleshy rim of 
bark at the lower end, in order that the inner bark of 
the bud and the inner bark of the stock may be brought 
into contact. The flaps of bark folding down over Uie 
bud should always be pared down, bo that the waxed 
wrappers may fit close and exclude those pestiferous 
little insects that get in under other forms of wrapper 
and destroy ho many buds. 
Another thing requirii^ 
eternal vif^lance is to be 

zsji. Chii>- c 

budding, at Ttao 

th* bud mdr 

c, the bod la«tl«d in Uw 

nutiii of lbs itock: d, the bod 

MCBtdj tied Id pUca. 

the bud wood." 

The largo size of the tree 
and the lack of any suitable 
dwarfing stock render wider 
planting nccesBary than for 
otht;r orchard trees. Many 
of the earlier orchards were 
spaced at 40 or 50 feet, with 
some planted as close as 25 
feet, with a view to thin- 
ning out to 50 feet after some 
£!ars of bearing. Accumu- 
led experience indicatee 
that upon all soils suitable 
for the pecan, a distance 
of 60 feet will be required 
before the age of maxi- 
mum productiveness 
is reached, and that closer 
planting than this is inadvisable unless in sections where 
growth of trees thirty years old and upward indicates 
that closer distances will not involve harmful crowding 
and shading, to which the pecan as a nut-beaier is 
ijcculiarly sensitive. Well-npened trees two years 
from the bud or Kraft are preferred by most planteni 
and 24 to 30 inches of tap-root is retained in trans- 
planting. In the Gulf States planting is usually done 
during the wint«r months and completed by February. 
to insure thorough settling of earth and callueing oi 
roots before growth starte. Special care to prevent 
drying out during shipment ana handling is necessary, 
protection ogamst sun and wind and thorough soaking 
of roots before planting being advisable. 

Holes should be of ample size, 6 to 8 inches deeper 
than the roota require, and be filled in at bottom with 
good top-soil. Fcrtihzer should not be in contact 

The unsatisfactory behavior of close-planted orchards 
and the necessity of deriving profit from the land dur- 
ing the six to twelve years oefore the trees come into 
bearing have niven nse to varied practice in inl«p- 
cropping. Peaches, Satauma oranges, truck crops, 
cotton, corn, and the like, are used in various sections. 

It is essential on most soils to maintain good culti- 
vation throu^iout the growing season. This is satis- 

down ^ pecan or^iards in Etermuda-^rass for pasture 

of growth and lessened productiveness of trees. The 
use of winter cover-crops such as hairy vetch and bur 
clover for ;)lowing under in spring has everything to 

Harveeting and maTkeliTtg. 

The preferred practice in harvesting is to permit 
the nuts to fall aa the hulls open gathering frequently 
to prevent soiling by contact with the ground. As the 
efficiency of this method is largely dependent on the 
continuance of clear and reasonably dry weatbor 
tfarou^out the harvest season, it is usually necessary 
gently to "thresh" the later-maturing portion of the 
crop from the trees with bamboo or other U^t poles. 
Premature threshing results both in an immature 
quality of crop and in injury 
to the trees through the 
breaking oS of fruit-spurs. 
After gathering, the nuta 
should be cured by storing 
in a cool diT place for two 
or three weeks, during which 
time there is some loss of 
wei^t by evaporation of 
moisture, after which they 
are ready for marketing. 

A considerable portion of 
the wild crop is washed and 
polished by friction in re- . 
volving barrels or drums. 
Some tinting of tlie nuts 
with dye is also practised. 
While polishing and tinting 
are not in themselves harm- 
ful, they have so frequently 
been used to conceal infe- 
riority of damaged or stale 
nuts and such as are imma- 
ture that discriminating 
gurchasera show preference 
ir the nuts in their natural 
Btat«. This is specially true 
with r^ard to the prod- 
uct of the named varie- 
ties, which is coming to be sold on known varietal 
merit as to cracking guajity, plumpness of kernel, 
flavor, and the like. While the product of cultivated 
orchards still constitutes but a small proportion of the 
market supply, it is destined to early and considerable 

ZaU. Til* ciowii'Knlt BT 
-bnd. A. B, C. tba cloni D, 
dtmtiliiiiiwdit poLol; £, itack 
n«df u tecelTe Iha doa; F, 
cion in pUcs; G, B, tba work 
completaljp rtottctad bj waxsd 

Marketing by parcel post direct to 
coming into practice and co6perative selling oy growecs 
associations is being undertaken to some extent. 

Prices of wild nuts have risen considerably in recent 
years as the result of increased demand from commer- 
cial crackers. Prices of the leading orchard varieties, 
though gradually receding from the fictitious and 
novelty values of the exploitation period, ranee from 


The fact that until about 1900 there were few nurseiy- 
men able to propagate the pecan by budding and graft- 
ing, coupled with the very higl" prices received for 
choice nuts from certain individual trees, stimulated 
the sale of nute from such trees under varietal names 
for the planting of seedling orchards throu^out the 
Gulf States. Thu was true to a large extent With regard 




to Centennial, Rome, Frotscher, Stuart, Russell, 
Pabst, Jewett, Van Deman. Post, and Hollis, thousands 
of seedlings of which in aooryards and orchards are 
now found throughout the ^uth. These seedlings, 
while frequently bearing a general resemblance to me 
parent, usually vary widely in important features and, 
as might be expected, in a large proportion of in- 
stances are infenor to the parent vanety. Names have 
in many cases been applied to the nuts of wild trees 
sold for planting, with the result that much confusion 
has existed in the varietal nomenclature. The adoption 
of a code of nomenclature by the National Nut- 
Growers' Association in 1903, and its systematic 
application by a standing conunittee of that organi- 
zation, has to a large extent clarified the situation in 
recent years. 

The adaptability of varieties to sections, including 
the important feature of relative resistance to such dis- 
eases as scab under varying climatic conditions, is 
gradually being worked out and is essential to the 
establishment of commercial pecan-growing on an 
economically sound basis. At the present time there is 
much working over of trees of bearing age in progress, 
with the end m view of replacing the varieties originally 
planted by those found better adapted to the regional 
or local conditions. 

Out of several hundred named trees, somewhat more 
than one hundred varieties have b^n propagated by 
nurseiymen. Of these, many are as yet untested out- 
side of the localities of their origin. Some twenty to 
thirty sorts have been sufficientljr distributed for a 
long enough time to afford indication of their proba- 
ble cultural range and value, with the result that a 
number of the earUer distributed varieties, including 
Centennial, Jewett, and Rome, and a number of sorts 
of local repute, have been practically discarded by 

The varietal adaptability of the pecan so far as pos- 
sible to smnmarize as the result of several years of 
systematic study in the field was outlined by R^d in 
1915 (Farmers' Bulletin No. 700, "Pecan Culture," 
with special reference to varieties and propagation) as 

Varieties now considered best for planting in the 
plains section of southeastern Virginia and eastern 
North Carolina are the Stuart, Mantura, Van Deman, 
Moneymaker, Schley, Pabst, and James. 

Varieties which may be recommended for eastern 
South Carolina, eastern and central Georgia, central 
Alabama, and central Mississippi are uie Schley, 
Stuart, Van Deman, Moneymaker, James, and Carman. 

Varieties for planting in south Georgia and north 
Florida are the Schley, Curtis, Bradley, Alley, Van 
Deman, Stuart, Moneymaker, President, Pabst, and 

Varieties for central and north Florida: Curtis, 
Bradley, Kennedy, President, Schley, Van Deman, 
and Moneymaker. 

Varieties for the coastal section of Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, and Louisiana: Schley, Curtis, Alley, Van 
Deman, Russell, Stuart, Pabst, Success, and Havens. 

Varieties for east Texas: Very few sorts have been 
given a fair trial in this section. The varieties here 
mentioned are recommended venr largely because of 
their performance farther east. They are the Stuart, 
Moneymaker, Schley, Curtis, Van I>eman, Bradley, 
Carman, and James. 

Varieties for west Texas: Sovereign (syn. Texas 
Prolific), Kincaid, Colorado, San Saba, Halbert, and 

Varieties for northern Louisiana, southern Arkansas, 
and northern Mississippi: Very few sorts have been 
g^ven a fair trial in this section. The following varie- 
ties are mentioned because of certain evidence of supe- 
rior hardiness which they have shown and the general 
merit of the nuts themselves, but they are recommended 

for conservative planting only : Moneymaker, Carman, 
Stuart, Van Deman, Scfley, Pabst, and Success. 

Varieties for the section including central and western 
Tennessee, central and western Kentucky, southern 
Indiana, southern and southwestern Illinois, eastern 
and southern Missouri, southeastern Kansas. Okla- 
homa, and northern Arkansas: Only varieties of north- 
em or local origin should be considered for planting in 
this ^nend area, as none of the southern sorts is 
sufficiently hardy to justify their recommendation. 
The best of these are the Major, Niblack, Indiana, 
Busseron, and Posey. 

Some of the best known sorts now in the trade, with 
locality of origin indicated, arc the following: 

2833. Varieties of the pecan: J, Moneymaker; 2, Russell; 
3, Frotscher; 4, Rome; 5, Alley; 6, Success; 7, Curtis. ( X^) 

AUey (Fi^. 2833). — ^Pascaffoula, Miasissippi. A thin-shclled nut 
of medium sue, with plump kernel of good flavor. Tree a vigorous 
grower and heavy beu'er, though subject to scab in some locations. 

Butseron. — Knox County, Indiana. Recently disseminated and 
considered promising for Indiana and other northern sections. 

Centennial (Fig. 28^). — St. James Parish, Louisiana. The first 
vuiety propagated by grafting. Exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876. 
A large long nut, with rather thick shell and slender kernel. Tree a 
83ntnmetricai, vigorous grower but very tardy in bearing. Practi- 
cally discarded in favor of better varieties. 

Curtis (Fig. 2833).— Orange Heights, Florida. Though rather 
small in size, a thin-shelled nut with plump kernel of fine quality. 
Very productive and popular in Florioa. 

Delnuu (Fig. 2834). — Pascagoula, Mississippi. A large, rather 
thick-shelled productive variety of very sturdy growth, but rather 
subject to scab. Kernel plump and of high quality. 

Frotscher (syns., Eg^cshell, Frotscher's Eggshell, Olivier, Majes- 
tic) (Fig. 2833). -^-Olivier, Louisiana. One of the mcwt widely dis- 
seminated and distinct of the older varieties. Very large and thin- 
shelled but with kernel rather dark and unattractive in appear- 
ance, frequently not filling well. Rapidly giving way to more 
reliable sorts. 

HoUie (syns., Hollis's Jumbo, Jumbo, Risien, Georgia Belle, 
Post's Select, in part). — Bend, Texas. A medium to large, roundish 




nut, rather widely duseminated for several years as Post's Select. 
Mainly planted in central Texas. 

Indiana. — Knox County, Indiana. Of medium size, with thin 
shell and kernel of exceOent quality. Promising for northern 

Jewett. — Pascagoula, Mississippi. Widely disseminated at one 
time, but generally discarded because of unproductiveness and 
unthrif tiness of tree and unsatisfactory filling of the laige long nut. 

Kincaid. — San Saba, Texas. A large, oblong nut, with moder- 
ately thin shell and plump kernel of fine quality. S<uib8 badly in 
South Atlantic States. 

Major. — Henderson County, Kentucky. Recently introduced, 
but considered promising in northern pecan territory. Of only 
medium size but thin-«helTcd, with plump kernel of fine quality. 

Mobile (syns., Laurcndine, Batey's Perfection). — Ba^ou La 
Batre, Alabama. A very large and handsome nut, coming into 
bearing early but not filling well in most sections where tested, axid 
therefore httic planted in recent years. 

7*1 1 iiiMi'iil'IO '^ 

''*(rtf."»i«1M*'-"f^ • 


2834. VarietieB of the pecan: 1, San Saba; 2, Teche; J, Stuart; 
4, Van Deman; 5, Centennial; 6, Schley; 7, Delmas. ( X H) 

Moneymaker (Fig. 2833). — Mound. Louisiana. A medium-sized, 
rather thin-shelled nut of excellent cracking and fair dessert quaUty. 
A precocious, productive sort. One of the hardiest of the aouthem 

Niblack. — Knox County, Indiana. Recently introduced. Below 
medium in size, but its excellent cracking and fine dessert qualities 
make it promising for the North. 

Pabtt. — Ocean Springs, Mississippi. A large, rather thick-ahelled 
sort with a very plump and attractive kernel of excellent quality. 

Po/rf (syn., Poet's Select). — Milbum, Texas. Nuts and seedling 
trees were widely disseminated for several years under this name, 
at first from a tree on the Colorado Kivcr bottom near Milburn, 
Texas, later from other trees nearby, and still later from the 
HoUis tree in the same county. The nut of the original Poet tree 
is of medium size and very attractive appearance and thousands of 
seedlings from it have been planted throughout the South, but 
neither the variety nor it« seedlings are now propagated. 

Rome (syns., Columbia, Columbian, Century, Twentieth Cen- 
turj'. Pride of the Coa»t, Southern Giant) (Fig. 2833). — Convent, 
Louisiana. One of the largest varieties and for several years the 
most widely exploited, but now practically discarded by planters. 
Shell thick and Kernel frequently defective. 

Rtuaell (Fig. 2833). — Ocean Springs, Mississippi A medium- 
sized conical nut with very thin shell. Quality excellent when well 
filled but often faulty. Tree slender and tender but very produc- 
tive along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. 

San Saba (83ms., Papershell, Risien's Papershell, Royal) (Fig. 
2834). — Though small, its thinness of shell, plumpness and sweet- 
ness of kernel make it a highly desirable nut where it succeeda. 
Tree a vigorous, though slender grower; very productive; scabs 
badly in eastern districts. 

Schley (syn.. Admiral Schlev) (Fig. 2834). — Pascagoula. Missis- 
sippi. One of the most widely successful commercial sorts. Nut 
generally large, with thin shell and plump kernel of excellent quality. 
l>ee pendulous in habit but vigorous and productive. 

Sovereign (syn., Texas Prolific). — San Saba, Texas. Seedling of 
San Saba, larg^ than the parent, with somewhat thicker shell. 
Very productive in Texas but susceptible to scab in eastern dis- 

Stuart (syn., Castanera) (Fig. 2834). — Widely phmted and 
generally productive. Nut large, filling well but rather difficult to 
crack ami, therefore, less planted as a commercial nut than formerly. 

Success (Pig. 2833). — Ocean Springs, Mississippi. A large nut 
with a relatively thin shell and plump kerneL 

Teche (syns., Frotschcr No. 2, Duplicate Frotscher, Fake 
Frotscher, Spurious Frotscher) (Fig. 2834). — Probably a seedling 
of Frotscher, mixed with that variety in nursery and disseminated 
as Frotscher. Rather small and not of high quality, but very pro- 
ductive throughout the southeastern states. 

Van Deman (syns.. Mire, Duminie Mire, Paragon, Bourgeob) 
(Fig. 2834). — ^A large to very large nut, cracking well, with plump 
kernel of high quality. Widely planted m lower Mississippi Valley 
and Gulf Coast sections. Subject to scab farther east. 

Hybrids. — Numerous hybrids of C. Pecan with C. laciniosa and 
C. aquatioa are known and some have been named and propagated 
in a small way. Of these the McCallister (syn., Floyd), found near 
Mt. Vernon, Indiana, is a very large nut, probably the kirgest 
known hickory-nut. The original tree has for many years failed to 
mature more than a small proportion of plump kernels and top- 

Safted trees of the variety nave exhibited the same weakness, so 
at it cannot be regarded as of commercial value. 


Books and bulletins have been published on nut- and 
pecan-culture and varieties. Some of the works are: 
^'Nut Culture in the United States." Division of 
Pomology, 1896; "The Nut Culturist/' A. S. Fuller, 
1896; "Nuts for Profit," John R. Parry, 1897; "Pecan 
Culture for Western Texas," E. E. Risien, 1904; "The 
Pecan and Its Culture," H. Harold Hume. 1906: 
'Tecans," J. B. Wi|;ht, 1906. Detailed historical 
accounts and descriptions of forty of the best known 
varieties, with colored plates, occur in Department of 
Agriculture Yearbooks for the years 1904-1909 and 

The following bulletins on the pecan have been 
issued: Florida Experiment Station Bulletins Nos. 64, 
57, 85; Texas Experiment Station Bulletin No. 69; 
North Carolina Department of Agiculture Bulletins 
Nos. 30, 156, 224; Georga State College of Agricul- 
ture Bulletin No. 82; Oeorma Experiment Station 
Bulletin No. 116; Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletins 
Nos. 30, 251; Farmers' Bulletin No. 700. 

Wm. a. Taylor. 

PECTINARIA (comMiibe). Asdepiaddcese. The genus 
as described by Haworth, not of other authors, com- 
prises succulent leafless herbs: sts. tufted, usually pro- 
cumbent, acutely, obtusely or obscurely 4-8-angled: 
fls. small, solitary or in fascicles in the grooves or on 
the sides between the angles; calyx 5-parted; corolla 
small, budlike, with a short cup-shaped hemispheric 
or broad and shidlow tube and 5 lobes connate at 
the apex; corona double, outer cupUke and variably 
cut into 10 to numerous teeth or of 5 minute lobes, 
inner of 5 lobes incumbent upon the backs of the 
anthers or erect and about equalmg or longer than them 
and connivent-erect over them; filaments of the sta- 
mens connate, forming a tube around the ovary and 
adnate to the dilated top of the style: follicles narrowly 
fusiform, glabrous. — Five species, all S. African. The 
following species have been intro. at Kew: P. saj> 
dtilis, N. EI. Br. Sts. acutely 4-angled, with flat or 
sUghtly concave sides and distant acute deltoid teeth 
along the angles: corolla broadly ovoid or subglobose, 
covered with fine hairs on the mner surface, blackish 
purple or purple-brown. P. asperifdlia, N. E. Br. Sts. 
cyUndric, with 6-8 series of closely placed tubercles: 
corolla papillate outside and within also pentagonally 
subglobose, with the papillse on the inner surface 


covered with short spikelike processee, duU puipliBh 
outside, the whole sunace inside froeted white, dotted 
with cmnsoD. p. Tract Httbbabd. 

I^DDlfiA (named after Major Peddle). Thj/melr 
xAcex. Glabrous shrubs, hardy in the extreme south 
of the United States. 

Leaves sparse, subcoriaceous or membranaceous: 
fls. yellowian green, in peduncled umbels at the tips 
of the branchea, pedicelled, perfect; perianth-tube 

the apex, 2^11ed: drupe succulent, with 2 nutlets. — 
About 10 species, Trop. and S. Afr. 

■McAno, Harv. Shrub: Ivs. subopposite, elliptiij, 
nearly sesHile, glabrous: fls. in terminal stalked umbels, 
tubular, J^-?^- long, 4-5-lobed, the lobes revolute; 
fr. a dnipe with 2 stones, ovoid, about I in. long. 8. 
^'- F. Tract Hdbbakd. 

Pra>ICtn.XRIS (from Latin for Imtae; application 
not evident). Scrophvlariicex. Lousewobt. Herbs, 
mostly perennial sometimes planted in grounds for the 
showy spikes of flowers and often finely cut foliage. 

Moetly erect, only seldom annual or biennial: Ivs. 
alternate or whorled (sometimes opposite), rarely sub- 
opposite. 1 to many times pinnately divided, rarely 
merely dentate: fls. purplish, red, lose-color to white, 
■1 spring and summer, borne mostly ■'- - ' — ' — 

> terminal 

bracted spike; calyx anteriorly cut, variously 2-S- 
toothed, sometimes also posteriorly; corolla 2-lipped, 
the upper one (or galea) with or without a long beak, 
the tube cylindrical; stamens 4, did3mamoua: cape. 
ovate or lanceolate, oblique; seeds usually few. — Tliere 
are about 250 species of Pedicularis in many parts of 
the Dortheni hemisphere (a few S. American), many of 
them arctic and alpine. Thirty te 40 are native in the 


U. S.,_ and the genus has a la^e extension in Asia. They 

are little known as garden plants, not being really 
domesticated. Some of them are adaptable to banks 
and borders, and ottiers to rock-gardena and alpine 
work; Bome are swamp plants. They are likely not to 
persist long without renewal, as they appear to be pai^ 
tially parasitic and may require a particular host plant. 
Proi>. oy seeds and division. Tlie following American 
qiecies are perenniaL 

A. Lvs. undivided: galea hnff-beaked. 
racemtea, Douglas. Hei^t 12-18 in.; sts. leafy and 
simple or branched : lvs. lanceolate, undivided, minutely 
ana doubly crenulate: fls. white; galea (uppo' lip of the 
corolla) with a long beak ()>^in. long), circinate-in- 
curved, nearly reaching the lower lip. Colo, to Brit. 
Col.; subalpine. 
AA. Lw. varioudy dimded: galea unlft very Aort heak or 

Grilyi, A. Nels. (P. prodra. Gray). Fig. 2835. 
Robust, ly^ ft. high, leafy: lvs. pinnately divided, 
the segms. lanceolate and pinnatifid and the lobes again 
dentate or cut, the radical lvs. 1 ft. or more long: fls, 
sordid yellowish and ^eenish striate, in a dense-fld. 

Subescent spike 10-20 in. long, the galea not beaked; 
.-bracts long. Mountains of Colo, and New Mex. 
lanceoUta, Michx. Swaup Loubbwort. Glabrous 
or nearly so, 1-3 ft. hi^, simple, or branched above: 
lvs. alternate and opposite, pinnatelv lobed, upper ones 
sessile: fls. yellow in a short spike; bracte shorter than 
the fls.: caps, ovate, scarcely longer than the calj-x. 
Aug.-Oct. Swamps, Conn, to Man., to Ohio and Neb. 
canadtinsis, Linn. Wood Betony. The common 
American lousewort, usually more or less hairy: sts. 
commonly tufted, J4-l}4ft.high;lvB. mostly alternate, 
oblong-lanceolate, pinnately parted, all but the upper- 
most petioled, the lobes oblong and obtuse, incised or 
dentate: fls. j^low or reddish, rarely white, in a short 
spike that elongates in fr.; caps, lanceolate, 3 times a3 
long as the calyx. April-June. Dry woods and thickets. 
Nova Scotia to Man.; south, Fla. to Mex. B.B.3:186. 
B.M. 2506. 

p. nlmpM, Hook. (. Sts. I ft. lona, iwy slender and cnrvinK; 
IvB. far upv^l in. or tw looa, piniuitifid. tlie lobes 3 or 4 pairs 
and incised: fls. nia&<olared, axillary, long-pedii 

U, aTft^ I 

tootbod: Si. ^m^coLoi' in a'draue epiLe; 
Ga. 62, p. 97.— P. miUit, Wall. Annual, 2- 

the Hi.. Dvate DT Dblong, pinnAtifid, Cbe aegina. linear and crrnato 
or pinnattfid; Ha. dsrk pinkish puiple, in gtri<^t npikea 6-IS in. long. 
Himalaya, Tbibet. ID.OOO-U.OOti fl. B.M. 4SB9. J, F. 2:160.— 
P. aeijKrum-Carottnuin, Unn. at. feir-lvd.. 3-1 It.: Ivs._piniiatifid, 
tbe loba ovate and crenulate: Ss. golden yellow, 1 in. Ions, in an 
intemn)t«d Binke, the lower lip tinisd red. Eu. O.C HI. 40:3S5. 

PEDILXnTUDS (Greek, 8h>e-.A>u»r). EuphorbiAcese. 
SupPBB Plant. Bird CAcrna. RfuBUtD Cactus. 
Supper Spcroe. Jew Bosh. Low tender cactus-like 
shrubs, grown in collections of succulents. 

Stems thick and fleshy, juice milky: lvs. alternate,' 
often rudimentary, the midrib thickened and often 
keeled below: inff, of terminal or axillary cj^es; the 
fl. and fr. characters as in Euphorbia, but the involucre 
with a deep fissure and a short spur on the upper side, 
the spur containing the glands. — About 30 species in 
Trop. Araer. Prop, and cult, similar to the succulent 
eupnorbisa. See Millspaugh in Field Museum Nat. 
Hist., PubUcation 172, 1913, for areviaion of the species. 

A. Lobe of the iiwohtcre above tke tpw entire. 

tithymaloldes, Poit. (Euphdrbia tithytnaloide», Linn. 

E. eatudiculdUt, Lodd. E. earinAta, E>onn). St. 4-6 ft. 

hi^: lvs. dark green, ovate or oblong, acute; midrib 

keeled below and dentate: involucres bright red or 


purple, J^^J^in. Ions, in dense termiDtLl nymea, fflabroua 
uiBide and out; pedicels of the stamens hairy, of the 
ovary smooth. Fia, to Venezuela. B,R. 837. L.B.C. 
8:727. B.M. 2514.— Two varieties are in cult., cucni- 
Iditu and variegdtua, Hurt., both with white-bordered Ivb. 

ndifOlius, Poit. Sta. green, glabrous: Ivs. few, 
ig-ovate, obtuBe: cymes terminal, open; tube of the 
involucre hairy only witliin; pedicels of both Btameiia 
tad ovary hairy. W. Indies. 
AA. Lobe ahoBe the tpur i-parted; braelt of Ute infl. green 

aph^llus, BoisB. Branches Blender, leafiess: cymee 
terminal; the pubescent peduncle attached at the back 
of the involucre, which is hairy within; pedicels of the 
stamens and ovary glabrous. Mex. — Intro, as a wax- 
yielding plant. 

macrociipus, Benth. Shrubby: sts. whitish: Ivs. 
minute: cymes open, few-fld.; peduncle attached to the 
center of the involucre, pedicels glabrous. W. Mex. 
J. B. S. Norton. 

PEDIOCACTUS (pininscadu*). Cacl^a-T. Globular, 
resembling in habit and flower the so-called mammii- 
larias: fls. small, with a rather indeltnile funnel-shaped 
tube: petals pinkish, broad; sepals amaller than the 
petals and duller in color; bracts on corolla-tube few; 
stamens numerous ; ovary green, nearly globular, usually 
without bracts (rarely 1, otherwise naked), 

rx with a truncate or depressed scar left by 
deciduous corolla: fr. dry, greenish, bursting 
irrecularly : seeds dull black, tuberculate, keeled 
on the bock, with a large sub-basal hilum. The 
fl. originates just above the spine arcolo on 
the very young tubercles, and therefore this 
genus belongs to the Echinocactus type rather 
than to the so-called mammillarias. The seeds i 
of the Echinocactus type, 

^mpsonii, Brit. & Rose. Subglobose or depressed, 
turbinate at base, simple^ often clustered, 3>^ in. 
diam.: ribs S-13, only indicated by the spiral arran^ 
ment of the prominent tubercles, which are i^Hio. 
long, somewhat quadrangular at base and cylindric 
id>ove: exterior spines 2(>-30, slender, rigid, straight, 
whitish, H-J-zin. long, with 2-5 addition^ short seta- 
ceous ones above; interior spines S-XO, stouter, yellow- 
ish and reddish brown or black above, erect4i)reading, 
%-:'sin. long; no truly central spine; fla. Ji-^i". long 
and nearly as broad, yullowiah green to pale purple. 
Mountains of Colo., \Vyo., Utah, and Nev. — Tliia spe- I 
cieB doe8_ not grow well in cult.; although it la fre- 
quently intro. This is the sjtecieB which forms the 
''gnake cactus" or "brain cactus" often seen in cult. 
J. N. Rose. 

PELARGdNIUH (stork, because the fruit is long and 
slender like a stork's bill). Geraniacex. Geranium of 
gardens. Felaroonium. Stokk'b Bill. Many kinds 
of pot^plants, popular for indoors and for bedding; and 
some of them much planted permanently out-oNloorB 
in California and elsewhere; flowers showy. 

Plants of various habit: some are fleahy and tuberous 
and ore treated as succulents, but those commonly 
grown are erect or trailing leafy herbs or woody below 
(sometimes shrubby) with sts. somewhat soft and suc- 
culent or small and firm: Ivs. mostly opposite, entire 
to decompound, stipulate, the foliage often strong- 
Bcented: infl. mostly umbcl-likc, on axillary peduncles; 
fls. irregular, the |>etal9 5 (rarely fewer by abortion), 
the 2 upper usually larger and more prominentlv 
colored, the lower mostly narrow and rarely very snudl, 
the colore pink, rod, purple, white, sometimes yellow, 
oftenattractivcly blotched or veined; calyx ^-parted (or 
the sepals said to be cimnute at base), the uppermost 

X. produced at base into a slender nectar-bearing 
or spur adnate to the pedicel; stamens 10, of 
which 7 or less ore anther-bearing and fertile: fr. of 5 
valves, each 1-sceded and separating from the beak- 



like apex mostly by coiling and more or less hygro- 
metrically. ^Nearly all the pelargoniums are from S. 
Afr. All the species mentioned in this article are from 
that region, unless otherwise stated. Harvey, in Vol. I 
of Harvey & Bonder's Flora Capenais (185M0), admits 

163 species; and his descriptions are followed closely 
the cnaracteriaations of species pven below. Ki 


the most recent monographer (in Engler's Pflanzen- 
reich, IV. 129, 1912), admite 232 species and very many 
well-marked hybrids. Pelargonium is distinguished 
from the genup Geranium by technical charoctera. In 
most cases, the fls. of Geranium ore regular, but those 
of Pelargonium are irregular, the 2 upper petals differing 
from the others in size and shane and oft«n in coloring. 
The most constant difference betwecD the two genera 
is the presence in Pelargonium of a nectar-tube, extend- 
ing from the base of one of the sepals and adherent to 
the side of the calyx-tube or pedicel. This tube is not 
seen by the casual observer, but it may be discovered 
by making a longitudinal section of the H. and pedicel. 
The person who wishes to study the contemporaneous 
evolution of plants may find his heart's desire in 
Pelargonium. With great numbers of species and many 


of them Tari&ble and confusing in a wild state, vitb 
plant-breeding in many places and continued through 

two centuriee, and with a large special literature, the 
genua offers exceptional advantages and perplexities 
to the student. Most of the species ear^ came into 
cultivation bv the Englifih and 
Dutch, the South African plants 
forming at one time almost a separ- 
ate deriartment of horticultural 
knowleage. P. cttcuZfotum, the domi- 
i nant parent in the floriat's pelar- 
f goniuma, was known in £]ngland ad 
arly 38 1690. The two originak of 
he race of zonal or bedding gero' 
iiiTTiB were introduced into Eng- 
land in 1710 and 1714. Early in 
that century, a half-dosen speciea 
were grown at Eltham, in the famous 
garden of James Sherard, and theee 
were pictured in 1732 in Dillenius' 
account of that garden, "Hortus 
T^Hh ampHf^Jft, ' * a sumptuously illus- 
_ trated work in quarto. Even at 

28J7. Gudenar^ t^** t"i^t P- inquinans had varied 
M«l,ud theorltliul markedly (see Fig. 2836). In bis 
fonn, u depictMl In "SpeciesPlantarum," 1753,LinnffiUS 
IMI. described the few species which he 

knew (about twenty-five) under the 
genua Geranium. In 1787, L'Heritier founded the genus 
Pelargonium, and transferred many of the Limuean 
speciee. L'Heritier'B work "Geraniolopa," a quarto, 
appeared in Paris in 1787 to 1788, with forty-four fuli- 

Bffi plates. Recently Kuntie nas revived the pr&- 
nnsan name Geraniospeimum (1736) for this genua, 
but it is not likely to find acceptance. 

Earl^ in the nineteenth century, many roecies were 
in cultivation in Europe, and experiments in hybridising 
and breedinK became common. There appears to have 
been something like a geranimn craze. The experi- 
ments seeni to have been confined largely to the 
development of the show or fancy pelargoniumB, as 
greenhouse subjects, for bedding plants had not reached 
their present popularity. The geranium interest seems 
to have culnunated in Robert Sweet's noble work on 
"Geraniaceae," published in five volumes in London, 
1820 to 1830, cont^ning 600 well-executed colored 
plat«s of eeraniaceous plants. At that time many dis- 
tinct garden hybrids were in cultivation, and to these 
Sweet gave Iiatin botanical names. Hi a fifth volume 
is devoted chiefly to garden forms of the show pelar- 
gonium type, to which the general class name Domes- 
ticum is given in the following sketch. The develop- 
ment of the Eonal or beddins geraniums had begun 
in Sweet's time, and he includes them in his pictures, 
but the larger part of their evolution is subsequent 
to his history. Various small works on pelargonium 
have appeared. De Jonghe's "Trait£ Mi^odique de 
la Culture du Pdlargonium," Brussels, 1844, contains 
good bibliographical and cultural data. 

Few claffies of plants should have more interest to 
the amateur and fancier because the species are 
numerous and varied, the colors mostly very attrac- 
tive, the habit of the plant interesting, and the foliage 
often with pleasing fragrance ; yet, excluding the common 
window and bedaing geraniums of the P. zonule and P. 
inquinant type and the Lady Washington or Show 
types, they are very little known to garcfeners. A cool 
KTeenhouse could be made to yield very interesting sub- 
jects in the species here described and others that may 
u« »»...».] r.»w. ».ii^.ntAH ,"u ^j^ regions where they 


This race seems to be derived from P. zoruile and P. 
ingaitums. Theee two species were made by Limucus 
in 1753, but he founded them on descriptions in earlier 
works rather than directly on the plants. In America, 
the Bonal geraniums are very popular, for they develop 
their colors well in the bright climate. They are popu- 
lar in all countries, however. They probably stand 
cloaer to the lives of a great number of persons than any 
other omament&l plant. K a window or a garden can 
have but one plant, that plant is likely to be a geranium. 
The old race of lai^e-flowered and large-clustered 
geramums was known as "nosegay geraniums," because 
tliey were bououet-like, but this term is not known in 
America. Anotner race has been developed for its zone- 
marked leaves. There is also a race of double-flowered 
zonals, which have 
appeared chiefly since 
I860. The very full 
V double and close-clus- 

.'■;. , tered forms lose much 
of the grace and charm 
■^ ^g!". of the single types. 

' X^^ Some of them arelittle 
•^k\- "bI .-« ^7^»^ better, to a sensitive 

ST" V'rV^*- '^' «y«. '!>" bdl. of 

i, '?-'-^i*J ■J''-- '^ colored paper. In the 

^-^ . '•^^' ."*- .•-! development of the 

individual flower of the 
geranium, there have 
Been two ideals — the 
English ideal for a cir- 
cular flower with the 
petals broadened and 
overlappiiw, and the 
continental ideal with 
a somewhat two-lipped 
flower and the petals 
well separated. In the 
"Gardeners' Chroni- 
cle" in 1841, p. 644, 
the proper form is set 
forth in an illustration, 
and this is contrasted 
with the "original 
form;" the picture is 
reproduced, somewhat 
smaller, in Pig. 2S37. 
"The long, narrow, 
flimsy petals of the old 
varieties," the writing 
Bays, "moved by every 
breath of wind, and 
separated to their very 
base by broad open 
spaces, have been suc- 
cecded by the beauti- 
ful compact flowers of 
the present day, with 
broad stout petals so 
entirely overlaying 
each other as to leave 
scarcely an indentation 
in the outline of the 
flower; while the 
coarseness which pre- 
vailed in the larger of 
the old sorts is replaced 
by a firlner substance, 

be secured from collectors ii 

Moat of the cultivated forms of pelargonium may 
be grouped into four general horticultural classes: 

I. The tonal, horeeshoe, fish, or bedding types, 
known to gardeners as "geraniums." They compri:^ 
a mongrel class, designated as the Hortorum class 

and a far i 

: deli- 

283B. Tlina f oniu i 
inlfl**i The Dpjiflc t 
two-Upped lifl. Upp w m wt ii Mn. 
G. O. Hmi middle " ' 

cate texture." Fig. 
2838 shows contrasting 
ideals, although the 
picture does not repre- 




peared under the name of "gros bois," or "large-wood" 
race. It is characterized as follows by Dauthenay: 
umbels ordinarily 4 to 5 inches in diameter: flowers very 
large; petals roundish, or sometimes triangular, the limb 
always very large and giving the corolla a remarkably 
round contour: leaves very large, thick and coriaceous, 
plane or incurved, more or less indented, strongljr 
nerved, their diameter averaging about 5 inches, pedi- 
cels large and short: peduncles large, rigid, and pro- 
jecting beyond the foliage: wood soft, fleshy, very Iso^, 
often 1 }^ mches around. To this type Dauthenay refers 
the Bruant geraniums, dating 
from 1882. A special hand- 
book is devoted to these 
plants : Dauthenay, "Les 
Gdraniums,'' Paris, 1897. 

Pelargonium peltatum ( X K)< No. 7. 

II. The ivy-leaved geraniums, products largely of 
Pelargonium peltatum (Fig. 2839). The species is said 
to have been introduced into England in 1701. It is a 

slightly peltate and prominently angle-lobed, and the 

Sink or reddish two-lipped flowers are always admired, 
luch-improved and double forms are now in commerce. 

III. The "show" or fancy type is known to gardeners 
as "pelargonium,'' and in this country also as Lady 
Washington geraniums (Fie. 2845). These plants are 
very popular in Europe, being grown in numerous 
varieties. They are prominent at the exhibitions. 
Because of the hot trying summer climate, these plants 
are of very secondary importance in America, altnou^ 
there are many gardeners who succeed well with them. 
This race of p)elargoniums seems to have descended 
chiefly from P. cucrmatum, although P. anffulosum may 
be nearly equally concerned in it. P. grandiflorum is 
also thought to have been a formative parent. It is 
probable that two or three other species are concerned 
m the evolution. In fact, the late Shirley Hibbard once 
wrote (G.C., July 3, 1880) that "it must be evident to 
every cultivator of these flowers that the blood of a 
score or so of species is mingled in them." This marked 
garden race, which represents no single wild species, is 
designated as the Doinesticum group 

IV. Various scented-leaved geramums, known mostly 
as "rose geraniums." These are of several species, with 
their hybrids and derivatives. The common rose 
geraniums are nearest P. graoeolens and P. Radula. The 
nutmeg geranium is P. odoratissimum or P. fraarans. 

Aside from the above sroups there are several species 
which appear sporadically in -the trade, as P. iomeiV' 
tosunij P. echinaium, P. tristef P. quinquevulnerumt P. 
fvlgidum, and P. quercifolium or the derivatives of them. 
Few great collections of pelargonium species and 
varieties have been made in this country, and this is 
much to be regretted. 

Culture of zonal geraniums. (C. W. Ward.) 

While the i^eneral florist may consider geranium- 
culture the easiest of all gardening, the fact remains that 
it is as necessary to observe the requirements of the 
geranium as it is to observe the requirements of any 
other plant, in order to succeed and produce the best 
effects attainable. While it is true that the geranium 
will grow and make a good showing with comparatively 
little care, there is as much difference between a skil- 
fully grown geranium plant and one carelessly grown 
as there is l^tween a fancy and a common rose or 

To secure the best results it is necessary to propagate 
from perfectly healthy stock. The dangers of over- 
propagation are as great with the geranium 
as wim most other plants. To keep most 
varieties in good health it is necessary to plant 
the stock intended for propagation in the field 
and to propagate either from the field-grown 
wood in August or early September, or to lift 
the plants in the month of September and plant them 
on benches in the greenhouse, where they will become 
established and wUl maintain a vigorous constitution 
throughout the winter season. The propagation from 
field-grown wood is far less successful than from wood 
grown inside, and when the field-grown cuttings are 
placed in sand, a lar^ percentage of them is likely to 
damp-off, especially if there has been a comparatively 
abundant rainfall in the month of July. The best 
method that the writer has found for striking the field- 
grown cuttings is to put them in 2-inch pots, using a 
U|o^t sandy soil free from all manure and chemicals, 
and to place the pots in the full sunlight either in a 
coolhouse or a frame. These cuttings must be kept on 
the dry side until the calluses have been well formed, 
althoudi they should not be allowed to shrivel at any 
time. If the cuttings show signs of shriveling, a light 
syringing is preferable to a heavy watering. After the 
roots have started^ the treatment of the plants is the 
same as if the cuttmgs had been rooted in the sand a.nd 
repotted. The writer coiibiders wood grown inside 
sup)erior to field-grown wood, as the cuttings are much 
shorter-jointed; most of them can be taken from the 
plant with a heel and 95 to 100 per cent of them will 
root in sand in the ordinary cutting-bench. 

A good tcmp)erature for the geranium propagating- 
house is 56** to 60**, with a bottom heat of 65" to 68^. 
While l^e cuttings are in the sand and before they are 
rooted, care must be taken about keeping them too 
moist for fear of "damping-off," or wnat geranium- 
prowers know as ^lack-rot." As soon as the cutting 
18 thoroughly callused and begins to emit roots, it 
should be potted up at once. The best soil for gera- 
niums, according to tiie writer's exi)erience, is a firm 
pliable clay loam; this is best if used absolutely wi^out 
any manure, especially fresh manure. After potting the 
cuttings they should be lightly watered and shaded for a 
day or so if the sun is extremely hot, until the roots 
take hold and the foliage fills up and the stems begin to 
look plump. The geranium should not be ^wn at any 
time m its young state in a soil that is too nch, and care 
must also be taken that the plants are not kept too wet. 
The geranium is subject to few diseases, and so far 
as the writer has been able to observe these diseases 
are brought on by improper treatment, such as having 
too much fresh rank manure in the soil or keeping the 
plants too wet. Too much strong plant-food in the earth 
combined with too much moisture induces a condition 
of the leaves oitlinfuily called "spot." It usually 
appears in the hottest weather or immediately after 
extreme heat accompanied by copious showers or rains. 
Excellent specimen geranium plants may be grown in 
pots, especially of some of the newer French and Eng- 
lish round-flowered varieties. In order to produce the 
best results, choose young vigorous plants that have 


been propagated either in the latter part of August or 
the forepart of September, and that bave shown a dis- 
position to take hold immediately, both in rooting and 
m starting to grow after being potted. The soil ^ould 
not be too rich, and it ia beet to start nith tlie plant in a 
rather smaJl pot, say 2>j inches, and proceed onward 
wilb light shifts, — that is, ehiftmg the [Jaat from a 
234-iQ(£ to a 3 K-inch pot, and so on, letting the sizes 
increase an inch at each diift until a 7-, 8-, or 9-inch 
pot is reached, which will 
usually !» large enoug^ 
to flower the finest speci- 
mens. Whenever shitting 
the geranium, be sure to 
pot firmly, as a firm soil 
produces ^ short^jointed 
stocky growth, tuid far 
more bloom than a looee 
or over-rich soil. When 
tiie plants reach a 5- or 
6-incn pot they may be 

water. The moat cnt cal 
tune for these specunen 
geramums will be m the i 
of July August and Septex I 
m these ]ienoda exposure in 
tense sunahine should be av |pd 
Too much water and a cloai m 
peratiu* are always detnir ntal 
to the geramum Synngmg t! fob 
age frequently to keep down 1 t iii 
perature is also m].unoiis If thi?sa 
plants are kept under glass a 1 yht 
shading or st p] mg upon the glj-ia 
IS benefi al Probably the h i 
t on f o su h plants m tb 
extreme months is on the n 
of a row of trees, some distan 
from the trees, where the pi nts n 11 
have the benefit of the subdu J b id 
mg of tlie fol age If kept un I i:l on I 
Hhaded,abundantventiilation should always 
be provided As the wmter n.ppmmhi's 
a mght temperature of 60° aihI <1u\ tem- 
perature of 70° to 75°, with pUnt^ of 
veiitjiation m the davtuae, tsimialK in 
bright weather, seem best lo suit the 
plants. Syringing ruina the tlontrs and 
too much moisture either in the pot or 
upon the foliage causes the STKitting of Ihp 
leaves known as "dropsy." In planting 
the geranium in the fiela or in beds, alwuya 
avoid an over-rich soil. The earth should 
be in good condition and fertile, but must 
not be loaded with either chemical or animal 
ferttlifer. Too much water at any period 
during the hot weather produces a rank 
^wm, reduces the quantity of bloom and 
in most instances induces the spotted foliage 
to appear. 

Another diaesae, which is sometimes seri- 
ous, especially in extremrly hot a 
accompanied with a superabunriance of 
ure, ia "stem-rot." "Iiiis frcijiicntly attacks 
imported stock. It is most serirmn in intensely 
hot seasons; the entire plririt turna black 
and fades and withers awa".-. The atem-rot 
occurs in varieties that haveljcen very heavily 

The insects that affect the E^uriiniui 
comparatively few. The red-sT>iiier . . . . 
times a serious pest in summer and is diflicult 
to get rid of when it ia once well established. 
The only method is to syringe the plants with 
an extremely fine spray, and also to pick oS 


the leavM that are seriously affected and bum them. 
The green-fly ia also troublesome at times, but is 
easily managed with the ordinary fumigation of 
tobacco. Th^ is a small caterpillar that eats the foliage 
and sometimes proves a serious pest. If one can induce 
a few ground sparrows or any of the warblers, or even 
Englidi sparrows, to make their home about the green- 
house, they will put a speedy end to these cateipiUara. 
Another remedy is to go over the plants carcful|y and 
to pick the caterpiMaTS off and destroy them. Tnia is 
tedious, as it iiULst hr done frequently. 

In the way of bedding geraniums, as a rule the 
Bruant section produces the beat resulti, but there are a 
„ ' ' IVench varieties that do espe- 
cially well in our hot climate. The greatest difficulty 
in successful geranium-culture in America is the intense 
heat of the aummer months, chiefly July and August. 
Some varieties withstand the heat better than olSers. 

Show pelargoajnins. (T. D. Hatfield.) 

What ore known ae show pelargoniums have 
eniojed a long popularity By the genertj 
publ and by uB people especially, they are 
~\aahmgton geraniums. They 
Lonly grown as the so-called 
geranium!^ ch cfi on account of their limited 
season of bl loni and the fact that they eamiot 
endun. our hot m dsumme suns. Through the 
greate portof the summer they areliable 
to be negl ted Thej alao require differ- 
ent treatment f om geraniums, and — if 
skill th re be — more skill in cultivation. 
nd of 'Uie blooming season, 
tt ] e rest —a season of ripening 
T 1 already made. At this (ime 
I t I ater wilt be needed, and they 
be t >d out m the full sun. Only 
I i fi ver-Btema mav be removea. 
sense should they be cut back at 
this time, ne ther should water 
en eh be given to encourage new 
growti Afl the leaves should stay 
on uTitd they naturally turn yellow 
_...!. -)^ thus securing a thoroughly 
rifienri growth. In September, one 
I>rune them into ahape, some- 
' t ra ■; rather severely, but in any 
J CJL-j. tTjt out all weak and soft 
\ bYo{ They should then be shaken 
1 o it vnd repotted in a light compost, 
' not r ch, mto the smallest-sized pots 
that mil hold them, for the process 
of growing them on has to be gone 
over every season. After 

Ktting a good soaking will 
necessary , and they may 
be placed m a well-lighted 
colaframe There is no need 
to keep them close; the 
stimulation of water, and 
the slight protection of a 
frame ore usually enough to 
start them into new growth. 
No forcing will ever be 
needed at any season, and 
if the grower wished, he 
might keep them in a cold- 
frame until ver>' late in the 
season, so long as adequate 
protection against frost ia 
afforded. They are at their 
best in May, and to have 
them in good condition, 
one may grow them slowly 
in a house averaging about 


I midwinter). 

60* night temperature (slightly 
from October onward. 

After the turn of tbe days — in Januaiy — repot them, 
using now a richer compost. Give a fairly good shift, 
depending in part on the aize of plants desired, the 
vigor they show, and the difference in varieties. If 
wanted to bloom in April 
' or, as aome floriata might, at 

Easter, they diould have 
been potted at once — in late 
August or September — into 
the size thej- should bloom 
in, — a medium wee, prob- 
ably tbe same as they bad 
lately occupied, and have 



pollination has any effect, as the seedlings seldom show 
any particular affinity to eitber parent. 

2M1. Falatiooiuffl odontiSBliiu 

frwruu. IS. 
lulpdum. 3. 
Blabnun, 7. 
(Tuidiflonuii. B. 

fidn-w/Diram, 7. 
hiapiduEQ. 27. 
bortotum, 13. 
inquinua, 12. 
IsKripce, 7. 
IkUfoIiuin, 3D. 

odoralui., 31. 

Thornerofiii, 10. 
tonieDtiMUia, 32. 
tramvail e pa j t 10. 

been taken indoors to grow 
on continuously. But for dis- 
play in May and June, they 

are potted again in January, and some planta may be 
given another shift when extra vigor or the possible 
need of a few extra^larjge specimens demand it. They 
will need careful stopping. Some rubbing out of weak 
shoots, when they break abundantly, will help those 
that remain, and one may even have to do a little 
pruning. Stopping, however, must be discontinued as 
soon as the flowering stems begin to show, which is 
about the end of February in the writer's practice. 
These stems can be distinguished easily by a sliBhUy 
different manner of growth. Up to this time the planta 
may be allowed to grow naturally; but if the gardener 
wants trained specimens he must begin to bend them 
as he wishes them to grow, as their growth speedily 
hardens and the plant will readily take and keep the 
form to which it is shaped. 

Water should be given sparingly through the dead 
of winter. February and March are the montiis when 
the most growth is made, and at this time one may 
stimulate them materially by the judicious use ot 
artificial manures, which may he continued, if necessary, 
until they come into bloom. They are much subject to 
tbe attacks of green-fly and red-epider; and as the foli- 
age is fairly tender and liable to mjury from tobacco 
smoke, reliance must be placed on fluid insecticides 
almost wholly. The blooming season is very much 
lengthened by giving a slight degree of shade. 

'niebest time to take cuttings IS soon after the flower- 
ing Bcaaon. Often toward the last of the season, tbe 
Elants make a few "Krowing" shoots, and these may 
e taken; but off ana on during the summer one can 
get cutlini:^, and any time until August will do. Cut- 
tings taken in winter-time with a heel make pretty 
little plants in 4- or ^inch pots without stopping. Cut- 
tiiws taken at the UHual time and rtowd in 0- or 7- 
incn pots come in handy in grouping for the front linee. 
It is necessary to raise a few plants everv season to 
replace older planta which have grown too large. 

New varieties are raised from seed, which is freehr 
produced. In hybridizing it does not appear that hand- 

I. Lt>8. on tite 'pinnate order, aUhtmgh tometimet entire, 
utwUly pinnalelj/ lobed or compound. (No». IS). 

A. Pkml with short, more or Use succulent «t. and ivberowi 
or Ihidtened roott: {vs. pinnate or jtinnaieiy parted, 
bmg-pelioied: fix, in many-fid. dense imbeU, on 
very short pedicels; petals 5, nearly emal; slamcTis 
5-7, one filametU broad. {PolydcUum^ 

1. trtste, Ait. {Ger&niam triste, Linn. G. pastinacse- 
/MiwmandP. vtilbfum. Mill.). St, or caudex very short, 
succulent: Ivs. large, 2-3 pinnafely compound, pubes- 
cent, the ultimate teeth gWd-tipped: calyx-tube long 
and stalk-like, much exceeding the pedicxl, the lobea 
half as long as the petals; fls. brown-yellow with dark 
spots.— A well-marked species, sometimes offered in 
tne trade. It runs into several forms. The various 
names and synonyms suggest the divided Ivs, of the 
umbellifers and other plants. Var. fllipendulifdlium, 
Sims. Caulescent: Ivs, sub-bipinnatifid, the segms. 
oblong, B,M,I64i. Var. daucif6liuin,Harv. (Oerilniuni 
dattcifdlium, Linn.), has If.-segms. narrow-linear or 
linear-oblong. Var. laxStum, Harv., has Ivs. 4-pinnate, 
the pinnte stalked and ultimate segma linear. 

2. quinqueviilneniiii, Willd. Somewhat shrubby at 
baae, sparingly branched, hirsute; Ivs. 2-pinnati£d 
with linear toothed aegms,, the stipules broadly cor- 
date and mucronate: fls, purple, scentless, the petals 
obovate. velvety, and pole-edged ; calyx-tube as long as 
the peoicels, somewhat hai^, the lobes obtuae. — 
Thoiy^t by Sweet to be a hybrid of P. trisle and P. 
hieolor, and so regarded by Knuth. 

3. ffilgidum. Ait. (Gerdnium JtU^um, Linn,). St. 
shrubby, denselj^ pubescent; Ivs. pinnately S-parted. 
silky on both sides, the lateral segms. 3-lcmd, all 


stipiueB acute, broadly cordate: i»duiiclea usually 
branched, many-fld.; fls. small, brizht scarlet, tbe 

KtaJa obtuse; calyx-tube conspicuous^ swollen at the 
ae and again juat underneath the 11., thrice as long as 
the pedicel, the lobes linear- 
obtuse; petals brilliant ecar- 
let with dark lines. — Per- 
haps not now seen in its 
pure form, but it is probably 
a remote parent in various 
sraall-fld. scarlet geraniuios. 
Cult, in England aa early 
as 1723. 

motdy cut or decom- 
pound (rarely entire), 
pinnalely forrned: 'petal* 
lUtaly equal, norrouv 
tpaliMle; fertile ttameru 
7. (,Li0itana.) 
4. ezsdpulAtum, L'Her. 
Shrubby, canescent: Ivs. 
round-ovat«, amall, velvety, 
about 3-lobed, tiie lobee 
cut-toothed or iobed_, the 
lateral lobes small; stipules 
adnate and very minute: 
peduncles slender and few- 
Hd., with very small bracts; 
fla. small, white, with short 
spatulate petals. — Lvs. 
about >^in. across, with 
odor of pennyroyal. Ap- 
pears not to be in the trade, at least not in a pure form. 
fi. artemiaad&lium, DC. (P. orUmitMdet, HoH.). 
Suffruticose, erect and slender, glabrous, nearly i^im- 
ple: IvB. loug-petioled, 2-pinnately parted, nearly 
glabrous, the segms. linear>&liform and cbanni^Iod; 
stipules free, subulate: peduncles long, 2-3-fld.; Oa. 
wlut« or blush; calyx-tube swollen at base, 2-3 tinios 
as long as the lance-cuspidate segms., not ribbed; pi-l^tls 
about twice longer than calyx-segms. or sepals, epiilu- 
late or obovate. rounded at apex, more or leas veined 
and spotted at base. G.M. 54:629. 
II. Lm. on the palmate order, although sometimet entire, 

usuaUy iebed {Noe. SSI). 
A. Plant skrvbby, or tometimes succulent aTtd jointed: 
hs. patrmOely nerved or lobed; gtipuies peraialf^nt 
and either rigid or membranaceims: petals i or 5, 
the two uppermoat broadly obovate and long- 
dawed, very muck longer than the Imoer r 

OTieg; fertUe sbimena 7 . (JeTikinsdnia.) y\ 

6. EndlicherUnum, Fenzl. Herbaceous peren- ' ~ 
Dial, 1-1 J^ ft. high, noteworthy in being W, 
Asian: st. little branched, somewhat fleshy, 
terete, pubescent: basal lvs. more or less nuroer- 
ous, glaucous, cordate-orbicular, broadly and 
obscurely 5-lobed. lobes crenate-dentat*, with 
whitish appressed hairs; stipules lanceolate, 
haiiy; fis. many in the umbel, roae-colored ; spur 
of calyx exceeding pedicel; upper 2 ^tals 2-3 times 


angled sta. which are glabrous or very nearly so (except 
at the top} : lvs. glabrous or minutely pubescent, fleshy, 
the petiole inserted just inside the margin at the base, 
about 5-nerved and with 5 short wide mostly obtuse 
main lobes and often with smaller minor lobes or angles 
and notches, the margins very entire: peduncle very 
long, originally 4-8-fid., but row bearing many Kreatly 
modified fls., the calyx-tube slender and staJii-like, 
often loi^r than the pedicel and 2—3 times longer than 
the pointed nerved and mostly ciliate lobes ; petals twice 
as long as calyx-lobes, red- to white or purplish, the 2 
upper ones erect and purple-blotched or striped, the 
3 lower ones usually smaller and not marked and 
senarated from the upper as if the fl. were 2-lipped. 
B.M.20. — Parent of the ivy-leaved geraniums, now 
much improved and varied. Prized for baskets. There 
arc forms with double fls. and colors of various kinds. 
It is a most desirable plant and very floriferoua in most 
of the garden sorts. In the wild there are the following 
forms: Var. gUlbrum, Harv. Calyx and foliage gla- 
brous: fls. purplish pink. Var. scutitum. Harv. - (P. 
Kolbiian, Sweet). Calyx villous; lvs. glabrous. Var. 
cljp«ttuia, Harv. (P. dypebivm, Steud.). Calyx and 
lvs. BofC-pubescent. P. Uteripes, L'Her. (P. he^t&- 
fdUitm, Salisb.), has lvs. cordate, not peltate. 

; atifmlea free, ovate or lanceolate: petaU vnequ^ 

the two upper onei broad; fertile slameru 7, unequal. 


g. grandiflftnim, Willd. Shrubby, glabrous and 

glaucous: lvs. long-stalked, stroi^y 3-7-nerved from 

tbe top of the petiole, deeply 5-7-lobed, the lobes broad 


sn- /- 

AA. Plant loeak and usually trailing, the branches sUmler 
and not succulent: hs. thick or fleshy and gl/inay, 
lobed, mostly marginally peltate: tr^. unAeUale; 
good stamens 7, $ upper shorter; ptials unequal. 
(EHbrdehya.) Ivt-lbaved Geraniuub. 
7. peltltum, Ait. (Oerdnium peltAtum, Linn.). Pig. 

2S39. Plant with slender-jointed more or lees sigaag 


and sharp-toothed, the stipules ovate and mucronct«: 
fla. about 3 on each peduncle, the stalk-like calyx-tube 
3—1 times OS long us the lanceolate segms., the obovate 
white i>etala (upper 2 with red lines) 3 times as long 
as calyx-segma. — -A handsome and distinct species, 
probably not now in 
cult, in it« pure form, 
Intro, to England in 

9. inultibracte&tiim, 
Hochst. Somewhat 
shrubby below, 1-2 ft., 
thinly hairv but be- 
coming glabrous: Ivs. 
palm ate I V about 7-cut 
or -lobed, the segma. 
broadly oblong or 
ovate, serrate or cre- 
nate, more orless hairy, 
2-5 in. across; stipules 
about J^in. long, ovata 
to elliptic: peduncles 
long, 8 in. to 1 ft., 
bearing 6-10-fld. um- 
bels; fls. whitish or 
white, on pedicels 
about I'A in. long; 
petals obovate - spatu- 
late, entire, tn ' 
longer than the na 
sepals. Trop. Afr. 
M\ 54:628. 

10. trans vRRllnse, 
Knuth {P. Thdmcroftii, 
Hort.). Erect, 16 in. 
to2ft. in bloom, the 8f. 
terete and soft-hairy, 
sparingly branched : 
Ivs. few, cordate-angu- 
lar in outline, 5-7- 
lobed, the lobes tri- .' 
angularor rhomboid, * 
serrate-dentate, the 
petiole as long as blade 
or longer ; stipulca 
broadly ovate, acute: 
umbels many, corym- 
bose at apex of at. ; fls. 

colored or carmine- 
rose, or pale pink, 1^ toopeUifonlomUXM)." No. 31. 
in. across vertically, 

the 2 larger petals strongly narrowed at base and 
emarginate at top, the 3 smaller ones paler and retuse 
or emaixinate. Transvaal, 3,000 ft. altitude. G.C, III. 

AAAA. Plant with thick sticculenl branehet, and ttrong 
fiahy odor, sknibby in the wHd and in warm coun- 
tries: ivs. oboDoie, orbicular or reniform, shat- 
Unvly i/ at all lobed: infl. umbd-like; ^od slamem 
7, the 2 upper ones short; petals iypicaRy aU of one 
color. (Cicbnium.) Fish or Beddino GBRANiniis. 

11. zonile, Willd. (Cerdniiwn rondie Liim,). Zonal 
or HoRSEsnoE GERAjnuM. Shrubby, becoming woody 
at the base even in pots, the young branches succulent 
and somewhat hiapid: Iva. round-cordate, glabrous or 
pubescent, long-stalked, usually with a zone or horee- 
shoe mark of deeper color on the upper surface, the 
margin cronale-dentate, with several very shallow 
rounded lobca; stipules broad," cordate-oblong: pedun- 
cles long, the many fls. nearly aesaile; calyx-tube gla- 
brous or nearly so, 4-6 times longer than the lanceolate 
segms.; pctjifa separated, narrow-wedge shape or 
epatulate.— iS. Afr., "among ahrubs and on hillsides. 
. . , The fls. vary from scarlet and crimeon through 



alt shades of red to pure white." — Harvey. Probably 
originally red. P. zonale was intra, into EIngland in 
1710. Limucus described it in 1753 as Geranium zonaie, 
founding the species on previous descriptions, not on 
specimens. It is probable that the species hiid been 
considerably modified by domestication when limucus 
wrote. There seems to be no accepted early portrait of 
the original fonu of the plant. 

12. fnquuums, Ait. {Geriniwm inqidnans, Linn.). 
Fish GEHANitTM. Fig. 2836. Plant more velvety than 
P. lonalt, sometimes more or leas viscid, the Ivs. not 
coned: h-s. long-petioled, orbicular-reniform, crenate, 
only obscurely many-lobed, velvety and somewhat 
viscid: cnlyx-tube densely glandular and viscid, 3-4 
times longer than the lanceolate segms.; petals broadly 
obovate, scarlet, but now varying to lighter colore. — 
".\mani: lihruba and on hillsidea." This is the Geranium 
of Linnteus, who founded the species on pre- 
vioua descriptions. One of the descriptions 
(Dillenius, in "Hortus Elthamensis," 1732) 
was accompanied by a picture, and this pic- 
ture, reduced, is reproduced in Fig. 2836. It 
will be seen that even in that early day the 
species had varied into a form with short- 
notched petals and short pedicels. Intro, 
into England in 1714. Said by Harvey 
.(1859-60) to be the parent of most of Ibe 
"scarlet geraniiuns" of English gardens. 
13, hort&rum class. Common Fisttor 
_^t Bedding GEiuKimf, Fig. 2840. Tha rom- 
^^A mon geraniimi in great numbers of foima, 
^^JT^J derived from the variation and probably 
k^t!^ the blending of P. tonaie and P. inquinana 
^ (and possibly others) in more than a cen- 

tury of careful selection. The original species 
are not nOW in cult. Practically all garden geraniums 
have the sonol marks on the Ivs., or bands, or a cen- 
tral blotch of variegation. Some of them have inter- 
mingled colore of green, white, and red on the same If. 
Some are "Mlver-banded" and some "gold-banded." 
(See Fig. 2840.) 

AAAAA. Plant mth a ehori and thick inore or lev flethy 
St. irT eaudex, from tohieh arise slender branches, 
tkr lv». lona-atidked and reniform or cordate and 
obacurdy lobed: xtamens 6 or 7. {CortuAna.) 
B. With apine4ike stipules. 
II. echinlLtum, Curt. Fleshy c&udex armed with 
persistent spine-like stipules: Ivs. long-petioled, white- 
tomentcse, cordate-ovate and obtuse, about 3-7-<hal- 
low-lobed, the lobes rounded and crenuUtc: peduncle 
long and branched ; fls. white, with a spot near the center 
(varying to all purple) , the petals notched ; calyx downy, 
the tube several times loiter than the lobes. B.M. 
309. G.C. 111.46:245. J.H. Ill, 49:71. G.W. 15, p. 
203. — Now and then advertised. The fls. are said to 
change color during the day; and the color may be 
shades of purple. It is offered in S. Calif. 
BB. Wiihoui spinet. 
15. odor-tlsslmnin, Ait. (Gerinium odoratissimum, 
Linn,). NuTiiEO Gbeanittm. Fig. 2841. Plant lax, 
the ats. ascending or more or less tortuose: at. or eaudex 
very abort, throwing up many alender and weak soft- 
pubescent branches: Iva. very long-stalked, soft, round- 
cordate and very obtuse, the bl^e 1 in. or somewhat 
more in length and broader, obucurely 3- or morc-lobed, 
the margins dentate-cienatc ; petioles 3-4 in, long and 
shorter above; stipules triquetrous or broadly ovate, 
usually connate: peduncles long and borne opposite the 
!v8., 5-10-fld,; fls. pedioelled, white or whitish; ealjic 
more or lees pubescent, the spur Kin, or less long, the 
sepals or lobes lanceolate, acute, with membronaceouB 
man^ns; petals twice or less longer than calyx-lobei^ 
about Hin. long, tinear-spatulate, roimded at apex. — 



Appai-ently a oommon plasty cult, for ita pleaBsi]t> 
Rcented foliase. The pltat known to gftrdenets as P. 
fraffra-M is either this species or a close derivative f 


and erect, villous or nearly glabrous: Ivb. long-H 
cordate-acut«, denticulate and sometimes obecuiely 
kibed; stipules with broad base but subulate, deciduous: 
peduncles usually branched, the pedicels and calvx 
soft-haiiy; fls. purplish, the petals twice as long aa the 
sepals, the two larger nearly or quite 1 in, long, cune- 
at^bovate, the apex rounded and entire. B.M. 165 
(fi)iP.coTdi}olium). G.M. 54:627.— Distinpiiahedtrom 
F. cueuUatwi by itaflat cordate Bcut« Ivb. It is a hand- 
some plant in bloom. The plant in cult, as P. eordatum 

■ be typically cordate. In the wild, 
several forms, distinguished largely 

16. frkgrans, Willd. (P. odoraAMtmum x P. txtUpv^ 
Idlum, Sweet. Ger&nium frigrani, Poir. 0. odoratlt- 
timwn erfcttan, Andr.), Plant strict, the branches 
more or leas erect: scarcely suffruticose, the sts. more 
or less sauantme-branched, leafv: If .-blade to 1 in. long 
and nearlv as wide, obtuse-coraate, the margin crenate 
or crispea, pubescent, the u^per Ivb. eeaaile and tbe 
lower lon^petioled ; stipules triquetrous, free : fls. nearly 
seflBlIe, whiti^, and more or less red-veined; catyx 
pubescent, the spur l^-Min. long; sepals or caiyx-lobes 
mceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute; petals twice or 
" n calyx-lobes, about ' ' ' ' 

i, the apex rounded. 
AAAAAA. Plant v!oody, not twxulent, much branched, the 
foliage often scented but not "fiihy:" bn. variotu, 
but not pinnal^y parted: infl. panicalaie or umbel- 
like; 2 upper pelait longer and broader than the 
oOiwa, marked; good elameni 7 or 6. (,Peidrgium.) 
B. Luis, not dittineiiy lobed. though often angled, mostly 
oval or ovale and cordate (excepCiims in P. dom^tV' 

shoots the Ivs. may 
the plant r"" '"'" " 
by pubeece 

19. CuculUttum, Ait. (Gtrdnium cvcuUdtum, Linn.). 
Tall and shrubby plant, much branched, softly and 


17. btftlUr"™. Ait. (Geritnium bettiRnian, Linn.). 
£reet and shrubby, downy on the young growths: Ivs. 
Bubglabrous, stalked, oval or ovate, obtuse or not 
prominent^ acute, rounded or truncate at bast, the 
BUpulesehiup and deciduous: fls. light purple, the broad 

and cupped or cucullate, 
denticulate, very soft- 
pubescent, the stipules 
ovate-acute and wither- 
ing: Bs. red or rcddi^, in 
inany-fld. panicles, the 
pedicels and calices 
densely silky-hairy, the 
petals twice aa long as 
the lance-acuminate 

sepals, the two larger ones about 1 in. long and ^Jn. 
broad, rounded or retuse at apex, red with darker veins. 
— "Very common round Capetown and in the western 
districts, where it is often used as an ornamental hedge- 
plant." — Harvey, Known in England from 1690, and 
the parent, with P. anffuloeum and probably othere, of 
the fancy or show pelargoniums of gardeners. Proba' 
bly not known in cult, in its pure or ori^al form. 

20. angulAsum, Ait. (Gerdnium angulitum. Mill.). 
Fig. 2844. DifTera from P. cucuttalurn in its haish-hairy 
covering and rigid angled Ivb.: the Ivs, are short- 
stalked, truncate or broadly cuneate at base, with 3-5 
shallow angular and acute short rigid lobes: panicles 
with tewer-fld. umbels; pedicels and calices densely 
rough-hail^; petals twice as long as the acuminate 
sepals. — Lmnsus included this plant in his Gixanivm 
eueuilalum, but Aiton separated it as a distinct species. 
Linnfcns' cucuilalum was founded on literature. One 
of his sources of information was DiMenius' "Hortus 
Elthamensis," with a picture; but this picture, which is 
reduced in Fig. 2844, is what is now known as P. angu- 
tbsum. This is one of the species which has entered 
largely into the pelargoniums of florists. Has been 
cult, since 1724, 

21. domCslicum class. Common. Show, Fancy, and 
Laut Washinoton Geraniums (or Pelargoniums). 
Fig. 2845. This name distinguishes the garden type of 
florist's and fancy pelargonium. The race i.» naid to be 
derived chiefly from P. aicriltatum, P. angulosum, and 
P. grandifJorum, but the writer can see little evidence 
of the blood of P. grandifiorum. It seems to be near- 
est to P. cueuUat-uTt, having the cucullate or disk- 
shaped not lobed Ivb. and mostly the soft-hairinesH of 

domeaticum is meant to comprise the whole range of 
garden forms of the Show or Laiiy Washington pelar- 
goniums. The name will enable one to talk about these 
Earden plants with precision. To many of these garden 
ionns specific botanical names have been given, so that 




ia not the first name that has been applied 
in this group, but the writer ie not aware that any col- 
lectiveoTgroupnamehaBbeengivcn. Sweet, inparticu- 
lar, has given Latin names to variouB forma. These old 
names, however, apply to particul&r historical forms, 
and it would be violence to 
enlarge their apphcation to 
cover the entire ^roup, and 
it would be difficult '~ 

2848. PduiDiiliim lUdnla. 

Lvs. cordaU-tobed, soft 
and velvety. 
22. tomentOsum, Jacq. 
Plant rather thick- and Boft^ 
stemmed, the branches 
becoming several feet long, 
whifc-hairy all over: lvs. 
very long - stalked, very 
broadly cordate - ovate or 
hastate - cordate at bsse, 
^ ^ - 7 - lobcd and small- 

toothed, soft and velvety 
on both surfaces; stipules o vale-acuminate, withering: 
fls. small. whit«, witn red near the center, in a lax 

Sanicle, the pedicels many times longer than calyx-tube; 
lower petals longer than sepals. B.M, 518. — Scent 
like peppermint, and for that reason it is somewhat 
grown. The sts. are long and straggly. 

BBB. Lvt. iharply S-T-iobeii and sharply toothed or 

23. capitiltum, Ait. (P. Ih^mmondii, Turcz. Gerd- 
nium eapitdtum, Linn.). Sts. n-eak and trailing, but 
suffniticose at base, with long white hairs: lvs. long- 
stalked cordate. 3-6-lobcd and the lobe finmdcd and 
tootheo; stipules broad-cordate, pointeii: peduncles 
longer than the lvs., densely many-fid., the Bn. sessile, 
rose-purple, with calyx-tube much shorter than the 
haiiymucronate calyx-lobes. B.M. 7346. 
— I'Unt rose-scented, hut not in general 
cult, in its pure form; fls. in dense many- 
fld. heads. 

24. vitifOUum, Ait. (Gerdnt'um viii- 
filium,L\nn.). Erect, more or less woody, 
densely hairy and villous: lvs. long- 
petioled, cordate at base, 3-lobed, the 
Ic4>es shallow and very obtuse and ,; 
rounded, dentate; stipules broad-cordate: 
peduncle longer than If., Bimpie and 
densely many-lid.; fls. sessile, small, pur- 

Ele; cal>'x-tube not half so long as the 
airy aristate segms.; petals twice longer 
than sepals, 2 of them larger and piuple 
at base and the other 3 smaller and iii 
Differs from P. eordatum in erect habit a 
deeply cut. 

BBBB. I.v». deeply several to many-lobed, i 
dirisiona, rather rough or gtiff, strong-K( 

2.5. quercifiJlluin, Ait. (Gerinium qucTdfdliitm, 
Linn. I.). Oak-leaved Gbraniuu. ScABLET-FLOiv-BRr 
i-voRoBEGERANinM. Fig. 2fi4fl. Shrubby and branchy, 
somewhat hairy and glandularr lvs. with slalka 2-4 in. 
long, con late-ovate in outline, «ith 2-^ pairs of oblong 
side lobes (lvs. pinnalifid), which extend ncnrly to the 
midrib and are again toothed and notched; 'stipules 
small, 2 pairs at each node (or bifid): fls. few to several, 
rather small, red or purplish, in umbels and with short 

pedicels, the bracts laciniate; sepals elliptical and 
mucronate. half as long as the petals. — A rather com- 
mon greenhouse plant, the lvs. often with a dark spot, 
and not agreeably scented. 

26. gnivtolens,L'Her. ((?enlntumpra(;&>l«na,Thunb.}. 
Fig. 2S47. Much like the last, but lvs. longer-petioled 
and pahnately 5-7-lobed or parted, the broad lobes 
flat and pinnatifid into many mostly obtuse lobes; 
. -- — — stipules cordate-acute : fis. many, on mostly long pedun- 

choose any one of them cles, pink or light purple, Hmall, the calyx haiiy and 
OS more applicHble, under nearly sessile, t£e calyx-lobes half as long as the petals, 
botanical rules, than others. — This is one of the commonest forms of rose geranium. 
It is probably also inaccu- 
rate to call this garden 
form either P. eueuBatum or 

a leafy plant with a rather heavy b 

If. is well depicted in Fig. 2847. There are many 

derivatives from it. 

late and unequally sharp-toothed and r __ 

less lobulal«; stipules cuspidate: fls. panicled, small, 
white to carmine; calyx-tube shorter tl^ pedicels, the 
segms. Isnce-acuminate; petals about twice longer tiian 
sepals. — An old cult, plant. 

28. RAdula, L'Her. {P. midlifiduirt, Salisb. Gerdnium 
Rdduia,CB.v. G.rcvolutum, Jacq. {.). Fig. 2848. Diffeia 
from P. gratieoleru in the narrower divisions with revo- 
lute margins of 'the lvs.: the lvs. are deeply palmatelv 
parted, the lobes narrow linear and pinnatifid, aU 
rough-hispid on the upper surface and 8ott>-pubescent 
beneath: fis. small, pale j>urple, with dark streaks, the 
pedunclesshort and hispid and about 4-5-fld., fis. pedi- 
cellate; calvx-tube short, the lobea or sepals setose 
and glandular. B.M. 95.— Does not appear to be m 
the trade in a pure form, but the narrow-lvd. rose 
geraniums are probably hybrids between this and P. 

29. dentictditnm, Jacq. (ti«rdmuTn deTUicalAtum, 
Poir.). Fig. 2849. Much like P. Radida, but the If.- 

lobes very denticulate and flat: lvs. glo- 
p brous anil vi.-<cid above, somewhat hi^id 

' ' beneath; stipules ovate-lanceolate: fls. 

3-4, Bubaessile, on short 
hairy peduncles, lilac or 
rose-purple, the 2 upper 
petals toothed or 2-lobed 
and with dark streaks; 
calyx - tube short, the 
segms. or lobes oblong, 
^ mucronate and villous. 
— Plant weaker than P. 
Radula. It has a bal- 
samic odor. Perhaps it 
has entered into the 
garden forms of rose 
^ronium. Intro, into 
England in 1789. 



BBBBB. LvB. mnaU, round-cordate, 3-lohed 
half ihrir depth and the margins 
tootlwd or jagged. 
.10. crispum, L'Her. Much branched 
and very srabroua or rough shrubby, 
glandular: lvs. 2-ranked, small and rigid, 
short - stalked, cuneate, truncate or 
slightly cordate at base, coarsely toothed, 
more or less 3-labed: fls. 2-3 on short 
peduncles, vinlet, the lower petals nar- 
row; calyx-tube glandular and roughish, 
shorter 'than the pedicels, the lobes or 
sepals obloriK and acuminate.— A neat 
strict.-growine plant with lemon-scented 
foliage. Probablv not in general cult, 
now in a pure form. Variable in the 
wild. Var. latifAUum, Harv., Fi^. 2850, 



1 of the type, aod is a 

2S51. has IvB. twice the . 
worthy plant. 

31. Lim&neuni, Sweet. Lbuok Geranium. Lvb. 
iBjeer than in the last, not 2'rEmked, soft: fla. purple 
and lilac. — A garden hybrid, P. eriepum probably being ■ 
one of its parents. There is a 
form with variegated IvH. 
Sometimei known to garden- 
era asP.oiioraiiim. Itisaneat 
and worthy plant, and showy 
when in flower. It has a 
)n or balm scent. The 
ety known aa Lady Mary 
is of this group. 


1, Sweet (P. BrBVFolenaxP. ediinstum). A good 
lobM d«ply lob^^ >f^"; ^ bluntly tootlifd. 

pofyccphiu— — - - 
pUat. cordate, 3 ld 


Cl.M. 54tn2(i.— /■- brtvipHatun 
". Colulrddnit. URer. Ln. eve 

. St. V. 

cape-like peduncle 

ingnuilnbum. Mwt. Allied to P. multibractei 
3-lobed, the termiiml lobe ovBto-Ianceolmte si 

Trop-Al™ S^npsBameMp. FiKhm, Engl.- 

Br. A vety rerent Bpecin ' " *'- ■ ■— >• ■ 

•look: IvB. 4 or 5, bII ™dic 

(P. bfevipetsium N. E. Br.). St. 
very little Above the ground, ahort- 
bipinDfttely divided, ovate-ohlonj 
„;.,„- .1 ™. H,. pinnitinect: fl< 
B Colony.— P. F 

LitUae, thick and Heahyl 
yello*, the peula .horler 

■.' Kaduli gi 

L. H. B. 

PELECfPHORA (Greek, halehet-beanng; from an 
alleged resemblance in the tubercles). CaetAcex. 

Stems globular, shortH^ylmdric or clavate, small, 
often ceapjtosei tubercles strongly compressed from the 
sides; areoles very long and narrow, bordered on each 
side by a row of about 20 very short, appressed comb- 
like spines: fr. naked. 

asellifdrmis, Ehrb. (from a fancied resemblance to 
Asellus, the wood-louse). Juice watery: tubercles ashy 
green, more or less deeply grooved to the woolly axil; 
spines not projectile beyond the margin of areole: fls. 

purple w 

cdncolor has pure purple fla. B.M. 6061. 

pectmilta, Sebum. Juicemilky: tubercles bright green 
with naked axils: spines projecting a little beyond the 
margin of tubercle: fls. yellow, lateral. Oaxoca, Mex. 
Katharine Brandecee. 
PELIOSANTHES (Greek, livid fowers, referring to 
the flowers of certain species). LUi&ces. Plants with 
short horizontal rhizomes, long-petioled radical Iva. 
and fls. borne in spikes or simple racemes: perianth- 
tube above the ovEtry, short, broad, campanulate; limb 
spreading-rotate witn 6 subcqual, oroad, obtuse lobes; 
stamens 6 with very short filaments ; ovary inferior, 3- 
oelled; stigma 3-labed; cells with 2 ovules erect from 
the Imse, anatropous; seeds oblong or globose, fleshy. 
About 12 species from India, the £. Indies, and Ma- 
layan Peninsula. The following have occasionally 
appeared in cult: P.rito,Andr. Lvs. 2-7;petiole varia- 
ble in length : scape naked or with a few scales above 
and large membranous sheaths at the base; raceme 6- 
12 in,; bracts 1-3 to every fascicle of fls., pedicels 
short; fls. ^-3^in. diam., purplish or bluish green: 
seeds aa large as a pea, olive-blue. Himalaya, Malaya. 
B.M. 1302. The var. ManUgazziAna, Pampaninl, is a 
form with leas rigid lvs. than the type. Malaya. P. 
vi^)ldcea, WaU., has the habit of P. Tela and fls. of the 
same size and color but solitary in the bracts: seeds 
^in. long, oblong. Himalaya, Burma. Var. Cldrkri, 
Baker, difl^ers from the type in having more conspicu- 
ous transverse nervules and a darker purple fl. Assam 
and Malaya. B.M. 8276. Cult, in botanic gardens in 
the tropical house. p. Tracy Hubbard. 

PSLLMA. (Greek, pelios, dusky; from the usually 
dark-colored leaf-etalks). Pdyvodi&cese. Small rock- 
loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. 

Son at the ends of free veins forming a mostly con- 
tinuoua marginal band around the segms. and covered 
by the more or less changed margin ol the segms. The 
species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in 
many countries. Some of them are glassnouae subjects 
and others are hardy. 

A. Lva. timply pinnate. 
B. Lfla. i-5 pairs. 

Pibiglei, Dav. Lvs. with 4-5 pairs of large triangular 
haatate stalked Ifts. 1 in. or more across cither way: 
aoruB forming a wide marginal band. Mex. 
BB. Lfts. 6-S pain. 

Brldgesii, Hook. (Ptalyldma Bridgesii, 3. Smith). 
Lfts. aubsesaile, orbicular or aubcordate, 4-5 lines long; 
son confluent in a broad intramarginal band. Calif. 
BBB. Lfls. SO-iO. 

rotundifdlia, Hook. Fig. 2S52. Lfts. mostly short- 
atalkcd, oblong or roimdish, entire, obtuse. New Zeal. 

falcita, Fee (Platyldma falcdtum, J. Smith). Lfts. 
nearly sessile, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, mucro- 
nate and often slightly falcate: sori in broad lines. India 
to Austral, and New Zeal. 

3aS2. PdlM 


AA. Lva. btpinnaU. 

B. Pinnie formed of 3 sesatle (/Is. 

teniif&lia. Link. Lva. 6-12 in. long on strong dark 

chestnut stalks, dsttow, with 6-12 opposite pain of 

pinnaj; Ifts. closely rolled together, linear. TTop. 

BB. Pinn^ {al UaH iJie Ioukt ona) <^ wore than S IfU. 

mncronita, Eaton (P. WrightiAmij Hook.). Lvs. 3-6 
in. lonE, 1-3 in. wide, deltoid; puuue with several 
linear-obloDg pinnules on each side }^in. long, with 
inrolled edges and a sharp mucronate point, '^xas to 

atropurpftrca, Link. Lvb. 4~12 in. long, 2-6 in. wide, 
lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, with Beveral pinnules 
which are sessile, auricled or heart-shaped at the baae, 
the broad line of sporangia nearly hiains the narrow 
mai^al indusium. E. Amer., to the RocKy Mta. 



2B5J. Pcllo 

graenhoiua fem, 
Uktlj to be kBawn 
U ludUMn u 

AAA. Lvt. at least tripirmat^d, 

B. The {vs. IriangidaT-deUoid, with narrow uUmoM 

d£au, Hook. Clift Brake. Lvh. 2-3 in. long, 
1-IM in. wide, on slender brown stalks; segms. linear 
with inrolled edges shorp^inted: indusium perma- 
nently covering the son. Pacific N. Amer., and east^ 
wild to Wyo. 

BB. The tifs. eUmgate, ovaU, or laneeoiate. 

andromedsfaiia, F£e. Lvs. 6-12 in. long, 3-6 in. 
wide; ultimate divisions IJ^2 lines long, lineai^blong, 
with inrolled edges. Caiil. — Sometimes known as the 
coffee tern. 

rlridia, PrantI (P. hatUtla. Link). Fig. 2853. Lvs. 
6-24 In. long, 0-12 in. wide; ultimate divisions ovat« 
or lanceolate, 1-2 in. long, nearly sessile; sori in a nar- 
row mardnal line. E. and S. Afr. Small lva. are some- 
times only bipinnate. Very tmmmonly used in small 

p. SItlkri. BtMomf <P. gradtia, Hook.), t 
CryptocruniiA, to which Pnlntl hu referndit. 

PBLUdHIA (J. Alphonse Pellion, officer in Fr^- 
cinet'a voyage orouno the world). VrUcdtex. Two 
choice tender creeping foliage plants of this genus are 
cultivated, suitable for baskets and for the borden of 
greenhouses under the benches. 

Herbs, often creepers, 
rarely subshruba from Trop. 
and E. Asia and the Facinc 
I^.: lvs. alternate, 2-ranked, 
unequal at the base, entire 
or serrate: fla. monoecious or 
diiBcioug, mostly in dense 
cymes; perianth - segms. 5, 
rarely 4, in fr. sometimes , 
unchanged but usuallv in- 
creased and investing the fr. 
—Species 15-20. The cult. 
species require warm tem- 
perature and moist atmos- 
phere. Prop, by cuttings and ^ 
division. Cnie of the species 
was once advertised as a 

Daveauina, N. E. Br. Pros- 
trate, 1-2 ft. long, the sts. 
succulent and creepmg below, 
the tips pubescent: lvs. 1-2 J^ 

in long, scMUe obliquely ^ T„^.|Ui-lh»ri.. 
oblong or orbjouUr crenate g^,^^. «>naU flo..« 
and obtuse at tip, dark bronzy ^^^ ,^ ^ ibaoniul m 
olive - green more or less paiinjc Oanr bentith. 
flushed violet or red, with a 

fem-like figure of lif^t green down the middle of the 
If., the figure being narrowly oblong and crenate. This 
figure is sometimes absent from some of the lvs. The 
lvs. are more acuminate than in the next. Burma to 
Cochm-China. R.H. 1880:200 (asSeffonia Z)aiieauan<i, 
a charming picture). I.H. 29:472. 

plilchra, N. E. Br. Practically glabrous, with creep- 
ing fleshy sts. tinged purpUsh : lvs. obliquely oblong and 
very obtuse, dull blackish along the midru) and veins, 
the interspaces being light green, the under surface 
pale purplish. Cochin-Cbina. I.H. 30:479. A.G. 15:1. 
WiLBELM Miller. 
L. H. B.t 

FBLORIA (Greek for moneter). A term applied to 
the phenomenon when usually irregular flowers, such 
aa those with some of 
the petals or sepals 
spUTKd or saccate, de- 
velop all the parts of 
each set alike, thus 
becoming radially sym- 
metrical. The ease was 
observed by Linnieus 
in Linaria trutaarix, Fig. 
2854, and the term 
peloria was given by 
nim. Flowers often bo- 
come peloric on account 
of changes in their 
relations to Lght, but ^—4, 
other causes certainly ^ ^^ 
contribute. A reverse ' 
change, by which radial 
flowers become ly^ 
morphic. occurs in 
many Compositw when 
the corollas of disk- 
florets become strap- 
shaped, as in the culti- 
vated asters and chry- 
santhemums. Some- 
times, on the contrary, 
oU spurs fail to develop. 

Honntl cohunbina How 

(Fi^. 2855, 2856.) Peloric forms have been of little 
aignmcance In horticulture. See Keeble, Pellew and 
Jonea on iDheritonce of peloria in foxdoves, "New 
Phytolc«ist," Vol. IX, page 6S (1910). 

PBLT&NDRA (Groek, referring to the peltate 
anthers). ArAeex. Amtow Aroi. Stemleaa herlM, 
being excellent aubaquatic plants, their bu^ thick 

sagittate leaves alvrayB adding 
variety and interest Id iiiarKiiia 
of ponds and to bog-ijijr'ipnri. 

Leaves gloeey, arrnw-sliajtcd, 
ariaing from str mc under- 
grouna parts; fla. i^io 
and naked, the staiiuii. 
on the upper part uf Ihe kma JL 
Bpadix, tee anthers sfssilt :iinl f 9^ 
imbedded and opuniiig by < 
terminal pores, 
the 1-loculed 
ovaries attended 
Iw 4 or 5 scale- 
like bodies or 

spathe usually 
exceeding the 
spadix: fr. a 1- 
3-eeeded, mostly 
leathery^ berry, 
bome in large 
globoae clusters. 
— Two speciea 
in E. Amer. 
which have been 
much confused. 
Single specimens 
or clumps are usually n: 
to colonize. 

rtglnica, Kunth (P. undulAla, Raf.). Lva. narrow- 
sagittate, the basal lobes long and nearly or quite 
acute: spathe 4-8 in. long, green, convolute around the 
spadix for its whole length : sterile part of the spadix 
much longer than the piatdlate part: fr. green, 1-^ 
seeded. In ahallow pools or bog margins. New Eng- 
land to Fla. and west. AG. 14:111.— IW root ia com- 
posed of thick corda or fibers. 

BSgittBttlia, Morong (P. dlba, Raf.). Lvs. broader 
the basal lobes short: apathe white, the upper part 

It prised. Peltandras a 

expanded and calla-likc; sterile part of spadix little, 
" anv, longer than pistillate part: Ir. red, 1-aeeded. Va., 
)uth. — Root tuberous. L H B 

PSLTArU (Greek, smaU shield, referring to the 
roundish form of the pod). CmAfers. Tall glabrous 
herba with entire cauiine lva., sagittate-cordate at 
base: fls. white Bubeorj-mbose; fruiting pedicels apread- 
ing or recurved, filiform, without bracts; sepals broad; 
stamena free, not toothed: siliquc orbiculate or obo- 
vat«, 1-cellcd, indehisccnt, much compressed, reticu- 
late. About 4 species, natives of S. Eu., Asia Minor, 
Syria, and Persia. P. dliarxa, Jacq. About 1 ft. high, 
with entire petals, smooth flat pods, and sagittate- 
clasping lvs. This species has the odor of garlic, aa its 
name would auRgest. E. Eu. Offered in the trade as a 
cut^fl, R.H. 1908, p, 131. 

PBLTIPHfLLUU: Saiifiata. 

PELT(5pHORDM (Greek, sfcwW and bearinp, refer- 
ring to the peculiar atigraa). Lfguminbsx. A few spe- 
cies of splendid tropical trees, belonging to the same 
tribe aa the ^rgcoua Folnciana and Cs^pinia, 

Flowera yellow; petals 5, roundish; stamena 10, free, 
declinate; filamenta piloae at base; ovary sessile, 2- to 
many-ovuled: pod niattish, indehiscent, with narrowly 
win^ margins. Peltophorum is distinguished from 


CKsalpinia and Poinciana by the valvate calyx-segms. 
of the latter, while the two former have their calyx- 
Besms. strongly imbricated. The peculiar stigma of 
Peltophorum readily distinguishes it from ite close 
allies, CKsaJpinia and Usmatoxylon (logwood). These 
genera represent a- type of structure widely different 
from the northern pea-shaped fis., as they have 5 dis- 
tinct petals which are all about the same site and 
shape. There ia a fine coloredplate of a Peltophorum 
in Blanco's "Flora of the Pnilippines," where the 
golden fla. are nearly 1 ^ in. across, a dosen of them in 
each raceme, and 4 racemes uniting to form a great 
mnicle. Peltophorums have the Mimosa type of fo&age. 
Each If. of /*. Inerme has 8-10 pairs of pinnce, and each 

pinna 10-20 pairs of Ifts. The genenc r 
occupied by Fcltophonis, a genus of grasses, ana is 
conseouently replaced by some recent authors by the 
name 6ary:^lum. 

A. m». H-^in. long, lO-SO-ptntuOe. 

inGrme, Naves (,Cxaalplnia tn^rmu, Roxbg. P. fer- 
rugineiim, Benth. BaryTyban inimu, Pierre). T^ee, 
attaining 100 ft., taking its specific name from the 
dense rusty tomentum which covers the young branches, 
petioles, and infl. ; lvs. S-10-pinnate, oblonp, obtuse or 
retuse, oblique at the base, i4-%in. long, shming above, 
rusty tomentose beneath: racemes 5-6 in. long, in a 
large terminal panicle; calyx about J^in. long; petals 
obovate. undulate, villous at the base: pod 3-4 in. 
long, Ji-1 in, wide, l-3-6eeded. Austral., Philippines. 
— Intro, at Santa Barbara, Calif., by Franceacni, but 
has not been a success there. 

AA. LfU. H-Hin. tonfl, iOSO-pinnaU. 

dbbhim, Taub. [CxstUpinia diibia, Spreng. P. 
VootiiAnum, Walp. Baryxylum diifnum, Pierre). A 
large beautiful tree with rusty tomentose branches, 
petioles, and infl.: lvs. 9-18 in. long, 12-20-piniiate, 
2-4 in. broad; Ifts. 20-30-pinnate, oblique, oblong, 
obtuse, symmetrical or base unequal, ^^-i^m. long, 
minutely rusty tomentose beneath, becoming glabrate: 
infl. a broad terminal panicle; fla. in simple or branched 
racemes; pedicels Ji-Min. long; calyx-tube very short, 
turbinate; petals oroadly obovate, %-%m. long, 
margin wrinkledj very short>Btalked, maty tomentose: 
pod 3 in. long, ^m. broad, acute at both ends, Speeded. 
Brazil. p. L. r,ckeb. 

PENIOCfiREUS (Latin combination, meaning phal- 
loid Cereue). Cadilce^. Low slender erect plants, grow- 
ing from very large fleshy tumjp-ehaped roots: ste. 
usually 4- or 5-ribbed: fls. large, nocturnal, usually 
white: fr. ovoid, long-acuminate, bright scarlet, edible. 

Greggii, Brit. 4 Rose {Chrewi Griggii, Engelm.). 
Slender, branching, 2-3 ft. high, %-\ m. diam., from 
an extraordinarily large tuberous root (often 6-10 In. 
long and 4-6 in. diam.): nba 3-6, acute; spines subulate 
from bulbous base, very short and sharp, 7-11, 1 or 2 
being central: fla. white or yellowish, 6^8 in. long: fr. 
ovate, alternate at base and apex, brldit scarlet, 
fleahy and edible, 1-2 in. long. Borders of Texas, New 
Mex., Aria., and southward. j [^ Robe. 

PEnmsfirUH (Latin, penim, feather; eeia, briatle), 
Oramlnem. Mostly stout grasses with bristly apike-like 
inflorescence, making conspicuoua border and lawn 

Spikelets as in Panicum, but aurrounded by several 
bristles that fall with the spikclet.— Species about 40 
in tropical raa " ' ' " ' ' '' 

of the others [< 

_ used for bedding. It ia, perhaps, the 

finest dwarf graas which ia grown chicfiy lor its flower 
parta. It aometimes survives the winter at WatJiing- 
ton, D. C, but should alwaya be treated as a tender 


tuetoTv If aeed is sown earfy enough, but divuiona of 
old pknte will Rive larger pieces which flower sooner 
and require less attention than seedlings. The old plants 
may be wintered anywhere out of reach of frost. About , 
February 1, in the latitude of Washinrton (a month ' 
later North), cut olT the old leaves to wiuuii6 inches of 
the erowna ; divide the clumps into small pieces, trim the 
roots so that thev will ultunately go into 3- or 4^ch 
pots, and place tne pieces thickly together in boxes of 
Bandy soil in a greenhouae with a temperature of about 
s new roots have started, pot the young 
may be removed to ' " 

bedding material den 

able indoor space. (G. W. Oliver.) 

A. Anrnial: brisiUa about as long aa tJie tpikdet. 
unericinum, Schum. {Penidiiiria apiedta, Willd. 
Pennisitumlypholdeum, Rjcb.). Peabl MiLiLET. Culm 
3-S ft., pubescent below the spike: Ivb. long and broad: 
spike cylindrical, 3-10 in, long, ?^in. thick, the ^oboee 
grain bursting through its lemma and palea. Native 
country unknown,— Occasionally grown in the southern 

AA. Perennial*: briaOtg muck exceeding Ae tpiitUt. 
B. BritUea plumote. 

TillOnim, Brown (P. IimgUUyum of florists, not of 
Hochst.). Rg.. 2857. Spike broad, 2-4 in. long, and 
feathery from the bearded bristles; culm 1-2 ft. hig^, 
pubescent below the spike. Abyssinia. R.H. 1890, 
p. 489. . 

Rftppelli, Steud. (P. RuvpdiAnwn of some works). 
Fig. 2S5S. Cuhns taller and apikee 6-10 in., loiter and 


more graceful than the preceding. Abyssinia. R.H. 
1897, pp. 54, 66. I.H. ^, p. 206. G.W. 1:363.— The 
form most frequently cult, nas a pale roseate spike. 
This is sold under the names P. oiroaanguiTieum, P. 
hibridum Henkdidnum, or Criuson Fountain Grabs. 
Ci.W. 13:255. R.B. 36, p. 58.— A half-hardy form with 

iSSS. Psoninnun Ruppelil. 

dark purplish foliage and purplish crim- 
has recently been intro. under 
of P. ckpreutii. It does not 
reproduce reliably from seed. 
BB. Brittiet naked, 
c. Spikea taieral on each nuan adm, borne on thart 
branehea; one brittle in each cluster mucA longer 
than the others. 
latifaUum, Spreng. (Oymndlktix lat^dlia, Schult.). 
Culm 3-4 ft., bcarmg several nodding spikes 1-2 in. 
long; Ivs. lanceolate, J^in. broad. Argentina. R.H. 
1890, p. 618. G.W. 3, p. 424; 6, p. 113. 

cc. Spikes single, lerminating each main adm; brielles 
more or less equal. 

jtpfoicnm, Trin. (P. eomprissum, R. Br. Ovmnithriz 
japdniea, Kunth). Culm 2-3 ft.^ scabrous, especially 
under the dense cylindrical 2-3-m.-long spike: blades 
long and narrow. China. 

macrollnun, Trin. (GymndOtrix caudAla, Schrad.). 
Culms tall, bearing a slender spike as mudi as a foot 
long. S.Afr. 

„„_.„„ Jchyum, Trin. (Gymndthrix macroslAehys, 
Brongn.). CulmB 4-5 ft., blades broad, flat; spike 8-12 
in., resembling that of P. Ruppelii. E, Indies.— A half- ■ 
hardy form with dark purplish foliage and handsome 
dark crimson spikes has recently been intro. under the 
name of P. macropkytlum atropurpiireum. M.D.G. 
1906:9. Does not reproduce reliably from seed. 

nervdaum, Trin. Tall branching perennial with 
tawny or purplish compact spikes is offered by a 
western nursery. S. Amer. x. S. Hitchcock. 

PENNYROYAL of Europe, Mentha Pulegium: of 
America, ffedeoma pulegioidet. Bastard P., or blue 
curls, is Trichoelema dichoU/mvm. All are members of 
the mint family. 

The garden pennyroyal, Mentha Pulegium, is a E^iro- 
pean pereimia], used for seasoning. * ' 

e of the 




"sweet herbs." It is easily grown, profiting by a win- 
ter protection of leaves or litter. Propagation is mostly 
by aivision. Beds should be reneweci frequently. 

PENTACHifeTA (Greek, referring to five bristles at 
the base of the pappus). CompdsUx, A few species of 
low slender (Jalifomian annuals with thread-like 
alternate Ivs. and small or mediumnsized heads, the ravs 
when present usually >rellow, sometimes wiiite: the 
disk-fls. sometimes turning piuple. P. aiireaf Nutt., 
growing 3-12 in. high and with 7-40 deep golden rays, 
was once offered and was pictured in Gt. S:1153, but 
it has no horticultural standing. 

PENTAPETES (Greek, having five leaves; an ancient 
name of some cinquefoil, transferred by Linnseus to 
this plant, which has five leafy growths (staminodes) 
accompanying the stamens; or perhaps to the 5-merous 
arrangement). Sterculidceae. A pretty red-flowered 
tender annual, widely distributed in tropical Asia, rare 
in gardens. 

Species one, P. phoenfcea, Linn. Erect branched 
herb, nearly or quite glabrous, 3-^5 ft. : Ivs. 3-5 in. long, 
hastate-lanceolate, 1-nerved, crenate-serrate; petiole 1 
in. long; stipules awl-shaped: fls. red, about 13^ in. 
across, openmg at noon and closing early following 
morning; bractlets 3, caducous; sepals 5, lanceolate, 
connate at the basej petals 5; stamens 20, connate at 
the base, 15 fertile m 5 groups of 3 each, alternating 
with 5 staminodes which are nearly as long as the petals; 
ovary 5-celled; cells many-ovuled: caps, loculicidally 5- 
valved; seeds 8-12, in 2 series in each cell. B.R. 575. — 
An interesting plant for amateurs in the warmhouse 
or for cult, in the open in sunmier. Prop, by seeds 
and cuttings. L. H. B. 

PENTAPTERtOIUM (Greek words, ^ and a smaU 
wing; alluding to the five-winged caJiyx). Erioduxx, 
Epiphytic shrubs, dabrous or strigose-hirsute, with 
alternate subsessile Ivs., rather large and scattered or 
small and sub-distichouslv clustered: fls. rather large, 
axillary^ solitary or in few-fld. corymbs; calvx-tiiDe 
turbinate or hemispherical, 5-winged; limb of 5 per- 
sistent leafv lobes; corolla tubular, 5-angled, witn a 
limb of 5 suberect or recurved lobes; stamens 10; ovary 
6-celled. About 6 species, 1 from the Malay Peninsula, 
the remainder from the temperate Himalayan region. 
Two species have been occasionally in cult. P, rugbsufn. 
Hook. Fls. pendulous; corolla nearly white, beautifully 
marked between the 5 angles with purple or blood-red 
bands: Ivs. almost sessile, subcoraate at base^ very 
much wrinkled, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. IChasia 
Mts. B.M. 5198. G. 36:617. G.W. 2. p. 502. P. 
sirpens. Klotzsch. Fls. numerous, axillary, hanging 
along the under side of the branches; calyx spreen, 5- 
angled; corolla bright red, with darker V-shaped 
marking: Ivs. small, lanceolate: sts. slender, droopmg: 
rootstock large, tuberous. Himalayas. B.M. 6777. 
G.W. 13, p. 90. 

PENTARHApHIA (Greek, five needles, referring 
to the form of the open calyx). Gesneridcex. Shrubs or 
subshrubs, one or two of which are grown under glass 
for the fls. This genus is most commonly treated as a 
section of the g^us Gesneria, but is considered dis- 
tinct by some. The principal characters of the section 
are the relatively bare branches, the 1- to several-fld. 
elongated peduncles borne in the If .-axils: fls. with a 
crooked cylindrical tube; stamens more or less long- 
exserted. At least 15 species, Mex., W. Indies, and S. 
Amer. P. floritdndaf Carr. Much of the material cult, 
under this name is referable to Gesneria libanensis 
(Vol. Ill, p. 1333), but some of it may be other species, 
as there appears to be more than one plant passing 
under this name. R.H. 1878:30. B.M. 4380. R.B. 25: 
241. These portraits may not all represent the same 

p£NTAS (Greek, iive. referring to the floral parts) 
Rvbidcese. Tender herbs and subshrubs, resembling 
bouvardias and of the same family, grown under glass 
for the lilac or white bloom. 

Herbs or subshrubs, erect or prostrate, hispid or 
tomentose: Ivs. opposite, stalked, usually ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate; stipules multifid or multi-setose: 
infl. usually corymbose; calyx-lobes 4-6, imequal; 
corolla pilose, the long tube dilated and villous in the 
throat; lobes valvate; stamens 4-6, inserted below the 
throat; filaments short or long; anthers fixed at the 
back, included or exserted; disk tumid or annular, often 
produced into a cone after anthesis; ovary 2-loculed; 
ovules numerous; style-branches papillose: caps, mem- 
branous or leathery. 2-loculea, loculicidal; seeds 
minute. — ^There are aoout 30 known species in Trop. 
and S. Afr.. including Madagascar. Only one is well 
known in cult., whose color varieties range through lilac 
and flesh-color to crimson-pink and rosy purple. A good 
cluster is 3 in. across and contains 20 or more fls., each 
of which is ^in. across. The fls. are about ^in. long, 
funnel-shaped, and usually have 5 spreading lobes, 
sometimes 4 or 6. It is mostly grown like bouvardia in 
warm conservatories for winter bloom, but it is some- 
times used for bedding in warmer countries, as it gives 
3 months of rather Siowy bloom when treated like 
lantana. In general, the species seem to be less worthy 
than bouvaroias. 

The pentas may be propagated from February to 
the middle of Apnl. Cnoose cuttings of half-matured 
wood and place in a warm propagating-bed ; by keeping 
moist ancl shaded they will root. Before thev have 
made too long roots, lut and transfer into small pots. 
They like a sandy open mixture, as of loam, peat, and 
sand in equal parts for the first potting. Place where 
they may have shade until well started, when they 
should have sun. In their growing season, which is 
from the end of January imtil autumn, they should 
have a temperature of 60® to 65** at night with 10** to 
15® rise durmg the day with sun. Keep the yoim^ plants 
vifsorous by ^ving larger pots until they are m 6- to 
8-mch pots. For a compost give them fibrous loam four 
parts, nbry peat one part, well-decayed cow-manure 
one part, and enou^ sand to keep it open. Always give 

Elenty of drainage m the pots, and pot moderately firm. 
Q the spring and summer they will require plenty of 
water. In the hot days of summer give daily syringing, 

getting well imder the foliage. As they grow, tie the 
ranches out horizontally; they then will break away 
into a number of growths which will make headway for 
flowers in autumn. If they show bloom before this 
time, pinch the flowers out. When the pots become well 
supplied with roots, give liquid feed once a week. The 
flowers are very useful for cutting. The care in winter 
should require a lower temperature; they do well in 
55® to 58® at night, with about 10® more with sunshine. 
Give enough water to keep them in good health and a 
good syringing now and then. After January, they 
may have any necessary repotting, such as renewing the 
old compost with a good neh material and growing on 
as treated the preceding spring and summer with the 
exception of cutting back the shoots well. (J. J. M. 

lanceoULta, Schum. (Ophiorrhlza lanceoldta, Forsk. 
P. cdmea, Benth., under which name it is known to 
gardeners). Erect or decumbent, 1-2 ft. high, shrubby 
at base, merely puberulous, not rusty-hairy: Ivs. 1-6 in. 
long, 4 lines to 2 in. broad, ovate, elliptic or lance- 
oblong, more or less acute, narrowed at base into a 
short petiole, the lateral veins many: cymes peduncled 
or not; fls. nearly sessile, to 1 in. long, dimorphic, 
naturallypale purple; corolla very hairy at throat. Trop. 
Afr., Arabia. B.M. 4086. B.R. 30:32. R.B. 21:217. 
Gn. 21. p. 329. J.H. III. 30:209; 52:417. G.W. 10, p. 
378. Var. kermesina, Hort. Fls. carmine-rose, tinted 
violet in throat. R.H. 1870:130. Var. Alba, Hort., has 


white fls. G.W. 10, p. 611. Var. Quartiiiiaiui, Sort. 
(P. Quarlinidna, Oliver) is a ro^-^. variety mid to be 
much better than the type. Gt. 45, p. 404. 


L. H. B.t 

PBimANDU: Urctolina. 

PENTSTfiMON (Greek /or five tlameru, all five 
stamens being present, whereas related genera have 
only four; but m Peutstemon one of the atamens is 
sterile). Sometimes written Pentostemon. Serophv- 
iaridcea'. Pentbtemon. BBABD-ToNGnr:. Tubular- 
flowered bedding and border plants, mostly of bright 
colors; many are natives in the United States. 

Perennial herbs or ahrube of medium or small size, 
spring- and amnmer-blooming, glabrous or pubescent, the 
8ta. mostly littlebranched:lv8. opposite or whorled,entire 
or toothed (the upper ones sometimes alternate) : Ba. 
in terminal racemes or thyrsoid clusters, mostly showy. 
blue, red, purple, white; calyx 5-parted, with imbricated 
eegms.: corolla tubular, usually dilated at the throat, 
distinctly or obscurely flipped, the upper lip 2^1obed or 
notched and the lower j-lobed; fertile Btiunens 4, 
didynamoua, the fifth sterile and nometinic-s bearded, 
all of them included or not exserteil; style filifomi imd 
stigma capitate; fr. an ovoid, globose or oblong dehis- 
cent caps., with numerous seeds. Pent«1emon is a 
typical American kcdus. One species is native to N. 
E. Asia and many to the cooler parts of Mex., but the 
larger number of the species inhabit the U. S. and 
Canada, particularly the western parts. Krautter 
admits 148 species m his monoEraph in 1908 (Contr. 
Bot. Lab.. Univ. of Pa. III). They are all herbs, 
although some species are somewhat woody at the 
base. It is dilBcuIt so to arrange the spweies of Pcnts- 
temon as to make them easy of detenninatlon by the 
horticulturist. Gray's account in the Synoptical Flora 
(Vol. 2, Part 1) describes the Ameriimn Bpeciea north of 
Mex.; and this account has been followed here in the 
main. The arrangement of species, however, has been 
modified considerably to admit ttio Mexici "" 

and to make the group easier for the beginn 
writers are inclined to raise the Grayan varieties 
the rank of species. 

For the hardy border, pents- 
temons are most satisfactory 
plants, and the great number of 
showy species allows much lati- 
tude m choice of color and habit. 
All are perennial, but some of 
them bloom the first year from 
seed. In a dry and hot place they 
are likely to be short-lived, 
although nearly all the species 
thrive best in full exposure to 
Bun. They should have good deep 
garden soil. They are propaRated 
by division and by aeed, the latter 
usually being preferred. Many of 
the species are not hardy in the 
northern states, but P. barbalus 
and its varieties, P. hirautiu, P. 
Ixmgatus and variety, P. eonftr- 
lus and variety, P. difutus, P. 
oifUu3, P.grandiflorus, P. aeaminatut, P. imgtalifoliii*, P. 
glaber and varieties, and also others, may be expected 
to stand in the North, particularly if given a protection 
of leaves. An excellent garden race has been produced, 
here designated as P. gloxiniindex. This seems to be a 

Eroduct of hybridization and selection. It is little 
nown in American gardens, although it is a handsome 
and deserving plant. Some of the forms of it are 
treated as annuals. Most of the species described in 
this account are not domesticated or modified plants, 
but ore sold or distributed as stock secured more or 
less directly from the wild. 



Wrijhtii, IS. 


A. CeOa of anl}ten de- 
higcent for nearlu 
or quite Iheir v>h/)ii 
Unglh, wtUed or 

spreading from 
each olher. (Not. 
1-S8.) Nog. 4, 10, 
16 are in dovid as 
to position in key. 

B, Anihert covered wilh 
long wool. 

.. Mfoziesii, Hook. Woody at 
■^^ &Si, base, : ft. or Ims high: Ivs. thick, 
obovnte to oblong, serrate orentire, 
mostly glabrous, the lower ones 
short-Btaiked; cluster a raceme, 
pubcstx'Hi; fls. 1 in. or more long, 
violet-bhie to purple, usually 1 on 
each pedicel, the upper lip 2-cleft 
and the lower 2-cleft. Wash., 
north. G.M. 45:100. 

Var, Nfiwberryi, Gray (var, 
Rdbinmnii, Mast.), Fig. 2859 
(adapted from Pacific R, R. Re- 
port). Kls. pink or rose-purple: 
Iva. ova! or ovate-oblong, serru- 
late. Caiif. to Wash. G.C. 1872: 
969, — Kejit Hpecifically distinct by 
recent authors as P. Neutberryi. 

Var, Seoflleii, Gray (P. Scot- 
fan, Doupias). Fls. violet-purple: 
Ivs. lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 
spareeiy Rerrulate. Wyo. to Ore., 
north. IS.R. 1277. B.M. 6834. 
G.C. 111. 7, p. 204. Gn, 62, p. 42; 
70, p. 250. G. 36:23; 37:408.— 
K^t specifically distinct by some 
as P. fruticAsus, Greene {Gerirdia 
fruticdsa, Pursh). P. frvtlcaBUS 
var. CTBssifaiius, Kraut. (P. ernssifMiws. Lindl. P. 
Doiigla*ii, Hook.). Fls. lilac-purple, pink at base: Ivs. 
oblong or oboTate-lanceolate, entire. Ore., nortii, BJL 

2. Dindsonli, Greene. An alpine dwarf, differing 
from P. Menziesii in having its tough and almost her- 
baceous branching sts. undei^round except the very 
short and erect flowering branches, and obovate and 
oval obtuse or acutish entire veinless Ivs.: proper st. 
mainly subterranean and horizontal, rooting at joints; 
free branches 1-2 in, high, the fls. usually exceeding in 
(lise all the remainder of the plant above ground : corolla 


1 in. long, lilac-purpl«, ventricoee from near the tips of 
the BepuB, the lobes rather short and not very unequal; 
Btamens included, woolly. Discovered by Qeorge 
Davidson, on Mt. Connese, Caiif., altitude 12,300 ft.: 
occurs on Mt Shasta and north to Waah.— OSraea 

BB. Anihert glabrtnu or ordj/ hairy (not leooBy). 
C. PUmt semi-Boandertt (aomeioAoC climbing) b|f ffleons 

t^ long slender branches, or at leaatgome o} the 

braruAM long and weak or slender. 
3. coidifdlius, Benth. Plant very leafy, somewhat 
pubescent, clambering over shruba: Ivs. ovate, oft«n 
more or less cordate, serrate, I in. or less long: cluster or 
thyrse short and leafy, the pedunclea eevcral-fld. ; corolla 
tubular, scarlet, the tube 1 in. long and the limb half as 
long. 8. Calif. B.M.4497. R.H. 1850:221. J.F. 1:14. 

4. temfttua, Torr. 
Flowering shoots 
2-4 ft. long, vii^t«, 
glabrous and glau* 
cous: IvB. linear- 
lanceolate, rigid, 
serrate or denticu- 
late, the upper ones 

raoeme^ike thyrse, 
pale scarlet; calyx 
with ovate-acumi- 
nate parta; corolla 
1 in. long, the lipe 
i<in.long. S. Calif., 
in mountains. 

cc. Plant ereet, a^- 


n. Fit. letnon-j/dU>a 

to yeliotiHred. 

5. antirrtdnoldeB. 
Benth. (P. LdbbU, 
Hort.). Plant 1-fi 
ft., glabrous or 
nearly so, branched 
and leafy: Ivs. 
sniall, oval or roatu- 
late, entire: Be. in 
leafy panicles the 
peduncles l-fld., ths 
broad fls. about 1 
in. long, the lower 
lip deeply 2-lobed; 
sterile filament 
bearded on one side. 
S. Calif. B.M.ei57. 

2M0. Pmtiltiaaa HtrtwagIL (XK) id 9-315 

6. Ummonii, Gray. Slender shrub, 5 ft. or less tall, 
bright green and glabrous: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, 
toothed: panicle loose and branchy, the long peduncles 
2-7.fld.; fla. small, dull yellowish and red, tne segms. 
nearly equal. Cent. Calif. 

nn. Fls. not yetiow (unless sometimes in P. eonfertus), 
mostly in shades of red or purple, sometimes 

E. St. and Ivs. gl^Jrrous, at least up to the infl. {Not. 
r. Corolia long and slender, not swollen near the base 
or greatly widened at the tnoulh: straight-fid. 

7. barbatus, Nutt. (Chelime barbdta, Cav.). Tall, 
erect, branching, glabrous and more or less glaucous 
herb: Ivs, firm, varying from lanceolate to linear, 
entire, strong-veined, the radical ones oblanceolate or 

rtulate: fl.-cluster long and open, narrow, the pe- 
Lcles about 2-3-fld.; fls. slender, about 1 in. long m 


wild forms, ationgly 2-iipped, varying from light pink 
fUld fleah-color to carmine, the lower Up usually beaided. 
Colo., south. B.R. 116; 25:21. R.H. 1896, p. 347. G. 
32:76. Mn. 7:141. — Showy perennial, conunon in cult. 

Var. T6rreyl, Gray (P. Tdrrem, Benth.), is a scarlet- 
fld. form, with almost no beara on the lower lip: the 
commonest fonn of the species in cult Hillsides, Utah, 
Colo., south and to Texas. — Excellent 

Var. cocdneus, Hort, is a scarletAL tuuticultural 

8. labrdmu. Hook. (P. barbitm var. Jobrdsus, Gray). 
Much like P. barbalua, but narrowed vd., the infl. 
almost simply racemose and the corolla more slender, 
light scarlet, not bearded, the limb longer; 3 lobes of 
lower lip linear, apreading, half the length of tube, 
equaling thoee of upper Ep. Calif, and Low. Calif. 
B.M. 6738. G.C. II. 20:637.— A good perennial, 1-2 
ft., making many sts. 

9. fiatonii. Gray. Sts. 1-2 ft. high: Ivs. lanceolate to 
ovate, the upper ones partly clasping; fls. bright 

1 in. long, tubular, the throat naked and scarcely 
enlarged, the lobes broadly oval and all much alike; 
sterile filament aometimes minutely bearded. Utah, 
Nev., New Mei., Ariz., and S. Calif. BJt. 10:14. FS. 
3:232 (as P. miniatus). 

10. isopbfllus, Robs. St. somewhat decumbent at 
baae, erect,2 ft. or so high, simple, purplish, pulverulent, 
very leafy, with Iva. in nearly equal pairs: Iva. lanceo- 
Isite, entue, thickiah, glabrous, sessile, acute, margin 
revolute: fls. in a long aecimd [Muicle, nodding, scarlet; 
calyx deeply 5-parted; corolla about IH in. long, the 
5-lobed lunb erose-crenulat«, the throat somewhat 
ffiilarged and more or less white-puberulent Mas. 

11. triflftnis, Heller. Perh^is to be entered at this 
point: glabrous or nearly so to the infl., 2-3 ft.: lower 
IVS. spatulate or oblong, almost entire, with margined 
petioles; upper Ivs. oblong to ovate: fls. rose-putple, 
the peduncles glandular-pubescent and usually 3-Dd.; 
calyx-lobes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; corolla 
about 1 in. long, the tube gradually dilated; sterile 
filament glabrous. Cent. Texas. — Under this name a 
coral-red pentstemon with fls. I^^IM in. long is 
offered abroad, said to be Mexican. 

12. Hiitwedi, Benth. (P. genliamAdea, landl.). Fig. 
2860. Tallanderect (3-1 ft. high) somewhat branched, 
the stA. dark purple; Ivs. lanceolate to lance-oblong- 
linear, or the upper ones broader, eeamle, glabrous and 
entire: fl.-cluster somewhat pubescent, lon^ and open, 
the pedicels 3-&-fld.; fls. drooping, dark rich scarlet- 
red, slightly curved, Oie limb somewhat 2-lipped and the 
lobes acute. Cool regions in Max. B.M. 3661. B.R. 
24:3. Gn. 37, p. 603; 49, p. 406. G.2:391. J.F.3i231. 
Gn.W. 23:679. G.L. 17:397. G.W. 2, p. 157 (as var. 
hybridus grandiflorus.) — A fine garden plant, now much 
modified by domestication. P. gentianoldes, Poir,, 
and in F. S. 7:730, from S. Mex. and Guatemala, is 
kept distinct by Krautter, the infl. being a long leafy 
raceme rather than a loose naked panicle: fls, purplish. 

13. gloxinioldes, Hort. A race of garden hybrids, 
issuing largely from P. ffortme^t, the other moat impor- 
tant parent being P. Cohxa. Probably other species 
have entered into the amalgamation. The group needs 
critical study from the growing plants. The fis. are 
large, with a broad nearly regular limb, and in many 
colors. The plants are strong and florifcrous. Fla. 
sometimes measure 2 in. across. Some of the strains 
bloom freely from seed tho first year. Not hardy in 
N. Y. unless very thoroughly protected; it is probably 
better to winter it in deep coldfrarae. 

14. centranthifdlius, Benth. (Chelbne centranthi- 
Jblia, Benth.). Phmt strict and leafy, 1-3 ft. tall, very 
glaucous: Ivs. thick and entire, from ovate-lanceolate 


to linear, mostly aesaile and clasping : infl. long and nar- 
row, Uie peduncles 2-3-fld.;flB. about 1 in. long, scarlet, 
narrow-tubular, the lobes short and acute; sterile 
filament naked. Calif, to W. Aril. B.M. fil^ BJL 
1737. F.S, 22:2309. 

FF. CoroUa {except in P. Tolundi- 
foUua) tinth a prominenlly en- 
larffing Ivbe, whidt is often 
conlraded near the hose: thick- 
fid, species. CoroUa nearly 
Straight bul short in P. con- 

Q. Lva. entire (sometimes semdaie 

in P. conjertus). 

H. Inji. iwJioWj) Tolher close and 


I. Some or aU the U>s. laneeotale to 



15. gliber, Purah (P. G6rdtmii, 
Hook. P. <peciiBU8, Douglas). Erect 
herb (1-2 ft.), with simple st^ k1^ 
brous and somewhat glBucous: Tvs. 
oblong-lanceolate to ovate- 
lanceolate: fl. 1 in. or more 
long, broad, and wide at the 
mouth, bright blue to pur- 
plish. Missouri River, west. 
B.M. 1672 (aa P. gUAra) and 
4319. B.R. 1270. Gn. 27, p. 
42. R.H. 1895, p. 383; 1896, 
p. 347. G. M. 44:563.— A 
very handsome plant, known 
byitsla^ebluefla. Variable. 

Var. cfanAnthus, Gray (P. 
cuaTi4nth-us, Hook. P. cyin- 
thus, Hort.). Tall and leas 
glaucous, the Ivb. broader 
(ovate or cordate-ovate to 
lance-ovate) :fl.-cluaterdenae; 
fls. bright blue. Rocky Mts., 
Colo., Mont., Utah. B.M. 
4164. F.S. 6: 157. R.H. 1851 : 
453. — Preferable to the type. 
By many considered to be specifically distinct. 

Var. alpinus, Gray (P. o/fdniw, Ton-.). A foot or less 
high: st.-lvs. narrow- or broad-lanceolate: thyise short 
and few-fld. Hi^ plains and mountains, Rocky Mts. 
Kept distinct from P. giaber by some authors. 
n. Some or aU the ha. as broad as ovate, ov(d or (Aovale. 

16. ariilSnicus, Heller. St. slender but ereot, $-8 
in. high, usually with several leafy short prostrate 
branches at base: Ivs. glabrous, dull green, coriaceous, 
oval and finely crcnate or undulate on prostrate 
branches, oblanceolate te ovate-lanceolate "~ "" ' 

I lax n 

accundinil.. purplish; calyx nearly ^in. long, i>ubescent 
and somewhat glandular, the lobes long-acuminate and 
ciliate; corolla about 1 in. long, minutely puberulent, 
abruptly dilated above ca^^; sterile filament glabrous, 
not enlarged above. Mt. San Francisco, Ariz. 

17, ^untceus, Gray. Very glaucous, with short ovat« 
sometimes connate [vs.: fl. about 1 in. long, mote fun- 
nclform (or widening upward) and with wide-spread- 
ing rounded lobes, scarlet; sterile filament bearded 
down one side. N. Mex. R.H. 1892, p. 448. 

18. Wrlghlii, Hook. Rather stout, 2 ft. or less tall, 
more or less glaurous : lowest Ivs. obovate, the upper onee 
oblong and daaping: infl. long and loosely fld., to ped- 
uncles about 2-fld.; fls. about J<in. long, bright red, 
the mouth broad and the rounded lobesspreading^in.; 
sterile stamen Ijoardod. W. Texas to Ana. B.M. 4601. 
F.S.7:685. J.F.2:190. 

19. grandifiaruB, Nutt. Fig. 2861. Stout, very ^aa- 
oous: Ivs. thick, broad and obtuse, the floral ones with 
very broad bases : peduncles vety diort or almost none ; 
fls. nearly or quite 2 in. long, lilac or blue, enlarging 
near the base, somewhat 2-hpped and the upper lip the 
smaller; sterile filament minutely pubescent at the tip: 
fr. large. Prairies, III. and Mimi., westward. G. 29:^. 
— Handsome. 

20. HurrajAnus, Hook. Erect, 3 ft.: Ivs. broad- 
ovate, clasping, and the upper pain grown together 
into a cup-shaped body (connate) : pedicels 2-3 in. long; 
fls. deep scarlet, with rather smaU lobes: sterile filament 
glabrous. Ark., Texas. B.M. 3472. Gn. 26, p. 229. 
R.H. 1896, p. 348. 

21. acuminitus. Douglas. Glaucous, strict and 
usually stiffish, 2 ft. or less tall: Ivs. thickish, the lower- 
most broadly ovate to obovate. the uppermost broad- 
lanceolate to broad-ovate and danjmg and usualhr 
acuminate, the floral Ivs. shorter than the fls.: infl. 
narrow, the pedimclca 1-3 or more-fld.; fls. nearly 1 
in. long, lilac to violet, wide at the throat, the obtuse 
lobes spreading; sterile filament bearded at the tip. 
Neb. and Minn., south and far westward. B.R. 1285. 
—Very satisfactory. There is confusion in the applica- 
tion of the name P. acuminatus. P. nftidua, Douglas 
(P. PindleTi, Gray); sometimes referred here, is con- 
sidered to be a distinct species, with upper Ivs. ovate 
(W narrower. Sask. to Mcx., and westward. 

. m. Some or all the foe. laneeolaie to linear. 

22. angustifdliufl, Pursh (P. cxrideiia, Nutt.). Fig. 
2862. Mostly lower: Ivs. linear to lanceolate, those at 
the base of the fl. -cluster usually exceeding the fls.: 
infl usually close; fls. blue, varyuiK to lilac or white. 
Dakota to Colo, and New Mei. G.M. 54:377.— Seems 
to run into P. aeuminatus. 

23. aecundlfldnis, Benth. About 2 ft. tall: Ivs. nar- 
row-lanceolate, somewhat 
glaucous, the radical ones 
spstulate: infl. long and 
strict, the peduncles 1-3-fld.: 
fls. lilac or purple, the bssal 
tube about twice the length 
of the calyx, the throat 
broad and Dell-shaped and 
about equaled by the spread- 
ing rounded lobes; sterile 
filament glabrous or bearded 
only at the top. Colo, and 
Wyo. — Handswne . 

24. confErtus, Douglas. One 
to 2 ft., pubescent in the infl. : 
Ivs. oblong to lanceolate to 
l^ear, usually entire but 
sometimes minutely serrate: 
infl. a narrow interrupted 

Sike, the peduncles sessile or 
e lower ones stalked; fls. 


...lite to Bulfur-yel 
tow, 2-lipped, the lower lip 
bearded within. Rocky Mts. 
to Ore. and Calif. B.R. 1260. 
— Variable, and has received 
many names, but httle known 

Var. carftleo-purpftreuB, 
Gray (P. prbeena, Douglas). 
Fls. blue-purple to violet. 
Colo., west and north. B.M. 
2954. L.B.C. 17:1616.— A 
common form in gardens, and 
a reliable and satisfactoi^ 
plant, often kept as specifi- 
cally distinct. (x$i) 


.. Umg and Ihe pedicels 1 
or mare long and the fl». drooping. 

25. rotundUftlins, Gray. Fig. 2863. About 2 (t. taU, 
branching from the baae, gl&ucoua: lower Ivs. thick and 
leatheryj orbiculaiH>vat« and obtuse. long-petioled, st.- 
Iv9. Beaaile and cordate-orbicular: fls. 1-lH in. long, 
narroTv-tubular, yellow-red, the lobee short and acute; 
Bteiile filament glabrous. N. Mex. B.M. 7055. G.C. 
111.4:265. OF. 1:473 (reduced in Fig. 2863). 

GO. Lvs. »erroU or dentate. 
B. SUriie filament bearded at the tip or idong one side 

{Nob. Se-32). 
I. Color of fi». purple, blue or rose, tomeUmea ranging to 

26. campannUtus, Willd. Branching from the base, 
2 ft. or less tall : Ivs. lanceolate or the upper ones ovat»- 
lanceolate, long-acuminate, broad at the baae and sea- 
Bile, strongly serrate: infl. long and narrow, tlie pedun- 
cles usually 2-fld.; fls. 1 in. long, rose-purple or violet 
(sometimes white in cult.), the corolla tunnelform, the 
lobca rounded and spreading and the lower lip breeder 
than the upper, the sterile filament hairy at the top, 
Mex. and Guatemala. B.M. 3884. — An old garden plant 
which is variable in color and which has received many 
names, aa P. angustUiAiui, P. atropurpeue, P. roeeus. 
See B.R. 1122. E.B.C, 15:1429, 1438. G.C. 111.60:93 
(a white form). P. pulchfillus, Lindl., by some refeired 
here, is by others kept distinct, diSering in corolla 
abruptly ventricoee or swollen above, violet or lilao 
with white veins, the lips nearly equal, throat spotted 
and villous, sterile filament bearded at end. Mex. 
B.R. 1138. 

27. hUmilis, Nutt. Low, usually not over 6 in. tall, 
pubescent in the infl.: Ivs. oblong to lanceolate, some- 
what glaucous, the upper ones amall-toothed: '"fl 
8-4 in. long, with 2-5-fld. peduncles; flg. J^. long, 
rather narrow, deep blue or sometimes ranging to white, 
the lower lip bearded within. RockyMts., west. 

F. 1876:241. 

Taller, sometimes 
minutely puberu- 
lent, slender: Ivs. 
line a r- lanceolate, 
sometimes nearly 
entire, the radic^ 
ones spatulate or 
oblong: infl. strict, 
the peduncles 3- or 
more-fld.;fls. nearly 
1 in. long, mostly 

A pretty species. 

n. Color of fit. nearly 
or tfuite white, 
but aotnetimet 
shaded wUh red 

29. tubiflOrns, 
Nutt. St. 2-3 ft., 
erect, not leafy 
above: Ivs. oblong 
to ovate-lanceolate, 
' ;ly serrulate, 


of densely-fld., somewhat whorled clusters; fls. about 
Siin. long, scarcely 2-lipped, the spreading lunb nearly 
as long as the tube, white or nearly so and sometimes 
tinged with piuple. Mo., Kans., and Ark. 

30. Icvigitus, Soland. {Chellme Pentatimon, linn.). 
Tall and slender, 2-4 ft., more or less glaucous: Ivs. 
rather firm, purplish, somewhat glossy, ovate to ovate- 
oblong-lanceolate and clasping, the radical ones 
oblanceolate or broader, all small- toothed; infl. long and ■ 
loose; fls. about 1 in. long, white and sometimes tmged 
with color, rather slender, narrow at the baae, the short 
lobes not wide-spreading, the small lower lip bearded 
at the base. Pa., west and south. B.M. 1425. — A com- 
mon plant, best known in the following form. 

Var. DiiitiliB, Gray (P. DigitiUis, Nutt. CheUm^ 
D^iUUU, Sweet). Very tall, 4-5 ft^ with larger white 
abruptlj[ inflated fls. B.M. 2587. — Sometimes becomes 
a weed in old fields, from Maine south and west, but 
probably not indigenous in all this range. It is in 
cult., as a border plant. By some authors kept dis- 
tinct aa a species. P. Smillii, Heller, is a handsome 
allied species from N. C. and Tenn., with briEht pink- 
piuple gibbous corolla, pubescent or puberuknt sts,: 
root>4vs. oval or ovate; at.-lvs. lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, smooth both sides, serrate. 

31. Pilmeri, Gray. Plant 2-3 ft. tall, the foliage 
glauoous: Its. thick, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, the 
lOneT petioled and tne upper connate, very sharp^en- 
tate or sometimes almost entire: infl. long, mostly 
glandular; fls. cream-white tinted with pink, the narrow 
part of the tube about as long as the calyx, the upper 
part very wide and open, the mouth 5^in. across and 
2-Iipped; sterile filament yellow-bearded. Utah, south 
asdweBt. B.M.6064. F.S. 20:2094. F. 1874:37. 

m. Color i^fle. red. 
82. ClSvdandii, Gray. Two ft. or above, more <xt 
ten glaucous, becoming woodv at the baae: Ivs. rigid, 
oblong or ovate, shaip-toothecL, the upper ones usually 
connate by their bases: infl. long and narrow; fls. ^in. 
long, crimson, with narrow throat; sterile filament 
bearded at top. S. Calif, and Low. Calif. G.M. 36: 
626. P. 1878, p. 149. 

HH. SlerUe Jdament gUArma. 

33. defistus, Douglas. Sts. 1 ft. or less tall, from a 
woody base, glabrous throughout: Ivs. thickish, vary- 

from nearly linear to lanceolate to ovate, some or 
if ti)em serrate, the uppermost sessile; injfl. many- 
loose and open; fls. not over ^in, long, dull white 
-- cUowish white and sometimes tinged with purple, 
wide-mouthed, the lobes wide-spreadmg. Mont, and 
Wyo. to Cahf. BSL 1318. 

34. spectibilia, Thutb. Two to 4 ft., erect, eome- 
vbaX glaucous; Ivs. ovate to ovate-lanceolate or some- 
times oblonK, acute, the upper ones acuminate and 
connate by their bases, very sharp serrate-dentate: infl. 
long and many-fld.;fl. 1 in. or more long, rose-purple or 
lilac, the narrow part of the tube about twice the length 
of the calyx, the upper part broad and full, the lobes 
rounded. New Mex. to S. Calif. B.M. 5260.— A beau- 
tiful species. 

EB. Si. and Uie. more or lc*» pubtacent or AtVsuIe. 
p. Corolla S in. long. 

35. Cob*a, Nutt. Fig. 2864. Straight and erect, 
stout, about 2 ft., minutely pubescent: Ivs. thick, ovate- 
oblong to oblong to broad-lanceolate, the upper ones 
clasping: infl. mostly simple and open; fls. very large, 
reddish purple to white, the base very narrow but Uie 
upper part of the fl. broad and open, the limb only 
obscurely 2-lipped; sterile filament bearded. Prairies, 
Mo. and Neb., south. B.M. 3465. Gn. 49:406. G. 
29:83. F.S.R.2,p.271. Mn.4:113.— Very showy, and 
probably one oi the parents of the garden race of 

bracte above: infl. hybrid pentetemons (see No. 13). 

ing from i 
STof thei 
fid., loow 
or yellov 

barely serrulate, 
passing into small 


'. CoroOa 1 in. or tetf long. 

linear-lanceolate to narrow-oblong: infl. erect, leafy 
below; fla. about I in. ion^ putpliah, rather abruptly 
dilated above, the lower hp oearded; eterile filament 
strongly yellow-bearded. Dakota to Colo., north and 
weat. — Good. 

37. OvStus, Douglas. St. slender but erect, 2-4 ft., 
more or less pubescent: Ivb. ovate, rather thin, bright 
Kreen, serrate, the upper ones clasping: infl. erect but 
lax, the peduncles 2- to Beveral-fld.; fls. about %m. 
long, blue changing to purple, 2-tipped and the lower 
lip bearded. Idaho, west and north. B.M. 2903.— Good. 

38. hirsiltus, Willd. (P. pvbisce7\», Soland. Chdime 
Kirsiiia, Linn.). Loose-growing, the slender often decum- 
bent sta. reaching 2 ft., usually viscid-pubescent: Ivs. 
oblong to narrow-lanceolate, email-toothed, the radical 
ones ovate to spatulat« : infl. loose and open, the peduncles 
2-3 in. long and the pedicels often 1 in. long; fls. about 
1 in. long, drooping, dull purple or violet or varying to 
flesh-color, rather narrow, with 2 short lobes densely 
bearded on the palate: eterile filament densely beardea. 
Dry fields and banks from Maine and Ont. lo Fla. and 
Texas. B.M. 1424. G.M.56:493.~The common pcntate- 
mon of the E., and useful in cult. P. MackayinuB, 
Knowles & Westc., is perhaps distinct: corolla often 
shorter, sparingly bearded m throat, purple: upper 
8t.-Ivs. with dilated or rounded bases rather than nar- 
row-lanceolate. Ala. to Ark. 

AA. CcU» of anthers not dehiscing or opening lo the base, 
the basat pari remaining aaccaie 

B. LvB. ikiUate or Kerrate. 
C. Plant viscid and soft-yubeecent. 

39. glandulOsuSj Dou^as {P. statid-fMiua, Lindl.}. 
Rather stout, 2-3 ft. tall: Ivs. rather thin, uvatc-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, the upper ones clasping, the radical 
ovate or oblong, all toothed or serrate: infl, narrow, 
leafy below, the peduncles few- (o several-fld.; fls. 
large, somewhat over 1 in. lone, lilac, with inflated 
throat, the lips short and broad; sterile filament gla- 
brous. Idaho to Wash, and Ore. B.M.36S8. B.R. 
1262; 1770.— Showy. 

cc. Plant not viscid, either gU^irous or pubendenl. 

40. ventistus, Douglas. St. erect, nearly simple, 
leafy, 2 ft. or less tall, glabrous: Ivs. thickish, oblong- 
lanceolate to ovatc-lanccolate, very sharply ecrrate: 
infl. narrow, not leafy, the peduncles 1-3-fld.; fla. 
usually more than 1 in. long, somewhat 2-lipped, li^t 
purple, Bomewhat hairy within; sterile filament hairy 
above. Idaho, Ore., and Wash. B.R. 1309. 

41. diffftsus. Douglas (P. argiitua, Paxt.). St& 
about 2 ft. tall, diffuse: Ive. ovate to oblong-lanceolate 
to cordate-ovate, unevenly and deeply serrate: infl. 
leafy,thc pedicels very short ;fla. J^in. long, light purple, 
2-lipped; sterile filament hairy above. Ore,, north. 
B.M.3645. B.R. 1132. R.H. 1872:410. 

BB. Lvs. deep<vl. 

42. Rfchardsonii, Douglas. Rather loosely branch- 
ing: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, deep^ 
cut or pinnatifi<l, the upper ones not opposite: inn. 
loose; lis. ^in. long, li^t purple; stenle filament 
somewhat haii? at top. Ore. and Wash. B.M. 3391. 
B.R. 1121. L.B.C. 17:1641. 

BBB. Lbs. entire, 
c. SUrrile filament somewhat bearded. 

43. gracil£atuG, Gray. A foot or more tall from a 
woody base, naked above: lvs. lanceolate to li 


cc. Sterile filament glabroat. 

44. Ifttus. Gray. About 1 ft. tall, from a woody 
base, closely pubescent: lvs. lanceolate to lineal^ 
lanceolate, the radical ones apatulate: fls. I in. long, 
blue. Calif, and Nev. 

45. Roizlil, Hegel. Smaller than the last, 1 ft. or 
less, glabrous or minutely puberuleut below: lvs. 
lanceolate, linear, or 

oblanceolate: fls. pale 
blue or violet, on 
divergent branches, 
the corolla \i-3fn. 
long. Nev., Calif., 
Ore.— The plant cult. 
under this name may 
be, in eome cases, P. 
atvreia var. Jagray- 

46. Bzllreua, Benth. 
Erect or ascending, 3 
ft. or less, glaucous, 
sometimes minutely 
pubescent : lvs. nar- 
row-ovate to narrow- 
lanceolate: infl. loose 
and open; fls. IJ.^ in. 
or lees long, blue to 
violet, sometimes red- 
dish at the base, the 

ut 1 

across. Oahf. B.M. 
7504. J.F. 2:211. 

Var. Jafirayanus, 
Gray (P. Jaffray- 
Anas, Hook.). Lower 
(about 1 ft. tall), 
young sts. tinged 
with red: Iva. oblong 
to oval or the upper ones ovate-lanceolate, glaucous: 
fls. large and showy, rich blue and reddish at Dase and 
in the throat. Calif. B.M. 5045. R.H. 1874:430. H. 
K.I1. 1 :5. G.C. m. 58:67.— By some kept specificaUy 

47. heterophfllus, Lindl. Sts. reaching 3-{t ft., 
from a woody base, the plant mostly green: lvs. vary- 
ing from oblong-lanceolate above to lanceolate and 
linear below: inn. loose and open, the peduncles usu- 
ally 1- or 2-fld.; fls. about 1 in. long, pink or rose-pur- 
ple, very slender at the base but full or inflated above, 
the lips well marked. CaUf. B.R. 1899. B.M. 3853. 
R.H. 1875 : 1 10; 1896, p. 348; 1901 : 164. 

48. Brfdgeaii, Gray. Sts. 1-2 ft., from a somewhat 
woody base, glabrous or perhaps puberulent up to the 
thyrae: Its. lanceolate to linear; peduncles 1-5-fld., 
short, glandular; corolla ^out 1 in. long, bright scarlet, 
ooTTow, the lips one-third length of tube; anthen 
sagittate. S. W. Colo, and N. Ariz, to Calif. Gn. 66, 
p. 348. 

Aa the pentitcmoiu an mostlr kttnetivg pluita, •ny Diunber of 
them may appwr ia the liM* ol dlatributon of native planta. P. 
batdiarifiliut. Hook, Glabroui or only obscurely puberulent. leafy 
~ t bHAe, 2 ft-: lv>. oblong, BikarT>-tootli«l. gr---'-- "- -•--- '-" 

^- 1 In. Ion; , 

tnaked. Ti^im, J.F.3:227,— P. 

ic iut«d •bt(md: 

tbrrmd: '"very eompael-BTawinRj pale pup- 
iraiWM, Ony. Glabroua or Bli(btly eIuhIu- 
;:IvB. liDear-lanceolat^: fix. lilac with puiple 

ahon 2-lipped 

pie and white fls.' 

veina. in a virftat« thyne; corolla ?iin. iode. wiui a wioe tnnnt ano 
diitioctly 2-llpped. New Mei., Aril. L H B 

PEOMT: Prmui. 

PBPERdHIA {Greek, pepper4ike). Piptrdcete. An 
enormous genus of tropical and subtropical herbs, 
including a few small but choice foliage plants for 
warmhouse, conservatory, or house decoration. 

Annual, or perennial by a creeping caudex or b; 



tubera foimed at the base sts prostrate, creeping and 
thiead-likc, or erect and slender, or short thick, &nd 
succulent Ivb all^niate, oppoaite, or m whorls of 3-4 
(rarely 5-6} entire fleshy or membranous, often with 

KItucid data sometunee attractively veined or colored; 
, minute usually disposed m a dense spike ; stamens 
2, luitlieiHsells confluent stigma sessile, undivided, 
often tufted fr a small or minute beny, 1-aeeded, 
with thin pericarp. 
— Species perhaps 
500 or more, 
widely dispersed, 
but mostly in 
Amer., from Fla. 
to Chilo and Ar- 
gentina. Very few 
are cult. The 
namea of peper- ' 
omias are much 
confused, partly 
on-ing to the vast 
size of the genus, 
which always in- 
creases the diffi- 
culties of discrimi- 
nation, and partly 
to the minuteneai 
of the fls. More- 
over, the duration 
of many kmds is uncertain, while Rreat numbers are 
monocarpic, that is, they flower and tniit once and then 
die. In the following account, the names are those 
that mostlv aintear m the trade and in horticultural 
literature ; how far these names may be properly deter- 
nuned botsnically is a subject for investigation. 

Peperomias are very attractive and beautiful small- 
stature glasshouse plants, having particularly a very 

decorative a 

By the 

increase in temperature to about 62° at night; this may 
be increased until they are having 66° to 70° with an 
increase of 10° to 15° on bright days. As the sun gets 
powerful in the spring, they will n^ shade, or as soon 
as the foliage shows signs of losing color. In the sum- 
mer they need a good supply of water, but in autumn 
and winter they require very careful watering. In 
spring and smnmer they profit by frequent light spray- 
ing. Keep the atmosphere of the house in a moist 
state, but avoid a stuffy or stagnant condition. In the 
slow time of winter, th^ will stand the temperature to 
be lowered to about 60* with 10° to 15° increase with 

water during the d 

. . d and plunged where they will have bottom heat of 

75° to 80°. Do not cover with glass as it tends to make 

them rot. Keep shaded and be very careful about 

watering, and tney will soon root. When they make 

sufficient roots, they may be potted up into small pots, 

using loam four parts, fibrous peat two parts, and 

enough sand to keep it open, ^r laiver shifts, use a 

more lumpy mixture of fibrous loam, (idtous peat, and 

well-decayed cow-manure. By July or August they 

should get their last shift, until the coming of spring. 

They will stand full sun by the end of September and 

through the winter, and this greatly aids in keeping 

them in good condition at that sciwon. (J, J. M. Farrell.) 

A. Plants for poU or pans, erect-habiled. 

B. Lvs. aUemate. 

c. SlK. short or wanting. 

SfcodersU, A. DC. (P. ariJUia, Hort,, not Miq.). 

Fig. 2865. Stemless: lvs. alternate, peltate, 5 x 3J4 in., 


rounded at base; petioles daric red, 4r-8 ii 

bands of white between t£e nerves. Brazil. B.M. 5634. 
F.S.23;2438. G.25:197. A.G. 19:17. F.R. 1:637.— 
This plant seems to be the commonest in cult, here, 
under the name of P. arifolia var. arpyreia. However, 
Casimir DeCandoUe thought that this plant is not the 
true P. arifolia, and be renamed it P. iSanderaii (after 
Wilson Sanders), but the name is often spelled Baun- 
dersii in trade catalogues. The distinctions which De- 
CandoUemakesare technical. The evident ones are that 
P. arifolia has a short st. and catkins much longer thaa 
the lvs., while P. Sandersii has no st. and the catkins 
are about as long as the lvs. 

smaller and more delicate but more branched plant; 
at. short: St., branches, petioles, and peduncles much 
longer, translucent, and pale rose (not ^;een) : lvs. heart- 
shaped at base. Upper Amazon, Brazil. I.H. 16:5r'' 

tithymalddes, A. Dietr. (P. maanolix}ma. A. Diet: , 
Lvs. alternate, subovale, acutish, narrowed at base, 
2-3 in. long, base acute^ more than 9-nerved; nerves 
subopposite; petiole 1 m. long, keeled beneath: st. 
looling below. Santo Domingo. — Monocarpic (annual 
or biennial.) 

macnlSsa, A. Dietr. Lvs. altemafe(T), ovate-lanceo- 
late, bright ahining green, very fieshy; petioles beauti- 
fully spotted with purple. Santo Domingo. — A good 
subject for a pan. Perennial. 

sts. 12-16 in. high, and lanceolate lvs. It probably 
belongs in some other genus or family. It was intro. in 
1892 before the fls. were known and its exact botanical 
position determined. Lvs. blackish green, painted 
white down the middle, ted-veined below; petioles 
short, reddish brown. Peru. I.H. 39:157. G.W. 3, p. 

BB. Lm. apposite or in whorla. 

marmorlta, Hook. St. short, much-branched, nearly 
J^in. thick ; lvs. opposite, ovale-cordate, deeply 2-Iobed 
at the base, the lobes rounded and overlappmg. The 
IvB. are 3-5 x lJ4-2Ji in., not eo broad as P. Sandersii, 
and less concave. Notadvertiaed, buthasbeen unneces- 
sarily confused with P. Sandersii. 

Utif&lia, Miq. St. 10 in. liigh, decumbent: lvs. 
obovate or obtusely ovate, 5-7-nerved, opposite or in 
whorls of 3, base acute, glabrous above, pubesceot 
beneath; petiole 7-8 lines long, Hawaii. — Monocarpic 
(annual or biennial), 

AA. Plants for hanging-haskets, drooping. 

nummularif&lia, HBK. Delicate creeper, with long, 
thread-like, rooting sts. and small orbicular lvs., pubcr- 
ulous or glabrate: lvs. alternate, ciliate, obscurely pai- 
mat^ly 3-nerved, 3-4 lines diam. Trop. Amer. — The 
above description is from Grisebach, Five other 
species in the W. Indies have the same habit. P. pros- 
frdla, Hort., is probably a synonym. It is a stove basket- 
plant figured in G.C. II. 11:717 and F. 1881, p. 103, 
with a good-sized petiole. The Iva. arc very small for the 
genus, and are said not to exceed Jiin. Lvs. bordered 
and nerved with greenish white. Annual. Nicholson 
refers P. proslrata to P. bret-ipes, and keeps P. nummu- 
tarifolia separate. P. breinpes, 0. DC., has lvs. alternate, 
orbiculate, younger ones hirsute, older ones glabrate, 
ciliate, l-nerved: style none: berry with a very short 
stipe. Trop. Amer. 


In wme coUectioos i> a plaot known u P. trauifHia (which la 
probably not P. cnuifolitt, Baker, of Trop. Atr.). It is ■ very <li»- 
tiact BperiPV with dork ^eeo, ovate, fleshy IvB. 3 x A in., bocom- 
Jna v«ry bard whpn old: std^ brancheii and upr^tht in babit, a Foot 
in aeiobt: Ub. in ioaJKid&caat catkina. It ia a very good pWt aod 
dnerva !« be more (cnerally kDovu.—F. pubifilia. Veitch. Perea- 
nial cTHper at unknown bat^tat. luitable for bai«na-buiketi. Lva. 
■mall, ovate, marked with a central Kray bar.— J*. re4edsfJIArat 



:o be "a plant 

m^y boX^^Kl— , _ 

thoK of a misnanette each one 3-1 linn loai, aod 100 or ao in a 
raceme. St. 1-1 M 'I- high, red, lorked; Ive. brmidly ovate, oordate. 
Colombia. B.M. BOIU. WlLBBLM MiLLBR. 

L. H. B.f 

PEPdNIA (Greek, tnehn, _gowd)'. Cucarbildcex. 
Climbing or sprawling plants, little known in hor- 

Perennial hertts, prostrate or Bcandent, often villous, 
with fibrous roots: Ivs. lobed or rarely entire, dentate: 
lis. large, yellow or whitish, monoecious, the males 
solitary or rauemoso; corolla-lobes 5, obovate,' stamens 
3; female fla. solitary: fr. large or medium, fleshy, 
oblong or cylindrical; seeda many, black, flattened. — 
Species about a dozen in Trop. and S. Afr. Because of 
an earlier gcDus of the same name, Engler has pro- 
posed the name Peponium for lb in group. 

Hack£nnii, Naudin. Lvs, broadly ovate-cordat«, 
5-lobed to the middle: male fls, solitary; calyx-tubo 
Bubglabrous, narrowed from apex to base. It is hardly 
scandcnt, densely villous and the st. grows yi-& ft. Ions: 
lvs. 4 in. long: petals over 1 m long fr oblong-ovoid, 
about the size of a hen's egg green at first then marbled 
with white, finally all red pulp orange-colored msipii 
Natal. — Once intro. in S Calif but now apparently 
lost; probably not of much value as an ornamental 
L H B 

PEELER. With American horticultunsta pepper 
usually means the red pepper (Capsicum which see) 
of which the green pepper is merely the unnpe stage 
The black ana white pepper of commerce are treated 
under Piper. 

The red pepper (Capsicum) is doubtless native of 
the New World, as there is no record of lU having been 
known prior to the discovery of \menea According to 
Irvine's "Life of Columbus this plant was first men 
tioned by Martyr in 1493 who says Columbus brought 
home "peppermorepungent than that from Caucasus 
evidently comparing it with the black pepper of com 
merce from the oriental countnea It was cultivated by 
the Datives in tropical and southern America before this 
time, and about a century later Gerardc speaks of its 
being brought into European gardens from Africa and 
southern Asia. The ease with which the plant spreads 
in wana latitudes, together with the increased cr- - 

tropical Asia and Africa, where it was supposed by 
many to be indigenous and from there introduced into 
European garden 

1494 alludes to it as a condiment. Writers about a cen- 
turv later considered it valuable as an aid to digestion 
and also mentioned its use in dressing meats, dyeing, 
and other purposes. Medicinally it was much used for 
various ailments, such as dropsy, colic, ague, and tooth- 
ache, and when mixed with honey and applied externally 
was used as a remedy for quinsy. At a later date 
preparations were given for black vomit and various 
tropical feyers, and for a tonic, also for gotit, paralysis 
and other diseases. Its modem use is largely as a 
condiment, forming a scasoiUDg in almost every dish 
eaten by the inhabitants of warm countries. The 
smaller varieties are mostly used for this purpose. 
The cayenne pepper of commerce consists of the small 
pungent fruits reduced to a powder. The unground 

fruit is also made into pepper sauce of various brands 

by preserving in brine or strong vin^ar. The Tabasco 
variety funSshes the well-lmown Tabasco pepper 
sauce and Tabasco catsup. "Chilli con camie con- 
sists of the ffr""-ll pungent varieties finely ground and 
mixed with meat. These hot varieties are often eaten 
raw by native Mexicans, as are radishes, and also form 
an important ingredient of tomales so common in that 
country and fairly well known in the southern United 
States. The large thick-fleshed sweet varieties are 
desired more by persons farther north^ who use them 
in various wa^, served like tomatoes in either ripe or 
green state, with vinegar and salt, or made into man- 
goes by cutting one side, removing seeds and filling with 
chow-chow pickles. The parts are then tied together, 

filaccd in jam with vinegar and kept until wanted. The 
ruit is often used in stufiin^ pitted olives after being 
cooked in olive oil. In Spam some are canned after 
being thus cooked and eaten with French salad dressing. 
Paprika ia a well-known Hungarian and Spanish 
condiment made from the long, andinore or less pointed 
type of peppers. The Spanish paprika is much milder 
in flavor than the Hungarian, it being made from a leffl 
pungent pepper and doubtless in its preparation more 
of the seeds and placentx are removed, which process 
makes a milder condiment. The seed of peppers is 
more or less used as a bird food; and the plants of 
some varieties, like Little Gem and Celestial, are grown 
more especially for ornamental purposes. 

Some thirty varieties are recorded by American 
seedsmen They differ from one another mamly in the 
form and pungency of frmt and habit of growth There 
are endless forms among peppers but certam types are 

28M. Psppw,— The Ruby Kuf vaiioly 

well fixed, as indicated by the botanical varieties under 
Capsicum. Pungency ia to be found in all peppers and 
while located in the placentje, other parts may acquire 
it by contact. Most of the smaller sorts, like Coral 
Gem, Tabasco, Chilli, Cayenne, and Cherry contain 
of the pungent properties than the lai^ kinds, 
' -'— "'- - '*^ - ""66), Squaab, Bell, Sweet Moim- 
. Some medium-sized varieties, 

like LonK Red, Celeatial, and Ozheart, are hot; othera, 
like Cuunty Fair and Kafeidoaoope, are mild. 

Peppen af« claased Bfl one of the minor vegetables in 
that tnev have not been grown in large quantitie 

any one locality utd the ai!Xi«gal« production is mailer 
than the so-called truck crop^ sudi as tomatoes, cucum- 
ben, and the like. Moat gardens near large eitieB in the 


and Boutbem states have been gromng a ! 

ily the local markets. During the last dec 
there has been a decided increase m acreage. The 
census report for 1900 gives no report of production of 
peppers, but for 1910 there were recorded for the 
United States, 1,041 fanns oontaining 3,483 acres, 
valued at S408,741, an average of tll7.47 an acre. 
Four states with the largest acreage arc: 

822 Ijm 2,» 

« 1Q 


kept in contnri by gathering and destroyiiw infested 
pods. Tomato-worm, boUworm, while-fly and Colorado 
potato4>eet)e somotimes attack the plant, but seldom 
do noticeable injury. Red-flpider and green-fl}' (aphis) 

with water, and the green-fly may be kjlled by fumigating 
with tobacco dust. Two fungous diseases frequently 
occur on the large varieties growing outdoors. Ctee 
is a pink anthracnoee (Glaosporium pipfratum), which 
causes the fruit to rot about the time it begins to ripen; 
the other is a dark anthracnose (Colietotrichum nij/runt). 
In preparing j)ept>eis for table use, handle them with 
gloves to prevent Duming the fingers. Neither soap 
nor water will soothe hands burned by peppers, but 
milk will- H. C. IsiBH. 


l^HJlTumik oo 41 J tf.oo 62^&i 

Flarlds 143 200 2.07 MS*t 

Hew Mexico. 2M 260 0.97 17,228 t6 2S 

This record ignores quantities of less than an act« 
with the evident exception of New Mexico, which 
averages .(Ki lew than 1 acre to a farm. 

It is estimated that approximately 4,000,000 pounds 
of paprika were imported each year during the last three 
or four years. The United States Department of Agri- 
culture has demonstrated that this product can be 
profitably produced in the South, but if the consump- 
tion is limited to the above figure the acreage must 
continue to be very limited. 

In f^wing peppers, the seed is usually planted under 
gloss m February or March, and the young plants trans- 
planted to pots or boxes when of suflicient size to han- 
dle. From twelve to twenty days are required for the 
seed to Berminate, tho time varying according to the 
aoc of the seed and 
the manner in which 
it has been ki^t. Its 
geminating power is 
■aid to last lour years, 
and if kept in pods 
until sown will grow 
when six or seven 
years old. A light 
warm soil, heavily 
charge<l with humus 
and (mc that will not 
quickly dry out, ap- 
pears t« be the best. 
In May or June, or 
oftrr all danger of 
frost is past, tlie 
pInnU (P'ig. 2807) are 
sc^t in the field in 
rows about '2ly fivt 
Apart and IK inchcH 

¥iart in the rows, 
he grouml is kept thoroughly cultivated, not only to 
keep down wcc<1h but to miiintain an p.vca but not 
excewiivo inoistun; at all times, which is very cusential 
for best results in growing tills plant. Ity keeping the 
soil well worked uji around the plants, thuy stand 
up much better njtainst the winds and weight of their 
own fniit. Pruning or pinching the tip ends after 
llic fniit begins to mature is occasionally recom- 
nicnilcd. but is rarely practised except when specimens 
ol (>H|H'i<ia1ly fine fniit arc desired, in which case the 
fruit is thinned, leaving only a few on euch plant of 
th(- larger sorts. In gathering, the fruit should not be 
torn o(r but cut with a knife or scissors, leaving at least 
1 inch of stem. Tho usual vegetable crato is used for 
PH<'kinK and marketing tlic crop. 

InwclH ranrly injure ]>oii])vn9 growing in the field. 
The iK'piM-r weevil (Aitthoiuimua cugcnii) has done some 
dnniogc to cmiiH in the South. It is said to be easily 

1: Lepidwwi. 

PEPPESldin: MnMa. P.Stiiaa-1>tA:Siitatgiilutpipatla. 
PBPPBK-IIOOT: Dmiaria dipAvlJa. 

PERAPHtLLUU (from Greek, pera, excessively, and 
pkyUon; alluding to the crowded Ivs.). Rosacex, sub- 
fam. Pdmex. A much-branched ridd shrub, with 
deciduous alternate rather small and narrow partly 
fascicled Ivs., white fls. similar to apple-blossoms in 
few-fid. upri^t umbels appearing with the Ivs., and 
berry-like edible fr. Hardy as far north as Mass., but 
seems to possess only little ornamental value. It is of 
very slow growth and blooms only when rather old. It 
grows in well-drained soil and in Hunny position, and is 
Best suited to be planted on rocky slopes of southern 
aspect. Prop, by seeds and layers and by grafting on 
amelanchier or Crataegus. It is closely allied to Amelan- 
chier, but distiimiisLed by its nearly umbellate fls., 
cylindric calyr-tuoe, the perfectly inferior ovary, and 
slso by its narrow Ivs. The only species is P. lamosfs- 
TJTiniiii^ Nutt., a rigid shrub, £-4 ft. high: Ivs. oblong lo 
obluiceolate, almost sessile, entire or sparingly ser- 
rulate, silky pubescent when young, H~2 in. long: fls. 
in few-fld. erect umbel-like racemes, while or slightly 
tinged pink, with rose-colored disk, J^in. across; petals 
obovate, spreading; styles 2-3, free; ovary 2- or incom- 
pletely 4-celIed: fr. pendulous, globose, yellow with 
browniah cheek, about J^in, across. May. Ore. to 
Calif, and Colo. B.M. 7420. Alfheb Rehdbr. 

PEREimiALS tend to live from year to year, as 
opposed to annuals and biennials, which die root and 
branch after flowering and fruiting. Annuals live only 
one year, biennials two years. Perennials include trees, 
shrubs and herbs, the two former being woody, tho 
latter not. "Perennials," as commonly used l>y gar- 
deners, is a convenient shortening of the phrase "hardy 
herbawouB perennials," which includes peony, phlox 
and other non-woody plants whose roots live over the 
winter while their tops may die to the ground. The 
phrase "hardy herbaceous perennials" is also shortened 
'" common speech to "herbaceous plants;" or one 
iks of the "hardy border." See Herba and BonLr; 

AnnadU and Biennials. 

A popular faUacy about pereiuiials lies in the com- 
mon statement that "they die down every year and 
come up again in the eprmg." Many of ihem ni-vi-r 


be as long-lived as ahnilibery, and a clump of fraxinclla 
has been known to outlive father, son, and grandson 

the same spot. But these arc exceptions. The genernl 
practice with perennials is to divide them every second 
or third year. Nearly all hardy herbaceous plants 
should be lifted now and then, because the crowns that 
give the flowers in most desirable kinds flower only two 
or three seasons and then die; but the plant may Iw 
continually spreading and making new growths, wliich 

1 ? 







LXZZVII. A branch of PgniikU aculeata, ona of tha laaf-beanns cactL 



furnish the flowers, and, unless lifted and divided, the 
stocks become scattering and unattractive. Another 
very good reason for lifting and dividing the perennials 
is that^ being mostly strong-rooted plants, they deplete 
the soil; when shifted, they are likely to be set in a 
new place. 

PER£SEIA (named for Nicolas Claude Fabnr de 
Peiresc). Also written Peirescia, Peireskia, and Feres' 
da. Cactdceae. Shrubs or clambering vines, grovm for 
ornament and also for the edible fruit. 

Spines in the axils in the Ivs. : Ivs. alternate^ broad and 
flat, resembling those of ordinary flowering plants: 
fls. wheel-shaped, more or less clustered: ovary naked 
or leafy: fr. juicy, sometimes edible; seeds black, thin- 
sheU^. — Some 40 names have been given in Pereskia 
for species in this and related ^nera, but only 13 are 
now recognized. Oioly two species are very common in 
coUections, although P. cubensiSf P. amapola, and the 
true P. Bleo have recently been Intro. 

aculeHtay MiU. (Cdctus PerSskia, Linn. Periekia 
fdstansy Speg.). Lemon Vine. Blade Apple. Bab- 
BADos Gooseberry. Branches woody, clambering, 1(V- 
20 ft. long: Ivs. flat, lanceolate, 2-3 in. lon^, 1-2 in. 
broad: spines on old wood in clusters and straight. 1-2 
in. long, on young branches 2, short and curvea: fls. 

1)ale yeUow with pink varieties, 1-1}^ in. broad: fr. 
emon-colored. the size of an olive, in age smooth. 
Widely spread m Troj). Amer. B.M. 7147. B.R. 1928. 
G.C. III. 20:625. — ^This species is much used as stodc 
on which to graft other species of cacti. Var. Godsef- 
fi&na, Hort. Lvs. richly colored, when young crimson, 
yellow and green above. G.C. III. 43:257 (note). 

grandifdlia. Haw. (P. BUo of authors, not Cdctus 
BleOf HBK.). Usually tall shrubs, but sometimes grow- 
ing as half clambering: lvs. often large, some 5 in. lonff: 
spmes form large clusters on the old wood, usually soli- 
tary on young branches, straight: fls. in small clusters, 
purple, 1M~2 in. broad: fr. 2 in. long, pearnshaped. 
brazil, and now grown in many warm countries. B.M. 
3478. G.C. m. 20:427. 

p. wbulAta, and P. apathvldia are to be ezduded from Ptorealda. 
Schumaim in his Monograph of the Oaotaoee re f eii>Bd them to 
the genua Opuntia, but they more piroperiy belong to the genus 
PerealdopfliB, Brit. & Roie, ^vrbloh see. j ^ Rose 

PER£SKI6pSIS (like Pereskia). Caetdeese. Opuntiar 
like plants erown for ornament and curiosity. 

Trees and shrubs: sts. and branches cylindrical: lvs. 
large, flat, and persistent: areoles bearing spines and 
glocmds: fr. usually red: seeds covered witn matted 
hairs. This genus, lately segregated from Opuntia, 
where recent writ^ have placea it. is very different 
from Opuntia in many ways, and resembles more 
closely in habit and foliage the genus Pereskia, although 
it is very different in fr. and seeds from that gDenus. — 
Eleven species have been recognized, of whidi 9 are 
nowgrown in Washington and in the New York Botani- 
cal Garden, although none is known in the trade. 

veliitina, Rose. Sts. weak, forming compact bushes: 
branches soft, velvety: lvs. broadly ovate: fls. yellow. 

subulUta, Brit. & Rose (PerSskia aybiMtaj Muehl.). 
8t. 2 ft. or less high, below half wood, above fleshy and 
branching: lvs. persisting a few years, dark green, 
shiny, as thick as a pencil, about 3 m. long, half^lin- 
drical and ending m a spine: areoles felted, in the 
young plant with a few hair-bristles, later with 2-4 
straight, pale yellow spines 3-4 in. long. Mex.— Can 
be used as stock for epiphyllum. 

spathuUlta, Brit. & Rose (Periskia spathrMtat Otto). 
St. upright, with few horizontal, spatulate, shiny green 
lvs.: the diffuse areoles at first somewhat woolly, later 
felted, above with a bunch of short bristles, below with 
1-2 yellowish white, straight spines. Mex. 

J. N. RosB. 

plants commercially as a source for perfume-making. 

The perfumes of the market are derived in part from 
animal secretions (musk, civet), in part from artificial 
chemical compounds, and in part, and chiefly, from the 
class of vegetable products loosely called essentisj oils. 
"Synthetic or chemical perfumery materials are the 
more or less perfect artificial reproductions of organic 
compounds used in perfumery. U it were possible m all 
cases and with perfect success to compound these sub- 
stances, the production of floral perfumes would soon 
be at an end, as the chemical process would be sure to 
be cheaper than the horticultural. But nature knows 
how to add some touches which the chemist's art can- 
not imitate, and even when sjrnthetic manufacture is 
possible, the result is in general regarded as a cheaper 
substitute. At the same time, sentimental reasons 
count considerably in favor of the natural periume, and 
considering, further, that some perfumes cannot well 
be imitated chemically^ there is no present cause to 
apprehend the extinction, or, in view of increasing 
demand,^ even the decline, of the industry of produ- 
cing natural perfumery oils. 

liie essential oils used in porfumery are secreted in 
different parts of the plant. The flowers are naturally 
thought of first, being the seat of the fragrance of the 
rose, violet, cassie, jasmine, tuberose, the orange in 
part, and numberless other plants wnose perfume is 
extracted or only enjoyed as naturjJly exhaled. The 
on of lavender is yielded more by the green parts of 
the flower-head thim by the corollas. In rose geranium, 
th3rme, wintergreen, and patchouli the foli£^ is the 
fragrant part. A number of essences are derived from 
woods^ as those of sandalwood, red cedar, and rhodium. 
The oil of sweet birch comes partly from the wood, but 
mahihr from the inner bark, and the same \a true of 
[ras. In the case of the latter, however, the roots 


only are used; in the case of the former, the young tops. 
Several herbaceous roots also furnish oils, as orris-root, 
Canada snakeroot, and sweet flag. The rinds of the 
orange and other citrous fruits contain important 
peorf umery oils, and the oil of bitter almonds comes from 
uie fermented kernel of the nut. 

The standard methods of extracting essential oils are 
four, namely, the use of mechanical means (chiefly 
expression), distillation, enfleurage or inflowering, and 
maceration. Expression appears to be applied only to 
tile rinds of the citrous fruits. These are placed under 
pressure in a screw press, or sections tum^ wrong side 
out are squeezed in the fingers, the oil being taken up 
with a sponge, or the fruit is rubbed in a cup lined with 
spikes (ficimle A piquer), the oil collecting m a hollow 
hiandle. An hcueue on a larger scale in the shape of a 
hollow drum has also been used. 

In distillation, the oil-bearing material is hea,ted with 
water or subjected to hot steam, and the oil, being vola- 
tile, passes off with the steam. The oil would be lost 
if tne vapor were not condensed, and this is accom- 
plished by passing it through a coil or equivalent 
arrangement of pipe kept cool by a flow of water. The 
condensed steam and oil fall into a ''Florentine recipi- 
ent," a vessel with a spout coming out at the base 
but rising to the level ol the top, so that the heavier 
liquid, sometimes oil, sometimes water, alone will 
enter it and can be poured off separately. After the 
water and oil have mainly separated, the water will 
still contain enough oil to make it highly fragrant, and 
in this state it goes to market as rose-water, orange- 
flower water, and the like, or is returned to the still 
to be redistilled with the next charge. 

The remaining two methods depend on the fact that 
grease has the power of absorbing essential oils. In 
enflewroQe the grease, without heating, is spread over 
both surfaces of panes of glass which are set in frames 
(cAd««M), so that they can be piled one over another 
with spaces between. In these spaces are placed the 



flowers, the charge being renewed daily until the grease 
is sufficiently impregnated, when it constitutes a 
"pomade." "Extracts" are made by digesting the 
pomade in alcohol, which has a still stronger attraction 
for the perfume than has the grease. The alcohol must 
first be deodorized, to save perverting the floral per- 
fume, and is then known as "Cologne spirit." The 
grease used in this and the next process, moreover, 
must be freed from all corruptible matter oy a special 
process. Tallow and lard commonly mixed, and some- 
times the fat of the aeer and other animals, are 

In maceration, the pomade is produced by immersing 
repeated charges of the flowers m melted greaae or fine 
ohve oil. 

In recent times, various chemical processes for 
extracting perfumery have been tried, apparently with 
some practical success; but they have not yet sup- 

{)lanted the old methoos. Carbon bisulfid and P^tro- 
eum ether are among the solvents employed. These 
methods would be less easily practised by beginners 
and amateurs than the ordinary ones. 

The art of distilling is not only not difficult to learn, 
but is already in practice in this country in the case of 
peppermint, sweet birch, sassafras, eucalyptus, and 
the like. More care and better apparatus would be 
required for distilling roses and other flowers, but the 
process is essentially the same. Nor do the grease pro- 
cesses involve any difficulties which may not be over- 
come by the appUcation of a little -American ingenuity 
and capital. In fact, the production of the raw mate- 
rials of perfumery might proceed almost at once, so far 
as the difficulty of the processes is concerned, but can 
we grow the requisite plants? 

That many of the standard perfumery plants will 
grow in this coimtry needs no proof, and there is no 
reason to doubt that their fragrance in properly chosen 
locaUties will equal that of the same plants in the 
European centers. In general, success in this line must 
be looked for only southward, even in dealing wiUi 
hardy plants, thou^ there may be exceptions to this 
rule. Cool trade-wmds and fogs at flowering time are 
to be shunned. The natural conditions in Florida and 
large parts of the other Gulf states seem not very dif- 
ferent from those of the south of France, the great 
center of perfumery-farming in Europe, ana in fact the 
feasibility of successful perfumery-farming in Florida 
has been demonstrated by actual trial. California has 
also been the scene of experiments, some of them seem- 
ing to promise success as soon as economic conditions 
acunit. A large territory between these two points is 
available for some lines of the industry. 

Among the particular plants to be noticed, the citrous 
fruits deserve a leading place. Nearly or quite all of 
the trees of this group, mcluding the sweet, me bitter or 
Seville, and the oergamot oranges, the sweet and sour 
Umes, the lemon, the citron, and the shaddock, con- 
tain valuable perfumes either in the peel of their fruit, 
or in their flowers, or in their leaves, or in more than one 
of these. Of the fruit-oils, that of lemon is imported 
into this country in largest c[uantity, followed by oil of 
bergamot, oil of orange — bitter and sweet, oil of limes 
and "cedrat" or citron oil, the last two in very small 
quantities, but the cedrat at a very high price. These 
oils are extracted by expression, the distilled being 
inferior, though it is asserted that when the "rag," or 
inner soft layer, is removed, the distilled oil equals 
the other. The oil of the bitter orange is superior to 
that of the sweet; the oil of bergamot is far more val- 
uable than either, but can rarely be had in an unadul- 
terated state. Tne flowers of the orange treated by 
distillation yield "neroli." The scent of neroli, how- 
ever, is not that of the flowers, an alteration taking 
place during the distillation. Orange-flower water, 
consisting of the condensed vapor of wat^r with a little 
unchanged oil adhering, affords the true odor of the 

flowers. By maceration, likewise, the true floral fra- 
grance is obtained. The abortive flowers which fall 
Som the trees are available for perfumery use, but the 
flowers are also sometimes picked, presumablv with a 
better result. Besides the product of fruit and flowers, 
the leaves and yoimg twigs pnmed from the sweet and 
bitter oranges yield to distillation the oil of "petit 
grain," of considerable though minor value. There is 
no reason to doubt the perfumery capacity of American 
orange proves. Indeed it has been asserted that the 
orange flowers of Louisiana excd in sweetness those of 
foreign parts. In Los Angeles, Calif omia, something 
has been done toward utihzin^ the peel, and in Florida 
a beginning has been made with both peel and flowers, 
but for the most part these resources are at present 
suffered to go to waste. 

The lemon verbena, Lippia cUriodora (Fig. 2868), 
may be mentioned in passing as furnishing an attrac- 
tive p(^ume of the citrous order, and as available at 
least in Florida and California. 

The perfumery products of the rose and its allies 
merit next attention. The value of the importation of 
attar of roses — ^to say nothing of rose perfume in other 
forms— exceeds ihsLt of any smgle citrous perfume, and 
at the same time the capacity of this coimtry for pro- 
ducing this and the other rose perfumes can scarcely 
be called in question. The present supply of the Euro- 
pean and American markets is denvea chiefly from 
Turkey and from the perfumery region of the south of 
France. The attar or oil of roses is produced most 
lanjely in Bulgaria and parts of other Balkan states as 
wdl as in Asiatic Turkey, principally from the damask 
rose, which may be taken as a form of Rosa gaUica. A 
white-flowered rose, R, aUba, is much grown in the more 
exposed situations, as it is considerea hardier than the 
rea-flowered damask rose. It is very free in bloom and 
productive of oil, which is, however^ inferior in equality. 
The attar is obtained by distillation, which is there 
conducted in a crude manner. In the Grasse district 
(southern France), the rose-water, obtained as explained 
above, is considered to yield more profit than the attar, 
which is rather regarded as a by-product of the dis- 

But the best rose perfumes in Prance are extracted 
by maceration, finishing with enjlewrafle, processes that 
secure the true rose odor, wnich is not altogether 
represent^ by attar or rose-water. Rose pomade and 
its alcoholic extract are perhaps the finest of rose 

Eroducts. What is known as the Provence rose, a 
ybrid or variety of Rosa centifoUaf the type to which 
the cabbage or himdred-leaf rose of old gardens and 
the moss roses belong, is almost exclusively used in 
France and also in Germany, where a limited quantity 
of very fine attar is produced. 

The centif olia ana gallica varieties of perfume roses, 
as well as a hybrid oi R^sa rugosa imder the name of 
Rose Parfum de L'Hay, have been tried in this country 
with encouraging results as far as facility of culture, 
quantity, and quality of perfume-contait are con- 
cerned, but the economic possibilities of rose-culture 
here for this purpose are far from being worked out at 
this time. These varieties are £dl quite nardy and may, 
without doubt, successfully be grown over a vast 
detent of country, though for practical perfume-pro- 
duction the warmer climates, coupled with abundant 
summer moisture, seem to oe needed. Deep fertile 
and retentive but well-drained clay or loam soils are 
best adapted for rose-culture, and these may be had in 
abundance in the Southern and Middle Atlantic states, 
where the future rose industry of the United States, 
when it becomes a commercial possibility, may be 
expected to develop. The luxuriant growth of roses on 
the Pacific Coast has long attracted attention, but 
exuberant vegetation does not alwajrs imply a rich 
perfumery-content, and there is a suspicion that the 
cool fogs of the coast and the hot aridity of. the interior 


valleys of the Pacific States do not favor ^perfume- 

Eroduction, however stimulating Iim^ cDnditiona may 
e to vegetative growth; but direct experiments in 
this connection appear to be locking. 

The ccntifolia and gallica roaes have practically but 
one season of bloom in this country. They are covered 
wi^ fioweis in May or June, according to the latitude 
in which they are erown, producing only occaaional 
blooms in the fall, t£e gallicaa being most free in this 
respect ; but the hybrid with R. niposo has a long bloom- 
ing season, with repeated crops coming on in late sum' 
mer and autumn. This peculiarity might be of advan- 
tage in localities where labor is scarce, as a smaller 
force of workers coiUd care for the same amount of 
bloom developing over a longer season. The perfume 
of the hybrid rugosa is of the most exauisit« quality 
and the yield somewhat greater than of the older types 
of perfume roses, but there is greater difficulty of 

Eroiiagation, as rugosa varieties are increased onlv by 
uading or grafting, while the centifolias and piili<;ftn 
are freely propagated by means of layers or cuttings. 


the main question beins that of efficient labor for 
promptly collecting the olooms during the relatively 
short productive season. It requires m this country, 
as abroad, fully 3,000 pounds of fresh rose petals to 
produce a pound of oil, valued at the present time at 
S126, or more if of really high quality. The value of 
the rose-water represented by this amount of oil would 
be oonsidersbly greater. 

The oil distilled from the green parte of the common 
rose geraniums, Pdargonium capUatum (?) and P. 
Raduta, Tesemblea in fragrance the oil of roses and is 
largely used hs a substitute for it. Although generally 
not sold at retail under ite own name, it is in itself a 
legitimate perfume, and its production should be under- 
taken in this country -—only, however, in the South, 
where the long season admits of three crops of leaves 
and where the stumps with the soil heaped around them 
will survive the winter. The largest crop is to be had on 
rich lowland, but the finest quahty is produced on 
drier and less fertile ground. In France, it is now grown 
mainly on inigatea land, but the product has to be 
amehorated by the admixture of oU from drier loca- 
tions. The rose f^ranium is largely grown in Algeria, 
and in Spain, Sicily, and so on, as well as in France. 

2868. {■afuniwT 

The production of high-quahty rose-water, rather 
than attar, appears likely to be more profitable in this 
country, as tne latter requires repeated distillations, or 
washing out by ether and subsequent evaporation of 
the menstruum, and realizes a relatively less prioe in 
market on account of competition with adulterated 
imported oils and synthetic imitations. 

The type of rose bloom best suited for perfume pur- 
poees b semi-double, with large, thick petals that can 
easily be collected, rather than the more showy varie- 
ties with full disks of shorter petals so crowded that 
they hide the pistils. Many of the latter varieties 
possess exquisite fragrance and possibly a satisfactory 
oil-content, but are seldom suihciently vigorous or 
free in bloom to offset the added difficulty of manipula- 
tion. In a field trial of "Princess Bonme^" one oi the 
most frawant of American-raised hybrid tea roeee, 
not enou^ blooms could be collected at a given time 
for a practicfti distillation. New varieties will be de- 
veloped especially adapted to the purpose as interest 
in roBe-perfume production increases, and those with 
peculiarly attractive odors may become available for 
the pease process, when not altogether suited for 

The culture of perfume roses and the extraction of 
their fragrance present no difficulties to American skill, 

tnndlflDnuk Upplt dtiloilora. 

Geranium oil, in turn, has its substitutes, among which 
the oil of lemon-grass from India is conspicuous. 

The European sweet violet, Viola odorala, affords 
the finest example of a favorite type of odors quite 
different from the citrine and the rose. The oil of tiie 
violet itself is necessarily so expensive as to be little 
used. The large amount of flowers required and the 
amount of hand labor necessary for gathering such 
small flowers, each growing on a separate stem, aro 
apparently insurnlountable obstacles to the extensive 
use of true oil of violet. Still it may be presumed that 
there will permanently be a class <» buyers willingto 
pay the necesBaiy cost of so choice a perfume. The 
violet yields its full fragrance only southward, but it 
must be grown in partial shade. When labor conditions 
admit, true violet periume may be produced in Cali- 
fornia and in the South. An expert f^wer of violets 
has even thought that th^ might be grown under glass 
for this purpose. 

Of the same general type and in some wise a. substi- 
tute for violet perfume, is that of Acaaa Famemana, 
the "casaie" of the Fi«nch, known in the South as 
"opopanax." The small yellow balls of flowers are 
tr^ted by the grease processes, particularly macera- 
tion. While not ranked so high as violet, the perfume 
is in entirely good standing and produced m large 



quantities. The flowers, dried with proper care, have a 
market value for sachets. The opopanax tree grows 
freely in Florida, is apparently native in Texas, and is 
suit^ to the climate of Arizona and southern Cali- 
fomia. The labor of picking the flowers would be some- 
what expensive. Several other acacias are eligible for 
perfumery use. 

To the same 0foup belongs the perfume of orris- or 
iris-root. It is s&oraed by the rootstocks of three spe- 
cies of iris, formerly gathered wild and now cultivated 
near Florence and at other points in Italy. The species 
are Iris germanica (Fig. 1968, Vol. Ill), /. paUiday and /. 
florentina (Fi^. 2868), the first of these being our com- 
mon ^u'den uis, with deep blue flowers, the second a 
paler-flowered species, the third havine white flowers. 
High authontv affirms that the use of the first two spe- 
cies is only a falsification, and, in fact, that the root of 
/. germanica causes senous inflammations. It is certain 
that the first two are extensively grown; but /. fhrenn 
Una alone appears to be much used for distillation. 
When cultivated, the iris is generally propagated by 
root-division, the cuttings being placed for the first 
year in a nursery, afterward set in rows a foot apart. 
It is grown in stony dry soils on hillsides or moimtains. 
The crop is gathered once in two or three years. The 
cuticle is scraped from the root, which after being dried 
in the sun is stored in a dry place for the development 
of its fragrance. This is wantine in the fresh root, and 
does not reach its maximum under three years. When 
distilled, the root yields ''orris butter '' but it is more 
largely used in the form of an alconolic tincture or 
ground up for sachets. There is no reason why orris- 
root should not be grown in many parts of this ooim- 
try. but the returns at present are not large. 

Another important group of perfumery plants con- 
sists of several members ot the mint family. Pepper- 
mint and spearmint (Fig. 2359, Vol. IV) can hardly be 
placed in the perfum^ class, but lavender, thyme, and 
rosemary comd not easily be spared from the peiv 
fumer's resources. Lavender is native on dry slopes in 
the Mediterranean region, and the oil is most largely 

Eroduced in the region of the maritime Alps. The plant 
as been introduced, however, into some of the southern 
counties of England (Mitcham and Hitchin being the 
centers), and found to produce there an oil which has 
commonly been regarded as far superior to the French, 
and at any rate is different in kind (see Mentha). The 
English lavender is grown in light and well-drained 
calcareous soils. In well-drained groimd, lavender will 
bear some cold, especially if protected, but profit can- 
not be looked for far north. Lavender of tne French 
type may be expected to succeed in California out of 
the reach of the trade-winds, and may perhaps not 
require irrigation. There are shallow calcareous soils 
in the "black belt" of the Gulf States which might per- 
haps yield an oil like the English, and the same may be 
true of some tracts northward on the Pacific slope. 
Lavender is treated by distillation, and it is said in 
England that direct contact with the water yields better 
results than the application of dry steam. (See, also, 

Thyme (chiefly the garden thyme. Thymus vulgaris) 
fumi^es a perfume particularly suited to soaps and 
imported into this country in large quantities. Rose- 
mary has a stimulating property and is an essential 
ingredient in Cologne water. Both of these could quite 
possibly be grown, say in California, but might not be 
able to compete well with the spontaneous product of 

Some notice should be taken, too, of the rather hum- 
ble group of odorous plants belonging to the parsley 
family, including anise, caraway, and fennel. Not only 
are the oils of these three (chiefly anise) largely imported 
but also their seeds (chiefly caraway). Caraway runs 
wild northerly, fennel has establLshed itself on the lower 
Potomac, and anise could doubtless be grown, but 

there is no reason to expect large profits from these 

There are several plants deserving consideration 
which do not f^ into any of these groups. One is the 
jasmine (Jasminum grandiforum ana J. Sambac) 
(Fig. 2868). This furnishes almost the only odor which 
cannot be imitated by combinations of others. The 
oil of jasmine is very valuable. The plants can be 
grown m our warmest regions. The tuberose furnishes 
another choice perfume and has been very successfully 
grown for the purpose in Florida and South Carolina. 
(See Polianthes.) The heliotrope (Fig. 1801, Vol. Ill), 
jonquil (Fig. 2448, Vol. IV), and mignonette are also to 
be named. Of a quite different scent from any of these 
is the oil of bitter almond, so important for fine soap^. 
This so-called oil is a poisonous compound formed in 
the process of fermentmg the cake of the kernels from 
which the fixed oil has been expressed. Its production 
should be considered in our almond-growing regions, 
especially California. 

Several tropical grasses of the genus Cymbopogon, 
including Cymbopogon SchxnanthttSy which yields the 
previouarv' mentioned lemon-grass oil, are of easy cul- 
ture in Florida and the Gulf States generally, and 
doubtless will be largely used in the future for the pro- 
duction of fragrant oils having a wide range of useful- 
ness, especii^ in the form of combinations for scent- 
ing soaps. Those best known are vetiver, Vetiveria 
zizanioideSf citronella, C. Nardus and the true lemon- 
srass, C. cUratuSy not possessing the geranium-like odor 
found in C. Schamanlntis. With the exception of yeti- 
ver, which contains the fragrant principle in the roots, 
the leaves and flowerine parts of the Cymbopogon 
grasses are used for distillation. 

Of our native growths there are some which are 
already utilized as the source of scenting materials. The 
root of sassafras is or has been distilled m Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Virginia, and in other northern states, 
and sparingly southward. Winter^reen, GauUheria pro- 
cumbens, is distilled in small quantity in several eastern 
states, but has very largely eiven place to sweet or 
cherry birch, Betida lenta. which yields a similar oil with 
less expense. The wood of the red cedar, Juniperus 
virginiana, has long been distilled in Germany, and 
latterly in this country. It furnishes a finer cedar-of- 
Lebanon perfume than the cedar of Lebanon itself. 

Three native plants representing respectively the 
thyme-like and citrine odors, — widely known as weeds 
but amenable to cultivation over a great extent of 
country, — are wild bergamot, Monarda punctata^ moun- 
tain mint, Pycnanihemum albescens and Canada flea- 
bane, Erigeron canadense. The first two 3rield oils use- 
ful for soaps as well as for the production of thymol, 
now a vedued medicament, while the latter contains a 
high percentage of limonene that may lareely displace 
turpentine in the manufacture of agreeable varnishes 
for inside uses. 

The root of the wild ginger or Canada snakeroot, 
Asarum canadense^ yiel(£ a fragrant oil quoted in 
market reports, and said to be used especially for 
strengthemng other perfumes. The sweet goldenrod, 
Solidago odora^ furnishes an oil which has a market 
standing. The rich odor of the yellow jessamine of 
the South has been successfully extracted in Florida. 
The common market perfume of magnolia Is doubtless 
mostly or entirely an imitation, and the same is proba- 
bly true of Clethra alnifolia perfume. The great mag- 
nolia. Magnolia grandifloray abounds in the South, but 
its flowers might be difficult to secure in quantity. 
Clethra is abundant enough in the Atlantic Coast 
region, but some difficulty might be experienced with it 
owing to the fact that only a part of tiie flowers in the 
raceme open at one time. The flowers of the swamp 
magnolia or sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana or M. 
alauca (Fig. 2298, Vol. IV), should be tried. The spice 
bu^h. Benzoin aestivaUy affords several scents. The s\^ eet 




and copious bloom of Rhododendron arhoreaoens in the 
southern mountains has been suggested for treatoient. 
It is to be feared that the delicious odor of tiie native 
crab-apples would be too expensive, considering the 
difficulty of coUecting enough petals. The bloom ol the 
wild grape might well be thought of. Many of our 
plants-— these are only eicamples— will eventually be 
tried and a few will l>e found steadily valuable. It is 
useless to expect commercial success with small and 
scanty-flowered plants like trailing arbutus, Epigsoa 
repens, however pleasing in their natural state. 

The production of perfumery oils may be conducted 
on large farms by capitalists^ or a central establish- 
ment may contract with individuals for flowers, and 
other materials; or the business may be conducted 
co5peratively; or individuals may operate on a small 
scale in connection with other lines of farming. Some 
competent women to whom other avenues are dosed 
may find this work available and congenial. 

Intending experimenters should seek further inf ormar 
tion in one or more of the books which are before the 
public. With regard to methods ct extraction, Askin- 
son's 'Terfumes and Their Preparation" may be con- 
fidently reconmiended. Sawer's "Odorographia" (espe- 
cially the first series) is valuable both to the extractor 
and the grower. Piesse's "Art of Perfumery" will also 
be found useful on both sides of the subject. Gilde- 
meister and Hofif man's "Volatile Oils" is also very 
valuable. Also consult E. S. Steele's artide on 'Ter- 
fumery- Gardening" in the Yearbook of the United 
States Department of Agriculture for 1898. Vol. XXII, 
part 2, of the Journal of the Ro^al Horticultural Sod- 
ety (London, 1898) contains a list of perfumes and 
plants that yidd tiiem, and also a list of books on 
perfumes. E. S. Steele. 

W. Van FiiEBT.t 

PERGOLA. The word "pergola" dosdy interprets 
its original meaning: from the Latin "pergula," a 
projectmg roof, shed, or vine arbor, from "pergere," 
to reach forward or project; and from the Italian 
"pergola/* a grape which remains upon its trellis aU 
winter. From this derivation and use of the word, it 
will readily be seen how the term has become one of 
common usage in modem garden design, rightly or 
wrongly to designate almost any type of arbor or vine- 
support in the present-day garden. In order to under- 
stand the purer and less general meaning of the word, 
the garden vine-supports may be divided into two 
kinds or types: (1) treillages^ decorative or otherwise, 
which may broaoly be considered as dedgned in one 
simple geometric plane, perpendicular to the garden, 
their dimensions, height, and length being det^minea 
only by their use and detail design; and (2) pergolas 
and arbors, designed or planned in three phuies, having 
height, length, and breadth, and, in bri^, being archi- 
tecturally concdved tunnels over which vines are 
trained or grown, the arbor and the pergola difiFering 
only in the detail of their design. 

The pergola is invariably £t-topped, its semi-open 
roof bem^ formed either by rustic poles or timbers of 
var3ring size, laid at right an^es to the length of the 
structure, or by dmilarly laid but reguliuSy spaced 
rafters or timbers of defimte size and cut, this partially 
open roof being supported in dther case by posts or 
columns of an arcnitectural character equally and 
oppositely spaced. In simpler description, the pergola is 
a horizontal vine-support raised upon piers or columns, 
each of the latter standing free and independent of the 
other, the vines bein^ encouraged to lie flat over its top. 

The arbor, in distmction from the pergola, is, in its 
simplest form, a treillage or vine-support of a skd&- 
tomzed form, with sides and top generally alike, its 
top, or roof, being flat or curved as its aesign may 
determine. In detail, its construction consists usually 
of regularly and oppodtely spaced wooden posts sup- 


portinjs not over-thick strips and rails of the same 
material, these extending horizontally. Other material 
than wood is often used m arbor-construction, but Uie 
design and character remain generally the same, — a 
skdetonized tunnd for the support and training of 
vines over its entire surface. Therefore, while similar 
in origin and use in the garden, the pergola and the 
arbor must not be confused in their character and 
dedgn. The arbor is, in fact, a devdopment of the 
even earlier-used pergola, which in medieval gardening 
often became the Reached alley (or alle4), and in the 
early French and Knglish gardens the very decorative 
and often complicated tunnel or gallery pf treillage. 

The pergola is numbered among the oldest pieces 
of garden architecture extant. The Egyptian used it as 
a covered walk from one part of his donucile to another, 
or to his garden house: Pompeii and ancient Rome 
prove its constant use, Vitruvius, describing the garden 
attached to the villa of Diomedes, saying, "'behind the 
fish pond ornamented by a foimtaon, there was a plat- 
form over which vines were trained on a wooden frame- 
work supported upon six columns of stucco. " In Italy^ the 
persola can be traced through the various transitions 
of the Italian gardens from those of early imperial times 
through the medieval, to the architectural or formal 
gardens of the Renaissance and today. In the great 
medieval period, the pergola and the doister were often 
synonomous in use, differing only in the material of their 
construction, the latter being lar^y the outgrowth 
and devdopment of the former. As early as the oegin- 
ning of the fifteenth century, the pergola was in com- 
mon use in France, bein^ found not only in the mag- 
nificent gardens of the kmgs, but as a feature of the 
smallest town gardens of Paris. Riat, in his most 
authentic garden history, "L'Art des Jardins," care- 
fully notes and describes the use of the pergola at this 
time; Hill, one of the earliest of English writers on 
gardening, in his "Gardener's Labyrinth," published 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, claims the 
pergola to be "so winded that the branches of the vine, 
mdon, or cucumber, running or spreading all over, 
might shadow and keep both the neat and the sun 
from the dtter there under, and offer him cool and 
shaded passage." William Morman. in his "Vulgaria," 
published in 1519, tells us that "alleys in gardens, 
covered with vines, do neat pleasure with the shadow 
in parchynge heat, ana dusters of grapis maketh a 
pleasant walkynge alley." Thus, in brief, it will be 
seen that the pergola and its dose kin, the arbor, have 
been used in all time and manner of gardening, the 
earlier English colonists bringing both to America, 
where their popularity, especially of late^ has been so 
great as often to cause their degeneration in design 
and misconception in use. 

There is no decorative or useful feature in the garden 
scheme which has been more inadvisedly used than 
the pergola. Like our gardening, which has naturally 
become compodte and therefore often impure in taste. 
so llie pergola has become subjected to all manner oi 
diverdty in use, material, and dedgn. It can be made 
an excellent motif and component of a ^pod garden 
scheme, if properly and cardully consideredf. Its 
value is not as a mere floating inddent, imtied and non- 
related to some stronger dement or to the frame of the 
garden. It must be given a "tying-together" or cor- 
ridor value in order best to serve and express its use. 
The garden should be designed in a manner to call for 
its use as a covered passage between the house and 
the garden entrance: or to connect one garden, or 
part of a garden, witn another; or to separate garden 
from ^irden, offering substitute for the wall, hedges, or 
lattice, which might otherwise be used; or allowed to 
enframe or terminate the garden, a situation in which it 
may often be used to fine advantage dther alone or in 
combination with a garden house or shdter; but it 
should not be so dedgned and placed as to serve merdy 



as an isolated decontive garden feature. For such loca- 
tion and use there is the garden shelter, the tea-house, 
tile pavilion, the seat, and various exedra, far more 

As b eener^ly the case with all decorative garden 
motifs, l£e design and material of the pergola should be 
in strict harmony with its more important and control- 
ling architectural Burroundings. This does not mean, 
nor does it necessarily follow, that the material of the 
pergola should be like that of the house, garden wall, 
or other more or less important adjacent architectural 
features; but it does mean that itfi architectural char- 
acter or style, desigQ, and scale, must be determined 
and dominated by that common to the entire problem, 
and its material be in harmony or at least refiective. 
The desi^er or builder is safest when he considers 
not only &s pergola but all of the architectural features 
of the garden aa details, the character of which are to be 
largely determined by, or closely interrelated with, the 
arcnitectural treatment of the garden and its environ- 
ment as a whole. Materials and minor methods of 

aa Liaiat i2>i£s 

1 i £ 

2 1 2 

J_1J '*' I I lEL a 

expression may vary with personal taste, but archi- 
tectural period and style cannot, for wiUi a lack of 
appreciation of the proper architectural relation 
between tiie interrelate parts of a garden comes a 
breaking down of one of the most important principles 
of garden or other composition, namely unity of idea. 
While, of course, there can be no rules governing 
the dimensions of pergolas, the relation of width to 
height is most important, as is the relation of height 
to ten^h. The scale may be either human or relative. 
The width of a pergola or arbor, however, ia seemingly 
best when slightly greater than its height, for if less it 
will appear stiltea and in poor proportion. From . 
diagrams A to £ in Fig. 2869, it will readily be seen 
that (A), showing a proportion of 4 to 3 is less pleasing 
than (B), 4 to 4, or even (C), 4 to 5. When the width 
increases noticeably over the height, as in (D) 4 to 6, 
or (E) 4 to 7, there is a resultant weakening in propor- 
tion. As for length, this of course ia determmed by the 
individual problem, but in no case should the length 
be merely equal to, or less than, the width or height. 
In summary, the dimen- 
sion of the pergola should 
produce a form of suffi- 
ciently dominant and 
pleasing horizontal and 
perpendicular dimensions 
to produce a satisfactory 
feeling of stability and 

In regard to plant ma- 
terials used in connection 
with pergolas, the effect 
Boucht is that the pergola 
shall count as a support 
for vines; the variety and 
kind of growth, however, 
must naturally be deter- 
mined by the exigencies of 
the particular case. Vines 
of fine and delicate foli- 
age, flower, and fruit are 
better suited to the deli- 
cate arbor or treillagc, and 
the larger-leaved, more 
heavily fruited vines to the 
architecturally stronger 
and coarser pergola. Also. 
vines with coarse and 
woody; stems, such a 

the I 


IMO. Pnfolas. — Vuiviu iichllMtiin] fornu; alio dUvnma ol ptDportiaiu in A to 

bittersweet and the like, 
are better adapted to the 
true use of the pergola, as 
a rack upon vvhich vines 
lie, not a treillage or sup- 
port uij which thev climb 
or against which they are 

Bryant Flemiko. 

PERfcOME (from the 
Creek for around, and tvft, 
from the tuft of hairs 
around the achpne). Com- 

EdxiUe, A small group of 
ardy perennials grown 
for their golden yellow 
conspicuous flowers. 


ous heads in a terminal 
corymbiform cyme: in- 
volucrol bracts slightly 
connected by their edges. 




There are only 2 known species, both of W. N. Amer, 
The genua la of little horticultural importance and is 
offered only by dealers in western native planta. The 
ahowy golden yellow fls. are not imattnictive. 

caudita. Gray. Lvs. opposite, long-jjetioled, triangu- 
lar-hastate with crenate or entire margins, the apex and 
sometimes the basal lobes long, caudate-acuminate: 
heads many, the fla. conspicuously longer than the 
involucre. Rocky caSons in the mountains, Colo, to 
New Mex. and Ariz. — Useful in diy or exposed places. 
N. Taylor. 

PERflXA (said to be a native name in India; by 
others, a Greek and Latin liroper name). LdbtAtx. 
Herbs, one of which is sometimes grown for the col- 
ored foliage. 

Erect, with opposite lvs. and small fls. in whorls of 
2 that are aggregated into axillary and terminal simple 
orpanicied raccmcsicalyxbell-shaped, 5-toothed, much' 
enlarged and gibbous m fr.; corolla shorHubed, tie 
tube not exceeding calyx, limb oblique and somewhat 
unequally 5-lobed; stamens 4, erect and separate; disk 

represented by a large gland; style 2-parted.— Two 
3 species, Himalaya region to China and Japan. T 
plant known in gardenB_a8 P. nankinensis is ciistinot by 

, The 

the color of its foliage. The lvs. are a dark wine-purple, 
with a bronzy luster. These colors are .more or less 
toned with green, especially in young plants. It is an 
annual herb, growing about IH ft- Ingh. It is con- 
siderably used in subtropical beds and tor the back of 
ribbon borders. It is sometimes planted next to a duaty 
miller or other white-lvd. plants (m the sake of contrast. 
The foliage has an odor suggesting cinnamon. In 
Japan the perllla ia of economic importance for the 
pKiduction of oil. 

Perillaa need a aimny or at least half-sunny position. 
They thrive under the treatment given half-hardy 
annuals. Sow the seeds thinly and cover nearly an inch. 
Avoid planting too closely; IcRgy apeeimena are unat- 
tractive, and the plant has a tendency to become weedy. 
The flowers are inconspicuous and produced in autumn. 
Before the introduction of the coleus, this plant was 
much used aa an ornamental flower-garden plant, but 
in our warmer summers it is displ^ed by the more 
brilliantly colored and free-growing forma of that plant. 

frutfacens, Brit. (Ocimum fruiiecena, Linn. P. 
ocymAdes, Linn. Minlha periliMes, Willd.). The 
typical form has Iva. green on both sides and is worth- 
less for gardens. Annual: lvs. opposite, rarely speckled 
with brownish purple, only slightly wrinkled, base 
wedge-flhaped or narrow; biade broadly ovale or round- 
ish, pointed or blunt, hairy or not, dentate or variously 
cut at the margin. In tne wild, it is a coarse often 
ahaggy plant, 3-4 ft. high, with lvs, 3-6 in. long, petioles 
1-3 in. long: racemes 3-8 in. long; corolla white or red- 
dish, 2 lines long; fruiting cah-x about J^in. long. 
Himalayas, Burma, China, Japan. B.M. 2395. — 
Sparingly run wild. Following arc new combinations. 

Var. nankin^nsiB, Bailey (P. nankininais Decne. 
P. oeymMes var. nankin6n»is, Vosa). Sliriitly hairy, 
rarely glabrous: lvs. dark purple-brown, with a broniy 
luster; base wedge-shaped (rounded in strong-growing 
specimens); blade ovate, acute, coarsely and deeply 
Baw-toothed, margin wavy. Seedlings are sometimes 
green. R.H. 1852:60; 1S79, p. 272. Forms of this 
variety are: (1) Var. laeiniftta, Bailey (P. ladnHUa. Hort. 
P. nankinirma fdliis alropurpareia lacinidtig, Hort.), 
has lvs. cut nearly to the middle, foliage undulate, 
wrinkled or crisped. Colors said to be more intense, 
Intro, about 1872. P.G. 2:77. (2) macropMUa, Bailey 
(P. nankininsis macrophyUa compdcta, Hort.), is a 
largo-lvd. form characterised by its almost "bell- 
shaped" form. The lvs. are wavy-fringed. Habit com- 
pact. <3)Var.«Udor,Bai]ey(P.Tuin;nnM>um4KTopA^Ua 

eldltor, Hort. Benary), is a taller form of var. iruuropAySa. 
(4) Var. TUierilta, Bailey [P. nankintneit fdliit vono- 
(diis, Hort.), cQffera in having the folia«B spotted with 
white. (5) Var. microphtUa, Bailey (P. nanAtn^nns 
mieropkilta Tiigrvxma, Hort,), is aamall-lvd. form intro. 
about 1899. Wilhelm Milleb. 

L. H. B.t 
PBRfPLOCA (Gre^, around, and to tiDine; alluding 
to the twining habit). AsdepiadHeex. Oniamental 
vines grown for the handsome glossy foliage and the 
fragrant flowers appearing in 

2S70. Parlploci u 

Twining or upright decidu- 
ous or ever^cen shrubs, 
glabroua, with milky juice: 
lvs. opposite, entire, without 
atipulee: fls. in axillary or 
terminal cymes; calyx 5- 
tobed; corolla 5-parted, bear- 
ing inside at the base a 5- or 
10-!obed crown; stamens 5 ^ 
with very short filaments and 
with the anthers connected 
at the a^x and villous; style 
short, with broad stigma: fr. 
consisting of 2 follicles, con- 
taining numerous, small, 
winged seeds. — ^ About 12 
species from S. Eu, to Trop. 
Afr., China and E. India. 

The periploCBs in cultiva- 
tion have dark green and 
glossy leaves and dull-colored 
fragrant fiowcrs followed by 
loi^ and slender pods. P. 
aepium has proved perfectly 
hardy as far north as Mas- 
BschuaetU and P. grxca is 
hardy north to New York, 
and can be grown even in .-^.z 

Canada when trailing on the ground and somewhat 
protected during the winter. They thrive in any well- 
drained soil and prefer sunny positions; they are well 
suited for covering arbors, trelliswork and trunks of 
trees. Propagation is by seeds or by greenwood cut- 
tings in summer under glass; also by layers. 

grftca, Linn. Silk-Vhjb. Deciduous shrub, twi- 
ning to 40 ft.: lvs. petioled, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, daik green and glossy above, lW-4 in. 
long and 1-2 in. broad: Bs. m loose, long-peduncled 
cymes, brownish purple inside, greenish at the margin 
and outside, 1 in. across: corolla-lobes oblong, spreading, 
villous; crown with 5 slender thread-like incurved gla- 
brous appendages: follicles narrow, about 4 in. long. 
July, Aug. S. Eu., W. Asia. B.M. 2289. B.R.803. 
L.B.C. 14:1389. Gn. 34, p. 78.— A vigorous and hiph- 
growing climber with handsome dark green and Hhinmg 
foliage remaining unchanged until late in fall. Under 
the name of P. anjfugtifolia a narrow-lvd. form is some- 
iimea cvit., wiiit^ IB P. graxavax.anffuilif alia, JS^. The 
true P. angugti/olia, Labill., is synonymous with P. 
lavii^ala, Ait., from the Canary Isls. and N. Afr., with 
persistent lvs. and pubescent appendages of the crown. 

aiplum, Bun(^. Fig. 2870. Lower and slenderer 
than the preceding species: lvs. lanceolate, long-acumi- 
nate, dark green and flossy above, paler beneath, 2- 
3^ m. long and J^Jjm, broad: fls. m few-fld. cymes, 
similar to those of the preceding species, but smaller, 
about ?iin. across and with revolute corolla-lobes: fol- 
licles 4-6 in. long. June, July. N. China. 


PERISlfiRIA (Grec^ dooe, from the form of the 
column and wings). Ortkiddeex. A group of stately 
South American paeudobulbous warmhouse orchids. 

Leaves large, plicate, unfolding succeaaively: fl.- 



spikes tall, erect or h&ngitig; fls. nearly globular or oup- 
anaped, of a wa:^ texture, with broad concave aeffon. 
Hie genus ia diHtinguished from the related genera 
Adneta, Lacsna, Googora, and the like, by the curious 
duLpe of the ubellum and 
cohinm. The base of the 
labellum (hypochil) is 
uiut«d vith the coluuta by 
broad winga (pleuridia). 
The upper part of the 
labellum (epichil) is mov- 
ablv joined to um hypo- 
chil. — Five speoiea, of 
which 2 are commonly 
The chief factors in 

ing period, the ideslToc»- 
tion being in proximity 
to water, in a temperature 
of 65° to 70° F., and a 
decided rest when growth 
is completed. The grow- 
ing medium ahould cooaist 
of two-thirds fibrous sod 
soil and one-third peat 
and aand, an addition of 
dried cow-manure being 
beneficial. The pots ehould 
^. be well supplied with 
''drainage. When the plant 
,'/ is growing freely, water 
/ occasional]^ with organic 
fertiliier until the growUk 
ia completed. Then reduce 
the water-supply to induce 
flowering when the young 
growth appears. ^ ex- 
cellent apecimen of P. etata 
in the Miasouri Botanical 
Garden recently produced 
a flowerflpike 3 feet 6 
inchea high and produced 
twen^ well-formed flow* 
era. From the first ap- 
pearance of the apike until 
the last flower opened, 
covered a period of three 
and a half months. Thia 
noteworthy specimen was 
grown over a tank of water, in a house of miacellaneoiis 
warmhouae plants, and organic manure was given freely 
during growth. The plant was then transferred to the 
cactus house to rest, enough water was given to prevent 
shriveling of tJie pseudobulbs, until the young growth 
appeared bearing a well-formed flower-epike: it waa 
again transferred to its former paeition and watered 
freely to develop the apike. (G. H. Pring.) 

elita. Hook. Dovb-Flowbr. Holt-Ghost-Plowir. 
Fig. 2871. Pseudobulbs 4-5 in. high, bearing several 
strongly veined Ivs. 2-3 ft. high: fl.-et. 3-4 ft. high: 
fla. in a raceme covering about one-third the length of 
the fl.-stalk, cup-shaped, creamy white, wax-like and 
fragrant, 2 m. across; sepals broadly ovate to rotund; 
petals more delicate; labcUum fleshy, broadly obovate, 
truncate, sprinkled with deep purple; column with la^, 
curious wings, supposed to bear resemblance to a dove. 
June-Sept. Panama. B.M. 3116. Gng. 5:151. V. 
8:163. Gn. 12, p. 153; 30, p. 574; 42, p. 324. R.H. 
1876, p. 133; 1877:110.— The labeUum and winga of 
the column are sometimes spotted with purple. Intro, 
into cult, in 1826. 


pendulous, from the base of the paeudobulb, bearing as 
many as 20 fls.; fls. dobular in outline, ly^ in. across^ 
fragrant, greenish wmte outside, tinged with rose ana 
thickly dotted with purple within; sepals roundish ooi^ 
cave, united at base; petals rttther smaller; labellum 
fleshy, curiously shaped, inclosed within the fl. Guiana. 
B.M.3479. G.C.U.25:116.—RequiieB tropical treat- 
ment, but rarely flowers in cult. 

c&ina, Lindl. Pseudobulbs oblong-ovoid, up to 3 in. 
Jong, 3-4-lvd.: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, up to 1 ft. long: 
BCape pendulous, short, bearing a dense raceme of 6-10 
fls.; fls. about 1 in. across, pale lemon-yellow, waxy; 
sepals and petals broadly ovate, concave; lip 3-Iobea, 
the acute lateral lobes ovate, the midlobe emarginate, 
inflexed, the margin crisped. Cent. Amer. B.R. 1953. 

P. itpm, Rolte. hiudDfaulba ovold^blanf: laonM denaB. 
S-IO-flcL: fl*. Hcllt brownuh yello*. dsudy ipotMd with reddiah 
brown, tha front lobe of bp tirowiiiah aimaon; Hpah and pcula 
•OhitiiHiblaiii, obMuiab. VoMiaela. L. 267.— P. HSmbaUtii, LindL 
— Aometa. GlOBOB V. NABH.f 

PERIsTROPHE (Greek, peri, around, and ttrophot, 
belt; alluding to the involucre). Acanikieex. Green- 
house plants, ^^)wn for the bloom. 

Erect, branched or looeely creeping herbs or half- 
shrubby: Ivs. entiin: fls. sohtarv or in clusters of 2-3 
surrounded by an involucre, in loose cymes or cymose 
panicles, or cGstant on slender branchee: bracts of the 
involucre najrow; calyx deeply 5-partea, shorter than 
the bracts, scariose or hyaline; corolla-tube long, slen- 
der, slightly enlaigod above, limb deeply bilabiate, the 
posterior hp narrow, erect, concave, entire or emargi- 
nate, lower lip spreading, apex 3-fiarted; stamens 2, a 
little shorter than the corolla-lips; anthers Z-celled; 
st^le stamens none; style filiform: caps, oblong, con- 
tracted into a solid staUc. — ^About 15 species, ranong 
from Trop. Afr. and India to the Malay Isls., Philip- 
pines, ana Austral. 

The plants are cultivated like iacobinias or justicias, 
of the same family. Cuttings taken at any time when 
the wood is soft will root in a warm bed in three to 
four weeks, after which the potted plants may be 
removed to a house of lower temperature. They require 
a rich loam mixed with some leaf-mold, and plenty of 

sped&sa, Nees 
(JuiUda »peeidaa, 
RoxbgO. Fig. 
2872. The plant 
erect, spreading 
and branched, be* 
coming 2-3 ft. 

high: Ivs. oppo- 
Bite, petioled, 
ovate - acuminate, 
smooth: fls. in 
clusters of 2-3 on 
slender branches, 
violet-purple, IM 
in. long. Blooms 
for a long period in 
winter. India. B. 
M. 2722. L.B.C. 
20:1915. B.2:74. 
Gn. 73, p. 42.— A 
pot-plant of 
bushy compact 
habit when well 
grown. Good for 
the window. Usu- 
ally thrives best 
in partial shade. 

Nees. Plant 
low, erect, very 
much branched: 




branches nearly horizontal, pubescent above: Ivs. 
lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fls. sparse, in terminal 
cymes, rose-colored. Flowers freelv. Java. Var. adrea 
▼ariegkta, Hort., has the center of the Ivs. variegated 
with yellow. Useful for vases and badcets. 

Hbinrich Hasbblbbing. 


PERlrtTTYA (after A. J. Ptemetty, 1716-1801; he 
accompanied Bougainville on his voya^ and wrote ''A 
Voyage to the Falkland Islands"). Sricdcex. Orna- 
mental plants grown chiefly for their attractive vari- 
ously colored and profusely produced berries, also for 
their neat evergreen foliage and white or pinkish 

Evergreen shrubs: Ivs. alternate, short-petioled, 
small, usually serrate: fls. axillary, usually soUtaiy on 
slender nodding pedicels, rarely in racemes; calyx 
5-parted; corolla urceolate, with short 5-lobed limb; 
stamens 10, the anthers 4-awned at the apex: fr. a 
5-celled manynseeded berry. — ^About 25 species from 
Mex. to the Magellan region, mostly in the mountains, 
and 1 species in Tasmania and New Zeal. Allied to 
Gaultheria, but the calyx not enlarged and rarely fleshy 
after flowering. 

The pemettyas are low much-branched shrubs with 
dense and small evergreen leaves and small nodding 
flowers, followed by very decorative berries varying in 
color from white to pmplish black or bluish black and 
remaining on the branches all winter. These exceed- 
ingly pretty shrubs are great favorites in England, but 
are little known in this country. P. mturonaia and P. 
angustifoliaf the hardiest, are probably hardy in 
sheltered positions as far north as New York. They are 
well suited for rockeries and borders of eversreen shrub- 
beries and also make very handsome pot-pumts. They 
grow best in a peaty and porous moderately moist soil 
and prefer sunny positions, but seem to grow almost 
as well in any other well-drained soil; in shade they will 
not fruit so profusely as in the full sun. Propagation is 
by seeds or by cuttings of half-ripened wood in sum- 
mer under glass; also by means of layers and suckers. 

mucronilta, Gaud. (ArbtUtts muerondius, Linn. f.). 
Much-branched shrub, to 2 ft., with glabrous or spar* 
ingly hairy branches: Ivs. almost 2-ranked, ovate to 
ovate-oblong, spiny-pointed, serrate, dark green and 
shining above, glabrous, ^-^in. Ions: fls. solitary, 
nodding, globose-ovoid, white or slightly tinged pink, 
about yiin, long, on pedicels 2-3 times as long as the 
fl.; stamens longer than the ovary: fr. white to dark 
purple, Ji-J^in. across, red in the typical form. May, 
June. Magellan region to Chile. B.M. 3093; 8023. 
B.R. 1695. L.B.C. 19:1848. On. 23:389; 59, p. 41. 
Gt. 34, p. 214. G.M. 40:811. M.D.G. 1898: 397.— 
Many varieties (P. hibrida, Zabel), partly originated 
by hybridizing with the following species are cult, in 
Ejiglish and Duteh nurseries, most^ di£fering in the 
color of the fr., which is usually indicated bythe name 
of the variety, as vars. Alba, atropunilrea, cocdhea 
(P.M. 1879:339), liUlcina (P.M. 1879:339), ntoa» 
purpurea (P.M. 1879:339), rdsea, sangufnea, Hort. 
Also P. Drummondiif P. Cummingii^ P. specioio, P. fieri' 
hunda (G.C. II. 18:649 and III. 28:465) belong here. 
P. mucronaia and its varieties are among our most 
ornamental fruiting shrubs in wintertime, when they 
are loaded with bnght-oolored benries contrasting weU 
with the dark glossy foliage; they are also very land- 
some in spring when covered with their numerous 
white fls. 

angustifdlia, Lindl. (P. mucrondla var. angusHfdUti, 
Nichols.).^ Closely allied to the preceding: Ivs. lanceo- 
late te linear-lanceolate, usually arch^ backward, 
smaller, not spiny-pointed: fls. somewhat smidler, on 
slender pedicels; anthers twice as Ions as filaments; 
style as long as ovary. May, June. Chile. B.R. 26:63. 

B.M. 3889. — ^The plant usually cult, under this name 
is a narrow-lvd. form of the preceding species. 

P, dUdrUt Don. 8pi«adiii(ahrub:lys. oblonctoDArrowHoUonf, 
•enrulato, - 



yiA^Miwh. UmUht shrub: hn. ovate to ovate4aiioeolate, eilutte, to 
1 H in< long: fit. in azUUrvt leeuiid, rather denae racemes: fr. brown- 
ish red. Peru, Chile. B.M. 4930.— P. F^iUlavMfu, DC. Similar to 
P. mueronata, but hrs. not spiny-tipped: fr. dark purplish blue, 
with the oalyz4obes fleshy. Venesuela to Chile. B.M. 8204. 
—P. phiUnnmfdUa. DC. Sunilar to P. mucronata: branches spa- 
rindb^ hkq^: ooroUa ovate, pubescent inside; anthers twice as long 
asluunents. Peru, ChUe. — P, pilAaaj Dim (Arbutus pilosa. Qra- 
ham). Prostrate shrub, with densely niqnd branches: Ivs. elliptio- 
oblong, serrate, to fOn, long: fls. ovate, white, solitary. Mez. 
B.MT3177.— P. rupCootoTPhiL Qosely allied to P. mucronato: Ivs. 
smaller, with few minute teeth: fls. on pedioeb scarcely twice as 
long as fl.; stamens not exceeding the ovary. Chile. Sometimes 
cult, as P. mucronata. — P. runieoMdeMt Schneid. Supposed hybrid 
of the preceding species and P. mucronata. 

Alfbed Rehder. 

FER6vSEIA (after B. A. Perovski, about 1840, gov- 
ernor of the Russian province Orenburg). Also spelled 
Perowskia, LabiMx, About 4 herbaceous or shrubby 
plants from Cent. Asia, allied to Salvia^ with opposite 
serrate or piimatifid Ivs. and rather small heterostylous 
fls. in whorls usually arranged in terminal spikes: calvx 
tubular-campanulate, 2-lipped; corolla 2-lipped, the 
upper lip unequally 4-loDea, uie lower undivided; 2 
sterile and 2 fertile stamens, the latter with 2 distinct 
contiguous anther-ccUs: fr. consisting of 4 ovoid- 
oblong nutlets inclosed by the calyx. Tiie onlv species 
in cult, is P. atriplidfdlia. Benth. Shrub, to 5 ft., erect, 
of aromatic sage-like odor when bruised: sts. hoarv- 
tomentoee: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acutisn, 
unequally and coarsely serrate, at first pubescent, 
finally nearly glabrous, glandular: \\^2\{ in. long: 
fls. blue, about \im. long, in 2-6-fla. remote whorls 
A in dender spikes forming terminal panicles 
1-1 V^ ft. long; calyx densely viUous. Aug., Sept. 
Afghanistan to W. Hhnalayas and W. Thibet. B.M. 
8441. R.H. 1905:344. 0.33:511:36:539.— Handsome 
shrub, valm^le for its late blue ns. forming a pleasing 
contrast with the silvery gray sts. Not quite hardv N., 
but if killed partly back, it sends forth young shoots 
^diich will flower tbe same year. It prefers sunny posi- 
tions and well-drained loamy soil. Frop. is usually, by 
greenwood cuttings, which grow reaculy in summer 
under glass. Alfred Rehder. 

PERS&A (ancient Oreek name of an Egyptian tree 
with sweet fruit; derivation unknown, probably from 
Perseus). Laurdeex. Woody plants sometimes grown 
for ornament; and one of them yields the avocado, one 
of the brat of the semi-tropical fruits. 

Leaves alternate, entire: fls. small, hermaphrodite, 
usually in panicles; corolla wanting, the calyx deeply 
6-parted; stamens usually 12. in 4 series, with one 
series sterfle; ovary sessile ana taoering into a slender 
s^le bearing a simple stigma. — Snrubs and trees dis- 
tnbuted throughout the tropics and subtropics, most 
of the species beihg confined to S. Amer., but one com- 
ing from the Oanary Isls. and a few from S. E. Asia. 
As defined by Bentnam & Hook^ the genus contains 
about 100 species, but Meissner (DO. Ttodr. 15, pt. 1. 
43) distributes some of the species in other genera and 
retains only 50 in Persea. Mes, in his monograph on the 
American Lauraoes (Jahrb. KOnigl. Bot. Oart. 1889, 
5. 135), describes 47 American species. P. gratiasima, 
the avocado, widely cult, throughout Trop. Amer. and 
elsewhere for its fr., is the only species of great eco- 
nomic importance. Others are of ornamental value, and 
may prove useful as stocks upon which to bud or graft 
the avocado, although expenments have not been very 
encouraging up to the present. P. Barbonia grows nat- 
urally as far north as N. O.; P. indica is now and then 
seen in cult, in Fla. and Oalif . Some of the Cent. 
American types referred to P. groHasima seem distinct, 
and may be found to constitute good species. 


A. Outer eaij/x-lobei dittinedy ahorter than the inaer. 

Borbdnia, Spreng. (P. cartAinimia, Neea). Red Bat. 
Bull Bat. TreCj reaching 40 ft., with smoothiah 
branches; Itb. 2-3 in. long, oUong to lanceolate-oblong, 
glabrous and deep green above, glaucous beneath: fls. 
pubcflcent, the peduncles of the clusters ahort«r than 
the petioles: fr. a small blue drupe. Woods, N. C. to 
Fla. — A handsome evergreen, with wood useful for 
cabinet work and other purposes. 
AA. Outer calyx-^/iAea equaling the inner, or very nearly ao, 

bidica, Spreng. Handsome tree, with elliptiooblong 
or lanceolate-oblong attenuat«-acute glabrous Ivs., 3-8 
in. long: panicle 3-6 in. long, the peduncles compressed, 

AvocATO. AniCATB. Fig. 2873; Figs. 445, 446, Vol. 1. 
A large tree, cominonly with broad crown up to 60 ft.: 
Its. ODlong-unceolate or eUiptic-lanceolatfi to oval or 

obovate, 4-10 in. long, 2-6 in. broad, apex acute or 
shortly acuminate, sometimes almost blunt, the base 
acute to truncate, frequently rounded, simace gla- 
brous above, usually somewhat glaucous with the vena- 
tion prominent below; petiole ?i-2 in. long, canalicu- 
late above: fla. shortly pedicellate, in broM compact 
panicles at the ends of the young branchlets, about 
l^n. across, greenish, the calyx-lob^ obloag-lanccolate, 
acute, aUghtly concave, finely pubescent; fertile sta- 
mens 9, in 3 series, each stamen of the inner series 

colored glands; filaments slender, finely hairy, the 
anthers oblong-ovate, dehiscing by 4 valves lunged 
distally, the 2 outer series deniacmg extrorseiy, the 
inner series with the 2 distal valves extrorse and the 
proximal pair introrse; staminodea 3, flattened, orange- 
colored; ovary ovate-elliptic, the style slender, attenu- 
ate, finely pubescent : fr. a large Beshy drupe, commonly 
pyriform, ovate or apheriMl, ^-8 in. long, green, 
maroon or purple in color, the epicaip membranous tc 
thick and woody, mesocarp soft, yellow, and buttery; 
seed 1, large, conical to oblate, inverted, exalbuminous, 
with 2 tnin seed-coats often distinct, reticulated. 
Certainly indigenous in Mex. and Cent. Amer., extend- 
ingperhapa to N. S. Amer. 

The avocado is cultivated commercially in Florida 
and California, as well as in other parta of tropical 
America. See Avocado. Several distinct forms are 
known in cultivation, some of them having been con- 
sidered botanical varieties by certain botaniata. The 
horticultural varieties grown in the United States are 


A. Ltt. aniae-teeiUed: ekin offr, (Ain and aofi 

1. Mexican type 
AA. Let. not aniae-aeenUd: akin of/r. thick. 

B. iSur/ace of fr. umiailu wmoolh; »kin Italkerj/. 
luniali]/ nut more than Ain. thick; leed-coaU 
frequenllv diatind. lite outer one adhering to 

vyili of eeed-isitiily; coti/ltdont o/t«n TOUQh 

2. West Indian type 
HB. Surfact of fr. veuaUu rough or wart]/; Jjb'n 
brittle, granuiar, it-itin. thick; eted-coatt 
adhering doaely to the nearly smooth cotyle- 
dona 3. Guatemolaji typo 

Occasional forms will be found which are difficult to 
clasaify bv the above kev. E^specially is this true of the 
Guatemalan type, of which tnere are several varieties 
in California with the skin no thicker than in some 
varieties of the West Indian type, and nearly as 
smooth. These can usually be distinguished, however, 
by the character of the seed and its coata. Solano ana 
Blakeman may be mentioned as smooth-skinned exam- 
ples of this class. Trees of the Guatemalan ty'pc usually 
nave darker-colored foliage than those of the West 
Indian, and ripen their fruit from January to April, 
while the West Indian ripens from July to November. 
The Guatemalan type is considerably the hardier of 
the two. Both are greatly exceeded in hardiness by 
the Mexican type, which has been known to 
withstand temperatures of 18° to 20° without 
serious injury. Chappelow, Ganter, and Harmaa 
are varieties of this type well known in Cali- 
fornia, where they originated. This type is 
exceeoingly common in northern Mexico; the 
Guatemalan type is found in southern Mexico 
(whence are derived many of the varieties culti- 
vated in the United States), Guatemala,- and 
doubtless in other Central American states. The 
West Indian type is the commonest one in Flor- 
ida, Cuba, and the West Indies in general, and 
on the eastern coast of South America. The 
well-known Florida varieties, Trapp and Pollock, are 
re|>r(>!<ectatiTe8 of it. 

p. Jrvmi/Hia, Chun, t Schlect., ia DOW ooDsidered to be ■ Form 
of P. ETatuuina; it is the type with uu9e-*ceDt«l Ivft. and mniJl, 
tbin^uiDDed fn. described above u Mexicui. Mfi recogniu« It 

P. ffratitsima VAT. Scqwdidna, also iadigeneuB ta Mei. — llic hiu-dy 
Avoculo or no of San Jco6» Coeta Bi£T», hw been referred by 
Werrkl« to P. /rinds, Lind.. but this name ie of doubtful validity. 
Thefr.i8%4redVC<>11iDa(Bull. 77, Gur.Pl, Ind.), sndiauid lo 

It ie Ip^^iinl, about 3 ia. i£bju., with a very luire aerd.—P. iiaaat. 
Nea, BucI P. Mmr-iina. Ntu, ire Ivo apeciea which have receucly 
been intro. to the U. S. from Chile. p_ ^- PopENOE.f 

PBHSICA; Prunuf. 

PERSIC ArU: Polufmum. 

PERSIMMON. Interesting and valuable edible 

Of edible persimmons, two distinct types are grown 
in this country, — Dioejiyrns virginiana, the native 
species, and D. Kaki, the Chinese-Japanese apecica, 
loiown as the kaki. The latter is much the more 
improved, and is the source of the commercial persim- 
mons. See Dios'pi/rna. Other species have been intro- 
duced, but are yet under experiment (cf. "Yearbook, 
United States Department of Agriculture," 1911, page 

The ruitim persimmon. 

The American persimmon (Dioapyroa virginiana) is 
found wild in most of the southern states and as far 
north as 38° latitude. It will thrive and ripen its fruit, 
however, as far north as Rhode I^and and the Great 
Lakes. The fruit is little known except to those who 
live in localities in which it grows wild, and even there 


but little attention has been ^ven to its cultivatioa 
and improvement. The tree is usually of sniall size 
when grown in the open ground, reachmg a height of 
20 to 30 feet; when grown in the forest, it often reachea 
a height of 60 to 80 feet; and in the nch alluvial river 
bottoms, from 2 lo 3 feet in diameter. In exceptional 
cases, it may attain still greater siie, even to 7 feet in 
circumference and 125 to 130 feet high ("Journal 
Heredity," November, 1015). The wood is hard and 
elastic, and very durable when used for inside work but 
it will rot guickly when placed under ground. 

The fnut is aubglobose and ranges in mse from 
H to 2 inches in diameter, dependins largely od the 
number of seeds which it contains, although seedless 
varieties an inch in diameter are sometimes found. 
The fruit has a very disagreeable aatrinisent quabty 
when green, but this disappears in most varieties when 

._.. J that this fruit must be subjected to the 

action of frost before it becomes edible ia erroneous; 
many of the very best varieties ripen long before the 
appearance of frost, while others never become edible, 
bemg so exceedingly astringent that neither sun nor 
frost has any appreciable effect on them. 

The persimmon is readily propagated from seeds, 
which should be procured in autumn or early winter 
and planted in the same way as peach pits; but as the 
seedlinga, especially from cultivated varieties, cannot be 
relied upon to reproduce tliemselvcs, they should be 
budded or eraftea when two or three years old. This 
should be done in the spring as soon as the bark will 
slip freely. Ordinary shield-budding works well; also 
annular- or ring-budding, patch-budding, and chip-bud- 
ding. Large trees may be cleft-grafted, and small 
shoots or stocks may be whip-grafted. 

This tree is more difhcult to tranaplant successfully 
than almost any other kind of fruit. If too much of the 
long tap-root is cut off, the tree will be sure to die. 
Transplant in the autumn, cut back most of the top, 
but preserve as much of the root as possible, and plant 

give good remits if jjanted on a rich warm soil, well 
exposed to the sunlight, and kept well tilled for the 
first few years after planting, until it becomes adapted 
to its new surroundiofp. The orderly growing of per- 
aimmon trees in nurseries will remove much of tlie diffi- 
culty in establishing the plantation. The tree and fruit 
are little attacked by insects and fungous diseases. 

The trees should be planted in the orchard 2 or 3 
inches deeper than they stood in the nursery. The 
trees may be kept low-headed so that the fruit can be 
picked by hand; in this case, they may stand 16 to 20 
feet apart each way. If the frmt is not to be hand- 
picked but gathered as it falls and size and quaUty are not 
so important, the trees may stand at about one-half these 
distances. As the roots run deep, the plantation is 
. adapted to other crops until the tree require the space. 

Several chance seedlings of superior size or quality 
have received names. They are small fruits, yellow or 
reddish in color, about l^ to 1^ inches in diameter. 
Some of the forms are shown in Figs. 2874 and 2875. 

For a general horticultural account of the native 
persimmon, see W. F. Fletcher, Farmers' Bulletin No. 
685, United States Department of Agriculture (1915), 
from which most of the following descriptions of vari^ 
ties are taken. 

Boont (nsnipl Boone).— Origin Indiuia, wlun it liitans dur- 
ins Octobu aqiI Navembpr; form rouadiflh obUtA. likft modium, 
color yvilow, with a dull bluah m the sun: Mkin rathflr tough; teeda 
DumerouB^ flavor iwcet but not rich; QukLity good. 

Burritr, — OriniD Hotral Kentucky, where it ripena ntber early; 
form obUtp, giie medium, color yellon; prietickllr Medlcwi floh 
toll; quality very (ood. 

Dttmtu. — Orixin ScrantoD, Miaaiaaippi. whm it ripflna durinjt 
October and eviy Novembet; form roundiah oblate, alia medlom came 


tolsrgfl, color reddiflh yellow; aJ 

n thin add toush; aseda numaroua; 

.. ..^. ._. , October; form round-OFala, «. . 

di:dl yfcilow ; Quality good. 

Uorfe OoUm. — Origin lllinoi", where it ripena in September; 
form oblong, eiae medium Ui large, color yellow; akin thin; aeeda 
few, flavor iweet; quality very gooii. 

Odden Cm (Fig, 287S1.— Introduced from Borden, lodiuw, 
whve it ripena from AuguAt to Oeti^Mr; form roundiah oblong, 
ai» medium to large, color dark oruice to red;, aeeda few, flavor 
rich and aweet; tiuiinty good. 

Hicki. — Origin Washington County, lodiuui. where It ripen* 
in October; form roundieh oblate, aiae medLum to lar^, color dark 
red; akin thin and teoder; sceda few, flavor rich; quality very good. 
lAmericsn Honey. Honey) (Fig. 287B).— ' ' 

BIulTton, Miaeouri, where it ripena m September; JDrm r> 
obl*te, aiae medium, color bright yeZlov. chnn^ug to pait 
luoent; aUn tougb; aeeda few. flavor aweet and rich; qualit 

Kanau.— IntToduMd 
tsnber; form roundiah 
qjlaahed with red; fl&voi 

,; quality good, 
Miaaouri. where it ripens in Sep- 
«, die rather large, color yelloir 
quality very good. 

Z8T4. The natlra po^mmon, DiMpyroa Tirginiaiu. { X H) 

ar Fulton, MInouri 
ah oblate, aiae large, 
uality good though 

PJ1 Jackaon Ccunty, Miaaouri, where it 
roundiah oblate, sue large, color red- 
in tough; aeeda rather. Dumiroua; Bavor 

': lor 

aweet; quahty good. 

Rubv (Little'a Ruby) (¥i^. 2S7S),— IntiwiucodfromCw^enburg, 
Indiana, where it ripena duriog Septembfr and for aome time later; 
roundiah oblat«, email to medium, yellowish red, *hfaiing to deep 
red; akin tender; aeeda few, flavor aweet: quality very good. 

5iMo.— Introduced from Danville. Indiana, where it rloena 
during Oetober; form oblong-ovate, vie Urge, color dull yeDow, 
II — i._j i_ -1. _!_!, — '*- — tough; aeeda few; quality very good. 

bluahedin th 

SmeicA. — Introduced from Fennaylvanl-, .._ 
Oetober and November; form roundiah oblate, 
dull yellow, aplaahed with red; flavor rich and i 


The Japanese persimmon (Diorptpv Kaki) is con- 
sidered by the Japanese as their best native pomological 
mtiduct. Atthou^ cultivated in the south of Fiance 
for more than nmety years, there is no record of its 
successful introduction into the United States pre- 
vious to about 1870. Trees were first sent to California 
and subsequently to Augusta, Georgia^ but owing to 
defective roots and long delay in transit, the first and 
second shipments proved a failure, and not until 1876 
the uat success with a few trees. All early impor- 


prob&bly the Btocks on which they were grafted were 
not adaptable to this country. Americao enterpriae. 
however, remedied this, as Durseries were eetabluhea 
near Yokohama and well-Krown trees of the beet varie- 
ties were exported to the United States. Experiments 
were made in the South by grafting upon native stocks. 
Hub proved aucceaeful when the ffait was inserted 
upon the collar of the root, 3 to 4 inches bektw the sur- 
face of the soil. The United States Department of 
Agriculture received a large quantity of trees from 
Japan about 187S or 1879, and fearing that the winter 
of Waahington might prove too cold the treca were sent 
to Norfolk, Virpma, where many bore fruit the follow- 
ing year. The first fruiting of wmch there is any record 
was at Augusta. Georpa, in 1879, upon trees grafted 
upon native eeedlin^ growing in the lorest. 

The kaki, or Japanese perainunon, is a fruit for the 
ootton-belt. However, as regards the hardiness of the 

Japanese persimmons, experience demonstrates that 
some varieties are more resistant to excessive cold than 
others; but few can withstand a temperature of lero; 
and as a rule they are more successful below the 32»I 
degree of latitude tlian farther north. Many seedlings 
have been produced that seem to have increased frost- 
reaisting powers. Instances are reported in which some 
of these trees have withstood the winters of east Ten- 
nessee. By successive sowing of seeds from these 
hardier secdlinKs we may look for a race of trees that 
will be adapted to the middle sections of the United 
States. There is a probability, also, that importations 
from the north of Japan and China may considerably 
extend the range northward in this country. Some 
varieties have succeeded in central Vii^nia and Ken- 
tucky, Attempts to cross with the native species have 
BO far been unsuccessful. 

The best method of propagating Japan persinunons 
is by collar-grafting upon seedlings of the native spe- 
cies (Diospyroa vir^niana), which are grown either by 
planting tne seed m nursery rows or transplanting the 
young seedlings from seec-beds early in the spriog. 
The seedUngs can be budded in summer, and in favor- 
able seasons a fair proportion of the buds will succeed. 
Thus propagated, the trees s 

m to be longer^Uved than 


tlioae imported from Japan. Iikasmuchasthenativeslock 
is used, the range of adaptation as to soils and similar 
conditions is very great. As a stock, Diospyroi Lotus is 
adapted to the drier parts of the West, where D. virgrini- 
ana does not succeed, D. ehiruTuU will probably oe a 
good stock, but has not yet been tested in this countiy. 

One of tne ^reat drawbacks in the cultivation of the 
Japanese persunmon has been the dropping of the 
flowers, so that treee and plantations may remain 
barren. Recently this has been shown to be due to 
lack of pollination (see Hume, "Proceedings of the 
Society for Horticultural Science," 1013). Acanstantljr 
staminate varietv is now on the market, the Gailey, 
which, if planted one tree to seven or eight trees of 
sterile vaneties, will insure a crop so far as pollination is 
concerned. The Tane-Nashi, however, is self-fertile. 
It is to be expected that the subject of sterile and 
fertile varieties, and of inter-poUination, will now receive 
much attention, with considerable chaiige in the prac- 
tice of persimmon-growing. 

Anotner difficulty is the great variation in fruits in 
the same variety or even on the same tree, in shape, size, 
and other characters. While the cause of all this varia- 
ti n hii^ not been determined, it ia known that much of 
it L eliminated by the good inter-poUination of which 
we hav* spoken. Hume writes: "All varieties of Jap- 
anese perstmmons so far studied are liKbt--fieshed when 
seedless but certain varieties always snow a dark area 
m the flesh when seeds are present and others are 
always liKht-flcshed even when seeds are present. Both 
dark itad light-tleshed fruits may occiu: on the same 
tree The physioloDcal causes which underlie the 
'anges in color of Uie flesh are not understood, and 
-Jtr an interesting fidd for investigation." 

In color, size, and surface texture, the Japanese per- 
simmons somewhat resemble ripe tomatoes. They are 
now frequently seen in the northern markets. Some 
of the varieties ship well. Many persons do not like 
them at first, largely because of the very soft flesh 
and their sweetnew, but the quality is good, it varies 
much in the different varieties, and the fruit is cer- 
tain k) find increased demand. It is eaten out of hand. 

Some of the varieties ripen in August, some in 
November, and others intermediate between these 
dates. It requires some experience to determine just 
when the fruit has reached the proper stage to be 
markctpd, and this varies with the different varieties. 
Rimic (if the varieties have dark flesh, others light flesh, 
etiii others a mixture of the two. The light and dark 
flesh differ radically in texture and consistency, as 
well as appearance, and when found in the same fruit 
are never blended, hut always distinct. The dark flesh 
is never astringent; the light flesh is astringent until 
it softens. The dark-flesh^ fruit is crisp and meaty, 
like an apple, and is edible before it matures. Some of 
the entirely dark-fleshed kinds improve as tfaev soften. 
The light-fleshed kinds and those with mixed Usht and 
dark iiesh are very dehcious when they reach the cus- 
tard-like consistency of full ripeness. In some, the 
astringency disappears as the fruit bepns to soften; in 
others, it persists until the fruit is fully ripe. The 
round-shaped varieties usually ripen first, the oblong 
are likely to last and keep the longest; these latter 
should be slowiy house-ripened to remove the slight 
astringency inherent to these varieties. 

The market value of the fruit is at present more or 
less uncertain. A large proportion of the fruitr«ating 
people of the North £t not yet know what a fine fruit 
the Japanese persimmon is. The fruits have to be 
shipped while hard and allowed to ripen after reaching 
destmation. Commission men are likely to sell them 
and the public to eat them — or attempt to do so — a 
week or two ahead of the proper stage of ripeness; 
hence the Japan persimmon m its best condition is yet 
comparatively tittle known. In Japan, the dried fruit, 
somewhat like a dried or cured fig, is much esteemed. 





There is a great difference also in the habit of growth 
and foliage of the varieties. All have broad and shiny 
simple leaves. Some varieties make a growth of 5 to 7 
feet the first year from graft, and at ten years form a 
tree 10 feet in height. Others assmne a dwajrf compact 
habit and seldom grow above 5 to 6 feet in hei^t; this 
class is more precocious in reaching the bearing age 
than the taller-growing sorts, and is also hkdy to 
overbear. It is not micommon for a threc^ear-old 
tree to yield several himdred perfect fruits. Thinning 
the fruit as soon as set in early summer will prevent an 
eariv failure of the tree. 

Trees thrive in any soil in which the native species 
grows, but usually fail in wet soils. They respond well 
to good care and treatment, and yet they tmive with 
less attention than is required bv most other fruits. The 
insects and diseases are few. In the orchard, thev are 
set about 15 to 20 feet apart, except for very dwarf 
kinds. The general culture is the same as for other fruits. 

Some of the varieties of kaki, now known in this 
country, are as foUows: 

Bennett. — Of medium sixe, measurii^ 2 H by 2 ^ inches in orow- 
aection; fruit almost quadrangular-comcal, the sides often deeply 
creased, basin shallow, fairly r^ular; calyx depressed; apex rounaed 
to a rather blunt point, marked by a brown tip: color deep orani^ 
red. Seedless, owing to lack of i>ollination. A remarkable fruit, 
noteworthy for its hardiness; the original tree b a seedling some 
twenty years old standing in the yard of Dr. C. D. Bennett, 
Newark, New Jersey. 

Bottfarik (Fig. 2876).— Sise medium. 1^ by 2H inches; shape 
round-ovate to ovate, apex rounded, slightly depressed, the remains 
of the pistil set in the depression, base rounded, with obtuse shallow 
rounded cavity; color yellowish green, the skin greasy, slightly sticky, 
covered with rather rusty colored hairs which are most abundant 
about the ai>ex; cal^ broken up and reflexed: stem short, rather 
stout; cells eight, pith open, seedless; flesh light-colored, very as- 
tringent before ripening and with strong odor of jimson weed. 

Costata. — Medium sise, conical, pointed, somewhat four-sided; 
diameter 2H inches lonmtudinally and 2% inches transversely; 
skin salmon-yellow; flesh light yellow, dark flesh and seeds occurring 
seldom, astrm^ent until ripe, then very fine; a good keeper. Tree 
distinct; a rapid, upright grower; foliage luxuriant; the most orna- 
mental of all the varieties mentioned. 

Fuyttgaki (Fig. 2876). — Sise medium large, measuring 2 by 2^ 
inches to IH by 2^^ inches; color deep orange-red: oblate in form, 
very smooth, sometimes quartered with four slight creases from 
the top, apex rounded, very slightly depressed with remains of style 
persisting, basin very smooth, regular, shallow, calyx reflexed in 
the ripe fruits; skin thin, tough, smooth; flesh firm, meatsr when 
ripe, light-colored, of a^ deep carrot-orange; close examination 
shows the presence of minute widely scattered dark specks; tsste 
sweet, of nne flavor and quality; seeds present, sligntly^ curved 
along the inner face, the back ro\mded, brown-shiny, ^ mch long 
by V$ inch broad by lAr inch thick. An excellent fruit and a decided 

Oailey (Fig. 2876). — Recommended as a polliniser, not for its 
fruit, although the latter is good though small: fruit oblong-conical 
with a rounded apex and a small sharp point, dull red with pebbled 
surface; flesh meaty, firm, and juicy. 

Hachiya. — Very larjse, oblong, conical, with short point; very 
showy; diameter 3^ inches longitudinally and 3>i inches trans- 
versely; skin dark, bright red, with occasional dark spots or blotches 
and rings at the apex; flesh deep yellow, sometimes having occa- 
sional dark streaks, with seed, astringent until ripe, then very fine. 
The largest and handsomest of all. Tree vigorous and shapely; 
bears fairly well, but b not so prolific as some of the other varieties. 

Hyakume (Fig. 2876). — Large to very large, varying from roimd- 
ish oblong to roundish oblate, but always somewhat flattened at 
both ends; generally slightly depressed at the point opposite the 
stem; diameter 2^ inches longitudinally and 3H incnes trans- 
versely; skin light huffish yellow, nearly always marked with rings 
and veins at the apex: flesh dark brown, sweet, crisp, and meaty, 
not astringent; good while still hard; a good keeper; one of the best 
market sorts. Of good growth and a free bearer. 

Miyo-tan. — Round or slightly oblong, 2Vi inches diameter; 
average weight, five and one-half ounces; slightly ribbed; deep 
orange-red; fle^ usually deep brown-red, but bright red- or hafi 
red- and half brown-fleshed specimens are often produced upon the 
same tree the results of cross-fertiltxation by other varieties. Tree 
of medium or dwarf growth; exceedingly prolific. Fruit keeps very 
late. The brown-flesned specimens are edible while soUd, and as 
early as October 1. 

Okame.—lsxge, roundish oblate, with well-defined quarter 
marks, point not depressed; diameter 2^ inches longitudinally 
and 3|-% inches transversely; skin orange-yellow, changing to bril- 
liant carmine, with delicate bloom and waxy, translucent appear- 
ance; the most beautiful of all; light, clear flesh when ripe, with 
light brown center around the sccdB, of which it has several; loses 
its astringency as soon as it begins to ripen; quality fine. Tree 
vigorous and good bearer. 

Ormond (Bostrom Vining). — Small to medium, oblong, with a 
tapering pointed four-furrowed apex and rounded base, the large 

calsrx strongly reflexed; surface deep bright red, carrying a thin 
bloom, the skin thin and tough; flesh orange-red, becoming very 
soft when ripe. December in northern Floricut, long-keeping. 

Taber No. S3. — Medium, oblate, flat or depressed point; diame- 
ter lyi inches longitudinally and 2H inches transversely; skin 
rather dark red, with pectiliar stipple marks; flesh dark brown, sweet 
and not astringent; seedy; good. Prolific. 

Taber No. ISB. — Medium, roundish, flattened at base; has a 
small but well-defined point at the apex; diameter about 2H inches 
both ways; skin dark yellow-red, with peculiar roughened surface, 
somewhat resembling alligator leather in appearance and markings, 
except that the marks are usually very small and uniform; flesh 
light brown, crisp, sweet, meaty, free from astringency; excellent; 
a good keeper and shipper. 

Tatnopan (Fig. 2876). — Imported recently from China, and known 
as the Chinese Grindstone i>ersimmon; frmt perfectly seedless, not 
astringent and may be eaten when ^een and hard; large (3 to 6 
inches diameter), sometimes weighing more than one poimd, 
broadly oblate and constricted all the way around below the middle 
so that it has a turban-like shape; color bright orange-red, the skin 
tough and rather thick; flesh light-colored, astringent until ripe, 
excellent in quality; tree strong and upright. 

Tane-Nashi (Fig. 2876). — Large to very large, roundish conical, 
pointed, very smooth and symmetrical; diameter 3^ inches longi- 
tudinally and 3^ inches transversely; skin li^t yellow, changing 
to bright red at full maturity; flesh yellow and seedless; quality 
very fine; perhaps the most highly esteemed of light-fleshed kinds. 

Triumjih (Fig. 2876). — Medium; tomato-shaped; skin yellow: 
flesh yellow; generally has a few seeds; very productive; quahty ox 
the best. Ripens from September till November. 

TsuTU (P|g. 2876). — ^Large, slender, pointed, longest in propor- 
tion to its size of all; diameter 3^ incnes longitudinally and 2% 
inches transvoisely; skin bright red; flesh orange-yellow, some dark 
flesh around the few seeds; astringent until fully ripe, then good. 

Yeddo-Ichi. — Large, oblate; diamettf 2H inches lon^tudinally 
and 3 inches transversely; very smooth and regular m outline, 
with dinted appearing surface and slight depression at end opposite 
the stem; skin darker red than most varieties, with heavy bloom; 
flesh very dark brown, verfdng toward purplish; sweet, rich, crisp; 
in quality one of the best. The fruit is good to eat when still hard. 

Yemon (Among). — Large, flat,^ tomato-shaped, somewhat four- 
rided: diameter 2^ inches longitudinally and 3K inches trans- 
versely; skin light yellow, changing to dull red, mottled with orange- 
yellow; distinct in color; flesh deep, dull red, brown around the 
seeds, of which there are usually a few; some specimens are entirely 
li^t-fleshed and seedless; there is no astringennr after the frmt 
be^pns to soften; quality fine; one of the best. In form some of the 
fruits have the corrugations converging to the depressed apex, as it 
is usually figured, but most do not. 

Zengi. — ^The smallest of all; round or roundish oblate; diameter 
Ifi inches longitudinally and 2V4 inches transversely; skin yel- 
lowish red; flesh very diu'k, quality good; seedy; edible when still 
hard; one of the earliest to ripen. Vigorous, prolific. 

L. H. B.t 

PfiRTYA (after A. M. Perty, professor of natural 
history at Berne, Switzerland). Compdsitse. A genus 
of about 4 shrubs from Japan, Cent. China and Afghan- 
istan, allied to Mutisia but the corolla tubular and 
6-parted: Ivs. alternate, often crowded under the fl.- 
heads, entire or serrulate, deciduous: heads homoga- 
mous, solitary, with 5-15 fls.; involucre campanulate, 
with few large, imbricate bracts; corolla tubular, deeply 
5-lobed: achene pubescent, with a conspicuous dense 
whitish or purplish pappus. They are not particularly 
ornamental, but interesting for botanical collections, 
as hardy shrubby Compositae are few. Prop, by seeds 
and probably by cuttings of half-ripened wood. The 
only species in cult, is P. sinensis, Oliver. Slender 
uprij^ht shrub, to 6 ft. : Ivs. ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, 
acutish. entire, glabrous, 2-3 in. long: heads pinkish, 
10-12-nd., on slender pedicels J^l in. long; involucre 
nearly glabrous: achenes sericeous; pappus whitish. 
June. Cent. China. H.I. 23:2214.— The Japanese P. 
scdndens, Schultz. Bip., which is likely to be intro., is a 
slender decumbent shrub with serrulate Ivs., sessile 
somewhat larger heads with light purple pappus. 

Alfred Rehder. 

PESCAT0-B6LLEA (compounded from Pescatoria 
and Bollea). Orchidace^. A genus established to contain 
hybrids between the genera Pescatoria and Bollea. 
P.-B. bdlla^F. Klabochorum x B. coelestis. 

PESCAT6rIA (after M. Pescatore, who had a large 
collection of orchids at St. Cloud, near Paris). Some- 
times spelled Pescatorea. OrchidAceae. A group of 
orchids often united with Zygopetalimi, but in horticul- 
tural works usually treated as a distinct genus. 


Leaves equitont, tufted, without paeudobulbe: fls. 
solitary on ata, 3-6 in. Ions, from the axils of the Ivb., 
mostly large and showy and frazrant; sepals and petals 
broad, concave, spreading, the latertd sepals forming a 
mcntum; labellum clawed, lateral lobes small, middle 
lobe rounded, spreading; crest thick, conaistmg of a 
number of keels arranged in a aetiii-4:ircle near the base 
of the lip; column slender, not boat^aped. — About 
12 species. For cult., see Zygopetahan. 

ElabochOnim, Reichb. f. Lvs. strap-shaped, 1 ft, or 
more long: fls. 3-3H in. acroea, variable in color; sepals 
oblong, oDtuae; petds shorter, all white with chocolate- 

furple poinla; iabelium 3-lobed, yellowish or white, and 
aving many purple-tipped hairs; callus sulfur-colored, 
with brown keels. Juoe, July. Ecuador. Gn. 22:24. 

DayAiu, RcicUi. f. Lvb. tufted, 6-10 ^ 

short scapes; sepals oblong-obovate. acute, white, with 
green tips; petals rhomboid-rotund; labellum clawed, 
angled on each side of the basej limb oblonj 
nate, revolute on the sides white with a ca . „ 

which is purple-violet the base be ng of the same color; 
column yellow with a red ban 1 ear the base and the 
anther of the same colo La e autumn Colombia. 
Var. rhodftcri Re chb f Sepals and petals with rose 
tips; labellum orb oular Huf 
fused cnmson BM 6211 

rfrina Re hb f F g 2S 7 
Lvs. in tufts of 4 or 5 cune- 
ate-oblong pomtod 1 f 
long: peduncles 2-6 m 1 n^ 
l-tld.;Bepab and petals ne Iv 
equal, the latter 
clawed fleshy r unded, on 
cave, pale atraw-color label 
lum ovate jellow with a 
thick semi c rcular ere 
Chiriqui B M 5598 ( i 
HunOeya cenna) FS 
1815 (aa Zygopetalum 
nam). — Flowers at var 
seasons the fls last ng a 1 k 

p. cBcUiAHi. RoJr«. Lvi. ob- 
laD<w>late-obloiu. Kcute, fi-9 in. 
long: oepala uid petals Dearly equal, lower balves ivor^-whltfl. 
upper reddiah maroQa; lip 3-lobed, whiter column majooo. Aiuloa. 

PETAL0ST£HUM (Greek for petal and stamen, 
alluding to the way in which these or^na are 
joined). Sometimes spelled PeUdosthnon. By some 
authors, the species have been referred to KuhrAitera. 
LtgumindnE. American herbs, mostly western, with 
long or deep perennial roots, sometimes planted for 

Leaves glandular alternate; blades unequally pin- 
natcly compound ; Ifts. often broadest above the middle 
and mvolute: fls. perfect, in short or elongated spikes; 
calyx-teeth nearly equal, rather broad, shorter than 
the tube; corolla white, pink, purple, or violet; petals 
on long slender claws; standard oblong or oboordate; 
wings and keei-petal similar, their claws adnate to the 
sheath of the stamen-tube almost to its summit; sta- 
mens 5, monadclphous, alternate with the petals; 
ovary sessile, 2-ovulcd; style subulate: pod included in 
the calyx, moatlv dehiscent, 1-2-Beeded. Distinguished 
from its close relative Dalea by having only 5 stamens 
instead of 9-10 as in that genua. — About 27 species. 
These low bushy plants with fine-cut lvs. and bearing a 
constant succession of showy spikes of fls. are very 
attractive, and well adapted for borders and n>ck- 

A.. FU. whiU. 

cindidum, Michx. (Ddiea edruUda, Willd.). Wbitb 
Prahue Clover. Plants glabrous: sts. erect or rarelv 
prostrate, simple or sparingly branched, 1-2 ft. tall: 



IfU. 5^, the blades 1 

oblong or oblanceolate, 
!^1M in. long, acute, or mucronulate, glandular 
Deneatn, more or less cuneate at base, veiv short- 
stalked: peduncles terminal, elongated, bractea; spikes 
cylindric, 1-4 in. long, about J^in. thick; bracts 
aculeate, longer than the calyx; corolla white, 2-3 lines 
long; win^ and keel oval; stAndard oordat«; cahrz- 
teetn and pod slightly pubescent. Tenn. to Minn., La., 
aod Texas. B.B. 2 (ed; 2) :369. 

AA. Fh. TOfy purple or molel. 
B. Pvbeaaerux of the calyx of short dogo-atl appresied 

Z8TT. Pentoila urina. 

decumbent, 1-2 ft. taU, 
mostly simple: Ifts. 5-7, 
linear or linear-oblong, %- 
Hia. long, acute or mucro- 
nuLite, glandular, often 

, , ., J or ohInnK, 5i-?^in. long; 

bracts ovate-lanceolate, with subulate tips; calyx 

Btrigillose, rfiorter than the bracia, tube camp&nu- 

late, lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, shorter than 

tube, acute; corolla pink or rose-purple; standard with 

1 oblong-ovate o 
bladea. N. E. Te: 

rdate blade, o^er pet^ with oblong 

BB. Pvbeteenee of the calyx villmts or sQky-viSou*. 
C. EraeU glabrous or merely piiberulmt Upt. 

purpftreum, Rydb. (Ddiea purpurea, Vent. P. irwlA- 
ceum, MichJO. Violet Prairie Clover. Glabrous or 
slightly pubescent, erect, l>i-3 ft. high, branching 
above: Iva. shortvpetioled; IfU. 3-6, narrowly linear, 
Ji-Siin. long, H-l line wide, acute or mucronate at 
the apex, narrowed at the base, shortrstalked: apikes 
peduncled, oblong to cylindric, )4-2 in. long, about 
yim. thick; bracta above mucronate, nearW glabrous, 
nearly equaling the pubescent calyx; corolla violet to 
purple, about 2 lines long; standard cordate, wins 
and keel oblong. Ind. to Sask. and Texas. B.M. 1707. 
B.B. 2 (ed. 2) :370. 

CC. Bracta with jitty-pwdMcen/ tips. 

tenuif&liiun. Gray. Silit Praimb Clover. Erect, 
eomewhat pubescent, branching, 1-2 ft. high: lvs, 
short-petioled; Ifts. 3-5, linear, obtuse, dandulai- 
dotted, margin somewhat involute, j4-)^in. long, 
nearly sessile; spikes cylindric, H-l)-S in. long, about 
J^n. thick; racliis pubescent; fls. roee-purple, about 
!^in. long; bracts ovate-pointed, pubescent, equaling 
the calyx; standard somewhat orbicular to cordate. 
Kans. to New Mex. B,B. 2 (ed.2):370. 

P. L. RiCKER. 


raXA^TES (Greek, a hmadrhrimmed hat; refemng 
to the large broad leavce). Comp6*itx. Harav pfren- 
nuJ herbs much like the common oolufoot (TuatHaQO 
Ftafara), having Itkrge leaves of the some general shape, 
but the nowetB range from purple to white, notyellow, 
and are borne in corymbs instead of singly. They are 
nther coone and weedy, but the big feltylvB., 
af tw the very early leweas K^tea, make a 
for rou^ or unoccupied places. 

The genua is widely distributed in north temperate 
and subarctic reeons. The number of species is about 
20j the esaentiu character of the genus (as distin- 
guished from Tusulago) is that the h^s are nearly or 
quite dioecious, and raylessor with verv short and mostly 
not snowy rays: also the fact that toe scapes usually 
have many heads instead of one. The Ivs. are orbicu- 
lar or remform, always with a deep heart>«haped base 
and the scapes are covered with saUes like a coltflfoot, 
but aometimee the lower otiea are more leafy. 

ji^finlcua, F. Schmidt. Lvs. laree, Syi-i ft. across, 
radical: peduncle with 2 or 3 linear bracts: fl.-heads in a 
fastigiatc thyioe. IhI. of Sachalin. B.M. 8032. Var. 
Klgantitis, Hort. Lvs. orbicular, margin wavy: fi.- 
bMds densely clustered. Gn.M. 10:lS0.'The stalks 
are eaten as a vegetable after being boiled, and are also 
preserved in salt or sugar. The fl.-buds, which appear 
in Feb., are used as a condiment, as they have a sligntly 
bitter but agreeable flavor. The plant aas been aaver~ 
tised in Amer. since 1900 bv several dealers. Grows as 
high as a man, and is useful for bold effects in the sub- 
tropical garden. 

Mtgnuis, Preal. Wintxb Hkuotbofi:. SwektColto- 
rooT. Height S in.; Ivs, appearing during or after 
anthesis, orbicular, margined with small cartilaginous 
teeth, glabrous above, pubescent and green below: 
heads fragrant, the margmal fls. of the female heads 
in the form of short rays; fls. small, varying from pale 
lilac to purple. Medit. r^oa. Ga.23, p. 113; 53, p. 
328; 62, p. 5S. — Has the merit of blooming in winter 
and its as. have a delightful vanilla-tike odor. A few 

Eys are desirable for cutting during winter. The 
t also differs from the common coltsfoot in having 
er colored and evergreen foliage. It is suitable for 
carpeting shrubberies and for dry banks of stiff clay 
where choicer subjects will not thrive. Like most 
others of the genus, it spreads rapidly by underground 

palmltnSiGray [^JVanf(Ssmiapaim<Uii,Hook.). Height 
6-24 in.: lvs. orbicular or somewhat kidney-shaped, 
deeply 7-11-cleft beyond the middle, and the lobes 
shtuply dentate, green and glabrous above, densely 
white- tomen lose beneath: heads fra^ant, 4-6 lines 
across, the marginal fls. of the female heads in the form 
of short rays, whitish. E. Asia, N. Amer. B.B. 3:469. 
— Blooms from April to June, its fls. varying from nearly 
white to pale blue or purplish. It is found in rich dark 
swamps or sphagnum bogs from Newfoundland to 
Alaska and south to N. Y., Wis., and Calif. It baa 
been offered by dealers in native plants. 

offldnUis, Moench (P. itulgdrit, Desf.). Height 16 
in.: lvs. 3 in. to 3 ft. diamy reniform or orbicular^ cor- 
date, while-haiiT below; fls. purplish, appearing before 
the lvs. in March-May, borne in cylindnc panicfes. Eu., 


L. H. B.t 
PETnrfeRU (named after James Petiver, 1665- 
1718, an apothecary and botanist of London). Phy- 
tolaccAcex. Shrubby herbs; lvs. alternate: fls. small, m 
axillary and terminal racemes, solitary or in 2's; 
perianth herbaceous, conical at base, 4-parted, s^ms. 
Bubequal, lanceolate, spreading; stamens inserted at 
the base of the perianth on a hypogynoua disk, either 4 
alternate with uie segms. of the perianth or 6-8 placed 
without order; ovary Z^^lled. — About 2 species, 8. 

IS has been recently mono- 
Knglpr'a Pflansenreich, h" 
P. oUiAcea, Linn. (P. oeidndra, Linn. 
aUiieea var. oelAndra, Moq.). Giunea-uen Weed. 
Half -shrubby, perennial: sta. 2-3 ft. high: Ivs. alternate, 
ovate, entire, membranaceous, attenuate at boUi ends, 
pellucid-dotted: ind. erect in a lax raceme; fls. rose or 
white. Mex. to Braiil. An ornamental stove plant 
probably not now in cult. 

FBTRAA (Itobert James, Lotd Petr^ 1710-1742, a 
patron of botany who had the finest collection of exotic 
planta in Europe). Sometimea spelled Pelrxa. Yerbe- 
. Tropical American woody plants, one of which 

long terminal racemee; calyx with 5 scales in the throat; 
calyx-lobes colored during anthesis but often becom- 
ing green and rigid in fr.; corolla usually a little more 
intensely colored; limb S-cut, oblique, the tube short 
and cylmdrical; stamens 4, didynamous: ovary imper- 
fectly 2-loculed; locules 1-ovuled: fr. included m calyx, 
indehisoent, 2-oelled and 2-seeded or 1-aeeded by 
abortion. — Species about a dozen, Mex., W. Indies to 

Petrea is well adapted to be grown with other stove 
climbers. The plants do well when trained to a balloon- 
shaped or flat wire frame, to pillars, or carried near the 
root, where they^ add greatly to the beauty of the 
house. When it is intended to plant them out in the 
border, the first point to be considered is the drainage in 
the pot. This is best effected by placing a layer of brick 
rubbish of about 4 to 5 inches. This will keep the com- 
post from becoming sour or stagnant in the pot. For 
a compost, use turiy loam four parte, turfy peat one 
part, well-decayed cow-manure one part, with admix- 

I of a liberal Quantity of sharp gntty sand. By 
of January the temperature may be increasec 


about 62° for night with 10° to 15° higher by day. Just 
as soon as they show renewed vigor thev will not stand 
to become dry at the roots. They wifl want a good 
syringing over and under the fo!ia(ce every morning on 
bright days. Give enough ventilation to keep the air 
pure and sweet. In midsummer they need some shade 
if only during the most powerful sunshine. When they 
are well est^lished, thev will be benefited by liquid 
manure once a week. F'or midsummer the tempera- 
ture may be allowed to run up 80° or 85° with sun, and 
a night temperature of 70°. The^ are easily propagated 
from shoot^ttings placed in a brisk bottom heat and 




subjected to the usual condition of moisture and shade 
required for other plants. When they are wanted to 
iprow in pote. keep shifting until they are in 8- or 10- 
inch pots. The compost may be renewed in the spring. 
(J. J. M. FarreU.) 

volftbilis, Jacq. Pubplb Wbbath. Fig. 2878. 
Twining: Ivs. ^-4 in. long, short-stalked, ovate, elliptic 
or oblong, acuminate or obtuse, entire or wavy: fls. 
blue, in terminal elongated racemes (7-8 in. long); 
calyx with a tube one-fomiii to one-half as long as me 
I)edicel, and in fr. one-third to one-fourth as long as the 
narrow lobos; corolla included in the calyx. Cuba to 
Brazil; a si: .vy plant. B.M. 628. G.C. III. 39:24, 25; 
45:252; 51.287. J.H. III. 54:390. G. 29:192. H.F. 
8:50. F.E. 23:582. F.C. 3:108. On. 12:40.— The i)up- 
pie wreath is one of the most distinct and beautiful 
of tender climbers. The fls. are like a 5-pointed star 
of lilac with a violet in the middle. The fls. be^ to 
open at the base of the raceme and the showy 5-pointed 
star is the calyx, whose sepals are colored like petals. 
The calyx spreads open while the corolla is still a round 
bud in the middle, and it remains after ^e corolla has 
fallen, so that the vine, at first glance, seems to bear 
two kinds of fls. The blooms appear in March and 
April. It does not bloom freely m small plants; it 
probably has other drawbacks, for it has always been 
a rare plant in Eu., though enthusiastically com^ 
mended. Offered in S. Calif. The fls. seem to vary 
considerably in color. Wilhelm Milleb. 

L. H. B.t 

PETROCALLIS (Greek, rock beaiUv). Crudferx, 
This genus has been commonly included in Draba but 
differs from it in technical botanical characters as fol- 
lows: ^que oval with swollen reticulate vidves having 
1-2 seeds in a cell with the f uniculum adnate to the 
septum. One species in the Pyrenees, P. pyrenUca, 
R. Br. Height 2-3 in.: Ivs. wedge-shaped, 3-lobed at 
apex: fib. wmte at first, changing to rosy pink. May. 
Mountains, S. Eu. B.M. 713. — Also found under 
Draba pyrenaicaj page 1068; grown as a little rock-plant 
in choice collections. 

PETROCdPTIS (Greek, equivalent to the Latin 
Saxifraga, — to break or deft the rock: rooting in the 
clefts of rocks). CaryophpUdcese, Two or 3 perennials 
from the Pyrenees, sometimes used in alpine- and rock- 
gardening. Allied to Lychnis and sometimes united 
with it^ differing in imbricated rather than convolute 
estivation and in bearded or woolly seeds. Perennials 
of small size with imcut petals and a corollarcrown, 
the Ivs. mostly tufted or in a rosette: st.-lvs. opposite. 
P. pyren&ica, A. Br. (Lychnis pyrenMca, Berger). 
Three to 4 in. high from a fusiform root: Ivs. daucouch 
fcreen, spatulate. those on the st. cordate and sessile: 
fls. pale flesh-color or rose-color^ about Hin. across, in 
forked clusters, the slender pedicels 1-fld.; petids shal- 
lowlv notched at top, bearing 2 erect serrate sades. 
BM, 3269. Var. ilba, Hort., is listed as a beautiful and 
easily grown alpine, late blooming. P. Lagiscs. ^^llk. 
{Li^chnia Lagdscx, Hook. f.). Low and tuned, glabrous 
and glaucous, 2-4 in. high: st. densely distichous, leafy 
below: lowest Ivs. linear and obtuse, middle ones ovate^* 
lanceolate, subacute: fls. pale rose with white center, 
about ^in. across, with 2 white acute scales at base, 
slightly notched at apox. B.M. 5746. — ^A charming 
plant. L. H. B. 

PBTR6PHTBS: Monanthea. P. muniia, Wthb^MonantKM 
muralis. Hook, f., which equals AT. atlantioa. 

PETR6pHYTUM (petros, rock, and phyUm, plant; 
alluding to its habitat). Rosdcess. A genus of 5 oes- 
pitose undershrubs with prostrate branches in W. N. 
Amer., allied to Spiraea, but differing in its follicles beins 
dehiscent on both sutures and in its nabit: Ivs. erowdeo. 

spatulate or joblanceolate, entire: fls. in terminal 
racemes; sepals and petals 5; stamens 20; pistils 3-5, 
hairy, style slender, glabrous except at the base: follicles 
leathery, with few linear seeds. Only the following 
species nas been intro. into cult, and is offered by sevem 
European nurseries. It is perfectly hardy and grows 
best m a rockeiy in a sunny and well-dramed position 
between rocks; it demands limestone soil. Prop, is by 
division or by seeds treated like those of spiiea, but the 
young seedlings are particularly impatient of too much 
moisture. P. csspitdsa, Hydb. (Spirka casspUdaa, 
Nutt. Eriogjjma csespUdaa, Wats. Luktkea cxspUdaa, 
Kuntze). Densely cespitose, forming flat patches: Ivs. 
oblanoeolate^ obtuse or mucronate, 1-ribbed, densely 
silky, V^-Km. long: fls. small, white, in dense spikes 
H-^H in* long on upright stalks 1-4 in. long; petals 
spatulate, obtuse; stamens exserted. July, Aug. S. D. 
and Mont, to Calif, and New Mex. M.D.G. 1907:85. 

Alfred Rehdeb. 

PETROSELINUM (Greek, rock-parsley). Umbel' 
liferas. About a half-dozen European chiefly biennial 
herbs, one of which is cult, for its ornamental and edible 
herbage. Closely allied to Carum and Apium, with the 
former of which it is often united and from which it is 
chieflv distinguished by the sreenish yellow fls. and 
broader incised If.-segms. Lvs. tematehr pinnate- 
compound, the segms. toothed and cut: fls. m com- 
pound umbels wim few parts to the involucre and 
several or many parts to the involucels, the petals with 
incurved points: fr. ovate and compressed, glabrous. 
P. hort^nse, Hoffm. (P. sativum, Hoffm. Cdrum PetrosC' ' 
hnunif Benth. & Hook. f.). Parsley (which see). 
Erect, 1-3 ft.: Ivs. temate-pinnate, the Ifts. ovate and 
3-cleft (much cut in the ' 'curled" g^uxien varieties), the 
upper ones narrower and nearly entire: fls. yellowish. 
Old World. — Much cult., and sometimes runs wild 
about plantations. l. H. B. 

PETT&RIA (after Franz Petter, a Dahnatian botar 
nist; died 1853). Legumindsx. One species, a shrub, 
very similar in habit to Laburnum, but with the yellow 
fls. in upright dense racemes, terminal on leafy brandi- 
lets. It is but rarely cult., since it is less showy in 
bloom than Laburnum or many species of Cytisus. It 
is hardy as far north as Mass., and requires the same 
cult, as Laburnum, which see. If grafted, laburnum 
is to be used as a stock. This monotypic genus 
differs from Laburnum in its upright racemes, in the 
tubular calyx, the wings and keel being at the base 
adnate to the stamens, and in the sessile ovary. It is 
said to possess the same poisonous properties as that 

ramentftcea, Presl {Cytisus Jrhjgrans, Welden, not 
Lam. C. TF^2(2enu, Vis. C. raman<^oni«, Sieb. La&i2mttm 
romeinilluoeurn, Koch. L. W^ldeniif Lavall6e). Upright, 
to 6 ft.: Ivs. 3-foliolate, almost glabrous or sparingly 
pubescent when young, on about l-in.-long stalks; Ifts. 
cuneate, obovate to oblong, usually obtuse, ^-2 in. 
long: fls. fragrant, very short-pedicelled. in l-3-in.-long 
dense racemes; calyx 3-lobed, sillnr; keel silky: pod lin- 
ear-oblong, sparin^y sil^i to l}^in. long. May, June. 
Dahnatia, Istria. B.R.29:40. Alfred Rbhder. 

PETtnflA (Petun, South American aboriginal name, 
said to have been applied to tobacco). SolanAcex, 
Petunia. Small herbs, grown for their showy bloom as 
garden annuals. 

Annual or perennial, branching, viscid-pubescent, of 
weak or straggling srowth: lvs. aJtemate, or opposite 
above, soft, entire: fls. white or purple, or in shades of 
reddisn, on solitary, terminal or axillary peduncles; 
calyx deeply 5-parted. the lobes narrow or often foli- 
aceous; corolla funneliorm or salverform, the tube long 
and nearly or auite straight and sitting loosely in the 
calyx, the limb broad andnonnally 5-loDed, unequal or 



oblique and in Bome apeciea obscurely 2-lipped; etamenB 
5, attached in the tube, one of them Bometimee Sterile; 
ovary small, 2-celIed, the style slender, the stigma 
dilated and aometimee obscurely 2-lobed. — There are 
12 or more species of Petunia, mostly natives of the 
southern part of S. Amer. One or two grow in Mex. and 

another (P. pannflora) is naturalized In the southern 
parts of the U. S.. and ia found frequently on ballaHt 
about aeaports. The genus ia closely allied to Salpiglos- 
Bis, being distinguished by 5 perfect Btamens, vnereas 
that genus has 4 stamens and Ivs. narrow or usually 
dentate or pinnatifid. 

Garden petunias are small soft plants of stragglins or 
decumbent habit, pubescent and usually more or Teas 
sticky, with large showy flowets. The colors are white 
to light purple, not blue, clear red, nor yellow. They 
are properly ^lennial, but are treated as annuals in 
cultivation. The common kinds are rather weedy in 
habit, but their great profusion of bloom under all con- 
ditions makes item useful and popular. They are 
particularly useful for mossiuK against shrubbery, for 
they make a florid undergrowth with almost no care. 
Some of the modern improved named varieties are very 
choice plants. Petunias emit a powerful fragrance at 
ni^tfall, and sphinx-moths visit them. 

The varieties of present-day gardens are considered 
to be hybrids and modifications of two-stem types. 
The types were white-flowered in one case and rose- 
violet in the other, and the flowers were small. In 
some of the garden strains, the Sower is very broad and 
open, measuring 4 or S inches across. There are types 
with the flowers deeply fringed; others with star-like 
markings radiating from the throat and extending 
nearly or quite to the margin of the limb; others with 
full double floweis. 

Petunias should begin to bloom about two or two and 
one-half months after sowing in the open and continue 
profusely till killed by hard frost (the first light frosts 
usually do not injure them). The planta are at first 
erect, but soon begin to sprawl. The highest blooms of 
mature but sprawled plants will stand 18 to 24 inches 
above the ground. There are very dwarf and compact 
kinds, but they are not much seen in this country. 

Varieties or strains naturally fall into the small- 
flowered and large-flowered classes. The former are 
singles and are mostly used for bedding or massing. 
Some of the small lilac-limbed kinds are apparently very 
closely related to the stem-species, P. violacfa, possibly 
direct derivatives of it. Countess of Ellcsmere, Ro^ 
Mom, and similar ones are among the best rosy or piiJc 
kinds for edgings and hanging-baskets and window- 
boxes. Large-flowered petunias are double or single. 


fringed, ruffled, fluted, and otherwise modified, some of 
them having deep velvety colors of great richness and 
floweiB of much substance. There are marbled, spotted, 
and penciled flowers among them. 

Double forms are produced by crossii^ the most 
double flowers that are capable of producing good pollen 
on the beat single strains. Only a part of the seed- 
lings produce doubles, but all the others are likely to 
produce superior semi-double and single forms. Sin^e 
Dowers carefully pollinated from double flowers will 
jmxluce seed which will avera^^ 25 per cent doubles, and 
single floweni bearing petaloid anthers similarh' polli- 
nated will give an average as high as 40 per cent doubles. 
The weaker seedlings are most Ukely to give full double 

Petunias thrive on both ordinary and rich soil, bloom- 
ing well on land too rich for other plants, and some of the 
bedding and small kinds doing well even on poor soil 
with plenty of moisture. They are Him-lovingplants, 
although uiey bloom well in partial shade. The cul- 
ture is simple and easy. Seeds may be sown directly in 
the open, or the plants maybe started in flats or pots 
indoors lor early resulte. The plants are tender and 
therefore should not be trusted in the open until set- 
tled weather comes. The high-bred types require more 
care in the growing. They would best be started indoors, 
and be given the choicest positions in the open garden. 
Extra care should be given t« the Kcnnination, for every 
seed that is lost may mean the Toes of a form unlike 
any other; for these hif^-class petunias are not fixed 
into definite seed-varieties to any extent. Usually the 
weakest plants in the lot of seedlings will produce the 
choicest resulte among the high-bred single and double 
strains, the strongest seedlings tending to make weedy 

Elauts. Transplanting is recommended for the fib- 
red fringed and double strains, as well as for early 
bloom. The seeds are small and should be covered 
lightly in well-pulveriied soil. On ordinary soil, 
petunias may be thinned or transplanted to 10 or 12 

PatDnk hrbrlda. (XH) 


inches apart each way; but on fertile soil, and particu- 
larly with the larger-growing forma, the distance may 
beasmuchaalS tA ISuchea. Young petunia plants are 
very susceptible to frost. It is well to pull out some of 
the leaat desirable plants as they ^w and be^ to 
crowd. The stronger common strains of petuma are 
likely to self-sow or volunteer (come up themselves in 
the spring from seed). Fancy kinds are sometintes 
propagated by cuttings or slips from plants cairied over 
winter, after the manner of geraniums. The best double 
strains particularl]^ are often perpetuated by cuttinxB. 
There are no special insects or diseases attacking the 

Winter bloom is easy to secure from petunias under 
glass. Beat, or at least quickest, results are secured 
from cuttings; these may be taken from eood shoots in 
late Septemoer or early October from selected outdoor 

Slants, and bloom should be secured by February !■ 
F plants ore grown from seeds, the sowing should take 
place in late summer, for seedling^ grow alowly in the 
short days of fall and winter; the seedlings should be 
handled in pots. Sometimes old plants that are not 
spent arc lined in the fall and cut back, and the new 
gjtiwth will give good winter bloom. Petunias under 
glass require cool treatment, a night temperature of 45' 
to 50° suiting them well. A somewhat warmer treat- 
ment than that given carnations may be expected to 
produce satisfactory results. 

OxnUris, BSP. (P. tiydaginifliira, Juss. NuMttdrui 
axiUAris, Lam.). Fig. 2879. Labgb Wern; Petunia. 
Tall and relativelv stout, usually growing erect: Iva. 
large and rather thick, oval-oblong, upper ones nearly 
or quite sessile and the lower ones narrowed into a dis- 
tinct petiole; fls. dull white, long-tubed (the tube 3 or 
4 times i.he length of the calyx), fragrant at evening. 
Argentina. B.M. 2552. — Frequently seen in old gar- 
dens, and also escaped. 

vioUlcea, lindl. Violet-flowered Petuma. Sta. 
slender: Ivs. oval or ovate, sessile or ver^ diori>4talked: 
fls. smaller, broad-tubed (the tube twice or less the 
length of the 
linear calyx- 
lobes), rose-red 
or violet, the 
limb relatively 
short. Argen- 
tina. B.R.1626. 
s^u, B.M. 3113 (a« 



legrifolui). -This 
species, or its 
garden deriva- 
tives, sometimes 
runs wild from 

Common petu- 
nia, probably a 
XriiiSv tive of the two 
^■"nl^ preceding. For 

Bailey, "Survi- 
val of the Un- 
like." P.M. 2: 

mnijWo ■ ' 
cea). B.M. 35.56.— This tyjie is remarkijjiy variaoJe, oui 
it differs markedly from either parent: from P. axiltaru 
in its brooder tube and many colors; from P. violaeta in 
its longer tube, wider limb, and many colors; from both 
in its much larger and multiform fls. and more stocky 
growth. In some of the strains, the fl. is very broad 
and open, measuring 4 or 5 in. across. There are types 

with the fls. deeply fringed; others with stai^like mark- 
ing radiating from the throat and extending nearly or 
qmte to the margin of the limb; others with full double 
fls. The colors range from white to deep red-purple, 
and variously striped and barred. There are forms of 
very dwarf and compact habit. L H B. 

PEUC^DAiniM (ancient Greek 
name), i'mbtUifiTX. Therearemany 
views ita to the limits of the genua 
Peuce-janum^ which is equivalent to 
saying iliiit it him no natural limits. 
Benth;i;,i A Houkor mudc il ,i tumhi 
compliN ];riiiiii, iMiiipiihiiii' :ibiiul inn- ' ' 
hundred Old World and New World 
mecies, and including auch genera as Petroaelinum, 
Anethum, Imperatoria, Polycyrtus, Tommasinia, Pasti- 
naca, Tiedmannia, Lomatium. Coulter & Rose, Ameri- 
can monographers ("Monograph of the North Ameri- 
can UmbeUifera;," United States Department of Agri- 
culture, 1900], remove the American species and 
accept Rafinesque's genus Lomatium, where these 
species may be found (page 1903, Vol. IV). The par- 
snip has been included in this genua as P. sativum, 
Benth. & Hook,, but is here kept distinct imder Pas- 
tinaca. Various species of Peuceaanum may be trans- 
ferred to grounds in Europe, or the countries where 
the:^ grow, but they are not known as horticultural 

PEtJMUS (Chilean name), Syn., Boldba, Boldia, 
R^Aeia. MonimiAce^. The Chilean boldo, a small tree 
of considerable economic interest. 

Evergreen tree or large shrub of 1 species, P. BAldus, 
Molina {, Pers. Ruiria fr&grane, RuiE & Pav. 
Boldia fTigrang, Gay); dicecious: male fls. with 10-12 
perianth-lobes, overlappmg in 2-3 series, the outer 
ones herbaceous or membranous, the inner ones mora 

Stal-Iike; stamens numerous; female fls, smaller, the 
>e8 more unequal, after anthesis circumscissile aliove 
the disk-bearing base and deciduous: drupes 2-5 or 
rarely solitary, stipitate on the receptacle; seeds pendu- 
lous: the tree attams a height of 20 ft., with Ivs. oppo- 
sit*, leathery, very rough and warty, ovate or ovate- 
elliptic, short-petioled, obtuse. Chile. B.R. 31:57.— 

0- charcoal said to be prized by smiths above all others. 
The bark is used in tanning and dyeing. The Ivs. are 
used in medicine. The frs. are edible; they are small 
berries, sweet and aromatic. F'inally it has some orna- 
mental vaJue^ being evergreen and fragrant throughout. 
The fls., which are not very showy, are white. }.^in. 
across, aJid borne in small panicles, each branch of which 
is parted into three. It has been advertised in S. Calif. 

llie male tree has been cult, under glaai in Ehi., but 
Boaroely outaide of botanic gardens and for ita economic 
intereat. L. h. B. 

PPAFFU (C. H. PfaS, 1774-1S52, German chemist). 
AmaranUietx. Slsider perennial herbs from Trop. and 
eitra-Trop. 8. Amer., tomentoee or villoua, rarely gla- 
brate: Itb. oppoaite, sessile or nearly ao, entire: heads or 
apikea densely fid.; bracts and bractlets transparent: 
fls. usually in solitary long-pedimcled heads, bracteate 
and with 2 bractlete; t>erianth 5-paKed; staminal tube 
long, 5-cut to the middle, the anther-bearing teeth 
ciliate at the margin ; stigma discoid or head-like, entire 
or 2-lobed. — Speciea about 20, one of which is known 
more or leas m gardens, althou^ it is not certain 
whether the plants that have been in the trade are 
properly namw. 

gnaphaloIdeB, Mart. {Oamphrhna onaphaloida, VaU) . 
Perennial, 1 ft.: sta. subshnibby below: Iva. lanceolate, 
10-15 linea long, 2-4 linea widcj soft, ashy gray above, 
woolly beneath: peduncles 5-7 in. long; heads globose, 
tf-9 lines acroee; bracts unequal, ovate, mucronate, sea' 
liou^ the lower one villous, lateral ones longer, glabrous 
at the base; stigma globose. Brazil, IJroguay. — 
Recorded as a stove plant in England, but the plant that 
has been offered in tnis country was recommended as aa 
outdoor perennial. Wilhelm Miuxk. 

PPBIfFERA (named for Ludwig Pfeiffer a dis- 
tinguished student of cactus). CactAeex. £piph^o 
planta, at first erect but branches usually nanyng, 
mostly 4-angled: areolea bearing small acicular spines: 
fis. r^ular, rose-colored, small: ovary and fr. spiny; 
seeds black. This genus was included in BhipHalis m 
Cyclo. Amer. Hort. 

lanthothaifl, Web. {RMptalu imMothiU, Web. 
R. eereifinnit, Foetst. P. cereifdrmU, Sahn-Dyck). 
StB. pendent, 1-2 ft. long, branching, less than 1 in. 
diam., 4- rarely 3-angled: ribs tuberoulate: areoles at 
summit of tubercles abort-woolly, soon naked, bearing 
0-7 short bristles: fls. with very short tube, but the fl. 
W..II ..L...»^ .u.-^i.. -«j .^4i.«.4 .«._^ white within, 

^OACfiLIA (Greek, diuter; on account of the 
crowded flower-clusters of the first described species). 
HydrophyliAceM. Annual and sometimes perennial 
hwbs, grown for the blue, pur[)le, or white fiowers. 

Low or not tall plants, with alternate simple or 
compound Ivs. and infl, in more or less scorpioid cymes 
or spikes: corolla deciduous as the cape, enlarges, in 
various shades of blue, purple, or white; tube with or 
without interval appenaages. these when present in 
the form of 5 or 10 vertical folds or projections, adnata 
to or free from the bases of the filaments; calyx-lobes 
commonly narrow, often enlarged upward, especially 
in fr. ; style more or leas 2-lobed: aeed-coats reticulated 
or pitted. — Species 114, as defined by Brand in hft. 69 

ITV '>Ki\ nf fr.alor',. ''Hub T>I1 oti ut, f s m ! 1 1on > > /Ia'l<l^ 

. 251) of Engler's ''Das PflanienfamUien" (1913), 
American, mostly from W. N. Amer. The planta are. 
haiiy, nearly smooth, or glandular in whole or in part. 
The herbage of some of the glandutar-hairy species haa 
an offensive odor. 

The genus includes the old genera Whitlavia, Ehitoca, 
Microgenet«s, Cosmanthus, and others. The fiowers are 
mainlj' of a handsome blue or violet, many species and 
varieties running through lighter shades to pure white, 
but not to yellow. The annuals are of easy cultivation, 
requiring, to bring them to perfection, a soU warm, 
sunny, and not too moist. Some species like a sandy 
soil, others a firmer clay. Some are erect and give the 
best effects when planted thickly; others are more 
spreading and ther^ore require considerable space. In 

The flowen are borne on more or lees recurved n 
that strai^ten as the flowering prooeeds. They vary 
from 1 indi long in smne species to less than H mch in 
others. In addition to thoae deacribed below them are 
many other beautiful species of phacelia that should 
be in the trade. lliB species beat known in cultivation 
is P. Whillavia, a garden annual known as whitlavia. 

•wltiytM. T. 

1. OrcattULna, Gray. Viscid, puberulent, about 1 ft. 

i.:_i.. 1™. _: ijBj 1._. Jyrate, the lobes short- 

the at length elongated 
dense spikes; corolla 
rotat« - campanulate, 
double the length of 
the calyx, with limb 
3-4 lines broad, 
white, with yellow 
eye, nearly or quite 
destitute of internal 
appendages: c a p a . 
oral, nearly equanng 
the narrowly spatu- 
lat« (bately 2 lines 
long) sepsis, 12-14- 
aeeded; seeds oval, 
obscurely favose-re- 
ticulated between the 
transverse corruga- 
tions. Low. Calif. 

AA. Seed* jriUal, punc- 

tale or reticulated. 
B. Corolla mihottt tn- 
Umai appendages. 
(CoemdrUhita fimbri- 
6lut, Mey.). Weak 
and diffuse annual, a 
span high, somewhat 
hiraute : cauline Iva. 
3-7-cleft or -lobed or 
the lower lyrately divided, the lobes obtuse or roundish: 
racemes few-fld.; pedicels filiform; calyx-lobes linear- 
oblong or spatulate; corolla white, only 3-4 lines broad, 
shorter than the stamens, its lobes &nbriate. Alle- 
ghany Mts., Va, to Ala.; April, May. 

3. vfsdda, Torr. (Eidoea vUdda, Benth.). Fig. 2883. 
Annual, a foot or 2 high, branching, hiraute at base, 
very glandular above: Ivs. ovate or obscurely cordate, 
doubly or incisely and irregularly dentate, 1-3 in. long: 
corolla deep blue, with purple or whitish center, from 
half to nearly an inch in diam. S.Calif. B.M.3572. 
B.R.180S. R.H.1851:361. J.H. Ill, 29:183; 48:302. 
Var. albiflira, Gray. Fls. white. 

BB. Corolla beorinfl internal appendages. 

C. Appendages S, small and truncate or emarginate and 

attached to the base of each JilatneTU. 

4. WbitUkTla, Gray {WhitUt/ia grandifl/mt, Harv,). 
Whitlavia. CAUFoaNiA Bluebbll. Fig, 2884. An 
attractive and variable easily grown annual, about 
1-lMft. high, loosel]^ branching, hirsute and glandular: 
IvB. ovat« or deltoid, incisely toothed: corolla with cylin- 
draceous ventricose tube usually an indi long, thrice 


the length of the lobes; appendages to the filaments 
hairy. H.Calif. B.M.4813. F.S. 11:1085, G.C. 1854: 
679. — A beautiful species and much cult., with fla. sji 
inch lon|;an<l nearly afi wide; sometimes escaped in £u. 
Var. gloxmioIdeE, Vosa (WhiUdvia gloxinuAdes, Hort.), 
has handsome whit« fls. with blue center. Var. Alba, 
Hort. (WhiMiria dlba, Hort.}, is white-fld. 

5. Pdnyi, Ton-. Annual, rather slender, 9-18 in. 
high: Ivs. ovate, irregularly and incisel}[ double-toothed 
or laciniate, or the lowest sometimes pinnately parted; 
the upper caul inc longer than their petioles: corolla cleft 
beyond the middle, deep violet, 8 hues across; filaments 
bearded: ovialea on each placenta 20-30; seeds lfi-20, 
Calif. B.M.6842. G.C. II. 24:716. Gt. 34:1207. 

6. campanuliria. Gray. Annual, lower than the last: 
Ivs. subcordate or cordate, less deeply dentate: tube of 
the truly campaiiulat« corolla ^in. long, expanded at 
throat, barely twice the length of the lob^; appendages 
to the filaments glabrous and smaller, otherwise much 
like No, 4 and almost as showy. S. Cahf. B.M. 6735. 
G.C.11.20:135; 111.551173. F. 1883:145. Gn. 31, p. 

.554; 55:36. — P. campanuUUa, Hort., is presum^ly 
this plant. 

cc. Appendaget in corolia 10. 
D. OimUa numerous, or more than 3, on each placenla. 

7. linearis, Holz. {HydrophyUuin (tnedre, Pursh. 
Elitoca Minziesii, R, Br. P. Mimieaii, Ion. Eitloca 
miihifiiira, Douglas). Annual and perhaps peremiial, 
9-12 in. high, at length paniculate-branched, hispid or 
roughiah hirsute, usually also minutely cinereous- 
pubescent: Ivs. mostly sesaile, linear or lanceolate, 
entire or a few of them deeply cleft, with few or single 
linear or lanccolato entire lobes: spikes or spike-luce 
racemes thyrsoid-paniculate, at length elongated and 
erect; corolla bright violet or sometimes white; ovules 
12-16: caps, shorter than the calyx; seeds oblong, 
coarsely favose-reticulated. Calif. U) Wash., and east 
to Mont, and Utah. B.R. 1180. B.M. 3762.— A beauti- 
ful species, and easily cult. 

8. divaricata, Gray (Eiiioea dwiriciUa,. Benth. B. 
nexieAna, Hort.). Diffusely spreading annual, a span 
high, more or less hirsute and pubescent: Ivs, ovate or 
oblong, mostly longer than the petiole, sometimes 1-2- 
toothed or lobed at base the rims curving upward: 
spikes or racemes at length loose; the pedicels usually 



much ehorter than the calyx; style 2-cleft at apes: 
ovules 12-20 on each placenta. Calif. B.M. 3706. 
B.R. 1784. Var. WMneeliin*, A. DC. Fig. 2885. 
Differs from the type in havins the Ivs. inclined to be 
lobed or 1-2-toothed. It is known to the trade as 
£uloca FTrarvt^inna, Fisch, &. Mey. P.M. 5:199. 

Mii. to 

■■ usuallv 



DD. Ovuie* only S on each ^aeenUi. 

E. Lv». <dl simple and entire (except perhaps the 


9. hftmilis, Torr. & Gray. Annual, unbranched or 
branched from the base, 2-6 in. high, pubescent or infl. 
often hirsute: Ivs. spatulate, oblong or oblanceolate, 
generally obtuse, the lower rar«ly with 1-2 ascending 
lobes: Hpikes loosely paniculate or solitarv: caralla, 
indigo-blue, rather deeply lobed, surpaa 
linear calyx-lobes; nlainents modcn 
glabrous or sparingly bearded above. 
— A pretty little plant, 

EE. Lv». obUmg or narrmoer, pinnaUly toothed to 

10. blpinnatlflda, Michx. Biennial, erect, branched, 
1-2 ft,, viscid above: Ivs, with slender petioles, to 5 in. 
long, pinnatifid, with 3-7 ovate or oblong dentate or 
pinnatifidBegms.:flB. violet or blue, i^in. or more broad, 
m loose racemes which are little scirpioid; calyx-lobes 
linear; corolla rotate-campanulate with conspicuous 
ciliate appendages in pairs between the stamens. N. C. 
to Mo. and south. 

11. glanduldsa, Nutt, (Eiitoea glandul6»a, Hook.). 
Viscid-pubescent and glandular annual, softly if at all 
hirsute, 9-12 in. or more high: Ivs. irregularly and inter- 
niptedlv 2-pinnatifid, or below divided; the numerous 
lobes oblong, small, somewhat incised, obtuse: calyx- 
lobes oblong or spatulate; corolla about 2 lines long, 
bluish, purplish or white, with lobes shorter than t^ 
tube; stamens and 2-cleft style moderately or conspicu- 
ously exaerted: aeedswith the minute reticulations even. 
Texas to ArU. and north to Mont, 




12. cong^staf Hook. (P. confhiay Don). Pubescent 
and commonly cinereous erect annual, hardly viscid or 
glandular in the least, a foot or more hi^^ : Ivs. pinnatelv 
9-7-divided or -parted, and with a few interposed small 
lobes, the main divisions oblong or oval, incisely pin- 
natifid or irregularly lobed, we lower ones mostly 
petiolate and the upper confluent: calyx-lobes linear or 
somewhat spatulate; corolla blue, 3 lines long, the lobes 
as long as the tube; stamens more or less exserted: 
seeds reticulate scabrous, the fine sharp meshes being, 
as it were, toothed at the junctions. Texas, New Mex. 
B.M.3452. V. 5:154; 12:140. 

13. tanacetifdlia, Benth. (P. trij/inndtOf Hort.). 
Erect annual, often cult., roughish hirsute or hi&pid, 
not glandular, or above slightly so, 1-3 ft. hi^: Ivs. 
pinnately 9-17-divided into linear or oblong-linear once 
or twice pinnately parted or cleft divisions, all sessile 
or nearly so, the lobes mostly linear-oblong: spikes 
cymosely clustered, at length elongated: very short 
fruiting pedicels ascending or erect: calyx-lob^ linear 
or linear-«patulate, not twice the length of the ellipsoidal 
caps.; stamens and style conspicuously exserted: seeds 
with very narrow pits boimded by tmck walls. Calif. 
B.M. 3703. B.R. 1696.— Said to be sometimes cult, as a 
bee-plant. According to Jepson, "Cows fed on it show 
a marked increase in vield of milk but will not eat it 
alone at first." Variable. Var. ilba, Hort., has been 
offered. L. F. Hendebson. 

L. H. B.t 

PR£DRANASSA (Greek, gay queen, suggested by 
the beauty of the flowers). AmaruUiddcese. Tender 
mostly summer-blooming bulbs, with flowers that are 
tubular in appearance, borne in umbels, generally 
drooping and usually bright red with green tips. 

Bulb tunicated: ds. on a pedimcle or scape 10 in. to 
2 or 3 ft. long; perianth subcylindrical; segms. 6, equal, 
regular, spreadmg onlv at the tip; stamens insert^ at 
or below the throat of the tube; ovary 3-celled; ovules 
many, superposed: caps, globose, loculicidally 3-valved; 
seeds many, small, black: Ivs. petioled, oblong or lan- 
ceolate, produced after the fib. according to Baker, 
but this point is doubtful for all species.— -Species 4 or 
6, in the Andes at 7,000-12,000 ft., except P. Carmiolii, 
a native of Costa Rica, which differs from all other 
species in having the perianth-se^ms. much shorter 
than the tube. Probably the choicest species is P. 
chloracraf the tube of which seems at first sight over 2 
in. long; however^ the scgms. are merely connivent and 
it is omy for a distance of j/iin. at the base that they 
are really grown together into a tube. This species has 
6-12 fls. in an umbel. P. ghriosay Hort., recommended 
by some dealers, seems to be unknown to botanists. The 
species are kept rather dry in winter, and bloomed in the 
open or perhaps under glass in spring, summer, or 
autumn ; prop, by offsets. They apparently thrive under 
the treatment afforded by a cool greenhouse. 

A. Tvbe of -perianth much shorter than the segms. 

B. Fls. chiefly red, 

chlor&cra, Herb. (P. ohtusa, Herb. Cr\num quitSnse. 
Spreng.). Bulb globose, 2-3 in. thick: Ivs. produced 
after the fls.; blade 8-12 in. long, 2-3 in. wide, oblong- 
lanceolate and acute, the petiole clasping: peduncle 2-3 
ft. long, nearly terete, glaucous; fls. scarlet, tipped 
green, 6-12 in the umbel, usuallv drooping, lj'^2 in. 
long. Andes of Ecuador, to 12,000 ft. B.M. 5361. B.R. 
31:17. — ^The name is sometimes erroneously written 
P. chloraceeL. 

BB. Fls. chiefly green. 

viridifldra, Baker. Bulb ovoid, 1}4 in- thick: If. 
solitary, bright green, lanceolate, nearly 1 ft. long; 
petiole short: peduncle 1 ft. long, terete; fis. about 4 m 
an umbel, green toward the tip, without any red, 
passing into whitish toward the base, drooping, the 

Perianth-limb IJi-lJ^ "^- loi^K- Andes of Ecuador. — 
ossibly a color variety of P. chloracra, 

AA. Tvbe of perianth much longer than segms, 

Cannidlii, Baker. Bulb globose, 2-3 in. diam.: Ivs. 
1-2, equaling i>edimcle, oblong-lanceolate, acute, bright 
green, the petiole much shorter than blade: peduncle 
about 2 ft. long, terete, pale glaucous-preen, bearing 
8-10 fls. in an umbel; fls. with perianth-limb 2 in. long, 
the bright red tube cylindrical and 3 times as long as 
the oblong-lanceolate green palenedged segms.; stamens 
exserted. Costa Rica. B.M. 8356, where it is said the 

develop wmie tne pi 

WiLHELM Miller. 
L. H. B.t 

PRSDRANTHUS (Greek for, splendent or gay, and 
flower, -alluding to the brilliantly colored flowers). Big- 
nonidixx. Ornamental vine grown for its very showy 
flowers and also for its handsome foliage. 

Evergreen climbing shrub: Ivs. opposite, with 1 pair 
of entire Ifts., the terminal 1ft. usually replaced by a 
3-parted or repeatedly 3-parted tendril: fls. in terminal 
racemes; calyx campanulate, 5-10-nerved, leathery, 
tamentoaef with 5 unequal short teeth; corolla tubular- 
funnelform, curved; stamens slightly exserted; disk 
annular, raised; ovary ovoid, tomentose, with many 
ovules in several rows. — One species in Mex. Formerly 
usually referred to Bignonia, from which it differs 
chiefly in the slender filiform tendrils, the leathery 
tomentose cal3rx, the exserted stamens and tomentose 
ovary. — ^A very handsome strong-growing vine for 
subtropical regions or in the N. for the cool greenhouse; 
one of^the most showy bignoniads on account of its 
large brilliantly colorea fis. For cult, and prop., see 

tmccinatdrius, Miers (Bigntmia Cherhre, Lindl. B, 
Kerbre, Hort., not Aubl. B. btuxinatdria. Mairet). Tall 
tendril-climber; branches obtusely angled: Ifts. 2, or 
sometimes 3, elliptic to ovate-oolong, cuspidate or 
obtuse, thinly conaceous, glabrous and lustrous above, 
tomentose bleneath while yoimg, later hairy only on 
the veins, glandular^ 2-3 m. long: fis. pendulous, in 
terminal racemes with erect stout and short rachis; 
calyx }/^. long; cprolla 4 in. long, blood-red, yellow at 
the base, lobes spreading, emarginate, about Hin. long. 
Summer. Mex. B.M. 7516. Gn. 26:520. B.R. 1301. 
R.H. 1898:580. Alfred Rehder. 

PHL£NdCOMA (shining hair, Greek, alluding to the 
involucre). Compdsitse. A South African little shrub, 
sometimes grown under glass for the showy flower- 

Of the Gnaphalium-Helipterum-Helichrj'sum rela- 
tion, one species: heads heterogamous, very many-fld., 
showy because of the brilliant and elongated inner scales 
of the involucre; florets all tubular and 5-toothcd, the 
marginal female and in a single row, the others male 
with abortive stigma; receptacle naked; pappus of 
many rough bristles in a single row, equaling the corolla, 
somewhat unlike as between the female and male fls. 
The stiff parts of the involucre make it useful as an 
everlasting, for which use it is a very showy subject. 

These are handsome and distinct evergreen plants. 
They need a cool airy and shaded house during the 
summer. Thev should have plenty of ventilation in 
the spring and well into the autumn; this will tend 
greatly to solidify the growth, this causinp the greater 
production of flowers. It is better to place the pots on 
screened coal-ashes, as this helps to keep the roots cool 
and moist. They are better if kept by themselves, as 
they should not be syringed. Watering is a matter of 
^eat importance at all seasons. They need some stak- 
ing and tying so as to keep them in shape. When the 
weather is cool enough, they should have a temperature 




of 45® to 50® at night, with about 10° rise with sunshine. 
In midwinter the temperatiure may drop to 40° at 
night. Any repotting may be done after they are 
through flowering. Compost used for potting these 
plants should be loam and fibrous peat in eauaL parts, 
left lumpy, and about one-third of silver sana added to 
the mixtiure. Give the pots thorough drainage.— They 
may be increased from cuttings made of the points (h 
some of the moderately strong growths, leavmg them 
about 3 inches long, rlace in pans filled with sand. 
Give them a temperature of about 55°, keeping them 
moderately close, shaded, and moist. When they show 
signs of root-formation they may be given more light. 
When rooted, pot off into small pots using the compost 
mentioned above, and by shifting and the same culture 
they grow into good plants in two years. When they get 
into §- or 10-inch pots, with plentv of roots, they may 
have liquid feeding which will help to retain their 
vigor. These plants are not much seen in this country, 
but should be more grown. (J. J. M. Farrell.) 

prolffera, Don (Xerdnthemum proliferunij Linn. 
Hdichrysum froHJeTum^ Willd.). An old cult, plant, 
now little grown: sts. woody, 1-2 ft. high, much 
branched, short side-branchlets tomentose and with 
minute closely imbricated scale-like Ivs.^ on the main 
sts. the Ivs. acuminate, rigid, and deciduous: heads 
terminal, solitary. 1-1 >^ in. across; involucre with 
many rows of woolly-based scales, the inner ones being 
rosy purple as if rajrs and lanceolate-acuminate. Mount- 
tains in the Cape region. B.M. 2365. B.R. 21. Var. 
BAmesii, Hort., has heads of deep crimson. 

L. U. B. 

PR£0M£RIA (Greek, dark and jifirt). Zingiberd^ « 
cea?. Perennial herbs from a thick rhizome, grown in 
the hothouse for their foliage and fls. Flowering sts. 
separate from the leafy ones; the latter not rarely tall, 
sometimes gigantic and forming very dense recKi-like 
thickets; the former everywhere smaller although 
sometimes about 3 ft. : Ivs. distichous, often nimierous, 
rather large, provided with a commonly leathery 
ligule: fls. sessile, in spikes or heads, often laj*ge or very 
large, either broad-pyramidal or subglobose, rarely 
concave at the top, surroimded conmiomy by a rather 
large involucre composed of colored bracts, the flowering 
bracts smaller and less intensely colored; calyx tubular 
or subclavate, frequently deeply split on one side, often 
very short-acimiinate or not at aU lobulate at the top; 
corolla-tube narrowly cylindrical, dilated toward the 
top; the lobes narrow, subspatulate, subequal: caps, or 
rather berries massed together somewhat resembling a 
pineapple. — About 16 species. Ceylon, to New Guiaea. 
rha?omeria was formerly included in Amomum but is 
now considered a distinct genus.' P. maffnifi4xi, Schu- 
mann {Aluinia maqnificay ftoscoe. Amdmum moffnifi^ 
cum. Bentn. & Hook, f.), is described imder Amomum. 
See Vol. I, p. 275. p. Tracy Hubbasd. 

PH^ONEtTRON (Greek, dark nerve). Mdasiomdr 
ceap. Half shrubby or perennial herbs: Ivs. opposite, 
the opposed pair often differing in size: fls. 5-ranked, 
medium-sized: calyx obovate, margin entire and not 
crenate; corolla broad-oval, rather acute; stamens 10, 
ecjual or subequal; anther rather thick, linear, connec- 
tive drawn out behind in a thick almost quaorangujar 
appendage and provided in front with 2 fleshy belike 
thickenings; pistil twice as long as the stamens; ovary 
5-cellcd, the lower half joined to the calyx-tube by the 
scptae: fr. a fragile apparently unevenly bursting caps.; 
seeds numerous. — About 4 species, Trop. Afr. P. Mold' 
neifi^ Stapf. St. herbaceous, terete: branches obtusely 
tetragonous: petioles and panicles covered with purple 
furfuruceous pubescence: Ivs. 4r-6 in. long, ovate or 
elliptic-ovate, subacuminate, base roimded or suboor- 
date, 5-7-nerve(i: infl. terminal, lax-fld.; fls. short- 
pedicelled; calyx hemispheric, mouth truncate, entire; 

petals obliquely obovate, pale rose-purple within: fr. 
a globose berry; seeds rhombic-cuneiform, numerous. 
W. Afr. B.M. 7729. — A tropical house plant cult, spar- 
ingly in botanic gardens. p. Tracy Hubbard. 

PHAIOCALANTHE (compounded from Phaius and 
C(danthe), Orchiddceae, A group of orchids established 
to contain the hybrids between Phaius and Calanthe. 
Pc Cdlnumii (C. Regnieri Stevensii x P. Norman). — 
Pc. Codksanii, J.H. III. 68:443.— Pc. grdndU (C. 
Biyan x P. gjandifolius). — Pc, Schroederidna (C. gigas 
X P. Wallicmi). Sepals and petals lilac, the lip claret- 
colored. G.M. 44:387.— Pc. Sedenidna (C. Veitchii X 
P. grandifolius). Sepals and petals delicate primrose, 
flui3ied at base with pale rose, the lip pale primrose, 
bright yellow at base and on keels, tne lobes flushea 
with rose 

PHAIOCYMBfDIUM (compoimded from Phaiu8 
and CynUndium), Orchiddceae. A group established to 
contain hybrids between Phaius and Cymbidium. P. 
chardivarinsiS'^P. grandifolius x C. giganteum. 

PH&IUS (Greek, dark; referring to the color of the 
flowers). Of ten spelled PAajii«. Orchiddceae. Very large 
orchids with ample foliage and tall clustered stems ter- 
minatrcLg in racemes of snowy flowers. 

Sepals and petals similar, spreading or half-spreading; 
labemun large, with the lateral lobes inclosing the 
column, usually gibbous or spurred behind; colunm 
slender; pollinia 8. Distinguished from Calanthe by 
the free labellmn; from Thunia by the leafless bracted 
scape which does not terminate the leafy axis. — ^About 
20 species, natives of Trop. Asia, Afr., Austral., China, 
Japan, and the South Sea Isls. 

The genus Phaius includes both epiphytic and terres- 
trial representatives. The noteworthy epiphytic tjrpes 
are native of Madagascar, including P. tvherctdosus, P. 
aimiUans. and P. Rumbtotii. However they are not 
frequently represented in orchid collections. They 
enjoy a warm moist atmosphere as for vanda. The pot- 
ting medium should include chopped peat and moss in 
eqiud proportion. When potting, small rafts with the 
potting medimn packed around or sections of fern 
stems, the latter being preferable, should be placed in 
the center of the pot or oasket. The terrestrial species, 
especially P. grandifolius^ are well known, being one 
of the first orchids put under cultivation. It dates as 
far back as 1778, when it was imported from China. 
Various species are native to low-lying swampy places 
of tjx>pic£u Asia and Austraha, and have also become 
natursuized in the West Indies. They are of easy cul- 
ture and will ^w in an ordinary warmhouse associated 
with palms. They delight in moisture throughout the 
year, in a growing medium of sandy fibrous sod-soil, 
with plenty of organic fertilizer in a dried state mixed 
with the soil and ^so in liquid form when in full growth. 
The main factor to bear in mind is perfect drainage. 
Plants are increased readily by the division of the 
dormant pseudobulbs. UpwaSrd of thirty garden 
hybrids are under cultivation at the present time, 
including some inte^'esting bigeneric forms. (G. H. 

A. Fls. yeUow to brown. 

maculitus, Lindl. Pseudobulbs ovate. 2-5 in. hi^: 
lv8. 3-4, broadly lanceolate, plicate, 1)4"^ ft. long, varie- 

gated with numerous yellowish spots: fl.-sts. about 2 ft. 
igh, bearing a raceme of 10-15 yellow fls. each 2-3 in. 
diam.; sepals and petals half spreading, oblong, obtuse; 
labellmn erect, with the apex recurved, streaked with 
orange, wavy and crenate. sides convolute over the 
column, and the base prolonged into a spur half as 
long as the ovary. Spring. N. India and Japan. B.M. 
2719 (as Bletia Woooifordii); 3960. L.B.C. 19:1803.— 
A good spring bloomer. 




WAUichU, Lindl. (P. bicolor, Lindl. P. arandifdliua, 
Lindl.i not Lour. P. grandifibruBy Reicnb. f.). Fig. 
2886. Tall: Ivs. broadly elliptic-lanceolate, a-4 ft. 
long: fl.Hsts. erecty 3-5 ft. high, clothed with scales: fls. 
4 in. across, varying in color trom chocolate-brown to 
primrose-yellow; sepals and petals spreading, lanceo- 
late, long-acuminate; labellum with an ample elongate 
tube; lin^ oblong, acute or acuminate, recurved, margin 

2886. Outline ol PluOns WaUichii. (X nearly H) 
To show botanical stnioture 

crisp; spur slender, incurved. The labellum is less 
variable in color than the sepals and petals. The base 
of the tube is yellow, dull reddish beyond, with the 
throat purple with yellow or red edges on the disk; 
apex white. Feb.-May. Trop. India, northward to the 
lower Himalaya. B.M. 4078: 7023. P.M. 6:193. Var. 
flavSscens, Hort. Sepals ana petals light yellow, front 
of lip paler. — ^P. Bliimei, Lindl., is not very clearly 
distinguished b}r botanical characters: the sepals and 
petals are acuminate, tip of lip acute, spur short and 
thick. Ceylon. 

grandifdlius, Lour. (Blbtia TdnkervUlix, R. Br.). 
One of the oldest orchids in cult. It has smaller fls. 
than P. WaUichiif with less acuminate sepals and petals 
and a shorter obtuse lip and spur; sepals and petals 
reddish brown, but variable, white on the outside; 
labellum white at the apex, throat and disk yellow, 
sides crimson. China, Austral. B.M. 1924. F.S. 
7:738. L.B.C. 1:20. G.C. 1872:733; II. 18:565; DLL 
3:112. Gn. 3, pp. 183, 221. A.G. 20:279. 

AA. Fls. white to roae^oloT, 

Humbldtii, Reichb. f. Pseudobulbs, Ivs. and habit 
like P. ffrandifolius but smaller: fl.-st. 18-20 in. high, 
erect: fls. white and rose-colored, tinged and streakea 
with darker red; sepals oblong-acute; petals twice as 
wide; labellum spurless, lateral lobes striped with brown 
on a whitish groimd, middle lobe light purple, with a 
yellow callus. Spring. Madagascar. R.H. 1891:204. 
G.C. U. 26:173. A.G. 12:161. A.F. 6:609. 

tuberculdsus, Blume. Rhizome thick: pseudobulbs 
small, bearing several lanceolate Ivs. 6-9 m. long: fls. 
2-3 in. across, in erect spikes; sepals and petals ovate- 
oblong, white; lateral lobes of the labellum recurved, 
yellow, almost covered with brownish crimson spots, 
margin crenately lobed; middle lobe bifid, white, 
spotted with purple, having 3 thick, yellow keels; mar- 

gin crisp and crenate. Feb. Madagascar. B.M. 7307. 
5^.18:145. G.C. XL 15:341; 18:565; 21:520; IIL 
13:237; 29:77. G.M. 44:144. Gn. 67: 294.— Difficult 
to grow, requiring a higher temperature than the other 

mishm^nsis, Reichb. f. St. 2-3 ft. high, leafy above: 
Ivs. 6-10 in. long, elhptio-lanceolate. plicate: scape from 
the axils of the lower Ivs., together with the loose 
raceme about 2 ft. loxig; fls. 2 in. across, pale or dark 
rose-colored; sepals linear-oblong, acuminate; petals 
narrower; labellum with rounded side lobes and a sub- 
quadrate, spotted middle lobe, which is somewhat 
3-parted; spur slender, yellow. Himalayas. B.M. 

p. amboinhinst Blume. ils. white, with some veining on the lip. 
Malajra. — P. AahtPorthidntUf Sander. A garden hybrid (P. Mannii 

XP. maculatus). Fls. large; sepals and petals clear old gold; 
labellum large, of the same color, with many radiating chocolate 
lines, outer surface clear yellow. G.M. 40:551. — P. oaUdnu, LindL 
(Geodorum plicatum, VoigtK Resembling P. grandifolius in habit: 
sepab and petab dull reddish brown; lip white with tinge of 
pink, dark purple spot beneath, with yellow on the 2-lobed spur. 
Malaya.— P. Chdpmannii^F. HumblotiixP. Phoebe. G.M. 46: 
693. — P, Codksorue (P. grandifolius X P. Humblotii). Sepals and 
petals nankeen-groen, the broad frilled tip yellow at the base with 
purple-brown markings, the front lobe rose. J.H. III. 46:353. — P, 
Codksonii^P. simularisxP. WalUchii. G.M. 50:134.— P. Codperi, 
Rolfe. Sepals and petals bright red-brown in front, pale yellow 
behind, about 2 in. long: lip funnel-shaped, white at first, soon 
«»liimging to yellow. — P.Jrdffrans, Hort. Belonging to same group 
as P. tiiberctuoBus, but fls. smaller and more numerous, in color 
resembling P. Humblotii. — P. Mdrttue (P. BlumeixP. simulans). 
Fls. n^okeen-yellovi , the base of the lip with rose markings and 
veined li^dit yellow, Uie front lobe tinged pink. Gt. 53 : 1530. R.B. 
29:73.— Gorman (P. Sanderianus X P. tiiberculoeus). Sepals and 
petals cream to pink, lined, the lip with a reddish purole base, 
veined yellow ana with 3 yellow keels, the nudlobe rose, blotched 
purple and tipped white. — P. oaktooodiirvtig »> P. Cooksonii X P. 
HumblotiL G. C. III. 28:93.— P. Opdixi (P. WaUichii x P. Hum- 
blotiL). — P. SanderiAntu, Hort. Fls. 6 in. wide or more, the 
sepals and ]>etaJs copper-red, the lip with a yellow base, crimson 
center, and white miolobe. — P. achno^brunninait'^'P. grandifolius 

xP. assamicus. — P. tlmulans, Rolfe. "The epiphytal species 
known in gardens imder the name of P. tuberculosus is not the ori- 
ginal plant, and has been renamed P. simulans in allusion to the 
remarkable resemblance which its fls. bear to those of the original 

•P^^" George V. NAsn.f 

PBALACSlMA. C(ELESTtNA, Regel: AoenUum conyzoidea. 

PHAUEN6pSIS (Greek, moth4ike; suggested by 
the large white flowers of some species). OrchiddLcex, 
This genus, cfdled by Lindley * the grandest of all 
orchids,'' contains some of the most useful species to 
be found in the orchid family; warmhouse. 

Of monopodial growth, having short sts. which 
increase slowly in length: Ivs. few, thick, leathery, often 
mottled: infl. a raceme or panicle, large, or not longer 
than the Ivs.; sepals spreadmg, the lateral ones more or 
less imited with the base of the column; petals about iis 
large as the sepals or very much broader : labellum vari- 
ously shaped but united with the base ot the column.— 
About 50 species natives of the hot regions of India 
and the Malay Archipelago, Rowing on trunks of trees 
and sides of rocks unaer conditions of high temperature 
and great moisture. The fls. are remarkably beautiful 
in form and color. Those of the larger species are borne 
in graceful drooping panicles on which they usually all 
face in one direction. 

As all phalsenopsis are natives of the most tropical 
regions of the globe, it is essential that they be w^ll 
supplied with heat and moisture, particularly during 
the growing season, from March to October. Care 
should be taken to avoid direct draught on the plants, 
but air should be admitted on all possible occasions. 
This is absolutely necessary to keep the plants in perfect 
condition. Durm^ bright sunshine the plants should 
be shaded, but given all the light possible to insure 
pood tougn ripe foliage by atitumn, and large branch- 
mg flower-spikes may be expected in the flowering sea- 
son. A close moist atmosphere will grow large soft foli- 
age, but small flower-spikes usually result. Plants may 
be grown suspended from the roof, not too near the 
glass, or on benches, in pots, in baskets, in pans, or on 


blocks or rafts. They are somewhat whimsical, and once 
a house ia found in which they micceed, they should 
not be moved. During the ^wmg aeaaon Uie temper&- 
i-..^ .k....ij K™ L.=..t _o ..«.r».w.i.. ... — Bible between 



Q night temperature, in winter, should lie 
. _ _ . Good and ample drainage is abaolutely 
ry, clean potsherds and lumps of charcoal being 
the best material, and only sufficient peat fiber and 
sphagnum in equal proportions should be used to keep 
the plant firmly in position, as the roots will eventually 
cover the receptacle in which they are growins. When 
pottinif, alwaj^ rive the plant ita natural inclination, 

which IS invariably b "" ' ' '" - » -■ ^- 

ing in the axils of th 

be carefully guardec _„ , 

from drip. Always keep the plant well raised, nui 
potting, to insure quick and perfect drainage. Bponi, 
mg the leaves occasionally will keep the plants clean 
and prevent the attack of thrip and red-spider, lite 
propagation of phalenopsis is a very slow process, as 
the plants ran;lvaSord opportunity for divisian. Soin»- 
times younfF plantB form on the old flower«tema, and 
these should oe left until they make root, at which 
stage they may be removed, potted, and carefully 
watered until root-action b^ms in the new material. 
(Alfred J. Loveless.) 

A. PtIaU much broader than lk» tepaia. 
B. LobeUum vniJi apieal appendage€i 
retteUum ihori, 
C. Apical appendage* cwtAoim. 

D. MidtUt lobt ttni nurrotc 1. anublUs 

no. Middle lobe tnml-eluiped 2. Aphrodite 

oc. epical appendagea tfurrt. Aom- 

n. Lit. iTnen 3. intermeilla 

DD. Ln. motUtd, at leaat ahtn 

■E.Fit.ahiU 4. Stoartiuia 

BB. Fit. n>te-pun)U S. Schillerltna 

BB. Labdium leitluyul apieai apjtendaoet; 

roiUUum long 6. toirii 

AA, Pttalt tcarcelii or nal at all broadtr than 
the aepaia, 
a. Clavj at Iht labdlum with hom-Uke 

appendagtibdoui the lattral lobe* .. 7. Esmeralda 
BB. Claw of the labelivm inlAout append- 

c. X«c of the labdlum naldMl 6. amatliTitiDa 

CC. Apex of the labdlum erUtre. 

D. RadiU eompre**td: bract* 

E. Mi£u lebe of Ihe labeUum 

fietkii, rounded 9. vlolaCMl 

EC. iiiddU loU of the labdlum 

ereieenl-ehaped 10. Coraa-c«n1 

DD. Radii* terete. 

E. LoMIum laterally ami- 

pruetd, fleOiy II, ipedoia 

KE. LaJwUum expanded. 

T. MiddU lobe derady hairy. .\2. maaXram 

rr. Middle lobe pilote 13. Laaddeman- 

wrr. MiddU lobe tmoalh. (niaiia 

a. LabeUum created 14. ParisUi 

oo. Labdlum not treated, but 
prtnided wtlh a fie*hy 
callu* 15. nsaa 

I omibiliB Blume, not Lindl. (P. oraTuiiJlbTa, 
Lnll Fig 2887 Lvs. long, pale gieen; fls. variable 
in siz BomeUmes about 5 in. across, pure white with 
Bta n of deep ydlow and a few purple spots on the 
label um and on the column; dorsal sepals ovate to 
oblonc lateral sepal lanceolate; petals rounded-fam- 
b1 uix. lateral lobes of the labellum obliquelv cuneate, 
n un ed m ddle lobe very narrow with yellow cirrhL 
All nn Malay Archipelago. B.M. £184. G.C. 1848: 
3<t II 2S 213 On. 19, p. 305; 24, p. S60; 34, pp. 
516 517 R.H I860, pp. 238, 239; 1897, p. 151. 
AG 16 271 A.F. 27:1137; 30:610, 1079. F.E. 
33 716 Gng 15:133. Var. attraa, Rolte (P. (jrowfi- 
fidm var aurea, Warner). Front half of the lateral 
Ic^MS of tike labellum and the entire middle 
lobe stained deep wllow. Borneo. Var.IUme»- 
tadtUdia, Hort. Fls. larger, pure white, the 
throat bndit yellow. G.C. III. 32:316. Gng. 
''/ 12 405 P^ Hiiriettn, Rolfe, is a garden 
Y hybnd between P. arnabiiu aiid P. violaeta. 
Ilg 2888 Fls. intermediate between the paiv 
ents, 4H ii>' across: sepals and petals pale 
yellowish white, sunused and dotted with 
amethystr-purple toward the base; labellum 
crimson with an orange crest; ciniu slighUy 
devebped. G.C. Ul72:9. Gn.38:15e. J.H. 
2. Aphrodite, Reichb. f. (P. amdbaii, Lindl., not 
Blumu). LvB. elliptic-lanceolate, 1 ft. or more in 
length, dark green, obliquely retuse: fls. 3 in. diam., 
pure white, with the labellum streaked and spotted with 
vellow uid red; sep^ elliptio-ovate: petals large, 
rhomboid: lateral lobes oblong, middle lobe bowel- 
shaped, with white oirrtii. Flo. at various seasons, but 
most Fres^ during summer. FhilippiDes. B.M. 4207, 
l).R.24:34. P.M.7:49. PA 1:40. 0.0.1848:39:11. 
26:213. Gn. 31, p. 273; 36, p. 302; 38, p. 157; 48, p. 
484. R.H. 1897, p. 160. A.F. 6:89. Var. Darlna, 



Hort. (P. amdbilU vw. DayAna, Hort.), has regular 
fla. with tiie lower sepals minutely dotted with crim- 
son, the labelltim also berng heavily marked with bri^t 
crimson. A.G. 21;457. Var. cista, Rolfe (P. edsto, 
Keichb. f.). Ltb. thinly spotted: fls. like the type, with 
a rosy tint especially at the base of the sepals and 
petals, and a few spots at the base of the lateral scfials. 
— Scarcely distinct from the following, but distinct 
from the type. Var. leucorrhMa, Rolfe (P. leueorrkdda, 
Reichb. f .) . Lvb. blotched with gray in irregular bands : 
sepals and petals flushed with rose, the former yellowish 
outside; callus yellow, spotted with purple. Philip- 
pines. P.M. 1875:166. R.H. 1896:500. Var. Sandar- 
una, Rolfe (P. SanderiAna, Reichb. f.). Fls. suSused 
with rose; labellum variegated with brown, purple, and 
yellow. M. of Mindanao. Gn. 24:270; 67, p. 44. Var, 
Kloridsa, Hort. (P. glcriisa, Reichb. f.}. Fls. white, with 
a roee-colored spot on the labellum. Gn. 35:362. 

3. intermedia, Lindl. A natural hybrid between P. 
Aphrodiie and P. rosea. Resembles P. Aphrodile in 
habit but the fls. are smaller. Sepals oblong, acut«, 
white; petals rhomboid, much lai^r, white with few 
toee spots at the base; labellum small, lateral lobes 
erect, rose-purple spotted with crimson, middle lobe 
rich crimson, terminating in 2 short horns. Philip- 
pines. G.C. III. 52:453.— The same type has been 
artificially produced by crossing the two parent species. 
Var. BrymeriAna, Reichb. f. Sepals and petals white, 
Teined pale amethyst-purple, the lateral sepals purple- 
Bpotted at base, the petals purple^tained below; front 
lobe of lip red-purple. O.M. 43:63. Var. P6rtel, 
Beichb. f. (P. PdrUn, Hort.). Fls. large, stained with 

28B8. Pbalmoptii HutiMlB. 

Gn.2i;H6. G.M. 38:111. 

4. Stuartiina, Reichb. f. Lvs. elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 
about 1 ft. long, mottled when young, becoming dull 
Kr««n above and reddish below: panicle lai^, branched, 
drooping; fts. 2 in. across; sepals elliptic, obtuse, white 
or greenish white, the lateral ones speckled with red; 
petals rounded but obscurely quadrangular, white with 
few purple dots at base; labellum golden yellow or 
orange spotted with crimson, white at the tip, lateral 
lobes obliquely obovate, obtuse, with a pair of cuneate 
calii between them: middle lobe orbicular, ending in 2 
white cirrhi. Jan., Feb. Philippines. U.M. 6622. I.H. 
31:540. F.1882:49. Gn. 22:118; 45, p. 428. G.C. U. 


16:753; 111.4:389. J.H. III. 34:157. F.E. 11:393. 
G. 30:195.— Very near P. SchiUeriana but very dif- 
ferent in color. Var. punctatlsBima, Hort., has the 
sepals and petals profusely spotted with purplish red. 

pun>le below: panicle drooping, flat, as much as 3 ft. 
long and nearly as broad, oearing often over 100 fls. 
ea(£ 2^-3 in. across^ dorsal sepals obovate, acute, the 
lateral ones ovate, rich roae-lilaej petals large, rhom- 
boid, colored like the sepals; labellum colored like the 
rest of the fi. or paler and often spotted with reddish 
brown and having a yellow callus ; lateral lobes rounded- 
oblong, with 2 <]uadrangular call! between them, middle 
lobe oval, ending in 2 divergent horns. Jan.-March. 
Philippines. B.M. 5530. F.S. 15:1559. I.H. 10:348; 
35:56; 43, p. 154. S.H. 2, p. 47. Gn. 3, p. 183:22:118; 
33, p. 615; 35, p. 363; 38. p. 157; 48, p. 484. G.C. II. 
12:301; 111.3:529; 17:367; 37:l62, F.M. 1877:257. 
R.H. 1886:396. AG. 14:65. G.F. 4:390. A.F. 11: 
1081. C.L.A. 6:164. F.W. 1876:321. G. 31:19. G.M. 
48:151; 62:145. J.H. 111.42:461; 44:651; 52:133. 

6. Uwii, Reichb. f. Lvs. 4r-5, oblong fleshy, deep 
eroen, tilled with purple: panicle slender, 5-20-fld.: 
na. 1)4 in. diam., white flushed with purple; dorsal 
sepab broadly ovale, lateral sepals oblang| petals fan- 
shaped, with a rounded apex; labellum violet-purple, 
Iat^%l lobes small, reflexed, imddle lobe oblong; rostel- 
lum very long-beaked. Flowers during summer months. 
Moulmein (India). B.M. 5351. FS. 18:1910. Gn. 
9:312. G.C. III. 2:745. 

7. Esmerilda, Reichb. f. (P. anlennffera, Reichb. 
f .). Lvs. oblong, acute, 4-8 in. long, gray-green with 
few dull purple spots: raceme erect, 6-l(Efld., 6-18 
in. hi^; fls. about 1 in. diam., dark or pale purple 
to wfute with red streaks; lateral sepals ovate, 
dorsal sepals obovate; petals obovate; labellum 
clawed, 34obed, lateral lobes ovate to rotund, erect, 
yellowiiah; middle lobe broad, obtuse, deep puiple; 
clawwithaslenderappendageoneocbsidc. Cochin- 
China. B.M. 7196. F.M. 1879:358. R.H. 1877, p. 

amethyst labellum; sepals cuneate-oblong, obtuse; 

petals subequal or a little smaller; lateral lobes of 

the labellum cuneate; middle lobe obovate, notehed. 

Malay. G.C. 1870:1731. 

9. violicea, Teijsm. & Binn. Lvs. oblong, 8-12 

in. long, light shining green: fl.-stalks not longer 
than the lvs.: fls. few, 2 in. across; sepals and petals 
broadly lanceolate, yellowish white, changing to rose- 
liolet toward tJ)e base; middle lobe of the labellui 

fleshy, deep purple, with a yellow callus; side lobes 
small, erect, purple and orange. May-Oct. Sumatra. 
F.M. 1879:342. G.C. II. 16:145. J.H. III. 42:537.- 

Flant of dwarf habit. The fis. remain on the plant a 
long time. Var. Schroederiina, Hort., has the basal 
half of the segms. bright purple, the color partly broken 
up into lines. I.H.32:576, J.H. III. 61:195. 

10. Cornu-cfrvi, Blume & Reichb. f. Lvb. about 9 
in. long, leathery, oblong; fl.-st. about as long as the 
lvs., erect, clavate, bearing 6-12 fls.; fla. yellowish 

nn, barred with reddish brown; sepals and petals 
ly, lanceolate, the latter smaller; labellum whitish. 
lateral lobes erect on the irregular, fleshy, excavated 
daw, middle lobe crescent-shaped, apiculate. Summer. 
Trop. Asia, Java, and Sumatra. B.M. 5570 {as Poly- 
chiloB Comu-cervi) . 

11. speciOsa, Reichb. f. Lvs. oblong: fls. stellate, 
in racemes or panicles, white, blotched with rose- 
madder; sepals oblong; petals narrower: labellum 
with erect, linear, toothed, }[ellow side lobes, and a 
fleshy, purple and white middle lobe ending in a 


2Sn PliilBDOptu ScluUariuia 


white, tinged with pink in tbe center; Idiellum roae- 
colored, scarcely longer than the Bepals; later&l lobes 
amall, lunate, middle lobe ovate. Philippines. B.M. 
5212. F.S. 16:1645. G-C, 1848:671. J.F.3:283. 

p. Btrtii. Niturd hybrid nwnnblini P. uubilia. which ii d» 
of itanmtiu. — P. rvdniM. J. J. Bmith, Hsbit lik? thmt of P. ama- 
bilii. but Ivi. larfcr mod tbicka: fla. in k ncrme. vhiliih. witli 

. bnnm<(M)U. Borneo. G.C. ni.*5:306.— P. Kiliufiert, 

T.VV. im tn4ln. loDfl And 1 in. brtwl, bright sreeo: Tmecme 
u: da. about 2 in. acnn; sepali and pMali 

fk« marked with brown 

front lobe anchor-ahaiml, auote 

_ , ' imn^t plat« and a purpliab (oQlh. AfAam. 

J.H. III. 13:97.— P. SthitUni7U)-Sluarliina. er* P, Wiganite.— P. 
Viltntinii. Reichb. f. Plant with habit of P. violaiieB:Kpala purple. 

^^jiBate-oblunji. the lat^al , 

eflpala or purple-barred ; lip short, clawed, mau^ 
M^l^aia.— P. irimni*— 1>. Sehilli 

3T:B3. G.M, 43:0: 

hairy cushion Andaman lals Bay ot Bengal 
II. 18 74 26 77 

12. siunatrftaa, Korth, & Reichb. f. Lva. painted, 
about 6 in. long: mil. about aa long as the tvB., 6-10-f1d.; 
sepals oblong, pointe<l, 1 in. or more in length; petalB 
more cuneate; ail yellowish white barred, with bands 
of reddish brown; labellum short, clawed; lateral lobea 
erect, meeting and each having a short curved tooth 
pointing backward; middle lobe oblong, fleshy, white, 
streaked with violet, very hairy in front, Sumatra and 
Borneo. B.M. 5527. F.S. 16:1614. 0.0.1865:507. 

13. Lueddemaimiina, Reichb. f. A small plant, with 
thick, oblong fleshy Ivb. 6-8 in. long: infl. about as long 
as the Iva., with few handsome fls, near tbe top: fls. 
2-3 in. across; sepals and petals oblong-acute, white, 
marked with transverse bars, those at the base being 
amethj^t, while the upper ones are brown; labellum 
deep violet, with yellow blotches on the side lobes; 
middle lobe oblong; side lobes erect, ligulate, deep^ 
2-toothed. Feb., March. Philippines. B.M. 5823. 
F.S. 16:1636. R.H. 1872:390. F. 1865:257. G.C. III. 
39:2.i9. R.B. 26:169.— The old fl.-eta. of this plant 

with yellowish fla. and ochre-colored bars. R.H. 

14. Pftrishil, Reichb. f. Dwarf: Ivb. oblong-lanceo- 
late, acute, 2-4 in. long: fls. in 6-10-fld, racemes 
scarcely longer than the Iva., crowded; dorsal sepals 

hom-like, yellow, with purple spots, middle lobe broadly 
triangular, red-purp!e, often white on the disk; crest 
semi-lunar, broken up into subulate filainentfl in front; 
the disk has a peculiar appendage ending in 4 long 
subulate filaments. Burma and Moulmein. B.M. 5815. 
15. rdsea, Lindl. Lvs. oblong, dark green, obliquely 
retuae: scape about a foot lonie, nodding, dark purple, 
bearing 12-14 fls.; sepals and petals ovate, obtuse, 

P"¥tuartiana. O.C. Uli 

PHALARIS (old Greek name for a grass). Gramtnex. 
8tout hardy ornamental grasses. 

Spikelets I-fld., in heads or spike-like panicles; 
^lunes 'boat-shaped, awnless; 2 minute sterile lemmas 
at base of perfect floret. — Ten species, mostly of 8. Eu., 
one native throuf^out the northern part of N. Amer., 
a variety of which is ribbon-grass. P. canarUruna, 
Canart.%3iiass, which is cult, in Eu. for bird-food or 
SB a cereal, sometimes escapes along roadsides. This 
ftnniiHl species, OQ account of its variegated ovate 
spikes, is worthy of cult, as an ornamental grass. 

anindlniceft, Linn. Rbbd Canary-Grabs. A tall 
perennial (2-6 ft.), with fiat J^in.-wide lvs. and an 
elongated spike-like panicle (open in anthesis) of whi- 
tish spikelets, native throughout northern Amer. in wet 
ground, where it is an important forage grass,^ — Recom- 
mended for planting in parks and grounds along the 
banks of streams or artificial ponds. 

nta Klbboatnn.— PlMluta 



Vor. {dcU, Linn, (vur. nariegAla, Hort.). Ri^bon- 
Gbass. Gardener's Garters. Fig. 2890. Lvs. loDgi- 
tudinolly striped with white. Commonly cult, for otn»- 
ment &nd aometimea run wild about old places. 

Ths nxne "P. eommuMa, or Toowoohba CADAST-Qaua," hu 
UDMnd in noent acrieultunl litotitDm, u an inlzo. from Au*tf*L 
•flw atmm ho bam Waatified — P. hulbo^. linn. (Sea Knr BulL 
W^ lai. 11>09;386). a. 8. HiTCHCOCK. 

^SALOCALUS (Greek words referring to the deli- 
aay of the cone formed by the crests). IritUuxm. 
R^erred by Baker and othera to Cypella. The plant 
offered as P. plumbea, Herb., by Dutch bulb-growers 
is CjipfilU pi^beo, Undl., a South Brazilian apectea 
described in Volume II, page 940. B.M. 3710 (flowers 
chiefly lilac). F.S. 4:395 (cbiefly light blue); 14:1466 
(fiore itriato, veined and flushed with rich purple shades 
on a i^te ground). 


PHASfeOLUS (ancient Latin name, somewhat 

altered, of a bean). Legamindsx. Bean. The 'common 

idea wad field beans, and also some species grown 


tlie article on Bean. See, also Cantuxdia, Glyein^ 
Mvcuna, Soybean, Staolbbium, Vida, and Viffna. 

Eleven species of Phaseolus are now known to be 
cultivated to a greater or less extent in various parts 
of the world. Further erolorationa in Mexico, Central 
and South America and in eastern Asia will very 

probably show that a number of other distinct species 

not here enumerated have been domesticated locally. 

The eleven B]>eciee here treated fall into two t^ups, 

Annual or perennial mostly twining herbs, or some 
of them woody at the base: lvs. mostly pmnately 
3-folioIate, stipellate: peduncles axillaiy, bearing clus- 
ters of white, yellow, red, or puiplish bainlionaceous 
Ss. and more or less compreaaea (flatrdded) several- to 
many-seeded 2-valved pods. From its allied genera, 
Phaseolus is separated by minute characters of calyx, 
style, and keel. In PhaaeoluB, the style is bearded slonc 
the inner side and the stigma is oblique or lateiU, 
rather than cEq>itat« on the end of the style: the keel is 
coiled into a spiral body, including the 10 oiadelpbous 
(9 kdA 1) stamens. — Many species have been destsibed, 
mostly m wann eountriss (P. poluttadiyu* is ikative in 
U. B., but not cult.), but probably not more than ISO 
that can be clearly separated as species. 

The cultivated species of Phaseolus ore all tropical 
or subtropical in nativity. Therefore they must not be 
subjected to frosts. Most of them ue garden annuals 
which are planted after the danger of freezing weather 
has passed and the ground is well warmed. For the 
culture of the domesticated forms of Phaseolua, see 

I, Perenniai. Beans. 
This group includes three species, none of which is 
now commonly seen in cultivation. 

A. Plafd UdiAwining, with large, fragrant, ^imey jU.: 

Tool not fuderous. 

B. Pi*. ItgW purple to yelUnmth, in axiiiary Tocemea. 

\. CaradUla, Linn. Car a col. SNAit-FLowER. 
Cobkscrbw-Flowkb. Lfts. broadly rhombic-ovate, 
pointed or acuminate: fls. large anti fleshy, very fra- 
grant, the large keel coiled like a snail-shell. Tropica, 
Srobably of the Old World. B.R. 341. V. 2, p. 370.— 
iaturafized in parts of Calif., where it grows 20 or 
more ft. hi^, sometimes becoming a nuisance. It is 
an old-fashioned glasshouse plant in cold climates, but 
is now rarely seen. P. Bertonii, Hort., recently intra, 
from Paraguay, although a close relative, is probably 
specifically distinct from P. CaracaUa. 

BB. Fls. red or light blue, in axillary dense capilatt 

duster B. 
2. adeninthna, Mey. (P. am^nus, Soland. P. 
truxtlMnnt, HBK. P.MrrAisus, HBK.). Foliage much 



like that of the last, the Ifta. ovat« and somewhat 
acute; fls. very showy, red (or light blue?), fragrant: 
pod 4-6 in. long, uaually curved. Tropice. 

AA. Plant low, tpreading or iToding, annual above llu 
grtmnd: root tvheroM: fit. tmail, in loote axUlary, 
inlerrupUd racemea. 

3. retfteus, Benth. Metcalp Bean. Root very 
large and fleshy, running deep into the ground: at. 
roughish: Ifta. rhombic to oblong, mostly obtuaeand 
often retuse, rough on botii aides, wiui prominent 
veinlets, especially beneath: fla. reddish purple: pod 
flat, short, broadly oblong, aomewhat curved. Texaa, 
west and south. — Lately recommended as a fora^ 
plant in the dry regions of the S. W. Not promising m 
Ariz, at elevations less than 4,000 ft. The IVB. are thick 
and heavy and adapted to dry, hot climates. Sts. grow 
8-10 ft. or more long on the mountains where it is a 
favorite food for deer. 

II. Annval Garden Beanb. 
The apecies of this group are all aniiiialii nith the 
exception that P. mvUiflonta and P. lunattia are peren- 
nial in tropical countriea. The aomewhat thickened 
roota of the former sometimes live over in the South, 
but both species are strictly annual in the nortiem 
and middle atatea. 

a. FU. yeUow. 

B. LjlB. diilindiy lobed. 

C. Tht Ifta. 3S-cut for one-fowUi to one-htdf Oieir lenj^tA. 

4. aconldfdliuB, Jacq. Motr Bean. A diffuse trail- 
ing plant, 1-2 ft. long with slender sts. loosely covered 
with rather atiff, brown hairs: Ifts. 3-5-lobed at the 
apex for one-fourth tc one-half their length, the lobes 
narrow; stipules small, narrow, and pointed: fls. very 
" yellowish, '" *""""■ "" '" -" -' -" — 

small, yellowish, in heads on the ends of hairy axillaiy 
pedundea: pod becoming 2 in. long, nearly cylindrical, 
glabrous; seeds day-colored, cyundrieal, distinctly 

for forage, but only rare^ seen in collections in this 

cc. The ffta. ^uiOouiy S-Mxd. 
S. angnUris, Willd. Ahzuki Beam. Erect, 1-2 ft. 
high: sts. alinhtly furrowed smooth or with scattered 
retuse hairs: Ifts. ovate, shallowly 3-tobed, 
smooth or slkhtly roughened with acat^ 
tered bun: fls. yellow, in 2's or 3'b on 
axillary peduncles: pods amall, cylindrical; 
seed led, cream, black or mottled, small, 
average wei^t about .07 gram, oblong to 
nearly rouna, frequently with square end 
walla, ratio length to thickneee (hilum to 
back) from 1:1 to 1.5:1; hilum -/lin. (2 
mm.) long or longer: primary Ivs. ovate. 

2SB5. L«^ of Fhuaalw TolfUls. 

>. (XJfl 

Japan, where it is eaten boiled with soups or mixed 

SB. Lfta. entire. 
c. One unng rolUd eompUiela over heel: bateg of •primary 
les. cordate, their peliolet ^in. long or longer. 
6. calcarfttos, Roxbg. Ricb Bean. Annual, erect, 
1-2 ft. high, in habit much resembling the preceding 
species: lits. broadly ovate: fla. yellow, in 2's or 3's in 
short axillary peduncles : seed varying in color from red- 
dish brown to pale opaque, small, average weight about 
.05 gram, strongly dongated, ratio length to thickuesa 
(hilum to back) 1.75:1 to 2:1, hilum -^m. {2mia.)]aog 
or longer: primary Ivs. narrowly Umceolate. ' "' 

Oc One wing prtued agaimt hvi not roBed ocmptetelv 
m>er the keel: bate* of ■primary ha. nmnded or taper- 
ing, their petioles leu lAan Ain. (7 mm.) long. 
7. aitrms, Roxbg. Munq Bean. Erect or alightly 
twining (some varieties strongly twining on rich 
ground), 1-3 ft. hi^, with furrowed ata. clothed with 
long brown hairB: Ifts. broadly ovate or nearly rhom- 
boid, orbicular, uaually entire, thin, ahort-acute; stipules 
large, ovate: fla. rather small, yellowish, in dusters of 
5-6 on the end of stout hairy peduncles^ keel apuned; 
pod 3 in. or leas long, nearly cylindrical, somewhat 
curved, bearing 10-15 beans; seeds green or golden, 
small, nearly round; average wdght about .05 RTam; 
hilum less Uian ^in. (2 mm.) long. Asia.— CiSt. in 
China, where it la used for bean sprouts, vermicelli 
and geUtine, and extensivdy in India, also in Persia, 
Philippines, Japan. Theslender podiahairy atflrst,bui 
the hairs are aedduoua. P. Hfinzo, Linn. (Tbs Ubd), 

htm. (XM> habit, long-hairy pods, and oblong b 



AA. Fit. not ydiow. 

B, Ptiiolet of primary lug. tett Uum j'j in. (7 mm.) long. 

8. ■colifaiiuB, Gray, var. latifUiua, G. F. Frofr 

man. Tepabt. Fig. 2^1. Annual, erect on poor or 

tun. ZoBl-voddad fonm ol Fhuaohu Tiil(ub. 

dty land, under more favorable growth - conditions 
sts. recumbent, spreading or twining, 1>^ ft. long, 
glabrous to puberiilent: Ivs. smooth above with slight^' 
prominent veins beneath, alabraua 
throughout or slightly puberulent 
below; Ifts. entire^ ovate to broadly 
lanceolate, }i-2 m. wide Caveraeo 
width IJ^ in.), acuminat«j stipu- 
late; stipules lanceolate, ^id. long, 
striate, appressed; petioles slender, 
1-4 in. long: peduncles shorter than 
the IvB., 2'5-fld.; bracts small, 
deciduous: fls. medium-sixed, pedi- 
cellate, white or pale violet, few at 
the end of an axillary peduncle 
which is usually shorter uian the 
Ivs.; calyx short, broadly campanu- 
late, 4-toothed (the upper 2 lobes 
united into 1}, t«eth acuminate; 
banner broad, emargiiiate, in fl. 

more than half reflex^, at tlie 

biauriculate, ^-^in. long: pod flat- 
tened and coriaceous when young, 
when mature papery, 2-7-8eedea, 
2-3M in. long, H-?iin. broad, 
straight or slightly curved, with 
prominent beak; seeds white, yel- 
low, brown, or bluish black, either 
self'^olored or variously flecked, 
round-oval to nearly round aa is 
the navy, to strongly flattened like 
a diminutive lima; average 
.10- .20 gram. S. W. U. S. 
and Mex. — Cult, by the 
Indians and Mexicans of 
the southwestern desert 
region. Recently intro. by 
the Ariiona A^c. Exp. Sta. 
as a very promising drought- 
resistant d^^' shell bean for 
hot semi-and regions. See 
Bean, Teparu^ p. 462; also 
Ariz. Agnc. Exp, Sta. Bull. 
No. 68 (1912). 

BB. PetiaUs of primary Ivs. 
Hin. {10 mm.) iong or 

C. CotyUdons not raised 

aboi'^ the grimnd in 

the seedling, 
9. multiflArus, Willd. 

Scarlet Runner Bean. 

Dutch CASE-KNire Bean m»8. Lmt« 

(a white variety). Figs. Imum*. Two appet on. 

2892-2894. Root thickened i^ „( it slZ."^" 

and tuberous, sometimes „„, potato L^- lowi 

perennial in the S., but per- Lit» White libu, ti 

ishing in the N. : plant tall, unu ' ' 


twining and slender, minutely pubescent: Iva. lai^; 
Ifts. thm, terminal Ifts. often 3 in. or more wide, rhom- 
bic-ovate and acute, scabrouH-pubescent; fls. rather 
large and showy, on long naked racemes, in the Scarlet 
Runner type red, in the Dutch Case-Knife white, the 
keel not diatinctly projecting: pods long (3-6 in.), 
with curved slender tip; seeds lar^ (^^in. long or 
longer), much flattened or nearly cylmdiica!, less than . 
twice as long as broad, not usually reniform, no con- 
spicuous lines radiating from the hilum, color red or 
mahogany, and black in the Scarlet Rtmner, white in 
many other fonnsi primary Iva. ovate or cordate, the 
base deeply auriculate, petioles 1 in. or more long. S. 
Amer. or Mex., but now widely spread. — The Scarlet 
Runner form is popular as an ornamental vine for 
arbors and to cover windows, aometimes being known 
as Flowering Bean or Painted Lady. The Dutch Caae- 
Knife is a vegetable-garden plant, grown for its beans. 
Various forms of tbe plant are grown for food by the 
Mexicans and these sometimes appear in our west^ 
country. Here belong the Aztec or prehistoric beans, 
now grown sparingly in N. Ariz., which are said to 
have originated from seed found in caches among 
the prehistoric cliff-dwellings. Melde's Perennial and 
Irvine's Hybrid beans are apparently white-fld. forms. 
The color of fl. and seed seems always to be associated 
in this species. A dwarf or bush form, probably of P. 
myltiflonts, was intro. a few years ago as Bartelde'a 
Dwarf Lima (see Bull. No, 87, Cornel! Exp. Sta.). ft is 
not unlikely that more than one species is passing as 
P. mTdtiflorus, some of the Mexican forma being 
imperfectly understood. 

cc. Cotyledont raised above the ground in the getting 


D. Fl.-braets large, amspicwna, oeol. 

10. TUlgftris, Linn. Common Bean. Kidnet Bean 
of the English. Haricot of the French. Figs. 2895- 
^ff7. Erect or twining (on poor or dry soil many vane- 
tisfl are erect which are twining in more moist or fertile 
land; some varieties, however, retain the bush form 
under the most favorable conditions): mature plants 
more or less pubescent: Ifts. rhombioovate or ovate, 
acuminate: peduncles shorter than the petioles, few- 
fld. at or near the apex: fls. small, white, yellowish or 
blue-purple: pod slender, somewhat curved, provided 
with a straight or curved 
tip, fleshy when young and 
either green or light yel- 
lowish wax-color ; lengtn of 
mature seed less than 
J^in., average weight more 

from the hilum: primary 
Ivs. entire, cordate, deeply 
auriculate, dull green, 
B%htly rough from fine 
Bcattered hispid pubes- 
cence, their petioles dis- 
tinctly pubescent. — Both 
seed and plant characters 
very variable. There are 
probably about 200 dis- 
tinct types, which include «re (i 

between 400 and ST" 

named commercial varie- 
ties. Here ore included all ofboth bush and running forms 
of which the pods are used aa green snap beans as well 
as the dry shell-bean type like the Navy, Boston Pea, 
and California Tree bean. The seven species of com- 
mon beans (P. vulgdria, Savi, P. comprfssus. Mart,, P. 
gonospirmus, Savi, P, carindtua. Mart,. P. obtdngmt. 
Savi, P. tUlplicus. Mart., P. *p/i*ricua. Mart.) which 
were separated by George von Martens (Die Garten- 
bohnen, 1860) according to the shape and size of 


the Heeda, are now recoEnized by botaniets as dif- 
r^rent varieties of P. indgaris, Linn. For cult., see 
Bean. For dcacriptiona of commercial varieties see H, 
C. Irish, "Garden Boans Cultivated as Eaculeuta," 


Plant Ind., Bull. No. 109 
(1907), pp. 5-173; C. D. 
Jarvifl, ",\inerican Varieties 
of Beans," Cornell Bull. No, 

260 (190S), pp. 


n. ... 

SiEVA or Civet Bean. 
Figs. 2808-2901. SmaU 
and slender, usually 
not climbing very high : 
ifta. thin, ahort and 
broad, ovate pointed 
(except in special forma 
as the Willow-leat) r fls. 
, of medium size^ wings 
, and keel white or 
, whitish, banner green- 
ish, containing chloro- 
phyl, of different tex- 
ture, from the wings 
and keel, in axillary 
rat^omes: poda amall 
and papery, 2-3 in. 
long, much curved on 
the back and provided 
with a long tip^ split- 
IKO. HendsrunDwuf Uiiu,atafiii tjngopen when npe and 
of PhuMliu loiutu*. <XH) the valves twisting; 

beans small and flat, 
white, brown or mottled, conspicuous lines radiating 
from the Hilum, more than Hin. long: primary Ivs. not 
lobed, in form ovate or cordate, basea deeply auriculate, 
upper surfaces smooth and somewhat shiny, their pet- 
ides almost perfectly glabrous. Trop. Amer. — Widely 
cult, in warm countries, anri prized for its earliness and 
prolificacy. It gives rise to dwarf or bush forma, as 
the Dwarf Carolina, Hendenion Bush Lima. Com- 
mon in American gardens Var. macrociipus, Benth. 
(P. inamd^nug, Linn. P. limiTisis, P. aaceharilui, P. 
fiteiindwi, P. toiJiJimjua, Macfadycn. P. pubfruiua, 
HBK. P. Xuarizii, Zucc). Lima Bean. Fias. 2898, 
2899. Distinguished from the Sicvas by tall, robuat 
growth and late ripening: Ifta. large and thick, ovato- 
lanccolate: pods (ewer to the raceme, straight or nearly 
so, without a prominent tip, not readily splitting at 
maturity; beans very large, white, ted, black, or speck- 
led. S. Amer. — Widely grown in the tropics, and one 
of the richeat of beans. Unreliable in the northern 
states because of the short, cool seasons. There are 2 
forms cult, in the U. S.: Flat or Large-seeded liraaa, 
with seeds very flat and veiny and more or Icsa lunate 
in shape, and very broad flat pods, with a dintinct but 
not prominent point, and broad ovate Ifts,: Potato 
limos, with smaller tumid seeds, shorter and thicker 
pods, with a very ahort point, and long-ovate, tapering 
Ifts., with angular base. In both these groups there are 
dwarf or bush forms, — Burpee Dwarf Luna in the 
former, and Kumerle Dwarf Lima in the latter. The 
lima bean is perennial in the tropica. Sec Bean, Lima. 
Geo. F. FiiEEMAN. 
PHAYL6pSIS (Greek, icortAiew, and appearance). 
Also spelled Phaulopxis. Syn., Micrdnlhia, Wendl., not 
Eckl. AcanlhAcva:. Small ehrubs, probably not now in 
cult.: Ivs, often oblique, those in one opposite pair 
unequal, elliptic, entire, or crenate: infl. in cylindric at 



ovoid spikes, each broad floral If. incloaing a contracted 
cyme of usually 3 fla.; calyx 5-lobed nearly to the base; 
corolla amoU, .5-lobed; atamens 4: cape, empsoid, com- 

SrcBHed, usually 4-9eeded. About 15 species, Afr., 
laacarene lals. and India. P. varmfibra, Willd. Pubes- 
cent: st, i-2 ft. high, branched: Ivs, acuminate at both 
ends, nearly entire: calyx hairy, 2 anticous segms. 
lincar-Uguiate ; corolla white or purplish, tube funnel- 
shaped at the top; ovary ^brous, Trop. and S. Afr., 
Maecarenelsls., and India. B.M.2433{asP.I(»i^oJia}. 

PHE6(5PTERIS (Greek, heech-Sem). PolypodHeex. 
Beech, Oak or Sou Fern. A group of ferns like Dryop- 
teris in habit and latterly usually included in that 

gecu^ but with no indusia, the sori being entirely 
naked. There arc numerous Trop. American and Sand- 
wich Island species worthy of cult, in warmhouses. 
There are 3 native hardy species sometimes offered in 
the trade, the firat, second, and fourth in the following 
list. For cult., see Ferna. 

A. Lvs. nnaU or medium-sized, ai mo9t tripinnatifid. 

(Native hardy apeciea.) 

B. Tke bia. Hpinnatifid, broadly triangular. 

pale green; lower pair of pinna: deflcxed and set forward; 
Borimarsinal. E. U. S,— Suitable for shaded banks with 
good soil and fair moisture. 

polypodioldes, F6e. Lvs. 5-9 in. long, longer than 
broad, dark green, slightly hairy beneath' sori nearer 
the margin than tne midnb. Eu. and N. E. N. Amer. 
G.M. 58:297 (as Folypodium pA«ffop(em).— Like pre- 
ceding in cidtural requirements. 

BB. The U/a. Iri^pinnatifid, laruxolale. 

■Ipfetris, Mett. Lvs. 1-2 ft. long, 6-8 in. wide, with 
numerous finely cut lanceolate pinme, the lobra toothed: 
thinly herbaceous. Eu. and N. W. Amer.— Habit of 
AfAurium (or Aspienium) Fiiix-f<Emina and is probably 

BBB. The Iva. lemately tripinnatifid. 
DiySpteris, F£e. Oax Fern. Lvs. triangular, 3-9 
in. each way, the lowest pinnie nearly equal to the 
terminal, giving the If. a teiiiate appearance Eu.and N. 
Amer.— Crows in damp places in nearly pure leaf-mold. 
AA. Lvs. aeveral^eei long, decompound. 
Eentndreniina, Mann. Lva. several feet loDg, decom- 
pound, with light brownish polished stalks and straw- 
colored rachides; texture herbaceous; sori near the 
murg inw of the segms. Sandwich lals. — A greenhouse 
species. This species has also 
been advertised under the name 
of Polypodium. 

L. M. Underwood. 



for a/rk, and free, alluding to the 
corky bark). RvlAeex. Cork 
Tree. Ornamental trees, grown 
for their handsome foliage. 

Deciduoua; winter buds naked, 
inclosedby the base of the petiole: 
lvs. oppoaite, petioled, without 
stipules, odd-pinnate, with oppo- 
site crenulate Ifta.: fis. dicecious, 
in terminal panicles, or the stami- 
nate fls. nearly corymbose; sepals 
and petals 6^, ovatc-lanoeolate; 
atamena 5-6, longer than petals; 
ovary 5 - celled, with a short 
thick style: fr. a black drupe with 

5 small 1 -seeded stones. — Five or 

6 closely related species in E. Asia. 




The cork trees are usually medium-sized trees with 
rather stout spreading branches, forming a round 
broad head, with large leaves of aromatic odor when 
bruised ana turning vellow in autumn, and with in- 
conspicuous grcNenish flowers followed by black beny- 
like fruits remaining on the tree a long time after the 
leaves have fallen. P. amurense and P. sachalmense' 
are hardy Nortli, while the other species seem some- 
what tenderer but have proved hardy as far north as 
Massachusetts. They are of rapid growth when young 
and seem to grow in almost any kind of soil. The first- 
named species has been recommended as a street tree 
for western cities, as it resists drought and heat in 
siunmer and seems not to be attacked by insects. 
Propagation is by sewls, whidi are produced freely 
when both sexes are planted, and by root cutting? dus 
up in fall and stored during the wmter in moist sand 
or sphagnum* cuttings taken from the tree in July 
with a heel of older wood will root in gentle heat. 

A. Lv8, glabrous benecUh or with a few scattered hairs on 

the midrib, glaucescent or glaucous, 

amurense, Rupr. Amoor Cork Tree. Tree, to 50 
ft.: bark of ihe trunk light gray, corky, deeply fissured: 
1-year-old branchlets orange-yellow or yellowish gray, 
almost glabrous: Ifts. 5-13, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
narrowed or rounded at the base, long-acimiinate, 
minutely crenulate, and ciliate, dark green and.lustrous 
above, glaucescent and glabrous beneath or with a few 
scatter^ hairs near the base of the midrib, 2-4 in. long: 
infl. puberulous: fr. globose, black, about H~Mu^* 
across, with a strong tm^ntine-like odor when bnused, 
in broad panicles, 2-Zyi in. across. Jime. N. China, 
Amurland, Japan. S.T.S. 1:93. S.I.F. 2:33. Var. 
Albo-variegiitum, Schwerin. Lvs. variegated with large 
white blotches. — A hybrid between this si>ecies and P. 
japonicum has been observed in the Botanic Garden at 
Lund, Sweden. 

8achalin6nse, Sarg. Tree, to 50 ft.: bark of the 
trunk dark brown, slightly fissured and broken into 
thin plates, not corky: 1-year-old branchlets reddish 
brown: Ifts. 7-11, ovate to ovate-oblong, acuminate, 
cuneate or roimded at the base, minutely crenulate ana 
glabrous or sparingly ciliate on the margin^ dull green 
above, glaucescent beneath and glabrous or near^ so, 
3-5 in. long: infl. nearly glabrous: fr. black, Hin. across 
or slightly more, in broad panicles 2-3)^ in. across. 
June. Saj^alin, Korea, N. Japan, W. China. S.T.S. 
1:94. — ^This is the most satisfactory and hardiest 
species in cult. ; it forms a tall trunk with a broad crown. 

AA. Lvs, pubescent beneath^ at lecLst on the veins, and pale 

green or grayish green, 

B. Infl. as broad or nearly as broad as high: ovary glabrous, 

LavallM, Dode. Tree, to 30 or occasionally to 50 ft.: 
bark corky: 1-year-old branchlets purplish brown: 
If.-rachis puberulous or pubescent; Ifts. 5-13, elliptic- 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, cimeate at the 
base, minutely crenulate and ciliate, dull ycllowii^ 
green above, pubescent beneath while young, at 
maturity often only on the veins, 2-4 in. long: infl. 
puberulous: fr. black, \im. across, in rather loose broad 
panicles 2>^ in. across. J\me. Cent. Japan. I.T. 
5:171 (as P. amurense). — Often confused with P. 
japonicum and cult, imder that name. 

jap6nicum. Maxim. Tree, to 30 ft., with slightly 
fissured dark brown bark, not corky: 1-year-old 
branches reddish brown: If.-rachis densely villous or 
tomentose; Ifts. 9-13, ovate to ovate-oblong, aciuninate, 
truncate or subcordate and very unequal at the base, 
minutely crenulate and ciliate, dull green above, villous 
beneath all over, more densely on the veins, 3-4 in. 
long: infl. hoary-tomentose: fr. black, nearly J^in. 
thick, in broad panicles 2-3H in. across. J\me. Cent. 
Japan. S.T.S. 1:95. 

BB.. Infl, distinctly higher than broad: ovary pubescent, 

chin^nse. Schneid. Tree, to 30 ft.: bark dark grayish 
brown, slightly fissured,, not corky: 1-year-old branch- 
lets purplish brown: Ifts. 7-13, oblong-ovate to oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, rounded or broadly c\meate at 
the base, dark yellowish green above, villous beneath, 
Z}^5}4 in. long: infl. densely pubescent: fr. black, 
nearly y^. across, in panicles about 1-23^ in. broad ana 
2r3 in. long. Cent. China. Var. glabridsculum, Schneid. 
(P. sin^nse, Dode). Lfts. pubescent only on the veins 
beneath. C5ent. and W. China. Alfred Rehder. 

PHELTPifeA (after Louis and Hier. Phelipeaux). 
Also spelled Phdipsea, Orobanchdceae. Herbs, puber- 
ulent or glabrous, from a thick short few-scaled base: 
scapes simple, elongated, remotely few-scaled or the 
elongated peauncles naked, scape-like, always 1-fld., 
bractless; calyx 5-parted, broad-campanulate, lobes 
acute, uneaual; corolla^tube broadly ventricose, in- 
curved, limb sub-2-labiate, with 5 broadly rounded 
not very unequal lobes, anterior lip at base gibbous or 
with 2 broad glandulose-pubescent spots; stamens 
included; ovary with 4 placentas: fr. a pmect 2-valvcd 
acute, ovate caps. — About 5 species, chiefly in the 
Orient, but also m N. Air. and Asia. P. folidta, Lamb. 
Parasitic leafless herb 1-1 1^ ft. hij^h: ste. simple, rather 
stout, glandular-puberulous, reddish: fl. solitary, termi- 
nal, ebracteate; calyx campanulate, unequally 5-lobed, 
usiudly somewhat 2-lipped, lobes oblong or ovate, deep 
red or chestnut-brown; corolla ringent, tube widely 
and obliquely campaniuate^ orange fluked with red 
outside, limb 2-lipped, reddish yellow outside, brilliant 
crimson within, the throat with 2 black hirsute spots: 
fr. a wide ovate caps, nearly Hin> long. Caucasus. It 
has been raised in botanic gardens in Eu. 

F. Tracy Hubbard. 

PHENOLOGY foontraction of phenomenology; that 
is, the science of pnenomena) is the study of the rela- 
tionships between the climate of any place and the 
annual periods of plants and animals. Plants vege- 
tate, bloom, and npen fruit at more or less defimte 
seasons, eacn after its kind; animals mate, bear young, 
migrate and hibernate each also after its kind; but 
these recurring events are related to the climate in 
which these tmngs live: with these inter-relationships 
phenology has to do. The most complete means of 
comparing the climate of one year with that of another 
are the life-events of the animals and plants of the 
years. Thermometrical readings are the customary 
measures, but the thermometers record only tempera- 
ture, whereas local climate is modified by conditions 
of humidity, cloudiness, the sequence of atmospheric 
changies, and many subtle agencies which cannot be 
measured by means of instruments. Living things are 
Uie agents that really measure climate. A record of 
the life-events of living things, therefore, even though 
imperfect, should contribute to the science of clima^ 
tologyj and incidentally it should contribute much to 
the science of biology. Records of plant-events are 
more comparable than those of animal-events, because 
plants are stationary and have no volition to adapt 
themselves to inclemencies by means of change of 
position, diet, or otherwise; therefore, plants emphati- 
cally express climatal influence. A record of the first 
blooming of a given apple tree, for example, during a 
series of years would give comparable measures of the 
lateness or earliness of the different seasons. Most so- 
called phenological observations in this country have 
been mere records of dates of blooming, leafing, migra- 
tion of birds, peeping of frogs, and the like, without 
correlative data respecting the local climate. They are 
therefore of relatively little consequence to science. In 
this country the literature of phenology is meager. Sec 
Bailey, Essay 17, "Survival of the Unlike,"and "Weather 
Review," Sept. 1896, U. S. Weather Bureau, l. h. B. 



PHBItOUENAL BBSRT: flro ortic 

PHILAD£LPHnS (named fur the ancient G|oi>tiui 
king, Ptolemy Philadelphus, who reigned from 285 to 
247 B.C.)- SaxifTogfLcex. Syrinqa. Mock Ohanqe. 
Popular ornamental deciduous or rarely htJf-evergreen 

Leaves opposite, entire to variously toothed, occa- 
nonally slightly revolul«, and almost invariably (»liate: 
fla. often very fragrant, mostly white, a few creamy or 
with purple or rosy spota at or near the base of the 
petals, in racemes, or solitary or in cymoae groupa of 
1-6; calyx-lobes, petals, and styles usually 4; stamens 
numerous r fr. a dehiscent commonly 2-pEirted 4- 
valved many-seeded caps. — About 30-35 species have 
been described. The genus is essentially Asiatic and 
American. P. coronaTiua is certainlv a native of 
Aimenia and the Caucasus, and several varieties of it 

Fbiladelphus, but in the form serin^. 

PhiladelphuB i;enerally blossoms m June; in fact, it 
is remarkable fur the uniformity of the bloesommg 
period, both in cultivation and m its native haunts, 
throughout the world. Most of the members of the 
genus Bxe hardy Noriii, except P. Cordteri, P. merieanus, 
and the other Mexican species. They are well adapted 
to shrubberies and mostly do not grow very high, the 
tallest being P. pabescena, attaining a height of about 
20 feet; others, as P. coronaHue, P. ZeyheH, and P. 
inodoruB, grow nearly as high, while P. microphyllut 
hardly exceeds 3 feet. If pruning is needed it should be 
done after flowering, since the flowers appear on the 
wood formed the previous year. Usually propagation 
is b^ hardwood cuttings, or by suckers and greenwood 
cuttings under ^ass; fdso by lasers and by seeds, but 
when several species are growing together they are 
likely to hybridize. 

2MU. Pli 

extend the range to Japaa, and it is wild in Eu., but 
whether or where it is native is uncertain, because it 
has undoubtedly sometimes escaped from cult. The 

Sua has 3 roughly defined areas of distribution, — N. 
a and Japan, W. Amer. from Brit. Col. to Calif.)^ 
S. Atlantic States, and Mex. It haa no well-: 


_.e sometimes connected by intermediate forms. The 
latest treatment of the genus is in Schneider's Illus- 
triertes Handbuch der Laubhobskunde, vol. 1, p. 362 
(1M5). On account of the great confusion of names in 
the genus, rather more aynonmy than usual is given, 
but the selection is nevertheless of the names more 
likely to be met with or to cause confusion. The com- 
plete synonymy is far larger. 

Syringa, the common name of Phiiadelphus, is 
identical with the generic name of the lilac. This arises 
from the use of Syringa by the old herbalists. Thus, in 
1597, John Gerarde in his "Herball" gives Sj/ringa alba, 
white pipe, S. cxrvien, blue pipe, and S. arabiea, 
Arabian pi[)e, the first being Pniladetplfua eoronariut, 
the second Syringa vutgaria (lilac), and the third Ja»- 
minum Sambac. Toumefi>rt, in 1700, selected SjTinga 
for the liist, but Linnaeus, whom we follow, chose to use 
it for the second. However, Toumcfort's usage pre- 
vailed in English speech, while the Germans call 
Phiiadelphus cither Pfeifenstrauch (>- pipe-shrub, like 
the herbalists' "pipe," above) or Jasmin, perpetuating 

Voia Licltt. 2. 

uokohama, 0. 
Z^hcri, 4, 8. 

A. simple orn^yeompoimd racemes {Non.l-SO). 

B. Caiyx glabrout untitoiii, or with some scaUered haira 
•,pt in P. geriamthus and P. i 

c. PutUa littk or not ai all exceeding Ike al 
D. Styles aeparaiing leas than half way down (except 

often in varieties of P. Letwiinei) {Nos. 1-lS). 

B. Loa. aome, generally rnoil, of the malure onet more 

than 1^^ in. long. 

F. The ba. of young auceaUnt ahooU and sitekera not 

approaching a circular outlirte, tiauaUy moderalely 

toothed, if at all. 

a. The adyx euentiaUy glabrous tpithout. 

1. aepal£nsls, Koehne. Upright shrub to about 5 ft.: 
Ivs. at maturity about IJ^lJi in. long, ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, evenly and distantly mucronate- 
dcnticulate, with white or yellowish tufts of haiis in 
the axils of lateral veins, especially on Ivs. of young 
succulent shoots and suckera: fls. practically scentless; 
cup of the calyx and caps, plamly acute to long- 
pomted at base. June. N.E. lUmslayas. 

2. Voio Lactic. Hybrid between P. nepalensia and 
P. mierophylliis. Similar to the preceding and superior 
to it, most readily distinguished by the Ivs. of the 
young succulent ahoots and suckers, which are more 
coarselv toothed, and not, so long-pointed; caps, not 
seen, out probably more rounded at base. June. 
G.M. 55:654. G.W. 17, p. 103. 

3. pekinfinsls, Rupr. (P. coronAriua var. pekinhms, 
Maxim.). Erect shrub, to 5 ft., closelj^ resembling P. 
nepaienaia, but without the characteristic tufts of hairs 
on lower It-surfaces, and usually with purplish petioles... 
May, June. Mongolia, N. China. 

4. Ziyheri (P. XocAidnu*, Koehne. P.corrmArivtZhi- 

eoronariiis: Ivs. variable, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
acute to acuminatCj with hard-tipped teeth, slabrous 
or nearly bo, or hairy along the veins beneath, those 
of young succulent shoots and Huckera ovate-lanceolate 
to broadly ovate, Hometimes with tufta of hairs on the 
youngest, as in P. Ti^poZeruu.'fls. white, slightly fragrant 
or flcentless.^A puzzling abmb, at times confusingly 
similar to F. coronariua. June. 

5. Uwisli, PuTsh (P. eolumbiinut, Koehne. P. 
Oordonidmu, Lind). P. calif6micu», Benth. P. oordi- 
fdliut, Lange), Upright shrub, to S ft., very vari^le: 
IVB. about 1-3 in. long, most not more than 2M in., 
about Ji-2 (usually not more than 134) in. wide: 
racemes of varying length, generall;^ but not always 
leafy; fls. white, borne in great profusion, in wild planta 
very fragrant, Dut^ judging by some printed statements, 
not always retaining the odor under cult. June, July. 
Brit. Col. to Calif. B.R. 25i32.— EioeUent. 

6. coronirius, Linn. (P. pdJZidui, Hayek. P. eorih 
ndnut nivilit, Hort.). Figs. 2902, 2903. Shrub, to 
10 ft.: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate (rarely ovate), generally 
acuminate, usually rather evenly mucronatendenticu- 
late (exceptionally almost entire), rarely slightly ser- 
rate, thickiah at maturity, about 1>^ in. long, 
V4-25i in. broad, slightly hairy beneath: fls. in rather 
dense racemes, white or more often with a shght 
creamy tone, very fragrant. May, June. Caucasus, 

^ringa, or mock c 

ge, with less attractive foliai 

The following horticultural and 2 wild varieties are 
cult. Var. fl^«-pl&no, Hort. (P. corondrtua dianthifid- 
ru», rosxfi&ms, and probably primulxflitrus and tmilli- 
A6rue plinut, and otner names), witji more or less dou- 
ble fls. Var. f&lilB arEenteo-marginfttlB, Hort., Ivs. 
white-margined. Var. f&Iiis aflreis, Hort., Ivs. golden 
yellow. Var. spedosfssimu^ Hort. (P. tpeeiosfe«imus, 
P. Zhyheri tpecinsissimtis). Generally lower shrub than 
the species, with rather unifonn and smaller Ivs., 
broadly ovate to rotund. Var. gnuidifldnu, Hort. (P. 

IWU. Philidalphiu eocoiuulu. — Mock onnci 

fffiidifiiruB, Hort.), with larger fla. than in the snecies, 
mosdy 2 in. or more diam. Not to be confusoa with 
P. iaadoTua var. grandiflorue. Gray, below. Var. aalici- 
f&Uus, Hort. (P. salicijdiius Hort., in part). Lvs. typi- 
cally narrowly lanceolate, more or teas willow-like, but 
sometimes, probably by reversion, broadly ovate, more 
coarsely toothed. Var. nAnus, Sohrad. (P. nAnus, Hort, 
P. salicifblius, Hort., i in part), dense bushy plants, 
usually not over IH ft. high: long cult, and known to 
flower rarely. Var. acumliUttus, A. H. Moore (P. acu' 
minitus, Luige, P. taUitmi, P. salsuTnAnits, P. yoko- 
Mma or yokohAmar of cult.). Lvs. more acuminate 
than in toe species, the tips often bent to one side. 


especially in wild specimens, with conspicuous bard- 
tipped teeth or serrations. Yunnan Province, China, 
Japan, and Tsu Shim a. Var. tomontdsns, Hook. f. & 
Thoms. (P. tortieniimis. Wall. P. jtepal&raia, Lodd.). 
Shrub, to about 6 ft.: lvs. very hairy beneath. Himn^ 
layas and Thibet. Rather unattractive and of uncer^ 
tarn hardiness. 

oa. The calyx iomentoge. 

7. sericlnfiius, Koehne. Lvs. lanceolate, distantly 
blunt-toothed or entire, mature ones about lH-4 in, 
loi^, ^2 in. wide, glabrous beneath, or with few 
scattered hairs: fls. about ^in. across. June. Hupeh 
Province, China. — Larger-lTO. specimens have been 
distinguished as var. Rehderiinus, Koehne. 

8. incinus, Koehne. Lvs. ovate, more or less 
abruptly acuminate, dentate, with 5 principal veins, 
mature ones IVz-^^i in. lung, ^in. across. June. 
Hupeh and Szechuan provinces. China. 

FF. The hs. of yinmg succulent shools and sttekera very 
large, oveUe-iaTUXolate to orbicultv, very coarsely 

9. floiibfindus (P. vermcims ficrihinduM, P. grandx- 
fiima fioribundiig, Hort.). Hybrid of uncertain origin, 
probably with P. coronorius as one parent. Shrub 
reaembhng P. coroTiariux: IvB. generally hairier than 
in P. eoronanug, and with characteristically very large, 
ovate-lanceolate to more often orbicular, generally 
coarsely toothed lvs. on young succulent ahoota and 
suckers: fls. in racemes of about 5, about 2 in. across, 
slightly fra^ant. 

EE. Lvs. Tardy over 1 \4 in. long (unioSy from about 

10. LemdineL Hybrid of P. coronantia and P. 
mierophyllus. Shrub with spreading branches, freely 
flowering: twi^ and little branchlets with short hairs: 
ordinary mature Ivs. ovate to ovate-lanceolate, rather 
uniform, rather small, glabrous or nearly so, acute to 
acuminate, with a few minute teeth, those of the young 
succulent shoots and suckeia entire or remotely few- 
toothed, somewhat lai^r: fls. 2-9, in dense racemes, 
having a delicate but charming perfume. G.F. 2:617. 
G.L. 28:225.— The following horticultural varieties are 
of interest: Var, erSctus. Flowering branches irregularly 
ascending, forming a more compact bush and less desir- 
able. M.D.G. 1902:383. Avalanche. Gr^icetul shrub, 
taller than other varieties, branches sometimes as long 
as 6 ft. : easily distinguished from the other varieties by 
its lanceolate lvs. G.C. IIL 21:89, M.D.G. 1896:293: • 
1907:379. Bouquet Blanc. Lower If.-aurfapea and 
twigs with scattered hairs, distinctly visible: fls. in bou- 

8uet>-like masses, not very fragrant. G.M. 55:487. 
r.W. 17, p. 101. Candelabre. Very low ahnib, ap- 
proaching P. micropkyltus in size, hairy as in the pre- 
ceding, hut with a more open candelabra-like infl. 
M.D.G. 1896:294. Mont Blanc. Normally, probably, 
the most profusely flowering variety, but very variable 
in this respect. Hairs scarcely visible, a character at 
once distinguishing it from all the preceding. Exceed- 
ingly fragrant. Manteau d'H ermine- Twigs nearly or 
Sute glabrous. Pavilion Blanc. Profusely flowering 
rub: branches rounded or s<juarish in habit, twigs 
hairy: lvs. cloEjcly covered with ailky hairs beneath. One 
of the moat beautiful, and the sweetest scented of all 
the varieties, the perfume resembling that of P. miero- 
■phijllua. Gerbe de Neige. Calyx hairy. Boule d'A^ent. 
Fls. double, stamens mostly sterile, about IJi in. across, 
not very sweet-scented; calyx glabrous. Oldest and 
least deairahle of double-fld. sorts. G.C. IIL 18: 18; 
23:331. Virginal. Large double fragrant fls., 2)^ in. 
across, or wider. G.M. 54:4.59. R.H. 1910, pp. 408, 
409. Her de Glace. Double fls., similar to preceding. 
G.W. 17, p. 102. Var. fimbrifttus is a distinct variety 
with lai^e fla., petals twisted and deeply serrate. For 
-"■ --'--T of this hybrid consult list, p. 2582. 


11. phanUda (P. Lembinei PantaUie). Hybrid 
between P. Coidieri and an unknown variety of P. 
Letnoinei. Fls, fragrant, white, tinted with pale rose at 
the center of the fl. ; petala fringed at the edge. June. 
Var. purpfiieo-maculfttus, Hort. Derivative m P. pfcon- 
tasia. Lva. essentially as in /*. Lemoinei, but proportion- 
ately Homewfaat brooder, with nuinerous, short, stiff 
hairs beneath: fls. large, about 1^2 in. across, exqui- 
eitelv fragrant, with a purple spot at base of each 
petal; calyx with a few siiort, silky hairs. B.M. 8193. 

12. £toiIe Rose. Hybrid between P. phanlaaia aitd 
P. purpureo-maculatus. Lvb. Bmall; fls. delicately 
fragrant, in rounded panicle-like racemes; petals elon- 
gate, roae-purplo at base, the color diminishing toward 
the center of the fi. June. 

DD. Styles separated almost or entirely to the boat, 
especially after /lowering. 

13. Conquete. Hvbrid of unknown oripn. Lvb. 
lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, glabroua, about 
2-3 in. long, 5^1 J^ in. wide, entire, or with a few sntall 
teeth, on young succulent sbools and suckers lareer, 
long-acummate, coarsely toothed: fls, in a more or less 



Lv8. ovate to oval«-lanceolale. 

suckers o 

franant. June, July. Tenn., Ala. (last, according to 
Rydbera). Souvenir de Billiard (also cult, under the 
names P. Biliidrdii and P. inslgnit) ia a horticultural 
variety, witli ovate lva. on the average smaller than 
in tiie species, about IK"-2?^ in. long, erroneouriy 
Var. intCctus, A. H. 

compact but not head-^ikc cluster, very large, to 2% 
in. across, sweet-scented; the slender thread-like styles 
cleft almost to the base, especially after flowermg, 
stigmas generally short and small ; calyx glabrous with- 
out. May, June, G.W. 17, p. 102. 

14. ^ufie Blanche. ^Hybrid between P. microphyllva 

Ce, acuminate, conspicuously toothed: &b. 
not over ij^ in, across, sweet-scented; styles modei^ 
ately slender, gradually broadening into the stigma; 
calyx glabrous without. May, June. 

15. Rosace. Hybrid of unknown origin. Lvs. lanceo- 
late, glabrous, about Ii4-^14 in. long, % to about 1 
in. wide, entire, on young succulent shoots and suckers 
toothed: fls. very large, \%-2% in, across, sweet- 
scented; calyx glabrous without. May, June. 

16. Perle Blanche. Shrub, to about 4Ji ft.: lva. 
ovate, medium-sized, toothed, with small stiff scat^ 
tered hairs beneath: fls. partly double, in head-like 
clusters, sn-eet-scented; calyx rather hairy without. 
May, June. 

cc. Pistils far exceeding the slameru. 

17. F«coneri, Sarg. Fig, 2901. Shrub, to 8 ft., with 
slender, arching branches: lvs. ovate-lanceolate, 1)4^ 
in. long, 3^1 in, wide, acuniinate| entire or very 
minutely mucronate-denticulalo: fls. m loose racones 
of 1-6, fragrant, about 114 in. across; calyx-lobes very 
acuminate; petals ratJicr narrow; pistils much longer 
than the stamens; styles separating as long slender 
filaments; stigmas scarcely broader than the styles. 
June. Origin unknoni), probably Japanese. G.F. 
8:497 (adapted in Fig. 2904). M.D.G. 1899:231. Gng. 

BB. Calyx distinctly hairy or glabrale. 

18. pubfiscens, Loisel. (P. kUifdlius, Schrad. P. 
grandifldrus, P. W. Wats,, under which name it is often 
met with, a name commonly also applied to varieties 
of P. eoromtrius and of P. iru>dorus, P. nitiolit, and 
many other species or supposed species; it is also 
wrongly called P-Gordonianus). Shrub, to 20 ft.: bark 
of old branches grayish, either crocking when old and 
not peeling, or peeling in little flakes, so that shreds do 
not remain, of younger branches generally yellowish or 
Erecnish yellow: lvs. ovate to broadly elliptic or ovate- 
lanceolate, 1H-4M in. long, Ji-3 in. wide (those of 
young succulent shoots and suckers may attain dimen- 
sions of 7}4x6?4 in,), acute to acuminate, almost entire 
to more or less markedly mucronate-denticulale: fls. in 
long leafy racemes of S-10, usually distant, somewhat 

29M. PUUdalphiu Ptlcaurl. 

Moore (P. intidus, Beadlo). A natural variety with 
an externally wholly glabrous calyx, and with IvB. 
glabrous or nearly so. Tenn. 

10. verrucAsuB, Schrad. Aplant of uncertain ori^n: 
if hybrid, the parentage cannot be surmised. Similar 

o preceding, but bark of old branches purplish red or 

' 'brown, often peeling in shreds, of the younger 

brownish or reddish. June, July. Var. 

garden variety with ali^tly droop- 
ing branchlets. 

Magdalina, Koehne. Rather lower, spreading 

, to about 5W ft: the calyx gf " "- ' 

stiff hairs: oUierwise closely r 
ceding, lvs. inclined to be smaller. 
AA. FU. bortie singly or in cltut^rs of 1-6 at Vie tipt of 
tite hranchktt, nol in rocemei, except oeauitmally 
in P. meiieanvs. 

21. inoddma, Linn. (P. coronitriut var. inodbrut. 
Martyn. Deiitziaeorymbdia, Hort.). Shrub, to about 1 
ft., much resembling P. coronariiu in general appeaiv 
' to ovate-lanceolate, about 1-6 in. long. 

Ga. and Miss. B.M. 1478. Usually hardy N, Long in 
cult.; inferior to P. atronariua. Var. eraadifl&nis, 
Gray (P. grandifl&rus, Willd. P. Idxut, Lindl,, also of 
Lodd. P. Idxw var. prandiffdrua, Loud,), Lvs, j(en- 
erally more elongate, more coarsely toothed, especially 

Bushkill, Pa. 

22. uiua, Schrad. (P. grandiflbr^ var. Wxwt, Torr. 4; 
Gray. P, sped dsu>, Schrad, P.pabfacent, Lodd,). Shrub, 
to scarcely more than 1 }^ ft. : lvs. narrowly lanceolate, 
with rarely a few ovate-lanceolate, teeth small, evenly 
disposed, on young succulent shoots and suckers more 
or less ovate-lanceolate, more coarsely toothed, some- 
times with tufts of hairs in axils of lateral veins: fls. 
white. April, May. Szecbuon Province, China. B.R. 


timea glabrale): Ivs. i 

;. Fit. tahiie or cream-colored. 
i, Nutt. (P. kirgiilug vox. ffrAcilis, Sclirad. 
P. inoddrus var. hirgiUug, Wood. P. trininriug, Schrad, 
P. inodArus, Schrad.). Uprieht or spreading ehnib, to 
8 ft. : IvB. lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 1-2 J^ in. Ioda, 
5^1 J4 in. wide, Bcuioinate, regularly serrate (tare^ 
denticulate), usually with more or leas nuiaerous short, 
rough hairs above, closely siivery-gray coated beneaUi, 
thin and papery when young, Apri]-Jume. Rocky 
river banks, Tenn., N. C., Ga., Ala. Gn. 28, p. 37S; 
34yp. 133. B.H. 24:14. B.M. 5334. 

24. m«xicaau8, Scli1echt._ (P. mialenudinsia, and P. 
tempinrirens applied to tliis in Cuif. are apparently gar- 
j„ 1 Evergreen shrub, to about 6J^ ft.: Ivb. 

Ae, distantly blunt-toothed, glabi 

ingly huiy above, scabrous beneath with short stiff, 
clwely appreseed hairs, in general pointing toward the 
apex: fla. occaBionally m short leafy racemes (a transi- 
tion to the first great subdivision of the genus, see a in 
key on p. 2579), 2 in. across, cream-colored, fragrant. 
Mex. and, it is said, Guatemala. B.M. 7600. B.R. 28: 
87. R.H. 1852:381. G.C. II. 19:753; 34:218. 

25. microphallus, Gray. Erect, to G ft. (usually not so 
tall), or in its native habitat sometimes sprawling, with 
spreading slender or rigid branches: Ivb. oblong-ovate, 
%-l in. lonf;, J^J^in. wide, acute or subacute (rarely 
obtuse), entire, 8carcel}[ if at all revolute more or less 
densely covered with stlky hairs beneath, glabrous or 
with short hairs ^ove: fls. ^^in. across, white, 
exouisitoly fragrant: cape. li~y»v\. \aag, H-H'o. wide, 
glabrous or slightly hairy. June, July, Utah and Colo. 
toAriz.,N. M^ir.,and Calif. G.C. III. 2:156; 11:86; 
61:225. Gn. 40:288. P.G. 5:109. 

cc. Fla. with a purple spot at base. 

26. COulteri, Wato. (P. mextcdntu var. CfmUeri, 
Burb.). Fig. 2905. Shrub, to about 10 ft,: Ivs. 
ovate, lj,^2in. long, J^J^in, wide, obtusely to sharply 

Sinted, on young succulent shoots and suckers, lai^r 
)thed, those of both young and old covered with 
rough hairs above and very white-tomentose beneath, 
the whole like a rough piece of felt: fls. white, very 
fragrant; petals with red spot at the base; calyx cov- 
ered with silvery white silky hair; caps, unusually 
large, about J^in, long. States of Nuevo Leon and 
Hidalgo, Mcx. G.F. ] :233 {adapted in Fig. 2905). B.R. 
14. — Very distinct, desirable for southern latitudes, 
and one of the most pleasing of the genus. 
P. arfffnttua, Rydb. Low Btr&Kslina ahrub, i 
■ilvery atyi. snd Ivb. gilvcry brncstli. Fort H 
Kbtk plinl for southern rofkeriM or bardfra. Bee 
only one ptoot, or preferably seeda. ahnuld be froi, to prevcDC 
Bit«niin»lioa. — P. bratAuI'dlryi. Koehne (P. pekineiMi»vir.biBchy- 
boCrys, Koehne). Of uncertam itBtiding. sflied to P, coroimrius. 

Koehne. With purple nlyi mad ;iedi«li. B.M. S324 (u F, De^ 
lavayi), — P. ehijUnrie^P. corooAnuB var, Beumifut 
nu. var, nikafiuii. A, H, Moore IP, utaumanua 
Rehd.). ReUEadUivu.uvKiuutua.diflerinaiupw 

•paeially on tbe Teini of lower lf,-*urfu«,— /', Rmnulnu vu. 
lemijUiiHit. Unnrtain, probably— P. eoronariug fiore-pleoo,— P. 
wmdriBi var, Itnui/Wfui, Marim. A variety differing but slightly 
'rom the type, of no advanlage to horticullure, — F. Drlatiyi, L. 

frinjBd petals, oitfi, „ 

p. 13, Var, mtlaadraltx, Uort.. IS 
—P. Driiden. Hybrid of .P. Let 
Deoirsble,— P, fiiridut, Beadle, . 
with attractive Ur| 

mth dark purple calyx, 
rtua and P. pubeacena. 
ihnib. erect, to 6Wfl-: 
preated lilky,, Suluble 

_ . _.. ._ id for P. hirautua ajod 

floriiB. — P, onndiftfi-vt Idziu fidre-^hvi, Bee note on prcced- 
inanama. — P. irutdinu nxngutruiti. Unknown. Name P. inodorua 
■!n variouBly applied. — P. Lemdiiwi- Of i 
produced, but not yet intro, into Ameria 
Beam worthy of mention. (See also deriv. 
originally twt«l as varietia of P. Lemc 

Hume.) Aibirt, Branchea more iineeful than in me variety vir- 
Dnal: Ira. smaller: fla. full double as in that wiety, Banniirt. 
Brwicliea arched with the weight of the fla,, which are about 
l>iin. aero_. Dame Blandu. Tls. erewny white, very IrsirBnt: 
petals fringed, A'vrma. Profusely flowering: Bs. large, white, 
OphUia. Oracefully arehing branchce: fla, while, fnigrant,— P. 
WKiffniflcv4t Rehd. Garden hybrid t>f P. inodorus and P, pubeacena. 
— P. mdximut. R«bd. Garden hybrid of uneertiin iwiain; r«*mb- 
liu P. coronariui (perhaps hybrid of that with P. pubesonn). but 
wiu thelvi. of ytHUUBueeulent 4hoo1« and au^eraveiy large, hairy 
I 1 Xot of hottioultural merit. — P.nepolfiuuiorKpdJu. Nanta 

1 trule, the followiii 
Lives of P. phantaaL 
oei, under the fornx 

trasmnt: petals w; 
l^iie, fracrut, i 

a bliLck-purple apot t 

ly white, with a purple 

■a of the petals, Surprue. 

•t: Onl dt Pi 


,ne-purple, Sib^lU. Shnjbwi._ ..^._ . 

.. pretty habit; fla. white, alightly fringed; petalapsle f 
toward baae.— i*. purjmrdtcfnf, Rehd-*-P, brachyootjry 

doubtful n 


1, Hort., offeri 

n hybrid I 

a Calif, 

'crpya-fdliui, Grav. Cloeely related to P. 
it ja more atru^ing. and leaa attractive. 

n hybrid, tsid 

botanical standing, — P. tt 
nucr<^byllua, than w'''-'' 

although perhaps got-, .— ., ^- , ^ -^ 

«y revolute Iva. — P. tpUnJcru. SuppoHd jvden 

be worthy of eiilt. — P, ilenopeiatui. Carr, This ia a gjecii 

deeoription in important particulara auggesta P, Falcoi.. , . 

~ — , Probably hybrid of P, coronariua and 

TMduncled i^eg, 

tinct,— P. H'UKinu. Ko^eT'New ChinwT^ia ofthirgroup 
oi P. incanuB. Value iiaknowD. 

Albert Hanford Moore, 
PHILAG&RU (a name composed from the parent 
genera), LiliAcex. A hybrid genus between Pnitesia 
biaifoUa and Lapageria rosea. A smooth climbing 
shrub: st# flexuoua, rigid, cylindrical: Ivs. alternate, 
petiolate, leathery, smooth, oblong-acute, 3-nerved : 
fla. pendulous; sepals glaucous, pale rose-purple; petals 
imbricate, scarcely open at the apex; antners 6; ovary 
free, 1-celled. — One species, a greenhouse hybrid, P. 
FeiicAii, Mast. G.C. 1872:358; III, 65:399, Appar- 
ently not in cult, at the present time. See Lapageria. 

PHUfiSIA (Greek, hvely). LUiAcex. An interest- 
ing shrub of extra-tropieal South America, little grown. 
See Lapageria and Philageria. 

Species one, a woody plant bearing showy pendulous 
red lapageria-like fls, about 2 in. long. It la unlike the 
ordinary lily types with 6 similar perianth-segms,, for it 
has distinct calyx and corolla parts of 3 sepals and 3 

Etals. It is closely allied to Lapageria, but differs in 
bit, in the colycine character of the outer perianth 
and the monadelphous stamens. It is said to live out- 
doors in the moat favored localities of England and 

Philesia is too slow-growing ever to become very 
popular. It is a rfiort-jointai hard-wooded shrub, 
with rather leathery box-like leaves, and will grow to 
about 4 feet in height in time. The writer's experience 
with this plant was in a camellia house, in which a ni|!ht 
temperature of 45° was maintained, the plants being 
firmly potted in a light peaty soil. It flowered but 




sparingly in the latter part of the summer. The flowers 
were borne only sinely in the axils of the leaves. Cut- 
tings may be rooted when taken from ripened growth, 
but require careful management in a cool temperature, 
and are usually several months in rooting. If one tries 
to grow philesia in a too high temperature, the general 
result is a good crop of thrips and a case of general 
debility, much as with Pemettya mucronata under simi- 
lar conditions. Philesia is probably not extraordinarily 
hard to manage, provided it is kept cool and in a 
dewy atmosphere, but it will positively rebel against 
forcing. (W. H. Taplin.) 

buxifdlia, Lam. (P. mageUdnica^ Gmel.). Much 
branched, S-A ft. : Ivs. alternate, linear-oblong, 1-1)^ in. 
long, leathery, evergreen, feather-veined, glabrous, 
glaucous beneath; margins reflexed; petiole jointed at 
the junction of the blade: fis. solitary, bright rosy red; 
petals wavy; filaments united into a tube below the 
middle, then free: ovary 1-celled, with 3 short parietal 
placenta; which bear several ovules: fr. a berry. S. 
Chile to Magellan. B.M. 4738. F. 1854:65. G.C. II. 
18:ia5; III. 55, suppl. June 6. J.H. III. 42:299. 
G. 36:329. H.F. 4:72. Wilhelm Miller. 


PHILIBfiRTU (after G. C. Philibert). Incl. Sar- 
coathnma and PhiliberUlla. Asdepiaddce^e. Climbing 
shrubs or half-shrubs, white-pubescent or glabrous, 
sometimes grown under glass or far S. for ornament: 
Ivs. opposite: infl. umbelliform cymes, pedunculate in 
one axil or rarely sessile; fls. variable in size, often 
greenish white; calyx small, 5-parted, minutely 5- 
glandulose within, lobes acute; corolla very broadly 
campanulat« or subrotate, divided slightly to the middle 
or deeply 5-cleft, with the lobes twisted and narrowly 
overlapping to the right; exterior crown membrana- 
ceous, ring-like, adnate to the base of the corolla, free 
from the stamen-tube or more or less connate witn the 
median wings of the opposite anther, interior 5 crown- 
scales adnate with the base of staminal tube, with a 
variable lamina; stamens affixed to the base of the 
corolla, the filaments forming a short tube: fr. smooth, 
acuminate, somewhat thickened follicles. — About 30 
species, Trop. and Subtrop. Amer. P. daiisa, Schu- 
mann (PhiliberUlla cUiiisa^ Vail). Sts. glabrous or 
minutely pubescent at the nodes: Ivs. ovate-oblong or 
lanceolate-oblong, apex acute or acuminate, base 
rounded or subcordate, peduncles twice as long as the 
Ivs., or more: fls. many; cdyx-lobes oblong lanceolate, 
acute, pubescent; corolla white, lobes oblong, fimbriate- 
ciliate. Fla. — A twining perennial with glossy ever- 
green Ivs. and very sweet-scented fls., which has been 
offered in the trade-lists. P. gracilis, D. Don (P. 
grandifldra, Hook.). Twining shrub: Ivs. opposite, 
cordate at base: the uml)els borne between the petioles; 
calyx 5 deep acuminate segms.; corolla rotate-cam- 
panulatc, more than 1 in. diam., with 5 triangular 
segms. and a small tooth between them^ cream-colored 
dotted and streaked with purple inside. S. Amer. 
B.M. 3618. H.U. 2, p. 261. Cult, to some extent in 

^^- F. Tract Hubbard. 

PHILLtREA (its ancient Greek name). Oledcese. 
Ornamental woody plants, grown for their handsome 
evergreen foliage. 

Evergreen shrubs or small trees: Ivs. opposite, short- 
petioled, entire or serrate, quite glabrous: fls. small, in 
axillary short racemes, dicecious; calyx 4-toothed; 
corolla 4-lobed, with short tube; stamens 2, with very 
short filaments; style shorter than tube; ovary 2- 
celled: fr. a 1-seeded black drupe. — Five species in 
the Medit. region. The name is sometimes misspelled 

The phillyreas have small, or in one species rather 
targe leaves, and small white flowers, followed by small 


berry-like purplish black fruits. The species are hardy 
only South, but P. decora^ the handsomest of all the 
species, is probably hardy m sheltered positions as far 
north as Massachusetts. They maybe used in the south- 
em stat^ and California for ever^een shrubberies in 
drier and more exposed localities. They grow in almost 
any soil and prefer sunny positions; but P, decora seems 
to grow better if partly shaded. Propajgation is by 
seeds sown after maturity and by cuttings of half- 
ripened wood under glass in simimer or by layers; they 
are also sometimes grafted on Liguatrum ovalifolium, 

A. Lv8. 5i-^ in, long: fr. amaU, 

B. Shape of Iva, roundish oval to oblong4anceolale, usiuiUy 


latifdlia, Linn. Shrub or small tree, to 30 ft., with 
spreading, somewhat rigid branches: Ivs. ovate or oval 
to ovate-oblong, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, 
usually serrate, dark green and shining above, pale 
beneath, %-iyi in. long: fr. globose, conoave at the 
apex. May, June. S. Eu., N. Afr. H.W. 3, p. 123. 
R.F.G. 17:1075. There are several varieties. Var. 
libvis, Ait. Lvs. ovate, almost entire or slightly ser- 
rulate. Var. rotundifdlia, Arb. Kew. Lvs. broadly 
ovate or roimdish ovate. Var. spindsa. Ait. (P. ilicv- 
fdliOj Willd.). Lvs. ovate or ovate-oblong, sharply 

mddia, Linn. (P. latifdlia var. mhdia. Schneid.). 
Spreading shrub, to 20 ft.: young branchlets puberu- 
lous: lvs. oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, entire or 
serrate^ dark green and shining above, ^-2 in. long: 
fr. ovoid, pointed. May, June. Medit. region. N.D. 
2:27. G.O.H. 116. R.F.G. 17 : 1075.— This species 
seems to be somewhat hardier than the preceding and 
the following; the most important of the many varie- 
ties are the following: Var. buxifdlia, Ait., with oblong- 
ovate, obtusish lvs. Var. olesefdlia, Ait. (P. oleaefdliOf 
Hort.). Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, almost entire: branches 
erect. Var. p^ndtda. Ait. Branches spreading and 
somewhat pendulous: lvs. lanceolate. 

BB. Shape of lvs, kmceokUe to linear4anceolate. 

angustifdlia, Linn. Spreading shrub, to 15 ft., with 
slabrous branchlets: lvs. oblong-lanceolate to linear- 
lanceolate, usually entire, dull green above, 1-2 in. 
long: fr. globose or ovoid-globose, pointed. May, June. 
Medit. region. G.O.H. 115. R.F.G. 17:1076. Var. 
lanceollLta, Ait. Lvs. lanceolate, about 1 in. long. 
Var. rosmarinifdlia, Ait., has linear-lanceolate lvs., 
sometimes over 2 in. long, and erect branches. The 3 
preceding species are very closely related to each other 
and considered by some botanists to be varieties of 
only 1 species and designated as P. varidbilisj Timbal dc 
Loret, or P. wlgdris, Camel. 

AA. Lvs. SS in. long: fr. j^in. long. 

decdra. Boiss. & Bal. (P. Vilmorinidna^ Boiss. & Bal. 
P. lawrifoliay Hort. P. Medwidiewiy Sred.). Shrub, to 
10 ft., with ^reading branches: lvs. oblong to oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, usually entire or remotely serru- 
late, dark green and shining above, yellowish mea 
beneath: fr. oblong-ovoid, purplish black. June, July. 
W.Asia. B.M. 6800. G.C. IIL 4:673; 16:369. R.H. 
1889, p. 199; 1895, pp. 204, 2a5. M.D.G. 1898:349. 
S.H. 2:523. Gn. 24, p. 490. G. 30:325; 36:657. G.W. 
^•259. Alfred Rehder. 

PHILOD£nDRON (Greek compound for treeAm- 
ing). Ardcese. Shrubby or tree-like ornamental plants, 
usually climbing, rarely arboreous. 

Intemodes more or less elongated: lvs. from entire 
to bipinnatifid: fls. monoecious, on spadices, with no 
perianth, the sterile with 2-6 stamens united into a 
sessile obpyramidal body, the pistillate fls. with a 2-10- 
loculed ovanr and -some staminodia, the berries inclosed 
in the involute spathe. — ^The species are all Trop. 


American. ThCT are monographed by Engler in Das 
Pflanieniich, hft. fiO (JV. 23 Dd) 1913, who accepts 
222 species. Some of tbem aie promiaent in tropical 
plaD tings. 

Only a few philodendrona can be grown to have an 
ornamental appearance in a anudl etat«. One which 
IjocB under the name of P. d«gaiiti»»imum. wiUi finely 
cut leaves, mi^es a good pot specimen, although it will 
reach considerable height when suitable opportunities 
are affoided. The same may be said of P. SelUmm, a 
beautifxil species with pinnatifid leaves. The arborescent 
kinds should have a. very porous rooting medium and 
copious Buppliee of water wnile in active growth. When 
climbing, they must have provision made for the roots, 
which are produced along the stems. Some of the spe- 
cies do well climbing up the st«uis of tall palms, such 
B8 arenga and livistona: otherwise dead trunks of 
tree ferns make admirable rooting substances for the 
roots to penetrate and cling to. Propagation is by divi- 
sion of the climbing stems. P. ^eganiii' 
imidentified trade i 


A. Lps. inpintiaU. 
B. Terminal tJ.'Segmi. S-iobed, the iobea 

SeUfium, C. Koch (P. Sfllou'i, Hort,). 
Blade pinnatisert, the segms. again 

E innate or lobed; terminivl segms. 3- 
ibed, the cuspidate middle lobe about 
etjualmg the obtuse lateral ones: spathe 

slightly cuspidate, its tube longer than the c 

blade, green without, white within. Distinguished from 
P. Hpinnalijidum by the very numerous parallel trans- 
lucent spots, which are visible on both sides of the If. 
and are often excurrent on the margin. Brazil to Para- 
guay. B.M. 6773, G.W. 10, p. 211. 

BB. Terminal If.-aegms. 3-S-lobed, the middle lobe much 
longer than Ike laieroL ones. 
biplnnatlfldum, Schott. Blade pinnatiacct, the segms. 
again pinnate or lobed; tcrmintJ segm. 3-5-lobed, the 
middle lobe ovate-lanceolate, acute, much longer than 
the obtuse lateral ones: spathe oblong-ovate, its tube 
scarcely distinct from its blafie, purple without, white 
within, S, Brazil. — Does well in the open in S. Calif. 

B. Lf. -blade linear or lanceolate. 
crassin^rvium, Lindl. Climbing: Ivs. linear to lan- 
ceolate-acuminate, the midnerve very thick and in- 
flated: spathe obtuse and hooded, apiculate at the tip. 
Brazil. B.R. 1958,— P. nfibile, Bull, is like this but 
larger: Ivs. long-obi anceolate, large, coriaceous, and 
shining, obtuse or sbort-acuminate, narrowed at base: 
tube oi spathe rosy crimson inside and outside, the 
limb white inside and spotted outside. Guiana, 


BB. I^.-blade aagiUale. 

speciAsnm, Schott. St. tall, arborescent: petioles 
terete at the base, concavo-convex above, twice as long 
as the midrib; blade triangular-oblong-ovate, bright 
ptiea. acuminate, deeply sagittate, the basal lobes 
momboidal, obtuse, abruptly narrowed on the inner 
side above the middle: Qiathes thick, green with puiple 
margins: spadix finger-shaped, shorter than the spathe. 
8. Brazil. 

BBB. l^.-blade oblong lo ovate-cordale. 

c. C<^or of he. milky white above, with reddish vetna. 

SAdiroi, Hort. Lvs. cordate, ovate, milky white with 
reddish veins above; petiole cylindrical, pink. P. Sodi- 
roinum, Bngler, is a diSercnt plant, apparently not in 

cc. ColoT of Iva. gome shade of green above. 
D. Petiole* tomerUose. 
vemicOBum, Mathieu (P. Cdrderi^ Hort. P. lAndenii, 
Hort.}. St. long, branching, climbmg, ashy gray, sca- 
brous, angular-cyUndrical, swollen at the nodes; 
intemodes 3-6 in. lone: petioles stout>«ylindrieal or 
somewhat nni^ed, bri^t metallic red, covered with 
soft, erect, twisted, fleshy bristles and greenish hairs 
4-6 in. long; bl»de glabrous, green above, brilliantly 
polished, or with paler lines and immersed nerves, 
bright green beneath with salmon-violet lines between 
the lateral nervea, 6^ in. long, 4-6 in. wide, ovate-cor- 
date, the semicircular basal lobes one-third as long as 
the slightly undulate apical one. Costa Hica south- 
ward. l.H. 18:79 (as P. daguenae). 

DD. Petioles glabrous. 
-itSum, Schott. Climbing: petioles 3 ft. long, 
cylindrical; blade cordate-ovate, 24r-28 in. long, 
16-20 in. n-idc, the basal lobes slightly introrse, semi- 
ovate or obliquely semicircular, one-fourth as long as 
the apical one, separated by a broad parabolic sinus: 

Sathe-tube 2 in. long, oblong, pur- 
e; spadix very thick. Trop. Amer. 
tnbe, Schott (P. SeiWidnwm, 
Kunth). Branches rusty purple: peti- 
oles of young plant semi-cylindri- 
cal, terete, sparsely brown-spotted, 
\\^2 times longer than the midrib; 
blade like parchment, cordate-ob- 
long, the oblong basal lobes one- 
hall as long as the apical, separated 
bv a wide parabolic ainus, retrorse 
or BubintroTBe I apical lobe cuspidate: spathe green out- 
side, red within, its broadly ovate blade dirty yellow; 
spadix shaped like a finger. S. Brazil. The Mexican P. 
sanguiTieum has been called P. Imbe in gardens. P. 
sanguineum differs in havingmore elongated lvs. which 
are red beneath. 

Bpect&bile, Lind. Large, of vigorous habit: Ivs. 
12-15 in. long, nearly as broad, silky or velvety green. 
Andreftnum, Devans. Lvs. rather large, cordate- 
ovate, with short basal lobes, bronzy green. Colombia. 
R.H. 1886:36. R.B. 13, fig. 30.— Sparingly grown. 
Looks like a narrow-lvd. anthurium. 

P. caiophiaum, Brongn. (P. nobile. Bull, in port). Lva. tutted. 

iiiF B^M.TS;! 

imb fi^l gr«n with red 

B.M, 8172,— P, CcMr«n 

IhE pctiolts, arc blood-red "whpn''young,"P' 
P. Durinin. Hort. bi-oadly nnd d«pLy 
mibliKini.C.KiKb. Cllmbmc: lvs. eloniatod oi -. 
in, loDK, 4-fl in. widf : spathe bl»ck-purp¥.— /-. i: 
i> ■ elTmber BomethioK Uke P. crssxinrrvium: i 
deep Ereen, 12-18 in. long. 3-& in. breed: spat - 




crimson within the tube. Brasii. B.M. 68 13. — P. Ilaemaniit 
Hort. Lvs. oblong, cordate, dark green, splashed or marbled with 
white, and sometimes tinged rose-pink. G.C. III. 43:289. — P, 
imperidU is mentioned in European trade-lists. Engler accounts for 
only one P. imperiale (of Schott) and that he makes a synonym of 
P. asperatum, Koch. Sander & Co. advertise P. imperiale var. 
Laucheana: "a lovely trailing stove foliage plant, which is admirably 
adapted for growing on pillars or wire shapes. It is quite distinct 
from and greatly supcnor to the well-known P. imperiale. The 
habit is much more graceful, the heart-shiH;>ed foliage smaller and 
more elegant. Down the center, from either side of the broad lij^ht 
((reen midrib, extend irregular blotches of dark green, projecting 
into a clear glaucous color, the edges of which are relieved by green 
blotches. The bases of the petioles bear bright red and green phyl- 
lodes." P. asperatum is a short-jointed climbing BrasiUan species 
with cordate-ovate entire dull green lvs. — P. Mdmei, Andr£. Lvs. 
cordate-ovate, acute, variegated with white: spathe partly open 
above and whitish, the tube blood-red. Ecuador. R.H. 1883, p. 
104 and 492; 1897, p. 573. I.H. 43:60.— P. pertiisum is Monstera 
deliciosa. — P. Slnuii, Kunth. Lvs. coriaceous, elongated tri- 
angular-sagittate, long-cuspidate, up to 20 in. loni^: spathe outside 
black-purple on the tube, yellowish on the limb. Guiana. B.M. 2643. 
— P. tripartUumt Schott. (Anthurium insigne, Mast.). Lvs. 3- 
parted, 6-7 in. long: spat he-tube oblong, the blade whitish, ovate, 
shortly acuminate. Venezuela. — P. Warsceteictii, C. Koch. Lvs. 
triangular-sagittate, bipinnatifid, primrose, the lateral primaiy 
segms. 5-8 in. long. Cent. Amer. Q.W. 10. p. 21 1. Gt. 59, p. 23. 

George V. NASH.f 

PHLEBdDIUM (Greek, a vein), Polypodidcex. A 
genus of ferns related to Polypodium and sometimes 
united with it, but differing widely in the venation, 
which is broken up into ample areoles, each of which 
contain 2 or more free veinlets which bear the sori on 
their united tips. 

adreum, R. Br. (Polypddium aicreumy Linn.). Fig. 
-J06. Rootstocks thick, creeping on surface, densely 
covered with bright yellowish scales: lvs. 2-4 ft. long, 

deeply pinnatifid, the lobes 5-9 in. long, J^l in. wide, 
with numerous bright yellow sori. G. 37:405. — A rich 
ornamental species of easy cult, from Trop. Amer. 
with glaucous green lvs. It produces^owever, but a 
small number of lvs. to a plant. In Fla. it grows on 
palmettos. Polypddium Mandaidnum of the trade is a 
wavy-lvd. form, which originated as a spore sport of 
the species, P. aureum. It aevelops lvs. of great beauty, 
whicn last for a long time on or off the plant. Cut off, 
they are used for florists' decorations. Polypddium 
Schndderif Hort., is said to be a hybrid of P. aiareum 
and Polypodium vulgare, 

P. gla-Ucum var. Mayii or P, Mayii. See Phymatodee. 

L. M. Underwood. 
R. C. Benedict, t 
PHL£TJM (PhleoSj an old Greek name for a kind of 
reed). Gramlneae. Perennial grasses, of great agricul- 
tural value, but scarcely horticultural subjects. 
Spikelets 1-fld., in a cylindrical spike-like panicle; 

§lumes2,'per8istent, keeled, short-awned; lemma shorter, 
elicate, awnless.— Species 10, in temperate zones. 

prat6nse, Linn. Tim- 
othy. Herd's-Grass. 
Figs. 2907, 2908. Com- 
monly cult, for hay and 
for pastiu*es, either alone 
or together with red 
clover or other grasses. 
It was intro. into Md. 
about 1720 from Eu., 
where it is native, by 
Timothy Hanson, and 
hence called timothy. 
The other name is said 
to come from a man by 
the name of Herd^ who 
found it growing m N. 
H. and began its cult. It 
is better adapted for hay 
than for pasture, and 
for the latter is suited to 
temporary rather than 
2907. Phleom prateie.-Timothy. Pennanent pasture. 
To show habit of root and top. A. S. HiTCHCOCK. 

PHLOGACANTHUS (Greek for flame, and acafir 
thiui). AcantMceae, Gla^ouse plants grown for the 
ornamental flowers. 

Tall half-fihrubby herbs with entire or somewhat 
toothed lvs. : fls. white, red or greenish in long terminal 
or short lateral spikes | calyx 5-parted; segms. linear, 
awnlike, acuminate; coroUartube long, broad, 
curved: limb 2-lipped, upper lip erect, entire 
or 2-lobed: lower lip 3-p£uted; perfect stamens 
2, insertea on the lower part of the tube; 
anthers with 2 parallel cells; ovary many- 
ovuled: caps, round or obtusely 4-angled. — 
Species 12-15, India, Malaya, to New Guinea. 
Several of the species have been more or less 
cult, at one time or another. Used like the 
others of the family as decorative pot-plants 
in the greenhouse. They require a ramer warm, 
damp atmosphere and a soil rich in humus. 
Prop, by cuttings or seeds. 

thyrsifldrus, Nees (Justicia ikyrsifli^ 
Roxbg.). Shrub, 3-7 ft. high: lvs. 7 x 1% in., 
lanceolate, glabrous: fls. orange, in long, dense, 
villous thyrses; corolla ^in. wide, tubular, 
2-lipped. India.— Cult, in S. Ma. 

p. curn/ldnu, Nees. Shrub, 3-6 ft. high: lvs. large, 
elliptic, acute at both ends, toothed, glabrous: fls. yel- 
lowish, with an elongated corolla. Himalayas. B.M. 
3783. H.U. 2. p. 259. HeiNRICH HASSBIiBRING. 

PHLdMIS (old Greek name 
used by Dioscorides). Labidlx. 
Jerusalem Sage. Stout mostly 
tall plants sometimes grown in the 
open for the dense axillary whorls 
of rather large yellow, purple or 
white flowers. 

Plants more or less woolly, some 
of the species conspicuously white* 
woolly, shrubs or perennial heri>s: 
lvs. all alike, or the uppermost 
reduced to bracts: whorls many- 
or few-fld.; fls. sessile; calyx usu- 
ally plicate, truncate or with 5 
equal teeth; upper lip of the corolla 
(galea) broad and compressed or 
stronglv concave, rarely narrow 
2908. Phleom ^^^ falcate; lower Up 3-cleft and 
pratense.— Timothy, spreading; tube usually bearing a 
(XH) woolly ring inside; stamens 4, 

didynamous, ascending under the 
upper lip, one pair of filaments 
often appenda^ at oase; style 2-iobed: nutlets 4, 
obovoid or ovoid, triquetrous, ^abrous or pubescent. — 
Medit. region and to China, perhaps 70 species. Per- 
haps a dozen species have been cult., but they are 
rather coarse plants except for wild giurdening and 
among shrubbery. They are of the easiest cult. Prop. 
by seeds, cuttings, and the herbaceous species by 
division. P. tuberosa^ Linn., of Eu., has run wild spar- 
ingly in the E. It is a vigorous and hardy species, 
prop, by subterranean tubers. 

A. Fls. yellow, 

fniticdsa, Linn. Jerusalem Sage. Shrub, 2-4 ft. 
high, divaricately much-branched, yellowish tomentose: 
lvs. ovate to oblong, rounded or wedge-shaped at the 
base, rugose, green above and white-tomentose beneath: 
whorls 20-3()-fld., one or two at ends of branches; 
bracts broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate: fls. yellow, 
showy. S. Eu. B.M. 1843. Gn. 79, p. 114. G. 7:177; 
35:713.— In the E. it blooms from June to July. In 
S. Calif., it blooms in winter, and has the merit of with- 
standing drought and heavy sea winds. In New Eng- 
land it needs protection in winter. 

lunarifdlia, Sibth. & Smith. Undershrub, erect and 
branching, green but oppressed-tomentose, 6 ft.: lvs. 


oblong or ovateKtbloDg, obtuse at apex, narrowed at 
base, paler and almoat hoaiy benesui, the lower ones 
long-etalked : fls. goldea yellow, 1 j^ in. long, in a showy 
terminal whorl or bead 4 in. across with 2 pendulous 
fioral IvB. beneath; bracta small, or orbicular; calyx 
^in. long, lO-ribbed; corolla with villouB 2-keeled 
^ea, ana laree lower lip with 2 wings or lobes at eiul, 
Asia Minor. B.M. 7699.— A atriking plant. 

Lydmltis, Linn. Laup-Wick Piuuvt. Somevrtiat 
woody, 2 ft., hoary: Ivs. seaaile and amplexicaul. oblong- 
linear, narrowed at both ends, white-tomentose beneaS : 
whorla few-fld., much shorter than the floral Ivs.; bracta 
broad at base; fla. yellow, the corolla twice longer than 
calyx. S. Eu. B.M. 999.~The epecific name Lychnitia 
refers to the use of the slender radical Ivs. as lamp-wicks. 

risciM, Poir. (P. S-ugadiAna, Benth,). Shrubby, 
glabrous, but viscid above, with elongated branches: 
IvB. ovate and oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones petioled 
and strongly cordate at base; flora] Ivs. cuneate-Ianceo- 
lato and acuminate, much surpassing the fls.: whorls 
manv-fld., remote, with lance-linear rigid bracta; 
corolla yellow, twice longer than caly:<, the galea 
emarginate, lower lip with broad lobe. Asia Minor. 
B.M. 2542 (as P. luTtanfolia var. Rustdiana). 

AA. Fls. purpU, or pinkish, at least inside. 

tubertw, Linn. Herb, 3-6 ft. high, nearly smooth, 
with thickened root: Iva. deeply cordate, ovate, petioled, 
crenate, the lower ones triangular-ovate and 6 in. or 
more long; floral Iva, 2-3 in. lone, G-8 lines wid