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Full text of "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists"

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PROPERTY Of ^i 




Midiigm 



Mms^ 



1 & » 7 




ARTES SCIENTIA VERITAS 




SB 



n ;'r 



/. 03 



THE STANDARD CYCLOPEDIA OF 

HORTICULTURE 



;Vyf ^° 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

MXW YORK * BOSTON • CHICAGO 
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO 

MACMILLAN & CO., Limitbd 

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA 
MBLBOURNX 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Lm 

TORONTO 






THE 

STANDARD CYCLOPEDIA OF 

HORTICULTURE 



A DISCUSSION, FOR THE AMATEUR, AND THE PROFESSIONAL AND 
COMMERCIAL GROWER, OF THE KINDS, CHARACTERISTICS AND 
METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF THE SPECIES OF PLANTS GROWN IN 
THE REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA FOR ORNAMENT, 
FOR FANCY, FOR FRUIT AND FOR VEGETABLES; WITH KEYS TO THE 
NATURAL FAMIUES AND GENERA, DESCRIPTIONS OF THE HORTI- 
CULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE STATES AND PROVINCES AND 
DEPENDENT ISLANDS, AND SKETCHES OF EMINENT HORTICULTURISTS 



BY 

L. H. BAILEY 



Illustrated with Colored Plates^ Four Thousand Engravings in the Teoct^ 

and Ninety-six Full-page Cuts 



IN SIX VOLUMES 

VOL. ni— F-K 

PAGES 1201-1760. FIGS. 1471-2047 



SECOND EDITION 



/^tD Igorfc 
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd. 

1917 

The righta of rejtroduetion and of trandation are etrieUy reeerved 



COFTBIGHT, 1900 

By the MACMILLAN COMPANY 



• • 



REWRITTEN. ENLARGED AND RESET 
CoPTRIq^T, 1915 

By the MACMILLAN COMPANY 



Set Up aad Electrotyped. Publiflhed May 12, 1915 

Reprinted May. 1917 



J« HoBACB MoFabl4MO Coiipamt 
HABBmma. PnntSTLTAitiA 






XL. 

XLI. 

XUI. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 

LII. 

LIII. 

LIV. 

LV. 

LVI. 

LVII. 



FULL- PAGE PLATES 

Fonnal gardening, with veronica and phlox in the foreground (in color) 

Frontispiece 

A good fern in southern California. — Alsophila aystralis 1217 

A young Celeste fig tree, as grown in Georgia . 1234 

Floriculture. — A house of begonias, with a row of ferns 1242 

Forcing of grapes. — Muscat of Alexandria 1263 

Ferns in a public garden, with springtime bloom (in color) 1307 

Type of an old-time formal garden. — Washington's garden at Mt. Vernon 1315 

Fringed gentian. Geniiana crinita 1327 

The garden gladiolus, variety "Peace" (in color) 1343 

The Niagara grape (in color) 1380 

The grapefruit. About one-third natural size 1391 

A home greenhouse 1410 

Heliotrope, an old-time favorite 1452 

Good use of spring flowers. — Mertensia virginica 1470 

Herbs and shrubs employed about a pond 1481 

Hollyhock 1497 

Roman hyacinth. — One of the forms of HyacinUius arientalis .... 1614 

A night-blooming cactus. — Hylocereus tricostatus in Hawaii. Hedge planted by 
Sibyl Moseley Bingham between 1831 and 1840 . 



LVIII. One of the many beautiful garden irises. — Probably one 
tive forms of the germanica group .... 

LIX. Japanese irises. — Iris Uevigata 

LX. The black walnut. — Juglans nigra .... 



of the hybrid or deriva- 



1625 

1657 
1675 
1717 



(▼) 



V ^ A *. »^- • 



F 



FABA (phagOf to eat: yields edible seeds). Legur 
mvni^ase. A genus established bv Toumefort for cer- 
tain plants now referred to vicia. Faba vulgariSf 
Moench, is the horse bean, broad bean or Windsor 
bc^an, now accepted as Vicia Faba. From other groups 
in Vicia, it differs mostly in its stiff erect habit and the 
very lar^ fleshy seeds and pods. The name Fabaceae 
is Bometmies used instead of LeguminosaSf and some- 
times for the papilionaceous leguminosse. 

FABlAlf A (after Francisco Fabiano, Spanish bota- 
nist, Valencia). SoUmdcex. Small heath -like shrubs; 
one is sometimes grown in cool greenhouses and in 
mild climates for its bloom. 

Erect and branching plants, sometimes viscid: Ivs. 
small and crowded: fls. usually many, terminal or oppo- 
site the Ivs., small; corolla long-tubular, dilated or 
ventricoee aoove, often contracted at the throat; 
stamens 5, attached on the coroUa-tube; disk fleshy, 

annular or lobed : caps, oblong, 2- 
valved. — About 20 species, Bobvia, 
Brazil to Patagonia. 

imbricftta, Ruiz & Pav. Fig. 
1471. Height 3-8 ft.: Ivs. ovate, 
scale-like, imbricated: fls. sessile or 
nearly so. white, with a short 
reflexed limb, borne profusely. 
Peru. B.R. 25:59. R.H. 1903, p. 
291. G.C. III. 32: suppl. Sept. 
27; 52:210. Gn. 60, p. 430; 72, p. 
611. G.W.2, p. 511. —This plant IS 
apparently little grown under glass 
in this country. It is a rather com- 
mon shrub 
in S. Calif., 
where it 
blooms at 
different sea- 
sons. In Eng- 
land, it 18 
said to thrive 
best near the 
sea. Good 
bulges produce 
a wealth of well- 
lasting bloom in 
late spring. It 
prop, without 
dimculty from 
potted cuttings 
m Aug. 

L. M. B. 

FAG ARA : Xanthoxv- 
hun. 

FkGiUA (after 

Caspar Fagelius, plant 

cultivator). Syn. Bolu- 

fc sdfra, Kuntze. Legumir 

n083B. One species, a fast- 

rwing, twining sub-shrub from 
Afr., covered with clammy 
luurs, and bearing all summer 
axillary racemes of pea-like fls. 
which are yellow, the keel 
tipped violet; standard reflexed; 



keel obtuse, exceeding the wings: stamens diadelphous: 
pod about Gnseeded, turgid. Cult, outdoors in S. Calif, 
and abroad under glass. The plant is allied to Caja- 
nus, but its seeds are strophioled. pod swollen, not 
flattened, and the 2 upper calyx-loo^ nearly distinct. 
The Fagelia of Schwenke (1774) is Calceolana. 





bitomindsa, DC. Sts. sev- 
eral feet lone, woody at base: 
If ts. 3, rhomb-ovate, pale and 
glandular-dotted beneath, to 
1}4 in. long: fls. about )/^in. 
long: pod IH in. long: plant 
strong-smelling. B. K. 261 
(as Glycine, showing fls. also 
veined with red). — Blooms 
in winter in S. Calif. 

L. M. B. 



1472. 

Fftfofijrfiiiii 

esctilentam. 

(XI) 



1471. Fabteu imbricatm. 

(XH) 

77 



FAGOPtRUM (beech 
wheat, from the likeness of 
the fruit to a beech-nut). 
Polygondcex. Probably only 
2 species, of Eu. and N. Asia. 
Qmck-growing annuals, with alternate deltoid or 
hastate Ivs., small whitish fls. in racemes or panicles, 
5-parted calyx, 8 stamens, 1-loculed ovary ripening 
into a floury 3-angled achene. — Both species are grown 
for the grain, from which flour is made; and in 
horticulture sometimes used as a catch-crop or green- 
crop in orchards and elsewhero for the good effect 
on the land. 

escul^ntum, Moench {Polygonum Fagov^rum, Linn.). 
Buckwheat (which see). Fig. 1472. Lvs. large and 
broad, long-petioled : fls. white, fragrant, in panicled or 
corymbose racemes : achene or grain with regular angles. 

tat&ricum, Gaertn. {Polygonum tatdricum, Linn.). 
India-Wheat. Buckwheat. Fig. 1473. More slender: 
lvs. smaller and hastate or arrow-shaped, shorter- 
petioled: fls. greenish or yellowish, in small mostly 
simple racemes from the If .-axils: achene with wavy or 
notched angles, smaller than in buckwheat. — Useful 
in short-season climates and on poorer lands. The Fi^. 
1473 is made from Linnaeus' original specimens of his 
Polygonum talaricum, now deposited in the Linnaean 
herbarium, London. l, jj. g. 

FAGUS (ancient Latin name). Fagdcex. Beech. 
Ornamental trees, chiefly grown for their handsome 
foliage, good habit and the conspicuous color of the 
bark; also valuable timber trees. There are marked 
horticultural forms. 

Deciduous: winter-buds conspicuous, elongated, 
acute: lvs. alternate, distichous, dentate or nearly 
entire, with caducous small stipules: fls. monoecious. 



(1201) 



1202 



FAGUS 



with the Iva.; stamjnat« in slender-peduncled pendu- 
lous heads, appearing at the base of th« ;^oung sbootsj 
perianth 5-7-lobedi stameos 8-13; pistillate with 3 
styles, usually 2 in an axillary peduncled involucre: fr. 
a brown, ovate, triaagled nut, 1 or 2 in a prickly, dehis- 
cent involucre. — Eight 
species occur in the cooler 
regions of the northern 
hemisphere. The speciee 
of the aouthern hemis- 
phere, often included 
under Fagus (as F. betw- 
hides and others), form 
Uie genus Notbofagus, 
which see. 

The beeches are tall 
deciduous hardy treee, of 
noble, Hymmetncal habit, 
with smooth light gray 
bark and clean dark green 
foliage, which is rarely 
attacked by insects or 
fungi. They are among 
the most ornamental and 
beautiful trees for park 
planting, and attractive 
at every season, especially 
in spring, with the youn^ 
foliage of a tender deli- 
cate green, and the grace- 
ful, (uooping heads of the 
stajninate floweis. All of 
the eight species known, 
save one, are in cultiva- 
tion and differ comparar 
lively little from each 
other. The American and 
the European species are 
especially much alike, but 
the first has the bark of a lighter color, the head is 
broader and more roundish, and the leaves less shin- 
ing, turning clear yellow in fall, while the latter has 
a more ovate head and shining fohage, which turns 
reddish brown in fall and remains on the branches 
almost through the whole winter. It is sometimes used 
for tall hedges. In Europe, the beech is a very impor- 
tant forest tree, and the hard and very cloae-^amed 
wood is largely used in the manufacture of different 
articles and for fuel; but it is not very durable in the 
soil. The sweet nuts are edible, and in Europe an oil 
is pressed from them, used for cooking and other 
purposes. 




FAGUS 

The beech pre'ers dryish situations, and grows best 
in sandy loam and in limestone aoil. Propagated by 
seeds sown in fall where there is no danger of their 
being eaten by mice, or dried after gathering and kept 
mixed with dry sand until spring. The young plonls 
should be transplanted every second or thinl year; 
otherwise they make long tap-roots, and cannot always 
be transplanted successfully. The varieties are grafted 
on seedling stock, usually in the o'eenhouse in early 
spring; grafting m the open usually gives not very 
satisfactory results. 

Both in Europe and the eastern United States the 
beech forms extensive forests. It is today the coounon 
hardwood tree of central Europe, particularly in Den- 
mark and Germany, raised as pure growth or mixture. 
It requires a loamy, preferably calcareous soil, shuns 
poor sand and swamp, ascends 1^ 3,500 feet in the 
Alps ; prefers north and east exposures, endures much 
shade, protects and improves the soil, and produces 
large amounts of wood to the acre. The wood is heavy 
(specific gravity 0.&5 to 0,75) hard, straight-grained, of 
close texture, not durable. Beech is not used as build- 
ing lumber, but is extensively used for ordinary wooden 
ware, furniture, wheelwrignt and cooperage stock. 
(F. Roth.) 

grsndifdUa, Ehrh. (F.f emglnta, Ait. F. americAna, 



Sweet. F. atropunieea, Sudw.). 
Figs. U74, 1475. Tree, 
to 80 ft., rarely 120 ft.: 
Ivs. ovate-oblong, acumi- 
nate, coarsely serrate, si Iky 
beneath when young, witn 
9-14 pairs of veins, dark 
bluish RTeen above, light 
yellowi^ green breath, 
2!'^ in. long: involucre 
covered with slender, 
straight or recurved prick- 
lee, ^in. high. E. K. 
Amer., west b> Wis. and 
Texas. 8.8. 9:444. Em. 
182. G.F. 8:125. A.G. 
12:711. F.E.20:586. Var. 
pubGscens, Fern. & Rehd. 
oft-pubescent below. 






Bbbcb. 




Var. carolinJina, Fern. & j^^ ^ 

Rehd. {F. /erruriwa var. ^ j."inT«tic.. i 

caroliniatta, Loud, F. ro- 

landifdUa, Raf.). Lvs. broader, of firmer texture, 

darker above: involucre rufous-tomentoee, with fewer 

and diorter prickles: nut smaller, not exceeding the 

ilucre. From N. J. and S. III. to Fla. and Texas. 

flvltica, Linn. Eubofean Beech. Fig. 1475. 

e, to 80 ft., or rarely 100 ft.: lvs. ovate or elliptic, 

lotely denticulate, silky beneath and ciliate when 

ing, with 5-9 pairs of veins, dark green and glossy 

ve, pale beneath, 2-4 in. long: involucre with most'v 

ight prickles, about 1 in. hi0i. Cent, and S. Eu. i • 

icasus. M.D.G. 1902:579-582. H.W. 2:20, pp. 4: 

43. F.E. 33:615. Fig. 1475 contrasts the Iv 

of the American and European speeiea. A gre; 

number of varieties are in cult., of which tl 

, following are the most remarkable: Var. p&i- 

\ dula, Lodd. Fig. 1476. With long penduloL . 

branches, the larger limbs mostly horiiontall-, 

eading, G.C. III. 51:114. G.W. 15, p. 662. B.K 

(7, p, 393. Gn. 42, p. 65; 55, p. 267; 64, p. 167 

M:32 (adapted in fig. 1476), Gng, 6:258. G.W. 

p. 15; 9, p. 510; 15, p. 663. G,M. 52:807, Var- 

nUtsa, Dipp. (var, autnteli^nsie, Ilort.). Dwar' 

n, with twisted and contorted branches and smal' 

M.D.G. 1912:110. Var. pyramidilis, Kirchn. O: 

amidal habit, Var. purpllrea, Ait. (var, airopar- 

ea, Hort.). Fig. 1477. L vs. purple. M.D.G. 1901: 



FAGUS 

163; 1908:499. G.C. III. 24:305. F.E. 13:472; 14: 
874. A.G. 18:837. G.W. 2, p. 539. A form with very 
dark purple Ivb, &ud of compact habit ia var. RfversiL 
Hort. There are other fonna, diSering in the shade dl 
puiple, as var. euprta, Hort., and also some with rosy 
pink variegated IvB. Var. purpftrea ptadiUa, Hort., baa 






purple IvB. and p«nduloua branches, but is oi slow 
Efowth. Var. ZUtia, Spaeth, has yellow foliage. Var, 
EeterophfUs, Loud. <var. aspUnifdlia, LciddO. Lvs. 
deeply cut, often almoet to the midrib, into narrow 
lobee, A very graceful variety, forming a dense and 
low, shrubby tree. Ma. Ij p. 61. F.E. 18:314. P.G. 
3:163. Lees important varieties, but sometimes grown, 
are the followmg; Var. cristita, Lodd., with deeply 
tootlied, curled, email and clustered Ivb,: of alow 
growth. Var. indsa, Hort. Similar to var. hetero- 
pAvUo. but Ivs. kea deeply cut. Var. macTO^fUjL Hort. 
Lvs. large, to 5 in, long. Var. quefcildlia, Schelle 
(var. qua-ctAdea, Hort.). With deeply tooUied and 
sinuate, rather narrow Ivb. Var. quercoldes, Pen., 
often confused with var. querdjolia, is a form with 
dark and rough, oak-like bark. M.D.G. 1909:600. 

F. (HvUioi. Winkl,— F. orieDtklU.— F. Bnffyriina, Sseman. 
Trm. ibout GO ft, ull: Itb, obovito or OTiJ-obovmte. cEabroua 
below: guUi of fr. 2-3 id. long, ilabroiu. Cenl. Chin^^F. japOn- 
ica. Muira. Lvs. gniBll, Ell^tlc, crensM: involucre mull, den- 
der-pedunclsd, h&lf u loag u the auu. Jspan. B.l.F. 1:36. — 
F. erierMlii, LiiMty (F. huiLce. Winkl.), Pynmiidil tree: Its. 
iblDiiff-obovAte, nearly entire: lower prickloe of t]M 

mngiwi into linfl&r-obloiMi lobm. Asia Minor Ui N. 

is.— f, Sttbaldii. Bndl. Lv& ovate, ihorlly acumiule, on- 
'" " I4ikainof VEinailoverpricklacif tbeinvoiucrechanff- 

j__ ,: obpvalffoblonf loben Japan, 8XF, 

-, lonsipea. Oliver), 
val. Gneh' pubancDt 
.bove. Cent. China. 

Alfred Rzhder. 

FALLCgIA (after Virgilio Fallugi or Falugi, an 
Italian botanic&l writer, end of the eeveateentn cen- 
tury). RoxAcex. Ornamental woody plant sometimes 
cultivated for its handsome white flowers and ttie 
attractive heofis of feathery tailed fruits. 

Deciduous shrub: lvs, alternate, small, 3-7-Iobed 
at the apex, stipulate; fls. 1-3, terminal on elongated 
branchlets, perfect or polvgamous, with 6 narrow bracta 
inserted between the calyx-lobes: calyx-tube cupular; 
sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5, suborbicular, yellowiah 
white; sWnens numerous in 3 rows; pistils many, on a 
conical torus, pubescent; style slender; achenee with 
long persistent plumose styles, —One species in S. W. 

This plant is a low divaricate shrub with slender 
q>reBding branches, and conspicuous while flowers at 



FATSIA 1203 

the tips of slender branchlets, followed by dense heads 
of feathery tailed fruits. Hardy as far north as Massar 
chusetts; demands well-drained soil and a sunny warm 
position; likes hmeetone soil; stagnant moisture, par- 
ticularly during the winter, is fatal to it. Its best place 
is in a rockery of southern aspect. Propagation is by 
seeds, which are freely produced. 

paradAza, Endl. Shrub, to 3 ft.: Ivb. cuneate with 
3-7 narrow-oblong lobee decurrent into the linear 

Ktiole, revolute at the margin and whitish tomentoee 
low, >f;"^in. long: fls. 1-5, 1-lH in- across, white: 
achenee with feathery tails 1-lJ-^ in. long. June-Aug.; 
fr. Aug.-Oct. Calif., Nev. and Utah south U> Mez. 
B.M. 6660. M.D.G. 1900:207. Aijmd Rbhder. 

FARADATA (Michael Faraday, famous chemist, 
1794-1867). VerheaAeex. Climbrng shrubs, oUied to 
Clerodendron, with opixwite simple Ivb., and fls. in 
terminal cO' nodular panicles; corolla tubular, widened 
upward, with a 4-loDed limb of which one lobe is 
larger; stamens 4. paired, exserted; ovbjv 4-lobed 
and 4~celled:fr. adrupe. Ihere are about a half .^ozen 
species in Austral, and S. Pacific islands. They appear 
not to be in the trade. F. gjUinduia, Muell., of Austral., 
may occur in choice collections: it is a tall glabrous 
climber with ovate, acuminate coriaceous lvs. 6-12 in. 
long, and lai^ white fls. in terminal panicles. 

FARFttGIUH: Lieiilaria, 

fAtSIA (horn a Japanese name). Arali&eex. Half- 
hardy shrubs or small trees, used for subtropical 
foliage effects in the North, and planted pennanently 
far South. 

Fatsia has 2 species, belonging to the Panax series, 
in ^licb the petals are valvate, while in the Aralia 
series they are more or leas overlapping, but the mdee 
affixed at the base. Within the Panax series, Polyscias 
bas the pedicel articulated under the fl., while in Fatsia 
and Acanthoponox the pedicel is t»ntinuous with the 
fi. Fatsa ia distinguished from the hardier and less 



lH-2in. 1< 



o of mnii* bMclylkcu otfitlca 



MT7. Goodn 



familiar but worthy Acanthopanax by the greater 
lenrth and distinctness of the styles. TWa genus is 
doubly interesting as producing the famous rice paper 
of the Chinese, and two rivals of the castor-all plant 
in bold subtropical effects, made by large Iva., the 
lobes of which spread out like fingers. 

While f&tsias re<|uire more care m the North than the 
hardy araliaa, their massive subtropical appearance is 



1204 



FATSIA 



highly distinct. A perfect Bpecimen ia fiEured id Gar- 
dening 5 r 133, where W. R. Smith says o( F. papyrifera: 
"This plant produces the beautiful substance known as 
rice paperj it growa to 10 (t. high, with a st. 4 in. diam.. 
full of white pith like the elder; in a full-grown speci- 
men the pith is about 1 in. diam. It is divided into 
pieces 3 in. long, and by the aid of a sharp instrument 
IB unrolled, forming the thin, narrow sheets known as 
rice paper, greatly used by the Chinese for drawing 
figures of plants and animals, and also for making arti- 
ficial fls. Until about 1850 the source of this substance 
o scientists. The Chinese, on inquiry, 
i descriptions of it. . . . 

Cat, as J^in. of the root 
. t the first season. It 
has survived most winters for the past 5 years in 
Washington, D. C." 

As associates in groups of bold-habited plants, F. W. 
Burbidge (Gn. 45, p. 321) auggeste Polygonum eaeha- 
linenae, Chamxropa Forlunei and Sodgertia podo- 
phylia. For contrast with feathery and cut^leaved foli- 
age, he suggests bamboos, aucubae, cut-leaved m^l« 



easily grown and propagated. The species are unarmed ; 
the very spiny plant sometimes referred to this genus 
as F. horruia, is treated under Echinopanax, which see. 
Siebert and Voss declare that most of the plants sold as 
Falgia japonica are Aratia spinoM. These plants like 
shade. Full sunlight for an hour or two in early morning 
is enough. They should have a shelter-spot, where the 
wind will not whip their foliage, 

papyilfera, Benth. 4 Hook. (Ardlia ■papjpifera. Hook. 
Tetrapinaxpapyriferumi'Kocii.). Hei^t 5-7 ft. (accord- 
ing to Fnmceschi, 20 ft. in the open ^und in S. Calif.) : 
branches and young Ivs. covered with stellate, more or 
less deciduous down; mature Ivs, reaching 1ft. long, cor- 
date, 6-7-lobed; lobes acute, serrate; sinus very deep: fls. 
inconspicuous.white, in sessile, globose clusters. Formosa. 
B.M. 4897. A.F. 7:385. Gng. 6:133, Gn. 45, p. 321. 



imng gi 
.. i, China. — Abroad are ciDt. forms with white l. 
golden margins and a form reticulated with gold mark- 



FEIJOA 

ings. Var. UdsarJr Hort., is regarded as an improved, 
more compact>^rowing variety which originated wiUi 
Moaer of Fgntamebleau. Intro, into Amer. by Mon- 
tarioso Nuneries, Santa Barbara, Calif. 

WtLHELu Miller. 

N. TATLOR.t 

P^IA (application doubtful). V(deriai\Axxse. One 
glabrous branching annual of the Medit. region, some- 
times grown as an omameDtal and also as a salad 
Elant. Iivs. entire or dentate: fls. red, small, in took or 
as dense terminal cymes; peduncles thick and fistular; 
corolla with an elongated tube and a 2^1ipped limb, 
irregular at the base: stamens 2; style entire or 2-3-fid. 
F. ComaedpUe, DC. (Foimdno ComucJlpi^, Linn.), 
a variable species, usually with purplish sts., grows 
10-16 in. high: Ivs. nearly all radical, oval-oblong, shin- 
ing green. It is sometimes known as African valerian. 
The Ivs. are eaten as salad, being related to corn-salad. 
The plant seems not to be in the American trade. 

FEIjdA The Fbuoa, or Pineapple Guava {Feij'da 
SeUowiAita, Berg, family Myrliixxx) is indigenous to 

western Paraguay, southern Braiil, 
Uruguay, and parts of Argentina, 
where it is common in the forests. 



the natives though not cultivate! 
It was introduced to southern 
Europe in 1890, and is ^wn along 
the Riviera, both in France and 
Italy. From the former country 
it was introduced to the United 
States about 1900, and is becoming 
widely planted in California. lU 
distribution in other countries ia 
very limited. 

Feijoa is of 2 species. It ia the 
OrthoBtemon of Berg, not of 
Robert Brown. P. obotiAla, Berg 
(0. obovdtus. Berg), is considered 
^ Niedenzu to te a variety of F. 
Selhiiyiana. It is a white-tomentoee 
ahnib, with bisexual showy fls.; 
petals 4, spreading; stamens numer- 
ous, in many series, colored; ovary 
4-cclled, bearing a thickish style; 
pedicels 1-fld., at the ends of the 
branches or becoming lateral. The 
other species is F. SeheackiAna, 
Kiaersk^ of Braiil, described first in 
1891. The genua is closely allied to 
Psidium, but is distiDguished by the 
albuminous seeds and stamens auberect in the bud. 

The plant grows to an ultimat« height of 15 feet. Its 
leaves arc similar in form and appearance to those of 
the olive, but larger, the upper surface glossy green, 
and lower surface silvery gray, forming a contrast that 
makes the ahrub effectively ornamental. This effect is 
much heightened by its flowers which are produced in 
late spring and are 1)^ inches in diameter, compo^ 
of four cupped petals, white outside and purplish crim- 
son within, 8urmoimt«d by a tuft of crimson stamens 
1 inch long. The oval or oblong fruita, 2 inches in 
length and 1 'A inches in thickness, ripen in autumn and 
ear^ winter. The skin is dull green, with sometimes a 
touch of crimson on the cheek; it incloses a layer of 
whitish, granular flesh, which surrounds a quantity 
of tranalucentjinelting pulp, containing twenty to 
thirty seeds. The flavor bears a pronoiu><^ resem- 



be felt in the mouth. While commonly eaten fresh, the 
fruit may be cooked in several ways, cryatalliied, or 
made into jam or jelly. 

The feijoa does not seem to thrive under strictly 
tropical conditions, preferring a climate such as that 



FEIJOA 

of BOUthem CaJifomia or the Riviera, free from exces- 
sive humidity, and cool- at least part of the year, la 
FYsDce, the plaoto have passed uninjured throuf^ 
temperaturea of 12° F. A good loam, rich in humus, is 
the ideal soil for the feijoa. It has been successfully 
grown on heavy clay, by working in a. qusjitity of li^t 
material, but it does not do well on light or sandy soda. 
The situation seems to be of little importance, provided 
the land is well drained. While the plant is notably 
drought^resistant, for beet results in growth and fruit- 
ing a liberal supply of water is necessary. During the 
di^ season, imgations should be as frequent as for 
citrous trees. Fertilizers must be applied with caution, 
or they will Btimulat« growth at toe expense of fruit. 
A sm^l quantity of bone-meal, or other fertiliBcr not 
too rich m nitrogen, may be advBHtsgeousIy applied 
each year, while well-rotted manure will supply the 
much-needed humus, if it is lacking in the soil. The 

Elants should be set 15 or 18 feet apart, and require very 
ttle pruning. Seedlings usually come into bearing at 
three to five years; grafted or layered plants will some- 
times bear the second year. 

In some instances, seedling feijoas fruit spsringly or 
not at aJl, either through the failure of the fiowers to be 
properly tertiliied or because of unfavorable soil or sur- 
roundings. Although isolatedplants are often productive, 
it has b^Q sugge^ed that the feijoa is sometimes self- 
Bt^le, and two or more bushes should be planted 
togethertopermitofcraes-pollination. The difficulty can 
probably be obviated, in a measure at least, by propa- 
gating asexually from strains of known productiveneea. 

The fruits fall when mature, and must be laid in a 
oool place until they are in condition for eating, which 
can be detected by a slight softening, and also by the 
odor, — a fragrance most delightful. K picked before 
fully mature and ready to fall, the fruits lack much of 
the delicate flavor ot a perfectly ripened specimen. 
Very littJe care is requ^BU in packing, and toe fruits 
can be shipp^ long distances without difficulty. They 
spoil quickly in a hot, humid atmosphere, but if stored 
in a cool place they can be kept for a month or more 
in perfect condition. 

The shrub is attacked by a very few insects, the only 
one noted in either California or southern Europe 
being the black scale (Saieietia oleie), which rsrely 
requires combative messures. No fungous diseases 
have been observed on mature plants. 

Propagation is usually by seed, but some vegetative 
means must be used to perpetuate named varieties. 
Fruits for seed should be selected with a view to desira- 
bility in every character, as in precocity of bearing and 
procluctiveness of the parent. While the feijoa does not 



One of the best mediums for germinating the seeds 
is a mixture of ailver-ssnd and well-ratted redwood 
sawdust. This gives an almost sterile medium, in which 
there is little danger of damping-off, U) which fungus 
the young plants are very susceptible. With care in 



covering them to the depth of ^ inch. Germination 
will usually take place within three weeks. A glass- 
house is not necessary, but the flats containing the 
seeds should be kept in a frame with lath or slat covei^ 
ing to provide partial shade. The seeds will retain 
their vitality a year or more, if kept dry. As soon as 
the young plants have made their second leaves they 
should be pricked off into 2-inch pots; after attaining 
a height of 4 inches they should be shifted into 3-incb 
pots, from which they can later on be transplanted 
mto the open ground. 

Cuttings can be successfully rooted under glass. 
They should be of youiw wood from the ends of 
branches, and about 4 inches in length. Inserted in 
clear sand over bottom heat they willstrike roots in a 



month or two; without bottom heat they root very 
slowlv. It is sometimes advised to keep them cdvcTed 
with bell-jars until they have formed roots. 

layering is used in France to perpetuate choice 
forms. It IB somewhat tedious, but more certsin than 
any other vEKctative meoos of propagation. Those 
branches which are closest to the ground are bent 
down and covered with soil for the space of 3 to 6 
inches. They require no care except to keep the soil 
fairly moist, and they will root in six months. 

Whip-grafting and veneer-groftinH are sucoeasfully 
practisea under glass, using as stocks seedling feijoas 
■• ■^- • 'lould be 



liEEWbuvu uuucr i^uuB, uBiii|^ OB stocks Bcedlin 
of the diameter of a lead pencil. The i 



which the moot prominent are Andr^ and Besson. 

F. W. POPENOB. 

FELIcIA (for Herr Felix, a German official). Com- 
pAsUx. Herbs or sub-flhrubs, grown under gmss or as 
pot specimens. 

Leaves alternate, entin 
heads usually long-ped 
corolla blue or white, the 
Much like Aster, from wh 
in having pappus bristles 
in one senes, and in 
other technical charao- 
teiB. — Forty to 80 species 

ameUridas, Voas, not 
Schlechter 1898 (Cin- 
erdria amdicAdet, lAon. 

AsUr rolundi/dliut, 
""' ' oapinsU, ' 



Agathka c 
A. Totun 



1479. BlM aitj.—i 



Cass. 

Nees. A. amelloiaet, 
DC.). Blub Daisy. 
Blub Mabqukiutk. Fig. 
1470. An old green- 
house plant, 1-2 ft., with 
roundish ovat« opposite 
Ivs. and targe, solitary 
heads of an exquisite 
sky-blue. 8. Afr. B.M. 
249. A.F. 13:667. F.R. 
1:674. Gng. 6:149.— 
There is a varic^t«d- 
Ivd, variety (I.H.8:296). 
Grown easily from cut- 
tings. Handled like a 
cineraria; or, if grown 
from spring cuttings 
tor winter bloom, like 

a chrysanthemum, but ,.,,., 

with more heat in the 

fall. An el^ont pot--plant, and useful for bedding in S 
protected place. Var. monatrdaa, Hort. Fls. double the 
siie of the type. 

petioUU, N.E. Br. (isler pefioUfut, Harvey). An 
undershrub more or less prostrate and useful for 
hanging-baskets: Ivs. obovat« or lanceolate, wedge- 
shap^ at the base, rather papery: fls. at first r" 

' ' --'--"- -•- --^ t^ aster.4)Iut. _ 

G.C. III. 42:82.— Intro, in 
N. Tatlor.! 

FENDL^RA (after Augustus Fendler, a German 
naturalist, botanical explorer of New Mexico). Saii' 
jTogdcex. Ornamental woody plant grown for its hand- 
some white flowers. 

Deciduous shrub; Ivs. opposite, shortr-petioled, 
entire, 3-nerved: fls. solitary or rarely 2-3 at the end of 
short lateral branchlets; calyx-lobss and petals 4; 
stamens 8; ovary almost superior: fr. a 4-celled, dehis- 



d superior ovary. Tney are grace- 
ful ornamental ahn^ with email, gra^riah foliage, 
' 'i June along the sleuder, arching branches 



14KI. Ftodltn repicol^ (XH) 

with graceful while fla., reeembling in shape a Maltese 
cross. Hardy io New England, and Krowing beet in a 
well-drained, aandy or peaty soil and sunny position. 
A very handsome and graceful plant for sunny rock- 
eries or rocky slopee. IVop. by seeds or by greenwood 
cuttings under glass. 

rnpIcoU, Engelm. & Gray, Fig. 1480. To 4 ft.: Ivs. 
linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 3-nerved, revolute 
at the mar^, grayish tomentose beneath, H-l in. 
long: Ah. milky white, 1 in. across; petals rhombio- 
ovate, with distinct claw, spreading; stamens erect. 
June. G.F.2:113 (adapted m Fig, 1480). G.C. III. 
36:410. B.M.7924. R.U. 1801, p. 42; 1899, p. 129, 
M.D.G. 1899:231. G. 28:601. Alfked Rehdbr. 

FENNEL. Species of Faniculum (Umbellifera), 
annuals or treated as such, used as salad or condimental 
herbs. JJative of southern Europe. The i 
8 grown mostly for il 
flavoring, and also I 
aromatic seeds. Iicavee sometimes eaten raw. Sow 
seeds in late fall to ensure early germination in spring, 
or sow in early spring. In any good soil, the plant 
comes to maturity quickly. This plant has become in 
California one of the most widely naturalized Euro- 
pean weeds. It is a peet in pastures, said at times to 
attain 12 or 15 feet. 

The Florence or sweet fennel is F, dvke, DC, The 
bases of the crowded leaf-stalka are much thickened, 
making a bulb-like enlargement above the ground. This 
thickened base has en oval form in cross-section, 
Earthin^-up blanches these thickened leaf-bases, and 
after boiling they are fit for eating. A good fennel 
bottom may be 3 or 4 inches high. This is an Italian 



FENUGREEK 

vegetable, but is in the American trade. Easily culti- 
vated annual; matures quickly. Sow in spring, and 
later for succession. 

Giant fennel is cultivated for ornament, and is 
described under Ferula. Fennel-flower is a name of 
Nigella. L. H. B. 

FEinTGREEK ( Trigondla FttnumrGrxeam, literally 
Greek ha^). An annual l^ume indigenous to western 
Asia, cultivated for human food, forage, and for medi- 
cinal cjuaUties; widely naturalized in Mediterranean 
countries; little grown in America. 

Fenugreek is an erect little-branched plant with 3- 
foliolate leaves. The seeds are 1 or 2 lines long, brown- 
iafa yellow and marked with an oblique furrow half 
their length. They emit a peculiar odor, and contain 
starch, mucilage, a bitter extractive, a yellow coloring 
matter, and 6 per cent of fixed and volatile oils. As 
human food they are used in Egypt, mixed with wheat 
flour, to make bread ; in India, with other condiments, 
to make curry powder; in Greece, either boiled or raw, 
as an addition to honey; in many oriental countries, to 
^ve plumpness to the female human form. The plant 
IS used as an esculent in Hindostan; as an early fodder 
in Egypt, Algiers, France, and other countries border- 
ing Uie Mediterranean. Formerly the seed was valued 
in medicine; now it is employed only in the prepara- 
tion of emollient cataplasms, enemata, ointments and 
plasters, never intemsjly. In veterinary practice it is 
still esteemed for poultices, condition powders, as a 
vehicle for drugs, and to diminish the nauseating and 
Kriping effects of purgatives. It is commonly used by 
hostlers to produce gtoesy coats upon their horses and 
to give a temporary fire and vigor; by stockmen to, 
excite thirst and digestion in fattening animals; by 
manufacturers of patent stock foods as a Savoring 

Fenugreek does not succeed on clays, sands, wet or 
sour soiu. It yields most seed upon well-drained loams 
of medium texture and of moderate fertility; most 
fodder upon rich lands. For seed-production, potash 
and phosphoric acid should be applied; for forage, 
nitrogenous manures, Deep plowmg and thtnnugh 
harrowing are essentia, len to twenty pounds of 
seed shomd be used broadcast, or seven to ten pounds 
in drills 18 inches apart, ThiDning when the plants are 
2 or 3 inches tall, and clean culture throughout the 



season until blossoming time, are ni 



are neccasair for a seed 
, dried and threshed four 
e months after seeding. An average yield should 






green manures of this country. It possesses 



FENUGREEK 

the power of obtaining nitrogen from the air by means 
of root-tuberdea. — For description of the plant, see 
TrigontUa. M. G. Kains. 

penZLU: Oilia. 
FUtDInAnDA: PBdacSKnium. 

FESN-BALLS (Fie. 1481) are the dried rhizomee of 
femB, imparted fromJapan. DealersoftenBtarttheminto 
growth, and sell them when the mass \m well covered 
with its delicate vegetation. To atart them into growth, 
the balls are drenched in a tub of water and then hung 
in a warmhouse, not in direct sunlight. When the 

Slants are well started, gradually expose them to more 
ght and U> a cooler air. Give liquid manure if they 
do not grow Batisfactorily. The species are mostly 
Davalliaa, apparently D. InJlala and D. Mariemi. 

Fern-balls (DovoUta iniUala) are of Japaneee origin. 
They are natives of deep mossy forests (the mosses 
on trees as well as on the ground), with abundant 
humidity in the air, as in Kiso or some parte of 




14SI. Fanu in fonud *b«p«s. 



Fukuahima diatricts. Toward the end of every 
winter, an expert goes into these forests and gathers 
the vines of such ferns. They should be carefuuj[ kept 
in the bamboo baskets in which a large quantity of 
mosses are contained, which must be sprinkled with 
water on the way to the metropolis. The people out- 
side of large towns or cities do not care much for this 
plant. When the plants arrive in the cities or towns, 
they fall into the hands of gardeners who make many 
shapes with the vines (Fig. 1482). This is done before 
any leaves appear. Then the balls or other shaped 
articles are hung from the ceihng beam quite near to 
its end but not exposed to rain or hot sunshine. The 
ferns should not be subjected (o pouring rain or showers, 
although they like dew. They should have some 
mrinkung of cool water once every day after sunset. 
The plant dishkes dust or warm impure water. The 
best rertili«er is the extract of fish-meal or cake ("abura- 
kasunazumi"). Prices run from 20 cents to 50 centi 
United Stat«s money according to the shape of balls 
and general excellence. (Issa Tanimura.) 



1483. Sponn- 



FERNftUA (Jean Francois Femel, 1497-1558, 
physician to Henry II of France). AuJndcex. Four 
small evergreen trees or shrubs of the Mascarene Isls., 
rarelv grown in choice warmhouse collections. Lvs. 
small, opposite, coriaceous, shortratalked, ovate-oblong 
or nearly orbicular ;fls. small, sohtary or in 2's, provided 
with a 4-toothed calyx-Uke involucre; corolla short- 
tubedj salver-shaped, with 4 spreading lobes; stamens 
2, affixed in the corolla-throat; disk annular: ovary 
1-celled below and 2-celled above: fr. a small berry. 
F. buxifilui, Comm., is the species likely to be in cult. 
It is a much-branched shrub 4-5 ft. high, with obovate 
or oblong lvs. >^in. or less long, and many whitish fls. 
in the axils of the lvs.: berry dry, siie of a pea, red, 
borne inside the involucre. Mauntius. l_ jj_ g_ 

FERNS. The plants included under tiiia name com- 

Erise an entire onier, made up of several distinct fami- 
ee. They include plants varyiiu in sise from a hair- 
like creeping stem bearing a few simple, moss-like 
leaves, to tall trees SO or more feet in 
height, with a stem or trunk nearly a 
foot in diameter. Singularly enough, 
the extremes in size are both found in 
tropical regions, in which most of the 
species abound. Most of the ordinary 
native species, as well as the larger part 
of those in cultivation, consist of an 
erect undei^round stem or rootstock 
with leaves, often called fronds, clustered 
in dense crowns, or in the cases of creep- 
ing stems with scattered leaves. In 
gtudening parlance, other plants are 
sometimes called ferns, as species of 
lycopodium and selaginella, as well as ^i^oi,(^" 
AMparagut plumotnu. 

In the life of an individual fan plant, two distinct 
phases occur, represented by two separate and unlike 
plants. The ordinary fern plant represents the asexual 
phase of growth (sporophyK), producing its spores 
normally in spore-cases {sporan^, Fig. 1483). which 
are borne in masses (am. Fig. 1484) on the Dack of 
margin of the leaf, or in. a few cases are grouped in 
spikes or panicles, or in rare cases spread in a layer over 
the entire under surface of the leaf. The sexual stage 
(pametopAyte) develops from the ■ germinating spore, 
and consists of a tiny usually scale-like green Leart- 
shaped prothallus (Fig. 1485), which bears the sex- 
organs {txrchegonia, female, and anlheridia, male) on tlie 
under surface. After fertiliiation in the archegonium, 
the egg develops directly into a young fern plimt (Fig. 
1485). Many ferns also propagate vEgetatively by 
runners or offsets, by bulbfet-Iike buds, and in certain 
species the tips of the leaves bend over and take root, 
as in OUT common walking-leaf (Camptosorus, which 
see). 
Fer___ 

naturally 1:_ — ^ _. 

crossed Dv hand, as are the seed-plants, but from the 
accidental mixing when prothaUia of allied species are 
growing together. Fig. 1486 (G.F. 9:445) is a hybrid 
betwecD two native species; it has been found in the 
wild in several parts of New England. 

Great diversity has existed m the matter of the 
separation of the ferns into 
genera. Hooker, relying mainly 
on artificial characters drawn 
lately from the sorus, recog- 
nised about seventy genera 
only, many of them heterogene- 
ous groups of plants with little 
resemblance in structure, habit 
or natural affinities. John 
Smith, rolytng on stem charac- 
14M. A Huiu or frait- ters, Presl on variation in vena- 
dot ol a Imi. tion and habit, Fte, Moore, 



1208 



FERNS 



and others, have recognised a much greater number of 
genera, ranging from 150 to 260, or even more. In 
the very unequal treatment by Diels in Die Natfir- 
lichea Pflanzcnfamilien (Engler &, Prantl), some 120 
genera ore rera^nized. A somewhat "i m ilu r differ- 
ence prevails in r^ard to the number of species. 
The Synopsis Filicum of Hooker 
and Baker (J874), supplemented 
by Baker's New Ferns (1892), 
TefMgnJEes some 2.700 species. 
It is the too prevailing tendency 
in this work <1) to fail to recoe- 
ntie many valid species which 
have been described by German 
and French botanists, and (2) 
to mass under one ntune very 
diverse groups of species from 
distant quarters of the world — 
from 8 to 10 species not infre- 
quently appearuig as a single 
so-called "variable species." The 
most recent book dealine with the 
whole order of ferns, the Index 
Filicium by Carl Chriatensen, 
recognizes approximately ISO 
...> n_... i< J genera and 6,000 speciea, and this 
fm^ttt^^uJI number is continually increased 
„j,^ jmun ^^ ^^^ result of further tropical 

exploration and more careful 
study. New forms are constantly coming in from the 
less^xplored parts of the world, and within the last few 
years several new species have been described from the 
Unit«d States, including some from the bettei^known 
parts. Of this number some 200 species are in occa- 
sional cultivation in America, but the species that 
form the bulk of the tem trade do not exceed two 
doten. In Europe several hundred species have long 
been in cultivation. Most of the species thrive beet 
in the mountain regions of the tropics, the mountains 
of Jamaica and Java having nearly 600 species each, 
and the Andes also a large number. About 165 species 
are native in the temperate United States, representing 
some thirty-five genera; our native species are so widely 
distributed that usually not more than ( . - . 

y will be found within the Hi 

the 



a twenty-five t 



PERNS 

or panicles on highly modified divisions of the large 
flesny foliage Ivs.; prothallium tuberous, subter^jiean, 
without chlorophyll. 

2. HsrattiAceK. Coarse ferns with large fleshy 
sporangia on the under surface of the If., arranged in 
cu^Milar or boat^^haped receptacles; protoallium above 
ground, green. 

BB. Sporanffia riring from an epidermal cell, wUh an 
elaalie ring oj pecvUar edit, which OMisf in teat- 
Irring the tporu by npturing. {LeptoKporangiate 

c. lAia. Jiimy, untoSy only 1 cell Ihiek between the veint. 

3. HymenophjiUcea. Filut Fbrnb. Sporangia 
attached to a thread-like receptacle arising in a cup at 
the end of the If. : ring complete, horizontu or oblique. 

cc, hvt. herbateow or leathery. 

B. Ring incomplete or radimeTttary: epmangia in 

paniclta. 

4. Osmundices. FbowERiNa Ferns. Coaiw swamp 
ferns developing copious green spores early in the 
season: sporangia in panicles at the apei or middle of 
the If. or on separate Ivs. 

DD. Ring apical; aporangia tuuaUi/ tingle under a teaU, 
or in panicles. 

5. Scliiz«ice«. Upright or climbing ferns with 
ovate sporangia, which open vertically. 



n species' of the best locality do not number 
more than twenty. Recent explorations in southern 
Florida have discovered in that state the presence of a 
considerable number of West Indian species not found 
elsewhere in the United States. 

The ferns arc commonly classified as part of a group 
of spore-bearing plants, with vascular (woody) tissue 
in stem and leaves; this group is technically known as 
the Pteridophytes, and is ordinarily divided into three 
orders; viz., the Equisetales, including the horsetails' 
and scouring rushes; the Lycopodiales, including the 
selaginellas and the club mosses, or ground pines; and 
the Filicales, including the true ferns and their n 



grouping would indicate. 

It should be noted that neither ttie family nor the 
generic limitations are in a settled condition. The 
researches of Bower, Lang, Jeffrey, and others have 
resulted in some changes of classification which are 
not included below because they arc not complete 
enough. Their conclusions are undoubtedly correct 
but are not at present usable. 

The families of the order Filicales may be distin- 
guished as follows; 

A. Spores of one gort. (IgoBporoua.) 

B. Sporangia ffeahy, with no ring, rising from the interior 

tissues oJ the tf. {Evsporangiale ferns.) 

1. Ophk^Iosslces. Adder's-Tongde Fsrks. Her- 
baceous small ferns with the sporangia borne in spikes 



IM6. Ad aiaaple of ■ tam hybrid. — Drropleri* 



FERNS 



FERNS 



1209 



u«, ooUeeted in d^nile 
cbuUrt (aori). 

8. CraOiflllcete. Mostly tree ferns with ae«sil« or as weU. •, , , ^ „ . 

rfiortrflUlked Bporaagia in conapicuouB receptacles, . Tree ferns are pnmarily forest dwellere uxl occur 
opening obiiquefy (Fig. 1179, VoL 11). either aa component porta of the dommwit forest 

n —.1 j-i _ !■ _iii, ^ ii„..j „„,„„^„ growth or, more commonly, as a sort of thicket or 

,J- ^^^TL ,T ™™i ^^ ^ *?h ^wder-tor^" associaUon in moist partial ohiule 
(Fig. 1«3), which buret transversely: son covered with ^^^tj, ^^ „f ^, ^^^ f^ ^ ^^ T^ 

a membranous indusium or Bometimes naked. This ^^j ^„„jg„^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ mouoUin Blopes which 
family contains three-fourths of all the ferns. ^ ^^^^ ^^,1,.^^^ (^ ^ V^ ^^ pronounceTwasonal 

1- change; they reach, therefore, their best develcpinent, 
both as to species and number of indi~ 
viduals, upon lofty mountains and upon 
the seaward side of ranges which are 
drenched constantly by cool moisture- 
laden winds from the ocean. 

The successful cultivation of tree ferns 
mider glass is predicated upon these facts, 
although not all the species here men- 
tioned are horticulturally known in this 
country. It is found that most species 
should be grown at a temperature of about 
60° F, and in a rather shallow soil; that a 
continuously wet but well-drained sub- 
stratum is essential; and that in general a 
tolerably high atmospheric humidity also 
is requisite for best growth. Very bright 
Bunhght must be guarded against in all 
but a few species, amoi^ these being the 
common tropical American Cyothea 
athifrea, which grows naturally in rather 
open places and C. /ur/uracea, a native 
of Cuba and Jamaica which assumes a not 
unattractive form in drier open situations. 
As in other groups of ferns, there are cer- 
tain species which demand unusual care 
and minor variations of treatment, such 
as wrapping the trunk in sphagnum as 
a safeguard against drying out. These 
special requirements can be determined 



10. HarsnUcMe. Small plants rooting 
in mud, the Ivs. either quadrifoliate or 
reduced to mere filamentous petioles: 

rrangia borne in oval conceptacles on 
lef^-stalks. Often aquatic, with the 
leaves floating on the suiiace of water in 
pools or lakes. 

tl. Stlvtnilces. Small or minut« plants 
with the aspect of liverworts, floating on 
the surface of pools: sporangia in mostly 
spherical conceptacles. 

The literature on the ferns is very ex- 
tensive, since they have ever been attrao- 
tive plants in cultivation. Many of the 
species have been illustrated in elaborate 



md others. Our native species have been 
illustrated in the two quarto volumes of 
p. C. Eaton "The Ferns of North Amer- 
ica." A valuable summary of the more 
common ' fern species is found in Dr. 
Christ's "Die Famkrauter dcr Erde" 
(1897), and a recent structural and 
morphological treatment is by Sadebeck, 
in Engler & Prantl: "Die Natiirlichen 
Pflanienfamilien." Schneider's "Book of 
Choice Ferns" is the most complete treats 
ise on the species under cultivation. A 
useful American horticultural manual is 
Robinson's "Ferns in Their Homes and 
Ours." An excellent little hsndbook for 
the wild species of this country is Undei^ 
wood's "Native Perns and Their Allies." 
L. M. Underwood. 

R. C. BENEDICT.t 

Tree ferns. 

The term "tree fern" is apphed com- 
monly to ferns of the family Cyatheaceff, 
\o distinguish them from species of other 
families of ferns which, for the most part, 
are not at all arboreswnt. A compara- 
tively small number of Cyatheaccs, it is 
true, have the trunk short, and oblique or 
decumbent; but in most species the trunk 
is erect and greatly elongate (commonly 
3 to 40 feet nigh) and the whole plant 
BO unmistakably trce-Uke in size and pro- 
pctttion, that the name "tree fern" is a 
most appropriate one for the family. The 
leaves are usually large and are borne in 
a radiating palm-like crown at the apex of 
the trunk, or caudex, as it is often called. 
Tlie trunk itself, in the case of an ordinary 
mature individual, is marked by numer- 
ous close-set leaf-ficars (Fig. 1487); these 



The Cyatheaceie are divided technically 
into three tribes; Thyrsopterideffl, Dick- 
soniete, andCyatheK. The first mentioned 
consists of a single species, TkyraopUri* 
eieparu,Kunzc, from Juan Fem&ndei. The 
two latter tribes may be distinguished as 
follows: 

Sori terminal upon the veins, at or 
near the marjiin of the a „ 
iodUBlB at least bilobcd. the o 
lipfomi«iof the more or less mcMli- 

Ged lobule of the leaf Dicksonlea. 

Sori borne upon the back of the veins; 
induBiiuii |if pnsent) not formed of 
the Icai-marfcin in any part. .Cyathe*. 

Tie Dicksonieffi consiBt of three genera: 
Culcita (often known as Balantium), with 
about six species, all of small stature and 
nearly devoid of trunk; Dickaonia, with 
five tropical American species and several 
hardy Australasian species, the latter not 
uncommon in cultivation and capable of 
enduring unusually great extremes of cold ; 
and Cibotium, with four North American 
species and several which occur in Asia 
and the islands of the Pacific. (See under 
Cibotium and Dickaonia.) 
j It is in the Cyathea, however, that the 
I greatest variety and extremes of leaf form 
! are noted, and conseauently the species 
of this tril>e are most Highly esteemed in 
cultivation, ThCT' are commoiUy asso- 
ciated under three genera: C^athca, 
Alsophila, and Hcmilelia, distinguished 
mainly by characters of the Indusia. One 



1210 



FERNS 



f'ERNS 



of the most graceful species of all is Cyathea 
arboreOy introduced into England from the West 
Indies by Admiral Bligh in 1793. There are numer- 
ous species almost equally fine, many of which are 
not in general cultivation. The species with clean 
trunks, from which the leaves are freely deciduous 
after maturity, are the most pleasing; and among 
those which deserve especial notice are the following: 
Cyathea minor , a very siender Cuban plant with trunk 
6 to 12 feet high and 1 to 1 H inches thick, its several 
slender bipinnate leaves borne in a spreading crown; 
C. portaricenaiSf a tall Porto Rican species with large 
nearly tripinnate leaves, its rachises dark, lustrous. 
piu*piish brown; C. deganSf of Jamaica, a close ally of 
C. arborea, often attaining a wide spread of leaf at an 
unusually early age; C. Werckleanaf C hemiotisy and C. 
hasttUataf of Costa Rica, a peculiar subgroup charac- 
terized by having the leaves fully tripinnate, the ulti- 
mate rachises discontinuously alate ; C. diveraens, extend- 
ing in one form or another from the Andes to Costa 
Rica, its huge fronds exceedingly lax and sometimes 
even in large plants recurved nearly to the ground; C. 
instgnis of the Greater Antilles, in technical characters 
allied to the well-known C, princeps of Mexico; C 
suprastri^sa and C. canspersa of Costa Rica and Pan- 
ama, dehcate graceful tripinnatifid plants of the high 
mountains; C. punctifera of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, 
a plant of lower ranse, its huge tripinnatifid fronds 
remarkably beautiful trom the strong contrast afforded 
by the slender rich brown rachises and the imusuaUy 
vivid green leaf -segments; C axtreanitens of Costa Rica 
and Panama, a lofty plant with leaf-scars in distant zones, 
having the unusual nabit also of shedding piecemeal all 
its lai^ tripinnatifid fronds, seasonally. 

Of Alsopmla, the two best-known species in cultiva- 
tion are doubtless A. auatralis and A. aspera, the latter 
a common West Indian plant. A. myosuroideSf of Cuba, 
Mexico, and Central America, has lately been reintro- 
duced to cultivation. It is a remarkably handsome 
1>lant, its rather harsh, heavy, gray-green, tripinnatifid 
eaves borne from a copious mass of slender, glossy 
brown scales. Another oeautiful species, A. JScuviniif 
from Mexico and Guatemala, has very large tripinnate 
fronds, with woody castaneous rachises in striking 
contrast. A favorite species in cultivation also is A. 
quadripinnata (A. pruinaia)f native in the West Indies 
and from Mexico to Chile, its short trunk bearing huge 
four-pinnate fronds, bluish or silvery white beneath. 
The genus Hemitelia includes not only plants of the 
above sort, with tripinnatifid fronds (as. for example, 
the well-known H, capenHs), but also plants of a dis- 
tinctly different type known as the suogenus Cnemi- 
daria. These are n, horridaf of the West Indies, and 
numerous related species of the American tropics, 
many of which have long been cultivated in European 
conservatories. They are characterized mainly by 
short trunks and large, leafy, simplv pinnate or bipin- 
natifid frbnds, and make a beautiful display in cultiva- 
tion. Among them may be mentioned H. speciosa, H. 
belUif H. grandifoliaf {H, insignis), H. apectabUiSf and H, 
subincisa. Their characters have recently been dis- 
cussed at some length. (See Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
16:25-49, 1912.) 

Considering the wealth of material available in the 
American tropics and the comparative ease with which 
it may be secured, it is remarkable that so little atten- 
tion has been given to the introduction of recently 
described species. The novelty and beauty of many of 
these render an effort to this end exceedingly desirable 
and advantageous from a horticultural point of view. 
Costa Rica in particular has yielded many interesting 
new species within late years. This rei^on, which has 
been called the richest m the world, will doubtless be 
equaled by certain parts of the Andes of South 
America, when that immense territory shall have been 
adequately explored. William R. Maxon. 



Cultivation of tender ferns. 

To grow commercial varieties of ferns profitably, 
the first care should be to secure the necessary number 
of properly built and eauipped houses, with a con- 
veniently arranged workshop. The house which gives 
the most general satisfaction runs north and south, has 
an even-span roof, and with a fall to roof of 6 inches 
to the foot. Its benches should be arranged to be about 
7 feet wide, with a 24-inch path on either side. In an 
18-foot house this will permit of having a 7-foot center- 
table, two 3)^foot side benches and two 24-inch paths. 
Bencnes should not be more than 3 feet above the 
walks, as this will bring every part of the bench within 
easy reach^ and will permit of every plant being in 
constant sight and easily cared for, which fact is 
essential in the profital)le cultivation of trade ferns. 

The width of house is immaterial, but when houses 
adjoin, a width of 27 feet has been found to be very 
satisfactory, as this permits the construction of three 
7-foot bencnes, two 24-inch paths, and two paths 2)4 
feet wide under each gutter. 

Thorough provision should be made for ventilation. 
For a 27-foot house, a continuous row of ventilators of 
at least 3 feet in width should be provided, with some 
reliable apparatus for raising same. Heating is the 
next important consideration. Either steam or hot 
water will give equally good results if properly installed. 
The safest way for the avera^ grower is to give the 
heating contract to some reliable firm. Water-taps 
should be so arranged that a 25-foot hose attached to 
same will easily reach any part of the house. A 25- 
foot hose can easily be carried about without injuring 
either itself or benches and plants: and iron pipe is of 
only half the cost of good hose, in most fern-houses 
drip is a source of great annoyance, and should be pre- 
vented by the use of drip-bars, by having a drip-groove 
plowed into the headers immediately under the ven- 
tilating-sash, and also by having a ^oove in sides of 
gutter-plates. This very slight additional expense will 
very soon pay for itself by saving a great number of 

Elants, especially when growing very small ferns in 
ouses, such as have been transplanted from spore- 
pots into boxes. Ventilators should fit into a groove 
m ridge of house and be hinged to the ridge. When 
ventilators are so arranged, air, which is very desirable 
on a good many warm rainy days in the summer, can 
be given without having plants m the houses suffering 
from excessive moisture. Burning of the fohage will 
also be avoided, as the plants will at no time be exposed 
to the direct rays of the sun. Ventilators hinged on 
header and opening on ridge will always give trouble. 
No matter what kind of covering is put over the open- 
ing, if it efficiently excludes the burning sun's rajrs it 
wiU also prevent the ingress of air. 

A propagating-room should be provided; and in the 
case of general trade ferns raised from spores, it is a 
very safe rule to caJculate on having from 60 to 70 
square inches of room in the propagating-frame for 
every 1,000 plimts desired. Tne propagating-frame 
should be 3}^ feet wide, have sides 9 inches high, and, 
to insure an even moisture, its bottom should be cov- 
ered to the thickness of 1 inch with fine cinders \rith 
the fine ashes removed, which make very clean and 
efficient drainage material. The frame should be 
covered with li^t sash constructed with drip-bars, to 
carry off condensation. 

Shading of fern-houses should have close attention. 
It is best effected by the application of a suitable wash 
to the outside of glass on roof. The following composi- 
tion for a wash has given excellent results for a number 
of years: To two gallons of benzene or turpentine add 
one pint (or more, according to time the shading is 
desired to remain on houses) of linseed oil, five pounds 
of pure white lead and enough whitening to make 
proper thickness (which can very easily be ascertained 



FERNS 



1211 



by applying some of it to a piece of glass whue ewlding 
tbe wbitemng); thoroughly mix and appljr to outaide ot 
ejasB .with a soft brush of the BBme width as glass. 
This shadini;, by the addition of more or less linseed 
oil, may be made to stay on houses up to one year. It 
properly applied in spring, it will be just right during 
the hot days of sumtncr, and in tbe fall and winter, 
when more light is gradually required, the frosts f^wlu- 
&Uy will have reduced the shading, thus admitting 
more light at the necessary time. 

Much time, annoyance and expense will be saved by 
a careful arrangement of the workshop, or potting-room, 
a thing which in most cases is tot&lly ni^ected. It 
should be so built that pot ting-benches are ^>out 3 feet 



a number of pots of different sixes can be conveniently 
stored, and tliat potting material can be thrown from 
cart or wagon directly onto potting-benches. By an 
improper arrangement of workshop great expense, loss 
of time and material are incurred by having to handle 
material repeatedly in small quantities. 

pTopagalion by mtang of spores. 

To ^w ferns from spores successfully, it is advisable 
to sterilize soil on which they are to be sown, which 
can best be done by subjecting it to a high temperature 
by means of steam under a pressure of ten to fif- 
teen pounds; and for this purpoee a properly equipped 
workshoo should be provided witii a tignt box about 3 
IF lai^r if an uncommonly luge number 
_. ._ __ ._ be grown. It should be fitted with a 
grating made of 2-inch laths spaced 1 inch a^rt 
and placed 2 inches from bottom of the box. This 
grating may be covered with burlap, and if a K->nch 
steam pipe is fitted between bottom of box and ^ting, 
and connected to highest point of steam boiler (to 
insure getting perfectly dry steam), the soil is ready 
to be sterihzed. After having cooled olT, the soil is in 
practically the same condition as before so far as moist- 
ure, friablenoss, and the like are concemnl, and this 
cannot be said of soil that has been steriliied by burn- 
ing and by other methods. This steaming process will 
effectually destroy all forms of life in the soil and leave 
it fpr the use of spores alone. In most localities, the 
water used for moistening spores is impure and full of 
the spores of low forms of plant life, which are very 
destructive to the prothaUi of ferns. To prevent this, 
the workshop should be provided with a receptacle in 
which the water intended for use on ferns whue in the 
prothallus state can be raised to a. bailing temperature, 
which will effectually destroy all spores that may be 
present in the water. This is best done by leading a 
1-inch Bteam-pipe to within Q inches of the bottom of 
the receptacle and turning on a reasonable pressure 
of steam. IE boiled twelve hours before intended for 
use, it will be cool enough to be appUed, and will be 
pure. A fern workshop should also be provided with a 
dry closet, having a number of shelves about 12 inches 
aF^rt, for storing fem-eporee. 

In b^inning the cultivation of ferns, it is advisable 
to Durchase the spores from some reliable firm which 
males fem-growing a specialty, until a sufficient num- 
ber of stock plants can be grown to supply spores for 
home demand. Spores willdo about equally well in 
pots or pans. Pans 12 inches sauare and 4 inches deep 
are used for that purpose, as also are the 6-inch com- 
mon flower-pots. The 12-inch pons should be suppUed 
with l}ii inches and the 6-incn pots with 3 inches of 
coal cinders for drainage. Soil for sowing spores on is 
best composed of five parte, in the proportions of two 
parts good garden soil, two parts of finely screened peat 
and one o/ sharp clean propsfating sand. Leaf-mold 
m^ be used instead of peat, it easier to procure. This 
•oilshould be thoroughly sterilized, as already directed. 
The spore-poto should be filled with the soil to within 



a inch of tbe top; press firmly. The rest of the pots 
should be filled with the same composition after it has 
been passed through a screen of about )^inch mesh, then 
made absolutely level, firmly pressed and thorougjily 
watered with sterihzed water. Three or four hours 
after watering will be the best time to sow spores. The 
spores should be thinly scattered over the surface of 
the soil, a quantity that can be held on a surface of 
yi square inch being abundant to sow one 12-inch pan. 
Spores should not oe covered with soil. Immediately 
after sowing, the sssh of the propagating-frome should 
be ti^tty closed and kept so until spores show signs of - 
germination, when a small quantity of air should be 
given and gradually increased, so that by the time 
tbe first small fronds have made tbeir appearance they 
may have been sufficiently hardened off to have the 
sa^ removed entirely. In sowing spores, great care 
will be necessary to prevent them from getting mixed, 
fem-spores being very minute And so ught that the 
slightest movement of air will carry them long dis- 
tances. While sowing spores, all spore-pots should be 
kept tightly covered. Being kept m a very close and 
humid atmosphere after 
sowing, the spores should 
not require any watering 
for one or two weeks, by 
which time they will 
have sufficiently settled 
not to be dislodged by 
a very gentle overhead 
watering, which should 
be given whenever soil 
shows the least si^ of 
being dry. Sterilized 

1488.Af«mpu. W*'*' «^Oukl be IMCd 

until after the first 
delicate fronds have been formed. As soon as the first 
little fronds have made their appearance, care should 
be taken to weed out all imdesu-able vaneties, which, 
even with the veiy best of care, will occasionally 
creep in. A temperature of 65° F. should be main- 
tained b the propagating-house. 

As soon as the first small fronds are evenly formed 
all over the surface of the pot, the little plants should 
be transferred in clumps of four or five planla each, to 
well-drained pans (Pig, 1488) or boxes filled with soil 
composed of one-half rich garden soil and one-half 
peat or leaf -mold, finely screened. In transplanting, 
great care should be exercised not to cover the remain- 
mg prothalli, but to have them just level with tbe sur- 
face of the soil. The clumps of plants should be kept 
SB loose as possible, as this will give each individual 
plantlet a bett«r chance to form the necessary number 
of rootlets, and it will, later on, also be easier to separate 
the plants. Boxes tor transplanting ferns are most 
convenient when 4 inches deep, 14 inches wide and 22 
inches long. These boxes will hold about 200 plants 

Elaccd about 1 inch apart. As soon as the little plants 
ave formed two or three fronds each, they should be 
separated and transplanted singly into boxes similarly 
prepared as before, where they may remain untd 
sufficiently Strong bo be potted into 2- or 2}^-inch 

Times of sowing fem-spor«s are the first weeks of 
March, July and October. When making three sow- 
ings a year, and allowing a Bufiicicntly longer time for 
slower-growing varieties, a constant supply of plants will 
be assured. In calculating on time of sowing spores of 
commercial varieties of ferns, it will be nelpful to 
divide them into two classes, as some varieties are con- 
siderably slower of growth and will consequently have 
to be sown earlier, in order to be ready for sale at the 
same time as the more rapid-growing ones. The follow- 
ing popular commercial kinds will require from nine 
to ten months between times of sowing and potting. 
The names are those that the plants bear in the trade: 



1212 



FERNS 



^EKNS 



Adiantum ouneatum. 

" *' variM^tum. 

" '* grancGoepB. 

** Bauaei. 

•• decorum. 

** Fer^usoniL 

** graallixnum. 

** mundulum. 

** tenenun. 
Wiegandii. 
Cibotium SohiediL 

" r^ale. 

Cyathea medullaria. 

Qrrtomium oaiyotoideum. 

** FortuneL 

'* faloatum. 

Davallia tenuifolia striota. 

Veitchiana. 
Diokaonia antarcti<»L 
Doodia acpera. 
Doodia acpera multifida. 



« 
«« 

u 
** 



Doodia caudata. 
Dorsropteria notnlia. 
Lastrea ariatata. 

vari^ata. 
ohrysoloba. 
opaca. 
SieboldiL 
Lygodiiim japonioum. 

" seandens. 
Nephrodium hirtipes. 
Nephn^epia ezaltata. 

*' oordata oompact*. 

Platg^oma Bridgeaii. 

faloata. 
Pc^jnpociium aureum. 

*' frazinifoliiim, etc 

Polsratichum ooriaceum. 

'* aetoaum. 

Pteria ^^otoruB. 

*' tremula Smithiana. 



The following trade ferns will develop into plants 
large enough to be potted in about six months after 
sowing spores: 

Adiantum pubeaoena. Pteria cretioa albo-lineata. 

" hiapidulum. ** ** magnifica. 

Alaophila auatralia. ** ** Mayu. 

Qymnogramma calomelano& ** ** nobiiia. 

^' chryaophylla. ** haatata. 

** decompoaita. ^ " adiantoidea. 

** peruviana. ** intemata. 

** aulphurea. ** SieboldiL 

Lomaria ciliata. ** leptophylla. 

" gibba. ** OuvrardiL 

** " platyptera. ** palmata. 

Nephrodium immeraum oris- ** aerrulata. 

tatum. ** ** orifltata. 

Nephrodium molle coiymbif- ** *' ** nana. 

erum. ** tremula. 

Onychium japonieum. ** WimaettiL 
Pteria argyrea. 

It should also be borne in mind, when calculating 
time of sowing, that spores sown in the autimm will 
require about four weeks longer for development than 
those sown at other times of the vear. 

Fern-spores are borne on the oack or under side of 
fronds. In some cases they are borne naked on under 
surface of frond, while in others they are produced 
under a scale-like membrane or indusiiun. In some 
cases, as in Pteris, the edge of the pinnse is folded back 
over the spores, while in adiantums a small part of the 
leaflet is folded back over each little fruit-dot to serve 
as a shield or indusium. Davallias form a small sack- 
like receptacle at the extremity of the pinnae. The 
proper time of gathering spores is when liiey a^iune 
a hght brown, rather d^ appearance, or in the indu- 
sium-bearing kinds when the mdusium or shield begins 
to open. Spores should be gathered on a dark day when 
the fronds are slightly moist, as they will be better 
retained in that condition, and will not be so liable to 
get mixed when disturbea. Fronds, or parts of them, 
Siould be cut off entirely in most cases, put up in tight 
paper bags and stored on shelves in a cuy closet for a 
week, by which time, in most cases, they will be suffi- 
ciently dry to have spores removed from them by rub- 
bing the frond in a sieve which has about twenty meshes 
to the inch. When thus separated from fronds, the 
spores should be put up in small seed-bags and placed 
in air-tight jars until required for sowing. Cai^ for 
in this manner, perfect success has been invariably 
secured, even after keeping spores for years. 

Propagation by other meafis. 

Some ferns form little plants at the ends of pinnse 
and of fronds, which upon attaining to sufficient size 
may be detached from parent plants, planted into 
shallow, well-drained seed-pans, and tor a week or 
two left in the propagating-frame, where they will 
soon form roots, when they can be potted. Among 
such are Adiantum cavdalum, A, Edgeworthii, A. 
lunidatum var. doLahriforme^ Asplenium Belangerii, 
A. bidbiferuMf A. salicifolium, Polystichum angidare 
var. proliferunit and many more. 

A very useful decorative fern is Nephrolepis davat- 



Uoides var. furcans, and it will make a beautiful speci- 
men plant in a comparatively short time. To grow 
re quantities, the old plants should be cut back to 
within 6 inches of surface of soil and placed in a liouse 
where a bottom heat of 90^ F. may be secured, when 
they will soon form a large niunl)er of short, strong 
fronds. At this time they may be divided into a number 
of small plants, potted off and placed in the same posi- 
tion as the parent plants. A somewhat slower method 
is to plant out a niimber of plants on a bench into 5 
inches of soil, in which soil the rhizomes, running over 
the surface, will form a niunber of small plants, which 
mav be detached and grown on. 

A beautiful fern is Adiantum FarUyensey and it 
deservedly ranks as the greatest favorite among fern- 
lovers. It is best propagated by division. From old 
plants, cut off all fronds down to the rhizomes, wash 
off soil, cut rhizomes into pieces J^ inch lone, insert 
same into well-drained fern-boxes about ]/i inch apart, 
in 1 V^ inches of clean, sharp propagating sand. Place 
same in propagating-frame in a temperature of 70^ F. 
In this position each little fragment of rhizome will 
form two or three little fronds in about fifteen or 
twenty days, when they may be potted off sindy into 
2-inch pots and kept in a temperature of 70° F. The 
soil best adapted to A, Farleyenae is finely chopped sod 
which has been piled for about six months, with one- 
fifth well-decomposed cow-manure added. To attain 
perfection in growth and coloring. A, Farleyenae should 
be kept in a light, airy and sunny house, in which every 
condition of moisture and atmosphere can be kept 
under absolute control. In a house of this kind, the 
greatly admired and beautifully pinkish tint may be 
easily obtained and fronds will be hardy and of ^ood 
substance. A temperature of 70** F. is at all times 
desirable. 

General culture. 

To grow ferns such as are used for jardinieres and 
decorative work and mentioned in the two preced- 
ing lists, a temperature of no less than 55° F. 
should be maintamed at all times at night in coldest 
weather, with a rise of temperature in the da3rtime of 
10° or 16°. To keep ferns in a healthy and growing 
condition, to prevent and to kill insect pests and dis- 
eases, a proper condition of atmosphere should be care- 
fully maintained at all times. Extremes in heat, moist- 
ure or dryness should never be allowed. On a warm, 
dry, sunny day, when a ^eat deal of air has to be 
admitted, much of the moisture of the house is conse- 
quently carried off; it will be of great benefit then to 
svringe the ferns once or twice a day, also occasionally to 
dampen floor of houses. An excessively dry atmosphere 
induces the development of the very troublesome pests, 
thrips and red spider. On damp and rainy days a 
saturated atmosphere should be prevented by supply- 
ing a little artificial heat, even if some air has to be 
admitted at the same time. This slight expense of 
heating on damp days will abundantly pay for itself 
by causing the growth of strong, thrifty plants. An 
exccHsively moist atmosphere causes parts of fronds 
of a great many plants to turn black and to rot off, 
besides inducing tne development of almost incurable 
fungoid diseases. 

The soil for deep-rooting ferns should be as follows: 
Three parts fibry loam, one part fibry peat, one part 
leaf-mold, one part sand, one part sphagnum moss, 
one-half part broken crocks and one-half part broken 
charcoal. These ingredients should be thoroughly 
mixed and ample drainage provided. For shaUow- 
rooting ferns the following cx^mpost should be used: 
One part fibry loam, one part peat, one part leaf- 
mold, one part sphagnum moss, one-naif part broken 
crock, one part sana, one-half part broken charcoal. 
If the charcoal cannot be readily secured, half the 
amount of sand and finely broken crocks will answer^ 



FERNS 

alUHHigh the oompoeitjcm as preecribed is preferred, as 
charcoal keeps the soil sweet and may spare time for 
repotting. 

In pottioK fema after they paas 4-inch poto, a potting- 
stick should always be used as the potter cannot very 
well firm them with his 6ngerB, and it secures eveness in 
potting. Ferns should be potted tight, especially old 
plants. Also old pknta should be partly shaken out 
and the roots shortened somewhat, and if canrfully 
handled will quickly re^ta.blish themselves and make 
better plaats. A potting-stick is very hand}[ also for 
pteasing the compost between rbizom^, and it can be 
done much more neatly than with the hand. 

In the selection and growing of stock plants, the care- 
ful grower should always be on the watch for types 
which are most perfect in shape, in character of mdi- 
▼idual fronds, in coloring, freedom of producing spores. 
Bud exemption from the attacks of insects and fungous 
diseases. In a large number of ferns a great difference 
between the different plsnts of the same s| 
apparent ta the careful observer. Some pi 
■pedes have beautifully developed froi 
carried on long, weak stems, which mak« 
for general use. Others may be of oom 
habit of powth, but with poorly shaped 
individual fronds. In some individuals 
the ookuing win be greatly superior. By 
closely studying all these points and by 
continually selecting only the most per- 
fect types of ferns from the young plants, 
one can in a few years work up a very 
denrable and superior stock. The same 
stock plants of the rapid-growing varie- 
ties ol ferns should not be carried over 
for nunc than three or four ycara, but 
youi^t and more desirable plants should 
continually be selected and grown to 
take their places. 

The stoclc should be shifted into larger 
pots whenever necessary, and placeoin 
a. light, airy house, in which all necee- 
•ary conditions are under perfect con- 
trol, and in which a temperature in cold- 
est weather of 55° F. at night, with a 
rise of 10° or 15° in daytime, can always ,^„ -,^„ 

be maintained. The house should be * ^^ 

shaded just enough to prevent fronds 
from turning yellow. Proper attention to atmospheric 
conditions of stockhouse should never be neglected. 
Stock plants should not be permitted to remam pot- 
bound for too long a period of time, except with a few 
kinds, such as alsopbilas, dicksonias, cyatheas, cibo- 
"■*"'" le davallias, and 

I too much noup- 
ting spores. 
ne to ferns are 
-bug. They are 
ere. Thrips, red 
mted by a prop- 
>n^ing of foliage 
. tobacco greatly 
ave to determine 
lake bis solution. 



FERNS 



1213 



be raised. In this miniature greenhouse many interest- 
ing ferns can be grown. Lycopodiums and selsginellas 
(which see) are treated in mucb the same way as ferns. 
NicHOL N. Bruckner. 

X. E, K SCHMlTT.t 

List of Under femB. (X. E. E. Schmitt.) 



f«rUlQ frondfl ai 
irill pcngh and 



feJ^ttTy^^v 


ered oa Ihe undi 


!r Jde vith'^aponM. 


a m «ior, „ 


id when riiw, Bfl^ 




be micoeodod by tho barren f 
orM. Winter 55° to 60" nLghl 


"ft'Sffi;?..'!: 


e, the deep-r 


□otiDg one> of ordinary deptb, but ths 


."Xs; 


iwn in a depth ol 
alliu, the ^allm 


about 2 inche. of KBl 


ir-rooting upecica^ the* 
ept A. GUTCum, whieS 
tbitaroolaiiiZuicbaa 


t uhJ sbKly 






.riUnSd«in°»i 


r' 




found in F16rid. and 


impical America 








A low-imnac ami 




nhuming da« o 


[ fenu nth palm-lik* 




Dr rayed frondt 


ThBr thrive beat b a 




Hunport ol loam. 


, p«at. chopped spha*- 
ne aanc! and cro^ 



HOUld have ample drainaffe. fillio 
about half-fuU with crockaTThey re 
id li|ht and plenty ol moisture; they am 
prcqnntad by aporea; Ihcy can also be 
ed. WmUs - — "■- ■"' 






ndividual plniua ol 
than Mmch in . 
o large A. perana 
htalong. Thoyan 



num with pinna 2M to 

_ re a deep rich nil and 
y oF water durinc the ■rowiofi geeson. and 
luring the reeting-period, which ia uaualty 

ttecember to the latter part of Febniar7. 
ghould be allowed to get [airly dry but 
rilled before thejr are walxrBd aipiin. In 

Bpeoiee or varietiea of garden origin, r«- 
I part of the old fronds juat aa growth 
□flDDea; with BOme of the denBer>4rowing 
, all the fronds may be out away just aa the 

Eowth ia commencing, aa it ie very t«dioua 
ere ii not much gained thereto. It should 

. leave all the good 






f, poesible U 



>laiita out of the ; 



r lllF of the" 



i ball cl 



ball a 



the ball with a afaarp-pointed 'sUck so that the roots wil 

together and trouble would bo eipcrienwd ia geiiine 
through again. Should they become loj dry, give a u( 
every few minutes until they are given enough to penc 
old b^ The crowns should be let down a little d( 

sli^ttf pointed here and there 
more readily to penetrate, llave 
a thin layer of aphagnum moA ov 






. The r 



le deinier a 



. heln t 



le height required to receive t 
o give a light cavaring of eo: 

with the patting atick. place I 



e bail, whieh should be 

place in a Imr of SOU, 
■yer afwr lifhteuuf aa 



B solution 1 
nch puts. 
ice, the amateur 
way in which to 
im-house, but he 
Q case. The bol> 
drip on the floor 
of the soil. The 
ed, so that it can 



A^an turns with 



settle m the foliage and 
that they have sur'-' 
they take a good . 
greenhouse ferns r 



be S3* br i^t. adding 6° to 8° by day; 

— ing about 6° by day. 

hand-broken Gbry sod 



1214 



FERNS 



^ERNS 



even lajrers in the order above stated, then turn three or four times 
which will leave the whole evenly mixed, when it vdll be ready for 
use. For cult, of A. FarUyense, see p. 1212. 

AUophila. Tree ferns, natives of tropical America and Australia. 
A. auatralia and A, exceUa will stand sun with a copious supply of 
water. Soil as for Dicksonia. Winter temperature for Australian 
species, 50^ to 55°; for West Indian, 58° to 60^ night. 

Anemia. A pretty class of small-growing ferns, sometimes 
called the flowenng ferns, as the fertile sprays appear along with 
the sterile frond. They require an open porous soil and are not 
deep-rooted. Moderate temperature, 52° to 55° winter temperature 
by night. Propagated by spores. 

AngiopterU. Giant ferns, more resembling a cycad than a fern* 
were it not for the spore cases. They are native of tropical Africa, 
tropical Asia and the Philippines. They arc deep-rooting, with 
heavy and fleshy roots, and enjoy a rich deep and porous soil. 
They require a high and moist tenmerature. not less than 60° 
by night in winter and will stand 9(r or more in summer. They 
require shade during summer, with more light during winter. A 
soil as for dicksonias, with the addition of a little manure is satis- 
factory. They should be potted just as growth is commencing. 
Care should be taken not to bruise their fleshy roots; should any be 
damaged they should be cut off with a sharp knife. Propagated 
by spores and division, both a slow process, but more readily by 
the large and fleshy scales carefully removed from the old plants, 
laid between mphagnum moss, sand and broken crocks in a case 
with a bottom heat of 80° or a little more; they should be laid on a 
slant with inner side of scale facing upward. When they have 
formed buds, emitted roots, and made two or three leaves, they may 
be detached and potted sin^ in as small pots as their roots will 
permit: return to case and inure to more light and air gradually; 
each scale may bring four or five plants. 

Blechnum. Ferns of easy culture, requiring moderate shade. 
Allied to Lomaria. Several of them are dwarf tree ferns; others 
have spreading rootstook. They will not stand dryness; require a 
moderately strong soil containing a small amount of manure. 

CkeilarUhet. A class of dainty and graceful femB. They require 
an open and porous soil; will not tolerate syringing, and require a 
good light at all tim^ Propagated by spores and division, spores 
preferred. They will not stand an overabundance of moisture at 
any time, but will well repay proper care, as they are all very 
beautiful. ^Some have fronds resembling the palmate fronds of 
Dor^ptens, while others are very much divided. The soil should 
consist of one part fibry loam, one part peat, one part leaf-mold, 
one part sand, one-half part broken crocks, one part qjhagnum 
moss and one-half part broken charcoal, broken quite small, the 
whole thoroughly mixed together and the pots vrtVL drained. A 
temperature of 50° to 55° smts them best in winter. 

Cyathea, Beautiful tree ferns, native of New 2iealand and tropi- 
cal America.^ C. meduUarU will ^row to a great height, from 60 to 
75 feet, and is often seen in its wild state far above the surrounding 
vegetation. Will stand full sun. Temperature for New Zealand 
roecies, 50° to 55° winter; tropical American, 55° to 60° nights. 
Soil as for Dicksonia. 

Cyrtomium. Fig. 1489. Ferns of easy culture. Require a 
greenhouse temperature of 48° to 50° by night in winter*^ will 
stand a strong light and partial shade. Useful for fem-dishes. 
Allied to Aspidium. General culture for ferns. 

DataUia is a beautiful class of ferns foimd both in the tropical 
and subtropical zones. The smaller-growing forms can be grown 
in shallow baskets or pans and have a fair amount of rest in 
winter. The Japanese fern-balls are probably D. fnilUUa and D. Mar- 
ifgii, and can be laid out in the garden and frozen down to zero and 
when the growing season returns watered and they will begin to 
grow again. Davallias with heavy rhisomes or any of the surface 
creepinil sorts will want to be kept a little on the dry side during 
the resting period, which is from the beginning of December to about 
March, when they will gradually recommence, and water should 
be given accordingly. They must be ssrringed at least twice daily 
in winter, as black thrip is liable to attack them; should they be 
attacked, dip in a medium solution of sphine or fresh tobacco water. 
Should the plants be too large to handle, sjninge them with aphine 
or tobacco water at night and give a thorough mrringing with clear 
water the next day; apply two or three times, then stop for two or 
three days, then repeat, after which the troubles will be over. 
The cooler kinds will commence their growth about a month later 
than stove kinds. They should be repotted or top-dressed just as 
growth commences, if they require it. 

p. pallida is a fern which rests from December to March, at 
which time gradual increase of water may be given it and by the . 
end of March it will be commencing its growth. It should be care- 
fully separated, taking care not to injure the points of the rhizomes. 
Many of them will be foimd all the way to the bottom of the pots 
or pans in which they have been growing. It is well to leave an old 
specimen undisturbed for three or four years and only give a light 
top-dressing in the spring as growth is commencing, and weak 
liquid manure about everv two weeks as the fronds are unfolding: 
but always water with clear water first, then follow with liqmd 
manure. It requires a stove temperature of 58° to 68° by ni^ht, 
adding 6° to 8° by day on bright days, during its resting period, 
with corresponding increase durmg the growing season of about 20°. 
It needs a good strong light but also shade. It requires a good 
supply of water during its growing season and only a small amount 
once a week, but must be syringed twice dailsr. The composition 
of the soil, should be an open and porous material oonsistine of the 
following: two parts fibry loam which had been stacked about 
six months and broken up by hand (not sifted or pulveriz«i), one 

Krt fibry chopped peat, one part leaf-mold, one part sand, one- 
If part broken charcoal, using in the same maimer as the crocks, 
one part sphagnum moss chopped roughly, all the parts of this 



composition placed in even lajrors in the order named four times, 
first to the left, then to the rignt, when it will be of the proper 
texture ready for use. The pots or pans should be well drained by 
placing a flat piece of crock over the holes flat side down. The 
soil should be hand-picked so as to be free of worms and insects. 
This process is slow and tedious, but when there is taken into con- 
sideration the length of time a plant is to remain undisturbed , too much 
care cannot be taken. Place the curved pieces one against the other 
until the entire bottom is covered, then place a good sprinkling 
of clean H inch soil (no dust), and cover the whole with a thin 
layer of sphagnum moss, covering the crocks evenly so that no 
soil will pass through. The receptacle is now ready for the soil. 
Place some of the rouf best of the soil directly over the moss, then 
filling up to within 2 mches of the top, pack down evenly with a 
wide potting stick so that they will not sink afterward; now put 
in the rhisomes one by one, setting the points so that they will be 
evenly distributed, and firm the soil tightly with the fingers, as a 
potting stick cannot well be used on account of bruising; let them 
be about even with the top on the sides and slightly rounded in 
the center; stake the fronds with light stakes to keep them steady, 
which will give them a neat appearance as they will have to remam 
until the new growth has developed and the plant is reestablished 
with new roots, when they will sustain themselves without any 
supports. The plant is now ready for waterin^g: one even water- 
ing is all that will be required and a light ssrrihSUiS four times a 
day. Should the surface become dryish a light watering should be 
given as when first potted, but after this the plants will require 
water more frequently as they will be making roots rapidly as will 
be indicated by the foliage that has developed. Directly after pot- 
ting keep the nouse close and increase the air gradually until full 
air can be given. Hard-leaved ferns like davallias can stand a light 
syringing three or four times a day on all bri^t dajrs but none on 
cloudy days unless there is artificial heat on. Decrease syringing as 
the cool nights of the end of summer and autumn approach; the 
temperature may also be lowered until it f alb to the winter tempera- 
ture with the declining season. The foregoing soil is suitiU>ie for 
most shallow-rooting ferns. 

DtnnsUrdtia. With creeping rootstock. Winter temperature, 
52° to 55°. Propagated by spores and division. Culture as for 
Microlepia. 

Deparia. A small group of ferns with arching fronds. Stove 
winter temperature, 55° to 58°. Propagated by spores or bulbils 
that form on the fronds. Culture, see main article (p. 1210). 

Dick9oni4i, An interesting class of tree ferns from Australia. 
They require a cool temperature and partial shade in summer, 
but their stems must be syringed frequently. They must never 
be allowed to dry at the roots, and even more copiously watered in 
summer. Winter temperature, 45° to 48°; can be stood outside in 
summer. Can be propagated by spores or side growths carefully 
removed from the parent stem without injuring the heel. Rc»uire 
a soil of tbree parts loam, one part peat, one part leaf-mold, a little 
more than one part sand, some broken crocks and iq>hagnum moss 
with the whole, and weU drained. 

DidymochUfna, An interesting group of ferns of distinct habit 
and growth. Winter temperature, 55° to 58°. 

Diplatium. A rather ooarse-growing but interesting class of 
ferns, grown mostly in the greenhouse. Allied to Asplenium. A 
fairly porous soil smts them best. Propagated by spores or division. 
Winter temperature. 55° to 60.° 

Doodia. A small and distinct class of ferns of cool temperature, 
48° to 52°. Propagated by ejporea and division. For culture, see 
main article (p. 1210). 

Drynaria. Plants with a thick and downy rhisome. Propagated 
by spores and division. All stove ferns allied to Polypodium. 

DryopUria. Small stove ferns. Require a winter night tem- 
perature of 55° to 58°. 

OUichenia. A genus of most beautiful and graceful ferns, natives 
of Australia, New Holland and tropical America. They thrive 
best in a compost of one part loam, one part peat, one-half part 
sand, one-half part broken crocks, one part sphagnum moss; in pot- 
ting, the center of the plant should be dropped a Uttle below the rim 
of the pot so that the outer rhizomes can rest on the new soil, leav- 
ing the center a little deeper than the outer edge; pin the rhizome 
down carefully but do not cover; pot firmly; give a gentle water- 
ing; syringe several times a day, but take care not to overwater. 
They love a cool, moist atmosphere; the tropical American ones 
can stand a little more heat, also a little stm; winter temperature 
for New Holland ones, 48° to 52°; American, 50° to 55°. Care 
should be taken at all times not to overwater or let them get too 
dry; the best way is to sound them with your knuckles, and in 
fact almost any plant of careful treatment should be treated the 
same way. 

GoniophMnum, Mostly a deep and free-rooting class of ferns, 
demanding culture as for Polypodium. 

Hemionilia. An interesting class of low-growing stove ferns 
requiring a porous soil. Winter tem[)erature, 55° to 58°. Propa- 
gated by spores, or by pinning a mature frond having formed buds, 
on a surface of porous sanc^ material, which readily form new 
plants. 

Hemitelia. A distinct and striking class of tree ferns, native of 
tropical America and the Philippines. They are all stove ferns 
requiring 60° winter night temperature and ample moisture and 
shade at all times; soil as for Dicksonia, as they are heavy and 
deep-rooting. 

HymenophyUum, A class of ferns of most graceful and delicate 
structure; native of tropical America. They require a deep shade 
and a shallow compost to grow in as they are found growing on 
tree ferns and sandstone: the following will suit them best: sandy, 
lumpy peat with very small pieces of sandstone and live sphagnum 



denr ihaclerTbeii foliice ihauld D«vpr be allowed lo become diy; 

//tfpol*iru. A cUh of fenu with creepioa rooleURk, of ew^ 
nliurv^ Tc4|iiiniiK riivle. Pn^pH^tsd by q»rtA uid diriiioiL 
Gr»ral cultnn ol fenu. 

u illinl to MiccolepJB ud DavkUu, 
of eur culture. Winwr temiNratun. 



aa^to M-. 



a of fen 



ricti loamr ao<L L. paliialiui 
utidB (p. 1310). 

tD A&swptcrii, vhich ^ev for tn 



t euT culture, requinni 
I hu^. For culture. ■ 

1 mlereatiiic due of fern 



Fropii^ted by ipoT 

FelLra. A 
pncoful babi 

■AT ■ 



>il Build it bert. PropMetad by divisiod or qnrei. 

4 cIbm nf iDtereetinsud cneefu] fenu of euy cuU 
■nicle. Winter temperature «8° to 63°. 



i good lighl: will ni 
... .,. _.. ... rod roealy-^Uf BT 
prr^HflBtAd by sporea or divifloa. 



^ 'of'si' Um' in wEteTrijtnerd 

(p. 1210). pTopwsled by iporw. 
.. A cIah of moatly etronc-fiToiring uid ETBceful 
cutture;^jtf- hiria vn. rrulo^i, beiofl cr-aated, maktM a 



wted, but f^rW Btnmc-grow- 



TheynuyBbi 
PlqJiicmuit 



The etsc and elkVhom fenu. A diitinct ukd 
clui offenu. They nutur.lly Kiow in the fork. 
Mlu. Tfacy *re best etowd od blodu or rafu: fibrr 
,hifcg"Tim mOflB AUit tbem bcHl. They should have 
iu the growiac Kaaon and a moiet atmoephere at 
!i tempeniliire at night. £S° to 60°. addini G° to 7" 



Nation. ¥h^re native' 



tjw hardy rpedei, 



iSiS.' 



juire nn addilioD o< loam. They 
employed for many punwaea. to 

IfMoraCive and bold in habit, nhiie others 






:>ld. one part peat, onp part 
ijf part brolccn rroclu and 
^mre ample drainace and 
, and reduced ajnouni when 

bbry loam, one part prat, 
brolien crocka and ons-balt 






PoliHficAum. Many 

Fa!r^ liell toowd."«hei 
A moderate boI suite tl 
" R«- 1400. 



unnghtl^ plac«e m a EieenhouaA 

flyiinsina will do well, while othera 

* Puu7oT numy are preferred, 

fl arr hardy or will winter out-of- 

I. Propacated by apores or by pin-. 



smbot. 



' be detaohed ai 






._. _._. ._ .. ^^-r, of them hardy, 

otben auiUble for greanhouaea and for aton*. They are not par- 
ticular aa to Bail; a mixture of two parte peat, one part loam and 
one put auMl mil nit them. The Taiiecatod lorrn* ahould be pro- 
tected from Tery atrong light. Some of Che ipedee propagate 
readily bytiivjeioD of the oreefrint rUiomea. Moat ol the tender 
speciee thrive in an intermediate or greeobouae temperature 

daaa of plasla of deooratlve and useful character 

' '■■ — " S. arbarea and S. IPiB- 

othera will not riae orar 
le lanter-growin^f kinda, 

Iiiiittire1i»- Selai^j^ Compoat for Belagi- 
fibry peat, or '-' — '-" -- 



and varied in fwm of growth aa S. 
dnumi: will grow to 16 or more feet 
2 inebea or ao. Prop^^ted by euttiii 
diviaon in most Idikda, and ""■—■«• 
Take down a tl" 

TSlely in the n 



part Mnd, one part nhiutnum moaa, one-halt part broken urocka 
and one part cbareoal. Mix the whole thoroui^ilyi drain well aa 
reoommended for tema. S. aramlU and S. Li/aUii require a Wardian 



ponvflponding increaae b; 
la of N'ew Zealand are T. lun 



become dry. Th( 
aphajcnum moea. j 



filmy fenu of great bi 
rrlicy should be groi 

nt be bandied witli thi 

potted tight, and if HTnfl 

rtoUjTnch» Temperalurl45° to 50° : 

Kwn in a Wardian raee. kept plane eii 



They mu.1 I 



;°£''SS 



e dfy: but 
« naturally oti tteea 



ViVana hneaU. A very unusual fern Browine nal 

in eoulhem Florida, ll does best fastened on a bloc 

of £bry peat and aphagnum moea or in ahallow haaketa in the f 
going maieriaU with a portion of sand, brokpn crocka and char 

plenty of water at all timea and a good light. Propasated by di 



Cultimtloa of hardy f enu. 






of life under adverse coaditiooa, but since the beauty 
of fern foliage is brought out only by luxuriance of 
growth, it ghould be the aim to pluit only where sui^ 
can be secured. 

Ferns in general require poeitions in which the soil 

letaina on even amount of moiBturc at all times. Moat 

.>cies do not grow well in a cultivated border or where 

e space between the plants ia not mulched or given a 
ground cover of moasee or other plants which hold 
the t«inperature and muisture of the soil surface more 
evenly and allow the fema to grow roote near and on 
the surface of the sround. Sao when the earth is 
bore between the plants, the rains dash mud on the 
under side of the frondB--a condition under which no 
fern can thrive. However, some of the stronger-grow- 
ing species, as the oamundae, because of their heieht 
and strong deep roots will do well in a cultivated border. 
A study oS the soil surface where the fern is growing 
well in the wild will show about what is necessary. 

Some ferns, as the maidenhair (Adiontum), have 
strong wiry steoiB which will push up through a very 
heavy covering of leaves, while other species, as all of 
the evergreen ferns, grow in positions in which the 
annual fidl of leaves does sot remai 
The larger number of fpros prefer 
than is mode by the death of their 
naturally fall away from the center c 
the BUTToundinK soil but leave the < 
uncovered and unhindered for its growth in the spring. 
Many of the smaller ferns which have neither deep nor 
strong creeping roots require a ground cover of other 

£lants or smiulated conditions to prevent their being 
eaved out of the ground during the winter. A number 
of species with strong creeping roots as Denrulxdlia 
punctilobida (Dieksonia piioHuscula) and Dryopteria 
{Aspidium) novaboracensu eventually form thick 
masses which completely cover and fill the ground 
with roots. When this condition has been attained, no 
soil mulch or cover is needed, and even the old fronds 
had best be removed before ^wth starts in the spring. 
Ferns may be separated into two classes by their 
stems: (1] those with creeping stems; and (2) those 



having a central 



'dust 



of crowns. 



. They not only send up a crop of fronds in t 
spring but continue to grow new uonds during the 
seaaoQ. This class of ferns may be transplanted at any 
season with ordinary care, in fact the ironds may be 
mowed off and the roots taken up in sods and relaid 
like turf, but better results will be secured with more 
care to preserve the ^unger and newly started fronds. 

Those ferns with distinct crowns naturally send out 
only one set of fronds each year. This class of fei-ns is 
best moved afl«r the plants have ceased growth in the 
fall or before growth starts in the spring. Especially 
is this the case with those species having deciduous or 
fragile fronds which easily become wilted or broken. 
When transplanting while in leaf, it is necessary to 
preserve fully half u the fronds to insure a ^ood growth 
the following year. The evergreen species, as the 
Christmas fern (Polygtichum or Aapidium acrosfi- 
choidee), Dryopterii (AKpidium) marginalis and others 
with hard coriaceous foliage, can with reasonable caie 
be transplanted at any season of the year. 

In general, the soil for fema should be rich in humus 
and mineral matter and sufiiciently friable to allow 
penetration by the fine roots. A neavy clay ia not 
aatisfocton' but may be corrected by the addition of a 
sandy soil and thoroughly rotted manure or leaves. 
A pure leaf-mold is not a good fern soil because it is 
lacking in minerals and is too hght and loose for 
any fern except the Adiantum. A good sandy loam 
with too little clay to bake and not enough v^etable 



PERNS 

matter to be spongy will suit the la^^er part of ferns. 
It will be noticea that most species of ferns with 
crowns grow in the wild where their roots reach throu^ 
the surface mold to a more mineral soil imdemeath ; m 
fact they often grow in apparently poor yellow loam. 

The following ferns grow luxuriantly in full sunlight 
with suitable conditions of soil and moisture: Pteria 
aqMiina, OnocUa gensMlU, DenngUedUa punetilt^niia 
{Didaonia piioaiuacula), Dryopterit {Atpidium) nova- 
boraeenns, and the osmundas. 

Practically all the remaining species prefer more or 
less protection from the direct rays of the sun, but 
darknees or dense shadow is not required. Even the 
species which raow in deep, dense shade apparently 
need only the numid atmosphere found there, since 



□ their fronds. 

no heavier mulch 
own fronds, which 
>f the plant, mulch 

-f the plant 



1*91. DiTopMrii rinuUla. 

near waterfalls and springs they grow in the open. In 
mountainous regions in which the atmosphere is cod 
and not drying, many species grow in full sunlight 
which require more or lees shade in drier climates. 
Among such might be mentioned AspUnium Fiiix- 
famina, A. acrottidtoidet, Phegopterit hexagonoptero, 
D. pdypodioidea, Dryopteria (Aaipidium) Thdypleria, 
D. crittala, Onodea StnUhioptena, Woodwardia vir- 
ginica, and W. anffualifoUa. 

There are about seventy-five native American species 
which can be grown in northern gardens, and also a 
Kood number of quite distinct varieties. There are 
hardy species in foreign countries so that a complete 
collection of hardy ferns would probably reach 150 

The following species not natives of the United States 
are hardy at Philadelphia: Dryopteria ehryaoloba, D. 



J 



ZU. A good fam Id tontlitni CalUonla. — AliophlU aiiatnll*. 



FERNS 



FERNS 



1217 



dUnlata, D. FiHx-mas, D. pseudo-maa Pinderij Nepkro" 
dtum hirtipes, Pdystichwn Bratmn, P. lobatum and P. 
aelontfn. 

The followins notes are drawn from experience in 
cultivation of tnese native ferns in the neighborhood 
of PhUadelphia. 

Adiantum ptdatum prefers lij^t, loose, rioh soil in oool. moist 
almde, with yearly mulch o£ leaves. Soil conditions are more 
important than shade. Where estid^lished in a wild state will 
endure the full sunshine comiois with the removal of trees until 
soil conditions change or it is crowded out by stronger plants. 

Adiamtutn CapiUu»-Veneri*. Soil conditions about the same. See 
that leaf-oovering is not of too large and heavy leaves. 

AtpUniufn ocroatiehoideB, Culture as A. Filiz-fcsmina. 

AtpUniufn etmrutti/olium thrives on rioh rather moist scnl in 
shade. Avoid oomi>lete removal cd fronds when planting in early 
fall, as this fern quickly sends up new fro«ul8 to the weakening « 
*be following season's growth. 

Atpleniutn Bradhyi, A small rare fern. See Camptosorus and 
A. pinnatifiHnm for cultivation. 

AtvUniwn tbenoidet. Culture same as for A. pinnatifidum or 
Camptosorus. 

i4«p£efuuiM FUiZ'fiamina, Give good rich loam, moist, with 
drainage, with some shade. Endures full sunlight in oool climate. 
A beautiful and extremely variable fern. A number of forms are 
catalogued. 

A^pUnium montanum. Cultivated as Camptosorus or A. 
pinnatifidum. 

AtpUniutn pinna^^/Sdwn. A small evergreen fern found ia the 
wild in oool shaded places in which there lb an uniform amount of 
moisture in the soil and when the air is not given to quick extremes 
of temperature and humidity. Ferns of this character need about 
the same careful i^acing as do real alpine plants. Planting between 
stones ia advisable. No winter cover, no bare sml and no plant 
Mronger-rooted than a moss near it. 

ABpUniwm piatyneuron prefers partial shade. Care must be 
taken to prevent smothering by leaves, and to plant where the least 
likely to be heaved by frost. It is found most plentifully as a native 
on banks growing with grass and other plants m partial shade. The 
fronds are evergreen, hut become discolored m severe weather. 
Any good loam suits it. Easy to move at any season but difficult 
to maintain in masses. 

AtpUnium renliens (A. parvulum). Culture of A. plat/aeuron, 

A»pUniufn Ruta-mtiraria. Culture same as A. jMnnatifidum. 

A9pUniuiH Trichomane*. A small fern growing well where A. 
piatyneuron does. The shade of a small rode will suit it. 

Asplcmum viride. See A. pinnatifidum for culture. 

CamptosoriM rhiaophyttuB. Walkino-Lkat Fern. In wild state 
is found in oool. shaded positions not subject to excessive drought 
or moisture. It prefers a moist atmo^here but this is not necesMir^ 
for good growth but where the best soil and atmo^heric condi- 
ditions prevail the leaves often attain a length of 18 inches before 
rooting. Avoid all winter covering. 

Cheilanthet. Low-growing rock ferns generally doing well in 
fairly dry positions. /U. lanota prefers deep shade and more moist 
sqU. C lanomt, C. tomentota and C FendUri at least of the species 
are perfectly hardy at Philadelphia. 

Cryptooramma ocrotiieKoidet should have shade throughout year. 

Cyttopterit buUfifera. Will do well in usual deciduous shade in 
any loam, but grows best and produces far more numerous bulblets 
when pUmted on a moist bank of gravelly soil in the shade of 
kalmia. 

CyUopUrU fraoilia should be planted in shade in positions where 
it wiU receive no covering of leaves. The fronds die m early August 
in the drier situations. It will grow in positions which become 
exceedingly dry in midsummer. It forces weU in a coolhouse. 

DenfutMdiia punetilobula (Dicksonia pilosiuscula) prefers shady, 
moist situations where it does not receive any covering by falling 
leaves of large six^ Grows well in sunshine. Mav be transplanted 
It any season, and takes kindly to heavy enrichment. The best 
fern to grow in quantity for cutting during the summer. Can be 
ijMdihr grown as a north border to a shrubbeiy in any medium to 

DryopUria BootH is fotind in a wild state in moist, shaded posi- 
tions, but will grow well in shade in quite dry positions. Does not 
need shade in winter. Use good loam. 

DryopUrU eriataUx prefers moist to wet soil in shade. Will often 
bom with direct sunlight. Evergreen, quite variable. Var. Clin- 
Cmviiio is larger. The fern ana variety appear to need swamp 
eooditions to grow welL 

DryoffUrif Piiix-maa. Practically the same conditions as for 
O, maripnalis. 

DryopUru Ooldieana prefers deep, mcnst, rich soil in cool shade. 
Grows nnely in shaded places and so^ suited to rhododendrons. 
. OryopUrU martfinalU wants rich soil in rather deep shade dur- 
ing the entire jrear, but will grow weU in partial shade — and endure 
«ven full sunlight, though not growing so luxuriantly. This is one 
of the native ferns commonly sold by collectors in city markets. 
It is evident^ seldom established by purchasers of plants in full 
Maf. Once wuted the plants will no> recover. 

DryopUrU novdtonietntU does bcbt in rather moist, rich soil ia 
Pvtiu shade, but will endure full ;.unlight with good soil con- 
mtions. Pr^ers light rich loam. Oi«e of the common field ferns 
powing in large masses either alone ~r with Dennstndtia puncti- 
K>bula. When out it wilts quickly so is of little value for bouquets. 

78 



Easily trann>lanted at any season. Will not endure heavy mulch 
of leaves. Not evergreen. 

Dryopteri* »pimUo»a is less common in America than the var. 
intemuaia, which occurs wherever conditions favor its growth. It 
has the finest out or divided fronds of any of the large evergreen 
ferns, being almost the equal of the deciduous fern, Dehnstsdtia 

fkunctilobula, in this respect. The fronds are gathered extensively 
or florists' use. In culture, give the same conditions as for Poly- 
stichum acroetichoides. with heavier shade and more moisture. 
The best fern to grow under coniferous trees. 

DryopUria aimukUa (Fig. 1491) is much like the following and 
requires similar conditions. It occurs in boggy woods from Maine 
to Maryland and perhi^s westward. 

Dryopteria Thelypteria prefers ouite moist situations with at 
least partial shade. With con^nial soil and moisture does well in 
sunlignt. A distinct and pleasing deciduous fern. 

Lygodium palmatum is rather difficult to establish. Give a 
deep rather moist light loam in partial shade. 

Onodaa aenaibilia prefers a rich, moist soil in partial shade or 
full sun^une. It wUl also grow in shade. It likes a heavier soil 
than most ferns and uniform moisture. Does poorly in dry soils. 

Onodea StnUhiopteria should be given a rich, moist soil with at 
least partial shade. The fronds will "bum" in fierce sunlight. A 
good fern to grow north of a wall or building where qsecimen 
plants are desired. 

Oamunda einnamomaa prefers moist, partialhr shaded situa- 
tions, but will grow well in full sunshine in rich soil not exceedingly 
dry. Perhaps the most beautiful of the osmundas. Best to move 
wmle dormant. 

Oamunda Clautoniana, a native of low ground, both in shade and 
sunshine, but will grow equally well in nch soil only fairly moist. 
Best tranq>lanted when dormant. 

Oamunda reifolia prefers a peaty soil in verv wet, boggy posi- 
tion in partial shade, but will grow as well in lull sunshme if soil 
is rich and not dry. A very distinct fern. 

PeOaea atropurpurea prefers rather dry positions in partial 
shade, winter and summer. It will not endure heavy mulching. 
Will grow in full sunshine, but not to its full sise. It may be 
transplanted at any season. 

Phagopleria DryopUria prefers good soil in shade not over moist 
or drv. Avoid coating of leaves. It is a beautiful species and useful 
for planting on rockwork in shade. The fronds die in August. 

Pheoopteria hexagonovtera needs good soil in shade. Fronds die 
down rather early. Will not grow well through a leaf mulch. 

Phegopleria polypodioidea prefers moist, shaded positions, but 
will grow in any good soil not too dry. The fronds die down in 
late summer, especially in the drier positions. Any winter cover- 
ing of leaves must be removed. 

Polypodium vuloare prefers good, Ught soil in well-drained but 
moist situations in shade, with no other plants growing with it. 
It will endure very dnr places, but will be dwarfed. Will also do 
weU in full sunlight if soil conditions are good. As a native it 
grows in positions in which it does not receive any yearly coating 
of fallen leaves, and, wherever planted, should not be covered with 
coarse material. Plant perfectly evergreen; height 6 to 10 inches. 

Polypodium incanum of Virginia and the South is hardy but not 
vigorous at Philadelphia. 

Polyatichum Braunii. This fern needs good deep light loam, 
not spongy, with humus and shade winter and summer. A distinct 
and oeautiJFul evergreen fern open to improvement by selection 
and culture, although belonging to the class of "crown^* or "tree" 
ferns which do not have the chance to -vary or "q>ort" which the 
q[>ecies with vegetative roots do. 

Polyatichum (Aa^ium) acroatichoidea should be given shade 
both summer and winter for best results, and in no case can shade 
in summer be omitted. The plants will endure sunshine for a few 
years but will not be thrifty, and will eventually die. One of the 
more common florists' ferns — the Christmas fern — the sterile 
fronds of which are gathered and stored by the million for winter 
use by florists. They are found on the north side of the hills and 
the best grade grows not in low ground nor where the soil is shallow 
but where good loam with no winter leaf covering are the condi- 
tions. The planting of this fern for the sale of the fronds may 
become profitable as demands increase and its wild habitats become 
forbidden grounds to pickers. In culture give ( 1 ) northern exposure ; 
(2) good com land; (3) no loose or bare earth between plants: (4) 
no grass; (5) no real cover of leaves in the fall. Give with these a 
good supply of moisture such as the lower half of a hillside can 
easily be noade to receive from the overflow from rainfall on the 
upper half. There must be good drainage. 

Poly^iehum fragrana. Positions in the wild suggest dense cool 
moist shade with good drainage. 

Polyatichum Lonehitia. Grows well under conditions for P. 
acroetichoides as far south as Philadelphia. 

Pteridium<ujuilinum, to be grown to perfection, should have con- 
siderable sunlight, with moist, rich soil, kept cool and loose with a 
coating of leaves or other materiaL In such a position it should 

Sow to 4 to 5 feet high, with other dimensions corresponding, 
owever, it will grow in aimost any position. It has strong, creep- 
ing rootstocks, so that attention is necessary to keep a healthy 
group within bounds. The earliest fronds put forth die in late 
summer, but those of later growth remain green until frost, so 
that with attention to the removal of dead fronds a group will look 
well until faU. The rootstocks break or crack easily so that plants 
are injured by transplanting and grow poorly until again estab- 
lished. Early spring is the best time to move plants. 

Woodaia. Small rock ferns mostly requiring winter shade and 
doing best on rock banks facing the north. 



Wixxtwa 






sjliution in deep Bhsde. 
ofl eaUbLiahed. but will 

F. W. Babclat. 



Culture of aspsnpu fern (Fig. 1492). 
The sprays of Aaparaaui plumoiut took bo much like 
certain lemB or selaginellsa, that the plant is cominanl^ 
known 06 asparagus fern; and the cultivation of it is 
therefore treated at this place. (For the botanical 
account, oee p. 407, Vol. I.) The first and all-impor- 
tant factor in the cultivation of asparagus fern is the 
construction of the bed. To meet with any d^ree of 
success, the bed must have perfect drainage. The 
house should be 25 or 30 feet hish, and wired at the top 
and bottom. The wires beneath are made fast to eacn 
aide of an iron trellis about 8 inches apart and at the 
top an equal distance apart, in order that the strings 
may be as nearly straight as possible. 



iwz. i 

The early growth of Aapara^ plumosut var. nantu 
ie very slow- but as soon as it is transplanted and well 
rooted inarichsoil, tbe growth is more rapid, the tender 
shoots developing into a vine which will be ready to cut 
for the market in about a year. There is great difficulty 
in securing the seed of the nanus. In a whole house, 
there may be only a few seed-bearing strings. After 
being picked, the berries are allowed U) dry for a month, 
and are then ready for planting. A good, rich soil, cov- 
ered with a thin film of sand, serves very well to start 
them. The temperature should be about 65°, and as 
nearly constant as possible. When the plant ts well 
rooted, it is removed to a deeper soil or potted in 3- 
or 4-inch pots and placed on a bench. Here it remains 
a year, and is then placed in the bed. 

Up to this time a small amount of labor suffices to 
keep the plant growing in a healthy condition; but from 
now OD great care must be taken and much labor 
expended to produce the best crop. The beil into which 
the young plant is set should be carefully laid with 
rocks at the bottom, so the water can escape freely. 
Over this place 2 or 3 feet of soil, manure, and 



dead leaves. It is but s short time now that the roots 
have room to expand ifefore the shoots appear above 
the trellis, and the stringing begins. Strong linen thread 
is used for strings. 

The first crop wilt not be ready to cut before the end 
of the second year, — that is, from the time the seed is 
planted. As soon as this crop is exhausted, new strings 
are put in place of the old, and another crop is started. 
This goes on year after year. Now that the plant has 
gotten its growth, it is more hardy, and is constantly 
sending up new shoots. If the bed is well made in the 
beginmng, the asparagus need not be disturbed for 
eight or ten years. However, at the end of that time it 
is well to take the plants up and fill the beds with fresh 
soil and manure. 

In the spring, when the st 
houses are shaded with a h 
whiting and kerosene oil. T 
as the summer sun would in a very short tiine b 
tops of the vines. The vine flowers in the fall, and only 
on strings that have 
been matured six 
months or more. 

The vine alone is not 
the onlyaourceof profit. 
When the plant is a 
year old, a few of the 
most nearly perfect 
sprays may be taken 
without injuring its 
growth. These are very 
desirable in the market. 
There is, of course, 
some waste in worldng 
up the Asparagus to 
be shifted, but on the 
whole, it is veiy shght. 
The different forms in 
which it is sold utUiie 
by far the greater part 
of it. 

Insects destroy the 
shootsandsprnys. This 
is prevented to a great 
extent by insect powder. 
The cut-worms do the 
most damage. About 
the only way to get rid 
of them is to pick them 
ofT the strings during 
the night, as they gen- 
erally seek shelter under 
the thick clusters of 
the plant at daylight. 
There are many drawbacks in growing asparagus, among 
which are expensive houses, the slow growth of the plants 
(which makes it necessary to wait at least two years 
before receiving any return from the expenditure) , injury 
from insects, and the great amount of labor involved in 
looking after the houses. Wiuuam H, Elliott. 

PERNS, POPULAR NAMES OP. Adder's Tongue 
F., f)phinglossum imlgalum. Asparagus P., Aaparoffus 
plumoBiu. Be«eh¥., PhegopterU. Bird's-nest P., /Ispff- 
niwn Nidus. Bladder P., CyetoplerU. Boston F., Neph- 
roUpia exaUata var. bosloniengia. Brake, Pteridiu-:i. 
Bristle F., TrichomaTieB. Buckler P., Dryopleris.CA - 
fomian Gold F., Ceropteris Iriarigjilaria, Chain 1 , 
Woodioardia. Christmas P., Polgiticfmm acroslichind- 
Cinnamon P., Osmunda cinnanunnea. Climbing I , 
Lygodium, Dagger P., Polyslichum acrostichoiA 
Deer F., Lomaria. Elk's-hom P., Platycerium al 
come. Female F„ Asplenium FUix-firmina. Filmy r . 
IJymtnophyllum. Floating F., CeratopUrii. Plowerii .: 
P., Oamunda; sometimes also Anemia. Gold } , 
Ceroplerii. Grape F., Bolryckium. Hart's-tongue F , 



FERONIELLA 



121« 



Phyilitia Seohpendrium. Hartford P., Lygodium paltna- 



AdiatUum; more particularly A. Capiiiiw-Venem 
abroad and A. pedatum at home. Hale F., DryoperU 
PUix-mas. Uaish F., DryopterU Thelypleru. 0«k F., 
FhegopierU Dryopleris. Ostrich P., MaUeuctia Strulh- 
iopUrU. Pod F., CeraUipleris thalictrmdet. Sattlesoftke 
F., Botrychium virffinianunt. Boyal F., Ofmunda ngalit. 
Sensitive P., Onodea tensSniis. Shield P., DryoplerU 
v., and Polyatiehum. Strng-horDV., PUUycerium. SimF., 
Phepopteria. Sweet F., Myrica arplenifolia; abroad, 
varioua Dryopleris. Sword F., NephroUpis excUaia. 
Venus' Hair F., Adiantutn CapiUiia-Vetuna. WaUdiig 
P., Canmtotomt ThizophyWus. Wall F., Polypodium irut- 
oare. Will-nie, Asplenium iEuto-muroria. Washington 
P., JVepAnriepu exaitala var. teashingionieneia. 

PERdmA (from Feronia, Roman goddew of forests). 
Ru(dee«, tribe Citrese. Hubtribe Penminx. Spiny 
deciduouB tree with nard-shelled fruit; related to 
Citnu, for which it can perhaps t>e used as a stock. 

Leaves odd-pinnate, deciduous; fla. amall, perfect 
or by abortion male m terminal or axillary paniclee; 
petals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); Htamena twice as numerous ae 
the petals; filaments much longer than the anthers. 
dilated at base and densely pub^cent on the sides ana 
within; ovary at first 5-celied, later becoming by 
confiuence 1-celled; fr. with a bard, compact woody 
shell; seeds oval, lenticular, with a thin hairy brown 
tcata immersed in an acid edible pulp; cotyledons 
fleshy, aerial in germination.^Only 1 species is known. 

Um&nia, Swingle (iScMntM lAmimia, Linn, lAmimia 
acidlisinia, Linn. P. elephdrttum, Corr.). Wood- 
Apple. Spiny deciduous tree, native to India, Ceylon 
and Indo^hma; bark gray, rough; Ivs. odd-pinnate, 
3-7-rotiate; Ifts. opposite, oDovate, blunt at the apex, 
sometimes emarginat«, entire-margined with a snort 
petiolule; rachis margined, articulate, spines long and 
straight, axillary ; fis. (sometimes male by abortion of 
the ovary) dull red, small, in terminal or axillary long- 
pedicelled panicles; petals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); stamens 10 
(rarely 8 or 12), filaments short, dilated at base and 
densely pubescent on the sides and within; anthers 
large; ovary 5-ceUed, with many ovules in each cell; 
stigma cylindrical, sessile: frs, globose or oblate, 2}^-3 
in. diam., having a hard, woodv 
rind filled with a pinkish edil 
pulp in which the numerous woo 
seeds are immersed. For disci 

sion of name and synonomy, e \ 

Joum. Wash. Acad. Sci. 4:325 i 
12, June 19, 1914). 111. Roxbg.,] 
Coromandel., PI. 141. Gt. 
34:1206. Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. 
Or., PI. 45; Beddome, Fl. / 
ev'lvat. South Ind., 1:121; £ 
Talbot, For. Flor. Bombay, £ 
fig. 124; Engl. & Prantl, Not. t 
Pfl.-tam. 111. 4, 193, fig, 112. C 
— The pulp of the fr. which is 5 
acid, IS used for making \ 

S' allies somewhat similar to 
ikck currant jelly. It is also 
made into a kind of chutney 

with oil, spices and salt by .!«»■ f}™" fP? f^' 
the natives of India. The fls, Mtf^fTx^ 
and ivs. of this tree have an 

odor of anis and arc used as a stomachic. The com- 
monly cult, species of Citrus can be grafted on this 
plant and wood-apple seedlings are now being tested 
Bs stocks by the L, S. Dept. of Agric. in Calif, and 
Fla, and also in the greenhouses in Washington, D, C. 
Walter T. Swinqle. 



FERONI^LLA (diminutive of Feronia, Roman god- 
dess of foreflts). RvtdeoB, tribe Ctfrwe, subtribe Per- 
oninx. Small much-branched spiny tree, related to 
Feronia and suggested as a poenbte stock for citrous 

Leaves odd-pinaat«, perustent, 3-6-paired; rachis 
cylindrical, sometimes narrowly winged; spines soli- 



I49«. FoodMU oblata. (X M) 

tory, in the axils of the Ivs.: fls. in much-branched 
axillary infl., perfect or by abortion male, usually 5- 
paited, having 4 times as many stamens as petals; 
filaments much longer than the anthers, dilat«d at base 
and having a hairy appendix on the inner side; style 
long, stigma cylindric, caducous; ovary at first 5^ 

^ celled, later becoming by confluence I-celled: fr. spher- 
ical or depressed globose, with a hard shell composed 
of radially arranged prismatic elements; pulp edible; 
seeds numerous, obtone or elliptical, with a smooth 

k crustaceous testa; cotyledons atrial in germination, — 
Two species are luiown. 

obiata, Swingle. Krassano. Figs. 14S3, 1494. 
Spiny tree, 25-65 ft, hi|di, native to Cambodge and 
Cochin-China: Ivs. oda-pinnate, 3--4-paired; Ifts. 
covered with small whitish hairs, especially when young, 
pellucid-punctate, oval or obovate, crenulatc when 
young, often emarginate, with a very short petiole; 
rachis pubescent; fls. in many-fld. panicles, white, very 
fragrant, usually 5-parted, with lanceolate pointed 
pe^ls; stamens 4 times the number of petals, anthers 
large, oval, filaments joined together at the base by the 
woolly pubescence of the appendices occurring on their 
inner sidei fr. borne in clusters of 3 or 4, flattened 
spheroid, 2 to 2}^ in. diam,; pulp subacid, pinkish, 
edible,' 111. Swingle in Bui, Soc. Bot. de France, 
59, pi, 18 and fig. a, p, 778, Lecomte, Fl, g£n. Indo- 

- Cbine,l :685,ifig, 72, 1-5,— This species occurs commonly 
in the forests of Cambodia ana is sometimes cult, by 
the natives for its frs. which, when young, have a 1^0- 



1220 



FERONIELLA 



FEttTILITY 



nounced orange odor and are used as a condiment in 
sauces. Young plants of this species are growing in the 
greenhouses of the Dept. of Agric. at Wa^iington, D. C. 
liicida, Swingle (Ferdnia liicida, Scheff.). Kavista 
Batu. Small spinv tree, native to Java: Ivs. odd- 
pinnate, 3-6-paired; Ifts. oval or obovate, coriaceous, 
shiny above, margins entire or sli^tly crenulate, 
obtuse or emarginate at the apex: petioles pubescent, 
the terminal 1ft. sessile; rachis pubescent, articulated: 
fls. perfect or by abortion male, fragrant, white, rather 
large; sepals small, linear, pubescent; petals pointed- 
ovad; stamens 4 times as many as the petals: fr. globose 
2Ji-2Ji in. diam.; seeds small, with a thin hard testa, 
immersed in the glutinous pulp. 111. Iconee Bogor. 2 : 149. 
— The pulp is sometimes eaten in Java, like that of the 
wood-apple (Feronia Limonia). It grows wild in the 
drier parts of Java and has been intro. into the U. S. 
where it is being tested by the Dept. of Agric. as a stock 
for citrous fruits. Walter T. Swingle. 

FERRARIA (Giovanni Battista Ferrari. 1584-1653, 
Italian Jesuit, botanical writer and collaborator with 
the celebrated artist Guido Reni). Iriddcex. Half- 
hardy bulbous plants from the Cape of Good Hope 
(and recent species from other parts of Africa), rarely 
growing more than 6 inches high. 

Gorm larse and irregular: foliage glaucous; lowest 
Ivs. long and linear, the others ovate, clasping, succes- 
sively smaller, ana topped by inflated sheaths from 
which emerge the fugitive fls. ; these have 6 triangular, 
spreading, crisped, petal-like lobes, marked with many 
dull colors, as yellow, green, purple and brown; each 
spathe contains several fls., and the fls. are united at 
the very base, connivent and cup-shaped below the 
spreading lobes; the fls. last only from morning to 
afternoon of a single day, but there is a fair succession; 
some are visited by carrion flies: fr. an ellipsoid mem- 
branous caps.^Only one species, F. undtdataj is much 
known in cult., but the other 5 or 6 species of the Cape 
are doubtless of equal interest. This was known to pre- 
LinnsBan authors as Flos indicua and Qladiolua indictis. 
The bulbs should be stored like gladiolus in a diy, 
warm place, away from mice. 

A. Fls. duU brownish purple, 

unduUlta, Linn. St. stout, erect, sometimes exceed- 
ing 1 ft: basal Ivs. sword-shaped, 1 ft. and more long, 
flat, clasping and dilated at base; upper Ivs. ana 
spathes 1>^2 in. long: fls. 2 in. across, largely dull pur- 
ple; anthers oblong, with parallel cells. B.NI. 144. 

AA. FU. greenish, 

undnftta. Sweet. St. short, little branched: Ivs. 2-3, 
linear: fls. 2, the perianth greenish and with narrow 
very acimiinate s^^ms. 1 in. long; anthers small, the 
cells nearly paralleL 

AAA. Fls. dark purple, 

atriLta, Lodd. St. about 6 in.: Ivs. about 4, sword- 
shaped, firm, strongly ribbed, twice longer tnan st.: 
fls. 3-4, bright dark purple, 1^-2 in. diam. when 
expanded; anthers oblong, with cells parallel. 

Other names are advertised by Dutch bulb-growers, as P. 
canariennt, F. caAe^ia, F. eonchi/lSrat F. grandifiora, F. immac-' 
ulata^ F. liliacea, F, roaea, F. Pawmia: these are to be sought under 

T^'v''^^ WiLHELM Miller. 

FERTILITT of soils: that condition of soils which 
makes them productive. The elements of productivity 
are, a full supply of available plant-food, a suitable and 
continuous supply of moisture, good physical conditions 
of the soil, coupled with suitaole seed and climate. 

Land may contain vast quantities of potential nitro- 
gen, potash, phosphoric acid and other plant-food, 
and yet be unfruitfulj — infertile. Most of the potential 
plant-food in the soil is lazy, or not available in sufficient 
quantities in a single season to produce maximum crops. 
Average arable land which contains from 3,000 to 4,000 



pounds of nitrogen, an equal amount of phosphoric 
acid and four times as much potash in the first 8 mches 
of an acre, may produce only fifteen bushels of wheat 
to the acre, which requires, with the straw, but twenty- 
four, thirteen and twenty pounds of these three ele- 
ments respectively. Therefore, land may contain a 
great abundance of potential plant-food, and yet not 
contain enough of that which is available tor a full crop. 
To make land more fertile, one or more of the follow- 
ing means may be employed. Usually deeper and more 
thorough tillage should first be resorted to, since jmost 
lands, by reason of careless farming, contain much inert 
plant-food. Superior tillage is almost certain to produce 
fruitfulness, and therefore should be resorted to before 
more expensive methods are tried. Tillage not only 
makes plant-food more available, but it improves the 
physical conditions of the soil, thereby making it more 
adaptable to the plant; it may also assist in relieving 
the land of surplus water, and give to the soil the 
power of retaining stores of moisture by capillary 
action. 

Moisture plays such an important part in productive- 
ness that it may be said to constitute its prime factor. 
Clay soils are usually composed of such fine particles 
that water percolates through them slowly, hence the 
lareer part of the rainfall must either run off over the 
sunace, or remain to be evaporated. The aim should 
be so to prepare the land by subdrainage, plowing and 
surface tillage, and by introducing at least one crop of 
tap-rooted plants in the rotation, that the surplus 
water will filter through the soil in a reasonable time. 
Percolation of rainwater through soils makes them more 
fridble and warmer in spring, aerates the land, pro- 
motes beneficial biolo^cal and chemical changes, and 
brings to the soil the nitrogenous compounds contained 
in the rainwater. Soils that are reasonably porous have 
the power of retaining more moisture, and of giving it 
up to plants, when needed, to a greater extent, than 
either open sandy or close clay soils. Fertility, which 
results in fruitfulness, is governed very largely by the 
water and moisture conditions of the soil, and these, 
in turn, are to a considerable extent governed by the 
texture of the land and the amount of humus that it 
contains. 

Legumes, used either as a harvest or cover-crop, pn>> 
mote fertility. A cover-crop of clovers planted August 
1, and analyzed sixty-four davs after planting, con- 
tained nitrogen, in roots and tops, to the acre as 
follows: 

Tops Roots Total 

Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Crimson clover 125 30 155 

Red clover 63 40 103 

Mammoth clover 67 78 145 

Clovers and other legumes may be used to fix and 
store up the uncombined nitrogen of the air and to 
digest and make available the mineral constituents of 
the land, thereby greatly increasing the fertility of 
the soil. 

In most of the semi-arid districts of the United 
States, except where irrigation can be successfully 
undertaken m the rich valleys, the problem of perma- 
nently maintaining and increasing the productivity of 
the soil is as yet unsolved. Better tillage may serve 
in many cases to prolong the time of profitable culti- 
vation, but unless something is done toward restora- 
tion it only postpones for a short period the day when 
the land must be left to the tooth of time and to the 
growth of such hardy plants as can maintain them- 
selves on a depleted soil. All such pasture lands may 
be greatly benefited by sowing, even in small quan- 
tities, in early spring with red and alsike clover in 
humid districts, and bur clover in the rainless-sum- 
mer regions. Lands adapted to orcharding that have 
become depleted and that have a tenacious subsoil 
may be benefited by exploding a charge of djmamite 



FERTILITY 

in a hcle about 1 inch in diameter and 2 feet deep at 
each place where a tree is to be set. Such treatment 
tends to promote filtration, lo set free plantr^ood by 
aeration and to improve the physicaJ condition of 
the adjacent soil, while at the same fime it lessens 
the labor necessary to prepare the ground for tree- 
eetting. 

Bam manures, when properly cared for and intelli- 
sently applied, not only fumiah acceptable plant-food 
but humus as well. Fertility and high productivity 
usually may be maintained many years by means of 
superior tillage, leguminous harvest and cover-crops, 
and the manures of the farm. In some cases a high 



phoBphat«s and potash, but too often expensive ferti- 
lizers have been substituted for tillage, leguminous 
plants and bam manures. 

Fertility may frequently be promoted by light 
applications (tea to twenty bushels to the acre) of 
quicklime. Lime serves to make plant-food more 
available, to improve soil texture and U) correct acidity. 
It may aJeo be applied beneficially to a green-manure 
fallow. lime tends to sink into the soil, therefore 
ding 

^, h the 

il by tillage. Hydrated, or biting lime, not only tends 
to set free plant>-food but to flocculate the soil, thereby 
improving ito physical condition, lis use is especially 
recommended on clay and moist lands and in orchards 
where the ground is much shaded. Applications of 
gypsum and salt are sometimes beneficial in main- 
taining fertility, but they, as well as lime, usually act 
indirectly, as the soil is seldom deficient m these con- 
stitutents so far as they are required as plant-food. On 
bigh-priced lands, especially those devoted to horti- 
culture, the soil should be made and kept fertile — well 
up to its highest productive power. 

A bare summer fallow of one to three plowines and 
suitable surface tillage will not only destroy weeds, but 
liberate plantr-food as well, while storing moisture 



FERTILIZATION 



1221 



the soil lor the immediate use of young plants. But a 
bare fallow, if not accompanied by the addition of some 
plant-food, may hasten the depletion of the soil. It 
IS a matter of judgment, then, as to whether the particu- 
lar Boil contains such abundant supplies of plant-food 
that some of them may be removca; or whether it is 
very deficient. In the latter case a green fallow would 
be far preferable Ao a bare one. In man>' cases a bare 
fallow is merely a method of mining-farming which 
hastens the time when the land must be turned out 
to pasture for economic reasons. Often productivity 
is increased more satisfactorily by means of green- 
manuring than by bringing plant-food to the land 
from outside sources. In most of the humid districts 
early sowed peas (which withstand late frosts) followed 
by buckwheat, and both plowed under some time 
before they mature, can be grown in time to fit the 
land for seeding in September to wheat, rye or timothy, 
the nurse crop being omitted. When the land might 
be made too porous by this method, rye sowed in the 
fall, plowed under before coming to head and followed 
by peas, would greatly improve the Iteht and sandy 
soils by bringing stores of nitrogen and Dumus. 

Nature, in producing and storing fertility, provides 
a great variety of plants and an infinite number of 
ways of multiplying them so that the land is fully 
covered with vegetation — except in desert rq^ons. 
Upon the best of these lands a vast animal life is main- 
tained while the remainder produces other plants to 
feed other animals. In the densely settled agricul- 
tuml districts of China, for the last two thousand 

Sirs the farmers have been returning as much to the 
d as they have taken from it; and the soil is now 
mote productive than it was when first brought into 
cultivation. The problem of conservation and resto- 



ration of soils is now in America the most serious one 
the agriculturist has to solve. 

Sometimes soils are rendered unfruitful b^r the 
presence of deleterious substances, as organic acids or 
alkaline salts, or a superabundance of some one or 
more of its usually useful ingredients, as water or 
nitrogenous compounds. An exoeas of nitrogen stimu- 
lates the growth of stalk and straw at the expense of 
grain, or m the orchard it tends to the formation of 
wood rather than to fruitfulness. The acidity should 
be corrected by hme, as noted above, the surplus water 
removed by drainage, the nitrogenous matter reduced 
by the production of such crops as are not harmfully 
aifccted by its superabundance, such as forage crops 
which are prized for their foliage rather than for their 
seeds, while the alkalinity may sometimes be overcome 
by deep tillage, irrigation or application of g3'psum in 
suitable amount^u i. p. Roberto. 

FERTILIZATION is the fusion of sexually differ- 
entiated cells, and with special reference to the seed 
plants it means that a cell (a fertilized egg, or zygote) 
IS thus formed which is capable of developins into the 
embryonic plant later recognized in the pTantlet of 
the seed. The fusing cells, or gametes, are (1) the egg 
(female cell), which is organized in the ovule, as 
described below, and (2) a sperm-cell, or nucleus (male 
cell), developed in the germi- 
nating pollen-tube, Fertiliia- 
tion is a process which may not 
be readily observed In the seed- 
plants except through the use 
of careful histological methods. 
both in the fixation of material 
and in the subsequent pro- 
cesses of imbedding and atain- 
' ing. The ^enomena are illus- 
trated in Figs. 1495-1497. 

The term "fertilization" has 
always impUed the union of 
male and female cells; but 
formerly, when leas was known 
regarding the details of the 
phenomenon, " fertilisation " 
mcluded the mere mechanical 
process whereby pollen from 
the anther was transferred by 
any agent to the stigma of the 
flower. For this reason "fei^ 
r iuMriT7", B, uuoBwo..^ tiliiation by insects" or "fer- 
■e cell. The IsTgeroheri- tilization by wind" — mear'"" 
' t^ ", K^i-f^Y JS5 the transfer of poUen by tl 



IMS. A poDen-paln of 



before liie & 



(MacDified J 



ippropriate, and i 
loved. If the silks of corn arc i 
ollcn, fertilization normally ensues and seeds are 



B pollinated with o 



and Wallace. 

polhnation is 

ployed. If the s 

pollci, ..... . 

produced; but if the com-silks are polUnated by the 
pollen of the lily, no seeds will be formed. It is obvious 
that croes-polliiiation has no limits; but croee-fertiliEa- 
tion is limited to those cases in which the sexual cells 
unite and a new organism develops. 

The development of some structures essential in 
fertilization are of interest in this connection. The 



nucleus and a small generative cell ai 
lodged upon a suitable stigma the pollen-gratn getini- 
nates by the development of a tube which enters the 
loose tissue of the stigma and grows further into the 
conducting parts of the style. In some cases, definite 
etylar canals are present, but usually the tube wedges 
itself between the yielding cells, absorbs nutrient in 
its course, and forces or dissolves its way to the ovule 
or seed-case, where, as a rule, it enters the micropyle 
and approaches the embryo-sac and egg-cell. In its 



1222 



FERTILIZATION 



FERTILIZERS 




//-fe 



course the pollen-tube is doubtless "directed" by the 
distribution of food. Meanwhile, the generative 
nucleus of the poUen-tube divides into two sperm 
(male) nuclei, and these migrate to the growing end 

of the tube. 

With the formation and 
opening of the flower, the 
embryo-sac attains its devel- 
opment. This structure is too 
complex to require full treat- 
ment here, but it is sufficient 
to say that, when approaching 
maturity, it consists of one 
large cell containing eight 
nuclei, four of which collect at 
each end of the celL One 
nucleus from each end marches 
to the center, and the fusion 
which then commonly results 
gives a nucleus the divisions 
of which ultimately organize a 
so-called food, or endosperm, 
tissue, which may surround the 
embryo when formed. 

At the micropylar end of the 
embryo^sac, another nucleus 
organises the egg-cell — a 
prominent cell with consider^ 
able protoplasm — and the other 
two degenerate or form the 
subsidiarv cells of an "egg ap- 
paratus. The cells at the an- 
tipodal end of the embryo-sac 
are also of little present sig- 
nificance. At about the time of 
the maturity of the egg-cell 

1406. OafUne of a pistil of ^® **P ^^ ^® pollen-tube 

LOfaun phiUdeliiliicttm. reaches and penetrates the wall 

AleogthwiBeviewofpistU of the embryo-sac, then dis- 

almcwt throuf h the center; solves and hberates the two 

I;iK*T w'lSLn £3^" male nuclei. One of these fuses 

crain, p, obs been loogecL .. « . . ,, i < « • • 

The course of the pouen- With the egg-cell, and this IS 

tube, pi, is indicsted, by the important act under con- 

broken hne. Atthe^^ sideration. The other sperm 

I. r, 3, 4, are cross sections , pa. ^ •al al 

of the pistil at the levels nucleus often fuses With the 
indicated by the arrows: /, endosperm nucleus, but that 

ilSw "STirfiSluU? Si d«» "»«» f^ ^ Characters 
which leads into the three of the embryo. The fusion of 
chambers of 4. the oTvy. in egg and male nucleus unites, 

ti^'^ST'oSliiil'lNS: «"» ^,o}^ hand^the.charao- 
ural sise.) ters of the ovule-beanng and 

poUen-bearing plants in the 
fertilised egg, which may proceed immediately to 
develop the embryo. b. M. Dugoar. 

FERTILIZERS. It is now well recognized that 
shade trees, ornamental shrubs, small fruits, and 
flowering perennials, as well as annual flowering and 
foliage plants, are often as greatly benefited by the 
use of proper fertilizers and manures as vegetables and 
ordinary larm crops. There are, nevertheless, occa- 
sional soils on which fruit trees, and shade trees in 
particular, require little or no artificial fertilisation or 
manuring. For example, it was not fotmd profitable 
to fertilize apple trees at the Agricultural Experiment 
Station in Geneva, New York, whereas at the Pennsyl- 
vania Agricultural College the use of fertilizers was not 
only stnkin^y helpful, but practically vital to success- 
ful orcharding. Instances of such contrasts in con- 
nection with trees and shrubs are alwa3rs to be expected. 
On this account the giving of rule-of-thumb dilutions 
for fertilizing, in a work of reference which is designed 
to be genenJlv applicable to the entire United States, is 
not only well nigh impossible, but may, if followed, 
lead to the most unreasonable procedure on the part 
of those not sufficiently conversant with their own 



particular soil conditions. For this reason this dis- 
cussion will be confined lareely to the general principles 
involved, since they not only fail to mislead the novice, 
but may serve as a safe and rational basis for general 
procedure for all. 

Shade treesj amamerUal trees and shrubs. 

Because of the fact that trees have an extensive 
root-system, and hence possess a wide feeding range, 
thev often stand less in need of artificial manuring 
and fertilizing than certain shrubs, especially if the 
latter have already been set for a long time. 

It is to be presumed that most soib contain enough 
iron and magnesia to meet the needs of trees and shrubs, 
yet since these substances are just as essential to their 
growth as any of the three so-called ^'essential elements,'' 
it is well to bear in mind that very rare cases may be 
met with in which even iron or magnesia may be help- 
ful. In this connection it may be mentioned that tne 
soil in a section of northern Michigan is said to con- 
tain so little iron that certain farm animals, if fed exclu- 
sively on the plants which grow there, cannot be 
reared successfully. It has even been found that 
manganese compounds are sometimes helpful to plants, 
and if the supply of iron is insufficient, they aid m pro- 
moting chlorophyl formation in the leaves, without 
which the higher plants cannot exist. 

Some soils are relatively deficient in magnesia as 
comjpared with lime, aiid when such is the case, growth 
is likely to be restricted until enough magnesia is 
added to create a proper balance between the two. A 
much more frequent lack, in soils of the humid regions, 
is lime. 

Unforttmately, an extended and systematic study of 
the lime requirements of trees and shrubs has not yet 
been made, although many valuable isolated observa- 
tions are on record. It 
would be of great value 
if such experiments 
were conducted on an 
extensive scale. Such 
experiments as were 
made in this direction 
in Rhode Island 
showed, for example, 
that the American 
elm (Ulmus americana) 
and the basswood 
(TUia americana) were 
both greatly helped by 
liming when erown on 
the very acid granitic 
soil of that state. 
From this it may be 
inferred that b^efit 
from liming would also 
follow on many of the 
soils of the humid re- 
gions which are derived 
chiefly from granite 
and from certain of 
the sandstones, shides, 
slates, gneisses, schists 
and conglomerates. 

The sugar or rock 
maple was found to be 
but little helped by 
lime, even where the 
elm and basswood 
showed striking bene- 
fit. The common white 
birch seemed to be 
even less responsive to 
liming than the sugar 
maple. 

The use of much 




1497. Section of an omle of 
Lilium irfuladelphictim. 

Cut Icn^hwise; t, i, inner integu- 
ment, inclosing except at a narrow 
orifice (micropyle) where the pollen- 
tube, pi, enters the body of the ovule, 
which is chiefly occupied by the large 
embryo-sac with three nuclei, one 
much disorganised, e, the endosperm 
nucleus, just being formed by fusion 
of two nuclei from the respective ends 
of the embryo-sac. cf, male nucleus, 
which has just migrated from pollen- 
tube and is about to ftise with 9 , the 
egg nucleus. The e^ergidn, or "egg 
apparatus," have disappeared. (Mag- 
nified 670 diameteis.) 



FERTILIZERS 



FERTILIZERS 



1223 



lime may sometimee interfere with the growth of the 
Norway spruce. It is also unfavor^le to at least 
some oi the pines. The effect of liming on certain of 
these conifers is observable not only bv way of its 
lessening the growth of the tree, but also by its causing 
a shortening of the needles. 

The chestnut tree is reputed not to need liming, but 
even to be seriously injured, if lime is used. 

Among the flowering snrubs, general esrperience 
points to the fact that hme should be avoided in con- 
nection with the growth of the laurels, rhododendrons, 
azaleas and the ^cacese generally. Tnere is, however, 
no doubt as to the benefit to be derived from the use 
of lime in connection with many of the other ornamental 
and flowering shrubs. Experiments by Hogenson 
appear to show that sulfate of magnesia may some- 
tunes be very helpful to certain shrubs which are 
ordinarily injured by lime, although this work needs to 
be extensively supplemented before being accepted as 
a sure basis of procedure. 

In genera], the need of nitrogen for trees and shrubs 
is indicated by insufficient Umb and leaf growth, 
^though any other lacking essential ingredient may 
ultimately have the same limiting effect. 

Whenever trees or shrubs are being set in poor land, 
it is well to work into the soil generous amounts of 
ground, steamed bone or superphosphate. The latter 
phosphate possesses, however, a very distinct advan- 
tage for subsequent ap^cation, due to its high con- 
tent of soluble phosphoric acid. Basic slag mealshould 
be avoided for those trees and shrubs likely to be 
injured by lime, whereas for others it may be employed 
at the time of planting. These materials mav be used 
when the trees or shrubs are set, if well mixed with the 
8oil, and from one to four pounds may be used for 
a tree or shrub, according to their size. 

High-grade sulfate d potash or muriate of potash 
may De similarly worked into the soil at the rate of 
half a pound to a pound a tree when potash is known 
to be deficient, but even in such cases it is sometimes 
advisable to withhold it until a year after setting, and 
then make the application alone, in conjunction with 
superphosphate, or in a complete fertilizer. Twice 
as much double manure salt or four times as much 
kainit is required to replace either the sulfate or the 
muriate of potash. 

If the growth is not satisfactoiy, after the trees or 
shrubs have been set for some time, a complete fertilizer 
containing from 2 to 4 per cent of ammoma, from suita- 
ble sources, may be worked into the soil about the trees 
or shrubs, or it may even be scattered on the surface 
of the ground, in case the land is kept in graas. 

Care ^ould be taken to keep the fertilizer away 
from the base of the trees or shrubs, and it should be 
applied for at least a considerable distance beyond the 
reach of the branches. For this purpose, quantities of 
fertilizers, ranging from two to tmrty-five pounds, may 
be used for each tree, according to its kind, size and age, 
although even for large shrubs, from two to six pounds 
will usually be sufficient. 

Just as the keen observation of the feeder is neces- 
sary in the fattening of the animal, so also the judg- 
ment of the experienced gardener is essential to the 
proper gagins of the amounts of fertilizer for trees 
ana shrubs ofall kinds. 

Much is claimed, by those who have had experience 
in renovating old trees, for the plan of making a large 
number of holes under the tree, to a depth of 1 foot to 
23^ or 3 feet, and placing the fertilizer in these holes, 
llus procedure has much justification, owin^ to the 
great "fixing" power of the soil, especially for phos- 
phoric acid and potash salts which are otherwise pre- 
vented from being quickly and readily carried down in 
large quantities to points where the deeper roots can 
immediately reach them. Even if fertilizer is employed 
in this manner it is also well to apply some of it to the 



surface, in order to insure an even lateral distribution 
of at least a part of it. 

Another drastic method of procedure in renovating 
old trees is to trench around a part or the whole of the 
tree, at a suitable distance from the trunk, to a depth 
of several feet, and then fill the trenches with new soil 
mixed with manure and a complete fertilizer contain- 
ing slowly-acting phosphatic ana nitrogenous materials, 
and suitable amounts of potash salts. In such a case it 
is a part of the plan to cut off many of the ends of the 
old roots in order to make them branch and thus 
increase their feeding capacity. 

Apples and pears. 

Apple trees, as a rule, respond to liming rather 
better than pear trees; nevertheless, on very acid soils 
there are several good reasons for liming even pear 
trees. An occasional application of magnesian lime 
may be desirable, but if used it should be alternated 
with applications of purer lime. 

On land known to be very rich naturally, or which 
has been highly manured for a series of years, neither 
fertilizer nor manure* will be reauired for newly set 
apple or pear trees, and in only exceptional cases 
will they be needed, even for those just coming into 
bearing. When such exceptional conditions do not exist. 
it is usually a safer plan to fertilize the land with liberal 
amounts of potash, phosphoric acid, and rather slowly 
available sources of nitrogen, or else to employ such 
small amounts of quickly available nitrogen as will 
surely be used up b^ore or by midsummer. If, on the 
other hand, excessive amounts of farmyard manure or 
nitrogenous fertilizers are applied^ or if the application 
is too long delayed, late growth is promoted, with the 
result that the wood remains too soft. In such cases 
cracking and other serious injury is likely to follow 
during the winter season. 

As a rule, the orchard may be used to advanta^ for 
some years after the trees are set, for the growing of 
quick-maturing crops, such as peas, early cabbages, 
radishes, and potatoes, or even for tomatoes^ melons, 
or squashes. These crops may be well fertilized, and 
many of the earlier ones can be followed in the late 
summer by a cover-crop of crimson (scarlet) clover, or 
hairy vet^. If the soil is already rich enough, or is 
too rich, in nitro^n, barley or rye may be substituted 
for the legumes. These cover-crops can then be plowed 
under the next spring. Some growers even prefer weeds 
to any of these cover-crops because of saving the outlay 
for seed. 

When the stage is passed in which extended cropping 
between the trees is possible, and the burden of^ truit 
becomes great, especial care should be taken to apply 
an abundance of potash and phosphoric acid annually, 
and only enough nitrogen from legumes or fertilizers to 
insure adequate foliage, satisfactory wood-g^wth, and 
abundant fruit-spurs. For this purpose a smtably com- 
pounded complete fertilizer may be employed. If 
legumes are found to supply enough nitrogen one may 
employ annually from 200 to 600 pounds an acre of 
acid phosphate or basic slag meal, and from 50 to 400 
pounds an acre of the muriate or high-grade sulfate 
of potash. If the double manure salt is used as the 
source of potash instead of the muriate or the high- 
grade sulfate of potash, the total application should 
amount to approximately twice as much an acre, 
because of its lower potash content. 

The nitrogen for the orchard may be supplied in one, 
or, on light open soils, in two applications of nitrate 
of soda at such a rate that the total application for a 
season will not exceed from 100 to 300 pounds an acre, 
dependent upon the slowness of the growth of the 
trees. It is usually much simpler to make a single 
application of a complete fertilizer, in which the nitro- 
gen is present in mtrates, ammonium salts, soluble 
organic compounds and in less quickly available 




1224 



FERTILIZERS 



FERTILIZERS 



organic forms, than to apply nitrates at two or more 
dinerent times. When such complete combinations 
are used the dan^ of loss by leaching is greatly les- 
sened and a satisfactorily continuous but properly 
decreasing supply of nitrogen for the trees is assured. 
The fertiUzer application should not be made later 
than just after tne time the fruit has set. Many good 
authorities even advise waiting until this time in order 
to gage the application according to the probable 
yield and requirement of the trees. 

At the Massachusetts Agricultural Esmeriment 
Station, far better results were secured with double 
manure salt (sulfate of potash and sulfate of magnesia) 
than with muriate of potash, but in experiments else- 
where the muriate of potash has given as good results 
as the high-grade sulfate of potash. It is probable, in 
view of the known lack of carbonate of lime in the 
Massachusetts soil, that this rather serious deficiency 
was responsible for the poorer results with muriate of 
potash, for in soils elsewhere where the lime suppl}^ was 
sufficient, miuriate of potash has acted well. It is, of 
course, possible that the magnesia of the double manure 
salt was helpful in the Massachusetts experiments. 
The results furnish, however, no positive evidence to 
that eSectf but indicate strongly that the chlorin of 
the muriate of potash was probably injurious because 
of a lack of carbonate of lime. 

The idea that the proportion of the various fertilizer 
ingredients affects the color of apples in a direct way 
has little to support it. It is rather tenaciously claimed, 
nevertheless, that basic slag meal has special value in 
adding color to apples, but this ma^r be due solely to 
its aoaing a proper balance of mineral ingredients 
which coiud perhaps be equally well supplied by other 
phosphates. There is abundant evidence, however, that 
over-fertilization with nitrogen leads to the develop- 
ment of exceptionally heavy and abundant foliage; 
and the excessive snading lessens the color of the 
fruit. Direct exposure of the apple to the sunlight also 
lessens its tendency to shrivel. This is due, probably 
to its effect either on the proportion of the various 
chemical constituents of the skm, or to its thickness, 
by which evaporation of water is nindered. In order to 
insure even distribution of the color on the individual 
apples, severe thinning is essential, for otherwise one 
apple will partially shade another. 

In some European countries the fertilizer for orchards 
is placed from 4 to 5 inches deep in holes 20 inches 
apart, at the rate of about an ounce and a quarter a 
hole. This method is, however, probably too expensive 
to employ in this country) tiiough it may be especially 
effective for orchards which are in sod. If the work 
were capable of being done by machinery or by some 
suitable implement we method might possibly prove 
<^ economic value. 

Peaches. 

Peach trees are less in need of lime than apple trees, 
yet liming is nevertheless often desirable, even for its 
indirect benefits. The fertilizer required for peaches 
is much more than for apples, for the reason that 
the trees grow far more rapidly and bear early and 
abundant crops. On poor soils generous fertilizing 
must be provided from the outset, but if the land is 
very rich or heavily manured, fertilizer may be omitted 
for the first year or two. If a soil is very poor it should 
receive at the outset from 300 to 500 poimds an acre 
of a fertilizer containing a moderate amoimt of nitrogen 
derived from appropriate materials, a fair quantity of 
available phosphoric acid, and a generous amount of 
potash in muriate of potash. On soils in which potash 
IS naturally very abundant, the supply can be greatly 
lessened. 

When the peach trees come into bearing, more nitro- 
gen will be required than at the outset, and the total 
quantity of fertilizer may then be increased one-half, 



or even more than doubled. In the case of peach trees, 
constant watchfulness is required to make sure that 
neither too little nor too much nitrogen is used. An 
excess of nitrogen will prevent proper ripening of the 
fruit, and of the wood in the autunm, whereas too little 
will mean abbreviated crops, loss of vigor, and at the 
same time the lack will create conditions favorable to 
disease. In any case, ample supplies of phosphoric 
acid and of potash, as muriate, should be provided to 
meet any possible need. If a little extra nitrogen is 
required in the springy it may be applied in mtrate 
of soda^ or, if the soil is properly limed, sulfate of 
ammoma may be substituted for the nitrate of soda if 
desired. 

In case one wishes to stock the land with phosphoric 
acid in advance, large applications of bone or basic 
slag meal may oe made, ranging from 400 to 1,000 
pounds an acre of the former and from 500 to 1,200 
pounds an acre of the latter. The old plan of heavily 
stocking the soil and waiting a long time for the 
returns is, however, giving way to the frequently more 
economical plan of more nearly meeting the fertilizer 
needs from year to year, instead of tying up a large 
amount of money in a long-time investment. 

Plums, cherries and apricots. 

The plum and cherry, regardless of whether the latter 
is a sour or sweet variety, are certainly far more in 
need of liming than the peach, but data are not at hand 
as to the relative requirements of the peach and apri- 
cot. The fertilization of these fruits snould not vary 
widely from the treatment required for peaches, except- 
ing that the quantity may be rather less, and the same 
care should also be exercised not to use excessive 
amounts of nitrogen. 

Blackberries, raspberries, gooseberries and currants. 

The blackberry is especially at home on very acid 
soils and a v^ry light application of lime will meet all 
possible requirements oi the plants, if indeed it is 
needed at ail. The blackcap raspbeny is more likely 
to be helped by liming than the blackberry, although 
it is well adapted to moderately acid soils. The Cuth- 
bert raspberry is appreciably helped by liming on quite 
acid soils, and the same is probably true of most or all 
of the red and yellow varieties. The gooseberry and 
currant, including the white and various red varieties 
are greatly benefited by liming. As much as two to 
four tons of ground limestone an acre, or its equiva- 
lent of slacked lime, are often very helpful to these 
Elants. Haspberries. in particular, thrive well on a 
eavy, freshly rotted sod, as for example, on old grass 
land plowed the autumn before the plants are set. In 
many cases all that is required on such land is to supply 
an adequate mixture of an available phosphate and a 
potash salt, but whenever the cane growth is weak and 
unsatisfactory, or, when gooseberries and currant 
bushes do not show satisfactory ^wth, a moderate 
amount of complete fertilizer containing a fair amount 
of nitrogen in gradually available forms is likely to be 
beneficial. The use of heavy applications of nitrogen 
for raspberries, currants and gooseberries is not advised, 
for it will induce too great a growth of canes and foliage 
and interfere with the maturing and ripening of the 
fruit, llie plants will also be rendered more readily 
subject to inildew. 

Strawberries. 

The strawberry grows well on moderately acid to 
very acid soils, and u lime is used the application should 
be light, rarely exceeding 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of 
ground limestone an acre. 

An important point to be recognized by strawberry- 
CTowers 18, that weak plants are not likely to be heavy 
bearers the next year. In consequence, the plants when 
set should be supplied with a fertilizer reasonably 



I 

^ 



FERTILIZERS 



FERTILIZERS 



1225 



rich in available nitrogen. This fertilizer should 
usually be applied at the rate of 1,000 to 1,500 pounds 
an acre at the time of setting, and in the later years 
just after picking the crop of fruit, fertilizer mav be 
scattered in a furrow turned away from each side of 
the bed, after which the furrow may be turned back 
again. Early each spring fertilizer should be applied 
broadcast over the beds. This should contain UDeral 
quantities of soluble phosphoric acid and potash but 
only enough nitrogen to promote reasonable growth. 
This nitrc^en should, however^ be largely in readily 
soluble and available form. If too much nitrogen is 
used in the spring the fruit will lack color, and it may 
be soft and unsatisfactory, especially for distant ship- 
ment. It may even be necessary to omit all nitrogen 
in the spring, if the soil is exceptionally rich in humus 
or has been well manured previously. This can only 
be decided by the observant grower. 

On many soils superphosphate is preferable to basic 
slag meal as a source of phosphoric acid for straw- 
berries, for the reason that too much lime is to be 
avoided, and furthermore, the phosphoric acid is 
largely soluble and better adapted to top-dressing. On 
an exceedingly acid soil the use of basic slag mefd may 
be permissible for application at the time of setting, 
for the action of the soil aids in rendering it available 
to the plants. 

Grapes, 

Grapes niay show some gain from the use of lime 
under certain circumstances, but they do not require 
it in even approximately the same degree as the cherry, 
plum, currant, and gooseben^. The chief need of tms 
crop is available phosphoric acid and potash. If 
nitrogen is used, the quantity must be carefully regu- 
lated, and in Europe slow-acting forms of organic 
nitrogen are in special favor. Basic slag meal or bone- 
meal may be used as sources of phosphoric acid when 
the grapes are set, but later, superphosphate is to be 
preferred, especiallv if it is not most thoroughly worked 
mto the sou. Sulfate of potash is often considered 
preferable to the muriate of potash for grapes, for it is 
alleged to give a better quality of fruit. 

Qidnces, 

The quince responds to liming in about the same 
degree as the cheny and plum. It should receive enou^ 
nitrogen to insure reasonable growth, but no more; 
and on exhausted soils a moderate amount of available 

Ehosphate and muriate or sulfate of potash will be 
elpful. 

Cranberries, 

The cranberry thrives better at the outset, even on 
certain very acid soils, than after its acidity has been 
lessened by liming. lif more nitrosen is needed than 
that naturally available from the humus of the boe. 
it is usually recommended that it be applied in small 
quantities, as nitrate of soda or preferably as nitrate 
of potash, provided the bo^ is already fairly dry and 
is likely to remain so; but if wet, sulfate of ammonia 
may be better The chief need of the cranberry vine 
is usually phosphoric acid and potash. The phosphoric 
acid for top-dressing may be m superphosphate, but 
if apphed just before the plants are set one may 
employ bone-meal, or, if on very acid peat or muck 
soil, even raw rock phosphate. 

In case spring applications of fertilizer are made, it 
must not be expected that they will always affect the 
cranberry yield of that particular season as much as the 
yield of the crop which follows. Such applications 
should ordinarily be made after the water is drawn 
off and the land has dried out to a reasonable extent. 
It is often helpful to apply fertilizer just after the cran- 
berry crop is harvested, but late spring apphcationa 
devdop stronger vines for the next season. 



Pineapples, 

The requirements of the pineapple crop vary widely, 
dependent upon the rainfall and soil conditions. Where 
the winter season is likely to be fairly cold, nitrogenous 
fertilizers should not be applied in the autumn, for 
otherwise injury from frost may follow. Neverthe- 
less, potash salts have sometimes been used at that 
time with good effect. On certain acid soils, liming is 
necessary at fairly frequent intervals in order to brmg 
out the best effect of superphosphates. If lime is not 
used, bone-meal or basic slag meal may sometimes be 
preferable to superphosphate as sources of phosphoric 
acid. From one and three-fourths to two tons of fer- 
tUizer an acre, annually, have been recommended for 
pineapples by the A^icultural E^^riment Station 
of Florida. It is said that the fertilizer should con- 
tain 5 per cent of nitrogen, 4 per cent of available 
phosphoric acid and 10 per cent of potash^ in order to 
meet the conditions in that state. During the first 
year and a hidf the applications of fertilizer are made 
four times a year, but after this period of time is passed, 
the first application of the year is made either m Feb- 
ruary or March, and the second after cuttine the sum- 
mer crop. It is obvious that this rule mijEmt reouire 
modifications on other soil and also as influenced by 
different climatic or other local conditions. 

Table beets, mangels, sugar beets and Swiss chard. 

These plants are among the vegetables most in need 
of limine. Certain of them also have much greater 
ability than the cabbage and turnip to appropriate 
from the soil the required supply of phosphoric acid, 
for beets have been found to yield fair crops where 
cabbage plants, on account of a lack of available 
phosphates, failed to develop salable heads. 

These plants are able to profit to a -considerable 
extent, as concerns physiolodcal functions, by the 
soda of nitrate of soda, provided the supply of potash 
is insufficient, yet it is unwise to limit the supply of 
potash intentionally, in order to bring out this action, 
for if this is done the net loss in crop due to insufficient 
potash may more than offset the advantage of attempting 
to make the soda fully effective. 

All of these plants and many others take up, in vary- 
ing degrees, considerable more mineral matto* than is 
represented by the sum of the minimum requirements, 
as determined for each essential ingredient in the 
presence of an abundance of all of the others. If, there- 
fore, the fertilizer contains soda, it will be taken up in 
considerable amounts by the plant to satisfy this 'lux- 
ury*' or "excess" consumption in conjunction with 
the potash physiologically necessary to the plant. Thus 
the extra potash which would otherwise be taken up 
to satisfy this exceee in the mineral requirement is 
conserved in the soil for future crops. The use of 
nitrate of soda, therefore, as one of the ingredients of 
a fertilizer for these crops, results in insuring the crop 
against a shortage of potash and prevents the plants 
from taking up an unnecessary excess of potash, pro- 
vided an abundance is already present in the soil or is 
supplied in the fertilizer. 

In Europe, beets of all kinds, and especially mangels, 
have been found to respond very favorably to nitrate 
of soda in comparison with the results with sulfate of 
ammonia, yet with certain cereals the yields, under 
similar conditions, have been larger with the latter. 
Notwithstanding this favorable action of nitrate of 
soda on these crops, it is so subject to loss by leaching 
that it is often better on veiy open soils to use it in 
conjunction with several other forms of nitrogen, 
rather than alone. This is e8p)ecially true in conse- 
quence of the frequent occurrence, in certain sections 
of the coimtry, of very sandy and gravelly soils and 
especially in view of the long period of growth of the 
chard, sugar-beets and mangels. 

These crops all require generous supplies of nitro- 




1226 



FERTILIZERS 



gen, a fair amount of available phosphate, and high 
percentages of potash. In the case of sugar-beets, if 
grown for their sugar-content, the proper i^tionsnip 
of these fertilizer ingredients to one another is of great 
importance. 

Cabbage^ kale, cauliflower^ hrusada spimUa, hamipa and 
kohlrabi. 

These crops are all remarkably helped by liming on 
soils which are fairly acid. Turning, especially with 
caustic or slaked lime, has a tendency to lessen the 
development on these plants and on turnips, of the 
disease known as "cluWoot" and "finffer-ana-toe." 

What has been said of the action of me soda of the 
nitrate of soda, in connection with beets, is true cdso 
to a considerable degree of these crops; nevertheless, 
when the period of growth is lonjg and the soil is either 
a heavy silt or clay, or exceptionally open and sub- 
ject to leaching, a combination of several sources of 
nitrogen in the fertilizer, is usually preferable. The 
reference to heavy silt and clay soils is made in con- 
sideration of the fact that sodium carbonate is left as a 
residual product after the plant has taken up the nitric 
acid of the nitrate of soda; and this sodium carbonate 
tends to deflocculate such soils and make them stiffer 
and more difficult to work than before. 

Heavy applications of nitrogen are required for all 
these crops and some of them, as shown at Rothamsted 
and elsewhere, are more dependent than beets upon 
generous supplies of soluble and available phosphoric 
acid. These^ plants require also large quantities of 
potash. 

The Swedish turnip, or rutabaga, usually responds to 
liming rather more than the flat turnip, tuthough lime 
is often very helpful to the latter. 

Several of these plants are especially dependent for 
their quality on rapid growth; hence, the nitrogen 
and phosphoric acid must be derived, to a large extent, 
from readily available materials. 

One or two experimenters in this country who have 
grown tiunips in pots and boxes claim to nave found 
that the turnip can utilize rather unavailable forms 
of phosphoric acid, yet these 'results need further sub- 
stantiation in the neld before their final ^ceptance, 
and in the light of the past field evidence, generous 
fertilizing with soluble phosphates appears to be desir- 
able. These plants, like the group described previously, 
respond to hberal amounts of potash salts, yet these 
salts seldom give very satisfactory results unless they 
are used in conjunction with libeml amounts of super- 
phosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers. 

Carrots and chicory. 

The carrot is less likely to show benefit from liming 
than most root crops, and chicory is even subject to 
injury by lime when carrots are slightlv benefited. 
Owing to their long period of growth the nitrogen 
supply for these plants should not only include small 
amounts of nitxates and ammonium salts, but also 
soluble and insoluble organic nitro^n, in order that 
some of the nitrogen may be contmually at the dis- 
posal of the plant throughout the growing season. 
These plants are dependent upon reasonable supplies 
of phosphatic manures, and generous amounts of potash 
are likewise highly essential. The carrot responds in 
a less degree than mangels, to applications of soda. 

Spinach, lettucCf endive and cress. 

These plants are all likely to be greatly benefited by 
liming, even on soils of moderate acidity. Because of 
the fact that the quality and market value of these 
plants depends upon their making a rapid growth, 
large amounts of immediately available plant-food 
are essential. Some of the nitrogen should be present 
in the fertilizer in nitrates, some in anunonium salts 
and some in quickly available organic forms. No 



FERTILIZERS 

attempt should be made to economize unduly in the 
use of readily available phosphates and potash salts, 
for the reason that these crops must have ample sup- 
plies of both. The growth of early lettuce, and of 
spring spinach in particular, ma3r often be pushed 
forwsuxi with remarkable rapidity in the early spring 
by the use of fertilizers containing generous amounts 
of nitrates. In fact, these crops may be brought to 
maturity by such means much faster than by the sole 
employnient of farmyard manure, especially if the 
manure is poor in nitrogen and not thoroughly rotted. 

Onions. 

The onion will not thrive and mature properly on 
highly acid soils which are extremely deficient in car- 
bonate of lime. It is often possible, where fairly good 
crops can still be grown without the use of mne, 
nevertheless to hasten the maturity of the onion crop 
from ten days to three weeks, by its employinent. A 
lack of lime is often one of tne causes of thick necks 
and of failure to ripen properly. 

Since the onion crop is planted very early in the 
season, and because oi the consequent opportunities 
for the loss of nitrogen if too large a part of it is 
applied in nitrates, appropriate proportions of nitrogen 
in ammonium salts ana in suitable organic forms 
should also be employed in order to insure an adequate 
supply as needed. 

Generous amounts of potash are required by these 
crops and it is of vital importance to use for the onion 
a lar^ amount of superphosphate, because of the fact 
that it, like lime, hastens the maturity and the proper 
ripening of the crop. It is also equally important not to 
use such a large amount of nitrogen as to make it 
out of balance with the potash, and in particular with 
the phosphoric acid, for if this is done growth will be 
unduly prolonged, the onions will have thick necks, 
and they will not ripen satisfactorily nor quickly. 

Potatoes. 

Fertilizers for potatoes must be very differ^it 
according to the section of the country in which they 
are ^wn. For example, in the North, where the sea- 
son is short, the nights cold, and where the crop must 
be hurried along to the utmost, unusually large pro- 
portions of nitrates and of ammonium salts are indis- 
pensable, whereas in warmer regions, organic sources of 
nitrogen may be employed more largely, or perhaps in 
some favorable cases, they may be used exclusively. 
The potato crop is in need of quite lar^ quantities 
of nitrogen, ranging usually from forty to mnety pounds 
an acre. 

The percentages of potash required in potato fer- 
tilizers should DC adjusted more particularly with 
reference to the locality, and whereas in many of the 
potato regions of New England 200 pounds of potash 
(equiv^ent to 400 pounds of muriate of potasn) are 
considered necessary for each acre, the quantity could 
be reduced to one-half or even less in certain portions 
of the Middle West, or it might perhaps in some excep- 
tional cases be omitted altogether. 

For several reasons it is important to insure hi^ 
percentages of soluble and available phosphoric acid 
m potato fertilizing, since it often becomes the limiting 
factor in potato-production over large areas of the 
United States. 

The effect of the fertilizers may be somewhat nulli- 
fied or intensified, according to the choice of seed. In 
all cases, seed which has neated or which has been 
exposed to frost, should be avoided. It has also been 
shown at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Rhode 
Island that, if other things are equal, seed tubers which 
are rich in nitrogen will usually give larger crops than 
those in which the nitrogen-content is low. The advan- 
tage of the high nitrogen-content of the tuber becomes 
magnified in case they are sprouted once or twice 



FERTILIZERS 



FERTILIZERS 



1227 



before planting. No amount of* nitrogen applied in 
the field appears to be able to ofifset finally and fully 
the disadvantage of the tubers with the low nitrogen- 
content. This doubtless explains the advantage of 
early dug potatoes, for seed purposes, as compared 
with those which are allowed to mature, for the former 
are usually richer in nitrogen. 

Aaparagtta. 

Sandy soil is ideally adapted to the growing of aspara- 
gus. Nevertheless, whenever it is intended to estab- 
lish a plantation on land of this character, it is wise to 
turn under considerable stdble manure or else a heavy 
leguminous crop such as hairy vetch. If this is done, 
the general soil conditions are rendered much more 
favorable and the asparagus has a better chance to 
gain a good foothold. Wherever the land needs liming, 
some Imie should be plowed under and a further appli- 
cation should be made on the surface after plowing. 
The land should then be thoroughly harrowed or 
otherwise tilled. 

Fine ground bone and basic, slag meal have been 
used for asparagus veiy successfully when worked into 
the soil at tne outset, although the latter is rather better 
adapted to it on account of the greater availability of 
the phosphoric acid and the fact that it contains con- 
siderable lime. 

Some of the best growers of asparagus, on sandy 
soils, have foimd that muriate of potsush is a better 
source of potassium than the sulfate. 

In humid resions fertilisers for aspara^;us should 
contain a consiaerable amount of nitrogen m nitrates, 
thoug^ other forms of nitrogen are also particularly to 
be dedred on light soils, such as those usually employed 
for this crop, oecause of the danger of the loss of 
nitrates by leaching. It is obvious that, for top-dress- 
ing, superphosphate is preferable to any other form of 
plK)6phoric acid, because of its greater solubility. An 
ideal fertilizer for asparagus should contain super- 
phosphate, potash salts^ and high percentages of nitro- 
gen, a part being denved £rom nitrates, some from 
ammonium salts, and also some of it irom organic 
sources. 

Sandy soils are likely to be very deficient in phos- 
phoric acid; hence, the quantity of this ingredient 
should be high. The fertiliser should likewise carry a 
high percentage of potash on sandy soils, exceptmg 
in regions in which it is known not to be needed. 
Although potash is usually the least deficient element 
in the sandy soils of hum^d regions, the demand of the 
asparagus plant on this ingredient of fertilizers is so 
great as to make its use profitable, whereas on other 
sandy soils in semi-arid regions, potash might not be 
required. 

Mdons, 

On soils that are very acid, it is imperative to use 
considerable quantities of lime for canteloupes and 
muskmelons. Such soils will, nevertheless, produce 
good crops of watermelons, even if liming is omitted, 
and heavy liming with slaked or bumea lime may, 
in some cases, even decrease the yield. 

Owing to the fact that these crops are generally 
ETOwn on light, gravelly or sandy soil, a fertilizer is 
demanded for humid I'^^i^ containing a fairly high 
percentage of nitrogen. This should be represented by 
nitrates, to a still greater extent by ammonium salts, 
and a part should be from suitable organic sources. 
It should also contain a high percentc^e of soluble 
and immediately available phosphoric acid and gen- 
erous amounts of potash in order to bring the crop to 
maturity as rapidly as possible. Plants of tnis character 
which have an extensive amount of foliage, usually 
require high percentages of potash. Special care should 
be taken to keep the fertilizer from coming in contact 
with the seed. 



Squashes and pumpkins. 

The common simimer squash, as well as the Hubbard 
and crookneck varieties, are less in need of liming than 
canteloupes or muskmelons. Nevertheless, on very 
acid soils liming is decidedly helpful. These crops are 
all heavy feeders on nitrogen, a considerable part of 
which should be in immediately available nitrates and 
ammonium salts. Moderately high percentages of 
soluble and available phosphoric acid are necessary, 
although the summer squasn, at least, responds much 
less to phosphoric acid and more to potash than the 
cereals and most other cultivated crops. On this 
account, the percentage of potash in fertilizers for 
squashes should be hi^. excepting, of course, where 
the soils are already ricn in available forms of this 
ingredient. 

Celery. 

Celery is a crop that will thrive well on slightly acid 
soils. Nevertheless, where the acidity is great, liming 
is very beneficial. The quality of this crop depends 
very largely upon its making a rapid and steady growth. 
On this account a constant water-supply is one of the 
most important features connected with its culture. 
It is of the highest consequence that celery should 
have a large supply of nitrogen embracing suitable 
proportions of mtrate nitrogen, ammonium salts and 
organic materials. Fair amounts of soluble and avail- 
able phosphates are desirable, and on the muck or 
peat soils where this crop is frequently grown, espe- 
cially large quantities of potash should be employed, 
since this is the fertilizer ingredient which they lack 
to the greatest extent. The form of potash usually 
preferred on such soils is the muriate, although fre- 

guently kainit is said to have given excellent results, 
iither is perhaps preferable to the high-grade sulfate 
of potash or to the double manure salt. 

Cucumbers. 

Cucumbers are considerably more in need of liming 
than squashes. In other respects they should have 
essentially the same fertilizer treatment. Great care 
should be taken in connection with squashes and 
pumpkins, as well as with cucumbers, not to allow the 
seed to come in close contact with the fertilizer, or, 
indeed, with soil into which lar^ quantities of fertilizer 
have been introduced. If fertilizer is used in the hill it 
is well to have it thoroughly incorporated with the 
soil. Subsequently, this soil should be covered with 
fresh earth before tne seeds are planted. 

Tomatoes, 

The tomato will grow quite well even on soils that 
are distinctly acid. Nevertheless, moderate liming is 
often helpfm. When tomatoes are grown in green- 
houses it nas been found that very large quantities of 
lime are helpful, by virtue of lessening the tendency to 
certain diseases, but the necessity for it is less in the 
field because of the lower temperatures and less humid 
conditions. 

In order to hasten the ripening of this crop, it is very 
important to have large quantities of soluble and 
available phosphoric acid, and abundant potash in the 
fertilizer. One of the most important features is to 
have the nitrogen supply so regulated as to bring about 
at once a rapid and vigorous growth of the plants, but 
the quantity must not be so great as to prolong the 
^owmg period unduly, since this will prevent early 
ripening; and it is a well-known fact that the early 
fruit generally sells for a much higher price than that 
which matures later. Furthermore, a large proportion 
of the nitrogen should be present as nitrates and 
ammonium salts which can be readily utilized. It is 
also desirable to apply the entire amount at the time 
when the plants are set, or. at least, very shortly after- 
ward, for if successive applications are made at a later 



FERTILIZERS 



and delay the ripening of the fruit. 
Pea» and beatu. 

Peas arc usually much more helped by liming than 
beans. The latter vary widely in their lime require- 
ment aa shown by the fact that on a soil so Ereatly in 
need of lime that the Golden Wax and Low's Champion 
(a green-podded variety) will scArcely produce half a 
crop, the pole Horticultural bean is only slightly 
benefited, and the lima bean is practically mdifferent 
to it. 

Notwithstanding that these plants are capable of 
assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, it is neverthelees 
usually desirable, especially when they are grown to 
be marketed in the green state, to employ a fertilizer 
containing a small or moderate amount of readily 
available nitrogen. This nill aid in developing a root- 
system until such a time as the plants can draw their 
DJtrogen supply to a considerable extent from the air. 

Peas and beans also require moderate amounts of 
potash and phosphoric acid, in fact much more than 
would be the case if they did not grow ao rapidly^ and 
hence reach the crop-producing staffe in a short mter- 
val of time. The common white field bean haa been 
found to require potash more than phosphoric acid, 
under conditions in which the cereals and the common 
farm crops showed a greater response to the latter, 
H. J. Wheeler. 

f£RULA (old Latin name, perhaps from the verb 
to strike; possibly the stems were anciently used bb 
ferules), VmbeU»erx. Giant Fennel. Hardy strik- 
ing herbs, priied for their spring and early summer 
foliage. 



and W, Asia: Ivs. pinnately decompound, the ultimate 
segms. filiform or small (rarely broadish and dentate): 
Re. small, in elevated compound many-radiate umbeli; 
petals broad, mostly ovate-acute, the point often 
inflexed: fr. orbicular or ovate, plano-rompreseed. 
membranous-bordered. — The giant fennels arc valued 
for the excessive fineness with which their foUage is cut, 
and their clusters of perhaps 40-50 umbels of minute 
yellow fla. borne on stout sts., which rise far above the 



for bordering plantations and for stream sides. The 
ferulas yield gum-ammoniac, galbanum and asafetida. 
The genus is now held to include Narthex, Scorodosma 
and Euryangium. These plants are not to be con- 
founded with the true fennels, which belong in Fieni- 
culum. Ferula is closely allied to Peucedanum. The 
species arc difficult to represent in herbaria, and they 
are confused. 

commfinis, Linn. Common Giant Fennel. Robust, 
8-12 ft.: Ivs. Ught green, very numerous, forming a 
fine mound or clump, the segms. hnear-aetaceous; If.- 
aheaths very large; fls. yellow; central umbel on a 
branch nearly sessile, and the surrounding ones stalked 
and mostly male. S. Eu. to Syria. — Presumably the 
F. giganiia of trade lists belongs here, althou^ P. 
ffiganUa, Fedtsch., of Cent. Asia, is recognized botani- 

Vor. brevlWIia, Maris. (F. brevifdlia. Link. F. 
Unkii, Webb A Berth. F. nodijidra, Guss,). Ulti- 
mate If.-scgms, shorter than in the type. The irum- 
ammonioc of Morocco comes from this plant. B.M. 
8157. See history In Kew Bulletin, 1907, pp, 375-388. 

tin^tftna, Linn. (F. sdncta, Boiss.j. Robust, the st. 
leafy below, paniculate-corymbose above: Ivs. (riangu- 
lar-ovate, quartemate pinnatiseel, the seems, narrow- 
oblong and cut: fls. orange, in globose umbels. N. Afr. 
B.M. 7267. — Long supposed to be the source of gum- 
-. _ pjgij^ijiy not in the trade. 



FESTUCA 

gUftca^ Linn. (F. neapolildna, Tenore). Very tall 
(to 14 ft.), branching: Ivs. large, pinnately decom- 
pound ; segms. flaccid and broad-linear, obtusish and 
1-nerved, green above and glaucous beneath: bracts 
at base of {Mduncles membranaceous, oblong, deciduous: 
fls. yellow, in many umbels. S. France to Dalmatia. 
G.C. III. 32:441,442. 

F. AttafiUida, linn. [AanJotida diavunensu, Kaempf. Scom- 
dOBui fcElidum, Bunnl. St. 0-12 ft., very itout ud mucli- 
bnuchnl: Ivi. pubcnjToug mi minuicly iluiduUr or aaiiivwhit 

UiiDealKtii 'soil obtiw; umbeb on flnby peduncln, ZO-tlb-nyod, 

the flu. yellow. S. W. Am. Q.C. III. S' '"- " 

pi.Dt.onenouroeoflh • . -■. ~ 

AiKfiBtidi. Fileooer), 

irregularly'iernitf, .s'. W, Ai«, B.M. fiieT^KiuM ol Mt'eSd" 
A ■peeinmi dncHbcd in G. F. 3. p. 523. required 10 yvmn to alCaia 
■ufbcient itren^h to bloom. L H B 

FESXtlCA (ancient Latin name for a kind of grass). 
Gromine*. Fescue-Grabs. Annual or perennial grasses 
grown for ornament or as pasture grasses. 

Blades narrow: infl. few-fid,, paniculate; spikeletA 
2- to several-fld,; lemmas firm, rounded on the back, 
usually acute or awned from the tip. — Species about 
100, in the temperate and cooler parts of the world, 
A. SpikeUlt aumlett: biadee fiat, 3~i Una wide. 
«l&tior, Linn. Tall or Meadow Fepcite, One to 
3 ft.: spikelete 5-8-fld., about Hin. long. G, 8:179. 
Gn. 25, p. 428. — Freouently ctdt. as a meadow or pasture 
grass. The form called F. pratirww is rather smaller 
and has narrower panicles (Dept. Agric, Div. Agrost. 
20:155), sometimes sold under the name Bromiti 
pratentis, meadow brome-graas. Eu. 

aa. SpikeleU avmed: blades tubtovi irwolule. 
B. SU. loose and ffecumberU at bate. 

[W>r«,Linn. Red 
Fescue. One -half 
to 2 ft.: base of sts. 
usually red. Eu. — 
Occasionally used 
in mixtures for pas- 

BB. SU. in dose 

erect lufU. 

t.-bladea fiai the basal 

ides long and slender. 

eterophfUa, Lam. 

UOCS - LEAVED FeS- 

:. Fig. 1498. Doe to 
:«t,, slender: panicle 
ler loose; spikeleta 
-fid. Eu.— Cult, as a 
n grass in shady 

.St.- and basal bladet 

involute. 
ybM, Linn. Shkep's 
icDE. Fig. 1499. Six 
20 in.; panicle con- 
;ted after flowering, 

in. long. Eu. Dept. 
ic, Div, AgroBt. 20: 
. — Sown in mixtures 
pastures. 

laftca. Lam. (F. oiAna 
. glaiica. Hack.). 
IE Fescue, Resem- 
I F. oinna but has 
ery blue, or glaucous 
ige. Eu. — Used for 



FESTUCA 

Koch). Hard Pescde. Blades firm and comparatively 
tbicic, >jlme di&m., often rough. Eu. — Pasture mixtures. 
Tuinita, Waidst. & Kit. (P. ameikyslina, Hort., 
Dot Linn.j. Sheaths and mniclee pun>lish: foliage 
bluish: panicle 8 in. long. £u. — Us^ for ornament. 
A. S. Hitchcock. 

FSmCDS. Anothsr dud* tor Cam-Salad. 
FBVBK-BITSH: Btnmtn, 



FKVKRFSW: Chrnni 
FKTKR-TRSB: Pinfj 



rKVERVOST: Trio^tum. 



values of the Rroupe to which they belong. See Cyclo. 
Amer. Agrii '-■ " 



i RTOupe to ' 
..Vol. II, p. 



Ficns (ancient Latip name). MorAces:. The fig, 
the India rubber plant, the banyan tree lud the creep- 
ing fig of conservatory walk belong to this vast and nat- 
unl genus, which has over 600 species scattered through 
the warmer regions of the worla. 

PicuB has no near ally of garden value. It is a genus 
of trees or shrubs, often climbers, with milky juice. In 
the common fig tne Ivs. are deeply lobed, but in most 
of the other species they are entire or else the margin 
is wavy or has a few teeth or an occasional small lobe. 
The Ivs. are nearly always alternate, F. hispida being 
the only speciee of those described below which has 
opposite Ivs. The folia^ in Ficus varies from leathery 
to membranous, and is variable in venation, so the 
veins are very helpful in telling the speciee apart. 
^cus is moniEciaus or rarely ditscious, the apetalous 
or sometimes naked minut« fis. being borne inside a 
hollow more or less closed receptacle ; stamens 1-3, 
with short and united filaments ; pistillate lis. with 1- 
celled sessile ovary, ripening into an ach^ne that is 
buried in the receptacle. What the horticulturist calls 
the fig, or fruit, is the fleshy receptacle, while the fruit 
of the botanist is the seed inside (Fig. 1500). In the 
following account, fruit is used instead of receptacle. 

The fertilization or caprification of the fig is one of 
the moat interesting and complicated chapters in nat- 
ural history, and is of great practical importance. See 
^ift where the culture of F. Carica is discussed. 

The most important ornamental plant in the genus 
is the India rubber plant (F. dastiea), which ranks 
amongst the most popular foliage plants for home 
use indoors. This is not the most important rubber- 
producing plant, both Hei/ea bratiiienBis and CaetiUa 
etodica being producers of more and finer rubber. 

The creeping fig (F. pttmiia, better known as F. 
repent or F. itipukUa) is one of the commonest and best 
chmberB for covering conservatory walls. It clings close 
"lich is about as 
plant has been 
ost half-century 
jit for its special 
s in conservato- 
unlike the bar- 
inservatory wall 
«s of the barren 
d heart^haped, 
the base and a 
; branches are 2 
red at the base, 
ong (Fig, 1501). 
^nus Ficus are 
e spread of the 
' fact that some 
i. Some of the 
this genus, and 
>on other trees. 
the other tree. 



entirely disappeared, leaving the giant climber twined 
spirally around a great hoUow cylinder. The banyan 
tree sends down some of its branches (or aerial roots) 
into the soil, these take root, make new trunks, and 
eventually produce a great forest, in which it is impos- 
sible to tell the original trunk. The banyan in the 
botanic gardens at Cal- 
cutta sprang from a seed 
prob^ly dropped by a 
passing bird into the 
crown of a date palm a 
httle more than a century 
ago. The main trunk not 
many years ago, was 42 
feet in circumference, with 
232 additional trunks, 
many of them 8 to 10 feet 
in circumference, and the 
branches extend over an 
area 850 feet in circum- 
ference, forming a dense 
evergreen canopy through 
whicD sunlight never pene- 
trates. The banyan under 
which Alexander camped, 
and which is said to have 
sheltered 7,000 men, now 
measures 2,000 ft. in cir- 
cumference and bos 3,000 
trunks. Other species 
have the same method of 

fropagatioHj but F. benff- 
alensie is the most 
famous. 

The various species are 
cultivated both indoors 
northward and as shade 
and fruit trees in Florida 
and California. In this 
country the most impor- 
tant commercially is the 
fig, Ficus Carica, now 
widely grown in Califor- 
1499. PMtnca a<rtii>. ( X Hi iu». For the botanical 
treatment of this difficult 
genus recourse has been had to King's "The species of 
the I ndo- Malayan and Chinese countries" m Ann. 
Bot. Card. Calcutta 1 : 185 pp. -I- 232 plates, 1888, and 
wherever possible below reference is made to the 
splendid illustrations of that work, thus, K. 130.— 
King, plate 130. For the African species the recent 
treatment of Mildbraed and Burret on Die afrika- 
nischen Arlen der Gattung Ficus. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 
46:163-269 (1911), has been consulted. 

The Gultivatioii erf Ficus elastica. (H. A. Siebrecht.) 

The rubber plant (Fieia elatUat) which is known 
all over this country, is perhaps the most popular and 
satisfactory house plant that has ever been cultivated. 
It is a plant for the. million. Some florists have several 
houses especially devoted to the propagation and culti- 
vation of this Utueh and thrifty plant. There are also 
thousands upon thousands of young plants or rooted 
cuttings from thumb-pots imported Into this country, 
especially from Belgium and Holland, for marketing 



There are several varieties of the rubber plant, 
put .the true Ficus elaslica is the best, both for grow- 
ing and for selling. It can be easily told from the 
smaller-leaved variety, which is smaller and Ughter 
colored in all its parts, the stem being smoother, and 
the sheath that covers the yoimg leaves lacking the 
brown tint, which often runs into a bright Indian red. 



1230 



FICUS 



The method of propagating now popular in America 
employs old bushy Htock-pknta, eilAer in pots or tube, 
or planted out into a bed where the night temperature 
can be kept from 60° to 75° F. Afl soon an the young 
shoots are 5 to 6 inches long they are operated upon. 
An incision is made at the place where It ie intended to 
root the young plant, cuttmg upward on a slant mid- 
way between two eyes, making the cut anywhere from 
1 to 2 inches long, according to the thickness and 
length of the young shoot or branch. A small wedge, 
as a piece of matcn, is then inserted to keep the cut 
open. A large handiul of clean, damp, well-prepared 
moBS is then placed around the branch to cover the 
cut and is tied moderately firm with twine or raffia. 
Some use a small piece of charooal for a wedge in the 
cut: others coat the two cuts with a mixture of char- 
coal dust and lime. The tatt«r practice is beneficial in 
that it expedites the callusing of the cuts and the root- 
ing of the youi^; plant aft«r being cut and mossed. The 
moes should be kept constantly moist, and the higher 
the temperature, within reasonable limits, the quicker 
the rooting process goes on. The Toota of the young 

Slant usually appear on the outside of the oval-shaped 
unch of moee. A complete cut can then be made below 
the moss and the young plant potted. The smaller the 
pot at first the better. The leaves of the young plants 
should be tied up in order that they may not be injured 
by coming in contact with one another or by lying 
flat on the pota. The young plants now require a gentte 
bottom heat and frequent syringinE, — a doEcn times on 
clear days. As soon as the young plants are taken from 
the stock-plant, a Uttle wax should be put on the end of 
the cut to prevent the milky sap from escaping. The 
beat time or the year to propagate and root ficua is from 
the first of January to MayT" The European growers 
never start much before the Christmas hoUdays; and ' 
from then until spring they make all their cuttings. 

The older metnod of propagating rubber plants is 
Mill the favorite one abroad ; it emptoys single^ye cut- 
tings. Sometimes, if the branches 
are very thick, only one-half the 
stem is taken with the eye and a 
single leaf, the leaf being curled up 
and tied with raffia, and the small 
piece with the eye set into the prop- 
agating-bed. This is a bed of ^arp 
sand, or sometimes of sand and 
chopped sphagnum moss or fine 
cocoa-fiber. Frequently the single- 
eye cuttings are put at once into the 
smallcat-sized thumb-pot, ^ with a 
mixture of very finely ground pot- 
sherd and charcoal filling about one- 
half the pot, and either soil or sand 
for the remainder. A small stick is 
used to hold the leaf upright. These 
pots are plunged into the propaga- 
ting-benclies m either sand, moss 
or fiber, and a steady bottom heat 
of 75° to 80° ia applied and kept 
up until the plant^ aie rooted. As 
a rule, such beds are inclosed in a 
ISoa "yo™ fin. ^asshouse, in order to keep about 
Sb^ Zr Zi them a close, warm and moist at- 
■riis Itom tlM uii mosphere. Only ventilation enough 
ol ths lean*. to permit the moisture caused by 

the evaporation to escape ia allowed 
on these l^eds. In this country, propagation by the first 
described method can be continued nearly all the 
year round. From experience of both methoda, the 
writer can say that the top-cutting and mossing pro- 
cess is better by far, especially where plenty of stock 
plants can be maintained. 

After being ahifted from the smaller-sized pots into 
3- or 4-inch pots, the young plania will stand a great 
deal of liquid manure as soon as they arc rooted through 



PICVS 

or become somewhat pot-bound. Manj^ propagators 

plant out the young plajits from 3- and 4-inch oota into 
coldframes after the middle of May, or when all danger 
of night frost is past. They do very well in the bright, 
hot, open sun, but must receive plenty of water. After 
being planted out in frames, they should be potted not 
later tian S^tember, and for early marketing as early 
as August. The plan of planting out and potting in 
the later part of summer or early autumn is a very prao* 
ticable one, as the plants do not suSer so much from the 
severe heat during the summer. 



beogluleiuu, 3^ 

bnyilolu. IB. 



2Ib^. 1 



■kmenU, 25. 
itierpvhylia, 11. 
hiipku. 6. 



pudmU. 10. 



PKudr>-Cuio&. 2. 
Su^alia, II. 



Roiburshii, 24. 
Tutuoiiwai. 26. 
SifboUii. 17. 



:> THE SPKCIEB. 



A. Fr. larot, edAU: Itt. detplti lafitd, dteid- 



ufora 



Uatt S month): plantt aimo^ 



hardu/rom JV. Y. Kruthia.. -. 

B, Let, iras^-miirtrinaJ or lobed 1. Carica 

BB. Let. dttplii lobtd: It. rouehiah 2. Ptendo* 

AA. Pr, not uituiUy edibU, at leatt ticI a» tht [Caiica 

fio it tdibte: lea. entire or toothed, but not 
deeply lobed and not deciduout for tucA n 
long time: planit, with exctptvm of P. 
macrophytJa. not hardy ^ and cult, in ffreav' 
hautet or ouidaora in frotlUu areat of 
Fla. and Calif. 

B. HiMl dimbinQ or trailing, often dinotng 

C. Plant a dimbing thrub or tree: tst. 

abmil 5 in. long 3. macro- 

cc. Plant a creeping nne: Ice. teet Hum 4 in. [carpa 

D. Lta. uneguatly hearl-ihaped at bate... i. pumilt 

DD. Lit. only tlightly nolchtd at bate 5. radican* 

BB. Habit erect or ttraogiino. Ambe or treee: 
not dimbing or trailing. 

c. Lvt. Mtwiily opposite 6. hiipida ' 

cc. Lm. aiimys aUfmate. 

a. Foliage mritgaled 7. PucellU 

DD. Foliaae not variegated, BEcepI in a 
variety of F. dattita. 

E. The lvt. cup-ihaped 8. Kriihan 

BE. The In. not cvp-thaped. 

r. Length of It*, more than 4 ivne* 

the breadth 9. Bartorl 

tT. Length of Int. Ittt Aan S timet 
the breadth, 
a. Form of lvt. fiddie-thaped or 

banjo-thaped, very large. ..... .10. pandtt* 

oo. Form of lvt. not at aboce. [rata 

B. Lrt. iobed, much at in the 

nalia: oakt: a ahnib 11. qnard- 

BH. Lot. not to lobed. |(olla 

I. Primary lateral nerret more 
thait S pain, urualli/ much 

J. The primary tnterai nercet 

SO paira or more 12. eUatica 

E. Sheath roiy, thoay: ht. 

4-ie in. long 13. Banja- 

KE. Sheath incorupieuout; lrt. [mina 

i-iii in. long. 

JJ. The primary lateral nerrea 

leta than SO paira. 

K. Color of fr. purplith. 

L. Tree 100 ft. or Uta: lvt. 

very lona-acuminalc. ... 14. reUcioH 
I.I- Tree email: lvt. ahort- 

acuminate 15. glabella 

u. Ci^r of fr. not purpiish. 



ncus 

u Fr. (loboaeand ttalktd. .19. brevi- 
Li. Ft. ifitalhed, pear-ahaped. IfolU 

o/lin nearly >e>aiU 17. emcta 

D. Primary iaieral nerea lai 
Oian 8 pain. 
J. Tlu primary kuu rfil- 

tincUy by/urealing IS. dlvertl- 

ti. The primary teint not in- |foli« 

K. Stipaiar ahtatha targe and 

afiowy. roey 19. QUCtO^ 

KK. SHputar iheatiu not large \fbjUM 

and showy, 
i^ Whole plant tiroton-hairy.^. TiUoH 
U- Whole plant not brotm- 
kairy: lit, often hairy 

u. Fn. ahite or tehtluA. 
V. Yoanq Itm. deneeiy 
viooSy beneath: ma- 
ture Iva. not abmptty 
aetiminaie 21. Palnerl 

MV- Youn4J lee. noideneely 

aooUy; mature In, [lotia 

lAruptiy atuminate . 22. lof •£- 

23. Ctumlnc- 

IIM. Frt. red or yellowish. [hunil 

H. The jn. on acaly leaf- 
Uet bmnchee. 
O. Lti. i^moU orbio- 

ulor 24. Rox' 

oo. L«. OMi(< to mate- jbottflU 

lanceolate 25. fjomer- 

MM. The frt, eemiie or lata 

thort-ilalked. 
O. Youno In. viooOy or 
niety. 
P. Lm. aintate of blue. 
Q. Diam. of fr. about 

^n. 2e.rDbi«i- 

QQ. Dwin. o//r. JJi- fnoM 

IMi'n 27.Bamn- 

pp. Ln. not cordate at IfBri 

boK 28. altla&u 

oo. Kounfr In. not tuoolly 

r. B(M« of In. nar- 

Q. Stipulee glabrout. 

B. Ln. £-.{ in. 

lono:fr. yeltoa 

or reddiih 29. rOtuM 

BS. Lm. S-iH in. 
long: fr. 
oranofyeUow.30. aoTMl 
QQ. SlipuUa not gla- 

brout 31. iodica 

re.Baee of Its. 

rounded 32. baiubal- 

1. Cltfka. Linn. Figs. 1500. 1505, 1506. Height 
15-30 ft. : IvB. 3-5-lobed, the lobes more or leee wavy- 
maniaed or lobed, and with palmate veins, whereaa 
nearly all apeciee mentioned below are pinnately 
'veined: fr. single, axillary, pear-shaped. Suppoacd to 
be a native of Caria, in Asia Minor. — Makes a fine 
potrplwit, and fruits freely in northern conservatoriee. 
For cult, aee Fig. 

2. PBefldo-Urica. Mia. Resembling the fig of com- 

than in F, Carica, 
y, round, rou^hish. 
alif . cult, specimens 
r, but Bo for (19U) 
Calif., where, how- 
:rable attention, it 
it home for. . . ■ 

are indispensable 
I 'Smyrna figs'." 
I a large, climbing 

■i in. long; primary 
i in. thick, spottca, 



gldx«e, in cauline clusters. India. K. 208. — This name 
was once advertised as a shrub with leathery Ivb. The 
true species is a climbing ahrub. 

4. pftmila, Linn. (F. ttipuUUa, Thunb. F. rhpena, 
Hort., not Rottl.). Crbepino Fio. Fig. 1501. ftw 
trate or climbing shrub, clinging close to conserva- 
tory walls and then flattened : Ivs. more or lees 2-ranked, 
on very short petioles, ovate, obtuse, entire or slightly 



1501. 1 



■, IruitlDi bi 



Austral. B.M.6657. R.H. 1891:448. K. 158. G.C. IL 
H:560, 661, 717. H.U. 4. p. 359 (the last two as F, 
alipuiata) . Var. ™tn)««a [F. minima, Hort.) has smaller 
Ivs. The species is sometimee used for hanging- 
baskets. 

5. radlcans, Desf. Garden plant, with green, oblong- 
acuminate Ivs. and trailing habit. Impenectly known. 
Habitat unknown. Var. varieglta, Hort. W. Bull., has 
Ivs. irre^L ' ■ ■ ■■■ . -. ., 
tion begmr 
19:627. h.c 
Intro. 1897. 

6. hispida, Linn. f. {F. oppoiiUfblia, Willd.). Shrub 
— -mail tree, all the parts mostly hispid-pubescent: 



Asia, TVop. Austral. K. 154, 155. — Scarcely cult, i 
Amer. outside of botanic gardens. 

7. ParcGUii, Veitch. Lvs. thin, membranous, light 
green, mottl^ with cream-whit«, more or lees in the 
manner of mosaic, oblong-oval, acuminate, dentate. 
Islands of Pacific. F.s:22:2273. F.M. 1874:124. 
A.F.29:1290. G.C. in. 35:13.— Intro, by Veitch 
about 1S74. A warmhouseshrubby plant; probably the 
most popular of the varicgat«d forms of Ficus. Readily 
prop, by cuttings of half-ripened wood placed in sand 
m brisk bottom heat. Also cult, in S. CaUf., where it 
bears tricolored fr. 

S. Krfsluue, DC. Krishna Bor. Small tree with 
gray bark, the branches puberulent: Ivs. cup-shaped, 
the limb of the cup containins the mid-rib, with 4-5 
pairs of lateral nerves: fr. axillary, sessile, solitary or 
sometimes in pairs, yellow, about 3^in. diam. India. 
B.M. 8092, where there is also an account of the supei^ 
stitions in regard to the tree among the Indians. — The 
large showy" and extraordinarily cupped lvs. of this 
most distinct fig will undoubtedly make it popular. 
Ijttle known as yet in U. S. 

9. Bftrteri, Sprague. A shrub or small tree 6-25 ft. 
tall in nature, lower in cult,, smooth, with thick ridged 
branches: lvs. petiolate, the blade the narrowest of 
almost all the figs, 6-14 in. long, and less than IH in- 
wide, bright green above, paler beneath ; primary lateral 



nerves lfl-18 pairs: fra. in axillary clusters of 2-3, 
almoBt round, orange-colored when mature, and edible. 
S. Nigeria.— Little known in U, 8. as yet, but worthy 

10. ptndurita, Hort., not Hance, which is an acumi- 
nate-lvd. Chinese fig. apparently not in cult. A ghowy 
dhrub or tiee with diHtinctive fiddle-ahaped or banjo- 
ahaped Iva. frequently a foot long, decidedly emarginate 
at the apex, cordate at the narrowed base, dark gloeay 
peen, the prominent nerves whitish; fr. unknown. 
G. 28; 682. G.C. HI. 33:284, Gng. 16:34. Gn. M. 
8;268. A.F. 23:239; 26:203.— A showy atove fig now 
widely grown. Intro, in 1903. 

11. querdfdlk, Roxbg. The oak-lvd. form is the 
typical one, but King includes F. kumUU, RoxbH., in 
wbich the Ivs. ate serrate or nearly entire and not 
lobed. LvB. 2-5 in. long, "thickly membranous;" 

nerves 6-7 pairs; petiole 
J-i^l in. long: fr. in axillarv 
pairs, egg- or pea-shaped. 
Burma, Malaya, where it is 
a shrub. L.B.C. 16:1540. 
K. 95. (The plant fruits 
ing soon after importa- 
tion, when 2 ft. high.) — 
Advertised in 1895, and 
grown for years at the 
Montarioeo Nurseries. Vobs 
refers this, with many other 
synonyms, to F. hetero- 
phyUa. 

12. eUstica, Roxbg. (.F. 
Dupivi^, Hort., a form with 
thinner Iva.; otherwise the 

Plant. Figs. 1502, 1503. 
Lvs. 4-12 in. long, shining, 
leathery, oblong to elliptic, 
with an abrupt, dull point; 
nerves parallel, running at 
nearly right anf^es irnm 
midnb to margin: 



14. religiose, Linn. P. i of the Hindoos. 
Lvs. ovat^rotund. at t'. ■ 'iiiced into a long, 
linear-lanceolate tail-lik< ... 1 1^ ; petiole 3-4 in. 
long; stipules minute: fr - i .'' , / 7>airs, sessile, dark 
purple, Hin. thick, ln< . '..I ,..435. K. 67o.— 
Grows 100 ft. hi(^, ani ''i ' 'li-ipended on their 
long, flexible petioles, .-■■• in 'iw ali^btest breeze. 
"Quite hardy m S. Calif :: ;' :,• i iiitaining very large 
siie . " — Fran ceschi. 

15. Elsbtlla, Btume. /. '- .'i "i ^iitimatelygl^roua 
throughout: lvs. petioled, thin, not very leathery, 
obovateK)blon|, acuminate, entire, 2-4 in. long, 3- 



V^ 



of 



fallen Ive., coveted at first 
by a hodded involucre, 
when ripe greenish yellow, 
Kin. lone. Damp forests 
of Trop. Asia. G.F. 2:517. 
H.U. 6, p. 108. K, 54.— 
M 100 ft. high in 
, but becomes un- 



B^^lXIll^' ^- ^^^ "^ singie'st:, but the« 

Si™orw ■* * KTOwmg demand tor 

compact and broncbins 

Cits. Var. vari«gftta (var. aiirea, Hort.) is much 
popular. Lvs. creamy while or yellow near the 
edges. Liable to fungous diseases. This species is also 
grown S. aa a shade tree. The nervation is verv 
characteristic. So, also, is the handsome rosy sheatn 
which incloses the yoimg lvs., and which soon drons 
off. This is regarded as a stipule of exceptionally 

13. Benjuulna, Linn. A rather unimportant tree 
horticulturally, with small lvs., and smooth throUKhout : 
lvs. thin, not much coriaceous, shining, ovate-elliptic, 
entire, the apex sharply acuminate, 2—1!^ in. long; 
lateral primary nerves very numerous, freely inter- 
mingling near the margins of the lvs.: fre, in paini, 
axillary and sexsile, smooth and blood-red when ripe. 
Malayan Penins. K. 52 83h. Var. comtfsa, Kurx. 
Fig. 1501. Sepals lanceolate-acuminate rather than 
spatulate: fr. ^ in. diam., narrowed at base rather 
than globose or ovoid. 



or very rarely stalked in cult, specimens, dark purpli^, 
sometimes with yellow dots, leas than J^in. diam. 
Malaya Penins. K. 60. 

16. brevUaUa, Nutt. (f. poptUnea, Willd.). An ever- 
green tree, sometimes epiphytic in nature, 10-30 ft.: 
hn. thin and only slightly leathery, ovate or rarely 
obovate, I 'A-i in. long, acute at the apex, broad at the 
base; primary lateral nerves 14-16 pau^: fr. distinctly 
stalked, yellow when young, ultimately bright red, 
about Min. diam., and nearlj- globose. Fla.— <)f little 
value horticultu- 
rally, except for the 
frs. 

17.«fcta,Thunb. 
Extraordinarilv va- 
riable: shrub to 
small tree, gla- 
brous, pubeeciint, or 
almost strigose: lvs. 
broadly ovate, obo- 
vate or elliptic 
(lanceolate in var. 
Sieboldii), entire or 
with here and there 
a lobe, or rather 
coarsely dentate 
above the middle:! 
fr. single or in pairs, 
peduncled or sub- 
sessile, and either 
globose and not 
stalked or pear- 
shatted and tong- 
stalked. Himalayas, 
China, Japan. B. 
M. 7550 (where the 
lvs. look rather 
leathery). K. 178.— 

Procurable thro,^ iMi. n™ .l«tl«. th. tubb^ pbnt 
dealera m Japanese „, flwiM,. 

18. dlversifUia, Blume (F. lulficens, Hort.). Mib- 
TLETOE Fio, A smooth ahrub or small tree with abort- 
stalked or sessile lvs.: lvs. broadly obovate, the much- 
narrowed base glandular, 1-3 in, long, midrib branched 
once or twice, glandular at the joints: fr. axilhuy, soli- 
tary, or rarely in paire, always stalked, dull yellow or red- 
dish when ripe. India and Malay Penins. R.B. 30:156. 
K. 174. — The small lvs. and usually solitary fr. suggest 
the mistletoe, and in nature the plant is often an epiphyte. 

19. macroph^Ua, Dcsf. Moheton' Bay Fig. Lvs. 
6-10 in. long, 3-4 in. wide: stipules 2-1 in. long: fr. 
nearly globular, 9-12 Uncs thick, axillao', <n 3'b or 4's, 
on short, thick peduncles. Austral. — Murii !■' -fled in 
S. and Cent. Calif., where, however, it do-- i ■' ; i ' -* 
seed. F. von Mueller says it is perhap' "■■ . ■ .■ 

of Australian avenue trees. Ernest Bi'i' ■ s i- , . 
for this species partial or perhaps con^pl' '< - t i. ,, y 
from frost. He cites a specimen in Cr.l;. u', ■ >, .. .-d 
out after a heavy frost and is still (l^<i '>'".' I ',. cer 
more than a year has elapsed since th" •!•••• 



FICUS 



FICUS 



1233 



20. vllldsa, Blume. A straggling shrub, the whole 
plant brown-hairy: Ivs. thick and leathery, petioled, 
oblong-ovate, sharply acuminate, the base cordate, 
3-5-nerved at the base, the primary lateral nerves 5-6 
pairs, 5-6 in. long: fr. snort-stalked, in axillary clusters. 
Malaya. K. 172. — ^A good stove climber, but little 
known in Amer. 

21. PAlmeri^ Wats. Tree, 8-12 ft. high, branching 
near the ground: Ivs. 3 in. long, 2-2 H in. wide; petiole 
1 in. long: fr. in pairs, axillary, globose, Hin* thick, 
white, according to Franceschi needing much heat to 
develop. Discovered on San Pedro Mcutin Isl., N. W. 
Mex.. 1887. — ^Perhaps the best adapted to severely hot 
and dry places. Franceschi says it attains 30 ft. 

22. infectdria, Roxbg. A low tree, all the parts 
smooth; often deciduous for some weeks at a time: 
Ivs. 3^-6 in. long; nerves 5-7 pairs^ not prominent: 
fr. in axillary pairs, sessile, globose, ^m. thick, whitish, 
flushed and dotted. Trop. Asia. Malaya. K. 76-79. 
— Grows 60 ft. high, and is one ot the best shade trees. 

23. Ciinninghaniii, Miq. A large 
tree, resembung F. infecioria and 
differing only in the form and acumi- 
nation of the If. from that species: 
in F, infectoria the primary lateral 
nerves are easily detected; in F. 
Curminghamii they are fine and so 
much interminglea as to be almost 
indistinguishable. Austral. — Recom- 
mended as a shade tree for extreme 

S. Fla. by Rear 
soner Bros. Cult, 
in temperate 
house north- 
ward. Decidu- 
ous for several 
months each 
year. 

24.R6xbuxgfaii, 
Wall. A low tree, 
10-20 ft.: Ivs. 
broadly-ovate or 
rounded, 5-15 in. long, 
41^12 m. broad, some- 
times cordate at the 
base; primary later^ 
nerves 5-7 pairs, promi- 
nent on both sides : f r . 2 in. diam . 
on short leafless cauline branch- 
lets, reddish. India. K. 211. — 
The Ivs. are frequently almost 
orbicular; very ornamental. 

25. i^omerUta, Roxbg. Cluster Fio. Lvs. 4-7 in. 
long; nerves 4-6 pairs: fr. clustered on leafless, scaly 
branches, pear- or top-shaped, 1)^ in. thick, reddish. 
India, Burma. K. 218, 219. — "A quick-growing, ever- 
green shade tree." — Reasoner. "A dense shade tree: 
lvs. have a peculiar metallic luster and are deciduous 
for a short time at the end of winter: small frs., much 
relished by cattle and children but dry and woody." 
— ^Franceschi. 

26. rubigindsa, Desf. (F. au6irdHis, Willd.). Lvs. 
leathery, rounded or cordate at base, notched at tip: fr. 
mostly in pairs, globular, 5-6 lines thick, usually warty. 
Austral., where it throws out atrial roots like the 
banyan tree. B.M. 2939. — The rusty color is a beauti- 
ful feature. Voss considers this a form of F. elastica, 

27. 3^Uingeri, C. Moore. Tall glabrous tree: lvs. 
ovate, sharp-pointed, leathery, 5-6 in. long, dark green 
and shining above, Ught green and paler underneath; 
petioles 2-3 in. long: fr. 134-lJi in. diam., marked with 
small scattered warts. New S. Wales. — According to 
Franceschi it grows faster than F. rvbiginosaf its near- 
est relative. Rare in cult., but advertised in 1914. 

79 




1504. FlCttS 
Benjamina 



28. altfssima, Blume. A tall tree with only a few 
aerial roots, when mature wholly glabrous: lvs. petio- 
late, thick and leathery, broadly ovate, sometimes 
inequilateral, but not cordate, shining, 3-5-nerv^ and 
with 5-6 pairs of lateral primary nerves, 4-7 in. long: 
fr. axillary, sessile, in pairs, yellowish when ripe. India. 
K. 30, 3da.— Said bv an American dealer to resemble 
F. panduratay but this must be an error. Fruiceschi 
says it is taller-growing and finer than F. elastica, 

29. retftsa, Linn. (F. nitida, Thunb., and Hort., not 
Blume). Lvs. 2-4 in. long; nerves 5 or 6 pairs; petiole 
3-6 lines long: fr. sessile, in pairs, axillary, 4 lines thick, 
yellow or reddish. Trop. Asia, Malaya. K. 61, 62. — 
A large evergreen tree with a few atrial roots. 

30. adrea. Nutt. Branches pale, smooth, furrowed: 
lvs. 3-4 in. long, smooth, oblong, entire, narrowed but 
obtuse at each end, stout^tioled: fr. orange-yeUow, 
globose, 4 lines thick. S. Fla. — Reasoner says it is a 
handsome decorative plant for the florist, and that it 
grows 60 ft. high. Chapman describes it as a small 
tree: he savs nothing about stipules. Too tender for 
outdoor cult, in S. Calif. 

31. fndica, Linn. Not the banyan tree. Glabrous 
throughout, except stipules: lvs. 4-7 in. long; nerves 
about 4-6 pairs, not verv prominent; petiole f-12 lines 
long; stipules 6-9 lines lon^: fr. in crowded pairs, ses- 
sile, globose, smooth, yellowish red, 4 lines thick. Trop. 
Asia, Malaya. K. 45. — ^This species is greatly confused 
in botanical literature with F. benghalensiSf but F. 
indica does not take root from its branches, as does the 
banyan tree. In recent writings, F. indica is often given 
as a s^monym of F. benghalensiSf but the distinctions 
here given are those made by King, in Flora Brit. 
India 5:499 (1890). Tree grows 50 ft. high. 

32. bengfaaldnsis, Linn. Banyan Tree. Also written 
bengalensis. Young parts softly pubescent: nerves 

1>rominentj petiole 6-18 lines long; stipules 9-12 lines 
ong: fr. m pairs, sessile, globose, puberulous, red, 
about the size of a small cherry. Trop. Afr., India. — 
A tree, 70-100 ft. high, rooting from the branches, thus 
forming accessory trunks and extending the growth of 
the tree indefinitely. For an explanation of tlie confu- 
sion between F. benghcdensis and F. indica, see Hooker's 
Flora Brit. India 5:499, 500. K. 13.— There are vigor- 
ous specimens growing outdoors at Miami, Fla. 

F, A/z&ii, Don, is a plant from S. Afr., never described by Don. 
The plant in the trade is said to be F. eriobotroides. Once adver- 
tiaed for indoor ornament. — F. camdsa, Hort. Advertised 1895 for 
indoors. — F. Chaxivihrii, Hort. In Eu. this is said to be second only 
to F. elastica. Franceschi says it has broader and more oval lvs., 
large red figs, not edible, and comes from New Caledonia, where it 
attains 60 ft. J. D. Eisele a&y% that it has oval lvs. with creamy 
white veins, is strong-growing, and should be valuable for sub- 
tropical gardening. The name is unknown in botanical literature. 
A plant cult, at N. Y. Bot. Gard. as this species has oran|(e fr. — F. 
Codperi, Hort., is cult, indoors from Trop. Amer. Advertised 1895. 
The name is unknown in botanical literature. G. 1:757. — F. 
DryepdntUia, Hort., is a striking shrub with long-stalked lvs. that 
are silvery green above and dark purple beneath. Probably not a 
FicuB. R. B. 32, p. 85. Said to be a native of Afr. — F. eetveldi^na, 
Hort., is a species "with large broadljr oval Ivs. and with the veins 
and nerves colored," something as in Caladium. The name is 
unknown in botanical literature. G.C. III. 28:303. — F. eriobotroi- 
des, Kunth & Bouchd. Habitat tmknown. See F. Afielii. — F.fal- 
edia, Miq., i^ cult, but not advertised. A creeper, with lvs. often 
of 2 forms, leathery, tesselately dotted and colored beneath. It is 
a form of F. ptmctata, with lvs. oblong or subrhomboid, obtuse, 
not tapering Below. India. — F. Lucidnii, Hort^ "has large lvs. 
Intro. 1900. Otherwise unknown. — F. lUcida, Dry. From India, 
but not described in Flora of British India. Advertised 1893 for 
indoors. — F. maculAta, Linn., described by Franceschi (1914) as 
with lvs. "large, oval, light green, not glossy. Cochin-China." 
must be some other plant than the true F. maculata, which is a 
serrate-lvd. fig from Santo Domingo. — F. netnordlis. Wall., is a 
"small tree or bush" with smooth, petioled lvs. which are 3-nerved 
aiKl dark-colored beneath: fr. smooth axillary, about Hin. diam. 
India. K. 206, 207. — ^There are manv forms. — F. pr(ncep9, Kunth 
4c Bouch6. Brasil. Cult, by FranceschL who sasrs it grows 60 ft. 
high and has magnificent foliage, which is bronse and copper-col- 
ored when young. — F. pj/rifdlia may be F. Bezijamina, F. erecta, 
F. Fontanesii, or F. rubra. The name is advertised by Yokohama 
Nurserv Co., who also advertise F. erecta. — F. rugdia is a trade 
name for some fig as jret undeterminable. The true F. rugosa, 
Don, is perhaps a Trop. African species, but was not character- 
ised by Don, and the status of the name is imcertain. — F. iSyco- 




1234 



FICUS 



FIG 



mdnut linn. (S^roomonis antiquorum. OftspOt is a tree with peti- 
<ded, ovate, entire 8-10-ribbed Ivb. which are deoiduooe for some 
months each year: fla. greenish or yellowish in pedunculate ra- 
cemes: fr. small but abundant, eztenaiyehr used for food: it is a 
branching tree 30-40 ft. high, the Ivs. smaller than those of the fig, 
more or less angular or even lobed. Egypt and SynriUk: the sycamore 
ci the Bible: Pharaoh's fig. Intro, in U. S., but not m the trade. — 
F. otfsto, Hort.— >F. popufifolia, an Abyssinian meoies not in cult. 
~F. Windlandii has Ivs. "10-12 in. long by 8-10 in. wide, of a 
dark green color, and light ^reen ribs and veins." Its habitat and fr. 
are unknown. — F. Wriohtii, Benth., a creeping or ftlimhing fie not 
cult, in Amer. outside of fanciers* collections: Ivs. 3-4 inTlong, 
wedge-shiq^, 3-nerved. Probably-"F. foveolata, WalL China. 

N. TAYLOR.t 

EIG (Plate XLII) is Ficus Caricay a native of Asia. 
It is a warm-temperate fruit, although it will stand 10** 
to 20^ of frost under favorable conditions. It was 
early introduced into North America, but until recent 
vears it has been little grown commercially. It has 
been known to fruit in the open in Michi^^ui without 
other protection than a high Doard fence inclosure, but 
usuall^r, if grown north of Philaddphia, the plants are 
lifted in early November, with good balls of earth, 
kept in a dryish cellar over winter, and planted out the 
next spring. From Philadelphia to the Carolinas it 
may be bent to the ground and covered witli earth or 
pine boughs. The fruit is borne on the young wood, 
and often on young trees. This fruit is really a hollow 
pear-shaped receptacle with many minute seeds 
G>otanically fruits) on the inside; it grows like a branch 
from the side of the shoot. Inferior, run-wild forms are 
frequent in the southern states, where they are some- 
times called ''old man and woman" by the n^roes. 
Figs may be grown under glass, being plaited per- 
manently in a border after the manner of hothouse 
grapes. They usually bear better if the branches are 
tramed more or less horizontally. Two or more crops 
may be expected in one year under glass. Eastern nur- 
serymen sell fig trees. As early as 1833 Kenrick C'New 
American Orchardist") described 23 varieties. Popular 
varieties for amateur cultivation in the E^ast are Turkey, 
White Genoa, Black Ischia and Celeste. In order to 
facilitate the ripening of the fruit in cool climates or 
imder glass, it is a custom to dress the surf ace of the 
nearly full-grown figs with sweet oil. As a dessert fruit 
fi^ are usually eaten in the fresh state, in which con- 
dition they are scarcely known to people in cool cli- 
mates. They are also cooked, ana preserved. The 
commerical fig is the dried fruit. 

The fig is propagated very easily from hardwood cut- 
ting, as grapes are. Take cuttings in the fall, remov- 
ing just below a bud. If wood is scarce, sin^e-eye cut- 
tings may be used, being started preferably m a frame. 
From cuttings, bearing plants may be expected in two 
to four years. New varieties are obtained from seeds. 

Various fruit books give directions for the growing of 
figs. Publications in California and of the Umted 
Stifttes Department of Agriculture discuss them. But 
the only mdependent American writing seems to be 
James T. Worthinston's ''Manual of Fig%ulture in the 
Northern and Middle States," Chillicothe, Ohio, 1869. 
Although regularly cop3rrighted, it is a pamphlet of only 
ten pages. It recommends the laying down of the trees 
in late fall and covering them with earth. This practice 
gave better results than covering with other material, 
or canying the trees over winter in cellars, either in tubs 
or transplanted from the open (p. 1552) . l. jj. B. 

Figs in the southeastern and Gulf states. 

In the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf states the fig 
has been cultivated since the days of the earliest se^ 
tlements. The exact time of introduction and indeed 
the exact origin of many of the more important varie- 
ties are unknown. For many years the trees, or more 
properly bushes, found a place as dooryard or garden 
plants, and to this day some of the finest specimens are 
to be found near the shelter of buildings in country, 
town or village. The fruit was used by the owners oi 



the bushes and the 0Urpius found its way into the 
local market. 

Within the last ten to twenty years, attention has 
been given to the fig as a commercial fruit and it has 
found a place as an orchard fruit in many localities. 
Its culture may be said to extend from Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, southward along the Atlantic coast, and around 
the Gulf of Mexico into Texas. In proximity to the 
w&ter it is grown without protection, but inland, par- 
ticularly in the northern limits of its range, the bu^es 
are protected during the winter months, by bending 
them down and covering with boards, straw, heavy 
paper, in fact anything that will cover Uiem. With 
some care in protecting the plants by laying them down 
and covering in winter, the fig is grown beyond the 
region in which it has a place as an orchard fruit. Most 
of the orchard plantings have been made in close 
proximity to the ocean or gulf. 

The propagation of the fig in this region is almost 
entirely by cuttings made from well-ripened wood and 
planted during winter or in early spring. The hardened 
wood from old bearing trees gives the most satisfac- 
tonr results. The cuttings shomd be 4 to 5 inches long, 
and cut through the nodes. In planting, the cuttings 
are set with tne upper ends level with the surface of 
the earth. 

Soils best adapted to the growing of the fig are clay 
soils, or heavy soils, which are or may be kept uniformly 
moist. No greater mistake can be made than to 
attempt the culture of the fip in hght sandy soils^ore 
or less deficient in moisture m the lower South. Under 
these conditions, the nematode (root-knot) works 
serious damage to the roots of the trees and the plant- 
ing soon dies out. But on heavy soils, the nematodes 
are not able to work such havoc and the fig thrives in 
spite of their limited attacks. On light soils, the fig 
may be grown in the well-packed earth of yards or 
planted a^nst buildings where the roots may find 
their way mto the soil beneath the buildinss, where the 
nematocfe has been starved out for lack offood plants. 
The shaded condition of the soil is also beneficial. It is 
doubtful whether a successful planting can be made on 
any large scale on light soils in the lower South for 
the reasons just indicated 

VarieHes. 

The varieties which may be grown successfully in 
the area indicated belong to the Kroup which will carry 
good crops of fruit without pomnation. On account 
of climatic conditions, it is doubtful whether figs of 
the class requiring caprification can ever be success- 
fully grown. 

The more important varieties are the following: 

Blade Ischia.Size medium to large; color of skin 
bluish black, almost entirely covered with delicate 
bluish bloom; flesh creamy white; quality good. 
Strong grower, not a heavy bearer but quite hardy. 
Season late. 

Brunswick. — Fruit very large, broadly pear-shaped 
with short, rather slender stalk; ribs well marked, eye 
large, open with rosy scales; skin tough, dark brown 
in color; pulp thick, pink, soft, quality fair. Midseason 
and late. 

Celeste, — Small to medium, pear-shaped, ribbed; 
violet -colored, sometimes shadmg purplish brown, 
covered with bloom about half way up from the neck; 
stem short, stout; flesh whitish, shading to rose-color 
at center^ firm, juicy, sweet, excellent quality. One of 
the hardiest varieties of figs, and can be grown far 
outside of the usual limits of culture; very desirable 
for canning and preserving. Season early. 

White Ischia. — Fruit of medium size, turbinate; 
skin greenish yellow; pulp rosy, red, softj melting; 
quality rich, sweet; a variety of high quahty. Very 
productive. Season late. 

Lemon. — Fruit medium to large, flattened, faintly 



FIG 

ribbed, li^t yeUowieh Kreen| stem abort, stout; fleah 
vhite, sweet, r&ther Boft; qtulity fair to good. Vigorovw 
and Eootific. Eaily. 

Mamolia. — Fruit of Urge eUe; amber>«oIored; fleeb 
piakiah amber, handeome. Vigorous grower; prolific; 
exceUent for canning. Midsetison and &t«. 



P*IG 



1235 



broadly peor-ebaped, witn short, thick stalk; i 



Of the varietiea juat deacribed, the more important 
commercial sorts are Celeste, Turkey, Brunswick 
and Magnolia. 

Magnolia is the favorite variety along the coast in 
Texas from Beaumont soutbn'aH. In tiie eastern 
Atlantic states it is not so favorably regarded, as tbe 
iniit splits and soun on the trees durmg the rainy 
weather which so often comes when the crop is matur- 
ing. It is entirely distinct from the Turkey fig. Turkey 
(w Brown Turkey is ven' hardy, of dwarf growth and 
therefore a favorite in the colder sections in which the 
trees must be protected during winter. Celeste equals 
Turkey in hardine™, but it is a more robust grower. 
It is iJie most commonly planted variety from Beau- 
mont, Texas, eastward, and in the southeastern states 
should generally be given preference for orchard plant- 
ing. Brunswick, on account of its large handsome 
Spearancc is a desirable variety for the production 
fresh fruit for market. 

General cuiHaUion. 

In setting the fig in orchard, the trees are oon> 
monly placed 10 by 15 feet or 12 by 20 feet in thor- 
oughly plowed sad pulverized sod. January and 
February in the lower South are favorite months for 
planting, but in the colder sections it is usuEilly better 



be strongly emphasised, as the character of fig roots is 
such that they will not stand drying. 

It is not beet to attempt to tram the figs to tree form, 
but to aJlow them to develop with three or four trunks. 
To start them in bush form it is necessary to cut the 
plants back hard at time of planting. In case of severe 
weather during winter there is much less danger of 
k)sin^ whole trees if grown with several stems or trunks 
than if jgrowQ with single trunks. Subsequent pruning 
should be done to remove any sprouts or suckeis that 
come up from the ground, to remove dead or injured 
branches, and to shape the form of the trees during the 
first few seasons. Branches that have to be removed 
for any cause should be cut back entirely rather than 
to stuns. Tbe fig will not stand severe pruning year 
after year, such as has sometimes been attempt^, and 
it is lieat to prune as little as possible to keep the trees 
in good shape. 

As the fig is a shallow-rooted ti«e, deep tillsge is 
impossible. The orchard should not be plowed and 
implements for shallow cultivation only should be 
naed. There is no better tillage tool than an ordina^ 
hoe, but its use is too expensive on larmj plantings. It 
may, however, be used in the garden plot. Cultivation 
should begin m spring just in advance of the starting 
of growth and should continue at weekly or ten-day 
intervals until about July 1. Cover-cropB of cowpeas 
or beggar weed should then cover tbe ground until 
autumn. In the handling of plantings of the later- 
ripening sorts, cultivation should be continued later 
in tbe season, and a winter cover-crop used instead of a 
summer one. Stable manure and commercial fertilizer 
should be used liberally to supply the necessary plant- 
food. 

A considerable amount of fruit can be and ia handled 



in the markets as fresh -fruit. It should be carefully 
cut from the trees early in the morning, selecting only 
well-colored but firm fruit, packed in strawberry carriers 
and shipped by express. When the work is properly 
handlea m this way, its marketing presents no serious 
difficulties within a radius of 100 miles or so in tbe 
lower South and even greater distances in the northern 
area of its possible culture. By far the greater quantity 
of fruit ia used by tbe canneries in the manufacture of 
preserved figs. A very delicious product is manufac- 
tured in the lower South, and meets with a ready sale. 
E. Harold Huub. 

Tbe fig fai CallfomU. 

The fig, as grown in CaUfomia at tbe present time, 
illustrates, perhaps more than any other fruit, the 
difficulties that arise in the course of the introduction of 
any new and highly specialized industry. Years of 
time and the united labors 
of many persons have at 
lost resulted in the perma- 
nent establishment of fip- 
culture on a large scale m 
some parts of California. 
The successive stops by 
which this has been accom- 
plished form one of the 
most remarkable chapters j 
in our horticultural history. | 

The edible cultivated ng 
is a native of southwestern 
Asia and undoubtedly ranks ' 
as one of the most ancient, 
beautiful and valuable of 
all fruit trees, formii^ a 
large part of the daily food 
of the people in those coun- 
tries in which it thrives. 

The common name fig comes isos. Whit* Adiiatk tg- 
from Fieua, and that from 

the Hebrew "feg." The importation of fi^, dried, 
canned or preserved, into regions unsuited to their 
p«wth, forms an immense and increasing group of 
industries. The literature of the fig, always very large, 
is receiving continual additions, as new varieties are 
introduced, as new values are found for the varied 
products and as its culture is being extended far 
beyond what were thought, twenty years ago, to be its 
inflexible climatic hmitations. 

The botanical varieties of tbe edible fig (Ficut 
Cariea) as generally recognised include the foUowing: 
(1) Ficut Cariea var. tylvestris, the all-important wild 
fig of Asia Minor; (2) Fictu Cariea var. smj/miaea; 
(3) Fieui Cariea var. hortentis; (4) Ficu* Cariea var, 
intermedia. 

The first of these, commonly known as the Capri 
fig, is not edible, but it was discovered ages ago that 
the famous little fig-wasp, formerly called Blaslophana 
psenes but now determined as BUutophaga groasorum, 
breeds within it and is able to cross-pollinate the 
flowers of the invaluable Smyrna fig which otherwise 
will not perfect fruit. This process is termed "caprifica- 
tion" and is absolutely necessary for the maintenance 
of the highest grades of commercial orchards. The 
thittl of these groups includes all the self-fertilizing 
table and preserving varieties of the common fig. The 
fourth variety (intermedia) has the ability to mature 
one crop witnout cross-poiUnation. but not a second. 
The beat figs for drying are all of the second class 
(var. gmjfmiaca) and three crops are the usual thing In 
average seasons. In fact, nearly all the cultivated figs 
bear three more or less distinct crops; in many orchards 
and gardens of California one may gather ripe figs 
every day from Ute July until frost and rains destray 
the very perishable fruits. 



1236 



FIG 



Figs have been cultivated on the Pacific coaat far 
more tbsJi two centurieg, as it is thouKht that they were 
in the Misaian gardens at Loreto, Lower CBlifomia, 
before 1710. Father Zephjfrin'H monumental "Hietory 
o! the FranciBCsn MiHsiona in Calfornia," three volumes 
of which have now been issued (1913), contains many 
facts about the first Miaaion gardens from San Diego to 
Dolores and Sonoma. The fig was in them all, and was 
apoken of by the early visitors to California, such as 
Malaspina, Menzics, Mocino and Vancouver. Santa 
Clara Mission had rows of very large fig trees before 
1792. 

At the present time (1913), the fig has become 
established over almost the entire horticultural area of 
California, wherever the temperature does not fall 
below 18° F. It does not thrive where there is much f^ 
or where the summers are cold and windy, but even in 
such places if somewhat protected by walls or build- 
ings, It matures fruit, ^lien planted close lo its cli- 
matic limits, a young tree needs special protection the 
first few years until tbe wood is mature and the growth 
leas rapid. Tbe fig is most at home in southern Cali- 
fornia, over the Coast Range Valleys, the San Joaquin 
and Riirmmpnln VaIIpvd 



IS06. Vount fl( ti 



id fii-dirinc Ln oi 



feet in central California — to 3,000 feet and upward 
farther south. Magnificent single trees and stately 
avenues abound in various places. Many trees now 
standing have trunks 3 feet in diameter. One in 
Stanislaus County is SO feet in height: another in Butte 
County has rooted from drooping iDranches until it 
seems a whole grove. This is the notable General Bid- 
well tree at Chico (Mission Black variety) which covers 
a circle o( 200 feet in diameter and has long been the 
pride of the rqnon. Superb fig trees are found in all 
the old foothill and valley towns of California. A 
magnificent grove is on the old Thurber farm near 
Vacaville. Lai^ commercial fig orchards have been 
plsjit«d, especi^y in Nesuo, Los Angeles, Butt«, 
Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Tulare, Merced, 
Sonoma, Placer, San Joaquin and Shasta Counties. 
The Maslin orchard near Loomis and the Roeding 
orchard cast of Fresno are two of the most famous and 
Bucces.>iful ones in California. Fresno County now has 
220,000 bearing fig trees, and Los Angeles nearly 
100,000. 
Varifties. 

There are many horticultural varieties known to 
the markets and catalogues under innumerable syn- 
onyms. Their classification is by shape, color of skin 
and color of flesh. The shape is round or turbinate in 
some sorts, pyriform or obovatc in others. The skin 
varies in color in different varieties from green throuffh 
pale yellow, buff, light brown, reddish brown and purple, 
to black. The flesh is almost whit^'. opaline, or vanous 
shades of red; it can be described as meltinir spicy, 
juic^, coarse or even dry in a tew old sorts. The size 
vanes from those hardly as lai^ as a green gage plum 
to others that sometimes weigh four or five ounces 
apiece. Eisen, in his useful and thorough monograph 



Pig 

on the fig published by the Department of Agriculture 
(Division of Pomology, Bulletin No. 9, 1901) lists and 
describes nearly 400 varieties from different parts of 
the world. Eleven of these are Smyrnas, and twenty 
are varieties of the C^iri or wild fig, differing in seaacin 
so as to afford a succession and thus increase their 
value in caprification, Baja CaUfomia, and Sonora, 
fine regions for the fig, have produced some varieties 
of promise, and others have been reported from South 
Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania, nortliem 
India, Algiers and many other places. 

When the earlier California nurserymen b^;an to 
grow figs, they first secured the Black Miaeion variety 
which Uie padres had brought from Mexico, and the 
little Whit« Marseilles, which was at Santa Clara and 
Santa Barbara before the discovery of gold. They also 
obtained from Ellwanger and Barry, oi Rochester, and 
from Berckmans, of Georgia^ between 1860 and 1870, 
all the varieties then grown m America, principally for 
pot and greenhouse culture, not more than twenty-five 
sorta in all, chief among which were the Brawn Tur- 
key, Celeste, the Green and Black Ischias and the 
large Brunswick. Georgia and the Gulf coast were cul- 
tivating in gardens these sorts for home use, especially 
Celeste, which is fine for canning and preserving. 
There was therefore, much early correspondence be- 
tween California nurserymen like William B. West, 
John Rock, Felix Gillet, James Shinn and others, ana 
the fig-growers in the South, whose main drawback 
was in the frequent summer rains. Almost inunedi- 
j ately, however, the Califomians began to import trees 
i from France, Italy, Spain, and later began to study 
■ Uie Smyrna flg industries. The catalogues of Califor- 

(nia nurserymen, by 1880, contaiDed about 150 named 
varieties — -with plenty of duplications, as was natural. 
The University of California experiment stations, by 
1890, had about seventy-five varieties under trial and 
distributed them with great energy. The late John 
Rock, one of the most ardent horticulturists of his 
time m America, made many trips abroad and seldom 
failed to send back new kinds of figs. The inevitable 
and essential siftin(f down continued for over thirty 
years from 1880 until the nurseries of today hst not to 
exceed thirty varieties. The principal sorts now in 
general cultivation, besides the very important Smyrna 
" " ' Capri varieties sent out chiefly by George Bioed- 
f Fresno, s 






« the following: 



; BLack lArdatu. 
ic Be- MadeliM. 



tag^^d 



Rovu VinByurd, 
Sao Pedni (irhit 

lypel. 



* lCel«iino). 



A large amoimt of new experimenting has been done 
in CaUfomia with fig varieties by the Bureau of Plant 
Industry which took up the work so well begun by 
Hilgard and others at the CaUfomia Station. Lack of 
means and a general change of the University policy 
toward the suD-stations (where the fig orchards were 
located) led to the abandonment of those useful trials 
about 1902. Fortunately, the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture hod become deeply interested in 
the Smyrna fi^ problem, and soon estabUshed plant 
gardens in CaUfomia. Beagles, who has charge of the 
one near Chico, furnishes the foUowing list of the varie- 
ties being tested there in 1912, in addition to a great 
many seedlings and crosses under numbers and not 
yet in bearing. The list, as fumishe*! by Beagles, is 
arranged in the order of securing the varieties, not 
alphabetically, and the first forty-four sorts are from 
the well-authenticated collection at Chiawick, England: 



FIG 



1237 



Neiro [uv>- 



n the thirty-sixth and thirty-eighth 

reportaj an esaay b^ G. P. Rixford, read belon " 




bifcn. 

Oourmnd Boucb. 

Lu^ BUek Ddutd. 
De CoEutantuie. 



BUADoura. 

MutiniquB. 

Cnve. 

WUlabchU. 



White Adrutio. 
PsciBc Wliil«. 



Fi^re* BLuioh. 



Cnpri Botma No^ 3- 



The California Expeiimeot Station, under Hilgard, 
found that several varieties which are no longer in 
ordinary cultivation were important. Chief among 
liiese was a French fie of compact srowth, Uirta du 
Japon, a medium-sizea, turbinate, darli purple fig of 
high quality. It is excellent for house culture and for 
■mall gardens. 

Smj/nafigs. 

The story of the introduction of the Sg-wasp, the 
indispensable Blastophaga, to California og oruiards 
is one of the amusing, patoctic and fascinating romances 
of outdoor life. Smyrna figs were planted earlv, and 
they did not bear; the trouble was indistinctly charged 
to "the cUmate/' growers laughed at the absurd "book 
notion" that the Asia Minor Greeks depended on 
"some sort of an insect" to secure abundant crops of 
fruit. The late John Bleasdale, who had been in Por- 
tugal, told many persons about fig-caprification earlv 
in the lS7D's. Some of the nurserymen took it up with 
energy and managed to secure cuttinsH of Smyrna figs 
and of Capri fi(p, but no insecto. The San Francisco 
"Bulletin,'* between 1880 and 1882, secured and dis- 
tributed over CsJifornia about 14,000 cuttings. The 
fig-growers in Asia Minor became anxious to prevent 
importation of the insects to California or of the Capri 
fi^ cuttings, and the difficulties grew worse. Eisen and 
lUiford croHB^cTtiliied figs by hand as soon as the 
wild fig trees blossomed. This was done on the James 
Shinn farm at Nilee and at the California Nursery 
(managed by John Rock) in the same neighborhood. 
Then the Roedings of Fresno became interested, 
through Eisen, and planted a Smyrna fig orcheJ^, but 
had no Blaslophaga. Meanwhile the Department of 
ife was detailed 
itophaga for the 
sd also obtained 
icatioD was not 
work was done 
id George Roed- 
,tely at different 
ne, the fig-wasp 
near Modesto, 
iki fig tree there 
Stockton, in the 



le Blaatopha^as. 
t is fascmating. 
the Department 
papers: "Some 
and in the Life 
igle, before the 
ntion of Cali- 
MasUn seedling 
ifth 



also papers of his ii 

reports^ an esaay by \.t. x~. xuxiuru, r»ui ueiunj Lne 

Forty-first Convention of California Fruit-Growers, 
in Santa Barbara, in 1912. His botanical and entomo- 
logical paper, read in 1011 before the Pacific Associa- 
tion of Scientific Societies, on the "Fructification of 
the Fig by Blastophaga" traces the whole subject 
down from the days of Linnaus. A practical paper on 
the subject is to be found in George C. Roeding's 
"California Horticulture," a pamphlet issued in 1909. 
Caprifiealian. 

The work of study and experimentation has gone 
forward steadily since the first importation of the 
Blastophaga: it is likely that more has been done in 
this line in California in the past twenty years than in 
all the rest of the world put together. The practical 
methods of keeping the fig insect prosperously estab- 
lished so that every fruit can be fertilized are now well 
founded, and as the profits of the industry are gen- 
erally recc^niied, large plantings can be expected. 
There are some obscure problems still undetermined 
relating to the different crops of figs and the fructi- 
fication of some of the non-Smyrna types. But in 
California the industry as a whole finds possibly the 
most favorable soil and climate known to exist any- 
where. It seems probable, therefore, that fig-growing 
will soon rank in importance with the growing m 
citrous fruits. The cultivated varieties of Smyrnas are 
doubtless capable of much improvement as regards 

Only thirty Capri figs are needed to caprify a large 
fig tree, so abundant are the insects and the pollen in 
good seasons, and one tree of the wild fig is sufficient 
for one hundred Smyrna trees. The mfUe of the fig- 
wasp is without wings, but the female has wings and 
saw-like mandiblr^; she cuts her way through scales 
which interlock over the apex of the half-^wn Smyrna 
fig. She loses her wings in entering, dies in the fig and 
is absorbed by the vegetable cells. If she lays her 
e^ they also perish and the continuance of tlie spe- 
cies depends upon those individuals that remain upon 
the wild fig trees. 
Propagation. 

The fig grows readily from cuttings. Use well- 
ripened wood of the previous season's growth, cut at 
Che joint, and give them the same treatment required 
for grape cuttings. They will even grow from smgle- 
eyc cuttings. Bottom heat is not necessary in Cali- 
fornia where the cuttings arc set in nursery m Decem- 
ber or January and are ready for the orchard in a year. 
In the eastern states, winter-made cuttings can be 
started with bottom heat, or, in April, in the open air. 

Budding is beat done by the annular or ring method, 
so useful for the chestnut and walnut. The ng can be 
cleft-grafted in February in California, but extreme 
care must be taken to exclude the air. Seedlings are 
easily grown from the fertile seeds of the imported 
Smyrna figs, and from the few fertile seeds occasionally 

Spearing in ' common varieties. Maslin, of Placer 
lunty, began to raise seedlings from imported dried 
figs in 18S5 and these are now besj-uig. 
ForciTi^. 

The fig requires more heat under glass than does the 
grape. The temperatures preferred are, at first, 50° F. 
at night and, 85" for the day; later increase to 60° or 
65° at night and 7^" or more in the day. Figs must have 
much air and moisture till the crop is set. The best 
varieties for forcing are Early Violet, the White and 
Brown Ischias, White Marseilles, Hirta du Japon and 
Negro Largo. A soil of turfy loam with plenty of top- 
dressing is suitable for pots and tubs. Brown Turkey, 
Marseilles and Brunswick are the standard % 
for walls. 



1238 



FIG 



FItJPENDULA 



CvUwrdL methods in Calif omia. 

The fig tree in California requires much space, hence 
it is used as an avenue tree or if in orchard form other 
trees are set between, to be afterwajxl removed. In 
good soiL fig trees, like walnuts, should finally stand 
not less than 40 feet apart, and 50 feet is considered to 
be better. 

Little pruning is required for the fi^. Trees grown 
for table figs are headed low, about 18 mches from the 
ground, to facilitate picking. Trees grown for drying 
figs are headed higher so tluit they can better be kept 
smooth and clean, as the figs are usually allowed to 
ripen and fall. Cultivation is necessary until the trees 
completely shade the ground. 

Figs be^ to bear early in California, often the 
second or third year. Some trees prove barren or very 
poor bearers and must be replaced by others. The tree 
appears to be as lon^-lived as the olive, has very few 
insect enemies, and is not subject to disease. It is a 
good ornamental tree. 

The fruit in some districts, in some seasons, ferments 
on the trees ("fi^-sour''). This sometimes seems to 
come from over-irrigation, sometimes from lack of 
vitality, and most often occurs in very tender and 
juicy varieties. 

The very dang^us fig moth (Ephestra cauleUa) is 
now widely distributed in America, although not yet 
in California. During the last few years, many cargoes 
of imported figs have been seized in New York and 
destroyed on account of this insect, which fills the fruit 
with eggs and ultimately with its larvse (Bulletin No. 
104, 1911, Bureau of Entomology). Asiatic dried figs 
are not only subject to this pest out contain less sugar 
(1)^ per cent less) and less proteids (IJ^ per cent) than 
do the California dried figs. 

Fig^rying, — ^The ^ crop is handled with much care 
and cleanliness in California, and labor-saving methods 
are used in all cases. The figs must remain on the trees 
till fully ripe; then they shrivel and drop ofif, are picked 
up, dipped in boilinx brine (three ounces salt to one 
gallon water), placed on trays exposed to the sun and 
turned once. The later drying is done in the shade. 
The figs are next placed m Uie ''sweat boxes" and 
''mixecP' so as to equalize the moisture. They are then 
washed clean in a weak brine, drained off and taken 
to the packing-room. Exceeding care, cleanliness and 
much experience are required to produce high-grade 
results. 

Fig avenues. — ^There is a growing interest felt in the 
fig as an avenue tree in Caluomia, since it is deciduous 
and so does not shade the road in winter, and since it 
thrives without culture or pruning where the moisture 
is sufficient and the soil deep. 

Cvdiure in other places. 

While California probably offers the best climate on 
the continent for commercial fig-growinKi the industry 
has a future over much of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, 
the extreme South, Hawaii. Australia, large portions of 
South Africa, Mexico ana the west coast of South 
America. 

Fig-culture in the northern and middle parts of the 
United States is essentially different, of course, from 
the outdoor and orchard methods. The tree can be 
^rown as a bush and protected each winter by cover- 
mg the branches with several inches of soil. In the 
southern middle states, fig bushes are grown by cover- 
ing in winter with matting and straw. One crop, or at 
most two, is all that can be expected. See the discus- 
sions on pages 1234 and 1235. 

The crop. 

Statistics are not well kept at present in the fig 
industry^ but the annual Califomia crop exceeds 4,000 
tons (dried figs) while the local consumption of fresh 
figs is large and increasing. The fig pastes, conserves, 



and the like, and the Use of figs in wafers and other 
forms is also general. As Smyrna exports about 30,000 
tons in good years, there is evidently room for the 
Califomia industry. The dried Smymas of Califor- 
nia are equal to the best of Asia Minor and contain 
64 per cent of sugar (Roeding's Calim3ma variety, 
the Erbeyli variety of its native country). Besides tlus 
variety, persons at Fresno are planting on a large scale 
the Kassaba, the Checker Injir of Scios, the Bardajio 
and what is called in Califomia the purple Bulletin 
Smyrna. 

Related species of Ficus, 

The famous and useful "Sycamore fig" of the Orient 
(Ficus Sycomorus) produces fruit in racemes on the 
older branches. It is too tender for outdoor culture in 
America. (See page 1234.) The beautiful peepul tree 
of India is the sacred fig (Ficus religiosa) or the Brah- 
mans and Buddhists, and it is now found in many 
private collections in southern Califomia. Ficus elas- 
ticaf the India rubber tree, is often seen in the warmer 

Earts of Califomia. In 1914 a tree of F. elastica fruited 
eavUy at Niles and the children seemed to like the 
figs. The true banyan fig has not yet been successfully 
grown in the state, but ought to be tested. In the 
American tropics many interesting kinds of Ficus may 
be expected. Charles H. Shinn. 

PIG. Adam's Fk: Mum pttradinaca. Bubuj Fig: Opuntia 
vulgarU. Devil's fts: Argemone mexicana. Hottentofs Fig: 
Me^embryanthetnum eauU. udisn Fig: Opuntia vulfforit. Keg Fig: 
Dio9pyro§ Kaki. Phinoh's Fig: Sycomorut antiqucrum. 

FIO-MARIOOLD: Metemtrryanthewwrn. 
FtLAOO: Oifola, 

FILBERT. One of the group of nuts produced by 
species of Corylus. The nuts of Corylus are variously 
flpx>uped or classified j those are usually known as 
nlberts that are provided with a tubular husk much 
longer than the nut itself; as cobs, if the husk is little 
or not at all longer than the nut; and as hazels if the 
husk is much shorter than the nut. The filbert nuts 
are usually oblong in shape: the cobs roundish and 
angular; and the hazels ratner small, roundish and 
thick-shelled. These are derived from different species 
and hybrids of Corylus (which see) of the Old World; 
and these vernacular names do not seem to be very 
definitely or accurately used. The name filbert is of 
disputed origin; the idea that it comes from ^'fuU- 
beard,'' in allusion to the long husk, is undoubtedly 
erroneous. 

Filberts are grown in many parts of Europe, and they 
are exported to America in large quantities. Many 
attempts have been made to grow them in this coun- 
try but without success owing, apparently, to lack 
of hardiness, to fungqus disease, ana to the want of 
varieties bred for American conditions. Probably 
some of the failure is due to lack of discrimination 
in soils and to unskilled methods of growing. See 
Hazel-nut. l. jj. B. 

FILIP£NDULA (Latin filum, thread, vendulus, 
hanging; alluding to the numerous smaU tubers 
hanging together by thread-like roots). Syn., Ulmd- 
ria, Rosdcex. Meadow -swbet. Hardy herbs grown 
for their showy panicles of white, pink or purple 
flowers. 

Perennials with fibrous or tuberous rootstock: Ivs. 
stipulate, interruptedly odd-pinnate, the terminal 1ft. 
often much larger and palmately lobed: fls. in cymose 
corymbs; calyx-lobes and petals usually 5; stamens 
20-40, with the filaments narrowed toward the base; 
carpels distinct, 5-15, 1-seeded, indehiscent. — Nine 
^)ecies in N. Asia and Himalayas, N. Amer. and Eu. 
Filipendula has usually been united with Spinea, but 



FILIPENDULA 

is very distinct in its herbaceous habit, pinnate stipU' 
late IvB. &nd indehiaoent 1-aeeded acheoea. 

The meadow-sweets are hardy plants with rather 
large pinnate or palmately lobed leaves and white, 
pink or purple flowers in showy terminal oorymba, 
borne on erect leafy stems risioA 1 to 10 feet from a, 
Toeette of radical leaves. They bloom in early Bummer 
or midsummer and are very handsome bonier plants. 
Moet of them delight in a rather moist and rich aoil 
and are especially decorative if planted on the borders 
of ponds and brooklela, but F. kexapelata prefers drier 
situations and likes fuU sun, while most of the others 
also thrive well in partly shaded positions. F. purpurea 
should be mulched during the winter in the North. 
Propagated by seeds sown in fall in ))ans or boxes and 
kept in the cool greenhouse, or sown in spring; also by 
division of older plants. 
A. I4ta- numerous, almott aUke, smiit, pinnaUlj/ lobed. 

bexkpitala, Gilib. (F. Filipindvia, Voee. UlmAria 
Fiiipindula, Hill. Sjnriaa Filipindula, IJnn.). 
Me ADO w-S WEST, Dkofwobt. Fig. 1507. One to 3 
ft. high, with tuberous rootatock, glabrous: radical 
IvB. 6-20 in. long; Ifts. sessile, oblong, pinnately lobed 
and aeirate, 1 in. long: fls. in a loose 
corymb, white, about J^in. t^ 
witn usually 6 petals: achenes i 
12, pubescent, semi-cordate. June, 
Eu., W. Asia and Siberia. Var, 
plfaio has double fls., and is comr 

AA. IJli. few, the lermtnoJ one m 

larger •and paimatdy S-9-ldbed 

B. Laltna IfU. S-6-kbtd. 

rftbra, Rob. {Spia-ia lobiUi, Gr 
Smrka voimiUa, Linn. r. I 
Maxim. Ulmdria Hibra. Hill). Q 
or THE Prairie. Height 2-8 ft. 
brous; terminal 1ft. large, 7-9- 
parted, with oblong, acuminate 
mcisely serrate lobes; lateral Ifta. 
smaller, 3-5-lobed, on the upper 
Iva, missing, green on both aides, 
only pub^cent on the veins 
beneath: fls. pink, in a rather 
large paniculate cyme: achenes 
6-ia glabrous. June, July. Pa. . 
to Ga,, west to Mich, and Ky. ' 
Mn. 2:145. B.B. (ed. 2) 2:249. 
—Beautiful. Var. ventiata,VoBB. 
Fls. deep pink or carmine. Var. 
Ubicans, Hort. Fls. light pink, 
or almost white. R.B. 3:169. 



FITTONIA 1239 

nate, doubly serrate lobes; lateral Ifte. none or few, 
oblong-ovate; stipules narrow: fls. carmine or deep 
pink, in large pamculate cymes with crimson peduncles 
and sta. June-Aug. Japan. B.M. 5726. I.H. 15:577. 
F.S. 18:1851. J.H. 111. 51:201. F.W. 1869:33. Gn. 
W. 23: Buppl. June 16. Gn. 17:36.— This is undoubt- 
edly the finest species of this genus. It is also some- 
times grown in pots and forced. Var. Uba. Hort., 
has white fla. ana var. eiegan^ Voas, white &., with 
red stamens and usually several lateral Ifts. ' the latter 
is said to be a hybrid. R.B. 4:7. G.Z. 22:25. 

CC. Achenea ab<nU 10: lateral fftt. pre»ent, ovale. 
Ulmiria, Maxim. (Spiria Uhniria, Linn. Vlmiria 
pentapilaia, Gilib. U. pofiisfm, Moencb). Quken of 
TbeMeaiwwb. Height 2-6 ft. :1vs. glabrous or puberu- 
loua above, whitish tomentose beneath; terminal Ifts. 
3-5-lobed, 2-4 in. long Literal Ifts. smaller, ovate, 
coarsely doubly serrate: fls. white, in rather dense pani- 
culate cymee: achenes about 10, aemi-cordate, ahnost 
glabrous, twisted. June-Aug. Eu., W. Aaia,to Mon- 
golia; naturalized in some pmces in the eastern states. 
B.B. (ed. 2) 2:249. Var. denndAta, Maxim. (F. 
denvddia, Rydb.). Lvs. green beneath and nearly 
glabrous. Var. a&eo-variegftta, Voes, has the 

ed with yellow. Var. plina, Voaa 

Bw, Hort.). Fls. double. 

Ju, MKXim. fSpinea uiguBtifi^is, Turci. 

tilolU. Hdul.). SimilM lo F. lobAU: fls. 

mbroui or whttUb lom^nton tHnwlh. 

lAhuria. — F. rgatita, Maxim. fUImuu 



ctly, species of the genus Abies, 
ly it mcludes many trees known 
to nursemnen aiod others aa 
Picea, ancf bj; some it is applied 
to PinUB, Larix, and others. 
mB-CRACKBR, FLORAL: fire 



FntE-PinC: SUtm nrgmiea. 



1507. nUpoidnlt henp*!^ (plut (bent 2 [oat ^^i 



polmita, Maxim. (Sjririea » 
paimAUt, Pail. UlmAria prUmAta, 
Focke. Spirka digilUa, Willd.). Height 2-3 ft.: lvs. 
whitish tomentose beneath or glabrous; t^minal Ifts. 
7-9-parted; stipules lai^e, semi-cordate: fls. pale pink 
at first, changing to white: achenes 5-S. July. Siberia, 
Kamdiatka and Saghalin.— This species is but rarely 
cult. ; the plant common unda the itame Spirxa palmata 
belongs to F. purpurea. 

BB. Lateral ffta. none or few <»id ovate. 

o. Aehenee usually 5, ciliale: laleral (fit. none or few. 

camtschdtica, Maxim. {Sviria camlichdtica. Pall. 
Spiriea gi{/antia, Hort. Ulmaria camUduUUa, Rehd.). 
Height 5-10 ft.: Iva. glabrous or villous beneith, often 
with rufous veins; terminal 1ft. very large, cordate, 
3-5-lobed, with broadly ovate, doubly serrate lobes; 
lateral Ifts. usually none; stipules large, semi-cordate: 
fls. white. July. Manchuria, Kamchatka. 

purptlrea, Maxim. (Spiriapalmdla.ThuDh. Ulmdria 
jna-pitrea, Rehd.). Height 2-4 ft., glabrous: terminal 
1ft. very large, cordate, 6-7-lobed, with oblong, acumi- 



PTTTdNIA {EUiabeth and Sarah Mary Fitton, 
authors of "Conversations on Botany," and frienda of 
Robert Brown). Aeanthdeex. Low-growing herbaceous 
perennials, valued for the brilliant variegation made by 
red or white venation of their large heart-shaped leaves. 

Leaves prominent or rather large, cordate, beauti- 
fully veined; fls. borne singly in the axila of the over- 
lapping bracts, which form a pod uncled, terminal 
spite; caiyx-st^ms. linear-bristly; corolla-tube slen- 
der; up long, narrow, shortly lobed at the apex; sta- 
mens 2, ^lixed near the throat; atyle filiform, truncate 
at apex: fr. an ovat«-acute 4-seedeid caps., some of the 
seeds likely to be aborted. — Species 3, in Peru. Fit- 
tonias may be grown with philodendron, Ciesug dis- 
color, Epiida eupreata, oepnthytis and selaKinellas. 
There is often a bare, unsightly space under the 
benches that can be transformed into a tangle of 
tropical creepers by the use of such plants. A Doard 
may be placed slanting toward the walks and covered 
with rotten atum^, chunks of peat, and moss for the 
plants to run in. The open borders near the walks have 



1240 



FITTONIA 



hardly^ mifficieat dnunage. They may also be pegged 
down in moflBy coverings for tubs of palma, as they can 
stand much watering. 

Fitlonias are most useful and ornamental plants for 
powing in a deep!}' ehaded place in the tropical green- 
house. The beautiful markings of their fobage always 
attract attention; and being of easv culture, they can 
be used eSecUvely for places in tne foliage house in 
which no other pl&nt would thrive. The beet time to 
root fittooias is early sprinf^ as after a year's growth 
they are likely to have a ratber stragghng appearance, 
and need a general overhauling Remove the points 
of the shoota, with two leaves attached, and one joint 
to insert in the sand. These make the beet cuttmgs, 
but any part of the stem will root and grow provided 
there is a joint on it. After cuttings are rooted, which 
will be in two or three weeks in a temperature of 05°, 
pot them singly in 2-inch pots, in equal parts of loam 
leaf-mold, and sand. — When they are well rooted in 
these small pots, choose the size of pan they are 
intended io grow in, and fill it with the same propor- 
tion of Iq^, leaf-mold and sand, as advised for Uie 
first potting. This time,^awever, tbn loan is better 
to be more of fibrous and in a rather lumOT^tate, and* 
the leaf-mold should not be too well rotted, but rather 
flaky in texture. 
In mling the pan 
with the com- 
post, raise it in 
the center above 
the rim. This 
gives the plant a 
mound appeai^ 
ance, which adds 
to its beauty. 
The small 
plants should be 
planted in the 
large pan about 
2 mchee apart; 
water tfiem 
gently with a 
fine roee, so as 
not to disturb 
the earth in the 
receptacle. As 
stated above, 
these plants re- 



ISOe. Fittoal* utTCDOcon. (XW 



quir 



all 



grown in a shady position, and except in the dead 
of winter should never be in a temperature of less than 
60° by night. In severe zero weather, it will not harm 
them to drop as low as 55°. — -Pyramid-shaped plants 
of some of the fittoniss can be grown. Pot them along 
singly and tie them to a stake. When about four or 
five pairs of leaves are formed, pinch out the heart of 
the plant. This will encourage side breaks to start, 
which should be pinched after they have made three 
pairs of leaves. After the leading shoot has been 

E inched, two breaks will start away, anil after two 
aves have been well formed, one of the shoots should 
again have the heart taken out of it. The other must 
now be taken for the leader and allowed to make three 
or four more joints before it is stopped again by remov- 
ing the heart. In this way the deaired height will be 
attained, and at the same time plenty of side breaks 
will be encouraged to start. The side shoots must be 
carefully watched; pinch back all the strong shoots, so 
that a plant of symmetry may be formed. When these 
plants are well rooted in the pans, or have attained the 
desired size in pyramid form, wgj£i them occasion- 
ally with soft-coal soot, a handful to an ordinary 
watering-pot, which geacrally contains about two and a 
half gallons. Water twice in between with clean water. 
The soot tends to bring out the brilliancy of the mark- 



fMCoubtia 

ings, making the wbo'e phnt have i> , ; " tr- 

ance. Scale, and other insect pests .• . ' les 

found on these planta, but if fumiga' ' , '. i-.- ■ ra- 
cyanic gas, as advised for other pWt-, . m' vrry 

httle trouble. (George F. Stewart.) 

A. HabU erect: h^ht 1^ ", 

giguitia, Lind. (GymnotlMtyum g .!'■ • H u.), 
Sub-ahrubby, bronchiiig, IH "■: ste :■•'. '•■'■■: '.et 
only between the joints, with 4 ranks i ■■:iv., ■ ■ '.e, 
erect hairs: Ivs, oppoeite, eUiptical, no- : <iii ' i , *he 
base, with 2 ranks of haire, tapering r •!.• •. ,:l ihe 

other species, dark, shining green; ve - ■:- d: 

fls. pale, with a reddish brown band in I ' ■■: ■ ■ 'ie 

side and upper lobes, and a dark yellow . .:d- 

dle of the lower Up. R.H. 1869, p. l&i \ ' ' Ml. 

AA. Habit trailing or dwarf: height '.' < '' ■.■ . 

B. Veins of if. red. 

Verschaff£ltii, E, Coem, (Fittdnia and ETdnihemtim 
rubnmirvum and nd>rovendtum, Hort. Er6nliiemum 
ritbro-vinium, Veitdi. GymnoMch]/um Verschaffiltii, 
Lem,). Lvs. ovate.^ notched at the base, dull green, 
often yellowish, vemed carmine. F,8. 15:1581, I,H. 
10:372. Var. P««reei, Hort. (P. andC. Pfaircei, Hort.). 
LvB. light, bright green; veins light, bright carmine; 
under surface somewhat glaucous. Var. Dftveana, 
Hort. (F. DAvearia, Hort.). "FoUage with light cen- 
ter, bordered very dark green." More robust than the 
type and with vems of stronger red. 
BB. Veins of if. while. 

argyronetlra, E. Co^m. Fig. 1508. Dwarf: Ivs. dark, 
shimnggreen. F,S. 16:1664. Gn. 36, p.'527; 2, p, 319, 
G. 11:7. — The velvetiness of the upper surface of F. 
Vergchaffeltii is due to lai^ projecting epidermal cells 
with an apical nucleus. Instead of these characteristic 
cells, F. argyrofieura has small cells and conical haire, 
which are partitioned off and have tubercles at the base. 

WlLUELM MlL,LER. 

prrZKdyA (Capt. R. Fltiroy, of the British Navy; 
died 1855). Ptndcer. Two evergreen trees or shrubs, 
one of the mountains of S. Chile {F, patagdnica, Hook. 
f. B.M.4616), and one of Tasmania (F. Arc/teH, 
Benth,), Lvs. smalL 3-verticillate or decussate-oppo- 
site, imbricated: cattins very small, globose. They are 
httle known in this country, and may be expected to 
thrive only in the milder parts. The former species is a 
tree, has Ivs. mostly verticiUate, ovate^blong, in 2-4 
rows, anthetB commonly 4-celled, 3 ovules, and seeds 
2-winged; the latter is bushy, has opposite decuasalc 
keeled lvs., anthere 2-celled, ovules 2, seeds 3-i^inged. 
The Biltmore Nursery, N. C, lists F. poiagonica, "a 
tree of variable dimensions, native of the Andes, from 
Chile to the Straits of Magellan. Lvs, dark green above, 
with 2 white lines beneath. . . . Its value in cult, in 
the U. S. has not yet been fully proved;" but it is said 
to possess sufficient hardiness to withstand the winters 
in the S, It is reported as being hardy in S. England. 
It is monccciouB, the small cones consisting of about 9 
scales; the lvs, on small trees are reported as varj'ing 
much in the way m which they stand on the st,, but 
they are 4-rowed and decurrent; pollen-sacs moetlj* 4. 

nVX-PtnOBR: PalmliBa. ^ "' 

FLACOflRTIA (Elienne de Flacourt, 1607-1660. 
General Director of the French East India Company, 
Governor of Madagascar and author of a histoid of 
Madagascar). FlacouTliAcese. Oneof thespecies.asbrub 
with ^ible fruits, is cultivated in the tropics and has 
been introduced in southern California and perhape 
elsewhere. 

Shrubs and small trees, often spine-bearing: lvs. 
short-stalked, toothed or crenate, simple, alternate: 
lis, small, ditcGious, in small racemes or glomes or 
panicles (the fertile ones sometimes solitary); sepals 



FLACOURTIA 

4-5, scal^like, ciliated, overlapping; petals none; 
BlAmenB many; stvlea 2 to man}'; ovary 2-5-<!eUed: fr. 
a beny, often edible, usually wiui 1 seed in each cell. 
— Fifteen to 20 Bpeciee in Trap. Afr., Asia, and istandg. 
RamtetchL L'Her. Governor Plum. Batoko 
Fldm in the Zambezi region. Fig. 1509. An excessively 
variable ahrub or ameM tree, as customarily defined, 
native in Ttop. Afr. and Asia, and planted in the 
American tropics: glabrous or nearly so, spiny or 

rielen <Hpine8 axiuary): Ivs. oblong to elliptical a&d 
vate, obtuse or pointed, variously crenate-dentate, 
short-petioled : sterile fia. in short racemes, the fertile 



FLORICULTURE 



FLOSA'6 PAtnr-SRnSH: A o 



FLORICtTLTURB, <w the ^wing of planta for 
ornamental purpoaes, particularly fornowere, is yearly 
assuming lar^ {troportiong in the United States. The 
industry conaists in growing annual, biennial and peren- 
nial plants either under ^ass or outdoors, and m the 



aod ^ulpy, with 8-10 seeds, purple, red, or blackish, 
bearmg on top the remaini) of the stigmas; edible, 
ripening in the farther West Indies early in the year 
but some specimens sometimes remaining till Sept. 
There are variaus forms, as var. inermis ana var. mocro- 
earpa. Hooker & Thomson in "Flora of British India" 
reco^iie 5 marked varieties, and include within the 
species F. sapida of Roxburgh. The species is reported 
OB "common throu|(hout India, wild or cult." and as 
having a distribution from Madagascar to the E. 



bronchlets, elliptic or euborbicular Ivs. which _.. _ ^_. 
brous or puberulous only on the veins beneath) produces 
fr. that is eaten raw or cooked, and twigH and Ivs. 
that are used as fodder. "Ramontchi" is said to be the 
native name in Madagascar. l. H. B. 

rUQ: Iru. Cat-tail Flu; Tvplia. Corn Flac: Gladiatut. 
Sunt PUc: Aan4 Calanuu. Sallow FUc: Irit Piiudaeirrut. 

FUUIBOTAtn': Pmnciana. 

njUU-nsB: Sltrculia aimrifelia. 



rLBABAHB: Briatrm. 

FLEHfnCIA (John Fleming, Free. Medical Board of 
Bengal; author of "A Catalogue of Indian Medicinal 
Plants and Drugs," ISIO). Legtimind$^. Of this 
genus, two shrubs are cultivated in southern California 
and southern Florida. 

Berbe, sub-ebrubs or shrubs of the Old World tropics, 
erect, prostrate or twining: Ivs. mostly with 3 digitate 
Ifts., rarely 1; stipules striate, often caducous: fis. 
papilionaceous, red or purple and mixed with yellow, 
ID crowded racemes or pamclee, or sometimes solitary; 
standard obovate or orbicular, auricled at base; wings 
obUquelv obovate or oblong, often adhering to the 
incurvea or nearly straight keel; stamens 9 and 1: 
pod short, oblique, swollen, 2-valved. — Species above 
20, mostly of Irop. Asia, but occurringalso in Trop. 
Afr. and to the Philippines. Allied to Dalbergia and 
Rhynchosia. 

Etoxba. Shrub. 4-fll.., „ 

s 2-nerved, middle o: 



variable species of India. 



n intro. in S. Fla. It 
with slender velvety 
subacute, rounded at 

racemes zigzag, 3-6 in. 

hide the fls. ; calyx H'm. 

: teeth; corolla purple: 
L. H. B. 



ism. FUcoDitU RuDoatcU. ( X H) 

disposal of the same in wholesate or retail marketa. 
These products are sold as cut-flowers or potted planta 
to be i^ed for indoor or outdoor home ornamentation. 
or for planting ia public parks, about schools and 
other public buildings, or in cemeteries for ornamental 
purposes. [For home flower-gardens, see p. 1747.) 
Jmportanee qf tite indutlry. 

The floricultural statistics taken from the census of 
1910 show a marked increase in the importance of 
this branch of agriculture within the previous decade. 
The acreage, as given for this census, was 18,248 aa 
compared with 9,307 as given for the census of 1900. 
The total valuation, aa given in this census, was 
S34,S72,000, an increase of 85.9 per cent as compared 
with the report of the census for 1900. The figures were 
compiled in nine large geographical divisions of the 
United States. These were New En^and, Middle 
Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, West 
North Central, East South Central, West South 
Central, Mountain, and Pacific. 

From its b^inningthe industry has centered around 
such large cities as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Bfdtimore and Washington. The business is now assum- 
ing consid^^le importance in Chicago, St. Louis and 
other large cities in the Middle States, the South and 
West. Statistics show that the largest floricultural 
output comes from the Middle Atlantic section. The 
states which compose this section are New York, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania. The total valuation of prod- 
ucts from this section is $11,810,076. The second 
section of importance is the East North Central, 
composed of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, in which the figures given were 19,029,125. 
The thini important section was New England, where 
the total valuation was »4,677,316. The smallest out- 

Kut comes from the Mountain section, composed of 
lontana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Ariiona, Utah and Nevada, Here the output was 
$753,914. The most rapid increase in the indust^ dur- 
ing the decade seems to have been in the Pacific sec- 
tion, composed of Washington, Oregon and California, 
where the valuation of Hower products sprang from 
$726,968 in 1899 to $2,175,572 in 1909. New York 
leads other states in floricultural products, having an 
output of $5,110,221. The rank of other important 
states is Pennsylvania, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachu- 
setts and Ohio. 

Floriculture is intensive agriculture; consequently 
the acreage devoted to the industry is not so large as 
in other branches of agriculture. The amount of capital 



1242 



FLORICULTURE 



FLORICULTURE 



invested in tdasshouses and their eauipment is con- 
siderable. Tne return from the products, however, is 
immediate. Commercial growers and men making a 
business of greenhouse construction, estimate that 
it costs from 60 to 90 cents a square foot of ground 
covered to build and equip a modem range. The 
growers estimate that the products from such an area 
the first year should cover the cost of construction. 

The nower-growing industry in the United States 
has not yet assumed the large proportions that it has 
in many European cities. The early colonists were an 
extremely practical people and paid little attention to 
the distinctly ornamental features about the home. As 
wealth increased, however, there came to be a more 
liberal use of flowers and plants : hence a larger demand 
for them in the industrial world. 

Floricultural statistics for the Dominion of Canada 
are less complete than for the United States. The fol- 
lowing are figures furnished through the courtesy of 
W. T. Macoun, Dominion Horticulturist: 

Capital inveoted. approximfttely $1,500,000 

Square feet of glass 6,000,000 

Annual output $1,000,000 

Area covered 120 acres 

History of the industry. 

The early history of the floricultural industry is 
obscure. It was merged to such an extent with other 
branches of horticulture and other industries that it 
could hardly be called a distinct industry. Previous to 
1825 there is record of but few commercial flower- 
growing establishments. From 1830 to 1840, rapid 
progress was made in all branches of the work. The 
demand for glasshouse products increased to a con- 
siderable decree. Better houses were built, better sys- 
tems of heatmg were devised, and consequently better 
products were put on the market. 

Even the glasshouses of this period were extremely 
crude affairs. The framework was of hurse dimensions, 
the glass small in size, heavy and thick. The roofs 
were largely portable, being made of sash. About 1855 
the first house having permanent sash-bars was built 
by Frederic A. Lord in Buffalo. The wooden super- 
structure of this house was heavy and the interior hght 
conditions correspondingly poor, but it was a vast 
improvement over sash-houses. This type of construc- 
tion was met with favor by glasshouse men, and many 
houses of a similar type soon were built. Glass of 
larger size was used, and this was embedded in putty 
instead of being placed on the outside as in sash-houses. 

Previous to 1870 the principal business of the florist 
was the growing of potted plants. The flowers from 
these were often sold as cut-flowers, but the business 
centered about growing potted plants for outdoor 
bedding and other ornamental purposes. The cut- 
flowers of that early period were comparatively of a 
small-flowered, short-stemmed sort — heliotrope, camel- 
lia, tuberose, bouvardia and those of a like nature. 
Although the carnation was introduced as a florist 
crop alK)ut 1852, it was of little commercial importance 
previous to this date. About 1865, Daill^ouze & 
Zeller of Flatbush, Long Island, began to breed the 
carnation, and between 1866 and 1872 several new 
varieties were introduced by this firm. Garden roses 
had been popular for many years, but few attempts 
were made to grow them under glass previous to 1870. 
They then came rapidly into public favor. 

From 1870 to 1880 the demand for both potted 
plants and cut-flowers increased rapidly. More atten- 
tion was paid to city and home ornamentation, and 
consequently more park and private conservatories 
were built. Each year witnessed improvements in 
construction, and consequently better grades of 
florists' products. In the last twenty years the ad- 
vances which have been made in cultural conditions 



and the improvements in florists' crops have completely 
revolutionized the industry. 

Improvements in glasshouse structures, and their healing. 

The tendency among flower-growers now is to build 
large houses in preference to smaller ones. It has been 
proved that the cost of construction is cheaper and that 
these may be more easily heated, that plant-growth is 
healthier because of a more uniform temperature, that 
they are easier to construct and can be cared for with 
greater economy of labor. Glass of lareer size is now 
used, and more attention is given detims of construc- 
tion to increase the light factors in the house. There 
have been many changes in methods of heating glass- 
houses during tneir history. From the crude methods 
of flues, various devices for heating with hot water 
and steam have been devised. Both of these methods 
have their advantages. In the earlier methods of hot- 
water heating, the pipes were large and the s^tem was 
an expensive one to install. Steam, therefore, came 
into popular favor, especially in large commercial 
establishments. It is still generally used. In some 
sections of the country and in the growing of some 
species of plants, hot water is still used; but here 
bnetter systems for forcing the circulation of water have 
been installed so it is possible to use pipes of smaller 
dimensions. 

Improvements in flower crops. 

The work of the plant-breeders began to produce results 
in the the early nineties of last century. Many new varie- 
ties of chiysanthemums and carnations were put on the 
market. The violet then became an important florist 
crop. The early part of the twentieth century, however, 
witnessed a deluge of new varieties in practically all 
species. Breeding and improved cultural methods 
brought the quauties of the products far above any- 
thing produced in the previous century. Large-flowered 
carnations on long, stiff stems, violets of much larger 
sizes, and improved strains of chrysanthemums, roses 
and other species gave a remarkable impetus to the 
industry. 

Previous to the beginning of the twentieth century, 
the American florist had interested himself in the cul- 
ture of a wide variety of plants. In many cases the 
larger part of the products were sold at the range. 
The business, however, assumed such proportions that 
many up-to-date florists found that they could not 
profitably raise and dispose of their products at retail; 
consequently the retail flower-stores became more 
and more important factors in the disposal of the prod- 
ucts. Wholesale commission houses and wholesale 
flower-markets were established in the larger cities so 
that the grower could devote nearly his entire time to 
the production of his crop. Many of the more progres- 
sive florists came to feel that they could not affora to 
grow a wide variety of plant species, but that it paid 
them better to grow one or two crops and to devote 
their whole attention to growing these in the finest 
manner possible so that they could produce flowers 
which were first quality in every respect; hence men 
came to be known as carnation, rose, violet, chrysan- 
themum, fern, palm and other specialists. This led to 
a wonderful improvement in the quality of flowers 
produced, and there was no call in the market for the 
mferior grades. 

The buying public has had its influence in producing 
a better quabty of florists' products. It has demanded 
not only better quality but something out of the ordi- 
nary. People tired of roses, carnations, violets and bulb- 
ous stock continually. The early part of the twentieth 
century witnessed a remarkable interest in orchids. 
The commercial man had to meet this demand. Twelve 
years ago an orchid could hardly be found outside of 
private conservatories. They were considered impossi- 
ble to grow with financial success. Today nearly every 



FLORICULTURE 

up-UMl&te retail grower has his section of orchida, 
ftnd nearly every l^ge floricultural center has ita orchid 
SpeciBJist. For many years it woe oonaidered impoBsible 
to get satisfactory results from sweet peas under slaas. 
The introduction of new straina and careful study of 
cultural coDditiouB made the culture of this crop pos- 
sible. The forcing of hardy herbaceous perennialB like 
antirrhinuma, delphiniums, and the like, and the forcing 
of hardy shrubs and other rare, hardy stock has fur- 
niabed the flower-grower with a wonderful range of the 
more unusual pknt«. 

Man^ large American flower-producers are now 
rnnnnging their busineSH on a departmental scale. 
There are retail and wholesale departments: palm, 
carnation, orchid, rose, chrysanthemum and bedding 
departments eacn in charge of a specialist in growing 
that particular crop. 

The flower exhibitions held from time to time in 
the larger cities have had a beneficial effect on the 
uplift of the business. These exhibitions have been 
' viewed by thousands of retail buyers. The choicest 
products of the flowei^flrower's skill have been exhib- 
ited, and the public has become diaaatisfied with the 
inferior grade of commercial flowers offered for sale 
in the average flower«boiis. They have demanded 
better producte, and it has, been the work of the flower- 
grower to produce these qualities. 
Literalvre. 

Within the last ten years there has been a remarkable 
increase in literature on flower^«rowing. Such papers 
as "The Florists' Exchange," '"I%e American Florist," 
"Florists' Review," "Horticulture," "Gardening," 
"Gardener's Chronicle of America, have kept* the 

S>wer closely in touch with the work in the gar- 
oing world. Many publications for the amateur, 
like "The Garden Magazine." "Country Life in Amer- 
ica," "House & Giuden,' "Suburban Life" have 
assisted in giving the American people much valuable 
information regarding flower-growing about the home. 

A long list of books might now be given, dealing 
' with commercial and home flower-growing. Among 
these, valuable for the oommercial man, are: "Tite 
American Carnation," 0. W. Ward; Commercial 
Ro9e-<hilture," Eber Uolmea; "Chrysanthemums for 
the Million," Charles H. Totty; "Violet-Culture," B. 
T. GaUoway; "Orchid Culture," William Wateon: 
"Florist's Manual," Wilham Scott; "Plant-Culture,'' 
G. W. Oliver. Excellent books for the amateur are: 
"The Rose," H. B. EUwanger; "Window-Gardening," 
H. B. Domer; "The Garden Month by Month," iMra. 
M. C. Sedgwick; "Making a Bulb Garden," Grace 
Tabor; "Roses and How to Grow Them," Doubleday 
Page A Co.; "House Plants and How to Grow Them,'' 
Parker T. BameB. g. A. Whttii. 

PLOKIDA ARXOV-ROOT: Zanu Mttri/olia. 

FLOKIDA SWAHF LILT: Ouium amerimnum. 

FLORISTS' PLAirrS. A half-century ago the 
florist plant trade, although perhaps relatively of 
greater importance than at present, was not a promi- 
nent feature of the holiday trade. At Christmas there 
was some acceleration in the buaineea, but this was 
overshadowed by the trade in cut-flowers. Easter was 
not a time of great plant sales. Church decorations in 
Protestant churches were not common. The sales of 
plants were more evenly distributed throughout the 
year, and the variety of plants sold was greater because 
the grower and consumer came in contact with each 
other, thus enabling the grower to dispose of plants 
which would not withstand the handling experienced 



FLORISTS' PLANTS 



1243 



of plant-grower with his botanical collection has 
passed away, and in his place ia the large commercial 
grower of a few staple plants which are grown in per- 
fect condition. These growers produce a large quantity 
of plants for Christmas and then begin operations for 
Easter, as both of these dates now are times for the 
sendmg of gifts. 

The trade in florist plants in the U. S., including bed- 
ding plan tSj is not less than $10,000,000, and it is encour- 
aging that it ia annually increasing without any dimuni- 
tion in the volume of the cut-flower business. Every 
up-to-date florist makes Chriatmas and Easter displays, 
and often special exhibits of chrraanthemums, and so 
on, are made when in season. The most successful of 
these displays are made in houses arranged for the 
purpose, for when made in an ordinan' greenhouse 
wito high benches, the taller plants are above the level 
of the eve and the effect is sacrificed. The beet houses 



ISIO. Pnt-flanta bslni pMked for ihlpmnt 

stores. An ordinary greenhouse is often adapted for 
the purpose by constructing low benches, 18 to 20 
inches high, for displaying bulboua plants and omitting 
them entirely for tall plaints. The object sought in aU 
cases is to have the planto placed so that the buyer 
looks down upon them. The show house is not very 
lai^ for the reason that it is not always advisable to 
have too many plants of a kind in sight and also 
because at Eaister the occurrence of warm, bright, 
unseasonable weather prevents keeping the plants in 
good condition. It is generally recognized that the 
display must be maintained m good condition by 
removing all unsightly planto and faded flowers. The 
stock should be replenisned and rearranged every day. 
The good salesman is one who has a knowledge of 
the care of plants, as well as their good points, their 
appropriateness for special occasions, and so on. 
Judicious advice on these points has much to do in 
winning and retaining customers, ^lien a sale is made, 
the plante are carefully tagged with the correct address 
and the time it is to be delivered. If the plant is 
intended as a present, the sender's card is usually 



FLORISTS' PLANTS 



the delivery taf,. Deliveries oT Christmas and Easter 
plants pailicutarl}' should be promptly made, for 
nothing creates more dissatisTaction than late delivery. 
This requires skill in systematically arranging the 
plants according to the delivery routes, thus avoiding 
travcTHtng the same territoiy a second time. It ia 
axiomatic that the plant should be at its beet on the 
day or at the function for which it is to be used. The 
weather has much to do with the condition of plants 
upon delivery. At Christmas, stock may be sent out 
twenty-four lioure in advance, while at Easter stock 
delivered thus far in advance may not be aatiefactory 
on Sunday. 

All plants in pots, with the possible exception of the 
woody kinds, are staked and tied before handling. 
Plants are neatly wrapped with several thicknesses « 
paper to insure safe deUvery. Plants with flowers 
which are easily bruised are usuaJly wrapped with a 
sheet of cotton oatting or waxed paper and then six to 
eight thicknesses of newspaper with clean plain p^ter 



ISll. TIm complBted date tot ihipmaaL 

outside. When plants must be shipped in cold weather, 
they must be wrapped as indicated and then set in 
strong wooden boxes. These boxes are approximately 
4 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 8 inches deep. The comers 
are strengthened by the use of extra cleats. The box 
is first Uned with corrugated paper, and then several 
Uiicknesses of newspaper which are left hanping over 
the edges of the box ail around. Slightly dampened 
excelsior is used around the pots to Drevent breakage 
and to make the package secure. The paper is then 
brought up over the plants and fastened (Fig. 1510), 
Over the top a frame is built of J^ x 4-inch cleating 
lumber which prevents damage to the plants (Fig. 1511). 

The number of plants that can be had in peifection 
at Christmas is limited and does not change from year 
to year. Among the leading flowering plants are 
poinscttias in pots and pans, azaleas, cyclamen and 
Jxirraine begonias. The more expensive plants are 
ericas (E, melanlhera) and camellias. 

The berried plants commonly grown are the Jerusa- 
lem cherry (Solonunt Capaicfutrum), Christmas pepper 
(S. Psetido-Capsicum), aucubas, ardisias, holly and 
Otaheite oranges. 

The foliage pitwts include arauc&rias, boxwood, 
crotons, nepnrolepis, Pandanus Veiickii, Ficia pan- 
durala and F. eiostica, Drawena (D. lermiTialw. D. fra- 
grant, D. Mandseana, D. Godseffiana, D. Lord Wolseley) 

Easter is a great plant day and there is a great variety 
of suitable plants. The leading flowering plant is, of 
course, lAUum longiJIoTum. 



FLOBlS^lS' PLANTS 

It would be difficult to determine the relative mar- 
ket value of the different plants, but among the bulbs 
tulips, hyacinths, narcissi and lilies-of-the-valley are 
staples. These are sold in pots or pans, singly or 
in plant combinations. A very lar^e amount of bufoous 
material is sold at East«r. Cinerarias, Primula obeonica 
and P. Hnentii are a smaller factor than formerly on 
the large city markets, but still remain an important 
item in the smaller cities. Marguerites and spirea 
(AaliU>ejaponica), when well grown, find a good sale in 
New York. A number of violets and pansies planted in 
low dishes, and small blooming geraniums, from S-inch 
pots, planted in 6- to 12-incn Dulb pans, are salable 
plants in many localities. Among the shrubs the azaleas 
are most important, although in some cities they show a 
decline in popularity. Following these are genistas, 
which have been for many years a popular Easter 
plant. Hydranf/ea rosea and H. Olaksa were long stand- 
ard varieties, but now will probably give way to the 
new French varieties. In some cities hydrangeas are 
less used for Easter than for Memorial Day. Lilacs, 
Charles X, Marie Lcgraye and Madame Leinoine are 
among the best. The like has the disadvanl^e of a 
great display of wood and leaves before the terminal 
Bowers charm the eye. It therefore requires acces- 
sories to relieve this effect, and the demand for this 
plant is limited. Rhododendrons are slowly gaining in 
popularity. Acacias and ericas are becommg more 
common each year. Acacia longijolia and A. paradoia 
are now ^wn for market. Erica Cavendiihii is used 
for individual plants, while E. cupreseina is used in 
making up baskets of plants. Bou^aineilUa Sanderiana, 
like the rambler roses, may be made to assume definite 
forms which are especially beautiful when the bracts 
are well colored. Among the other shrubs more or less 
common are Aiaiea mollis. Deutxia gradlia, Spiral 
Van Houttei, double almond, hawthorns, and Wiglaria 
muUijaga. In the last decade the rambler roses have 
taken a prominent place among Easier plants and each 
year a larger number are grown. The crimson rambler 
was first used, but is now superseded by the more 
beautiful Dorothy Perkins, Tausendschon, Lady Gay, 
Newport Fairy and Hiawatha. The rambler roses 
possess the advantage that they can be trained into 
pleasing forms. The polyantha roses are popular also, 
and among the varieties used are Madame Norbert 
LevavasseuT (Baby Rambler), Mrs, Cutbush and 
Orleans. The latter are very satisfactory when sold 
either as individual plants with waterproof crepe paper 
pot'^overs or in baskets with other plants. The hybrid 
peipetuals are still grown, but not in so large quantities 
as formerly. The varieties now grown are Frau Karl 
Dnischki, Mrs. John Laing and Magna ChartA.. 

E^ter brings a demand for some of the larger sizes 
of foliage plants for decorations in churches, retail 
stores, and the like. The small-sized ferns, dracenas 
and palms are required in making up baskets of plantji. 

The florist of fifty years ago thou^t that a good 
blooming plant did not need any aids to make it 
attractive. This has changed, and the florists arc. 
seekingevery means to make their plants more attrac- 
tive. The most inexpensive method of doing this is to 
use pot^^wvers of waterproof crepe paper in color suited 
to the subjects. Porto Rican or rajfia matting in color 
is used in a eimilar manner. 

The trade of the present day disposes of a great 
many plants in baskets or boxes. Individual plant- 
baskets, with handles, to hold even as large as 6- to 
S-inch pots are often used. Baskets, usually of the 
peach4>aaket shape, are also utilized for an endless 
variety of combinations of flowering and foliage plants 
(Fig, 1512). The baskets are supplied with a metal 
receptacle or lining so that the pots may be removed 
from the plants, giving them the appearance of having 
been grown tc^etner. Formerly these receptacles were 
filled by the retailers, but now many are prepared at 



FLORISTS' PLANTS 

the greenhouses according to order and sent U> the Btoree 
where all that is needed ia to add the basket and 
the ribbons. The latter plan relieves the store of much 
work m the busy season, out may not result in as artistic 
combinations as con be secured by a person trained in 
the work. The manufacturers of florist supplies are 
striving to meet the demand for something new in 
baskets and boxes. New material, weaves and shapes, 
are seen every year. There is also a great variety of 
coloring. There are green, gilt, white, red, ivory, bronze 
and copper shades as well as two-tone effects, 



FLOWER 



1245 




191Z. A nude-op bukel or llTinc pluitt. 

usually begins by using some of the willow, rattan or 
splint baskets which are filled with inexpensive plants. 
Cedar tuba, wood and terra-cotta boxes are also used. 
The demand for pleasing arrangements of flowering 
and foliage pianU in boxes, jardinieres, hampers. 
baskets, pans and dishes of fanciful design^ light and 
airy, dainty and graceful, ia increasing and is receiving 



FLOWER is a popular or semi-technical term for the 
aggregate of structures having to do with sexual 
reproduction in the higher plants. Tlie concept 
usually includes color, and a definite organization as 
outlined below; therefore, gymnoaperms, ferns, and 
the lower plants are said not to have true flowers. As 
ordinarily understood, the flower is a showy structure 
useful for esthetic purposes, gratif yme in color and often 
:_ _j__ — J ; g ^gy mtimately connected with 



in odor 



nized as "flowers," To the las^nan, many of i_ _ 

mon herbs, shrubs and trees are said not to bear flowers 
at all, although the botanist recognizes that at least 
inconspicuous greenish flowers are home by all of these 
plants unless they be ferns or gymnoeperms. 



mit of the 

roughened 

it curectiy 

e raised aloft 



Botanlcally considered, the flower when complete 
consists of four sets of organs from the center outward; 
the gyncecium, andnecium, corolla, and calyx, to which 
may possibly be added a fifth, 
the disk (Figs. 1513-1516). 

The gmacium Figs. 1517- 
1519). — In the cent«r are one ' 
or more small flask-like or 
poucb-fike organs (puUlt) which 
are hollow and contain tiny 
bud-Lke growths (ovules). The 
pistils collectively are termed isij. LonfitiidluiHcticm 
the gynacium (female house- ol ■ bnttaicap flowar. 
hold). The hollow ovule-bear- 
ing part of the pistil is the ovary. At the sv 
nvnrv ig a morc Or Icss sticky o 
the stigma, which may : 
ovary (segsiie) or may b 
ilk (the ttyle). From the ovules seeds 
eloped (see FeriUizaHon). 
fundamental or unit foliar oraan of 
icecium is termed a carpel. In the 
t case there is but one carpel, folded 
a pouch with the upper ventral leaf- 
within, and the margins formina a 
down one side. The structure tnus 
is a simple jnatU, The suture bears 
lies and is t«rmed the placertla, and 
aUy ovuhfcrous tliroughout, but fre- 
only the uppermost or basal ovule 
of the row is present (apical and 
swipeTtded, or basal and erect). In 
Other cases there are several or 
. many carpels but these remain dis- 
tinct, then forming many simple 
pistils. In most cases, however, the 
carpels are more or less fused, at 
low, and the resulting pistil is said to 
•cntrtd. The sutures are axiallif placed 
midribe are outward (anterior), the 
surface of each carpel lining the 
cavity. There are, therefore, nor- 
! many cells or locules in a compound 
IS there are carpets. ThrouEn the 
opcning'Out of each carpel while the 
I of adjacent carpels still remain 
united, the ovary may become one-celled 
though still compound, as in the violet. 
The placenta will in this case be paritlal (on the 
walla). In certain families (Caryophyllace«e, Primu- 
lacete) the compound ovaries are one-celled but have 
a basal piacenia, or this basal placenta may project 
upward into the single chamber of the ovary as a 
central poet on which the ovules are borne (free-central 
placenta) (Fijf. 1515). To determine the number of 
carpels in a given pistil is often difficult. If there are 
several separate stigmas or styles, it is usually safe to 
infer that each represents a carpel. Jf the ovary is sev- 
eral-celled, each 
cell usually de- 
notes a carpel and 
in one-celled ova- 
ries the placenta, 
if parietal, denote 
the number of car- 
pels. In the case 
of a pistil with a 
one-celled ovary, 
basal placenta, 
one style and one 
stigma, only de- 
velopmental or 
phylogenetic 
studies will show 
how many carpels 
are present. 



1514. Stradura of Sowct.— The plom. 

ivsry; f. Atyle: il. fltLETnk. The piatiJ ood- 
iaU of the ovBipr, (tyle, und itinna. It 

ipppd with BDlbprg, in whinh the pollen u 
)onie. The ovary, o, ripeoA ioto the Fruit- 



1246 



FLOWER 



Ovariea &re sometimM raised oa a stalk within the 

flower, as in the caper family (^ynopAore) and. in Coptia 

{Oieeovhare) . The styles and stigmas are frequent!^ much 

tnodined for pollination purposes, ae in the orchids and 

in tie pitcher plant (Sarracenia). 

The andraeiwn (Figs. 1520- 

1522).— Surrounding the piatila 

are frmnd one or more whorls of 

organs called alametu, oollec- 

t lively t«rmed the andracium 

(male household). A stamen 

normally consiata of a slender 

stalk {fitamerU) capped by an 

enlarged part (anMer), although 

this stalk is often wanting. The 

antha' contains one, two or four 

cavities {loculee or "oella") in 

i^ch a powdery mass (poUen) is 

located. The so-called cells are 

not t« be confused with the cells 

of the plant tiaeue. The rynce- 

ciuffi and andrcecium, which are 



ISIS. Sactioa of ■ flnww 





«ri« 

avelopM. 

both neceaaary for the production of good seed, are 
tenned the e*«eniial organs of the flower. Ordinarily 
each stamen represents one foliar unit. When many 
atamena are present, this increase in number ia brought 
about in one of three ways: ^ an increase in the num- 
ber of whorla of stamens {CaryophylIace», Rosaoee) 
or an increase in length of tiie spiral (Ranunculus), by 
the conversion of petals into etamens, or by a breaking 
up of each individual stamen into many (St. John's- 
wort). The fiist method is by far the most common. 
In the last method, the origin is uaually betrayed by 
the aggr^ation of the stamens in fascicles. Normally 
both filament and anther of each stamen is 
A free from its neighbors, but in some cases 
II the filaments are all joined into a tube 
^>J[ around the pistil {tiumaddphous) as in the 
n hollyhock, or into two groups (diaddphtnia) 
n as in the pea family. Taese two groups are 
usually very unequal in the pea tribes, 
nine stamens being united while the tenth 
is free. In other cases the anthers may be 
coherent while the filaments are free {tunge- 
neeiout), as in the Compoaita, In the St«r- 
culiaces, the filaments or tube of filaments 
are variously toothed, created or otherwise 
modified; while in the Orchidaoeie they are 
fused with the style to form the BO-<^led 
column or ffynandrium of the flower. In 
the milkweeds, each stamen bears a oomu- 
copia-like appendage 
[ which togeuifT form 
t the crovm. In Viola, 
two of the filaments 
bear nectar-spura. 

The anthers are 
usually oval or oblong 
bodiea fixed to the 
filament by the base 
(baml), or by the 
center (vfraatik). At 
maturity they con- 
tain normally two 
pollen-sacs separated 
by a sterile tissue 



FLOWER 

(omn«dtue) which is a prolongation of the filament. 
The anther-sacs are sometimes four in number, some- 
times reduced to one through fusion. The walla of the 
sacs contain a peculiar fibrous 
layer by the hygroscopic proper- 
ties of which they are enabled to 
curve back, thtis opening the pol- 
len-chamber along defimte prear- 
ranged lines and aflowing the pollen 
to escape. The dehiscence is usu- 
ally by a longitudinal slit, but it 
is frequently by terminal pores as 
in the Encacese, or rarely by 
transverse siita. In Vaccinium, the 
til of a St. Joba'a-iiort. pores are carried ainft on long 
bhuSncaipBli. tube-like extensions of the anther, 

while in Berberis the pores are 
provided with on uplifting trap-door. 

The DoUen-grains are norm^y spherical or oval cells 
in which the two or three nuclei representing the male 
gametophyte are found. The wall consists of a deli- 
cate inner layer linline), surrounded by a thicker 
cutinized layer (eiine) which ia either smooth or 
externally sculptured in various ways. Specialised 
places in the extine serve as germ-pores through 
which the poUen-tubee easily emei^. These 
pores are sometimes provided with actual j 
lids (pumpkin and squash) which pop off at 
the proper time. The pollen in the 
Orchidaoeie and Asclepiadacete is 
more or less waxy and coheres into 
one or several masses ipoUinia). The 
poUinia are in many cases produced 
mto minute stalks which connect with 
a sticky gland that ia designed to be- 
come attached to visiting insects. On 
the departure of the insect the ^and, ^^^ 
together with the attached poUinia, rfiowtai dahit- 
is carried away to the next Sower, cc&cti iuIm oq 
The pollen-grains of orchids, heaths lah, bubanr ob 
and a few other plants are composed ri^t. 
of two to four cells (compound) . 

Corolla (Fira. 1523-1527).— Outside the stamens is 
found a whorl of Bat leaf-like usually colored organs 
termed pelalt or collectively the eoroUa. The petals are 
usually m one whorl and follow the numerical plan of the 
flower cloeeiy; rarely are they fewer or numerous. They 
are normally flat or concave colored bodies distinct 





CoutDnd 
^teSlet 



131B. Htid al limplg 



watsHUj. 



from one another (polypelatout) and regularly spread- 
ing from the receptacle. But in many plants the petals 
are connate Igamopetalout) into one structure for a 
greater or less d istancc toward the apices. The united 
part is the tubt, the lobed border the limb of the gamo- 
petalous corolla. The lobes or segments are either all 
alike and equally placed {rcgalar corolla) or they vary 
muchamong themselves (trrt^ulareorDtia). Ifthelob^ 



FLOWER 

are imJted higher up into groups of two and three, as 
in many tninta, the upper more or leea erect, the lower 
spreading, the corolla ib bUabiale (Fig. 1526). A partic- 
luar type of irregular polypetalous corolla is tlte so- 
called papilionaeeout ooroUa (Fig. 1527) found in the pea 



FLOWER 



1247 




family and oonsistiiig of a atandard, two lateral winut, 
tad a tol. A r^ular corolla is radially aymmetritnJ, 
poesesaing an inmiite number of planes of symmetry 
XaetinomoTphic), while most irregular flowers poasesa 
but one plane of symmetry {lygomorphic). A few pos- 
aeas no such plane (as Canna). Gamopetalous corollas 
fall into certain types based on the shape of the tube 
and limb. The more common tvpea are rotale, taiver- 
/orm, /unnc^orm, bell-sha])ed, tvouiar, and vreaAaU. 

The corolla m^ be vari- 
ously oolored. White flow^ 
era owe their color to light 
reflected from air which is 
between the oells i^ the 

Ktals, as shown bv the 
■t that when waterk^ged 
these petals became trans- 
parent. Yellows and oranges 
are usually due to abun- 
dant minute color bodies 
[chromo-plaala) located 
wi^n the cells of the petal. 
Reds and blues are due to 
colored cell-sap. 

Calyx. — Surrounding the 
corolla is another set or 
whorl of organs, the adyx, 
the individual organs of 
which are tepaU. The calyx is usually compo^ of as 
many sepals as there are petals, but in the Portulacaoes 
there are but two sepals, while in some plants there are 
many. In many of the Ranunculaceat and other fami- 
lies they are oolored hke petals and replace these organs. 
In the ElaeCer lily and tulip they are similar to the 
petals. In the Compositffi the calyx is reduced to 
scales or bristles or is absent entirely. The sepals are 
frequently connate (^mosepaioui), and the resulting 
structure is often irrKular. The calyx and corolla are 
together termed the fioral envdopes. If they are simi- 
lar in appearance, and, therefore, difficult to recognize. 
as in the E^ter lily, they are collectively t^mea 
perianth . 

DM (Figs. 1528, 1529).— In many 
plants a glandular ditk, or Beri< ' 
glands corresponding to such a < 
IS found. Wnen present, this 
mav lie either between the stamens 
and pistil (intraalaminal) as is the 
oomnton case, or more rarely be- 
tween the stamens and petals 
(eziraalaminai). The genus Acer is 



1514. FnimaUani eonlla «f 







peculiar in having some specicB with an intrastaminal 

disk while in otners it is extrastaminal. By some 

morphologistB this disk isconsids^ a fifth set of organs 

in the flower, while by others it is considered merely 

an outgrowth of the floral axis oi 

all other parts of the flower ar 

aerted. The disk is in many 

characteristic of whole families, which 

led Bentham and Hooker to place I 

these families together in the series ' 

DisciflorsB. The disk also occurs in 

other families not obviously related. 

It forms a ring about the styles in 

some Rubiaces. The glandular cup of j 

Populus and the finger-like gland of 

Salix are probably to oe refeircd here, 

although by some they have been 

interpreted as a reduced perianth. The 1S26. Lablaia 

disk usually functions as a nectary. In corolla of ulni. 

shape and structure it is very diverse. 

It may be cup-shaped, saucer-flhaped, annular, regular, 

or irregular; or it may be of separate glands, either 

simple or variously lobed. It may fine the cup of the 

pengynous flower or it may be adnate to the surface 




{Figs. 1630, 1531).— The apex of the 

: which the various floral organs are inserted is 

termed the receptacle or lonu. This is normally a. 
simple club-shaped thickening of the summit of the 
stem. In the strawberry it is much enlarged and fleshy, , 



ISZT, A paidllaiucwnu 
corolla. — The nmt ina. ■, 
Mudardi iv, ur, wioti; k, 
koeL 




2a. BhawtBflhadJiklatlie 
wOowtr. PUtillalB flomr 
Maminata Oowar at b. 



the Compositfe there is a common receptacle for all 
the flowers of the bead, as well as for each individual 
flower. In the caper family the receptacle is often pro- 
longed upward, forming a stalk for the ovary within 
the flower (ggiiophore). 

In the Rosacefe, Onagraces, Saxifragacete, and in 
various other plante, the stamens, petals and sepals 
are perigynoua, that is they are mserted on the edge of a 
cup-shaped organ which springs either from below the 
ovary or from its summit. The view has been held 
that the gomosepalous calyx here bears the stamens 
and petals on its tube. Another early proposed view 
has in recent years joined ground rapidly and is now 
widely accepted. This view mterprets 
the cup as a hollowed receptacle 
Ukened to a glove-finger when the apex 
is slightly pushed in. 
The ovary at the 
bottom of the cup is 
really apical as usual, 
while the sepals, 

Ktals and stainens, 
lated at the higher 
margin of the cup, 




1248 



PXOWER 



are as umisl inserted morphologically lower on Uie 
receptacle. While in moet Bowctb the ovary is 
inserted on the HUmmit of the receptacle (superior 
ooary), in others, as in the Orctudace«e, Onagracete, 
Umbellifera, Rubiacete, and CompoBit», tie ovary 
appears to occupy the center of 
the clu]>ebaped structure linfenor 
oatry) bekrn the insertion of the 
calyx, corolla, and stameDe which 
seem to spring from the summit 
of the ovary (eTngynoia). The 
view has been held that in such 
caace a gamoeepalous calyx similar 
to that described above in the 
perigynous flowpr has grown fast 
to the surface of the ovary, 
^ and that th^ other oreaos are 
e on the ca^-tube at tne sum- 
mit of the ovary. The opinion is 
now becoming general that the true 
I explanation of the phenomenon is 
that tiie cup-shaped receptacle of 
the perigynous flower, and not the 
calyx, haa'grown fast to the surface 
of the ovary. In the OnaKTacen; 
and some other plants, the noUow 
receptacle has not only grown fast 
to the whole surface of the ovary 
but projects beyond it so that such 
flowers have an inferior ovary and 




flower. This is the numerical plan of the flower (Fig. 
1534), Thus in geranium there are five sepals, five 
petals, ten stamens, and five parts to the pistil. The 
stamens, when numerous, are oft«n in multiples of this 
numerical plan. The parts of the pistil, on the other 
hand, frequently show a reduction from the numerical 
plan as exhibited by other parts of the flower. The 
munber of parts in some flowers is bo irregular that a 



from the normal foliage leaves, being often much 
reduced. Thev sometimes form an involucre around 
the flower, ana are calyx-like, as in hepatica and straw- 
berry. In other cases, they form a snowy corolla-like 
involucre, as in Comus and Poinacttia, and are then 
often mistaken for a corolla. In the Arum, a single 
huge bract {epaOie) envelopes the entire flower-cluster 
{spadU): these are well shown in Figs. 1532, 1533. 




JneompleU flowers. — Not all of the floral sets described 
above are always present. The flowers may be incom- 
jMfC. Thus the corolla may be wanting (ftower apeUU- 
out) as in hepatica and anemone, or both calyx and 
corolla may be absent (nolretf or achlamy(Uoux) as in 
willow and pepper, or the stamens may be wanting 
(imperfed or unitexual, pistillate flower) as in willows 
and oaks, or the pistils may be absent (BlaminaU 
flowers of willows and oaks). At least one set of essen- 
tial organs is necessary for a functional flower, but in 
some cases, through specialization for other pur]>o8(e, 
both sets may be isent. Thus the marginal flowers of 
the hydrangea are enlai^ed and showy for insect attrac- 
tion, out are neutral. In the case of unisexual flowers, 
Uiestamensand pistils may be borne in different flowers 
on the same plant (numacume) as in the oak and birch, 
or on separate plants (diacioat) as in the willow and 

Soplar. In some plants, as m the maple, certain 
owers are unisexual while others are pertect, a con- 
ditkin t«rmed viAygavunM. 

The plan of (fee fiower. — If the numbers of parts in 
each set are counted, a certain number will t>e found 
to be common to many or all of the sets of the same 



ISU. TlwctMlwUI*iiath<(*adlh*ipwUi)allha(>tdMicall«. 

numerical plan can be made out only with difliculty, 
while in some flowers such a plan is apparently wanting. 
The members of each floral set are usual^* inserted 
all at the same height on the floral axis (rec«>tacle), 
and are therefore in whorls, although frequently more 
than one whorl occurs in the andrcecium and rarely 
in other sets. The partfi of one set normally fall between 
those of the set next outside and next inside, and are 
said to alternate with these. In somcramiUes, as for 
example in the Ranunculaces and Magnoliaces, some 
or all of the organs of the flower are inserted spiraUy 
on the receptacle Uke scales on a pine cone. In such 
cases there is often a marked intergrading between the 
organs of the adjacent sets at the boundary line. The 
reUtive position of parts of the 
flower may be graphically indicated 
by means of a diagramatic cross- 
sectional plan, called the floral dia- I 
f;ram (see Fig. 1534.). Information ' 
m regard to the number and union 
of parts may also be indicated by 
so-called floral formula; as foUows: 



' K 



5+5 



In this formula, the lettos from 
left to right indicate calyx, corolla, 
andr(Ecium, and gyncecium respec- 
tively. The brackets over the letters 
indicate a fusion of parts in the 
same set, while the bracket under- 
neath indicates a fusion of different 
set«. The above flower would be 
polysepatous with live sepals, gamo- 



iSii. Sp&tfaa*Dd 
■padli of jMk-ln- 
Iba-voltit. 



FLOWER 

p«taloua of five fused petals, have ten stamenB in twu 
wborls ftll inserted on the coroUa, and two carpels 
united into one pistil with a superior ovary. 

DovbU fiotoera. — Occasionally in nature and very 
frequently in cultivation, the number of petals hecomee 
very greatly increased, often to the exclusion of the 
stamens and pistils, so that the flower preeenta a full 
rosette-like appearance. Such flowers are i>opularl^ 
said to be "full" or "double." The increase in petals 
is apparently a mutation, but is stimulated by changes 
in nutrition due to cultivation. Most double-flowered 
varieties tend strongly to run out. The origin of the 
extra petals is not always the same. In most cases, as 
in double hollyhocks and carnations, the stamens and 
even carpels have been transformed tHto petals; in 
rarer cases the extra structures are int«rpo1at£d organs. 
Double "flowers" in the sunflower, Kolden kIow, and 
the like, are simply heads in which aU disk-flowers are 
converted into ray-flowers (see next paragraph). 

Pofaelioioerao/iAeCompiwite (Figs. 1535, 1536).— The 
so-callea flowers of such plants as the white daisy, sun- 
Bower, aster, goldenrod, and dandelion are found on 
cloee study not to be flowers at all, but flower-clusters 
of the type termed htadt. These heads are remarkably 
specialised for economy and division of labor. This 
oonununity of flowers functions as does one individual 
flower in other cases, and the whole make-up of the 
head simulates a flower to a remarkable degree. 
Around the head is a calyx-like involucre of bracts, 
functioning like a calyx as a protection in the bud. In 



FLOWER 



1249 




Discnmi of the Sowar of drooon, vlimla sad t1 



daisy, sunflower and others there is a corolla-like part 
consisting of highlv modified rajf-fiowera or ligviate 
flouxrt. The central part of the b^ia in these plants is 
occupied by duk-floirert. The aster, goldenrod, cone- 
flower and many others are like the daisy^ while in the 
dandelion, chicory, hawkweed and sow thistle the head 
consists of ligulate flowers only, and in the thistle, bone- 
set and iron weed the head contains only diak-flowera. 
The morpbolf^y of the less specialized disk'Hower is as 
follows: A one-celled, one-seeded inferior ovary is sur- 
mounted by a variously modified calyx, which is often 
wanting, utd a tubular flve-tootbed gamopetalous 
corolla. On the corolla-tube are borne five syngenesious 
md from the summit of the ovary projects a 



such a tubular corolla, and by sphtting the tube down 
one side, at the same time flattening out the sUt poi^ 
tion. In the sunflower, there was no great change in 
color OS the ray-flowers evolved, while in the daisy and 
the asters the rays are of a different color from the 
diak-flowera. Since the involucre iierforms for the whole 
head the same function that the individual calyx does 
normally for each flower, there is no longer any neces- 
sity for the calyx. Therefore, following the general 
rule that a useless structure tends either to disappear 
or take on a new function, the calyx has become 
obsolete in some cases while in others it has become 
modified into scales, awns or bristles (pappus) which 
aid the fruit in dissemination. In many casee the ray- 
fiowera have been sacrificed entirely for insect attrac- 
tion and have become sterile. By this massing of the 
flowers, more flowers may be pollinated by one insect 
'' ' ■"'■■™ easily pollinated. Efficiency ttad 



tsconomy run through the whole organisation of the 
composite head to a remarkable degree. 

The biology of Uie fiouier.~Tbe flower is a structure 
developed by plants to promote and safeguard sexual 
reproduction, primarily in land plants, and to bring 
about cross-pollination in these plants. The three 
definite agents of 
cross - pollination 
with which the 
flower is con- 
cerned are water, 
wind and insects. 
The agent tor 
which the flower 
is ad^ted exerts 
a profound influ- 
ence on the struc- 
ture of the fl6wer. 

wrmaUy showy, jn, ^^ w^TlSown, ud bonMih 
Water- and wmd- aam tho hairj isTolncro.— RndbecUa. 

pollinated flowers 

are usually green and amaU. with often a total loss of 

corolla or of ooth corolla and calyx. The pollen in such 

Elants is produced in abundance to make up for great 
)Bs, as it is wafted indiscriminately through the air. 
Water plants usually flower at the surface and are 
wind- or insect^pollinat«d. The true wat«r-polhnated 
or hydrophilous plants are few in number, Naias, 
Zanmchellia, Zostera and Ruppia may be mentioned, 
all of which belong to the Naiadacete. In Zostera, the 
pollen-grains are long and spiral as a further adapta- 
tion to water-pollination. 

Wind-pollinated or aneroophilous flowers (Figs. 1637, 
1538) are very numerous. Elodes and Vallisneria (eel- 
Krass) among aquatic plants may be mentioned. Val- 
lisneria is remarkable because the staminate flowers 
break off before anthesia, rise to the surface, expand, 
and are floated about by the wind, the three renexea 
sepals acting as floats which cannot be upset. The pis- 
tillate flowers are attached to long peduncles which 
extend to the surface of the Water, whether it is shallow 
or deep. The pistillate and staminate flowers are so 
shaped that when the two float together the stamens are 
in exactly the ri^t place to touch the stigmas. After 
pollination, the^duncle coils up and the fruit matures 
under water. The catkin-bearing trees are all ane- 
moohilous and have very much redui^ flowers. The 
willows are both wind- and insect-pollinated. Among 
herbs the grasses, sedges, rushes, and sorrels (Rumex) 
are wind-polUnated. Interesting in this respect is 
Thalictnun (meadow-rue) of the Ranunculaces, the 
flowers of which are wholly green and insignificant 
with large exsertfid anthers and abundant pollen and 
feathery stigmas. It thus exhibits perfectly the various 
adaptations to wind-pollination m a family that is 
normally insect-pollinated and has showy flowen. The 
time of flowering of wind-pollinated flowers often shows 




visiter, and i 



1S36. Ruts In Iho baad of ■ ooreopdo. 



a distbct relation to efficiency. The wind-pollinated 
trees and shrubs bloom in early spring before the leaves 
interfere with the passage of pollen through the air. 
The grasses and other herbaceous anemophilous plants 
bloom before the tall growth of late summer has 
matured, at which time plants are mostly insect^xil- 
liiiated. The pollen-grsins of anemophilous plants ore 
nearly alwa3r8 smooth and very light, and usually con- 



1250 



FLOWER 



tain starch as a reserve food instead of oil. Tim pol- 
len ia capable of withstanding sreater desiccation uion 
is the pollen of moat insed-pollinated flowers. In the 
pinea, each Kroin is provided with two air-aaca to 
inorease the buoyancy and to expose greater surface 
to the wind, 

Insect^poilinatcd or ento- 
mophiious Sowers must meet 
two distinct probl^ns: they 
must entire tne ineect to the 
flower; and they must guide 
the insect in such a way that 
croHB-pollination will be as- 
sured. The attractive s^^ents 
are four in number. — color, 
honey, acent, and abundant 
polhni (for pollen - eating 
insects), but tncy are not 
usually all found in one 
species. Color is provided 
mainly by the corolla, but 
153T. Wfaid-pallliuted flow«f ^^ calyx (in Anemone) or 
of inaciu. (EnlftTged) even the bracts around the 
flowers (in Comus and Poin- 
settia) may function thus instead. Attempts have 
been made to show that certain colois are more attrac- 
tive than others to certain groups of insecte. Yellow 
has been desimated as the color for flies and beetles, 
blue and rea for hymenoptera, browns for carrion 
insects and wasps, and whites for mght^fl3^ng insects 
especially. Honey (nectar) ia produced in a great 
variety of flowers and it is a reward for the insect visit. 
The honey-secreting glands (nectaries) are borne either 
on the disk or on the petals, but more rarely are they 
staminal or ovarian. In order that the honey may not 
be appropriated by undeeirable insects which would not 
efl'ect croas-pollination, it is frequently placed at the 
end of spurs or grooves which are adapted to the pro- 
boscis of the insects for which the flower ia adapted. 
Various markings of the corolla, such as bright eye- 
spots and dork converging lines, called honey-guides, 
often direct the insect accurately to the honey, and in 
such a way that cross-poUi nation will be accomplished. 
An interesting case is the violet, where the honey is 
produced by staminal nectaries but is collected and 
stored in the spur of the lower petal. To this storehouse 
honey-guidesm the form of purple lines lead. The beard 
in the throat of the violet flower protects the pollen 
from rain and also diecouragea the insect from entering 
the flower on the wrong aide. Scent as a means of 
attracting insects is very general, and is especially 
frequent in nocturnal and crepuscular (twilight) 
flowers. The scent ia due to 
volatile oils produced mainly by 
the petals. These oily compounda 
are comparatively few in number 
and often re-occur in plants that 
are wholly unrelated. Thus the 
clove scent is found also in some 
orchids, and the violet scent is 
found with slight modification in 
the flowers of several plants. Flow- 
ers that attract pollen -eating 
insects are often yellow, as butter- 
cups and dandelion, but flowers of 
other colors are frequently visited 
at least by bees that cajry away 
quantities of pollen in their femorcil 
pollen-pockets . 
Most pollen is injured by exposure to rain and dew. 
The grams tend to swell and burst owing to the exces- 
sive osmotic presBure. It ia for this reason that pollen 
when studied or germinated in the laboratory must be 
mounted in a sugar solution approximating the density 
of the Btigmatic fluid. It is not a surprise, therefore, to 
find that nature has protected the polleo of many 



1S3S. WlDd-poUio- 
>t*d Bonr ol ■ (ru 
—Pot (Enlnrjedl 



FLOWER 

flowers from rain, by structural means. Thus, bell- 
shaped hanging flowers, salverform corollas with a 
small eye whicn requires pressure to force a drop of 
water in, closed corollas of the snapdragon type, beard 
in the throat, flowers that droop only m wet weather, 
flowers that close up during rain, and many other con- 
trivances, are adaptations, in part at least, for tiie pn>- 



nohhe 



polle 



The protection of the honey and pollen from unbid- 
den insect guests and the a^eguarding of the flower 
from aelf-poUinatJoT''^ such insects, has led to various 
prot«ctive devices' llie closed throat of the toadflax 
and snapdragon, the small eye of the salverform corolla, 
the beard in the violet, setose peduncles and stems over 
which insects can walk with difficulty, glandular pedun- 
cles and bonds of viscid matter which serve as a sort 
of sticky fly-paper to prevent wingless insects from 
reaching the nower, are all adaptations of this nature. 
Remarkable in this respect is the teasel, which has 
connate-perfoliate leaves. These leaves form a basin 
around the stem at each node. The basins fill with 
water during each shower, and, as the water will not 
evaporate for several days, there ia a veritable moat 
around the stem at each node which climbing insects 
cannot pass. 

CrosB-poUination is frequently rendered more cer- 
tain by various mechanical devices. Thus a device of 



>■ DlBwrpUc flowen of nlmal*. 



which renders self-pollination impossible. In this 
respect, the diiEcious plant is the most perfect type. 
Diclinism is especially common in anemophilous plants, 
in which the pollen is blown about indiscriminately. 
Another efficient device consists in the early matura- 
tion of the stigmas [proterogyny) or of the stamens 
{proteTandry) before the other sex in the same flower 
(condition of dichogamy). Still another, although much 
less common device, is the production of two or three 
types of flowers in the same species in which the styles 
and stamens are of different lengths (helaromorpbUtn). 
Thus in the primrose (Kig. 1539) one flower may have 
long stamens and short style, and another flower short 
stamens and long style (dimorphic), so that an insect 
coming from a long-stamened flower will have pollen 
on his proboscis at exactly the right height to onish 
the stigma of the long-styled flower. In Lythrum 
Salicaria, the various combinations between the len(!th 
of style and of each of the two sets of stamens furnish 
three types of flowers (IrimorpAic). Other devices are 
often found. Thus in some Aowpts the pollen of another 
plant is prepotent in fertilization over that of the same 
plant if both are placed on the stigma at the same time. 
There are also many special structural mechanisms in 
individual species, a study of which forms one of the 
most interesting chapters in biology. Here may be 



FLOWER 



1251 



ith pollen bv the Pronuba moth as she depoeila 
eggfi in the ovary, the gall flowere and capriGcation of 
t£e fii, {Uid nwny other equally extraordinary cases. 

Altbouf(h moet plants seem to need crosa-polliDa- 
tion aod to have structures adapted to this end, there 
are some in which definite preparation is made for 
close- or self-pollination. Thus certain plants, as violet, 
barley, Polyxala, Dalibarda (Fia. 1217) and others, 
produce eUiiioi/amoui fiowtrs, which are small green 
apetalous structures often hidden by the leaves or are 
even Bubttrranean. The calyx of uiese flowers never 
opens. The anthers he against the sticma, and on open- 
ing, the pollen is immediately applied to the stigma of 
that same Bower. Seeds produced by such flowent are 
often much in excess of Uiose produced by the showy 
Bowers of the same species. In the violet (Fig. 1540), 
cleistoeaiDous flowers ore produced in abundance 
throu^ the summer after the showy flowers have 
disappeared. Incidentally it is interesting that these 
Sowers in violets are more important in claseificatioa 
than are the showy ones. 

EvoluHon of the jUncer. — In the Thallophyta, Bry- 
ophyta and Pteridophyta there is no flower as that 
term is here uaed. The nwrophyte shows an increas- 
ina complexity through these groups, but therfi is no 
diaerentiation into an oi^an that eould popularly or 
even technically be called a flower. Among the Gym- 
noeperms, the cones of the PinacefB have been likened 
to a flower with many carpels but with no calyx or 
corolla, while those of the Gnetaces are still more 
flower-like. The true flower, however, is a structure 
characteristic of the Angiosperms. 

There are two promluent theories in regard to the 
ori^ of the flower. First, the foliar theory holds that 
sepals, petals, stamens and carpels are real leaves 
modiSea in the course of evolution from the foliage- 
leaves of their ancestors. Floral parts are, therefore, 
metamorphosed leaves. The evolution in this case 
would have been from below toward the apex of the 
flora] shoot, or from the foliage leaves toward the 
carpels. Certain teratological conditions have been 
cited in support of this theory, especially when petals, 
stamens and sometimes carpels have been replaced by 
green leaves. This has been considered merely a 
revendon to ancestral conditions. Trillium grandi- 
fiorwn frequently furnishes cases of this sort. This 
theory has Deen (■■■■--- 

■" it wholly d _ . 

_ . ..■, and is now accepted by very many botanist.. 
This has been termed Bower's stcriliiation hypothesis. 
It holds that the foliage-leaves together with the sepals 
and petals are sterilifed sporophyus and that evolution 
has been from above downward. Specifically it holds 
that although the simple sporophytc of the mosses 
consisted as at present of a capsule and acta uodiffer- 
entiated into stem and leaves, in some special groups 
of mosses, however, the spore-bearing region around 
the columella of the capsule became segmented into 
transverse belts separated by sterile belts. Coincident 
with this, the exti:iior of the capsule became lobed in 
such a way that each fertile belt came to he in the axil 
of a lobe. From this it is easy to postulate an increase 
in sise of the lobes to form the scide-leaves of the club- 
mosses and selujinellas, and an increase in specialiiea' 
tion of the fertile belt to form the axillary sporangium 
of these plants. It is but a step now to the angioeperm- 
ous flower, in which some of the sterile sporophylls 
have become modified into petals and sepals instead of 
leaves. The demand for a large independently growing 

Tirophyte is thought to have led to the sterilization 
the sporophylls. According to this theonr, leaves are 
recent rather than primitive structures. The steriliia- 



tion theory has the advantage of being more in accord 
with modem knowledge of ue evolution of organs in 
these groups. 

Floral evolution within the angioeperms is also diffi- 
cult to follow and botanists differ as to its course. It is 
by many held that the most ancient type is the acyclic 
type as represented by the RanunculaceEe, MagnoUa- 
cese and the like. Another although gradu: ■ dimin- 
ishing school holds that the simple fiowers of the 
Gramineie among the monocotyledons and the Amen- 
tiferse among the dicotyledons are the most primitive. 
The high speciahzation of other parts of these plants 
and the likelihood that the flowers have been simplified 
because of the adoption of the wind method of pollina- 
tion, strongly suggests that these flowers are not primi- 
tive but speci allied. 

The flower Jrom itandvoird oj eomparatvx mof- 
vhology. — The newer evolutionary morphok^y has 
brought about changes in viewpoint in regard to floral 
parts, and a new 



Accord- 
ing to present 
knowledge, there 

and in all bry- 
ophytes, pterid- 
ophytes and 
spermophytes a 
definite tutema- 
tion of two gcn- 

Ehases in thelife- 
istory of each 
plant, separated 
by a unicellular 

condition of the 
organism. One 



of these 



the 




primitive, 
bears only sex- 
cells (eggs and 
sperms) called 
ffamete* and is 
termed the gam- 
eiophyte, i while 
the other bears 



aporophyte. feutb, 
These genera. SSZl'L,. 
tions have ex- 
actly reversed their relative sise, complexity and ' 
degree of independence as evolution has progressed. 
The originally independent carbon-assimilating gam- 
etophyte of the mosses has become in the higher 
pl^ts wholly parasitic on the sporophyte and is 
entirely lackmg in green color. On the other hand the 
aporophyte, represented in the mosses and liverworts 
by the dependent capeule and seta stalk, has become 
the real plant, bearing leaves and flowers in the higher 
group. The thalloid reduced gametophyte of the ferns 
IS termed a prothaUium, bearing sperm-cells in anlheri- 
dia and an egg-cell in an arrJieponium. This prothal- 
lium has become differentiated m the more specialised 
family Selaginellaceae into two t3i>es differing in size 
and complexity of structure, and originating from spores 
of dilTerent siie. The large type of spore (ntegaspore or 
macrospore) gives rise to the larae female prothallium 
which bears the archegonia ; and the small spore {microt- 
spore) gives rise to the small male prothallium bearing 
only a single antheridium. The prothaUia of both 
sexes are very much reduced and permanently incloecd 
within the spore wall. In the flower-bearing plants, the 
reduction and dependence of the gametophyte have 
been carried much farther. The male gametophyte or 



1252 



FLOWER 



male prothsUium is iiic]oe«>d in the pollen-grain and 
Uie female proth&Uium within the embryo-sac. The 
spore-bearing chunber or chambers (sporangia) oorres- 

Knding to the capsule in the mosee are borne on 
,vee {fporophylli) in the ferns and fern allies. If 
these terniH used for the moeam and ferns are now 
applied to the organs of the higher plants the termi- 
nology will be as follows: Stemens, microtporophylU; 
anther-charaberB, mierogporaniiia; pollen-grain, miero- 
sjiore; nuclei within pollen-grain, maU ■prolhailiMm 
(male gametophyte) ; carpel, rnegasporophyll; ovule, 
memtporangium; embryo-sac, megaspore; cells within 
embryo-aac except embryo, female prolhaUium (female 
gametophyte) ; the embryo growing from the fertihzed 
egg is the daughter aporovhyU. A mature seed, there- 
fore, contains parts of three generations; seed-coats 
and nucellus, if present —sporophyte; endosperm 
(according to one interpretation) — gametophyt«; and 
embryo — daughter sporophyte TTiis termJnolofO' is now 

ring ground over the old in morphologicsl circles 
it shows the relation of the flower to organs in the 
lower groups. r. M. WiBaANO. 

FLOWER-DE-LUCE. The orisin of the Fleur-de-lis 
of the French coat of arms is not Known. By some it is 
supposed to represent the head of a spear^ by others the 
flower of a lily. It has also been derived from the 
points of a crown and from several animal forms, as 
bees and teads. Apparently, the iris has nothing to do 
with the heraldic Fleur-de-lis. This name as apohed 
to iris is of later origiit and of a purely botanical sig- 
nificance, referring chiefly to /, germaniea. See under 
"Fleur," LorouBse, Dictiouaire du XIX Sifele, 8:450. 

H. HASSKI.BRIKO. 
. FLOWBR-FBNCB, BARBADOB8: Pdwhiu paMtrrima. 
FLOWBR-OV-AR-HOUS: ftibitau TVunum. 
nOWXainO HAPLE: AbtUHm. 

FLtJCGEA (for Fluegge, a German botanist of eariy 
ISth century), BuphorSiAetx. Tropical shrubs, Bome- 
tiiues cult, in the greenhouse: Ivs. alternate, simple, 
entire: fls. apetalous, the staminate in axiUarv clusters, 
with imbricate calyx and rudimentary pistil, the pis- 
tillate borne singly, and with a lobed disk present, 
styles slender — ovules 2 in each of the 3 cells: seeds 
■' ■ ' "■ 'i the Old 



FONTANESIA 

Italy, the young eta. of which, inclosed in the sheathing 
petioles, are eaten raw in the early season; var. d<ilc«, 
Alef. {F. diiee, Mill.), the finocchio or Florence fennel, 
a low-growing condensed plant, with very large If .-tjases. 
L. H. B. 
FOElfilfU (named after the Chinese province 
Fokien where the tree grows). PxnAcex. A tree int«^ 
mediate in its characters between Chamst^TiariB and 
LibocedruB, resembling the latter in the foliage and in 
the seeds having 2 very unequal lateral winra; the cone 
is Bubgloboec and composed of numerous peltate scales, 
each bearins 2 seeds. — One speeiee in Fokien. F. 
HAdginsiJ, Henry & Thontas {Cupriuua Hddgituii, 
Dunn). Tree to 40 ft.: branchlets much flattened, the 
lateral Ivs. with spreading acute apex, green above and 
with white markmgs below: cone 1 in. long, ripening 
the second year. G.C, 111. 49:66, 67.— Suited only for 
cult, in warmer temperate i^ons. Alfred Rehder. 



pooved ( 

World tro^.._ _, ^_ 

F. leueopdme, Willd., with orbicular te obovate Iva. 
edible white berries has been intro. to cult, in £u. It 
is a bushy shrub from Asia south to Austral, and is 
said to need rich mold and moist high temperature. 
Prop, by cuttings. j. b. S. Norton. 

F(ENlCtTLUH (diminutive from the Latin for hay, 
because of its odor}. UmbeUlferx. About four species 
of annual, biennial and perennial herbs, spread from the 
Canaries to W, Asia, one being the Fennel of gardens 
(which see). Glabrous, often tall: Ivs. pinnately decom- 
pound, the segms. hnear or filiform: fls. yelk 



its aromatic seeds and Ivs.: erect and branched, 3-5 

ft.; Ivs. S-4 times pinnate, the ultimate Begras. very 
narrow and thread-like and rather stiff in the wild and 
in dry places but very slender when cult., the petioles 
broad and clasping: umbels large, of 15-20 or more 
rays. Often run wild.— Under cult., the petiole has 
become broad and sheathing and other changes have 
taken place. What arc considered to be horticultural 
forms have been described as distinct species: var. 
piperltum, Hort. (f . piperUum, DC), the caroeella of S. 



rather than tor their flowers. The term is indefinite. 
In some cases, and more correctly, it is used for plants 
with unique or interesting leaves— usually colored — as 
coleus. Rex begonia, peperomia, calathea, farfugium. 
In other cases it is used te designate plants of full 
foliage and graceful habit, — -plante that are priied for 
their generalhabit quite as much as for the characters of 
the individual leaves. Of this latter clese, ferns, palms, 

Kvillea, screw pine, araucaria, fatsia, ricinus, are 
iing examples. The latter class contains the most 
populu' commercial subjects, and they are much used 
m room and table decorations. The plants are often 
rented for use in temporary decorations. For the cul- 
ture of foliage plants, refer to the various genera. 

F0NTAN£SIA (after BAi6 Louiche Desfontaines, 

Erominent French botanist, 1752-1833, director of the 
□tanical garden at Paris). OUActx. Shrubs grown for 
their handsome foUage. 

Deciduous, glabrous: branches quadrangular: Ivs. 
oppoeite, Bhort-petiolwi, entire: fls. perfect, small, in 
anllary clusters forming terminal leafy panicles; 
calyx minute, 4-parted; petals 4, narrow, small; sta- 
mens 2, exceeding the petals: ovary Bupcrior, usually 
2-celled; stigma 23obed : fr. a flat, winged nutlet. — ^Two 
species m W. Asia and China, 

These are slender -branched shrubs with rather 
narrow leaves and small whitish flowers in short ter- 
minal panicles. They retain the foliage unchanged until 
late in fall, and are well adapted for shrubberies, grow- 
ing in any good garden soil. F. Foriunn is haray as 
far north as Massachusetts, F. phiUyrieouies only half- 
hardy. Propagation is readily effected by greenwood 
cutting!! under glass in early summer; also by layers 



FONTANESIA 



FORCING 



1253 



F6rtiineif Carr. {F, phillyrsBoides yar. aininsiSf 
Debeaux. P, caUf&mica, Hort.). Shrub, to 15 ft.: 
Ivs. lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, shining, 
quite entire, 2-4 in. long: fls. in axillary and tenninai 
dusters, forming a narrow, leafy pamcle: fr. broad, 
oval or ovate, Ji-3^in. long. May, June. China. 
R.H. 1859, p. 43.— -Sometimes united with the fol- 
lowing, to wnich it is superior bv its more vigorous 
growth, the darker and larger foliage, and by the 
greater hardiness. In China it is used as a hed^ 
plant and may be reoonunended for thai in this 
country. 

phiUmeoldes, Lab. Shrub, to 10 ft.: Ivs. ovate- 
lanoeolate or narrow-eUiptic, mostly with rousJi, 
minutely denticulate margin, \\i-2yi in. long: fls. 
and frs. like those of the preceding species. W. Asia. 
L.B.C. 14:1308. Var. angustifdlia, Rehd. (P. angusti- 
fdHOf Dipp.). Lvs. narrow-lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate. Alfred Rbhder. 

FORAGE PLANTS are mentioned only mcidentally 
in this work, as they belong to agricultiu^ rather than 
to horticulture. They are mostly grasses and legumi- 
nous plants, and have a very large special literature, 
much of wmch can be secured from tne United States 
Department of Agricultiu^, Washington. D. C, the 
various experiment stations^ and separate books. Some 
of the forage plants are of mterest to horticulturists as 
green-manures and cover-crops. 

FORCING. The word forcing is varioushr used. 
Properly, it should designate the growing of plants 
outside their usual or normal season. This distin- 
ffuiahes forcing from the ordinary purpose of the glass- 
house, which IS to imitate the usual season in which 
plants grow. For example, begonias are not forced: we 
endeavor to protect them and to give them the season 
and the concutions imder which they f^w in the wild. 
Carnations when flowered in the wmter are forced, 
because we transpose their seasons. Chrysanthemums 
blooming in^October and November are not forced: 
they are only protected. Sometimes the word forcing 
is used in a very special sense, to denote the produc- 
tion of flowers from bulbs or tubers in a very short 
time under the influence of a very high temperature. 
Thus, the lily-of-the-valley may be plaosd in a tempera- 
ture of 90** or above, and the larg^ buds be forced to 
throw out their flowers before the plant secures a firm 
foothold on the soil. 

A forcing-house is a building in which plants are 
forced; but the term has come to denote a simple glass- 
house in which plaits are grown only for sale, in dis- 
tinction from private conservatories, or more elab- 
orate structures used for the display of plants. See 
Qreenkouae. 

The forcing industry in America is very large. At 
first it was confined mostly to cut-flowers (which see), 
but pot-plants, vegetables and fruits are receiving more 
and more attention. The staple forced flowers are the 
rose, carnation, violet, lily-of-the-valley, and various 
bulbs. These are treated under their respective names. 
Of vegetables, the most important forcing species is 
lettuce. This is followed by tomato, cucumber and 

radish. Other 
vegetables are of 
very minor im- 
portance as forc- 
mg products. 
The growing of 
fruits imder glass 
is receiving in- 
creasing atten- 
tion in this ooim- 
ty. Very little 
of this fruit-rais- 
ing is really forc- 




ing, however, since the glass indosure is used chiefly to 
protect the plants and to enable better care to be given : 
the fruit does not ripen much ahead of its normal season. 
Of this category are glasshouse grapes. Strawberries 
are really forced, however, the whole period of vegetation 
and bloom being greatly forwardea. Much attention 
is now given by florists to the forcing of hard3r plants: 
and this is one of the most delightful of horticultural 




1542. Btco spAn forcing-house, 20 feet 
wide, heated by iteem. 



1543. Uneven spen forcing-home, 20 feet wide, on a tide hill. 

Heated by steam. 

operations for the amateur. Many of our native plants 
can be forced with the greatest satisfaction, but the 
business is usually confined to imported stock of florists' 
plants. 

The forcing-house should be of the simplest construc- 
tion. The plan should secure the ^eatest amount of 
Ught, economy of space and of heatmg, and dhrectness 
and simplicity in every operation. The simple sash-bar 
frame, without rafters (Fig. 1541), is most satisfactory 
when properly constructed. The side walls should he 
low and the roof comparatively flat. Often there is 
no glass on the side walls. Under most conditions, the 
house should run north and south, particulaxlv if 
even in span (Fig. 1542), but the lay of the land and the 
location of existing features usually determine the direc- 
tion. If the house runs east and west, or if it stands on 
sloping land (Fig. 1543), an uneven or broken span is 
usually advisable. The widely different opinions respec- 
ing the merits and demerits of the different spans are 

firoof that each is good under certain circumstances, 
t is the prevailing opinion that, in broken spans, the 
liNig roof should be to the south; yet formerly some 
glasshouses had the short span — ^which is then very 
Bteep — facing the south (Fig. 1546). 

In America, all forcing-houses are heated by means 
of small wrought-iron pipes, which fit together with 
threads. The old-time cast-iron flues may be employed 
for conservatories, but they are too bunglmg for forcm^- 
houses. They do not admit of sufiicient modification m 
layout to adapt them to the long and often crooked 
runs of forcing-house establishments. The wrought- 
iron pipes are heated either by steam or water. &ch 
syst^ has its advocates, which means that each has 
its merits. Steam is less costly to install, since less pipe 
L? required. It also admits of greater variation in the 
layout. Crooks and obstacles are more easily over- 
come. In a large establishment, the place may be 
heated up sooner. Hot water ^ves a milder heat 
because the pipes are less hot. Of itself, it is less hable 
to fluctuations. Theoretically, it is less expensive in 
fuel; but in practice, the cost of running is found to 
depend more on the character of the particular system 
and the operations of the fireman than on the medium 
itself. When properly installed, steam is as uniform in 
action as water, and it is adapted to larger areas and to 
higher temperatures (p. 1403). 

Very good shape for a forcing-house in the propor- 
tion of breadth to length is probably as 1 is to 4 or 5. 
The best houses are rarely less than 18 or 20 feet wide, 
and rarely more than 30 to 35 feet. From 400 to 800 feet 
is considered to be a good range of profitable length. 



I 



1254 



FORCING 



Houses of greater length are constructed, but they 
must be considered as speciid cases. Parallel houses 
are often ''nested'' with good results^the adjoining 
houses resting on a common wall. When the various 
houses are to be used for one kind of crop, the partitions 
between them may be omitted; a very large space may 



..-'• 



woAN nooH mi 




1544. Unoreii sptn f ordng-liotiM, 30 feet wide. Hot wUer. 

then be covered with practically one house without 
the necessity of rearing a high roof. The size of house 
tends constantly to increase. 

The accompanying illustrations (Flgp. 1541-1548) 
show old and recent styles of American forcing-houses. 
For further discussion of glasshouses, see Greenhottse. 

L.H.B. 
The fordng of vegetables. 

The title 'Vegetable-forcing" may be applied to any 
method of growing vegetables which wiU cause them 
to mature or to become suitable for use in a shorter 
time or at a different season than when grown under 
normal conditions. This includes the growing of vege- 
tables in coldframes, hotbeds and vegetable forcing- 
houses. 

Coldframes. 

Coldframes are box-like structures about 6 feet in 
width and of any desired length. They usually are 
built to run east and west and with the north side a 
foot or so higher than the south side. These frames 
are sometimes covered with muslin but usuaJly with 
sash in which glass is fastened. The frames serve not 
only as a protection against cold winds and frost but 
as a means of catching the sun's rays which may pass 
throu^ them. In this way, a higher temperature can 
be maintained in these frames than that wnich prevails 
in the open at the same time. Coldframes are used for 
the purpose of startinjg crops early and thus growing 
them to maturity earher than they can be grown out- 
side, and also for the growing of plimts for the field- 
crops. 

Hotbeds. 

Hotbeds are similar in construction to coldframes. 
The chief difference is that in the hotbeds fresh horse- 
manure is used to supply heat. The manure 
is firmly packed to a considerable 
depth, in a pit dug for that 
purpose inside the 
frame. Rich garden 
soil is placed over 
the manure to a 
depth of about 6 
inches. As the msr 
nure ferments, the 
heat thus formed 
penetrates the soil 
above, thus fur- 
nishing a satisfac- 
tory medium for 
plaJnt-growth. 



FORCING 

Hotbeds are in conmion use in connection with 
private gardens in aU sections of the coimtnr except 
where freezing weather does not occur. They are 
used extensively in a conmierical way in and near 
most of the lar^ cities in northern latitudes^ and 
especially such cities as Philadelphia, Cincinnati and 
St. Louis. Crops are ot>wn to maturity more commonly 
in hotbeds than in coldframes. 

Vegetable fordng-hmtaes. Figs. 1547, 1548. 

The growing of vegetables in vegetable forcing- 
houses has become a very popular and profitable line 

of work in many sections of the coun- 
try. The area of glass devoted to ve^ 
tables has increased with great rapidity 
during the last few years. The first 
section of the ooimtry to become noted 
as a forcing center was Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, ^on afterward Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, became an imi>ortant vege- 
table-forcing locality. The Grand 
Rapids growers did not copy after the 
Boston growers, however, as their soil, 
houses, varieties and methods in general differed very 
materially from those used by the Boston growers. 

Vegetable-forcing, as conducted by the Boston 
growers, was rapicfly extended to other places in the 
eastern part of the United States. The development 
of the industry was even more rapid and became more 
extensive in Michigan and nearby states. Grand 
Rapids methods, with modifications, were followed 
very largely in this section of the country. The great- 
est development has occurred in northern Ohio, 
especially at Ashtabula, Toledo and Cleveland. How- 
ever, nearly every city of much size, in the northern 
part of the United States, has in or near it one or more 
vegetable forcing-houses. The amount of money 
invested in these houses is enormous. A single acre 
imder glass represents an expenditure of $15,000 to 
$25,000, depending on the kind of material used and 
the cost of the material at the time the building was 
done. 

Success in the growing of vegetables imder glass 
does not depend upon climate. Vegetables can be 
grown in greenhouses in an^r state of the Union and in 
any country on the earth in which vegetation flour- 
ishes. However, vegetables can be grown under glass 
more cheaply in moderately warm climates than in 
cold regions, and more easily where much sunshine 
occurs than where cloudy weather is prevalent. 

As the gardener makes his own sod for the forcing- 
house, to a considerable extent, the character of the 
native soil is not so important as is the case with most 
field-grown crops. However, a sandy soil can 
be prepared for the forcing-house more 
easuy than can a heavy clay soil. ^^g^^'^^^^'^ t 
A good vcpetable-forcing ^^^^^^^^ I S I 

sou should con- 




1545. Lean-to lettuce home, 26 feet wide. Hot water. 



FORCING 



FORCING 



1255 



tain an abundance of plant-food, should have a good 
water-holding capacity, be capable of easy working 
and be as free as possible from weed seeds and disease 
germs. 

A verv important factor in determining the financial 
return from vegetable-forcing is nearness to market. 
Other thmgs being equal, the closer the grower can 
get to the consumer the greater the profit. Cheapness 
of fuel fcNT heating purposes is also very important. If 
coal is to be usra, the hauling should be considered 
when estimating the cost. 

No one thing has more to do with the success or 
failure in vegetable-forcing than the man who runs the 
business. To be a success ne must enjoy the work. He 
should have an understanding of the requirements of 
the crops to be grown and ability to apply himself 
diligently to his work. Careful attention to details 
is of greater importance in connection with vegetable- 
fordng than with any other line of vegetable-growing. 
Besides being a good grower, he should be a good 
salesman. 

The fordng of lettuce. Fig. 1548. 

Head lettuce. — As this crop has special treatment 
elsewhere^ it will need but brief mention here. The 
Boston growers grew head lettuce from the beginning. 
They were succe^ul in the growing of it and t£e mar- 
kets in which they sold demanded head lettuce. The 
soil used by the Boston growers is of a very loose tex- 
ture, being we^ filled with organic matter. In working 
over the soil in the houses it is spaded to a depth of 
lyi to 2 feet. Large quantities of manure are added at 
frequent intervals. Some ^wers practise steam 
sterilization. Heavy watering is done before the plants 
are set in the beds. The water-holding capacity of the 
soil is so grcAt that usually no further watering is 
necessai^ until the following crop is to be put in. The 
lettuce IS allowed to develop until the heads become 
larse and solid, when they are cut, trimmed, washed 
ana carefully packed in boxes, three dozen heads in a 
box. If the lettuce is to be shipped some distance it 
is put up in cases holding one barrel. • It is sold by the 
dozen heads. 

Lec^ lettuce. — It was not until Eugene Davis, of 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, originated and introduced 
the Grand Rapids 1^ lettuce that lettuce-forcins 
became popular in the middle West. The growing of 
head lettuce under glass did not prove a success in 
this r^on. The cry of "over-production** was heard 
soon after the forcing of leaf lettuce began and has con- 
tinued until the present time. With the exception of 
short periods during the fall months of some years, 
there has been no over-production of this crop. 

Cultural methods. 

When leaf lettuce is sold by the poimd. the usual 
practice is to grow three crops of lettuce followed b^ 
one of cucumbers or tomatoes. When the lettuce is 
sold by the dozen, more than three crops are commonly 
grown before the ground is given over to the other 
crop. Lettuce sold oy the pound is usually grown to a 
much larger size than when it is sold b^ the dozen. 

The seed for the first crop of lettuce is sown from the 
first to the middle of August. It is sown in flats or in 
solid beds, usiially broadcast but sometimes in rows. 
It is sown very tluckly and if covered at all with earth 
the covering is very shallow, not enough soil being 
used to hide the seeds entirely from view. In warm 
weather one thiclmess of heavy brown paper or burlap 
IS thoroughly moistened and placed over the seed as 
soon as it has been sown and watered. The covering 
is left on until the seed germinates which will vary 
from two to five days according to the amount of sun- 
shine and degree of neat in the house. It should not be 
left on too long as spindling, nearly worthless plants 
will result. In cold, cloudy weather seeds sown in 



flats will germinate best if covered with glass for a few 
days after sowing. 

In about a week, in bright weather, and from ten 
da3rs to two weeks in cloudy weather, the seedlings will 



>f 4'-< 




1256 



FORCING 



be ready to prick off. This o|)eratioD is tedious and 
requires deft hands and practice to do it well and 
rapidly. The planta are separated one from another, 
care being takea not to injure them, and tranaplantea 
into other flats or beds. They are Hpaced about 2 
inches apart each way. All diseased ana poorly rooted 
plants are discarded. The number of plania that can 
be pricked off in a day of t«n hours will vary from 5,000 
to 10,000 according to the skill of the operator. Some 
of the best growers steriliic the soil in which the seeds 
are sown and the seedlinp grown. This not onlv 
insures plants free from disease but eradicates alt 
weeds by destroying the vitaUty of the weed seed. 

All the care tbat is required for the seedlings is to 
keep the planthouse at the proper temperature, see 
that the soil is sunplied with the right amount of 
moisture, remove all weeds which appear and stir the 
soil when necessary to keep it from crusting. The 
house in which the plants are grown should be well 
ventilated in order to guard againHt the damping-off 
of the seedlings. An occasional smudging witn some 
form of tobacco is necessary to keep the green aphis 
under control. The cabbage butterfly frequently 
deposits eggs on fall-crown pU^ts and these hatch into 
ipreen worms which feed upon the lettuce in the beds. 
The butterflies should be killed when seen flying near 
the plants and should be guarded against as much as 
possible. 

In the fall when the days are long and many of them 
bright, lettuce will be large enough to set in the per- 
manent beds about four weeks after it is pricked off. 
When lettuce is sold by the pound it should not be set 
closer than 7 by 7 int^es or farther apart than 8 by 8 
inches tor best results. When sold by the doien it can 
be set as close as 5 by 5 inches, although the best dis- 
tance will depend upon the sise of phints which are 
found most [nofitable to grow. The first crop of let- 
tuce will be ready to cut, when sold by the pound, in 
six to eight weeks from the time the plants are set 
in the permanent beds. It should give a. yield of at 
least three-quarters of a pound a square foot. 

The prices that the growers have realized for the 
first cuttings of lettuce have, during recent years, been 
rather low. The cost of growing this crop is small, 
however, as little fuel is needed for heating purposes. 
The second and third crops will require more time for 
their proper derelopment than the first. They should 
give a heavier yield, however, and the prices secured 
are usually better. 

It is very important to have plants of the right sise 



n be prepared 



FORCING 



to set in the beds as soon as the ground ci 

after a crop is out. To be able to do tl , 

sary to make frequent sowings of seed. In large green- 
house establishments, seeds should be sown every 
day or every other day, while in a small forcing-bouse 
a sowing should be made once a week throughout the 
season. No time should be lost between crops as time 
is money in the vegetable-forcing^ business. Con- 
siderable time can be gained by makmg a second trans- 
planting for the second and third crops. The plants 
should oe removed from the flats before they begin 
to crowd and placed in Z-inch pots. These pots should 
be plunged in the soil between the newly set plants in 
the permanent beds. The pots should be placed in the 
beds as thick a^ain as the permanent pUnts are set. 
By following this plan, the plants can oe grown to a 
much lai^er size without injury than is possible when 
they are grown only in the flats. 

Grand Rapids lettuce will stand a wide range of 
temperature without serious injury, but the lower the 
temperature the slower the growtn and tougher the 
leaves, and the higher the temperature the more rapid 
the growth and more tonder the leaves. A low tempera- 
ture wiU produce heavy lettuce and a high temperature 
light lettuce. As long as thorough ventilation is given, 
little danger of injury from hi^ temperature will 
occur, but high t«inperature and closed ventilators 
invito disaster. The best results are secured when the 
temperature is held at 45° to 50" at night until the 
lettuce has attained sufficient height, 8 to 10 inches, 
when it should be kept as near ^° as possible. The 
lowering of the temperature at the finishing of the 
crop will increase the weij^t considerably. If the 
houses are arranged ho that it is possible to keep but 
one temperature, a night temperature of 45° to 48° is 
most satisfactory. The day temperature may vary 
greatly without injuring the lettuce if the ventilators 
and heating pipes receive proper attention. Ventilation 
should be given at ail times during the day except 
when the weather is very cold or stormy. The heating 
pipes should be turned off whenever the heat from the 
sun is sufficient to give the proper temperature in the 
houses. 

Sub-irrigation is the most satisfactory method of 
watering lettuce. The water can be applied at any 
time through the tile without wetting the foUage. 
This method is not in general use because of the ex- 
pense of installation. Water-tight benches or beds 
are essential for its successful operation. 

The overhead or Skinner system of watering is in 



1M7. A nD|* ol fordai-hODiM. 



FORCING 

eommon use, especially in large eetabliahments. It is 
a great improvement over the old method of w&tering 
with the hoee. It is not onlv more efficient but requires 
much leae time and labor than the hose method. With 
it, water can be appUed in any quantity desired utd 
BO Kently that do bakiw ot tae soil wiU occur. 

Whatever the method of watering, the 
•oil should be thoroughly soaked as soon as 
the plants are set. It should not be allowed 
to dry out, aa the plante will be damaced 
by the resulting check in growth. When 
the water is applied to the surface, the 
watering abould be done only on bright days 
and early enough in the aay so Ukat the 
s wUl dry oS before night. 



FORCING 



1257 



lettuce WveB w 



IjuteU and dittOMi of leiluet. 

The one inaect that is always ready to 
make its appearance is the green aphis. 
Fumigating regularly, at least once a week 
with tobacco stems or extract of tobacco 
will keep this insect under control. In case 
it secures a foothold and one smudging does 
not do the work, a second the followmg night 
will put the apiiia under control. Tobacco 
dust scattered on the surface of the soil 
before the planta are set will help to repel 
the aphis. 

The cabbage worm ia often troublesome, 
especially on the fall crop. Poisoning when 
the plants are small, and nand-pickiug whrai 
tiie crop approaches maturity, are the most practical 
remedies. Snails and slugs sometimes do damage, but 
do not as a rule appear when clean methods of cul- 
ture are practised. Other insects, such as the white fly 
and black aphis, make their appearance on lettuce 
occasionally but seldom become serious. 

Among the more common diseases Meeting lettuce 
is the drop or stem-rot. This rot act« very much like 
the dampma-off of the aeedlinra. It is a fungous trou- 
ble and can DC controlled to a large extent by thorough 
ventilation. Sterilization of the soil with steam some- 
times becomes nece^ury in extreme cases. There ore 
other less serious forms of rot affecting leaf lettuce, all 
of which can be kept under control, as a rule, by proper 
vmtilatioQ. Watering at ni^t or during cloudy 
weather and high temperatures with closed ventilatora 
are practices which will tend to induce attacks of rot. 

Another lettuce trouble of common occurrence is 
"rosette." This is a disease which attacks the roots, 
retarding and in some instances stoppinc the growth of 
file plants. Sterilising with formaldehyde, uwd at the 
rate of two pounds to fifty gallons of water and apply- 
ing one gallon of the mixture to each square foot of 
space, has frequently given good results. Sterilising 
with steam, while more expensive, is more certain to 

Srove effective. When the lettuce is allowed to suffer 
'om the lack of sufficient moisture in the soil, it will 
often have the appearance of lettuce rosette. The 
ETOwer should examine the soil carefully when the 
lettuce appears stunted in growth to be sure that the 
trouble is not lack of water instead of a diseased eoa- 
dition before going to the expense of steriliiing. 

Cutting and packing lettuce. 

in the development of leaf 
s right sise and of the proper 
t for market. This can be 
and appearance of the let^ 
the lettuce plants will feel 
led gently on the top. If the 
few brownish spots, the cut- 
lout delay. The abilitv to 
uoe should be cut will be 

■rs who make a business of 



shipping lettuce, pock it in barrels. It is placed with the 
top of the lettuce plants toward the outside of the 
burel and, when filled, the barrel is covered with bur- 
lap. Fifty pounds are usually packed in an apple or 
cracker barrel and from seventj^-five to ninety pounds 
in a sugar barrel. The lettuce ia protected from frost 



IMS. A BOdem honu ot IMtnca. 

in cold weather by lining the barrel with paper. In 
warm weather, holes are cut in the sides of the barrels to 
admit air and thus prevent heating. 

Boxes of different sizes but usually holding about a 
bushel are used by many growers. When the lettuce 
is (o be shipped, the boxes are covered with wooden 
covers. When it is to be sold on a local market the 
lettuce is covered with paper or left uncovered. At 
Ashtabula, Ohio, all of the growers pack their lettuce 
in small batdcets with stationary handles. Three and 
one-quarter pounds is packed in each basket and the 
lettuce and basket ore covered neatly with paper. 

The kind and size of the package and the amount of 
lettuce put in is not of so much importance as the 
quality of the lettuce and the care with which it is 
prepared for market. Bright, clean, crisp lettuce will 
sell much more readily than tough, dirty lettuce. All 
dead or yellow leaves should be rKnoved and all dirt 
washed (fi. 
MarkeHnfi. 

At some of the large for 



K centers the growers 



organised for tjie purpose of marketing taeir crops. 
One man is selcctea to do the selling of the entire out- 
put. The growers endeavor to put up a unifomt grade 
of produce, and inspection ia provided to see that no 
inferior stock goes in with that which is up to the 
standard. This plan insures better feelins among the 
growers and secures better returns for them than is 
possible when each grower' sells his own products in 
competition with the other growers. 

A grower who has a local demand for all the lettuce 

he can grow has a decided advantage over the man who 

is obliged to ship his lettuce some distance. The per- 

having a market within easy driving distance ci 



if he grows good stock and puts it up neatly, not only 
cut out the cost of shipping, the commission and mu<ji 
of the package cost that the man who must ship ii 



obliged to pay, but he can also get a higher priix 
for his lettuce, as he can put it on the market in better 
condition than is possible with shipped lettuce. 
Forcing of cucumbers. 

Cucumbers are forced very commonly as a spring 
and early summer crop in many r^ons. The New 



1258 



FORCING 



FORCING 



England growers devote a considerable area under 
glass to cucumbers in the fall and winter months. 
Eastern-grown cucumbers are sold in western markets 
at the time of the year at which most of the western 
growers are devoting all of their glass to lettuce or 
tomatoes. Some of the vegetable forcers in Illinois 
and farther west grow cucumbers in the fall and winter. 

Varielies, 

The long English t3rp|e of- cucumber is not popular for 
commercial purposes in this country although it is 
grown to some extent in private greenhouses. The 
American forcing-man prefers a type of cucumbers 
for forcing which is of the White Spine order. The 
first reouisite of a good forcing cucumber is prolificacy. 
It should be from 8 to 10 inches long, even a foot m 
length not being objectionable, of regular and uniform 
diameter, not too thick, and free from what some term 
''neck" ends. It should be dark green in color. The 
fewer the seeds and the more poorly they are developed 
the better it will please the consumer. 

Cultural methods. 

Cucumber seed is planted in pots or flats about 
four weeks before the plants are to be set in the per- 
manent beds. When planted in pots two to four seeds 
are placed in each ix)t. When planted in flats the seeds 
are sown rather thickly in rows about 2 inches apart. 
The flat-grown plants are pricked off, when large 
enough to handle, into pots, one phmt in a pot, or into 
flats about 4 inches apart each way. The piimts which 
are started in pots are not pricked off but they are 
thinned, when necessary, to not more than two in a pot. 

Cucimibers should be kept growing all of the time to 

fet best results. In order to do this, they must be 
ept in a warm house. The night temperature should 
be above 60° and may run as high as 70°. The day 
temperature should run at least 10° hi^er than the 
night temperature and on bright days it can go still 
higher if the ventilators are open. The seedlings should 
never be allowed to dry out nor should they be watered 
too heavily as damping off is liable to occur when the 
soil is too wet. The watering should always be done 
on bright days. Cold draughts should be avoided as 
they induce attacks of mildew. Judicious ventilatinig 
will insure hardy plants. 

The distance apart the cucumbers should be planted 
depends on the method of training to be used. There 
are two distinct methods of training, the ''A'^Hshaped 
trellis and the upright. When the ti^lis is to be used, 
the plants are set in rows from 10 to 16 feet apart ana 
from 10 to 15 inches apart in the rows. When the vines 
are to be trained upright, the plants are set from 2 to 

3 feet apart each way, one plant in a place. 

The trellises are made of wire or slats and wire which 
are run across 2 by 4 pieces of timber placed at wide 
intervals. When the vmes are trained upri^t, strings 
are fastened to wires which are run above each row, 
one string to each vine. When training, the vines are 
simplv twisted around the strings and the ''feelers'' 
attach themselves and thus hold the vines in place. 

Some growers use slender sticks, made especially for 
the purpose, on which to train the vines. The sticks are 
1 H oy ?i inches and from 6 to 8 feet long. A piece about 

4 inches in length is nailed across the bottom to keep 
the stick from sinking into the soil. The tops of the 
sticks are fastened to wires run parallel to the rows, 
one wire above each row. The vines are held in place 
by pairs of nails driven into the sticks at intervals of 
12 to 15 inches. One of the nails of each pair is bent at 
right angles after being driven into the stick and the 
bent part is dropped onto the other nail after the vine 
has l>een placed between the nails. 

The pruning of the vines is similar, no matter which 
method of training is used. All laterals are cut back 
more or less. One to three female flowers are left on 



each lateral. Best results are usually secured when the 
laterals are cut beyond the first femiale bloom. 

Cucumbers in fruiting use an enormous amount of 
water if it is available. As soon as the supply of water 
in the soil becomes reduced below the amount required 
for the maximum growth of the phmts and fruit, the 
number of short runtv cucumbers will increase in 
proportion to the number of long ones. The Skinner 
system or anv other similar system of overhead water- 
ing is ideal for cucumbers. Care should be taken to 
do the watering at a time when the foliage will dry off 
quickly, especially if mildew or any x)ther fungous 
trouble makes its appearance. Aside from the fact 
that the soil must be rich in. phmt-food, there is no 
other matter of as great importance as the water-sup- 
ply. Whether the water be applied a little at a time 
and frequently or in larger quantities and at longer 
intervals is not of so much impo tance as the supply 
itself, which should be sufficient for the needs of the 
plants at all times. 

Pollination. 

Some form of artificial pollination is necessary for 
best results with the White Spine type of cucumber. 
Hand pollinating is veiy tedious ana is seldom em- 
ployed in large houses. The usual method is to place 
a hive of honey bees in the house and let them do the 
work. In lar^ establishments sevend hives are re- 
quired. One strong hive for each half-acre of cucum- 
bers will be ample. When first put in, the bees are 
auite uneasy but they soon quiet down and make 
tiemselves very much at home. 

Insects and diseases of cucumbers. 

One of the most formidable insects attacking forc- 
ing-house cucumbers is the red spider. Somegrowers 
are obliged to fi^t this insect every season. The best 
way to combat it is to prevent its making an appear- 
ance. This can often be done by keeping all of the 
soil, walks and other places where there is enough dirt 
to permit of their breeding, moist at fdl times. When 
these little animals appear on the phmts thev can be 
driven off by spraying the plants thoroughly with 
water. To be effective^ the water must be applied with 
force and directed against the under side of uie leaves. 

Another insect which causes much damage to cucum- 
bers is the striped cucumber beetle. The stink-bug 
may be included with-it, as the work of the two insects 
is very similar in its effect upon the plants. The most 
serious trouble with these insects does not occur 
when the plants are small, as thev can be protected 
then, but when they are large. Ine vines which are 
damaged by these enemies resemble those injured or 
killed by the bacterial wilt. If the vines are killed by 
the wilt, all of the plant dies at one time. When the 
damage is caused by the bugs^ the upper part of the 
plant or a lateral branch will wilt and dies first, usually 
but not always followed in a few da3rs by the wilting 
of another branch or the remaining part of the pl^t. 
No effective means has as yet been found for combat- 
ing these insects. Some growers claim that by keeping 
the side ventilators and doors closed most of the time 
the bugs will not get into the houses. To keep them 
out in some places the ventilator openings would have 
to l)e screened. No crops which the bugs work on 
should be grown near the forcing-houses. When the 
insects once gain admittance to the houses, they are 
very difficult to eradicate. The stink-bugs lay their 
eggs in clusters on the leaves and these should be 
gathered and destroyed. 

The white fly is occasionally serious on cucumbers. 
The remedy is to fumigate with hydrocyanic acid gas, 
but as this gas is dangerous to both plant and animal 
life it is used only in extreme cases. 

The green and black aphis occasionally attack 
cucumbers in the forcing-house. The green aphis can 



FORCING 



1259 



be controlledj>y fumigtitmg with tobacco. The bl&ck 
aphis usually occurs in patches and can be destroyed 
by applying stronx solutions of tobacco or soap , 
■ Nematoace (eef-wonas) often become very destruc- 
tive to cucumbers. As they work entirely on the roots, 
tbcir presence is indicated by a weak and etiut«l 
p^wth of the vines. There is no cure for a vine once 
attacked. Sterjiiiiog the infested soil with st«ani is the 
usual method of eradicating them. It is not safe to set 



lisfaed. It is most tikdy to occur on plants which a^_ 
weakened in some other way, as by having tixi much 
water applied or too little heat. Plants which are kept 
growing vigorauajy are seldom attacked by the wilt. 

The downy mildew is very partial to cucumberB 
and often does serious damage. Cold draughts should 
be avoided as much as possible. Freauent spraying 
with bordeaux will keep the trouble in check. Another 
kas common but sometimes serious cucumber dis- 
ease is anthracDOse. Bordeaux is the remedy for thia 
disease. Root rot of cucumbers ia of occasional occur- 
rence and may be prevented by steriliiing the soil 
with steam. 
Grading and paekin^i eucwnhen. 

In sorting cucumbers for market they are made 
into at least two KTades. The culls are seldom placed 
on the market. About the same kinds of packages 
are used in which to pack cucumbers as are used 
for lettuce. They vary in size from the sugar barrel 
to the email basket nolding from two to two. and 
one-half doien specimens. When handled in winter 
they are usually packed in pt^ver-lined boxes or 
baskets. 
Forcing of tonutom. Pig. 1649. 

Tomatoes aro forced under glass at all seasons of 
the vear except during the time they are ripping moat 
freely in the field. The largest area of glass is dcvot«d 
to this crop in the spring and early summer. I'here ia 
also quite a large area srown during the fall and earjy 
winter. Only a very kw growen force tomatoee in 
the midwinter months. 
Vari^iet. 

There is a difference of opi 
to which varieties are beet foi -. . „ 

way it may be said that for the fall crop the 

having medium to small fruits are moat deairable. 
Some growers also prefer these kinds for the spring 
and early summer crop. Other growers like the huge 
fruiting sorts, such as the Stone and Globe for the 
summer crop. Some markets prefer pink or purple 
varieties and others red sorts. 

Some of the requirements of a good forcing variety 
are: prolificacy, snoothnem in form, meatiness and 
boimI flavor. U the fruit is to be shipped it should not 
be too tender of skin. Some varieties crack more 
readily than others and those that are inchned to crack 
should be avoided. Other qualities not lacking, those 
kinds which are most resistant to disease are to be 
preferred. Some varieties need less attention b the 
matter of hand pollinating than others. This is a 
desirable character and should be given consideration 
when selecting a variety for forcing purposes. 
Cuiiural methods. 

For the fall crop the seeds should be sown in June. 
The best results are secured from this crop when the 
fruit is all set and well grown before cold weather 
begins. The crop should b^in ripening about the time 
killing frosts occur and the Dulk of the crop should be 
off by ^e first of January. 



For the spring and early summer crop the seed should 
be sown in time so that the plants will be ready to set 
in the permanent beds by the first of March. If a 
temperature of 60° can be maintained at night, the 
plants can be grown in two months from the time of 
the Bowing of the seed. Plants set in the permanent 
places the first of March should ripen fruit ^out the 
first of June and should be through fruiting by the 
middle of August or a little before. 

The care of the seedling plants is about the same 
for the fall and spring crops, except that owing to the 
differoice in the amount of sunshine they can be 
grown more quickly 
and easily in summer 
than in winter. For 
dther crop the seeds 
aie sown thickly in 
flats or beds and in 
rows about 2 inches 
wart. As soon aa 
they are sown the 
seeds should be 
oovered with glass, 

Eper or burlap to 
^ the surface of 
the soil moist. When 
large enough to 
handle, the seedlings 
should be pricked ofl 
bo flats or beds, spacing 
e plants 2 inches apart 
ch way. Before they 
gin to crowd, they 
auld be transplanted 
ain, this time mto 2- 
;b pots. A third hand- 
g should be made in 
out three weeks when 
e plants should be trans- 
Ted to 4- or 5-inch pots, 
pots they 



A temperature ol 
65° should be i 
ined in the plant house 
night and at least 10° 
{her on bright days. 
ireful attention to water- 
; and ventiUiting is verv 
portant. Plants whicn 
3 given too much water 
which grow in a house 
which the ventilators 
s seldom open will be 
idily attacked by dis- 
9ee. Plants whidi are 
operly grown are dis- 
ease-resistant to a con- 
siderable extent. 
The spacing of' tomato 
'orcers is much 
_. ., .. ith cucumbers. 

llie plants are seldom set closer than IM feet nor 
farther apart than 4 feet. Two by 2 feet or 13^ by 
3 feet are good distances. Nearly all tomatoes are 
trained upright and usually to one stem. When two 
stems are used, the tope are trained apart a foot or 
more, making the plant form the shape of a pully 
opened fan. String run from the foot of the vines 
to wires run above the rows are the usual means of 
support. By twisting the vines around the support- 
ing Btrings, only a small amount of tying will be neces- 
sary. AU laterals or side branches snouid be removed 
when small if the plants are trained to one stem. 
If they are to be trained to two stems, the lowest 



1S4». Stnnd of wliUn 



1260 



FORCING 



FORCING 



strong lateral should form the second stem. The 
later^ just above the first blossom cluster is usually 
the strongest. All other side branches should be 
removed. The pruning requires careful attention and 
consumes much time. If the laterab are allowed to 
grow to a large size before they are removed, it will, 
not only reauire more time to cut them off but tney will 
take needed strength from the main branch. 

PoUinaHan. 

As honey bees do not work on tomato blossoms it is 
necessary to do more or less hand pollinating, the 
amount depending on the time of the year, the number 
of blossoms open and the varieties grown. If the 
weather is such that the ventilators can be kept open 
wide most of the time during the day, frequent and 
systematic jarring of the plants will be fairly satisfac- 
tory. Artificial pollination is more necessary when the 
plants first begin to bloom than when the amount of 
bloom is abundant. Some of the English types of for- 
cing tomatoes do not require much attention in the 
matter of pollinating. However, it is better to be on 
the safe side and do more pollinating than necessary 
rather than not enough. The camd's-hair brush is 
used by some growers and the wooden spoon and 
spatula with handles 15 to 18 indies in length are used 
by other nx>wers as a means of tnmsf erring the poU^i 
from one Bower to another. 

Grading and packing UmuUoea. 

Unless they are to be shipped a Ions distance, 'foro- 
ing-house grown tomatoes should not oe pickea until 
they show considerable color. The more nearly mature 
the fruits are when taken from the vines, the better 
the quality. Picking should be done every other day 
or at least three times a week. The frmt should l>e 
handled with care to avoid bruising, as injuries impair 
the keeping quality of the fruit. 

In grading, unless the fruit is unusually rough or too 
variable in size, only one grade need be made for the 
average market. AU very roueh and otherwise inferior 
fruits should be withheld from the market. Some growers 
make a fancy grade for special trade. This stock should 
be of medium and uniform size, even in color and very 
smooth. The hotels and clubs which give orders for 
such stock are willing to pay an extra price for it. 

Tomatoes are handled mostly in baskets. These 
are sddom larser than a half bushd and usually con- 
siderably smaller. The basket used by the Ashtabula 
growers is the same as they use for lettuce and holds 
ten pounds of tomatoes. A very satisfactory package 
for use in warm weather is the four-basket carrier or 
crate. The baskets which are put in this carrier hold 
five pounds each. When properly selected as to size, 
color, and smoothness^ tomatoes packed in this con- 
tainer are very attractive. The chid objection to tieir 
use is that they are too much like the package used by 
the southern tomato-growers and thus not distinctive 
enoush for the forcing-house tomatoes. During cold 
weather or when the tomatoes are to be shipped a long 
distance^ each fruit should be wrapped in paper to 
protect it from the frost and to prevent bruising. 

Dealers who have not handled forcing-house-grown 
tomatoes are sometimes dow to pay the price which 
the stock, if well grown, graded and packed, should 
demand. When they have once learned that forcing- 
house-grown tomatoes are of superior quality and wm 
stand up much better than those which have been 
shipped a long distance and of necessity must be 
picked green or nearly so, they are usually willing to 
pay much more for the forcing-house-grown than for 
the outmde-grown tomatoes. 

Forcing of radishes. 

Radishes have been forced by many growers but 
they have not become generally popular. This is no 



doubt due largdy to the fact that the growing of them 
and preparation for market necesdtates a large amount 
of hana labor; 'and the requirements of the crop aro 
exacting. 

The turnip-shaped sorts are most satidactory for 
foroing in the forcing-house. The seed should be sown 
thickly in rows which should be marked 4 inches apart 
and about }^ inch deep. The Skinner system of water- 
ing is very satidactory for radishes if the watering 
is properly done. The soil should be kept moist but 
not too wet on the surface. The watering should be 
done only when the weather is bright. Some growers 
have found it more satidactory to allow the radishes 
to remain quite thick in the rows until a part of them 
are large enough to market and then pull the market- 
able ones and allow the others to aevdop, than to 
thin them enough when they are small to permit the 
radishes to mature nearly at one time. This method 
of thinning will enable tne gardener to grow many 
more radishes in a given area than when the old 
method is used. 

Some of the essential factors in succesdul radish 
forcing are: g^oKxi seed, cardully sown; an abundance 
of light; plenty of ventilation; sufficient water and 
heat to keep the plants growing rapidly but not enou^ 
to cause damping-off ; neatness and deanliness in bunch- 
ing, washing and packing. 

Other forcing crops. 

Space will permit only of a clasdfication of other 
forcing crops tnan those previoudy mentioned. Nearly 
all kinds of vegetables which are grown in the open 
can be grown in the foroing-house. Whether it is 
practicable or not to force a vegetable in a commercial 
way depends principally on two things: cost of produc- 
tion and market demand. 

The following liste include practically all ve^tables 
which are forosd commercially, dther extensively or 
to a limited extent. The vegetables included in these 
lists are divided into two classes, the ''cooF' and the 
"warm" plants. 

By cool plants is meant those for which the proper 
night temperature is from 40° to 55° and by warm 
plants those for which the night temperature should 
be from 55° to 70°. With either class of plants the day 
temperature on bright days should be at least 10° 
higher than the night temperature. 

**Cool" farcing vegetabUa: 
Asparagus Cress 

Beet Lettuce 

Carrot Onion 

Cauliflower Parsley 

Cdery 

"Warm" forcing vegetables: 

Bean Eiggplant 

Cucumber Miukmdon 



Pea 

Radishes 
Rhubarb 
Spinach 



Pepper 
Tomato 

C. W. Waid. 



The forcing of fruits. 



The forcing of fruits under glass has increased con- 
dderably in recent years and particularly so in the 
private establishments. Grapes probably occupy more 
space than any other class ot hothouse fruits. Records 
of cultivating the vine may be traced back some thou- 
sands of years. Neverthdess, the greenhouse grape-vine 
has not been improved to the same extent through 
systematic hybridizing that many other fruits have 
been. Some of our oldest varieties still hold a promi- 
nent place in the forcing-houses. Some worthy claimants 
have been added to the list from time to time. Madres- 
field Court was raised over forty years ago by crossing 
Muscat of Alexandria with Bbtck Morocco, producing 
a distinct Muscat grape with the Morocco coloring. 
Of later introduction may be mentioned Lady Hutt, 



Appley TowcTB and a few others which have been 
hBt«a and have found favor with many growetB. 
Another account of raising grapea under glass wiU be 
found in the article Orapc. 
Forcing of gcipos. 

The vine is of easy propagation. Different methods 
may be applied for reproducing young vinn, Buch as 
cuttings or by eyes ol ripened wood. Inarching and 
grafting may alao be reeorled to. However, the general 
method of raising young vines is front sin^ eyes. It is 
advisable to choose wood of the previous season's 
ovwth or, when pruning back the vines, to take 
uoroughly ripened wood with plump eyes. It not 
ready for propagating, the wood may be heeled in a 
cool house until needed. The monui of January is 
beat for this purpose, for then there is usually a et«uiy 
bottom heat, woich is necessary. A bottom heat of 
70°j with a temperature in the house of 65°, is most 
satisfactory. Furtbermore, January-propagated plants 
allow for a long sesson to 
grow on the canee. In pre- 
paring the eyes for propago- 
tioD, about yi inch of wix>d 
on each side of the eye is 
sufficient. Make a cut on the 
opposite side from the eye a 
trine deeper than the bark, 
which will callous in a short 
time after it is placed in heat 
and rooU will emit in two or 
three weeks. These eyes nmy 
be placed in nans, flats or . 
ain^y in 3-inch pots; when * 



lerred, as the young vine roots 
are very brittle. In prepar- 
ing the pots to receive the 
eyes, half fill them with 
fibrous soil and fill the top 
with a fairly sharp sana, 
enough to cover the wood 



having the soil in the bottom 

is that the roots will strike 

down and the plants may be 

repotted, when ready, with- isso. tu-smn mp«is tree 

out a check. They must be in btarisi. 

kept growing through the 

summer in a warm moist house and repotted when 

necessary. 

Inarekina may be found valuable at times, partic- 
ularly if Uiere is a variety in the bouse that is not 
desirable. The operation is fairly simple. There ore 
different methods of inarching, although the most 
successful is with the young growii^ wood. For 
example, to inarch a variety witn a permanent vine, 
prepuatioos should be mode the j^ear previous. Grow 
the variety desired in a pot, then ripen off as for plant- 
ing. Whenever the vines are started into growth, 
bnng in the pot vine intended for inarching, about ten 
days after ttie heat has be«i placed in the grapery. 
Otherwise the pot vine will start into growth before 
the permanent vine. It is advisable to select shoots 
of about the same strength, if possible. The shoot that 
is operated on should be as near the base as possible. 
To march them is just a matter of bringing the two 
ohoots together and tying with raffia. When the cion 
has united with the green growing shools, which will be 
in a short time, gradually cut it away from its own 
root; also pinch the stock back by degrees to increase 
the stren^ of the cion. Usually the cion will grow 

away rapidly ani' '■ 

when pruning t 



old cane may be cut away and the new variety wiU 
take its place. 

Hybridinng. 

In bybridicing with the aim to produce new varie- 
ties, it is beet to select a fairly strong^^rowing variety 
for the female parent, choosing the rich Muscat poUoi 
for the male parent. No estimate can be formed as lO 
results from a true cross, as many different varieties 
will appear. Grapes will produce an abundance of 
poUen and great care must be taken to avoid self- 
lertiliiation. Nature protects the pollen of the grape- 
vine bv a cap that surrounds the plstib and stam^is, 
and wnen the pollen is ripe for distribution the caps 
are pushed off by the expansion of pistils and stamens, 
insuring pollination. To cross-pollioate one variety 
with anotner, measures should he taken in advance of 
natural development to prevent self-pollination. Select 
the bunch to be operated upon a few days before it 
would begin to flower. Cut away the larger part of tie 
floweiB. leaving a dozen or fifteen to be crossed with 
otberpollen. Ilien secure this bunch in a fine muslin bag, 
which will prevent any insects from distributing unde- 
sirable pollen upon it. The muslin will allow sufficient 
air for tie berries to set, after which it may be removed. 
The bag is placed around the bunch a day or ao before 
the cap m ready to be dislodged, and careful watch must 
be kept when the cap begins to loosen. Have a pair of 
very fine plyers or pincets ready and remove the 
cap by force, then immediately cot away the stamens 
b^ora the pollen has time to ripen. This must be 
eotocuted with great care as the flowers are very deli- 
cate. Sometimes the fiowers cannot all be operated 
upon at the same time. If so, place the bunch again 
a the bag and repeat the above process. When the 
stamens have been removed, apply the pollen chosen 
for the cross. This is best apphed to the stigma with 
a camel's-hair pencil, Hepcat until the whole have 
been gone over carefully. By using these precautions, 
the bunch cannot become contaminated with undesir- 
abte pollen. Grape seed will germinate very readily, 
although it should be sown soon after ripening as 
its geminating power is weakened if kept any great 
length of time. 
Vine bordert. 

Good droina^ is absolutely necessary for the suo- 
cessful cultivation of grape-vines. They will not resent 
an abundance of water while in active growth, in fact 
they demand it, but a border which the water cannot 
pass thrau^ freely will be found a serious difficulty. It 
IS well in fimling a location to choose, if possible, a 
site on elevated ground, as the drainage from the border 
con be carried off with lees expense than in a low place, 
without the trouble of the dram-pipes becoming stopped 
up. A vine border will last for years and the advantage 
of a well-made border, even though expensive in build- 
ing up, will be manifest in the better fruit produced. 

A grapery may be supplied with both outside and 
inside borders, although it is not necessary. Neither 
would it be advisable for early forcing, for the reason 
that many of the roots would be out in the cold soil 
at quite a contrast from the ones inside. But for mid- 
season or late, there is no objection to this method. 
In fact, vines that have access to an outside border 
will keep healthy and vigorous several years longer 
than when confined wholly inside. However, an inside 
border will last for at least ten or fifteen years. This 
must be decided before the house is built as, for an 
outside border, the walls must be erected on arches to 
allow the roots access outside. One advantage of this 
method is that the vines do not require such close 
attention as when depending entirely upon the inside 
border. However, at present the lar^ number of 
graperies are built with inside borders only. The first 
thing to be done is to excavate at least SJ,^ to 4 feet for 



1262 FORCING 

the border. Amiming it to be a Bpan-roof house, lay 
a drain down the center, allowing enough fall to carry 
off the water. Use 3-inch pipes and provide openings 
along every 20 feet or eo to take away the water. After 
the drain is complele, a coat of rougn concrete may be 
placed over the bottom, which will prevent any of the 
vine roots from penetrating into the subsoil. Over this 
add a foot or 18 inches of d^inage, such as broken stone 
or brickbats, — anything that will insure a free passBge 
for water. FVom the drainage to the surface level, there 
ahould be about 2J^ feet or a trifle over for soil. In 
Bome locahUes it is difficult to serure a grade of soil 
best adapted for vine-growth, although grape-vinee 
will thrive in different kinds of soil, if not too sandy or 
too clayey. A good loamy soil is beet, virgin loam pre- 
ferred; or loam that has been in pasture three or four 
years may be plowed and placed directly into the bor- 
der. The grass fibers are of great benefit. The vines 
would make a very satisfactory growth for a year or 
60 without any fertilizing ingredients added. However, 



this would not be i 



ISSl. Pat-cnrm iHU 



policy and (ertiliEera of a last- 
ing quahty should be used. On that 
account, larmyard manure should 
not be used. All fruits require 
potash, phoephoric acid and mtro- 
gen and therefore these manures 
should be applied. Do not apply 
the fertilizers too heavily. It is a 
simple matter when the vines be- 
come thoroughly established to feed 
from the surface. Bone is one of 
the very beat ingredients to place 
in the grape border. This may be 
used in a coarse state or that Icnown 
as flinch bone at the rate of 
forty or fifty parts of soUd to one 
of bone. Potash may be used in 
the shape of hardwood imleached 
ashes, a trifle less in quantity than 
that recommended for the bone. 
Toward the surface, a cguicker-acting 
complete fruit - fertilizer may be 
used. Such a border should grow 
and produce grapes for many years. 

A span-roof house r unnin g north 
and south is recommended, as a cer- 
tain amount of sunhght will be had 
" both sides, whereas in a house 
east and west, very little 
._ strike on the north dde. 

itraight span answers the purpose 



nmniag et 



Either curvilinear 

for a private eetablishm< 

Planting/ vines. 

Vines may be planted either in fall or early spring. 
Early fall-planted stock appears to come away more 
freely and oreak stronger than spring planting. Plant 
the canes about 4 feet apart; there is nothing gained 
by toocloseplanting. It isimmaterialwhetherone-year- 
old plants are selected or two-year-old, providing they 
are thrifty strong canes. They should be ^ortened 
back to 2 feet to insure atrong growths from the 
remaining buds, since, if a much longer length of cane 
is left, they will br^k away unevenly and weakly. 
Before planting, all the soil from a ball should be 
removed and the roots straightened out. Spread the 
roots out evenly on the border, cover with about 3 
inches of soil ana firm the soil well around them. 

General treatment for forein^. 



Grape-vines respond to the forcing treatment readily, 
although a newly planted grape-house should be 
broi^t along with little or no forcing the first i 



There would be no advantage in forcmg them, as they 
should not be allowed to produce fruit until the second 
year, when they will be thoroughly established. How- 



FORCING 

ever, assuming that the vines are established and grapes 
are needed from the first to the tenth of May, the house 
must be started by the middle of Deccmbo* with a 
temperature of 45° to 50° at nighlj with a rise of 10° 
to 15° by day, according to weather conditions, and 
gradually increasing so tnat when the grapes are in 
bloom the temperature will be 65° at night and 75° 
to 80° by day. If a suj^ly of grapes is demanded up to 
Christmas or the New Year, three compartments must 
be accommodated, the midseason house being started 
two months later and the late house about the first of 
April. A very important point to be considered is to 
give the bonier a thorough watering, for while the 
vines are at reet they are kept fairly dry. Ventilation 
or airing is very important, for unlus this is attended 
to carefully senous trouble will follow, such as mildew, 
red-spider and the tike. The heat should be allowed to 
rise gradually until the maximum is reached in the 
morning, then kept as steady as possible and toward 
evening gradually lowered to night temperature. 

The Dest method of growing vines under glass is the 
Edngle-rod spur system. The spurs should be 15 or 18 
inches apart on each side of the rod. Then disbud to 
one shoot for each spur. As the young growth advances, 
it must be trained in place by degrees, as the young 
shoots are very brittle and if brought down too quickly 
are liable to snap off. The next step is pinching the 
shoots. The aim is to allow enough growth to cover 
the trellis with foliage but to avoid crowding. A fairly 
safe method is to stop the shoot at the second or third 
leaf beyond the bunch, also pindi all lateral growths 
at the fiist leaf. 

Probably one of the most anxious times with the 
man in charge is while the vines are in bloom or setting 
their fruit. Certain varieties will set their fruit much 
more freely than others. The Muscat family, as a rule, 
I a bit backward in that respect. A safe method to 



freely. By gently tapping the bunches around mid- 
day, they should set freely. When the berries are about 
the size of garden peas, they are in condition for thin- 
ning. This is a t^ious operation, requiring time and 
patience. The bunch must never be handled with the 
fingers. Either a stick with a fork or a straight stick 
to Eft the shoulders of the bunch while thinning should 
be used. The aim is to cut away enough surplus ber- 
ries to allow the remainder to swell to Au size, so that 
when full grown and ready to out the bunch will keep 
the same perfect shape when set on the dinner-table. 

Grape-vines, when in a healthy, vigorous condition. 
are rank feeders. There is no better time to apply food 
than just aft«r the grapes are thinned and again as 
they take oo their second swelling after the stoning 
penod. This may be apphed In the shape of lioula 
manure water or a complete chemical fertilizer. Tbt 
grower must use his own judgment in r^^ard to quan- 
tity, as BO much depends on conditions. A healthy vine 
can withstand more food than one less robust. Never- 
theless, It is much better to feed lightly than too 
heavily. 

A moist humid atmosphere is necessary for grapes 
while they are growing or from the time they are 
started into growth until they begin to color, from which 
time a drier bracing air will be of advantage. At this 
etage, bottom air may be admitted by di^reee during 
the day, and later, or wh^ ripe, keep bottom air on 
day and night. 
Pruning. 

There are two objects in pruning: first, to keep the 
vines in submission and second, to encourage vigor. 
For the first season after planting, it would be well to 
allow the vines to grow freely with very little stopping 
of shoots. This encourages root-action and if every- 
thing has progressed s^isfactorily, the canes will 



XLIV. Pordn( of gripei. — Mnicat of Alexandria. 



FORCING 



FORCING 



1263 



reach the top of the house the first season. When 
pruning time comes, this cane must be shortened back, 
allowing only about 5 feet of the season's growth to 
remain. The same method should be adopt^ the fol- 
lowing year and so on till the full height of vine is 
secured. Before beginning to prune a grape-vine, one 
should be absolutely sure the wood is thoroughly ripe. 
This may easily be ascertained from weD-ripened wood, 
for after pruning the cut will remain perfectly dry 
and in a few days have the appearance of an old cut. 
On the other hiuid, if the wood cuts soft with a fluid 
on the cut, then the wood is not ripe enough. To pro- 
duce weU-ripened wood from the time the crop is 
gathered till pruning time, an abundance of air should 
Be allowed in the house and when the foliage has com- 
pleted its functions a dry atmosphere should be main- 
tained and the vines kept fairly dry at the roots. In 
the long-rod spur system, it is necessary to prune hard 
back, otherwise in a few years long ungainly spurs will 
result. One or two eyes to each spur is sufficient and, 
with thoroug^y ripened wood, there is no danger but 
that a boimuf ul crop wiU follow. 

Varieties, 

There are many varieties for forcing purposes, 
although only a selection of the best varieties, early and 
late, is given here. The Muscat grapes are the finest 
of all ^the hothouse kinds. Unfortunately they require 
a long^ season to ripen. Consequently one must rely 
on earlier-maturing varieties for early forcing. A few 
canes of Muscats may be planted in an early house and 
they will be useful after the early kinds are exhausted. 
It IS not wise to depend on thin-skinned Muscats for 
late use, as there would be difficulty in keeping them in 
condition any length of time. The followmg varieties 
are reconmiended for early, midseason and late: 

Early. — Black Hamburg, Appley Towers, Madres- 
field Court, White Buckland Sweetwater, Foster Seed- 
ling, Ro3rton Muscat. 

Midseason house should be devoted wholly to Mus- 
cat of Alexandria, which is one of the finest of aU 
indoor jp;rapes. It thrives better in a compartment, 
by itself, requiring a trifle more heat. 

Late house. — Gros Colmar, Gros Maroc, Barbarossa 
or Gros GuiUaume, Alicante, Diamond Jubilee, Prince 
of Wales, White Lady Hutt. 

Many others may be added to the list, but these 
will be found to cover the season and varieties sufli- 
ciently for all purposes. 

Forcing of peaches and nectarines. 

These fruits come next in popularity to the m,pe 
and considerable space is devoted to their cmture 
under glass. Great improvements have been brought 
about in recent years with both peaches and nectarines 
and a large number of new varieties are constantly 
appearing for forcing. One of the handsomest forcing 

Seaches is Peregrine. The color is magnificent and 
avor all that could be desired, with size sufficient to 
please the most exacting. Others might be mentioned 
to show the progress of time. 

CuUural methods. 

The same style of house that has been recommended 
for grape-culture will be found ideal for peaches and 
nectarines, although instead of having the walk down 
the center of the liOuse, it is better along each side. 
This will allow plantinp^ the trees crosswise of the house 
on trellises about 6 ^t apart, which affords ample 
space for a well-balanced tree. Also the same arrange- 
ments in regard to borders, drainage and so on should 
be carried out, althous^ a slightly shallower border 
would be satisfactory. From 2 to 2 yi feet of soil would 
be sufficient; nor is it necessary to make the border 
quite so rich for peaches and nectarines as for grapes, 
as the trees would have a tendency to rank growtn, a 



condition that should be guarded against. Peach trees 
budded on plum stock are superior for forcing purposes. 
Choose the best trees obtainable for this work. In our 
climate, if everjrthing goes well, the trees willgrow 
into large proportions in three or four years. There- 
fore, space should be considered with this in view. A 
tree that is planted in such a way that the branches 
are evenly balanced on both sides, causing an equaliza- 
tion of the sap, will insure better results. Aiming 
the peach-house to be 25 feet in width with the trellis 
crosswise the house, allowing a walk on each side, each 
tree would have a spread of about 18 feet. One tree in 
the center of each trellis is sufficient, which allows 
ample room for development. If desired, a tree may be 
planted on each side of the permanent one for two or 
three years, but must be cut away as the space is needed 
for the permanent tree. Still another method may be 
adopted and probably the best, which is placing trees 
in tubs on each side, then as space is needed they may 
be moved away, whereas when planted in the border 
one is likely to leave them too long and crowd the 
main tree out of shape. 

It would not be wise to force newly planted trees to 
any extent, but rather to bring them along gradually 
for the first season, when they will be in condition for 
forcing. If ripe fruit is in demand about the first week 
in May, the nouse must be started about the middle 
of December. The peach tree will come on and develop 
its blossoms in a comparatively moderate temperature 
and it would not be wise to submit it to extreme heat 
artificially. Peach trees delight in fresh air, and will 
resent a too close humid atmosphere. A temperature 
of 40** to 45^ at night and 50'' to 55** by day will suit 
their requirements at the start. Gradually increase 
this so that the temperature will range from 50** to 55*^ 
at night and 60** to 65** by day or 70** with sun heat 
when in bloom. After the fruit is set, another 5** may 
be added. Give plenty of air without lowering the 
temperature, particularly in cold weather. Give the 
house a light spraying two or three times a day when 
the wealiier is clear until they come into bloom. Do 
not spray while they are in blossom. After the fruit is 
set, spraying may be resorted to again once or twice 
a day according to weather conditions. 

Peaches are subject to greenfly. As a precaution 
after the fruit is thoroughly set, syringe every ten 
days or so with a solution of whale-oil soap, enough 
just to color the water. This is an excellent remedy tor 
both greenfly and red spider, both deadly enemies to 
peach foliage. 

The peacn tree will produce many more shoots than 
are needed to furnish the trellis, therefore the surplus 
will have to be removed. This is best done by de^'ees 
rather than removing them all at once, which would 
be likely to cause a check. A number of shoots may, be 
pinchecl at the third leaf, which in all probability would 
form spurs or fruit-buds for the following season. The 
aim is to allow enough wood to remain to cover the 
trellis^ but to avoid crowding. As the crop advances 
or beiore the fruit becomes of much size, thinning of 
the fruit would be in order. It is a serious mistake to 
overcrop. If a tree has a tendency to rank growth, a 
fairly heavy crop would be of advantage. The grower 
must be governed according to conditions. 

Watering and feeding are important. Potash is neces- 
sary for eS stone-fruits and should be applied in some 
form, or a complete fruit-fertilizer may be recommended. 
It is better to feed light and often rather than too much 
at once. Enoi^ water must be supplied to give the 
border a thorough watering from top to bottom. Then 
no more should oe given until necessary, for if the soil 
is not sJlowed to sweeten up it would be impossible to 
keep the trees healthy. It is not a good policy to have 
the trees or borders saturated just as the fruit is ripen- 
ing. It is better to give them a watering a week or so 
in advance, which will usually last until the fruit is 



1264 



FORCING 



FORCING 



gathered. The object of this ie to improre the flavor tmning. A bouse for pot-fruita requires about the same 
of the fruit. treatment as that recommended for peaches planted 
One ehould not think that after gathering the fruit Id a permanent border. Care and watchfulness are 
the house needs little or no attention. The t^perature required as to watering, naiticularly when first start- 
will not need close watching, but the fruit-buds have ins into growth, as at tbat stage there is not much 
to form and develop, and good attention to watering fouage, consequently an over-abundance of water 
and spraying the foliage is a wise step toward success would have a tendency to sour the soil. Potting the 
for the following season. Cut away any useless wood trees is very important. There is no better time for this 
after the crop offruit hasbeen picked, thusallowing the opEration than early fall, or just as they are casting 
remainder of the wood to become well ripened. Well- their foliage. Also a serious error is placit^ them in too 
ripened wood will withstand any reasonable amount Urge pots or tubs. They should be repotted everv fall, 
of froet during the dormant state, aad fruitr4)uds will but it is not always necessai^ to dve them a larger 
respond when called upon with tub. Often the baU may be re- 



___^ J upon f 

abundance of healthy strong blos- 
soms. Winter-pruning may be 
done any time after the trees have 
cast their foliage. This means 
removing any weak growths, 
shortening back extremely strong 
growth and trainins the young 
wood so that it willspread over 
the space about 5 inches apart. 
VarieHet. 

For forcing there are many 
varieties to choose from. The 
peach crop may be extended at 
least seven weeks for one house, 
but if the compartments are at 
<n of five months 



early, midseason and . _. 

ties. The following varieties mav 
be relied upon for early, mia- 
season and Jat«: 

Early forcing peaches. — Duch- 
ess of Cornwall, Duke of York, 
Peregrine. 

Early forcing nectarines. — 
Cardinal, Early Rivers, Advance, 
Lord Napier. 

Midseason peaches. — Pere- 

S'ne (Alexander, Noblesse), 
llegarde, Grosse Mignonne. 

Midseason nectarines. — Stan- 
wick - Elruge, Rivers, Orange- 
Chaucer. 

Late-house peaches. — Craw- 
ford Late, Thomas Rivers, 
Princess of Wales. 

Late-house nectarines. — New- 
ton, Spencer, Himiboldt, Vio- 

NumerouB other varietiee 
could be added to this list. How- 
ever this will be found sufficient 
for alt practical purposes. 

Pot-fmits. 

This method of producing fruit has found favor with 
many growers throughout the country, particularly 
in private establishments. It requires no specially 
built houses for the purpose, providing the house 
receives full sunhght with abundance of ventilation. 
There are two or three advantages of this concentrated 
method of growing: first, the bouse may be used for 
other growing crops after the fruit is gathered, as the 
trees may be plac«i outside or, as severe winter sets in, 
they may be stored away in a coolhouse close together 
until such time as they are needed for bringing into 
growth again; second, a large variety of fruits is 
adapted to this method of culture, such as peaches, 
nectarines, pears, plums, figs and the like. These 
trees may be grown into either pyramid or half-stand- 
ard forms. Pyramids, as a whole, make a more attrac- 
tive appearance in a house than any other form of 



duced and ^aced ii 
sizedtub. The soil should consist 
of a good fibrous loam used in 
a fairly rough state, if possible, 
as this will allow free action for 
_ the water to pass off. Firm pot- 
ting is of great importance. 
Three parts of soil to one of 
thoroughly decayed rich manure 
with a little bone mixed in would 
be an excellent compost for the 
purpose. Careful watering after 
repotting is very important. 

When the trees come into 
bloom, keep a fairly dry bracing 
atmosphere. Pears and plums 
will refuse to set their fruit other- 
wise. As the ^wth advances, 
frequent pinching or stopping 
the shoots should be attended to. 
Some ^wths will doubtless be 
much in advance of others. 
When the young growths reach 
the length of 5 or 6 inches, they 
should be pinched and again 
when they have extended another 
similar growth and so on. Usu- 
ally in the case of pyramid trees, 
growth will be found more ad- 
vanced at the top, hence those 
shoots should be stopped, result- 
ing in more vigor for the lower 
branches. 

Surface-dressing when the fruit 
is swelling is of great benefit. 
Either manure or a concentrated 
fertiliiser may be mixed with the 
soil and added as a to[Mlressing, 
but by all means do not app^* 
this until the fruit is sw^ng 
away freely. 

Pot -fruit that has been 
properly cared for during the 
season of growth in regvd to 
pinching and summer- pruning 
requires little winter-pruning 
aside from removing the very weakest growths. 

VarUlies. 

The following varieties are the best: 

Pears. — Souvenir du Congree, Madame Treyve, 
Hardy, Fondante d' Automne, Louise Bonne, Con- 
ference, Magnet, Pitmaston Duchess, Durondean, 
Princess. 

Plums.— The Ciar, Blue Rock, Oullins Golden, 
Early Transparent, Gage, Mallard, Denniston Superb, 
Belgian Purple, Golden Esperin, Transparent Gage, 
Green Gage, Grand Duke. 

Figs.^ — Brown Turkey, Negro Largo, White Mar- 
seilles, Violet Sepor. 

Apples and apricots also may be added, although tJiey 
are not so profitable as the others mentioned. 

Wu. Turn BR. 



FORCING 



1265 



Fordng hudr plants. 
Forcing ii an economical method of securing large 
quantities of flowers in winter; it is extensively used by 
commercial floriits for cut-flowers and flowering plants. 
Plants usually forced are hyacinths, tulips, narcissi And 
other Dutch Dulba, lily-of-the-valley, astilbe, dicentra, 
hybrid perpetual and rambler roses, DeuUia gradlU, 
hybrid niododendrons (R. nnerue) and Ghent azaleas, 
tender hydrangeas and lilacs. 

This mode of procuring flowers at small cost has 
always been more or less m vogue among plantamen, 
and 61 late years 
has received fresh 
impetus, owii^ to 
the heavy demands 

pWts at Easter. It 
IS not only an in- 
expensive method of 
getting flowets, but 
with most plants, 
after a little experi- 
ence, the time of 
blooming can be 



flower-buds. Close pruning is necessary, and root- 
pruning is helpful. Grafting, which has a tendency to 
dwarf and hasten maturity, is also used with strong 
growers. Sometimes both growing in pots and grafting 
are employed, as in lilacs. 

A plant fit for forcing must be compact, both top and 
roots; economy in space is essential. It is now possible 
t^i secure from the French, Dutch and Belgian nurseries 
many plants grown for this purpose. A few come pot- 
grown, but most of them are from the open ground: 
very Lttle of this work is done in American nurseries. 
Figs. 1553-1555 show the methods of preparing woody 
plants for forcing. 

Herbaceous plants should be prepared for forcing 
with equal care, and the process may require several 
years. The removal of the flower-buds and growth, 
under high cultivation, in close, compact clumps, 
apparently produces the same results that prunmg 
and grafting accomplish for trees and shruM. Fig. 
1556 shows the root-clump of an herb prepared for 
foreing. 

Plants that have ontie been forced are commonly 
thrown away. It is generally cheaper to buy new stock, 
but lilacs, azaleas, and the like, can be planted out 
and will recover sufficient strength in two years for a 
second forcing, or for other use. 
Some species, tike VibuTTium 
pliailum, staphylea, and xantho- 
ceras, if grown on m pots after 
forcing, may be again forced, and 
seem to do better the second year. 
This is probably explained by 
the fact that insufGcient prep- 
aration was given for the first 



easily calculated. The process has 
limitations, at any rate with our pre- 
sent knowledge of the matter, inasmuch 
as, with the exception of "retarded 
plants" and a few bulbs, it is not 
practicable in late autumn and early 
_;_.__ .^ithQut the use of ether. It is 



their natural time of flowering by 
keeping them in cold storage at a temperature suffi- 
ciently low to prevent growth, this difficulty may 
eventually be overcome. Except, however, with lily- 
of-the-vaUey, which is admirabljr adapted to this prac- 
tice, little is known of the poasibihtiea of this form of 
forcing; it is hoped that otlier plants, equally useful, 
may be treated in this way. It is evident that, on 
account of tiie oost of storage, bulky plants could not 
be handled. 

The requirements for successful forcing are: (1) a 
good knowledge of the plants; (2) proper preparation; 
(3) a period of rest; and (4) proper care after tne plants 
are brought into heat. 

Those plants force most easily which bloom in spring 
and early summer. Lat«-bloomin8 kinds, .like Khodo- 
dtndnm maximwn, clethra and Hydrangea ■paniculoia 
var. fTondifioTa, do not give good results. No success is 
obtamed with asters and goldenrod, unless they are 
retarded. These points must be studied out by the 
grower. 

Trees and shrubs should be specially prepared for 
forcing by careful cultivation for one or two years 
bdore use. They can be planted out-of-doors, with 
plenty of room to develop, or the^r can be grown in 
pote, the latter method being used with vigorous plants, 
which are apt to run to growth without developing 
SI 



nWlj fol (ORJBI. 



trial, the first fore 
being really "proper j 
paration" for the sect 
forcing. 

Hardy plants m 
have a penod of rest 
successful forcing, 
time required \ary- 

Bpecifs. One can- 
not tell, except by 
experiment, that 
Paper White nar- 
cissi will force easUy 
in November and December, while the double Von Sion 
will not; the individual equation of each kind is an 
element which must be considered. There is a popular 
notion that freezing will shorten the time for resting, 
or, at any rate, is conducive to the welfare of the plant. 
This idea does not seem to stand any practical test. 
After potting, do not subject the plants to severe 
frosts (10° to 12° F.), or else the roots, now much 
exposed, may suffer. The large buds of lilac and 
rhododendron may aiso be injured if frozen hard. 

Pot the plants as soon as they ripen their growth in 
autumn, b^inning in September wita herbaceous stock, 



ISU. lilac pnmtd lot loitiB(. 



1266 



FORCING 



and continuing until severe troet. It ia pwaible, but 
Dot desirable, to lift some things aft«r tne ground is 
frozen hard. Plants received from abroad are potted on 
arrival, or, if furnished with a ball tike azaleas (Fig. 
1553), they can be stored and not potted until brought 
into heat. Dutch bulbs are boxed or potted as they are - 
received, and buried in the earth or piled in stacks 
and covered with enough leaves and 
) exclude frOBta. Lily-of-the- 
wtilbe and dicentra may be 
their packing-caBes in a cool 
1 ready for use. Large plants 
in tube and boxes can be 
CovK^ with leaves and 
kept outrof-doors, but moat 
plants should be stored in 
a cool cellar, pit or frame 
kept at a temperaturo of 
35 F,: a temporary varia- 
' tion of 5° eithw way does 
no harm. It is well to delay 
this storage until as late in 
the Beaoon aa possible, but it 
must be done before severe 
weather. Plants may be 
im lujiiMi^ Stowed compactly in several 
9 I"-!-™ jjgjg if necessary. It must 
be rememberea that no 
growth is to be allowed while stored ; it is their period 
of rest, and liiis must be enforced. Good ventuation 
must be ^ven on bright days and every precaution 
taken acamst an accumulation of moisture : if the plants 
are weU watered when put aws]^ very little wUI be 
required afterwards. Dampness is most serious with 
everKTeens, like kalmia, and such things as Phlox 
aubtdala. This stock should have the airieet positions; 
sometimoi it con be placed in shallow framm 2 feet 
deep, which are drier tnan deep pits. In severe weather 
the pits are often covered with snow a week or more, 
but the plants will not suffer if this happens but once 
or twice during the winter. At such times mice and 
squirrels will make trouble unless trapped or poisoned. 
Nothing except retarded plants, a few bulbs and one 
or two kinds of prunus should be brought in before 
November. December 15 to January 1 is as early as it is 
safe to begin forcing most hardy plsjite- it will be found 
that as the days lengthen the results will be more satis- 
factory. At&rst the plants must be kept cool, 46° F., or 
thereabout. Syringe twice a day until the buds swell: 
after growth starts the treatment is the same as that 



15S6. 1 



1S57. Fotdnc lll}H>f-tlu-nlt<T In poM. 

gjven greenhouse plants, and they can be ^ut in a much 
warmer house if so desired. It is at this time that care 
in handling, particularly in the matter of heat, makes it 
possible to tune the period of blooming so accurately, 
but it is impossible to give any general rules satisfao- 
torily to cover these matters. 

A few plants, like lily-of-the-valtey, can be placed 
directly in a forcing-box, generally made over the 



FORCING 

pipes in the hottest house, where a temperature of 
80° or more can be maintained. They are first soakai 
in water for a day or two and then kept in this heavy 
heat imtil flower-buds are well developed (Fig. 1557). 

Tulips, hyacinths and other bulbs, aometune« an 
azalea or lilac, can also be hurried up in such a box, but 
it is dangerous, and not good practice; better and more 
lasting flowers come with ordinary treatment, Trilliums 
(Fig. 1553) and various early-flowering wild plants may 
be forced with satisfaction. 

Although no rules can be given for the time required 
in forcing, it is knowledge not hard to acquire with 
even surprising exactness. Nothing is likely to require 
more than three months in houses ranging from 45° 
to 55° F. — i.e., after bringing in from the pits, A month 
or six weeks is good time to allow in February and 
March, but with the same plants and temperatures, 
more tune would be needed earlier; with the advance of 
the season, the work is quicker and less uncertain. 
There is a great difference in plants. Rhododendrons 
(the hybrids) requu« ei^t weeks or more, but one 
species will often bloom m March, within twenty-four 
hours. Plants like the rose, which must make a growth 



1S58. FoiMd triUhuD. 

before the buds form, take more time than RAododm- 
dnm tinenge. The difference between dull and bright 
weather is an important factor, but with extra firing, 
or the use of the forcing-box, these matters even up, 
and the average time of flowering is wonderfully even. 
In this work, a man with gooa plant sense is most 
likely to succeed. 



The use of anetthetiet in forcing. 

In the latter part of the last century and early in tlie 
present, experiments were begun in Germany, and 
confirmed in France, England and the United States, 
in subjecting plants to the influence of ether and 
chloroform for the purpose of securing better results 
in forcing. Ether seems, for many reasons, the most 
practical agent, but, owing to its cost and the extra 
expense of nandling the plants, this process does not 
appear to be in common use among florists. For a 
detailed treatment of this subject, the reader is referred 
to an article by M. Emile Lemoine in the Journal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society (London), Vol, XXVIII, 
1903-4, p. 45. See, also, the article Etkerizalian, p. 
1146, Vol. II. 

In the main, the treatment of plants for this purpose 
is as follows: A container, which can be henneticidly 
sealed and oF the proper sise is provided. In it are 
placed the plants "as dry as possible, in equally 
diy sand." llie temperature of the box is 62° to 65° P. 
Under the lid is a vessel into which the ether can be 

Kured and the hole sealed at once. It is important to 
ve the ether at the top as its vapor is heavier than 
air and consequently gravitates downward. Ether, 



FORCING 



FORESTRX 



1267 



particularly when mixed with air, is very inflammable 
and lighted matches, cigars or pipes must be kept 
away. "Thirty or fortv grammes of ether are enough 
for one hundred cubic litres of air: one gramme eqtials 
fifteen and one-half grains, one litre equals sixty-one 
cubic inches." The ether used is ^'pure siufurio 
ether which boils at 95** F." The plants are kept under 
the influence of the ether for two davs; sometimes they 
are removed for two days and the etherization repeated 
for the same length of time. Afterwards they are 
placed in a coldhouse and ''treated in the usual man- 
ner." Lilacs ''were in full flower eighteen days after 
being placed in the greenhouse," one, "Marie Legraye 
still earlier." Johannisen made lilacs "flower regularly" 
the first two weeks in September which had been 
etherized the first week m August." With other 
shrubs, such as Rhododendron sinenae (Azalea moUia), 
Viburnum Opulus, Prunua triloba, DeuUia gracilia and 
some of the spireas, the results were more or lees 
favorable." 

Trials with chloroform apparently have been less 
successful and other anesthetics and stimulsnts have 
been found failures. b. M. Watbon. 

FORESTlftRA (after Forestier, a French physician). 
Syn. AdkUa, Oledcex, Sometimes grown as omamen* 
tal shrubs. 

Deciduous, rarely evergreen trees or shrubs: Ivs. 
opposite, entire or serrate: fls. dioecious, apetalous, 
with or without calyx, in small, axillary clusters in 
early sprins, before the Ivs.; stamens 2-4: fr. a small, 
mostly black, 1- or 2-6eeded drupe. — About 15 species 
from 111. south to Brazil and the W. Indies. 

The species in cultivation are shrubs with rather 
small leaves, inconspicuous yellowish flowers before 
the leaves and small dark purple or black, beiry-like 
fruits. P, acuminala is hardy in sheltered positions as 
far north as Massachusetts, while F. liauatrina is some- 
what tenderer. They prefer moist sou and are suited 
for planting along streams. Propagation is by seeds 
and layers. 

acnminita^ Poir. (AdUia acumindlaf Michx.). De- 
ciduous shruD, to 10 ft. high, sometimes spiny, ^abrous: 
Ivs. slender-petioled, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 
remotdy serrate, 1H~4 in. long: staminate fls. in dense 
dusters; pistillate fls. in short panicles: fr. narrow, 
oblong or ^lindrical, deep purple, falcate, acute, Hin. 
k)ng. W. in. to Texas. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2:225. 
B.B. (ed. 2) 2:728. 

Ugustrlnai Poir. (AdHia ligtistrinaf Michx.). Decidu- 
ous shrub, to 6 ft., pubescent: Ivs. elliptic-obovate to 
oblong, obtuse, appressed-serrulate, about 1 in. long: 
fls. in fascicles: fr. sessile, ovoid, obtuse, }^in. long. 
Tenn. to Fla. and Ala. 

F. nktMnexicAna, Gray (A. jKurifolia, Coville). Shrub, to 10 
ft.: Ira. qMthulate, almost entire, usually glabrous, spayisn green 
and rather small: fr. ovate or short-oblong, obtuse, ^im, Texas to 
New Mex. and Colo. ALFRED RjfflDEB. 

FORESTRY is the rational treatment of forests; this 
ti^eatment may vary with the object in view. Forests 
may subserve various objects, giving rise to three 
claans o( forests: they furnish wokxI materials for the 
arts — supply forests; they furnish a soil cover, which 
may prevent the blowing of the soil and formation of 
sand-dunes, or may retard the erosion and washing 
of the soil and may regulate the waterflow, or act as 
a barrier to cold or hot winds, and exercise other bene- 
ficial influences on climate and surroundings — proteo- 
tion forests; or, finally, they furnish enjo3rment to the 
esthetic and sporting elements in man, as game-pre- 
serves and parks — luxury forests, Anv two or all tnree 
objects may be attained simultaneously in the same for- 
est. In the end, and in a more limited sense, forestry 
is the art and business of making revenue from the 
growing of wood crops, just as all agriculture is finally 
concerned in producing values from food crops and 



other crops. In the economy of agriculture, wood crops 
may be grown on land that is too poor for field crops. 

This art is divided into two distinct and more or less 
independent branches, namely silviculture, the techni- 
cal Dranch. and forest management, the business 
branch. Silviculture is a branch of the larger subject 
arboriculture, and comprises all the knowledge and 
skill applied in producing the wood crop, relying 
mainly on natural sciences. While horticulture and 
sUviculture have both to deal with trees, their object 
and with it their treatment of trees are totally different: 
the orchardist works for the fruit of the tree, the land- 
scape gardener for the pleasing form; in both cases the 
object is attained by the existence of the tree and its 
single individual development; the forester is after 
the substance of the tree, the wood; his object is finally 
attained only by the removal of the tree itself. He 
deals with masses of trees rather than individuals: it 
is logs in quantity and of desirable quaUty, dear of 
knots, not trees, that he is working for; hence, his 
treatment differs from that of the horticulturist. 

The clear long boles free of knots are secured by a 
dense stand, when by the shade of neidbbors the lower 
branches are made to die and break off. When in this 
way clear boles to a certain height are secured, the 
stand is opened up by thinnings in order to secure 
expansion of crown and thereby more rapid increase 
in diameter of bole. There are several ways of repro- 
ducing the crop, namelv artificially by sowing or plant- 
ing, the latter being done with one- to four-year-old 
plants, at the rate m 1,500 to 4,000 to the acre; or by 
natural regeneration, either by sprouts from the stump, 
the so'calfed coppice^ which is api^icable to hardwoods 
and for the production of fuel wood and small-dimen- 
sion mat^ial, or else by seed from mother or nurse 
trees. Tliere are various procedures of securing a crop 
by seed, a so-called timb^ forest, which differ by the 
rapidity of the removal of the old crop or nurse trees, and 
by the mxe and pro^*ess of the openins — strip system, 
group system, sdection system, and, the most refined, 
shelterwood system. 

Since the crop takes many years to mature — some- 
times a century and more — ^in order to carry on a con- 
tinuous forestrv business, from which to securo aimual 
returns, special arrangements peculiar to this business 
must be noade: these arrangements, naturally influenced 
by the economic conditions of the countiy, form the 
subject of forest organisation or management. 

The ideal of the forester to which he attempts a 
gradual approach with his actual unregulated forest 
IS known as the 'formal forest.^' It supposes that a 
rotation has been chosen, i.e. a year or period when 
the timber will be ripe (determined in various ways); 
that as many stands are at hand as there are years m 
the rotation, differing by one year from each other, so 
that each year a mature area can be harvested — a 
normal age-class gradation; that the increment on 
the whole area is the best attainable for species and site 
^— a normal increment; that the amount of wood stand- 
ing, the stock on which the increment is deposited, is 
the proper one for each age-class — a normal stocks 
This is the standard with which the actual forest is 
compared to judge its abnormalities, which by the 
management are to be, as far as practicable, removed. 

Since the forest crop takes from thirty to one hundred 
>^earB and more to mature^ i.e., to produce desirable 
size, highest value, or best mterest rate on the invest- 
ment, i t b a business which does not appeal to private 
enterprise: the long-time element, as well as the influ- 
ence of forests on water-flow and other cultural con- 
ditions make forestry particularly a business to be 
conducted by the state or other long-lived corporation. 

The horticulturist, as such, is mainly interested in 
the rational treatment of such forests as have a pro- 
tective value, influencing climatic, soil and water con- 
ditions in general and locally. 



1268 



FORESTRY 



The raising of trees for ahade, for omainent, and for 

avenues ia not foreetiy, but a branch of arboriculture 

(which see) ; the ornamental utilization of forests, aa a 

part of grounds, is discuMed 

under Woodt. 

B. E. Fernow. 

rOROET-MB-ITOT: Muamnia. 

FORMAL OASOEHIHO: land- 

tcajte Gardtning, 

FORStrmA (after Wilham 
ForBjrth, prominent English 
borticulturiBt, director of the 
Royal Garden at Kensington, 
1737-1804). Oiedcex. Goldbn- 
Bbi^. Shrubs grown for their 
wealth of bright yellow flowers 
appearing early m spriiig, also 
for their handsome dark green 
foliage. 

Deciduous: Ivs. oppodte, 
petioled, serrate or entire, 
simple or partly 3-parted to 
3-folioUte: fls. 1-6 axillary, 
pedlcelled. heterostyloua; calyx 
and corolla deepw 4-lobed, 
lobes of the corolla oblong, 
longer than the campanulate 
tube; stamens 2, included, in- 
serted at the base of the corolla; 
ovary auprior; style slender 
with 2-bbed stigma: fr. a 2- 
celled, dehiscent caps, with 
man}' winged seeds. — Four 
species in China, Japan and 
S. E. Eu. 

The golden-bells are highly 
ornamental, free-flowering 
shrube, with simple or temate 
leaves and showy yellow flow- 
ers, borne in great profuaian 
at For- ' *'**"8 the slender branchee in 
ti For^ early spring before the leaves. 

tnoM. (XM) ^*y ™l*>ng to the showiest 

early - flowering shrubs, and 

have handsome, clean foliage, remar^bly free from 

insects or fungi, remainins unchaneed until late in fall. 

He upright forms aie well adapted 

for the terdera of shrubberies and 

the pendulous form for covering 

walls, fences, arbors or porches. 

Thev grow in almost any kind of 

ganien soil, and are hardy North 

except F. viridUsima, which is 

somewhat tenderer. Proparation is 

readily by greenwood and hard- 
wood cuttings; also by seeds. The 

branches ol the pendulous form 

often take root at the tips when 

touching the ground, and send 

forth vigorous shoots, like some 

brambles or the walking-fera. 

A. £ps. often 3-parted or S-folioUUe: 

hratuAes hollow between the 
nodes (except in the kybrid). 

B. Branches always hoUow belteeen 

the Ttodex: Uis. uguaUy ovale, 

often S-foliolaU. 
suap^nsa, Vahl. 8hrub, to 8 ft., 
with slender branches often lopping 
on the ground and ti^ng root; Ivs. 
broad-ovate or oblong-ovate, on- 
rate, 3-4 in. long: fls. 1-3, rarely 
to 6, about 1 in. long, golden yellow, tsw. FonrthU nn 
tube striped orange-yellow within; (x 



FORSYTHIA 

calyx about as long as tube: caps, ovate, about 1 in. 
bng. Chins. S.Z. 3. Gn. 73, p. 243. Var. FOrtuneL 
Rehd. {F. FMuiui, Lindl.). Fig. 1559. Of upright 
habit with finally arching branches: 
Ivs. often temate, ovate or oblong- 
ovate; corolla with straight and 
spreading twisted segms. R. H. 
1861:291. G, 4:79; 13:87. G.M. 
50:227. F.E. 31 :421. Var. dedpiens, 
Koehne. A vigorous form of the 
preceding: fls. always solitary, on 
pedicels usually ^in., sometim<« 
nearly 1 in. long, deep yellow, known 
only in the macrostylous form. Gt 
55. p. 203 Var p«lUd«, Koehne. 
Fls. always sohtory, pale yeUow. 
Var. vsriegAta. Buti. Lvs. varie- 
gated with golden yellow: fls, deep 
yellow. Var. stroca&Iis, Rehd. A 
form of var. FoHvnei with dark 
purple branches and the young 
growth purplish. Cent. China. Var. 
pubiscena, Rehd. Similar to the 
preceding, but lvs. soft and ebort- 

Eubescent on both sides or only 
eIow. Cent. China. Var, Siftboldii, 
Zabel (F. S&boldii, Dipp.). Fig. 
1560. IJowshrub, with very slender, 
pendulous or trailing branches: lvs. 
mostly simple, broad-ovate or ovate: 
corolla-lobes flat and broad, slightly 
recurved, B,M,4995. F.8. 12:1253. 
Gn. 33, p. 563. AG. J3;94. G.F. 
4:79. Gt. 55, p. 205.— f, susperaa 
is an excellent uirub for the margins 
of groups, because it finally rolls 
over and meets the greensw^. It 
can also be trained over an arbor. 

BB. Branches ■u»uaUy, particvlarlj/ 
above, ipttk lameUaU pUh be- 
Iwten the node*, pith at the __ "SJ: l?" 
nodes u»uaay solid: bis. otUy on T^JSp' 
vigorous shoots partly SS-parted 
or sometimes S-folialaie, usually ovale ~ lanceolate. 
intennidU, Zabel (F. suspinaa x F. viriMssima). 
Shrub, with slender, erect or arching branches: lvs. 
oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 
sometimes 3-lobed or ter- 
nale, usually coarsely ser- 
rate, 3-4 in . long : fls. almost 
like those of F. suspensa var. 
Foriunei. Gt, 1885:1182; 
. 397. Gn.W. 22:181. Var. 
Una, Koehne (F. vUeUlna, 
ne). With upright or spread- 
ranches: fls. deep yellow, little 
1 in. long. Gt, 55, pp. 227, 
Var. BpecabiUs, Spaeth (P. 
Mlis, Koehne). Upright with 
ding and somewhat arching 
:hes: fls. somewhat paler than 
! preceding, 1 !^ in. long, often 
lerous. Gt. 55, p. 229. G. 35: 
Var. densifldra, Koehne (F. 
lira. Koehne}, Upright shrub 
livaricatelyepreadmgand slen- 
fching branches; fls. crowded 
e base of the branches, rather 
with flat slightly recurved 
arlobes, Gt. 55, pp. 230, 231. 
primfllina, Rehd. Upright 
I, with spreading and archmg 

jhes: fls. crowded at the base 

of the branches, pole yellow ; lobes of 
the corolla revolute at the mai^. — 



1561. Flowen ol 



FORSYTHIA 

F. tnf«rm«d(a is often confounded with forme of P. 
wiufenaa. In foliage it reeeniblee much the foUowina, 
which has the Ivs. natroner, ainaye simple, usualb' 
■errate only above the middle, wilii Bmaller teeUi. It 
IB as hudy as F. wuxpenaa and very floriferoua. 



ipper vari, with 
ale pith liavugh- 
inclvding Ihe 
' Aofrtl upright. 
u, Lindl. PiKS. 
Shrub, to 10 ft., 
-,with green, 
erect bran- 
ches: IvB. ob- 
long- lanceo- 
kite or lanceo- 
late, always 
simple, and 
Generally eer- 
only above the 
le, very dark 
I, 3-6 in. bng: 
-3, about 1 in. 
corolla with 
twisted lobes of 
It greenish yel- 
l half as long as 
l.M.4587. F.S. 
39. H.F. 1852: 
:423. Gn. 33, p. 
&ii3. U.z:06;ai:39. A.G. 13:94. 



1M2. VonrthU >i 






lUbrouB or hury od tu vei£_ 

■ullml: atm. nvoid with ■ Ions v 



and graceful than the preceding fonne. 

jTub 

r at the 

end of vigorous shoots with shallow teeth, 2-3 in. long: 
fls. 1-3, dxtut 1 in. lone, short-pedicelled, golden yel- 
low; calyx-lobes ovate-ciliate, shorter than tne corolla- 
tube: caps, ovoid, about ^in. bng. Albania. B.M. 
8039. Gt. 54, p. 291. G.C. III. 36:123. J.H.S. 29: 
863. F.E. 18:348. 

F. GiraUiina. IJuf Iih. Upri^t ihrub : [vg. elliptie to abloB«, 

iuu-, faroadly sunmte it Ihe bate, ralin or acrrulitc. 

IT huiy OD tha veiiu bcauth, Z-S in. loru: fla. tbon- 

--■'■-' ' ' mder bwiW. H. W. China. 

Alprbd Rebdbr. 

FORTXIITEASIA (after Robert Fortune, who trav- 
eled during the years 1S43-61 in China ana Japan and 
introduced a large number of highly omaineotal plants). 
HamamdidiUex. Ornamental shrub, grown tor its 
handsome fohage. 

Stellate-pubescent: Ivs. deciduous, alternate, serrate, 
with Bmall caducous stipules: fls. small, short-ped ice lied, 
in terminal racemes: calyx turbinate with £ short 
lobes; petals 5, subulate, slightly Bhorl«r than sepals; 
stamens 5, with short filaments; ovary partly superior 
with 2 filiform revolute styles: fr. a, dehiscent 
caps., separating into 2 valves bifid at the ape. 
glossy, dark brown; embryo with large eotyleooi . _ . 
lute at the margin. — One species in Cent. China. Very 
similar in habit and foliage to Sinowilsonia, but the fls 
and the embryo are very different. In genera) appear- 
ance it Bu^eeta the hazel; fis. and frs. insignificant 
Has provea hardy at the Arnold Arboretum. Prop, is 
by seeds and possibly by grafting on Uamamelis. 

sineuaiB, Rehd. & Wilson. Shrub to 6 ft.: Ivs. obo- 
vate or obovate -oblong, short -acuminate, usually 
rounded at the base, sinuate-denticulate, glabrous 
above, pubescent on the veins below, 3-5!^ in. long: 
fls. scarcelv M^. across in racemes about 2 in. long: 
cape, ovoid, Km than Hin. long. May. Cent. China. 
Alfred Rehdbr. 



t woody 



FORTUNELLA 1269 

PORTONfiLLA (named for Robert Fortune, who in 
1846 introduced the first kumquat into Europe). 
RviAcex, tribe CUrez. Kituquat. Evergreen shrubs, 
grown for theu* small ornamental fruits, which are also 
preserved and eaten fresh. See Kiamnad. 

Leaves unifoliate, thick, pale and densely glandular- 
dotted below: stamens 4 times as many as uie petals, 
polyadelphous; ovary 3-6- (rarely 7-) celled, ovules 2 
va each cell: stigma cavernous: frs. like Citrus but 
smaller, l-l^^ in. diam., globose or oval, skin usually 
thick, sweet and edible; seeds green in section, ootyle- 
douB hypogeous in germination : first foliage-lvs. broadly 
ovate, opposite. E>ifFcrs from Citrus in naving a few* 
celled ovary with only 2 ovules in a cell, and a cav- 
ernous stigma; from Atalontia in having 4 times as 
ma^ stamens as petals. — Four species are recognized. 

The two commonly cultivated species of kumquata 
have been referred by botuiists to Citrus, but the 
obviously related HonsJEong wild kumquat has been 
referred to Atalantia. The kumguats are, as a matter 
of fact, out of place either in Citrus or Atalantia and 
constitute a separate genus about midway between these 
two. See Joum. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5:165-176 (No.fi, 
March 4) 1915. 

A. iSubueniM EvSortxmtOa. Ft. 4; S-, 6- {or rarely 7-) 
cdied, pulp uendsj lAundanl, their »laUa arimng 
from the smooth ovary waJl, ped <^ Jr. Oikk and 
ftethy. The ktanquale proper. 

margarita. Swingle (Citrus margarita. Lour.). Figs. 
1563, 1564. . Oval Kumquat. Naoaui Kuuquat. A 
shrub o(*ttfflall tree, thomleas or nearly so: twigs slen- 
der, angled when young, often somewhat tufted: Ivs, 
lanceolate, tapering toward both ends, the tip abruptly 
rounded, sometimes emarginate, the base cuneate, 
margin usually obscurely crenate above the middle, 
dark green above, veins scarcely visible, pale green ana 
densely glandular-punctate below: fls. arising singly 
or in iew-fld. clusters in the axils of the Ivs,, smalL 
?i-^in. diam.; pedicel short, 1J^2J^ lines long; bua 
more or less angular in cross sectioD; pistil short, 2-2!^ 
lines; style persistent, scarcely longer than the ovary; 
stigma capitkte, cavernous, with large, deep-seat«d oil* 
^ands between the stylar canals; ovary 4- or 5-celled, 
ovules 2 in a cell, usu^ly collateral: frs. oval or oblong, 
1-lHxJ-l in-, rarely 1}^-1H in. long, yellowish orange 
with large translucent oil;glaJids imbedded in the thi^ 
and fleshy skin; pulp-vesicles abundant, fusiform, pulp 
acid ; seeds large, 5-6 X 3-3 ^ X 2-2 3^ lines, oval; embryos 
one or aeyiSv^t pistache-green in section; germination 
.witti,'hjfi^^us cotyledons: first foliage.lvs. opposite, 




1270 



FORTUNELLA 



oval, narroned at the base but without a eharply delim- 
ited jointed petiole. B.M. 6128. G.C. 11.2:336. Hume, 

Citr. Fr. p. 129.— The oval kumqiiat, the type of the 
genus Fortunella, is the meet vigorous member of the 
genus, the branched shrub or tree attaining a height 
of 10-12 ft. and the Ivs. eometimes readung 6 in. length 



FOTHERGILLA 

broad; pistil very short; style shorter than the ovaiy, 
atigma large, cavernous; ovaiy 3- or 4-«eIIed, ovules 2 
in a cell: frs. small, H-H^^- subgloboBe, bright orange- 
red; pulp- vedclea very few, smalt fusiform; seeds thick, 
oval or ovate, plump, 4!^)^x3>^ K2>f-3 Knes, 

Sistache-green m section. lU, Seeman, Bot. Voy. H. 
I. S. Herald, 1852-1867, pi. 82.— The Hongkong wild 
kumquat grows commonly on the dry hills eSoat Hong- 
kong and on the mainland of China oppoait«. It is the 
most primitive of the true citrous frs. and doubtlees the 
epeciefl of Citrus have evolved from such a plant. 

Wautxb T. SwiKaui. 



and 2 in. width. It was the first kumquat to reach Eu., 
b&ving been brought to England by Robert Fortune in 
IS46. Because of its superior vigor it is the one most 
commonly grown commeroially, but the frs. are inferior 
to those of the following species, the skin being harsh 
in flavor because of the oiting quality of the oil. 

jap6nica. Swingle (OUriMjopitnico.Thunb.}. Rouin> 
KiTMQUAT. Mabumi Kitmquat. Figs. 1563-1565. A 
much-branched shrub with very short spines or none: 
differs from F. margarUa in the broader and blunter 

Einted smaller Ivs., \%~^ x %-i% in., paler and vein- 
B below, round frs, j-l^in. diam., not showing any 
persistent rudiment of the style, and usuajty with 5-6 
aegms. : seeds small, 3W-5 n 3-3M x 2-23-4 linee, ovaL 
blunt-pointed, the empty testa not projecting beyond 
the end of the embryo. III. Rumph. Herb, Amb. 1:110, 
pl. 31. Thunb. Icon. PI. jap. 2, pi. 5. Hume, Citr. Fr. 
p. 129. — The round kumquat is perhaps the most hand- 
some of the citrous frs. because of its dwarf habit, much- 
branched twigs, and small, bright orange-colored frs. 

cimBsiffiliR, Swingle, Meiwa Kumquat. Figs, 1563, 
1564. A much-branched shrub with very short spines 
or none: differs from F. margarUa in the more rounded 
tn. 1-lM Ji 1-1 H in,, with 6 or 7 cells, not 4 or 5, and in 
the thicker trou^-shaped Ivs, sometimes more abruptly 
pointed toward the tip, and paler fpeen below: petioles 
narrowly winged, not merely margmed. It difiers from 
F. iaponica in the If. characttrs and the ali^tly oval 
frs, with 6 or 7 cells and a thicker peel. It differs from 
both species in having much broader oval or ovate pulp- 
vesicles. — This kumquat recently intra. int«the U.S. by 
Japanese nursetymen is as yet but little known. 
AA. Svhgewit Protocitnu. Fr. S-i-cdled, having 
between, the slaika of the ptdp-veindea man]/ rmrmte 
wart4ike, pale ydlow celliJar mataet, peef of fr. 
thin and bul tlighUy fleshy. The Honotong wdd 
kumquat. 
HIndsil, Swinge (Sderoet^U Hindtii, Champ. Ala- 
Idniia HKitdni, Oliver). Honokono Wild Kuuqcat. 
FiEB. 1563, 1564. A spiny 
small tree: 
twigs slender, 
angled when 
' young; Ivs. 
oval- ellipti- 
cal, tapering 
sharply at 
a dark green 
. faintly venoae, 
venose below, 
ringed, often 
□to the lamina 

ISSS. Bad* and flower of ^ the If. without B sep- 
FortuaoUa japonic*. arative Joint: fls. short, 



FOTHERGtLLA (after John FothergiU, eminent 
English ji^ysician, who introduced and cultivated 
many new plants, 1712-1780). Hamameliddfxx. DwABP 
Aldeb. Shrubs, chiefly grown for their showy spikes of 
white flowers and also for the handsome foliage. 

Deciduous, more or leas stellate -pubescent: Ivs. - 
alternate, short-petioled, coarsely toothed, stipulate: 
fls. in terminal spikes, perfect, apetalous; calyx cam- 
panulate. 5-7-lobed; stamois numerous, vrith the filft- 
ments tnickened toward the end: caps, dehiscent, 
2-celled and 2-aeeded. — Four species in the. southwn 
Atlantic states. 

These are hardy ornamental shrubs with simple, 
dull green leaves, and showy spikes of white flowers in 
spring with the leaves: the distinct foli^e resembles 
somewhat that of the alder, or more that of Hamamelis, 
and turns yellow late in fall. They grow best in moist, 
peaty or sandy soil. Propagation is by seeds, not ger- 

■ ■■ til tr ' * ' 



and roo^cuttings. 



Girdenil, Murr. (F. alnifdlia, Linn. f. F. Carolina, 



or cuneate at the base, coarsely dentate above the 
middle, pubescent above, pale or glaucous and tomen- 
tose below, 1-2 in. long: spikes ovate or oblong, 1-2 



L.B.C. 16:1507. 



FOTHERGILLA 

AA. £m. t-6 in. Umg, glabroui or glabrt»etnt above: 

ihnJn lo 10 ft. high. 
monttcoU, Aahe. Fig. 1507. Upright ahnib with 
^traifiing branches: Its. roundish oval to broadly obo- 
vate or otiovate, 
remot^ daitat«, 
often from bebw 
; the middle, light 
; green and sparingly 
pubeBCent Delow, 
often OQ^ on the 
vans, 2-4 m. long: 
Bpikee lh^-3 in. 
long with 1-3 Ivs. 
at the base; sta- 
mens r'^jn. long: 
cape. J^in. long. 
April, May.N.C. to 
Ala. — Has proved 
hardy at the Arnold 
Arboretum, like the 
preceding and the 
following species, 
mijor, Lodd. (F. 
ir. mAjor, Sims^. Fig. 
right ahnib of dense 
habit: Iva. oval or 
)rdate or truncate at 
aiauat«ly dentate 
I middle or nearly 
c green and somewhat 
re, glaucouB and more 
lat»-pubescent below, 
D the veina, of firm 
■i-5 in. lon^: fls. like 
xding n>eciee. April, 
own only from cult. 
M. 1342. L.B.C. 16: 
.8:445 (excl. IvB. and 
i.G, 1902:395, 396.— 
1507. Poaictflia This species a superior to the 

BoBiiedB. (XH) former on account of its deuw, 
pyramidal habit- 

F. pani/Hn, KeanwT. doaBt^ nlaWd to F. Gudenii. Lomt 

sad >tol(mfBnnii: In. dhHt oclnculkr, raiDdnl or < *~'- -' *^' 

b«a. tootbcd Inxa bdow tbs middle. N. C. to FIl 



FRAGARU 



1271 



deserts from Texas westward, standing on the open 
expoeed placee and alopee, the rod-like stiff canee look- 
ing like lifeless sticks in dry weatiier and in its season 
crowned with maHsea of ahowy bloom. i,. h. B.f 

FOUSCBOtA: Pvrermi. 
FODS-O'CLOCK: UvabUii Jalara. 
FOZGLOTI: DigHalu. 

PRAGArU (Latin, fragrance, from the smeU of the 
fruit). Ftotdcex. Strawbbrbt. Low perennial creeping 
herbs grown for the excellent fniit, and one or two 
species for ornament. 

Plant stemleee. with scaly rootstock or crown, and 
rooting runners; Ivb. palmately 3-toliolate and toothed, 
all from the crown: fls. white or reddish, in corymbose 
racemes on slender, leaSees scapes, sometimes lacking 
stamens; calyx deeply 5-lobed and reinforced by 5 
sepal'like bracts; petals 5, obovate, elliptic or orbiciuar; 
eliunens man^, ^ort; pistils many, on a conical recep- 
tacle, beoonung small and hard achenes and persist- 



mg ' 



D the 



and edible. — The fragarias are exceedingly Taciable. 
About 150 specific names have been appCed to th^n, 
but Bentham and Hooker would reduce them all to 
3 or 4 species, and Pocke (in Engler & PrantI) to about 
8. Rydberg, however, accepts 27 N. American species 
(N. Amer. Flora, X3ul, part 4. 1908). Of the true 
iragarias, about 4 speciee-typea are interesting to the 
horticulturist as tbe parents of the garden stra wbenies : — 
F. duioentia, the probable original of the ordinary cul- 
tivated Btrawbemee of Amer. ; F. mrpniana, which was 
early domesticated, and of which some trace still remains 
in cult, varieties; F. motehala, the Hautbois, and F. 
vetea, the alpine and perpetual strawberriee. which are 
little cult, in this country. The classical work <«1 Straw- 



POVQUltltU. (Pierre Ed. Fouquier, pn^essor of 
medicine at Paris in the first part of the nineteenth 
century). Fouqvieriiee*. Candlzwood. Four species 
from the deaerta of Mexico and one extending into the 
United States and sometimes cultivated in the lar^ 
rockeries of California. Tliese plants arp intereetug 
as being an example of an order far removed from the 
Cactaces in flowers and fruit but reduced to something 
of their habit by the desert conditions. 

Small trees or shrubs, becoming leafless in dry 
weather, with showy tubular fls. in terminal racemes 
or panicles: Ivs, fleany, obovate, fascicled in Uie axils 
of thorns: sepals 5; corolla with a spreading 5-lobed 
limb; stamens lO-n; styles 3, separate or united: 
seeds with a membranous wing or fringed with Icmg 
hairs. Fouquieria is by some authors retained in 
the Tamaricaoee. 

OACH-WBIP. Vinb-Cactob. 

. Shrub, 6-25 ft., branch- 
long, gray, furrowed, erect: 

pex, wedg»«baped id base, 

ir brick'fed, exceeding 1 in. 

lyrsoid ekmeated clusters; 

ps. ^Hin.long, the seeds 

of BjHrally thickened hairs. 

I. Calif. B.M.8318. A.G. 

Mex., making an impentra- 

I omqucuous object in the 



ISOS. Vngarta iti^niuu, thowiof Qia profnM n 



"Hiatoire Naturelle dea lYais- 

iers," 176fl. See Straieberry. For Fragaria indiea, sae 
/>ucAesnea. 

A. i./l«. duftncUj/ petiolulaU, few-looliiM. 



FRAGARIA 

□ere usu&Uy spearing with the fr.: berry email, 
light scarlet, gktbuliu' or oblong-conical, usually with 
& conBtriction or neck underneath tee moderate- 
sized calyx or hull. E. N. Amer. — Variable. A few 
early vanetiea of Btrawberriea, as Crystal City, seem 
to be whoUy or partly of F. virginiaTui origiD. Var. 
QUnoinBis, Gray (F. tUinoitiiU, Prince. F. Grayina, 
VHm. F. viroinidna var. GrayAna, Rydb.). A large 
uid more robust form, more hairy, the haiis on 
die pedicels spreadiDg whereas on the type they are 
nore appreesed. 

BB. 1ai». twrmoUy diarler than 

the fi.'clusUrs: acbenei 

vtuaiiy not minken in 

the fieth of the berry. 
Ttsca, Linn. (f. semper- 
tdreni, Duchesne). Au-ine 
uid ft;RPETOAi. Strawber- 
aiE8. Erect and dark green, 
>nly sparsely hairy, the Ivb. 
Uiin aad light green as com- 
pared with the foregoing 

n'ea, very sharp-toothed: 
ist«r small, forking, erect: fr. firm, small, usu- 
ally hemispheric, the acnenes very prominent; hull 
spreading. Eu. — The American more slender form 
of this ^up-epecies, common in woods from Va. 
north, IS var. ameiiclna, Porter (£. ameritdna. 
Brit.), Fig. 1571, with ovoid or somewhat conical 
fr. usually with a distinct neck, and sparingly hairy 
rather than hairy-pubescent petioles ana scapes, 
and thinner Iva. The true F. I'esca is thought to 
tte sparingly naturalized eastward, and probably 
native in many parU, particularly the white-fruited 
form (fonna oUncdrpa, Brit,). The cult, forms are 
rarely seen in this country, but the quality is high, 
and they are deserving of more attention in home 
RTOunds. Variable in cult. There is a form with 
Bts. reduced to 1 {F. tnonophyUa, Duchesne. B.M. 
63). This type of strawberry beiars more continu- 
oualy than P. ckiioentii and F. irirffinUma in its cul- 
tivated forms. 



a upward. 
AA. itfts. sestiU or nearly so, many-toothed. 

B. LcM. rvtrmaily overlo-pping the JU. and fr.: achenea 
mostly tunken in the flesh of the berry. 

cbUoCnaiB, Duchesne. Fig. 1568. Low.butstoutina 
its parts: Ivs. thick, more or less glossy above, bluia 
white below, blunt-toothed: A.-clustera fork- 
ing and long-rayed, the peduncle short, soon ^^ 
lopping on thie ground : runners mostly ^ - 
appearing after the fr. is gone: berry large Z^^ 
and firm, dark-colored, more or less musl^ t^ 
in flavor, reinforced by a very large calyx or — . 
hull. Pacific coast region Peru to Patagonia. ' 

— A common wild strawberry of the Pacific 
elope from Alaska to Calif., is considered to 
be the same species. 

Var. ananissa, Hort. (F. anandssa, F. 
lincta, F. calyctMta, Duchesne. F. grandt- 
Sdra, Ehrh. F. vitca var. ariAnaa, Ait.). 
PiNB STRAWBBiuir. CoMUON Garden Strawberry 
Taller growing: Iva. larger and thinner, mostly lighte 
green on both sides: fr. larger, running into ver^ 
many kinds. 

virginiina, Duchesne. Scari^t or Virginia] 
Strawbgrrt. Figs. 1569, 1570. More slender: Ivi 
thinner, light green above and below, the upper sui 
face with sunken veins: fl. -clusters small, with a fei 
hanging frs. at the top of a rather long peduncle: run 



moscUta, DuchMae (P. eldfior, Ehrh.). Hatttbois. 
Taller, usually dicecioue, more pubescent, the calyx or 
hull straagly reflexed from the fr.; berry dull red, 
musky. Eu. — Cult, forma rarely seen in Amer. 



Ivs. rather thin, 

aleDder silky petioles 2-3 ii 

or cuneate, coarsely a ~ ' 



1571. A Inun*. — II k 



. D scapes 2-~i in. high; sepate and bracts aill^; 
petals obovate: fr. nearly hemispheric, small, the 
achenea superficial. Cent. Mex, — The "everbearing 



:> belong 



Htrawberry, frequently advertised, 

here. F. caiif&miea, Cham, di Schlecht., 

but has much longer petioles and broadly rounded or 

rhomb-ovate Ifts., somewhat larger fis. and fr., and the 

achenes in shallow pits. Calif., New Mex., Lower Calif. 

PRAGRAAT BALM: Umarda didima. 

FKAHE. Fig. 1572, A box without permanent top or 
bottom which is designed, when covered with glass or 
other transparent material, as a place ir —'---'- ' 

Slants. When supplied with artificial bi 
'ame is part of a hotbed; when supplie 
heat, it is part of a coldframe. Tbe fr 
any aiie, but the normal sixe is fl by 1 
which accommodates four 3- by 6-fi> 
this 6 by 12 area is understood when o 
frame." See Hotbed. 

FRASClSCBA: Sr^nfiina. 

FKANCdA (Ft. Franco, Valencia, six 
promotor of botany ) . Saxifraadt^x. 
species of Chilean perennial herbs, wit 
and terminal dense racemes of white i 
borne in summer, suitable for outdo 
mild climates. 

Plants erect, scapose, the Ivs. basa 
2-3 ft. high, and in the N. could perhs 
in a coldframe: Rlandular-pilose or t 
H>me thick, many-neadcd; Ivs. glandu- 
lar-dentate: fis. 1 in. across, in racemes 
6 in. long; floral parts in 4 s rarely 5'b; 
petals obovate, clawed; stamens 4: 
cape, coriaceous, elongat«d, 4-angled 
and 4-celled. 

A. FU. white. 

rundu, D. Don. (F. gbOrita, DC.). 
Taller, woodier and more branching 
than the others, and distinguished bv 
pubescent infl. : If.-stalka not marginca: 
ns. amaller. Hardy at Washington, 
D. C, with spikes 2 ft. long and 1 in. 
thick. Forms ore known under the 
nainca F. ramoaa hybrida (G.W. 7:230, 
B robust plant with pure white lis. 
larger than the type) \ and F. ramasa 
Candida. F. ramoea is an attractive 
species. Gt. 60:1590. On. 69, pp. 271, 
M3; 70, p. 283. G.L. 24;177. G. 7 
741; 13:307. G.M. 49:127. 



AA. Fls. motUy pink. 
■onchifUU, Cav. Fig. 1573. li.-stalka broadly 
winged at the base; bwer lobes continuous with the 
broad margin at the base of the If. -stalk: petals deep 
rose, dark-apott«d. B.M. 3309.— By some considered 
to be a variety of F. appendieulala. 
appeadicuUta, Cav. U.-stalksnotwingedatthebase; 
loner lobes distant from the base of the stalk: 
petals pale rose, rarely spotted. B.M. 3178 
(shows a white longitudinal band on petals). 
B.R. 1645. L.BTC. 19:1864, erronoousfy 
named F. tonehifoUa. R.H. 1006, pp. 428, 42S. 
G.W. 12, p. 260. L. H. B.t 

FBAKGIPAin: Plumeria. 

FRAKEfonA (John Frankeniua, Swedish 
botanist, 1590-1661). FrankmiAe«x. Low 
perenniails, evergreen, sometimes woody, 
mostly in ssUne soils, more or less heath-like: 
Ivs, opposite or in 4's, thickish, entire, small 
and numerous on the sts,, often fascicled on 
short branchlets: fls, small, perfect and complete, sessile 
or nearly so, Bolitary or in dichotomous clusters; calyx 
and corolla 4-5-merous, the sepals united, the petals 
with a crown at the base of the blade; stamens usually 
same number as pctaJs and alternate with them; style 
3-4-cleft; ovary 1-celled, with parietal placenta, ripen- 
ing into a caps, inclosed in the calyx.— Probably 30 spe- 
cies in many ports of the world, a very few of them in the 
S. W. U, 8. The family Fronkeniacese is closly allied to 
Caryophyllaces, from which it differs in the parietal 
plaoentie, and to Hypericaces, from which it differs in 
habit, in the definite stamens 
■nH the volvate calyx. The 
has 3 other genera, 
defined by Niedeozu, 
ing Hypericopsis with 
B m S, Persia, Beat- 
itb 1 species in St. 
and Nieoerlcinia with 
s in Patagonia. The 
las are practically 
n as cult, plants, 
1 sometimes men- 
18 corpetere and for 
dens. F. Urvix, Linn., 
■heath, is offered. It 
usely much-branched 
presding 6-S in., gla- 
brous or nearly so: 
Ivs. revolute and 
thereby appearing 
linear, crowded in 
opposite clusters: 
fls. few, sessile in 
terminal leafy clus- 
ters, pink. £n^ 
land and the Med it. 
region. F. ptdveru- 
Unta, Linn., is a 
closely aUied hairy 
speclee; it has been 
reported in ballast 
Bt New York. 

L. H. B. 

FRAS£RA (John 
Fraser, English 
botanist, collected 
in Amer. 1785-96 
and published 
Walter's "Flora 
Caroliniana"). Gen- 
1S73. Fnoca* UDdilloIk. (XK) rianace;r. CoLUMBQ. 



1274 



FRASERA 



Luge stout glabrous herbs, all N. American^ and all but 
J far-wcetern with a Hingle St. from thick bitt«r mostly 
bienuial roots, opposite or whorled Ivs., and t^^noee 
panicled dustera of dull white, yellowish or bluish fls. 
which are commonly dark-spotted; calyx deeply 4- 
parted; corolla wheel-shaped, 4-parted, persistent, the 
lobes glandular within ; stamens 4, the filaments often 
united at tjie base; ovary l-celled, the stigma entire or 
2-lobed.— Species 8, mostly in woods or dry soils. 
Three of the species have been offered in the trade, but 
are probably very little planted. F. caroiininnt, Walt., 
of the eastern states and Ont., is a biennial or shorts 
lived perennial, 3-4 ft. tall, with lanoe-oblong or 
spatulate veiny Ivs. mostly in 4'b, and greenish yellow 
purple-dotted fls. 

A. Ltit. in whorU of 4-ff, nol iBkUe^margined. 

specldM, Douglas. Stout^ 2~5 ft, very leafy, the Ivs. 

ovate to (H)long: fis. greemsh white or bsrelv tinged 

bluish, dark-dotted: 2 glands on each coroUa-lobe. 

Wyo., S. and W. 



AA. Liis. in »'« or 3't, wkUfmaraiiud. 

Pinyi, Torr. Height 2-3 ft.; Ivs. opposite or m 3's: 
fls. whitish, dark-dotted; 1 notched gland on each 
oorolla-lobe. Ariz., S. Calif. 

Cftsicldi, Gray. Slender, height 3-8 in.: 1^ opposite: 
fls. bluish ; 1 gland reaching from near the base to near 
the middle of each corolla-lobe. Ore. j^^ g_ 3 t 

ntAXIRftLLA: DiiUtmiu. 

FRAZIirnS (ancient Latin name). OUAeex. Asa. 
Interesting trees grown chiefly for their handsome 
pinnate leaves and some species also for the conspicu- 
ous panicles of white flowers. 

Deciduous: Ivs. opposite, odd-pinnate, without 
stipules: Ss. in panicles, ditecious or polygamous, with 
or without calyx or with calyx and a 2-6-parted corolla 
with generally linear segme. ; stamens generally 2 ; ovary 
2-ceIled: fr. a l-eeeded, winiced samara. — About 50 
species in the temperate regions of the northern hemi- 
^here south to Cuba; 16 of them occur in the U.S. 

The ashes are ornamental trees, most of them hardy, 
with rather large leaves and small flowers in panicles, 
either appearing before the leaves and greenish, or in 
the subgenus Orous after or with leaves and whitish in 
showy panicles: the winged fruit is insignificant. They 
are valuable as street and park trees, and grow mostly 
into tall, pyramidal or broad-headed trees, with rather 



in fall or remains green, as in ^. exeeliior and F 

llie ash is seldom severely injured, though a number of 
insects and fungi prey on the leaves and wood, of irtiich 
two borera, and a fungus attacking the leaves are per- 
haps the most obnoziouB. Most of the species are hardy 
North except those from the southern states, southon 
Europe and Himalayas; of the subgenus Omus^ F. 
Bvngeana and F. lotijpcutpU seem to be the hardiest. 
The ashes are important forest trees, and the straight- 
grained and tough wood is much used for handles of 
toolsj in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, for 
the mterior finiah of houses, ana for fumituro, for 
baskets and also for fuel. From F. Omus manna is 
obtained as an exudation of the trunk, and some 
Chinese species, especially F. ckinerutit and P. Mariani, 
yield the Chinese white wax. 

The ashes grow in almost any moderately moist soil, 
F. nigra beiiu; somewhat more moisture-loving, while 
F. oxyearpa, F. Ornut, F. syriaea and F. eutpidala grow 
well even in drier situations. They aro usuaUy 
readily transplanted and grow ranidly when young. 
Propagation is by seeds gatherea in fail and sown 
immetUately, or stratified and sown in spring, covered 
with about 1 inch of good soil; sometimes they 
remain dormant until the second year. The varieties 
and rara' kinds are budded in late summer or grafted 
in spring on the seedlings of any of the common species. 



INDEX. 
aUbBta.30. 

hiUnpliyaa, it, 
uU, a. 20. iodourp*. i, 
:1a, 30, iwnpkk«, 30. 




A. Fit. in terminal paniciet on UaSy »hoolt, perfect or 

polygamoue, with or after the Uix. (OrniM.) 

B. CoroUa prevent, divided nearly to the hate; a(am«ns 

with Umg filamentt. 

c. Pelialet not eompicuoudj/ enlarged at the base. 

D. Lowett pair of ffta. not miuii smaHer than the others. 

E. LJte. Oalked. 

draus, Linn. (A-nus europia, Pers. F. flori- 



biinda, Hort,, not Wall.). Small tree, becoming 25 ft.: 
winter-buds eray or brownish tomentuloee: llts. gen- 
erally 7, staBted, oblong-ovate or ovate, irregularly 



serrate, rufously pubescent on the midrib beneath, 
2-3!^ m. lonp: fls. whitish, fragrant, in dense, lerminal 
panicles 3-5 m. long: fr. erect, narrow-oblong, truncate 
or emarginate at the apex, about 1 in. long. May, June. 
Eu., W. Asia. Gn. 22, p. 117; 34, p. 78; 48, p. 286; 
"■ "-■ "" —:6l. G. 18:541. G.M. 54:860. 
Lr. juglandifftlia, Tenore (var. 
UOif/Aia, Dipp, F. rolundifhlia, Hort.). Lfto. ovate or 



brradiy ovate-oblong. Var. rotundifAlla, Tenore (F. 
rotundtfUia, Lam.). Low tree: Ifts, roundish-elliptic 
to roundiah-obovate. Var. angustifAlia, Tenore (F. 
Theophrdttii, Hort., partly). Lfts. lanceolate. 



FRAXINUS 



FRAXINUS 



1275 



2. Bungdfcna, DC. {F.parvifMia, Lingelsh. F. 
Bwigedna var. parvifdliaf Wenzig). Fig. 1574. Small 
tree, to 15 ft., or shrub: winter-buds nearly black: Ifts. 
generally 5, stalked, ovate, obovate or roundish, obtuse 
to short-acuminate, serrate, glabrous, 1-1^ in. long: 
panicles to 2^ in. lonff, many-fld.; calyx with narrow 
acute lobes; filaments tonger than the unear petals: fr. 
narrow-oblong, obtuse or emarginate. May. China. 
G.F. 7:5 (adapted in Fig. 1574). 

EB. Lfts. sessile. 

3. obovftta, Blume (F. Bungedna var. chovdUif 
Lingelsh.). Tree: petioles often slightly winged; lfts. 
5-7, oval or obovate, short-acuminate to obtusish, 
cuneate at the base, crenate-serrate, dull green above 
and slightly pubescent on the veins, ^yish ^reen below 
and pubescent toward the base of the vems, 2-4 in 
long: infl. small; oetals linear, longer than the stamens: 
fr. with narrow-oblong obtuse wing. Japan. 

DD. Lowest pair of lfts, much smaller than the others; 

lfts. long-acuminate, 

4. longiciispis, Sieb. & Zucc. Slender tree, to 30 ft., 
with rufously pubescent winter-buds: lfts. 5-7, stalked, 
oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, obtusely serrate, 
almost glabrous, 2-4 in. long: fls. in rather slender, nar- 
row panicles, to 4 in. long; petals linear-oblong, about 
as long as stamens: fr. oblanceolate, obtuse. May. 
Japan. S.I.F. 1:81. Var. SieboldiAna, Lingelsh. (F. 
SiiboldiAna, Blume). Lfts. oval to oblong-ovate, short- 
stalked, usuallv pubescent below along the midrib. 
Japan, Korea. Var. sambiicina, Lingelsh. OP. Sieboldidna 
var. sambiicina, Blume). Lfts. sesole. 

5. Mari^sii, Hook. f. Shrub or small tree: winter- 
buds erayish black: petiole minutely glandular-pubes- 
cent; lfts. 5-7, nearly sessile, close, touching each 
other, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
entire or finely crenate-serrate, yellowish green below 
and glandular-puberulous on the midrib toward the 
base, otherwise glabrous, 1 yiS in. long: panicle upright, 
5 in. long; petals linear-spatulate about as long as 
stamens. Cent. China. B.M. 6678. — Handsome and 
free-flowering; blooms even as a small shrub. 

cc. Petioles distinctly enlarged at the base; lfts. sessile^ 

the unveet pair smaller. 

6. SpaethiAna, Lingelsh. (F. serratifdliaf Hort., 

Sartlv). Tree: young branchlets glabrous: winter-buds 
ark brown: Ivs. 6-12 in. long; petiole grooved, reddi^ 
brown at the enlarged base, ^brous; lfts. 5-9, oblong 
to oblonjg-obovate, deeply crenate-serrate, dark green 
above, hghter green below and glabrous except along 
the midnb toward the base, 3-7 in. long: fls. and frs. 
unknown. Origin unknown.— Handsome tree with 
large Ivs. 

BB. Corolla with a short tube or wanting. 
c. The corolla with short tube; anthers almost sessile. 

7. cuapidilta, Torr. Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft., 
with dark, reddish brown buds: lfts. usually 7, slender- 
stalked, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
coarsely serrate, almost glabrous, lH-2 in. long: fls. 
fragrant, in 3-4-in. long pam'cles: fr. spatulate-oblong. 
April. Texas to Aiiz. and New Mex. S.S. 6:260. — 
Handsome flowering tree for temperate regions. 

cc. The corolla wanting, or occasionally present; calyx 
often irregularly toothed. (Ornaster.) 

8. chhi6n^ Roxbg. Tree, to 40 ft.: branchlets 
^abrous: winter-buds brownish black, conspicuous 
with a rufous woolly tomentum when openine: Ivs. 
5-8 in. long; petiole enlarged at the base, near^ glar 
brous; lfts. 5-7, short-stalked, elliptic to elliptic-oblong 
or ovate-oblong, acuminate, cimeate at the base, ser- 
rate, dark green above, li^t green below and nairv 
along the lower part of the midrib, 2-5 in. lone: pistil- 
late panicle .3-6 in. long: fr. oblanceolate, obtuse or 



emarginate at the apex, IJ^ in. Ions and )^in. broad. 
China. M^. Var. rhynchoph^lla, Hemsl. (F. rhyn^ 
chophaiUit Uanoe). Lfts. enUre or irregularly crenate- 
serrate, on slenderer stalks. Cent, and W. Cluna. G.F. 
6:485. 



t; 



Fls. from leafless axillary buds, brfore the ivs.; without 
corolla; filaments usually shorter than anthers. 

B. The fls. dicecums, with the calyx persistent on the fr.; 
anthers linear or linear-oblong: lfts. generally &-7: 
buds brown. (Leptalix.) 

c. Lvs. always pinnate. 

D. Fr. cUanceolate or lanceolate; its body terete, 

E. Lfts. stalked. 

F. Under side of lfts. glaucous: wing of the fr. not 

decurrent. 

9. americftna, Linn. (F. n^we-dnglix, Mill. F. dtba^ 
Marsh.). WnrrBAsH. Fig. 1575. Tall tree, to 120 ft.: 
brancUets and petioles glabrous: lfts. gen- 
erally 7, stalked, ovate to ovate-lanceo- 
late, entire or denticulate, dark green above, 
glaucous beneath, 3-5 in. long: fr. lineaiv 
oblong, with terete body, the wing not decur- 
rent, 13^ in. long. From Canada to Fla., 
west to Minn, and Texas. S.S. 6:268. Em. 
377. G.F. 7:405. F.E. 23:427.— Very vari- 
able. Var. acuminata, Wesm. (F. acumv- 
ndta. Lam. F. epij^era, Michx. F. ameri- 
cdna var. glaiica^ Hort.). Lfts. dark green 
and shining above, very glaucous and 
almost glabrous beneath, usually entire. 
Var. higumdifdlia, Rehd. (F. juglandifdlia, 
Lam.). Lfts. less shininK above, usually 
broader, more or less pubescent beneath, 
serrate at least above the middle. This is 157S. 
the northern form, while the former is more ^""^^ or key 
common in the southern states. Var. iodo- ^ ^SJ^!* 
c&rpa, Fern. Frs. conspicuous by their red- *(5JJ[tJ!^' 
dish purple color. Var. ftlbo-maiginAtay ^^^ 
Hort. Lfts. edged white. 

10. Biltmorelbia, Beadle. Tree, to 50 ft.: branch- 
lets and petioles pubescent: lfts. 7-9, ovate-oblong 
to lanceolate, often falcate, acuminate, roimded or 
broadly cuneate at the base, entire or obscurely toothed, 
dark green and glabrous above, glaucous below ana 
pubescent, particularly on the veins, 3-6 in. long: 
panicles pubescent: fr. linear-oblong, with terete body, 
the wing not decurrent, emarginate at the apex, 1}^ 
1% in. long. May. Pa. to Ga., west to Ala., Mo. and 
111. S.S. 14:716. 

FP. Under side of lfts. green or grayish green: wing of 
the fr. decurrent, hence body margined. 

11. lanceolitay Borkh. (F. vtridis, Michx., in part. 
F. pennsylvdnica var. lanceoldtaj Sarg.). Green Ash. 
Tree, to 60 ft: branchlets and petioles glabrous: lfts. 
5-9, stalked, ovate to oblone-lanceolate, irr^ularly 
serrate, green on both sides, umost glabrous, 2-5 in. 
long: fr. oblanceolate, witn decurrent wing, hence 
body margined, about 1}^ in. long. Canada to Fla., 
west to Rocky Mts. S.S. 6:272. 

12. pennsylvlUiica, Marsh. (F. pubiscens. Lam.). 
Red Ash. Tree, to 60 ft.: branchlets and petioles 

Eubescent: lfts. 5-9, stalked, ovate to oblong-laneeo- 
kte, actuninate, crenately serrate or entire, pubescent 
beneath, 3^ in. long: fr. linear-spatulate, about 2 in. 
long, with somewhat decurrent wmg. Canada to Fla., 
west to Dakota and Mo. S.S. 6:271. — This species 
varies considerably in the amount of pubescence and 
the shape of the lfts., and many forms under different 
names are grown in European niuseries and gardens. 
Var. aucub»fdlia. Hortu, is a form with less pubescent 
lvs., blotched yellow. There are also variegated forms 
with the lvs. blotched white or edged white. 



GK. LJtt. lettiie or thart-ttalked: branehltli and ■petwUa 
pubescent. 
13, vdlltioa, Torr. {F. pataciifblia, Torr.). Tree, to 
40 ft., with velvety pubescent, rarely ^bioiu branches: 
Ifta. 5-9, sometimes reduced to 3 or even 1, aborts 
Btalked, oblong to lanceolale, umially 
acuminate, narrowly cuneate at the base, 
entire or remotely serrate, yellowish green, 
&rm and thick at maturity, pubescent or 
nearly glabrous beneath, '2-4 in. long: fr. 
apatuLate, with marginlesB body. Texas to 
Ariz. and New Mex. 8.8.6:267. G.F.8;16. 
— F. TAumeyi Brit., with narrower more 
distinctly stalked Ifts., is probably only a 
variety of this species. M.D.G. 1913:556; 
also S.S. 6:267 representa this variety. 



14. oregbna, Nutt. Tree, to 80 ft.: peti- 
oles sometimes glabrous at length; Ifte. 

7-9, almost sessile or short-stalked, oblong ^'|"- F'' 
or elliptic, acuminate, entire or obscurely ^JJj'^Jl' 
and remotely serrate, light green, 2Ji-6 in. ^ ^„ , 
long, thick and firm at maturity: fr. ob- 
long-obovate, with decuirent wing, about 1}^ in. long. 
Wash, to Calif. 8.8.6:276. 
DD. Ft. eiliptic or broadly tpalulaU, body compretied 
with the winy all around, 

15. canriinUna, Mill. IF. pUUyodrpa, Michx. F. 
IripUra, Nutt.). Water Ahh. Tree, to 40 ft., with 
puDescent or glabrous branches: Ifte. 5-7, stklked, 
ovate or oblong, acuminate, broadly cuneate or some- 
times rounded at the base, serrate, rarely entire, pubes- 
cent or glabrous beneath, 2-5 in. long: fr. 1-2 in. 
long, with pinnately veined wing, often 3-winged. Va. 
to Fla., west to Ark. and Texas. S.S. 6:274, 275. 

cc. Lvi. vniallj/ timpU, occanonaUy 3-5-folvAate: 
branchUta quadranffuiar. 

16. anSmala, Wats. Shrub or tree, to 20 ft.: Ifts. 
broadly ovate or roundish at the apex, rounded, acutish 



FEAXINUS 

or emarginate, entire or sparinglv crenate-aenate, 

slabrouB and dark green above. [Huer and pubescent 

bebw while young, 134-2 in. long: fls. polygainous: 

fr. obovate-oblong, rounded or emarginate at the apex, 

Hin. long. Colo., Utah, Nev. and S. Calif. S.S. 6:266. 

BB. The JU. wUhoul calyx (only No. IT hat a deddtiotu 

minuU calyx); archers cordis, rarely broadly 

oblong: (fU. generally more than 7, nearly glabroui. 

{Fraxinoiler.) 

c. Branches 4-a^l^ i"'' umally vnnged, 

17. quadnuurullta, Michx. BLrE Ash. Tree, to 80, 
rarely 120 ft.: Hts. 7-11. short-stalked, ovate to lanceo- 
late, acuminate, sharply serrate, yellowish green on 
both sides, 3^5 in. long: fls. perfect: fr. oblong, emar- 
ginate, winged all around, 1-2 in. long. From Mich, to 
Ark.andTenn. 8.8.6:263. 

cc. BraruAes terete or nearly to. 

D. Badti* ai the baae of Ifts. mlk thick rufout tomentum: 

JU. diaciaus. 

18. nigra, Marsh. [F. sambuci/dlia, Lam.). Black 
Ash. Fig. 1576. Tree, to 80 ft.: ifts. 9-11, sessile. 



obl< 



a-lanceolate, rounded at the base, ai 



sharply serrate, green on both sides, dark above, 3-6 ■ 
in. loag: anthers broadly oblong: fr. narrow-oblong, 
with decuTTcnt wing. From Canada to Va., west to 
Mo. 8.8.5:264,265. Era. 382. 

19. mandBch&rica, Rupr. (F. nigra, var, mandshiirica, 
Lingelsh.) . Tree, to 100 It., with obtusely ouadrangular 
branches and dark brown buds: Ifts, 0-11, almost sessile. 



DD. Rttdiiv without consptfiioiu rufous tomenium: fis. 

perfect or polygamou*. 

E. Buds bJoot. 

20. enilsior, Linn. Fig. 1577. Tall tree, to 120 ft.: 

Ifts. 9-13, almost sessile, oblong-ovate or ovato-lanceo- 

late, acute or acuminate, serrate, dark green above, 

paler beneath, 2-5 in. long: fr. oblong, often emai^ 

_.._ _!,.... ,1,. :. i..,j, Eu \Y Agjjj H.W.3:59, 

, j>. 273. K.E. 24:395. Many 

^It., some of the most distinct 

U-. tUbo-margiiUta, Hort. Lfts. 

ntea, Loud. (var. iU>o-varief^ta, 

white. Var. Ifttea, Loud. Lvs.. 

Var. jaspldoa, Desf. Bark of 

e young branches striped pink- 

) white. Var. abrea, Pers. With 

How branches. Var. atlrea-p£n- 

ila, Loud. With pendulous yel- 

ir branches, but a somewhat 

^ak grower. Var. erftsa, Willd, 

ar. asjienifUia, Kirchn. Var. 

nntdta, Hort. Var. elcgtu^teimit, 

jrt. Var. scofoperuir^fiita, Hort.). 

ta. very narrow, inciaely serrate 

d often almost linear. Var. 

Ispa, Willd. (Var. atrbvirens, 

Var. eucuiWia, Hort.). with 

very dark green curled and 

. twisted lvs. ; of slow growth. 

Var. diversiffllia, Aft. (F. 

heleropkylla, Vabl. F, Hm- 

rt. F. riifa, Hort., not Bosc). 

I, usually incieely dentate. Gn. 

phfUa, Kuntie {F. monophyUa, 

Willd.). Lvs. simple, ovate, 

r 2 small Ifta. at the case. Var. 

noniifblia, Var. globbsa, Hort.). 

ring, dwarf form with very 

:380, Var. pfaduU, Ait. With 

Ine of the best pendulous trees 



for forming arbora and shady seats. Go. 39, p, 451; 
e8,p.4O0. 

EE. Buds hrmim. 

r. Ifii. tetsile or nearly to. 

a. Nwnber of (fts. SS, raxtiy 7. 

21. Bjrrlau, Boiss. (F. sogdiAna, Dipp., not Bunxe. 

F. (uTjteifdntea, Catr.). In cult. UBUollv Hmall tree, the 

brancbes with short internodca and Ivs. therefore 

crowded, often in whorla of 3: Ifta. lanceolate, acumi' 

nate, cuneate at the base, serrate, bright green and 

quite glabrous on both adea, lH-2>4 ■"- long: panicles 

1 W in. long: fr " " ' " " 

toKurdistao. 



A[li«d to F. MarifwiT^n!*"lfu. »bou 






oa. Number of Ifls. 7^13. 



head and dense sma^ foliage. 

Q<uli}dlia. Vahl. CIoKlr f 
■t the ban., 8. Eu., N. Af r.? 



■led u 



uhM, QHpeciaUy viriABkted forma, uv cull- under 
iuttriiit. Osy— T. siiBiutifDlu vwT. austfulu.— ?. 
>C. AlliedloF.luicedit&.TrH!,lo70ft.: IEIi.StS, 



el.— F.CriStbil. 

uif' :lfl^6.iub- 

undedatthe 



deoa often other 

thil DUDB.—^. . 

fifriandicndna. DC. /- 

ormle or obovsle, mmM, downy iloDg tbe vei 
ioBM. TeiuU)Mei.B.S.S;273,— r. braaiOta. 1 
— 7: coHicM, Wnto. Allied to F. Teluiinm. Ti«, to ao 

tKK.gUiiKKiiar □ubeMant'balow! S. CalR. to UtAh, Ai.i.. .•!;>. o.o. 
14:713.— r. din^rpAa, Con. A Dur.— F. unttaoiyk>iilea var. 
dimorphL — F.dipttala.BoolcikArB. Allied to F. cuspioeta. Shrub: 
Uta. e-7, elliptis or Dvat«, BernW or entire, H-2 m. lone: Ba. with 
3 obovale petaia. Calif., Mei. S.S. 6:261. Tmdet.—F. ftaritnltula. 
Wall. Albed to F. loniiciupiB. Tree, to 40 ft.: Ifta. 5-T, ovale- 

laneeolate, aerrate. retieulat« beneath. 2-4 in. Ion*: tunicl ' 

to 10 in. loni; peta'- ->•' ■■- — ' t.^IT- "^ a 

Bare.— F. pausifiorB 

Small liw: Uta. S-7. , , ,. .„ 

H-l in- long: Ir. linearoblana. cmarEiiiaK. 3.S. 6:262. G.F. 
Z;4S1.— ^. Grifilkii. Oarke (F, bracteata, Herotl.). Allied 1 ~ 



na: Sa in 10-fld- rai 
. hjfbruio, linvelA^ 
iridana, Sarg. F. 1; 



. Himalayae. Tern 







4-7 in. loDC uDicle larfe and denKt: fr. 1-1 M in- Iode, Kid. 
bmd. Cent. China. Hiinalayu. — P. plaliimla. Oliver. Alliecl to 
F. ameiicana. Tree: peliolat enlarged and winged al the baae; 
Ifu. G-7. ovats-lancseolate. Enely acrnte. hairy alunii the midrili 
below, 2-4 ia.: Ir. narrow-obkjug, aoute. Cent. China. H.t. 
20^1020.— F. pn/^ndn. Bmh. Allied, to F^nniylvanica. Lfta. 



., . , 4-8 in. long: (c. 

. eourimate. Cent. Cniina. H. 1.20:1630. Onlylbe 

:ult-— F- loediirus, Buoge, Allied to F. poumophila. 

ate-[anceoial«, hnght green: fr. I ^ in. Inag, obtuse or 

emarginate. Turlteetao- — F.ltxinnt, wg; Allied 



F. 



lamariadfUia, Hort., partly). Tree: ifta. 7-11, ovate- 
oblong to oblong-lanceolste, acuminate, cuncate Bt 
the base, sharply serrate, light green on both sides and 
KlsbrouB except along the midrib below, lH-3 in. long: 
fr. obovate-oblong, acute or obtusish, narrowed at the 
base. May. S. Ku. to Persia. 

23. rotimdifdiia, Mill. (?. pamifdlia. Lam. F. Un- 
Hacifblia, Deaf. F. tamariscifMia Hort., partly). Shrub 
or small tree, to IS ft., with slender, often purplish 
branches: Ifts. 7-13, sessile, broadly oval to elliptic, 
rarely obovate, acute, or rounded at the apex, ser- 
rate, H-1!^ in. long: fr. oblong obtuse or acute. W. 
Asia, S. Eu. Var. i^adula, Rehd. (F. ■parvifblia var. 

brancbes, forming ft 

FT. LfU. dUlincUy slatked; alaik H-H*"- long. 

24. potamOphUa, Herd. (F. Rigelii. Dipp.>. Small 
tree, to 30 ft., with ratber stout, upright brancbes: Ifts. 
7-13, stalked, rhombio-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sei^ 
rat«, acute or acuminate, glabrous or spariagly pubes- 
cent on the midrib below, 1-2 >^ in, long: fr. oltlanceo- 
late-oblong, with decurreut wing, acute, 1 in. long. 
Turkestan. Songaria. — Handsome tree with round 



h«ry.-F. 



— F. paucifldra, 

i.~i.iagS^. Allied 



!-2Min.,witl 



wing. Ind 
,lli«rio F. 



FRE^IA (name unexplained, perhaps peisonaJ). 
IridAcex. Popular "bulbs for fall planting and winter 
blooming, and next to the Chinese narcissus, which may 
be grown in water, they flourish in home windows witli 
less care than moet other bulbs; they are also much- 
prized florists' plants; easily grown, attractive, and 
iraerant. 

Cormous plants, with plane narrow Ivs. at the base 
and somewhat on the Bts., and showy fls. in small clus- 
ters at the top of the slender St.: perianth tubular and 
funnel-shaped, the segms. moie or less unequal; sta- 
mens 3, inserted in the tube, the anthers linear; ovary 
ovoid or oblong, 3-celled, with crowded ovules, the 
style filiform and the branches 2-fid (Tritonia^ closely 
ajli«i, has simple style-branches); fr. a loeulicidal i- 
valved caps., bearing turgid seeds. — 8. Afr., probably 
2 or 3 original species, but tbe specific limits difficult 
of determination. 

Frcesias have well-shaped tubular flowers, white or 
pale yellow. The five to seven flowers are upriBht and 
attached along a. jointed axis which is Buddenly bent 
back almost at right an^^les to the vertical peduncle. 
The popularity <^ freesias is a. growth of the last 
quarter century or more, although they have been in 
cultivation since 1818 or earlier. Conservative botanists 
now suppose that the usual garden freesias are all orira- 
nally of one stock, which species should be called F. 



1278 



FREESIA 



refraaa. Extremes of variatioD in form are shown in 
Figs. 1578 and 1579, from the long and slender tube of 
var. aI6a to the short and broader tube of var. Leieht- 
linii. One of the earliest pictures of the plant is that in 
the "Botanical Regietcr" for 1816 (Plate 135, u Trr- 
Umia refraeta), a part of which is reproduced in Fig. 
1578 to show the great irregularity of the coroila-Iobw 
at that early period, and the strauling habit of the 
flowers, some pointine down and others up. The gar> 
den evolution of the ireeeias has proceeded along two 
lines. The greatest effort has been expended to pro- 
duce a pure ffhibe flower, and in the best strains the 
white color is mostly associated with a long and slen- 
der tube. The ideal of a yellow flower is less popular, 
and is mostly associated with the shorter and broader 



FREMONTIA 



drainage, and let the potting earth contain a little sand 
and more or lees fibrous material. Usually several 
bulbs are planted together in pots or boxes (about sis 
bulbs in a 5-inch pot). Offsets are freely produced and 
these may be used for propagation; or seeds may be 
employed, giving blooming plants in two or Uiree 
years, or sometimes the recent hybrid forms are said 
to give bloom in six to seven months from seeding. 



distantly branched and bearing a few reduced Ivs: the 
basal Ivs. about 6, linear, firm, about 6 in, long:fls. 
in loose secund spikes on a flemioee rachis, the spathe- 
valves oblong-lanoeolate and acute and not covering 
the ovary ; perianth greenish yellow or bright yellow, to 
IH >n. long, the tube abruptly constricted below the 
middle, the Umb distinctly labiate and the segma. 
unequal. B.R. 136 (as Tritimia refrocfa).— The original 
type is probably no longer in cult. Var. Uba, Baker 
(r. dtiM, Hort.). Lvs. broader: infl. less branched; 
spathe-valveB broader, toothed, covering the ovary; 



larger, ground-color white and less yellow in throat. 
G.31:215. Var. odorita, Baker (/'.odOTYUa.Klatt). Lvs. 
broader than in the type, lees rigid, and infl, less 
branched and fls. fewer; spathD-valves broader and 
more obtuse, toothed at the apex, covering the ovaiy; 
fls. bright yellow, the tube abruptly constricted, the 
limb not distinctly bilabiate and the segms. obtuse and 
nearly equal. L.B.C. 19:1820' (as TriUmia odorata). 
Var. I,elchtllnii, Hort. (f. LeicMinii, Klatt), (Fig. 
1579). differs m its shorter abruptly constricted tube 
and large pale yellow fls.; by many conaid^^ to be a 
distinct species. 



Armstrongij, W. Wats. Diffeiv from F. r^racla 
color of the fls. and absence of purple from the If, 



1S». Frmda r«tr*ct« nr. LakhtllnU. (XH) 



e the forms with straggUng inflores- 
nd irregular corolla-lobes have been suppn ' 
ly readily see how etronglvtwo-hpped anagi 
he flowers of 1816, and how much the 



tube. In both ( 
cence and i 

Onemayr _, _. _ „ . . _^, „-.---„ 

were the flowers of 1816, and how much the tube 
was bulged on one side. Any tendencies toward such 
forms in modem bulbs are signs of undesirable charac- 
ter. In pedigree plants the lobes are rounded and the 
flowers symmetrical. 

These plants are much forced by florists, chiefly for 
cut-flowers at Christmas. If cut when only two flowers 
are out, the others will open. They may be had in 
flower from Christmas until June by succcasion&l 
plantings from August to February. For the best 
results the largest and hi^rat-priced bulbs should be 

Elanted as early as Au^st. Under good care, the 
loom may be secured in ten to twelve weeks after 
the bulbs are planted: it is not necessary that the bulbs 
be kept cool or stored for a time after potting, as is the 
case with hyacinths and tuhps, for thev root quickly 
and start rapidly into growth. For holiaay bloom, the 
bulbs are planted in October. One of the strong points 
of freesiss is that plftnting may be delayed longer than 
with many other bulbs. Bottoms may be dried oS 
gradually m the pots and then be shaken out and kept 
dry durmg summer. Repot: the larger bulbs will 
bloom, but will not give so good results as medium-sized 



the 



16-20 in.: tube white with orange at base, the 
segms. markedly bordered with rose-purple: about 
one month later in blooming then F. T^rada alba. 
Named for W. Armstrong, of S. Afr. Gn. 59, p. 374. 
CM. 48:833. 

hfbrida, Hort. Here belong many hybrid forms, some 
of them known as the "colored freesias," as: F. Chdp- 
tnanii, a cross of the typical F. refraeta {F. aurea, Hort.), 
with var. alba, producing a soft yellow flushed witi 
deeper yellow and with an orange blotch (Gn. 71, p. 
165. G.M.50:164. G.31:175); F. Tubirgenii, being 
a cross of F. refraeta aiba, and F. Armtrongii (G.wT 
13, p. 199. G. 28:215. Gn. 69, p. 184. J.H. III. 
52:299); F. kewhigU, hybrid probably between F. 
Arm^ongii and F. Leichtlinii; F. Mdidenii, being F. 
refTacIa aiba x F. Amtilrongii; F. Roffioniiri, a race 
resulting from the croBsing of F. refraeta, F. LeiehUinii 
and their hybrids with F. Armttrongii, described as 
producing scented fls. tinted in shades of pink, rose, 
purple, blue, brown, orange, and spotted and veined. 
L, H, B.t 

FlLEM6irnA (after John Charles Fremont, dis- 
tinguished western explorer, who discovered it in 1S46). 
Syn. Fremoniodfndrtm. Stercvliiax. Ornamental 
woody plant, grown chiefly for its showy yellow flowers. 

Deciduous shrub or small tree with stellate pubes- 



calyx large, deeply 5-parted, with 3 small bracts at the 
base; stamens 5, coimate toward the base into a tube; 
ovary superior, inclosed by the staminal tube; style 
filiform: tr. a 5-c«lled, hirsute, dehiscent caps, with 



FREMONTIA 



FRITILLARIA 



1279 



many seeds. — One specieB in CaUf ., allied to the Mexican 
Cheiranthodendron. Its bark is sometimes used as a 
substitute for that of the slippery elm and the plant 
is thei^ore locally known unaer this name. 

This is a beautiful free-flowering shrub, with rather 
small, palmately lobed leaves and large yellow flowers 
appeanng in great profusion in June. It is not luundy 
North, and in cooler regions it should have a sunny 
and sheltered position^ preferably against a wall of 
southern aspect; it prefers well-drained, rather dry soiL 
and dislikes, especially during the winter, an excess m 
moisture. Propagation is by seeds or by greenwood 
cuttings under glass in summer. 

califAmicay Torr. (Fremontodhidran calif&micum, 
CoviUe). To 20 ft.: Ivs. generally roundish ovate, cor- 
date or rounded at the base, obtuse, *3-5-lobed or 
almost entire, whitish or femigineous pubescent 
beneath, H-IH in, lon^: caljrx 1)^-3 in. across, deep 
yellow, with stellate ban's outside, villous at the base 
within; lobes orbicular: caps, densely beset with hispid 
hairs, 1 in. long. S.S. 1:23. B.M. 5591. Gn. 3, p. 55; 
22, p. 115; 29:8; 33, p. 566. G. 5:397; 32:457. G.M. 
50:29. F.S. 22:2349. R.H. 1867:90. I.H. 13:496. 



B.H. 17:13. 



Alfred Rbhdbr. 



FRETCmfenA (Chas. Louis de Fieycinet, 1779- 
1842, French navigator). Pandandcex. Climbing or 
etra^^ling shrubs sometimes seen under glass and pei^ 
haps planted far S., but apparentlv not in the Amencan 
trade. The sts. are often prolonged, rooting: Ivs. 
sheathing at base, the free part long and narrow, cari- 
nate, serrate or entire: fls. dioecious, in terminal fas- 
cicled spadioes surrounded by fle^y leafy often colored 
bracts; males consisting of several stamens with short 
filaments; females of many 1-oelled many-ovuled 
denselv packed ovaries: fr. an oblong mass of fleeh^r or 
hard orupes. — Species above 50, islands of the Pacific, 
Austral., New Zeal. F. Bdnksiif Cunn., is a tall climber, 
sometimes attaining the tops of high trees, with many 
stout branches, the arching Ivs. to 3 ft. long and most 
abundant toward the ends of the branches: fl.-bracts 
numerous and leafy, the inner ones with thick succulent 
bases, sweet, and often eaten in New Zeal., where the 
plant is native: fr. rather fleshy, brown at maturity, 
Hin. k>ng, edible. B.M. 6028. F, Cumingidna, Gaud., 
of uncertain nativity, is more slender, Ivs. not arching 
and divaricate. The freycinetias are little grown 
indoors as they require much room. They may be 
used as pillar piants. Prop, by offsets. l. H. B. 

nOHGB-TRBB: Chionanthut wirginiea. 

FRITILLARIA {lAtmfritiUus, commonly understood 
to be a checker-board, but may have meant dice-box). 
LiUdeese, FiimLLARY. This group includes the crown 
imperial and the fritillaries, haxdy bulbous plants, 
mostly low-|rowing and spring-blooming, with drooping 
or nodding flowers which are often checkered or t^sef 
lated with dark purple and green, but some also with 
brishter colors. 

Various leafy-stemmed simple herbs, the st.-lvs. 
narrow, sessile, alternate or whorled, the bulb mostlv 
of few fleshy scales: perianth deciduous, mostly bell- 
shaped or sometimes bowl-shaped, the segms. nearly 
or quite equal, oblong or ovate, all or the inner ones 
with a nectar-bearing cavity or area at the base ; sta- 
mens 6, with slender filaments and linear or oblong 
anthers; ovary 3-celled, nearly or quite sessile: fr. an 
ovoid or sub^bose loculicidal winged or angled caps., 
with numerous seeds. — Species perhaps 70, widely dis- 
tributed in the north tempo^te zone. Fritillaries 
resemble lilies in having droooing or nodding fls. but 
their anthers are fixed at the oase, while those of the 
lilies are fastened on the back but are free to swing 
about. Lilies have funnel-shaped fls., while fritil- 
laries and tulips have bell-shapea fls., and tulip fls. are 



erect. Nearly all the Old World fritillaries resemble 
tulips in havinff coated bulbs, while the American 
fritillaries resemble lilies in having scaly bulbs. 

The most popular kinds are the checkered lily (F. 
mdeaffris) and crown imperial (F. Imperialis), Figs. 
1582, 1583. These are hardy, easy to cultivate, and 
variable. The crown imperial is one of the most 
characteristic plants of old-fashioned gardens, but it has 
been banishecf from many modem gardens because of 
its strong fetid odor. It is the most robust species, and 
imtil lately was supposed to be the only one with its 
flowers in umbels, all the others being solitary or in 
racemes. It rejoices the children early in every spring 
by its pearly drops of nectar, which seem never to falL 
F. meleagrist the most popular of the purple kinds, is 
the common snakeVhead or checkered lily, so called 
from the tessellation of purple and green, which is 
prettiest when as sharply and Tegularly defined as 
possible. This plant grows wild in moist English mead- 
ows, and can be naturalized in lar^ quantities in such 
situations. Other ancient inhabitants of European 
eardens are F. UUifoliay F, ItUea and F, persica. Other 
kinds are apparently less known in gardens. As a rule, 
the kinds that are chiefly purple or green, or mixtures of 
both colors, are dull, imattractive and curious compared 
with the few kinds that have brilliant vellow or red. 
Of the duller and purple kinds, two of the choicest, 
next to F. mdeaoriSf are F. tulipifolia (which is flamed 
like a tulip and never checkered) and F, camtschatr 
censis. great masses of which in Alaska make one of 
the smnmer sights'' remembered by the tourists. 
The white in fritillaries is perhaps always more or less 
greenish, and .the white color in F, meUigris is as good 
as in any species. A most brilliant species is F. recurva, 
which is also difficult of culture. Next in brilliancy 
come such species as F. ItUeQf F. aurea, F. Moggridgei 
and F, pudica. all highly individual and all yellow, 
some checkered, others not. 

The culture of fritillaries is rather various, as some 
species are capable of being naturalized, some culti- 
vated in borders, some in rockeries and others in pots. 
The crown imperial, being exceptionally vigorous, 
requires deep planting, rich soil and much room. The 
earth should be trenched. Well-rotted manure may be 
worked into the soil 6 inches below the bulbs and the 
bulbs set on a level 6 inches from the surface of the 
groimd. If possible it should be shaded from the mid- 
day sun, as southern exposures are said to make the 
flowers smaller and shorter-lived. In border cultiva- 
tion of fritillaries the essential peculiarities are a 
sheltered shady site, early fall planting, division every 
two or three years, and, as a rule, a warm, deep, sandy 
loam, which is not too cold or too retentive of moisture. 
Bulbs of the taller kinds may be planted 3 to 4 inches 
deep; bulbs of the dwarf kinds may be set at half that 
depth. As all fritillaries increase rapidly by offsets, it 
is desirable to lift and divide the plants at least every 
three years, or the small bulbs will rob the big ones. 
For the same reason, fritillaries are rarely propagated 
by seeds. The dwarl and rare sorts require more care 
and some leaf-mold in their soil, and some kinds require 
an evergreen carpet through which they may spring, 
as Sedum hiapanicum or its var. glaucum. 

Our native fritillaries, which include the bright- 
flowered F. recurva and F. pudiax, are confined to the 
Pacific coast. Of these Carl Purdy makes two cultural 
groups, based on the character of bulb, the kind of soil 
and the conditions of shade. The first ^up contains 
F. hiflorGf F. lUiaceaf F. plwrifioTa and F. Purdyi; the 
second F, atropvrpurea, F. coccinea^ F. lanceolata, F, 
jxurviflora, F. pudica and F. recurva. The former grow 
m the sun in open fields in heavy clay soils; the latter 
in i^ady woods in well-drained soils, but F. pudica 
does not need so much shade as the others of its group, 
and must have sandy loam and slight shelter. The bulbs 
of the first group are composed of thick, heavy scales 



128D 



FRITILLARIA 



FRITILLARIA 



attached to a^thin rhisomatous base, and the stems 
are 4 to 12 inches high and very leafy at the base; 
in the second group the bulbs are of one piece, and low- 
conical in form, their sides thickly covered with small, 
round, white rice-like offsets, and the slender stems 
are 1 to 3 feet high and leafy above the base. For 
the first group Purdy recommends a rich loam, and a 
slight shade to draw out the stems and prolonjg the 
bloom; for the second group a light, loose soil, rich in 
mold, a sheltered place and oonsiaerable shade. At 
the best these are not profuse in their bloom. 

The key to the various subgenera here given is 
essentially Baker's in his monograph in Jour. linn. 
Soc. 14:251 (1875) ; it rarely happens that the botanical 
and horticultural interests agree in using such simple 
and obvious characters as those of the bulb and style. 
The nectaries or glands are less useful and reliable, but 
they help to explain the natural groups in this varied 
genus. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA. 

A. Bulbs tuniccUed (i.e., coated). 
B. Style S-cut. 
C. Olanda distinct and promi- 
nent, equal. Species. Subgenera. 

D. Glands lona 1. Eupritillabia 

DD. Glands wide 2-14. Monocodon 

cc. Glands obscure, equal, long. . Notholirion 

BB. Style undivided. 

c. Glands equal, obscure 15-17. Amblirion 

cc. Glands uneqwd, prominent. 

D. Glands long 18. Korolkowia 

DO. Glands short Rhinopbtalum 

AA. Bulbs scaly. 

b. Style undivided 19-21. Theresia 

BB. Style S-cut. 

c. Cam. acutely angled. 

D. Pis. solitary or racemose.. 22-25. Goniocarpa 

DD. Fls. in umbels 26. Pbtilium 

cc. Caps, obtusely angled 27-30. Liliorhiza 



alba, 1. 
armeoa. 16. 
atropurpurea, 24. 
aurea, 7-9. 
biflora, 29. 
Burnatii, 3. 
camsohatoenms, 30. 
ohitralenns, 26. 
ooccinea, 25. 
contorta, 1. 
delphinenna, 3. 
Elwesii. 14. 
floribunda, 22. 
fusco-lutea, 16. 
ffracilia, 22. 
Imperialu, 26. 



INDEX. 

kam$chatcenai», 30. 
lanoeolata, 22. 
latifoUa. 7-9. 
UuoarUKa, 4. 
libanotica, 20. 
liliaoea. 28. 
longipetala, 26. 
lutea, 7-9. 
meleagris, 1. 
meteacroides, 11. 
minor, 11, 19. 
Moggridgei, 3. 
mutica, 22. 
oranensis, 13. 
pallidiflora, 10. 
parviflora, 23. 



permca, 19. 
pluriflora, 21. 
pudica, 17. 
Purdyi, 21. 
psrrenaioa, 12. 
Raddeana, 26. 
recurva, 27. 
ruthenioa, 6. 
Sewersowi, 18. 
Thunber^, 4. 
tubeformis, 3. 
tulii>ifolia, 15. 
vertidllata, 4. 
Walujewi, 5. 
Whittallu, 2. 



1. meleAgiis, Linn. Checkered Lilt. Snake's- 
Head. Figs. 1580-1582. St. 1 ft. or more high: Ivs. 
3 or 4, linear or lanceolate, typically 1-fld. : fl. dull red 
with the inside checkered and spotted with hkher 
color; segxns. oblong, narrowed at both ends, about 
1 3^ in. long, the inner ones bearing an oblong or linear 
cavity; fls. sometimes white or yellowish, or purplish 
and more or less checkered. England and Norway, 
through Cent. Eu. to Caucasus. Gn. 32:536; 47, p. 
330; 52. p. 243. — ^The Dutch bulb-growers keep seveiul 
kinds aistinct. The extremes of color-range are (1) 
a greenish white, (2) a sufl^cient degree of purple to 
make the checkering as distinct as possible, and (3) 
an approach to yellow. Some kinds bear 2-3 fls. ; some 
are double; some fls. spread so widely as to be almost 
funnel-shaped. Var. &lba, Hort. White. G. 29:355. 
Gn.W. 21:221. Var. contdrta, an old monstrosity, 
instead of segms. free all the way, and a shouldered 
base, has the lower third of the perianth united into 
a funnel-shaped tube. The yellow of some fls. is con- 

i'ectured to be the result of a cross with F. lutea made 
>efore Gerarde's time. In England the species flowers 
toward the end of April. G. 18:182; 35:273. J.H. lU. 




1580. Stamens 

and iriitil of 

Fritillaria 

Meleagris. 

From Flora 
Danica, show- 
ing the S^ut 
stigma, an im- 
portant cha^ 
acter in this 
genus. 



52:329. Gn.M. 10:117; 12:228. Gn. 61, p. 306 (vara.) 
G.M. 52:770. 

2. Whfttallii, Baker. Height 1 ft.: st. 1-fld.: Ivs. 
linear, glaucous: fls. checker^ green and brown; nec- 
taries orbicular. Mt. Taurus. 

3. tubaefdimis, Gren. & Godr. (F. delphininsis, 
Gren.). St. 6-12 in., often only 1-fld.: Ivs. aoove mid- 
dle of St. oblanceolate to Unear: fls. wine- 
purple, spotted yellow and somewhat 
checkered, inodorous; segms. obtuse. 
Alps. — Distinguished by the glands 3-4 
lines long and stigmas very short. Baker 
gives the same color-range as for F. 
mdeaaris. The most desirable form is 
var. M6ggridgei, Boiss. (F. Mdggridgei. 
Hort.), with bright yellow, checkerea 
inside with bright red or reddish brown. 
This is a dwsurfer form from the mari- 
time Alps with wider Ivs. (6-9 lines), 
longer stigmatic cusps, approaching F, 
lutea, and essentially yellow-fld. G.C. 
IL 13:533. Gn. 18:132. F.M. 1880: 
405. — It blooms early. Var. BumAtii. 
Planch., bright plum-color, checkerea 
greenish yellow: fl. solitary, broadly bell- 
shaped, smaller, earlier and with smaller 
glands. 

4. verticilUlta, Willd. (F. leucdntha, Fisch.). Height 
13^ ft.: sts. simple, often 1-, sometimes 2-5-fld.: Ivs. 
near the middle of the st.. ovate and tapering toward 
the apex: fls. white or yellow, with small darker spots 
at the base. Altai Mts. B.M. 3083. — In the type the 
Ivs. are numerous, 20-40: anthers barely half as long 
as the filaments: style no longer than the ovarv, but in 
var. Thiinbergit, Hort. (F. ThiXnhergiij Mia.), the upper 
Ivs. are often sparse: anthers as long as tne filaments; 
style 1 H-2 times as long as the ovary . G.C. II. 13 : 532. 
It is doubtful whether tne yellow-fld. form is cult. 

5. Waluj&wi, Kegel. Probably belongs here, as its 
linear Ivs. have tendrils: st. 1 ft.: fls. silver-white or 
lead-colored outside and crimson-brown spotted white 
or yellow inside. Tiu'kestan. Gn. 52:243. 

6. nith€nica, Wikst. Height 1-2 ft.: st. 1-3-fld.: 
Ivs. 6-20, linear-lanceolate: fls. livid purple, obscurely 
checkerea. Caucasus. 

7-9. liitea, MiUer, and its allies F. Utifdlia, Willd., 
and F. adrea, Schott. These 3 names may be*taken as 
representing the 3 well-marked types of color: F. lutea 
an intermediate form, essentially vellow, but greenish, 
and with the purple checker-marks duller in color ana 
not so shiuply de&ied and regular. F. latifolia repre- 
senting the extreme of dark purple and 
green without yellow; F. aurea, at the 
other extreme, being essentially yellow, 
the checker marks smaller and more 
sharply defined^ and the colors bright. In 
this sense the pictures may be referred to 
the types as follows: B.M. 1538 to F. 
lutea; B.M. 853 and 1207 to F. latifolia; 
B.M. 7374, R.H. 1878, p. 287, Gn. 42: 
72, J.H. III. 28:357, to F. awrea. F. 
latifolia represents the extreme width of 
J iM Ivs., and F. aurea is said to differ in 
«"~«'*J having the lower Ivs. often whoried. All 

g^!^i"3 these grow }^1 ft. high. One of the most 
anciently cult, of all fritillaries is F. lutea, 
which is found promiscuously mingled with the wider- 
Ivd. form, both wild and cult. At present the most 
popular of the 3 is probably F. aurea. The Dutch bulb- 
growers advertise several varieties of F. latifolia. These 
3 species are fom S. W. Asia. — F. lutea. St. often 1-fld. : 
Ivs. alternate, hnear-lanceolate: fls. yellow, more or 
less marked or suffused with purple; segms. oblong- 
lanceolate. F. latifblia (F. lutea var. latifolia) has 




1581. Strange 
form of doub- 
ling in the 



FRITILLARIA 

lonoeolate Ivb., the upper ones oppoeite: fls. purple. 

F. aurea. Lve. 10-12, lower in 3 b, linear, somewnat 

gUucouB and fleshy: fls. solitary, bright yellon. 

10. p•Ilidifl^^^ Scbrenk. Height 0-lS in.: iva. many, 

l«rge t/ad broad, glaucoua-blue: fla. 1-6, yellow, h&nd- 
Bomely tessellated in- 
side. Siberia. B.M. 
6725 (green, with a few 
dark purple Bpot«). 
Gt. 6:328. R.H. 18S0, 
p. 215. G.C. II. 19: 
573. Gn.W. 23:397. 

11. m«leagroldes, 
Patrin, {F. nAtior, 
Ledeb.). Height 1-2 
ft.: St. very slender, 
mostly l-fld.:lTB. 3-6, 

) narrowly linear: fls. 
dark purple, spotted 
green; anthers a third 
the length of the fila- 
ments. W. Siberia. 
B.M. 3280. 

12. pyreniiu, Linn. 
Height 1-lJ^ ft., 
most^ 1-fld.: lve. 6-10, 
linear, glaucous; fls. 
dark purple, spotted 

Seen; antiiers two- 
ths the length of the 
filamenta. Pyrenees. 
B.M. 664, not 952 or 
1216. 

13. orantinslB, Baker. 
Height 1-1!^ ft.: tower 
IvB. lanceolate; upper 
Ivs. Unear:fla. dark pur- 
ple, obscurely check- 

-■■ — - — "-'- s:g.?rT3:Mi':*"- 

14. flwesil, Boiss. 
Lvs. 5~G: fls. green, 
flushed purple on back 
and tips, not checkered. 
Lycia. B. M. 6321 

(erroneously, as F. aetmypelala). Gs. 65, p. 307. Gn.W. 
21:445. 

15. tuUpUUU, Bieb. Height 2-S in.: st. 1-Bd.: lve. 
3-4, elliptic, concave, nerveless, VA-2)4 in. king: fis. 
solitary, inside rusty brown-purple, not checkered, 
outside dark glaucous- blue, streaKed with the same 
purple. Caucasus. B.M. 5969. — One of the choicest 
and daintiest kinds. Very distinct. Folia^ glaucous 
blue: fls. reeembling a tulip in shape, and with a chalky 
look outside. 

16. armftna, Boiss. Height 6-12 in.: st. 1-fld.: ivs. 
+-i lower lanceolate, upper linear; fls. between funnel- 
and bell-shaped, dark purple, not checkered. Armenia. 
B.M. 6365. J.H. III. 35:83. Var. fCsco-lbtea, Hurt., 
tawny yellow. 

17. pftdica, Spreng. St. 2-10 in.: Ivs. 3-8, lower ones 
Btrap-anapcd, often apposite (while in F. ttdimfcAia 
and F. armena they are alternate), upper ones linear: 
fl. usually solitary, pale or dark yellow, rarely purple, 
never checkered; segms. oblong-spatulate ana obtuse, 
more or less spreikding. N. W. Amer. Gn. 13:598;6I, p. 
337. R.H. 1895, p. 229. G.C. III. 19:403. J.H. III. 
32:295. Mn. 4:49.— The stamens (as in Nos. 14 and 
15) are nearly as long as the perianth. "Deep orange- 
yellow, fragrant." — Van Tubergen. 

18. SewfRowi, Kegel. Height 1-1 >j ft.: lowest lvs. 
lorate-lanceolate, 1 in. wide, often opposite, upper lvs. 
lanceolate, 6-7-nervod, 3-4 in. long: pediceb 3-6 lines 
long; fls. 6-10, green, not checkered, but with a few 



ChKfeuad Ulj (FritUlaria : 
crli). 

FniihlHily 
Horliu Ey>l 
1913. IIiiDOr 



.MoAB. piibluhvd ii 



FRITILLARIA 



G.C. III. 1:467. Gn. e 

19. p«reica, Linn. Robust, 2-3 ft. high: \\a. 40-60, 
glaucous, linear, 4-6 in. long, 6-9 lines wide: raceme 
10-50-fl([.; fls. small betl-shaped, slightly odorous, lilao* 

Eurpic, sometimes chalky outside and Imed with purple 
ut never checkered; stamens a trifle shorter than the 
perianth. Orient. Fls.eadaf Aprilorbeginningof May. 
B.M. 1537. Var. n^or, Sims, B.M. 962 (excluding 
synonymy), has smaller fls. and anthers barely exserted. 

20. Ubanfitica, Baker. Closely resembling No. 19, but 
with 6-30 strongly odorous fls., pale lilac, with darker 
vertical veins; stamens a third shorter than the peri- 
anth; anthers purplish. Palestine, rocky and shady 
parts of Mt. Leoanon. 

21. plBriflS[»,Torr, Pojk Fwtillaby. Height 6-12 
in.: lvs. few, mostly at the base, oblong-lanceolate, 
about 4 in. long: raceme 4-12-fld.; fls. rosy purple, not 
checkered, the glands Uot evident; stigma shortly 
3-lobed. Calif. G.C. III. 21:231.— Blooms early, f. 
Pfirdyi, E^tw., difiers in the fl. being white beauti- 
fully tinged purple. Humboldt Co., C^. 

22. Unceollta, Pursh. Sts. 1-3 ft.: lvs. 4-10, lanceo- 
late, whorled on the upper part of st. (or sometimes 
scattered), ovate-lanceolate, 2-4 in. long: fls. 1-4, 
bowl-shaped, dark purple mottled greenish yellow, 
somewhat variable in color; segms. ovate to oblong, 
concave, with Isxge' gland. Cahf. Var. giicilis, Wats. 
Fls. very smalt with narrow and more acuminate segms., 
deep purple or almost black. Var, SoribilDda, Benth. 
[F. mutiai, Lindl.). Fls. 3 to many, dark purple or 
greenish and conspicuously spotted or checkered, the 
segms. crisped or erose. — The bulbs of F. lanceoiata 
live one year; the scales are few or none, and the bulb 
is covered with 

rice-like bulblets 
(whence the 
name "rice-root 
lily"). 

23. pairiflOra, 
Torr. St. 5-20- 
fld.:lvB.about9, 
mostly whorled, 
linear: fls. pur- 
ple, suffused 
green, not check- 
ered, on short 
and strongly re- 
curved pedicels; 
segms. with 
shallow nectar- 
ies. Sierra Ne- 
vadas in Calif. 



24. I 






pftrea,Nutt. St. 
1-6-fld., lower 
and more slender 
than in No. 23: 
lvs. 12-20, scat- 
tered or oapeT- 
- tly whorled: 
dark purple 



fectly 



obscurely check- 
ered with green, 
on slender pedi- 
cels. Wyo. and 
Utah, to the 
Sierras and the 
Columbia River. 
25. cocclaea, 
Greene. Scak- 

LBT Fritillart. 1583. Tbi Cron Imperial.— PrllUluU 



1282 FRITILLARIA 

eleoder, 12-18 in. high: Iva. 3-7, in 2 or 3 whorb 
at middle of St., narrow-linear: fls. scarlet, slightly 
mottied within with yellow. Calif. — Said to be very 
like ¥. recoTva, but lower and leas leafy and the fls. of 
different colu"; it has a smaller bulb and tekte more 
readily to cult. 

2S. ImperiiliB, Linn. {TmperiMU eorondla, Dum. 
Coura.), Crown IMPBRIAL. Fi^. 1583. Height 2-3 ft.: 
Ivs. numcrouB, crowded, ascending, i^l in. wide, high- 
est often in whorle of 8-10: fls. end of March. B.M. IM 
and 1215. Gn. 46, p. 101; 52, p. 243. A.G. 13:488. 
R.B. 20:196.— There are single and double forms in 
yellow and red, and kinds with foliage striped white, 
and with gold. There arc varieties Aurora, Maximus, 
and William Rex, red; Sulphureua. Bulfur-yellow; ana 
Crown upon Crown, Couronne Orange, R«d S!mb- 
waard and others. Var. lonzipitala, Hort, On. 
66:358, with loDg segms. Var. cmtTalGnsiB, Hort., has 
rich yellow fls. ; said to be a common form in Chitral 
{British India). G.C. III. 47:171. G.M.54:682. F. 
Raddeftna Regel, from Turkestan, is somewhat dwarfer, 
blooms earlier, has flora] Ivs. recurved-spreading, fls. 
Straw-colored or greenish yellow and shorter than the 
pedicels. 

27. recfirva, Benth. Hei^t 6-24 in.: st. 2-8-fld., 
purple, mottled green: Ivs. 6-12, lower ones in whorls of 
3-4, linear, ascending: fls. narrow, bell-shaped. Calif., 
Ore. B.M. 6264. Gn. 18:458; 59, p. 415; 61, p. 336. 
— This has stamens only a little 8hort«r than the 
perianth, white in the next 3 species they are only 
hair the length of the perianth. Distinct by the color 
of the fls., which are bright red oUtside without a 
trace of purple, and brilliant yellow inside, spotted 
with red. 

28. lUiiCM, Lindl. White Fiutillart. Height 
3-12 in.: st. l-O-fld.: Ivs. on st. few, linear-oblong or 
linear, those of the radical tuft narrowly or broadly 
oblong: fls. between funnel- and bell-shaped, whitish, 
veined green, not checkered; gland at base of segma. 
greenish and purple-dotted. Cahf. in Coast Range 
from San Francisco south. Gt. 1871:715. 

29. bifl&ra, Lindl. Black Lilt. Chocolatb Lily. 
Height 6-18 in., stout: st. I-3-fld.: Ivs. 2-6, most of 
them near the base, scattered or whorled, oblong: 
perianth greenish or dark purple or lined with purple: 
segms. emptic-obovat«, with a greenish longitudinal 
band. S. Calif. — Fls. often described as dark cEocolat«- 
brown to nearly black. 

30. cuntBchatc£nsia, Ker-Gawl. Mostly written 
karrUtchalcensig and variously misspelled. (LUtum 
camtechatcime, Linn.). Black Lily. Height 6-18 in.: 
St. 1-3-fld.; Ivs. 10-15, lanceolate, the lower onee 
whorled; fis. livid wine-purple, not checkered, IJi in, 
or less long. Siberia, Alaska. Gt. 5:290. Gn. 25:232: 
52. D. 242. F.S. 12:1232. G. 14:362. 



FROST 

FR(ELICHIA (J. A. FVoelich, physician of Ellwangen, 
Germany, roonorraphed Gentiana in 1796; died 1841;. 
Amaranl^eex. About a dozen species of woolly or hairy 
American aimuala, found chiefly in W. Indies, Mex. 
and Brazil, scarcely planted: Ivs. opposite, entire or 
nearly so: spikes opposite, terminal; fls. perfect, 3- 
bracted; calyx tubular, 5-cleft, hardened and spmy- 
cre8t«d in fr.; stamens 5, with united filaments; fr. an 
indehisccnt utricle, incloeed in the filament-tube. F. 
floridAna, Moq., has been advertised for sale in Amer. 
It is cult, abroad. Height 1—4 ft., leaBcss above; Ivs. 
linear to oblong or lanceolate: spikes 2 in. long or more; 
fls. white and woolly, set off by small blackuh bracts: 
fr. broadly winged and irr^^arly toothed. July-Sept. 



2374^'.— F.'Zdhnii, Hon.' Fli. brll.>h«ped. nlher linra. brow 
checkErad with (nea iuids ud itreskHl wilh jfeIIow ouuid 

'^'''*"' WiLHELU Miller. 

L. H. B.t 



Del. I 



Fla., 



some authors considered not to be distinct, 

L. H. B.t 

FROST. Hoar frost or white frost is ice deposited 
upon the surface of plants or other objects. Sometimes 
it consists of frozen dew-drops, sometimes of feathery 
spinelike ice-crystals, but usually both formations are 
present. The moisture from which the deposit of ice is 
formed comes partly from the ground, partly from the 
air, and in the case of plants, probably partly from the 
plant itself. 

The term "black frost" is used when plants are 
froien without the appearance of any deposit of ice 
upon them. It occurs when the temperature falls below 
the freezing-point (32° F.), but not low enough to cause 
the moisture in the air to come out in the form of hoar 
frost. 

The term "frost," when unqualified, means simply 
temperatures that are injurious to vegetation without 
r^ord to any deposit oi ice. It is in this sense that 
the term "frost" is used in this article. 
Degreet of frost. 

With respect to the effect of frost on vegetation, the 
Weather Bureau recognizes three degrees of frost — 
light, heavy, and killing. A light frost is recorded when 
only the tendereat plants are injured; a heavy frost, 
when the injury to tender plants is more marked and 
the hardier plants are damaged; and a killing frost, 
when the staple products of the region are injured 
severely or are killed. When no deposit of frost occurs 
and the temperature of the air as indicated by the 
thermometer falls during the night to 32°. a killing 
frost is recorded also. Frost charts and frost tables, 
published by the Weather Bureau, are based on the 
records of killing frosts only. 
How planU are injured by /rod. 

When ice appears on tjie leaves or blossoms of the 
plant, it is evidence that the temperature of the plant 
IB at or below the freezing-point; but if the temperature 
does not go below 32° F., or docs not remain at that 
point too fong, little injury will result to any temperate- 
sone plants. In fact, the phenomenon that we usually 
have m mind when we speak of killing by low tempera- 
ture occurs onlv when ice forms within the tissue. Care- 
ful observers have found that the ice formed in the 
tissue is nearly always in the intercellular spaces, the 
water being withdrawn from the cells to form these 
crystals. Whether the withdrawal of water from the 
cell is the cause of death or is merely associated with it, 
is not certain. In case of winter dormant tissue, that 
is very resistant to low temperature, the injury at a 
given temperature is much greater when the tempera- 
ture-fall is very rapid. In the case of » few tissues, like. 
ripe apples and pears and leaves of Agave americarM 
and of lettuce, tne rapidity of thawing influences the 
extent of injury at the highest killinn temperature of 
the tissue. However, it is not a determining factor, 
'je carried somewhat low£ 
e of the rate of thawing. 



FROST 



FROST 



1283 



Varieties as well as individual plants differ greatly 
in their ability to withstand cold^ and a temperature 
that may destroy a plant at one time may cause little 
injury at anv other time. Hence, no general statement 
can be made with regard to injurious temperatures 
that will apply in all cases. 

The following table indicates the temperatures (Fahr.) 
that have been found injurious to tree fruits durmg the 
blossoming period: 



Fruito 


Petab 
closed 


In 
bloesom 


Setting 


Later 


AddIos 


27 
20 
22 
27 
30 


29 
25 
28 
29 
31 


30 
28 
29 
29 
31 


30 


Peacbea 

Cherries 

Peara 


30 
29 
30 


Plums 


29 



General atmospheric conditions thai cause frost. 

The loss of heat that brings the temperature of 

elants to the freesing-point occurs in two wajrs, — (1) 
«s by conduction, and (2) loss by radiation. Loss of 
heat by conduction occurs when the air in contact with 
the plant is colder than the plant itself. This allows 
the heat to flow directly from the plant into the colder 
air about it. Frosts due to this cause alone result 
almost iayariably from the importation of large masses 
of cold air, brought down from the upper atmosphere 
by descending currents, or from higher latitudes by 
northerly winds, both of which movements usually 
are active when the weather clears after a storm 

Frosts, particularly in the late ^ring or early fall, 
result also from loss of heat by radiation. Plants radi- 
ate heat continuously. Diuing the day more heat is 
received bv them from the sun than they give off, and 
the plant becomes wanner; at night plants pour more 
heat into the atmosphere than Qiey receive from it, 
hence thej become colder. 

Radiation proceeds most rapidly when the sky is 
clear and the atmosphere is quiet. Clouds check radia- 
tion, because the heat g^ven off from the earth does 
not penetrate them ea«ly. Much of it is reflected 
back toward the earth, warming the whole stratum 
of air between the earth and the clouds. 

A quiet atmosphere allows the colder, therefore 
heavier^articles of air to settle to the sutiace of the 
earth. Thus, on quiet, clear nights, when frost is likely 
to occur, the air near the ground may be 10° colder 
than the air 10 or 15 feet above the ground. The wind, 
by stiring up the atmosphere, prevents the settling 
of the cold air, and in this way maintains the stratum 
of air near the surface at a more nearly uniform tem- 
perature. 

Frost results seldom from conduction or radiation 
alone. Both usually are active when frost occurs. 

Forecasting frost from rveather maps. 

Frosts that injure vegetation are a part of the regu- 
lar weather sequences. The weather comes to us in 
what may be termed waves that travel with more or 
less regularity in the middle latitudes from west to 
east. The weather map is a survey of the atmosphere. 
It charts the daily progress of these weather waves. 
By the aid of such a chart it is possible to foresee in a 
measure the coming of a frost, and to judge its probable 
extent and severity. 

The weather map is based on observations of pres- 
sure, temperature, cloudiness, wind, and precipitation, 
made at many places scattered over a large area. Low 
atmospheric pressure indicates the trough of the 
weather wave, and high pressure its crest. The low- 
pressure area is called the cyclone, because the winds 
whirl or eddy about its center, the direction of rota- 
tion being counter clock-wise in the northern hemi- 
sphere. In approaching the center, the winds have an 



ascending as weU as an inward component of motion. 
The cyclone also is called a storm, because it is attended 
on its eastern side by southerly or easterly winds, 
cloudiness, rain or snow, and comparatively high tem- 
perature, and on its western side by northerly winds, 
clearing weather, and a decided fall of temperature. 




fsta 



30A> 



1584. Weather map, 8 tLJXL, Jane 7, 1913. 



The crest of the wave is indicated by iacreased pres- 
sure, and is called the anti-cyclone. It is so named 
because its structure is exactly opposite to that of the 
cyclone. The winds of the anti-cyclone blow outward 
from its center, and have a downward component of 
motion; the sky is clear; the precipitation is scanty or 
absent; and the temperature is comparatively low. 

Frosts are most likely to occur in the rear (western 
side) of the cyclone, and just in front (eastern side) of 
the crest or center of the anti-cyclone. Here is found 
the mass of cold air, imported from the north by the 
northerly winds, and augmented by the cold brought 
down from above by the gently descending currents; 
the sky is clear: and as night comes on the air becomes 

guiet. Thus, the conditions that cause frost are ful- 
lled. 

A weather wave, in which frost was the most pro- 
nounced characteristic, moved from North Dakota to 
the Atlantic coast from June 7 to 10, 1913 (Fig. 1584). 
The general conditions on the morning of the 7th and 
8th (Fig. 1585) are shown by the accompanying weather 
maps for those dates. The eastward prosress of frost 
from day to day is indicated by the dotted lines on the 
map of the 7th. The relative position of the cyclone 




1585. Weather map, 8 ajn., June 8, 1913. 



(low) and the anti-cyclone (high), on the 7th, indicates 
clearly that frosts will occur over the Upper Mississippi 
Valley and the Upper L^es on the following momins, 
while the conditions shown by the map of the 8th 
make it certain that the frosts wiU spread eastward 
over New York and the New Englanci states by the 
momingof the 9th. 

The Weather Bureau issues frost warnings when 
frosts are indicated for any part of the United States. 



1284 



FROST 



FROST 



The warnings are distributed by mail, telegraph and 
by telephone. They are telegraphed at Government 
eiq)en8e to many telephone companies. 

Forecaaiing frost from local observaHona, 

It is not possible to forecast frost twenty-four or 
thirty-six hours in advance without the aid of the 
weather map; but, by observing the local conditions 
during the late afternoon and early evening, it is pos- 
sible often to determine whether a frost will occur 
before morning. Assuming that it is the frost season, 
the conditions to be considered are: (1) the character 
of the preceding weather, (2) the state of the sky. 
whether cloudy or clear, (3) the direction and force of 
the wind, (4) the trend of the temperature, and (5) 
the atmospheric pressure. 

Preceding toecUher. — Since the weather comes in 
waves, an abnormally warm period is likely to be fol- 
lowed by the opposite extreme. 

State of the sky. — A clear sky increases loss of heat 
by radiation, as explained already. 

Direction and force of wind. — A southwest to west 
wind indicates tlmt the cyclone is passing (except per- 
haps on the Pacific coast, where other conditions ma^ 
modify the directions), and that the anti-cyclone is 
approaching^ while a northwest to north wind indicates 
that the anti-cyclone is near. If the wind dies away it 
will become colder near the ground. 

Trend of the temperature, — If the temperature falls 
steadily during the late afternoon, reaching 40** by 6 or 
8 p. M., with a clear sky and a light wind, frost is 
indicated before morning. 

Atmospheric pressure. — ^The actual stage of the 
barometer is not important, except if the pressure has 
been very low during the aay it indicates the passage 
of a deep depression which is likely to be followed by 
a high crest. If the barometer rises rapidly during the 
late afternoon or early evening it indicates the rapid 
approach of the anti-cyclone. 

The influence of local conditions on frost. 

Everyone who has lived in the open country is 
familiar with the fact that some places are more sub- 
ject to frost than other places. Crops in one part of a 
field may be destroyed by frost, ancl in another part of 
the same field remain uninjured. The explanation for 
this seeming discrimination is found in the influence 
of local conditions. 

There are five factors that determine the frost risk 
at any place: (1) location, city or country. (2) ele- 
vation and topography. (3) proximity to bodies of 
water, (4) exposure to tne sun, (5) soil and soil cover- 
ing. 

Location. — Frosts are much more likely to occur in 
the open country than in cities. Many mvestigations 
confirm this. The higher night temperatures of cities 
is attributed to the heat given off from buildings and 

gavements, and to the smoke from the many city 
res that collects over cities on quiet nights. 
Elevation and topography. — The average tempera- 
ture decreases with elevation above sea-level at a rate 
of 1** for each 300 feet of ascent. From this it might 
be expected that hilltops would be more frosty than 
adjacent lower lands. Such is not the case. On clear 

3 met nights the colder air that settles to the surface 
rains away from the hilltops and hillsides and accumu- 
lates over the low lands, decreasing the temperature of 
the vegetation and sometimes causmg frost. If the val- 
ley into which the cold air drains is closed, so that it 
cannot flow away as rapidly as it accumulates, a "frost 
pocket" results. Some farms have many such ''frost 
pockets." A walk over a farm on a clear quiet ni^t 
often will reveal their location and extent. Low hill- 
tops and hillsides, but not too near the valley floor, 
should be chosen for fruits or other crops that aro 
liable to be injured by frost. 



Proximity to bodies of vxUer. — Under similar condi- 
tions, land warms and cools about five times as rapidly 
as water. During the season of spring frosts, the water 
is relatively cool, although considerably above the freez- 
ing-point. Therefore, it tends to cool the air over 
adjacent lands during the day and to warm it at ni^t. 
The influence of a body of water on nearby vegetation 
is twofold: by lowering the day temperature it retards 
growth, and by increasing the night temperature wards 
off frost. The fruit-belts along the various lakes are 
examples of this twofold influence. The cool air from 
the lake by day retards the blooming period, and also 

e'ves immunity from frost at ni^t. The influence of a 
>dy of water is more marked m the fall than in the 
spring, because of the heat stored up by the water dur- 
ing the summer. It also increases the length of the 
growing season over adjacent lands by ^wding off 
irost Doth in spring and fall. The distance to which 
the influence of a Dody of water will extend inland 
depends upon the volume of water, its temperature 
relative to that of the land, the area of its free surface, 
the slope of its shores, ana the prevailing winds. The 
prevailing winds in the middle latitudes are from the 
i. Thi 



west. 



lus, the influence of a lake extends farthest 



on its east side, and farthest also when the land slopes 
gently away from the water. The influence of Lake 
Michigan, mainly because of the gentle slope of its 
eastern shore, extends nearly half way across the state 
of Michigan, while the influence of Liake Erie, because 
of the abrupt rise of its eastern shore, extends inland 
only a few iniles. 

Exposure. — Hillsides exposed toward the south are 
warmest; next come those facing east, then west, and 
finally north. Frost liability tollows in the reverse 
order, being gr^test on the north side. In the eastern 
states many fruit-growers prefer the northern slope for 
an orchard site, notwithstanding its greater liaoility 
to frost. This preference is based partly on the opinion 
that the colder soil and air of northern slopes tends to 
retard the blooming time until the period of spring 
frosts is passed. 

Soil and soil coverings. — Dark-colored, sandy soils, 
because good absorbers of heat, are least liable to 
frost. Many cranberry-growers cover the surface of 
the bo^ with an inch or two of sand as a means of 
protectmg from frost. The sand stores up heat by day 
with which to combat frost at ni^ht. Well-drained 
soils are less frosty than poorly dramed soils, because, 
when the soil is wet, the heat from the sun is expended 
in evaporating the water, and not in warming tne soil. 
Good tillage reduces the frost risk, because a loose, 
porous soifabsorlM more heat than a hard, compact 

80^* WiLPORD M. WiiaoN. 



The protection of orchards against frost-injury. 

Although much interest has been manifested in the 
prevention of frost-injury to orchards in recent years, 
it is well known that the protection of plants and 
fruits from such injury dates back more than 2,000 
years. Pliny the Elder, one of the most noted of Roman 
writers, who lived from 23 to 79 A.D., states that the 
Romans practised heating and smudging as a protec- 
tion against frost-injury. We have no doubt that the 
Practice was successful, since it was recommended by 
'liny whose one surviving work, his "Natural History," 
is considered a storehouse of facts. Smudging was also 
recommended by Olivier de Serres, a French agricul- 
turist, in the sixteenth century. He recommended the 
use of wet straw and half-rotten manures so as to pro- 
duce a heavy smoke. In the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, the practice of smudging was compulsory 
in parts of Germany, and failure to comply with certain 
regulations resulted in prosecution before an officer 
of the law. According to Boussingault, the celebrated 



FROST 

FrcDch chemist, smudges have been used for centuries 
on the plains of Cuico, Peru, on still clear nights bj 
Indians, to retard the loss of heat from the sou. This 
practice was inherited by them from the pre-Spanish 
civilisation. From the fragmentary pieces of literature 
we ore able to find concerning the matter of frost-pre' 
vention, there is do doubt that the practice has been 
more or less common from the most remote times to 
the present day- 
It is only in rec«it years, however, that the matter 
of frost-prevention has been scientifically investigated. 
The literature on the subject has been, until veiy 
recently, of very little importance, because the methods 
advocated were very crude and could not be used by 
the commercial fruitgrower. However, during the 
1880'b and earlv 1890's, the French vine^rowers did 
aome remarkable work. Even at that time, they used * 
heavy oil and tar as fuels, placing these in flat ironware 



FROST 



1285 



I the modern practice of using 



dishes much the si 
smudge -pots with 
crude^il. There had 
also been devised sys- 
tems of automatic 
lighting operated by 
a mercunc column, 
not veiy much imlike 
some of our more re- 
cently patented auto- 
matic alarm thermom- 
eters and self -lights 
ers. About the same 
time that the French 
vine -growers were 
perfecting their 
work in trostr-preven- 
tion, the CaUfomia 
and Florida orange- 
making experiments 
along the same Une. 
The first successful 
attempt to prevent 
frost -m jury by the 
use of heating de- 
vices on a large scale 
occurred in Califomia 
about 1896. Edward 
Copely is credited with inventing the wire coal-basket 
as weU as a macbirte to make it cheaply. These bas- 
kets were filled with kindling and about twenty-five 
pounds of coal, twenty-five to thirty baskets being pro- 
vided to the acre. 'Ojey were suspended by wires to 
limbs of trees. The first use of oil of which there is a 
record was by Everett at Arhngton, Cahfomia; and the 
first use of hot water was by Meacham, at Riverside, 
California. I^ter, J. P. Bolton, of the Unit«d States 
WeaUi^ Bureau, stationed at Fresno. California, 
devised an oil-pot for use in the vineyaros during the 
period of spring frosts. 

The occasion for considerable activity in the matter 
of frost-fightins at this time was due to a very severe 
frost in I%ceml>cr, 1865, causing ^eat damage to the 
oron^ and lemon mves in the Rjvcrside section. It 
may DC said that the beginning of froat-fighting in a 
commercial way dates from this time. The Riverelde 
Horticultural Club in the winter of 1897-98 took 
an active interest, and many experiments were con- 
ducted, using all sorts of devices for adding moisture to 
the air by means of fires of damp straw and stable 
manure, evaporation of wat«r by means of evaporating- 
pans, sprayers and sprinklers, and by irrigation of the 
orchards. Boilers were also used with connecting pipes 
wb««by st«am was generated and carried to ^e dif- 
ferent parts of the orchards. Direct heating of the air 
by means of fires was also tried and proved to be the 
most successful method of preventing frost-injury. 



The deciduous fruilr^rowers of the Sacramento 
Valley, California, also practised orchard-heating more 
or less successfully, adopting the methods employed 
by the citrus fruit-iTOwers of the South. It is remark- 
aole that some of this work did not bear so good 
results as it should. Fully ten years passed without 
any advance having been made in tne methods of 
orchard -heating. About 1906, a renewed interest 
was taken in the work and sinoe that time orchard- 
heating has l>een given scientific stud v. Within 
the last four or five years the fruit- and vegetable- 
growers throughout the United States have taken 
much interest in the practice of protecting their 
crops from frost-injury, and it has become a recog- 
nized part of orchard work in districts in which frosts 
regularly occur. 

The hterature on the subject has now assumed con- 
siderable importance since it is the result of scientific 
investigation of frost-injury and frost-prevention at 
the bands of scientific 



men. There 
important ai 
and bulletins 
subject. 



ticte> 



llie losses occa- 
sioned by frost in the 
citrua and deciduous 
fruit districts of the 
United States often 
reach enormous pro- 
portions. It has been 
mipOBsible to secure 
accurate information 
as to what the aver- 
age annual loss has 
been over a period of 
years; but it is safe 
to soy that the loss 
would approximate 
110,000,000 a year. 
If one takes into con- 
sideration the freezes 
which occurred in the 
citrus belt in Florida 
during 1880, 1884, 
1886, 1894, and 1895, 
where not only the 
fruit but the trees themselves were killed, the loss 
would average still greater. It is estimated that the 
freeze of 1894-95 destroyed 3,000,000 boxes of oranges 
in the Florida groves. Although the citrus industry in 
California had not yet reachM large proportions, the 
losses were correspondingly heavy. In January, 1913, 
the losses in the southern California citrus district 
reached the enormous sum of $60,000,000, all of which 
might have been saved bymeansof the present methods 
of frost-prevention. Deciduousfruitshavesuffered quite 
as heavily from frost-injury. Very often almost the 
entire crop of fruit throughout the eastern and southern 
states is a complete failure. In the middle West, 
especially in Colorado, the one great drawback to 
fruit-srowing has been the danger of damage by frost. 
This has also been true of the deciduous fruit districts 
of the inter-mountain and Pacific coast states. How- 
ever, sinoe the advent of the present methods of pro- 
tecting against frost-injury, much security has been 
added to deciduous fruit-growing. 

The problem of preventing injury to plants from 
frost may be classified under the following heads: 

1. The prediction of frost, and the issuance of 
adequate frost- warnings. 

2. The construction and use of devices and appa- 
ratus to be used in frost-prevcntioD. 

3. The cost of orchard heating. 

4. The physics of orchard-heating. 

5. The use of electricity in frost-prevention. 



1286 



FROST 



The pr«dietum offrott and itmance of froU-vxtmingi. 

The prediction of froat and ieauaoce of adequate 
(roatr-wamings neoeseorily belong to the United States 
Weather Bureau. It is wholly impossible accurately 
to predict frost locally without a knowledge of genertd 
weather conditiona over a considerable area. However, 
a local observer with a complete knowledge of the 
climatoloKy of his district and a knowledge of the air- 
currents, Dumidity, maximuffl and minimum tempera^ 
tures, and the like, is capable of making very accurate 
forecasts in cooperation with the United States Weather 



It is known that temperatures vary greatly within any 
district, dependent upon elevation, contour, proximity 
to large bodies of water, and so on. 

Frmts usually occur during periods of high baro- 
metric pressure, following a period of low pressure in 
which there has been some precipitation. Under such 
conditions the air is very dry and dust-free, producing 
conditions favorable to intense radiation, and conse- 
quently causing rapid coolii^ of both plants and soil. 



FROST 

which were det«rmined by several years of obaa^a' 
tion and study. From 190S to 1913 the average 
departure of the minimum temperature of the follow- 
ing morning from the previous evening's dew-point 
temperature during periods of spring frosts has been 
0.10 F. It is poesiDle that every district, by a careful 
study of all the factors governing frost conditions, may 
be able to predict accurately not only the minim um 
temperature that will occur, but also the time when 
the nring in the orchards must b^in. This is now done 
in the Hoguc River Valley, Oregon, &nd has been prac- 
tised for several ycare without a single error. 
The teoerai waye of prevtnling fail in lemperaiare. 

In order to prevent the fall in temperature, the fol- 
lowing methods have been practised: (1) Direct heat- 
ing 01 the air. (2) Adding water-vapor. (3) Adding 
both heat and water-vapor. (4) Ventilation or mixina 
the air. (5) Irrigation, or use of water. (6) Use of heated 
water and steam, (7) Use of screens or covers to pre- 
vent loss of beat by radiation. (8) Spraying with water. 
In the discussion of preventing frost-injury, all 
the methods excepting that of adding heat 
will be omitted, as recent experiments have 
shown that direct heating of the stratum of 
air in contact with the trees and fruits is the 



have been Riven extensive trials, and, while 
practicable Tor small gardens, cannot be used 
over large areas on account of the large 
amount of labor necessary, and the further 
fact that their application cannot be made 
general. Direct neating is not only simple, 
but is the least costly, and has, therefore, 
the advantage of general application. 

Melhodi of dired, heating in frost-preven- 
tion. — As stated above, it nas been aemon- 
atrated beyond question that adding heat 
directly to the air through the agency of fires 
distributed throughout the orchard ' ' 



A multitude of devices and many kinds of 
fuel have been experimented with, and it is 
now the opinion among growers who have 
fought froet that the neet heat-producing 
material so far demonstrated is crude- 
oil or distillate burned in some form of 
It has been stated more or less empirically that the sheet-iron receptacle or smudge-pot. In the first 
" ' I the place, oils mb easy to handle, may be readily stored, 
and, compared with other fuels, produce more heat 
in proportion to the cost. The cost of handling and 
igmting such fuela as coal and wood, together with 
the disadvantage of so much bulky material dis- 
tributed throughout the orchard which interferes with 
cultivation, decidedly places these fuels at a disad- 
vantage, excepting in vwy small tracts. No matter 



1 forecasting of frosts, but recent investigationa 

have shown that it is not dependable when used alone 
and in disregard of other important factors, such as the 
daily majdmum temperature, temperature-curve, wind- 
direction, barometer, and condition of the sky. To 
this should be addrd a complete knowledge of general 
weather conditions aa obtained from the nearest Dis- 
trict Weather Bureau Office. 

In 1882, Lieutenant (now Brigadier General) James 
Allen published a pamphlet entitled "To Foretell Frost 
by the Determination of the Dew-point." He said 
that if the dew-point is above freezing in the early 
evening the minimum temperature next morning will 
be above freezing; if the dew-point is below freezing, 
the minimum temperature next morning will also m 
below freezing. If the prediction of frosts were eo 
simple, anyone with the aid of the psycbrometer, or 
wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, might easily make 
independent forecasts. However, it has been found 
that the dew-point Is an aid only when used 



district. The dew-point temperature ia used 
Rogue River Valley, Oregon, because it bas been found 
a very safe guide in combination with the above factors 



the labor probfem is one of more than ordinary impor- 
tance. There is verj- much difference in the oils as 
secured in different parla of the country. For the 
most part, eastern crude-oils have a paraffine base, 
while those on the Pacific slope have an asphaJturo base. 
The crude-oil, or petroleum, as it comes from the wells 
ia very rich in gases and the lighter oils, such as ben- 
zene, gasolene, kerosene, and others, and, therefore, is 
not used as such for orchard-beating. The gases and 
lighter oils are all removed by fractional distillation, 
leaving behind the heavier oib and the asphaltum or 
paraffine base, aa the case may be. The fuei-oils on the 
market arc, therefore, residuals, and as such are used 
for orchard-heating. A residual oil with a paraffine 
base will bum in the common smudge-pot without 



.FROST 



FROST 



1287 



leaving behind anything but a little soot; but the oils 
with an asphaltum base do not. For this reason it is 
found necessary to remove the asphaltum base in so 
far as is practicable. Asphaltum does not bum readily 
in a simple smudge-pot, and, therefore, remains 
behind after the Ughter oil has burned. Upon cooling, 
it becomes veiy hard, and reduces the capacity of the 
pot for future nllines. The b^t oil for orcnard-heating 
purposes is one of approximately 20** Beaum^ test, 
consideringthe matter of cost as an item. A lighter oil 
up to 32° Beaum^ may be used, but being lighter, it 
will bum more rapidly and reduce the effective burn- 
ing time of the orchard-heater. 

The orchetrct-heater, — ^During recent years, large num- 
bers of types of orchard-heaters have oeen placed 
upon the market. As stated elsewhere in this article, 
the first smudge-pot devised for orchard-heating was 
the invention of J. P. Bolton, of Fresno, California, 
and the object of this invention was to produce a 
device which would effect fairly complete combustion. 
In fact, the idea in all of the more recent types of 
orchara-heaters has been to bring about more perfect 
combustion of the fuel-oil and a consequent reduction 
in the amoimt of soot given off. Also, there has been 
an effort to increase the burning time of the pot by 
increasing the camu;ity for fuel-oil. This has been 
partially effected by several interesting devices, but 
the perfect pot producing complete combustion of 
fuel-oil has yet to be invented. The so-called soot- 
arrester of some types is a misnomer. Very extensive 
experiments have been made with all the devices on the 
market, and it has been shown that the plain sheet-iron 
pot holding approxifaiately five quarts of fuel-oil is 
just as effective as the more comphcated and expensive 
t3rpe8. This pot is inexpensive, and when made of No. 
29 or 26 sheet-iron will cost from 5 to 8 cents. In 
using a heater of such small size, the number to the 
acre should not be less than 100, and preferably more 
in districts in which periods of low temperature con- 
tinue more than four or five hours. Owing to the 
cheapness of such pots, a very large number may be 
used in preference to using a few expensive heaters 
of the reservoir type. Many small fires give better 
results than a few large ones, as the heat is better dis- 
tributed and convective air-currents are not produced. 
It must be understood that any orchard-heatmg device 
that is in any way complicated by dampers, cocks, 
valves, and the like, must be avoided. At best, an 
orchard-heater is roughly handled and the more expen- 
sive and complicated types would find a v^ snort 
existence in actual orchard-beating practice. Further- 
more, the matter of storage must be considered. The 
simple pot which will nest easily and occupy very little 
space will be more desirable. There is no objection to 
the high-priced reservoir heater providing it is not 
complicated, but the same results may be secured by 
the more simple lard-pail type^ holding about five 
quarts and having a burning tune of four and five 
hours, depending upon the aimlity of fuel-oil used. 

EquiprnerU for orchard-heating. — ^The equipment 
absolutely nec^sary for effective orchard-heating con- 
sists of the following: 

1. Storage reservoir. 

2. Distributing wagon tank. 

3. Orchard-heaters. 

4. Lighters for igniting the fuel-oil. 
6. Thermometers. 

6. Frost alarm thermometers. 
(1) The storage reservoir should be built of con- 
crete or steel and should have a capacity sufficient to 
provide for at least five fillings of the orchard-heaters — 
that is to say, for five frost-periods. Such a reservoir, 
if built of concrete, should oe constructed in such a 
way as to make the walls and floor one continuous 
pouring, so as to provide against leakage of oil. Resid- 
ual oils nave no effect upon the concrete, and all leakage 



is due to improper pouring of the cement. A rich cement 
mixture should be used. The reservoir should be so 
placed that it may be filled and emptied by gravitv. 
At best, it is expensive to handle oil, and there should 
be no pumping. Oil should be secured in tank-car lots, 
and, if the proper arrangements are made, aU the hand- 
ling may be done by gravity. The reservoir should 
have an outlet pipe 2^ to 3 inches in diameter and 
suppUed with a close-fitting valve. A cover to keep out 
dust and rain should also be provided. (2) The supply- 
tank should be placed upon a heavy low truck and 
should hold between 300 and 400 gallons. It ^ould be 
provided either with two heavy gate valves at the 
rear or with two lines of hose with valves for the pur- 
pose of distributing the oil into the orchard-heaters. 
This tank may be the ordinary supply-tank used to 
carry spray material. (3) The number of orchard- 
heaters to be used to the acre will depend upon a knowl- 
edge of the conditions under which they are to be used. 
If the simple one-gallon type of heater is used, at least 
100 to 120 should be provided to the acre. Besides, a 
double row should be placed around the side from which 
the prevailing air-movement comes in the periods of 
frosts. In fact, it is best to reinforce all siaes of the 
orchard. After filling the heaters, they should be cov- 
ered so as to prevent the entrance of moisture or to 
Erovide against evaporation of the oil. In placing the 
eaters, it is best to arrange them somewhere near 
the intersections of the diagonals made by the trees; 
but any arrangement which will not place a pot directly 
imder a tree will suffice. (4) Fuel-od is rather difficult 
to ignite, and a small amount of gasolene must be used 
so as to provide for quick lighting. The best method 
of lighting is to use a machinist^ oil-can filled with 
gasofene. and a torch made of two pieces of thin iron 
pipe. The larger piece is fitted with a screw cap and is 
nUed with a mixture of kerosene and lard oil. A sec- 
tion of smsdl pipe through which is drawn a piece of 
waste ia then ntted by a reducer to the other end. The 
waste is kept saturated with the mixture of lard and 
kerosene and when lighted provides a veiy good torch. 
This iron torch is verv useful in taking off uds or caps 
of heaters when lighting. The machinist'^ oil-can 
filled with gasolene is carried in the left hand and 
about two tablespoonfuls are poured on the surface 
of the fuel-oil in the pots. The torch is apphed and 
the gasolene ignites, finng the heavy fuel-oil. A simpler 
and lifter torch is easily made by wiring a piece of 
waste mto a ball and twisting the wire into a handle. 
The waste is kept saturated by plunging it into the oil 
of the heater, igniting it from the surface flame as it 
is removed. (5) A most necessary part of any orchard- 
heating equipment is a sufficient supply of fairly accu- 
rate thermometers. There should be at least one ther- 
mometer to the acre. The thermometers should be 
hung with the bulb about 4 to 5 feet from the groimd, 
depending, of course, upon the relative position of the 
fruiting area of the tree. In many orchards the ther- 
mometers will be placed higher, in others, lower. All 
thermometers should read correctly to within J^", and 
if the correction be greater it should be placed upon a 
tag attached to the thermometer. In reading the 
thermometers, a pocket electric flashlight is much 
better than a lantern. The heat from a lantern will 
cause the mercury to rise before it can be read and the 
thermometers will, therefore, not give the true atmo- 
spheric temperature. The thermometers should be in 
the open in order to get the approximate temperature 
of the plants to be protectea. This temperature is 
alwa3rs slightly lower than the true atmospheric 
temperature. Besides the thermometers in the orchard, 
other thermometers placed at a safe distance from the 
heated area should be provided. A self-registering 
thermometer, while not necessary as a part of the 
equipment, would be very useful in determining the 
actual minimum as well as the rate at which the tem- 



1288 FROST 

perature ia (slling. (6) The rrosl^alarm thermometer is 
a device for Bounding an alarm when a certain tempera- 
ture J8 reached. This poiat ia usually a degree or two 
above the danger point, and eervea the purpose of 
pving notice of approaching danger. The thermometer 
le placed at a pomt any distance away and where the 
lowest temperatures usuallv occur. Wire« are led from 
the thermometer to the nouse. Wbeo the mercury 
falls below a certain point, the electric circuit is broken 
and a relay causes a bell to ring. If a thermograph is 
at hand, the man on duty may easily noU by the 
character of the temperature curve whether or not it 
may be necessary to prepare for lighting the fires. There 
are several tsfpes of froet-alarm thermometers on the 
market, but tfie simplest and moat trustworthy of all 
is the one in which the mercuric column breaks an 
electric circuit which in turn operates a relay con- 
nected with an electric bell. 

Besides the above neccssaiy devices for orchard- 
heating, there have been invented certain automatic 
devices for lighting a large number of pots at the 
same time, either 
b^ hand or elec- 
trical control. Such 
devices are alwa^ 
complicated, and, dis- 
re^ding their cost 
which is an item of 
considerable impor- 
tance, tbey are im- 
practical m laree 
operations. If the 
means be electrical or 
mechanical, an expen- 
sive cartridge must 
be used, the cost of 
which ia greater than 
the cost of the labor 
for lighting the pots 
by hand. Besides, all 
automatic devices re- 
quire that a large 
number of wires be 
strung through the 
orchajrd, which would 
interfere with other 
orchard practice. As 
a rule, the period ovt 
may be a month or e 
rchard work 



1S8S. Hilnf mod for ordurd haatinc— OfCr Sih Id Ihe 



which frost-injury ma;^ occur 
weeks, and during this time 
jst be in progress. 
Injwicrue Umperaiures, — The temperatures at which 
the principal orchard fruits are hable to be injured 
cannot be accurately stated^ since weather conditions 
previous tn a freeze determine U) a very great extent 
the ability of plants to withstand low temperatures. 
Not only do the diflferent degrees of cold produce dif- 
ferent effects on the same plant, but the same plant 
will often behave differently when subjected to the 
same degree of cold. It ia well known that plants or 
parts of plants in active growth are more easily killed 
Dv low temperatures than the same plants or parts of 
plants when dormant.. Actively growing plants con- 
tain large quantities of water; that is to say, the pro- 
toplasm or cell-sap is watery, and, as a rule, the larger 
the proportion ol water contained within the plants 
the more likely they are to be injured by low tempera- 
tures. Injury to plants is due to changes or diaturb- 
ancca produced in the protoplasm by low temperatures 
and, because of the unlike specific characters of dif- 
ferent plants, is not always produced in exactly the 
same way. Some plants arc injured at temperatures 
above freezing, while otheiB are injured by the forma- 
tion of ice at temjieratuces which they can withstand if 
the formation of ice is prevented. Again, some plants 
are not injured if the formation of ice does not progress 
t«o far, while some are resistant to the lowest lempera- 



FROST 

tures. As yet we do not know the nature of the peculi- 
arities which determine the different powers of resist- 
tance of individual plants or of the same plant at 
different stages of growth. It is well known that the 
reeiBtance to injury can be increased to a certain extent 
by raising the concentration of the ceU-sap. Cold, in 
itself, acU as a stimulus, inducing an increased produc- 
tion of sugar in many plants. The presence of an 
increased amount of sugar in a plant acts in such a way 
as appreciably to lower the freezing-point While tables 

S'ving injurious temperatures to fruit when in bud, 
ossom, and so on, have been prepared, it is safe to say 
that these temperatures are not entirely reliable. This 
is because conditions are never the same in any frost 
period. It may be stated that in the practice of orchard- 
beating the safest plan ia to keep the temperature just 
above the freezing-point no matter what the vanety 
of fruit. No doubt, thia will often be 2" to 3°, or even 
more, higher than necessary, but the practice is on the 
safe side. In orchard-heating practice the temperature 
should never be allowed to go much below the danger 
point, as it is usually 
difficult to bring it 
back without some 
chance of injury to 
the fruit. 

Effect of orchard- 
heating on potliTialion. 
—That pollination 
and subsequent fertil- 
isation of the orchard 
fruits ia in any way 
ifiected by orchard- 
heating is yet to be 
proved. It has been 
contended by some 
that the smoke or 
soot incident to the 
use of fuel-oil has a 
tendency to prevent 
the normal activities 
of such insects as visit 
the blossoms of fruit 
trees. However, there 
is no proof that the 
presence of soot on 
the trees has any 
effect in keeping insects, especially the honey-bee, away 
from the newly opened blossoms. Under normal con- 
ditions, the blooms which bees visit open during the 
early part of the day and, therefore, only such blossoms 
attract them. These blossoms have been closed during 
the time when smudging was being done, and, therefore, 
the nectaries, pistils ana stamens have no soot deposited 
upon them. With citrus fruits, aoot may have an inju- 
rious effect upon the fruit, but it has been found that 



The cost of oTchard-hialing.— The cost of orchard- 
heating is such a variable quantity that it is almost 
impossible to make a general estimate which will be 
of any value. Equipment, cost of fuel, length and 
number of firing periods, and so on, will vary in differ- 
ent localities and aeasona. Orchard-heaters will cost 
all the way from 6 cents to 50 cents each, and from 
fifty to two hundred heaters, depending upon condi- 
tions, will have to be used to the acre. The quantity 
of oil will vary with the season, and the coat will be 
all the way from 1 to 5 or 6 cents a gallon. Usually, 
no less than 300 gallons an acre should ne provided. At 
least one wagon-tank will have to be provided for each 
10 acres at a cost of S2J3. Lighters and torches will 
cost from SI to $2 an acre; thermometers 75 cents to 
SI an acre. The cost of a etorase-tank choreed to each 
acre will depend upon its size, but will not be far from 
tlO an acre for large tracts. It is possible to get at the 



FROST 

actual cost of fuel-oil to the acre in 
The quantitv irf fuetoil neceesory b 
ture S° F. above the surrounding i 
full bearing with wide-apreading tr 
mately twelve and one-half gallo 
acre. This will be true if the t ' 



the following way: 
I raise the tempera- 
ir in an orchard in 
•as will be approxi- 
18 an hour to the 



orchardB with the fruiting area low, practically double 
the Quantity of fuel-oil as given will be necessary. The 
aiiuple lard-pail type of heater, or, for that matt«r, any 
type of OKnard-heater providing a burning area of 
about 44 square inches, will bum about one quart of fuel- 
oil an hour. Fifty one-gallon heaters will bum approxi- 
mately twelve and one-half gallons of fuel-oil an hour, 
and if this oil costs 4 cents a gallon, the cost of an acr&- 
hour will be about 50 cents when all the pot? are bum- 
ioB. In other words, under the above conditions, it 
will cost approximately I cent an hour for each heater 
used, providing this healer does not have a burning 
surface greater than 44 square inches. It will require 
len fuel to heat an orchard in the square form than 
one of any other shape. The more the orchard-heaters 
are massed in the lorm of a square, the better the 
results. In fact, it is almost impossible to protect an 
orchard of only a few rows because there is no mass- 
ing of the heat generated on account of the lack of 
braking effect on air-movement. 
The phytic* of orehard-healing. 

By common consent, the one-gallon or ten-pound 
lard-pail type of orchard-heater naa been made the 
standard. This heat«'r has a top diameter of 7)^ inches, 
a bottom diameter of ^H inches, and a depth of 8 
inches. It has a top bumioK surface of about 44 square 
inches, an average burning surface of 40 square inches, 
and under actual field conditions will hold five quarts. 
As will readily be seen, the rate of burning fuel-oil 
wiU not remain con- 
stant owing to the 



stont, it is natural to 
suppose that a cor- 
responding change in 
the orchani tempera- 
ture-characteristic 
takes place. In other 
words, the difference 
in temperature be- 
tween the air outside 
the heated area and . 
that in the heated ' 
area does not remain 
constant. The char> 



for 



liny 



orchard-heater h aving 

sloping sides vrill be jj^g 

approximately the 

same as for the standard lard-pail type. 

By repeated experiment it has been shown that the 
standard lard-pau type beater will bum about two 
pounds (two pints) of fuel-oil an hour, providing the 
oil is neither too heavy nor too light gravity. A very 
simple rule which will determine the bumiiu; time of 
any fuel-oil in the standard pot is to divide the weight 
of a gallon (in pounds] by two. This will give the num- 
ber of hours a gallon will bum under actusl conditions 
in the field. 

For any other sise heater of the lard-pail type, the 
buraing time will vary in accordance with the following 
law: K-T (DU}<, in which T-the time of burning, 
D— the mean of die top and bottom diameters, and 
H~the depth, K~a constant. In other words, it has 
been founa that if the mean diameter times the depth 
be squared and multiplied by the burning time (in 



, — — — — — fuel-oil 

Dumed under the same conditions, no matter what tba 
sise of the pot may be, providii^ it is not too much out 

of proportion. 

The calorific power of /we(«.^Analyses of various 
fuel-oils on the market have shown that the heating 
power averages about 1S,000 British UiemisJ units 
to the pound. A pound of dry pine wood, or, for that 
matter, the beet oak wood, if perfectly dry. will generate 
about 6,000 B.T.U.'s under perfect combustion; bitu- 
minous ooal under the same conditions will generate 
12,000 B.T.U.'s. It will be seen, therefore, that the 
ratio of wood, coal and fuel-oil is about as 1:2:3. A 
cord of wcti-scasoned pine will weigh about ^000 
pounds and that of oak about 4,000 pounds. Tneee 
figures ore, of course, only approximate, but will serve 
as a basis for calculation in case anyone should desir« 
to use wood or coal for orchard-heating purposes. 
Since the calorific power of fuel-oil is about 1S,000 
B.T.U.'s to the pound, tbe standard fuel-pot burning 
two pounds of mel-oil an hour will generate 36,000 
B.T.U.'s. This ia largely theoretical as, owing to the 
character of the heater, combustion is by no means 
perfect. Nevertheless, the amount of oil, as indicated, 
IS consumed, and will, therefore, be accounted for on 
the basis of complete combustion. By repeated experi- 
ment, it has been shown that the quantity of fuel-oil 
necessary to raise the temperature 5° F. above the 
surrounoing air in an orchard in full bearing with the 
trees forming a protective covering and the air calm 
or moving not more than 1 or 2 miles an hour, is approxi- 
mately twelve and one-half gallons or 100 pounds an 
hour to the acre. This quantity of fuel-oil is approxi- 
mately the amount which would be bumed in one 
hour by fifty standard orchard -heaters. In very 
young orchards, or with a wind of 10 to IS miles 
on hour, fully two or 
three tintes as much 
fuel-oil will be neces- 
sary to maintain a. 
temperature ST. 
above that of the sur- 
rounding air. Under 
average orchard con- 
ditions, with the trees 
in good bearing, the 
maximum hei^t at 
which the bulk of the 
fruit crop is bome is 
usually not more than 
l2 to 15 feet above tbe 
surface of the ground. 
In many cases frost- 
injury does not occur 
above this height, the 
cold-air stratum being 
relatively thin, Dwt- 
ing periods of injuri- 
ous low temperatures, the atmosphere is vejy dry and, 
therefore, calculations may be based upon the heating 
of the air only, since the small amount of water-vapor 
present at such times Is of little importance. Taking an 
acre as the unit ares, and assuming that the height ta 
which tbe air must be heated U) protect the crop is 12 
feet, thetotalweight of the air inclosed within this space 
would be 42,000 pounds. As stated above, a pound of 
fuel-oil has a themial capacity of 18,000 B. T. U.'s, 
and since It will require 100 pounds of fuel-oil an hour 
to the acre to maintain the temperature of the air 5° F. 
above the surrounding atmosphere, 1,800,000 B. T. 
U.'s or about 700 mechanical horsepower will be 
expended an hour to the acre on 42,000 pounds of air. 
But 1,800,000 B.T.U.'s would raise the temperature 
of 360,000 pounds of water 5° F., and since the specific 
beat of air is 0.24, it would raise the temperature of 



SmndciiV o"^ *» I^CTcnt (nxt-ininry. 



1290 



FROST 



FRUIT-GROWING 



1,500,000 pounds of air 5^ F. However, it is seen that 
1,800,000 jB. T. U/s are just capable of maintaining 
42,000 pounds of air 5° F. alx>ve the surrounding 
atmosphere when there is no wind-movement. This 
means that even with large trees having the ability of 
reflecting back a considerable amount ofheat, and with 
the soot and smoke acting more or less as a blanket, the 
loss by radiation, convection and absorption is enor- 
mous. As a matter of fact,H of the heat generated by 
the orchard-heaters is lost, and the efficiency is, there- 
fore, less than 3 per cent. Though effective and well 
within the financial possibility of application, the 
orchard-heater is nevertheless a wasteful appliance. 

In the above calculations, the effects of wind-move- 
ment have not been taken into consideration. Take 
the case of a pot placed in an outside tree row heating 
a space 25 feet square and 12 feet hish. This space 
contains in round numbers 600 pounds of air. The 
standard pot will generate 600 B. T. U.'s a minute, or 
sufficient heat to raise the temperature of 600 pounds 
of air about 4® F. This will be true if there is no wind- 
movement and if there is very little radiation of heat. 
However, if the air moved only 100 feet a minute, or a 
little more than 1 mile an hour, the temperature could 
never rise more than 1** above the temperature of the 
incoming cold air. At 4 miles an hour it could rise but 
Ji** F. This will be true only in the outside tree rows, 
on the side from which the air-movement comes. This 
shows why it is often difficult to protect the outside 
rows from frost-injury. Naturally, with the orchard in 
the form of a square, all the rows beyond the first, on 
account of air-movement, would receive a certain 
amount of heat from the fireit row. However, with a 
high wind of 18 to 20 miles an hour and a temperatmne 
of 10** F. or more below the danger-point, theproblem 
of frost-prevention becomes a serious one. Tne num- 
ber of fuel-pots must be three or four times the number 
reouired for ordinary orchard-heating. 

The value of smoke. — ^The discussion so far has con- 
sidered niai^ the value of fuels from the standpoint 
of heatine. Tnere is some value in the smoke which is 
^nerateofbut verv much less than there is in the heat. 
When it is calm there is little difficultv in maintaining 
a heavy smudge with only fifty orchard heaters, or 
fires, to the acre, but a very liuit breeze will quickly 
drive it away. Experience has wown that the smud^ 
is valuable when the temperature drops somewhat 
below the danger-point about sunrise. In cases of this 
kind, the smoke acts as a screen and prevents the too 
sudden warming up or thawing of the frozen fruit. 
However, it is imsafe to depend on smudge idone. 

The use of ekctricUy in frost^preveniion. — ^During 
recent years much thought has been given the matter 
of frost-prevention by electrical engineers. However, 
let it be said that some other means than that of direct 
electrical heating must be employed. If we take the 
above figures indicating the amount of heat energy 
which must be expended to the acre to raise the tem- 
perature 5** F. in an orchard and maintain it above 
that of the surrounding atmosphere, we find that this 
is equivalent to approxunately 700 H. P. of mechanical 
energy. In the transmission of electrical energy from 
the source of power, there is always a heavy loss, so 
that fully 1,000 H. P. of mechanical energy would have 
to be generated in order to raise the temperature 5® 
F. in an acre of orchard. From this it will be seen that, 
although our large electrical power plants are carrjring 
a very light load during the nours of 1 a.m. to 7 a.m., 
the amount of reserve power would be so small in 
comparison with the demands that the largest power 
plant would cover but a very small area. Of course, 
this consideration takes into account the conversion 
of mechanical ener^ into heat energy. In actual 
practice, the electrical heater is so inefficient that it is 
wholly Deyond the ranse of possibility for orchard- 
heating. The problem of frost-prevention by electrical 



methods must be attacked from a different side, either 
by the use of high tension discharges or by the use of 
1^^ electric fans that will tend to stir the air or pro- 
duce a chimney effect so as to carrv the cold air 
upward. Even the latter will be useless when very 
low temperatures are accompanied by high winds. 

A simple method of estimating the quantity of fuel 
necessary to raise the temperature of the air in an acre 
of orchard any number of degrees Fahrenheit under 
every condition is as follows: In a full bearing orchard 
there are approximately 500,000 cubic feet of air to the 
acre which must be heated continuously, it being con- 
sidered that the height to which heat must be added 
is about 12 feet. By experiment, it has been shown that 
it will require about 0.75 to 1.00 B. T. U. to the cubic 
foot an hour to maintain the temperature V F. above 
that of the surrounding atmosphere. Therefore, it 
will require 376,000 to 500^000 B. T. U.'s an hour, under 
average conditions to mamtain the temperature of an 
acre of orchard 1^ F. above that of the surrounding 
atmosphere. Since one poimd of crude-oil or distillate 
contains approximately 18,000 B. T. U.'s, the number 
of pounds of fuel-oil required to the acre-hour will be 
twenty to twenty-eight pounds. Since a poimd of oil 
is approximately one pint, the quantity of oil an acre- 
hour for 1** F. rise will be two and one-half to three and 
one-half gallons. As shown above, the ratio of wood, 
coal and oil is about as 1:2:3, wood having 6.000, coal 
12,000, and oil 18,000 B. T. U.'s to the pound. 

Bibliography.— Some recent publications on frost 
protection are: "The Protection of Orchards in the 
racific Northwest from Spring Frosts by Means of 
Fires and Smudges," P. J. O'Gara, Farmer's Bulletin, 
No. 401, U. S. Dept. Agric. "The Prevention of Frost 
Injury m the Orchards of the Rogue River Valley, 
Orw)n," P. J. O'Gara, Bulletin No. 5, Office of the 
PatnoloQst and Local United States Weather Bureau 
Station. Medford, Oregon. "A comparative Test of Fuel 
Oils ana Appliances Used in Orchard-Heating to Prevent 
Frost Injury," P. J. O'Gara, Bulletin No. 6, Office of the 
Pathologist and Local United States Weather Bureau 
Station, Medford, Oreron. "Forecasting Frosts in the 
North Pacific States," E. A. Beals, BuDetin No. 41, U. 
S. Weather Bureau. p. j, O'Gara. 

FRUrr-GROWING comprises all the knowledge 
and practice that are directly concerned in the produ* 
cing and handling of fruits. Pomology (Uterally, 
science of fruits) is synonymous with fruit-growing. 
There has been an effort to divorce the terms pomology 
and fruit-growing, making the former to comprise the 
scientific and classificatory subjects and the latter the 
practical subjects; but such division is arbitrarv and 
IS opposed to usage. The word "growing" can no longer 
be neld, when i^ed in such connection, to designate 
merely the planting and care of fruit-plants, for all 
good practice is necessarily associated with scientific 
knowledge and theory. I<>uit-^pt>wing is a more familiar 
and homely term than the Latm-Greek word pomology, 
and for that reason it has seemed to some persons to 
be less adaptable to the formal presentation of the 
knowledge connected with fruits. It is significant, 
however, that with the exception of Prince's "Pomo- 
logies! Manual," the fruit books that have done much 
to mold public opinion in America have not been known 
as pomologies, notwithstanding the fact that the greater 
number of them have given great attention to formal 
descriptions of varieties. The term pomolog^r is founded 
on the Latin pomumt a word that was used generically 
for "fruit." In later Latin it came to be associatea 
more particularly with the apple-like fruits. The word 
is preserved to us in the French pommel meaning 
"apple," and in other languages of Latin derivation. 
In English we know it as pomey a botanical term used to 
designate fruits that have the peculiar morphological 
structure of the apple and pear. This use of the term 



FRUIT-GROWING 

is explained under the article P^nu. However, the 
root of the word pomolon' ia denved from the I^tin 
pomum rather than from Uie botanicaJ pome. 

The limitations of fruit-growine, aa art anddiscusaion, 
depend on the use of the word fruit." This word, as 
used by the horticulturist, ia impc»Hibte of definition. 
Products that are classed with Iruita in one country 
may be classed with vegetables in another. To the 
horticulturist a fruit ia a product that is cloeely asso- 
ciated, in its origiD, with the flower. Aa used ia this 
country, it is the product of a bush or tree or woody 
vine, the most manted exception being the strawberry. 
Moet fruits may be ^uped under three general heaOB, 
— orchard or tree fruits, vine fruits (of which the grape 
is the type), and amall-fruita or "berriea." Of the 
orchard fruits, the leading groups are the pome-fruita 
(apple, pear), drupe-fruita (peach, plum, cherry), and 
the citrus-fruits (orange, lemon). Of thesmall-fruita, we 
may diatinguiah the buii-fruits (raspberry, blackberry, 
currant, gooseberry, blueberry), cranberry, and the 
atrawberry. There are maov fruits, particularly in the 
tropids, tnat do not fall within these groups. The epe- 



FRUIT-GROWING 



1291 



dea of fruita that are fairly well known in North Amer- 
ica are not leaa than 150, but the important commer- 
cial species are not more than forty. 

Fruit-growing is the most important and charao- 
teristic horticuTtural interest of North America. It is 
of high excellence as measured by commercial stand- 
ards, quantity of product, and the quicknexs with which 
Bcientific theory and discovery are applied to it. Moal 
remarkable examples of the quick aasimilation and 
application of theoretical teachings are afforded by the 
readiness with which fruit-growers within recent years 
have adopt«d the ideas associated with tillage, spray- 
ing, polhnation, fertilising, pruning, inter-planting, 
and the modifications in conditions of marketing. Yet, 
peat as have been the advances, progress has only 
begun; and in the precise and painstaking application 
of the best teaching the American fruit-grower has 
much to acquire. 

The American ideals in fruit-growing arc i]'^^ 
unlike the European. The American aims at uniform- 
ity over large areas. The European gives more atten- 
tion to special practices, particular^ in training of 
fruit trees. This is well illustrated m American nur- 
series as contrasted with European nurseries (see 
Nwsety), The American merely prunes his fruit 
trees in the nursery; he does not train them. The 
American is likely to give moat attention to the fruit 
by the bushel or by the barrel; the European is hkely 
to consider his fruits singly or in small numbera, and 
ofl«n to sell them bv the piece or by the dosen. 

In many parts of North America, the extension of 



fruiUgrowing is the most radical change of base t«^- 
ing place in farming operations. This growth of the 
fruit business is possible because the consumption of 
fruit is increasing, the facilities for transportation have 
been improved, scientific discovery has insured the 

E reduction of good crops, and also because many other 
inda of farming have been relatively unprofitable. 
While the pnenomenal development of American 
fruit-growing has been due in great meaaure to climatio 
and economic conditions, it also has been hastened by 
book writings. More than fifty authors have contribu- 
ted books of greater or less size, either on the general 
subject or on special fruits, beginning with Coxe's 
"View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees^' in 1817, and 
followed by Thacher's "American Orchardiat" in 1822. 
These pioneer writings gave much of their space to 
orohard management, with Uttle mere compilation of 
descriptions of varieties. Subsequent vommes, for 
nearly fifty years, were in largo part compilations and 
collations of accounts of varieties. To this latter class 
belong the works of Prince, Kcnrick, Downing, Thomas, 
Warder. It is only in the present time that we have 



to treat the subject fundamentally, by giving the 

■ of discussion to principles of orchard man age- 

(For lists of books, see the article L/iltratwe.) 



weight of disci 



In recent years, the bulletins of the United States 
Department of Agriculture and of the many experiment 
stations, and the extensive discussion in the rural press, 
have greatly spread the knowledge of fruit-growing 
and have imdoubtedly stimulated its practice. 

The sources of American fruita — a\ the species and 
races that are cultivated on this continent — are chiefly 
four: (1) Original or early importations of western 
Asian and European fruita: (2) oriental types, from 
the China-Japanese region; (3) the introduction within 
fifty years of fruits from the Russian region; (4) the 
development of native species. In the firat group are 
included the prevailing types of apples, peara, qumces, 
cherries, domestica plums, ohves, currants, some of the 
gooseberries. In the second group are citrous fruits, 
peaches, apricots, Japanese plums, kaki, and others, 
many of them having come to us by way of Europe. 
In the third class — the Russian fruita — are typea of 
orchard fruila of auch recent introduction that we have 
only recently ceased disputing violently about their 
merits and aeroerite; therefore a special review of the 
subject ia given at the close of this article. The fourth 
cla^ — the native fruits — includes the grapes of the 
eastern states, blackberries, dewberries, raspberries, 
many gooseberries, strawberries (of Chilean origin), 
many plums, cranberries, blueberries, and a few 
apples. 

Recently, there has been much interest in fruit- 
growing on the part of persons who desire to establish 
themselves on the land. The attractiveness of fruit 
appeals to them, and they think that the raising of it 
is not laborious and that the business is adaptable to 
beginners. This is one expression of amateurism. Fruit- 
growing entails continuous, active and often hard, dis- 
agreeable labor, and, in the case of mo^ orchard fnuto, 
it requires long waiting for perfect results. The busi- 
ness demands much special knowledge, quick action, 
and first-rate saleamanship. The competition is sharp. 
Persons should ent«r the business with caution, and 
only with a full comprehension of the elements of 
failure and success. The business has additional risk 
when one must leave the property to be managed and 
cared for by hired labor. Usually, the most profitable 
results are accured when part of the farm is devoted to 
other products than fruit, for one is then able to employ 
help and equipment more advantageously, to raise 
produce for the teams and other live-stock, and to have 
secondary si 



In North America, it is chieBy the commercial large- 
it-KTDwing that is most highly developed. The 
phase, — for fancy and for home use, — waa 



FRUIT-GROWING 



way ehall be encouraKed omongHt lu; and with the 
further development of the coucti^ this will take place 
if writera do not overlook the subject . 

In Canada, the total yields of iruits for thirty yeam 
have been as foUowB, in quaDtitiee (Canada Yearbook, 
1910): 



M 5.4 15 

Hi.s3r 

657,875 



Gnott I 



192.309 
12.Z52!331 21,302!a34 



FRUIT-GROWING 

that time was confiaed chieQy lo a small area about the 
bomeetead. A few vegetables, flowers and fruits in a 
small plantatioD, with here and there a single green- 
house, represented the horticultural effort of .the time. 
At the present day we conceive of great geographical 
areas as horticultural regions. Persons now buy farms 
witii the explicit purpose of devoting them to the pro- 
duction of fruits or other horticultural products. Even 
sixty years ago horticulture was largely an amateur's 
avocation, but todav it is one of the leading commer- 
cial occupations of tne country, and the most important 
single factor in it is fruit-growins. With this rise of the 
horticultural industries came a demand for new knowl- 
edge on a host of subjects which were unheard of even 
as late as a half-century ago. The contemporary prog- 





1906 


leos 


1909 


IBIO 


Applw, ireen or 
Ap'JJSi.driHini.) 


1.217.564 

slosilaeo 


iSS 


iSffl 


»S 



Of the green apples, the most part went to Great P'^" >"^' 
Britain, but the dried fruit went largely to other ^^JE^ 
countries than Great Britain or the Unit«d States. 
Ontario was far in the lead of any other province in ress in p 
fruttrproduction in IDOl, in grap«s, small-fruits and old idealE 
applea exceeding aii the other provmcee combined. 

In the United States, the value of fruits (including 
small-fruits or berries) and nuta produced in 1900 (as 
reported in the thirteenth census) amounted to ^22,- 
024,000, or 4 per cent of the total value of farm crops. 
The value reported for 1899 was $133,049,000, the 
increase Tor tnc decade amounting to 66,9 per cent. 
While it is impossible to reduce the (]uantity of the prod- 
uct to a single total, the statistics for individual 
classes show that in general the value increased by a 
much larger percentage than the production. Of the 
total value in 1909 of fruits and nuts, 1140,867,000 
was contributed by orchard fruits, $29,974,000 by 
smaU-fruitfl, $22,711,000 bv citrous-fruitfl, $22,028,000 
by grapes, $4,448,000 by nuts, and $1,995,000 by tropi- 
cal and sub-tropical fruits (other than citrous). In 
both acreage and quantities, atrawberriea far exceeded 
any other class of small-fruits; Bimilariy, apples are far 
in excMS of any other orchard fruit; oranges far exceed 
in value all other citrous-fruits taken together. In 
DUlB, the production in pounds in 1909 was, Persian 
or English walnuts 22,026,524; black wabiuts 15,628,- 
776; pecans 9,890.769; almonds, 6.793,539; uncUssified, 
7,988,402. The values of fruits and nuts in 1909, by 
st&tee, are displayed in Fig. 1593. 



weU 



The progress in fruit-growing. 

The development of American fruit'-growing is 
illustrated in the radical change of id(»k within re 
time. These new points of view may be arranged con- 
veniently under seven general heads ; 

(1) llie most important shift is the fact that there 
is a horticultural mdustry as distinguished from a 
general agricultural industry. At the opening of the 
nineteenth century American agriculture was more or 
less homogeneous, largely because the extent of it was 
limited and because tnere was little demand for other 
than the few staple commodities. The horticulture of 






d dose. Neilfaer 



ress in pomology is largely a breaking away from the 
old ideals. Practices that were good enough for amateur 
purposes, or for the incidental and accidental fruit- 
growing of oiv fathers, may be wholly inadequate to the 
new-time conditions. 

A century ago there was practically no commercial 



land, but it was useil chieny for the making of cider. 
Small-fruit growing, as a business, had not developed. 
In fact, commercial strawberry-grow ing (the most 
readily developed of the fruit-growing industries) may 
be said to have b^un with the introduction of the 
Hovey in 1836, although previously there were market 
plantations of amall extent about some of the larger 
towns. The commercial culture of blackberries and 
raspberries, although it began about the middle of the 
century, did not acquire distinct iniportance until 
after the reaction from the Civil War. The fruit-grow- 
ing industries now constitute a distinct branch or 
department of our agricultural condition, in the newer 
regions as well as Id the old. In fact, great areas of 
virgin lands are now put at once into orchards. 

(2) With the rise of commercial fruit-growing, there 
have developed novel questions related to market- 
ing. The new marketing revolves about three centers: 
(a) The neceasity for special product* for special usee, 
(6) the growing demand for small packages, and (c) the 
remarkable development of transportation facilities and 
of pre-cooling, handling, and storage. There has arisen 
an increased desire for special grades and for particular 
kinds of fruit. The fruits that were current fifty years 
ago may not be good enough for the markets of today. 
Commercial fruit-growing rests on the fact that more 

fersons ore consuming fruits. Many of the«e persons 
uy only in small lots for present consumption. They 
go to the market often. They have no facilities for 
storing the fruit, and they do not buy for the purpose 
of selling. Therefore, the small package has come to 
be increasingly more important. There has been a 



FRUIT-GROWING 

wideapreftd demand (or a package that can be dven 
away with the fruit. Ttus demand for the amalland 
individual package may be expected to increase with 
all the better kinds of Iniila or with thoee that appeal 
to the personal customer. This is true in all lines of 
trade. Not so long ago, boots and shoes nere distributed 
in large board cases, but now each pair is sold in a neat 
cnrdboard box. We arc still conservative in respect 
to the handling of apples in barrels. In the general 
trade and for tne staple varieties of apples, the barrel 
may continue to be toe best package, but For the per- 
aonal customer and particularly with all the finer or 
dessert varieties, a smsJI package must come into use. 
In most parts of the world, except in the central and 
eastern part of the United States, apples are not 
handled in barrels. The fact that the grower must 
give attention to his package as well as to the growing 
of bis crop, forces him to adopt a new point of view 
in his fruit-growing and to visualise ms market or 
even his customer. 

(3) Modem commercial orcharding has developed 
the tillage ideal. Under the old r^me, the tree was 
able to take care of itself and to bear a product good 
enough to meet the uncritical demands. Nowadays, 
however, the tree must receive the very best of care, 
for annual crops of great quantity and of the best 
quality are desired. Therefore, the plant must be sup- 
plied with abundance of plant^food and moisture. 
Time was when it was thought that the mere apph- 
cation of chemical plant-food to the soil woula be 
sufficient to make a plant productive. It is now under- 
stood, however, that plant-food is only one of the 
requisites of good growth. The soil must be deep and 
loose and fine, so that it will hold moisture and pro- 
mote aU those chemical and biological activities that 
make the land to be productive. In Former times the 
best attention in tillage was given to the annual crops. 
The orchard was usually in neglect. This was because 
the fruit plantation had small commercial importance. 
Now that the fruit plantation has risen to first impor- 



FRUIT-GROWING 



1293 



tance, in many cases, it must be given as good care as 
any farm crop. In recent years there has been great 
development of special toots and implements for the 
tillage of orchard lands. Greater attention is given to 
the original preparation of the land, so that planters 
no longer ask how lai^ the hole must be to receive a 
tree, but accept Warder's advice that the hole should 
be as large as the orchard. The philosophy of orchard 
tillage, as understood by the best teachers and for 
most parts of the country, is (a) to prepare the land 
thoroughly at the outset, (b) to give frequent light 
surface tillage in the earl>[ part of the season or until 
the crop is nearly or quite grown, and then (c) to 
cover tne land with some crop that will remain on the 
ground over wiat«r and be plowed under in spring. If 
the land has been well prepared, it is not necessary to 
plow it deep after the first two or three years, unless 
one is turnmg under a heavy cover-crop. The surface 
tilth may be secured by breaking the t^p-soil early in 
spring with a cutaway harrow, gang-plow or other 
surface-working tools. This may not be possible, how- 
ever, on very heavy lands. The cover-crop adds 
humus and protects the land from puddling and bak- 
ing in the winter. If it is a leguminous crop it also 
adds a store of available nitn^en. It is possible, per- 
haps, to use cover-crops so Freely that the land be- 
comes too full of vegetable matter, but all such dangers 
are easily avoidable. Usually the cover-crop is plowed 
under in spring at the very earliest opportunity in 
order to save the soil moisture. It is by no means the 
universal practice to use cover-crops on fruit lands, but 
the practice is now accepted, and the grower may 
adopt it or not as his judgment dictates. 

To facilitate the economical and eHicient tillage of 
fruit lands, it is coming to be the practice to devot« 
the land wholly to the miits. The fertility of the land 
is not permanently divided between trees and hay, or 
trees and other crops. With plums and pears and some 
other orchard fruits, it is often allowaole \o use the 
intermediate land for the first two or three years 
for annual crops, but these crops should f^ad- 



1294 



FRUIT-GROWING 



FRUIT-GROWING 



reason for allowing orchards to stand in sod in the old 
times was the difficulty in plowing beneath full-grown 
trees. Those persons who desired to plow and till 
their orchards, therefore, advocated very nigh pruning. 
The difficulty with these old orchards was the fact that 
the hmd was allowed to run into dense sod. Heavy 

Slowing in an old orchard indicates that the plantation 
as been neglected in previous years. Orchards that 
have been well tilled from the first do not require much 
laborious tillac^ and the roots are low enough to escape 
tillage tools. Tnere has been a development of tillage 
tools which will do the work without necessity of prun- 
ing the tops very high. The practice of tilling orchards 
has increased rapidly. At first it was advised by a few 
growers and teachers^ but the movement is now so 
well established that it will take care of itself, and in 
the commercial orchards the man who does not till 
his orchard is the one who needs to explain. On the 
Pacific coast, the importance of tillage is universally 
recognized because of the dry summer climate. The 
necessity of tilling orchards has forced a new ideal on 
the pomologist; and when he goes to the expense of 
tilling he feels the necessity of giving sufficient care in 
other directions to insure profitable returns from his 
plantation. It is true, to be sure, that orchards some- 
times thrive imder sod treatment, but these are special 
cases. 

Of the same purpose with tillage is irrigation, — the 
purpose to fit the laind for its work. Great fruit regions 
m the western half of the continent are on an irrigation 
basis and a special literature on fruit-raising under 
such conditions is now appearing. This irrigation 



that trees will bear without prunine. This, therefore, 
puts a premium on neglect. The ola practice allowecf 
the tree to grow at wiO for three or four years and to 
become so full of brush that the fruit could not be well 
harvested, and then the top was pruned violently. 
The tree was set into redundant growth and was filled 
with water-sprouts. This tended also to set the tree 
into wood-bearing rather than into fruit-bearing. By 
the time the tree had a^ain begun fruit-bearing, the 
orchardist went at it with ax and saw and a good 
part of the top was taken away. It is now umier- 
stood that the ideal pruning is that which prunes 
a little every year and keeps the tree in a uni- 
formly healthy and productive condition. The prun- 
ing of trees has now come to be a distinct purpose, 
and this ideal must gain in definiteness and precision 
so long as fruit trees are grown. The practice pro- 
ceeds on established principles, and is not of the nature 
of discipline. 

(5) Now that there is demand for the very best prod- 
ucts, it is increasingly important that fruits be thinned. 
The thinning allows the remaining fruits to grow larger 
and better, it saves the vitality of the tree, and it 
gives the orchardist an opportunity to remove the 
diseased specimens and thereby to contribute something 
toward checking the spread of insects and fungi. Thin- 
ning is exceedmgly important in all fruits that are 
essentially luxuries, as peaches, apricots and pears. It 
is coming also to be important for apples and for others 
of the cheaper fruits. In the thinning of fruits, there 
are two rules to be kept in mind: (a) Remove the 
injured, imperfect or diseased specimens; (&) remove 




1593. Value of fruits and nuts in the United States in 1909, as displayed by the census. 



practice for fruit is another expression of the idea that 
m the future nothing is to be left to chance so far as it 
is within the power of the grower to prevent it. For 
certain intensive fruit-culture, particularly of bierries, 
special irrigation practices are appearing in the East, 
and often they make the difference between failure 
and success. 

(4) As competition increases, it is necessary to give 
better attention to pruning. It is unfortunately true 



sufficient fniit so that the remaining specimens stand 
at a given distance from each other. How far apart 
the fruit shall be, depends on many conditions. With 
peaches it is a good rule not to allow them to hang 
closer than 4 or 5 inches (sometimes 7 or 8 inches), 
and in years of heavy crops they may be thinned more 
than this. .This extent of thinning often removes 
two-thirds of the fruits. It nearly always gives a larger 
bulk of fruit, which brings a higher price. Thinning is 



< 



FRUIT-GROWING 

OBually performecl veiy early in the eeason, before the 
vitality or the tree has beeo taxed, and after the normal 
"drop from non-pollination has occurred. 

(6) Spraying of fruit ptantationa has now come to be 

a definite purpose and an established orchard practice; 
no good orchardist is now without his spraying appa- 



FRUIT-GROWING 



129S 



that condders characters of flowers as well as of fruits, 
but such achemee are uaually impracticable because 
fruit-growers cannot secure flowers and fruits at the 
B&ine time. For examples of clasaificatory schemes 
the reader may consult the various fruit manuaJa, tnit 
the following examples from the older literature will 



ISM. Vufoni ipnTtDi lift. 1. A liU plattonn 
onjuiiU ud Dull tTHi. 3. Compiemd air mdH, 
lOSS-lOOO (VoL O). 

ratuB any more than he is without his tillage tools. 
When spraying was first advised, the practice seemed 
to be BO revolutioiiary that great empnasie had to be 
laid on its importance to induce people to undertake 
it. How and when to spray and what materiak to use 
are matters that will always be diBcuaaed, because the 
practices must vary with the season, the kind of fruit, 
the geographical region, the insects and fungi to be 
combated. Spraying may not be necessary every year. 
and certainly not equally neccsaary in all geographical 



A proof of the firm hold that spravins has taken of the 
fruit-Rfowing business is afi'orded Sy the great numbers 
and the mechanical excellence of the machinery and 
devices now on the market; and this fact also attests 
the vitality of fruit'^rowing as an occupation. A special 
literature has developed on fruit diseases and fruit 
insects and the means of combating them, and the 
grower must keep fully informed by means of the 
government, state and provincial publications. 

(7) Perhaps the most gratifying modem develop- 
ment in fruit-growing is the demand for instruction in 
fundamental principfes, or in the reasons why. Years 
ago, the grower was satisfied if he had definite direc- 
tions as to how to perform certain labor. He was told 
what to do. At present, the pomologist wants to be 
told what to think. There aeems lo be a tendency in 
horticultural meetings to drop the discussion of the 
mere details of practice and to give increasinglv more 
attention to the underlying reasons and the results that 
are to be expected from any line of practice. Knowing 
why a practice should be undertaken and what the 
results are hkely to be, the grower can work out the 
details for himself, for every fruit plantation and every 
farm is, in a certain way, a law unto itself. There must 
be a rational procedure; the details and the apphca- 
tious are complex: therefore the fruit-growing sub- 
jects become effective means of education. 
Systematic pomoloffy. 

The classifying and describing of the kinds of fruits 
is a particular kind of pomological knowledge that is 
left to specialists, who are for the moat part writers. 
With the increase in numbers of varieties, It becomes 



bline them into their natural groups in order that 
simimr kinds may be compared and also that it may 
be possible to determine the name by analyzing the 
specimen. Necessarily, all classificatoiy schemes for 
varieties are imperfect since the varieties often differ 
by very slight characters, and these characters may 
vary in different regions and under varj'ing conditions. 
Theoretically, the most perfect claasiScation is one 



show something of (be range and method connected 
with the problem: 

John J. Thomas' scheme for classifying peaches: 
DiviBOD I. Fuhthnh or MiLTCaa. 
CUv 1. FUmK paU or UglU-txtirrrd. 

artlioa 3. L«vei Dreniu. with iloboae (luida. 
Section 3- l4»veB witb renilorm iI^tidB. 
Clua II. FUih dup ytUov. 



Section 2, Luv 



1, with BloboM (luda. 



Section 3. Lemvea with reoilonp alaiiiU, 
CUh II. Flail -ircp KtOmi. 

Section I. Leaves gerrat*. wiUuHit ■IuhIb. 

Section 2. Leavea witb mifonn f'"^t 
Clue III. Fttih pHTpAM cnnum. 

Section 1. Oluds reniloiin. 

Following is John A. Warder's scheme for classifying 
apples, adopted "after a long and careful consideration 
and study of this subject." See Figs. 1595, 1596. 

CUh I. Obta/t or fiat, havini the eiia aborter tiian the tran^ 

Order 1. Aepular. 
Order II. In-efuiar. 
Section 1. Sweet. 



I. P>Je 



blmhed. mare or Ingg. but aelt- 
triprd. 



■plAflbed. 

ClaM II. Caniait. tBpehnK decidedly toward t 
comins OBoJf when lanrer in the middle 
each end, the axial diameter being the iho 
Orden I and It, a* above. 
Sections I and 2. as above. 

Subeectlnog I. Z and 3. mm above. 
aa« III. Round, globular or nearly », bavin 



Clan IV. (Mont, in whic 

cate or cylindrioal. 
Onlen. Sectloiu and Su 



Section 1 
Sec^n^ 



a rtalk to the baM ol 
e of the gtalk to the bi 



eye equal to the latere 
B. The lenRth from the hue 



itertU diametj 
■n the baaeol 
ral diameter. 



B taXIc to Che baae oF the i 
: hiK of the ilalk to the baae of 



1296 



FRUIT-GROWING 



FBUIT-GROWING 



c The lencth from Uie baae of the stalk to Uie baae of the oella equal 

to that from the base of the oelUi to the baae of the ejre. 
Section 1. Length from the base of the stalk to the baae of the 

eye greater than the lateral diameter. 
Section 2. Length from the base of Uie stalk to the base of the 

e^ less than the lateral diameter. 
Section 3. Length from the base of the stalk to the base of 

the eye equal to the lateral diameter. 

A stable and attractive 83rstematio pomology^ must 
ffive careful attention to the names of varieties. In 
North America much has been done, particularly under 
the auspices of the American Pomological Society, to 




1595. The forms of fruits, showing, retpectiTdy, spherical, conical, 
OTate, oblong and oblate forms. 



usually apple-form. In Fig. 1596 are shown special 
parts of the fruit: basin j the depression at the apex, in 
which is the adyx or eye; cavity , the depression at the 
base, in which is the stem or stalk; suivre, or the 

Eive on the side of plums and other fruits ; corrugated or 
Twed sides. The outline shape of an apple or pear is 
seen by cutting the fruit in halves lengthwise; the 
flat side may then be used to print the form on paper. 
If descriptions are to be accurate and computible, 
they shoula characterize all the leading or designative 
attributes of the fruit, and to a less extent of the 

plant as a whole. Many per- 
sons who are called on to des- 
cribe varieties have adopted 
"forms" or regular outlines, in 
order that all characterisations 
in any one fruit shall be com- 
parable. The following forms, 
adopted by the late Jolm Craig, 
illustrate the points that a good 
description should cover: 



simpUfy and codify the ideas associated with the 
nomenclature of fruits. The current rules or code of 
nomenclature of the American Pomological Society are 
as follows: 

Priority. 

Rule 1. No two varieties of the same Idnd of fruit shall bear the 
«ame name. The name first published for a variety shall be the 
accepted and recognised name, except in cases where it has been 
applied in violation of this code. 

(a) The term "kind," as herein used, shall be understood to 
apply to those general classes of fruits which are grouped together 
in common usage without regard to their exact botamcal relation- 
ship; as, apple, cherry, erape, peach, plum, raspberry, etc. 

(b) The paramount right of the oripnator, discoverer, or intro- 
ducer of a new variety to name it, within the limitations of this 
code, is recognised and emphaased. 

(c) Where a variety name through lon^ usage has become 
thoroughly established in American pomological literature for two 
or more varieties, it should not be displaced nor radically modified 
for either sort, except in cases where a well-known synonym can be 
advanced to the position of leading name. The several varieties 
bearing identical names should be diiitinguished by adding the 
name of the author who first described each sort, or by adding 
some other suitable distinguishing term that will insure their 
identity in catalogues or discussions. 

(d) Existing American names of varieties which conflict with 
earlier published foreign names of the same, or other varieties, but 
which nave become thoroughly established through long usage, 
shall not be displaced. 

Form of names. 

Rule 2. The name of a variety of fruit shall ocmsist of a single 
word, whenever possible, or compatible with the most efScient ser- 
vice to pomolo^ Under no circumstances shall more than two 
words be used. When the exigencies of a case make it appear expedi- 
ent, such words as early, late, white, red, and similar ones may be 
used as a part of a name. 

(a) No variety shall he named unless distinctly superior to exist- 
ing varieties in some important characteristic nor until it has 
been determined to perpetuate it by bud-propagation. 

(6) In selecting names for varieties the following points shouM be 
emphasiied: distmctiveness, simplicity, ease of pronunciation and 
q;)elling, indication of origin or parentage. 

(c) The spelling and pronunciation of a varietal name derived 
from a personal or geographical name should be governed by the 
rules that control the spelling and pronunication <» the name from 
which it was derived. 



Name 

forth 

catity 

wAwrt 

fikin 

/letA 

tiont 

flavor , 

TREE 

GENERAL NOTES. 



.tU0.... 

.tUm... 
.apex. .. 
.color. .. 
Juice . . . 
.quality, 
.eeaeon. 



Specimens received from . 
CHERRY 



Described by. 



DaU.. 
.Group. 



Name 

eiu 

color 

cavity 

basin 

fUsh 

texture 

seed 

season 

TREE 

GENERAL NOTES. 



.form, . . 
. skin . . . 
. stem . . . 
.calyx., 
.quality, 
.core... . 



There are relatively few special technical terms used 
in the descriptions of pomological fruits. The greater Specimens received from 

part of them pertain to the pome fruits. The diagrams APPLE 

(Figs. 1595, 1596) illustrate some of 
these terms: Spherical, nearly or quite 
^obular, the two diameters being approx- 
imately equal ; conical, longitudinal 
diameter equaling or exceeding the trans- 
verse diameter, and the shoulders or 
apex somewhat narrowed; ovale, broad- 
conical, the base more rounded; oblong, 
longitudinid diameter distinctly the 
longer, but the fruit not tapering; oblate, 
distinctly flattened on the ends. In the 
true Japanese or sand pears, the fruit is 



.Described by Date. 





1596. nittstratiiig special terms used in describing fniits, showing, respectively, 

basin, cavity, suture, corrugation. 



FRUIT-GROWING 

At present, the scoring or judging b^ points ia a 
favorite exercise in daseroom and at exhibitions. The 
saore-card with points or attributes totalmg 100 
indicates the perfect fruit: the judge puts against the 
perfect score such percentage of peitection as he thinks 
the specimen in Hand may deserve. This judgment 
of course varies with the person, as the marks are not 
mathematical; but experienced judges make very simi- 
lar or uniform returns on given specimens. 

Following aie examples of score-cards: 

Scale or Ponm ron Jnooma Fairm. 

Eitebliilisd by tbe Miinmiliiiiiiillii Bute Brsrd of Airliiulture. 

No. of DHDta Soore 



FRUIT-GROWING 



1297 



f^' 



CAbiroBNu Scobb-Cabd tos Osuiama. ^^^ 

Km ,10 

Form S 

Cdlor [bLoom, 2; peel, 10: BeA. 3) IS 

Weisht 10 

Peel (finuh, 3; pcoteeliv* qiuUtjr, 7} 10 

Fiber 8 

Tmw 30 

ToW! 100 

L. H. B. 
Russian fruits. 

The Ruffiian apples and their close relatives, the 
Siberian crabs and their hybrids, constitute the har- 
diest types of pomaceouB fruits in cultivation. It was 
the demand for hardy varieties for the northwestern 
states and Canada that led to their introduction. 

There are four varieties of Russian apples that may 
be looked on as American pioneers; these are Alexander, 
Tet^^sky, Duchess ( Borovitsky) and Red Astrachan. 
These varieties were imported by the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society from the London (England) 





















Fruit 


00 






















siSbipaweU 


8 


B 


Scobb-Cabd 

r. A. 


WH Appijb. 

W.u*h. 


Saaleot 
IKunts. 






































8coBi-C*Bn 

b™ '■•■ 


FOB PbACBU. 
W.ugh. 






























— 


Ohtabio Scobb-Caiu> fob Ghapbb. 


BH' 
























Freadom from blt^^UH 


1 


i^_:_ 




Scale of 




















































ToW 







'. loatfitU, t 



I. <XM) 



Horticultural Society about 1835. They were brought 
to England from Russia in the early part of the Ctst 
century by the executive of the latter society. Dr. Hogg 
is autnority for the statement that Alexander was 
cultivated for 50 years in England prior to 1808. Robert 
Manning, supermtendent of the test garden of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society at Salem, de- 
scribed these varieties from home-grown American 
specimens in 1839. Their productiveness and the 
handsome appearance of the iruit attracted attention. 
Through the efforts of Warder and other western 

gtmoloKists they were rapidly distributed throughout 
hio, Wisconsin and Minnesota. It would appear that 
in the last half- or three-fourths-century — which prao- 
tiially covers the pomological history oi the West— the 
periodicity of "hard" or "test" winters has been more 
or less reRular. When the normal or "mild" winter 
obtains, the apples of the New England states or their 
descendants do not, as a rule, suffer iniury except in the 
colder parts of Minnesota. These mild winters nave fol- 
lowed each other with delusive regularity for periods of 
ten^ fifteen or eighteen years. Under these conditions, 
fnutr^rowers have been prone to efface from their roemo- 
s the effects of the last "teat winter" and have planted 



chan. It has been invariably noted that after the visita- 
tion of an exceptionally cold winter varieties of the 
Oldenburg or Alexander tvpes were usually unharmed, 
while Greening, Janet, and Baldwin were lulled. "Test 
winters" — the name has more or less local adaptation 



1298 FRUIT-GROWING 

in the Went — viaited the northweetem states in 1856-6, 
1872-3, 1885-6, and &1bo in 1898-9. Thus it is tb&t 
Oldenburg (Duchess) has become a standard of hsfdi- 
neas amoog apples m the colder parts of the United 
States and Canada. Importations of cioos were made 
by nurserymen and fruit-growera between 1867 and 
1875, but the main introduction whs made by the 
United States Department of Agriculture In 1870 at 
the urgent reouest of the State A^cultural Society of 
Minnesota, which began the agitation as early as 1867. 
This importation consisted of young trees secured 
through the coSpenition of Edwaid Kegel, director of 
the Imperial Botanic Gardens at St. PetersburK. The 
trees were planted on the grounds of the Agricultural 
DepartmeBt at Washington. The collection consisted 
of about 300 varieties. They were taken charge of by 
William Saunders, superintendent of gardens and 
grounds. All available ciona were cut and distributed 
annually for five years. They attracted considerable 
attention in the colder apple-growing reKions. Subse- 

Zuent importations of cions and trees were made by the 
3wa Aoicultural College between 1875 and 1880. 
In 1882 Charles Gibb, of Abbotaford,^ Canada, accom- 
panied by J. L. Budd, of the Iowa Agricultural College, 
went to Russia and spent the summer in investigating 
these fruits. Large importations of apples, [dums, 
pears and cherries followed. In these later importa- 
tions the eaat-European fruits were collected without 
discrimination, and in most instances have been 
erroneously regarded in this country as authentic 
Russians. 

Riittian applet: eharaeteristiei and nomendalvtt. 

It is Dow' very difficult to say which are Ruaaiao 
apples, which German, Polish or Swedish. If we 
were to choose the Astrachan variety as a type of the 
RuBaian apjile, whicb in all probability would be a 
correct basis, only a comparatively small number of 
varieties could be grouped about it. But this ia onlv 
one of the several apparentl]^ authentic ^oupe whicn 
might be erected upon certain characteristica of tree. 
In addition to Astrachan might be cited (1) Hibernal 
type: trees vigorous KTowers, with open spreading tops, 
and very large, leathery leaves. (2) Oldenburg type: 
moderate growers, with compact, round-topped heads; 
leaves of medium size. (3)Longfie[d type: alow growera: 
branches horizontal or penduToua; leaves whitish and 
woolly uodemeath. The Lon^eld apple, one of the 
best Known of the Ruaaiana, la shown in Fig. 1507, 
(4) Transparent and Tetofsky type; trees pyram- 
idal; bark yellow; apura numerous; leaves large, light 
neen. (5) Ania \,ype: trees upright, spreading or vase- 
shaped; leaves medium, veins r^diah. It would aeem 
reasonable to auppoec that the Anis family was derived 
from the Astrachan type. The flesh of the fruit of the 
varioua types is very similar. 

These represent the principal types of Russian apples. 
The fruit they bear in the praine climate matures in 
the summer, autumn or early winter. It does not 
appear that any of the especially hardy varieties of 
undoubted north or east Russia origin are winter kinds 
when grown in the Mississippi Valley. Such late-keep- 
ing kinds as give promise of commercial value appear 
to have originated in the Baltic provinces or to have 
been transported at an early date from the countries to 
the west. These types — the Synaps for instance — have 
characteristically amall leaves, slender twias, and are 
less hardy than members of the groups cited above. 

THc "bloom," or glaucous covering, of the Russian 
apple is characteristic. It does not persist to the same 
eitent, however under all climatic conditions. In east- 
em Quebec it fails to develop to the same extent that it 
does under the drier atmoapoeric conditions of the east- 
ern states. Aa additional proof that tbia pruinose bloom 
is an immediate climatic effect, one haa but to com- 
pare the Colorado Spy with that grown in New York. 



FRUIT-H3R0WING 

The smooth, thin skin and abundant bloom of the Colo- 
rado apple IS characteristic in a greater or lesB degree 
of all varieties produced in the dry regions adjacent 
to the Rockies, aa it is of the Ruanan apples m the 
more arid portions of that country. 

The names of Russian apples are much confused. 
There is no pomol<^caJ society in Russia to aasiBt the 



IB duniaa. Th* bolt is 

fruit'-grower in eliminating synonyms; on the other 
hand, the factors conducive to coafuaion are strondy 
in evidence. These are illiteracy on the part of the 
cower and the practice of propasating fruit trees from 
Qie seed instead of by grafting. Gibb says "nomencla- 
ture in Russia ia hopelessly confused. Different names 
ore given to the same apples in different localities, the 
same name to different apples growing in adjacent 
districts," 

Fruit-growers of the West, realizing that Americans 
should nave a uniform eystcm, at least in the nomen- 
clature of these varieties, called a meeting made up of 
interested representatives of the fruit-growers' aaao- 
ciatlona, of South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa and Wis- 
consin, These delegates, collectively styled the "Rua- 
siaa Apple Nomenclature Commission," met at La 
Croeae, Wiaconain, August 30, 31, 1898. They decided 
that it would be wise to attempt a grouping to be based 
upon "family resemblance." In accordance with this 
the following atatement waa adopted: "The varieties 
here groupedas members of the same families, while in a 
few cases differing somewhat in charactoriatics of tree, 
are so nearly identical in fruit that for exhibition ana 
commercial purposes thev are practically the some and 
should be so considered. It is to be regretted that a 
commission on nomenclature ahould take such a radical 
atand as thia, because the charocteristica of a variety 
camiot be changed by voting to call it hy the same 
name as the other member of the group which it most 
resembles and almost, though not quite, duplicates. 
The trend of modern pomology is to preserve small 
differences, to differentiate rather than blend. The 
work of the future will consist in large part in studying 
small differences with a view of finding closer adapta- 
tions. The propriety of ignoring Russian nomencla- 
ture and the rule of priority is questionable, but in a 
measure ia defenaible on the grounds of a confused 
Russian nomenclature and the unpronounceablenees of 
Russian names. The findings of the committee have on 



FRUIT-GROWING 



Ruttian dterriti. 

TheM, next to the applee, canstitut« the most 
clearly defined group of KuBaiaji fruits; yet many 
cbemee commonly c«lled Russian are in r«dity Polish, 
E^kaiao or German. The typical cherry of northern 
Russia is represented by the Vladimir type (Fig, 1508). 
This waa first introduced into America as a distinct 
variety. Later importations and experience demon- 
strated that Vladimir was a type, not a variety. This 
type appears to have been grown in Russia for centuries 
from seeds and s^uts. In this way a special class has 
been developed. The Vladimir type is cbaracleriied by 
its dwarf stature— 5 to 8 feet high — its peculiarly 
rounded and compact top, its dark red, mcaty-fleehed 
fruit. Koslov-morello is evidently a light-colored juicy 
variety of Vladimir. The charactcriatica of the tree are 
the game as Vladimir, although when grown from seed 
in this country the seedlings exhibit considerable varis^ 
tion. The amarcUee and weichsels of Germany have 
been grown in Russia for centuries, generally from seed, 
and have become specialized forms. Cherries of the 
Vladimir and Koslovrmorello types are the hardiest of 
the cherries. The Vladimirs have not, aa a rule, been 

E reductive in this oountry. The fruit^buds appear to 
B sensitive to cold and as easily injured as some of the 
recognized tender typee of cherries. Although the trees 
are hardy, the introduction of this type has not extended 
the area of commercial cherry-growmg in this country 
farther north than the r^ions already outlined by the 
profitable cultivation of Early Richmond. 
Rus*ian pluma. 

The plums imported from Ruana do not differ 
mat«iaUy from those of the domestica type in culti- 
vation in this country. The trees are pmDably some- 
what hardier than Lombard or Green Gage, Dut the 
fruit-buds are subject to winter injury wherever Lom- 
iv..»i la ttnAA*4-a;*i r»Y »h<t TvioiQ they have been unpn^ 



latitudes. In lows, Minnesota and Wisconsin this work 
is und^ wav. Seedlings and hybrids are appearir^ 
each year, which may be considered valuable additions 
to the fruit lists of theae regions 
LiUralure. 

But two books appear te have be«n written on Ru»- 
sian pomology up to 1868, one by Nicolai Krasno 
GIbhov, 1848, the other by Regel, director of the 
Imperial Botanic Gardens, St. Petersburg, in 1868. 
The latter is called "Russkaya Pomologaya," It con- 
tains a description of 225 varieties of apples, nearly 
all of Russian origin. A wood-cut of each appears, in 
addition to 144 colored plates. Gibb calls it a grand, 
good fundamental work. American literature on Rus- 
sian fruits is mainly confined to three sources; the 
reports of the Montreal Horticultural Society, pubhca- 
tions of the Division of Pomology, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, and Bulletins of the Horti- 
cultural Department of the Iowa Agricultural College. 
To Charles Gibb, Abbotsford, Canada (Quebec), we 
are indebt4?d for the faithful and accurate translation 
of the names given in the collection imported by the 
Department of Agriculture in 1870, This waa adopted 
by the American Pomological Society in 1885. 

JoBN Craiq. 

FtrCHSU (Leonard Fuchs, 1601-1565, German 
professor of medicine, and a botanical author). 
Onagriixx. Handsome and popular flowering plants 
of greenhouses, conservatories, window-gardens and 
open grounds, blooming most freely in spring and 



bard is unc^tain. In the n 

i the moe_ __ 
Moldavka and 1 



, aU of the 



AuMtan peart. 

These are hardy handsome trees, but none bears fruit 
of good quality. Where blight is prevalent they 



true), Gakovsky and Tonko-vietka. These thrive wher- 
ever the climate admits of the cultivation of the Olden- 
burg apple. The fruit ripens in August, and rote at the 
core if allowed to mature on tiie tree. 
Rutnan aprieoU. 

Apricots were brought to Nebraska and Kansas by 
Russian Mennonitea about twenty-five years ago. A 
few of those named and distributed are likely to be 
retained in the fruit lists of the West. 
Riusian mulbcniet. 

Russian mulberries have been widely sold as fruit- 
bearing plants by enteirirising agcnta but their use to 
the fruit'frower should be restricted to hedging and 
the formation of windbreaks. For these purposes they 
are valuable in the colder and more rigorous r^ons. 



So-called hardy Ruaaian peaches are sold, but they 
really belong to Bokara or Turkestan. The peaches of 
the Baltic provinces do not differ essentially from the 
ordinary Persian strain in form or hardiness. 
In general. 

The introduction of the Russian fruits has given us 
bardy types from which to breed varieties for northern 



Shrubs and small trees, with opposite, alternate or 
verticillate simple Ivs.: ns. mostly showy, axillary or 
Bometimee racemose and paniculate, uaualty pendu- 
loua, in shades of red and purplish and with some of 
the parts often white; tube prolonged beyond the ovary 
and bell-shaped to tubular, with 4 spreading lobes; 

' ' ' ' 'n some species wanting; 



petals 4, 

atomens usually 8, "' 
style long-exsert«d, 
lotted stigma promin 
seen under glass) t 
berry, — Seventy or ei 
greater part in TTo| 
or 4 in New Zeal, 
variable in charactei 
fuchsias are known to 



, but I 



: of 



shrubs in their nativ 
F. excoriicaia, of Net 
tree 30-40 ft. high, 
procunAem, of tine i 
try, is a weak, trailini 
the many species, lef 
a dozen have en- 
tered largely into 
garden forma. The 
common garden 
kinds have come 
mostly from F. 
mag^aniea. This 
species was intio. 
into Great Britain 
from ChUe in 1788, 
or about that time. 
It is variable in a 
wild state as well 
aa in cult,, and 
plants subsequently 
mtro. from S, Amer. 
were so distinct as 
to be regarded for 
a time as separate 
species. Even at the 
present day some of 



1300 



FUCHSU 



FUCHSU 



the forau of F. magelianiea are commonly Hpoken of as atfoDfcer ones hard and allowing the weaker to n^w a 
species, bo much do they differ from the tjTje. As early little longer so that they gain more vigor. The Ttader 
as 1848, 511 species and varieties — mostly mere ear- may be aJlowed Ut make six pairs of leavee, and tiien 
den forma — were known and named (Porcher, La be stopped, alwavs choosing the Btron^eat breaks to 
Fuchsia, son Histoire et sa Culture"). The fuchsia increase the heignt of the plant. Pottmg should be 
reached the height of its popularity about the middle strictly attended to, never allowing the plant to form a 

mat of roots around the ball before it 
gets a ehift into a lar^ pot. The 
potting material for all mture pottings 
may be composed of two parts good 
fibrous loam, with an equal amount of 
well-rotted horse-manure, one part flaky 
leavee, and one part sharp sand. The 
whole should be as rougn as can be 
conveniently used when working it 
equally around the ball of the plant, 
in the potting operation. It is neces- 
sary to have a good strai^t stake 
er of the plant to support it m an up- 
. When the i>Iant is well established 

r~. ~- which it is desired to flower it, manure 

looa FociuU nuceiUnica ni. RiccutoBii. (xK) waterii^ will be in order, as these plants are gross 

feeders when in active growth. Green cow-m&nure, 

of the past century. At present it is prized mostly for fertilizers, and soot secuml from soft coals agree wdl 

window-gardening and" conservatory decoration. The with fuchBiaa. The amount t« be used is an ordinary 



garden tarms of the present day are with difficulty 
referred to specific types. The long-tubed or so-callea 
speeiosa forms are probably hybrida of F. mageilanica 
and F. fidgtns (Figs. 1603, 1604). Others are evidently 
direct varieties from the stem types. There are many 



handful to two and a h^ gallons of wat^. Wat^ 
twice in between with clean water. Give the last pineh 
to the plants about six weeks before they ore desired 
to be in full Sower. — For bedding-out purposes, cut- 
tings may be rooted in the spring, and grown on into 



full double forms. For the history and the garden 5- or 6-inch pots. Old plants may be kept through the 
botany of the fuchsia, see Hemsley in the Garden winter, in a cool Ught pit, from which Croet is kept. 
9:284 and 11:70; also Watson, the Garden 55:74. Keep them rather dry during October, November, and 

In mild climates, fuchsias make excellent outdoor December, only giving enough water to maintain the 
" ' ' ■...!■ r . wood plump. In January they may 

be removec! to a temperature of 50" 
by night, allowing a rise of 10° ( 



shrubs, some of them withstanding frost. 
These are of the F. tttaeellanica group. They 
are familiar to travelers in Ireland, and they 
may be seen as far north as the Shetland 
Isluids. In California, many of the fuchsias 
ecta for planU 
I, forms of F. 
mto large rafter 
great abundance 
of bloom. 

Fuchsias are among the most ornamental 
and popular of the cool greenhouse flowering 
plants. They may also be used in summer as 
Dcdding plants, and they are among the very 
few flowering plants that will bloom in the 
shade. If fair-sized specimen plants in 10- 
or 12-inch pots are desired, the best time to 
root them is the end of August. The best 
cuttings are secured from suckers that start 
from the base of the plants that are bedded 
out. The cutting should be 3 inches in length, 
and if the intention is to grow large speci- 
mens, pot them singly in 2-ioch pots, in three 
parts sand, one part loam, and another of 
leaf-mold. Place the cuttings when potted in 
a shady position in a temperature of not less 
than 60 at night. When the very small 
plants are well rooted, shift them along into 
a pot 2 inches larger, using this time a com- 
post of equal parts of loam, leaf-mold, and 
sand and add a third part of well-rotted 
manure. In this size of pot, the shoot will 
have made four or five jointa, and should 
now be pinched to encourage side breaks. 
The plant, where it is stopped, will start 
into two breaks, and the strongest should be 
taken for a leader; pinch the weaker one 
when two leaves are well formed. Strict 
attention from now on should be paid to keep 
the plants in ^ood shape. The side shoots 
must be kept m bounos, so that the sym- 
metry of the plant is preserved, pinching the 



15° during the day. This tempera- 
ture, by the way, ia most suitable 
for fuchsias after they are rooted 
until they come in flower. After it 
18 seen where all the live eyes are 
on the old plants, trim them into 
shape, and remove all the dead 
wood. Turn them out of the pots, 
and remove all the loose dirt from 
the ball with a hose with a gentle 

KESsure of water on it. They may 
potted in the same size of pot, 
and when well rooted in that, pve 
themashift two sizes larger. Fmch 
the plants two or three times during 
the winter, and one will be rewarded 
with better plants the second year 
than the first. If well attended to 
every year, fuchsias may be kept for 
many years, attaining an enormous 
size. Fumigate with hydrocyanic 
gas, during winter, and that, with 
synngingB on all bright days, until 
they come in flower, will keep down 
insect pests. (George F. Stewart.) 









FUCHSIA 

A. FU. drooping (No*. 1-9), 

B. Tube nf fi. motUy ihorter Hum the calyx-lobea (or in 

F. tpeciota aomelime* a> bmg again); jtttaU obo- 

vaie and nluat, anuxAvU in the bud. — L&dibb' 

E:&b-Drofs. 

1. nugelUnict, Lam. (P. naerottima, Riue & Pav. 

P. maeroalimma, Auth. F. ooednea, Curtis, not Ait.)< 

Tube tittle longer than the ovtuy, oblong or ehort- 

cyUndrical: petals normally blue, and shorter than the 

red and oblong-lanceolate calyx-lobes; stamens long- 

exsert«d : Ivs. opposite or in 3'b, lance-ovate, very short- 

Ktioled, dentate. Peru and south to Terre del Pu^o. 
M. 97 (F. cocdnea). The leading types are as 
folIowB: 

Var. globdsa, Bailey {F. glabbia, Lindl. F. macro- 
Kl^ma var. glabbta, Nicb.}. Fig. 1599. Lvs. opposite, 
short-pctiolate, ovate, acute, lightly dentate, glabrous: 
fls. red-purple, axillary on slender peduncles, small 
and short, tne bud nearly globular and the tips or the 
sepals cohcrii^ even alter the fl. begins to burst; 
tube very short; petab erect, twice shorter than the 
calyi-lobes. B.R. 1556. Gn. 55, p. 75.— A profuse 
bloomer, and a common type amongst old-fashioned 
fuchsias. There is a form with vari^^ated lvs. 

Var. Rlccutonil {F. RiccarUmii, Hort.). Fig. 1600. 
Vei^ like var. globoaa and reported to be a seedling of 
it, IB a very hardy and floriferous form, standins in 
the open in Scotland, blooming particularly well in 
autumn: 6-10 ft., making a trunk 3 in. diam., and 
becoming wid&^preading : ahool« slender: fls. red. J.H. 
111.58:329. — A handsome and desirable fuchsia, said 
to have been raised at Riccartan, near Edinburgh, 
about 1830, but reported ss originating in the Falk- 
land Isls. Excellent in Calif. 

Var. discolor, Bailey {F. dlxolor, Lindl. F. Linoei, 
Hort.). Fig. 1601. Dwarf, compact and hardy: 
branches deep purple: lvs. rather small undulate- 
toothed: pedunclee axillary, slender, exceeding the lvs.; 
fls. red, small, with slender, short tube and wide- 
spreading, rather narrow calyx-lobes, which ore some- 
what longer than the tube; petals obtuse, Bhort«r than 
the calyx-lobes. Falkland lale. B.R. 1S05. 

Var. cdnlca, Bailey {F. edniea. Lindl. F. maero- 
iltmma var. e^ica. Nich.}. Shrubby, very leafy: Iva. 
3-4 together, toothed, ovate, the petiole one-third 
tensth of blade, pubescent: fls. axillary, solitary, on 
peduncles much longer than Iva.; calvx scarlet, the 
tube conical (or widest at base) and equaling the 



I the narrow 
spreading lobes; calyx scarlet; petals purple, retuse, 
snorter than the long acute calyx-lobes, Chile. B.R. 
847; 1052 (var. mvUiStma). B.M. 2507. Gn. 66, p. 74. 
Mn. 2, p. 186. — PerhaM a distinct species. A var. 
varie^dia is advertised. F. Th6mptonii, Hort., is said to 
belong here. 

With the F. mageUanica set may be classed F. 
coToUHjia, Hort., F. itegans, Paxt., F. leniUa, Hort., 
and others. There are apparently many hybrids. The 
short-flowered fuchsias are less popular than former^, 
but many varieties are now in cult. 

2. speddaa, Hort. (F. h^brida, Hort.). Figs. 1603, 
1604. The greater part of present-day aarden fuchsias 
are of the longer-tubed t^Tie shown in the illustrations. 
These are probably hybrid derivatives of F. rnageOanica 
fonns and F. fulgms. Amongst the named sorts every 
gradation will be found, from the short-tubed Storm 
King to the Earl of Beoconsfield with fls. 3 in. long. 
The old F. ei^iinnt, Part-, B.M. 153, is figured a 



B.R. 1062. — Lindley says that it differs from 
gracilis in having broader lvs., being lees Soriferous, 
and in the conical tube whidt widens above 



, m Amer., and inserted lieie for ttie pur- 
pose of clearing up the synonymy of F. 
coecinea. This species appears to have 
been intro. before F. mogeUanica, and it 
named F. cocdnea by Aiton. F. magellanica, 
!ver, "usurped its name and spread it to 
y garden in the kingdom, whibt the true 
t hngered in botanic gardens, lastly surviv- 
[greatly to the credit of the Baxters, father 
son) in that of Oxford alone." The species 
lost from its intro. in 1788 to its rediscovery 
1 Oxford garden in 1867; meantime forms of 
liea passed as F. cocdnea. "F. cotxinea is 
! graceful than any of the varieties of F. 
1, flowers even more freely, and is readily 
ed by the almost sessile leaves with brood 
the hair^ twigs and petioles; further, its 
IS of a bright crimson when about to fall." 

__ooker, B.M. 5740. Probably Brasihan. The 

plant should be looked for in collections. 



1302 



FUCHSU 



4. spl&ident, Zucc. Fig. 1606. Much-bn&ched, 
Bhrubby : Ivb. ovate-cord&te, psle green, serrate : 
pedundeB BleDder, udllory, Mhta^ and eiiigl&4d.; 
OB. drooping, rather short; fl. l^i in. long, scarlet 
tipped pale green, the base swollen and the tube then 
compressed; petajs shorter than calyx-lobes, ovate, 
greenish; stamens 



Mex. B.M. 4082. 
B.R. 28:67. G.C. 
III. 45:338. G. 1: 



649; 9:693. 
BB. fude Uiriee or 
more the length 
(tf the atlj/x- 
lobeg; pelaU 
poirUed, neoxly 
or qtaU at long 
(M the calyXf 
lobet. 
5. KlgeoB, Moc. 
& Beaei. St. some- 
what succulent, 
j^abruus, oft«n red- 
tinEed: Ivb. large 
andcoane, cordate- 
ovate, soft, small- 
toothed: fls. in ter- 
minal leafy clusters 
or raremee, the red 
long-tubular calyx- 
tube 2-3 in. long 
and very slender at 
the base; the caly^r- 
lobes short and 



points, Krecuuui ab 

the tip, not very widely spreading; petals deep scarlet, 
pointed, shorter than calyx-lobea; stamens only short- 
euerted. Mex. B.M. 3801. B.R. 24:1. On. 65, p. 75. 
R.H. 1881:150 (var. pumifa).— A brilliant plant, some- 
times seen in choice conservatory coUections. Evidently 
one parent of the F. apecioaa tribes. F. penduixflitra, 
Hort.( is supposed to De a hybrid, but the fls. very 
long hke F. fidgena: Iva. ovate, acuminate, with violet 
midrib: tube of fl, 3-4 in. long, trumpet-shaped; fls. 
rich crimson shaded maroon. J.H. 111.51:301. 



6. triph^lla, Linn. Fig. 1606. Low and bushy (IS in. 
high), pubescent: Iva. often in 3's, amall, obtanceolate, 

Etiolate, dentate, green above and purple pubescent 
Death: fla. IJ^in.loDg, in terminal racemes, cinnabai^ 
red, the long tube enlarging towards the top; petals 
very short; stamens 4, not exscrtcd. St. Domii^o, 
W. Indies. B.M. 6795. Gn. 41:32. I.H. 43, p. 94. 
G.M. 49:333. Gn.W. 5:389.— Known in botanical col- 
lections and sparingly in the trade. The species has a 
most intereating history, for which see the citations 
made above. Upon this plant Plumier founded the 

SrntB Fuchsia in 1703, giving a rude drawing of it. 
pon Piumier's description and picture Ldnna^ua 
founded his F. Iriphyila. Piumier's figure is so unlike 
existing fuchsias that there has been much speculation 
as to toe plant be meant to portray. No fuchsia was 
known tD have four stamens or to be native to the W. 
Indies. In 1S77 Uemsley wrote at it: "The fimire, 
however, is so rude that nobody, I believe, has been 
able to identify it with any living or dried plant. Pos- 
sibly it is not a fuchsia at all in the sense of the present 
application of the name, for it is represented as having 
only four Htamens." But in 1873. Thomas Hogg, of 
New York, secured seeds of a St. Domingo fuchsia 
which turns out to be Piumier's original, thus bringing 
into cult, a plant that had been unknown to science 
for 170 years. It came to the attention of botanists 
in 1882. For a discussion of further confusion in the 



der, about the lenuiiu ui uit: nuiriei. iiB., iiiu 

racemose above; fls. elongated, the tube 2 in. long 
beyond ovary and narrow-trumpet-shaped, the lobes 
ovate-tanceolate and acuminate; petals about equaling 
calyx-lobes, scarlet, the margins undulate. Colombia. 
F.S. 6:538. J.H. III. 49:243. 

8. boUvUna, Carr. Compact, branching, 2-4 ft., 
producing the showy fla. in profuse drooping sometimes 
Drancbed clusters: Ivs. lai^ elliptic-ovate, acute nr 
acuminate, toothed : Ss. 2-3 m. long, trumpetrshaped, 
rich red. Bolivia. R.H. 1876:150, G.W.8, p. 316.— 
Very like F, corymlnflora, but said to be more orna- 
mental: fla. brilliant coral-red, the calyx-lobea and 
petals acuminat« and equal or subequal, the farmer 
spreading-star-ahaped or reflexed, the petals erect or 
close about the stamens: filaments red, anthers whitish; 
stigma very large, ovoid: fr. fleshy, violet-black. 

9. corymblfl&ro, Ruii & Pav. Tall but weak grower, 
needing support when allowed to attain its full height, 
therefore excellent for pillars and rafters: Ivs. large, 
ovate-oblong and tapenng both ways, serrate, pubes- 
cent: fls. deep red, hang in g in long brilliant corymbs; 
calyx-tube 3-4 in. long ana nearly uniformly cylindri- 
cal, the lobes lance-acuminate anJd becoming reflexed; 
petals deep red, _ 

lance - acuminate, 
about the lengtit 
of the calyx-lobes: 
stamens length <x 
the petals. Peru. 
B.M. 4000. Gd. 
ll:70(a8F.bolivi. 
ana); 55:74. F. 
1841:161. H- U. 
2, p. 324. Var. 
ilba, Hort., haa 
white or nearly 
white calyx -tube 
and -lobes. F.S, 6: 
S47. Gn. 65:74. 
— A very hand- 
some plant, but 



AA. Fit. erect. 

10. atboreicens, 

Sims I.F. gynngss' 
fidra Carr.). A 
shrub: Ivs. lano»- 
oblong and en- 
tire. Iaurel-lik«: 
fls. Ulac-scented, 
pink-red, amall, 
with a short or 
almost globular 
tube, in an erect 
terminal naked 
lilac-like panicle; 
calyx - lobes and 
petals about equal 

M. 2620. — Little 

grown, but excellent for winter-flowering; should not 

be lost to cult. 

11. procdmbens^ Cunn. Traiunq Fuchsia. Trail- 
ing Queen. Trailmg, with slender much-branched sts. : 
Ivs. alternate, small (H-)^in. across), cordate-ovate, 
long-stalked: fls. soUtary and axillary, apctalous, the 
short tube orange and the reflexing obtuse lobes dark 
purple, anthers Dlue: plant difccioua: berry glaucous- 



FUCHSIA 



—A very inter- 



red. N. Zeal. B.M.6130. G. ; 
eetiag little plant, suitable for baskets. 

8p*dea not known la ba in tha American trade an: F. onptidlii, 
Benth. Fla. larn, aoarlet. looc-Mbsil. dnmHns. Colombia. B.M. 
iwaa. — F. buniUni, lindL C«npact, with abort-ioinlsd braniJiiic 
1, aanu-moutbed, my, draopina. M«i. B.R. 1«S(L 
a, Bentn. Fla. 2 in. iou, ileDdar. drmplna. baiijr, 

, ...^ loDC pedlMlt. Mci. B.R. 27:70. — F. Daminiina, 

Hort. Garden h^nd with lone droonnc rvd Ba. ot the apccioaa 
trpa. F.6. 10:IOM.—F. tztariit^la, Laa. I. Bhnih or amall tree 
ol Naa Zeal., [caehinc 40 It. hich and tba trunk aomntanea 2-3 ft. 
diam., tba bark thia, papaTy and Idoib: Wi. alumata. ovatc-lanoeo- 
Ul^ Ui IuuvaIau. BDtire or nnu-lv an: fln. ] ^ in. or Ifaa UuMl. aolt. 
— F. moCTdnJAa, Hoc 



—F. ardililia, I 



I^ffeat'fld. fi 



d dnnpinA, trimOTphio. B.R. &i 



t; 4-e ii 



i Colomlrf^ Peru. B.M. 



nna. pink-redH in larn. dToopioff clua- 
4233.— J^. miaorilttUa; HBK! Dwarf, 






tofera. Pcni. B.M. 6 






D aiillat]' pediwl*. (ba pctali obovata and u 



I, H.B.K. To e It: In. 

nAi4i. downy above: Ob. 

and muiulala. Max, 

L. H. B. 

FDHARIA (fumtM, smoke, the applicatioa perhapa 
to the smoke-liKe odor of roots or otber pails of some 
qteciee). Pumarulcue, a family by some botaniate united 
with PapaixT&ceK. This 
genus includefl the 
common fumitory, F, 
officinalii, formerly 
held in great reput« 
for various ailments, 
] but DOW practically 
banished from medical 
practice. Seeds are 
still rarely sold to 
thoae who have faith 
in old physic gardens. 
The plant has a tar^ 
literature, which is 
especially interesting 
to those who delight in 
herbala. As an orna- 
mental plant, it is 
eurpasBea by Adlumia. 
There are about 40 
1M6. FncWa Bipbjlk. ixiO species of Fumaria in 

the Medit. r^on and 
Cent. Eu., and S. Afr.: mostly annual hei«a, with 
compound much-disaected Ivs., usually diffuse and 
branching, sometimes climbing, eIbucous: corolla 
1-epurred at base, and thereby oistinguiBhed at once 
from Adlumia; sepals 2, very small; petals 4; stamens 
6, diadelphoua: it. » roundish 1-aeeded indehiscent 
nutlet. F. o^icindlii. Lion., the common fumitoiy, 
of Eu., is sparinely run wild in wB8t« places: 2-3 ft. 
high: Ivs. petioled^ the segms. linear, oblong or cuneate 
and entire or lobed: fls. small, fleeh-color with crimson 
tip, in narrow racemes. VariiUile. L. H, B.f 

rnUlTORT: Fumnria oAciiuiu. 
POuCKIA, rDlTKU: Bmta. 

FUnGI are plants. They differ from other plants 
chiefly in their lack of chlorophyU, the green coloring 
matter of green plants, and in the character of the 
substance of which their oell-walls are composed. 
This is sometimes spoken of as fungous cellulose, and 
has characters both of the cellulose of other plants and 
the chitin of insects. There are thousands of species 
of fungi, varying greatly in form and structure. Some 
forma are more or less familiar to everyone; for 
example, mushrooms, or toadstools, molds, mildews 
smuta and rusts. Other groups of plants often included 
under the term fungi are the slime-molds or myxomy- 
cetes and bacteria. While they have certain charac- 
ters in common with fungi, they are eufliciently dis- 
tinct to be considered Beparat«ly. 



FUNGI 1303 

He fungus plant consists of a vegetative feeding 
portion, the mycelium, which, in a way, oonesponda 
to the roots of higherplants, and the fruiting struc- 
ture, the sporophore. The latt«r bears the reproductive 
bodies, the ^mrea, 
which, while much 
simpler in structure, 
function in the same 
way as do the seeds 
of higher plants (Fig. 
1607). The sporo- 
phore is the part most 
often observed by the 
layman. The mush- 
room or toadstool, 
the puffball, the 
smut boil on com, 
the white powdery 
mildew on the grape 
or rose, or the blue 
mold on stale bread 
or cheese, are almost 
entirely the sporo- 
phoiee and spore 
masses. The myce- 
lium is usually buried 
in the substratum 
from which the food 
is derived and is thus 
not often observed. 
In fact it is often too 
minute and oolorlesa 
to be seen with tbs 
naked eye. It may 
be observed as a 
white branching weft 
in the dungof mush- 
room beds or in the leaf-mold in the forest. This form 
is commonly spoken of as spawn. It may also be 
seen as a white wefUlike growth between the bark 
and wood of rotting logs or dead trees, or as brown 
leathery sheets in 
the cracks of rot- 
ting logs. It some; 
times appears aa 
brown or bladt 
shreds or strands 
under the bark of 
dying trees. This 
form of mycehum 
strand or rhizo- 
mtnph is charao- 
tfristic of the 
often very de- 
structive mush- 
room parasite of 
trees, ArmiUaria 
meUra. The spores 
of fungi are min- 
ute microscopio 
bodies cutoff from 
the sporophores 
for the purpose of 
reproducing the 
plant. They are 
usually on^ or 
two-celled, though 
often many-celled , ■;. ---tv 
(Tig. 1608). The, Sl"ii; 
are often color- 
less, though they 



IMS. DiHannl nan 



tinted or colorea, 
ereenish, brewn, 
black, and so on. 
When placed in 



rbeat-nut fuocua; 
nion-bliiht paraait 
leaf-apot patboccn ;/. 



of Iba peach 
q»re forma of tbe 



black-knot funcuH; ff, the ■ummei 

porea of ttu apple-tree oaakerfuDsuir i 
pore of the altamaria bUsht fimxua o 
uaani: /, oooidia of Ihe late blisht funcu 



1304 



FUNGI 



sufficient noiBture, and given the proper tempero' 
ture, they ufiually will germinate ouickly, either Bend- 
ing out a aprout-libe germ-tube (Fig- 1609, h) which 
on findii^ sufficient Douriahment gfows into myoe- 
lium, or the protoplasmic coDtents of the spore-cell 
may escape through an opening formed in the cell-wall, 



water for a time, 
(usually less 
than an hour), 
then invest 
themselvefl with 
a cell-wall, and 
Keiminate with 
l'uTI^"b^'"w';^™"ic°ry"?"S; a germ-tube as 
youDK si^e. above described 

(Fig. 1609,0'). 
This latter is the method of germination of the potato- 
blight fungus, Phylophlhora injeslarta. — A fungus often 
produces two kinds of spores, the vegetative spores, 
conidia (Fig. 1608. j). produced usually in great num- 
bers and repeatedly during the season for the purpose 
of multiplying the form, and the sexual, or reeting- 
spores (Fig. 160S, a, b, e, d, k), adapted primarily to 
cany the fungus through periods unfavorable to growth, 
as dry seasons, winter and the like. Either form may. 
however, function as the other. Tbej[ are disseminatea 
by wind, water, insects, or by man himself. 

Because of their lack of chlorophyll, fungi caimot 
assimilate their carbon directly from the carbon- 
dioxid of the air as can the green plants. They must 
make use of the food substances already manufactured 
or elaborated by other plants or animals. With respect 
to the nature of the substratum from which fungi 
obtain their food-supply, they are of two generS 
types, saprophytes, those that can feed and develop 
on non-living organic substances (chiefly dead parte of 
plants and animals); and parasites, those that may 
grow upon and take food from hving organisms. A 
true or obligate saprophyte can feed only upon non- 
living organic substances. There are great numbera 
of such spr^ies, attacking dead and fallen trees, stems 
and leaves of plants ar the dead bodies of a.niTnii.l>i , 
infesting dung and other debris, breaking up the com- 
plex organic substances into simpler form, and deriving 
therefrom the food and cnersy for their development. 
Most mushrooms, toadstools, molds and the like, 
are obligate saprophytes, playing the r6Ie of didn- 
tegr&tors in the 
ever-changing 
cycle of nature. 
An obligate para- 
site, on the other 
hand is, in nature 
at least, compelled 
to derive its nu- 
trition through 
direct attack on 
the living tissues 
of other plants or 
of animals. Of 
such fungi, the 
rusl- and smut- 
t>ioducing para- 
sites, the leaf-curl 
rungua of the 
peacm, and the 




FUNGICIDES 

potato-blight organism are good examples. Between 
these extremes are to be found very many forma 
which, during a part of their active development, 
live as parasites, and during the remainder as sapro' 
phytee. The apple-scab fungus is a good example. It 
passes the summer as an active parasite upon the 
leaves and fruit of the apple, but in the autumn and 
spring continues its growth and development in the 
fallen leaves, producing the aemally formed aacosporea 
which in the spring infect the next crop. Other forms, 
which usually lead a saprophytic existence on the 
dead and fallen parts of plante, may, under special 
conditions, take on a parasitic habit. A good example 
is a common saprophyte, a species of &>tryti8, com- 
. . n srecnhousee. When there is an excess of moist- 
ure or the planla are in any way weakened, this fungus 
finds it easy to pass from a saprophytic life on the dead 
leaves, to that of active and destructive parasitism on 
the living leaves. It is sometimes destructive to let- 
tuce. Fun0 are in general favored by abundance of 
moisture. For this reason in a wet season mushrooms 
appear in great profusion, and epidemics of plant- 
disease-proaucing fungi often 
occur over wide areas, caus- 
ing great losses to the agricul- 
turist. The loss from potato- 
blight in New York state 
alone often amounts in wet 
seasons to over 110,000,000. 
Warm weather is generally 
favorable to fungus growth, 
but there are some forms, 
like the potato-blight fungus, 
which nourish only during 
relatively cool periods. Tbia 
parasite occurs only in tem- 

Eerate r^ons, being un- 
Qown in the hot low lands 
of tropical and subtropical 
regions. The peach leaf^curl 
fungus is apparently favored 
as much by the low tempera- 
ture as by the rains of a wet 



mildew of grapes. ^^ tonxntimu UU. out. 

Whde many fungi are do- i„™,, , .hoi-hole «■•«. 
Btructive agents of the crops 

of the agriculturist, causing him heavy losses, most 
fund are active co-laborers with him, bringing about, 
as has been seen, the disintegration of compost, on 
which the farmer depends so largely for increased crop- 
production. Other fungi, like the yeasts and certain 
molds, are necessary agents in the arts and manufac- 
tures, as for example, the use of yeast in bread-, bcer- 
and wine-production, molds in cheese-ripening, and 
BO on. The value of these fungi Ues chiefly in their 
ability to produce fermentations of various sorts or to 
give flavors to the products. Many fungi are edible, 
as for example the large fruit bodies of mushrooms, 
puffballs and truffles. While their value as food is 
perhaps often overestimated, they are valuable and 
form no unimportant part of the food of many 
people, especially in Europe. They are to be regarded 
chiefly as dehcacies. The truffles and the cultivated 
mushroom, Agaricus campestris, are perhaps the 
best known. A delicacy known to relatively few is 
the lai^e smut boils occurring on Zizania lalifolia. 
Some fungi are poisonous, as for example the deadly 
Amanita, the fly-agaric among mushrooms, and the 
ergot, a fungous parasite of rye and other grasses. 
Fortunatelv the number of poisonous species is rela- 
tively small. H. H. Whbtzel. 



PtmclCIDBS: L 



landfnn 



FUNTUMIA 



FURCRiEA 



1305 



FUNTt^MIA (Funtum is one of the vernacular names 
of f . dastioa). Apocyndcex, Three trees, sometimes 
very tall, of Trop. Afr., formerly placed in Kickxia, one 
of toem oeing a rubber tree. F, ddsiicaf Stapf, reaches 
100 ft.. with acylindric trunk and pale spotted bark: 
Ivs. oolong or lance-oblong, undiilate: fls. white or 
yellowish m short-peduncled many-fld. dense C3rmes, 
the ooroUartube constricted above the base, the lobes 
oblong and obtuse; stamens inserted well down in the 
corolla-tube; disk 5-parted: follicles oblong-clavate, 
woody. Offered in £u.; yields the Lagos caoutchouc. 

FURCRAA (Ant. Francois de Fourcrov, 1755-1809, 
chemist). Syn.^ Fowrcroya, Fowrcrasa, Furcroya, Fwr^ 
crcsa, Amarylltddcex, Succulent desert plants from 
tropical America. 

some with spiny foliage like Agave, others with 
minutely toothed margins like Beschomeria. Thev 
occasionally bear immense loose panicles of greeniaa 
white fls., suggesting those of Yucca JUamenlosOj which 
are known to every plant-lover of the N. The perianth 
of Furcrea is whitish and wheel-shaped: in Agave 
greenish vellow, funnel-shaped. The filaments in 
FurcrsBa nave a cushion-like swelling at the base, 
which is absent from Agave. 

Furcrsa is cultivated much in the same way as 
Agave, except that the furcreas are given more neat 
and wat^. F. gigantea has a very pretty variegated 
form, which makes a useful pot-plant. 

As a rule, furcreas bear fruit not more than once, 
and then die without producing suckers. However, 
they produce while in nower an immense number of 
bulbels^ which may be used for propagation. It is 
impossible to say at what size or age the plants will 
bloom. Grown in pots, they may take a century. On 
the other hand, plants from bulbels have been known 
to flower at three years. Seeding is usually rare. 



aoaveiphyOat 5, 
aUUttma, 5, 7. 
andina, 5. 
BanOeUii, 8. 
Bedinshaufli, 3. 
Cabuya, 7. 
Cahum, 4. ^ 
Commeliniit 8. 
cubensis. 4, 6. 0, 7. 
DeUdevantiit 6. 
edentata, 6. 



INDEX, 
elegana. 6. 

geminispina, 9. 
gigantea, 8. 
h^mpekUa, 4. 
Humboldtiana« 7. 
tncrmM, 7. 
inUrrupUit 9. 
Lindeniit 6. 
longBva. 1. 
maorophylla, 5, 



mar^inatat A. 
medio-picta, 8. 

C' eacena, 6. 
lUi. 2. 
SeUoa.6. 
Mpinota, 9. 
tuberoaa, 9. 
tarieoatat 8. 
Wattoniana, 8. 
Wiilemetiaxka, 8. 



▲. LvB. rough-^margined hut not toothed^ glaucouSj striata 
roughened beneath: infl. pubescent: pedicela short, 

SERRULATiB. 

1. longibva, Karw. & Zucc. Slender unbranched 
tree, up to 50 ft.: Ivs. rigidly outcurving, narrowly 
lanceolate, gradually acute, concave, 3--6x60 in.: 
infl. 15 ft., broadly conical, short-stalked; fls. lyi-li^ 
in.; ovary rather longer than segm.: caps, elongated, 
narrowed below; seeds small (3^x^in.): bulbels 
unknown. S. Mex. to Guatemala. Zuccarini, Act. Acad. 
Leop. Carol. 16, pt. 2:48. M.D.G. 26, p. 10. Bateman, 
Orchid, of Mex. & Guat. Vignette to pi. 16. B.M. 5519, 
(habit). Herbert, Amaryll., pi. 34. — A similar if sepa- 
rable species is reported for Bolivia. The most remark- 
able dracsenoid tree, flowerinjg when extremely old, 
and then dying, like others of its genus. 

2. Ro^zlii, Andr6 (Agdve argyrophylkiy A. Tondidnat 
Beschomhia flortbdnda. Ulia rhgia^ iMium rhgium^ 
Roiztia r^a, R. regina^ Yucca argyrka^ Y. aroyrojihyUa, 
Y, Parmentihif Y. Tonelidnat Hort.). Trunk becoming 6 
ft. or more: Ivs. rather flaccidly spreading, lanceolate, 
acute, concave or plicate, 3-5x50 in.: infl. 10-15 ft., 
pubescent, the moderately broad panicle short-stalked; 
fls. 1 5i in. ; ovary and segm. about equal : caps, ellipsoidal, 
Bcarcdy stipitate: freely bulbiferous, the bulbels 
elongated. S. Mex. R.H. 1887, p. 353. B.M. 5519 (as 
to details) ; 7170 (as F. Bedinghausii), G.C. III. 9, p. 489; 



36, p. 45; 46, p. 340. — ^The common plant grown along 
the Riviera, often as F, langxva, but more commonly as 
F. Bedinghausii, with which the synon3rmy is confused. 

3. Bedinghaiisii, Koch (Beschomhria multifldra, 
Hort. Yaeca Pringlei, Greenm. Roidia or Yiicca bulbi- 
Sera, Hort.). Trunk scarcely 3 ft.: Ivs. rather rigidly 
outcurving, lanceolate, acute, rather flat, 2-3 x 18-24 
in.: infl. 10-15 ft., the rather narrow panicle little 
longer than the scape; fls. IK in.; ovaiy and segm. 
about equal: caps, broadly oblong, abruptly stipitate; 
seeds moderate {^-\i x H ii^O- fi'cely bulbiferous, the 
bulbels ovoid. Cent. Mex. B.H. 13, p. 327. Ann. 
Jard. Buitenzorg. II. Suppl. 3:44. G.W. 7, p. 101. 

AA. Los. smooth-margined, typically toothed, ustudly 
green, not stricUe, Eufurcraa. 

B. Prickles rather small and dose sd: Ivs, narrow; 

margin straight, 

4. cub^nsis, Vent. (F. hexapdala, Urban. Agdve 
cubinsis, Jacq. A. btdblfera, Salm? A, hexapitala, 
Jacq. A. mexicdna. Lam. A, odordta, Pers). Nearly 
tnmkless: Ivs. narrowly lanceolate, spreading, smooth, 
about 2 X 50 in. ; teeth nearly straight, Vy-r^in. long, 
Ji-1 in. apart: infl. 10-15 ft., long-staJked, nearly 
glabrous; flis. 2 in.; ovary fusiform, about equaling the 
segm.: caps, small, broad, stipitate; seeds small 
(^~H u^O* bulbels ovoid. Cuba and Haiti. Jacq., 
Stirp. Amer. : 175. Ann. Jard. Buitenzorg. II. Suppl. 
3:40. — As badly confused as Agave americana 
and actually rarely seen in gardens: apparently the 
original henequen of early writers on the W. Indies, 
its fiber called cabuya. A related Yucatan species, 
the cahum, with less lanceolate Ivs. and ovary exceed- 
ing the perianth, is F. Cahum, Trel., Ann. Jard. Buiten- 
zorg. II. Suppl. 3:39. 

BB. Prickles large or prominently raised and rather dis" 
tant, curved, — suppressed in certain forms, 

c. Shape of hs, oblong4anceolate, large, 

5. pub^scens, Tod. Nearly trunkless: Ivs. spread- 
ing, concave, smooth, about 3 x 60 in. ; teeth H^n, 
long, %-l}iin, apart: infl. 15-20 ft., rather short- 
staUced, pubescent: fls. 2^ in.; ovary 1 in.; segm. IH 
in.: caps, large, broad, variously stipitate: oulbels 
ovoid. Mex (?). Giom. Soc. Sci. Palermo 14:5-7. 
Ann. Jard. Buitenzorg. II. Suppl. 3:43. B.M. 6160(7) 
(depauperate). Related species are: F. ^legans, Tod. 
of Guiana, with Ivs. 5 in. wide with hooked black- 
ening teetn yi-Viin. long and 1^ in. apart, glabrous 
long-stalked inn., and leafy-tipped bulbels. Hort. 
Panorm. 4. F. macroph^Ua, Hook., established in 
the Bahamas and Jamaica (probably from the south) 
with teeth }^. long and 3H in* apart, broad 
umbonate caps, and ovoid bulbels. Hook. Icon. 
2501. Ann. Jard. Buitenzorg. II. Suppl. 3:37, 45. 
F. andlna, Trel. (F, Ddedevdntii, ana F. aUlssima, 
Hort. 7), of E. Peru, with nearly as large and distant 
teeth, short-stalked infl^ cuboid caps, and conical- 
ovoia bulbels. Ceara or Pemambuco hemp is ascribed 
to F, agavephyUa, Brot. (F. ciibSnsis, Mart. Agdve 
inirmis and A, subinirmis, Roem.), the caraguata 
assu of N. E. Brazil., Marcgrav. & Piso, Brazil, p. Ill, 
of this same group. 

6. Sellda, Koch. Trunk finally 3-5 ft.: Ivs. spread-* 
ing, concave and revolute or plicate, rough-backed, 
atK>ut 3x50 in.; teeth K-Km. long, lyi-^H in- 
apart, variously curved: infl. tall, stalked, glabrous; 
fls. IH in.; ovary %m.; aepn. 1 in.: caps, not known: 
freely bulbiferous. (Colombia. B.M. 6148. — Frequently 
meant when the name F. cuhensis is used. A handsome 
white- or finally yellow-margined plant, frequent in 
cult, is F. Sellda mareinUta, Trel. {F, lAndenii, 
Jacobi. F, cubSnsis lAnaenii, Hort. Agdve cubinsis 
stridta, etc., Hort.). Wiesner Festschr., p. 350. I.H. 
21:186. G.W. 10. p. 212; 11, p. 135; 16, p. 162. G.C. 



jt muwna] prickks, edentlU, Trel., has been 

intro. from the CoIomDiiui Andes recently by Pittier. 

7. HuinboldtUUu, Trel. (KiicDa acaidit, HBK.). 
Trunk finaJly 10 ft. : IvB. Bpreading, nearly flat, grayish, 
smooth, 5-6x60 in.; teeth >i-k in. long, usually 
divergently twinned from the tope of greea prominencce, 
1-2H in. apart: infl. 25-40 ft, long-stalked; fla. 2-2)^ 
in.; ovary H-^ in.; segm. IW-IJ^ m- VeneiueU. Ami. 
Jord. Buit«niarg. II. Buppl. 3:38. — Called maguey 
de cocui by Humboldt; now oommonly known as 
cocuiza brava in contrast with an unarmed cult, form, 
the cocuisa manaa, which may prove not to differ from 
F. inirmii, Dnun. (F. cubtnkU in^rmu. Baker. F. 
aIttMtma,Hort. Franoeechi). B.M. 0543. Intamediate 



FUS^EA 

WHlemetUna, Roem. (.F. Commeflntt, Agist C<m- 
tru&Tui, Auct.), the Creole aloe. Ann. Janl. Buiten- 
cor^. II. Suppl. 3:35. With broad median creamy 
vanegation, the unarmed form is var. mMio-ldctt, 
Trel. (F. gigantia Mne^dto, Hort. F. taneodJO, Hort. 
F. ffatomidiw, Hort.). G.C. 111. 23, p. 243. Ann. 
Jord. Buiteniorg. II. Suppl. 3:41, 42, 46-8. 



Auct,}. Nearly trunklea 
nearly flat, 8x60-70 in., . ., 

and fi-lH in. apart, aometimM absent toward the 
end or below: infl. 25 ft.: cape, unknown: freely bul- 
biferous, the bulbels elongatM. Cuba and Haiti and, 
in somewhat differing forma, in Porto Rioo and through 
the Lesser Antilles. Rep. Mo. Hot. Card. 18:1-4. 
R.H. 1877, p. 233. Cycle. Amer. Agric, II, p. 290. Gt. 
1852:3. Yearbook Dept. Agric. 1904:31. Ann. 
MuB. Firenie. 1:4. Commelin, Hort. Amta. 2:19. 
— Commonly called silk-grass, sometimes maguey 
or cocuiza: apparentlv the Haitian cabuya of early 
writers. With we t«etn twinned, as they are aonietimea 
in F. Selloa and characteristically in F. HwtAoldli- 
ono, it ia var. geminisplna (F. geminitjAiui, Ait.) 

WlLLIAll T 



between this and the next is the cabuya of Cent. Amer., 
F, CabUya, Trel,, which likewise presents armed and 
toothless forms. Ann. Jard. Buitensorg. 111. suppl. 
3:36, 37. 



pUlferum, Willem,). Nearly trunitleBB; Iva, 

broadly oblanceolate, nearly flat, undulate, somewhat 
roughened beneath, 5-8 x 60-100 in,, entire: infl, 25 ft, 
long-«talked, rather narrow; fla. 1?^ in., with ovary ana 
»egm. equal: caps, unknown: freely bulbiferous. S. E. 
Brazil. DC,, PI. Gr. 126, 126a, Redout*. Lil. 476. 
B.M,2250. Perrine, Senate Doc. 300:5. B.H. 10:34. 
Indian For. 35:23. Mart., PI, Bras, 1:44, Ann. Mug. 
Marseille, II; 8, p. 125. Squier, FibrePl, 2, Jacq. Icon. 
379. Commehn. Hort.Am8t.2:18.— The Mediterranean 
hemp, Mauritius hemp, taretra, ereen aloe, or pita, 
intra, by way of Madagascar and hence called Mal- 
gache aloe. Varies with moderate toothing, var. 



VUSMk (probably from Latin fundo, signifying 
melted or fused together, referring to the carpels). 
AnnonActx. South American trees or shrubs, resem- 
bling Annona in the form of fruit, a solid, spheroid ^n- 
carpium composed of one-ovuled carpels lused together, 
but differing from that genus in having its petals 
imbricate or overlapping and in the outer drclee of it0 
stamens which arc stcnle and petaloid.— A genus of 
very few species. Fuaxa lonjfifmia was first described 
as Annona lon^pjolia by Aublct. It was afterwards 
placed in the genera Duguetia and Aberemoa, from 
the lasUnamed of which it was set apart by Baillon 
as the type of a subgenus or section Fustea. In the 
genera Duguetia and Aberemoa, however, the carpels 
are discrete, or separate, and not fused together; in 
the former the indumentum is usually stellate-pubeB- 
cent or scurfy, and in the latter the carpels are not 
only quite distinct but are borne on short pedicels. 
Pnnn the structural features above mentioned, it is 
evident that it merits generic rank. 

lODjtif&lia, Safford (Dufu^fia lontKfAIui, Baill, Annbna 
lortfftfilia, Aubl,) Pinacoda. Carib Apple. Fig. 1612. 
A small tree: Ivs, oblong-scuminate, roucronata and 
smooth: fls. issuing fram near the base of small 
branchlets growing from the axils of the If.-scars 
of the preceding year, the 2 series of petals much 
alike; outer stamens sterile and petaloid: fr. ovate- 
globose, resembling a solid ball, its surface reticu- 
lated with shallow impressed lines, nearly smooth, 
flesh-colored. Guiana. — According to Aubtet, the fr. 



Guiana. Intro, into Fla, as a fr,-plant, but very 
little known. Closely related to tnis species and 
possibly identical with it is the Peruvian F, rhom- 
hivitala, S^ord {Annbna rhombipilala, Ruis. & Pay.) 
with petals clothed on the outside with appresscd 
sericeous hairs, outer stamens petaloid and connivent 
as in F. lonffifciia. >^in. long, smooth near the base and 
minutely puberulent on the outside near the apex; 
and obovate-oblong Ivs. with short thick petioles 
and sharply acuminate apices, the midrib and lateral 
nerves impressed on the upper surface and prominent 
beneath, the extremities of the latter connected by a 
submarginal nerve almost continuous from the base 
to the apex. w. E. Sattord. 



itaj. 



In 



8» 



31. 

i 

t 
I 

J 






G 



I 1- ^ 



GAGEA (Sir Thomoa Gage, British botaniet, died 
1820). LdiAcat. Seventy-five or more amall herbs of 
£u., N. Afr. and east to China and Japan, allied to 
OrnithogKlum, mostly hardy and eometin'"-' -^-^ <" 
the open, Fls. white, yeUow or rose, fen 
of the mostly low peduncle or scape: IvB.ra 
only 1, and sometimes on the at. and ret 
bracts under the umbel: perianth peraistc 
tinct aegma.; stamens 6; ovarv sessile oi 
tat«, 3-K>culed: bulbs small. The gageas 
cult, of omithogalume. They appear not 
American trade. G. Ljottrdii, Schult. f., t 
is from Eu. and eastward; a well-recomme 
4-6 in. high, with yellow fls., making ( 
radical If. usually I, fistulose; scape-Ivs. 2, 
larger and at base convolute. — 
0. Ifttea, Ker ((?. fateicyldru, 
Salisb), the yellow star-of-Beth- 
lehein has yellow fls. with backH 
of segms. green, openins only i 
forenoon; radical If. 1, Cneor, f 
18in. long: scape shortj with 
3 bracts. Eu. to Himalayas. 
B.M. 1200. G. bracteoUriG, 
Saliab. (G.aUnop&ala, Rdchb.), 
is pale yellow : If . 1 at base, lin- 
ear-lanceolate and glaucous; et,- 
Ivs. opposite, lanceolate, pub«»- ^ 
cent Euid fringed. Eu. 

L. H. B. 

GAILUKDU (named for M. 
GaiUard, a patron of botany in 
France). CompdtUx. Showy an< 
nual and perennial herbs largely 
cultivated in borders and flower- 
gardensJ 

Leaves alternate, more or less 
toothed, and spotted: fls. in soli- 
tary and usually very showy 
heads, the rays yellow and red 
and always neutral, the disk-fls. 
purple and fertile; involucre 
broad, the bracle in 2 or 3 series, 
hairy ; hgules 3-toothed or 3-cleft, 
DvinB a fringed appearance to 
the ns. — There are 12 species, 
«U Aromcan, mostly from the 
far W. „ 

There are two types of gail- 
lardiss — the annual forms, which ara 
derived from Q. puicheBa and O. amhlyo- 
don, chiefly from the former; and the 
perennials, which issue from G. arittaia. 
The gaillordias are conspicuous for pro- 
fusion and duration of flowers. A constant • 
succession is produced all summer until ; 
very lat* into the autumn. Besides their 
use as border or bedding plants they are 
good for cul^flowers, as they last well in 
water. They thrive best in light, open, 
well-drained soil, and should have full 
sunlight and air. In heayv or wet soils the 
plants are often winterkilled. The peren- 
nial forms are propagated by division, 
seeds or cuttings in August or Sept«mber; 
also by root-cuttings in early spring. They 



usually do not breed true from aeed and as better 
plants ore produced by cuttings it is the most satisfac- 
tory method of propagation. 0. grandiflora and its 
many varieties are garden forms of 
O. arulata (see Gt. 49, p. 583. G. 
^ 7:499). Some of the more recent in- 
^ troductions have highly colored flow- 
f ers of eiltuordinary size, at least 4 to 
^ 5 inches in diameter. Another kind 
has quilled florets {0. Jutidoia) of 
which Bufialo Bill is an exceUent 
example, — a large, pure yellow with 
a narrow disk. Vivian Grey is also a 
remarkable and most distinct form, 
with clear yellow fringed rays, and 
disk of the same color. More recent 
introductions include 0. kermesina 
spleTidena with narrow canary-yellow 
rays and rich crimson disk, and 0. 
auivhurea oculaia with pale sulfur, 
and bright maroon disk-flowers. Other 
trade names referable to no botanical 



A. Annual gaiUardiat: Jb. normaU]/ 
TMuttyred. 

ambltodon. Gay. One to 2 ft., 
erect, leafy, hirsute: Ivs. obbng or 
spatulat«, sessile and auricula t«, entire 
or nearly so; lobes (or teeth) of disk- 
corollas short and obtuse; rays numer» 
ous, brown-red or maroon through- 
out their length. Texas. F.S.21:2149. 
— ^mewhat cult, amongst garden 
annuals, and worthy. 

pulchClia, Foug. Erect, branching, 
12^20 in., sofl^pubescent: Ivs. oblong, 
lanceolate or spatulate, rather soft, 
nearly sessile, either entire or the 
lower ones lyrate-pionatifid: lobes of 
disk-fls. acute or awned; heads 2 in. 
across, the flat rays yellow at top and 
rose-purple at base. Ark. and La. to 
Aril. B.M.1602;3551(asG.&ieotor). 



r 



ths form kooiraai 



Fig. 16l'3. the common garden form 
;K) under cult., having larger heads and 
of various colors. B.M. 3368. R.H. 
1852:20. V. 16:181. In one form (0. 
fisliU&aa, G. tvbidbaa, G. Lorenzid,ita, Hort.), 
the ray-florets and sometimes the diak- 
florets are enlaised and tubular. Fig. 1614. 
R.H. 1881, p. 377; 1885:156. 
gaOiardui 
Uy yeUow. 

aristitta, Purah (<?. frnmdijfdra, G. liiiea, 
O.irutn'ma, and G.per^nu, Hort.). Erect, 
2-3 ft.; Ivs. rather thick, lanceolate or 
oblong, sometimes spatulate, varying from 
entire to sinuate pinnatifid; lob^ of disk- 
corollas acute or awned; heads 3-4 in. 
across, the flat rays yellow, or in cult, 
varying to red (particularly at the base). 
Plains W. B.m; 2940. B.R. 1186. Gng. 



1308 



GAILLARDIA 



.2:345. Gn. 45, p. 326. A.F. 5:329.— ThiB \b the com- 
mon pereimial g&illardia of Kardens (cult, under many 
names). Blooms the first year from seed. Prom G. 

■puichala it is diatinKuiahed by taJler zrowth, firmer Ivb., 

Sellower heads, and less attenuate lobee of the disk- 
B.; but it is practically impossible to distinguish the 
two, except that one is annual and the other perennial. 

N. TATWR.f 

GAJjICTIA (from the Greek, mWt; some species 
said to yield a milky juice, which is improbable). 
LegaminJosx. Prostrat« or twining, perennial herbs or 
shruba, mostly of the warm regions of America, only 
eddom cultivated. 



perieynous fls.: calyr short, 4-lobed, bracted; corolla 
papilionaceous; standard broad; stamens 10, diadel- 
phous; ovary 1, superior, 1-celled, with many ovules: 
style beardless; fr. a linear, straight or slightly curved 
legume. Cleistogamous fls. sometimes produced. — There 
are many species, but of very little horticultural value. 
The two following have been advertised in the past 
but are probably not now on the market. 

reguliriB, BSP. (<?. alabma, Micbx.). Lvs. with 3 
Ifto.: panicles mainly short«r than the lvs.: Ifts. ellip- 
tical, often notched at the tip, 1-2 in. k)Dg, glabrous: 
corolla violet-purple. Dry sandy soil, N. Y. to Pla. 
and Miss, B.B. 2:335. 

filliottiL Nutt. LvB. with 7-9 Ifts.: panicles bnger 
than the lvs.: Ifts. elliptiixjblong, notcued, pubescent 
beneath, 34-lJi in- long: oorolla white tinged with 
red. Dry sandy soil, S. C. to Fla., along the coast. 

K. M. WiEOAND. 

GALAKTHUS (Greek, mitt Ajuwt), AmaryllviAcex. 
Snowdrop. Spring-blooming bulbs (one autumnal), 
wiUi solid scapes wid solitary nodding white flowers. 
Bulb tunicated, small: lvs. 2-3, strap-shaped: peri- 
anth without tube, outer and imier s^ms. unlike; 
stamens 6: fr. a S-valved caps., more or less fleshy.— 
Probably ahalf-dozenspecies, inEu, and W. Asia. The 
flowers of snowdrops (G. niimis. Fig. 1615) are amongst 
the smallest and daintiest of common hardy cult. 
sprinR-blooming bulbs. They often bloom in early 
March, before all the snow has gone. Their pendulous 
white fls,, with the "heart-shaped seal of grpea" dear 
to Rossetti, hold a unique place in the affections of 
lovers of ^rdens. At first sight the fls. aeem to have 
3 large white petals, inclosing a green-and-white tube 
^-.iv. fl tips, but a second gLuice 
hat the parts that func- 
I petals are the outer 
3f the perianth, while the 
ones, with their 2-lobed 
■ sot grown together, but 
overlap slightly, 
forming a rather 
crude but stiflish 
tube. Each plant has 
. a globose coated bulb, 
S 2-3 lvs., grows 6-9 in. 
- high, and bears usu- 
I^ ally only 1 nodding 
' " fl., which emerges 

Behind the perianth 
is the globose green 



In 



ahady, the plants 
crease satisfactorilv, 
and sometimes, with- 
out any care what* 
ever, form a bed from 
whidi thousands of 



GALANTHUS 

flowers may be picked at what is, perhaps, the most 
desolate and wearisome moment of the year. The 
leaves are linear and channeled, and in dark, ^linuu 
masses make a rich, quiet effect. They come out wi^ 
the flowers, attain their full growth later, and com- 
monly die down in midsummer or fall. The bulbs are 
cheap, and should be ordered in liberal quantities. 
Plant in the autumn, as for other hardy bulbs; set 3 
to 4 inches deep in mellow soil, and close together. 

An era of new interest in snowdrops began about 
1875, with the introduction of the "giant kind (0. 
Elwesii, Fig. 1616), but those who do not care for "large 
violets" wUl be likely to cling to the small snowdrops. 
Nevertheless, O. Elweni is very distinct, and should 
be the first choice if any large kinds are desired, and to 
secure the best forms the connoisseur should buy 
imported bulbs of its varieties. The only kinds known 
so far to possess a pateh of green at the base of the inner 
segments are Q. Elwesii and G. Foateri. Considering 
that there are only two main tvpes in this ^enus, G. 
nivalU and G. Elioesii, the prolusion of Latm names 
(especially since 1888, the date of Baker's "Hand- 
book of the Amarj'Uidete") is rather trying, except 
to the connoisseur who, unlike the general public, is 
chiefly inter^ted in the laiger-flowered forms and the 
novelties. 

There are several types of minor importance. The 
autumn-flowering kinds, repreeenting many Latin 
names, as G. odobrenHs, G. txircyrenais, G. Reginx- 
Olgx, are usually weak-growing plants. However, 
much is hoped from O. dlicicus, especially by the 
florist^ who have hitherto found no snowdrop that 
could be profitably forced for Christmas. Doubleness 
seems to add nothing to the beauty of snowdrops. So 
far it seems to have affected only the inner segments 
of G. nivalis and G. Elwesii. Yellow snowdrops are 
also practically unknown in America. In these the 
heart-shaped spot and the ovary are yellow instead of 
green. Ot these, G. Jkatevxna is p^aps one of the 
best. 

INDEX. 
byiantiuts, 12. 0<*aaldii, IS. 

cauCHdtnu, 4, Hvndiflorua, 11. 

cilicicuB, 2. ^ TkuiB. 8. _ 



pliclu., 1 



IfttlfoliuB, 7. 



ochroflpiliu, 5. 



W^^ttii, 






A, hoa. merely channeJed, not plaiied. 
B. Width of Im. smoU, 3-4 fines. 
c. Base of Ivt. not very narrow. 

1. nlrUJs, Lmn. (G. Sh^loddi. Hort). Common 
Snowdrop. Fira. 1615, 1616. Bulb 6-12 hnes thick: 
basal sheath sput down one side: lvs. Uncar, glaucous, 
finally 6-9 in. long: outer perianth -aegma. oblong, 
6-12 hnes long; inner segms. green only at tbe sinus. 
Feb., March. Pyrenees to Caucasus. R.H. 1880, p. 
148. CM. 34:154. 0.0.11.11:237. Gt. 48, p. 232.— 
There are large-fld. and double forms. Var. corcyrCnsia 
and others flower in Nov. G.W. 2, p. 250. At least 2 
varieties have yellow instead of green markings. Var. 
flav6Bcens, S. Am. The markings on the inner aegms. 
of the perianth and on the ovary are yellow, and the 
sta. are more yellow than green. Uaeful for Alpine gar- 
dens. G. 31:149. Var. refltxus has outer segms. 
reflexed. G.M. 34:155. Var. octobrfnsis (var. octo- 
drinus, Voaa. G. octotrr^nsM, Hort.). Albania. Known 
in cult, as a form blooming in England lal« in Oct. 

oc. Base of bis. very narrow, 

2. cQfdcua, Baker. Less robust than G. Fosleri, with 
much narrower lvs., which are narrowed gradually 
from the middle to a very narrow base. Green color 
as in G. nuxUw. Bulb i^. thick: lvs. whitish beneath: 



GALANTHUS 

outer segma. oblong, 9 linefi lone, 3-4 lines broad; 
Btiuneaa more than uilfae long Hs the inner segnia. Mt. 
Taurus, in Cilicia, where it flowers Nov, to March. 
Intro. 1898. SeeG.C. 111.21:214. Pictured in G.C. III. 
23:79. A.F. 13:1137. Gng. 6:244. F.E. 11:282. Gt. 
48, p. 228. On. 73, p. 88. 

BB. Width of Joa. vutUvm, 6-9 linee Umg. 

c. Foliage moderaitly i^ucmu. 

D. Outer lefmt. of perianih IS-IS lines long. 

3. Imperilti, Bertol. Lva. broader than in 0. ntcoJM, 
and fls. laraer: outer corolla-seKmB. spatulate, 1-1^ 
in. long. Naples and Genoa, iiub and G. cououicui 
are re^rded by Baker as subepeciea of O. ntooZu. 
0.0.1111:237. G.M.34:155. Gn. 76, p. 119. 

DD. Outer gegmg. 9-1 1 Iitms long. 

4. caucisicus, Baker (F. Redoiilei, Rupr.). Lrs. 
finally 8-9 in. long, mostly 9 linee broad : outer perianth- 
segma. obtong-«patulate, with a very narrow claw; fle. 
later than G, ninaii*. Caucasus. VanTubergenseema to 
catalogue Tar. mdnmus of this species, but consul t No. 1 1. 

CC. Fcliage very glavetme. 
D. Inner atgmt. tmlk lobes nUA«r aprtading or aitped. 

5. fihresU, Hook. Giant Snowdbop. Fig. 1616. 
Bulb larger and fla. more globoee than in G. nivalin: 
outer segniB. oblong-spatulate, 9-15 lines looK, ft-fl lines 
broad; inner segms. green in the lower haff and also 
around the sinus. Mountains of Asia Minor. B.M. 
6166. R.H. 1880, p. 148. G.C. II. 11:236. G.M. 
34:154. Gn. M. 2:117; 12:112.— The inner segms. are 
narrowed suddenly just below the apical lobes, which 
are square and mucn larger thMi in G. Foateri. They 
also form a. narrower tube than in any other species. 
Dealers have advertised vars. Casslba (A. F, 3:471. 
C.L.A.5:135. Gng.5:180. Gt. 48, p. 225. Gn. 55, 
p. 206), ochroB[dIua (has pale yellow coloring on the 
inner segms.), imguiculltus has a long claw at the tip 
of each outer segra. (G.C. III. 17:361), and Eilthne. 
Var. glob&suB has almost globular fls.. laner than in 
the type, and very broad Ivs. Var. WhitlaUii {Gn. 57, 
p. 45 ; 59, p. 262) seems to belong here. Var. poculif Annis, 
a large and robust form witn the inner and outer 
segms. both pure white. Perhaps not in Amer. and 
rare in England. — G. rabuatut, Hort., seems never to 
have been accounted for by Baker. It may perhaps be 
O. Elwesii var. rolnatus inuch is a trade name. It is 
broad-lvd and glaucous. 

DD. Inner segms. with lobes not spreading or crisped. 

6. grAcns, Chph. Very near G. Elvxsii, but difiering 
as above and in the smaller fls. and narrower outer 
segms., and the vay limited distribution of the wild 
spedee. April. Chios. 

BBS. Width of bis. ffreatesl, 9-18 tines. 

C. Green color otdj/ near the sinus. 

D. Coiored on both sides <^ the inner segms. 

7. latinihu, Rupr. Bulb. 1 in. thick: Ivs. lorate, 
bright green: outer segms. oblong-spatulate, 6-9 lines 
long; inner segms. green around the sinus, inside and 



15:404. Ot. 48, p. 239. 

DD. Colored on only one side. 

8. lUris, Baker. Reeemblea O. Fosteri in folia^, 

and 0. Elwesii not in coloring but in the square, cnsp 

lobes of the inner segms. which l^nd to recurve : out^ 

segms. nearly 1 in. long; stamens rather shorter than 

B inner segms.; green color occupying half the out- 

le of the inner s^ms. Island of Nikana (the claseical 

aria). See G.OIII. 13:506. Gn. 52, p. 361; 49, 



GALANTHUS 



1309 



ex:. Green color also on the Urmer haif of Ote inner segms. 

9. FOsterl, Baker. Resembles G. latifolius in foliage 
and G. EltPesii in fl., but the apical lobea of the inner 
segms. ore short and erect, and smaller than in G. 
Elwesii; also the stamens are not more than half so 
long as the inner segms., while in G. nit/alis, G. Elwesii 
oadG. latifolius they are three-fourths as long. Asia 
Minor. Intro. 1889. G.M. 34:154. G. 35:193. 

&A. Lvs. plaited, the edges permanently rolled back. 
B. Green color only near the sinus. 

10. pUcituB, Bieb. Bulb larger Uian ul G. mualii; 
Ivs. about 12 in. long, and 1 in. wide, very glaucous: 
out«r perianth-segms. ob- 



ii O. BIwMil; tbt mlddla floweit u 

11. grandtfl&rus, Baker (G. mdximus, Baker, not 
Velenovsky). Possibly a hybrid between G. plicaius 
and some form of G. nivalis, remarkable for its robust 
habit and green color, extending more than half way 
down toward the base ot the inner segms. Intro. 
1893. SeeG.C. III. 13:354, 656. See also O. cauouieua 
var. maxim'us, No. 4. 

BB. Oreen color also on the lower haif of the inner segms, 

12. byuntlnus, Baker (G. 06twaidii, Hort.). 
Interm«liate between G. pticalus and 0. Elwesii, "Lvb. 
3 in. broad," which seems hardly possible, glaucous on 
both sides, especially beneath; margins distinctly and 
permanently recurved: outer sepns. oblong, convex 
on back, 9 lines long, 4 lines broad, apical labee some- 
what reflexed and crisped; stamens much shorter than 
inner segms. Intro. 1893. See G. C. III. 13:226. 

a. AUmii. Baker, hu i»iui-«hspsd Ri., pure white, but ths petali 
"crimpad iQto h distinctly larffe. honcwhoe-liLp patob ot fTWD Juit 
Mow the w.vT fold of the Upt." Gn.67. p. 53.— O. AMmii, 

petiuith-aena., ■!■□ muahHpvn bEoomL Both uv pCATCcly 
outaide o[ EDilBad, Qn. 71, p. 154. By tomt luppowd u 
srm ol O. Qiv^— <;. OIb*. Oivh. Oul«r Hgnu. about 1 in. 
' bilf ■■ lopo. pUiiL white, with roundsd lobaa. 

~. Siaiiut^oie*, Hort.— a. oits. 

WlLmSLU MiLLEB. 
N. TATLOB-t 



Hort. TwQ pUnta « 



ID Oct. QrH 



1310 



GALAX 



GAIAX (fiom the Greek me&ning mUk; appliofr- 
tion obecure}. DiapeTinAcex. One acauleecent plant, 
much priEed for its stifl bronzy nrnt-leavea. 

Calyx imbricated, peraiatcnt; petals 5, bypogynous, 
oblonE-spatulate, entire, adnate to the Imae of the 
monadetphous stamens; the stamen-tube lO-toothed, 
the 5 teeth alternating with the petals anthcriterous, 
the others petaloid; anthers transversely dehiacent; 
pigtil 1: ovary superior, 3-celled, many-ovuled; style 
short: u-. a bculicidal, 3-valved cape.; seeds with a 



1617. G 



(XM) 



loose cellular testa.— ^This genua contains but a single 
Bpecies. It belongs to a nnall family which was much 
more extensive in past geologic times, but is now on the 
way to extinction. A large industry has arisen in 
recent years consisting in the marketing of immense 
quantitiea of galax Ivs. for decorative purposes, espe- 
cially at Christmas time; but the Ivs. are also used at 
other times in wreaths and bouquets. The bronzy 
autumn coloration of the Ivs, adds to their attractive- 
ness. They are collected in tie mountains of N. C. and 
Va. The plants are grown also in rockeries. It is 
recommended to plant in rockeries with northern 
exposure, shade, and some moisture. Prop, by division. 

■pfaflla, Linn. (Blandfirdia cordita, Andr.), Galax. 
Rg. 1617. Evergreen, perenni^ herbs: rootstock thick, 
matted, creeping; Ivs. basal, tufted, raund-heart'^haprd, 
with narrow sinus, crenate, shining, conspicuously pal- 
mately netted- veined, 1-3 in. broad, on long slender 
petioles; scape 1-2)4 ft. high; spike-like raceme dense, 
2-5in. long; fls. small, white, 1^-2 Uaesbroad. In dry 
woods chiefly in the mountains, Va. to Ga., and along 
thccoast, Va. toN.C. B.M. 754. G.F. 5:605 (adapted 
in Fig. 1G17). G.M. 44:223. Gn. 59, p. 187.— Called 
also colts-toot or beetle-weed. K, M. Wieoand. 

Gaiaz leaves were used for decorative purposes in a 
commercial way only as far back as 1890, when they 
were introduced to the northern florist trade by the 
writer, who had experimented with them tor several 
years before that date, sending to hospitals and indi- 
viduals. The reports received fully justified the intro- 



GALAX 

dueer in advertising the leaf widely as a florist's deco- 
rative mat«rial for making up wreaths, crosses, and in 
fact all designs for which ivy leaves up to that time 
had been employed almost exclusively. Today gsJax 
leaves have to a great extent taken ite place of ivy 
leaves, being less expensive, more easily handled and 
kept, and furnishing long wiry stems. The brilliant 
bronze leaves supply a color long needed in this clase of 
work. The sizes idso of the leaves vary from J^ inch or 
less to 5 inches diameter, again making their uses very 
varied. Small ^een ^alax leaves are now used exten- 
sively for bunching with violets, taking the place of the 
violet leaves. One of the featutes of the holiday season 
in Boston is the fakir with his stsnd of violets bunched 
with green galax. They come in again and are used the 
same way at the first touch of spring, when the early 
trailing arbutus or "mayflower" appears on the street. 
They can be arraoEed to cover much more space than 
the ivy leaves, anado not have to be wired, as is the 
case with the latter. The keeping qualities of galax are 
remarkable, and they are now uaed the year round from 
cold storage. Outdoor designs, as in cemeteries, wiU 
keep fresh and bright for months if not dried out, but 
otherwise require no care. A favorite arrangement of 
galax leaves is to place them loosely in a small vase, 
where they will retain their bright colors and shape for 
weeks, even in a close warm room, though most of the 
leaves are used, commonly with Sowers, in desi^ 
made up by the florist. As a Christmas decoration 
they stand preeminent, and their general good quali- 
ties mentioned above cause them to be used through- 
out the year, more, perhaps, than any other decorative 
green, ferns poasibiy excepted. 

In Philadelphia, some time ago, an enterprising 
young woman introduced a novel and taking innova- 
tion in the shape of potted galax planla for society din- 
ners. Small, briUJantly colored green and bronze 
leaves were arranged in tiny pots, specially designed 
by Messrs. Sackett & Company, and placed at each 
plate, to be carried awav by the guests as souvenirs. 
They were also sold tnrough one of Philadelphia's 
leadmg merchants by thousands. 

The larger cities, Boston, New York, Philadelphia 
and Chicago, use the largest quantities, though many of 
these are retailed again to smaller cities and towns all 
over the United States and Canada, and there is a large 
export trade now established in them, mostly to G^ 
many and the Netherlands. 

The area over which galax is collected extends from 
Virginia to Georgja, and is so vast that there is no dan- 
ger of exterminating the plant by collecting the leaves, 
even if they were injured thereby, which does not seem 
to be the case. It is not practicable to grow the plants 
for the harvest of leaves, at least in America, the pro- 
cess being too expensive. Under cultivation they would 
perhaps not average one perfect salable leaf to a plant, 
as a speck or wormhole renders the leaf unfit for deco- 
rative purposes. In Europe galax has been tried with 
varying success under glass, the leaves bringing a very 

Galax aphylia is a beautiful ground-covering plant, 
specially adapted to the rhododendron border, where 
tne soil and situation alike are suitable to its growth; 
it delights in shade and a cool, moist, peaty loam. Its 
charms are far better known in England, however, than 
at home. The leaves when fulTgrofliTi, are always 
bright green, the brilliant bronze shades appearing 
later when the plant ripens and the frosts begin. Then 
when they are exposed to the direct rays of the sun the 
alternating freezing and sun action cause the leaves to 
turn in a short time, though sometimes this occurs to an 
extent before any freezing weather, when the sap starts 
downward. In dense shade they always remain green. 
In spring, when the sap b^ins to start, the leaves often 
turn green or dingy again, and eventually die down the 
second season. Harlan P. Kelsey. 



GALBANUM 

GJlLBUTUH: Oimu and Ketim. 

GALEAiTORA (Greek for Aelnicf and riomm). Ordtid- 
Aeex, tribe Vdndex. Deciduous epiphytes, to be grown 
under wannhouse oonditiooa. 

Plants with jointed thickened Bts.: Ivb. diatichous, 
membranaoeoua; labellum infundibulifonn; aepalB and 
petals equal, spreading; column erect, winged; pollioia 
2. — 6ix speciea in TTop. Amer. Cult, as for £u)ophia. 

Deronilna, Lindl. St. erect: Ive. Unear- 
IsnceoUte, sheathing at base : sepals and petals 
lanceoiat«, reddish brown, with green margins; 
labellum whitish, veined in front with crim- 
son. From the banks of the Rio Negro. fi.M. 
4610. I.H. 211176. A.F. 6:609. J.F. 2:195. 
V.0.9:8. 

Bafterl, Und]. Sts. subcylindric, nearlv 
fusiform: Ivs. lanceolate: racemes terminal, 
drooping; fls. large; sepals and petals similftf, 
lanceolate, yellowish ; labellum pale yellow in 
the throat, interior portion purplish. Mex.,S. 
BR. 26:49, P.M. 14:49. 

D'Bscagnolletiut, Reichb. f, Sts. t««te, 
tapering both ways: Ivs. lanceolate, pointed: 
racemes terminal and drooping; sepals and 
petals similar, ascending, narrow, yellowish; 
Up funnelform or nearlv bell'form, fluted, 
with a rose-purple blotcn on the lower Umb. 
BraiU. I.H. 34:22 (1887). 

a. hihUu, MMrt. HKwmM ahort, [aw-Sd., fli. ibont 






V.O. 9:9. G.W. U, p 



m purple bk>tch. Trop. Amsr. 

■ Oaxes Ambb. 
George V. NASH.f 



GALBDttPA: Fofwomu. 

GAl£GA (Greek, gala, milk: supposed to 
increase the flow of milk). L^uminbax. 
Bushy perennials not very commonly cultivated in 
America. 

Of 120 names of speciee in this genus, only 6 are now 
retained, most of the others being referred to Tenhroeia. 
The phmts mentioned below are hardy herbaceous 
perennialsof the easiest cult,, about 3 ft. high, with odd- 
pinnate Ivs. and pea-shai>ed fis. of purplish blue or 
white. They do not rc<iuire frequent division, make 
bushy plants, and bear in July and Aub. many dense. 
axillajy and terminal racemes of Ss., which are useful 
for cutting. Seeds of goat's rue ate stilt offered abroad 
among miscellaneous a^icultural seeds, but the plants 
are little known in this country. They are native in 
S. Eu. and W. Asia. 

A. I4t». lanceolate: ttijniUa hroadly tonceolate. 

officinUis, Linn, Goat's Rde. Fig. 1618. Hn^t 
2-3 ft.: Ifts. mucronate: fla. purplish blue. Eu., W. 
Asia, G.M. 49:57, Var. ilba or albiflOra is commoner 
in cult. Gn. 50, p, 269. G.L. 22:294. J.H. III. 
48:557, Var. Hirtlandii, Hort., has lai^ spikes 
of lilac fls. and the young foliage variegated. A. P. 
22:605, — A rose-colored variety is sold as var. clrnM, 
Hort., which is also knows in a double-fld. form; a 
dwarf, compact, lilac-fld. variety sold under the name 
var. compActa, is also known. 

AA, Lfit- lanceolate: sHpuUs broody ovaU. 
orientilis, Lam, Foliage and stipules latter: fls. pur- 
plish blue, nodding: pods pendulous. Caucasus. B.M. 
2192. Gn.W. 23:147. B.R. 326,— Height 2^-4 tt.: 
root8t4>ekcreeping:Bt. simple, u. Taylor.! 

GALBOBDOLOH: Lamium. 

GALE6PSIS (weoKl-iike, from some fancied resem- 
blance). LabMx. Hekp I^bttle. Several weedy 
European plants, some of them naturaliied in this 
country, rarely cult. In gardens. Annuals, of spreadii^ 



palate with 2 teeth. G. Hdanum, linn., is canescent, 
with very narrow, nearly or quite entire Ivs.: fls. rose* 
red or red, sometimes spotted yellow: 8-12 in.; there 
are forms with broader Ivs. ana also narrow Ivs., and 
otherwise variable. G. verslco- 
I — '^■rt., has hispid ste,, ovate 
y toothed Ivs., and large 
sh fls, with purple spot 
rer lip: by some coo- 
to be a form of the 
rith l^-ger yellow-and- 
fls. and an arched rather 
it upper hp. G.TetrUiit, 
is bnstly-hairy with st. 
I beneath the joints, 
Ivs. ovate, toothol: fls. 
h or white or porta- 
L. H. B. 






e organ f< 
united sepaJa). Orc/ti- 
!>Tchida witn fleshy roots: 
■e-like, with 2 basal Ivs.: 
i short, looee spike, ex- 
ceeded by the tarse 
bracts; sepals united, 
forming a nood; petals 
oonnivent; lip entire, 
spurred; column short; 
pollinia granuloa 
mas in each at ' 



Linn.) . Showt Orchis. St. up to 1 ft, tall, 5-angled: 
spike 3-6-fld.; fls. violet-purple, variegated with Ugnter 
purple and white. N.E.N.Amer. George V. Nabh. 

GAlIDM (Gallon was the name of a plant men- 
tioned by DioBcorides as used in curdling milk. O. 
ventm is locally used abroad for this purpose), RubiA- 
cex. Bedstraw or Ladies' Bedstbaw, so-called because 

of the legend that one of these plants was in the hay 
on which the mother of Christ rrarted. Mostly weak or 
slender herbaceous plants with square, often barbed 
stems, and whorled leaves. 

Flowers very small, p4^ect, epigynous; calyx almost 
or quite obsolete; corolla gamopctalous, rotate, deeply 
4-parted; diviaions in our species acute or acuminate; 
stamens 4: ovary inferior, 2-celied, forming a 2-lobed, 
2-9eeded, dry, indehiscent fr, ; the lobes nearly globular, 
— About 2^ species in various part« of the world. 
Noted for the recurved-ecabroua sts. of many species, 
mathematical habit due to the whorled Ivs., and the 
line fluffy fls. The profuse-flowerins species noted 
below are often used m rockeries and flower-beds for 
the regular but soft and filmy effect, which is similar 
to that of lypsophila. As cut-fls., they are used to 
lighten the dTect of heavier fls, 

a. FU. yeUffW. 

vftnim, Linn. Yellow Bbdbtraw. Perennial from 
a Homewhat woody base: sts, erect, smooth, tufted, 
i.:»i,- i™ ,T, H'= «, K'o^ linear, J4-1 m. long; 



AA. FU. wkiie. 

B. tw. in 4*8, lanualaU, stveral-nenxd. 

boreUe, Linn. Northern Bedstraw, Perennial, 

gtoloniferous, formmg patches: sts. smooth, 1-3 ft. 



high, erect, Btrict: Ive. H-l^i in. long; apex not bristle* 



Useful in rockerj 
HoUfigo, Linn. Wiu> Madder. White q 



s and flower-beds. 

•r ffs, ManeeoiaU k 



E&iHJE B&DarsAW. Perennial, smooth: sta. erect or 
diffuse, 1-3 ft. bvb, mostlv in clumps: Ivs. ^1 in. 
long, briBtle-tippo^ l-nerved: panicle ajnple: fr. smooth. 
Eu., but a weed tn fields in the eastern states, — This 
plant is known in aome places as "bab)''s breath," but 
this name is properly given to gypsophiLa. 

K. M. WmoAMD. 

GALPHIHIA (anagram of Malpighia). MalmghiA- 
cen. Woody plants, sparingly introduced in Florida 
and southern California. 

8hrul>8 or subBhruba: Ivs. opposite, amall, slightly 
glaucous on both sides or beneato, entire or obscurely 
toothed, fflandular at the margin or base of blado or at 
the tip of the If.-stalk: clusters temiinal; 6s. yellow or 
reddish; calyx without glands; petals toothed, clawed, 
spreading: ir. a 3-parted caps., not winged, — Species 
15 or more, from S. Texas to Brazil, largely Mexican. 
Little known as cult, plants, although a few species 
have been mentioned in hort. literature abroad, and 
the two following are listed in Cahf, G. bruillfnais, 
A. Juss. Shrub: Ivs. ovate or lanceolate, about 1 in, 
long, reddish, glabrous, glaucous beneath: fls, small, 
yellow, in short lax panicles, said to be bright in winter 
m Calif.; pedicels jointed at base; petals ovate-lanceo- 
late, obtuse, scarcely twice longer than calyx. Brazil. 
G. hirsfita, Cav. Shrub: Ivs. bright green, ovate, 
acute, twice larger than in preceding, hairy both aides: 
fls. larger, in longer pamcles, yellow. Mex., 
where it is known as ramo de oro." G. niiida, \ 

cult, in Fla., is apparently G. glafica, Cav. ,^ 
{ThryMU glaiica, Kuntie), native from Mex, to 
Panama and naturaliEed m the W. Indies. See 
ThryaUi*. with which Galphimia is combined by 
recent students. L. H. B, 

GALTdlTIA (after Sir Francis Gallon, the dis- 
tinguished author and anthropologist, 1822-1911). 
Liliacex. Giant Summbh Hyacinth. Large and 
handsome Cape bulbs, of three species, one oT them 
being cultivated in the open for summer bloom. 

S(»pe or peduncle, 2-4 ft, high, from a tuni- 
cated bulb: Ivs, long and large, more or leas 
fleshy, all from the crown: fls, white or tinged 
green, targe, in an open raceme; perianth-tube 
short, oblong or cluo-shaped; stamens 6, with 
Unear-oblong versatile anthers: fr. an oblong 3~ 
vatved caps., containing many angled black 
seeds. — The genus differs from Hyacinthus mainly 

flattened crowded seeds. 
The other 2 species are 
inferior to the following, 
which was intro. by Leicht- 
Ln in the early seventies 
of last century, and now 
holds a permanent place in 
horticulture. The plants 
prefer a rich, open, moist 

cindicans, Decne. 
{HyadTilhux cdndicant, 
Baker). Fig, 1619. Bulb 
lai^. round, coated: Ivs. 
4-6, lorat«-lanceolat«, 2]/^ 
ft. long: scape often 4 ft. 
high; racemes 20-30-fld.; 
fls. fragrant, pure white, 
\-V/i m. long, the tube 
obtong; stamens about 




GARCINIA 

jKin. long, inserted high in the tube. F,S. 21:2173. 
G,C. 1871:380, de8c.;1872:l099;ll. 15:273. G. 28:687. 
On. 62, p. 361 ; 64, p, 158; 69, p. 163, J.H, IIL 45:262; 
47:583. R.H. 1882, p. 32. P.G, 3:101, A.G. 17:281. 
— The plants should be heavily mulched if left out- 
doors where winters are severe. In favored locaUties 
the bulbs may be left for sev^^ years with increaa- 
in^y better results. Large clumps are desirable. 

a. daftla. BiJ»r. Bulb ovoid, 3-4 in. diun.: lyi. fl-S, Kit, 
3-ZH It. lou, with wbiluh nuriiii: sups 2 fl„ bemriu it lu 
nueme; Si. with i olrnvftte tube which iTT in. Ions ind whicb ia 
twim u iaiu u Ibe aevam. B.M, SBBS,— O, ^nrep; Decns. 
Much like 0. eiuHliciiuu, but St. [ewer aiui rueme ahonet: 
atameu iDaert«d below middle of tube. j ij n f 

GAM^GYHE (name refers to the united ovaries). 
AtAccx, Two erect small herbs from the Malaysian 
region, bearing attractive colored inclined spathes: Ivs. 
narrow, thickuh, tapering into petiole: spadix included 
in the spathe: fls. apetalous; anthers truncate; ovaries 
united. G. ptilchm, N. E. Br. Peduncles erect, terete, 
reddish brown, about 6 in, long: snathe bright crimson, 
about 1?^ in. long, spreading or almost nodding, cloeea 
except at top: stigmas red: spadix with neuter organs 
at base. B.M, 8330, G. Burindgei, N, E. Br, Spathe 



GAH6lEPIS (Greek for united Kolea; referring to 
the involucre). Comp6gilx. Flower-garden plants. 

Leaves alternate and mostly pinnatisect: peduncles 
1-headed, the heads bearing 1 series of yellow, pistillate 
rays, the disk-fls. perfect: achenes without pappus, 
wingless and glabrous. — About a dozen S, African 
herbs or small shrubs, somewhat allied botanically to 
Chry san themum . 
' Tagites, DC. [G. dnnua. Less.}. Fig. 1620. An- 

nual, of wiry growth, a foot or less high, much 
branched and very floriferoua: Ivs. pinnate or pin- 
nalely parted, 5-7 lobes or Ifts. on either side of the 
rachis and Ifts. entire or lobed: involucre nearly or 

Suite um-shaped, the scales joined more than half 
leir length; fls.-heads bright yellow or orange, 
Jiin, across, R,H, 1896, p. 412. Gn. 25, p. 407 (both 
as G. rajeies).— Hardy or half-hardy. Of easiest 
cult, from seeds in sunny places, and most excellent 
for ribbon borders and for low mass efl'ects, Con< 
tinuouB bloomer. l. h. B. 

GARCInIA (Laurence Garcin, who lived and col- 
lected in India, and wrote in the eight«enth cen- 
tury). GvUi/erx. This genus includes the mango- 
Bteen, which is declared by some connoisseurs to 
be one of the most luscious of all tropical fruits; 
also the gamboge tree, whose resinous juice yields 
a well-known pigment and purgative. 

Garcinia is a polymorphous genus of upward 
of ISO species in the tropics of Asia, Africa and 
Polynesia. The species are glabrous trees, usually 
with a yellow juice: Ivs. evergreen, opposite or ter- 
nate, simple, often thick: 
fls. solitary or fascicled, 
polygamous or dicecioua; 
sepau and petals 4; sta- 
mens in male fl. many, 
2- or 3-delphouBj female 
fls. with 8taminodi&;ovaiy 
2- to many-celled, with 
sessile stigma and sohtary 
ovule in each cell, — The 
mangosteen is cultivated 
in the West Indies; the 
gamboge tree is also cult, 
m S. Fla.; it is a broad- 
leaved tree of slow growth. 
The mangosteen is about 
the BiDB and shape of OD 



GARDEN CITIES 



1313 



a grape and a peach. Numberless efTorts are said ._ 
have been made to naturalize this tree in the tropics 
without success. The successful ripeaing of this fruit 
under glass may be regarded 
as au achievemeot. See 
Mar 



Hsngosttiu, Linn. Man- 
oosTEEN. Height 20-30 ft.: 
IvH. 7-10 in. long, eUiptic- 
oblong, acuminate, leathery, 
nerves horizontal and very 
numerous: lis. (male) l^^ in. 
diam,, purple or yellow-red, 
in few-Qd. termini fascicles; 
sepals orbicular, and petals 
broad-ovate and fleshy; fr. 
about 2if in. diam., dark 
purple with la^ flat seeds. 
Malayregion. B.M.4&47. L. 
B.C. 9:845. F.8. 22:2359. 
G.C. II. 4:857. G.W.3,p,8. 

HorilU, Dear. Gamboge 
Tree. Hei^t 30-50 ft.: Ivb. 
more tapenng at both ends, 
4-6 in. long, the veins indis- 
tinct: fls. yellowish, male fls. 
about 3 in the axils, the 
sepals very small; female fls. 
largef, eolita^, the staminodee 
about 12: Ir. resembling a 
Morello cherry in size, slightly 
4-lobed. Dei^ to Stam. 
L. H. B.t 

GARDEN and GABDENING. The word garden 
etymologicall^ means an inclosed space, and ^rden- 
iog is historically distinguished from agriculture by 
being within an mclosure of some kind instead of in 
the open fields. Gardening operations are usually 
conducted on a smaller scale than those of agriculture 
anil by more intensive methods. Gardening and horti- 
culture are really synonymous terms, but, Dy usage, a 
horticulturist is supposed to have a more extended 
training and wider range of activities than a gardener. 
Moreover, the word gardening now suggests more of 
the private, homelike and personal point of view, 
whereas the most distinctive feature of American hor- 
ticulture is the immense commercial importance of 
fruit-growing on a \arge scale, and a marked emphasis 
of the professionat side of a fruit-.grower'B work; and 
in later years, it is marked also by the veiy extensive 
vegetable-gardening and floricultural development. 
The history and discussion of gardening are, therefore, 
set forth in this book under Horiieuiture. Large private 
places are often divided into fruit-garden, kitchen- 

S&rden and flower-garden. Fruit-growing (which see) is 
ie same as pomology. Kitchen-gardening, in its widest 
sense, is the same as vegetable-gardening (which see), or 
the more learned word, olericulture; but the expression 
kitchen -gardening is now leas common, and usually 
indicates the private and uncommercial ooint of view, 
whereas markot^ardening and truck-garaening (which 
are practically the same) are now the chief words 
used for the wholesale and commercial side of vege- 
table-gardening in the United States, Flower-gar- 
dening, a third primary division of E&rdening, is the 
same as floriculture (which see). Under ornamental 
gardening and landscape gardening are explained the 
two different points of view in the use of plants and 
Bowers for their own separate values or when grouped 
for artistic effects, the nature-hke or picturesque con- 
ception being set forth under landscape gardening, and 



the artificial or merely decorative styles under orna- 
mental gardening. 

It is customary lo speak of gardening as the amateur 

and personal practice of horticulture. One makes a 

garden. One derives from the garden not only the 

plants and products that may be harvested, but also 

the satisfactions in plant-growing, the reaction to forms, 

fragrances and colors, and the 

gain of close contact with the 

outHif-dooiB, The first garden 

that one may have should be 

personal, for his own growth 

and development. Naturally, 

this will be m some personal or 

retired part of the grounds. In 

recent years, however, there has 

been a marked 8 * " ' ' 






beauty and a means of educating 
the people. In America, this ap- 
plication of the gardemng spirit 
to civic improvement has been 
very marked, as evidenced in 
the taking away of fences be- 
' tween adjoining properties and 
the development of a street as a 
unit. This is a great gain to 
public spirit and to social feel- 
mg; but this in no way interferes 
with the personal garden for the 
« grown in a place all one's own. 
I find advice on specific gardening 
to the diSerent genera under their 
lo to the articles under Landicape 
such cultural entries as Alpine 

. , , —TbonevUitre, Axdiaan Gardemng, 

Banks, Bedding, BienniaU, Border, Bjdbe, Evergrum, 
Feme, Htrbary, Hotue-pianU, Orekida, Palm*, Peren- 
rtiaU, Rock-Gardening, Shrubbery, Spring-Gardening, 
Subtropical Gardening, S'ttcctilenta, Vegelable-Gardenr- 
ing, Wali-Gardening, Water-Gardening, Kitchen-Garden, 
Wiid-Garden, and others. L, n. B. 

GARDEN CrriBS. Instead of being a community 

in which gardens are the dominant feature, the garden- 
city form of urban dwelling-place implies primarily 
an industrial town of limited size and of definitely 
advanced economic ideals. While there were in Eng- 
land, where the idea originated, several prior develop- 
ments, the example which has best typified the a~ — 



City, in Hertfordshire, about thirty-five mites from 
London. The genesis of this enterprise appears to 
have been in the reception given to a httle book 
entitled "To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform," 
issued in 1898, and written by Ebenezer Howard, then 
a London stenographer. The stat«d purpose was "to 
organize a migratory movement of pooulation from 
our over-crowded centers lo sparsely settled rural com- 
munities." In detail, Howard proposed "to find for 
our industrial population work at wages of higher pur- 
chasing power, and to secure healthier surroundings 
and more regular employment. To enterprising manu- 
facturies, co6perotivc societies, architects, enpneers, 
builders and mechanicians of oil kinds, as well as to 
many engaged in various professions, it is intended to 
offer a means of securing new and better employment 
for their capital and talents, while to agriculturists it 
is designed to open a new market for their produce 
cloae to their doors. Its object is, in short, to raise 
the standard of health and comfort of all true workers 
of whatever grade, the means by which these objects 
are to be achieved being a healthy, natural and eco- 
nomic combination of town and country life, and this 



1314 



GARDEN CITIES 



onUcdownedbythemunicipdity." It will be obaerved 
that this is not a proprietory enterprise. 

Howard considered that people aggregated tbem- 
Belvee into the cities because of the "attractions" there, 
of various kinds. In the nature of the case, certain 
magneto attract to the town or cit}^ and certain other 
magnets attract to the country. He would combine 
these roagnet« into a town-country habitation. He 
expreesed theideainachart, Fig. I62t. 

The reception given to this idea was ao favorable that 
in 1902 a corporation was organized "to promote and 
further the aistribution of the industrisl population 
upon the land upon the lines siiggeet«d in Ebeneier 
Howard's book," which in 1904 began operations. It 
is interesting to note that among the subscribers to 
this company's atock were George Cadbury and Sii 

TBC 



••^i 



W. H. Lever, both of whom had previously established 
with success industrial villages upon a proprietary 
plan — Boumville and Port Sunlight, 

While it is not the province of this sketch to discuss 
in detail the sociological features either of Garden 
City in England, or of its German prototype at Hel- 
lerau, near to and dependent upon the great German 
enterprise of the Krupps at Essen, it is proper to report 
the steady growth of tne Letchworth scheme (so called 
because of the name of the largest estate purchased for 
establishing the Garden City), and to note the removal 
thither of several large industries, of which it is said 
that "printing, book-binding and various branches of 
engineering are the chief industriea, and there are at 
least a doien others." Garden City had, in 1912, 
eight years from its beginning, a population of 7,912, 
scattered comfortably and working happily in 1,761 
buildings in the developed part of its 4,500 acres, and 
the efTect of hving eight years in its designed whole- 
someness hod been to give it a death ral« of eight in 
the thousand, ae compared with 14.1 for the larger 
English communities from which it drew its inhabitants 
and its industries. It is quit« within the scope of this 
book to raster the sober conclusion of the Royal Com- 
mission on Canals and Inland Navigation (England), 



GARDENIA 

in 1009, that "If industries are widely distributed, 
workers can have better houses at lower rents, can 
breathe less vitiated air, and they and their families 
can in many cases combine with factory work the 
healthy and profitable work of small ^ricultural 
production." 

"The gardens of Garden City are . . . the small 
individual gaidena of its houses and cottages. . . . 
The garden is inevitable in Garden City. . . . You 
will not find a house without one — a real practical 
garden. . . . The majority keep their gardens 
well. . . . Most of the residences are detached, with 
gardens all around them." Such are comments on 
this feature of the successful Garden City found in a 
book on the enterprise, itself an evidence of the qual- 
ity of the printing product of the community. (The 
Garden City, by C. B. Purdom; "printed in 
the Garden Citv at the Temple Press and pub- 
lished by J. M. Dmt & Sons, Ltd., London, 
1913.") 

In addition to the prevalence of gardens, this 
industrial community enjoys other features not 
usual in hit-or-miss development. The houses 
in Garden City are not in blocks or "rows," 
are not monotonously similar, include careful 
provision for health and cleanliness, and range 
m coat from tl,000 to more than $10,000. 
k There are many outdoor recreational facilities, 
* and a strong community spirit helps to provide 
entertainment and amusement. Inc ton'n plan 
takes account of the contour of the land, and 
the houses of whatever character are touched 
or approached by the green of vine or tree or 

In the XJnited States there are as yet no 
garden cities so thoughtfidly designed and eo 
capabh' worked out. There is a "Garden City" 
near New York, but it is merely a well-handfed 
real estate promotion enterprise. Pullman 
near Chicago, was an attempt at mitigating the 
rigors of the congested citv, and Gary, in 
Indiana, is a later and sUghtly more advanced 
industrial town. Neither approximates the 
efficiency of the English example. There are 
building in northern Michigan several indus- 
trial towns in which there is both planting and 
the retention of some native growth, but these 
are proprietary enterpriaes, and not cooperative 
as is the Letchworth Garden City. 
' It is certain that there will come into exis- 

tence many more communities of the type of 
Garden City, because it is coming to be generally 
known that tne influences of the gtuden and of wider 
living areas upon an industrial population are economi- 
cally favorable and tend to contentment, permanence 
and prosperity, especially if intoxicating liquors are 
either kept out or are made available only under sharp 
'*a'™i°*'- J, HoitACB McFarlanb. 

GAHUfeHIA (after Alexander Garden, M.D., of 
Charleston, 8. C, a correspondent of Linnxus), Rtibi- 
Aeex. Shrute or rarely email trc<s, sometimes nearly 
or quite evergreen, some of which are planted Soutn 
and one yields popular flowers for cutting. 

Plants glabrous or pubescent or even tomentose; 
IvB. opposite or in 3's, with interpetiolar stipules: fls. 
large, axillary and solitary or sometimes corymbose, 
yeUow or white; calyx-tube ovoid or obconic; corolla 
salver-shaped or tubular, the tube much exceeding the 
calyx, the limb with 5-9 spreading or recurved con- 
torted lobes; stamens .S-9, on the corolla-throat. — Spe- 
cies about 60, in subtropical region.* of the eastern 
hemisphere. See Randia ior related plants. 

Gardenia includes the Cape jasmine, a tender shrub 
2 to 6 feet high, with thick, evergreen foliage and 
large double, waxy camellia-hke, fragrant flowers. It 



GARDENIA 



GARDENIA 



1315 



blooms from May to September in the South, where it 
18 often used for hed^, and is hardy as far north as 
Virginia. In the middle of last century the Cape 
jasmine was oonsid^*ed one of the finest stove shruDs. 
m cultivation, but with the waninjs popularity of camel- 
lias the doom of the Cape jasmme as a conservatory 
plant was sealed. The camellia has a ^;r^ter range of 
color, and has had hundreds of vaneties, while its 
scented rival has had barely a dozen. The flowers of 
the Cape jasmine have never been so perfectly regular 
as those of a camellia, and the plants are very subject to 
insect enemies. Their bloom is successional rather than 
close, and large plants are therefore not so showy as 
camellias. They are considerably grown abroad for 
cut-flowers in earlv spring, young plants a season or 
two old being used for best results. The variety with 
variegated fouage is dwarfer and weaker-growing. The 
true botanical name of the Cape jasmine is G. jasmirir 
oidea^ a name almost never used in the trade. ''Cape 
jasmme" itself is one of the most remarkable cases of 
the vitali^ of an erroneous popular name. The single- 
flowered form was introducea much later than the 
double, and has alwavs been less popular. The earliest 
picture of a living plant with single flowers was pub- 
lished in 1820 in B, R. 449. Cape iasmines are also 
handled by importers of Japanese plants, who some- 
times offer seeos also. G. lucida was probably intro- 
duced by Reasoner, and G. Rothmannia by Franceschi, 
who reports that it is probably not now (1914) in 
cultivation. For the true jasmmes (which belong to 
the olive family, and are often trailing plants), see 
Jagminunu 

CvUure. — ^The Cape jasmine of today. Gardenia 
Veitckiij was introducecf by the well-known English 
firm of Jas. Veitch & Son. This new variety has ful- 
filled the long-desired want, because it is really a winter- 
flowering variety, while the old species Gardenia jas^ 
tninoides or G. florida could not be made to flower 
during the early and midwinter when actually most 
valuable, hence the almost total abandonment of that 
old variety for cut-flower purposes. This new t3rpe 
has become one of the most popular florist flowers, 
although it is one of the most difficult plants to handle. 
The young plants are raised from cuttings in the early 
winter. Care must be taken to propagate only from 
thorou^y healthy plants. Three- to four-eye cuttings 
should be put into clean, sharp sand with a minimum 
bottom heat of 70^ and a maximum of 85^. The atmo- 
sphere should be rather close in the propagating-house 
until after the cuttinis begin to root, then some air 
should be admitted. The cutting-bench must be kept 
shaded from the sun and frequent syringing is absolutely 
necessary. When fuUy rooted in the sand, thev are 
potted into 2-inch pots in well-prepared soil of four 
parts decomposed sod loam, one part of well-rotted old 
cow-manure and one part sand. The soil should be 
well screened. Potting firmly is essential, and not too 
much room should be left for water. A gentle bottom 
heat for these young plants is hiehlv beneficial. When 
the sun begins to get higher and the days lengthen, a 
little fresh air during the middle of the day is invigora- 
ting for the young plants, but the night temperature 
should never go below 65 . The plants must be kept 
growing constantly and should be repotted as soon as 
they have filled their pots with roots. The months of 
May and June are the best time to plant gardenias 
into benches or solid beds. The best soil has been 
found to be well-rotted turf or sod, a pliable loam and 
well-rotted cow-manure well mixed, three parts of 
loam to one of manure. Should the soil be rather 
stiff or of a heavv texture, a portion of sand may be 
added. The benches should be 4 to 5 inches deep and 
have sufficient openings or cracks for drainage. Where 
v«ry thin turf or sod can be had, the bench should be 
lined with this, or if not practicable, then a layer of 
sphagnum moss so as to cover the bottom of the 



bench. On top of this, a liberal sprinkling of pieces 
of charcoal will tend to keep the soil sweet. A small 
quantity of £px)und bone may be sprinkled over the 
soil after it is all spread on the benches ready for 
planting. Care must be taken that all balls are well 
softened and dissolved when planting so that there 
will be an amalgamation of the new soil and the soil 
of the ball. Firm planting and immediate watering 
are of the highest importance and frequent syringing 
after planting. Shadmg is not necessary, providing 
frequent syringing is given. Keep the soil moist but 
never wet. It is well to keep the house rather close 
for a few days, after which air can be given freely. 
Gardenia VeUchii can stand any amount of heat, and 
there is no danger of burning or scorching until the foli- 
age begins to get warm. When thermometer goes 
above 90** to 95* more air must bfe given. The plants 
must now make their growth and if buds appear 
they must be pinched out. Keep pinching out buds 
and small side shoots until the latter part of September 
when buds may be allowed to set upon the stronger 
shoots. A strong healthy plimt can carry four to six 
such flowering shoots. After buds begin to set and 
sometimes even before, bottom shoots b^in to come. 
These are the second growth and make ^ a second 
crop of flowers as well as for propagating the yoimg 
pkmts for the next season. Plants are seldom kept 
over the second year althou^ it can be done success- 
fully. Young pkmts are decidedly the most profitable. 
When the plaiits are well set with buds, in October 
and November, and the roots appear on the surface, a 
very light mulch of cow-manure is beneficial as it will 
assist to develop the flowers. A night temperature of 
65** to 68** is best, while during the day it may range 
from 70*' to 90**. Good hard ^ringing will keep down 
the pests which are fond of this plant, especially the 
mealy-bug. The flowers should be cut before the 
center petals have fully expanded and the longer the 
stem the more valuable the flower. (H. A. Siebrecht.) 

A. CoroUorivbe cylindrical. 

B. Calyx with 6 long teeth. 

c. Rib8 on the calyx. 

jasminoides, Ellis (G, fl&rida. Linn. G. radicans, 
Thunb.). Cape Jasmine. Variaole, very small shrub, 
unarmed, the st. sometimes rooting: Ivs. lanceolate, 
sometimes variegated: fls. white, solitary, very fragrant, 
waxy. For pictures of double forms, see B.M. 18^ 
and 2627, and B.R. 73; single, B.R. 449 and B.M. 
3349; normal and variegated foliage, R.H. 1864, p. 30. 
China. Var. FortunlAna, Lindl. (G. Fdrtunei, Hort.). 
B.R. 32:43. F.S. 2:177. R.B. 23:241. In 1893 was 
advertised (?. cameUixfldra in addition to G. radkcans^ 
G, fl&rida and vars. mAjor and majieiica, <?. einhms 
grandifldra of Berger's catalogue perhaps belongs here. 
Presumably the G. Veitchii of the gardens belongs here. 

cc. Ribs not present. 

liicida, Roxbg. Buds resinous: Ivs. oblong; stipules 
annular, variously divided at the mouth, unequally 
lobed: fls. stalked, fragrant, white but ultimately 
turning yellow, 1-2 H in. across. India, Burma, Luzon. 
— The calyx-teeth are not decurrent, as in the Cape 

{'asmine, and thus the calyx does not have the ribbed 
ook. 

BB. Calyx tvhvlaTf with 5 very short teeth. 

amdbna, Sims. Differs from all here described in hav- 
ing numerous strong spines nearly Viin. long, which are 
axillary: Ivs. oval, acute, short-stalked: fls. subtermi- 
nal; coroUa-tube 1 in. long, longer than the lobes, which 
are 6, obovate, white, with margins incurved enough to 
show the rosy back. India or China. 

EBB. Calyx spaihe-like. 

Thimb^rgia, Linn. f. Lvs. broadly elliptic, acute, 
with pairs of glands along the midribs: fls. 3 in. across. 



1316 



GARDENIA 



pure white; coroUa-lobea 8, overlapping. S. Afr. B.M. 
1004. — Dwarf-growing, and perhApa not now in cult, in 
this country. 

A&. CoTvUitrlvhe fhiOTt and vAde-Otroated. 
B. Fl». 3 in. long and broad. 

Rothminnia, Linn. f. Very distinct in foliage &nd 
fi.: Ivs. with paire of haiiy glands along the midrib: 
calyx ribbed, with 5 long teeth, equahng the abort, 
cylindrical portion of the corolla-tube; corolla-tube 
rather suddenly swelled, ribbed; lobee 5, long-acumi- 
nate, whitiah, spotted purple in the mouth. S. Afr. 
B.M. 690. L.B.C. 11:1053.— FIb. pale yellow, but it 
does not bloom in Calif, according to Francescni. 
BB. FU. 1 a in. Umu and broad. 

clobdsa, Hochst. Lvb. oblong, ahortr«cuininat«; If.- 
stalk neaxly 3-5 lines long: fls. white, inside hairy and 
lined pale yellow; calyx smaU, with 5 very abort teeth; 
oorolla-tuDe wide at the base and gradually swelled; 
lobes 5, ^ort-acuminate. S. Afr. B.M. 4791. FS. 
9:951. 

a. eiiritidira. Hook.— Mitri«lieru *iillv«, — 0. inltrmidia, 
Hort.. id ft nuue unknown In botamcil titersture uid tlw plAat'B 
affinities ure unknown. — G. Stanlryiaa, Hook.— iUndift nueuUUk 

N. TATK)B.t 



OARDEH LEIIOB: Cucihrh Mda. 
OAKDOqUU BSTOHICOtDBS: C«dron^la 



OABOBT: PMotocm d, 



DasAne Cneorvm. 

GARLIC (AUium aoli- 
intm, Linn.). Hardy pep- 
ennial bulboqs plant, 
closely aUied to the onion. 
It is native of southern 
Europe. IthasflatleavcB. 
and the bulb is compoaea 
of several separable parts 
or bulbels, called cloves. 
These cloves are planted, 
as are onion seta, in spring 
or in fall in the South. 
They mature in aummer 
and early autumn, being 
ready to gather when the 
leaves die away. If the 
soil is rich, it may be 
necessary to break over 
the tops to prevent too 
much top i;rowth and to 
make the bulbs better, as 
is sometimes done with 
onions. This is done when 
the top growth has reached 
normal full size. The 
cloves are usually set 4 toG 
inches apart in drills or 
rows, in ordinary garden 
soil. The bulba are used 
in cookery, but mostly 
amongst the foreign popu- 
lation. Strings of bulbs 
braided together by their 
tora are common in metro- 
politan markets (Fig. 
1622). The bulbs are 
white -skinned <v some- 
times rose-tinged. 

L. H. B. 

GARUC PBAX; Cmtmta. 



GARUGA 

GARRTA (after Nicholas Garry, secretary of the 
Hudson Bay Company). Including Fadj/inia. Garry- 
doex, formerly included under Comdcex. Omamental 
^ruM chi^y ETown for foliage and showy catkins. 

Evergreen: Tvs. opposite, short^petioled, entire or 
denticulate, without stipules: fls. diiBcioua, apetaloua, 
1-3 in the axils of opptsite bracts on elon^ted, often 
drooping, axillary spikes; staminate fls. with 4 sepals 
and 4 stamens; pistillate with 2 sepals and 2 styles and 
a l-celled ovaiy: berry 1-2-seeded, rather dry, — About 
10 species in W. N. Amer. from S. Ore. to S. Mex., east 
to W. Texas. 

The ganyas ^enoally have dUptic to oblong leaves, 
and small greenish white or yellowish flowers in catkin- 
like, often pendulous spikes, and dark purple or dark 
blue berries. None of the species is hardy North but 
0. fiaoeacenx, G. Wrightii, and also G. FTenumtii, which 
are the haraiest, can probably be grown north to New 
York in sheltered positions, while the otheis are hardy 
in warmer r^ons only. They ate well adapted for ever- 
peen shrubberies, and the staminate plants are espec- 
ially decorative in early spring with the showy, pen- 
dulous catkins, which in G. dliptica attain to 1 foot in 
length and often bloom in midwinter. The garryas 
thrive well in a well-drained soil and in sunny, shel- 
tered position; in England they are often grown on 
walls. Propagation is oy seeds or by cuttings of half- 
ripened wood under glass; also by layers. 

elUptica, Douglas. Shrub, to 8 ft.: Ivs. elliptic to 
ovot-obloog, obtuse or acute, usually undulate, gla- 
brous above^ densely tomentose beneath, 1}4~3 in- 
long: 3 fls. m the s^dls of short and brtwd, pointed 
bracts; spikes rather dense, staminate 2-12 in, long, 
often branched, pistillate 1-3 in. long: fr. ^oboee, 
Bill^ tomentose. Cahf. to New Mcx, B.R. 1686. 
Gn. 33, p. 562; 37, p. 501; 39, p. 281; 51, p^257;^. 



22:116. G. 20:30; 35:21. H.U. 2, p. 35. H.F. 1865: 
198. G.L. 24:190.— This is the handsomest species, 
and stands about 10° of &oet (sometimes more) in a 
sheltered position. 

G. Fadytnii, Hook. (Fsdyenia Hookeri. Orueb.). Bhrub, bl 
IG ft.: Its. elliptic ta obLonr, Kcuta or mucninulHte, slon^ Bbfipo, 
tonumtoae beneath or tUmoat cLabroufl at leofth. 2-4 in. Lon^: 
brvctfl oblonx-LanoeoUM, remote: fr. voaxntoar. JunAica. Cuba. — 
G. JIatlieeni. Wata. (G. Veatchii Tar. flav««iiB, CouJC A Evang). 
Bhrub. to 8 ft.: Iva. eUiptic. ailky pubeaoent below, t-2 in. Lontf: 
Diksa deoK, about 1 in. lona. AHi., Utah. N. Mei.— G. Fr«a«n^>, 
Ton. Bhtub, to 10 fl.: Iva. ovate tfl obkmc. acute, glabrous on 
' q, yGUowUh smn. 1-3 in. loa«: »ik« deoae. 2-S in. [oom: 
rt brarta: fr. wdioelled. glabnnis. Ore. to Calif. G.C.II. 



with short bi 






« Calif. G.C.I 

L ions: ^ik« dcnsE and shon: (r.HHil^rMci. — G. thuri 

Can. (G. ellipticaxG. Fadyenij). Shrub, to 15 ft.: Iva, elliptii 
elliptic-oblonj, whiliah Himentom; beneath. 2-5 in. Ions: bn 
remote, with umui)l>' 1 fl, in each axil: apikea ahorter Chan thos 
O. elliptlca. Ori^nated in Franoe. R.D. lS6e, p. 17; ISTe. 



.: Ivs. 



lo Calif, and N. Mei. 



1. lone: fr. flabroi 



Alfred Rsbder. 



GARDGA (native East Indian name). Bvraerdcex. 
This includes a deciduous East Indian tree, reaching 
60 fee^ and cultivated in southern Florida and CaU- 
fomia for its fruits, which are the size of a gooseberry, 

and are eaten raw, but chiefly pickled. 

Tomentose or hairy plants: Ivs. crowded at tips of 
branches, alternate, odd-pinnate: Ifts. opposite, sub- 
sessile, serrate: Ss. polygamous, large, panicled; calyx 
bell-shaped, 5-cut; petals 5, inserted on the tube of the 
calyx above the middle; starocns 10; ovary 4-5-ceUed; 
ovules in pairs: drupe with 5, or by abortion 1-3, stones, 
which are wrinkled and finatW 1 -seeded .—Species 
perhaps a dozen in India and PaciSc islands to Austral. 



GARUGA 



GASTERIA 



1317 



pmnita, Roxbg. Tree, 3(M0 ft., with Ivs. 1 ft. or 
more lon^; Ifts. obtusely crenate: ns. small, in a very 
large panicle: fr. a black drupe. India and Malaya to 
the PnilippineB. — ^Also cult, abroad under glass. 

L. U. B. 

GAS PLAHT: ZKetomiMM. 

GAST£RIA (Greek, gaster, belly: referring to the 
usually swollen base of the flowers). LUidceXf tribe 
Aloinex, Mostly acaulescent and small succulents of 
similar decorative uses and treatment as Aloe. 

Leaves usually elongated, crowded in rosettes or on 
short sts., usually 2-ranked: fls. with a red or rosy 
typically ventricose curved tube and short equal sub- 
erect greenish segms. about as long as the stamens and 
Eistil. S. Afr. Specied 43. Monog. oy Berger in EIngler, 
)as Pflanxenieich, hft. 33 (1908). 



# ci nafrifoliit> 1& 
anguUta, 3, 4. 
oanaliculftta, 7. 
oarixuita, 15w 
conspuroata, 2. 
eranifolia, 6. 
denticulaUit 5. 
diHicha, 2. 3. ft. 
Dreseana, 16. 
enailolia, 1& 
excavata, 13. 
falcata, 15. 
fallax, la 
formooa, 9. 



INDEX. 

^abra, 16. 
glabrior, 7. 
pmndipunotata, 17. 
intermedia, 1. 
latifolia, 1, 1& 
Uncua, o. 
Un^rifoliat 3. 
maoulata, 10. 
major, 16. 
marmorata, 6, 12. 
minor, 16. 
njcricans, 6, 7, 10. 
nitens, 18. 
nitida, 17. 



obUqm, 10. 
parvif oUa, 14. 
panripttnotalftv 17« 
piota, 9. 
planifolia. 8. 
pulchra, IL 
acabemma, 1. 
8tri«ata, 1ft. 
subnigricaDS* 7. 
sulcata, 4. 
truncata, 3. 
venusta, 18. 
vemioofla, 1. 



A. Fls. scarcely 1 in. long, mostly ventrieose. 

B. Los. radical, in 2 nearly straight ranks, not kedei* 

c. The Ivs. with pale raised warts. 

1. verrucdsa. Haw. (Aide verrucdsa, Mill. A. dUticha, 
Linn. A. verrucula, Medikus. A. acuminata and A. 
racemdsa, Lam.). Cespitose: Ivs. acute, somewhat 
concavdy SHsided, spreading, Hx4-6 in., dull gT&v, 
very rough with white crowded tubercles: infl. 2 ft. 
high, typically simple. Cape. B.M. 837. i>C., PI. Gr. 
63. Beraer 42, 43. — Varies in a form with Ivs. 1 ft 
long and branched infl., var. latifdUa, Salm (Aide 
Hngua var., Ker), B.M. 1322, f. 2, 3. Salm, Aloe § 29, 
f. 25; a form with large greener more mucronate Ivs. 
with less crowded warts, var. intermedia, Baker (G. 
intermhiia, Haw. Aide iniennhdia, Haw.), Sahn, 
Aloe §29, f. 24. B.M. 1322, f. 1; and a form with 
scarcelv concave greener Ivs. with the greenish warts 
somewhat in lines on the back, var. scab^rrima, 
Bi^er (0. intermedia scabirrima, Haw. Aide scab4rrima 
Sahn), Sahn, Aloe §29, f. 26. Hybrids are reported 
between 0. verrucosa and G. mdchra; G. verrucosa 
intermedia and G. carinata as well as Haworihia radvla; 

.And G. verrucosa latifolia and G. hrevifolia. 

cc. The ks. not white-warty. 

2. conspnrcfttai Haw. (G. dlsticha conspurcdta. 
Baker. Ailde conspurcdta, Salm). Lvs. obtuse, mucro- 
nate, Uttle concave, Ij^x 10-12 in., green, smooth 
except on the marmn. with small often confluent white 
spots: infl. 2)^-3 tt. nigh, simple. Cape. Salm, Aloe § 
29, f. 31. 

3. anguULta, Haw. (G. disticha anotdcUa, Baker. G. 
lonfifdlia, Haw. Aide angvldta. Willd. A. lingua longi* 
fdha. Haw.). Lvs. abruptly snortr-mucronate, a Utile 
concave on one or both faces, 2 x 8-10 in., one or both 
edges angularly doubled^ dark green with small often 
confluent white spots: mfl. 3 ft. high, exceptionally 
branching. Cape(?). Salm, Aloe § 29, f. 29. — A form 
with gutter-like lvs. is var. tnmcUta, Berger (A. 
anguldta truncAta, Willd.). 

4. solcUta, Haw. (G. anguldta. Haw. Aide sulcdta, 
Salm. A. Hngua angiddta, Haw.). Lvs. concavely strap- 
shaped. 4-angled. 1x4 in., dull green with small green- 
ish little-raiKd aots: infl. 2 ft. nigh, simple; fls. httle 
inflated. Cape. Sahn, Aloe § 29, f. 32. 



5. lingua, Berger (G, disticha. Haw. G. denticuldta. 
Haw. Aide lingua, Thunb. A. disticha, R. & S.). Lvs. 
obtuselv mucronate. oblong, somewhat concave, 
2-edgea, denticulate above, 2 x 8-10 in., green or grayish 
with more or less banded and pale greenish spots: mfl. 
3 ft. high, simple. Cape. Salm, Aloe § 29, f . 33. Bur- 
ger 44. 

6. nigricans, Haw. (Aide nigricans. Haw. A. o&A^tio, 
Jacq.). Lvs. oblong, abruptly mucronate, 2-edged, 

2 X 5-8 in., glossy daric green or purplish with more or 
less banded pale flpreenish spots: infl. 3 ft. high, some- 
times branched. Cape. Salm, Aloe § 29, f . 7. — Varies 
inte a less mottled form with shorter fleshier lvs., var. 
crassifdlia. Haw. (A. lingua crassifdlia, Ait. A. crassif 
fdlia, R. & S.), B.M. 838. J.H. III. 60, p. 98; and a 
white- and rosy-marbled form with smaller lvs., var. 
marmorilta, Baker (A. marmordta, Salm. A. formdsa, 
R. & S.). 

7. subnigricans, Haw. (G. nigricans subnigricanSf 
Baker. Aloe subnigricans, Spreng. A. pseudonioricans. 
Salm). Lvs. scarcely 1 in. wide, acute, green with small 
separate rather transversely arranged pale spots: infl. 

3 ft. hidh, simple; fls. ventricose. Cape. Sahn, Aloe § 
29, f. 10. — Varies into a form with more concave lvs., 
var. canaliculita, Salm; and a form with sword-like 
darker lvs., var. ^brior. Haw. (Aide guttdta^ Salm. A. 
nigricans dentumldta, oalm. G. nigricans guUdta^ 
Baker). Salm, Aloe § 29, f. 9. 

BB. Los. crowded along an evid^ if short st. 
a The hfs. in 2 straight or twisted ranks. 

8. fdanifdlia^ Baker (Aide planifdlia, Baker). Lvs. 
in straight ranks, narrow, abruptly mucronate, 2-edged, 
^ X 6-10 in., glossy green with more or less confluent 
oblong white spots, the minutely rough margin often 
rosy: mfl. 6 ft. high, or more, simple; perianth very 
abruptly inflated below. Cape. Ref. Bot. 162. 

9. picta, Haw. (Aide Bouredna, R. &. S., A. BowiC' 
dna, Salm). Lvs. in twisted ranks, tongue-shaped, 
abruptly mucronate, somewhat concave and 3-sided, 
1)^2 X 10-14 in., glossy dark green mottled with 
round white spots confluent below, the thickened mar- 
gin sub^itire: infl. 3 ft. high, branched. Cape. Salm, 
Aloe § 29, f . 3. — ^Varies into the smaller var. formdsa, 
Berger (Aide Bounedna formdsa, Salm. G. formdsa. 
Haw.). 

10. macuULta^ Haw. (G. obhqua. Haw. G. nigricans 
^atyphyUa, BaKer. Aide maculdta, Thimb. A. obhqua. 
Haw. A. maculdta obUqua, Ait.). Lvs. in somewhat 
twisted ranks, tongue-shaped, blunt or abruptlv 
mucronate, 2-edged or with one margin doubled, 
1^-2x6-8 in., glossy dark green with more or less 
confluent large oblong spots or entirelv white at base 
below, rough-margin^: infl. 3-4 ft. high, branched. 
Cape. Sahn, Aloe § 29^ f. 1. B.M. 979. Ben^ 47.— 
Two varieties are distinguished: var. ftllaz. Haw. (A. 
maculdta angHsHor, Sahn), with smaller whiter smooth 
lvs., and var. DregelLna, Berger, with rough-margined 
lvs. 

11. piUchra, Haw. (Aide maculdta piilchra. Ait. A. 
piUchra, Jacq.). Lvs. in spiral ranks, falcate, narrowed 
m>m the base, acute, scarcely 1 x 8-10 in., glossy dark 
green with oblong white spots transversely or reticu- 
hitely confluent, slightly rough-margined: infl. 3 ft. 
hi^, branched. Cape. Jacq., Schoenbr. 4:19. Salm, 
Aloe § 29, f. 2. DC., PL Gr. 91. B.M. 765. Miller. 
Icon. 292. Berger 47. — ^It is said to have been crossed 
with G. verrucosa. 

cc. The lvs. not 2-Tanked. 

12. marmorUta, Baker. Lvs. smooth, lorate-lanceo* 
late, rounded and cuspidate at tip, 1-13^x5-6 in., 
with one margin doubled, dark green with large green- 
ish more or less confluent spots: infl. 2-2^ ft. high, 
branched. Cape. 



1318 



GASTERIA 



GA ULTHERIA 



BBB. Lv8» nearly radical^ typically keeled or triquetrous. 
c. The he, in 2 spiral ranks. 

13. ezcavftta. Haw. (Aide excavdta, Willd. A. 
obscivraj Willd.). Lvs. smooth, rather thin, spreading, 
lanceolate, mucronately acute, denticulate, 1-1 H x 4-^ 
in., dull pale green with small greenish white ^ots: infl. 
2 ft. high, simple. Cape. Sahn, Aloe § 29, f. 22. B.M. 
1322, f . 4. 

cc. The lvs. not ^-ranked. 

14. parvifdliEf Baker. Lvs. thick, deltoid-oblong, 
submucronate, somewhat roughened on keel ana 
margin, 1 x 2-3 in.^ purplish green with small whitish 
spots: infl. 1^ ft. hign, smiple. Cape. Berger 49. 

15. carinAta, Haw. {Albe carinAta, Mill. A. trlsticha^ 
Medikus). Lvs. thick, spreading, triangular -lanceo- 
late, somewhat falcate, acute from the 2-m. base, 5r-6 
in. long, grooved above, dull green with coarse whitish 
warts sometimes in irregular lines: infl. 2)^-3 ft., 
sometimes branched. Cape. B.M. 1331a. Salm, 
Aloe i 29, f. 20. Berger 50. — ^Varies into a larger 
smoother form, var. stngftta, Baker (G. strigdlOf Haw. 
A. carindta Ikvior^ Salm); a form with narrower more 
falcate lvs. with smaller pale points, var. falc&ta, 
Berger; and a form with short broad still finer-punctate 
lvs., var. latifdliEf Berger. It is said to have been 
crossed with G. verrucosa intermedia. 

16. g^bra, Haw. {Albe gldbraf Salm. A. carindta 
subffldbray Haw.). Lvs. triangular-lanceolate, acute or 
mucronate from the 2-in. base, 6-8 in. long, dull green 
with small scarcely raised whitish points: infl. 2>^ 
ft. high. Cape. Sahn, Aloe § 29, f. 19. B.M. 1331, 
If. at left. — Respectively larger and smaller forms are 
sometimes desig^ted as vars. mHjor and minor. 

17. nitida, Haw. {Aide nUidat Salm). Lvs. tnangular- 
lanceolate^ acute from the 2-in. base, 6-9 in. long, 
smooth, hght glossy green with white often band^ 

3>ots, the margin roughish: infl. 3 ft. high, simple, 
ape. Salm, Aloe S 29, f . 17. — ^Varies in a form with 
more numerous smaller pale dots. var. parvipunctUta, 
Salm {A. nitida mdjor, Saun). B.M. 2304; and one with 
fewer, larger and more confluent spots, var. grandi- 
punctkta, Sahn (A. nitida nAnor, Salm). 

AA. Fls. iyi-2 in.f little inflated, long-stalked: large for 

the genus. 

18. acinadfdliay Haw. {Aide adnadfdluif Jacq.). 
Lvs. acute, 3-edged, spreading in a Is^^ 2-ranked 
rosette, 2 x 14 in., rather glossy dark green with scat- 
tered low pale dots: infl. about 4 ft. high, branched 
below. Cape. B.M. 2369. Berger 52. — Varies in a 
more erect-lvd. form, var. ensifdlia. Baker {G. ensi- 
/dlia, Haw.) I Salm, Aloe S 29, f. 12; a form with more 
confluent low motthng, var. nltens. Baker {G. nUens, 
Haw. Albe nitens. R. & S.); ana a narrower-lvd. 
form with somewnat seriate slightly raised whiter 
spots, var. veniista, Baker (<?. venHstay Haw. Albe 
venixsta, R. & S. A. adnacifblia veniistiif Salm). It 
has been crossed with Aloe striata, 

O. bretifdlia. Haw. Lvs. 3-4 in. long, Ungulate, dose together: 
fls. red. about 1 in. long. ASt.—O. H^UUmxm, N. E. Br. Lvs. in a 
looee roeette, 16-18 in. long, broad at base, narrowed above, 
obliquely keeled: fls. pendulous, nearly 1 in. long, rose with green- 
keeled lobes. S. AJLt.—Q. obliui/dlia, Haw. Lvs. thinner than in 
G. sulcata and shorter than in G. lingua. 

William Trelease. 

GAST6NIA PALMATA: Trevesia. 

GASTROCHlLnS (Greek-made name, alluding to 
the swollen hp). Zingiber dLce3B. A very few Indian 
and Malayan herbs, perennial or annual, that may 
sometimes be found in choice collections of hothouse 
plants. Allied to Hedychium and Kaempferia, difler- 
mg from the former in the character of the connective 
and from the latter in the sac-form hp: sometimes 
provided with a creeping rootstock: st. very short or 
none, or reaching 12 in. high: lvs. oblong and acute: 



fls. mostly white with lip yellow or pink, soUtary or in 
spikes; corolla-tube slender and the sesms. oonnivent: 
staminodia present and petal-like; fip oblong and 
entire but the margin sinuate, exceeding the corolla; 
ovary 3-celled, each cell many-ovuled. G. pulchSrrinui, 
Wall., is leafy-stemmed, to 12 in., from a creeping 
rootstock: fls. white in a spike 2-3 in. long, the hp 
tinged pink. H. U. 4, p. 100. G. Umgiflbra, Wall., 
is acaulescent, with lvs. to 12 in. lonjg: fls. 1 or 2 
from the crown, long-tubed, white, the Up tinged red. 
The Gastrochilus of Don is orchidaceous, and is now 
referred to Sacoolabium. l. h. B. 

GASTROLdBIUM (Greek-made name, referring to 
the swollen pods). Leguminbsse. More than 30 shrubs 
of W. Austral., Uttle known in cult. Lvs. simple 
and entire, mostly stiff: fls. yellow or in part purple- 
red, racemose in coiymbs or whorls; calyx Mobed; 
petals clawed, the standard orbicular or kidney-shaped, 
and emarginate, the wings oblong, and the keel broad 
and short; stamens free; style filiform, incurved: pod 
turgid, ovoid or nearly globular. G. vdiUinum, Lindl. 
A handsome shrub: lvs. in 3's or 4's, var3ring from 
obovate to linear-cuneate, very obtuse, emarginate, 
^in. or less long: fls. oran^red, on villous pedicels, 
m terminal clusters to 13^ m. long: pod ovoid, about 
^in. long. G. cunedtuMj Henfr., may be the same as 
the foregoing, perhaps with longer racemes. J.F. 3 :258. 
G. viUbsumf Bentn. Decumbent with ascending 
sts.: lvs. opposite, ovate to almost lanceolate, very 
obtuse, 1-2 m. long: fls. in terminal pedunculate racemes 
3-4 in. long; standard orange-red, shorter lower petals 
purple-red :fK>d broadly ovoid, about ^^in. long. B.R. 
33:45. J.F. 4:341. G. ovatifblium, Henfr. Diffuse 
shrub: lvs. mostly opposite, ovate or oblong or orbicu- 
lar, 1 in. or less long, often emarginate: fls. nearly 
sessile in racemes 1-3 in. long, orange or orange-red, 
the lower petals deeply colored. J.F. 3:247, 324. 

L. H. B. 
OASTRONEMA: A aectioii of Cyrtanihut. 

GAULTHtRU (named by Kalm after Dr. ''Gaul- 
thier,'' a physician in Quebec, whose name was really 
written Gaultier). Eridcex. C/mamental woody plants 
grown for the attractive flowers and fruits and also for 
their handsome evergreen foliage. 

Evergreen erect or procumbent shrubs, rarely small 
trees, usually hairy and glandular: lvs. petioled. 
roundish to lanceolate, mostly serrate: fls. in terminal 
panicles or axillary racemes or sohtaiy; calyx 5-parted; 
corolla uroeolate, 5-lobed; stamens 10; ovary superior: 
fr. a ^-celled, dehiscent caps., usually inclosed by the 
fleshy and berry-like calyx. — ^About 90 species in the 
warmer and subtropical regions of Asia, Austral., and 
in Amer. from Canada to Chile. Some have edible 
fruits, and an aromatic oil used in perfumery and 
medicine is obtained from G. procumbens and several 
Asiatic species. 

This genus includes the wintergreen and some other 
ornamental low aromatic plants with alternate, ever- 

Sreen leaves, white, pink or scarlet, often fragrant 
owers in terminal or axillary racemes or sohtary, and 
with decorative, berry-like red or blackish frmt. G. 
vrocumbens is fully hardy North, while the other 
North American species are somewhat tenderer and 
need protection during the winter; G. Veitchiana prom- 
ises to be hardy as far north as Massachusetts. They 
are well adapted for borders of evergreen shrubberies 
as well as for rockeries, and in suitable soil they are 
apt to form a handsome evergreen groimd-cover. Most 
of the foreign species can be grown only South or as 
greenhouse shrubs. They grow best in sandy or peaty, 
somewhat moist soil and partly shaded situations. 
Propagation is by seeds, layers or suckers^ division of 
older plants, and also by cuttings of half-ripened wood 
under glass. 



J 



GAULTHERIA 



GAYLUSSACIA 



1319 



A. FU, solitary. 

procdmbensi Linn. Wintergrbsn. Chbckerbbrrt. 
BoxBERRY. PARTRmoE Berrt. St. Creeping, sending 
up erect branches to 5 in. high, bearing toward the 
end 3-8 dark green, oval or obovate, ahnost i^broua 
Ivs., 1-2 in. long, with ciliate teeth: fls. solitary, nod- 
ding; corolla ovate, white, about J^in. long; anthers 
with 4 awns: filaments pubescent: fr. scarlet. July- 
Sept. Canada to Ga., west to Mich. B.M. 1966. 
L.B.C. 1:82. Gn. 31, p. 379. 

AA. FU. in racemes, 

Shillon, Pursh. Low shrub, to 2 ft., with spreading, 
glandulariiairy branches: lys. roundiw-ovate or ovate, 
cordate or rounded at the base, serrulate, 2-4 in. long: 
fls. nodding, in terminal and axillary racemes; corolm 
ovate, white or pinkish: fr. purplish black, glandular, 
hairy. May, June; fr. Sept., Oct. Brit. Col. to Calif. 
CaUed "shaflon'' or "salal" by Indians. B.M. 2843. 
B.R.1411. L.B.C. 14:1372. Gn. 31, p. 379. 

VeitchULna. Craib. Shrub, to 3 ft., sometimes decum- 
bent: branchlets setose: Ivs. elliptic to oblong or 
obovate-oblong, short-apiculate, broadly cuneate or 
nearly roundea at the base, setose-semuate, glabrous 
and lustrous above, paler below and setose on the veins 
whQe young, l^roj^ in* long: fls. in axillary and 
terminal villous racemes 1-2 in. long, densely bracteate, 
the bracts as long or longer than tne pedicels; corolla 
ovate, white, ^m, long: fr. indigo-blue. May, June; 
it, Aug., Sept. W. China. 

O. anUpodat Forst. Shrub, to 5 ft, eometimes prooumbent. 
hairy: Ivs. orbicular to oblong, yi-y^.: fl. eolitary^hite or pink, 
eamx>anulate. New Zeal., Ta8inaiua.^-G. eooc(nea,HBK. Shnio. to 
2 ft., haiiy: Itb. roundiah ovate, about 1 in.: fla. slender-pedioelled, 
in dongated, secund raoemea; ooroUa ovate, pink. Veneiuela. 
R.H. 1840:181.-0. ftrruiflnea, Cham. A Sohlecht. (Q. ignesoens, 
Lem.). Small ahrub, rufoualy hairy: Iva. ovate or oblong, 1-2 in.: 
fla. almost like those of the precedmg spedea. BraaiL B.M. 4697. 
J.F. 3:265: 4:371.— (7. fragrarUUaima, WalL Shrub or small tree, 
glabrous: Ivs. elliptic to lanceolate, 2H-3^ in. long: racemes 
axillary, erect, ahorter than the Ivs. ; corolla white or pinlnsh, slobu- 
lar-ovate. Himalayas, Ceylon. B.M. 6984.— G. mvrnnUe§^ Hook. 
Allied to O. procumbens. Lvs. orbicular or broadhr ovate, H~l in. 
long: corolla broadly campanulate; filaments glabrous; anthers 
without awns. Wash, to Calif, and Colo.— O. nummttlurioidet, D. 
Don (Q. Nummularia, DC. ). Procumbent: branches densely 
rufousiy hairy: lvs. orbicular to ovate, )4-l in* long: fls. soUtai^, 
ovate, white. Himalayas. Q.C. II. 22:457. — O. oppontifdha. 
Hook, f . Shrub, to 8 ft. : lvs. mostly opposite, ovate, cordate, bluntly 
toothed. 1H-2H in. long: fls. white, urceolate, Hio* long, in 
terminal pamcles 3-4 in. long. New Zeal. G.C.III.52:109. Gn. 75. 
p. 412.— (7. omUildliat Gray. Procumbent, with Ascending um 
sparingly hairy branches: lvs. ovate, acute, 1-1 H in* long: fla. 
solitary, campanulate: fr. scarlet. Brit. Col. to Ore.— -<7. pvrocoidet. 
Hook. 1. ^ Thom. (G. pyroUsfolia, Hook. f.). Low shrub, some- 
times procumbent, almost glabrous: lvs. elliptic-obovate, about 
IH in. long: racemes few-fld., axillary. Himalayas, Japan. Var. 
eunsdta, Rehd. ^ Wilson. Branchlets minutely villous: lvs. nar- 
row, oblong-obovate, cuneate: ovary and fr. villous. W. China.— 
Q, triehophHUa, Royle. Dwarf: lvs. elliptic, ciliate, H~H in. long: 
lis. axillary, pinkish: fr. blue. Himalayas, W. China. B.M. 7635. 

Alfred RehdeR. 

GAt)RA (Greek, superb), Qnagrdcex. This includea 
several herbs which are distinct in appearance, but 
scarcely possess general garden value, although they are 

gleaaant incidents in the hardy border for those who 
ke native plants. 

Annual, biennial or perennial plants confined to the 
warmer regions of N. Amer.: lvs. fdtemate, sesdle or 
stalked, entire, dentate, or sinuate: fls. white or rose, 
in spikes or racemes; calyx-tube deciduous, obconical. 
much prolonged beyond the ovary, with 4 reflexea 
lobes; petals clawed, unequal; stamens mostly 8. with 
a small scale-like appendage before the base ot each 
filament; stigma 4-loDed, surrounded by a ring or cup- 
like border: fr. nut-like, 3~4-ribbed, finally 1-celled, 
and 1-4-seeded. — Species 20-25. The bloom ascends 
the slender racemes too slowly to make the plants as 
showy as possible. The best kind is G, Lindheimeri, 
which has white fls. of singular appearance, with rosy 
calyx-tubes. Gauras are easily prop, by seed. They 
prefer li^t soils, and the seedlmgs can be transplanted 
directly mto pennanent quarters. 



A. Height S ft.: fls. white. 

liadhehneri, Engelm. & Gray. St. hairy and more or 
less branched above: lvs. lanceolate or more often 
spatulate with a few wavy teeth and recurved margins: 
flis. in a loose spike. Texas and La. R.H. 1851:41; 
1857, p. 262. H.F. 8:145. G.W. 14, p. 100. 

AA. Height 1 ft.: fls. rosy, turning to scarlet. 

cocc&iea, Nutt. An erect or ascending, usually much- 
branched perennial: lvs. numerous, lanceolate to linear 
or oblong, repand-denticulate or entire: fls. in spikes, 
very showy, except that the whole spike does not come 
into flower at one time: fr* 4-6ided. Manitoba to Mont, 
and Texas. Wilhelm Miller. 

N. TATLOB.t 

GAt^SSIA (probably from a personal name). Pal- 
mdcex. Gne slender pinnate-leaved palm, reaching 
about 20 ft^ from Cuba, recently intro. in S. Calif. It 
is allied to Hyophorbe and Pseuoophoenix. G. prlnceps, 
Wendl., is a spineless species, the st. thickened below 
but very slender above: lvs. pinnatisect, the pimue 
crowded and narrow-linear and entire or 2-cut: fls. 
very small, on filiform branches, monoecious; spadix 
long-stalked: fr. small, purple or red. l, h, b. 

GA^A (for Jacques and perhaps Claude Gay, writers 
on the plants of W. S. Amer.). Malv^Uxx. About a 
dozen herbs, shrubs or small trees of S. Amer. except 
the one described below: mostly tomentose: lvs. usuaUv 
undivided: fls. yellow or white, axillary or terminal, 
pedunculate, with no bracteoles; calyx 5-parted; sta- 
minal column split at apex into many parts; ovary 
many-celled and style-branches as many as the cells, 
the ovules 1 in each cell. G. LffaUii^ Baker {Plagidn- 
thus L^aUiif Grs^), the lacebark, endemic in the southern 
island of New 2eal., is recorded in horticultiu^ litera- 
ture abroad. It is said by Cheeseman to be one of the 
most beautiful trees of the New Zealand flora^ often 
forming a broad fringe to the subalpine beech forests. 
It is partly deciduous at high elevations, but is ever- 
green in certain river valle3rs. It is a smaU spreading 
tree 15-30 ft. high: lvs. ovate, acuminate, usually 
double-crenate, sometimes somewhat lobed: fls. to 1 
in. diam., white, in axillary fascicles or rarely solitary: 
petals obliquely obovate, retuse. G.C. III. 50:56, and 
Suppl. Sept. 23, 1911. B.M. 5935.— Hardy in the south of 
ikigland, where it blooms profusely. Xj. H. B. 

GATLUSSACIA (after J. L. Gaylussac, eminent 
French chemist; died 1850). Syn., Adndaria. Ericdcex, 
tribe Vacdnieae. Huckleberry. Small shrubs, some 
grown for their handsome flowers, others valued for 
tneir edible fruits. 

Evergreen or deciduous: lvs. alternate, shortr-petioled, 
usually entire: fls. in axillary, usually few-fld. racemes; 
calyx 5-lobed, persistent; corolla tuDular-cami>anulate 
or urceolate; stamens 10; anthers acute; ovary inferior, 
10-celled, each cell with 1 ovule: fr. a berry-fike drupe 
with 10 nutlets. — About 50 species in £. N. Amer. and 
S. Amer. Closely allied to V acciniunik, distinguished 
by the 10-celled ovary, each cell with 1 ovule. 

The huckleberries are low shrubs with white, red, or 
reddish D'een flowers, and blue or black mostly edible 
fruits. Ine deciduous species are hardy North, but are 
of httle decorative value, the handsomest being G. 
dumasat while the evergreen species, all inhabitant of 
the South American mountains, except the half-hardy 
G. brachycera. are often very ornamental in foliag^ 
and flowers, out tender and hardly cultivated in this 
country. They grow best in peaty or sandy soil and 
in shaded situations; but G. baccata thrives well also in 
drier localities and exposed to the full sun; like other 
EricaoeflB, they are all impatient of limestone. Propa- 
gated by seeds, layers or ai vision; the evergreen species 
Dv cuttmgs of half-ripened wood under glass. 8ee also 
Vaccinium for cultivation. 



GAYLUSSACIA 
A. Let. eixrgrttn, obtutel)/ terrote. 



Ivs. oval, glabrous, ^1 in, long: racemes short, with 
few white or pinkieh ns.: fr. blue. May, June; fr. July, 
Aug. Pa. to Va. B.M. 928. L.B.C. 7:648 (as Vao- 
cinium bux^ofiunt). 

AA. LjI>». decidwnu, entire. 
B. Fh. in loose racemes; coroUa campanuiaU. 
:. Plard glandidar-pubetcent. 
rr. & Gray. Shnib, to 2 ft., i „ 

_ _.t erect, somewhat hairy and glandular 

branches: Ivb. obovate-obtong to oblanceolate, mucro- 
nate^ shining above, leathery, 1-2 in. long; fla. white or 
pinkish; bracts fouoceoua and persistent: fr. black, 
. usually pubescent, rather insipid. May, June; fr. Aug., 
Sept. Newfoundland to Fla. and La. in moist sandy or 
flwampy soil. B.M. 1106 (as Fofcimum). 



GAZANIA 

and have a most peculiar and pleaaant acid flavor, 
unlike any other Vaccinium. It promj 
valuable addition t« our garden fruita." 

BB. Fit. in ihoH, teagiU racemes; coroQa ovaU. 
baccita, Koch (G. reetniua, Ton. & Gray}. Black 
HocKijtBKmtY. Erect shrub, to 3 ft., reeinoua when 
young: Ivs. oval or oblong-lanceolate. 



yellowish green above, pale beneath, 1-1^ in. Ions: 
ns. short--pedi celled, nodding, reddish: fr. black, rare^ 
white, sweet. May, June; fr. July, Aug. Newfound- 



land to Ga., weet to Wis. and Ky., preferrinK sandy oi 
rocky Boil. Em. 451. B.M. 128S (as \^jniuin). 
l.T. 4:152. Var. ^ncocirps, Rob. Fre. lar^r, blue 
with glaucous bloom. 

(?. Pttiido-VaeelmiM, Chun. A Bchleeht. ETsrcnan, luiully 
■Ubnnu ahnib, to 3 tt.. with sUiptic, SDtin Ivs. ud tM Si. in 
Hcuiid, Duuv-fld. neamn. BruL B.R.30:S2. R.H. 1S4S:ZSS. 

Alpked Rehder. 
GAZlnU (aft«r Theodore of Gaza, 1393-1478, 
' ' of Aristotle and Theophrastus; by some con- 
be derived from Greek, rtcAes, owing to the 
Bor&l cf^ring), CompdtiUe. Showy plantA 
a cool greenhouse or in the open border in 



mattered along the st.: involucral scales ii 



16ia. Guuia iplaodmu. (X>fl 
Cc. Plant slighdy yubescerd or plobroiu. 

frondilsa, Torr. k, Gray. Blde Hucklzberrt. Dan- 
OLBBBSRT. Tanglbbbbrt. Shrub. to 6 ft., with Spread- 
ing, usually glabrous branches: Ivs, oblong or oval- 
obovate, obtute or emarginate, pale ^rccn above, 
whitish beneath, membranaceous, 1-2 m. long: fls. 
alender-pedicelled; corolla broadly campanulatc, green- 
ish punjle: fr. blue, with glaucous bloom, sweet. May, 
June; fr. July. N. H. to Fla., west to Ky., preferring 
moist, peaty soil. Em. 2:451. G.C, III. 7:580. 

urdna, Torr. A Gray. Shrub, to 6 ft., with somewhat 
pubescent, spreading branches; Ivs. obovate to oblong, 
acute, membranaceous, 2-4 in. long: fls. white or pink- 
ish: fr. black, shining, sweet. May, June; fr. July, Aug. 
N. and S. C. — Harlaii P. Kelsey writes of this species: 
"Shrub 2 to 6 feet high; very local in a few counties in 
0outhwesi«m North Carohna, though common in these 
Stations. Locally it is known as 'buckberry,' a name 

S'ven by the native mountaineers from the fact that 
■er feed on the very abimdant clustered fruit in late 
summer. The berries are much used for pies and jams. 



)na tL_ _ _ 

-hke at the base, toothed a 
enes wingless, villous; pappus in 2 serj 
ate, scarious, toothed scales, often hidden in 



of the achene, — Species 24-30, This group 

<ome of the finest of the sub-shrubby com- 

m the Cape of Good Hope. They have a wide 

olor,- — pure white, yellow, orange, scarlet, and 

cA the rays are in some cases rich purple, 

azure-blue. Their folisi^ is often densely 

Death, and the range of form is unusual. 

The group is also notable for the spots near 

the base of the rays of G. Pavonia and 

some others. These markings suggest the 

rof a peacock's tail. The piante are 
remarl^le for their behavior at night, 
when they close their fls. and turn tSeir 
foliage enough to make the woolly und^ 
sides of the Ivs. more conspicuous. 

Gaianias are now rarely met with in 
some of the oldest-fashioned florists' estab- 
lishments. Few of the more prominent 
firms keep them now, and they may be said 
to be practically out of the trade in 
America. All the kinds described below 
are old garden favorites ahroad, particulariy 
G. rigent, a common bedding plant, culti- 
vated for nearly a century and a half, but 
whose precise habitat has never been ascertained. They 
are of easy culture in the cool greenhouse, and are 
commended for summer use in the borders of those 
who can keep them under glass in winter. They can 
be rapidly propagated in midsummer by cuttings made 
from the side shoots near the base and placed in a 
close frame. 

A. Color t^ heada yeStm. 
B. Raya not spotted: heads S in. aaott. 
unifl&ra, Sims. Sts. woody at the base, spreading 
6-12 in. or more from a center: Ivs. varying as men- 
tioned above. The wooUiness also varies greatly: 
sometimes the whole plant is snowy white; sometimes 
the whiteneaa is confined to the under sides of the Ivs. 
B.M, 2270, L,B,C. 8:795,— The involucre is woolly, 
according to Harvey, but the pictures cited do not 
show it. This and G. rigent nave short sts. with 
branches alternately leafy, while G. pinnala, G. Pavonia 
and G. pygm^a have little or no et, and the Ivs. radical 
or tuftod at the ends of the short branches. 



GAZANIA 



GENIPA 



1321 



BB. Rays spotted at base: heads 3 in. or more across, 

pfamita, Less. Rootstock perennial, fibrous: Ivs. 
C(»nmonly pinnate (some simple); lobes oblong or 
linear in several pairs; white on ooth surfaces and stiff- 
hairy: peduncle not much longer than Ivs.; involucral 
scales acuminate, particularly the inner ones. Harvey 
names 6 botanical varieties. 

AA. Color of heads orange: rays spotted at base: heads 

3 in, or more across, 

B. Ia>s, mostly entire and spatulate. 

o. Basal markings containing brown, 

rigens. R. Br. Sts. short and densely leafy or dif- 
fuse, laxly leafy, with ascending branches: Ivs. some- 
times spiuinsly pinnatifid, i. e., with only 1 or 2 side 
lobes, white beneath except on the midrib: heads large 
and ^owy. 1^ in. wide, the ra3rs orange, disk purplish 
black. B.M. 90 {asGorteriarigens) shows a head of scarlet 
rays, with basal markings of brown, black and white. 

cc. Basal markings without brown, 

spl^ndens, Hort. Fis. 1623. Hybrid, said to resem- 
ble G, uniflora in habit out dwarfer and more compact. 
Of the kinds in common cult, it ia nearest to G, Pavonia 
in coloring of fls. H.F. II. 4:240. 

BB. Lvs, mostly pinnate, 

Pavdnia, R. Br. Peacock Gazania. Involucral 
scales short, the inner broad, acute or subacute. B.R. 
35 shows markings of brown, white, yellow and blue, 
which are marvelous in design and precision of 
execution. 

AAA. Color of heads white above, 

pygmiba, Sond. Crown woody and much divided: 
lvs. spatulate, entire: rays white, striped purple beneath. 
Gn. 47:288. I.H. 43:53. B.M. 7455. G. 30:101. 
Var. macuUta« N. E. Br. Rays pale creamy white, 
with a blackisn spot at the base, reverse striped dull 
purple. Var. 8up6rba, N. E. Br. Ra3rs white, unspotted, 
reverse striped bluish. Var. Ultea, Hort. Fl.-heads 
veiy large, cnrome-yello w. — ^This species is very variable 
in its involucral scales, which may be short or long, 
sometimes cup-shaped at the base, and again almost 
free. This upsets one of the most important features 
of Harvey's key. 

A hybrid between G. nive«, Leis., and Q. longisoaiMi, DC., known 
as O, hfibrida, has been described as a very profuse bloomer, flowering 
continuously from June to late autumn. R.H. 1900:209. Qt. 
47:134.— G. UmffwApa, DC. (G. stenophylla, Hort.). is a whit&- 
wooUy perennial with a glabrous pedimole which is shorter than the 
Ivs. : involucre glabrous. — Q. rdvea, DC. Very dwarf, almost woody: 
ivs. crowded* hoary-tomentose on both mdes: peduncle not exceed- 
ing the lvs.: involucre tomentose. Last two probably not cult, in 

Amer. WiLHELM MiLLBR. 

N. TAYLOR.t 

GEISSORHIZA (Greek words alluding to the coats of 
the bulb, which cover it somewhat like overlapping 
tiles). IriddcesB, Ixia-like half-hardy Cape bulbs, 
which are dormant from August to November and are 
usually flowered under glaiss in spring and early 
summer. 

Cormous: lvs. few, distichous: fls. in different colors, 
in open, simple or forked spikes: perianth nearly regu- 
lar, rotate, with a cylindrical tube; stamens 6, inserted 
in the throat; ovary 3-celled, becoming a small oblong 
cans. — Species about 30, 1 in Madagascar and the 
others in S. Afr. The genus has a wide range in habit 
and in color of fls., but these plants are presumably 
inferior to ixias for general culture. The following 
species are advertised. 

rochdnsis, Ker. Corm J^in. diam., globular: lvs. 3, 
one of them on the st., glabrous, basal ones narrow, 
few-ribbed: st. 3-6 in., simple or forked, with 1 fl. at 
the top; st.-sheath loose ancl swelling: fls. violet-purple, 
1-2 in. across; perianth-tube shorter than the spathe; 
segms. with a blotch at the base. B.M. 598, where the 
whole plant is a trifle over 3 in. high and the fls. purple, 



with a dark red ^e, the latter surrounded by a pale 
blue circle. 

hlita, Ker. Lvs. hairy: fls. 2-6 in a loose spike, bright 
red, the tube verv short, segms. not blotched: corm 
Hin. diam., globular. — Offered in S. Calif. L. H. B. 

GEITONOPLfeSIUM (Greek-made name, near 
neighbor, in allusion to its kinship to another genus). 
Liliiicex, Woody stemmed twiners of Austral, and 
Pacific islands of probably 2 species; one is offered in 
S. Calif. Fls. small, in loose terminal clusters: lvs. 
alternate, linear to ovate, very short-stalked, lightly 
nerved; perianth with 6 oblong distinct segms., the 3 
outer ones more or less hood-slmped at times, the inner 
ones flat and obtuse; stamens 6, included: fr. a nearly 
l^obular berry with thin pulp and becoming dry; seeJs 
irregular, black. G. cymdsum, Cunn. Tall-ctimbing, 
with wiry sts.: fls. purplish green, the perianth >^in. 
or less long, the pedicels very short and jointed under 
the fl.: berry dark blue, J^in. or less diam.; seeds few. 
Queensland to Victoria. B.M. 3131. l. h, b. 

GELSfeMIUM (from the word Gelsemino, the Italian 
name of the true jessamine). Loganidcex. Climbing 
shrubs, with evergreen foliage and yellow flowers. 

Glabrous, twinmg, shrubby plants, with opposite, 
rarely whorled lvs., and showy, hypoemous, per- 
fect, regular, yellow and very fragrant^., in axil- 
lary and terminal cymes, the pedicels scaly-bracted: 
calyx imbricated, deeply 5-parted; corolla funnel- 
form, 5-lobed, imbricated in the bud; stamens 5, 
epipetalous; ovary solitary, superior, 2-celled; ovules 
numerous, on narrow placentse; style slender, 4-cleft: 
fr. an elhptic, septicidal caps., flattened contrary to 
the partition; valves boat-shaped, 2-cleft at the apex; 
seeds flattened and winged. — There are 2 species in 
the g^us, one American the other Chinese. The 
American or Carolina yellow jessamine is a well-known 
woody twiner of the o., bearing evergreen foliage and 
a profusion of bright yellow, very fragrant fls. The 
cymes of the Chinese species are terminal and trichot- 
omous. Our species is very desirable for covering 
banks and fences in any soil. It is also grown occasion- 
ally in conservatories. The rhizomes and roots are used 
medicinally as a nervine, antispasmodic and sedative. 
The true jessamine is Jasminum officinale {Oleacex) of 
Eu. 

semp^rvirens, Ait. f. Carolina Yellow Jessa- 
mine. St. high-climbing: lvs. ovate, or lanceolate, 
shining, entire, short-petioled, 1-3 in. long: cymes 
terminal, 1-6-nd.; the fls. dimorphous; coroUa 1-1 J^ 
in. long. Low woods and thickets, Va. to Fla., Texas 
and Guatemala; early flowering. B.M. 7851. G.W. 
^f P- 494. K. M. WiBOAND. 

GBlf^TTLUS: Darwinia. 

GENtPA (Brazilian name). Rvbidcex, This includes 
a West Indian shrub aUied to the Cape jasmine and 
barely known to American horticulture. Genipa and 
Gardenia are difficult to separate. 

Small trees or shrubs: lvs. with short or no stalks, 
opposite, large, leathery, obovate or lanceolate, shining: 
cymes axillary, few-fld.; fls. white to yellowidi; calyx- 
lunb bell-fihaped, truncated, or 5-toothed; corolla 
salver-shaped, limb twisted to the left. 5-parted; stigma 
club-shaped or bifid; ovary 1-celled; placentas 2, almost 
touching each other in the axis: berries edible. 

dusiifdlia, Griseb. A shrub 4-10 ft. in the wild, not 
so large in cult.: lvs. 4 in. or less long, black when 
dried, obovate, glabrous: corymbs short-peduncled; 
calyx-limb 5-cut, the pedicels as long as the calyx; 
corolla glabrous, the tube nearly as long as the lobes: 
berry ovoid. W. Indies. 

americlUia, Linn. A small tree: lvs. &-10 in. long, 
lanceolate-oblong, glabrous: pedicels shorter than the 



calys; corolla silky, white, about 1 in. acrcwB: benr 
Humlar to last, but is "highly commended in oookery' 
according to Reaaoner, by whom the plant was intro. 
(1914). W. Indiea.— The fr. is lai^ly used in Trop. 
Amer. aa a preserve under the name "genipop." It is 
often used as a kind of marmalade aim baa been 
called "marmalade-box" in SuriDam. 14, TATIxtH.f 

GEIftSTA (andent Latin name). Leaumindix. 
OmamentBl woody plants chiefly grown for tneir haod- 
aome j^ellow, rarely white, Bowers. 

Deciduous or half-evergreen, sometimes nearly 
leafless shrubs, unarmed or spiny: branches usually 
striped and green: Ivs. alternate, rarely opposite, 
entire, simple or aometimee 3-foliolate: fls. papiliona- 
ceous, in terminal racemes or heads, rarely axillary, 
yellow, rarely white; calyx 2-lipped, with the upper 
lip deeply 2-parted; style incurved: pod globular to 
narrow-oblong, I- to many-seeded, dehiscent, rarely 
indehiscent. — About 100 species in Eu., Canary Ists.. 
N. Afr. and W. Asia. Allied to Cytisus, but without 
callose appendai^e at the base of the seeds. The Genista 
of florists is Cytisus. 

The genistas are omamcntaL usually low ahrubs with 
ehowy nowera, appearing profusely in spring or sum- 
mer, and followed by small, insignificant pods. None 
of the species is qmte hardy North, but G. tinelaria, 
G. pUosa, G. germartiea and some other European spe- 
cies will do well in a sheltered position or if somewhat 
protected during the winter, while the others arc more 
suited tor cultivation in southern regions. They are 
essentially plants suit«d to drier climates and most of 
them do well in CaUfomia. They are adapted for 
covering dry, sandy banks and rocky slopes, and for 
borders and rockeries. They grow in any well-drained 
soil, and like a sunny position. Propagate by seeds, 
sown in spring, also by layers and by greenwood cut* 
*ingB under glass* 

INDEX, 

atneuii. 9. faiapwiicB, 6. polntlaiolu, 13, li. 

eiMna. la hmuilior, 14. awtuli*, IS. 

tiala. M. manfisa, 14. tiSirita. 14. 

erhrdroidn, S. MBrtinii, 4. cphBroeupti, 3. 

teroi. 3. moiiasiwrmA, !• bnctoru, 14. 

Sorida. 12. pUoos. 15. tunbellaU, 7. 

A. Color of fit. while. 

I. monosp^nna, I<an). {Retima monospfrma, Boise.). 

Shrub, to 10 ft. or more with slender grayish branches 

almost leafless: Ivs. small, simple or rarely 3-foliolate, 

Snerally linear or linear-spatulate, silky: fls. white, 
igrant, in short lateral racemes; corolla silky; caXyn 



. 62, p. 15. G.W. IS, p. 412. 

AA. Color oS M- 2/eQour. 

B. Tviy^ ttriped, not winged. (Nob. 2-15.) 

c. Pod globular, indehitcerU, Iseeded. 

2. sptuerocArpa, Lam. Similar to the preceding, 
but lower and more upright, leafless: fls. yellow, veiy 
small, in numerous panicled racemes; corolla gla> 
brouB. May, Jime. Spain, N. Afr. 

CQ. Pod oval to linear, dehiatxnL 

D. Shrubs rpiny. 

B. Infi. TOcemoK. 

T. Spinet stout : hohit upright, to 6 ft. 

3. firox, Poir. Erect shrub, to 6 ft., with many stout 
spines: Ivs. simple, rarely 3-foliolate, oblong to obovate, 
almost glabrous: fls. in numerous terminal racemes 
along the branches; corolla glabrous, over !^in. long, 
fraf^ant: pod linear, densely silky, raany-seedea. 
Spring, in Calif, in autumn and winter. N. AJFr. B.R, 



GENISTA 

IT. Spinet dender: habit decumbent to upright, totfl. 
4. Hutfnii, Verguin & Soulii (0. SeorpiutxG. VO- 
lartii). Decumbent shrub; branchlets tomentose: Ivs. 
linear-lanceolate, simple, whitish pubescent on both 
sides, small: fls. axillary, forming terminal slender 
racemes; calyx pubescent; standanl and keel silky. 
8. France; natural hj^irid. Cult, in Calif. 

germiniGa, Linn. Erect or s 



kte: fls. smaU, in 1-2-in. long 
udch: pod oval, villous, few-seeded. 
e, July. Cent, and S. Eu. R.F. 
!2:2085. 

EE. Ivfi. headrlike. 
. hisptnlca, linn. Densely 
Dched shrub, about 1 ft. bi^, witn 
lerous thin spines; Ivs. ovate- 
»olate, pubescent, not exceeding 
1.: fls. in 3-12-fld. shoH head-like 
iroes: pod rhombic, hirsute. May, 
e. Spain, S. France, N. W. Italy. 
..C. 18:1738. R.H. 1888:36. On. 
p. 395; 62, p. 95. G.M. 45:69. 
3.G. 1907:388.— Haidy in W. 



I. Fit. in termintU headt, sestHe. 
. nmbellita, Poir. Erect shrub, to 
et, with rigid branches, forming a 
ae bu^: Ivs. simple or 3-foholate, 
«olate or Unear-lanceolate, silky, 
Win. long: fls. in 10~30-fld. umbel-, 

beads; corolla silky, over Hin. 
;: pod hnear-oblong, tomentose, 
■seeded. April, May. Spain. 
sx. Fit. in raeemet, or axiOary. 

p. Haba upright. Nos. 8-14. 
branches rigid: pod l-aetded, tilky. 
. ephedroidea, DC. Erect shrub, 
t ft., with ri^d branches, almost 
ess: Ivs. sessile, simple or 3-folio- 
, linear, almost glabrous: fls. in 
ly-fld. terminal racemes, small: 
idard much shorter than keel: pod 
1, 1 -seeded, silky. April, May. 

Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily. 



H. The fit. axUioTV on lut 
year't braTichlett, 
g. RtnfinsU, DC. Shrub, to 6 
ft., with slender branches, nearly 
leiifless: Ivs. simple, small, linear, 
silky: fls. axillary, forming loose, 
terminal racemes, fragrant; keel 
, shorter than the standard: pod 
glabrous at maturity, obUque- 
oval, 1-3-aeeded. June, July. 
Sicily, Sardinia. B.M. 2674. 

10. Cinftret, DC. Shrub, to 3 
ft.: branches grooved, pubescenb 
while young, sparsely leafy: Ivs. 
simple, lanceolate, pubescent on both sides, J^-J^in. 
long: fls. 1-3, axillary, forming terminal racemes to 8 
in. long: calyx pubescent; keefpubescent outside: pod 
2-5-aeedcd, siUqr. April-June. S. Eu., N. Afr. B.M. 
8036. G.M. 52:511; 53:507.— This species does not 
seem to be in the trade at present, but it deaervea 
attention on account of its copious, brilliant yellotf 



GENISTA 

HB. TheJU. in terminal ractmet on the j/oung grvath. 

1. Pod pubeaceni, l-i-seeded. 

It. Tiigitt, Link ISpdrtium mrodtwn, L'Her.). 

Shrub, to 8 ft., with slender bnuches: Ivs. lajiceolate to 



12. SArida, Linn. Erect shrub, to 5 ft., with gla- 
brous striped branches: Ivs. sp&tulkte-obloiig or lanceo- 
late, silky beneath, J/^-K in. long: fls. in dense, many- 
fld. racemes; corolla Rl^rous: pod oblong or narrow- 
oblong, silky, 2-4-«eedeid. April-July. Spain. 



13. B 



with 



aomewhat silky branches: Ivs. spatulate-obloog, glor 
tH>3US above, sparingly silky beneath, }^^in. long: 
Sb. in tnany-fld. slender racemes; standanl and wings 
glabrous, keel silky: pod oblong or narrow-oblong, 
almost Klabrous, 3-6-seeded. May-July. Spain, 
Portugal. 

14. tinctdrla, Linn. (Q. nMrica, Hort. O. pdygaUe- 
fdlia, Hort., not DC.). Dter's Greenweed. Fig. 
1624. Erect shrub, to 3 ft., with striped, glabroua or 
slightly pubescent branches: Ivs. oblong-elliptic or 
oUoi^-lanceolAte, almost glabrous^ ciliate, ^1 in. 
long: racemes mony-fld., paniclea at the ends of 
branches; corolla glabrous: pod narrow-oblong, gla- 
brous or slightly pubescent, 6-10-seeded, June-Aug. 
£u., W.Asia; naturalized in some places E. B.B. (ed.2} 
2:350. S.E.B. 3:328. R.F.G. 22:2088. Var. pWaa, 
Hort. With double fls. R.H. 1899, p. 573. G.W. 16, 
p. 137. Var. virgita, Mert. A Koch (G. riredta. Willd., 
not Link, not Lam. G. eldta, Weuder.). Of more 
-rigorous growth, to 6 ft. high: pod 3-6-eeeded. S.E. 
Ell. Vor. hnmlUor, Schneid, [G. mdn/tca. Poll.). Dwarf 
and compact, more pubescent: pods silky-villous. 
Italy. 

TT. Habit proeumbenl: jU. axiUary. 

15. irfl6sa, Linn. Dwarf, procumbent or ascending: 



S.E.B. 3:327. B.i'.G. 22:2093.' 

BB. Twigs broadly S-mtiged. 

Mert. & 

mostly simple branches: Ivs, ovat« to oblong, villous: 
fls. in terminal, short racemes; corolla glabrous: pod 
linear-oblong, silky. May, June. Eu., W. Asia. R.F.G. 
27:2081. 

G. tea. l«m.^Cyli»m numiflonu.— O. AitdrtAna, PiU^uit— 
Cyti«u* flHipuiua vmr. Andreuiua. — G. Analica, Linn. .Spiny shnib, 
to 3 ft., BoiBBlini« procumbent, glibrou.: Iv.. ov»l to lirnuir-oblon., 
bloimh aieen^ noeme* [eir-fld. Ont. Eu. 8.E.B. 3:320. R.P^. 



ds. Dnrf. diffiue: Iva. eJUplic. obtuse. 
Ital^. — a. atpalalluAUt. Lun. Loir. 



in. Lous: pod 
B.M. 807*.— 
u, Briquet— 
inib. to I tt.: 



[lod rhombia, 
xdlo, Waldst. 

*S. E, Eu. 



L.B.C. 5;4S2.— 47. jrottrila. Lun.— Cvtiaui drnumt 
raunidu, Sort.— Crtinia nwemoeuB,— '- — '■■■"- " — 
■hrub. with oppositfl ricid bruiGbea: Iva 
in 3-A-Sd. hesdi; pod oval, nlky. 8. 
I, Niebol*.— O. moiuMpcmiL— O, 



. rorfuUo. Soop. Em 



rulfuia. — "O. *.,,, 
WiUd. Dwuf. 1 
^■broug; Ivs. ol 



B,M, 2200.-0. 



Ltit aseendinc or procujntwnt triAni^ulj 
tvmU to |jua«olAt«. fnth trmmmareat mHva: 
Italy. S.E.EU. L.fi.C 12 : 1 135 (u G. Ksuioi 

Alfbbd Reiseh. 



GBnriXlTA (after Gentius, Kin^; of JUyria, who 
is said to have discovered the tonic value of tbeao 

Slants). Oentiandcex. Choice herbs, mostly blue- 
owered, grown in the open, many of them in alpine 
gardening. 

Chiefly perennial herbs, only rarely biennial or annual, 
ofteD dwarf, diffuse or frequently tufted, sometimes 
erect and slender or even talT and stout: iva. opposite, 
rarely verticillate, mostly seseilei-fls. blue, violet, purple, 
rarely dull yellow or white; Bond parts typically S, 
rarely 4-7: fr. a cape. — There are about 300 speciea, 
widely scattered in temperate and moimtainous regions. 
Many botanists now consider the genus in a highly 
reetnGt«d sense, taking up various names for gentians, 
such as Amarella. Dasystephaoa, and so on, but they 
are here all consiaered as of the genus Gcntiana. 

Gentians are amongst the most desirable of alpine 
plants, and of blue nowers in general, but they are 
usually considered difficult to establish. The genus is 
the largest in the family, and from the horticultural 
standpoint, the most important. 

The blue gentian, celebrated by tourists in the Alps, 
is mostly the stemless O. oeaulit. This was brou^t to 
EngUsh fiardeng'so long sso that all record of its mtro- 
duction IS lost. It is by far the most popular kind in 
cultivation. This species is by some spht into five 
distinct forms, of which G. angiatifolia, ViU. (not 
Michx.), is nearest to the GentJaneUa of En^ish gardens. 
It has been so much modified in cultivation that it now 
has stems 4 to 6 inches high and the rootstock is so 
stoloniferous that the plant has to be cut back every 
year when used for edgings in English gardens. In 
France it is easily grown in a compost of one-half 
humus or leaf-soil and one-half good vegetable mold, 
to which may be added a little sand. Correvon writes: 
"It can be multiphed by means of offsets, but it is 
infinitely better to raise it from seed, and, in doing 
tiiis, it should not be forgotten that tne seeds of this ' 
^up of gentians are very tedious, and, more espe- 
ciidly, v^ capricious in germinating. I have sown 
eeteds of G. ocauiu, some of which did not germinate 
for twelve months, while others (which I must say 
were more recently gathered) germinated in a tew 
weeks. Tbe seedlinES should be potted as soon as 
possible and while they are very youog. They will 
begin to flower in about three years from the time of 
sowing, rarely sooner." Except G. Andreiatii, G. 
Saponaria and G. ptAenda, and perhaps a few others, 
geations do not thnve so well in ^jnerica as in England. 
Our seasons are too hot and diy. Whenever possible, 
choose a damp atmosphere. 

it is rash to generalize on gentian-culture, because 
some plants ore tall, others dwarf, some found on moua- 
tains, others in lowlands, some in moist soil, others in 
dry lands, while some hke limestone and others cannot 
endure it. llie annual kinds are of interest only to the 
expert. Alpine plants in general are singular in requir- 
ing an extremely lat^ water-supply, combined with 
extremely good drainage. Another oiSicult problem is 
to keep the plants as cool as they are on the mountains 
without shading them more than nature does. Gentian 
seeds are Hmall^ and in germination slow and uncer- 
tain. They should be sown as soon as gathered, for the 
thorough drying out of smaU seeds is, as a rule, soon 
fatal. Gentians are difficult to establish, and dislike 
division of the root, but are well worth patient years of 
trial, for they ore very permanent when once estab- 
lished. Nature-like alpme gardens are one of the latest 



1324 



GENTIANA 



and moBt refined departments of gardening, and gen- 
tians are one of the most inviting groups of plants to 
the skilled amateur. Consult Aljnne Planlt. 

There are several fringed gentians, but ours (G. eri- 
nila, Fig. 1625) is perhaps the most beautiful of gen- 
tians, and one of the choicest and most delicate of 
American wild flowers. It has been propoHed as our 
national nower, and, 
while sought after less 
than the trailing arbutus, 
it is in even great«r 
danger of extermination 
in certain states because 
it is a biennial, and 
because it has never been 
successfully cultivated. 
Seeds of G. erinila have 
long been advertised, 
but tbe^ are difiicult 
to germinate and the 
plant is not aeen in 
American gardens. The 
fringed gentian is. 
however, firmly rooted 



Bryant's ode many 
tributes in verse have 
been paid to its unique 
beauty. The daily un- 
folding of its square- 
ridgeaand twisted buds 
has been watched in 
thousands of homes. By 
the artiste its blue IB 
often considered the 
nearest approach to the 
color of the sky, but it 
must be oonfe«ed that 



1. Tail gentiam for general culture.' species whose 
roots are more or less stout, which are of relativelv easv 
culture, and therefore suitable for borders, rockwork 
and luidscape gardening. Typical plant, G. iidea; 
Others are G. affinig, G, aU>a, G. Andrewtii, G. aadepia- 
iiea,G. Bindovii, G. B-urseri, G. Cruciata, G. dteumbens, 
G. Pelimwii, G.gelida, G. Kettelringii, G. macrophyUa, 
Q. Olurieri, G. Pneumonanthe, G. Porphyrio, G. Sapo- 
naria, G, Keplrum, G. teplemfida and G. WaliLJeun. 

2. Lmo-groaring geniiaru: species whose roots being 
less stout are adapted 1^) rockwork, and for the open 

Kund only when a special compost is provioed. 
ludes G. acaulU and the species into which it is 
sometimes divided. 

3. Tufted gentians: species with sessile flowers 
growing little above the level of the ground, and suited 
to the same positions as Group II. Typical plant, G. 
vema: others are G. bavariea, G. irnbricala, G. oregana, 
G. omata, G. pifrenaica, and G. putnila. 

4. Rare genliane: species which cannot be grown 
without some special knowledge and practical experi- 
ence. Typical plant, G. purpurea; others are G. citiata, 
G. Froeltdiii, G. punctata, and presumably sJI the rest. 

The two most popular gentians in American cultiva- 
tion seem to be G. acauiis and G. Andrewni. These are 
perhaps, followed by G. CrudaUij G. puberula and G. 
Saponaria. The plant which King Gentius knew is 
probably G. lidea, the root of which furnishes the gen- 
tian of drugstores. From the same sources comes the 
liqueur or cordial called "gentiane." 

In the index, those marked with an asterisk (*) 
appear in American trade catalogues; the others are 
cultivated abroad. (See also Suppl. list, p. 1328). 
The plants are perennials and mountain-loving, unless 
otherwise stated . 




INDEX. 
*decumbeiu. 3. 
lUtanja. 10. 



friods. fl. 10. 
Fiwlichii, 18. 
Ouidiniuu, 43, 
(tliiKll. 

KIUU. 20. 
brieau, 47. 

iDUmwdu. 8. 

Kocluiuw,53. 
Koehii. 61. 
Kurroo. 37. 
•Iui«ria.23. 

•muroptwUa, 44. 
MaorcmiUiioa, 1! 
•Ncwberryi. 38. 



UDDODica, 43. 
•Knyi, 36. 
PneumoDuiUia. 90. 
Poiphyno, 31. 
pnittsta, 2b. 
paeudc^Piieuiiw^ 



A. Calyx ipaUioAikt. »plit in taro. 

B, Color of fla, i/elloiBiih. 

C. Form of coToUa iche^-ihaped I. Iat«a 

c<7. Form of coroUa ^ub-ghaped, ai 

Uatt in bud 2. BnnMl 

BB. Color of Jb. blue or purple, al Uatt 

c. CoroUa plaited 3. decumbena 

CC. CoroUa not plailed. 

D. Antheri grown logi^her 4. purpurea 

DD. ATitliera free 5. ntbra 

LA. Cali/x with a tubular portion, and 
umaiiy S lobea. 
B. Color of fh. yeUoaith, or greeniek 
whiie. 
c. Style dittinti: caps, not ttalied.. . . 6. punctata 
CC. Style none or very thort: cap*. 
tiaiked. 

D. HeiglU t ft 7. alb* 

DD. Height 9-lt in. 6. TllloMI 

DDD. Height 6 in. or lett. 

E. L^ies of talyz longer than the 

calyx-tube 9. frictda 

EX. Lobes of calyx shorter than the 
cali/x-tube. 

T. Lee, lanceolaie-linear 10. alcida 

FT. Ln. ocate-lanceolate 11. gelida 

BS. Color of fit. lAue or purple. 
C. Corolla not plaited. 
D. Glande found at the bate of the 
Jilamente. 

B. Calyx 4-cut 12. camp«*tris 

ZE. Calui S-cui 13. HoorciDlti- 

bD. Glands not found at the base i4 [•>» 

V\e fiiaments. 
E. Fringed Qentiane: calyx i-cut. 
F. Cape, raised on a distinct 
stalk. 
O. Apex of lobes fringed, the 

sides less so 14. crioita 

oo. Apex of lobes not fringed, 

bate fringed 15. clliata 

rr. Caps, on a eery short stalk. . .16. teirata 
EE. Not fringed: adyz S-cul; co- 
roUa-Uobee tipped unth a sharp 

point 17. qninqoefotia 

CC, CoroUa plaited. 

a. Stigmas B. alaiays distinct. 
H. Caps.finaUyraiaedonadittinel 
stalk. 
r. Anthers permanenUy grotm 
together. 
a. Calyx as long as the coroUa.lS. Fro«licUl 
00. Calyx one-half or one-third 
as long as the eoroUa. 
H. Seeds not al all MVi^ied. . .19. atclepiadea 
HH. Seeds slightly wingal. 

I. Fls. open 20. PnoumoD- 

luthe 
II. FU. closed, blue 21. Saponaria 



GENTIANA 



GENTIANA 



1325 



HHH. Seeds strongly winded, 

I. FU. dosed, purple 22. Andrewsii 

n. Fls. open 23. linearis 

FF. Anthers free, at least finally. 

Q. Number of corolla4obes 10.24. pyrenaica 
QQ. Number of coroUa-hbes 5 
{rarely 4). 

B. Calyx 4'iobed 25. prostrata 

BH. Calyx S-lobed. 

I. Lvs. distinctly rough above 

{hispidsctArous) 26. scabra 

zi. Lvs. distinctly rough at 

the margins (scabrous). 

J. Lobes of calyx shorter 

than the calyx-tube. . .27. Forttmei 

jj. Lobes of calyx as long as 

the calyx-tube. 

ti. Corolla-lobes ovate, 

acute, a little longer 

than the much-cut 

appendages 28. septemfida 

KX. Corolla4cbes oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse, 
thrice as long as the 
much-cut appen- 
dages 29. affinis 

m. Lvs. not distinctly rough 
above or at margins. 
J. Seeds not at all winged. 
X. Form of corolla-lobes 

linear-oblong 30. OUvieri 

KK. Form of coroUa-lobes 
ovate, often broadly 
so. 
L. Fls. solitary. 

M. Pedunded 31. Porphyrio 

MIC. Not pedunded 32. omata 

LL. Fls. in dusters of S- 
6 or more. 
M. Lvs. lanceolate- 
linear 33. triflora 

MM. Lvs. ovate to ob- 
long-lanceolate. 

N. Height 2-4 ft 34. sceptrum 

NN. Height 9-12 in. 
o. Calyx-lobes ov- 
ate, about as 
long as the 
calyx-tube. . . . 35. calycosa 
OO. Calyx-lobes lin- 
ear, moderate- 
ly or much 
shorter than 
the calyx-tube.36. Parryi 
jj. Seeds winged {at the 
base in G. Kurroo, in 
O. Bigdovii wings 
narrow, thiddsh). 
K. Height 2-8 in.: fls. 
spotted. 
L. Pedicd y^in. long or 

more 37. Kurroo 

hL. Pedicd very short, 

practically abserU. .d&. Newberryi 
KX. Height 1-2 ft. 

L. Fls. in a dense spike.39, Bigelovii 
LL. Fls. 1 to few or 
several. 
M. Appendages conn 
spicuous, some- 
times nearly as 
long as the corolla- 
lobes 40. oregana 

MM. Appendages only 
half <u long as 
the corolla-M)es. .41. pttberula 
BB. Caps, sessile. 

p, Anthers grown together; style 
distinct: seeds winged. 
o. Calyx 6-cut, the lobes longer 

than the calyx-tube. . . 42. pannonica 

QQ. Calyx entire, truncate, indis- 
tinctly 6-lobed 43. Gattdiniana 

FF. Anthers free; style usually 

not distinct: seeds not winged. 

Q. Lvs. 6-12 in. long: calyxSS- 

lobed 44. macrophylla 



QQ. Lvs. much shorter: calyx 4' 

lobed 45. Crudata 

DD. Stigmas contiguous, rather fun- 
nel-shaped, the margin crenatO' 
fimbriate. 
E. Anthers free; style distinct. 

F. Calyx pellucid, veiny 46. carpatica 

FF. Calyx leafy. 

Q. Seeds winged 47. imbricata 

GO. Seeds not winged. 

B. Lvs. ovate 48. vema 

HB. Lvs. obovate 49. bavarica 

BHB. Lvs. linear 50. pumila 

SB. Anthers connate; style short. 
T. Fls. spotted. 

Q. Color deep blue 51. acaulis 

GO. Color sky-blue 52. angustifoUa 

ooo. Color violet-blue 53. Kochiana 

FF. Fls. not spotted. 

o. Corolla broadly beU-sfiaped. 

B. Size of fls. large 54. Clttsii 

BB. Size of fls. small 55. alpina 

GO. Corolla almost cylindrical.. .56. dinarica 

1. l^tea, Linn. Fls. in dense, umbel-like cymes; 
corolla 5-^parted; lobes oblong-linear, acuminate; 
anthers free; style none. July-Sept. Eu., Asia Minor. 
Gn. 64, p. 59. G.W. 3, p. 290.— Prop, only by seed. 
Sow seed in Nov. in coldframe. Seealings appear the 
following March and April. In May and June prick 
them out under a coldframe, and in Aug. transfer 
yoimg plants to pots, where they should be kept until 
needed for permanent outdoor use. Be venr careful 
never to break the roots. Sometimes cult, abroad for 
medicine. 

2. B^rseri, Lapeyr. A low perennial, less than 1 ft., 
with a simple st.: lvs. elliptic-ovate. 7-nerved: corolla 
mostly 6-cut; the tube much longer tnan the limb; lob^ 
ovate-oblong, acute; anthers connate; style distinct. 
June, July. Pyrenees. — Cult, like preceding. 

3. deciimbens, Linn. f. {G. adscindenSf Pall.). A 
stout, erect herb with fi.-sts. 2-10 in. tall: lvs. mostly 
radical, oblong or elliptic, margins scabrous: fls. blue; 
calyx-tube J^m. long, often split nearly to the base; 
corolla narrowly obconical, toothed between the lobes; 
lobes 5, ovate; anthers connate, finally free. Hima- 
layas, Tibet. June-Aug. B.M. 705, 723.— Cult, like 
G. lulea. 

4. purpurea, Linn. Lvs. ovate-oblong, 5-nerved: fls. 

{)urple above; corolla-tube yellowish, club-shaped; 
obes mostly 6, obovate-subrotund, one-third the length 
of the tube. Aug., Sept. Eu. L.B.C. 6:583 shows a 
rich, dull purple, with no trace of blue.— ^>)mpost of 
sphagnum ana heath soil. Be careful not to break the 
roots. 

5. rftbra, Clairv. {G. Th&masiiy Gillaboz). One of 5 or 
more natural hybrids between G. lulea and some species 
of the section Ccelanthe, which includes G. punctala, 
G. purpureay G. Pannonica, and G, Burseri: fls. purplish 
outside. Swiss Alps. 

6. punctata, Linn. Lvs. 5-nerved: calyx 5-7-cut; 
corolla-tube bell-shaped; lobes ovate, muticous, one- 
third the length of the tube; anthers finallv free. Cent. 
Eu. — ^The spots are not arranged in any definite order. 
This belongs to the section Ccelanthe. in which the 
seed has a wing of the same color, wnile the next 5 
species belong to the section Pneumonanthe, in which 
there is no wmg, or it is of a different color. Cult, like 
G. Frodichii. 

7. &lba, Muhl. St. stout: lvs. acuminate, with a 
clasping base: fls. in a terminal head, with single or 
cluster^ ones in the upper axils; dull white, commonly 
tinged yellowish or greenish; corolla resembling U. 
Saponaria, but more hKBll-shaped and open; lobes ovate, 
short, little if at all spreading. Low groimds and moun- 
tain meadows, N. Amer. B.M. 1551 (as G. ochroleuca). 
— ^This species now takes the name G. fl&vida, Gray. 



8. TillAsft, Linn, (G. ochroUitea, Proel.). St. smooth 



(erminsi, nearly aoeile, leafy clugters, . _ 

axjllair; corolla yellowish white or greeniah, club- 
ehaped, connivent at the apex. E. N. Amer. Not 
B.M. 1551. Var. intermidi&, Griseb. (G. intermidia, 
Sims, not L.B.C. 3:218), may be a hybrid between this 
and G. Andrevieii. It rwemblefi G. oehroleuea in having 
calyx-lobes of uneaiial lengths, but as long as or longer 
thiLD the calyx-tube, and free anthers: it resemblea 
G. AndretDsii in the tinge of purplish blue. B.M. 2303. 
Var. incamlta, Griseb. (G. incamAta, Sims), B.M. 
1S56, from Carolina is not cult. These forms are not 
considered worthy of varietal rank in Gray's Syn. F\. 

9. frlglda, H^nke. Lvs. spatulat«-linear, obtuse: Hs. 
1 or 2 at the top, sometimes a few in the upper axils; 
calyx not laterallv cut, and half as long as the corolla or 
more; calyx-teetn lanceolate, a Uttle longer than the 
calyx-tube; corolla club-shaped, jAalta not cut. Car- 
pathian Mts.; also N. Amer. — This is the true type of 
G. frijfida, which is not in cult., but ts inserted to make 
clear the differences between G. aigida of Pallas and of 

10. Algjda, PaU., not Stev. (p. fHgida var. digida, 
Griseb.). Lvs. lanceolate-linear: fls. 2-5 at the top and 
distinctly pedicelled ; calyx 

laterally cut and one-tl 
length of the corolla; 
teeth linear-lanceolate, 
as long as the oalyx-ti 
sometimes only half i 
corolla between club- a 
shaped; plaits cut witl 
crenate teeth. AJtai I 
Siberia, N. Amer. G[ 
343, same as Gn. 27, p 

B146. — This grows 
Kb, has numerous sts, 
nearly 2^ in. long, 
with olue spots in long 
lines. 

n.geUda,Bieb.(0. 
^gida, Stev., not 
Pall.). Lvs. ovat^ 
lanceolate, 3-nerved: ' 
fls. few and terminal, 
or many in the upper 
arils, peduncfed; 
calyx- t^th Unear-ob- 
long, acul«, nearly as 
long as the caiyx-tube 
or shorter than it; 
corolla rather bell- 
shaped, yellowish 1626. 0«nlu> AndmnU. 
white, its lobes 

broadly ovate, twice as long as the calyx and twice 
as long as the lacerated plaits. June, July. Caucasus. 
Not P.M. 7:5, which is G. sepl/^mfida var, cordifolia. — 
"Light, deep, cool soil and full sunhght." — Conevon. 

12. camp£stris, IJnn. A low slender annual with 
erect st. 2-6 in. tall: lvs. sessile, ovate-lanceclate, 3-5- 
nerved: fls. dark purplish blue, short-pedicelled, but in 
various kinds of clusters; calyx 4rK;ut; corolla nearly 
bowl-shaped, crowned; anthers free; style none. Eu. 

13. Hoorcroftiiaa, Wall. A stiff annual 8-16 in, 
high: fls. pale blue in nearly terminal cymes which are 
racemosely clustered ; calyx 5-cut; corolla funnel-shaped, 
about 1 a in. wide. Himalayas. B.M. 6727, where fls. 
are shown as pale purple. 

14. criniu, Froel. Fig. 1625. Frinqed Gentian. 
Biennial or oft«n annual: erect, branched, 1-2 ft. high; 
lvs. lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acutish, from a 
rounded or subcordate partly clasping base: corollsr 



GENTIANA 

lobes wedge-obovate: seeds roughened by scales or 
needle-like projections. Moist woods and meadows. N. 
Amer. B.M. 2031. Mn. 4:161. B.B. 2:613.— The ribo 
of the calyx (made by the decurrent lobes) are one of 
the minor beauties of this plant, and are probably more 
pronounced than in the other fringed gentians here 
described. Almost impossible to grow in cult. 

15. dliftta, Linn. Perennial: st. flexuose, scarcely 
branched: lvs. linear, obtuse: corolla-lobes obovat^ 
oblong: seeds smooth. Dry limestone soils. Eu. Not 
B.M. 639, which is G. sermto.— Hardly 3 per cent of 
Correvons seedlings have flowered. He recommends 
a heavy, compact soil which is almost clayey, and full 
sunlight. 

16. Mrdkt*, Gunner (G. barbHa, Froel. G. detirua, 
Griseb. G. aet&nsa var. barbAla, Griseb.). Annual: 
St. erect, branching, 3-18 in. high: lvs. linear or lance- 
linear: corolla-looes oblong or spatulate^jbovate, 
frint^ around the apex and sides or sometimes either 
part nearly bare. Wet lands, Ural and Altai Mts., Cau- 

N. Amer. B.B. 2:614. B.M. 639 (erroneously 



17. ouinquefdlia, Linn, (G. quinquefibra. Hill, Lam. 
and others). Annual: heiEbt 1-2 ft., the larger plants 
branched: lvs. 3-7-nervea: infl. thyrsoid- paniculate; 
clusters 3-5-fld.; fls. bright blue; calyx one-fifth or one- 
fourth as long as the narrowly funnel-shaped corolla. 
N. Amer. Probably the form in cult, is var. occidea- 
tUis, Gray, Height 2-3 ft., paniculately much ' 
branched: mfl. more open; calyx half the length of the 
broader corolla. B.B. 2:615. B.M. 3496.— Very pretty. 

18. Froilichii, Jan, Sts. short, almost tufted: fls. 
blue, soUtary, peduncled, nearly as long as the St.; 
corolla not spotted. Very rare in Alps, limestene racks. 
— Easily grown on rockwork in compost of equal parts 
of sphagnum, heath soil and vegetable-mold. Half- 
exposure to sunhght. 

19. asdepiideo, Linn. St, strict, about 1-1 H ft. 
tall: lvs. seasQe, ovate-lanceolate: calyx-teeth very 
short: fls, in spike-like racemes, dark blue, very shonr; 
corolla club-snaped; calyx one-third as long as tno 
corolla: seeds not winged. July-Sept, S. Eu., Caucasus. 
B.M. 1078. Gn. 48, p. 143, and 64, p. 39. G.M. 47:544. 
Gt. 64, p. 345. G. 3:59; 8:481; 13:403; 21:233. Var. 
Ubo, a white-fld. form is excellent but perhaps not 
known outside of English trade. Shade or half-shade, 
and moist, deep soil rich in humus. 

20. Pneumoninthe, Linn. St. erect: fls. dark blue 
in a cyme-like raceme (the tep fls. opening first); 
corolla club-shaped: lobes ovate, acute, mucronate, 
much longer than tne appendages. Aug. -Oct. Moun- 
tain marahes, Eu., N. Asia. Var. guttita, Sims, is 
dotted white. B.M. HOI.— "Reguircs a cool, deep, 
spongy soil, rich in humus. Dislikes lime, and prefers 
sandy soil. Does remarkably well when planted on 
margins of ponds or brooks. Prop, by seed or division." 
— Correvon. 

21. Saponaria, Linn, (G. Calisb^, Walt., not Andr.). 
Barrel or Soapwort Gentian, St. ascending: fls. 
light blue, club-shaped; calyx-lobes linear or oblong, 
mostly as lonj? as tlie calyx-tube; corolla-lobes short. 
broad, roundish, erect, little, and often not at all 
longer than the 2-<^left and many-toothed intervening 
appendages. N. Amer. B.M. 1039, (Hooker is prob- 
ably wrone in referring this picture to C. Andrewni, 
although tne calyx-lobes in tne plate arc not narrow 
enough.) — Cult, like preceding. 

22. Audrewsli, Griseb. (G. Catlsbxi, Andr., not Walt.). 
Closed, Bund or Botflb Gentian. Fig. 1626. St. 
ascending: fls. purplish blue; calyx-lobes lanceolate to 
ovate, usually spreading or recurved, shorter than the 
calyx-tube; coroUa-lobes entirely obliterated, the teeth 
at the top being supposed to be the remains of the 



* 1 






XLVII. Geotiau ciinila. 



GENTIANA 



GENTIANA 



1327 



^ 



appendages often found between the oorolla-lobes in 
oUier species. July, Aug. Moist places. E. N. Amer. 
B.M. 6421. B.B. 2:616. Gn. 27:86. G.W. 4, p. 549. 
F.W. 1879:33. L.B.C. 9:815 (erroneously as G. Sapo- 
naria), — ^A white-fld. fonn is cult, but very rare. For 
cult., see G. Pneumonanthe. 

23. linelUis, Froel. (G. paeitdo-Pneunumdnihef Schult.) . 
St. strict, 1-2 ft. high: fls. blue. 1-5 in the terminal 
cluster; corolla narrowly funnel-shaped; lobes erect, 
roundish ovate, obtuse, a little longer than the triangu- 
lar, acute, entire or 1-2-toothed appendages. B(^ 
N. Amer. B.B. 2:617. 

24. pyrenUca, Linn. St. tufted, about as long as the 
fl., often forming mats: Ivs. with a cartilaginous, sca- 
brous marsin: &. solitary, dark blue; corolla fimnel- 
or nearly Dowl-shaped, as long as or exceeding the 
corolla which is about 1 in. long. May, June. Eu., 
Asia Minor. B.M. 5742. — ^Very distinct and dainty. 
Cult, like G, vema. 

25. prostr&ta, Hsenke (ChandrophyUa amerUAna^ 
Nelson)' Annual, dwarf: Ivs. wnite-margined: fls. 
azure-blue, sohtary and terminal, the parts in 4's: 
corolla salver-form, in fruit inclosing the long-stalked 
caps. W. N. Amer. Alpine. 

26. scHbra, Bunge. St. erect, leafy, rough-hairy 
above: basal Ivs. almost perfoliate, ovate, acute, faintly 
3-nerved, the margins rough toothed: fls. dark blue, 
clustered; corolla l^U-shaped. E. Asia. G, Foriunei is 
considered a variety by recent authorities. (G.C. III. 
47:136). Var. Buerger! (G. BuSrgen. Miq.) is 
advertised by Yokohama Nursery Co. It differs in 
havinff a narrower corolla with shorter and more trian- 
gular lobes. Probably not in Amer. except in botanic 
gardens. 

27. Fdrtunei, Hook. Lvs. rather distant, 3-nerved: 
terminal fls. rather clustered; corolla-lobes blue, spotted 
white; outside of tube green; plaits blue, terminated by 
3-tootiied appendages, much shorter than the coroUar 
lobes. China. B.M. 4776. F.S. 9:947. I.H. 1:36.— 
Now thought to be a variety of G. scabra, but not so 
considered by Miquel. 

28. sept^mfida* Pall. Lvs. lanceolate ("ovatCj" 
according to Grisebach), 3-5Hierved: fls. dark blue, m 
head-like cymes; calyx-lobes linear; corolla club-shaped. 
July-Oct. N. Asia. Orient. B.M. 1229 and 1410 (both 
purple outside ana dotted brown within; the lobes of 
the latter spotted white). G. 34:773. L.B.C. 1:89. 
Gn. 54, p. 37. P.M. 8:51. Not F.S. 8:765. G. Frew 
mdnoy Hort.. is said to differ from the type in having 
larger fls. wnich are less prominently fringed between 

' the Begms. of the corolla. G.C. III. 46:202. Gn. 75, 

g. 421 ; 77, p. 168. Var. cordifdlia, Boiss. (G. cordifdlia, 
!. Koch), has heart-shaped lvs.: coroUa-tube greenish 
white outside, unspotted within; lobes narrower, 
unspotted. B.M. 6497. P.M. 7:5 (erroneously as G, 
gdida). — ^The name septemfida is misleading, as 7-lobed 
corollas are very rare. Cult, like G. lutea. 

29. afflniSi Griseb. Sts. clustered, 3-9 in. high: 
lower lvs. obovate-oblong; upper lvs. lanceolate, 
acutish: fls. dark blue, in thyrsoia-racemose clusters, a 
few or sometimes solitary; calyx-lobes oblong-linear 
and sharp-pointed; corolla narrowly obconical, open, 
the lobes spreading. N. W. Amer. Gn. 46, p. 77 and 
48, p. 139. B.B. 2:615 (where corolla-lobes are pic- 
tured erect, but said to be spreading). — Cult, like G, 
Pneumonanthe, 

30. OliviM, Griseb. (G. dahiincat Fisch., which is 
probably the oldest name). Fb. dark blue, in umbel- 
like cymes: corolla narrowlv obconical; plaits trian- 
gular, nearly entire. June-Aug. Mountain pastures, 
Asia.-;-By recent authority reterred to G. decumbens, 
but differing from that species only in having equal 
calyx-lobes. Cult, like G. tiUea. — Useful in the rockery, 
but will not grow well in the hot dry summer of E. U. S. 



31. Porphfrio, J. F. Gmel. (G. angusHfdliaf Michx., 
not Vill.). Lvs. narrowly linear: fls. blue, somewhat 
brown-dotted (also a snow-white variety wiui a greenish 
hue outside); corolla funnel-shaped; anthers connivent 
but never connected. Juhr, Aug. Moist pine-barrens, 
N. Amer. B.B. 2:618.— Cult, like G. Pneumonanthe, 

32. omUta, Wall. Branches many from the same 
root: lvs. broadly linear: fls. solitary, blue, streaked: 
cal3rx-lobes spreading; corolla ventricose, about 1-1^ 
in. long; lobes very short, spreading. Himalayas. 
B.M. 6514 and 8140. G.C. II. 20:396; IIL 46:179. 
Gn. 59, p. 249. — ^A form that differs from the type in 
being more robust, with larger fls. and broader coroUar 
lobes which are "intense blue," is offered as (?. Veitch' 
idrum, Hemsl. It is a native of W. China, "where it 
covers large areas," according to E. H. Wilson (Natural- 
ist in Western China, 1:139), its discoverer. Intro, 
into England in 1904. Alpine. Gn. 73, p. 479. G.C. 
m. 46:178. 

33. trifldra^ Pall. St. erect: lvs. oblong-linear, blimt: 
fls. solitary, dark blue, the cal3rx 5-toothed, acute, 
and elongate; corolla club-shaped or bell-shaped, the 
anthers free. E. Siberia. — Probably not now in cult, in 
Amer. outside of botanic gardens. 

34. sc^ptrum. Griseb. An erect, leafy perennial, 
from 2-4 ft. hign: lvs. oblong-lanceolate: fls. dark blue; 
corolla bell-shaped, about 1 in. long: seeds winged on 
one side according to Grisebach, but Grav says not 
\^inged. Aug[., Sept. N. W. Amer.— Cult, like G. lutea, 
except that it requires hfdf shade and a rather peaty 
soil. 

35. calvcdsa, Griseb. About 1 ft. high: lvs. ovate, 
about ^in. long, the 2 upper commooJy involucrate 
around the fl.: fls. dark blue, commonly sohtary, 
according to Gray; corolla oolong -fimnel- shaped; 
appendages triangular-awl-shaped, l£u;iniate or 2-cleft 
at the tip. N. W. Amer. G.M. 47:541. 

36. Pirryi, Engelm. Sts. many, from a rather 
woody root, about 9 in. tall: lvs. somewhat glaucous, 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, the upper pairs involucrate 
around the 1-5 purple-blue fls. : appendages narrow, 
deeply 2-cleft. N. W. Amer. 

37. Kurrod, Royle. St. tufted, as high as 7 in.: 
lower lvs. lanceolate, upper linear: fls. blue, spotted 
white inside, 1-3 on a st. ; corolla bell-shapea. Hima- 
layas. Gn. 17:264. B.M. 6470. Var. brdvidens has 
diorter calyx-lobes. J.H. III. 30:3. 

38. N^wberryi. Gray. St. 2-4 in. high: lower lvs. 
obovate or spatulate: ns. pale blue, white inside, green- 
ish dotted; calyx-lobes oblong or lanceolate, nearly as 
long as the tube; corolla broadly funnel-shaped, its 
lobes ovate and sharp-pointed. N.W. Amer. Alpine. 

39. Blgelovii, Gray. St. 6-16 in. high, equally leafy 
to the summit: fls. purple; corolla more narrowly 
funnelform and smaller than in G. oMnie, July, Aug. 
New Mex., Colo. B.M. 6874. — "Soon forms lar^ 
clumps, often with 40-50 sts. from a single plant, each 
bearing 10-20 bright blue fls." — D. M. Andrews. 

40. oreg&na, Engelm. Height 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate or 
ovate-oblong, 1-1 J^ in. long: fls. blue, a few at the sum« 
mit or sevc^ and loosely racemose; corolla broadly 
funnel-shaped, over 1 in. long; lobes short, roundish. 
July, Aug. N. W. Amer. 

41. pub^rula, Michx. Perennial, usually solitary- 
stemmed herb from 8-18 in. tall: lvs. oblong-lanceo- 
late to lanceolate-linear: fls. blue, sessile or nearly so in 
the upper axils; corolla open-funnel-shaped, 1^-2 in. 
long; lobes ovate. E. N. Amer. B.B. 2:615. 

42. panndnica. Scop. A tall stout perennial: lower 
lvs. broadly elliptical, 5-nerved, margin scabrous; 
upper ones ovate-lanceolate, also 5-nerved: fls. purple 
above; calyx 5-7-cut; corolla leathery, distinctly 
spotted; anthers connate at first, finally free. Eu. 



GENTIANA 



1328 



43. GamUnUm, Thorn. Natural hybrid with the 
habit of O. purpurea, but the membranous corolla of Q. 
■pundala: fls. rosy violet. Eu,, but not widely cult. 

44. macroph^lla, Pall. Pn«niiial, with erect or ascend- 
ing St.: IvB. lanceolate, dietant, very spreading, 3- 
nerved, the upper often connate-perfoliatej int«modea 
unequal: fls, dark blue. July, Aug. B.M. 1414, not 
L.B.C. 3:218. N. Eu. and Asia.—Cult. like G. lutea. 

45. Ciudftta, Linn. (CntdAla vtrticiaAta, Gilib.). Ad 
erect and leafy perennial: Iva. ovate-lanceolate, 
crowded, erect-epreading, the upper conoste-perfoliale; 
intemodes eaual: fls. axillary, m sparse clusters, dark 
blue. June-Aug. Eu., N. A«a.— Cult, like G. lulea. 
Prefers hmeatone and full sunlight. 

46. carpltica, Kit. (Probably G. nitidli*, Linn.). A 
slender pereonjal with small obovate Ivs.: fls. solitary, 
axillary or terminal, dark blue (as are the nest 4 ape- 
ciea); corolla funnel-shaped, scarcely exceeding ^in. 
long. Carpathian Mts,— Little known. 

47. Imbrldta, Froel. Lvs. acute, margins scabrous, 
(the next 3 species with smooth margins): corolla-lobes 
subrotund. June, July. Limestone rocks, Alps. — In 
this and the next 3 species, the corolla-lobes are usually 
cmnat^, half the length of the tube, and 6 times the 
length of the plajts. "Eastern and granitic Alps." — 
Correvon. Cult, like G. bovoriea. 

48. vema, Linn. Fig. 1627. Tufted: st. angled: Iva. 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate: fls. solitary: calyx membran- 
aceous; corolla nearly bowl-shaped; lobes ovate, obtuse, 
Apr.-June. Eu., Caucasus. B.M. 491. L.B.C. 1:62. 
R.H. 1859, p. 250. Gn. 48, p. 139; 75, p. 284. 
G.C. II. 24:373. J,H. lU. 52;58. G.W. 23:431. Var. 
•Uta, Griseb. (G. anituidsa, Bieb.), is taller and has the 
nerves of the ventricose calyx produced into wings.— 
Rockwork, in a compost of heath-soil, finely crushed 
granite, and vegetable-mold, with full sunli^t. A 
supposed hybrid between this and the followmg haa 
been described as G. FaiirAtii, Hort. The plant is 
practically unknown in Amer. 

49. bavArica, linn. Calyx-lobes lanceolate; corolla 
funnel- or nearly bowl-shaped; lobes obovate, obtuse; 
ovary sessile: seeds not winged. May-Aug. Cent. Eu. 
F.S. 7:651. L.B.C. 13:1256. J.H. III. 36:685. Gn. 
16:278 (poor). — The pictures cited all show a salver- 
ehaped corolla. "Requires a soil that ia peaty, or at the 
very least porous and cool, well drained, and capable of 
retaining an abundant supply of moisture, although it 

may be fully ex- 
posed to the sun. 
In the alpine 
garden here we 
grow them in 
pure sphagnum 

facing due south, 
but the plants 

for sale are grown 

poet of sphaf;- 
num, beath-Boil 
and sand. Finest 
of Group III." 



GENTIANA 

mind were probably mostly G. Clutii and G. Koehiana, 
For pictures of G. aeaulis in its widest sense, see B. M. 
52. G.C. III. 15:236. G.W. 3, p. 289. J.H. HI. 52:59. 

3:204. On. 48, p. 146; 64, p. 39. F.S. 23:2421, 

»»unt of tne4fc" 



where a more I 



detailed » 



4 following species 



60. p&mlla, 
Jacq. A tiny 
^.aoglcd St.: lvs. 
mg: fls, solitary 
tp blue, the iob^ 
Carinthian Alps. 
, Gentianella. 
the botanists of 
into the 4 or 5 
Jmueus had in 



is dven. A var. Kflchii, Hort., ia known but it ma^ 
w^ be G. Koehiana. A white-fld. form, var. ilba, la 
advertised. 

52. ingustifAlift, Vill,, not Michx. Stoloniferous: 

lvs. linear-obbng, narrowing toward the base, 
glistening above: fls. spotted with sprightly green; 
calyx-lobes more or less spreading, oval, abruptly con- 
tracted at the base. May, June. Limestone rocks, 
Alps.^)onsidered by Correvon the handsomest spe- 
cies of the whole genus. 

53. KochUUia, Perr, & Song. Lvs. large, flat, thin. 



and separated by truncate sinuses; corolla with 5 black- 
ish green spota on the throat. Ma^, June. Common in 
pastures on granitic Alps. — Dislikes Ume. It seems 
almost certain that this is the G. acaviU var. Kochii of 
many gardeners. 

54. ClOaii, Perr. & Song. A low acaulescent peren- 
nial perhaps not different from G. acauiie and so con- 
sidered in "Index Kewensis:" lvs. lanceolat«-acute, 
leathery: fls. dark blue; calyx-lobes pressed close 
against corolla, not contracted at base, and separated 
by acute sinuses. May, June. Limestone rocks, Alps. 

55. alplna, VUl. St. ahnost wanting: lvs. small, 
glistening, curving inward and imbricated, formiiw 
rosettes which incurve at about the middle: fls. dark 
blue. May, June. Granitic Alps. — This and G. Koehi- 
ana "require a compost of one-third crushed granite 
one-third heath soil, and one-third vegetable loam, and 
should be planted on rockwork half exposed (o the sun." 

56. dinirica. Beck. Lvs, broad, thick, erect: fla. 
dark blue. Certainly a mere form of G. acanlia, but 
described as differing from that species in having no 
spots on the corolla. Alps of S. and E. Austria. 

Hon, PiThapa m vir. olG. pDeumooMilhe. F\». NupoLeoii bluej 
BwG.C. II. 20:40, doK-. G. 2e;7,—B, (7Aorp«Trfi*n, Thorn, Niitural 
hybrid. intennEdislf b«xwQ O. luleu Md G. pUDcUU; oorolta 
■potl«i red: celyi 5-ciit. Grisebsrh does not My whothBr the 

.._ 1 plaited, »nth™ kIubvb free, md style none. Alps, 

.__ -. ■"cm, Hort., i. dsKribcil M 12-18 m. 



nbove EncndiTie,- 






]t lin 



uslly «iniple et 
1. N=wZe-' 



■liMl«n.'Gt. 31:1087.— 
lU. luleA and G. Paononiea, 
Allied to O. oni.t« but di* 



1. tall: f , — 

HBmm.=G. Kumtncriiin*,— O. Ktiidrineit 
H in.: fla. irhitubi doited vioLetoutnde, Tui 
0,Jtii"immdno,3cndt. Hyhric" 
FliL j^llonish.— O, LUinrmcti. 
tlnjEulBhed by the much Innip 

G.C.' III. 38:307.^. IFnlluASna.— Height 8-12 in.; fla. dearllii, 
— a. Walujtm. Iteget & Schmalh. Fls. whiCiah, dotted pale bli: 
Tuckemm. OL 33; IHO. WiLHBLU MiLLBB. 

N. TAYLOK,t 



GENUS 

GENUS, pi. 6BHERA (i. e., kind), is a term used ia 
natural history to designate a group of spciies. Aa with 
specieB, bo the genua is an indefinite ooQception, varying 
with the author. The chief value of the oonception ia 
its uae in aiding us conveniently to arrange and name 
plants and "'■"mI" The name of the genus is the firat 
of the two words in the name of the plant; thus, in 
Brcuaica oteraceOj Brassica designates the genus, and 
oleraeea the particular Braseica of which we are speak- 
ing. It is difficult to trace the origin of the genus- 
conception in natural history, but it is usually aacribed 
to Konrad Gesner (Zurich, 1516-1565). i^ h. b. 

GBODdRUH (gifloftiK earth). OrdtidAeex. Orchids 
of minor importance, E. Indies to Austral., with radi- 
cal lanceolate or elliptical Iva., tuberous bulb-like 
rootstocks, and van-colored fls. in a nodding spike 
.. on the top of the scape; sepals and petals similar, lip 
upri^t: terreetrial. BelonKS in the same sub^;roup 
or tnbe as Cyrtopodium and Eulophia. Jn habit, they 
Htmewhat resemble Pbaius and . 

Eulophia, and require similar \ 

treatment, with potting in fibrous 
loam and peat. Apparently not ^,^ 
offeredintnis country, but some- ^^^ 
times grown ^road in coUec- ^ 
tions. Q. purpfireum, R, Br., i^^ iT 

from India: uke a Bletia in ff\ 

habit: Ivs. large; scape erect, l_ 

bearing a densely-'fld. drooping 
raceme; fls. small, white with purple 
markings on the lip. Q. /ucdJtim, 
Lindl., of Ceylon: 1 ft.: Ivs. oblong- 
lanceolate and plicate, the scapes re- 
curved at the apex: fl. with pink nar- 
row sepals and ovate Lp. B.R. 1SS7. 
Q. pldum, Lindl., from New Holland, 
grows 1-2 ft., with dull roBe-purple 
fls. shaded brown and white, bwne in 
dense racemes. G. tUafdturn, R. Br., 
of India, 6-12 in. high, fls. white 
marked pink and yellow, home on an 
erect scape. — 0, p{i«(Uu)n, Voigt.— 
'S\mm. L. H. B. 

GEdNOMA (Wittstein gives this 
interesting explanation: "Greek, peo- 
TunruM, skilled in agriculture; for this 
tree puts forth buds at the apex of 
its stem which become new trees"). 
Pa(mdeez,tribe>4rte«2, Slenderspine- 
lesB palms with ringed, reed-like stema 
mucn cultivated for their excellent deooratiTe pos- 
sibilitiea. 

LeavGfl terminal or alternate, usually crowded in 
showy clusters^ blade entire, 2-lobed at the apex, or 
more or less pinnatisect; aegms. acuminate, l-nerved, 
with the margins broadly recurved at the baae; rachis 
acute above, convex on the back; petiole nearly cylin- 
drical, concave at the base above; sheath tubular: 
spadices ascendinK or recurved, simple, forked or panio- 
mately branched, slender or stout, often colored; 
spathea 2, often deciduous before flowering, or obsolete, 
tne lower one partial, truncate, concave, the uppCT 
compressed or fusiform: fls, moncecioua in each spaaix, 
borne in the furrows of the spadix, at length partially 
exserted, when in 3's the upper one piatillate; cells of 
the anthers twisted: fr. smsil, globose, black.--%>eciea 
about 100. Trop. Amer. G.CTlI. 24:586. A.G. 16: 
345. For G. GAiMbreDAiiarui, see Csd]fptrog^ne. 

Several of the members of this extensive genua of 
smaU^crowing palms are useful for the greenhouse, 
thougb most attractive while in a small state, from the 
(act that geonomas soon begin to form a stem, and 
when aged Decome rather scantily furnished specimens. 
These pobns are by no means difficult to grow, and do 



not require a very high temperature, their natural 
habitat being the mountains of Central and South 
Ajnerica, some of the species being found at an altitude 



said never to appear in the open country unsheltered 
by trees of larger growth ; therefore, shade is neceeaary 
for them when cultivated under glass. The old practice 
of growing geonomas m a very lisbt peaty soil does 
not seem to be the only method, lor excellent results 
have been secured by erowing tnem in a good loam, 
well manured and well i&ained, giving an abundance of 
water and a night temperature of 60.° Red spiders 
and thrips are the most troublesome insects to which 
these plants are subject, and both of these pests multi- 
ply much more rapidly if the plants are kept too warm 
and dry. (W. H. Taplin,) 

The most useful species from a commercial point of 
view is Q. AiedeJtona (O. ^ociJu), which remmds one 
of CoctM Wtdddliana, but has longer leaflets. The 
species are undoubtedly con- 
fused under cultivation, and 
often unidentified. They are 
said not to be grown in the 
open in southern California, 
at least, not to any extent. 
The species here listed 
appear to be those of most 
horticultural importance 







A. Let. simple, S-ltibed at the apex. 
B. Cvrteaie-oblaneeolale, nuty, tomentote. 
SpizUna, Mart. Fig. 1629 (adapted 
from Martius' worit on palms). St. 
slender, solitan', 6-4 ft. tugb: Ivs. in a 
dense, graceful cluster; blades 3-5 ft. 
long, bifurcate one-fourth of their 
length, each lobe lanceolate-acuminate, 
divergent: spadix from between the 
lvB.,al>out3 ft. long : fls. small, the calyx 
and corolla equal. W. Bratil. 

BB. Cuneaie-ovott, plicaU. 
Setaiannii, Hort. Low, 1-3 ft. high: 
IVB. all alike, the first 2 in. hag, the 
later ones 10 in. long, entire, or 2-T(rf>ed, 
usually deeply cleft at the apex, plaited, 
feather-veined; stalk triangular, sheath- 
ing at the base, with broad, scarioua 
niargins: fls. unknown. F.M. 1869:428. 
Cent. Amer. 

AA. Ldb. pinnale. 
B. Baeal If.-Kgma. narrow; the upper ones the broadett. 
acaftli^ Mart. Acaulescent: Ivs. in a congested, 
rosette-like cluster, long-petioled. 3-4 ft. high; blade 
unequally pinnatisect, with usuallv 6 eegms. on both 
sides of the rachis; 22-25-nerved, oasal segms. 4 lines 
wide, spreading, the middle and upper erectrspreading 
at an acute angle, Ji-4 m. wide, the apical very wide: 
epadix stiSF, usually about 18 in. long, the stalk very 
thick; fls. numerous: fr. unknown. C^t. Brazil. 
BB. Broad and narrow mgnu. irreffutarly intermingled. 
c. Blade of if. 6 fl. long; petiole I ft. Umg. 
PohlUna, Mart. St. 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely 
ringed, colunmar or reedy: Ivs. very numerous, erect or 
spreading, forming a much congested, showy cluster, in 
sdult specimens; eegms. very unequal, linear-lanceo- 
late, falcale-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved 
intermixed, 16-20 in. long; petioles very short: spadix 
scarcely showing amoUR the dense cluster of Ivs. Trop. 
BnuU. — Cult, most advantageously in a warm moist 
house. The young specimens are attractive for potted 



1330 GEONOMA 

cc. Blade S-ZH ft.; petioU 4 in. tonfl. 

Aenu, Man., var. lobdBta, Drude. St. 6-10 ft. 
high, 3-4 lines diom.: segme. rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- 
nerved, 10-14 in. long, eome 4 tines wide, intennixed with 
broader, many-nervM ones, all long, falcate-acuminate: 
spadix about 10 in. long, tne Ba. very Bmall, inserted in 
deep pits. Cent, BraiiL 

BBS. Lf.-aegnu.aUtdike ie:axpllheeonrM!eniapiailo7iei), 
C. AUemale, remote, linear, teurfy. 

KledelUiu, Wendl. {Q. grieOii, lind. A Andr& 
the oldest and perhaps the correct name). Habit of 



rachia triangular, bisulcate above: Ivh. spreading, 
drooping at the apex; segms. 10-12 in. long, about 9 
lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the 2 
terminal ones connivent: fls. showy, yellow, in long 
drooping spadices. Braiil. I.H. 21:169. B.M. 7963. 
cc. Eqwdittant: petiole half os Umg as the blade. 
Schottiina, Mart. St. 9-15 ft. hi^, 1-lii in. thick: 
IvB. loi^-BtaUced, gracefully recurvmg; petiole half or 
more ttwn half as long as the blade; segms. about 35 
on each aide, 10-12 in. long, ^in. wide, equidistant, 
linear or linear-lanceolate, ytary long-acuminate, 
recurved at the tip: roadix about 10 in. long, the stalk 
about 1 ft. long. E. Brazil, ^A very variable apeciea. 

Tba folkminE Are ira»Tf«ci^ dcHribed, but are id Uw traded 
G. inptriiUu, Lind. O.W. 2, p. 37.— O. prlnan. linrf.— fl. 
PmrrMiia, Ban. Belongi under a. One Qf the ■nuiUea 

u™ 28 in, k ■ " 

and tbe (enu_ _ 
23:258. F.E, 1< 




Hook, Caiy^tronoma Swartu. Qrii 



_. tj)ra6ttt. Barb.' 

b. (CilyptrDsyne Swsrtiil, 
^b.). Tmok 5>>^ It. bifb, 
n, gtabmis. Cuba. 

N. TATLOIt.t 

GEORGIhA. a fmionym of Dahlia, which still 
'n the form of "Georginen," the popular name 
I in Germany. 



Greek, en 
Tme'sbiU: 



in the rockery, usually caulescent. 

Leaves simple, alternate or opposite and much- 
lobed, Bomctimes almost radical: ns. regular; sepals 5, 
imbricated, often 3-nerved and mucronate; petals 5, 
often hairy or ciliate; stamens 10, in 2 rows; anthers 
10; seeds when ripened separated from the ovary and 
with its awn bent sinuously- The genus Erodium, its 
nearest ally, has but the inner row of stamens furnished 
with anthers and the awn of the seed is bent spiraily. 
The geraniums of common speech are classed in the 
genus Pelargonium, havii^ at the side of thepedicel a 
distinct narrow tube and zy^morphic fls. — Tne genus 
Geranium has over 250 species, found in the temperate 
zones particularly of the northern hemispheres, very 
n the tropics. The roots of some, as C, macuWum, 
aunt of their astringency. 
in soil, and are propagated 
'^"'=, The best botanical 
Angler's Das Pflanzen- 
laJl and Hanks in N. 
the N. American spe- 
nount of the genus is 
eciol stresH is laid on 
ed plates, and, where 
Uowing accouDt, thus, 
el97, 

such as G. macuiaiwn 
ffectively naturalized 
spread very rapidly 
inum will be profuse 



FremoDtii. 13, 
anuidiQoruDi, 3C 
QreyUleaniuii, 2 



H«, U. tlUOHtneBW, 11. 



Hjflhardniiji, 9. 
Robeniaiium, L 

maruJiitumTie. nbiriFuniru). 

□udvAflonim, 4, tuboTffmitumt 7. 

oepalaDK, 21. Travenii, 3. 

pbAum, &. Walliafaianuni, 23. 

KKT TO THI SPSCnDB. 
A. Planlt nnnuoZ, mare or leet pntlnOo: 

In. findt/ distteted 1. Robertianani 

AA. Plant* perennial. 

B. Specia tender, to be arcnon oniu in 
greenhoute BortAuard. 

c. FatioQe eiltieni Banaeent 2. Travenli 

tx:. Fotifioe glal^ova, at Ua^ neter 

canescent 3. anemoiiUo- 

SB. Spteiee hardy. [lima 

c, Ttiberime-Tooted 4. lIMlVBflORUII 

cc. Not i\^>erou»-Tooled. 

D. Plant with a Ikickemd looodi/ 

b<ue. 6. macranU- 

DD. Plantt without Oiiclceaed iBood)/ [torn 

e. Foliaoe tiitenrcaneteenl. 

r. Utually 1-fid 6. M'|«ntBWn 

FF. Uiaally e~fld. 7. dnereum 

EE. Foliage or whole viarU glabroue 
or pubeecent, but not aiitery. 
r. Ste. er«l. 

O. Fli. dark blue, almoil black. 8. phBam 
oo. FU. not dark blue, tome- 
lima lioht blue, 
B. Color of fit. isAite ((«a 
aUo whUe-fid. formt o} 
Not. IS. IB. and 16). 

1. trg. a-S-varted. 9. RicbwdMnli 

II. Ln. 7-parted 10. IconitifoUiun 

Ha. Color offia. nol U!hile, 

I. Mo»tljf l-fid 11. laDgtilQenm 

n, Moitii/ more Hum 1-fid. 
>. The at. branehed. 

K, FU. roee-purpU 12. FremoDdl 

KK. FU. TioUt 13. ibBiicom 

jj. The ata. eMenjioUt' 
aim'^. 
K. LMtt of the he. 

rounded 14 

XK. Lobee of the Iti. 
OBale or larieeotate. 
L. FtdiceU TeeuTved 

in/r 15 

LL. Pedt£dt erect tn 
A- 
u. The pedieeU not 

glandular 16. msciUatiun 

uu. The pediixU 
t^ndular, 
N, Ln.finelt/eul.n. incilQm 
NN. Lvs. S-li^ied...lS. srioBtemon 
IT. Ste. decumbent or creeping, 

a. PcduneUt 1-fid. 19. aibiriciim 

GO. PeduncUa i- or more-fid, 
H. PetaU about ae long aa the 

I. FU. pale lHae 20. (randiflonun 

II, FU. rose-purpU 21. napalanSB 

BB. PelaU 1-2 timet the 
length of the sepala. 

1. Upper Im.S-lahed 22. EndrsMii 

n. AUthehs.S-lobed. 

J. ThepetalaalHped....23. WalUehia- 
ii. The petala not itriped. Imun 

aometimea apottoA. 
K. Bateofpetrdaaiiate.2i. collinum 
KK. Bate of petaia pUoae 

or glabroua 25. GrevUlauum 



GERANIUM 

1. Kobcrtiiinim, linn. Herb Robert. Red Roam. 
About 9 in. high: Iva. thin, ovate-orbicular, 3-5-parted, 
vritb 3-fid. pinn&tifid lobes: pedunclee slender, 2-fld.; 
fls. small, bright crimaon. June to Oct. Amer,, Eu., 
Asia &nd N. Afr. B.B. 2:341.— For the rockery, in a 
moiat soil and some shade, and will carpet the rround in 
a few aeaaonB, from seed. Annuai; or possibly bienniaL 

2. Triversil, Hook. Asilyery caneacantherb3-15ii 



flfi. laige, often 1^ in. across; sepals broadly ovst«, 
cuspidate, silvery; petals ovate or nearly round, pale 
rose, or sometimes white, much longer than the sepals. 
Chatham IsL — Not hardy north ^ Washington and 
to be grown in temperate house. 
Little known in Amer. but & desir- 
able greenhouse plant. 

3. anemonifAlfaim, L'Her. (O. 
eanariinte, Reut.). A stiff mnf|le- 
stemmed perennial from a thick- 
ened rootetock or tube: Ivs. glt^ 
brouB, round-ovate, t5-parted, the 
lobes finely dissected: fis. corym- 
bose, the pedioela and calyx densely 
hairy; sepals oblong, mucronate, 
the mucro almost ^^m, long; petals 
2-3 times as long as the sepals, 
obovate, pole purple. Canary Isls. 
and Madeira. S. 244. — Must be 
KTOwn in the temperate housa 
but doubtless hardy south of 
Washingten. 

4. malvaflAram, Boiss. A usu- 
ally l-stemmed perennial, from a 
thickened tuber, not over 18 in. 
tall; Ivs. long-petioled, 5-&-parted, 
the lobes finely dissected, hairy: 
fls. showy, the pedicels and pedun- 
cles densely hairy; sepals ovate- 
oblong, haiiy; petals rose-purple, 
obcordate, tlie apex often emaiei- , 
nat«. about twice as long as toe 
sepals. Medit. Region. — Very 
doubtfully hardy north of Phila- 
delphia. 

5. nucroniilniin, Linn, A Isrg^ 
rooted species, about \}A ft. high, 
withast. sufTniticose at case: Ivs. 
smooth, round, basal ones Mobed, 

, eouline 3-lobed, toothed and often 
colored red: fls. in bunches at the 
end of the st.; calyx inflated; the 
sepals ovate and 3-nerved; petals 
spatulate and blood-red in color. 
May to July. S. £u. B.M. 2420. 
S. 'hi. 

6. antateanL linn. Silvsr-lsated Ckakb'b-bill. 
About 3 in. high: Ivs. almost radical, on long petioles, 
6-7-parted, with 3-fid linear lobca, both surfaces hoary: 
peduncles almost radical, 1- or 2-fld.: fls. large, pink, 
withdarkerveins;petal8emarginate. MiddleoUune to 
Aug. CamicAlps. B.M. 504. L.B.C. 10:948. 8.59.— 
One of the best for the rookeiy. Often acts as a biennial 
in New England. 

7. dnereum, Cav. (G. subargintmtm, Lange). Gha7 
Crank's-bill. Like G. argenleum, but 2-fld. and paler 
in color: Ivs. not so hoaiy in appearance. June, July. 
Pyrenees. 

8. phfeim, Linn. About 2 ft. high, with upright, 
^ortrhaiied St., glandular above: Iva. 5-7-lobed and 
deeply toothed: peduncles 1-2-fld.; petals spreading, 
obovate, unequally notefaed and often with a sm^ 
spur, very dark blue, almost black, with white spot at 
Mse of ^ch petal. May, June. Cent, and W. £u. 



GERANIUM 



1331 



9. RIchardsonlijFisch.ATrautv. About IHft.high: 
Ivs. thin and ternunal, lobe of the uppermost Ivs. longer 
than the often greatly reduced lateral lobes: pedicels 
conspicuously glandular pubescent ; fls. large, white or 
sometimes str^ed with pink; petals with long white 
hairs on inner surface. Colo, ana west. — SIb. and young 
growth tinged with red. 

10. aconitifOUiua, L'Her. 9t. usually simple, 
grooved, 10-20 in. tall, few-lvd.; Ivs. more or \bbb 
Hairy, deeply 7-parted, kidney-shaped or orbicular, the 
lobes brcMully ovate, deeply pinnatifid, the segms. 
mucronulate: fls. fragrant, looeely corymbose, the 
pedicels 2-fld.; sepals oblong or oblong^vate, 3-nerved; 
petals white, obovate, the maigins slightly wavy. 

Alpine or sutMJinne region of Eu. 
June. — Useful chiefly as rock-gar- 
den species. 

11. mng iifa^nm, Linn. About 
1^ ft. high, with St. occasionally 
forked, ^ct: Ivs. all petiolat& 
mostly 7-parted, with 3-5-lobea 
linear lobules: peduncles long, 
mostly 1-fld. ; fls. very large, blood- 
red. June to Aug. Eu. — One of 
the best species in cult. 

' Var. lancastrifaise, With. (0. 
proetrdlum, Cav.). A dwarf er 
form, smaller and with less deeply 
lobea foliage: fls. lighter in color 
and conspicuously veined purple, 

12. Frftmontii, Torr. & Gray. A 
many-stemmed pereimial: 



sometiines crenate, slightly hairy: 
fls. large and showy, frequently 
1-lJ^ in. across; sepals oblong, 
3-nerved; petals pale rose-purple, 
obovate, toward the base densely 
cihate. Rocky Mis. G. 29:191.— 
A handsome garden species. Not 
I yet much known in cult, in 



for the hardy bwder. Blooms all 



13. ibiricuffl, Cav. Ibsriak 
Crane's-bill. From I-IJ-S ft. 
high: St. erect and leafless below, 
aMve dichotomously branched, 
villous: IvB. opposite, 5-7-parted. 
with deeply cut lobes and toothed 
lobules: fis. I in. across, in showy, 
open panicles, violet. July, Aug. 
Iberia. On. 71, p. 167. B.M. 1386. 
i^ S. 84. Var. Jlbum, with white fls., 

IB rare but known by some dealers. 
Var. pla^pCtalum {0. pUUj/piUUtim, Fisch. 4 Mey.). 
Slightly shorter than the parent, with Ivs. less deeply 
lobed and bbee less pmnted: fls. deeper and richw in 
color, and also larger. G.M. £2:61. Gn. 76, p. 108. O. 
3:293; 9:686. 

14. armSnnm, Boiss. (.0. BaiMou»iAnum, RegelT). 
About 2^ ft. high, the lower part of the st. thickened 
and almost woody: Ivs. radical, upright, orbicular, 
with 5 deep lobes: fls. about 1)^ in. across, inclining to 
a dork crimson; petals dark spotted near the base, 
obovate, often with the tips a little recurved. All season 
at irregular intervals. Armenia. R.H. 1891: 350. — ' 
A very vigorous and floriferous spedeB. Sometimes 
growing 4 ft. high. 

15. prat£nse, Linn. Mbadow Crane's-bill. About 
2}^ ft. high, with an upright round st.: Ivs. mostly 
hand-shaped, with 7 lobes, each deeply cut: peduncles 
mostly 2-fld., drooping after flowering; fls. kvge, blue; 



1332 



GERANIUM 



GERAKDIA 



petals entire. June, through Aug. Eu. G. 18:649. 
G.L. 18:208. Gn.W. 24:367. Var. fldre-pldno, Not 
so tall as parent. Very numerous deep blue fls. in clus- 
ters. June and July, and often again in fall. J.H. III. 
48:305. Var. Album, a white-fld. form is known. 

16. macuUltum^Iinn. Wild or Spotted Crane's- 
bill. Fig. 1630. The common American species, about 
lii ft. nigh: st. angular: basal hrs. long-petioled, 
deeply 3-5-parted; st.-lvs. opposite, shorter-petioled: 
peduncles 1-5, infl. often unbellate; fls. 1-1 H in. broad, 
rose-purple: petals woolly at base. June, July. N. 
Amer. B.B. 2:341. S. 332. — Showy native species; 
should be more in cult. Grows best in somewhat wet 
places. Var. planum, a double-fld. variety of deeper 
color. Var. Album, a pale-fld. or pure white form is 
known. 

17. indsum, Nutt. (G, eridrUhum, Lind.). About 1 ft. 
high, leafy branched, the st. thickened below, solitary: 
Ivs. nnely cut, long hairy, the hairs fine and silky: pedi- 
oeb conspicuously glandular-pubescent; sepals oblong- 
lanceolate, mucronate: petals with stiff white hairs, 
inner surface purple, about 1 in. wide. Ore. — ^A hardy 
species well wortn gprowing. Not perfectly hardy near 
Boston. 

18. eriostdmon, Fisch. {G, ptatydrUhunif Duthie). St. 
erect, slender, grooved, from an almost woody base: 
Ivs. kidney-shaped, 5-lobed, sometimes palmately so, 
the lobes ovate, toothed, the teeth slightly mucronate: 
fl^. corymbose, the sepals ovate, obtuse, very hairy; 
petaJs violet-purple, broadly obovate, entire. Native 
of Siberia and temp. China. — A showy and useful 
garden plant. 

19. sibfricuiUi Linn. Sibeiuan Crane's-bill. A 
slender, somewhat forked plant, brown-villous, 1-2 ft. 
hish: Ivs. deeply 3-5-parted: peduncles slender, usually 
1-nd.; fls. very small, dingy white, the obovate petals 
scarcely exceeding the oblong-lanceolate 3^erved 
sepals. June through Aug. Siberia, and naturaUzed 
near New York. B.B. 2:341. Jacq. Hort. Widd. pi. 19. 
— ^Another form under same name, with brick-red fls., 
appears to be in cult. 

20. grandifldrum, Edeew. A thick-stemmed peren- 
nid arout 10^16 in. taU, usually somewhat glandular, 
branched: Ivs. long-petioled, the blade 5-parted ana 
rotund in outline, tne lobes irregularly toothed: fls. 
bunched at the apex of the branches, showy: petals 
spreading, pale lilac, the veins dark purple, about as 
long as the sepals. N.Asia. F.S.R. 1:54. Gn. 64, p. 
184. — Suitable mostly for rockeries. 

21. nepal^nse, Sweet. St. spreading or ascendins, 
thin, not more than 18 in. long: Ivs. ovate-rhomboia, 
deeply 5-lobed, hairy, the lobes dentate, the teeth 
almost spinose: fls. niunerous, on hairy pedicels; sepals 
lanceolate, acimiinate, often mucronate; petals usually 
about equaling the sepals, rose-purple, oroadlv obo- 
vate, not emarginate at apex. Mountains of Asia. 
Jime-Aug. S. 12. — Useful only in the rockery. 

22. £ndressii, J. Gay. About 18 in. high, the st. 
covered with pale brown hairs: Ivs. opposite, palmate, 
5-lobed, upper ones 3-lobed, serratcil, densely hairy, 
with spreadmg hairs: peduncles axillary, 2-fld.; petals 
entire, fringed at base, light rose, darker veined, 2-3 
times the length of the 3-nerved, oblong-ovate sepals. 
Summer. Pyrenees. — Among the best lor the border, 
and useful for cutting. 

23. WallichiAnum, D. Don. Of prostrate trailing 
hi^it: St. and Ivs. covered with silky hairs, the st. 
deeply grooved : Ivs. light green, 3-5-parted, with deeply 
toothed lobes: fls. kfge, purple, tK)me sparingly all 
summer; sepals 3-nervea, tne lateral nerves stiff-hairy; 
petals about twice as long as the sepals, smootn, 
emarginate. Himalayas. B.M. 2377. S. 90. — ^For the 
rockery and must not be grown in the open exposed 
parts of it. The hot dry winds of midsummer in K. U. 
S. are not favorable. . 



24. comnuin^ Steph. (G. Ldndesii, Fisch.). St 
ang<ilar and usually decumbent, grooved and hairy 
Ivs. palmately 5-parted, deeply divided and cut 
sepals lanceolate-ovate, 3-nerved, densely hairy 
petals entire, purple, with a tin^ of violet. Junej 
July. E. Eu. — One of the showiest m its season. Should 
be cut back before seeding, to induce second bloom. 

25. GreviUeHaum, Wall. St. creeping, rarely a little 
erect: Ivs. long-petioled, the blades usually 5-lobed, 
kidney-shai>ed, hairy, the lobes deeply serrate, but not 
usually divided: flowering stalk thick, more or less 
glandular, the fls. large and showy, frequently 2 in. 
across: sepals oblong-ovate; petals obovate, some- 
times nairy at their bases, pale rose or in some forms 
with large purple spots, at least as to the wild plant. 
1-2 times the length of the sepals. Himalayas. — ^Useful 
for the rockery. 

The following are unknown as to botanical ^ffinitiAa or are 
insuffidenthr known in Amer. 

O. BaUMntun^ Hort. A hardy plant, with fragrant fidiaae: 
fls. on radical stB., 1 in. across, dark magenta. June.— <?. HM» 
reichii^RoTt. Orange-colored fls.— (?).— G. L&toii, Hort. 2-2H ft.: 
fls. bright roee with violet center. Name unknown in botaniml 
literature.— G. prorirdtum. Hort. FUu purple. Advertised as "^ood 
rockery subject. "<—(?) .— (?. 9ylvdticum,Lann. About 2 ft. high, with a 
aoft-haared, upright, round st.: Ivs. 5-7-parted, lobes oblong, deeply 
toothed: fls. purple or violet. June, July. The common wood 

Eranium of Eu. A white-fld. form (7. ayndticum dOnim, Hort., is 
town. Gn. 72^ p. 178.— G. tuberdtum, linn. Tuberous-rooted. 
9-15 in. high, wiUi st. at base naked: Ivs. many-lobed, linear ana 
serrate: pedicels 1-2-fld., fls. large, violet. May. S. Eu. 

N. TAYLOB.t 

OBRAinUM, FBATHBR: Chenopodium Botry. 

GERARDIA (after John Gerarde, 1545-1607, per- 
haps the most popular of the herbalists). Scrophulaari' 
dcese. Hardy annual and perennial herbs, all American, 
and mostly of the Atlantic states, with yellow or rosy 
purple flowers, in late summer and autumn, the latar 
color rarely varving to white. 

Leaves mainly opposite: calyx 5-toothed or cleft; 
corolla bell- to funnel-shaped, broad-throated, ^-parted, 
the 2 posterior lobes often smaller and more united; 
stamens commonly more or less hairv; anthers more or 
less approximate in pairs: caps, globose, 2-grooyed; 
seeds usually aneled, loose-coated. The first 3 species 
described below belong to a section in which the roots 
are more or less saprophytic; by some, and probably 
correctly, they are considered as belonging to the 
genus Dasystoma. These plants are therefore rather 
difficult to cultivate, and are offered only by collectors. 
G. tenmfolia is offered by one dealer, the seeds presumar 
bly gathered in European gardens. 

A. Fls. yeUow. 

B. CoroUa pubescent oiUside: biennial or oenmuiL 

PedicttUria. linn. St. much branched: pubescence 
partly glandular and viscid, especially on the pedicels 
and cal3rx, while in the next 2 species there is no glandu- 
lar pubescence: Ivs. 1-2 in. long, all pinnatifid: fls. in 
loose panicles or solitary, the calyx-lobes oblong and 
herbaceous, usually incised. E. N. Amer. 

BB. Corolla glabrous outside: perenmal, 

c. Height 3-6 fL 

virgioicaf Linn. (G. quercifblia, Purah). St. at first 
glaucous, sparingly branched: lower Ivs. 3-5 in. long, 
1-2-pinnatind,' upper Ivs. rarely entire: cal3rx-lob^ 
ovate, entire. Dry woods, E. U. S. 

cc. Height 1-2 fL 

bevigUta, Raf. Not glaucous but glabrous, the st. 
simple or sUghtly branched: Ivs. IH-^ in- long, entire, 
or the lowest somewhat incised, all petioled, limceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate: calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, ^ufd- 
in^ or shorter than the tube and caps, glabrous, al>out 
twice as long as the calyx. Oak barrens, ete. S. E. 
U.S. 



GERARDU 

AA. FU. roay purpk rarely varying to mlnte, 

B. Heinhi 1 ft. 

UnuifOlia, Vahl. Height 1 ft.; branching, paniculate: 

Ivs. mostly narrowly linear: infl. racemose; corolla 

Hin. long, Ught purple, spotted, sometimes white. 

Low or dry ground, E. N. Ainer. 

BB. Height 1-3 ft. 
Perennial: IvB, erei , . 

., . ! wide: calyx-taeth minute; corolla 1 in. 

long. Low pine-barrens, N. Amer. Not cult., but said 
to be a parent with PenUlemon pulehelitu of G. hybrids, 
Hort. Intro, by Haage & Schmidt, 1899. The raor 
cut in S. H. 2:&5 seems nearer Fentetemon than Gei^ 
ardia. Wilhelm Miu^r. 

N. TATK)B.t 

GERBSRA (named in honor of Traug. Gerber, a 
German natunuist who traveled in Ruaaia). Compdttlx. 
A small group of temperate and tropical Asiatic and 
African perennial herba grown for their yellow or pink 
or <»«nge flower-^eods. 



GESNERIA 



1333 



doors in the S. A briUiant summer-blooming com- 
posite, more or leas [janted in the open. Var. trans- 
vaal fa glB, Hort. Has lai^er fi.-heads than type, of 
somewhat lighter color. Var. Ulfistrifl, Hort. A robust 
variety. 

O. aurandoai, Sch. A hudMms plul with fli. 3H in- diua.: 
OoreU red. vitfa brishl wUdt uitben. NaUl and Ihs Truuvial. 
B.M. 8070, Hu been lial«d under muns of G. Elatc—O. anta- 
MoitntU, Bort. A EHjdfln hybrid between G. JuoeAQnii ud Q. 
nndifolin. G.M.A7:3ae.dac,—G. Tiridifilia, Bcb., b s litUe-known 
■reen-lTd. plul oith abawy Os. that ue white on the upper nda, 
]n:Ihni beaath. S. Air. — Well worth trmnon in tempemis bouw. 

N. TATI.OB. 

GESNfiKIA (Conrad G«sner, Zurich, 1516-1565, cele- 
brated naturalist, and considered to be the originator of 
the idea of genus in taxonomv). Otantriietx. Green- 
house and hothouse plants witn showy tubular flowers. 
Sometimes written Ganera. 

Low perennials, sometimes shrubs, with simple, 
opposite IvB, and showy tubular fls. in terminal short 
panicles or fascicles; calyx campanulate, 5-parted; 
corolla long, atxaight or curved, more or leas ventricose, 
the base often distinctly swollen or gibbous, the hmb 
mostly shallow- toothed and nearly regular or bilab- 
iate ; stamens 4, didynamous (in pairs under the upper 
Up);stvle 1, long; glandaon theoiak in the fl. — Species 
upward of 40, in t£e American tropics. Often tuberous 
plants; aUiea to Achimenee, Gloxinia, laoloma and 
Streptocarous. Some of the geanerias of the trade 
belong to Naegelia, which differs, amongst other thin^ 
in having an annular or ringed disk rather than a disk 
of distinct glands. There is considerable variation of 
ooinion as to the limits of Gesneria. In this account, 
held to include Pentarhapbia, Duchartrea, 



Stemless herbs with radical, petioled Ivs. which are 
entire or sometimes lobed: fl.-h^ds solitary', many-fid,, 
the conspicuous rays in 1 or 2 rows, those of the iuDer 
row, when present, very short and sometimts tubular 
and 2-lipped, as are the diak-Bs, : achenes beaked. — 
There are 40 species, only one of which {G. Jameaonii) 
is well known m Amer. and is sometimes found outside 
the collections of botanic gardens and fandets. They 
should be grown in the temperate house, in a rich com- 
port of sandy loam and peat. Prop, by seeds or by 
cuttings of side shoots, 

JimesonH, Hook. FiK- 1631, Hairy throughout, 
the mature Ivs. very woolly beneath : Ivs, numerous, the 
petiole 6-8 in. long, the blade 5-10 in., a little pinnati- 
Sd: heads solitary, the showy orange-flame-colored 
rays etrap^haped. Transvaal. B.M. 70S7. G.C, III. 
6:773. Gn. 36:340. A.G, 22:345, Gt, 64:1545. G.W. 
2, p. 2. R.H. 1903:36.— Could be grown outr 



A. Lvt. green. 
Lehm. (Direiea oardindUs, Regel. 0. 
maerdntha, Hort). St. 6-12 in. high, stout, and hairy: 
Ivs. large, cordate-ovate, crenate-dentate, petioled: 
fls. red, tubular, hairy, slender (2-^ in. long), tne upper 
lip projecting and the lower one almost wanting, borne 
in a terminal, more or less flat cluster. Nativity 
unknown. B.M. 8167, Gn. 42:232. A good species for 
the stove.— fl. Dtu>dMi, Hort., is evidently only a slen- 
der form of this species. 

H£ndersonii, Hort. Lvs. velvety green: fls. 3 in. long, 
brilliant scarlet, in a large tnUB. Probably of garden 

lon^ftra, Hort., is a small-lvd. species, with 
droopug, long-tubed nicotiana-like white fls. Gn. 
33.'340. — The ootanical position of this plant is in 
doubt. It is not the G. longifita'a, HBK,, which is pur- 
ple-fld., nor G. Umgiftara, DC., which is Ackimenai 
tanaifiora. By some it nas been confounded with 
Iiwoma iongifoliitm, Decne. Penlarhaphia lon^Jlora, 
Lindl. {Gemeria venlricoaa, Swarti), is a small some- 
what branched shrub: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate and serrulate, pale green beneath: 
fls. bright scarlet, IJ^ in. long, in long-peduncled cymes; 
corolia-tube somewhat curved, narrowed toward the 
base; stamens red, much exserted. W. Indies, B.M. 
7339, — A good summer- and autumn-blooming stove 

AA. Let. richly colored, tti least berttath. 
libtntinBi^ Morr. (Pentarhdvhia libanintit, Hanst. 
RkytidophyUum fiorHnindum, Van Houtte, OphidtUhe 
tibaniniie, Hanst,). Subshnib, but only a few inches 
high, simple or slightly branched: lvs. more or less 
roeulate toward top of St., 3-4 in, long, obovate-lanceo- 
late, more or less blistered, toothed: fls. bright red, 
half as lon^ as lvs., tubular, puffed or swoUen in the 
middle, hairy, the mouth oblique and the hmb of 5 



1334 



GESNERIA 



sm&Il ciUated lobes; stameae equaling the tube; calyx 
very short, the s^ma. leafy. Cuba. B.M. 4380. 

cranioUiia, Swarti {Peniarhdpkia erantMria, 
Decne.). Three to 4 ft. eomewhst ahrubby; Ivs. gla- 
brous above and hispid beneath, obovale-cuneiform, 
runcinat* or more or leaa lobed : fls. greenish yellow with 
black dots, in long-peduncled clusters of 5 or 6, the 
corolla-lobes fringed. St. Domingo. 

Uopoldli, Scheidw. Compact; et. erect from the 
large, depressed tuber, thinly hairy: Iva. verticillate in 
4'b, broadly ova(«-Bcuminat«, more or less unequal at 
base, dentate, green above and purple beneath : fls. long- 
tubular, thinly hairy, the lobes nearly equal: Up;ht scar- 
let, in a rather loose, umbel-like clusUr. Nativity not 
recorded, F5. 7:704, 705. Gn. 53:542. 

exonUnsia, Hwt. Hybrid: Ivs. velvety, with red and 
purple hairs: fls. bright orange-red, yellow in the throat, 
in cloee clusters: 
1ft. 

Tti6igais,Hort. 
Pmbabiy a hy- 
brid : Ivs. cordate- 
l ovate, red -hairy: 
fls. deep red or 
veimihon: l^ ft. 
— One of the best. 
D«nk«l«rilna, 
Lem. ((?. D6nk- 
larii, Hort.). St. 
often 2 ft. tall: 
Ivs. large, cordate- 
ovate, c r e n a t e, 
hairy, green and 
purple-tinged 
above and piurtle 
beneath : fls. tubu- 
lar - campanulate, 
the rounded lobes 
nearly equal, dull 
red, 2 m. long, 
hailing from long 
pedicels in a laive 
uuiicle. Variable. 
Colombia. B.M. 
uat. G«unri«a.. 5070. R.B.21:97. 

F. 1853:241. 



OETHfLLIS (old Greek name, of no particular 
^tpUcation). AmaryUiddeese. Nine or 10 etemlcss 
herbs, with the look of crocus, allied to Stembergia, 
from the Cape region, seldom cult, under glass; appar- 
ently not in the trade: ivs. usually appeanng after the 
fls., linear, sometimes filiform and twisted: ns, appear- 
ing through the ground, of delicate texture and of 
^ort duration, fragrant, whitish, salverfurm, with a 
long slender tuoe and S Himilar acute spreading scgms. ; 
stamens 6 or more, attached in the throat; ovaiy 3- 
ccllcd, conceal^ in the bulb-neck: bulbous. Prop, by 
offsets or seeds. G. itfra, Linn, Bulb I}4~2 in. diam. : 
Ivs. 12-20, linear and twisted: fl. with whitish limb 2 in. 
or less long and tube 3-4 in. long; stamens &-12: fr. 
yellowish, clavatc, recorded as edible. B.R. 1016. 
G. spirilia, Linn. Bulb 1-1 H in, diam. : Ivs. 4-6, linear- 
subulate, very much twisted, 4-6 in. long; perianth- 
tube 2-3 in. long, limb 1-1 Vi in. long, whitish and 
tinted red on the outside; stamens 6: ^. clavate, 2-^ 
in. long. B.M. 1088. G. cUidrU, Linn. Bulb IH in- 



GEUM 

diam.: Iva. 20 or more, linear, twisted, prominentiv 
ciliate: perianth-tube 2-3 in. long, the whitish limb 
Hin. long: fr. yellow, clavate, 2-3 in. long. 

L. H. B. 

GETIU (probably originally from Greek, oeuo, ta have 
a taste; referring to the roots). Rosicex. tlardy border 
and rock plants, some of which are valued for their 
bright red flowers, some for their pure yellow flowers, 
others for their long plumy fruits. 

Herbs, with a perennial rhisome, sometimes stolonif- 
erous; root-lvs. crowded, odd-pinnate, the alternate 
lobes often smaller, terminal ones largest; st.-lvs. few, 
mostly of 3 Ifts. or bract-Uke: fls, 1-2 in. across, soli- 
tary or corymbose or cymose: calyx persistent, its 
tube nearly benuspheric, usually 5-lobed; petals 5, 
nearly or quite round, longer than the (»lyx: fr. 
bunoned on a short receptacle, frequently plumed. — 
More than 50 species, mostly in temperate and frigid 

"^^jill_ 
Sieversia. ■ 

gardens is commonly seen in double forms. A gar- 
dener writes that "inferior forms show scarcely any 
duplicity." Geums are of easy culture, and are propa- 
gated by division or seed. It is said that they hybriaize 
freely if grown together. The dwarf kinds are suited 
only to the rockery. Oorrevon, of Geneva, Switierland, 
writes that G. reptans is one of the best of the rockery 
kinds, and needs full sunlight. For G. triflomm he 
advises half exposure to sun and a light, moist soil. 0. 
riixUe grows naturally in marshy places. 

A. Plumy geutru: »tyle in fr. long and plumoae 

B. FU. yellow. 

c. PlaTita spreading by runnera. 

rCptuis, Linn. Root-lvs. interruptedly pinnatifid; 

upper Iva. 3-lobed, deeply crenate-serrate: fis. erect; 

petals obcordate, not much longer than the sepals. 

Eu. Gn.45:2S4.— The purple styles are pretty. 

ex;. Plant* not spreading/ by runners. 

D, ftoofrjpt. pinnalifid. 

montiliuni, Linn. An erect and single-fld. perennial 
with lower Ivs. lyrate pinnatifid; terminal Ift. broadly 
ovate-rounded: calyx-lobes entire, while those of G. 
TepUau are often 3-cut at apex; petals 1-2 times the 
length of the sepals. S. Eu. G.C. II. 13:425. Gn. 45, 
p. 285, — Under the name of G. Htidreiehii and G. 
Heldreiehii superbum are advertised what appear to be 
forma of this with orange-colored fla. which often pro- 
duce more than 1 fl. The name Heldreiehii is oi no 
botanical significance. G.M. 46:371. 

DO. Bool-iot. kidney-thaped. 

radUtum, Michx. (SievH-ria Pickii, Rydb.) Very 
hirsute: root-lva. 2-5 in, broad: st. 1-S-fld.: bractlets 
minute. Mountains of N. C. and Tenn. 

BB. FU. brighi red, unmixed vrilk yellow. 
C. Lateral lobes of Iva. minute, 

cocdneum, Sibth. & Smith, not Hort. "St.-lvs. 3- 
lobed; root-lvs. lyrate, the terminal lobe largest, cor- 
date-reniform: fls. erect, Mt. Olympus in Bithynia." 
The above is an exact translation of the entire descrip- 
tion given by Sibthorp and Smith, Wora Gneca, t. 
485.— The chances are that all the plants in the trade 
under this name are really G. chiloenae. The true G. 
coccineum is known in the botanic gardens. 
cc. Lateral lobes of Irs. 1 in. long. 

chUotooe, Balb. {G. cocdneum, Hort., not Balb.). 
"St,-!vB, 3-parted, laciniate; root-lvs. inlemiptfidly 
lyrate, pilose: terminal lobe rotund, somewhat 3-lobea, 
crenate: fls, panicled: carpels villous." The above is a 
literal translation of B. R. 1348, where the terminal 
lobe is shown to be 2!^ in. each way. Chile. B.R. 



GEUM 

1088, aod under 1 
45, p. 284. R.H. 1 
All erroneously eis 

Var. mittUtnin, Hort. (O. minUUum, Robt. Parker), 
has fls. about two ahadea lighter in color. A robust 
form growing 2-3 ft. high, easily prop., and Sb. from 
April to end of July. Gn. 38:298, where it is auppoaed 
ta be a hybrid of G. ckOoerue var. grandifiorum X Q. 
mtrewn, which is a robust many-fld. form of G, num- 
tanum or else of G. chiloenK X 0. vrbanum. 

Var. grandiflftnun, Hort., is an improved form. 
"The double-fld. form of this seems to be a more general 
favorite, the blooms lasting longer, though I thimc they 
lack the el^ance of those of the aimple form. They 
begin to expand soon after May and are produced mitil 
Oct."— D. K., in Gn. 38, p. 299. Var. pUnom, Hort., 
a semi-double form, is known. It has bright scarlet 
Bb. and is a good border plant. G. 10:495. 

BBB. FU. chi^y dvU red, mixed miih ydUtw. 

triflftnun, Pureh {Sit^tia dix&la, Purah). Low, 
■oftly hairy: Ifts. veiy numerous and crowded, deeply 
cut: fls. 3 or more on long pedunclee; c&lyx purple, aa 
long aa the petals. Coulter says the petals are erect. 
Arctic Amer. 'L.B.C.17: 1609. Fruit showy and bter- 
esting all summer. 

AA. Not Umn and phony infr. 

B. S^fie jointed and bent in (A« middU. 

c. FU. purpliih orange. 

rivUe, Linn. Fig. 1632. St. erect and neariy mmple; 
root-lvs. lyrate: st.-lvs. few, with 3 lobes or Ifts.: calyx 
brownish purple; petals purplish orange, obovate and 
emarginate, narrowed into a claw. North temperate 
regions. Var. llbum, is also sold. 

cc. FU. golden yeUow. 

macroph^Uum, Willd. St. erect and hairy: lower Ivs. 
pinnatifid, 3-7-lobed, often with small Ifta. irregularly 

S laced on the rachis: fls. several, ahort-peduncled. E. 
[.Amer. B.B. 2:221. 

BB. SlyU noljoinUd, straighi. 
lUuil, Seringe. Slightly pubescent above: scape 1-3- 
fld.; styles glabrous. Colo., arctic regions. — Fls. large, 
bright yellow. 

0. afrocHxfnfum, Hort.. may be m typosraphlca] arror for O. 

■tnM«muiiieuin.^q. almiaiieulntum, Hort., ig praumablj' b 
form of G. chiloeDM. with dulur fii. than the type, ud Bid mcHtJy 
il not enUrely. b it« double oondilion.— O. tniiflrinan. Hon.— {T), 
a. Eicmii. Hort. hu light ormnge Os. ud is uid to be > good 

BL aeiuoK. hinuie: Ivs. 3-5-lobed, hinute: fb. erect, yellow; petali 
wM Lotic MM thfl caIjt: fr. hinnit«. hwoed. rocurred. JapAa. 

WiuiELu Miller. 
^ N. TArM>B.f 

GEVUINA (tr«m the Chilean name). Also written 
Gvevina. Proledcex. One species, G. Avellina, Molina 



evergreen tree, with large, alternate odd-pinnate, dark 
green, glossy Ivs. and white, hermaphrodite fls. in long, 
axiUaiy racemea: sepals 4, deciduous; stamens 4; ovary 
nearly sessile, 1-celled and 2-ovuled, the style filiform: 
f^. a somewhat fleshy drupe, about the size of a cherry, 
ooral-red when ripe, the seed having a plcasont^flavored 
kernel, resembling the haiel in taste and largely used 
by the Chileans. G.C. HI, 40:174. Prop, by seeds or 
by green cuttings under glasa. No trees of bearing age 
recOTded in U, S., althou^ a tree approximatelv 50 
years old is recorded as beanng in Devonshire, Bng^d. 
W. A, Tatlob, 



gemuiniea, Dum. (FUago germdniea, Linn.), the CoT- 
TON-ROBEj is a cottony annual plant somewhat like 
leontopodium, which latter is now and then collected by 
tourists and dyed like immortelles. It was called 
Herba impia by the old herbalists, because a new generOi- 
tion of clustered heads rises out of the parent cluster 
as if undutifuUy exalting itself. It lb native in Eu., 
and has become naturahzed in E, N. Ajner. in dry 
fiekls. St. erect, 6-18 in.: Ivs. lanceolate, upright, 
crowded: heads email, rayleas. 

GtLU (Philipp Salvador GU, Spanish botanist of the 
latter half of the eighteenth century, collaboratcKr with 
Xaurei). Polemontdcex. Annual, biennial or perennial 
herbs, mostly of western North America. 

Flowers small, of many colors, the corolla funnel* 
form to bell-flhape or sometimes salverfoim, 5-lobed; 
stamens 5, inserted near the base of the corolla-tube, 
the blamenta usually naked; ovary 3-k>culed, witll 
oxile placenta, the stigmas 3 (or sometimes 2), — Nearly 



IftU. OiUa Erudifloia. (XHi 
100 species, as the genua is now understood by most 



late; calyx partly herbaceous, scarious below the 
sinuses; lobes narrow and acute: corolla salverform or 
funnelform to camponulatc or almost rotate; filaments 
not bearded at base: seeds wingless: herbs, or a few 
suffrutiooee," In cult, only G. ad^omiat is woody. 
It is not certainly hardy in the E. 



, beii^ vigorous, hardy and floriterous. They 

are mostly dwarfish, and are excellent for low masses, 
edgings or rockeries. Seeds may be sown where the 
plants are to grow. Any good soil will suit them. 



GlPOLA (anagram of filooo). CompdtiUe. About 10 
species of small woolly composites, oi no horticultural 
:c_„«..„ ij) ^arm and temperate countries. G. 




1336 GILIA 

A. PtanU TKrf dirubbi/. (No8. 1-17.) 

B. Lot. normaUu allemale, erdire or pinnaldy cut or 

divided (Eouw ht. aometxmu opponU). 

C. FU. in dente heads, wAuA art tvblended bj/ la^ji 

involtUTei. 

D. Foliage entire or at leait not much parted. 

1. gfandiflAra, Grav (CoIUmia graruUflira, DourIbb). 

F%. 1633. Erect, with minutely pube8i>wt reddi^ ats. 



1634. Flmnrof OUla 



1035. OUU ■chUlaafalla. 



1-2 ft. high; Ivs. linear-liutceolate or oblong, nairowed 
below but scarcely petioled, entire, acut«: na, many, in 
dense terminal heade, buS or salmon-color, redder 
innde, 1 in. long. Pkms, west of Rocky Mt8. B.M. 
2894. B.R. 1174.~This aod the next aie imteresting 
annuals. Useful as bee plants. 

2. coccbieo, Gray {CoUAmia coednea, Lehm.). More 
slender: ats. not red; Ivb. natrower (mostly linear), 
somewhat cut at the ends : fls. smaller, slender-tubed, yd- 
loworbuffoutsideand brick-red inside. Chile. B.R.1622. 

DD. Foliage pinnatdj/ -parted or corn-pound. 

3. minima. Gray (Nauarrltia minima. Nutt.). Dwarf 
and tuft^ (3 in. or less high) often forming broad tufts, 
nearly giabrous: Ivs. neecile-hke, pinnately parted: 
fls. white, the corolla scarcely exceeding the white- 
hairy caiyx. la arid districts. Dak. to Ore. and Colo. 

4. congesta. Hook. A foot or lew high, erect or 
spreading, tufted; Ivs. mostly 3-7-divided into linear 
divisions: fls. corj'mbose or m close head-like cymes; 
corolla white, the oval lobes nearly as long as the tube; 
calyx-teeth iong-pointed, nearly eaualing the corolla. A 
small-fld. species growing from Rocky Mts. to the Pacific, 
cc. FU. not in doae heads, bid more or le»a acaltered, 

or if ca-pilale, the head» not leafy-eublended. 
D. Plani perennial: seed only ! in a locuU: fig. email. 

5. diUUs, Wats. Two in. or less high: Ivs. oblong, 
entire or 2-3-lobed, petioled : fla. solitary and nearly ses- 



aile, the purple oorolla ^in. king, the tube exceeding 
the cal:r(. S. Utah.— Offered by collectors, but little 
known in cult. 

DD. Plant annual: aeaU more than 1 to the tocule; corolla 

dittinetiy tubular, but rdatimly small. 

E. Infl. capitate. 

6. c^iitkta, Douglas. Fig. 1634. Plant 18 in. to 2^ 
Ft. tall, the sts, long and nearly straight between joints: 
Js. about ^in. long, in dense, nearly slobular heads, 
which terminate long, naked sts.; coroUa-lobcs lance- 
linear, acute: Iva. cut into vcoy unequal linear tobes. 
Calif, and Ore. B.M. 2698. B.R. 1170. G.W. 15, p. 
214. — An old favorite. There ia a white form (var, 
Uba). There is alao a var. mijor. 

7. Uciniita, Ruii & Pav. Much like the last in 
botanical characters, and possibly a form of it: lower 
and much more slender, the Ifr-diviaionB mostly very 
narrow (usually almost thread-like), the heads smaller 
or the fls. sometimes even scattered. Chile. — The fine 
foliage and compact habit make this species an excel- 
lent garden plant. 

EX. Inft. mixed, eapilale on the main branchet, mattered 
on the others. 

8. acUUeAfolk, Benth. Fig. 1635. Stout (2-3 ft.) 
and very branchy and tfushy, the early main branches 
terminating in large, dense heads, but the later, finer 
grewth bearing scattered fls.: Ivs. small, with short, 
Enear lobes or teeth: fla, large, violet or purple-blue, 
the corolla-lobee oblong or obovate: caps, large. W. 
Calif, B.M. 5939 (ahowing only capital* infl.).— An 
old garden plant. Fls. vary to white and roee, and 
there is a la^e-fld. form. Vaiioua horticultural names 
are in use for these forma, auch as dlba, r&sea, m^jor, etc. 

9. jnulticaMB, Benth, Not unlike the preceding, 
from which it differs only in ita smaller fls. and more 
distinctive habit. Calif. B.M. 3440 and B.R. 1682, both 
as G. achillae/olia from which this may not really 
differ. 

EEE. tnfi., scattered or loosely eymuloae. 

10. tricolor. Benth. Fig. 1636. A very diffuse, twiggy 
grower. 2-2^4 ft. high, sparsely pubeecent: Ivs. few on 
the full-grown plant, amall, with many short, very nar- 
row or needle-shaped divisions: fls, comparatively 
large (5<in. long or nearly so), nearly or quite bell- 
shaped, the corolla 2-3 times the length of the cal^x; 
color of the roundish lobes violet and passing to whitish 
at the base, of the throat 
brown-purple and of the 
tube yeUow. W. Calif. 
B.M. 3463. BR. 1704. 
— One of the oonunoneat 
of garden annuals. 
Hiere is a white form 
(G. nivilie, Hort, C. 
^ba, Hort.), Gn, 72, p. 
201, and a rose-colored 
form (G. rdiea. Hort.), 
and a red-vioiet form 
(var, ribro-iMlicea, 
Hort.) Besides these 
a small form has been 
called G. ndna, a large 
one G. splhutene, and 
a dense, stiff one G. 
eompdeta. None of 
these names appears to 
be in anything but trade 
catalogues. Thrives 
with the least care, 



1(U«. GlUi tricolor. 




GILIA 

DDD. PlaiU biennud: atedt few or many in eatA bxuie: 

fl*. Ituve and Jo>v<u6uJar, red (running iTxto 

wkiie form»), tht corolla very imuit mrpa»ting 

the mbulaU eatyx-iobes. (Ipmutrpsit.) 

11. conmopifdlU, Fere. {Ipomdpnt Hegaru, Poir. 

/. at4ranAwn and I. gan{pdnea, Hort.). Standing 

Ctpress. St. strict and unbraDched, BOmetimes 6 ft. 

high, veiy leafy: Ivs. pinnate, the divisions ne«dle-like 

and about 1 m. long: fls. many, 1^ in. long, loog- 



GILLENIA 



1337 




ixiis 



1U8. Ollik mKnaOa. (XK) 



trumpetrshape, borne aloDg the sides of the summit of 
the St., the t»Jyx inconapicuouB amongst the short 
bract-lvB., the corolla scarlet or pink-red and dotted 
and yellowish within, varying to orange, its lobes obtuse 
or nearly so and flaring. In dry soil, S. C, south and 
west. B.R. 1891. G.C. III. 40:277. G.M. 49:598. Gn. 70, 
p. 165. — Common old garden plant, and worthy. Fls. 
Bcentlrsa. Name should probably be G. rubrn. Heller. 

12. a^egftta. Spreng. {Ipom&psii ^le^ru, Lindl.). 
DiSera m mostly shoTt«r stature, pubescent st., and 
more slender habit, with redder (sometimes white) 



C. Foliage very fine, the hg, cut tnto threadlike or linear 
divitiont. 

D. Corolla rotale-bell-thape, with a short, faring tube. 

13. Unifl&ra, Benth. (G. linifblia. Hort.). Fig. 1637. 
Ten to 20 in. high, diffuse and oranchy: lower Ivh. 
mostly opposite, but the upper alternate, all palmately 
divided to the base in needle-like or epuirey-like 
divisions: fls. rather Urge for the aiie of the plant, the 
corolla white or blush, 
ikear^ rotate, the thin 
lobes obtuse. Calif. 8. 
M. 5895.— A useful tufty 
garden annual. The 
name linifiora is meant 
to designate the resem- 
blance of the fls. to thoae 
of LinMtn tenuijolium; 
but some catalogue- 
maker, evidently think- 
ing that the name meant 
linear~ftoieered, and was 



tiie trade. 

DD. Corolla aabierform, wiA a filiform and elongated 
tu6e. (Leplotiphon.) 

14, denaiflAra, Benth. {LeploAphon dennfiitnu, 
Benth.). Erect or even strict, 1-2 ft., hairy: Ivs. with 
many filiform somewhat rigid divisions: fls, in rather 



close heads, lilac or white, >^J< in. long: tube of the 
corolla scarcely longer tnon the Ivs.; lobes of the 
corolla spreading, obtuse, often dentate, near^ or quite 
as h)ng as the tube. Calif. B.M. 3578. B.R. 1725. — 
Common garden annual. The whit«-fld. form is known 
as var. ilM, Hort. 

15. androslcea. Steud. (.LeptoAphon androadeeue, 
Benth.). Much like the last, but the tube very slender 
and much exserted beyond the calyx and Ivs.; fls. 1 
in. long, pink, lilac or white, in rather close heads, the 
corolla-lobes ovate-acute and entire, much shorter 
than the tube, 12-18 in. Calif. B.M. 3491. B.R. 1710. 

16. micrintha, Steud. Fig. I63S. Tufted, 8 in. or less 
hi^, the sts. most leafy near the top: Ivs. short, fas- 
cicled: fls. with an exceedingly slender thread-like tube 
which is I-IJ-S in. long, and projecting prominently 
above the upper fascicles of Iva., the coroUa-lobes 
spreading and obtuse: color range very wide, — from 
puiple to lilac, red, yellow and white. Calif. — A popu- 
lar bedding plant. Forms of it are known asLeploMpton 
aureus, L. airmintua, L. hybridue, and L. roaea*. 

CC. Foliage of eiilire (but tuotow) Ips. 

17. dianthcddes, Endl. (FindxadianthiJldra,Bea\b.). 
Fig. 1639. Tufted, 6 in. or less high: Ivs. narrowly Im- 
ear. opposite; fls. 1-1)4 in. long, lilac or purple, with 
yellowiab throat, the flat-spreodrng lobes denticulate or 
nearly fringed. S.Calif. B.M. 4876. R.H. 1865:11.— 
A choice little annual, excellent for edginss and rock- 
wofk, bearing a profusion of pink-like ns. "Hie fls. 
sometimes vaiy to white (Finzlia dfbo, Hort.). A 
large-fid. form is called C. apteidta. 

AA. Ptante thrubby. 

18. caUftfmica, Benth. A low, procumbent and 
much-branched shrub: Ivs. alternate, deeply digitately 
parted into 5-7 stiff and hairy segms; fls. showy, very 
free; sepals subulate, mucronate; petals cuneate, aome- 
timee toothed, roae-colored. Calif. B.M. 4872. — A fine 
ahowy species, perhaps not hardy in the E. 

a. obraliBtifMa. NuCt.. oonin in EaouDtaiiu bkck 0( SuU 
Btrbum, itnd W been liMd in ooUrctiou of lutivg plaata for ulc: 

duKcud, t£e ultiDute BestriA. very narrow vDrTiLcuU and curved 
backvHTa: fl. without morkiDgB (bLue?). Lu^, tjte jobfla aprnd-' 
ing. obovftt« ud obtuae; atuneiu Karo«h' protniding.— O. Chamif- 



^^- L. H. B. 

N. TATLOILt 

GILlBflRTlA (J. E. GiUbert, 1741-1814, France, 

Shysician and botanist). AToiidxex. A genus of very 
•yi Trop. American ebnibe (if Dendropanax is sepa- 
rated) that are not known in cult. The name is one 
frequently but incorrectly used by gardeners for 
Treveaia, and G. palmala is described under that genus. 
O. panixulaia and one or two others are referral to 
Polyscias. Gilibertia differs from Trevesia in having parts 
of the fl. in 6-8's instead of 8-12'b, and in its simple 
entire Ivs. From Dendropanax it differs mostly in its 
6-8-merou8 rather than 5-merous fls. n. Tatloh. 

GILL^niA (dedicated to an obscure German botanist 
or physician of the seventeenth century, A. Gilte or 
Gilleniua). Syn. Porterdnihus, Rot&ux. Excellent 
graceful plants for the mixed border, rockeries, or 
other hardy gardens. 

Erect, perennial herbs, 2-4 ft. high, with nearly 
sessile, S-iohate, or 3-parted, stipulate Iva. : fls. white 
or pinkish, loosely panicled, perfect, perigynous; tnip- 
shaped receptacle narrow, somewhat contracted at the 
mouth, 5-toothed; petals atrap-ahaped, unequal, 4r-8 
lines long; stamens 10-20^ very short; piatils 5, superior, 
lightly coherent, later diatinct, pubescent: fr. consistr 
ing of 5 2-4-8eeded follicles. — Two species. They are 
hardy and of easy cult, in any good soil. Prop, by 
seeds or division. 



1338 GILLENIA 

tritoUkta, Moench. Bowman's Root. Lfta. serrate; 

BUpu]e8Bmal],awl-flh&ped,muiily entire. Cent. and S.U. 

S. B.M.489(B8SpirBa). Mii.8:129. J.H. III. 43:188. 

sUpuUta, Trel. 

(G. (ftpuJdeeo, 

Nutt). AMKBICAN 

Ipecac. Lfta. in- 
cised; Btipules 
large, broad, and 
leai-lilce, doubly in- 
cised. Cent, and S. 
U.S. 
K. M. WmoAND. 



GINSENG 

bUolw, Linn. {Siduinirii , 

Ginkgo. Maidenhaib Trke. Kbw Trek. Figa, 1640- 
1642. A straight, HparBely branched, usually slender 
tree, attaining a beunt of 60-80 ft. : Ivs. 3-5, I-clustered, 
fan-flfaaped, divided at sununit, with thickened mar^, 
striated on both aides with numerous parallel veins: 
fls. diiBciouB; m^e catkins alender, stalked; females 
on long footstalks, in paira, of which one usually 
oborta: fr. a dnipe, ooneisting of an acrid, fouI-emelUnK 
pulp surroundina a smooth, angular ovd, cream-col- 
ored, thin-shellea, sweet-kemeled nut. F.S. 10, p. 119. 
,G.C. 111.5:265, 269. G.F. 1:175 (adapted in Fig. 
1640). A.G. 12:268. Gng. 6:194. G.M.52:1011. 



Bpeare's 
ally rel 



referred to 
what we now call 
the carnation, Dt- 
anthut Caryophyfr 
hi», also known as 
clove pink. Since 
Shakespeare's time 
gilliflower has usu- 
ally meant either 
wall-flowetH or 
Btocka, as explained 
under Cheiranthus and Matthiola. 



16«0. Olnkio bllotH. 



OCIOBX: ZmgOtr ofidnaU. WIM Oi^n-: .la 

GfHKGO (Chinese name). Syn., Salitbiaia. (Titub- 
i/o&cex, one of the seKr^ates from the Coniferx. One 
species in northern China and Japan, the sole remainder 
ca a more numerous tribe in geolodc time; now wide- 
spread as a street and park tree and also prized for the 
edible seeds. 

Tall tree, with wed^e-ehaped deciduous Ivs.: fls. 
small and mostly ditscious; pistillate fl. solitary, the 
single naked ovule ripening into a drupe; staminate fls. 
in slender, loose catkins: fr. a drupe aoout 1 in. diam., 
containing a very large lenticular seed or kernel 



IMl Ginkfo l«ni uid (mil. 



Gn.66. p. 346. Gn.M.2:ll. G.W.3. p. 642; 10, p. 
285; 15, pp. 589-593. J.H. III. 64:148.— The (pnkgo 
was intro. to Amer. early in the last century; it is gen- 
erally successTuI on good soil in the eastern states as 
far nortii as E. Mass. and Cent. Mich., and along the 
St. Lawrence River in parts of Canada. It is of special 
value for solitary plantins to secure picturesque effects. 
It is considerably planteo in Washington, D, C., where 
it is growing in eeteem as a street tree because of its 
upright habit and freedom from insect injury. Easily 

Erop. from seed, stratified in autumn; varieties by 
udding and grafting. Several horticultural forma are 
recognized, including Eoctntolo, pfndula and ixmegaia. 
The foul odor of the ripe frs., which continue to mature 
and drop during a period of some weeks, constitutes 
the chief objection to the species as a street tree, or 
near dwellings, and suggests the advisability of prop, 
from staminate trees by grafting or budding, for plant- 
ing in such locations. The kernels, which have a sweet- 
ish, slightly resinous flavor, are highly esteemed for 
food in China and Japan, and are gathered from fruiting 
trees in Washington for such use by Chinese laundry- 

The word Ginkgo seems to bo pronounced with a bard 
initial G in the orient, but in English a soft G should 
be used. The name is often speUed Gingko, but the 
other spelling is that used by Linnsus. 

W. A. Tatmb. 

GINSENG (Pinax quxtupi^dtiwn, Linn. P. Oineeng, 
Meyer. Ardtia quinqvf/Aliaj Decne. & Planch.) is to 
the Chinese more than quinme or any other drug is to 
Americans. As its name Panax implies, it is a [tana- 
cea, being employed for all the ills that flesh is heir to. 
Though credited with stimulating, aromatic, alterative, 
carminative and tonic properties, the root is with us 




seldom used except as a detnuloent. The 
which it is held, and the high price that 
China, led ta extengive a^rch for a substitute, which 
resulted in the discovery in 1716 ot American ginseng, 
Panax quirtguffolium, near Montreal, Canada. This 
root was favorably received by the Chinese, and bood 
became an imporiAnt article 
of export. During the past 
fifty years the price of Ameri- 
can ginseng nas advanced 
nearly 700 per cent, but owing 
to the energetic hunt for the 
root, t« the destruction of 
forests and to the gathering 
of plante at improper times, 
the wild supply has greatly 
decreased. With the advanc- 
ing prices and the diminishing 
supply came experiments in 
ginicug cultivation, most of 
which failed through i^so- 
rance of the plant's pecuhari- 
tiea. The seed ripens in Sep- 
tember. If dry it will not 
germinate untu the second 

_.._, if fresh and 

kept nearly all the a 
Bcrminate the first season. The soil must be a light, 
triple loam, free from stones, rich in humus and welt 
drained^ the pWts must be well supplied with shade 
and moisture. Cultivated ginseng already oommonds a 
considerably higher price than the wild root, and, 
though no returns can be expected from a plantation 
under three or four years, the industry is profitable 
to the men that have given it careful attention. 

Ginseng beds can be located in orchards, gardens, or 
woods, where the roots may remain without danger of 



are likely to be stolen, and beds should, therefore, be 
placed where they can be guarded. 

For further information on ginseng, send to Division 
of PubUcations, Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C, for Bulletin No. 16 of the Division of 
Botany, revised by M. G. Kaine in 1898. or consult 
Kains Ginseng, its culture, etc., Orange Judd Company 
1899; second edition, 1902. For diseases, consult Cor- 
nell bulletins. M. G. Kains. 

QITHAOO: LiKAiiit. 

GITH^PSIS iUke GUhago, from the calyx). Camr 
panulAcex. One blue-fld. annual in Calif., sometimes 
recorded in horticultural Utera- 
ture, G. nieeulariiA^" ^"*' '• 
Dows in the open h: 
the mountains: st. s 
what branched, 4-7 
pubescent: Ivs. obo 

than i^in. k>ng: 
corolla tubular- 
bell-shaped, the 
lobes shorter than 
the tube; calyx 
10-ribbed, adnate 
to the ovary: fr. 
a coriaceous ca^.. 
bearing the rigid 
calyii-kibea, de- 
hiscing at 
Var. diffii 



arly gla- 



brous, but 1 

what hispid. IM4. Glwliohu esm iniwliii aboTa Iha old 

L. H. B. '>"'• ■"'' ^" cormcli from the bottom. 



GLADIOLUS 
GUDlOLnS(diminutiveorr ' 



somewhat grown under glass. 

Corm-bearing herbs with I 
branched spikes; Ivs. radical an 
or leffl tubular, the tube usua 
(enlargiDg upward); scgms, 6, 

aiiat, strongly narrowed or even i 
le upper ones often hooded ( 
opening or mouth of the fl.; st 
on the tube: stigmas 3, on a lonj 
3-loculed, Decoming an oblo 
caps., with fiattenfM and win] 
times globose seeds: each fl. i 
sessile spathe (like a calyx) w 
lanceolate valves or If.-lDie pa 
are mostly equitant on the St., 
prominently several-ribbed, v 
linear to sword-shaped (eomel 
teret«): the old corm dies ant 
grows on top, and cormela 
or offsets (sometimes called 
"spawn") form from the 
underpart (Fig. 1644).— The 
species of Gladiolus are 160 
or more, perhaps 100 being in 
S. Afr. (Cape), many in Trop. 
Afr. in both the E. and the 
W., and otfaera in the Medit. 
and W. Asian regions. The 
greater part of nighly im- 
[woved garden forms are de- 
rived more or lew directly < 
from the S. African species. 
The Eurasian roeciea are little 
grown, althot^ some of them 
are hardy. GladioU have been 
much modified by variation, 
hybridising and selection. 

The gladiolus is propa- 
gated r^dily by seeds, as 
explained farther on ; by the 
use of the new conn xrowii^ 
the old one, and which is sep 
either when cleaning in autu 
before planting in spring: i 
young corms, or cormels. Inci 
stock by the small corms or cor 
the most common method, ai 
one by which a variety is pi 
atcd. The small corms are sU 
bogs, boxes or other suitable n 
cles and kept from frost. It is 
to sprouting if the cormels a 
allowed to dry out during the 
of rest. They should be plant 
one-year seedhngs, and th^ 
blooming plants the first and 

Great pro^^ss has been m 
recent years in the improven 
the gladiolus, until in floriferouimcH, aiMiiahia 

form, color, substance and keeping ^iuiiBiiii 
qualities it has become one of the im- ^(x w) 
portant summer flowers, both for 
amateurs and florists. It is to be expected, however, 
that many other forms and qualities are yet to appear, 
considering the great number of wild species of much 
beauty that have not been combined in the cultivated 
strains. It may be possible, also, that closely related 
genera can be used to some extent in hybridizmg. The 
unes of division between Gladiolus, Antholyza, Acidan- 
thera, and some others, are more or lees arbitrary. 



1340 



GLADIOLUS 



pntlaeinui and G. eardinalU. Fonna of O. trittis early 
entered into the cultivated strains, as well as G. oppo- 
litifiorut, and later G. pwpurto-auralui and G. Saun- 
lUrtii. Tbe Lemoinei and nanceianus races (Fig. 1646) 
have afforded foundations for much subsequent breed- 
ing. Recently, G. primviinui has entered into the 
nombinatioBS. It seems to be particularly valuable 
as a parent; it is said to be dominant in color over even 
the deepest reds, Bubduiog them to excellent shades of 
oran^, salmon, and teira-cotta; when crossed with 
tbe hgbt«r colors it transforms them to buff, lemon and 
ecru; combined with yellow the color is deepened. 
The hooded character is commonly inherited. W. W. 
Van Fleet has succeeded in croadng this specie^ with 
many of the other wild forms. With G. Quartininnut 
the color is said to be toned down to terra-cotta and 
the season for blooming is changed from autumn to 
midsummer. When G.Waltonitu is 

«ok) 



introduced by 



ilduitherichtl.uidO.a 



■.<XH) 



The ruffled atraioa of gladioli have appeared in recent 
years, adding a pleasing variety and much merit to 
the flower. This type nas been specially developed 
in the recent breeaing work of A. E, Kunderd, of 
Goshen, Indiana (Fip;. 1647). Nearly twenty years 
ago he began his selections for the production of a 
frilled or wavy flower, that should have something of 
the pelal-edge exhibited so well in azalea. Early- and 
late-flowerini; strains have been produced. It is said 
tbat one strain has the blood of G. Qvartinianus and 
is producinK many good shades of red with fluted or 
ruffled petals and suitable for late-flowering purposes. 
G. prirmdinua has also given good tints in yellows, with 
flowers very much frilled. It now seems Dossible to 
introduce the ruffling into many of the standard types, 
much as has been done with the sweet pea. 

The recent Burbank strains have been developpd from 
the variety America as the seed-parent. These are 
s^ to comprise many very large-flowered forms, with 
brilliant coloring. 



GLADIOLUS 



The G. prxcox group or str .. __ 

Frederick Roemer, of Quedlinburgh, Germany, said 
to be the result of intercroesing the earliest-flowering 
plants of G. gandanenn*, G. Lemoinei, G. Chiidaii and 
G. rumeeiamta. In color, markings, or site, the race 
compares favorably with the parents, and at the 
same time the plants bloom the first year from seed, 
especially when the seed is started in a moderate 
hotbed in March. As growth advances, they are given 
ventilation gradually. There is a decided improve- 
ment the second year, when two or more spikes of 
normal size are usuaUy produced. Other strains 
trfgUdioluB may also give bloom the first year from 

Some of the earUer history of American gladiolus- 
breeding was written for the "Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture" by H. H. Groft, of Canada, one of the 
prominent contributors to the improvement of the 
flower (extracts) : Some twenty-five years ago "when tbe 
writer, under the inspiration of Luther Burbank, began 
bis own work in hybridization, the best American-grown 
stock available was the H^ock collection of some 400 
named varieties of gandavensis and about 100 of the 
earlier Lemoine hybrids, all of European origin. After 
trial, the writer placed them all in mixtures. About this 
time Luther Burbank began to offer a few named varie- 
ties, but shortly afterword sold his whole stj>ck, the 
collection boing now in the writer's hands. This col- 
lection, in the opinion of the writer, is the best strain 
of gandavensis. The varieties were lai^ly of varie- 
gated types, with man^ of unique markings and peculiar 
form. Burbank had given particular attention to varie- 
ties calculated to withstand the hot, dry winds of 
Cahfomia, and had originated several nith specially 
stiff petals, quite distinct from the ordinary types. The 
peculiarity of the flowers blooming around the spike 
like the hyacinth was also his contribution. All of his 
varieties are now grown in mixture by the writer with 
the exception of a white variety, which promises to be 
distinct and valuable for some time to come. The 
work of Van Fleet, of New Jersey, was carried on more 
for scientific than commercial results, and reaped a 
deserved success. However, the writer has found that 
the offspring of a pure species is less stable than that of 
well-balanc«i cross-bred varieties, the former system 
handing down few varieties of permanent commercial 
value, though they are in themselves valuable as 
parents for the foundation of new strains. The best 
work of a semi-professional character, in the opinion 
of the writer, has been done by T. S, Moore, of Indiana, 
who has spared no trouble or expense in procuring 
choice material upon which to build, and with satis- 
factory results." Writing in 1914, GroS speaks of the 
fluted, ruffled and crimped forms being frequent in 
the progeny of every improved species; ol the develop- 
ment of iris-form flowers; and of innumerable Influences, 
under breeding, on the character of the stalk, fiber, 
capsule, shape and size of foliage, disposition of flowers 
to droop or to grow erect, on the conn and its husk 
and the facility of producing cormels, and other inter- 
esting departures. 

The interest in the gladiolus has been much stimu- 
lated in North America by the work of the American 
Gladiolus Society. It was organized at Boston, May 
27, 1910, for the purpose of "stimulating interest in, 
and promoting the culture and development of the 
gladiolus; to establish a standard nomenclature; to 
te.<it out new varieties, and to give them such recogni- 
they deserve; to study the diseases of the 
^ \^ and find remedies for same; to disseminate 

mformation relating to this flower; to secure uniformity 
in awarding prizes at flower shows, and to ^vc one 
exhibition each vear." The society holds exhibitions, 
publishes a bulletin, and in many ways aids in the 
popularizing of the gladiolus and in estaohshing stand- 
ards of excellence. Ithasatrial-groundat the New York 



GLADIOLUS 

State Coll^ of Agricultuie at Cornell Univeni^, 
where gladioli are now being carefully studied. 

Followtns is a score-card prepared by direction of 
CladioluB %ciety of Ohio: 

1. Bplke (lone, G; nrusht. S; many bloocu, 5: fuiiis toiether, 



3. Coloc UurutiTe. 10: cither seU-- 

5: uUptHl lO OUt-floiTBr trvda Ot uurBiB im, uj . «v 

4. Fi>liue|&irk.liultfaycreeii,6;broid.&;mbuiuUot,G) 15 

5. DutvbUitr fcotiliDUtaDft of bloom on ^ulce, 5; lutioc quili- 

ti« ■■ culr^ower, S) 10 

0. G«unleSeeia»DU>Mbwl«aeld.G;innw«iiutilu[iUr.G) 10 



Colttua of the gUdiohu. (Isaac S. Hendrickson, except 
when otherwise stated.) 
The Gladiolus has eeveral good points combined to 
make it interesting, popular, and promising, as: The 
low cost; ease of culture; freedom liom insects; varia- 
tion in color; ease of carrying over from year to year; 
len^ of blooming season; rapid increase; ease with 
whjch new varieties are produced. 

LS follows: 

400 to GOO. 

lib- 

14.000.000 to IGXIOO.OOO 



Estimkliid Ttlut af erop 

Raiting new Dorieiiet. 

It is the contention of some growers that certain 
definite results can be secured By band-croaaing of 
different varieties, while other growers assert that they 
cannot trace a single valuable result to that method. 
The writer's observation has led him ia the opinion 
that some of the best and most useful sorts on the 
market today are the results of careful selection ot seed 
from the varieties showing best form, growth, color, 
vigor, sixe, and other qualities. It is well lor the gcncraJ 
Kudener to purchase a collection of the best-named 
kinds now on sale, plant them together and let the 
insects transfer the pollen naturally; and if tbe weather 
ia favorable, one ia almost sure t« have a crop of seed. 
This seed must be carried over until the followii^ 
spring, when it can be planted in shallow drills, covei^ 
ing about one-eighth to one-fourth inch with soil; they 
will make only a slight grass-like growth the first year, 
and must be taken up in the fall, and housed away from 
frost. The foUowins spring they can be planted as 
one would sow garden peas, and covered about 1 K 
inches deep; they will make a httle more growth and 
perhaps a small percentage will flower, but the bulbs 
will havie to be lifted and planted once more before a 
good showing of flowers can be eicpected. The com- 
mercial grower expects ia wait three or four yean 
after planting the seed before he has salable bulbs, 
which of course, can be sold only as seedlings or mix- 
wee as all forms and colors will be present. In look- 
ffor new varieties to name, the greatest care must be 
en to choose only those of real merit, aomething that 
~ distinct from previous selections, new in color, good 
substance, excellent in form, and in all waya merito- 
-. JUfl. When the selection is finally made from perhaps 
thousands of seedlings, it is labeled out and lifted 
separately in the fall, and jealously guarded until the 
neirt planting-time; then it is watched with eagerness 
to see whether it mil prove constant and worth taking 
the trouble to "bring up." for as it requires at least ten 
years to secure enough oulba to ofler for sale, one can 
easily waste much time if the selection does not prove 
to be a wise one. It is often said that there are too many 
varieties now under name, and this is true; but ss it is 
so verv easy and so fascinating to grow aeedUngs, one 
should not discourage the amateur in securing this 
satisfaction. 



Of course the professional or expert breeder will 
exercise the most careful choice of tlie parent stocks; 
and he is able to mtUce man^ interesting and valuable 
Dombinations of ^lecial quahties. 

Cviiaft. 
While nearly any good garden soil is adapted to the 

culture of the gladiolus, the plant seems partial ta a 
sandy loara. In field cul- 
ture, gladioh are usually 
planted in rows similar to 
potatoes; that ia to say. 
the furrows are made 3 
feet apart to allow tillage 
with horse. The bulbs are 
placed in the row by hand, 
usually about 2 to 4 
inches apart each way 
according to site, and 
covered about 4 or 6 inches 
deep. Deep planting pre- 
vents them blowing over. 
I^uent tillage must be 
given in spring and sunf 

For garden culture, they 
may be planted promiscu- 
ously in the border if 
wanted for garden, decora- 
tion- or if wanted for 
cut-flowers principally, the 
straight-row method is 
best, as it enablea better 
tillage to be given and 
makes it much easier to cut 
the blooms. The gladio- 
lus is essentially a cut- 
flower. If one has a 
fcoodly number of bulbs, it 
IB an excellent plan to 
make sucoesaivc plantings 
about fifteen davs apart, 
beginning as early as the 
ground can be worked 
and continued until July. 
This will insure continu- 
ous bloom from July until 
October, or until the 

elanta are cut down by 
YMt. As the old bulb or 
oorm produces its flower, 
it dies and a new one 
forms in its place, and de- 
velops until narvest time, 
when it is lifted and stored 
in a warm dry place; some 
time during the winter 
the roots and old bulb 
should be taken off, so 
that the bulb will present 
a clean appearance and 
be ready for planting. 

Aa a cut^flower, the 
gladiolus will rival moat 
other flowers in keeping 
quahties. The blooms can 
DC kept fresh and beauti- 
164T. Th. nOM) ilxliohu. '"1 ^°'' » P«"«l "f .^ve to 
(XK) ten days after cutting by 

changing the water daily 
and removing each day the withered blooms; it also 
helps if the ends of the spike are nipped off when chang- 
ing the water. If the spikes are cut when the first two 
or three Sowers have opened, the entire stalk will open 
out after it has been put in water. They may be sent 
to a distance; they will arrive in excellent condition if 



a little core ia taken when shipping. Tbe epikee should 
be cut when the first Bower opens. Mid put in water in 
the cellar or cool place for two or three hours, after 



and then when placed in water tiiey will quickly 
respond and unfold their petak. 

The usca of gladioli are varied; ^reat quantities are 
used for decoratina dinine tables m the great hotels 
and steamboats; noriets nave long recognised their 
ralue in making funeral designs; at the exhibition of 
the American Gladiolus Society, at Rochester, it was 
demonstrated that they can be used for fancy table 
decoration, wedding bouquets, and other puipoeea. 
Varieliet. 

No two peraoos will agree on rarietiee, but the fol- 
lowing represent some rf' the good typ« at present 
(given here as a matter of recora): 

While.— EuTopttj Blanche, Peace, IfiLima. Pink. — 
Wild Rose, Amenca, Mrs. Frank Pendleton, Myrtle, 
Taconic, Panama. Scarlet. —Mia. Francis King, 
Princepe, Brenchl^ensis, Contrast (scarlet and white) . 
yeU<>w.— Golden King, Sulphur King, Niagara, Kun- 
derdi Glory. Maroon. — Empress of India, Mrs. 
Millins. Violet. — Baron Joseph Hulot. 
Variation in »we o/ bulbs. 

There is great variation in siie of bulb or conn. It is 
a varietal characteristic. Some kinds never make a 
large bulb, yet the>[ may be Huperior kinds. This 
ou^t to give a hint in buying mixtures at tbe flower- 
shop. Nine times out of ten, when a customer has the 
Opportunity to pick out tiie bulbs personally, the very 
largest ones are taken, with the result that psrhaps not 
more than one or two kinds are received, as veiy oft*n 
the very best and choicest flowers are concealed in the 
small or medium-sized conns. Some of the 
large-bulb sorts are very inferior, and it is 
easy to increase tbe stock, while others, 
perhaps producing smaller bottoms, bear 
only a few offsets. 
ComnKTcial ruUination Jar stock or bviha. 

(E. H. Cushman.) 

For successful commercial culture it is 
essential that sandy soil conditions are 
obtainable. Such preparation of the soil 
as puts it in a loose, friable condition will 
answer. Probably the ideal soil is a sod. 
fidl-plowed and then most thorou^y worked 
in the spring. Stroi^, fresh stable manure 
ehouid be avoided. If soil is not sufficiently 
rich in plant-food it ia best to use all strong 
manures on a previous season's crop of some 
other kind. Any complete fertiliier is bcner 
ficial when thoroughly worked through the 
soil, at the rate of 600 to 1 ,000 pounds to the 
acre. Planting should be begun as early in 
the spring as the proper working of the soil 



apart, according to method of cultivation. If fine, round 
bulbs are to be grown, and the stock for planting 
exceeds \yi inches in diameter, it will be necessary to 
I'lace the bulbs rieht side up in the furrow by hand, 
either in single or double rows 2 inches apart. Bulbs of 
lesser ^ze ma^ be scattered as evenly as possible along 
tbe furrow, with an average of ten or twelve to the foot 
of furrow. Clean culture tnroughout the growing season 
is essential. Cutting the spike of flowers is a nelp to 
increasing the size of the bulbs. Four months is suffi- 
cient for the growth and maturity of the bulb. To har- 
vest, loosen the soil and hft the bulbs by their fops, 
and lay on the ground to dry off and ripen. Should 
weather permit, they can be entirely ripened out-of- 
doors. Cut the tops off close to the bulbs, pulling oS 



GLADIOLUS 



require, the tope may be trimmed off at onr« on lifting. 

and the buUis taken under cover for cleaning and 

drying. 

C-uUure in Califomia. (Sydney B. Mitchell.) 

Gladioli, like all South African bulbs, do very weU in 
Califomia ; indeed near Santa Cru2, some of the popular 
lar^e-Sowering varieties arc grown in commercial quan- 
tities for their bulbs. These summer-flowering kinds 
may be planted in the fall to bloom in the fallowing 
May and June, but in private gardens additional 
corms should be put in at intervals from April to July 

< that a succession of flowers may be available untJ 



nonering class of the nanus and Colvillei types s 
also quite hardy here and 
so do not require the glass 
^ OTotection given in tbe 
East. Tbe favorite varieties 
of the nanus or dwarfs are 
Peach Blossom and Blush- 
ing Briile, while The Bride 
easily leads in the Colvillei 
section. A few of the less- 
known early species are also 
grown occasionally, i ' 



£, 



mple G. trittis (yellow and tei 
tai and its vanety concolor (j 




ottai and its vanety cc 
Teenish yellow), both of ' 
lower in March around San Fran- 
isco Bay. The earlier-flowering 
}/ y^ # classes should all be planted just as 
n X^ I I ffyavi as available in late October or 
in November. Growth starts at 
once, but the floweis usually do not 
appear much before the following 
May, when they make a brave show 
and are fine for cutting. Their 
simple requirements are fall-plants 
ing in a well-drained, preferably 
loamy soil, put about 3 inches 
p and about the same apart. Separate 
}s are reset each autumn for best 
ilts. As they increase quite rapidly and 
1 greatly in vigor after they have had 
ear in California, as far as soil and 
late KO, there is no good reason why 

locw-grown bulbs should not quite 

replace imported ones. 
Indoor cuUure. (A. C. Hottes.) 
Until recently, the gladiolus i 



bloom in April and May. They may first 
(XWI ' bestarted inS-inch pots and later benched. 

They require a cool temperature, about 
45° at night, if one expects the foliage to develop nicely. 
This is a temperature near that of the carnation op- 
timum; they are therefore, often planted around the 
margins of the carnation benches. Their growth at first 
is slow, making little growth till the sun gets higher 
in the spring. 

The flowers of the nanus type appear two or three 
weeks earlier than the standard varieties of gandavensis, 
Lemoinei or nanceianus. Varieties of the latter groups, 
however, are being developed with the desirable 
quaUties for forcing, th.it of earliness and of a pleasing 
commercial color, and are becoming of considerable 
importance as a spring flower for the florist. 

ft lie stems are not cut too short, the corms will 
renew themselves as well as in outdoor culture and they 
can be forced again or given a year's growth in the field. 



< < « • » 






ZLVm. Tha gudeo gladiolus, Tarialy "Peacfc" 



GLADIOLUS 



GLADIOLUS 



1343 



The kinds of gladiolus. 

The following account includes thq^e species that 
appear to have any particular horticultural history; also 
some of the prominent Latin-named hybrids, although 
not aU these hybrids may now be in commerce. 



Adiami, 20. 
alatus, 2. 
aa>idu9,2^ 
al6iM, 28. 
ancusfus, 5. 
atnmoUoeufl, 7. 
biflonu, 8. 
bUndua, 24. 
brtnchleyenMt 29. 
BriDerii, 33. 
faysantinus, 11. 
carrtinalw, 16. 
ean%e%u, 10, 24. 
Childmi.32. 
eitriruu, 29. 
CblviUei. 28. 
communis, 10. 
coDoolor, 4, 19. 
eordahu, 5. 
erispiflonis, 6. 
cruentus, 16. 
ddieati»aimu»t 28. 
draoooeirfialufl, 21. 



INDEX. 

Enseaseri. 33. 
ereotus, 19. 
excdnu, 24. 
fasciatut. 9. 
floribunduB, 25, 28. 
Froebelii, 33. 
gandavensis, 29. 
grandis, 3. 
Uihbertii, 24. 
HoUandia, 29. 
hybriduSf 35. 
inUmcatut, 6. 
Kunderdii, 37. 
Leichtlinii, 14. 
Lemoinei, 30. 
maoulatus, 19. 
major, 19. 
MiUeri. 27. 
Mortoniti9, 24. 
namaquensis, 2. 
nanoeianus, 31. 
nanu9, 28. 
ntUalenait, 22. 



oppoflitiflorua, 28. 
Fapilio, 13. 
pmcox, 36. 
primuUnufl, 19. 
princepe, 35. 
paittacinus, 22. 
purpureo-auratua, 23. 
Quartinianua, 18. 
ramotu; 28. 
aalmoneufl. 19. 
Saunderaii. 17. 
aegetum, 12. 
aulphureus, 20. 
auperbus, 17. 
trimaeulatua^b, 
triatis, 4. 
turicenaia, 34. 
undvlatu», 9. 
versicolor t 3. 
tintdu9, 9. 
vittatua, 9. 
Wataoniua, 1. 



I. Species of Gladiolus (Nos. 1-27). 

Few of the original species of Gladiolus are in culti- 
vation in their pure form. When grown at all, they are 
priied chiefly as oddities, or because of their botamcal 
mterest. The following species are either offered at 
the nresent time in the trade or are parents of modem 
garaen forms: 

A. FL with a long, slender, cylindrical curved tube, 
which is enlaraed in the middle; segms. nearly 
equal, (Homogtossum.) 

1. WatsdniuSy Thunb. {Antholyza revolida, Burm.). 
Corm 1 in. diam., globose: st. slender, 18 in. or less, 
with 1 long, narrow-linear and stiff If. and 2-3 short 
sheathing Ivs.: fls. 2-4, in a lax 1-sided spike, 2 in. or 
less long, bright red, the wide-spreading segms. oblong 
and acute, the lower ones smaller and lanceolate-fal- 
cate; stamens very short. S. Afr. B.M. 450. — Little 
known in this country, but offered by Dutch growers. 

AA. Fl. short and open,' the tube short or scarcely any; 
segms. very prominently clawed, usually uneqiial, 

2. alitus. Linn. Corm small, globose: small, the 
St. only 4-12 in. high, and slender: Ivs. 3-4, linear and 
rigid: ns. 3-4 in a lax spike, the curved tube Hin. long, 
the perianth pink ana often strongly veined; segms. 
very unequal, the 3 lower tongue-like and protruded, 
the others obovate or nearly orbicular, all of them dif- 
ferently colored toward the base: stamens nearly as 
long as upper segms. S. Afr. B.M. 586; 592; the var. 
namaquensis, Baker, which is more robust, with broader 
Ivs., more fls., the upper segms. broad. 

AAA. Fls, of medium length, with a funnel-shaped tube, 
which is flaring at the top; segms. narroxoed below, 
but not disUncUy clawed. {Gladiolus proper.) 

B. Lvs. linear (J^in. or less wide), 

c. Perianthsegms. acute. 

3. grindis, Thunb. {G. versicolor, Andr.). Corm 
globed, with coverings of thick wiry fibers: st. slender, 

2 ft. or less, terete: lvs. about 3, terete, strongly ribbed, 
114 ft. or less long: fls. 6 or less in a lax 1-sided spike, 

3 in. long, with a curved tube; segms. nearly equal, 
oblong-lanceolate and cuspidate, as long as the tube 
and twice lon|;er than the stamens, recurved and often 
wavy, yellowish or creamy, tinged and striped with 
purple-orown, especiaUy on the keel: caps, oblong, 134 
m. long; seeds winged. S. Afr. B.M. 1042. 



4. trfstis, Linn. Very like the last: fls. 2-4, somewhat 
smaller (2 in. or less lone) ; segms. shorter than the tube 
and not twice longer tmui the stamens, acute (short- 
pointed), yellowish white with purple or blackish pen- 
cilings, or var. c6ncolor, Hort., Fig. 1648 (G. c&ncolor, 
Salisb.), almost white or uniform yellow. S. Afr. B.M. 
272, 1098. G. 21:649. Gn. 75, p. 420. G.C. IIL 38:187 
(var. concolor). G.F. 8:75 (reproduced in Fig. 1648). 
— Said to eidiale a poweif ul and delightful lemon 
perfume at night. 

5. angfistus, Linn. (0, trimaculdtus. Lam. 0, coT' 
ddtiu, Thunb.). Corm globose: slender: st. 2-3 ft., 
simple: lvs. 3-4, very narrow, flat, 2 ft. or less long: 
fls. 2-6 in a very loose spike, long-tubed, white, the 
oblong segms. shorter than the tube and the 3 lower 
ones with a characteristic purple median line ending 
in a heiuirshaped or spade-shaped mark; stamens hau 
ki^gth of limb. S. Afr. B.M. 602. 

cc. Perianth'^egms, obtiae, 
D. Color purple or violet. 

6. crispifldras, Herb. {0. imbricdtus, Linn., var. 
crispiflmts. Baker). St. 1-2 ft., rather slender: lvs. 
2-3, sometimes Hin. broad: fls. 4-10, the tube ^in. 
long and curved, the segms. obovate (1 in. long), 
exited or wavy on the edge, dark purple, more or less 
marked with white and red: seeds winged. E. Eu. and 
W. Asia. — ^Hardy or nearly so. 

7. atrovioUtceus, Boiss. Corm ovoid, ^in. or less 
diam. : st. 1-2 ft. high : lvs. 3, closely ribbed, firm : fls. few, 
the tube }4m. long and curved, the obovate s^^ns. 1 in. 
long and dark purple or violet-blue: seeds globose, not 
winged. W.Asia. G.C. III. 41: 378. — ^Hardy or nearly so. 

8. bifldrus, Klatt. Corm globose, small (}/iin. diam.) : 
dwarf (1 ft. or less), the st. slender and terete and bear- 
ing only 1 well-formed If., which is subterete and very 
narrow and 5-6 in. long, the 2 upper lvs. rudimentary: 
fls. 2-^, lilac, the tube nearly straight, the oblong segms. 
twice as long as the tube; stamens reaching half-way 
the limb. S. Afr. — Connects with Geissorhiza. 

DD. Color (under-color) white or nearly so. 

9. vittiltas, Homem. (G. vinulus, Klatt. G.fascidtus, 
Roem. & Schult. G. uridid^us, Schneev.). Conn glo- 
bose: plant low (about 1 ft.): lvs. 3-4, very narrow: fls. 
3-6 in a lax spike, nearly erect, the slightly curved tube 
nearly or quite an inch long, the limb longer than the 
tube, pink, the 3 lower segms. with a purple central 
blotch; stamens reaching half-way the limo. S. Afr. 
B.M. 538 (as G. undulatus, var.) 

BB. Lvs. ensiform (}/iin. or more broad, and flat or 

flaUish). 

c. Under' or body-color essentially purple. 

10. commftnis, Linn. Corm about ^in. diam.: 
St. V/i-2}4 ft.: lvs. 3-4, 1 ft. or less long: fls. 4-8, small 
(13^ in. long), with a curved tube; segms. bright purple 
(flesh-color^ in the var. cameus), nearly equal in 
length, all connivent or touching (making a narrow 
fl.), the 3 lower ones long-clawed and with a median 
line: seeds broad-winged. France, Germanv. B.M. 86, 
1575. — Hardy; little known in cult, in tnis country. 
Variable; Nos. 11 and 12 are by some considered to be 
forms of it. 

11. byzantinus, Mill. Fls. more and larger, plant 
more robust than in No. 10, segms. more spreading at 
maturity, although the 3 upper ones are contiguous, 
dark purple, the 3 lower ones with a prominent white 
median line: seeds winged. Medit. region. B.M. 874. — 
Hardy; little known in gardens. 

12. s^getum, Ker. Differs from G. byzantinus in 
having globular (not winged) seeds, and in the flaring 
or spreading segms. of the bright purple, obovate- 
obtuse sepa£. Canaries and Mecut. region. B.M. 719. 
— Hardy and early; little grown. 



1344 



GLADIOLUS 



13. Papillo, Hook, f. Conn of medium Bi*e, globose: 
St. 2 ft. or more: Ivb. about 4, rigid, 1 ft, or mor« long 
aod I in. or lees wide: lis, ft-12, pale purple or lilac. 
yellow in the throat; perianth horiiontal, the curved 
tube Hi"- loi>E Aiid broadly funnel-shaped at the 
lop; 3 upper segms. obovate-epatulal^, uppermoBt 
□ot reflezmg, i^Tiin. brond, 1!^ io. lone, tt^ lower 
ones very narrow below and marked with lane red- 
brown spade-shaped yellow-edged blotches. 9. Afr., 
in the Transvaal, Orange Free State and NataL B.M. 
5565, — Handsome. Varies to white in cult. 

cc. Under- or body-eeior ea»entiaUj/ red {No. tt may he 
lought here). 

14. Lricbtiinil, Baker, Cohq large and globose: 
St. about 2 ft. tall, teret«: Iva. about 4, ensiform, 1 ft. 
Iodk: fls. 6-8, large, in a somewhat denae 1-sided spike, 
bri^itred, withacurved tube 1!^ in. long; upper s^ms. 
obovate and connivent, equaling the tube, 3 lower ones 
much smaller and acute, spreading, red at tip but yellow 
and minutely red-dotted below; stameos Bhort^" than 
upper segms. Transvaal. 

15. caidlnUia, Curt. Corm Urge and globose: st. 
3-4 ft.: Ivs, 4-fl, glaucous-green, enaifonn, nearly or 
quit« 1 in. broad and reaching 2 It. or more in length; 



GLADIOLUS 

fls. many (sometimes 20), nearly erect, bright scarlet, 
the tube 1 ^ in. long and nearly straight; upper segnia. 
oblong-spatulate (2 in. long), scarlet, the 3 lower ones 
shorter and narrower, with a large white blotch; sta- 
mens more than half the length of the limb. 9. Afr. 
B.M, 135. 

IS. cmtatua, Moore. Conn large, globose: at. 2-3 
ft,: Ire. about 4, enaiform, dark glaucous-green, 2 ft. 
or less long, ji-l in, broad: fla. 6-10 in a rather dense 
distichous spike, bright scarlet; tube 2 in. or less long, 
nearly straight; upper segms. obovate-spatulate, to 
2J^ in. long; 3 lower segms, 1>^ in. long, white-blotched 
and red-spotted; stamens reaching half-way of limb. 
Natal, B.M. 5810.— Closely related to No. 16. 

17. SsttndersU, Hook, f, Corm large, flattened-glo- 
bose: height 2-3 ft.: Ivb. 4-6. strongly nbbed and stiS, 
1-2 ft. long and 1 in. or leas broad: fls. 6-8, la?^, 
bright scarfet, the tube 1-lJ^ in. long and curved; 3 
upper Begms. oblong-spatutate, uniform scarlet, con- 
mvcAt (2 in. long), 3 lower smaller, white-blotched 
and scarlet-«potted. S. Afr., coast region to Transvaal. 
B.M. 5873. On. 12:61.— Handsome. Var. sapttbxu, 
Hort., is a form produced by the early infusion of G. 
SauTuUrsii into the garden strains. 

18. Quartlniinus, Rich. Corm to IJ^ in. diam., glo- 
bose; strong, 2-4 ft,: Ivs. 3-4. rigid, sometimes nearly 
ensiform, the lower ones 1^ ft. or less long, and ^in. 
or less broad : fls. 4-9, in an open spike, large, blood-red, 
the narrow curved tube 1>^ in. long; upper aegms. 
hooded, the other smaller and more or less reflexed; 
stamens nearly equaling uppw segms, Nile Land to 
Lower Guinea and Moiambique. B.M. 6739. G.C. III. 
24:467, and On. 55:388 (var, tuperbta). Trop. Afr.- 
One of the beat of the genua. Named for M. Quartin 
Dillon, who discovered it in Abyssinia. 

ccc. Under- or bodg-color at ka»t, yelioui. 

19. primHtinus, Baker. Very like No. 18 (with which 
Baker subsequently united it), but differs in the yellow 
color; corm globose, 1 in. and morf diam,: Ivs. about 3, 
ensiform, 1^ ft. lone and to 1 in. broad: fla. 3-5, in a 
lax secund spike, clear primrose-yellow throughout; 
tube 1 in. long, much curved above; 3 upper segms. 
ovate or obovate, acuminate, hooded, 2 in, long and 
more than I in. wide, the central one covering the 
stamens and stigmas; 3 lower segms. deflexed and much 
smaller; style exceeding the stamens. Trop. Afr., 
occurring in the rain-foreats. B.M. 8OS0. G.C. 111. 
36:191:42:291. R.H. 1903, p, 9,— A handsome specie^ 
and although not discovered uotQ 1887 and flowered 
under cult, m 1890, it is now much used as a parent in 
breeding. Several varieties are offered, as var. mscn- 
Utns, Lemoine, with fla, large, chrome-yellow, the 
inner surface of the reflexed segms. bearing a maroon- 
red Bpot, Var. salmOnnis, Lemoine, with fls. saffron 
or salmon-color outside, the interior bright chrome- 
yellow, with fine purple Unes, Var. nUljor, Lemoine, 
krge-fld., said to be a cross of G. prim-ulinut and yel- 
low G. Lemoinei: fls. chrome-eulfur-yellow with light 
brown marks on the interiorof the segms.; plant strong. 
Var. erCctas, Lemoine. Erect, with large scarcely 
hooded chrome-yellow maroon-spotted fla, Var. cfin- 
color, licmoine. Fls. large, 2 of the segms. sulfur-yel- 
low and the remainder naples-yellow. 



(2-3 in.) and somewhat ensiform: fls. 6-8, large, 
bright yellow, the curved tube 1 H ""- long, upper aeffoa. 
hooded, oblong or obovate, the 3 lower ones small; 
Stamens shorter than upper segms. E. Trop. Afr.^ 
The G, stdpAurew. De Graaf (G. Adiami, Baker) is 
another species and the name is older. B.M. 7791. 

21. dr&cociphalus, Hook. f. Conn large, flattened- 
globose; st. stout and simple, 2 ft. or less: Ivs. .3-4, 
rather firm, \-VA ft. long and 1 in. or less broad: fls. 



pu 



MSB loDf;} curved ; upper se^ma. eUiptio-obovale. hooded, 
Tellowitdi and closely Btnat« nith purple, tne other 
BegmB. much Bmsller and reflexiog, mostly green and 

lurple-epotted; Btamens nearly equaling tne scorns. 

■atal. B.M. 5884.— Odd. 

22. paittulnns, Hook. (0. nataltnni, Reinw. Wat- 
idtiia naUUineis, E^kl.). Ccvm very large, flatt«ned- 
globoee: st. 3 (t. or more, stout: Iva. about 4, rather 
rigid, 1-2 ft. long and 1-2 in. broad: fls. many and 
large, with a curved tube nearly or quite 2 in. long, 
in generiil effect rich yellow but thicklv grained and 
overlaid with red (particularly about tiie marg ina of 
the B^mH.); upper a^niB. obo- 

vat« and hooded, dark crimson. 
the lower much smaller and 
refleidng, red and yellow mixed. 
S. Afr., away from the coaat. 
B.M.3032. B.R. 1442. L. B. C. 
]8:175#.— One of the leading 
ptirentB of garden gladioli. 

23. puniftreo-auritus. Hook, 
f. Fig. 1649. Conn large, glo- 
bofle: at. 3 ft., very 8lencrer:TTS. 
3-4, short: fls, 10 or more, prim- 
rose-yellow, medium in size, the 
curved tube less than 1 in. long; 
BegmB. obovate, not wideh' 
spreading, the lower ones with 
a red-brown blotch; stamens 
reacJiing bajf-way up the limb. 
Natal. B.M. 5944. G.F. 2:89 
(reduced in Fig. 1649).— Hand- 
some. A parent of modem 
gladioU. Suggested by Baker 
as perhaps a color^variety of G. 

cx;cc. Under- or body-color while. 
(.Forme of No. IS may be 
sought Aere.) 

24. blinduB, Ait. Corm 
medium niio, gloDoee: st. 2 ft. or i 
less tall, sometimes branched: 
Ivs. usually 4, 1 ft. or less long and l^*/i\a. wide; fls. 
few, white and red-tinged, the curved tube IJ^ in. long; 
Sfigms. aU oblong or oblong-spatulate and flaring or 
recurved, some of them red-marked in the throat; 
Stamens more than half length of limb. S. Afr., coast 
region; variable. B.M. 625. Sometimes pure white. 
B.M. 648, G. dtoidtut, Jacq.; pink or flesh-color, B.M. 
645; G. eifm«u«, Delar.; BHons. white., with many pink 
markings, B. M. 3680, G. Mortbniue, Herii.; taller, 
with longer Ivs. and perianth-tube, G. exciletui, Sweet; 

Slink fls. with red blotches on 3 lower srgms., var. 
/i6berfii. Hort. 0. Uandue is an old garden plant. 

25. Soriblindas, Jacq. Corm globose: st. 2 ft. or less, 
ottCTi branched; Ivs. usually 4, ensiform, 1-2 ft. long: 
fls. 12 or less, ascending, in a lax 2-«ided spike, larg;e, 
white tinged with pink, the sUghtly curved tube 2 m. 
or less long; segma. ohavate or spatulate, obtuse or 
deltoid, wide-flimD^, red-lined; stamens one-third or 
one-half length of hmb. S. Afr., coast region; perhaps 
a form of G. blandiu. B.M. 610. 

26. oppodtifl&nu. Herb. Much like the toat, but fla. 
more numerous and smaller, white, sometimes marked 
ivith rose, the aegms. oblong and distinctly pointed. 
S. Afr., in the eastern region. B.M. 7292. G.C. III. 
13:291. Gn. 45:440. — A very handsome plant, grow- 
ing 3-6 ft. high, and said to produce spikes 2 ft. long. 

27. UUeri, Ker (AnlAoIpm epicAia, Mill.). Conn 
medium sixe, globose: st. 12-20 in^ simple: Ivs. abmit 4, 
ensiform, shorter than the st.: m. rather lai^, 4-5, 
nearly erect, milk-whit«, the tube 2 in. or leas long and 
straight; segms. oblong and nearly acute; stamens 



II. HrBRiDB AND Variantb of Giadioldb in 
Cultivation. 
The garden (dadioli are derivatives of various kinds 
and degrees. Of many, the parentage is so confused 
that it cannot be made out. However, there were four 
early main lines of development or divergence, repre- 
Hented in the lat«-flowering G. gaiulaiienaia, 0. Lemoinei 
and 6. nanceianu», and the early-flcuvcring 0. CohnBei. 
To these have been added other lines in recent years. 
28. Ctflvillei, Sweet {G. bislia var. ednccior X G. 
caniindiia). Fls. open or flaring, 
with oblong-acute s^mB.;acarlet, 
with long blotches at the base 
of the lower scgms; early-flower* 
ing; spikes short. Hardy south 
of Washington with some pro- 
tection. R.H. 1895, p. 289. G.C. 
111.12:90. Gn.28;.'J66; 34:580; 
50, p. 66. Gn.M. 4:189.— The 
oldest of the garden forms. Runs 
into many types and strains. 
The modem white-fld. type, var. 
dOtua, represented by The Bride, 
is best Known in this country. 
Small forms are known as G. 
ndnta: Gn.W. 15;9; used for 
early flowering. Some forma are 
known as G./torifriirufus, G.deU- 
adiBSimut, Blushing Bnde, ia a 
form of the aame group: segms. 
white, with a lai^ oval rose- 
crimson yellow-centered blotch 
on each of the 3 lower ones. On. 
W. 15:9. J.H. 111.49:213. 

Another form of early-flower- 
ing gladioli is known as G. 
ram6au*, Paxt. (issue of Q. cardi-- 



^ Bible to distinguish these two 

groups. 

29. gandavtnsia. Van Houtte (G. peiUatAnue x Q. 
cardinSlU). Fig. 1645. Upper se^pis. nearly or quite 
horizontal or hooded, the colors in bright shades of 
red and red-yellow, variouslv streaked and pencilled: 
late-flowering: spikes long. The commonest old-time 
type of garden gladiolus with the bloom much like 
that of G. psitlacintie in form and size, but with a 
purer and betUr red. F.S. 2:84 (1846). R.H. 1846:141. 
P.M. 11:27. Gn. 64, p. 252, H.F. 1:208; 2:132. 
Gt. 59, p. 499 (var. Europa, with pure white fls.) — 
First offered to the trade by Van Houtte, Aug. 31, 1841. 
M. Souchet, of Fontaineblcau, France, did much to 
improve the ^ndavenaia type by repeated selections 
and breeding. By Herbert and some others, gandaven- 
sis is considered to be an offspring of G. psiHoeinu* x 
G. oppoaUifioms. Var. ct/rinua, Hort., is like G. pml- 
taeinva, but the color is bright yellow. F.S. 5:539. 
C. brenchleyinaie ia one of the gandavensis tribes; 
light red. G. HoUdndia ib a pink form of this. 

30. Lem&inei, Hort. (G. gandaitinsit x G. pvrpiiTto- 
durdlus). Fig. 1646. A modem race characterized by 
highly colorwl yellow, red and purplish fls., purple- 
blotched on the lower segms, with a more or less bell- 
shaped form of corolla~tne segms. broad and heavy and 
the upper ones horizontal or strongly hooded. Grown 
by M. Lemoine, Nancv, Prance, and first shown at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1878. Gn. 17:306; 30:76. R.H. 
1879 : 330.— Fls. said not to open up so well when cut 
as do those of G. gandaveruie, the St. being hard. 

31. ntncdlUiua, Hort. (G. Lemirinei X G. SaHndersii). 
Fig. 1646. Robust, with very lat^, open-spreading fls.. 



1346 



GLADIOLUS 



GLEDITSIA 



the 2 side segms. widely flaring and sometimes meas- 
uring 6-8 in. from tip to tip; upper segm. long and 
upright. First exhibited by Lemoine, the raiser, in 
1889. The finest race, characteristically is full-open and 
large fls., in brilliant shades of red and purple. Gn. 
41:190. G.C.m. 13:131. Gn.W. 7:797. 

32. Childsii (0. gandavSnsia x 0. Saitndersii). Fls. 
wide open and large, with very broad petals: st. laige 
and soft, taking up water well when fls. are cut. Origi- 
nated by Max Leichtlin, Germany. 

33. Fro^belii, Hort., is 0, purpiar&hcurdtua x (7. 
gandav^nsis; G. En^^sseri, Hort., is of similar paren- 
tage; also G. Biinen, Hort. 

34. turic^nsis, Hort. (Fig. 1650), is the offspring of 
a large-fld. G. gandavensis and G. Saundersii var. 
siiperbus. It is a nne purplish crimson, the lower segms. 
bemg beautifully marked with white: fls. 3 in. across. 
G.F.3:89 (reduced in Fig. 1650) .—This and the last 
3 are the work of Froebel & Co., Zurich. 

35. princepSy Hort. (G, hyhridus princeps). Produced 
by W. W. Van Fleet, from seed of G. cruerUua x G, 
Childsii; like the seed-parent in its scarlet-crimson 
coloring, with white and cream feather markings on the 
lower se^ms. : very large, the flat circular bloom expand- 
ing to 6 m. diam. : plant very large. G. 24:663; 34:533. 
Gn. 60, p. 197. G.M. 44:629. 

36. pribcoz, Hort. Very early-flowering types, 
results of crossing of horticultural groups (p. 1340). 

37. Kiinderdii, Hort. A strain or group of the ruf- 
fled or fluted kinds. See p. 1340. 

Many speciefl of Gladiolus are likely to be discuased in horticul- 
tural literature. The following have recently been prominently 
mentioned: G. earminetu, C. H. Wright. Resembles K. ramosus, 
Paxt., but differs in its laxer habit, longer ^>athe and yellow anthers: 
slender, 1 H ft. : Ivs. linear, acuminate, 8 m. long and H^ broad: 
fls. carmine, about 3 in. across; tube narrow-funnel-sha^>ed, white 
outside; segms. ovate, acuminate, 2 of the inner bearing a daric 
spot with a pale center; stamens rather more than half length of 
perianth. & Afr. B.M. 8068.— O. glaiteu*, Heldr. Dwarf, not 
exceeding 12 in.: st. and Ivs. erect and stiff: fls. many, bluish red 
with red and white stripes at base. Greece. — O. Mackinderi^ Hook, 
f. St. slender, 2 ft.: Ivs. narrowly linear, the lower about 1 ft. long: 
fls. 5-6, Uie tube yellow, broad segms. scarlet and 1 H in. across. 
E. Trci). Afr. B.M. 7860. Named for Professor Mackinder, 
Oxford, who collected seeds at 10,000 ft. on Mt. Kenia in 1900. 
One oi the Homoglossum section. L. H B 




1651. Glaactum flatnm. (XH) 

GLASSHOUSE. Any glass structure in which plants 
are |^wn, particularly one that is large enough to 
admit the operator. It is a generic term. See Greenr 
house. 

GLAtyCIUM (name refers to glaucous foliage). 
Papaverdcex, Horned Poppy. Annual^ biennial or 
occasionally perennial herbs, a few of which are grown 
for their large poppy-like flowers and glaucous-blue 
foliage. 

Sepals 2; petals 4; stamens many; ovanr with 2 
(rarely 3) cells, the stigmas miter-shaped, the fr. becom- 



ing a long silique-like caps.: Ivs. alternate, lobed or 
dissected. — ^A dozen or more species of S. Eu. and W. 
Asia. 

Glauciums are low, branchy herbs, often some- 
what succulent, with large flowers, mostly yellow or 
orange, but varying to red and purple. The flowers are 
usually short-lived, but they are oome in rapid suc- 
cession. They are well adapted for foliage effects in 
borders or edgings. Of easy culture in any good soil. 
They prefer an open, sunny situation. Mostly propa- 
gated by seed, but the perennial kinds by division; 
however, the perennials are short-lived, and usually 
had best be treated as biennials; they should be grown 
from seed. Hybrids are announced by Burbank. 

flivtun, Crantz (G. lideum^ Scop.). Horn Poppt, 
or Sea Poppy. Fig. 1651. Sts. stout, 1-2 ft., pubes- 
cent: radical Ivs. 2-pinnate and hairy, the upper clasp- 
ing and sinuate-pinnatifid and cordate at the base: ns. 
generally solitary, on long sts. 2-3 in. across, vellow 
or orange. Eu. C.L.A. 1:139. Gn. M. 9:86.^par 
ringly naturalized E. Perennial or biennial; sometimes 
grown as an annual. Var. trfcolor, Hort. (G. tricolar, 
Vilm.) has been advertised. It has parti-colored fls. 
and is showy. G.C. III. 36:115. G.M. 48:697. Gn. 
66, p. 59. 

comicuUltumy Curt. ((?. phcmiceumj Gaert. G, 
rkbrunif Hort.). Lower: radical Ivs. pinnatifid, pubes- 
cent, the upper ones sessile and truncate at the base: 
fls. red or purplish, with a black spot at the base of each 
petal. Eu. — Mostly annual. 6. Fischeri, Hort., is 
probably a form of this. 

leiodLrpum, Boiss. A velvety perennial with oblong, 
sinuate-dentate, or much-divided Ivs. which in the upper 
part of the plant are sinuate-lobed: fls. yellow, the calyx 
somewhat papillose. Medit. region. — Scarcely a showy 
member of the genus. L. H. B. 

N. TAYLOR.f 

GLAt^X (Greek, sefi-green). PrimtdAcex. One small 
little pale herb, seldom seen in gardens, G. maritima, 
Linn. St. 9 in. or less high, erect or spreading, peren- 
nial by slender creeping rootstocks, growing in salt . 
marshes and seacoasts from New Jersey and Calif, 
northward^ and also in Eu. and Asia: Ivs. oval to oblong- 
linear, entire and sessile, }/im. or less long: fls. purplish 
or white, the corolla wanting: cal3rx with 5 petal-like 
lobes; stamens and style exhibiting dimorphism: fr. a 
&-valved few-seeded caps. L. H. B. 

GLAZl6VA: Cocoa intigni*' 
GLBCH6lftA: Nepeku 

GLEDITSIA (after Gottlieb Gleditsch, director of 
the botanic ^trden at Berlin; died 1780). Syn. G2e- 
ditschia. Legumindsse, Honey Locust. Ornamental 
trees grown chiefly for their handsome finely divided 
foUage; also the large conspicuous pods and the branched 
spines are attractive. 

Deciduous, usually with large branched spines on 
trunk and branches: Ivs. without stipules, utemate, 
abruptlv pinnate, often partly bipinnate on the same 
If. or wholly bipinnate, both usually on the same tree: 
fls. polygamous in racemes or rarely panicles; caljrx- 
lobes and petals 3-5, petals nearly equal, not much 
longer than calyx, stamens 6-10; style short, with 
laree terminal stigma: pod compressed, mostly large 
ana indehiscent, 1- to many-seeded. — About 12 species 
in N. Amer., E. and Cent. Asia, in Trop. Afr. and in 
S. Amer. 

The honey locusts are large trees with spreadim; 
branches fonning a broad graceful rather loose head, 
with finely pinnate foliage, generally light green and 
turning clear yellow in faff; the greemsh flowers appear- 
ing in racemes early in summer are inconspicuous, but 
the large, flat pods are ornamental and the fertile tree 
is therefore to be preferred for planting. G. triacanthos 



GLEDITSIA 



1347 



.Nom and U. ainenns 

__ They are very valuable trc«a tor park 

plfwting tuid for avenuee, and make almost impene- 
trable hedges if planted 
thickly and pruned se- 
verely. The coarse-grained 
wood is durable and 
Btroag. The pulp of the 
pods of G. iriaeanlhoM is 
sweet when fresh, henoe 
the name honey locust, 
but becomes Ditto' at 
length: that of G.japaniea 
Is used in Japan and that 



of G. 



and G. 
D China as a 
substitute for Boai>. The 
gleditsiaa are of vigorous 
growth and thrive in 
almoBt ajiy soil; they 
stand drouut well. Prop- 
agation is Dv seeds sown 
in spring about 1 inch 
deep; they should be 
soaked in not water be- 
fore being sown; varie- 
ties and rare kinds are 
Bometimes grafted on 
seedlingB of G. tnaeanlhoa 
in spring. 

A. Spines more or Uw oompretted, al letul ai the bait: 
waiit of pod papery or leathery: Ivt, pinnaU with 
more than II (ftt., or bipinnale. 

B. Pod l-l-teeded, oval, not puipg. 
aquitica, Marsh. (O. inirmU, Mill., not Linn. 0. 
mowMpfrma, Walt.). Water or Swamp Locust. Tree, 
to 60 ft., with short trunk, spiny; Ivs. 12-lS-folioIate or 
doubly pinnate with 6-8 pinns; Ifts. ovate-oblong, 
usually rounded i ..... 



BU^t^ 



ovate to oblong, nearly lanceolate, obtuse, entire or 
remotely creaulate, lustrous above, ^-2 in. long: fls. 
short-pedicel led, in slender racemes: pod 10-12 in. 
long, twisted, bullatc, with the seeds near the middle; 
pulp acid. Japan. China. G.F. 6:105 (adapted in Fig. 
1653). Var. purp&rea, Rehd. (G. tininna var. pur- 
piirea, Loud. G. coaiTiea, Hort. 0. sininHi var. ori- 
enlAlix, Hort.). Lfts. broadly oval to oblong-oval, 
obtuse or emarginate, ^lJ^in.on the pinnate, smaller 
on the bipinnate Ivb, 

Delavftyi, Franch. Tall tree: spines oompresaed at 
the base, to 10 in. lon^: Ivs. 12-lS-foliolate, only on 
young pUnta partly bipinnate; Itts. obliquely ovate or 
ovate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, shgbtiv crenate 
or nearly entire, dark green and lustrous aoove, gla- 
brous, to 2yi in, long, the lower much smaller, also 
much smaller on young plants: fls. in slender racemes; 
ovary glabrous: pod with leatheiy walls, to 16 or some- 
times to 20 in. long and to 2>j in. bioad, twisted. S. W. 
China. — Very haadsome; recently intro. 
AA. Spines terete: walU of pod thick, voody; pod tlraight 
err faicale, not twitted: fc«. S-lB-fc^idale, very 
rarely bipinnale. 

BininBis, Lam. (0. kirrida, Willd.). Tree, to 40 ft., - 
with stout conical often branched spines: IVB. 5-7 in. 
long, with grooved pubescent racfais, and S-18 lfts.; 
Ifts. ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse or acute, crenulate- 
serrate, yellowish Rtcen, dull above, reticulate beneath, 
%-2 in. long: fls. distinctly pedicelled, in slender 
racemes; ovary glabrous: pod almost straight, thick, 
4-7 in. long, 1-13^ in. broad. China. Var. nana, Loud. 
Shrubby and less spiny, with smaller and narrower lfts. 

a. anorMsUo, TBub. (Guiuuidia unarphoidM, Grijgb.). 
Tr«, W 50 ft, very «iiiiy: UW. obliquBlj ovule to line»r-oblon|, 
M-I in. lone: Sa. in noemer: pod oblou, fnlcaU. 3-4 in. loot. 1 in. 
brodd. i^ thick. Aripntina, Bolivic Cull, in Calif.— <J. niulrdlu, 
HfmAl. Trf« with l&rf« Riincii: lf(«, very obiiqua, obking. oreoate, 
lEatheiy. Bfainini: nod vicb oariiDKnu wkUi, 4-G in. long. B. Chiniu 
— a. citpiea. De^. (O. boirida vmr. nqrics. Sohneid,].' AlUsd to 
Cjiponica. Lvi.|diiiulcwithl3-20o<riil*.crFaulKl«UtB..or bipio- 



. aramate at the apex, 

htly crenate and often entire below the middle, 
ibrouB exc^t a few hairB on the petiolules, about 1 
. long: fls. in racemes: ovary gUirous: pods long- 
stalked, 1-2 in. long. May, June. S. C. eatd Ky. U> 
Fla. and Texas. S.S. 3:127, 12S. 

BB. Pod many-teeded, dongaled and vaueUly more or 

lea» Iwisled, pylpy. 

c. Zifls. utuofly acute or aeuti^, often more than SO, not 

oner 1 )^ in. brng: ovary pubeacerU. 

triacinthos, Linn. Honet or Sweet Locobt. Trreb- 
TBORNED Acacia. Fig. 1652. Tree, 70-140 ft., usually 
with stout simple or branched spines 3-1 in. long: Ivs, 
6-8 in. long, with pubescent grooved rachis; pmnate 
with 20-30 Iftfl., bipinnate with 8-14 pinnte; lfts. oblong- 
lanceolate, remotely crenulate-serrate, ^-IM in. long: 
fls. very shortr-pedicelled in 1}^3 in. long, narrow 
racemes; ovary pubescent: pod 12-18 in. long, slightly 
falcate and twisted at length. May, June. From Pa. 
south to Miss., west to Neb. and Texas. 8.8.3:125, 
126. Gn. 32, p. 304. Var. inirmls, Pursb. Unarmed 
or nearly so, of somewhat more slender and looser 
habit; var. inermis elegantfacinu, Groedemange, is 
an unarmed form of dense bushy habit and with smaller 
lfts. R.H. 1905, p. 513. Var. BnjOtii, Rehd. (0. 
Bujlaii, Neum. G. Bujdtii pindula, Hort.). With slen- 
der, pendulous branches and n 



branched spines, 2-4 in. long: Ivs. 10-12' in. long, with 
grooved and shghtly winged, pubenilous rachis, pin- 
nate with 16-20 Ifts., bipinnate with 8-12 pianx; Uta, 



16U. Gladinia jtpanld. (XH) 



1348 



GLEDITSIA 



GLOBULARIA 



nate with 6-8 i>izm«: pod thin, pulpy, to 12 in. long. — O. fhax^ 
Deaf. Allied to G. dnenais. Spines veiy stout: Ivs. 16-30-foliolate: 
Ifta. oblong-ovate to oblong-lanoeolate, crenate, K-1 H in. long: pod 
to 10 in. lon^. China. Most plants cult, under this name seem to 
belong to G. ji^wnica.— <7. Fontanini, Spach»>0. maoraoantha. — O, 
helerophfiUa, Bunge. Allied to G. aquatica: Ifts. obliquely obovate, 
pubescent below, H-*Hin* long: pod oval, 2-3-seeded, slender- 
stalked, about 1 in. long. N. China. Probably quite hardy.— (?. 
maeraedrUhat Desf. Allied to G. sinensis. Spines and Ifta. generally 
larger: infl. paniculate; ovary pubescent: pod 4-6 in. long. ^in. 
broad, often almost qylindricaL China. — O. offieinAUa, Hemsl. 
Allied to G. sineniris. Spiny tree, to 40 ft.: Ifta. 12-20, obliquely 
elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acutish, to 3H in> long: pod oblong, 
thick, falcate, 3-4 in. long and little over Hin> broad. Cent. 
China.— C7. texdna, Sarg. Allied to G. triaoanthos. Lvs. 12-22- 
foliolate, often bipinnate: pod narrow-oblong, straight. 4-5 in. 
long. Texas. S.& 13:627. Fossibly l^rid of G. aquatica and G. 
triaoanthos. * -vk 

^^ Alfred Rehder. 

GLEICHtNIA (W. F. Von Gleichen, 1717-1783). 
GleichenidcesB. Ferns mainly from the tropical and south 
temperate zones, growing natiurally in dense thickets; 
one species has recently been found in Louisiana, D. 
flexuosa. (Amer. Fern Jour. 4:15). 

The family is characterized by dorsal sori composed 
of a few nearly sessile sporangia; each sporangium is 
surrounded by a broad transverse ring, and opens 
vertically. The most striking thing about the family 
is the growth of the lvs. The lvs. of many of the species 
are perennial and show an indeterminate growth. Diu*- 
ing the growing season, the end of the If. will keep 
unrolling after the usual manner of ferns. During the 
resting season this tip rests, but resumes its growth the 
next season. The lvs. of some species may thus become 
over 100 ft. in length. The species after the third (aa) 
are often catalogued under Mertensia, a name which^ 
because used for a genus of flowers, must give way to 
picranopteris if they are separated and placed in a dis- 
tinct genus, where they probably belong. 

A. Ultimate lobes smallt roundish, 

B. SoruB of 3-4 sporangia^ superficial. 

rtqi^stris. R. Br. Lobes rounded or obtuselv quad- 
rangular, the margins thickened and recurved, some- 
what glaucous beneath. Austral. Var. ^u^scens, 
Moore, has lvs. of thicker texture, which, when voung, 
are very glaucous on both sides, contrasting with the 
reddish purple stalks. 

drcinAta, Swartz. Lobes ovate or rotund, with the 
rachides pubescent when young; 3-5 times forking, the 
ultimate pinnules 1 in. long. Austral., New Zeal. 

Var. speliincA, Hort. (G. speliincsBy R. Br.). Lvs. pen- 
dent but not curving; pinnules curved inward, form- 
ing small cavities. Var. semivestita. Labill. (G. semi- 
vesAtOj Hort.), differs in its close and very erect habit, 
and flat, deep green pinme. Var. M^ndeUii, Moore (G. 
Mhideuii, Hort.). More robust and compact than the 
type, with flat, thicker and glaucous lvs. Gn. 51, p. 472. 

BB. Sorus of 2 sporangia concealed in slippershaped 

lobes, 

dicirpa, R. Br. Lvs. 2-4 times forked, with the 
lobes strongly arched, rotund or narrow, with the 
under surface rusty-hairy. Austral. 

AA. Ultimate lobes pectinate: sori near the middle of 

the veinlets. 

B. Z/. after first forking, bipinnate. 

gladca, Hook. Primary branches elongate, 2-3 ft. 
long: rachises with rusty scales; pinn^ 4-8 in. long, 
with closely placed entire segms., glaucous beneath. 
China and Japan. 

BB. Lf. with fan-shaped divisions. 

flabelUlta, R. Br. Lvs. 2-3 times forked, the divisions 
ascending, 6 in. or more long, elliptic-lanceolate; ulti- 
mate divisions linear. Austral. 

longipinnUta, Hook. Branches of the lvs. repeatedly 
dichotomous; pinnse up to 2 ft. long, 3 in. wicle. 'Sop. 
Amer. 



AAA. Ultimate branches with a pair of forked pinnx: 
tf.-sts. zigzag, repeatedly dichotomous. 

dich6toma, Willd. With a distinct pair of pinn» aris- 
ing from the base of the forked branches: segms. not 
decurrent. Tropical regions generally, but several 
species have been confused here, as in many of the 
widely distributed species. l. M. Underwood. 

R. C. Benedict. t 

GLIRIC!DIA (rodent-qxnson, from the seeds). Legump- 
^ssB. Eight or 10 woody plants^ Cuba and Mex., to 
S. Amer., differing from Robinia in the wingless or 
marginless pods and coriaceous valves. Lvs. odd-pin- 
nate, the fits, entire: fls. rose-colored, racemose or 
fasciculate; calyx-teeth short and broad, the 2 upper 
ones joined; standard large, reflexed; wings falcate- 
oblong; keel mcurved, obtuse; ovary stipitate, many- 
ovuled, becoming a broad-linear 2-valved pod 
G. platydlroa, Griseb., of Cuba, is offered in S. Fla.: 
tree, to 25 ft. : Ifts. 7-9, ovate or ovate-oblong, glabrous, 
the margins undulate: corolla pink or purplish; stigma 
ciliate: pod sessile, piano-compressed, lanceolate-oblong, 
8-seeded. G. macuUlta. HBk. (Lonchocdrpus maculd- 
tuSf DC), Guatemala to S. Amer., is reported as in 
cult, in S. Fla.: small tree: Ifts. about 17. oblong, obtuse, 
somewhat appressed-pilose above and blackish-spotted 
and glaucescent beneath: pod linear, compressed, with 
thickened margin. L H B 

GL<3BBA (Malayan name). Zingiberhcese. Herba- 
ceous conservatory plants with rhizomes and habit of 
canna, and a singular floral structure. 

Flowers in terminal panicles; bracts usually decidu- 
ous; calyx funnel-shaped, 3-lobed; corolla-tube longer 
than the calvx, the lobes nearly equal, ovate; stami- 
noid petal-like and fastened to the corolla-lobes; ovary 
1-oelled, forming a globose, tardily dehiscing caps. — 
Only one species is known to be cult, in Amer. This is 
known as G. coccinea, which is really G. atrosanguinea, 
figured at B.M. 6626. "Index Kewensis" is clearly in 
error in referring G. coecinea to G. albo-bracteata, as is 
plain from G.C. II. 18:71. Veitch intro. in 1881 a 
plant under the provisional name of G. coecinea, as it 
was supposed to be a new species, but the next year, it 
was identified with G. atrosanguinea. This plwit was 
highly praised in 1893: ^'Plants in bloom the greater 
part of the year: sts. much crowded, 12-18 in. long, 
ptMjefuUy arching on all sides: fls. scarlet and yellow, 
m dense racemes.^' The credit for the discovery of this 
plant is generally given to F. W. Burbidge, but in G.C. 
II. 18:407, Burbidge gives the honor to Curtis. For 
cult., see Alpinia. 

atrosangufnea, Teijsm. & Binn. (G. cocdnea, Hort., 
yeitch). St. slender, becoming 2-3 ft. hirfi: lvs. 3-4 
in. long, elliptic, acuminate at both ends; sheaths 

gurplish, pubescent, closely claspmg the st.; lower 
owerless bracts distant, brown, 6-9 lines long, upper 
and flowering bracts crowded, red: fls. IJ^ m. long; 
corolla yellow, tubular, thrice as long as calyx. Borneo. 
B.M. 6626. G.Z.27, p. 121.— Little known in Amer. 
outside of botanic gardens. j^ Taylor. t 

GLOBE AMARANTH: Oomphrena. 
GLOBE FLOWER: TroUius. 
GLOBE HTACmTH: MuscaH. 
GLOBE THISTLE: Echinop*. 
GLOBE TULIP: Cahchortus. 

GLOBULARIA (the flowers in small, globular heads). 
Globularidcex. Herbs, subshrubs and shrubs, with 
small blue flowers mostly in spherical heads. 

Leaves from the root or alternate, leathery, entire 
or with a few sharp teeth: fls. small, blue, in dense 
heads; caljrx 5-lobed, sometimes obscurely 2-lipped; 
oorolla-tube usually short, broad at the throat, the 



GLOBULARIA 

lobes oblique or unequal; stameDB 4, didynomoue, 
attached at the throat: fr. BmaU, included id the c&lvx. 
— About a down species from the Old World. Probablv 
the commoneat and beet species is G. (ricoaaiUAo, whicn 
thrives at the front of well-drained borders, but is 
particularly showy in the rockery. For this and G. 
milaaru and its forms, rather moist but well-drained 
soil and partial shade are advised. Prop, by diviaioii 

A. Hardy herbtuxtnu plants about 6-12 in. high. 

B. Root-lvB. 1-nerved. 

trichoUbitlia, Fisch. & Mey. Height 6 in.: root-lvs. 

Spatulate, 3-toothed at apex; st.-lva. obovat« or oblong, 

mucroni^, sessile. July, Aug. Asia Minor. Syria. 

BB. Root-lvi. S-nerved. 

TOlgtris, Linn. (G. nudtoaUw, Hort.). Hei^t 8-12 

in.: rootr'lvs. Dbova(«, petiolale, nearly entuv, ^ex 

entire, notched or mucronate ; st.-lva. lanceolate, sessile. 

3. Eu., Caucasus. July, Aug. B.M. 2256. 



GLORIOSA 



1349 



1654. 



(XM) 



AA. Protlrate, \Doody herb, forming mati. 
GordifUia, Linn. A low praetrat« perennial with 
creepinx, almost woody sts., and wedge-shaped, notched 
IvB., which form rosettes at the boae of the solitaiy 
pedicel; fls. in a close head, not showy. S. Bu. — Useful 
for the rockery. 






Itfyum, I J nn . Lvb. ___.__, ,.._. , . 

Medit, ncJou— Cult. ytut ■com B. Cilif. by Fi 
it i. ooverad with fl^ sll win! ■ - - 



m.—G. bdiidi/dtia. 



ioto petiole. S-T-tooIhed at mpei: M.-lvi. lanoeoUlc uid KHle: 
headluier thui La G. v^ilnru; csJyx 2-lippsd, the tube cilute Rod 
throatbiirbed: upper lipoTct>roUa2-parted, lower S-paned. Spain. 
N. TATLOH-t 

GLOCHlDION (from Greek for poinJ, the anthers 
being long-pointed). EuphorbiAcex. Tropical trees or 
shrubs, rarely cult, Lve. alternate, simple: fls. in axil- 
lary clusteiB or singly; Htominate calyx imbricate, of 
3-8 sepals; pistillate fls. without disk, stigmas snort 
and thick, ovules 2 t» each cell; fr. a caps.^About 135 
species of Trap. Asia and Pacific islands, related to 
Phyllanthua. j, b. S. Nowton. 



GLORl6SA (Latin for ghriaiu). Syn., MOkdnica. 
liili&cex. Tall, weak-stemmed plants, supporting them- 
selves by means of tendril-like prolongations of the 
leaves. Odd and handsome plants, to be grown in 
a warmhouse. 

Leaves oblong, lanceolate or lance-ovate: fls. 
many and showy, long-stalked, borne singly in the axils 
of the upper IvB.; perianth of 6 distinct long se^ms. 
which are undulate or crisped, and reflexed after the 
manner of a cyclamen, variousij[ colored; stamens 6, 
long and spreading, with versatile anthera; ovary 3- 
loculed; style long, and bent upward near the base. — 
Five or perhaps more tropical species, all African, and 
1 also Asian. 

Glorioeas are not difficult to pov. The brightest 

flowers are produced In sunlidit. The plants grow from 

tubers. These tubers should be rested in eany winter, 

and started in pots in January to March. The planta 

bloom in summer and fall. When potting the old tubers, 

offsets may be removed (when they occur) and grown 

separately for the production of new plants. The tubers 

may be cut in two for purpoaes of propagation. Let the 

mts stand near a pillar or other support. Give freely 

water when the plante are growing. In this country 

ey are sometimes bedded out in summer. Gloriosas 

e sometimes grown outdoors in summer in Massa- 

usetts, and the plants so treated are not much 

elined to climb and flower so freely aa under glass. 

Florida, they may be grown permanently in the open. 

Success with gloriosa depends on naving strong 

bulbs. Consult Butt>«. 

A. PerianthrgegtM. ahotd £^ in. long. 
Ononii, Baker. St. erect and climbing, the 
Ivs. st.-claaping, about 4-5 in. long, bearii^ long 
tendril-like processes: fls. very numerous, in a loose 
cyme; perionth-segms. not more than 2}^ in. long, 
usually less than that, recurved and crisped, the 
margins yellow; style erect; stioxnas 3. — F.S.R. 
2, p. 355. A ahowy plant from Cent. Afr. Intro, 
in 1901, 

AA. PerianUi-mgmt. longer [Aon S in. 

B. SegrnM. (or petaU) mveh critped. 

tnpirbm, Linn. CuusiKa Lilt. Fig. 1654. St. 

10 ft. high: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate: aegms. 2-^ in. long 

id less than an inch wide, opening yellow, but cbong- 

% to yellow-red and deep scarlet. Afr., Asia. B.R. 

. Gn. 38:576. B.H. 23:121. G.L. 18:277.— A 

llow-fld. form of unknown origin has been described 

O. tiitea, Hort; it is scarcely known outeide of 

Kew. Vor. grandindra, Hort., is advertised as "color 

a yellow-red, changing to deep scarlet;" it is unknown 

in the wild state. 

BD. Segms. aomemhal undvlaU, but not eriiped. 

abnplex, Linn. (0. piriscens, Lindl. 0. PIdnHi, 

Loud.). Fls. opening yellow, and remaining so in shade, 

but becoming deep yellow-red when exposed to tie 

wider than in 5. auperba, barely undulate and 



Rothschildiina, O'Brien, St. climbing, simple at 
first, afterward branched: Ivs. bri^t green, glaorous, 
oblong-acuminate, alternate or opposite: fls. solitary 
in the axils, or peduncles 3-4 in. long, abruptly curved 
near the ovary; perionth-e^pns, obtiMpn^ceolate, 
recurved, over 3H in. long, crimson, 'with a dark 
purple mark near the base. Trop. Afr. — One of the 
beat species. G.C. IIL 33:323. CTM. 47:377. Gn.65, 
p. 461. G.W. 9, p. 112; 13, p. 535, R.B. 34:339. 
F,S.R, 2 :24S. Var. cltrina, Hort., has fls. citron-yellow 
and claret-purple. It is a splendid showy addition. 
G.C. HI. 38:211. 



■ud to tw the Ivgeit-ad. ■ 



o 1» Ln cult. . 
lU. 3fl:ISS. 
OLOXy-OF-THE-SnOW: CUoMdois. 
OLOXr PSA: CltanUiu. 



lb JtUor 
■implex fruioiflorA 
N, TAYM)B.t 



GLOXINIA 

stJgmtL. The gonicn ^loidniaa belong to the subgenus 
Ligeria (subgenus of Sinningja), which has a short et. or 
trunk, and a broad-limbed bell-sbape fl. Gloxinia has 
perhaps a haJf-doien species from Mcx. to Braiil and 
Peru; Sinningia has about 20 species, in BruiL 



OLOSSOCOMU CLBHAT1dK&: C<>>1iw>i>h d. 

GLOXXnfiRA iOlarinia and Oemeria). Getneridcem. 
A bigeneric hybrid between GesTieria puramidalit (seed- 
parent) and Gloxinia Radiance, by Veitch and first 
exhibited at the Royal Horticultural Society, Londoo, 
May 8, 1894. It has the habit uf a garden gloxinia, 
.with inclined fls. of fair siwi, brilliant scarlet tinged 
with magenta in the shadows. The foliage is recorded 
as more nearly that of a gloxinia than a geaneria in 
appearance, being very succulent and covered with fine 
hairs. G.C.III. 17:14S. 

GLOXINIA (named for P. B. Gloxin, of Strsssbur^, 
who wrote in 1785). GesneriAcex. The genus Gloxinia 
was founded by L'Heritier in 1785 upon G. maadala 
of Braiil. Early in last century a related Brazilian 
plant was introduced, and it attracted much attention: 
this plant was named Gloxinia rpecioaa by Lodiiigcs in 
bia Botanical Cabinet in 1817, and it was there fi^ired. 
In the same year it was figured by Ker in the Botanical 
Renter, and also by Sims in the Botanical Magazine. 
Sims wrote that the plant was "already to be found in 
most of the large collections about town [London]." 
Th»<e writers refer the plant to the Linntean clan 
Didynamia, but Ker also suggests that it may belong 
to toe Campanulac«E, This Giarinio speciota was the 
forerunner and leading parent of the garden gloxinias, 
but it turns out that tiic (>lant really Mlon^ to Nees 
genus Sinningia, founded m 1825 on a Brazilian plant 
which he named S. HeUeri; but the rules of nomen- 
clature make the («nable name to be SinntngU qted- 
On, Benth. & Hook. (See Sinningia.) All the gai- 



The sinningi'as are 
either stemless or st.-bearing, with a trumpet-shape or 

bctl-shape 5-lobed and more or less 2-lipped corolla, a 
6-ang)ed or S-wingcd calyx, 4 stamens attached to the 
base of the corolla, and with anthers cohering at the 
tips in pairs, and a single style with a concave or 2-Iobed 



lOM. A tood ^zlnla pUnt. 

The true gloxinias are not florists' flowers, and they 
are little known in cultivation. They are apparently not 
in the American trade. The old G. mamdata is figured in 
the Garden 39:801 (p. 364), and it is probably to be 
found in choice collections in the Old World. It pro- 
duces knotty rootstocks, which, ae well as the leaves, 
may be used for prm>agation. It is also figured in B.M. 
1191. G. glabrala, Zucc, from Mexico, is the G. glabra, 
Hort., Achimenes gUtxinixjlora, Forkel, and Plectopoma 
glaxinijlorum, Hanst. It is a stemmy plant, baring 
white flowers with yellow-spotted throat; B.M. 4430, 
as G. fimbriala, Hook. Plectopoma is now referred to 
Achimenes, and the plant then takes the name Aehi- 
meius gtabrata, Fritsch. It appears not to be in the 
trade. Other related genera are Diastema, Dicyrta 
and Isoloma. 

The garden gbxinias (genus Sinningut) are nearly 
stemless plants, producing several or many very showy 
bell-like flowers, each on a long stem. G. (Sinninffio) 
tpecipsa originally had drooping flowers, but the result of 
continued breeding has produced a race with flowers 
nearly or (i^uite erect (Fi^. 1655, 1656). The deep bell 
of the gloxmia is very rich and beautiful, and the erect 
position is a decided gain. The flowers also have been 
mcreased in size and number, and varied in shape and 
marking; the leavesalso have become marked with gray 
or white. The color of the original Gloxinia (SinniTiaia) 
speeiosa was a nearly uniform purple. The modem 
races have colors in white, red, purple and all inter- 
mediate ahadea, some are blotched, and othere are fine- 
spotted or sprinkled with darker shades. It is probable 
tbat the larger part of the evolution in the common 
greenhouse gloxmia is a direct development from the 
old G. tpeciosa, but bybridity may have played a 
part. One of the earLeet recorded series of hybrids 
(1844) was with Sinningia gvttaia, which is a plant 
with an upright stem and bearing rather small spotted 
flowers in the axils of the leaves. (B. R. 1112.) 
The issue of this cross showed little effect of the S. 
guttata, except a distinct branching habit in some of 
the plants (B.R. 30:48). It is possible, however that 
S. guttata has had something to do with the evolution 
of the spots on the present-day flower, although the 
original G. speciona was striped and blotched m (he 
throat. The student who wishes to trace some of the 



older forms of garden gloxiiuss may look up the toU 
lowing portTBita: B.M7 1937, Bpecioea itself; B.M. 
3206, var. albiflora; B.M. 3934, rar. mEtcrophylla varie- 
Rata; B.M. 3943, var. Menzieaii; F.S. 3:220, Teichleri 
(hybrid); F.S. 3r268; F.S. 4:311, Fyfiana (hybrid): 
F.S. 6:610; F.S, 10:1002;F,S, 14:1434-6; F.S. 16:1899 
and 1705; F.S. 17:1768, 1772-6; F.S. 18:1846, 1878, 
1885, 1918, 1919; F.a. 19:1955, double forms; F.S. 
21:2164; F.S. 22:2324. I.H. 42:39, 41. Gt.47,p.79; 
Gt. 48, p. 80. Gn. 15:162; 43:392; 52, p. 268. R.H. 
1846:301, TeuchIerii;R.H. 1848:201, Fyfiana; 1877:70, 
variabilis; R.H. 1883, p. 248. For florists' planla, see 
A.F. 11:7: A.G. 14:49; Gng. 8:83. There axe many 
Latin-made names of garden gloxinias, but the plants 
are only fonna of the 0. speciosa type. One of the 
trade entries is G. arassifolia, a name applied to some 
of the best and largest^-growinE strains. 

There are double forma of gloxinia, in ivhich an 
outer but shorter corolla is formed. The forms are 
more curioua than useful. x^. H. B. 

CultiTation of gloxinia. 

Few flowers can surpass the large tubular blooms of ' 
gloxinia for richness and variety of coloring. The 
colora range through all the shades of blues and purple^ 
pinks and crinasona, while some axe pure white, and 
otheia again white with tinted edges; still others hare 
the colors dotted on the lighter ground-oolor. The 
foliage also of glaxiniae is very beautiful, being of a 
rich soft velvety texture. Gloxinias make a gorgeous 
displ^, therefore, when in flower and are especially 
Wuable for the decoration of conservatories during 
the summer and early fall months. 

Gloxinias are native of tropical America and therefore 
require a warm greenhouse or tropical temperature in 
the growing season. When first introduced into culti- 
vation, anif even for many years after, the flowen of 
gloxinias were all nodding, that is they hung down 
mstead of standing upright; no one now stows the 
noddiog-flowered kmds, the upright-flowered being so 
much more attractive. 

Though they may be grown so as to flower at almost 
any season of the year, vet they are naturally summer- 
flQwering plants, and do best when treated as such. 
They are propagated by seeds, or by cuttings made of 
leaves or stems. Seeds are preferable, unless one wishe* 
to increase some very choice colored variety, when it is 
best to propagate by leaf-cuttings, using partly matured 
medium-siied leaves with a small portion of^ leaf -stalk 
attached (Fig. 1176, p. 929). These may be inserted 
in an ordinary propagating-bed, where if kept rather 
on the dry side, they will booq root and form tubers, 
when they may be potted and grown on. Seeda should 
be sown m a warm temperature early in February, in 
pans or shallow boxes containing a finely sifted mixture 
of peat, leaf-mold and silver sand in about equal pro- 
portions. The seedling will begin to appear m about 
ten days, when great care must be exercised in water- 
" c wiD "dai 






ripened off, the pots should be stored away io some con- 
venient place for the winter, in a temperature of about 
45°, giving juat aufficient water to keep the tubers from 



be started at this time, MioosioR the tubers which ap- 

rr most active, and the remainder should be held back 
another month ; this will give a much longer period 
of blossoming. The tubera should have all the old soil 
shaken off and be potted again in clean well-drained 
pots, using sixes just large enough to accommodate the 
tubers, the compost being the same mixture ss before 
recommended. They should be given but little water 
until active root-growth commences. As soon as the 
pota are filled with roots, they should be shifted on at 
once into the pots they are intended to flower in, as 
frequent shifts would more or leas domace their leaves, 
wiuch have a tendency to cling round the sides of the 
pots. The first bateh should come into flower in June. 

When carefully grown, gloxinias are particularly free 
from insect pests or fungous diseases, and the BBme 
tubwB can be grown for several years. 

Edwabu J. Cannino. 

GLTC&RIA (Groek. glvkerot, sweet). Grandnex. 
Maiah perennisis with open (or rarely contracted) 
panicles, sometimes grown for ornament. 

Spikelets few- to many-fld.; lemmas convex, firm, 
with a scarious margin or apex, usually obtuse, awnlees, 
prominently 6--9-nerved. — Species about 16 in teqiper- 
ate regions of both hemispherea. 






ing, or they Wuj ucuup-vu. xu ihaii., Bui.-t:ma wiui 

these plants throughout the year depends largely upon 
the care exerciaea in watering. Even in their most 
active growth the water alwaj^ should be given from 
the spout of a watering-can, taking care not to wet the 
leaves, though they like a warm, humid atmoaphere 
during their growing season. As soon as the seedlings 
can be conveniently handled, they should be potted 
singly into thumb-pota and grown on rapidly, using 
in subsequent shifts a mixture of two parts leaf-mold, 
one part good fibrous loam and one part peat. The 
plants must be well shaded from sunlight and placed in 
a position free from draUD;hts. The seedlings should 
begin to flower by the middle of August, when they 
should be given an abundance of air. After fiowering, 
the leaves will begin to mature, when water should be 
gradually witbhcla. Aa soon as the leaves have all 



'. OljtaiU (nndla. ( 



1352 



GLYCERIA 



GMELINA 



Fig. 1657. Three to 5 ft.: lower sheaths rough and 
overlapping; blades 3-8 lines wide; glabrous: panicle 
8r-16 in. long, many-fld., open and spreading; spikelets 
4-7-fld., 3 lines long. Dept. Agric, Div. Agrost. 7:286. 
N. U. S. 

nervftta, Trin. (Panicvldria nervdta, Kuntze). Fowl 
Meadow-Grass. One to 3 ft.: blades 1-2 H lines wide, 
scabrous above: panicle 4-8 in. long, open, t3ie branches 
drooping; spikelets 3-7-fld., 1 line long. Ibid 287. — 
Widely distributed in U. S. a. S. Hftchcock. 

GLYCINE (Greek for sweet), Legumindsse, The soy- 
bean and related plants. The glvcines are allied to 
Dok'chos, Vigna and Phaseolus: the Cult, species are 
distinguished by small and hairy fls. in short axillary 
racemes: stipules very small and free from the petiole: 
Ifts. 3, large. — Perhaps 40 species, mostly tropical, in 
Affla, Afr., and Austral., nearly all twining vines. In 
this country Glycine is known onl^ in the soybean, 
G. Sdla. Sieb. and Zucc^ which is an erect, hairy 
annual from Japan and China. It is fdso known as 
the soja or soya bean, coffee bean and coffee berry. 
It grows 2r-% ft. high, making a rank, bushv herb, and 
bearing axillary clusters of small hanging, nairv pods, 
with constrictions between the seeds. Fls. small, white 
or purple. The seeds are sub^oboee to oblong;, yellow, 
green, brown or black, but in some varieties parti- 
colored. In China and Japan the beans are much used 
for human food and for the production of oil. For the 
latter purpose great quantities of seed have been 
exported in recent years from Manchuria to Eu. In 
this country the plant is grown for fora^, its first use 
for this purpose dating from 1854. Since 1882, and 
especially since 1898, the crop has been st^uiily gaining 
in importance. The beans may be used as a suMtitute 
for coffee; and for this purpose the plant is often sold. 
The erect form of soybean is unknown in a wild state. 
It is clearlv a domesticated form of G. ussuri^nus, 
Re^ei & Maackj which is wild in Japan, Manchuria, 
China, and India. For the economic merits of soy- 
beans, see various experiment station reports; idso 
FarmCTs' Bull. No. 372, U. S. Dept. of Agric. For a 
technical exhaustive P&pei* see Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, Bull. No. Id7. The soybean has also been made 
the basis of a distinct genus under the name of Soja, 
Moench. Glycine was clearly used by Linnsus to 
refer primarily to the ground-nut, Apios Ivberoaa. 
Botanists who accept Glycine in that sense use Soja 
for the soybean ana alliea species. The plant named 
Phaaeplus max by Linnseus is the soybean, and as the 
description is on a previous page to that of Dolichos 
Soja, some authors use the specific name max and 
designate the soybean as Sqja max, 

O. cAtn^Tuw -B WiatarU anenaia. — (7. /ru<^«een« ^ Wistaiia 
■peoiosa.— O. Mn^n«^«"-Wi8tarU. q y pjpjjn + 

GLYC6SMIS (from the Greek for mceet, and 
smell). RtUdcex. Thomless shrubs or small trees, 
grown for ornament. 

Leaves persistent, alternate; Ifts. 1-9, alternate or 
nearly opposite, dark green above, pale below, coria- 
ceous, entire or obscurelv crenulate: fls. in axiUary or 
terminal panicles, small, white, fragrant, urceolate. 
S-merous; calyx pubescent (ciliate); ovary 2-5-cellea 
with 1 ovule m each cell: style very short, persistent; 
stamens 10, free, inserted in 2 series on me disk: frs. 
small, with a fleshy pulp in which are imbedded the 
large rounded seeds; cotyledons epi^eous in germina- 
tion; first foliage-lvs. simple, opposite.— Several spe- 
cies are known, occurring in India and Ceylon and 
extending to Austral., the Philippines, and China. Only 
one has as yet been intro. into cult, in this country. 

pentaph^Ua, DC. (Limbnia perUaphijUa^ Retz. Tolui- 
fera cochinchininsiSf Lour. G. cochinchinfnsisj Pierre). 
Small inermous shrubs with pinnate Ivs. having 1-7 
Ifts.: fls. urceolate, very small, white, fragrant: berry 



2-3-celled with 1 or 2 brownish green rounded seeds 
imbedded in the fleshy pulp. — A very variable species 
common throughout India, Indo-ChiniE^ Philippine Isls. 
and Malayan Archipelago. HI. Roxbg. PI. Coroman- 
del, 1:60, pi. 84. Talbot, For. Fl. Bombay, p. 192, fig. 
1 17. — This species is sometimes ^wn as an ornamental 
in greenhouses or out-of-doors m the southern states. 
Because of its dark green glossy Ivs. and translucent 
pinkie berries, it is a handsome shrub for warm semi- 
tropical cUmates. Walter T. Swingle. 

GLYCYRRHIZA (Greek, sweet root). Legumindsx. 
Licorice, also spelled Liquorice, and Lickorice. This 

genus contains the plant whose roots produce the 
oorioe of commerce. 

The genus has about a dozen widely scattered spe- 
cies of perennial herbs, often glandular: Ivs. odd-pm- 
nate; Ifts. of indefinite number, rarely 3, entire, with 
minute glands or teeth: fls. blue, violet, white or yel- 
lowish, m axillary racemes or spikes, which are pedun- 
cled or sessile. — About a dozen species in the Medit. 
region, Trop. Asia, W. Amer. ana S. Amer., only one 
of which appears to be cult. 

The roots of CHycyrrhiza glabra^ of southern Europe 
and central Asia, are used extensively by druggists; in 
America by brewers and manufacturers of plus 
tobacco: in Turkey, Egjrpt and France to make cooC 
ing drinks. Our supply — ^more than $1,500,000 worth 
in 1899 — ^is derived mamly from Spain, Portugal, Italy, 
Turkey and Russia (Transcaucasia), the roots from 
Spain and Italy being considered best, and those from 
Turkey poorest on account of their bitterness. The 
soil for hcorioe must be deep, mellow, moist, rich and 
free from stones. Plants are usually set in rows, 3 
feet or more apart, and not less than 1 foot asunder. 
After the plants have covered the ground, they are 
allowed to shift for themselves for tliree or four years. 
Harvesting is primitive, the roots being exposed by the 
plow and pulled by hand. Large quantities of roots are 
thus left to produce a succeeding crop or to overrun the 
field as weeds. One ton to the acre is considered a fair 
yield; 1.6 cents a pound an average price. In America 
the only fields worthy the name are in California, where 
licorice is not considered very paying. Ebcperiment and 
experience with it are. however, but little more than 
b^un. (M. G. Kains.) 

eUlbra, Linn. Height 2-3 ft. : Ifts. ovate, subretuse, 
subglutinous beneath, 4-^ pairs, with an odd one: spikes 
peduncled, shorter than tne Ivs.; fls. closely clustered, 
the calyx glandular pubescent: pods glabrous, 3-4- 
seeded. Summer and autumn. — Seeds in pods are listed 
by a few deal^« with miscellaneous agricultiiral seeds. 

Wilhelm Miller. 

GLYPT0STR6BUS {engraved or marked cone), 
Pindcex. One or 2 species of trees of swamps and low 
gY)unds in China, separated by some authors from 
Taxodium, but here included in that genus. The basis 
of separation from Taxodium lies mostly in the fact 
that the cone-scales are deciduous, whereas in Taxo- 
dium proper they are persistent; the mature cones are 
obovoid with a long contracted base, the seeds scarcely 
angled and stipitate or narrowed at the base into a wing. 
G, heterophyuuSf Endl. (Taxddium heterophyllumf 
Brongn., which see), is a shrub to 10 ft. high, with lower 
brancnes pendulous: Ivs. long, linear, 3-rowed or scat- 
tered, on the fruiting branches short and rather obtuse 
and spirally imbricate: cones ovoid, ^in. long: tender, 
and httle cult. 

GMELINA (after one of five distinguished German 
botanists named Gmelin). Verbendceae. Trees and 
shrubs, bearing yellow or brownish irregular flowers 
sometimes nearly 2 inches across. A very few plants 
may be cultivated in European warmhouses, and in 
America only in southern ^orida and southern Cali- 
fornia outdoors. 






GMELINA 

Spinv or not: ahoots tomentoae: Ivs. opposite, entire^ 
toothed or lobed: fla. in panicled cymes or racemeo, 
tomentose at least while young; caiyx bell-shaped, 
shortly 5-toothed or entire; corolla-tube glender below; 
limb oblique, 5- or 4-labed; stamens 4, didynamoua, 
nearly exserted; fr. a succulent drupe. — Ei^t or 10 
species from E. Asia and N. Austral. The genua pto- 
duces a fancy timber similar to teak, which is a prod- 
uct of the same order. Vilex and Clerodendron are 
better known congeneia. 

A. Planl not dimbinu. 
B. Lvs. becoming 9 in, long, 8 in. vtde. 

aiMlM, Roxbg. (G. Rhtidii, Hook.). Unarmed tree, 
aomatimea attaining 60 ft., deciduous, flowering with 
the young Ivb.: Ivb. cardat«-ovate, entire: panicles 
often 1 ft. long, terminal. India, Malaya. B.M. 4395. — 
Cult, apparent^ only in S. Calif, by Pranceechi, who 
keeps O. Rhtedii separate. 

BB. Im». yi-1 H *"■ toJlQ. 

uUttlcai linn. (O. parvtfibra, Pers., a typographical 
error for G. jMrv^dlia, Roxbg.). Shrubby, sometimes 
spinescent: Ivs. oyal« or oboval«, entire or lobed: fls. 
in racemose clusters, the corolla about ly^ in. acroas. 
India, Ceylon. 

AA. Ptanl scandent. 

Hfstrix, Kun. A large apiny acandent shrub: IvB. 
3x1^ in., entire, glaucous beneath: fls. in dense 
temunal cymes, tne bracta very lai^ and nervose, 
colored; corolla about 2 in. across, yellow, but not 
hairy on the outside as in G. atialica. £. Indies. — A 
sprawling plant with the habit of bougainvillea. 

N. TATLOB.t 

GNAPHALIUM. See Leontopodiiim and Helichry- 
•um. There are various native gnaphaliuma, but they 
are not in cultivation. O. Umalum of gardeners is 
Hdidaytum peHolatum. 

GNtDIA (Gnidm, a place in Crete). Thymthcdeex. 
l^ees, shrubs or subshrubs, of about 100 species in 
Trop. and S. Afr. and E. India. Some of them have 
been grown abroad as greenhouse evergreen woody 
often heath-like subjects : Ivs. mostly small : fls. white, 
vellow, ted or violet, mostly in heads on the ends of the 
branches; perianth-tube cylindrical, at length detach- 
ing above the ovary, the lobes 4 and spreading, with 
scales in the throat alternating with the Id^es; stamens 
8; ovary sessile, 1-ceUed: fr, amoll and dry, included 
in the persistent base of the perianth. 0. poiyetAcAya. 
Berg. Handsome shrub, to 6 ft., with many graceful 
pubescent branches: Iva. crowded-imbricate: fls. small, 
yellow, in terminal heads. S. Afr. B.M. 8001. G.C. 
III. 41:294. G. lomadbta, Linn. Three ta 4 ft.: Iva. 
ovate or ovate-lanceolat«, decussate and sometimes 
reflexed: fls. vellow, fascicled with the Ivs. at the ends 
of the brancbea, the tube slender and silky. S. Afr. 
B.M. 2761. L. H. B. 



GODETU 



1353 



GODfiTU (C. H. Godet, Swiss botanist). Ona- 
grAeex. Mostly erect annuals with very showy flowers 
m leafy raccnnea or spikes. 

Calyx-tube obconic or funnelform; petals rose, lilac- 
purple or white, often marked with a large deep crim- 
son or purple spot; stamens 8; ovary 4-celled, inferior; 
fr. a many-seeded caps. — Twenty or more species in 
the western parts of a. and N. Amer., especially Calif. 

Seed may be aurface-sown in the late fall in order to 
be covered by tlie raina which follow, or in February 
lightly covered in sunny or in half-shady places. G. 
amana is very popular and furnishes on abundance of 
bloom in early summer when many late spring annuals 



have succumbed to advancing heat. In the wild garden 
the speciee come a^^ freely but have a tendency to 
move to new ground after the second year. 

A. PlanU tail, sfenrf«r:jls. iootdy apteale-paniailaU. 

■mifcM, Lilja. Fakkwbll-to-Sprino. Fig. I65S. 
Slender, brancning, 1-2 ft. hi^ : Ivs. linear to lanceo- 
late, y^2iri in. long, often with smaller ones fascicled 
in the axils: buds erect: calyi-lobee united and turned 
to one side on expansion of the fl.; corolla lilac-crimson 
or red-pink, satiny, 1-2 in. broad: caps, teretiah, sessile 
or ve^ shortly pedicelled. Cult, also in European sor- 
dens [since 1818). Exhibits oonaiderable variabiu^, 
especially in the size, and color-scheme of the Be. 
G. nbieiinda, Lindl. (B.R. 1856), is the lilac-crimson 
form. G. vindsa, Lindl. (B.R. 1880), is a white-fld. 
state. G. SckwiminU (On. 70:203), a double-fld. pink 



r 



form. (Enolhira UndU]/i, Douglas (B.M. 2832), has the 
crimson petals with a lai^ central blotch of deeper 
color. (Enolhira rdaet^^ba, Bemh. (Reichenbach, Icon. 
Bot. Exot., pla, 47 and 150), is a prolific-flowering form. 

B6ttBj Spach. Similar to G, amana: buds nodding: 
petals pmk or light crimson; stigmas united at base to 
torm a cup-like apex to the style: caps, long-stalked, 
usually with flat sides. S. Calif, near the coast. 
AA. Planti low; fia. in a short spike or dtaUr of ipikdtU. 

grMuUflOra, Lindl. ((Enothira WkUnegi, Gray). Fig. 
1659. Stout, simple and dwarfish, 4-12 in. high: Ivs. 
oblong, tapering to base and apex: buds large, 1-2 in. 
long; corolla i-5 in. across, rose-red with a deeper 
blush or blotch in center, varying into pure white 
(Ducheea of Albany), dark crimson (Lady Albemarle), 
or bright carmine (Lady Satin Rose): caps, sessile, 4- 



1354 GODETIA GOMPHRENA 

Hided, 8-r«)bed. B.M. 6867. J.F, 318.~A highly priwd goldsf chaih: totumum „dtar.. 



—UtA ccruinij kaown in ■ wild atsW. Sead oiicmslhr fm 
DiSen littls UohoiiialLy from O. qiudrivuJDSTi or its fomu 
quite unobAnvBd in ita cbuwrtfln &fl«r 75 xemrv or more ttf c 



a a»Bj (tnmi ol 



_, „^ _,, — jr-fld. ffodetiftB 1 
rboracura. althoiish Bubjfwt tar 
u a( gartien cult. — G. maffMA\ 



'bulk, 

PBtagonit by LuChsr Biu^ 

ioeolAt« and half-ooodupli- 

itb t qnt u spai. 4-6 

. a-ribb»d. B.fL 1119. 

le trade. —O. RamancMi, 



m cult- in Ell. neu-ly ■ 



ISM. GodgtU tnndiHoia, (EnotberB WhlbuTl ol tha Dwls. < 



GO£tHEA (Goethe, the great German [toet, 
who was also a botanist). Malviixa:, Two Brazilian 
evergreen shrubs, Heldom grown in hothouBea. Lva, 
alternate, Bimple, entire or Dearly bo: B». showy, in 
cvTQes from the leaflet ate. or Bometimes solitary in 
the axils, Hubtended by large cordate red showy cidyx- 
Lke bracts; calyx 5-toothed, included within the 
bracte; petals short' Btamcns united in a column, 
which is 5-toothed below the apex; ovary S-eelled, each 
1-ovuIed. G. strictiflbra. Hook. (G. eauiifldra, Hort.), 
is a Bmall shrub or bush with large ovate Ivs. sinuate 
on upper half, and aggregated fla, in yellowish white 
red-tinged bracts; petals small, obcordate, veiny; 
calyx whitish or greenish, the lobes ovate-acuminate; 
Be. on short-peduncles that are aggregated in the axils 
along the Bt. B.M. 4677. J.F. 4i365. G. mvUifiora, 
Nichols., and G. semperfiorena, Nees & Mart., belong 
in Pavonia. j^. jj. B. 



OCLDBn FEATHER: CArvmnlAcmuM Parihmiia 
GOLDEHROD: Salidaea. 
GOLDSn SEAL; Hydra^u. 
GOLDFtSSUi SIrtibUamSei. 
GOLD THREAD: CaptU trifatia. 



GOICBO, Oumbo 



<t Okn: HibtKtu 



GOHfeSA (named in honor of Bemardinus Anto- 
mus Gomes). OrchiMcex. Stave epiphytes. 

Fseudobulbe 1- or 2-lvd.: racemes often many-6d., 
lateral ; sepals free and spreading, or the lateral approxi- 
mate or connate; petals equaling or wider than dorsal 
sepal; lip affixed to base of column, continuous, spurlesa, 
the lateral lobes small ; pollinia 2. — About 6 or 6 species, 
natives of Brazil. 

plaalfAIia. Klotssch (Odtmbtgldasuni planifilium, 
Reichb.). Pseudobulbe ovoid, 1H~2 in. long, 2-lvd.: 
IvB. 4-5 in. long: racemee exceeding the Ivs.; fla. fffk- 
grant, light greenish yellow; sepals and petals oblong 
acute, the lateral sepals united nearly to the apex; hp 
shorter than petals, broadly oblong, acute, refleiea. 
B.M. 3504 (as Rodngueiia). G.W. 14, p. 517. 

e. BinMi, Bart. RKumes 1G-30-fld.; Ss. odsU, onnft, with 
a white columa. Braiil. — O. Glatidpii, Gof^ Glimbinx: et. «1od- 
guod: pKudabulb* 2-4 in. nput^ fis. Uiht green. Bruil 

Georob v. Nabb. 

GOHPHIA: OuraHa. 

GOHPHOCARPUS (cJufr-Zrutt) . A sdepiadAcex. 
Perennial herbs, or subahrub^ of more than 100 spe- 
cies, mostly of the Old World, of which one hasj^een 
mentioned recently in horticultural hterature abroad: 
very, closely alhed Ui Asclepias, being distinguishea 
mostly by the absence of crests or appendages on the 
hoods. G. tixlilis, Naudin, a wann-country species but 
nativity unknown, ia a semi-woody plant 3 ft, high with 
slender branches: Ivs. opposite, lineor-lanccolate: fls. 
white, in terminal clusters, the lobes of the crown 
violet; fr. la^e, obliquely oval in outline, bladdery, 
pale green, loug-hairy, to 4 in. long. R.H. 1902, p. 35. 
— Dracribed as a showy and worthy plant for the border. 
L. H. B. 

GOMPHOLdBIUU (name refers to club-shaped pod). 
Leffutnindsx. Two dozen Australian yellow- or red-fid, 
shrubs, rarely cult. Lvs. simple or compound, the Ifts. 
mostly narrow: fla. papilionaceous, soUtary, few or 
in abort racemes; atandard orbicular or reniform, exceed- 
ing the other petals; wings falcate-oblong; keel mostly 
broader than the wings, obtuse; stamens free: pod very 
wide or nearly globular, inSated, bearing amall seeds. 
They are said to be excellent greenhouse shrubs; prop. 
ty cutting of young shoots. G. palym6rphum, R. Br, 
GlabrouB shrub or undershrub, variable m foliage and 
habit: Ifts. 3, but sometimes 5 or 7 or 9, digitate, mostly 
linear, to 1 in. long: fls. oran^yellow to brigtit crim- 
son: pod much inflated, ovoid-globular. B.M. 1533, 
4179. U.U. 1, p. 166. B.R. 1574 (as O. iienuioeum, 
Lindl.). B.R. 1615 (as G. feniK, Lindl.). BR. 25:43 
(aa 0. veraicolar, Lindl.). Xi. H. B. 

G0HPHR£NA (name suggested by Grvrnphrmna, 
Pliny's name for some amaranth, supposed to be 
derived from arapho. to write or paint; alluding to the 
highly colored or painted" foliage). Amarantdax. 
Herbaceous plants grown as "everlu tings." 

Herbs erect or prostrate, pubescent to villous, with 
or without a leafy involucre: fla. short or long, white or 
colored: bracts short or long, concave, and keeled, 
winged or crested on the back. — About 70 species, 
mostly in the warmer parts of Amer. and Austral., 
but the gld>e amaranth is widely dispersed throughout 
the tropics. For cult., see AnnuaU and Everlaalingi. 



OOMPHRENA 

Thia genuB includes the globe amaranth, a common 
everlasting flower of easy culture. It ie also known as 
bachelor's button, though two other utterly distinct 
plants {Cenlaurea Cyamu and Ranunculus aeri») have 
the same popular name. The flowcr-heada are eld inch 
or less in diameter, globose, of many oolora, and chiefly 
remarkable for the showy bracts, which hide the true 
flowers. In a family remarkable for brilliant foliage this 
genus seems to be the only one valued for everhistings. 
Nearly all the oUier everlasting flowers of importance 
belong to the Composits. 

globdsa, Linn. Globe Amakamth. Bacbelor's 
BmrrON. Height 18 in, or leas: Iva. elliptic to obovate, 
the largest 4 in, long, 1 >^ in, wide, tapering to a petiole. 
July. B.M.2815. R.H, 1890, p. 522. F.R. 1 1333. The 
folkiwing names of horticultural varieties indicate the 
range of color: vara, ilba, allrea, ctmca, niiw corn- 



color. There is a narrow-lvd. form o 
which Vosa calls G. HaageAna, Klotzsch 
Hort, G eocdnea, Decne,), which has h 
often 6 times as long as broad. The Ivb. 
in. wide. R.H.1854:161. AUareeBsUyi 

a. enaptaliaidtt, V»hl— Pf»ffl». WnilBl 

G0NG6rA (after Don Antonio Caballi 
Bishop of Cordova). Includes Acropkre 
tribe Vdndae, subtribe Cyrlop&diex. A 
of plants with curious spotted flowers, n 
cultivation, and of little value eicept f 

Distinguished from the other membei 



by its many-fld. raceme: dorsal sepal 
^ect, Hpreading, thus appearing to 
spring from the base of the column; 
laterm sepals spreading or refiexed from 
the base of the column, wider; petals an 
the base of the column; labelltim contini 
column, narrow and fleshy, with 2 thick 
or aristulate lobes, and a central one wl 
or even folded, forming a vertical | 
erect or asceuding, not winged: paeudc 
sheathed, bearing 1 or 2 large, plicate hrt 
a long, loose, pendent raceme arising fn 
the pseudobulns. — Over 20 species from 

Gongoras are extremely free-flowerii 
easily m a mixture of sphs^um and pea 
charcoal added for drainage. Durmg 
season they require plenty ofwater, and 
the winter they reouire little water, but i 
in a moist atmosphere in a cool, shaded 
grow well with cattleyss, or in a temper 
winter and 80° in summer. Some growei 
fine fern root packed tightly and for a top finish a httle 
fine moss found in damp meadows, instead of sphacnum, 
which in thia climate is quick to decay. (Wm. Math- 
ews.) 

A. LaUrtd aep<Ut ovate or oblong, truncale. 

Imnclta, Lindl. Pseudobulbe deeply furcate: lateral 
aepals rotund, oblong, truncate, the upper one ovate, 
keeled; petals minute, ovate; sepals and petals pale 
straw-color, spotted with purple; base of labellum com- 
pressed in the middle, 3-homed; apex ovate, canalicu- 
late. B.R. 31:56. 

AA. Lateral sepcda broad, ovate, pointed. 
B. FU. li^kl aepia-broum; ovary mMch incurved. 

galeftta, Reichb. f. (MaxUtAria galeita, Lindl. Aero- 
. p^ Ldddigesii, Lindl.). Fig. 1660. Pseudo]>ulbB 
ovate-conical, clothed with membranous scales: Ivs. 
broadly lanceolate, Bin. long: racemes drooping, 6-8 in. 
long, with 6-12 pale sepio^rown fla.; dorsal sepal gal- 
eate; petals small, oblong-truncate; labellum 3-lobed; 



lateral levies mflexed, middle one saccate. The plants 
bear several short, rather large-fld. raoemes. Aug. 
Mex. B.M.3563.L.B.C. 17:1645. 

BB. FU. yellou); ovary aomeiohai ineumed. 
armenlaca, Reichb. I. [Acrophra armer^aca, Lindl.). 
Pseudobulbe ovate, sulcate, 2-lvd.: raceme loose, bear- 
ing many yellow fla,; sepals ovate, rounded, apiculate, 
the lateral ones oblique; petals one-half as long as the 
column* labellum fleshy; apex ovate, plane, acuminate, 
base tuberculate, crested. B.M. 5501. 

AAA. Lateral aepala laneeolale to ovale-laneeotaU. 
B. Fit. chocotaie-brown, spotted. 



chocolate - c o 1 o re d, 
spotted fls. about 2 



of the sepals r 
lute ; petals amau, 
tw^rted at the apex : 
labellum 4 'homed 
at the base; apex 
folded so as to form 
a vertical trianEular 
plate. Trinidad. 
B.M. 3220.— This 
species is the most 
common in cult. It 
is nearly always in 
it during the summer. 

Pis. yeUow, spotted. 
inquenfirvis, Ruii A 
(O.mocubUa, Lindl.). 
dobulba ovate-ob- 
, deeply furrowed, 3- 
Ivs. broadly lanceo- 
5-plaited: raccmca 
y, 2 Et. lona, with 
erouB yellow ns. spot- 
irith dark red; lateral 
Is reflexed, meeting in 
back: petals small, 
X- oblong, from the 
lie of the column; lip 
raed at base; apex 
td, tapering to a seta- 
s pomt. May-Aug. 
. 3687. B.R. 1616.— 
:uriouB plant, much 
nbling 0, alropur- 
a except in color and 

. L of fls. 

BBB. Fh. duU red-parple spotted, with a yeUow 
labellum. 
tricolor, Reichb. f. (0. maculdla var. tricolor, Lindl.). 
Facudobulbs ovoid, 2J4 iu- long, deeply furrowed: Ivs. 
ovat^oblong, acuminate, about 6-ricibed, 6 in. long: 
raceme slender, penduloua, lax-fld., &-10 in. long; pem- 
ce!a with ovary 1H~2 in. long, apeckled like the rachia; 
fls. about 2 in. long; dorsal sepals lanceolate, with revo- 
lute margina, tip recurved, lateral sepals ovate-lanceo- 
late, with revolute margins, dull red-purplo, with a pale, 
stout midrib; free portion of the petal spreading, 
upcurved, lanceolate, apeckled; labellum golden yellow, 
base cuneiform saccate, truncate in front, with an awn 
: each side, apical part broadly funnel-^aped, with a 



a. Ba/mdliina. Schlnht. Allied to O. [niocsta. InS. penda- 
tom, tlimal IB in. lone: Bs.in1syel1airBpottedwilh purple. Colom- 
bia.^G. buJAnia, Lindl. KeKtnbli^ Q. BtropurpureB id habit, It*. 
■nd pMudobulbi: flg. rellowiih white, thickly ipoCted with dull 



1356 



GONGORA 



GOODIA 



purple. BrasiL B.R. 27:2. O.W. 13, p. IIO.^O. ftucdia, Hort. 
(Acropera fusoata and luteola. Hort.), naa been cult, for manar 
years, but no description ia available.—-^?. Tracydna. Rolfe. Se|>ala 
and petals greenish yellow, mariced with brown; lq> ivory-white. 

^•"** H. Hassblbrinq. 

GONldlCA (Greek, ffoniay angle, corner; the corona 
cornered near the top). Apoq/ndcex. Shrub, introduced 
for the warmer parts of the country. 

A monot3rpic genus containing a S. African glabrous 
plant with coriaceous Ivs. and terminal corymbose fls.: 
calyx small, with 5 more or less herbaceous sepals; 
corolla with 5 lobes, overlapping to the left; stamens 
inserted at the middle of tne coroUa-tube. Gonioma 
differs from Tabemsmontana in having the ovules 
arranged in 2 series instead of an indefinite number of 
series. 

KamJifwi, Mey. (Tabemxnumidna Camdssi, Kegel). 
Height 16-20 ft. : Ivs. opposite or the upper ones in 3's, 
oblong- lanceolate, entire, leathery, 4-6 lines wide: 
conrmbs small, terminal, 8-10-fld.; fls. salver-«haped, 
yellowish, 3 lines long; tube a little wider at the middle 
and angled, constricted at top^ pilose within from the 
middle to the top; lobes a tmrd as long as the tube, 
ovate, cordate, twisted to the right in the bud; style 
2-cut: fr. 1-2 J^ lines long. — Yields the hard yellow 
Kamassi wood of S. Afr. n. TATLOB.t 

GONIOPHLftBIUM. A subgenus of Polvpodium, 
(or perhaps a distinct genus), with a special t3rpe of 
anastomosing veins. ¥ot 0, wbauricmatutn and 0, 
vacdnissfoliunif see Polypodium, 

G0NI6PTERIS (Greek, anpledfem). Pdypodidcex. 
A generic name for a group of tropical ferns belonging 
wiui Dryopteris, with naked rounded son and the lower 
veinlets ot contiguous segments or lobes united. Has 
been placed under Polypodium. For G, crenaUi, see 
Dryopteris crencUa. 

GONIOSCtPHA (name refers to the angled peri- 
anlh). Lilidcex. One species. G. eucomoldeSf Baker, 
an odd nearly stemless plant from the £. Himalayas, 

{)roducing 1 thick dense short-peduncled spike 3-5 in. 
ong, of small lurid green fls.: Ivs. few in a rosette, 
10-15 in. long, 5-6 in. broad, elliptic or elliptic-oblone, 
several-nerv€»; petiole 3-4 in. long, broad: perianw 
open, somewhat fleshy; anthers 6, sessile; stigma some- 
what 3-lobed: fr. a l-seeded globose-ellipsoid dark 
brown berry, becoming dry. B.M. 8078. G.C. III. 
20:748. G.W. 12:750.— Blooms in late autumn; pro- 
duces a short fleshy rootstock. l, h^ g^ 

GONdLOBUS (name refers to the angled pod of one 
of the original species). Asdepiaddcex, Mostly trail- 
ing or climbing plants, herbaceous or woody, of Amer., 
chiefly tropical: Ivs. opposite and mostly cordate: fls. 
dull or dark-colored, of medium or lar^e size, in fas- 
cicles or lunbel-like cymes^ corolla rotate to campanu- 
late. 5-lobed; crown ring-like or cup-hke, entire, lobed 
or divided; anthers short and borne under the disk of 
the stigma or on the margin of it; pollinia nearly or 
quite horizontal; stigma flat-topped.— Seventy-five or 
more species, only one of which seems to be in horti- 
cultural lists. G. edMs, Hemsl., of Guatemala and 
Costa Rica, is a more or less rusty-hairy twining shrub, 
with ovate-oblong deeply cordate Ivs., and 3-5-fld. 
short peduncles: corolla of medium size, white, densely 
bearded inside; crown short, with 5 interior longitudinal 
lamells: follicles the size of a swan's egg, edible. — It is 
said to be hardy at Santa Barbara and to bloom pro- 
fusely but to set no fr. It is the guayote of the natives 
of Costa Rica. 

O. Cundttrdngo, Triana=>Mar8dema.— O. Martidnua, Hook., is 
properly Flschena Martiana, Deone. A handaome stove twiner 
with pretty fla. in early summer: Ivs. oblon<^vate, hainr, acumi- 
nate: fls. white with a_£reen ring at base and a red hairy calyx. 
BratiL B.M. 4472. J. F. 1:33. L H B 



GOOBER is a commoner name in the South than 
"peanut, *' which is the universal name in the North, 
lor culture, see Peanut; for botany, see ArackU, 

GOOD£nIA (Bishop Samuel Goodenough, England, 
1743-1827, who wrote on Carex). Goodenidcex (some- 
times written Goodenoviese). The family Goodeniacese 
is allied to the Campanulacese, differing m never having 
milky juice, the style surrounded by an indusium or 
cup-shaped or two-lipped expansion, the ceUs of the 
ovary mostly more in number, and other technical char- 
acters. There are a dozen Kenera of herbs and shrubs 
and probably 300 species, mostly Australian. Proba- 
bly none of them is in regular cultivation, although 
Goodenia and Sceevola are sometimes mentioned m 
horticultural literature. 

About 100 species ol Goodenia occur in Australia: 
calyic-tube adnate to the ovary, the lobes free or 
adnate at the base; style undivided: caps, with 2 or 
rarely 4 valves: herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs, with 
yellow, purplish or blue fls. The species most likely 
to be met with in horticultural literature are: U, 
grandifibraf Sims. Erect herb, with large yellow fls. 
more or less streaked purple, linear calyic-Iobes, and 
broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate 
toothed Ivs. that sometimes have 
small lobes along the petiole. B.M. 
890. B.R. 31:29. G. MacmHUanii, 
F. Muell.. very like the last but 
with purple fls. and lyrate Ivs. H. 
F.II. 4:240. G, sUMigera, R. Br. 
Perennial herb: st. 12-18 in., almost 
leafless: radical Ivs. linear or nearly 
so, entire, 3-6 in. long: fls. yellow, 
nearly or quite sessile, in a long in- 
terrupted spike. G. ovdto. Smith. 
Glabrous or viscid shrub or sub- 
ahrub, to 4 ft.: Ivs. lanceolate to 
ovate or nearly orbicular, denticu- 
late: fls. yellow, the corolla about 
Min. long. L. H. B. 

GOdDIA (after Peter Good, who 
found the plant in New South 
Wales). Legumindsx, Australian 
shrubs, with pearlike flowers. 

There are 2 goodias; both species 
have long been cult, in a few con- 
servatories abroad, but the pubes- 
cent species is now forgottcoi and 
the glabrous one, in Amer. is cult, 
chiefly in S. Calif, outdoors. Under 
fllass these shrubs are treated like 
Cape heaths or Australian hard- 
wooded plants. It has no near allies 
of garden value. It belongs with 
4 other Australian ^nera to sub- 
tribe Bossi£ea» in which the Ivs. are . 
mostly simple: stamens coalesced \ 
into a sheath, which is split above: 
seeds strophiolate. From these 4 
genera GcKxlia differs in having 3 
pinnate Ifts. and its racemes ter- 
minal or opposite the 
Ivs. instead of axillary. 
A. Schultheis writes 
that goodias are occa- 
sionaUy seen in florists' 
windows in America. 
Wm. Watson, of Kew, 
says the flowers are 
very fragrant, and re- 
mam on the plant a '>A.'" K^\3>»***""^*^ 
long time. He adds *;•»"/* <* vV.'V^^ j. w^ ^ ^ 
(G.F. 2:244): "Prob- * ^ ^---^^t.tZr.n^}^^ 
ably this plant, if taken 1661. Ooodyera pobeMent. ( x jH 




GOODIA 

in hand by the floriete, would prove quite as useful for 
spring flowering bb the popular Cytimu Tooemoiu*." 

lotlfalia, Salisb. Often nuaspelled "latifolia," 
but the name means "lotus-leav^." A tall mucn- 
branched glabrous shiub: Ifts. ovate or obovate, my 
blunt, about %m. long; racemes loose, 
man^'fld. ; the fls. yellow with purple mark- 
ings near Uie boae. B.M. 958. J.H. III. 
29:484. H.F. II. 6:358.— Likely to be con- 
fused with ArgyroiiMum Andrewsianam, 
belonginK to the Crotalaria subtribe, in 
which the aeeda are not Htrophiolate. In 
Argyrolobium the 3 Ifts. are diBit&t« and 
the stipules, bracta and bractlets small but 
persistent. A. Andraosiaraan has spaisely 
silky IvB. In Goodia the stipules, bracts 
and bractleta are very evanasoent. 

WlLHELH MlUJlB. 
N. TATLOR-t 

G00DT£RA (after John Goodyer, British 
botanist, who helped Johnson in his edition 
of GeraJde's Herbal). Orchid&eex, tribe 
Polyehdndrac. Dwarf terrestrial orchids of 
minor importance which are cultivated 
chiefly for their variegated foliage. 

Leaves radical, usually reticu- 
lately veined : 6a. in dense or 1 
spikes; labellum saccate; an 
on the back of the column. — A1 
25 siiecies. They have scapes i 
in. high at most. Difficult togi 
require shade. Includes 
the rattlesnsJce plantain. 

A. Planls hardy rialivet. S 
B. Z^4i6eUum ArongXy tTl- 
fluted, with a nharl tip, 

pubfiscens, R. Br. Rati 
SNAKE Plantain. Fig. 1S61. ! 
ovate, deep green; veins net 
white: scape stout; spike dense, 
ovate in outline before anthesis: 
flS- glt^ular, whitish; beak of 
stigma short, obscure. Aug. New- 
foundland to Fla^ west to Mich. 
and Minn. L.B.C.l;!. B.B.1:474. Mn.2:54. F.S. 
15:1555. AG. 12:281; 13:520. C.L.A. 4:108. Gn.M. 
4 : 15.— Should be zrown in ordinanr loam mixed with 
pine needles and dry pine twip. Not well suited for 
greenhouse cult. 

BB. LabtUum saccate, urUA an dongabd tip. 
c. Beak of the atifpaa ahorter Hum Ha body. 

rtpena, R. Br. Lvs. ovate to oblong-lanceolate: 
veins dark; spike 1-eided; labellum with a recurved 
tip. L.B.C.20:1987. Eu. Var. ophioldes, Fern. (Fig. 
1662), is the American form of this species, with very 
broadly marked lvs. 

CC. Beak at long a* or longer than the stigma, 

t«8S«Uta, Lodd. {G. jntbitcera vor. mtnor). Lvs. 
broadly ovate to oblong-tanoeolatc; venation exceed- 
ingly variable: scape slender; spike loose; fls, white; 
laSellum leas saccate than in G. repeng; tip straight. 
N. U. S. and Canada. B.M. 2640. L.B.C. 10:952.— 
Confused by tradesmen with the next. Should be 
planted out in a rockerv in shade, the roots being 
nrmly placed among dead pine needles and loam. 
BBS. Labellum scarcely saaxUe, margin ineolvie. 

Mtaxieaii, Lindl. Plant rather large, the st. some- 
times 18 in. high, being taller than G. lasetaia: lvs. 
ovate-lanceolate, dark green; veins netted: spike some- 
what l-dded. rather densely fld. W. U. S. to N. New 
England. — Advertised by Dutch dealers. 



GOOSEBERRY 1357 

AA. Plants lender exotiet, euU. under glau. 

B. Lvi. unth a trhitiah midcein. 

vdfttiaa, Maxim. Fls. whitish, tinged rose: lvs. orate, 

velvety, purplish green, with white rib. Japan. FS. 

17:m9. 

BB. Lv«. vnih wihite, netted veins. 
Schlechtendaliina, Reichb. f. (G. japiniea, Btume ). 



1062. Ooodrtn raptu TV. 



FbUowinc (hia Utter diqiadttoi 
ii Uw ■■nu ■■ the ehAnct«rui 



Under Serapw, tba foLlowinc 

PIAS, TJnn ap. PI. S40, 17. 

Brit Bertwl 4T77 17S6. Epip-u 
ITS?. Aduu. Fun. 3:70. 17i 
Bot. Ou. te-AT2. 1B13. 8p 



roodycTA Menunvi, Ijndl.); Peramium Uuttia' 
!t; Ptramivm ofliiiMa, Rydbeis (— Ooodysn 
r. <9hioid« F.ni«ld). Qt^isxA AMM. 
L. H. B.f 

GOOSEBERRT. A bu^-fruit, 
grown for its large berries, which are 
mostly consumed green in cookery. 

The gooseberry has received com- 
paratively little attention in America. 
although in northern Europe, ana 
especially in the British Isles, it has 
long been a prime favorite, and a 
preat improvement has taken place 
m its size there during the last 200 or 
300 years. When it was first culti- 
vated in Europe — probably in the sixteenth centunf — 
the wiM fruit, if it was like what it is now, would be 
only about ^ inch in diameter and leas than one 
quarter of an ounce each in weight. The largest goose- 
berries which have been produced in recent years aver- 
age several times this size, the largest one of which 
there is a record weighing two ounces, although there 
are doubtless larger specunens produced. The English 
and European gooseberriee are derived from a species 
native of northern Europe, Ribea Grossularia (Figs. 
1663, 1664). The varieties of Rihes Groseularia do not 
succeed well in America as a general rule, although in 
some places they do well. Tie chief obstacle to their 
successful culture is the gooseberry mildew, which it 
has been found very difficult to control. 

As late as 1846 no cultivated varieties of American 
species of goooeberries were mentioned by writers, an 
early reference, according to Bailey, being in 1849 in 
the Northern Fruit Culturiat," by GoodriMi, where the 
author writes; "We have it from good authority that 
native sorts have been discovered both in New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont well adapted to garden culture." In 
1847 the Houghton's Seedling was exhibited at a meet- 
ing of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, this 
bemg the first improved form of the native gooseberry 
of which there is a record. This variety was originated 
or found by Abel Houghton, Jr., Lynn, Massachu- 
setts. It is probably a seedling of the native species, 
Rtbea UrleUum (Figs. 1665, 1666, 1667). The first 
improvement on the Houghton was the Downing (Fig. 



1358 



GOOSEBERRY 



1668), a Medling of the Houghton, which whs origi- 
oated by Charles E>owniDg, Newbiu^, New York, and 
firat brought ioUi aotice in 1853. It ia thought by some 
authorities to have been a hybrid between Houghton 
and Ribeg GToavlaria, the European apecies. The 
Downing ia etiil more largely planted in America than 
any other variety of goose- 
betry. This ia doubtleaB 
largely due to the fact that 
comparsitively little has been 
done toward improving the 
gooed^cny in America duriag 
the past fifty years. The 
moet work eeems to have 
been done by William Saun- 
ders, late Director of the 



GOOSEBERRY 

Gooeeberriefl may be propagated either from cut- 
tinge or by layering. The average person will usually 
get the best rwilta from layering, aa cuttings arc oft^ 
very unsatisfactory. To propagate by layering, the 
bushes should be pnined severely in the autumn. This 
will induce a strong growth of young wood the next 
season. When these nave made moet of their growth, 
which will be early in July, the earth is heaped up 
around and through the bush until only the tips of the 
young shoots are left uncovered. The soil ia packed 
down and then a covering of loose earth thrown over to 
retain moisture better. Most of the American varie- 
ties will have rooted well by autumn, and the young 
plants may be detached and planted in nursery rows 
either the same fall or the following spring, to be grown 
there for one season. English varieties usually take two 
veora to root, and the soil must be left about the bu^es 
(or that time. Cuttings of American varieties will 
sometimes give fairly satisfactory results if made from 
well-ripenca wood and treated as currant cuttings. 
The cuttings are made 6 to S inches or less in lengui, 
and buried in soil over winter. In sprine they are set 
out in nursery rows, planting deep enou^ so that only 
one or two buds are above ground. Both American 
and English varieties may be propagated from green- 
wood cuttings in a greenhouse, or hotbed with bottom 

Soil, plantijtg and cullare. 



. (Natunlu 



II ol Rlbai Omnlaiii. 



Dominion Experimental Farms, the originator of the 
Pearl, Joaaelyn (Red Jacket), and many other seed- 
lings and croBses not yet on the market. There is a 
CI field for work in improving the native gooee- 
ies, ae there is no apparent reason why the size 
should not be equaJ to the beet English varieties. The 
qualitv of the American varieties is considered by some 
to be bettor than the average EngUah gooseberry, but 
the flavor is not nearly so good as the best of the 
English sorts. 

As the gooseb^ry is found growing wild almost or 
quite to the Arctic (urcle, its culture will no doubt be 
extended very far north. The most usefid native species 
is the smooth gooseberry, Ribea hirtelium, which is 
found wild from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Next in 
importance ia the prickly gooseberry, Ribe^ Cynoibati, 
which has not so wide a range. Both of these goose- 
berries are of good quality. An intereating hybrid 
Kooseberry was originated by Saunders by crossing 
Ribea Cjfnotbati, with Warrington, a cultivated Eng- 
lish variety. The size of the fruit was Increased very 
much, but the gooseberry although ^ood in quality 
remained prickly. If greater hardiness is desired it may 
be got in Ribet laciutre, wliich grows almost or quite to 
the Arctic circle. In its present state It is not nearly so 
useful aa the other two ^jecics, the fruit being amaUer 
and Inferior in quality. There are other native species, 
such as Aibe« Lobbii, R. diBaritalum, and R. roturuH- 
/olium, which may also play their part in the future 
imtffovement of the native gooseberrv. 

There is a steady though limited acmand for goose- 
berries in America, but the gooseberry lias never been 
generally popular on this continent. Id England, 
gooseberries arc used in great quantities for eating out 
of hand and for jam; in America few ore used raw^ most 
of the fruit being picked Kttten and put into pies, or 
used as jam or canned. Inose who ore successful in 
growing the English varieties in America are usually 
enthusiastic in their praise as a fruit for eating raw. 



scolded by the sun. The soil should be a cool o 
Moist soils are usually cool, but the surface of a sandy 
loam soil gets very hot In the summer, hence is not the 
beet for this fruit. Well-drained, heavy clay loams ar« 
the moet suitable for gooseberries as these usually are 
both cool and moist. The soil should have abundant 
plant-food easily made available. A good apphcation 
of well-rotted manure thoroughlv worked into the soil 
will do much to bring about tnese favorable condi- 
tions. The soil Bhould be well prepared and made 
mellow aa for a crop of roots. As gooaeberries atari 
tu grow early in the spring it is usually preferable to 
plant In the autumn, and aa the leaves drop early they 
ma^ be planted in September and will be m good con- 
dition when wintor comes. Well-rooted cuttings or 
layers may be used as plants. They should be set in 
TOWS about 6 feet apart and 4 feet apart in the rows. 

Cultivation should be thorough to retain moisture 
and keep the Boil cool, and as gooseberry roots near 



GOOSEBERRY 

the surface, tillage should be shallow. Mulching with 
straw ia sometimes advisable to keep the auil cool- 
As the gooseberry makes much mure wood than it is 
desirable to leave, severe pruning is neccasary, English 
varieties are usually trained to a single stem, but this is 
not ncoeeBary, although the freer circulation of air when 
trained in this way may help to prevent the spread of 
mildew. The usual custom in Ainerica is t« grow the 
gooeebeiTy in bush form. Hie bush should at first be 



GOOSEBERRY 



In Great Britain the gooseberry b one of tlie most 
popular fruits, and great quantities of the product are 
grown there every year. They are used to a larg« 
extent for eating out of hand when ripe, but are much 



1M7. An AiDttloa gaomabmj, RlbM hbtallam. (Xlfl 



brought into a good shape by leaving a few of the 
atroneest shoots r^ularly distributed to make an 
open nead. Five or six of these shoots are quite suffi- 
cient to leave at first. As the bush gets older, new shoots 
are allowed to grow to take the place of the older once, 
as the pruning should be done with a view lo havine 
only vigorous bearing wood. Fruit is borne on year-old 
wood and from spurs on older wood. It usually is not 
desirable to have any wood more than three years old. 
Thebest time to pruneis in the autumn or winter. The 
weakest young shoota should be cut off at the ground, 
also all the stronger young shoots not required for 
fruiting or to take the place of the older branches to be 
cut away. The side shoots from the older branches 
should be headed back or cut out alt«gether so ss to 
maintain a fairly open bead, making it as easy as pos- 
sible to pick the fruit and yet leaving sufficient wood 
to produce a good crop and shade the fruit from the sun. 
as m a hot dry time gooseberries are liable to be injured 
by s<»lding. When branches are more than three years 
of age they should be removed to make way for 
younger wood. It is advisable to cut out all branches 
which touch the ground as there will then be a better 
circulation of air, and the fruit will be kept off the 
ground. Gooseberries will of ten begin to bear the second 
ye-ar after planting, but there will not be a full crop 
until the fourth season. If the soil is kept in good condi- 
tion by an annual application of well-rotted barnyard 
manure in the autumn, harrowed in the following spriOK, 
and if the bushes are kept sprayed and well pruned, 
the plantation will not need lo be renewed for many 
yeaiB. Sometimes a plant is trained to a single stem 
(Fig. 1669), to secure extra fine fruit, but it is only a 
home-^irden practice and scarcely to be recommended 

Yield of gooscberriea. 

The American gooseberry is a productive fruit and 
averages a good crop if well cared for. It is, however, 
very important to have good foliage to protect the fruit 
from the sun, and unfortunately many let the currant 
worm destroy a large proportion of the foliage, and if 
the weather is hot the fruit suffers. Six bushes of the 
Pearl have averaged at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, C^ada, in five years at the rate of 12,402 
pounds an acre each year, or, at forty pounds to the 
Dushel, over 310 burfiela an acre. The highest yield was 
in 1905, when five bushes of Pearl 6x4 feet apart 
yielded seventy-five pounds, or at the rate of 27,225 
pounds an acre, equal to over 080 bushels. 

The highest j^ield mentioned b^ Card in his work on 



in demand for making jam. Owii^ to their large siM 

and good flavor, and their popularity in Great Britain, 
they were early imported into America, but it was soon 
found that owing to the gooseberry mildew the Euro-. 
pean varieties could not oe successfully cultivated in 
most places in which the gooseberry grows. Where the 
climate approaches nearest to that of Great Britain, 
and the northern and moister parts of Europe, and there 
is considerable moisture in the air, not very high sum- 
mer temperatures, and considerable cloudy weather, 
the European gooseberry succeeds best. Even in gar- 
dens in which there is a great deal of vegetation giving 
off much moisture, and in which the soil is shaded ana 
cool, good success is often obtained and almost or quite 
as fine gooeeberrira produced as in England, but such 
instances are the exception. 

Heavy clay soils are most suited to the gooseberry 
and there is little use trying to grow the European 
varieties in light soils. Qay soils are cool, and with 



them it is easier to secure the conditions n 
success. Various methods are recommended for grow- 
ing European gooseberries free from mildew. Mulch- 
ing the soil heavily with straw is one. Mulching the 
so3 with coal-ashes is another. Shading the soil with 
laths set on a frame 8 to 10 feet high is another. All 
these methods are useful, but unless the air is moist 
above as it is cool and moist below, the conditions will 
be still more or leas favorable for the development of 
the disease. The conditions of a thickly planted garden, 
where there is partial shade, seem the most favorable. 
Varielia of goottberriet. 

American: Pearl, Downing (Fig. 1668}, Josselyn 
(Red Jacket). Hou^^ton is the hardiest. 



1360 



GOOSEBERRY 



European (of most general Adaptation}: Whiteaniith, 
Industry (Fig. 1671). 

European (least affected by mildew at Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada) : Companion, 
Eaole, Glenton Green, Queen of Trumpa, Snowball. 

European (grown by R. B. Whyte, Ottawa, Canada, 
under garden conditions); Tri- 
unipb. Lofty, Green Ocean, 
Conn, Weatbwall, Sportsman. 
Seaiding of Iht fruit. 

In a very hot dry time, goose- 
berries are often s<^ded, become 
unfit for use and fall to the 
ground. If the gooBeberries are 
planted in heavy, cool soil and 
the ground kept well cultivated 
and the currant-worm prevented 
from eating the foliage there will 
be little trouble. Unfortunately, 
in many plantations the foliage 
is very scant, either on account 
of poor cultivation or injury 
from the currant-worm, and it is 
under such conditions that tlie 
greatest injury occurs. 

Itueett and dUeaae» affeclint the 
goo»eberry. 
Cwranl - icorm or imported 
aaivfly (PUronus jibesii, Scop.). — 
By far the best known of all the 
insects which injure currants and 
Rooeeberries is tne currant-worm. 
The black-spottpd dark p^«n 
false caterpillarB of this mscct 
may unfortunately be found in 
almost every plantation of currants or gooeeber 



vear tn almost all parts of the temperate regions of 
North America. The white eggs are laid in rows atone 
the riba of the leaf on the lower side, toward the end 



of May. From these the young larvw hatch and 
make their preeeace known by the small holes thev 
eat through the leaves. Unleaa promptly deetroyeo, 
they will soon strip the bushes of their leaves, thus 
weakening them considerably so as to prevent them 
ripening miit the first year, and also reducing the qual- 
ity of the crop of the following season. There are at 
l^st two broods in a season. The first appears just as 
the leaves are attaining full growth, and the second just 
as the fruit is ripening. The perfect insect is a tour- 
winged fly which may De seen flying about the bushes 
early in spring. The male is blackish, with yellow le^ 



more slender body. The female is larger than the male 
and has the body ss well as the legs yellow. Remedy: 
For the firat brood a weak mixture of p " " " 
ounce to ten gallons of water, may be 



f pans green, o 
; sprayed over t 

L dry mixture o 



pounds of flour may be 
dusted over the foUage after 
a shower or when the leaves 
are damp with dew. For the 
second brood paris gr^ 
must not be used, but white 
hellebore; this is dusted on 
as a dry powder; or a decoc- 
tion of this powder, one ounce 
to two gallons of water, m^ 
be sprayed over the bushes. It 
is, of course, far better to treat 
the first brood thoroughly, so 
» Cam Bob, an as to reduce the number of 



GOOSEBERRY 

Qooatbtrry fruit~ti>orm (Zophodia jroswuUaix, Pack.), 
— Just before gooseberries ripen, clusters of two or three 
may sometimes be noticec, which are prematurely 
colored, and which are joined together by the webs spun 
by the caterpillar of a small moth. These caterpillarB 
are pale gre^iish white and sometimes have a reddish 
tinge. Thev hve inside the ber- 
ries and, wnen the contents of 
one berry arc consumed, attack 
another near at hand^ joining it 
to the first by a silken web. 
Whoa full RTown they fall to the 
ground ana spin brown parcfa- 
ment-like cocoons, just beneath 
the surface of the ground. The 
moths, which are pale gray, 
marked with dark streaks and 
bands, are very rarely observed. 
They fly early in spring, and 
there is onlv one brood m the 
year. Rernedy : The best method 
of controlling this insect, which 
fortunately is never very abun- 
dant, is to pick by hand the 
clusters of injured berries. It is 
thought that chickens and other 
poultry are useful in destroying 
the larvEe and chrysalids; and it 
is certain that, while chickens 
are very small, they are useful in 
a garden in destroying a great 
number of injurious insects. The 
old hen, however, should be 
kept securely cooped up and not 
allowed to run at large. 
ralMd In tcM lofm. Gooseberry mildew (Sphxrtt- 

Iheca mors-ui>x). — The goose- 
berry miUew has prevented the general culture of 
the European gooseberry in America. This disease 
attacks the leaves, twigs and fruit. When the attack 
is bad it destroys ttc foliage, covers the fruit and causes 
most of it to drop. It eape the growing shoots to such 
an extent that they do not ripen properly, and dry up 
without setting fruit-buds. It thus practically destroys 
the crop. The disease is apparent early in the season m 
the web-like covering whicti coats the leaves, shoots and 
fruit. This is the mycelium from which is given off the 
spores which propagate this disease. It is usually 
noticed first in the lower and most shaded parts of the 
bush. When the spores are being given off, the mildew 
has a powdery appearance. Winter-eporee are formed 
later which gemunate in the spring. As the mycehum 
and spores arc both on the surface it might be thought 
this dWase could be easily controlled, but the weather 
conditions in this country seem so favorable to the 
development of spores that the gooseberry mildew 
spreads with great rapidity, and constant and thorough 
spraying is necessary to prevent it from doing so. 
American varieties are seldom 
affected by gooseberry mildew, 
although occasionally they are 
shghtly attacked. Remediea: 
So far, there has been no good 
remedy for the gooseberry mil- 
dew, but the moat promising 
remedy is the lime-sulfur wash 
applied first when the buds 
are breaking and then at inter- 
vals during the growing sea- 
son. So far, the best formulas 
and the best times to spray 
have not been accurately 
worked out. Potassium sulfide 

in the proportion of one ounce ,„,, i^„,^, ^ ^ 
to two gallons of water has tba Eniliili looHbenlu. 
controlled the mildew in some (Natural siio.i 



GOOSEBERRY 



GOURD 



1361 



cases but to secure satisfactory results the weather must 
be favorable and the btishes sprayed from four to six 
times or more. In some cases it has been found that 
it is not practicable to control the mildew with this 
spray; furthermore under certain conditions the foUa^ 
of some varieties is injured by the spray. Bordeaux 
mixture when the leaf-buds are breaking and again 
just before blooming is a partial preventive. 

Leaf'spotf rust {Septoria ribia), — ^The disease which 
causes the spotting of gooseberry leaves and their fall- 
ing prematurely is the same as that which affects 
currants, and may be dealt with in the same way. 

W. T. Maooun. 
OOOSBBBRRT, BASBADOES: PenMa. 

OOOSBFOOT: Chmopodium. 

GORDdNIA (after James Gordon, an English nur- 
BBryman; died 1780). Thedcese, Including Franklinia. 
Ornamental woody plants grown for their showy white 
flowers and handsome foliage. 

Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs: Ivs. alter- 
nate, petioled, entire or serrate: fls. solitary, axillary; 
sepals and petals 5: stamens numerous; ovary superior, 
3-6-celled, each cell with 4 or numerous ovules; style 
slender, with a 3-6-lobed stigma: caps. 3-6-celled, 
woody, dehiscent, with few or many wmged seeds in 
each cell. — ^About 15 species in Subtrop. and Trop. 
Asia and 2 in the S. Atlantic States. 

The gordonias have very lumdsome ahining foliage, 
and produce their larae white flowers even on ratlier 
small plants. Only G. alatamaha is hardy north to 
Massachusetts, while the others are cultivated only in 
subtropical regions. They grow best in a somewhat 
moist, peaty, or sandv soil. Iropagated by seeds, layers 
or cuttings from hal/-ripened wood under glass. 

A. Foliage deddwms, 

alatamllha, Sarg. ((?. pubiscena^ L'Her. Franklinia 
alatamdha, MarshJ. Shrub or tree, to 30 ft.: Ivs. obo- 
vate-oblon^, narrowed into a short petiole, sparingly 
serrate, bri^t green and shining above, pubescent 
below, turning scarlet in fall, 5-6 in. long: fls. short- 
pedicelled, pure white, about 3 in. across; petals 
roundish obovate, witn crenulate margin, concave: 
caps, globular. Sept., Oct. Ga., but not found again 
since 1790. S.S. 1:22. Mn. 6:201. Gng. 7:167. 
M.D.G. 1899:25. F.E. 30:863. C.L. A. 2:34.— One of 
the few trees that flower in autumn. It does well in 
Mass. in sheltered positions or with slight protection, 
and blooms freely every year. A large tree in the 
Bartram garden, near Philadelphia, was long sup- 
posed to be the onl^ living specimen of G,<dalamaha, 
All other specimens m cult, are believed to have been 
prop, from the Bartram tree, which has lately died. 
All efforts since 1790 to rediscover this tree in the S. 
have failed. 

AA. Foliage evergreen, 

Lasiindras, Ellis. Loblolly Bat. Tree, to 60 ft, 
usuall3r shrubby in cult.: Ivs. obovate-luiceolate, nar- 
rowed into a short petiole, crenately dentate, dark ereen 
and shining above, glabrous, 4-6 in. long: fls. long- 
pedicelled, white, 2-2>^ in. across; petids oblong- 
obovate; stamens short: caps, ovate. July, Aug. Va. 
to Fla. and Miss. S.S. 1:21. B.M. 668. I.T.2:41. 

axOUris, Szyszylowicz (G, an&mala^ Spreng.). Large 
shrub: Ivs. oblanceolate, narrowed mto a very short 
petiole, entire or serrate, dark green above, 3-6 in. 
long: fls. almost sessile, creamy white, 2-3 in. across; 
petals roundish obovate. Nov. S. China. B.M. 2047; 
4019 (as Polyspora axiUaris), L.B.C. 7:675 and B.R. 
349 (as Camellia axillaris), 

O. ordndU, Andr^ Coiymbs few-fld., terminal; fls. white, 
Urge. II.H. 1906:520. — ^A handaome greenhouse opeciea.— -O. 
iatdntoo, RoUison. See Sohima Noronhs. 

Alfrsd Rehdbr. 

87 



GOR8B: Ulex europtnu. 

GOSSfPIUM (ancient name of the cotton plant). 
Malvdcex. Cotton. Perhaps thirt]^ or more species 
of herbs and shrubs of warm countries, although more 
than 100 have been described; some authorities reduce 
them to about three. They are grown for the fiber 
that is borne on the seeds. See Cotton. They are 
scarcelv horticultural subjects, and therefore are not 
treated fully in this work. 

Gossypiums are tall stout herbs, or tree-form bushes: 
Ivs. large, alternate, petiolate, mostlv prominently 
3-9-lobed but sometimes entire: fls. white, yellow or 

Eurplish, provided with 3-5 large cordate calyx-like 
racts; cal3rx entire or somewhat 5-lobed; stamens 
imited into a colunm; ovary 3-5-celledj each cell 3-11- 
ovuled; style 3-5-lobed: fr. a loculicidally dehiscent 
caps., beaxing seeds that are obovate, rounded or 
slightly angular, sometimes smooth, but usually cov- 
ered with a short down or fuzz and a longer coat of 
brown, creamy or white hairs, called the lint. 

The cottons of commerce belong, according to 
Lewton, to about eight distinct botSucal types and 
may be divided into two main groups, the New World 
and the Old World cottons. The New World ^up 
includes American Upland cotton (G. hirsiUum, Lmn.); 
Sea Island and Egyptian cottons (G. barbadense, Linn.) ; 
and the tropical tree cottons of South America (G. 
brasiliensey Kfacf. and G. penwianunif Cav.). The 
Old World cottons include the Levant cotton (G. 
herbaceum, Linn.), cultivated in southern Europe and 
western Asia; the oriental tree cotton (G. arboreum, 
linn.), with yellow or purple-red flowers; the common 
cotton of India (G. negkctunif Todaro) ; and the Chinese 
and Japanese cottons (G. nanking, Meyen.). 

Cotton (probably G. herbaceum) was grown in gar- 
dens in Delaware and Maryland in colonial times as 
an ornamental plant. 

Two species have been offered as ornamental plants. 
G. Dftvidsonii, Kellogg, from Lower Cam. and 
Cerros Isls., woody, with handsome yellow fls. purple 
at the base. 1 in. long, and small corciate mostly entire 
Ivs. G. Stftrtii, F. Muell., endemic in interior of 
Australia: shrub, several feet high, more or less marked 
with black dots: Ivs. broadly ovate, entire, 1-2 in. long, 
glaucous: fls. large, purple with dark center: bracts to 1 
m. long, cordate, entire, many-nerved, black-dotted. 
The common fiber-cottons are sometimes planted in 
northern gardens for curiosity, but they seldom make 
attractive plants where the nights are cool; sometimes 
they are seen in warm glasshouses, with other economic 
plants. L. H. B. 

GOUANIA (Antoine Gouan, 1733-1821, professor of 
botany at Montpelier, France). Rhamndcesp. About 
40 species of tropical shrubs, sometimes tall climbers, 
tendril-bearing: branches long and slender: Ivs. alter- 
nate, petiolate, pennincrved, entire or dentate: fls. in 
clusters, on axillary and terminal, elongated pedun- 
cles; disk 5-lobed; style 3-fid: caps, with 3 indehiscent 
berries. — ^This genus includes the "chawstick" of 
Jamaica, a rapid-growing, shrubby vine, with pretty 
heart-shaped Ivs., ^wn sometimes for ornament in 
the extreme S. It is suitable for screening unsightlv 
objects. The sts. are chewed in the W. Indies. 'fix)th 
brushes are made from the frayed ends and tooth-pow- 
der from the pulverized wood. 

doming^nsis, Linn. Chawstick. Lvs. usually 1)4^2 
in. long, elliptical, glabrate, with distant serratures; 
veins tapering toward the margin: fls. very small, in 
slender mtemipted axillary more or less leafy spikes: 
caps, winged, emarginate. W. Indies. l, jj. B. 

GOURD. In England, a generic name for species of 
Cucurbita (which see). In America the term is used 
to designate those cuciirbitous fruits that are hard- 



1362 



GOURD 



GRAFTING 



shelled, and are uaed for ornament or for the making 
of domestic uteosili. The gourd of hietory is prohablv 
I^genaria. In the northern United States, tne saaU 
hard-ehelled forms of CucurbUa Pepo {var. ocifera) are 
commonly understood when the word gourd ia uaed- 
The gourds in the American trade ore referable to their 
speciee aa follows: 

AOBCoadx, Laoenaria vvlffofitt 



Apple-abape 



r, Cuairbita Prpo tsa 



BDltle-flfaHpod, Zdffffioru Ril- 



Ctlmh 



I. Crac 



but lbs calobsflb gourd u 
Lacenoria puifiorCM. 

T»r. nviftra (Colooynlh u 
CifruJIiu ColiKynlliu). 

Dipper, Laotnaria wuioaru. 

DipAACAOuB. Cucumu dip- 






Onuwe, Cucurt 

Ortricb Eff. 



Spop^i Lujfa- 

fipoon, Laotnaria ntiffOfU. 

Sug^r Trough, La^naria ni 



L. H. B. 

GOmtLI^A (Gourli^, a peraonal name). Legu- 
minbsx. One or two spiny shrubs or email trees of 
Chile, one of which is listed in S. Calif., somewhat akin 
to Sophora and Cladrastis: Ivs. odd-pinnate, the Ifts. 
email: fls. small, oranec-colored, in racemes or fasciclea. 
papitionaceous; standard orbicular, winge obovat« and 
undulate, kcelshort: pod short, indehiscent. G.spin&sa, 
Skccls (Lucuma spinbaa, Molina. G. chUhuit, Gsy). 
Chanal, Tree, 12-15 ft.j with long thick branches 



diam., browniah. the pulp the flavor of jujube: wood 
yellow and hara, used for cabinet-making. Chile, at 
elevation of 1,500-5,000 ft. L. H, B. 

G0V£NIA (J. R. Gowen, English gardener). Ordti- 
ddcex. Terrestrial orchids of Trop. Amer., seldom cult., 
of perhaps a dozen epeciee: rhiKomea thickened into 
tuber-Uke enlai^ements or paeudobulbe, the sts. erect 
and few-lvd.: Ivs. large, narrowed at base: fls. in simple 
racemes, medium in eize. short^pedicelled, mostly 
white, cream-colored or yellow and more or leas rea- 
spottcd; sepals and pet^ of about equal length, the 
former connivent; Up very short, without spur, jointed 
to column: pollinia 4, broadly ovate. G. lingcns, 
Pocpp. & Endl. Height 2-3 ft.: If.-blade clhptic, about 
8 in. long: fla. yellowish, with transverse purple lines, 
much lareer than those of G. superba; segms. lanceo- 
late to oblong. Peru. 0. suvirba, Lindl. Two ft.: 
fis. fragrant, yellow with red markings, sepals and 
petals acute: spike loose, erect. Mcx. L.B.C. 18:1709. 
G. sutpkurea, Reichb. f. An odd species with onion- 
Lke peeudobulbs: If .-blade cuneat^-lanceotate and 



dste-obbng, white with dark brown at apex. 

L. H. B. 
GRAB6WSEIA (H. E. Grabowsky, German apothe- 
cary and botanical author). Solanacrx. A half-dozen 
or more epiny shrubs of Trop. and cxtra-Trop. S. Amer., 
with small violet or pale blue or whitish He. borne 
singly at the nodes and in clusters on the ends of the 
branches, and oblong or obovate entire sometimes 
fleshy IvB.i calyx 5-toothed or becoming lO-toothed 
aft«r flowering: corolla funnelform, with short tube and 



5-lobed sjH'eading limb; stamens 5, exserted: fr. drupe- 
like with 2 pyrenes, G. boerhaevuefUui, Schlecht. 
(G, glaitea, Hort.), of Peru, is offered in Calif. It is a 
lyeium-Uke scrambling or wide-spreading bush with 
small Ivs. alternate and tufted, with spines !-iin. long 
in the axils and the shorter branches often also sharp 
and spine-like: fls. whitish or pale blue, not conspicu- 
ous, in clusters of 3-5 or solitary: berries Bcarceiy J^in. 
long. B,R. 1085. — In Calif., the plant has a good gray- 
green foliage and a graceful drooping habit, therefore 
making it adaptable for planting compositions in 
landscapes. ^ fj. B. 

GRAFTING, Multiplication by. Grafting is the 
operation of inserting a part of one plant into another 
plant or part with the intention that it shall grow and 
produce its kind. 

The practice of grafting, t^^ether with all the reasons, 
consequences and results, constitutes a department of 
knowledge known as 
graflage. The term 
grafting is ordinarily 
restricted, in popul^ 
speech, to propagation 
by means of short 
twigs or cions, and 
budding is used to 
designate the insertion 
of smgle buds that are 
severed from the 
branch on which they 
ITCWj but these dis- 
tinctions are not funda- 
mental. Stock is the 
plant or part on which 
the grafting is done. 
Cion {scion, sion) is 
the part inserted into 
the stock, although 
it is usually restricted 
to cuttings of twigs, 
and does not include 
:hed buds. 



ion. Brldfv^raftlac. At thilett, 
1 doa; die ckuu in iiUce; at Uia 



many writing^ the 
word is spelled teion, but the other is shorter and 
it waa a very early horticultural term, many old 
horticultural writings using don and cyan. Scion is 
apparently later, ana usa^e is not uniform. The wonl 
draft is sometimes used in the sense of don, but it 
would better be used for the completed things the 
new plant or part made by the joining <rf cion and 

Grafting is not always employed for purposes of prop- 
agation. It may be a reparative process. What is 

known as bridge-iiTafting is oE this kind. Wounds or 

6'rdles may be bridged by cions, as in Fig. 1672 (after 
edrick), for the purpose of supplying new tissue to 
connect the parts. Here the edges of the girdle are 
trimmed to the fresh firm tissae, cions whittled w^edge- 
ahapc at each end are inserted, bandages are drawn 
around the trunk to hold the free edges of the bark and 
the ends of the rions, and wax is poured over the work. 
This operation is performed in spring, with dormant 
cions. The buds snould not be allowed to throw out 
shoots. If the cions arc placed close t<^ether, they 
will soon unite along their sides and make a continuous 
covering of the wound. Writing of bridge-grafting, 
HedrickBaye(N.Y.Sta. Circ. No. 17): "Its most impor- 
tant use is to preserve trees injured or girdled by rodents 
or discaae. Any ragged or diseased edges should be 
cleanly cut away, a longitudinal slit should be made in 
the bark, both above and below the wound, and the 
edges of the slits loosened slightly. A cion should then 
be cut 2 or 3 inches longer than the space to be bridged, 
one side beveled off at both ends (Fijj. 1672), and 
inserted in the slits, its beveled face against the wood 



GRAFTING 



GRAFTING 



1363 



} 



ci the trunk. In order to guard against any accidental 
difiplacement it would be well to drive a small tack or 
nau through each end of the cion, which, however, 
must not be split in the operation. Other cions in a 
like manner may be inserted at intervals of about 2 
inches over the enture injiured surface. The ends of the 
cions should be covered witii wax but it is not neces- 
sary to cover all the bridged portion of the trunk. If 
the tree operated upon is small and likely to weave 
in the wind it should be tied firmly to a strong stake as 
such movements might tear apart the tender uniting 
surfaces." 

Cions are sometimes inserted freelv in the stub left 
by a large broken limb, for the double purpose of pro- 
viding other shoots to take the place of the branch and 
of facilitating the healing of tne wound. Sometimes 
cions are inserted in limbs on a one-sided or misshapen 
tree for the purpose of securing better growth on that 
side, the variety perhaps being the same as that of the 
tree itself. 

Another reason for grafting is to produce some radical 
change in the nature of the cion, as rendering it more 
dwait, more fruitful, or otherwise changing its ht^it. 
StiU another office is to adapt plants to adverse soils 
or climates. An example is the use of the peach root in 
the southern states upon which to work the plum, as 
the peach thrives better than the plum in sandy soils. 
The prsu;tice in Russia of working the apple on roots 
of the Siberian crab is an example of an em)rt to make 
a plant better able to withstand a very severe climate. 

In general, however, grafting is employed for the 
purpose of multiplying or perpetuating a given variety, 
mostly of woody plants. It is used with plants that 
do not bear seeds, or in which the seeds do not come 
true or are difficult to germinate, or when the plants do 
not propagate well by cuttings or layers. It is also 
employed to increase the ease and speed of multipljring 
pl^ts. 

In common practice, the effect of the stock on the 
oion is rather more mechanical or physical than physio- 
logical or chemical. The influences are very largely 
those associated with ^ater or less growth. As a rule, 
each part of the combmed plant — the stock and cion — 
maintains its individuality. There are certain cases, 
however, in which the cion seems to partake of the 
nat\ire of the stock; and others in which the stock par- 
takes of the nature of the cion. There are reconled 
instances of a distinct change in the flavor of fruit when 
the cion is put upon stock that bears fruit of very dif- 
ferent character. There are some varieties of apples and 
pears which, when worked on a seedling root, tend to 
change the nabit ofgrowth of that root. Examples are 
Northern Spv and Whitney apples, which, when grafted 
on a root of imknown parentage, tend to make that 
root grow very deep in the soil. All these instances seem 
to be special cases, or exceptions to the general rule 
that each part maintains its individuality. Reasons 
for this change of nature in these cases have not been 
determined, and in most cases such results are not to 
be predicted. The most marked effect of stock on the 
cion is a dwarfing influence. Dwarfing may be expected 
whenever the stock is of a smaller stature than the 
cion. The most familiar example is the dwarf pear, 
made by working the pear on quince stock. Supplying 
a plant with a slow-growing root is only the banning 
of the making of a dwarf. The plant must be kept 
dwarf by subsequent pruning and other care. There is 
comparatively little demand for large-growing forms 
of woody plants, whereas there is much demand for 
dwarf fonxis. See Dwarfing^ pace 1082. 

The limits within which grafting can succeed are to 
be determined only by experiment. These limits are 
often within the species, and usually within the genus, 
but there are instances in which plants of distinct genera 
intergraft with, success, as in some of the cacti. In 
general, the closer the affinity of cion and stock, the 



better the union. When stock of the same species can 
not be secured, it is allowable to chose another species. 
Thus it was for a time impossible to secure Japanese 
plum stocks upon which to grow the varieties of Japan- 
ese plums, and peach, Marianna, myrobalan and 
domestica plum stocks have been used, and are used to 
this day. In some cases another species grows more 
readily from seed, is cheaper, is less liable to fungous 
iniury in the nursery, or has some other practical 
advantage. Thus, most domestica plums (Prunfia 
domestica) in the North are worked on the myrobalan 
(P. cerasifera) ; many sweet and sour cherries (Prunus 
Aviitm and P, Ceraaua) are worked on the mahaleb 
(P. Mahaleb); many kinds of roses are worked on 
manetti and Rosa muUiihra stocks. 

From time to time there arises an agitation against 
grafting, particularly in the Old World. Cases of poor 
unions and the difficulties of sprouting from the root or 
stock are cited as proofs that graftage is injurious and 
devitalizing. But these are examples of poor results. 
They show what should not be done. Properly per- 
formedj on plants of proper affinity, graftage is not 
devitalizing. It is essential to modem norticulture. 

The ways or fashions of grafting are le^on. There 
are as many ways as there are ways of whittling. The 
operator may fashion the union of the stock and the 
cion to suit himself^ if only he apply cambium to cam- 
bium, make a close joint, and properly protect the work. 
Thus, Thouin in his "Monoj^raphie des Greffes," 1821, 
describes 119 kinds of graftmg. All kinds of grafting 
may be classified into three groups: 

1. Bud-graftinK or buddmjg^. In the old days called inoculation. 

2. Cion-^rafting, or what la now thought of as grafting proper. 

3. Grafting by t^proach, sometimes called inarching. 

Early practice. 

Grafting is one of the oldest of the arts of plant-craft. 
It is probu)le that the real art of grafting was held more 
or less as a professional or class secret in the ancient 
world, for the writers seem to have only the vaguest 
notion of its possibilities and limitations. Virgil writes 
(Preston's translation) : 

But thou shalt lend 
Grafts of rude arbute unto the walnut tree* 
Shalt bid thS unfruitful plane sound apples^ bear. 
Chestnuts l^e beech, the ash blow white with the pear, 
Andt under the elm, the sow on acorns fare. 

It seems to have been a popular misconception that 
any kind of plant will grow on anv other. Plmy disserts 
that the art of grafting was taught to man by nature. 
Birds swallow seeds, and these seeds, falling in ''some 
cleft in the bark of a tree," germinate and make plants. 
"Hence it is that we see the cherry growing upon the 
willow, the plane upon the laurel, the laurel upon the 
cherry, and fruits of various tints and hues all spring- 
ing from the same tree at once." This, of course, is not 
grafting at all, but the implanting of seeds in earth- 
filled chinks and cracks, in which the plants find a con- 
genial foothold and soil. But the ancients have left us 
abundant testimony that genuine grafting was em- 
ployed with success. Pliny describes a cleft-graft. He 
gives several precautions: the stock must be ''that of a 
tree suitable for the purpose," and the graft must be 
"taken from one that is proper for grafting; the incision 
or cleft must not be made in a knot; the graft must be 
from a tree "that is a good bearer, and from a young 
shoot;" the ^aft must not be sharpened or pointed 
"while the wmd is blowing;" "a graft should not be 
used that is too full of sap, no, by Hercules! no more 
than one that is dry and parched; "it is a point most 
religiously observed, to insert tiie graft during the 
moon's increase." 

Herein are seen the beginnings of the grafting 
practices of the present day, together with some prac- 
tices of layering. Sharrock treated the whole subject of 



n way of grafting." The practice which w 
now know as inarching or grafting by approach, he sig* 
nificantly calls "Ablactation" (that is, sudbltn; or wean- 
ing). Now that BO much ia said about the proper and 



be cut or pyon or Mock for whifHE^tin^. 

!w cut of n'DD Mid stock for Bhoulder-cnftiar^ 

u cut of the crou. uid alit of the itack for gnltint in the 



}r mbUelatioa or ^^troach. 
s brvQch for- the eamc ooerat 
t ia to be taken off b] 



le dirtHirked place. 



1073. 

careful selection of cions, it is int«r«8ting to read Shar- 
rock's advice on this subject: "Good bearing treee are 
made from Cyons of the like fruitfulncss. . . . Cyons 
are beet chosen from the fairest, strongest shuits, not 
from under shoota or Buckers, which will be long ere 
they bear fruit, which ia contrary to the intention of 
graftinK." But we hove seen that Pliny gave aimilar 
advice before the Christian era, — ^which is only another 
illustration of the fact that moet of our current notions 
have their roots deep in the past. 

The accomponyiii cut (PiR. 1673) reproduced two- 
thirds size from Robert Sharrock's "History of the Prop- 
agation and Improvement of Vegetables," 1672, shows 
various kinds of grafting in vogue over two centuries 
ago. Following is the literal explanation of the plate: 
a. Denolcs the ordioaiy cuttinc of the bark for inoculation. 

66. The sidesof the hark, hfted up for the putting m of the ahield. 
t The ahield taken oS wilh the bud. which lies under tho atalk 



» the stock to be b> 






Budding. 

The operation of budding consists of inserting a 
Bingle detached bud underneath the bark of the stock. 
It la employed only in sUicks of small diameter, and 
preferably in those not more than one year old. The 
operation may be performed whenever the bark will 
peel and whenever mature buds may be secured. The 
bark will peel in early spring and again in late summer 
or early autumn, and the operation of budding in the 
open ground is therefore performed at thoee tiroes. Id 
the spring the buds are secured from twigs of the pre- 
vious season's growth. At the second budding aeason. 
in late summer or early autumn, the buds are secured 
from growing twigs of the season. At that time of the 
year the buds will be sufficiently developed to bo 
easily recognized and handled. 

Buddinj! is much employed in nurseries. Peaches, 
cherries, pluma, and most stone fruits, are b^itually 
budded rather than cion-grafted. In the East, apples 
and pears are usually budded in the nursery; but in 
the West apples at least are usually root-jgraft«d. 
Third-rate stocks are sometimes set in nursery rows and 
budded the following July. 

It is practicable to insert buds rather than cions in 
the tops of young trees, for the purpose of changing the 
tree into a different variety. Sometimes the buds are 
inserted in limbs two and three years old; but it is 
usually preferable, if the tree is of some age, 
to cut back the tree somewhat heavily the /! 

previous season or the previous spring, to get JH 
a growth of suckers into which the buds may u/ 

The cutting from which the buds are taken 
is known to buddera as a stick (Fig. 1674). In 
early spring-budding, this stick is the hist 
year's growth of the variety which it is desired 
to propagate. Later in the season, the stick is 
the twig ETOwn in that season. Not oU the 
buds on tne stick are strong enough or good 
enough for budding. The budder will usually 
discard the weak ones at the top and at the 
bottom, unless he is very much pressed for 
buds, as may be the case with new or rare 
varieties. If the stick is taken late in the sea- 
son the leaves will be on; but these are quickly 
cut off to prevent too much evaporation from 
the cutting. About *4 "^*'^ °f 'he leaf-stalk is 
left to serve as a handle to the bud. 

Shield-inidding. 

The ordinary operation of buddine is shown 
in the illustrations. Ifis known as shield-bud- 
ding, from the shape of the removed bud. 
With a thin-bloded, sharp knife, the operator 
slices off the bud by placing his thumb 
beneath the bud and makmg a deft and quick 
stroke of the blade. Just under the bud he 
cuts a little into the wood. Some budders 
afterward remove this bit of wood; but this is 
not essentiai. If this wood is somewhat hard 
and dry, or if it carries some pith, it may then 
serve to dry out the bud or to prevent inti- 




GRAFTING 

laeXe contact with the cambium of the stock. In ordin- 
ary operationB this truncheon ot wood ia not removed. 
Moet budden cut all the buda on a stick before they 
insert any at ihem; but they are allowed to hang to 
the stick by their upper ends, being 
snipped off W the knife aa fast as they 

follows on the re- 
quirements in 
budding citnie 
fruits <Bull. 
No. 27, Bur. 
Agric., Philip- 
pine Isls.), and 
the directions 
will apply to 
other plants; 
and He givee 
pictures (FigB. 
1675, 1676) of 
part of the 
manual opera- 
tion: "Many 
^ people are un- 
der the impression that bu'dding 
is a very complicated operation, 
correspondingly difficult to learn 
and to perform. As a matter of 
fact this is not true. Some judg- 
ment must of course be exercised 
in all phases of the work, but the 
art of budding itself ia a mere 
matter of manual skill that anyone should be able to 
master who is at ail deft in the handling of a knife. 
Necessary essentials for succesB are: (1} Stock plants 
in condition for budding; i. e., the flow of sap must 
be good BO that the bark separates readily from the 
woM. (2) A suitable budding-knife, the edge of which 
should be sharp and keen as a 
and clean of all impuri- 
n ordinary pocket-knife will 
hardly answer the purpose. (3) 
Proper bud-wood ; immature bud- 
wixnI will not 'take' and the proper 
cuttii^ of buds from old and bard 
bud -wood is 
difficult. ( 4 ] 
The bud-wood 
should never 
be allowed to 
dry out by be- 
ing exposed to 



GRAFTING 



1365 




TbebudahoiJd 
be cut so that 
there is no break or tear in its tis.'nies." 

The stock is first prepared by removing all the leaves 
and twigs from the area to be budded. In the case of 
nursery stock, it is customary for a boy to strip 
the lower leaves of the stock a day or so in advance 
of the budding. If the stripping ia done three or ^ 
four days or a week before the budding, it will 
sometimes cause the bark to set and, therefore, 
interfere with the operation. Nursery trees are 



usually budded as near the pound as the operator can 
work — not more than 2 or 3 mches above the surface. 
In moet cases, the budder prefers to set the bud on 
the north aide of the stock, that it may be shaded from 
the hot sun. 

A T-ehaped incision, just through the bark, is made 
on the stock (Fig. 1677). The crosswise incision is 
usually made first. As the operator takes his knife 
from the last incision, he gives it a deft turn to right and 
left and loosens the flaps of the bark, so that the bud 
is easily inserted. The bud is now taken from the 
stick and shoved into the matrix underneath the bark 
until it is entirely within the cleft (Fig, 1678). A boy 
follows and ties tlie bud, making four or five deft turns 
and holding the strand by covering the lower end undei^ 
neath one of the turns (Fig. 1679). No wax or other 
mastic is used. Any soft strand may be employed 
for the tying. It was the old custcm to use base- 



I 



tied. 

wood bark, which was taken in the spring from the 
inner layers of the bark of the basswood tree. This 
material was then macerated in water and afterward 
pounded to make it stj't. Yam is ^so used. At present, 
raffia is universally employed. This is the stripping of 
an oriental palm, and it can be bought in the market 
and is cheaper than home-made materials; it is also 
better. It is customary to lay it on the pound or in a 
damp place over night to soften it and to allow the 
operate^' to flatten out the strands. This raffia is cut 
in the length to suit before the tying is begun, and the 
bunch of strands is then held underneath the belt or 
carried in a box. For buddins, the operator prefers a 
small, thiu-bladed knife, with a rounded or thumb- 
shaped cutting surface (Fig. 1680). Budding knives 
are regularly on the market. 

When budding is performed late in the season, the 
bud does not throw out a shoot until the following 
spring. It merely grows fast or "sticks" to the stock. 
Two or three weel« after the setting of the bud, the 
bandage is cut so that it will not restrict the swelling of 
the stock. If the stock dowb very rapidly, it may be 
necessary to cut the bandage before that tune. Noth- 
ing more is done with the tree until the following ppring, 
at which time the whole tree is cut off about 1 inch above 
the bud. This one bud now throws out a ahoot and 



L the height of 4 to 6 feet, and be ready for 
market in autumn. If the bud is set early in the 
spring it wilt throw out a shoot the same season; but 
ordinarily it would not make the growth in one season 
that the bud docs in the other case. Spring-budding in 
the open air is rarely employed in nurserj' practice. It 
is sometimes used m the top-budding of estabhshed 



IMO. BnddiBc knit*. ( 



5 loots. In &I1 budding practices, it is important to keep 
own the suckers from the stock. 
In the South, a peach tree may be large enough in 
June, if the seeds are planted in February or Mar^, to 
be budded. The bud will grow the same year, and by 



1081. 

autumn will make a salable tree. This operation of bud- 
ding Id early summer on stocks which ffow that year is 
known as June-budding. As a rule," June-budded trees 
are smaller than fall-budded trees; but they can be 
secured one year sooner. 
OiAar forms of bvddini;. 

There are many ways of shaping the bud. These 
modes may have distinct advantage in certain plants, 
because of the way in which the bark holds iU ^pe, 
of the relation to the drying out of the parte, and 
otherwise. 

The rectangular-patch method is illustrated by Shar- 

rock (4, g, m, Fie. 1673), It is recently described by 

Oliver as one of toe successful methods of propagating 

the manmi (BuUetin No. 46, Bur. 

1. Dcpt. Agric): "The 

ire from Sharrock's 

idding as used in the 

n^ at the present time 

., mstead of being taken 

■wth, must be sclecl^d 

from wood old enough 



16(2. Tlia rMtancnlu 
pfttch-bud frowioc. 



two years old. The 

use of bark of this 

age and even older 

insures bucc«sb in 

budding the mango, 

as it unites rapidly 

Lrk of a similar age on 

[ stocks or on branches 

I. To a certain extent 

depends upon the pre- 

rith which the section 

. is removed from the 

id also from the variety 

ropagatod, aa the more 

,he mid section is fitted 

e space prepared for It 

iter the probabilitv of a 

ul union <Fig. 1681). 

After the section of bark from 

the bud-stick is nicely fitted in 



GRAFTING 

place, and before tying, a small quantity of grafting- 
wax should be smeared over the parts where they come 
together and tied firmly in place with thick strands of 
raffia. This effectually prevents the adjnission of air 
to the spaces which, no matter how carefully the 
operation be performed, exist between stock and cion; 
it also serves to prevent moisture from gaining access 
to the cut surfaces. The cut surfaces uid all out tbe 
bud should then be covered 
with strips of cloth dipped in 
melted paraffin, wrapping be- 
ing begun at the k)wer part, 
so that when finished water 
will not gain entrance to the 
wrapped section of bark. If 
that part of the stock where 
the bud is tied be exposed to 
the Bun, it is always advisable 
to furnish shade which is'best 
supplied bv strips of paper 
tiM above toe bud and extend- 
ing down over it. Two weeks 
may be allowed to pass before 
an examination is made. The 
cloth wrappings may then be 
removed and the raffia should 
be loosened if there is danger of 

its cutting into the bark. When luj. Sfada-buddiat. 
a sufficient time has elapsed to 

make certain that a union has taken place, part of the 
top of the stock should be removed in order to encour- 
age the bud to start. This it will do with very little 
coaxing. When sufficient growth has been made, all 
of the stock above the bua may be removed and the 
cut part coated with liquid grafting-wax or tar to 
exclude moisture and prevent rotting." Fig. 1682 
shows the successful growth of the patch-bud. 

The spade-shaped bud, shown in Fig. 1683, has been 
employed with the mango and other plcmts. The 
pointed end makes it possible, according to Oliver, 
"to push the bark of the cion down tight against the 
bark of the stock; the top part is then cut oET square 
with the transverse cut in the bark of the stock, and ia 
pressed firmly into position previous to tying and wax- 
ing in the usual way," These two forms of budding are 
given here only for the purpose of illustrating inter- 
esting methods, and not necessarily to advise their use. 

Improved methods of budding the pecan have been 
developed in Texas by 
Charles L. Edwards. He 
prefers spring-set buds, as 
they have the whole grow- 
ing season before them and 
make salable trees by au- 
tumn. The summer - bud 
makes only a start before 






•' of 
them remain dormant till 
spring, and not a few dry 
out and perish. One method 
is shown in Figs. 1634, 16S5. 
The stocks are cut off bodily, 
and straight aciona. A silt 
is then made in the bark at 
the top (A), and the baik 
opened to receive the bud. 
The buds are cut Uke shield- 
buds for peaches and plums 
{B, front and back views), 
but in addition, the bark 
is cut away from the lower 
end of the bud (C), reduc- 
ing it to a point eo it will 
slip into placeea8ily(D), By 
removing the thick rim of 
bark from the Iowct end of 



GRAFTING 

the bud,' the sap from the stock will enter it easily, and 
force it into iimnediat« growth, whether put on in early 
spriug or as late as September. At E the bud is shown 
in place, and the flaps pared. To put on the wrapper, 
use an oblong little square of 
waxed cloth with an eyelet in the 
middle for the bud to emerge from 
(F). In preparing the cloth for 
theae wrappers, use only beeswax, 
not graftmg-wax for this pur- 
pose. Be sure to tie on the wrap- 
pers firmly, and see also that they 
cover the entire top of the stock, 
leaving no part of the wounds 
made oy toe knife uncovered. 
A modified shield-bud is used 
by Edwards. In Fig. 1686, the 
|Wt marked A shows the outside 
and inside of the bud as com- 
monly made for the pecan; B 
shows the thick rim of baric at 
the lower end. The modificatioa 
1686. ModiOsd consists in trimming away the 

■hield-bnd. lower end, as at C; abo in parins 

away part of the flap, as at u. 
At E is the regular slit: F, the bark opened to receive bud; 
D, waxed wrapper; H, wrapper tied on. See Pecan. 

Proper time ta bud. (Hedrick.) 

Inasmuch as the various kinds of trees used as stocks 
for budding vary greatly in lenzth of their growing 
season, it naturally follows that the time during which 
they may be budded will vary accordingly. In a nor- 
mal season, the figures for New York ore about as 
follows: 

KoM. July I to July 10. 

Pe»T July 10 W July 15. 

AppJa July 15 to AuguAt 1. 

Plum <St. Juliau ■toslcl Ju^ 15 to Aukum 1. 

Plum (Mvrobuliui Block] Aucuit 15 to September I. 

Cbeny |Ms«»Hi tioelt) July 20 to Amiiet 1. 

Chenr (MsliHlsb nock) Ausuat 20 to September 1. 

Quiuee July 2S to AusuM IS. 

Feuh August 20 to Septembei 10. 

Grsftiiig. 

Graftii^ proper is the operation of inserting a twig 

or a woody cion into a stock. They may be clarified in 

respect to the place or position of the cion on the stock : 



GRAFTING 



1367 



Root-grafting, or the insertion of the cion in the root 
of the stock; 

Crown-grafting, or the insertion of the cion at the 
cro«Ti (surface of the ground); 

Stem^af ting, or the insertion of the cion in any part 
of the main stem or trunk; 



Top-grafting, or the insertion of the cion in the top or 

branches of the plant. 

Grafting may again be classified in respect to the 
maturity of the cion: dormant wood grafting; and soft- 
wood or herbaceous grafting, in which the cion is taken 
from green or growing wood. 

It is customaiy to classify grafting on the way in 
which the union is made. There are few general types 
in common use in this country: as cleft^^ting, whip- 
graftii^, veneer-grafting (side-grafting, Eark-grafting). 

CUft-grafting. 

Clcftricrafting consists in splitting the stock and 
inserting a wedge-shaped cion into the cleft. It is 



IflM. Oaa wv ol cMt-ftnf dot u old tta«. 

employed only in rather large stocks, preferably in 
those an inch or more in diameter. The stock is cut off, 
and it is split with a knife or tool made for the purpose. 
The cleft is then held onen by a wedge and the cions are 
inserted in the aide of the cleft in such position that the 
cambiums of the stock and cion are m contact (Fig. 
1687). The whole surface is then securely waxed, to 
prevent evaporation and to protect the wounds from 
the sun (Fig. 1688). C left-grafting is, performed in 
early spring. The cions are tsiken some time previously 
from the l^t ye^s shoots. They are stored in a ceU^ 
or other cool place in order that they may be perfectly 
dormant. It is customary to cut them of three buds' 
len^h; but if the shoot is very long-jointed and if the 
vanety is new or rare and the wood therefore scarce, 
they may be made of one or two buds. The wed^ 
shaped part should be somewhat thicker on the outside 
so that it may be clasped tightly in the cleft (Fig. 1689). 
It is customary to have one bud near the top of the 
wedge. Although this bud is covered with wax, it is the 
most hkely to grow, since it is nearest the source of 
food-supply and is less injured by external conditions. 
It pushes through the wax. It is customary to in.<)ert 
two cions in all stocks, even though only one branch is 
desired. By inserting two cions, the chances of suc- 
cess are doubled, and the wounds heal better if a twig 
grows on either side. After a year or two, one of the 
ciona may be cut off if desired. 

Cleft-grafting Is the method usually employed in the 
top-grafting of fruit trees, as apples, pears, plums and 
cherries. Old peach trees are rarely cnat^^ over to a 



1368 GRAFTING 

new vuiety. If they are, budding is employed, as 
already eu^geated; the limbB are h<»Lded back so that 
new wood is secured in which the buds may be set. It 
is Important, in all top-working of fruit trees, to keep 
down the suckers which spring up around the 
cion, and which sometimes completely choke 
it. In changing over the top of a fruit tree, all 
the leading braachea should be grafted (rig. 
1690). It is well to stand at some distance 
from the tree and make a mental picture of 
bow the tree will look when the new top ia 
secured : the eraita should be set in approxi- 
mately a raJius from the center of the tree. 
It is rare that the stock should be larger than 
2 inches in diameter where the cions are set. 
On some of the main branches it may be 
neceasaiy to graft side branches lower down 
in order to fiU the top and to afford footholds 
to pickers and pruners. It will require from 
three lo four years to change, over a tree in 
full bearing to a new variety. Each 
^ear a little more of the original top 
IS removed, and the cions take m( 
md more of the space. 

GraXting-wax is of many kini 
but the most serviceable for appl 
ing with the hands in the open i 
is made by melting together o 

Kund (by weight) of rendered ti 
V, two parts of beeswax and fo 
parts of resin. The melted liquid 
' poured into a pail or tub of wai 
when it immediately 
hardens. It is then pulled 
until it is Ught-colored 
and devekips a grain. 
It is then put away for 
future use, and will keep 
indefinitely. When the 
wax is used, the warmth 
miui. "^ ^^ hands will cause it 
to soften. The hands 
should be greased to prevent it 
from sticking. 

For a softer wax, more tallow 
may be used; or linseed oil may 

be substituted, but because of _ 

adulteration of the oil 

the results are not always rehable. 

Alcoholic waxes, or plastics, are some- 
times made, to be applied with a brush or 
swab; on appUcatlon, the alcohol disappears 
and tiie material hardens. A standard for- 
mula (Lefort's) is; best white resin, one 
pound; beef ttUlow, one ounce | melt, then 
: from fire and add eight ounces 



n 



Whip- 



iS*' 



U0L Itaa frown fr 






F turpentine is 



Whip-ffraflinff, 
Whip^^rafting, or tongue-grafting, is em- 
* ployed in the nureery and on vciy small 
stocks. It is not used in top-erafting 
?pt now and then on small limbs. 
! cion and stock should be of 
approximately equal size. Each is 
cut off in a slanting direction, and a 
split or tongue is mode near the 
middle. The same shape is given to 
cion and stock. The pictures suflieieiitly 
illustrate how the work is done. (F^. 
1691-1693). The object of Ihe tongue is to 
IHZ Whip- hold the parts together securely; it also 
cnfiibefon presents more contact. The cion ' " 
wuinc. bound to the stork, preferably by 






„ the string. If the 

graft is below grouna, the tie will be all that is neces- 
sary: the moist earth packed around the wound. will 
prevent cv&poration and protect it. 

The chief use of the whip-graft is in 
root'^afting, which is emploved largely 
on apples and mostly at the West. In the 
East, other things being equal, budded 
apple trees are preferred to root-grafted 
trees. In the West, however, it is neces- 
sary to have apple trees on roots of known 
hanliness. The aecdliog stocks are not of 
known hardiness, even though the seeds 
have come from the hardiest varieties. It 
is therefore customary to use cions d to 
12 inches long, grafted on pieces of roots 
"" - 4 inches long. (Fig. 1693.) The 



piece of root acts as a nurse, and roots 
may start from the cion itself. (Fig. 
1694.) When the tree is transferred to 
the orehard, the original root may be 
cut off in ease it is not very vigorous; 
although this is not done if the union 
seems to be Rood and the foster roots 
are strong. This root-grafting is done 



sawdust, sand or 

and are set in nursery rows in the ojien 

early in the sprii^, after the manner of 

grape-cuttings. 

The waxed string, with which 
the whip-Krafts are tied, may be 
— r-'' made by aroppinf; a ball of yam 
into melted graftin^-wax. In five 
j*?''^ minutes the wax will have pene- 
^ tratcd the ball, but the strand 
^ con readily be unwound. The best 

material for this purpose is No. 
18 knitting-cotton. This is strong 
enough to hold the work together, 
and vet weak enough so that it 
may be broken in the hands with- 
out cutting the fingeiE. It will 
ordinarily decay durmg the year, 
and thereby not interfere witn the growth of the tree. 
If the grafting is performed in a room at a living tem- 
perature, the waxed string should be soft enough to 
stick to the stock without being tied. Four or five 
turns are made around the union. Waxed manilla 
paper, cut in narrow strips, is also used; also single 
strand cotton "chain" or warp-thread, either waxed 
or not waxed. 

Any sharp knife with a handle large enough to be 
(mtsped readily is useful for whip-grafting. T^ blade 
uioiud be thin, and the etcel of best quahty. The handle 
should also be strong. Fig. 1695 shows a common form 



stone should beni 



IMS. Gnftlnf4nit«. (XH) 

Veneer-grqfling. 

This style of erafting, which b considerably used 
under glass with fancy and orn