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Full text of "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists"

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I. The azalea walk. Magnolia, South Carolina 

THE 0/1 





Illustrated with Colored Platen, Four Thousand Engravings in the Text, 
and Ninety-six Full -page (.'uts 



PAGES 1-602. FIGS. 1-700 




The rights of reproduction and of translation are strictly reserved 





Set Up and Electrotyped. Published March 25, 1914 
Reprinted May, 1917; March. 1019 

, DEPT. 

.fOouiit Pleasant Prrss 


FOURTEEN years ago the present Editor wrote the preface to Volume I of the 
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. The purpose of that work was "to make 
a complete record of the status of North American horticulture as it exists at 
the close of the nineteenth century;" it was the effort to include "all the species 
which are known to be in the horticultural trade,." together with outlines of "the horti- 
cultural possibilities of the various states, territories and provinces," to present bio- 
graphical sketches of eminent American horticulturists not then living, and in general 
to discuss the cultivation and handling of horticultural crops. In the preface to Volume 
IV of that work the Editor expressed the hope that the Cyclopedia would never be 
revised: "If new issues are called for, mere errors should be corrected; but beyond this, 
the plates should be left as they are," for it was the purpose of the book that it should 
stand as a, measure of that time. The different volumes have been separately reprinted, 
but about eight complete re-issues of that Cyclopedia have been made, with such 
corrections of errors as have been reported; in one restricted edition, published by 
Doubleday, Page & Co., the same work was bound in six volumes, together with an 
enlarged preface and' a key to the families and genera. 

The present Cyclopedia, although founded on the former compilation, is a new work 
with an enlarged scope. While the older work will no longer be published, it neverthe- 
less stands by itself; and the two should be quoted as independent cyclopedias. The 
geographical boundaries are wider in the present work, due to the fact that the United 
States and Canada have both acquired new tropical connections and interests in recent 
years. It has not been the effort to cover completely the horticultural floras of Porto 
Rico, Hawaii, and other islands, for that would involve the tropical flora of the 
globe; but it is the intention to include the most outstanding species grown in a horti- 
cultural way in those islands. A fuller treatment has also been given of the plants grown 
in southern Florida, southern California, and the other southernmost areas of the 
continental United States. 

The treatment in the former Cyclopedia was confined closely to species in "the 
trade," to those plants "sold in the United States and Canada." The present work 
accepts this basis in general, for the lists of nurserymen, seedsmen, and fanciers indicate 
very closely the plants that actually are grown, and it would manifestly be impossible as 
well as undesirable to include all the plants that may be found in botanic gardens, or in 
the grounds of specialists and amateurs who collect specimens from original sources, 
or those introduced for purposes of experiment or test or only for scientific study; 
but "the trade" is interpreted more liberally in this work, to include the offerings of 


.107 "7 1 1 


many European dealers because those dealers supply American customers, to account 
for species mentioned prominently in European horticultural periodicals as well as in 
American periodicals, and to insert such plants as are known to be subjects of exchange 
or to be frequently in cultivation in any region, even though their names may not be 
found in a commercial list. While it is intended to account for all the species in the 
trade, it is not intended to name the garden varieties; for the variety lists change too 
rapidly for discussion in cyclopedic works. The mention of varieties in the leading 
group-articles is more a matter of record than of recommendation. 

Care has been exercised to exclude species that are evidently not now of interest 
to horticulturists, even though their names may be found in the literature; for the 
introduction of many dead entries would not only violate the purpose to make a current 
record, but would make the books too voluminous and would confuse the student with 
too many names and details. It is desired that the treatment shall be contemporaneous, 
and that it shall be rescued as far as desirable from the older glasshouse method of 
transatlantic work. The Cyclopedia aims to account for the plants horticulturally 
grown within its territory which are now the subjects of living interest or likely to be 
introduced, to discuss the best practices in the growing of the staple flower and fruit 
and vegetable crops, to depict the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces, 
to indicate the literature of the field, and incidentally to portray briefly the lives of 
the former men and women who have attained to a large or a national reputation in 
horticultural pursuits. 

The method in the Cyclopedia, in other words, turns about two purposes, the 
identification of species, and the cultivation of plants. Both are essential to an 
understanding of horticulture. The former lends itself readily to usual cyclopedic 
treatment; the latter expresses itself as a manual of practice. The combination pro- 
duces an irregular literary product, but it is hoped that the result is not inharmonious. 

The cultural details involve special difficulties. The North American continent 
presents so many conditions that advice for outdoor work cannot be too specific in a 
work of this kind without leading to serious mistakes. What is advised by a good 
grower in one place may be contradicted by a good grower in another place. Even in 
under-glass treatment, in which conditions are largely artificial, difficulties often arise 
in trying to apply in America the instructions given for European practice. It is not 
possible for one to grow plants by a book; in this work the cultural details are not 
directions so much as statements of standard practice: this practice will need to be 
considerably modified in many cases if the best result for special conditions or objects 
is to be secured. In the former Cyclopedia the culture was often presented by two 
persons of unlike experiences for the express purpose of meeting the needs of amateurs ; 
but readers seem to think this to be confusing and the practice has not been followed 
in the present work. However, special effort has been made to secure the best cultural 
advice for the plants requiring peculiar or particular handling, and this advice will be 
found in the discussion of the different crops and plants under their respective heads; 



and in addition many practical class-articles have been prepared for the aid of the 
cultivator and designer. These class-articles are mostly as follows: 

Alpine Plants 




Arlx) return 




Basket Plants 






Botanic Garden 



( ciiiservatory 

Culinary Herbs 

Cut-Flower Industry 


Design, Floral 

Diseases and Insects 



Evaporating Fruit 







Florists' Plants 












Hotbeds and Coldframes 








Machinery and Implements 










Seeds and Seedage 
Walks, Drives and Path- 
Watering [ways 

There is marked growth in outdoor horticulture in North America. The largest 
extension in the present Cyclopedia, so far as taxonomic work is concerned, is in the 
description of trees and shrubs. There is widespread interest in these subjects. We are 
beginning to realize our native resources in woody plants, to understand how to make 
use of our many climates and natural conditions; and to incorporate freely into our 
cultivated flora many of the trees and shrubs of China and other regions, under the 
stimulus of the Arnold Arboretum and other agencies. The resources of the Arboretum 
have been placed at the command of the Cyclopedia through the careful and original 
work of Alfred Rehder. Similar aids have been extended from other sources, and 
particularly from the Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction service of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

While hardy plants and outdoor gardening seem to be increasing rapidly in 
favor, there is a decided tendency toward the breaking-up of large fanciers' collections, 
in private establishments, of old-time glasshouse plants. It is now quite impossible, 
for example, to find in this country any large private collections of the species of 
begonias or of the varieties of camellias or of the show pelargoniums; orchid collections 
of notable extent are few. The demand of the trade is for relatively few species, and the 
commercial collections are mostly concerned with a few stock kinds and florists' plants, 
together with a small addition of annual novelties, rather than with the former long 
lists of many separate and interesting species and varieties. Even private places, 
especially private greenhouse's, are devoted very largely to cut-flowers and florists' 
plants. It is incumbent on a cyclopedia of this kind, however, to preserve the accounts 
of these begonias, orchids, palms, cacti, succulents, "stove plants," and others, even 
though many of them may be known to very few; and the Editor hopes that the 
amateur will regain his ascendancy and that collections of plants because they are 
plants may not perish from amongst us. 

There has been great extension in recent years in commercial floriculture and in the 


forcing of vegetables. We now think in terms of cropping under glass. The range of 
species of plants involved in these industries is relatively small, but the areas are large, 
the business is receiving the attention of able men and women, and the glasshouse 
industries are making important contributions to the lives of the people. The recent 
growth of the commercial fruit-growing industry is also notable. Once largely restricted 
to narrow regions and to "fruit belts," the growing of fruits for market has now 
assumed the proportions of a great industry comparable with the staple agricultural 
productions. An effort has been made to catch something of the spirit of all these 
large efforts, as well as to provide information and advice for the amateur and the 
home gardener. 

When the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture was made, there were few special- 
ists in the systematic botany of cultivated plants. The Editor hopes that the publica- 
tion of that Cyclopedia has contributed something to the acceleration of interest in this 
long-overlooked subject. Howbeit, the number of competent specialists, and of 
those intelligently interested in the subject, is now large enough to have enabled the 
Editor to cover many of the important groups. The cacti have been placed mostly in 
the hands of J. N. Rose; a number of tropical plants have been handled anew by 
W. E. Safford; the orchids, aroids and bromeliads by George V. Nash; euphorbiads 
by J. B. S. Norton; Citrus and related genera by Walter T. Swingle; Nymphseacese by 
H. S. Conard; the ferns by R. C. Benedict; most grasses by A. S. Hitchcock; special 
groups by Norman Taylor, chiefly among the composites, palms, and tender araliads; 
suggestions on cultivated forms and on cultivation have been contributed by C. P. 
Raffill, of the tropical department, Kew; the survey of families of plants and most 
of the editorial work on the general introductory key have been in the hands of 
K. M. Wiegand; and many small groups and special genera have found new treatment 
by persons who have given them careful study over a considerable period of time. 
The results of modern scientific studies are now beginning to be positively reflected in 
the identification of garden plants, and in the advice for the cultivation and handling 
of horticultural crops and products. With so many persons partaking, it is of course 
impossible to secure uniformity of taxonomic handling in the various groups, but the 
gain of having the contributions of specialists will abundantly offset this small 
technical disadvantage. 

And yet, it is true that very much of the work is necessarily compiled from litera- 
ture rather than constructed from a direct study of the plants themselves. There is no 
herbarium or other complete and authentic repository of all the species of plants sold by 
dealers. The best that can be done in very many cases is to accept the name appearing 
in a catalogue and to attach to it the most authentic or most adaptable description of 
a recognized botanical species of the same name; there is no telling whether the dealers' 
plant is properly determined or whether it represents the botanical species bearing the 
same name. It is impossible now to know how many wrong determinations, inaccurate 


and insufficient descriptions, and faulty judgments have been perpetuated from author 
to author through long series of years. All these matters must be worked out in years 
to come, when the horticultural plants in the various groups shall have been systemati- 
cally studied with care. The Editor repeats the hope expressed in the preface written 
fourteen years ago "that every entry in this book will be worked over and 
improved within the next quarter century." 

Many persons aside from the leading authors have contributed to the enterprise in 
the most helpful spirit. The Editor's daughter has borne much of the burden of the 
office and editorial detail. Gardeners, fruit-growers, florists, vegetable-growers, teachers 
and experimenters, botanists, and the printers, have responded with good fellowship 
and with something like patriotic pride. Their names will be recorded in the concluding 
volume; and the public that uses the book will reward them with its gratitude. 

Nor should the institutions that have afforded all these persons the opportunities to 
make their contributions be overlooked. Aside from those agencies already mentioned, 
the Cyclopedia is under special obligation for the use directly or indirectly of books and 
collections to Cornell University, the United States Department of Agriculture, the 
New York Botanical Garden, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, the Gray Herbarium, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations, and others. Seed merchants, nurserymen, and other 
commercial establishments of standing, have been very ready with suggestions and help. 

Many new illustrations have been added, representing the work of several artists. 
Most of the new work has been made by B. F. Williamson, New York City; F. Schuyler 
Mathews, Cambridge, Mass.; Miss M. E. Eaton, of the New York Botanical Garden; 
Mrs. M. W. Gill, Washington; C. H. L. Gebfert, Boston; and Miss Matilda Smith, of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, whose initials, will be recognized on the plates 
of the famous Botanical Magazine. By permission of Professor Sargent, much of the 
accurate and beautiful work of C. E. Faxon and others in Garden and Forest, a journal 
that was discontinued more than fifteen years ago and is now out of the market, has been 
adapted and made available for the present reader; record is made in the text of the 
pictures of species, at the places where they are used. Some of the work in the old govern- 
ment surveys of the great West has also been brought to the use of the general public. 

It is not wholly with satisfaction that one puts forth a work of this magnitude. The 
responsibility increases with the largeness of the enterprise, for users do not readily 
purchase new and corrected editions of a work of this extent. Every care has been 
taken to present an accurate and faithful account, and this is as far as the responsibility 
can extend. The Editor can not expect to make another cyclopedia of horticulture; 
but he hopes that these six volumes will comprise another step in the collecting, assort- 
ing and appraising of our horticultural knowledge. 



December 30, 1913. 





Index to the Synopsis . . ....... 78 


Index to the Key 137-147 

NAME-LIST: English equivalents of the Latin names of species .... 148-159 
GLOSSARY of usual botanical and horticultural technical words .... 160-170 
TEXT, A AND B 171-602 


Facing page 

I. The azalea walk, Magnolia, South Carolina (in color) . . Frontispiece 

II. Vegetation areas. Aquatic, marsh and upland floras, and showing the relation 

of farm lands ............ 18 

III. Desert vegetation. The giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) ; also bushes of Opuntia 

fulgida, and in the foreground the low fine growths of Bigelovia Harticegii . 42 

IV. Upland vegetation. Trees on a wind-swept plateau . 79 
V. Anemone coronaria, an old garden favorite ....... 171 

VI. A good example of aquatic gardening, with water-lilies and> iris . . 230 

VII. The flowers of the apple tree . . .313 

VIII. The York Imperial apple (in color) . . 331 

IX. Arboretum. Plantation of American oaks at the Arnold Arboretum; Solidayo 

canadensis underplanting .......... 352 

X. Arboriculture. Picea pungens, the Colorado blue spruce . . . 373 

XI. Arboriculture. A palm plantation, with Corypha umbraculifera in the foreground 389 

XII. Asparagus, variety Colossal ... . . . 412 

XIII. Bean. The bush lima (in color) ... ... 460 

XIV. Foliage begonias well grown in banks, with ferns and similar plants . . . 479 
XV. The American blackberry. The Agawam, about natural size .... 510 

XVI. Botanic garden. The formal garden of the Johns Hopkins University . . 523 

XVII. The arrangement of bouquets ..... ... 534 

XVIII. Canadian orchard development. The tidewater country in Xova Scotia . . 562 

XIX. Canadian orchard development. The bench lands of British Columbia . . 575 

XX. A border of hardy bulbs (in color) . . 594 


The main account of each genus, in large type and 
separate paragraph for each species, represents the 
plants probably now in cultivation or at least of major 

The "supplementary lists" in smaller type at the end 
' if the articles include names of plants not known to be 
in the trade but which may be mentioned in horticul- 
tural literature, and also such Latin-form names of 
the trade as are imperfectly understood and cannot be 
placed under their proper species. These parts are less 
critical finding-lists of other or extra species. 

The Cyclopedia undertakes to account for the 
species in cultivation within its territory to the close 
of the year 1912; but in practice the introductions are 
included to the date of the closing of the different 

The size-marks on the illustrations, as (x Vz), 
indicate the amount of reduction as compared with 
natural size, this scale being determined merely by 
measuring the flat diameter of a drawing and not 
representing bulk or perspective. 


The practice of the Cyclopedia of American Horti- 
culture in signing the leading and most important 
articles with the name of the author is here retained. 
The original author, so far as living or as he has desired, 
has revised or rewritten his articles for the present work. 
In very many cases, another person has now revised the 
articles, and the name of the reviser is indicated by a 
dagger (t). If the revision has amounted practically 
to a complete rewriting of the article, the original 
author's name may not appear, even though some small 
parts or features of the original article may be retained; 
this is for the purpose of safeguarding the original 
author as well as recognizing the work of the present 
author: the first Cyclopedia stands as the record of its 
own work. 

A name in parentheses, as "(G. W. Oliver)," at the 
close of a paragraph, indicates that the person is the 
author of that particular paragraph and of no other in 
the article. When a person is responsible for more than 
one paragraph in an article, his part is set off by a sepa- 
rate heading in such a way that it cannot be mistaken. 

It is desired to secure experts and specialists for the 
articles; when this has not been accomplished, the task 
of revision has fallen to the Editor. 

Effort has been made to bring the different parts of 
the work into as much uniformity of plan and treatment 
as is possible in an undertaking of this kind; references 
have been compared; proofs have been submitted to 
two or more persons in case of difficult or doubtful sub- 

jects; and the advice as to cultivation has been checked 
by practical growers. 


The nomenclature follows in the main the regu- 
lations of the "Vienna code," being the principles, 
adopted by the International Botanical Congress held 
in Vienna in 1905. This code was adopted by the 
International Horticultural Congress held at Brussels 
in 1910, with adaptations to horticultural practice. 
When no combination has yet been made under the 
Vienna code, the prevailing usage for the particular 
genus (as expressed in latest monographs) is followed. 
That is, there is no attempt to reduce all names to one 
system except so far as combinations have already 
been made under the international rules, both because 
a cyclopedia of horticulture is hardly the place in 
which to make original combinations (except inci- 
dentally), and because there is little likelihood that 
any of the formal systems will have permanency. The 
subject of nomenclature, and the attitude of the Editor, 
will be discussed under "Names and Nomenclature" 
in Vol. IV. Botanical names should not be changed 
lightly, or for the purpose of regularizing any particular 
scheme or plan, or to make them always conform to 
an arbitrary set of rules. Botanical names do not be- 
long to botanists, to do with them as they will. The 
public has good rights in these names; and this is par- 
ticularly true in the names of cultivated plants, for they 
may then have standardized commercial value. The 
only stability, of course, is usage; and usage can rarely 
be forced into hard-and-fast regulations. In this Cyclo- 
pedia, the interest is in stability of names rather than 
in priority of nai.ies; therefore it accepts the principle of 
the "noniina conservanda" of the Vienna code, so far as 
it retains generic names that have been established in 
general usage for fifty years following their publication, 
even though the particular names in that list may not 
have been adopted in every instance. 

Not all the changes in names arise from the applica- 
tion of rules of nomenclature. Many of them are the 
results of taxonomic studies, which make new definitions 
for genera and species. In this Cyclopedia, there are 
marked examples of such changes in the citrus genera, 
in the cacti, and other groups. These changes are to 
be expected as a result of closer studies of the various 
groups, of accumulation of specimens from many 
regions, and the progressive modification of views as 
to the constitution of genera and species; they are 
expressions of a living botany. Such changes will be 
particularly demanded in horticultural plants, for 
most of these groups have not yet been studied with 
critical care. 





Attention is called to the fact that the names of 
genera and species in this work are marked to indicate 
the accepted pronunciation. The indications are accent 
marks placed over a vowel. The accent designates (1) 
stress, or the emphatic syllable, and (2) the length of 
the emphatic vowel. Following the American custom, 
as established by Gray and others, a grave accent (^) 
is employed to designate a long vowel, and an acute 
accent (') a short vowel. 

Thus offidndle is pronounced offici-way-li; micro- 
cdrpus is pronounced micrc-crfr-pus. It should be 
remembered that the final e terminates a separate 
syllable, as commii-ne, vulga-re, gran'-de. This final e 
takes the short sound of i, as in whip. 

Ordinarily in diphthongs the mark is placed over the 
second letter. Thus, in aurea the au is meant to have 
its customary long sound, as if written awe. In eiir 
it has practically the long sound of u, as in Pseiido- 
Quina, Pseud-Acacia. Double vowels take their cus- 
tomary English sounds, as ee and oo. Thus, the oo in 
Hobkeri is to be pronounced as in hook. In most cases, 
the letters oi (from the Greek, meaning like to) are to 
be pronounced separately: if the i is the penultimate 
syllable (next to the last), it is long, as in yucceH-des; 
if the i is the antepenultimate syllable (third from the 
end), it is short, as in rhomboi-dea. In dioicus and 
monoicus, however, the oi is a true diphthong, as in 

These pronunciations follow, in general, the common 
English method of pronouncing Latin names. However, 
many of the Latinized forms of substantive and per- 
sonal names are so unlike Latin in general construction 
that the pronunciation of them may not follow the rule. 
As a matter of fact, biological nomenclature is a lan- 
guage of itself thrown into a Latin form, and it should 
not be a source of regret if it does not closely follow 
classical rules in its pronunciation of outlying or non- 
Latin names. 

It has seemed best to make an exception to strict liter- 
ary rules in the case of personal commemorative names 
in the genitive: we retain, so far as possible, the pro- 
nunciation of the original name. Thus, a plant named 
for Carey is called Cd-reyi, not Carey-i; for Sprenger, 
Spreng-eri, not Sprenger-4; for Forbes, Forbs'^ii, not 
Forbfe-ii. It cannot be expected that uniform consis- 
tency has been attained in this matter. It is not 
always known how the person pronounced his name; 
and many personal names do not make conformable 
Latinized words. No arbitrary method of pronouncing 
personal names is likely to be satisfactory. 

It may be well to add what are understood to be 
the long and short sounds of the vowels: 

i as in cane. 6 as in cone. 

i as 'in can. 6 as in run. 

4 as in mete. & as in jute. 

e as in met. fi as in jut. 

I as in pine. 

I as in pin. 

y is often used as a vowel instead of i. 


The original spelling of generic and specific names 
is preferred; that is, the spelling used by the person 
who made the name. In some cases this original 
orthography does not conform to the etymology of 
the name, particularly if the name is made from that 
of a person. Such a case is Diervilla, named for Diero- 
ville. Ideally, the name should be spelled Dierevillea, 
but Tournefort and Linnaeus did not so spell it. 

In accordance with the best authorities, the digraph 
x is used in the words cserulea, caerulescens, ca;spitosa, 
caesia; ce is used in coelestis and coelestinum. 

The type ligatures and <K have been dropped from 
Latin-made names that have come into the vernacular. 
Thus, as a common or English name, Spiraea becomes 
spirea, Paeonia becomes peonia or peony, Brodui ;i 
becomes brodiea, Cratsegus becomes crategus. 


There are two groups of keys in the Cyclopedia, 
the main key, in Vol. I, to leading families and genera, 
and the keys to the species in the different genera in 
all the volumes. The user of the Cyclopedia should forth- 
with familiarize the method of the keys. Page 79. 

To facilitate the study of the plants, the species 
have been arranged systematically or horticulturally, 
under the genus, rather than alphabetically; and in 
large or complex genera, an alphabetical index has 
been supplied for rapid reference. The grouping of the 
species is founded preferably on horticultural rather 
than on botanical characters, so that the arrangement 
does not always express botanical relationships. 

The species-keys are arranged primarily to aid the 
gardener in making determinations. Every effort is 
made sharply to contrast the species rather than to 
describe them. A word of explanation will facilitate 
the use of the keys. The species are arranged in coordi- 
nate groups of various ranks, and groups of equal rank 
are marked by the same letter. Thus, group A is 
coordinate with AA and with AAA, and group B with BB 
and BBB; and the B groups are subordinate to the A 
groups, and the c groups to the B groups, and so on. 
Moreover, whenever possible, the coordinate keys 
begin with the same catchword: thus, if A begins 
"flowers," so do AA and AAA; and this catchword is 
not used for keys of other rank. As an example, refer 
to Abutilon, page 177. Look first at A, beginning 
"Lvs.," then at AA, also beginning "Lvs." Under AA 
are the coordinate divisions B and BB, each with 
"Foliage" for the catchword. Under B there are no 
subdivisions, but under BB there are divisions c and 
cc, each with "Fls." for a catchword. Under c there are 
no subdivisions, but cc has two coordinate divisions, 
D, DD, each with "Blossoms" for a catchword. Again, D 
happens to have no division, but DD has the divisions 
E and EE with "Lf.-blades" as the catchword. In other 
words, if the plant in hand does not fall under A, the 
inquirer goes at once to AA. If it falls under AA, then he 
determines whether it belongs to B or to BB, and so on. 



A display of a scheme would stand as follows: 

A. Leaves, etc. 

B. Flowers, etc. 
c. Fruits, etc. 

D. Pods, etc. 
DD. Pods, etc. 

E. Seeds, etc. 
EE. Seeds, etc. 
cc. Fruits, etc. 
BB. Flowers, etc. 
AA. Leaves, etc. 

B. Roots, etc. 

c. Flowers, etc. 

D. Margins of leaves, etc. 
DD. Margins of leaves, etc. 
cc. Flowers, etc. 
BB. Roots, etc. 
BBB. Roots, etc. 
AAA. Leaves, etc. 

When the genus is large or the treatment is compli- 
cated, the key may be placed separately at the begin- 
ning rather than to be divided among the paragraphs; 
this allows the student to see the entire scheme or 
plan at once. See Acer, page 196. 


caps capsule. 

cidt cultivated, cultivation. 

diam diameter. 

E East. 

fl flower. 

fls flowers. 

fld flowered (as few-fld.). 

fr fruit. 

frs. . : fruits. 

/( foot, feet. 

in inch, inches. 

incl including. 

infl inflorescence (cluster). 

inlro introduced. 

If leaf. 

ift leaflet. 

Ifts leaflets. 

Ivd leaved. 

Ivs leaves. 

N North. 

Prop propagated, propagation. 

S South. 

segm., segms segment., segments. 

si stem. 

*Ys stems. 

subfam subfamily. 

gyn synonym. 

Trap tropics, tropical. 

far. . . . . . . . variety. 

W West. 

t reviser (of an article). 

00 (sign of infinity) . . . numerous, many. 


To aid the student in the verification of the work, 
and to introduce him to the literature of the various 
subjects, citations are made to the portraits of plants 
in the leading periodicals to which the American 
referrer is most likely to have access. These references 
to pictures have been verified, as far as possible, both 
in the MS. and in the proof. A uniform and regular 
form of citation is much to be desired, but is extremely 
difficult to secure because periodicals rarely agree in 
methods. It was decided to omit the year in most cases, 
because of the pressure for space, but the student who 
lacks access to the original volumes may usually 
ascertain the year by consulting the bibliographical 
notes below. 

An arbitrary and brief method of citation has 
been chosen. At the outset it seemed best to indicate 
whether the cited picture is colored or not. This ac- 
counts for the two ways of citing certain publications 
containing both kinds of pictures, as The Garden, 
Revue Horticole, and Gartenflora. The figures given 
below explain the method of citation, and incidentally 
give some hints as to the number of volumes to date, 
and of the number of pages or plates in one of the latest 

Standard works on the bibliography of botany 
are Pritzel's "Thesaurus" and Jackson's "Guide to 
the Literature of Botany;" also, Jackson's "Catalogue 
of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew." 
Render's "Bradley Bibliography," a guide to the 
literature of the woody plants of the world, is invalu- 
able. The Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold 
Arboretum, Harvard University, now being printed, 
will afford an excellent guide to the literature of botany, 
particularly as it relates to woody plants. 

A.F. . . . The American Florist. Chicago. A trade 
paper founded August 15, 1885. The vol- 
umes end with July. Many pictures re- 
peated in "Gng." (14:1524=vol. and page.) 

A.G. . . . American Gardening. New York. Represents 
14 extinct horticultural periodicals, includ- 
ing The American Garden (1888-1890). 
(20:896=vol. and page.) 

B The Botanist. Edited by Maund. No years 

on title pages. Founded 1839. Eight vols., 
50 colored plates in each vol. (8:400= 
vol. and col. plate.) Cumulative index. 

B.B. . . . Britton & Brown. An Illustrated Flora of the 
Northern U. S., etc. New York, 1896-98. 
Ed. 2 in 1913. (3:588 vol. and page of ed. 
1; (ed. 2) 3:=vol. and page of ed. 2). 

B.H. ... La Belgique Horticole. Ghent. 35 vols. 

B.M. . . . Curtis' Botanical Magazine. London. 
Founded 1787. The oldest current peri- 
odical devoted to garden plants. The vol. 
for 1912 is vol. 138 of the whole work. 
Index to first 107 vols. by E. Tonks. 
London. (7690=col. plate.) 

B.R. . . . Botanical Register (1815-1847). Vols. 1-14 
edited by Edwards; vols. 15-33 by Lind- 
ley. In vols. 1-23 the plates are numbered 
from 1-2014. In vols. 24-33 they are num- 
bered independently in each vol. There are 
688 plates in vols. 24-33. "An Appendix to 
the First Twenty-three Volumes" (bound 
separately or with the 25th vol.) contains 
an index to the first 23 vols. An index to 
vols. 24-31 may be found in vol. 31. (1198 = 
col. plate. 33:70=vol. and col. plate.) 


B.T. . 



F. . 





G. . . 

G.F. . 
G.L. . 

G.M. . 
Gn. . 

Gng. . 

Gn. M. 
Gn. W. 


. Bulletin de la Societe dendrologique de France. 
Paris. Founded 1906. One vol. each year. 
Illustrated. (1907: 198 =year and page.) 
. Britton. North American trees. New York. 

1908. All American trees illustrated. 
. Country Life in America. Founded Nov. 1901. 
Two volumes a year. (12:75 = vol. and 

. Cogniaux. Dictionnaire Icoiipgraphfque des 
Orchidees. Colored plates, with descriptions. 
(6=col. plate.) 

. Emerson, G. B. Trees and Shrubs of Mas- 
sachusetts. Boston. 2 vols. 149 plates. 
. The Florist. London. 1840-1884. (1884: 
192=year and page opp. col. plate.) Edi- 
tors and title pages changed many times. 
Known as the Florist, Florist's Journal 
and Florist and Pomologist. Sometimes 
improperly called British Florist, 
i Floral Cabinet Knowles & Westcott. Lon- 
don. 1837-1840. 3 vols., 4to. 
. The Florists' Exchange. New York. A trade 
paper, whose pictures sometimes are re- 
peated in "A. G." Founded Dec. 8, 1888. 
(Il:l298=vol. and page.) 

, Floral Magazine. London. Series I. 1861- 
1871, 8vo. Series II. 1872-1881, 4to. 
(1881: 450 =year and col. plate.) 
i Florists' Review. Chicago. A trade paper. 
Vol. 1, Dec. 2, 1897, to May 26, 1898. Two 
vols. a year (4:660=vol. and page.) 
, Flore des Serres. Ghent. (1845-1880.) Incon- 
sistent in numbering, but the plate numbers 
are always found on the plate itself or on the 
page opposite. Valuable but perplexing 
indexes in vols. 15 and 19. 23 vols. (23:2481 
=vol. and col. plate.) 

. Flora and Sylva. London. 1903-1905. Edited 
by W. Robinson. 3 vols. (2:24=vol. and 
page opposite colored plate. 2, p. 31=vol. 
and page containing black figure.) 
The Floral World and Garden Guide. Lon- 
don. Edited by Shirley Hibberd. 1858- 
1880. No plates until 1868. (1875:33=year 
and col. plate.) 

Gardening, Illustrated. London. Founded 
March 1, 1880. Vols. begin with the March 
number. (10:25=vol. and page.) 
The Gardeners' Chronicle. London. Series I. 
(1841-1873) is cited by year and page. 
Series II or "New Series" (1874-1886), is 
cited thus: II. 26:824=series, volume and 
page. Series III is cited thus: III. 26:416. 
Two vols. a year, beginning 1874. A select 
index is scattered through 1879 and 1880. 
Consult II. 12: viii (1879), and similar places 
in subsequent vols. 
Garden and Forest. New York. 1888-1897. 

(10:518=vol. and page.) 

Garden Life. London. Incorporates The 
Gardening World after May 1, 1909. Cited 
only from vol. 16. (16:54=vol. and page.) 
Gardeners' Magazine. London. Ed. by 
Shirley Hibberd. Founded 1860. Cited 
from vol. 31 on. (42:872=vol. and page.) 
The Garden. London. Founded 1871. Two 
vols. a year through 1906. Since then 
one vol. (56:458=vol. and page opp. 
col. plate. 56, p. 458=vol. and page con- 
taining black figure.) An Index of the first 
20 vols. was separately published. Com- 
plete Index of Colored Plates to end of 1897 
in vol. 54, p. 334. 

Gardening. Chicago. Founded Sept. 15, 
1892. Vols. end Sept. 1. (7:384=vol. and 

. The Garden Magazine. Garden City, N. Y. 
Founded 1905. (7:543=vol. and page.) 
Gardening World. Founded 1884. Incorpora- 
ted after 1909 in Garden Life. (7:ll8=vol. 
and page. ) 

Guimpcl, Otto & Hayne. Abbildungen der 
fremden in Deutschland ausdauerndcn Holz- 
arten. Berlin, 1825. 144 col. plates. 

G.W. . 

G.Z. . 
HBK. . 

H.E. . 

H.H. . 

H.I. . . 

H.U.. . 

H.W. . 


J. . 



J.H. . . 


. Gartenflora. Berlin. Founded 1852. (Gt. 
8:1470=vol. and col. plate. Gt. 48, p. 
670=vol. and page containing black 
figure. ) 

. Die Gartenwelt. Founded 1896. The first 
year it appeared under the title "Hesdorf- 
fers Monatshefte fur Blumen- uud Garten- 
freunde." (13:58=vol. and col. plate. 13, 
p. 58=vol. and page.) 

. Guimpel, Willdenow and Hayne. Abbildung 
der deutscher Holzarten. 2 vols. Berlin 
1815-20. 216 col. plates. 

. Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. Founded Oct. 1856. 
One col. plate in each month. (4:88 VoL 
and col. plate.) 

. Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth. Nova Genera 
et Species, etc. Paris. 1815-25. 7 vols. 

. Hooker, Exotic Flora. London, 1823-7. 232 
col. plates. 

. L' Horticulteur Francais. 1st. series 1851- 
1859. 2nd series 1859-1872. (1853:273 = 
1st. series, year and col. plate. II. 1860:381 
=2nd. series, year and col. plate.) 

. Hough, Handbook of Trees of the Northern 
States and Canada. Lowville, N. Y. 1907. 
All trees of the region illustrated; all parts 
of the trees, including bark represented by 
photographic reproductions. 

. Hooker's Icones Plantarum. London. 
Founded in 1837. Contains up to 1913 
3,000 black plates in 30 vols. The plates 
with botanical descriptions in Latin. 
L'Horticulteur Universel. Paris. 1839-1845. 
8 vols. with col. plates. The first 6 vols. 
edited by C. Lemaire. Vol. 7 and 8 called 
Deuxieme and Nouvelle serie (7:28=vol. 
and plate.) 

. Hempel and Wilhelm. Baume und Straucher 
des Waldes. Wien, 1889-99. 3 vols. 60 beau- 
tiful col. plates and numerous black illustra- 
tions in the text (3:45=vol. and col. plate; 
3, p. 113=vol. and page containing black 

L'lllustration Horticole. Ghent. (1854-1896.) 
(43:72=vol. and col. plate.) The volumes 
were numbered continuously, but there were 
6 series. Series 1 = 1854-63. Series 11 = 
1864-9. Series 111=1870-80. Series IV 
=1881-6. Series V =1887-93. Series VI 
=1894-6. The plates were numbered con- 
tinuously in the first 16 vols. from I to 614: 
in vols. 17-33 they run from 1 to 619: in 
series V from 1 to 190: in Series VI they 
begin anew with each vol. Valuable indexes 
in vols. 10 and 20. Series V in 4to, the rest 

Icones Selectee Horti Thenensis. Bruxelles, 
1899-1909. 6 vols. with 240 plates. (6: 220 = 
vol. and bluck plate.) 

Jardin; journal bi-mensuel d'horticulture gen- 
erale. Paris. Founded in 1887. (10:36 
=vol. and page opp. col. plate; 10, p. 345 
=vol. and page containing black figure.) 
Journal of the College of Science, Imperial Uni- 
versity. Tokyo, Japan. Founded in 1S*0; 33 
vols. up to 1913. Contains black plates and 
figures in the text of plants of E. Asia. 
(6:3=vol. and plate.) 

Le Jardin Fleuriste. Ghent. 1851-1854. 
Edited by C. Lemaire. 4 vols. with 430 
col. plates and black figures in the text. 
(4:421 =vol. and col. plate; 4, p. 66=vol. 
and page containing black figure.) 
Journal of Horticulture. London. Founded 
in 1848 as The Cottage Gardener. Scric-s 
III only is cited, beginning 1880. (III. 
39 : 504 =series, vol., page.) 
Journal de la Socifite d'horticulture de France'. 
Paris. Founded in 1827 as Annales et Jour- 
nal de la Society roy. d'horticulture de Paris. 
Only series IV is cited, beginning 1900. (IV. 
l:209=series, vol. and page containing 
black figure.) 




J H S . Journal of the Horticultural Society of Lon- 
don. Founded in 1846. 9 vols. from 1846- 
55. A new series started in 1866. The earlier 
series is cited by the year, the new series by 
the volume (1846: 188=ycar, page opposite 

S'ate; 28:394, fig. 96=vol., page opposite 
ack plate or containing black figure, and 
fig. in case of several figures.) 
The Botanical Cabinet. Loddiges. 1817- 
33 100 plates in each vol. Complete index 
in last vol. (20 : 2000=vol. and col. plate.) 
Loiseleur-Deslongschamps, Herbier general 
de ['amateur. Paris, 1816-27. 8 vols. with 
574 col. plates. There is a second series, 
1839-44 in 4 vols. with 309 plates which is 
very rare and not quoted. 

LI .... Lavall6e, Arboretum Segrezianum; Icones 
selectae. Paris, 1880-5. 36 black plates 
of trees and shrubs. 

Lind. . . . Lindcm'a. Ghent. Founded 1885. Folio. 
Devoted to orchids. 

Lowe. . . Beautiful Leaved Plants. E. J. Lowe and 
Howard. London. 1864. (60=col. plate.) 

M A. B. Freeman-Mitford. The Bamboo Gar- 

den. London. 1896. (224=page.) 

M.D. . . . Mitteilungen der Deutschen dendrologischen 
Gesellschaft. Bonn. Founded in 1892. 
(1912, p. 161=year and page containing 
black figure; 1910:l=year and page opp. 
col. plate.) 

M D G. . . Moller's Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung. Erfurt. 
Founded 1886. (1897:425=year and page.) 

Mn . . Meehan's Monthly. Germantown, Phila- 
delphia. Founded 1891. (9:l92=vol. and 
page opp. col. plate.) 

Mn.N. . . Meehan. The Native Flowers and Ferns of the 
United States. Philadelphia. 1878-80. 4 vols. 
in 2 series (II. 2:3=series, vol. and plate.) 

MX Michaux. Histoire des arbres fprestiers de 

I'Amerique septentrionale. Paris, 1810-13. 
3 vols. with 138 plates. The English trans- 
lation under the title The North American 
Sylva has 156 plates. (3 :4=vol. and plate.) 

N D . Nouveau Duhamel. Traite des arbres et 

arbustes. Paris, 1801-19. 7 vols. with 488 
col. plates. The first edition by Duhamel du 
Monceau was published in 1755 and contains 
only 250 black plates; the second edition 
was edited by several botanists and is really 
an entirely new work. (7:33=vol. and plate.) 

O Orchis. Beilage zur Gartenflora. (1910:88= 

year and col. plate. 1910, 'p. 88=year and 

O.R. . . . Orchid Review. London. Founded 1893. (18: 
169 = vol. and plate.) 

P.G. . . . Popular Gardening. Buffalo. 1885-90. (5:270 
=vol. and page.) 

P.M. . . . Paxton's Magazine of Botany. London. 1834- 
49. (16:376=vol. and page opposite col. 
plate.) Vol. 15 has index of first 15 vols. 

R. . . Reichenbachia. Edited by Fred. Sander. Lon- 

don. Founded 1886. Folio. 

R B . Revue dc 1' Horticulture Beige et Etrangere. 

Ghent. Founded 1875. (23:288=vol. and 
page opp. col. plate.) 

R.F.G. . . Reichenbach. Icones Florae Germanicae et Hel- 
veticae. Leipzig. Founded in 1834. 25 
vols. with more than 3,000 col. plates 
issued up to 1913. 

R.H. . . . Revue Horticole. Dates from 1826, but is 
now considered to have been founded in 
1829. ( 1899: 596 =year and page opp. col. 
plate. 1899, p. 596=year and page opp. 
black figure.) 

S Schneider. The Book of Choice Ferns. Lon- 
don. In 3 vols. Vol. 1, 1892. Vol. 2, 1893. 
Vol. 3, 1894. (l:390=vol. and page.) 

S.E.B. . . Sowerby, English Botany. Ed. 3. London, 
1863-1902. 13 vols. with 1952 plates. The 
first edition was published 1790-1814 in 36 
vols. Only the third edition is quoted. 

S.H. . . Semaine Horticole. Ghent. Founded 1897. 

(3:548=vol. and page.) 
S.I.F. . . . Shirasawa. Iconographie des essences fores- 

tieres du Japon. Tokyo. 1900-8. 2 vols. 

with 161 col. plates. (2: 73 = vol. and 

S.M. . . . Sargent. Manual of the Trees of North 

America. Boston and New York, 1905. 

(810=page containing black figure.) 
SOB. . . Schmidt. Oesterreich's allgemeine Baumzucht. 

Wien, 1792-1822. 4 vols. with 240 col, 

plates. (4:237=vol. and plate.) 

S S . . Sargent. The Silva of North America. 13 
vols. Vol. 1, 1891. Vol. 12, 1898. (12:620 
vol. and plate, not colored.) 

S T S . . Sargent. Trees and Shrubs. Boston and New 
York, 1902-13. 2 vols. 200 black plates 
of trees and shrubs, native and foreign. 
(2:147=vol. and plate.) 

S Z. . . Siebold & Zuccarini. Flora Japonica. Vol. 
1, 1835-44. Vol. 2 partly by Miquel, 1845-70. 
(2:150=vol. and plate.) 

V Vick's Magazine. Rochester, N. Y. Founded 

1878. Vols. numbered continuously through 
the 3 series. Vqls. begin with Nov. (23:250 
vol. and page.) 

V.F. . . . Vilmorin & Bois. Fruticetum Vilmorinianum. 
Paris, 1904. (205= page containing black 

V.O. . . . James Veitch & Sons. A Manual of Orchida- 
ceous Plants, cultivated under glass in 
Great Britain. London. 1887-94. 

W D.B. . . Watson, Dendrologia Britanniea. London,1825. 
2 vols. with 172 col. plates (2:l60<=vol. and 


By common consent, the Latin name of a plant, in 
order to be considered by botanists, must first be 
regularly published by a reputable author in a rep- 
utable book or periodical. As an index to this name, 
the name of its author is published with it whenever an 
accurate account of the species is given. Thus, "Ber- 
beris aristala, DC." (p. 490) means that this name was 
made by De Candolle. This citation at once dis- 
tinguishes De Candolle' s Berber is aristata from any 
other Berber-is aristata, for example, from Sims' 
(p. 492) . It is always possible that some other author 
may have given the same name to some other plant, 
in which case the older name must stand. In some 
cases, the fact that there are two plants passing under 
one name is indicated in the citation : "Berberis sinensis, 
Hemsl., not Poir." (p. 490, nos. 10, 11) means that 
Hemsley and Poiret applied the name B. sinensis to 
different plants. B. ilic.folia, Forst., is not the same as 
B. ilidfolia, Hort. (p. 492, nos. 27, 31); "Hort." means 
that the particular name is one in use amongst horti- 
culturists, that it is a garden name. 

The citation of authorities gives a clue to the time 
and place of publication of the species. It is an index 
to the literature of the subject. It is no part of the idea 
merely to give credit or honor to the man who made 
the name. It is held by some that the authority is an 
integral part of the name, and should always go with 
it; but common usage dictates otherwise, for the 
authority is never pronounced with the Latin words 
in common speech. The authority is a matter of iden- 
tification, not of language. 



Following are the authors most frequently cited in 
this Cyclopedia: 

ADANS. Michael Adanson, 1727-1806. France. 

AIT. William Aiton, 1731-1793. England. 

Air. f. William Townsend Aiton, the son, 1766-1849. 

ALL. Carlo Allioni. 1725-1804. Italy. 

ANDEBS., T. Thomas Anderson, Director of Botanic Gar- 
den in Calcutta. 

ANDB. Henry C. Andrews, botanical artist and engraver, 
conducted The Botanist*' Repository from 1799- 
1811, and illustrated books on heaths, geraniums and 

A NI> BE. Edward Andre, 1840-1911, first editor of Illustra- 
tion Horticole, later editor-in-chief of Revue Horticole. 

ANT. Franz Antoine, director of the royal gardens at 
Schdnbrunn, 1815. 

ABK. George Arnold Walker Arnott, 1799-1868. Scot- 

ARCHES*. Paul Aschenon, professor of botany, Berlin. 

ACBL. J. B. C. F. Aublet, 1720-1778. France. 

Acer., AUTH. Authors; referring to usage by various or 
many writers. 

BACKH. J. Backhous, English botanist and traveler. 

BAILL. H. Baillon, author of the great natural history of 
plants in French. 

BAKKK. John Gilbert Baker, formerly keeper of the Her- 
bariiftn of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 

HALT. Charles Baltet, frequent contributor to Revue 

BABT. William P. C. Barton, 1787-1856. Pennsylvania. 

BABTB. WUIiam Bartram, 1739-1823. American botanist. 

BATEII. James Bateman, writer and student of orchids. 

BEAUV. Ambroise Marie Francois Joseph Palisot de 
Beauvois, 1755-1820. France. 

BECC. O. Beccari, Italian botanist and writer on E. Indian 

BECK. Lewis C. Beck, 1798-1853. New York. 

BEIMN. L. He-issuer, Inspector of the Botanic Gardens 
at Bonn, and Instructor at Poppelsdorf. Pub. "Hand- 
buch der Nadelholzkuude." 

BENTH. George Bentbam, 1800-1884, one of the dis- 
tinguished botanists of England; one of the authors 
of Beutham & Hooker's "Genera Plantarum." 

BENTH. & HOOK. George Bentham and J. D. Hooker 
authors of "Genera Plantarum." England. 

BEBOEB. Ernst Berger, died 1853. Germany. 

BEBNH. Johann Jacob Bcmhardi, 1774-1850. Germany. 

BEBT. Carlo Guiaeptx; Bertero, 1789-1831. Died between 
Tahite and Chile. 

BIEB. Friedrich August Marschall von Bicrberstcin, 1768- 
1826. German botanist; lived later in Russia. 

BIOEL. Jacob Bigelow, 1787-1879. Massachusetts. 

Hi. 'MI. Karl Ludwig Blume, born 1796 at Braunschweig, 
died 1862 at Leyden. Wrote much on Javan plants. 

Bom. Desir Georges Jean Marie Bois, editor of Revue 
Horticole. Paris. 

BOIM. Edmond Boissier, 1810-1886. Switzerland. Author 
of "Flora Orientalis" and other works. 

BOJEB. W. Bojer, 1800-1856, author of a Flora of Mauri- 
tius. Austria. 

BONPL. Aime Bonpland. 1773-1858. France. 

BOBKH. Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen, 1760-1806. Ger- 

BB., N. E. N. E. Brown, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 

BB., R. Robert Brown, bom 1773, Scotland, died ! 

London. Author of many ixuportant works. 
BRIT. Nathaniel Lord Brittou, Director of New York 

Botanical Garden, New York City. 
BBONU.V. Adolphe Theodore Bronguiart, 1801-1876. 

BUCH.-HAU. Francis Buchanan, later Lord Hamilton, 

wrote on Indian plants. 
BCCKL. Samuel Botsford Buckley, 1809-1884. United 


BULL. William Bull, plant merchant. London. 
BULL. Pierre Bulliard, 1742-1793, author of the great 

"Herbier de la France" in 12 folio volumes, with 600 


BUNGE. Alexander von Bunge, 1803-1890. Russia. 
BURIC. Johannes Burmann, 1706-1779, professor at 

Amsterdam, wrote on plants of Ceylon and Malabar. 
Burnt, f. Nickolous Laurens Burmann, 1734-1793. Son 

of Johannes. 
CAJUL Elie Abel Carriere, 1816-1896, distinguished French 

botanist and horticulturist, editor of Revue Horticole. 
CABP. Robert Caspary, professor of botany at University 

of Kdnigsberg. 1818-1887. 
CABS. Alexandra Henri Gabriel Cassini, Comte de. 1781- 

1832. France. 

CAV. Antonio Jose Cavanilles, 1745-1804. Spain. 
CEBV. Vincente Cervantes, 1759(?)-1829. Spanish botanist. 
CHAM. Adalbert von Chamisso, poet and naturalist, 

1781-1838. Germany. 
OHAPM. Alvan Wentworth Chapman, 1809-1899, author 

of "Flora of the Southern United States." 
CHOW. Jacques Denys Choisy, 1799-1859. Switzerland. 
CLOB. Dominique Clou, professor of botany and director 

of the gardens at Toulouse. Born 1821. 
COON. Alfred Cogniaux, French botanist. 
COLEBB. Henry Thomas Colebrooke, 1765-1837. England. 
COLLA. Luigi Colla, 1766-1848. France. 
CGULTEB. John M. Coulter, University of Chicago. 
CUNN. Richard Cunningham, 1793-1835. Colonial bot- 
anist in Australia. 
CUNN., A. Allan Cunningham, bom 1791, Scotland, died 

1839, Sidney, Australia. Brother of Richard. 
CUBT. William Curtis, 1746-1799. England. Founder 

of the Botanical Magazine, now known as Curtis' 

Botanical Magazine. 

CUBTIS. Moses Ashley Curtis, 1808-1873. North Car- 

DC. Augustin Pyramus De Candolle, 1778-1841, projec- 
tor of the Prodromus, and head of a distinguished 

family. Alphonse De Candolle, the son (1806-1893), 

and Casimir De Candolle, the grandson, are also 

quoted in this work. 

DECNE. Joseph Decaisne, 1809-1882. France. 
D. DON. See Don, D. 

Dear. HI-IK' I,.,ui-li<; Desfontaines, 1750-1833. France. 
DEV. Augustin Nicaisc Desvaux, 1784-1856. France. 
DEVB. Willem H'-ndrik de Vricso, 1S07 1802. professor 

of botany at Leyden. Wrote on medical plants and 

jjhtnts of the Dutch East Indies. 
DICK*. James Dickson, 1738-1822, Scotch writer on 

flowerless plants. 
DIELH. Ludwig Dicls, professor of botany, Marburg, 

DILI.. Johann Jacob Dilleuius, professor of botany in 

Oxford. 1087 1747. 



DIPP. Dr. L. Dippcl, of Darmstadt, Germany. Den- 
drologist; pub. "Handbuch der Laubholzkunde." 

DON. George Don, 1798-1856. England. 

DON, D. David Don, brother of George, 1800-1841. 

DONN. James Doiiu, 1758-1813, author of "Hortus Can- 
tabrigiensis." England. 

DOUGLAS. David Douglas, 1799-1834, collector in north- 
western America. Scotland. 

DRCDE. Prof. O. Drude, of Dresden, Germany. 

DRY. Jonas Dryandcr, 1748-1810. Sweden. 

PICHESNE. Antoine Nicolas Duchesne, 1747-1827. 

DUMORT. Barthelcmy Charles Dumortier, 1797-1878. 

LH-NAL. Michel Felix Dunal, 1789-1856. France. 

DVNN. Stephen Troyte Dunn, Kcw, England. 

DYER. W. T. Thistleton-Dyer, Director of Kew Gar- 
dens, 1885-1905, editor of the Flora of Tropical Africa, 

EATON, A. Amos Eaton, 1776-1842, author of a "Manual 
of Botany for North America," 1st ed. 1817; 8th ed. 

EATON, D. C. Daniel Cady Eaton, professor at Yale Col- 
lege, and writer on ferns. 

EHRH. Friedrich Ehrhart, 1742-1795. Germany. 

ELL. Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830. South Carolina. 

ELLIS. John Ellis, 1711-1776. England. 

ENDL. Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher, 1804-1849, profes- 
sor at Vienna. Numerous works. 

ENGELM. George Engelmann, 1809-1884. Missouri. 

ENULER. Prof. A. Engler, of Berlin, joint author of 
Engler and Prantl's "Natilrlichen Pflanzenfamilien." 

ESCH. Johann Friedrick Esohseholz, 1793-1831. Germany. 

FEE. Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fee, 1789-1874. 

FENZL. Edward Feiizl, professor and custodian of botani- 
cal museum at Wiens. 1S08-1879. 

FERN. Merritt Lyndon Fernald, assistant professor of 
botany, Cambridge, Mass. 

FISCH. Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer, 1782-1854. 

FORB. John Forbes, catalogued heaths, willows, coni- 
fers, and other plants at Woburn Abbey. 

FORSK. Pehr Forskal, 1736-1768, collected in Egypt 
and Arabia. 

FORST. Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798. Germany. 
(Also Georg Forster, the son.) 

FRANCH. A. Franchet, Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 1834- 

FRASER, John Fraser, 1750-1811, traveled in America 
1785-96. Had a son of same name. 

FROEL. Joseph Aloys Froelich, 1766-1841. Germany. 

F. v. M. Ferdinand von Mueller, royal botanist of 
Australia, author of many works on economic plants. 
See Muell. 

GAERTN. Joseph Gaertner, 1732-1791. Germany. 

GAGNEP. Francois Gagnepain. French botanist, writing 
chiefly on Asiatic plants. 

GAUD. Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, 1789-1864. Prance. 

r, A wL. See Ker. 

UMEL. Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, 1743-1774. Russia. 

GOEPP. Heinrich Robert Goeppert, 1800-1884, professor 
at Breslau. Wrote much on fossil botany. 

GORD. George Gordon, 1806-1879, author of the "Pine- 
turn," London, 1858. 

GRAEBN. Paul Graebner. professor of botany. Berlin. 

GRAY. Asa Gray, 1810-1888, Harvard University, Massa- 
chusetts. America's most noted botanist. 

GREENM. J. M. Greenman, writes from Harvard Uni- 
versity on Mexican plants. Now at the Field Museum, 

GRIFF. William Griffith, 1810-1845. England. 

GRISEB., GRIS. Heinrich Rudolph August Grisebach, 
1814-1879. Germany. 

HARMS. Prof. Hermann Harms. Berlin. 

HASSK. Justus Karl Hasskarl, born 1811. Germany. 

HAYNE. Friedrich Gottlob Hayne, 1763-1832, professor 
at Berlin. Medicinal plants; trees and shrubs. 

HAW. Adrian Hardy Haworth, 1772-1833. England. 

HBK. Friedrich Alexander von Humboldt, 1796-1859. 
Germany. Aim6 Bonpland, 1773-1858. France. Karl 
Sigismund Kunth, 1788-1850. Germany. Authors of 
a j^-eat work on plants of the New World. 

HEMSL. W. Betting Hemsley, Keeper at Kew, has written 
many reviews of genera of horticultural value in The 
Gardeners' Chronicle and elsewhere. 

HENFB. Arthur Henfrey, 1819-1859. English botanist. 

HENRY. Augustine Henry, Collector of Chinese plants. 
Cambridge, England. 

HENRY, L. Prof. Louis Henry. Writer on woody plants. 

HERB. William Herbert, 1778-1847. England. 

HOCHST. Christian Friedrich Hochstetter, 1787-1860, 
described many African plants. 

HOFFM. Georg Franz Hoffmann, 1761-1826. Germany. 

HOOK. William Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865. England. 

HOOK. f. Joseph Dalton Hooker, the son, 1817-1911. 

HOHT. Hortorum, literally of the gardens. Placed after 
names current among horticulturists, but not neces- 
sarily all horticulturists. Often used with less exact- 
ness than names of authors. Frequently indicates 
garden or unknown origin. Many of these plants have 
never been sufficiently described. 

HOST. Nicolaus Thomas Host, 1761-1834. Germany. 

JACQ. Nicolaus Joseph Jacquin, 1727-1817. Austria. 

JAUB. Hippolyte Francois de Jaubert. French botanist. 
Born 1798. 

Jus. Antoine Laurent Jussieu, 1748-1836, the first to 
introduce the natural families of plants. France. 

KARSTEN. Hermann G. K. W. Karsten. German botanist, 

KAHW. Wilhelm Karwinsky von Karwin, collector in 
Brazil; died 1855. 

KACLF. Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss, professor at Halle; died 
1830. He described the ferns collected by Chamisso. 

KER. John BeUenden Ker, 1765 (?)-1871, botanist, wit 
and man of fashion. First known as John Gawler. 
In 1793 was compelled to leave army because of sym- 
pathy with French Revolution. Hia name was changed 
in 1804 to John Ker BeUenden, but he was known to his 
friends as BeUenden Ker. First editor of Edwards' 
Botanical Register. 

KER-GAWL. See Ker. 

KIRCHN. G. Kirchner, writer of the botanical part of 
"Arboretum Muscaviense." 

KLATT. Friedrich Wilhelm Klatt, a German botanist. 

KLOTZSCH. Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, 1805-1860, cu- 
rator of Royal herbarium at Berlin, monographer of 

KOCH. Karl Koch, 1809-1879. Germany. 

KOEHNE. Emil Koehne, professor at Berlin. Pub. 
"Deutsche Dendrologie." 



KOMAR. Vlademir Leontycviteh Komarov, writer on 
plants of eastern Asia. St. Petersburg. 

HOST. Vineenz Franz Kosteletzky. Bohemian 1x)tanist. 

KOTSCHY. Theodor Kotschy, assistant curator at Vienna, 
1813-1866. Wrote on oriental plants. 

KRANZL. F. Kranzlin, Berlin, writes on orchids in The 
Gardeners' Chronicle. 

K. Sen. See Schumann. 


KUNTZE. Otto Kuntze. German botanist; chiefly known 
as a strong advocate of priority in nomenclature. 

LAO. Mariano Lagasea, 1776-1839, one of Spain's most 
distinguished botanists. 

LAM. Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre Monnet Lamarck, 
1744-1829, author of the Lamarckian philosophy of 
organic evolution. France. 

LANGS. Georg Heinrich von Langsdorf, 1774-1852, Rus- 
sian consul-general in Brazil. 

LAUTH. Thomas Lauth, 1758-1826, professor of anatomy 
at Strassburg, wrote a 40-page monograph on Acer 
in 1781. 

LECQ. Henry Lecoq, born 1802, once professor at Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, wrote an elementary botany, a dic- 
tionary of botanical terms, a book on hybridization, etc. 

LECONTE. John Eaton LeContc, 1784-1860. Pennsylvania. 

LEDEB. Karl Friedrich von Ledebour, 1785-1851. 

LEHM. Johann Georg Christian Lehmann, 1792-1860, 
professor at Hamburg, wrote several monographs, and 
described many new plants. 

LEHM., F. C. F. C. Lehmann, German collector in 
South America. 

LEICHT. Max Leichtlin, horticulturist, Baden-Baden, 

LEM. Charles Lemaire, 1800-1871, works on cacti and 
botany of cultivated plants. Belgium. 

LEVEILLE. Augustine Abel Hector Leveille, professor of 
botany, Le Mans, France. 

L'HER. C. L. L'Heritier de Brutelle, 1746-1800. France. 

LICHTST. August Gerhard Gottfield Lichtenstein, 1780- 
1851. Germany. 

LIND. & ROD. L. Linden and E. Rodigas, once adminis- 
trator and editor, respectively, of L'lllustration Hor- 

LIND. J. Linden, 1817-1898. Belgium. For many years 
director of L'lllustration Horticole. 

LIND., L. Lucien Linden, associated with J. Linden for 
some years on L'lllustration Horticole. 

LINDL. John Lindley, 1799-1865, one of the most illus- 
trious of English horticulturists. 

LINOELSH. Alexander Lingelsheim. Breslau, Germany. 

LINK. Heinrich Friedrich Link, 1767-1851. Germany. 

LINN. Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne), 1707-1778, 
the "Father of Botany," and author of binomial 
nomenclature. Sweden. 

LINN. f. Carl von Linne, the son, 1741-1783. Sweden. 

LIPSKY. Vladimir Ippolitovitch Lipsky, writer chiefly 
on plants from Central Asia. St. Petersburg. 

LODD. Conrad Loddiges, nurseryman near London, con- 
ducted Loddiges' Botanical Cabinet from 1817-33, 
20 vols., 2,000 colored plates. 

Lots. Theodor Loesener, professor of botany, Berlin. 

LOISEL. Jean Louis Auguste Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, 
1774-1849. France. 

LOUD. John Claudius Loudon, 1783-1843, an extremely 
prolific English writer. 

LOUR. Juan Loureiro, 1715-171'fi, missionary in China. 


MAKING. Tomitaro Makino. Tokyo, Japan. 
MABSH. Humphrey Marshall, 1722-1801. Pennsylvania. 
MART. Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, 1794-1868, 

professor at Munich, monographer of palms, founder of 

the great Flora Brasiliensis. and author of many works. 
MAST. Maxwell T. Masters, late editor of The Gardeners' 

Chronicle, wherein he has described great numbers of 

new plants of garden value; author of "Vegetable 

Teratology," etc. 1833-1907. 
MATSUM. Jinzo Matsumuro. Tokyo, Japan. 
MAXIM. Karl Johann Maximowicz, 1827-1891, one of the 

most illustrious Russian systematic botanists; wrote 

much on Asian plants. 
MEDIKUS. Friedrich Casmir Medikus, 1736-1808, director 

of the garden at Mannheim, wrote a book of 96 pages 

in German on North American plants in 1792. 
MEISN. Karl Friedrich Meisner, 1800-1874. Switzer- 
METT. Georg Heinrich Mettenius, 1823-1866, professor at 

Leipzig, wrote on flowerless plants. 
MEY. Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer, 1791- 

MET., C. A. Carl Anton Meyer, 1795-1855, director 

botanic garden at St. Petersburg, wrote on Russian 

.Mi/. Dr. Karl Mez, director of the botanic garden at 

Konigsberg; monographer of the bromeliads. 
MICHX. Andre Michaux, 1746-1802. France, but for 

ten years a resident of North America. 
MICHX. f. Francois Andre Michaux, the son, 1770-1855. 

MILL. Phillip Miller, 1691-1771, of Chelsea, England, 

author of a celebrated dictionary of gardening, which 

had many editions. 
MIQ. Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel, 1M1-1871. 

MITFORD. A. B. Freeman-Mitford, English amateur, 

author of "The Bamboo Garden." 
MOENCH. Konrad Moench, 1744-1805. Germany. 
MUNCH. See Moench. 
MOORE. Thomas Moore, 1821-1887, curator of Chelsea 

Botanic Garden, author of "Index Filicum," and other 

well-known works. 

MOQ. Alfred Moquin-Tandon, 1804-1863. France. 
MORR. Charles Jacques Edouard Morren, of Ghent. 


MOTT. S. Mottet, frequent contributor to Revue Hor- 
ticole, translator of Nicholson's "Dictionary of Gar- 
MTJELL. ARO. Jean Mueller, of Aargau, 1828-1896, wrote 

for De C'andolle's "Prodromus," vol. 16. 
MUELL., C. Carl Mueller, 1817-1870, who edited vols. 

46 of ^ ulpers' "Annuals." 
MUELL., F. Ferdinand von Mueller, royal botanist at 

Melbourne, has written much on Australian and 

economic botany. 1825-1896. 

MUHL. Henry Ludwig Muhlenberg, 1756-1817. Penn- 

MURR. Johann Andreas Murray, 1740-1791. Germany. 
MURR., A. Andrew Murray, 1812-1878, author of "The 

Pines and Firs of Japan." London, 1863. 
NAUDIN. Charles Naudin, 1815-1899, Ixrtanist, frequent 

contributor to Revue Horticole. 
N. E. BR. N. E. Brown describes many new plants in 

Gardeners' Chronicle. Pee Br., N. K. 



NEES. Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck, 1776- 

1858. Prussia. 
NICHOLS. George Nicholson, curator at Kew, author of 

"The Dictionary of Gardening." 1847-1908. 
NOTT. Thomas Xuttall, 1786-1859. Massachusetts. 
O'BRIEN. James O'Brien, current writer on orchids in 

The Gardeners' Chronicle. 
OLIV. Daniel Oliver, onco curator at Kew, and founder 

of the Flora of Tropical Africa. 
ORPH. Theodor Georg Orphunidcs, professor of botany at 

Athens. Died 1886. 
ORTEGA, OUT. Casimiro Gomez Ortega, 1740-1818. 


OTTO. Friedrich Otto, 1782-1856. Germany. 
PALL. Peter Simon Pallas, 1741-1811, professor and 

explorer in Russia. Germany. 
PAMPAN. Renato Pampanini, writer on Chinese plants. 

Florence, Italy. 
PAV. See Ruiz. & Pav. 

PAX. Ferdinand Pax, professor at Breslau, Germany. 
PAXT. Joseph Paxton, 1802-1865. England. 
PERS. Christian Hendrick Persoon, 1755-1837. Germany. 
PHIL. Rudolph Amandus Philippi, 1808-1904. Santiago, 

PLANCH. Jules Emile Planehon, professor at Mont- 

pellier. France. 1833-1900. 
POHL. Johann Emmanuel Pohl, 1782-1834, professor at 

Vienna, wrote a large book on travels in Brazil. 
POIR. Jean Louis Marie Poiret, 1755-1834. France. 
PRAIN. Sir David Prain, Director of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Kew, since 1905. 

PRESL. Karel Boriweg Presl, 1794-1852. Bohemia. 
PURSH. Frederick T. Pursh (or Pursch), 1774-1820. 

Germany, but for twelve years in the United States. 
RADDI. Guiseppe Raddi, 1770-1829. Italy. 
RAF. Constantino Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1784 

1842. Professor of Natural history, Transylvania 

University. Lexington, Kentucky. 
R. BR. Robert Brown, born 1773, Scotland, died 1858, 

London. Author of many important works. 
REGEL. Eduard von Regel, 1815-1892, German, founder 

of Gartenflora; Director Botanic Garden at St. Peters- 

REHD. Alfred Rehder, Arnold Arboretum, Massachu- 
REICHB. Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach, 1793- 

1879. Germany. 

REICHB. f. Heinrich Gustav, 1823-1889, son of the pre- 
ceding. Orchids. 

RICH. John Richardson, 1787-1865. Scotland. 
RICHARD. Louis Claude Marie Richard, 1754-1821. 

RIDDELL. John Leonard Riddell, 1807-1865, professor of 

chemistry in Cincinnati and New Orleans. 
ROB. B. L. Robinson, Director Gray Herbarium of Harvard 

University, is editing "The Synoptical Flora of North 

ROD. Emile Rodigas, for some years connected with 

L'lllustration Horticole. 
RODB. J. B. Rodrigues, Brazilian botanist, writer on 

palms and Brazilian botany. 
ROEM. Johann Jacob Roemer, 1763-1819. Switzerland. 

Also M. J. Roemer. 

ROSCOE. William Roscoe, 1753-1831. England. 
ROSE. J. N. Rose, assistant curator, United States 

National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution. Mexi- 
can plants. 

ROTH. Albrecht Wilhelm Roth, 1757-1834. Physician at 

Vegesack, near Bremen. 

ROXBG. William Roxburg, 1759-1815. India. 
ROYLE. John Forbes Royle, born 1800, at Cawnpore, 

died 1858 London. Professor in London. Plants of 

Ruiz. & PAV. Hipolito Ruiz Lopez, 1764-1815, and Jose 

Pavon, authors of a Flora of Peru and Chile. Spain. 
RUPR. Franz J. Ruprecht, 1814-1870. Russia. 
RYDB. Per Axel Rydberg. New York Botanical Garden. 
S. &. Z. See Sieb. & Zucc. 
SABINE. Joseph Sabine, 1770-1837. England. 
SAFFORD. W. E. Safford, United States Department of 

Agriculture, Washington. 

SALISB. Richard Anthony Salisbury, 1761-1829. England. 
SALM-DYCK. Joseph, Prince and High Count Salm- 

Reifferscheidt-Dyck, born at Dyck, 1773, died 1861. 

Wrote on Aloe, Cactus, Mesembryanthemum. 
SARG. Charles Sprague Sargent, Director Arnold Arbo- 
retum, author of "Silva of North America." 
SAV. L. Savatier, writer on Japanese plants. 
SAVI. Gaetano Savi, died 1844. Italy. 
SCHEIDW. Michael Joseph Scheidweiler, 1799-1861, profes- 
sor of botany and horticulture at Horticultural Insti- 
tute of Ghent. 

SCHK. Christian Schkuhr, died 1811. Germany. 
SCHLECHT. Diedrich Franz Leonhard von Schlechten- 

dahl, 1794-1866. Professor at Halle, wrote several 

memoirs in Latin and German. 
SCHNEID. Camillo Schneider, author of "Handbuch der 

Laubholzkunde. " Vienna. 
SCHOTT. Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, 1794-1865. Wrote 

much on aroids with Nyman and Kotschy. 
SCHRAD. Heinrich Adolph Schrader, 1767-1836. Germany. 
SCHULT. Joseph August Schultes, 1773-1831. Germany. 
SCHUM. Christian Friedrich Schumacher, 1757-1830. 

SCHUMANN. Karl Moritz Schumann, 1851-1904, professor 

of botany, Berlin. Wrote much on Cactacese. 
SCHUR. Philipp Johann Ferdinand Schur, 1785-1848. 

SCHW., SCHWEIN. Lewis David von Schweinitz, 1780- 

1834. Pennsylvania. 

SCHWEINF. George Schweinfurth. Germany. Born 1836. 
SCHWER. Graf Fritz von Schwerin, German authority on 


SCOP. Johann Anton Scopoli, 1723-1788. Italy. 
SEEM. Berthold Seemann, Hanover, 1825-1872. Wrote 

on palms, and botany of the voyage of the Herald. 
SIBTH. John Sibthorp, 1758-1796, author of a Flora of 

Greece. England. 
SIEB. & Zucc. Philipp Franz von Siebold, 1796-1866, and 

Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini, 1797-1848. Germany. 
SIMS. John Sims, 1792-1838. England, for many years 

editor of Curtis' Botanical Magazine. 

SMALL. John Kunkel Small. New York Botanical Garden. 
SMITH. James Edward Smith, 1759-1828. England. 
SOLAND. Daniel Solander, 1736-1782. England. 
SPACH. Eduard Spach, born 1801 Strassburg, died 1879. 

Author of "Histoire Naturelle des Vegetaux." 
SPAETH. L. Spaeth, Berlin, nurseryman, died 1913. H. L. 

Spaeth, the present head of the firm. 
SPRENO. Kurt Sprengel, 1766-1833. Germany. 
STEUD. Ernst Gottlieb Steudel, 1783-1856. Germany. 
STEV. Christian Steven, 1781-1863. Russia. 
ST. HIL. Auguste de Saint Hilaire, 1779-1853. France. 
SWAHTZ. Olof Swartz, 1760-1818. Sweden. 



SWEET. Robert Sweet, 1783-1835, author of many well- 
known works, as "Geraniacesc," "British Flower Gar- 

SWINGLE. Walter T. Swingle, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington. 

TAUSCH. Ignaz Friedrich Tauseh. Died 1848. Austria. 

TENOBE. Michele Tenore, 1780-1861. Italy. 

THORE. Jean There, 1762-1823, physician at Dax. 

THUNB. Carl Peter Thunberg, 1743-1822, wrote "Flora 
Japonica" (1784). Sweden. 

TOD. Augustino Todaro, director of the botanic gardens 
at Palermo. 1818-1892. 

TORR. John Torrey, 1796-1873. New York. 

TRAUTV. Ernst Rudolph von Trautvetter. 

TREL. William Trelease, professor of botany, Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

TUCKM. Edward Tuckerman, 1817-1886. Massachusetts. 

TURCZ. Nicolaus Turczaninow. Died 1864. 

UNDERW. Prof. Lucien M. Underwood, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y., has written much on ferns, 

URBAN. Ignatius Urban, of the Kongl. Bot. Garten, near 
Berlin, writer on Brazilian and West Indian plants. 

VAHL. Martin Vahl, 1749-1804. Denmark. 

VAN HOUTTE. Louis Van Houtte, 1810-1876, founder 
and publisher of Flore des Serres. 

VEITCH. John Gould Veitch, 1839-1867, and successors, 
horticulturists at Chelsea, England. 

VENT. Etienne Pierre Ventenat, 1757-1808. France. 

VERL. B. V'erlot, contributor to Revue Horticole. 

VERSCH. Ambroise Verschaffelt, 1825-1886, founder and 
publisher of L'lllustration Horticole at Ghent, Belgium. 

VILL. Dominique Villars, 1745-1814. France. 

VILM. Several generations of the family of Vilmorin, 
Paris, seedsmen and authors of many books and 
memoirs on botany and horticulture. Pierre Philippe 
Andr6 Leveque de Vilmorin, 1746-1804. Pierre Vil- 
morin, 1816-1860. Henry L. de Vilmorin, died 1899. 

Voss. A. Voss, author of botanical part of Vilmorin's 


WAUL. Georg Wahlenberg, 1781-1851. Sweden. 
WALDST. Franz Adam, Graf von Waldstein, 1759-1823. 

WALL. Nathanael Wallich, born 1786, Copenhagen, died 

1854 London. Wrote on plants of India and Asia. 
WALP. Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, 1816-1853. 
WALT. Thomas Walter, about 1740-1788, author of 

"Flora Caroliniana." South Carolina. 
WANG. Friedrich Adam Julius von Wangenheim, 1747- 

1800. Germany. 
WANGN. Walter Wangerin, monographer of Cornacese. 


WARSCZ. Joseph Warscewicz, 1812-1866. 
WATS. Sereno Watson, 1826-1892. Harvard University. 
WEB. Friedrich Weber, 1781-1823. Germany. 
WEDD. H. A. Weddell, wrote for De Candolle's "Pro- 

dromus," vol. 16, etc. 
WELW. Friedrich Welwitsch, 1806-1872. 
WENDL. Hermann Wendland, Director Royal Botanic 

Garden at Herrenhausen, one of the chief writers on 

WIGHT. Robert Wight, writer on Indian plants. 1796- 


WILLD. Karl Ludwig Willdenow, 1765-1812. Germany. 
WILSON. Ernest H. Wilson, collector of Chinese plants. 
WITH., WITHER. William Withering, 1741-1799. Eng- 
WITTM. Max Karl Ludwig Wittmack, editor of Gar- 

tenflora. Professor at Berlin. 
WOOD. Alphonso Wood, 1810-1881. Of his "Class-Book 

of Botany," 100,000 copies have been sold in 

ZABEL. Hermann Zabel, writer on woody plants, 1832- 

1912. Germany. 
Zccc. Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini, 1797-1848, professor 

at Munich. 

The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture 



Most modern botanists, as well as zoologists, now think that organisms have descended, through the ages, 
from ancestors which differed in many ways and often markedly from the present organisms, but were in general 
of a less specialized type. It is, indeed, thought that the original life was of an exceedingly simple nature, and that 
during the countless ages its descendents have gradually diverged from one another much as the branches of a tree 
diverge from its trunk, until we have the enormous wealth of species and extreme diversity, and great complexity 
of structure exhibited by the plants and animals existing today. Just as through descent in the human race we 
have groups of individuals called families, the members of which are more closely related to each other by descent 
than to other individuals, so we have groups of related species and genera forming similar natural families. The 
attempt of the so-called systematic botanist of the present day is to interpret the evolutionary history of plants, 
to discover these natural families, and to represent this knowledge of history and relationship in a synopsis of the 
plant kingdom. Such a synopsis, therefore, attempts to show an actual "blood relationship, the real genealogy 
of the plant kingdom. Before the theory of evolution became widely accepted as a result of Darwin's labors, 
systems of classification were either wholly arbitrary, and planned simply for convenience in dealing with the vast 
number of existing organisms (e.g., the sexual system of Linnaeus), or they were based on the morphological 
relation of the flower to a certain floral plan. Since, however, the floral plan depends largely on descent, these last- 
named systems often accidentally approached in many respects very closely to the natural systems based on 
evolution. Instead of placing the "highest" types of plants (the most recent) last in their classification, as is now 
done, the idealists placed them first, hence the Ranunculacea;, with" parts separate and hypogynous, and there- 
fore most ideal, is found first in such a classification. The fusion of parts in the Compositae, and the union of parts 
in the Gamopetalse were thought to represent a less perfect condition. Likewise, the Apetalae, with parts lacking, 
were still less perfect, and therefore were placed later. The Gymnosperms were somewhat arbitrarily placed next, 
followed by the Monocotyledons, in which the grasses were placed last. These in turn were followed by the ferns 
and the lower groups. This was the system used in Bentham and Hooker's "Genera Plantarum," a great work 
which, notwithstanding the change in system, is still a standard authority in descriptive botany. 

In the system adopted for the present synopsis, that used by Engler and Prantl in the great German work, 
"Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, the sequence is from the most primitive and the most ancient toward the most 
specialized and most modern, from the lower algae to the fungi, mosses, liverworts, ferns, gymnosperms, and 
flowering plants. Here the Monocotyledonous line culminates in the hjghly specialized Orchidaceae, and the 
Dicotyledonous line in the equally specialized Compositae. These two families, therefore, are now thought to repre- 
sent the present culmination of nature's handiwork in the two great lines of development in flowering plants. 

In the present synopsis of the Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, the treatment of large groups, sequence 
of families and family limits, is, except in a few cases, that of our most recent great work edited by Engler and 
cited above. Among the mosses and lower plants, an abridgment of the system used in Strasburger, Noll, Schenk 
and Karsten's "Text-Book of Botany," and other text-books, has been used. The statistics as to genera 
and species are taken from Engler and Prantl, and are intended as general information, and may not in all cases 
conform to the limitations as worked out by the different authors in the Cyclopedia. In some cases, particularly 
in Cactaceae, other authorities have been followed. 

As no genera of the Thallophyta or Bryophyta are definitely treated in the body of the Cyclopedia, these two 
groups have been introduced into the synopsis largely as a background and as a proper perspective to the plant 
kingdom. Therefore, in these groups no divisions smaller than classes have been considered. In the Pteridophyta 
and Spermatophyta, the plan has been to include in the synopsis every family that has at least one genus repre- 
sented in the body of the original Cyclopedia. A few other families of minor horticultural value have found 
place in the present Cyclopedia and are not included in this synopsis. Although the treatment in each case has 
been of necessity reduced to great brevity, it is hoped that the condensed account of important structural char- 
acteristics, size of family, range, and economic value will be of aid in forming a conception of what each family 
represents. To render this conception more vivid, a list of the important cultivated genera and their common 
names has been appended to the treatment of each family. 

The number of species in the plant kingdom is not definitely known. It has been estimated that more than 
120,000 species of Spermatophyta and more than 60,000 species of lower plants are described. According to the 
treatment in Engler and Prantl, these legions are classified in 640 families, of which 278 are of the higher plants 
and 362 of plants below the Spermatophyta. The number of known species, however, is being rapidly increased 
as research and exploration progress, so that the numbers given above are at best only approximate. The fig- 
ures are also modified by disagreement as to what are species and what are varieties, some persons recognizing 
more or fewer species than others in a given genus or group. 

The names of the natural families are mostly derived from the names of a leading genus (as Verbenaceae, 
Ranunculacese) or from some marked characteristic of the group as a wh,ole (e.g., Composite, composite or com- 
pound flowers, Cruciferse, cross-like flowers). Commonly the family name terminates in the form acex, with 
the accent long on the antepenultimate syllable (e.g., Rosacese, pronounced Ro-saj/-si;ee) . The simple termina- 
tion x is used mostly for subfamilies and tribes, but there are marked exceptions, as in Leguminosx. 

The illustrations accompanying this text are designed to show mainly such structural characteristics as are 
of importance in the separation of families. For this reason, floral diagrams have been freely introduced. These 

1 (1) 


diagrams'are Idealized' cross-sections of the flower, and show particularly the number of parts in each floral set and 
their exact position, both of which are very frequently of diagnostic importance. The illustrations have been 
prepared by F. Schuyler Mathews under the direction of the writer. They were in part drawn from life, and 
in part adapted from standard texts. The most frequent sources are Baillon, "Natural History of Plants": 
Engler and Prantl, "Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien;" Strasburger, Noll, Schenk and Karsten, ''Text-Book of 
Botany": Warming, "Systematic Botany." 
The following is an outline of the vegetable kingdom as treated in the succeeding pages: 

Division I. Thallophyta. 
Class I. Bacteria. 

II. Cyanophycese. 

III. Flagellata. 

IV. Myxomycetes. 
V. Peridinese. 

VI. Conjugatae. 
VII. Diatomeae. 
VIII. Hetcrocontae. 
IX. Chlorophyceae. 
X. Characese. 
XI. Phaeophyceae. 
XII. Rhodophyceae. 

XIII. Phycomycetes. 

XIV. Eumycetes. 
XV. Lichenes. 

Division II. Bryophyta. 
Class I. Hepaticae. 

II. Musci. 

Division III. Pteridophyta. 
Class I. Filicinse. 

Sub-class I. Eusporangiatae. 
Order 1. Ophioglossales. 

Family Ophioglossaceae, page 7. 
Order 2. Marattiales, 

Family Marattiaceae, 7. 
Sub-class II. Leptosporangiatae. 
Order 3. Filicales. 

Family Hymenophyllaceae, 8. 
Cyatheaceae, 8. 
Polypodiaceae, 8. 
Ceratopteridaceae, 8. 
Schizaeaceae, 9. 
Gleicheniaceae, 9. 
Osmundaceae, 9. 
Order 4. Hydrppteridales. 
Family Marsileaceae, 9. 
Salyiniaceae, 10. 
Class II. Equisetinae. 

Order 5. Equisetales. 

Family EquisetaceaB, 10. 
Class III. Lycopodinae. 

Order 6. Lycopodiales. 

Family Lycopodiaceae, 10. 
Order 7. Selaginellales. 

Family Selaginellaceae, 10. 
Division IV. Spermatpphyta or Siphonogamia (Pha- 


Sub-division I. Gymnospermae. 
Order 8. Cycadales. 

Family Cycadaceae, 11. 
Order 9. Ginkgoales. 

Family Ginkgoaceae, 11. 
Order 10. Coniferales. 
Family Taxaceae, 11. 
Pinaceae, 12. 
Order 11. Gnetales. 

Family Gnetaceap, 12. 
Sub-division II. Angiospermae. 
Class I. Monocotyledoneae. 
'Order 12. Pandanales. 
Family Typhaceae, 13. 

Pandanaceae, 13. 
Order 13. Helobiae. 
Family Naiadaceae, 13. 

Aponogetonaceae, 13. 

Family Alismaceac, page 13. 
ButomaceiE, 14. 
Hydrocharitaceae, 14. 
Order 14. Glumiflorae. 
Family Gramineae, 14. 
Cyperaceas, 15. 
Order 15. Principes. 

Family Palmaceae, 16. 
Order 16. Synanthae. 

Family Cyclanthaceae, 17. 
Order 17. Spathiflorae. 
Family Araceae, 17. 

Lemnaceas, 18. 
Order 18. Farinosae. 

Family Bromeliaceae, 18. 

Commelinaceac, 18. 
Pontederiaceae, 18. 
Order 19. Liliflora. 
Family Juncaceae, 19. 
Liliaceae, 19. 
Amaryllidaceae, 20. 
Taccacese, 20. 
Dioscoriaceae, 20. 
Iridaceae, 21. 
Order 20. Scitamineae. 
Family Musaceae, 21. 

Zingiberaceae, 21. 
Cannaceae, 22. 
Marantaceae, 22. 
Order 21. Micrpspermae. 

Family Orchidaceae, 22. 
Class II. Dicotyledoneae. 
Sub-class I. Archichlamydeae (Choripetalae and 

Order 22. Verticillales. 

Family Casuarinaceae, 23. 
Order 23. Piperales. 

Family Saururacese, 23. 
Pipcraceae, 23. 
Chloranthaceae, 24. 
Order 24. Salicales. 

Family Salicaceae, 24. 
Order 25. Myricales. 

Family Myricaceae, 24. 
Order 26. Juglandales. 

Family Juglandaceae, 25. 
Order 27. Fagales. 
Family Betulaceac, 25. 

Fagaceap, 25. 
Order 28. Urticales. 
Family Ulmaceae, 25. 
Moraceae, 26. 
UrticaceaE, 26. 
Order 29. Proteales. 

Family Proteaceae, 27. 
Order 30. Santalales. 

Family Loranthaceae, 27. 
Santalaceae, 27. 
OlacaceaB, 27. 
Order 31. Aristolochiales. 

Family Aristolochiacese, 28. 
Order 32. Polygonales. 

Family Polygonaceae, 28. 
Order 33. Centrospermae. 
Family Chenopodiaceas, 29. 
Amarantaceae, 29. 
Nyctaginaceae, 29. 
Phytolaccaceae, 30. 


Family Aizoacese, page 30. 

Portulacaceic, 30. 

Basellaceae, 30. 

Caryophyllaceae, 31. 
Order 34. Ranales. 

Family Xymphaeaceae, 31. 

Trochodendracese, 32. 

Ranunculaceae, 32. 

Lardizabalaceae, 33. 

Berberidaceae, 33. 

Menispermaceae, 33. 

Magnoliaceae, 33. 

Calycanthaceae, 34. 

Annonaceae, 34. 

Myristicaceae, 35. 

Monimiaceae, 35. 

Lauraceae, 35. 
Order 35. Rhoeadales. 
Family Papaveraceae, 35. 

Fumariaceae, 36. 

Cruciferae, 36. 

Capparidaceae, 36. 

Resedaceas, 37 

Moringaceae, 37. 
Order 36. Sarraceniales. 
Family Sarraceniaceae, 37. 

Nepenthaceae, 38. 

Droseraceae, 38. 
Order 37. Resales. 

Family Crassulaceae, 38. 

Cephalotaceae, 38. 

Saxifragaceac, 39. 

Pittosporaceac, 39. 

Cunoniaceae, 39. 

Bruniacese, 39. 

Hamamelidaceae, 40. 

Platanaceae, 40. 

Rosaceae, 40. 

Leguminosae, 41. 
Order 38. Geraniales. 
Family Geraniaceae, 42. 

Oxalidaceae, 43. 

Tropaeolaceae, 43. 

Linaceae, 43. 

Erythroxylaceae, 44. 

Zygophyllaceae., 44. 

Rutaceae, 44. 

Simarubaceae, 44. 

Burseracese, 45. 

MeliaceZE, 45. 

Malpighiaceae, 45. 

Tremandraceae, 46. 

Polygalaceae, 46. 

Euphorbiaceae, 46. 
Order 39. Sapindales. 
Family Buxaceae, 47. 

Empetraces, 47. 

Coriariaceae, 47. 

Limnanthaceae, 48. 

Anacardiaceae, 48. 

Cyrillaceae, 48. 

Aquifoliaceae, 48. 

Celastraceae, 49. 

Stackhousiaceae, 49. 

Staphyleaceae, 49. 

Aceraceae, 49. 

Hippocastanaceae, 50. 

Sapindaceae, 50. 

Melianthaceae, 50. 

Balsaminaceae, 50. 
Order 40. Rhamnales. 
Family Rhamnaceae, 51. 

Vitaceae, 51. 
Order 41. Malvales. 

Family Elaeocarpaceae, 51. 

Tiliaceae, 52. 

Family Malvaceae, page 52. 

Bombacacea;, 53. 

Sterculiaceas, 53. 
Order 42. Parietales. 
Family Dilleniaceae, 53. 

Ochnaceae, 53. 

Ternstroemiaceae, 54. 

Guttiferae, 54. 

Hypericaceae, 54. 

Tamarieaceao, 55. 

Fouquieriaceae, 55. 

Cistaceae, 55. 

Bixaceae, 55. 

Violaceae, 56. 

Flacourtiaceae, 56. 

Stachyuraceae, 56. 

Passinoraceae, 56. 

Caricaceac. 57. 

Loasaceae, 57. 

Begoniaceae, 57. 
Order 43. Opuntiales. 

Family Cactaceao, 57. 
Order 44. Myrtiflorae. 

Family Thymelaeaceae, 58. 

Elaeagnaceae, 59. 

Lythraceae, 59. 

Punicaceae, 59. 

Lecythidaceae, 59. 

Rhizophoraceae, 59. 

Combretaceae, 60. 

Myrtaceae, 60. 

Melastomaceae, 60. 

Onagraceae, 61. 

Hydrocaryaceae, 61. 

Haloragidaceae, 61. 
Order 45. Umbelliflorae. 
Family Araliaceac, 62. 

Umbelliferae, 62. 

Cornaceae, 63. 

Sub-class II. Metachlamydeae or Sympetalae. 
Order 46. Ericales. 

Family Clethraceae, 63. 

Pyrolaceac, 63. 

Mpnotropaceae, 63. 

Ericaceae, 64. 

Epacridaceae, 64. 

Diapensiaceae, 64. 
Order 47. Primulales. 
Family Myrsinaceae, 64. 

Primulaceae, 64. 

Plumbaginaceae, 65. 
Order 48. Ebenales. 
Family Sapotaceae, 65. 

Ebenaceae, 65. 

Styracaceae, 66. 

Symplocaceae, 66. 
Order 49. Contortae. 
Family Oleacese, 66. 

Loganiaceae, 67. 

Gentianaceae, 67. 

Apocynaceae, 67. 

Asclepiadaceae, 67. 
Order 50. Tubifloras. 

Family Convolvulaceae, 68. 

PolemoniaceaD, 68. 

Hydrophyllaceae, 68. 

Boraginacea?, 69. 

Verbenaceae, 69. 

Labiatae, 70. 

Nolanaceae, 70. 

Solanaceae, 70. 

Scrophulariaceae, 71. 

Bignoniaceae, 71. 

Pedaliaceae, 72. 

Martyniaceae, 72. 

Gesneriaceae, 72. 


Family Lentibulariaceae, page 73. 

Globulariaceae, 73. 

Acanthaceae, 73. 

Myoporaceae, 74. 

Phrymaceae, 74. 
Order 51. Plant aginalea. 
Family Plantaginaceae. 
Order 52. Rubiales. 
Family Rubiacese, 74. 

Caprifoliaceae, 74. 

Valerianaceae, 75. 

Dipsacaceae, 75. 
Order 53. Campanulales. 
Family Cucurbitaceae, 75. 

Campanulaceas, 76. 

Composite, 76. 


Plants characterized rather indefinitely by the absence 
of an archegonium around the egg, and the absence of 
the type of antheridium found among the higher plants. 
The plant body is rarely differentiated into organs 
simulating stem and leaves, and no true vascular 
tissue is found in the group. Formerly the Thallophyta 
were divided into the Algae, Fungi, and Lichens; but 
this, though a good classification on physiological 
grounds, does not indicate actual relationship so well 
as the modern division into fifteen classes founded on 
structure, as follows: 


Unicellular or filamentous organisms without green 
color, possibly "degenerated" from the Cyanophyceae, 
with no true nucleus, the cell-wall often gelatinous : repro- 
duction wholly asexual by division into two equal por- 
tions and subsequent separation (fission) ; or by asexual 
spores, one of which may be produced in each cell. Bac- 
teria are probably the smallest known organisms, some 
being not over .00003 inch in diameter. In form, the 
cells are either oblong, spherical or spiral, and may be 
separate or united in groups or chains, and may be either 
motile by means of cilia or non-motile. Bacteria, while 
showing little structural diversity, have become highly 
specialized physiologically, and it is on this basis that 
the species are usually distinguished. Many cause disease 
among animals and human beings, while others cause 
disease among plants. Nitrifying bacteria in the soil are 
of vital importance to higher plants. Bacteria and fungi 
are the causes of decay. 


Unicellular or filamentous algae of blue-green color; 
true nuclei wanting: cell-wall often gelatinous: 
reproduction wholly asexual by fission or by asexual 
spores borne as in the bacteria. The blue-green algae 
inhabit water, damp soil, damp rocks, or damp tree 
trunks, where they often form filamentous or gelatinous, 
dark green patches. The aquatic forms prefer water 
containing much organic matter and hence are abun- 
dant in sewers. Certain species inhabit flower-pots in 
greenhouses, and brick walls. 


Simple unicellular aquatic organisms intermediate 
between the Thallophyta and Protozoa. During a por- 
tion of their life they possess no cell-wall, and often show 
amcebpid movements. The cells contain a nucleus, 
pulsating vacuole, and chlorophyll; and one or more 
cilia are present. Some reduced forms are colorless 
and saprophytic. Reproduction is wholly asexual by 
fission and thick-walled resting spores. Found in 
waters of ponds and streams. 


A very distinct and independent group, formerly 
often classified in the animal kindgom. The plants 
consist of naked masses of protoplasm called plasmodia, 
which contain many nuclei but no chlorophyll. These are 
found in forests and damp, shady places. When ready 
to fruit, the plasrnodia move toward the light and away 
from the water, hence ascend grass stems, stumps and 
logs, where they transform into elaborately constructed 
sporangia. The asexual spores, each enclosed by a cell- 
wall, are distributed by the wind, germinate, produce 
a ciliated bit of naked protoplasm which swims in the 
soil moisture, multiply by division and at length fuse 
with neighboring protoplasts to form the plasmodium, 
which latter may be sometimes a foot in breadth. Dur- 
ing unfavorable weather, the plasmodia are often trans- 
formed into sclerotia. Plasmodiophora brassicse, which 
is the cause of the club-root of cabbage, is the only 
Myxomycete of great economic importance. 


A small group mostly inhabiting the sea, more rarely 
fresh water. They are unicellular, free-swimming 
organisms with nucleus, vacuole, chromatophores, and 
cilia. The cell is usually surrounded by a cellulose, 
sculptured, or pitted and transversely furrowed, wall. 
Reproduction is by cell-division and swarm-spores 
Sexual reproduction has recently been discovered. 
The Peridinece often form an important part of the 
plankton in the sea. 


Green filamentous or unicellular fresh-water algae: 
cell-wall and nuclei present : reproduction by division 
of the plant body, and by sexual spores, which latter 
result from the union of two body cells by means of a 
connecting tube (conjugation). Plants of the sub-group 
Desmidiaceae are not filamentous, but often star- 
shaped, lunate, or geminate in outline. The Zygne- 
maceas are filamentous with star-shaped (Zygnema), 
spiral (Spirogyra), or plate-like chloroplastids. The 
Conjugatae are of little economic importance. 


Unicellular algae of very peculiar and interesting 
habit. The wall consists of two silicious valves, one of 
which fits over the other like the lid of a box. These 
valves are frequently very beautifully sculptured. 
Through division, new cells and new walls are formed, 
which are always smaller than before, until finally as a 
limit a sexual spore is produced which reestablishes the 
size of the cell. Diatoms inhabit stagnant water, wet 
rocks, and the sea. They are either free-floating or 
pedicelled and attached. The silicious walls will resist 
burning. Diatoms contain little, if any, chlorophyll, 
and are mostly saprophytic. A large part of the oceanic 
plankton is composed of Diatoms. 


A small group of green algae, inhabiting wet soil or 
v/ater, but of little, if any, economic importance. The 
zoospores have unequal cilia; and the chloroplastids 
are yellowish green and oil-producing. Asexual resting 
spores also occur. Conjugating zoospore-like gametes 
are found in some genera. Botrydium and Conferva 
are examples of this class. 


A large and important group of fresh-water, or rarely 
marine, algae. Plant body unicellular, filamentous, or 
even thalloid: the cells contain chloroplastids and pro- 
duce starch: reproduction sometimes vegetative, but 
also by asexual zoospores; sexual reproduction con- 


sists of the the fusion of two zoospore-I ike gametes, or 
the fusion of one such gamete and a specialized non- 
motile egg. The latter condition is characteristic of 
the higher forms in nearly all the sub-groups of the 
Chlorophycese. The plant body in the Order Siphonales 
is peculiar in that it consists of a continuous tube with- 
out cross-walls. Some common genera in this class are 
Volvox, Chlamydomonas, Pandorina, Protococcus, 
Pediastrum, Scenedesmus, Hydrodictyon (Water-net), 
Ulothrix, Ulva (Sea-lettuce), (Edogonium, Cladophora, 
Caulerpa, and Vaucheria. 

CLASS X. CHARACE.E (Stoneworts) 

Attached plants (1 inch to 1 yard in length) of fresh 
or brackish water, consisting of a slender stem, which 
bears at each node a whorl of branches, usually again 
bearing whorled branchlets. The internodes consist of 
one immense multinucleated cell often as much as 
3 inches long, which is naked or inclosed in a sheath 
of smaller cells. The branches are similarly constructed 
though the cells are correspondingly smaller. Asexual 
spore-reproduction is absent. Sexual reproduction is 
by means of an egg-cell inclosed in a jacket of spiral 
wall-cells, and of sperm-cells inclosed in an antheridium 
which has a multicellular wall. These sexual organs 
are borne at the nodes of the branchlets. The fertilized 
egg and its investment becomes a thick-walled resting 
structure. Many species of Chara and Nitella, the 
only two genera, have the power to deposit lime from 
solution, and thus become incrusted with that substance, 
hence the popular name. In this way the Characese 
have played a part in the filling up of calcareous lakes 
and the production of new land. They are mostly in- 
habitants of calcareous waters. 

CLASS XI. PH^OPHYCE^: (Brown Seaweeds) 

A large group of salt-water algse, well known in all 
waters of the globe, but most abundant in the colder 
regions. Plant body attached, usually thalloid and 
branched, but very diverse; in some cases filamentous, 
in others disk-shaped or globular. The larger forms of 
Laminaria are sometimes 200 feet long. The chroma- 
tophores of the PhseophyceEe contain a brown pigment 
which gives to these plants a brown or yellowish color 
instead of green. The thallus is often very tough and 
cartilaginous, to resist the waves. Zoospores are often 
produced. In sexual reproduction, the gametes are 
either similar and motile, rarely non-motile, or more 
often the sperm is motile while the egg is much larger 
and non-motile. Details of structure in respect to 
reproduction, however, are very great. 

The thallus of various species of Phseophyceze yields 
iodine and soda. Some species (e.g., Laminaria sac- 
charina) yield mannite and are used in the Orient for 
food. The dried stalks of L. digitata and L. Cloustoni 
have been used in surgery. Fucus and other genera 
are used as manure. 

One species, Sargassum bacciferum, has accumulated 
in great quantities in the Atlantic Ocean between the 
Bermuda Islands and the Spanish coast, in the so-called 
"Sargasso Sea." 


Mostly marine algae, a few only inhabiting fresh 
water, widely distributed, but most abundant in the 
tropics and temperate region at lower depths. The 
thallus is very diverse, filamentous, branched, often 
thalloid, attached by holdfasts, and red, violet, or 
purple in color, rarely green. True starch is not found. 
Asexual spore-reproduction is frequent. These spores 
are non-motile and produced in fours (tetraspores). 
Sexual reproduction is by dissimilar gametes, the 
antheridium becoming without change a single non- 
motile sperm-cell. The egg-cell is prolonged upward 
into a slender tube (trichogyne). The fertilized egg 

by division gives rise to a globular mass of short fila- 
ments (cystocarp) which produce asexual spores. These 
spores in turn give rise to the mature plant. The 
cystocarp and its spores, thus following fertilization, 
suggest the alternation of generations found in the 
mosses and liverworts and all higher plants. About 
300 species of Rhodophycea: have been described. 

Carragheen, or Irish moss, used in jellies and pud- 
dings, is the dried thallus of Chondrus crispus and Gigar- 
tina mamillosa of northwestern Europe. Agar-agar, 
used in the preparation of culture media in bacteriology 
and mycology, is obtained from various species of this 


A large group of parasitic or saprophytic organisms 
(fungi), without chlorophyll: thallus (mycelium) of 
much-branched filaments (hyphse); usually without 
cross-walls (non-septate), as in the algal group Si- 
phonese: asexual reproduction by motile or non-motile 
spores which are usually borne in sporangia, and by 
conidia which are cells abstricted from the tips of 
specialized hyphse: sexual reproduction diverse, either 
by the conjugation of similar gametes, or by the con- 
jugation of a specialized antheridial branch (male) and 
an enlarged oogonial branch (female) which contains 
the egg; free sperm-cells are rare. The order Obmy- 
cetes, with differentiated gametes, contains the following 
important fungi: Saprolegnia (water-mold), a whitish, 
aquatic mold growing on decaying plants, insects, or 
living fishes; Olpidium brassicx, parasitic in cells at the 
base of the stem of young cabbage plants causing their 
death ; Phytopkthora infestans (potato disease) ; Plasmo- 
para viticola, downy or false mildew of the grape; Albugo 
Candida, white rust of Cruciferse; Pythiwmde Baryanum, 
causing damping off of seedlings. Order Zygomycetes, 
with similar gametes, contains Mucor mucedo, white 
mold of bread, fruits, etc. ; Rhizopus nigricans, a mold 
on bread, fruit, etc.; Empusa muscse, parasitic on 
houseflies, causing their death and producing a white 
halo about them on the surface where they die. 


A very large and important group of saprophytic or 
parasitic organisms (fungi) without chlorophyll: thallus 
(mycelium) composed of fine tubular threads, which are 
septate: sexual organs usually obscure or apparently 
wanting: asexual reproduction by spores or by conidia, 
a modified form of which is termed basidia. The 
conidia and basidia do not always represent homolo- 
gous organs. The group is divided into Ascomycetes 
and Basidiomycetes. The Ascomycetes are character- 
ized by a' group of usually 8 spores inclosed in a unicel- 
lular sac (ascus), which is produced immediately after 
the imperfect sexual fertilization. The asci are borne in 
spherical bodies (perithecia) or in open cups (apothecia). 
The Perisporiaceje, Discomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, and 
Tuberaceae are orders within this sub-class. Among the 
many important economic fungi belonging here are 
the following: Erysiphose (Downy Mildews); Aspergil- 
lus and Penicillium (Fruit Mold, Blue Mold); Mor- 
chella (Morel), edible; Nectria (Currant Cane Rust and 
Tree Canker) ; Claviceps purpurea (Ergot) , parastic in the 
ovaries of grains; Taphrina (including Exoascus), caus- 
ing witches' broom, leaf curl of peach, plum pockets, 
etc.; Saccharomyces (Yeast), causing fermentation 
in saccharine solutions. The Basidiomycetes are 
characterized by the production of four spores on a 
special hyphal tip or thread (basidium). Each spore 
is raised on a minute slender stalk (sterigma). These 
spores, in some cases, if not in all, follow immediately 
after a nuclear fusion, which probably represents a 
reduced sexual act. In this group are the Ustilaginese 
(Smuts), infesting the ovaries of grains, etc.; the Ure- 
dinese (Rusts), which infest a wide variety of culti- 
vated and wild plants, and among which may be men- 


tioned the wheat rust; the Hymenomycetes (Mush- 
rooms, Toadstools, and Bracket Fungi), which are 
saprophy tic or inhabit timber; and the Gasteromycetes 
(Puff-balls), which are saprophy tic. The rusts exhibit 
alternation of generations to a most remarkable degree, 
the different generations often inhabiting different host 
plants and possessing a wholly different appearance, as 
well as a wholly different method of spore-formation. 
The Hymenomycetes are saprophytic, except the genus 
Exobasidium which inhabits the living foliage of various 
plants, the genus Armillaria which infests living tree- 
trunks, and many genera of the Polyporacese (Bracket 
Fungi) which also attack the wood of living trees. The 
last-mentioned fungi, including Armillaria, inhabit the 
trunks and branches of forest trees, causing their death. 


Green, gray or highly colored plants of very diverse 
habit and habitat, either thalloid, fruticose or crusta- 
ceous, and growing on the soil, bark of trees, rocks, or 
rarely on foliage: propagation by division of the thallus 
or by the separation of special minute powdery parts 
(soredia): spore-reproduction by ascospores borne in 
perithecia or apothecia, rarely by basidiospores. The 
lichen thallus is not a single organism, but is prob- 
ably a symbiotic structure, comprised fundamentally 
of fungus hyphse between which many unicellular green 
algse are distributed, usually in a definite fashion. 
The fungi belong to the Ascomycetes in the great 
majority of cases, rarely to the Basidiomycetes. The 
algae may belong to the Chlorophycese, in which case 
they are unicellular, or to the Cyanophycea;, in which 
case they are either unicellular or in chains. Because 
the symbiotic structure behaves as a unit, it has been 
decided to continue to treat the lichens as a class by 
themselves, rather than to consider the algal and fungal 
components Independently in their respective groups. 
Except as soil-producers, lichens are of little economic 
importance: Cetraria islandica furnishes Iceland moss; 
Sticta pulnumaria was once used in medicine; Cladonia 
rangiferina furnishes the main food of the reindeer in 
Lapland, and, possibly, of other arctic animals; Roccella 
tinctoria of Africa and the East Indies is the source of 
the chemical indicator, litmus and of the dye orchil or 


(Mosses and Liverworts) 

Small green plants of simple structure, either thalloid 
or differentiated into stem and leaves: true roots 
wanting: vascular tissue absent: alternation of gen- 
erations well developed, the gamete-bearing generation 
dominant: female gamete (egg) inclosed in a flask- 
shaped multicellular archegonium : male gametes (sperm- 
cells) inclosed within a multicellular antheridial wall: 
fertilized egg producing the spore-bearing generation 
(sporogonium) which consists of a parasitic or semi- 
parasitic capsule usually borne upon a seta. 

The Bryophytes are divided into two great classes, 
namely the Hepatic* (Liverworts) and the Musci 
(Mosses). Each of these in turn is divided into several 
orders, which, as usual, contain one or more families. 
Mosses and liverworts are widely distributed over the 
earth, the latter seeming to prefer limestone regions. 

The Hepatic* are characterized by a spore-bearing 
generation consisting of a stalked or sessile simple cap- 
sule, which contains spores and elongated sterile elaters, 
and splits into teeth or valves at maturity. The 
plant body (gamete-bearing generation) 'consists either 
of a thalloid, algal-like, dichotomously branching, 
ribbon-like structure, or of a slender axis bearing the 
very thin leaves, one cell in thickness, and destitute 
of a midrib. The leaves are usually arranged in two 
lateral rows, with often a third row of small dissim- 

ilar leaves on the under side, so that the shoot is 
strongly dorsi-ventral. The lateral leaves frequently 
bear at the base a curious lobe that is infolded or 
even flask-shaped, and probably aids in the conserva- 
tion of water on the dry rocks and tree trunks which 
many of these plants frequent. The under side of the 
stem or thallus is usually provided with rhizoids that 
take the place of roots. The thalloid liverworts are 
inhabitants of damp or wet situations, some being 
aquatic: in the North, they are found on damp soil, wet 
rocks, or among damp moss. The majority of foliose 
liverworts inhabit similar places, only comparatively 
few genera and species being xerophytic. Filaments of 
the alga, Nostoc, penetrate the cavities in the thallus 
of Anthoceros and there form endophvtic colonies. Veg- 
etative reproduction is accomplished by the branching 
of the thallus, or by the production of special buds, 
called gemma;, either on the edge of the loaf or thal- 
lus, or in special cup-like receptacles borne on the sur- 
face of the thallus. 

The Hepatica; are divided into four principal orders 
as follows: Order I. Ricciales. Thalloid, floating or 
amphibious: sexual organs sunken in the thallus: 
capsule sessile, thin-walled, endophytic, irregularly 
dehiscent. Order II. Marchantiales. Thalloid: arch- 
egonia and antheridia usually borne on special branches 
of the thallus: capsule often stalked, usually regularly 
dehiscent. Marchantia was formerly used as a remedy 
in diseases of the liver, hence the name liverwort. 
Order III. Anthocerotales. Thalloid: one chloroplast 
in each cell: sexual organs superficial: capsule very 
slender, chlorophyll- and stomate-bearing, continuing 
to elongate by basal growth. Order IV. Jungerman- 
niales. . Thalloid or foliose: capsule usually splitting 
to the base into four valves. 

The Musci (Mosses) differ from the Hepaticse mainly 
in the more elaborate capsule, which in the young 
state commonly contains chlorophyll, is provided with 
stomates, and contains a central column of sterile 
tissue (columella) encircled by the spore -bearing 
chamber. The dehiscence of the capsule is apical and 
transverse, and consists in the formation of a lid (oper- 
culum) which falls off exposing the mouth of the an- 
nular spore-chamber. This mouth is surrounded by a 
single or double row of numerous hygroscopic teeth 
(peristome), which, by their bending, regulate the 
escape of snores in wet and dry weather. No elaters 
are produced. The sporogonium of the moss is, there- 
fore, not only a more independent structure from the 
standpoint of nutrition than is that of most liverworts, 
but is constructed along wholly different lines. On the 
summit of the capsule is usually found a delicate, 
diversely shaped, hood-like cap not organically con- 
nected with it and easily detached, called the calyptra. 
This is the enlarged upper portion of the archegonium, 
which, after rupture, is borne aloft on the summit of 
the growing sporogonium. The plant-body (gamete- 
bearing generation) is never thalloid; and the leaves, 
which are provided with a midrib, are frequently of 
several cells in thickness. The germination of the spore 
does not result at once in a moss plant, but produces 
a creeping filamentous branched, algal-like growth 
(protonema) on which at length are borne the buds 
that give rise to the moss-stem proper. 

The Musci are subdivided as follows: Order I. 
Sphagnales (Bog or Peat Structure of stem 
and leaf peculiar, consisting of dead, tracheid-like cells 
without protoplasm and provided with pits or thicken- 
ing bands, regularly interspersed among slender, living 
cells containing protoplasm and chloroplastids. Under 
ordinary conditions, the tracheid-like cells are filled 
in part with air, and hence the plant has a grayish 
hue. In the presence of rain or abundant soil-water, 
the water is drawn into the cells by capillarity until 
the still apparently dry plant contains a surprisingly 
large quantity of water, which will flow out on squeezing 


in the hand. The capsule possesses no peristome, and 
the spore-sac is continuous over the top of the colu- 
mella. Peat mosses are large, branched plants growing 
in extensive colonies in wet or damp situations in 
northern countries. They are especially abundant on 
the floating moors which surround certain small ponds, 
and by their decay play an important part in the filling 
in of these ponds. They continue to thrive in these 
"bogs" until the conditions at length become too dry. 
Peat mosses, therefore, form a large component of 
"peat," and in this way the Sphagnales have played a 
very interesting part in the evolution of the present 
surface of the earth. Because of the power to retain 
water, sphagnum is of economic importance to nursery- 
men and florists, who use this moss extensively in pack- 
ing stock for shipment, in germinating seeds, and for 
other purposes. Some species of sphagnum are eaten 
in Lapland by the reindeer. Mixed with the hair of the 
reindeer, they are used for stuffing mattresses. Order 
II. Andreales. A small group of rock mosses. The 
spore-chamber is continuous over the summit of the 
columella, and the capsule dehisces by four longitudinal 
slits. Order III. Phascales. A small group of minute 
terrestrial mosses with few leaves, but a persistent 
protonema: capsule indehiscent, at length decaying. 
Order IV. Bryales. A large group containing the 
majority of the mosses: capsule dehiscing by an oper- 
culum; peristome present; spore-sac interrupted at 
the summit by the columella. Certain species were 
formerly used as astringents and diuretics. Leskea 
sericea has been used to stop the flow of blood from 
wounds. Species of Hypnum and Fontenalis are used 
in Norway and Sweden, by the peasants, to fill cracks 
in the walls of huts. Hypnum triquetrum is sometimes 
used in place of sphagnum for packing plants. 

With the exception of sphagnum, the mosses and 
liverworts do not seem to be in the trade. 


Eggs borne in archegonia: sperm-cells in antheridia: 
alternation of generations clearly evident, the spore- 
bearing generation dominant: true vascular tissue 
present; also true roots. 


Sub-doss I. Eusporangiatas. Sporangial wall several 
cells in thickness 


1. Ophioglossaceae (from the genus Ophioglossum, 
adder's tongue, in reference to the fruiting spike). 
ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY. Fig. 1. Plants small or of 
medium size, often somewhat fleshy: leaves various, 
entire or often much divided, not circinate in vernation; 
veins forking or netted; base of leaf cap-like, enclosing 
the succeeding leaf: sporangia scattered, borne on the 
margin of the much modified fertile portion of the 
leaf, which is usually separated from the sterile by a 
stalk, globular in form; the walls several cells in thick- 
ness; an mil us wanting; dehiscence by a straight hori- 
zontal or vertical fissure: prqthallium subterranean, 
tuber-like, chlorophylless, containing mycorrhizal fungi, 

Three genera and about 50 species occur, of general 
distribution. Several species of Botrychium and one of 
Ophioglossum are found in the eastern United States. 
The sheathing base of the leaf, the solitary, thick- 
walled sporangia without an annulus, and the subter- 
ranean saprophytic prothallia are important character- 

Two genera are sometimes grown in North America: 
Botrychium (Moonwort Ferns, Grape Ferns) and 
Ophioglossum (Adder's Tongue). 


2. Marattiaceae (from the genus Utaratlia, named in 
honor of Maratti, Italian botanist). MARATTIA FAM- 
ILY. Fig. 1. Stately tropical ferns with thickened, 
often erect, stems: leaves usually very large, from nearly 
entire to several times pinnate, circinate, inclosed when 
young by the prominent stipules: indusium present or 
absent: sporangia in sori on the under face of the leaf, 
either separate or united into a capsule-like body (syn- 
angium); the walls several cells in thickness; annulus 
wanting, or greatly reduced; dehiscence by clefts, pores, 
or, in case of the "synangia," first by valves and then 
by slits: prothallium a green heart-shaped thallus on 
the surface of the soil, sometimes branched. 

Four genera and about 23 species are found in 
tropical regions, but extend into the south temperate 

1. MAHATTiACEjE: 1. Angiopteria, sorua. 2. Marattia, synan- 
gium. OpHiooLO8SACE.E: 3. Ophioglossum, a, whole plant; 6 
dehiscing sporangia. 4. Botrychium, sporangia. EQUISETACEJE 

5. Equisetum, a, cross-section stem; fr, fruit stem; c, sterile stem 
d, sporophyll and sporangia; e, spore and elater. LYCOPODIACE.E. 

6. Lycopodium, a, fruit branch; 6, sporophyll and sporangium. 
SELAOINELLACE*E: 7. Sclanginella, a, fruit spike; 6, spore showing 
prothallium and archegonia. 

zone. The fern-like habit, the prominent stipules, the 
thick-walled sporangia borne in sori or synangia, the 
absence of a well-developed annulus, and the green 
thalloid emersed prothallia, are important characteris- 
tics. The family is probably very old geologically. 

The thick, starchy stem of Angiopteris and some 
Marattias are locally used for food. The fleshy stipules 
of Marattia frarinea are eaten; the spicy leaves of some 
species are used to season food. The slime from the 
stipules of M. Douglasii is used medicinally by the 

Three genera are known to American horticulture 
and are occasionally grown as ornamental greenhouse 
plants: Angiopteris, Danaea, and Marattia, represent- 
ing less than a half-dozen cultivated species. 



Sub-class II. Leplosporangialse. Sporangial wall 
one cell in thickness 


3. Hymenophyllacese (from the genus Hymeno- 
phyllum, signifying membrane-leaved). FILMY-FERN 
FAMILY. Kg. 2. Very delicate ferns, small or minute in 
size, frequently epiphytic: leaves entire, 1-3-pinnate. or 
dichotomously divided, rarely thalloid or orbicular, 
reduced in thickness to a single layer of cells between 
the veins, and thus often resembling the leaves of 
mosses; stomates absent; ultimate or all veins dichoto- 
mous: sori marginal, raised on a slender columnar pro- 

2. HYMENOPHYLLACE-E: 1. Hymenophyllum, section of sorus. 
CYATHEACE.E: 2. Alspphila, sporangium. POLYPODIACE/E: 3. Aa- 
pidium, o, pinnule with sori; 6, section of sorus. 4. Adiantum, 
prothallium with young fern plant. 5. Polypodium, a, archego- 
nium; 6, antheritiium; c, sperm. 6. Peranema, sporangium. GLEICH- 
ENIACE&: 7. Gleichenia, sporangium. 

jection of the veinlet: indusium cup-shaped: sporan- 
gium thin-walled; dehiscence vertical or oblique ; 
annulus complete, horizontal: prothallium thalloid or 
filamentous, often much branched. 

There are 2 genera and about 200 species growing 
upon rocks and trees in the damp, shady forests of the 
tropics, and in New Zealand. One species reaches 
central Europe and another reaches Kentucky. The 
family is readily distinguished by the delicate leaf, 
pedicelled sorus and equatorial annulus. 

The Hymenophyllacese require a warm and very 
humid atmosphere, and, therefore, most species are 
difficult to cultivate. 

Several species of Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes 
are in cultivation in America. 

4. Cyatheaceae (from the genus Cyathea, signifying 
cup+contain, in reference to the cup-shaped indusium). 
CYATHEA FAMILY. Fig. 2. Usually tree ferns with 
large, much-compounded, circinate leaves: sori globu- 
lar, borne on the under side of the leaf: veins forking: 
indusium usually present, bi-valvular, cupular or uni- 
lateral: sporangia thin-walled, sessile or short-pedi- 
celled, obovoid ; annulus complete at the pedicel, 
oblique, dehiscence transverse: prothallium ordinary, 

This family has 7 genera and about 300 species, of 
which 115 belong to Cyathea, 112 to Alsophila, and 44 
to Hemitelia. They are distributed in the tropics of 

both hemispheres. The Cyatheacese is closely related 
to the Polypodiaceas from which it differs only in the 
slightly oblique annulus which passes just at one side 
of the insertion of the pedicel, and is therefore unin- 
terrupted at that point. 

The dense, woolly covering of the stem of many species 
is sometimes collected for stuffing pillows. The starchy 
pith of some New Zealand Cyatheaceae was formerly 
used for food. In India, an intoxicating drink is pre- 
pared from the pith. Several species are important 
greenhouse ferns. 

Five genera at least are listed in the American 
trade: Alsophila, Cibotium (Scythian Lamb), Cyathea, 
Dicksonia, Hemitelia. 

5. Polypodiaceas (from the genus Polypodium, signi- 
fying many feet, in allusion to the branched rootstock 
of some species). POLYPODY FAMILY. Fig. 2. Ferns of 
very diverse habit, rarely arborescent: leaves of nor- 
mal texture, entire or pinnatifidor multisect, circinate; 
veins forking: sori mostly on the under side of the leaf; 
indusium peltate, fringed, capillary, cupular, elongated, 
unilateral or wanting: sporangia thin- walled, long- or 
short-stalked; annulus vertical, interrupted by the 
pedicel; dehiscence transverse: prothallium thalloid, 
green, growing upon the surface of the soil, mostly 

Polypodiaceas has more than 100 genera and about 
4,000 species of wide distribution; especially abundant 
in humid regions and in forests. The largest genera are: 
Dryopteris (or Aspidium), 450 species; Polypodium, 
500 sp.; Asplenium, 150-200 sp.; Elaphoglossum, 80- 
100 sp.; Adiantum, 80 sp.; and Pteris, Blechnum, 
Polystichum and Aspidium about 50-70 species each. 
The family is most closely related to the Cyatheacese. 
The presence of sori, the thin-walled sporangium with 
vertical interrupted annulus and transverse dehiscence 
are distinctive. This comprises the larger number of 
ferns, and is often called the Fern Family. 

Some of the most striking variants are the walking- 
leaf fern with undivided lanceolate leaves which take 
root at the apex and repeat the process several times, 
all the plantlets remaining for a time connected; the 
hart's -tongue fern with broadly lanceolate - oblong, 
entire frond; the epiphytic staghorn fern with erect, 
forked, fertile fronds and orbicular entire, sterile fronds 
closely imbricated over the short stem and support. In 
many species the fertile and sterile fronds are dimorphic. 
The stems of some species are slender and climbing; 
others long, slender and creeping; some are very stout 
and erect (tree ferns) . 

The ferns are of little economic importance except 
as ornamental plants. The starchy rootstocks of some 
species are eaten locally, as are also the young shoots. 
The rootstock of Dryopteris (Aspidium) Filix-mas is a 
reputed vermifuge. 

About 60 species are in cultivation in America. 
Among these are: Adiantum (Maidenhair Fern); 
Aspidium (Shield F.); Asplenium (Spleenwort) ; Camp- 
tosorus (Walking-leaf F.); Dennstcedtia (Dicksonia) 
(Fragrant F.); Onoclea (Sensitive F., Ostrich F.); 
Peltea (Cliff Brake); Phegopteris (Beech F.); Platyce- 
rium (Staghorn F.); Polypodium (Polypody F.); 
Polystichum (Holly F., Christmas F.) ; Pteris (Common 
Brake); Scolopendrium (Hart's-tongue F.). 
6. Ceratopteridaceae (Parkeriaceae) (from the genus 
Ceratopteris, meaning horn-fern). CERATOPTERIS 
FAMILY. Aquatic ferns rooting in the mud: leaves of 
two sorts, the ones less divided with broader segments 
and veins more or less anastomosing; the more aerial 
fertile ones much divided, with narrow segments, and 
revolute margins which later almost completely inclose 
the scattered sporangia: indusium wanting: sporangia 
globular, thin-walled with a very diverse broad nearly 
complete or nearly wanting annulus; rarely the annulus 
wanting; dehiscence transverse: prothallia unisexual, 
thalloid; antheridia not superficial. 



Only one genus and a few species of tropical distri- 
bution are known, the only aquatic species among the 
true ferns. The habit, the absence of son, the variable 
annulus, and the sunken antheridia are distinctive. 

This fern is sometimes cooked and eaten as greens. 

One or two species are frequently grown for aquaria 
and aquatic gardens. 

7. Schizaeaceae (from the genus Schizxa, cleft, alluding 
to the leaves). CURLY-GRASS FAMILY. Fig. 3. Ferns 
of very diverse habit, some extremely small, others 
climbing: stem mostly oblique or horizontal: leaves 
very diverse, usually pinnate or palmate; veins forking: 
sporangia thin-waUed, usually scattered, at first mar- 
ginal, later sometimes exceeded by the margin of the 
frond, often appearing spiked or panicled, sessile; no 
apparent indusium; annulus transverse, apical, com- 
plete; dehiscence vertical; fertile portion of the frond 
usually much modified: prothallium of all genera ex- 
cept Schizaea ordinary; that of the latter genus fila- 
mentous and extremely branched, resembling that of 
the filmy ferns. 

In this family are 4 genera and about 70 species, 
mostly tropical, rare in the colder regions. Two species 
reach the eastern United States, one of which extends 
to Newfoundland. The solitary sporangia and trans- 
verse apical annulus are important characteristics. 

The curly grass (Schizxa pusilla) inhabits bogs, 
where it may form extended mats of dry, woolly 
"grass" 1-3 inches high. The sterile leaves are without 
lauiiiur. Lygodium palmatum is the "climbing fern" 
of eastern America. The leaf, not the stem, of this 
plant has unlimited growth, and twines. 

Four genera are in the American trade: Anemia 
Lygodium, Mohria, and Schiza?a. 

8. Gleicheniaceae (from the genus Gleichenia, named 
in honor of W. F. Von Gleichen, 1717-1783). GLEICH- 
ENIA FAMILY. Fig. 2. Terrestrial ferns with peculiar 
foliage: leaves several times forking owing to the 
arrested growth of the main divisions which develop in 
succeeding seasons, only the ultimate branches pinnate 
(except in one genus): indusium none: sporangia in sori 
on the under side of the leaf, thin-walled, sessile, pear- 
shaped; annulus complete, running obliquely around 
the back and over the top; line of dehiscence extending 
vertically down the ventral side from a constricted 
apical place in the annulus: prothallium ordinary, green. 

Two genera and about 26 species occur in tropical lands 
and the south temperate zone. The family is related 
to the Schizaeacese but the habit is very different. The 
peculiar forking of the leaves, as well as the unusual 
annulus and peculiar dehiscence, are characteristic. 

A few species of Gleichenia are in cultivation in 
North America. 

9. Osmundaceae (from the genus Osmunda, derived 
from Osmunder, the Saxon name of the god Thor). 
OSMUNDA FAMILY. Fig. 3. Ferns of ordinary habit, 
rarely aborescent: rhizome mostly vertical, thick: leaves 
large, circinate, 1-3-pinnate, rarely thin and stomate- 
Irss; petiole somewhat sheathing at the base; fibro- 
vascular bundle 1; veins forking: indusia wanting: 
sporangia scattered on the under side of the ordinary 
leaf, or on the margin or on both sides of modified 
fertile portions of the leaf, thin-walled, short-stout- 
pedicelled, globular; annulus imperfect, consisting of a 
group of cells on one side; line of dehiscence vertical, 
extending from this group up over the summit: prothal- 
lium ordinary, green. 

There are 3 genera and 10 or 12 species of general 
distribution, and others in the Australian region. Three 
species occur in the eastern United States. The family 
is related to the Gleicheniacese and Schizaeaceae. The 
peculiar dehiscence, and the scattered sporangia with 
the annulus consisting of a group of cells, instead of a 
ring, are distinctive. 

The family has practically no economic importance, 
except as ornamental plants, except that the root 

masses are used as matrix on which to grow orchids 
and other epiphytic plants (see Osmundine). Some 
have been used in medicine, although their virtues are 
questionable. The family contains some of our most 
stately native ferns. 

All three genera are in American horticulture: 
Leptopteris (leaves thin and no stomates); Osmunda 
(Royal Fern, Cinnamon Fern), Todea (Grape Fern). 


10. Marsileaceae (from the genus Marsilea, in honor 
of Giavanni Marsigli, or Aloysius Marsili, Italian.naturul- 
ists.) MARSILEA FAMILY. Fig. 3. Perennial marsh or 
aquatic plants with filiform and creeping rhizomes: 
leaves all from rootstocks, cireinate; rachis without 
blade or with four leaflets borne together at the apex; 
leaflets, when present, fan-shaped, rounded at apex; 
veins dichotomous: sporangia of two sorts, macro- 
sporangia bearing macro-spores which give rise to egg- 
cells, and microsporangia bearing microspores which 
give rise to sperm-cells, both borne together in tiny 
chambers (sori) in globular capsule-like conceptaclea 
(sporocarps) which arise from the rootstock or lower 
portion of the leaf, and are either stalked- or sessile: 

3. Srit!7..K\cF..F.: 1. Aneimia, sporangium. OBMUNUACE.E: 2. 
Osmunda, sporangium; a, front view; 6, back view. SALVINIACE.E: 
3. Salvinia, a, whole plant; b, section of sporocarps showing 
sporangia. MARSILEACE*: 4. Marsilea, a, whole plant; 6, sporo- 
carp germinating; c, sporocarp emitting gelatinous thread with 
son. 5. Pilularia, a, cross-section of sporocarp; b, sporocarp 
emitting sporangia. 

male and female prothallia very much reduced, remain- 
ing inclosed within the spore-wall, which in the case of 
the macrospores early becomes ruptured on one side to 
expose the archegonia. 

Two genera (Marsilea and Pilularia) and about 60 
species occur, of which 52 or 54 belong to Marsilea. 
The distribution is general, though mainly tropical. 
Marsilea is represented in the United States by one 
native and one introduced species. The family is closely 
related to the Salviniacese, but the peculiar habit and 
unusual sporocarps are distinctive. 



At maturity, a gelatinous mass escapes from the 
sporocarp, and on this mass the sori are borne in 
somewhat characteristic fashion in different species. 
The leaflets of the clover-like leaves of Marsilea, in 
emersed forms, show sleep movement, as do those of 
clover. These leaflets float upon the water, to the vary- 
ing depths of which the petioles accommodate them- 
selves; but the plant may grow emersed on mud, in 
which case the petioles are erect like clover. The leaves 
of Pilularia are filiform, pointed, and destitute of blade. 

In Australia, the sporocarps of Marsilea Nardu and 
M. Drummondii, which contain much starch and other 
nutritious material, are used by the natives for food. 
They are ground into a powder, mixed with water and 
baked. Fish and marsilea "fruits" form almost the 
sole food of some tribes. 

One species, Marsilea quadrifolia, is in cultivation 
in America for aquatic gardens. 

11. Salviniaceae (from the genus Salvinia in honor of 
A. M. Salvini, Italian scientist). SALVINIA FAMILY. 
Fig. 3. Small, floating aquatic plants, resembling large 
Lemnas (Salvinia) or foliaceous liverworts (Azolla): 
stem reduced or wanting: leaves few, orbicular or oval 
(Salvinia); or numerous, minute and imbricated 
(Azolla) : sporangia and spores of two sorts as in Mar- 
silea, but borne on basal columns in the single cavity 
of the sporocarp; at first both sorts of sporangia are 
present but only one kind matures so that the sporo- 
carp becomes entirely "male" or entirely "female:" 
prothallium partly endosporous, only a portion of either 
the male or female prothallium emerging from the 
spore wall. 

The family has 2 genera and about 15 species, of 
which 11 belong to Salvinia; generally distributed but 
principally tropical. Each genus is represented in the 
eastern United States by one native species. The 
family is related to the Marsileacese, but the habit, the 
structure of the sporocarps, and the separation of 
macrosporangia and microsporangia in different sporo- 
carps are distinctive. 

The "roots" of Salvinia represent a modified leaf. 
Each leaf of Azolla is two-lobed, one lobe floating, 
the other submerged. A small cavity inclosed by the 
upper lobe is always inhabited by a nostoc-like alga, 
between which and the Azolla there is indication of a 
symbiotic relationship. Azolla possesses true roots. 

The family is of almost no economic importance. 

One species of Salvinia and two species of Azolla 
are occasionally grown in water-gardens. 


12. Eauisetaceae (from the genus Equisetum, meaning 
horse-bristle). HOKSE-TAIL FAMILY. Fig. 1. Plants of 
striking appearance, often with rhizomes and with a 
straight, aerial, striated axis bearing whorls of connate, 
scale-like leaves at the nodes: from the nodes also fre- 
quently arise slender branches of different structure 
which bear different but still scale-like leaves: the stem 
is hollow, and besides the central canal often contains 
numerous additional large canals imbedded in the 
outer tissue: spores of one kind (not microspores and 
macrospores) : sporangia 5-9, borne on the under 
surface of peltate, polygonal scales which form a 
terminal cone; dehiscence longitudinal; spores green, 
provided with several hygroscopic "elaters which aid 
in dissemination: prothallia green, unisexual, the female 
largest, branched. 

A single genus and about 24 species are known, of 
which one section is tropical, the other of temperate 
distribution. Ten species are native in the eastern 
United States. The family is very distinct and shows 
no definite relationship to any existing plants. The 
habit, the undifferentiated spores, the peltate sporo- 
phylls, and the dioecious emergent prothallia are dis- 

tinctive. The arrangement of the canals and also 
of the stomates along the stem are important in the 
distinction of species. 

The stems of E. hiemale, rich in silica, were formerly 
much used for scouring and for polishing woods, and 
are still used to some extent. E. arvense and E. sylvati- 
cum have been used for polishing tin vessels, hence the 
name "tinweed." Several species have been used in 
medicine, as diuretics. E. giganleum is employed as an 
astringent. E. arvense and E. palustre are bad weeds 
in parts of Europe. 

Several species have been advertised by American 
dealers in native plants. 


13. Lycopodiacese (from the genus Lycopodium, wolf- 
foot, from a fancied resemblance). CuiB-Moss FAMILY. 
Fig. 1. Branched plants of moderate size, stems often 
erect when short, usually prostrate, pendent, or creep- 
ing: leaves very numerous, small, subulate or oblong, 
moss-like, often imbricated; rarely the leaves all basal 
(Phylloglossum) : sporophylls either similar to the 
leaves, or much modified and forming terminal "cones:" 
sporangia and spores of one sort (not macrospores and 
microspores), the former reniform, borne at the base 
of a leaf on the upper side; dehiscence longitudinal: 
prothallia more or less cylindrical or amorphous, in some 
species green, in others colorless, saprophytic, sub- 
terranean or subcortical. 

The club-moss family contains 2 genera and about 
100 species, all but one of which belong to Lycopodium, 
distributed in all parts of the world except the very 
dry regions. The majority of the epiphytic species 
are tropical, but several terrestrial species extend to 
the arctic circle. Twelve of the species are native in the 
eastern United States. The family is not closely related 
to any other. The habit, the undifferentiated spores, 
and the prothallium are distinctive. 

The branching of Lycopodium is of two types, the 
dichotomous, and the monopodial (a central axis from 
which lateral branches arise). On these types sub- 
genera are based. 

The spores of Lycopodium (principally of L. clava- 
tum), which are produced in great quantities, are used 
by apothecaries for coating pills, and by metal-workers. 
These spores are highly inflammable and were formerly 
used in theaters to produce flashlights. L. Selago is 
emetic, drastic, verinifugal, and emmenagogue. L. 
myrsinitis and L. calharticum are purgative. Several 
other species have been used locally for various com- 
plaints. The creeping stems of L. clavalum and L. 
complanatum are often used for Christmas and church 

Several species of Lycopodium (Club-moss, Ground 
Pine, Creeping Pine) are gathered or protected in 
America for decorative purposes or for the spores. 


14. Selaginellaceae (from the genus Selaginella, 
diminutive of Selago, ancient name of Lycopodium). 
SELAGINELLA FAMILY. Fig 1. Moss-like or lycopodium- 
like plants, often of moderate size, usually profusely 
and dichotomously branched, more rarely monopodial; 
creeping, pendent or erect, sometimes climbing and 
several meters long, or minute and 1-3 cm. long: 
leaves moss-like, very small, usually densely placed, 
often imbricated, often of two sizes (the branches 
therefore strongly dorsiventral) ; ligule present, borne 
at the base of the leaf on the upper side: roots borne on 
"rhizophores" which are probably modified branches: 
spores of two sorts (microspores and macrospores) in 
separate sporangia, borne in the leaf axils: sporophylls 
frequently modified, forming a cone or spike: prothallia 



endosporous, the sport: wall of the raacrospores soon 
rupturing and exposing the archegonia. 

The one genus, Selaginella, and about 500 species 
are widely distributed, but mostly tropical. The 
majority prefer damp forests, but some (e.g., S. rapes- 
tris) are xerophytic. Three species are native in the 
eastern United States. The family is related to the 
Lycopodiaceie superficially, but not in the spores and 
in the prothallia, which are more closely allied to 
another family, the Isoetaceae. The habit, the foliar 
ligule, the undifferentiated spores, and the endosporous 
prothallia are distinctive. 

The spores of Solaginella have been used in the same 
manner as those of Lycopodium, but are less easily 
obtainable. S. concinna and S. obtusa have been used 
for diarrhea and dysentery. Several Mexican species 
are used locally for medicine. S. convoluta is employed 
in the East Indies as an aphrodisiac. The rosette-like 
S. lepidophylla of Mexico is the best-known "resur- 
rection plant." When dry, it rolls into a ball and 
becomes brown; when the air is humid, the branches 
spread out and the green upper surfaces are exposed. 

Many species of Selaginella are in choice American 
collections, but very few are commonly in the trade. 
They are mostly grown for greenhouse and for table 
decoration under the name of "lycopodium." 



15. Cycadaceae (from the genus Cycas, the Greek 
name of a certain palm). CYCAS FAMILY. Fig. 4. More 
or less woody plants, with thick, unbranched, columnar 
or tuberous stem: leaves alternate, pinnate: stamens 
and carpels borne in cones or in temporarily terminal 
clusters: scales of the staminate cone bearing very 
many scattered anthers on the under side: the carpels 
open, not forming a closed ovary, either leaf-like pin- 
natifid and bearing marginal ovules, or peltate with 2 or 
more suspended ovules; the latter very large, often 1 
inch long, orthotropous, with 1 integument, becoming 

Cycadacese has 9 genera and about 85 species, dis- 
tributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Zamia 
is the largest genus, with 30 species. The family stands 
isolated among the gymnosperms. The palm-like 
habit, pinnate leaves, very numerous scattered stamens, 
and, in Cycas, the leaf-like carpel, are distinctive. 
Differences more important to the morphologist are to 
be found in the embryology, especially in the fertiliza- 
tion by motile sperm-cells. The leaves are circinate 
when unfolding, like those of a fern. The Cycadacese 
represent an ancient family far more numerous in past 
geologic ages. Many fossil species are known. 

Various species of Cycas in the Moluccas and Japan, 
especially C, revoluta, yield a sago in the pithy part of 
the stem which the natives bake into bread. The 
Hottentots eat the pith of Encephalartos, making 
from it "Kafir bread. The seeds of Cycas and Zamia 
are edible. The leaves of Cycas are used at funerals 
and church festivals as "palm branches." 

Several genera are in cultivation in America for 
greenhouse use and outdoors in the South. These are 
Bowenia; Ceratozamia of Mexico; Cycas (Sago Palm) of 
the far East; Dioon of Mexico; Encephalartos of South 
Africa; Macrozamia of Australia; Stangeria of South 
Africa; Zamia (Coontie, Comptie) of tropical America. 


16. Ginkgoaceae (from the genus Ginkgo, the Japanese 
name). GINKOO FAMILY. Fig. 4. Much-branched tree 

with deciduous leaves: secondary wood without true 
vessels; resin-tubes present: leaves alternate, fan-shaped 
like the pinnules of Adiantum; veins forking: anthers 
borne in pedicelled pairs on a slender axis, without 
bracts, the whole somewhat catkin-like: no true pistil- 
late cone; ovules borne in pairs at the summit of 
branched peduncles, each ovule surrounded at the base 
by a fleshy ring: fruit drupaceous. Fertilization is by 
means of motile sperms. 

A single genus of one species occurs in China and 
Japan. Fossil species are known. The family is dis- 
tantly related to the Coniferae, but the peculiar foliage, 
as well as the absence of cone structure and the great 
reduction of sporophylls, is distinctive. 

Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo, maidenhair tree, Kew tree), 
the only species, is grown as a park tree. 


4. CTCADACEJI: 1. Cycas, a, leaf; b, carpel with ovules; c, male 
scale with anthers. 2. Zamia, female cone. GINKOOACE^E: 3. 
Ginkgo, a, leaf; b, ovules; c, stamen. 


17. Taxacese (from the genus Taxus, the classical 
name, probably from the Greek meaning bow , for which 
the wood is used). YEW FAMILY. Fig. 5. Much-branched 
trees or shrubs, with resin-tubes in the bark and no 
true vessels in the secondary wood: leaves alternate, 
needle-like or scale-like, persistent: stamens borne on 
the protected portion of more or less apically thickened 
or peltate scales (sporophylls) forming a small cone: 
pistillate cones wanting; ovules borne singly or two 
together on a fleshy or rudimentary carpel (sporophyll), 
inverted or straight, the outer integument forming an 
arillus: fruit a dry seed surrounded by the fleshy often 
highly colored arillus; the receptacle also often enlarged 
and forming a fleshy part of the fruit. 

Taxaceae has 8 genera and about 70 species widely 
distributed, of which 40 belong to the genus Podocarpus. 
The family is related to the Coniferse, but differs in the 
reduction of the pistillate cone to a single ovule, in 
the modification or suppression of the sporophyll, and 
in the aril or arillus. The closely related Ginkgoaceae 
has a different staminate inflorescence. Fertilization is 
by means of pollen-tubes. 

The timber produced by the tropical eastern species 
of Podocarpus and of Dacrydium (heron pine and 



damion pine) is highly valued. The yew wood is 
hard and susceptible of a high polish. It is used in 
cabinet work and for bows. The seed and shoots of yew 
are said to be poisonous, but the arillus is harmless. 

In cultivation in America are a few genera for orna- 
mental purposes: Cephalotaxus, East Asia; Podocar- 
pus, Chile, Japan, Australia, grown in the South; Taxus 
(Yew), Europe, Asia, North America; Torreya (Cali- 
fornia Nutmeg), California to Florida. 

18. Pinaceae (from the genus Pinus, the classical 
Latin name). PINE FAMILY. Fig. 5. Tree or shrub, with 
no true vessels in the secondary wood, but with resin- 
tubes: leaves linear, or needle-like, or scale-like, 
alternate or opposite, evergreen or deciduous: anthers 
and ovules both in true cones plainly subtended by 
scales (sporophylls) ; the staminate scales usually 
bearing 2-6, rarely more, anthers on the under side; 
the pistillate bearing 1-2, rarely many, ovules on the 
upper side, or peltate and ovule-bearing under the 
crown or at its base; ovules with 1 integument: fruit 

5. TAXACE^B: 1. Taxus, a, male cone; b, fruit (seed and aril). 
PINACE.E: 2. Tsuga, female cone. 3. Picea, female cone-scale with 
ovules. 4. Pseudotsuga, female cone. 5. Chamsecyparis, female 
cone. 6. Sequoia, female cone. 7. Juniperus, a, female cones 
(berries); 6, cross-section berry. GNETACE.E: 8. Ephedra, a, 
female inflorescence; b, male inflorescence. 

a dry woody cone with dry, often winged seeds between 
the scales; or berry-like through the union of the fleshy 

Sub-family 1. Cupressineae. Cone-scales opposite; 
ovules erect: leaves opposite or whorled. 

Sub-family 2. Abietinese. Cone-scales alternate; 
ovules inverted: leaves alternate. 

There are 25 genera and about 240 species, widely 
distributed but most abundant in temperate regions. 
The largest genus is Pinus with 70 species. The family 
is related to the Taxaceae and Ginkgoacese, from which 
it differs in the presence of true staminate and pistillate 
cones. It also differs from the latter in the absence of 
motile sperm-cells. 

The Pinacese, like other Gymnosperms, is an old 
group, more abundant in former geologic ages. Many 
fossil species are known. The Sequoias of California 
were formerly more abundant, extending to Greenland. 
The young plants of many Cupressineae possess foliage 

quite different in appearance from the mature foliage, 
the leaves being longer and more spreading. These 
juvenile forms have been called Retinisporas, a name 
which has been applied also to all cultivated species of 
Chamaecyparis. Juniper "berries" are fleshy cones 
with peltate, fused scales. The leaves of Larix, Pseu- 
dolarix and Cedrus are deciduous. The branchlets and 
leaves are deciduous in Taxodium. The cone-scales 
of many Abietineae are double, an outer thinner 3- 
toothed scale, and a thick inner scale that bears the 
ovules (see Pseudotsuga). 

Among the Pinaceao are some of our most valuable 
timber trees; e. g., cedar, arborvitse, spruce, fir, hem- 
lock and redwood. The resin from various pines when 
distilled yields spirits of turpentine and rosin; when 
dry-distilled, it yields tar. Venice turpentine is the 
resinous exudation of European larches: Canada 
balsam that of Abies balsamea. Dammar resin is from 
the Malayan Agathis Dammara. Kauri resin is the 
semi-fossilized resin of Agathis australis of Australia 
and New Zealand. Sandarac resin is from Callitris 
quadrivalvis of Northwest Africa. Amber is the fos- 
silized resin of prehistoric conifers around the Baltic. 
Oil of savin is from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus 
sabina, and oil of cedar from Thuya occidentalis. Juniper 
berries, from J. cotnmunis of Europe and America, are 
diuretic and also used for flavoring gin. Edible seeds 
are produced by Pinus Pinea (stone pine) of the 
Mediterranean, P. Cembra of Europe and Siberia, P. 
Parry/ma and P. edulis of the southwestern United 
States, Podocarpus neriifolia of the East Indies, Arau- 
caria braziliana of Brazil, and A. Bidwillii of Australia. 
Bread is made by the Laps and Eskimos from the 
inner bark of Pinus sylvestris and Abies alba; also from 
various Pinaceae by our northwestern Indians. Deodar 
(Cedrus Deodara) is sacred to the Hindoos. Cedrus 
Libani is the cedar of Lebanon. Pine bark was form- 
erly used for tanning. 

Many genera are in cultivation in America. Among 
these are: Abies (Fir, Balsam); Araucaria (Norfolk 
Island Pine, Monkey Puzzle); Callitris (Cypress Pine); 
Cedrus (Cedar of Lebanon, Deodar); Chamsscyparis 
(White Cedar, Yellow Cedar, Hinoki Cypress, Sawara 
Cypress, Retinispora, Japanese Cedar); Cryptomeria; 
Capressus (Cypress, Monterey Cypress); Juniperus 
(Red Cedar, Juniper, Savin); Larix (Larch, Tamarack, 
Hackmatack); Libocedrus (Incense Cedar, White Ce- 
dar); Picea (Spruce); Pinus (Pine, Pinnon, Soledad); 
Pseudolarix (Golden Larch); Pseudotsuga (Douglas 
Spruce, Red Fir); Sciadopitys (Umbrella Pine); Se- 
quoia (Big Tree of California, Redwood); Taxodium 
(Bald Cypress, Deciduous Cypress) ; Thuya (Arborvi- 
tae, White Cedar) ; Thuyopsis; Tsuga (Hemlock Spruce). 

Order 11. GNETALES 

19. Gnetacese (from the genus Gnetum, derived from 
Gneman, said to be the old Malay name of the plant). 
GNETUM FAMILY. Fig. 5. Very peculiar semi-woody 
plants of diverse habit: leaves large and broad, or modi- 
fied, or reduced, or opposite, or whorled: no resin-tubes 
in the stem; secondary wood containing true vessels: 
true flowers present, with a 2-4-parted perianth, 
unisexual, rarely bisexual; stamens 2-8; pistillate 
perianth becoming juicy or wing-like in fruit and inclos- 
ing one naked orthotropous seed with 1 or 2 integu- 

The family consists of 3 genera and about 35-40 
species, widely distributed. It is distinguished from 
the Coniferse by the presence of a perianth, the absence 
of resin-tubes, and the presence of vessels in the 
secondary wood. The endosperm development, also, 
approaches that of the Angiosperms. The fertilization 
is by means of pollen-tubes. The three genera are 
very distinct: Ephedra, of the tropics of both hemis- 
pheres, is much branched, with slender jointed striate 



equisetum-like stems, leaves scale-like at the distant 
nodes; Gnetum of South America, except one species, 
is a group of vines or shrubs with large broad leaves 
like those of an Angiosperm; Welwitschia of South 
Africa is a desert plant wit ha thick subterranean stem 
bearing two ribbon-like leaves 6 feet long, lying flat 
on the ground, and with a terminal cluster of cone-like 

It is doubtful whether any of these are regularly in 
the American trade. 




20. Typhaceae (from the genus Ty-pha, the old Greek 
name). CATTAIL FAMILY. Fig. 6. Perennial marsh 
herbs, with creeping rootstocks, and long-linear, erect, 
mostly basal leaves: flowers monoecious, naked, in a 
dense terminal spike, which is staminate above and 
pistillate below, each sex subtended by one bract-like 
spathe; perianth 0; stamens 2-5; filaments connate, 
bearing long, silky hairs; carpels 1; ovary 1-celled, 
raised on a stipe which also bears long, silky hairs; 
ovule 1, suspended; style slender: fruit a nutlet; seed 

A single genus and about 12 species occur in the 
tropical and temperate zones. Fossil species are known. 
The family is closely related to the Sparganiaceae, with 
which it was formerly united. These two families con- 
stitute a very distinct group of simple-flowered Mono- 
cotyledons. The habit, the flowers borne in spikes with- 
out perianth, the hairy pedicels, the absence of bracts, 
and the simple pistil, are together distinctive. 

The starchy rootstooks are sometimes used for food. 
The leaves are woven into matting, and into chair- 
bottoms, and are used for calking barrels. The pollen 
has been used as a substitute for the spores of Lyco- 
poclium. The rootstock is used in East Asia for dysen- 
tery and urethritis, and the leaves in various localities 
for thatching cottages. A vain attempt has been 
made to utilize the silky hairs of the fruit for making 

Two species of Typha (Cattail Flag, Reed Mace), 
both native, are in the American trade for water-gar- 

21. Pandanaceae (from the genus Pandanus, derived 
from a Malay name). SCREW-PINE FAMILY. Fig. 6. 
Shrubby or arborescent plants: stems simple or 
branched, with prop-roots: leaves spirally arranged, 
densely placed, sword-shaped, often canaliculate, clasp- 
ing, stiff; edges and midrib often spiny-serrate: flowers 
on simple or branched spadices, dioecious, naked; 
spathes caducous; stamens densely packed, separated 
or united in fascicles, scattered over the spadix, and 
not in definite flowers; pistillate spadix simple; ovaries 
numerous, coherent in bundles, or isolated, not in real 
flowers; stigma sessile; ovules solitary or several: fruit 
drupaceous, cohering in multiple fruits; seed albumi- 

There are 3 genera and about 350 species, natives of 
the tropics of the Old World. The family is unique. 
The floral structure, while much like that of Typha, 
suggests also the Palmacea?. As in Typha, actual flowers 
cannot here be distinguished. 

The fleshy pericarps of some are eaten. The strong 
odor of the staminate flowers is either agreeable or dis- 
agreeable, depending on the species ; in the former case 
the flowers are used for perfumery. The leaves of Pan- 
danus utilis are made into bags for shipping coffee, 
and the plant is now cultivated for that purpose in 
the West Indies. 

Ten to 15 species of Pandanus (Screw Pine, Cande- 
labrum Tree, Chandelier Tree) are in greenhouse cul- 
tivation in America. 

Order 13. HELOBI.E 

22. Naiadaceae (from the genus Naias, derived from 
the Greek, meaning a water nymph). POND WEED 
FAMILY. Fig. 6. Immersed aquatic herbs: leaves 
mostly cauline, opposite or alternate, the floating often 
differing from the submerged in shape and texture: 
flowers axillary or spicate, bisexual or unisexual; peri- 
anth of 4 herbaceous segments, or wanting; stamens 
1-4, rarely more; carpels 1-9, mostly distinct, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled: fruit a nutlet; endosperm none; embryo 
curved, rarely straight. 

Naiadaceas has 10 genera and about 100 species 
widely distributed, but most abundant in temperate 
regions. The largest genus is Potamogeton with 50 
species. The family is a very heterogeneous one which 
has been divided or united in many ways by different 
authors. As here treated it is distinguished by the 
aquatic habit, greenish, often reduced perianth, few 
stamens, and few, separate, 1 -seeded carpels. A spathe- 
like bract usually incloses the inflorescence. 

The dried leaves of Zostera and Posidonia have been 
used since ancient times in Venice to pack glassware. 
They are now widely used for packing. Plants of 
Potamogeton and Zostera are employed as manure. 

Several species of Potamogeton (Pondweed) and 
one of Zannichellia are possibly in the American trade, 
for water-gardens. 



6. TYPHACE.E: 1. Typha: a, inflorescence; 6, male flower; c, 
female flower. PANDANACE.S:: 2. Pandanus, a, portion male 
inflorescence; 6, female inflorescence, vertical section. NAIAD- 
ACE.E: 3. Naias; o, male flower; b, female flower. 4. Potamogeton; 
a, flower; 6, vertical section nutlet. 

23. Aponogetonacese (from the genus Aponogelon, 
derivation obscure). APONOGETON FAMILY. Aquatic 
herbs with tuberous rhizomes, and basal, submerged 
or floating leaves"; blade linear to oval, palmately 
parallel- veined, with transverse veinlets; the general 
tissue between the veins often wanting, thus producing 
a remarkable openwork latticed effect: flowers spicate, 
bisexual, regular, hypogynous; perianth of several petal- 
oid parts; stamens usually 6, rarely more; carpels 
mostly 3, rarely 4-6, separate; ovules 2-6, mostly basal, 
anatroppus: fruit pouch-like; endosperm none. 

The single genus, with its 15 species occurs in Africa, 
Madagascar, tropical Asia and Australia. The family 
is related to the Naiadacese, with -which it was formerly 
united, and from which it is distinguished by the petal- 
oid perianth, several ovules, and straight embryo. 

The roots are sometimes eaten by natives. 

Aponpgeton dislachyus (Cape pond weed, water haw- 
thorn) is cultivated in water-gardens. 

24. Alismaceae (from the genus Alisma, the Greek 
name). WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY. Fig. 7. Herbace- 



ous marsh plants with milky juice: leaves mostly basal, 
sheathing, with a scale in the axil; blade various, float- 
ing or erect, often sagittate, varying in size and width 
with the depth of the water, pahnately parallel-veined 
with cross veinlets: flowers bisexual or unisexual, reg- 
ular, hypogynous, in whorls of 3; sepals 3, more or less 
hyaline; petals 3, white and petaloid; stamens 6 to 
many, in several whorls; carpels very many, separate 
or rarely coherent, spirally arranged or in a whorl, 
1-ovuled, rarely 2-5-ovuled: fruit dry, rarely dehiscent; 
seed basal, anatropous, exalbuminous; embryo curved. 

The family has 10 genera and about 50 species, dis- 
tributed throughout the warmer and temperate zones. 
The family is related to the Butomacese and Junca- 
ginacese, which are all peculiar in having an axillary 
intravaginal scale. The whorled flowers, differentiated 
perianth, numerous carpels, and mostly solitary, basal, 
exalbuminous seeds are distinctive. 

The acrid juice formerly led to the occasional use of 
these plants in medicine. The tubers and rhizomes of 
Sagittaria were eaten by the American Indians as 
wappato ; and are cultivated in China. They are said 
to come into the Chinese market at San Francisco, pre- 
served in liquid. 

Two genera are in cultivation for water-gardens: 
Alisma (Water Plantain), native; and Sagittaria 
(Arrowhead), some native. 

25. Butomaceee (from the genus Butomus, signifying 
ox + to cut, in reference to the rough leaves). Fig. 7. 
Aquatic or marsh herbs: leaves basal, with an axial 
scale, sometimes with milky juice; blade linear or 
oval; veins pahnately parallel with cross veinlets, or 
nearly veinless: flowers solitary or umbelled, bisexual, 
regular, hypogynous; sepals 3, subherbaceous; petals 3, 
colored, imbricated; stamens 9 or more, whorled; 
carpels 6 or more, separate; ovules numerous, borne 

7. AUBMACE^E: 1. Alisma, a, inflorescence; b, flower; c, floral 
diagram; d, fruit. 2. Sagittaria, a, fruit; 6, achene. BCTOMACE*: 
3. Butomus, flower. HYDROCHA.RITACE.S:: 4. Etodea, female flower 
branch. 5. Vallisneria, a, habit and flower; 6, female flower. 

between the margins and midrib of the carpel: fruit 
dry, dehiscent; seed anatropous, exalbuminous; embryo 
straight or curved. 

The family contains 4 genera and about 5 species, 
natives of the temperate and tropical zones of the Old 
World, and the tropics of the New World. The family 
is related to the Alismaceae and Juncaginacese, from 
the former of which it differs principally in the numerous 
ovules and their peculiar position. 

The roots and seeds of Butomus were once used as 
emollients. The baked roots of Butomus are eaten in 
North Asia. 

Two genera are in cultivation for water-gardens: 
Butomus (Flowering Rush), and Limnocharis (Water 

26. Hydrocharitaceae (from the genus Hydrocharis, 
derived from the Greek meaning water and rejoice). 
FROG'S-BIT FAMILY. Fig. 7. Submerged aquatic herbs, 
rarely floating, the flowers usually at first inclosed by 
a 2-bracted spathe: leaves alternate or opposite, very 
diverse, cordate, linear or ribbon-like: flowers usually 
unisexual, regular, epigynous; perianth in 2 series, 
composed of 3 imbricated or valvate, calicoid parts, 
and 3 convolute petaloid parts, rarely of only 3 divisions; 
stamens in 1 to several series of 3, some often stami- 
nodia; carpels 2-15; ovary inferior, 1-celled with parie- 
tal placenta;, or imperfectly several-celled; stigmas 3- 
6: fruit not regularly dehiscent, submerged, some- 
what fleshy; seeds many, exalbuminous. 

There are 14 genera and about 40 species widely 
distributed. The family is related to the Alismacez 
and Naiadacesc. The differentiation into calyx and 
corolla, the usually numerous stamens, the inferior, 
1-celled ovary with parietal placenta;, and the exalbumi- 
nous seeds are together characteristic. The plants of 
this family are very diverse in appearance and often 
striking. Fossil species are known. The pollination of 
Vallisneria is very remarkable. (See Kerner and Oliver, 
"Natural History of Plants"). 

Elodea canadensis, introduced into Europe from 
America, has there become so abundant as to impede 
navigation. The plants of Hydrocharis, Stratiotes, and 
Elodea are used as fodder and as manure in Europe. 
The starchy rootstocks of Ottelia and Boottia are 
eaten in India as pot-herbs; also the tubers and fruits 
of Enalus. The fibers from the leaves of Enalus are 
used in India. Vallisneria alternifolia is employed in 
India in the preparation of sugar. 

Five genera are in cultivation in America, mostly for 
aquaria: Elodea(Waterweed, Ditch-Moss,Water Thyme, 
Water Pest) ; Hydrocharis (Frog's-Bit) ; Limnobium 
(American Frog's-Bit) ; Stratiotes (Water Soldier, Water 
Aloe); Vallisneria (Eel-Grass, Tape-Grass). 


27. Gramineae (from the Latin signifying grass). 
GRASS FAMILY. Fig. 8. Herbs, or sometimes almost 
tree-like: stems hollow or solid : leaves usually linear, in 
2 ranks; composed of a sheath which is usually open 
down the front, a sessile blade, and a ligule at the 
juncture of blade and sheath: flowers bisexual or uni- 
sexual, naked, or with the perianth reduced to 1-3 tiny 
scales, borne in specialized spikelets composed of 3 01 
more 2-ranked scales, the first 2 empty (called empty 
glumes), the others termed flowering glumes or lem- 
mas, and 1 scale on each secondary flower-bearing 
axis, called a palet or palea; stamens 2-3, exserted for 
wind-pollination; carpel 1; ovary 1, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; 
stigmas feathery, usually 2: fruit a caryopsis; seed 
with endosperm, and embryo with an absorbing organ. 

Gramineae is a family of 300-400 genera and per- 
haps 5,000 species distributed all over the earth. The 
largest genera are Panicum with 300-400 species, Pas- 
palum with 160 species, and Poa with 100 species. The 
Gramine and Cyperacete form a very distinct group. 
The usually hollow stem, the open sheaths, the ligule, 
the 2-ranked leaves, and the peculiar spikelet-structure 
are the best characters to separate Graminea 1 from Cy- 
peracese. The Indian corn is one of the most modified of 
grasses. It is monoecious. The staminate spikelets are ar- 
ranged on finger-like branches of the tassel at the sum- 
mit of the plant; the pistillate spikelets are borne on the 
cob, which is supposed to be composed of similar finger- 
like portions grown together. Each spikelet is 2-flowered, 
but only 1 flower bears an ovary. The kernel is this 
ovary, and the chaff on the cob represent the glumes 
and palets. The grasses are divided into 13 tribes. 



The grasses are among the most useful of plants. 
The following, among others, are, or have been, used 
as medicine: Rhizome of Agropyron repens (quick- or 
quack-grass) is emollient, and aperient (several other 
grasses have the same properties) . Root of Arundo Donax 
(reed) is diuretic and sudorific. Phragmiles communis 
was formerly considered depurative and anti-syphilitic. 
Calamagrostis was used by the French peasants as a 
diuretic. Perotis latifolia is used in India for the same 
purpose, as are also the seeds of Coix Lacryma-Jobi in 
China. The roots of Manisuris granularis are used in 
India for intestinal troubles. The aromatic, fragrant 
roots of various Andropogons (or Cymbopogons) are 
used for medicine and for perfume in India and else- 
where, e. g., A. Nardus (false spikenard, citronella), A. 
citratus (lemon-grass). A. lanier and A. Schoenanthus 
(sweet rush, ginger-grass, geranium-grass) are used in 
Africa and Arabia as a stimulant, antispasmodic and 
diaphoretic, and for perfume. 

The following are used for food: Seeds of wheat, 
barley, rye, oats, rice, Indian corn and millet; also seeds 
of Andropogon arundinaceus vxr.vulgare (sorghum), and 
var. Durra (durra). Pennisetum americanum (pearl 
millet) is an important food of the negro races, and Poa 
abyssinica and Eleusine are important in East Africa. 
Sugar is obtained from the stems of several species, 
most important of which are Saccharum officinarum 
(sugar-cane), and Andropogon arundinaceus var. sac- 
charalus or A. Sorghum (sugar sorghum). 

Many grasses are used as fodder for cattle, as, for 
instance, our pasture and hay grasses: Poa pratensis 
(June grass, Kentucky blue grass), Phleum pratense 
(timothy), Festuca ovina, etc. (fescue), Agroslis alba 
(red-top), Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass), Cynodon 
Dactylon (Bermuda-grass). Some grasses are poisonous 
to stock, e.g., Lolium temulentum (darnel), and the 
Peruvian Festuca quadridentata. 

Straw from cereals is used for matting, upholstery, 
bedding, hats and for making paper. 

The bamboos yield very important building material 
in the East. Like the palms, the bamboos are used for 
almost every conceivable purpose, and are among the 
most useful of plants. 

Several grasses, ether than those above mentioned, 
contain a fragrant principle, e. g., roots of Vetiveria 
zizanioides (vetiver or kus-kus of India) used to 
perfume rooms, and to keep insects out of clothing. 
Hierochloe odorata (vanilla- or holy-grass) is used in 
Europe in religious ceremonies, and by the American 
Indians for making baskets. Anlhoxanthum odoralum is 
the European sweet-grass, now introduced into America. 

The most important ornamental species are Phalaris 
arundinacea, Slipa pennala, Cortaderia argentea, Lagurus 
ovalus, Hordeum jubatum. Miscanthus sinensis, Briza, 
Arundo, Phragmites, Erianthus, Pennisetum, Thysa- 
nolsena, and Bamboos. 

In America 70-80 genera are cultivated, or are 
important as natural fodder plants or weeds. Among 
these are: Agropyron (Quack-Grass, Couch-G., Quick- 
G.); Agrostis (Bent-G., Red-Top, Cloud-G., Tickle-G., 
Fly-away-G.); Aira (Hair-G.); Andropogon (Silver- 
beard-G., Johnson-G., Lemon-G.); Anthoxanthum 
(Sweet Vernal-G.) ; Ammophila (Beach-G., Marram-G.) ; 
Arundinaria (Large Cane, Switch Cane, Scotch Cane) ; 
Arundo (Giant Reed); Avena (Oats); Bamboo; Briza 
(Quaking-G.); Bromus (Brome-G., Rescue-G.); Cala- 
magrostis (Reed Bent-G., Blue-joint-G., Pony-G.); 
Calamovilfa (Purple Bent-G.); Cenchrus (Sand-bur, 
Bur-G.); Chloris (Finger-G.) ; Cinna; Coix (Job's Tears, 
Tear-G., Corn Beads); Cortaderia (Pampas-G.); Cynp- 
dpn (Bermuda-G.); Cynosurus (Crested Dog's-tail, 
Silky-awned Dog's-tail); Dactylis (Cock's-foot, Or- 
chard-G.); Dactyloctenium (Crowfoot-G.) ; Desmazeria 
(Spike-G.); Deschampsia (Hair-G., Hassock-G.); Dig- 
itaria (Crab-G., Finger-G.); Distichlis (Salt-G., Marsh 
Spike-G.); Echinochloa (Barnyard-G.); Eleusine (Crab- 

G., Yard-G., Dog's-tail, Wire-G., African Millet); Ely- 
mus (Lyme-G., Wild Rye, Terrel-G.); Eragrostis; Eri- 
anthus (WooUy Beard-G., Plume-G., VVool-G., Ra- 
venna-G.); Euchlaena (Teosinte); Festuca (Fescue-G.); 
Glyceria or Panicularia (Reed Meadow-G., Manna-G.); 
Cortaderia; Hierochloe (Vanil!a-G., Holy-G., Seneca-G., 
Sweet-scented-G.); Holcus (Meadow Soft-G.); Hordeum 
(Squirrel-tail-G., Wild Barley, Barley); Hystrix or 

8. GRAMINE.E: 1. a, part of a grass panicle; b, apikelet. 
2. Avena, a, portion of panicle; 6, spikelet ;e.ff., empty glume; fl.g., 
flowering glume or lemma; pal., palet or palea; c, ground-plan of 
spikelet. 3. Phleum, spikelet. 4. Phalaris, sheath and ligule. 

Asprella (Bottle-G.) ; Lolium (Darnel, Rye-G.) ; Milium 
(Wild Millet-G.); Miscanthus (Eulalia, Himalaya 
Fairy-G.) ; Oplismenus; Oryza (Rice) ; Oryzopsis (Moun- 
tain Rice); Panicum (Panic-G., Old-Witch-G., Millet, 
Broom Corn Millet) ; Pennisetum (Pearl Millet) ; Pha- 
laris (Canary-G., Gardener's Garters) ; Phleum (Timothy- 
G., Herd's-G.); Phragmites (Common Reed); Phyllos- 
tachys (Bamboo, in part); Poa (Blue-G., Kentucky 
Blue-G., Meadow-G.) ; Saccharum (Sugar-cane) ; Secale 
(Rye) jSetaria (Millet, Hungarian-G., Foxtail-G., Pigeon- 
G.); Spartina (Cord-G.); Sphenopholis; Stenotaphrum 
(St. Augustine-G.); Stipa (Feathered-G., Esparto-G., 
Porcupine-G.) ; Tripsacum (Gama-G., Sesame-G.); 
Triticum (Wheat, Spelt). 

28. Cyperaceae (from the genus Cypcrus, the ancient 
Greek name). SEDGE FAMILY. Fig. 9. Herbaceous plants 
with grass-like habit and solid stems: leaves alternate, 
in 3, rarely 2, vertical rows, linear; sheaths closed: 
flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, hypogynous, 
borne in variously disposed spikelets, subtended and 
hidden by overlapping scales none of which are regu- 
larly empty as in the grasses; no true palets; perianth 
reduced to bristles, scales, or 0; stamens 2-3; 
carpels 2-3; ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1; stig- 
mas 2-3: fruit an achene; seeds basal, anatropous, 

There are 65 genera and about 3,000 species, inhabit- 
ing the whole earth. More than 500 species belong to 
the genus Carex, 400 to Cyperus, and 200 to Scirpus. 
They are abundant in swampy regions. The family 
is closely related to the Graminea 1 , from which it differs 
in the often 3-ranked leaves, solid stem, the absence of 
palets and of regular empty glumes, and the presence, 
in most cases, of a perianth and 3 carpels. Most 
divergent from the ordinary is Carex, the flowers of 
which are monoecious, and the pistillate, though naked, 
are inclosed in a flask-shaped structure called a peri- 



gynium, which probably corresponds to the modified 
palet of the grass spikelet. The elongated perianth forms 
the wool of the wool-grass or cotton-grass. The scales 
of the spikelet are in 2 ranks in Cyperus and Dulichium; 
in many ranks in the other genera. 

The Cyperacese are of far less economic importance 
than the Graminese. The rhizomes of several species 
of Carex were formerly used as a remedy in syphilis. 
Scirpus lacustris is astringent and diuretic, but other 

9. _CYPERACEJE; 1. Scirpua, a, portion of inflorescence; 6, flower. 
2. Eriophorum, spikelet. 3. Carex; a, inflorescence; b t vertical 
section perigynium. PALMACE^E: 4. Chamserops, a, spathe and 
spadix; 6, floral diagram. CYCLANTHACE.E: 5. Cyclanthus, inflo- 
rescence. 6. Carludovica, inflorescence. 

species also possess this property. The foliage of 
Eriophorum has been used for dysentery. The spongy 
pith of the Eriophorum stem was used by German 
peasants for tapeworm. The tubers of Cyperus escu- 
lentus, now a weed in all countries, were cultivated 
by the Egyptians for food. The leaves of many species 
of Cyperaceae have been woven into mats, chair- 
bottoms, and the like. The Egyptians made parchment 
from the pith of Cyperus Papyrus. The rhizomes of 
Eleocharis tuberosa are used in the manufacture of 
starch, in China and India. Cyperus scariosus and C. 
pertenuis, of India, are fragrant and used in making 
perfumery. Some carices are used in making rugs. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, mostly 
for water-gardens, table decorations, and the con- 
servatory: Carex (Sedge); Cyperus (Umbrella Palm, 
Egyptian Paper Plant, Egyptian Papyrus, Chufa); 
Duhchium; Eleocharis; Eriophorum (Cotton-Grass, 
Wool-Grass); Mapania; Scirpus (Bulrush Sedge). 

Order 15. PBINCIPES 

29. Palmaceae (from the Latin name palma). 
PALM FAMILY. Fig. 9. Woody plants of various habit, 
low, or arborescent, or climbing, usually unbranched, 
sometimes spinescent : leaves forming a crown at summit 
of stem except in Calamus, alternate, coriaceous, pal- 
mately or pinnately veined, entire or pinnatifid or 
palmatifid, often very large: inflorescence a simple or 

much-branched spadix, with or without a subtending 
spathe, the latter often woody; flowers unisexual, 
rarely bisexual, often sunk in the spadix; perianth of 
6 parts in 2 series, greenish, often woody, valvate in 
the staminate, imbricated or convolute in the pistillate 
flower; stamens 6, rarely 3 or many, on or around a 
disk, separate or united; carpels 3, rarely fewer, sepa- 
rate or forming a 1-3-celled ovary; each cell 1-ovuled, 
but all except one seed in the ovary may abort; stigmas 
usually 3: fruit a berry or drupe; pericarp fleshy or 
fibrous; seeds albuminous. 

Palmaceae has 128 genera and about 1,000 species of 
tropical distribution; 10-15 species are found in the 
southern United States. The largest genera are 
Calamus with about 200 species, Bactris with 90 
species and Chamaedorea with 60 species. The family 
is very distinct, having no close relatives, but it evi- 
dently belongs to the spathe- and spadix-bearing group. 
The habit, coriaceous plicate leaves which are entire 
in the bud, the woody flowers and inflorescence, the 
3 sepals and 3 petals, the usually 6 stamens, and the 
3 carpels, each with 1 seed, are together distinctive. 

Palm leaves are always entire in the bud, and if 
later pinnatifid or palmatifid, become so on unfolding. 
In this respect the palms are unique. The leaves are 
plicate in the bud, and, on opening, the plates of the fan 
expand and either remain united or, more frequently, 
split down along the folds. In the pinnate species 
the rachis between the folds elongates so that the 
divisions are separated, and the well-known palm leaf 
is produced. The splitting may be at the top of the 
fold, or at the bottom, depending on the genus, and 
is an important characteristic in classification. Some 
of the largest seeds in the plant kindgom belong to the 
Palmaceae, as, for example, the coconut. This fruit is 
produced from an originally 3-celled ovary, 2 cells of 
which abort. 

Next to the grasses, the palms are the most generally 
useful of all plants. It is said that probably there is 
not a species but that is useful in some way. Many 
yield textile fibers. The wood is used to build houses 
and the leaves to thatch the roofs. The leaves are also 
made into mats, baskets, hats, and the like. The 
fibrous bud-sheaths are used as hats, or for fiber. Some 
species contain starch or sugar in the trunk. The fruits 
of many contain sugar, protein, starch, or oil. Compara- 
tively few are medicinal. "The palm is called King of 
Plants and is said to supply all the wants of an inhabi- 
tant of the tropical zone. It yields sugar, milk, solid 
cream, wine, vinegar, oil, cordage, cloth, cups, wood 
for building, thatch and other products." Coconuts, 
the fruit of Cocos nucifera, form one of the most im- 
portant foods of the tropics. The date fruit (Phoenix 
dactylifera of the Sahara) is also important. Metroxylon 
Rumphii, and other species, yield sago. A fermented 
liquor known as palm wine, laymi or arrack, is made 
from the juice of Arenga saccharifera, Borassus flabelli- 
formis, Metroxylon Rumphii, Mauritia vinifera, and 
others. The central bud of the cabbage palm and 
others is used for food. Most palm oil is from the fruit 
of Elans gidneensis of West Africa, which is now culti- 
vated in America. It is used like olive oil , or in the 
North for making soap. Vegetable wax is obtained 
from the leaves and stems of Ceroxylon andicolum of 
Peru, also from Copernicia cerifera (carnauba wax). 
The famous 'giant double coconut is from Lodoicea 
sechellarum of the Seychelle Islands. The fruit of 
Areca Catechu of the East Indies and India yields an 
astringent juice which, mixed with the leaves of the 
betel pepper and lime, is chewed by the inhabitants 
of tropical Asia. Coconut fiber is important for making 
ship cables. The very slender stems of Calamus, often 
300 feet or even 500 feet long (it is reported 1,200 or 
1,800 feet, but not verified) and scarcely larger than a 
pipe-stem or a finger, are called rattan, and used for 
furniture. Much of the dragon's blood of the druggists 



is the red juice of the fruit of Calamus Draco. Palm- 
leaf fans are made from the palmately veined leaves of 
several species. The saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) 
of the southern states is medicinal. The seeds of Phy- 
telephas macrocarpa have a very hard endosperm 
known as vegetable ivory, used for carving as a sub- 
stitute for ivory. 

Probably 100 genera are in the trade. Except in the 
tropics, they are almost entirely ornamental greenhouse 
plants. Among these are: Areca (Betel Nut); Attalea; 
Bactris; Calamus; Caryota (Fish-tail Palm, Wine 
Palm, Toddy Palm) ; Ceroxylon (Wax Palm) ; Chamse- 
dorea; Cocos (Coco Palm, Coconut, Pindo Tree); 
Corypha (Talipot Palm); Dsemonorops ; Eloeis (Oil 
Palm); Erythea (Blue Palm); Geonoma; Hedyscepe 
(Umbrella Palm); Howea (Flat Palm, Thatch Leaf 
Palm, Curly Palm); Livistona; Oreodoxa (Royal Palm, 
Cabbage Palm); Phoenix (Date Palm); Phytelephas 
(Ivory Palm) ; Rhapis; Rhapidophyllum (Blue Pal- 
metto, Needle Palmetto); Sabal (Dwarf Palmetto, 
Blue Palm, Cabbage Palmetto); Seremea (Saw Pal- 
metto); Thrinax; Trachycarpus (Fortune's Palm); 
Washingtonia or Pritchardia (Weeping Palm). 

Order 16. SYNANTILE 

30. Cyclanthaceae (from the generic name Cyclan- 
thus, which has reference to the spiral arrangement of 
the flowers). CYCLANTHDS FAMILY. Fig. 9. Stemless or 
caulescent, palm-like, somewhat woody plants, often 
climbing: leaves alternate, coriaceous, cleft or parted: 
flowers in a dense terminal unbranched spike (spadix), 
with several bract-like spathes beneath; staminate flow- 
ers grouped in 4 bundles accompanying the pistillate, 
or both in conspicuous alternating spirals; staminate 
perianth reduced and fimbriate, or 0; stamens 6 to 
many, borne in groups; perianth of the pistillate flower 
0, or of 4 fleshy parts accompanied by 4 long, twisted, 
exerted staminodia; carpels 4, united below, sunken in 
the spadix; ovary 1 -celled, many-pvuled, with parietal 
placenta: fruit multiple, a berry-like spike. The tissue 
of the spadix splits into valves, coiling up from the base 
to apex and thus inclosing the fruitlets which deli- 

This family has 5 genera and about 50 species, of 
which 35 belong to Carludovica. They are confined to 
the tropics of America, and stand intermediate between 
the Palmaceoe and Aracea?. The family is distinguished 
by the combination of palm-like foliage, numerous 
ovules, thick spadix, and closely associated staminate 
and pistillate flowers. 

The flowers of Cyclanthus biparlitus of Brazil are 
vanilla-scented, cultivated, and cooked with meat as an 
aphrodisiac. The leaves of Carludovica palmata furnish 
the material for the panama hats. 

Several species of Carludovica are in the American 
trade as greenhouse plants. 


31. Aracese (from the genus Arum, the ancient name 
of these plants). ARUM FAMILY. Fig. 10. Herbs, shrubs, 
or trees, of the most diverse habit and appearance, often 
climbing, or epiphytic with aerial roots, rarely floating, 
usually subfleshy; juice sometimes milky: leaves ensi- 
form or broad, parallel- or netted- veined, entire or 
variously cut: flowers bisexual or unisexual, rarely 
reduced to a single stamen and carpel, regular, hypogy- 
nous or epigynous, disposed on an unbranched fleshy 
axis (spadix), which is usually subtended by a special 
bract (spathe); perianth 0, or of 4-8 parts; stamens 
1 to many; carpels 1 to several; ovary superior or in- 
ferior, 1 to several-celled, 1 to many-ovuled; style and 
stigmas various: fruit a berry; seeds albuminous, outer 
integument fleshy. 

Araceae has over 100 genera and about 900 species, 
widely distributed, but most abundant in the tropics, 

especially as epiphytes in the deep, damp forests. The 
majority in the temperate regions are swamp-plants. 
The largest genera are Philodendron with 100 species, 
and Arisaema with 50 species. The family stands as 
the type of the spathe-bearing plants. Its close relatives 
are the Lemnacese, Palmaceae, and Cyclanthacea;, from 
which it is distinguished more by general habit and 
texture than by structural details. 

The pollination of the Aracese is often complicated 
and remarkable (see Kerner and Oliver). The transfer 
of the pollen is mostly accomplished by flies, which 
are frequently attracted by lurid color and carrion 
scent. The leaves of Monstera are remarkable for 
their peculiar perforations, while the massive petioles 
of other Araceae are sometimes mottled like snakeskin 
Pistia is a much-reduced floating aquatic, transitional 
to the Lemnaeese. The aerial roots of the epiphytic 
species are frequently covered with a special water- 
absorbing tissue. The unfolding spathes of the Aracese 
are noted for the heat evolved. The tissues are usually 
very mucilaginous and filled with needle-like crystals 
of calcium oxalate. These crystals are supposed to 
give the pungent flavor to Indian turnip simply by 
mechanically penetrating the tongue. 

Many species have been used locally for medicine. 
Lagenandra. toricaria of Ceylon is extremely poisonous. 

10. ARACE.E: 1. Ariaaema, spathe and spadix. 2. Arum spadix 
with male and female flowers. LEMNACE.E: 3. Lemna, a, whole 
plants; 6, male and female flowers, and spathe. BROMEUACE*: 4. 
Bromelia, flower. 5. Ananas, a, fruiting inflorescence; fr, floral 
diagram. COMMELINACE.E : 6. Commelina, flower. 7. Tradescantia, 

Dieffenbachia Seguine and Arissema triphyllum are 
violent irritants when chewed, causing the mouth to 
swell. Arum maculatum of Europe was used by the 
ancients as an excitant. The roots of Symplocarpus 
have been used for asthma and colds. The roots of 
Acarus Calamus (sweet flag) are aromatic and used 
for coughs, colds, and the like. The thick rootstocks 
and roots of many have been used for food, e. g., Oron- 
lium aquaiicum of North America, Colocasia antiquo- 
rum of India, Alocasia macrorhiza (taro) of the Pacific 
Islands, and Peltandra virginica of North America. 
The rhizomes of Arisxma maculatum and Calla palus- 



tris, mixed with cereals, according to Linnaeus, serve 
for food among the Laps and Finns. Portland arrow- 
root is derived from Arums. The delicately flavored, 
juicy fruits of Monstera deliciosa are eaten in Mexico. 
The shoots of Xanthosoma sagiUifolium, called caraibe 
cabbage, are eaten as a vegetable in the Antilles. The 
aerial roots of aroids are used to tie bundles of sarsa- 
parilla sent to Europe and America. 

Because of their odd habit and strange appearance, 
as well as, in some cases, for real beauty, many Araceae 
are in cultivation, mostly as conservatory plants. 
Many genera are in the American trade. Among these 
are: Acorus (Sweet Flag); Alocasia; Amorphophallus 
(Devil's Tongue, Snake Palm, Stanley's Wash ; Tub); 
Anthurium; Arisama (Indian Turnip, Jack-in-the- 
Pulpit, Dragon Root, Fringed Calla); Arum (Black 
C;il!a. Solomon's Lily, Lord and Ladies, Cuckoo Pint, 
Wake-Robin of England); Biarum; Caladium; Calla; 
Colocasia; Dieffenbachia; Helicodiceros (Hairy Arum) ; 
Monstera (Ceriman, Shingle Plant); Nephthytis; Oron- 
tiuiu (Golden Club); Peltandra (Water Arum); Pistia 
(Water Lettuce, Tropical Duckweed); Pothos; Sauro- 
matum; Schizmatoglottis; Spathiphyllum; Symplocar- 
pus, or Spathyema (Skunk Cabbage); Xanthosma 
(Malanga); Zantedeschia, or Richardia (Calla Lily, 

32. Lemnaceae (from the genus Lemna, an old Greek 
name of uncertain origin). DUCKWEED FAMILY. Fig. 10. 
Tiny aquatic plants floating or submerged, the plant 
body reduced to an oval or oblong, flat or globular thallus, 
which multiplies rapidly by marginal buds, and may or 
may not bear 1 or more roots qn the under side: flowers 
unisexual, naked, monoecious; the staminate consisting 
of 1 stamen; the pistillate of 1 flask-shaped, 1-celled 
pistil, with several ovules; the latter orthotropous or 
anatropous, the micropyle transformed into a cap: fruit 
a several-seeded utricle. 

There are 3 genera and about 25 species, distributed 
over the whole earth, except the arctics. The family is 
related to the Aracea;, from which it is supposed to 
have degenerated. The flowers, which rarely occur, are 
borne in minute pits in the edge or upper surface of 
the thallus, either 1 staminate and 1 pistillate, or 2 
staminate and 1 pistillate together; in some genera 
provided with a spathe corresponding to the spathe in 
the Araceae. The roots, when present, are balancing 
organs to resist the upsetting of the plant by the waves. 
Wolffia is the tiniest flowering plant, the whole 
plant sometimes in size only half the diameter of a 

By the very rapid vegetative multiplication of some 
species, ponds are often completely covered with a 
green coating, and these plants may then become of 
economic importance. 

Lemna and Spirodela are often grown in aquaria. 

Order 18. FARINOSE 

33. Bromeliaceas (from the genus Bromelia, in honor 
of Olaus Bromel, a Swedish botanist). PINEAPPLE 
FAMILY. Fig. 10. Herbs or subshrubs, mostly epiphytic: 
leaves usually basal, alternate, linear, trough-like, 
sheathing at the base, mostly stiff and spiny-serrate, 
usually covered in part or all over with peltate scale-like 
hairs or glands: flowers in spikes, racemes, panicles or 
heads, often in the axils of imbricated, highly colored, 
bracts, usually bisexual, regular, epigynous or hypogy- 
nous; perianth of 6 parts, definitely differentiated into 
calyx and corolla; partsfreeor united; stamens 6, often 
borne on the perianth; anthers introse; ovary inferior 
or superior, 3-celled; ovules many; style 1; stigmas 3: 
fruit a berry or capsule, more or less surrounded by 
the persistent perianth; seeds albuminous. 

The family has 40 genera and about 900 species, 
almost exclusively of tropical and subtropical Amer- 
ica. Tillandsia usneoides reaches Florida and Texas. 

Tillandsia is the largest genus with 120 species. The 
family is closely related to the Liliaceae and Amaryl- 
lidacea;. The peculiar stiff leaves, the conspicuous 
bracts, the herbaceous calyx, the mealy endosperm, 
and, in general, the epiphytic habit, are distinc- 
tive. There are few families more easily recognized 
than this. 

The most important economic species is the pine- 
apple (Ananas sativus), the fruit of which is an impor- 
tant article of commerce. Its unripe juice is used as a 
vermifuge and diuretic. Florida or Spanish moss 
(Tillandsia itsneoides) is used in the preparation of 
a stiptic ointment. It is also used to stuff mattresses, 
under the name of vegetable hair. Billbergia linctoria is 
the source of a dye. The leaves of pineapple yield a 
beautiful fiber. Bromelia Pinguin is a vermifuge em- 
ployed in the West Indies. 

There are several genera grown in America, all for 
ornamental purposes except the pineapple. Among these 
are: jEchmea; Ananas (Pineapple) ; Billbergia; Bromelia 
(Pinguin of Jamacia, Wild Pine) ; Cryptanthus; Dyckia; 
Guzmannia; Nidularium; Pitcairnia; Tillandsia (Span- 
ish Moss, Florida Moss, Long Moss) ; Vriesia. 

34. Commelinaceae (from the genus Commelina dedi- 
cated to J. and G. Commelin, Dutch botanists of the 
early 18th century). SPIDEBWOBT FAMILY. Fig. 10. Herbs 
with knotty stems, and somewhat sheathing, alternate, 
flat or channeled, cauline leaves : flowers usually bisexual, 
almost or quite regular, hypogynous; perianth of 6 
parts, in 2 series, differentiated into a green calyx and 
colored corolla; the petals separate or united into a tube, 
mostly quickly disappearing, and dissolving into a viscid 
liquid; stamens 6, or reduced to 3, with or without 
staminodia; some anthers often sterile and altered; the 
filaments usually provided with characteristic long 
hairs; ovary superior, 2 3-celled, few-seeded; style 1; 
stigma usually captitate: fruit a capsule. 

Twenty-five genera and about 300 species occur, 
widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. 
Eleven species reach the northeastern United States. 
The largest genus is Commelina, with 88 species. The 
family is not closely related to any other. The general 
habit, the complete differentiation of the perianth into 
calyx and corolla, the slight irregularity of the flower, 
the peculiar stamen-hairs, and the transformed anthers, 
are together distinctive. The peculiar deliquescent 
character of the petals in many genera is of interest. 

The rhizomes of several species of Commelina con- 
tain starch, besides the mucilage, and arc eaten. The 
rhizome of C. Rumphii is an emmenagogue. The tubers 
of Aneilema medicum are used in China for coughs 
and lung diseases. A decoction of Cyanotis axillaris 
is used by the Indians for dropsy. The family is 
most important from the point of view of orna- 
mental use. 

Several genera are grown in America, all for ornament. 
Among these are: Aneilema; Cochliostema; Commelina 
(Day Flower); Dichorisandra; Tradescantia (Spider- 
wort, Wandering Jew); Zebrina (Wandering Jew). 

35. Pontederiaceae (from the genus Pontederia, 
named in honor of Pontedcra, professor at Padua in 
the 18th century). PICKEREL- WEED FAMILY. Fig. 11. 
Upright or floating, fleshy, water- or swamp-p lants: 
leaves alternate; petioles sheathing; blade cordate, 
oval, or orbicular, or reduced to the linear flattened 
petiole: flowers not bracted, bisexual, irregular, hypogy- 
nous; perianth of 6 similar parts, in 2 whorls, more or 
less connate, persistent; stamens 3 or 6, rarely 1, inser- 
ted unequally on the perianth-tube; anthers introse: 
ovary superior, 3-celled and ovules many, or 1-celled 
and 1-seeded; style 1; stigmas 3: fruit a capsule, or an 
achene enveloped by the fleshy persistent base of the 
perianth; embryo as long as the endosperm. 

The family contains 6 genera and about 20 species, of 
which 9 belong to the genus Heteranthera, and about 
5 to Eichhornia. They are distributed in the swamps of 



the wanner parts of the earth, except Europe. Tin; 
family is most closely related to the Liliaceje, from which 
it differs in the irregular flowers, in the sympodial 
method of growth, in anatomical characters, and 
principally in the abundant mealy endosperm. 

A ( lecoction of the root of Monochoria wgittftlis of the 
Far East is used for liver and stomach complaints; the 
root is chewed for toothache; pulverized and mixed 
with sugar it is used for asthma; the leaves bruised 
and mixed with milk are used for cholera; and the 
siioots are edible. Eichhornia crassipes is a floating 
fleshy plant with beautiful flowers. It has become so 
abundant in Florida as to interfere seriously with steam- 
boat navigation in the rivers. The large violet flowers 
of both Eichhornia and Pontederia are valued in 
cultivation for water-gardens. 

Two genera are frequent in cultivation: Eichhornia 
(Water Hyacinth), from South America; and Ponte- 
deria (Pickerel-weed), native. 

Order 19. LILIFLOR/E 

36. Juncacese (from the genus Juncus, classical name, 
derived Irom jungrre, to join). RUSH FAMILY. Fig. 11. 
Rush-like or mas-like herbs or shrubs: flowers numer- 
ous, very small, bisexual, regular, hypogynous; perianth 
of 6 similar, separate parts, greenish or brownish, 
chaffy; stamens 3 or 6 in 2 whorls; carpels 3; ovary 1- 

11. PONTEDERIACE.E: 1. Pontederia, floral diagram. JCNCA- 
CE.B: 2. Luzula, flower. 3. Juncus, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 
LIUACE.E: 4. Dracaena, flower. 5. Fritillaria, floral diagram. 
AMARYI.IJDACE.E: 6. Leucoium; a, flower; fr, floral diagram. 7. 
Narcissus, flower. 

or 3-celled; ovules 3 to many; stigmas 3: fruit a cap- 
sule; seeds mostly very small, albuminous, anatropous. 

Juncacese has 7 genera and about 175 species, of 
which 160 belong to the genus Juncus, widely distrib- 
uted in temperate and cold regions, both north and 
south, but rare in the tropics. The family is closely 
related to the Liliaceos, from which it differs only in 
the rush- or grass-like habit and scarious perianth. 
Fossil species are known. The leaves are sheathing 
and the blades arc either flat, or tubular and nodulose. 
Distichia of the Andes is densely heath-like or moss- 

The stems and leaves of many species are used for 
binding, or for weaving into mats. Light hats are 
made from the pith of certain species in India and 
China. The pith is also used for candlewicks. 

In cultivation in America are 2 genera for water- 
gardens: Juncus; Prionium, woody. Xanthorrhcea is 
transferred to the Liliacea;. 

37. Liliaceae (from the genus Lilium, classical Latin 

name). LILY FAMILY. Fig. 11. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, 
usually with rootstocks or bulbs, sometimes climbing: 
leaves alternate, rarely with petiole and blade: flowers 
bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, hypogynous, rarely 
epigynpus, not subtended by spathes; perianth petaloid, 
of 6 similar parts, in 2 series, the parts separate or 
connate, rarely differentiated into a green calyx and 
colored corolla; stamens 6, rarely fewer, hypogynous, or 
borne upon the perianth; carpels 3, rarely more or fewer, 
united, rarely free; ovary usually 3-celled; ovules 
1 to many in each cell; styles and stigmas 1-3: fruit a 
capsule or berry. 

There are about 200 genera and 2,000 species, distrib- 
uted in all parts of the world. The large genera are 
Smilax with 200 species, Allium with 250 species, 
Asparagus with 100 species. Aloe with 85 species and 
Seilla with 80 species. The Liliaceae, taken in the 
broader sense, as is done by Bentham & Hooker, and 
by Engler, is an easily recognized group except in unu- 
sual cases. The regular, 6-parted perianth, 6 stamens, 
and 3-celled superior ovary are distinctive. The family 
has been divided by Engler into 1 1 tribes. The Liliacca> 
furnishes a host of cultivated plants. 

The following plants, among others, have been or are 
used in medicine: Amianthium muscxloxicum of North 
America as a narcotic and a fly poison; various species 
of Uvularia of North America as a gargle and for rattle- 
snake bites; the root of Polygonatum sp. in Europe as 
a vulnery, and the berries as an emetic and purgative; 
the berries of Smilacina racemosa of North America as 
a tonic; the root of Convallaria majalis of Europe as a 
purgative; the leaves of Streptopus amplexicaulis of 
North America as a gargle; the roots of Ruscus of 
Europe as a diuretic and emmenagogue; the roots of 
Smilax sp. of the tropics (the sarsaparillas of commerce) 
as a tonic and diuretic; the roots of Asparagus officinalis 
in Europe as an aperient, the berries as a diuretic and 
aphrodisiac, and the shoots as a sedative and cardiac; 
the roots of Cordyline of the southern tropics for 
dysentery; the flowers of C. deflexa as an emmenagogue; 
the resin from Xanthorhcea hastilis (Botany Bay gum, 
with a fragrance like benzoin) in Australia for throat 
troubles; the resin of X. australis (grass tree gum, 
earth shellac, or nut pitch) for various purposes; the 
tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus (serpent's beard) in 
China and Japan for abdominal troubles; the bulbs of 
Gagea of Europe as an emetic; the flowers of Hemero- 
callis of Europe as a cordial; the leaves of species of 
Aloes of the Old World as a tonic, purgative, and em- 
menagogue (A. Perryi is Socotrine aloes, A. vera is 
Barbadoes aloes, and A. spicata is Cape aloes); the 
bulb of Urginea marilima (squills) of the Mediterra- 
nean as a diuretic, expectorant, and emetic; Allium sp. 
as a vermifuge and carminative; the bulbs of Hya- 
cinthus, Muscari, and Ornithogalum of Europe as 
purgatives and diuretics; Ornithogalum altissimum of 
the Cape as a remedy for asthma and catarrh; Antheri- 
cum and Asphodelus as diuretics and emmenagogues ; 
Tulbaghia of the Cape as a vermifuge and for phthisis; 
the poisonous root of Veratrum album (white helle- 
bore) of Europe as a violent purge and emetic, and to 
exterminate vermin; V. nigrum (black h.) of Europe, 
and V. viride (green h.) of the United States, occasion- 
ally, for the same purpose; Schcenocaulon officinalis 
(cavadilla or sabadilla) of Mexico for vermin and as a 
vermifuge; the narcotic, poisonous root and seeds of 
Colchicum officinale of Europe as a cathartic, emetic, 
and sedative; and Helonias bulltila of North America 
as a vermifuge. The roots of Gloriosa, also, are poison- 
ous. Driica-tm Draco, the dragon tree of the Canaries 
and Teneriffe, famous for the extreme age and size of 
the trees, was superstitiously revered by the ancients. 
The red resinous astringent exudation of these plants 
was called dragon's blood. 

The following have been used for food: Bulbs of 
Camassia esculenta, western United States; bulbs and 



leaves of Allium sp. (onion, leek, eschalot or shallot, 
rochambole) ; shoots of Polygonatum, Europe, United 
States; shoots of Asparagus officinalis; roots of Cordy- 
line sp., in South Sea Islands, and there called ti. The 
seeds of Ruscus are a substitute for coffee. 

A few have been used for other purposes: Roots of 
Yucca for soap; fibers of New Zealand flax (Phcmnium 
tenax) for fabrics; and the fragrant root of Dianella 
nemorosa for incense. 

For ornament, great numbers of genera and species 
are in cultivation. 

Very many genera are in cultivation, some common, 
for ornamental purposes unless otherwise stated . Among 
these are Agapanthus (African Lily, Lily-of-the-Nile) ; 
Aletris (Colic Root), native; Allium (Onion, Chives, 
Gives, Garlic, Leek, Shallot), ornament and food; 
Asphodeline (True Asphodel, King's Spear); Asphodelus 
(Branching Asphodel) ; Bessera (Mexican Coral Drops) ; 
Brevoortia (Floral Fire-Cracker) ; Brodisea; Calochortus 
(Star Tulip, Globe Flower, Mariposa Lily, Butterfly 
Tulip) ; Camassia (Camass) ; Chionodoxa (Glory-of-the- 
Snow); Chlorpgalum (Soap Plant, Amole); Clintonia, 
native; Colchicum (Meadow Saffron, Autumn Crocus); 
Cordyline (Dracaena); Dasylirion; Dracaena (Dragon 
Tree); Erythronium (Dog's-tooth Violet, Adder's 
Tongue); Eucomis (Royal Crown, Pineapple Flower); 
Fritillaria (Crown Imperial, Black Lily, Checkered 
Lily); Funkia (Day Lily, Plantain Lily); Galfconia 
(Giant Summer Hyacinth); Gasteria; Gloriosa (Climb- 
ing Lily); Haworthia; Helonias (Swamp Pink, Stud 
Pink); Hemerocallis (Yellow Day Lily, Lemon Lily); 
Hyacinthus (Hyacinth); Kniphofia (Red-hot-poker 
Plant, Torch Lily, Flame Flower); Lachenalia (Cape 
Cowslip) ; Lapageria (Chilean Bellflower) ; Leucocrinum 
(Sand Lily); LiUum (Lily, Easter Lily, Madonna Lily, 
Tiger Lily, Japan Lily, Turk's-cap Lily); Littonia 
(Climbing Lily); Maianthemum (False Lily-of-the- 
Valley, Two-leaved False Solomon's Seal), native; 
Medeola (Indian Cucumber Root), native; Melanthium 
(Bunch Flower); Milla (Mexican Star, Mexican Star of 
Bethlehem, Frost Flower, Floating Star); Muscari 
(Grape Hyacinth, Musk Hyacinth, Feathered Hya- 
cinth); Narthecium (Bog Asphodel) ; Nolina; Nothos- 
cordurn (Yellow False Garlic, Streaked-leaved Garlic) ; 
Oakesia (Wild Oats), -native; Ornithogalum (Star of 
Bethlehem); Paradisea (St. Bruno's Lily, St. Bernard's 
Lily); Paris (Herb Paris, Love Apple, True Love); 
Phormium (New Zealand Flax); Polygonatum (Solo- 
mon's Seal); Ruscus (Butcher's Broom); Sansevieria 
(Bow-string Hemp) ; Scilla (Squill, Wild Hyacinth, Blue- 
bell, Harebell, Spanish Jacinth, Sea Onion, Starry Hya- 
cinth, Cuban Lily, Hyacinth of Peru, Peruvian Jacinth) ; 
Semele (Climbing Butcher's Broom) ; Smilacina (False 
Solomon's Seal), native; Smilax; Streptopus (Twisted 
Stalk), native; Tricyrtis (Toad Lily); Trillium (Wake- 
Robin, Birthroot, Bethroot, White Wood Lily, Ground 
Lily), native; Triteleia (Spring Star-Flower) ; Tulipa 
(Tulip); Urginea (Sea Onion, Squills); Uvularia (Bell- 
wort, Wild Oats), native; Veratrum (False Hellebore, 
White Hellebore, Green Hellebore, Black Hellebore, 
Indian Poke); Xanthorrhoea (Grass Tree, Grass Gum, 
Black Boy); Xerophyllum (Turkey's Beard); Yucca 
(Spanish Bayonet, Adam's Needle, Bear Grass, Silk 
Grass); Zygadenus (Fly-poison). 

38. Amaryllidaceae (from the genus Amaryllis 
named for a nymph celebrated by Virgil). AMARYLLIS 
FAMILY. Fig. 11. Caulescent or acaulescent herbs, bul- 
bous- or fibrous-rooted: leaves alternate, elongated, 
entire: flowers bisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous, 
usually borne singly or in clusters from a spathe-like 
bract; perianth of 6 similar parts in 2 series, usually 
connate below into a tube and sometimes with a tubular 
or cup-shaped crown in the throat; stamens 6, some 
occasionally staminodial ; anthers introrse ; ovary inferior, 
3-celled; ovules numerous, anatropous; style 1; stigmas 
1-3: fruit a capsule, rarely a berry; seeds albuminous. 

There are 71 genera and about 800 species, widely 
distributed but most abundant in the steppe regions 
of the tropics and subtropics. Five species are found in 
the northeastern United States. The largest genera 
are Crinum with 60 species, and Hypoxis, and Hip- 
peastrum with 50 species each. The family is most 
closely related to the Liliaceze; less closely to the 
Iridacese. The 6-parted perianth, 6 stamens with 
introrse anthers, and inferior 3-celled ovary, are together 

The bulbs or rootstocks of some species have been 
used in medicine. Those of Narcissus Pgeudo-Narcistvi 
and Leucoium vernum are vigorous emetics. Those of 
Crinum zeylanicum of the Moluccas, Amaryllis liilln- 
donna, of the Cape of Good Hope, and Buphane toxi- 
caria of South Africa arc violent poisons. The latter 
is used by the Kafirs to poison their arrows. In South 
America the farinaceous tubers of the Alstrcemeri:c are 
eaten. The most important plants are the Yuccas. 
From the terminal bud of these, a sugary liquid is 
obtained which by the Mexicans is made into a fer- 
mented drink, called pulque; when distilled this drink 
is called mescal. The juice of the leaves has been used 
for syphilis, scrofula, and cancers. The leaf-fibers 
yield vegetable silk or sisal hemp, and are also made 
into paper. Razor-strops and cork are made from the 
pith. The flowers are sometimes boiled and eaten. 

Forty or more genera are in cultivation in America, as 
ornamental plants in greenhouse and garden. Among 
these are: Agave (Century Plant, Sisal Hemp, Pulque 
Plant); Alstroemeria; Amaryllis (Belladonna Lily) ; 
Beschorneria; Bomarea; Bravoa (Mexican Twin 
Flower); Cooperia (Evening Star, Giant Fairy Lily); 
Crinum (St. John's Lily, Florida Swamp Lily) ; Eucharis 
(Amazon Lily, Star of Bethlehem) ; Eurycles (Brisbane 
Lily) ; Furcrsea; Galanthus (Snowdrop) ; Griffinia (Blue 
Amaryllis); Hoemanthus (Blood Lily); Hippeastrum 
(Amaryllis, Lily-of-the- Palace, Barbadoes Lily); Hy- 
menocallis (Spider Lily, Sea Daffodil) ; Hypoxis (Star 
Grass), native; Leucoium (Snowflake); Lycoris (Golden 
Spider Lily); Narcissus (Narcissus, Jonquil, Daffodil, 
Pheasant's Eye); Nerine (Guernsey Lily); Pancratium 
(Spider Lily, Spirit Lily); Polianthes (Tuberose); 
Sprekelia (Jacobsean Lily); Tecophilsea (Chilean Cro- 
cus) ; Vallota (Scarborough'Lily) ; Zephyranthes (Zephyr 
Flower, Fairy Lily, Atamasco Lily). 

39. Taccaceae (from the genus Tacca, from the Malay 
name). TACCA FAMILY. Fig. 12. Herbaceous plants: 
leaves large, entire, or commonly pinnatifid or bipinna- 
tifid, all basal: flowers saucer- or urn-shaped, bisexual, 
regular, epigynous; perianth of 6 nearly separate simi- 
lar parts in 2 series; stamens 6, borne on the base 
of the perianth ; filaments queerly broadened and 
cucullate; ovary inferior, 1-celled, or incompletely 3- 
celled; ovules numerous; placenta; parietal; style um- 
brella-like, the terminal disk variously lobed, and bear- 
ing the peculiar stigmatic pores beneath: fruit a capsule 
or berry; seed albuminous. 

Taccaceaj has 2 genera and 10 species, inhabitants 
of the tropics of both hemispheres, mostly of the 
Malay archipelago. A very distinct family of doubtful 
relationship, even suggesting several Dicotyledonous 
families, but probably close to the Dioscoriacese and 
Amaryllidaceae. The acaulescent habit, the epigynous 
bisexual flowers, the six queer stamens, and the 1-celled, 
many-ovuled ovary, are together distinctive. 

Several species of Tacca, e. g., T. pinnatifida, possess 
tubers from which a starchy meal, called arrowroot, is 
made in the East. Straw hats are made from the stems 
of Tacca by the Tahitians. 

Tacca pinnatifida and T. cristate are cultivated 
sparingly in America. 

40. Dioscoreaceae (from the genus Dioscorea, named 
in honor of Dipscorides) . YAM FAMILY. Fig. 12. 
Climbing or twining herbs or shrubs: leaves alternate, 
mostly arrowhead-shaped: flowers bisexual or unisex- 



ual, regular, small, and inconspicuous; perianth of 6 
similar parts, in 2 series; stamens usually 6, or the 3 
inner staminodia; ovary inferior, 3-celled, rarely 1- 
celled; placenta; axile or parietal; ovules 2 in each 
cell, superposed, anatropous; stigmas 3, or each 2- 
parted: fruit a capsule or berry; seed albuminous. 

Nine genera and about 170 species, of which 150 
belong to the genus Dioscorea, are distributed very 
generally in the tropics and in the subtropics, and 
extend sparingly into the north temperate zone. They 
are most abundant in South America and the West 
Indies. One species reaches north to southern New 
England. The family is related to the Amaryllidaceae 
arid Liliaceas. The climbing habit, peculiar leaves, 
definite stamens, inferior 3-celled ovary, and 2 albumi- 
nous seeds are distinctive. Most Dioscoriaceae spring 
from a tuberous base, which is sometimes very large 
and conspicuous. Odd tubers are borne in the leaf- 
axils of species of Dioscorea and Rajania. 

The tuberous root of Dioscorea Batatas yields the 
yams of eastern commerce, a very important article 
of food in the Far East. Those of several other species, 
including our own native D. villosa, are also cultivated 
in various parts of the tropics. The leaves of some 
species are used in intermittent fevers. The tubers of 
Tamim com munis were formerly employed as a pur- 
gative, and were also applied to bruises, hence the 
name "beaten woman's herb." The shoots are eaten 
like asparagus. 

Two genera are in cultivation in the United States, 
mostly in the South: Dioscorea (Yam, Chinese Potato, 
Cinnamon Vine, Air Potato); Testudinaria (Hottentot's 
Bread, Tortoise Plant, Elephant's Foot), rarely grown. 

41. Iridaceas (from the genus Iris, the rainbow). 
IRIS FAMILY. Fig. 12. Herbs or sub-shrubs with fibrous 
roots or often tuberous rootstocks (corms): leaves 
mostly basal, equitant, linear: flowers usually showy, 
bisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous, each with 2 
spathc-like bracts; perianth of 6 petaloid parts in 2 
series, usually unlike, generally connate into a tube; 
stamens 3, the inner whorl wanting, separate or con- 
nate; anthers extrorse; ovary inferior, 3-celled, rarely 
1-celled; ovules few to many, anatropous; style 1; stig- 
mas 3: fruit a capsule; seeds albuminous. 

The iris family has 57 genera and about 1,000 species 
of wide distribution. The two main centers are the 
Cape of Good Hope and subtropical America. The 
family is not plainly related to any other, perhaps most 
closely to the Amaryllidaceje. The ensiform equitant 
leaves, the 6-parted showy perianth, the 3 extrorse 
stamens, and the inferior 3-celled ovary, are together 

The rootstocks of many Iridaceae are purgative and 
diuretic, e. g., Iris florentina, I. germanica, I. pallida, 
and /. versicolor. The rootstock of I. florentina is 
fragrant and used for sachet perfume and tooth-powder 
(orris root). /. Pseudacorus and /. versicolor have been 
used for dropsy and diarrhea. /. f&'.idissima was an 
ancient remedy for scrofula and hysteria. The stigmas 
of Crocus sativus have been renowned since earliest 
times as an emmenagogue; they are deep orange in 
color, and used also in dyeing and as a condiment. Iris- 
green of the painters was prepared by treating violet 
iris flowers with lime. The seeds of /. Pseudacorus have 
been used as a substitute for coffee. The rootstocks of 
Homeria cottina of South Africa are very poisonous. The 
family contains many well-known ornamental plants. 

In America, many genera are in cultivation, all for 
ornamental purposes. Among these are: Belamcanda 
(Blackberry Lily, Leopold Flower); Crocus; Freesia; 
Gladiolus; Hermodactylus (Snake's-head Iris); Iris 
(Fleur-de-lis, Iris, Glad win); Ixia; Moraa (Wedding 
Iris) ; Schizostylis (Crimson Flag) ; Sisyrinchium (Blue- 
eyed Grass, Satin Flower, Rush Lily) ; Sparaxis (Wand 
Flower); Tigridia (Tiger Flower, Shell Flower); Tri- 
tonia (Blazing Star). 

Order 20. SCITAMINE.E 

42. Musaoeae (from the genus Musa, the Arabic 
name). BANANA FAMILY. Fig. 12. Large, semi-ligne- 
ous herbs, the stout stem enveloped at base by the 
sheathing petioles, unbranched: leaves alternate, entire, 
convolute, pinnately parallel-veined: flowers bisexual, 
or unisexual, irregular, epigynous, borne in the axil of 
a bract in spikes with subtending spathes; nectaries 
ovarian; perianth of 6 parts, in 2 series, the parts un- 
equal in size and shape, separate or variously united; 
stamens 6, 5 fertile and 1 staminodium; ovary inferior, 
3-celled; ovules solitary and basal, or numerous and 
axile, anatropous; style 1; stigmas usually 3: fruit 


12. TACCACE.E; 1. Tacca, flower. DIOSCOREACE*: 2. Dios- 
corea, leaf and fruit. IRIDACE.E: 3. Crocus, o, vertical section 
whole plant; 6, floral diagram. 4. Sisyrinchium, flower. MOSA- 
c],!:: 5. Musa; a, flower, *t., stamen; h, floral diagram. ZIN- 
GIBERACE.E: 6. Zingiber, a, flower; St., stamen; 6, floral diagram. 

fleshy and pulpy or drupaceous, indehiscent, dehiscent 
or separating into fruitlets; seeds with perisperm; 
embryo straight. 

Six genera and about 60 species occur, 30 of which 
belong to the genus Heliconia and 20 to Musa, of gen- 
eral tropical distribution. Fossil species are known. 
The family is related to the Marantaceae, Zingiberaceae 
and Cannaceae; with the last it is often united. These 
families all have irregular flowers of the same type, and 
inferior ovaries; but the Musaceae differ in their 
slightly differentiated calyx and corolla, in the 5 fertile 
stamens, and in the absence of aromatic principles. 

The banana (Musa paradisiaca, M. sapientum, etc.) 
is the most important economic plant, the fruit of 
which is widely used for food. The pith of the stem, 
top of the floral spike, and also the shoots, are eaten as 
vegetables. The fibers from the petioles of Musa textilis 
are made into thread and fabrics. The leaves are used 
to thatch huts. The traveler's tree (Ravenala mada- 
gascariensis) holds sufficient water at the leaf bases to 
serve for drink. The water is obtained by boring the 
sheath. The seeds of this tree are eaten. 

Four genera are in cultivation in the South and in 
conservatories, for ornament; and one also, Musa, for 
the fruit: Heliconia (Balisier, Wild Plantain) ; Musa (Ba- 
nana, Plantain Tree, Chumpa, Adam's Fig) ; Ravenala 
(Traveler's Tree); Strelitzia (Bird of Paradise Flower). 

43. Zingiberacese (from the genus Zingiber, the Indian 



name). GINGER FAMILY. Fig. 12. Herbs with creeping 
or tuberous rhizomes, rarely with fibrous roots: leaves 
basal or cauline, alternate, sheathing; blade with ligule 
at top of petiole, linear or elliptic, the pinnately 
parallel veins strongly ascending: flowers bisexual, 
irregular, epigynous; perianth of 6 parts, in 2 series, 
differentiated into a tubular 3-toothed or spathiform 
somewhat herbaceous calyx, and a tubular unequally 
3-lobed corolla; 1 stamen only is fertile, opposite this is 
a large petaloid staminodium, and there are sometimes 
other smaller ones; ovary inferior, 3-celled, rarely 1- 
celled; ovules many in each cell; style 1; stigma usually 
1: fruit a capsule; seed with large perisperm, small 
endosperm, and straight embryo. 

There are 24 genera and about 270 species, distributed 
in the tropical regions of the eastern hemisphere. Only 
2 genera are in America. The largest genera are Amo- 
inuiii, with 50 species, and Alpinia, with 40 species. 
The family is related to the Musacese, Marantacece 
and Cannacea, but differs in the ligule, the aromatic oil, 
the sharp differentiation of the perianth, the single 
stamen, and the large single staminodium. 

To the spicy aromatic flavor of the rhizomes and 
fruits the family owes its useful qualities. Ginger is 
from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, cultivated from 
India. Cardamon fruits are from Eleltaria Cardamo- 
mum of farther India. Curcuma or turmeric is from 
the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, cultivated from south- 
east Asia. This is used in medicine, and for flavor- 
ing pickles. In it is a yellow dye. The seeds of Amo- 
mum Melegueia of west Africa are the grains of para- 

13. CAXNACE*: 1. Canna, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 
MAHANTACE.E: 2. Maranta, a, flower, pistil removed; 6, floral 
diagram. OROHIDACE*: 3. Lycaste, a, flower; 6, column, front 
view; c, pollinia and gland; d, floral diagram. 4. Cypripedium, 
a, flower; b, column, under side; c, column, side view; d, floral dia- 
gram, (el., fertile stamen; tier., sterilo stameii; stig., stigma; a, 
gland; p., pistil). 

dise of commerce. Galangal, used in perfumery, is the 
rootstock of Alpinia Galanga of the East Indies. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, mostly 
grown for ornamental purposes in greenhouses and 
principally in the South. Among these are: Alpinia 
(Shell Flower); Amomum; Curcuma (Curcuma, Tur- 
meric); Elettaria (commercial Cardamon seeds); He- 
dychium (Butterfly Lily, Ginger Lily, Garland Lily;; 
Ksempferia; Zingiber (Ginger). 

44. Cannaceae (from the genus Canna, the origin of 
the name not clear). CANNA FAMILY. Fig. 13. Similar 
to the Marantaceae in all but the following structural 
details: no joint nor ligule at summit of petiole; ovules 
many in each cell of the ovary; embryo straight. 

This family contains a single genus and 25-50 species 
of tropical and subtropical America'. 

The starchy rhizome of C. edulis is grown and eaten 
in the West Indies and Australia. The arrowroot 
starch of the English and French is derived from C. 
coccinea of the West Indies and South America. The 
cannas are popular ornamental garden plants. 

45. Marantaceae (from the genus Maranta, named 
for Maranti, a Venetian botanist and physician of the 
16th century). ARROWROOT FAMILY. Fig. 13. Herbs with 
rhizomes: leaves mostly basal, with an articulation at 
the summit of the petiole; blade linear to oval, pinnately 
parallel-veined: inflorescence usually surrounded by 
spathe-like bracts; flowers bisexual, irregular, epigynous; 
perianth of 6 parts, plainly differentiated into calyx and 
corolla, the latter somewhat irregular; one stamen of the 
inner set fertile, petaloid, with lateral anther, the two 
others of the inner whorl transformed into enlarged 
staminodia; usually 1 or 2 of the outer whorl also 
present as petaloid staminodia; ovary inferior, 3-celled, 
rarely 1-2-celled; ovule 1 in each cell; style flat and 
twisted or lobed: fruit a capsule or berry; seeds with 
perisperm, and aril; embryo curved. 

Marantaceae has 12 genera and about 100 species, of 
damp situations in the tropics, mostly American. The 
largest genus is Calathea with 60 species. The family 
is related to the Cannaceao, Zingiberacea-, and Musa- 
cese. The joint at the summit of the petiole, the type 
of stamen-irregularity, the 1-seeded cells of the ovary, 
and the curved embryo are distinctive. 

The rhizome of Maranta arundinacea is cultivated in 
tropical America, and furnishes the maranta arrowroot of 
commerce; rhizomes of some other species are eaten. 
Many species are ornamental, mostly for conservatory. 

Five or 6 genera are in cultivation in America, as 
Calathea (Rattlesnake Plant); Maranta; Phrynium; 
Stromanthe; Thalia. 

Order 21. MICROSPERM.* 

46. Orchidaceae (from the genus Orchis, an ancient 
name of these plants). ORCHID FAMILY, tig. 13. Her- 
baceous plants of very diverse habit and structure; ter- 
restrial, epiphytic or saprophytic, sometimes climbing; 
the terrestrial with fibrous roots or with thickened tuber- 
like roots, the epiphytic often with the base of the leaf 
and adjoining stem swollen, forming a pseudobulb; the 
saprophytic without chlorophyll ; the epiphytic often with 
aerial hanging roots ate provided with a water-absorb- 
ing layer (velamen) : leaves alternate, succulent, coria- 
ceous or membranous, linear to oval: flowers bisexual, 
rarely unisexual, irregular, epigynous; perianth of G 
parts, in 2 series, usually all petaloid; one petal larger, 
forming the lip (labeUum) ; stamens originally 6, but all 
except 1 or 2 wanting, or reduced to staminodia, united 
with the pistil; pollen-grains compound, granular, or 
aggregated into masses (pollinia) which are cither free 
in the anther or attached by a stalk to a viscid apical or 
stigmatic gland; carpels 3; ovary inferior, 1- or 3-cclled; 
ovules very numerous; style united with tbe stamens to 
form the column; stigma in the front of the column, or 
on a projecting lobe: fruit a capsule; seeds very minute. 



This is an important family of more than 400 genera 
and between 6,000 and 10,000 species. Orchids are very 
widely distributed, except in the arctics, but are most 
numerous in the tropics. Those of temperate regions 
are mainly terrestrial; those in the tropics commonly 
epiphytic. The large genera are Epidendrum, 500 spe- 
cies; Habenaria, Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, and Un- 
cidium, 200^600 species each; Masdevallia, Odonto- 
glossum, and Maxillaria, each 100 or more species. 

From the standpoint of the intricate and very special 
mechanisms evolved in order to insure cross-pollination, 
the orchids are the most wonderful of our insect- 
pollinated plants. For a detailed account see Darwin's 
"Fertilization of Orchids," or Kernerand Oliver's "Natu- 
ral History of Plants." In general, the insect visiting the 
showy flower for the honey comes in contact with the 
sticky gland above the stigma, thereby pulling it out, 
along with the attached pollen masses. While the insect 
is going to another flower, the pollen masses dry and 
bend down until they are in position to strike the viscid 
stigma, which tears away and retains some of the pollen. 
The method of pollination in Cypripedium is fundamen- 
tally different. Some orchids (e.g., Catasetum) possess a 
sensitive explosive mechanism that forcibly ejects the 
pollen mass, often to the distance of 2 or 3 feet. The 
minute seeds of the orchids are well adapted to be 
disseminated by the wind and find lodgment in the 
crevices of the bark of trees and on other supports. 
Orchids are divided into large groups as follows: 
Group I. Diandrse. The two lateral stamens of the 
inner whorl fertile, the dorsal of the outer whorl 
staminodial or fruitful, the others absent. Cypripe- 
dium, Selenipedium, Paphiopedilum, and others. 

Group II. Monandrae. The dorsal stamen of the 
outer whorl fruitful, all the others wanting. By far 
the majority of the species belong here. Subgroup I. 
Pollinia connected by caudieles with a gland at base 
of anther near stigma. Subgroup 2. Pollen without 
caudieles or with these attached to a gland at apex of 

The family is very distinct and easily distinguished. 
Its only near relatives are the Burmanniaceae. The 
peculiar structure of the stamens and pistil, together 
with the minute exalbuminous seeds are distinctive. 

The Orchidaccae is perhaps the most important 
family from the standpoint of ornamental gardening. 
To grow these singular, fantastic, showy, and often 
sweet-scented flowers has in recent years become almost 
a craze. It is estimated that, whereas Linmeus knew 
but a dozen exotic orchids, at the present day more 
than 2,500 are known to English horticulturists. 
Plants in the family useful for other purposes are few. 
The most important is vanilla, derived from the capsule 
of Vanilla planifolia of Mexico, and now widely culti- 
vated in the tropics. Faham (Angrxcum fragrans of 
Bourbon) has a fragrant, bitter-almond-like taste; the 
leaves are used for indigestion and tuberculosis, and are 
known as Bourbon tea. Salcp is derived from the 
roots of various terrestrial orchids of the Mediterra- 
nean region. The roots of helleborine (Epipaclis lali- 
folia) are used for rheumatism. The root of Spiranthes 
diurelica of Chile is renowned as a diuretic. The flow- 
ers of Habenaria conopsea are used for dysentery. Spi- 
ranthes aulumnalis and Habenaria bifolia are said to 
be aphrodisiac. The roots of Cypripedium paniflorum 
var. pubescens are frequently used in America as a 
substitute for valerian. 

Sub-class 1. Archichlamydese (Choripelalse and Apetalx) 


47. Casuarinaceae (from the genus Casuarina, de- 
rived from the resemblance of the branches to the 
feathers of the bird cassowary). CASUARINA FAMILY. 

Fig. 14. Shrubs, or much-branched trees, with the habit 
of the horse-tail (Equisetum) or Ephedra: branches 
whorled, jointed, striate: leaves replaced by striate, 
many-toothed sheaths: flowers monoecious ordioscious, 
the staminate in spikes, the pistillate in heads ; perianth 
of the staminate flower of 2, rarely 1, bract-like parts; 
stamen 1; perianth of the pistillate flower 0; ovary 
1-celled, rarely 2-celled, 2-4-ovuled; stigmas 2: fruit 

14. CASUARINACEJ:: 1. Casuarina, a, portion of male inflores- 

HLOHANTHACE.E: 4. Chloranthus, a, flower, vertical section; 

dry, often samaroid, inclosed by the woody valve-like 
bracts; seeds 2, or 3-4, orthotropous, ascending. 

A single genus containing about 20 species occurs in 
Australia and the neighboring islands, extending to 
Madagascar and to southeast Asia. The family is very 
distinct and its relationships are in doubt. It is placed 
here in the system because of the simple flowers. The 
peculiar habit, reduced staminate flowers, and peculiar 
fruit are characteristic. 

The wood of Casuarina equisetifolia is very hard, and 
called ironwood. It is used in ship-building, and by the 
Indians for war-clubs; the powdered bark is used to 
dress wounds, or for diarrhea. A brown dye is obtained 
from the same plant. 

A few species of Casuarina (Beefwood, She Oak) are 
cultivated in the South for timber and ornament. 

Order 23. PIPEEALES 

48. Saururaceae (from the genus Saururus, meaning 
lizard's tail, in allusion to the long slender spike). 
Liz ARD'S-T AIL FAMILY. Fig. 14. Herbs : leaves alternate, 
large and broad: flowers bisexual, regular, in a long, 
dense spike; perianth 0; stamens 6 or fewer, hypo- 
gynous or united with the pistil; carpels 3-4, separate, 
or united in to a 3-4-celled ovary; ovules 2 to several, 
parietal; stigmas as many as the carpels: fruit of 
follicles, or a lobed berry. 

Three genera and about 4 species are found in tem- 
perate or subtropical Asia and North America. The 
family is related to the Piperacea, with which it is 
frequently united. From that family it differs in 
having several carpels in each flower and several 
parietal ovules for each carpel. 

Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail), a native herb, is 
in the trade as a garden plant for wet soil. 

49. Piperacese (from the genus Piper, an ancient 
name of pepper). PEPPER FAMILY. Fig. 14. Herbs, 
shrubs, or rarely trees: leaves alternate, rarely opposite 
or whorled: flowers in dense spikes, bisexual, or uni- 
sexual, regular; perianth 0; stamens 1-10; ovary 



1-celled; ovule 1, basal; stigmas 1-4, rarely more, sessile: 
fruit a dry or fleshy berry. 

There are 9 genera and about 1,025 species, confined 
to the tropics. The largest genera are Piper with 600 
species and Peperomia with 400 species. The family is 
related to the Saururaceae, with which it is often united; 
otherwise it stands alone as a distinct type, the system- 
atic position of which is uncertain. The spicate inflores- 
cence, naked flowers, and 1-celled, 1-seeded ovary are 

The unripe fruit of Piper nigrum (Java, etc.) yields 
black pepper. The ripe fruit of the same plant yields 
white pepper. Long pepper is the whole spike of 
P. longum of India. The drug cubebs is obtained 
from P. Ciibeba. Betel consists of the leaves of 
P. Belle, which in India are mixed with the areca nut 
and masticated (p. 16). From an extraction of the roots 
of P. methysticum (ava, or kava-kava), mixed with 
the milk of coconuts, an intoxicating drink is made in 
the Pacific Islands. Some species of Peperomia are 
eaten as salads; others chewed as betel. 

Some genera are in cultivation in America as green- 
house foliage plants: Peperomia, 10 or more species; 
Piper (Pepper, Black Pepper, Japanese Pepper). 

50. Chloranthacese (from the genus Chlaranthus, 
signifying green flowers). CHLORANTHUS FAMILY. Fig. 
14. Herbs, shrubs or trees: leaves opposite: flowers 
bisexual or unisexual, regular, very small, subtended 
by bracts, and mostly borne in spikes; perianth 0; 
stamens in the bisexual flowers 1-3, united with each 
other and with the ovary; in the staminate inflorescence 
inserted on a common axis and forming a spike; 
carpels 1, with 1 pendent ovule; stigma sessile: fruit 

Three genera and about 35 species occur, in tropical 
America, East Asia, and the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean. The family is related to the Piperacese and 
Saururaceae. The opposite leaves, the few stamens, 
which are often unilaterally united with the 1-celled 
ovary, and the suspended ovule, are peculiar. 

The roots of Chlaranthits officinalis have a camphor- 
like odor, and are used in the East as a febrifuge. 

One species of Chloranthus is grown in greenhouses 
for foliage and berries. 

Order 24. SALICALES 

51. Salicacese (from the genus Salix, the classical 
Latin name). WILLOW FAMILY. Fig. 15. Shrubs or 
trees, creeping in the arctics: leaves alternate, simple: 
flowers dioecious, both sexes in catkins, 1 flower to each 
scale; perianth 0; disk present, cup-shaped or finger- 
like; stamens 2-many, separate or united; ovary often 
pedicelled, 1-celled; placentae 2, parietal; ovules numer- 
ous; stigmas 2, often each 2-lobed: fruit a capsule; 
seeds with a basal tuft of long hairs. 

Salicacese has 2 genera and about 180 species, of 
which 160 belong to the genus Salix; inhabitants of 
the north temperate and arctic zones ; a few in the 
tropics and in South Africa. The family is not definitely 
related to any other family, though possibly to the 
Tamaricaceae. The flowers of both sexes in catkins, 
the glandular disk, and the dehiscent many-seeded 
capsule with comose seeds, are distinctive. 

The bark of many species has been used for inter- 
mittent fevers and for tanning leather. A yellow dye 
occurs in the bark of Populus alba and P. iremula, 
also in Salix alba, S. daphnoides, and others. The 
resinous buds of P. balsamifera, or tacamahac, furnish 
American balm of Gilead. The staminate catkins of 
S. xgyptiaca are odoriferous and are used in the East 
in medicinal waters, as a cordial, and as a sudorific. 
Willow and poplar wood is soft and light. The twigs 
of several specie of Salix are universally used in 

The two genera are in cultivation in America, as 

ornamental plants and for shelter-belts and basket- 
work and sometimes for timber: Populus (Poplar, As- 
pen, Tacamahac, Balm of Gilead [not the original], 
Cottonwood, Abele); and Salix (Willow, Osier). 

Order 25. MYRICALES 

52. Myricaceae (from the genus Myrica, the ancient 
name of the Tamarisk). SWEET GALE FAMILY. Fig. 15. 
Shrubs or trees: leaves alternate, usually simple, resin- 
ous: flowers monoecious or dioecious, in catkins or 
spikes, single for each bract; perianth 0; stamens 4-6, 
or 16, in the axil of the bract (scale); ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled; stigmas 2: fruit a drupe, usually slightly 
horned by union with the bracteoles; seed solitary, 
orthotropous, basal. 

15. SALICACE*: 1. Salix, o, male flower; 6, female flower; c. 
cross-section ovary. 2. Populus, a, male flower; 6, dehiscing fruit, 
MYRICACE^E: 3. Myrica, a, male flower; b, female flower. Juo- 
LANDACE.: 4. Juglans, a, diagram male flower; fc, diagram female 
flower; c, vertical section female flower. BETULACE^E: 5. Corylus, 
a, diagram male flower; 6, diagram female flowers. 6. Betula, a, 
male flowers; b, female flowers; c, diagram male flowers; d, diagram 
female flowers. 7. Alnus, a, male flowers; b, female flowers; c, dia- 
gram male flowers; d, diagram female flowers, (s, scale; a, 6, and c, 
bractioles of the first, second and third orders; p t perianth; g, 
gland. } 

One genus with about 35 species is generally dis- 
tributed over the more temperate parts of the earth. 
The Myricaceae are related to the other amentiferous 
families, e.g., Juglandaccae. Fagacea; and Betulaceae. 
The indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit, basal seeds, two 
carpels, absence of perianth, and simple leaves are 
characteristic of the family. 

Myrica Gale and other species are used for tanning 
leather. M. Gale has also been used in the preparation 
of beer. The wax from the drupelets of M. cerifera 
and M . carolinensis is used for making candles. The 
fruit of M. sapida and M. Nagi is edible. M. (Comp- 
tonia) asplenifolia has been used as a tonic. A volatile 
oil is obtained from the fruits of M. Gale. The root 
of M. cerifera is emetic and purgative. 

M. Nn'gi is cultivated in California for the edible 
fruit. M. asplenifolia, native in the United States, is 
grown for ornament. Other species are sometimes 




53. Juglandaceae (from the genus Juglans, a con- 
traction of the Latin Jams glans, the nut of Jupiter). 
WALNUT FAMILY. Fig. 15. Trees or shrubs, often resin- 
ous: leaves alternate, exstipulate, pinnately compound: 
flowers monoecious, small; the staminate in drooping 
catkins with single perianth of 4 parts, or rarely 0, one 
flower for each bract; the pistillate 2-3 together, with 
perianth of 4 parts wlhorent to the ovary as are also 
the bract and bracteole; ovary inferior, 1-celled; ovule 
1, basal, orthotropous; stigmas usually 2- or 4-branched: 
fruit a nut with a fleshy exocarp, or bursting irregularly, 
or 4-valved, or winged. 

In this family are 6 genera and about 35 species of 
the north temperate zone. The largest genus is Carya 
with 10 species. The family is related to other Amen- 
tiferae, e.g., Myricacese, Fagacese, and Betulacere. The 
indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit, basal seeds, 2 carpels, 
perianth and pinnate leaves are distinctive. Fossil 
species are known. 

The wood of English walnut is highly valued, but 
that of Juglans nigra (black walnut) is one of the 
most valuable of woods. Hickory wood is prized for 
its hardness and toughness. The fruits of the English 
walnut (J. regia), butternut (/. cinerea), and of 
species of Carya (hickory) are among the most im- 
portant food-nuts. The leaves and bark of Carya and 
Juglans are purgative. Green dyes are obtained from 
Carya tomentosa, and yellow from C. ovata, C. sid- 
cata, and C. glabra. Walnut oil and hickory oil are in 
the trade. 

The cultivated genera in America are Carya or 
Hicoria (Hickory, Pecan, Bitternut, Pignut, Mockernut, 
Shellbark, Kingnut), native and hardy; Juglans 
(Wabaut, Butternut, English Walnut), ornamental, fruit, 
and timber; Platycarya, ornamental; Pterocarya, orna- 

Order 27. FAGALES 

54. Betulaceae (from the genus Betida, the ancient 
Latin name of the birch). BIRCH FAMILY. Fig. 15. Trees 
or shrubs: leaves alternate, simple, mostly pinnately 
parallel -veined: flowers monoecious, regular, much 
reduced; the staminate in slender catkins; the pistillate 
in short spikes, rarely in flexuous catkins or geminate; 
3 flowers, rarely by reduction 2 or 1 flower behind each 
bract; perianth of the staminate flower single, 2^-lobed 
or 0; stamens 2-10; perianth of the pistillate flower 
absent in Betula and Alnus, in other genera an epigy- 
nous crown of several tiny scales ; ovary inferior, origi- 
nally 2-celled and each cell 1-ovuled, but only one cell 
and 1 seed maturing; stigmas 2: fruit an indehiscent 
nutlet, often winged; either separating from the bract 
and bracteoles (Alnus, Betula), or falling with them, in 
which case these organs form a protective involucre 
(Corylus), or a winged or bladdery organ concerned in 
seed -dissemination (Carpinus, Ostrya); seeds anatro- 
pous, exalbuminous. 

Six genera and about 75 species inhabit the extra- 
tropical northern hemisphere; many are arctic, some of 
which are creeping. Fossil species are known. The 
family is related to the Fagacese and other amentif- 
erous families. The pistillate flowers in spikes, the 
presence of a perianth in one or the other sex, the 
cymose group of flowers for each bract, the 2 carpels, 
and the single integument of the seed are characteristic. 

The wood of Alnus and Betula is prized by wagon- 
makers, cabinet-makers and turners; charcoal for gun- 
powder is made from this wood. The twigs of Betula 
are made into brooms. The bark of Betula papyri/era 
strips off in thin plates and is used for making canoes 
and for writing-paper. The very thin bark-layers of B. 
Bhojpattra of India also furnish writing-paper. Vinegar 
and beer are made from the sugary sap of Betula, which 
is also considered an efficient antiscorbutic. The bark 

of Alnus and Betula is used in tanning Russia leather, 
and other kinds. Hazelnuts are the fruit of Corylus; 
filberts of Corylus Avellana. Oil of betula has a flavor 
like wintergreen. The wood of Ostrya is very hard and 
prized for beetles. The wood of all the Betulacese is 
good for firewood. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America for orna- 
ment or for the fruit (Corylus) such as: Alnus (Alder); 
Betula (Birch); Carpinus (Hornbeam Tree, Blue 
Beech, Water Beech) ; Corylus (Hazel, Filbert, Cobnut) ; 
and Ostrya (Hop Hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood). 

55. Fagaceae (from the genus Fagus, the classical 
name, in allusion to the esculent nuts). BEECH FAMILY. 
Fig. 16. Trees or shrubs: leaves simple, alternate: flow- 
ers monoecious; the staminate in slender catkins, one 
flower with each bract and a perianth of 4H> parts; the 
pistillate solitary or in groups of 3, epigynous, the 
perianth reduced; ovary mostly 3- or 6-celled; ovules 
2 in each cell, suspended, all but one jn the ovary 
aborting; integuments 2; stigmas 3: fruit a 1-seeded 
nut, which singly, or in a group of 2-3, is surrounded by 
a special involucre. 

The family has 5 genera and about 600 species, all 
natives of the subtropical and temperate northern 
hemisphere, except the antarctic genus, Nothofagus. 
The largest genera are Quercus with 200 species, and 
Pasania with 100 species. The family is related to the 
Betujacea; and other amentiferous families; but the 
staminate flowers alone in catkinj, the indehiscent 1- 
seeded fruit, the 3 carpels, and the special involucre 
are distinctive. There has been much debate as to the 
morphology of the involucre, whether it is composed 
of the bracteoles of the little dichasium, or represents 
sterile scales of the condensed catkin, or is a wholly 
new outgrowth of the subfloral axis. The latter is a 
recent view of Engler. This involucre becomes the 
bur in beech and chestnut, and the cup in the oak. 

The wood of white oak, red oak and many other species 
is very valuable, as is also that of beech and chestnut. 
The bark of Quercus Suber of Spain yields bottle-cork. 
The bark of Q. velutina of America is called quercitron, 
and is used to dye yellow. The kermes insect, which 
furnishes a crimson dye, lives on Q. coccifera of the 
Mediterranean. The stings of gall insects produce the 
commercial oak-galls from which tannic and gallic 
acid are obtained, and from which ink was made. Offici- 
nal creosote is distilled from the tar of species of Fagus. 
The nut-like fruits of Castanea, Fagus, Quercus Ilex, 
Q. Robur, and Q. &qilops are eaten. The cups of Q. 
SEgilops are sold for dyeing black and for tanning. The 
bark from many species of this family is used for tan- 

In America several genera are cultivated for ornament, 
food, and timber: Castanea inc. (Chestnut, Chinqua- 
pin); Castanopsis Fagus (Beech); Nothofagus, little 
known; Quercus (Oak, Black Jack). 

Order 28. UHTICALES 

56. Ulmaceae (from the genus Ulmus, the classical 
name). ELM FAMILY. Fig. 16. Trees or shrubs with- 
out milky juice: leaves alternate, usually oblique: flow- 
ers bisexual or unisexual, regular, small ; perianth simple ; 
parts 4-5, rarely 3-7; stamens of the same number 
opposite the sepals, rarely twice as many, not elasti- 
cally incurved; ovary superior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; the 
ovule suspended, anatropous; stigmas usually 2: fruit 
nut-like, drupaceous, or winged. 

Thirteen genera and about 140 species are generally 
distributed in all but the polar regions. The largest 
genus is Celtis, with 60 species. The family is closely 
related to the Urticacese and Moraces. Its non- 
elastic stamens, and suspended anatropous seeds are 
important distinguishing characters. 

The seeds of some species of Celtis are edible. The 
wood is used to make wind instruments, and the like. 



Elm wood is of use in the crafts. The mucilaginous 
bark of slippery elm ( Uimusfulva) is used for poultices 
and coughs. The fragrant wood of Planera Abelicea of 
Crete is false sandalwood. 

There are several genera in cultivation in America. 
Among these are: Aphananthe, ornamental; Celtis (Net- 
tle Tree, Hackberry, Sugarberry), hardy, ornamental; 
Planera (Water Elm), ornamental; Ulmus (Elm), orna- 
mental, and for timber; Zelkova, ornamental. 

57. Moraceae (from the genus Morus, the classical 
name). MULBERRY FAMILY. Fig. 16. Herbs, shrubs, or 
trees, sometimes climbing: juice milky: leaves alternate: 
flowers dioecious or monoecious, regular, small, mostly 
in heads or spikes, or lining the hollow pyriform fleshy 
axis of the inflorescence (Ficus); perianth single, of 4. 
rarely 2-6, imbricated parts, more or less united and 
fleshy in the pistillate flower; stamens of the same num- 
ber and opposite the sepals, usually inflexed in the bud 
and elastic; ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled; the ovule suspended, amphitropous, rarely 

16. FAOACE^E: 1. Quercus, a, male flowers; 6, female flower; 
c, diagram female flower; d, fruit. 2. Caatanea, o, diagram female 
flower; fc, involucre and 3 fruits. ULMACE.E: 3. Ulmus, a, flower; 

6, fruit. MORACE.E: 4. Morus, a, male flower; b, fruit. 5. Humu- 
lus, a, female flower; 6, vertical section fruit. 6. Cudrania, pistil. 

7. Ficus, vertical section female inflorescence (for explanation of 
letters see Fig. 15). 

basal; stigmas 1-2: fruit an achene or drupe envel- 
oped by the fleshy perianth, or on a fleshy gyno- 
phore, or composed of achenes in a fleshy hollow com- 
mon receptacle. 

Moracese contains 55 genera and about 950 species, 
mostly of tropical distribution, 6 species of which are 
native in the eastern United States. The largest genus is 
Ficus with 600 species. The family is frequently united 
with the Urticacese and differs from that family only 
in the presence of milky juice, in the two stigmas, and 
in the usually, suspended seed. From the Ulmacese it 
differs in the inflexed elastic stamens. 

The fruit of the black mulberry (Morus nigra) has 
been eaten since earliest times. Those of M . rubra (red 
mulberry), and M. alba are also used for food. The 
bread fruit (Arlocarpus incisa) of the South Sea 
Islands is now cultivated for food everywhere in the 

tropics. The leaves of Morus indica are eaten in India; 
those of M. rubra in America. M . serrata is cultivated 
for fodder. The fig is the fleshy receptacle of the inflo- 
rescence of Ficus Carica. For the structure and pollina- 
tion of this remarkable plant see Kerner and Oliver's 
"Natural History of Plants." The leaves of Morus are 
diuretic and anthelmintic. The juice of Anliaris toxi- 
caria is used by the Javanese to poison arrows. Hops 
are used in medicine, also to flavor beer. Hashish, 
bhang or Cannabis indica is obtained from Cannabis 
saliva, and is much used in the East as a narcotic to 
chew and smoke like opium. The fibers of C. saliva are 
-hemp. The bark of Broussonctia furnishes clothing to 
the South Sea Islanders. The wood of Madura auran- 
tiaca is flexible; the yellow juice of the fruit of this 
plant was used by the Indians to paint their faces. 
Cudrania javanensis yields a dye. The milky juice of 
Ficus elastica and other species yield commercial rub- 
ber. F . indica is a banyan tree of India. F. religi- 
osa is the sacred fig. The leaves of various species of 
mulberry are used to feed silkworms. Shellac is ob- 
tained from a small hemipterous insect which lives on 
F. laccifera and F. religiosa in India. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, the 
majority in the far South. Among these are: Arto- 
carpus (Bread Fruit, Jack Fruit), cultivated in the 
West Indies and in botanical gardens; Brosimum 
(Bread Nut), tropical; Broussonetia (Paper Mul- 
berry), ornamental, semi-hardy; Cannabis (Hemp), 
grown for fiber or ornament; Cudrania, grown for 
hedges; Ficus (Fig, India Rubber Plant, Banyan 
Tree, Creeping Fig, Peepul Tree), grown in warm re- 
gions and in the greenhouses; Humulus (Hops), grown 
for the fruit; Maclura (Osage Orange), for hedges; 
Morus (Mulberry), for fruit, and leaves for silkworms. 

58. Urticaceae (from the genus Urtica, the classical 
Latin name of the plant, signifying to burn). NETTLE 
FAMILY. Fig. 17. Herbs, shrubs or trees, rarely climb- 
ing: leaves alternate or opposite: flowers unisexual, 
regular; perianth single, rarely 0, usually green, con- 
sisting of 4-5, rarely 2-3, separate or united parts, im- 
bricated or valvate; stamens as many, and opposite 
the segments, inflexed and uncoiling elastically; ovary 
sessile, or pedicelled, or rarely united with the perianth, 
1-celled, 1-ovulcd; style 1; stigma feathery: fruit an 
achene or drupe; seeds basal, orthotropous; embryo 

The 41 genera and about 475 species are mainly 
tropical, a few in North America and fewer in Europe. 
The largest genus is Pilea, with 100 species. The family 
is very closely related to the Mpracese and Ulmacese, 
with which it was formerly united. The apetalous 
anemophilous flowers, with elastic stamens opposite 
the sepals, and the 1-cclled ovary, with a single basal, 
orthotropous seed, are distinctive. Many of the Urti- 
cacea; are covered with stinging hairs containing formic 
acid. The common nettles are examples. Cystoliths 
are common in the leaves. 

Parietaria diffusa and P. erecla contain niter, and 
have been used as diuretics. Nettles were used by 
doctors to flog patients in order to produce a counter 
irritation of the skin, a practice called "urtication." 
Other species have been used locally as medicine. 
Laportea stimulans has been used as a fish-poison. The 
bast fibers of many species are useful; e.g., Urtica dioica, 
U. cannabina, Laportea canadensis, and especially the 
China grass or ramio (Bashmerin nivea). The fibers of 
this latter have long been used in the Netherlands. The 
young foliage of many Urticaceae is used as spinach. 
The tuberous root of Pouzolzia tuberosa is eaten. 

The following are in cultivation in America; three of 
them are ornamental: Pellionia, a greenhouse creeper; 
Pilea (Artillery Plant), a garden and greenhouse plant; 
and Urera, a greenhouse shrub. The other genus, 
Urtica (Nettle), is grown for fiber, and Boehmeria 
occurs occasionally in cultivation. 



Order 29. PROTEALES 

59. Proteaceee (from the genus Protect, from Proteus, 
a self-transforming sea-god, in allusion to the great di- 
versity of the genus). PROTEA FAMILY. Fig. 17. Shrubs 
or trees, rarely herbs: leaves alternate: flowers bisexual, 
rarely unisexual, regular or irregular; perianth of one 
series, parts 4, separate or variously united, or labiate, 
valvate; stamens 4, opposite the perianth parts, 
hypogynous or inserted on the perianth; hypogynous 
stalk (gynophore) usually developed, often bearing a 
ring of scales, or swellings, or a cup; carpel 1; ovary 
superior, 1-celled; ovules 1 to several; style slender; 
stigma slender or enlarged : fruit unsymmetrical, capsu- 
lar, drupaceous, or nut-like, or a samara or follicle; 
seeds sometimes winged. 

There are 49 genera and about 1,000 species, mostly 
Australian, but many also in South Africa, and a few 
in South America. The largest genera are Grevillea, 
with 160 species; and Hakea, with 100 species. The 
family is perhaps distantly related to the Loranthacese, 
Santalacese, and Urticacese, but the relationship is 
little understood. The 4 valvate sepals, 4 stamens, 
and the unsymmetrical, 1-celled ovary, raised on an 
appendaged gynophore are distinctive. The small 
flowers are usually aggregated in heads or spikes 
surrounded by bracts. The Proteacese, for the most 
part, inhabit countries in which a very dry windy season 
alternates with a rainy season, and many of them are 

Grevillea robusta, Knightia excelsa, Embothrium 
coccineum, Leucospenniun conocarpum (redwood), and 
Prolea grandijlora (wagen-boom) are useful for timber. 
The wood of the last species is used for wagon- 
wheels. The seeds of several species are eaten. A bit- 
ter principle is found in Leucadendron argenteum of 
Africa; a gum resin in Grevillea robusta of Australia. 
A golden dye is obtained from the Australian Persoonia 
saccate. Gevuina avellana (Chilean hazelnut) furnishes 
an edible fruit, as does also Brabeium stellatifolium 
(wild chestnut of South Africa), and Macadamia 
ternifolia (Queensland nut). Banksia and Protea fur- 
nish important bee-plants. 

The genera in cultivation in America are mostly the 
following: Banksia; Gevuina (Chilean Nut, Chile Hazel), 
grown in California; Grevillea (Silk Oak), in greenhouse 
and California ; Leucadendron (Silver Tree of the Cape), 
grown in California; Macadamia (Australian Nut), in 
southern California; Protea, in southern California; 
Telopea (Waratah, Warratau), in California. 


60. Loranthaceae (from the genus Loranthus, meaning 
thong flower, significance not clear). MISTLETOE FAMILY. 
Fig. 17. Herbs or subshrubs, parasites or half- 
parasites, with or without chlorophyll, rarely rooted 
in the earth: leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate, 
thick and green, or reduced to scales: flowers bisexual 
or unisexual, usually regular; receptacle of the pistillate 
flower cup-shaped, united with the ovary; perianth 
undifferentiated, usually in 2 series of 2 or 3 parts each, 
of which the outer may be calyx and the inner corolla; 
stamens as many as the parts of the perianth and oppo- 
site them, free, or united with the perianth; ovary 1- 
celled, inferior; ovule 1, orthotropous; stigma 1, often 
sessile: fruit a 1 -seeded berry. 

The 21 genera and about 600 species are mostly 
inhabitants of tropical countries, but extend into the 
temperate zone. One species reaches Newfoundland. 
Loranthus, the largest genus, contains 200 species, and 
Phoradendron contains 80 species. The family is 
related to the Santalacese and Proteacese. The habit, 
the cup-shaped receptacle, the position and number of 
the stamens, and the 1-celled, 1-seeded fruit are dis- 
tinctive. The fruits are often very viscid and easily 
become fastened to the branches of trees where they 

germinate and grow. The inflorescence is often much 
reduced and inconspicuous. 

The viscid substance of the fruit is called birdlime, 
and is used for catching small birds. Various species 
have been used locally as medicine. The mistletoe 
(Viscum album) of Europe was worshipped by the 
Gauls. When gathered from the oak it was considered 
sacred by the Druids. 

Phoradendron flavescens (American mistletoe) is 
gathered and sold in the market. 

61. Santalacese (from the genus Santalum, the 
Latin name for sandal wood). SANDALWOOD FAMILY. 
A family closely related to the Loranthacese, from which 
it differs only in the more numerous ovules and the 
general habit. The Santalaceas are commonly inde- 
pendent plants or root parasites, while the Loranthaceae 
are usually aerial parasites. 

The Santalacese consists of 26 genera and about 250 
species, in the temperate and tropical regions. 


17. URTICACE^E: 1. Urtioa, a, male flower; 6, female flower; c, 
female flower, vertical section. PROTEACE.E: 2. Banksia, o, in- 
florescence; b, flower. 3. Protea, flower. 4. o and 6, pistils of Pro- 
teaceEe. LORANTHACE.E: 5. Phoradendron, a, inflorescence; b, 
vertical section inflorescence. OLACACEJC: 6. Liriosma. flower. 7. 
Lirioama, floral diagram. 

The aromatic and sweet-scented wood of the tree, 
Santalum album, has been used medicinally, and is 
used in perfumery and cabinet-making. Other species 
of Santalum, also of Fusanus, Acanthosyris, Colpoon, 
and Exocarpus are also used in cabinet work. The 
sweet flesh of the fruit of some species, the thickened 
pedicels or oily seeds of others, are edible. 

Queer tendril-like brushes on the fruits of the reduced 
aerial genus Myzodendron of South America serve as 
flying organs and later twine about the support. 

Buckleya of the southeastern United States is some- 
tunes cultivated; also Pyriilaria. 

62. Olacaceae (from the genus Olax, signifying a fur- 
row, application unknown). OLAX FAMILY. Fig. 17. 
Trees or shrubs, sometimes twining or climbing, with 
alternate, entire leaves: flowers mostly bisexual, regu- 
lar; perianth single, the divisions (sepals?) 4-5, rarely 6, 



valvatc; stamens 4-10, often adnate to the perianth 
or connate; disk present, diverse; earpels 3, rarely 2-5; 
ovary superior, 1-celled, rarely falsely 3-5-celled; 
ovule 1; style 1: fruit usually a drupe inclosed in the 
accrescent and persistent perianth; seed albuminous. 

Olacaceae has 25 genera and about 140 species of 
tropical distribution, two of which reach southern 
Florida. Olax is the largest genus. The Olacacese are 
related to the Loranthaceae and Santalaceae. 


18. AKISTOLOCHIACE.E: 1. Asarum, a, flower; b f floral diagram. 
2. Aristoiochia, flower. PoL\aoNACE,E: 3. Fagopyrum, a, flower; 
6. floral diagram. 4. Polygonum, sheathing stipule. 5. Kumrx, 
fruiting calyx. CHENOPODIACE.E: 6. Chenopodium, a, flower; 6, 
fruit. AMARANTACE.E: 7. Amarantus, a, fruit; 6, vertical section 
seed. 8. Achyranthes, flower. 

The family is of little economic importance. Some 
species are valuable for their hard timber. The drupes 
of Ximenia are eaten in Senegal. Olax zeylanica has a 
fetid wood, used locally for fevers. 

One species, Ximenia americana (hog plum) is 
native in Florida and the tropics, and is of moderate 
value for the fruit. 


63. Aristolochiaceae (from the genus Aristoiochia, 
in reference to its supposed medicinal properties in 
connection with child-birth). BIRTH WORT or DUTCH- 
MAN'S PIPE FAMILY. Fig. 18. Herbs or woody plants, 
the latter mostly twining: leaves alternate, usually 
broad and entire: flowers bisexual, epigynous, regular 
or irregular; perianth of one series, the parts mostly 3, 
connate, often petaloid, very diverse, sometimes regu- 
lar with the parts nearly separate, sometimes with a 
long tube which is swollen below, abruptly curved 
above, and with an abruptly spreading entire border; 
stamens 6-36, separate and inserted on the ovary, or 
united with the style; ovary inferior, rarely superior, 4- 
or 6-, rarely 5-, celled; ovules many; style 1; stigmas 
4 or 6: fruit a capsule. 

Five genera and about 210 species are known, 180 
species of which belong to Aristoiochia. They are dis- 
tributed in the warm parts of the earth, but are most 
numerous in South America. Seven or 8 species are 
native in northeastern North America. The family is 

not definitely related to any oilier, but is placed pro- 
visionally near the Polygonacee, not however because 
related to that family, but because equally simple in 
structure. Three scale-like organs between the perianth 
and stamens in Asarum are probably true petals. The 
flowers of most Aristolochiacese are lurid in color and 
pollinated by flies. Many are carrion-scented and afford 
an additional attraction for these insects. The perianth 
in Aristoiochia assumes remarkable shapes, some of 
which have led to the name "Dutchman's pipe." 

The rootstock of Asorwn canadense (Canada snake- 
root or wild ginger) is aromatically peppery, and used 
to flavor wines, the breath, and the like. Aristoiochia 
reticulata, of Arkansas, and Aristoiochia Serpentaria, of 
the eastern United States, furnish the serpentaria of 
medicine, used as a tonic and as a febrifuge. The 
latter plant is Virginia snakeroot. The common name 
arises from the reputed efficacy of these plants and 
other species of the family as remedies for snake-bites. 

The genera in cultivation in America are: Aristoio- 
chia (Birthwort, Virginia Snakeroot, Dutchman's Pipe, 
Pelican Flower, Goose Flower), hardy or greenhouse 
twiners; Asarum (Wild Ginger, Canada Snakeroot), 
low hardy border herbs. 


64. Polygonaceae (from the genus Polygonum, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning many knees in reference 
to the swollen joints of some species). BUCKWHEAT 
FAMILY. Fig. 18. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, sometimes 
twining: stem often knotty: leaves alternate, rarely 
opposite, simple, usually with a sheathing stipular 
growth (ochrea) at the base: flowers bisexual or unisex- 
ual, regular; perianth apparently of one set, though 
sometimes in 2 whorls, the parts usually 3, 5, or 6, dis- 
tinct or connate at base, the inner set sometimes much 
enlarged and modified with hooks, spines, wings, or 
tubercles; stamens 1-15, usually 6, 8, or 9, usually op- 
posite the perianth parts, mostly separate and hypogy- 
nous; ovary superior or nearly so, compressed or 3- 
angled, of 2-4-carpels, but 1-celled or falsely 3-celled; 
ovule solitary; styles and stigmas 2-4: fruit a flat, an- 
gled, or winged achene; seeds usually not inverted 

Thirty genera and about 700 species occur, mostly 
in the north temperate zone of both continents. The 
largest genera are Polygonum, 150 species; Coccoloba, 
125 species; Eriogonum, 120 species; and Rumex with 
100 species. The family is not closely related to any 
other, but is usually placed near the Chenopodiaceae 
because of its simple floral structure and for want of a 
better place. The stipular sheaths or, when absent, the 
involucrate heads (Eriogonum), and 1-celled fruit with 
a single orthotropous seed, are distinctive. 

The foliage of the Polygonacese contains an acid, for 
which reason it is frequently eaten as salads or pot-herbs. 
Among plants used for this purpose are several species 
of Rumex, petioles of Rheum Rhaponlicum, and Oxyria. 
The seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) con- 
tain much starch and are made into flour. In medi- 
cine, rhubarb (Rheum officinale), employed as a purge 
and tonic, has been in use since earliest times, and its 
origin is lost in antiquity, though probably it is a na- 
tive of China. Yellow dock (Rumex crispus) is a tonic. 
Smartweed (Polygonum Hydropiper) has an acrid juice 
that will produce a blister. A blue dye is obtained 
from P. tinctorium of China. The roots of Calligonum 
Pallasia are used in Siberia to stay hunger; and the 
fruits to quench thirst. The astringent drug, bistorta, 
is from P. Bistorta. The leaves of P. orientate are 
smoked like tobacco in China. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America for 
ornament and food. Among these are: Antigonon 
(Mountain Rose, San Miguclito), very showy climbers; 
Coccoloba (Sea Grape, Shore Grape, Pigeon Plum), 



trees both of greenhouse and the South, used for timber 
and edible fruit; Eriogonum, garden plants; Fagopyrum 
(Buckwheat), grain; Muehlenbeckia (cultivated as 
Coccoloba or Tapeworm Plant), greenhouse; Poly- 
gonum (Smartweed, Jointweed, Knotweed, Prince's 
Feather, Kiss - me - over - the - garden - gate, Lady's 
Thumb, Mountain Fleece, Secaline), hardy ornamental 
herbs; Rheum (Rhubarb, Pie-plant, Wine Plant), food, 
medicine, and ornament; Rumex (Dock, Sorrel, Sheep 
Sorrel, Canaigre, Rais Colorada, Herb Patience, Spin- 
age Dock, Curly Dock), ornamental plants, food-plants 
and weeds. 


65. Chenopodiaceae (from the genus Chenopodium, 
which means goose foot, from the shape of the leaves). 
GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. Fig. 18. Herbs, shrubs, or rarely 
small trees, often very fleshy with reduced branching 
and foliage, and very diverse and remarkable in form: 
leaves alternate, rarely opposite, often fleshy or reduced 
to scales: flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, very 
small; perianth of one series, the parts 1-5, separate 
or united, greenish, imbricated, persistent; stamens as 
. many as the perianth parts, or fewer, opposite them, 
hypogynous or borne on the perianth, often connate; 
hypogynous disk usually present; ovary superior, 
1-celled, 1-ovuled; style and stigmas 1-4: fruit dry, 
rarely fleshy, usually indehiscent, inclosed in the very 
diverse perianth which is often hard, or fleshy, or 
thorny, or hooked; embryo coiled. 

This family contains 73 genera and about 550 
species, distributed all over the world, but principally 
confined to saline or alkaline habitats. A few have 
become weeds in good garden soil. The family is 
closely related to the Amarantacea;, Phytolaccacese, 
Caryophyllacea? and Portulacaceac, all of which have 
an annular embryo. The fleshy habit, absence of 
scarious bracts, 1-celled, 1-seeded ovary, and coiled 
embryo are distinctive. A remarkable family of lit- 
toral plants, often with water-storing tissue, spines, 
queer fruits, and the like. 

The most important economic species is the beet 
(Beta vulgaris), the enlarged root of which is used for 
food and for sugar, the foliage as a pot-herb. Species 
of Chenopodium, Atriplex, Spinacia and others are 
eaten as greens. Of these spinach is the most famous. 
The young shoots of Salicornia (glasswort, marsh sam- 
phire) are eaten as a pot-herb and are pickled. These 
shoots are also used for making glass and soaps be- 
cause of the soda contained. The seeds of Chenopodium 
Quinoa are made into flour in Peru. The foliage of Chen- 
opodium Botrys and Chenopodium ambrosioides is fra- 
grant-scented. The seeds of Chenopodium anlhelminli- 
cum (wormseed) are a well-known vermifuge. Cheno- 
podium mexicanum yields saponin. Atriplex hortensis 
(orach) of Europe and Asia, yields an indigo dye, and 
the leaves are edible. Soda is obtained by burning 
many species. Salsokt Kali var. lenuifolia (Russian 
thistle) is a bad weed. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, largely 
for food, but some for ornament. Among these are: 
Atriplex (Orach, Sea Purslane), food and ornament; 
Beta (Beet, Mangel-wurzel, Mangel, Chard, Swiss 
Chard, Spinach Beet) , food and ornament ; Chenopodium 
(Good King Henry, Mercury, Markery, Feather Gera- 
nium, Jerusalem Oak, Wormseed, Mexican Tea), orna- 
ment, food, medicine; Cycloloma (Cyclone Plant), 
ornament; Kochia (Mock Cypress), ornament; Spinacia 
(Spinach, Spinage), food. 

06. Amarantaceae (from the genus Amarantus, de- 
rived from the Greek, signifying unfading', the bracts 
are scarious and unchanging) . AMARANTH FAMILY. Fig. 
18. Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees: leaves opposite or 
alternate, rarely fleshy: flowers bisexual or unisexual, 
small, regular, usually surrounded by scarious bracts; 
perianth simple, in one series of 5, rarely 1, 2, 3, or 4, 

separate or united parts; stamens opposite the perianth 
parts, of the same number or fewer, rarely more nu- 
merous, hypogynous or perigynous, separate or united, 
the stamen-tube often with fringed appendages at the 
top; hypogynous disk usually present; ovary superior, 
free or slightly united with the perianth, 1-celled, 
1 to many-seeded; style 0, or 1, or several; stigmas vari- 
ous: fruit a berry, an achene, or dehiscent by a lid; 
usually surrounded by the perianth; embryo coiled. 

The 40 genera and about 450 species are distributed 
everywhere except in the arctics; most abundant 
within the tropics. The family is very closely related 
to the Chenopodiacese and Phytolaccaceso, also to the 
Caryophyllaceje and Portulacacea. The single peri- 
anth, scarious persistent bracts, and 1-seeded fruit 
are distinctive. 

Many species of Amarantus are eaten as greens. 
Gomphrena arborescens is a tonic. Many Amaran- 
tacea? are weeds in cultivated grounds. Some are im- 
portant ornamental plants. The garden forms of 
Celosia cristate are remarkable for their fasciated 

In cultivation in America are: Amarantus (Love- 
lies-bleeding, Prince's Feather, Joseph's Coat), gar- 
den annuals; Bosea, ornamental; Celosia (Cocks- 
comb), garden annuals; Gomphrena (Globe Amaranth, 
Bachelor's Button), garden annual; Iresine or Achy- 
ranthes, bedding plants; Telanthera (Alternanthera), 
bedding plants; Trichinium or Ptilotus, greenhouse. 

67. Nyctaginaceae (from the generic name Nyctago, 
a synonym of Mirabilis, meaning night, in reference to 
the crepuscular or nocturnal flowering of the Four- 
O'clock). FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY. Fig. 19. Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees: leaves usually opposite, entire: flowers 
bisexual, rarely unisexual, surrounded by an involucre 
of separate or united bracts which incloses 1 or several 
flowers; corolla absent; perianth parts united, very 
diverse in consistency, form and color, often petaloid, 

19. NYCTAGINACE*: 1. Mirabilis, a, flower; 6, floral diagram, 
2. Neea, flower. PHYTOLACCACE.E: 3. Phytolacca, a, flower; 0. 
floral diagram; c, vertical section of seed. AIZOACE.B: 4. Mollugo, 
a, flower; b, vertical section of seed. 5. Aizoon, floral diagram. 6. 
Mesembryanthemum, flower. PORTULACACEJS: 7. Calandnnia, 



valvate or plicate, persistent after flowering, and often 
woody or leathery, enveloping the fruit; stamens 1-30, 
united at the base, unequal, hypogynous; ovary of 1 
carpel, l-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1; stigma 1: fruit an 

The family has 18 genera and about 150 species, 
principally natives of America from Colorado to Chile. 
A few are scattered in other parts of the world. The 
largest genus is Pisonia with 40 species; Neea has 30 
species. The family is related to the Phytolaccacea?. 
The floral bracts, absence of corolla, persistent peri- 
anth enveloping the very thin-walled fruit, and the 
1-seeded, l-celled ovary, arc distinctive 

The roots of Bcerhavia and of Mirabilis Jalapa are 
purgative, and are sold as a substitute for jalap. The 
foliage of several species of Bcerhavia is used as vege- 
tables. The natives of the Hawaiian Islands catch 
birds with the very sticky fruits of the native species. 
The leaves of Neea theifera are used as tea in Brazil, 
also as a black dye. 

In America 3 genera are in common cultivation: 
Abronia, garden annuals; Bougainvillaea, greenhouse 
shrubs; Mirabilis (Four-o'clock, Marvel of Peru). 

68. Phytolaccacese (from the genus Phytolacca, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning plant and lac, in refer- 
ence to the red juice of the fruit). POKEWEED FAMILY. 
Fig. 19. Herbs, shrubs, or trees: leaves mostly alter- 
nate, simple: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regu- 
lar; perianth of one series, divisions 4-5, separate, per- 
sistent, not modified in fruit; stamens of the same 
number as the parts of the perianth and alternate with 
them, or more numerous, often connate at base, hypog- 
ynous; disk obscure or annular; ovary usually supe- 
rior, rarely inferior; carpels 1 to many, free, or united 
into a several-celled ovary; ovules 1 for each carpel; 
styles as many as the carpels: fruit a berry, utricle, 
nut, or samara; embryo curved. 

The pokeweed family contains 22 genera and about 
100 species, mostly of tropical arid subtropical America 
and South Africa. One species reaches the eastern 
United States. All the genera are small. The family is 
related to the Aizoaeese; also to the Caryophyllaceae, 
Chenopodiacese, Nyctaginacese, and other families 
with curved embryos. The several 1-seeded carpels 
and non-accrescent perianth are usually distinctive. 

The red juice of the fruit of Phytolacca decandra was 
used by the American Indians for staining baskets, and 
the like. The roots of this plant are medicinal (emetic, 
cathartic), and the young shoots are eaten. 

A few genera are in cultivation in America. Among 
these are Phytolacca (Pokeberry, Pokeweed, Scoke, 
Garget, Pigeonberry, Inkberry), native, hardy, rarely 
cultivated as a pot-herb; and Rivina (Rough Plant), 
ornamental garden and greenhouse plants. 

69. Aizoacese (from the genus Aizoon, derived from 
the Greek meaning always alivej in reference to the 
persistence of life in desert habitats). CARPET-WEED 
or ICE-PLANT FAMILY. Fig. 19. Erect or prostrate, 
often fleshy herbs or sub-shrubs, either the stem or the 
leaves, or both, curiously modified to reduce surface 
and store water; rarely ordinary herbaceous plants: 
leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, simple and mostly 
entire: flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous or epigy- 
nous; perianth of one set of 4^-5 separate or united 
parts; stamens 5, alternating with the perianth parts, 
or by the splitting up of each becoming very numer- 
ous, in which case many of the outer are changed into 
long, showy, petaloid staminodia, the whole then some- 
what resembling the head of an aster; ovary 2-20-celled, 
superior or inferior; placenta axial, basal, or parietal; 
ovules mostly numerous; stigmas 2-20: fruit capsular 
or nut-like; embryo curved or annular. 

Eighteen genera and about 500 species are known, 
of which 300 belong to the genus Mesembryanthemum; 
mostly inhabitants of the desert or, at least, dry por- 
tions of tropical and south-tropical regions. The large 

genus, Meseinbryanthemum, is almost exclusively South 
African, but reaches the Mediterranean. One species 
of Aizoacea; (Sesuvium) is native in the eastern United 
States. The family is related through some genera 
to the Phytolaccacese; through others to the Caryophyl- 
laceoe and Portulacacete. The annular embryo places 
the Aizoaceffi in this group. The apetalous, often 
falsely polypetalous, flowers, wit h several-celled ovary, 
and curved embryo, are characteristic. 

The fruits of Mesembryanthemum edule (Hottentot 
fig) are edible. The leaves of Mesembryanthemum are 
used as a vegetable on the borders of the African 
desert. Tclragonia expansa (New Zealand spinach) is 
cultivated as a pot-herb. Metembryanthemum crys- 
tallinum (ice-plant) of the Mediterranean region, with 
leaves covered with peculiar vesicular hairs filled with 
a viscid liquid, which sparkles in the sunlight like frost, 
is cultivated as a curiosity. Other species are cultivated 
for their strange appearance. 

Many species of Mesembryanthemum (Fig. Mari- 
gold, and Ice-plant) are more or less cultivated in 
America; also one species of Tetragonia (New Zealand 
Spinach, New Zealand Ice-plant). 

70. Portulacaceae (from the genus Portulaca, an old 
Latin name of unknown origin). PUHSLANE FAMILY. 
Fig. 19. Herbaceous orsuffruticose: leaves often fleshy, 
sometimes connate: flowers bisexual, usually regular; 
sepals 2; petals 4-5, rarely more, sometimes connate 
at the base, fugaccous; stamens in 1 or 2 whorls, hy- 
pogynous (except in Portulaca), equal in number to the 
petals and opposite them, or double the number and 
alternating with them, or fewer, or, by multiplication, 
very many; ovary l-celled, with a free-central or basal 
placenta; ovules 2 to many; style 2-3-parted: fruit a 
capsule, opening by a valve or lid, rarely indehiscent; 
embryo curved or annular. 

Most of the 17 genera and about 150 species an; 
inhabitants of the warmer, dry or arid regions, for 
which their fleshy structure and frequently prostrate 
or caespitose habit are an adaptation. They are most 
abundant in South America and the Cape of Good 
Hope; also common in western North America. The 
Portulacacea; are most closely related to the Caryo- 
phyllacese and Aizoacea;. The 2 sepals, l-celled ovary 
with central placenta, several styles, and curved or 
coiled embryo are distinctive. In the common pur- 
slane and a few other species, the capsule opens by a 
terminal lid, which, separating along a transverse line, 
falls off and thus allows the seeds to escape. In Por- 
tulaca the ovary is partly inferior. 

Most of the Portulacacea! are mucilaginous; some are 
slightly bitter and have been used as a mild tonic. The 
herbage of Portulaca oleracea is eaten as a salad or as 
greens, and is also said to be sedative and an antidote 
for scurvy. Several species of Calandrinia, Talinum 
and Claytonia, are used as pot-herbs. The roots of 
Claytonia luberosa of Siberia are edible, as are also the 
roots of the western Lewisia. 

About one-third of the genera are in cultivation in 
America. Portulaca grandiflora (Rose Moss) is orna- 
mental; P. oleracea (Purslane or Pusley) is a pot-herb; 
the Montias are also pot-herbs. Lewisia, Talinum, 
Spraguea and Claytonia are mostly ornamental. 

71. Basellaceae (from the genus Boaetio, the Malabar 
name of the plant). BASELI.A FAMILY. Fig. 20. Climb- 
ing, perennial herbs, rarely slightly woody: leaves alter- 
nate, broad, often fleshy: flowers bisexual, regular, 2 
bracteolate; sepals 2; petals 5, separate or connate, 
imbricated, persistent; stamens 5, opposite the petals 
and attached to their base; ovary superior, l-celled; 
ovule 1, basal, curved; style and stigma 1-3: fruit, 
indehiscent, inclosed in the corolla; embryo spiral. 

There are 5 genera and about 15 species, all except 
one species being confined to tropical America, mostly 
in the Andes. Boussingaultia, the largest genus, con- 
tains 10 species. The family is related to the Cheno- 



podiaceae with which it has been united; also to the 
Polygonacese and Portulacaceae. The twining stem, 
and the two sets of floral envelopes, together with the 
1-celled ovary and single seed, are distinctive. 

Basella alba (red and white spinach) is eaten as a 
pot-herb. The starchy root of Ullucus luberosus is 
eaten in Peru. It is used as a substitute for the potato, 
which it resembles. 

The genera apparently in cultivation in America are: 
Anredera; Basella (Malabar Nightshade), grown as 
ornamental greenhouse plants, or eaten as spinach; and 
Boussingaultia (Madeira Vine, Mignonette Vine), orna- 
mental garden or greenhouse plants. 

72. Caryophyllacese (from the genus Caryophyllm, an 
old botanical name for the clove pink [Dianthus], the 
application of the name obscure). PINK FAMILY. Fig. 
20. Herbs, rarely suffruticose, with opposite entire 
leaves: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular; se- 
pals 5, separate or united; petals 5, rarely wanting; 
stamens twice as many as the petals, rarely fewer, hy- 
pogynous or perigynous; carpels 3-5; ovary superior, 
1-celled with a free-central or basal placenta; ovules 1 
to many; styles 3-5: fruit a capsule, rarely a berry, 
opening by valves or indehiscent; seed albuminous; 
embryo strongly curved or coiled. 

The pink family consists of 70 genera and from 
1,200-1,500 species, distributed over all parts of the 
earth, though most abundant in the temperate and sub- 

20. BASSELLACEJE: 1. Boussingaultia, flower calyx removed. 
CARYOPHYLLACE.E: 2. Silene, flower. 3. Agrostemma (Lychnis), 
seed. 4. Arenaria, flower. 5. Sagina, flower. 6. Spergula, floral 
diagram. 7. Paronychia, flower. 

arctic zone. Many have become weeds in cultivated 
ground and are now very widely dispersed. The 
Caryophyllaceae are related to the Chenopodiaceae, 
Amarantacese, Phytolaccaceae, Portulacaceae, Nyctagi- 
naceae and Aizoacese, all of which have a coiled, curved 
or annular embryo. Of these, the Phytolaccaceae proba- 
bly represent more nearly the ancestral type. By most 
recent authors (see Pax) the Illecebracese (Paronychia, 
Anychia, Scleranthus and Herniaria) are included in 
the Caryophyllaceae. The curved embryo, the 1-celled 
ovary with several styles and central placenta, the 10 
stamens, the 5 separate petals and the opposite entire 
leaves are together distinctive. 

The family is very naturally divided into two dis- 
tinct tribes: Tribe I. Silenoidese. Sepals united form- 
ing a tubular calyx; stamens hypogynous. This in- 
cludes Silene, Lychnis, Dianthus, Tunica, Saponaria 
and Gypsophila. 

Tribe II. Alsinoidex. Sepals separate; stamens 
mostly perigynous. Includes Spergula, Cerastium, 
Stellaria, Arenaria, Sagina, Paronychia, Anychia, 
Herniaria and Scleranthus. 

In the Silenoidese, the long-clawed petals often have 
a scale at the top, the five together forming a tiny 
crown. Some species of Silene and Lychnis flower only 
at night or in cloudy weather, and are pollinated by 

night-flying moths. The bracts at the base of the flower 
in Dianthus are distinctive. The petals of chickweed 
are curiously 2-parted, simulating 10 petals. 

The Caryophyllacea; are of little economic impor- 
tance. Some were formerly used in medicine, but have 
fallen into disrepute. The roots of Saponaria officinalis 
contain a saponaceous substance, saponin, and have 
been used for washing, whence the common name 
"soapwort." Saponin is a powerful local irritant, and, 
if applied strong, is said to kill either muscular or ner- 
vous tissue. Speryiil'i urn nxix has been used as a 
fodder plant. Many members of the family are well- 
known ornamental plants, of which the most famous 
is Dianthus Caryophyllus, the carnation pink. 

Perhaps 20 genera (including Illecebracese) are 
grown, mostly for ornament. Among these are: Are- 
naria (Sandwort); Cerastium (Mouse-ear Chickweed); 
Dianthus (Carnation, Clove Pink, China Pink, Plumed 
Pink, Sweet William, Picotee, Grenadine); Gypsophila 
(Baby's Breath); Lychnis (Ragged Robin, Maltese 
Cross, Dusty Miller); Paronychia (Whitlow-wort); 
Sagina (Pearl-wort); Saponaria (Bouncing Bet, Soap- 
wort, Cow Herb); Silene (Catchfly, Campion, Wild 
Pink); Spergula (Spurry); Stellaria (Chickweed, Star- 
wort) ; Tunica. 

Order 34. RANALES 

73. Nymphaeaceae (from the genus Nymphxa, a 
name intended for the white water-lilies; dedicated by 
the Greeks to the water nymphs). WATER-LILY FAM- 
ILY. Fig. 21. Aquatic herbs: leaves alternate: flowers 
usually bisexual, regular, the organs, in part at least, 
spirally arranged; sepals mostly 4, rarely 3, 5, 6, or 12; 
petals 3-many, usually very numerous, hypogynous, 
or more or less epigynous, often a distinct transition 
to the stamens; stamens very numerous (rarely 6), 
inserted with the petals; carpels rarely 3-4, usually 
many, rarely distinct, usually cohering in a whorl or 
sunken in the enlarged receptacle; stigmas radially 
arranged on a sessile disk (as in poppy) or single: 
fruit indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent, usually 
fleshy; seeds several. 

Nymphaeaceae has 8 genera and about 60 species, 
distributed in all parts of the world, but more especially 
in tropical South America. The family is closely 
related to the other families with spiral structure of the 
flower, as the Ranunculacese, Magnoliaceae and Dille- 
niaceae. There is also a relation to Podophyllum of 
the Berberidacese, and to the Papaveraceae. The habit, 
spiral arrangement of floral parts, when present, the 
numerous stamens, the usually coherent carpels, and 
the type of fruit, are characteristic. 

The leaves of Nelumbo are raised on long petioles, 
those of Nymphaea usually float, those of Brasenia are 
covered with a thick layer of slime, those of Victoria 
regia are 5-8 feet in diameter and floating. The recep- 
tacle of Nelumbo in fruit is like an inverted top with 
the ripe 1-seeded carpels loosely rattling in small cavi- 
ties on the flat surface. The Nymphaeaceae in stem- 
structure and character of the embryo shows a transi- 
tion to the monocotyledons. 

Because of then- unique appearance among plants, 
some species were venerated by the ancients. The lotus 
of the Egyptians, represented on their monuments 
and statues of their gods 5,000 years ago, was 
Nymphsea cserulea or Jv. Lotus, though Nelumbo 
nucifera has long passed under that name. (See arti- 
cle on Nymphsea.) The rootstocks of the Nymphaea- 
ceae contain abundant starch, mucilage and sugar, 
which render them nutritive. The seeds are edible 
and the negroes of the Nile used them as millet. The 
Egyptians still eat the seeds and rootstocks. The 
seeds and rootstocks of Euryale ferox are cultivated 
and eaten in China. 

In the American trade a few genera appear. Cabomba 
(Fish-Grass), with dissected submerged leaves and 



white flowers, is grown in aquaria; Brasenia (Water 
Shield) is grown in aquatic gardens, as are also various 
species of Nuphar (Yellow Water-Lily, Spatterdock, 
Cow Lily); Nymphsea (White Pond-Lily); Nelumbo 
(Indian Lotus, so-called Egyptian Lotus, and Water 
Chinquapin); Victoria regia; and the similar Euryale 
ferox. The white water-lilies have latterly been called 
Castalia, but the name Nymphsea as applied to them 
has good historical standing and is retained in this 
work; Nuphar is still held for the yellow pond-lilies. 

74. Trochodendraceae (from the genus Trochoden- 
dron, from the Greek wheel, plus tree). TROCHODEN- 
DRON FAMILY. Trees or shrubs: leaves alternate or 
opposite, with oil-glands: flowers bisexual or unisexual, 

21. NYMPH <EACE.:: 1. Nelumbium, fruit. 2. Nymphsea, flower. 
3. Nuphar, fruit. RANUNCULACE*: _4. Ranunculus, o, flower; 6, 
fruit. 5. Aquilegia, fruit. 6. Clematis, fruit. 7. Petals of various 
genera, a, Coptis ; b, Eranthis ; c, Ranunculus; d, Aquilegia; e, 

regular, hypogynous or perigynous; sepals and petals 
wanting; stamens numerous, spirally arranged; car- 
pels separate, sometimes half immersed in the recep- 
tacle, 2 to many in one whorl; ovules 1 to many: fruit a 
follicle, or indehiscent. 

Only 3 genera and 6 species are known, all of Eastern 
Asia. The family is closely related to the Magnoli- 
aceae, in which it has been included by many authors. 
It has the same spiral structure of the flower, and sepa- 
rate carpels, but the perianth is wanting. 

Trochodendron is one of the very few angiosperms 
in which the secondary wood is made up entirely of 
tracheids with bordered pits, without true vessels, as 
in the Conifers. 

The family is of little economic value. The wood of 
some species is used locally. In America, Cercidiphyllum 
japonicum and Euptelea polyandra are in cultivation 
as hardy, ornamental woody plants. 

75. Ranunculaceae (from the genus Ranunculus, 
from the Latin signifying a little frog, because many of 
these plants are aquatic or marsh plants). BUTTERCUP 
FAMILY. Fig. 21. Herbs or shrubs of diverse habit low- 
ers bisexual rarely unisexual, spirally constructed except 
often the perianth, regular or irregular; sepals 3 to 
many, usually 5, separate, often petaloid; petals 3 to 

many, or 0, often in the form of honeyglands; stamens 
usually very numerous, hypogynous; carpels 1 to many, 
usually separate: fruit an achene or follicle, rarely a 
capsule or a berry; seeds with endosperm. 

The 27 genera and about 680 species are distributed 
mainly in the north temperate and subarctic regions. 
Clematis, Anemone and Delphinium cross the equator 
southward. The largest genus is Ranunculus. The 
family is related to the Magnoliacese, Annonaceae, Dil- 
leniaceao, Nymphaeacea;, and other families with 
acyclic flowers and numerous carpels. The spiral 
floral structure, the numerous hypogynous stamens, 
and the usually separate carpels are the most dis- 
tinctive characteristics. The Ranunculacese is proba- 
bly a very old family, and by some authors is thought 
to represent more closely than others the stock from 
which the dicotyledons have sprung. 

The floral structure is very interesting and very 
variable. The petals, when not wanting, are rarely 
normal. In one series a transition is shown from the 
staminode-like nectary of Coptis to the petal-like 
nectary of Ranunculus; in another series the nectar- 
bearing petals are spurred or variously irregular, as in 
Aconitum, Delphinium and Aquilegia. In the last 
two genera, the flowers also have become extremely 
irregular. The fruits show an equally great diversity. 
From the primitive follicular type, they have become 
modified into achenes with a suspended or erect ovule, 
into a berry, or, in Nigella, even into a several-celled 
capsule by the fusion of the carpels. The wind-pol- 
linated Thalictrum shows great reduction and modi- 
fication on that account. The stalked carpels of Coptis 
simulate an umbel of separate fruits. Finally the foliage 
of several species of Ranunculus has become very much 
dissected on 'account of the aquatic habit, and the 
plants, therefore, simulate a Myriophyllum. 

The Ranunculacese is divided by Prantl into three 
tribes as follows: 

Tribe I. Fruit follicular, carpels fleshy, outer seed- 
coat long, e.g. Psoonia and Hydrastis. 

Tribe II. Fruit usually follicular, carpels rarely fleshy, 
outer seed-coat not longer than the inner, e.g., Caltha, 
Helleborus, Coptis, Aetsea, Aquilegia, Delphinium, etc. 

Tribe III. Fruit an achene, e.g., Anemone, Clematis, 
Ranunculus, Thalictrum, etc. 

The family contains many plants useful to mankind. 
Many are cultivated for their ornamental flowers. 
The seeds, leaves and roots contain a bitter acid 
principle which is very irritating and in many cases 
poisonous. Because of this, many species of Anemone, 
Clematis, and so on, have been used to produce blisters, 
and beggars are said to have made use of C. Vilalba to 
produce artificial sores and thus excite pity. The 
roots of Coptis (gold-thread) are bright yellow, and 
have been used both as bitters and for the dye-stuffs 
contained. Hydrastis (golden seal) is a well-known 
tonic and stomach corrective. Aconite is a powerful 
narcotic drug much used to allay fever. Slow cooking 
usually dissipates the poisonous properties of the Ran- 
uncuiacese, thus enabling the vegetative portion in 
many cases to be eaten as greens. Ranunculus Thora 
and R. sceleratus were named by the Romans "sar- 
donia" because they are said to excite convulsive 
sardonic laughter. 

Two dozen or more genera are in cultivation in 
America, almost entirely for ornamental purposes. 
Among these are: Aconitum (Aconite, Monkshood, 
Wolfsbane); Actaoa (Baneberry, Red and White Co- 
hosh); Adonis (Pheasant's Eye, Adonis); Anemone 
(Anemone, Windflower, Patens, Pasque Flower) ; Aqui- 
legia (Columbine) ; Caltha (Marsh Marigold, American 
Cowslip); Clematis (Virgin's Bower); Coptis (Gold- 
thread) ; Delphinium (Larkspur) ; Eranthis (Winter Aco- 
nite) ; Helleborus (Christmas Rose) ; Hydrastis (Golden 
Seal, Orange Root); Nigella (Love-in-a-Mist, Deyil-in- 
a-Bush, Fennel Flower); Paeonia (Peony, Piney); 



Ranunculus (Buttercup, Crowfoot) ; Thalictrura (Mea- 
dow Rue); Trautvetteria (False Bugbane); Trollius 
(Globe Flower); Xanthorrhiza (Shrub Yellow Root). 

A considerable industry has recently sprung into 
existence in which Hydrastis is grown for the medici- 
nal value of the roots. 

76 Lardizabalaceae (from the genus Lardizabala, 
named in honor of a Spanish naturalist, Lardizabala y 
Uribe). LARDIZABALA FAMILY. Mostly twining plants 
with palmately compound leaves : flowers polygamous or 
unisexual, rudiments of the other sex organs present, 
regular, hypogynous; sepals 6; petaloid, in two whorls, 
petals none; stamens 6, hypogynous; usually with 
nectaries between stamens and petals; carpels 3, 
rarely 6-9 or numerous, separate; ovules many rarely 
one, parietal; fruiting carpels baccate, indehiscent or 

This family has 8 genera and 18 species, inhabitants 
of the Himalayas, China, Japan, and Chile. The family 
is related to the Berberidaceae, with which it was for- 
merly united, and to the Menispermacese, from both of 
which it is distinguished by the several-seeded fruit 
and by other characters. 

The fruits of most species are edible. The stems of 
Boquila and Lardizabala are used as cordage. 

Lardizabala, Stauntonia, Akebia and Sargentodoxa 
are in the American trade. 

77. Berberidaceae (from the genus Berber-is, derived 
from Berberys which is the Arabic name of the fruit). 
BARBERRY FAMILY. Fig. 22. Herbs or shrubs with 
large, compound leaves, or small and simple, or spine- 
like leaves: flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous; sepals 
3-9 in 1-3 series; petals 4-9 or more, in several whorls, 
often changed to nectaries; stamens as many as the 
petals and opposite them, rarely twice as many; anthers 
peculiar, opening by valves which roll upward; ovary 
1-celled with several ovules; style almost 0; stigma 
mostly peltate: fruit a berry or capsule. 

The family Berberidaceae has 8 genera and about 
200 species, distributed through north temperate 
Europe, Asia and America. Berberis extends along the 
Andes to the Straits of Magellan. Fossil species in the 
Tertiary are known. The family is related to the 
Ranunculacese, Papaveraceie and Fumariaceae. There 
is also an evident relation to the Magnoliacese and 
Annonaceae. The cyclic flowers, definite stamens 
opposite the petals, the solitary carpel, and usually 
the dehiscence of the anthers are distinctive. In 
Podophyllum, the anthers open longitudinally in the 
ordinary way, and the stamens are twice the number 
of the petals. The stamens of Berberis are irritable, 
flying toward the stigma when touched, and then 
scattering the pollen. 

The fruit of the common barberry (Berberis vulgaris) 
contains oxalic acid and is used as a preserve; the yel- 
low inner bark and stems are astringent and yield the 
yellow "berberine," which is also a purgative. This 
yellow color formerly induced doctors to administer 
Berberis for jaundice. The fruits of the mahonias of 
California are also eaten as a preserve. The wood of 
the Indian and South American species of Berberis 
is used as a dye. The root of Podophyllum (mandrake 
or May apple) is purgative and poisonous; the ripe 
fruit of this plant is fleshy and edible. Many other 
species have been used for medicine in various parts of 
the world. Berberis vulgaris is the famous host-plant 
of the secidial stage of the wheat rust. 

The genera that are in the American trade are 
mostly grown as unusual herbaceous plants in gardens 
and are not widely known. Many species of the 
shrubby and spiny Berberis, and also of Mahonia, 
are grown for ornamental purposes. Akebia, a well- 
known woody twiner with palmate leaves and curious 
purple flowers, is now placed in the Lardizibalacea;. 

78. Menispermaceae (from the genus Menispermum, 
derived from the Greek meaning moonseed). MOON- 

SEED FAMILY. Fig. 22. Woody climbers: leaves alternate: 
flowers dioecious, regular; sepals usually 6, in 2 series; 
petals 6, in 2 series; stamens 6, hypogynous, opposite 
the petals, sometimes monadelphous; carpels usually 
3, rarely more, separate, 1-ovuled, much curved in 
fruit; seed half-inverted; embryo usually curved: fruit 
compound of sessile or stipitate drupelets. 

There are 56 genera and 150 species, distributed 
mostly in the tropical and subtropical portions of both 
hemispheres. None are found in Europe. Three species 
are native in the northeastern United States. The 
Menispermacese are related to the Berberidaceae, the 
Annonaceae and the Magnoliacese. The numerical plan 
of 3, the 2 whorls of sepals and petals, the curved seed, 
the drupelets, and the absence of oil-glands, are dis- 
tinctive. Cross-sections of the twining stems often 
present peculiar patterns due to the unequal growth 
of the cambium. 

Several species are used in medicine. Jateorhiza 
palmalus of tropical Africa has a turnip-shaped root 
which was much used as a tonic. The roots of species 
of Cissampelos are administered in Brazil in cases of 
snake-bites. The bark of several species yields a yellow 
dye. Anamirta Cocculus of tropical Asia has extremely 
poisonous fruits (fish-berries or cocculus) used to 
intoxicate and poison fish which are thus obtained in 
abundance, but are sometimes dangerous to eat. The 
narcotic principle, picrotoxine, is almost as pojsonous 
as strychnine'. In England, beer is said sometimes to 


22. BERBERIDACE.K: 1. Berberis, flower. MENISPEHMACE: 
2. Menispermum, fruit. MAQNOLIACE.: 3. Magnolia; a, flower; 
fc, floral diagram; c, fruit. CALTCANTHACE,E: 4. Calycanthus; o, 
flower; fr, fruit. 

be adulterated with the fruit (called cocculus indicus) 
of this plant. 

Few genera are in cultivation in America for orna- 
mental purposes, mostly in the southern states, and 
especially Florida: Cissampelos (Velvet Leaf or Pareira 
Brava), tonic and diuretic, in Florida; Menispermum 
(Moonseed Vine, from the curved fruit), hardy, native; 
Cocculus carolinus of the southeastern United States, 
semi-hardy; C. triloba, E. Asia, hardy. 

79. Magnoliaceae (from the genus Magnolia, which 
was dedicated to P. Magnol, a professor of Botany at 



Montpellier in the 17th century.) MAGNOLIA FAMILY. 
Fig. 22. Woody plants with alternate, entire or lobed 
leaves, and usually large stipules, each pair of which 
forms a hood over the young growth above, the outer 
pair of stipules serving as bud-scales, and each pair leav- 
ing a scar which completely encircles the stem : flowers 
usually bisexual, regular, hypogynous, the parts 
spirally arranged except sometimes the sepals and 
petals ; sepals 3 ; petals 6 to many, separate ; stamens very 
numerous; carpels usually many and usually separate; 
ovary 1-celled, 1- to several-seeded, arranged spirally or 
in a whorl (Illicium) at the top of the receptacle: fruit 
a follicle, or samara, or indehiscent and fleshy. 

Ten genera and about 80 species are distributed 
principally in the subtropical and temperate portions of 
Asia and America, but are absent in Africa, Europe and 
the arctic regions. The Magnoliaceas are most closely 
related to the Annonacese and Calycanthacese. The 
peculiar stipules, the spiral structure of the hypogyn- 
ous flower, and the separate carpels are distinctive. 
In Magnolia, the outer seed-coat is fleshy and red; 
when ripe the seeds fall out buo remain suspended by 
the uncoiled spiral vessels of the raphe and funiculus. 

The wood is generally valuable for timber, while all 
parts, such as leaves and bark, contain a bitter resin, 
which in some species is fragrantly aromatic. Michelia 
Champaca is cultivated in tropical Asia for its sweet 
flowers which are carried about as a perfumery. Its 
aromatic and acrid bark and buds are used in rheuma- 
tism. The bark of Talauma elegans is used in Java as a 
stomachic. The seeds of Magnolia Yulan have been 
used from prehistoric times in China as a febrifuge. It 
is said that the aromatic bark of the tulip tree is a 
substitute for cascarilla and quinine. Drimys Winteri 
has long been used as a stimulant in Central and South 
America, and, by importation, in Europe. The fruit 
of Illicium verum, a Chinese shrub, is very pleasantly 
aromatic, resembling anise, from which, and its remark- 
able star-like whorled carpels, it is called "star anise." 
It is much used as a condiment in oriental countries. 
The bark of Illicium anisatum (I. religiosum) was 
formerly burned as incense in the temples of Japan. 
For a long period the name Illicium anisatum was 
thought to apply to the star anise, but this mistake was 
rectified in the B. M. 7005. Liriodendron Tulipifera 
furnishes the valuable "whitewood" or "yellow poplar" 
of commerce. The wood of various species of Mag- 
nolia is used in cabinet-work. 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, all except 
Illicium as ornamental trees and shrubs. Among these 
are: Illicium (Star Anise); Liriodendron (Tulip Tree); 
Magnolia (Magnolia, White Bay, Beam Tree, Cucumber 
Tree) ; and Schizandra, a procumbent warty shrub. 

80. Calycanthaceae (from the genus Calycanthus, 
derived from the Greek, which means a cup and flower, 
referring to the peculiar receptacle). CALYCANTHUS 
FAMILY. Fig. 22. Shrubs with opposite leaves and aro- 
matic bark : flowers bisexual, regular, perigynous, spirally 
constructed; parts of the perianth numerous, petaloid, 
not clearly differentiated into calyx and corolla; 
stamens 10-30 (5 in Meratia) ; carpels numerous, sepa- 
rate, inserted on the inner face of the hollow receptacle, 
each 1-2-ovuled, in fruit forming 1-seeded achenes, 
which are completely inclosed by the fleshy recep- 
tacle; seeds, exalbuminous; cotyledons spirally rolled. 

Calycanthus, with 4-6 species, is confined to the south- 
ern United States and California; Meratia has two 
species in China and Japan. The family is related to 
the Magnoliacese and the Annonaceaa in the spiral 
structure of the flowers, but differs in the exalbuminous 
seed, the perigynous flowers and the opposite leaves. 
By some authors the family has been placed near the 
Rosacesc because of the perigynous flowers, but the 
spiral arrangement is not that of this latter family. 
The aromatic bark, the magnolia-like flowers, and the 
peculiar rose-like fruits are distinctive. 

The bark of Cdlycanthus floridus is used in America 
as a tonic under the name Carolina allspice. 

All the species are in cultivation in the northern 
United States as ornamental shrubs. 

81. Annonacese (from the genus Annona, which is 
from Menona, its Banda name). CUSTARD- APPLE 
FAMILY. Fig. 23. Trees or shrubs, with simple and en- 
tire alternate leaves: flowers usually bisexual, regular, 
hypogynous; sepals 3; petals usually 6, commonly 
valvate, rarely imbricated; stamens spirally arranged; 
numerous; carpels usually numerous and separate 
(united in Monodora), 1- to sevcral-ovuled : fruit berry- 
like, rarely capsular, often constricted between the 

From 500-600 species in 46 genera are found 
mostly in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Amer- 
ica, the majority occurring in the Old World. Only 

23. ANNONACEA:: 1. Asimina; a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 2. 
Annona, fruit. MyRi8TicACE/e: 3. Myristica; a, male flower; b, 
female flower; c, seed with arillus. MONIMIACE: 4. Monimia; a, 
male flower; b, female flower. LAORACE.E: 5. Cinnamomum; a, 
flower; 6, floral diagram. 6. Benzoin, female flower. 

the genus Asimina is extra-tropical in Atlantic North 
America and in Australia. The family is most closely 
related to the Magnoliacese; but also to the Myristj- 
cacese, Menispermaceae, Calycanthaceae and Dilleni- 
acese. The plan of 3 in calyx and corolla, the nu- 
merous spiral stamens, the usually separate carpels, the 
berry-like fruit and ruminate endosperm are dis- 
tinctive. There is great structural diversity in the 

The Annonacese is rich in useful plants. The Malayans 
use the bark of several species for rheumatic pains, 
and the fruit of others as a stomachic. With the 
flowers of Uvaria they prepare an ointment to ward off 
fevers. European women in India formerly used the 
scented flowers of this plant in hair-oil. Many species 
of Annona and Asimina produce edible fruit, as for 
example, the sweet-sop (Annona squamosa), the sour- 
sop (Annona muricata), the custard-apple (Annona 
reticulata), and the northern papaw (Asimina triloba). 

A few genera are in cultivation in America, mostly 
in Florida and southern California: Annona, cultivated 



for the fruit; Asimina, ornamental, in the North; Arta- 
botrys, climbing, ornamental, sweet-scented, used for 
perfume; Duguetia, cultivated for the fruit in Florida. 

82. Myristicaceae (from the genus Myristica, mean- 
ing an anointing medium, in reference to the fragrant 
fruit). NUTMEG FAMILY. Fig. 23. Trees or shrubs: 
leaves alternate, coriaceous, entire: flowers dioecious, 
regular, small; perianth of one series, the 3 parts con- 
nate, 3-lobed; stamens 3-18, monadelphous; carpel 1, 
superior; ovary 1-celled; ovule 1; stigma sessile, entire 
or lobed: fruit a fleshy capsule; seed with a fleshy, 
laciniate aril. 

The family contains 1 genus and about 80 species, 
of tropical distribution, principally in tropical Asia. 
The family is most closely related to the Annonaceae. 
The dioecious flowers with only one set of floral envel- 
opes, and that consisting of 3 parts, the monadelphous 
stamens, the 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary and the aril are 

All parts of Myristicaceae contain a fragrant oil, 
which, however, is most abundant in the fruit. The 
seeds of Myristica fragrans, of the Moluccas, furnish 
the well-known nutmeg, used as a condiment. The 
aril of the same fruit is rnace. The fruits of other 
species are also sparingly used as condiments. 

Myristica fragrans is cultivated and naturalized in 
the West Indies. 

83. Monimiaceae (from the genus Monimia, named 
forthe wifeof Mythridates). MONIMIA FAMILY. Fig.23. 
Trees or shrubs with aromatic glands: leaves opposite 
or whorled, rarely alternate: flowers usually bisexual, 
regular, perigynous, the more or less cup-shaped 
receptacle conspicuous, variously formed; perianth 
of 1 or 2 whorls, inconspicuous; stamens numerous, 
rarely few, scattered over the inner face of the recep- 
tacle ; anthers often opening by uplifting valves ; carpels 
numerous, all separate, also scattered over the recep- 
tacular cup; ovaries 1-ovuled; style and stigma 1 for 
each carpel: fruit an achene or drupe, borne on the 
receptacle and sessile or pedicelled, or immersed in the 
fleshy often urn-shaped receptacle which becomes part 
of an aggregate accessory fruit and frequently com- 
pletely incloses the achenes. 

Contained in this family are 31 genera and about 
150 species, of tropical and subtropical distribution, 
principally of the South Sea Islands and Australia; 
some, howeyer, reach South America, Africa, and 
other countries. The largest genus is Siparuna, con- 
taining 60 species. The family is related to the Caly- 
canthacea:, as is plainly evident in the fruit. The usu- 
ally enlarged receptacle, the peculiar fruit, and the 
1-seeded carpels are distinctive. 

The Monimiacese have stimulating properties. Peu- 
mus leaves are used to promote digestion, like tea 
and coffee. The fruits of this plant are edible, as are 
also those of Laurelia sempervirens. The wood of 
Atherpsperma moschatum is much sought for ship- 
building; the bark is a substitute for tea. 

Peumus (Chilean Boldo) is advertised in California; 
valuable for its timber, edible fruits, and ornamental 

84. Lauraceae (from the genus Laurus, the old Latin 
name). LAUREL FAMILY. Fig. 23. Trees or shrubs 
with fetid or aromatic bark: leaves alternate, rarely 
otherwise, simple, punctate: flowers bisexual or unisex- 
ual, regular; parts of the perianth similar, usually 6, in 
2 whorls; stamens in 34 whorls of 3 each, perigynous 
or epigynous, some often staminodial and glandular; 
anthers opening by uplifting valves; ovary superior or 
very rarely inferior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1; stigma 
2-3-lobed: fruit a berry, drupe, or dry, often seated on 
a thickened pedicel or inclosed in a hollow receptacle. 

The 39 genera and about 900 species inhabit mostly 
tropical regions, but extend into the temperate re- 
gions. Six species are found in the northeastern United 
Suites. The largest genera are Ocotea with 200 species, 

and Litsea with 100 species. The family is related to 
the Monimiaceae, and stands between that family and 
the Thymeteaceae. The undifferentiated perianth, nu- 
merous stamens with uplifting valves, and 1-celled, 
1-seeded ovary are distinctive. 

The Lauraceae are useful on account of the aromatic 
oil. The leaves of laurel (Laurus nobilis) are. used for 
flavoring and for packing figs. Cinnamon is from 
the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Cinnamomum 
Cassia yields cassia cinnamon. The bark of the root 
of Sassafras variifolium is the sassafras of commerce. 
Camphor is obtained by distillation from Cinnamomum 
Camphora. The fruit of Persea gratissima is the avo- 
cado of South America, eaten by both men and 
animals. Many fragrant woods are obtained from 
this family, as, for example: anise wood (Ocotea 
cymbarum), bebeeru wood, greenheart (Nectandra 
Rodicei), or clove -cassia pepper wood (Dicypellium 
caryophyllatum) so named because of the pungency of 
the dust, Madeira mahogany (Persea indica), fetid till 
(Ocotea foetens), sweetwood (Nectandra exaltata), and 
stinkwood (Ocotea bullata). 

Among the genera in cultivation in this country 
are: Benzoin (Spice Bush, Benjamin Bush, Wild All- 
spice, Fever Bush), native, ornamental; Cinnamomum 
or Camphora (Camphor Tree), introduced in Florida 
and California; Cinnamomum (Cinnamon, Cassia 
Buds), cultivated under glass; Laurus (Sweet Bay), 
ornamental, conservatory; Persea (Red Bay, Bull Bay, 
Avocado), greenhouse and South; Sassafras, native 
ornamental; and Umbellularia (California Laurel), 
ornamental, in the South and California. 


85. Papaveraceae (from the genus Papaver, derivation 
obscure). POPPY FAMILY. Fig. 24. Annual or perennial 
herbs, or rarely shrubs, with yellow (Chelidonium), 
white (Papaver), or red (Sanguinaria), or rarely watery 
(Eschscholtzia) juice: leaves usually alternate, often 
crenately toothed or lobed or divided: flowers bisexual, 
regular; sepals 2, rarely 3; petals 4, rarely 6 or more, 
rarely wanting; stamens numerous in many whorls, 
hypogynqus; carpels 1 to many, connate into a 1-celled 
ovary, with the parietal placentas as many as the stig- 
mas; ovules 1 to many; styles as many as the carpels, 
usually wanting; stigmas distinct, or in a radiate disk, 
or lobed: fruit capsular or siliquose; seed albuminous. 

The 23 genera and about 80 species are widely dis- 
tributed in the north temperate zone, but are especially 
numerous in central and eastern Asia, the Mediter- 
ranean region and western North America. One species 
of poppy is found in the south temperate region in 
South Africa and Australia. The family is closely 
related to the Fumariacese (which see), with which it is 
united by many European authors. It is also related 
to Capparidaceae and Cruciferse. There is, on the other 
hand, an affinity with the Berberidaceae. The milky 
juice, numerical plan of 2 or 3 in the perianth, numerous 
stamens, and 1-celled ovary with parietal placentae are 

In Papaver, an orbicular disk crowns the ovary on 
the top of which radiate the numerous stigmatic fines. 
The capsules open by means of small valves between 
the placentae and underneath the disk. The capsule 
of Chelidonium is like a mustard fruit (silique), in 
being long and slender and the lateral walls springing 
upward as valves, leaving the placentas exposed. 

Many of the Papaveraceae are cultivated as orna- 
mental plants. Some poppies are bad weeds in cul- 
tivated ground in Europe. Papaver somniferum, a 
native of Asia, furnishes the opium of commerce, 
which is obtained by incisions made in the capsules. 
Poppy oil is derived in France from the seeds of 
Papaver somniferum. Sanguinaria root is used in 
medicine as a sedative. 



A score of genera are in cultivation in America, all 
as garden plants. Some of these are: Bocconia (Plume 
Poppy of eastern Asia); Chelidonium (Celandine), 
a weed from Europe; Dendromecon, shrubby; Esch- 
scholtzia (California Poppy); Mecanopsis (Welsh 
Poppy of western Europe) ; Papaver (Poppy) ; Platy- 
etemon (Cream Cups); Platystigma; Sanguinaria 
(Bloodroot), native; Stylophorum (Celandine Poppy), 

86. Fumariacese (from the genus Fumaria, which is 
from the Latin fumus, smoke, presumably referring to 
the nitrous odor of the roots when pulled from the 
ground). FUMITORY FAMILY. Fig. 24. Herbaceous 
plants with alternate, dissected leaves: flowers bisex- 
ual, regular or irregular, hypogynous; sepals 2; petals 
4, free or connate, in 2 unlike pairs, outer pair larger, 
either one or both petals of which are spurred or gib- 
bous, the two inner crested and united over the an- 
thers and stamens; anthers 6, borne on 2 filaments; 
carpels 2, united; ovary 1-celled, 1- to many-seeded: 
fruit a silique, vesicular or indehiscent, or transversely 
jointed; seeds albuminous. 

There are 5 genera and 130 species, mostly from the 
north temperate regions. The family is closely related 
to the Papaveraceae with which it is often united. The 

24. PAPAVERACE: 1. Papaver; a, flower; b and c, fruit. 2. 
Chelidonium, fruit. FUMARIACE^E: 3. Dicentra, flower. 4. Fumaria 
flower 1, corolla removed. CRUCIFER<E: 5. Flower; a, perianth re- 
moved; b, floral diagram. 6. Fruit; a, Brassica; b, Lepidium; c, 
Lunaria; d, Raphanus. 7. Cross-section seeds of Cruciferse, showing 
types of embryos; a, accumbent; b, incumbent; c, conduplicate. 
C 8. Cleome, flower. 

bleeding-heart-like flower, the plan of 2, the 6 anthers 
on 2 filaments, the 1-celled ovary, and the absence of 
milky juice are distinctive. 

Fumaria officinalis and some species of Corydalis 
have been used as medicine, but the family is of little 
economic importance, except for the few ornamental 

Following are the genera best known in cultivation: 
Adlumia (Allegheny Vine, Climbing Fumitory), a 
graceful native garden climber; Corydalis, with 1- 
spurred corolla; Dicentra (Bleeding Heart, Squirrel 
Corn, Dutchman's Breeches), with 2-spurred corolla; 
and Fumaria (Fumitory), with 1-spurred corolla. 

87. Cruciferae (from the Latin signifying cross- 
bearers, in reference to the cross-like appearance pro- 
duced by the four petals). MUSTARD FAMILY. Fig. 24. 
Herbs, rarely shrubby: leaves usually alternate, simple, 
often varying from entire to palmate or pinnatifid 
within the same genus: flowers bisexual, regular; se- 
pals 4; petals 4, rarely wanting; stamens 6, 4 long and 
2 shorter (tetradynamous), rarely fewer, very rarely 
more, hypogynous; carpels 2, united, ovary superior, 
2-, rarely 1-, celled with 2 parietal placentae at the 
edges of the septum: fruit a silique (long), or a silicle 
(short), rarely indehiscent; seeds exalbuminous; the 
embryo variously curved and folded. 

In the family are 208 genera and 1,600 species, dis- 
tributed throughout the cold and temperate parts 
of both hemispheres, but especially abundant around 
the Mediterranean Sea; a few are tropical. The Crucif- 
erae are closely related to the Capparidaceae, Papaver- 
aceae, and Fumariacese. The 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 sta- 
mens (4 long and 2 short), and the peculiar fruit are 

The 6 stamens probably represent a reduction from 
2 sets of 4 each. In Lepidium and other genera, there 
may be only 2 stamens. The septum of the fruit re- 
mains upon the plant when the seeds and valves fall. 
The silicles are often flattened, either perpendicular or 
parallel to the partition (in different genera). The 
embryos in the seed are folded so that the hypocotyl 
(radicle) and cotyledons lie side by side. Distinct pat- 
terns are thus produced which are so constant as to be 
of great value in the classification within the family. 
Three principal types are recognized: cotyledons ac- 
cumbent, when the edges of the cotyledons are applied 
to the hypocotyl; incumbent, when the back of one 
cotyledon is applied to the hypocotyl; and conduplic- 
ate. when the cotyledons themselves are also folded 
and enwrap the hypocotyl. In Leavenworthia, alone, 
the embryo is straight. 

The flower of Cruciferse is of little value in classi- 
fication within the family; the important characters 
are in connection with the fruit and seeds. 

Many have become well-known weeds as, for exam- 
ple, charlock (Brassica ari'ensis), shepherd's purse 
(Capsetta Bursa-pastoris) , pepper grass (Lepidium), 
spring mustard (Barbarea), wild radish (Raphanus 
Raphanistrum) . Many others are among the well- 
known old-fashioned ornamental plants of the garden, 
e.g., rocket (Hesperis matronalis), stock or gilli- 
flower (Matthiola), wallflower (Cheiranthus), honesty 
(Lunaria) with large orbicular flat pods, candytuft 
(Iberis), sweet alyssum (Alyssum). Others are used as 
food, of which Brassica oleracea, a very variable species, 
is the most important, furnishing cabbage, cauliflower, 
kohlrabi and kale. Brassica campestris furnishes the 
various forms of rutabaga. Brassica alba furnishes 
white mustard, and Brassica nigra, black mustard. 
Radicula Nasturtium-aquaticum is water-cress; Radi- 
cula Armoracia is horse-radish. The rootstocks of 
Dentaria are eaten in America under the name "crinkle 
root." Raphanus sativus is the garden radish; Lepid- 
ium sativum is garden cress. The various organs of 
most Cruciferse contain an oily substance which is 
very pungent to the taste and which gives the peculiar 
flavor to the various cresses. This oil is abundant in 
the seeds from which it is extracted (oil of mustard). 
The foliage of the various maritime Cruciferse have 
been found a useful article of diet in counteracting 
scurvy, for which reason the arctic Cochlearia is called 
"scurvy-grass." The leaves of the woad of western 
Europe (I satis tinctoria) yield a blue dye. Anastatica 
Hierochuntica is the original "rose of Jericho," the 
branches of which close and open when alternately 
dried and wetted. (See article on Resurrection Plants.) 
88. Capparidaceae (from the genus Capparis, the 
Greek name, from the Arabic kapar, capers). CAPER 
FAMILY. Fig. 24. Herbs or rarely shrubs: flowers bisex- 



ual, more or less irregular; sepals 3-8, usually 4; petals 
4-8, rarely 0, hypogynous or perigynous; disk ring-like 
or scale-like or tubular at the base of the petals; sta- 
mens 6, rarely 4 or many; carpels 2 or more; ovary 
1- to several-celled, usually raised on an outgrowth 
(gynophore) of the pedicel-like axis, which may become 
much elongated in fruit; ovules numerous; style 1 orO; 
stigmas 1 to several: fruit a capsule, silique, berry or 
drupe; embryo usually coiled. 

Thirty-four genera and about 350 species occur, 
mostly of tropical and subtropical distribution. They 
extend to Australia, the African deserts and into the 
western and eastern United States. The family is very 
closely related to the Crucifersc and certain forms are 
difficult to distinguish from that family. The non- 
tetradynamous stamens, and commonly 1-celled ovary 
are distinctive. The gynophore is often very long, 
slender and conspicuous, and sometimes (Gynandrop- 
sis) carries up the stamens along with the pistil. The 
detailed variation in the flower is very intricate. 

Several genera are cultivated as ornamental plants. 
The acrid oil in the fruit is stimulating, as in the Cruci- 
ferse, and for this reason several genera have been used 
in medicine (Cleome, Polanisia, Capparis, etc). Cap- 
pans spinosa of the Mediterranean region furnishes the 
capers of commerce, which are flower-buds preserved 
in salt and vinegar. 

As garden plants, a few genera are in the American 
trade: Cleome (Bee or Spider Plant), ornamental; 
Gynandropsis, ornamental; Capparis (Caper Plant), 
shrubby, grown in this country for ornament as well as 
for food; and Cratajva, shrubby, grown in southern 

89. Resedaceae (from the genus Reseda which is from 
the Latin, to calm, in allusion to supposed quieting 
properties). MIGNONETTE FAMILY. Herbs or shrubs: 
leaves usually alternate: flowers mostly bisexual, more 
or less irregular; calyx persistent, 4-8-parted, irregu- 
lar; petals 0-8, alternating with the sepals; stamens 
3-40, inserted within an irregular fleshy disk; carpels 
2-6, free, or united into a 1-celled ovary which is often 
imperfectly closed at the top; placenta: 2-6, parietal; 
ovules many; styles or sessile stigmas 3-6: fruit usually 
a dehiscent capsule, rarely a berry, or composed of 
separate follicles; seeds reniform, without endosperm; 
embryo curved. 

About 45 species and 6 genera occur, mainly dis- 
tributed about the Mediterranean Sea. This family is 
allied to the Crucifer and Capparidacex, from which 
it differs principally in general character. The extra- 
staminal disk, the numerous stamens, the 1-celled 
ovary or ovaries with parietal placenta, and the usually 
gaping summit of the ovary are distinctive. 

Reseda Luteola (Dyer's weed) yields a yellow dye 
which was formerly much used. R. odorata (mignon- 
ette), a plant cultivated since early times, and whose 
origin was long considered unknown, although probably 
Egyptian, is extensively cultivated for the fragrance of 
its flowers. 

90. Moringacese (from the genus Moringa, derived 
from the Malabar name of the plant). MOHINGA 
FAMILY. Trees, with 2-3-pinnate alternate leaves: 
flowers bisexual, irregular, perigynous; sepals 5, 
imbricated; petals 5, imbricated, unequal, lower 
reflexed; stamens 8-10, separate or united at the base, 
alternate ones shorter or reduced to staminodia;- sub- 
ovarian disk present, lining the cup; ovary borne on a 
gynophore, 1-celled; placenta! 3; ovules numerous; 
style 1: fruit a silique-like capsule. 

There is but one genus, containing 3 species, natives 
of northeastern Africa and India. The family is dis- 
tinct, not related closely to any other, perhaps dis- 
tantly related to the Bignpniacea;, the Capparidacea;. 
the Violacea;, or the Leguminosea;. Provisionally placed 
by Engler and Prantl between the Poppy group of 
families and the Rose group. 

Moringa arabica of Arabia (ben-nut) yields a useful 
oil which does not become rancid. The root of one 
species is used in intermittent fevers. A tragacanth- 
like gum exudes from the bark of M . oleifera. 

M. oleifera (horse-radish tree) is grown sparingly 
in the southern United States. The fruits and the 
roots are edible. 


91. Sarraceniaceae (from the genus Sarracenia, in 
honor of Dr. Sarracin, an early physician of Quebec, 
who sent the northern species to Europe). PITCHER- 
PLANT FAMILY. Fig. 25. Perennial herbs inhabiting 
bogs: leaves all basal, tubular: scapes 1-flowered; flow- 
ers bisexual, regular; sepals 4-5, imbricated; petals 5, 
hypogynous, or 0; stamens many but not apparently 
either cyclic or spiral; ovary superior, 3-5-, rarely 6-, 
celled; ovules numerous; style 1; stigmas 1-5: fruit a 

The Sarraceniacese has 3 genera and 8 species, of 
which 6 belong to the genus Sarracenia; all American. 
Heliamphora is in British Guiana, Darlingtonia in 
California, and Sarracenia in Atlantic North America 
from Newfoundland to Florida. The family is most 
closely related to the Droseracese and Nepenthacese, 
but also to the Papaveracese and Nymphseacese. 

The Sarraceniaceae are far-famed as insectivorous 
plants. The pitchers are partly filled with a liquid con- 
taining a digestive enzyme. Small insects which fall 
into the liquid, or are attracted by a sugary secretion, 
and are unable to escape because of various devices, 
are at length digested and absorbed. Like the sun- 

25. SARRACENIACE*: 1. Sarracenia; a, flower; 6, leaves. NEPEN- 
THACE*: 2. Nepenthes; a, female flower; 6, leaf. DHOSERACE.E: 
3. Drosera; a, flower; 6, floral diagram.; c, leaf. 4. DionsBa, leaf. 5. 
Aldrovanda, leaf. 

dews, these plants can inhabit soils poor in nitrates. 
The remarkable umbrella-shaped style, and fiddle- 
shaped petals of Sarracenia are part of a very interest- 
ing mechanism for cross-pollination. 

The family is of little economic importance. The 
rhizome of Sarracenia purpurea was used in Canada as 
a specific against smallpox, but did not prove of value. 
Darlingtonia californica and species of Sarracenia 
are in the trade because of their peculiar habits and. 
structure, and then- botanical interest. They are grown 
mainly in the greenhouse. 



92. Nepenthaceae (from the genus Nepenthes, de- 
rived from the Greek signifying a magic potion, prob- 
ably in reference to the pitchers). NEPENTHES FAMILY. 
Fig. 25. Slightly woody or herbaceous plants: leaves 
alternate, consisting of a winged basal portion, a slender 
stalk-like intermediate portion, and a terminal urn- 
shaped pitcher with a rolling fluted border and a lid, 
the pitcher containing a watery fluid: flowers dioDcious, 
paniculate, regular; perianth of 4 parts, possibly 2 
sepals and 2 petals, imbricated; stamens 4-16, mona- 
delphous; ovary superior, 3-4-celled; ovules numerous 
in each cell; stigma sessile, discoid: fruit a capsule. 

A single genus with about 40 species occurs in the 
East Indies, Madagascar, the Seychelle Islands, and 
New Caledonia. Borneo has the greatest number of 
species. The family is related to the SarraceniaceK and 
Droseracese, although formerly considered related to 
the Aristolochiace. The habit, the undifferentiated 
perianth, the monadelphous stamens, and the 3-4-celled 
ovary, are distinctive. A remarkable family of insectiv- 
orous plants. Along with the water secreted in the 
cavity of the pitcher is a pepsin-like substance, by the 
aid of which insects are digested, the dissolved material 
being later absorbed. The slender part of the leaf 
in some species coils and serves as a tendril by means 
of which the plant climbs. 


4b A 

26. CRASSULACE^E: 1. Sedum, flower. SAXIFHAOACE.*:: 2. 
Saxifraga, flower. 3. Kibes, a, floral diagram; 6, flower. 4. Par- 
nassia, a, floral diagram; b, flower. CEPHALOTACE<E: 5. Cephalo- 
tus, leaves. 

In American greenhouses, many kinds of Nepenthes 
(Pitcher Plants), some of hybrid origin, are cultivated 
because of their curious habit. 

93. Droseraceae (from the genus Drosera, derived 
from the Greek, meaning dewy). SUNDEW FAMILY. Fig. 
25. Very glandular herbs or sub-shrubs with alternate 
leaves: flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous, rarely 
perigynous; sepals 4-5, imbricated; petals 5, imbri- 
cated; stamens in 1 or more whorls of 5; carpels 2-5; 
ovary superior, 1-3-celled: fruit a capsule with nu- 
merous seeds. 

The 6 genera and about 100 species, 90 species of 
which belong to the genus Drosera, are widely scat- 
tered over the earth. The family is related in floral 
structure to the Cistaceae and Violaceae, and to the 

The Droseracese are noted as insectivorous plants. 
Drosera has a. rosette of small basal leaves covered 
with sensitive motile tentacles that secrete a terminal 
drop of clear sticky fluid, the so-called dew, in which 
small insects are caught as on sticky fly-paper. A 
digestive substance is then secreted and the organic 
matter absorbed. The leaves of Dionasa (the famous 
Venus' fly-trap of Carolina) have a conduplicate ter- 

minal lobe which closes violently when a fly alights upon 
the upper (inner) surface. A marginal fringe prevents 
the escape of the insect; and it is in time digested. 
Aldrovanda of South Europe has tiny traps similar 
to those of Dionaja, but the whole plant is aquatic, and 
resembles Utricularia. 

Drosophyllum and Roridula are said to be used in 
Portugal and the Cape for the practical capture of 
flies in the house. The leaves of some Droseras yield 
a purple dye. The liquids known as aqua-auri and 
rosoglio (Italian) contain Drosera rolundifolia as an 
essential ingredient. 

Drosera and Dionaea are in the American trade, 
mostly grown as greenhouse curiosities. 

Order 37. ROSALES 

94. Crassulaceae (from the genus Crassula, diminu- 
tive of missus, meaning thick). ORPINE FAMILY. Fig. 
26. Herbs or sub-shrubs: leaves mostly alternate, com- 
monly fleshy: flowers mostly bisexual, regular; sepals 
5, rarely 3-30, imbricated; petals as many, rarely con- 
nate; stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, 
epipetalous or hypogynous, rarely perigynous, separate; 
carpels as many as the petals, separate with a scale 
at the base of each; ovules numerous, rarely few or 
one: fruit a group of follicles, rarely the carpels some- 
what united and ovary half-inferior. 

Thirteen genera and about 500 species inhabit the 
drier parts of the earth, but principally South 
Africa and South Europe. The genus Sedum contains 
140 species, and Crassula 120 species. This is a very 
definite family, but closely related to the Saxifragacea?, 
from which it differs in the regular numerical plan, 
almost constantly separate ovaries, and predominat- 
ingly fleshy habit. 

The Crassulacea; are well adapted to a dry climate. 
The fleshy leaves are provided with water-storage 
tissue and a thick cuticle, and are often odd in shape 
and appearance. These leaves lose water very slowly 
when separated from the plant, and will often remain 
fresh for weeks. When pinned to the wall, the leaf of 
Bryophyllum sends forth plantlets from the margin, 
and the stem of live-forever may grow and flower, so 
efficient is the protection against loss of water afforded 
by the cuticle. These plants, likewise, will grow for 
weeks or months in the collector's press. 

The herbage contains much tannin and sometimes 
acid. A refreshing drink has been made from Semper- 
irivum tectorum (houseleek). The fleshy leaves of the 
Crassulacese are cooling to wounds and burns. Sedum 
Telephium was formerly cultivated as a pot-herb. 
Other species have been used for nearly similar pur- 

Several genera are in cultivation in America. Of 
these, Sempervivum is the well-known Houseleek or 
Old-hen-and-chickens; Cotyledon is somewhat similar 
in growth; Sedum acre is Moss Stonecrop; and Sedum 
triphyllum (S. Telephium) is Live-forever, or Orpine. 

95. Cephalotacese (from the genus Celphalot us, derived 
from the Greek meaning headed, said to refer to the 
capitate hairs at the base of the flower). CEPHALOTUS 
FAMILY. Fig. 26. Perennial scapose herbs: leaves of 2 
kinds in a basal rosette, one lanceolate and ordinary, 
the other a petioled pitcher with winged sides, fluted 
mouth and a lid: flowers bisexual, regular, perigynous; 
perianth of 6 parts, apparently in one series, valvatc; 
stamens 12, in 2 whorls; carpels 6, separate, arranged 
around the woody apex of the axis; 1-2 basal ovules in 
each: fruit dry, somewhat inflated. 

The family consists of but 1 genus and 1 species 
(Cephalotus follicularis) , found in the swamps of King 
George's Sound, West Australia. This family is related 
to the Saxifragaceas, and was formerly united with that 
family, but differs in the peculiar habit, the wholly 
separate carpels arranged around the apex of the axis, 



and the basal seeds; related also to the Crassulaceae, 
but lacks the hypogynous scales and has basal seeds. 

This remarkable little insectivorous plant is culti- 
vated in greenhouses as a curiosity. 

96. Saxifragacese (from the genus Saxifraga, derived 
from the Latin signifying to break rocks, in allusion 
to the habit of growing in the clefts of rocks). SAXI- 
FRAGE FAMILY. Fig. 26. Herbs, shrubs, or small trees: 
leaves alternate, rarely opposite: flowers bisexual, usu- 
ally regular, hypogynous or perigynous, rarely epigyn- 
ous; sepals 4-5, rarely more or fewer; petals usually of 
the same number, valvate or imbricated, inserted with 
the stamens at the edge of a receptacular nectariferous 
disk; stamens of the same number as the petals and 
alternate with them, or twice as many and the outer 
opposite the petals; carpels 2, rarely 5, partly united, 
rarely separate, superior or half inferior; ovules nu- 
merous; styles and stigmas as many as the carpels : fruit 
a capsule or berry. 

There are about 70 genera and some 700 species, 
widely distributed but more abundant in temperate 
regions. Many reach the arctics. Some are fossil. 
Saxifraga is the largest genus, with 200 species in the 
north temperate, arctic and Andean regions. Ribes 
has 50 species. The family is closely related to the 
Rosaceae, differing in the more abundant endosperm 
and constantly few carpels and few stamens; related 
also to the Crassulaceac, which has a regular numerical 
plan and hypogynous scales; and to the Cunoniaceae 
and HamamelidaceaB. 

The ovaries of Ribes, Philadelphus, Chrysosplenium, 
Deutzia, Hydrangea, and some Saxifragas, and a few 
other genera are almost wholly inferior. Parnassia has 
staminodia in clusters at the base of each petal. The 
fruit of Ribes is a berry. Some Heucheras have irregu- 
lar flowers; also some Saxifragas, some Hydrangeas 
and Tolmieas. The peripheral flowers of Hydrangea 
often have enlarged corollas and are sterile. Water- 
glands in the axils of the foliar teeth of some Saxifragas 
secrete a deposit of lime. 

The rough leaves of Deutzia scabra are used in Japan 
to polish wood. The fruits of several species of Ribes 
are edible; R. vulgare yields the red currant; R. 
Grossularia, the English gooseberry, and also native 
gooseberries; R. nigrum, the black currant. Otherwise 
the family is of economic importance only for its 
ornamental species, which are numerous and largely 

Many genera are in cultivation in this country. 
Among these the following well-known names may be 
noted: Deutzia; Decumaria, climbing shrub; Golden 
Saxifrage "(Chrysosplenium); Astilbe; Hydrangea; 
Mock-orange or Syringa (Philadelphus); Currants and 
Gooseberries (Ribes); False Mitrewort or False Bish- 
op's-cap or Foam-flower (Tiarella) ; Grass of Parnassus 
(Parnassia); Mitrewort or Bishop's-cap (Mitella); 
Alum Root or Coral Bells (Heuchera); Saxifrage and 
Strawberry Geranium (Saxifraga). 

97. Pittosporaceas (from the genus Pittosporum, 
the name referring to the viscid coating of the seeds). 
PITTOSPORUM FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, often climb- 
ing: leaves alternate, mostly leathery : flowers bisexual, 
regular; sepals or divisions of the calyx 5, imbricated; 
petals 5, imbricated in the bud; claws often conniv- 
cnt or coherent; stamens 5, alternating with the petals, 
hypcgynous, no disk at the base; carpels 2, rarely 3-5; 
cvary 1- to several-celled; placenta parietal or axial; 
style 1; stigmas 1 to several: fruit a capsule or berry: 
seeds numerous or few, immersed in a pulp or viscid 

All the 9 genera and about 90 species are natives of 
Australia, except the genus Pittosporum, which, how- 
ever, is of the Old World. The largest genus is Pittos- 
porum containing 70 species. The relationship of the 
family is doubtful. Though in the past supposed by 
different authors to be related to the Celastraceae, 

Polygalaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rutaceae, Saxifragacese, 
Ericaceae, and so on, it is, according to Pax, most 
closely related to the Saxifragaceae,. 

The Pittosporaceae all contain resinous aromatic 
bitter material in organized resin-canals or chambers. 
These give the fruit a disagreeable flavor. In spite of 
this disagreeable taste, it is said (Lemaout and De- 
caine) that, "The natives of Australia, who to ap- 
pease their hunger are reduced to filling their stom- 
achs with clay mixed with organic detritus, eagerly 
devour the fleshy fruits of this family." 

Most of the genera are in cultivation: Bellardiera; 
Bursaria, a spiny shrub; Hymenosporum, a shrub with 
yellow flowers; Pittosporum (Pittosporum, Karo, Taw- 
hiwhi, Tarata, Tobira), evergreen, fragrant shrubs; 
Sollya (Australian Bluebell Creeper). 

98. Cunoniaceae (from the genus Cunonia, named 
after John Christian Cuno, an Amsterdam botanist of 
the 18th century). CUNONIA FAMILY. Fig. 27. Trees 
or shrubs: leaves opposite or whorled, simple, ternate 
or pinnate: flowers small, densely crowded, usually 
bisexual, hypogynous; sepals 4-5, rarely 6, usually val- 
vate; petals 4-5, small, usually wanting; stamens twice 
as many as the sepals, rarely just as many or more nu- 

27. CUNONIACEJE: 1. Cunonia, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 
BRUNIACE/E: 2. Brunia, o, flower branch; 6, flower. HAMAMELIDACEJS: 
3. Hamamelis, a, flower; 6, floral diagram; c, fruit. 4. Liquidam- 
bar, fruit. 

merous, exserted, attached near the edge of an intra- 
staminal disk; ovary mostly 2-celled, superior; ovules 
numerous, rarely few; styles 1-2; stigmas 2: fruit 
usually a capsule, rarely a drupe or nut. 

Nineteen genera and 120 species are known, 70 spe- 
cies of which belong to Weinmannia; all of South 
America or the Australian region, except one in South 

The family is closely related to the Saxifragacese, 
with which it was formerly united, but because of the 
uniform floral structure and the position of the leaves, 
as well as the geographical distribution, it is now 
treated as distinct. 

The wood of some species is useful; otherwise the 
Cunoniaceae are of little economic importance. A.CTO- 
phyllum venosum, an Australian evergreen shrub, is 
cultivated in greenhouses. 

99. Bruniaceae (from the genus Brunia, named in 
honor of Cornelius Brun, a traveler in the East). 
BRUNIA FAMILY. Fig. 27. Heath-like shrubs: leaves 
alternate: flowers bisexual, regular, epigynous; sepals 
4-5, imbricated; petals 4-5, imbricated; stamens 4-5, 



alternating with the petals, free or united with the 
petals, or with each other; rarely an intrastaminal disk 
present; ovary inferior, 1-3-cclled; ovules 1-2 in each 
cell: fruit dry, indehiscent, or capsular. 

Twelve genera and about 50 species occur, all natives 
of South Africa. The family is related to various fami- 
lies of the Saxifrage group, as. for instance, the Hama- 
melidaceas, but is distinct because of its heath-like 
habit. The flowers are mostly in dense heads. 

The family is of no economic importance. One 
species of Audouinia (A. capitata) is said to be some- 
times in cultivation as Diosma capitata. 

100. Hamamelidaceae (from the genus Hamamdis, 
an ancient Greek name applied to some tree). WITCH- 
HAZEL FAMILY. Fig. 27. Trees or shrubs: leaves simple, 
alternate: flowers unisexual or bisexual, hypogynous, 
perigynous or epigynous; sepals 45; petals 4-5, or 0; 
stamens 4-5, rarely more; sub-ovarian disk rare; ovary 
2-celled; ovules 1 or several in each cell: fruit a woody, 
2-valved capsule, with a separating inner layer of dif- 
ferent texture; seeds often winged. 

Twenty genera and 50 species are known, widely 
distributed in subtropical or warm temperate regions 
of both hemispheres. It is an ancient family more 
abundant in former ages, related to the Saxifragacese, 
and by some considered related to the Cornacese or 
Araliacese. Many fossil species are known. The peculiar 
fruit is distinctive. 

In some genera, as in Hamamelis, the seeds are 
forcibly expelled when the fruit opens, often to a dis- 
tance of 10 feet or more, much as wet apple seeds may 
be shot from between the thumb and finger. 

The family is of little economic importance. Extract 
of the bark of Hamamelis is used as a liniment 
(witch-hazel). The twigs are supposed to have super- 
normal properties, especially in the detection of water 
in the earth. They are frequently used in rural districts 
in the attempt to detect underground springs. Liquid- 
ambar Styraciflua (sweet gum), of the southern 
United States, yields a balsam. The oriental balsam, 
Styrax, is obtained from the eastern L. orientalis. This 
was formerly used in medicine. 

Perhaps half the genera are in cultivation, all for 
ornamental purposes. Of these, Fothergilla, Corylopsis 
Hamamelis, and Liquidambar are the best known. 
Most of the species are hardy. 

101 . Platanaceae (from the genus Platanus, the ancient 
name of the tree, signifying broad). PLANE-TREE FAM- 
ILY. Fig. 28. Trees with alternate, broad, palmately 
veined leaves: flowers in dense heads, monoecious, regu- 
lar, perigynous; sepals usually 3-8, separate, thick, often 
with bracts at the base; petals of the same number, 
glabrous; stamens of like number alternating with the 
petals; connective peltate at the top; extra staminodia 
often present; carpels several, distinct, 1-seeded: 
fruit a caryopsis, angled from pressure, and truncate 
at top, surrounded by long hairs at the base; seed 

A single genus and about 6 species are distributed in 
southern Europe, southern Asia, and in North America. 
The family is related to the Saxifragacese and Hama- 
melidaceae. The polypetalous perigynous flower, 
with as many stamens as petals, the separate carpels, 
and especially the peculiar inflorescence and leaf, are 
distinctive. Fossil species are known. 

The wood of Platanus is similar to maple and of 
value, but the most important use is for ornament. Two 
species of Platanus (Plane-Tree, Buttonwood, Button 
Ball, Oriental Plane, Sycamore) are in cultivation in 

102. Rosaces (from the genus Rosa, the ancient name 
of the rose). ROSE FAMILY. Fig. 28. Herbs, shrubs, or 
trees, often thorny, sometimes climbing: leaves alter- 
nate, rarely opposite: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 
usually regular, perigynous; calyx of 4-5 imbricated 
or valvate sepals; corolla of as many imbricated petals, 

or 0; stamens 5 to many, in whorls of 5, borne on the 
cup of the receptacle at some dist ance from the carpels ; 
cup lined with a glandular disk; carpels 1 to many, 
separate and superior or united and inferior; ovaries 
1 to several-ovuled; styles as many as the carpels: fruit 
a follicle, achene, drupe, pome, or hip; seeds usually 

There are about 90 genera and 1,500 species, widely 
distributed in all parts of the world, most abundant, 
perhaps, in the temperate regions. The largest genera 
are Rubus, 180-200 species; Potentilla, 200 species; 
and Rosa, 100 species. The family is related to the 
Saxifragaceae and the Leguminosse, also to the Caly- 
canthacese. The perigynous flower with cup lined by 
the glandular disk, the numerous cyclic stamens, and 


28. PLATANACE<E: 1. Platanus, a, flower; b, floral diagram. 
ROSACES: 2. Fragaria, a, flower; 6, fruit. 3. Geum, fruit. 4. 
Rosa, a, floral diagram; 6, fruit. 5. Spiraea, fruit. 6. Prunus, a, 
flower; b, fruit. 7. Pyrus, a, flower; 6, fruit. LEOUMINOS.E: 8. 
Pisum, a, flower; 6, flower, petals removed; c, fruit. 9. Des- 
modium, fruit. 10. Cassia, flower. H. Acacia, flower. 

the separate, usually cyclic, carpels, are distinctive. 
The Ranunculacese is similar, but acyclic and hy- 

The family is divided into 6 very distinct sub- 
families, some of which, by certain authors, are con- 
sidered of family rank, as follows: I. Fruit folh'cular, 
e.g., Spiraea, Physocarpus. Aruncus, Sorbaria, and 
so on. II. Ovary compound, inferior: fruit fleshy, e. g., 
Pyrus, Cratajgus, Cotoneaster, Cydonia, Amelanchier, 
Mespilus, and the like. III. Fruit of achenes or 
separate drupelets, e.g., Rubus, Fragaria, Potentilla, 
Geum, Cercocarpus, Ulmaria, Alchemilla, Agrimonia, 
Sanguisorba, and Rosa. IV. Carpels connate, and 
adnate to the hollow, but dry, receptacle, e.g., Neurada 
and Grielum. V. Carpel 1, superior: fruit a drupe: 
style terminal, e.g., Prunus. VI. Same as the last, but 



style basal and flowers often irregular, e.g., Chryso- 

The fruitlets of Rubus have a fleshy ovarian wall and 
are drupelets. The strawberry has a fleshy receptacle 
with dry achenes scattered upon it. The rose fruit 
consists of a hollow, fleshy receptacle bearing achenes on 
its inner face; that of Pyrus is similar, but the recep- 
tacle and carpels have grown together into one struc- 
ture. The peach, cherry, and plum are each the pro- 
duct of one superior carpel. 

The following plants are cultivated for their fruits: 
apple, pear, quince, cherry, plum, apricot, peach, 
almond, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, and medlar. 
These fruits are eaten fresh, preserved in sugar, or 
fermented into vinegar or cider. Rose fruits are also 
preserved, and the fruits of mountain ash are used for 
making a spirituous drink. The petals of Rosa dama- 
scena and R. gallica are macerated with oil of sesame to 
form attar of roses. The petals themselves yield 
oil of rose, from which rose-water is made. Many species 
have been used in medicine; e.g., rose, the seeds of which 
are vermifugal. Quince seeds contain mucilage and 
are emollient. The conserve of rose is astringent. 
Agrimony is nephritic, and is also used for pulmonary 
catarrh and angina. Alchemilla is astringent and vul- 
nerary. The root of Fragaria is diuretic and astringent. 
Flowers of Hagenia abyssinica are a famous remedy 
for tapeworm. Flowers of Ulmaria are used to give a 
bouquet to wine; also as a sudorific and cordial. The 
bark of Prunus serolina (wild cherry bark) is tonic and 
pectoral. The bark of Quillaja Saponaria (soap-bark 
tree) of Chile, is a stimulant, diuretic and irritant, con- 
tains saponin, and is used for washing delicate fabrics. 
Gummy exudations from the bark of cherry are some- 
times used in medicine. Sanguisorba has been used for 
forage, and as a condiment. The seeds of many species of 
Prunus and others yield oil in quantity. 

Fifty or sixty genera are cultivated in America. 
Among these are: Agrimonia (Agrimony); Alchemilla 
(Ladys Mantle); Amelanchier (Shadbush, Juneberry, 
Service-berry); Aronia (Choke-berry); Aruncus; Cerco- 
carpus; Chrysobalanus (Cocoa Plum); Comarum 
(Marsh Cinquefoil); Cotoneaster; Crata:gus (Haw- 
thorn, Scarlet Thorn, Washington Thorn); Eriobot- 
rya (Lpquat, Japan Plum); Exochorda (Pearl Bush); 
Fragaria (Strawberry) ; Geum (Avens) ; Gillenia or Por- 
teranthus (American Ipecac, Bowman's Root); Holo- 
discus or Schizonotus; Kerria (Globe-flower, Japanese 
Rose); Margyricarpus (Pearl Fruit); Mespilus (Medlar, 
Mespil); Neviusia (Snow Wreath); Photinia (Toyon, 
Tollon); Physocarpus (Ninebark); Potentilla (Cinque- 
foil, Five-finger, Silver-weed) ; Pyracantha; Pynis (Pear, 
Apple, Crab) ; Quillaja (Soap-bark Tree) ; Raphiolepis 
(Indian Hawthorn); Rosa (Rose, Eglantine, Sweet- 
brier) ; Rubus (Bramble, Blackberry, Raspberry, Cloud- 
berry, Baked-apple Berry, Yellow Berry, Salmonberry, 
Wineberry, Blackcap, Thimbleberry, Dewberry) ; San- 
guisorba (Burret); Sorbaria; Sorbus, (Mountain Ash, 
Rowan Tree, Dogberry, Service Tree, White Beam- 
tree); Spiraea (Queen of the Meadows, Meadowsweet, 
Hardback, Steeple-bush, Bridal Wreath); Ulmaria 
(Meadowsweet, Queen -of -the -Prairie, Queen-of-the- 
Meadows); Waldsteinia (Barren Strawberry, Yellow 

103. Leguminosse (from legume, the name of the 
type of fruit characteristic of this family). PEA FAMILY. 
Kg. 28. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, often twining: leaves 
alternate, compound, rarely simple: flowers regular or 
irregular, usually bisexual, hypogynous or perigynous, 
fundamentally polypetalous; sepals 5, more or less con- 
nate, often unequal ; petals 5, rarely fewer, nearly equal, or 
unequal, or more commonly papilionaceous (i. e., 1 dor- 
sal standard, 2 lateral cleaver-shaped wings, and 2 ven- 
tral, more or less connate, petals forming the keel); 
stamens 10 or very numerous, rarely 5, included or 
exserted, often inserted around a glandular disk, mona- 

delphous, 9 united and 1 separate, or all separate; car- 
pel 1, rarely 2-15, superior; ovary 1-celled, inequilat- 
eral; the single parietal placenta ventral but turned 
dorsally; ovules 1 to many: fruit a legume, or, by re- 
duction, indehiscent, or follicular, or fleshy, often 
jointed between the seeds, and sometimes filled with 
pulp; seeds exalbuminous. 

Leguminosa; contains 429 genera and about 7,000 
species, distributed over the whole earth, but most 
abundant in the tropics. This family and the Orchida- 
cese are, next to the Composite, the largest families 
of flowering plants. The large genera which contain 
100 or more species are: Astragalus, 1,200 species; 
Acacia, 450 sp.; Cassia, 380 sp.; Mimosa, 300 sp.; Cro- 
tolaria, 250 sp.; Indigofera, 250 sp. ; Trifolium, 250 sp.; 
Bauhinia, 150 sp. ; Aspalanthus, 150 sp.; Oxytropus, 
150 sp. ; Desmodium, 150 sp. ; Inga, 140 sp. ; Tephrosia, 
120 sp.; Vicia, 120 sp.; Pithecolobium, HOsp. ; Lupi- 
nus, 100 sp.; Psoralea, 100 sp.; Dalea, 100 sp.; Lathy- 
rus, 100 sp.; Rhynchosia, 100 sp.; and Phaseolus, 100 
sp. Taken in the broad sense, the family is a very nat- 
ural one, the nearest relatives being the Chrysobalanus 
section of the Rosaceae. The most constant distin- 
guishing character is the leguminous type of fruit. 
When this occasionally varies, the papilionaceous 
corolla, or the general Mimosa type of flower, is distinc- 
tive. Except in the fruit, the family is very diverse, 
and the following sub-families have often been treated 
as distinct families. 

Sub-family I. Mimosas. Flowers regular; corolla 
valvate; stamens 5-10, or very numerous, exserted: 
e.g., Pithecolobium, Albizzia, Mimosa, and Acacia. 

Sub-family II. Csesalpinse. Flowers irregular, not 
papilionaceous; stamens 10 or fewer, not conspicuously 
exserted; corolla imbricated: e.g., Copaiba, Tamarindus, 
Cercis, Bauhinia, Cassia, Gleditsia, Gymnocladus, 
Csasalpinia, and the like. 

Sub-family III. Papilionatese.-^-Corolla papiliona- 
ceous, imbricated; stamens 5-10, included: e.g., Pisum, 
Lathyrus, Robinia, Vicia, Phaseolus, and so forth. 

The leaves of many Leguminosae are motile. Mimosa 
pudica, Cassia nictilans, and others, are sensitive to 
touch, the leaflets, and often the leaves, quickly drooping 
when disturbed. A great number show sleep movement, 
the leaflets drooping at nightfall. The motile organ is 
the pulvinus at the base of thejeaflet or leaf. The lat- 
eral leaflets of Desmodium gyrans are rhythmically and 
spontaneously motile. The pollination of the papiliona- 
ceous flowers is complicated and interesting. (See Kerner 
and Oliver's "Natural History of Plants.") The legumes 
of Desmodium separate into 1-seeded joints which are 
covered with hooked hairs, and, therefore, bur-like. 
The roots of the Leguminosse commonly bear tubercles 
containing nitrogen-fixing organisms, the product of 
which is used by the plant. 

The economic plants are almost innumerable. The 
following are the most important: 

Plants used for food: Detarium senegalense of Sene- 
gambia, edible drupe; Castanospermum auslrak (Aus- 
tralian chestnut), Dolichos Lablab (black bean), 
Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), Cicer arietinum (chick pea), 
Pisum sativum (pea), Ervum Lens (lentil) and Lupinus 
sps., all have edible seeds; Apios tuberosa, Psoralea 
hypogsea, and P. esculenta, edible tubers; Arachis hypo- 
gxa (peanut), and Voandzeia subterranea, subterranean 
seeds; Lathyrus tuberosa, sugary tubers, much used 
before potatoes were known; and Cytisus scoparius, 
buds used as capers. 

Plants used as forage: Ceratonia Siliqua (St. John's 
bread), Onobrychis saliva (sainfoin), Vicia saliva 
(vetch), Medicago saliva (alfalfa), Medicago lupulina 
(medick), Trifolium species (clover), Glycine hispida 
(soy bean), Vigna Catjang (cowpea), Lotus curni- 
cuiatus, Lupinus sps., Anthyllis Vulneraria, Hedy- 
sarum coronarium, Ornithopus sativus, Pisum sativum, 
Ukx europseus. 



Plants used for medicine: Acacia Senegal (gum aca- 
cia); .4. Catechu (catechu), astringent, tonic; Swartzia 
tomeiitosa, sudorific; Copaiba Langdorfii (balsam of 
Copaiba), of Brazil, for catarrh; Cassia sps., Orient, 
India, etc., leaves purgative; Tamarindus indica 
(tamarind), pulpy pods used; Sophora tomentosa, 
India, seeds arrest choleric vomiting; Toluifera Balsa- 
mum (balsam of Tolu), South America, bronchial; 
Andira sps., tropical America, emetic, purge, narcotic, 
vermifuge; Pterocarpus Draco (dragons blood), West 
Indies, astringent ; P. Marsupium (gum kino) ; Bulea 
Jrondosa (eastern kino), Asia; Mucuna pruriens (cow- 
itch or cowage), India, stinging hairs on pod, anthel- 
mintic; Astragalus gummifer (gum tragacanth), of the 
Orient; Colutea arborescens (bladder senna), purgative, 
emetic; Glycyrrhiza glabra, (licorice), Europe, emol- 
lient; Genista tinctoria, purgative; Cytisus scoparius, 
diuretic; Triganetta Foenum-grxcum (fenugreek), Old 
World, food, condiment, horse-remedy, and so on; 
Anagyris fatida (stinking wood), purgative and poi- 
sonous; Physostigma venosum (calabar bean), sedative, 
contracts the pupil, poisonous; Astragalus sps., and 
Crotalaria sps. are loco-weeds, and poisonous to cattle; 
arrow-poisons are furnished by Erythrophlosum, 
Afzelia, and Pithecolobium. Fifteen genera furnish 

Dye-stuffs: Csesalpinia. echinata yields braziline; 
Sophora japonica yields yellow dye; Indigofera tinc- 
toria yields indigo; Genista tinctoria, yields a dye; 
Hxmatoxylon campec.hianum yields logwood and hsema- 
toxylin. Pterocarpus santalinum yields red sandal- 
wood, a brown dye. 

Other purposes: Copal varnish from Hymensea sps., 
Trachylobium sps., and Copaiba sps. Many species are 
valuable timber trees. A snuff-perfume is obtained 
from seeds of Coumarouna (tonka bean). Rosewood 
is from Dalbergia nigra, and other species. African 
rosewood is from Pterocarpus erinaceus. Red seeds of 
Abrus precatorius (jequirity) are used for necklaces, as 
are also those of Adenanthera Pavonina (Circassian 
seeds). Branches of Cytisus scoparius (broom) are used 
for basket-work. Ulex europseus (furze) is used as fire- 
wood in France. Many species furnish fibers for spin- 
ning. Oil is obtained from seeds of peanut and others. 
Many are ornamental. 

About 150 genera are cultivated in America, or are 
important to American agriculture. Many of the spe- 
cies are among our most valuable ornamental and 
food-plants. Some of these genera are: Abrus (Crab's- 
eye Vine, Weather Plant); Acacia (Wattle, Kangaroo 
Thorn, Weeping Myall, Australian Blackwood, Mulga, 
Popinac, Opopanax, Cassie, Huisache, Espino, Cavan, 
Gum Arabic Tree); Adenanthera (Red Sandalwood); 
Albizzia; Alhagi (Camel's Thorn); Amphicarpaja (Hog 
Peanut); Amorpha (Lead Plant, Bastard Indigo); An- 
thyllis (Kidney Vetch, Sand Clover, Woundwort, Jupi- 
ter's Beard); Apios (Groundnut, Wild Bean); Arachis 
(Peanut, Goober); Astragalus (Milk Vetch); Baptisia 
(Wjld Indigo); Bauhinia (Mountain Ebony); Cffisal- 
pinia (Brasilleto, Barbadoes Pride, Barbadoes Flower- 
fence, Dwarf Poinciana); Canavalia (Jack Bean, 
Chickasaw Lima) ; Caragana (Pea Tree) ; Cassia (Wild 
Senna, Partridge Pea, Pudding Pipe Tree) ; Centrosema 
(Butterfly Pea) ; Cercis (Judas Tree, Red Bud) ; Chori- 
zema; Cicer (Chick Pea); Cladrastis (Yellow-wood); 
Clianthus (Glory Pea, Glory Vine, Parrot's Bill); Cli- 
toria (Butterfly Pea); Colutea (Bladder Senna); Coro- 
nilla (Crown Vetch, Scorpion Senna) ; Crotalaria (Rat- 
tle-Box); Cytisus (Broom, Genista); Desmodium (Tick 
Trefoil, Telegraph Plant); Dolichos (Hyacinth Bean, 
Taukok, Black Bean), the species still much con- 
fused; Erythrina (Coral Tree); Galega (Goat's Rue); 
Genista (Dyer's Greenwood); Gleditsia (Honey Lo- 
cust, Sweet Locust, Three-thorned Acacia); Glycine 
(Soy Bean); Glycyrrhiza (Licorice); Gymnocladus 
(Kentucky Coffee Tree); Halimodendron (Salt Tree); 

Hedysarum (French Honeysuckle); Hosackia; Indigo- 
fera (Indigo); Kennedya; Laburnum (Golden Chain, 
Bean Tree, Scotch Laburnum); Lathyrus (Sweet Pea, 
Tangier Scarlet P., Pride of California, Everlasting P., 
Two-flowered P., Flat P., Perennial P., Lord Anson's 
P., Marsh P., Sea P., Beach P., Prairie Vetchling, Black 
P., Black Bitter Vetch, Spring Bitter Vetch); Lens 
(Lentil); Lespedeza (Bush Clover, Japan Clover, Hoop- 
koop); Leuciena (White Popinac); Lotus (Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, Babies' Slippers, Winged Pea); Lupinus (Lu- 
pine, Sundial, Deer Cabbage); Millettia (Ironwood); 
Medicago (Alfalfa, Lucerne, Black or Hop Medick, 
Nonesuch, Snails, Tree Alfalfa, Moon Trefoil); Meli- 
lotus (Sweet Clover); Mimosa (Sensitive Plant, Hum- 
ble Plant); Mucuna (Cowitch, Cowage, Velvet Bean, 
Banana Bean); Onobrychis (Sainfoin, Holy Clover); 
Ononis (Rest-Harrow, Goat Root); Parkinsonia (Jeru- 
salem Thorn); Parochetus (Shamrock Pea, Blue Oxa- 
lis); Petalostemon (Prairie Clover); Phaseolus (Bean, 
Caracol, Snail-flower, Corkscrew Flower, Scarlet-run- 
ner, Dutch Caseknife B., Metcalfe B., Moth B., Gram, 
Silva B., Civet B., Lima B., Kidney B., Bush B.); Pis- 
cidia (Fish-poison Tree, Jamaica Dogwood); Pisum 
(Garden Pea, Field P.); Pithecolobium; Prosopis (Mes- 
quite, Screw Bean, Tornillo) ; Poinciana (Royal Poin- 
ciana, Peacock Flower, Flomboyant) ; Psoralea (Scurfy 
Pea. Pomme Blanche); Pueraria (Kudzu Vine); Robi- 
nia( Locust, False Acacia, Black Locust, Rose Acacia, 
Clammy Locust); Schrankia (Sensitive Brier); Sophora 
(Japan Pagoda Tree); Spartium (Spanish Broom); 
Sutherlandia (Bladder Senna); Swainsona (Winter 
Sweet Pea); Tamarindus (Tamarind); Templetonia 
(Coral Bush) ; Tephrosia (Goat's Rue, Catgut, Wild 
Sweet Pea, Hoary P.) ; Thermopsis; Trifolium (Clover, 
Alsike, Cowgrass); Trigonella (Fenugreek); Ulex 
(Gorse, Whin, Furze) ; Vicia (Vetch, Tare, Broad Bean, 
Windsor B., English Dwarf B.) ; Vigna (Cowpea, Black 
Pea, China Bean); Wistaria (Chinese Wistaria, Kid- 
ney-bean Tree). 


104. Geraniaceae (from the genus Geranium, Crane's- 
bill, from geranps, a crane, in allusion to the cranelike 
beak of the fruit). GERANIUM FAMILY. Fig. 29. Herba 
and shrubs, sometimes fleshy: leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, very diverse: flowers bisexual, regular or slightly 
irregular; sepals 5, imbricated, persistent; petals 5, 
rarely fewer, imbricated or convolute; stamens usually 
10, rarely more, hypogynous or perigynous, the outer 
set opposite the petals, some frequently antherless, 
somewhat monadelphous below, often glandular at the 
base; carpels 5; ovary 5-celled, rarely 2-3-ceIled, 5- 
lobed, prolonged into a beak terminatd by the 5 styles; 
ovules 1 to many in each cell: fruit rarely a capsule, 
more commonly splitting into 5 beaked sections; seeds 
with endosperm, straight or curved. 

The family has 10 genera and 360 species, widely 
distributed over the whole globe. The largest genera are 
Pelargonium (South Africa) with 175 species, and Ge- 
ranium with 160 species. Some fossil fruits of Gerani- 
acea; are known. The Geraniacea? are related to the 
Oxalidacese, Tropaeolacese and Balsaminaceic; also to the 
Linacea; and Rutacea;. The 5 sepals and petals, the 
10 stamens, the 5 carpels, and the more or less beaked 
or lobed fruit with its peculiar dehiscence, are together 

The flower of Pelargonium is slightly irregular, with 
a dorsal receptacular spur at the base of the calyx. The 
fruits of all but 40 Geraniaceae dehisce elastically, 
throwing the seeds to a distance. The 5 carpels 
split away at base, coil up violently, and remain 
attached to the summit of a column which projects 
from the receptacle. This method of dehiscence, when 
present, is characteristic of the Geraniaceas. 

The Geraniacea? are astringent; several contain 
resin, and others contain free acids. Several species of 



Geranium have been used as remedies for wounds, 
others for dysentery, and the like; some have been used 
as stimulants. Erodium moschatum is valued because of 
a very strongodor of musk. The resinous stems of Mon- 
sonia (South Africa) burn readily, and have been used 
for torches. The most important economic genus is 
Pelargonium, cultivated for ornament. The foliage of 
some Pelargoniums is glandular and very fragrant 
("rose geraniums"). Some species of Geranium also 
are ornamental. The awn-like beak of Erodium fruits 
have been used as hygrometers. 

Few genera are in cultivation in America as orna- 
mental plants: Erodium (Stork's-bill); Geranium, 
(Crane's-bill); Pelargonium (so-called "Geraniums"). 
Sc\-oral cultivated genera, formerly included in the 
Geraniacea:, are now placed in separate families, which 
see, e.g., Impatiens (Balsaminaceso), Tropa;olum (Tro- 
pjeolacea;), Oxalis and Averrhoa (Oxalidacese). 

105. Oxalidaceae (from the genus Oxalis, signifying 
acid, from the sour taste of the foliage). OXALIS FAM- 
ILY. Herbs, rarely shrubby: leaves usually compound: 
flowers bisexual, regular; sepals 5, persistent, imbri- 
cated; petals 5, convolute or imbricated, rarely united 
at the base; stamens 10 in 2 whorls, the outer set oppo- 
site the petals, filaments coherent below, those of the 
outer set shorter, one or both sets with external glandu- 
lar appendages at the base, hypogynous; ovary superior, 
5-celled, with a persistent central column (as in Ge- 
raniacese); styles separate: fruit an ordinary capsule 
with each cell dorsally dehiscent, or a berry. 

The Oxalis family contains 7 genera and about 230 
species, of which 220 belong to the genus Oxalis. They 
are mostly of tropical and subtropical distribution. 
Oxalis occurs chiefly in South Africa and South 
America. The Oxalidacese were formerly united with 
the Geraniacese, but differ in the fruit, which is a dehis- 
cent capsule or a berry and does not break up into 
separate carpels. 

The species of Oxalis are often bulbous or tuberous, 
or the roots are enlarged as water-storage tissue. The 
leaflets usually have a sensitive cushion at the base 
(pulvinus) and show sleep-movements. The flowers of 
many are dimorphic or trimorphic, i.e., have stamens 
or styles of 2 or 3 lengths in the same species. The 
seeds are forcibly ejected through the dorsal suture of 
the capsule by the elastic separation of the outer layer 
of the testa. 

Oxalis contains much oxalic acid, which may be 
extracted for economic purposes. It is somewhat seda- 
tive, and the sour taste has made some species useful 
as salads. The starchy roots of some South American 
species are used for cattle-fodder. The fruits of Aver- 
rhoa are used in the tropics as a substitute for goose- 
berries, which they resemble in flavor. 

Two genera are grown in America: Averrhoa (Caram- 
bola), 1 species grown for shade and fruit; and Oxalis. 

106. Tropaeolaceae (from the genus Tropseolum, from 
tropaion, a trophy; the leaves are shield-like, and the 
flowers resemble a helmet). NASTURTIUM FAMILY. Fig. 
29. Diffuse or climbing succulent herbs with alternate, 
peltate or lobed leaves: flowers bisexual, irregular, 
spurred; sepals 5, imbricated; petals 5, imbricated, 
the upper two differing in shape from the lower three; 
stamens 8, separate, somewhat perigynous; ovary 
superior, 3-cclled, 3-lpbed, each cell 1-seeded; style 1; 
stigmas 3: fruit splitting into 1-seeded, indehiscent 
nutlets or drupelets. 

A single genus of about 35 species is found in the 
mountainous regions from Mexico to Chile. The family 
was formerly included in the Geraniacese, but is dis- 
tinguished by its separate stamens, its indehiscent fruit- 
lets, and a very peculiar method of embryo develop- 
ment, in which the suspensor divides into three parts, 
one part growing into the placenta, another out into 
the ovarian cavity, and the third producing the embryo 
on its apex. The spur of the flower is an outgrowth of 

the obliquely cup-shaped receptacle at the base of the 
calyx, as in Pelargonium. 

The herbage of Tropseolum has an acrid taste like 
cress, and is often used for salad, hence the common 
name "nasturtium" or "Indian cress." 

In America, several species are grown for their showy 
flowers. Tropseolum majus is the most widely known 
species. T. peregrinum is the "canary-bird flower." 

107. Linaceae (from the genus Linum, the Latin name 
for flax, from the old Celtic llin, a thread). FLAX FAM- 
ILY. Fig. 29. Woody or herbaceous plants: leaves alter- 
nate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple, entire: flowers 
bisexual, regular; calyx of 5, persistent, imbricated 
sepals, rarely 4-parted, with 3-fid lobes; petals 5, rarely 4, 
convolute, clawed, the claw sometimes crested; stamens 
5, alternate with the petals, with sometimes 5 additional 
staminodia, or 10, 15, or 20, hypogynous, usually united 
at the often glandular base; ovary 5-, rarely 3- or 4-, 
celled or falsely 10-celled by the intrusion of the mid- 
rib; ovules few; styles as many as the cells of the 
ovary: fruit a capsule or drupe. 

There are 9 genera and about 120 species, of which 90 
species belong to Linum. The Linaceae are related to 

29. GERANIACEJE: 1. Geranium, a, floral diagram; 6, fruit; 
e, fruit dehiscing. TROP^EOLACE^:: 2. Tropseolum, flower. IsXir 

CE.K: 3. Linum, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 

the Geraniacese and Oxalidacea;, but also show a rela- 
tion to the Silenes in the Caryophyllacese. The many- 
stamened genera suggest the Ternstrcemiaceae. The 
family is most easily recognized by the simple, regular 
pattern of the flower, and the numerical plan of 5 (or 4) 
which is carried through all the floral parts. For this 
reason, the flax was taken by the older botanists as a 
pattern flower. 

Linum catharlicum (Europe) was formerly used as a 
purgative. A fixed oil is extracted from the seeds of the 
common flax (Linum usitatissimum) , which is used in 
medicine as an emollient. The most extensive use of this 
oil is in painting, its value being due to the property of 
drying into a hard, waterproof coating. Flaxseed meal, 
from which the oil has been expressed, is used for fodder 
and for poulticing. The seed-coats of flax become very 
mucilaginous when soaked, on which account flaxseed 
has also been used as an emollient in the treatment of 
coughs and colds. The cortical bast-fibers of the flax 
have been used since earliest times in textile industries. 
As the basis of linen cloth, flax is one of the most useful 
of cultivated plants. Flax was probably Asiatic in its 
origin. Many species of Linum are ornamental, but 
are little grown. 

Two genera are cultivated in America: Linum, 
with species of annual garden plants; and Reinwardtia, 
with species of conservatory sub-shrubs from India. 



108. Erythroxylaceae (from the genus Erythroxylon, 
the name signifying red wood; the wood of some species 
being red). COCA FAMILY. Fig. 30. Shrubs and small 
trees: leaves alternate: flowers bisexual, regular, incon- 
spicuous; sepals 5, persistent, imbricated or valvate; 
petals 5, convolute or imbricated, with appendages on 
the inner face, or with projecting callosities; stamens 10. 
in 2 whorls, more or less connate into a tube, and 
externally glandular; ovary 3-4-celled, usually but 
1 cell developing in fruit; 1-2 ovules in each cell; styles 
3-4: fruit drupaceous, 1-2-seeded. 

Two genera and about 90 species are known; all 
tropical, and reaching their greatest development in 

30. ERYTHROXYLACE.E: 1. Erythroxylon, a, flower of B. 
pulchrum;b, flower, perianth removed, of E. Coca. ZYGOPHYLLACE^E: 
2. Zygophyllum, a, flower; b, floral diagram. RUTACE.E: 3. Huta, 
a, flower; 6, floral diagram; c, leaf. 

tropical South America, but extending northward to 
Mexico and southward in the Old World to Natal. 
The family is closely related to the Linacesc with which 
it was formerly united, but differs in the more promi- 
nent stamen-tube, the appendages on the petals, and 
the drupaceous non-capsular fruit. 

The only important economic plant is the coca plant 
(Erythroxylon Coca), a shrub famous as the source of 
cocaine. Its origin is unknown, but it was early used by 
the Peruvians as a stimulant. Coca is now grown to 
a limited extent in southern Florida and southern Cali- 
fornia, as well as in most tropical countries. 

109._ J Zygaphyllacee (from the genus Zygophyllum, 
derived from the Greek signifying a yoke and leaf; the 
leaflets are in pairs). CALTROP FAMILY. Fig. 30. Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees: leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly 
pinnately compound: flowers bisexual, regular, rarely 
irregular; sepals 4-5, persistent, imbricated or rarely 
valvate; petals 4-5, rarely 0, imbricated, rarely valvate; 
disk present, diverse, rarely wanting; stamens usually 
8 or 10, hypogynous, the outer opposite the petals, 
usually scales at the base of the filaments; ovary supe- 
rior, 4-5-celled, rarely falsely many -celled; ovules 
2 to several in each cell; style and stigma 1: fruit a 
capsule or separating into fruitlets. 

Twenty-one genera and about 150 species occur as 
natives of the warmer parts of the world, especially 
the drier desert regions. They are especially abundant 
in North Africa and the Mediterranean region. This 
family is very closely related to the Rutaceae, from which 
it differs in the absence of glandular dots and oil, and 
in the presence of stipules. The fruits are usually more 
or less lobed and sometimes winged or covered with 

The hard, faintly aromatic wood (lignumvitfE) 
of Guaiacum officinale is used for cabinet work and 
for pulleysT J L ne wood of this plant yields a resin used 
as a diaphoretic 'and purge. The flower-buds of one 
species of Zygophyllum are used in place of capers. 

The Arabs use Z. simplex to remove freckles. The 
fetid smell of this plant is so strong that even camels 
are said to reject it. Soda is obtained from species of 
Nitraria, which inhabit alkaline soil. 

Guaiacum officinale is sometimes grown in southern 
Florida and southern California for ornament. Zygo- 
phyllum may be in cultivation. 

110. Rutacese (from the genus Ruta, the ancient 
name). RUE FAMILY. Fig. 30. Herbs, shrubs, trees: 
leaves usually alternate, simple or variously cut or com- 
pound, usually with pellucid dots: flowers bisexual, 
usually regular; sepals 4-5, often coherent, imbricated; 
petals 4-5, imbricated or valvate, usually separate; sta- 
mens 8-10, rarely 15, inserted at the base of a thick disk, 
usually distinct; ovary superior, 2-5-lobed, 2-5-celloi 1 ; 
each cell 1 to many-ovuled, raised on a prolongation of 
the receptacle, a glandular disk at its base; styles 
usually connate: fruit a capsule opening by valves, or 
fleshy and indehiscent, or separating into fruitlets, 
rarely winged. 

Rutacese contains over 100 genera and about 900 
species, mostly of tropical countries but extending into 
temperate parts of Europe and America. Fagara, with 
more than 130 species, is the largest genus. The Ruta- 
ceae are related to many of the Geranium group, especi- 
ally to Simarubaceas, Zygophyllacca:, and Meliaoesa, 
The transparent dots in the leaves, the numerical plan, 
and especially the lobcd ovary raised on the disk or 
stalk, are together distinctive. The disk is often much 
developed and very diversely constructed. The outer 
stamens are usually opposite the petals, not alternate 
with them as might be expected. In some cases the 
carpels are entirely free below and united only by the 
styles or stigmas. The seeds, except in the berry fruits, 
are only 1 or 2. The great development of oil-glands 
containing a fragrant oil is one of the most character- 
istic features of the family. These glands are produced 
on all parts of the plant, even on the floral parts and sur- 
face of the fruits. The orange and lemon are examples 
of Rutacese with berry fruits, and they are widely cul- 
tivated and perplexingly variable. 

The volatile oil of the Rutaceae has been used to some 
extent for medicine and also for perfumery. Extract 
of rue has been used as a vermifuge. The Romans 
used rue as a condiment. Some species of rue are so 
pungent as to produce a poisoning of the skin similar to 
that produced by poison ivy. The volatile oil is so 
copious in Dictamnus as to ignite readily. Several 
species of Barosma (buchu) are tonic and diuretic. The 
genus Citrus is the most useful. It includes the orange, 
the bitter orange ; the citron, the lemon, the lime, the 
grape-fruit, the kid-glove orange or tangerine, and the 
bergamot from the rind of which bergamot oil is manu- 
factured, used in perfumery. The bark of the prickly 
shrub, Zanthoxylum, is sometimes used as a tonic. 
The seeds of some species of Zanthoxylum are used to 
poison fish. 

In cultivation in America or worthy of trial are 20 
to 30 genera, used mostly for ornament and fruit. 
Among these are: Adenandra (Breath of Heaven); 
yEgle (Bael Fruit, Bengal Quince); Atalantia; Balsam- 
ocitrus (African Bael-Fruit); Calodendron (Cape 
Chestnut); Casimiroa (White Sapota); Citrus (Orange, 
Lemon); Dictamnus (Dittany, Gas Plant, Burning 
Bush); Fagara (Prickly Ash); Ferpnia (Wood Apple); 
Murraya (Orange Jessamine, Satinwood); Phellodon- 
dron (Chinese Cork Tree); Poncirus (Trifoliate 
Orange); Ptelea (Hop Tree); Ruta (Rue); Triphasia 
(Bergamot Lime, Lime Berry); Zanthoxylum (Prickly 
Ash, Chinese or Japanese Pepperwood, Toothache 

111. Simarubaceae (from the genus Simaruba, which 
is the Caribbean name of Sinuiruba officinalis). QUAS- 
SIA FAMILY. Fig. 31. Shrubs or trees: leaves alternate or 
rarely opposite, pinnate, rarely simple, dot less: flowers 
unisexual, regular; sepals 3-5, more or less connate, 
imbricated or valvate; petals 3-5, rarely 0, free or con- 
nate, variously arranged in the bud; disk prominent, 
very diverse, rarely 0; stamens usually twice the petals, 
filaments naked or with a scale; carpels 2-5, free, or 



connate at the base or by the styles, or completely 
united into a 2-5-celled, superior ovary; each cell 1-, 
rarely several-, ovuled; carpels in fruit drupe-like, 
rarely forming a berry or samaras. 

About 28 genera and 140 species are generally distrib- 
uted in the tropics, but extend into the temperate 
regions. The center of distribution is in tropical 
America. Some fossil species are known. The family 
is closely related to the Rutacea:, but differs in the 
absence of foliage-glands and in the presence of scales 
on the filaments. It is also closely related to the Zygo- 

Most of the Simarubacese contain a bitter principle, 
also, sometimes, a resinous matter and an oil which is 
of value as a tonic. Quassia amara of tropical America 
furnishes the quassia wood, famous as a bitter tonic. 
Picrnsma. excelsa, of Jamaica, also furnishes quassia 
of equal quality. Branches of quassia and the pulver- 
ized bitter wood of species of Simaruba are used in 
tropical America to drive away insects. The seeds 
of Simaruba Cedron are used for the same purpose. 
Various species are used for snake-bites. The leaves 
and sap of species of Picramnia furnish a beautiful 
violet dye. 

Very few are in cultivation in America: Picrasma, a 
semi-hardy shrub; and Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven), a 
well-known tree. 

112. Burseraceae (from the genus Bursera, named in 
memory of Joachim Burser, a botanist in Naples). 
BURSERA FAMILY. Fig. 31. Trees or shrubs, often very 
large, with usually alternate compound leaves: flowers 
bisexual, regular, usually small and very numerous; 
sepals 3-5, more or less connate, imbricated or often 
valvate; petals 3-5, usually separate, imbricated or val- 

31. SIMARUBACE.E: 1. Ailanthus, a, flower, section: 6. flower, 
looking in; c, fruit. BURSERACE*: 2. Bursera, a, flower; *, floral 
diagram. MELIACE^E: 3. Swietenia, flower. 4. Cedrela, I'ower. 
.'). Melia, floral diagram. MALPIGHIACE<E: 6. Camarea, Uower. 
7. Malpighia, floral diagram. 

vate; stamens usually twice as many as the petals, hy- 
pogynous, sometimes unequal, separate, the outer oppo- 
site the petals; disk present, am.ular or cup-shaped, 
rarely 0, sometimes adnate to the calyx; ovary superior, 
2-5-celled; ovules usually 2 in ouch cell; style 1 or 0: 
fruit drupe-like with 2-5 stones or with a bony endo- 
carp or a capsule with the epicarp opening and expos- 
ing the connate bony pits; seeds exatbuminous. 

The 16 genera and about 270 species are widely dis- 
tributed in tropical regions. One species of Bursera 
reaches Florida. The family is related to the Rutaceaj 
and Bimarubaoee, from which it differs in the presence 
of resin-chambers in the bark. It is also very closely 
related to the Anacardiaceae. 

The family is very rich in resin and, therefore, is of 
considerable economic importance. These resins are 
frequently aromatic or fragrant ; hence many have been 
used as incense. The resin myrrh is obtained from species 
of Commiphora of Arabia and Africa. Mecca balsam 
is from the same genus. Olibanum incense is derived 
from trees of the genus Boswellia, of India. Frankin- 
cense is either this olibanum or the resin from Bog- 
wellia Carteri. A substitute for dammar and copal 
has been obtained from the Burseraceae. 

Few species of the Burseraceae are in cultivation in 
America: Bursera Simaruba, as an ornamental green- 
house tree; and Garuga pinnata, which is grown in 
Florida and California for the gooseberry-like fruit. 

113. Meliaceae (from the genus Melia, the Greek 
name of the somewhat similar manna-ash). MAHOGANY 
FAMILY. Fig. 31. Trees or shrubs: leaves usually alter- 
nate, pinnate or rarely simple: flowers bisexual, rarely 
unisexual, panicled; sepals 4-5, usually partly connate, 
imbricated; petals 4-5, rarely 3-8, separate, or con- 
nate or adnate to the stamens; stamens 8-10, rarely 
5. or numerous, hypogynous, filaments usually connate 
into a tube which is entire or lacerate, rarely free; disk 
present; ovary superior, 2-5-celled, rarely 1- or many- 
celled, each cell 2-, rarely several-, ovuled; style and 
stigma 1 : fruit a drupe, berry, or capsule. 

There are 42 genera and about 600 species, all con- 
fined to the tropics. They enter the United States 
only in southern Florida. Some fossil species are 
known. The family is related to the Rutaceae, but 
lacks the resin and oil-glands. It is closely related to all 
of the disk-bearing families, but is distinguished by the 
peculiar stamen-tube with teeth and fringe. 

There is the greatest diversity in the arrangement 
of the anthers on the staminal tube and the dentation 
or fringing of the latter. Very commonly there are 2 
stipule-like teeth just below the anthers. The seeds 
are sometimes winged (in mahogany). The leaves are 
rarely transparent-dotted (Flindersia). 

Melia Azedarach, an Asiatic tree, is bitter, and has 
been used in medicine as a purgative and vermifuge. 
Other species of Meliacese are purgative and emetic, or 
are used for heartburn, and the Uke. Some have the odor 
of garlic. The bark of the Asiatic Walsura piscidia is 
used to stupefy fish. The pulp of the fruit of Aglaia 
edulis is said to be delicious. The bitter bark of mahog- 
any has been used in place of quinine. The most cele- 
brated member of the family is Swietenia Mahogani of 
the West Indies and Peru, which furnishes the mahog- 
any timber of commerce. The wood of the West Indian 
Cedrela odorata is fragrant, and is the so-called cigar- 
box cedar, from which these boxes are made. The 
sawdust of the South African sneezewood (Ptaeroxylon 
obliquum) causes sneezing, hence the popular name. 

Five or more genera are in cultivation in America, all 
confined to southern California and southern Florida, 
except Melia, which is common throughout the southern 
states, and Cedrela sinensis, hardy in Mass. Among 
these are Cedrela (West Indian Cedar); Melia (Pride 
of India, China-berry Tree, Texas Umbrella Tree); 
Ptaeroxylon (Sneezewood); Swietenia (Mahogany). 

114. Malpighiaceae (from the genus Malpighia, in 
honor of Marcello Malpighi, once professor of medi- 
cine at Pisa). MALPIGHIA FAMILY. Fig. 31. Trees or 
shrubs, most often climbing: leaves usually opposite, 
often with petiolar glands and jointed petioles: flowers 
commonly bisexual, usually obliquely irregular; sepals 5, 
mostly separate, some or all with large glands; petals 
5, fringed or toothed, slender-clawed; stamens 10, in 
part staminodial, rarely fewer, the outer opposite the 
petals, hypogynous or nearly so, usually connate below; 
anthers very diverse and odd; ovary superior, 2-3- 
celled and lobed, rarely 5-celled, the cells 1 -ovuled; 
styles 2-3, rarely connate: fruit commonly separating 
into 2-3 nut-like portions which are entire, or pectinately 
winged, or naked, rarely a single nut or drupe; seeds 



exalbuminous; embryo variously curved or spiral, 
rarely straight. 

This family has 55 genera and about 650 species, 
generally distributed in the tropics, but reaching to 
Texas and California in North America, and Port 
Natal in Africa. They are most abundant in the tropi- 
cal forests of South America. The family is closely 
related to the Zvgophyllaceae, Sapindacese, and Ery- 
throxylacese, as snown by the lobed and winged fruit, 
or clawed petals. The glandular calyx, clawed petals, 
the outer stamens opposite the petals, peculiar anthers, 
queer fruit, and curved embryo are together distinctive. 

The family is of little economic importance. Various 
coloring matters and astringent tannins are contained 
in the bark, for which reason some of the Malpighiacese 
have been used for dysentery and intermittent fever. 
Some are used as a remedy for snake-bites. The fruits 
of certain Malpighiacese are sour, juicy and refreshing. 

Few species are in cultivation in North America, 
all in California, Florida or the West Indies. Gal- 
phimia and Stigmaphyllon are ornamental; Malpighia 
glabra is the Barbadoes cherry, cultivated in the West 
Indies for the cherry-like fruit. 

115. Tremandraceae (from the genus Tremandra, 
which is from the Latin tremble and the Greek male, 
probably in allusion to the anthers). TREMANDRA 
FAMILY. Fig. 32. Shrubs or sub-shrubs, with opposite, 
whorled or alternate leaves: flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 4-5, rarely 3, valvate; petals of the same number 
as the sepals and alternating with them, colored, entire, 
separate induplicate-valvate; stamens 8 or 10, rarely 
6, hypogynous, in 1 or 2 whorls; anthers opening by a 
transverse terminal valve, or more or less prolonged 
into a beak with terminal pores; ovary superior, 
2-celled; style 1; stigma 1: fruit a capsule; seeds 1 or 2 
in each cavity. 

In this family are 3 genera and about 23 species, of 
which 20 belong to the genus Tetratheca. All are 
native of south and west Australia. The family is very 
similar to the Polygalacese, and separated from that 

32. TBEMANDHACE.E: 1. Platytheca, floral diagram. POLT- 
OALACE.E: 2. Polygala, a. flower; b, flower, vertical section; c, floral 
diagram. EUPHORBIACE^;: 3. Euphorbia, a, involucre and flowers; 
b, involucre, vertical section. 4. Croton, a, flower; fc, floral dia- 
gram, male flower; c, floral diagram, female flower. 

family only by the regular flowers. Platytheca is 
remarkable in having the four anther cells all in one 

Two genera are in the American trade, both tender 
heath-like plants: Platytheca, and Tetratheca. 

116. Polygalacese (from the genus Polygala, an old 
Greek name applied later to this genus by botanists 
because of the supposed stimulative action of the plant 
on the lactation of cattle). MILKWORT FAMILY. Fig. 32. 

Herbs, shrubs, or small troos, sometimes climbing or 
twining: leaves mostly alternate: flowers bisexual, irreg- 
ular; sepals 5, imbricated, separate or somewhat coher- 
ent, the 2 inner largest and often winged or petaloid ; 
petals rarely 5, commonly 3, at least the 2 upper, and 
sometimes all more or less coherent with each other and 
with the stamen-tube, inner petal concave and often 
with a fringed crest (keel) ; stamens 8, rarely fewer, in 2 
whorls, hypogynous, usually adherent to the keel petal 
and coherent into a tube which is slit down and open 
behind; anthers usually opening by terminal pores or 
slits; ovary superior usually 2-celled; ovule usually 
1 in each cell; style 1, dilated above; stigmas 1-4: 
fruit usually a capsule, rarely a drupe or samara; seeds 
pendulous, albuminous. 

Polygalacea has 10 genera and about 500 species, 
450 of which belong to the genus Polygala; widely dis- 
tributed over the earth but absent in New Zealand, 
Polynesia, arctic North America and arctic Asia. The 
family is not closely related to any other. The peculiar 
perianth and stamens, and the 2-celled ovary, are to- 
gether very distinctive. The floral parts, though simu- 
lating those of the Leguminosa;, are not homologous. 

A bitter principle gives the Polygalaceae tonic and 
astringent properties. Some species are emetic. The 
root of Polygala Senega (North America), so-called 
"Senega or Seneca snakeroot," is used as an emetic 
and cathartic, but more especially as an expectorant. 
This and many other species of Polygala are reputed 
antidotes for snake-bites, hence the name "snakeroot." 

Only the genus Polygala is in cultivation in N. Amer- 
ica, of which 9 or 10 species are grown for ornamental 
purposes. Some are shrubs and 1 is an evergreen trailer. 

117. Euphorbiaceas (from the genus Euphorbia, 
named in honor of Euphorbus, physician to King Juba). 
SPURGE FAMILY. Fig. 32. Herbs, shrubs or trees, of 
greatly varying habit, sometimes fleshy and cactus-like, 
often with milky juice: leaves mostly alternate: flowers 
monoecious or dioecious, regular or irregular; both 
calyx and corolla present, or the latter absent, or 
both absent, or both much reduced, valvate or imbri- 
cated; the parts free, rarely united; intrastaminal 
disk usually present in the staminate flowers, often 
changed to glands; stamens as many as the sepals, or 
twice as many, or reduced to 1, separate or monadel- 
phous; hypogynous disk in the pistillate flowers 
annular or cup-shaped or in the form of glands; ovary 
superior, usually 3-celled, rarely 1-, 2-, or 4-cclled; 
style and stigma various; ovules 1-2 in each cavity, 
side by side, suspended, anatroppus; micropyle external, 
covered with a caruncle: fruit splitting into three 
portions, leaving a central column, rarely indehiscent 
and berry-like, or drupaceous; seeds albuminous. 

The 208 genera and about 4,000 species are widely 
distributed, mainly in the tropics, but extend into 
temperate regions. The largest genera are Euphorbia 
with about 700 species, Croton with 500-600 species, 
and Phyllanthus with 400 species. The family is 
related to the Geraniales, as shown by the fruit. The 
only constant characters of this great polymorphic 
family are the collateral anatropous ovules with micro- 
pyle external, the caruncle, the usually persistent axis 
of the fruit, and the albuminous seeds. In Euphorbia, 
some sessile staminate flowers and a pedicelled pistillate 
flower are inclosed in a common involucre which bears 
various horn-like, or gland-like, or petaloid appendages. 
The variation in the inflorescence and floral structure 
throughout the family is very intricate. 

The family is of great economic importance. Only 
the most important plants can be mentioned here. The 
following are used in medicine: The juice of Euphorbia 
Esula, E. Cyparissias, E. Lathyris, E. helioscopia, and 
others, is purgative, as is also that of Mercurialis. Cro- 
ton Tiglium yields the purgative croton oil. Ricinus 
communis yields castor oil. Jatropha Curcas (physic 
nut) is purgative. Euphorbia Hybema, Jatropha 



officinalis, Croton, and Slillingia sylvatica (queen's 
root) are used for syphilis. Euphorbia corollata and E. 
Ipecacuanha are emetic. E. thymifoha is used as a ver- 
mifuge in India. Crolon Eluteria yields cascarilla bark, 
a tonic. The hairs of the capsule of M allot us philip- 
pinensis are in the trade as kamala. The juice of E. 
cotinifolia is used by the Caribbeans to poison arrows; 
that of Exccecaria Agallocha (blinding tree) is so acrid 
as to blind the eye into which it may chance to fall. 
The juice of E. balsamifera, of the Canaries, is cooked 
and eaten as jelly. The seeds of Aleurites Iriloba are 
called "almonds, and eaten; as are also those of Con- 
ceveiba guyanensis. The fruit of E. disticha is edible. 
E. Emblica has fleshy, sweet fruit. The most useful 
as food are the tuberous roots of the sweet manioc 
(Manihot palmata var. Aipii), eaten cooked or raw; and 
of the bitter manioc (M. utilissima), which is poisonous 
when raw, but when cooked is very widely used for 
food in the tropics. This root is the source of cassava 
bread, and tapioca. Phosphorescent juice is obtained 
from E. phosphorea of Brazil. The fruit of Hura crepitans 
(sand-box) opens with a report like a pistol. It is 
cooked in oil to prevent dehiscence, and used as a sand- 
box. India rubber is obtained from the juice of Hevea 
guyanensis, and other species. Omphalea Iriandra yields 
a blackening juice used as ink. Soap is made from the 
seminal oil of Jatropha Curcas. Oil from the seeds of 
Aleurites cordata (Japanese oil tree) is used for light- 
ing. Turnsole (Crozophora tinctoria), of the Mediter- 
ranean, yields a dye used to color Dutch cheese. Other 
Euphorbiace yield dyes. Sapium sebiferum (Chinese 
tallow tree) yields a fat used for burning, and other 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation in N. America 
for various purposes. Among these are: Acalypha, 
ornamental; Aleurites (Candlenut, Candleberry Tree), 
California; Codiaeum (Croton), ornamental; Euphorbia 
(Spurge, Snpw-on-the-Mountain, Scarlet Plume, Poin- 
settia, Mexican Fire Plant, Hypocrite Plant, Painted 
Leaf, Fire-on-the-Mountain, Crown of Thorns, 
Medusa's Head, Caper Spurge, Mole Plant), green- 
house, garden, ornamental; Hevea (South Ameri- 
can Rubber Tree), botanical gardens and Florida; 
Jatropha (French Physic Nut), South; Manihot 
(Ceara Rubber Tree, Cassava, Manioc Plant), South, 
food and ornamental; Pedilanthus (Bird Cactus, Jew 
Bush), greenhouse; Phyllanthus (Snow-bush, Emblic 
Myrobolan, Otaheite Gooseberry), greenhouse, garden; 
Putranjiva (Indian Amulet Plant), South; Ricinus 
(Castor-Oil Plant, Palma Christi), garden, ornamental; 
Stillingia (Queen's Root, Queen's Delight); Sapium 
(Tallow Tree), South. 


118. Buxaceae (from the genus Buxus. the ancient 
name of the box). Buxus FAMILY. Herbs, shrubs or 
trees : leaves opposite or alternate : flowers monoecious, 
inconspicuous; hypogynous disk wanting; corolla absent; 
calyx 4-parted, or in the pistillate flower 4-l"2-parted 
or 0, imbricated; stamens 4, opposite the lobes of the 
calyx, or numerous; ovary superior, 3-celled, rarely 2-4- 
celled; ovules 2, collateral, rarely 1, suspended, micrc- 
pyle turned toward the axis; styles 2-3: fruit capsular 
and opening elastically, or fleshy; seeds with endo- 
sperm, with or without a caruncle. 

About 6 genera and 30 species inhabit the tropics and 
subtropics. One species is native in the southeastern 
United States. The largest genus is Buxus with 19 
species. Fossil species are known. The family is related 
to the Euphorbiacece, with which it is united by some 
authors, and to the Celastracese and Empetracea;. 
The absence of milky juice, the calycoid perianth, the 
3-celled ovary with collateral suspended albuminous 
seeds, and the axially directed micropyle are together 

The wood of the box (Buxus sempervirens) of Europe 
is close-grained and homogeneous; used for engraving 
and for the manufacture of musical instruments. A 
decoction of the wood was formerly used in medicine 
for fevers. Its leaves and seeds are purgative. Oil 
from the seeds of Simmondsia is used as a hair-tonic. 

Four or more genera are in cultivation in America. 
These are: Buxus (Box) ornamental; Pachysandra 

33. EMPETRACE*: 1. Empetrum, a, flower; b, floral diagram. 
CORIARIACE.E: 2. Coriaria, a, flower; b, floral diagram. ANA- 
CAHDIACEJE: 3. Rhus, o, flower; 6, floral diagram. 4. Anacardium, 
fruit. CYRILLACE.E: 5. Cyrilla, flower. 

(Mountain Spurge), garden, ornamental; Sarcococca, 
greenhouse, ornamental; and Simmondsia, California, 
for oil. 

119. Empetracese (from the genus Empetrum, an 
ancient name signifying upon a rock). CROWBERRY 
FAMILY. Fig. 33. Small ericoid shrubs: leaves alter- 
nate, deeply furrowed beneath: flowers polygamous or 
dioecious, small, regular, hypogynous; disk wanting; 
sepals 2-3, imbricated; petals 2-3, or 0; stamens of 
the same number as the petals and alternate with them ; 
ovary superior, 2-9-celled, each cell 1-ovuled; style- 
branches 2-9, often fringed or toothed: fruit drupa- 
ceous; seed ascending, anatropous, albuminous; micro- 
pyle turned toward the outside. 

In the north temperate and arctic regions, and in the 
Andes, are found 3 genera and about 5 species. The 
family is related to the Buxacese, and more distantly 
to the Euphorbiacea? and Celastracese. The habit, 
the reduced or absent corolla, the few stamens, the 
1 -seeded ovary, the external micropyle, and the absence 
of the disk and aril are together distinctive. 

The acid berries of Empetrum are eaten in north 
Europe and Kamtschatka, and also used to prepare a 
drink. The fruit of Corema album has been used as a 
fever remedy. An acid drink is prepared from it in 

In North America, 2 genera are in cultivation : Cera- 
tiola, not hardy; and Empetrum (Crowberry), grown 
in rock-gardens. 

120. Coriariaceas (from the genus Coriaria, derived 
from the Latin meaning a hide, used for tanning). 
CORIARIA FAMILY. Fig. 33. Shrubs with opposite or 
whorled, entire leaves: flowers bisexual, or unisexual, 
regular; sepals 5, imbricated; petals 5, smaller, but 
enlarging in fruit, fleshy, keeled within and pressed 
between the carpels; stamens 10, hypogynous; carpels 
5-10, superior, separate: fruitlets indehiscent, 1-seeded, 

This family consists of a single genus containing 8 
species, widely distributed in warm-temperate zones. 
Coriariacese is not closely related to any other family; 



perhaps most closely to the Empetraceae. Some authors 
place it near the Sapindaceae or Phytolaccaceae, or 
Rutaceae. It represents an ancient group. Fossil spe- 
cies are known. 

Coriaria myrtifolia (myrtle-leaved sumach) of the 
West Mediterranean region, contains much tannin and 
is used by curriers; its leaves and fruits are poisonous. 
The fruit of C. ruscifolia of New Zealand contains a 
vinous juicej which is drunk as a beverage, but its 
seeds are poisonous. C. ruscifolia also yields a black 
color used by shoemakers. 

Two species are grown for ornamental purposes in 
eastern North America. They are semi-hardy. 

121. Limnanthaceae (from the genus Limnanthus, the 
name signifying marsh flower). LIMNANTHUS FAMILY. 
Herbs with alternate leaves: flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 3 or 5, valvate; petals 3 or 5, convolute, separate; 
stamens twice as many as the petals, the outer opposite 
the petals, often glandular at base| ovary superior, 3- 
pr 5-lobed, 3- or 5-celled; ovules 1 in each cell, ascend- 
ing, micropyle directed downward and outward; stig- 
mas 3 or 5: fruit dry, separating into segments. 

This is a small family of 2 genera and 5 species, all of 
North America. The family was formerly united with 
the Geraniacese, to which the floral structure bears a 
superficial resemblance. It is also related to the 
Anacardiaceae and Sapindaceje. It may be said to pos- 
sess the general floral structure and lobed ovary of the 
Geraniacese, but the seed position of the two families 
last named. 

Limnanthus Douglasii, of California, is grown for 
ornamental purposes. 

122. Anacardiaceae (from the genus Anacardium, the 
name meaning heart-like, in reference to the shape of 
the nut). CASHEW FAMILY. Fig. 33. Trees or shrubs 
with resinous bark, and alternate, simple or compound 
leaves: flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, small, 
and numerous, epigynous, perigynous or hypogynous; 
sepals 3-5; petals 3-5, mostly imbricated, or 0; sta- 
mens 5 or 10, rarely many, inserted with the petals at 
the edge or base of an annular, intra-staminal disk; 
ovary 1-, rarely 2-6-, celled, with 1 ovule in each cell; 
styles 1-6: fruit a drupe or nut, rarely dehiscent; seeds 
usually exalbuminous. 

There are 58 genera and about 400 species, most 
abundant in the tropical zone of both hemispheres, but 
represented by the genus Rhus as far north as Europe 
and the United States. Rhus is the largest genus, 
containing 120 species. The family is related to the 
Sapindacese, but contains resin, and has an intra- 
staminal disk. It is also related to the Burseraceae 
and Simarubacese. 

The disk in some genera becomes elongated into a 
stalk on which the ovary is raised. The drupe is some- 
times edible (Mangifera). In Anacardium, the nut- 
like fruit is situated on top of a fleshy edible receptacle. 
Sometimes the nut is surrounded by the edible recep- 
tacle. In Cotinus. the pedicles become plumose and 
the whole much-branched inflorescence breaks off, 
and blows about, distributing the seeds. In Swin- 
tonia, the calyx or the corolla becomes enlarged and 
persistent and serves as a parachute in seed-dissemi- 
nation. Rhus Toxicodendron (poison ivy) and R. Vernix 
(poison sumach, poison elder, poison dogwood) con- 
tain in all their parts an oily, extremely irritating 
substance, which often produces a very painful vesic- 
ular eruption that may last for several days. 

The Anacardiacese is a family of considerable eco- 
nomic importance. Because of the resinous juice, it 
yields medicinal substances and varnishes. It also 
yields important edible fruits. Pistacia vera of Syria 
furnishes the pistachio nut; Pistacia Terebinthus of the 
Mediterranean yields Cyprus turpentine, formerly medi- 
cinal. The leaves of Rhus Coriaria of the Mediterra- 
nean are used for tanning fine leather. Rhus succedanea 
of Japan yields vegetable wax, which coats the seed 

within the capsule. Melanorrhcea usitata yields a cele- 
brated black varnish of Burmah. Mangifera indica of 
the East Indies is the mango tree, the fruit of which 
is large, juicy, sugary-acid and agreeable. Anacardium 
occidentale of tropical America is the cashew. This 
plant yields edible nuts and an edible receptacle. From 
it vinegar is made, also a peppery oil used as a condi- 
ment; and the trunk yields a valuable acacia-like gum. 
The seeds of Semecarpus (marking-nut tree) give an 
indelible black dye used in marking linen. Spondias 
purpurea is the so-called Spanish plum of the West 
Indies. The fruit of Spondias dulcis of the Pacific 
Islands is also frequently eaten. Other species furnish 
the hog plum of the West Indies. The mastic, a fra- 
grant gum-resin of the pharmacist, is obtained from 
Pistacia Lenliscus of the Orient. 

Eight to 12 genera are in cultivation in N. America, 
but with the exception of Rhus and Cotinus, mostly in 
the southern states, especially in southern Florida and 
southern California. Among these are: Anacardium 
(Cashew Tree); Cotinus (Smoke-bush); Cyrtocarpa, 
fruit edible; Mangifera (Mango); Pistacia (Pistachio 
Nut); Rhus (Sumach, Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison 
Elder, Poison Dogwood), 15 species; Schinus (California 
Pepper Tree, Peruvian Mastic) ; Semecarpus (Marking- 
nut Tree). 

123. Cyrillaceas (from the genus Cyrilla, named in 
honor of Dominico Cyrillo, a professor of medicine at 
Naples). CYUILLA FAMILY. Fig. 33. Shrubs with 
alternate, entire leaves: flowers bisexual, regular, small; 
sepals 5, often enlarged in fruit, imbricated; petals 5, 
imbricated, slightly connate at base or separate; sta- 
mens 5 or 10, hypogynous, the inner sometimes want- 
ing, filaments dilated; ovary superior, 2-4-celled; 
ovules 1, rarely, 2-4 in each cell; style short; stigmas 
2: fruit a fleshy or dry capsule, or nearly dry drupe 
with wings; seeds albuminous. 

The 3 genera and only 5 species are all American, 
ranging from Virginia to Brazil. The relationship of 
the Cyrillacese is doubtfully understood. It is probably 
closely related to the Aquifoliacese, although some have 
placed it with the Ericaceae. The small polypetalous 
flowers, the few stamens, the several-celled, few-seeded 
ovary, the dry fruit and the non-arillate seeds are 
important characteristics. 

Cyrilla racemiflora (leatherwopd, black ti-ti) of 
the southeastern United States is occasionally culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes. 

124. Aquifoliaceae (from Aguifolium, Tournefort's 
name for the genus Ilex, application obscure). HOLLY 
FAMILY. Fig. 34. Trees or shrubs, with alternate or 
opposite, simple, often evergreen leaves: flowers bisex- 
ual, rarely unisexual, very small, axillary, solitary or 
fascicled, rarely cymose; sepals 3-6, more or less con- 
nate; petals 4-5, nearly separate, imbricated; stamens 
4-5, alternating with the petals, and sometimes adher- 
ing to them, hypogynous disk wanting; ovary superior, 
3 to many-celled, each cell 1-2-ovuled; stigma subses- 
sile, lobed: fruit berry-like; seeds albuminous. 

Three genera are known and about 280 species, of 
which 275 belong to the genus Ilex. These are widely 
distributed, but rare in Europe, the center of distribution 
being in Central and South America. Ten species are 
found wild in the northeastern United States. The 
Aquifoliacea; are related to the Celastracea; and the 
Anacardiaceae, from which they are distinguished by the 
absence of the hypogynous disk and by the general 

Ilex Aquifolium of Europe is used there for hedges 
and for indoor decoration. /. opaca is used for indoor 
decoration in this country. The leaves of both are 
thick, glossy, evergreen and spiny-toothed. /. para- 
guariensis furnishes mat, which is the tea of South 
America. It was early cultivated by the Jesuits (1609- 
1768), and is even yet one of the most important culti- 
vated plants of South America. Other species of Ilex 



have been used in various parts of the world for medi- 
cine because of their astringent qualities and bitter 

Many species of Ilex (Holly, Dahoon, Cassena, 
Yaupon, Winterberry, Black Alder), and one of Nemo- 
panthus (Mountain Holly) are grown as cultivated 
plants in America, all for ornamental purposes. 

125. Celastracese (from the genus Celastrus, an ancient 
Greek name). STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Fig. 34. Shrubs or 
trees, often climbing: leaves alternate or rarely opposite, 
simple, not lobed: flowers bisexual or unisexual, small 
and greenish, regular; sepals 4-5, imbricated; petals 
4-5, imbricated; stamens 45, alternate with the petals, 
rarely 10; disk present, lining the bottom of the calyx, 
sometimes adnate to the ovary; ovary superior, 2-5- 
celled, buried in the disk, or distinct and disk small; 
1-2 ovules in each cell; style 1, short; stigmas 2-5-lobed: 
fruit a drupe, or samara, or a capsule; seeds albuminous, 
usually with a pulpy aril. 

Thirty-eight genera and about 375 species are dis- 
tributed in all parts of the world except the arctic zone. 
They are especially numerous in the tropics. Euony- 
mus, Maytenus, and Celastrus are the largest genera. 
The Celastracese are in some respects related to the 
Cyrillacese, in others to the Aquifoliacese and Rhamna- 
cese. The small greenish flowers, the stamens alter- 
nating with the petals, the ovary sunken in the disk, 
and the aril are in general distinctive. There are excep- 
tions to all these characters. 

The capsule of Celastrus and Euonymus frequently 
remains on the plant through late fall and early winter. 
It splits into from 3-5 valves, which become reflexed 
and expose the aril of the seeds. The contrast in 
color between aril and pericarp is often very striking 
and ornamental. The Celastraceae are mostly pollinated 
by ants and flies which run over the disk for the honey. 

The Celastracese are of but slight economic impor- 
tance. Some have been used for their emetic and pur- 
gative properties. Catha edulis of East Africa has been 
long cultivated by the Arabs under the name khat; the 
leaves produce an agreeable excitement and it is con- 
sidered a very valuable remedy for plague. The drupes 
of an Elaeodendron are said to be eaten in South Africa. 
The wood of some Celastracese is much valued for carving. 

In North America 6 or more genera of Celastracese are 
grown for ornamental purposes: Elseodendron in warm- 
houses and in southern parts; Euonymus, hardy North; 
Gymnosporia and Maytenus grown in southern regions; 
Pachistima, hardy; and Celastrus, a hardy vine. 

126. Stackhousiaceae (from the genus Stackhousia, 
named in honor of John Stackhouse, a British botanist). 
STACKHODSIA FAMILY. Fig. 34. Herbs with rather thick, 
alternate leaves: flowers bisexual, regular, in spikes, ra- 
cemes or fascicles; sepals 5, imbricated ; petals 5, more or 
less, perigynous, long-clawed, the claws separate below, 
connate above; disk thin, clothing the inside of the cup- 
shaped receptacle; stamens 5, perigynous, alternating 
with the petals, often unequal; ovary superior, 2-5- 
lobed, 2-5-celled, each cell 1-ovuled; styles 2-5, free or 
connate: fruit of 2-5 separate, globose, angular, reticu- 
lated or winged, indehiscent portions which separate 
from a central persistent column; seeds albuminous. 

This is a very small family of 2 genera and 14 species; 
natives of Australia and adjacent islands. It is probably 
related to the Celastraceae more closely than to any 
other family. 

One species of Stackhousia is grown for ornamental 
purposes in California. 

127. Staphyleaceae (from the genus Staphylea, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning a cluster, probably in 
reference to the flower-cluster). BLADDERNDT FAMILY. 
Fig. 34. Trees or shrubs: leaves opposite or alternate, 
pinnately compound, stipulate : flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 5, imbricated; petals 5, imbricated; stamens 5, 
alternating with the petals, inserted outside the large, 
cup-shaped disk; ovary usually 3-celled; styles 3, sepa- 

rate or connate: fruit a capsule, often deeply lobed, 
sometimes indehiscent and berry-like; seeds usually 
many in each cell, albuminous, sometimes with an aril. 

This family contains 5 or 6 genera and about 22 
species, in the north temperate zone, extending rarely 
to northern South America and to the Malay region. 
Fossil species are known. The family is closely related 
to the Sapindacea;, in which it was formerly included, 
and from which it is separated by the abundant endo- 
sperm, the intra-staminal disk, the more numerous 
seeds, the straight embryo, and various anatomical 
differences. The fruits of the bladdernut are an inch 
long, membranous and bladdery; the seeds become 
loosened and the fruit then is interesting to children 
as rattle-boxes. 

The family is of little economic importance. Three 
genera are cultivated in North America for ornamental 
purposes. These are: Euscaphis, Staphylea (Bladder- 
nut), and Turpinia. 

128. Aceraceae (from the genus Acer, the classical 
name of the maples, from the Celtic meaning hard). 

34. AQUIFOUACE^E: 1. Her, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. CELAS- 
TBACE: 2. Euonyrous, a. flower; 6, floral diagram. STACKHOUSI- 
ACE*: 3. Stackhousia, flower. STAPHYLEACE.E: 4. Staphylea, a, 
flower; b, fruit. 

MAPLE FAMILY. Fig. 35. Trees or shrubs: leaves oppo- 
site, exstipulate, simple or compound: flowers mostly 
unisexual, often bisexual ones intermixed, regular; 
sepals 4-5, separate or somewhat connate, imbricated: 
petals 45, or 0, imbricated; disk either extra-staminal 
or intrastaminal, usually flat, and sometimes lobed or 
divided; stamens 4-10, mostly 8, separate, inserted at 
the edge of the disk; ovary superior 2-celled, 2-lobed, 
much flattened contrary to the partition; style 1; stig- 
mas 2: fruit splitting into two portions, each a samara; 
seeds 2 in each cell, exalbuminous. 

There are 2 genera and about 110 species; all but 
1 belong to the genus Acer. They are mostly natives 
of mountainous or upland countries of the northern 
hemisphere. Some fossil species have been discovered. 
The Aceraceae are closely related to the Sapindacese, 
with which they were formerly united, and from which 
they differ in the opposite, usually palmate leaves, the 
peculiar fruit, and regular flowers. In position, the 
disk shows a transition between the Sapindaceae and 
other families. The family is easily recognized by the 
opposite, exstipulate leaves, and peculiar fruit. 

The wood of Acer saccharum (sugar maple, hard 
maple) is of great value for timber. Bird's-eye maple 
and curly maple are forms of this species in which the 
growth of the cambium is irregular. The manufacture 
of sugar from the sap of the sugar maple is an important 
industry in the northern states in early spring. The 
sycamore of England is Acer pseudoplatanus; that of 
America is a species of Platanus. The juice of Acer 
platanmdes (Norway maple), and probably of others, 
is milky. 



Forty or more species of Acer (maple) are in cultiva- 
tion in N.America for ornamental purposes. Acer Negun- 
do (box elder) is exceptional in having compound leaves. 

129. Hippocastanaceae (from the genus Hippocas- 
tanum, the old generic name of the genus ^Esculus, 
derived from the Greek meaning horse and chestnut). 
HORSE-CHESTNUT FAMILY. Fig. 35. Trees or shrubs: 
leaves opposite, exstipulate, palmately 3 9-foliate: flow- 
ers, some bisexual, some staminate, irregular; sepals 5, 
separate or connate, imbricated; petals 4-5, unequal, 
clawed; stamens 5-8, separate; disk present, extra- 
staminal, often inequilateral; ovary 3-celled; ovules 2 
in each cell; style and stigma 1: fruit usually 1-celled 
and 1-seeded, capsular, 3-valved; seeds very large, 

There are 2 genera and 22 species of general dis- 
tribution in the north temperate zone. The family is 
closely related to the Sapinuaceae, with which it is often 
united, and from which it differs only in its larger 
flowers, palmately compound leaves and large seeds. 
The Hippocastanaceae, Sapindacese, Melianthacese, 

2 a, 

35. ACEHACE-E: 1. Acer, a, flower; 6, fruit. HIPPOCASTANACE^E: 

2. ^sculus, a, flower; -b, floral diagram; c, fruit. SAPINDACE.E: 

3. Sapindus, flower. 4. Kcelreuteria, vertical section fruit. 

and some Aceraceae are almost the only plants with 
extra-staminal disks. 

The horse-chestnut (JEsculus Hippocastanum) is a 
well-known shade tree, said to have been introduced 
into Europe by Clusius in 1575. The seeds, rich in 
starch, have been used for fodder. They have also been 
used to form the principal part of a certain kind of 
snuff, and the oil contained has been used to a slight 
extent in medicine. The roots of ^Esculus contain sapo- 
nin and have been used, like soapberry, for washing. 

Several species of ^Esculus are in cultivation in 
N. America. M. glabra and M. octandra, natives of, the 
central United States, are called buckeyes. 

130. Sapindacese (from the genus Sapindus, a con- 
traction of the Latin sapo-indicus, Indian soap). SOAP- 
BERRY FAMILY. Fig. 35. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, 
often climbing: leaves usually alternate, mostly com- 
pound, sometimes ternately, sometimes pinnately de- 
compound: flowers unisexual or polygamous, regular or 
irregular (i.e. obliquely unsymmetrical), small; sepals 
4-5, jmbricated or rarely valvate; petals 4-5, small or 
wanting, usually with scales or hairs at the base inside; 
disk well developed, situated between the petals and 
the stamens (extrastaminal) ; stamens usually 10 in 2 
whorls, more or less united at the base; ovary superior, 
mostly 3-celled and -deeply 3-lobed; ovules typically 
1 in each cell; style 1: fruit very diverse, a firm or 
bladdery capsule, a berry, nut, or winged fruit; seeds 
without endosperm. 

The 118 genera and about 1,000 species are of trop- 

ical distribution. Only one species reaches northward 
as far as Kansas. The family is closely related to the 
Staphyleacece, Hippocastanacese, and Aceraceae, which 
see for differences; and more distantly to the Celastra- 
ceae. The small flowers, usually appendaged petals, 
10 stamens, extra-staminal disk, and 3-celled, few- 
seeded fruit are usually distinctive. 

The climbing Sapindacese often have very peculiar 
stems in which many separate cambium rings have 
taken part. This renders the cross-section very peculiar, 
making it appear sometimes as a bundle of woody 
ropes tied together, with bark between them. 

The Sapindacese are of considerable economic impor- 
tance. The fruits of many are used locally for food, 
sometimes the flesh of the fruit, sometimes the aril 
being of importance. The seeds of Sapindus and other 
genera are often roasted and eaten as food. Oil is 
obtained from the seeds of others. Some are used locally 
for medicine. The seeds and other parts of many species 
are very poisonous, the fruits of species of Sapindus be- 
ing used to poison fish. The juice of Patdlinia pinnntn 
(cururu) is used by savages in Guiana to poison their 
arrows. The Lechcheuquana bee collects honey from 
Serjania lethalis which, when eaten even in small 
quantities, produces raving madness or even death. 
The bark and berries of many species (e.g., the soap 
tree, Sapindus) contain saponin which reacts like soap, 
on which account they are used for washing. Yellow 
and black dyes, used as cosmetics, are obtained from 
certain species. The very hard wood of certain 
Sapindaceae is much prized for timber. The hard, 
spherical, black seeds of Sapindus Saponaria are strung 
as beads. 

There are 15 or more genera of true Sapindaceae grown 
in America. Koslreuteria (Varnish Tree) is hardy and 
ornamental. Cardiospermum (Balloon Vine) is a tender 
annual with queer fruit. Xanthoceras is a hardy orna- 
mental tree. Paullinia is a greenhouse climbing shrub. 
The following are grown only in the southern states or 
California: Greyia; Melicocca (Spanish Lime); Blighia 
(Akee Tree); Dodonsea; Ungnadia (Mexican or Spanish 
Buckeye); Sapindus (Soapberry). 

The following cultivated genera are now referred to 
other families: Melianthus (Melianthaceae) ; ^Esculus 
(Hippocastanacese); Acer (Aceraceso); Ptseroxylon 
(Meliaceae); Staphylea (Staphyleaceoe) ; Euscaphis 
(Staphyleacese) ; Turpinia (Staphylcaceae). 

131. Melianthaceas (from the genus Melianthus, 
derived from the Greek meaning honey and flower). 
MELIANTHUS FAMILY. Shrubs or trees: leaves alter- 
nate, entire or pinnate: flowers bisexual, irregular, 
soon inverted; sepals 5, imbricated; petals 4-5; sta- 
mens 4-5, or 10, free or slightly connate at the base, 
alternating with the petals; disk present, extrastaminal, 
crescent-shaped, or annular with 10 projections; carpels 
4-5; ovary 4-5-celled; ovules 1 to many in each cell; 
style 1; stigma 4-5-lobed: fruit a capsule; seeds albu- 
minous, sometimes arillate. 

All the 3 genera and 17 species are natives of Africa. 
The Melianthacea; were formerly united with the 
Sapindaceas, with which they agree in the extra- 
staminal disk, but they differ in the vertically bisym- 
metrical, not obliquely bisymmetrical, flowers, and 
more abundant endosperm. 

In southern California, species of Melianthus are 
grown for ornament. 

132. Balsaminacese (from Balsamina, the old name 
of the genus Impatiens, probably derived from balassan, 
the Arabic name of these plants). BALSAM FAMILY. Fig. 
36. Herbs, very rarely epiphytic: leaves various: flowers 
bisexual, irregular, spurred, nodding; sepals 3-5, irreg- 
ular, imbricated often petaloid, the posterior very 
large and sack-like, and gradually prolonged backward 
into a honey-spur; petals 5, alternate with the sepals, 
separate, or united so as to appear as 3, lower petals 
much the larger; stamens 5, hypogynous, closely 



covering the ovary like a hood; anthers coherent; 
ovary superior, 5-celled; ovules 3 to many in each cell; 
stigmas sessile: fruit a 5-valved capsule, the valves of 
which coil up elastically and forcibly distribute the 
seeds, or sometimes a 5-celled drupe-like structure. 

Contained in this family are 2 genera and about 220 
species, of which all but 1 belong to the genus Impa- 
tiens; widely distributed, but most abundant in the 
tropics of the Old World, wanting in South America. 
The family is closely related to the Geraniacese, with 
which it was formerly united, but is distinguished by 
the 5 peculiar hypogynous stamens. The honey-spur 
in this family is an outgrowth of the sepals, and not of 
the receptacle as in Pelargonium and Tropseolum. 
There are extra-floral nectaries on the foliage of some 
species, which attract protective ants. 

The sap of several species of Impatiens has been used 
as a dye to color red or yellow: that of 7. 61 'flora (North 
America) staining yellow; that of /. Balsamina (India) 
staining red, and used to color the skin and finger- 
nails. The tubers of /. tinctoria of Abyssinia are used 
for dyeing the feet and hands red or black. Some species 
have been used as medicine. Many are ornamental. 

There are several species of Impatiens in the North 
American trade: /. aurea and /. biflora are the east 
American touch-me-nots or jewel- weeds; 7. Balsamina 
is the garden balsam; the other species are greenhouse 

Order 40. RHAMNALES 

133. Rhamnaceae from the genus Rhamnus, the old 
Greek name). BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Fig. 36. Trees or 
shrubs, rarely herbs, sometimes spiny or climbing: 
leaves simple, mostly alternate: flowers bisexual or 
unisexual, regular, perigynous, small, greenish, mostly 
axillary; sepals 5, rarely 4, valvate; petals 5, or 4, 
alternate with the sepals; stamens of the same number 
as the petals and opposite them ; an intrastaminal disk 
lining the cup-shaped receptacle; ovary 2-4-celled, 
superior or inferior; cells 1-, rarely 2-, ovuled; styles 
2-4, more or less connate: fruit drupaceous, or winged, 
or capsular. 

Rhamnaceae has 46 genera and about 550 species 
very generally distributed over the earth. Rhamnus is 
the largest genus (70 species), and the most widely 
distributed. The family is represented by 6 native 
species in northeastern North America. It is most 
closely related to the Vitacese and Celastraceae, differing 
from the former in the simple entire leaves and 
strongly perigynous flowers, and from the latter in the 
stamens being opposite the petals. 

The family is not of great economic importance. The 
berries and bark of Rhamnus cathartica (buckthorn) 
contain a bitter principle which is purgative. The 
fruits of some species of Rhamnus yield yellow or green 
dyes of some importance R. dahurica and R. tinc- 
toria give Chinese green. The bark of R. cathartica 
and R. Frangula (Europe) is used to dye yellow. R. 
Purshiana (California) is the cascara segrada of 
medicine, a strong purgative. The fruits of Zizyphus 
Lotus are pulpy and agreeable, and were much prized 
by the ancients. The fruits of several species of Zizy- 
phus are eaten in various parts of the Old World. The 
spiny branches of Paliiirus Spina-Christi or Zizyphus 
Spina-Christi are thought to have been those from 
which the crown of thorns was made. 

Nine or more genera are in cultivation in N. America 
for ornamental purposes. These are: Ceanothus (New 
Jersey Tea); Berchemia (Supple Jack); Gouania; 
Hovenia; Paliurus; Pomaderris; Reynosia; Rhamnus 
(Buckthorn); Zizyphus (Jujube). 

134. Vitacese (from the genus Vitis, the classical 
name). GRAPEFAMILY. Fig. 36. Mostly climbing shrubs 
with tendrils, seldom upright shrubs or small trees: 
leaves alternate or opposite, very diverse: flowers bisex- 
ual, or unisexual, small, numerous, regular; sepals 4-5, 

rarely 3-7, minute or obsolete; petals 4-5, rarely 3-7, 
valvate, separate (gamopetalous in Leea); stamens 
4-5, rarely 3-7, opposite the petals, somewhat pe- 
rigynous; disk evident, annular or of separate lobes; 
ovary superior, 2-, rarely 3-6-, celled, with 2, or rarely 
1, ovule in each cell; style 1 or 0; stigma capitate or 
peltate: fruit a berry; seeds albuminous. 

The 11 genera and about 450 species are mostly of 
tropical and subtropical distribution. Fourteen species 
reach the northeastern United States. The largest 
genus is Cissus with 250 species. Some fossil forms 
are known. The Vitacese are closely related to the 
Rhamnaceae. The climbing habit, the few stamens 
opposite the petals, the 2-carpelled berry, and the 
capitate stigma are distinctive. 

The petals in Vitis remain connate at the tip as in 
the bud, but separate from each other at the base, and 
fall off as a cap. The tendrils of the Vitaceae are borne 
at the nodes and opposite the leaves. There has been 
much discussion as to whether the tendrils are apical or 


36 BALSAMINACE*: 1. Impatiens, a, flower; 6, fruit. RHAM- 
NACFLffi: 2. Rhamnus, a, flower; b, floral diagram. VITACE*: 
3. Vitis, flower. TIUACE.E: 4. Tilia, o, flower; 6, floral diagram; 
c, fruit. 

lateral, i.e., whether the plant is sympodial or mono- 
podial. The tips of the tendrils are in some species 
expanded into disk-like holdfasts. The species of Cis- 
sus are mainly desert plants. They are often cactus- 
like, with fleshy, angled, jointed, or terete stems; or 
have tubers or tuberous bases. 

The most important economic plant in the family is 
the grape (Vitis), which has been cultivated since early 
times. V. mnifera is the wine grape of Europe and 
southern California, and has given rise to our green- 
house grapes; not hardy. V. Labrusca is one of the 
parents of most of our hardy grapes. V. vulpina and 
V. cardifolia are frost or fox grapes. Several species 
of Vitis are grown for ornamental purposes only. Rai- 
sins are the dried fruit of certain species of Vitis, mostly 
V. vinifera. Virginia creeper or woodbine (Parthenocis- 
sus [Ampelopsis] quinquefolia) and Boston ivy or Jap- 
anese ivy (P. tricuspidata) are ornamental. 

A few genera are in cultivation in America: Ampe- 
lopsis; Parthenocissus or Psedera; Cissus (Kangaroo 
Vine); and Vitis. 

Order 41. MALVALES 

135. Elaeocarpaceae (from the genus Elseocarpus, 
derived from the Greek meaning olive-fruit). EL^EOCAR- 
PUS FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, with entire alternate or 
opposite leaves without slime-cells: flowers usually bi- 
sexual, regular, hypogynous; involucre 0; sepals 4-5, 
separate or connate, valvate; petals 4-5, or 0, separate, 
rarely connate, usually valvate, often incised; stamens 
many; anthers opening by terminal pores; hypogy- 



nous intra-staminal disk present; ovary superior, 2- to 
many-celled, rarely 1 -celled; ovules many in each cell; 
style 1 ; stigmas 1 to several : fruit capsular or drupaceous. 

Seven genera and about 120 species are distributed 
in the tropics of both hemispheres. Elseocarpus contains 
60 species and Sloanea 44 species. The family is 
closely related to the Tiliacea;, with which it is often 
united and from which it is distinguished by anatomical 
characteristics, and usually also by the often hairy and 
firm, or incised, petals, or by the absence of petals. 

A vegetable ivory used in carving is obtained from 
the large stone of the drupe of Elseocarpus sphasricus of 
India. Those of E. tuberculatus (India ana Java) are 
worn as amulets. The seeds of Sloanea dentata of 
Guiana are eaten like chestnuts. The bark of Crino- 
dendron Palagua of Chile is used for tanning. The wood 
of Aristolelia Maqui of Chile is variously used. Its 
leaves are medicinal and its berries are edible. 

Two genera are cultivated in North America: Aris- 
totelia, California; Elseocarpus, not hardy. 

136. Tiliaceas (from the genus Tilia, the ancient 
Latin name of the Linden). LINDEN or BASSWOOD 
FAMILY. Fig. 36. Trees, shrubs, or herbs: leaves 
mostly alternate, entire or variously lobed: flowers 
bisexual, regular; sepals 5, rarely 3 or 4, free or con- 
nate, usually valvate; petals as many as the sepals, 
convolute or imbricated, or valvate, rarely wanting or 
modified; stamens 10 or more, hypogynous, usually 
very numerous, filaments separate, or connate only at 
the base, or in 6-10 fascicles, some may be stami- 
nodia; anthers 4-celled, opening by slits or pores; ovary 
superior, 2-10-celled; ovules 1 to several in each cell; 
style 1; stigma rayed: fruit a capsule, or indehiscent 
and nut-like, or a drupe, rarely a berry, or separating 
into drupelets; seeds usually albuminous. 

Most of the 35 genera and 270 species are tropical. 
The most important extra-tropical genus is Tilia 
(linden, basswood), which is widely distributed. 
Fossil species are known. The Tiliacese are related to 
the Malvaceae and Sterculiaceje, from which they are 
distinguished by the nearly distinct stamens, and 
4-celled anthers. The stamens are sometimes borne, 
along with the ovary, on a long stipe-like projection of 
the receptacle, sometimes cover the whole surface of a 
discoid receptacle, and sometimes are enveloped by 
the petals. 

The Tiliaceae, like the Malvaceae, are mucilaginous. 
For this reason, many have been used more or less in 
medicine. The genus Tilia and other arborescent genera 
furnish very valuable timber; that of Grewia asiat'ica 
is flexible and used for bow-making. In the tropics 
the foliage of CorcJwrus olitarius is used as a pot-herb. 
The fruits of species of Grewia are used in India as 
a sherbet because of their agreeable juice. Some mem- 
bers of the family yield cordage. The beautiful seeds of 
many species are made into necklaces by the Indians. 

In North America 6 or more genera are in cultivation. 
They are all warmhouse plants, or are grown in south- 
ern California, except the Tilias (Basswood, Lime, Lin- 
den), of which many species are grown in America. 
The Tilias furnish some of our best-known hardy, orna- 
mental trees. Other genera are: Entelea, Luehea, 
Grewia (with some half-hardy species), and Sparmannia. 

137. Malvaceae (from the genus Mallow, altered 
from the Greek, in allusion to the mucilaginous emol- 
lient qualities). MALLOW FAMILY. Fig. 37. Herbs, 
shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple, usually pal- 
mately veined leaves: flowers bisexual, regular; sepals 
5, often united, valvate, frequently bracteolate at the 
base; petals 5, convolute, often adnate to the stamens; 
stamens very numerous, hypogynous, the filaments 
united into a tube (monadelphous), anthers 1-ceUed, 
pollen spiny; ovary superior, 2 to many-celled, rarely 
1 -celled; ovules in each cell 1 to many; styles and stig- 
mas usually as many as the carpels: fruit a capsule or 
separating into drupelets, very rarely fleshy. 

The Mallows include 39 genera and from 800 to 
900 species, distributed over the whole earth, except 
in the arctic zone, but most abundant in tropical 
America. The Malvaceae are closely related to the 

37. MALVACEAE: 1. Malva, a. Bower; b, floral diagram; e, fruit; 
d, cross-section fruit. 2. Hibiscus, flower. BOMBACACE^E: 3. 
Adansonia, flower. STERCULIACEJE: 4. Theobroma, flower. DIL- 
i.KMACE.t:: 5. Dillenia, flower. 

Sterculiacese and Tiliace. From the former they are 
distinguished by their 1-celled anthers and rough pollen, 
and from the latter by their monadelphous stamens as 
well as the 1-celled anthers. The hollyhock-like flower 
is characteristic. 

The foliage, stems, and seeds of most Malvaceae con- 
tain abundant mucilage for which, in some countries, 
they have been used as medicine. Pungent and poi- 
sonous properties are apparently wanting. Althsea offici- 
nalis (marsh mallow of Europe), Malva sylvestris and 
M. rotundifolia, both of Europe, have been used as 
emollients. Hibiscus Sabdariffa and H. digitalus (white 
and red ketmies of tropical Africa) have acid juice 
and are used in the preparation of refreshing drinks. 
The capsule of H. (Abelmoschus) esculentus (okra or 
gumbo) of the tropics is eaten in soup, or cooked and 
seasoned. The seeds of H. Abelmoschus of India, now 
widely cultivated in the tropics, are Used for perfum- 
ery. H. Rosa-sinensis (Chinese hibiscus or shoeblack 
plant) contains a coloring matter in the flower with 
which the Chinese blacken shoes and eyebrows. Al- 
thxa cannabina of southern Europe has fibers which 
may be used in place of hemp. The fibers of Urena 
lobata, Abutilon indicum, Sida, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. 
tiliaceus, and others, are also used. The most useful 
genus is Gossypium (cotton) of Egypt, India, and trop- 
ical America, the abundant, long, woolly hairs on the 
seeds of which furnish the cotton of commerce. Cot- 
ton seed yields an oil which is used for fuel, cattle-food, 
soap, artificial butter, and many other purposes. Sev- 
eral mallows are weedy plants. 



Many of the genera in cultivation in N. America arc 
among the most important old-fashioned cultivated 
garden plants. Among these are: Abutilon (Indian 
Mallow, Velvet Leaf); Althaea (Marsh Mallow, Holly- 
hock); Callirhoe (Poppy Mallow); Gossypium (Cot- 
ton); Hibiscus (Bladder Ketmia, Roselle, Jamaica 
Sorrel, Okra, Gumbo, Rose of Sharon, Mountain 
Mahoe, Shoeblack Plant); Malope; Malvastrum; Pavo- 
nia; Sida; Sphaeralcea. 

138. Bombacaceae (from the genus Bombax, from 
the Latin meaning silk or cotton). BOMBAX FAMILY. 
Fig. 37. Trees: leaves mostly alternate, entire or digi- 
tate, often with slime-colls and stellate hairs: flowers 
bisexual, regular or slightly irregular; involucre often 
present; sepals 5, separate or connate, valvate; petals 
5, twisted in the bud; stamens 5 to many, separate or 
monadelphous; anther cells 1-2 or more; pollen smooth; 
staminodia often present; ovary superior, 2-5-celled; 
ovules 2 to many; style 1; stigmas 15: fruit dry or 
fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent. 

There are 20 genera and about 100 species, of tropical 
distribution, mostly in America. The family is closely 
related to the Malvaceae and often united with that 
family. It is distinguished most easily by the smooth 
pollen and the often several-celled anthers. 

Many Bombacacese are very large trees. The trunk 
of the baobab tree, or monkey's bread tree (Adansonia 
iJiffitata) of tropical Africa is often 100 feet in circumfer- 
ence. The wool produced in the fruit is of little value. 
The fruit of Durio zibethinus contains a cream-like sub- 
stance and is eaten. The seeds of the green fruit of 
Malisia cordata of the Andes is edible. The sour cucum- 
ber tree or cream of tartar tree is Adansonia Gregorii. 
The fruit contains tartaric acid. 

Five or 6 genera are in cultivation in this country in 
the South and in greenhouses: Adansonia (Boabab 
Tree, Monkey's Bread); Bombax (Silk Cotton Tree); 
Chorisia (Floss-silk Tree); Eriodendron; Pachira. 

139. Sterculiaceae (from the genus Slerculia, deriva- 
tion obscure). STERCULIA FAMILY. Fig. 37. Trees, 
shrubs, or herbs, sometimes vines: leaves alternate, 
simple or digitate: flowers bisexual or unisexual, usu- 
ally regular; sepals 3-5, somewhat united, valvate; 
petals wanting or reduced; stamens very remarkable 
and wonderfully diverse, in 2 whorls, those opposite 
the sepals reduced to staminodia or wanting, the 1 to 
many others united into a tube, the anthers frequently 
alternating with sterile teeth, or variously arranged 
on the back of the tube; ovary superior, 4-5-celled; 
ovules several; styles 4-5, distinct or connate: fruit 
dry, rarely fleshy, or splitting into separate berries. 

The 48 genera and about 750 species are almost 
entirely confined to the tropics. The family is related 
to the Malvaceae in the monadelphous stamens, but 
differs in the 2-celled anthers; also related to the Bom- 
bacaceae and Tiliacese. The valvate sepals, reduced 
petals, 4-5-celled ovary, and especially the peculiar 
stamens, are distinctive. 

The Sterculiaceoe, like the Malvaceae contain abun- 
dant mucilage. They also contain a bitter principle 
which renders them emetic and stimulant. The seeds 
of Theobroma Cacao, native of central and northern 
South America, furnishes cocoa, chocolate, and cocoa- 
butter. Cola acuminata of Africa furnishes the cola 
nut, now very popular as an ingredient in a mildly 
stimulating drink. It is said to form the main con- 
stituent of the drink called "coco-cola." 

There are about 12 genera in cultivation in America, 
all either in tropical agriculture or in greenhouse cul- 
ture : Rulingia, Reevesia, and Pterospermum in south- 
ern California; Stereulia (Japanese Varnish Tree, Chi- 
nese Parasol Tree, Flame Tree), Fremontia and Gua- 
zuma in the South; Theobroma and Cola in the West 
Indies; Abroma, Dombeya, and Mahernia (Honey Bell) 
mostly in the greenhouse. All are grown for orna- 
mental purposes except Theobroma and Cola. 


140. Dilleniaceae (from the genus Dillenia, in honor 
of John James Dillenius, a professor of botany at 
Oxford). DILLENIA FAMILY. Fig. 37. Trees or shrubs, 
often climbing: loaves alternate, very rarely opposite: 
flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous; sepals 5, rarely 
more or fewer, imbricated, persistent; petals 5 or fewer, 
imbricated, deciduous; stamens numerous, often very 
numerous, free or'united in groups, anthers opening by 
slits or pores; carpels several, usually distinct, but 
often united; ovules numerous: fruit a follicle, or a 
berry or a capsule, or inclosed in a fleshy calyx, which 
simulates a berry; seed albuminous, usually with 
an aril. 

Nearly all the 11 genera and about 200 species are 
tropical, distributed chiefly in Australia, India, and 
tropical America, rarely in Africa. Of these Dillenia, 
Hibbertia and Tetracera are the largest genera. The 
family is related to the Ranunculaceae and Magnolia- 
cese on the one hand, and to the Theaceae on the other. 
Its closest affinity is with the latter family. The woody 
habit, polypetalous flowers, very numerous stamens, 
usually separate carpels, albuminous seeds with arils, 
and straight embryo, are characteristic. 

The Dilleniaceae are astringent, for which reason some 
are used medicinally; the fruits of some are eaten 
because acid, others are used as tonics. Davilla of 
Brazil has been used for wounds; Curatella for ulcers; 
Tetracera aspera of Guiana as a sudorific and diuretic, 
also for syphilis, intermittent fevers and scurvy. The 
astringent bark of a species of Dillenia is said to have 
been used in Asia for ulcerated sores. The acid and 
inedible fruit of Dillenia speciosa serves to season 
dishes; and a syrup of the juice of the unripe fruit 
allays coughs, assists expectoration and is said to cure 
angina; the bark is also used for tanning. Many species 
of Dillenia furnish timber in the Indo region. The rough, 
silicious leaves of many of the tribe Tetracerae, espe- 
cially Curatella americana, have been used in Brazil 
to polish wood in place of sandpaper. Some of the 
climbing species furnish drinking-water by incisions in 
the stem. 

The flowers of many species are very beautiful, but 
few forms are in cultivation. In this country the only 
one apparently is Dillenia indica, a large magnolia-like 
tree with flowers 9 inches in diameter, grown in south- 
ern California and in Florida. 

By recent authors (Gilg, in Engler and Prantl), 
Actinidia, a genus of vines from eastern Asia, has 
been placed in this family, although formerly included 
in the Theaceae. A few species of Actinidia are in the 
American trade. 

141. Ochnaceas (from the genus Ochna, which is 
from ochne, the Greek name of a wild pear tree; the 

38. OCHNACE.E: 1. Ochna, fruit. TERNSTRCEMIACE.E: 2. Gordonia, 
flower. 3. Thea, fioral diagram. 

resemblance is probably in the foliage). OCHNA FAMILY. 
Fig. 38. Shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple or pin- 
nate, coriaceous leaves: flowers bisexual, regular; sepals 
4-5, imbricated, rarely 10; petals 5, rarely 3-4, or 10, 
usually convolute; stamens 1-3 times the number of 
the petals, sometimes with 1-3 series of staminodia, 
hypogynous, separate; anthers usually opening by 
terminal pores; an hypogynous stipe usually present 
(gynophore); ovary 4-5-celled, often deeply lobed; 
ovules 1 to many in each cell; style and stigmas 1-5: 



fruit coriaceous and indehiscent, or fleshy, or a capsule, 
or composed of the 1 -seeded drupe-like lobes of the 
ovary which are whorled on the enlarged fleshy recep- 
tacle (Ochna). 

The family has 17 genera and 100 or more species, dis- 
tributed in the tropical regions of both hemispheres, 
most abundant perhaps in Brazil, but also abundant in 
Africa. The family is not closely related to any other but 
seems to stand between the Ranunculus group and the 
Hypericum group of families. The many sepals, petals 
and stamens, the gynophore, and usually the lobed 
ovary, are distinctive. 

The wood of some species of Ochnacese has been 
used locally for timber, and, because of the pronounced 
astringent properties of some species, they have been 
used locally for fly-bites, ulcers, and so on. 

Ochna multiflora, of Upper Guiana, is cultivated in 
America. This is grown occasionally in greenhouses 
because of the peculiar fruit, for an account of which see 
the article on Ochna. 

142. Ternstrcemiaceae (or Theaceae) (from the genus 
Ternslrosmia, in honor of Ternstroem, a Swedish natural- 
ist and traveler who died in 1745). TEA FAMILY. Fig. 38. 
Large or small trees, with alternate, entire, leathery 
leaves : flowers solitary or scattered, usually bisexual, reg- 
ular; sepals 5-7, imbricated, persistent; petals 5, rarely 4 
or more, nearly or quite separate; stamens very many, 
rarely 15 or fewer, usually hypogynous, separate or 
united at the base, or in 5 fascicles, usually adnate to 
the corolla below; ovary superior, 2-10-celled; ovules 1 
to many in each cavity; styles as many as the cells of 


39. HYPEBICACT/E: 1. Hypericum, species, o, flower; 6, flower, 
petals removed; c, fruit. 2. Yismia, floral diagram. GUTTIFER.E: 

3. Garcinia, a, flower; b, flower, perianth removed. TAMABICACE/E: 

4. Tamarix, a, flower; b, flower, perianth removed; c, floral diagram. 

the ovary, or united into one: fruit a capsule or inde- 
hiscent, dry or drupaceous; embryo more or less curved. 
In this family are 16 genera and 174 species of tropical 
and subtropical distribution. Stuartia reaches Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky, and Gordonia reaches Virginia. 
This family is related to the Hypericaceae and Gut- 
tiferae. also to the Dilleniaceae. From it are now usually 
excluded several genera which were formerly included. 
Of importance to us in this connection are Actinidia 
(transferred to the Dilleniacea:), and Stachyurus 

(transferred to the Stachyuraceas). The very numerous 
stamens, the type of ovary and the curved embryo are 
distinctive. The numerous stamens have probably been 
produced by the splitting up of one set of 5, as in the 

Various glucosides and alkaloids are found in the 
foliage, on account of which Gordonia has been used 
for tanning leather, and other species have been used 
in medicine. The most important species is Thea 
chinensis (tea). The bitter taste of tea is largely due 
to a glucoside, and the stimulating properties to an 
alkaloid, theine. 

Exclusiye of Actinidia and Stachyurus, 8 or 10 genera 
are in cultivation in N. America. Stuartia and Gordonia 
(Loblolly Bay) are hardy. Visnea, Ternstrcomia and 
Cleyera are grown in Florida. Eurya and Schima are 
Camellia-like warmhousc shrubs. Camellia (Thea) is 
a famous genus of old-fashioned greenhouse shrubs. 

143. Guttiferae (from the Latin signifying drop- 
bearing, in allusion to the resinous exudation). GAR- 
CINIA FAMILY. Fig. 39. Trees or shrubs, with opposite 
or whorled, rarely alternate leaves: flowers regular, 
usually some bisexual and others unisexual on the 
same plant, rarely all bisexual; styles usually united 
and stigmas sometimes shield-shaped, otherwise as in 
the Hypericaceas, to which family it is closely related, 
and with which the Guttiferao is united by many authors. 

Thirty-five genera and about 370 species inhabit 
the tropical regions of both hemispheres. Clusia 
(America), with 80 species, and Garcinia (Old World), 
with 150 species, are the largest genera. Many species 
are tropical trees of majestic size and handsome form, 
useful for timber. The Clusias are mostly epiphytic 
shrubs with aerial roots and evergreen leaves. 

The Guttiferae yield a yellow or greenish resinous 
juice when incisions are made. Gamboge is an intensely 
yellow resinous pigment extracted from Garcinia 
Morclla (Ceylon). It is also a powerful purgative. 
The blackish bitter juice of Clusia rosea (West Indies) 
is also a purgative. The juice of species of Clusia (West 
Indies) may be used as a varnish. The resin of C. flava 
(hog-gum) is a wound remedy. Wounded swine smear 
themselves with the gum by rubbing against the plant, 
hence the name. The pulpy fruit of Garcinia Mangos- 
tana ("mangosteen" of the Moluccas), and Mammea 
americana (West Indies) are delicious to many people. 

There are 3 or 4 genera in cultivation in warm Amer- 
ica: Garcinia including the Mangosteen, cultivated in the 
West Indies, and the Gamboge Tree cultivated in the 
West Indies and Florida; Calophyllum, cultivated in 
southern Florida and southern California; Mammea 
americana (Mammee Apple or St. Domingo Apricot), 
cultivated in southern Florida and southern California. 

144. Hypericaceae (from the genus Hypericum, an 
ancient Greek name of unknown origin). ST. JOHN'S- 
WOBT FAMILY. Fig. 39. Herbaceous or woody plants: 
leaves opposite or whorled, often pellucid punctate or 
black-punctate : flowers bisexual, regular, cymose ; sepals 
4-^5, more or less connate, the outer smaller, rarely 4, 
with the 2 outer much larger; petals as many as the 
sepals, sessile or clawed; claw naked or with a honey- 
furrow or -pit; stamens many, hypogynous, usually in 
3-5 bundles the members of which are often more or 
less united, rarely monadelphous; ovary superior 3-5-, 
rarely 1-, celled; placenta; usually parietal; ovules 
numerous; styles 1-5, usually 3-5: fruit a capsule, 
rarely fleshy. 

About 8 genera and 260 species are known, of which 
200 are in the genus Hypericum, of the tropical and 
temperate regions throughout the world, but especially 
abundant in the north temperate zone. The family is 
very closely related to the Guttiferae, with which it is 
united by Engler and Prantl under the latter name; 
also related to the Ternstrcemiacece (Theaceae). The 
fascicles of stamens probably represent individual 
stamens, each of which has become divided into many. 



The opposite pellucid-dotted leaves, fascicled sta- 
mens, and 3-5-celled ovary with separate styles are 

The balsamic exudations from the bark and wood, 
especially of the shrubby species, were formerly used 
to some extent in medicine as an astringent. 

The genera in cultivation in America for ornamental 
purposes are: Ascyrum (St. Andrew's Cross, St. Peter's- 
wort), and Hypericum (St. John's- wort). Some of the 
species are herbaceous and some are shrubby. Some 
of the Hypericums are very showy. 

145. Tamaricacese (from the genus Tamarix, said to 
have been named from the river Tamaris, now Tambro, 
on the border of the Pyrenees). TAMARISK FAMILY. 
Fig. 39. Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, mostly 
needle-like or scale-like, ericoid leaves : flowers bisexual, 
regular; sepals 4-5; petals 5, imbricated, withering 
and drying persistent; stamens equal to and alternate 
with the petals or double the number, inserted on a 
more or less evident disk; ovary superior, 1-celled, with 
3-4 parietal placentae, or placenta basal; ovules 2 to 
many; styles 3-4, or stigmas sessile; seeds densely 
bearded at distal end, rarely winged : fruit a capsule, some- 
times becoming falsely and incompletely several-celled. 

The 5 genera and about 90-100 species are mainly 
distributed in the Mediterranean region and in central 
Asia. The family is related to the Frankeniacese and 
Elatinaceae; possibly also to the Salicaceae. The eri- 
coid habit, withering-persistent petals, definite sta- 
mens, 1-celled ovary and bearded seeds are distinctive. 
By means of small leaves, sunken stomata, water- 
storing tissue, and other contrivances, the Tamarica- 
ceae are adapted for life in the dry saline regions in which 
they live. Foliage-glands excrete an excess of absorbed 
mineral matter, and this very hygroscopic excretion 
accumulates on the surface of the plant. 

The Tamaricacese contain much tannin, resin and 
oils, which render them bitter and astringent. The 
bark of Myricaria germanica has been used for jaundice; 
the galls of some species are used because astringent. 
Tamarix mannifera, "which grows on Mount Sinai 
and elsewhere in Arabia, secretes, as the result of the 
puncture of a cynips, a saccharine matter, supposed 
by some to be the manna which fed the Hebrews in the 
desert." (See also Fraxinus Ornus.) 

None of the genera in cultivation in N. America is 
very hardy: Tamarix (Tamarisk); Myricaria, all grown 
for the queer, fluffy foliage, and small, abundant flowers. 

146. Fouquieriaceae (from the genus Fouquieria, 
named in honor of Pierre E. Fouquier, professor of 
medicine at Paris). CANDLEWOOD FAMILY. Similar to 
the Tamaricacese and formerly united with that family, 
but differing in the gamopetalous corolla, the ligule- 
bearing, hairy stamens, partially united styles, median 
ovules instead of basal, and leaves without crystal 
glands or epidermal glands. 

The single genus and about 4 species are natives of 
Mexico and the southwestern United States. 

F. splendens is the ocotilla, coach-whip cactus, vine 
cactus, or Jacob's staff of the Southwest, a spiny 
cactus-like shrub used by the Mexicans to make im- 
penetrable hedges. A useful wax is obtained from 
the cortex of this species. The cortex is also used 
medicinally. This species is in cultivation in the larger 
rockeries of California. 

147. Cistaceae (from the genus Cistus, derived from 
the Greek, meaning a box or capsule, on account of the 
shape of the capsule). ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. Fig. 40. 
Herbs or shrubs: leaves mostly opposite: flowers bisex- 
ual, regular; sepals 3 or more, in | phyllotaxy; petals 5, 
rarely 3 or 0, quickly falling; convolutions of corolla 
and calyx in opposite directions; stamens numerous, 
hypogynous; ovary superior, 1-celled, with 3-10 pa- 
rietal placenta;, or falsely 5-10-celled by ingrowing 
partitions; ovules 2 to many, orthotropous; style 1; 
stigmas 1-3: fruit a capsule. 

In North America and around the Mediterranean 
Sea, 4 genera and about 70 species are distributed ; also 
a few species in eastern Asia and in South America. 
The family is most closely related to the Violacese 
and the Bixaceae, and more distantly to the Hyperi- 
caceae. The quickly falling convolute petals, many 

40. CISTACE.E: 1. Helianthemum, flower. 2. Cistus, floral 
diagram. BIXACE.E: 3. Bixa, floral diagram. VIOLACE.E: 4. 
Viola, a, flower; 6, flower, perianth removed; c. fruit; d, floral dia- 
gram. 5. a, flower; 6, cross-section of ovary. 

hypogynous stamens, 1-celled, many- seeded ovary, 
parietal placentae and copious endosperm are dis- 
tinctive features. 

In the dry region about the Mediterranean, the 
shrubby forms, especially Cistus ladaniferus and 
C. monspeliensis take part in forming extensive 
"maquis," or impenetrable evergreen thickets, where 
they alone form great stretches of vegetation. The Cis- 
taceae prefer dry, sunny, sandy or alkaline soil. In 
America, Hudsonia forms carpets on the sand-dunea 
which are often strikingly beautiful when in flower. 
The family includes also Lechea (pinweed), and Helian- 
themum (rock-rose). 

In North America several species of Cistus, all 
shrubs, and of Helianthemum, are grown for orna- 
mental purposes, although they have no marked 
importance in this country. 

148. Bixaceae (from the genus Bixa, a name of South 
American origin). BIXA FAMILY. Fig. 40. Trees or 
shrubs: leaves alternate, simple or compound: flowers 
unisexual or bisexual, regular; sepals 4-5, imbricated; 
petals 4-5, large and colored, imbricated and twisted 
in the bud; stamens numerous; anthers opening by 
slits, or rarely by pores (Bixa), hypogynous; carpels 
1 to several, united; ovary 1-celled, with 1 to several 
parietal placenta, or falsely 3-celled; seeds many, with 
endosperm: fruit fleshy or dry, indehiscent or val- 
vular, in Bixa large and bristly-prickly all over. 

All the 4 genera and 19 species (excluding the Fla- 
courtiacea; and other small families often here included) 
are tropical, from Mexico to Brazil and in Africa, 
Madagascar and Australia. Bixa is now widely dis- 
tributed through the tropics. The Bixacese are related 
to the Violaceae and Cistacese, as well as to the Tiliaceae. 
The numerous stamens, compound but 1-celled ovary 
with many placentae are all important distinguishing 

Bixa Orellana furnishes the coloring matter known 
as "anatto," extracted from the pulp around the seeds, 



which is much used to give butter a rich yellow color 
and is also used in dyeing silks. The Caribbeans formerly 
tatooed themselves with this dye in order, it is said, to 
prevent mosquito-bites. The wood is very soft and 
serves only for tinder; the roots are aromatic and have 
been used to color and flavor soups. Maximilianea 
Gossypium furnishes a substitute for gum tragacanth 
in farther India. 

Bixa Orellana is in cultivation in the West Indies, 
where it is grown for the fruit. Several other genera 
in the American trade, which were formerly included 
in the Bixaceae, are now placed by Warburg in the 

149. Violaceae (from the genus Viola, the ancient 
Latin name). VIOLET FAMILY. Fig. 40. Herbs, shrubs 
or small trees, rarely climbing: leaves usually alternate: 
flowers bisexual, regular or irregular; sepals 5, separate 
or nearly so; petals 5, 1 often spurred; stamens 5, 
hypogynous or slightly perigynous, closely connivent 
around the style, similar or dissimilar (2 spurred); 
ovary 1-celled; placentae 2-5, usually 3, parietal; ovules 
many; style 1 : fruit a firm capsule with placenta on the 
middle of the valves, rarely a berry and indehiscent. 

Violaceae has 15 genera and about 300 species, of 
which about 200 belong to the genus Viola. These 
genera are grouped in three tribes: the Violeae, with 
irregular flowers, found chiefly in Europe, Siberia and 
North America, although the woody species are mainly 
natives of tropical America; the Paypayroleae and Rin- 
oreeae, with regular flowers, are principally found in South 
America, Africa and Australia. The family is closely 
related to the Cistaceae. The tendency to irregular 
flowers, the peculiar stamens, the 1-celled ovary with 
usually 3 parietal placentas, and the anatropous ovules, 
are distinctive. 

In the genus Viola and some other genera, a finger- 
like curved nectar-secreting horn projects backward 
from the connective of each of the two lower anthers 
into the spur of the lower petal. In many species of 
Viola, almost all the seeds are produced by small 
apetalous cleistogamous flowers on short pedicels near 
the ground in midsummer, after the normal flowering 
period is over. These are very fertile, and quite 
diverse in structure, and, therefore, useful in classifica- 
tion. Cleistogamous flowers are also produced in the 
genus Hybanthus. The capsules of most Violaceae 
open elastically when ripe, the valves springing back 
and at the same time folding on the midrib so that the 
seeds are forcibly ejected as one would shoot a wet 
apple seed from between the fingers. 

The Violaceae have been used to a certain extent in 
medicine, their virtues being due to an alkaloid having 
emetic and laxative properties. Hybanthus ipecacuanha 
("white ipecacuanha of commerce) furnishes a substi- 
tute for ipecac. Various species of Viola and other 
genera have been used in many countries for skin 
diseases, as emetics, laxatives, and the like. Several 
species are ornamental. 

Three genera are in the American trade: Corniostylis 
or Calyptrion, a species of greenhouse woody cumbers; 
Hybanthus or Solea, of the garden; and Viola (Common 
Pansy, Horned Pansy, Sweet English Violets, Wild 

150. Flacourtiaceae (from the genus Flacourtia, 
named in honor of E. de Flacourt, a governor of 
Madagascar). FLACOURTIA FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, 
rarely climbing: leaves usually alternate and in 2 ranks: 
flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular; sepals 2-6, 
commonly 4-5, imbricated, rarely otherwise; petals 
0, or equal to the sepals, or many, imbricated or con- 
volute; stamens numerous, hypogynous or perigynous; 
receptacle enlarged and variously modified, often sur- 
mounted by a diversely formed disk; ovary superior 
or nearly so, 1-celled; placentae parietal; ovules numer- 
ous; styles and stigmas 1 to several: fruit dry or fleshy, 
dehiscent or indehiscent. 

There are 70 genera and more than 500 species of 
tropical distribution. The family is related to the 
Violaceae, Passifloraceae, and other families with similar 
parietal placentation, but is most closely related to the 
Bixaceae with which it has often been united, and from 
which it differs mainly in the absence of slime-cells. 
In general, the peculiar ovary, the numerous stamens, 
the regular flower, and the enlarged receptacle are 

The sour fruit of several species is eaten, or preserved, 
in the tropics. The seeds of Pangium edule are roasted 
and used for baking. The leaves of Casearia esculenta 
are eaten in India. The wood is little used. The bark 
of Neumannia theiformis is used like ipecac in Madagas- 
car. Chaulmugra oil is obtained probably from Gyno- 
cardia odorata of farther India. A peculiar resin is 
secured from species of Laetia of Cuba. Coccos oil, 
used in perfumery, is obtained from the Polynesian 
genus Myroxylpn. The fixed oil of species of Pangium 
is used in cooking. 

Probably 5 or 6 genera are in cultivation in the 
warmer parts of North America: Aberia (Kei Apple); 
Azara; Carrieria; Flacourtia (Rambustan, Governor's 
Plum); Idesia, hardy in Mass.; Oncoba; Xylosma. 

151. Stachyuraceae (from the genus Stachyurus, signi- 
fying spike-tail, in reference to the form of inflorescence). 
STACHYURUS FAMILY. Shrubs or small trees with alter- 
nate leaves: flowers bisexual or polygamous, regular; 
sepals 4, imbricated; petals 4, imbricated; stamens 8, 
separate; carpels 4; ovary superior, 1-celled, or falsely 
4-celled by the intrusion of the large parietal placentae; 
style and stigma 1; ovules many: fruit berry-like, 
pericarp leathery. 

Only one genus and 4 species occur in Japan, China, 
and the Himalayas. The family is closely related to the 
Ternstroemiaceae with which it was formerly united 
and from which it differs in the fewer stamens, 1-celled 
ovary and entire stigma. Useful apparently only as 
ornamental plants. 

Two species are occasionally cultivated in America. 

152. Passifloraceae (from the genus Passiflora; early 
travelers thought they had found emblems of the cruci- 
fixion in the flower, for a detailed account of which see 
article on Passiflora). PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY. Fig. 40. 
Herbaceous or woody plants, usually climbing by 
axillary tendrils: leaves alternate, simple or compound: 
flowers bisexual, or unisexual, usually involucrate, 
perigynous; calyx and corolla sometimes similar; sepals 
4-5, imbricated, often pctaloid; petals 4-5, rarely 0, 
imbricated, often smaller than the sepals, sometimes 
fringed; a crown (outgrowth of receptacle) of many 
filaments between the petals and stamens, sometimes 
tubular or scale-like; stamens 45, usually opposite 
the petals, inserted on the edge of the cup-shaped 
receptacle, or at the base of the corona, or at the base of 
the pistil at the summit of a long gynophore, separate 
or connate; ovary superior, raised on a more or less 
distinct stalk (gynophore), 1-celled with 3-5 parietal 
placentae; ovules numerous; styles 3-5: fruit a berry or 

This family contains 18 genera and about 350 species, 
inhabitants principally of the tropical regions, especially 
of the New World. Two hundred and fifty species be- 
long to the genus Passiflora, which extends as far north 
as southern Pennsylvania. The family is not closely 
related to other families, but finds its nearest affinities 
in the Loasaceae, Turneraceae and Begoniacea;. The 
remarkable floral structure is distinctive. 

The pulpy aril of the seeds of Passiflora is used 
in tropical America in the preparation of cooling 
drinks. The flowers and fruit of P. rubra are narcotic. 
The roots of P. quadrangularis are very poisonous and 
sometimes used in small doses as a vermifuge. Many 
Passifloras are cultivated in the tropics as fruit plants. 

Many are in cultivation in America, namely Passi- 
flora and Tacsonia (Granadilla, Jamaica Honeysuckle, 



Water Lemon, May- Pop), some for the beautiful and 
odd flowers, some, especially in the South, for the fruit. 
153. Caricacese (from the genus Carica, erroneously 
supposed to be a native of Caria; or from the Latin 
meaning a kind of dry fig). PAWPAW FAMILY. Fig. 41. 
Peculiar trees with straight, rarely branched, palm-like 
trunks, very abundant milky juice, and a terminal crown 
of very large, alternate, palmately-lobed, rarely 

leaves: flowers unisexual, small 

nearly regular; sepals 

JCUVCO. 11UWC1B LUliaCA.UO'l, 3A11O.H, AA^aiijr 2 ^gulctL , .-i )l,ll.^ 

5; petals 5, in the staminate flowers connate, in the 
pistillate nearly separate; stamens about 10, inserted 
on the corolla; ovary superior, 1- or 5-celled, many- 
seeded; styles 5: fruit a large melon-like berry. 

This is a small family of 2 genera and 27 species, con- 
fined to tropical and subtropical America; most abun- 
dant in the Andes. The Caricaceee is united with the 
PassifloraceEB by some authors, but is similar only in 

41. CARICACE.E: 1. Carica, one form of flower opened. LOASA- 
CE.t:: 2. Loasa, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 3. Mentzelia, a, 
flower; 6, e, and d, types of foliage hairs. BEGONIACE.E: 4. Begonia, 
a, male flower; 6, female flower; c, cross-section ovary. CACTACE.E: 
5. Pilocereus, flower. 6. Opuntia, flower 

the fruit. It is also related to the Cucurbitacese by the 
fruit. The peculiar habit and abundant milky juice are 
very distinctive. 

The large melon-like fruits of Carica Papaya are now 
cultivated and eaten throughout the tropics; those of 
other species are also eaten. The milky juice of C. 
Papaya contains a pepsin-like substance which will 
curdle milk. This substance will separate the fibers of 
meat, and hence the leaves and fruit are cooked with 
too fresh tough meat to make it tender. The juice 
has also been used as a remedy for dyspepsia. 

Carica Papaya (South American pawpaw) is com- 
monly grown in greenhouses; and it, as well as two 
other species, are grown in southern California and 
Florida in the open. 

154. Loasaceae (from the genus Loasa, the meaning 
unknown). LOASA FAMILY. Fig. 41. Erect or climbing 
herbs, rarely shrubby, with very peculiar and character- 
istic hairs, some hooked, some stinging: leaves oppo- 
site or alternate, very diverse: flowers bisexual, regular, 
mostly perigynous (i.e., receptacle usually extended 

beyond the ovary); sepals 4-5, imbricated; petals 
4-5, flat or cucullate; stamens 4-5, alternating with the 
petals, or more commonly very numerous through 
doubling, the outer often converted into staminodia 
which resemble the petals; ovary usually inferior, and 
1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae; ovules numerous: 
fruit a capsule, rarely indehiscent, often spirally con- 

There are 13 genera and about 120 species confined 
to America from the Great Plains to Chile; most abun- 
dant in South America. This is a distinct family dis- 
tantly related to the Passifloracese and the Begoniacese. 
The very peculiar hairs constitute a good recognition 
character. On Mentzelia there are three types of hairs: 
(1) Chinese pagoda-like, broad at the base; (2) tuber- 
culate stem and harpoon-like top; (3) smooth stem and 
harpoon top. The flowers with many staminodia are 
often large and cactus-like. Very queer, grotesque, com- 
plex scales are produced in the flowers of certain genera 
(e. g., Loasa) through the union of several staminodia. 

Mentzelia hispida is a strong purgative, and is used 
by the Mexicans for syphilis. 

A few genera are in cultivation in North America. Of 
these, Loasa is like a nettle, and the sting is very painful, 
but the flowers are queer and interesting. Mentzelia 
comprises a number of garden annuals or biennials 
often with large showy flowers. 

155. Begpniaceae (from the genus Begonia,, named in 
honor of Michael Begon, a French promoter of botany) 
BEGONIA FAMILY. Fig. 41. Herbs, rarely shrubby, 
ham usually scale-like or branched: leaves alternate, 
usually oblique: flowers monoscious, regular, epigynous, 
cymose, the staminate opening first; perianth of the 
staminate flowers of 2 valyate sepals and 2 petals, all 
petaloid; perianth of the pistillate flowers of 2 to many 
similar petaloid parts; stamens numerous, separate or 
nearly so; ovary inferior, 2-3-celled. usually sharply 
angled and winged; ovules numerous; styles 3, more or 
less branched and bearing very peculiar crescent- 
shaped, kidney-shaped, or, more often, spiral, velvety 
stigmas, rarely straight: fruit a capsule, rarely a berry. 

The Begonia family has 4 genera and about 500 
species, most of which belong to the genus Begonia. 
They are widely distributed throughout the tropics, but 
perhaps most abundant in South America along the 
Andes to Mexico, and in the eastern Himalayas south- 
eastward to the Malay Peninsula. The Begoniacese 
constitute a distinct group remotely related to the Cac- 
tacese, Loasaceae, Passifloraceae and Cucurbitacese. 

The family is of little economic importance except 
for ornamental purposes. Many species contain oxalic 
acid and are eaten as salad, and as a remedy for scurvy. 
The roots of some are astringent; others have a purga- 
tive root, used in certain tropics for syphilis and scrofula. 
The Begoniacese is one of the most important orna- 
mental families. 

Very many species and hybrids of Begonia are grown 
for greenhouse and bedding purposes, both for the 
flowers and the foliage. 


156. Cactaceae (from the old Linnsean genus Cactus, 
a name used by the ancients to denote any spiny plant), 
CACTUS FAMILY. Fig. 41. Fleshy plants with watery or 
milky juice, a great reduction or complete absence of 
foliage, and very thick, rather sparingly branched, rarely 
unbranched stems, which are cylindrical, globular, 
flattened, or fluted, and often constricted or jointed: 
leaves alternate, flat and leaf-like in Pereskia, scale-like 
or absent in other genera, usually bearing bundles of 
spines in the axils, which are trichomes, and which are 
of two kinds, long and stout, or minute and needle-like: 
flowers bisexual, mostly regular, perigynous or epigy- 
nous; sepals and petals rarely 8-10, usually very many, 
similar; stamens many, inserted spirally or in groups 



on inside of the receptacle; ovary inferior, 1-celled, 
with 3 to many parietal placentae; ovules numerous; 
style 1; stigmas as many as the placenta;: fruit a berry; 
embryo straight or curved. 

The Cacti are almost entirely confined to the dry 
regions of tropical and subtropical America. Mexico 
is the center of this distribution, but the Cactaceae ex- 
tend from New York to Patagonia. A species of Rhip- 
salis has lately been found indigenous in West Africa. 
The family is related to the Begoniacese, Loasaceae, and 
PassifloraceaB. The peculiar habit, perianth of many 
similar parts, many stamens, and inferior 1-celled ovary 
are distinctive. The Cactaceae is divided into three 
groups: (1) Cereus group, with receptacle extended in 
a tube beyond the ovary (perigynous), and no hooked 
spines; (2) Opuntia group, tube of the receptacle want- 
ing, hooked spines usually present; (3) Pereskia group, 
with foliaceous leaves, panicled flowers, and no hooked 

The seeds of Rhipsalis, an epiphytic genus, are often 
viscid so as to adhere to tree trunks and the like. The 
ovaries of some Cactacese are imbedded in the tissue 
of the stem. In this family, the thick stem is a water- 
storing organ. The flatttened or fluted condition of the 
stem of most species is probably an adaptation which 
allows these stems to swell when water is abundant 
and contract when it is scarce without danger of 
rupturing the cuticle. The variation in size and form 
among cacti is very great. The largest species is 
Carnegiea giganteus of Mexico, candelabra-like, 60 feet 

The fruit of Opuntia Ficus-4ndica, now naturalized 
in the Mediterranean region, is there eaten under the 
name of Indian fig. Opuntia Tuna of tropical America 
is the prickly pear, an edible fruit. Opuntia vulgaris of 
the eastern United States is also eaten under the name 
of prickly pear or Indian fig. Fruits of Cereus trian- 
gularis, C. giganteus, and C. Thurberi are much prized. 
The stem and flowers of C. grandiflorus are used in 
medicine, producing an action on the heart. Vermif- 
ugal properties are found in many Cactacese. An 
alcoholic drink is made by the Mexicans from the sap of 
species of Cereus. The cochineal insect, a scale insect 
yielding the well-known dye, cochineal, lives upon spe- 
cies of Opuntia, Pereskia, and Nopalea, in tropical 

The total number of genera of Cactacese which have 
been described up to the present time is about 70. 
although Dr. Karl Schumann, who monographed 
the family in 1899, recognized but 21. Of the many 
genera described, most are good and will probably 
stand. A rational and uniform treatment of the family 
will doubtless show that there are no less than 75 ten- 
able genera. The total number of names published is 
something over 3,800. This includes many species that 
have been transferred from one genus to another. The 
number of species recognized by Schumann is some- 
thing less than 700. Many of these species of Schumann, 
however, are known to be aggregates, and it is not 
unlikely that there are about 1,200 species in the 

The number of genera treated in this work is 35. 
They are in cultivation in America as odd plants for 
desert gardens, and as greenhouse curiosities. Many 
have beautiful showy flowers, those of Cereus grandi- 
florus (night-blooming cereus) being nearly one foot 
across, and opening only in the night. 

The reader will find the cacti described in this 
Cvclopedia under the following names: Acanthocereus; 
Anhalonium =Ariocarpus; Aporocactus; Ariocarpus; 
Bergerocactus; Cactus; Carnegiea; Cephalocereus; 
Cereus; Disocactus; Echinocactus; Echinocereus; Echi- 
nopsis; Epiphyllum = Zygocactus; Escontria; Hariota; 
Harrisia; Heliocereus; Hylocereus; Lemaireocereus; 
Leptocereus; Leuchtenbergia; Lophophora; Mamil- 
laria; Melocactus = Cactus; Myrtillocactus; Nopalea; 

Opuntia; Pachycereus; Pelecyphora; Pereskia; Per- 
eskiopsis ; Phyllocactus = Epiphyllum ; Pilocereus = 
Cephalocereus; Rathbunia; Selenicereus; Schlumber- 
gera; Wilcoxia; Wittia; Zygocactus. 


157. Thymelaeaceae (from the generic name Thyrn- 
elxa, a Greek name meaning thyme + olive or oil). ME- 
ZEREUM FAMILY. Fig. 42. Shrubs or trees, rarely 
herbs: leaves alternate or opposite, simple, entire: 
flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, receptacle devel- 
oped into a long tube which bears appendages in the 
throat; perianth undifferentiated, often petaloid, parts 
4-5, imbricated, perigynous; stamens as many as the 
sepals and alternate with them, or twice as many, or 

42. THYMEI^EACE^E: 1. Daphne, flower. EI-EAGNACE^E: 2. 
Elffiagnus, a, male flower; 6, bisexual flower; c, floral diagram; d 
and e, hairs from surface of leaf. LYTHHACE.E: 3. Lythrum, a, 
flower; 6, trimorphic flowers of L. Salicaria; c, floral diagram. 
PUNICACH*: 4. Punica, a, flower; b, fruit, upper story; c, fruit, 
lower story. 

reduced to 2, perigynous; ovary superior, 1-celled, 
rarely 2-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous; style 1 or 0, 
stigma 1: fruit indehiscent, a nut, drupe, or berry; 
rarely a capsule. 

About 37 genera and 425 species are widely distrib- 
uted over the earth. One species is native in north- 
western North America. The largest genera are Gnidia 
with 80-90 species, and Pimelea with 75 species. The 
family stands between the Myrtiflorso and the Cactales, 
and also somewhat suggests the Passifloracese. The 
single perianth, the tubular receptacle, perigynous, defi- 
nite stamens, the appendages in the tube of the recep- 
tacle, and the superior 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary are 

Gnidia carinata of South Africa and Daphne Meze- 
reum (mezereon) of Europe have been used as a purge; 
as has also the spurge flax (Daphne Gnidium) of 
South Europe, the caustic juice of which is used in a 
blistering ointment. A blistering principle is obtained 
from the bark of Funifera utilis of Brazil; also from 
Dirca palustris. The roots of Thymelxa tinctoria yield 
a yellow dye. Paper is made from the cauline fibers of 



several species, e.g., Daphne cannabina of India, Dirca 
palustris of the United States, Gnidia of Madagascar, 
and Lagetta of Jamaica. Cord is made from Lagelta 
funifera and L. lintearia of South America. The wood 
of Aquilaria Agallocha of India is aromatic, called 
aloewood. One Pimelea yields a balsam. Lace-bark is 
the product of Lagetta lintearia. 

Six or more genera are in cultivation in this country 
for ornament. Among these are: .Daphne (Mezereon), 
greenhouse and garden; Dirca (Leatherwood, Moose- 
wood), native, hardy; and Pimelea (Rice Flower), 

158. Elaeagnacese (from the genus Elxagnus, de- 
rived from the Greek name of the olive combined with 
that of the Chaste tree). OLEASTER FAMILY. Fig. 42. 
Trees and shrubs, covered with silvery and brown, pel- 
tate or stellate scales: leaves alternate or opposite, sim- 
ple, entire: flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, peri- 
gynous; receptacle developed into a long tube beyond 
the ovary, more or less persistent, and inclosing the 
fruit; perianth of 1 series; parts 4, rarely 2 or 6, val- 
vate; stamens of the same number or double the num- 
ber, inserted in the tube; perigynous disk prominent, 
lobed; ovary superior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1; 
stigma 1 : real fruit dry, indehiscent, but appearing 
drupe-like because of the fleshy investing receptacle. 

Three genera and about 30 species are found, of 
which about 25 belong to Elseagnus; mostly steppe or 
rock plants, chiefly of south Asia, Europe and North 
America. The family is closely related to the Thymelfe- 
aceae, which see for further relationship. The peculiar 
scales, the perigynous flowers, the 1-celled, 1-seeded 
ovary, and the fleshy but free receptacle are distinctive. 

The acid fruits of Elseagnus angustifolia of Persia are 
eaten; also those of E. latifolia of India, and the seeds 
of Shepherdia argentea of North America. 

There are 3 genera in cultivation in America, prin- 
cipally as hardy ornamental plants with silvery foliage: 
Elaeagnus (Oleaster, Goumi); Hippophae (Sea Buck- 
thorn, Swallow Thorn); Shepherdia (Buffalo Berry). 

159. Lythraceae (from the genus Lythrum, derived 
from the Greek meaning blood, in reference to the pur- 
ple flowers). LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Fig. 42. Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees: leaves usually opposite or whorled: 
flowers bisexual, usually regular, perigynous; recepta- 
cle ("calyx-tube") tubular, ribbed, free from the ovary, 
bearing the 4 or 8 valvate sepals on its margin; petals 
of the same number as the sepals, or 0, and inserted with 
them, imbricated; stamens usually twice as many as 
the petals, rarely more (up to 200), or fewer (to 1); 
outer set alternate with the peta|s, and inserted some 
distance below them; ovary superior, 2-6-celled, many- 
ovuled: fruit a capsule, rarely indehiscent. 

There are 22 genera and about 450 species known; 
generally distributed, but more abundant in the trop- 
ics, especially in America. The largest genus is Cuphea 
with about 160 species. The family is closely related 
to the Onagracea, but differs in the superior ovary; it 
is also related to the Melastomacese, but the sta- 
mens are normal. 

Lythrum Salicaria has been used as an astringent; 
Heimia and Cuphea have been used as purgatives and 
emetics. Lawsonia inermis of Egypt is the famous 
henna, the perfume of the flower of which is renowned 
throughout the East; with an orange-red dye obtained 
from the leaves of this plant, women of the orient dye 
hair and nails. Pemphis acidula is used as a pot-herb 
in Asia. The flowers of Woodfardia floribunda yield the 
red dye of India called dhak. Lagerstroemia furnishes 
very valuable timber. 

In cultivation in N. America are several genera: Cu- 
phea, species of garden annuals; Decodon (Swamp 
Loosestrife), native, but used for water-gardens ; Lyth- 
rum (Loosestrife); Lawsonia (Henna), cultivated in 
southern Florida and southern California; Lagerslrce- 
mia indica (Crape Myrtle) cultivated in the South. 

160. Punicaceae (from the genus Punica, derived 
from the Latin in reference to Carthage, near which 
city the plant is said to have grown; or from the Latin 
meaning scarlet, in reference to the flowers). POME- 
GRANATE FAMILY. Fig. 42. Shrubs or commonly small 
trees: leaves mostly opposite: flowers bisexual, usually 
perigynous; receptacle campanulate or tubular, thick- 
ened above the ovary; sepals 5^8, fleshy, valvate; 
petals 5-7, imbricated, inserted with the sepals on the 
edge of the receptacle; stamens very numerous, clothing 
the tube of the receptacle; carpels in 1-2 (rarely 3) 
superimposed series, 3 in the lower and usually 5-7 in 
the upper; ovary more or less inferior, with as many 
cells as carpels; placentae of the lower series axile, of the 
upper parietal, the cells many-ovuled; style and stigma 
1: fruit a berry, the pulpy central mass of which is 
formed from the fleshy outer seed-coats. 

This is a family of only 1 genus and 2 species, na- 
tives of the Mediterranean region and eastward to the 
Himalayas. It was formerly united with the Lythra- 
cese, but the peculiar ovary is unique. Punica Grana- 
tum is the famous pomegranate, cultivated for its fruit 
since the earliest times, and now widely spread over 
the tropics. This species is cultivated in the southern 
states and in greenhouses. It has escaped in Florida. 

161. Lecythidaceae (from the genus Lecythia, derived 
from the Greek meaning an oil-jar, in reference to the 
fruit). LECYTHIA FAMILY. Fig. 43. Trees: leaves alter- 
nate, large and striking: flowers bisexual, regular, perigy- 
nous or epigynous; sepals 4-6, rarely fewer, valvate; 
petals 46, imbricated, rarely more or fewer; stamens 
very numerous, somewhat monadelphous, many anther- 
less; intra-staminal disk often present; ovary inferior, 
2-6-celled, several ovules in each cell: fruit a hard- 
shelled berry or a capsule dehiscing by a lid. 

The family has 18 genera and about 225 species, 
with a somewhat isolated distribution in various parts 
of the tropics, e.g., North Brazil, west coast of Africa, 
Malay Peninsula, Mozambique, and Samoa. The fam- 
ily was formerly united with the Myrtacese but is dis- 
similar in some important details of vascular structure, 
and in the absence of volatile oils. 

The most important economic plant is the Brazil- 
nut or para-nut (Berlhollelia excelsa) of northern 
South America, the oily seeds of which are an impor- 
tant article of food. The seeds are in a box-like capsule, 
the lid of which falls off. The oily seeds of several other 
species are eaten, e.g., the monkey-pot tree (Lecythis). 
The fruits and roots of a number of species of Bar- 
ringtonia are used in Java and China to stupefy fish. 
The flowers of Grias cauliflora of the West Indies are 
used for tea. A cooling drink is made from the fruit of 
Couroupita guianensis of the West Indies. 

The Brazil-nut or nigger-toe is sparingly planted in 
southern California, Florida and the West Indies. 

162. Rhizophoracese (from the genus Rhizophora, 
root-bearing, because of the numerous aerial roots). 
MANGROVE FAMILY. Fig. 43. Trees or shrubs: leaves 
usually opposite, coriaceous: flowers bisexual, epigynous 
or perigynous; sepals 3-14, more or less connate, valvate; 
petals of the same number, small, often lacerate; 
stamens 2-4 times as many, often in pairs opposite the 
petals; ovary inferior, usually 2-5-celled: fruit some- 
what juicy, crowned with the calyx, rarely dehiscent, 
usually a berry, rarely a drupe. 

The 15 genera and about 50 species are distributed 
throughout the tropics. The family is related to the 
Combretacese and Lythracese; more distantly to the 
other families of the myrtaceous group. 

This is a small family of remarkable plants, mostly 
inhabiting mud-flats along the coast in the tropics. 
The stem soon perishes at the base and then the plant 
is supported by its numerous prop-roots alone. The 
mud is so soft that otherwise the plants could probably 
not remain erect. The genus Rhizophora is almost 
unique in the vegetable kingdom because the seeds germi- 



mite on the plant. The hypocotyl may reach the 
length of 3 feet, although usually less; it is club-shaped 
and heaviest at the apex, so that when the seedling 
eventually falls from the tree, it sticks in the mud 
vertically, with the hypocotyl down, ready to grow. 

The Rhizophoracese are of little economic importance. 
Land is held in place and protected from the waves by 
the mangrove. The fruits of Anisophyllum are plum- 
like but poor. The mangrove grows wild on the 
Florida, Texas, and Mississippi coast, and has been 
offered for sale in California. 

163. Combretacese (from the genus Combretum, a 
name given to this plant by Pliny). COMBRETUM FAM- 
ILY. Fig. 43. Trees or shrubs, erect or climbing: leaves 

43. LECYTHIDACE.*: 1. Lecythis, flower. RHIZOPHORACE*: 

2. Rhizophora, a, flower; b, germinating fruit. COMBHETACE.E: 

3. Combretum, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. MYKTACE*: 4. 
Jambosa, a, flower; b, vertical section flower-bud. 5. Eucalyptus, 
a, flower-bud and lid; b, vertical section flower-bud. MELAS- 
TOMACE.E: 6. Melastoma, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. 

alternate or opposite, simple or coriaceous: flowers 
bisexual or unisexual, regular, usually perigynous; 
receptacle enveloping the ovary and often projecting 
into a slender tube; sepals 4-5, valvate, connate; petals 
4-5, or 0; stamens 4-5, alternating with the petals, or 
twice or thrice as many; ovary 1-celled, inferior, 2-4- 
ovuled: fruit a drupe, or dry and winged, rarely 

In this family are 15 genera and about 280 species, 
mostly confined to the tropics of both hemispheres. 
The family is related to the Cornacea? and the Rhi- 
zophoraceae, as well as more distantly to the Onagracese. 

The trees are valuable for their hard, close wood; 
the tannin-containing bark and galls are used locally 
for tanning leather. The seeds known as myrobalans 
(Terminalia Chebula and T. Catappa) are much eaten 
in India. A useful oil is obtained from these seeds. 
Black and yellow dyes are furnished by several species. 

Four to 6 genera are in cultivation in the Southern 
States and the West Indies. Terminalia Catappa 
(tropical almond, myrobalan) is grown for nuts and 

shade. Poivrea is a red-flowered shrub grown in 
southern Florida. One species of Combretum is a 
warmhouse climbing shrub. Quisqualis, or rangoon 
creeper, is a peculiar climbing shrub grown in the 
warmhouse. It is at first erect, later climbing. 

164. Myrtaceae (from the genus Myrtus derived 
from the classical name myrtle, which probably meant 
perfume). MYRTLE FAMILY. Fig. 43. Usually shrubby 
or arborescent aromatically fragrant plants: leaves usu- 
ally opposite, thick, entire and pellucid-dotted: flowers 
bisexual, regular, rarely perigynous; sepals mostly 
4-5, imbricated; petals 4-5, imbricated; stamens very 
numerous by splitting, often in fascicles which are 
opposite the petals; ovary inferior, 1- to many-colled: 
fruit usually a berry, rarely a drupe or nut; seeds 
1- to many. 

The 72 genera and 2,750 species are confined almost 
entirely to the tropics, but with two great centers of 
distribution, one in tropical America and the other in 
Australia. Eugenia contains 625 species, and Kura- 
lyptus more than 130 species. This is a large family re- 
lated to the Melastomacea:, Onagracea;, and Lythracea. 
The very numerous stamens, derived by the snlitting of 
the few original stamens, and the oil-glands are dis- 
tinctive. The petals of Eucalyptus remain firmly grown 
together, and, when the flower opens, they separate 
along a transverse line and are thrown off as a lid. 

The Myrtacese are rich in volatile oils; also in tannin, 
acids, sugars, mucilage, and fixed oils. Cloves are the 
flower-buds of Jambosa caryophyllus. The fruit of 
Pimento officinalis is thought to combine the flavors 
of the nutmeg, cinnamon, and clove, and is therefore 
termed allspice. Psidium Guajava is a tree cultivated 
in the tropics for the much-prized fruits. Oil of myrica 
is obtained from the leaves of Pimento acris of the 
West Indies, and is used in making bay rum. Oil of 
cajeput, a fragrant oil used in medicine, is secured 
from the leaves and twigs of the East Indian Melaleuca 
Leucadendron. The leaves of the European myrtle 
(Myrtus communis) yield a distilled preparation known 
as eau-d'ange, used as a toilet article. Other edible 
fruits are rose apples (Jambosa malaccensis and J . vul- 
garis) of the East Indies and Pacific Ocean. Jambos 
berries are obtained from Jambosa vulgaris, which is 
extensively cultivated in the tropics. Oil of eucalyptus 
is an important aromatic oil obtained from the foliage 
of various species of that genus. The wood of Eu- 
calyptus is hard, firm and elastic, and is much prized 
in wood-carving Many other species of this family 
are in use locally for food, condiments, medicine, 
timber, and so on. 

About 20 genera are in cultivation in North America, 
mostly in the South or Southwest. Among these are 
the Bottle-brush (Callistemon), Cajaput Tree (Mela- 
leuca), Eucalyptus or Australian Blue-gum, Rose Apple 
or Jambos (Jambosa), Cayenne Cherry (Eugenia), 
Myrtle (Myrtus), Guava (Psidium), Allspice, Pimento 
(Pimenta), Brisbane Box (Tristania), Turpentine Tree 
(Syncarpia), and Downy Myrtle (Rhodomyrtus). 

165. Melastomaceas (from the genus Melastoma, 
derived from the Greek black-mouth, because the berries 
of some of the species when eaten stain the mouth 
black). MELASTOMA FAMILY. Fig. 43. Herbs, shrubs 
or trees; erect, climbing or epiphytic: branches often 4- 
sided : leaves opposite or whorled, simple, mostly entire, 
usually palmately nerved throughout with transverse 
nervelets: flowers bisexual, regular or slightly irregular, 
often perigynous; sepals 3-6, mostly 5, valvate, im- 
bricated or united into a calyptra-like hood; petals 
commonly 5, convolute; stamens usually twice as 
many as the petals, rarely just as many; anthers mostly 
opening by terminal pores, inflexed in the bud, often 
curved; connective very peculiar and diverse, with 
various appendages; often one anther cell wanting, the 
other mounted on the end of the lever-like, versatile, 
curved connective; ovary usually 4-5-celled, more or 



less inferior; ovules numerous in each cell; style and 
stigma 1 : fruit a berry, drupe or capsule, or dry and 
indehiscent, usually inclosed in the calyx. 

Most of the 148 genera and about 2,800 species, are 
found in tropical America, where the species are very 
abundant and form a characteristic component of the 
vegetation; represented in the eastern United States 
by 4 species of Rhexia (deer-grass, meadow beauty). 
Melastomaceas is a very distinct, striking and pecu- 
liar tropical family related to the Myrtaceacae and the 
Lythracese, recognized by the venation of the leaves, 
and the unusual stamens. The so-called "cauliflower" 
species, with the flowers borne directly on the tree- 
trunks, are pollinated by butterflies in the deep tropi- 
cal forests. Some Melastomacea: are myrmecophilous, 
i.e., furnish habitations or food for ants, which in turn 
protect the plant. 

The fruits of several species are eaten. The berries 
and bark of some yield coloring matter of some impor- 
tance. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves of 
Memecylon of the East Indies and Africa; red and 
black dyes are secured from the berries of Tamonea 
(tropical America), Melastoma (East Indies), and so on. 
The leaves of Tamonea thesezans are used by the 
Peruvians in place of tea. Some, because of astringent 
properties, are locally used as medicine. The most 
important use of the Melastomaceae is ornamental. 
The large, showy, queer flowers and striking foliage 
render them popular greenhouse plants in the North. 

Some 20 genera are cultivated in N. America, mostly 
as warmhouse decorative plants, or for summer bed- 
ding. Few, if any, have popular names. 

166. Onagraceae (from the genus Onagra, now a part 
of CEnothera, derived from the Greek, a wild ass, 
in reference to a fancied resemblance between the 
ears of that animal and the leaves of these plants). 
EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Fig. 44. Mostly herbs, 
rarely shrubs: leaves opposite or alternate: flowers 
bisexual, regular, perigynous or epigynous; sepals 4, 
rarely 2-3, separate or united, valvate; petals 4, or 
rarely 2 or 0, mostly clawed, convolute; stamens of the 
same number as the petals or twice as many, outer 
alternate with the petals; ovary 2 4-celled, inferior; 
ovules numerous; style 1; stigmas 1-4: fruit a capsule, 
rarely a berry or nut. 

The 36 genera and 470 species are mostly natives of 
the temperate portion of the New World (western United 
States and Mexico), but are also abundant in South 
America. Epilobium, containing 160 species, is widely 
distributed in the cooler regions of both hemispheres. 
This is a distinct family, recognized by the numerical 
plan of 2 or 4, the usually perigynous flowers, and the 
inferior ovary with many ovules. It is related to 
Lythracea:, Melastomacese, Myrtacese, and other fami- 
lies of this group. 

Fuchsia is shrubby or even arborescent, and its 
fruit is a berry. The tubular receptacle is prolonged 
beyond the ovary in most genera, but not in Jussieua, 
Ludwigia, and Epilobium. The seeds of Epilobium are 
comose, and are distributed, parachute-like, by the 
wind. The flowers of a number of species of CEnothera 
open only at night or in dark weather, and are pollinated 
by night-flying moths; hence the name evening prim- 

The wood of several species of Fuchsia furnishes ink 
and a black dye. Jussieua pilosa yields a yellow dye. 
The berries of many Fuchsias are eaten, and preserved 
with sugar. The young shoots of Epilobium latifolium 
are eaten as greens. The roots of (Enothera biennis 
have been improved in Europe and furnish "rha- 
pontic" roots, which are eaten like celery. The coma 
of the seeds of Epilobium has been used in Lapland to 
make lamp-wioks and has been spun into cloth, but 
without great success. Many genera are cultivated for 
ornamental purposes because of the showy flowers. 

About a dozen genera are cultivated in N. America, 

among which are the following: Circaea (Enchanter's 
Nightshade); Epilobium (Willow Herb, Fire Weed); 
Fuchsia; Ludwigia (Water-purslane, Seed-box or Rattle- 
box) ;^Clarkia; CEnothera (Evening Primrose, Sundrops) ; 
and Godetia. These are mostly grown in the open as an- 
nuals or as hardy perennials, except Fuchsia, which is a 
greenhouse plant but often bedded out in summer. 

167. Hydrocaryaceae (from the Greek signifying 
water-walnut). WATER CHESTNUT FAMILY. Herbaceous, 
aquatic plants, mostly floating: stems slender, clothed 
with opposite, pinnatifid roots: leaves alternate, 
crowded at the summit of the stem, floating, rhomboid, 
petioled; petioles forming thick, hollow floats: flowers 
bisexual, regular, slightly perigynous, axillary; sepals 
4; petals 4; stamens 4, all sets alternating; ovary sur- 
rounded by -an erect, corona-like disk, half-inferior, 
2-celled; cells 1-ovuled; style and stigma 1: fruit a 
woody 1-celled, 1-seeded nut bearing on the surface 
the four divergent woody horn-like sepals and capped 
by the woody disk. 

A single genus and 3 species occur, distributed in the 
Mediterranean region and eastward to eastern Asia. 
This is an ancient family, more common in the tertiary. 
The family is related to the Onagraceae, with which 
it is frequently united, and to the Haloragidaceas, 
and is somewhat intermediate between these two 
families. The fruit, disk, and habit are peculiar. 

The starchy seeds have a chestnut-hke flavor and 
are eaten raw or cooked, for which reason the plants 
are often cultivated. The fruits are regularly sold 

44. ONAQRACE^E: 1. (Enothera, o, flower; 6. floral diagram. 
2. Epilobium, a, flower; 6, dehiscing fruit; c, seed. 3. Circsea, 
floral diagram. HALORAGIDACE^E: 4. Myriophyllum, a, portion 
of flowering plant; b, female flower; c, male flower, petals removed. 

in the markets of India; those of Trapa natans var. 
verbanensis are used as beads. 

Trapa natans (Water Chestnut, Water Caltrops) 
and T. bispinosa (Singhara Nut) are grown in this 
country as aquarium plants. See article on Trapa. 

168. Haloragidacese (from the genus Haloragis, 
meaning sea + a berry). WATER MILFOIL FAMILY. 
Fig. 44. Herbs, aquatic or terrestrial, of very diverse 
appearance: leaves opposite or alternate, often in the 
same genus, pectinate (aquatic) to very large and 



divided: flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular; sepals 
4; petals 4 or 0; stamens 8, the outer opposite the 
petals, or 4, rarely fewer; ovary inferior, 1-4-celled, 
each cell 1-ovuled: fruit nut-like, often crowned by the 

Eight genera and about 100 species are known, of 
general distribution. These are most abundant in the 
southern hemisphere of the Old World. They are repre- 
sented in South America and elsewhere by the queer 
Gunnera and in the eastern United States by Hippuris, 
Myriophyllum and Proserpinaca. The family is closely 
related to the Onagracese, but differs in having but 1 
ovule in each cell of the ovary. 

The aquatic forms are Utricularia-like and floating, 
with slender stems and either finely pectinate leaves 
with filiform divisions (Myriophyllum) or linear and 
entire leaves (Hippuris). Gunnera of South America 
has broad kidney-shaped leaves varying from small to 
gigantically large. The leaves of this genus in Costa 
Rica are said to be so large as to give shelter to three 
men on horseback. 

The fruits of Gunnera macrophyUa are used as a 
stimulant in Java. The giant leaves, six feet broadj of 
Gunnera chUensis are used in Chile for tanning skins. 

Two species of Gunnera are almost, or quite, hardy 
in the mid-eastern United States, and are grown for 
luxuriant lawn foliage. Several species of the aquatic 
Myriophyllum are in cultivation, one of which is 
parrot s feather (M . proserpinacmdes). 

Order 45. UMBELLIFLOR^! 

169. Araliaceae (from the genus Aralia, the meaning 
of which is unknown). GINSENG FAMILY. Fig. 45. Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees, often prickly or climbing: stems solid, 
pithy: leaves usually alternate, simple, or pinnately 
or ternately compound: flowers bisexual or unisexual, 
small, regular, epigynous, commonly in umbels; sepals 
minute, often almost wanting; petals 5, rarely more, 
valvate or imbricated, sometimes cohering at the apex 


45. ARAUACEC: 1. Aralia, a. flower; b, floral diagram. 2. 
Hedera, portion of inflorescence. UMBELLIFER^E: 3. Cicuta, 
inflorescence. 4. Fceniculum, a, flower; 6, dehiscing fruit. 5. 
Artedia, fruit. 6. Apium, fruit. 7. a, b, and c, fruits of Umbel- 
liferse, cross-section. 

and deciduous as a cap; stamens usually 5, alternate 
with the petals, and inserted at the edge of an epigynoui 
disk, rarely twice or thrice as many; ovary inferior, 
2-15-celled; cells 1-ovuled; styles as many as the car- 
pels: fruit a berry, rarely splitting into segments. 

Fifty-one genera and about 400 species are dis- 
tributed in tropical and temperate regions of both 
hemispheres. The two great centers of distribution are 
tropical America and the Malay Peninsula. The family 
is very closely related to the Umbelliferae, but differs in 
the berry-like fruit with more numerous carpels. 

The leaves of the English ivy (Hedera Helix) were 
used in medicine in olden times. The roots of ginseng 
(Panax Ginseng and Panax quinquefolium) are muca 
prized in China where they are carried about on the 
person as a charm against disease. These roots are 
now extensively and profitably cultivated in America 
for the Chinese trade. The roots of Aralia nudicaulis 
(American sarsaparilla) are considered a tonic. Chinese 
rice-paper is made from the pith of Tetrapanax papyri- 
ferum simply by cutting the pith spirally into thin sheets. 
Many Araliacese are grown as ornamental plants. 

Many genera are cultivated in America. Among 
these are: Acanthopanax; Aralia (including Spikenard, 
Hercules' Club or Devil's Walking-club, Wild Sarsapa- 
rilla, Bristly Sarsaparilla, Chinese Angelica Tree); 
Dizygotheca; Fatsia; Oreopanax; Polyscias; Pseudo- 
panax; Hedera (English Ivy); and Panax (Ginseng). 

170. Umbelliferae (from the predominating type of 
flower cluster). PARSLEY FAMILY. Fig. 45. Herbs or 
rarely shrubs: stems often hollow: leaves alternate, 
rarely simple, usually ternately or pinnately compound: 
flowers minute, bisexual, regular or the outer irregular, 
epigynous, borne in simple or compound umbels; 
sepals minute or wanting; petals 5, valvate and 
incurved in the bud; stamens 5, alternating with the 
petals, inserted around an epigynous disk; ovary 
2-celled, inferior, each cell 1-seeded; styles 2: fruit 
very special, consisting of 2 dry, ribbed or winged, 
1-seeded, indehiscent carpels (mericarps), which sep- 
arate at the base but remain attached at the top to a 
very slender and flexuous Y-shaped stalk (carpophore) 
from which they dangle; between or under the ribs 
are oil-tubes. 

About 231 genera and 1,500 species are very com- 
monly found in all boreal temperate and subtropical 
lands, but are rare in the tropics except in the moun- 
tains. The Umbellifera; is a distinct family, closely 
related to the Araliacese, and more distantly to the 
Cornacese. The umbels, the inferior ovary and the 
peculiar fruit are distinctive. 

The leaves are exceedingly diverse in size, shape 
and extent to which compounded. Those of Eryngium 
are sword-shaped, or yucca-like, often spiny; those of 
Hydrocotyle are simple and often peltate. Azorella 
of the Andes and New Zealand is turf-like or cushion- 
like, a xerophytic adaptation. Some species of Angelica 
are immense herbs many feet high with enormous 
leaves. The flowers, in general, are uniform in structure 
and appearance, the greatest diversity being in the fruit. 

Economic plants are abundant in the Umbelliferae; 
between 40 and 50 have been listed by some authors. 
Various alkaloids and other compounds, some very 
poisonous, together with many kinds of resins, pro- 
duced in the foliage, roots or seeds, form the basis of 
then- economic importance. Plants used for food are 
celery (Apium graveolens), carrot (Daunts Carota), and 
parsley (Petroselinumsativum). Those used for flavoring 
are caraway (Carum Carui), anise (Pimpindla Anisum), 
sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza or Scandix), chervil (Anthriscus 
Cerefolium),d\\\(Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum 
vulgare), lovage (Levisticum officinale). Very poisonous 
plants are poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), fool's 
parsley (dlthusa Cynapium) and others. The following 
drugs are obtained from this family: coriander (Corian- 
drum sativum), ammoniac resin (from Dorema Amman- 



iacum), galbanum (a resin from species of Ferula). 
From various species of Ferula is obtained the vile- 
smelling gum-resin asafetida, used in medicine, which 
the Persians are said to praise as a delicious condiment. 
There are 40-50 genera in cultivation in America, 
mostly hardy. Some are grown for food, others for 
ornament: Sea Holly (Eryngium); Sanicle, or 
locally Black Snakeroot (Sanicula); Carrot (Daucus); 
Coriander (Coriandrum) ; Cumin (Cuminum); Celery 
(Apium) ; Caraway (Carum) ; Gout-weed (^Egopodium) ; 
Sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza) ; Myrrh (not of medicine) or 
European Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis or, more properly, 
Scandix); Fennel (Fceniculum) ; Lovage (Levisticum) ; 
Angelica (Angelica); Cow-parsnip (Heracleum). Poison 
hemlock (Conium) is a roadside weed. 

171. Cornaceae (from the genus Cornus, derived 
from the Latin horn, referring to the hardness of the 
wood). DOGWOOD FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, rarely 
herbs: leaves opposite or alternate, entire, exstipulate: 
flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, epigynous; 
sepals 4, minute or absent; petals 4, usually valvate; 
stamens commonly of same number as petals and 
alternate with them, separate; epigynous disk usually 
present; ovary inferior, 2-celled, rarely 1-10-celled; 
ovules in each cell 1, rarely 2: fruit a drupe or berry. 

The 15 genera and about 120 species, of which 45 
species belong to the genus Cornus, are distributed in 
the temperate portions of the northern hemisphere, 
principally in North America and Asia; some, how- 
ever, occur in South Africa and New Zealand. The 
relationships of the family are doubtful. Cornus is 
related to the Caprifoliacese, but some other genera 
suggest the Araliaceae. The woody or sub-ligneous 
habit, 4-merous, polypetalous, epigynous flowers and 
the berry-like fruit with one seed in each cell are .dis- 

Many species of Cornus have capitate flowers sur- 
rounded by a large petaloid involucre (e.g., Cornus 
mas, C. florida, C. canadensis). C. canadensis and C. 
suecica are herbaceous dogwoods. Helwingia rusciflora, 
of China and Japan, is a most remarkable plant with 
flowers borne at the center of the leaf-blade attached to 
the midrib on the upper side. 

The acid fruits of C. mas are edible, and are used 
as a sherbet in the East. Those of C. capilata of the 
Himalayas have a flavor like strawberries and are 
eaten. Many Cornaceae are ornamental woody plants. 

Several genera are in cultivation here, of which may 
be mentioned: Cornus (Dogwood, Osier Dogwood); 
Aucuba, from Japan; Garrya from southern United 
States; Griselinia from New Zealand; Nyssa (Sour 
Gum, Pepperidge, Tupelo) from the eastern United 
States. Garrya, Nyssa and others have been separated 
by some into other families. 

Sub-class II. Mekichlamydex, or Sympetalx 
Order 46. ERICALES 

172. Clethraceae (from the genus Clethra, the ancient 
Greek name of Alder). PEPPERBDSH, or WHITE ALDER 
FAMILY. Fig. 46. Tall shrubs or low trees: leaves 
alternate: flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous; disk 
absent; calyx 5-parted, persistent; corolla saucer- 
shaped, of 5 separate petals; stamens 10, hypogynous; 
anthers opening by terminal pores, at first, inverted, 
later erect; ovary superior, 3-celled; style 1; stigmas 
3; ovules numerous: fruit a capsule. 

A single genus and about 30 species are distributed 
in the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres; mostly American. Two species reach the 
eastern United States. The family is closely related 
to the Pyrolacesp and Ericaceae. The polypetalous 
corolla, temporarily inverted anthers and the 3-celled 
ovary are important characteristics. There is one 
fossil species known. 

A few species of Clethra are grown in North America 

for ornamental purposes. C. alnifolia is the native 
white alder or sweet pepperbush. 

173. Pyrolaceae (from the genus Pyrola, diminutive 
of Pyrus; possibly a resemblance in the foliage). SHIN- 
LEAF FAMILY. Fig. 46. Very low perennial herbs: 

46. CLETHRACE.: 1. Clethra, o, flower; 6, cross-section ovary. 
PYROLACE.E: 2. Pyrola, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. ERICA- 
CE.E: 3. Andromeda, flower. 4. Kalmta, flower. 5. Rhododen- 
dron, flower. 6. Erica, stamen. 7. Vaccinium, a, flower; b, stamen. 

leaves alternate, basal or scattered, thick and ever- 
green in most species: flowers bisexual, regular, with or 
without a hypogynous disk; calyx 5-parted, persistent; 
corolla waxy, saucer-shaped, of 5 separate petals; sta- 
mens 10, hypogynous; anthers opening by terminal 
pores, inverted; ovary superior, 5-celled, many-ovuled; 
style and stigma 1 : fruit a capsule. 

There are 3 genera and 20 species distributed in the 
boreal and temperate parts of Europe, Asia and 
America. The polypetalous flowers, inverted anthers 
and 5 carpels are characteristic. The family is closely 
related to the Ericaceae and Clethraceae. 

Two species of Chimaphila (Pipsissewa, Prince's 
Pine), one species of Moneses (One-flowered Pyrola), 
and a few species of Pyrola (Shinleaf ) are offered in the 
American trade for ornamental purposes. Otherwise 
the family is of no economic importance. 

174. Monotropaceae (from the genus Monotropa, 
meaning one turn, in reference to the nodding flower). 
INDIAN-PIPE FAMILY. Low, saprophytic herbs, without 
chlorophyll, white, yellowish, brownish, or blood-red 
in color: leaves alternate, reduced to scales: flowers 
1 to several, bisexual, regular, a lobed, hypogynous disk 
sometimes present; calyx 5-parted, rarely 0; corolla of 
4-5, separate, gibbous petals, these rarely coherent; 
stamens 8-10, hypogynous; anthers opening by slits, 
1-2-celled, often appendaged; ovary 4-5-celled, supe- 
rior, many-ovuled; style and stigma 1: fruit a capsule. 

The Indian-pipe family contains 8 genera and about 
12 species, all North American except 1 Himalayan 
species and 1 found in both Europe and America; 
most abundant in the West. The family is closely 
related to the Ericaceae, PyrolaceaB and Clethraceae, 
from which it differs mainly in method of nutrition. 



Sarcpdes sanguined, the Sierran snow plant, is bright 
red in color. 

The Monotropacese are not known to be in cultiva- 

175 Ericaceae (from the genus Erica, the ancient 
name of the heath, from erico, to break). HEATH 
FAMILY. Fig. 46. Shrubs or sub-shrubs: leaves alter- 
nate, often evergreen: flowers bisexual, regular or 
slightly irregular; calyx 4-5-fid, persistent; corolla 
gamopetalous, rarely polypetalous, often urceolate, 4- 
5-lobed, convolute or imbricated; stamens alternate 
with the petals, of the same number or double the 
number, inserted at the base of a hypogynous disk, 
not epipetalous; anthers sometimes appendaged, open- 
ing by terminal pores, rarely by longitudinal slits; 
ovary superior or inferior, 4-5-celled or falsely 10- 
celled, many ovuled; style and stigma 1: fruit a cap- 
sule, rarely a berry or drupe. 

The 67 genera and about 1,400 species are very gen- 
erally distributed. Erica, the largest genus, with 420 
species, is confined to the Old World. The family is 
closely related to the Pyrolaceae and Clethraceae; also 
to the Epacridaceae and Diapensiaceae. The northern 
Ericaceae are largely evergreen and variously adapted 

47. DIAPENSIACE.E: 1. Diapensia, o, flower; 6, floral diagram. 
PRIMULACE*: 2. Primula, a, flower b, floral diagram. PLUM; 
BAQINACE.A:: 3. Armeria, flower. 4. Statice, calyx. 5. Plumbago, 
floral diagram. 

in foliage to a xerophytic habitat. Ledum is polypeta- 
lous. Rhododendron has a funnel-form corolla; Kal- 
mia, a cup-shaped corolla with elastic stamens in pock- 
ets. The anthers of Epigsea dehisce longitudinally. 

Arclostaphylos Uva-Ursi (bearberry) of Europe and 
America is medicinal. The volatile oil of wintergreen is 
obtained from the leaves, and stems, of the North 
American Gaullheria procumbens. A very poisonous 
substance is found in some species of Rhododendron, 
Lyonia and Leucothoe; and possibly the poisonous 
quality of Kalmia and Rhododendron honey is due to 
this. Species of Gaylussacia (North America) yield 
huckleberries; species of Vaccinium yield blueberries. 
The fruits of V. Myrtillus (Europe) are bilberries. The 
European heaths furnish commercial honey. Cranber- 
ries are the fruit of V. macrocarpon and V. Oxycoccus. 
Many species of Ericaceae are ornamental. 

Forty to 50 genera are in cultivation in N. America. 
Among these are the Strawberry Tree or Madrona 
(Arbutus); Bearberry (Arctpstaphylos) ; Heather (Ca- 
luna); Heath (Erica); Trailing Arbutus or Mayflower 
(Epigsca) ; Labrador Tea (Ledum) ; Sourwood or Sorrel 
Tree (Oxydendrum) ; Azalea, Rhodora, Rhododendron 
or Pinxter Flower (Rhododendron); Laurel (Kalmia); 
Blueberry and Cranberry (Vaccinium); Huckleberry 
(Gaylussacia) ; also Menziesia, Chamsedaphne, Cassiope, 
Andromeda, and others. 

176. Epacridaceae (from the genus Epacris, derived 
from the Greek meaning on the top; many species grow- 

ing on hilltops). EPACRIS FAMILY. Shrubs or small 
trees: leaves alternate, usually stiff, small, and heath- 
like: flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous; disk pres- 
ent; calyx of 4-5 sepals, bracted at the base; corolla 
gamopetalous, 4 5-lobed; stamens 4-5, hypogynous or 
epipetalous; anthers opening by longitudinal slits; 
carpels 4-5; ovary superior, 1-10-celled; ovules solitary 
or many; style and stigma 1 : fruit a drupe or capsule. 

The 21 genera and about 300 species are almost 
exclusively confined to Australia and New Zealand. 
One species is found in South America. The family is 
closely related to the Ericaceae, but has one whorl of 
stamens. The genus Styphelia contains 172 species. 
S. sapida furnishes edible berries. 

A few species of Epacris are grown as ornamental 
plants in the greenhouses of North America. 

177. Diapensiaceae (from the genus Diapensia, the 
derivation of which is obscure). DIAPENSIA FAMILY. 
Fig. 47. Low shrubs: leaves alternate, evergreen, reni- 
form or imbricated or moss-like: flowers bisexual, reg- 
ular, hypogynous; disk absent; calyx of 3-5 sepals; 
corolla with 5 separate petals, or gamopetalous; lobes 
imbricated; stamens 5, epipetalous or hypogynous, al- 
ternating with the corolla lobes, often also alternating 
with 5 staminodia; anthers opening by a longitudinal 
slit; ovary superior, 3-celled; ovules very numerous; 
style 1; stigmas 1-3: fruit a capsule. 

Diapensiacese has 6 genera and about 10 species 
of circumpolar distribution, extending southward to 
Carolina and the Himalayas. The family is related to 
the Ericaceae, and to the Epacridaceae. The 3 carpels and 
5 stamens are important distinguishing characteristics. 
Four or more genera are in cultivation in America; 
of these, Galax aphylla (Galax) of North Carolina has 
reniform leaves; Pyxidanthera barbulata (Pyxie, Flow- 
ering Moss, or Pine-barren Beauty) of southern New 
Jersey has subulate leaves; Shortia, of North Carolina 
and Japan, and Schizocodon soldanelloides (Fringed 
Galax) of Japan both have orbicular leaves. 


178. Myrsinaceae (from the genus Myrsine, the 
Greek name of Myrrh). MYRSINE FAMILY. Trees or 
shrubs: leaves usually alternate, coriaceous, glandular- 
dotted: flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, often 
very glandular; calyx 4-5-parted, persistent; corolla 
gamopetalous, rarely of separate petals, 4-5-lobed; 
stamens 5, opposite the lobes of the corolla, mostly 
epipetalous, separate or monadelphous; alternating 
staminodia often present; ovary superior or inferior, 
1-celled, placenta basal or free-central; ovules few or 
numerous; style and stigma 1: fruit a few-seeded berry 
or drupe. 

Widely distributed in the tropics are 32 genera and 
about 550 species. Two species reach Florida. The 
family is related to the Primulacea;, but is woody, 
glandular, and has indehiscent fruits; also related to 
the Sapotaceae. 

The leaves of Jacquinia are used in America to 
stupefy fish; the fruits of this genus are poisonous. 
The fruits of some species of Ardisia are edible. Bread 
is made in San Domingo from the crushed seed of 
Theophrasta Jussieui. 

About a half-dozen genera are in cultivation in this 
country, but are little known. Jacquinia and Myrsine 
are grown in southern Florida and southern California; 
Ardisia is a genus of greenhouse shrubs. The species 
ascribed in the trade to Theophrasta on further study 
have been referred to other genera. 

179. Primulaceae (from the genus Primula, from 
Latin primus (first) , in reference to the early flowering 
of some European species). PRIMROSE FAMILY. Fig. 47. 
Herbs : leaves mostly opposite or whorled, often dotted 
or mealy: flowers bisexual, regular, rarely slightly irreg- 
ular; calyx not bracteate, mostly 5-parted; corolla 



gamopetalous, 5-lobed, rarely of separate petals; 
stamens 5, epipetalous, opposite the corolla lobes, often 
alternating with staminodia; ovary superior, rarely 
half-inferior, 1-celled, many-ovuled ; placenta free- 
central; style and stigma 1: fruit a capsule opening 
by valves or by a transverse lid. 

The family has 28 genera and about 320 species of 
more or less cosmopolitan distribution, but most 
abundant in north temperate regions. It is most 
closely related to the Myrsinacese and PlumbaginacesE. 
The herbaceous habit, dehiscent fruit, and many seeds 
are important distinguishing characteristics. The flow- 
ers of this family often have styles and stamens of 
different lengths in the same species (heteromorphic), 
e. g., Primula. The free-central placentation is charac- 
teristic of this and related families. 

Rhizomes of Primula were formerly used for diseases 
of the bladder. Primrose wine is made from the flowers 
of Primula ojficinalis and P. vulgaris. Rhizomes of 
Cyclamen are purgative and emetic. In some countries 
these rhizomes are used to stupefy fish; roasted they 
become good food for pigs (sowbread of Europe). 
Other species have been used in medicine. Many are 
ornamental plants. 

Twelve to 18 genera are in cultivation in North 
America. Among these are the following well-known 
names: Cyclamen; Dodecatheon (Shooting-star); An- 
drosace (Rock Jasmine); Anagallis (Pimpernel, Poor 
Man's Weather-glass); Hottonia (Featherfoil, Water- 
Violet, Water-Yarrow) with aquatic inflated stems 
and fine leaves; Lysimachia (Loosestrife, Moneywort, 
Creeping Charlie); Primula (Primrose); Soldanella; 
Stieronema (Loosestrife); Trientalis (Star Flower). 

180. Plumbaginaceae (from the genus Plumbago, 
from plumbum, lead; perhaps in reference to the lead- 
like stain given by the roots to the fingers). LEADWORT 
FAMILY. Fig. 47. Herbs or shrubs: leaves alternate, 
linear or lanceolate: flowers bisexual, regular; calyx 
bracteate, 5-fid, usually scarious, and plicate, angled or 
winged, sometimes colored, persistent; corolla gamo- 
petalous, or of 5 nearly separate petals, mostly con- 
volute; stamens 5, epipetalous, opposite the lobes of 
the corolla; ovary superior, 1-celled; ovule 1, basal; 
styles 5: fruit a capsule or utricle, invested by the calyx. 

The ten genera and about 250 species, of almost 
cosmopolitan distribution, are found usually inhabiting 
seacoasts and alkaline regions; they are most abundant 
in the Mediterranean region, and in Central Asia. The 
family is closely related to the PrimulaceiE, but has only 
one seed. 

A fatty substance in the root of certain Plumbagos 
gives a lead-colored stain to the fingers and paper. 
These roots were formerly used for toothache, ulcers, 
and the like. Beggars are said still to use them to 
produce sores. The roots of Stalice latifolia of Russia 
contain tannin and have been used for tanning. 

There are 5 or 6 genera in cultivation in North 
America; Acantholimon from Armenia, hardy; Armeria 
(Sea Pink, Thrift) of Europe and Asia, hardy; Cera- 
tostigma of China, hardy; Plumbago (Leadwort), of 
Asia, Africa, Australia, mostly of the greenhouse; Statice 
(Sea Lavender), of Europe, Asia, North America, 
hardy. Some species of this family are used for dry 

Order 48. EBENALES 

181. Sapotaceae (from the old generic name Sapota, 
derived from a native name of Achras Sapota). SAPO- 
DILLA FAMILY. Fig. 48. Trees or shrubs; juice milky: 
leaves alt ornate, entire, coriaceous: flowers usually bi- 
sexual, axillary, regular; calyx mostly of separate sepals 
in two whorls of 2, 3, or 4, or in one whorl of 5; corolla 
gamopetalous ; lobes as many as the sepals, or twice as 
many, in one or two series, imbricated, sometimes with 
appendages which simulate extra corolla-lobes; stamens 
as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them, 


sometimes with intermediate staminodia, or twice as 
many, epipetalous; ovary superior, 4- to many-celled; 
ovules 1 in each cell, basal; style and stigma 1: fruit 
a berry. 

There are 31 genera and about 400 species, of tropical 
distribution, rarely reaching the warm temperate zone. 
One species extends to Virginia and two to Illinois. 
This is a distinct family, distantly related to the 
Myrsinacea;, Ebenaceae, and Styracacese. 

The fruits of Lucuma mammosa (marmalade plum), 
and Achras Sapota (sapodilla), are very agreeable. 
Fruits of Illipe and Mimusops, both Asiatic, are 
edible. The oil from the seeds of the oriental Illipe 
butyracea and of other species is galam butter, and shea 
butter. It is used for food and soap. The wood of 
many species is very hard and valuable so-called 
ironwoods. Several species of Palaquium of the East 
Indies yield gutta percha, as do other species of the 
family. Gum chicle is obtained from Achras Sapota. 
Star-Apple is Chrysophyllum Cainito. West Indian 
medlar is Mimusops Elengi. 

Six to 10 genera are in cultivation in North America, 
mostly in the warmer parts: Mimusops, Lucuma (Mar- 

48. SAPOTACE*;: 1. Lucuma, flower. 2. Sideroxylon, floral 
diagram. EBENACE^I: 3. Diospyros, a, female flower; 6, floral 
diagram, female flower. STYBACACE*: 4. Styiai, o, flower; b, 
cross-section ovary; c, fruit. SYMPLOCACE.E: 5. Symplocos, a, 
flower; 6, cross-section fruit. 

malade Plum) and Sideroxylon are grown in southern 
California and Florida ; Dichopsis or Palaquium (wrongly 
called Isonandra),the commercial gutta percha tree, is 
cultivated in the South. Bumelia and Chrysophyllum 
are ornamental, the former hardy to Massachusetts. 

182. Ebenaceee (from the Latin ebenus, meaning 
ebony). EBONY FAMILY. Fig. 48. Trees or shrubs: leaves 
alternate, coriaceous, entire: flowers rarely bisexual, 
usually dioecious, regular; calyx 3-6-parted, persistent; 
corolla 3-6-lobed, hypogynous, gamopetalous, urceo- 
late, coriaceous, mostly imbricated and twisted; 
stamens short, usually double the number of the corolla- 
lobes, rarely as many or more numerous, hypogynous or 
epipetalous, separate or united in pairs; ovary superior, 
2-16-celled, with 1-2 suspended ovules in each cell; 
styles and stigmas 2-8: fruit berry-like, rarely sub- 

In this family are 5 genera and about 280 species, 
of which 180 belong to the genus Diospyros; they are 
inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions, 
principally of the eastern hemisphere. The greatest 
development of the family is in the East Indies and 
Malay Archipelago. One species of Diospyros occurs 
in the eastern United States, from Rhode Island south- 
ward. The family is related to the Styracacese, Sym- 



plocaceae and Sapotacese. The superior several-celled 
ovary, unisexual flowers and absence of milky juice 
are important distinctive characters. 

The wood of many species, especially of the genus 
Diospyros, furnishes the ebony of commerce. The 
fruit of Diospyros Lotus is known as date plum in 
Asia. The fruit of the persimmon (Diospyros virgin- 
tana) is also edible. The bark of persimmon is some- 
times used in medicine. 

Three or 4 genera are in cultivation in North America 
for ornamental purposes. Maba, from Natal, and 
Royena, from South Africa, are not hardy. Diospyros 
(Common Persimmon and Kaki), hardy or tender, 
depending on the species, is grown for ornament or fruit. 

183. Styracaceae (from the genus Styrax, the ancient 
Greek name of the storax tree). STORAX FAMILY. Fig. 
48. Shrubs or small trees: leaves alternate, simple: flow- 
ers bisexual, regular; calyx 4-5-cleft; corolla mostly 4-5- 
lobed, the lobes almost separate, imbricated or valvate; 
stamens in one series, hypogynous or epipetalous, 
twice as many as the lobes of the corolla, rarely just as 
many, separate or more or less united; ovary superior, 
rarely half-inferior, 1-celled at the top, 3-5-celled at 
the bottom; 1, rarely several, ovules in each cell; style 
1; stigmas 1-5: fruit a capsular drupe. 

Six genera and about 100 species are distributed in the 
warmer regions of South and Central America, south- 
eastern United States, eastern Asia, and the Mediter- 
ranean region. The family is very closely related to the 
Symplocacese; also to the Ebenaceae and Sapotacese. 
The superior, imperfectly several-celled ovary, bisexual 
flowers and absence of milky juice are distinctive. 
Fossil species are known. 

Styrax Benzoin of the East Indies yields the fragrant 
resin known as benzoin. It is a pathological product 
of the tree. Some Brazil inn species of Styrax and some 
species of Pamphilia also yield a fragrant resin which 
is burned as incense in the churches. The storax of 
the ancients was obtained from Liquidambar orientalis 
(family Hamamelidaceae). 

Two or 3 genera are in cultivation in America: 
Halesia (Silver Bell, Snowdrop Tree), of eastern United 
States, is hardy; Styrax (Storax) of China, Japan, and 
America, is semi-hardy. Pterostyrax of Japan is by 
some referred to Halesia. 

184. Symplocaceae (from the genus Symplocos, de- 
rived from the Greek, meaning connected, referring to 
the stamens). SYMPLOCOS FAMILY. Fig. 48. Trees or 
shrubs: leaves alternate, simple: flowers bisexual, or less 
commonly unisexual, regular; calyx 5-lobed, gamosepa- 
lous, imbricated; corolla-lobes 5 or 10, in 1 or 2 series, 
gamopetalous, imbricated; stamens 15 to many in 1-3 
or many series, separate, or slightly united with each 
other and the corolla, hypogynous or epipetalous; 
ovary inferior or half-inferior, 2-5-celled, with about 
2 ovules in each cell; style 1; stigmas 1-5: fruit dru- 

Only one genus and about 275 species are found in 
tropical lands; they are most abundant in the Malay 
region and East India. A few species in Japan, and 
one in North America, extend the family into the 
temperate zone. Symplocos tinctoria reaches Delaware. 
The family is related to the Styracaceae, and is often 
united with it. The inferior, completely several-celled 
ovary, and numerous stamens, are important charac- 
teristics. Fossil species are known. 

The bark of Symplocos racemosa is used as a medicine 
in the East Indies under the name lotus bark. The 
leaves of S.- spicata and the roots of S. tinctoria are 
used in the preparation of yellow dye-stuffs. S. cratse- 
goides is a hardy ornamental shrub from Japan. 

Order 49. CONTORTS: 

185. Oleaceae (from the genus Oka, derived from 
the Greek meaning, originally, olive tree, and later oil, 

i. e., olive oil). OLIVE FAMILY. Fig. 49. Trees or 
shrubs: leaves opposite, simple or pinnate: flowers bi- 
sexual or unisexual, regular, small and numerous; calyx 
4-lobed, rarely 4-15-lobed, valvate; corolla 4-lobed, 
rarely 6-12-lobed, gamopetalous, rarely polypetalous, 
or 0, hypogynous, valvate; stamens 2, rarely 3-5, 
epipetalous, alternate with the corolla-lobes; ovary 
superior, 2-celled; ovules usually 2 in each cell; style 1 
or 0; stigmas 1-2: fruit a drupe, berry, capsule, or 

Oleacete has 20 genera and more than 400 species, 
of temperate and tropical lands; these are especially 
abundant in the East Indies and East Asia. About 10 
species are native in northeastern North America. 
Fossil species are known. The family is related to the 
Loganiacea>; possibly also to the Celastraceas and 

49. QLEACE*: 1. Olea, o, flower; b, floral diagram. 2. Fraii- 
nus, fruit. LOQANIACE.E: 3. Logania, flower. GENTIANACEXE: 4. 
Gentiana, a, flower; 6, floral diagram. APOCYNACE/E: 5. Apocy- 
num, a, flower; 6, floral diagram; c, fruit. 6. Vinca, pistil. 

Rubiacese. The numerical plan of 4, the 2 stamens and 
the superior ovary are important distinctive character- 

The most useful plant is the olive (Olea europaea) 
of the Orient, long cultivated in the Mediterranean 
region. The oil expressed from the fruit is used as food, 
and for other purposes. The unripe fruits, preserved 
in brine, are the olives of commerce. The bark of the 
fringe tree and privet contains medicinal principles of 
minor importance, as do also the leaves of the lilac. 
A saccharine exudation from the bark of Fraxinus 
Ornus of Sicily, induced by the puncture of a cicada, 
is manna (See, also, Tamarix mannifera). The wood of 
olive and ash are valuable. The flowers of Osmanthus 
fragrans have been used to scent tea in China. 

A dozen genera are in cultivation in North America: 
Chionanthus (Fringe Tree), hardy; Forsythia (Golden 
Bell), hardy; Fontanesia, hardy; Fraxinus (Ash), hardy; 
Jasminum (Jasmine, Jessamine), of the greenhouse and 
the South; Ligustrum (Privet), hardy; Olea (Olive), 



not hardy; Osmanthus (Fragrant, Olive and Devil- 
wood), not hardy; Phillyrea, not hardy; Schrebera, 
not hardy; and Syringa (Lilac), hardy. 

186. Loganiaceae (from the genus Logania, named in 
honor of J. Logan, a botanist). LOGANIA FAMILY. Fig. 
49. Herbs, shrubs, or trees: leaves opposite, simple: 
flowers usually bisexual, regular; calyx 4-5-lobed or 
-parted; corolla 45-, or 10-lobed, imbricated or con- 
volute; stamens epipetalous, of the same number as 
the lobes of the corolla and usually alternate with them, 
rarely reduced to 1; ovary superior, usually 2-celled, 
rarely 1-or 4-celled; ovules usually numerous; styles 1; 
stigmas 1-2: fruit a capsule, rarely a berry or drupe. 

The family contains 32 genera and about 360 species, 
of tropical distribution. A few genera only reach the 
temperate zone, 4 species of which are native in 
northeastern North America. Fossil species are known. 
The family is related to the Apocynaceae, Gentianacese, 
Splanaceoe, Rubiacese, and Serophulariaceae. The oppo- 
site stipulate leaves, and 2-celled superior ovary, are 
important distinctive characters. 

The seeds and bark of Strychnos nux-vomica contain 
a very poisonous alkaloid, strychnine, used as a nerve 
tonic. Curare, with which the Indians of South 
America poisoned their arrows, is probably obtained 
from the bark of S. toxifer. Other species of Strychnos 
are used in Java to poison arrows. The root of Spigelia 
(pink-root), an American plant, has been used as a ver- 
mifuge. It is also poisonous. Strychnos Ignatia yields 
the poisonous ignatius bean of India. The nut of <S. 
polatarum is the clearing nut of India, which is used to 
purify foul water, by rubbing it on the inside of the 
vessel. The roots of yellow jasmjne (Gelsemium sem- 
pervirens) of the southeastern United States are used 
as a nerve tonic. 

Three or 4 genera are in the North American trade, 
all ornamental: liuddleia, semi-hardy; Gelsemium 
(Yellow Jessamine), woody vine, semi-hardy; Spigelia 
(Pink-Root), herbaceous, hardy. 

187. Gentianacese (from the genus Gentiana, named 
in honor of King Gentius of Illyria, who, according to 
Pliny, first discovered the medicinal properties of these 
plants). GENTIAN FAMILY. Fig. 49. Herbs, rarely 
shrubs or small trees: leaves opposite, rarely alternate 
or whorlcd, exstipulate: flowers bisexual, regular; calyx 
4-5-parted, persistent ; corolla 4-8-lobed, gamopetalous, 
hypogynous, convolute or induplicate, rarely valvate: 
stamens of the same number as the corolla-lobes and 
alternate with them, epipetalous; hypogynous disk 
usually present; ovary superior, 1-celled, with 2 
parietal placenta, rarely 2-celled; ovules numerous: 
fruit a capsule. 

The 63 genera and about 750 species are almost cos- 
mopolitan in distribution. Three hundred species 
belong to the genus Gentiana, distributed mostly in the 
mountains of the north temperate zone, in the arctic 
zone and in the Andes; they are wanting in Africa. 
Fossil species of Menyanthes are known. The family 
is closely related to the Ix>ganiacerc. The commonly 
1-celled ovary, exstipulate leaves and the presence of 
a bitter principle are important characters. 

The general occurrence of a bitter principle renders 
the majority of Gentianacese valuable as tonics, and 
appetizers. Most of the drug, gentian, is obtained 
from Gentiana lutca of Europe. G. punctata, G. purpurea, 
and G. Pannonica are also used. Erythrsea Centaurium 
(centaury) furnishes a medicinal bitter principle. 
Tachia guianensis is used as bitters in South America, 
under the name quassia. The bitter principle of Men- 
yanthes is used as a medicine, and also as a substitute 
for hops in flavoring beer. The Gentianacese are used 
medicinally in all parts of the globe. 

Several genera are in cultivation in North America: 
Erythrsea; Eustoma; Frasera; Gentiana (Gentian); 
Menyanthes (Buckbean); Sabbatia; and Swertia. 
Nymphoides (Limnanthemum) (Floating Heart, Water 

Snowflake) is a genus of peculiar aquatic plants. 
Villarsia is a close relative of Nymphoides. 

18& Apocynaceae (from the genus Apocynum, the 
ancient name of the dogbane, from the Greek). DOG- 
BANE FAMILY. Fig. 49. Herbs, shrubs or trees with 
milky juice, often climbing: leaves opposite or whorled, 
rarely alternate, entire, exstipulate: flowers bisexual, 
regular; calyx 4-5-parted; corolla 4-5-lobed, hy- 

ngynous, gamopetalous, usually with appendages or 
ds in the throat, convolute or valvate; stamens 4-5, 
epipetalous, alternating with the corolla lobes; anthers 
usually sagittate and acute; pollen granular; hy- 
pogynous disk usually present and variously lobed; 
ovaries usually 2, rarely more or less united; mostly 
superior, each 1-celled, many-seeded, style 1, usually 
bearing a fleshy ring below the solitary stigma: fruit 
fpllicular with comose seeds, or indehiscent, or berry- 
like, or of nutlets, sometimes winged or prickly. 

One hundred and thirty genera and about 1,000 
species occur, mostly in tropical countries in both 
hemispheres. Five or 6 species reach northeastern 
North America. The family is related to the Asclepia- 
dacese and Gentianaceae. The milky juice, sagittate 
anthers, absence of corona, stylar ring, and usually 
separate ovaries but connate styles and stigmas, are 
important characteristics. 

Many species of Landolphia yield commercial caout- 
chouc, as do also other genera, such as Urceola and 
Willoughbya. Some are very poisonous, e. g., Tan- 
ghinia of Madagascar; also Cerbera and Acocanthera. 
Tanghinia, the ordeal tree of Madagascar, "is the most 
poisonous of plants; a seed no larger than an almond 
suffices to kill twenty people." Death has followed 
the use of oleander wood as meat-skewers. An infusion 
of its leaves is an insecticide; of its bark, a rat-poison. 
Some are heart-poisons, for example Strophanthus and 
Aspidosperma (quebracho bark). The bark of Alstonia 
is a tonic. AUanumda cathartica is purgative. Several 
species furnish edible fruits tasting like citron. Wrightia 
tinctoria furnishes an indigo; W. tomentosa, a yellow dye. 

About 20 to 25 genera are in cultivation in N. America 
as ornamental plants, mostly in the South or in the 
greenhouse. Among these are: Allamanda; Carissa 
(Caraunda, Christ^ Thorn) ; Amsonia; Apocynum 
(Dogbane); Nerium (Oleander); Tabernaemontana 
(Crape Jasmine, Nero's Crown); Trachelospermum 
(Star Jasmine); and Vinca (Periwinkle). 

189. Asclepiadaceae (from the genus Asclepias ; dedi- 
cated to jEsculapius). MILKWEED FAMILY. Fig. 50. 
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes fleshy, often climbing, gen- 
erally with milky juice: leaves opposite, rarely otherwise, 
exstipulate: flowers bisexual, regular, very frequently 
in umbels; calyx 5-parted, imbricated; corolla 5-parted 
or -lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous; a crown present, 
which is either an outgrowth of the corolla, or of the 
stamenSj or of both; stamens 5, mostly hypogynous, 
alternating with the lobes of the corolla, usually 
monadelphous, sometimes united with the styles; pollen 
usually agglutinated into pollinia, which are attached 
to glandular appendages of the stigma; disk absent; 
ovaries 2, superior, each 1-celled, many-seeded; styles 2; 
stigmas united: fruit of two follicles; seeds usually 

There are 217 genera and about 1,900 species, prin- 
cipally of the tropics, but many reach the temperate 
zone. The family is distinct, and closely related only 
to the Apocynacea:. The Asclepiadaceao is one of the 
most extraordinary of families. Most species have a 
milky juice. Many in South Africa are fleshy, cactus- 
like plants. Some are epiphytes with variously modi- 
fied foliage. One genus of epiphytes bears foliar pitchors 
that catch and hold rain-water. Some species are like a 
bundle of leafless whip-lashes; others have remarkable 
tuberous bases to store water. The floral crown is 
most diverse; and the details of insect-pollination, 
especially the behavior of the pollinia, is very compli- 



cated. The union of the two carpels by the stigma only 
is unique. 

Pleurisy root (Asclepias tuberosa) was formerly 
used extensively for lung and catarrhal disorders. 
Condurango, from the bark of Marsdenia Condurango, is 
a stomach tonic. The milky juice of many is medici- 
nal; some are emetics (Vincetoxicum, Gomphocarpus, 
Secamone); others are purgative (Solenostemma, 

50. ASCLEPIADACE^:: 1. Asclepias, a, flower; 6, flower, vertical 
section; <, stamens; d, pistil and pollinia; e, pollinia and gland; /, 
floral diagram. CONVOLVULACE^E: 2. Convolvulus, floral dia- 
gram. POLEMONIACE.E: 3. Phlox, flower. 4. Polemonium, floral 
diagram. HYDROPHYLLACE.K: 5. Hydrophyllum, flower. 6. Phace- 
lia, a, and 6, ovary of two species. 

Cynanchum); others are sudorifics (Hemidesmus). 
The acrid juice of Gonolpbus is used to poison arrows; 
that of Periploca to poison wolves, hence the name 
wolfbane and dogbane. The milk of Gymnema 
lactiferum, the cow-plant of Ceylon, is edible; also 
that of the Cape, Oxystelma esculentum. Some Indian 
species yield good bast fibers. 'Marsdenia tinctoria 
yields a dye. Several species yield caoutchouc. The 
oschur or modar (Calotropis procera) is probably the 
sodom apple of the Bible. The herbage of several 
species is cooked and eaten. The acid stem of Sarcos- 
temma is eaten as a salad. In East Africa, Cynanchum 
sarcostemmoides is used to poison fish. Many Ascle- 
piadacese are ornamental plants. 

About 20 genera are in cultivation in N. America, 
mostly in the tropical horticulture of Florida and 
California. More generally cultivated and better 
known are: Asclepias (Milkweed) ; Cynanchum (Mos- 
quito Plant, Cruel Plant); Hoya (Wax-plant); and 
Periploca (Silk Vine). 


190. Convolyulaceae (from the genus Convolvulus, 
signifying to entwine). MORNING-GLORY FAMILY. Fig. 
50. Herbs, shrubs or small trees, twining or erect, turf- 
forming shrubs, thorny shrubs, "switch plants," or 
yellow, leafless, twining parasites, often with milky 
juice: leaves alternate: flowers bisexual, regular; pe- 
duncles very often bi-bracteate; calyx 5-parted, per- 
sistent; corolla more or less 5-lobed, usually plaited, 

gamopetalous, hypogynous, convolute; stamens 5, 
slightly epipetalous, alternating with the corolla-lobes; 
hypogynous disk present, usually lobed; ovary superior, 
2-celled, rarely more or fewer celled; each cell 1-2- 
ovuled, micropyle directed downward and outward; 
styles 1-2; stigmas 1-2: fruit a capsule or a berry, very 
rarely breaking into 4 1-seeded nutlets. 

Convolvulacese has 40 genera with about 1,000 
species, of which 300 species belong to the genus 
Ipomoea and 160 species to the genus Convolvulus. 
They are distributed in all regions except the arctics; 
but are especially numerous in tropical Asia and tropical 
America. The family is related to the Solanacese and 
Boraginaceae, but also to the Polemoniacese and Hydro- 
phyllacese. The absence of a circinate inflorescence, 
the plaited corolla, the direction in which the micropyle 
is turned and the few-seeded fruit are important 
distinguishing characteristics. The genus Cuscuta is 
parasitic and chlorophylless, receiving its nutriment 
by means of haustoria from the plant upon which it 

Because of the substances contained in the milky 
juice, many species are medicinal. The following are 
purges: jalap (Exogonium Purga), of Mexico; turbith 
(Operculina Turpethum), of the East Indies; and scam- 
mony (Convolvulus Scammonia), of the orient. The 
fleshy roots of Ipomosa Batatas, (sweet potato) are edible; 
also those of Convolvulus Sepium. Iponuea Pes-caprx 
is used in India to bind the sands along the coast. 
Convolvulus scoparius of the Canaries furnishes the 
fragrant oil of rhodium, used to adulterate oil of rose, 
and sold also to rat-catchers as a lure for rats. Cuscuta 
Epilinum, and several other species, are bad pests in 
cultivated fields. 

Several genera are in cultivation in N. America: 
Argyreia, tender twiners; Breweria, trailing, grown in 
Florida; Convolvulus (Bindweed, California Rose, 
Rutland Beauty), mostly twining.; Ipomcea (Morning- 
glory, Moonflower, Cypress Vine, Indian Pink, Man-of- 
the-Earth, Blue Dawn Flower, Sweet Potato, Jalap), 
mostly twining; Jacquemontia, garden twiners; Lett- 
somia, twiners, grown in Florida. 

191. Polemoniaceae (from the genus Polemonium, an 
ancient name of doubtful application). POLEMONIUM 
FAMILY. Fig. 50. Herbs, rarely woody: leaves alter- 
nate, or the lower sometimes opposite, simple or pinnate: 
flowers bisexual, regular, or nearly so; calyx 5-cleft; 
corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, convolute; 
stamens 5, epipetalous, alternate with the corolla- 
lobes; hypogynous disk present; ovary superior, 3-, 
rarely 2- or 5-, celled; ovules in each cell many, rarely 
1; style 1, 3-fid, rarely 5-fid; stigmas 3, rarely 5: fruit 
a capsule. 

About 8 genera and 200 species are known; these 
are almost entirely American and principally North 
American. Nearly 100 species belong to the genus 
Gilia. The family is closely related to the Convolvula- 
ceac, and difficult to separate from that family. The 
3 many-ovuled cells of the ovary are important. The 
disk of Cobsea is large and 5-lobed. The terminal 
leaflet of this plant is a branched tendril. 

Many Polemoniaceae are grown as ornamental 
plants. Polemonium csmdeum (Jacob's ladder, or Greek 
valerian) is used in some countries as a remedy for 
various ailments. 

About 6 to 8 genera are cultivated in this country as 
ornamental plants: Cantua, a shrub in the greenhouse; 
Cobsea, a climbing herb, mostly in the greenhouse; 
Gilia, many species, for bedding; Loeselia in the cool- 
house; Phlox (Phlox, Ground or Moss Pink), for bed- 
ding; Polemonium, for bedding. 

192. Hydrophyllacese (from the genus Hydrophyl- 
Zura, meaning tcater-Zea/). WATER-LEAP FAMILY. Fig. 50. 
Annual or perennial herbs: leaves mostly alternate, 
often lobed: flowers bisexual, regular, mostly in circinate 
raceme-like clusters; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, often 



with scales in the throat, gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
imbricated; stamens 5, alternating with the corolla- 
lobes, slightly epipetalous; hypogynous disk present; 
ovary superior, 1-celled, rarely incompletely 2-celled; 
ovules 2 to several; style 1; stigmas 2: fruit a 

The 17 genera and about 170 species are found most 
abundantly in temperate North America, less com- 
monly southward to Patagonia. A very few arc found 
in south and east Africa, India, Japan, and the Hawai- 
ian Islands. The family is most closely related to the 
Boraginaceae, but has a 1-celled ovary; more distantly 
related to the Convolvulaceae and Polemoniaceae. 

Eriodictyon glutinosum (yerba santa) of California 
has lately come into use as an expectorant in throat and 
lung trouble. Hydrophyllum canadense has long had a 
reputation as a remedy for snake-bites, poison-ivy 
poisoning, erysipelas, and other skin troubles. 

About a half dozen genera are in cultivation in N. 
Americaas ornamental plants. They are used principally 
for outdoor bedding. Emmcnanthe (California Yellow or 
Golden Bells); Hesperochiron; Hydrophyllum (Water- 
leaf); Nemophila; and Phacelia. 

193. Boraginaceae (from the genus Borago, an 
ancient name having reference to the roughness of the 
foliage). BOKAGE FAMILY. Fig. 51. Herbs, rarely shrubs 
or trees: leaves usually alternate, very frequently 
rough-hairy: flowers bisexual, regular, rarely irregular; 
inflorescence usually circinate; calyx 4-5-cleft, persist- 
ent; corolla 4-5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
imbricated, often with scales or folds in the throat; 
stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with the corolla- 
lobes; hypogynous disk usually present; carpels 2; 
ovary superior, 4-celled, either entire and style terminal, 
or 2-lobed, or more commonly deeply 4-lobed with the 
style basal between the lobes; each cell 1-ovuled; 
style 1 ; stigmas usually 2 : fruit rarely a berry, usually 
of 4 1 -seeded nutlets, with the surface variously smooth, 
polished, wrinkled, barbed, winged, or crested. 

There are 85 genera and about 1,500 species widely 
distributed in the temperate and tropical zones, most 
abundant in the Mediterranean region and in western 
North America. The largest genera are Cordia with 
230 species, and Heliotropium with 220 species. The 
family is most closely related to the Hydrophyllacea;; 
also related to the Verbenaceae and Labiata;. The cir- 
cinate inflorescence, and 2-carpelled, 4-celled ovary 
with 1 seed in each cell, are distinctive character- 
istics. The fruit of the Boraginaceae is most diverse, 
and very important in classification within the family. 

Many species, native in Europe, were formerly used 
for medicine; for example, comfrey (Symphytum offid- 
nale), borage (Borago offidnalis), hound's-tongue (Cy- 
noglossum officinale),' lungwort (Pulmonaria offidnalis), 
viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare), bugloss (Anchusa offi- 
dnalis), gromwell (Lithospermum officinale), and helio- 
trope ( Heliotropium europium) . Tournefortia umbeUata 
was used in Mexico as a febrifuge. The roots of alkanet 
(Alkanna tincloria) of South Europe and Asia contain 
a red dye of commercial importance. The roots of some 
species of Anchusa, Onosma, Lithospermum and Ar- 
nebia also contain a red pigment. The wood of some 
species of Cordia is of value, as are also its bast fibers. 
The wood of several species of Ehretia is valuable, and 
the fruit is edible. 

About 30 genera are in cultivation in N. America, 
mostly as hardy ornamental border plants. Among 
these are: Arnebia (Prophet's Flower, Arabian Prim- 
rose); Anchusa (Alkanet, not the real); Borago (Bor- 
age), used as a pot-herb or bee-plant; Cerinthe (Honey- 
wort) ; Cynoglossum (Hound's-tongue) ; Echium (Viper's 
Bugloss); Lithospermum (Gromwell, Puccoon, Indian 
Paint); Myosotidium (Giant Forget-me-not); Myosotis 
(Forget-me-not); Mertensia (Virginian Cowslip; Vir- 
ginian Lungwort); Omphalodes (Navelwort, Creeping 
Forget-me-not) ; Onosma (Golden Drops) ; Onosmodium 

(False Gromwell); Pulmonaria (Lungwort, Bethlehem 
Sage); and Symphytum (Comfrey). 

194. Verbenaceae (from the genus Verbena, the Latin 
name for any sacred herb; application obscure). VER- 
VAIN FAMILY. Fig. 51. Herbs, shrubs, or trees: leaves 
opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple or com- 
pound: flowers bisexual, rarely regular, usually oblique 
or 2-lipped; calyx 4-5-, rarely 6-8-, toothed; corolla 
4-5-lobed gamopetalous, hypogynous, lobes imbri- 
cated ; stamens 4, didy namous, rarely 5 or 2, epipetalous, 
hypogynous; disk present; ovary supenor, of 2, 
rarely of 4 or 5, carpels, 2-5-celled, but by false par- 
titions 4-10-celled, entire or 2-1-lobed; ovule usually 
solitary in each cell; style 1; stigma usually 1: fruit a 
drupe or berry, often separating into drupelets. 

Verbenaceae has 67 genera and about 750 species, 
mainly of tropical and subtropical distribution. Eleven 
species reach the northeastern United States. Lippia 
is the largest genus with 100 species; Clerodendron 
has 90 species, and Verbena 80 species. The family is 
closely related to the Labiatao and not clearly distinct 
from that family. The predominatingly terminal 
style, and not deeply lobed ovary are the only differen- 
tiating characters. 

Many species have been used in medicine: Verbena 
hastata as bitters; species of Lippia as tonics; /Egiphila 
salutaris as a purge and remedy for snake-bites. Species 
of Clerodendron have very sweet-scented flowers. They 


51. BORAOINACE.E: 1. Borago, pistil. 2. Symphytum, flower. 
3. Cynoglossum, fruit. 4. Omphalodes, fruit. VERBENACE.G: 5. 
Verbena, flower. 6. Lantana, floral diagram. LABIATE: 7. Mentha. 
flower. 8. Thymus, pistil. 9. Salvia, flower. 10. Lamium, floral 
diagram. NOLANACE-E: 11. Nolana, o, flower; 6 and c, pistils of 
different species. 

are used as purges, diuretics, and for liver, stomach, 
and lung complaints. Lippia dtriodora yields a fra- 
grant substance used in flavoring cream, and other 
foods. Several species have been used as tea in America. 
Duranta Ettisia and species of Lantana have edible 
fruit. Verbena offidnalis of Europe is a tonic, but more 
famous for its use in witchcraft. It was celebrated 
among the Romans and Druids of Gaul and used by 
them in religious ceremonies. The very valuable teak- 



wood is obtained from Tcclona grandis of farther India 
and the East Indies. The white mangrove trees of 
Brazil belong to various species of the tribe Avicennise. 

A score of genera are in cultivation in North America. 
Among these are: Amsonia, a greenhouse shrub; Calli- 
carpa, greenhouse or hardy shrubs; Caryopteris, a 
shrub, not hardy; Clerodendron (Turk's Turban), 
greenhouse or hardy; Duranta (Golden Dewdrop), cul- 
tivated in the South; Lantana, greenhouse or bedding 
herbs or shrubs; Lippia (Lemon Verbena), greenhouse 
or hardy shrubs or herbs; Petra;a (Purple Wreath), 
greenhouse climber; Verbena, bedding or greenhouse 
herbs; Vitex (Chaste Tree, Hemp Tree, Monk's Pepper 
Tree), semi-hardy shrubs or trees. 

195. Labiate (the name refers to the 2-lipped [bila- 
biate] character of the corolla of most species). MINT 
FAMILY. Fig. 51. Herbs or shrubs, commonly with a 
four-angled stem, and usually containing a fragrant 
oil: leaves opposite or whorled: flowers bisexual, very 
rarely unisexual, irregular, rarely regular, usually 
bilabiate; calyx 5-toothed or cleft, regular or 2-lipped; 
corolla 5-lobed, rarely 4-lobed, gamopetalous and 
hypogynous, 1 lip sometimes obsolete, the lobes im- 
bricated; stamens 4, didynamous, or only 2, epipet- 
alous; hypogynous disk well developed, thick, entire 
or lobed; ovary superior, of 2 carpels, deeply 4-lobed, 
4-celled, each cell 1-ovuled; style basal or sub-basal; 
stigmas 2: fruit of 4 1-seeded nutlets; the ectocarp 
rarely fleshy. 

One hundred and fifty-seven genera and about 2,800 
species are distributed over the whole earth, but are 
especially abundant in the Mediterranean region and 
the orient; they are also abundant in the mountains 
of the subtropics. The larger genera are Salvia, 500 
species; Hyptis, 300 species; Stachys, 180-200 species; 
Scutellaria, 180 species; Nepeta, 150 species; Satureia, 
130 species; and Teucrium, 100 species. The family is 
related to the Verbenacese and to the Boraginacea, 
also to the Scrophulariacese and Acanthacea. The 4- 
angled stem, fragrant oil, 4-lobed ovary, the solitary 
ovules, and the basal style are distinctive. This is a 
difficult family for the student. The characters for 
separating the genera reside mostly in the calyx, co- 
rolla and stamens. The nutlets are less important in 
classification than in the Bpraginacese. 

Owing to the volatile oil and bitter principles, the 
Labiata are of more than usual economic importance: 
Scutellaria lateriflora (skullcap), tonic, nervine; Salvia 
officinalis (garden sage), tonic, also used as a condi- 
ment; Marrubium vulgare (hoarhound), tonic, anthel- 
mintic, and expectorant; Hedeoma pulegioides (Ameri- 
can pennyroyal), carminative and stimulant; Mentha 
spicata (spearmint) and Mentha piperita (peppermint), 
carminative; Mentha Pulegium (European penny- 
royal), carminative; mints are also used as condiments. 
The following oils are from Labiatse: Oil of thyme 
( Thymus Serpyllum) ; rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) ; 
Lavender (Lavandula officinalis); spike (Lavandula 
Spica); origanum (Origanum Majorana). Catnip (Ne- 
peta Cataria) is a family sudorific. Mother-wort (Leo- 
nurus Cardiaca) is a family stimulant and bitters. The 
leaves of lavender and patchouli (Pogostemon Patch- 
ouli) are used to keep insects from woolens, furs, and 
the like. Many other species have been used locally 
for various purposes. 

Fifty or more genera are in cultivation in North 
America. Most of these are garden annuals or hardy per- 
ennials cultivated for the flavor or odor, for ornamental 
purposes, or for medicine. Among these are: Acantho- 
mintha (Thorny Mint); Ajuga (Bugle Weed); Cedro- 
nella (Balm of Gilead); Coleus; Collinsonia (Horse- 
balm, Horse-weed, Stonewort) ; Cunila (Maryland Dit- 
tany); Hedeoma (American Pennyroyal); Hyssopus 
(Hyssop), hardy shrub; Lamium (Dead Nettle); Lav- 
andula (Lavender) ; Leonotis (Lion's Ear, Lion's Tail) ; 
Lophanthus (Giant Hyssop); Marrubium (Hore- 

hound); Melissa (Balm); Mentha (Mint, Spearmint, 
Peppermint, Japanese Mint, Bergamot Mint, Black 
Mint, White Mint, European Pennyroyal); Micromeria 
(Yerba Buena); Moluccella (Shell Flower, Molucca 
Balm) ; Monarda (Horsemint, Oswego Tea, Bee-balm, 
Fragrant Balm, Wild Bergamot); Nepeta (Catnip, 
Ground Ivy, Gill-run-over-the-ground); Ocimum (Ba- 
sil) ; Origanum (Marjoram) ; Phlomis (Jerusalem Sage) ; 
Physostegia (False Dragonhead, Obedient Plant) ; Plec- 
tranthus (Cockle-spur Flower) ; Pogostemon (Patch- 
ouli Plant) ; Prunella or Brunella (Self-heal, Heal-all) ; 
Pycnanthemum (Mountain Mint); Rosmarinus (Rose- 
mary, Old Man); Salvia (Sage, Clary, Scarlet Sage); 
Satureia (Savory); Scutellaria (Skull-cap); Stachys 
(Woundwort, Choro-gi, Chinese or Japanese Artichoke, 
Knot-root, Betony); Teucrium (Germander); Thymus 
(Thyme, Mother-of-Thyme) ; Trichostema (Blue Curls, 
Bastard Pennyroyal, Ramero); Westringia (Victorian 

196. Nolanaceae (from the genus Nolana, derived 
from nola, a little bell, in reference to the corolla). 
NOLANA FAMILY. Fig. 51. Herbs or small shrubs: 
leaves alternate, or opposite: flowers bisexual, regular; 
calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogy- 
nous, plicate in the bud; stamens 5, slightly epipeta- 
lous, alternating with the lobes of the corolla; hypogy- 
nous disk well developed, often lobed; ovary superior, 
typically of 5 carpels, radially lobed, or both radially 
and transversely lobed, lobes 5-30, in fruit forming 5- 
30 nutlets which are each 1-7-seeded, or sometimes 
both radially and transversely lobed. 

There occur 3 genera and 50 species, confined to the 
west coast of South America. Many species are mari- 
time. The family is related to the Convolvulacese, also 
to the Boraginaceze and Solanacea;. The plicate corolla 
and very peculiarly lobed ovary derived from 5 carpels 
are distinctive. 

A few species of Nolana, all prostrate plants, are cul- 
tivated in this country for ornamental purposes. 

197. Solanaceae (from the genus Solanum, the sig- 
nificance unknown). NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Fig. 52. 
Herbs, erect or climbing shrubs, or small trees: leaves 
usually alternate: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, reg- 
ular, rarely irregular; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, 
gamopetalous, hypogynous, usually plicate in the bud, 
the folds twisted to right or left, rarely the tips of the 
folds valvate or imbricated; stamens 5, epipetalous, 
alternating with the corolla-lobes; hypogynous disk 
present; ovary superior, 2-celled, rarely falsely 1-, or 
more, celled; ovules in each cell 1 to many; style 1; 
stigmas 1-2: fruit a berry or capsule. 

About 70 genera and 1,600 species, 900 of which be- 
long to Solanum, are distributed in the tropical and warm 
temperate regions, the greatest number being in Cen- 
tral and South America. The family is related to the 
Scrophulariaceso, Convolvulacese and Nolanaceae. The 
regular, plaited corolla, and usually numerous seeds are 
important distinguishing characteristics. Datura has a 
prickly fruit. The calyx of Physalis is accrescent and 
inflated, surrounds the fruit, and is often colored. 

Many Solanacea; contain narcotic or poisonous 
alkaloids and are used in medicine. Belladonna (alka- 
loid atropine) is obtained from the roots of Alropa 
Belladonna; it was formerly used by women to 
dilate the pupils of the eye, hence the specific name. 
The leaves and flowers of Datura Stramonium (Jimson 
weed) constitute the stramonium of medicine (alka- 
loid daturine). Stramonium seeds were formerly 
used by magicians to produce fantastic visions, and by 
thieves to stupefy their victims. Henbane (alkaloid 
hyoscyamine) consists of the leaves and tops of Hyos- 
cyamus niger and is narcotic. Mandragora is similar 
in effect to belladonna. It was used by sorcerers to 
produce hallucinations in their victims. Scopolia 
carniolica and Solanum carolinense (horse-nettle) 
have been used in medicine. The remedy, pichi, con- 



sists of the dried twigs of Fabiana imbricata of Chile. 
European bittersweet (S. Dulcamara) has been used 
as medicine; it is poisonous. Black nightshade (S. 
nigrum) and others are poisonous. Tobacco is the dried 
leaves of Nicotiana Tabacum. Winter cherry (Physalis 
Alkekengii) is diuretic. Chilli is a name for the fruits of 
Capsicum annuum of South America. Cayenne pepper 
is the fruit of various species of Capsicum. Tomato, or 
love apple, is the fruit of Lycopersicum esculentum 
( = Solatium Lycopersicum) . Species of nightshade, when 
cooked, are eaten as greens. Eggplant is the fruit of 
S. Melongena of Asia. Potatoes are the tubers of S. 
tuberosum of Peru and Chile. 

About 30 genera are cultivated in North America as 
ornamental plants or for food. Among these are: Atropa 
(Belladonna); Capsicum (Rod or Cayenne Pepper); 
Cestrum; Cyphomandra (Tree Tomato); Datura 
(Angel's Trumpet, Datura); Hyoscyamus (Henbane); 
Lycium (Matrimony Vine, Box Thorn); Lycopersicum 
(Tomato), [Engler and Prantl unite this with Solanum] ; 
Mandragora (Mandrake of history); Nicotiana (Nico- 
tina, Tobacco); Nicandra (Apple of Peru); Nierem- 
bergia (Cup-flower, White Cup); Petunia; Physalis 
(Ground Cherry, Strawberry Tomato, Alkekengi, Blad- 
der Cherry, Cape Gooseberry, Chinese Lantern Plant) ; 
Salpiglossis; Schizanthus (Butterfly Flower, Poor man's 
Orchid); Streptosolen ; Solandra; and Solanum (Night- 
shade, Potato, Pepino, Melon Pear, Melon Shrub, 
Eggplant, Guinea Squash, Aubergine, Jerusalem 
Cherry, Potato Vine, Bittersweet). 

198. Scrophulariaceae (from the genus Scrophularia, a 
reputed remedy for scrofula). FIGWORT FAMILY. Fig. 52. 
Herbs, shrubs, or small trees: leaves alternate, opposite 
or whorled: flowers bisexual, regular or commonly 
irregular, often bilabiate, in which case the throat is 
often closed by a palate; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, 
gamqpetalous, hypogynous, rarely spurred at the base, 
imbricated; fertile stamens rarely 5, usually 4 and 
didynamous, rarely 2; sterile often present as staminq- 
dia; epipetalous; hypogynous disk annular or uni- 
lateral; ovary superior, 2-celled; ovules many; style 1; 
stigmas 1-2: fruit generally a capsule, rarely a berry. 

Scrophulariacea; is a family of 179 genera and about 
2,500 species, distributed very generally over the whole 
earth. A few are aquatic and have finely divided 
leaves. Some are half-parasites on the roots of other 
plants. A few are total parasites without chlorophyll. 
The largest genera are Verbascum containing 160 
species, Calceolaria with 134 species, Veronica with 
200 species, and Pedicularis with 250 species. The 
family is related to the Solanacesc, to the Orobanchaceae 
and Gesneriacex. The non-plicate imbricated usually 
irregular corolla, reduced number of stamens, and 
2-celled, many-ovuled ovary, are distinctive characters. 

The economic uses of the Scrophulariacea; are 
medicinal and ornamental. Veronica officinalis has 
been used as a tonic and an astringent. Veronica 
Beccabunga has been used for scurvy. Scrophularia 
nodosa was a remedy for fevers. Antirrhinum was 
used as a diuretic. Euphrasia officinalis was used in 
ophthalmia, and hence the name "eye-bright." 
(Iratiola officinalis (poor man's herb) is a violent 
purgative. Digitalis purpurea is the most valuable 
medicinal plant in the family. It is poisonous, and a 
well-known diuretic and sedative-narcotic. The trop- 
ical Sco/mria dulcis is a febrifuge. Veronica virginica 
(Culver's root), Verbascum Thapsus, Linaria vulr 
garia, and Chelone glabra have also been used in med- 
icine. The snapdragon and foxglove are well-known 
garden plants of this family. 

Because of the showy flowers, 30 to 40 genera are 
in cultivation in N. America for ornamental purposes. 
Among these are: Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), garden 
and greenhouse; Calceolaria, greenhouse plants, 
mostly from South America; Castilleia (Painted Cup), 
garden plants; Chelone (Turtlehead), hardy garden 

plants; Collinsia, garden annuals; Digitalis (Foxglove), 
hardy garden plants; Erinus, hardy; Gerardia, 
hardy; Gratiola, hardy; Halleria (African Honey- 
suckle), cultivated in the southern borders; Linaria 
(Butter-and-Eggs, Kenilworth Ivy, Mother-of-Thou- 
sands, Toad-flax), hardy and greenhouse; Mimulus 
(Monkey Flower, Musk Plant), garden annuals or hardy; 
Paulownia, semi-hardy tree; Pedicularis (Lousewort, 
Wood Betony), hardy; Pentstemon (Beard Tongue, 
Pentstemon), hardy; Phygelius (Cape Fuchsia), mostly 
greenhouse; Rhodochiton (Purple Bells), vine, garden 
annual; Russelia, greenhouse; Scrophularia (Figwort), 
hardy; Tetranema (Mexican Foxglove), greenhouse; 
Torenia, garden; Verbascum (Mullein), hardy; Veronica 
(Speedwell, Culver's Root, Fluellen, Ground Hele, 
Angel's Eyes, Bird's Eyes), garden, mostly hardy 
or annual. 

199. Bignoniaceae (from the genus Bignonia, named 
for the Abbe Jean Paul Bignon, court librarian at Paris, 

52. SOLANACE.E: 1. Solanum, a, flower; b, floral diagram. 2. 
Nicotiana, flower. SCROPHULARIACEA: 3. Verbascum, flower. 4. 
Antirrhinum, a, flower; b, floral diagram. 5. Scrophularia, flower. 
BIGNONIACE.E: 6. Campsis, a, flower; 6, floral diagram; c, fruit and 
seeds. PEDAUACE.E: 7. Sesamum, floral diagram. 

and a friend of the botanist Tournefort). BIGNONIA 
FAMILY. Fig. 52. Woody plants, rarely herbs, usually 
climbing or twining in the tropical forests : leaves oppo- 
site, rarely alternate, usually compound : flowers bisexual, 
more or less irregular, scarcely bilabiate; calyx 5-cleft, 
rarely bilabiate or snathe-like, sometimes with appen- 
dages; corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
imbricated; stamens 4, didynamous, or only 2, the 
others staminodial, epipetalous; anthers various; hy- 
pogynous disk present; ovary superior, 2-celled, rarely 
1-celled; many-ovuled; style 1; stigmas 2: fruit a woody 
capsule; seeds usually winged and very compressed; 
endosperm 0. 

The family contains 100 genera and from 500-600 
species, principally natives of the tropics; these are 
most abundant in America. Three species reach the 
northeastern United States, from New Jersey and 
Ohio southward. The largest genus is Tabebuia with 



80 species. The family is related to the Scrophulari- 
aceae; but the peculiar fruit with winged seeds and the 
absence of endosperm are distinctive. The climbing 
species may or may not have foliar tendrils. These, 
when present, terminate in adherent disks. The woody, 
tropical, climbing Bignoniacete are famed for the 
peculiar cambium growth which produces secondary 
thickening of such a nature as to give to the cross- 
section very odd and very diverse patterns, some of 
which are almost geometrical in their regularity. The 
wood in these patterns may be either divided into 
four wedges at right angles to each other, or four 
wedges may be superimposed on a smaller circle of 
wood, or the wedges may be divided toward the 
periphery into peculiar finger-like portions, or there 
may be concentric rings of wood. 

Catalpa and Tecoma have been used in medicine 
but are not officinal. Caraboa (Jacaranda Copaia) 
contains an aromatic resin of the odor of coumarin. 
Many are ornamental plants with large, handsome 

About 20 genera are in cultivation in North America, 
all as ornamental plants. Among these are: Bignonia 
(Trumpet Flower, Cross Vine, Quarter Vine), mostly 
greenhouse climbers; Catalpa, semi-hardy or hardy 
trees; Chilopsis (Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, 
Mimbres) cultivated in the South; Crescentia (Cala- 
bash Tree), cultivated South. Others are Campsis 
(Trumpet Creeper, T. Vine, T. Honeysuckle) ; Tecoma 
(Yellow Elder); Pandorea (Wonga-Wonga Vine; Bower 
Plant of Australia); Tecomaria (Cape Honeysuckle, 
climbing or erect shrubs or trees, cultivated mostly 
in the South, only one of which is fully hardy North. 

200. Pedaliaceae (from the genus Pedalium, signify- 
ing a rudder, in reference to the winged angles of the 
fruit). PEDALIUM FAMILY. Fig. 52. Herbs, rarely shrubs, 
covered with peculiar slime-secreting glands: leaves 
opposite, or alternate above : flowers bisexual, irregular; 
calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, more or 
less curved but indistinctly if at all 2-lipped; stamens 
4, didynamous, often with an extra staminodium, sub- 
epipetalous; hyppgynous disk inequilateral; ovary su- 
perior or rarely inferior, 2 1-celled or falsely 1 -celled; 
style 1 ; stigmas 2-4: fruit a capsule, or a hard indehis- 
cent structure which is often covered with stiff or 
hooked spines or wings; seeds 1 to several, attached to 
central placentae. 

In this family are 14 genera and about 50 species, of 
tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Arabia, 
farther India, Ceylon, Australia, and East Indies. 
They are mostly strand or xcrophytic plants. The 
family is most closely related to the Scrophulariaceae, 
and to the Martyniacese, with which latter family it 
is often united. The peculiar slime-glands, the queer 
fruit, and the axial seeds are important characters. 

The seeds of Sesamum indicum yield an oil called 
benne oil or oil of sesame, which is used as food after 
the manner of olive oil. The oil is also used as a cos- 
metic and as a medicine. This plant has been culti- 
vated for ages in the orient, and is now cultivated in 
other lands, the oil being used in the manufacture of 
soap. Harpagophytum procumbens is the famous 
grapple-plant of South Africa, the fruits of which are 
difficult to separate from wool and clothing. The fruits 
of several species of Uncarina are almost as bad. A 
mucilaginous medicinal drink is made from the leaves 
of Pedalium Murex in India. These leaves are also 
used to thicken milk, to which they give a rich appear- 

The genera in cultivation in N. America are: Cera- 
totheca, ornamental greenhouse plants, and grown in 
Florida, with indistinctly hooked capsules; Sesamum, 
grown for oil, medicine, or ornament, outdoor annual, 
capsule not hooked. 

201. Marty niaceae (from the genus Martynia, in 
honor of Prof. John Martyn of Cambridge, England). 

MARTYNIA FAMILY. Fig. 53. Annual or perennial, glan- 
dular-hairy herbs: leaves opposite, or alternate: flowers 
bisexual, irregular, but not bilabiate; calyx 5-cleft; 
corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous; stamens 4, 
didynamous, rarely 2, the others staminodial, epipetal- 
ous, alternating with the corolla-lobes; hypogynous disk 
present, regular; ovary superior, of 2 carpels but 

S3. MARTYNIACE*: 1. Martynia, a, flower; 6, floral diagram; 
c, fruit. GEBNERIACE^J: 2. Gesneria, flower. 3. Achimencs, floral 
diagram. LENTIBULARIACE.E: 4. Utricularia, a, part of leaf with 
bladder; 6, flower; c, flower diagram. GLOBUI.AHIACE.E: 5. Glob- 
ularia, flower. 6. Cockburnia, vertical section ovary. 

1-celled; placenta; parietal; ovules several; style 1; 
stigmas 2 : fruit a more or less long, curved, beaked cap- 
sule, with a fleshy pericarp, becoming falsely 4-celled. 

About 3 genera and 10 species inhabit tropical and 
subtropical America. One species reaches southern 
Indiana. The family is closely related to the Pedali- 
acea;, with which it has generally been united. The 
horned fruit, 1-celled ovary, parietal placentae and 
less slimy pubescence, are distinctive characters. 

The turnip-like root of Craniolaria annua, known in 
South America as escorzonera, is cooked with sugar 
or eaten as a vegetable. The fruits of Martynia (or 
Proboscidea) louisiana (M. proboscidea) are sometimes 
used as pickles. 

One genus is in cultivation in this country, namely 
Martynia (Unicorn Plant, Proboscis Flower), of which 
3 or 4 species are grown. The Craniolarias of the trade 
seem to be Martynias. 

202. Gesneriacese (from the genus Gesneria, named 
after the early botanist Conrad Gesner of Zurich). 
GESNERIA FAMILY. Fig. 53. Herbs, rarely shrubs or 
small trees, sometimes climbing: leaves usuaUy oppo- 
site or whorled, simple: flowers bisexual, irregular, 
often bilabiate; calyx 5-parted; corolla 5-lobed, gamo- 
petalous, hypogynous, often gibbous below, imbricated; 
stamens rarely 5, usually 4 and didynamous, rarely 2, 
the sterile usually present as staminodia, epipetalous; 
hypogynous disk present, diverse; ovary superior or 
inferior, of 2 carpels but 1-nclled with 2 parietal pla- 
centae, often falsely 2-4-celled ; ovules numerous; style 1; 
stigmas 1-2: fruit fleshy with pulpy placentae, or cap- 
sular, or silique-like with twisted valves. 



Eighty-four genera and about 500 species are widely 
distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both 
hemispheres. The largest genera are Cyrtandra 
containing 180 species and Rcettlera with about 100 
species. The family is related to the Scrophulariacese, 
Orobanchacea; and Bignoniaceso. The 1-celled ovary 
without winged seeds, and the non-parasitic habit are 

The only economic plants in the family are the 
ornamental, of which there are many. The flowers 
throughout the family are uncommonly large and 

Twenty or more genera are in cultivation in N. Amer- 
ica. Among these are the following, all of greenhouse 
culture: Agalmyla, climbers; Episcia; Gesneria; Iso- 
loma (Kohleria); Na?gelia (Smithiantha) ; Saintpaulia 
(Usambara Violet; African Violet); Sinningia, includ- 
ing the Gloxinias; Streptocarpus (Cape Primrose); 
Trichosporum (or ^Eschynanthus), trailing or drooping. 

203. Lentibulariaceae (from the old generic name 
Lentibularia, said to mean lens, + a sinatt pipe, signifi- 
cance obscure). BLADDERWORT FAMILY. Fig. 53. 
Aquatic or marsh herbs, or epiphytes: leaves alter- 
nate, rarely whorled, very diverse; sometimes finely 
dissected, or peltate, or oval, or lanceolate; sometimes 
of two very distinct kinds; usually with very small 
scattered bladder-like lobes consisting of a complicated 
trap-like mechanism for catching tiny swimming organ- 
isms, or with the whole upper surface of the undivided 
leaf very glutinous so that insects stick fast to it; either 
all basal or all cauline, or both : flowers bisexual, irregu- 
lar; calyx 2-5-cleft, persistent; corolla 5-lobed, more or 
less 2-lipped and with a spur or sack at the base; upper 
lip 2-lobed; lower 3-lobed, often with a palate in the 
throat; stamens 2, epipetalous; ovary superior, of 2 
carpels but 1-celled; placenta free -central; style 1; 
stigmas 2: fruit a capsule. 

Belonging to this family are 5 genera and about 300 
species, of which at least 200 belong to Utricularia; 
they are distributed in all parts of the globe but are 
more numerous in the tropics. One fossil species is 
known. The family is related to the Scrophulariacese. 
The irregular corolla, 2 stamens, and 1-celled ovary 
with central placenta, are important characters. This 
is a most interesting family of insectivorous plants; 
with the exception of Pinguicula, they are adapted to 
catch organisms that swim in the water of ponds, or, 
in case of the epiphytes, in the rain-water in the 
cracks and crevices of the host plant. 

Utricularias were formerly used locally as medicine. 
The secretion of the leaves of Pinguicula contains a 
pepsin-like digestive ferment. The Lapps use these 
leaves to curdle the reindeer milk, hence the common 
name, butterwort. Danish peasant girls are said to use 
the juice as a hair-pomade. Another account says, 
"Pinguicula leaves, whether fresh or dry, are used by 
the Lapps to thicken fresh still-warm milk, which 
neither curdles nor gives cream thereafter, but forms a 
delicious compact tenacious mass, a small portion of 
which will act similarly on another quantity of fresh 

Two genera are in cultivation in N. America for their 
peculiar habit and curious orchid-like flowers, which 
are often very showy: Pinguicula (Butterwort); and 
Utricularia (Bladderwort), mostly epiphytic. 

204. Globulariaceae (from the genus Globularia, so 
named because the flowers are borne in heads). GLOB- 
ULARIA FAMILY. Fig. 53. Shrubs or herbs: leaves 
alternate, simple: flowers bisexual, bilabiate, borne in 
involucrate heads on a chaffy receptacle; calyx mostly 
5-parted, bilabiate or regular; corolla 5-lobed, gamo- 
petalous, hypogynous, upper lip sometimes obsolete; 
the lobes imbricated ; stamens 4, didynamous, epipeta- 
lous; anthers exserted, by constriction often falsely 4- 
celled; hypogynous disk usually reduced to a gland on 
one side; ovary superior, 1-celled; ovule solitary; style 

1 ; stigmas 1-2 : fruit a nutlet inclosed in the persistent 

The 3 genera and 20 species are confined to the 
Mediterranean region. Seventeen species belong to the 
genus Globularia. The family is related to the Scroph- 
ulariacese, but is distinguished by the solitary ovule 
and 1-celled ovary. Globularias are easily mistaken 
for Scabiosas, because of the involucrate heads and 
exserted stamens. 

Some species are locally used as remedies. 

A few species of Globularia are in cultivation in 
this country; two are hardy, and a third is a green- 
house plant. 

205. Acanthaceae (from the genus Acanthus, derived 
from the Greek, a spine; some of the plants are spiny). 
ACANTHUS FAMILY. Fig. 54. Herbs, or rarely shrubs 
or trees: leaves opposite, rarely whorled: flowers bisex- 
ual, irregular, usually bilabiate; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5- 
lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, the lobes imbricated; 
stamens usually 4, didynamous, rarely 2, sometimes a 
staminodium present, epipetalous; hypogynous disk 
present, mostly small; ovary superior, 2-celled, each 
cell 2-4-, rarely many-, ovuled; style 1; stigmas 1-2, 
one lobe often small or wanting: fruit a capsule; seeds 
exalbuminous, aided in distribution by peculiar out- 
growths of the funiculus. 

Acanthacese has 173 genera and about 1,500 species, 
of tropical distribution. Few species extend into the 
Mediterranean region and into the United States. Six 
species are found in the northeastern United States. 
Two hundred species belong to the genus Ruellia, and 
250 to Justicia. The family is related to the Bignoni- 
ace, and to the Scrophulariaceae, as well as to the other 

54. ACANTHACEJ:: 1. Ruellia, flower. 2. Justicia, opened fruit. 3. Myoporum, a, flower; b, vertical section ovary. 
PHRYMACE.E: 4. Phryma, a, flower; b, fruiting calyx. PLANTAOI- 
NACE^E: 5. Plantago, a, flower; 6, vertical section ovary; c, fruit. 

families of this group. The 2-celled ovary with 2-4 
ovules and the queer outgrowths of the funiculus are 

Many species are used in the tropics for medicine; 
for example, Asteracantha longifolia, a purge and su- 
dorific; Justicia Gendarussa, astringent, used in India 
for rheumatism, and the leaves sprinkled in clothing 
to keep insects away; Justicia pecloralis, used for lung 
troubles. The young flowers of Blepharis edulis and 
Asystasia gangetica are eaten as vegetables. Ruellia 
ciliosa of the United States has recently been sold 
spuriously as Spigelia (pink root). 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation in N. America, 
except in a few cases, as ornamental greenhouse plants. 
Among these are: Acanthus (Bear's Breech), hardy 



herbs; Adhatoda, shrubs; Aphelandra, shrubs; Cros- 
sandra, shrub; Fittonia, herbs; Graptophyllum (Cari- 
cature Plant), shrubs; Jacobinia, herbs; Justicia, re- 
ferred to other genera; Peristrophe; Ruellia, herbs or 
shrubs; Strobilanthes, often used also for bedding 

206. Myoporaceae (from the genus Myoporum, sig- 
nifying to shut a pore, in reference to the spots in the 
leaves which are closed by a membrane). MYOPORUM 
FAMILY. Fig. 54. Shrubs or trees: leaves alternate, rarely 
opposite, usually glandular or woolly: flowers bisexual, 
regular or irregular; calyx 5-cleft, persistent; corolla 
5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous; stamens 4, didyn- 
amous, the fifth a staminodium, epipetalous; ovary 
superior, 2-celled or falsely 3-10-celled; usually 1-2, 
rarely 8, ovules in each cell; style 1; stigmas 1-2: fruit 

There are 5 genera and about 90 species, of which 57 
belong to Pholidia and 25 to Myoporum. They are 
mainly natives of Australia, but scattered species occur 
in the West Indies, Japan, China, Hawaiian Islands, 
and elsewhere. The family is related to the Scrophulari- 
aceffi and to the Verbenaceae. The few ovules, the 
presence of oil-glands and the pendulous seeds are dis- 

Myoporum platycarpum is the sandal-tree or sugar- 
tree or dogwood of Australia. From it, a kind of manna 
is secreted; also a resin that is used like sealing-wax. 

Two species of Myoporum are grown as ornamental 
plants in this country. 

55. RUBIACE<E: 1. Galium. n. flower; b, fruit. 2. Houstonia, 
flower. 3. Bouvardia, floral diagram. CAPRIFOLIACE^E: 4. Loni- 
cera, flower. VALEBIANACE.B: 5. Valeriana, flower. 

207. Phrymaceae (from the genus Phryma, a name of 
unknown derivation). LOPSEED FAMILY. Fig. 54. Per- 
ennial herbs: leaves opposite, simple : flowers bisexual, bi- 
labiate; calyx 5-cleft, 2-lipped; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, 
gamopetalous, hypogynous; stamens 4, didynamous, in- 
cluded, epipetalous; ovary superior, 1-celled; ovule 1, 
sub-basal, straight (orthotropous); style 1; stigmas 2: 
fruit dry, indehiscent, inclosed in the abruptly reflexed 
calyx, the teeth of which are hooked. 

A single genus and species occurs in the eastern 
United States and East Asia. The family is related to 
the Verbenacese and was formerly united with that 
family; but the peculiar, 1 -seeded fruit, with a straight 
orthotropous seed is distinctive. 

Phryma Leplostachya (lopseed) has been in the 
trade as an ornamental garden plant. 


208. Plantaginaceae (from the genus Plantago, the 
Latin name of the plant). PLANTAIN FAMILY. Fig. 54. 
Annual or perennial herbs: leaves alternate or opposite: 
flowers bisexual, or rarely unisexual, regular; calyx 
4-cleft; corolla 4-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, scar- 
ious, imbricated ; stamens 4, epipetalous or hypogynous, 
exserted, alternate with the corolla-lobes; ovary 
superior, 1-2-celled, rarely 4-celled; ovules 1 to many in 
each cell; style and stigma 1: fruit a circumscissile cap- 

sule, or an indehiscent nutlet, invested by the persistent 
calyx; seeds usually peltate. 

Three genera and about 200 species, of which all 
but 3 belong to the genus Plantago, are distributed 
over the whole earth. The centers of distribution are 
the Mediterranean region and the Andes. This is a 
very distinct gamopetalous family of doubtful relation- 
ship, possibly allied to the LabiatEB. 

Many European species were formerly used in 
medicine; the seeds as mucilaginous emollients in 
inflammatory ophthalmia, and the like; the leaves as 
bitters. The seeds are used in India to stiffen muslins. 
Plantago lanceolata, P. Coronopus and P. major are 
eaten as greens. The seeds of several species are sold 
for feeding birds. P. lanceolata is used for early pas- 

The family is not cultivated in N. America, except 
possibly for bird-seed, pasturage, or pond-border 

Order 52. RUBIALES 

209. Rubiaceae (from the genus Rubia, signifying 
red, from the color of the roots of some species). MAD- 
DER FAMILY. Fig. 55. Trees, shrubs or herbs: leaves 
opposite or whorled, simple, usually entire: flowers bi- 
sexual, rarely unisexual, regular, rarely slightly irregular; 
calyx 2-6-cleft, or 0; corolla gamopetalous, 4-6-lobed, 
mostly valvatc; stamens 4-6, epipetalous; ovary inferior, 
1 to many-, commonly 2-, celled; ovules 1 to many 
in each cell; style 1; stigma 1, capitate or several- 
branched: fruit a capsule, berry, or drupe. 

Rubiacea: is a family of 343 genera and about 4,500 
species, mainly tropical; about 34 species reach the 
northeastern United States. The family is closely 
related to the Caprifoliacea;, but usually has stipules or 
whorled leaves; it is also related to the Cornacea;, 
Valeriancea;, Compositso, and the like. 

A number of tropical Rubiacea; are myrmecophilous, 
i. e., provide a dwelling-place for protective ants. The 
whorled leaves of some species have probably been 
developed from stipules. 

This is an important economic family. Coffea 
arabica (Abyssinia coffee) is generally cultivated in the 
tropics and used elsewhere as a beverage. Cinchona 
Ledgeriana and C. succirubra of the Andes furnish 
quinine. Uragoga (Caphselis) Ipecacuanha of Brazil is 
the source of the emetic ipecac. Cephalanthus of North 
America, and several species of Galium have been 
used in medicine. Rubia lincloria (Mediterranean) 
furnishes the red dye, madder. Roots of Asperula and 
some species of Galium yield red dyes. Morinda 
citrifolia (tropics) yields a yellow dye, morindin. 
Ourouparia Gambir (Malay) yields the dye known as 
catecu, gambir, or terra japonica. The foliage of 
Asperula odorata has the fragrance of sweet grass, and 
is used for a similar purpose, and for flavoring wines. 
Galium Iriflorum has a similar odor. Galium verum, the 
yellow bedstraw (Europe) contains a milk -curdling 
ferment, hence the name, "galium;" also formerly given 
to women to increase lactation. Berries of Mitchella 
contain a saponin-like substance. The fruits of Van- 
gueria edulis and several other species of Rubiacea; are 
edible. The wood of many species is valuable. 

Forty to 50 genera and a great many species are in 
cultivation in N. America, mostly in the greenhouse and 
in tropical horticulture. Among these are Indian Mul- 
berry (Morinda); Cape Jasmine (Gardenia); Bluets 
(Houstonia); Manettia Vine (Manettia); Madder 
(Rubia) ; Buttonbush (Cephalanthus, hardy) ; Bedstraw 
or Cleavers (Galium) ; Coffee (Coffea) ; Cinchona (Cin- 
chona); and Partridge Berry (Mitchella). 

210. Caprifoliaceas (horn the old genus Caprifolium, 
meaning a goat-leaf, possibly in reference to the climb- 
ing habit). HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Fig. 55. Shrubs, 
very rarely herbs: leaves opposite, simple or pinnate: 
flowers bisexual, regular or irregular; calyx 4-5-toothed, 



or 4-5-fid; corolla gamopetalous, 4-5-lobed, tubular or 
rotate; stamens of the same number as the corolla- 
lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous; ovary in- 
ferior, 1-5-celled; each cell 1 to many-ovuled; style 1 
or obsolete; stigmas 1-5: fruit a berry or capsule. 

The 11 genera and about 350 species are distributed 
principally in the north temperate zone. The tropical 
species are mostly confined to the mountains. A few 
species of Sambucus and Viburnum occur in the southern 
hemisphere. The family is very closely related to the 
Kubiacese but the leaves are exstipulate; also to the 
Cornacese and Valerianacea:. Some fossil species have 
been found. 

Many species of Honeysuckle exhale a sweet odor 
after sunset. The berries of Lonicera Caprifolium are 
said to be diuretic; those of L. Xylosteum are laxative. 
The berries of the European elder (Sambucus nigra). 
and of the American elder (S. canadensis) are cooked 
and eaten and are also made into wine. The dried flowers 
of elder were formerly used in cases of fever. The roots 
of the North American Tripsteum perfoliatum furnish a 
kind of ipecac. Other species are locally used in medi- 
cine. Many are ornamental. 

Eight or 10 genera are in cultivation in N. America: 
Viburnum (Sheepberry, Hobble-bush, Wayfaring Tree, 
Arrowwood, High Cranberry, Snowball Bush); Sam- 
bucus (Elder); Triosteum (Feverwort, Horse Gentian, 
Wild Ipecac); Symphoricarpos (Snowberry, Coral 
Berry );Abelia; Diervilla (Weigela, Bush Honeysuckle) ; 
I.iiuiM'.-i (Twin-flower); Lonicera (Bush and Climbing 
Honeysuckles, Woodbine, Trumpet Honeysuckle). 

211. Valerianacese (from the genus Valeriana, a word 
of uncertain origin). VALERIAN FAMILY. Fig. 55. An- 
nual or perennial herbs, often strongly scented: leaves 
basal and cauline, the latter opposite, simple or pinnate: 
flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular or irregular, 
epigynous; calyx of 1-3 minute, but often accrescent, 
sepals; corolla 5-, rarely 3-4-, lobcd, gamopetalous, 
often produced into a spur at the base; lobes imbricated; 
stamens 1-4, rarely 5, epipetalous, exserted; ovary 
inferior, 3-celled, only 1 cell maturing; seed 1; style 1; 
stigmas 3: fruit dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded. 

Eight genera and about 280 species are known, mostly 
in the north temperate regions of the Old World, especi- 
ally in the region just north of the Mediterranean, and 
in South America, where the genus Valeriana is mostly 
distributed. The family is related to the Dipsacaceai 
and the Caprifoliaceai, and more remotely to the Com- 
positae. The epigynous, gamopetalous flower, separate 
stamens, 3 carpels and 1-seeded fruit are distinctive. 

Valeriana officinalis is a powerful nerve sedative 
with a peculiar odor. Many other Valerianacea; are 
used as local remedies for the same purpose. The 
foliage of various species of Valerianella (lamb's 
lettuce, corn salad) is eaten as a salad, less commonly 
as a pot-herb. 

In this country few genera are in cultivation: Patrinia 
as a pot-herb; Centranthus (Red Valerian, Jupiter's 
Beard) and Valeriana (Valerian) as ornamental plants; 
and Valerianella (Corn Salad, Fetticus) for food. 

212. Dipsacaceas (from the genus Dipsacus, derived 
from the Greek to thirst, in allusion to the water-holding 
leaf-bases). TEASEL FAMILY. Fig. 56. Annual or per- 
ennial herbs: leaves opposite, rarely whorled: flowers 
small, bisexual, mostly irregular, epigynous, in dense 
involucrate heads; each flower also surrounded by a 
cup-shaped, more or less scarious, involucre, which is a 
metamorphosed bracteole; calyx of setaceous segments 
or crown-like, or plumose, or various; corolla 4Wobed, 
gamopetalous, usually irregular; lobes imbricated; 
stamens 4, rarely 2-3, mostly epipetalous; ovary 
inferior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1; stigmas 2: fruit an 

The family has 10 genera and about 150 species, all 
natives of warm-temperate regions of the Old World, 
and mostly of the eastern Mediterranean region. The 

family is related to the Valerianacea>, and more dis- 
tantly to the Compositae. The gamopetalous corolla, 
2 carpels, involucrate heads and involucrate flowers are 

Dipsacus and Scabiosa have been used in medicine. 
The spiny hooked bracts of Dipsacus ferox (fuller's 
teasel of southwestern Asia) have been used to full 
cloth, whence the common name; and the plant was 
once cultivated extensively for this purpose. The 
connate leaf-bases of Dipsacus sylveslris hold several 
ounces of rain-water until evaporated. This contrivance 


56. DIPSACACE,E: 1. Dipsacus, o. flower; b, fruiting head. : 
Scabiosa, fruit. CcctTRBnY.cE-E: 3. Cucurbita, a, male flower; 
b, female flower; c, cross-section fruit. CAMPANULACE.S; 4. Cam- 
panula, flower. 5. Lobelia, a, flower; b, floral diagram. 

may be of benefit in preventing the ascent of harmful 

Four genera are in cultivation in North America: 
Cephalaria, Morina, and Scabiosa as ornamental plants; 
Dipsacus ferox (D. fullonum), locally cultivated in 
New York state for fulling cloth. 


213. Cucurbitacese (from the genus Cucurbita, the 
classical name for the gourd). GOURD FAMILY. Fig. 
56. Herbs, rarely shrubs, climbing, usually with 
branched tendrils: leaves alternate, more or less 
rounded; veins palmate: flowers usually unisexual, 
perigynous, regular; stamens 5, rarely separate, usually 
connate in 2 pairs and 1 free stamen (thus appar- 
ently, stamens 3), or monadelphous, inserted at the 
summit of the ovary; anthers 2-celled, the cells often 
queerly curved and contorted; carpels usually 3, 
rarely "more or fewer; ovary inferior, mostly 3-celled. 
many-ovuled: fruit a dry berry with thick rind and 
spongy center (Pepo), or juicy with hard rind, very 
exceptionally dehiscent. 

There are 87 genera and about 650 species, widely 
distributed over the earth but most abundant in the 
tropics; they are wanting in the cold regions. Several 
are wild in the eastern United States. The family is 
related to the Campanulacesc, possibly also to the Passi- 



floracese. The tendrils are usually borne singly at the 
nodes and are thought to be modified axillary branches. 
The fruits are exceedingly diverse and odd. Some are 
the largest fruits of the vegetable kingdom, others are 
very tiny. The gourds are very diverse in shape and 
color,-^-club-shaped, globular, or flattened from above, 
or curiously curved. 

The family is of considerable economic importance. 
The fruits of many are edible; e. g., Cucurbita Pepo 
(pumpkin, summer crookneck squash), C. maxima 
(squash), C. moschata (winter crookneck squash), 
Cucumis Melo (muskmelon and other melons), C. 
saliva (cucumber), Cilrullus vulgaris (watermelon). 
The gourds are cultivated as curiosities and for the 
fruit to be used as household utensils, e.g., bottle-gourds 
and calabash (Lagenaria). The leaves, stems, or roots 
of very many species contain bitter, subresinous sub- 
stances which render them drastic purgatives. The 
roots of Bryonia alba (bryony) of Europe are highly 
purgative. The fruits of colocinth (Citrullus Colo- 
cynlhis) of the orient and North Africa furnish a purga- 
tive known to the ancients. The fruit of Luffa of India 
and Arabia is purgative when ripe but edible when 
green. The outer portion of the fruit of Luffa is very 
fibrous and reticulated, and, when cleaned, serves as a 
sponge or dish-cloth in the Antilles (luffa-sponge or 
Egyptian bath-sponge). The small gourd of Benin- 
casa hispida (wax gourd or Chinese watermelon) of 
tropical Asia is considered an emblem of fertility in 
India and is presented to newly married couples. Acan- 
thosicyos of the South African desert is remarkably 
erect and spiny, but the small fruit is considered a 
delicacy. Elaterium is a drug obtained from the juice 
of Ecbattium Elaterium. 

The most remarkable fruit is the squirting cucumber 
(Ecballium Elaterium) of the Mediterranean region. 
The prickly fruit, about 2 inches long, becomes very 
turgid and finally explodes with a considerable report. 
The basal end is blown out like a cork from a bottle, 
and the pulpy interior, containing the seeds, is pro- 
jected to a considerable distance. 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation in N. America. 
Among these are the various melons, squashes, gourds, 
and the like, mentioned above; also Bryony, Wax 
Gourd, Balsam Pear or Balsam Apple (Momordica), 
Dish-cloth Gourd, Squirting Cucumber, Curuba 
(Sicana), and Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes). 

214. Campanulacese (from the genus Campanula, a 
diminutive of campana, a little bell). BELLFLOWER 
FAMILY. Fig. 56. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, mostly with 
milky juice: leaves usually alternate, exstipulate, rarely 
lobed or divided: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 
regular or irregular, often bilabiate and split down the 
back, usually epigynous; calyx of usually 5, separate, 
valvate sepals; corolla usually 5-lobed, gamopetalous, 
very rarely polypetalous; stamens as many as the lobes 
of the corolla, often slightly epipetalous, separate or 
united; ovary usually inferior, 2-5-celled or 6-10- 
celled, rarely 1-celled; ovules many; style 1; stigmas 
1 to several: fruit a capsule, rarely a berry. 

Campanulacese has 59 genera and about 1,500 
species, occurring in all parts of the world but mostly in 
the temperate regions. A large part are alpine. Arbo- 
rescent forms occur in the Hawaiian Islands. The family 
is rather distantly related to the Compositsc, Dipsaca- 
ceae, Caprifoliacese. Formerly the Lobeiiaceae were sepa- 
rated as a distinct family, but the only differences 
are in the irregular flowers and syngenesious or mona- 
delphous stamens, both of which show abundant tran- 
sitions. When united, the family constitutes a very 
distinct group. -The gamopetalous epigynous flower, 
the many ovules and the frequently united stamens 
are distinctive. The stamens arc sometimes united by 
their filaments with the anthers free (monadelphous), or 
by the anthers with the filaments free (syngenesious), 
or by both filaments and anthers. 

Lobelia inflala (lobelia, Indian tobacco) of North 
America is poisonous. The foliage furnishes the 
medicinal lobelia. L. syphililica was used for syphilis 
by the Indians, but is of no value. The roots of this 
latter plant and of the cardinal flower (L. cardinally) 
are more or less poisonous. The berries and fleshy 
roots of some Campanulacea: have been used as food. 

In cultivation in N. America are some 20 genera. 
Among these are: Shepherd's Scabious, or Sheep's-bit 
(Jasione); Chinese or Japanese Bellflower or Balloon 
Flower (Platycodon) ; Venus's Looking-glass (Specu- 
laria); Horned Rampion (Phyteuma); Giant Bellflower 
(Ostrowskia) ; Lobelia and the Cardinal Flower (Lo- 
belia); and the Bellflowers or Bluebells (Campanula). 


57. COMPOSITE: 1. Vernonia, fruit. 2. Eupatorium, head. 3. 
Erigeron, disk flower. 4. Ambrosia, fruiting involucre. 5. Xan- 
thium, fruiting involucre. 6. Coreopsis, head. 7. Dahlia, ray 
flower. 8. Bidens, fruit. 9. Cosmoa, disk flower, corolla removed. 
10. Heienium, disk flower, vertical section. 11. Mutisia, head. 12. 
Senecio, floral digaram. 13. Cichorium, a, head; 6, fruit. 14. 
Lactuca, fruit. 15. Hieracium, ray flower. 

215. Composites (name having reference to the 
aggregation of the flowers into heads or false flowers, i. e., 
composite flowers). COMPOSITE FAMILY. Fig. 57. Herbs, 
shrubs, or rarely trees, sometimes twining, often with 
milky juice: leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, 
very diverse in shape, size and texture: flowers bisexual 
or unisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous; subtended 
by a bract called chaff; aggregated into 1- to many- 
flowered involucrate heads; calyx (pappus) reduced to 
hairs, scales, awns, or a border, or wanting; corolla 
gamopetalous, normally regular, 4^5-lobed; the lobes 
valvate; in one tribe bilabiate; often enlarged and 
split down one side, and flattened out (ligulate or ray 
flowers); stamens usually 4-5, epipetalous, synge- 
nesious, alternating with the corolla lobes; carpels 2; 
ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled, inferior; style 1; stigmas 2, 
rarely 1 : fruit an achene, often crowned by the persistent 
pappus; seed exalbuminous. 



This is the largest family of flowering plants, consist- 
ing of more than 800 genera and 10,000 to 12,000 species, 
distributed over all parts of the earth, each tribe usually 
having a definite center of distribution. The largest 
genera are: Senecio, 1,200 species; Centaurea, 470; 
Vernonia, 450; Hieracium, 400; Helichrysum, 300; 
Baccharis, 275; Cousinia, 210; Artemisia, 200; Cre- 
pis, 170; Erigeron, 150; Chrysanthemum, 140; Saus- 
surea, 125; Gnaphalium, 120; Circium, 120; Scorzon- 
era, 100; Anthemis, 100. The Compositse, taken in 
the broad sense, is a well-defined family not closely 
related to any other large families. Its affinities are 
with the Campanulacea?, Dipsacacex, and Valeri- 
anacese. In general, the involucrate heads, epigy- 
nous gamopetalous flowers, syngenesious stamens, 
1-seeded dry fruits and exalbuminous seeds are dis- 
tinctive. In some genera the heads have no ray 
flowers (discoid), in others they have a marginal 
row, and in still others all the flowers are ligulate. 
Except in the last case, the ray flowers are without 
stamens, and frequently without a pistil (neutral). 
The style-branches are very diverse, and are im- 
portant in the characterization of tribes. They are 
often provided with sweeping hairs which push the 
pollen from the introrse anthers up out of the 
anther tube as the style elongates. The anthers are 
caudate in two tribes, and in some genera the fila- 
ments contract abruptly when stimulated by touch. 
In Ambrosia and Xanthium, the anthers are sepa- 
rate, and the bracts of the 1-2-flowered pistillate 
involucre are fused, woody, indehiscent, and covered 
with spines or hooks. 

The family is divided by Hoffman into 13 tribes, 
several of which are by some authors considered sepa- 
rate families. 

Sub-family I. Disk flowers not ligulate; no milky 
sap. Consists of twelve tribes, separated on a basis of 
style-branches, anther-tails, chaff on the receptacle, 
and so on, as follows: Iron weed Tribe, Boneset T.. 
Aster T., Elecampane T., Sunflower T., Sneezeweed 
T., Chamomile T., Senecio T., Pot Marigold T., 
Arctotis T., Thistle T., Mutisia T. 

Sub-family II. All flowers ligulate; juice milky. 
One tribe, the Dandelion or Lettuce Tribe. 

Medicinal Plants: The Composite are rich in ethereal 
oils, fatty oils, resins and bitter principles, and therefore 
many species are used in medicine. Among others of 
loss importance, the following may be noted: Artemisia 
Absinthium (wormwood), tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic; 
A . Cina which furnishes santonica from which santonin 
is extracted, anthelmintic, stimulant; A. vulgaris (mug- 
wort) has been used as an emmenagogue and for epi- 
lepsy; Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile), tonic, ner- 
vine, emmenagogue; Malricaria Chamomilla (German 
chamomile) , with similar properties; Tanacetum vulgare 
(tansy), tonic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, diuretic; 
Arnica montana (arnica, leopard's bane), skin stimu- 
lant, diuretic; Imda Helenium (elecampane), skin 
stimulant; Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset, thorough- 
wort), tonic, diaphoretic, laxative; many Eupatoriums 
of the tropics, famed remedies for snake-bites; Tussi- 
lago Farfara (coltsfoot), sedative; Arctium Lappa and 
A. minus (burdock), diaphoretic, alterative, used for 
rheumatism; Calendula officinalis (marigold), diapho- 
retic, alterative; Lacluca saliva (lettuce), the thickened 
juice a narcotic, a substitute for opium; L. virosa (wild 
lettuce), furnishing lactucarium or lettuce opium, a 
poisonous anodyne, hypnotic, and sedative; Taraxacum 
officinale (dandelion), tonic, but injurious to digestion; 
species of Grindelia, tonic, sedative, used for asthma 
and rheumatism; Erigeron canadense (fleabane), used 
for diarrhea and uterine hemorrhage; Anacyclus Py- 
rethrum (pellitory), skin irritant; Achillea Millefolium 
(yarrow), an old remedy, styptic, tonic, sudorific, 
antispasmodic. Brauneria (Echinacea), Prenanthes, 
Xanthium, Helenium, Spilanthes, Baccharis, and 

Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum have been used locally 
to some extent. The pollen of ragweed (Ambrosia 
artemisifolia) , less commonly of species of Solidago and 
other Composita?, is said to be the cause of autumnal 

The following are used for food, as salads or cooked 
in various ways: Young foliage of Circium (thistles), 
Cynara Cardunculus (cardoon), Taraxacum officinale 
(dandelion), Cichorium Intybus (chicory), Lacluca saliva 
(lettuce), Cichorium Endivia (endive, succory), Pacou- 
rina edulis, and Scolyrnus hispanicus, (Spanish oyster 
plant) ; young flower heads of Cynara Scolyrnus (globe 
artichoke); roots of Tragopogon porrifolius (vegetable 
oyster, salsify), Scorzonera hispanica (Scorzonera, black 
salsify), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke). 
Roots of chicory, roasted, are a substitute for coffee. 

The following yield dyes: Carthamus tinctorius, 
(safflower) yields the red dye, carthamine; Senatula 
tinctoria (dyer's savory) yields a yellow dye. 

The powdered heads of species of Chrysanthemum 
furnish insect powder. An oil is obtained from the 
seeds of Guizotia abyssinica (niger seeds) of India and 
Abyssinia, used for food, painting, and burning. Seeds 
of Madia saliva furnish an oil similar to olive oil, 
edible, illuminating, and lubricating. The seeds of 
Helianthus annuus also furnish a commercial oil. 

Many Composita? are ornamental. The species of 
Helichrysum, Anaphalis, and related genera, have 
papery involucres, and furnish well-known everlastings. 

More than one hundred and fifty genera are in culti- 
vation in N. America, or are important weeds. Many of 
our most important and most showy ornamental plants 
belong to the Composite. Among these genera are: 
Achillea (Milfoil, Yarrow, Sneezewort) ; Ageratum; Ana- 
phalis (Everlasting, Moonshine) ; Antennaria (Everlast- 
ing, Cat's-ear, Pussy's Toes, Ladies' Tobacco); An- 
themis (Chamomile, Mayweed, Golden Marguerite); 
Arctium (Burdock); Arnica (Mountain Tobacco, 
Mountain Snuff); Artemisia (Wormwood, Tarragon, 
Estragon, Southernwood, Roman Wormwood, Old Man 
and Old Woman, Sage Brush) ; Aster (Aster. Starwort, 
Miehailmas Daisy); Bidens (Bur Marigold, Beggar's 
Ticks, Pitchfork Bur); Boltonia (False Chamomile); 
Brachycome (Swan River Daisy); Brickellia (Tassel 
Flower) ; Buphthalmum; Calendula (Marigold) jCalliste- 
phus (China Aster); Cnicus or Carbenia (Blessed 
Thistle); Carthamus (Safflower, False Saffron); Cen- 
taurea (Centaury, Dusty Miller, Bachelor's Button. 
Cornflower, Knapweed, Bluebottle, Bluet, Ragged 
Sailor, Sweet Sultan, Basket Flower. Hardheads); 
Chaenactis; Chrysanthemum (Feverfew, Golden Feather, 
Turfing Daisy, Marguerite, Paris Daisy, Costmary, 
Mint Geranium, Giant Daisy, Ox-eye Daisy, White- 
.weed); Cichorium (Chicory, Succory); Cineraria; Cir- 
cium or Cnicus (Common Thistles); Coreopsis (Tick- 
seed, Golden Wave); Cosmos; Cynara (Artichoke, Car- 
doon) ; Dahlia; Doronicum (Leopard's-Bane) ; Echinacea 
or Brauneria (Purple Coneflower); Echinops (Globe 
Thistle); Emilia (Tassel Flower); Erigeron (Flea- 
bane, Poor Robin's Plantain); Eupatorium (Boneset, 
Joe-Pye Weed, Thoroughwort, White Snakeroot); 
Felicia (Blue Daisy, Blue Marguerite); Gaillardia; 
Gazania (Peacock Gazania); Grindelia (Gum Plant); 
Gynura (Velvet Plant); Helenium (Sneezeweed); He- 
lianthus (Sunflower, Indian Potato, Jerusalem Arti- 
choke); Helichrysum; Heliopsis; Helipterum; Hidalgoa 
(Treasure Vine); Hieracium (Hawkweed, Rattlesnake 
Weed, Devil's Paint-brush) ; Inula (Elecampane) ; Krigia 
(Dwarf Dandelion); Lactuca (Lettuce); Leontopodium 
(Edelweiss); Leptosyne; Liatris (Blazing Star, Button 
Snakeroot); Lonas (African Daisy); Madia (Tarweed); 
Matricaria; Mikania (Climbing Hempweed, Climbing 
Boneset); Onopordon (Scotch Thistle); Parthenium 
(American Feverfew, Prairie Dock); Pentachseta; Peta- 
sites (Winter Heliotrope, Sweet Coltsfoot); Piqueria; 
Podolepis; Polymnia (Leaf-cup); Prenanthes (Rattle 



snake Root); Rudbeckia (Black-eyed Susan, Yellow 
Daisy, Coneflower, Golden Glow) ; Santolina (Lavender 
Cotton): Scolymus (Golden Thistle, Spanish Oyster 
Plant) ; Scorzonera (Black Salsify) ; Senecio (Groundsel, 
Canada Plant, Ragwort, German Ivy, Leopard Plant, 
Dusty Miller); Silphium (Rosin- Weed, Compass Plant, 
Prairie Dock, Cup Plant); Solidago (Goldenrod); Spil- 

anthes (Para Cress) ; Stokesia (Stoke's Aster) ; Tagetes 
(French Marigold, African Marigold); Tanacetum 
(Tansy) ; Taraxacum (Dandelion) ; Thelysperma; Town- 
sendia; Tragopogon (Salsify, Goat's Beard, Vegetable 
Oyster, Oyster Plant); Trilisa (Vanilla Plant); Tussi- 
lago (Coltsfoot); Verbesina (Crownbeard); Vernonia 
(Ironweed); Zinnia (Zinnia, Youth-and-Old-Age). 


AcanthacetB, 73. 
Aceraceae, 49. 
Aizoaceae, 30. 
Alismaceae, 13. 
Amarantaceae, 29. 
Amaryllidaceae, 20. 
Anaeardiaceae, 48. 
Andreales, 7. 
Annonaceae, 34. 
Anthocerotales, 6. 
Apocynaceae, 67. 
Aponogetonaceae, 13. 
Aquifoliacese, 48. 
Aracese, 17. 
Araliaceae, 62. 
Aristolochiaceae, 28. 
Asclepiadaceae, 67. 
Balsaminaceae, 50. 
Basel laceaa, 30. 
Begoniacese, 57. 
Berberidaceae, 33. 
Betulaceae, 25. 
Bignoniaceae, 71. 
Bixaceae, 55. 
Bombacacese, 53. 
Boraginaceae, 69. 
Bromeliaceae, 18. 
Bruniaceae, 39. 
Bryales, 7. 
Burseraeeae, 45. 
Butomaceae, 14. 
Buxaceae, 47. 
Cactaceae, 57. 
Calycanthaceae, 34. 
Campanulaceae, 76. 
Cannacese, 22. 
Capparidaceae, 36. 
Caprifoliaceae, 74. 
Caricaceae, 57. 
Caryophyllacese, 31. 
Casuarinacese, 23. 
Celastraceae, 49. 
Cephalotaceae, 38. 
Ceratopteridaceae, 8. 
Chenopodiacese, 29. 
Chloranthaceae, 24. 
Cistaceae, 55. 
Clethraceae, 63. 
Combretaceae, 60. 
Commelinacese, 18. 
Composites, 76. 
Convolvulacese, 68. 
Coriariacese, 47. 
Cornacea?, 63. 
Crassulaceje, 38. 
Cruciferae, 36. 
Cucurbitaceae, 75. 

Cunoniacese, 39. 
Cyatheacese, 8. 
Cycadaceae, 11. 
Cyclanthaceae, 17. 
Cyperacese, 15. 
CyrillacesB, 48. 
Diapensiacese, 64. 
Dilleniacese, 53. 
Dioscoriacese, 20. 
Dipsacaceee, 75. 
DroseraceaB, 38. 
Ebenacese, 65. 
Els3agnaceae, 59. 
Elasocarpaceae, 51. 
Empetracese, 47. 
Epacridaceae, 64. 
Equisetaceas, 10. 
Ericaceae, 64. 
Erythroxylacese, 44. 
Euphorbiacea?, 46. 
Fagaceas, 25. 
Flacourtiacea3, 56. 
Fouquieriacese, 55. 
Fumariaceae, 36. 
Gentianaceae, 67. 
Geraniaceas, 42. 
Gesneriaceae, 72. 
Ginkgoaceae, 11. 
Gleicheniaceae, 9. 
Globulariaceae, 73. 
Gnetaceae, 12. 
Gramineae, 14. 
Guttiferae, 54. 
Haloragidaceae, 61. 
Hamamelidaceae, 40. 
Hippocastanaceas, 50. 
Hydrocaryaceae, 61. 
Hydrocharitacese, 14. 
Hydrophyllaceae, 68. 
Hymenophyllaceae, 8. 
Hypericacese, 54. 
Iridaceae, 21. 
Juglandaceae, 25. 
Juncacese, 19. 
Jungermanniales, 6. 
Labiatas, 70. 
Lardizabalaceae, 33. 
Lauraceae, 35. 
Lecythidaceae, 59. 
Leguminosae, 41. 
Lemnaceas, 18. 
Lentibulariaceae, 73. 
Liliaceae, 19. 
LimnanthaceaB, 48. 
Linaceae, 43. 
Loasaceae, 57. 
Loganiaceaa, 67. 

Loranthaceae, 27. 
Lycopodiaceae, 10. 
Lythraceffi, 59. 
MagnoliacesB, 33. 
Malpighiaceae, 45. 
Malvaceae, 52. 
Marantaceae, 22. 
Marattiaceae, 7. 
Marchantiales, 6. 
Marsileaceae, 9. 
Martyniaceae, 72. 
Melastomaceae, 60. 
Meliaceae, 45. 
Melianthaceae, 50. 
Menispermaceae, 33. 
Monimiaceae, 35. 
MonotropaceaB, 63 
Moraceae, 26. 
Moringaceas, 37. 
Musaceas, 21. 
Myoporacea?, 74. 
Myricaceae, 24. 
Myristicaceae, 35. 
Myrsinaceae, 64. 
Myrtaceag, 60. 
Naiadaceae, 13. 
Nepenthaceffi, 38. 
Nolanacea?, 70. 
Nyctaginaceas, 29. 
Nymphaeaceae, 31. 
Ochnaeeae, 53. 
Olacaceae, 27. 
Oleaceae, 66. 
Onagraceae, 61. 
Oomycetes, 5. 
Ophipglossaceae, 7. 
Orchidaceae, 22. 
Osmundaceae, 9. 
Oxalidaceae, 43. 
Palmacea?, 16. 
Pandanacea;, 13. 
Papaveraceae, 35. 
Passifloracea?, 56. 
Pedaliaceae, 72. 
Phascales, 7. 
Phrymaceae, 74. 
Phytolaccaceae, 30. 
Pinaceae, 12. 
Piperaceae, 23. 
Pittospqraceae, 39. 
Plantaginaceae, 74. 
Platanaceae, 40. 
Plumbaginaceae, 65. 
Polemoniaceae, 68. 
Polygalaceae, 46. 
Polygonaceae, 28. 

PoljTiodiaceae, 8. 
PontederiacesB, 18. 
Portulacacea3, 30. 
Primulacae, 64. 
Proteaceae, 27. 
Punicaceae, 59. 
Pyrolaceae, 63. 
Ranunculacea?, 32. 
Resedaceae, 37. 
Rhamnacese, 51. 
Rhizophoraceas, 59. 
Ricciales, 6. 
Rosaceae, 40. 
Rubiaceae, 74. 
Rutaceas, 44. 
Salicaceae, 24. 
Salviniaceaa, 10. 
Santalacea?, 27. 
Sapindaceae, 50. 
Sapotaceae, 65. 
Sarraceniaceae, 37. 
Saururaceae, 23. 
Saxifragaceae, 39. 
Schizaeaceas, 9. 
Scrophulariaceae, 71. 
Selaginellaceae, 10. 
Simarubaceas, 44. 
Solanaceae, 70. 
Sphagnales, 6. 
Stachyuraceae, 56. 
Stackhousiacess, 49. 
Staphyleaceas, 49. 
Sterculiaceae, 53. 
Styracaceae, 66. 
Symplonaceae, 66. 
Taccaceas, 20. 
Tamaricaceffi, 55. 
Taxaceae, 11. 
Ternstroemiacea?, 54. 
Theaceae, 54. 
Thymelaeaceae, 58. 
Tiliaceas, 52. 
Tremandraceae, 46. 
Trochodendracea?, 32. 
Tropaeolaceae, 43. 
Typhaceae, 13. 
Ulmaceae, 25. 
Umbelliferae, 62. 
Urticaceae, 26. 
Valerianaceae, 75. 
Verbenaceae, 69. 
Violaceae, 56. 
Vitaceae, 51. 
Zingiberaceae, 21. 
Zygomycetes, 5. 
Zygophyllaceae, 44. 


In one of the editions of the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, a key to the families and genera 
contained therein was placed in the introductory part to Vol. I. This key is now modified and adapted to the 
present work. The original key was prepared by Wilhelm Miller, Associate Editor of that Cyclopedia. The 
main part of Dr. Miller's introduction to that key is here reprinted, with adaptations, as explaining the purpose 
of a key and the way in which it is constituted. 

The key has now been extensively revised, but the original form and method are still retained. 

The purposes of the key. 

The following key attempts to supply what is proba- 
bly the greatest deficiency in cyclopedic works on 

(1) It helps the gardener to determine the name of 
any plant cultivated in America, including the wild 
flowers and other plants native to the United States 
and Canada that are commonly or even frequently 
offered for sale. 

(2) It helps the student towards a scientific knowl- 
edge of the plant world, since it gives a condensed 
and orderly catalogue of that part of the vegetable 
kingdom which is of interest to gardeners, farmers 
and foresters. 

No merely alphabetical work can accomplish either 
of these results. For example, suppose the person has 
a flower that is known to be an Iris, but of what species 
of Iris is not clear to him; and that he wishes to find 
the name. If he were to consult the best works in which 
the species of Iris are arranged alphabetically, it might 
require hours to read the pages of description, com- 
paring the items with the specimen, and the chances 
are that in the end he would not be sure of a determi- 
nation, since related species are not compared and 

It was to provide a short-cut to such information 
that every large genus or group of plants described 
in the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture was 
classified according to shape, color, size, season, 
height or other characters of interest to the gardener. 
These short-cuts, or "keys," have long been in common 
use with students of botany, and are a feature of all 
floras, but they have not been sufficiently employed in 
writings on horticultural subjects. 

No valid objection can be made to keys, synopses 
or other classified arrangements, since they do three 
things more clearly and briefly than any other device: 
(1) They help one to find out the name of a plant. (2) 
They show the difference between the given species 
and other species of the same genus. (3) They show 
the relation of each species to every other, i. e., some 
of the points of likeness and unlikeness. 

But classified schemes alone have one serious limi- 
tation: They are not so convenient for ready reference 
if one knows one's plant and merely wishes to find out 
the native country or how to spell the name. The 
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture met this need by 
numbering the species and providing an alphabetical 
list or index in each large genus. It therefore met 
the needs by presenting both systems the classified 
and the alphabetical one for taxonomic study, the 
other for convenience. 

All this supposes that one knows the genus to which 
the plant belongs, whether it is an Iris, Paeonia or 
Rhododendron. But he may not know the genus: the 
key will aid him to determine it. The key leads to the 
family and the genus; having the genus, he can run 
down the species in the Cyclopedia itself, for the 
genera are to be found in alphabetical order. This 
key, therefore, deals only with families and genera, 

since the species are described and distinguished else- 
where. It ties the whole werk together and makes it 
an organism, instead of a series of detached articles 
on Iris, Rosa, Solanum, and other genera. In other 
words, the key is not merely supplementary: it is 
structural and even fundamental. 

The preparation of the key. 

It must be confessed, however, that the preparation 
of the key was undertaken with serious misgivings. 
During the preparation of the Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture, the Editor was often importuned for 
something of the kind, by students, botanists, and 
others who made increasing use of the volumes as 
issued. In response to these urgent appeals, it was 
necessary to point out three objections: (1) Such a 
key would necessarily be highly technical. (2) It 
would have to use a scheme of arrangement that may 
pass with another generation. (3) The labor and ex- 
pense would be great. 

In response to this demand the following key has 
been prepared. It is based on the system of Bentham 
and Hooker as set forth in their "Genera Plantarum," 
a work published in parts from 1862 to 1883. The 
system of Bentham and Hooker is not now the lat- 
est, but it is the only one that was in general use 
at the time the first Cyclopedia was begun. The 
system of Engler and Prantl in "Die Natttrlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien" is now well known; this no doubt 

E resents the best system for the present generation, 
ut in its turn it is likely to be superseded. In Engler 
and Prantl's system the plants are arranged, as far 
as possible, in the order in which the various fam- 
ilies probably have made their appearance on the 
earth's surface, or at all events in accordance with 
the evolution from simple to complex. Perhaps the 
new system is better adapted for showing relation- 
ship or likeness, while the old system is well adapted 
for bringing out differences. This furnishes an 
additional reason for the use of the older system on 
the present occasion, as most of those who use this 
part of the Cyclopedia will probably be in search of 

In the present revision, the Bentham and Hooker 
key-plan has been retained. The authors of the 
main groups in the new Cyclopedia have made 
revisions and adaptations to meet the changes and 
requirements of then- own work. New conceptions 
of the limitations of families and genera have naturally 
found expression in the revision. It is not designed to 
insert in the key all the genera that are mentioned 
in a minor or incidental way, for to include them all 
would unnecessarily encumber and complicate the 
lists and tend to make them unworkable; but it is 
intended to include all the genera that afford species 
prominently in the trade in the United States .and 
Canada. When it has seemed to be desirable to omit 
genera from the key, the relatively unimportant 
native groups have often been left out, for they may 
be readily traced in the current botanies. 




The way to use a key is explained in the prefatory 
part to this volume (page xii). 

The general plan. 

The key is divided into two main parts: a key to the 
families (page 80), and a key to the genera (page 86). 
When the student has determined the family to which 
the plant belongs, the further tracing of it is to be made 
in the key to the genera; when the genus has been 
found, he turns to its alphabetic place in one of the 
volumes and there runs down the plant to its species. 

The families are arranged in accordance with the 
following framework (for another and fuller outline of 
the vegetable kingdom, see pages 


Division 1. Flowering Plants or Phanerogams 1-209 

Subdivision 1. Dicotyledons or Exogens 1-181 

Class 1. Angiosperms 1-176 

Subclass 1. Polypetala! 1-101 

Series 1. Thalamiflora? 1-39 

Cohort 1. Ranales 1- 12 

Cohort 2. Parietales 13-22 

Cohort 3. Polygalales 23- 25 

Cohort 4. Caryophyllales 26- 29 

Cohort 5. Guttiferales 30- 34 

Cohort 6. Malvales 35- 39 

Series 2. Disciflorae 40- 69 

Cohort 1. Geraniales 40- 53 

Cohort 2. Olacales 54- 56 

Cohort 3. Celastrales 57-60 

Cohort 4. Sapindales 61- 69 

Series 3. Calyciflorse 70-101 

Cohort 1. Rosales 70- 79 

Cohort 2. Myrtales 80-88 

Cohort 3. Passiflorales 89- 93 

Cohort 4. Ficoidales 94- 95 

Cohort 5. Umbellales 96-101 

Subclass 2. Gamopetahe 102-144 

Series 1. Infers 102-107 

Cohort 1. Rubiales 102-103 

Cohort 2. Asterales 104-106 

Cohort 3. Campanales 107 

Series 2. Heteromerse 108-120 

Cohort 1. Ericales 108-113 

Cohort 2. Primulales 114-116 

Cohort 3. Ebenales 117-120 

Series 3. Bicarpellata? 121-144 

Cohort 1. Gentianales 121-125 

Cohort 2. Polemoniales 126-131 

Cohort 3. Personales 132-138 

Cohort 4. Lamiales 139-144 

Subclass 3. Apetate or MonochlamydeK 145-176 

Series 1. Curvembryese 145-149 

Series 2. Multiovulata? Terrestres 150-151 

Series 3. Micrembryeas 152-156 

Series 4. Daphnes 157-160 

Series 5. Achlamydosporete 161-162 

Series 6. Unisexuales 163-174 

Series 7. Anomalous Families 175 170 

Class 2. Gymnosperms 177-181 

Subdivision 2. Monocotyledons or Endogens 182-209 

Series 1. Microspermse 182-183 

Series 2. Epigynse 184-193 

Series 3. Coronarie 194-196 

Series 4. Calycina; 197-198 

Series 5. Nudiflora? 199-203 

Series 6. Apocarpaj 204-207 

Series 7. Glumaceaj 208-209 

Division 2. Pteridophyta 210-223 


(See page 86 for Part //.) 

MATOPHYTES: those producing real flowers and seeds (pages 80 
to 86). 

Subdivision 1. DICOTYLEDONS. Sts. formed of bark, wood 
and pith, the wood forming a zone between the other two, and 
increasing when the st. continues from year to year by the annual 
addition of a new layer to the outside next to the bark: Ivs. usually 
netted-veined : "embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons, or, in 
Subdivision 2, often 3 or more in a whorl: parts of the fl. mostly 
in 4's or 5's (pages 80-84). 

Class 1. ANGIOSPERMS. Pistil consisting of a closed ovary, 
which contains the ovules: cotyledons 2. 

Subclass 1. POLYPETALJE. Calyx and corolla both present, 
the latter of separate petals. (See exceptions l : sted under Sub- 
class 2, Gamopetalse, page 82.) 

Series 1. THALAMIFLOR,*, Calyx mostly inserted under the 
ovary; petals often in 2 or more series, sometimes 1 series; stamens 

co or definite, inserted on the often small or rawed or stipitate 
receptacle, which is not developed into a glandular disk; ovary 
very generally free. 

Cohort 1. RANALES. Stamens oo, O r if definite tHCn the perianth 
in 3-os series; carpels 1 or more, usually distinct, rarely united. 
(See exceptions in Saxifraguceee, also hypogynous Leguminosa.) 

A. Sepals 5, or fewer, or 0; petals in about 

1 series. 
B. Seeds not arillate: sepals deciduous, 

usually colored : herbs or shrubs.. . . 1. RANUNCULACE*. 

BB. Seeds not arillate: calyx and corolla 
wanting; ovary of 2 carpels but 
l-celled. ....................... 7. EUCOMMIACE*. 

BBB. Seeds arillate: sepals persistent, her- 

baceous: shrubs or trees ........... 2. DILLENIACE*. 

AA. Sepals or petals in 2-> series, rarely 

B. Plants not aquatic. 

c. Perianth wanting; stamens nu- 
merous ; fls. polygamous, dice- 
cious, or perfect. 
D. Lvs. pinnately veined, alternate. 5. TROCHODENDRA- 


DD. Lvs. palmately veined, opposite. 6. CERCIDIPHYL- 
cc. Perianth present. [LACE*. 

D. Petals and stamens mostly o : 

pvules 1-co. 

E. Torus tubular, inclosing car- 
pels: endosperm 0: Ivs. op- 
posite: shrubs ............. 3. CALYCANTHACE. 

EE. Torus short or long, bearing 
carpels outside: endosperm 
copious : Ivs. alternate : 
woody ................... 4. MAQNOLIACE.*:. 

DD. Petals 5: stamens 10: carpels 

5-10: ovule solitary: Ivs. op- 

posite. (See No. 68, Cori- 

ariacese. ) 

ODD. Petals and stamens mostly mul- 

tiples of 3 or 2. 

E. Stamens and carpels usually 
numerous: ovules 1- : 
sepals 3; petals 6; fls. bisex- 
ual: shrubs or trees ......... 8. ANNONACE.S:. 

EE. Stamens usually 6: ovule 
solitary: carpels 3; sepals 
and petals usually 6: fls. 
dioecious: mostly woody or 
herbaceous vines ........... 9. MENISPERMACE-E. 

EEE. Stamens 4, 6, or 9; anthers 
opening by 2 lids rarely 
birimose : carpel 1 : ovules 
2-oo ; fls. bisexual : herbs 
or shrubs ................. 10. BERBERIDACEA. 

EEEE. Stamens usually 6; anthers 
birimose: carpels mostly 3: 
ovules many: fls. unisexual: 
vine* or erect, woody ...... 11. LARDIZABALACE. 

BB. Plants aquatic .................... 12. NYMPH-EACE-E. 

A, Embryo minute, near the base of the 

fleshy endosperm. 
B. Pitcher plants .................... 13. SARRACENIACE*. 

BB. Not pitcher plants. 

c. Petals all alike, or nearly so ....... 14. PAPAVERACE*. 

cc. Petals in 2 series, the inner unlike 

the outer ..................... 15. FUMAHIACE.E. 

AA. Embryo curved; endosperm 0. 

B. Stamens 6, tetradynamous, rarely 4. .,16. CRUCIKER.E. 
BB. Stamens ,or, if few, not tetradyna- 

mous .......................... 17. CAPPARIDACE.K. 

BBB. Stamens usually , not covered in 
aestivation by the small petals: 
ovary often open above .......... 18. RESEDACE.*. 

AAA. Embryo not curved, rather large; 

endosperm fleshy. 
B. Radicle remote from hilum: ovule 

generally orthotropous ........... 19. CISTACE^:. 

BB. Radicle very near hilum: ovule ana- 

tropous, or amphitropous. 
c. Anthers dehisce introrsely: mostly 

herbs ........................ 20. ViOLACE.E. 

cc. Anthers dehisce extrorsely or at 

apex: insectivorous plants with 

capitate glandular tentacles on 

Ivs. (See No. 76, Droseracese.) 

ccc. Anthers dehisce by apical cracks or 

pores: woody. 
D. Slime-cells present; receptacle 

not enlarged ................ 21. BIXACE*. 

DD. Slime-cells absent; receptacle 

enlarged .................... 22. FLACOURTIACE.*. 

cccc. Anthers versatile, dehiscing by 
longitudinal fissures : woody. 
(See No. 34, Stachyuraceie. ) 



Cohort J. POLTOALALES. Stamens as many or twice as many 
as petals: carpels usually 2: ovary usually perfectly or imperfectly 
2-celled, usually compressed. 

A. Fls. regular or slightly oblique. 
B. Stamens 5, as many as sepals or 

petals: woody 23. PITTOSPO RACEME. 

BB. Stamens twice as many as sepals or 
petals, which are usually 4 or 5, 

rarely 3: woody 24. TREMANDRACE. 

AA. Fls. irregular: herbaceous or woody. . . . 25. POLYQALACEJE. 

Cohort 4. CARYOPHYLLALES. Stamens definite, rarely co : 
ovary 1-celled or imperfectly septate; placenta central, rarely 
parietal: embryo curved, or coiled, rarely straight. 

A. Sepals of same number as petals: 

placenta 1, central: herbs 26. CARYOPHYLLACE.. 

AA. Sepals fewer than petals: placenta 1, 

central: herbs. 27. PORTULACACE. 

AAA. Sepals of same number as petals: 

placenta several: mostly woody. 
B. Corolla polypetalous; stamens with- 
out scale, glabrous; fls. spicate or 

racemose 28. TAMARICACE.E. 

BB. Corolla gamopetalous; stamens with 
scale, hairy; fls. thy rsoid -panicu- 

Cohort 5. GUTTIFERALES. Stamens usually CD; sepals imbri- 
cated: ovary septate; placentae on the inner angles of the cells, i.e., 
axile. (See also, as exceptions with disk absent, the Linaeese, 
Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiacese, Geraniacefe, Tropseolacese, Lim- 
nanthacese, Oxalidacese, Balsaminacea*. Ochnacece, Rutacese, Ana- 
cardiacese and Sapindacese, all belonging to the Discifiorse. (See 
also Nigella of the Ranunculacece. ) 

A. Lvs. opposite or whorled, herbaceous: 

fls. cymose or panicled, bisexual 30. HYPERICACE.E. 

AA. Lvs. opposite or whorled, coriaceous: 

fls. cymose or panicled. 
B. Receptacle not enlarged; fls. uni- 
sexual 31. GUTTIFER-B. 

BB. Receptacle enlarged, barrel-shaped 
between pistil and corolla, bearing 

the stamens; fls. bisexual 32. EUCKYPHIACE-G. 

AAA. Lvs. alternate, coriaceous: fls. mostly 


B. Cells of ovary 2-10: stamens numer- 

BB. Cells of ovary 1 : stamens 8 34. STACHYURACE.K. 

Cohort 6. MALVALES. Stamens usually c or monadelphous; 
sepals valvate: ovary septate; placentae axile. 

A. Anthers 1-celled; pollen rough: herbs 

or woody 35. MALVACE*. 

AA. Anthers 1- to several-celled: pollen 

smooth: woody plants 36. BOMBACACE*. 

AAA. Anthers 2-celled: fls. with staminodia 
and queer stamen-tube : woody 

plants 37. STERCUUACE*:. 

AAAA. Anthers 2-celled; stamens nearly free; 
no staminodia: ovule often pendulous 
with raphe toward axis. 

B. Petals ordinary: herbs or woody 38. TILIACE-E. 

BB. Petals firm, often hairy or incised: 

woody plants 39. ELJEOCARPACEJS. 

Anomalous Group. Stamens co ; sepals 
valvate: carpel 1: ovary 1-celled: fls. reg- 
ular: Ivs. compound: herbs or woody 

(Mimoesse, incl. in Leguminosffi.) 

Series 2. DISCIFLOR.E. Calyx usually inserted under the ovary; 
petals in 1 series: stamens usually definite, inserted within or upon 
or around the receptacle, which is usually expanded as a disk within 
the calyx: ovary usually free, or imbedded in the disk. (See Fla- 
courtiacese and Trapacese.) 

Cohort 1. GERANIALES. Disk usually a ring between stamens, 
or adnate to staminal tube, or reduced to glands alternating with 
the petals, rarely 0: ovary commonly lobed, rarely entire or sub- 
apocarpous; ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous; raphe toward axis. 
(See StackhousiacesB. ) 

A. Ovary more or less lobed or grooved. 
B. Anthers elongated; disk enlarged in 

fr 51. OCHNACE.E. 

BB. Anthers normal. 

c. Calyx-lobes 5, all or mostly with 2 

glands outside: woody 42. MALPIQHIACE.E. 

cc. Calyx-lobes not biglandular. 

D. Foliage glandular-dotted: car- 
pels sometimes separate 49. RUTACE*. 

DD. Foliage not glandular-dotted. 
E. Lvs. usually opposite, com- 
pound 43. ZYOOPHYLLACE.C. 

EE. Lvs. alternate. 

F. Disk well developed, irregu- 
lar; petals often irregular; 
ovary usually open above: 
herbs, rarely shrubs. 
(See No. 18, Resedacea:.) 


TT, Disk well developed, regu- 
lar: petals regular: ovary 

closed: woody plants 50. SIMARUBACEA. 

FFF. Disk indistinct, otherwise 

as in the last: herbaceous. 

a. Ovule solitary: stamens 


H. Fr. dehiscent: stamens 
connate at base; fls. 
regular or irregular. .44. GEHANIACE^E. 
HH. Fr. mdehiscent: sta- 
mens free; fls. irregu- 
lar: ovule pendulous..45. TROP-EOLACE.*. 
HHH. Fr. indehiscent: sta- 
mens free: fls. regu- 
lar: ovule ascending.. 46. LlMNANTHACEA. 
ao. Ovules several: fr. dehis- 

H. Stamens 10: fls. regu- 
lar 47. OXAUDACE*. 

HH. Stamens 5: fls. irregu- 

AA. Ovary entire. 

B. Stamens monadelphous, at least 

below : woody plants. 
c. Stamen-tube stipitate; disk vari- 
ous 53. MELIACE*. 

cc. Stamen-tube sessile ; disk 0. 

D. Petals not appendaged: fr. cap- 

sular 40. LINAGES. 

DD. Petals appendaged: fr. drupace- 

BB. Stamens free. 

c. Ovules several or many. 

D. Mostly herbaceous plants. (See 

No. 17, Capparidaceae. ) 
DD. Woody plants. (See No. 22, 

Flacourtiacese. ) 
cc. Ovules 1-2 52. BURSERACE.E. 

Cohort 2. OLACALES. Disk cup-shaped or ring-shaped, free, or 
bearing the stamens and petals on its edge: ovary 1-oo-celled, 
entire ; ovule solitary, pendulous ; raphe away from axis. 

A. Petals or corolla-lobes usually valvate: 

woody 54. OLACACE^E. 

AA. Petals or corolla-lobes imbricate or 


B. Fr. drupaceous, slightly fleshy, 3-18- 
stoned ; stones 1 -seeded : fls. not 

racemose: woody 55. AQUIFOLIACK.E. 

BB. Fr. crustaceous or spongy, 2-4- 
celled, 1-4-seeded: fls. racemose: 
woody 56. CYRILLACE.E. 

Cohort 3. CELABTRALES. Disk tumid or adnate to the calyx 
or covering its base: stamens inserted around the disk or affixed to 
its margin: ovary usually entire; ovules usually 2 in each cell, erect: 
raphe turned toward axis: Ivs. simple or rarely compound. 

A. Calyx valvate; petals small, concave; 

stamens opposite the petals: woody.. ..59. RHAUNACE.E. 
AA. Calyx imbricate. 

B Stamens alternate with the petals, 

the latter imbricate, 
c. Petals spreading: calyx small: 

woody 57. CELASTHACE.E. 

cc. Petals erect, often connate: calyx- 
tube hemispherical: herbs 58. STACKHOUSIACE.*: 

BB. Stamens opposite the petals, the lat- 
ter valvate, dropping off early: 

woody, rarely herbaceous 60. VITACE^E. 

(Incl. LeeaceaO 

Cohort 4. SAPINDALES. Disk various; stamens variously 
inserted on the disk: ovary entire, or more often lobed, or suba- 
pocarpus; ovules commonly 1-2 in each cell, arcending, with raphe 
toward axis, or reversed, or solitary and pendulous from an ascend- 
ing funicle, rarely c and horizontal: Ivs. pinnate, rarely simple 
(No. 62) , or (No. 65) digitate. 

A. Carpels 2 : f r. a samara 62. ACERACE.E. 

AA. Carpels 2-3 :fr. a drupe, 1-seeded 61. SABIACEAI. 

AAA. Carpels 3-5: fr. rarely samaroid in 

B. Bark containing resin: disk intra- 

staminal 67. ANACARDIACE.E. 

BB. Bark not resinous, or, if so, disk 


c. Endosperm abundant; embryo 

D. Disk intrastaminal ; carpels 3 63. STAPH YLEACEA. 

DD. Disk extrastaminal; carpels 4-5.. 64. MELIANTHACEJE. 
cc. Endosperm sparse or wanting; 
embryo curved : disk extra- 
staminal. (See Sapindacese, 
No. 66.) 

D. Lvs. opposite, palmately com- 
pound 65. HIPPOCASTA- 

DD. Lvs. alternate, variously com- [NACE.E 

pound, or simple 66. SAPINDACEJB. 



Anomalous Families. Disk 0: sepals and 
petals 5: stamens 10; carpels 5-10, distinct: 
ovule solitary, pendulous ; raphe away 
from axis. Approaches Thai ami florae 68. CORIARIACEA. 

Disk investing calyx-tube: stamens 10, 
of which 5 have no anthers: ovary 1-celled, 
with 3-parietal placentae; ovules c. Ap- 
proaches Calyciflorce 69. MORINGACE.S. 

Series 3. CALYCIFLOR.E. Petals in 1 series: stamens or 
definite, inserted with the petals and sepals on the edge of the cup- 
shaped receptacle (hypanthium), or on a disk lining the latter: 
ovary often ad n ate to this receptacle; and therefore inferior. (See 
also Calycanthacese.) 

Cohort 1. ROSALES. Carpels superior solitary or free or united 
only at base, sometimes to the apex and then rarely inferior: styles 
distinct, rarely united in a column and easily separated (styles 
connate in some Bruniacete and Saxifragaceae). (See also Tropceo- 
lacete and Capparidacese. ) 

A. Endosperm rare. 

B. Fr. a legume, when rarely otherwise 
the corolla is either papilionaceous 
or the stamens are very numerous 
and exserted: Ivs. usually com- 
pound with pulvini 70. LEGOMiNOSEa:. 

BB. Fr. not a legume, either a follicle, 
drupe, pome, achene or aggregate: 
Ivs. simple or compound without 

pulvini 71. ROSACES. 

AA. Endosperm moderate or copious. 
B. Plants insectivorous. 

c. Lvs. bearing many tentacles tipped 
with capitate viscid glands: 

herbs 76. DROBERACE.K. 

cc. Lvs. bearing pitchers 74. CEPHALOTACEA. 

BB. Plants not insectivorous. 

c. Carpels 5, rarely 3 or more, sepa- 
rate, with a scale at the base of 
each, superior: ovules many: 

often fleshy plants: herbs 75. CRASSUI.ACK.K. 

cc. Carpels 2 to several, rarely sepa- 
rate, no scale at the base: plants 
not conspicuously fleshy. 
D. Ovary usually 2-celled, usually 
superior; ovules c , usually 
axile: fr. a caps, or berry or 

E. Lvs. opposite, stipulate 73. CUNONIACEJC. 

EE. Lvs. alternate, or opposite and 

exstipulate 72. SAXIFRAGACEJS. 

DD. Ovary 2-celled, inferior or 
rarely superior; ovules l-o, 
pendulous or axile: fr. a woody 
2-valved caps., with a sepa- 
rating inner layer of different 

texture 77. HAMAMELIDACE^E. 

DDD. Ovary 1-4-celIed, usually infe- 
rior; ovules 1 to several, pendu- 
lous: fr. indehiscent or cocci 
irregularly and tardily dehis- 
E. Plants heath-like: stamens 

and petals 5 78. BRCNIACE.*. 

EE. Plants ordinary: stamens 

often many 79. HALORAGIDACE.X. 

Cohort 2. MYRTALES. Ovary syncarpous, inferior or inclosed 
in a cup-shaped receptacle, usually divided into cells; style undi- 
vided; ovules 2- in the cells. 

A. Ovules pendulous from apex of cells: 

B. Ovary 2-6-celled 80. RHIZOPHORACEA. 

BB. Ovary 1-celled 81. COMBRETA 

AA. Ovules affixed to the inner angles of the 
cells or to basilar placentae, ascending, 
horizontal or pendulous. 
B. Stamens , rarely definite: woody. 
c. Oil-glands in foliage; sieve-tubes 

in pith-rays 82. MYRTACE^E. 

CC. Oil-glands absent; no sieve-tubes 

in pith-rays 83. LECYTHIDACEJE. 

BB. Stamens definite, rarely o. 

c. Calyx-lobes usually imbricate or 
open; anthers curved, usually 
opening by pores at the apex; 
connective usually appendaged 

or thickened 84. MELASTOMACE. 

OC. Calyx-lobes usually valvate; 
anthers normal, not appendaged, 
opening longitudinally. 
D. Ovary superior; petals corru- 
gated 85. I. YTHRACE-E. 

DD. Ovary inferior or half-inferior. 
E. Carpels in stories, superim- 
posed: petals corrugated. . ..86. PUNICACE*. 
EE. Carpels in 1 whorl: petals 

convolute 87. ON A OR ACE.*, 

EKE. Carpels in 1 whorl: petals 
imbricate ; a dentate or 
wavy cup-shaped disk under 
ovary: water-plants 88. TRAPACE.E. 

Cohort 3. PASSIFLOKALES. Ovary syncarpous, inferior, semi- 
inferior, or inclosed in the hollow receptacje, rarely exserted, 1- 
celled with parietal placentation, or divided into cells; ovules l-oo ; 
styles united or distinct from the base. 

A. Crown inserted on calyx-tube or within 

petals, single, double or multiple 90. PA&SIFLORACEX. 

AA. Crown 0. 

B. Fls. bisexual (see Caricacese); petals 
unlike the sepals: foliage-hairs 
stinging or rigid or queerly con- 
structed 89. LOASACE*. 

BB. Fls. unisexual. 

c. Stamens 5 or 10: perianth of the 

2 sexes unlike 91. CARICACE*:. 

cc. Stamens usually 3: perianth of 

both sexes similar 92. CUCURBITACE^E. 

ccc. Stamens oo : perianth of the 2 sexes 

often unlike 93. BEGONIACE.G. 

Cohort 4. FICOIDALES. Ovary syncarpous, inferior or superior. 
divided into cells with sub-hasilar placentation, or rarely 1-celled 
with parietal placentae; ovules l-c; styles distinct or united to 
near apex ; embryo curved or excentric. 

A. Calyx-lobes, petals and stamens usually 

oo : ovary 1-celled 94. CACTACEJE. 

AA. Calyx-lobes usually 4-5: ovary 2-c- 

celled 95. AIZOACE,E. 

Cohort 5. UMBELLALES. Ovary syncarpous, inferior, crowned 
by the disk, divided into celts, or 1-carpelled; styles distinct or 
united part way; ovules solitary and pendulous in the cells. 

A. Fr. separating into 2 dry indehiscent 

carpels 96. UMBELLIFER.E. 

AA. Fr. usually drupaceous, the stones dis- 
tinct but not separating naturally. 
B. Lvs. compound, or simple, and pal- 

mately veined 97. ARALIACS*. 

BB. Lvs. simple, pinnately veined. 

c. Ovules 2 in each cell: ovary 1- 
celled: raphe toward axis: fls. in 

catkins: Ivs. opposite 98. GARBYACE*. 

cc. Ovule 1 in each cell. 

D. Raphe toward axis: ovary 1- 
celled : Ms. in heads : Ivs. 

alternate 99. NYSSACE.E. 

DD. Raphe lateral: ovary 1-2-celled; 

fls. in cymes: Ivs. alternate. . . . 100. ALANGIACE.E. 
DDD. Raphe exterior: ovary 1-5- 
celled: fls. in heads or cymes: 
Ivs. opposite or alternate 101. COHNACEJE. 

Subclass 2. GAMOPETAL^. Calyx and corolla both present, 
the petals usually more or less united: stipules present only in the 
Rubiacese and Loganiacete, rarely in ihe Caprifoliacese: corolla 
polypetalous in some Ericaceffl, in Monotropaceae, Pyrolace, Cleth- 
racese, some Styracacese and Oleaceae; also in Galax, Statice, 
Lysimachia; corolla gamopetalous in some Fouquieriacese, Stack- 
housiacese, Ixjguminosaj, Fumariacece, Polygalacese, and Oxali- 
daceae of the Polypetalae. 

Series 1. IXFER-B. Ovary inferior (see Ericacete): stamens an 

many as lobes of the corolla, rarely fewer. 

Cohort 1. RUB i ALES. Stamens affixed to the corolla: ovary 
2- oo -celled; cells l-o-ovuled: Ivs. opposite or whorled. 

A. Fls. regular or irregular: stipules 

usually absent 102. CAPRIFOLIACE.'E. 

AA. Fls. regular: stipules present, inter- 
or intrapetjolar, various in form, 
sometimes like the Ivs. and disposed 
in the same whorl with them 103. RUBIACE^E. 

Cohort 2. ASTERALES. Stamens affixed to corolla: ovary of the 
2-merous pistil 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 

A. Anthers free: Ivs. opposite or whorled. 

B. Endosperm 104. VALERIANACE.B. 

BB. Endosperm present 105. DIPSACACE^E. 

AA. Anthers united in a ring around the 
style except in a few genera: Ivs. 
alternate or opposite 106. COMPOSITE. 

Cohort 3. CAMPANALES. Stamens usually free from the corolla: 
ovary 2-6-celled ; the cells usually oo-ovuled: Ivs. usually alternate. 

(Incl. Lobeliacese.) 

Series 2. HKTEROMEK.K. Ovary usually superior: stamens free 
from the corolla, or opposite the lobes or twice as many, or 0, or, 
if borne on the corollan, the alternate with its lobes and equal in 
number to them; carpels more than 2. 



Cohort 1. ERICALBS. Stamens twice as many a* the corolla- 
lobes, or aa many and opposite them: ovary 2- o -celled; ovules 
numerous (except in Epacridaceae): fr. fleshy or berry-like. 

A. Anthera dehisce by an apical crack or 
pore, often produced into a tube; sta- 
mens usually 8 or 10 (5 in some 

B. Chlorophylless plants: polypetalous.108. MONOTROPACE*. 
BB. Chlorophyll-bearing plants. 

c. Anthers inverted, at least at first; 
polype talous. 

D. Ovary 3-celled: shrubs 109. < 'i KTHHM K.V:. 

DD. Ovary 5-celled: low or acaules- 

ceiit plants 110. PYROLACE.B. 

cc. Anthers erect; rarely polypetalous 

(Ledum) 111. ERICACEAE. 

AA. Anthers dehisce by longitudinal fis- 
sures (see also Epigaea); stamens 5. 

B. Plants shrubs or trees: carpels 4-5.. . . 112. EPACRIDACE. 
BB. Plants low or acaulescent: carpels 3. .113. DIAPENSIACE^. 

Cohort 2. PRIMOLALES. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes 
and opposite them; ovary 1-celled; placentae free-central or basal. 

A. Ovary 1-ovuled 114. PLUMB AQIN ACE.-E. 

AA. Ovary 2 to many-ovuled. 

B. Fr. capsular: herbs 115. PRIMULACE.*. 

BB. Fr. indehiscent: trees or shrubs 116. MYRSIXACE*. 

Cohort 3. EBENALES. Stamena as many as lobes of the corolla 
and opposite them or twice as many, or ; ovary 2-co-celled; seeds 
usually few and rather large: woody. 

A. Fls. usually bisexual; stamens usually 

borne on the corolla. 
B. Stamens 15-oo: ovary inferior, 2-5- 

celled 117. SYMPLOCACE.E. 

BB. Stamens 5-10: ovary superior. 

c. Ovary 1-celled at top 118. STYRACACE.E. 

cc. Ovary 4-co-celled 119. SAPOTACE.E. 

AA. Fls. dicecious; stamens usually free 

from corolla 120. EBENACE.& . 

Series 3. BICARPELLAT^E. Ovary usually superior: stamens 
alternate with corolla-lobes, as many as them or fewer: carpels 2, 
or rarely 1 or 3. 

Cohort 1. GENTIANALES. Corolla regular: stamens alternate 
with corolla-lobes and equal to them in number, or, if fewer, 
usually alternate with carpels: Ivs. usually opposite. 

A. Stamens 2, alternate with the carpels, 
rarely 4; stigma terminal; ovary 
2-celled ; ovules affixed to septum : 

rarely herbaceous 121. Oi KACK.E. 

AA. Stamens and corolla-lobes usually 5, 

sometimes 4, rarely co. 
B. Ovary usually compound, with 2 or 3 

(rarely 4 or 5 ) cells or placentae, 
c. Caps, mostly 2-celled : Ivs. con- 
nected by transverse lines or stip- 
ules 122. LOGANIACE^E. 

CC. Caps, mostly 1-celled, with parie- 
tal placentae: Ivs. not connected 

as above 123. GENTJANACE-E. 

BB. Ovaries 2, usually becoming follicles, 
c. Anthers permanently attached to a 
targe stigmatic body ; pollen 

mostly in waxy masses 124. ASCLE PI ADAGES. 

cc. Anthers distinct or merely con- 

nivent; pollen ordinary 125. APOCYNACE.. 

Cohort 2. POLEMONIALES. Corolla regular: stamens as many 
as lobes of corolla: Ivs. usually alternate: ovary l-o-ovuled. 

A. Pistil 3-merous ; corolla-lobes con- 
volute 126. POLEMONIACE.S. 

AA. Pistil not 3-merous. 

B. Corolla-lobes imbricated or rarely 


c. Style usually deeply 2-cut, or even 
split into 2 distinct styles: caps. 
1-celled, 2-valved, with 2 parie- 
tal or introflexed placentae, or 

sometimes 2-celled 127. HYDROPHYLL- 

cc. Style usually entire or shortly 2- [ACM:. 

cut, rarely otherwise; ovary 4- 
ovuled, usually 4-lobed and 
maturing as 4 separate or 
separable nutlets; or not lobed, 
3-^l-celled, and separating when 

ripe into 2 or 4 nutlets 128. BORAQINACE.E. 

BB. Corolla-limb more or lesa plicate or 

rarely imbricate. 

c. Ovary 2-celled (sometimes 3- or 
spuriously 4-celled, becoming a 
globular 4-6-seeded caps. : seeda 
basal 129. CONVOLVULACE-B. 

cc. Ovary 2-celled (rarely 3-5-celled), 
with numerous ovules on ex- 
panded axillary placentae, be- 
coming a pod or berry 130. So LAN ACE*. 

ccc. Ovary 5-30-celled, 5-30-lobed, 
often transversely as well as 
longitudinally so 131. NOLANACEJC. 

Cohort 3. PERSONALES. Corolla usually irregular or oblique: 
posterior stamen differing from the others, abortive or even absent: 
carpels co-ovuled, or with 2 ovules, one above the other. 

A. Seeds usually with endosperm: ovary 

perfectly 2-celled; placentae central.. .132. SCROPHULARIA- 
AA. Seeds without endosperm. {CE.E. 
B. Plants insectivorous, often aquatic: 
ovary 1-celled, globose, with a free- 
central or basal placenta 133. LENTIBULARIA- 

BB. Plants not insectivorous; not aquatic. (<)*;. 

c. Seeds winged: ovary 2-, rarely 1-, 

celled: trees or climbing shrubs.. . 134. BIONOMACE.E. 
cc. Seeds not winged. 

D. Ovary 1-celled or falsely 2-4- 

E. Fr. straight or spiral 135. GEHNERIACE*. 

EE. Fr. falcate-rostrate 136. MARTYNIACE.*. 

DD. Ovary 2-4-celled. 

E. Plant very mucilaginous: no 
hooks among seeds: fr. often 

hooked or spiny 137. PEDAUACE.K. 

EE. Plants not conspicuously mu- 
cilaginous: hooks in caps, 
aiding in seed-dissemination.138. ACANTH A<JK.K. 

Cohort 4. LAMIALES. Corolla usually irregular or oblique: pos- 
terior stamen smaller than the others, usually abortive or quite 
deficient: carpels with 2 ovules placed side by side, or else 1-ovuled 

A. Fr. not divided into 4 nutlets: ovary 

not 4-lobed. 
B. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 

c. FLs. in heads: plant often heath- 

cc. Fls. in slender interrupted spikes. . . 140. PHRYMACE-E. 
BB. Ovary 2-10-celled. 

c. Cells with 2-10 ovules: trees or 

shrubs 141. MYOPORACE*. 

cc. Cells with 1 ovule: herbs or shrubs. 142. VEBBENACEJB. 
\A. Fr, divided into 4 nutlets: ovary 4- 

lobed 143. LABIATE. 

Anomalous Family. Remarkable for 
its scarious 4-lobed corolla: stamens few; 
ovary 1-4-celled: fr. a circumscissile caps., 
or rarely indehiscent; seeds peltate 144. PLANT AQINACE*. 

Subclass 3. APETAI..EOR MONOCHLAMYDE.B. Corolla wanting 
or undifferentiated from the calyx (except in some Euphorbiacete 
and one genus of Phytolaccaceae), and sometimes also the calyx 
wanting; perianth simple, the lobes or segms. in 1 or 2 series, 
similar among themselves and usually calyx-like, sometimes 
minute or wanting. (See also Ranunculacese, Flacourtiaceae, 
Menispermaceffi, Trochodendracese, Rosaceie, Lythraceae, Ona- 
graceae, Hamamelidaceae, Rutaceae, Aceraceae, Rhamnaceee, Eueom- 
miacese, Cornacefe, and Caryophyllacese with corolla sometimes 

Series 1. OURVEMBHYK.K. Embryo curved, excentric, lateral or 
peripheral, rarely straightish, subcentral and narrow (Polygon- 
acese); ovule solitary in the ovary or in each carpel or in the Ama- 
rantaceae more then 2 ovules erect in the center of the cell: fls. 
bisexual or, in a few genera, unisexual or polygamous; petals very 
rarely present; atamens as many as the perianth-segins. or fewer, 
rarely more. 

A. Fr. the hardened or membranous 
closed base of the corolla-like peri- 
anth with a utricle inclosed 145. NYCTAQINACE.SJ. 

AA. Fr. a utricle; ovule not prthotropous; 
embryo annular or spiral: perianth 
mostly persistent, small 4-5-lobed, 
or parted, or 0. 

B. Perianth herbaceous, or scarious at 
the margin, persistent; - stamens 
perigynous; style branched or 

styles 2-3: stipules scarious 

(Illecebracese, incl. in Caryophyllacea). 
BB. Perianth dry, chaff-like, not herba- 
ceous, subtended by a bract and 2 
bractlets; stamens hypogynoua or 
perigynous; filaments connate at 
base; style simple or 2-3-fid: 

stipules 146. AMARANTACEA 

BBB. Perianth-lobes or -segms. membran- 
ous or herbaceous ; stamens hypogy- 
nous or perigynous, nearly always 
free; style simple or 2-3-lobed, or 
styles 2-5: stipules none 147. CHBNOPODIACIA. 


AAA. Fr. composed of I to several carpels, 
which are crowded or connate in a 
ring, each with a style, baccate, cori- 
aceous or aamaroid ; ovule not ortho- 
tropous; embryo coiled: stamens 
hypogynous; perianth herbaceous or 
coriaceous, rarely membranous 148. PHYTOLACCACE<E. 

AAAA. Fr. an achene, triangular or lens- 
shaped; style branched or styles 2-3; 
ovule orthotropous; embryo straight: 
perianth herbaceous, membranous or 
colored, rarely adherent to base of 
ovary: usually a stiputar sheath at 
each If.-node 149. POLYGONACEJJ. 

Series 2. MrJunovuLAT^ TERRESTREB. Terrestrial herbs or 
shrubs, often climbers : ovary syncarpous ; ovules in each cell or on, 
each placenta numerous. 

A. Fls. dioecious; ovary superior: Ivs. 

bearing tendrils and pitchers 150. NEPENTHACE.E. 

AA. Fls. bisexual; ovary inferior: Ivs. with- 
out tendrils and pitchers 151. ABI8TOLOCHIA- 


Series 3. MICREMBRYE.E. Ovary syncarpous, monocarpous or 
apocarpous; ovules solitary for each carpel, rarely 2 or few; endos- 
perm copious, fleshy or mealy; embryo minute. 

A. Perianth 0. 

11. Lvs. alternate: carpels 3-4: ovules 2 

to several : stamens 3-6 152. SAURUR ACE.E. 

BB. Lvs. alternate, rarely opposite or 
whorled: carpel 1: ovule 1, basal: 

stamens 2^ 153. PIPERACEJS. 

BBS. Lvs. opposite: carpel 1: ovule 1, 

pendent : stamens 1-3 154. CHLORANTHACE.E. 

AA. Perianth calyx-like. 

B. Carpel solitary: perianth of 3 parts, 

connate 155. MYRISTICACB.B. 

BB. Carpels several, together with the 
stamens scattered over the face of 
the cup-shaped receptacle 156. MONIMIACE.E. 

Series 4. DAPHNES. Ovary monocarpous, 1-celled, rarely syn- 
carpous with 2-4 cells; ovules solitary, or twin and side by side in 
the ovary or in each cell, rarely a few pairs superposed. 

A. Radicle superior; ovule solitary, pendu- 

B. Anthers dehiscing by uplifting 
valves, rarely laterally dehiscent: 
perianth-tube short, lobes 6 or 4, 
in 2 series, usually imbricated : 

ovary 1-celled : woody 157. LATTRACE*. 

BB. Anthers normal: perianth-tube long; 
lobes 4-5, imbricated: ovary 1-2- 

celled: woody 158. THYMEL*ACE;E. 

AA. Radicle inferior. 

B. Perianth-tube cylindraceous; lobes 
4, valvate; stamens as many and 
opposite them: ovule erect or pen- 
dulous, or geminate, rarely 159. PROTEACE.E. 

BB. Perianth-tube medium, constricted 
above the ovary, persistent at base, 
deciduous above; lobes 2 or 4; sta- 
mens twice as many as the lobes: 
silvery-scaly plants: woody 160. ELJEAGNACEJC. 

Series 5. ACHLAMYDOSPORE.E. Ovary 1-celled; cells 1-3-ovuled; 
cells and ovules often inconspicuous before anthesis; endosperm of 
seed without a coat, either free in the pericarp or attached to its 
walls: plants often parasitic. 

A. Ovule 1, not easily distinguishable 

from ovary 161. LORANTHACE^E. 

AA. Ovules 13, pendulous from summit of 

free-central placenta 162. SANTALACE^B. 

Series 6. UNISEXUALES. Fls. unisexual; ovary syncarpous or 
monocarpous; ovule solitary or in pairs side by side in the ovary or 
in each cell: trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. 

A. Ovary 1-celled. 

B. Ovule solitary; stamens 2 to many. 
c. Fls. of both sexes in globose long- 
peduncled pendent heads, 
crowded very densely on a cen- 
tral receptacle: radicle inferior: 

woody. 163. PLATANACEJB. 

cc. r Is. not as above : radicle superior. 
D. Male perianth free from the 
bract; stamens as many as its 
lobes and opposite them, or by 
abortion fewer, rarely numer- 

B. Stamens uncoiling elastically. 
r. Ovule suspended, anatro- 

pous 164. MOHACE.K. 

FF. Ovule basal, orthotropous. .165. UBTICACEA. 

EE. Stamens not elastic: ovule 

suspended, anatropoua 166. ULMACE.. 

DD. Male perianth wanting, some- 
times grown to the bract in 
Juglandaceee; stamens co , 
often 2 in Myricacese. 
B. Lvs. pinnate: male fls. in 

catkins: woody 167. JUGLANDACE. 

EE. Lvs. simple: male infl. spicate, 

subamentaceous: woody. 
F. Carpel 1; placenta parietal: 

ovule amphitropous 168. LEITNEHIACE. 

FF. Carpels 2; placenta basal: 

ovule orthotropous 169. MYRICACE. 

BB. Ovules 2; stamen 1: equise turn-like 

plants; woody 170. CASUARINACE*. 

AA. Ovary 2-3-celled, rarely more-celled. 

B. Endosperm usually copious: fr. 

usually separating into 2-valved 

berries, sometimes fleshy and inde- 

hisccnt, or various: infl. various. 

c. Hypogynous disk present: micro- 

pyle externally directed; juice 

often milky 171. EUPHORBIACE*. 

cc. Hypogynous disk absent: micro- 

pyle toward axis; no milky juice. .172. BUXACE*. 
BB. Endosperm 0: fr. a nut: male infl. 

usually in catkins: woody, 
c. Carpels 2: pistillate fls. usually in 

spikes 173. BETULACE.*:. 

cc. Carpels 3: pistillate fla. not in 

spikes 174. FAGACE.E. 

Series 7. Anomalous Families. Somewhat related to the Uni- 

A. Fls. in catkins: caps. 2 4-valved: 

woody 175. SALICACE.E. 

AA. Fls. axillary, or rarely in a terminal 
head : drupe 2- -stoned , stones 
1-seeded: low shrubs 176. EMPETRACE^E. 

Class 2. GYMN08PERM.E. Ovules naked upon a scale, bract or 
disk: cotyledons 2 or more: fls. unisexual. 

A. Lvs. undivided. 

B. The Ivs. fan-shaped: fls. in pairs 177. GINKGOACE.*:. 

BB. The lys. not fan-shaped. 

c. Perianth present: no resin-tubes, 

but true vessels in wood 178. GNETACE^G. 

cc. Perianth wanting: no true vessels, 
but resin-tubes present. 

D. Ovule solitary, arillate 179. TAXACE.E. 

DD. Ovules in cones, not arillate 180. PINACEJE. 

AA. Lvs. pinnatisect, ample, crowded at 
apex of the woody st.: fls. of both 
sexes in cones 181. CYCADACE-G. 

Subdivision 2. MONOCOTYLEDONS. St. without central pith 
or annular layers, but having the woody bundles distributed irregu- 
larly through it (a transverse section showing the bundles as dots 
scattered through the cellular tissue): embryo with a single cotyle- 
don: early Ivs. always alternate: parts of the fl. usually in 3*s, 
never in 5's: Ivs. mostly parallel-veined. 

Series 1. MICROSPERM^:. Perianth corolla-like, at least inside: 
ovary inferior, 1-celled with 3 parietal placentae, or rarely 3-celled 
with axile placenta: seeds very small and numerous; without 

A. Fls. regular, usually unisexual; sta- 
mens usually 2, 6, or9: aquatic herbs. 182. HYDROCHARI- 
AA. Fls. usually very irregular; stamens and " [TACEE 

styles connate into a column; anther 
1, rarely 2: terrestrial or epiphytic 
herbs, rarely climbers 183. ORCHIDACEJE. 

Series 2. EPJGYN.B. Perianth corolla-like, at least within: ovary 
generally inferior: endosperm copious. 

A. Fls. normally unisexual; stamens 6, or 
those opposite the inner perianth- 
lobes imperfect or deficient; ovary 

3-celled: seeds 2 184. DIOSCOREACE.E. 

AA. Fls. normally bisexual, sometimes 

polygamous or otherwise. 
B. Stamens regular; perianth regular 
or nearly so : embryo small, in- 
cluded in the endosperm. 
c. Ovary 1-celled; endosperm solid; 
embryo minute : stamens 6, 

hooded 185. TACCACE<. 

CC. Ovary usually 3-celled. 

D. Stamens 3, opposite the outer 

lobes: endosperm horny 186. IRIDACE/E. 

DD. Stamens 6, rarely 3 and opposite 
the inner lobes, rarely oo ; 
endosperm fleshy. 
E. Placentae scarcely intruding. . .187. AMARYLLIDACEA. 



EE. Placentae intruding lamella- 
like, and peltate 188. VELLOSIACE.E. 

BB. Stamens 1 or 5 perfect, the other 5 
or 1 , variously changed into 
antherless staminodia; fls. irregu- 
lar: embryo in a central canal of 
endosperm, straight, incurved, or 
horseshoe-shaped . 

c. Fertile stamens 5 189. M USAGES. 

cc. Fertile stamen 1. 

D. Staminodium 1, often traces of 
more ; a ligule at top of 

petiole; anther 2-celled 190. ZINOIBERACE.*;. 

DD. Staminodia 5; no ligule; anther 

E. Ovary-cells 1-seeded: a joint 

at summit of petiole. ..,'... 191. MABANTACE^E. 
EE. Ovary-cells o-seeded:nojoint.!92. CANNACE*. 
BBB. Stamens regular or nearly so: peri- 
anth regular: embryo in a small 
marginal cave or pit of endosperm, 
rarely much intruded, never 
wholly included. 

c. Endosperm mealy: perianth calyx- 
like outside; stamens 6: Ivs. 

rigid 193. BROMELI A.CE&. 

cc. Endosperm fleshy: perianth 
corolla-like or woolly outside; 
stamens sometimes 6 and equal, 
sometimes 1-3 and slightly dis- 
similar, or 3 opposite the inner 

(Hffimodoracese, mostly incl. in Liliaceae and Amaryllidacese. ) 

Series 3. CORONARIE.E. Perianth corolla-like, at least inside: 
Ovary free, rarely shortly adnate at the base: endosperm copious. 

A. Embryo minute or more or less elon- 
gated, included in fleshy or horny 
endosperm : perianth regular : sta- 
mens 6: ovary usually 3-celled 194. LILIACE.E. 

AA. Embryo straight, in a central canal of 
mealy endosperm: perianth regular or 
irregular, from a spathe; stamens 3 
or 6: ovary 1- or 3-celled 195. PONTEDERIACE.*. 

. Embryo marginal, lying in mealy en- 
dosperm and under a little callosity 

of the seed-coat: perianth regular or 
slightly irregular, of 3 herbaceous 
sepals and 3 deliquescent colored 
petals: some stamens usually sterile 
and altered; stamen-hairs conspicu- 

oua 196. COMMELINACE^;. 

Series 4. CALYCINE.E. Perianth calyx-like, small, somewhat 
rigid or gluraaceous, or rarely herbaceous: ovary free; endosperm 

A. Fr. a 3-valved, many-seeded caps.; 
embryo included in more or less 
fleshy endosperm: plant grass-like.. . .197. JUNCACE.E. 
AA. Fr. berry- or drupe-like, 1-seeded, 
rarely 2-3-seeded; embryo immersed 
in a small pit near the periphery of 
the endosperm: palm-like plants 198. PALMACE.E. 

Series 5. NUDIFLOR.. Perianth 0, or reduced to scales or bris- 
tles; ovary superior; carpels solitary or, if more, syncarpous, l-oo- 
ovuled: seeds usually with endosperm. 

A. Plants minute, thalloid, 1-3 lines wide, 
aquatic: fls. solitary or in pairs from 

marginal fissures 199. LEMNACE-E. 

AA. Plants larger: fls. on spadices. 

B. Fls. dio3cious; perianth 0; carpels 
usually confluent in clusters; 
spadices clustered or panicled : 

stiff plants 200. PANDANACE.E. 

BB. Fls. dicecious, or monoecious in differ- 
ent spadices; perianth 0, or the 
short segms. distinct or connate; 
spa< tires solitary: stiff plants... . . . .201. CYCLANTHACE*. 

BBB. Fls. monoecious in different spadices, 
ran-ly dicecious; perianth reduced 
to membranous scales or thread- 
like chaff; spadices rarely solitary: 

reed-like marsh plants . . 202. TTFBACKB. 

BBBB. Fls. bisexual, or monoecious in same 
spadix, rarely dioscious; perianth 0, 
or of 4 membranous or fleshy im- 
bricate scales ; spadices solitary : 
herbaceous or fleshy plants 203. ARACE*:. 

Series 6. APOCARP.E. Perianth in 1-2 series, or 0: ovary supe- 
rior; carpels solitary, or, if more, distinct: seeds without endosperm. 

A. Embryo complicate or horseshoe- 
shaped: periarith-segms. 6, in 2 series, 
tlif inner petaloid. 
B. Ovules 1. rarely 2-3, basal 204. &UBUCB* 

BB. Ovules numerous, borne between the 

margins and midrib of the carpel... . 205. BUTOMACEJB. 
AA. Embryo curved: perianth of 4 her- 
baceous segms., or 0: ovule solitary. . .206. NAIADACEJE. 
AAA. Embryo straight: perianth of several 

petaloid parts: ovules 2-6 207. APONOOETONA- 


Series?. GLDMACE. Fls. disposed in spikes or spikelets which 
are variously arranged; bracts of the spikelct scale-like (glumes), 
usually imbricate; perianth-segms. small, scale-like, bristle-like, 
or 0; ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled: seeds with endosperm. 

A. Fr. an achene; seed free from the peri- 
carp; palets and lodiculesO 208. CYPERACE.B, 

AA. Fr. a caryopsis; seed usually adherent 
to pericarp; palets ana lodicules 
present 209. GHAMINE.E. 

Other families, of which plants are more or less in cultivation 
and described in this Cyclopedia, are: Adoxacese (AdoxaJ, Basei- 
lacese (Anredera), Candolleacese (Candollea), Caryooaraceae 
(CaryocarJ , Datiscacese (Datisca) , Frankeniacesp (Frankenia), 
Goodeniacece (Goodenia, Scsevola), Ineacinaceffi (Pyrenacantha), 
Orobanchaceie (Aphyllon), Restiacese (Restio), Turneracea- (Tur- 
nera), Vochysiacese (Vochysia). 

Division 2. PTERIDOPHYTA. Bearing spores instead of seeds, 
but with a usually separate more insignificant stage which beara 
sexual organs. Ferns, lycopods, horsetails and the like. 

A. Plants like large moss-plants, with 
scale- or needle-like Ivs. 

B. Spores all alike, minute 210. LYCOPODIACE-E. 

BB. Spores of two kinds, larger (mega- 
spores) and smaller (microspores}.211. SELAGINELLACEJB. 
AA. Plants consisting mainly of slender- 
jointed herbaceous sts. with whorls 
of scale-like appressed Ivs. at the 

joints 212. EQUIBETACEJE. 

AAA. Plants true ferns, with usually ex- 
panded Ivs. (Azolla, a moss-like 
water-plant is exceptional. } (Fili- 

B. Ferns epiphytic or terrestrial (one 
Ceratopteris partly aquatic) : 
spores uniform, minute. 
c. Sporangia with thick walls, aris- 
ing from tissues beneath the 
D. The sporangia in spikes or 

panicles 213. OPH IOG LOSS ACE x. 

DD. The sporangia in round or oval 
sori on under surface of ordi- 
nary If .214. MARATTIACEJE. 

cc. Sporangia walls only 1 cell thick, 

derived from epidermis. 
D. Small membranous ferns: spor- 
angia borne on thread-like pro- 
jections along margin of Ivs... 215. HYMENOPHYLL- 
DD. Usually larger, thicker-lvd. ferns: (ACEJE. 

sporangia not on thread-like 
E. Plants terrestrial. 

F. Ring of sporangia obsolete; 

sporangia in panicles 210. OBMUNDACE.E. 

FF. Ring of sporangia apical; 

sporangia ovate, sessile... .217. SCHIZ.EACE.E. 
FFF. Ring of sporangia vertical. 
O. The sporangia mostly 
long-stalked: Ivs. pin- 
nate or palmate 218. POLYPODIACE.E. 

GO. The sporangia mostly ses- 
sile or very short- 

H. Sporangia in sori of 
2-8, radiating in a 
single plane; lf.- 
branching often di- 
chotomous: growth 

indeterminate 219. GLEICHENIACE*. 

BH. Sporangia numerous 
in the globose sori: 
mostly arborescent.. . 220. CYATHEACE-E. 
EE. Plants aquatic, with floating 
sterile Ivs. and pod -I ike 
sporophylls: sporangia ses- 
sile with broad ring or 221. CERATOPTERI- 

BB. Ferns, aquatic, unfern-like in appear- [DACE*. 

ance; spores of 2 sorts, large 
macrospores and minute micro- 

c. Plants floating: Ivs. simple, folded: 
microspores and macrospores in 

separate sporocarps .222. SALVINIACE-E. 

cc. Plants rooting in mud: lys. quadri- 
foliate, cloverlike : microspores 
and macrospores in the same 
sporocarp 223 MARBILEACEJU 





A. Sepals usually valvate: Ivs. opposite 1. Clematis. 

AA. Sepals imbricate. 

B. Carpels 1-ovuled: fr. an indehiscent aohene. 
c. Ovule pendulous; raphe dorsal. 

D. Petals conspicuous 2. Adonis. 

DD. Petals 0, or very small. 

E. Fls. not subtended by involucres... . 3. Thalictrum. 
EE. Fls. subtended by involucres remote 
from the calyx or close under it. 

r. Involucre remote from calyx 4. Anemone. 

n . Involucre of 3 simple, sessile Ivs. 

closer under the n 5. Hepatica. 

FFF. Involucre of 3 compound sessile 

Ivs 6. Syndesmon. 

cc. Ovules ascending. 

D. Petals wanting 7. TraiUvet- 


DD. Petals 3 to many 8. Ranunculus. 

BB. Carpels several- or many-ovuled: fr. usually 
dehiscent at maturity, rarely berry-like. 

c. Petals large and showy 9. Pxonia. 

cc. Petals medium small, deformed, or 0. 
D. Fls. irregular. 

E. Posterior sepal forms a spur 10. Delphinium. 

EE. Posterior sepal forms a hood 11. Aconitum. 

DD. Fls. regular. 
E. Infl. racemose. 

F. Stamens 5 or 10: shrubs 12. Xanthorrh- 

FF. Stamens numerous: herbs. [izn. 

a. Fr. a berry 13. Actsea. 

GO. Fr. consisting of follicles, dehis- 
cent 14. Cimicifuga. 

EE. Infl, paniculate, or fls. solitary. 

F. Lvs. pal mat el y veined or cut; not 

a. Petals wanting. 

H. Ovules many, in 2 series 

along the ventral suture. . . . 15. Caltha. 

HH. Ovules only 2 16. Hydrasti*. 

GO. Petals small or narrow; mostly 


H. Sepals commonly deciduous; 
petals not 2-lipped, nor 

scale-bearing 17. TroUius. 

HH. Sepals persistent; broad petals 

2-lipped or bearing a scale ... 18. Ifelleborus. 
HHH. Sepals deciduous, narrow; 

petals bearing a scale 19. Eranthis. 

FF. Lvs. ternately or subpinnately de- 
G. Sepals 5-6. 

H. Petals spurred 20, Aquilegia. 

HH. Petals not spurred; often 

small or 0. 
i. The carpels connate at the 

base or higher 21. Nigella. 

n. The carpels free. 

j. Carpels stalked 22. Coptis. 

jj. Carpels not stalked 23. Isopyrum. 

GO. Sepals and petals numerous 24. Anemonop- 

The genus Callianthemum is also in cultivation. 


A. Anthers adnate, linear: carpels 5-20, partly 

connate: upright trees or shrubs 1. DiUenia. 

AA. Anthers oblong or rarely orbicular, the cells 

parallel and contiguous 2. Hibbertia. 

AAA. Anthers versatile, emarginate at the base; 
carpels completely connate: fr. a berry: 
twining shrubs. 

B. Stamens and carpels : winter-buds in- 
closed in the swollen base of the petiole. . .. 3. Actinidia. 

BB. Stamens 10: carpels 5: winter-buds free 4. Clemato- 



A. Stamens 10- : all sepals brownish red 1. Calycanthus. 

AA. Stamens 5 : outer sepals white, inner purple ... 2. Meratia. 


cc. Stipules present, inclosing young Ivs. in 
the bud. 

D. Anthers face out 2. Lirioden- 

DD. Anthers face in. [dron, 

E. Structure bearing the carpels stalked. 3. Michelia. 
EE. Structure bearing the carpels sessile. 

F. Dehiscence of carpel circumscissle. 4. Talauma. 

FF. Dehiscence 2-valved 5. Magnolia. 

BB. Fls. unisexual: twining shrubs. 

c. Carpels after anthesis spicate 6. Schizandra, 

cc. Carpels after anthesis globose-capitate... . 7. Kadsura. 
LA. Stamens 4: perianth-segms. 4; fls. in slender 

spikes, small: Ivs. palminerved: tree 8. Tetractn- 

Members of the genus Drimys are sometimes cultivated. 


A. Carpels 5-8, sessile, with many seeds: fls. per- 

fect : evergreen tree . f 1 

AA. Carpels , stipitate, developing into winged 
nutlets with 1 or few seeds: fls. polygamous: 
deciduous tree 2. Euptelea. 




The only genus Cercidiphyllum, 


The only genus Eucommia. 


A. Fr. an aggregation of many carpels closely 
crowdea into a spheroid or ovoid mase; 
ovules solitary. 

B. Carpels fused together with the receptacle 
(torus) into a fleshy (often edible) syn- 

c. Corolla gamopetalous, 3-lobed or 3- 
spurred, almost closed, with only a mi- 
nute opening above the stamens and 


cc. Corolla polypetalous; petals 6 in 2 series, 
inner series sometimes minute or even 

wanting, outer petals valvate 

BB. Carpels distinct, rigid, polygonal, becoming 
detached from the receptacle when 
mature; corolla polypetalous, the petals 

imbricate or overlapping 

AA. Fr. a cluster of distinct carpels, usually stip- 
itate, never crowded so closely as to be- 
come polygonal or prism-shaped ; ovules 
geminate or many in 1 or 2 series. 

B. Ovules geminate, vertical, parallel 

BB. Ovules horizontal or in 2 vertical rows. 

c. Petals narrow, long, strap-shaped 

cc. Petals suborbicular to obovate-oblong. 
D. Inner petals with their margins invo- 
lute, ear-shaped or boat-shaped 

DD. Inner petals with margins not involute.. 

Fuseea, Unona, Uvaria, and Xylopia are also slightly in cul- 

1. Rollinia. 

2. Annona, 

3. Duguetia. 

4. Artabotryt. 

5. Canangium. 


7. Asimina. 

A. Stamens co : perianth-segms. 6-. 
B. Fls. bisexual: upright trees or shrubs. 
c. Stipules 

1. Illicium. 


A. Filaments coalesced into a column which is 
subpeltate at apex. 

B. Sepals 6; petals 1. Anamirta. 

(See article Cocculus.) 
BB, Sepals 4; petals grown together, making a 

small cup 2. Cissampelos. 

AA. Filaments free, either at base or apex. 
B. Stamens 9-20. 

c. Sepals and petals 6, in whorls; stamens 

9-12 3. Sinomen- 

cc. Sepals and petals irregularly arranged; (turn. 

sepals 4-10; petals 6-9; stamens 12-24... 4. Menisper- 
BB. Stamens 6. [mum. 

c. Petals 6, shorter than sepals, stamens 

high-monadelphous 5. Cocculus. 

cc. Petals 0, unless the 3 inner and larger se- 
pals are regarded as petals; outer sta- 
mens free 6. Abuia. 

Calyocarpum and Jatrorrhiza are sometimes cultivated. 




A. Venation or lobing pinnate; Ivs. penninerved, 
pinnatisect, pinnately 2-3-ternate or decom- 

B. Ovules few, erect from the base. 
c. Plants are shrubs. 

D. Foliage-lvs. simple, often fascicled: 
branches usually bearing reduced 

spine-lvs 1. Bcrberia. 

DD. Foliage-lvs. pinnate :evergreen branches 

E. Lfts. serrate; Ivs. simply pinnate 2. Afa/umia. 

EE. Lfts. entire; Ivs. 2-3-pinnate 3. Nandina. 

cc Plants are herbs. 

D. Petals 6, reduced to small nectaries 4. Lcontice. 

DD. Petals 0, scarcely smaller than sepals 

and flat 5. Leontice, 

BB. Ovules placed ventrally in 2 series: herbs. [Bongardia. 
c. Sepals 12-15; petals 0, reduced to nec- 
taries 6- Vancouveria. 

cc. Sepals 8; petals 4, reduced to nectaries. ... 7. Epimedium. 
ccc. Sepals 7-8; petals 4, a little smaller: fiat... 8. Aceranthuc. 
AA. Venation or lobing palmate ; Ivs. palminerved, 
palmilobed, or 2-parted. 

B. Sepals 6; petals 6: ovules in 2 series 9. Diphylleia. 

BB. Sepals 6; petals 6-9: ovules in many series. . .10. Podophyl- 


BBS. Sepals 4; petals 8 11. Jeffersonia. 

BBBB. Sepals and petals 12. Achlys. 

The species of Caulophyllum may be expected in wild gardens. 

AA. Stigmas confluent: Ivs. alternate, temately de- 
compound: sepals 2; petals 4: placentee 
remain attached to the margin of the valves. 
B. Sepals coherent and covering fl. like a can- 
dle-extinguisher 4. EechschoUt- 

BB. Sepals separate. [to. 

c. Lobes of stigma 2, erect 5. Dendromt- 

cc. Lobes of stigma 4, spreading 6. 

AAA. Stigmas confluent: Ivs. alternate or mainly so: 
fls. rarely 3-merous: caps, dehiscing by pores 
or valves, the placenta? remaining as a frame 
alternate with and free from the valves. 

B. Caps, dehiscent by pores near the top 7. 

BB. Caps, shortly dehiscing by valves. 

c. Stigmatic lobes radiating on the de- 
pressed summit of a very short style. ... 8. 
cc. Stigmatic lobes radiating on the club- 
shaped top of a distinct style 9. 

BBB. Caps, dehiscing by valves to the base or 

nearly so. 
c. The caps, long and linear. 

D. Seeds pitted 10. 

DD. Seeds crested ._ 11. 

cc. The caps, ovoid, oblong or cylindrical. 
D. Petals 4. 

E. Style distinct, but short 12. 

EE. Style long 13. 

DD. Petals 8-12 14. 

DDD. Petals IS. 

Hypecoum is in the trade. 












A. Lvs. pinnate: upright shrub 

AA. Lvs. digitate: twining shrubs. 
B. Carpels 3, many-seeded, 
c. Stamens monadelphous. 

D. Sepals 6; petals 6, much smaller 

DD. Sepals 6; petals 

cc. Stamens free. 

D. Sepals 6; petals 6. 

E. Pedicels elongated ; sepals acuminate ; 
connective produced above the 


EE. Pedicels short; sepals rounded; con- 
nective not produced ; racemes very 

DD. Sepals 3; petals 

BB. Carpels , 1-seeded; stamens free: Ivs. 


1. Decaisnea. 

2. Lardizabala. 

3. Stauntonia. 

4. HolbaUia. 

5. Sinofranch- 


6. Akebia. 

7. Sargento- 


A. Fls. small ()^-l in.). 

B. Stamens 3-6: submerged Ivs. dissected 1. Cabomba. 

BB. Stamens 12-25: Ivs. all peltate 2. Brasenia. 

AA. Fls. large and showy (1 H-12 in.); sepals 

4-5; petals and stamens . 

B. Carpels in pits in a top-shaped receptacle.. . . 3. Nelumbo. 
BB. Carpels forming a distinct many-seeded 

c. Plants prickly. 

D. Stamens, inner ones, sterile 4. Victoria. 

DD. Stamens all fertile 5. Euryale. 

cc. Plants not prickly. 

D. Ovary wholly free and superior 6. Nuphar. 

DD. Ovary with stamens and inner petals 

inserted on it 7. Nymphz-a. 


A. Style umbrella-shaped 1. Sarrocenio. 

AA. Style 5-cut at apex 2. Darling- 

Ik-liamphora may be expected in choice botanical collections. 


A. Stigmas distinct: Ivs. mainly opposite or 
whorled: sepals usually 3; petals usually 6, 
in 2 series: placenta; never separate from the 

B. Lvs. lobed 1. Ramneya. 

BB. Lvs. entire. 

c. Filaments dilated: stigmas <*>, linear: 

fr. not capsular 2. Platyttemon. 

cc. Filaments slightly dilated; stigmas 3, 

broader: fr. capsular 3. Platyitigma. 


A. Corolla 2-spurred or bigibbous, the 2 outer and 

larger (lateral) petals similar. 
B. Seeds crestless: petals permanently united 
into a subcordate persistent corolla which 

incloses the ripe caps 1. Adlumia, 

BB. Seeds mostly crested: petals less or slightly 
united into a 2-spurred or bigibbous 

corolla 2. Dicentra. 

AA. Corolla with only 1 of the outer petals spurred 
or gibbous by torsion becoming posterior: a 
nectariferous spur from the base of the fila- 
ments projects into the petal-spur. 

B. Style mostly persistent 3. Corydalit. 

BB. Style deciduous: fl. smaller 4. Fumario. 

16. CRUCIFER.ffi. 

A. The silique transversely 2-jointed. 
B. Lower joint indehiscent pedicel-shaped, the 

larger joint globose, 1-loculed, 1-seeded. . . 1. Crambe. 
BB. Lower joint dehiscent, 2-valved, many 

seeded 2. Marina. 

AA. The silique not 2-jointed, indehiscent. 

B. Siliques in pairs 3. Senebiera. 

BB. Siliques not in pairs. 

c. Texture horny or bony 4. Isatia. 

cc. Texture leathery, or membranaceous. 

D. Shape straight 5. Raphanut. 

DD. Shape curved 6. Sobolewshia. 

DDD. Shape orbicular 7. Peltaria. 

AAA. The silique dehiscent for its whole length 
(except that some Brassicas are not dehis- 
cent at the apex). 

B. Valves markedly concave, compressed con- 
trary to the septum, which is often very 
narrow; silique short. 
c. Cotyledons accumbent. 

D. Sts. leafy 8. Iberu. 

DD. Sts. scapes 9. Hulchintia. 

cc. Cotyledons incumbent. 

D. The valves usually wingless. 

E. Fls. rosy or violet 10. lonopsid- 


EE. Fls. white 11. Lepidium. 

DD. The valves winged 12. Mlhionema. 

BB. Valves (transversely septiferous in Anastat- 
ica), flat or concave, not compressed con- 
trary to the septum (Smelowskia and cer- 
tain V'esicarias are laterally compressed): 
septum as wide as the valves; silique long 
or short, 
c. Cotyledons longitudinally conduplicate. 

D. Seeds in 1 series 13. Bras.iica. 

DD. Seeds in 2 series 14. Bruca. 

cc. Cotyledons accumbent (sometimes incum- 
bent or convolute in Cheiranthus). 
D. Seeds in 1 series (except certain species 
of Radicula and Arabis: siliques 
long and narrow (except in Anastatica 
and sometimes Radicula and 



E. Valves appcndagcd 15. Anastatica. 

(See article Resurrection Plants.) 
EE. Valves not appendaged. 

r. Stigmatic lobes erect, connate or 

decurrent along the style. 
a. Plants are herbs or branched 

sub-shrubs: woolly 16. Matthiola. 

GG. Plants are tufted, scape-bearing 

herbs 17. Parrya. 

FF. Stigma undivided or shortly 

Q. Valves elastic: seeds in 1 or 2 

series, silique long and linear.. . 18. Arabia. 
GO. Valves not elastic. 

H. Sepals unequal, the lateral 

ones saccate at the base .... 19. Cheiranthus. 
tin. Sepals equal. 

i. Seeds in 2 series 20. Rculicula. 

H. Seeds in 1 series. 

J. Fls. yellow 21. Barbarea. 

jj. Fls. white or purple. 

K. Rhizome not scaly: 
valves delicately net- 

ted-nerved 22. Cardamitie. 

KK. Rhizome scaly: valves 
with very delicate 

midrib 23. Dentaria. 

DD. Seeds in 2 series and siliques short and 

broad (except in some species of 

Aubrietia, Draba and Cochlearia). 

E, Siliques 2-locular, many-seeded; 

seeds much compressed, winged or 


F. Lvs. entire or dentate: siliques 

long-stalked, very broad 24. Lunaria. 

FF. Lvs. pinnatisect : siuques sessile ... 25. Selenia. 
EE. Siliques 1-2-loculed, 2- to many- 
seeded; seeds rarely winged; valves 
often turgid. 
F. Sepals often unequal, the lateral 

saccate at the base, 
a. Fls. purple: siliques oblong: 

lateral sepals saccate 26. Aubrietia. 

GO. Fls. generally yellow: siliques 
mostly oblong: sepals equal or 

unequal 27. Vesicaria. 

FF. Sepals equal. 

G. Stamens often appendaged 28. Alysaum. 

GG. Stamens not appendaged. 

H. Plants tomentose 29. Draba. 

HH. Plants glabrous 30. Cochlearia. 

(See also Kerne ra.) 

ccc. Cotyledons incumbent, straight, con- 
volute or transversely plicate. 

D. The cotyledons transversely biplicate. ..31. Heliophila. 
DD. The cotyledons not transversely bipli- 

E. Petals pinnatifid 32. Schizopet- 

EE. Petals not pinnatifid. [alon. 
F. Stigmas erect, free or connate into 
a cone; sepals long and straight. 
G. The stigmas bilamellate; la- 
mellae erect 33. Hesperis. 

GG. The stigmas bilamellate; la- 
mellse connivent or connate 

into a cone 34. Malcomia. 

FF. Stigma simple, capitate, emargi- 
nate or shortly 2-lobed: cotyle- 
dons straight 

G. Silique stipitate 35. Stanleya. 

GG. Silique sessile. 

H. Sepals equal 36. Smelowakia. 

HH. Sepals unequal 37. Erysimum. 

The additional genera are also treated: Braya, Physaria, and 


*.. Fr. capsular, 1-loculed: herbs. 
B. Torus short, often produced into a posterior 

appendage 1. Cleome. 

BB. Torus long, produced into a gynophore 
which is elongated at the middle and bears 
the pistil to which the filaments are 

united 2. Gynandrop- 

AA. Fr. berry-like or drupe-like. [*. 

B. Lve. simple 3. Capparis. 

BB. Lvs. with 3 Ifts 4. Cratxva. 

Polanisia is also to be expected in cultivation. 

19. CISTACE.<E. 

A. Placentae with many seeds: Ivs. opposite at 
" least below, flat. 

B. Valves 5, rarely 3; embryo circinate or 
spiral: fls. solitary or cymose, rarely 

racemose i. Ciatus. 

BB. Valves 3; embryo biplicate, runcinate or 

circumflex: fls. commonly racemose 2. Helianthe- 

AA. Placentae with 2 seeds: lys. alternate, scale-like (mum. 

or awl-shaped: heath-like shrubs 3. Hudsonia. 


A. Sepals subequal, produced or spurred at base; 

lower petal spurred or saccate: herbs 1. Viola. 

AA. Sepals not produced at base. 

B. Lower petal spurred or enlarged. 

c. With a very large spur: seeds complanate: 

woody climber 2. Corynoa- 

cc. With lower petal merely gibbous: seeds [tylis. 

obovoid-subglobose: herbs 3. Solea. 

BB. Lower petal not greatly unlike the others: 

shrubs or trees 4. Hymenan- 


21. BIXACE.E. 

A. Caps. 2-yaIved; seeds straight and naked: 

Ivs. entire 1. Bixa. 

AA. Caps. 3-yalved: seeds spiral, hairy or woolly: 

Ivs. digitate or palmately lobed 2. Maximili- 



A. Sepals and petals alike, 9-15, spirally ar- 
ranged, red; stamens 7-10: twining shrub.. 1. Berberidop- 
AA. Sepals 3-6, whorled; stamens usually numer- [sis. 

ous (except in No. 4): upright trees or shrubs. 

B. Petals 4-10; sepals 3-5 2. Oncoba. 

BB. Petals wanting. 

c. Infl. axillary: Ivs. penninerved, leathery: 

fr. a berry or drupe. 

D. Style simple, sometimes lobed at apex; 
ovary 1-celled. 

E. The sepals imbricate; style short 3. Xyloama. 

EE. The sepals valvate; style elongated; 

stamens sometimes 5 or 10 4. Azara. 

DD. Styles several; ovary irregularly 

E. Fls. perfect or polygamous, in axillary 

racemes or panicles: fr. adrupe 5. Flacourtia. 

EE. Fls. dioecious, the pistillate solitajy 

or few: fr. a berry 6. Aberia 

cc. Infl. terminal: Ivs. hand-nerved or 3- (or Doryalis. ) 

nerved at base, long-stalked, deciduous. 
D. Fr. a berry; styles usually 5; sepals 

imbricate 7. Idesia. 

DD. Fr. a caps. 

E. Styles 3, 2-parted at apex; sepals 

valvate 8. Poliothyrsi*. 

EE. Styles 3-^4, 3-parted at apex; sepals 

reduplicate, large 9. Carrierea. 


A. Fr. indehiscent. 

B. Filaments longer than anthers: petals more 
or less connivent from the base to beyond 

the middle 1. Billardiera, 

BB. Filaments shorter than anthers; petals 

spreading from the base 2. Sollya. 

AA. Fr. a caps, which is loculicidally dehiscent. 
B. Caps, thick-coriaceous; seeds numerous. 
c. Seeds not winged, thick or sligntly com- 
pressed 3. Piltosporum. 

cc. Seeds winged, flat, compressed, horizontal. 4. Hymenoa- 
BB. Caps, thinly coriaceous: seeds 1-2 in each [porum 

locule, compressed, not winged, vertical. . . 5. Buraaria. 


A. Anthers 2-celled, or 4-celled in 2 planes 1. TetratHeca. 

AA. Anthers 4-celled in I plane 2. Platytheca. 


In cultivation Reseda. 


In cultivation Polygala. 




A. Ovary 1-ovuled: corolla absent. 
B. Segms. of involucrate perianth Hooded near 

apex and mucronate on back 

mi. Segms. of hardly involucrate perianth not 

1. Paronyckia. 

2. Herniaria. 

hooded, and blunt. 

AA. Ovary several-ovuled: petals usually present. 
B. Sepals coalesced into a toothed or lobed 
calyx; petals and stamens hypogynous, 
being raised with the ovary on a gyu- 
ophore, rarely sessile; petals with or with- 
out a scale at the apex of the claw. 
c. Hilum facial; embryo straight. 

D. Calyx tubular, multistriate 3. Dianthus. 

DD. Calyx top-shaped or long-tubular, 5- or 

15-ribbed: plants and fls. smaller 4. Tunica. 

Cc. Hilum lateral; embryo peripheral. 

D. Calyx 10-nerved, rarely with many 

parallel nerves. 
E. Styles commonly 3: caps, shortly 

3- or 6-valved 5. Silene. 

EE. Styles commonly 5 or 4: caps. 

shortly 5-10- or 4-8-valved 6. Lychnis. 

DD. Calyx obscurely veined 7. Saponaria. 

ODD. Calyx broadly or obscurely 5-nerved.. . . 8. Gypaophiloi. 
BB. Sepals free or only coalesced at the very 
base ; petals and stamens hypogynous 
on a short torus or usually very shortly 

c. Stipules small, scarious 9. Spergulu. 

cc. Stipules 0. 

D. Valves (or rather teeth) of the caps. 

twice as many as the styles 10. Ceraatium. 

DD. Valves of the caps, as many as the 

B. Petals 2-fid; styles commonly 3 11. Stellaria. 

EE. Petals entire; styles commonly 3 12. Arenaria. 

EEE. Petals entire or 0; styles as many as 

the sepals 13. Saffina, 

Alsine is also cultivated. 


A. Ovary cohering below with the calyx-tube 1. Portulaca. 

AA. Ovary free from the calyx. 

B. Embryo arched; endosperm scant 2. Anacamp- 

BB. Embryo more incurved or annular, includ- [seros. 

ing the endosperm. 

c. Sepals usually deciduous 3. Talinum. 

cc. Sepala persistent, at least usually in Cal- 

D. Number of sepals 5-8 4. Lewisia. 

DD. Number of sepals 2. 

E. Shape of sepals roundish heart- 
shaped, scarious 5. Spraguea. 

EE. Shape of sepals ovate, herbaceous. 

p. Stamens 3, rarely 5 6. Montia. 

FF. Stamens definitely 5 7. Claytonia. 

FFF. Stamens indefinitely 5 to many... 8. Calandrinia. 


A. Stamens 4-5, free 1. Tamarix. 

4A. Stamens 10, connate below 2. Myricaria. 


The only genus Fouquieria. 


A. Fls. 4-merous 1. Ascyrum. 

AA. Fls. 5-merous 2. Hypericum. 


A. Style very short or 0: ovules solitary in each 
locule of the ovary. 

B. Sepals 4 1. Garcinia. 

BB. Sepals 2 2. Rkeedia. 

AA. Style elongated: ovules solitary or 2. 

B. Ovary l-!oculed, 1-ovuled 3. Calophyl- 

BB. Ovary 2-4-loculed, 4-ovuled 4. Mnrnmta. 

The genera Ochrocarpus and Platonia are also treated. 


The only genus Eucryphia. 


A. Anthers basinxed. 
B. Calyx of 5 sepals, sub-connate at the base, at 

length fleshy and adhering to the ovary ... 1. Vitnea. 
BB. Calyx inferior; sepals free. 

c. Fls. rather large; petals coalesced at base; 
anthers glabrous: ovules 2-4 in each 

locule, pendulous from the apex 2. Ternslr&mia. 

cc. Fls. medium-sized; petals free or hardly 
coalesced; anthers pilose: ovules in 

the middle of the locule 3 Cleyera. 

ccc. Fls. small, dioecious; petals coalesced at 
base; anthers glabrous: ovules o in the 

middle of the locule 4. Eurya. 

AA. Anthers versatile. 
B. Radicles inferior. 

c. Ovules ascending; seeds lens-shaped; 

embryo straight 5. Stuartia, 

cc. Ovules laterally affixed; seeds flat, winged 
on back; cotyledons flat and radicle 

in flexed 6. Schima. 

BB. Radicles superior. 

c. Ovules co ; seeds winged above 7. Gordonia. 

cc. Ovules few in each locule; seeds not 

D. Fls. sessile; sepals deciduous 8. Camellia. 

DD. Fls. pedicelled; sepals persistent 9. Thea. 


The only genus Stachyuru*. 


A. Fr. a caps., loculicidally dehiscent (in Adaii- 

sonia indehiscent, and woody). 
B. Seeds usually kidney-shaped: stigmaa or 

style-branches finally spreading. 
c. Bractlets 5 to many, rarely 0, or reduced 
to teeth: style-branches finally spread- 
ing 1. Hibiscus. 

cc. Bractlets or 3: stigmas distinct, free, 

radiating 2. Lagunaria. 

BB. Seeds obovoid or angled: style club-shaped 
at apex, undivided or with short erect 

c. Bractlets 3-5, small 3. Thespesia. 

cc. Bractlets 3, large, cordate. 4. Gossypium. 

AA. Fr. composed of carpels which separate at 


B. Stamina) column anther-bearing outside; 
truncate or 5-toothed at the apex; style- 
branches 10. 
c. Bractlets 5-8, herbaceous or setifonn; 

carpels with or without 1-3 awns 5. Pavonia. 

cc. Bractlets co, herbaceous or setiform; car- 
pels fleshy outside, connate into a berry, 

later separating 6. Maltatiscus. 

ccc. Bractlets 4-ti, large and colored; carpels 

naked, muticous 7. Gatthea. 

BB. Staminal column bearing anthers at or near 

the apex. 

c. Carpels , crowded into a mass without 

D. Bractlets 3 8. Malope. 

DD. Bractlets 9. Palava. 

cc. Carpels in a single whorl. 
D. Ovules 2 or more. 

E. Bractlets 4-6 10. Kydia. 

EE. Bractlets 11. Abutilon. 

EEE. Bractlets 3 12. Sphseratcea. 

DD. Ovule solitary. 

E. The ovule ascending. 

F. Styles longitudinally stigmatose 

o. Fls. dioecious 13. Napaea. 

GO. Fls. bisexual. (See article Sida.) 

H. Staminal column double, the 

outer of 5 clusters 14. Sidalcea. 

mi. Staminal column single. 

I. Bractlets 3-9, connate at 

j. Axis of fr. not surpassing 

carpels 15. Althxa. 

jj. Axis of fr. surpassing 

carpels 16. Lavatera. 

II. Bractlets 0-3, distinct. 

jf. Carpels with transverse 
appendages inside un- 
der the beak 17. Callirhoe. 



. Carpels not appemlaged . . 18. Malta. 
TW. Style-branches tipped with smalt 

capitate or club-shaped stigmas. . 19. Malcastrum. 
EE. The ovules pendulous. 

F. Style-branches longitudinally stig- 

matose inside 20. Plogianthus. 

FF. Style-branches truncate at apex or 

with small capitate stigmas 21. Sida. 

Other genera described are Hoheria, Ingenhousia, Kitaibelia, 
and Kosteletzkya. 


A. Fr. a fleshy 3-stoned drupe 1. 

AA. Fr. a caps, composed of 3 dehiscent berries: 

fls. in terminal racemes 2. Galpliimia. 

AAA. Fr. consists of 1-3 samaras: fls. in umbel-like 

corymbs 3. stigma phul- 

Other genera described are Byrsonima, Janusia, Sphedamno^ 
carpus and Tristellateia. 


A. Lvs. digitate: cotyledons conduplicate or 

B. Staminal column separated above into 

numerous filaments. 

c. Caps. 5-valved, densely woolly within ... 1. Bombax. 
cc. Caps, woody, not woolly within. 

D. Calyx 5-cut 2. Adansonia. 

DD. Calyx truncate 3. Pachira. 

BB. Staminal column 5-cut or 5-toothed, the 

branches bearing 2-3 anthers. 
C. Column outside below the middle annu- 

lately 5-10-Iobed 4. Chonsia. 

cc. Column not annulate 5. Ceiba. 

AA. Lvs. simple, feather-veined, entire: cotyledons 

plane, leafy or fleshy 6. Dvrio. 


A. Petals concave or hooded at the base. 

B. Anthers solitary between the staminodes 1. Rulingia. 

BB. Anthers 2 or more between the staminodes. 

c. Fr. a membranous caps 2. Abroma. 

cc. Fr. a woody caps 3. Guazuma. 

ccc. Fr. drupaceous 4. Theobroma. 

AA. Petals flat. 

B. The petals deciduous, 
c. Anthers sessile ; calyx club-shaped or bell- 
shaped 5. Renesia. 

cc. Anthers stipitate; sepals at length free.. 6. Pterosper- 
BB. The petals persistent or marcescent. [mum. 

c. Anthers 10 or 15, rarely 20. 

D. Ovules 2 in each locule 7. Dombeya. 

DD. Ovules 8. Pentapetei. 

cc. Anthers 5 9 Mahernia 

AAA. Petals 0. 

B. Fls. bisexual 10. Fremontia. 

BB. Fls. unisexual or polygamous. 

c. Anthers crowded without order: seeds 

without endosperm 11. Sterculia. 

cc. Anthers in a single ring: seeds with en- 
dosperm 12. Cola. 

Brachychiton, Chiranthodendron, and Heritiera are also treated 


A. Ovary sessile: Ivs. with 2 Ifts., rarely 1 1ft. . . 1. Zygophyl- 
AA. Ovary stalked: Ivs. abruptly pinnate 2. Guaiacum. 


A. Fls. irregular, the posterior sepal spurred; 

spur adnate to the pedicel 1. Pelargon turn, 

AA. Fls. regular or nearly so. 

B. Stamens 10, usually all fertile: tails of car- 
pels usually not bearded inside 2. Geranium. 

BB. Stamens, 5 fertile and 5 reduced to scales; 

tails of carpels usually bearded inside 3. Erodium. 

BBB. Stamens 15, anther-bearing, in groups of 5 . . 4. Af onsonia. 


The only genus Tropaeolum. 


In cultivation LimnantHci. 

47. OXALIDACE.ffi. 

A. Fr. a loculicidal caps. 

B. Valves of caps, separating to the middle. ... 1. Oxalis. 

BB. Valves of caps, separating to the base 2. Biopkytum. 

AA. Fr. an indehiscent berry 3. Averrhoa. 


In cultivation Impatient. 

38. TILIACE^. 

A. Calyx bell-shaped, 3^5-cut 1. Berria. 

AA. Calyx composed of distinct sepals. 

B. Petals pitted at the base, inserted around 
the base of a more or less elevated torus, 
c. Fr. unarmed, glabrous, or tomentose .... 2. Grewia. 

cc. Fr. echinate or setose 3. Triumfetta. 

BB. Petals not pitted, inserted immediately 

around the stamens. 

c. Fr. indehiscent globose, usually 1 -seeded... 4. Tilia. 
cc. Fr. a caps. 

D. Caps, loculicidally dehiscent. 
E. The stamens all bear anthers. 

F. The caps, globose, echinate 5. Entelea. 

FF. The caps, pod-like, usually naked. . 6. CorcAorus. 
EE. The outer stamens have no anthers. . . 7. Sparmannia. 
DD. Caps, dehiscing at the apex 8. Luehea. 


A. Fr. a berry 1. Aristotelia. 

AA. Fr. a drupe 2. Eteocarpus. 

AAA. Fr. a dehiscent loculicidal caps 3. Tricuspid- 


A. Styles 5: Ivs. entire: glands equal 1. Linum. 

AA. Styles 3-4: Ivs. usually serrate: glands usually 

unequal or absent 2. Reinwardtia. 


In cultivation Brythroij/lm. 

49. RUTACE.S. 

A. Ovary entire or slightly 2-5-lobed; style ter- 
minal, entire at base: fr. drupe-like or berry- 
like, but leathery, usually indehiscent. 
B. Fls. hermaphrodite; petals and stamens 
free or connate; ovules 1, 2 or many: fr. 
usually with a cortex outside and pulpy 
within; seeds ex-albuminous. (Subfamily 
c. Cotyledons thin and twisted in seed: frs. 

dry 1. Micromelum. 

cc. Cotyledons thick and fleshy, plano-con- 
vex: frs. more or less fleshy or pulpy. 
D. Thorns absent: Ivs. pinnate; Ifts. alter- 
nate on rachis: frs. fleshy berries. 
E. Styles very short and thick, persis- 
tent; fls. small, urceolate: young 
growth densely covered with brown 

velvety pubescence 2. Glycosmis. 

EE. Styles long or, if short, dehiscent. 
F. Fls. small : ovarial cells with scat- 
tered hairs: frs. with thick fleshy 

dissepiments 3. Claucena. 

FF. Fls. large: ovarial cells with tufted 
conducting hairs: frs. fleshy but 

with thin dissepiments 4. Chalcas. 

DD. Thorns usually present: Ivs. simple or, 

if compound, with the lateral Ifts. 

exactly opposite. (Tribe Citreaj. ) 

E. Frs. large, hard-shelled; cells filled 

with mucilage. (Subtribe ^Eglinee. ) 

F. Lvs. pinnate: ovary 5-celled but 

by confluence becoming 1 -celled. 

a. Seeds woolly; exocarp woody, 

continuous 5. Feronia. 

GO. Seeds smooth ; exocarp prismatic . 6. FeronitUa. 
FF. Lvs. trifoliate or simple: ovary 



O. The Ivg. always simple: fr. with 
thin dissepiment , 6-celled ; 
seeds smooth ............... 7. &glops\y. 

GO. The Iva. trifoliate: fr. 8-15-ceIled. 
H. Seeds woolly. 

i. The frs. hard-shelled, 10-15- 

ceiled .................. 8. ASgle. 

H. The frs. long-oval, leathery, 

8-10-celled ............. 9. Ckaetosper- 

HH. Seeds smooth: fr. subglobose, [mum. 

very hard-shelled ......... 10. Balsamo- 

EE. Fra. not hard-shelled. (Subtribe [citrus. 

Lavanginse. ) 

F. The frs. small, fleshy or with mu- 
cilage in cells, without pulp- 
o. Petioles very long; Ivs. trifoliate: 

climbing shrubs ............ 11. Lavanga. 

GG. Petioles short, often winged. 
H. The Ivs. pinnate; rachis 
broadly winged: frs. J#n. 
diam ..................... 12. Hespere- 

HH. The Ivs. trifoliate or simple. [thusa. 

i. Lvs. trifoliate or bifoliate. 
j. Petioles of medium length, 
narrowly winged: frs. 1 
in. diam ............. 13. Pleiosper- 

W. Petioles very short, wing- [mium. 

less: fls. 3-merous: frs. 
Hin. diam ........... 14. Triphasia. 

n. Lvs. simple or unifoliate. 
j. Frs. angled; seeds very 

long, flattened ........ 15. Aferope. 

jj. Frs. not angled. 

K. Plant a climbing shrub: 

petioles long ........ 16. Paramignya. 

KK. Plant a shrub or tree: 

petioles short. 
i* Diam. of frs. 
Ivs. venose : 
not filled 

LL. Diam. of frs. 1 
cells filled 


17. Severinia. 


18. Pamburus. 

smooth .......... 

IT. The frs. hesperidia, the cells filled 

with stalked pulp-vesicles con- 

taining juice. (Subtribe Citrime.) 

G. Lvs. pinnate; rachis broadly 

winged: ovules 1 in each cell .19. Citropsis. 
GO. Lvs. trifoliate or simple: ovules 
usually 2 or more in each cell. 
H. The Ivs. trifoliate, deciduous . 20. Pondnts. 
HH. The Ivs. simple, persistent. 
I. Stamens 8 or 10, twice as 

many as the petals ....... 21. Atolantia. 

n. Stamens 16-40, 4 or more 

times as many as petals. 

J. Lvs. isofacial, gray-green, 

with stomates and hairs 

on both faces: frs. small, 

3-4-celled ............ 22. Eremocitrus, 

33. Lvs. not isofacial, without 
stomates on upper sur- 
K. Ovary 3-5-celled: Ivs. 

pale below, punctate. .23. Fortunelfa. 
KK. Ovary 6-15-celled. 

L. The stamens poly- 

adelphous ........ 24. Citrus. 

u* Stamens free. 

H. Cotyledons aerial 
on germination; 
first foliage Ivs. 
opposite: fr. 
email, 10-12- 
celled .......... 25. Papeda. 

MM. Cotyledons hypog- 
eous; first foh- 
age-1 vs. alter- 
nate cataphylls: 
frs. 5- or 6-celled. 26. MicrocitTU*. 
BB. Fls. usually polygamo-dicecious; petals and 
stamens free; ovules 2, except in the first 
2 genera: seeds usually albuminous. 
c. Ovules solitary. 

D. Petals 4-5, valvate; stamens4-5: drupe 

2-4-stoned ....................... 27. Skimmia. 

DD. Petals 5, valvate; stamens 5; ovary 5- 

lobed; stigma sessile .............. 28. Casimiroa. 

cc. Ovules twin. 

D. Petals 2-5, valvate or imbricate; sta- 

mens 2-5: fr. 4-7-loculed .......... 29. Toddalia. 

DD. Petals 5-8, valvate; stamens 5-6: fr. a 

5-stoned drupe ................... 30. Phelloden- 

DDD. Petals 4-5, imbricate; stamens 4-5: [dron. 

fr. a 2-3-loculed samara ............. 31. PieUa. 

AA. Ovary deeply 2-5-lobed ; styles basilar or 
ventral, or the stigmas connate: fr. capsular 
or 3-5-berried. 

B. Ovules 3 or more in each locule. 

c. Petals 4-5, equal; stamens 8-10, straight. 32. Ruta. 
cc. Petals 5, unequal; stamens 10, declinate.,33. Dictamnus. 
BB. Ovules 2 in each locule. 

c. Fls. irregular 34. Ravenia. 

cc. Fls. regular. 

D. The fls. unisexual or polygamous. 
E. Lvs. alternate. 

p. Foliage pinnate: fls. polygamous. .35. Xanthoxy- 

FF. Foliage simple: fls. unisexual 36. Orixa. [lum. 

BE. Lvs. opposite: fls. unisexual 37. Evodia. 

DD. The fls. hermaphrodite. 

E. Albumen fleshy (unknown in Choisya). 

F. Petals erect, long, connate or con- 

nivent, forming a cylindrical 

tube 38. Correct. 

FF. Petals free, spreading, 
a. The petals imbricate. 

H. Stamens 8 ; petals 4 : Ivs. oppo- 
site 39. Boronia. 

HH. Stamens 8-10; petals 4-5: Ivs. 

alternate 40. Eriostemon. 

HHH. Stamens 10; petals 5: Ivs. 

opposite 41. Choisya. 

GG. The petals valvate 42. Pilocarpus. 

EE. Albumen 0. 

F. The caps. 5-loculed 43. Caloden- 

FF. The ovary-lobes 1-5, free. [drum. 

G. Staminodes 44. Diosma. 

GO. Staminodes 5. 

H. Style short; stigma capitate; 

fls. terminal 45. Adenandra. 

HH. Style long; stigma simple; fls. 

axillary 46. Barosma. 

The following genera are also described: Amyris, Chloroxylon, 
Diplolaena, Limonia, and Spathelia. 


A. Stamens 10, twice as many as petals. 

B. Petals united into a tube 1. Quassia. 

BB. Petals spreading 2. Ailanthus. 

AA. Stamens 4-5, as many aa petals 3. I'icrasma. 


A. Ovary 3-10-loculed: locules 1-ovuled; seeds 
without endosperm. 

B. Stamens many; panicle lateral 1. Ochna. 

BB. Stamens 10; panicle terminal 2. Ouratea. 

AA. Ovary 2-5-loculed, many-ovuled, with endo- 
sperm 3. Cespedesia. 


A. Calyx-tube broadly urn-shaped, covered by 

the torus 1. Garuga. 

AA. Calyx small, 4-6-parted 2. Bursera. 

53. MELIACE). 

A. Stamens free. 

B. Ovary 4-5-celled; cells 8-12-ovuled 1. Cedrela. 

BB. Ovary 2-celled; cells 1-ovuled 2. Ptaeroxylon. 

AA. Stamens coalesced into a tube, at least at 

B. Locules of the ovary many-ovuled 3. Surictenia. 

BB. Locules of the ovary 1-2-ovuled. 

c. Lvs. simple 4. Turrxa. 

cc. Lvs. 3-foliolate or 1-3-pinnate. 

D. Anthers 5 5. Aglaia. 

DD. Anthers 8-12. 

E. Disk cup-like 6. Melia. 

EE. Disk ring-like 7. Trichilia. 

54. OLACACE^:. 

A. Stamens twice as many as the petals, all fertile. 1. Ximenia. 
AA. Stamens anther-bearing, 3-5, staminodia 6 or 

less 2. Olax. 


A. Petals connate at base; ovary 4-5-loculed.. . . 1. Ilex. 
AA. Petals free, linear; ovary 3-5-loculed ........ 2. Nemopanth- 


A. Racemes terminal; stamens 10: caps, winged. . 1. Cli/fonw. 
AA. Racemes lateral; stamens 5: caps, not winged. 2. Cyrilla. 




A. Fr. indehiscent 1. Elxoden- 

AA. Fr. a dehiscent caps. \dron. 

B. Lvs. opposite. 

c. Ovules 1-2, in the axis of the locule 2. Etonymus. 

cc. Ovules 2, in the locules, erect 3. Pachystima. 

BB. Lvs. alternate. 

c. Ovary confluent with the disk. 

D. Locules generally 1-ovuled: plants un- 
armed: fls. solitary, clustered or 

cymose 4. Maytenui. 

DD. Locules 2-ovuled: plants often armed: 

fls. cymose 5. Gymnos- 

CC. Ovary free 6. Ceumtrut. 

Other genera treated are Cassine, Catha, and Tripterygium. 

In cultivation StackHmuia. 


A. Calyx-lobes persistent, the often star-shaped 
disk joining its tube to the entire surface of 

the ovary: fr. dry, 3-winged 1. (louania. 

AA. Calyx-lobes deciduous. 

B. Disk lining the shallow calyx-tube nearly or 
quite free from the ovary: fr. drupaceous, 
mostly fleshy and often edible, with a 
single 1-4-celled stone inclosing as many 
seeds, or 1-seeded by abortion; seed-coats 

c. Petals 0: endosperm copious, ruminate . . 2. Reynosia. 
cc. Petals 5. 

D. Fr. winged, dry, leathery: plants 

prickly: [vs. 3-nerved 3. Paliurus. 

DD. Fr. a fleshy drupe: plants prickly: Ivs. 

3-nerved 4. Zizyphus. 

DDD. Fr. a drupe with leathery sarcocarp: 

plants unarmed : Ivs. penninerved .... 5. Berchemia. 
BB. Disk lining the calyx-tube, or both adherent 
to ovary: fr. drupaceous or becoming dry, 
c. Lvs. very small or wanting, the spines lf.- 

like 6. Colletia. 

cc. Lvs. ordinary. 

D. Fr. a fleshy drupe free from calyx, con- 
taining 2-^4 separate nut-like stones . . 7. Khamnus. 
DD. Fr. becoming nearly or quite dry, 
partly inferior, separating into 3 
nutlets: ovary adnate to disk at its 

base 8. Ceanoth us. 

DDD. Fr. a caps, with membranous covering, 
inferior, separating into 3 cocci, 

which are dehiscent inside 9. Pomaderris. 

DDDD. Fr. indehiscent, pea-shaped, 3-celled, 

3-seeded: ovary free 10. ffotettia. 

The genus Rhamnella is sometimes cultivated. 

60. VITACE.E. 

A. Stamens free: climbing shrubs or herbs. 
B. Petals expanding; fls. in cymes: bark close; 

pith white. 

c. Plants climbing, mostly by adhesion of 
dilated and disk-shaped tips of the 
tendril-branches: no distinct disk or 
free nectariferous glands, but a nec- 
tariferous and wholly confluent thick- 
ening of the base of the ovary, or even 

this obsolete: Ivs. never pinnate 1. Partkeno- 

CC. Plants climbing by the prehension and [cissus. 

coiling of naked-tipped tendrils: nec- 
tariferous disk or glands surrounding 
the ovary or its base, and at least partly 
free from it. 
D. Fls. 5-merous: woody plants, mostly 

-**& 2. Ampeloptis. 

DD. ris. 4-merous: more or less fleshy, 
woody or herbaceous; mostly tropi- 
cal or subtropical 3. Citrus. 

BB. Petals cast off from the base while cohering 
by their tips; hypogynous disk or 5 
nectariferous glands alternate with the 
stamens; fls. in panicles: berries usually 
edible: Ivs. rarely compound, never pin- 
nate 4. Vitit. 

AA. Stamens with connate filaments: 4vs. 1-3-pin- 

nate: upright trees or shrubs 5. Leea. 

Tetrastigma is also briefly treated. 


In cultivation . Meliotma. 


A. Nutlets winged all around: Ivs. pinnate, with 

9-15 Ifts 1. Dipteronia. 

AA. Nutlets with an elongated wing on one side: 

Ivs. simple or compound 2. Acer. 


A. Lvs. opposite: several seeds in each cell. 
B. Ovary 2-3-parted at base. 

c. Caps, vesiculose 1. Staphylea. 

cc. Follicles coriaceous 2. EuBcaphis* 

BB. Ovary 3-lobed: fr. fleshy or leathery 3. Turpinia. 

AA. Lvs. alternate: 1 seed in each cell: fr. berry- 
like 4. Tapiscia. 


A. Calyx subsaccate, the segms. narrow, very 

unequal at base : ovules in the locules 2-4. ... 1. Melianthus. 
AA. Calyx of 5 free, roundish sepals: ovules 

numerous in 2 series on the placentae 2. Greyia. 


In cultivation 


A. Fls. irregular. 
B. Ovules solitary in the locules (rarely 2 in 

Paullinia): plant climbing. 
c. Fr. a winged samara ................... 1. 

cc. Fr. bladdery, membranous, loculicidal. ... 2. 

ccc. Fr. a pear-shaped, septicidal caps ........ 3. 

BB. Ovules 2 or more in the locules: plant erect. 
c. Sepals valvate; petals 3-4 .............. 4. 

cc. Sepals imbricate; petals 4-5 ............ 5. 

AA. Fls. regular, or nearly so. 

B. Stamens inserted at the base of the ovary 

inside the disk, often unilateral. 
c. Fr. dehiscent; ovules 2 or more in cells. 
D. Disk produced into 5 horns; fls. in 
racemes before the Ivs., showy ...... 6. 

DD. Disk annular or cup-shaped; fls. 

usually in panicles. 

E. Lvs. ternate: sepals glabrous; disk 
cupular ....... ................. 7. 

EE. Lvs. pinnate. 

F. Petals 5; sepals imbricate, pubes- 
cent ......................... 8. 

FF. Petals 0; sepals valvate .......... 9. 

cc. Fr. indehiscent. 

D. Aril present; fr. edible. 

E. Calyx deeply 5-parted, imbricate; 
petals present ................... 10. 

EE. Calyx with small valvate lobes or 

oDsoletely toothed; petals ....... 11. 

DD. Aril wanting. 

E. Fr. deeply lobed or divided into 3 
(-1) cocci: sepals 5: Ifts. usually 
many .......................... 12. 

EE. Fr. not deeply lobed: sepals 4: Ifts. 

2-4 ............................ 13. 

BB. Stamens inserted outside the disk or disk 
wanting; petals 0: caps, winged, papery 
or leathery: Ivs. simple or pinnate ....... 14. 











Additional genera are somewhat cultivated, as Alectryon, Ber- 
Rauio, and Diploglottis. 


A. Lvs. simple 

B. Stamens 5; styles 3 1. Semecarpum. 

BB. Stamens 8-10 (all or some fertile); style 

eccentric; stigma a mere dot 2. A nacardium. 

BBB. Stamens 1-5; style lateral; stigma simple. 3. Mangifera. 
AA. Lvs. pinnate or composed of 3 Ifts. 
B. Ovary 1-celled. 

c. Ovules suspended at or near the apex. 
D. Styles in the pistillate fls. short, in 

the staminate fls. 4-5 4. Tapiria. 

5. Cyrtocarpa. 

DD. Styles 3 6. Schinus. 

cc. Ovules suspended by a basilar funiculus. 

D. Styles 3 7. Putada. 



DD. Petals 4-6 or more. 

E. Stamens in a single whorl. 

T. The petals yalvate 8. Sorindeia. 

FF. The petals imbricate. 

G. Style lateral in fr.; pedicels be- 
coming plumose: Ivs. simple. . . 9. Cotinus. 
GG. Style terminal in f r. ; pedicels not 
plumose in fr.: Ivs. compound, 

rarely simple 10. Rhus. 

EE. Stamens in 2 whorls, the outer alter- 
nate with the petals; petals val- 

vate 11. Lithrsea. 

BB. Ovary 2-5-celled. 

c. Fls. polygamous; stamens 8-10; petals 

subvalvate 12. Spondias. 

cc. Fls. dicecious; stamens 8-9; petals im- 
bricate 13. Harpehul- 


The genera Coryxocarpus and Smodingium are also described in 
this Cyclopedia. 


The only genus . . 

The only genus. . 





D. The pod jointed, rarely 1-jointed; 
1-eeeded by abortion. Other- 
wise like the Lotus, Galega 
and Phaseolus Tribes. An 

artificial division 8. HEDYBAHUM 

DD. The pod not jointed. [TRIBE. 

E. Pod indehiscent, larger than 
calyx, membranous, leath- 
ery, woody or drupaceous: 
Ifts. 5 or more, rarely 3-1: 
trees or tall shrubs or 

climbers 9. DALBEROIA 

EE. Pod dehiscent or if indehis- [TRIBE, 
cent usually of small size, 
generally 2-valved. 
F. Fls. in heads or umbels, 
rarely solitary: Ifts. 3 or 
more, entire : alternate 
filaments usually dilated 
at the apex: herbs or sub- 
shrubs 10. LOTUS TRIBE. 

FF. Fls. solitary or racemose, 
sometimes panicled or 

G. Plants typically climbing 
herbs, raising them- 
selves by means of 
tendrils at the tips of 
the petioles: some- 
times there is a mere 
bristle: Ifts. often den- 
ticulate at apex 11. VICIA TRIBE. 

GO. Plants twining or erect, 
not climbing by ten- 

H. Lfts. generally 3. 
i. Habit of plants most- 

/. Summary of Suborders and Tribes. 

Ignoring exceptions and six tribes of which no examples 
appear to be cult, in America. (Other genera of Leguminosse 
may be met with now and then in cultivation, but they are so 
little grown and so many that the introduction of them here would 
make the key unnecessarily complicated; some of these are men- 
tioned at the end of the Leguminosae, p. 95.) 

Suborder I. MIMOSE^E. 

A. Fls. regular, small; calyx ganaosepalous 
or valvately parted; petals valvate, 
often connate, below the middle. 
B. Stamens numerous, . 

c. The stamens free 1. ACACIA TRIBE. 

cc. The stamens monadelphous 2. IMOA TRIBE. 

BB. Stamens fewer, definite. 

c. Anthers usually appendaged with a 
stalked gland; stamens twice as 
many as the petals, rarely as 
many: fls. generally 5-merous. ... 3. ADENANTHERA 
cc. Anthers not glandular; stamens as (TRIBE, 

many as the petals, rarely twice 
as many: fls. 4-5-merous, rarely 

3- or 6-merous 4. MIMOSA TRIBE. 

AA. Fls. irregular and truly papilionaceous, 
i. e., like a sweet pea, the standard 
outside of the other petals and inclos- 
ing them in the bud; sepals more or 
less united above the disk into a 
tube or cup; radicles inflexed, accum- 
bent or rarely very short and straight. 
(Compare AAA. ) 

Suborder II. PAPILIONE4B. 

B. Lvs. simple, or else digitately com- 
pound. (Exceptions: A few mem- 
bers of the Trifolium Tribe are 
digitately compound and some of 
the Phaseolus Tribe are subdigi- 
tately compound. Some Ivs. that 
appear to be simple have been re- 
duced from several Ifts. to 1, gener- 
ally leaving a gland, joint or other 
indication of the reduction.) 
c. Stamens 10, free: shrubs, rarely 


cc. Stamens 10, monadelphous, rarely 
diadelphous: racemes terminal or 
opposite the Ivs. or the fls. soli- 
tary or subfascicled at the axils. . 6. GENISTA TRIBE. 
BB. Lvs. pinnate, rarely digitate in the 
Trifoliura Tribe, or subdigitate in 
the Phaseolus Tribe or the Ivs. 
sometimes reduced to a single 1ft. 
C. Stamens 10, free: Ifts. 5 or more, 
sometimes reduced to 1 large 

1ft., rarely 3 7. SOPHORA TRIBE. 

cc. Stamens monadelphous or diadel- 

ly twining 12. 

:i. Habit of plants 




mostly erect 13. 

HH. Lfts. mostly 5 or more.. 14. 
AAA. Fls. more or less irregular, but not 
truly papilionaceous. When they 
seem to be so, the petal answering 
to the standard will be found within 
the other petals instead of outside 
as in AA: radicle straight, very rarely 
slightly oblique. 

Suborder m. CISALPINE M. 

B. Calyx gamosepalous beyond the disk 
or valvately parted : Ivs. simple and 
entire or 2-lobed, or rarely cut into 
2 Ifts. : stipe of ovary free or adnate 

to calyx-tube 15. BAUHINIA TRIBE. 

BB. Calyx usually parted to the very 

disk and the segms. imbricate. 
c. Stipe of ovary adnate to the disk- 
bearing calyx-tube: Ivs. mostly 

abruptly pinnate 16. AMHERSTIA TRIBE. 

cc. Stipe of ovary free in the bottom of 

the calyx. 
D. Anthers versatile: Ivs. mostly 

bipinnate 17. C-ESALPINIA TRIBE. 

DD. Anthers basifixed, erect but 
longitudinally dehiscent by 2 
pores or short cracks 18. CASSIA TRIBE. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Acacia Tribe. 
The only genus 1. Acacia. 

2. Inga Tribe. 

A. Lvs. once pinnate 2. Inga. 

AA. Lvs. mostly twice pinnate. 

B. Shape of pods circinate, arched or variously 

c. Pod usually 2-valved; seeds generally 

surrounded by a thin pulp 3. Pithecolob- 

cc. Pod indehiscent, usually septate between [mm. 

the seeds 4. Enterolob- 

BB. Shape of pods straight, or at most slightly [ium. 

c. Valves separating from the persistent 

sutures 5. Lysiloma. 

cc. Valves elastically dehiscent and revolute 

from apex to base 6. Calliandra. 

ccc. Valves not elastic: pod of ten indehiscent. . 7. Albizzia 

3. Adenanthera Tribe. 

A. Fls. short-pediceled 8. Adenantk- 

AA. Fls. sessile. [era. 

B. The pod indehiscent (presumably so in 



c. Pod straight, thick-compressed, trans- 
vercely septate inside between the 

seeds 9. Stryphno- 

cc. Pod straight, falcate or variously twisted, \dendron. 

thick-compressed or subterete, usually 

septate inside between the seeds 10. Prosopis. 

BB. The pods 2-valved. (See also BBB.) 

c. Pod straight or arched, flat ; valves entire, 

continuous within: shrubs or trees 11. Piptadenia. 

cc. Pod obliquely oblong, deflexed from the 
stipe: herbs or diffuse sub-shrubs, pros- 
trate or floating 12. Neptunia. 

BBB. The pod fiat, with thickened persistent 
continuous sutures, the valves trans- 
versely jointed between the sutures, the 
joints 1-seeded 13. Entada 

4. Mimosa Tribe. 

A. Pods provided with a replum, i. e., a frame- 
like placenta, which remains after the 
valves have fallen away from it. 

B. Valves wider than replum 14. Mimosa. 

BB. Valves narrower than the replum or hardly 

wider 15. Sckrankia, 

AA. Pods 2-valved in the ordinary fashion 16. Leucsena. 

5. Podalyria Tribe. 

A. Keel-petals free or slightly connate: foliage 

B. Pod linear or oblong-inflated 17. Thermopsis. 

in 1 . Pod globose or ovoid, turgid or inflated 18. Baptisia. 

AA. Keel-petals connate on the back: foliage 

mostly leathery. 
B. Ovules 4 or more. 

c. Keel about as long as the wings 10. Oxylobium. 

cc. Keel much shorter than wings 20. Chorizema. 

BB. Ovules 2. 

c. Pod indehiscent: calyx shortly 5-toothed.. 21. Viminaria. 
CC. Pod 2-valved: calyx 5-fid, or bilabiate 22. Pultenxa. 

6. Genista Tribe. 

A. Stamens coalesced into a sheath which is split 

above the middle. 
B. Seeds strophiolate. 

c. Lvs. simple or reduced to mere scales 23. Temple- 


cc. Lvs. pinnate; Ifts. 3 24 Goodia. 

BB. Seeds not strophiolate 25. Crotalaria. 

AA. Stamens coalesced into a closed tube. 
B. Seeds not strophiolate. 

c. Calyx-lobes or lips much longer than the 

tube 26. Lupinus. 

CC. Calyx-lobes or -teeth shorter than the 

tube, rarely somewhat longer. 
D. Lfts. 3. 

E. Pod stalked 27. Laburnum. 

EE. Pod sessile. 

F. Claws of petals adnate to stam- 

inal tube 28. Petteria. 

FF. Claws of petals free. 

o. Shrubs unarmed: upper calyx- 
lobes distinct 29. Adenocar- 

GG. Shrubs usually spinescent: calyx [pus. 

short, truncate 30. Calycotome. 

DD. Lfts. usually all wanting, rarely 3 or 1: 
shrubs with spiny or rush-like 

E. Shrub with rush-like branches 31. Spartium, 

EE. Shrubs spiny or unarmed: Ifts. re- 
duced to 1 or 0, rarely 3. 

F. Fls. yellow; calyx not inflated 32. Genista. 

FF. Fls. violet or bluish; calyx inflated : 

spiny shrub 33. Erinacta. 

BB. Seeds strophiolate. 

c. Calyx colored, 2-parted; the upper segms. 
2-toothed, lower 3-toothed: leafless 
shrubs, the branchlets and petioles 

transformed into spines 34. Ulex. 

CC. Calyx with the 2 upper lobes or teeth con- 
nate or free, the 3 lower connate into a 
lower lip 35. Cytisut. 

7. Sophora Tribe. 

A. Fl. with petals all nearly alike 36. Cadia. 

AA. Fl. distinctly papilionaceous. 

B. Pod 2-valved 37. Castano- 

BB. Pod indehiscent or at most tardily dehiscent [spermum. 

to a slight extent. 

C. The pod moniliform 38. Sophora. 

cc. The pod not moniliform, linear. 

D. Color of fls. yellow in axillary racemes . . 39. Calpurnia. 
DD. Color of fls. white, panicled. 

E. Winter-buds inclosed in the base of 
the enlarged petiole: panicle loose, 

drooping 40. Cladrastis. 

EE. Winter-buds free: panicle dense, 

upright 41. Maackia. 

8. Hedysarum Tribe. 

A. Stamens all free among themselves 42. Adesmia. 

AA. Stamens all connate in a closed tube 43. Arachis. 

AAA. Stamens nearest the standard free or connate 
with the others only at the base or at the 

B, Filaments all dilated above or only alter- 
nate ones. 

c. Keel obtuse 44. Ornithopus, 

cc. Keel acute or beaked 45. CoroniUa. 

BB. Filaments normal. 

c. Wings short or very short, rarely as long 
as the keel: Ifts. not provided with 
minute stipules. 
D. Pod flat or compressed. 

E. Joints many, rarely 2: standard-sta- 
men free 46. Hedysarum. 

EE. Joints 2: standard -stamen connate 

with others at middle 47. Onobrychia. 

DD. Pod thickish, subterete 48. Alhagi. 

cc. Wings as long as or longer than the keel: 
partial petioles of Ifts. bear minute 
stipules (except in Lespedeza 0). 
D. Pod indehiscent, rarely opening at the 

lower suture; joints flat 49. Desrnodium. 

DD. Pod of about 4 small, distinct, 1-seeded, 
smooth, veined joints included in 

the calyx 50. Uraria. 

DDD. Pod 1-seeded, indehiscent; no joints. . . .51. Lespedeza. 

9. Dalbergia Tribe. 

A. Fr. drupaceous, globose or ovoid, indehiscent, 

the endocarp woody 52. Andira. 

AA. Fr. not drupaceous. 
B. Lfts. mostly alternate. 

c. Anthers versatile, the locules parallel, 

longitudinally dehiscent 53. Tipuana. 

cc. Anthers small, erect, didymous, the 
locules placed back to back; generally 

dehiscent at apex by a short crack 54. Dalbergia. 

BB. Lfts. opposite. 

c. Pod longitudinally 4-winged 55. Piscidia. 

cc. Pod with a narrow wing along the upper 

suture or both sutures 56. Derris. 

10. Lotus Tribe. 

A. Pod indehiscent or tardily 2-valved 57. Anthyllis. 

AA. Pod 2-valved. 

B. Calyx -lobes usually longer than tube; keel 

rostrate 58. Lotus. 

BB. Calyx-teeth shorter than tube ; keel obtuse . . 59. Hosackia. 

11. Vicia Tribe. 

A. St. woody: infl. subterminal ; stamens 9, the 

standard-stamen absent 60. Abrua. 

AA. St. herbaceous: fls. solitary or racemose in the 
axils; stamens 10. 

B. Wings adherent to the keel 61. Lens. 

(See article Lentil.) 
BB. Wings free or only slightly adherent. 

c. Sheath of stamens oblique at the mouth; 
style slender, bearded or hairy only at 
the apex or all around the upper part. . .62. Vicia. 
cc. Sheath of stamens equal at the mouth. 
D. Calyx-lobes leafy; style rigid, dilated 
above and the margins reflexed and 
joined together so that it becomes 
flattened laterally; bearded down the 

inner edge 63. Pisum. 

DD. Calyx-lobes not leafy; style flattened 
above on the back and front ; bearded 
down one face 64. Lathyrus. 

12. Phaseolus Tribe. 

A. Style longitudinally bearded above on the 
inner side or rarely pilose only around the 
stigma; petals normal or the keel long- 
beaked or spiral: infl. nodose-racemose. 
B. Calyx-tube not longer than lobe, 

c. Keel spiral 65. Phaseolus. 

cc. Keel obtuse or arched beaked. 

D. Stigma strongly oblique or introrse 66. Vigna. 

DD. Stigma subglobose on inner face; style 

flattened out at apex 67. Pachyrhizus* 

DDD. Stigma small, terminal; style filiform 

or subulate at apex 68. Dolichos. 

BB. Calyx-tube cylindrical, longer than lobes. ...69. Clitoria. 
AA. Style not bearded. 

B. Standard-stamen free only at the very base, 
thence connate with the rest into a closed 
tube; calyx mostly 4-lobed. 
c. Calyx bell-shaped. 

D. Pod broad, the upper suture thickened 

or 2-winged 70. Bioclta. 

DD. Pod linear, narrow or flat 71. Puerarto. 



cc. Calyx bilabiate, the upper lip larger, 

entire or 2-lobed or 2-parted 72. Canamlia. 

BB. Standard-stamen free or connate only at 
the base. 

c. Calyx 4-lobed 73. Galactia. 

cc. Calyx not 4-lobed. 

D. Infl. usually racemose, the rachis of the 

raceme jointed. 
E. Standard much larger than the 

wings and keel 74. Erythrina. 

EB. Standard smaller than the keel. 
F. Pod 2-valved. 

a. Anthers of 2 kinds 75. Mucuna. 

GO. Anthers uniform 76. Apios. 

FF. Pod not dehiscent, except at the 

top 77. Butea, 

DD. Infi. sometimes racemose but the 

rachis of the raceme not jointed. 
E. Lva., especially beneath, with mi- 
nute resinous dots: infl. racemose 
or subumbellate or the fls. solitary. 

F. Ovules 2 78. Flemingia. 

FF. Ovules 4 or more. 

G. Pod turgid; seeds strophiolate. . . 79. Fagelia. 
GO. Pod compressed; seeds not stro- 
phiolate 80. Cajanus. 

EE. Lvs. without minute resinous dots: 
fls. clustered or racemose in the 
axils, solitary or twin along the 

F. Fls. showy; standard large, flat- 
tened out; bracts persistent 81. Centroaema. 

FF. Fls. medium-sized; standard, 
erect, complicate, sides often 

reflexed: bracts persistent 82. Amphi- 

FFF. Fls. small {showy in Kennedya); [carpxa. 

standard spreading or reflexed; 
bracts persistent or small and 

G. Seeds not strophiolate 83. Glycine. 

GO. Seeds strophiolate. 

H. The fls. small; keel usually 

much smaller than wings 84. Harden- 

HH. The fls. showy; keel usually [bergia 

equaling or surpassing the 
wings 85. Kennedya. 

13. Trifolium Tribe. 

A. Standard-stamen connate with the others 

into a closed tube ; keel beaked 86. Onont*. 

AA. Standard-stamen free; keel obtuse or in Paro- 

chetus acutish. 

B. Lfts. digitate (rarely pinnate in Trifolium). 
c. Pod 2-valved: keel acutish; petals not 

adnate 87. Parochetus 

cc. Pod usually indehiscent: claws of all or 
the lower petals adnate to the stamina! 

tube 88. Trifolium. 

BB. Lfts. 3, pinnate. 

c. Pod straight, sickle-shaped or arched, 
sometimes thick and beaked, some- 
times linear, sometimes broad and flat, 
indehiscent or folliculately gaping or 

rarely 2-valved 89. Trigonella. 

cc. Pod spirally falcate, circinnate or 

cochleate 90. Medicago. 

ccc. Pod small, subglobose or ovoid, thick, in- 
dehiscent or tardily 2-valved 91. Melilotus. 

14. Galega Tribe. 

A. Connective of the anthers appendaged with a 
small gland or mucro: ovules mostly o, 1-2 

in a few species; pod 2-valved 92. Indigofera. 

AA. Connective not appendaged. 

B. Ovules 1-2, rarely 3-4. (See also BB.) 

c. Number of ovules 1 93. Psoralea. 

cc. Number of ovules 2, rarely 3-4. 

D. Stamens 10 94. Amorpka. 

DD. Stamens 5 95. Petaloste- 

BB. Ovules oo (1-2 in a few species of Teph- [mon. 


c. Infl. terminal or opposite the Ivs., mostly 
racemose (in Galega both axillary and 
terminal, in some Tephrosias axillary): 
pod 2-valved. 

D. Style longitudinally bearded on the 
inner side; calyx long-tubular; petals 

very long-clawed 96. Barbieria. 

DD. Style glabrous (or merely penicillate 

at the stigma in some tephrosias). 
B. Standard-stamen connate with the 

rest from the base 97. Galena. 

XK. Standard-stamen free or connate 
with the others from the middle. 

F. The pod narrow or short, with 
slender valves and nervifonn or 

hardly thickened sutures 98. Tephrosia. 

FF. The pod thick, leathery or woody, 
a. Pod usually tardily dehiscent: 

infl. mostly panioled 99. Millttia. 

GO. Pod easily dehiscent: infl. race- 
mose 100. Wistaria. 

cc. Infl. axillary, except where noted below. 
D. Pod flat, except where the seeds finally 

make it turgid 101. Robinia. 

DD. Pod inflated, turgid or terete, longitudi- 
nally septate or undivided, rarely 
flat and when so always longitudi- 
nally septate. 
E. Styles variously bearded above 

F. Petals acuminate 102. Clianthut. 

FT. Petals not acuminate. 

o. Standard erect 103. Suther- 

GG. Standard spreading or reflexed. [landia. 

H. Stigma small 104. Swainsona. 

HH. Stigma prominent 105. Colutea. 

EE. Style not bearded. 

F. Lvs. even-pinnate: shrubs or trees. 
G. The pod stipitate, obovoid or 

oblong 106. Halimoden~ 


GO. The pod linear, usually acute 107. Caragana. 

FF. Lvs. odd-pinnate or wit.h a spiny 

petiole instead of an odd 1ft. 
G. Anther-cells confluent at apex. . . 108. Glycyrrh- 
GG. Anthers uniform. [iza. 
H. Petals not all narrow, the 
standard obovate or orbicu- 
lar 109. Calopkaca. 

HH. Petals narrow. 

i. Keel blunt 110. Astragalus. 

u. Keel acute 111. Oxytropit. 

15. Bauhinia Tribe. 

A. Petals erect or spreading, only slightly 

unequal 112. Bauhinia. 

AA. Petals falsely pea-like, the standard inmost.. . . 113. Cercis. 

16. Amherstia Tribe. 

A. The petals absent; sepals 4 114. Saraca. 

AA. The petals present. 

B. Bractlets persistent, inclosing the bud. 

c. Petals 5, slightly unequal 115. Brownea. 

cc. Petals unequal, 1 very wide, 2 narrow, 

2 minute and rudimentary 116. Amherstia. 

BB. Bractlets small or deciduous. 

c. Lfts. 1 pair 117. Hymenxa. 

cc. Lfts. 2 or more pairs. 

D. Petals 5, 3 perfect, 2 rudimentary 118. Tamarin- 

DD. Petals 5, slightly unequal 119. Schotia. 

17. Caesalpinia Tribe. 

A. Calyx-lobes strongly imbricate; disk-bearing 
tube short: seed not albuminous. 

B. Pod indehiscent: stigma peltate 120. PeUoph- 


BB. Pod 2-valved : stigma not peltate 121. Cn-salpinia. 

AA. Calyx-tube long, or top-shaped or bell-shaped; 
segms. short or narrow and open: seeds, 
when known, albuminous. 

B. Pod turgid or subterete 122. Gymnoc- 


BB. Pod flattish 123. Gleditsia. 

AAA. Calyx-segms. valvate. 

B. Segms. 4, the upper ones connate; highest 

petal widest, lowest narrow 124. Cohillea. 

BB. Segms. 5; petals roundish, about equal 125. Poinciana. 

AAAA. Calyx-segms. slightly imbricate or valvate: 
seeds albuminous. 

B. Ovary ad B ate to calyx-tube 126. Schizolotf 


BB. Ovary free in bottom of calyx 127. Parkin- 


18. Cassia Tribe. 

A. Petals 5; fls. hermaphrodite 128. Cassia. 

AA, Petals 0; fls. polygamous 129. Ceratonia. 

The following genera also are described as having more or less 
horticultural interest: Afzelia, Amicia, Aotus, Baikiffia, Baphia 
Brachysema, Camdensia, Carmichffilia, Cicer, Copaifera, Dalea 

Piptanthus, Podalyria, Pterocarpus, Pterolobium, Rhynchosia 
Scorpiurus, Sesbania. Toluifera, Vouapa. 



/. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Ovary inferior; carpels 2-5, more or 
less connate and adnate to the cup- 
shaped receptacle, the whole develop- 
ing into a fleshy fr. (pome): trees or 

shrubs with free stipules 4 p OM E TRIBP 

AA. Ovary superior. IBB! - 

B. Carpels usually many, if 1 or 2, fr. 
not drupaceous: calyx persistent. 

C. Fr. follicular, dehiscent. 

D. Seeds not winged: fls. small. ... 1. SPIRAEA TRIBE. 
DD. Seeds winged, flattened: fls. 

r*o T3V I a 7 le r , 1 ar *?' -.;, 2. QuiLLAJA TRIBE. 

cc. Fr. not folhcular, mdehiscent, or 
carpels growing into drupelets. 

D. Pistils borne on a flat, hemi- 

spherical or convex receptacle, 
subtended by a cup-shaped 
portion of the receptacle (hy- 
panthium), usually many. 
E. The pistils 2-5: shrubs, with 

simple Ivs. 
F. Stipules wanting: fls. small 

in large panicles 3. HoLODiscns 

FF. Stipules present: fls. soli- TRIBE 

tary or in few-fld. 

__ T . corymbs 5. KBRHIA TRIBE. 

EE. pistils many (if few, Ivs 

compound) : herbs or shrubs. 

F. C a r p el s becoming dry 


o. Ovules 2; carpels 5-15: 
calyx without bractlets: 

herbs 9. ULMARIA TRIBE. 

00. Ovules 1: carpels many; 
calyx usually with 
bractlets alternating 

with the lobes 6. POTENTILLA 

FF. Carpels becoming drupelets: [TRIBE 

D.- -i'es 2 , but seed solitary. 7. ROBUS TRIBE 
DD. Pistils inclosed in the tubular- 
or urn-shaped receptacle (hy- 
E. Number of pistils 1 or 4; 

petals sometimes wanting. 

F. Hypanthium tubular or cam- 

panulate, the achenes 

loosely and usually only 

partly inclosing; pistils 

usually 1 : shrubs 8. CEHCocARptjg 

FF. tlypantnium urceolate, com- (TRIBE 

pletely inclosing the 1-4 
achenes; sepals usually 4: 

... XT t y ibs T . sh , rab8 10. SANGCISORBA 

EE. Number of pistils many; calyx- [TniBE 

tube becoming fleshy; petals 

present: shrubs with odd- 

P.^,1 P innat f lv - v 11. ROSE TRIBE. 

BB. Carpels 1, rarely 2: fr. drupaceous- 
calyx usually deciduous, 
c. Fls. symmetrical; style subter- 
minahovules pendulous; radicles 

. fi supe fi or 12. PRUNUS TRIBE. 

cc. Fls. often unsymmetrical; style 
basilar: ovules ascending- 
radicles inferior 13. CHHYSOBALANUS 


//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Spiraea Tribe. 

A. Pistils opposite to the petals or less than 5. 
B. Lvs. simple, often lobed, rarely pinnatifid- 
stamens inserted on the margin of the 
hypanthium: shrubs, rarely undershrubs. 
c. btipules large, caducous: staminal disk 
wanting: seeds shining, crustaceous. 

D. follicles dehiscent along both sutures 

often inflated, 1-5: fls. in terminal 

DD. FoTliclS dehisceni'oniy'along't'he'ven: *' Phusocar P- 
tral suture, 1-2, not inflated. 

E. *ls. in terminal panicles; style ter- 

minal; pistils, 2, rarely 1: follicles 

usually 5-seeded 2 Neittia 

EE. Fls. in small terminal corymbs; style ' 
{^eraljjjistil 1: follicles 1-or rarely 

<j m 

. The Ivs. 'entire, serrate or lobed: sta- 
mens free. 
E. Carpels free. 

F. Fls. in panicles, corymbs or umbel- 
like racemes; carpels dehiscent 
along the ventral suture: Ivs 
usually serrate or lobed 4. Spirxa 

FP. Fls. in racemes; carpels dehiscent 
on both sutures: Ivs. entire, 

PP r evergreen: cospitose "ndershrub. 5. Petrophy- 
EE. Carpels connate at the base; fls. poly- \ tum 

gamo-dicecious, in panicles: Ivs 

nr. Tl, n 1 ntlr , ei . decic ! us: upright shrub. . . 6. Sibirxa 
DD. The Ivs. twice trind: stamens connate at 
the base: fls. in racemes: prostrate 

undershrub 7 r , ,. 

BB. Lvs. 2-3-pinnate: fls. dioecious; 'in ample 
panicles composed of slender spikes: 

AA. Pistils op S posi'te'to' the sepals,' 5.' S ' Aruncui - 

B. Petals roundish, imbricate in the bud- car- 
pels connate at the base: Ivs. pinnate or 
bipinnate: shrubs. 
c. Lvs. pinnate; Ifts. coarsely serrate . . . . 9 Sorbaria 

P ^ V ?' bl P mnatc : ""Sms. minute, entire 10. Cham a- 

BB. Petals strap-shaped, convolute in the bud- 
carpels distinct: Ivs. ternate: herbs 11. Gitlenia. 

2. Quillaja Tribe. 

n. Carpels free, spreading, star-like at maturity 
evergreen trees. 

B. Stamens 10 )9 r. . 

BB. Stamens 20. ' to" { *. utUa J a - . 

AA. Carpels connate into' a 'o-eeil'ed 'cap's'.:' 's't'a- ' 

mens 15-20: deciduous shrub 14. Exochorda. 

3. Holodiscus Tribe. 
Lvs. doubly serrate or slightly lobed 15. Holodiicua. 

4. Pome Tribe. 

A. Carpels bony at maturity: fr. hence with 1-5 

B. Pistils with 2 fertile ovules: Ivs. entire or 


c. Lvs.entire:spinelessshrubs:styles2-5. . . 16. Cotoneasier. 
sh C b re ' P erslsten ': usually spiny 

BB. Pistil, with onfyl fertile ovule:' Ivs. usually 17 ' Pvracantha - 

doubly serrate or lobed. 

c. Ovules 2, 1 fertile and 1 sterile: Ivs. sim- 
ple, often pinnately lobed. 

D. Number of carpels 5, 'wholly connate 

and covered at the top by the flesh of 
the fr.: fls. solitary, 2 in. across: Ivs 

entire or occasionally dentate 18. Mesmlus 

DD. Number of carpels 1-5, more or less dis- 
tinct at the ventral suture and free at 
the top : fls. 1 in. or less across, usually 
in corymbs: Ivs. often lobed... 19 Cratseaus 

cc. Ovule but 1; stones 5: Ivs. pinnate (the 
simple-Ivd. species belong to Hespeco- 
meles, which is not in cult.)... . 20 Osteomeles 

AA. Carpels with leathery or papery walls at 
maturity: fr. hence 1-S-celled, each cell with 
1 or 2, rarely many seeds. 
B. Fls. in compound corymbs. 

c. Styles 1-5, distinct or connate; carpels 

partly free. 

D. Fr. solid and pointed at the top; walls 
of cells leathery: Ivs. deciduous, sim- 
ple or pinnate. 

E. Sepals deciduous: Ivs. always simple, 
serrate with excurrent veins: styles 

23 21 \fifr f 

EE. Sepals persistent. 

F. Number of styles usually 2, rarely 3 
or 5, free or connate: Ivs. pin- 
nate or simple and serrate or 
lobed with excurrent veins 

deciduous. . 2 2. Sorbun. 

FF. Number of styles 3-5: Ivs. serrate 
to crenulate, with curving veins. 
G. Lvs. deciduous, with glands on 
the midrib above: styles 5, 
connate below: endocarp thin .23. Aronia 
GG. Lvs. evergreen, without glands 
on the midrib: styles 3-5: 
endocarp firm. .. 24 SVr>,>->a,v. 

DD. Fr. hollow and rounded at'the top, 
small, 1- or2-seeded ; walls usually pa- 
pery: styles usually 2: Ivs. simple, 
deciduous or evergreen with curving 

cc. Styles 5, distinct'; 'carpels wholly connate': ' '"" o> 
fr. pear-shaped, rather large, yellow 

Ivs. evergreen with excurrent veins 26. Eriobotrya. 

BB. Fls. in umbels, racemes or solitary, 
c. The carpels 4- to many-seeded 

D. Styles free: Ivs. entire 2 7. Cydonia. 

DD. Styles connate at the base: Ivs. serrate 
or serrulate. 

E. Ovules many in each cell: calyx gla- 

brous outside ' 28 Chxnomelea 

EE. Ovules 4-5 in each cell; calyx densely 

tomentose outside... 2 q /),.,,, 

cc. The carpels 1-2-seeded. 



i>. Cells of the ovary as many as styles, 

each with 2 ovules. 

E. Ovary 2-celled: fr. 1-2-seeded, 
black: fls. in upright racemes, 
sometimes panicled: Ivs. evergreen . 30. Raphiolepis. 
EE. (Wary 3-5-celled: fis. in umbels: Ivs. 

deciduous.. 31. Pyrus. 

DD. Cells of the ovary twice as many as 

styles, each with 1 ovule. 
E. Styles usually 5; fls. in racemes: Ivs. 

serrate, or crenate at the apex 32. Amelan- 

EE. Styles 2-3; fls. in few-fid, umbels; [c/u'er. 

calyx-tube cylindric: Ivs. entire or 

denticulate, narrow 33. Peraphnl- 


5. Kerria Tribe. 

A. Petals wanting; fls. in few-fld. corymbs: 

achenes 2-5, drupaceous 34. Neviusa. 

AA. Petals present; fls. solitary, large. 

B. Lvs. alternate: fls. 5-merous, yellow: 

achenes drupaceous, yellow 35. Kerria. 

BB. Lvs. opposite: fls. 4-merous, white: achenes 

dry, black 36. Rhodotypus. 

6. Potentilla Tribe. 

A. Style deciduous, 
a. Receptacle in fr. much enlarged, colored. 

c. Fls. white: receptacle pulpy, juicy 37. Fragaria. 

cc. Fls. yellow: receptacle dry 38. Duchesnea. 

BB. Receptacle not fleshy, even in fr. 
c. Pistils only 1-12. 

D. Stamens 5; petals minute 39. Sibbaldia. 

DD. Stamens numerous; petals conspicuous. 40. Waldsteinia. 
cc. Pistila very numerous. 

D. Petals white or yellow, obtuse or emar- 

ginate 41. Potentilla. 

DD. Petals purple, abruptly acuminate, 

much smaller than calyx 42. Comarum. 

AA. Style elongated after anthesis, often plumose. 
B. Fls. 5-merous: Ivs. pinnate or pinnatifid. 

c. Sepals yalvate; hypanthium flat: herbs. .43. Geum. 
cc. Sepals imbricate; hypanthium concave: 

D. Calyx with bracts outside 44. Fallugia. 

DD. Calyx without bracts 45. Cowania. 

BB. Fls. 8-9-merous: Ivs. undivided: prostrate 

undershrub 46. Dryas. 

7. Rubus Tribe. 

A. Drupelets pulpy 47. Rubus. 

AA. Drupelets nearly dry, inclosed by calyx 48. Dalibarda. 

8. Cercocarpus Tribe. 

A. Fls. apetalous; style elongated and plumose 

in fr.; hypanthium tubular 49. Cercocarpus. 

AA. Fla. with petals. 

B. Style with terminal stigma: Ivs. linear, 

needle-shaped 50. Adenostoma. 

BB. Style with decurrent stigma. 

c. Lvs. 3-fid at the apex: sepals imbricate: 

fr.inclqsed about half 51. Purshia. 

cc. Lvs. bipinnate: sepals valvate: fr. in- 

closea 52. Ckamxbatia. 

9. Ulmaria Tribe. 

Herbs with large pinnate Ivs. and large stipules 

and small white or pink fls. in large panicles. . ..53. Filipendula. 

10. Sanguisorba Tribe. 

A. Calyx with 5-6 bracelets or 10-12-cut in 2 
series or in Agrimonia with a setose limb. 

B. Petals 54. 

BB. Petals 4 or 5 55. 

AA. Calyx without bractlets; petals 0: Ivs. pinnate. 

B. Fls. axillary, solitary 56. 

BB. Fls. spicate or capitate. 

c. The calyx valvate; stamens 1-10, short; 

carpels 1-2 57. 

cc. The calyx imbricate. 

D. Fr. rarely rugose: fls. usually bisexual; 

carpel 1 ; stamens 4-12 58. 

DD. Fr. often rugose: fls. polygamo-dice- 
cious, rarely bisexual; carpels 2; 
stamens CD 59. 







11. Rose Tribe. 

A A. Sepals 5. 

B. Carpels solitary. 

c. Style terminal: lys. usually serrate: pith 

of branches solid 62. Prunua. 

cc. Style lateral: Ivs. entire: pith lamellate.. 63. Prinsepia. 
BB. Carpels 5: Ivs. entire 64. Osmaronia. 

13. Chrysobalanus Tribe. 

Anthers small, short, didymous; ovary 1-loculed, 
inserted in the base of the calyx-tube; stamens 

15 or more 65. Ckrysobal~ 

The genus Plagiospermum is also cultivated. 

/. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Plants are trees or shrubs. 

B. Lvs. opposite 1. HYDRANGEA TRIBE. 

BB. Lvs. alternate. 

c. Stipules absent: Ivs. often coria- 
ceous or glandular-serrate: sta- 
mens usually isomerous with 


cc. Stipules absent or adnate to petiole 
at base: fls. generally racemose; 
ovary 1-locular, 2-merous; seeds 

immersed in pulp 3. RISES TRIBE. 

AA. Plants are herbs. 

B. Fls. 4-merous 4. FHANCOA TRIBE. 

BB. Fls. generally 5-merous 5. SAXIFRAGE TRIBE. 

II. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Hydrangea Tribe. 

A. Ovary superior. 

B. Number of petals 4; stamens 10; filaments 

2-lobed; styles 3 1. Fendlera. 

BB. Number of petals 5 or 6. 

c. Ovules solitary: stamens 4-12; styles 3-5. 2. Whipplea. 
cc. Ovules 4 : stamens 15; carpels2, separate. . 3. Lyono- 
ccc. Ovules numerous. [thamnus. 

D. Petals 5, convolute: stamens 10; styles 

3-5 4. Jamesia. 

DD. Petals 5 or 6, imbricate: stamens nu- 
merous; style 1, with a 5-7-lobed 

stigma 5. Carpenteria. 

AA. Ovary inferior or semi-superior. 
B. Stamens 8, 10 or 12. 

c. Petals induplicate or imbricate: fr. cap- 

sular 6. Deutzia. 

cc. Petals valvate. 
D. Fr. a caps. 

E. Styles 4 or 5, free or connate at the 

base; petals 4 or 5 7. Hydrangea. 

EE. Style 1, with a 4-5-lobed stigma; 

petals 5 8. Schizo- 

DD. Fr. a berry: petals 5 or 6: styles 3-5, [phragma. 

club-shaped 9. Dichroa. 

BB. Stamens >. 

c. Petals induplicate, 7-10; style 1 10. Decumaria. 

cc. Petals imbricate; styles 1-5 11. Pkiladel- 

ccc. Petals valvate. [phua, 

D. Styles 2; petals 4 12. Platycrater. 

DD. Styles 3; petals 5 13. Cardiandra. 

2. Escallonia Tribe. 

A. Petals imbricate; style 1; ovary 2- or 3- 

loculed 14. Escallonia. 

AA. Petals valvate; styles divisible into 2; ovary 

2-loculed 15. Itea. 

3. Ribes Tribe. 
The only genus 16. Ribes. 

4. Francoa Tribe. 
Sepals and petals equal 

. 17. Francoa. 

The only genus 60. Rosa. 

12. Prunus Tribe. 

A. Sepals usually 10, small; petals often wanting 
or small; carpels in the staminate fl. 2, 1 in 
the fertile fl 61. Afaddcnia. 

5. Saxifrage Tribe. 

A. Ovary 1-loculed. 

B. Placentae basilar or nearly so 18. Tiarella. 

BB. Placentte parietal, opposite the stigmas 19. Pamassia. 

BBB. Placentae parietal, alternate with stigmas. 

c. Stamens 3 ; petals 5, capillary 20. Tolmiea, 

cc. Stamens 5-10. 

D. Caps, not beaked, superior: petals 5, 

3-cut or pinnatifid 21. MiteUa. 

DD. Caps. 2-beaked. 

E. Number of stamens 5; petals 5 or 0: 

caps, inferior 22. Heuchera. 



EE. Number of stamens 8 or 10: caps. 


F. Petals 0; stamens 8 or 10; fls. soli- 
tary 23. Chryaos- 

FF. Petals entire or lobed; stamens 10; [plenium. 

fls. racemose 24. Teliimc, 

AA. Ovary 2- or 3-loculed, the placentce in the axis 
of the f r. ; rarely composed of distinct carpels. 
B. Stamens 5. (See also BB.) 

c. Carpels united at base, adnate to hypan- 

thium 25. SuUivantia. 

cc. Carpels united and wholly adnate to 

hypanthium 26. Suksdorfia. 

ccc. Carpels 2, united at base, free from but 

included in the inflated hypanthium.. .27. Bolandra. 
BB. Stamens 10, rarely 8 (sometimes 5 in Boy- 

c. Sepals valvate. 

D. Petals 28. Rodgersia. 

DD. Petals 5, deciduous; stamens 5 or 10.. ..29. Boykinia. 
cc. Sepals imbricate. 

D. Styles erect; petals 5 or 0; stamens 8 

or 10 30. Astilbe. 

DD. Styles mostly recurved in fr. ; petals 5. . . 31. Saxifraga. 

The following genera also are treated: Abrophyllum, Anop- 
terus, Bauera, Deinanthe, Leptarrhena, and Tanakfea. 


A. Calyx valvate. 

B. Stamens hypogynous, very long 1. Acrophyl- 


BB. Stamens perigynous 2. Cerato- 

AA. Calyx imbricate, the lobes very short 3. Cunonia. 

EE. Calyx-tube urn-shaped, much longer 
t han ovary ; sepals and stamens 
5; fls. in long and slender racemes... 5. S\nowil~ 
BB. Petals as many as calyx-lobes. [s<m*o. 

c. Fls. borne in catkins, 5-merous. 

D. Shape of petals broad; stamens with 

long-filament ; disk present 6. Corylopsia. 

DD. Shape of petals subulate, as long as 

sepals; stamens nearly sessile ; disk 0. . 7. F&rtitnearia, 
cc. Fls. in clusters, 4-merous. 

D. Lvs. deciduous, crcnate: anthers ob- 
tuse, the locules opening with 1 valve. 8. Hamamelis* 
DD. Lvs. persistent, entire: anthers beaked, 

the locules opening with 2 valves 9. Loropeta- 

AA. Ovary-locules 2- or more-ovuled. {lum* 

B. Fls. unisexual ' 10. Liquidam- 

BB. Fls. bisexual. [bar. 

c. The fls. 5, in a head, surrounded by an in- 
volucre of which the outer bracts are 

small, the inner gradually larger 11. RhodoUia. 

cc. The fls. 2 together with very short bracts 

at the base 12. Disanthua. 


In cultivation Audouinin, 

(See article Diosma.; 


A. Stamens 1-2; calyx 3-4-lobed; ovary 1-loculed 1. Gunnera. 
A A. Stamens 2-8; calyx truncate or 4-toothed; 

ovary deeply 2- or 4-grooved 2. Myrioph t/l- 

AAA. Stamen 1; calyx truncate; ovary 1-loculed ... 3. Hippuris. 


The only genus Cephalotus. 


A. Stamens usually as many as the petals. 
B. Petals free or connate only at the base; 

floral parts in 5's 

BB. Petals usually connate to the middle or 


c. Calyx bell-shaped, as long as the corolla- 

cc. Calyx many times shorter than the co- 

AA. Stamens usually twice as many as the petals. 
B. Petals free or connate only at.the very base. 

c. Fls. usually 4~5-merous 

cc. Fls. 6-merous or more 

BB Petals usually connate to the middle or 

c. Calyx large, inflated shortly 4-fid 

1. Crassula. 

2. Gramman- 


3. Rochea. 

cc. Calyx 4-parted . 
ccc. Calyx 5-parted. 

4. Sedum. 

5. Semper- 


6. Bryophyl- 


7. KnlniK-litti . 

8. Cotyledon. 

The following are also described: Altamiranoa, Dudleya, 
Echeveria, Kitchingia, Lenophyllum, Oliveranthus, Pachyphytum, 
Stylophyllum, Tilhra, and Lrbinia. 


A. Stamens 4-8; styles 2-5; placenta parietal. . . . 1. Drosera. 
AA. Stamens about 15; style columnar; placenta: 

basal 2. Dionxa. 

AAA. Stamens 10-20; styles 5, filiform 3. Drosophyl- 



A. Ovary-locules 1-ovuled. 
B. Petals 0. 

C. Lvs. evergreen. 

D. Stamens 2-8, with long filaments; fls. in 

racemes 1. Distylium. 

DD. Stamens co , with short filaments; fls. in 
heads; calyx-tube in the pistillate fl. 

tubular 2. Sycopsic. 

cc. Lvs. deciduous. 

D. Number of stamens about 24; fls. in 

dense spikes 3. Fothergitla, 

DD. Number of stamens 5-7. 

E. Calyx-tube not urn-shaped; sepals 
and stamens 5-7 ; fls. in short 
head-like racemes 4. Parrotia. 


A. Anthers 8, subsessile 1. Rhizophora. 

A A. Anthers 15-30, on filaments 2. Cassipourea. 


A. Petals 0; calyx-tube not produced beyond 

ovary 1. Terminalia. 

AA. Petals 5 (0 in a few species of Combretum). 
B. Calyx-tube straight, constricted above 

c. Cotyledons convolute 2. Poivrea. 

cc. Cotyledons deeply furrowed or twisted 

and plaited 3. Combretum. 

BB. Calyx-tube produced to a great length be- 
yond the ovary 4. Quisqualis. 


A. Ovary 1-loculed 1. Thrypto- 

AA. Ovaiy 2- or more-loculed. [mene. 

B. Fr. a caps., which is loculicidally dehiscent 
at apex, rarely 1-2-seeded and sub- 

c. Anthers basifixed 2. Calotham- 

cc. Anthers versatile. [nus. 

D. Individual fls. pedicelled. 

E. Stamens 5-adelphous 3. Tristania. 

EE. Stamens free. 

F. Fls. in globose heads 4. Syncarpia. 

FF. Fls. in forking cymes 5. Metrosid- 

DD. Individual fls. not pedicelled. [ero*. 

E. Fls. solitary in the axils of the floral 

Ivs. or bracts. 
F. Stamens distinct, not longer than 

petals 6. Leptosper- 


FF. Stamens distinct, long-exscrted.. . . 7. Callistemon. 
FFF. Stamens united in clusters, long- 

exserted 8. Afelaleuca. 

EE. Fls, in cymose or umbellate heads. 

F. Petals distinct 9. Angophora. 

FF. Petals wanting (or adnate to the 

calyx-lid) 10. Eucalyptus, 

BB. Fr. a berry or rarely an indehiscent drupe: 

Ivs. opposite, punctate. 
c. Stamens straightish in the bud: seeds 

with endosperm 11. Feijoa, 

cc. Stamens inflexed or involute in the bud: 

seeds without endosperm. 
D. Calyx-limb closed in bud, deeply 

divided in anthesis 12. Psidium. 

DD. Calyx 4-5-lobed or -parted in the bud, 
not cut deeper in antheses. 



E. Ovules pendulous 13. Pimento. 

KE. Ovules not pendulous. 

F. Embryo thick and fleshy 14. Eugenia. 

FF. Embryo curved, circular or spiral. 
G. The ovary 2-3- rarely 4-loculed: 

ovules in each locule 15. .1/yr/u.*. 

GO. The ovary several-loculed by 
false septa; each ultimate lo- 
cule 1-ovuled 16. Rhodomyr- 


Other genera treated incidentally are: Backhousia, Barring- 
tonia, Beaufortia, Blepharocalyx, and Kuuzea. 


A. Fr. woody: calyx mostly imbricate. 

B. The fr. large and spherical, not opening. ... 1. Couroupita. 
BB. The fr. opening by a lid. 

c. Style elongated 2. Bertholletia. 

cc. Style short 3. Lecythis. 

AA. Fr. fibrous: calyx subvalvate or imbricate. 

B. Petals 6-8 l.Japtirandiba. 

BB. Petals 4 (rarely 5) 5. Barring- 

AAA. Fr. fleshy: calyx mostly valvate or entire. [tonia. 

B. Ovary 4-loculed 6. Gria*. 

BB. Ovary 5-Ioculed 7. \apoleona. 

/. Summary of Tribes. 

Excluding five tribes not represented in this work, and following 
Cogniaux in D. C. Monog. Phaner. vol. 7 (1891). 

A. Fr. capsular (rapturing regularly in 

Melastoma): stamens usually un- 

B. Caps, and ovary 3-o-angled or 
winged, much dilated and hollowed 
out at apex. 
c. Ovary-cells as many as petals ..... 1. SONERILA TRIBE. 

cc. Ovary 3-locuIed: petals 5, rarely 4. 2. BEBTOLONIA 
BB. Caps, and ovary terete or angular, [TRIBE. 

convex or conical at the top. 
c. Connective rarely produced below 
the locules, usually with poste- 
rior spur or appendage ......... 3. RHEXIA TRIBE. 

cc. Connective usually elongated at 
the base, produced beyond the 
insertion of the filament into an 
appendage or wing on the ante- 
rior side. 

D. Seeds shaped like a snail-shell. 
E. Ovary generally partly or 
wholly inferior: sepals 
usually alternating with 
long, stellate hairs ........ 4. OSBECKIA TRIBE. 

EE. Ovary generally superior; no 

stellate hairs ............. 5. TIBOUCHINA TRIBE. 

DD. Seeds oblong or ovoid ......... 6. MICROLICIA TRIBE. 

AA. Fr. berry-like or leathery, rupturing 

irregularly: stamens generally equal. 
B. Lvs. not finely striate between the 

primary nerves. 
c. Connective usually appendaged or 

spurred on the posterior side. ... 7. DISSOCH.KTA 

cc. Connective rarely produced at the (TRIBE. 

base, usually not appendaged. . . 8. MICONIA TRIBE. 
BB. Lvs. finely striate between primary 
nerves with very numerous trans- 
verse nervelets .................. 9. BLAKE A TRIBE. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Sonerila Tribe. 

A. Fls. 5-merous; stamens equal; connective with 

a posterior spur but no anterior appendage... 1. Graiesia. 
AA. Fls. mostly 3-merous; stamens unequal, those 

opposite petals smaller ................... 2. Sonerila. 

AAA. Fla. mostly 4-merous; stamens equal; con- 

nective not produced .................... 3. Phyllaa- 

2. Bertolonia Tribe. 

A. The connective not appendaged on the an- 

terior side. 
B. Connective tuberculate on the posterior 

side at the base ....................... 4. Bertolonia. 

BB. Connective with a short posterior spur and 

a long ascending appendage ............. 5. Salpinga, 

AA. The connective with a spur on the anterior side 

and a tubercle on the posterior side ......... 6. Monolena, 

3. Rhexia Tribe. 

Stamens equal or subequal: ovary glabrous. 

7. Rhexia. 

4. Osbeckia Tribe. 

Stamens unequal; connective of the larger ones 
long-produced at base: fr. baccate: fls. not 
involucrate 8. Mdaatoma. 

5. Tibouchina Tribe. 

A. Stamens unequal: ovary 2-4-celled, usually 
glabrous ; petals not acute ; connective of 
larger stamens with a long, club-shaped, 

2-fid appendage 9. Ueeria. 

AA. Stamens equal: ovary setose at apex; connec- 
tive with 2 lobes or tubercles on the anterior 
side, and no posterior appendage 10. Tibouchina. 

6. Microlicia Tribe. 

Stamens unequal; anthers short, not beaked; 

calyx-lobes shorter than tube 11. Centradenia. 

7. Dissochaeta Tribe. 

Stamens equal or nearly so; fls. mostly 4-5- 

merous 12. Medinilla. 

8. Miconia Tribe. 
A. Infl. terminal. 

B. Lvs. provided with 2-lobed bladders at base. 13. Tococa. 
BB. Lvs. not provided with bladders: outer 

calyx -lobes none or inconspicuous 14. Tamonea. 

AA. Infl. lateral or axillary; petals obtuse; con- 
nective not produced at base 15. Clidemia. 

9. Blakea Tribe. 

The plants described as Amaraboya are now 

referred to the genus Blakea 16. Blakea. 

Calvoa, Dissotis, Kendrickia, and Osbeckia are also cultivated. 


A. Hypanthium tubular, curved or gibbous at 

base 1. Cuphea. 

AA. Hypanthium straight. 

B. Caps, and ovary all included in hypanthium. 

c. Petals 5, rarely 4; stamens 8-10 2. Decodon. 

cc. Petals 6 ; stamens mostly 6 or 12 3. Ly thrum. 

BB. Caps, not all included in hypanthium. 

c. The sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 8 4. Lawsonia. 

cc. The sepals 6;petals 6; stamens numerous. 5. Lagerxtrce- 


86. PUNICACE-ffi. 

The only genus Punica. 


A. Ovary 1-4-celled; cells 1-ovuled, rarely 2-4- 
ovuled: fr. nut-like, 1-4-celled, 1 4-seeded. 

B. Fls. 2-merous; ovary 1-2-celled 1. Circtea. 

BB. Fls. 3-4-merous; ovary 4-celled, rarely 

3-ceIled 2. Gaura. 

AA. Ovary 2-6-celled; cells many-ovuled: fr. a 
caps, (in Fuchsia a berry). 

B. Stamens 1 or 2 3. Lopezia. 

BB. Stamens 4-8, rarely 3. 
c. Seeds bearded. 

D. Hypanthium broadened out above 

ovary into a funnel-shaped tube. ... 4. Zauschneria. 
DD. Hypanthium hardly produced beyond 

ovary 5. Epilobium. 

cc. Seeds not bearded or winged. 

D. Hypanthium usually long-produced 
beyond ovary (except in some (Eno- 

E. Number of stamens 4 6. Eucharid- 

EE. Number of stamens 8. . [ium 

F. Fr. a caps 7. (Enothera. 

FF. Fr. a berry 8. Fuchsia. 

DD. Hypanthium not or hardly produced 
beyond ovary. 

E. Caps, loeulicidal 9. Clarkia. 

EE. Caps, septicidal. 

F. Stamens 8-12 10. .timsieua. 

FF. Stamens 3-<i 11. Luduriffia. 

The only genus Trapa. 




A. Petals hooded. 

B. Caps. 3-5-yalved at apex, rarely twisted. ... 1. Loasa. 
BB. Caps, longitudinally 5-10-valved, usually 

twisted apirally 2. Blumen- 

BBB. Caps, narrow, straight, longitudinally 5- [backia. 

valved 3. Scyphanthus, 

A A. Petals not hooded. 

B. Seeds very numerous, arranged in many 

eeries 4. Euenide. 

BB. Seeds few or, if numerous, arranged in 2 

series 5. Mentzelia. 


A. Hypanthium long; petals and stamens 5 1. Tacsonia. 

AA. Hypanthium short; petals 4-5, rarely 0; 

stamens 4-5 2. Passiflora. 

AAA. Hypanthium medium or short; fls. unisexual. 3. Modecca. 


In cultivation Carica. 

/. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Series 1. Ovules horizontal 1. CUCURBITA TRIBE, 

AA. Series 2. Ovules erect or ascending, 
rarely horizontal 

B. Fr. ruptures elastically 2. CYCLANTHERA 


BB. Fr. does not rupture elastically 3. ABOBRA TRIBE. 

AAA. Series 3. Ovules pendulous 4. SICYOS TRIBE. 

77. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Cucurbita Tribe. 

A. Anther-cella straight, rarely curved, not 

flexuous 1. Melothria. 

AA. Anther-cells flexuous or conduplicate. 

B. Corolla bell-shaped, 5-lobed to the middle 
or a little below. 

c. Anthers free 2. Sicana. 

cc. Anthers coherent. 

D. Filaments connate 3. Cocdnia. 

DD. Filaments free 4. Cucurbita. 

BB. Corolla rotate and 5-petaled or bell-shaped 

and 5-parted to the base, 
c. Petals fimbriate or tendril-bearing. 

D. Seeds large, fibrous 5. Telfairea. 

DD. Seeds small, not fibrous 6. Trickoaan- 

cc. Petals entire. [thes. 

D. Hypanthium of male fls. long; anthers 
coherent in an oblong head, usually 
E. Pistillodes in male fls. 1-3, subulate 

or setiform 7. Gymnopeta- 

EE. Pistillode absent or reduced to a [him. 


F. Anthers coherent 8. Peponia. 

FF. Anthers free 9. Lagenaria. 

DD. Hypanthium of male fls. short; anthers 
free or slightly coherent, usually ex- 
B. Stamens inserted in the mouth of the 


F. Scales in bottom of hypanthium . . 10. Thladiantha. 
FF. Scales in bottom of hypanthium 

2-3 11. Momardica. 

EE. Stamens inserted in hypanthium. 
F. Male fls. in racemes. 

G. Fr. dry, fibrous, dehiscent by 

lid at top 12. Luffa. 

GG. Fr. fleshy, not fibrous. 

H. Female fls. solitary 13. Ecballium. 

HH. Female fls. racemose or clus- 
tered 14. Bryonia. 

FF. Male fls. solitary or fascicled. 

G. Sepals somewhat leafy, ser- 
rate, reflexed 15. Benincasa. 

GG. Sepals awl-shaped, entire, erect. 
H. Pollen minutely muricate; pis- 

tillode 16. Bryonopsie. 

HH. Pollen smooth; pistillode re- 
duced to a small gland. 
i. Tendrils not branched: con- 
nective usually produced 
upward beyond locule. . . 17. Cucumis. 
u. Tendrils 2-3-fid: connec- 
tive not produced 18. Citrullus. 

2. Cyclanthera Tribe. 

A. Fr. oblique, gibbous, rupturing cla-stically 19. Cyclanthera. 

AA. Fr. not gibbous, opening by 1 or 2 pores at the 

top or by irregular rupture 20. Echirmrystis. 

(Incl. Megnrrhiza.) 

3. Abobra Tribe. 

Anther-cells flexuous; stamens free 21. Abobra. 

4. Sicyos Tribe. 

Fls. 5-merous, monoecious: fr. fleshy 22. Sechium. 

The genera Actinostemrna, Gurania, Herpetospermum, Hodg- 
sonia and Sicyos are sometimes cultivated. 


A, Ovary wholly inferior. 

B. Petals all free 1. Begonia. 

BB. Petals of pistillate fl. grown together 2. Si/mbeg{fi. 

AA. Ovary partly superior S.HiUebrandm. 

94. CACTACE^. 

A. Fl.-tube wanting. 

B. Lvs. large and persistent. 

c. Seeds black and shining 1. Pereskia. 

cc. Seeds white, dull and covered with hairs. 2. Pereskiopsis. 
BB. Lvs. wanting or minute and caducous. 
c. Plant epiphytic, spineless: fls. small. 

D. Flowering joints bottle-shaped 3. Hariola. 

DD. Flowering joints not bottle-shaped. ... 4. Khipsalis. 
cc. Plant not epiphytic, usually very spiny: 

fls. large. 
D. Petals spreading; filaments much 

shorter than the petals 5. Opuntia. 

DD. Petals erect and closely surrounding 
the stamens; filaments longer than 

the petals 6. \opalea. 

AA. Fl.-tube present, often much elongated. 

B. Plants epiphytic or nearly so, either flat or 
3-angled, usually spineless and always 
with spineless fr. 

c. Sts. 3-angled, bearing small spines at the 
areoles: ovary and fr. bearing large 

bracts 7. Hylocereus. 

cc. Sts. normally flat, spineless: ovary and 

fr. bearing only minute bracts. 
D. The sts. weak, divided into many short 

E. Fls. irregular 8. Zygocactus. 

EE. Fls. regular 9. Schlum- 

DD. The sts. stouter than the last, with [bergera. 

elongated joints. 

E. Fl.-tube very short or nearly wanting. 10. Disocactua. 
EE. Fl.-tube very definite, often much 

p. Fls. small, diurnal 11. Wittia. 

FF. Fls. large, nocturnal 12. Epiphyllum. 

BB. Plants not epiphytic, never flat, with several 

to many ribs. 

c. Sts. globular or cylindrical, not jointed. 
D. Plant-body covered with more or less 

definite tubercles: fr. naked. 

E. The plant terminated by a cephaliuml3. Cactus. 
EE. The plant without a terminal ceph- 


F. Without spines except in the seed- 
G. Plant tumid, without woody 

tubercles. 14. Lophophora. 

GG. Plant with dry prominent 

woody tubercles 15. Ariocarpus. 

FF. With spines on the tubercles. 

G. Tubercles terete or angled, with 

various kinds of spines 16. Afatnmillaria. 

GO. Tubercles flattened, with pec- 
tinate spines 17. Pelecyphora. 

DD. Plant-body covered with more or less 
definite ribs: fr. scaly. 

E. Tubercles elongated, finger-like 18. Leuchten- 

EE. Tubercles, if present, always low. \bergia, 

F. Top of plant naked or nearly so. . 19. Echinocac- 


FF. Top of plant very woolly 20. Malacocar- 

cc. Sts, often tall, cylindrical, more-or-less [pus. 

branched, erect or climbing, sometimes 
low and then always with spiny fr. 
D. Flowering plants taking on various 
forms like a cephalium, long hairs or 
wool, peculiar bristles or spines from 
near the top. 

E. Ribs of sts. 4-7 21. Lophocereus. 

EE. Ribs of sts. many. 



F. Fla. diurnal; flowering areoles 

with acicular spines, but no wool. 22. Carne g\ea. 
PP. Fls. nocturnal; wool or hairs usu- 
ally produced in abundance with 
the fls. 

a. Ovary and fr. nearly smooth, 
the few minute bracts with no 

hairs in their axils 23. Cephalo- 

GG. Ovary and fr. covered with [cereus. 

bracts with long hairs in their 

axils 24. Oreocerftts. 

DD. Flowering plants not different from the 

sterile plants. 
E. Plants tall erect trees. 

F. Fl., after withering, dropping from 

the ovary 25. Cereus. 

FF. Fl., after withering, persisting on 

the ovary. 

o. Fr. and fls. minute, often several 
coming from each flowering 

areole 26. Myrtilln- 

GG. Fr. and fls. medium^sized or [cactus. 

larger, only 1 coming from 
each flowering areole. 
H. Ovary and fr. covered with 

thin scales, but no fls 27. Escontria. 

HH. Ovary and fr. spiny but not 
bearing large chartaceous 

i. The fr. edible, juicy 28. Lemaireo- 


n. The fr. dry 29. Packycereus. 

EE. Plants low, often vines; or, if at first 
elongated and erect, finally becom- 
ing procumbent or clambering. 
F. Fls. nocturnal. 

o. Fr. smooth, yellow 30. Harrisia. 

oa. Fr. spiny, red. 

H. Sts. producing an abundance 

of aerial roots 31. SeUnicercus. 

HH. Sts. not producing an abund- 
ance of aerial roots. 

i. Ribs usually 3 32. Acantho- 


ii. Ribs 10 or more 33. Nyctocfreus. 

FF. Fls. diurnal. 

o. The fls. irregular, narrow. 

H. Sts. slender, weak 34. Aporocaclus. 

HH. Sts. stout, at first erect. 

I. Fr. spiny, with red pulp. . . .35. Rathbunia. 
ii. Fr. not spiny, with white 

pulp 36. Cleistocactus. 

GO. The fls. regular. 

H. Fl.-tube much elongated: 
spines on the ovary reduced 

to stiff bristles 37. Bchinopsis. 

HH. Fl.-tube short, at least never 

much elongated, 
i. Plants producing a cluster 

of tubers 38. Wilcoxia. 

n. Plants without tubers. 

j. Usually stout but low, 
sometimes procumbent: 

stigmas green 39. Echinoce- 

Jj. Viny; stigmas not green. [reua. 

K. Fls. small, yellow 40. Bergero- 

KK. Fls. large, red or [cactus. 

white 41. Heliocereus. 

Epiphyllanthus and Pterocactus are described. 

95. AIZOACE^. 

A. Petals numerous: caps. 5- or more valved 1. Mesembry- 


A A. Petals 0: drupe 3-8^toned 2. Tetragonia. 

AAA. Petals 5-oo ; caps, circumscissile 3. Sesurium. 


Key condensed from Coulter & Rose's "Monograph of North 
American Umbelliferie." Not arranged in sequence of relationship. 

A. Fla. in dense heads 1. Eryni/ium. 

AA. Fls. not in heads, evidently umbellate. 
B. Fr. conspicuously bristly. 

c. The fr. covered with spines or hooked 

bristles 2. Sanicufa. 

cc. The fr. with bristles only on the ribs 3. />aucu. 

BE. Fr. not bristly (except Osmorhiza and 

c. Oil-tubes obsolete or obscure. 

D. The fr. strongly flattened laterally: Ivs. 

simple 4. Ilydrocotyle. 

DO. The fr. not strongly flattened. 
K. Seed-face concave. 
>. Stylopodium conical. 

a. At base, fr. attenuate 5. Osmorhiza. 

GO. At base, fr. rounded. 

H. Ribs slender 6. Scand ix. 

HH. Ribs broad, 3-angled, or al- 
most wing-like 7. Myrrhit. 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

G. Lvs. simple and perfoliate 8. liupleurum. 

GG. Lvs. large and decompound 9. Ctmium. 

EE. Seed-face plane 10. &gopodium. 

cc. Oil-tubes distinct. 

D. Dorsally the fr. strongly flattened, with 
lateral ribs more or less prominently 
winged (see Musineon). 
E. The oil-tubes solitary in the intervals 

between the ribs, rarely 2. 
F. Stylopodium conical. 

G. Slender and glabrous plants. . . .11. Oxypolis. 
GG. Stout and pubescent, at least 

in the umbel 12. Heracleum* 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

G. Plants caulescent and branching. 
H. Color of fls. white. 

i. Lvs. pinnately dissected; 
dorsal ribs filiform: plant 

slender 13. Anethum. 

n. Lvs. ternately or pinnately (See Dill.) 

decompound: dorsal ribs 
prominent but slender : 

plant stout 14. Angelica. 

in. Lvs. pinnately decom- 
pound ; dorsal ribs winged: 
plant stout. 15. Selinum. 

HH. Color of fls. yellow 

I. Dorsal ribs prominent 16. Levisticum. 

ii. Dorsal ribs filiform 17. Pastinaca. 

GG. Plan tsacaulescent or nearly so. .18. Lomatium. 
EE. The oil-tubes more than 1 in the inter- 
vals, usually several. 
F. Plants caulescent or nearly so: 

fls. yellow or white 18, Lomatium. 

FF. Plants caulescent and branching. 

a. Fr. winged: fls. white 19. Archangel- 

GG. Fr. not winged : fls. yellow 20. Ferula, [tea. 

DD. Dorsally the fr. not strongly flattened, 
usually more or less laterally flat- 

E. The oil-tubes solitary in the inter- 
vals between the ribs. 
F. Stylopodium conical: Ifts. linear or 

G. Involucre wanting. 

H. Fls. white 21. Coriandrum. 

HH. Fls. yellow 22. Foeniculum. 

GG. Involucre present. 

H. Fls. rose-color: fr. bristly 23. Cuminum. 

HH. Fls. white: fr. smooth 24. Carum. 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

G. Fls. white 25. Apium. 

GG. Fls. yellow. (See article Celery.) 

H. Ribs equal, broad and corky . . 26. Petroseli- 
HH. Ribs winged or filiform. [num. 

i. The ribs conspicuously 

winged 27. Thaspium. 

ii. The ribs filiform 28. Zizia. 

EE. The oil-tubes more than 1 in the 

F. Stylopodium conical 29. Ligusticum. 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

G. Seed-face sulcate or decidedly 


H. Carpels flattened dorsally. . . .30. Musineon. 
HH. Carpels strongly flattened 

laterally 31. Erigenia. 

QG. Seed-face plane or but slightly 


H. Ribs all filiform: Ifts. entire. ..32. Txnidia. 
HH. Ribs corky at least the lateral. 
i. Lvs. simple and perfoliate: 
oil-tubes continuous 

about seed-cavity 8. Bupleurum. 

ii. Lvs. pinnate, usually ser- 
rate: oil-tubes 1-3 in the 
intervals 33. Stum. 

The following genera are also treated: Aciphylla, Arracacia, 
Astrantia, Chaerophyllum, Crithmum, Dorema, Hacquetia, Meum, 
Molopospermum, Peucedanum, Portenschlagia, and Seseli. 


A. Petals more or less imbricate, broadly affixed 

at base. 
B. Lvs. pinnate. 

c. Lfts, entire or indistinctly crenate: ovary 

2-celled: glabrous evergreen shrubs 1. Delarbrea. 

cc. Lfts. serrate: ovary 2-5-celled: herbs or 

small deciduous trees 2. Aralia. 

BB. Lvs. digitate, whorled: fls. in simple ter- 
minal umbels; styles 2-3, distinct in the 
fertile fls.: herbs 3. Panax. 


AA. Petals valvate. 

B. Pedicels jointed or tin. sessile: evergreen 
tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, 
c. Fls. pedieelleil. 

D. Lvs. 1-3-pinnate: ovary 1-10-celled; 

styles usually distinct 4. Polyacias. 

DD. Lvs. digitate or occasionally simple: 

styles 5, distinct 5. Pseudo- 

cc. Fls. sessile; ovary usually 5-celled, rarely [panax. 

1-4- or 6-1 2-celled; endosperm usually 
ruminate: Ivs. usually simple and lobed, 

rarely digitate G. Oreopanax. 

BB. Pedicels not jointed, 
c. Lvs. digitate. 

D. Anthers 4-celled; ovary 10-ceHed, styles 

distinct: evergreen 7. Dizygotheca. 

DD. Anthers 2-celled; styles usually con- 
E. Stipules wanting: Ivs. deciduous: 

ovary 2-5-celled 8. Acantho- 

EE. Stipules developed: Ivs. evergreen: [panax. 

ovary 5- to many-celled 9. Schefflera. 

CC. Lvs. simple, usually lobed. 

D. Fls. 4- or 8-12-merous: Ivs. palmately 

lobed, large. 
E. Styles, connate into a column: (Is. 

8-12-merous 10. Trevesia. 

EE. Styles distinct, 2: fls. 4-merous: Ivs. 

deciduous 11. Tetrapanax. 

DD. Fls. 5-merous, rarely 5-8-merous. 
E. With distinct styles. 

F. Shrub, evergreen, unarmed: styles 

5 12. Fatsia. 

FF. Shrub deciduous, prickly: styles 2. . 13. Eckino- 
EE. With connate styles. [panax. 

F. Habit climbing: endosperm rumi- 
nate: Ivs. simple, usually lobed, 

evergreen 14. Hedera. 

FF. Habit upright. 

G. Ovary 5-8-celled ; calyx indis- 
tinctly toothed : Ivs. usually 
entire, occasionally 2-5-lobed, 

evergreen 15. Gilibertia. 

GO. Ovary 2-celled; calyx with 5 
short teeth : Ivs. palmately 
lobed or digitate, deciduous. . . 8. 

Meryta and Tupidanthus are also in cultivation. 



The only genus Garrya. 


A. Ovary 1-celled; calyx minute ; petals usually 
5: pistillate and staminate fls. in distinct 

heads with small deciduous bracts 1. Nyssa. 

AA. Ovary 6-10-celled; perianth in staminate 
fls.; heads consisting of 1 pistillate II. and 
numerous staminate fls. with 2 or 3 very 
large white bracts at the base 2. Davidia. 


The only genus Alangium. 

101. CORNACE^E. 

A. Fls. bisexual, usually in cymes; petals short, 
valvate ; ovary 2-celfed : Ivs, usually 

opposite 1. Cornua. 

AA. Fls. unisexual. 

B. Lvs. opposite, evergreen: fls. in terminal 

panicles ; ovary 1-celled 2. Aucuba. 

BB. Lvs. alternate. 

c. Petals valvate, 4: fls. in few-fld. cymes on 

the upper surface of the Ivs 3. Helwingia. 

CO. Petals imbricate, 5: fls. in terminal 

racemes or panicles 4. Griselinia. 


A. Corolla rotate or nearly so; limb regular; 
style short, deeply 2-5-cut. 

B. Lvs. pinnately cut 1. Sambucits. 

BB. Lvs. simple 2. Viburnum, 

AA. Corolla tubular or bell-shaped; limb usually 
irregular; style long, usually with capitate 

B. Ovary 2-5-celled; all the cells 1-ovuled: 

herbs with rather small whorled fls 3. Triosteum. 

BB. Ovary 3^4-celled; 1 or 2 cells 1-ovuled, the 

others with numerous ovules. 
c. Fr. a berry, usutilly 2-scedcd: corolla 
campanula te or tubular -funnelform, 

nearly regular 4. Symphori- 

cc. Fr. a leathery achene. [carpoa. 
D. Achene inclosed between large peltate 
bracts : corolla camp anul ate- funnel- 
form, 2-lipped: ovary 4-celled 5. Dipelta. 

DD. Achene not inclosed between bracts: 
ovary 3-celled; corolla nearly or quite 

B. Ovary narrow; sepals 2-5, large, 
persistent; corolla tubular or cam- 
pan ulate-funnelform 6. Abelia. 

EE. Ovary subglobose; sepals 5, lanceo- 
late deciduous; corolla campanu- 
late-f unnelf orm : trailing under- 
shrub with the fls. in pairs on 

slender upright stalks 7. Linnaea. 

BBB. Ovary 2-8-celled, the cells with many 

ovulesorl cell empty. 
c. Fr. an achene or caps. 

D. Stamens 4: fls. in coalescent pairs 
inserted at unequal height ; ovary 
3-celled, often 1 ceil empty: fr. an 

achene 8. Kolkwitiia. 

DD. Stamens 5: fls. in cymes: fr. a 2-celled 

dehiscent caps 9. Diertilla. 

cc. Fr. a berry. 

D. Cells of ovary 2-3, rarely 4-5: fls. in 

pairs or whorls; calyx deciduous .... 10. Lonicern. 
DD. Cells of ovary 5-8: fls. in whorls; calyx 

persistent 11. Leycesteria. 

Alseuosmia is also briefly treated. 

103. RUBIACE.E. 
/. Summary of Tribes. 

Ignoring exceptions and omitting eight tribes not within the 
scope of this work. 

A. Number of ovules in each locule o. 
B. Fr. dry, capsular or 2-5-berried or 

c. Fls. compacted or confluent into a 

spherical head 1. NAUCLEA TRIBE. 

cc. Fls. not disposed in a spherical 

D. Seeds winged or appendaged, 

with endosperm: caps. 2-celled. 2. CINCHONA TRIBE. 
DD. Seeds not winged. 
E. Corolla valvate. 

F. The seeds with endosperm: 

caps. 2-celled 3. CONDAMINEA 

FF. The seeds minute: fr. inde- [TRIBE. 
hisccnt, 2-berried or cap- 
sular, 2-4-celled 4. HEDYOTIS TRIBE. 

EE. Corolla imbricate or convo- 
lute: caps. 2-celled; seeds 

with endosperm 5. RONDELETIA 

BB. Fr. fleshy, bursting irregularly or de- [TRIBE. 

hiscent at apex, or a drupe with 2 
or more stones, the stones many- 
c. Corolla valvate: seeds numerous, 

minute, angled 6. Muss .END A TRIBE. 

cc. Corolla imbricate or convolute: 
seeds numerous, minute, often 

angled 7. HAMELIA TRIBE. 

ccc. Corolla strictly convolute : seeds 
numerous or few, large and com- 
pressed or smaller and angled. ... 8. GARDENIA TRIBE. 
AA. Number of ovules in each locule 1. 
B. Radicles superior. 

c. Stamens inserted at base of corolla; 

corolla valvate or imbricate 9. CHIOCOCCA TRIBE. 

cc. Stamens inserted at throat of 

D. Corolla strictly convolute 10. ALBERTA TRIBE. 

DD. Corolla valvate 11. VANGUERIA TRIBE. 

BB. Radicles inferior. 

c. Corolla strictly convolute 12. IXORA TRIBE. 

cc. Corolla valvate. 

D, Ovules affixed to septum, rarely 
basilar, generally amphitro- 

pous: trees and shrubs 13. MORINDA TRIBK. 

DD. Ovules affixed to septum, am- 
phitropous or anatropous: 

herbs 14. GALIUM THIBE, 

ODD. Ovules basilar, erect, anatro- 


E. Stamens inserted * on the 
. throat of the corolla: fr. 
indehiscent : style entire 
or with short branches l.. PftTCKOTRIA THIBE. 



EE. Stamens inserted on the 
throat, rarely at base of 
corolla: fr. capsular or 2- 
berried: style-branches fili- 
form 16. P.EOKKI < TRIBE. 

EEE. Stamens inserted at base of 
corolla, rarely on throat: fr. 
berry-like or indehiscent: 
style entire or with long 

branches 17. ANTHOSPERMA 


//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Nauclea Tribe. 

Calyx-tubes confluent: fr. a globose, fleshy syn- 
carp: ovary 2-celled; ovules solitary, pendu- 
lous 1. Cephal- 


2. Cinchona Tribe. 

A. Corolla valvate. 
B. Placenta ascending from the base of the 

septum, or erect 2. Manettia. 

BB. Placentae adnate to the middle of the sep- 

c. Caps, septicidal 3. Cinchona.. 

cc. Caps, loculicidal 4. Bouvardia. 

AA. Corolla imbricate; stamens inserted in the 

B. Sepals never bract-like 5. Luculia. 

BB. One of the sepals in some fls. in each infl. 
developing into a large white persistent 

appendage 6. Emmenop- 

3. Condaminea Tribe. 

One calyx-lobe dilated into an ample colored 

blade 7. Piitckneya. 

4. Hedyotis Tribe. 

A. Calyx -lobes unequal: caps, loculicidal 8. Pentag. 

AA. Calyx-lobes equal: caps, loculicidal at the 

top 9. Houstonia. 

5. Rondeletia Tribe. 

Corolla imbricate, lobes equal or nearly so 10. Rondeletia. 

6. Musssenda Tribe. 

Infl. terminal, corymbose; ovary 1-2-eelled ; calyx- 
lobes 5, 1 dilated and colored. 11. Musssenda. 

7. Hamelia Tribe. 

A. Corolla 5-ribbed: berry 5-celled 12. Hamelia. 

AA. Corolla 4-5-lobed: berry 2-3-celled 13. Hoffmannia. 

8. Gardenia Tribe. 

A. Infl. usually terminal. 

B. Corolla-tube short 14. Burchettia. 

BB. Corolla-tube long. 

c. Calyx 5-toothed 15. PotOQUeria. 

cc. Calyx-lobes large and leafy 16. Lepinctinn. 

AA. Infl. usually axillary. 

B. Style has a spindle or club-shaped stigma, 

entire or 2-toothed. 
c. Seed-coat membranous. 

D. Calyx-limb various; ovary 2-celled 17. Randia. 

DD. Calyx-limb often tubular; ovary 1- 

celled 18. Gardenia. 

cc. Seed-coat fibrous or subfibrous. 

D. Corolla-tube long and slender 19. Oxyanthus. 

DD. Corolla-tube short. 

E. Calyx 5-parted 20. Milrio- 

EE. Calyx truncate or 5-toothed 21. Genipa. 

BB. Style-branches 2, distinct (except some- 
times in Kraussia). 

c. Throat of corolla bearded 22. Kraussia. 

cc. Throat of corolla glabrous 23. Tricalysia. 

9. Chiococca Tribe. 

Corolla valvate: infl. axillary, racemose; anthers 
dorsifixed; stigma club-shaped 24. Chiococca. 

10. Alberta Tribe. 

Infl. terminal; the 2-4 calyx-lobes dilated; 

anthers pilose on back 25. Alberta. 

11. Vangueria Tribe. 

A. Drupe 1-2-stoned 26. PUc/ronia. 

AA. Drupe 3-6-stoned 27. Vnnaaeria. 

12. Ixora Tribe. 

A. Fls. clustered in axils 28. Coffea. 

AA. Fls. in 2-3-forking corymbs. 

B. Style-branches 2, short, rarely connate: 1 vs. 

leathery 29. Ixora. 

BB. Style very far exserted, the slender spindle- 
shaped stigma usually long: Ivs. usually 
membranous 30. Pavetta. 

13. Morinda Tribe. 

A. Fls. confluent in heads, which are many-fld., 

solitary or umbellate 31. Morinda. 

AA. Fls. free; calyx-limb 4-5-fid; corolla villous at 
throat ; stigma club-shaped, 2-4-lobed : 

drupe 1-4-stoned: infl. axillary 32. Damna- 

14. Galium Tribe. 

A^ Corolla funnel-shaped or somewhat tubular. 
B. Fls. 4-merous, with or without bracts, but 

no bractlets; style-branches subequal 33. Asperula. 

BB. Fls. 4-5-merous, bracted and with 2 

bractlets; style-branches unequal 34. Crucianella. 

AA. Corolla rotate or rotate-campanulate. 

B. Fls. 5-merous 35. Rubia. 

BB. Fls. 4-merous 36. Galium. 

15. Psychotria Tribe. 

Infl. terminal; calyx usually 5-toothed; corolla 

5-lobed, rarely 4-lobed; tube usually short 37. Psychotria 

16. Paederia Tribe. 

A, Ovary 2-celled; stigma 2, capillary, twisted: 

f r. drupaceous : twining plant 38. Psederia. 

AA. Ovary 5-celled: fr. a caps.: small upright 

shrubs 39. Leptodermis. 

17. Anthosperma Tribe. 

A. Stamens inserted in throat; style-branches 4. ...40. Mitchella. 
AA. Stamens inserted at or near base of corolla. 

B. Fls. bisexual; style shortly 2-cut: shrub. . . .41. Serissa. 
BB. Fls. unisexual or bisexual; style 2-parted 
to the base or near it. 

c. Plants are creeping herbs 42. Nertera. 

cc. Pl&nts are shrubs or small trees 43. Coprosma. 

Other genera incidentally described are: Catesbcea, Cephaelia. 
Rxostemma, Fernelia, Guettarda, Oldenlandia, Plocama, and 


A. Stamens 4 1. Patrinia. 

AA. Stamens 1, rarely 2: corolla-tube spurred, the 

limb spreading 2. Centranthus . 

A A A. Stamens 2; corolla-tube spurred, the limb 

2-lipped 3. Fedia. 

AAAA. Stamens usually 3. 

B. Calyx-limb finally pappiform 4. Valeriana. 

BB. Calyx -limb various but not pappiform 5. Valerianella . 

105. DIPSACACE-ffi. 

A. Stigma terminal, straight: fls. densely 
crowded in the axils of the floral Ivs., form- 
ing whorls after the manner of the mint 

family 1. Morina. 

A A. Stigma oblique or lateral, rarely straightish: 

Ms. in terminal heads. 

B. Bracts of involucre generally herbaceous; 
chaff of receptacle rigidly awl-shaped- 
acuminate or spinescent ; corolla 4-fid 2. Dipaacus. 

BB. Bracts and chaff rigidly paleaceous, rarely 

sub-herbaceous; corolla 4-fid 3, Cephalaria. 

BBB. Bracts leafy, in about 2 series; chaff short, 
or very narrow or abortive; corolla 45- 
cut 4. Scabiosa. 


/. Summary ef Tribes. 

Series 1. TUBUUFLOR.E. Corollas tubular and regular in all 
the bisexual fls. 

A. Heads composed entirely of disk-fls., 
which are all perfect and never truly 

B. Style-branches awl-shaped, acute, 
minutely hairy: Ivs. generally al- 
ternate: anthers sagittate ;it Im-o.... 1. YF.HNONIA TRIBE. 



KB. Style-branches Bubterete, obtuse, 
covered with minute papilla;: Ivs. 
opposite or alternate: anthers sub- 
entire at base 2. EUPATORITM 

AA. Heads with all perfect or some imper- [TRIBE. 

feet fls., with or without rays and 
often yellow. 
B. Anthers tailed. 

c. Style-branches linear: heads with 

or without rays 3. INCLA TRIBE. 

cc. Style-branches united or short; 
heads without rays ; typically 
with spiny or scarious appen- 
daged, many-bracted involucre 

and fleshy receptacle 4. CTKARA TRIBE. 

BB. Anthers not conspicuously tailed. 
c. Style-branches in disk-fls. flattened 
out, and with a distinct though 
sometimes very short terminal 

appendage 5. ASTER TRIBE. 

cc. Style-branches not flattened out. 

NOTE. It is impossible to make a key to separate the follow- 
ing tribes from one another. Some of the important characters 
are italicized: 

Receptacle chaffy or rarely naked under 
the sterile disk-fls. : style-branches 
truncate or appendaged or the style of 
the sterile fls. undivided; pappus some- 
times absent but generally of 2-4 awns, 
which are slender or somewhat chaffy 
and with or without intermediate 
scales which are free or connate at base: 
Ivs. opposite, rarely alternate 6. HELIANTHCS 

Receptacle naked; style-branches truncate [TRIBE. 

or appendaged; pappus usually chaffy, 
rarely of awns or bristles, or absent: 
Ivs. opposite or alternate: intolucral 
bracts in 1 or B series, rarely 3-4, her- 
baceous or membranous: herbage often 
resinous-dotted 7. HELENIUM TRIBE. 

Receptacle chaffy or naked ; style- 
branches truncate; pappus when pres- 
ent crown-shaped, rarely of short chaff: 
Ivs. mostly alternate: involucral bracts 
in 2 or more series, dry or scarious at 

Receptacle usually naked; style-branches 
truncate or appendaged ; pappus 
usually of bristles: Ivs. mostly alternate: 
inner involucral bracts in 1 series, sub- 
equal, the outer ones small or wanting, or 
rarely all imbricate in numerous series. . 9. SENECIO TRIBE. 

Receptacle naked; style-branches trun- 
cate or the style of the sterile fls. un- 
divided ; pappus absent or wool-like: 
ITS. usually alternate or radical: involu- 
cral bracts in 1-2 series, subequal, nar- 

Receptacle naked, chaffy or alveolate; 
style-branches rounded at apex, obtuse 
or rarely truncate or the style of the 
sterile fls. undivided; pappus absent, or 
chaffy or crown-shaped : Ivs. radical 
or alternate: involucral bracts in an 
indefinite number of series, often scar- 
ious at apex or spinescent 11. ARCTOTIS TRIBE. 

Series 2. LABIATJEFLORVE. Corollas of 
all or only of the bisexual fls. bilabiate 12. MUTISIA TRIBE. 

Series 3. LIGULIFLOR.E. Corollas all 
ligulate and fls. bisexual: juice milky 13. CICHOHILM TRIBE. 

//. Artificial Key to the Composite Tribes. 

(Condensed from Engler & PrantL) 

A. Plants without milky juice: corolla of 
disk-fls. not ligulate (except some of 
the Mutisia Tribe, recognized by the 
peculiar style and caudate anthers). 
B. Style below its point of branching 
neither thickened nor with a ring 
of long sweeping hairs. 
c. Anthers not caudate. 

D. Style-branches awl-shaped, 
acute, minutely hairy outside 
and often on style below, stig- 
matose over the whole inner 


DD. Style-branches subterete, ob- 
tuse, covered with minute 
papilhe, .stigmatose in 2 lines 

near the base EUPATORIUM TRIBE. 

ODD. Style-branches flattened, with 
distinct though often short- 
terminal, usually short-hairy 
appendages, stigmatose in 2 

DDDD. Style-branches flattened, stig- 
matose in 2 lines, very diverse 
in form (i. e., truncate or ap- 
pendiculate, but with a dis- 
tinct tendency toward a ring 
of long sweeping hairs some- 
where above the fork (transi- 
tions frequent to the above 3 

E. Pappus not capillary, but 

composed of scales, plumose 

bristles, or strong awns, or 

crown-like or wanting. 

P. Involucral bracts without 

scarious margins, rarely 

with narrow membranous 

margins (in some genera 

which may be separated 

by strongly developed 

scaly pappus from the 

Anthemis Tribe). 

o. Chaff present HELIANTHUS THIBE. 

GO. Chaff absent HELENIUM TRIBE. 

FP. Involucral bracts scarious 
margined: pappus or 
reduced, sometimes uni- 
laterally developed ANTHEMIS TRIBE. 

BE. Pappus capillary, simple SENECIO TRIBE. 

DDDDD. Style-branches of the bisexual 

fls. (which are sterile) almost 

or quite wanting, rarely of 

normal size, not stigmatose. 

E. Plants more or less completely 

dioecious: chaff 0. 
F. Involucral bracts in 1 row, 
of equal length (often with 
tiny bracteoles at the 

base) Petasites. 

FF. Involucral bracts in many 

rows Baccharis. 

EE. Plants not dioecious: heads 

F. Chaff 0. 

a. Achene of female fls. 

with pappus of coarse 

or fine bristles or hairs, 

sometimes plumose. 

H. Involucral bracts in 

several rows 

Some members of ASTER TRIBE. 
HH. Involucral bracts in 1 
row, separate, with 
tiny bracteoles at 

base Tussilago. 

HHH. Involucral bracts in 1 

row, connate at base. Othonna and 
GG. Achene of female fls. with [Gamolepis. 

scaly pappus Gulierrezia. 

GGG. Achene of female fls. with 

no pappus. 
H. Lvs. opposite or 

radical Osteospermum. 

HH. Lvs. alternate 

Some members of CALENDULA TRIBE. 
FF. Chaff present. 

G. Involucre not scarious, 
nor woolly (see Milani- 
podinese and Ambro- 
sie of the Helianthus 

GG. Involucre scarious mar- 
gined ; inner bracts 

woolly Eriocephahis. 

cc. Anthers caudate. 

D. Style-branches awl-shaped, 
acute, minutely hairy outside 
and often on style below, stig- 
matose on whole inner face. . . 

DD. Style-branches otherwise. 

E. Limb of corolla of bisexual fls. 
5- (rarely 4- ) toothed or 
-lobed, rarely, in the Inula 
Tribe, slightly 2-lipped. 

F. Plants dioecious Antennaria. 

FF. Plants not dioecious. 

G. Heads with filiform fe- 
male marginal fls., or 

fls. all alike. Some members of INULA TRIBE. 
GG. Heads with fls. of 2 sexes: 
corolla of female fls. 
(marginal) ligulate, 
rarely tubular, with 
broad regular or 2- 
lipped limb. 

H. Pappus present 

Some members of INVLA TRIBE. 



EE. Limb of corolla of bisexual fls. 
regular and deeply 5-divided 

or 2-lipped MUTISIA TRIBE. 

BB. Style with sweeping hairs beginning 
at or below the point of forking, 
forming a ring; or style there thick- 
ened, or at least there different in 
color: style-branches often co- 
c. Head with female or neutral ligu- 

late ray-fls ARCTOTIS TRIBE. 

CC. Head of all bisexual fls. or with 
nonligulate neutral fls. or rarely 

with female ray-fls CYNAHA TRIBE. 

AA. Plants with milky juice: fis. in head 

all ligulate CICHORICM TKIBE. 

///. Regular Key to the Tribes. 
1. Vernonia Tribe. 

A. Genua anomalous with enlarged palmately 

quasiligulate outer corollas 1. Stokesia. 

AA. Genus normal with tubular 5-lobed corollas, . . 2. Vernonia. 

2. Eupatorium Tribe. 

A. Anthers truncate at apex, not appendaged: 
achenes 5-angled, secondary ribs not 

prominent 3. Piqueria. 

AA. Anthers appendaged. 

B. Achenes 5-ribbed, no secondary ribs visible. 
c. Pappus wholly of capillary bristles. 

D. Involucral bracts 4 4. Mikania. 

DD. Involucral bracts more than 4 5. Eupatorium. 

(Incl. Conoclinium.) 

cc. Pappus chaffy, awned, blunt or crown- 
shaped 6. Ageratum. 

BB. Achenes 10-ribbed (rarely . 7-8-ribbed), 

secondary ribs conspicuous. 
C. Involucral bracts not herbaceous, striate- 
nerved, conspicuously so when dry. 

D. Heads few-fld., corymbose 7. Adenostyles. 

DD. Heads always paniculate 8. Brickellia 

CC. Involucral bracts somewhat herbaceous 
or partly colored, inconspicuously stri- 
ate if at all. 

D. The outer bracts successively shorter. . . 9. Liatris. 
DD. The bracts nearly all equal in length. . . . 10. Trilisa. 

3. Inula Tribe. 

A. The fls. containing both stamens and pistil all 
sterile, only the unisexual fls. fertile; heads 
monoecious or dioecious. 
B. Pappus bristles, especially of fertile fla. f 

united at the base in a ring. 
C. Heads strictly dioecious, corymbose, 
rarely solitary ; sterile pappus club- 
shaped 11. Antennaria. 

cc. Heads containing 1 or both sexes, monoe- 
cious or dioecious, crowded in a small 
cluster or cyme surrounded by a long 

conspicuous woolly involucre 12. Leontopod- 

BB. Pappus bristles free: involucre rosette-like, [ium. 

very white-papery 13. 4aOjpMH*. 

AA. The fls. containing both stamens and style 

usually fertile. 
B. Heads with disk-fls. only. 

c. The heads compound; 1-fld. heads aggre- 
gated in an involucrate cluster, often 

with petaloid appendages 14. Afyrio- 

CC. The heads simple. [cephalus. 

D. Pappus 15. Hum- >:. 

DD. Pappus crown- or cup-shaped 16. Ammohium. 

DDD. Pappus bristly. 

E. Achenes not beaked. 

p. Bristles often plumose at base. ... 17. Helipterum. 
FF. Bristles smooth, scarious, barked 

or plumose at apex 18. Helichru- 


EE. Achenes beaked 19. Waitzia. 

BB. Heads composed of both ray- and disk-fls. 
c. Receptacle not chaffy. 

D. Stigmatic lines not confluent at apex. .20. Podol- pit. 

DD. Stigmatic lines fusing at apex 21. Inula. 

cc. Receptacle chaffy or bristly 22. Buphthnl- 


4. Cynara Tribe. 

A. Heads 1-fld., aggregated into larger involu- 
crate heads 23. Echinops. 

AA. Heads several-fld. 

B. Fr. with basal areole. 

C. The fr. woolly, not margined. 

D. Pappus scales pointed or terminated 

by a simple awn 24. Xeranthe- 


DD. Pappus-scales plumose 25. Carlina. 

cc. The fr. glabrous, marginal at summit. 
D. Receptacle bristly. 

E. Filaments glabrous: involucre bracts 

hooked 26. Arctium. 

EE. Filaments warty, hairy, or pectinate- 

F. The receptacle not fleshy. 

o. Pappus-bristles not plumose.. . .27. Carduus. 

GO. Pappus-bristles plumose 28. Cirsium. 

FF. The receptacle fleshy 29. Cynara. 

DD. Receptacle not bristly 30. Onopordon. 

BB. Fr. with oblique lateral areole. 
c. Heads not involucrate with Ivs. 

D. Involucral-bracts without appendages. 31. Serratula. 
DD. Involucral-bracts with dry, scarious or 

thorny appendages 32. Centaurea. 

cc. Heads surrounded by an involucre of 

thorny Ivs. 

D. Pappus simple, of bristles, scales or 0. . . 33. Carthamus. 
DD. Pappus of 2 unequally long rows of 

bristles 34. Cnicua. 

5. Aster Tribe. 

A. Heads dioecious and composed wholly of disk- 
fls 35. Bacchari*. 

AA. Heads not dioecious. 
B. Color of fls. yellow. 

c. Rays absent 36. Bigelutia. 

cc. Rays present. 

D. The pappus composed of long pales, 
which are sometimes reduced to a 

crown 37. Gutierrezia. 

DD. The pappus not as in D. 
E. Pappus-bristles few (4-8). 

F. Involucral bracts in 8 series, 

leathery or scarious at apex 38. Grindelia. 

FF. Involucral bracts in 2-3 series, 

scarious at margins 39. Pentachxta. 

EE. Pappus-bristles copious, in 2-8 series, 

sometimes few in ray-fls. 
F. Bristles of 2 kinds, the inner 
series capillary, outer very short 

and setulose orsquamellate 40. Chrysopsis, 

FF. Bristles mostly alike. 

G. Rays usually wanting 41. Linosyns. 

GG. Rays present. 

H. The bristles broad at base, 

aristate 42. Xanthisma. 

HH. The bristles capillary. 
i. Heads usually many-fld. 

j. Achenes many-nerved.. . .43. Aplopappu*. 

jj. Achenes few-nerved 44. Hazardia. 

ii. Heads usually few-fld. 

j. Bristles rudimentary, 

shorter than achene... .45. Brachychxta. 
jj. Bristles longer than 

achene 46. Solidago. 

BB. Color of ray fls. at least not yellow. 

c. The pappus 0, or forming a more-or-lesa 
conspicuous ring of short bristles or 
hairs, uniform in all fls. 

D. Bracts dry or scarious at margin 47. Brachycome, 

DD. Bracts herbaceous 48. BeUis. 

cc. The pappus composed of numerous bris- 
tles in 1 or more series, uniform in all fls. 
D. Involucre with outer bracts partly 
leafy, inner bracts membranous or 

scarious 49. CaUistephus. 

DD. Involucral bracts all nearly alike. 
E. Bracts in about 2 series. 

F. Achenes usually small 50. Erigeron. 

FF. Achenes larger, longer: pappus 

more copious 51. Vittadinia. 

EE. Bracts usually in several series, 
sometimes 2 series in Aster and 
F. Plants woody, resinous. 

o. Achenes cylindrical 52. Olearia. 

GO. Achenes compressed 53. Felicia. 

FF. Plant herbaceous. 

a. Involucral bracts coriaceoois . . . .54. Sericocar- 
GO. Involucral bracts membranous [pus. 

or herbaceous 55. Aster. 

ccc. The pappus anomalous or absent from the 


D. Pappus-bristles shortly plumose ; style- 
branches broad 56. Charieis. 

DD. Pappus-bristles in 1 series, unequal, 
rigid, thickened or dilated toward 

the base 57. Townsendia. 

DDD. Pappus of the ray composed of very 
short palese; disk-pappus of copious 

slender bristles in 1-2 series 58. Heteropap- 

DDDD. Pappus-bristles very short, usually [pus. 

accompanied by 2-4 awns not longer 
than the achene 59. Boltonia. 



6. Helianthus Tribe. 

Subtribe 1. MELAMPODIE-E. Rays pistillate; disk-fls. staminate: 
achenes usually with coriaceous or thicker pericarp: style mostly 
entire; receptacle chaffy throughout; pappus none. 

A. Involucre of the many-fld. heads broad; 
inner bracts concave, embracing and half 
inclosing the thick, turgid, obovoid achenes.. 60. Polymnia. 
AA. Involucre broad, of plane or barely concave 
bracts ; innermost subtending obcom- 
pressed achenes, but not inclosing nor em- 
bracing them. 
B. Rays, or rather their ovaries and achenes, 

in more than 1 series ................... 61. Silphium, 

BB. Rays and achenes in a single series. 

c. Heads nearly discoid or rays short ........ 62. Partkenium. 

cc. Heads conspicuously radiate, mostly of 

5 fertile and rather numerous sterile fls. . 63. Chrysogo- 


Subtribe 2. AMBHOISK.*;. Pistillate fls. apetalous, or with 
corolla reduced to a tube or ring around base of 2-parted style; 
staminate fls. with 4-5-lobed corolla; anthers slightly united or 
free; style abortive, hairy only at the somewhat enlarged and 
depressed summit. 

A. Herbs: heads of 2 kinds, the fertile with a 

bur-like involucre ....................... 64. Ambrosia. 

AA. Shrubs: heads all alike ..................... 65. Iva. 

Subtribe 3. ZINNIE^E. Rays pistillate; the tube absent or very 
short, persistent on achene and at length papery; disk-fU. 
bisexual, rarely sterile, subtended or embraced by chaffy bracts: 
Ivs. opposite. 

A. Receptacle flattish ....... . ................ 66. Sanvttalia. 

AA. Receptacle conical, cylindrical or elongated. 

B. Achenes, at least inner ones, 1-3-awned ..... 67. Zinnia. 

BB. Achenes without pappus ................. 68. Heliopsis. 

Subtribe 4. VERBESINE^E. Rays pistillate, or neutral, becom- 
ing papery and persistent; disk-fls. bisexual; anthers often blackish: 
achenes various, but those of disk never obcompressed : pappus 

A. Chaff of receptacle permanently investing 

achenes as an accessory covering ........... 69. Sclerocarpus. 

AA. Chaff of receptacle concave or complicate, 
loosely embracing or subtending the disk- 
achenes, mostly persistent. 

B. Rays sometimes absent. Certain species of.. 70. Spilanthes. 
BB. Rays usually present. 

c. Receptacle high, from conical to colum- 

nar or subulate, at least in fr. 
D. The rays, if present, pistillate ........ 70. Spilanthes. 

DO. The rays sterile. 

E. Color of rays rose or rose-purple. . . . 71. Echtnacea. 

EE. Color of rays yellow or partly brown- 

purple (sometimes wholly so). 
F. Achenes 4-angled, prismatic ...... 72. Rudbeckia. 

FF. Achenes short and broad, com- 

pressed ....................... 73. Lepachy/8. 

cc. Receptacle low, flat to convex, rarely be- 

coming conical. 

D. Achenes not winged nor very flat, when 
flattened not margined nor sharp- 
E. Rays pistillate .................... 74. Balsamor- 

EE. Rays sterile. [rhiza. 

F. Achenes pubescent .............. 75. Viguiera. 

FF. Achenes glabrous ................ 76. HelianthuR. 

DO. Achenes of the ray or margin often 
triquetrous, of the disk either flat- 
compressed and margined or thin- 
edged, or if turgid some of them 

E. Rays neutral. 

F. Pappus 0, or an awn or its 
rudiment answering to each 
margin of the wingless achene. ...77. Encelia. 

FF. Pappus of delicate squamelUe be- 
tween the 2 chaffy teeth or awns 
which surmount the 2 acute 
margins of the achene .......... 78. Helianthella. 

FFF. Pappus of 2 slender-subulate 
naked awns, at length divergent, 
sometimes with 2 or 3 inter- 
mediate awns ................. 79. Actinomeris 

EE. Rays pistillate, rarely neutral in 

V crbesina. 
r. Pappus of co distinct squamelUe.. . .80. Paacalia. 

FF. Pappus of dilated awns or 2 awn- 
like paleee on the angles of the 
achene, with 2 small intermediate 

Subtribe 5. COREOPSIDEVG. Rays pistillate or neutral; disk- 
fls. fertile; receptacle chaffy; chaff flat or hardly concave: achenes 
more or less dorsally compressed, often 2-awned. 

A. Involucral bracts distinct, the outer herbace- 
ous, inner somewhat like palese 83. (iuizotia. 

AA. Involucre double; inner bracts membran- 
ous, subequal, connate at base or often 
higher; outer bracts few and small or 

B. Plants are all climbers with pistillate rays, 
achenes much enlarging and sterile 

disk-fls. with individed style 84. ffidalyoa. 

BB. Plants not climbing: rays usually sterile, 
c. Style-branches with long hairy appen- 
dages 85. Dahlia. 

cc. Style-branches truncate, penicillate or 

with short appendages. 
o. Bracts of inner involucre united into a 

cup 86. Theles- 

DD. Bracts of involucre distinct, or united [perma. 

only at the common base. 
E. Achenes beaked, slender: rays purple 
or rose, in 1 species yellow; white 
vars. in cult. : awns mostly 

deciduous 87. Cosmos. 

EE. Achenes not beaked: rays yellow or 

F. Tube of disk-fl. without ring at top. 

Q. Lvs. or divisions entire 88. Coreopsis. 

QG. Lvs, or divisions serrate 89. Bidens. 

FF. Tube of disk-fls. with a ring near 

the top 90. Leptosyne. 

Subtribe 6. GALIXSOGE.E. Heads rayless and homogamous 
(inMarshallia). Pappus of distinct palete 91. Marshallia. 

Subtribe 7. MADIL.E. Rays pistillate, each subtended by an 
involucral bract which partly or completely incloses its achene; 
disk-fls with both stamens and styles, but some or all sterile: 
glandular, viscid and heavy-scented herbs. 

A. Achenes laterally compressed 92. Madia. 

AA. Achenes not laterally compressed 93. Layia, 

7. Helenium Tribe. 

A. Involucral bracts united nearly throughout 

into an oblong cup or tube 94. Tagetes. 

(See also Lasthenia.) 

A A. Involucral bracts hardly at all imbricated; 
when broad, nearly equal or in 1 series. 

B. Receptacle mostly high-conical, and acute, 
beset after the achenes have fallen 
projecting points (as if pedicels on wh 




FF. Pappus of 2 awns, sometimes 1-3 [ium, 

orO, and no intermediate squam- 

melUe ........................ 82. Verbesina. 

they were inserted). 
c. The involucre a single series of bracts 
connate by their edges into a 5-15- 

toothed green cup 95. Lasthenia. 

cc.The involucre of loose, distinct bracts 96. Bseria 

(Also Actinolepis coronaria. ) 
BB. Receptacle flat or convex, rarely obtusely 
conical: achenes from linear to obpyram- 
idal, rarely 5-angled. (See also BBS.) 
c. Herbage mostly woolly: involucral bracts 

erect, not membranous 97. Eriophyl- 

cc. Herbage usually not woolly. [Ium. 

D. Disk-fls. deeply 5-cleft: involucral 

bracts mostly appressed 98. Polypteria. 

DO. Disk-fls. with long and narrow throat 
and 5 short lobes or teeth. 

E. Heads solitary 99, Hidsea* 

EE. Heads paniculate or corymbose. 
F. Plants tomentose herbs, the Ivs. 


a. Involucral bracts free, narrow. .100. Chtenactia. 
GO. Involucral bracts connected at 

the base, broad and obtuse. . . . 101. BaHa. 
FF. Plants not tomentose, the Ivs. not 

dissected 102. Pericome. 

BBS. Receptacle from convex to oblong: achenes 
short, obpyramidal or top-shaped, 5-10- 
ribbecl or angled, mostly silky hairy : 
disk-fls. all fertile. 

c. The receptacle destitute of awn-like 
fimbrillfiD among the fls. 

D. Involucre erect or nearly so 103. Actinella. 

DD. Involucre spreading or soon reflexed. . . . 104. Helenium. 
cc. The receptacle beset with bristle-like or 
awl-shaped or rarely dentiform fimbrillffi 
among the fls 105. QaiUardia. 

8. Anthemis Tribe. 

A. Receptacle chaffy. , 

B. Heads usually discoid. 

c. Shrubs with small, closely clu.stered Ivs... 106. Erioceph- 
cc. Herbs, or sometimes slightly shrubby. [a Jus. 

o. Corolla with a hood-like appendage at 

base 107. Santolina. 

DD. Corolla without such appendage 108. Lonas. 



BB. Heads usually radiate. 

c. Achene compressed, with 2 narrow mar- 
gins 109. AchiUea. 

cc. Achenes 4-5-cornered or co -ribbed. 

D. The heads ped uncled at tips of branches. 110. Anthemis. 
DD. The heads sessile in forks, surrounded 

by 5-6 dissected floral Ivs Ill, Cladanthus. 

\A. Receptacle naked or alveolate-fimbrilliferous. 
B. Involucral bracts in many series. 

C. Rays present 112. Chrysan- 

(Consult also Pyrethrum.) 

cc. Rays absent 113. Tanacetum. 

BB. Involucral bracts in 1 or 2 or few series. 

c. Rays present . 114. Matricaria 

cc. Rays absent or inconspicuous. 

D. Involucre top-shaped 115. Cenia. 

DD. Involucre ovoid or broadly bell-shaped, llo. Artemisia. 

9. Senecio Tribe. 

A. Involucral bracts in 1 series and connate at the 
base or beyond the middle in a cup; no 
outer bracts; style-branches of the fertile 
bisexual fls. truncate at apex, usually peni- 

B. Style undivided; disk-fls. sterile 117. Othonna. 

BB. Style bifid; disk-fls. all or some fertile 118. Gamolepis. 

AA. Involucral bracts in 1 or 2 series, not connate 

in a cup but free, at least finally. 
B. Style-branches of hermaphrodite fertile fls. 
roundish obtuse or at least not truncate 
and wholly without appendage or hairi- 
ness at summit. 
c. Heads composed entirely of bisexual and 

fertile fls., homogamous, discoid 119. Cacaliop- 

cc. Heads submqnceeious or subdicecious, the [*w. 

fls. containing both stamens and pistils, 

D. The heads radiate, yellow 120. Tusailago. 

DD. The heads discoid, purplish or white. 
E. Style of hermaphrodite fls. undi- 
vided; heads several 121. Petasites. 

EE. Style branched; heads 2 122. Homooyne. 

BB. Style-branches (of hermaphrodite fls.) either 
truncate or capitellate at summit, which is 
either penicillate, hairy or naked and not 
rarely bears a short conical or flattened 
c. Bracts of involucre herbaceous, acuminate. 

D. Receptacle flat 123. Arnica. 

DD. Receptacle hemispherical 124. Doronicum. 

cc. Bracts of involucre narrow, strict, usu- 
ally ribbed or keeled. 
D. Apex of style usually truncate and 

E. Involucral bracts numerous. 

F. Achenes subterete 125. Senecio. 

FP. Achenes dorsally compressed 126. Cineraria. 

EE. Involucral bracts few, 4-5; heads 

homogamous 127. Tetrady- 

DD. Apex of style with long, subulate hairy [mia. 

appendages; heads homogamous 128. Gynura. 

ODD. Apex of style with appendages short 
and obtuse, or long and acutish ; 
heads homogamous 129. Emilia. 

10. Calendula Tribe. 

A. Achenes of the rays thick, hard and bony; 

those of the disk usually all empty 130. Osteos- 

AA. Achenes straight, those of the rays usually [perrnum. 

triquetrous; disk-achenes often flattish or 

2-winged 131. Dimorph- 

AAA. Achenes incurved, heteromorphous 132. Calendula. 

11. Arctotis Tribe. 

A. Involucral bracts free, the inner ones broadly 

scfirious, at least at the apex. 
B. Herbs glabrous or pubescent: receptacle 

chaffy 133. Ursinia. 

BB. Herbs : receptacle naked or 


c. Achenes usually villous, crowned by 
hyaline palese which are often con- 
volute 134. Arctotia. 

cc. Achenes glabrous, with or without a 

crown of minute paleolse 135. Venidium. 

AA. Involucral bracts grown together at the base: 

Ivs. not spinescent: alveoli short 136. Gazania. 

12. Mutisia Tribe. 

A. Raya in 1-2 series, 2-lipped 137. Gerbera. 

AA. Rays in 2-3 series, the outer always strap- 

-) i; ,ped 13K. Chaptalia. 





\ctKtr i. 



Scorzonera . 

13. Cichorium Tribe. 

A. Pappus 0, or of 2-3 long bristles, which soon 

fall away I'M. 

AA. Pappus paleaceous or partly so, or aristiform, 

or plumose. 
B. Involucre of equal bracts and no short caly- 

culate ones at base, 
c. Achenes long-beaked 140. 

cc. Achenes truncate 141. 

BB. Involucre either calyculate or imbricate, 

i. e., principal bracts equal and some 

short ones at base, or less unequal bracts 

in 2 or more series. 

c. Achenes (at least inner ones) tapering into 

a beak. 
D. Receptacle with membranous chaff 142. 

DD. Receptacle naked 143. 

cc. Achenes usually short, with summit trun- 
cate or only a trifle contracted below 

D. Receptacle chaffy 144. 

DD. Receptacle not chaffy. 

E. Fls. normally blue 145. 

EE. Fls. yellow 146. 

AAA. Pappus of capillary bristles that are scabrous, 
rarely barbellulate, never plumose nor palea- 
ceous-dilated : receptacle naked (except in 1 
species of Troximon). 

B. Achenes flattened: pappus of copious fine 
soft capillary bristles. 

c. The achenes distinctly beaked 147. Lactuca. 

cc. The achenes beakless 148. Sonchua. 

BB. Achenes not flattened: pappus persistent or 
bristles tardily falling (except 1 or 2 spe- 
cies of Crepis). 
C. Beak distinct and slender (except in 1 or 2 

species of Troximon). 
D. The achenes 10-ribbed or 10-nerved, 

not muricate 149. Troximon. 

DD. The achenes 4-5-ribbed or angled, mur- 
icate 150. Taraxa- 

cc. Beak 0, or achene merely narrow at apex. [cum. 

D. Fls. whitish or cream-color to violet or 

rose-red 151. Prenanthes. 

DD. Fls. mostly yellow, sometimes orange- 
red or white. 

E. Pappus of rather rigid, scabrous, fra- 
gile bristles which are usually 

rather dirty or neutral-colored 152. Hieracium 

EE. Pappus of copious white and usu- 
ally soft capillary bristles 153. Crepis. 

The following genera (and others) also are briefly treated: 
Amellus, Asterlinosyris, Bellium, Cacalia, Calimeris, Celmisia, 
ChamEemelum, Cotula, Cryptostemma, Erlangea, Euryops, 
Gymnolomia, Haplocarpha, Kuhnia, Leptocarpha, Montanoa, 
Oldenburgia, Pertya, Psilostrophe, Pteronia, Saussurea, Tithonia, 
Tolpis, Tricholepis, Wedelia and Zaluzania. 

107. CAMPANULACE-ffi. 

A. Fls. irregular, rarely nearly regular; anthers 


B. Corolla open down to the base on one side... . 1. Lobelia. 
BB. Corolla with a closed tube. 

c. Stamens in a tube free from the corolla .... 2. Downingia. 
cc. Stamens more or less adnate to the corolla 
up to near the throat, then monadel- 
phous and free or farther adnate on one 

side only 3. Palmerella. 

ccc. Stamens affixed at top of corolla-tube or 
above the middle: caps. 2-valved at 

apex 4. Isotoma. 

cccc. Stamens affixed at base of corolla-tube. 

D. Fr. an indehiscent berry 5. Centropogon, 

DD. Fr. a caps., 2-valved at apex 6. Siphocam- 

AA. Fls. regular or nearly so; anthers usually [pylu 

B. Fr. an indehiscent, fleshy berry. 

c. Ovary inferior 7. Canarirta. 

cc. Ovary superior as to calyx but not corolla. 8. Campan- 
BB. Fr. a caps. [umxa. 

c. Caps, dehiscing loculicidally by apical 

D. Corolla 5-parted nearly to base 9. Jasione. 

DD. Corolla broadly bell-shaped, 5-lobed.. . . 10. Platvcodon. 
ODD. Corolla narrowly (or not broadly) bell- 
shaped or tubular. 

E. Calyx-tube adnate, hemispherical. . ..11. Codonopsia. 
EE. Calyx-tube free, long-campanulate or 

inflated 12. Cyananthut. 

cc. Caps, closed at apex, dehiscing laterally 
between the ribs by small lids or small 
solitary valves. 
D. Corolla 5-cut-lobed, or -parted. 

E. Ovary linear or narrowly oblong 13. Specularia* 



EE. Ovary hemispherical or top-shaped. 

F. Anthers connate in a tube 14. Symphyan- 

FF. Anthers not connate in a tube. [dra. 
Q. Style girt at base by an epigyn- 
oua fleshy disk, which is cup- 
shaped or tubular 15. Adenophora. 

GO. Style without such disk. 

H. Corolla 5-parted to the base; 
lobes narrow, either long- 
cohering above or rotate- 
spreading 16. Phyteuma. 

HH. Corolla 5-cut shortly or to the 
middle, rarely farther, bell- 
shaped, tubular, funnel- 
shaped or subrotate 17. Campanula. 

DD. Corolla narrowly tubular, shortly 

3-cut at apex 18. Trachelium. 

ODD. Corolla usually 7-10-cut, rarely 5-cut. 
E. Number of lobes 5-9, usually 7; fls. 

bell-shaped 19. Ostrowskia. 

EE. Number of lobes 8-10, lobes narrow 

and spreading 20. Michauxia. 

Githopsis, Leptocodon and Lightfootia are also mentioned in the 


In cultivation . . Sarcodes. 

109. CLETHRACE.ffi. 

The only genus .............................. Clethra. 


A. Style very short, obconical: ats. leafy ........ 1. Chimapkila. 

A A. Style mostly elongated; scape naked or leafy 

only at base. 
B. Fls. solitary ............................ 2. Montses. 

BB. Fls. racemose ........................... 3. Pyrola. 

111. ERICACEAE (Inc. Vacciniacess). 

Subfamily 1. VACCINIEJE. 


Ovary inferior: fr. a berry or 

Subfamily 2. ERICINE&. Ovary superior: fr. a caps., except 
in Tribe 1 of Subfamily 2. 

Fr. fleshy, a berry or drupe .............. 1. ARBUTUS TRIBE. 

Fr. a loculicidal caps., chiefly 5-celled: 

corolla deciduous .................... 2. ANDROMEDATRIBE. 

Fr. a caps., with loculicidal or sometimes 

septicidal dehiscent and 4 or 5 cells: 

corolla marcescent peristent ........... 3. ERICA TRIBE. 

Fr. a septicidal caps.: corolla deciduous ... 4. RHODODENDRON 


Subfamily 1. VACCINIEJE. 

A. Corolla tubular or cylindric; filaments con- 

nate or free. 
B. Filaments connate or cohering; anthers pro- 

duced into a single long beak. 
c. Stamens shorter than corolla ............ 1. \facleania. 

cc. Stamens equaling or exceeding the corolla. 2. Thibaudia. 
BB. Filaments distinct; anthers ending in 2 long 

beaks ................................ 3. Agapftes. 

AA. Corolla campanulate, urceolate or rotate; 

filaments usually free. 
B. The ovary wholly inferior. 

c. Ovary 10-celled, 10-ovuled ............. 4. Gaylussacia. 

cc. Ovary 4-5-celled, or by false partitions 
from the back of these cells, 8-10-celled; 
ovules numerous .................... 5. Vactinium. 

BB. The ovary at first a third to half superior.. . . 6. Ckiogenes. 

Subfamily 2. ERICINEJE. 
1. Arbutus Tribe. 

A. The anthers have a pair of awns on the back. 
B. Ovary-cell many-ovuled .................. 7. Arbutus. 

BB. Ovary-cells 1-ovuled. 

c. Nutlets coalescent : 1 vs. persistent, entire.. 8. Arctos- 


cc. Nutlets distinct: Ivs. deciduous, serrate. . . 9. Arctous, 
AA. The anthers awnless on back ............... 10. Pernettya. 

2. Andromeda Tribe. 

A. Anther-cells opening through their whole 
length, not appendaged; stigma 5-Iobed, the 
lobes ad n ate to a surrounding ring or cup ..... 11. Epign-a. 

AA. Anthers opening only at the top; stigma usu- 
ally entire. 
B. Calyx becoming fleshy in fr., forming a 

berry and inclosing the small caps 12. Gtiultheria. 

BB. Calyx unchanged and dry under the caps. 
c. Sepals or calyx-lobes valvate or open in 

the bud, never overlapping. 
D. The anthers destitute of appendages 

or awns 13. Lyonia. 

DD. The anthers awned. 

E. The anthers short and obtuse, with 2 
pores topped by slender, ascending 

awns; corolla urn-shaped 14. Andromeda, 

EE. Anthers lanceolate, produced into 2 
small tubes, each surmounted by a 
pair of slender, ascending awns; 

corolla bell-shaped 15. Zenobia. 

EEE. Anthers with 2 spreading or defiexed 
awns or teeth, on the back of the 
filament or at its junction with the 

anther 16. Pieris. 

cc. Sepals or calyx-lobes imbricated, at least 

in the early bud. 

D, Lvs. heath-like, small, thick or needle- 
like, mostly overlapping: anther 

fixed near apex 17. Cassiope. 

DD. Lvs. not heath-like, usually larger, fiat, 

broad and leathery. 

E. Corolla cylindraceous to contcal- 
urceolate; anthers fixed near base. 

F. Seeds imbricated in 2 rows 18. Chamae- 

FF. Seeds pendulous or in all direc- [daphne. 

tions 19. Leucothoe. 

FFF. Seeds all ascending or erect 20. Oxyden- 

EE. Corolla bell-shaped or urn-shaped. . . .21. Enkianthus. 

3. Erica Tribe. 

A. Anthers 2-awned on back at base 22. Cattuna. 

AA. Anthers 2-parted, blunt or awned, usually 

cristate or lamellate at base 23. Erica. 

AAA. Anthers blunt on back, not cristate 24. Bntcken- 


4. Rhododendron Tribe. 

A. Corolla polypetalous or nearly so. 

B. Fls. in elongated racemes or panicles: Ivs. 

c. Petals 4; stamens 8 25. Elliottia. 

cc. Petals 3; stamens 6 26. Tripetaleia. 

BB. Fls. solitary; petals 5; stamens 10: Ivs. 

deciduous 27. Cladothnm- 

BBB. Fls. in umbel-like racemes; petals 5; stamens [nu*. 

5-10: Ivs. evergreen. 
c. Lvs. tomentose below: caps. 5-celled; 

seeds winged 28. Ledum. 

cc. Lvs. glabrous: caps. 2-3-celled; seeds 

angular 29. Leiophyllum. 

AA. Corolla gamopetalous. 

B. Seeds compressed, winged: corolla slightly 

irregular; stamens 5-10. 
c. Stamens usually cxserted; anthers open- 
ing by a round terminal pore; corolla 

rotate, campanulate or funnelfonn 30. Rfiododen- 

cc. Stamens included; anthers opening by an [dron. 

oblique pore ; corolla urceolate : Ivs. 

deciduous 31. Memiesia. 

BB. Seeds subglobose or trigonous, not winged: 

corolla regular. 
c. Stamens 10. 

D. The corolla cup-shaped with 10 pouches 
receiving the anthers; fls. in corymbs 

or solitary 32. Kalmia. 

DD. The corolla rotate; fls. terminal, 1-3: 

Ivs. oblong-elliptic, ciliate 33. Rhodo- 

DDD. The corolla urceolate or campanulate; [thamnus. 

fls. terminal, solitary or in umbels: 

Ivs. heath-like 34. Phyllodoce. 

cc. Stamens 5 or 8. 

D. Fls. 5-merous, in umbels, 2-5; corolla 
broadly funnelform: Ivs. elliptic, op- 
posite, smooth 35. Loiseleuria. 

DD. Fls. 4-merous: Ivs. alternate. 

E. Corolla rotate, 4-parted; fls. 2-10, in 

loose racemes: Ivs. heath-like 3G. Bryanthus. 

EE. Corolla campanulatc-urccolate with 
short 4-toothed limb; fls. in loose 
racemes: Ivs. tomentose below 37. Dabcetia. 

The genus Pentapterygmm is included in the work. 


Style inserted in the intruded vertex of the ovary; 
stamens epipetalous; anthers 1 -celled; corolla- 
lobes quincunciately imbricate; bracts numer- 
ous, passing into sepals Epacris. 

The recent genus Rupicola is also mentioned in the work. 




A. Corolla persistent; staminodes 0. 

B. Fla. sessile 1. Pyxidan- 


BB. Fla. pedunculate 2. Diapensia. 

AA. Corolla deciduous; staminodes 5. 

B. Staminodea small, scale-like, separate ; 

corolla-lobes crenate 3, Shortia, 

BB. Staminodes long, linear, separate; corolla- 
lobes fimbriate 4. Sckizocodon. 

BBS. Slaminodes spatulate, connate with sta- 
mens; corolla-segms. entire 5. Galax. 


A. Calyx-limb usually spreading, scarious and 

B. Lvs. usually needle-like: styles distinct at 

angles of ovary; stigmas sub-capitate. ... 1. Acantholi- 
BB. Lvs. flat: styles as above; stigmas capitate, [mon. 

oblong or linear; infl. cymose or dense or 

scape 1- to few-fid 2. Statice. 

BBS. Lvs. flat or linear-subulate: styles shortly 
subconnate at vertex of ovary; stigmas 

linear; scape 1-headed 3. Armeria. 

AA. Calyx-lobes or teeth erect with merely scarious 

B. Stamens free; calyx glandular 4. Plumbago. 

BB. Stamens adnate to middle of corolla; calyx 

not glandular 5. Cerato- 



A. Corolla-lobes imbricated in quincunx fashion. 
B. Plants aquatic: ovules anatrophous; um- 
bilicus basal 1. Hottoni*. 

BB. Plants terrestrial: ovules semi-anatropous; 
umbilicus ventral. 

c. Caps, dehisces by a lid at top 2. Soldanella. 

cc. Caps, dehisces by valves. 

D. The corolla-lobes bent back 3. Dodecatheon. 

DD. The corolla-lobes spreading or ascend- 
B. Stamens affixed to base of corolla; 

anthers long-acuminate 4. Cortusa. 

EE. Stamens affixed to corolla-tube; an- 
thers obtuse. 

F. Corolla-tube usually longer than 

o. Caps, many-seeded 5. Primula. 

QG. Caps. 1-2-seeded 6. Douglasia. 

FF. Corolla-tube as long as calyx or 
shorter: caps, few or many- 
seeded 7. Androsace. 

AA. Corolla-lobes convolute in the bud: ovules 
semi-anatropous; umbilicus ventral. 

B. Caps, circumscissile 8. Anagallis. 

BB. Caps, longitudinally dehiscent by valves. 

c. Lobes of corolla bent back 9. Cyclamen. 

cc. Lobes of corolla not bent back. 

D. Corolla-lobes 5H>: testa of seed with a 
firm epidermis. 

E. Staminodes 10. Lysimachia. 

EE. Staminodes 5, each corolla -lobe 

curved around its stamen 11. Steironema. 

EEE. Staminodes 5, tooth-like; corolla- 
lobes not encircling stamens 12. Naumbergia. 

DD. Corolla-lobes usually 7: testa of seed 

with a lax epidermis 13. Trientalis. 

The genus Glaux may be met with occasionally in cultivation. 


A. Staminodes 5; corolla gamopetalous. 
B. Corolla cylindrical, shortly 5-lobed: fr. many- 

'1 1. Theophrasta. 

BB. Corolla subrotate, deeply 5-parted: fr. 1- 

to many-seeded 2. Clavija. 

BBS. Corolla rotate-campanulate, deeply 5-cut: 

fr. few-seeded 3. Jacquinia. 

AA. Staminodes 0; corolla gamopetalous or poly- 

petalous: fr. 1 -seeded. 
B. Corolla imbricated; fls. fascicled, lateral or 

axillary 4. Myrsint. 

BB. Corolla convolute; panicles terminal or 

terminal and axillary 5. Ardisia. 

The genua M&sa is also accounted for. 


The only genus Symplocos. 


A. Fr. superior, globular or ovoid, not ribbed nor 

winged 1, Styrax. 

AA. Fr. inferior, elongated ribbed, or winged. 

B. Infl. panicled, many-fld., drooping, sub- 
terminal 2. Pterrostyrax. 

BB. Infl. of few-fld. fascicles, often lateral 3. HaUsia. 


A.. Corolla-lobes, calyx-segms. , stamens and 

staminodes {when present) isomeroua. 
B. Staminodes 0: seeds usually albuminous: 

fls. 5-merous, rarely 6-7-merous 1 Chrysophyl- 

BB. Staminodes small, usually affixed higher . [turn. 

than stamens, sometimes few or 0: seeds 

not albuminous: fls. 4-5-merous 2. Lucuma. 

BBB. Staminodes alternate with stamens, rarely 

affixed higher; seeds albuminous 3. Sideroxylon* 

AA. Corolla-lobes and calyx-segms. isomerous: 

stamens twice as many or more 4. Isonandra. 

AAA. Corolla-lobes usually 2 or 3 times as many as 

B. Calyx-segms. 1 series 5. Bumelia. 

BB. Calyx-segms. 2 series 6. Mimusops. 

The genus Pouteria is now described in this family. 

120. EBENACE^. 

A. The fls. usually hermaphrodite; stamens in 1 

series 1. Royena. 

AA. The fls. dioecious. 

B. Fls. usually 3-merous; stamens 3-, com- 
monly 9; ovary 3- or 6-celled 2. Maba. 

BB. Fls. usually 4-5-merous; stamens 4-8, usu- 
ally in 2 series; ovary 4- or 8-celled 3. Diospyros. 

121. OLEACE^. 

Fr. didymous or septicidally divisible into 

two: corolla-lobes strongly imbricate: 

ovules laterally affixed near base; seeds 

erect, without endosperm ; radicle 

inferior 1. JASMINE TRIBE. 

Fr. terete or compressed parallel to the 

septum, loculicidally dehiscent; ovules 

pendulous from apex of cells; seeds 

winged, pendulous; radicle superior. ... 2. LILAC TRIBE. 
Fr. entire, dry, indehiscent, winged, a 

samara, compressed contrary to the 

septum; ovules twin, pendulous from 

apex of cell; seeds pendulous with en- 
dosperm; radicle superior 3. ASH TRIBE. 

Fr. fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe or 

rarely a berry, not lobed; ovules twin, 

laterally affixed near the apex; seeds 

solitary, suspended or pendulous, with 

endosperm; radicle superior 4. OLIVE TRIBE. 

1. Jasmine Tribe. 

Fr. fleshy, indehiscent, didymous or by abortion 

simple 1. Jasminum. 

2. Lilac Tribe. 

A. Corolla-lobes imbricate. 
B. Ovules 3-4 in a cell: Ivs. pinnate and fls. 

white: corolla-lobes shorter than tube 2. Nathusia. 

BB. Ovules 4-10 in a cell: Ivs. entire or 3-folio- 
late and fls. yellow: lobes many times 

longer than tube 3. Forsythia. 

AA. Corolla-lobes induplicate-valvate; tube long 

or short: ovules 2 in a cell; seeds albuminous. 4. Syringa. 

3. Ash Tribe. 

A. Lvs. usually pinnate: fr. elongate, with a 
terminal wing, generally 1-seeded by abor- 
tion 5. Fraxinua. 

AA. Lvs. undivided: fr. ovate or orbiculate, sur- 
rounded by a wing, usually 2-celled and 2- 
seeded 6. Fontanesia. 

4. Olive Tribe. 

A. Corolla of nearly distinct petals which are long 

and linear 7. Chionan- 

AA. Corolla-lobes imbricate, broad and obtuse. \thut. 

B. Endocarpof drupe thinly crustaceoua 8. Phitlyrea. 

BB. Endocarp of drupe hard and somewhat 

woody 9. Oamanthu*. 

AAA. Corolla-lobes induplicate-valvate. 



B, FT. a drupe; endocarp hard, thick or thin: 

infl. axillary, rarely terminal 10. Olea. 

Ba. Fr. a berry, hardly drupaceous; endocarp 
membranous or tliinly coriaceous: pani- 
cles terminal 11. Ligustrun 

122. LOGANIACE.ffi. 

A. Style 2-fid, branches linear, 2-fid 1. Gelsemium. 

AA. Style simple. 

B. Corolla-lobes valvate. 

c. Fr. a circumscissile caps 2. Spigelia. 

cc. Fr. an indehiscent drupe or berry 3. Strychnos. 

BB. Corolla-lobes imbricate. 

c. Anthers exserted 4. Chilianthus. 

cc. Anthers included 5. Buddleia. 

The genus Logania may afford cultivated plants now and then. 


A. Lvs. alternate or radical. 

B. Fr. indehiscent 1. Nymphoida. 

BB. Fr. dehiscent. 

c. Caps, usually 4-valved at apex 2. Villarsia. 

cc. Caps, irregularly sub-2-valved at apex 3. Menyanthes. 

AA. Lvs. opposite. 

B. Ovary perfectly 2-celled; placentie solitary 
in each cell, often thick, adnate to septum; 

liberated by dehiscence of caps 4. Exacitm. 

BB. Ovary 1-celled; placentiferous margins of 
carpels mo_re or less intruded within or 
even touching but not connate in the mid- 
dle of the cell, spuriously 2-celled. 
C. Style often deciduous; anthers usually 

D. Anthers spirally twisted finally 5. Erythrxa. 

DD. Anthers finally recurved at apex 6. Sabbatia. 

cc. Style usually persistent; anthers versa- 
tile, finally recurved 7. Lisianthus. 

BBB. Ovary 1-celled; margins of carpels rarely 
intruded; ovules and seeds affixed at 
each side of the suture in 1 series or more 
or less extended over the parietal surface; 
placentas adnate, very thin. 
C. Corolla has 1-2 pits at base of each lobe. 

D. Style short or scarcely any 8. Swertia. 

DD. Style subulate 9. Frasera. 

cc. Corolla has no such pits 10. Gentiana. 

The genus Chironia may also be expected in cultivation. 


Subfamily 1. PERIPLOCE.ffi. Pollen granular, loosely aggre- 
gated in 2 masses in each anther-cell. 

Character of subfamily 1. PERIPLOCA TRIBE. 

Subfamily 2. EUASCLEPIADE.ffi. Pollen waxy, the masses 
solitary in each anther-cell. 

Anthers tipped by a membrane, which is 

inflexed or sometimes erect, and usually 

hyaline, rarely opaque or petal-like; 

pollen-masses suspended, attached in 

pairs (1 in each adjacent cell of different 

anthers) to the corpuscle or gland 2. CYNANCHUM TRIBE. 

Anthers usually tipped by an inflexed or 

suberect membrane, which is hyaline, 

rarely opaque; pollinia solitary in each 

cell, erect or very small 3. MAHSDENIA 

Anthers obtuse at apex, not appendaged [TRIBE. 

or rarely the connective produced ; pol- 
linia solitary in the cells, erect 4. CEROPEOIA TRIBE. 

Anthers like those of the Ceropegiese or 

more incumbent above the top of the 

stigma or subimmersed: sts. thick and 

fleshy, leafless or with a few lys. at top. . 5. STAPELIA TRIBE. 
Anthers broad at the top, without ap- 
pendages or more or less membranace- 

ous on the margins, the cells somewhat 

transversely dehiscent, attac hed 

nearly or quite on the margin of the 

stigma -disk; pollinia horizontal or 

essentially so 6. GONOLOBCS TRIBE. 

1. Periploca Tribe. 

A. Scales of corona distant from staminal tube. 
B. Corolla-tube short; scales linear or club- 
shaped 1. Cryptolepis. 

BB. Corolla large, funnel-shaped; scales acumi- 
nate or 2-fid 2. Cryptotlegia. 

AA. Scales of corona close to stamens. 

B. Corolla-lobes valvate 3. Chlorocodon. 

BB. Corolla-lobes imbricate 4. Periploca. 










2. Cynanchum Tribe. 

A. The outer or single crown either simple and 
composed of 5 scales or ring-shaped, adnate 
to the corolla and not the staminal tube, or 
rarely adherent to both. 

B. Stigma depressed 5. 

BB. Stigma umbonate or 2-beaked at apex: 
corona-scales attached at middle (or 

below) of corolla-tube 6. 

BBB. Stigma plane or umbonate; corona annular, 

adnate to corolla 7, 

AA. The crown of 5 scales affixed to base of 
corolla and staminal tube; caudicles of pol- 
linia appendaged with an erect fuscous 

tooth g. 

AAA. The crown of 5 scales which are distinct, 
affixed or adnate to the staminal tube or 
the back of the anthers. 
B. Scales concave or hooded with an acute 

ligula inside 9. 

BB. Scales fleshy, narrow, adnate to stamen- 
tube, but free and recurved at base 10. 

BBB. Scales (5 outer ones) carinate-complicate 
at base of staminal tube; the 5 scales at 
the apex of the long staminal tube, short, 
obtuse, spreading, alternate with anthers. .11. 
AAAA. The outer or single crown affixed to the 
staminal tube, ring- or cup-shaped, entire, 
lobed or parted. 

B. Corona villous inside 12. 

BB. Corona with 5 scales or ligula? inside 13. 

BBB. Corona naked inside 14. 

BBBB. Corona of 5 short processed opposite anthers 
and 10 ligulffi alternate with anthers in 
pairs 15. 

3. Marsdenia Tribe. 

A. Corolla-lobes strictly valvate 16. Hoya. 

AA. Corolla-lobes usually overlapping dextrorsely. 
B. Fls. not pure white, urn- or salver-shaped, 

small or medium-sized 17. Marsdenia. 

BB. Fls. white, salver- or funnel-shaped, large ... 18. Stephanotis. 

4. Ceropegia Tribe. 

Corona double, affixed to staminal tube 19. Ceropegia. 

5. Stapelia Tribe. 

Corona double, outer spreading, inner of 5 scales. 20. Stapelia. 

6. Gonolobus Tribe. 

Crown cup-shaped or annular, entire or lobed .... 21. Gonolobus. 

Additional genera described in Asclepiadaceie are: Caralluma, 
Duyalia, Echidnopsis, Gomphocarpus, Hoodia, Huernia, Mieho- 
litzia, Pectinaria, Piaranthus, Raphionacme, Sphaerocodon and 


A. Anther-cells not appendaged at base. 
B. Ovary entire (Carissa Tribe); fls. 5-merous. 

0. Fr. a 2-vaIved caps.: ovary 1-celled 1. Allamamla. 

cc. Fr. a berry, indehiscent: ovary 2-celled; 

cells 1-4-ovuled. 

D. Ovules laterly affixed: cymes ter- 
minal, few-fid: spines axillary 2. Carissa. 

DD. Ovules erect from base: cymes axillary, 

dense: spines 3. Acokanlhera. 

BB. Ovaries 2 to several; style 1 (Plumeria Tribe), 
c. Calyx with several glands inside or a ring 
of hairs. 

D. Carpels 2-ovuled 4. Thecelm. 

DD. Carpels many-ovuled 5. Tabernx- 

cc. Calyx without glands inside. \montana. 

D. Carpels 2-ovuled. 

E. Disk 2-scaled 6. Kopsia. 

EE. Disk cup-shaped or annular 7. Rauwolfia. 

DD. Carpels 0- to many-ovuled. 
E. Ovules in 2 series. 
F. Disk 0. 

a. Seeds truncate 8. A msonia. 

Go. Seeds winged 9. Gonioma. 

FF. Disk of 2 scales 10. I'lnni. 

EE. Ovules in many series. 

F. Stamens near base of tube 11. I'lumrria. 

FF. Stamens above middle of tube 12. Alstonia. 

AA. Anther-cells produced at base. (Echitrs 


B. The cone of anthers more or less exserted 
at apex. 

c. Throat of corolla with 5 scales 13. Prestonia. 

cc. Throat without scales 14. Vallaris. 

BB. The anthers included. 

c. Lvs. usually in whorls of 3 15. .Verium. 



cc. Lvs. opposite. 

D. Corofla bell-shaped, with 5 squamellte 

alternating with stamens 16. Apocynum. 

DD. Corolla salver-shaped or funnel-shaped* 
the throat without scales. 

E. Disk of 2 scales 17. Diplatlenia. 

EE. Disk many-toothed or crenulate 18. Odontadenia. 

EEE. Disk of 5 lobes or scales, often trun- 
cate in Trachelospermum. 
p. Fls. salver-shaped. 

a. Infl. lax corymbose cymes 19. Trackelos- 

oo. Infl. racemose ; rarely shortly [per mum. 

dichotamous 20. Echites. 

IT. Fls. funnel-ahaped. 

a. In cymes 21. Beautoiontia. 

GG. In racemes 22. Mandecitta. 

Other genera treated are: Hunteria, Landolphia, Pachypodium. 
Parsonsia, Pleiocarpa and Strophanthus. 


A. Caps, deeply loculicidal: herbs or sub-shrubs. 
B. Stamens unequally affixed to corolla-tube; 
not declinate. 

c. Lvs. mostly opposite, entire 1. Phlox. 

cc. Lvs. mostly alternate, usually incised or 

pinnatifid 2. Collomia. 

BB. Stamens equally affixed to tube or throat. 

c. The stamens not declinate 3. Gilia. 

cc. The stamens declinate. 

D. Filaments pilose-appendaged at base. . . 4. Polemo- 


DD. Filaments not appendaged 5. Laselia. 

AA. Caps, shortly loculicidal at apex; seeds 

broadly winged: trees or shrubs 0. Cantua. 

AAA. Caps, deeply septicidal: tall climbers 7. Cobsea. 


A. Styles 2, distinct from base; corolla-lobes im- 

AA. Styles 2-cut, rarely undivided. 
B. Corolla-lobes usually convolute. 

c. Stamens exserted 

cc. Stamens included 

BB. Corolla-lobes imbricated. 

c. Fls. marcescent, bell-shaped. 
cc. Fls. deciduous. 

D. The peduncles 1-fld 

1. Wigandia. 

2. Hydrophyl- 


3. Nemophila. 

DD. The fls. cy mose or in 1 -sided racemes . . . 

4. Emmenan- 


5. Hespero- 


6. Phacelia. 


A. Ovary undivided (or only laterally 4- 
lobed) and surmounted by the style. 
B. Style twice bifid; stigmas not an- 
nular; cotyledons plaited or cor- 
rugated 1. CORDIA TRIBE. 

BB. Style once bifid or 2-parted (the 
divisions sometimes coalescent to 
the top); stigmas more or less capi- 
tate; cotyledons plane 2. EHRETIA TRIBE. 

BBB. Style entire, sometimes wanting; 
stigma shield- or ring-shaped, 
forming a complete ring sur- 
mounted usually by a tip or ap- 
pendage which is entire or 2-lobed 
and varies from hemispherical to 

subulate 3. HELIOTROPE 

AA. Ovary 4-parted (rarely 2-parted) from [TRIBE. 

above into l-cel!ed, 1-ovuled divisions 
surrounding the base of the undivided 
(rarely 2-lobed ) style ; stigma not 
annular 4. BORAGE TRIBE. 

1. Cordia Tribe. 

Calyx tubular or bell-shaped, merely toothed or 

lobed 1. Cordia. 

2. Ehretia Tribe. 
Calyx 5-parted; style 2-fid 2. Ehretia. 

3. Heliotrope Tribe. 

A. Plants sarmentose or twining 3. Tourne- 

AA. Plants are herbs or sub-shrubs 4. Heliotro- 


4. Borage Tribe. 

A. Gynobase elevated. 
B. Apex of nutlets not projecting much beyond 


c. Nutlets divergent or divaricate (either 
radiately or in pairs), extended out- 
ward or backward much beyond the 
insertion (which is by a roundish or 
oblong scar); gynobase little elevated 
or broadly conical. 
D. Stamens included. 

E. Nutlets covered with small cups or 

cavities 5. Omphalodea. 

EB. Nutlets covered with small warts or 

barbed bristles 6. Cynoglos- 

DD. Stamens exserted. [sum. 

E. Corolla-tube longer than spreading 

lobes 7. Lindelofia. 

EE. Corolla tubular; lobes short, erect or 

somewhat .spreading 8. Solenanthus, 

cc. Nutlets adnate by the inner face or keel 
to an elevated, conical or columnar 
gynobase, forming a more or less glo- 
bose or pyramidal fruit 9. Myoaotid- 

BB. Apex of nutlets projecting conspicuously [ium. 

beyond scar, 
c. Pedicels persistent. 

D. Nutlets keeled toward apex 10. Plogiobotrya, 

DD. Nutlets not keeled 11. Orcocorj/a. 

cc. Pedicels deciduous 12. Cryptanthe. 

AA. Gynobase flat or nearly so. 

B. Scar excavated or often girt by a ring, 
c. Throat of corolla has 5 scales inside. 

D. Filaments appendaged with a scale 13. Borago. 

DD. Filaments not appendaged. 

E. Corolla-lobes very short and sub- 
erect 14. Symphytum. 

EE. Corolla-lobes spreading 15. Anchuaa. 

cc. Throat naked or pilose 16. Pulmonaria. 

BB. Scar flat, either small at the inner angle or 


c. Racemes without bracts (rarely a few 
bracts at base) ; anthers obtuse at apex. 

D. Throat of corolla scaly 17. Myoaotia. 

DD. Throat almost naked 18. Mertensia. 

cc. Racemes bracted. 

D. Anthers obtuse at apex or hardly 

E. Lobes of corolla erect 19. Onosmo- 

EE. Lobes of corolla spreading. [dium, 

F. Corolla-tube cylindrical; throat 
naked or 5-gibbous and sub- 

quamate 20. Lithosper- 

FF. Corolla-tube slender; throat [mu m, 

naked 21. Arnebia. 

FFF. Corolla tubular or salver-form; 
throat naked, lobes usually un- 
equal 22. Echium. 

DD. Anthers linear, often acuminate, arrow- 
shaped at base. 

E. Nutlets distinct 23. Onosmci. 

EE. Nutlets -connate in pairs 24. Cerinthe. 


A. Corolla-lobes small, imbricate: plants para- 
sitic, leafless: sts. thread-like, not green 1. Cuscuta. 

AA. Corolla large, plicate or induplicate in sestiva- 


B. Fr. berry-like or harder, indehiscent: style 

c. The ovary 4-celled, 4-ovuled 2. Argyreia. 

cc. The ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled 3. Leltsomia, 

BB. Fr. a 2-4-valved caps, with a thin or hard 
pericarp, or indehiscent with a thin peri- 
carp: styles 2 and distinct or the style 
entire or divided, 
c. Stigma capitate; style entire or 2-parted; 

ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled 4. Porana. 

cc. Stigma thick, globose, often twin; ovary 

2-4-celled, 4-ovuled. 
D. Stamens and style included within the 

corolla-tube 5. Ipomcta. 

DD. Stamens and style exserted. 

E. Plant a night-bloomer: corolla con- 
torted in bud 6. Calonyction, 

EE. Plant a day-bloomer: corolla not 

contorted 7. Quamoclit, 

ccc. Stigma capitate; ovary 2-celled 8. Breweria. 

cccc. Stigmas 2, linear, filiform or thickish 9. Convoltttius. 

lExcept Calystegia section. 
See also Ilhodorhiza.) 

ccccc. Stigmas 2, flat, ovate or oblong 10. Jacquemon- 

(Also Calystegia section of Convolvulus.) 




A. Stamens didynamous, the fifth (and some- 
times also one of the pairs) smaller, abor- 
tive or missing. 

B. Number of perfect stamens usually 5. 
c. The stamens affixed at middle of tube or 

lower 1. Petunia* 

cc. The stamens affixed at apex of tube 2. Nierem- 

BB. Number of perfect stamens usually 4 or 2. [bergia. 

c. Corolla-tube cylindrical; limb oblique; 

perfect stamens 2 3. Sckizanthus. 

cc. Corolla obliquely funnel-shaped; perfect 

stamens 4, didynamous 4. Salpiglossis. 

CCC. Corolla-tube cylindrical, straight; anthers 
of the 2 short stamens dimidiate, of the 

longer ones 2^-celled 5. Browallia. 

cccc. Corolla-tube twisted ; anthers as in Browal- 
lia 6. Streptosolen. 

ccccc. Corolla-tube long, not twisted, slightly 
widened at apex; 4 perfect anthers with 

confluent cells 7. Brunfelsia* 

AA. Stamens all perfect not didynamous, nor- 
mally 5. 
B. Seeds little, if at all, flattened. 

c. Fr. a few-seeded berry 8. Oestrum. 

cc. Fr. a many-seeded caps. 

D. Corolla with a narrow tube and short 

spreading lobes 9. Fabiana. 

DD. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped; limb 

equal or oblique 10. Nicotiana. 

BB. Seeds flattened. 
c. Fr. a caps. 

D. Corolla-lobes plicate. 

E. Caps. 4-K:elled, and 4-valved (some- 
times indehiscent) 11. Datura. 

EE. Caps, circumscissile above the middle. 12. Scopolia. 

DD. Corolla-lobes imbricate 13. Hyoscya- 

CC. Fr. berry-like, or at least indehiscent. [mus. 

D. Limb of corolla subequally plicate or 
divided into valvate or induplicate 

. Anthers longer than filament, con- 
nivent connate in a cylinder or 
cone, acuminate at apex or dehis- 
cent by 2 apical pores. 
F. Connective variously thickened on 

back 14. Cyphoman- 

FF. Connective slender or obsolete. [dra. 
G. The anthers acuminate, hollow 
at tip, dehiscing by a longi- 
tudinal crack 15. Lycopersi- 

GG. The anthers opening by an [cum. 

apical pore which is sometimes 
continued into a longitudinal 

crack 16. Solanum. 

EX. Anthers free, with parallel cells, and 

dehiscing by a longitudinal crack. 

F. Stamens affixed above middle of 

tube 17. Salpichroa. 

FF. Stamens affixed near the base of 

G. Corolla nearly rotate or broadly 


H. Fruiting calyx hardly en- 
larged. 18. Capsicum. 

BB. Fruiting calyx inflated or 


i. Calyx cut shortly or to mid- 
dle 19. Phyxdit. 

n. Calyx parted to base 20. Nicandra. 

GO. Corolla tubular or narrowly fun- 
nel-shaped 21. lockroma. 

DD. Limb of corolla more or less imbricate, 
flat and distinct or connected by 
induplicate sinuses. 
B. The lobes imbricated from the base, 

not plicate. 
F. Plants woody. 

G. Berry with 4 stones, each 1-2- 

seeded 22. Grabowskia. 

GO. Berry with 2 cells, each l-oo- 

seeded 23. Lytium. 

FF. Plants herbaceous 24. Atropo. 

EE. The sinuses of the corolla induplicate 
between the lobes. 

F. Calyx long and tubular 25. Solandra. 

FF. Calyx leafy, 5-fid, increasing in fr. .26. Mandragora, 

Single genus ; Nolana. 


Series 7. PSEUDOSOLANE.E. Lys. all alternate: infl. simple, 
oentripetal; corolla hardly if at all bilabiate; the 2 posterior lobes 
external in the bud. 

A. Corolla-tube short, somewhat bell- 
shaped: American species 1. LEUCOPHTLI.L-M 

AA. Corolla subrotate: Old World species... 2. VERBASCUM TRIBE. 

Series 2. ANTIRRHINIDE.E. Lvs. prevailingly opposite, at least 
the lower: infl. simple or compound, partially centrifugal, i.e., the 
peduncle cymosely few- to several-fld.; posterior lip or lobes of 
corolla generally external in the bud. 

A. Corolla bilabiate; lips inflated, concave. 3. CALCEOLARIA 
AA. Corolla bilabiate or nearly regular; [TRIBE. 

lips nearly plane. 
B. Corolla saccate or spurred. 

c. Tube wanting 4. HEMIMERIS TRIBE. 

cc. Tube present 5. ANTIRRHINUM 

BB. Corolla-tube not saccate nor spurred. [TRIBE 

c. Infl. centrifugal, cymose, usually 

compound, rarely sub-simple.. .. 6. CHELONE TRIBE. 
cc. Infl. centripetal. 

D. Anthers 1-celled 7. MANULEA TRIBE. 

DD. Anthers 2-celled 8. GRATIOLA TRIBE. 

Series 3. RHINANTHIDE.E. Lvs. various: infl. simple or com- 
pound; corolla-lobes variously imbricated, the anterior or lateral 
ones usually exterior. 

A. Anther-cells contiguous at apex and 

usually confluent: plants not parasitic. 9. DIGITALIS TRIBE. 
AA. Anther-cells everywhere distinct: plants 

often root-parasitic. 
B. Corolla-lobes all flat, usually spread- 
ing 10. GERARD: A TRIBE. 

BB. Corolla with posterior lip erect, con- 
cave or galeate; anterior lip often 
spreading 11. EUPHBASIA TRIBE. 

1. Leucophyllum Tribe. 

Corolla-lobes 5, subequal, spreading 1. Leucophyl- 


2. Verbascum Tribe. 

A. Stamens 5 2. Verbascum. 

AA. Stamens 4 3. Celsia. 

3. Calceolaria Tribe. 

The only genus 4. Calceolaria. 

4. Hemimeris Tribe. 

A. Corolla more or less rotate, resupinate, the 

grooves inconspicuous or obsolete 5. Alonsoa. 

AA. Corolla spread out flat, swollen or saccate 

under anterior lip 6. Angelonia. 

AAA. Corolla flat or concave, with 2 basal spurs or 

pouches 7. Diascia. 

AAAA. Corolla-tube short with 1 spur or sac on the 

anterior side 8. Nemesia. 

5. Antirrhinum Tribe. 

A. Throat has a prominent palate. 

B. Corolla spurred 9. Linaria. 

BB. Corolla saccate or gibbous at base 10. Antir- 

AA. Throat has no palate. [rhinum. 

B. Caps, opens by 2 apical pores which are 

sometimes confluent 11. Anar- 

BB. Caps, opens by transverse holes or irregu- [rhinum. 


c. Calyx ample, membranous 12. Rhodochiton. 

cc. Calyx smaller, herbaceous 13. Maurandia. 

6. Chelone Tribe. 

A. Staminode often elongated. 

B. Caps, loculicidally dehiscent 14. Tetranema. 

BB. Caps, septicidally dehiscent, 
c. Fls. bilabiate. 

D. Anterior lip with middle lobe folded 

upon itself and inclosing the stamens. 15. Cottinsia. 
DD. Anterior lip of 3 flat spreading lobes. 

E. Seeds winged 16. Chelone. 

EE. Seed not winged 17. Pentstemon. 

cc. Fls. with all the lobes flat, spreading and 

subequal 18. Ruaaslia. 

AA. Staminode usually in the form of a scale at 

apex of corolla-tube 19. Scrophu- 

AAA. Staminode small, minute or 0. [laria. 

B. Stamens usually exserted. 

c Calyx 5-parted : caps, tardily dehiscent ... 20. Phygelius. 

cc. Calyx cup-shaped: berry indehiscent 21. HaUeria. 

BB. Stamens included ; calyx 5-cut. 

c. Fr. an indehiscent berry 22. Teedia. 

cc. Fr. a loculicidal caps 23. Paulo wnia. 

7. Manulea Tribe. 

A. Calyx bilabiate or 2-parted 24. Zalunan- 

AA. Calyx 5-parted 25. Chaenostoma. 



8. Gratiola Tribe. 

A. Perfect stamens 2 26. Gratiola. 

AA. Perfect stamens 4. 

B. Stamens all affixed inside corolla-tube. 

c. Calyx bell-shaped, 5-parted 27. Mazus. 

cc. Calyx tubular, 5-tootned and -angled 28. Mimulus. 

BB. Stamens partly inside corolla-tube, partly 

in throat, 2 affixed in each place 29. Torenia. 

9. Digitalis Tribe. 

A. Caps, opens by loculicidal valves. 

B. Herbs creeping 30. Sibthorpia. 

BB. Herbs upright 31. Rehmannia. 

BBB. Herbs thick-rhizomatous, the Ivs. nearly or 

quite radical 32. Wulfenia. 

AA. Caps, opens by septicidal valves. 
B. Lvs. alternate. 

c. Corolla declinate, tube swollen, or bell- 
shaped; posterior lip spreading 33. Digitalis. 

cc. Corolla-tube slender, spreading 34. Erinus. 

BB. Lvs. opposite 35. Ourisia. 

AAA. Caps. 4-valved or loculicidally 2-valved. 

B. Lvs. all alternate or radical 36. Synthyris. 

BB. Lvs. (at least lower ones) opposite 37. Veronica. 

10. Gerardia Tribe. 
Calyx-lobes shorter than tube 

8. Gerardia. 

11. Euphrasia Tribe. 

A. The anther-cells equal 39. Pedicularis. 

AA. The outer anther-cell fixed by the middle; 

inner one pendulous or deficient. 
B. Calyx laterally compressed, split on ante- 
rior side or both 40. Castilleia. 

BB. Calyx 4-cut 41. Ortkocarpus. 

Other genera to be looked for are: Bowkeria, Craterostigma, 
Herpcstis, Lindenbergia, Seymeria. 


A. Posterior lip of corolla erect; calyx 2-parted or 

deeply 2-lobed 1. Utricularia. 

AA. Posterior lip of corolla spreading; calyx 4-5- 

parted 2. Pinguicula. 


A. Ovary 2-ceIled: caps, dehiscent: Ivs. mostly 

B. Valves opening parallel with septum. 

c. Lvs. 2-3-f oliolate : shrubs, climbing with 


D. Tendrils filiform, simple. 
E. Disk present. 

F. Caps, smooth or slightly warty, 
broadly linear: calyx with black 

glands 1. Adeno- 

FF. Caps, rough, broad: disk crenate; [calymma. 
calyx not glandular, with 5 

subulate teeth 2. Clytoatoma. 

EE. Disk wanting; calyx with 5 short 

teeth or truncate: caps, linear 3. Cydista. 

DD. Tendrils 3-parted, filiform, slender. 
E. Corolla straight or slightly curved, 
membranous: caps. narrow, smooth. 
F. Lobes of corolla imbricate; sta- 
mens inclosed: tendrils twice or 

thrice 3-parted 4. Anisostichus. 

(See under Bignonia.) 
FF. Lobes yalvate; stamens exserted: 

tendrils simply 3-parted 5. Pyrostegia, 

EE. Corolla strongly curved; calyx 

leathery, tomentose. 
F. Stamens inclosed; fis. white. 

o. Ovary warty: caps. broad, 
rough , not curved : branches 

angular 6. Pithecoc- 

GG. Ovary smooth: caps, oblong, [tenium. 
curved, with a convex and a 
concave valve: branches ter- 
ete 7. Distictix. 

IT. Stamens exserted; fls. red; ovary 

tomentose 8. Phaedran- 

DDD. Tendrils 3-parted , the ramifications \th us. 

hooked, claw-like. 

E. Calyx truncate or loln-d; disk simple. 9. Bignonia. 
EE. Calyx splitting on one side; disk 

double 10. Macfady- 


cc. Lvs. 2-3-pinnate: upright tree 11. Oroxylon. 

BB. Valves opening at right angles to septum: 
upright plants or climbing without tendrils. 


c. Habit climbing (upright in some forms of 
Campsis): Ivs. pinnate. 

D. Stamens exserted: Ift.s. serrate 12. Tecomaria. 

DD. Stamens inclosed. 

E. Climbing by rootlets: Ifts. serrate: 

corolla campanulate-funnelform. . . 13. Campsia. 
EE. Climbing without rootlets: Ifts. 


F. Corolla club-shaped, straight, up- 
right; fls. in racemes 14. C'ampsidium 

FF. Corolla campanulate-funnelform; 

fls. in panicles 15. Pandorea. 

cc. Habit upright: nerbs, with alternate Ivs.: 

caps, folliculately dehiscent. 
D. Seeds with membranous wing: Ivs. 

simple or compound 16. IncarviUea. 

DD. Seeds with fringed hairs, Ivs. pinnate. 17. Amphicome* 
ccc. Habit upright: trees or shrubs with usu- 
ally opposite Ivs. 
D. Lvs. simple or digitate. 

E. Seeds fringed with hairs: Ivs. simple* 


F. Fertile stamens 4: Ivs. linear, alter- 
nate 18. Chilopsis. 

FF. Fertile stamens 2: Ivs. cordate, 

opposite 19. Catalpa. 

EE. Seeds winged : Ivs. simple or digitate . 20. Tabebuia. 
DD. Lvs. pinnate, rarely simple and serrate. 
E, Septum flat. 

F. Calyx campanulate, truncate, 

toothed or lobed. 
o. Staminode not elongated. 

H. Anthers with enlarged leafy 
connective; calyx regularly 
5 - toothed : shrubs: Ifts. 
serrate; Ivs. rarely simple . . .21. Tecoma. 
HH. Anthers without enlarged con- 
nective ; calyx i rregula rly 
2-Mobed: tree: Ifts. usually 

entire 22. Httero- 

GG. Staminode much elongated and [phragma. 

enlarged at the apex: calyx 
small ; fls. in large terminal 
panicles: Ivs. 1-2-pinnate with 

numerous Ifts 23. Jacaranda. 

FF. Calyx spathe-like, splitting on one 
side; corolla broadly campanu- 
late 24. Spathodea. 

EE. Septum thick, spongy. 

F. Seeds in deep impressions of the 
septum : calyx truncate or in- 
distinctly toothed: hrs. usually 

bipinnate 25. Rader- 

FF. Seeds in shallow impressions of [machia. 

the septum : calyx 3-5-lobed : 

Ivs. pinnate 26. Stereosper- 

AA. Ovary 1-celled. [mum, 

B. Fr. a dehiscent caps.: corolla tubular, nar- 
rowed at the mouth: Ivs. opposite, pinnate: 

climbing with tendrils 27. Eccremo- 

BB. Fr. indeliHcen t : corolla campanulate or [carpus. 

campanulate-funnelfonn: trees or shrubs, 
with alternate Ivs. 
c. Lvs. simple or 3-foliolate. 

D. Calyx spathe-like, splitting on one side; 

corolla regular; fls. on the old wood . .28. Parmentiera. 
DD. Calyx campanulate, irregularly lobed; 
corolla very irregular; fls. at the end 

of the branches 29. Crescentia. 

cc. Lvs. pinnate: corolla irregular 30. Kigelia. 

The genus Colea is also more or less in cultivation within our limits. 

135. GESNERIACE-ffi. 

A. Ovary more or less inferior: fr. capsular. 

B. Disk 1. Niphsea. 

BB. Disk annular. 

c. Fls. smallish, pallid or white 2. Dicyrta. 

cc. Fls. largish, variously colored. 

D. Corolla-tube broadly swollen or bell- 
shaped; calyx-lobes usually membra- 
nous or leafy 3. Gloxinia. 

(Of botanists, not of florists.) 
DD. Corolla-tube cylindrical or broad- 
ened above; calyx-lobes narrow or 

E. The fls. axillary 4. Achimenes. 

(Consult also Scheeria.) 
EE. The fls. alternate in a terminal, leaf- 
less raceme 5. Nsegelia. 

BBB. Disk of 5 distinct or but slightly united 

glands, these equal or unequal, 
c. Caps, inferior to the middle or higher. 

D. Anther-cells confluent at apex 6. Sinningia. 

(Gloxinia of florists.) 

DD. Anther-cells distinct 7. Isoloma. 

cc. Caps, shortly immersed at base, almost 

superior 8. Geaneria. 



AA. Ovary wholly superior: fr. eapsular or baccate, 

unknown in Saintpaulia. 
B. Anther-cells distinct and parallel. 

C. Disk with a large posterior gland, other- 
wise small or wanting. 

D. Filaments free among themselves 9. Episcia, 

DD. Filaments connate into a sheath which 
is split on the posterior side. 

E. Anthers separate 10. AUoplectus. 

EE. Anthers connate cross-like 11. Columnen. 

cc. Disk annular, elevated, almost cup- 

D. Perfect stamens 2 12. 

DD. Perfect stamens 4 13. 

Agalmyld , 


ccc. Disk obsolete 14. 

BB. Anther-cells divaricate or diverging, rarely 

c. Disk 0. 

D. Anthers free 15. Ramonda. 

DD. Anthers cohering in a tube extending 

beyond the cells 16. Conandron. 

cc. Disk reduced to a posterior gland 17. Codonantfie. 

ccc. Disk a ring (rarely dimidiate in Chirita). 
E. Lvs. cauline, opposite. 

F. Stamens 4 18. Besleria. 

FF. Stamens 2 19. Chirita. 

EE. Lvs. basal (rarely opposite in Strep- 

F. Stamens 4 20. flaberlsea. 

FF. Stamens 2. [pus. 

Q. Corolla-tube long 21. Streptocar- 

GG. Corolla-tube short 22. Saintpaulia. 

Additional genera described are: Acanthonema, Boea, 
Corytholoma, Cyrtandra, Klugia, Lysionotus, Rhabdothamnus 
and Roettlera. 


A. Corolla-tubes swollen above the short base 1. Martynia. 

AA. Corolla-tube very long, slender and cylindrical 

with a bell-shaped throat 2. Craniolaria. 


A. Caps, truncate at apex, the angles awned or 

horned 1. Ceratotheca. 

AA. Caps, obtuse or acuminate, unarmed 2. Sesamum. 

GG. Tube long, slender, scarcely 

swollen at apex 1-4. Cham&r- 


DD. Stamens 2: ovules in each cell 2 15. Eranthe- 

cc. Corolla bilabiate or sub-equally 4-cut. [mum. 

D. Ovules in each cell 3 or more 16. Phlogacan- 

DD. Ovules in each cell 2. [thus 

E. Fls. with 2 or 4 bracts longer than 

calyx 17. Pcristrophe. 

EE. Fls. without such bracts. 

F. Stamens 4, anthers all 1-celled. . . . 18. Aphetandra. 
FF. Stamens 2, anthers 2-celled. 

o. Anther-cells unlike, one larger 
or affixed higher. (In Jaco- 
binia cells often subequal.) 
H. The lower anther cell usually 

spurred 19. Justir>,-i. 

HH. The anther-cells not spurred, 
sometimes equally mucron- 
ate at base. 
i. The corolla with short tube 

and ample lips 20. Adhatoda. 

ii. The corolla-tube usually 

long and narrow 21. Jacobinia. 

GG. Anther-cells equal. 

H. Staminodes at base of fila- 
ments small. 

i. Corolla-tube swollen above; 
posterior lip incurved, 
anterior spreading, 3-cut.22. Graptophyl- 
ii. Corolla-tube elongated; limb [luin. 

sub-bilabiate, 4-lobed. . . .23. Thyrsaca 1 1 - 
HH. Staminodes 0. [thus 

i. Veins of Ivs. white or colored.24. Fittonia. 
ii. Veins of Ivs. green. 

j. Calyx-segms. linear or 

bristle-like 25. Schaueria. 

jj. Calyx small; lobes acute 

or acuminate 26. Aniaacan- 


The following genera are also treated: Anisotes, Beloperone, 
Dianthera, Dicliptera. Duvernoia, Dyschoriste, Lepidagathi*, 
Micranthus, Pseuderanthemum, Ilungia and Warpuria. 


A, Calyx o-cut; the 2 posterior lobes of the corolla 

narrow or connate or deficient 1. Globttlaria. 

AA. Calyx cut down one side; posterior lobes of 

corolla 4 2. He ben- 



A. Corolla expanded into a single obovate lip. 
B. Calyx of normal texture; posterior segms. 

3-5-nerved 1. Blepharis. 

BB. Calyx usually cartilaginous; posterior segm. 

3-5-nerved 2. Acanthus. 

AA. Corolla with subequal limb, or 2-lipped. 
B. The corolla contorted. 

c. Ovary with 2 collateral ovules in each 

cell, or by abortion 1 3. Thunbergia. 

cc. Ovary with 2 to many ovules in each cell, 
in 1 series or alternately placed one 
above another. 
D. Filaments connate in pairs at the base. 

E. Caps, subterete 4. RueUia. 

EE. Caps, compressed parallel to the 

septum 5. Dxdalacan- 

DD. Filaments equidistant or subconnate [thus. 

at the base in pairs; calyx-lobes 

obtuse 6. Sanchezia. 

DDD. Filaments crowded or connate at the 
base on the posterior wall of the tube 
or 2 posterior filaments affixed a 
little higher. 

E. Calyx ample, membranous or colored. 7. Whit fit I- 1 in. 
EE. Calyx-segms. linear, not colored. 

F. Ovules 2 in each cell 8. Strobi- 


FF. Ovules 3 to many in each cell 9. Hemigrn- 

BB. The corolla not contorted. [phis. 

c. Corolla of 5 flat lobes, not bilabiate. 
D. Stamens 4. 

E. The corolla-lobes variously imbri- 
cated, lateral ones usually outer. 

F. Anthers all 2-celled 10. Barter ia. 

FF. Anthers ail 1-celled 11. Crossati'lrn. 

EE. The anterior corolla-lobe outside, 
posterior one inside. 

F. Anthers all 1-celled 12. Stenan- 

FF. Anthers all 2-celled (in Chamseran- [drium. 

themum, the posterior anthers 
sometimes 1-celled). 
G. Tube swollen into a long or 

broad throat 13. Asystasia. 


The only genus Phryma. 


Corolla more or less bell-shaped, rarely funnel- 
shaped, with a subregular limb; ovary 2- or 
more-celled; cells 1-ovuled, rarely 2-celled and 
2-ovuled Myoporum. 

142. VERBENACE^;. 

A. Infl. centripetal. 
B. Fls. sessile in the spike. 

c. Nutlets 2, or by abortion 1, 1-seeded. 

D. Fr. a juicy berry 1. Lantana 

DD. Fr. drupaceous: calyx 2-4-cut or 

-toothed 2. Lippia. 

DDD. Fr. dry: calyx 5-toothed 3. Stachytar- 

cc. Nutlets or cells of fr. 4, or by abortion [phetn 

fewer, 1-seeded 4. Verbena. 

BB. Fls. pedicelled. 
c. Nutlets 1-seeded. 

D. Number of nutlets 4 5. Amason ia. 

DD. Number of nutlets 2 or 1 6. Petrsea. 

cc. Nutlets 2-seeded, in pyrenes 2-5, 2-lo- 

cellate 7. Duranta. 

AA. Infl. centrifugal. 

B. Fr. drupe-like, entire or 4-lobed, exocarp 
usually pulpy or fleshy, the emloeiirp en- 
tire or 4-celled, often separating into 4 
c. Corolla regular; stamens as many as 

petals 8. Callicarpa. 

cc. Corolla-limb oblique, with anterior lobe 
produced, or sub-bilabiate; stamens 4, 
diriynamous or arched under posterior 
D. Drupe with one 4-celled stone. 

E. Corolla-tube cylindrical, short 9. Vitex. 



EE. Corolla-tube Mtrongly dilated above. . 10. Cmelina. 
DD. Drupe 4-parted, with 4 stones, or by 
reduction 1-stoned (this 1-celled). 

E. Fertile stamens 2 11. Oxera. 

EE. Fertile stamens 4 12, Clerwlen- 

BB. Fr. dry, subcapsular; exocarp with 4 valves [dron. 

involute at the margin from the bane up, 
which carry off the nutlets and leave no 
central column 13. Caryopteris. 

Other genera in cultivation in North America are Aviccnnia, 
Citharexylum, Congea, Diostea, Faradaya, Premna. 

143. LABIATE. 

/. Summary of Tribes, 

Ignoring exceptions. 





A. The nutlets fleshy or drupe-like, af- 
fixed to a small basal or oblong in- 
trorsely oblique areole: ovary 4-lobed. 
AA. The nutlets dry or hard. 

B. Ovary shortly, rarely deeply 4-lobed: 
nutlets wrinkled or netted, affixed 
to an obliquely introrse or lateral, 
usually large, areole. 
c. Seeds, when known, with endo- 
sperm : corolla with an ample 
throat and broad lobes .......... 2. 

cc. Seeds without endosperm: corolla 

various ....................... 3. 

BB. Ovary 4-parted to the base: nutlets 
affixed to a small basal or slightly 
oblique areole. 

C. Stamens declinate; perfect ones 4, 
rarely 2; anthers 1-celled by con- 
fluence ....................... 

D. Subtribe 1. ECOCIME.E. Areole 
basal; stamens usually exser- 
ted ; anterior corolla-lobe 
usually unlike the others. 
DD. Subtribe 2. LAVAXDULE.E. Are- 
ole extrorsely oblique; sta- 
mens included ; corolla-lobes 
equal or the anterior lobe 
with the lateral ones forming 
the anterior lip. 

cc. Stamens ascending, or in the 
Stachys Tribe sometimes inclu- 
ded. (Consult also ccc.) 
D. Perfect stamens 2; anther-cells 
linear, separate, solitary or 
confluent ................... 5. MONARDA TRIBE. 

DD. Perfect stamens 4, rarely 2 in 

the N'cpeta Tribe. 
E. Calyx usually 15-nerved; pos- 
terior stamens longer than 
the anterior ............... 

EE. Calyx 5- or 10-nerved; pos- 
terior stamens shorter than 
anterior; posterior lip of 
corolla erect, usually con- 
cave or fornicate, anterior 
spreading, 3-cut .......... 7. STACHYS TRIBE. 

F. Subtribe 1. SCUTELLARIE.E. 
Calyx bilabiate or at 
length 2-parted, themouth 
closed after an thesis. 
FT. Calyx not bilabiate. 

o. Subtribe 2. MELIT- 
TE.E. Corolla-tube 
long -exserted; calyx 
broad, of 5 short teeth 
or 3-4 broad lobes. 
GO. Corolla-tube included or 
slightly exserted, rarely 
long -exserted; calyx 
tubular or bell-shaped, 
H. Subtribe 3. MAR- 
RUBIER. Stamens 
HH. Subtribe 4. I.AMIE.K. 

Stamens exserted. 

ccc. Stamens straight, diverging or 
ascending; perfect ones 4 or 2; 
calyx 5-, 10-, or 13-nerved, rarely 
15-nerved; corolla-lobes usually 
flat .......................... 8. SATUREIA TRIBE. 

D. Subtribe 1. POGOSTEMONE-E. 
Anthers 1-celled, subglobose; 
stamens distinct, straight. 
DD. Anthers 2-celled, at least the 

younger ones. 

E. Subtribe 2. MENTnoiDE.. 
Calyx usually 5- or 10- 
nerved; stamens distant 
or divaricate. 


. Subtrilw 3. MELISSE.E. Calyx 
usually 13-nerved; stamens 
ascending, at least at the 

//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Prasia Tribe. 
Not in cultivation. 

2. Prostanthera Tribe. 

A. Calyx bilabiate; lips entire or anterior emar- 

ginate 1. Prostan- 

AA. Calyx equal, 5-toothed 2. Westringia. 

3. Ajuga Tribe. 

A. Corolla-tube slender, lobes 5, subequal, 

spreading 3. Trichostema. 

AA. Corolla-tube, quasi 1-lipped, the posterior 
lobes and small lateral ones declinate at the 
contracted base of the very large anterior 

lobe, or rarely erect 4. Teucrium, 

AAA. Corolla-tube short or exserted, the posterior 
lip short, erect, 2-cut, anterior much longer 
and its middle lobe largest 5. Ajuga, 

4. Ocimum Tribe. 

A. Subtribe I. EUOCIME.E. 
B, Anterior lobe of corolla hardly longer than 
the others, often narrower, declinate, flat 
or slightly concave. 

c. Fruiting calyx deflexed 6. Ocimum. 

cc. Fruiting calyx scarcely enlarging, often 

declinate 7. Moschosma. 

BB. Anterior lobe of corolla longer than others, 

concave or boat-shaped, 
c. Filaments connate at the base in a tube. . . 8. Coleus. 

cc. Filaments free 9. Plectran- 

AA. Subtribe 2. LAVANDTJLE.*. Sole genus 10. Lavandula. 

5. Monarda Tribe. 

A. Calyx tubular 11. Monarda. 

AA. Calyx bilabiate. 

B. Fertile anther-cells 2: upper Up of corolla 

4-lobed 12. Perowskia. 

BB. Fertile anther-cells 1: upper lip of corolla 

entire or bifid. 

c. Connective continuous with filament and 
not indicated unless by a slender 

reffexed tooth 13. Rosmarinus. 

cc. Connective articulated to the filament 
but not produced or very shortly acumi- 
nate 14. Audibertia. 

ccc. Connective elongated, versatile on the 
short filament, its sterile end continued 
beyond the articulation and either dila- 
ted or bearing an abortive rudiment 
of the second anther-cell 15. Salria. 

6. Nepeta Tribe. 

A. Calyx bilabiate or with the posterior tooth 

much wider than the others 16. Dracoceph- 

AA. Calyx tubular, mouth straight or oblique. [alum. 

B. Stamens erect or divergent; anther-cells 

parallel or at length divergent 17. Lophanthua. 

BB. Stamens ascending or straightish; anther- 
cells parallel 18. Cedronelta. 

BBB. Stamens ascending and parallel or in a few 
species rather lax and distant ; anther- 
cells divergent or divaricate 19. Nepeta. 

7. Stachys Tribe. 
Subtribe 1. Scutellarieae. 

' A. The calyx-lip entire 20. Scutellaria. 

AA. The posterior calyx-lip 3-toothed, anterior 

2-fid 21.BruneUa. 

Subtribe 2. Melitteae. 

A. Anther-celts parallel; calyx subequally 5- 

toothed 22. Physoategia. 

AA. Anther-cells divergent; calyx 3-lobed 23. Metittis. 

Subtribe 3. Marrubieee. 

Calyx 5-10-toothed; corolla-tube included; 

anther-cells at length confluent 24. Marrubium. 



Subtribe 4. Lamiea 

A. The posterior lip of corolla often short or flat, 

glabrous or pubescent 25. Colquhounia. 

AA. The posterior lip concave or fornicate, rarely 

flattish, usually villous. 
B. Teeth of calyx 0-13, rarely 5. 

c. Calyx very broad at apex 26. Moluccella. 

cc. Calyx long-tubular 27. Leonotis. 

BB. Teeth of calyx 5. 

c. Stamens often cast to one side after 

anthesis 28. Stachys. 

cc. stamens often hairy on the back of the 

anthers 29. Lamium. 

ccc. stamens often have the posterior fila- 
ments appendaged at the base 30. Phloma. 

8. Satureia Tribe. 
Subtribe 1. Pogostemoneae. 

Calyx, 5-toothed; corolla 4-cut; anterior lobes 

usually wider spreading 31 . Pogostemon. 

Subtribe 2. Menthoidese. 

A. Whorls spicate or racemose, not axillary. 
B. Calyx equal, erect, often elongated in fr.; 

whorls many-fld 32. Elshollzia. 

BB. Calyx subequal in anthesis, but declinate 
and bilabiate in fr. ; whorls 2-fld 

c. Nutlets smooth 33. Collinsmia. 

cc. Nutlets netted-vemed 34. Peritta. 

AA. Whorls axillary (or, in a few species of Men- 

tha, crowded in a dense terminal spike). 
B. Perfect stamens 4 35. Mentha. 

BB l er f ect 8 i amens 2 -; 36. Cunila. 

AAA. Whorls in dense heads surrounded by involu- 

cral bracts. 

B. Corolla sub-bilabiate; whorls densely many- 
c. Lobes of corolla ovate; heads often corym- 

bpse-panicled 37. p ycn anlhe- 

cc. Lobes of corolla oblong or linear; heads [mum. 

globose, solitary 38. Monardella. 

BB. Corolla bilabiate; whorls 2-fld., rarely more; 
heads solitary, crowded or corymbose 

AAAA. wK'few-fld:.' axillary'or 'the upper' ones 39 ' On <" mum ' 
spicate ; calyx-throat closed by villous hairs . 40. Thymus. 

AAAAA. Whorls axillary or the highest spicate ; calyx 
open-bell-shaped, equal. 

B. Calyx 10-nerved; stamens ascending 41. Satureia. 

BB. Calyx 15-nerved; stamens divergent 42. Hyssopus. 

Subtribe 3. Melisseie. 
A. Posterior lip of corolla concave, sickle-shape 

AA. Posterior lip of corolla flattish or slightly con- ' " ImMha 

B. Calyx distinctly 2-lippcd. 

c. Corolla-tube straight or slightly curved ... 44. Satureia S 
cc. Corolla-tube below the middle recurved- [Calamintha 

ascending 45. Melissa. 

BB. Calyx equal or sub-bilabiate. 

c. Perfect stamens 4 46 . Micromeria. 

cc. Perfect stamens 2 47. Hedeoma. 

t the <,.ipner a treated are: Eremostachys, Galeopsis, Pycnos- 
tachys, Sidentis, Synandra and Tinnea. 


One genus in cultivation Plantago. 


A. Fls. involucrate. 
B. Stigma with a small head; anthers didyna- 

BB. Stigma linear; anthers not didynamous. '.'.'.'. 2. Abronia. ' 
AA. Fls. not involucrate, but bracted. 

B. Bracts large, colored 3. Bougain- 

BB. Bracts very small . . 4. Pi^! 


A Anthers 2-celled. 
B. Ovary 2-ovuled. 

c. Fr. a utricle 

cc. Fr. berry-like 

BB. Ovary 1-ovuled. 

c. Ovule erect, with a short funiculus. 

D. Segms. of perianth stellate in fr.: fls. in 

terminal racemes: shrubs 3 

DD. Segms. of perianth upright in fr.: fls. in 

clusters or panicles: herbs. 4 

cc. Ovule suspended from the apex of 'an 

elongated funiculus. 

D. Perianth-segms. scarious at apex, con- 
nate at base 5 

DD. Perianth-segms. hyaline, membranous 

or somewhat papery, lanate 6 

AA. Anthers 1-celled. 

B. Fls. minute in glomerules or little-spiked 

along the sparse branches of the panicle.. 7 
BB. * Is. m heads or spikes rarely panicled. 
c. Stigmas 2. 

D. Perianth-segms. free or connate at base 8 
DD. Perianth-tube 5-cut, cristate or winged 

in fr 9 

cc. Stigma simple. 

D. Staminal tube short or long, with 5 an- 
ther-bearing awl-shaped lacinise and 

5 antherless lacinise interposed 10 

DD. Staminal tubes with no antherless 
lacinise interposed 






1. Celosia. 

2. Deeringia. 


A. Fls. with 4 bractlets, 2 of which are adnate to 

the perianth at the base, or higher. 

B. Embryo spiral : filaments straight in the bud. 1. BaseUa. 
BB. Embryo semi-annular: filaments recurved at 

apex or lower in the bud 2 Boussin- 

AA. Fls. with bractlets not adnate to perianth. (gauUia 

B. Embryo spiral: endosperm scant or 3. Salsola. 

BB. Embryo ring-shaped or horseshoe-shaped: 
endosperm copious. (Salicornia has con- 
duplicate embryo and no endosperm.) 
c. fat. and branches articulated: fls. im- 
mersed in caves in the superposed 

joints: no foliage-lvs 4 Salirnrnia 

cc. St. not articulated. 

D. Perianths heteromorphous; staminate 
without bracts, 3-5-Iobed or parted; 
pistillate usually 0: fls. with 2 bract- 
lets accrescent in fr. free or connate 
into a sack, and no perianth. 
E. Pistillate fls. without perianth, 3-4- 

toothed 5. Spinacia 

EE. Pistillate fls. with ample bracts which 

enlarge in fr. ; perianth 6. Atriplei. 

DD. Perianths homomorphous, i.e., not of 
two different forms in the same plant. 
E. Fls. hermaphrodite and feminine, sol- 
itary or glomerate : seed horizontal; 
embryo annular; albumen scant.. . . 7. Kochia. 
EE. Fls. glomerate, hermaphrodite or 
unisexual: seed erect, inverse or 
horizontal ; embryo annual or horse- 

F. Perianth-tube surrounded by a 
wing; stamens 5: seed horizontal 

b 9 Q y 8. Cydoloma. 

FF. Perianth 5-parted, usually un- 
changed in fr. : stamens 1-5: 
seed erect or horizontal, bony or 

leathery. 9. Chenopod- 

FFF. Perianth 5-lobed, hardened at the [ium 

base in fr.: seed horizontal, 
leathery JQ. Beta. 

The genus Ullucus, allied to Basella, is also described briefly. 


A. Ovary superior. 

B. Carpel 1 t . B ,- M - no . 

BB. Carpels 2- <*> , umted into a berry 2. Phytolacca. 

BBS. Carpels 1 or 2, united, the fr. with scales at 

AA. Ovary semi-inferior: fr. inferior. .... . . . . . . . . 4'. Agdestis. 


A. The fls. fascicled in the axils or at the nodes of 
infl. (In the first 3 genera sometimes along 
the rachis of infl.) 
B. Endosperm 3-6-Iobed with longitudinal 

grooves and usually ruminate, 
c. Fruiting perianth fleshy or berry-like at 
the base or everywhere, the nut in- 
cluded or exserted at the apex 1. Muehlen- 

cc. Fruiting perianth with fleshy or berry- [beckia, 

like tube, including the nut and often ad- 
nate to it, crowned by the unchanged 
connivent or marcescent limb 2. Coccolaba. 



ccc. Fruiting perianth enlarged, membranous 
or scarious, colored, outer segms. 
larger and broadly cordate, inner ones 

3. Antigonon. 

cccc. Fruiting perianth developing wings on 

the 3 outer parts 4. TYipioru. 

BB. Endosperm equable, entire. 

c. Perianth 5-merous, rarely 4-merous; 
styles usually filiform and stigmas 
usually capitate. 
D. Pistil 2-3-merous; stamens usually 6-8: 

shrubs, often spinescent 5. Atrapkaxia. 

DD. Pistil 3-merous: stamens 8 or fewer: 

herbaceous, rarely suffruticose. 
E. Nut entirely or nearly covered by 

the fruiting perianth 6. Polygonum. 

EE. Nut much longer than the fruiting 

perianth. 7. Fagopyrum. 

CC. Perianth 6-merous, rarely 4-merous^ 
D. Stamens 9, rarely 6; fruiting perianth 

unchanged: nut 3- winged 8. Rheum. 

DD. Stamens 6, rarely 9; inner segms. of 
fruiting perianth much enlarged, erect 

and including the 3-angled nut 9. Rumex. 

AA. The fls. in infl. dichotomously or umbellately 
branched, the floral Ivs. or bracts connate 
below the branches into one 3-cut bract, or 
free and 3-<*> in number 10. Eriooonum. 

The only genus Nepenthes. 

BBB. The perianth-segms. deciduous from base, 
fruiting tube flattened or disk-shaped and 

entire or truncate 4. Cinnamo- 

IAA. Anthers introrsely locellate; valves dehiscing [mum $ 

upward. [Camphora. 

B. Fls. in a short, lax raceme, accompanied by 

small and narrow bracts 5. Sassafras. 

BB. Fls. umbellate, capitate or rarely solitary; 
umbels or heads before an thesis included 
in a 4-6-bracted involucre. 

c. LocelUe of anther 4 6. UmbeUul- 

CC. Locellae 2. [aria. 

D. Stamens usually 9; fls. dioecious 7. Benzoin. 

DD. Stamens usually 12-20; fls. polygamous 8. Laurus. 

The genus Litsea is sparingly in cultivation. 


A. Stamens fewer than the corolla-lobes 1. Pimelea. 

AA. Stamens twice as many as corolla-lobes. 
B. Disk or a very short ring. 

c. Perianth-tube cylindrical; limb spread- 
ing 2. Daphne. 

cc. Perianth much swollen above, obliquely 

truncate; limb not spreading 3. Dirca. 

BB. Disk more or less lobed or oblique. 

c. Fls. 5-merous; disk cup-shaped 4. Dais. 

cc. Fls. 4-merous. 

D. The disk annular; lobes very short 5. Edgeworthia. 

DD. The disk 4-cut or 2-cut 6. Wikstramia. 

The genera Gnidia, Lagetta, and Thymelffia will also be found 
in the book. 


A. Perianth persistent, 3-lobed above ovary; 
regular stamens 12 surrounding the. style in 

2 aeries; anthers free 1. Asarum. 

AA. Perianth deciduous, irregular, polymorphous; 
anthers 6-co, adnate in 1 series to a stylar 
column . . * 2. Aristolochia. 


A. Stamens 3 1. Houtluynia. 

AA. Stamens 5-8. 

B. Carpels connate 2. Anemopsis. 

BB. Carpels distinct 3. Saururua. 

153. PIPERACE./E. 

A. Stamens 2-6; anther-cells usually distinct; 

stigmas 3-4, rarely 2 or 5 1. Piper. 

AA. Stamens 2, anther-cella confluent into one 
2-valyed anther; stigma terminal or lateral, 
penicillate or undivided 2. Peperomia. 


In cultivation Chloranthus. 


Series 1. Fr. an indehiscent nut or drupe: fls. usually solitary 
with a bract under each one. 

A. Fls. dioecious by abortion, regular 1. Leucaden- 

AA. Fls. hermaphrodite, irregular 2. Protea. 

Series 2. Fr. follicular, capsular or rarely indehiscent and sub- 
drupaceous : fls. usually in pairs along the rachis with only 1 bract 
for each pair. 

A. Ovules 2, collateral. 
B. Fls. racemose or fascicled; involucre none or 

inconspicuous; bracts deciduous. 
C. The ovules pendulous, orthotropous. 
D. Fr. scarcely or tardily dehiscent; 
pericarp thick, fleshy or hard; seeds 
with thick, often unequal cotyledons. 

E. Perianth-limb recurved 3. Guevina. 

EE. Perianth straight 4. Macadamia. 

DD. Fr. follicular or obliquely 2-valved; 

seeds compressed, margined or wing. . 5. Roupala. 
cc. The ovules laterally affixed or ascending. 

D. Seeds with or without a narrow wing. . . 6. Greviltea. 
DD. Seeds samara-like; wing oblong, ter- 
minal 7. Hakea. 

BB. Fls. in dense bracted spikes or cones 8. Banksia. 

AA. Ovules 4 or more. 

B. Fls. umbellate : seeds winged below 9. Stenocarpus. 

BB. Fls. in dense racemes: seeds samara-like, 

with an oblong terminal wing 10. Teiopea. 

BBB. Fls. twin, in short or long racemes: seeds 
samara-like with a terminal truncate 
wing 11- Lomatia. 

155. MYRISTICACE-ffi. 
Sole genus Mj/ristica. 


A. Stamens numerous; anther-cells dehiscing in 

a 2-valved fashion by a longitudinal crack.. . 1. Peumus. 
AA. Stamens C-12; anther-cells dehiscing above. .. 2. Lauretta, 

157. LAURACE-E. 

A. Anthers 2-loeellate, valves laterally dehiscent 

or quickly deciduous 1. Hemandia. 

AA. Anthers extrorsely locellate, valves dehiscent 

yip wards. 

B. The whole perianth persisting under the fr., 
appresseu or slightly spreading; perianth 

sometimes deciduous from the base 2. Peraea 

BB. The perianth-segmH. at length transversely 

cut, leaving the fruiting tube bell-nhaped [mum. 

or expanded and G-toothed 3. Cinnamo- 

160. EL-/EAGNACE.S:. 

A. Lvs. alternate: stamens 4. 

B. Fls. hermaphrodite 1. Elxagnus. 

BB. Fls. unisexual, usually dioecious 2. HippophaS. 

AA. Lvs. opposite: stamens 8 3. Shcpherdia. 


A. Perianth double 1. Loranthus. 

AA. Perianth single or simple 2. Phoraden- 


Viscum is also of general interest. 


A. Plant herbaceous, low 1. Comandra. 

AA. Plant woody, shrubs or trees. 

H. Fls. perfect 2. Santalum. 

BB. Fls. dioecious or polygamous. 

r. Lvs. alternate 3. Pi/rufana. 

cc. Lvs. opposite 4. Buckleya. 




Sole genus Ptatanus. 

The only genus . Leitneria. 

164. MORACE^E. 

A. Anthers reversed on the bud with inflexed 

B. The male fls. spicate, racemose or capitate; 

female globose, capitate. 
c. Female perianth dentate 1. Broussonc- 

cc. Female perianth deeply 4-fid 2. Madura. 

BB. The fls. of either sex spicate; spikes short 

and dense or long and lax 3. Morus. 

BUB. The fla. crowded on fleshy receptacle 4. Dorstenia. 

AA. Anthers erect from the beginning. 

B. Plants, trees or shrubs: fls. usually on a 
9 fleshy receptacle. 

c. The receptacle fleshy, globose or ovoid, 
clearly inclosing the numerous 6s., but 
with a small mouth which is bracteate 

introrsely; the mouth is closed in fr 5. Ficus. 

cc. The receptacle androgynous, male fls. 
numerous, females solitary in the 

center of the receptacle 6. Brosimum. 

ccc. The receptacle unisexual, with an invo- 
lucre of numerous bracts overlapping in 

series 7. Antiaris. 

cccc. The fl.-clusters unisexual, with or without 
3-4 bracts at the base, in heads, spikes, 
rarely in racemes or the female 1-fld. 

D. Stamens 4 8. Cudrania. 

DD. Stamens 1 9. Artocarpus. 

BB. Plants, herbs: fls. not on a fleshy receptacle. 
c. St. climbing: Ivs. opposite: embryo 

spirally involute 10. Humulus. 

cc. St. not climbing: Ivs. alternate or the 

lowest opposite: embryo curved 11. Cannabis. 

Coussapoa is also briefly treated. 


A. Hairs stinging. 

B. Achene straight 1. Urtica. 

BB. Achene oblique 2. Urera. 

AA. Hairs harmless. 

B. Perianth of the female fl., 3-5-parted. 

c. Lvs. opposite: stamens 4, rarely 2-3 3. Pilea. 

cc. Lvs. alternate, distichous, oblique at 

base: stamens 5 t rarely 4 4. Pellionia. 

BB. Perianth of the female fl. tubular, inclosing 
the achene, not adnate: Ivs. opposite or 

alternate: fls. in clusters or panicles 5. Boehmeria. 

BBB. Perianth of the female fl. tubular adnate to 
the achene: Ivs. alternate, tomentose be- 
low: fls. in globular heads often forming 
cymes G. Debregeasia. 

Helxine, Parietaria, and Pipturus are described. 

166. ULMACE^E. 

A. Fr. drupaceous: fls. on the young growth. 
B. Cotyledons very broad. 

c. Sepals connate; style excentric 1. Zelkova. 

cc. Sepals distinct or nearly so; style cen- 

D. Fr. globose, not winged 2. Celtis. 

DD. Fr. winged 3. Pteroceltis. 

BB. Cotyledons narrow. 

c. Fertile fls. perfect; fls. in cymes 4. Trema. 

cc. Fertile fls. unisexual, solitary, staminate 

in cymes before the Ivs 5. Aphananthe. 

AA. Fr. not drupaceous, winged or muricate: 
fls. on last year's branches. 

B. Fr. stalked, surrounded by a broad wing 6. Ulmus. 

BB. Fr. not winged, everywhere somewhat 

fleshy and muricate 7. Planera. 


A. The fls. of either sex in erect spikes, imbricate- 

bractate 1. Phiti/carya. 

AA. The staminate fls. in pendulous catkins; pis- 
tillate fls. spicate or Bubsolitary. 
B. In germinating, cotyledons are borne above 

ground and remain green 2. Pterocarya. 

BB. In germinating, cotyledons remain inside 

the nut. 
c. Husk at length splitting into segms.; nut 

smooth or angled 3. Carya. 

cc. Husk indehiscent; nut wrinkled or 

sculptured 4. Juglans. 


A. Lvs. serrate or entire, not stipulate: ovary 

subtended by 2-4 bractlets 1, Myrica. 

AA. Lvs. pinnatifid, stipulate: ovary subtended by 

8 linear, persistent bractlets 2. Comptonia. 


Sole genus Casuarina. 


A. Ovules 2 in each cell of ovary: plant without 

milky juice (or red juice in Bischofia). 
B. Lvs. alternate, simple (sometimes opposite 

in Poranthera). 
c. Calyx of staminate fls. imbricate. 

D. Petals present, at least in staminate 


E. Plant a shrub with broad, glabrous 
or somewhat hairy Ivs. : ovary 

3-celled . l. Andrachne. 

EE. Plant a tree, with scaly herbage: 

ovary 1-celled 2. Mxtoxicon. 

EEE. Plant a heath-like sub-shrub: Ivs. 

narrow, with recurved margin 3. Poranthera 

DD. Petals p. 

E. Fls. single or in axillary clusters. 
F. Styles slender or only broadened 

at apex. 

o. Rudimentary pistil present in 
staminate fls.; disk present: 
Ivs. entire. 
H. Seed grooved on inner face: 

disk of pistillate fl. lobed ... 4. Fluggm. 
HH. Seed not grooved: disk en- 
tire 5. Securinega, 

ao. Rudimentary pistil absent. 

H. Disk present 6. Phyttanthus. 

HH. Disk absent, at least from 
pistillate fls. 

I. Fr. a caps 7, Glochidion, 

n. t r. more or less fleshy. 

j. The styles 2-parted 8. Breynia. 

jj. The styles almost entire. . 9. Sauropus. 
FF. Styles broad, spreading. 

o. Stamens arising from a disk. 
H. Staminate fls. with rudi- 
mentary pistil 10. Drypetes. 

HH. Staminate fls. without rudi- 
mentary pistil 11. Hemicyclia. 

GG. Stamens 2-4, without disk 12. Putranjiva. 

EE. Fls. in elongated catkin-like or 
branched inn., dioecious: Ivs. large, 
broad and plane. 

F. Ovary 1-celled; stamens 2-5 13. Antidesma, 

FF. Ovary 2-5-celled. 

a. Staminate fls. with rudimentary 

pistil 14. Baccaurea. 

GG. Staminate fls. without rudimen- 
tary pistil 15. Daphniphyl- 

cc. Calyx of staminate fls. valvate; petals [/urn., 

small 16. Lebidierop- 

BB. Lvs. alternate, compound 17. Bischofia. 

BBB. Lvs. opposite, compound 18. Oldfieldia. 

BBBB. Lvs. whorled, simple. 19. Hyzenanche. 

AA. Ovules 1 in each cell of the ovary. 

B. Fls. produced singly or in ordinary infl. 
c. Stamens incurved in the bud; pubescence 

stellate or scaly; juice not milky 20. Croton. 

cc. Stamens erect in the bud. 

D. Juice not milky (see also Codiseum and 
relatives): calyx valvate: Ivs. simple. 

E. Staminate fls. with petals: herbs 21. Chrozophora. 

EE. Staminate fls. apetalous. 

F. Stamens much branched: herbs 
with Ivs. palmatcly veined 

and peltate 22. Ricinut. 

FF. Stamens not branched. 

G. Lvs. opposite: styles free (see 

also Mallotus). 
H. The stamens as many as 50. .23. Trewia. 

HH. The stamens 8-20 24. Mercurialis. 

G'i. Lvs. alternate, or rarely oppo- 

H. Plant a thorny shrub: sta- 
mens 8-15 25. Adelia. 

HH. Plant with holly-like spiny 

margined Ivs.: stamens 3-8. 26. Alchornea. 



mm. Plant unarmed or with sting- 
ing hairs, 
i. Styles free or united only at 


j. Anther-cells spherical to 

K. Anthers 2-celled 27. Afallotua. 

KK. Anthers 3-4-celled : Ivs. 

usually peltate 28, Macaranya. 

jj. Anther-cells elongated, 

often vermiform 29. Acalypha. 

n. Styles united above the 

base: st. often climbing, 
j. Infl. without conspicuous 


K. Number of stamens 
usually 3; styles free 

at apex 30. Tragia. 

KK. Number of stamens 
8-30; styles united 
to the apex into a 

swollen column 31. Plukenetia. 

jj. Infl. subtended by a con- 
spicuous involucre 32. Dalecham- 

DD. Juice almost always more or less milky [p*. 

(chief exceptions in Cluytia and 
E. The fls. with petals, at least the 

F. Calyx valvate. 

o. Lvs. simple, palmate 33. Aleurites. 

oo. Lvs. compound 34, Joannesia. 

IT. Calyx imbricate. 

G. Petals free from one another. 
H. The stamens in 2 or more 


I. Number of stamens about 
10: Ivs. usually palmately 

veined 35. Jatropha. 

ii. Number of stamens 15-30 
or more : Ivs. pinnately 

veined: styles entire 36. Codixum. 

HH. The stamens in 1 whorl, 

usually about 3-5 37. Cluytia. 

GO. Petals connate: Ivs. usually 

palmately veined. 
H. Some of the filaments united: 

Ivs. simple 35. Jatropha. 

HH. Filaments free:l vs. compound.38. Ricinoden- 
EE. The fls. apetalous. [dron. 

p. Sepals valvate or slightly im- 
bricate in some. 

o. Lvs. trifoliate 39. Hevea. 

GO. Lvs. simple, pinnately veined. 
H. Number of stamens 3: Ivs. 

spiny margined 40. Pachy- 

HH. Number of stamens 1: Ivs. not [stroma. 

spiny 41. Ophthal- 

FF. Sepals or lobes of calyx, if any, im- [moblapton. 

bricate: Ivs. simple. 
a. Number of stamens usually 10 or 

more (5-50 J. 

H. Staminate calyx with 5 sepals 
connate, at least at base: 
Ivs. usually palmately 
veined: st. erect. 

i. Herbage with stinging hairs. 35. Jatropha. 
n. Herbage usually glabrous. . .42. Manihot. 
HH. Staminate calyx 3-5-lobed: 
Ivs. pinnately veined: st. 

climbing or trailing 43. Afabea. 

H. Staminate calyx of 1 or 2 

sepals 44. Homalan- 

H. Staminate calyx cupulate, [thus. 

truncate or dentate: Ivs. 

broad, hairy 45, Hura. 

GQ. Number of stamens 1-5. 

H. Staminate calyx with 4-5 free 

sepals: st. climbing 46. Omphalia. 

HH. Staminate calyx with 2-3 
sepals, free or connate at 
i. Infl. usually terminal: seed 

carunculate 47. Sebastiana. 

11. Infl. usually axillary: seed 

not carunculate 48. Exaecaria. 

HHH. Staminate calyx with con- 
nate sepals, 1-3-lobed. 
I. The stamens 2-3. 
j. Stamens free. 

K. Base of caps, persistent 

as a pointed piece. . .49. Sapium. 
KK. Base of caps, not per- 
sistent, only a 3- 
parted central 
column remaining. . .50. Stiltingia. 
jj. Stamens united. 

K. Pistil 4-celled 51. Maprounia. 

KK. Pistil G-9-celled 52. Hippomane. 

ii. The stamens 1 

j. Infl. terminal 51. Maprounia. 

jj. Infl. lateral or axillary. . .41. Ophthal- 
HIIHH. Staminate calyx 0, or rarely [moblapton. 

1-2 minute scales 53. CoUiguaya, 

BB, Fls. in c:yathia (see explanation under 

c. Cyathia regular or nearly so. 

o. Involucral glands free from one 
another, alternate with lobes of 

involucre 54. Euphorbia. 

DD. Involucral glands united into a ring 

around the lobes 55. Synadenium. 

cc. Cyattua decidedly irregular 56. Pedilanthut. 

172. BUXACE-E. 

A. Cells of ovary with 2 ovules each; stamena 4. 
B. Lvs. alternate. 

c. Evergreen shrubs: Ivs. entire 1. Sarcococca. 

cc. Evergreen herbs: Ivs. dentate 2. Pachys- 


BB. Lvs. opposite 3. Buxua. 

A A. Cells of ovary with 1 ovule each; stamens 

numerous: Ivs. opposite 4. Simmond- 


173. BETULACE^;. 

A. Staminate fls. with 4 perianth-segms. or by 
abortion fewer (Birch Tribe). 

B. Stamens 2 1. Betula. 

BB. Stamens 4 2. Alnits. 

AA. Staminate fls. with no perianth (Hazel Tribe). 

B. Nut large, inclosed by a leafy involucre: 

staminate fls. with 2 bractlets; pistillate 

fls. 2-4, capitate 3. Corylut. 

BB. Nut small, subtended by or inclosed in a 
large bractlet: staminate fls. with no 
bractlets; pistillate catkins spike-like. 
c. Fruiting bractlet flat, 3-cleft and incised. . 4. Carpinus. 
cc. Fruiting bractlet bladder-like, closed* 

membranous 5. Ostrya, 

174. FAGACE-ffi. 

A. Ovary of pistillate fls. 6-celled ; spikes of either 
sex erect and strict: fruiting involucre or bur 

densely covered with strong pickles 1. Castanea. 

AA. Ovary of pistillate fls. 3-celled, rarely 4- or 5- 

celled in some species of Quercus. 
B. Staminate fls. 1-3 in a cluster: Ivs. usually 

small 2. Nothofagu*. 

BB. Staminate fls. in loose, roundish pendulous 

heads: Ivs. generally large 3. Fagus. 

BBS. Staminate fla in pendulous catkins or the 

spikes of either sex erect and strict. 
c. Involucre of numerous scales forming 

a cup in f r. and subtending the acorn. ... 4. Quercus. 
cc. Involucre in fr. armed with clusters of 
prickles or tubercles, wholly including 
the fr. f perfectly closed or at length 
split irregularly 5. Castanopsis 

175. SALICACE-ffi. 

A. Lvs. usually narrow: disk composed of 1 or 2 
glands which are distinct or barely connate 

at base 1. Salix. 

AA. Lvs. usually broad: disk cyathiform, often 

oblique or cup-shaped, entire or lobed.. . . 2. Populus. 


A. Fls. axillary, solitary; stamens 3; pistil 6-9- 

merous 1. Empetrum. 

AA. Fls. axillary in -'* '"' 3's; stamens 2; pistil 

2-merous 2. Ceratiola. 

AAA. Fls. subcapitate; stamens usually 3; pistil 3- 

merous 3. Corema. 


Ovule-bearing blade, long-stalked, shortly 2-co 
cut at apex, the lobes dilated into a ring or 
short cup adnate to the seed: anther-cells 2, 
pendulous: Ivs. fan-shaped Ginkgo. 



178. GNETACEjE. 

Leafless shrubs with jointed branches and scales 

opposite the nodes connate into a little sheath. . Ephedra. 

The very curious genus Welwitschia may be found in botanical 

179. TAXACE.E. 

A. Anthers 2-celled: tropical or subtropical trees 

and shrubs. 

B. Scales of pistillate aments few, adnate to 
peduncle and with it usually fleshy: Ivs. 

linear to ovate, rarely scale-like 1. Podocarpus. 

BB. Scales of pistillate aments short, broad and 
somewhat fleshy, imbricate: Ivs. minute 
and scale-like: branchlets flattened and 

If.-like 2. Phulloc- 

AA. Anthers 3-8-celled: Ivs. linear: hardy or nearly [Indus. 

hardy trees and shrubs. 

B. Pistillate fls. consisting of several decussate 
2-ovuled carpicles: Ivs. with 2 glaucous 
lines below broader than the 3 green 

lines 3. Cephalo- 

BB. Pistillate fls. reduced to 1 ovule. [lazus. 

c. Carpicles at maturity inclosing the seed 
and adnate to it: anthers 4-celled, cells 
free: Ivs. with 2 glaucous lines below 

narrower than the green lines 4. Torreya. 

CC. Carpicles at maturity partly inclosing the 
seed, not adnate to it: anthers 6-8- 
celled, cells connate: Ivs. pale green 
below 5. Taxus. 

180. PINACE.E. 

A. Lvs. spirally arranged. 
B. Carpicles simple; ovule 1, reversed; 

cone-scales with 1 seed 1. AHAUCAHIA TRIBE. 

BB. Carpicles divided into scale and 

bract, sometimes connate. 
C. Ovules 2, reversed ; scale and bract 
always distinct; cone-scales with 

2 usually winged seeds 2. ABIES TRIBE. 

CO. Ovules 2-8, axillary and upright or 
on the scale and at least finally 
reversed; cone-scales with 2-8 


AA. Lvs. opposite or whorled, often scale- 
like: ovules upright 4. CUPRESSCS TRIBE. 

1. Araucaria Tribe. 

A. Seeds free from the scale, with 1 or 2 wings: 
Ivs. broad, generally elliptic, more or less 

distichous and rather remote 1. Agathia. 

AA. Seeds adnate to the winged or wingless scale: 
Ivs. large, scale-like or needle-shaped, 
spirally arranged, crowded 2. Araucaria. 

2. Abies Tribe. 

A. Foliage deciduous, partly fascicled. 
B. Male fls. solitary in a leafless scaly bud; con- 
nective not produced beyond anther-cells 
nor scarcely prominent: cones reflexed; 

scales persistent 3. Larix. 

BB. Male fls. clustered, pendulous: cone-scales 

deciduous 4. Paeudolarix. 

AA. Foliage evergreen. 

B. Connective of anthers usually produced into 

a scale-like appendage, 
c. Male fls. subspicate at base of new shoots: 
cone-scales persistent: Ivs. in clusters of 

2-5, rarely solitary 5. Pinus. 

cc. Male fls. solitary in the cluster of Ivs. 
which terminate short branchlets: cone- 
scales finally deciduous : Ivs. partly fas- 
cicled as in the larch 6. Cedna. 

ccc. Male fls. solitary in the axils: cones 
reflexed; scales persistent: Ivs. solitary, 
4-angled or flattened and glaucous 

above, green on the back 7. Picea. 

BB. Connective of anthers simply umbonate 

beyond the cells or hardly prominent; 

male fls. solitary in axils: Ivs. solitary, 

usually flattened, glaucous or paler below. 

c. Cones reflexed ; scales persistent. 

D. Subtending bract conspicuous 8. Paeudotauga. 

DD. Subtending bract small 9. Tango. 

CC. Cones erect. 

D. Scales peristent; seeds about as long as 
scales; bracts much shorter than 
scales: Ivs. flattened, keeled above, 
pale below 10. Kettleeria. 

DD. Scales deciduous; seeds shorter than 
scales; bracts shorter or longer: Ivs. 
flattened and grooved above, usually 
glaucous below.rarely 4-angled 11. Abies. 

3. Taxodium Tribe. 

A. Lvs. connate into pairs, arranged in whorls: 
ovule-bearing blade finally much increased 
and hardened, making the greater part of the 

woody cone 12. Sciadopit V s. 

AA. Lvs. solitary, scattered. 
B. Scales of cone flat. 

c. Carpicles entire at apex: anther-cells 2-4: 
seeds surrounded by a narrow wing: Ivs. 
lanceolate flat, rather large, glaucous 

_ below 13. Cunning- 

cc. Carpicles toothed at the apex: anther-cells [hamia. 

4-5: seeds 2-3-angled: Ivs. awl-shaped, 

curved 14. Cryptomeria. 

BB. Scales peltate. 

c. Seeds usually 5, narrowly winged: Ivs. 

scale-like or linear, persistent 15. Sequoia. 

cc. Seeds 2, angular: Ivs. linear, deciduous 

with the branchlets 16. Taxodium. 

4. Cupressus Tribe. 
A. Fr. a cone. 

B. Cone-scales all fertile, 4-8, forming appar- 
ently 1 whorl: Ivs. usually scale-like, 
opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely 

alternate on sterile branches 17. Callitria. 

BB. Cone-scales fertile at middle of cone and 

sterile at top and base 18. Fitzroya. 

BBB. Cone-scales partly fertile, partly empty, 
arranged in opposite pairs: Ivs. scale-like, 
opposite only on juvenile branches, some- 
times needle-shaped. 
c. Scales of cone imbricate. 

D. Seeds 4-5; pairs of scales 34 (exclud- 
ing the upper connate pair) 19. Tkujopsia. 

DD. Seeds 2. 

E. Pairs of scales 4, the upper pair fertile.20. Libocedrua. 
EE. Pairs of scales 6-8; the 2 upper pairs 

, fertile 21. Thuja. 

CC. Scales of cone peltate. 

D. Number of seeds 2; cones small. 

E. Wings of seeds very large, unequal. 22. Fokienia. 

EE. Wings of seeds narrow, equal 23. Cham&cyp- 

DD. Number of seeds many; cones usually [aria. 

rather large and woody 24. Cupressus. 

AA. Fr. fleshy, indehiscent berry or drupe, with 
2-6 fertile scales: Ivs. scale-like, opposite 
or needle-shaped and usually in 3's 25. Juniperua. 

Consult also the genus Athrotaxis, allied to Celphalotaxus and 


A. Lf.-segms. circinately involute in vernation: 
female cones proliferous after anthesis; 
scales elongate, the margins bearing 2 to 

many ovules I. 

AA. Lf.-segms. straight in vernation: female cones 

deciduous after anthesis; scales peltate. 
B. Cone-scales superposed in vertical series. 
c. Shield of the scales transversely 2-horned 

"apex . 2. Ceralozamia. 

cc. Shield of the scales truncate, not horned 

at apex 3. Zamia. 

BB. Cone-scales overlapping in alternating 


c. The !f.-segms. ribbed and nerved; nerves 
spreading on either side of midrib, very 

numerous, simple or forked 4. Stangeria. 

cc. The If.-segms. with parallel, longitudinal 

D. Shield of cone-scales flat, erect, ovate- 

cordate 5. Dioon. 

DD. Shield thickened, ascending, usually 
prolonged into an erect, acuminate 

^blade 6. Macrozamia. 

DDD. fehield thickened truncate, decurved at 

apex 7. Encephal- 

The genera Bowenia and Microcycas are also included. 


A. St. elongated, submerged, everywhere leafy: 
Ivs. short spathes small, sessile in axils: 

placentae little prominent in ovary 1. Elodta. 

AA. St. very short, sometimes emitting creeping 
or floating stolons: Ivs. crowded, immersed, 
sessile, elongated : spathes pedunculate : 
placentae hardly prominent 2. Vallisneria. 



AAA. St. very short: Ivs. crowded, some sessile and 
submerged , others (except in Stratiotes ) 
long-stalked, with a floating blade: spathes 
peduncled: placentae of 2 lamellse, strongly 
intruded, dividing the ovary more or lesa 
perfectly into 6 cells. 

B. Styles 3; stamens 3-9 3. Ltmnobtum. 

BB. Styles 6, 2-fid. 

c. Stamens with 6 2-fid filaments, of which 

3 have 2 anthers and 3 have 1 anther 4. Hydrocharis. 

cc. Stamens 11-15 .' 5. Stratiotes. 

7. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Fertile stamens 2, with a broad shield- 
shaped sterile one (staminodium) . . 1. CYPRIPEDHJM 
AA. Fertile stamen 1, with no staminodium. [TRIBE. 

B. Anther persistent; pollinia with basal 
' appendages. 
c. The anther erect. 

D. Stigma flat, unappendaged 2. SERAPIAS TRIBE. 

DD. Stigma with appendages 3. HABENARIA TRIBE. 

cc. The anthers placed obliquely 4. SATYRIUM TRIBE. 

BB. Anther usually readily deciduous; 
pollinia not appendaged or with 
terminal ones. 
c. Infl. terminal. 

D. Lf.-buds convolute. 

E. Lf.-blade not jointed to stalk. 

F. The anther commonly 

much exceeding the beak 

of the column which is 

not distinctly cut. 

o. Lip without hypochil, 

usually spurless. 
H. St. short, with only 

1 or 2 Ivs 5. POGONIA TRIBE. 

HH. St. long, with many 


GO. Lip with distinct hypo- 
chil, which is often 


FF. The [anther commonly [TRIBE. 

about as long as the beak 
of the column which 
usually bears a sharp cut 
or groove. 

Q. Pollinia waxy or pow- 
dery, not divided. 

H. Lip turned down 8. SPIRANTHES TRIBE. 

HH. Lip turned up 9. CRANICHIS TRIBE. 

GO. Pollinic divided into dis- 
tinct masses 10. PHYSURUS TRIBE. 

EE. Lf.-blade distinctly jointed to 

the petiole. 

F. Pollinia 8: st. slender: fls. 
usually with spurs or 

chins 11. THTJNIA TRIBE. 

FF. Pollinia 4: st. a short pseu- 
dobulb: fls. without spurs 

or chins 12. CGSLOGYNE TRIBE. 

DD. Lf.-buds conduplicate. 

E. Sepals and petals about 
equally developed, the lip 
usually very conspicuous. 
F. Lvs. usually not jointed: 

column footless 13. LIPARIS TRIBE. 

FF. Lvs. usually jointed. 
G. Nerves of Ivs. 1. 

H. Pollinia 2-4, with very 

short stalks 14. POLTBTACHYA 

HH. Pollinia 4-8, with dis- [TRIBE. 

tinct caudicles. 

i. Column-foot forming 

a chin with the 

lateral sepals or a 

short sac with the 

lip 15. PONEHA TRIBE. 

n. Column footless 16. CATTLEYA TRIBE. 

OG. Nerves of Ivs. several 17. SOBRALIA TRIBE. 

EE. Sepals much more developed 

than the petals and lip 18. PLEUROTHALLIS 

cc. Infl. lateral, or on separate shoot. [TRIBE. 

D. Lf.-buds convolute. 

E. St. slender or gradually 

F. Pollinia with caudicles but 

without stalks 19. PHAJUS TRIBE. 

FF. Pollinia without caudicles 

but with stalks. 
G. lap jointed to column- 
foot or forming a spur [TRIBE. 

with it 20. CYRTOPODIUM 

*For explanation of orchid flowers and of terms, see the 
article Orchids. 

GO. Lip not jointed, often 

with a distinct hypochil. 21. CATABETTJM TRIBE. 
EE. St. a short distinct pseudo- 

F. Lip jointed to the column- 

o. Callus-ridges length wise.. 22. LYCASTE TRIBE. 
GG. Callus-ridges transverse .23. ZYGOPETALUM 
FF. lap continuous with col- (TRIBE. 

umn-foot 24. GONGOBA TRIBE. 

DD. Lf.-buds conduplicate. 

E. St. terminating its growth in 

1 year. 
F. Lip movably jointed to foot 

of column. 

G. Lvs. not strap-shaped: 
pollinia unappendaged 
or with either caudicles 
or stipes, but not with 

H. Flowering st. arising 
from near the apex 
of the slender st. or 
from the pseudobulb.25. DENDROBITJM 
BH. Flowering st. arising [TRIBE. 

under the pseudo- 
bulb or at the base of 
the st. 

I. Pollinia without ap- 
pendages 26. BULBOPHYLLUM 

ii. Pollinia with distinct [TRIBE. 


j. Pseudobulbs usu- 
ally present: flow- 
ering st. arising 
lower than new 

growth 27. MAXILLARIA 

33. Pseudobulbs usu- [TRIBE. 

ally wanting: 
flowering st. 
arising higher 
than new 

growth 28. HUNT-LET A TRIBE. 

GG. Lvs. strap-shaped: pol- 
linia with broad cau- 
dicles and stipes 29. CYMBIDIUM TRIBE. 

FF. Lip immovably united to 
foot of column. 

G. Fls. with spurs 30. IONOPSIS TRIBE. 

GG. Fls. without spurs. 

H. The fls. narrow, not 

open 31. ADA TRIBE. 

HH. The fls. wide, open, 
i. Lip enrolled around 

the column 32. TRICHOPILIA 

ii. Lip not enrolled. [TRIBE. 

j. The lip united to 
column to the 

middle 33. ASPASIA TRIBE. 

jj. The lip united 
only to the base 

of the column. ..34. ODONTOGI.OSSUM 
EE. St. increasing in length from [TRIBE. 

year to year 35. AERIDES TRIBE. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Cypripedium Tribe. 

A. Fl. persistent, withering on the ovary: lf.- 

buds conv9lute 1. Cypriped- 

AA. Fl. soon deciduous: If.-buds conduplicate. [turn. 

B. Ovary 3-celled, the placentae central; 

mouth of lip with broad inturned margin. . 2. Phragmoped- 
BB. Ovary 1 -celled, the placenta parietal: [Hunt. 

mouth of Up usually with no broad 

inturned margins 3. Paphio- 


2. Serapias Tribe. 

A. Lip spurred. 

B. Sepals free 4. Orchis, 

BB. Sepals united into an arching hood 5. Galeorchis. 

AA. Lip spurless. 

B. Pollinia glands in a single sac 6. Serapias. 

BB. Pollinia glands separate, in 2 distinct sacs. . . 7. Ophrys. 

3. Habenaria Tribe. 

A. Lip adnate to column at base; stigma broad.. . 8. Cynorchis. 
AA. Lip free; stigma slender 9. Habenaria. 

4. Satyrium Tribe 
Dorsal sepal helmet-shaped 10. Disa. 



5. Pogonia Tribe. 

A. Fls. on a scape with a terminal whorl of If.-like 

bracts 11. Isotria. 

AA. Fls. on a leafy st. 

B. Lip crested 12. Pugonia. 

BB. Lip not crested 13. Triphora. 

6. Vanilla Tribe. 

Sts. rooting at nodes 14. Vanilla. 

7. Cephalanthera Tribe. 

A. Fls. with a chin; lip long 15. Cephalan- 

AA. Fls. chinless; lip round 16. Epipactis. 

8. Spiranthes Tribe. 

A. Dorsal sepal forming a hood with the petals. 

B. Infl. 1 -sided; fls. without a chin 17. Spiranthes. 

BB. Infl. not 1-sided; fls. with a chin 18. Stenorrhyn- 

AA. Sepals and petals spreading 19. Liatera. 

9. Cranichis Tribe. 

Lip and petals inserted upon the elongated 

column 20. Ponthieca. 

16. Cattleya Tribe. 

A. Anther not toothed, nor in an excavation. 
B. Pollinia 4. 

c. Lip adnate to the column, at least at it* 

D. Ovary produced into a hollow neck 49. Broughlonia. 

DD. Ovary not so produced SO. Epiden- 

CC. Lip free. [drum. 

D. The lip flat, with 2 elevations on upper 

side 51. Diacrium. 

DD. The lip enrolled about column, with 

no elevations 52. Cattleya. 

BB. Pollinia 5-7, some of them often abortive. . ..53. Lselio- 
BBB. Pollinia 8. \cattlejja. 

c. Stigma pitted upon the front of the 

column; anther inclined. 
D. Base of Up gradually merging into 


E. Lip distinctly surrounding the 
column; sepals and petals not 

wavy 54. Lxlia. 

EE. Lip not as above; sepals and petals 

distinctly wavy 55. Schom- 

DD. Base of lip tightly encompassing col- [burgkia. 

umn, suddenly broadened into the 

broad blade 56. lirassavola. 

cc. Stigma running up on 2 extensions of the 

column-apex; anther erect 57. Sophronitit 

AA. Anther 2-toothed below, in an excavation in 

the column 58. Leptotea. 

10. Physurus Tribe. 

A. Lip with a distinct spur. 

B. Lvs. green: lip concave above the spur 21. Physurut. 

BB. Lvs. usually variegated: lip with a long 

fimbriate claw 22. 

AA. Lip spurless or nearly so. 

B. Column straight ; fls. symmetric. 

c. The Up not clawed 23. 

CO. The lip clawed 24. 

BB. Column twisted; fls. not symmetric. 

c. The column with 2 upright appendages in 

front 25. 

CO. The column without appendages 26. 

A nvcto- 


. Gottdyera. 
. Dossinia. 


11. Thunia Tribe. 

A. Fls. without chin. 

B. Sts. without basal pseudobulbs 27. Thunia. 

BB. Sts. with basal pseudobulbs 28. BletiUa. 

AA. Fls. with a distinct chin, formed of lateral 

sepals and column-foot 29. Trichosma. 

12. Ccelogyne Tribe. 

A. Base of lip with sac-like hollow. 

B. Column short, winged above; sepals flat 30. Pholidola. 

BB. Column slender; sepals sac-like, concave. . . 31. Neogyne 
AA. Base of lip Hat. 

B. Column slender, without horns. 

c. Lvs. and pseudobulbs perennial 32. Caelogyne. 

cc. Lvs. and pseudobulbs annual 33. Pleione. 

BB. Column short, with 2 horns 34. Platydinia. 

13. Liparis Tribe. 

A. Lvs. green : fls. without chin. 

B. Lip shoe-shaped 35 Calypso. 

BB. Lip not shoe-shaped. 

c. Column short; lip turned upward 36. Microatylis. 

cc. Column slender; lip turned downward. ... 37. Liparu. 

AA. Lvs. wanting: fls. with chin 38. Carallor- 


14. Polystachya Tribe. 
A. Lip spurred. 

B. Plant tuberous: spur slender 39. Tipularia. 

BB. Plant not tuberous: spur funnel-shaped 40. Galeandra. 

AA. Lip not spurred. 
B. The lip 3-Iobed. 

c. Column short; chin distinct 41. Polyatachya. 

cc. Column slender, curved; chin indistinct ..42. Ansellia. 

BB. The lip entire 43. Neoben- 


15. Ponera Tribe. 
A. Lip normal. 
B. St. slender, Ieafy;nop9eudobulbs:pollinia4. 44. Isonhilui. 

BB. St. a pseudobulb: pollinia 8 45. Cxlia. 

AA. Lip forming a beaker-like cavity, with the 
column, or the former hollow at base. 

B. Young shoots at the apex of the old 46. Heiisea. 

BB. Young shoots from base of old. 

c. Fls. in dense spikes; pollinia 8 47. Arpophi/l- 

CC. Fls. in short clusters; pollinia 4 48. Hartwegia. 

17. Sobralia Tribe. 

A. St. many-lvd., not bulbous at base: lip not 

bearded 59. Sobralia. 

AA. St. 1- or 2-lvd., bulbous at base: lip bearded.. .60. Calopogan. 

18. Pleurothallis Tribe. 

A. Lip turned upward; lateral sepals united 

into a boat-shaped hood 61. Scapho- 

AA. Lip turned down. [sepalum. 

B. Sepals united 62. Masdevallia. 

BB. Sepals free, or the lateral only united. 

c. Dorsal sepal and petals attenuated into a 

club-shaped apex 63. Restrepia. 

cc. Dorsal sepal and petals not as above .... 64. Pleurothallis. 




A plectrum. 
A cantho- 

19. Phajus Tribe. 

A. Lvs. not articulated to petiole. 

B. Lip free, encompassing the column 65. 

BB. Lip adnate to column, the blade spreading. . 66. 
AA. Lvs. articulated to petiole. 
B. Sepals and petals spreading. 

c. Lip with its base tightly inclosing the 

column, the blade spreading 67. 

cc. Lip not inclosing column. 

D. Fls. with distinct chin 68. 

DD. Fls. without chin. 
E. Pollinia 8. 

F. Middle lobe of lip not clawed 69. 

FF. Middle lobe of lip clawed .70. 

EE. Pollinia 4 71. 

BB. Sepals and petals erect 72. 

20. Cyrtopodium. Tribe. 

A. Fls. spurred or with sac-like base. 
B. Sepals narrower and less colored than petals. 73. Lissochilut. 

BB. Sepals and petals alike or nearly so 74. Eulophia. 

AA. Fls. not spurred nor saccate. 

n. Lip only inserted on column-foot 75. Cyrtopodium. 

BB. Lip and lateral sepals inserted on column- 

c. Chin distinct, rectangular 76. Warrea. 

cc. Chin indistinct, round 77. EulophieUa. 

21. Catasetum Tribe. 

A. Fls. perfect; column twisted 78. Mormodea. 

AA. Fls. of 2 or 3 forms; column not twisted. 

B. Column stout, straight; fls. with antennie. . .79. Catasetum. 
BB. Column slender, curved; fls. without 

antennffi 80. Cymochc*. 

22. Lycaste Tribe. 

A. Pollinia upon a single stalk. 

B. Fin. globose 81. Anguloa. 

BB. Fl.s. with spreading sepals and petals. 

c. Stalk of pollinia long and narrow; fls. 

1 to few. 
D. Infl. of a single erect fl.; lip turned 

down 82. Lycaste. 



DD. Infl. of 2 to few drooping fls.; lip 

turned upwards 83. Paphinia. 

cc. Stalk of pollinia short ; fls. many 84. Bateman- 

AA. Pollinia upon 2 separate stalks 85. Bifrenaria. 

23. Zygopetalum Tribe. 

A. Lip clawed distinctly 86. Colax. 

AA. Lip not distinctly clawed. [lum. 

B. The Up with horseshoe-shaped callus 87. Zygopeta- 

BB. The lip with few longitudinal lamellro 88. Eriopsis. 

24. Gongora Tribe. 

A. Lip turned downwards. 
B. Fls. with sepals and petals erect or incurved. 
c. Hypochil separated from column by a 

strong stricture; no pleuridia 89. Lacsena, 

cc. Hypochil united with column by a broad 

base: pleuridia present. 
D. Epichil movably attached to hypochil; 

pollinia with short stalk at most 90. Peristeria. 

DD. Epichil immovably attached to hypo- 
chil; pollinia with elongated stalk. ... 91. Acineta. 
BB. Fls. with sepals and petals spreading or 


c. Lateral sepals much larger than the dor- 
sal sepal and petals 92. Coryantkes. 

cc. Sepals and petals nearly alike. 
D. Hypochil concave; epichil flat. 

E. Pollinia 2 93. Stankopea. 

EE Pollinia 4 94. Aganisia. 

DD. Hypochil not concave 95. Houlletia. 

AA. Lip turned upwards 96. .Gongora. 

25. Dendrobium Tribe. 

A. Sts. many-jointed; rhizome short. 
B. Lip without callus, or with lamellate or 

elevated lines 97. Dendro- 

BB. Lip with basal callus: joints of st. long-fila- [bium. 

mentose 98. Inobulbon. 

AA. Sts. 1- or rarely 2-jointed; rhizome long- 
creeping 99. Sarcopod- 


26. Bulbophyllum Tribe. 

A. Lateral sepals with their outer margins adher- [lum. 

ing, except at the free base 100. Cirrhupeta- 

AA. Lateral sepals free 101. Bulbophyl- 


27. Maxillaria Tribe. 

A. Lip without claw, movable: Ivs. normal 102. Maxillaria. 

AA. Lip clawed, or adnate to column-base: Ivs. 

whip-shaped 103. Scuticaria. 

28. Huntleya Tribe. 

A. Pseudobulbs distinct 104. Promensea. 

AA. Pseudobulbs wanting or rudimentary. 

B. Lip entire 105. Chondror- 

BB. Lip lobed. [rhyncka. 

c. Callus of lip fringed 106. Huntleya. 

cc. Callus not fringed. 

D. Column boat-shaped, concave 107. Bollea. 

DD. Column slender, not concave. 

E. Claw very short: callus free in front 

and resting upon the lip 108. Warscevric- 

EE. Claw distinct: callus not free in front. 109. Pescatorea. 

29. Cymbidium Tribe. 

A. Lvs. many: sts. elongated 110. 

AA. Lvs. few: sts. short. 

B. Sts. concealed by the If. -sheaths. 

c. Pollinia pear-shaped, upon a quadrate 

stalk: st. not bulbous 111. 

cc. Pollinia round, upon a stalk much broader 

than high: st. bulbous 112. 

BB. Sts. naked : Ivs. only at its apex 113. 

30. lonopsis Tribe. 

A. Sepals free 1 14. 

AA. Sepals, the lateral ones, united, at least below. 

B. The lip spurred 115. 

BB. The sepals spurred. 

c. Spur short 116. 

cc. Spur long and slender 117. 








31. Ada Tribe. 

A, Lvs. flat. 

B. Sepals free 118. Ada. 

BB. Lateral sepals united 119. Mesos- 

AA. Lvs. cylindric 120. Quekettia. 

32. Trichopilia Tribe. 
Lip rolled around the column 121. Trichopilia. 

33. Aspasia Tribe. 

A. Middle lobe of lip broad 122. .tspaia. 

AA. Middle lobe of lip narrow 123. Cochlioda. 

34. Odontoglossum Tribe. 

A. Lip surrounding column with 2 longitudinal 

calluses: blade reflexed 124. Gomeza. 

AA. Lip not as above. . 

B. Base of lip parallel to column and some- 
times adnate to it 125. Odontoqlos- 

BB. Lip spreading from base of column. [num. 

c. Lateral sepals united entirely; lip like 

dorsal sepal 126. Palum- 

cc. Lateral sepals free or only partly united; [bina. 

lip unlike dorsal sepal. 
D. Sepals and petals long and much 
attenuated ; lip entire or fiddle- 
shaped 127. Braasia. 

DD. Sepals and petals not much attenuated . 

E. The lip entire, flat, broad 128. Miltonia. 

BE. The lip mostly 3-lobed, with warts 

or a cushion at base 129. Oncidium. 

35. Aerides Tribe. 

A. Lip movaljly jointed to column. 

B. Middle lobe of spurless lip flat 130. Renan- 


BB. Middle lobe of spurred lip compressed 131. Arach- 

AA. Lip immovably united with column. [nanthe. 

B. Spurless. 

c. Column without a foot. 

D. Summit of lip laterally compressed. . . . 132. Vandopsis. 

DD. Summit of lip not compressed 133. Luisia. 

cc. Column with a foot, the lateral sepals 

attached to it 134. Phalaenop^ 

BB. Spurred. [is. 

c. Column without a foot. 

D. Pollinia upon a single stalk. 
E. Spur appendaged. 

F. With a longitudinal septum 135. Sarcanthua. 

FF. With the mouth covered with a 

plate 136. Cleisos- 

EE. Spur not appendaged. [toma. 

F. Stalk of the pollinia filiform. 

a. Fls. firm; lip turned downwards.. 137. Saccola- 


GO. Fls. fragile; hip turned upwards. . 138. Acampe. 
FF. Stalk of the pollinia broadened 
upwards or throughout. 

G. Spur short and broad 139. Vanda. 

GO. Spur long and slender 140. Anffraecum, 

DD. Pollinia on 2 separate stalks, or these 

united by the gland. 
E. Stalks membranous, the pollinia 
attached to the face. 

F. Plants leafy: lip entire 141. Mocropleo 


FF. Plants without Ivs.: lip 3-Iobed . . . 142. Polyrrhizo. 
EE. Stalks slender. 

F. Column bent toward the dorsal 

sepal 143. Listro- 


FF. Column straight 144. Mystoci- 

cc. Column with a foot, the lateral sepals [dium. 

attached to it. 

D. Spur curved upwards against the lip- 
blade 145. ASridea. 

DD. Spur straight or reflexed. 

E. Lip 3-lobed 146. Camarotis. 

EE. Lip entire 147. Rhyn- 


Other orchid genera entered are: Acriopsis, Arethusa, Brom- 
headia, Collabium, Corysanthes, Cryptophoranthus, Cryptostylis, 
Diuris, Eria, Eriochilus, Geodorum, Govenia, Holothnx, lone, 
Ijepanthes, Lueddemannia, Megaclinium, Monomnria, Moorea, 
Neolauchea, Neottia, Nervilia, Neuwiedia, Notylia, Obcronia, 
Octomeria, Ornithidium.Ornithocephalus, Ornithochilus, Panisea, 
Physosiphon, Platylepis, Polycycnis, Pterostylis, Sarcochilus, 
Satyrium, Scaphyglottis, Schlimmia, Sieyckingia, Sigmatostalix, 
Solenidium, Stauropsis, Stelis, Stenia, Tainia, Thecostcle, Thely- 
mitra, Trichoglottis, Trigonidium, Xylobium, and many bi- and 
tri-generic hybrids. 


A. Fr. globose and berry-like, indehiscent 1. Tarmta. 

AA. FT. capsular, winged. 

B. Caps. 1-carpelled by abortion 2. Rajania. 

BB. Caps. 3-carpelled or -lobed, winged above... . 3. Testudi- 
BBB. Caps. 3-carpelled or -lobed, winged below [naria. 

or all around, or rarely not at all 4. Dioscorea. 



185. TACCACE.E. 
In cultivation Tacca. 

186. IRIDACE.&. 

A. Fls. never more than 1 to a spathe, spicate, 

not fugitive. 
B. Style-branches simple, not bifid. 

c. Stamens equilateral; perianth regular. 
D. The style short: branches long and 

E. Rootstock not bulbous; roots in 

dense tufts, fibrous, some fleshy.. . . 1. Sckizosstylis, 

EE. Rootstock bulbous 2. He&perantha. 

DD. The style longer: branches shorter and 

more or less broadened. 
E. The spathe-valves oblong, green or 

brownish upwards 3. Geissorhiza. 

EE. The spathe-valves scarious or hya- 
line, cut or 3-parted at apex 4. Dierama. 

EEE. The outer spathe-valve short, emar- 

ginate, membranous or papery 5. Ixia. 

cc. Stamens unilateral and arched. 

D. Foliage very hairy and plaited 6. Babiana. 

DD. Foliage not hairy and plaited. 
E. Perianth-limb irregular. 

F. Tube funnel-shaped; spathe-valves 

lanceolate 7. Gladiolus. 

FF. Tube cylindrical in lower half, 
suddenly dilated at the middle, 
spathe-valves oblong-lanceolate.. 8. Antholyza. 
EE. Perianth-limb subregular. 

F. Fls. small; no tube; segms. very 

acuminate 9. Melas- 

FF. Fls. larger; tube present; segms. [phavula. 

more or less oblong, 
o. Spathe valves large, green, 

lanceolate 10. Atidanthera. 

GO. Spathe-valves small, oblong. 

H. Caps, inflated, globose 11. Crocosmia. 

HH. Caps, small, oblong^ 12. Tritonia. 

GOO. Spathe-valves scarious and 

deeply lacerated 13. Sparaxis. 

BB. Style-branches bifid; stamens unilateral. 
c. Tube broadly funnel-shaped, with sta- 
mens inserted below the throat 14. Freesia. 

cc. Tube slender with stamens inserted at the 

throat 15. Lapeyrousia. 

ccc. Tube broadly funnel-shaped above the 

middle where the stamens are inserted. . 16. Waisonia. 
AA. Fls. usually more than 1 to a spathe, stalked, 
often fugitive and opening one after another. 
B. Style-branches opposite stamens and outer 

pe rianth-segms. 
c. Stigmas transverse; style-branches have 

crests that overtop anthers. 
D. Inner pe rianth-segms. not convolute. 
E. Ovary 1-celled, with 3 parietal 

placentae: rootstock digitate 17. Hermo- 

EE. Ovary 3-celled. [dactylus. 
F. Perianth-tube usually present; 
filaments free : rootstock usu- 
ally a rhizome, sometimes a bulb.18. Iris. 
FF. Perianth without a tube; filaments 
monadelphous : rootstock usu- 
ally a tunicated corm 19. Moraea. 

DD. Inner pe rianth-segms. convolute. 

E, Style-crests petaloid: Ivs. in 2- 
ranked rosette, not plaited: pedun- 
cle flattened: rootstock not bulbous.20. Marica. 
EE. Style-crests large, spur-like or flat- 
tened : Ivs. superposed, plaited : 

st. terete: rootstock bulbous 21. Cypetta. 

(See also Phalocallis. ) 
CC. Stigmas terminal; style-branches do not 

overtop anthers. 

D, Perianth without any tube; inner 
segms small, not convolute; style- 
branches bifid at tip 22. Rerbertia, 

DD. Pe rianth-segms. connivent in a cup, 

without any spreading blade 23. Hydrotsenia. 

DDD. Perianth -segms. connivent in a cup, 
then spreading, at least the outer 
E. Style-branches with 2 petal-like 

stigmatose crests 24. Homeria. 

EE. Style-branches bifid. 

F. Ditto penicillate, i.e., shaped like 
an artist's brush, a dense tuft of 

hairs 25. Ferrarto. 

FF. Ditto hot penicillate. 

G. Inner segms. very small; outer 

with a large, reflexed blade. . . .26. Rigidella. 
GG. Inner and outer segms. dissimi- 
lar, various 27. Tigridia. 

BB. Style-branches alternate with anthers, 
c. Rootstock not a bulb or corm. 

D. Spathes essentially 1-fld. 

E. Peduncle short, hidden; perianth 
with a long tube and ascending 

segms 28. Crocus. 

EE. Peduncle long; pe riant h-degms. much 

longer than the short tube 29. Romulea. 

DD. Spathes usually with more than 1 fl 30. Nemastylis. 

cc. Rootstock not a bulb or corm: spathes 

usually more than 1-fld. 
D. Pe rianth-segms. unequal. 

E. Inner segms. shorter, connivent; 

upper stamen imperfect 31. Diplarrhena. 

EE. Inner segms. obovate-cuneate; outer 
oblong, usually shorter; stamens 

all perfect. 32. Libertia. 

DD. Perianth -segms. subequal. 

E. Style-branches flattened and cmargi- 

nate at apex: infl. a lax corymb. . . .33. Belemcanda. 
EE. Style-branches subulate. 

F. Pedicels short ; clusters panicled . . .34. Orthoaan- 
FF. Pedicels long; clusters terminal, [thus. 

single or fascicled 35. Sisyrin- 


Other genera described are: Aristea, Cipura, Eleutherine and 


A. Subterranean axis a bulb: scapose: 
infl. umbelloid and involucrate, or 

solitary 1. AMARYLLIS TRIBE. 

AA. Subterranean axis a rhizome: st. 

leafy, at least at base. 
B. Plants with large, thick, fleshy, 
rosette-like Ivs.: infl. racemose or 

paniculate 2. AGAVE TRIBE. 

BB. Plants with ordinary Ivs. of small 

size: infl. various. 

c. Lf.-blades inverted, upper face 
downward: infl. an involucrate 


cc. Lf.-blades normal, linear: infl. not [TRIUE. 


D. Plant hairy or glabrous, sca- 
pose: infl. spicate or racemose. 4. HTPOXIS I'RIBE. 
DD. Plant glabrous, with leafy sts.: 
infl. ioose, racemose or soli- 
tary; anther opening by 

apical pore 5. CONANTHERA 

DDD. Plant densely woolly with [TRIBE. 

leafy sts.: infl. scorpioid: Ivs. 
capitate 6. CONOSTYLIA TRIBE. 

1. Amaryllis Tribe. 

Subtribe 1. CORONATE. Fl. furnished with a crown between 
the perianth and stamens, which is not to be confused with a 
staminaJ cup formed by the growing together of filaments. 

1. Narcissus. 

Subtribe 2. AMARYLLE.E GENUINE^:. Corona 0, and filaments 
not united into a staminal cup. 

A. Anthers erect; filaments inserted at or near the 

base of anthers. 
B. Stamens epigynous; filaments short. 

c. The penanth-segms. all alike 2. Leucojum. 

cc. The inner segms. different, permanently 

connivent 3. Galanthus. 

BB. Stamens perigynous. 

c. Fls. solitary 4. Cooperia. 

cc. Fls. umbellate 5. Chlidanthus. 

AA. Anthers dorsifixed, versatile. 

B. Ovules many, superposed; testa black, 
c. Fls. solitary; spathe tubular in the lower 

D. The fl. gaping, horizontal, bright red, 

3 lower segms. convolute 6. Sprefcelia. 

DD. The fls. regular, erect or suberect. 

E. Seeds globose: fls. yellow; peduncle 

short or long 7. Sternbergia. 

EE. Seeds flat: peduncle long 8. Zephyran- 

cc. Fls. umbellate; spathe 2-4-valved, and [thea. 

pedicels subtended by filiform bracte- 
D. Perianth-tube short or almost 0, rarely 

long in Hippeastrum. 

E. Peduncle solid: seeds few in a cell. ... 9. Lycoris, 
EE. Peduncle hollow. 

F. Fl. often furnished with minute 
scales or a distinct neck at the 
throat: seeds many in a cell.. . . . 10. Ifippeas- 
FF. Fl. with a sort of corolla, which is [trum. 

funnel-shaped, and deeply cut, 

the divisions emarginate 11. Placea. 

DD. Perianth-tube long. 

E. Tube broadly funnel-shaped, pulvi- 

nate at throat 12. Vallota. 

EE. Tube 2-3 times longer than segms., 

naked at throat 13. Cyrtanthus. 



BB. Ovules 2, basal, collateral; testa pale 14. Grifiinia. 

BBB. Ovulea 2 or few, collateral or fascicled from 

the center of the placenta. 
c. Fr. baccate. 

D. Bulb imperfect: ovules several 15. Clivia. 

DD. Bulb large, tunicated: ovules 2 16. Hsemanthus. 

cc. Fr. capsular 17. Buphane. 

BBBB. Ovules few or many, superposed; seeds few, 

turgid, testa green. 
c. Fr, indehlscent or bursting irregularly. 

D. Perianth-tube long 18. Crinum. 

DD. Perianth-tube short. 

E. Segms. broad 19. Amaryllis. 

EE. Segms. narrow 20. Ammoch- 

cc. Fr. a 3-valved caps. [aris, 

D. Caps, top-shaped, acutely angled 21. Brunsvigia. 

DD. Caps, globose, obtusely angled 22. Nerine. 

Subtribe 3. PANCRATIE.E. Corona 0, but stamens appendaged 
toward base and often united into a distinct cup. 

A. Ovules superposed, many or few. 
B. Lvs. broad, petioled. 
C. Perianth white. 
D. Ovary globose. 

E. Filaments with a large tooth on each 
side of the anthers 23 


A. Perianth-tube more or less extended beyond 

the ovary 1. Barftacenin. 

AA. Perianth-tube practically none 2. VeU-ozia. 







EE. Filaments united in a distinct cup. . . . 24. 

DD. Ovary 3-lobed: hybrid 25. 

cc. Perianth colored. 

D. The perianth-tube cylindrical, sud- 
denly dilated 26. 

DD. The perianth subcylindrical ; segms. 

long or short 27. 

BB. Lvs. linear or ligulate, sessile. 

c. Perianth colored, subcylindrical ; tube 
long: filaments united in an entire or 

toothed cup 28. Stenomesson. 

cc. Perianth white; tube funnel-shaped; 

staminal cup large 29. Pancratium. 

AA. Ovules collateral, basal, 2-6 30. Hymeno- 

AAA. Ovules medial, 2-3. [cattis. 

B. Perianth funnel-shaped; segms. narrow 31. Vagaria. 

BB. Perianth with a slender tube and broad 

segms 32. Eurycles. 

2. Agave Tribe. 

A. Lvs. thick, fleshy, usually spiny at edge and 


B. Perianth funnel-shaped; filaments normal.. .33. Agave. 
BB. Perianth rotate; filaments swollen on one 

side at base 34. Furcrsea. 

AA. Lvs. comparatively thin, not spiny at edge or 

B. Segms. short. 

c. Fls. white, in a lax, simple spike; tube 

long, curved, subcylindrical 35. Polianthes. 

cc. Fls. greenish brown in a lax raceme; tube 

abruptly curved and dilated at middle . . 36. Prochny- 
ccc. Fls. red or white, laxly spicate or race- [anthes. 

mose; tube curved, subcylindrical 37. Bravoa. 

BB. Segms. long; tube scarcely any. 

c. Fls. greenish red, in a simple or panicled 

raceme; segms. oblanceolate 38. Besch&r- 

cc. Fls. bright red, in a capitulum or thyrsoid [neria. 

panicle; segms. narrow, falcate 39. Doryanthea. 

3. Alstroemeria Tribe. 

A. Rootstock bulbous: perianth -segms. subequal . 40. Ixiolirion. 
AA. Rootstock 0: 3 outer pe riant h-segms. different 
from 3 inner. 

B. Innersegms. unequal: st. erect 41. Alatroemcria. 

BB. Inner segms. equal: st. with runners or 

stolons 42. Bomarea. 

4. Hypoxis Tribe. 

A. Ovary often produced into a long slender beak 
simulating a perianth-tube: fr. succulent, 

indehiscent 43. Curculigo. 

AA. Ovary not beaked: fr. a caps, usually circum- 

scissile at apex 44. Hypoxis. 

5. Conanthera Tribe. 
Stamens, 3 only, fertile 45. Tecophilxa. 

6. Conostylis Tribe. 

Fls. irregular 46. Anigozan- 


Also in cultivation: Anoiganthus, Callipsyche, Cummingia, 
Cyanella, Gcthyllis. 


A. Calyx tubular, later split-spathaceous. 1. Musa. 

AA. Calyx of free sepals (lateral ones sometimes 

adnate to corolla in Heliconia). 
B. Fr. a caps, loculicidally 3-valved: seeds . 

c. Petals 2, lateral connate 2. Strelitzia. 

cc. Petals separate 3. Ravenala. 

BB. Fr. indehiscent or separating into berries, 

the cells 1-seeded 4. Heliconia. 


A. Ovary 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentte 1. Globbrt. 

AA. Ovary perfectly 3-celled, or at least 3-celled 

much above the middle; placentae axile. 
B. Lateral staminodes ample and petal-like, 
c. Connective not appendaged at the base. 

D. Filament short; bracts 1-fi 2. Kaempferia. 

DD. Filament long; bracts 1-oo-fld 3. HcdycHium. 

cc. Connective appendaged at the base. 

D. Spur 2-fid; lateral staminodes nar- 
rowed at base 4. Roscoea. 

DD. Spurs 2; lateral staminodes connate 

with the petaloid filament 5. Curcuma. 

BB. Lateral staminodes small, tooth-like or 0, 
rarely longer, narrow and adnate to 

c. Filament short or very short. 
D. Infl. cone-like. 

E. Anther-cells divergent at apex; con- 
nective either short or produced 
beyond cells into an entire or 3- 

lobed crest (i. Amomum. 

EE. Anther-cells contiguous; connective 
produced beyond the cells into a 

long, linear appendage 7. Zingiber. 

DD. Infl. not cone-like. 

E. Connective not produced beyond 

r. Anther-cells contiguous to apex. ... 8. Elettaria. 

FF. Anther-cells separate 9. Kenealmia. 

EE. Connective produced beyond cells 
into a long lanceolate, concave 

appendage 10. Burbidgea. 

cc. Filament elongated (in Costus petal- 

D. Infl. cone-like 11. Costus. 

DD. Infl. not cone-like 12. Alpinia. 

Also in cultivation: Bamburanta, Brachychilus, Cautlea, 


A. Ovary 1-celled after a fashion, the other cells 

being minute and empty. 
B. Bracts narrow, convolute, inclosing the 

rachia 1. Maranta. 

BB. Bracts and bractlets usually colored, 

spreading, long persistent 2. Stromanthe 

BBB. Bracts spreading, deciduous 3. Thalia. 

AA. Ovary usually 3-celled and 3-ovuled. 

B. Corolla-tube usually short 4. Phrynium. 

BB. Corolla-tube usually slender and longer 5. Calathea. 

Ctenanthe is also briefly treated. 

192. CANNACE^. 

Sole genus Canna. 

(Following Mez in DC. Monog. Phaner. vol. 9.) 

A. Fr. a berry, indehiscent: ovary inferior: seeds 

not winged nor plumed. 

B. Pollen-grains entire, not provided with 
pores or a longitudinal membranous fold. 

c. Calyx without a tube or cup 1. Bromelia. 

cc. Calyx with a tube or cup 2. Cryptantfiu. 

BB. Pollen-grains furnished with pores. 

c. Infl. immersed in a central bowl of Iva. 
and surrounded by an involucre 
formed from the reduced inmost Ivs. 
and usually colored. 



D. Petals without ligules, connate, at 
least toward base. 

E. The infl. simple :i. Aregtlin. 

EE. The infl. compound 4. Xidularium. 

DD. Petals with llgulos, free 5. Camstrum* 

cc. Infl, not surrounded by a distinct involu- 
cre: st. or scape tall. 
D. Petals furnished with 2 ligules inside. 
E. Berries connate among themselves 

and also to the bracts and axis 6. Ananas. 

EE. Berries free. 

p. Sepals with long awns, or, if 
awnless, the ovules with very 

long tails 7. ASchmea. 

(See also Echinostachys.) 
FF. Sepals without awns or only 

obscurely awncd: ovules obtuse.. 8. Quesnclia. 
DD. Petals not provided with ligules inside. 
E. FIs. very flat and crowded into dense 

cones 9. Hohenbergia. 

EE. FIs. more or less loosely spicate on 

the branches of the infl 10. Strcptocalyx, 

BBB. Pollen-grains furnished with a longitudinal 

membranous groove 11. Hillberyia. 

AA. Fr. a dehiscent caps: ovary superior or nearly 


B. Seeds winged, or appendaged: pollen 

c. Ovary semi-superior 12. Pitcairma, 

cc. Ovary superior. 

D. FIs. of 2 forms and dioecious 13. Utchtia. 

DD. FIs. all the same form. 

E. Petals free to the very base 14. Puya. 

EE. Petals coalesced toward the base 15. Dyckia. 

BB. Seed with a long, plumose appendage: ovary 

c. Petals free. 

D. The petals ligulate inside 16. Vriesin. 

DD. The petals not ligulate inside 17. TiUaniisia. 

cc. Petals connate or intimately conglutinate. 18. Guzmania. 

(See also Massangea, ) 
Catopsis and Xooglaziovia are also in cultivation. 

/. Summary of Tribes. 

Ignoring many exceptions. 

Series 1. Anthers introrsely dehiscent: fr. usually berry-like: 
plant not bulbous, usually scaly at the base of the st. and leafy 
above, sometimes with a scaly scape. 

A. Stigma not broadly peltate. 
B. Ovules orthotropous or hemianatro- 
pous: "foliage" abnormal, in the 
Smilax Tribe 3-5-nerved but with 
netted veinlets; in the Asparagus 
Tribe If. -shaped or needle-like 
"phylloclades" are present. 
c. Anthers abnormal, the inner valve 
of each cell being so narrow that 
the open anther seems to be 
1-celled: st. sarmentose or scand- 

cc. Anthers normally 2-celled, or cells 
confluent at apex: st. branched 

or scandent 

BB. Ovules anatropous, rarely hemiana- 

tropous in the Luzuriaga Tribe. 
c. St. shrubby and branched, or 


cc. St. herbaceous, unbranched 

sparingly branched; leafy above.. 4. SOLOMON'S SEAL 
ccc. Stemless herbs with Ivs. clustered [TRIBE. 
on the rhizome and often 
inclosed (together with the 
jateral leafless scape) by sheath- 
ing scales at the base 5. LILY-OP-THE- 

AA. Stigma usually very broadly peltate: (VALLEY TRIBE. 

Ivs. on the rhizome few, ample: scape 
very short and 1-fld. or bearing a dense 
spike at apex 6. ASPIDISTRA TRIBE. 



Series 2. Anthers introrsely dehiscent: fr. loculicidally dehis- 
cent, rarely indehiscent or berry-like: Ivs. on a rhizome, or densely 
crowded at the apex of a caudex, or forming a bulb at the base 
of the scape. 

A. Anthers with a pit on the back into 

which the filament intrudes. 
B. Lvs. linear or membranous, crowded 
on a short rhizome: perianth cylin- 
drical, funnel-shaped, or bell- 
shaped ......................... 7. LEMON-LILY OR 

BB. Lvs. usually thick, fleshy or rigid, [HEMEROCALLIS 

sometimes spiny : rhizome hard, [TRIBE. 

often extended above ground into 
a woody caudex: pe riant h-segms. 
connivent or connate into a tube or 
sometimes with spreading tips. ... 8. ALOE TRIBE. 

AA. Anthers not pitted (sometimes slightly 
pitted in the Asphodel Tribe): Ivs. 
not thick, and fleshy as in a century 

B. Rootstock, if any, rhizomatous; rhi- 
zome usually short, often very 
short in Asphodel Tribe, some- 
times produced into a woody cau- 
dex in Draccena Tribe (sec also BB). 
C. Seeds fleshy: perianth nmn^M-rnt. (). OPHIOPOQON 
cc. Seeds not fleshy. [THIBE. 
D. Perianth iubular-beQafaaped, 
connate, persistent; infi. race- 
mose 10. ALETRIB TRIBE. 

DD. Perianth shaped like a bell or 
cylinder, rarely a funnel, the 
segms. usually distinct, decid- 
uous; infl. often panicled 11. DRAC^NA TRIBE. 

DDD. Perianth-M'Kms. visually dis- 
tinct and spreading, decidu- 
ous; infl. sparingly branched, 

if at all 12. ASPHODEL TRIBE. 

BB. Rootstock bulbous as a rule: in the 
Onion Tribe sometimes a corm and 
rarely a very short rhizome; bulb 
usually tunicated, but in the Tulip 
Tribe often scaly. 

c. Stemless plants with the infl. ter- 
minal on a leafy scape. 
D. Infl. an umbel with an involucre 

of at least 2 bracts 13. ONION TRIBE. 

DD. Infl. a raceme, or rarely a 

spike 14. SQUILL TRIUE. 

cc. St. leafy, or at least with 1 If.: fls. 

few or in a lax raceme 15. TULIP TRIBE. 

Series 3. Anthers usually introrsely affixed but extrorsely 
dehiscent (the whole Colchicum Tribe exceptional): fr. usually a 
.septicidal caps., rarely loculicidal or in the Medeola Tribe an 
indehiscent berry. Plants fibrous- rooted, rarely cormous or 

A. Fr. a berry: plant not bulbous: Ivs. few, 

subradical or whorled on the st 16. MEDEOLA OR 

AA. Fr. a caps, rarely, in the Bellwort (CUCUMBER-ROOT 
Tribe, a berry. [TRIBE. 
a. Anthers introrsely dehiscent. The 
only tribe in Series 3 with a corm- 
ous rootstock 17. COLCHICUM OR 

BB. Anthers extrorsely dehiscent, rarely [AUTUMN CROCUS 
otherwise in the Narthecium Tribe: {TRIBE. 
plants not bulbous except some- 
times in False Hellebore Tribe, 
c. St.-lys. smaller than the radical Ivs. 
which are either crowded or 
petiolate), sometimes very small 
or 0: caps, septicidal or loculi- 
cidal 18. NARTHECIUM 

cc. St. leafy, herbaceous or high climb- [TRIBE. 

ing: Ivs. alternate, sessile or 

clasping, without sheath 19. BELLWORT OR 

ccc. St. usually tall, leafy or hardly so |UvuLARiA TRIBE. 
beyond the radical Ivs.: plants 
not bulbous or bulbous: anthers 
with confluent cells, roundish- 
peltate after dehiscence 20. FALSE HELLEBORE 


II. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Smilax Tribe. 

A. Perianth 6-parted 1. Smilax. 

\.\. Perianth undivided; mouth minutely toothed.. 2. Hetero- 


2. Asparagus Tribe. 

A. Filaments connate into a little urn, with the 

anthers sessile at the mouth of the urn. 
B. Anthers 3; fls. clustered on the middle of the 

face of the phylloclade 3. Ruscus. 

BB. Anthers G; fls. clustered on the margins, or 

rarely at the middle of the phylloclade. ... 4. Semele. 

BBB. Anthers 6; fls. terminal in short racemes 5. Dana. 

AA. Filaments free 6. Asparagus, 

3. Luzuriaga Tribe. 

A. Fls. large or rather large, solitary or few; peri- 
anth-segms. erect; ovary 1-celled with 3 
parietal placenta. 
B. Lvs. 3-5-nerved: perianth-segms. of about 

equal length 7. Lapageria. 

BB. Lvs. 1-nerved: outer perianth-segms. much 

smaller than inner 8. Philesia. 

AA. FIs. small; perianl h-segms. spreading; ovary 
3-celled: Ivs. with co slender nerv->. 

B. The fls. clustered in the axils 9. Eustrephus, 

BB. The fls. mostly terminating the branches.. . . 10. Geitono- 




4. Solomon's Seal Tribe. 

A. F1.S. 1-2 in the ;txiU, rarely more, usually nod- 
B. Periantn-tube cylindrical; lobes short; style 

undivided, with a small stigma 11, Polygona- 

BB. Perianth-tube 0; segms. .spreading above [turn. 

or from the base; style shortly or more 

deeply 3-fid 12. Streptopus. 

AA. Fls. in a terminal raceme or panicle. 

B. Floral parts in 3's 13. Smilacina. 

BB. Floral parts in 2's 14. Mainthe- 


5. Lily-of-the-Valley Tribe. 

A. Fls. racemose, nodding; perianth subgloboae; 

lobes shorter than tube 15. ConvaUaria. 

AA. Fls. spicate, far apart; perianth-tube cylindri- 
cal; lobes recurved-spreading 16. Reineckia. 

6. Aspidistra Tribe. 

A. Fls. 4-merous; stigma very large, roundish- 
peltate, undivided 17. Aspidistra. 

AA. Ffe. 3-merous; stigma broadly peltate, 3-lobed. 18. Rohdea. 

7. Lemon-Lily, or Hemerocallis Tribe. 

A. I-'ls. erect; stamens affixed at apex of tube: Ivs. 

long and narrow. 

B. Perianth funnel-shaped, the cylindrical 
tube shorter than the lobes; panicles 

few-fld 19. HemerocaUifi. 

BB. Perianth with subincurved segms. loosely 
connivent above the top-shaped tube ; 

panicles much branched 20. Phormmm. 

AA. I is. pendulous. 

B. Stamens affixed at middle of tube: Ivs. long 
and narrow: perianth-tube swollen above; 

lobes short 21. Bland f or dia. 

BB. Stamens often hypogynous. 

c. Lvs. petioled, usually broad: fls. race- 
mose; perianth funnel-shaped; tube 

short or long 22. Funkia. 

cc. Lvs. long and narrow: fls. spicate; peri- 
anth a long narrow tube with short 
lobes 23. Kniphofia. 

8. Aloe Tribe. 

A. Perianth-segms. strongly connate into a tube 
which is swollen at the base; segms. free at 

apex ; stamens included in tube 24. Gasteria. 

AA. Perianth-segms. coherent or connivent to the 
very apex in a tube, or barely spreading at 
the very apex; stamens usually exserted. . .25. Aloe. 
AAA. Perianth-segms. coherent or connivent, stel- 
late-spreading at apex; stamens a little 

shorter than perianth .26. Apicrn. 

A AAA. Perianth usually incurved, the segms. 
cohering or connivent, at the apex recurved 
and spreading somewhat as if 2-lipped; 

stamens not exceeding perianth 27. Haworthia. 

AAAAA. Perianth of Aloe, but stamens a little 

shorter than the perianth 28. Lomatvphyl- 


9. Ophiopogon Tribe. 

A. Perianth-tube long and slender; filaments 

normal 29. Sansevieria. 

A A. Perianth more or less erect or spreading above 
the ovary; filaments shorter than the linear 

anthers; style longish 30. Ophiopogon. 

AAA. Perianth spreading from base of ovary; fila- 
ments about as long as the oblong anthers. . . 31. Liriope. 

10. Aletris Tribe. 
One genus cultivated 

. 32. Aletris. 

11. Dracaena Tribe. 

A. Ovary 1-celled; cells 3-ovuled 33. Da&ylirion. 

AA. Ovary 3-celled. 

B. CelJs 1-ovuled 34. Dracaena. 

BB. Cells 2-ovuled 35. Molina. 

BBB. Cells co-ovuled. 

c. Fls. racemose 36. Hcspero- 

cc. Fls. panicled. {oiliis. 

D. Anthers small, sessile on a club-shaped 
filament ; perianth subglobose or 
bell-shaped; seams, hardly connate at 

base 37. Yucca. 

DD. Anthers dorsifixed on normal or flat- 
tened filaments; perianth cylindrical 
or narrowly bell-shaped, with a short 
tube 38. Cordyline. 

12. Asphodel Tribe. 
Summary of Subtribes. 

A. Anthers dorsifixed, versatile. 

B. Subtribo 1. EUASPHODELE*. Plant not 
bulbous: Ivs. crowded at base of at.; 
cauline Ivs. smaller, when present. 
BB. Subtribe 2. LoHAJTDWU. Plant not bulb- 
ous: Ivs. grass-like: fls. in spikes. 
BBB. Subtribe 3. CHLOROQALE^;. Plant bulbous: 

Ivs. few. 

AA. Anthers erect, affixed at or near the base. 
B. Subtribe 4. BOWIES. Lvs. few, from a 
thick tuber or fleshy bulb, quickly van- 
ishing before or at anthesis. 
BB. Lvs. numerous, crowded at base of st. or 
sometimes in Subtribe 5 arranged along 
c. Subtribe 5. ANTHERICE.E. Lvs. not 3- 

cc. Subtribe 6. DIANELLE.E. Lvs. 2-ranked. 

Subtribe 1. Euasphodeleae. 

A. Ovules 2 in a cell. 
B. St. or scape leafless. 

c. Anthers pitted where the filament is in- 
serted; fls. yellow 39. Asphodelus* 

cc. Anthers not pitted 40. BulbineUa. 

(Consult Chrysobactron.) 

BB. St. more or less leafy: fls. usually white 41. Aaphodeline. 

AA. Ovules co in a cell. 

B. Anthers pitted; filaments glabrous 42. Paradisea. 

BB. Anthers not pitted; filaments long bearded. .43. Bttlbine. 

Subtribe Z. Lomandrea. 

In cultivation 44. Xanthor- 

Subtribe 3. Chlorogaleae. 

A. Perianth-segms. 3-nerved 45. CWoro- 

AA. Perianth-segms. 1-nerved 46. Hastinosia. 

Subtribe 4. Bowie*. 

Lve. linear, vanishing before anthesis: bulb tuber- 
like 47. Bowiea. 

Subtribe 5. Anthericeae. 

A. Infl. clustered down among the radical Ivs. on 

a very short st 48. Leuco- 

AA. Infl. on a scape, simple or with few branches, [crinum. 

racemose or spicate. 
B. Stamens finally as long as the perianth or 

longer; raceme long, simple and dense 49. Eremurus. 

BB. Stamens shorter than perianth. 

c. Caps, with hardly prominent angles 50. Anthericum. 

cc. Caps. 3-cornered or 3-winged 51. Chlorophy- 


Subtribe 6. Diane lie as. 
Filaments fleshy or thickened at apex or middle . . 52. Dianella. 

13. Onion Tribe. 

A. Rootstock a short rhizome, with clusters of 

root-fibers 53. Agapanthus. 

AA, Rootstock a tunicated bulb or corm. 
B. Perianth salver-shaped or urn-shaped. 
c. Stamens 6; perianth-tube cylindrical. 
D. Tube often crowned at throat with 
3-6 scales; stamens included inside 

the tube in 2 series 54. Tristagma. 

DD. Tube constricted at the mouth by a 
scarcely noticeable ring; stamens 
exserted at mouth of tube; filaments 

very short 55. Mitta. 

cc. Stamens 3, affixed at throat. 

D. Perianth-tube subglobose, constricted 
at mouth; stamens alternate with a 

like number of staminodes 56. Stropholi- 

DD. Perianth-tube broadly cylindrical, [rion. 

shortly 6-saccate at base; stamens 
with a like number of staminodes 
connate into a spurious corona behind 

the anthers 57. Brewortia. 

BB. Perianth funnel-shaped or bell-shaped ; lobes 

as long as the tube or longer. 
c. Filaments connate into a tube; stamens 6, 
affixed to throat. 

D. Tube about as long as lobes 58. Andro- 


DD. Tube much shorter than lobes 59. Bessera. 

cc. Filaments free, normal or very short; per- 
fect stamens 6 or 3, affixed to throat or 
D. Pedicels articulated at apex 60. Brodisea. 



DD. Pedicels not articulated at apex 01. Triteleia. 

BBB. Perianth wheel-shaped or bell-shaped; 
segms. connate at the base into a ring or 

c. Rootstock a fibrous-tunicated conn. 
D. Filaments dilated at base into truncate 

scales surrounding ovary 62. Bloomeria. 

DD. Filaments slightly dilated below the 

middle 03. Muilla. 

CC. Rootstock a tunicated bulb. 

D. Alliaceous odor absent ; perianth-segms. 

connate at base or to the middle 04. Nothoscor~ 

DD, Alliaceous odor nearly if not quite [dwn. 

always present ; perianth-segms. dis- 
tinct or barely united at base in a 
ring 05. AUium. 

14. Squill Tribe. 

A. Perianth-segms. distinct, or united only at 

the very base. 

B. Seeds strongly compressed; ovules numer- 

c. The outer segms. of the persistent peri- 
anth spreading, the inner a little 
shorter, erect, connivent at apex and 

variously crested 66. 

CC. The segms. of the deciduous perianth sub- 
equal, connivent into a bell, or spread- 
ing 07. 

BB. Seeds obovoid or globose, not flattened or 

angled; ovules 2-o in a cell, 
c. Infl. a long dense raceme, bearded at the 
apex by empty bracts, which may be 

herbaceous or colored 68. 

cc. Infl. not as in c. 

D. Nerves of perianth-segms 1 69. 

DD. Nerves of perianth-segms. 3-o> 70. 

DDD. Nerves of perianth segms. obscure 71. 

A. Perianth-segms. united into a tube or bell. 
B. Ovules oo, usually numerous. 

c. Seeds strongly compressed or angled. 
D. The outer lobes spreading; inner ones 

erect and shorter 72. 

DD, The lobes all spreading and subequal, 

or the inner ones a little wider 73. 

cc. Seeds obovoid or globose 74. 

BB. Ovules 2-6 in a cell, rarely more; seeds not 

flattened or angled. 

c. Lobes very short, tooth-like, much shorter 
than tube. 

D. Perianth cylindrical 75. 

DD. Perianth urn-shaped, constricted at 

throat 76. 

cc. Lobes considerably longer than the bell- 
shaped tube; fls. few, in a lax raceme. 
r>. Filaments erect, not connate, all or only 

alternate ones dilated and petal-like . . 77. 
DD. Filaments connate into a sort of cup 
which is produced beyond the anthers 

into a cone 78. 

ccc. Lobes shorter than the tube or about as 
long, sometimes a trifle longer; filaments 
normal or dilated at base 79. 











17. Colchicum, or Autumn-Crocus Tribe. 

A. Perianth-tube entire; styles 3, distinct from 

the base 8 9. Colchicum. 

AA. Perianth-segms. with distinct claws, connivent 
into a tube. 

B. Styles 3, distinct from base 90. Merendera. 

BB. btyle entire inside the tube, 3-fid at apex 91. Bulboco- 


18. Narthecium Tribe. 
A. Caps, loculicidally dehiscent. 

B. Style undivided 92. Narthecium. 

m. Styles 3. 93. i mpkvt . 

AA. Caps, septicidally dehiscent or parted. [lum. 

B. Fls. few at apex of scape ; style undivided 94. Heloniopsi, 

BB. Fls. in a dense raceme; styles 3, very short. . 95. Uelonias. 

19. Bellwort, or Uvularia Tribe. 

A. Fr. an mdehiscent berry %. Dispomm. 

AA. Fr. a septicidal caps 97. Tricyrtis. 

AAA. rr. (when known) a loculicidal caps. 
B. Fls. terminal, pendulous. 

c. Lvs. perfoliate: seeds covered by a thin 

whitearil... 98 . Ueularia. 

cc. Lvs. sessile: seeds have a swollen, spongy, 

brown ridge 99. Oakesia. 

BB. Fls. axillary, or long-pedicelled in the axils, 
c. Plants are climbers. 

D. Perianth-segms. spreading, usually 

wavy or crisped 100 Gloriosa. 

DD. renanth-segms. distinct, suberect, more 

or less connivent and bell-shaped 101. Liltonia. 

cc. Plants not climbers: periath urn-shaped; 

lobes very short 102. Sander- 

20. False Hellebore or Veratrum Tribe. 

A. Seeds membranous-winged nearly all the way 

around: sts. leafy. 
B. Lvs. narrow or long-stalked : perianth-segms. 

distinctly clawed 103. Melan- 

BB. Lvs. usually broad, plaited, veiny, con- \thium. 
tracted into a sheath, not distinctly 
stalked: perianth-segms. a trifle con- 
tracted at the base 104. Veratrum. 

AA. Seeds narrow, angled, hardly winged: Ivs. 
radical or crowded at base of St., linear or 
rarely sublanceolate. 

B. Stamens much shorter than perianth; per- 
ianth more or less bell-shaped 105. Slenan- 

BB. Stamens a little shorter than perianth; per- \thium. 

ianth flattened out 106. Zygadenus. 

Other genera described are: Acrospira, Alectorurus, Andro- 
cymbium, Arthropodium, Astelia, Chamsclirium, Dipidax, 
Drnma, Leucocoryne, Massonia, Oligobotrya, Peliosanthes, 
Thysanotus, ToBeldia, Tupistra, and Tulbaghia. 

15. Tulip Tribe. 

A. Caps, septicidally dehiscent or 3-parted: fls. 
erect or pendulous; outer perianth-segms. 
usually narrower or smaller; inner ones 

Pitted 80. Calochortus. 

(Consult also Cyclobothra. ) 
AA. Caps, loculicidally dehiscent. 

B. Anthers dorsifixed, versatile; fls. nodding or 
pendulous, rarely erect; claw of segms. 
usually furnished with a nectariferous 

groove 81. Lilium. 

BB. Anthers basifixed, erect; filament usually 


c. Fls. usually erect ; perianth bell-shaped or 
somewhat funnel-shaped; segms. often 

spotted near the base, not pitted 82. Tulipa. 

CC. Fls. nodding or pendulous. 

D. Perianth bell-shaped; segms. usually 
furnished with a pit or nectar-bearing 

spot above the base 83. Fritillaria. 

DD. Perianth-segms. narrow, recurved or 
reflected from the middle or almost 

from the base 84. Erylhro- 

16. Medeola, or Cucumber-Root Tribe. 

A. Foliage at base of St.; Ivs. few, stalked or con- 
tracted into a sheath : fls. in a long-ped uncled 

umbel, rarely solitary 85. Clintonia. 

AA. Foliage whorled at top of st. 

B. Lvs. 3: fl. solitary, 3-merous 86. Trillium. 

BB. Lvs. 4-o : fls. solitary, 4-oo-merous 87. Paris. 

AAA. Foliage whorled at middle of st. with 3 smaller 

Ivs. at the top surrounding the umbel 88. Medeola. 


A. Perianth funnel-shaped. 

B. Ovary by abortion 1-celled, 1-ovuled 

BB. Ovary 3-celled, many-ovuled 

AA. Perianth salver-shaped 

1. Pontederia. 

2. Eichhornia. 

3. Metcrtin".< r<i. 


A. Fr. indehiscent. 

B. Pericarp hard and brittle 1. Pallia. 

BB. Pericarp succulent or fleshy 2. Palisota. 

AA. Frs. loculicidally dehiscent. 

B. Fls. with 3 perfect stamens, and 3 or fewer 


c. Anther-cells parallel and contiguous. 
D. Ovary 3-celled; 2 anterior cells 1-2- 
ovuled; posterior 1-ovuled, empty or 

wanting 3. Commtlina. 

DD. Ovary 2-3-celled; cells usually 2-oo- 

ovuled 4. Atlrili m,;. 

cc. Anthers, with variously petaloid connec- 
tive cells spirally twisted into numer- 
ous gyres 5. Cochlioa- 

BB. Fls. with 6 stamens, rarely 5, all perfect; no [tema. 


c. Anther-cells dehiscing by a terminal pore . 6. Lticlmri- 
cc. Anthers otherwise dehiscent. \mndra, 

D. Connective transversely or divaricately 

2-lobed 7. Zebrina. 

DD. Connective not 2-lobed as in D. 
E. Ovary-ceils 2-5-ovuled. 



r. Cymes fascicle-formed, with the 
very short rachis contracted 
into a receptacle, sessile inside 
the base of the complicate floral 

Ivs. or variously paniculate 8. Trades- 

FF. Cyme terminal, pedunculate with [cantia. 

2-3 longish branches secund-fld. 

from base 9. Tinantia. 

EE. Ovary cells 1-ovuled 10. Rhaeo. 

197. JUNCACE^. 

A. Ovary l-celled, or more or less perfectly 3- 

celled; placentae or cells co-ovulea 1. Juncus. 

AA. Ovary 3-celled ; cells 2- or fe w-ovuled 2. Prionium* 

198. PALMACE.E. 

A. Lf.-segms. infolded in vernation: 

spadices interfoliaceous. 
B. Fls. dioecious. 

c. Lvs. pinnatisect; segms. acumi- 
nate: spathe solitary; ovary of 3 
distinct carpels, only 1 maturing: 
seed deeply grooved vent rally 

umbilicate, embryo dorsal 1. PHCENIX TRIBE. 

CC. Lvs. plaited in a fan-shaped fash- 
ion, roundish, semi-orbicular or 
wedge-shaped, split : spathes 
numerous; ovary entire or 3- 
lobed, 3-ce!led, with erect ovules: 
seeds with a mere dot of a hilum: 

raphe ventral 2. COHYPHA TRIBE. 

BB. Fig. usually hermaphrodite: Ivs. 
much like those of Corypha Tribe: 
spathes numerous; ovary entire, 
3-lobed, with ascending ovules: 

seeds with diffused hilum 3. BORA.SSUS TRIBE. 

AA* Lf.-segms. folded back in vernation. 
B. Seeds adherent to the endocarp; 
hilum diffused ; embryo opposite 
pore: spadices interfoliaceous; fls. 
usually moncecious in the same 
spadix, the lower ones in 3's with 

the middle one pistillate 4. Cocoa TRIBE. 

BB. Seed umbilinate. 

c. Raphe dorsal; embryo ventral: 
spadices terminal or axillary; 

fls. polygamo-monoecious 5. LEPIDOCARYA 

CC. Raphe ventral; embryo dorsal. ... 6. ARECA TRIBE. 

1. Phoenix Tribe. 

The only genus 1. Phoenix. 

2. Corypha Tribe. 

A. Style or stigma basilar in fr.: endosperm 

B. The style short; embryo terminal. Palms 

fruit once and die 2. Corypha, 

BB. The style elongated. 

c. Embryo dorsal 3 

cc. Embryo sub-basilar 4. 

AA. Style or stigma terminal in fruit. 

B. Perianth of imbricate petals or corolla- 


c. Fls. polygamo-dicecious; stigmas sessile, 
distinct; embryo dorsal. 

D. Endosperm ruminate 5. 

DD. Endosperm equable 6. 

cc. Fls. hermaphrodite; styles long, distinct. 
D. Filaments free 7. 

DD. Filaments connate into a tube 8. 

BB. Perianth of valvate petals or corolla-lobes 

(see also BBB). 
c. Fls. dicecious; corolla 3-toothed; anthers 

extrorsely dehiscent 9. 

CC. Fls. polygamo-monoecious; carpels dis- 
tinct; stigmas distinct, sessile: endo- 
sperm equable, ventrally- grooved; 

embryo dorsal 10. 

CCC. Fls. hermaphrodite. 

D. Embryo dorsal; I endosperm equable: 
carpels slightly cohering or in 
Livistona sometimes distinct. 
E. Spadix-branches not sheathed style 

single, short, 3-cornered 11. 

EE. Spadix rachis sheathed; carpels 3- 

cornered ; style single, thread-like . . 12. 
EEE. Spadix-branches naked or lower ones 
bracted ; carpels globose ; styles 

short, distinct or cohering 13. 

DD. Embryo, sub-basilur: rachis of spadix 


[(I nodes). 










K. Endosperm ruminate: carpels 3. dis- 
tinct at base; style single, short, 

3-grooved 14. Copcmicia. 

EE. Endosperm equable. 

P. Corolla-tube persistent; segms. 
deciduous; ovary 3-cornerea or 
3 lobed, narrowed into a style. .15. Pritchardia. 
FF. Corolla otherwise. 

a. Carpels free at base; style sin- 
gle, slender, elongated 16. Serensea, 

GO. Carpels slightly cohering; style 

single, short, 3-grooved 17. Erytkea. 

BBB. Perianth minute 6-fid or obsolete 18. TAn"nax(and 


3. Borassus Tribe. 
A. Stamens 6. 
B. Fls. numerous in the cavities of the spadix. ..19. Borassus. 

BB. Fls. solitary in the cavities 20. Hyphxjie. 

AA. Stamens numerous. 

B. Fls. numerous in cavities 21. Lodoicea. 

BB. Fls. solitary in cavities 22. Latania. 

4. Cocos Tribe. 

A. Palms armed with prickles: fr. 1-seeded; 

endocarp 3-porous at or above the middle. 
B. Pistillate fls. with petals united for a con- 
siderable distance; staminate fls. smaller: 
endocarp bony, 
c. Staminate fls. not immersed in spadix: lf.- 

segms. acuminate 23. Bactria. 

cc. Staminate fls. immersed in cavities of 

spadix: If. -segms. premorse 24. Astro- 

BB. Pistillate fls. with petals connate only at [caryum. 

c. Staminate fls. immersed; anthers large, 

inserted: If. -segms. acuminate 25. Acrocomia. 

cc. Staminate fls. not immersed; anthers 
included : If. -segms. wedge-shaped, 

premorse 26. Martinezia. 

AA. Palms unarmed. 

B. Endocarp 3-porous above middle: fr. 

1-3-seeded 27. Elseis. 

BB. Endocarp bony and, except in Jubsea, 36- 
porous toward base: fr. 1-co -seeded. 

c. Spadix simple 28. Diplothe- 

cc. Spadix simply branched. [mium. 

D. Number of stamens 6: fr. 1-seeded (in 

Scheelea sometimes 2-3-seeded). 
E. Petals minute, much smaller than 

exserted stamens of staminate fls. . .29. Maxi- 


EE. Petals lanceolate; stamens included. .30. Cocos. 
EEE. Petals shaped like a long club, or 

cylindrical; stamens shorter 31. Scheelea. 

DD. Number of stamens 10-24 or more; 
petals of staminate fls. lanceolate; 
stamens included; anther-cells con- 

E. Fr. 2-6-seeded 32. Attalea. 

EE. Fr. 1-seeded; the endocarp 3-porous 

at the middle or a little lower 33. Jubxa. 

5. Lepidocarya Tribe. 

A. Lvs. fan-shaped: ovary perfectly 3-celled 34. Mauritia. 

A A. Lvs. equally pinnatisect: ovary imperfectly 
3-celled: spadices axillary. 

B. Palms fruit once and die 35. PUctocomia. 

BB. Palms fruit more than once; usually 

c. Spathes solitary, deciduous: If.-segms. 

rhombic; nerves fan-shaped ,36. Ceratolobus. 

cc. Spathes numerous, persistent: If. -segms. 

acuminate; nerves parallel. 
D. Spadices contracted; spathes cymbi- 
form, beaked, long-persistent, the 2 
lower ones forming an involucre for 

the others 37. Daemono- 

DD. Spadices diffused, or, if contracted, the [ropa. 

spathes are flat and persistent only 
during anthesis 38. Calamus. 

6. Areca Tribe. 
Key to Subtribes; 

A. Petals of the pistillate fls. valvate 
throughout nearly their whole length; 
spadices interfoliaceous; spathes 2 or 

more; ovary entire, 3-celled 1. CARTOTIDK.*:. 

AA. Petals of the pistillate fls. overlapping 
or valvate only at apex, very rarely 
valvate throughout. 
B. Spadices infrafoliaceous. 

c. Stigmas terminal in fr.; ovary 

entire, l-celled. 

D. Staminate fls. unsymmetrical; 
sepals usually small and not 
imbricate 2. ECARECE.*. 



on. Staminate fls. symmetrical; 
sepals usually roundish and 

widely overlapping 3. PTYCH 09 PERMED. 

CC. Stigmas usually excentric or lateral 
on ovary, entire or 3-lobed: If.- 
segms. acuminate. 

D. Spathes 2; ovary entire 4. ONCOSPERME.B. 

DD. Spathea numerous: If.-segms. 


K. Ovary entire; younger spa- 
dices horn-shaped 5. IRIARTEK.B. 

EE. Ovary deeply 3-lobed, with 
large stigmas; spadices 

club-shaped 6. WETTINIEJE. 

BB. Spadices nearly always interfolia- 

c. Stigmas terminal on ir., rarely 


D. Ovary 1-celled; spadix simple, 
with moncecious fls. immersed 

in cavities 7. LINOSPADICEA 

DD. Ovary 3-celled, imperfectly so in 

Subtribe 8. 

E. Fr. globose: spadix panicu- 
late ly branched , the fls. 

dicecious and pedicelled 8. CEROXTLEA. 

EE. Fr. elongated: spadix subdigi- 
tately branched, the fls. 
monoecious and not im- 
mersed 9. MALDRTIEJE. 

OC. Stigmas lateral or basal on fr., 

rarely terminal; ovary entire. 
D. Fls. not immersed in cavities. 
E. Spathes 2; all the fls. or the 
lower ones in 3's; ovary 

1-3-celled 10. IGUANUHE-E. 

EE. Spathes numerous; ovary 3- 
celled ; spadices inter- and 
infrafoliacous; fls. usually 
<lii i-rinus. without bracts or 
bractlets ; perianth rather 

fleshy or leathery. 11. CHAM.EDORE.E. 

DD. Fls. immersed in cavities, monoe- 
cious or dioecious, compressed; 
perianth glumaceous; style 
often elongated, terminal or 
lateral 12. GEONOME.E. 

Subtribe 1. Caryotideae. 

A. Lys. bipinnatisect : endosperm ruminate : stam- 

inate fls. with 3 sepals and stamens 39. Caryota. 

AA. Lvs. pinnatisect: endosperm equable. 

B. Stamens 6; calyx of staminate fls. tubular, 

truncate 40. Wattichia. 

BB. Stamens c . 

c. Calyx of staminate fls. cup-shaped, 3- 

lobed 41. Didymoa- 

cc. Calyx of staminate fls. of 3 sepals 42. Arenga. 

Subtribe 2. Euarecece. 

A. Ovule basal, erect. 
B. Endosperm ruminate. 

c. Stamens 3 or 6; staminate fls. minute, 
numerous, solitary or in pairs, on 
branches of spadix; pistillate fls. much 
larger, solitary toward base of branches. 43. Areca. 
CC. Stamens numerous; fls. in 3's, the middle 
one pistillate, arranged in 2, 4 or 6 

ranks 44. Pinanga. 

BB. Endosperm equable: stamens 6; fls. in 3's, the 

middle one pistillate, arranged in 4 ranks.. .45. Kentia. 
AA. Ovule parietal, more or less pendulous. 

B. Fls. arranged in 4 ranks on branches of 

spadix 46. Hydriastele. 

BB. Fls. arranged spirally on branches of spadix. 

(All "sepals" mentioned under BB refer to 

sepals of staminate fls. except when 

otherwise stated.) 

c. Pistillate fls. much larger than staminate; 

sepals papery, connate at base 47. Veitchia, 

cc. Pistillate fls. not larger than staminate. 
D. Length of sepals far surpassing petals; 

sepals narrow 48. Nenga. 

DD. Length of sepals not exceeding petals. 
E. The sepals overlapping. 

F. Sepals triangular-orbicular; sta- 
mens numerous; filaments short. 49. Kentiopsia. 
FF. Sepals small, keeled ; stamens 9-24 ; 

filaments inflexed at apex 50. Archonto- 

EE. The sepals not overlapping. \phaenix. 

F.- Filaments indexed at apex. 

o. Sepals awl-shaped or lanceolate; 
stamens 6-12 ; pistillate fls. 
with short petals valvate at {stylis. 

apex 51. Rkopalo- 

GG. Sepals .small, acute; stamens 6; 

pistillate fls. with petals a lit- [sperma. 

tie longer than the sepals 52. Dictyo- 

FF. Filaments normal; sepals narrowly 
lanceolate; stamens 9-12; pis- 
tillate fls. with petals like the 
sepals 53. Hedy&cepe, 

Subtribe 3. Ptychospermeee. 

A. Endosperm ruminate. 

B. Stamens 20-30 54. 




BB. Stamens 6 55. 

AA. Endosperm equable. 

B. Lf.-segms. obliquely premorse: stamens 

numerous 56. Drymo- 

BB. Lf.-segms. narrowed at apex, or in Cyrto- \phloeits. 

stachys entire or sometimes obliquely 2- 
c. Stamens 6-15; pericarp slightly fibrous, 

smooth inside 57. Cyrtostachys* 

OC. Stamens 6; pericarp thick, granular, 

fibrous inside 58. Cypho- 


Subtribe 4. Oncospermeae. 

A. Staminate fls. symmetrical; sepals broad and 
much overlapping; stigmas on fr. excentric 
or lateral, or in Cyphosperma subterminal. 
B. Perianth of pistillate fls. enlarged after 
an thesis. 

c. Pericarp grumose and fibrous 59. 

cc. Pericarp thin, leathery or bony 60. 


[K per ma. 

BB. Perianth not changed after anthesis 61. 

AA. Staminate fls. unsymmetrical; sepals small or 
narrow, not imbricate or only slightly so; 
stigmas lateral on fr. or basal. 
B. Petals of pistillate fls. connate at base, val- 
vate above, 

c. Calyx of staminate fls. united at base 62. Oreodoxa. 

(Incl. Roystonea.) 

cc. Calyx with 3 distinct sepals 63. Acrista. 

BB. Petals free. 

c. Anthers erect 64. Oncosperma. 

cc. Anthers versatile. 

D. Fr. globose: palms unarmed 65. 

DD. Fr. minute: palms spiny 66. 


Subtribe 5. Iriarteeas. 

Stamens 9-15; stigmas terminal or nearly so in 

fr. : If.-segms. turned in every direction 67. Iriartea. 

Subtribe 6. Wettinieae. 
No representatives known to be cultivated in America. 

Subtribe 7. Linospadiceee. 

A. Anthers basifixed, erect. 
B. Stamens 6, 10, or 12; pistillate fls. have 

staminodes: If.-scgms. premorse 68. Bacularia. 

BB. Stamens very numerous; pistillate fls. have 

no staminodes: If.-segms. acuminate 69. Howea. 

AA. Anthers dorsifixed, versatile; staminodes in 

pistillate fls. 6-9: If.-segms. acuminate 70. Linospadix. 

Subtribe 8. Ceroxylese. 

Stamens 9-15: fr. with basal stigmas 71. Ceroxylon. 

Subtribe 9. Malortiese. 
Not cultivated in America. 

Subtribe 10. Iguanureae. 

. .72. Hetfrospathe. 

A. Stigmas excentric or lateral on f r 

AA. Stigmas basal or nearly so on fr. 

B. Stamens 15-20; ovary 1-celled: palm 

armed 73. Stevensonia. 

BB. Stamens 6, with didymous anthers. 

c. Ovary 1-celled: palm armed 74. Verschaf- 

CC. Ovary 3-celled: palm unarmed 75. Dypsis. 

Subtribe 11. Chanuedoreas. 

A. Fls. dicecious or monoecious in different 

spadices, spirally arranged 76. Chamx- 

AA. Fls. monoecious in the same spadix. [dorea. 

B. The fls. arranged in elongated heaps or 

c. Infl. from among the Ivs 77. Ga ussia. 

cc. Infl. from below the Ivs 78. Hyophorbt. 

BB. The fls. sparse, solitary or in pairs 79. Roacheria. 



Subtribe 12. Geonomeae. 

A. Base of the ovary included in the disk. 
B. Anthers arrow-shaped 80. Calyptro- 

BB. Anthers with long separate pendulous cells. .81. Geonoma. 
AA. Disk 0: many-stemmed palms of India 82. Bentinckia. 

Imperfectly Known Genera of Palms. 

83. Balaka is a member of the Areca Tribe and probably belongs 
between Ptychosperma and Drymophlreus, differing from those 
genera as indicated in the article Balaka. 

84. Bismarckia is a member of the Borassus Tribe. 

85. Chrysalidocarpus is a well-known member of the Areca 
Tribe of doubtful affinity. 

86. Exorrhlza is a member of the Areca Tribe, Subtribe Euare- 

87. Nipa is a member of the Areca Tribe but of uncertain 
affinity. Its nearest horticultural relative is Phoanix. 

88. Phytelephas is a well-known member of the Areca Tribe 
but of doubtful affinity. 

89. Pseudophcenix is a member of the Areca Tribe which proba- 
bly belongs in the Subtribe Chamaedoreffi, near Hyophorbe. 

90. Ptychoraphis is a member of the Areca Tribe which probably 
comes after Ptychosperma. 

91. Kanevea is known only in the juvenile state and is con- 
jectured to be near to Hyophorbe. 

The following genera are also treated: Acoelorraphe, Cypho- 
kentia, Desmoncus, Eremospatha, Hyospathe, Mamcaria, Met- 
roxylon, Microphosnix, Neonicholsonia, (Enocarpus, Pigafetta, 
Ptychococeus, Hyneohanthus, Teysmannia, Welfia and Zalacca. 


Floating plants with roots: fls. inserted on mar- 
ginal cracks of the frond; stamens 1-2; anthers 




A. Ovules solitary in carpels 1. Pandanus. 

AA. Ovules many in the locules 2. Freycinetia. 


A. Plants with watery juice 1. Carludmica. 

AA. Plants with milky juice 2. Cyclanthus. 


The only genus Typha. 


A. Perianth (except female fls. of Peltandra). 
B. Fls. monoecious (in Arisajma sometimes 


c. Spadix appendaged (except in Pistea). 
D. The male and female infl. contiguous 
with no neutral organs between: 
ovules anatropous or semi-anatropous 1. Amorpho- 
DD, The upper fls. males, lower ones \phatlun. 

females: ovules orthotronous. 
E. The spadix free from the spathe or 

adnate at the base. 
F. Male fls. sparse: Ivs. and fls. appear 


O. Tube of spathe with connate 
margins; male fls. with 1 sta- 
men; anthers horseshoe- 
shaped 2. Arisarum, 

GO. Tube of spathe convolute; fls. 
usually dioecious; males with 

2-5 stamens 3. Ariaxma. 

fr. Male fls. dense: Ivs. often appear 

before fls. 

o. Tube of spathe with connate 

H. Ovule solitary : Ivs. entire 4. Biarum. 

HH. Ovules 2-\ : Ivs. pedatisect 5. Sauroma- 

Go. Tube of spathe convolute. [turn. 

H. Ovules c , parietal, in 2 series. 6. Arum. 
HH. Ovules few, inserted at base 

and apex of cell. 
I. Male and female fls. remote; 

appendix of spadii hairy. . 

II. Male and female fls. con- 

The spadix not appendaged, adnate 

to spathe on back : aquatic plant . . . 9. Pistia. 

7. Helicodic- 


8. Dracunculus. 

BEE. The tube of spathe cU>sed at 
mouth by dilation of spadix or else 
divided into 2 cells. 

F. Tube closed at throat 10. PintUia. 

IT. Tube 2-celled 11. Ambrorinia. 

CC. opadix not appendaged (rarely with a 
naked appendage or endowed with 
neutral organs) ; upper fls. males, lower 
ones females. 

D. Stamens connate in a prismatic or pel- 
tate body. 
B. Plants are climbing shrubs. 

F. Ovaries distinct, 2-10-celled 12. Philoden- 


FF. Ovaries coherent, 1-2-^elled 13. Syngonium. 

KE. Plants are herbs, not climbing 

F. The ovules orthotroppus or nearly 

so; micropyle superior. 
o. Ovules numerous in 2 series on 

3-5 parietal placentae 14. Co/ocoaia. 

GO. Ovules few, basal 15. Alocasia. 

GOO. Ovules 1 or few, subparie- 
tal: distinguished by ovary 
immersed in a carp and em- 
bryo not albuminous 16. Peltandra. 

FF, The ovules anatropous or semi- 

anatrppous; micropyle inferior. 
Q. Ovaries distinct or slightly 

coherent 17. Caladium. 

GO. Ovaries distinct below, above 
thick, dilated and grown 

together 18. Xanthosoma. 

GGQ. Ovary 2-5-celled 19. Dieffen- 

DD. Stamens distinct. [bachia. 

E. Fr. not included by tube of spathe: 
the whole spathe deciduous, mar- 
p. Ovule affixed to intruded placenta?: 

Ivs. ovate 20. Aglaonema. 

FF. Ovule affixed near top of cell: 

{vs. broadly arrow-shaped 21. Nephthytis. 

EE. Fr. included by accrescent tube of 
spathe : blade of spathe marces- 

cent, deciduous 22. Zaniedes- 

EEE. Fr. included by spathe, blade of \chia. 

which is persistent 23. Homalo- 

EEEE. Fr. girt by the top-shaped tube of [mena. 

spathe, which has a circumscissile, 

deciduous blade 24. Schismato- 

BB. Fls. hermaphrodite. [glottis. 

c. Plants marsh herbs 25. Calla. 

cc. Plants are scandent shrubs. 

n. Ovules 2 in a cell, affixed to base of 

septum 26. Monstera. 

DD. Ovules solitary, basal 27. Scindapsus. 

DDD. Ovules numerous 28. Rhaphid- 


DDDD. Ovules 3 or 4 in a cell 29. Stenosper- 

AA. Perianth of 4-8 distinct segms.; fls. all her- [matium. 

B. Spadix flowering downward; spathe long, 

often twisted, long-persistent 30. Cyrtosperma. 

BB. Spadix flowering upward. 

c. Spathe sheathing the very long pedunculi- 
form stipe of the spadix, with blade in- 
complete or 0. 

D. Ovary 1-celled; ovules solitary, semi- 
anatropous 31. Orontium. 

DD. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1-2 in a cell, 

orthotropous 32. Lysichttum. 

DDD. Ovary 1-2-celled; ovule 1 in each cell, 

suspended 33. Symplo- 

DDDD. Ovary imperfectly 1-2-celled; ovule [carpus. 

solitary, affixed to interior angle of 

cell 34. Dracontium. 

cc. Spathe provided with scale-like appen- 
dages in the tube, long-persistent: 
ovules semi-anatropous or campylo- 

tropous 35. Spathyema. 

ccc. .Spathe leafy, accrescent, persistent, quite 

flattened out: ovules anatropous 36. Spathiphyl- 

cccc. Spathe open, recurved or reflexed, accres- \luni. 

cent, persistent: ovules various 37. Anthurium, 

ccccc. Spathe accrescent, persistent or obsolete: 

ovules anatropous 38. Pothos. 

cccccc. Spathe obsolete or obscure: ovules ortho- 
tropous 39. Acorus. 

Additional Key to the Araceae. 

The Aracese are likely to be so difficult for the gardener that an 
additional key, based on other contrasts, is here inserted for his 

A. Plants free-swimming, aquatic Pistia, 

AA. Plants not free-swimming aquatics, terres- 
trial or marsh plants. 
B. Lvs. parallel-veined (see also Calla and 


c. Plant shrub-like or climbing: st. more or 
less aerial: stamens of staminate (I. 



D. Blade of spathe deciduous; spat he 
constricted in middle, leaving a long 

tube when blade falls Schismato~ 

DD. Blade of spathe persistent, at least [glottis. 

until ripening of spadix. 

E. Seeds anatropous Homalomena. 

EE. Seeds orthotropous Philodendron. 

cc. Plant with st. upright, aerial: stamens 

united into a synandrium. 
D. Pistillate fls. crowded, without 
staminodia; staminate fls. with only 

2-3 separate stamens AglaoTiema. 

DD. Pistillate fls. with staminodia inter- 
spersed ; st aminate fls. with 3-4 

united stamens Dieffenbachia* 

CCC. Plant with st. subterranean. 

D. Seeds orthotropous or nearly so: the 
connate staminodia of the pistillate 
fl. forming an involucre around the 

gyncecium Peltandra. 

DD. Seeds anatropous: staminodia. of pis- 
tillate fls. separate Zantedeschia. 

BB. Lvs. netted-veined (i.e. veins of 2nd, 3rd, 

and 4th order netted). 
C. Milk-tubes absent. 

D. Raphides absent (raphides are acicu- 
lar crystals found in bundles in the 

E. Lvs. differentiated into petiole and 
blade: seeds anatropous. 

F. Seeds without endosperm Pathos. 

FF. Seeds with endosperm Artthurium. 

EE. Lvs. without distinction into petiole 

and blade: seeds orthotropous Acorus. 

DD. Raphides present in ground tissue of 

st. and Ivs. 

E. Fls. without perianth; spathe decidu- 
ous before ripening of spadix: 
plants mostly climbing. 
F. Seeds with endosperm and axial 

G. Foliage-lvs. many on each 

shoot Stenosper- 

GG. Foliage-lvs. I on each shoot in [motion. 

addition to several bracts Raphidophora. 

PF. Seeds without endosperm. 

G. Ovary 2-celled Monstera. 

GO. Ovary 1-celled Scindapsus. 

EE. Fls. with perianth; spathe not 

deciduous: sub-shrubs Spathiphyllum, 

CC. Milk-tubes present in fibro-vascular 


D. The milk-tubes branched; veins of 2nd 
grade fusing into a collective vein 
between veins of 1st grade. 
E. Seeds with endosperm: st. not 

F. Ovary with basal placenta Alocasia. 

FF. Ovary with parietal placentae Colocasia. 

FFF. Ovary with broad, nearly central 

G. Style small Caladium. 

GO. Style disk-like, projecting 

beyond ovary Xanthosoma. 

EE. Seeds without endosperm: st. climb- 
ing Syngonium. 

DD. The milk-tubes simple, straight; veins 

not as* above. 

E. Perianth present; fls. bisexual. 
F. Lvs. not arrow-shaped. 

G. Ovary 2-celled; 2 ovules in each 
cell, suspended from middle of 

partition Lysichitum. 

GG. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 

H. Ovule from apex of cell: 
spadix short, nearly globu- 
lar Symplocarpus. 

HH. Ovule basal: spadix cylindri- 
cal Orontium. 

FF. Lvs. arrow-shaped. 

G. Plants are shrubs with climb- 
ing or creeping sts.: petioles 
and sts. usually prickly or 

warty Cyrtosperma. 

GO. Plants tuberous Dracontium. 

EE. Perianth absent; fls. unisexual (bisex- 
ual in Calla). 

F. Fls. bisexual:lvs. not arrow-shaped. Calla, 
FF. Fls. unisexual: Ivs. various. 

a. Spadix with a sterile terminal 
appendage, or with sterile 
wings: sts. various. 

H. Seeds without endosperm. . . . Amorphophal- 
HH. Seeds with endosperm. [lus, 

i. Appendage of spadix pro- 
jecting much beyond the 
spathe, or included and 

j. Spadix with rudimentary 
fls. between the fer- 
tile staminate and fer- 
tile pistillate fls. , or 
staminate infl. border- 
ing immediately on the 
pistillate infl. 
K. Placenta parietal: Ivs. 
arrow-shaped or 

lanceolate Arum. 

KK. Pl.'iccntic apical and 
basal : Ivs. pedately 

I* Fertile staminate 
infl. bordering im- 
mediately on the 

pistillate infl Dracunculus, 

LI* Fertile s't a m i n a t e 
infl. separated 
from pistillate infl. 
by many rudi- 
mentary ns Helicodiceros. 

KKK. Placenta basal. 

L. Lvs. pedately 
divided : seeds 2 

or more Saitromatum* 

LL. Lvs. ovate, lanceo- 
late or linear: 
seeds mostly 1 .... Biarum, 
jj. Spadix without rudimen- 
tary fls., but a space 
between the staminate 
and pistillate fls., or 
K. Ovary with many 


L. Staminate fls. of 1 
stamen: Ivs. ovate 
or arrow-shaped : 
.spadix bisexual.. . . Arisarum* 
LL. Staminate fls. of 2-5 
stamens: Ivs. 3- 
or many-parted : 
spadix unisexual. . . Arissema. 
KK. Ovary 1-ovuled: stam- 
inate and pistillate 
portions of spadix 
separated by a par- 
tition which reaches 
out from wall of 

spathe Pinellia. 

II. Appendages of the spadix 
wing-like on the 2 sides, 
thus dividing the bila- 
biate spathe into 2 
chambers, the anterior of 
which contains a stam- 
inate fl., the posterior a 

pistillate fl '. Ambrosinia. 

GG. Spadix without such appendage 
or wings: sts. subterranean, 
creeping Nephthj/tit. 

Other genera described are Callopsis, Cryptocoryne, Epiprem- 
ntim, Gamogyne, Gymnostachys, Staurostigma, Typhonium and 

204. ALISMACE.&. 

A. Carpels inserted in a whorl on a small recep- 
tacle 1. Alisma. 

AA. Carpels densely crowded in many series on a 

large oblong or globose receptacle 2. Sagittaria, 


A. Petals marcescent; stamens 9; carpels 6 1. fiutomus. 

AA. Petals deciduous; stamens numerous; car- 
pels 15-20 2. Limnoch- 



A. Fls. hermaphrodite, spicate; perianth 4- 

divided ; stamens 2 or 4 1*. Potamogettm. 

AA. Fls. unisexual, axillary; perianth 0; stamens 1. 2. Zannichellia 

The only genus Aponogeton. 




A. Fls. strictly unisexual; female inclosed in a 
flask-shaped or bag-shaped scale or glume 

(perigynium) 1. Carex. 

AA. Fls. bisexual, rarely unisexual, not inclosed aa 

B. With several (2 to many) of the lower 

-rules empty. 
c. Spikelets few-fld. (usually 1-2-, rarely, 

3-G-fld. ) 2. Rhyncho- 

cc. Spikelets many-fld. [sporo. 

D. St. leafy 3. H ypoljtrurn. 

Dp. St. not leafy or only at base 4. Mapania. 

BB. With only 1 or 2 of the lower scales empty. 
c. Scales 2-ranked. 

D. Perianth 5. Cyperua. 

DD. Perianth of 8 setae G. Dulichium, 

cc. Scales many-ranked, overlapping. 
D. Perianth of 3-8, rarely 0, setae. 

E. Style persistent, thickened and bulb- 
like at base 7. Eleocharia. 

EE. Style not or hardly thickened at base. 8. Scirpua. 
DD. Perianth of many setae, very long- 
excrescent after anthesis, becoming 
wavy or cottony 9. Eriopkorum. 

209. GRAMINE^. 
/. Summary of the Tribes. 

Subfamily I. PANICOIDE^. 

Spikelets 1-, rarely 2-fld.; the terminal fl. perfect, the lower 
Btaminate or neuter; rachilla articulated below the glumes, the 
more or less dorsally compressed spikelets falling from the 
pedicels entire, singly, in groups, or together with joints of an 
articulate rachis. 

A. Spikelets unisexual, the male and 
female spikelets in different infl. on 
the same plant or in different parts 
of the same infl. ; awnless ........... 

AA. Spikclets perfect, sometimes with 

male or neutral ones intermixed. 
B. Lemma and palea hyaline, the 
glumes more or less indurated; 
spikelets in 2's or 3's on the usu- 
ally articulate axis of a spike-like 
raceme, 1 sessile and perfect, usu- 
ally awned, the other pediceled 
and perfect, staminate or rudi- 
mentary ........................ 

BB. Lemma and palea more or less in- 
durated, firmer in texture than the 
glumes; spikelets all perfect; first 
glume sometimes obsolete ........ 3. MILLET TRIBE, OR 


TRIE: . 




Subfamily II. POACOIDEJE. 

Spikelets 1- to many-fld., the imperfect or rudimentary floret, 
if any, usually uppermost; rachilla usually articulated above the 
glumes which arc persistent on the pedicel or rachis after the fall 
of the florets; when 2- to many-fld., a manifest internode of the 
rachilla separating the florets, and articulated below them; 
spikelets more or less laterally compressed. 

A. Culms not woody and perennial. 
B. Infl. paniculate, the spikelets pedi- 
celed, not sessile on opposite sides 
of a jointed flattened axis, form- 
ing spikes, nor sessile along one side 
of a slender continuous axis. 
c, Spikelets 1-fld., the rachilla some- 
times continued as a minute 
bristle behind the palea (or in 
Phalarideie a pair of rudimen- 
tary or male florets below the 
perfect one). 
D. Spikclets falling entire; glumea 

usually obsolete or nearly so. . . 4. RICE TRIBE, OR 
DD. Spikelets persistent ; glumes (ORYZE.E. 


B. Floret with 2 minute scales 
(rudimentary lemmas) or 
2 small male florets at- 
tached at the base and fall- 
ing with it ............... 5. CANARY-GRASS 

EE. Floret with no scales attached (TRIBE, OR 

below; glumes usually sub- [PHALARIDE^J, 

equal ; lemma awned or 
awnless .................. 6. RED-TOP TRIBE, OR 

CC. Spikelets 2- to many-fld. (AGROSTIDE*. 

D. Glumes longer than the first 

floret; spikelets 2- to several- 

fld.; 1 or more of the florets 

usually awned from the bark 

or from between the teeth of a [A\ KNE,. 

bifid apex .................. 7. OAT TRIBE, OR 

DD. Glumes shorter than the first 
floret; spikelets 2- to many- 
fld ; awns when present ter- 
minal or nearly so 8. FESOTTB TRIBE, OR 

BB. Infl. spieate. [FESTDCBJI. 

c. Spikelets sessile or subsessile in 
1-sided spikes, 1- to few-fld. ; 
spikes solitary, or digitately or 

racemosely arranged 9. CHLORIB TRIBE, OR 

CC. Spikelets sessile on opposite sides (CHLOHIDE.E 

of a zigzag jointed channeled 
axis forming a spike; 1- ' to 

several-fld 10. BARLEY TRIBE. OR 

AA. Culms woody, tree-like : If .-blades [HORDE m. 

articulated with the sheaths 11. BAMBOO TRIBE, OB 


//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Indian Corn Tribe, or Maydea. 

A* Male spikelets in a terminal panicle; female 
spikelets in spikes or ears in the axils of the 
B. Female spikelets sunken in cavities of a 

jointed readily disarticulating axis 1, Euchlxna. 

BB. Female spikelets crowded in rows on a 

thickened continuous axis (the cob) 2. Zea. 

AA. Male and female spikelets in the same infl., 

the male at the end of the spikes. 
B. Spikes digitate, the axis of the female por- 
tion bony indurated, disarticulating with 

spikelets attached 3. Tripsacum. 

BB. Spikes paniculate, the female spikelets 
inclosed in ovoid pearly or grayish bead- 
like bodies, the male portion protruding 
from a small orifice of the bead 4. Coix. 

2. Sorghum Tribe, or Andropogoneae. 

A. Spikelets all alike, perfect. 

B. Axis of racemes continuous, the spikeleta 

deciduous; panicle fan-shaped 5. Miscantkus. 

BB. Axis of racemes jointed, readily disarticula- 
ting with the spikelets attached. 

c. The spikelets awnless 6. Saccharum. 

cc. The spikelets awned 7. Erianthut. 

AA. Spikelets not all alike, the sessile perfect, the 

pediceled male or neuter. 

B. Lower 1 or 2 pairs of spikelets unlike the 
upper pairs; racemes in pairs from boat- 
shaped sheaths on the ultimate branches 

of an elongated infl 8. Cymbopogon. 

BB. Lower pairs of spikelets like the upper, 
c. Infl. consisting of 1 to many racemes, 
these digitate or racemose along a 

short axis 9. Andropogon. 

cc. Infl. compound, paniculate. 

D. Racemes many-fld., linear, naked at 
base, numerous, arranged in whorls 

on an elongated axis 10. Vetiveria, 

DD. Racemes reduced to 2 or 3 spikelets, 

arranged in a compound panicle 11. Holcus. 

3. Millet Tribe, or Panicete. 

A, Axis broad and corky, the spikelets sunken in 

its cavities 12. Steno- 

AA. Axis not broad and corky, spikelets not sunken [taphrum. 

in its cavities. 
B. Spikelets not subtended or surrounded by 


C. Glumes and lemmas awnless, the apex of 
the palea inclosed in the enfolding 

lemma 13. Panicum. 

CC. Glumes or lemmas, or both, awned or 


D. Second glume and sterile lemma taper- 
ing into an awn or point, coarsely 
hispid; palea free at the summit; 

spikelets crowded 14. Echinochtoa. 

DD. Second glume and sterile lemma awned 

from a 2-lobed apex. 
E. Infl. of 1-sided racemes along a com- 
mon axis; spikelets pubescent but 
not silky; palea inclosed at summit. 15. Oplismtnus. 
EE. Infl. paniculate; spikelets covered 

with long silky hairs 16. Tricholxna, 

BB. Spikelets subtended or surrounded by 

c. Bristles persistent, not falling with the 

spikelets at maturity 17. Setaria. 

CC. Bristles falling attached to the spikelet.. . .18. I'ennisetum. 

4. Rice Tribe, or Oryzeae. 

A. Spikelets unisexual, the female awned, erect 
at the summit of the panicle, the male awn- 
less, nodding on the lower branches 19. Zisania. 

AA. Spikelets perfect, strongly flattened 20. Oryza. 



5. Canary-Grass Tribe, or Phalarideee. 

A. Glumes strongly compressed; sterile lemmas 

rudimentary 21. Phalaris. 

AA. Glumes not strongly compressed; sterile 

lemmas not rudimentary. 
B. Sterile lemmas awned; glumes very unequal.22. Anthox- 

BB. Sterile lemmas awnless; glumes nearly equal. 23. Hierochloe. 

6. Red-Top Tribe, or Agrostideas. 

A. Lemma indurated, or at least firmer than the 


B. Panicle spike-like; spikeleta flattened, awn- 
less 24. Ammopkila. 

BB. Panicle not spike-like; spikelets not Bat- 
tened, awned. 

c. Floret oblong and with a sharp callus at 
base; awn stout, geniculate, twisted, 

persistent 25. Stipa. 

cc. Floret ovate, the callus blunt; awn slen- 
der, more or less deciduous 26. Oryzopsis. 

AA. Lemma of about the same texture as the 

glumes or more delicate. 

B. Spikelets crowded in dense spike-like pani- 
cles or heads. 

c. Heads oval, very woolly 27. Lagurus. 

cc. Heads cylindrical, not woolly 28. Phleum. 

BB. Spikelets not crowded in dense heads or 


c. Lemma and palea much more delicate 
and shorter than the glumes, the palea 
shorter than the lemma, often wanting. .29. Ayrostis. 
CC. Lemma and palea of about the same 
texture as the glumes and as long or 

o. Rachilla not continued beyond the base 
of the floret; lemma awned from the 
tip or awnless. 

E. The lemma awned or sharp-pointed, 
longer than the body of the awned 

or awnless glumes 30. Muchlen- 

EE. The lemma not awned or sharp- [bergia. 


F. Nerves of lemma 1 31. Sporobolus. 

FF. Nerves of lemma 3-5 32. Calamovilfa. 

DD. Rachilla prolonged beyond the floret as 
a plumose bristle; lemmas awned on 

the back and silky hairy at base 33. Calama- 


7. Oat Tribe, or Aveneae. 

A. Plants low, delicate; Spikelets minute 34. Aira. 

AA. Plants 1 ft. or more high. 

B. Articulation below the glumes, the spikelets 

falling entire from the pedicels, 
c. Glumes much exceeding the 2 florets, the 

upper floret with a hook-like awn 35. Noiholcus. 

cc. Glumes exceeded by the upper floret, both 

florets awnless 36. Sphenoph- 

BB. Articulation above the glumes, these per- [oKa. 

sistent after the fall of the florets. 
c. Spikelets 1 in. or more long, nodding, in 

an open panicle; florets all alike 37. Avena. 

cc. Spikelets about ^fin. long, erect in a nar- 
row panicle; lower floret et animate 38. Arrhenath- 


8. Fescue Tribe, or Festuceae. 

A. Rachilla or lemma bearing long hairs as long 

as the lemma: tall reeds. 
B. Spikelets unisexual; male and female 

spikelets on separate plants. 
c. Lemmas much shorter than the glumes: 

sts. leafy throughout 39. Gynerium. 

cc. Lemmas with elongated delicate tips: 

Ivs. crowded at the base 40. Cartaderia. 

BB. Spikelets perfect. 

c. Lemmas hairy; rachilla naked 41. Arundo. 

cc.Lemmas naked; rachilla hairy 42. Pkragmiles. 

AA. Rachilla or lemma glabrous or hairy, but the 

hairs shorter than the lemmas. 
B. Spikelets of 2 kinds, perfect and sterile, in 

the same panicle, 
c. Fertile spikelets awnless, the sterile 

awned; panicle spike-like 43. Cynosurua. 

cc. Fertile spikelets awncd, the sterile awn- 
lees ; panicle 1-sided , the fascicled 

spikelets nodding 44. Lamarckia. 

BB. Spikelets all alike in the same infi. 
c. Lemmas 1 3-nerved. 

D. The spikelets subtcrete, loosely 2-4- 

fld 45. Molinia. 

DD. The spikelets compressed, densely, 

usually many-fld. 
E. Florets membranaceous; spikelets in 

open panicles 46. Erayrostis. 

XE. Florets coriaceous; spikelets in rigid 

spike-like panicles 47. Desmazeria. 

OC. Lemmas 5- to many-nerved. 

D. The spikelet;* with several sterile 
lemmas at the bane, strongly flat- 
tened, in a large drooping panicle ..... 48. Uniola. 

DD. The spikelets without sterile lemmas 

at the base. 
E. Florets crowded, nearly horizontal; 

spikelets broad, cordate .......... 49. Briza, 

EE. Florets not crowded; spikelets not 

broad and cordate. 
F. Spikelets flattened, nearly sessile in 
dense clusters at the ends of the 
few panicle branches ........... 50. Dactylis. 

FF. Spikelets not flattened. 

G. Lemmas keeled, often bearing 
white cobwebby hairs at 
base ....................... 51. Poo. 

GO. Lemmas convex or keeled at the 

summit only, not hairy at base. 

ii. Nerves of lemma prominent, 

parallel; lemmas scarious at 

the summit ............... 52. Glycena. 

HH. Nerves of lemma not promi- 

nent, approaching each 

other at the apex; lemmas 


i. The lemmas entire, often 

awn-tipped ............. 53. Festuca. 

II. The lemmas 2-toothed, usu- 
ally awned just below the 
apex ................... 54. Bromus. 

9. Chloris Tribe, or Chloridese. 

A. Spikes racemose along a common axis; 

spikelets falling entire .................... 55. Spartina. 

AA. Spikes digitate at the summit of the culm. 
B. Spikeleta awnless. 

c. The spikes slender; spikelets 1-fld ......... 56. Cynodon. 

cc. The spikes stout ; spikelets several-fld ..... 57. Eleusine. 

BB. Spikelets awned. 

c. Fertile lemma 1-awned ................. 58. Chloris, 

cc. Fertile lemma 3-awned ................. 59. Trichloriy. 

10. Barley Tribe, or Hordeae. 

A. Spikelets solitary at each joint of the axis. 
B. Glume 1, except in terminal spikelet; 

spikelets placed with 1 edge to the axis ____ 60. Lolium. 

BB. Glumes 2; spikelets placed with side to the 

c. Palea adherent to the grain; rachilla dis- 

articulating, the florets separating ...... 61. Agropyron, 

cc. Palea free from the grain ; rachilla not dis- 


D. Shape of glumes very narrow, l-nerved.62. Secale. 
DD. Shape of glumes ovate, 3- to many- 

nerved ........................... 63. Triticum. 

AA. Spikelets in clusters of 2 or 3 at each joint of 

the axis. 

B. Lateral pair of each cluster pediceled, usu- 
ally aborted, appearing like a cluster of 
awns ................................. 64. Hordeum. 

BB. Lateral spikelets sessile, usually but 2 

spikelets at a joint ..................... 65. Elymus. 

11. Bamboo Tribe, or Bambuseae. 

A. Stamens 3: fr. a true caryopsis. 
B. Spikelets 2- to many-fid. 

c. Infl. fasciculate ....................... 66. 

cc. Infl. racemose or paniculate, not leafy: 

sts. cylindrical : sheaths persistent ...... 67. 

ccc. Infl. spicate, leafy: sts. flattened on one 

side: sheaths early deciduous .......... 68. 






BB. Spikelets 1-fld 
A A. Stamens 6. 

B. Pericarp thin, adnate to the seed, the fr. 

a true caryopsis ....................... 70. Bambusa. 

BB. Pericarp, crustaceous, separable from the 

seed, the fr. nut-like .................... 71. Dendro- 


Other genera mentioned are: Cenchrus, Cephalostachyum.Cinna, 
Dactyl octenium, Deschampsea, Diandrolyra, Distichlis, Imperata, 
Leptochloa, Melica, Melinis, Paspalum, Rottboellia and Trisetum. 


One genus in cultivation , Lycopodium. 


One genus only Selaginetta. 



One genus only Equiaetum. 

ccc. Indusia inferior, attached under 
the sorus and opening laterally 
or by splitting radially into lobes. 8. WOODAIA TRIBE. 


A. Sporangia coherent, in 2 ranks, forming 

spikes: veins anastomosing f . 1. Ophioglos- 

AA. Sporangia free in compound spikes or pani- [sum. 

cles: veins free: Ivs. mostly compound 2. Botrychium. 


A. Sori in double lines along the veins, not 

united 1. Angiopteris. 

AA. Sori united in synangia. 

B. Synangia oval, opening by a fissure 2. MaraUia. 

BB. Synangia elongate, each compartment open- 
ing by a terminal pore : 3. Dantea. 


A. Involucre 2-valved 1. Hymeno- 


AA. Involucre tubular or funnel-shaped 2. Trichom- 



A. Sporangia borne in panicles formed either 

from certain pinna- or from whole Ivs 1. Osmunda. 

AA. Sporangia borne on the under surface of foli- 
age Ivs. 

B. Ferns coarse with broad segms 2. Todea. 

BB. Ferns finely cut, membranous 3. Leptopteris. 


A. Sporangia borne on under side of normal or 

altered lys. 
B. Lvs. twining; Ifts. palmate or pinnate: 

sporangia borne singly under scale 1. Lygodium. 

BB. Lvs. not twining. 

c. Sporangia in sori on the under surface 2. Mohria. 

cc. Sporangia in 2 ranks forming spikes 3. Schiznea. 

AA. Sporangia borne in erect panicles formed on 

the elongate lowermost pinnae 4. Anemia. 

218. POLYPODIACE-ffi. 
/. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Indusium wanting or rudimentary 

(rarely developed in Monogramma). 

B. Sporangium scattered in a stratum 

over the under surface of the Ivs.: 

coarse ferns 

BB. Sporangium collected in round or 

linear sori. 
c. Lvs. not jointed to the rootstock: 

rrangia in long lines following 

cc. Lvs. not jointed to the rootstock: 
sori round. (See Phegopteris in 
Dryopteris Tribe.) 
Ccc. Lvs. jointed to the rootstock: sori 

mostly roundish 

AA. Indusium present (exceptionally want- 
ing in Phegopteris, Meniscium, 
Notholsena and Ceropteris). 
B. Sori oblong or linear, at least twice 

as long as broad. 

c. The sori marginal, covered with an 
indusium formed of the reflexed 
edge of the If. (naked in Notho- 
Isepa, or naked and distributed 
along the veins in Ceropteris) . . . . 
cc. The son dorsal, covered with a 

flap-like indusium 

BB. Sori roundish or at least less than 

twice as long as broad. 
c. Indusia superior, attached by a 
central stalk or by a sinus (sori 
naked in Phegopteris and Menis- 
cium), normally dorsal: Ivs. not 

jointed to the rootstock 

CC. Indusia extrorse or cup-shaped, 
normally marginal: Ivs. jointed 
to the rootstock in most genera . . 











//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Acrostichum Tribe. 

A. Sporangia localized on definite areas of the Iva. : 
lys. dimorphous, the sterile basal ones shield- 
like 1. Platycerium, 

AA. Sporangia covering entire Ivs. or entire pinna;. 

B. Lvs. simple 2. Elapho- 


BB. Lvs. pinnate 3. Acrostichum* 

BBS. Lvs. (sterile), dichotomously forked 4. Rhipidop- 


2. Vittaria Tribe. 

A. Son forming 1 or 2 continuous lines parallel 
to the midrib. 

B. Sorus 1 or 2 lines 5. Mono- 


BB. Sprus always 2 lines 6. Vittaria. 

AA. Sori on lateral veins forming more or less 

interrupted lines 7. Antropk- 


3. Polypodium Tribe. 

A. Lvs. distinctly dimorphous, compound, the 

sterile basal ones oak-like: plants large 8. Drynana. 

AA. Lvs. dimorphous, simple: plants very small.. . . 9. Drymo- 
AAA. Lvs. uniform. [glosntm. 

B. Foliage covered underneath with stellate 

hairs 10. Cyclophorua. 

BB. Foliage smooth or scaly, not stellate hairy. 

c. Veins free 11. Polypodium, 

cc. Veins anastomosing. 

D. Corresponding veinlets from principal 
veins uniting and bearing a sorus at 

the end 12. Goniophle- 

DD. Areole bearing 2 or more free veinlets [bium. 

extending outward, which bear a free 

sorus 13. Phlebodium. 

ODD. Areoles containing free veinlets irregu- 
larly directed 14. Phymatodea. 

4. Pteris Tribe. 

A. Son dorsal, extending along all the veins, 

B. Veins copiously anastomosing. 

c. Lvs. large, pinnate 15. Conio- 


cc. Lvs. smaller, palmate 16. Hemionitis. 

BB. Veins free or only casually uniting. 

c. Lvs. naked 17. Anogramma. 

cc. Lvs. hairy f 18. Ceropteria. 

AA. Sori marginal, nominally covered with edge 

of If. 
B. The sori at the ends of veins unconnected at 

their apices, 
c. Lvs. dimorphous. 

D. Sori at the ends of veins only 19. Crypto- 


DO. Son scattered the length of the veins ... 20. Onychium. 
cc. Lvs. uniform, smooth, on dark-colored 

D. Veins free: Ivs. pinnate 21. PeUsea. 

DD. Veins usually anastomosing: Iva. 

palmate 22. Doryopttri*. 

ccc. Lvs. uniform, hairy, scaly or powdery. 

D. Margins scarcely recurved 23. NothoUena. 

DD. Margins recurved to form a distinct 


E. Indusia more or less continuous 
around the segm. 

r. The Ivs. pinnately divided 24. Cheitanthea. 

FF. The Ivs. palmately divided 25. Adicmtopaia. 

BE. Indusia in the form of more or less 

distant marginal lobes 26. Hypolepia. 

BB. The sori inserted beneath the marginal 

indusium : stalks black or blackish 27. Adiantum. 

BBB. The sori rising in a continuous line-like 
receptacle which joins the ends of the 

c. With an inner membranous indusium 28. Pteridium. 

cc. With no inner indusium present. 

D. Lvs. small, radiate-dichotomous 29. Actinopteris. 

DD. Lvs. small, palmate: stalk black 30. Coaaebeera. 

ODD. Lvs. larger, pinnate 31. Pieria. 

5. Asplenium Tribe. 

A. Sori parallel to the midrib. 

B. Sterile Ivs. with free veins: sori continuous . . 32. ftltchnum. 



BB. Sterile Iva. with anastomosing veins: sori 

c. The sori sunken in the Ivs 33. Woodivardia. 

cc. The sori superficial in 1 or more rows 34. Doodia. 

AA. Sori partly parallel and partly oblique to the 

midrib: veins anastomosing 35. Camptosorus. 

AAA. bon oblique to the midrib. 

B. Veins free, united at the margins. 

c. The sori double, extending along both 

sides of the vein 36. Diplazium. 

CC. The sori single on the veins. 

D. Indusia opening toward each other, in 

pairs 37. PhyUitia. 

DD. Indusia all opening toward the end of 

pinnae or segms 38. AspUnium. 

BB. Veins of lower (inner) series uniting: indu- 

sium extending both sides of veins 39. CaUipteris. 

6. Dryopteris Tribe. 

A. Indusium present. 
B, Veins free, or with a single row of areoles 

along the mid-veins. 
c. Indusia on the ends of veins which project 

beyond the margin of the If 40. Deparia. 

cc. Indusia dorsal. 

D. The indusium cordate or reniform, 
attached by the sinus, sometimes 

wanting 41. Dryopteris. 

DD. The indusium orbicular, peltate, at- 
tached by a central stalk 42. Polyatichum. 

DDD. The indusium oval, fixed to a central 

elongate receptacle 43. Didymo- 

BB. Veins anastomosing. [chlxna. 

c. The indusium cordate or reniform, 

attached by the sinus 44. Tectaria. 

cc. The indusium peltate, attached by a 
central stalk : veins forming small 

areoles 45. Cyrtomium. 

AA. Indusiam wanting. 

B. Veins free 46. Phegopteris. 

BB. Veins anastomosing. 

c. The main veins joined by arches which 

bear the curved sori 47. Gymnopteris. 

cc. The son round, attached dorsally. 

D. Sori distinct at maturity 48. Meniacium. 

DD. Sori confluent at maturity 49. Leptochilus. 

7. Davallia Tribe. 

A. Indusium attached at base only. 
B. Pinnae jointed to the rachis; Ivs. simply 

pinnate: indusium circular or reniform. . .50. Nephrolepis. 
BB, Pinna- not jointed to the rachis; Ivs. jointed 
to the rootstock 

c. The indusium thick, coriaceous 51. ffumota. 

cc. The indusium membranous 52. Lcacostegia. 

AA. Indusium attached at both base and sides. 
B. Lvs. jointed to the scaly rootstocks. 

c. Shape of indusium tubular 53. Dacallia. 

cc. Shape of indusium broader than long, 
forming a boat-shaped cavity on the 

edge of the segm 54. Lozoscaphe. 

BB. Lvs. not jointed to the rootstocks. 

c. Indusia near the end of unmodified lf.- 


D. Sorus formed on receptacles contain- 
ing vascular tissues 55. Microlepia. 

DD. Sorus not formed on a special receptacle.56. Odontosoria. 
CC. Indusium united with the modified lf.- 

lobe to form a complete cup 57. Dennstxdtia, 

8. Woodsia Tribe. 

A. Lvs. uniform, plane; veins free. 
B. Indusium beneath the sorus, breaking up 

into linear lobes 58. Woodsia. 

BB. Indusium extrorse, opening laterally with a 

hood-like lobe 59. Cystopteris, 

AA. Lvs. dimorphous, the sporophylls clo.sely 
rolled together. 

B. Veins free: Ivs. in crowns 00. Matteuccia. 

BB. Veins anastomosing: Ivs. scattered 61. Onoclea. 

Brainea, Compteris, and Lonchitis are briefly described. 


Single genus in cultivation Gleichenia. 


A. Sori borne on the apex of the veins: 
indusium extrorse, formed of a more 
or less modified marginal tooth and 

an inner lid-like scale 1. DICKSONIA TRIBE. 

AA. Sori borne dorsally on the veins or at 
the fork : indusium inferior, or 
wholly wanting 2. CYATHEA TRIBE. 

1. Dicksonia Tribe. 

A. Tooth of spore-bearing segm. scarcely modi- 
fied, about the size of the inner scale 1. Dicksonia, 

AA. Tooth of the spore-bearing segm. strongly 
modified, coriaceous like the inner scale and 
usually larger 2. Cibotium. 

2. Cyathea Tribe. 

A. Indusium present, inferior. 
B. The indusium at first inclosing the globular 
sorus, remaining cup-shaped or irregu- 
larly splitting at maturity 3. Cyathea. 

BB. The indusium membranous, semi-circular, 

more fully inclosing the sorus 4. Hemitelia. 

AA. Indusium wanting 5. Alsophila. 

Thyrsppteris, of another tribe, may be expected in cultivation 
and is briefly accounted for in this work. 


Habit aquatic: single genus Ceratopteris , 


A. Lvs. minute, numerous, closely imbricated: 
sporocarps of 2 kinds, the larger globose, the 

smaller ovoid 1. Azolla. 

AA. Lvs. larger, fewer, distinct: sporocarps uni- 
form, globose 2. Sahinia. 

In cultivation Marsilea. 


Abelia, 102. 
Alx-ria, 88. 
Abii's, 120. 
Aljuhra, 100. 
Abroma, 90. 
Abronia, 116. 
Abrophyllum, 98. 
Abrus, 94. 
Abuta, 86. 
Abutilon, 89. 
Acacia, 93. 
Acaena, 97. 
Acalypha, 119. 
Acampe, 123. 

ACANTHACE.E, 83, 114. 

Acanthocereus, 101. 
Acantholimon, 109. 
Acanthomintha, 116. 
Acanthonema, 114. 
Acanthopanax, 102. 
Acanthophippium, 122. 
Acanthophcenix, 130. 
Acanthorhiza, 129. 
Acanthus, 114. 
Acer, 92. 

ACERACE.E, 81, 92. 
Aceranthus, 87. 
Achillea, 107. 
Achimenes, 113. 
Aehlys, 87. 
Acidanthera, 124. 
Acineta, 123. 
Aciphylla, 101. 
Acoelorraphe, 131. 
Acokanthera, 110. 
Aconiturn, 86. 
Aeorus, 131. 
Acriopsis, 123. 
Aerista, 130. 
Acrocomia, 129. 
Acrophyllum, 98. 
Acrospira, 128. 
Acrostichum, 135. 
Actaea, 86. 
Actinella, 106. 
Artinidia, 86. 
Actinolepis, 106. 
Actinomeris. 106. 
Actinoptcris, 135. 
Actinostemma, 100. 
Ada, 123. 
Adansonia, 90. 
Adelia, 118. 
Adenandra, 91. 
Adenanthera, 93. 
Adenocalymma, 113. 
Adenocarpus, 94. 
Adenophora, 108. 
Adenostoma, 97. 
Adenostyles, 105. 
Adesmia, 94. 
Adhatoda, 114. 
Adiantopsis, 135. 
Adiantum, 135. 
Adlumia, 87. 
Adonis, 86. 
Adoxa, 85. 

yEchmea, 126. 

Ammobium, 105. 

.Egle, 91. 

Ammocharis, 125. 

yEglopsis, 91. 

Ammophila, 134. 

-Egopodium, 101. 

Amomum, 125. 

Aerides, 123. 

Amorpha, 95. 

-Erva, 116. 

Amorphophallus, 131. 

^Esculus, 92. 

Ampelopsis, 92. 

^ithionema, 87. 

Amphicarpaea, 95. 

jEtoxicon, 118. 

Amphicome, 113. 

Afzelia, 95. 

Amsonia, 110. 

Agalmyla, 114. 

Amyris, 91. 

Aganisia, 123. 

Anacampseros, 89. 

Agapanthus, 127. 


Agapetes, 108. 

Ancardium, 92. 

Agathis, 120. 

Anagallis, 109. 

Agave, 125. 

Anamirta, 86. 

Agdestis, 116. 

Ananas, 126. 

Agcratum, 105. 

Anaphalis, 105. 

Aglaia, 91. 

Anarrhinum, 112. 

Aglaonema, 131. 

Anastatica, 88. 

Agrimonia, 97. 

Anchusa, 111. 

Agropyron, 134. 

Andira, 94. 

Agrostis, 134. 

Andrachne, 118. 

Ailanthus, 91. 

Androcymbium, 128. 

Aira, 134. 

Andromeda, 108. 

AIZOACE.E, 82, 101. 

Andropogon, 133. 

Ajuga, 115. 

Androsace, 109. 

Akebia, 87. 

Androstephium, 127. 

ALANGIACEjE, 82, 102. 

Aneilema, 128. 

Alangium, 102. 

Anemia, 135. 

Alberta, 103. 

Anemone, 86. 

Albizzia, 93. 

Anemonopsis, 86. 

Albuca, 128. 

Anemopsis, 117. 

Alchemilla, 97. 

Anethum, 101. 

Alchornea, 118. 

Angelica, 101. 

Alectorurus, 128. 

Angelonia, 112. 

Alei-tryon, 92. 

Angiopteris, 135. 

Aletris, 127. 

Angophora, 98. 

Alcuritcs, 119. 

Angrsecum, 123. 

Alhagi, 94. 

Anguloa, 122. 

Alisnia, 132. 

Anigozanthos, 125. 

ALISMACE.E, 85, 132. 

Anisacanthus, 114. 

Allamanda, 110. 

Anisostichus, 113. 

Allium, 128. 

Anisotes, 114. 

Alloplectus, 114. 

Annona, 86. 

Alnus, 119. 

ANNONACE.E, 80, 86. 

Alocasia, 131. 

Anrectochilus, 122. 

Aloe, 127. 

Anogramma, 135. 

Alonsoa, 112. 

Anoiganthus, 125. 

Alpinia, 125. 

Anopterus, 98. 

Alsine, 89. 

Anredera, 85. 

Alsophila, 136. 

Ansellia, 122. 

Alstonia, 110. 

Antennaria, 105. 

Alstroemeria, 125. 

Anthemis, 107. 

Altamiranoa, 98. 

Anthericum, 127. 

Althaea, 89. 

Antholyza, 124. 

Alyssum, 88. 

Anthoxanthum, 134. 

AMARANTACE.E, 83, 116. 

Anthurium, 131. 

Amarantus, 116. 

Anthyllis, 94. 


Antiaris, 118. 

Amaryllis, 125. 

Antidesma, 118. 

Amasonia, 114. 

Antigonon, 117. 

Ambrosia, 106. 

Antirrhinum, 112. 

Ambrosinia, 131. 

Antrophyum, 135. 

Amrlanchier, 97. 

Aotus, 95. 

Amollus, 107. 

Aphananthe, 118. 

Amhcrstia, 95. 

Aphelandra, 114. 

Amicia, 95. 

Aphyllon, 85. 


Apicra, 127. 
Apios, 95. 
Apium, 101. 
Aplectrum, 122. 
Aplopappus, 105. 
APOOYNACE.E, 83, 110. 
Apocynum, 111. 
Aponogeton, 132. 
Aporocactus, 101. 
Aquilegia, 86. 
Arabis, 88. 
ARACE.E, 85, 131. 
Arachis, 94. 
Arachnanthe, 123. 
Aralia, 101. 
ARALIACE.E, 82, 101. 
Araucaria, 120. 
Arbutus, 108. 
Archangelica, 101. 
Archontophcenix, 130. 
Arctium, 105. 
Arctostaphylos, 108. 
Arctotis, 107. 
Arctous, 108. 
Ardisia, 109. 
Areca, 130. 
Aregelia, 126. 
Arenaria, 89. 
Arenga, 130. 
Arethusa, 123. 
Argemone, 87. 
Argyreia, 111. 
Ariocarpus, 100. 
Arisaema, 131. 
Arisarum, 131. 
Aristea, 124. 
Aristoloehia, 117. 
Aristotelia, 90. 
Armeria, 109. 
Arnebia, 111. 
Arnica, 107. 
Aronia, 96. 
Arpophyllum, 122. 
Arracacia, 101. 
Arrhenatherum, 134. 
Artabotrys, 86. 
Artemisia, 107. 
Artocarpus, 118. 
Arthropodium, 128. 
Arum, 131. 
Aruncus, 96. 
Arundinaria, 134. 
Arundo, 134. 
Asarum, 117. 
Asclepias, 110. 
Ascyrum, 89. 
Asimina, 86. 
Asparagus, 126. 
Aspasia, 123. 
Asperula, 103. 
Asphodeline, 127. 
Asphodelus, 127. 
Aspidistra, 127. 
Asplenium, 136. 



Astelia, 128. 
Aster; 105. 
Asterlinosyris, 107. 
Astilbc, 98. 
Astragalus, 95. 
Astrantia, 101. 
Astrocaryum, 129. 
Asystasia, 114. 
Atalantia, 91. 
Athrotaxis, 120. 
Atraphaxis, 117. 
Atriplex, 116. 
Atropa, 112. 
Attalea, 129. 
Aubrietia, 88. 
Aucuba, 102. 
Audibertia, 115. 
Audouinia, 98. 
Avena, 134. 
Averrhoa, 90. 
Avicennia, 115. 
Azara, 88. 
Azolla, 136. 

Babiana, 124. 
Baccaurea, 118. 
Baccharis, 105. 
Backhousia, 99. 
Bactris, 129. 
Bacularia, 130. 
Bffiria, 106. 
Bahia, 106. 
Baikisea, 95. 
Balaka, 131. 
Balsamocitrus, 91. 
Balsamorrhiza, 106. 
Bamburanta, 125. 
Bambusa, 134. 
Banksia, 117. 
Baphia, 95. 
Baptisia, 94. 
Barbacenia, 125. 
Barbarea, 88. 
Barbieria, 95. 
Barleria, 114. 
Barosma, 91. 
Barringtonia, 99. 
Basella, 116. 
Batemannia, 123. 
Bauera, 98. 
Bauhinia, 95. 
Beaufortia, 99. 
Beaumontia, 111. 
Begonia, 100. 
BEGONIACE^E, 82, 100. 
Belemcanda, 124. 
Bellis, 105. 
Bellium, 107. 
Beloperone, 114. 
Benincasa, 100. 
Bentinckia, 131. 
Benzoin, 117. 

BEBBEBIDACE..E, 80, 87. 

Berberidopsis, 88. 
Berberis, 87. 
Berchemia, 92. 
Bergerocactus, 101. 
Berria, 90. 
Bersama, 92. 
Bertholletia, 99. 
Bertolonia, 99. 
Beschorneria, 125. 
Besleria, 114. 
Bessera, 127. 

Beta, 116. 
Betula, 119. 
BETULACE.E, 84, 119. 
Biarum, 131. 
Bidens, 106. 
Bifrenaria, 123. 
Bigelovia, 105. 
Bignonia, 113. 

BlONONIACE^E, 83, 113. 

Billardiera, 88. 
Billbergia, 126. 
Biophytum, 90. 
Bischofia, 118. 
Bismarckia, 131. 
Bixa, 88. 
BIXACE.E, 80, 88. 
Blakea, 99. 
Blandfordia, 127. 
Blechnum, 135. 
Blepharis, 114. 
Blepharocalyx, 99. 
Bletia, 122. 
Bletilla, 122. 
Blighia, 92. 
Bloomeria, 128. 
Blumenbachia, 100. 
Bocconia, 87. 
Boea, 114. 
Boehmeria, 118. 
Bolandra, 98. 
Bollea, 123. 
Boltonia, 105. 
Bomarea, 125. 

BOMBACACE.E, 81, 90. 

Bombax, 90. 
Bongardia, 87. 

BOBAGINACEjE, 83, 111 

Borago, 111. 
Borassus, 129. 
Boronia, 91. 
Bosea, 116. 
Botrychium, 135. 
Bougainvillea, 116. 
Boussingaultia, 116. 
Bouvardia, 103. 
Bowcnia, 120. 
Bowiea, 127. 
Bowkeria, 113. 
Boykinia, 98. 
Brachychseta, 105. 
Brachychilus, 125. 
Brachychiton, 90. 
Brachycome, 105. 
Brachysema, 95. 
Brahea, 129. 
Brainea, 136. 
Brasenia, 87. 
Brassavola, 122. 
Brassia, 123. 
Brassica, 87. 
Bravoa, 125. 
Braya, 88. 
Brevoortia, 127. 
Breweria, 111. 
Breynia, 118. 
Brickellia, 105. 
Briza, 134. 
Brodiffia, 127. 
Bromelia, 125. 

BBOMELIACEjE, 85, 125. 

Bromheadia, 123. 
Bromus, 134. 
Brosimum, 118. 
Broughtonia, 122. 
Broussonetia, 118. 
Browallia, 112. 

Brownea, 95. 
Bruckenthalia, 108. 
Brunella, 115. 
Brunfelsia, 112. 
BBUNLACE.E, 82, 98. 
Brunsvigia, 125. 
Bryanthus, 108. 
Bryonia, 100. 
Bryonopsis, 100. 
Bryophyllum, 98. 
Buckleya, 117. 
Buddleia, 110. 
Bulbine, 127. 
Bulbinella, 127. 
Bulbocodium, 128. 
Bulbophyllum, 123. 
Bumelia, 109. 
Buphane, 125. 
Buphthalmum, 105. 
Bupleurum, 101. 
Burbidgea, 125. 
Burchellia, 103. 
Bursaria, 88. 
Bursera, 91. 

BUBSEBACE^E, 81, 91. 

Butea, 95. 

BUTOMACE*:, 85, 132. 
Butomus, 132. 
BCXACE*:, 84, 119. 
Buxus, 119. 
Byrsonima, 90. 

Cabomba, 87. 
Cacalia, 107. 
Cacaliopsis, 107. 
CACTACE*:, 82, 100. 
Cactus, 100. 
Cadia, 94. 
Csesalpinia, 95. 
Cajanus, 95. 
Caladium, 131. 
Calamagrostis, 134. 
Calamintha, 116. 
Calamovilfa, 134. 
Calamus, 129. 
Calandrinia, 89. 
Calanthe, 122. 
Calathea, 125. 
Calceolaria, 112. 
Calendula, 107. 
Calimeris, 107. 
Calla, 131. 
Calliandra, 93. 
Callianthemum, 86. 
Callicarpa, 114. 
Calliphruria, 125. 
Callipsyche, 125. 
Callipteris, 136. 
Callirhoe, 89. 
Callistemon, 98. 
Callistephus, 105. 
Callitris, 120. 
Callopsis, 132. 
Calluna, 108. 
Calochortus, 128. 
Calodendrum, 91. 
Calonyction, 111. 
Calophaca, 95. 
Calophyllum, 89. 
Calopogon, 122. 
Calothamnus, 98. 
Calotropis, 110. 
Calpurnia, 94. 
Caltha, 86. 
Calvoa, 99. 

Calycanthus, 86. 
Calycotome, 94. 
Calyocarpum, 86. 
Calypso, 122. 
Calyptrogyne, 131. 
Camarotis, 123. 
Camassia, 128. 
Camellia, 89. 
Camcensia, 95. 
Campanula, 108. 
CAMPANULACE.E, 82, 107. 
Campanumaea, 107. 
Camphora, 117. 
Campsidium, 113. 
Campsis, 113. 
Camptosorus, 136. 
Canangium, 86. 
Canarina, 107. 
Canavalia, 95. 
Candollea, 85. 
Canistrum, 126. 
Canna, 125. 
Cannabis, 118. 

CANNACEjE, 85, 125. 

Cantua, 111. 
Capparis, 88. 
Capsicum, 112. 
Caragana, 95. 
Caralluma, 110. 
Cardamine, 88. 
Cardiandra, 97. 
Cardiospermum, 92. 
Carduus, 105. 
Carex, 133. 
Carica, 100. 

CABICACEjE, 82, 100. 

Carissa, 110. 
Carlina, 105. 
Carludovica, 131. 
CarmichaJia, 95. 
Carnegiea, 101. 
Carpenteria, 97. 
Carpinus, 119. 
Carrieria, 88. 
Carthamus, 105. 
Carum, 101. 
Carya, 118. 
Caryocar, 85. 
Caryopteris, 115. 
Caryota, 130. 
Casimiroa, 91. 
Cassebeera, 135. 
Cassia, 95. 
Cassine, 92. 
Cassiope, 108. 
Cassipourea, 98. 
Castanea, 119. 
Castanopsis, 119. 
Castanospermum, 94. 
Castilleia, 113. 
Casuarina, 118. 
CASDARINACE-E, 84, 118. 
Catalpa, 113. 
Catananche, 107. 
Catasetum, 122. 
Catesbsea, 103. 
Catha, 92. 
Catopsis, 126. 
Cattleya, 122. 
Caulophyllum, 87. 
Cautlea, 125. 



Ceanothus, 92. 
Cedrela, 91. 
Cedronella, 115. 
Cedrus, 120. 
Ceiba, 90. 

CELASTRACE.E, 81, 92. 
Celastrus, 92. 
Celmisia, 107. 
Celosia, 116. 
Celsia, 112. 
Celtis, 118. 
Cenchrus, 134. 
Cenia, 107. 
Centaurea, 105. 
Centradenia, 99. 
Centranthus, 103. 
Centropogon, 107. 
Centrosema, 95. 
Cephaelis, 103. 
Cephalanthera, 122. 
Cephalanthus, 103. 
Cephalaria, 103. 
Cephalocereus, 101. 
Cephalostachyum, 134. 
Cephalotaxus, 120. 
Cephalotus, 98. 
Cerastium, 89. 
Ceratiola, 119. 
Ceratolobus, 129. 
Ceratonia, 95. 
Ceratopetalum, 98. 


Ceratopteris, 136. 
Ceratostigma, 109. 
Ceratotheca, 114. 
Ceratozamia, 120. 
Cercidiphyllum, 86. 
Cercis, 95. 
Cercocarpus, 97. 
Cereus, 101. 
Cerinthe, 111. 
Ceropegia, 110. 
Ceropteris, 135. 
Ceroxylon, 130. 
Cespedesia, 91. 
Cestrum, 112. 
Chaenactis, 106. 
Chasnomeles, 96. 
Chaenostoma, 112. 
Chserophyllum, 101. 
Chaetospermum, 91. 
Chalcas, 90. 
Chamaebatia, 97. 
Chamaebatiaria, 96. 
Ohamaecyparis, 120. 
Chamaedaphne, 108. 
Chamaadorea, 130. 
Chamaelirium, 128. 
Chamsemelum, 107. 
Chamaeranthemum, 114. 
Chamasrops, 129. 
Chaptalia, 107. 
Charieis, 105. 
Cheilanthes, 135. 
Cheiranthus, 88. 
Chelidonium, 87. 
Chelone, 112. 
Chenopodium, 116. 
Chilian thus, 110. 
Chilopsis, 113. 
Chimaphila, 108. 
Chiococca, 103. 

Chiogenes, 108. 
Chionanthus, 109. 
Chionodoxa, 128. 
Chiranthodendron, 90. 
Chirita, 114. 
Chironia, 110. 
Chlidanthus, 124. 
Chloranthus, 117. 
Chloris, 134. 
Chlorocodon, 110. 
Chlorogalum, 127. 
Chlorophytum, 127. 
Chloroxylon, 91. 
Choisya, 91.. 
Chondroryneha, 123. 
Chorisia, 90. 
Chorizema, 94. 
Chrozophora, 118. 
Chrysalidocarpus, 131. 
Chrysanthemum, 107. 
Chrysobactron, 127. 
Chrysobalanus, 97. 
Chrysogonum, 106. 
Chrysophyllum, 109. 
Chrysopsis, 105. 
Chrysosplenium, 98. 
Chusquea, 134. 
Chysis, 122. 
Cibotium, 136. 
Cicer, 95. 
Cichorium, 107. 
Cimicifuga, 86. 
Cinchona, 103. 
Cineraria, 107. 
Cinna, 134. 
Cinnamomum, 117. 
Cipura, 124. 
Circaea, 99. 
Cirrhopetalum, 123. 
Cirsium, 105. 
Cissampelos, 86. 
Cissus, 92. 
CISTACE*:, 80, 88. 
Cistus, 88. 
Citharexylum, 115. 
Citropsis, 91. 
Citrullus, 100. 
Citrus, 91. 
Cladanthus, 107. 
Cladothamnus, 108. 
Cladrastis, 94. 
Clarkia, 99. 
Claucena, 90. 
Clavija, 109. 
Claytonia, 89. 
Cleisostoma, 123. 
Cleistocactus, 101. 
Clematis, 86. 
Clemato-clethra, 86. 
Cleome, 88. 
Clerodendron, 115. 
Clethra, 108. 
CLETHBACE^E, 83, 108. 
Cleyera, 89. 
Clianthus, 95. 
Clidemia, 99. 
Cliftonia, 91. 
Clinostigma, 130. 
Cliutonia, 128. 
Clitoria, 94. 
Clivia, 125. 
Cluytia, 119. 
Clytostoma, 113. 
Cnicus, 105. 
Cobaea, 111. 

Coccinea, 100. 
Coccoloba, 116. 
Coccothrinax, 129. 
Cocculus, 86. 
Cochlearia, 88. 
Cochlioda, 123. 
Cochliostema, 128. 
Cocos, 129. 
Codiasum, 119. 
Codonanthe, 114. 
Codonopsis, 107. 
Ccelia, 122. 
Coelogyne, 122. 
Coffea, 103. 
Coix, 133. 
Cola, 90. 
Colax, 123. 
Colchicum, 128. 
Colea, 113. 
Coleus, 115. 
Collabium, 123. 
Colletia, 92. 
Colliguaya, 119. 
Collinsia, 112. 
Collinsonia, 116. 
Collomia, 111. 
Coloeasia, 131. 
Colquhounia, 116. 
Columnea, 114. 
Colutea, 95. 
Colvillea, 95. 
Comandra, 117. 
Comarum, 97. 
COMBRETACE.E, 82, 98. 
Combretum, 98. 
Commelina, 128. 
COMMELINACE.E, 85, 128. 
Comparettia, 123. 
COMPOSITE, 82, 103. 
Comptonia, 118. 
Conandron, 114. 
Congea, 115. 
Coniogramma, 135. 
Conium, 101. 
Conoclinium, 105. 
Convallaria, 127. 
Convolvulus, 111. 
Cooperia, 124. 
Copaifera, 95. 
Copernica, 129. 
Coprosma, 103. 
Coptis, 86. 
Corallorfuza, 122. 
Corchorus, 90. 
Cordia, 111. 
Cordyline, 127. 
Corema, 119. 
Coreopsis, 106. 
Coriandrum, 101. 
Coriaria, 93. 
CORIARIACE^E, 82, 93. 
CORNACE/E, 82, 102. 
Cornus, 102. 
Coronilla, 94. 
Correa, 91. 
Cortaderia, 134. 
Cortusa, 109. 
Coryanthes, 123. 
Corydalis, 87. 
Corylopsis, 98. 
Corylus, 119. 
Corynocarpus, 93. 
Corynostylis, 88. 
Corypha, 129. 
Corysanthes, 123. 

C'orytholoma, 114. 
Cosmos, 106. 
Costus, 125. 
Cotinus, 93. 
Cotoneaster, 96. 
Cotula, 107. 
Cotyledon, 98. 
Couroupita, 99. 
Coussapoa, 118. 
Cowania, 97. 
Crambe, 87. 
Craniolaria, 114. 
Crassula, 98. 
CRA88ULACE.S;, 82, 98. 
Cratajgus, 96. 
Cratajva, 88. 
Craterostigma, 113. 
Crepis, 107. 
Crescentia, 113. 
Crinum, 125. 
Crithmum, 101. 
Crocosmia, 124. 
Crocus, 124. 
Crossandra, 114. 
Crotalaria, 94. 
Croton, 118. 
Crucianella, 103. 
CRUCIFER*, 80, 87. 
Cryptanthe, 111. 
Cryptanthus, 125. 
Cryptocoryne, 132. 
Cryptogramma, 135. 
Cryptolepis, 110. 
Cryptomeria, 120. 
Cryptophoranthus, 123. 
Cryptostegia, 110. 
Cryptostemma, 107 
Cryptostylis, 123. 
Ctenanthe, 125. 
Cucumis, 100. 
Cucurbita, 100. 
CUCCRBITACE.E, 82, 100. 
Cudrania, 118. 
Cuminum, 101. 
Cummingia, 125. 
Cunila, 116. 
Cunninghamia, 120. 
Cunonia, 98. 
CCNONIACE^E, 82, 98. 
Cuphea, 99. 
Cupressus, 120. 
Curculigo, 125. 
Curcuma, 125. 
Cuscuta, 111. 
Cyananthus, 107. 
Cyanella, 125. 
Cyathea, 136. 
CYATHEACE.E, 85, 136. 
CYCADACEJS, 84, 120. 
Cycas, 120. 
Cyclamen, 109. 

CYCLANTHACEvE, 85, 131. 

Cyclanthera, 100. 
Cyclanthus, 131. 
Cyclobothra, 128. 
Cycloloma, 116. 
Cyclophorus, 135. 
Cycnoches, 122. 
Cydista, 113. 
Cydonia, 96. 
Cymbidium, 123. 
Cymbopetalum, 86. 
Cymbopogon, 133. 
Cynanchum, 110. 
Cynara, 105. 
Cynodon, 134. 



Cynoglossum, 111. 
Oynorchis, 121. 
Cynosurus, 134. 
Cypella, 124. 
CYPERACEA-, 85, 133. 
Cyperorchis, 123. 
Cyperus, 133. 
Cyphomandra, 112. 
Cyphokentia, 131. 
Cyphophoenix, 130. 
Cyphosperma, 130. 
Cypripedium, 121. 
Cyrilla, 91. 
Cyrtandra, 114. 
Cyrtanthus, 124. 
Cyrtocarpa, 92. 
Cyrtomium, 136. 
Cyrtopodium, 122. 
Cyrtosperma, 131. 
Cyrtostachys, 130. 
Cystopteris, 136. 
Cytisus, 94. 

Daboecia, 108. 
Dactylis, 134. 
Dactyloctenium, 134. 
Dsedalacanthus, 114. 
Daemonorops, 129. 
Dahlia, 106. 
Dais, 117. 
Dalbergia, 94. 
Dalea, 95. 
Dalechampia, 119. 
Dalibarda, 97. 
Damnacanthus, 103. 
Danae, 126. 
Dansea, 135. 
Daphne, 117. 
Daphriiphyllum, 118. 
Darlingtonia, 87. 
Dasylirion, 127. 
Datisca, 85. 
Datura, 112. 
Daucus, 101. 
Davallia, 136. 
Davidia, 102. 
Debregeasia, 118. 
Decaisnea, 87. 
Decodon, 99. 
Decumaria, 97. 
Deeringia, 116. 
Deinanthe, 98. 
Delarbrea, 101. 
Delavaya, 92. 
Delphinium, 86. 
Dendrobium, 123. 
Dendrocalamus, 134. 
Dendromeeon, 87. 
Dennstffidtia, 136. 
Dentaria, 88. 
Deparia, 136. 
Derris, 94. 
Deschampsia, 134. 
Desman thus, 95. 
Desmazeria, 134. 
Desinodium, 94. 
Desmoncus, 131. 
Deutzia, 97. 
Diacrium, 122. 
Diandrolyra, 134. 
Dianella, 127. 
Dianthera, 114. 
Dianthus, 89. 
Diapensia, 109. 

DIAPENSIACE.E, 83, 109. 

DROSEHACE.E, 82, 98. 

Diascia, 112. 

Drosophyllum, 98. 

Dicentra, 87. 

Dryas, 97. 

Dichorisandra, 128. 

Drymoglossum, 135. 

Dichroa, 97. 

Drymophlceus, 130. 

Dichrostachys, 95. 

Drynaria, 135. 

Dicksoniai 136. 

Dryopteris, 136. 

Dicliptera, 114. 

Drypetes, 118. 

Dictamnus, 91. 

Duchesuea, 97. 

Dietyosperma, 130. 

Dudleya, 98. 

Dicyrta, 113. 

Duguetia, 86. 

Didymochlaena, 136. 

Dulichium, 133. 

Didymosperma, 130. 

Duranta, 114. 

Dieffenbachia, 131. 

Durio, 90. 

Dierazna, 124. 

Duvalia, 110. 

Diervilla, 102. 

Duvernoia, 114. 

Digitalis, 113. 

Dyckia, 126. 

Dillenia, 86. 

Dypsis, 130. 

DILLENIACE.B, 80, 86. 

Dyschoriste, 114. 

Dimorphotheca, 107. 

Dioclea, 94. 

EBENACE*:, 83, 109. 

Dionaea, 98. 

Ebenus. 95. 

Dioon, 120. 

Ecballium, 100. 

Dioscorea, 123. 

Eccremocarpus, 113. 

DIOSCOREACE.E, 84, 123. 

Echeveria, 98. 

Diosma, 91. 

Echidnopsis, 110. 

Diospyros, 109. 

Echinacea, 106. 

Diostea, 115. 

Eehinocactus, 100. 

Dipcadi, 128. 

Echinocereus, 101. 

Dipelta, 102. 

Echinochloa, 133. 

Diphylleia, 87. 

Echinocystis, 100. 

Diphysa, 95. 

Echinopanax, 102. 

Dipidax, 128. 

Echinops, 105. 

Dipladenia, 111. 

Echinopsis, 101. 

Diplarrhena, 124. 

Echinostachys, 126. 

Diplazium, 136. 

Echites, 111. 

Diploglottis, 92. 

Eehium, 111. 

Diplolaena, 91. 

Edgeworthia, 117. 

Diplothemium, 129. 

Ehretia, 111. 

DIPSACACE.E, 82, 103. 

Eichhornia, 128. 

Dipsacus, 103. 

EL^AGNACE^E, 84, 117. 

Dipteronia, 92. 

Elaeagnus, 117. 

Dirca, 117. 

Elaeis, 129. 

Disa, 121. 


Disanthus, 98. 

Elseocarpus, 90. 

Disocactus, 100. 

Elseodendron, 92. 

Disporum, 128. 

Elaphoglossum, 135. 

Dissotis, 99. 

Eleocharis, 133. 

Distichlis, 134. 

Elettaria, 125. 

Distictis, 113. 

Eleusine, 134. 

Distylium, 98. 

Eleutherine, 124. 

Diuris, 123. 

Elliottia, 108. 

Dizygotheca, 102. 

Elodea, 120. 

Docynia, 96. 

Elsholtzia, 116. 

Dodecatheon, 109. 

Elymus, 134. 

Dodonaea, 92. 

Emilia, 107. 

Dolichos, 94. 

Emmenanthe, 111. 

Dombeya, 90. 

Emmenopterys, 103. 

Doodia, 136. 

EMPETRACE^E, 84, 119. 

Dorema, 101. 

Empetrum, 119. 

Doronicum, 107. 

Encelia, 106. 

Dorstenia, 118. 

Encephalartos, 120. 

Doryalis, 88. 

Enkianthus, 108. 

Doryanthes, 125. 

Ennealophus, 124. 

Doryopteris, 135. 

Entada, 94. 

Dossinia, 122. 

Entelia, 90. 

Douglasia, 109. 

Enterolobium, 93. 

Downingia, 107. 

Eomecon, 87. 

Draba, 88. 

EPACHIDACE*:, 83, 108. 

Dracaena, 127. 

Epacris, 108. 

Dracocephalum, 115. 

Ephedra, 120. 

Dracontium, 131. 

Kpidendrum, 122. 

Dracunculus, 131. 

Epigasa, 108. 

Driniia, 128. 

Epilobium, 99. 

Drimys, 86. 

Epimedium, 87. 

Drosera, 98. 

Epipactis, 122. 

Kpiphyllanthus, 101. 
Epiphyllum, 100. 
Epipremnum, 132. 
Episeia, 114. 
EQCISETACE^E, 85, 135. 
Equisetum, 135. 
Eragrostis, 134. 
Eranthemum, 114. 
Eranthis, 86. 
Eremocitrus, 91. 
Eremospatha, 131. 
Eremostachys, 116. 
Eremums, 127. 
Eria, 123. 
Erianthus, 133. 
Erica, 108. 
ERICACE.K, 83, 108. 
Erigenia, 101. 
Erigeron, 105. 
Erinacea, 94. 
Erinus, 113. 
Eriobotrya, 96. 
Eriocephalus, 106. 
Eriochilus, 123. 
Eriogonum, 117. 
Eriophorum, 133. 
Eriophyllum, 106. 
Eriopsis, 123. 
Eriostemon, 91. 
Erlangea, 107. 
Erodium, 90. 
Eruoa, 87. 
Ery n Kium, 101. 
Erysimum, 88. 
Erythea, 129. 
Erythraea, 110. 
Erythrina, 95. 
Erythronium, 128. 
Erythroxylon, 90. 
Escallonia, 97. 
Eschscholtzia, 87. 
Escontria, 101. 
Eucalyptus, 98. 
Eucharidium, 99. 
Eucharis, 125. 
Euchlsena, 133. 
Euenide, 100. 
Eucomis, 128. 
Eucommia, 86. 
EUCOMMIACE.E, 80, 86. 
Eucryphia, 89. 


Eugenia, 99. 
Eulophia, 122. 
Eulophiella, 122. 
Eupatorium, 105. 
Euphorbia, 119. 

EUPHORBIACE^E, 84, 118. 

Euphoria, 92. 
Euptelea, 86. 
Eurya, 89. 
Euryale, 87. 
Eurycles, 125. 
Euryops, 107. 
Euscaphis, 92. 
Eustrephus, 126. 
Eutaxia, 95. 
Euterpe, 130. 
Evodia, 91. 
Evonymus, 92. 
Exacum, 110. 
Exco?caria, 119. 
Exochorda, 96. 
Exorrhiza, 131. 
Exostemma, 103. 



Fabiana, 112. 
FAGACE.E, 84, 119. 
Fagelia, 95. 
Fagopyrum, 117. 
Fagus, 119. 
Fallugia, 97. 
Faradaya, 115. 
Fatsia, 102. 
Fedia, 103. 
Feijoa, 98. 
Felicia, 105. 
Fendlera, 97. 
Fernelia, 103. 
Feronia, 90. 
Feroniella, 90. 
Forraria, 124. 
Ferula, 101. 
Festuca, 134. 
Ficus, 118. 
Filipendula, 97. 
Fittonia, 114. 
Fitzroya, 120. 
Flacourtia, 88. 
Flemingia, 95. 
Fluggea, 118. 
Foeniculum, 101. 
Fokienia, 120. 
Fontanesia, 109. 
Forsythia, 109. 
Fortunearia, 98. 
Fortunella, 91. 
Fothergilla, 98. 
Fouquieria, 89. 


Fragaria, 97. 
Francoa, 97. 
Frankenia, 85. 
Frasera, 110. 
Fraxinus, 109. 
Freesia, 124. 
Fremontia, 90. 
Freycinetia, 131 
Fritillaria, 128. 
Froelichia, 116. 
Fuchsia, 99. 
Fumaria, 87. 
FUMARIACE.E, 80, 87. 
Funkia, 127. 
Furcraea, 125. 
Fussea, 86. 

Gaillardia, 106. 
Galactia, 95. 
Galanthus, 124. 
Galax, 109. 
Galeandra, 122. 
Galcdupa, 95. 
Galega, 95. 
Galeopsis, 116. 
Galeorchis, 121. 
Galium, 103. 
Galphiniia, 90. 
Galtonia, 128. 
Gamogyne, 132. 
Gamolepis, 107. 
Garcinia, 89. 
Gardenia, 103. 
Garrya, 102. 
GARRYACE.E, 82, 102. 
Garuga, 91. 
Gasteria, 127. 
Gaultheria, 108. 
Gaura, 99. 
Gaussia, 130. 

Gaylussacia, 108. 
Gazania, 107. 
Geissorhiza, 124. 
Geitonoplesium, 126. 
Gelsemium, 110. 
Genipa, 103. 
Genista, 94. 
Gentiana, 110. 
GENTIANACE.E, 83, 110. 
Geodorum, 123. 
Geonoma, 131. 
GERANIACE.E, 81, 90. 
Geranium, 90. 
Gerardia, 113. 
Gerbera, 107. 
Gesneria, 113. 
GESNERIACE.E, 83, 113. 
Gethyllis, 125. 
Geum, 97. 
Gilia, 111. 
Gilibertia, 102. 
Gillenia, 96. 
Ginkgo, 119. 

GlNKGOACE^E, 84, 119. 

Githopsis, 108. 
Gladiolus, 124. 
Glaucium, 87. 
Glaux, 109. 
Gleditsia, 95. 
Gleichenia, 136. 
Gliricidia, 95. 
Globba, 125. 
Globularia, 114. 
Glochidion, 118. 
Gloriosa, 128. 
Gloxinia, 113. 
Glyceria, 134. 
Glycine, 95. 
Glycosmis, 90. 
Glycyrrhiza, 95. 
Gmelina, 115. 
GNETACE.E, 84, 120. 
Gnidia, 117. 
Goethea, 89. 
Gomeza, 123. 
Gomphocarpus, 110. 
Gomphrena, 116. 
Gongora, 123. 
Gonioma, 110. 
Goniophlebium, 135. 
Gonolobus, 110. 
Goodenia, 85. 


Goodia, 94. 
Goodyera, 122. 
Gordonia, 89. 
Gossypium, 89. 
Gouania, 92. 
Govenia, 123. 
Grabowskia, 112. 
GRAMINE/E, 85, 133. 
Grammangis, 123. 
Grammanthes, 98. 
Grammatophyllum, 123. 
Graptophyllum, 114. 
Gratiola, 113. 
Gravesia, 99. 
Grevillea, 117. 
Grewia, 90. 
Greyia, 92. 
Grias, 99. 
GrifHnia, 125. 
Grindelia, 105. 
Griselinia, 102. 

Guaiacum, 90. 
Guazuma, 90. 
Guettarda, 103. 
Guevina, 117. 
Guizotia, 106. 
Gunnera, 98. 
Gurania, 100. 
Gutierrezia, 105. 

GcTTIFERiE, 81, 89. 

Guzmania, 126. 
Gymnocladus, 95. 
Gynmolomia, 107. 
Gymnopetalum, 100. 
Gymnopteris, 136. 
Gymnosporia, 92. 
Gymnostachys, 132. 
Gynandropsis, 88. 
Gynerium, 134. 
Gynura, 107. 
Gypsophila, 89. 

Habenaria, 121. 
Haberlsea, 114. 
Hacquetia, 101. 


Hxmanthus, 125. 
Hffimaria, 122. 
Hsematoxylon, 95. 
Hakea, 117. 
Halesia, 109. 
Halimodendron, 95. 
Halleria, 112. 
Hamamelis, 98. 
Hamelia, 103. 
Haplocarpha, 107. 
Hardenbergia, 95. 
Hariota, 100. 
Harpephyllum, 93. 
Harrisia, 101. 
Hartwegia, 122. 
Hastingsia, 127. 
Haworthia, 127. 
Hazardia, 105. 
Hebenstreitia, 114. 
Hechtia, 126. 
Hedeoma, 116. 
Hedera, 102. 
Hedychium, 125. 
Hedysarum, 94. 
Hedyscepe, 130. 
Heeria, 99. 
Helenium, 106. 
Heliamphora, 87. 
Helianthella, 106. 
Helianthemum, 88. 
Helianthus, 106. 
Helichrysum, 105. 
Helicodiceros, 131. 
Heliconia, 125. 
Heliocereus, 101. 
Heliophila, 88. 
Heliopsis, 106. 
Heliotropiura, 111. 
Helipterum, 105. 
Helleborus, 86. 
Helonias, 128. 
Heloniopsis, 128. 
Helwingia, 102. 
Helxine, 118. 
Hemerocallis, 127. 
Hemicyclia, 118. 
Hemigraphis, 114. 
Hemionitis, 135. 
Hemitelia, 136. 

Hepatica, 86. 
Heracleum, 101. 
Herbertia, 124. 
Heritiera, 90. 
Hermodactylus, 124. 
Hernandia, 117. 
Herniaria, 89. 
Herpestis, 113. 
Herpetospermum, 100. 
Hesperantha, 124. 
Hesperethusa, 91. 
Hesperis, 88. 
Hesperocallis, 127. 
Hesperochiron, 111. 
Heteranthera, 128. 
Heteropappus, 105. 
Heterophragma, 113. 
Heterosmilax, 126. 
Heterospathe, 130. 
Heuchera, 97. 
Hevea, 119. 
Hexisea, 122. 
Hibbertia, 86. 
Hibiscus, 89. 
Hidalgoa, 106. 
Hieracium, 107. 
Hierochloe, 134. 
Hillebrandia, 100. 
Hippeastrum, 124. 


Hippocrepis, 95. 
Hippomane, 119. 
Hippophae, 117. 
Hippuris, 98. 
Hodgsonia, 100. 
Hoffmannia, 103. 
Hoffmanseggia, 95. 
Hohenbergia, 126. 
Hoheria, 90. 
Holboellia, 87. 
Holcus, 133. 
Holodiscus, 96. 
Holothrix, 123. 
Homalanthus, 119. 
Homalomena, 131. 
Homeria, 124. 
Homogyne, 107. 
Hoodia, 110. 
Hordeum, 134. 
Hosackia, 94. 
Hottonia, 109. 
Houlletia, 123. 
Houstonia, 103. 
Houttuynia, 117. 
Hovea, 95. 
Hovenia, 92. 
Howea, 130. 
Hoya, 110. 
Hudsonia, 88. 
Huernia, 110. 
Hulsea, 106. 
Humata, 136. 
Humea, 105. 
Humulus, 118. 
Hunnemannia, 87. 
Hunteria, 111. 
Huntleya, 123. 
Hura, 119. 
Hutchinsia, 87. 
Hyacinthus, 128. 
Hysenanche, 118. 
Hydrangea, 97. 
Hydrastis, 86. 
Hydriastele, 130. 
Hydrorharis, 121. 



Hydrocotyle, 101. 
Hydrophyllum, 111. 
Hydrotsenia, 124. 
Hylocereus, 100. 
Hymenaea, 95. 
Hymenanthera, 88. 
Hymenocallis, 125. 


Hymenophyllum, 135. 
Hymenosporum, 88. 
Hyophorbe, 130. 
Hyoscyamus, 112. 
Hyospathe, 131. 
Hypecoum, 87. 
HYPERICACE/E, 81, 89. 
Hypericum, 89. 
Hyphaene, 129. 
Hypochceris, 107. 
Hypolepis, 135. 
Hypolytrum, 133. 
Hypoxis, 125. 
Hyssopus, 116. 

Iberis, 87. 


Idesia, 88. 
Ilex, 91. 

Illicium, 86. 
Impatiens, 90. 
Imperata, 134. 
Incarvillea, 113. 
Indigofera, 95. 
Inga, 93. 
Ingenhausia, 90. 
Inobulbon, 123. 
Inula, 105. 
lochroma, 112. 
lone, 123. 
lonopsidium, 87. 
lonopsis, 123. 
Ipomoea, 111. 
Iresine, 116. 
Iriartea, 130. 
IRIDACE.E, 84, 124, 
Iris, 124. 
Isatis, 87. 
Isochilus, 122. 
Isoloma, 113. 
Isonandra, 109. 
Isopyrum, 86. 
Isotoma, 107. 
Isotria, 122. 
Itea, 97. 
Iva, 106. 
Ixia, 124. 
Ixiolirion, 125. 
Ixora, 103. 

Jacaranda, 113. 
Jacksonia, 95. 
Jacobinia, 114. 
Jacquemontia, 111. 
Jacquinia, 109. 
Jamesia, 97. 
Janusia, 90. 
.Taparandiba, 99. 
Jasione, 107. 
Jasminum, 109i 
Jatropha, 119. 
Jatrorrhiza, 86. 
Jeffersonia, 87. 
Joannesia, 119. 
Jubsea, 129. 

JCGLANpACE/E, 84, 118. 

Juglans, 118. 
JUNCACE.JE, 85, 129. 
Juncus, 129. 
Juniperus, 120. 
Jussieua, 99. 
Justicia, 114. 

Kadsura, 86. 
Kaempferia, 125. 
Kageneckia, 96. 
Kalanchoe, 98. 
Kalmia, 108. 
Keudrickia, 99. 
Kennedya, 95. 
Kcntia, 130. 
Kentiopsis, 130. 
Kernera, 88. 
Kerria, 97. 
Kerstingiella, 95. 
Keteleeria, 120. 
Kigelia, 113. 
Kitaibelia, 90. 
Kitchingia, 98. 
Klufrfa, 114. 
Kniphofia, 127. 
Kochia, 116. 
Koelreuteria, 92. 
Kolkwitzia, 102. 
Kopsia, 110. 
Kostelelzkya, 90. 
Krameria, 95. 
Kraussia, 103. 
Krigia, 107. 
Kuhnia, 107. 
Kunzea, 99. 
Kydia, 89. 

LABIATE, 83, 115. 
Laburnum, 94. 
Lacaena, 123. 
Lachenalia, 128. 
Lactuca, 107. 
Lselia, 122. 
Lseliocattleya, 122. 
Lagenaria, 100. 
Lagerstroemia, 99. 
Lagetta, 117. 
Lagunaria, 89. 
Lagurus, 134. 
Lamarckia, 134. 
Lamium, 116. 
Landolphia, 111. 
Lantana, 114. 
Lapageria, 126. 
Lapeyrousia, 124. 
Lardizabala, 87. 


Larix, 120. 
Lasthenia, 106. 
Latania, 129. 
Lathyrus, 94. 
LACRACE/E, 84, 117. 
Laurelia, 117. 
Lauras, 117. 
Lavandula, 115. 
Lavanga, 91. 
Lavatera, 89. 
Lawsonia, 99. 
Layia, 106. 
Lebidieropsis, 118. 
LECYTHIDACE.S:, 82, 99. 
Lecythis, 99. 
Ledum, 108. 
Leea, 92. 

LEGUMINOS/E, 82, 93. 
Lciophyllura, 108. 
Leitneria, 118. 
LEITNEREACE/E, 84, 118. 
Lemaireocereus, 101. 
Lemna, 131. 
LEMNACE/E, 85, 131. 
Lenophyllum, 98. 
Lens, 94. 

Leonotis, 116. 
Leontice, 87. 
Leontodon, 107. 
Leontopodium, 105. 
Lepachys, 106. 
Lepanthes, 123. 
Lepidagathis, 114. 
Lepidium, 87. 
Leptactina, 103. 
Leptarrhena, 98. 
Leptocarpha, 107. 
Leptochilus, 136. 
Leptochloa, 134. 
Leptocodon, 108. 
Leptodermis, 103. 
Leptopteris, 135. 
Leptospermum, 98. 
Leptosyne, 106. 
Leptotes, 122. 
Lespedeza, 94. 
Lettsomia, 111. 
Leucadendron, 117. 
Leucaena, 94. 
Leuchtenbergia, 100. 
Leucocoryne, 128. 
Leucocrinum, 127. 
Leucojum, 124. 
Leucophyllum, 112. 
Leucostegia, 136. 
Leucothoe, 108. 
Levisticum, 101. 
Lewisia, 89. 
Leycesteria, 102. 
Liatris, 105. 
Libertia, 124. 
Libocedrus, 120. 
Licuala, 129. 
Lightfootia, 108. 
Ligusticum, 101. 
Ligustrum, 110. 
LILIACE/E, 85, 126. 
Lilium, 128. 
Limatodes, 122. 

LlMNANTHACE^E, 81, 90. 

Limnanthes, 90. 
Limnobium, 121. 
Limnocharis, 132. 

I /in 11 in hi, 91. 

LlNACE/E, 81, 90. 

Linaria, 112. 
Lindelofia, 111. 
Lindenbergia, 113. 
Linntea, 102. 
Linospadix, 130. 
Linosyris, 105. 
Liiiuin, 90. 
Liparis, 122. 
Lippia, 114. 
Liquidambar, 98. 
Liriodendron, 86. 
Liriope, 127. 
Lisianthus, 110. 
Lissochilus, 122. 
Listera, 122. 
Listrostachys, 123. 

Litchi, 92. 
Lithospernium, 111. 
Lithrcea, 93. 
Litsea, 117. 
Littonia, 128. 
Livistona, 129. 
Loasa, 100. 
LOASACE/E, 82, 100. 
Lobelia, 107. 


Lodoicea, 129. 
Lceselia, 111. 
Logania, 110. 

LoGANIACEjE, 83, 110. 

Loiseleuria, 108. 
Lolium, 134. 
Lomatia, 117. 
Lomatium, 101. 
Lomatophyllum, 127. 
Lonas, 106. 
Lonchitis, 136. 
Lonchocarpus, 95. 
Lonicera, 102. 
Lopezia, 99. 
Lophanthus, 115. 
Lophocereus, 100. 
Lophophora, 100. 

LOKANTHACE/E, 84, 117. 

Loranthus, 117. 
Loropetalum, 98. 
Lotus, 94. 
Loxoscaphe, 136. 
Luculia, 103. 
Lucuma, 109. 
Ludwigia, 99. 
Lueddemannia, 123. 
Luehea, 90. 
Luetkea, 96. 
Luffa, 100. 
Luisia, 123. 
Lunaria, 88. 
Lupinus, 94. 
Lycaste, 122. 
Lychnis, 89. 
Lycium, 112. 
Lycopersicum, 112. 
LYCOPODIACE.E, 85, 134. 
Lycopodium, 134. 
Lycoris, 124. 
Lygodium, 135. 
Lyonia, 108. 
Lyonothamnus, 97. 
Lysichitum, 131. 
Lysiloma, 93. 
Lysimachia, 109. 
Lysionotus, 114. 
LYTHRACE/E, 82, 99. 
Lythrum, 99. 

Maackia, 94. 
Maba, 109. 
Mabea, 119. 
Macadamia, 117. 
Macaranga, 119. 
Macfadyenia, 113. 
Macleania, 108. 
Madura, 118. 
Macodes, 122. 
Macroplectrum, 123. 
Macroscepis, 110. 
Macrozamia, 120. 
Maddenia, 97. 
Madia, 106. 
Mx-sa, 109. 
Magnolia, 86. 
MAGNOLIACE/E, 80, 86. 



Mahernia, 90. 
Mahonia, 87. 
Maianthemum, 127. 
Malacoearpus, 100. 
Malcomia, 88. 
Mallotus, 119. 
Malope, 89. 
Malpighia, 90. 
Malva, 90. 
MALVACE.E, 81, 89. 
Malvastrum, 90. 
Malvaviscus, 89. 
Mammea, 89. 
Mammillaria, 100. 
Mandevilla, 111. 
Mandragora, 112. 
Manettia, 103. 
Mangifera, 92. 
Manicaria, 131. 
Manihot, 119. 
Mapania, 133. 
Maprounia, 119. 
Maranta, 125. 
MARANTACE.E, 85, 125. 
Marattia, 135. 
MARATTIACE.E, 85, 135. 
Margyricarpus, 97. 
Marica, 124. 
Marrubium, 115. 
Marsdenia, 110. 
Marshallia, 106. 
Marsilea, 136. 
MARSILEACE^:, 85, 136. 
Martinezia, 129. 
Marty nia, 114. 
MARTYNIACE^E, 83, 114. 
Masdevallia, 122. 
Massangea, 126. 
Massonia, 128. 
Matricaria, 107. 
Matteuccia, 136. 
Matthiola, 88. 
Maurandia, 112. 
Mauritia, 129. 
Maxillaria, 123. 
Maximiliana, 129. 
Maximilianea, 88 
Maytenus, 92. 
Mazus, 113. 
Meconopsis, 87. 
Medeola, 128. 
Medicago, 95. 
Medinilla, 99. 
Megaclinium, 123. 
Megarrhiza, 100. 
Melaleuca, 98. 
Melanthium, 128. 
Melaspharula, 124. 
Melastoma, 99. 
Melia, 91. 
MELIACE.E, 81, 91. 
MEHANTHACE^E, 81, 92. 
Melianthus, 92. 
Melica, 134. 
Melicocca, 92. 
Melilotus, 95. 
Melinis, 134. 
Meliosma, 92. 
Melissa, 116. 
Melittis, 115. 
Melothria, 100. 
Meniscium, 136., 80, 86. 
Menispermum, 86. 

Mentha, 116. 

Muehleubergia, 134. 

Mentzelia, 100. 

Muilla, 128. 

Menyanthes, 110. 

Musa, 125. 

Menzieaia, 108. 

MOSACE.E, 85, 125. 

Meratia, 86. 

Muscari, 128. 

Mercurialis, 118. 

Musineon, 101. 

Merendera, 128. 

Mussaenda, 103. 

Merope, 91. 

MYOPORACE.E, 83, 114. 

Mertensia, 111. 

Myoporum, 114. 

Mertya, 102. 

Myosotidium, 111. 

Mesembryanthemum, 101. 

Myosotis, 111. 

Mesospinidium, 123. 

Myrica, 118. 

Mespilus, 96. 

MYRICACE.E, 84, 118. 

Metrosideros, 98. 

Myricaria, 89. 

Metroxylon, 131. 

Myriocephalus, 105. 

Meum, 101. 

Myriophyllum, 98. 

Michauxia, 108. 

Myristica, 117. 

Michelia, 86. 

MYRISTICACE^E, 84, 117. 

Micholitzia, 110. 

Myrrhis, 101. 

Micranthus, 114. 

MYRSINACE*:, 83, 109. 

Microcitrus, 91. 

Myrsine, 109. 

Microcycas, 120. 

MYRTACE.E, 82, 98. 

Microkentia, 130. 

Myrtillocactus, 101. 

Microlepia, 136. 

Myrtus, 99. 

Micromeles, 96. 

Mystacidium, 123. 

Micromelum, 90. 

Micromeria, 116. 

Na3gelia, 113. 

Microphoenix, 131. 

NAIADACE*:, 85, 132. 

Microstylis, 122. 

Nandina, 87. 

Mikania, 105. 

Napaea, 89. 

Milla, 127. 

Napoleona, 99. 

Millettia, 95. 

Narcissus, 124. 

Miltonia, 123. 

Narthecium, 128. 

Mimosa, 94. 

Nathusia, 109. 

MIMOSE^E, 81. 

Naumbergia, 109. 

Mimulus, 113. 

Neillia, 96. 

Mimusops, 109. 

Nelumbo, 87. 

Minkelersia, 95. 

Nemastylis, 124. 

Mirabilis, 116. 

Nemesia, 112. 

Miscanthus, 133. 

Nemopanthus, 91. 

Mitchella, 103. 

Nemophila, 111. 

Mitella, 97. 

Nenga, 130. 

Mitraria, 114. 

Neobenthamia, 122. 

Mitriostigma, 103. 

Neoglaziovia, 126. 

Modecca, 100. 

Neogyne, 122. 

Mohria, 135. 

Neolauchea, 123. 

Molinia, 134.